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THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XXIV. 

41 






I 

I 

J 



Printed by Niciiots, Son, and Bintlly, 
Ued Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London. 



i 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY : 

CONTAINING 

AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

OW THB 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

OF THB 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISHt 

FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



A NEW EDITION,. 

- / 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A. 



VOL. XXIV. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR J. NICHOLS AND SON ; F. C. AND J. lUVINOTON ; T. PAYNE | 
OTRIDGB AND SON ; O. AND W. KICOL ; G. WILKIB } J. WALKBR ; R. LEA ; 
W. LOWNDBS ; WHITE, COCHRANE, AND CO. ; T. EGBRTON ; LACKINGTON, 
ALLEN, AND CO. ; J, CARPENTER; LONGMAN, HUR8T, REES, ORME, AND 
BROWN; CADELL AND DAVIBS ; CLAW; i. BOOKER ; J. CUTHELL ; CLARKB 
AND SONS; J. AND A. ARCH; J.HARRIS; BLACK, PARRY, AND CO.; J. BOOTH; 
J. MAWMAN ; GALE, CURTIS, AND FENNER ; R. H. EVANS { J. HATCHARD ; 
J. MURRAY; BALDWIN, CRADOCK,. AND JOY; B. BENTLEY ; J. FAULDBR ; 
OOLBANDCO.; W. OINOBR $ J. DBIOHTON AMD SON, CAMBRIDGE; CON8TABLS 
AND CO. EDINBURGH s AND WILSON AND SON^ YORK. 

1815. 



A NJ2W AND GBNBRAI- 



BIOORAPHICAL DICTIONABV. 



PaAS- See PASI5E, 
. PAAW (Pjstpr), or in Latin Pavius, a physician an4 
anatomist, born at Amsterdi^in in 1564, was ^ducate4 iti 
medical studies at Leyden^ whence be prqceeaed to Pari^' 
for farther improvement. He afterwards spent some tini^ 
in Denmark, apd at Rostock, where, be receiv^ed the degr^ 
of doctor in 1587, and at Padua. Q^his return, to Leydein 
Ike was appoint^J professor of medi.qniB in l'5S9j in which 
oflSce be acquired the approbation^alid' esteem both 6f th^ 
public 'and bis colleagues, and dieft' Universally regretted, 
in August 1617, at the ^ge of fifty-foun. .Anatomy flin4 
botany were the departments which he most ardently cul- 
tivated ; and he was the founder of the botanic garden of 
Leyden. His works are, 1. ** Tractatus 4e Exercitii^, Lac- 
ticiniis, et Bellafiis."' Rost. 2. '^ Notae ia Q^Ienum, de 
pibis boni et noall succi,'* ibid. These two pieces appear 
to have been his inaugural exercises. 3. ** Hortus publi- 
cu8 AcadeiitisB Lugduho-Batavse, ejus Icbnographi^, de- 
scriptio, usus, &c/' Lugd. Bat. 1601. 4. " Primitias Ana* 
tomicae de hurpani corporis Ossibus,*' ibid* 1615. 5. ^' Sue- 
benturiatus Anatomicus, continens Commentdria in Hip- 
pocratem de Capitis Vulneribus. Additas sun^t Anuotatio- 
pes in aliquot Capita Librioctavi C. Celsi," ibid. 1616. 6, 
^' Notsp et Commentarii in Epitomen Anatpmicum Andreq^ 
Vesalii, ibid. 1616^ To these we may add spipq work^ 
which appeared after his death. 7. ** De Valvule Intestini 
Epistplae dusB.^' Oppenheim, 1619, together with the firsf 
century of the Epistles of Fabricius Hildanus. 8. " D« 
l^este Tractatus, cum Henrici Florentii additamentis.'' Lug. 
Bat. 1636. 9. << Anatomical Observationes selectiores." 
Vol. XXIV. B 



a P A A w. 

Hafiiise, 1657, in^rted In the third and fourth centiirte^ 
of the anatomical and medical hrstories of T.Barthoiiiif. He 
also left in MS. a ^^ Methodus Anatomica," which was in 
the library of M. de Vick of Amsterdam J - 

PACATUS (Latinos Drepanius), a poet and orator, 
was born in the fourth century, at Drepanum in Aquitania, 
but) according to others, at Bourdeaux ; or, according t0, 
Sidpnius,' at AgeUk He disQOvered a remarkable taste for 
poetry, from his youth; and Ausoniu^ informs us, ivrote. 
love Terses. Ausonius adds, that he was equal to Catuliusj 
>aiid surpassed all the Latin poets, except Virgil. Ausoniut 
probably thought all this ; for he certainly had a very high, 
opinion of |)im, dedicated some of his own works to him,: 
and paid the greatest deference to his judgment, Paoattuir 
was sent to Rome in the year S88, to congratulate Thepdo^ 
sius the Great on his victory oyer the tyrant Maximus ; and, 
on this occasion he delivered it panegyric on the emperor 
in the' senate house, for which he was rewarded, in tb^ 
year390, with theproconsulship of a province in Africa, ahd>: 
in the year 393, with the office of superintendant of th^:; 
imperial domain. We have no farther particulars of his 
life. None of his pioems are extant, and the only proof o£ 
his talents to which we can appeal is his panegyric on; 
Theodosius, the second part of which is the most interest^^ 
ing, and gives some curious historical facts. In style and: 
manner he is thought to resemble Seneca or Pliny rather; 
thain Cicero. The best edition is that by ArntzeoiuSy:. 
Arost. 1753, 4to.* i ^ 

PACE (Richard), a learned Englishman, was born about 
14S2, at or near Winchester^ as is generally supposed, and 
was educated at the charge of Thomas Langton, bishop 
of that diocese, who employed him, while a youth, as his 
amanuensis.* The bishop, pleased with his proficiency,, 
and particularly delighted with his early turn for music, 
which he thought an earnest of greater attainments, hew 
stowed a, pension on him sufficietit to defray the expences^ 
of his education at Padua, at that time one of the mpst 
flourishing universities in Europe. Accordingly he studied 
there for some time, and uiet with Cuthbert T<)nstaU^ 
afterwards bishop of Durham, and William Latimer, whoni 
he called his preceptors. On. his return, he studied for 

f^ ' .  , 

.1 Floy Diet. Hist de Medicine. 

*^^ %\o%. Upir. et Moreri in art. Drepanius.— Ftbric. Bibl. Lat. 



PACE! i 

9m^ title at QVieen's-cOlI^ge^^ Oxford/ of wbtch His pitraif 
Lalrgt€y6 had be^n proVo'st ; and was' soon after 'taken into 
tbe service of Dr. Christbpber Batobridge, who aucceedi^d : 
Langton in' the oiBce of prbvost, and became afterwards 
a 4;ard{i»'alV-^ He attended him to Rome, about the begin«^ 
nitig'Of the sixteenth century, and continued ther^e until tb€^ 
dardi^al^s death in 1514. He appears/ before thi^, to bav& 
entered into h6lyk!>rders, for in the beginning of tbiryear/ 
atfd' while abroad, ^he waamade prebendary of Bugtborp,^ 
in4be 6hur6h of York, in the room of \V<ylsey,' afterwards 
the celebrated cardinal ; and In May df the same year, wUs^ 
pri^motedto the an^hdf^cdnry pf Dorset,- on the resigna-' 
tiM^df his friend Langton, • at which time, flil- Willis sup- 
p&^eky he reaigil(9d*<h6 prebenld of Bugthorp. ' ' / • 

Ohliis returii to England, h'e was sent for to court, pro- 
bably in consequence of the chai^acter given of him by hi$^ 
deceased patron, cardinal Biimbridge ; and became such a 
favourite with Henry V 111. thatlie appointed bim, as'some 
say, secretary of state, which Mr. Lodge doubts ; but it 
seems certain, thi^t be either held ihat) or the office of pri- 
vate sedretary, or sotne corifidcTnfctiil ^tuation, under Henry, 
wiio elnployed him in afikir^-of high political importance.' 
In 1515,' he' wa^ sent* to tbfe cdtirt of Vienna, where the' 
object of bis embassy wislsto erigagethe emperor Maximi- 
lian to dispossess the' BVencb king Francis I.^of th^ duchy 
oi( Milan, bis royal master being alarmed at the progress 
o# the French arms in Italy. Pace succeeded in his nego- 
ciation, so far as to persuade the emperor to undertake* 
tbh -expeditieTi ; ^'and he also* engaged aome of ^ the Swiss* 
cantons- to 'fifrni^h him with troops; but the scheme was 
ultimately so unsuebessfiiHbat-Maximiliaty was obliged ta 
make peace with France. Pafce, however, profited so tnucb 
by his acquaintance with this^mperor, as ta acquire a very^ 
useful knowledge of his' chard^cter ; and when- he after-* 
w«tfd»tiffemd to resign- his crown itt fiiVour^ Henry VIII. 
li9'W»^ enabled 'to give bis sovereign the best advice^ and 
to a^ure htm, that Maximilian had no 6ther design,' by tbis' 
apparently liberal offer, than to obtain another subsidy, 
and- that, 111 bther respects, very little credit was due to faiil^ 
word. In this opiifion cardinal WoUey^ at bome^ seems to' 
have concurred. ' 

In 1319, Maximiliati died, and the kings of France andv 
Spain immediately declared themsetves candidates for tba: 
^oiperial throne. Henry, encouraged by the pope, was 

B 2 



f 

Qrdff^ tQ s^itund ibe diel of tb« einpur^t fotiM Uif #pi^ 
eipp» 0f tb# el.eeton^ and endrnfouf M> f^ffli Ik |vds*r 
IDI9IU of |b^ liMihpod 9f Iw sqcx^W^ Pwe» h » p^f f» 
AQQii di^QovQTQd ibiit bif rqy»( «pa^«Mr bnd sisrted loo kn^ 
«ii4 ib9& evf n ibD ^to&ioni of Ment9» Cologp^ wd Tri?9% 
wba i»ei:e dWpMftd In foiH^ar bi? prftenfioiMf pW«d^» 
^jf(^ a, »bevi 9f nrgH^li ibAt ihfryt w#rr pre^engigfd Tbt 
^ciiw fell on Cii«rl<i9 V* In l^l#9 Pm» w«f innin 
(qt^d ireft9Q/cHr of Liebfield, wbkb b« le^tgo^ ia I.JSS» 
^p Wwg^ 9mAi^ d^fi of Cijfter. Initi^t ^ wcQMd«d 
Gakt M iwn of iii«, P^uF^;, gnd ioim 9aqr» Md ^lao tb« 
d(M|^ry of Suraiipi, bul tbi» k noi auM clear, allbongli ba 
U called dean of gylUbory by H^bcr^ ii> bit ^ tife «od 
ReJf a Qf iienty VUL'^ In 1$9 It be w4& iiiiid« pr^bf nditfj 
^f Cfwb^ iui4 lbnihMi» Julb^ church of 8«ni«it wd wo 
ind OHsiiim «f tom^ Qib^ fibvidi pr^ftrnMolf ba bftid 
iffim Ui$ IP i<>»a^ bm ^jr nie. hq dubkniiiy f^lai^d tbfl 
k is difficult ^ g^v« liiew In doff ordon 

On the d«^b <tf pope Lm Hi, wbM eaidmiJ WoliK^y^a 
4«bilioii idm^d «4 IM ptpal Afope» bm iwi P^^^o le IKqm 
%» pffwuHn bit if|l«r9st } bill btAnrt U«riinriv»l thera^ AdaM» 
^bop of T«rti99$» l«id boM abosm : md on bit deiiib, ia 
i&aSf Pa<9e wiM i^gwi emploj^ to negoliaia for Woltej* 
bia nitb no l^cttef tnc^w^ Clem^P^ VIL baing alecti^d. 
iSt obminod* iB^vnmsr^ irofQ ifae pope» in enkutgwie^i of 
Wobfi)!*a powfuri M l»K»¥r» vbicb ibe bitftor w^^ at ibit tiioc 
ifsmto/w t0 obiaipf Paw vra« noon aftisrwilrda «»it on an 
•fDb«?9y lo Vaiuce^ where be einrried wiib him ibe le«niad 
t»fm% M bi» H)cretiry« WimkI deolaret, tbM on tUU ec*< 
cdsion <^ it it bard to aay wb/etb^r be ptocured more «oiq-« 
•endalipe er adtoifaliofi anoeg ibe V^netMUit ; both for 
ibft dmejyty el bis wit^ead etpecially for bk tiogeier 
proiepuiess m tbe lullafi toog u?; wbarein be ncemed p^V 
d^ieg inCeripr, neilber te P. Vauoes bore ia CegU»d». ^ 
iiof^ ie^et«y foff »ha li^lian .toagu^, qor Jfeet Iq. »t^ 
iitb^r^ yfbifih ivere tibe beat, for that toogee ifi jiIl Voel<^*V 
, li was ai^ tjiis uiee» bewefor, th^t PacefeUi^iidor cairdi^ 
ea] WokeyVdifiiiieasuce.^ tb^ ^^m^ts o| vhi^b are iNi^d!t» 
Jiava bee n, v^yy.9firipiis. TbecardiDal i^ tboiigbt ^ ^bii^ 
been enrageU against bimy fii&t, because b4 bAds^ewnii 
ifMeliMsa u> aaiwtCbftrlesdul^e ;of.B<>urbon mont^j 
Inrwhoai ibe ieatdiaid Jml dq. great a6F0^ion ; aod^ a^r 
jiei)d)y« b(;c»iiiio ba Jto4 a^ forwsiirde^ tbe (wdiiiarik^^Ufy* 



» Ad & » 

<^f 9btfeibtAg t1i6 pftpul chftir withsb oiwh «Mit at Woisej 

ii^p&tt^'A. SiAvh are tfae re^s^nt ft«iigne'd by somt faisi- 

vpHatiiEi t&t Walsey'b dispieasuri^i who is said tb have ori- 

tiefed fBa^di^ Id ^ueh a manner^ that for nearly thie ipace 

t>f tm y^iirS, Pace recidit^d no iiistrtctitms firotn his ooMrt 

3^ toliift pt^e^ddiitp at Veilicl^ V hi* allowance for »fi^ac^ 

w^al^p withdrawn, and no answer returned to his len«fl^ 

^li orf^ C)^ whteir the YeAetian bMbaSisadtir resitfiner 

iil tdn3on lfek<sd W4ist>]r wlMither he tM any vom'mandb 

for th<6 English atfnWsssatiiSf at Vetaice^ hit answered FMcem 

t^t4pit Segtm: aifd tiiu siiigular ti!Wtitieiit, we are t^ld^ 

^1^ affi^ted Pae(6 that h(s became titsaiiA As soofi as tlie 

:'lci»g:!#as1fefQVm^ of this^ Paee was iard^red iioiue ; am^ 

J^ri)^;eafeftiUy atl%hd<$d by pbysitians at «lid l^ing*^ tnsi^ 

jdiaftdj, wtf^ V^teired in a shori time to his sensi^ aa^ 

Hitiused himself by ^tiadying the Hebrew iaii||i;uat^, witK 

fhe aisiistanW dff ftobe^t Wak^lieldi 1st t^ iif^er^^ ^ 

Wilb iwtrdddeisd fo the kittg sft Ricli^ttinid, wbt> isapressdl 

Inech s^t^foejtio^ iX Ms t^ov^ry; sti^ aditiil«eid bim to i 

JM^i^ir^ audli^ni^e^ id ^k;ll'h<e tdmtMl«frat^d «fainfft tlie<ca;r«' 

^^iiaty bfddty 16 hVsL ; Bat Uii c^rdinfal ^»^s too |iow«rM 

'alli^is |i^t, iiid wh^ urgied 1>y tbe kii^ «<» sinssiri&r ^ 

ii!hi^(^: against hbfi^ b^ iuniitibii^d Faee befons trio^ «ift4 

i^^in judgtn^^ with the dttke of Nol^Mt atid^ethers^ wh^ 

JbJbhdetrmed Pa^b, and s^nt Mm ti^ tbet^ci^^ Lofidofi^; 

#h^t^ H^ VIM 43onfi06d fOfT twb yearsi tilt disisliffr^^ it 

l^a^W>y \h^ king>^^^ #a^e» th*s ^gtaded^ «iit 

1!d|fe^lf m %x[|y^ tftbd ^hd> jNeirrgiied ki^ deaivri^ii ^ ^ 
i^#^E^<^cif^^W fitti^^dTdl^ Ms ^ai:hi ani, miHa^ 
b Ste^fiely fbr %# healthy dii^d there, ifll m, WheU liidit 

ijtiite fifty yefefft of agfef ., 

lii^He 4s M et%ant ahd jQsft «lmiiB^(«f i^llith by ExsflttHitfi 

fiMtt^ >tt^ ]h^ recartt iV6iri 1f(S<^dev ^ayhfa>e t^ettiaiMy %^ 
i«r T^itiii^ Moi^ Md Si^ itkt^ tatter aid^{)<ea 

Pfibe ft>r hk candour and Sweetness of temper; ail4'#iiS'tie» 
teo^ilfflktdd ktbfti rtMmttbdS,t6s(t'he ^enld Vi^^A/rg^vii 
^r&aif '^at'^aMi^ ihe^ ^c^ Styles hitn «miy^^Ae»^ 
ltt^teib»Mi^ I abd Wr&letiffdfe lenders t^ \^ «h«in m 
Ihy^obfe ^ liis lehTMd iti«s!nN»^ iilid t<^ ^^ 

wmkkm^ d)ai<ai!ter dfit rtgkc wt)ii^tby iMn,%i^d^»%^4ftM 

ave in council faithful adyice : learned he was also, savk 
^iati^^qiury,j^^^d enddwi^d «dt^ inany extiStent parti 
and ^hk ot nature ; oocirfeou^ fJieois^iiiy: ft^H d^^^ iti^ 



t 



4 t ACE' 

music ( higbly in th^ khig^s favour, and well. beard in mai« 
4er4 ^f iveight.'* There it extant a remarkable^ letter of 
his to the king> written in .1527, in which, he very honestly 
'gives his' opinion concerning the divorce ; and Fiddes oh* 
.B0tredj that he always used a faithful liberty to the car<^ 
4tinal, which brought him at last to confittemeut and di%^ 
iractidn. 

He wrote, 1=. *^ De fructu qui ex doctrina percipitur 
liber/* Basil, 1517, dedicated to Dr. Colet. This was 
written by our author at Constance, while be was ambas* 
^ador in Helvetia ; but, inveighing muqh against drunken* 
uess as a great obstacle to the attaining of knowledge^ the 
people there supposing him to reflect »upon them, wrote ;a 
4»b&fp dnswer to it^ and even Erdsmus calls it: an indiscreet 
performance ; in which Pace had, between je&t and e^rnej^t^ 
Irepresenied him as a beggar^ and a beggar hated by the 
•elergy. He bids sir Thomas More exhort Pace, since be 
had so little judgment^ rather to Gon6ne himself to ,the 
jtranslatton of Greek writers^ than tp ventiire u|x»n: works 
i>f his own, and to publish such m^n. and -coiKeaifMibJie 
stuff. (Erasm. epist. 275, and Ep^ 287). .2*; ' - Oratio nor 
perrime composita de fc^dere percusso inter Henricuni ^nr 
gU«e regemf et Francorum reg, Christianiss. in aede PauU 
.Load; babita,*' 1518. 3. ^' Epistolse ad Erasmuro;'* &c 
*1520^ These Epistles ais part of the, ^^ Epistol® altqqot 
6raditorumvirorum«-V 4. vExeqnplum literarum^adr^g^ 
:Hen. YllL an. 1526,** inserted in a piece entitted, "Syd^ 
tagmade Hebrsorum codicum interpretatioiie,*' by Robert 
Wakefield. « Pace also wrote a book against the unlawfulr 
ness.of the king's. marriage with Katharine, in 1527, apd 
made several translations : among others, one from English 
into Latin, ^^ Bishop Fisher's Sermon,'' preached at Lon- 
4on on the day upon which the writings of M.J^uther were 
publicly burnt, Camb. 1521, and a translation, from, Grefk 
into Latin of Plutarch's piece,, '^ De commodo ex inimi^s 
capiendo.'' *• . • c ^ 

r PACtiECO (Francis), a Spanish artist,, supposed to 
have been born in 1571, at Seville, is said by.lMir.Fusell, 
to owe his> reputation more to theory,, writing, and t^ 
celebrity of bis scholars Cano and Velazquez, tb^ to t^e 
superiority of his, works. He was a. pupil of Lui« Fern^nr 

} Ath. Ox. Tol. I.— Dodd'u Ch. Hist.— Lodge's Illuitriitions, vol. I.--Fid<}6S 
kod OroveVXivet pt Cardinal WoUey. — Knight and Jortio'tf LiFesof Eraunus.' 



. FA CH:EC O. 9 

idleis,-bot, ^bough partial to the great style, doea not ap«> 
pear tp have atudied it in Italy. With sufficient correct* 
Aess of oQtlip^f judgment in composition^ dignity of cba** 
nuMrs, propriety of costume, observance of chiaroscuro 

^^ud perspective, Paoheco displeases by want of colour^ 
timidity of exeoution, and dryness of style. Seville pos- 
sesses the best of his historic performances; of his numer^ 
ous portraits, those of his wife and Miguel de Cervantes 

\were the most praised. He possesses considerable erudi- 
tion, and there is much wit and humour in. bis epigrams. 
He died io 1654. Of . bis works we know only one, en- 
titled ^' Arte de . la Piutura, su antiguedad y graodezas,** 
Seville, 1649, 4to.' - 

c PACHOMIUS (StO, a celebrated abbot of Tabenna in 
£gypt, was .born about the year 292, of heathen parents. 
He bore arms at the age of twenty, and was «o touched 
with the charitable works of some Christians, that he re- 
turned to Thebais when the war ended, and embraced 

: Christianity. He afterwards placed himself under the di- 

^^rection of a solitary named Palemon, and made so astonish- 
ing a progress an religion with this exicellent master, that 

-be became founder of the monastery of Tabenna, on tl)e 
banks of the Nile, peopled Thebais with holy solit^-ie^, 
-and had above 5000 monks under his care. His aister 

"founded a consent of nuns on the other side of the Nile^ 
' ivho lived in a community, and practised great austerities^ 
St;;Pacbomius died May 3, 348. We have some of bia 
'^ Epistles^* remaining, a '^ Kule,'V and some other pieces 
in the library of the fathers. M. Arnauld D' Andilly has 
translated a life of him in^o French, which may be fpiind 
ampng those of the fathers of the desert * 

PACHYMERA (George), an eminent Greek, flourished 
about- 1280, under the reign of Michael Paleologus^ and 
Andrqnicus bis successor. He was a person of high birt^b,, 

^^and bad acquired no less knowledge in cburch*af&irs in the 
great.posts he had among the clergy of Constantinople, 

' tbaa of state-matters in the high employ mei^its he held in 
the court of the emperor ;. so that his ^ Hisytory of Michael 

' Paleologps and Andron^^us^' is the more esteemed, as bo 

^was not' only an eye-witness of the.afiairs of which be^ 
writes, but bad also a great share in them. This histc^'y 
wa9 published by Poussines, a Jesuit, Gr. et Lat. ^'ex in<^ 

t puioiigtoDj by Faseli ^ QafC) toI I«— Jtf oreri» ia PacoBi«% 



* TJlC tl V M E R'A. 

mrpri ^i *ttrt not F; Pos^lni," Bdnfic, !156#^6^, ^ f^Ui 
Pkcliy'tiplera ootupoied also sdtne Greek ^^fses; but tk^ 
v^6 lktl6 ^stliemed, md tli^V^r )3ftiilted. Bhltik^t men^ 
tton^ a e^mp^niliuiii of Hie A^ist^eltM ))hUosopb]r pobi 
Ksfaed 'from iii^ maniist^Hpts ; alid Tilknan pabthitiiM bii 
paraphrase on 4be eptsrli^ 6f Didhy&m ^Mi Attsdpagice*^ 
^ Gticrgii Patbymeri^ fyarapfarasis iti detefid epteli^l&» beili 
IModysii AreopagitdBi" Paris^ 1 538. * 

•FACIAUM (Paul MAftU)^ antiqaiiry arid Itbt^riatii t6 
tbe tlyke of Paroria, and bistoriogtapbef Of tb^ O^def* oF 
Mirita; ifra^ borh at Turing NoV. IS, llriO. Afrei- &tiidyin|r 
m tfee univertity of Turing he look ibe r^giotrs habit iA 
the order of the Tbeatins^ at Venice, aiid tbelY wetit tb 
BolOgha to stody tnatbetfaaties and natural philosophy under 
%b& eetebf-nted Beccari. - It appears that he begttiv hk sub«- 
^e^iiebt' litetttry oia^eer triih the lUst-ibentiotied pnf6iiit; 
aiid that as soOti as be had kttdined the bigheir Orders^ be 
1fa!l ilppcddted -ptbfessoi^ 6f philoiopby in the eeliejf^e of 
GeiMMt ; and ivas One of tbo^e vrbo -first dai*ed to es^plode^ 
fvom tb0^ scbook of Italy^ the did ixxM-ed prejudices Of f^n^ 
lastic^ystetfis'i afad to sitbatitiite for theirt the etetfiill tl^ulbl 
discovered by Newton. H« did hot^ bbttever^ Ibhg re« 
maift in tbe professorship Of- phiioibpby, at bevfo^^ bbt 
Quitted philoiophy for divitiity^ atid delated ten yetvi t& 
l^rbacbitig md the cottipositioii of 'sertnbbi»^ by heithettX 
yifhksh he ftcquiired much reputation; bett^tbiil thid period 
be publisbed ^k^tine orations, bis ^' Tireati^b ob^ the Atitiqtii^ 
tied et Ripa TransOne^'' the afreienl Cdpf^ i lind three Jteiifi 
ifter, bis ^* Expi^&tion of ati ancient engfaVed ^fte.'' 

The pret!is»e date o# Flsfeibei' P^ci^Udi^^ diroet IxieHtotidtt^ 
labours may be pYdperiy fixed at ITi'T, the thlrty-isl:ttb of 
^is life ; Undi frOiti that time to 1?6&^ be w^ «eeO al^st 
kt a state of continta^tl preregirihatidn at^Na|»Ie&, At Flor^e^ 
at ¥eni<:ei itod at fionfte; In ttife #r»t of ibe^ eitiesv 
Amittg the years 1747, 49, ftnd 4$^ he puMi^faed it lOflrbed 
^^ssertatfen On^A Stetbe Of Mercbi-y,'^ ih 4«o; « Ob^Oir^ 
fictions oil sMie foreign a^ odd Odios/'' fifkeWifs^k 4t<>; 
And, << A fieries ol Medals ^eprdsi^htin^ tbe teO^t fetitaVki 
ible Events of the Gorei'nlhent of Malta,^' in fblio. At 
Florence >ppesri*ed jhi 175^) in 4tO, bis <' Treittb^e oft the 
ancient Grosses ttlld Hbly Monunsetlts tirbich itr6 fovtld «Kt 
Kivenna^^V ik Venice, ui the sflme yeftr/Ml titkitliited 



*.f* 



tif&m itSl (6 175k, ha teM than aghi ToliltbeB in 4t^» c^oni^ 
IttiHiKg «9 itiiiay difl^rettt iH>rftB, isftued ftooi bi§ pen ; tli6 
hesn df viFhi(*h wfts lU^boimted tb6 titeatise. *< De Aditeuttittk 
Cabheefti.'' Hid {temtkihj iti thn disquiMilon, mta, that 
the Gi^eks^ though thi^y plfteed danciilg^ ifi the same tknk 
tetbe inilft^.iti«rcb> eon^ideti^ it as «n art tending t6 
li^aiate^ adjust, and beautify the monpeinents of the body^ 
Md divide it into fbiii* geoei-a according to its various ap«* 
plication to religious ceremobies, warlike exercises, theiM- 
tribal p^rfoiraiancetiy and ddtnesfic enjoytneAts; yet the 
enbistic tut, whose object is to ti^acK joinpihg atid ukteothi- 
ibon corporeal exertions^ although ^erfebtly known, W«b 
net^ held in great estimation iti ancient Greee^. 

I'he yeiir 1757 is perhaps th6 mbftt refneirkable iii Pa^ 
6hindi'8 literary life; that being the perickl in Which hh 
entered ihto a corresfiondfehce with ct^iint dayto!^, lind 
tiegan to inpplj him with mlrtiberless heads of valuable i^ 
formation for his << Reoueil d'Atitiqiiit^s/' Paciaudi inay, 
ill fact^ be considered if not one of the Authors, at teast ak 
k contributor to that work. And his letters, which werb 
^nblisbed in 1S02 at PliHs, are a proof of the ample share 
6f fame tb which he is entitled in this respect. This cor^ 
tespondence wa4 carried on ^t eight years, firom 1757 16 
1765. But neither were Paciaudi*^ powers confined tb it 
alone, tilor Wsks he without further eto^foyments dutitig that 
j^eriod. jtwastbetl (iti 1761) that fare published his capi* 
t^^ot)c •♦Mondmenta Peloponnesia," ih 2 vols.*4to, con- 
tainidg a complete illustration df those ^dlebrated statues', 
busts, bas-V^eliefs, ahd isepulchral stOnes, - whidhj from tbi^ 
Continent arid the islands bf Peioponhebus, had b^^n re^ 
moired to y«Hiee, ^d which fcnrfaned a part of {he numeVouft 
eoll^ctiaii of antiquities pos^si^^ by ibb illustrtpiek^ family 
k Nai)f^ 10 that meti'opolis. Thbh to6 it ¥rtts that he re^ 
c^ved from the celebrated PkHi^esan minister Tlllot, the 
iiMtatiOn to go to Pamia to !tupeHnteiid[ the erection of th^ 
hbt^y whidi had bi^fen projetfed by his hJystl teghhess the 
»ilafat Dbn t>hHip. 

^ From id donfideritifel de<^U*tifion to cdtiAt Caylus, it tp^ 
pears, that Mi^. P^cmudi was highly sMislieci with hi^ em^ 
^ymfettt. H^ cotisid^ed it ''in M dp[l6rtohity of render- 
^ tii^ftil Ms Jifxt^nsivi Erudition, Withi^t thoW tncoow 
ttnkanAei which littend the necessary intercontte with th^ 
world. He therefore engaged in the business with a seal 



10 > A q I A u D t 

jbos^daring ofV;efitbiism8m. . QesMes the acquisirion^ which 
li^jpajd€^.of tbe excellent library p£ count Per^usatiat Rome^ 
4fi;17625 be went to Paris in search of other books ; and 
^cb was his exei;tion9 that, inf less than six years, he col- 
lected jnor^i; than sixty thousand volumes of the best worki 
of eivery kind, and thus erected one of the most copious 
libraries in I|aly. He also compiled such an excelljent 
y Catalogue raisonn^e*' of its articles as deserves to be 
jadopt^d as. a mpdel by alljsbiO are at the head of large 
biblipgraphi^^LesiabHsbments. 

. W^bilst be was thus, active in the organization of .. the 
Jibrary, he received additional honours and cooimisftions 
.from the royal court of Parma. In 1763 he was appointed 
antiquary to bis royal highness, and director of the exca*- 
.vations which, under the authority, of government, bad 
.been undertaken in the aucieiit toirnof Velleja, situated 
in the Parmesan dominions; and in 17^7, on the expul- 
jBion. of the Jesuits, be was declared ^' presid^itof stiidies,^^ 
with the power 'of new modelling as he thought profi^r, 
the whole system of public instruction throughout the state. 
In this new organization of studies be displayed tbe saoipe 
.spirit of order by which he had been already distinguished 
in the formation of the library. He endeavoured to arrange 
,tbe different subjects in the minds of his pupils as hebad 
formerly classified the books upon the different shrives* -^ 

Notwithstanding so many signal services to the court of 
Parma, Paciaudi fell a victim to mean intrigues, and lost 
the favour 'Of ;his sovereign. , He bad been intimately con- 
nected with the i;ninister who then happened to be dis- 
graqed, and was ia some measure involved in the same 
misfprtu|ie« "tie forfeited bis places. But, conscious of 
hi9 own integrity, .be did not choose to leave Parma, and 
patiently waited for thetransitvof the storm; . His inno- 
cence beiDg..80on ascertained, he was restored to his several 
/unctions, and to rtbe good opinion of the prince. . He 
l&ade, , however^ of this fovourable event, the best use that 
a prudent man could do; he endeavoured to secure him-v 
self against a similar misfortune in future, by soliciting 
permission to retire to his native country; and this >' vo- 
luntary exile,*' says M. Dacier,.in'tbe eulogy of Paciaudi, 
^' banished .the last remains of suspicion against hioi. 
Nothing was now remembered but bis merit and bis zeal \ 
bis loss was severely felt; and the most engaging solicita^ 



I^ACIAUDL 11 

^Ds were made to bim to resame bis fonctioDs. In vain 
did he plead in -excuse bis advanced age, and the necessity 
of repose; bis excuses were not admitted, and be was 
finally obliged to return to Farms.** 

. Tbe literary establishments which had been formed by 
him in that place, did not then require so much of his at- 
tention and care, as to prevent him from indulging himself 
in other pursuits. . He therefore conceived the plan of a 
general biography of the grand masters of the order of 
Malta. In 1749, wbeo be published, at Naples, the series 
of medals cunc^roiiig the government of Malta, he bad 
received from the grand master, Pinto, the place of bisto*- 
riograpber of tbe order; but his uninterrupted labours in 
<»tber pursuits had prevented him, for nearly thirty years, 
from direi^iiig bis atiention to that great object, the most 
inieiesttng, pefhaps, in the religious and military history 
of the oMddle mgen. At last he devoted to it some of bis 
latler years, oind, in 1780, published from the unrivalled 
fvess of Bodoni, of Parma, his *' Memorie de Gran Mae- 
at9,** &c. or ^ Memoirs. of the Grand Masters of the Holy 
Military Order of Jerusalem,**: in 3 vols. 4to. Tliis pub- 
licatipn. contains only tbe history of the first century of the 
order, and consequently, not more than the lives of its 
founder and of th<e first ten. grand masters. It would have 
been continued, if tbe author had not, soon after its ap- 
pearance, fallen into that languor, which generally attends 
long labours andold age, and which accompanied him till 
his death, which took place. on the 3d *of -February 1785, 
in the 75th year of his age. 

Mr. Paciaudi was an • .excellent man: religious, disin- 
.terested,' and cordial ;^aQd* although not without personal 
vanity, and often cbarge^ible wi(h severity of criticism oh 
-bis antagonists, w^s always kind and polite, beloved by the 
great, consulted by the learned, and esteemed by people 
'i/it every description. He was intimately connected with 
the ' greatest literary ^en of his age, among whom, be- 
sides' Gay lus, it is ' sufficient to mention the illustrious 
*Winkehnann, and tbe aujtbor of tbe Travels of Anacbarsis, 
to whom he stood indebted for the academical honoun 
. iWbiobf hre received at Paris«^ 

1 Ess^y on hh Life prefixed to bit -Letters, pobliabed at Paris in 1802.<^Bal<l* 
win*!' Literary Jouraalj vol. IF.— Fabroni Vitie Italoruinj toI. XIV. 



It  p kc iv $, 1 

I I* ' 

/ PA€IU6 (JciiidsH an ettiinent lawyet ahd pbitosophiB)*^ 

tilted PACitIs D£ Bcfi(GA) frdm ihe iiam« of acbiiiotry se4t 

beiodging to hi» father's femiJy, near Vicemsa, was bomitt 

the latter city in 1550. ' His [xLridnts bestowed $vtfy paiai 

vri Ilk Bdut^tbnj and he is said to have made such pro* 

g^es^ (li hib first studies as to hate composed ^ tjr0atii[e qii 

arithttii^tid at the age 6f tbineen. Fi^r farther profj^^ie^y 

he wais sent t<^ Padua^ with his ford ther Fabius^ vfhov^ii* 

tmrds tecattkie a phyMCsian of emiii^tx^e, and is ifiiebtioViejl 

with gn^at/hbnour by tbe medical foibgraphers* Jultdi^ 

4ft^r tsUng his degree df do<:tor in ijaw^ returned to liii 

own trduntr^^y where, in the lioiirsi of his extensile read'* 

iti^) be be^athe at^quaibteB #t<:h the senri^nts of the ri^V 

fytm^n^'^hA c^tktieAled hi& attachment tjo tti^iA Witb«]^iitUi 

bam^ thlt lie Wats inedatted by the horrors of tb^ inquishiok^ 

Arotti ^bi^ he ibtaped to Getievtt^^ Tbi^ step bj^mg at^ 

tend^ with thie lOsa of hta properly, he gainefl a Ht^liboo^ 

Jhr isome iimb ty te^ehing ;^t)ut^, dntiU £id ^h'^fAti^he^ 

CMItug knb«(b/he was eribouraged 15' gt^d l^ttCites on cit^ 

%w^ wbitck be did foif tefi y^r^>i^itb gi'eal^'^iesaandir^^^ 

pirt atidtii At Geneva libo be Ih^r^ed k lady Wbi^sd, fami% 

had fled fr^ib Lucc^^r the i^iniist of Mligi^o, ^itd hijA i 

fetiiUy of ten tbildreri by h(&r. ] 

^ 'Ifi 1^85 h^ acd^pt^d the ^(kt of ifaif law pn}tetB6tMp ii 

H^ideiber^^ which* b€r held foi- tefi yeirs^ itid th^ri rei 

ftnio^d to Sethiii, Where he taughi logic foraomb d«io ; 4)Ut 

H)b'war wUcb took p1ac« iAdtk^ed kib tbi^tilrfft again t4 

^l^hfei"^^ ttnd thtM^ to NittneB) wbfere h^ Wa^ a)>^ihte4 
principal of the college. HisHett cietileii9etitv Whiob bi$ 
bi]^d would have %eed fibal^ wag nt Monipellielv wiiere 
N wiUf tnbde ^egitiir pro^fetiior of kw^ iind where hig teri 
mainly acqttin^d A high ^e^ttttt^n^ Mil bmngfat logeibe!^ 

it^m «U jparhi a litlttlerOUs «>bb«MfM ^ stttdOdii^ itblot^ 
whoitti w^s the telebrbted P^i)«ks<?^ wh^ iodbe^d hihi tn 
ft^turn to Ih^ lioMM^il tatlMlie rdi^iM« A^t mitbui 

change Of |ilac«^ bdwev^if^ h^ fitted at ken at Vatenco iA 

eaB^fain«, WbefO hO^died iil 16B9^ at tbte agOi)f bigh^ 
five. Hii pfititiftA Wbtkd #ere, t . *^ iibtpVih Jiirb tdiyilis,^ 
<jiieirteva, 'Iijpso, roU 2. ^^t^bnaliet^i^ell FMdofuIti^** !bid. 
1580, fol. 3. " Justiniam Iitipbr^t^ris fA«Atttitii^tttti LUkfH 
ijuatuor^" &c. ibid. fol. 4. ^< Ariatotelis Or^atiuin, hjoc. 
est nbri oQines licl l^gicabi j)eiii^ntea^ Gri et tiu.^ M 
giis, 1584, 8vo, reprinted in 15dS(,aud;at^Francfort in 1598, 
which is the best editioQ of what is reckoned » verjr 



P A t tr ST. u 

lmi> et «flktU mafQ^ owlewii UJbellM«f Gr. atXM.'' Uei«' 
ddbtif^ l^MBj 8110. Tbif vhm pqblUbed bjr Codioufe 
IHiciiM mIjf inpplied the MS. ftom hu libfftvy. ' fi. ^' Aruk 
toufo Mlonik tntoulmtigoU Ubri oot#/* Giv and Lfttp 
JMtefor^ ICS69 8vo. f. ^^ Arimolelif de winm libri tres, 
dr. irt Lai.'* ibid. Ud«, &▼«. a. «' Amiotalb die Cceb 
libri qaatoor," ke. On et Lat ibid. 1601, Svo. 9. << Doc^ 
|nki« Perfprntetka twii llres/' Aoreim A^tobraguiB (Ge- 
neva) 'I4M> 4IQC NJMfon enuvierates yarimis oiher worU 
ilbiob be publitfiedy iene of a lemporary Vie^ ud som* 
fiimpiied faff the vse ef atudepts ; but ibe above appear te 
h»fe oentriStoted aaoafc tft the reputatioa he enjeyeo.* 

PACK (&iC]ui98i)kN), an English poetical, and mieceU 
h^tom vriier» ibf ion of JabQ Paek» of Sutolfs^Aah, in 
SuBoikf eibp, in 1^91 waa high sheriff of that daunt;^ vaa 
bern about t€80* |ie waa edocaled at Merchant Taylem^ 
icbool, wfience, at the age of stxte^ he removed to St. 
iobn's eplli^;e» Qx&rd> and remained there. Iwo yoar% «l 
ibe eiid of wbieb bia father entered htm of fcbe Middle 
Tefupley iniendingbioD for the professbn of the kiar. Hie 
ti>rp6ciency» at a bier atadent, vaust have appeared in a verjp 
{jivourabie light to the beoohers ef ibis ^nourable aoeiety^ 
I9 be wei at eigbt Urmi atandin|; admtttpd barrister^ Wfaea 
be fvaa not nuidb above twenty years pf age. But habile of 
Ittt^^ ancjl appiicatioH to businesa not agreeing either with 
Mn health lor inclinatioii, be went into thearmyt and his 
irst eoomiand, wbidb h» obtained in- Match 1705, iwaa 
that oi ia company of foot He served afterirards abroad 
under general S^anhopoi end the duke of Argyle, who fiM 
his distingMisHed bravery proipofted him to the rank taS 
fO^f and; ever after bbnomred him with ^is patronap^e 
^d frkindtbip. Some of the best of aiigor Piusk^s mii 
^11119 were in celebra^n of )»s grace's charaeter, at a time 
f%en iibere was ,:a jealousy between him and the duke of 

'jtbe.inajpc died aft Aberdeen io Sept/17^ 
his, iegfinatH hiq^^^ to bi^ quartered. 'He 

[isbed Mr$t a «4ia!p^buijr of pOMas in 1? iS, dedicate to 
^olflpdi; ^tAohope, . whidli sold ^apidll*^ abd when it 4;ane 
^j^ la 

1^^9.1^ j^^ t^f^jOff pQ^ponius Atticus/' witft 




H P A C K. i 

r^tni^rks stddresied to the diike of Aygyfe ; in 1720, **^ttri 
ligion atid Philosophy^ a Tale ;" and inl725," a *^* Neit 
Collection" of poetical miscellanies, to which be jWefixed 
the " Lives of Mi^tiades and Cymon," fr6m Coi'nejius Ne* 
pos. His " ^yhole Works" were afterwards coHec ted an 4 
published jn onevol. 8iro, 1729. In. all be discotefs eonsi^ 
derable taste, vivacity, and teaming.  His connection^' afe' 
Well as his principles, appear to have been of the superior 
cast*-''  . .''■■•:■, f  

PACUVIUS (Marcus), a Latin trs^icpoet^ wasa^nsitivife 
of BoTidisi, the ancient Brundusium, and nephew to En-^ 
nius. He flourished at Romc^ about 1543. C. Ac^cojrd- 
ing to bis last biographer, he was held in 'high esteem' by 
C, Lelius,-and particularly by Citero, who affirmed hihi 
t6 be superior to Sophocles in "'his tragedy of ^ViiNiptra,^*- 
and classed hini in the first rank of' tragic poets. They 
are said likewise to have looked u^6n every one as an 
enemy td Roman literature who had 'tenierity enough' to 
despise his tragedies, particularly his " Antiope.'? We 
have nothing, however, of^fais works left, except isome* 
fragments in Maittaife's *^Corpus PotBtarum,'' ^Pacuvins 
was apainter alsp) as well asa poet; and Pliny speaks of one 
of his pictures which was placed in the temple of Hercule's,' 
and was admired by the connoisseurs of those times. 'He 
<tied at Tarentum, when .bey^ynd' bis* ninetieth year. ' He 
vrrote his own epitaph^ which is preserved in Auids Gelltus. 
Annibale^di. Leo, twbo was also born at Brhtdisi,' publisheiih 
in 1764 a dissertation on bis life and writing^ in order to 
do honour to bis native place, which certainly would not 
have been. less honoured if he. had omitted to tell us that 
among the eminent men of Brindisi, was M.' Lenius Strabo,' 
the first inventor of bird-cages. ^ 

PAGAN (Blaise* Fjrancis Coimr pe)> an leminient 
Ffench mathemiatician, .was born. at 'Avignon, in Provfencei^ 
March 3, ,1^04, and entered the army at fourteen; ^fiw 
which he h^d been educated with extraordinary care; rln- 
1620 he was engaged at the siege of Caen,, in the battle 6f 
the bridge of Ce, and ntber exploits, in which he signialized' 
himself, and ^cjqulred a reputation above vbis years. ' He 
was present, in 1624, at the siegeof St. Jbbn d'Angeli, as' 
also at that of Clerac and Montauban,' where he lost ;his( 



vf 



> Life prefixed to bis works.— Gibber's LiTes.— Jacobus Lives. ' , 

* Vossius de Poet, ttt.— Saxii Qaoma8t.«-Leo*t Disseftation Ib Month; lUf. 



PAGAN. U 

left eye by a musket-shot. At this siege he had another 
loss, which he felt with no less sensibility, viz^ that of the 
constable of Luynes, who died there of a scarlet fever. 
The constable was a near. relation to him, and. had been 
his patron at court. He did not, however, sink under his 
misfortune, but on the contrary seemed to acquire fresh 
energy from the reflection that he must now trust solely 
to himself. Accordingly, there was after this time, no 
siege, battle, or any other occasion, in which be did not 
ftignalize himself by some effort of courage and conduct. 
At the passage of the Alps, and the barricade of Suza, he 
put himself at the head, of the forlorn hope, * consisting' of 
the bravest youths among the guards;. and undelrto6k to 
ailrive the first at the attack by a private way which wa& 
extremely dangerous ; but, having gained the top of a very 
steep mountain, he cried out to his followers, ".See the 
way to glory I" and sliding down the mountain, his com- 
panions followed him, and coming first to the -attacki as 
they wished to do, immediately began a furious assault f 
and when the army came up to their support, forced the 
barrigades. He had afterwards the pleasure of standing- 
OB the left hand of the king when hia majesty related this 
heroic action to the duke of Savoy, with . extraordinary 
commendations, in the presence of a very full court. - Whea 
the king laid siege to Nancy in 1633, ; our. hero bad the 
honour to attend his sovereign in drawing the lines aii4 
forts of eircumvallation. In 1642 his majeaty sent him Uy 
the aervice in Portugal, in the post of field-marshal ; but , 
that year be had the misfortune to Jose bis eye-sight. ; 

Disabled now from public service, he re-assumed, with 
greater'^igour than ever, the study of the mathematics 
and fortification; and, in- 1645, gave to the public hisv 
'^ Treatise of Fortific^ion.'' It was allowed by all who 
underatood the science, that nothing . superior had^thear 
appieafed on that subject; and, whatever, improvements 
have been made since, they have been.dedivedin a manner 
fi;pm, 'thia treatise, as conclusions from their principles.* 
la! 651 he published his f^ Geometrical Theorems,", which 
tkeyf a perfect knowledge of all parts of the mathematics.' 
In 1635 he printed a paraphrase^ in French, of the" Ac-; 
count," in Spanish, ** of the River of the Amazons," by , 
father de Rennes, a Jesuit ; and we are aissured, that blind; 
as he was, yet he. drew the chart of that river, and the 
^tu adjacent,' which }s seen in thi^ work. Of tbi^ work 



If PAGAN. 

•a Ett^ruh traosii^kiPi was pybli^i^ \>j W* Pnn^ilf^ii i« 

16«1, 8vo. 

. In 1657 he pubUAed^'Th^ Tk^^ry of the PUim$^ 

cleared from that jaauUiplkUy <)f ^cc^ntvip ^irf^t^ib 4.nd 
^piQj^oIes, wbiqh the a^t^^ontoneieFs iiftd i.Qy^D|e4 \Q PKpI^in 
Ibeif flaotioas.'^ This distiiiguisb^d hm amopg tbq ^^tf^r 
nomersy as much as bis woirk .on fprtificatioi) did ap^Qrig 
the engineers; and he printed, in l^^9, bi^ ^' AstronomiT 
cal Tables/^ which are very succinct and plain. Bp(, a« 
few great men are witboot their foible^ that of P^gan W9« 
a pr/sjudice iti favour of judicial astrology j apd> though b^ 
is nid'C reserved than most others, yet what be wrqt^ ppoH 
that subject most not be classed among those prod^ptiQUf 
which do honour to bis understanding. He was b^leyed 
and visited by all persons illustrious for rank, as w^U «» 
science ; and his bouse was the rendezv<ras of all the poi^ 
lite and wprtby both in city and ^ourt. He died at Paris^ 
Nov. 18, 1665, having never been i^arried. Tlie king or-* 
^ered bis first physician to attend him in his illness, and 
gavei severskl marks of the extraordinary esteem which be 
Sad for his merit. 

His efaaracter i^ that of an universal genius ; and, having 
turned . lumself entirely to, the art of war, 4ind partioularly 
to the branch bf fpFti&cation» be made extraordinary pro-* 
gross in it. He updisrstood mathematics, not only bettet 
than is usu^ for a gentleman whose view is t^ ri^e ia tbe 
aimy, but even to a degree of perfection above that of the 
ordin^iry masters who teach that sci^nqe. He bad ao p^r-r 
ttcular a geuius for this kind of learning, : that he ^^tain^d 
a mor/s readily by meditation than by readings and accord^ 
isigly spent less time on mathematical boobs than he did tQ 
those of history and gepgrapby. Hjt bad also mad^ mon 
irfity -afid politics his particular study ; so that he .may .be 
and to have drawn his own character in bis <^ Hi)mme He-* 
le'ique,*' and ta have been one of the completest gentle* 
men of his lime. Louis XUI. was heard to /say several 
times, that the count de Pagan wsas one q( the most worthy, 
most adtoit, and most valiant men in his kingdom. Thai 
branch of bi& family which removed from Naples to Fransit 
in 1552, beoame extinct ip his person. ' 

PAGE (WiLiOAM }, an English divine, was born in .14^90, 
at Harroar on the Hill, Middlesex, and entered of Saliot 
 : . , . •' '. ^ • • , 



P A G 5. IT 

tolUge^ OicFord, in 1606. Here be took bis AegreH Itt 
arts, and in 1619 was csbosen fellow of All Souli. In 1629| 
hy tbe interest of Laud, be succeeded Dr. Denlsoo» as 
master of the free scbool of Reading. lit 1 634 be was ad*' 
mitted D. D. but ten years aftef was deprived of bis school 
by the parliamentary commissioners for Berkshire* He 
held, however, the rectory of East Locking in that county^ 
to which he bad been presented by his college, until his 
deathy which happened Feb. 14, 1663, at the rectory-bouse* 
He was buried in the chancel of his own church. At the 
restoration he had obtained a writ of restitution to the 
school^ which was publicly read, he being present, as ap« 
pears by the diary of the corporation ; but, after some de^ 
bate it was carried that Mr. Singleton, the then mftster^ 
should have notice hefore an answer was resolved,upon ; 
and it appears that Mr. Singleton was confirmed in the 
place, being the sixth person who held it after Page. 

Dr. Page was thought well versed in the Greek fathers^ 
an able disputant, and a. good preacher. He wrote *^ A 
Treatise of justification of Bowing at the name of Jesus, by 
way of answer to an appendix against it,'' Oxford, 1631^ 
4to ; and an *^ Examination of such considerable reasons as> 
are made by Mr. Prynne ina reply to Mr. Widdowes con« 
cerning %he same argument," printed with the former. 
The fate of this publication was somewhat singular. The 
point in dispute was at this time eagerly contested. Arch^ , 
bishop Abbot did not think it oT sufficient importat^^^ to 
be allowed to disturb the peace of the church, and, by bis 
^secretary, advised Dr. Page to withdraw his work from the 
press^ if already in it. Laud, on the contrary, who was , 
then bishop of London, ordered it to be printed, viewing^ 
the question as a matter of, importance, it being a defence 
of a canon of the church ; and it accordingly appeared% 
Dr. Page wi^ also the author of ^* (Certain animadversions 
upon some passages in a Tract concerning Schism and 
Schismatics,*' by Mr. Hales of Eton, Oxon. 1642, 4to; 
^^ The Peace Maker, or a brief motive to unity and charity 
in Religion,'V Loud. 1652, 16mo; a single sermon, and a 
translation of Thomas a Kempis, 1639, 12mo, With a large 
epistle to the reader. Wood mentions '^ Jus Fratrum, or 
the Law of Brethren,*' but is doubtful whether this belongs 
to our Dr. Page, or to Dr. Samuel Page, vicar of Dept- 
ford, who died in 1630, and was the author of some pious 
trac,ts. It belongs, however, ^ to neither, but to a John 

Vol. XXIV. G 



18 P A G I. 

Page, probably a lawyer, as' the subject is the pcwrer of 
parents in .disposing of their estates to their children. ' 

PAGI (Anthony), a famous Cordelier, and one of the 
ablest critics of hii time, was bom at Rognes, a small town 
in Provence, March 31, 1624. He took the monk^s habit 
in the convent of the Cordeliers at Aries, and professed 
himself there in 1641. After he had finished the usual 
course of studies in philosophy and divinity, he preached 
some time, and was at length made four times provincial 
of his order. These occupations did not hinder him from 
applying to chronology«and ecclesiastical history, in which 
he excelled. He printed in the Journal des Savans, Nov* 
11, 1686, a learned <' Dissertation upon the Consular Of*- 
fice/' in which he pretends to have discovered the rules, 
according to which the Roman emperors took the dignity 
of consul at some certain times more than others, but in 
this he is not thought to have been successful. His most 
considerable work is ^* A Critique upon the Annals of Ba- 
ronius;*' in which he has rectified an infinite number of 
mistakes, both in chronology and in facts. He published 
the first volume of this work, containing the first four cen« 
turies, at Paris, in 1689 ; with a dedication to the clergy 
of France, who allowed him a pension: The whole work 
was printed after his death, in four volumes, folio, at Ge« 
neva, in 1705, by the care of his nephew, fdther Francis 
Pagi; of the same order. It is^ carried to the year 1198, 
where Baronius ends. Pagi was greatly assisted in it by 
the di>h6 Longuerue, who also wrote the eloge of our 
author, which is prefixed to the Geneva edition. Another 
edition was published at Geneva in 1727, It is a work of 
great utility, but the author's chronology of the popes of 
the first three centuries is not approved by the learnedi 
He has also prefixed a piece concerning a new chronolo-^ 
gical period, which he calls ^^ Graeco-Romana," and uses 
for adjusting all the different epochas, whiph is not with* 
out its inconveniences. Our author wrote some other - 
works of inferior note before his death, at Aix, in Provence, 
J^ne 7, 1699. His character is that of a very able bisto- 
. rian, and a learned and candid critic. His style has all the 
simplicity and plainness which suits a chronological narra-- 
tion. He held a correspondence with several learned men, 
as Stillingfleet, Spanheim, Cuper, Dodwell, the cardinal 
Noris, &c. • ' 

1 Ath. Ox.-^Coate8'8 Hist, of Reading. 
£. ^ Chaufepie,-^i«eroD, toU I. — Moreri.— Dupia. 



P A G t 19 

. t^AOl (FltAKcis)^ nephew of the pretledtdgi was born 
ftl Lambeso in Pravenice Sept. 7, 1654. The Extraordinary 
inclination that appeared in his infancy for polite learning 
induced bis parents to send him tostudy^ among the priests 
of the oratory, at Toulon ; where he soon made so great a 
proficiency, that his uncle^ Anthony Pagi, sent for him to 
Aix, where he then resided. The conversation of his uncle ia-> 
spired him with a desire of devoting himself to the churchy 
and accordingly he enteredanto the order of the Cordeliers, 
and made bis profession. After having taught philosophy 
in several convents, he desired to return to his uncle at 
Aix; and, having obtained leave, remained studying under 
bis directions for several years; and assisted him in his 
^* Critique upon Baronius's Annal» ;'* of which^ as w^ have 
mehtioned in' the preceding article, he became the editor. 
Father Francis afterwards Ifiid the plan of another work, 
which he published under the title *^ Breviarium Historico* 
cbronologico-criticum, illustriora pontiBcum Romanorum 
gesta, conciliorum genemlium acta,- nee non complura turn 
sacrorum rituum^ turn antiquae ecclesis disciplinse, capita 
compiectens,'' 4 vols. 4to, 1717, &c. In this be discovers 
the most bigoted zeal for the Ultramontane theology, and 
every thing which exalts the authority of the pope. A long 
illness, brought on by a fall, prevented his finishing the 
last volume, which was not published Until 1727, six years 
after hia death, which took placd Jan. 21, 1721'. ^ 

• PAGIT, or rather' PAGET (Eusebius), a Puritan di- 
vine^ was bom at Cranford in Northamptonshire, about 
1542, and at the age of twelve years came to Oxford, 
where he was first choirister, and afterwards student of 
Christ Church. He made, according to Wood, a coush 
derable progress in logic and philosophy, but^ although -a 
noted sopbister, left the university without taking a degree. 
As Wood passes immediately to his being presented to the 
rectory of St Anne^s, Aldersgate-str^etj that biographer 
seems to have known nothing of the intermediate events* 
On his leaving Oxford, he became vicar of Oundle, and 
rector of Langton in his native county, where, in 1573, he 
was first prosecuted for nonconformity. He was afterwards 
preferred to the rectory of Kilkhampton in Cornwall, and 
althou^ 1m bad acquainted both his? patron and ordinary 
that there were some things in the book of Common Prayer 

> Cbanfepie.— -Bibl. Gemumlqae, vol, m.-^Niceron, toI. V!. 

C 2 



so P A G r T. 

wttb which he could not comply, aod they had proflii^ed, 
that if he would accept the cure, he should not be mo* 
tested on that account, yet a prosecution was commenced 
against him, which ended in his losing all his prefermrents^ 
and even a school which he attempted to establish for his 
maintenance. This appeared particularly hard in his case, 
as, according to every authority, he was ^* a learned, peace- 
able, and good divine, who had formerly complied with 
the customs and devotionsT of the church, and had been in- 
defatigable in the ministry.*' He appears to have remained 
some years under ecclesiastical censure ; but at last, in 
September 1604, was promoted to the rectory of St^Anne 
and St. Agnes, Aldersgate-street, which he held till his 
death in May 1617, in the seventy- fifth year of bis age. 
His remains were interred in this church. An account of 
his prosecution may be seen in the Harleian MSS. 813, fo(* 
14, b. and an abridgment of it iit NeaPs '^ History of the 
Puritans." He was the author of a sermon ** on Tithes ;!V 
another '^ of Election ;^' a Latin ^' Catechism," Lond, 
1591, 8vo ; a translation of Calvin's *' Harmony of the 
Gospels," ibid. 1584, 4to; and <' The History of the Bible, 
briefly collected, by way of question and answer." It does 
not appear when this first appeared, but it was afterwarda 
printed at the end of several of tbe old editions of the 
Bible. 

He had a son Eprraim, who was bom in 1575, and 
educated also at Christ Church, where he became, so un- 
common a proficient in languages, that at the age of twen- 
ty-six, he is said to have understood and written fifteen of 
sixteen, ancient and modern. His only preferment was to^ 
tbe church of St. Edmund the King, Lombard-street, 
London, from which he was driven by tbe usurping party, 
for bis loyalty. In religious sentiments he does not appear 
to have diflPered from his father; but he adhered to the 
king and constitution, which was then an unpardonable 
crime. He retired to Deptford in Kent, where be died in 
April 1647, aged seventy- twa In addition to the other 
causes of his sufferings, he wrote much against the Inde- 
liendents, baptists, and other sectaries, as appears by his 
*' Heresiograpby ;" yet, in 1645, two years before his 
death, he united with his brethren in London, in petitioh« 
ing^parliament for the establishment of the Presbytieriaii^ 
discipline, which, be thought better than none. He wrote 
some books di^t are still valued as curiosities, particularly 



I* A G I T. «l 

liig ** Christianographia, or a description of the inultttudes 
and sundry sorts of Christians in the world, not subject to 
the pope," &c. Lond. 1635, 4to, often reprinted, witli 
(in soaie of the editions) a ^^ Treatise of the religion of 
the ancient Christians in Britany ;*^ and his '* Hseresio** 
graphia, or a description of the Heresies of later times,** 
ibid. 1645, &c. 4to. Of this there have been at least four 
editions.^ 

PAGNINUS (Sanctbs), an Italian of great iikill in 
Oriental languages and biblical learning, was born at Lucca 
in 1466, and afterwards became an ecclesiastic of the order 
of St. Dominic, and resided for the greater part of his life 
ai Lyons. He was deeply and accurately skilled in the 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Ailabic tongues, but 
especially in the Hebrew. In the course of his studies he 
was led to conceive that the Vulgate translation of the 
Scriptures was either not by Jerome, or greatly corrupted ;.' 
and he therefore undertook to make a new one, following 
Jerom only where he conceived that his version corre*^ 
sponded with the original. This design, so very soon aftiet 
the restoration of letters, is calculated to give us a very 
high opinion of Pagninus^s courage and learning, and ap» 
pieared in so favourable a light to pope Leo X. that be 
promised to furnish him with all necessary expences for 
completing the work ; and he was likewise encouraged in 
his labours by the succeeding popes, Hadrian VI. and 
Clement VII. who licensed the printing of it. It appears, 
by a letter of Picus Mirandula to Pagninus, that he had 
spent twenty-pve years upon this translation. It is the 
first modern translation of the Bible from the Hebrew 
tfext; and the Jews who read it affirmed, that it agreed 
entirely with the Hebrew, and was as faithful, and more 
exact than the ancient translations. The .great fault of 
Pagninus was, that he adhered too closely and servilely to 
the original text ; and this scrupulous attachment made 
his translation, says father Simon, ^^ obscure, barbarous, 
and full of solecisms. He imagined, that, to make a faith- 
ful translation of the Scriptures, it was necessary to follow 
exactly the letter, according to the strictness of grammar. 
This, however, is quite contrary to his pretended exact- 
ness, because two languages seldom agree in their waj^s of 

• Ath. Ox. vol. I. and II.— Brook's Lives of the Pttritans.<^Faller*8 Wor- 
Uaies.— Lloyd's Worthies, foiio, jp. 5lO..*Strype>i Life of Wtuf gift, p, STT. 



* .'.. 



.V * 



J2« P A G N I N U S. 

speaking ; and therefore, instead ojF expressing the origi- 
nal in its proper purity, he defaces iindxobs it of its oraa^ 
ments." Father Simon, nevertheless, allows the great 
abilities and learning. of Pagninus; and all the later eoni* 
mentatorsi and translators of the Scriptures have agreed in 
giving him his just coamiendation. Huetius, though he 
e^epis to think father r Simon's criticism of him well 
grounded, yet makes no^ scruple to propose his manner 
ds a model for all translators of the sacred books : ^^ Scrip-t 
turpa interpretandaB rationibus utile nobis exemplar propo« 
suit.Sanctus Pagninus." 

. Pe afterwards translated the " New Testament" from 
the Qreek, and dedicated it to pope Clement VII. It was 
printed with the former at Lyon^ in 1528. He w^s also 
the author of an ^* Hebrew Lexicon and an Hebrew Grapi'* 
inar ; . which Buxtorf,. who calls him ^^ Vir linguarum Ori-*- 
eiitalium peritissimus," made great use of in compiling 
bis. He died in 1536, aged seventy. Saxius places hi$ 
bjirthjn.I47J, and his death in 1541. Though he appears 
to have lived and died a bigoted Catholic, Luther spoke 
o^ him, and his translations^ in term3 of the highest ap^r 
pjause. * 

PAJDN (Claude), a French Protestant divine, was born 
in 16^,6, and studii^d, with great, success and approbation, 
at Saumur; after which he becaine minister of a place 
C;alled .Marcheiloir in the province of Dunois. He was,an 
able advocate against tb^ popish party, as appears by bis 
best. work, against father. Nicole, entitled " Examen du 
Livre qui porte pour titre, Prejugez legitimes contre les 
Calvinistes," 2 vols. 1673, 12mo. Mosheim therefore very 
improperly places him in the class of those who explained 
the. doctrines of Christianity in such a manner as to dimi^ 
nish the 4ifference between the doctrines of the reformed 
aitd papal churches ; since this work shews that few men 
l^rote at that time with more learnings zeal, and judgment 
against popery, Pajon, however, created so;ne disturbance 
in the x:hurch, and became very unpopular, by explaining 
certain, doctrines, concerning the influence of the Holy 
Spirit, in the j^i'niinian way, and had a controversy with 
Jmrieu on. this subject. The consequence was, that Pajoo, 
who had been elected pjrofes^or of divinity at Saumur> 
found it necessary to resign that oiBce ; after which he 

1 Moreri in Sanctes.— Le Long Bibl. Sacra. 



1 



•''■••* "• '^. ■' 

v. 7 ..•■':. 

, 1» A J O N. ti 

resided at Orleann^^s^pastor, and died there Sept. 27, 1685, 
in tbe sixtieth jrenr of his age. He left a great many works 
in manuscript ; none of which have been printed, owing 
partly to^his unp^ularity, bat, perhaps, principally to his 
two sons becoming Roman Catholics. A full aecount of his 
opinions may be seen in Mosheim, or in the first of ouf 
authorities. ' 

PAJOT (LEWis-tEO), Count d'Ansembray, a French 
nobleman, was bom at Pariit in 1678. During his education 
he discovered an inclination for mathematical pursuits^ 
and was instructed in the philosophy of Des Cartes. 
After this he increased his knowledge by an acquaint^ 
ance with Hirygens, Kuysh, Boerhaave, and other eminent 
men of tbe time. On his return from his travels he wa^ 
apfiointed director»general of the posts in France; but^ 
coming into possession of a country-seat at Bercy, by the 
death of his father, be collected a museum there furnished 
with philosophical and mechanical, instruments, and. ma- 
chines of every description, which attracted the attention 
of the learned, and was visited by Peter the Great, the 
emperor of Germany, and other princes. In the Trans^ 
actions of the Academy of Sciences, of which he was a 
member, ^there are several of his papers ; among which is 
a description of an ^^ Instrument for the Measurement of 
Liquids ;" -^of " An Areometer, or Wind Gage ;*' and of a 
<f Machine for beating regular Time in Music/' He died 
in 1753, bequeathing his valuable museum to tbe .aca- 
demy. * ' 

PAINE (Thomas), a political, and infidel writer of great 
notoriety, was born in 1737, ^t.Thetford, in Norfolk. 
His father was- a staymaker, a business which he hinmelf 
carried on during his early years at. London, Dover, and 
Sandwich. He afterwards became an exciseman and gro*- 
cer, at Lewes in Sussex ; and, upon the occasion of an 
election at Shoreham, in 17T1, is said to have written an 
election song. In the following year he wrote a pamphlet^, 
recommending an application to parliament for the in- 
crease qf the salaries of excisemen; butj for some misde" 
meanours, was himself dismissed from his office in 1774, 
In the mean time, the ability ; displayed in his pamphlet 
attracted the notice of one of the commissioners; of excise, 

1 Chanfepie. — Moreri.-^Blpunt's Censura-.— -Saxii. OiiQEQask 
* Dicr. Hist. 



■y. 



«♦ PAINE. 

who sent him to America, with a strong recoannendation 
to Dr. Franklfn, as a person who could be serviceable at 
tb4t time in America. What services were expected from 
faimi we know not, but he arrived at a time when the 
Americans were prepared for the revolution which followed^ 
und which he is supposed to have promoted, by scatterinpr 
among the discontented his memorable pamphlet, entitled 
^* Common Sense.'* 

His first engagement in Philadelphia was with a book- 
Mler, who employed him aa editor of the Philadelphia 
«M&ga!aine, for.which he had an annual salary of fifty pounds 
currency. When Dr. Rush of that city suggested to Paine 
the propriety of preparing the Americans for a separation 
from Great Britain, he. seized with avidity the idea, and 
immediately began the above mentioned pamphlet, which^ 
when finished, was shewn in manuscript to Dr. Franklin 
and Mr. Samuel Adams, and entitled, after some discus- 
sion, ^^ Common Sense,'' at the suggestion of Dr. Rush; 
For this he received from the legislature of Pennsylvania, 
the sum of 500/.; and soon after this, although devoid of 
€very. thing that could be called literature, he was honoured 
with a degree of M.^A. from the university of. Pennsylva- 
Dia, and was chosen a member ojf the American Philoso* 
phical Society. . In the title-page of his l< Rights of Man,*' 
be styled himself .'^ Secretary for foreign aflairs to tb^ 
Congress of the United States, in theJate war.*' To this 
title, however, he had no pretensions, and so thorough a 
Republican ought at least to have avoided assuming what he 
condemned so vehemently in others. He was merely a 
clerk, at a very low salary, to a committee of the congress ; 
and h>s business was to copy papers, and number and file 
them. Froni this office, however^ insignificant as it was, 
he was dismissed for a scandalous breach of trust, and then 
hired himself as a clerk to Mr. Owen Biddle of PbiladeU 
pbia; and early in 1780, the assembly of Pennsylvania 
chose him as clerk. In 1782 he printed at Philadelphia^ 
a. letter to the abb^ Raynal on the affairs of North Ame- 
r ca, in which he undertook to clear up the mistakes in 
Baynal's account of the revolution ; and in the same year 
he ailso printed a letter to the earl of Shelburne, on his 
^peeph in parliament, July 10, 1782, in which that noble<«' 
man bad piophesied that, << When Great Britain shall ac- 
knowledipfK American independence,' the sun of Britain^s 
glory is set for evc^r." It could not be difllcult to answer 



PAINE. 25 

•ocfa a prediction a$ this/ which affords indeed a humilia« 
ting instance of want of poKtieal foresight. Grfeat Britaia 
did acknowledge American independence, and what is 
Great Brimn now? Inl7S5y as a compensation for his 
revolutionary writings, congress granted him three thou« 
jsand dollars, after having rejected with great indignation 
a motion for appointing him historiographer to the United 
Sutes, with a salary. Two only of the states noticed by 
gratuities his revolutionary writings. Pennsylvania gave 
him, as we have mentioned, SOOL currency; and N^ew* 
York gave him an estate of more than three hundred acres^ I 
in high cultivation, which was perhaps the more agreeable 
to him, as it was the conBscated property of a royalist. In 
1787 he came to London, and before the end of that year 
published a pamphlet on the recent transactions between 
Great Britain and Holland, entitled *' Prospects. on tb^ 
Hubicoti.'* In this, as may be eicpected, he censured the 
measures of the English administration. 

He had long cherished in his mind a most cordial hatred 
against his native country, and was now prepared in some 
measure for that systematic attack on her happiness which 
he carried on, at interVaU, during the remainder of hit 
life. Being released, iu November 1789, from a spong- 
ing-house where he was confined for debt, heheheld with 
delight the proceedings of the French, and hastened to that 
country, but made no long stay at this time; and finding, 
on his return to London in 1790, Mr. Burke^s celebrated 
work on the French revolution, he produced, within a few 
months, the first part of his ^^ Rights of Man," and in 1792, 
the second part. Had these been left to the natural de- 
mand of the public, it is probable they might have passed 
unnoticed by government, but the industry with which 
they were circulated by the democratic societies of that 
period, among the lower classes of society, betrayed inten- 
tions which it would have been criminal to overlook ; and 
prosecutions were accordingly instituted against the author 
and publishers. The author made his escape to France, 
and never returned to this country more. His inveteracy 
against her establishments, however, continued unabated, 
and perhaps was aggravated by the verdict whicli expelled 
him- from the only nation where he wished to propagate 
his disorganizing doctrines, and where he had at that 
time many abettors. When the proceedings of the latr 
ter had roused the loyal part of the nation to address the 



26 PAINE, 

Ibrone in behalf of pur constitiition, Paine published ^^ A 
Letter to the Addressers/' the object of wbkh was to pror 
cure a natk>Qal coxivention in conteoipt of die parliaments 
This. likewise was circulated by his partizans with no small 
industry. In the mean trnoe, although ignorant of the 
French langiiege, b.e was chosen a member of the French 
conventipn, and in consistency with his avowed malignity^ 
gave his vote for a declaration of war against Great Britain^ 
His adopted country, however, was not very grateful for 
his services, for when Robespierre gained the ascendancy, 
he sent Paine, with that mad enthusiast Anacharsts Cloots, 
to prison at the Luxemburgb,. and Paine narrowly escaped 
hieing guillotined, amidst the hundreds whof' then under* 
went tbf^t fate, or were murdered in other ways. 

During his confinsement, which lasted eleven months, he 
certainly merited the praise .of his friends^ for his calm 
unconcern, and bis philosophy ; a^d they no doubt would 
rejoice to hear that he passed those hours of danger in 
^' defying the armies of the living God,'' by his blasphe- 
mous composition called >^ The Age of Reason,*' the first 
part of which was published at London in 1794, and the 
jsecoud the year following. . If any thing can exceed the 
Biischievous intention of this attack on revealed religion, 
and which certainly produced very alarming effects^ on the 
minds of many of the lower classes, among whom it was 
liberally circulated, it was the ignorance of which his an<^ 
swerers have convicted him in every species of knowledge 
pecessary for .a discussion of the kind *. 

His subsequent publications were ^^The Decline and 
Fall of the; English system of Finance;" a most impudent 
letter to general Washington, whom he had the ingratitude 
■., . . .  '• . ' . .■'-.. 

'* Should our language in speaking writer. His excess of folly will be la- 
6^ Paine's ignorance and arrogance^ mented by all his friends, not estrang- 
appear too barsh> the reader who is of ed, like himself, from shame and mo- 
that opinion, may exchange it for what desty ; and his enemies will re^d bif 
Mr. GHbert Wakefield has said of the outrageous Taunts, united to such an 
tecond part of his " Age of Reason :" excess of ignorance and stupor, with 
" Every man who feels himself .solicit that pleasure, which results from a just 
tous for the dignity of human nature, expression of mingled abhorrence, de- 
who glories in the prerogative of ra- rislon, and contempt. For my part, 
tiooality, or is charmed by tbe loveli- his unprecedented ii^fatnatioii almost 
ness of virtue, will observe, with hu- strikes me dumb with amazement. I 
miliating sympathy, a debasement' of am not acquainted with such a corn- 
bis species, in the most asfonishing, pound of vanity and Ignorance as 
Qjnprincipled, and unparalleleii arro- Thomas Paine, in the records of lite- 
gance, to the last, of such a cobtemp- rary history.'' 
tuous, self-opinionated, ' ill-i&fbrmed 



PAINS. tr 

to revile as an apostate and impostor. ^^ Ag^rarian Justfee 
opposed to Agrarian law, and to Agrarian Monopoly;*' 
^f Letter to Mr.* Erskine on the prosecution of T. Williamfly 
for publishing the Age* of Reason." He cimtinued in 
France till 1803, << drunk," as his biographer informs us, 
^^evety day, imxiiig with the lowest company,' and ito 
61tfay in his person, as to he avoided by all men of decency. 
JEiifl habitoal drunkenness seems to have commenced with 
the delirium of the French revolution, and. the practice 
gained upon- him while in London." Tired at length with . 
£rance, which now had nothing of a republic left, be 
wished to return to America, but knew not well what to do 
with himsel£ He could not return to England, where he 
had. been outlawed, and tie was aware that he was odious in 
the United States, where Washington had justly considered 
bim as an anarchist in government, and an infidel in religion. 
fie had no country in the world, and it nay be truly said 
he had not a friend. He was obliged, however, to return 
to the United States, where bis farm, no^ greatly in- 
creased in value, would supply all bis waifts. 

In Oct. 1802, accordingly, be arrived at Baltimore, under 
the protectionof the president Jefferson, but was no longer 
an object of curiosity, unless among the lower classes di 
emigrants from England, Scotland, or Ireland. With them, 
it appears, *^ he drank grog in the tap^room, morning, 
noon, and night, admired and praised, strutting and istag- 
gering about, showing himself to all, and shaking hands 
with all; but the leaders of the party to which he had' at- 
tached himself paid him no attention.^' He had brought 
ivith him to America a woman, named madaine Bonneville, 
whom he had seduced from her husband, with her twb 
sons; and whom he seems to have treated with the utmost 
meanness and tyranny. By what charms he had seduced 
this lady, we are not told. He was now sixty-five years 
old, diseased in body from habitual drunkenness, and gross 
in manners; It would be too disgusting to follow bis bio- 
grapher in his description of the personal viced of this man. 
It may sufice that he appeared for many months before his 
death to be sunk to the lowest state of brutality. 

The closing scene of his life, as related by his medical 
attendant. Dr. Manley, is too instructive and adinonitory 
to be omitted. *^ During the latter part of his life," says 
this physician, *' though his conversation was equivocal^ his 
conduct was singulaTi, He would- not bie left alone night 



28 .? A I N E. 

or day. He not only required to have som^ penon with 
hiniy but be must see that be or she was there, and would 
not allow .bis curtain to be closed at any time; and if, i^ 
it would sometimes unavoidably happen, he was left alone, 
be would scream and holla, until some person came to him. 
When relief from pain would admit, he seemed thougfatful 
and contemplative, his eyes being generally closed, anA 
bi$, hands folded upon his breast, although be never slept 
without the aa»stance of an anodyne. There was some^ 
thing remarkable in bis conduct about this period (which 
coqnprises about two weeks immediately preceding his 
death), particularly when we reflect, that Thomas Paine was 
author of the /' Age of Reason.'* He would call out durins 
his^ paroxysms of distress, without intermission, < O Lord 
help me, God help me, Jesus Christ help me, O Lord help 
ine/ &c. repeating the same expression without any the 
least variation, in a tone of voice that would alarm the 
bouse. It was this conduct which induced. me to think 
that be had 'abandoned his former opinions ; and I was 
more inclined to that belief, when I understood from his 
nurse (who is a very serious, and, I believe, pious wo- 
man,) that be would occasionally inquire, when be saw her 
engaged with a book, what she was reading, and being 
answered, and at the same time asked whether she should 
read aloud^ he assented, and would appear to give parti- 
cular attention. The book she usually read was * Hobart's 
Companion for the Altar.^ 

^* I took occasion, during the night of the 5th and 6th 
of June, to test the strength of his opinions respecting re- 
velation, I. purposely made him a very late visit; it was 
a time which seemed to sort exactly with my errand ; it 
was midnight ; be was in great distress, constantly ex- 
claiming in the words above mentioned ; when, after a 
considerable preface, I addressed him in the following 
manner, the nurse being present : 

** Mr. Paine, your opinions, by a large portion of ike com* 
munity, have been treated with deference : you have never 
been in the habit of mixing in your conversation words of 
course : you have never indulged in the practice of pro- 
fane swearing : you must be sensible that we are acquainted 
with your religious opinions as they are given to the world. 
What must we think of your present conduct ? Why do 
you call upon Jesus Christ to help you ? Do you believe 
that he can help you ? Do you believe in the divinity of 



PAINE. 29 

Jesos Christ ? Come now, answer me honestly; I want 
ao aoswer as from the lips of a dying man, for I verily be- 
lieve that you will not live twenty-four hours.' I waited 
some time at the. end of every question ; he did not answe)*, 
but ceased to exclaim in the above manner. Again I ad- 
dressed him : ^ Mr. Paine, you have not answered my 
questions ; will you answer them ? Allow me to ask again, 
do you believe? or let roe qualify the question, do you 
wish to believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God ?' After 
a pause of some minutes, he answered, * I have no wish 
to believe on that subject.' I then left him, and know not 
wliether he afterwards s|)oke to any person, on any subject, 
though he lived, as I before observed, till the morning of 
the 8 th. 

^<. Such conduct, under usual circumstances, I conceive 
absolutely unaccountable, though with diffidence I would 
remark, not so much -so in the present instance; for 
though the fir$t necessary and general result of conviction 
be a sincere wish to atone for evil committed, yet it may 
be a question worthy of (U>le consideration whether exces- 
sive pride of opinion, consummate vanity, and inordinate 
self-love, might not prevent or retard that otherwise natu- 
ral consequence ?" 

On the 8tb of June, 1809, about nine in the morning, 
died this memorable man, aged seventy-two years and five 
months ; who at the < close of the eighteenth century had 
wefl nigh persuaded the common people of England to 
thinky that all was wrong in that government and that re- 
ligion which their forefathers had transmitted to them, and 
und^r which they had enjoyed so many blessings. He had 
the merit of discovering, that the best way of diffusing dis- 
content and revolutionary fanaticism was by a broad dis- 
play, in their naked and barbarous forms, of those infidel 
and anarchical elements, which sophistry had, till bis time, 
refined above the perceptions of the vulgar. By stripping 
the mischief of the dress, though still covering it with the 
name and boast of philosophy, he rendered it as familiar 
to the (Capacity as it was flattering to the passions of the 
mob; and easy to be understood in proportion to the 
ascendancy of the baser qualities of the mind. 

To this mmt, and in' a- literary point of view, it is a 
merit, he seems justly entitled. He was familiar with those 
artifiqes. of writing: which very much promoted his objects. 
Things that are great are easily travestied. It is only to 



30 P A 1 N E. 

c^xpress t)>em in a. vulgar idioai„ and mcorporate them ^kh 
low ideas. This is always very gratifying to the mean, th# 
little, and the envious ; and perhaps this was one of Ym 
ipost successful tricks upon the multitude. He had, be- 
sides^ 9 sort of, plebeian simplicity of style; ahnost border-* 
ing.upon naivet6, which clothed his imposture with the- 
semblance 4>f 'honesty; while the arrogance with which he 
treated great names was^ with the base and contumelious^ 
an argutpent of his conscious pride and independence of 
thinking. 

. What he calls <^ the principles of society,^ acting nplon* 
the nature and conduct of man,*' are sufficient of them* 
selves, according to his simple theory, to produce and per-* 
petuate all the happiness and order of civilized life. Go-^' 
vernment.i^ only imposition disguising oppression, and 
protecting wrongful .accumulation. The dignity of bumair 
nature, in its lowest forms, is thus- flattered by the disco- 
i^ery that the beggar and the felon have justice on their 
i^e while the one petitions for, and the other enforces, 
the restitution of bis original rights. What hungry repro- 
bate does not relish the proposition, that it is government* 
which debauches the purity of our iporals, and brings in 
passion over reason, by a sort of usurpation, to perplex 
the siinplioity of God's appointments ? Philosophy must 
not be insulted by opposing her polished weapons to thi» 
beggarly sophistry. There is one short and simple aphorism 
of common sense by which the whole of his theory is 
abundantly answered; and it is this, ^^ Government is not 
made for men as they ought to be, but for men as they 
are ; not for their possible perfection, but for their prae-> 
tical indigence*'' This answer is co«extensive with the 
whole work of Mr. Paine upon the rights of man. It de- 
i|)olishes the whole fabric of his treacherous system. It 
dispels at once the clumsy fiction of his barbarous Utopia. 

In perusing a man^s writings, a picture] of the author 
himself is sometimes insensibly drawn in the imagination of 
the reader. By the perusal of the works of Thomas Taiue, 
a most disgusting idea is presented to our thoughts both of 
the man and his manners. This idea is completely verified 
by the account which Mr. Cheetham has given us of his> 
person and deportment. The paintings of Zeuxis attained 
a sort of ideal perfection by combining the scattered ex- 
cellencies of the human countenance: to conbeive the 
countenance, or the mind, of Mr. Thomas Paine, now that 



P A I N £. SI 

dealh'bas withdrawn the living models we must jcondenae 
into an imaginary foeui all the ofFensiveness and malignity 
that are dispersed throughout actual existence. Mr* 
Cheetbam seems to have no hostility towards the man, and 
to be disposed to draw no inferences against him but what 
fEiirly arise frcna the facts. We may add too, that bis facts 
appear to be collected from very credible sources of inceU 
tigence; from persons with whom Paine passed great part 
of i|is existence ; and who, though not appearing to have 
much intercourse together^ agree in the substance of their 
communications on this subject.' 

- PALiEMON (QuiNTUs Rhemnius Fannius)j a cele- 
brated grammarian at Rome,- in the reign of Tiberius, was 
born of a slave at Vicen^a. It is said he was first brought 
up in a mechanical business, but while attending his 
master's son to school, be discovered so much taste for 
learning, and made so much progress in it, that he was 
thought worthy of his freedom, and became a teacher or 
preceptor at Rx>me. With his learning he joined an ex* 
cellent memory, and a^ ready elocution ; and made extem-^ 
pore verses, then a very popular qualiiication. With all 
this merit, his manners were very dissolute, and he was so 
arrogant as to assert, that learning was born when he was 
born, and would die when he died ; and that Virgil had 
inserted bis name in his '^ Eclogues*' by a certain prophe- 
* tic spirit; for that he, Pal8emon> would infallibly become 
one day sole judge and arbiter of all poetry. He was ex-' 
eessively prodigal and lavish, and continually poor, not^ 
withstanding the great sums he gained by- teaching, andi- 
the profit he made, both by cultivating his lands, and m 
the way of traffic. There is an " Ars Grammatica" as- 
i^ribed to him in the edition of the " Grammatici Antiqui,''^ 
and separately printed ; and a work " De Ponderibus et 
Mensuris," which is more doubtful.' 
, PALiEPHATUS was a Greek philosopher, of whom a 
treatise in explication of ancient fables has been several 
tinoies reprinted in Greek and Latin ; the best edition is 
ibat of Fischer, Lips. 1761. But little is known of him, 
and ^here are several ancient writers Oif this name ; one an 
Athenianf placed by the poets before the time of Homier ; 

^ Cfaeetham'i Life of Paine, 1809, reviewed in the « British Review," for 
June 1811, an arttete from which' the best pairt of the abore sketch has been 
borcawed. > Moreri.—Fabric. Bibl. Lat.^-Sazii Onomast. 



, 32 TALMPUAtVii. 

one a native of Parbs, who lived under Artaxerxeft Idtfe^ 
mon ; and one, a grainoiarian and philosopher, bornr a^ 
Athens or in Egypt^ posterior to Aristotle. Which of 
these is author of the work already noticed, is not at all 
certain.* 

. PALAFOX (John de), natural son of James de Paia-« 
fox, marquis de Hariza, in the kingdom of Arragon, wa» 
bornin 1600. His mother^ it is said, atteihpted to drowti 
bim at ins birth, but one of hia father^s vassals drew him 
out of the water, and took care of him till the age at which 
he was acknowledged by hrs parents. Philip IV. appointed 
Palafox nlember of the council of war; then that of the 
Indies. Having afterwards chosen the ecclesiastical pro* 
fession, he was made bishop of Los Angelos, *^ Angelo^ 
polis," in New Spain, in 1639, with the title of visitor of the 
courts of chancery and courts of audience, and judge of the 
administratioQ of. the three viceroys of the Indies. Palafox 
employed his authority in softening the servitude of the 
Indians, checking robbery in the higher ranks, and vice in 
the lower. He had also great contentions with the Jesuits 
concerning., episcopal rights. He was made bishop of 
Osina or Osma, in Old Castille, in 1653, which diocese be 
governed with much prudence and regularity, and died, 
in great reputation for sanctity, September 30, 1659, aged 
59. This prelate left some religious books, of which the 
principal are, *^ Homilies on the Passion of Christ,*' trans-* 
lated into French by Amelot de la Houssaye, 16 to ; seve-^ 
ral tracts on the ^' Spiritual Life," translated by the abb6 
le Roi ; ^^ The Shepherd of Christmas-night,'' &c« but he 
is best known by his ** History of the Siege of Fontarabia;'* 
and '< History of the Conquest of China by tbei Tartars,'^' 
8vo. There is a collection of bis works printed at Madrid 
in 13vols. fol. 1762, and a life by Dinouart in Frenob, 
1767, 8vo.» / 

PALAI^RAT (John), seigneur de Bigot^ a French poet^ 
waa born in May. 1650, at Toulouse, of a noble family^ 
He was a member of tbe academy of the Jeux Floraux^. 
became chief magistrate of Toulouse in 1675, when scarcely' 
twenty-five years of age ; and was made bead of tbe con« 
sistory 1684, in which office he acquitted himself with great 
integrity. He went to Rome two years after, and- at 

1 Vottioi de Hist, Grec.— ^Fischer*! edition, bat etpeciaUy Ims **Tnlivi$l6am/^ 
1771. t Ant<^iiio Bibl. Hisp.^Moreri.--Dict. Hist, 



• / 



PALAPRAT. 3S 

length to Paris, in which city he chiefly resided from that 
time, and where M. de Vend6me fixed him in his service 
in 1691, as one of his secretaries. He died October 23, 
1721, at Paris, aged 71, leaving some *^ Comedies," and 
a small collection of miscellaneous '' Poem^,*' most of 
them addressed to M. de Venddme. M. Palaprat wrote for 
the stage with his friend Brueis, and their works have been 
collected in five small volumes 12mb, of which his is the' 
least part His style is gay and lively, but he discovers 
little genius or fancy, and he seems to have been indebted 
for his literary reputation to his private character, which 
was that of a man of great candour and simplicity. * 

PALEARIUS (AONlus), an excellent writer in the six- 
teenth century, was' born at Veroli, in the Campagha di 
Roma, and descended of noble and ancient families by 
both his parents/ He wa^ baptised by the name of An- 
thony, which according to the custom of the times, he al- 
tered to the classical form of Aonius. He applied himself 
early to the Greek and Latin languages, in which he made' 
great progress, and then proceeded to philosophy and dl-* 
vinity. The desire he had of knowledge, prompted him* 
to travel through the greatest part of Italy ; and to listen 
to the instructions of the most famous professors in every 
place he visited. His longest residence was at Roine, 
where he continued for six years, till that city was taken 
by Charles V. when the disorders committed by the troops 
of that prince leaving no hopes of enjoying tranquillity, he 
resolved to depart, and retire to Tuscany. He had at this 
time a great inclination to travel into France, Germany, 
and even as far as Greece ; but the narrowness of his for- 
tune would not admit of this. Oh his arrival in Tuscany, 
he chose Sienna for his abode, to which he was induced by 
the pleasantness of the situation, and the sprightliness and 
sagacity of the inhabitants : and accordingly he sold his 
estate at> Veroli, with the determination never to see a place 
aoy morer, where, though he was born, yet he was not be- 
loved. He purchased a country-house in the neighbour- 
hood o( Sienna, called Ceciniano, and pleased himself 
with the fancy of its having formerly belonged to Cecina, 
one of Cicero's clients. Here he proposed to' retire on his 
leisure* days, and accordingly embellished it as much as 
possible* At Sienna he married a young woman, of whom 

« Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

Vol. XXIV. D 



34 P A L E A R t U S. 

he w^; P^sionately fond, and who brought him four chil* 
dren, two boys and two girls. He was also professor of 
polite letters, and had a great number of pupils. 

But his career was disturbed by a quarrel he had with 
one of his colleagues, who was enraged to see his own 
reputation eclipsed by the superior lustre of Palearius. 
We are not told the particular point upon which the con- 
test commenced ; but it is certain that otir professor was 
defended by Peter Aretin, who, perhaps more to revenge 
his own ca^use, or eratify a detracting humour, than from 
any respecffor Palearius, composed, against his envious 
rival, an Italian comedy or farce, which was acted upon 
the stage at Venice; and so poignant was the ridicule, 
that the subject of it thought proper to quit Sienna, and 
retire to Lucca. Hither he was followed some time after^ 
th6ugh with much reluctance, by Palearius, concerning^ 
lyhich we have the following account : Anthony Bellantes, 
a nobleman of Sienna, being ioipeacbed of several mis- 
demeanors, employed Palearius to plead his cause, who 
ixiade so excellent a speech before the senate of that city 
in his defence, that he was acquitted and dismissed ; but, 
the same nobleman having some time after accused certain 
monks of robbing h^ grandmother, employed his advocate 
again to support the charge. The monks accused, making 
qath of their innocence, were cleared by the court, but 
were incensed at the prosecution, and aspersed Palearius 
both in their sermons, and on all other occasions, as an 
impious wretch, unfit to be harboured in a Christian coun- 
try< They also declared him a heretic, because he disap* 
proved several superstitious practices; neither didi they 
approve of the book he had written on the ** Death of 
Christ.'* Palearius, however, defended himself with so 
much strength of reason and eloquence, that the accussi- 
tions were dropped. Yet finding himself still exposed to 
vexatious persecutions, bethought proper to a.ccept of an 
invitation to teach polite literature at Lucca. 
. Although he had here a handsome gratuity, and was 
only to attend his scholars one hour in the twenty*four, 
yet it was entirely owing to the expences of his family that 
he engaged in this employment, which was otherwise irk- 
some to^ini. He passed, however, some years at Lucca, 
before he obtained the pffer of several immunities, and a 
handsome stipend from the magistrates of Milan, where he 
hoped that he was now-settled iii peace for life, but the event 



\ 



, P A L E A R J U S- 35 

.{Proved otherwise. Paul V. who had been a. Dominican 
monk^ coming to the pontificate in 1566, determined to 
show bis bigotry against every thing that had the appear- 
lance of heresy, and therefore ordered the cause of Pa-^. 
learius to . be re-heard. On which Palearius was suddenly 
arrested at Milan, and. carried to Rome, where they found 
^t not difficult' to convict him of having said '^ That the 
German doctors who followed Luther were to be com- 
mended in respect to some points ;< and that the court of 
the inquisition was erected for the destruction of men of 
learning.'^ He was then condemned to be: burnt, which 
sentence was executed the same year, 1566.. He was 
greatly respected by the most eminent scholars of his time, 
such as Bembus, Sadoletus, Sfondratus, Philonardus, car-^ 
dinals ; Benedictus Lampridius, Anthony Flaminius, and 
Andreas Alciatus; besides others, whose names may be 
seen in the catalogue to the last edition of his ^< Letters,^* 
Contaiuing the names of his literary correspondents. - 

He was. the author of several works. In the piece on 
the immort^Llity of the soul, 1. *^ De immortalitate ahim», 
libri tres,^' which: is reckoned his mkster-piece, he esta- 
blishes the doctrine of the souPs immortahty, against Lu- 
cretius ; for. which reiison Daniel Parens annexed it to his 
edition of that poet at Frahcfort, 16S1, ^o. Sadolet be- 
stows high encomiums upon this poem, in a letter to Pa- 
lesprius. It was printed by Gryphius in F5S6, in 1.6mo; 
and is inserted in our author's works. 2. '^ Epistol^rum, 
Uliri 4,!' " Orationum, lib. 3,*? 1552. 3. " Actio in pon- 
tifices Romanos et eorum asseclas, ad imperatorem Rom. 
reges et pcincipes Christians^ reipublicee summos Oecu- 
ipenici concilii prsesides conscripta cum de consilio Tri- 
dentino habeodo deliberaretur." He drew up this piece 
with a design to get it presented by the emperor's agibas- 
sadors Xo the council of Trent. . It is a regular plan in de- 
fence of the. protestants, and was published at Leipsic in 
1606. 4. .^^ Poemata;" these are some poems printed at 
Paris in 1576. His works came out under this title, ^' Aonii 
Palearii opera," Amst. 1696, 8vo. In the preface is given 
s^ pircjum$tantial. account of. the author's life. They were 
reprjiitcsd^ Jens, 1728, 8vo.. There is also a piece extant, 
with the following title : /^Dialogo intitulato il grammatico 
oy^Q delle false Esercitationi, delle scuele (da Aonio Pa«* 
leario)," Perugia, 1717. He also wrote a ^* Discourse upon 
the Passion of 'Christ," in Italian, which is lost ; but the 

D 2 



86 PALEARIUS. 

plan of it is in his ^^ Orations,^* p. 90, 91. In Schelhorn's 
^^: Amcsnitates/' Leipstc, 1737, is ^^ Aonii Palearii ad Lut- 
therum, Calvinum, altosque de concilio Tridentino epis- 
toU ;'' a letter, in which he adrises the . Lutherans and 
Calvinists to unite, as the best means of resisting the at* 
tack made by the council of Trent on both.' ^ 

PALEOTTI (Gabriel), a learned Itoltan ^cardinal^ 
descended from an illustrioos family, was born at Bologna, 
Oct 4, 1524. He was intended for the profession of the 
civil and canoii law, in which some of his family had ac- 
quired fame, and he made great progress in that and other 
studies. His talents very early procured him a canonry of 
Bologna ; after which he was appointed professor of civil 
law, and obtained the title of the new Alciatus from his 
emulating the judgment and taste of that learned writer. 
Some business requiring bis presence at Rome, he was ap- 
pointed by cardinal Alexander Farnese, who had been his 
fellow-student at Bologna, and who was then perpetual 
legate of Avignon, governor of Vaisson, in the county of 
yenaissin, but hearing of the death of his mother, he made 
that a pretence for declining the office, and therefore re- 
turned to his professorship at Bologna. The Farnese family 
were, however, determined to serve him in spite of his 
modesty, and in 1557 obtained for him the post of auditor 
of the rota. When Pope Pius IV. opened the council of 
Trent, Paleotti was made proctor and counsellor to his le-^ 
gates, who, in truth, did nothing of importance without 
his advice. Of this council Paleotti wrote a history, which 
atill remains in MS. and of which Pallavicini is said to have 
availed himself in his history. After this council broke up 
be resumed his functions at Rome, where in 1565 he was; 
liaised to the dignity of the purple by Pius IV. and by 
Pius V. he was created bishop of Bologna, but the see 
upon this occasion was erected into an arcfafadshopric to do 
honour both to Paleotti and his native country. Being a 
conscientious man, he was always so assiduous in the duttetf 
of his diocese, that it was with the greatest reluctance 
the popes summoned him to atteiftd the consistories and 
other business at Rome. He died at Rome, July 23, 1597^ 
a,ged seventy- three. He was author of several vwtkn of 
Qonsiderable merit, on subjects in antiquities, jurispru-^ 
dence, and morals. Of these the most conidderable are 
» .   

* NiceroD, toI. XVI.— G<n. Diet— Moreri» 



PALE O T T I. »7 

the following: ^^Ai^cbiepiscopale Bonnoniense ;^' ^^Deima'* 
ginibus SacriSi et Profanis/' 1582, 4to, io Italian; and in 
Latin, 1594; *^ De Sacri Ccmsistorii Consulutionibus ;^! 
^'DeNotbis, Spuriisque Filiis," FraDcfort,1573, 8vo; ^<D« 
Bono Senectutis ;" Pastoral Letters, 8lc^ 

PALESTRINA (John Peter Loui^, called by Dr. 
Barney tbe Homer of the most ancient music that has been 
preserved, was, as bis name imports, a native of tbe ancient 
Prseneste, now corruptly called Palestrina, and is supposed 
to have been born some time in 1529. All tbe Italian 
writers who have mentioned him, say he was tbe scholar of 
Graodio MelK Flamingo, by which name they have been 
generally understood to mean Claude Goudimel, of whom 
ve have given some account in vol. XVI. ; but this seems 
doubtful, nor is there any account of his life on which 
reliance can be placed. AH that we know with certainty 
is, that about 1555, when he had distinguished himself as 
a composer, he was admitted into the Pope^s chapel, at 
Rome; in 1562^ at the age of thirty-three, he was elected 
maestro di capella of Santa Maria Maggiore, in tbe same 
^ity; in 1571 was honoured with a similar appointment 
at St. Peter's ; and lastly, having brought choral harmony 
to a degree of perfection that has never since been ex« 
ceeded, he died in 1594, at the age of sixty-five. Upon 
his coffin was- this inscription, ^^ Johannes Petrus Aloysius 
Pr^nestinus Musics Princeps.'' 

By the assistance of signor Santarelli, Dr. Burney pro* 
cured at Rome a complete catalogue of all the genuine 
productions of Palestrina, which may be classed in the 
following manner: masses in four, five, and six parts, 
twelve books ; of which lib. i. appeared at Rome in folio, 
1554, when the author was in the twenty-6fth year of his 
age; and in that city only went through tbree several 
editions during his life. - Lib. ii. of his masses, which in<« 
dudes the celebrated composition entitled ^' Missa Papas 
Marcelli,'' was published likewise at Rome, in 1567. Of 
this production it has been related by Antimo Liberati, 
and after him by Adami; Berardi, and other musical wri- 
ters, that the pope and conclave having been offended and 
scandalized at the light and injudicious manner in which 
the mass had been long set and performed, determined to 
banish music in parts entirely from the church ; but that 

1 Moreri.— Undi HisU de la liUeratare D'ltalie, toI. IV.— Diet. Hi«t. 



S8 PALESTRINA. 

Palestrina, at the age of twenty-sixy during the short pon^^ 
tificate of Marcellus CerviouSy' intreated bis holiness to 
suspend the execution of his design till 'he had iheard a 
mass comgpsed in what, according to his id^as, waathe 
true ecclesiastical style. Hi's request being granted, the 
dooipiDsitioh,' in six parts, was performed at Easter 155 5, 
before the pope and college of cardinals, who found it b6 
grave, noble, elegant, learned, and pleasing, that music 
was restored to favour, and again established in the' cele- 
bration of sacred rites. This mass was afterwards printed, 
and dedicated to the successor of Marcellus, pope Paul IV. 
by whom Palestrina was appointed chapel-master. 

The rest of his massies appeared in the following order : 
Lib. iii. Romas per Valerium Doricum, 1570, in folio, Ven* 
1599 ; Lib. iv. Venet. p|er Ang. Gardanum, 1582, quarto ; 
Lib. V. Romie, 1590; Lib. vi. Ven. 1596; Lib. vii. 1594; 
Lib. viii. atfd ix. Ven. 1599 ; Lib. x. and xi. Ven. 16O0t; 
and lib. xii. without date, or name of the printer. Besides 
this regular * order of publication, these masses were re- 
printed in different fprms and collections, during the six« 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, in most of tb6 principal 
cities of Italy. The next division of Palestrina^s works, 
consists of Motets for five, six, seven, and eight voices,^ 
five books, at Rome and Venice, 1569, 1588, 15&9,'1596„ 
and 1601. Motets for four voices, lib. i. Romae, 1590; 
Lw, ii. Venet. 1604- ; Two books of OfFertorij, a 5 and a 6 
voc. Romse, 1593 ; Lamentationi, a 4 yoc. Roms, 1588; 
Hymns for five voices, Ven. 1598 ; Litanie, a 4, Ven. 1600; 
Magniiicat, 8 tomum. Romsei, 1591; Madrigali Spirituali^ 
t^wo books, Rome' and Venice, 1594. 

To the above ample list of the works of this great and 
fertile composer, are to be added ^' La Cantica di Salo^ 
ibone,'' a 5 ; two other books of " Magnificats,*' a 4, 5, 
and 6 voc. One of '^ Lamentationi," a 5 ; sind another jof 
secular Madrigals. These have been printed in miscel- 
laneous publications after the author^s death; and there 
still remain in the papal chapel, inedited, another mass, 
with his ^' Missa Defunc^^orum,^^ and upwards of. twenty 
motets, chiefly for eight voices, a due cori. Nothing more 
interesting remains to be related of Palestrina,: than that 
most of his adtnirable productions still subsist. . Few of his 
admirers are indeed possessed of the first editions, or of 
all his works complete, in printer manuscript ; yet curious 
ajad diligent collectors in Italy can still, with little difficulty]^ 



P A L E S T R I N A. ?§ 

fomish- themselves with a considerable number of. these 
models of counterpoint and ecclesiastical gravity. The 
befst church compositions since his time have been pro- 
vcjrbially called alia Palestrina. ' 

. PA LEY (WiLLiAM)y a very celebrated English divine, 
and one of the most successful writers of his time, was 
born at Peterborough in July 1 743, and was educated by his 
father, . who was the head master of Giggleswick school, in 
Yorkshire, vicar of Helpstone in Northamptonshire, and a 
minor cieinon of Peterborough. In his earliest days he ma- 
nifested a taste for solid knowledge, and a peculiar activity 
of mind. In Nov« 1758 he was admitted a sizar of Christ's 
college, Cambridge, and before he went to reside there 
was taught the mathematics by Mr. William Howarth, a 
master of some eminence at Dishworth, near Rippon. In 
December 1759, soon after be took up his residence in the 
university, he obtained a scholarship, and applied to his 
studies with such diligence as to make a distinguished' 
figure in the public schools, particularly when he took his 
bachelor's degree in 1763. He was afterwards employed 
for about three years as assistant at an academy at Green- 
wich ; in 1765 he obtained the first prize for a prose Latin 
dissertation ; the subject proposed was *^ A comparison 
between the Stoic and Epicurean philosophy, with respect 
to the influence of each on the morals of a people,'* in 
which he took the Epicurean side. 

Having received deacon's orders, he became curate to 
Dr. HincblifFe, then vicar of Greenwich, and afterwards 
bishop of Peterborough ; and when he left the academy 
above-mentioned, continued to officiate in the church. In 
June 1766 he was elected a fellow on the foundation of 
Christ's college, and at the ensuing commencement took 
his degree of M. A. He did' not, however, return to his 
residence in college until Oct. 1767, when he engaged in 
the business of private tuition, which was soon followed by 
bis appointment to the office of one of the college tutors. 
On the 21st of December 1767, he was ordained a priest 
by bishop Terrick, 

The duties of college tutor Mr. Paley discharged with 
uncommon assiduity and zeal ; and the whole of his system 
of tuition, as given by his biographer, appears to have been " 
eminently calculated to render instruction easy, pleasant, 

and of permanent effect. It is somewhat remarkable, that 

.i . . i 

^ Ha«lMDt*s and Baraey's fiigtoriet of Musick. — and Buroey in Reet'iCyclopttd. 



40 PAL E Y. 

T^hile thus employed in improving others, he was laying the 
foundation of his future fame ; for his lectures on moral 
philosophy, and on the Greek Testament, contained the 
outlines of the very popular works which he afterwards 
published. He maintained an intimate acquaintance with 
almost every person of celebrity in the university ; but his 
particular friends were Dr. Waring, and Dr. John Jebb, 
well known for his zeal in religious and political contro- 
yersy, and with whom, in some points, Mr. Paley was 
thought to have coincided more closely than afterwards 
;ippeared to be the case. Even now they could not per- 
suade him to sign the petition for relief in the matter of 
subscription to the thirty-nine articles, although he was" 
prevailed on to contribute to the cause, by an anonymous 
pamphlet, ehtitled " A Defence of the Considerations on 
the propriety of requiring a subscription to Articles of 
Faith," in answer to Dr. Randolph's masterly pamphlet 
against the " Considerations.'* After he had spent about 
ten years as college-tutor, he quitted the university io 
1776, 'and married. His first benefice in the church was 
the rectory of Musgrove, in Westmoreland, worth only 
about eighty pounds a-year, which he obtained in th^ 
month of May 1775, and in December 1776 he was in^ 
ducted into the vicarage of Dalston, in Cumberland ; and 
not long after to the living of Appleby, in Westmoreland, 
worth sibout 300/. per annum. 

In 1776, a new edition of bishop Law's *' Reflections on 
the Life and Character of Christ," originally published ia 
the " Consideration on the Theory of Religion," was given 
in a separate form at Cambridge, for the use of the stu- 
dents. To this treatise some brief " Observations on the 
character and example of Christ" were added, with an 
[** Appendix on the Morality of the Gospel;" both from 
Mr. Paley's pen. From a passage in this little essay it ap- 
pears, that his theory of morals was not then altogether firmly 
fixed on the basis which supports it now. 

While at Appleby, he published a small volume selected 
?rorn the Book of Common Prayer, and the writings of 
some eminent divines, entitled ** The Clergyman's Com- 
panion in visiting the Sick." This useful work at first ap-r 
peared without his name, but it has passed through nine 
editions, and is now printed among his works. In June 
1780, he was collated to the fourth prebendal stall in th^ 
cathedral church of Carlisle, and thus became coadjutor ia 






P A L E Y. 



4^1 



the chapter to his friend Mr. Law, who was now arch*- 
deacon; but in 1782, upon Dr. Law^s being created an 
Irish bishop, Mr. Paley was made archdeacon of the 
diocese, and in 1735, he succeeded Dr. Burn, author 
of "The Justice of Peace," in the chancellorship. For 
these different preferments he was indebted either to th^ 
venerable bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Law, or to the dean and 
chapter of the cathedral church. While his residence was 
divided between Carlisle and Dalston, Mr. Paley engaged 
in the composition of his celebrated work, ^' The Element^ 
of ]VIoral and Political Philosophy ;** but hesitated long ai 
.to tb6 publication, imagining there would be but few 
readers for such a work ; and he was the more determined 
on this point after he had entered on the married state^ 
thinking it a duty that he owed his family to avoid risking 
any extraordinary expense. To remove this last objection. 
Dr. John Law presented a living then in his gift to Mr. Paley^ 
on the promise that he would consider it as a compen8a«» 
tion for the hazard of printing, and he immediately set 
about preparing his work for the press, which appeared 
in 1785, in quarto. Of a work * so generally known an4 
admired, and so extensively circulated, it would be un«^ 
necessary to say much. Although the many editions whiph 
came rapidly from the press stamped no ordinary merit on 
it, yet some of his friends appear to have not been com- 
pletely gratified. They expected, that from his intimacy 
with Jebb, and the latitudinarian party at Cambridge, he 
would have brought forward those sentiments which Jebb 
in vain endeavoured to disseminate while at the university ; 
and they were surprized to find that his reasoning on sub- 
scription to articles of religion, and on the British con- 
stitution, in which he not only disputes the expediency 
of reform in the House of Commons, but vihdicatf^s the 
influence of the crown in that branch of parliament^ wap 
diametrically opposite to their opinions and wishes. 
. When at Dalston, in addition to his ordinary duties, hei 
gave a course of lectures on the New Testament, pn the 



* In this work there are some opi- 
nions equivocally expressed, without 
the characteristic decision which be- 
eomes A public teacher; and the 
foundation of bis system has also been 
thought liable to objection. In 1789, 
Mr. Gisbome published strictures on it, 

3nder the title of " l*be Principles of 
loral Philosophy investigated.*' His 



system was also attacked by Mr. Pear-> 
son, tutor of Sidney college, Cam- 
bridge, in ** Remarks on the Theory 
of Morals," 1800, and *< Annotations 
on the practical part of Df. Paley'a 
Principles of Moral ynd Political Ptii^ 
losophy," 1801. ^11 these desenr* 
the attention of the readen of Paley. , 



42. P A L E Y. 

Sunday afternoons. There i& no part of bis character more 
just]y entitled to respect than the active and zealous db« 
charge of his professional duties, and his ,eyen enlarging 
them, as in thi^ instance, when he thought it would be for 
the ^benefit of his flock. While officiating as examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Carlisle, he caused a new edi* 
tion to be pubjished of CoUyer's " Sacred Interpreter," 
a work which he recommended to candidates for deacon's 
orders. In 1788, he joined to his other meritorious la- 
bours, an effort in favour of the abolition of the slave 
trade, and corresponded with Mr. Glarkson and the com* 
nittee whose endeavours have been since crowned with 
success. 

On the death of the venerable bis|iop of Carlisle in 1787^ 
Mr. Paley drew up- a short memoir of him. (See Lawj 
£dmukd). His next work places him in a high rank among 
the advocated for the truth and authenticity of the Christian 
Scriptures. It is enthled " Horse Paulinae ; or, the Truth of 
the Scripture History of St. Paul evinced, by a comparisoii 
of the Epistles which bear his name with the Acts of the 
Apostles, and with one another," which he dedicated to 
bis friend Dr. John Law, at that time bishop of Killala. 
The principal object of this work is to shew, that by a com- 
parison of several indirect allusions and references in the 
Acts and Epistles, independently of all collateral testimony^ 
their undesigned coincidence affords the strongest proof oif 
their genuineness, and of the reality of *^e transactions to 
which they relate. . Instead of requiring the truth of any 

£ art of -the apostolic history to be taken for granted, he 
.'aves the reader at liberty to suppose the writings to have 
been lately discovered, and to have come to our hands des* 
titute of any extrinsic or collateral evidence whatever. The 
design was original, and the execution admirable. Soon 
after ^ he compiled a small work, entitled ^^ The Young 
Christian instructed in Reading, and the Principles of Re« 
Ugion.'' ' This having brought upon him a charge of pla- 
giarism, be defended himself in a good-humoured letter 
in the Gentleman^s Magazine. Previously to the appear- 
ance of these work$ he was offered by Dr. Yorke, bishop o( 
Ely, the mastership of Jesus college, Canobridge, which, 
after due deliberation, he declined. In May 1792, he was 
instituted to the vicarage of .Addingham, near Great SaU 
keldy on the presentation of the dean and chapter of Car* 
lisle. During the {political ferment excited b^ the French 



P A L B Y. 4» 

fevolatibhy be published *^ Reasons for Contentment, ad- 
dressed to the labouring classes,'^ ^^^ ^^^ chapter in bis 
"Moral Philosophy," on the British Constitution. In 1793, 
he vacated Dalston, on being collated by the/bishop of Car- 
lisle (Dr. Vernon) to the vicarage of Stanwix. His bio- 
grapher informs us that, "being afterwards asked, by a 
clerical friend, why he quitted Dalston, he answered with 
afrankness pecnliar to him, for he knew no deceit, * Why, 
Sir, I bad two or three reasons for taking Stanwix in ex-' 
change : first, it saved 'me double house-keeping, as Stan- 
wix was within a twenty minutes walk of 'my house in Car- 
lisle : secondly, it was fifty pounds a-year more in value r 
and, thirdly, I began to find my stock of sermons coming 
over ag^in too fast'." 

In 1794, he published " A View of the Evidences of 
Christianity, in three parts: L Of the direct historical 
Evidence of Christianity, and wherein it is distinguished 
from 'the Evidence alleged for other Miracles. II. Of the 
Auxiliary Evidences of Christianity ; and, I'll. A brief 
Conitideration of some popular Objections." This work 
was first published in three volumes, 12mo, but in a few 
months it was republished in two volumes, 8vo, and has* 
been continued in this form through many successive edi*' 
tions. It is perhaps thie most complete summary of the 
evidences of our holy religion that has ever appeared. In 
August of the same year the bishop of London, Dr. Por- 
teus, instituted him to the prebend of St. Pancras, in feh^ 
Cathedral of St. PauPs,< and in a very short time* he was 
promoted to the subdeanery of Lincoln, a preferment of 
700/. per stpnum, by 'Dr. Pretyman, bishop of that dio- 
cese. ^ In January 1795, be proceeded to Cambridge to 
take his degree of D. D. ; and before be left that place, 
he was surprized by a letter from the bishop of Durham, 
Dr.Barringtbn, with whom he had not the smallest acquaint- 
ance, offering him the valuable rectory of Bishop- Wear** 
mouth, estimated at twelve hundred pounds a-year; When 
he waited otk his new patron to express his' gratitude, his 
lordship instantly interrupted his acknowledgments : '* Not 
a word," said he, ** you cannot have greater pleasure in 
accepting the living' of Bishop-Wearmouth, than I have in 
offering it to you." After reading himsetf in, as a pre- 
bendary, at St. Paul's cathedral, March 8th, Dr. Paley, for he 
noi^ assumed that title, imniediately proceeded to Bishop- 
Wearmouth, took possession bf his valuable cure, and then 



44 PA LEY. 

returned to Cambridge against the commencement, t^ 
cpmplete the Doctor's degree, and on Sunday July Sth, 
j)reac^ed before the university his sermon ** On the dan- 
gers incidental to the Clerical character.*' He now re- 
signed the prebend of Carlisle, and the living of Stanwix, 
and divided his residence principally between Lincoln and 
Bishop- Wearmouth, spending his summers at the latter^ 
tod bis winters at the former of those places. He next un* 
dertook the composition of his last work, entitled *' Natu-; 
xal Theology ; or Evidences of the Existence and Attri-t 
hutes of the Deity, collected from the appearances of Na- 
ture." In this he proceeded very slowly, and was much in- 
terrupted by ill-health ; but the work was published in 
the summer of 1802. It was dedicated to the bishop of 
Durham, for the purpose of making the most acceptable 
return he was able for a great and important benefit con- 
ferred upon him. In this work he has traced the marks of 
wi$dom and design in v^irious parts of the creation ; but. 
l^as dwelt principally on those which may be discovered in 
t\ip constitution of the human body. It is replete with in- 
struction, and from its style and manner peculiarly calcu-* 
l^ted to fix the reader's attention. 

In 1804, Dn Paley's health was much upon the decline, 
and having experieiiqed a severe attack in May 1805, it 
was evident that the powers of nature were exhausted, and 
medicine of no avail. He died on the 25th, under the ac- 
cumulated influence of debility and disease, and was in- 
terred in the cathedral of Carlisle by the side of his first 
wife, by whom he had eight children, viz. four sons and 
four daughters. His second wife survived him. Since his 
<^th a volMme of his ^^ Sermons" has been published, and 
received by the public with nearly the same avidity as bis 
other work^. 

la private life, Dr. Paley is said to have had nothing 
of the philosopher. He entered into little amusements 
with a degree of ardour which formed a singular con- 
tjBSt with the superiority of his mind. He was fond of 
cpnipany, which he had extraordinary powers of eiuer- 
tfiining ; nor was he at any time more happy, than wheq- 
qommunicating,the pleasure he co.uld give by exerting bis. 
tdlepts of wit s^nd humour. No man was ever more be- 
Ipyed by his particular friends, or returned their ^fFectjoii 
with greater sincerity and ardour. That such a man^^ and^ 
fifich a writer, should 09t have been promoted to the bencb 



P A L E Y. 4S 

» 

of bislao^s^ has been considered as not very creditable to 
the times in which we live. It is generally understood 
that Mr. Pitt recommended him to bis majesty some years 
ago for a vacant bishopric, and that an Opposition waj 
made from a very high quarter of the church, which ren* 
dered the recommendation ineffectual. If this be true, it 
is a striking proof of Mr. Pitt's Kberality ; for, according 
to his biographer, Dr« Paley frequently indi'ilg^d in sar- 
castic and disrespectful notice of that celebrated staites-^ 
man. What truth may be in this, or what justice in the 
complaints of his friends, we shall not inquire, jfudging^ 
from his writings, we should be inclined to regret, witK 
them, that he had not higher preferment; but, (iontem* 
plating his character, as given in the " Memoirs of Wil- 
liam Paiey, D. D. by George Wilson Meadltey,*' we mustf 
rather wonder .that he had so much. It will, hovv^ever^ be 
universally acknowledged, that no author ever Wrote moM 
pleasingly on the subjects he has treated than Dr.* Pal^y. 
The force and terseness of his expressions kr6 ndt less' 
admirable than the strength of his conceptions ; antt there 
is both in his language and his notions a peculiarity of man- 
ner^ stamped by the vigour of his mind, which will per"- 
petuate the reputation of his works.* 

PALFIN (John), a surgeon of eminence, was Bbrh ar 
Ghent in Flanders in 1649; and, being m^de anatotnist 
and reader in surgery in that city, was much distitigiiished 
liy his lectbres as well as practice, and wrote upon several 
subjects with learning and judgment. He died at Ohent^ 
about eighty years old, in 1730. He paid various visits 
to London, Paris, and Leyden, where he formed an ac- 
quaintance with' the most eminent surgeon's of his time^* 
profited by their discoveries, and was himself the inventor 
of some instruments. His first publication was a ^' Systeni 
of Osteology,'* in Flemish, which be afterwards translated 
into French, and which was often reprinted. In 1708,' he 
published his *^ Description Anatomique des Parties de la . 
Femme qui servent a la Generation,'* together with Li- 
cetus' treatise on monsters, and a description of one bora 
at Ghent in 1703. In 1710, he printed his ^^Anatomie 
Cbirurgicale, ou description exacte des Parties du Corps 
humaih, avec des remarques utiles aux^ Chirurgiens dans 

« Uf^ by Meadley.— 6«at. Ma;, vol. hVlh LVIII. LXII. LXXV. aad 
LXXVL «6C. , 



46 I? A L F 1*1. 

la pratique 6e leur art,** in French; and in 1718;; fe* 
printed it in Flemish. It was regarded as a vaiaabte work, 
anjd was republished after bis death, in Franpe, It$ily, and 
Germany. Palfin also translated the treatise . of Anthony 
Petit on .'< Diseases of the Eyes," into Flemish, adding 
several other tracts on the same subject. ' 

PALINGENIUS (Marcellus), an Italian poet, who 
fioorished in the sixteenth century, was born at Stellada^ 
in Ferrara, upon the bank of the Po. We are told by 
$ome, that his true name was Pietro Angelo Manzolij, of 
which " Marcello Palingenio" is the anagram *. He is 
chiefly known by his ^' Zodiacus Vitae," a poem in twelve 
books, dedicated to Hercules II. of Este, duke of Feirara.,' 
Some say he was physician to that prince, but this will ad- 
mit of a doubt; at least it is certain be was not so when he 
wrote the dedication to bis *^ Zodiac." This poem, oiv 
which he had en^ployed several, years, brought hi.m into 
trouble, as it contained many sarcastic atti^cks on mqnka 
and church-abuses ; and his name therefore appears in the 
5^ Index librorum prohibitorum," as a Lutheran heretic of 
the first class, and as an impious author. It is thought, he; 
<;arries too far the objections of libertines 4nd scoffers at 
religion ; otherwise his work is interspersed with judicious- 
maxima, and some have considered it as a truly philo$o- 
phical satire against immorality and prejudice. In the 
close of the dedication^ he declares himself a good catholic, 
so far as to submit all bis opinions to the censure of the 
church ; and this declaration might perhaps have secured 
hjm against the inquisition, had the affair related only la 
some, particular tenet; but it could not acquit him of that 
impiety, which Palingenius was, not without reason^ sus« 
pected to teach. . In his third book, for instance, he in- 
eulcates Jthe doctrine of Epicurus without the least reserve. 
He. published this book in 1536, and again at Basil, ia 
1537 t/ and seems not to have lived long after that date*.^ 
Qyraldus, who wrote about 1543, relates, that, after bis 
burial, his body was ordered to be dug up, in order to be 

* Perhaps Palingenius is not Ibe a French translation, by M. de la Moti- 

name of his facniiy, but that name nerie, was printed in Holland in 1731 j; 

turned into, Greek, according to the. and again with notes in 1733. An 

custom of those times, , imitation of it was written by Barthiusa, 

•f It wag also published under this and entitled, <* Zodiacus viti» Chrifti^ ' 

title, ** Palingenii Marcelii Zodiacus anae," fce. Francf. 1623, 8vo, and anOk^ 

Tjt« emendattts et aactus, Rott. 1 722 ;V ther in, French by M. de RiTiere* 

^ Moreri.— Eloy. Diet. Hist, de Medicine. 



P A L I N G E N I U S. 47 

fahurnt ;, which execution was prevented by the dtichest of 
Ferrara, who, it is thought, had received him at her court 
among the Lutherans. ' 

PALISSY (Bernard de), an ingenious artist, was bora 
at Agen in France, about 1524. He was brought up as a 
common labourer, and was also employed in surveying* 
Though destitute of education, he was a very accurate ob« 
server of nature ; and in the course of his surveys, v he con<- 
ceived the notion that France had been formerly covered 
by the sea^ and propagated his opinion at Paris, against a 
ho$t of opponents, with the greatest boldniess. It was con- 
sidered as a species of heresy. For several years after, he 
employed himself in trying different experiments, in order 
to discover the methpd of painting in enamel* But some 
person presenting him with a beautiful cup of that kind of 
stone-ware called by the French faience^ because it was 
first manufactured in a city of Italy called Faenz^^ the 
' sight of this cup inflamed him with an insurmouatable de- 
sire to discover the method of applying enamel to stone- 
ware. At this time he was ignorant of even the first rudi- 
ments of the art of pottery, nor was there any person withia 
his reach from whom he could procure information. His 
experiments were, therefore, unsuccessful, and he wasted 
his whole fortune,' and even injured his health, without 
gaining his object Still he gave it up only for a time, 
and when a few years of industry and frugality had put it 
in his power, he returned to bis project with more ardour 
than ever. The same fatigues, the same sacrifices, the 
same expences were incurred a second time, but the re« 
suit was different. He discovered, one after another, the 
whole serie9 of operations, and ascertained the method of 
applying enamel to stone-ware, and of niaking earthen* 
ware superior to the best . of the Italian manufacture. He 
was now treated with respect, and considered as a man of < 
genius. The court of France took him under its protect 
tion, and enabled him to establish a manufactdry, where 
the manufacture of the species of stone-ware which he had. 
invented was brought to a state of perfection. The only 
i)Dprovement which was made upon it afterwards in France, 
was the application of different colours upon the enamel,, 
and imitating the paintings which had been executed long 
before on porcelain vessels* This improvement scarcely 

- ^ Qen. Dict-^Moreri. . 



48 P A L I S S Y. 

I 

dates farther back than thirty or forty years. It was first 
put in practice by Joseph Hanon, a native of Strasbourg, 
and was suggested by a German, who sold to Hanon the 
method of composing the colours applied upon the por- 
celain of Saxony. These vessels were soon after super- 
sededby the Qxieeri*s wdre of the cdebrated Wedgewood, 
Mrhich both in cheapness, beauty, and elegance of form, 
far surpassed any thing of the kind that had appeared in'* 
Europe. 

' After Palissy had thus succeeded in his favourite object,' 
he pursued the science of chjemistry, and applied hiskndw*^ 
Icidge to the improvement of agriculture. * He was the first.' 
person who formed a collection of natural history at Paris,* 
upon which he gave lectures at the rate of half a crown' 
each person, a hrge sum for that period, but he eriterefl '. 
into an obligation to return the money four-fold,' provided' 
it vrete found that he taught any thing that proved false.' 
In Ii?6^3 he printed at Rochelle " Recepte veriliable par' 
I&quelfe tons les hommes de la France pourrbnt apprendre 
a augmenter leur tresors,'' &c. which, after hiil dejgitB," 
v^as reprinted under the title of **^Moyen de devenir riche,'*' 
iti i vols. 8vo. In 1:580 he published " Discours admira- 
ble de la Nature des Eaux, et'Fontaines, de Metaux, des' 
Sols, des Saline, des Pierres, des Terres," &c. This work ' 
was exceedingly valuable in the then existing state bf 
koowliedge, and in it he first taught the true theory of , 
springs, and asserted that fossil-shells were real sea- shells 
deposited by the v^aters of the ocean. He also pointed out 
the u^e of marie a'nd of lime in agricultui'e. 

Palissy is supposed to have died about 1590 : he^was of 
tbfe protestant Religion, and was sometimes threatened on 
that'account. His reply to Henry the flld. deserves to be 
commemorated. " If," says the king, " you do not change* 
yobV reWgiorty I shall be compelled to give you lip to the' 
power of your enemies.'* ^* Sire," said Pal issy, ** yoii» 
have often said that you pitied me, but I must now pStyT 
yoii, for your expression of ^ I shall be compelled f giVe^ 
me leave tp tell yotir majesty, that it is not in youf powei^* ' 
to compel a potter to bend bis knee before the images^ 
which he fabricates.'* His memory 'is still respected ' iti' ' 
, France', and a complete edition of his works, with a life,* 
vvay published at Paris' in 1777, by Fadjas de St. FoT)d,'#tor.*' 

} Moreri.— Diet Hiit.— Baldwin's Literary Jouroa), vol. I. • 



P A L L A D I N 0. 

PALLADINO (James)^ known aim by tb6 hwie of 
James de Teramo^ from the city where he was .born in 
1449, chose the ecclemastical . profession, was sucoes* 
sively archbishop of Tareuto, Florence, and Spoletto, had 
the administration of the duchy for pope Alexander Y. and 
lohn XXIII. and was sent as legate into Poland in 14 17, 
vriier^ he died the same year. He wrote some forgotten 
works eniunerated by Marchand, bat is most known by bis 
xeligioiis romance, entitled ^^ J. de Teramo compendium 
perbreve, consolatio Peccatorum nuncupatum, et apud non- 
pnllos Belial Tooitatuns i id est, . Processus Luciferi contra 
Jesum,*' Attsb. 1479, fol. but it seems doubtful whether 
the first edition is not in German, and published without a 
date. Mr. Dibdin has amply described both in the ^ Bib- 
Uotheca Spenceriaoa,V and Marchand has discussed the 
history of the work at great l^igth. It was . reprinted se« 
▼eral times since io the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
and in a'colleclioa entitled. *' Processus juris joco'^serii," 
Hanovis, 1611, 8vo, which contains likewise ^^ the Pro- 
cess of Satan against the Virgin," . by Barthole, and ^^ Les 
Arr^ d' Amour.'* Peter Farget, an Augustine, has trans* 
lated ^< Belial's triar* into French, Lyo^ns, 14S5, 4to, printed 
often since, in the saine form. It has also been .published 
■nder the name of James d'Aooharano; and has i^^onsi 
ferm or other been translated into most of .the European 
langiniges. ^ 

PALLADIO (AMZ>a£W),. a celebrated Italian architect^ 
ia» born in 15 IS at Vicenza in Lombardy. As soon as he 
had learned the principles of art from Trissino, the cele- 
brated poet, who was his townsman, he went to Hornet 
wnd applying himseif with gp^at diligence to study the an* 
dent monameats, h^ entered.intothe spirit of their. arcbi- 
tMts, and formed his taste upoa tihem* On bis return he 
was employed^ construct various edifices, and obiaiped 
great reputatioQ tbMMigheut Italy, which abounds in nuinu- 
qients of his dull^ particulsurJy the palace Foscari, at Ve- 
nice, and tbe Olypipic theatre at Vicenza, where he died 
io 1580. He excelled likewise in the theory of his art, 
«L appears by his publications, which are still in the highest 
mpntation. .His ^rst was bis treatise oa arobsteetare, << I 
qaattfo libri deli' Arcbitettara,'* Venice, 1570.. This haa 
been often reprinted, and our country has the merit of a 

< Mardiuid.— L'Avocat't Diet. Hiit'-BiM. Spcneerimnt, irel. HI.?; .Hl->-3. 

Vot. XXIV. E 



4» . 1>;A'L*L/AT)II O.i 

irery splendid edittbn, published at Lonfdoti in* fTVS'ji. in 

iKnglisby Italian, and French, 2 or 3 vol^., faL . Tbis^ ediW 

tion, published by Leotfi, is enriched with .the most.Valoi- 

able of the notes which Inigo Jones wrote on bis copy of 

the original, now in the library of Worcester college^ Ox-i 

i^ord. A French edition of the.Landoo one was publisbed 

by Nic. da Bois, at the Hague in^ 1726, 2 voh. fol. ; andrin 

1740, one oiuch enlarge in Italian and Freacby at Veaicei' 

i5 vols, foh This 'bos been mone recently followed by 

Scaniozzi's fine edition in Italian and French, printed ait 

Vicenza, 1776^—83, 4 vok. fol. In 1730, our countryman^ 

lord Burlington, printed an elegant work, entitled ^^ Fa-»% 

briche anticbe designate da Andrea Palladio, e dale iaWe 

da Riceardo Conte de Burli^gton,.'^ foL This colleciiaib 

of Palladio's designs is very scarce, as > the noble editor 

printed only a liiaited nnmber of copies for hiis frieudki 

Palladio also composed a small work, entitled ,^^ Le Antiv 

cbita di Roma," not printed till after bis death;' He a)ius*< 

trated CsDsar^s ^^Commentaries,"' by annexinig to.BadelHIa 

translation pf that work, ^ prefafce on the military systeoii 

of the Romans, with copper-plates, designed, for the most 

|>art, by bis t^vo sonsy Leooida and Qrazio, who bpth diedi 

soon aften Palladio Was modest in regard to bis owii> 

merits but be was the friend to all jnen of talents.^ hiy 

memory is bigUy faonoui^ed ^by the votaries of the finer 

arts.^ and the simplicity and purity of bis taste 'have gi.veE^ 

bim the appelliitiiob of the Raphael of architects. * . ' . i 

:■ PA LLA Dies, bishop of Helenopolis inBitbynia, aiifdr 

afterwards x>fAspona^ waa.by.uationa Galatia;n^ and bom* 

^bout the year. 368 at Gappadoeia. He. became an ao«) 

cboret in tbe mountain of Nebriarin the year. 388, and. was 

made a.bisfaop in the year 4<aL. This prelate was a steady » 

friend to St, John Chryso^tom, whom be neirer forsooki 

during the tiiQe of bis persecution, nor even in bis.£xiie«r 

Ue went to Rome, sometime after the deatl^of that saint }' 

at)d at tbe request, of Lausus, governor of Cappadocia^i 

«;€Mnposed the history of the Anohorets, or* Herioits, ,ancb 

^titled it ^^ Laitsiaca,'? after the name of fthat lord^.ttx 

whom he tdedicated it in tbe year4209 w.ben it was ivritt^n^ 

being tben. id the 20tb year of bis episcopacy, and>53dpfT 

his age. Paliadius was 'aCQused of being aa Origentstjt 

i' . '  '• .  ' ' ' ' ' - 

1 tandi Hist. Litt dMtalle, vol. IV.— Hutton's Pkt.'-Dicti HisU^Reet't' 
^^c]ope!dia.-^Bruaet*s Manuel (la Libraire. '.,.,.' -,.. ' ■■- '■ 



I 



PALLAbltJi. it 

t>4cause he ctoes not sp^ak very farburably of St. Jerome^ 
lind was intimaitely connected • with Ruffinud $ but pertfaps 
no good proof can be drawn thence of his Origenism. He 
isad been the disciple of Evagrias of Pontud, and was even 
suspected to adhere to the sentiments of Pelagius. He 
died in the' fifth centtiry^ but what year is- not known; 
His *< History" was published ill Greek by Meursiiis, at 
Amsterdam/ in 1619, aiid in Latin in the '^ Bibliotheca 
Patrum t'V but he seems not to have beeii the writer of the 
'^ Life of St. John Chrysostom, in Greek and Latin^ by 
M» Bigot/' printed in 168a. ^ 

PALLAS (Peter Simon), a ceiebrated naturalist, th^ 
son of Simon Pallas, professor of surgery at Berlin, was 
b^m in that city, Sept. 22, 1741,. and educated at first 
under private tuto^, who spokewith astonishment of the 
progress he made. . So early as the fifteenth year of hi^ 
age, he entered upon a course of lectures on medicine and 
the branches connected with it ; and two years afterwards 
was enabled to read a course of public lectures on anatomy. 
Yet while thus occupied in his professional labours, he^ 
found leisure to prosecute the study of insects, and other 
classes of zoology, for which he seems to have very early 
conceived a predilection, and in which he particularly ex« 
ceiled. In the autumn of 175S he went to the university 
of Halle, and in 1759 to Gottingen; and during his resi« 
dence.at the letter, among other ingenious researches, hit 
attention was drawn to the worms w^ich breed in the in«^ 
festines. This produced a treatise entitled <^ De itifesti^ 
Viventibus intra vivientia,'' in which he has with sihgdiar 
Accuracy described thdae wbtnls which are found in th^ 
human body, 

lit July 1760 he went to Leyden, and studied under Al^ 
binus, Gaubius, and Miisehenbroeck ; and in Decetbbef^ 
took his 'doctoir^s degree, on which occasion his inaugural 
dissertation had for its sxibject his dissertation on worms; 
with new experiments; During his stay at Leyden, hatti'i 
ml ^istorry became his predbmifnant passion.^ H« employed 
all the time^ he could steal from his professional studies in' 
lisitrng'the -public and private eabtnets of natural history,^ 
with which Leyden abounded, and was particularly charmed 
with the collection of Gronovius, which h^ repeatedly exa^* 

. • . L . ( 

 ^ Depiik— Moreri.— Lardoer's Works^-r-Ca^e, vol* I«-^Saxii Onojnaat nhen 
are atbrnn of th« Qan^, 

« 2 



IS PALLAS^ 

a^:rived at London, is July 1761, Th^ pni^^pai ipteniibn 
jof: bis journey tp f^PglaQd was to improvf his I^DpwIfKigf ifl 
i^edi^ii^p and surgeiyt and to inspect t|^e ho6|>!iutls> Uit 
was noiy, hofifever, ^O n]^ucb.ahsofb^d ii^ hiBp^^^ipq tojr n^r 
tural b^is^ory, that be neglected eyery other pmnsuit, ^tid 
gav^ hin(iself taul}y Mp to this favourite branch of loieqcj?* 
At this jiiitckuret b^ zeal was so ardent» fbat i^fte^ having 
pafsfi^d the ^ay in cuf iously ^xMoining the vsMrious cpUecf 
(\oi)s ID iia^r^l bistPTyt ^^>^ pisrusiQ^g t\k^ principal books 
he could procure on that subject* he vfould frequently emf 
plqy tb^ greater part of tbf niglitf &H<1 qcc^ionaJly eten 
ivt^ple nights together) wtienever he iBet with neyr pubii? 
Rations tba^ either awakened his cMriosity of int^epted fai^ 
rese^cbiBs. With a vi^w : oC €ixt0nding ^is: infprfttatioci in 
|bis departjment) be took sev^rfl Journeys to the 9e<t-coast^ 
fnd particularly in Sussex* 

Being at length sqi^dpqned by his fatbef to, ri^tu^m to 
Berlii^ be quitted London lyitb reigret jq t^ iMiisr end of 
April 1762, and repaired to Harwich ii| or^er to ^mWI: 
for Hqll^d. Peingtb^re fortuua^elj detauiod 9000 day» 
by cpcv^^ry. winds^ b^ embraced \h§x opportiiQJty of e%$^ 
oijnipg the spa-cpaft, fi^d collecting a yarifity of ttiArino 
productions. Qp the 13th pf ^^y i^ ^pd«4 w H(4lii;Dd^ 
smdp^ssiag throflgb th^.%g<Wt lijdw, ^n4 Aqs^r(i»Qi^ 
l|^e CQutiou^ bis route thiroiigh the Circlei <9f Wiestphftlif^ 
aud arriv^ at BMin o;i the i^th pf Jiuiif^ 
; Previously* to, h|^ comoifncipg pr^^fotic^^ ^ father Wit 
faim to HaaiQver for ^bo pHrpQ^ of prop^ri^g tho. p9»% Of 
surgeon ia the allied ^TfPJi but ^ uppif b<f ^rrital in tb#l 
city, in the month of July, peace was on the point x>f being 
conciudied, 1^ rciiurnfd 40 %r{i9tt !vb^e he pa^edvCI. y^ar, 
chiefly in preparing m^t^risAf^.^of § f^C^aunA lQ$^cta(uM 
Marchica," or «i descriptiop pf tbe insects 19 tbei9ftrcb<)|f 
Braiid^n^urg. Having at length pr/sva^lod upop his fath^ 
to let biflot settle in ^loll^nd;, be took pp bis r«sidoni^at thf» 
^%ue, and his reputatiop a^ a pian oJP science wa^, by* 
thi; timet &o well established) that b^ iya9> the ^apie yntp 
elected fellow of thp Royal iSocioty pf Loodoo ; atid in the 
. following ye^r ipeaiber of the Acad^piie d^ Cprieuo^df^ la 
iKature ; to both of which soci^ti(^s ho bad previously aetit 
▼ery interesting and ingenious papers. 
' The intimacy be now «ontra6ted with the most celebrated 
naturalists in Holland^ and particularly with "those oflLfie 



r A L L A a M 

tiagii«, Wbb'had jbst 4>egoft b forth « lilii^ftfy so&ietjr ^'ibcj 
fre^ ac(^5» ^bhsh he hitd to tte uvuifeiibi of ihe pririob 6f 
Ofiitfge, sind dftbe'r cUrioui esbinetf ; the systetnatie cata-I 
loguesDf thOfit cblhieiiMs'ifait be Hew tip, and sbreral of 
which bl$ gat^e ltd dlb pubiki; coit^ihiited td 4Hrahce hib 

of the g&te^ Irtfd enabled him to colleot web inat»riais i^ 
pLT^ h'mh tt> fifbie aMbFa«e eobi^ositiotia 4n ^cologyn 
which httt^ d6sbrtediyd)ftitfg|bhhed bim^s the fihst zoold^ 
gist of £tiW)3^« OM' o)F bis «i^li(Mt works 'in Ibis bratH^b of 
Sbiett^e, which Hindered -him emimntly b(if»picQ0<i;i3, w«i 
hii ** EkMhtii fiS<tt)i^by|[otiiti^." U a dedication piMiod 
to bii ^< MisC^Uatiea fiootogkm/* pubibihed iii tbe «amb 
^ear, tta6 ttbthdf }aj^s befc^rbtbb pritide of Orange a plan 
for d vdyage t6 fbe Cap^ of Qood ilope, tod to the other 
Doteb aettiedients in the Eb'^t Indies^ and which, impelled 
by his Wonted ard^oir fer seil^iitiiic knowtedge, lie'ofFered 
to undertake and inperintend. Ttiils prcgeet was strongtj 
Fecdmflieiided by Gaubips, > and approy^ by dib prmce } 
but wad pirevented from bein^ earned into esiiccilioh bjt 
the authop^i father ; Who not otHy refuted his consent td 
hvi taking ^tich a'disiatit eKpeditioni but even recalled bhit 
to Berlin : in i^bedlefi<d^ ko bis fittfaer-s wisbes, but witb 
great rehelsanc^, he qtfhted Hollahd in Noveniber 1^66. 

On his rbtniiii^e Sertiii (^BODtiimes Mr. Coxb, from whose 
ingenro^ tap^^U tbeise pariioolars ai^ ettti^od), bis only 
couMiatiw in being separaited from bis ^iefada in Holland, 
and in baftiAg Idst so niAny oppdrtunities nf improving him- 
setif in natural biitefy^ consisted in paKing into order ibw 
numerous materials be bad collected^ and the obteri^ationa 
be was ineediahtlj^ rit^akingj aod ih giving tbbm to the pnb- 
Ke. He bad, l^everi fcabrcely begun to poblfish bfi» 
<' Spicilegia Zoologica/' before he was intited by tbe^m^- 
press Oai:barine tt. to accept of tbe profeasc/rship of natural 
history in the Imperial Academy of Seteneea 'at Si. Peters*: 
burghl Although in thtl instance his fa^hfer |ind relatione 
again refused their assent ; yet ibe au%6f*s ardent ze^l f^r 
bifi favourite sdien^ee, jbinefd to an irresistible desire to visit 
regions so littteeitplorefd, indueedbi^^ without a niomeiitfi 
ttestutibn, to aicoede to the invitatioh, and to hasten his de-^' 
partare fo^ a Country v^bere bis ouriority was so likely tta 
be amply gratified. H^ accordingly quitted Berlin iii June 
i[76ty and arrived at Pe'teisbnt^giontike loth bf Aogust. 

taade^hid ^p<ea#an«ii amoug tb^ Raasiafis at a drittcal 



M P A L L A % 

period. The empress had already brder^ the Academfjf 
of Sciences to send astronomers into varioiis parts of the 
Russian empire, to observe the transit of Venus over tbo 
^un-s disk in 1769. Being* just returned ffom a voyage 
4lown the Volga, and from visiting the interior provinces 
of European Russia, she bad perceived the deficiencies of 
ihe topographical and geographical accounts, and antici-* 
pated the advantage of deputing- learned and skilful men to 
visit the distant provinces of her extensive dominions. For 
this purpose Catharine had directed the academy to send^ 
jn company with the astronomers, the most s^ble naturalists 
and philosophers. Pallas instantly offered to accompany 
this expedition; and was as /eagerly accepted. He^ was 
immediately charged with drawing put general instructions 
for the naturalists,, and wias gratified with the choice of hia 
associates. To him.was submitted, at hjis own request, tb^ 
conduct of the expedition to the east of the^ Volga, and to-< 
wards the extreme parts of Siberia ; and be was the most 
calculated for tliat expedition, . as the elder Gmelin, who 
bad been bis precursor in those regions, bad almqst en^ 
tirely neglected the zoology of r those remote . districts. 
Pallas employed the winter previous to his departure in 
fiH'ming a systematic catalogue of the animals in the cabi-^ 
net of the Academy of Sciences ; in putting into order the 
celebrated collection of professor Breyn of Dantzic, latiely 
purchased by prince Orlof; in preparing for the press six 
numbers of his '^ Spicilegia Zoologica,'- which were printed 
during his absence, under the direction of Dr. Martin ; and 
in forming the necessary arrangements and notices for bi& 
intended, expedition. 

At lengthy in June 1768, he quitted Petersburg, itt 
company with Messrs. Falk, Lepekin, and Guldenstadt, as 
bis associates ; passed through Moscow, Vlodimir, Kasi-^ 
mof, Murom, Arsamas, to Casan ; and having examined 
great part of that province, wintered at Simbirsk. From 
thence he departed, in March of the following year ; and 
penetrated through Samara and Orenburg, as farasGurief, 
)a small Russian fortress, situated at the mouth of the river 
Yaik or Ural. There he examined the confines of Kalmuo 
Tartary, and the neighbouring shores of the Caspian, and 
xeturning through the province of Orenburg^ passed the 
second winter at Ufa. After several expeditions in the ad<r 
jaceqt parts of that province, be left Ufa on the I6tb of 
May 1770; prosecuted hia route ibroogb the Uralian 



9 K tL t A S. #« 

ivbiinitm8.'to'C^tban«(e^b«K^b; \i3]t^d'lhtf tfiines of \hat 
jdistrict; ':pi^oc^dedtb'Teb4Uabihik^ a small fohressin the 
goirernment of Ontubnrg* ; and in Deeember made itii ex-^ 
cuYsion M far-as Tobolsk. The nextj^ear he^was employed 
in traTttrsing the Altai mouolains, and in tracing tbe course 
«f/tbeIftisbtip'toOinskand Koly van f where having in'^ 
apected the ceiobtaiced' siltKer raines^ b^- made for Tomsk^ 
and finished tkac yeav'scfsptiditioti^a); t^rdsnoyarsk/ a tfowii 
upon tbe¥enisei< ^In^'thstt place^ Mtuated only in 56"* nortH 
latitude^ the ooldwas.^ tnt^ns^,* that the learned prbfessoi^ 
WAS ^Mficness to tbe natural freezing iof '(jiiteksilver ; whicii 
0ui»obs f>h4nofliiehoni;be has ^mtnotely' described. Froiri 
Krasnoyarsk be liaiied> On tbe 7tb of Marcb^ i772 ;^ afnd 
proceed«d ^by Irkutsk^ And aaroissr the lake Baikal/ td 
Udinsk^ Selenginsk^ arMi.KiaktayMvfaere the trade between 
iltiS9ia.and China' is^piinoipally carried on.^ ' Having pen^^ 
tcated litito that poet ot Dauria^ nd^eh is situated in' t^e 
soutb-easternniostztpaipt? erf iMberia^ he Journeyed* between 
tberiveralngoda ami Argoon^^iae no great/distanoe frOnr 
tbe Amoor; thence tracing the linea 'wbicb separate' the 
Russian enspvOifrcpn £kei Mongul bovdea dependent lipion 
Cfaina^ be rensmed io iSelenginsk, and a^aiti^ idt^inteFed a^ 
KcaanoyajTsk. ill! tbe aununer of 1 7 7»S^ her visited Ttkt^^ 
¥aitak^<«iDd ^atracaii^^and ooDcbided 'bis.roote for tb^tr 
}sear at Tdsariixinr^ a txmu upon* tbe :Vei|^ai:;''from» whence-h<? 
eoatinued^bis joarney :ip the ensoingi spring ;« 'and ' arrived^ 
at^Petec^burg on the 30tb of Jjuly, 1.374^ aftei^ anabeericef 
of'sixyiearsi •'---'' -< ;■■ i'--"- '.^ * • '- 
• The account ofi^tbis extenstv^'^nd interesUngtour was 
published by Dr. PaUais in (itfr^vol nines, 4tt)> wtiich greatly 
extepded bis ' fame, and eitablisbed bis cbaracter; ^^be* 
author,, in this: valuable work^ bas^enaetfed intp a ge^ra^ 
phical and topograpbical description: of tbe px'ovin^i^Syi 
towjis, and vjfilages, wbicb* he visited in- bis ton i", adcotn-; 
panied with an accurate detail of their antiqoitie^ history,' 
prodactions, and cot»meroe« He has discrimihatfed- man/* 
0f tbe tribes who wander over the various districtfi^and near 
tbe.confines of Siberia; and. specified with ^peiiuttar pHre0« 
sioR their costoma, manners, and languages > .be* has also* 
rendered* his trav^s invaluable to the naturali$ty by -the 
maay.iiBportant discoveries ill the animai,- vegecUble^ and 
mifier'al kingdoms, ^witb wbicb.be bas eanched the science 
of natural faistory. ^ - 
; ;Xwqp y«ara afterwai'ds,. ia 177&, tbe pcofessor published 



H P A £. t A 8. 



^i9l?9vy of tbe Mongul tribiei ; is vfjnch. be throws mlr 
li|^ t on ihe ftnudls ol a people^ wbosa^ aBceslors. oonqveeid 
BiMisia, Cbina, Persia, a«d Hiildoi>sUO) and, alwoiotbaa 
ooq periodi 0sliablisbed pechaps a latter empife tban over 
m9fi possessed bj any single-Aaliioiu Mr. Pallassbeci proTbs 
luique^tionably ibal tbe Mongiil iribei aie a distiriot^tafie 
Iromr tbe Tartavs ; IbnbJtbejr di&r ffoca tbofe in tbeiK £aa» 
loresi language^ aad 'geirernaient ; and resemble them ia 
MtbiQg except iti ^a siaiilar propebsiiy to a roving life. M4 
iiueoded a secoiidi v^ne^ deacribiog tbeir rcligiow esta^ 
blisbmeml, oofisistiQ^ int tbe wdrsbip of Ibe Dsdbu^ijtmoi 
]t is tbe raligiofti>f Thibet aad of the Maacbbur sofemtgiy^ 
wbo.iKm sit upon tbe fcbmne of Cbtoa. ' << A vaarhi^' as 
]tfr. Tooke, ia his BqssMk Ilfasttafc% latrodi p^ exU justly 
observes^ <^ that, will ^hinob the stoobof human knowledge 
wkfa disQov^ies, the malest part entirely new, aad wfaich 
no persOQ but Mr. Palla&is able lo ceoKinNHeate.'* Wbe<^ 
tber, boKiTeYer, this seeood , irokiBie ever ibade its appeaa^ 
9iifie, we have oiirdoobts* 

lo the leme )war ia wbieh Sis. PaUaa ptlnied fats ** Ekm 
fbiis iSoophytoi^iMii^''^ ha tdso jmUbhed atrealise nhder th# 
t^H^e of <^ Miacetianea .Zoologiew qoifaus ncnrss impnmioakir 
fM^/obsieunsf anianalimtaapeciea descnbuDtal^ el^ obaarea^ 
liooibiiaiioofiibuiqueilki^saQtM.'^ This work is ia angtwat 
f s gwq ye ineorpoiiatwd inlir asnbaeqaettt wiiblioitiooi sbade 
^ neiit'yeac on bis return to Berlin, eotitied ^'Sfxiciiegaa 
Zoologica,'' and was continued in numbers, wt/mcuuti^ 
till hl^. Tbe vdrka of ooontt Buiffon^ the ilbislrious 
Fireocb 2MX)lQgist^ wipfy ^Ulest the Isboiirs cf PaUas y and 
9ar.coi}otfymao;Mr6 Pennant makes frequent adkiiowledg«i 
ments of bis QbligatioBs. to^the same sowreoi paiiidaul^riy foa 
bis hiiitory of qnadsupeds and arctic aoology* b ^Inne ITf^jj 
the learaed' professQfi read be&oe tbe academy of Pcilora>« 
burgb^u) a meeting at which thelungof SwedcawaS'piesmit^ 
a dwerfcation qa the forulKatidn of raoniitains^ aad Jhe dbaageii 
which this gtobe has undergone^ more* partionlarly asi i^ 
appeara in the Ruasian empire. Tbia treatise^ appeared^ acn 
c^rtoua to Mip,.Todkev who was also^ as^a member of .^e^ 
academy, present at thatt sitting, tfaafthe bas.tgirenfttrMSM 
buion of it in bis.^< Russia Ulustrata.'' In 1778; the doe^nsr 
p«ibtisbed *^ Nov»' species quadrupedum e Glirinmoiditi^'*' 
describing numbers of the. rat genus and their fuialonoy^ 
In^nai hebcooght oiit <^ Snuctif folio fj^eiltariiai/ q!^^ 



9 A h L A 9. 5f 

hiM0 Proeopil i Dtmldof Moteiift Tigmt;*' w Mldttgoe of 
the plaoM HI M* Bimid^f't gafdetta at Moaeom His bmt 
tunthent ^roUadiMls os vtiaDua a«ibj4eti^ is gtogimpbjs ii*> 
ittlai biatoiy^ md «gpficilkiii^» oa«t fbrtii tbe smm year $ 
te wluali #ere 4fMrwaMla sddild Mq aiMa. TotttaMfl; 

In I7M be pvklovtb twofaaaieiritortiuinkQrf of ^itsonea 
ittsectarom praBseitibr Rassm Stbferteqoe pdcnltanmii/' M 
»«« ha puUitlteit tbar first ovttber of bii <' Elbra BJdsaica;** 
at-qrfftoiid m6tki esMOtited/ an «hn €i t>pteia GatbalricM^a ost^ 
pateOi Abmt tbi» period her ma|eiff c^iceived- iho ikfelt 
^ eoHeeiifif froaa ait ^nairtera <lf Jkte gtobeio vttihroraal to^ 
mkmlmty, Ihe fcoperilueQdaBca wfaet*^ she oommtttad 14 
e«# Mtbor^ Ubich secksaarily iar a tiflko tetirded his aoo^ 
logical leaoarchos* fixoliiaivo of ih^o aopdrato ptrirlica^ 
tioQsj be pnotod in the acta of die ianiicaial acotiemy of 
iKuenoei> varioln toolejgioal and bottmieal diiiertations. v 

Not long- aftdr tbia he> woa diattngiriaiied by ftpeouiiar 
mtaik of iaiperial 'CisNNir^ in being appointed member of 
ibo'boiLrd of mthosi vitb ao additionai salary qf 960l. per 
aanaiti,. and b^nbured with the order of St. Vlodiioin Thd 
eanpveas albo poitcbaaed Ida aoiplefcellectton of naitiiiral fai«« 
tory^ inonmanorbigMy flottoring to* themuthor, and boi 
noliri^ble to berael£ 8faa not only goeebtm five thoosand 
mbiba aaore than he bad valued it at^bm infiofnied btas than 
itabo^ reibain in his posscasioAdoring bis 'life. lo 1784 
the eore-of pnkting in order and publMhiag' ther papers of 
Gaietia and profeaftor Gnltenstaodt, vatf consigned to Dri 
Palboy vbi^ii h« eaecated Mth^great diligence ami aeeo^ 
HM^; bat^ for aome reasDo^-ibe finit voioaae orfly of Oulten^ 
stttda*a remaiasbkt'appeafed. In i7e4» Dr. Pallas trareiked 
to the Giimeb^ tad oa hi^ return 'ptithtiafaed his << Physieot 
and Tepagia|iliiefd: pteturs of Twkide.** Oe hss return^ 
fioduig his hi9altb^ by long and iilceasai^ laboiirs^ upon ttie 
deoiiiie^'So^a t0ttefMler>iineoesaary for him toremoae ta^ 
naarii oltonie, bt pitehednpon Taurtda, aad faia mnnigeooa 
peaaottoss^ the enspiesil, granted hioi-an estate in* tbat.pro<- 
vioc^ ea^ ^i^e him « poesent of lO^OOa rubles towarda 
bis^esfeablisiMaea^- Here in i^eoo; be ^saa visited by I^.> 
Clarhei sriKiiD his taie ttavela^ baa given some Interesting 
paftaaahrs of bis; InteHnasrs . vttb him. It does not appeal^ 
thaa Dr. PaUaa was >udioiott& in selecting this place iaa onac 
in which liealtb could be promotei^ nor was he in oth^r 
re^pectb Irttbont disappointments wfaieb embittered his de«» 
cliai^ days* He survived Dr. Clarke's departure, bow^ 



ts 1^ A L L A S. 

ever, n^Mgards 6£ ten years, wfaen-detevtmnihg oiTcf^ mtst^ 
to see bis brother and his native city,' b^ took a jdurney td 
JBerlin, wfaerebedied Sept. S, 1811, in the 71sti ye^kf- of 
his age;*-^The' collection of dried plants, fnade* by Pblia^ 
for hts own use, was purehased of him by Mr j CripfM; th« 
companion of Dr. Clarke, and now form» a part of the va- 
liiabie mnseam of. >A. B, Lambert, esq.* * . . i 

' : PALLAVICINO (Ferrantb), one of the wits: of ftaty; 
the aon of JerbmePallavicinoy was bom at Placentiei about 
il6l5, or from that- to 16201 Less front iildfnlation;' than 
fcom'some family reasons, he entered tfaw congregation Of 
Ahe.regoiar oanons of Latran, and took the habit, .mib'tbe 
name of Mark Anthony, in their house at Milan;; AAiev 
GonbBiencing his stadies here with much- success, he went 
te Padaa for f»rtber profieiency. He then set^led^at Ve-^ 
nice, where be waa cbo^n a. memb^ of the academy of 
ibe Ifieogniti. Here he became captttated by a courtezan, 
ivboae cliorms proved- irresistible fiand, in order to Jitfva 
the fait enjoyment of them wttbont. restraint, be.obtainect 
}ea\'e from:his.'g.enel^abto<iiiak0 tbe^'toorof Fvance, botM 
fact oominued privately >at Yeniee, .whiiefaefaad thear^««» 
impose upon his friefitls,' by sendifug them frequently, iti 
letters, feigned accsountS'Of his travels throirgh France^ -Vte 
aftenKatds went txy Germany, about 1639, with "duko 
Amalfi in. the cfajaracter of his diapiain^ During thii( 
residence inGomany^ which lasted about sixteen months^ 
be .addicted himself to, every species of debauchery; and . 
having a turn for satire, employed hispen in repeated 
attacks on the court laf Rome* iti.generaly.and on tbe^Ifar^ 
barini family in particular. The chief vehicle of his ^tirer 
was a publication called ^^Tbe Courier robbed of his matlf^^ 
aad this as well as hisi other worka contained' sq many |)as6 
oeosiires of the abuses of die court of Rome, that he mighv 
have* been ranked, among those honourable nsen who batA 
eontributed to enlighten: bis coonttymcn,. *had henot beeir 
as remarkable for his indec^icies/ wbtcb were so gross that 
many of his works were obliged to be published trader con-^ 
cealed names. His personal attacks on the pope, and^tbe^ 
Barbarini family, naturally rouaed their ittdignation ;. ancit 
after much search, foe him, one Charles Morfu, a-French-^ 
man of a vile character, engaged to ensnare him, and-hav^ 

.■•..,.:.•■■ 
1 Rees's Cyclopaedia, from Coxe's and Clarke's Trareb,— Toa^e^'f Vipw oC . 
Ore Russian Empire. 



f.ALttAYlClNO: $♦ 

$Ag iniumaled bi«i«elf . into bis frieadship, at lengtff ek^ 
iHurted'biai to. go with, him to France. He ftattered hinv 
with ibe extraordinary encouragement which was given to^ 
men of letters by cardinal Richelieu ; anJ,- to deceive hinr 
the mor^, even produced feigned letters frpna the cardinal^ 
inviting our author to France, andexpressihg a desire be^ 
had to esta1;>lish in Paris an aci^eniy for tbe Italian tongue,* 
under the direqiioo of Pallavioind Pallavicino, young,' 
thoughtless^ aud densperate, and uow fascinated by tbei 
prospect of gain, left Venjce much against the advice of 
{lis friends, aod went first to Bergamo, where he spent a; 
few days with spine of. bis relations, who entertaiaed his 
betrayer. Theyi tb^n set out ior Geneva, to the -great 
satisfaction of our author, who proposed to get somJe if hit 
works printed there, which be bad notbeenable to doii^ 
Italy. But Morfa, jr»stead of conducting him to Paris, 
took the road to Avig>noi> ; where, cros^ng^ the bridge of 
Horaces, in the county of Veinai:ssia.(in the pope's tern* 
Tories), they were, seized by pffieets on pretence of carrya. 
ing contraband, goods, and confined. Morfu was soon dis-: 
charged, and liberally rewadrded;. butrPaHaTicini, being^ 
^arriedt.to Avignon, waa thrown into prison; and, afte<* 
being kepti. there, for some months, was'brought to trial,- 
and was beheaded in 1 643. or 1^44. Those who are de-* 
sirous of farther information respecting, this young man^* 
unfortunate lustory, may be amply gratified in .the prolix' 
articles drawa up by Bayle, aod particularly Marchand.' 
(iis \yorks were first published collectively at Venice, in^ 
1655, 4 vols. 12mo. This ^edition, according to Marchand, 
contains only such of bis works as had hetn permitted to 
be printed in bis life-time. Those which had been pro- 
hibited were afterwards printed in 2 vols. i2mOy ac Villa* 
/ranca„ a Bctitious name for .Geneva, 1 660: Among these 
is a piece called ^^ U divortio Celeste/' which some deny^ 
to be his* It is a very coarse satire on<the abuses of thei 
Romish church, and was translated aud 4>ubUsheduinEng* 
lish in 1679, under the title of '* Christ divorced from the* 
church of Rome because of their lewdness,** Lond. 8vo. ^ 

PALLAVICINO (Sforza), an eminent cardinal, was^ 
the son of the Qiarquis Alexander Pallavicini and Frances 
^fprza, and born at Rome in 1607. Although the eldest 
ion of his family, yet he diose the ecclesiastical life, and 

« 

I • 

I Marcband.— Bayle.^*-Morffri. 



#« PA LLAVlCINa 

VM y^rytMj mtddabishopby fbpe Urimh VtH. Hiirh^iA 
ki« eondnci wds so «cceptablr, thiit be ^s kpp^ititksA 
Me of those [icelb«e« who assist in tbe aiH^ikibli^ idled 
congregations at Rome. Re Was alw) received iiilb lb§ 
fi^DftOHs tcademj df the Haroortstii amon^ #b6tti k<E^ dftea 
sal in quality of president* He wai iike#iie 'gioveiinbt 6f 
•|ei»i, and aftek-wards bf Orvietto and Camerino, trbd^ tbi^ 
above pomiiF* Bat all these bonours and prefermi^hts wertt 
in9uffieient to divert him from a design be b^d for s^ttilei' 
ISime forkned 6f renonncing the woiid, and enttting into tfili 
aoeielry of the Jesuits, where he was admkted in 1699. Ai 
s<K>n' aa be bad cbmpieted bis noviciate be taught i^bilo* 
at^b^y atid then theology. At length Innocent X. bb<< 
vriliued lum to examine into divers matterii reladti^ to thift 
peaKi6catd ; and Atexabder VII. credited him a caHihal in 
1657. Tbis pbpe was an old friend of Pallavicinb, who had 
been lerticeable to bttn when be caane to Rbtti^ wilh the 
n^nne of Fabio Cbsgi. Pattavicino had even ebrfttibuted to 
advance his temporal fovtime, and bad received him into 
tbe academy of tb^ Hbmoristt ; in gratitude fbir whicli^ 
Chigi addressed to bim sotne verses, printed in liis bbol^ 
entitled <^ Phiiomathi Musai jtrrenites/' Wb^n PaU^idtib 
obtained a plaee in" tbe saered college, be Wa^ ;^1so ap^ 
pointed at the same tim^ examiner of. tbe biftbop^ ; and b^ 
wsis afterwards a member of the congregation of tbe holy 
o€Bce, r. e. the inqnimion, and of that of tbe cobncil, &c 
His prcMnotioh to the cardiMUte wrought no cbat^ge in bla 
m^aaner of life, which was devoted to study or tb tbe duAe^ 
of bis office. He died in 1667, in bis sixtieibj^ear. 

He composed a *^ History of tbe Couticit of^^TVcnt,'* ih 
opposition to that by father Paul. The history is' w^ 
written, and contains many facts given with imptirtialitj, 
but the general design is a laboured defence bf the pitie 
cecdinga of that council. It was originally publisbed m 
ItaKan, IGS^j 2 vols, fol.; but tbe Lutbi edition by Ota^ 
tino, in 3) vols. 4to, is preferred. He Was th^ abthbir bf 
vajrioos other works that are now in littte estifbaiion, e^c^plt 
pdrbaps bis <^ Letters,'* which contain s^e partlbulars of 
literary Instory and criticism, Imd seoie critical treatises. ' 

PALLAVICINO, orPALLAVlCINI (HoAAtici), was of 
the same family with the preceding cardinal, and mf^rits k 
brief notice here, as being in soiA^ Aegtt^ cbMect^ ^ii^ 
ear history, although tbe figure he makes .in it has not been 

i Fabroni ViUe lUloranif vol. XVII.— Landi Hbt de Litt d'ltsiM, Vol. V. . 



P A Lt^yiC IVt O. SI 

tlK>i|ght tbQ jsmt reputable. TheFatOiil; of Pallavibilvo, or, 
d$ spn(ietiine& spelt, Paiavioini, is on« of tbe most nobltt and 
ftncient in Jtaly^ and its branches have extended to RooMe, 
{ienoa, and Looabardy. Many, of them appeat to have at-^ 
tained tbe highest ranlts in churcb, state, and €pqinierce. Sir 
fioratiQ, the subject of this article, belonged to the Ge-i- 
tiQese branch, and was born in that city, but leaving Itaiyi 
>re9t to reside in tbe Low Countries, whence, after mar<* 
ryiog two wives, one a person of low birtb, whom be did 
iiQt acknowledge, ajid ibe other a lady of distinction, ha 
c^me over to England, with a recommendation to queen 
^Iary, probably from a relation, one Rango PalktvicinOi 
who belonged to Edward Vlth^s hottsehold. Miiry, who 
\id4 then i?estored the Roman catholic religion, appointed 
jSorittio collector of the papal taxes to be gathered in thia 
iiingdoaiv but at her death, having a largf sum of money 
in his bands, he abjured the religion of Rome, apd thougbl 
it no batm to keep (he money* This transaction, howev^r^ 
does^ not appear to have much injured bis cbayaoter> or 
pierh^Mi time bad efiaced the remembrance of it;, for in 
i5S6 queen Elizabedi gave him a patent of deniBMien^ 
lind in tb^ following year honoured nim willi knighthiood« 
He ' appears to have been a man of courage, and wartnly 
i^poused the interests of th6 nation at a most critical pe« 
Tied. In 1538 he fitted out and commanded a ship agaii^i 
ibe Sjianisb armada, and must have rendered himself con- 
spicaous on that occasion, as his portrait is given in th^ 
tapestry iii the Hottse of Lords, among the patriots and 
fkiifttl commanders who assisted in defieatii^ that me* 
morable attack on the liberty of England. The queen also 
employed him in negociations with tbe German prineeHi 
and in raising loans, by which he very opportunely assisted 
ber, and improved bis own fortune. Be died immcnseljl 
ficb, July 6, 16Q0, and was buried in tbe church of Ba-* 
beiWn, in Cambridgeshire, near which, at Litde Sbelfordy 
be had built a seat, in tbe Italiain style, with piazzas* Ue 
bad likewise t^Q considerable miLnors in Essex, aod pro-" 
bably landed property in other counties* His wioow; 
abont a yeair after his death, married sir Oliver Cromwell, 
VLB. and bis only dangbter, Baptina, was mamed to 
Henry Cromwell, esq. son to this sir Oliver, who was uiicle 
tsk the usurper.: H^ left three sons> but the family is no¥^ 
unknown tn England.* 

* Noble's Memoin of the CromwelU.— ^Lodge's lUustrations, toI^ III.— Wal- 
pole'f Anocdolet. 



^t IP A L L J O T. 

. PALLtOT (Pet^r), htstoriograpber, printer, ih&'h(uM^ 
Heller to the Icing, and genealogist of the duchy of Bur-« 
gundy, was born at Paris, March 19, 1608. In his youth 
he sho)ved a taste for genealogy, and beraldtc stadies, ift 
^faich be appears to have been instructed and encouraged 
by his relation, Louvaiis Gelliot, who published a work oti 
iirinarial bearings.. In his twenty-fifth year he settled at 
Dijon, where he married Vivanda Spirinx, the daughter of 
a printer and bookseller, with whom he entered into busi-« 
ness. At bis leisure*, hours, however^ he still continiled 
his heraldic researches, and laboured with so much per-* 
severance in this s^tudy as to produce the following works 5 
J,. *^ Le parlemeut de Bourgogne, avec lesrarmoiries,*VA.Ci 
3660, fol. . 2. ** Genealogie dcs comte&'d'Amansfe,*' fol; 
3* ^^La.vraie et p^rfatte science des Armoiries de Gelliot) 
avec de plus^ de 600O ecussons," 1660, fol. 4* *^^Hisfarrd 
^eneajogique de comtes de Chamilli.'* 5. '^ Extraits d^ 
}a chambre des comptes de Bourgogne, foL He left also 
thirteen volumes of MS collections respecting the families 
of Biirgundy. It is an additional and remarkable proof of 
his industry and ingenuity, that be engraved the whole of 
the plates in ibese volumes with bis own hand. His bistor^p 
pf the parliament of Burgundy was continued by Peticoti 
and published in 17S3. Palliot died at Bijon in 1698, at 
Ihe age of eighty-nine.* . 

, PALMA (Jacob), an eminent artist, born at Serinalto, \ti 
the territory of Bergamo, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, was a disciple of Titian. Heemulated bis master'^ 
manner, but, according, to Fuseli^ v^as more anxious to attaint 
the colour and breadth of Giorgioni. This appears chiefiy 
in his ** St. Barbara." : His colouring had extraordinary 
strength und brightness, and his pictuves are wrought to great 
perfection) yet with freedom, and withoiit the appearance 
of labour. Yasari describes, with great fqrvbur, a compos 
sition of the elder Palma^ at Venice, representing tbe shif^ 
in which the body of St. Mark was brought from Alexan- 
dria tp Venice, *' In, that grand design," he says, ^* tbe 
vessel was struggling agaiust the fury oT an impetuous tem^ 
pest, and is expressed with tbe utinost judgment ; the dis* 
tress of the maripers, tbe violent bursting of the wAvM 
agaiiist the sides of tbe ship, the horrid gloom, only eit^ 
Uvened with flashes of lightoihg^ and every part of the 

1 MQreri.--2)ict. Hitt 



$cetie filled with iinag:«s of terror^ sfre- ^iir^ng^ sa lively, 
and naturally represented, that it seema impossible for ih6 
2>ower of colour or pencil to rise to a higher pitch, of- truth 
and perfection; and that performance very deservedly 
gained him the highest applfkqse/' Notwithstanding this 
deserved praise^ his pictures in general are not correct in 
design, and his latter^ works did not maintain his early re*<» 
putation. He died,, according to Vasari, at the age of 
forty- eight, but in what year is not absolutely kuown, aU 
though some (ix it in 1588. ' 

PALMA (Jacob)} the Young, so called in contradis* 
tinction of the preceding Jacob, his great-uncle, may he 
considered as the last master of the good, and the first of 
the bad period of art at Venice. Born in. 1544, he left the 
ficanty rudiments of his father Antonio, a weak painter, to 
ftudy the works of Titian, apd particularly those. of Titii^ 
^oretto, whose spirit and slender disengaged forms were 
congenial to his own taste. At the age of fifteen be was 
iaken under the protection of the duke of Urbino, carried 
to that capital, and for eight years maintained at Rome, 
where, by copying the antique, Michael Angelo^ Raphael^ 
^nd more than all, Polidoro, he acquired ideas of correct- 
ness, style, and effect: these he endeavoured to embody 
if) .the first worli^s which he produced after his return to 
Venice, and there are who have discovered in them ait 
union of the best maxims of the Romau and Yenetiaa 
schools : *they are all executed with a certain facility which.* 
i^ tbe<great talent of this master, but a talent a9 dangerous 
in painting as in poetry. He was. not, however, success- 
ful in his endeavours to procure adequate eiuployment ; 
the posts of honour and emolument were occupied by Tin- 
toretto and Paul Veronese, and he owed his consideration 
as the third in rank to the patronage of Vittoria, a fa-, 
shionable architect, sculptor, and at that time supreme 
umpire of commissions : he, piqued at the slights o£ Paul 
and Robusti, took it into his bead to, favour Palma, ta 
assist him with his advice, and to establish his name. Ber- 
sini is said to have done the same at Rome, in favour of 
Fietro da Cortona and others, against Sacchi, to the de-. 
struction of the art; and, adds Mr. Fuseli, as men and 
passions, resemble each other in all ages, the same will 
probably be related of some fashionable architect of our; 
aime^. 

* PlIkiDgton.— -D'ArjeQTHIe, vol. I. ' 



M P A L M A. 

. Pafada, orerwbekned hy coiiraihsionS} soon relaxed flrom 
hisvvonted dtligeilK^e; and bis carelessness increased when; 
at ibe dealb of bis former competitors, and of Leonard<> 
Corona, bis nevr rival, he found himself alone and in pos^ 
session of the field. His pictures, as Cesare d*Arpino told 
]bim, were seldom more than sketches ; sometimes, indeed^ 
wben time a«^d pride were iefk to bis own discre^n, in 
which he did not abornid^ b^ prodnced some work worthy 
ef bh former fame ; snob as the aliar-piece st 8. Cosmo 
and Damiano ; the celebrated Naval Battle of Francesco 
Bembo in tbe pdi)li^,p«lae^ ; the S. Apolkmiaat Cremona j 
18c Ubaldo and the Nunziata at Pesaro ; the Ffndmg of tbe 
Cross at Urblno : works partly unknown to Ridoifi, but of 
rich compo3itiofi, fall of beauties, variety, and expression, 
Hia tints ffesb, sweet, and transparent, less gay than those 
•f Paul, but livelier than those of Tintoretto, though 
aiigfatly laid on, sjtili preserve ^eir bloom. In vivacity of 
expression he is not much inferior to either of those masters; 
and his Plague of the Bdrp^nts at 8t. Bartolomeo may vit 
for features, gestures, and bnes of horror, with the same 
gnfa^e^t by Tintoretto in the school of St Rocco : t>ot none 
ef his pictures are without some commendable part; and 
it surprises that a man, from whom the depravation of iftyle 
may be dated in Venieo, as from Vasari at Florence, and 
Zttccari at Rome, should still preserve so many chatms of 
aatuf e and art to attract the eyeand interest the heart. Re 
died in 1628, in the eighty«-fourlh year of his age.'^- 
• PALMER (HERfiBRT), a learneHil and pious divine, was 
tbe second son of sir Thomas Palmer, knt. Of Wiiigham, in 
Kent, where be was bbrn in 1601. He was educated at 
St. John^s college, Can^bridge, but was afterwards chosen 
fisllow of Queen^s. In 1626 arehbisbop Abbot licensed 
bim to preach a lecture at Stv Alphage'^ church in Can- 
terbury, every Sunday aftei»nQOn ; but three years after, he 
was silenced, on a charge of noheORformity, fOratime, but 
was again restored,' the accusation being fpund trffling. 
Although a puritan, bis character appeared so amiabte that 
bishop Laud presented him in 16S2^ with tbe vicafage bf 
Asbw«U) in Hertfordshire, and when the unfortunate prelate 
was brought ta bis trial, he cited this asan instance of bh 
impartiality. -At Ashwell Mr. Pdmer became no less po- 
[Mar than be bad been at Canterbury. In the same year 

; » PilkingtQu.— jp'Ar|ot^Tim» TfU I- 



PALMER. 6S 

be was chosen one of the prctachers to the nniyersity of 
Cambridge, and afterwards one of the clerks in convoca-^ 
tipn. In 1643, when the depression of the hierarchy had 
mad^ great progress, he was chosen one of the assembly of 
divines, in which he was distinguished for his moderation, 
afid his aversion to the civil war* He preached also at 
various places in London until the followihg^ year, wheii 
the earl .of Manchester appointed him master of Queen*s 
college, Cambridge. He preached several times before 
^he parliament, and appear^ to haVe entered into theii* 
views in most respects, although his sermons were generally 
of the practical kind. He did not live, however, to see tlijer 
issue 6f' their proceedings, as he died in 1647, aged fprty-^ 
six. Graiiger gives him the character of a man of uncom*- 
jDon learning, generosity, and politeness, and adds, that he 
spoke, the French language with as much facility as his 
own. . Clark enters more fully into his character as a 
diviiie. His works are not numerous. Some of his par- 
fianaentary sermons are in prints and he had a considerable 
tixw6 in the ** Sabbatum Redivivum," with Cawdry ; but 
hjU principal work, entitled *^ Memorials of Godliness,^* 
acquired great popularity. The thirteenth edition was 
printed in 1708, 12mo. ^ 

iPALMER (John), a dissenting writer of the last century^ 
was born in Southwark, where bis father was an undertaker^ 
and of the Calvinistic persuasion. Under whom he received 
his classical education is not known. In 1746 be begs^ii 
to attend lectures, for academical learning, under the rev. 
Dr. David Jennings, in Wellclose square, London. Sooa 
after, leaving the academy, about 1752, he was, on the 
rev. James Read's being incapacitated by growing disorders, 
chosen as assistant to officiate at the dissenting me€^ting 
in N^ew Broi^rstreet, in coi^unction with Dr. Allen ; and 
on the renioval of the latter to Worcester, Mr. Palmer wa« 
ordained sole pastor of this congregation in 1759. He 
continiied in this connection till 1780, when the society, 
greatly reduced in its numbers,, was dissolved. For a great 
part of this time be filled the post of librarian, at Dr. Wii- 
lianis's library, in Red- Cross-street. After the dissolution 
pi his^ congregation he wholly left off preaching, and re- 
tired to Islington, where he lived privately till his death, on 
Jttoe 26^ 1790^ in the sixty-first year of his ag^. He mar^- 

t Claik't LiT«l.«»Cd«^ US Mbegm in Brit ICiu.— drufer. 

Vol. XXIV. F 



$& PALMER. 

ried a lady of considerable property, and daring the latter 
years of bis life kept up but little connection with the dis* 
senters. H^ was a man of considerable talents, and acr- 
counted a very sensible and rational preacher. His pulpit 
compositions were drawn up with much perspicuity, and 
delivered with propriety. He allowed himself great lati- 
tude in his religious sentiments, and was a determined 
enemy to any religious test whatever. Tests, indeed, must 
have been obnoxious to one who passed through all the 
accustomed , deviations from Calvinism, in which he had 
been educated, to Socinianism. 

He published, besides some occasional sermons, 1^'^Pray-, 
ers for the use of families and persons in private; with a 
preface, containing a brief view of the argument for prayer,*^ 
1773, 12mo. There has been a second edition of these 
prayers, which are much admired by those who call them-, 
selves ratmial dissenters. 2. '^ Free thoughts on the in-, 
consistency of conforming to any religious test, as a con- 
dition of Toleration, with the true principle of Protestant 
Dissent,'* 1779. 3. '^ Observations in defence of the Li- 
berty of Man, as a moral agent ; in answer to Dr. Priestley's 
Illustrations of Philosophical Necessity,*' .1779, 8vo. As 
the doctor replied to it, '^ In defence of the Illustrations 
of Philosophical Necessity/' 'Mr. Palmer published, 4. *' An 
Appendix to the Observations in defence of the Liberty 
of Man, as a moral agent, &c«" 17^0, 8vo. Thje contro- 
versy terminated with ^^ A second Letter to the rev. John 
Palmer," by Dr. Priestley. 5. " A summary view of the 
grounds of Christian Baptism ; with a more particular re- 
lierence to the baptism of infants ; containing remarks, ar- 
gumentative and critical, in explanation and defence of the 
rite. . To which is added, a form of service made use of x>ii 
such occasions," 8vo.* 

PALMIER! (Matthew), an Italian chronicler, was born 
in 1405, at Florence; and after being educated under the 
best masters, arrived at high political rank in the republic,, 
was frequently employed on embassies, and was promoted 
to the great dignity of gonfalonier. He died in 1475. He 
compiled a general " Chronicle" from th^ creation to his 
own time; of which a part only has been published, includ- 
ing the events from .the year 447 to 1449. The first edi- 

»' Life by Mf.Toulmin in MontbJy Ma^: for 1797.— WilWtt»« Hiitory ©f DU- 
sentiag Cburchfi. 



;? A L M I £ R I* 67 

lion was; poblished^ at the end of Ensebius* Cfaroniclf^ 
without date or place, but, as supposed, at Milan in 14?5, 
4to. It was reprinted at Venice in 1483, 4to. It was 
continued to the year 1482, by Matthias Palmieri, who» 
although almost of the same names, was neither his relatiou 
jitor country maUk This Matthias was a native of Pisa^ waa 
apostolical secretary, and accounted a very able Greek an<i 
Latin scholar. He died in his, sixtieth.year, in 1483. 

Besides his ** Chronicle/' Matthew, or Matteo, Pal- 
mieri wrote in Latin the life of Nicolas Acciajuoli, .grandr 
seneschal of the kingdom of Naples, which is printed ia 
the thirteenth volume of Muratori^s '^ Script. Rer. Ital. ;*' a 
work on the taking of Pisa by the Florentines, '^ De cap- 
tivitate Pisarum," printed in Muratori's nineteenth volume^ 
and, ^n Italian, *^ Libro della vita civile,^* written in the 
form of dialogues* and printed at ^Florence in 1529, iSvo* 
It was tuaoslated into French by Claude des Rosiers, Paris, 
1557, 8vo. Palmieri was also a poet. He composed ia 
the terza rima, in imitation of Dante, a philosophioal, or 
rather a theological, poem, which had great celebrity ia 
bis day : its title was *^ Citta di Vita,*' and was divided 
into three books, and an hundred chapters. But having 
^idvanced, among other singular opinions, that human souU 
5vere formerly those angels who remained neuter during 
the rebellion in heaven against their Creator, and were 
sent to the world below as a punishment^ the Inquisition^ 
after his death, ordered his poem to be burnt, although it 
had never been published, but read in manuscript. Some 
assert, that he was burnt along with his poem ; but Apos« 
tolo Zeno has proved that he died peaceably in 1475, and 
itas, honoured with a public funeral, by order of the state 
of Florence, that Rinuccini prpnounoed his funeral ora-» 
tion, and that, during the ceremony, his poem was laid on 
bis breast, as his. highest honour. ^ 

PALOMINO (Don Acislo Antonio y Velasco), a 
Spanish painter and writer on the art, was born at Buja- 
lance, and studied at Cordova in grammar, philosophy^ 
.theology, and jurisprudence. The elements of art he 
acquired of Eton Juan de Valdes Leal ; and to acquaint 
Jiioftself with the style of different schooU^ went,' in com- 
pany of Don Juan de Alfaro^ in 1 678, to Madrid. Here 
.the friendship of Carrenno procuring him the Cc^qpiission 

I Tinbofchi.-^iDguen^ Hist. titt. d'ltalif-^CbSafepie. ' ^ ~ 

F 3 , 



is PALOMINO. 

of painting the gallery del Cier^o, be pleased the king und 
the minister, aqd in 1688^ he was made painter to the 
king. He was now overwhelmed with commissions^ for 
many of which> notwithstanding the most surprising activity^ 
he could furnish only the designs; their ultimate finii^ 
was left to the hand of his pupil Dionysius Vidal ; but 
whatever was designed and terminated by himself, in frescd 
or in oil, possesses invention, design, and colour, in the 
essefntial; and what taste and science could add, in the 
ornamental parts. His style was certainly more adapted 
to the demands of the epoch in which he lived, than to 
those of the preceding one, and probably would not have 
libtained from Murillo the praises lavished on it by Luca 
Giordano ; but of the machinists, who surrounded him, he 
was, perhaps, the least debauched by manner. 

Palomino may be considered as the Vasari of Spain ; as 
copious, as credulous, as negligent 6f dates; too garru- 
lous for energy, and too indefinite for the delineation of 
character, but eminently useful with the emendations of 
modern and more accurate biographers. His work is di- 
vided into three parts, theoretic, practic, and biographic. 
The two first bear one title, " El Museo pictorico y es- 
cala optica," 1715, 2 vols, folio. The third part, distin- 
guished by that of '^ El Parnaso Espannol Pintoresco lau- 
reado, &c. Tomo Tercero, Madrid," 1724, though, per- 
haps, only intended as an appendix to the two former, is 
by far the most important and interesting, l^alomino died 
in 1726.* 

PALSGRAVE (John), a polite scholar, who flourished 
in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. was a native of 
London, and educated there^in grammar. He afterwards 
studied logic and philosophy at Cambridge, at which uni- 
versity he resided till he had attained the degree of bache- 
lor of arts; after which he Went to Parisy where he spent 
iteveral years in the study of philosophical and other learn- 
ing, took the degree of master of arts, and acquired such 
excellence in the French idngue, that, in 1514, when ^ 
treaty of marriage was ri^gotiated between Louis XII. king 
of France, and th^ princess Mary,* sister of king Henrj 
VIII. of England, Mr. Palsgrave was chosen to be her 
tutor in tb^c language. But Louis XII. dying almost im- 
ifnedia^y after his marriage. Palsgrave attended his fair 

. ( .... * 

1 Pilkinglon, by FuselL 



PALSGRAVE. 69 

pupil bdok to England, where he taught the. French laur 
guage to many of the young nobility^ and was appointed 
by the king one of his chaplains in ordinary. He is said 
also to. have obtained some church preferments, but we 
know only of the prebend of Portpoole, in the chyrch ai 
St. Paul's, which was bestowed upon him in April 1514, 
and the living of St. Dunstan's in the East, given to him 
by archbishop Cranmer in 1553, In J 531, he settled at 
Oxford for some time, and the next year was incorporated 
master of arts in that university, as be had before been in 
that of Paris ; and a few days after was admitted to the 
degree of ^bachelor of divinity. At this time he was 
highly esteemed for his learning ; and was the first author 
who reduced the French tongue under grammatical rules, 
or that had attempted to fix it to any kind of standard. This 
be executed with great ingenuity and success, in a large 
work which he published in that language at London,, eu-r 
titled '^ UEclairctsseqient de la Language Francois,'' con* 
taining three books, in a thick folio, 1530, to which he 
has prefixed a large introduction in English. This work- 
is now extremely scarce. In the dedication he says that 
he had written two books en the subject before ; one dedi*^ 
cated to his pupil M^ry, the other' to Charles Brandon 
doke of Suffolk. He made a literal translation into Eng* 
lish of a Latin comedy called << Acolastus,*' written .by 
FuUonius, and published it in 1540. He. is said also to 
have writteasorae " Epistles." 

When Mr^ Palsgrave was born, or to what age he lived, 
are particulars which we have not been able to trace ; yet 
bis death probably happened before September 1554, as 
Jn that month Edmopd Brygotte, S. T. P; was .collated to 
the prebend of Portpoole " per mortem Job. Pallgrave." * 
' PAMELIUS (James), a learned Fleming, was the, son 
of Adolphus, counsellor of state to the empei^or Charles V* 
and borJi at Bruges in 1536» He was educated at Louvaia 
and Paris,, and became afterwards a learned divine and 
critic. Obtaining a canonry in the church of Bruges, he 
collected a library, and formed a design of giving igood 
editions of the fathers ; but the civil wars obliged hi|n to 
retire to St Omer's, of which place the bishop pnade him 
archdeacon. Some time after, Philip II. king of Spain 
named him to the provostship of St. Saviour at Utrecht^ 

» 

1 Ath. Ox. TOl. I. new editioo.— Tanner.— 'Allies** Typo^Mphical Antiqaitief. 
—ecu's MS Atbenn in Brit Mm. 



to P A M E L I tJ S. 

f 

• 

ancf after that to the bishopric of St Omer^s : huti as bd 
went to Brussels to take possession of it, he died nt Mons 
in Hainault, in 1587. He is chiefly known for his cHtics&l 
labours upon '< Tertullian and Cyprian ;*' of both which 
writers he published editions, and prefixed lives. *^ The 
commentaries of this author upon Tertullian/' says Dupin^ 
<* are both learned and useful ; but he digresses too much 
from his subject, and brings in things of no use to the un-* 
defstanding of his author :'* and he passes much the same 
judgment of his labours upon Cyprian. All the later edi« 
tors, however, of these two fathers have spoken well of Pa« 
melius, and have transcribed his best notes into their edi- 
tions. 

A new edition of Rabanus, wbieh-he was preparing at 
the time of .his decease, has been since published at 
Cologn, and includes Commentaries by Pamelius on Ju- 
dith, and St Paul's << Epistle to the Hebrews." His other 
works are, <* Catalogus Commentar. veterum selectorum 
in universa Biblia," Antwerp, 1566, 8vo ; " Conciliorura 
Paralipomena,^' a discourse in Latin, addressed to the 
Flemish States ; ^* De non admittendis un& in Republic^ 
diversorum Religionum exercitiis," 1589, 8vo; ** i^licro* 
logus de Ecclesiasticis observationibus ;'* an edition of Cas- 
siodorus ^' De Dividis nominibus ;** and two books of the 
<* Liturgies of the Latins,** 1571, 2 vols. 4lo./ 

PANARD (Cj^arles-Francis), a French poet, was born 
at Couville near Chart res in 1691^ where he remained a 
long time in obscurity^ upon some small employment. At 
length, the comedian Le Grand, having seen some of his 
pieces, went to find him out, and encouraged him ; and 
Marmontel called him the Fontaine of the place. Panard 
bad many qualitiies of Fontaine ; the same disinterested- 
ness, probity, sweetness, and simplicity of manners.. He 
knew, as well as. any man, how to shar«pen the point of an 
epigram \ yet always levelled it at the vice, not the per- 
son. He bad a philosophic temper, and lived contented 
with a little. He died at Paris June 13, 1764. His works, 
under the title of " Th^toe & Oeuvrea diverses/* have 
been printed, 1763, in 4 vols. 12mo. They consist of 
comedies, comic operas, songs, and all the various kinda^ 
pf smaller poetry.' 

. • .1 

I Morari.— Foppen Bibl« Belg.— Blonnt't Censura.— Saxii Onomatt] 
I l^ecipl^iie des Hoounes Cdebres pour aoa4e n66,-->I>i9t. Uitt. 



PA N C t R O L U S. 71 

PANCIROLUS (Guy), the son of Albert Pancirolus, a 
fiamous Jawyef in bis time, and descended from an illustri- 
ous family at Reggio, was born there April 17, 1523. He 
learned Latiu and Greek under Sebastian Corrado and Bas- 
siano Lando, and made so speedy a proficiency in them^ 
that his father, thinking him fit for the vtudy of the law at 
fourteen, taught him the first elements of that faculty him- 
self ; and Guy studied t^m incessantly under his father 
for three years, but without neglecting the belles lettres. 
He was. afterwards^ sent into Italy, in order to complete 
his law-studies under the professors of that country. He 
W6nt first to Ferrara ; and, having there heard the lectures 
of Pasceto and Hyppoiitus Riminaldi, passed thence to 
Pavia, where he had for his master the famous Alciat, and 
to Bologna and Padiia, where he completed a course of 
seven years study, during which he had distinguished 
himself in public disputations on several occasions ; and the 
fame of bis abilities having drawn the attention of the re- 
public of Venice, he was nominated by them in 1547, 
while only a student, second professor of the Institutes in 
the university of Padua. This nomination obliged him to 
take a doctor's degree, which he received from the hands 
of Marcus Mantua. After he had filled this chair for seven 
years, be was advanced to the first of the Institutes in 
1554 ; and two years after, on the retirement of Matthew 
Gribaldi, who was second professor of the Roman law, Pan- 
cirolus succeeded him, and held .this post foi* fifteen years. 
At length, having some reason to be dissatisfied with his 
situation, he resigned it in 1571, when Emanuel Philibert 
^uke of Savoy offered him the professorship of civil law^ 
with a salary of a thousand pieces of gold. Here his patron 
the prince shewed him all imaginable respect, as did also 
hh son Charles Emanuel, who augmented his appoint* 
toenlis with a hundred pieces. The republic of Venice 
soon became sensible of the loss sustained by bis departure, 
and were desirous of recalling him to a vacant professor- 
ship in l$dO. This Pancirolus at first refused, and would 
indeed have been content to remain at Turin, but the air 
of the plaqe proved so noxious to him, that he lost one 
eye almost entirely, and was in danger of losing the other; 
t^e dread of which induced. him to hearken to proposals, 
^hat were .made afresh to him in 1 582 ; and having a salary 
of a thousand ducats offered to him, with the chair he had 
MP much wished for, he returned to Padua. The city of 



7St P A N C I RQ L U S. 

Turin, willing to give biia some macks oif tbeir esteem; at 
bis departure, presented bim with his freedom, aeeom-" 
panied with some pieces of silver plate.. -He then remained 
at Padua, where bis stipend was raided to the sum of. twelve 
Iiundred ducats. Here be died in June 1599, and was in- 
terred in the church of St. Justin, after funeral service had 
been performed for him in the church of St. Antfaony ; 
where Francis Vidua of that university pronounced bis fa* 
oeral oration. He was author of a number of learned works, 
of which the principal are : 1. '^ Comroentarii in- Notttiam 
utriusque Imperii et de Magistratibus,'' Venice, 1593, it>L 
often reprinted, and inserted in, the Roman Antiquities (tf 
Grsevius; 2. '^ De Numismatibu!^ antiquis;"' 3. ^^Dequaw 
tuordecim Regionibus Urbis Romas,*? printed in the Ley-^ 
den edition of the Notitia, 1608 ; 4. ^^ .Rerum Memora*^ 
bilium jam olim ^deperditarum, et contra rec^n» atque in*^ 
l^eoiose inventarum," 1599, 2 voI&; 8vo, often reprinted 
and translated. He wrote alsd a valuable treatise, which 
lyas not published till 1637, entitled ^^De Claris Legum 
Int^rpretibus." * 

PANORMITA. Ste BECCADELLI. 

PANT^NUS, a Christian philosopher, of the Stoic 
sect, flourished in the second century. Some say he was 
born* in Sicily, others at Alexandria, of Sicilian parents. 
He is^aid to have taught the Stoic philosophy in thereign 
of Commodus, from A. D. 180, in the school of Alexan<> 
dria; where from the time of St. Mark, founder of that 
church, there had always been some divine wbo-explained 
the Holy Scriptures, The Ethiopians Jiaving requested 
Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, to send, a proper -persoa 
to instruct them in the Christian religion, he sent PantsB'^ 
nus; who gladly undertook the mission, and acquitted 
himself very worthily in it. It is said, that he found the 
Ethiopians already tinctured with the truth of Christian 
faith, which had ^been declared to them by St. Bartholo- 
mew ; and that he saw the gospel of St. Matthew ih He* 
btew, which had been left there by that apostle. St. Je^ 
rome says, that Pantaenus brought it away with him, and 
that it was still to be ^een in his time in the AlexandHan 
library; but this story is not generally credited, since no 
good reason can be giveti, why St. Bartholomew shoiUd 
leave a Hebrew book with the Ethiopians. Pantse^s^ 

1 Cbaiifepie.«^Niceron| toI. IX. — ^Tiraboscbw— iSaxii Onomi^t. 



P A N T iE N tJ S. IS 

apon his return to AlexAndria, conttnued to explain the 
•acred books under the reign of Severus and Antoninus 
Caracalia, and did great service to the church by his dis- 
courses. He composed some ** Commentaries** upoh- the 
Bibie, which are lost. Theodoret informs us that Pantsnus 
first started the remark, which has been followed by many 
interpreters of the prophecies since, <* That they are often 
expressed in indefinite terms, and that the present tense 
is frequently used both for the preterite and future Senses.'* 
We may form a judgment of the manner in which Pantae* 
nus explained the Scriptures, by that which Clemeus 
Alexandrinus, Origen, and all those have observed, who 
wete trained up in the school of Alexandria. Their com- 
mentaries abound with allegories; they frequently leave 
the literal sense, and find almost every where some mys- 
tery or- other; in the explaining of which, they usually 
shew more erudition than judgment.' Milner observes, that 
the combination of Stoicism with Christianity must have 
very much debased the sacred truths; and we may be 
assured that those who were disposed to follow implicitly 
the dictates of such an instructor as Pantsenus, must have 
been, furnished by him with a clouded light of the gospel. 
Cave is of opinion- that Pantsenus's death occurred in the 
year 213.* 

- PAKTALEON (Henry), a learned physician and his- 
torian, wasl)orn at Basil June 13, 1522. In his early edu- 
cation he made very considerable proficiency, but it ap- 
pears that his friends differed iti their opinions as to his 
profession, some intending him for a learned profession^ 
and some for a printer, which they conceived to be con- 
nected with it. At length after a due course of the Itin- 
guages and polite literature, he studied divinity according 
to the principles of the refomied religion, but changing 
that design, he taught dialectids and natural philosophy at 
Basil for about forty years. He then, at an advanced age, 
studied medicine, took the degree of doctor in that faculty, 
and practised with much reputation until his death, March 
8, 1595, inthe seventy- third year of his age. He com- 
posed various works both in medicine and history, some in 
Latin and some in German, and translated certain authors 
into the latter language. His most useful work, now 
aaaroe, was an account of the eminent men of Germany, 

> Cave^ Tol.4:-^Dnpiii.A-Lair(lner'iWoriu.— Miller's Cb.Hiit, 



74 P A N T A L E O N. 



4 



published at Basil in 1 B&S, fol. under the title of ^< Poso« 
grs^hia heroum et iliustrium virorum Germanise," dedi^ 
cated to the emperor Maximilian IL who honoured him 
Mdth the title of Count Palatin. He published also a Latii» 
history of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, J 581, folio. 
^5 Historia Militaris ordinis Johannitarum, Rhodiorum aut 
Melitensium Equitum ;'' ^^ Cbronographia Ecclesie Chris- 
^ti/' ibid. 1568; << Diarium Historicum," 1572; aad, m 
his youth, ^< Comcedia de Zaccheo piriilicaBonim prtnctpe,'' 
1546, 8vo.* 

PANVINIUS (Onuphrius), a learned scholar of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Vctrona in 1529. He.dis*^ 
covered an attachment to history and antiquities in. bis, 
earliest years, and entered into the order of the Augustins. 
As soon as he had made profession, th^ general g£ his 
order sent him to Rome to complete his studies, and in 
1553 he was appointed to instruct the novices. He thea 
.taught scholastic theology at Florence for some time^ but 
his chief residence was at Rome, where he was patronized 
by cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards pope Marcellua IL 
From theiice he passed into the court of cardinal Alexan- 
der Farnese, with whom he travelled into Sicily in 1568, 
where he died in bis thirty-ninth year. One of his first 
labours was an edition of the ^^ Fasti < Consulares,^' first 
brought, to light by Sigoniys,. which he published, illus- 
trated with notes, at Venice in 1557. He published trea-» 
tises also, ^* De Antiquis Romanorum Nominibus;'* <^ De 
Pi^incipibus Romanis;" " De Republica;*' ** De Trium- 
phis et Ludis Circensibus ;" and ** Topographia RomsB.*' 
These valuable works are founded in a great measure upon 
ancient inscriptions, of which he had collected and copied 
nearly three thousand. Some time after, this collection, 
which had come into the handa of cardinal Savelji, disap* 
peared, and Maffei is of opinion that the collection. p«|b* 
fished at Antwerp by Martin Sanctius, in 1538, and which 
served as a foundation for Gruterus*s great work, was in 
reality that of Panvinius. Panvinius was also a profound 
investigator of sacred or Christian antiquities, as appears 
by bis works, *^De Ritu sepeliendi mortuos apud veteres 
Christianos ;'' ** De antique Ritu bapti^ndi Catechume- 
' nos.;^' ** De Primatu Petri ;^* ** Cbronicon Ecclesiasticuaa ;^* 
^^ De Episcopatibus Titulis, et Diacouis Cardinalium.;.? 

I Melehior Adam ki tiUi PbUoiopboniiiv 



P A N V I N I U S. TS 

■^ Annotationes et Sopplementa ad Platinam de Vitis Pon* 
tificmn ;*' << De Septem precipois Urbis Romie Baailicis;'* 
** De Bibliotheca Vaticana/* He bad undeitakeo a gene- 
mi ecclesiastical history, for which he collected matter 
suiBcient to fill six large manuscript volumes, which are 
preserved in the Vatican. He wrote a chronicle of his 
own order, and a history of his native city, Verona, * in- 
cluding an account of its antiquities, printed many years 
after his death. ^ 

PANZER (George Wolfgang Francis), an eminent 
bibliographer, was born at Sulzbach in the Upper Pala- 
tinate, March 16, 1729, and having beeu educated for the 
cfamt^h, took his doctor^s degree in divinity and philoso- 
phy, and became pastor of the cathedral church of St. Se- 
baldus at Nuremberg, where he died in 1805. No farther 
particulars have yet reached us of this learned and labori- 
ous writer, who has long been known here by his ** An- 
nates Typographic!, ah artis invents origine ad annum 
,M. D. post Matttairii, Denisii, aliorumque doctissitoorum 
vironnn ouras in ordinem redacti, emendati et aucti,V Nu- 
remberg, 1793 — 1S03, 11 vols. 4i;o. This is unquestion- 
ably a work of the very first importance to bibliographersy 
and is thought to exceed Maittaire^s in clearness of ar?- 
rangement and accuracy. It conies down, beyond his ori- 
ginal intention, to 1536 ; but is not quite complete without 
another work of his printed in German, ^' Annals of aur 
cient German Literature, or. an account of books printed in 
Germany fronl the invention of the art to. 15 20," Nurem- 
berg, 1788, 4to. His other works, also unfortunately in 
German, are an ^^ Account of tbe^ most ancient Qerman 
Bibles, printed in the fifteenth century, which are in the 
library at Nuremberg," 1777, 4to; "History of Bibles 
printed at Nuremberg, from the invention qf the Art,'* 
Knremberg,* 1778, 4to. And a <* History of early Print- 
ing at Nuremberg to the year 1600," ibid. 1789, 4to.* 

PAOLI (Pascal de), a very distinguished character in 
modem times, born at Rostino, in the island of. Corsica» 
in 1726, was the son of Hiacente Paoli, a Corsican patriot^ 
who, despairing of the freedom of his country, had retired 
with his family to Naples. Panoal was educated among the 
Jesuits, and at their college be made a rapid progress in 

} CbaQfepie.— >Tiraboschi. — Bullart's Acadefnie dts Scieuces.— Saxii Onoou 
S jp^^t. l|ist.rrpibdi(i'i Biblioqiasra.-7eBroDet Manuel da X^ibraire^ 



7« F A O L I. 

liis studies, and displayed an understanding iequally ^Hd 
aiid capacious. He appeared in so favourable a light to his 
•countrymen, that he was unanimously chosen generalis- 
simo, in a full assembly of the .pec^ie, when he had at- 
tained but to the 29th year of his age. He began with 
'new-modelling the laws of Corsica, and establishied the ap- 
p^aranccj if not the reality, of subordination : he also in»- 
-stituted schools, and laid the foundation of a maritime 
power. In 1761 the government of Genoa, perceiving the 
change lately effected among the natives, sent a deputation 
to a general council, convoked at Vescovato, for the ex* 
'press purpose of prQf>osing terms of accommodation ; but 
4t was unanimously resolved never to make peace with 
-diem, unless upon the express condition of Corsica being 
guaranteed in the full enjoyment of its independence. A 
•memorial to the same effect was also addressed, at the 
same time, to all the sovereigns of Europe. But nothing 
was gained by this step; and in 1768, the Genoese, despair- 
ing of rendering xthe Corsicans subservient to their will, 
transferred the sovereignty of their island to Erance, on 
•condition of receiving in lieu of it 40,000,000 of livres. 
^Notwithstanding this, Paoii remained firm to his cause : 
and a vigorous war commenced, in which, for some time, 
the French were beaten, and in one instance their general 
was obliged' to capitulate, with all his infantry, artillery^ 
-and ammunition ; but an immense force bing now sent 
from France, overwhelmed the Corsican patriots ; they 
'were defeated with great slaughter, and Paoli, left, with 
only about 500 n^en, was surrounded by the French, who 
'were anxious to get possession of his person : he, however, 
'cut his M^ay through the enemy, and escaped to England 
with his friends, where they were received with every de- 
gree 6f isjrmpathy and respect. Paoli was introduced at 
tsourt, and the duke of Grafton, then prime minister, ob- 
tained for him a pension of 1200/. a-year, which he libe* 
rally shared with his companions in exile. From this time 
lie lived a retired life, devoting himself chiefly to the cul^ 
iivation of literature. During his retirement, which lasted 
vnote than twenty years, he was introduced to Dr. Johnson 
by Mr. Boswell, and lived in habits of intimacy with that 
eminent sdholar. Much of tfaek conversiation is recorded 
by Mr. Bdswell. . 

' When the^ French revolution took place, the national 
convention passed k decree by which Corsica was num- 



P A O L t TT 

heted mnong the departiooents of France, and entitled to 
all the privileges of the new constitution, and Paoli was 
induced, by the promising appearance of a&irs, and fhe 
solicitations of the French assembly, to return to the island; 
Accordingly he resigned his peusioa from the English court, 
took a grateful leave of the country in which he. had been 
so hospitably entertained, and in the month of April 1790, 
presented himself at the bar of the national assembly at 
Paris, together with the Corsican depaties. Soon after 
this be embarked for Corsica, where he was received with 
an extraordinary degree of attachment and respect. He 
was elected mayor of Bastia, commander-in-chief of the 
national, guard, and president of the department ; and,i in 
short, he at once acquired more authority in the island, 
than before its subjugation by the French. He was,.bow^ 
ever, not quite contented ; he was ambitious of seeing 
Corsica wholly independent, which, upon the execution of 
Louis XVL was the prevailing wish of the Corsicans^ The 
French convention, however, meant nothing less, and at 
length declared Paoli a traitor. On this he resolved upon 
an expedient which, though it was a renunciation of inde-^ 
pendence, promised to secure all the advantages of real 
liberty. This was an union of Corsica with the crown of 
Great Britain ; after effecting which, he* returned to Eng** 
laud, having unfortunately lost all his property, by the 
failure of a mercantile house at Leghorn, -• and passed the 
reA»ainder of his life in great privacy. He died in Lon-^ 
don, February 5, 1807, in the eighty-first year of his age^ 
Few foreigners, however- distinguished, have been so much 
caressed in England as general PaolL By living in habita 
of iamiliarity with men of letters, his^ name and exploits 
acquired high celebrity : and Goldsmith, Johnson, and 
many others, equally eminent in the literary world, although 
differing in almost every thing else, cordially united in hia 
praise. On the continent hi& reputation was greatly re-^ 
spected : it was usual to compare Paoli to Timoleon and 
£paminondas. He was unquestionably a great man ; but 
it is the opinion of those who have enjoyed the opportunity 
of studying his character, that he was a politician rather 
than a soldier: that he shone more in council than inarms; 
and that the leading feature of his public conduct was a 
certain degree of Italian policy, which taught him to te^ 
6ne and speculate on every event.^ ^ 

* Bofwell's Account of Corsica.—AiheasBttm, ?ol. I.-^Rees*t Cyclo|i»dla. 



fS P A P E N B K O C a ' 

PAT^ENBHOCH (Daniel), a native of Antwerp, md 
born in 162B, and was educated as a Jesuit. He has ail<* 
ready been mentioned in our account of Boilandus, as thcf 
coadjutor of that writer in the compilation of the ''Acta 
Sanctorum/' He died in 1714, in the seventy -eighth year 
of his age. He* was, according to Dapin, less credulous 
than Bollandus, and became involved in a controversy with 
tbe Carmelites respecting the origin of their order. Thei^ 
is little else interesting in his history; but in addition to 
the account given in our article Bollandus, of the ** Acta 
Sanctorum," we may^ now mention, that the work has been 
continued to the fifty-third volume, folio, which appeared 
in 1794, but is yet imperfect, as it comes only to October 
14th. Brunet informs us that there are very few perfect 
copies to be found in France, some of the latter volumes 
being destroyed during the revolutionary period. The re-* 
print at Venice, 17S4, 42 vols, is of less estimation.' 

PAPIAS, bishop of Hierapolis, a city of Phrygia in 
Asia Minor, near to Laodicea, was the disciple of St. John 
the Evangelist, or of another of that name ; but Irenaeus 
says positively, that he was the disciple of St. John the 
Evangelist; tor Polycarp was his disciple, and he says, 
Papias was Polycarp's companion. Papias wrote five books, 
entitled <* The Expositions of the Discourses of the Lord f ' 
of which there are only some fragments left in the writings 
of Irenseus and Eusebius. He made way for the opiniotv 
several of the ancients held touching thp temporal reigii of 
Christ, who they supposed would come upon earth a tbpu^ 
sand years befol-e the day of judgment, to gather together 
the elect, after the resurrection, into the city of Jerusa-- 
Iqm, and let them there enjoy all felicity during that pe« 
riod. Irenseus, who was of the same judgment, relates a 
fragment he took out .of Papias^s fourth book, where he 
endeavours to prove that opinion from a passage in Isaiah ^ 
and Eusebius, after having quoted a passage taken out of 
Papias's Preface, adds; ^' That that author relates divert 
things which he pretended he had ^by unwritten tradition ; 
such as were the last instructions of our Lord Christ, which 
are not set down by the Evangelists, and some other fabu" 
lous histories, amongst which number his opinion ought to 
be placed touching the personal reign of Christ upon eartb 
after the resurrection. <^ The occasion of his falling inter 

^ Dupio.— >Moreri."— Diet. Hist,— Brunei's Manuel du Librairer 



P A P E N BH O C H. n 

that error,^* days Eusebius again, ^' was bis misuricl^rstand- 
iogof-tbe discourses and instructions of the Apostles, as 
not thinking that those expressions ought to bear a mysti« 
cal sense ; and^ that the Apostles used them only for illus- 
tration, for he was a man of a mean genius, as his books 
manifest, and yet several of the ancients, and, among the 
rest, Irenseus, maintained their opinions on the authority 
of Papias,'" 

PAPILLON (Philibbrt), a learned oanon of la Cha* 
pelle-au Riche, at Dijon, .in which city be was born. May 
1, 1666, was the son of Philip Papillon, advocate to the 
parliament. He was a man of literature, and an able, cri- 
tic, and furnished Le Long of the Oratory, Desmolets, 
Niceron, and several others among the learned, with a 
number of important memoirs and anecdotes. He died 
February 23, 1738, at Dijon, aged seventy-two. His prin- 
cipal work is, '* La Bibliotheque des Auteurs de Bour- 
gogne," DijoD, 1742, 2 vols, folio, printed under the in- 
spection of his friend M. Joly, canon of la Chapelle-aa- 
Ricbe.' 

PAPILLON (John), was one of a family of engravers 
on wood, who obtained considerable reputation in the se- 
venteenth and eighteenth centuries* He flourished about 
1670, but attained less fame than bis son John, who was 
bom at St. Quentin in 1661. The grandson John Bap- 
tist Michel was the most successful in his art, especially 
IB those engravings which represent foliage and flowers, 
many beautiful, specimens, of which are inserted in his pub- 
lication on the art of engraving in wood ; and the whole 
prove that he was a very skilful master in every branch of 
the art he professed. The human figure he seems to have 
been the least acquainted with, and has consequently failedr 
most in. those prints into which it is introduced. He died 
in 1776 ; about ten years before which event he published 
in 2 vols. 8vo, his << Traite , histoHque et pratique de la 
gravure en bois,^' a work of great merit as to the theory of 
an art, which, it is almost needless to add, has of late 
years been brought to, the highest perfection by some 
ingenious men of our own country, led first to this pur« 
suit by the excellent example and success of the Messfs» 
Bewickes. * 

* Care, vol. I.— Lardaer^s Works.«-Dtipin. 

• MorerL— J)icU Hist. » Strutt.— Morcru— Diet. 



SOT P A P I N. 

PAPIN (Denys), ah ingenious physician^ the son of 
Nicholas Papin» also a physician, was born at Blois. He 
took the degree of doctor, and travelled to England, where 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, in December 
1680. He passed the following year in London, and pub« 
lished in English an account of a machine which he bad 
invented, and which still bears his name : this was ^< The 
New Digester, or Engine for the softening of Bones,'^ 
2681, 4 to. It soon appeared in French, with the title of 
^La Meniere d'^mollir les Os, et de feire cuire touted 
sortes des Viandes en pen de terns et k pen de fraix,*' Pa« 
ris, 1682. The machine consists of a very strong metal 
boiler, with an air*tight cover screwed down with great 
force ; hence the contained matter, being incapable of 
escaping either by evaporation or by bursting the machine, 
may be heated to a degrise far beyond that of boiling wa-« 
ter, so as to dissolve the gluten of bones* and cartilages*' 
He afterwards improved this digester, and it has since 
been much employed in chemical and philosophical expe« 
riments. He assisted Boyle in various experiments, of 
which an account is given in the history of the Royal So- 
ciety. Papin was a protestant, and being therefore pre«» 
vented from returning home by the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes, he took up his residence at Marpurg, where he 
taught the mathematics, and published a '^ Fasciculus Dis<- 
sertationum de quibusdam Machinis Physicis,'' 1696, 12mo;' 
and in 1707 he published at Francfort an account of a 
machine which he had invented for raising water by the 
action of fire, entitled f^ Ars nova ad aquam ignis admini-* 
culo efficacissime elevandam.^' 

His father, Nicholas Papin, was author of several works^ 
which, however, are nearly forgotten. Two of them re^ 
hted to the powder of Sympathy, whiph he defended; 
and one to the discovery of Harvey, which he opposed.^ 

PAPIN (Isaac), some time a minister of the church of 
England, and afterwards reconciled to that of Rome, was 
the author of some pieces which made a great noise in the 
seventeenth century. From an account of his life, pnh-^ 
lished by himself, it appears that he was born at Blois itt 
161^7, and descended from a family of the reformed reli-* 
gion. He passed through his studies in divinity at Ge* 
neva. That university was then divided into two parties 
-''■ ■•'<■ -I"- * 

1 Morerit— Bloyi Diet, Hist, de MediGine.«-Rees's Cyclop«dia. 



P A t I K. 81 

Hpbo the subject of gthce^ called ^'p&rticularists'^ and 
^^universaliftts," of virbich the former were the most, nu- 
merous and the most powerful. The* universalists de- 
sired nothing more than a toleration ; and M. Claude 
wrote a letter to M. Turretiu, the chief of the preJo- 
miiiant party, exhorting him earnestly to grant that fa- 
vour. But Torretin gave little heed to it ; and M. de 
MaratisSi professor at Groningen, who had disputed the 
point warmly against Mr. Dailie, opposed it zealously; 
and .j^upported his opinion by the authority of those synods 
who^ :bad determined agi^inst such toleration. There 
happened also another dispute upon the same subject| 
which ocoa^oned Papin to make several reflection<i. M. 
Pajon, who was his uncle, admitted the doctrine of effica- 
cious grace, but explained it in a different manner from 
the refor^ned in general, atid Jurieu in particular ; and 
though the synod of Anjou in 1667, after many long de- 
bates upon the matter, dismissed Pajon, with leave to 
continue his lectures at Saumur, yet as his interest there 
was not great, his nephew, who was a student in that uni- 
versity in 1633, was pressed to condemn the doctrine, 
which was branded with, the appellation of Pajonism. 
Papin declared, th^t his conscience would not allow him 
to subscribe to the condemnation of either party ; on which 
the university refused to give him a testimonial in the 
usual form. All these disagreeable incidents put him out 
of humour with the authors of them, and brought him to 
view the Roman catholic religion with less dislike than be- 
fore. In this disposition he wrote a treatise, entitled '< The 
Faith reduced to its just bounds ;^* in which he maintained, 
lliat, as the papists profaned that they embraced the doc- 
trine of the Holy Scriptures, they ought to be tolerated by 
tbe most zealous protestants. He also wrote several letters 
to the reformed of Bourdeaux, to persuade them that^they 
might be saved in the Bomish church, if they would be 
reconciled to it. 

, This work, as might be expected, exasperated the pro- 
tesstants against him; and to avoid their resentment, lie 
crossed the water to England, in 1686, where James II. 
was endeavouring to re*establish popery. There he re- 
ceived deacon's and priest's orders, from the bands of 
Turner^ bishop of Ely; and, in 1687, published a book 
against Jurieu, entitled ^* Theological Essays concerning 
Providence and Grace, &c." This exasperated that mi- 
Vol. XXIV. G 



82 - P A P I N. 

oister so mucbj that when be knew Papin was attemptiBg 
to obtain some employ as a professor in Grermanyi be dis- 
persed letters every where in order to defeat bis applica- 
tions ; and, tbough he procured a preacher's place at Ham- 
burghy Jurieu found means to get him dismissed in a few 
months. About this time bis ^^ Faith reduced to just 
bounds" coming into the hands of Bayle, that \yriter added 
some pages to it, and printed it. These additions were 
ascribed by Jurieu to our author, who did not disavow the 
principal maxims laid down, which were condemned in the 
synod of Bois-le-duc in J 687. In the mean time, an offer 
being made him of a professo»*s chair in the church of the 
French refugees at Dantzic, he accepted it : but it being 
afterwards proposed to him to conform to the synodical de- 
crees of the Walloon churches^ in the United Provinces, 
and to subscribe them, he refused to .comply ; because 
there were some opinions asserted in those decrees which 
he could not assent to, particularly that doctrine which 
maintained that Christ died only for the elect. Those who 
^ had invited him to Dantzic, were highly offended at his 
refusal ; and he was ordered to depart, as soon as he bad 
completed the half year of his preaching, which had been 
contracted for. He was dismissed in 1689, and not long 
after embraced the Roman catholic religion ; delivering his 
abjuration into the hands of Bossuet^ bishop of Meaux^ 
Nov. 15, 1690. 

Upon this change, Jurieu wrote a pastoral letter to those 
of the reformed religion at Paris, Orleans, and Blois ^ in 
which be pretended that Papin, had always looked upon aU 
religions as indifferent, and in that* spirit had returned to 
the Roman church. In answer to this letter, Papin drew 
up a treatise, *^ Of the Toleration of the Protestants, and 
df the Authority of the Church." The piece, being ap-» 
proved by the bishop of Meaux, was printed in 1692 : the 
author afterwards changed its title, which wa&.a little equi* 
vocal, and made some additions to it ; but, while he was 
employed in making collections to complete it farther, and 
finish other books upon the same subject, be died at Paris 
the 19th of June, 1709. His widow, who also embraced 
the Roman catholic religion, communicated these papers, 
which were made use of in a new edition printed at large 
in 1719, 12mo. M.Pajon of the Oratory, his. relation, 
published all his << Theological Works/' 1723, 3 vols. 



P A P I N I A N. 83 

I 

^3mo : they are all in French, and written with shrewdness 
and ability.* 

PAPINIAN, a celebrated Roman lawyer, born in the 
year 175, was advocate of the treasury or exchequer, and 
afterwards pretorian prefect under the emperor Severus^ 
about the year 194. This emf»eror had so high an opinion 
of his worth, that at his death he recommended his sons 
Caracalla and Geta to his care : but the first, having mur- 
dered his brother, enjoined Papinian to compose a dis- 
course, to excuse that barbarity to the senate and people. 
Papinian could not be prevailed on to comply with this : 
but on the contrary answered boldly, that it was easier to 
commit a parricide than to excuse it ; and to accuse an 
innocent person, after taking away his life, was a second 
parricide. Caracalla was so much enraged at this answer, 
that be ordered Papinian to be beheaded, which sentence 
was executed in the year 212, when he was in his thirty- 
seventh year, and his body was dragged through the streets 
of Rome. He bad a great number of disciples, and com- 
posed several works : among those, twenty-seven books of 
" Questions in the Law ;" nineteen books of ** Responses 
or • Opinions ;" two of "Definitions;" two others upon 
** Adultery ;" and a single book upon the " Laws of Edilea." 
His reputation was so great, that he is called " the honour 
of jurisprudence, and the treasure of the laws." * 
PAPIRE-MASSON. See MASSON. 
PAPPUS, a very eminent Greek of Alexandria, flou- 
rished, according to Suidas, uiider the emperor Thebdo- 
sius the Great, from the year 379 to 395, and acquired 
deserved fame as a consummate mathematician. Many of 
his works are lost, or at least hare not yet been discovered. 
Suidas and Vossius mention as the principal of them, his 
•* Mathematical Collections," in 8 books, of which the first 
and parj: of the second are lost; a " Commentary upon 
Ptolomy's Almagest;" an "Universal Chorography';" " A 
Description of the Rivers of Libya ;" a treatise of " Mili- 
tary Engines ;" " Commentaries upon Aristarcbus of Sa- 
jnos, concerning the Magnittide and Distance of tbe Sun 
and Moon," &c. Of these, there have been published, 
*< The Mathematical Collections," in a Latin translation, 
with a large GOtnmentary, by Commandine, in 1 588, folio ; 
reprinted in 1660. In 1644, Mersenne exhibited an 

1 Cbaufepie.— Niceron, rol. IT.— Mosheim. ' Moreri.— Saxii Oooma^t, 



/ 



8* PAPPUS. 

abridgiiieilt of them in his ^* Synopsis Mathematical' in 
4l:o, containing only such propositions as could b^ UbdiBr^. 
stdod withoiit figiHe^. In 1655^ Mieibomius gave som6 of 
the Lemmata of the seventh book^ in his *^ Dialogue upott 
Proporti^nsv^' In 1688> Dr. Wallis printed the last twelve 
propositions o^ the Isecbod book, at the end of his *^ Aris* 
tarehuis Safi&itis." In 1703, Dr. David Gregory gave part 
of the preface of the seventh book, in the Prolegoitiena to 
his Euclid. And in 1706, Dr. Halley exhibited that pre- 
fa<Je entire, iti the beginning of his " Apollonius." Dr. 
Hiitton^ in his Dictionary, has given an excellent analyst's 
of the " Mathematical Colle^ttens.'' * 

PARABOSCO (Jeromb), an Italian cowic writer, born 
at Piacentia, in the beginning of the sixteenth centuryy 
was an author of some eu^nence in hiis time. Bis come^ 
dies have a eertain chariicter of originality, which still, in 
some tJegree^ supports their credit. They are six in num*> 
ber, five in pro»e> and one in vei'se. The best edition i» 
that printed at Venice, in 1560, in two small volumes, dud-^ 
deciitoo. There is a volume of letters by him, entitled 
" Lettere Amorosie di M. Girolamo Parabosco^" printed 
also at Venice in 1545. These were republished in 154S, 
^ con alcune Novelle e Rime ;" and these is a volume af 
**Rime" alone, printed by Giolitoat Venice, in 1547, 8vo. 
He compois^ed also, novels iti the style of Boccacio and 
Bandelli, which were published at Venice in 1552, under 
the title of "I Diporti di M. Girolamo Parabosca," and 
reprinted in 1558, 1564, 1586, and 1598, and lately in- 
serted in the collection entitled '* Novelliero Italiano,** 
1791, 26 vols. Svo, with the imprint of Londra for Livorno. 
The work consists of three days, or ** Giornate ;" the first 
and second of which .comprise sixteen tales, and four cu- 
rious questions. The third contains several <' Motti,^' or 
bon^mots, with a few madrigals, and other short poems. 
There is also a volume by him entitled " Oracolo," thi$^ 
oracle, published at Venice, in 1551, in 4to. In this the 
author gives answers to twelve questions proposed in the 
beginning of the book ; which answers ate given and varied 
according to some rules laid down in the preface. It ap- 
pears that Parabosco lived chiefly, if not entirely, at Ve- 
nice, as all his books were pifblished there. His ** Di« 
porti,*' or Sports> open with a panegyric upon that city.* 

.1 Hntton'f Dictionwy.^Vossius de Soiejit Mftth.-*Saxii Onomast. 
3 Crescembini Hist, delta Voig. Poes. rol. lib. III. cap. 25.— Urunet Ma- 
nuel du Libraire. 



PARACELSUS. 85 

PARAC£LSU8 (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus), 
a man of a strange and paradoxical genius, and classed by 
Brucker among the Theosophists, wat born, as is generally 
supposed (for his birth-place is a disputed matter), fit Ein- 
fidleo nearZurick, in 1493. His family name, which was 
B(n»ha$tusj he afterwards changed, according to the custom 
of the age, into Paracelsus. His father, who was a phy- 
sician, instructed him in that science, but, as it would ap- 
pear, in nothing else, for he was almost totally ignorant 
of the learned languages. So earnest was he, however, 
to penetrate into the mysteries of nature, that, neglect- 
i^g books, he. undertook long and hasardous journeys 
tbiTQUgh Qermany, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Hungary, Mos- 
covy, and probably several parts of Asia and Africa. He 
QOt only visited literary and learned men, but frequented 
the workshops of mect^anies, descended into mines, and 
tlniugbt no place mean or hazardous, if it aflbrded him an 
opportunity of increasing bis knowledge of nature. He 
also consulted barber*surgeons, monks, conjurors, old 
woioen, qoaoks of every description, and every person who 
prfiiendad to be possessed of any secret art, particularly 
«aob as were skilled iri metallurgy. Being in this manner 
a self-taught pbilociopher and physician, he despised the 
medical writings of the ancients, and boasted that the 
whole contents of his library would not amount to six folios. 
}Ie appears indeed to have written more than he ever 
read. His quackery consisted in certain new and secret 
medicines procured from metallic substances by the che- 
mical art, which he administered with such wonderful suc- 
cess, . that be rose to the summk of popular fame, and even 
obtained the professorship of medicine at Basil. One of 
his nostrums be called Azoth, which he said was the philo- 
sopher's stOfie, 'the medical panacea^ ||nd his disciples ex- 
U^led it as the tincture of life, given through the dii^ine 
favour to man in these last days. But while his irregular 
practice^ aiid arrogant invectives against other physicians, 
cir^ted him many enemies, his^ rewards were by no means 
i4equate to bis*^ vanity and ambition ; and be met frequently 
with mortifications, one of which determined him to leave 
Basil. A wealthy canon who happened to fall sick at that 
pUce^ offered .hira a hundred florins to cure his disease, 
fyhicb Paracelsus easily effected with three pills of opidm^. 
one of his most powerful medicines. The canon, restored 
to health so soon, and apparently by such slight means^ 



S6 PARACELSUS. 

refused to stand to bis engagement. Paracelsus brought 
the matter before the magistrate, who decreed him only 
the usual fee. Inflamed with violent indignation at the 
contempt which was thus thrown upon his art, he railed at 
the canon, the magistrate, and the whole city, and leaving 
Basil, withdrew into Alsace, whither bis medical fame and 
success followed him. After two years, during which tihie 
he practised medicine in the principal families of the coun- 
try, about the year 1530 he removed into Switzerland, 
where be conversed with Bullinger and other divines. 
From this time, he seems for many years to have roved 
through various parts of Germany and Bohemia. At last, 
in the year 1541, he died in the hospital of St. Sebastian, 
in Saltsburg. 

Different and even contradictory judgments have been 
forqned by the learned concerning Paracelsus. His ad- 
mirers and followers have celebrated him as a perfect mas- 
tjer of all philosophical and medical mysteries, have called 
him the medical Luther^ and have even been weak enough 
to believe that he was possessed of the grand secret of con- 
verting inferior metals into gold. But others, and parti«» 
cularly some of his contemporaries, have charged his whole 
medical practice with ignorance, imposture, and impu- 
dence. J. Crato, in an epistle to Zwinger, attests, that in 
Bohemia his medicines, even when they performed an ap- 
parent cure, left his patients in such a state, that they soon 
^fter died of palsies or epilepsies. Erastus, who was for 
two years one of his pupils, wrote an entire book to detect 
bis impostures. We have mentioned his want of educa- 
tion, iand it is even asserted, that he was so imperfect a 
master of his vernacular tongue, that he was obliged to 
have his German writings corrected by another hand. His 
adversaries c^so charge him with the most contemptible ar- 
rogance, the most vulgar scurrility, the grossest intem- 
perance, and the most detestable impiety. Still it Appears, 
that with all these defects, by the mere help of physical 
knowledge and the chemical arts, he obtained an uncom- 
mon share of medical fame; while to support bis credit 
with the ignorant, he pretended to an intercourse with iii- 
' visible spirits, and to divine illuminations. 

With regard to his system of chemistry, in which his 
real merit lies, the fundamental doctrines of it resolved 
fsvery thing into three elements, salt, sulphur, and mer- 
cury, and were for a long time received, although in fact 



PARACELSUS. 87 

they were borrowed from bis predecessor, Basil Valentine. 
His medical skill consisted principally in tbe bold adminis- 
tration of some poweil'ul remedies, which bad been here* 
tofore thought too dangerous to be used, particularly opitim, 
a drug with which, it is obvious, he would be able in many 
instances toaflbrd great and speedy relief; but with which 
also few permanent cures could be effected, and much 
mischief would necessarily be produced, when it was mis- 
applied. Antimony and mercury were also medicines which 
he liberally prescribed, and he used various preparations 
of them of the most active kind. He deserves the praise^ 
however, of having been one of the first to employ mercury 
for the care of the venereal disease, and of course he 
must have been successful in a degree, to which none of 
bis contemporaries^ who did not resort to that remedy, 
oottld attain. From his total ignorance of anatomy and ra«> 
tional physiology, bis inability from want of literature to 
investigate the doctrines of the ancients, which he never- 
theless boldly impdgned, and bis employment of a bar* 
barous jargon, as well as bis infatuated notions of magic, 
a&trology, geomancy, and all the other branches of mysti- 
cal imposture, be is, as a theorist, beneath contempt. We 
shall not pretend, therefore, to enter into any detail of the 
unintelligible jargon and absurd hypotheses which he Em- 
ployed, or to enumerate the immense farrago of treatises,^ 
which made their appearance under bis name after his 
death, the notices of which occupy above nine quarto 
pages in the Bibliotheca of Haller : for the first we are 
unable to comprehend, and tbe latter would be a waste of 
time. The most complete edition is that of Geneva, 1658, 
3 vols, folio.' ^ 

PARADIN (WiLLUM), a French historian, and labo- 
rious writer of the sixteenlb century, was still living- in 
1581, and was then turned fourscore. He was the author 
of many works, among which the following are remarka- 
ble : 1. '^ The History of Aristeeus, respecting the version 
of tbe Pentateuch," 4to. 2. ** Historia sui temporis,"' 
written in Latin, but best known by a French version which 
was published in 1558. 3. ** Annales de Bourgogne," 
1 566, folio. This history, by no means well dfgested, be- 
gins at the year 378, and ends in 1482^ 4. ** De moribus 

1 Brucker.— Haller.— Tiiom80ii*s Hist, of the Royal Society. *-Eloy, Diet. 
Hist de MediciDe.— Reea's Cyclopaidia. 



aa P A R A D I N. 

GaUii&9 Historia/? 4to. 5. << Mew^ir69 de THUtQife de 
Lyon/' 1625, folio. 6. <' De rebus in Belgio, i^nno IS4>3 
gestis,"1543, 8vo. 7. " La Chronique de Sayoie," 1602^ fol. 
9. '* Historia GaUiae, a Fraa<;iaci 1, coronaijone ad annum 
1550.'* 9. " Historia Kcclesiae GaUican®," 10* ^* Me* 
moralia inaignium Franci® Famiiiarum." H^ was an eccle*- 
siastiCy and becaoie dean of Beauji^u* ' * 
. PARCIEUX, or rather DEPARGIEUX (Antbony), atk 
able matbematiciau, was .bora in 1703, ai a hamlet Mar 
Nismesy of iiidustrious but poor parj^uts, who were noable 
^o give him education ; be soon, however, found a patron>^ 
who. placed him in the college at Lyons, where he made 
astonishing progress in roatheoiaticst. ^ On bis ftrrival at 
Paris, he was obliged to accept, of humble employment 
from tbe matbematieal icistrument makers, .until his worba 
brought him into notice. Tbijse ;wefe^ 1. ** Table astro- 
nomiques," 1740, 4to« 2» ^^ Trait6 de trigonometfie rec^ 
tiUgffie et spberique, avec un trait^ ue: gnomonique et des 
tables de logarithm's," 174.1, 4to.. 3* *^ £^$a] sur leaparof- 
babliit^s de la dur^e de la vie. bam^iae,". 1746, 4to. 4.. 
"Reponae aux objections coatre ce livre," 1746,, 4to* 5. 
^ Additions a reasai, &c/V 1760, 4to. €i. >f Memoires'suT' 
la possibility et la facility d'ameoer aupres de I'Estrapad^ 
a Paris, les eaux de la riviere d'Yvet^te," 1763, 4to, jre*i> 
printed^ with additions, in 1777. It was always Depar- 
cLeux^s object to turn bia knowledge: of mathematics ta 
practical purposes, and in the memoirs of the aeademy.-of 
sciences are many excellent papers which be contributed 
with this view. He also introduced some ingenious iin<» 
provt;inent9 in machinery. He was censor-royal and mem-*- 
ber of the academy of sciences at Paris, and of those of 
Berlin, Stockbolm, Metz, Lyons, and. . Montpellier. He 
died at Paris Sept.. 2, 1768, aged sixty-iive. He had m 
nephew of the same namei burn in 1763, who was edu^ 
cated at tbe college of Navarre at Paris, where he studied 
mathematics and philosophy, and at the age of twenty*-, 
ibur gave public lectures. In 1779 be began a course of 
experimental philosophy, in the militaryschoolof Brienne; 
after which, he occupied the philosophical professorship 
at the Lyceum in Paris, where he died June 23, 1799, in 
a state bordering on indigence. He wrote a ^^ Trait6 ele<> 
mentaire de Mathennatiques," for the- use of students; 

1 Diet. Hist. — Le Long Bibl. Hist, de France. 



P A R C I E U X. ' »9 

" Tr^it^ d«s aomiu^fr ou dea reotet a teirme,'' 178l» 4to ; 
" Disseitatioo sur le moyen d'elever Teau par ia rotation 
4'ane corde verticale vans 6u/' Amst 1782» Hvo; ** Dis** 
sertation aur les globes areoatottques,^* Paris^ 1783^ 8va« 
He left also some uiifioiabed works ; and a ^^ Coiirs complet 
^. physique et de cbimie/' was in the press when he diftd.^ 

PARDIES (10NAT1U3 Gastok), an ingenious French 
SBattiematit^ian and philosopher, was born at PaU| in the 
provint*e of Gascony^ in 1636; his father being a conn** 
i^eilor of the parltaoient of that city. At the age of sixteen 
be entered into the order of Jesuits, aad-oiaJe so greaS 
proficiency in his studies, that he taoght polite literature^ 
and composed many pieces in prose and verse withconsi^ 
d^rs^ie delicacy of thought and style, before be wastwell 
arrived at the age of manhood. Propriety and elegance of 
lAi^Ut^e appear to have been his first parsuits, for which 
parpose he «tudi0d the belles lettres^ but afterward^ h«i 
devoted himself to matbematioai and philosophical studies^ 
and-iPead, with due attention, the most valuable authors, 
ancieiut and modern, in those sciences.. By^sttcfa assidiiity^ 
ift a 3bort time he m^de himself master of the Peripatetic 
and Cartesian philosophy, and taught them both with gMati 
reputation. .Notwithstanding he embraced Cartesianism^^ 
yet he affected to be rather an iniremor. in pbalosophy bim^H 
self. Ia this ^pint he soi^ietimes advanced very bold opii*. 
niona in natural philosophy^ which met with opposers, who 
charged him with starting absurdities : but he was inge*-' 
aioua enough to g^ve. his notions a pkuisible turn, so as to> 
dear them seemingly fcom contradtotions. .His reputation 
procured him a call to Paris, as |nrolessor of rhetoric in the; 
college of . Louis the Great* He also, taught the matbe<-' 
maiics in that city, as he had before done in other places ; 
but the high expectations, which his. writings very reason^^ 
ably created, were all disappointed by his early death, in 
1673, at tbirty«^even years of age. He fell a victim to his' 
:9eal, having caught a contagious disorder by preaching tcr 
the prisoners in. the Bicetre. 

Pardies wrote with great neatness and elegance. His 
principal works are as follow: 1. <^ Herologium Thauma* 
ticum.duplex,*' 1662, 4to. 2,^' Dissertatio de Motu et 
Natura Cometarum,*' 1665, 8vo. 3. ^< Discours du Mouve- 
ment Local,*' 1670, l2mo. 4. " Elemens de Geometric," 

1 fiiog; Utilv* art. Deparcieux. 



9t> P A R D I E S. 

1670^ 12mo. This has been translated into several Ian-* 
guages; in English by Dr. Harris, in 171 1. 5.** Discours 
de la Connoissance des Betes,** 1672, 12mo. €. ^' Lettre 
d'un Pbilosophe a un Cartesien de ses amis," 1672, 12mo. 
7. *^ La Statique ou ia Science ^es Forces Mouvantes,*' 
1673, 12ino. 8. ^< Description et Explication de deux 
Machines propres a faire des Cadrans avec une graade fa- 
cility,*' 1673, 12mo. 9# ^^ Remarques du Mouvement de 
la Lumiere." 10. ^^ Globi Coelestis in tabula plana redact! 
Descriptio,*' 1675, folio. Part of bis works were printed 
together, at tbe Hague, 1691, l2n)o; and again at Lyons, 
1725. Pardies had a dispute also with sir Isaac Newton, 
about his new theory of light and colours, in 1672. His 
letters are inserted in the Philosophical Transaotionsfor 
that year.' 

PARE' (Ambkose), a French surgeon of eminence^ was 
born at Laval, in the district of the Maine, in 1509. He 
commenced the study of his profes^on early in life, .and 
practised it with great zeal both in hospitals and in tbe army ; 
and when his reputation was at its height, he was appointed 
surgeon in ordinary to king Henry II. in 1552; and he 
held the same office under the succeeding kings, FrancisIL 
Charles IX. and Heury III. To Charles IX. especiatiy^ 
he is said to have on one occasion conferred great profes- 
sional benefits, when some formidable symptoms had been 
produced by the accidental wound of a tendon in yenesec* 
tion, which he speedily removed. His services app^ir to 
have been amply acknowledged by the king ; who spared 
him in the horrible. massacre of St. Bartholomew's, although 
a protestant. ^^ Of all those,*' says the * duke of Sully, 
<* who were about the person of this prince (Charles IX.) 
none possessed so great a. diare of his confidence as Am* 
brose Par^, his surgeon. This man, though a Huguenot, 
lived with him in so great adegree of familiarity, that, on 
the day of the massacre, Charles telling him, the time was 
now come wheu' the whole kingdom would be catholics ; 
he replied, without being alarmed, * By the light, of God, 
sire, I cannot believe that, you have forgot yoor promise 
never to command me to do four things ; namely, to enter 
into my mother's womb^, to be present in the day of bat^ 

* This absurd promise seems injtended as an illatiratioii of the impossibility 
of tbe king's breaking his word with him in tbe other cases. ^ 

1 Cbaufepie.«^Niceron, I. and X.—Martin's Biog. Philos.'— Mutton's Diet. 



PARE'. 91 

tie, to quit your service, or to go to mass.' The king 
soon after took him aside, and disclosed to him freely the 
trouble of his soul : * Ambrose/ said he, ^ I know not nrfiat 
has happened to me these two or three days past, but I 
feel my mind and body as much at enmity with each other, 
as if I was seized with a fever ; sleeping or waking, the 
murdered Huguenots seem ever present to my eyes, with 
ghastly faces, and weltering in blood. I wish the innocent 
and helpless bad been spared !* The order which was pub- 
lished the following day, forbidding the continuance of the 
massacre, was in consequence of this conversation.*' Par^, 
after having been long esteemed as the first surgeon of his 
tbae, and beloved for his private virtues, died Dec. 20, 
1590, at the age of eighty-one; and as he was buried in 
the church of St. Andrew, Eloy would from that circum* 
stance infer that he died a Roman catholic, of which we 
have no proof. 

> Par6 was not a man of learning, although we meet with 
I^rned references and numerous quotations from the 
ancients, in his writings ; but he must*be considered as a: 
bold and successful operator, and a real improver of his 
art ; particularly in the practice of tying divided arteries, 
which he effected by drawing' them out naked, and passing 
a ligature over them ; and in the treatment of gun-shot 
wounds. Even in anatomy, in which he did not excel, he 
was, by frequent dissections, enabled to add some obser- 
vations of his own to what he had borrowed from Vesalius. 
As an author he bad high fame, and his works were uni- 
versally read and translated into most of the languages of 
Europe. His first treatise, '* Maniere de traiter les playes 
faites par harquebuses,- fleches, &c.*' was published at Pa<» 
ris in 1545, and again in 1552 and 1564. He afterwards 
laboured strenuously to put his brethren in possession of a 
body of surgical science in their native tongue ; and in 
1 561 published the first edition of his works, in folio. This 
was translated by Thomas Johnson, Lond. 1634, and re* 
printed with additions in 1649. His treatise on gun*shot 
wounds was published by Walter Hammond in 1617, and 
that on the plague in 1630. Numerous editions of his 
whole works were afterwards printed in German, Dutch, 
and French ; and his pupil, Guillemeau, who was also sur* 
geon to Charles IX. and Henry IV. translated them into 
Latin. This translation has been frequently reprinted at 
variousplaces, with the title of ** Ambrosii Parsei, Opera, 



Sl2 PAR E'. 

QOV18 Tconibus elegantissitnis illustrata^ et I^atiuitatd do- 
nata.'* This volume contains twenty^six treatises^ and 
there is no branch of surgery which is not touched upon, in 
the collection. ' 

PARENT (Antony), a French mathematiciaH, was 
born at Paris in 1666. He shewed early a propensity la 
mathematics, eagerly perusing such books at f^l in hit 
way. His custom was to write remarks upon the margins 
of the books which he read ; and he had filled ^ome of 
these with a kind of commentary at the age of thirteen. 
At fourteen he was put under a master who taught rhe* 
toric at Chartres. Here he happened to see a Dodeca* 
^dron, upon every face of which was delineated asun-^dial, 
except the lowest, on which it stood, St;ruck immediately 
with the curiosity of these dials, he set about drawing one 
himself; but, having a book which only shewed the pra(>* 
tical part without the theory, it was not till some time 
after, when his rhetoric-master came to explain the doc- 
trine of the sphere to him, that he began to understand 
how the projection of the circles of the sphere formed sun* 
dials. He then undertook to v^rite a ^< Treatise upon Gno^ 
monies," and the piece was rude ^nd unpolished enough ^ 
but it was entirely his own. About the same time he wrote 
also a book of ^^ Geometry,'* at Beauvais. 

At length his friends sent for him to Paris, to study the 
law ; and, in obedience to them he went through a coarse 
in that faculty, but this was no sooner finished, than, his 
passion for mathematics returning, he shut himself up in 
the college of Dormans, and, with an allowance of less than 
200 livres a year, he lived content in this retreat, which he 
never left but to go to the royal college, in order to hear 
the lectures of M. de la Hire, or M. de Sauveur. As sood 
as he found himself able enough to teach others, he took 
pupils ; and, fortification being a part of mathematics 
which the war had rendered very necessary, be turned his 
attention to that branch ; but after some time began to 
entertain scruples about teaching what he knew only io 
books, having never examined a fortification elsewhere, 
and communicating these scruples to M. Sauveur, that 
friend recommended him to the marquis d*Aligre, who 
happened at that time to want a mathematician in his suite* 
Parent accordingly made two campaigns with the marquis, 

1 Eloy, Diet, Hist, de Medicme.-»Hi|tler.-*Moreri.-*-Kees's Cyclopaedia, , 



PARENT. 9* 

and insCrfticted himself thoroughly by viewing fortified 
places^ of -which be drew a Dumber of plans, though he 
had never received any instruction in that branch. From 
tbia time he assiduounly cultivated natural philosophy, and 
the mathematics in all its branches, both speculative and 
practical ; to which he joined anatomy, botany, and che- 
mistry, and never appears to have been satisfied while 
there was any thing to learn. M. de Billettes being ad- 
mitced into the academy of sciences at Paris in 1699, with 
the tide of their mechanician, nominated for bis eleve or 
disciple. Parent, who excelled chiefly in that branch. It 
was soon found in this society, that he engaged in all the 
various subjects which were.brought before tbem, but often 
with an eagerness and impetuosity, and an impatience of 
contradiction, which involved him in unpleasant disputes 
with the members, who, on their parts, exerted a pettish 
fastidiousness iti examining his papers. He was in parti- 
cular charged with obscurity in his productions ; and in- 
deed the fault was so notorious, that he perceived it him* 
self, ai&d could not avoid correcting it. 

The king having, by a regulation in 1716, suppressed 
the class of eleves of the academy, which seemed to put 
too great an inequality betwixt the members, Parent was 
made a joint or assistant member for geometry; but be 
enjoyed this promotion only a short time, being taken off 
by the small-pox' the same year, aged fifty. He was au-« 
thor of a work,entitled ^^ Elements of Mechanics and Na? 
tural Philosophy ;" " Mathematical and Physical Re- 
searches,'' a sort of journal, which fiirst appeared in 1705, 
and wbioh in 1712 was greatly enlarged, and published m 
three vols. 4to ; and ** A treatise on Arithmetic." Besides 
these, he was the author of a great number of papers in 
the different French " Journals," and in the volumes of the 
^^ Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences," from 1700 to 
1714, and be left behind him in manuscript many works 
of considerable research : among these w^re some com-* 
plete treatises on divers branches of mathematics, and a 
work containing proofs of the divinity of Jesus Christy in. 
four parts. ^. 

PAREDS (David), a celebrated divine of the reformed 
reli^on, was born Dec. 30, 1 548, at Frankenstein in Si- 
lesia, and put to the grammar-school there, apparently; 

1 Cbanfepiei— Niceron, vol. XI.— Moreri. 



94 P A R E U S. 

with a design to breed him to lealrning; but bis father 
marrying a second time, a capricious and narrow-minded 
woman, she prevailed with him to place his son apprentice 
to an apothecary at Breslau ; and afterwards changing her 
mind, the boy was, at her instigation, bound to a shoe- 
maker. Some time after, however, his father resumed 
his first design, and his son, about the age of sixteen, wai^ 
sent to the college-school of Hirchberg, in the neighbour*' 
hood of Frankenstein, to prosecute his studies under Chris- 
topher Schilling, a i^an of considerable learning, who was 
rector of the college. It was customary in those times 
for young^ students who devoted themselves to literature, 
to assume a classical name, instead of that of their family/ 
Schilling was a great admirer of this custom, and easily 
persuaded his scholar to change his German name of 
Wangler for the Greek one of Parens, from ma^&ay a cheeky. 
which Wangler also means in German. Pareus had not 
lived above three months at his father^s expence, when be 
was enabled to provide for bis own support^ partly by 
means of a tutorship in the family, and partly by the 
bounty of Albertus Kindier, one of the principal men of 
the place. He lodged in this gentleman*s house, and 
wrote a poem upon the death of his eldest son, which so 
highly pleased the father, that he not only gave him a 
gratuity for it, but encouraged him to cultivate his poetical 
talents^ prescribing him proper subjects, and rewarding 
bim handsomely for every poem which he presented to 
him. 

In the mean time, his master Schilling, not content with 
making him change his surname, made him also change 
his religious creed, that of the Lutheran church, with re- 
gard to the doctrine of the real presence, and effected the 
same change of sentijinent throughout his^ school; but this 
was not at first attended with the happiest effects, as 
Schilling was expelled from the college, and Pareus's fa- 
ther threatened to disinherit him ; and it was not without 
the greatest difficulty, that he obtained his consent to go 
into the Palatinate, notwithstanding he conciliated his fa- 
ther's parsimony by assuring him that he would continue 
his studies thera without any expence to his family. 
Having thus succeeded in his request, he followed his 
master Schilling, who had been invited by the elector 
Frederic III. to be principal of his new college at 
Amberg, and arrived there in 1566. Soon after he was 



P A R £ U S. 95 

sent, with ten of bis school-fellows, to Heidelberg, where 
Zacbary Ursiuus was professor of divinity, and rector of 
the college of Wisdom. Tbe university was at that time 
in a most flourishing condition, with regard to every one 
of the faculties ; and Parens had consequently every ad* 
vantage that could be desired, and made very great pro- 
ficiency, both in the learned languages and in philosophy 
and divinity. He was admitted into tbe ministry in 1571, 
and in May that year sent to exercise his function in a viU 
lage called Schlettenbach, where very violent contests 
subsisted between the Protestants and Papists. The elec- 
tor palatine, his patron, had asserted his claim by main 
force against the bishop of Spire, who maintained, that the 
right of nomination to the livings in the corporation of 
Alfestad was vested in his chapter. The elector allowed 
it, but with this reserve, that since he had the right of pa- 
tronage, the nominators were obliged, by the peace of 
Passaw, to present pastors to him whose religion he ap- 
proved. By virtue of this right, he established the reformed 
religion in that corporation, and sent Pareus to propagate 
it in the province of Schlettenbach, where, however, he 
met with many difficulties before be could exercise his 
ministry in peace. Before the end of the year he was called 
back to teach the third class at Heidelberg, and acquitted 
himself so well, that in two years* time he was promoted to 
the second class ; but he did not hold this above six months, 
being made principal pastor of Hemsbach, in the diocese 
t>f Worms. Here he met with a people more ready to 
receive the dpctrines of tbe Reformation than those of 
Schlettenbach, and who cheerfully consented to destrov 
the images in the church, and other remains of former 
superstition. A few months after his arrival he married 
the sister of John Stibelius, minister of Hippenheim ; and 
the nuptials being solemnized Jan. the 5tb, 1574, publicly 
in the church of Hemsbach, excited no little curiosity and 
surprize among the people, to whom the marriage of a 
clergyman was a new thing. They were, however, easily 
reconciled to the practice, when they came to know what 
St.' Paul teaches concerning the marriage of a bishop in 
his epistles to Timothy and Titus. Yet such was the un- 
happy state of this country, rent by continual .contests 
about religion, that no sooner was Popery, the common 
enemy, rooted out, than new disturbances arose, between 
the Lutherans and Calvinists. After the death of the elec- 



96 p A R E u a. 

tor Frederic III. in 1577, hit ton Louis, a very sealon 
Luiberan, established every wfaere in tkiat domioioiis miiiia*> 
ters of that persuasron, to tbe exclusion of the Sacrainen- 
tarians, or Calvinists, by which measare Pareus lost bis 
living at Hemsbach, and retired into the territories of 
prince Jobn of Casiniir, the elector^s brother. He was 
now chosen minister at Ogersheim^ near Fraokenthal, 
ffbere he continued three years^ land then removed to Win* 
zingen, near Neustadt, at which last place prince Casiniir^ 
in 1578y bad founded a school, and settled there all tbe 
professors that had been driven from Heidelberg. This 
rendered Winziugen much more agreeable, as well as ad^^ 
vantageous ; and, upon tbe death of tbe elector Louis, in 
1583, tbe guardianship of his son, to^getiier with the ad* 
ministration of the palatinate, devolved upon prince Casi* 
mir, who restored the Calvihist ministers, and' Parens ob* 
tained the second chair in the college of Wisdom at Hei<^ 
delberg, in Sept. 1584. He commenced author two years 
afterwards, by printing his '^ Method of tbe Ubiquitariati 
controversy;*' ^^Methodus Ubtquitarias controversisB." He 
also printed an edition of the ** German Bible,** with notes, 
at Neustadt, in 1589^, which occasioned a warm controversy 
between him and James Andreas, an eminent Lutheran 
divine of Tubingen. 

In 1591, lie was made first professor in his college; u^ 

1592, counsellor to the ecclesiastical senate; and in 1593, 

was admitted doctor of divinity in the most solemn mannen 

He had already bekl several disputes against tbe writers of 

the Augsburg Confession, but that of 1596 was tbe most 

cotisi'.ierable, in which he had to defend Calvin against 

tbe imputation of favouring Judaism, in his Commentaries 

iipon several parts of Scripture. In 1595, he was pro* 

moted to the chair of divinity professor for the Old Tes*- 

tanient in his university ; by which he was eased of the great 

fatigue he had undergone for fourteen years, in governing 

the youth who were educated at the college of Wisdom. 

Tossanus, professor of divinity for the New Testament, dy« 

ing in 1602, Pareus succeeded to that chair, and a few 

years after he bought a bouse in tbe suburbs of Heidel- 

burg, and built in the gairden an apartment for his library, 

which he called bis ^' Pareanum." In this he took great 

delight, and the whole bouse went afterwards by that 

name, the elector having, out of respect to him, honoured 

it with several privileges and immunities. At tbe same 



1> A R E US. ' ^1 

time^ his reputation spreading'it^elf every where, brought 
young students to hiov from the remotest parts of Hun- 
gary and Poland. 

In 1617 au evangelical jubilee w^s instituted in memory 
of the church's deliverance from popery an hundred years 
before, when Luther began to preach. The solemnity 
lasted three days, during which orations, disputations, 
poems, and sermons^, were delivered on the occasion. Pa- 
rens also published some pieces on the subject, which 
drew upon him the resentment of the. Jesuits of Mentz ; 
and a controversy took, place between them. The fol- 
lowing year,. 1618, at the instance of the States General, 
he was pressed to go to the synod of Dort, but excused 
himself on account of age ahcl infirmities. After this tim0 
he enjoyed but little tranquillity, ' The apprehensions he 
had of the ruin which his patron the elector Palatine would 
bring upon himself by accepting the crown of Bohemia, 
obliged him to change his habitation. He appears to have 
terrified himself with a, thousand petty alarms, real or 
imaginary, and therefore his friends, in order to relieve 
him from this timidity of disposition, advised him to take 
refuge in the town of Anweil, in the dutchy of Deux- 
Ponts, near Landau, at which he arrived in Oct. 1621. He 
left that place, hqwever, some months after, and went to 
Neustadt, where bis courage reviving, he determined to 
return to Heidelberg, wishing to pass his last moments at 
his beloved Pareanum, and be burled near the professors 
of the university. His wish was accordingly fulfilled; for 
he died at Pareanum June 15^ 1622, and was interred with 
all the funeral honours which the universities in Germany 
usually bestow on their members. , 

He left a son named Philip, who wrote the life of his 
father. Although Pareus was a great enemy to innovations, 
yet his " Irenicum'* proves that he was a friend to conci- . 
liation, and his services in promoting the reformedretigion 
were very extensive. ,His exegetical- works were pub- 
lished , by his son at Francfort in 1647, in 3 vols, folio. 
Among these are his "Commentary upon St. Paul's iEpistle 
to the Romans,*' in 1617,; which gave such offence to 
James L of England, as containing some anti-mon£^rchical 
principles, that he caused it to be burnt by the, common 
hangman ; and the university of Oxford also condemned it. 
It was refuted by David Owen, who was D. D. arid chap- 
lain to John Ramsay, viscount Haddington and earl oi 

Vol. XXIV. H 



Holderness, io apiece entitled " Anti-taraus, sive deter- 
'^minatio de jure regio habitk C^ntabfi^id^ ih scholis tfaeolo- 
gicis, 19 April, 1619, contra Davidem Pkraeum, caeterbs- 
que refofmatde religionis ^n'titnonaYdbds/* Caritab. 1%32, 
'8vo. He had before pubRsbed " The Cbncord of a Papist 
and Puritan, for the doerci6ti, depoBition, and ktlliog of 
kings,'* C^tnb. 1610, 4to.* 

PARE US (John PfirLiP), Soft of the preceding, one elf 
the taost laborious grammariails that Germany ever pro- 
duced, was born ^t Hembacb, May 24, 1576. He began 
"his studies sit Neustadt, continued thetn at fieidelberg, 
"ancf afterwards "visited some df the foWign tiniversities, at 
*the expence of thie elector Palatine, where he was always 
courteously received, not only dn account of his own merits 
but his father's high re^utatioii. Among others, he re- 
'iJeived great ' civilities from Isaac ;Casaubon at Paris. Ih 
1612, he wis' made rector of the coUege of Neustadt, which 
post be held till the plaCe was taken by the Spaniards iiF 
1622, when he was ordered by thoden'ew masters to leave 
the country immediately, at which tirne his library was 
lalso pldndfered by the soldiers. He ptiblisHed several boo°ks 
on gi^n\tbaiticat subject's, sLtid Was remarkably fond of Plau- 
'tus. This Are'w him into a dispute with John Gruter, pro- 
fessor'at tieiddbefrg, in 1 620, Whieh Was carried to such 
a height, that neither the desolatioh which ruined both 
'their urtivtefsities and their libraries, and reduced their 
persons to the greatest extremities; nor even their banish- 
ment, proved sufficient to restrain theif atiitnosity, or in- 
'cline them to the forbearance ' of mutual sufferers. Philip 
Also undertook the cause of his late fathisr against Oweri, 
mentioned in the last article, V^hom'he answered in a 
'piece entitled " Anti-Owetlils,'* &c. He was principal of 
^several colleges, as he was bf that at tlanau in 1645. The 
dedication of his^ father^s e^tegetlcal works shews him to he 
living in 1 647, and Saxnis corijectures that he died the 
following yfear. The satte wWt^r iftforms us that his lirst 
publication was ** CastigatioU^s in brevem et maledicam 
aditaonitionem Jbannis Magiri Jesuits predicantis apud 
Nemetes'Spiratites,'* Heidelberg, 16()8, 8vo. This refers 
to a controversy which his father had with Magirus, the 
Jesuit. 'He 'wrbte also soiDe comtnentaries upon 'the "Holy 
Scriptures,^' and other theological works. He published 



A .Qen. Dict.-^Lif0 by hiirion.^MortH.'-'4ftxiiO*«nait. 



P A R E U -S. 9» 

"Maatqs,** in 1609, with notes; also a ." Lexicon Plau- 
.tinum,'* in 1614; «* Analecta Plautina/* in 1617 ; a trea- 
.tise <' De imitatione TerentianSl, ubi Plautum imitatus est,*' 
1617; a second edition of <* Plautus/' in 1619, and of 
the ** Analecta Plautina/^ in 1620, and again in 1623. R« 
also published a third edition of his '^Plautus'' in I64i. 
The " Prolegomena" which it contains of that poet's life, 
, the character of his versification, and the nature of his co- 
medy, have been prefixed entire to the Delphin edition. 
Re published his answer to Gruter in 1620, with this title^ 
'^ Provocatio ad senatuni criticuoi pro Plauto et electis 
jPlautinis;" and more of this angry controversy may be 
seen in. the long preface prefixed to his ** Analecta Plati- 
tina/^ He also published *^ Calligraphia Romana, sive 
Thesaurus phtasium linguae Latinse," in 1620; and <^ Electa 
Symmachiana, Lexicon Symmachianum, Calligraphia Syik-' 
machiana,'^ in 1617, 8vo: to which we may add his father's 
life, " Narratio de curriculo vit» et obitu D. Parei,'* 1633, 
8vo. ' 

PAREUS (Daniel), son of the preceding, trod in the 
«atepsof his father, applied himself vigorously to the study 
of the classics, and published several laborious pieced i 
for which he was obliged to Vossius, who had a great re- 
spect for him, and made it his business to procure book- 
sellers who would print his works. He was unfortunately 
killed, in 1635, by a gang of highwaymen, or, as others say, 
by some soldiers at the siege of Keiserslauteren. He was 
a considerable master of Greek. His publications are, 1. 
'* The Poem of Mussbus upon the Loves of Hero and Le- 
ander, with notes," 1627. 2. " Mellificium Atticum," a 
thick 4to, being a collection of sentences extracted from 
Greek authors, which he dedicated to the university of 
Oxford. 3. Medulla Historise Ecclesiasticae," in 1631 ; tq 
which he added ** Notes." 4. An edition of Lucretiiis, 
Fjfancfort, 1631, Svo. 5. " Historia Bavarico-Palatina,'* 
1633. 6. '^ Spiciiegium subsecivum," or notes upon Quin« 
tiiian, published in an edition of that author at London, in 
1641, 8vo.* 

PARIS (Francis), usually called the Abb6 Paris, would 
not have deserved notice here unless for certain impostures 
connected with his name, in which, however, he had ho 
hand. He was )>orn at Paris^ and was the eldest soil of a 

^ 1 Gen. Dict.*-Freheri Theatnin.— ^Moreri.-^'Saxii Onomatt. 
* Gen, Diet.— Mortri.— Saxii OnomMt. 

H 2 
I 



100 PARIS. 

<;ounseIIor to the parliament, whom he was to hav.e suc- 
ceeded in that office ; but he preferred the ecclesmsticai 
profession; and, when his parents were dead, resigned 
the whole inheritance to his brother, only reserving to 
himself the right of applying for necessaries. He was a 
^man, says the abb6 L'Avbcat, of the tnost devout temper, 
. and who to great candour of mind joined great gentleness 
. of manners. He catechized, during some time, in the 
parish of St. Cdme ; undertook the direction of the clergy, 
and held conferences with theni. Cardinal de Noailles, to 
. whose cause be was attached, wanted to make him curate 
. of that parish, but found many obstacles to his plan ; and 
M. Paris, after different asylums, where he had lived ex- 
tremely retired, confined himself in a house in the faux- 

. bourg St. Marcoul, where, sequestered from the world, he 
devoted himself wholly to prayer, to the practice of the 
most rigorous penitence, and to labouring with bis, hands, 
having for that purpose learnt to weave Istockingsi. ' He 
was one of those who opposed the bull Unigenitus, and 
was desirous also to be an author, and wrote ^* Explications 
of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans," to the *^ Galatians," 
and "An Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews;" but 

. acquired no reputation^ by these* He died May 1, 1727, 
at Paris, aged thirty-seven, and was interred in the little 
church-yard belonging to St. Medard's parish. Though 
M. Paris had been useless to the Jansenists while alive, they 
thought proper to employ him in working miracles after 
his death; and stories were invented of miraculous cures 

, performed at his tomb, which induced thousands to flock 
thither, where they practised grimaces and convufsions in 
so ridiculous and disorderly a manner, that the court was 
at last forced to put a stop to this delusion, by ordering 
the church-yard to be walled up, January 27, 1732. Some 
time before, several curates solicited M. de Vintimille, arch- 

. bishop of Paris, by two requests, to make judicial inquiry 
into the principal miracles attribiited to M. Paris ; and that 
prelate appointed commissioners 'who easily, detected the 
imposture, which would not deserve a place here^ had it 
not served Hume and some other deists with an argument 
against the real miracles of the gospel, the fallacy of which 
argument has been demonstrated with great acuteijess by 

the late bishop Douglas, in his " Criterion." * 

•• •  . 

1 Diet. Hist.-*Doug1ftsVCrtterioD, . 



P A R L S. ei IQI 

PARIS (Matthew), an English historiani was a Bene- 
dictine monk of the congregation of Clugny, in the monas- 
tery of St. Alban's, the habit of which order he took in 
1217. He was an universal scholar; understood, and had 
a good taste both in painting and architecture. He was 
also a mathematician, a poet, an orator, a divine, an his- 
torian, and a man of distinguished probity. Such rare 
accomplishments and qualities as these, did not fail to 
place hioi very high in the esteem of his contemporaries ; 
and he was frequently employed in reforming some monas- 
teries, visiting others, and establishing the monastic disci- 
pline in all. He reproved vice without distinction of per- 
sons, and did not even spare the English court itself; at 
the same time he shewed a hearty affection for his country 
in maintaining its privileges against the encroachments of 
the pope. Of this we have a clear, though unwilling, 
evidence in Baronius, who observes, that this author re- 
monstrated .with too sharp and bitter a spirit against the 
court of Rome ; and that, except in this particular only, 
his history was an incomparable work. He died at St. 
Alban^s in 1259. His principal work, entitled " Historia 
Major,*' consists of two parts : The first, from the creation 
of the world to \Yilliam the Conqueror ; the second, from  
that king's reign to 1 250. He carried on this history after- 
wards to the year of his death in 1259'. Rishanger, a' 
monk p{ the monastery of St. Alban's, continued it to 
1272 or 1273, the year of the death of Henry HI, It was 
first printed at London^ 1571, and reprinted 1640, 1684, 
fol. besides several foreign editions. There are various 
MS copies in our public libraries, particularly one which 
he presented to Henry III. and which is now in the British 
Museum. From his MSS. have also been published " Vitse 
duorum Offarum, Merciae re'gum, S. Albahi fundatorum ;" 
** Gesta viginti duo abbatum S. Albani;" "Additamenta 
chronicoriim ad historiam majorem,'"all which accompany 
the editions of his " Historia Major" printed in 1640 ar^d 
1684. Among his unpublished MSS.. are an epitome of 
bis ** Historia Major," and a history from Adam to the 
conquest, principally from Matthew of Westminster. This 
is in the library of Bene't college, Cambridge. The titles 
of some other works, .but of doubtful authority, may be 
«een in Bale and Pits. * ' 

•1 Tanner.— Bale and Pits.— Nico1son*s HistoftOal Library. 



162 P A A r 8 d T. 

' .  * 

PARISOT, or NORBERT (Peter), famous for his 
adventures, and bis hostility to the Jesuits, was the son of 
a weaver at Bar-le-duc, of the name of PariSot, whi^re he 
was born March 8, 1697, He embraced the monastic life 
in 1716, and the provincial of his order going to Rome, tb 
attend the election of a general in 1734, took Parisbt with 
him as his secretary. In 1736 he went to Pondicherry, 
and was made a parish-priest of that city by M. Dupleix, 
the governor ; but the Jesuits, with whom he quarrelled, 
found means to remove him from the East Indies to Ame- 
rica, whence he returned to Rome in 1744. He was now 
employed in drawing up an account of the religious rites 
of the Malabar Christians; but, dreading the intrigues of 
the Jesuits, withdrew to Lucca, where he completed his 
work, under the title of ^< Historical Memoirs relatke to 
the Missions into the In*dies,^^ in 2 vols. 4to. Ad this work 
contained some curious discoveries of the means made use 
of by the Jesuit missionaries to increase their number of 
converts, he greatly offended both his own order and them^ 
and was obliged to quit bis country : he went first to Ve- 
nice, then to Holland, and afterwards to England* where 
he established in the neighbourhood of London two nianu- 
factories of tapestry. From London he removed to Prussia, 
and from thence into the duchy of Brunswick. Here he 
was allowed by the pope to assuoie the habit of a secular 
priest. He now assumed the name of the .abb£ Platel, 
went to France, and from thence to Portugal, where, on 
account of the persecutions which he endured, he obtained 
a pension. Having completed his great work against the 
Jesuits, he revisited France, and committed it to the press, 
in 6 vols. 4to. Afterwards he re-entered the order of the 
capuchins at Commercy, but, being of a restless disposi- 
tion, he soon quitted their community, and took up his 
abode at a village in Lorrain, where lie died in ^70, at 
the age of seventy- three.* 

PARKER (Henry) Lord Morley, a nobleman of lite- 
rary taste in the reign of Henry VIII. was the son and heir 
of sir William Parker, knight, by Alice, sister and heir of 
Henry Level, and daughter of William Level, a younger 
^son of William lord Lovel of Tichmersh, by Alianore, 
daughter and heir of Robert Morley, lord Morley, who 
died 21 Henry Vlth. He was educated at Oxford, but at 
what college, or at what time, does not appear. After 

1 Diet. Hilt.— and L'Avocat. 



PARKiTR. ifi9t 

lf9iung ^ vmzw^ be. i^^tjf^ tp hi^ <9^t% i/^ Nonh- 
apciDton^hir^ and in the 2lst jear pf t^ie reigp, o( He^iy. 
yi|I. w^ ^upuQoued t<x p^rliafji^egit by U^e title^ of lor^ 
Jjilojcl^y* He w(as pae pf {be ^js^ons, \?jhp, iq tbe y.?ar fpji- 
lowii^, sigyed the memor^hl!^ 4^.<^lar4tiod to pppe Cj^-, 
ipent V^. tjijrea.teiv^g bipi wii;ljii, th^ Iq$s, p^ h^j ^ppcemacy. 
ip Epgl^ad^ ivaWss ^e cpja^s^nt^ t9 t^e kip^'s divorce, bu^ 
be atiU ren^^ined abigoj^e^ J^^hejcent tq the ppp.isb r^igioa. 
In the 25th of the s;gi,pip reign, haying; ^ disppte fcv p,rece- 
4epc.e YfMh lofd Papre. of (^l\^l^ftd, nU pretensions werei 
con^rmed by Pfirliament Aptl^yr^j^Wood s^ys, that " his 
younger ^eara were ^domf d wi^b a.11 kii\d of superficial 
k^rpipg, especially with dr^^iatip ptoetty, and his elder 
vi(itb tb^t whicb was divine." Wood adds^ that he was, 
l^vingy " f^n ancient (nap^ and 'm esteem afnong the nobility, 
in the lat^eif end of Hepry YIU-'* ^^^ fv^"* bis^ epitaph, 
which is inserted in CoUins's Peerage, it appears that hq 
died in Nov. 1556, aged eighty, His grf at grandson, Ed-r 
^ard lord Morley, ^ho piarried Elizabeth, sole daughter 
^nd heir of WilUapa Stanley, lo^d Montegle, had issue 
Mary, who by her husband Thomas (labington, of Henlip 
in Worcestershire, was fpotber pf WilUani ll^bington the 
poet, and wa^ supposed ^o have been the person who wrote 
to her brother William, lord Morley and Montegle, the 
famous letter of warning respecting the gun-rpowder plot. 

Phillips Sfiy« that pur lord Morjey w^s sent by Henry 
yni. with the garter to the archduke of Austria* Of bis 
works, nothing nas been published bpt ^' A Declaration oi 
the 94th Psalm,'* printed by T. Berthelet in 1539. Th^ 
rest, lyhich remain in MS. in ihe king's library, and whosc^ 
titles are given in Casley's catalogue, are translations from 
catholic writers, three or four livef ifrom piut^rch, and! 
gully's Dream of Scipio. Waldron, in his " Literary Mu- 
seuip," has ^iven a specirjjen of one of lord Morley's trans-, 
lations from Boccaccio. Lord Morley is also said to have 
written several tragedies and coniedies, whose very titles 
^re lost, and which, as Mr. Warton thinks, were nothing 
more than grave mysteries and n^oralities, which probably 
would not ha.ve been lost had tbey deserved, to live* 
** Certain Ehimes," and the " Lives pf Sectaries,'* are 
mentioned as his, but of tbepi nothing is np\y known, e^-' 
cept some lines which may be seen in our authorities.^ 

^ Alb. Ox. vq!L I. n«w edit. — VviVa edition of Uie jtpyal aad Nobl^ AnUMrs* 
—Phillips's Theatrum, by sir £. Bryd£«s.—WarU)a'8 Hist, of Poetry. 



/ 

104 PARKER. 

PARKER (Matthew)/ the second -protestant archbishop 
of Canterbury, a very learned prelate, and a great bene- 
factor' to the literature of his country, was born in the 
parish of St. Saviour's, Norwich, Aug. 6, 1504.. He was 
of ancient and reputable families both by the father^s and 
mother's side. . His father dying when he was only twelve 
years of age, the care of his education devolved on his. 
mother, who appears to have spared no pains in procuring 
him the best tutors in such learning as might qualify him 
for the university, to which he was removed in September 
1521^. He was entered of Corpus Christi or Bene't col- 
lege, Cambridge, and was at first maintained at his mo- 
ther's expense, but in six months after admittance that 
expense was in some measurejrelieved, by his being chosea 
a scholar of the house, called a bible clerk. In 1524 he 
took his degree of bachelor of arts, and in 1526 was made 
subdeacon, under the titles of Barnwell, and the chapel in 
JNorwich fields. While at college, he had for his contem- 
poraries Bacon and Cecil, Bradford and Ridley, afterwards 
men of great eminence in state and church, and the two 
latter distinguished sufferers foir the sake of religioa. 

In April 1527 he was ordained deacon, in June priest, 
and in September created master of arts, and chosen fel- 
low of the college, having approved himself to the society 
by his regular and studious behaviour. He now studied 
the Scriptures, fathers, and ecclesiastical writers, with such 
diligence and attention, that in a few years he made great 
progress in every branch of knowledge necessary for a di- 
vine ; and began to be so much noticed on thataccount, that 
when cardinal Wolsey was looking out for men of the 
greatest learning and character, to fill his new college at 
O^^ford, Mr. Parker was one of those whom he selected 
for this mark of distinction ; but, through the persuasion 
of his friends, he declined the cardinal's offer, as did, at 
the same time, his celebrated predecessor Cranmer, then 
on the eve of being n;iade archbishop of Canterbury. 

In 1533, when Mr. Parker had reached his twenty-ninth 
year, Cranmer, who was now promoted to the archbishop- 
ric, granted him a licence to preach through his province, 
as the king did a patent for the same throughout the king- 
dom, good and solid preachers being at that time very 

* In thig and a few following dates wer have followed Mr. Masters, in bis 
History of Corpus Christi college, who seems to correct Strype's dates on good 
Authority. 



P A R K E R.^ 105 

rare. The university, likewise, as he was much afflicted 
with a head-ache, readily passed a grace that he might 
preach covered, and showed him other marks of thetr re- 
gard. We have already noticed some of bis celebrated 
coDteinporaries, and it may now be added, that he lived 
in great intimacy and friendship with Bilney, Stafford, 
Arthur, friar Barnes, Sowode, master of the college, Fowke, 
and many others, by whose means religion and learning 
were beginning to revive at Cambridge. For Bilney he 
had so great a veneration, that he went down to Norwich 
to attend his martyrdom, and afterwards defended him 
against the misrepresentations of sir Thomas More, who 
had asserted that he recanted at the stake. In the above- 
mentioned year (1533) he ^as sent for to court, and made 
chaplain to queen Anne Boleyn, with whom he soon be- 
came a great favourite, she admiring his piety, learning, 
and prudence. . A- short time before her death, she gave 
him a particular chiarge to take care of her daughter Eliza- 
beth, 'that she might not want bis pious and wise counsel ; 
and at the same time laid a strict charge upon the young 
princess, to make him a grateful return, if it should ever 
be in Jier power. 

In July 1535 he proceeded B. D. and in the same year 
was preferred by the queen to the deanry of the college of 
Stoke-Clare in Suffolk, which was the more acceptable, as 
affording him an agreeable retirement for the pursuit of his 
studies. His friend Dr. Walter Haddon used to call it 
Parker's Tusculanum. Meeting here with many super- 
stitious practices and* abuses that stood in need of correc- 
tion, he immediately composed a new body of statutes, 
and erected a school for the instruction of youth in gram- 
mar and the studyof humanity, which by his prudent care 
and management soon produced the happiest effects. 
These regulations were so generally approved, that when 
the duke of Norfolk was about to convert the monastery at 
Thetford, of his own foundation, into a college of secular 
priests, he requested a sight of them for his direction. 
Mr. Parker now continued to be an- assiduous preacher, 
often preaching at Stoke, and at Cambridge, and places 
adjacent, and sometimes at- London, at St. Paur^-cross. 
•At what time he imbibed the principles of the reformers 
we are not told, but it appears that in these sermons he 
attacked certain Romish superstitions with such boldness, 
that articles were exhibited against him. by some zealous 



10« ^ ,P; A R K, E R,. 

jj^pists, a^nst w|;ioia be yiildicated hioo^lf wit^p grea^ 
ability before the li^rd ChanceUor Audleyy wl^ QiiQpi}rage4 
bim io gq on without feajr. On tbe death of queen, Ani^ 
In 1537, the king took bipi under his more imincfdiate ^^q^ 
lection, appointed him one of bis ch^plain^^^ and, up9i^ 
pew*modelling tbe church of Ely, nqmii^ted biof^ to oi^l 
pf tbe prebends in the charter of erection. 

In 163$ he made a visit to the university, ^heroy aftei 
having performed his exercises with general applauae^ h% 
fsommenced D. O. In 1542 be was presented by tbe^^hi^ 
ter of Stoke to the reqtory of A«ben iii £ssiei(, which h^ 
resigned in 1544, and wa^ presented to the rectory 9f Birn 
mingbam All Saints, in the county of Norfolk; bi|t hi^ 
most important pronation that year, was %o the miuitersbip 
of BeneU college, Cambridge, where he had been educatecU 
On this occasion be was recommended to the society by 
the king, as the (ittest person in every respect; and they 
knowing his character, did not hesitate to elect him, an4 
he was admitted accordingly Pec. 4, 1544. He began hii| 
government of the college with making some useful ojfdon^ 
concerning certain benefactions and foundations belonging 
to the college; and, to prevent the college goods from 
being embezzled, he caused exact inventories of them 
to be made, and deposited in the common chest, ordering 
at the same time that they should be triennially inspected 
find renewed by the master and fellow^. Finding likewise 
their accounts in great confusion, oci^asioned principally 
by tbe neglect of registering them in books belonging tQ 
the* society, be put them into such a * method, that by 
pomparing tbe rentals, receipts, expenses, &c. together, 
they might at aqy tio^e appear as clear as possible, and 
these be caused to be annually engrossed pn parchmept for 
their better preservation. He also undertook the rey^isal of 
the statutes, and reduced them to nearly their^ present 
form, being assisted in this by his friend Pn Mey, the 
civilian, and one of the visitors who cpnfirDied th^p^in tha 
^cond year of Edward VJ. All these regulajt^ojis and 
transactions, with sogae other matters relating both tp the 
college and university, be caused to b^ registered in a 
book, called the Black Book, ^hiph has ever si^ge beej^ 
in the custody of the master. The pld si^atjates yv^re in- 
4eed once more introduced in the time of queen Mary, 
hut continued no longer iji force thw to the first year of 

.Elizabeth's reign, when the fon»^r were 9gaia Jcevivied, 



P A R K £ K. 109 

^ndiD iS^Sfinally reviewed, corrected, and approved bjr 
faer visitors. In 1 545 he was elected vice-chancellor, ' in 
which office he batd an opportunity of exerting btmseif stift 
farther for the wel fare of his college and the aniversitj at 
large ; and he gav<r such satisfaction, that within the space 
of three years he vras elected to the same office. On his 
election. Dr. Haddon, the public orator, gave him this 
character to his friend Cheke, *^ cujas td gravitatem, con ^ 
siliutn, literas,^ 120^^1, no% experimur ;^* adding, ^^Catonem* 
aut QuintQfn Fabium renatum putes.'* 

In the same year, 1545, the society presented htm to 
ibe rectory of Land-Beach ; but to his great mortification, 
he was obliged to resign his beloved college of Stoke in 
1547, although be laboured as much as possible to pre- 
-vent its dissolution. To preserve, however, as far as he 
could, the m€l6iOfy of its founder Edmund Mortimer, earl 
of Mar<cb, he braogbt away with him his arms painted on 
glass, and placed them in a window of the master* j lodge; 
and secured the books of history and .antiquities, which 
made part of that invaluable collection with which he after- 
awards enriched his. college. The same year, and in the 
forty-third of his age, he married Margaret the daughter 
of Robert Harlstone, gent, of Mattishall in Norfolk, and 
-sister of Simon Harlstone, who bad lived some. time at 
Mendiesbam in Suffolk, where he was distinguished for his 
piety and sufferings in the reign of queen M^ry. Or* 
Parker had been attached to this lady for about seven years, 
but they were prevented A'om marrying by the statute of 
Henry VIII. which made the marriage of the clergy felony. 
Mr. Masters conjectures that it was about this time he 
drew up, in his defence, a short treatise still preserved in 
•the college library ^' De conjugio Sacerdotum,'* and an- 
t)ther against alienation of the revenues 6f the church, 
^wfavch Strype has printed id his Appendix,' No. VII. It is 
also probable that, on the increase of hiis family, be added 
'the long gallery to the master's lodge. The lady fae^ mar- 
ried proved a most affectionate wife, and had so much 
sweetness of temper and amiable disposition, that bishop 
Ridley -te said to have asked, ** If Mrs. Parker had a sister ?•* 
intimating that he would have been glad to have married 
c^ne who 'ca,me near her in excellence of character. 

In 1545, wlien Kett*s rd>ellion broke out, Dr. Parker 
' happened to be on a visit to iiis friends at Norwich, where 
'^ke 4id gi^at service by his exhortations and sermons; aod 



les . P A K K E B. 

ieven yentuced into the camp o£ therebels, and, withoul 
regarding the imminent danger to which this exposed bim^ 
boldly inveighed against their rebellioo atid cruelty, ex- 
horted them to temperance, sobriety, and submission, and 
placed in the strongest light every argument and warning 
that was likely to prevail. To give a faithful account of 
this affair,, he s^fterwards employed Mr. Nevile (see Ne* 
VILE, Alexander), who wrote it in elegant Latin, and re- 
ceived for his resvard an. hundred pounds. In 1550 he lost 
bis most intimate friend Dr. Martin Bucer, who left him 
one of his exeputors; and to. testify his great regard. for 
that eminent reformer, he preached his funeral sermon. 
In this, with great modesty and diffidence, he has drawn a 
most ea;cellent character of: him, and indeed the whole. is 
written in a style so plain and uniform, as to be much su,- 
perior to the common rate of sermons in those days. It 
was printed by Jugge, under the title, '^ Howe we ought 
to take the death of the godly, . a sermon made in Cam- 
bridge at the burial of the noble flerck, D. M. Bucer. . By 
Matthew, Parker, D. of Divinitie." 

In 1552. the king presented him to the canonry and pre- 
bend of Covingham, in the church of Lincoln, where he 
was soon after, elected dean, upon Dr. Taylor's promotion 
to that see. He had before been nominated to the. master- 
ship of Trinity-college, probably on the death of Dr. Red- 
man in 1551, but this did not take, effect. It is also said 
that he declined a bishopric in this reign. . On the acces- 
sion of queen Mary, however, the scene was changed, and 
be, w.ith all the married clergy who would . not part with 
their wives, and conform , to those superstitious rites and 
ceremonies they had so. lately rejected, were stript pf their 
preferments. He bore this reverse of fortune with pious 
resignation. " After my deprivation" (he says, in, his pri- 
vate journal) " I lived so joyful before .God iu my con- 
science,, and so neither' ashamed nor . dejected, that the 
most sweet leisure for study, to which the good providence 
of God has now recalled me, gave me. mugh. greater, and 
more. solid pleasures, than that.fornjer busy and dangerous 
kind of life ever afforded me. What will hereafter befall 
me, I know not; but to God, who takes. care, of all, an.d 
who will one day reveal the hidden things. of men*s hearty, 
I commend myself wholly, and my pious and most qhfiste 
wife, with my two most dear little 90ns.*' It appears aUo 
by a MS. in the college, quoted by Strype, th^t Dr. Parker 



.i 



1» A R K E R. 10J> 

** lurked secretly \h those years (the reign of queen Mary) 
within the house of one of his friends, leading a poor life, 

"without 8«ny men's aid or succour ; and yet so well con- 
tented with his lot, that in that pleasant rest, and leisure 
for his stxidies, he would never, in respect of himself, have 
desired any other kind of life, the extreme fear of danger 
only excepted. And therein he liv^d as all other good 
men thf3n did. His wife he would not be divorced from, or 
put her away all tbis evil time (as he might, if he would, in 
those <bays, which so rigorously required it), being a woman 
very chaste, and of every virtuous behaviour, and behav* 
ing herself' with all due reverence toward her husband.** 

It ^may seem extraordinary that one who had so early 
imbit>ed the sentiments of the reformers, and had adhered 
to th(em so constantly, should have escaped the vigilance 
t)f the persecut6rd ; and it is certain that strict search was 

-sometimes made for'him, and that on one occasion, when 
t)bUged to make his escape on a sudden, he got a fall from 
his horse, by which he was so much hurt, that he never re- 
corered it. Yet either from the remissness of his enemies, 
•or' the kindness of his friends, he was enabled to secrete 
Lifaiself, and notwithstanding the danger he was in, he 
«Biployed his time in study. Among other things, it was 
during this alarming interval, that he* wrote or rather en- 

; lirged a treatise, supposed to be drawn up by bishop 

' Ponet, in defence of priests* miarriages, against a book of 
i)r. Martin's, which he caused to be printed, biit without 
his name, in 1562. The title was " A Defence of Priests' 
[Marriages, established by the Imperial laws of the realm 
(of England ; against a civilian, naming himself Thomas 
Martin, dbctor of the civil laws," &c. This work is no- 
ticed in our account of Dr. Martin^ and a full account of 
it is given by Strype, p. 504. Dr. Parker also employed 

^ 6ome part of his time in translating the book of Psalms into 
'various and elegant English' metre, which was likewise 
afterwards printed, but in what year is uncertain, unless 
in 1567, as mii^uted with a pen in the copy which is in the 
college -library. This book, which Strype says he never 
could get a sight of, is divided into three quinquagenes 
with the argument of each psalm in metre placed before it, 
and a suitable collect full of devotion and piety at the end. 
Some copies of verses, and transcripts from the fathers and 
others on. the use of the psalms are prefixed to it, with a 
^table dividing them into Propheticiy Eruditorii, Consolatorii, 



&c. and at the eod are ad4ed the ^ght sever^ ii tuties^ wllb 
alphabetical tables to the whole. , 

On the acces&ion of queen Elizabeth, be )eft ^ bis retrei^t 
in Norfolki and being on la vi§it to his friends at Oam-^ 
bridge^ was sent for up to tawn by hi$ old acc^.uaintanqe 
and contetnjporaries at tbe university, sir Nicholl\: s Baco^, 
BOW lord-keeper, of tbe great seal, and sir Williav n.Ceci)^ 
secretary of statef who well koew bis wor^b. 9ujt be w^ s 
now become enamoured pf retirement, and suspectl ng they 
designed him for some high dignity in tbe cbtircb, o\ f whiqb 
however no i^ntifHation bad yet h,ee^ given^ be wrot< 3 4tb^^ 
many letters^, setting forth his owii inabilities and in&f-' 
mities, and telling the lord-keeper in confidence} ^^ he 
would mucb rather end bis days upon some sucb smaL I pr^"* 
ferment as tbe mastership of bis college, a living of t% ^enty 
nobles p^r a72n. at most, than to dwell in the'deam^ 9^ 
Lincoln, which is 200 at the least,'* These statesi^ nen, 
however, still considered him as in every respect (;be * be^t 
fitted for the archbishopric of Canterbury ; and tbe re^ uc^« 
ance be showed to accept it, and |be letters be wrpte };, >o(h 
to them and the queen, only served to convince all paf> ti^s 
that they bad m^de a proper. choice. He was aecprdini g^y 
consecrated on Dec. 17, .1559, in ^Ifambetb chapel, by 
William Barlow, late bishop of Bath and Wells, and th ^Q 
elect of Chichester ; John S^ory, late bishop of Cbichestti ^r, 
and then elect of Hereford; Miles Qoverdale, bishop ^pf 
£xeter, and John Hodgkin^ suffragaji bishop of Bedfort .1 
'An original instrument of the rites aqd ceremonies used o,n 
this occcasion, corf^$pon4ing exac^tly with. the archbishop^, s 
jegister, is still carefjully preserved iii BeqeH college library; , 
jaod prov.ed of great service, wben^tbe:papis.ts, some yeani > 
after, invented a story that Parfcer was cqnsecrs^ted at tb^ 
Nag's head inn, or tavern, in Qboapside. .That this was ^ 
.mere fable has been sufficiently shown by many aptbors^ 
and is ;acknowledged even by catholic "writers, ^i^ifig tbi^ 
constituted primate and metropolitan, .Dr. Parker end^^ 
vouired to fill the vacant sees with m^en of l^^rning ;a|[i4 
piety, who were well affected to tbe refprmation ; ,and spofi 
.after his own consecration, bec^oQseorated in bis chapel s^t 
Lambeth, Grindal, bishop of J^ondon ; >Cox, bishop of Ely,; 
Sandys, bishop of Worcester; Jewell, b^bpp <;>f .^aUsburyj 
mad several others. 

* These letters are printed in' Bur- of his '* Antiqnitates'' in tbe Lambeth 
vet's Hmlory of the Reformation, Uuttbe library,rp|th many other^cnriojis^iy 
•rif inals are in tbe arohbishop's copy ' docnmeixts resjpectiog him. 



PARKER. lU 

Tti€ sifb^tient history of an^bishop Porktr is tbit of 

the church of Er>gIaiKl. He had assisted atherfoundatioR, 

and for the remainder of his Kfe had a principal hand in 

ibe superstructure. Referring^ however, to ecclesiastic 

histoiyj and particularly to Strype's invaluable vo1u«b«, for 

the full details of the archbishop's conduct, we shall confine 

ourselves to a few of the most prominent of tiiose measures 

in which he was personally ^concerned* Soon after bis oon«- 

^isecration he veceived a letter from^^e celebrated Calvin, 

ih which that reformer said that << be rejoiced in the hi^«. 

piness of England^ and that God had raised up so gracious 

a queen, to be instrumental in propagating tbe true faifih 

^f Jesus Ohrist, by restoring the gospel, und expelling 

-idoiaitry, together with the bishop of Rome's usurped 

^wer." And then in order to unite protestants together, 

-as he had attempted before in king Edward'iEt ^ign, he 

intreated tbe archbishop to prevail with her miyesty, to 

"•tfmmon a geheral assembly of all tbe {M-otestant clergy, 

whete^oever dispersed ; and that a set form and method 

(natfiely of public service, and government of the cburcb) 

"toiight be established ^^ not only within her dominions, 

but also among all the reformed and evangelical chm'ches 

^abroad. Parker commanicated this letter to the queen^s 

'^council, and they took it into consideration, and desired 

'^e archbishop to return thanks to Calvin ; and to signify 

^ihat they thought his prq)osals very fair and desireabit, 

but as to church-government, to inform bim, that the 

iihurch of England would adhere to the episcopal form. 

Thle death of Calvin prevented any farther intercourse on 

^thfs subject, but Strype has brought sufficient evidence 

that -Calvin was not absolutely averse to episcopacy, and 

-that be was as zealous for uniformity^ as our archbishop, 

iN^ho has been so much reproached for his endeavours to 

promote it. 

In 1560, Parker wrote a letter to tbe queen, with the 
concurrence of tbe bishops of London and Ely, exhorting 
her majesty to marry, which it is well known she declined. 
He also visited several dioceses, in some of which he 

* It is worth the noUee of tliMevlfo the refotmen, «nd that no man «»■• 

Tail against Parker for bis ondeaTOurs ceired that religion would be benefited 

to prdmote uniformity, and his conse- by being split into an hundred sects, 

i|«eBt fa«rB)i treatment of the Paritans, with as many difftrent ways-of thinU 

that in those d«y» tun etiaibUtknmnt of ing, and petty diurch goTernmeota. 
■ome description was the object of all' 



112 PARKER. 

found ' tbe cBorches miserably supplied with preacbeHtf^ 
The bishop, of Ely certifiefd, that of 152 livings in his dio^ 
cese, fifty-two only were duly served ; and that there were 
thirty-four benefices vacant^ thirteen that had neither rec- 
tors nor vicars, and fifty-seven that were enjoyed by non- 
residents. This was not owing to the popish clergy beiog 
deprived of their benefices, for the number so deprived 
did>not exceed two hundred in the whole kingdom; but 
the truth was, that- at the conclusion of Mary's reign the 
great bulk of the clergy were grossly ignorant, and it was 
long before the universities were encouraged to furnish a 
series of learned divines. 

In 1561, archbishop Parker and some of the other pre- 
lates made an application to the- queen against the use of 
images, to which hter majesty still discovered a very great 
inclination, and it may be inferred that they induced her 
to change her opinion on this matter, from tbe anecdote 
given in our account of deaaNowell, who incurred her 
'displeasiire by only presenting her with a prayer-book, 
illustrated with engravings. In other respects she adhered 
to many of her father's notions,^ and when about this time 
•she took a journey into Essex and Suffolk, she expressed 
great displeasure at finding so many of the clergy married^ 
and at observing so many women add children in cathedrals 
and colleges. ' She had, indeed, so- strong an aversion to 
matrimony in the clergy, that it was owing to Cecil's cou- 
rage and dexterity, as appears by a letter of his to Parker, 
that she did not absolutely prohibit the marriage of all 
ecclesiastics. He was> however, obliged to consent to an 
injunction, '^ that no head or member of any college or 
cathedral, should bring a wife, or any other wonian, into 
the precincts of it, to abide in the same, on pain of for* 
'feiture of all ecclesiastical promotions." Archbishop Par- 
ker took the liberty to remonstrate with the queen against 
this order, and on this interview she treated the institution 
of matrimony with contempt, declared to him that she re- 
pented her making any of them bishops, and wished it had 
been otherwise ; nay, threatened ' him with injunctions of 
another nature, which his grace understood to be in favour 
of the old religion; In his letter to Cecil on this occasion^ 
he assures him that the bishops have all of them great rea- 
'son to be dissatisfied with the queen; that be repents his 
having engaged in the station in which he was; atid that 
the reception which he had from her' majesty the day 



F A a K K H. 11$ 

before, h«d quUe iodUpc^ed bim for nU other business, and 
he could Qoly looQrQ to God in the bitterness 6f his sou}; 
bat if abe went on to £urce the clergy to any compliance^ 
they muat obey God rather than men, and that m^any of 
them had cop^ience and courage epough to sacrifice their 
lives in defence of their religion. 

But, whatever our archbishop might suffer from the des*- 

potic caprices of the que^n^ he had yet moi:e trouble with 

the di^seotions which appeared in the diurch itself, and 

n^ver cfiased to prevail, in a greater or less degree, until 

the w^le fabric wa$ overturned in the reign of Charles I. 

These first appeiMred in the opposition given t,o the efscle* 

siastic habits by a considerablie niimber of divines, and 

those wen of worth aad piety, \yho s(c»emed to be of opinioi) 

that pppery might consji^t in 4re$s as well as doctrine^ By 

virtue of the clause in the act of uniformity, which gav^ 

the queen a power of adding aqy other rit^s and c^remo* 

nies she pleased> she 3et forth inji^nctions ordering tbMt thi9 

clergy should wear seemly garmentsi, sqjuaitQ cap$, and 

copes, whiph bad been laid asi4e in the reign of Hing Ed-t 

war4. Many. conformed to tbe&e in every ^iroum^rice, 

but others refused the cap and surplice^ Qon^id^nng the?) 

as relics of popi^ry, and therefore, b^th aupi^ratitic^s aad 

niijfuK The queen, enraged, at tbi^ oppoaiitioat which wa^ 

favoured even by some of her courtiers, wri9te a- lettec to 

the two archbishops, reflecting with spin^ acriiaony on< it, 

as the eijEect of remissness in the bishops ; and. requiring 

them to confeir wi(b her ecol^^i^stica) qom^mi^sion^rs, thac 

an exact oirder and ouiformity might be mP^Otaioed in all 

external xit^s and cereippni^s ; and that none b^r^s^ftec 

should be admitted t^ any ocpleaias^tical pr^ermei^it, hi^t 

those who were disposed to obedW^QQ m thia re9[>eQtV 

Arvhl>i^hop Parker, aooorrfiogly^ wilh the a^ff^f^^^® ^f- 

s^v^i»l (of bis brethren, drew up ordiflanojjs for. the dw^ 

order in pre^jihifig and adwipis^e^ing tti^ ^<rram^ft^j J>nd:fori 

the apparel of persori* ecglewft^tical. Ao^ort^i vug to tbi^ei th« 

pre^ph^rs wpre. directed to study «difi<;qktift0,.and:tp mam^i^ 

cpntroyerpy with sobriety; exhorjii^g tii^ p^ojple to frei^; 

q^j^nt the commnniop, and to ob.(^y. the laws, ai)d ibe. 

queen's injon9tioQ9p AH the liceucjes for preaobing weir© 

declaried void aQd.of no. effect, bu^t wt^^.to be renewed to 

such .as theif bishops thought ^oxtby of the offi?^ ; and 

si^ph «s preached unbound doqtrine were tq be deooupoed, 

19 the bishop, an4i>Qt ooo^radict^ ift.thc ohorch. Thi^t 

Vol. XXIV. I 



114 PARKER. 

who bad licences were to preach once in three months ; 
and those who were unlicensed, were to read homilies. In 
administering the sacrament, the principal minister was to 
wear a cope, but at all other prayers only the surplice ; in 
cathedrals they were to wear hoods, and preach in them ; 
the sacrament was to be received by every body kneeling ; 
every minister saying the public prayers, or administering 
the sacraments, was to wear a surplice with sleeves ; and 
every parish was to provide a communion-table, and to 
have the ten commandments set on the east wall above it. 
The bishops were to give notice when any persons were to 
be ordained, and none were to be ordained without de» 
grees. Then followed some rules about wearing apparel, 
caps, and gowns ; to all which was added, a form of sub* 
scription to be required of all who were admitted to any 
office in the church ; that they would not preach without 
licence, that they would read the Scriptures intelligibly, 
that they would keep a register-book, that they would use 
such apparel in service-time especially as was appointed, 
* that they would keep peace and quiet in their parishes, 
that they would read some of tbe Bible daily, and in con- 
clusion, that they would observe* uniforniity, and conform 
to all the laws and orders already established for that pur- 
pose ; and to use no sort of trade, if riieir living amopnted 
to twenty nobles. 

It might have been expected that these ordinances 
would have pleased the queen, as being in conformity with 
her wishes, and, in fact, in answer to her orders ; but the 
opponents of the habits, who began to be called Puritans, 
applied to their friends at court, and especially to her 
great fa^rourite Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, who pre- 
vailed so far with her niajesty, that all her former resolu- 
tion disappeared, and she refused to sanction the ordi- 
nances with her authori^, telling tbe archbishop, that the 
oath tof canonical obedience was sufficient to bind the in- 
feriof i&lergy to their duty, without the interposition of the 
crowti. The archbishop, hurt at such capricious conduct, 
and at being placed in such a situation between the court 
and the church, told Cecil, that if the ministry persisted 
in their indifference, he would '^ no more strive against 
the stream, fume Or chid^ who would ;^* and it is most prOf 
bable his remonstrances prevailed, for the above ordi- 
nances were a few days after published, under the name 
#f Advertisements ; and he then proceeded upon them wit^ 



P A tl K E R. Us 

that zeal which procured him from one party the reproach 
of being a persecutor, and from the other the honour of 
being a firm friend and supporter of the church-estabiish- 
ment. The particular -steps he took, the trials he insti- 
tuted, and the punishments he inflicted, are detailed at 
length by Strype and other church-^historians ; but on the 
merit of his conduct there is great diversity of opinion. 
It has been said, both in excuse and in reproach of his 
measures, that he was too subservient to the queefi. To us 
it appears, that he took as much liberty in advising 'th6 
queen, and in contending with her humours, as any prelate 
or statesn^an of her reign, and that what he did to pro- 
mote uniformity in the church arose from a sincere, how- 
ever mistaken opinion, that uniformity was necessary to the 
advancement of the reformation, and in itself practicable. 
All that is wrong in this opinion tnust be referred to the 
times in which he lived, when no man conceived that an 
established church could flourish if surrounded by secta- 
ries, and when toleration was not at all understood in its 
present sense. 

He continued to struggle with the difficulties attending 
his oflSce and measures, until his seventy-first year, when, 
finding himself in a declining condition, he signed his 
Will April 5, 1575, and died on May 17 following. He was 
buried in his own chapel at Lambeth, with a Latin inscrip- 
tion by his friend Dr. Walter Haddon : but this was de*^ 
molished, and his bones taken up and scattered, during the 
usurpation ; nor was it known what became of them till 
they were discovered by Dugdale, in archbishop Bancroft's 
time, who again replaced them in the midst of the area of 
the chapel, as a small marble stone facing the altar, with 
this inscription upon it, now denotes, ** Corpus Matthaei 
archiepiscopi tandem hie quiescit f ' the monument itself, 
with an epitaph upon it of his own drawing up, being since 
temOved into the anti-chapel. 

Concerning his learning and zeal for the promotion of 
learning, there is no difference of opinion. His skill in 
ancient liturgies was such, that he was one of the first se- 
lected to draw up the Book of Common Prayer; and when 
he came to be placed at the head of the church, he la- 
boured much to engage the bishops, and other learned 
men, in the revisal and correction of the former transla- 
tions of the Bible. This was at length undertaken and 
tarried on under his direction and inspection, who assigned 

I 2 



116 p A R |C E p. 

.particular portions to each of hif assistantf, which he after- 
wards perused and corrected, and spared no pains in get- 
.tipg it completed. It was first publisbed in 1569} and h;|s 
usually been called the *' Bishop's ^ible,'* an^ ran its 
course with the Geneva tr^sj^tion, until the present ver- 
sipn was executed, in the reign of \Xug James. He also 
published a *^ Saxon homily on the Sacrament/' trans- 
lated oiit of Latin into that langufige, by £lfrlc a learned 
abbot of St. Alban's^ about 900 years before ; with two 
epistles of the same, in which is not the least mention of 
the (ioctrine of transubs^antiation. He was the editor also 
of editions of the histories of Matthew of \Vestminster and 
Matthew ofParis^ and of various other works, enumerated 
.by Tanner ; some of which were either composed by him, 
or printj^d at his expence. The work on which he if 
thought to have spent most time was that ** I)e Antiqui- 
itate Britannic® Ecclesiis /' but his share in this is a disputed 
point among antiquaries. In his letter to the lord treasu-: 
rer, to whom he presented a copy, he speaks of it as hif 
own collection, which had been the employment of his 
leisure houri^. Dr. Drake likewise, in the preface to bis 
edition of it, quotes a letter of the archbis||ip{>'s in tbe| 
pollege-library, in which he expressly styles it, *' My booi( 
of Canterbury Predecessors;" and archbishop Bramball 
was of opinion, that the conckision of the preface proved 
Parker himself to have been the author. But notwith^ 
standing these testimonies, the matter is (i|oubtful. SeU 
deh was the first who called it in question, although with- 
out giving his reasons ; and sir Henry Spelman considered 
Dr. Ackworth to have been either the author or collector 
of the work. Archbishop Usher thinks that Ackworth wrote 
only the first part, concerning the British antiquities ; and 
he, Selden, and Wharton, ascribe the lives of the arch- 
bishops to Josselyn, and make Parker little more than tb^ 
director or encourager of the whole. And this certainly 
seems to be confirmed by the copy now in the Lambeth- 
library. This copy, which originally belonged to that li- 
brary, but was missing from the year 1720, was replaced 
in 1757 by Dr. Trevor, bishop of Durham, who found 
it in the Sunderland-library. This, which Dr. Ducarel 
thought the only perfect one existing, contains- many 
manuscript papers, letters, a.nd notes, respecting arch* 
bishop Parker and the see of Canterbury; and, ainpog 
tiiese, soo^e proofs that Ackworth and Josselyn bad ^ c^n- 



P A H K E r: in 

i 

^der^ble sfaftri lA the eornntpositidn of the woVE A,t tbel 
beginning o6St Augustine's life we find this note: ^' These 
94 pages' of St Atigustine*s Hfewere thus begun by George- 
Acworib Dr. of taiws^ at n the appointment of Matthe\f 
Kavker Abp. df Cdfit« and' the lives of all the arch- 
bishops should hi^ve in thi^ course been perfected — (sonie 
words not intelligible) — ^but deth prevented it." This Dr. 
AckWorth, ais we b^ve memj'oined in our account of him 
(vol. i.) ttna^ alive in VSl^y bttt how long after is not known; 
bnti as thiB i^ a y^ar aftev out' prelate's death, there seems 
iome di^divy in undersiat^ding the latter part of thjs^ 
■otie, witkouC adopting arobbi^bop Usher's opinion above 
mSentioned; We aftso find in the Lambeth copy, on the' 
title-pageof the Irii^tQry, the following note-: << This His- 
torife was oollMted and- penned by John Jotsselyn, one of 
the sons €^ sk" Tliomas Jt>s6elyn) knight, by the appoint-^ 
fiiem and oversigiit of Matthew Parker archbishop of Cant.- 
tjle said Jobm beitlg- entertained in the said archb. house, 
a» One of bifr aotiquaries, to whom, besides the allowance 
arfforde^ to biiii in his howse, he gave to hym the parsonage 
df Bollinborn in Kent,'' &c. . 

It seettis probable therefore that Parker planned this- 
iroffe, ilnd s^uppHed his assistants with materials from bis! 
own colie<}tiona respecting ecclesiastical antiquities. It 
was printed probably at Lambeth, where the archbishop 
bad an eis^blishment of printers, engravers^ and iitu«- 
mmatorsr, ih ai folio, volume, in 1572. The number of. 
copies piriinted appears to have been very small, some 
tbfilk nbt7 more than four or ilve^ lor private distribu- 
tion; but tbifs: must be a mistake; for Dr. Drake men- 
tions bis having consulted twenty^one copies, most of 
whiieb, He add^, were imperfect. The copies ettant^ 
however, in a perfect state, are very few: Strype mentions 
only five, and one of these, which he calls the choicest of' 
aVl, belonged to archbishop Sancroft, came afterwards into 
tW b$mdsvof-Mr. Wharton, and appears to be the one 
n0w at Latubeth. There is a very fine copy in the British 
Museum, bo^nd io green velvet eutbroidered, which ap- ' 
piaafK to have been the presentation-copy to qu^en Eliza- 
bolb. A bad edition of the work was published at Har^over 
'\%\^0^\ afod a Very elegant one by Dr. Di^£ike in J 729, 
folio. Iti 1574, a short lite ef archbishop Parker was pub- 
lished abroad, most probably by one of his eneitiies among 
the puritans, iind«fr the title ^< The Life of the 70 Arch<* 



lis P A R K E B. 

hUhopp of Castcrboryy preieiidj settings En^khedy and 
to be added to tbe 69 lately sett forth in Latin. This 
number of serenty is so complete a oninber as it is great 
pitie tber sbonld be one more : bnt that as Angnstin was 
the first, to Matthew might be the last.** Of this scnrri- 
loos publication an account may be seen in the '^ Besti- 
tota,** vol. I. 

To tbe oniversity of Cambridge, and particulariy to 
Ills own college, be was a most munificent benefactor, 
founding, at bis own expence, many fellowships and sebo* 
Jarsbips. He was also tbe founder of tbe first Society of 
Antiquaries, over which be presided during bis life, and in 
this oiEce was succeeded by ^ archbishop Whitgift. He 
bad the taste and spirit of an antiquary from his earliest 
years, and employed bis interest, when he rose in tbe 
world, as well as bis fortune, in accumulating collections, 
or transcripts of manuscripts, from tbe dissolved monas* 
teries. In bis library is a letter from tbe privy-council, 
dated July 1568, signifying tbe queen*s pleasure, that the. 
archbishop, or bis deputies, sbould be permitted to peruse 
all tbe records of the suppressed houses. The greatest 
favour, tberefore, which be conferred on literature, was 
the invaluable collection of MSS. and printed books which 
he gave to bis college, and which is there still preserved. 
Fuller styled this collection ^^tbe Sun of English Antiquity^ 
before it was eclipsed by tbat of sir Robert Cotton,** and 
justly, as it contained more materials, relating to the civil 
and ecclesiastical history of this kingdom, than bad ever 
been collected, Tbe manuscripts are of tbe eleventh, 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries. Some are as old as tbe tenth, ninth, ^ and 
ejghth. They relate to the writings of the fathers and 
sphodl-divinity, to civil and ecclesiastical matters, to the 
concerns of various religious houses, of the university, &c. 
Many of them are in tbe old Saxon character, and they 
are all well described in Nasmith*s Catalogue. A copy ^ 
his will is preserved in the College-library, as are tw^ 

I)ictures of him in oil, with a beautiful one iu water-co- 
ours, taken in the seventieth year of his age, at the end^ 
of the college-statutes. His only surviving son, John, was 
knighted in 1603, and died in 1618, but diere is nothing 
remarkable in his history; and the family is now. thought 
^o be extinct. ' 

I Strype*s Lifv.— Mtaters't Hist, of C. C. C. C. — Biog. Brit • Tery cupey*. 



PARK E R. Yl» 

PARKER (Robert), wigts a puritan divinQ of con^f- 
.deffable learmng and reading, but bis early history is very 
variously represented. Mr. Brpok, lo^iis late ^^ Lives (^ 
tbe Puritans/' places bim as rector of North- Benflete, ift 
Essex, in 1 57 1, on the authority of Newcourt, but New^ 
court is evidently speaking of a Robert Parker, who held 
Bardfield*parva in 1559, and must have been a diiferent 
person.. Ou the other band, Mr. Masters, in his History 
of C. C. G* C. informs us that he was in 1581 a pensioner 
of Bene't collie, Cambridge, and was made scholar of 
the house in 1583, at which time he published a copy of 
. Latin verses on the death of sir William Buttes, and suc*- 
ceeded to a fellowship in the latter end of tbe year follow-^ 
ing. He was then A* B. but commenced A. M. in 1585, 
and left the university in 1589. Both his biographers agree 
.that the person they speak of was beneficed afterwards at 
Wilton, in Wiltshire, and the author of '* A scbolastical 
Discourse against symbolizing with Anti*christ in cere*» 
monies, especially in the sign of the Cross," printed in 
1607, without a printer^s name, consisiing of near 400 
pages closely printed in folio. In this he appears to have 
employed very, extensive reading to very little purpose, 
aecordiog to Dr. Grey; and even Mr. Pierce, in bis ^< Vin- 
dication of tbe Dissent^rsf" owns that ^^ bis fancy was 
somewhat odd as to his manner of handling his argument." 
Iticontained at the same time matter 90 very offensive, that 
a proclamation was issued for apprehending the author, 
who, after many narrow escapes, was. enabled to take re- 
fnge in Hojlaod. Here i^Oine of his biographers inform os 
that he was chosen minister of tbe Engliah church at Aoir 
aterdam ^ but tbe magistrates of the city, being unwilling to 
disoblige the king of England by continuing him their 
pastor, he removed to Doesburgh, where he became chap- 
lain to tbe garrison. Others tell us that he would have been 
chosen pastor to tbe English church at Amsterdam, had not 
.the magisjtrates bieen afraid of disobliging king James. 
According to Mr. Brook, it would a|>pear tbat he had pubr 
Jished his work *^ De Descensu" before he left England, 
Jbmt we can more safely rely on Mr. Masters, who had seen . 
tbe bo(^, and who inform^ ustbat it was while he was at 
Amsterdam tbat he publi^ed a treatise, >^ De Descensu 

iicial aiticle.-^Le Neve's Protestant Bishops.— Burnet's Hist uf tbe Reforma. 
tion.— MS Letter of Dr. Ducarel's, &c. &c. , See also various ourioui fii^f^* 
jUcttUrt in Lysoiis's Envirunsj the ^isiory vf Lamiieth, ^c» 



120 PARKER. 



'■' 5^ 



>domini nonfari Jesa Gbristi ad Inferos^" 4to^ M&iiili bad 
1>een begun by. fab learncki friend Hvgb Sotndford, who 
iinding deatb iipproacbing) comoiitt^d tbe peiiiectirrg of it 
to bioi. This be wa& about to do When compellvd to leait^ 
Englaml. His prefhce is dated Amsterdam,. Ded.> 30^ 1611. 
He was also the autb6r of a traadse ^' De PoUtia Eeete- 
«iastica Cfaristi et Hierarcbicaoppdsita^*' published in 16l'6, 
at which time he bad been dead two years. Ke is indeed 
here represented ^' as an emimdnt serranl of Christ, callied 
jbotne to rest from his labonrs in' tbe midst of his course.** 
The Bodleian catalogue assigns to him t^o other post- 
bumous works, ^^ A Discourse concerning PuntanV' 1641, 
4to^ and ^' Tbe Mystery of tb^ Vials opened in tbe \Mh 
chapter of the Revelatiofns.*' He left a son, ThomsM, 
author of a wofk called '^^ Mieibodus gratitiB'ditiU{6 it^ ^tna^ 
dtjctione bominis peccatoris ad vitan^" Lond. 1657^ Hyo, 
'which the editor considered as a work of importance by tbe 
care be took to c6llate four MS copies. Brodk say's hie 
wrote also <* Meditations on the Pfo^ecy of Daniel,'^ ftAd 
died in 1677, in New England, to whicii fae went in 1634, 
io avoid the consequence^ of nonconforimity at botfie. * 

PARKER (Samuel), a t&kn of sodio learning, and nb 
contemptible writer, but of despicable dbatiiot^f, was bcffti 
an Sept. 1640, at Northampton, where bis father, John 
Parker, then practised tbe law. John bad \teen bfsed to 
that profession in one of tbe Temples at London, slnd i^ 
dining to the parliament against the king, wtts prefen^eii 
to be a mtoilier of the high court of jumiide in 1€49, in 
ivbich office he gave sentence i^inst the thuee lords, Ca- 
pel, Huiland) and Hamilton, who were bebeaded. During 
■Oliver's U9urpati6n be was made an assistant committee- 
man for his county* In 1650, be published m book in de<- 
/ence of the new government, as a common wetflKhi wicfaw 
€)ut a king or hou^e of lords, entitled "Tbe Governwent 
of tbe People of England, precedent and presenjt,*' with 
An emblematical engraved title-page* lb Jntie 16i5,wfa6n 
Cromwell was declared protector, he was appointed one 6f 
the commissioners for removing obbtructioiis at WdrdentieN 
bouse, in the Strand, near London, and was swom seij^Mstt 
at law next day. In Jan. 16.59, he was appointed hf ^t 
rump-^pttfliament onfe of tbe barons of th^ ^mbequetr; bt^ 

* Master's Hist, of C. C. C'C. — Broi»k*fi Lives of th€ Puritiins*— ^ie*l>g P#- 
rifcana* mitik Orey's ExtiiimdiiflAi, vol. L 



If A B K E K. 121 

Upon a ocfQtiplaint againit h\tti^ wad soon afb^ disiilaced. 
His cbaracteri hofwiever^ appearrs to have been midh^ that 
he was again made i^gQlarly sex^eant at Uw, by the re- 
commendatioti of chancellor Hydei at the first call after 
die return of Charles IL 

His son, Samuel, tbe i»ub}eotv of the present article, was 
educated among the Puritans ti Northampton ; whence, 
when prepared for tbe university, he was sent to Wadlilam'* 
college in Oxford, and addditted, in 1659, under a pres-^ 
byterian tutor. While here be affected to lead a strict and 
reHgioas life, entered into a weekly society, then called 
the gruellers, because their chief diet waa wafcer-grael; 
and it was observed ** that he put m^ire graves into his 
porridge than ^U the rest.'* This society met at a house 
in Holywell, where he was so zealous and constant an at- 
tendiant upon prayers, sermons, and aacramentSi that he 
was est^^emed one of the most vaioable young men in tbe 
university. He took the degree B. A. Feb. 28, 1 660. At 
the titue of the restoration he was a vibl^nt independent, 
and as forborne time be eontintied to rail against episco- 
pacy, he was mueh diseountenanced by the new warden, 
Dn Blandford. Upon this he nemoved to Trinity college, 
wb6rei by the advi<^^ of Dr. Ralph Bathtirst, then a senior 
fellow of that society, b6 was induced to change his opi- 
nions, and became as violent against the nonconformists as 
he bad ever been for them. He afterwards thanked Dr. 
Balhurst for having restored him '^ from the chaiiis and 
fetters of an unhappy education." He now proceeded 
M.A. in 1663, add .having taken! orders, resorted fre« 
gueutly to Londt>n, and became chaplain to a nobleman, 
whom be atliuaed by his humourous sallies at the expenco' 
of his old fri^dds tbe prtdsbyteriiiiTs, independents, &c. 
Mason was R0.y6r more mistaken than when in his ^* Ode 
to Independence" be misntions him by the epithet *^ mitred 
dullness." Parker was undoubtedly a man of wit, and 
although Marvel! was his match, y^t the success of the 
latter was not a litde owing to his having tbe best cause* 

In 1665 he was elected a fellow of the royal society, and 
published about th^ same time some phyricb-^theological 
assays, in Latin, with tbid title '^ Teotaihina Pbysico-Theo<^ 
logica de Deo ; sive Tbeologia Scholastica, ad normam' 
nov8^ et reformats^ pbilosophite cohcinnata," Lond. 1665, 
4tov This he dedicated to archbishop ShjeMon. . The work 
iras attatked by N. Fairfax, M. D. in a treatise with tbe 



122 P A R K £ It 

wbinisical tide of <^Tbe Bulk and Selvedge of the World.** 
Ill 1666 he published ** A free and impartial Censure of 
tbe Platonic Philosophy ;" and shortly after '< An account 
of the nature and extent of the Divine Dominion and Good- 
ness, especially as they refer to the Origenian hypothesis 
"coticerning tbe pre-existence of souls, together with a 
special account of tbe vanity and groundlessness of tbe hy^- 
pothesis itself/' Oxon; 1666, 4to. About Micbaelfnas, 1667, 
archbishop Sheldon appointed him one of his chaplains, a 
proof that at this time be was in estimation ; and this seems 
to have led the way to higher preferment. He now left 
Oxford, and resided at Lambeth, under the eye of his pa<^ 
iron; who, in June 1670, collated him to the archdea^ 
conry of Canterbury, in the room of Dr. Sancroft, after* 
wards archbishop. On Nov. 26, the same year, having accom- 
panied William prince of Orange on his visit to Cambridge, 
he bad the degree of D. D. conferred upon him. On Nov. 1 8, 
1672, he was installed prebendary of Canterbury ; and had 
the rectories of Ickham and Chartham, in Kent, conferred 
upon hi in by the archbishop about the same time. About 
this time he published some of those writings against the 
presbyterians which involved him in a controversy. The 
iirst of these was his ** Discourse of Ecclesiastical Polity, 
wherein tbe authority of the civil magistrate over the con* 
sciences of subjects in matters of external religion is as^ 
serted." This was first answered by the anonymous author 
of ^* Insolence and Impudence triumphant," &:c. 1669; and 
by Dr. John Owen, in "Truth and Innocence vindicated.** 
He then published " A Defence and Continuation of Ec- 
clesiastical Polity (against Dr. Owen)," Lond. .1671, 6vo $ 
" Toleration discussed,'^ &c. 1670, 4to; " A DisCourset in 
Vindication of bishop Bramhall and the Church of Eng-* 
land, from the fanatic charge of Popery," &c. This was 
prefixed to a ^ Treatise" of the said bishop, written in hii 
bwii defence, 1672, 8vo. A humourous censure of this 
piece being published by Andrew Marvellj entitled ^^ The 
Rehearsal Transprosed," &c. our author, in the same hu* 
mourous taste, wrote *^ A Reproof to the Rehearsal Trans- 
prosed," 1673, 8vo. Wood, however, observes, that, " find- 
ing himself beaten in this cudgelling way, his high spirit 
was abated for ever after, and though Marvell replied to 
fkis ^ Reproof,' yet he judged it more prudent to lay down 
tbe cudgels. It put him upon a niore sober, serious, and 
inodeiraie way of writing." (S^se M^rvelv) Parker'^ bst 



PARKER. 12S 

publication Id this coDtroversy was ^* A free and impanial 
Inquiry into the causes of that very great esteem and ho-^ 
nour the Nonconformist Ministers are in with their foU 
lowers/^ 1673, Hvo. In 1678 be published bis << Disputa- 
tiones de Deo et providentia divioa," &c. 4to, which is 
highly commended by Dr. Henry More in the general pre* 
tsLce to his works. This was followed by other works, en^ 
titled ^' Demonstration of the divine authority of the Law 
of. Nature, and of the Christian Religion,'* 1681, 4to ; 
'^ The Case of the Church of England briefly stated in the 
three first and fundamental principles of a Christian Church, 
i. The Obligation of Christianity by Divine Right. II. 
The Jurisdiction. of the Church by Divine Right. III. The 
institution of Episcopal Superiority by Divine Right," 
London, 8vo ; ^' An account of the Government of the 
Christian Church, in the first six hundred years; parti* 
cularly shewing, I. The Apostolical practice of Diocesan 
and Metropolitical Episcopacy. II. The usurpation of pa<- 
triarchal and papal authority. III. The war of two hundred 
years between the bishops of Rome and Constantinople, of 
universal supremacy," London, 1683, 8vo ^ *^ Religion 
and. Loyalty, or, a demonstration of the power of the 
Christian Church within itself, supremacy of sovereign 
powers over it, and duty of passive obedience and nonr 
resistance to all their commands, exemplified out of re^* 
eords,^' &c. 8vo ; and the year following, the second pari 
of the same work, containing ^* the history of the concur- 
rence of the imperial and ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the 
.Government of the Church, from the beginning of the 
reign of Jovian to the end'Of Justinian," 1685, 8vo. 

As he thus'by his writings, as well as personal conduct, 
maintained an unreserved obsequiousness to the court, du*' 
ring the reign, of Charles II. so upon the accession of his 
brother to the throne, kp continued in the same servil^ 
complaisance ; and it was not long before he reaped the 
fruits of it in the bishopric of Oxford, to which be was 
nominated by James 11. on the death of Dr. Fell in 1686, 
being allowed to hold the archdeaconry of Canterbury in 
jcommendam. He was also made a privy counsellor, and 
constituted, by a royal mandamus, president of Magdalen^ 
college in Oxford, a situation which amounted . to a dis* 
grace, as it was in violation of the statutes, and in resist^ 
^nce to the lawful election. of Dr. Hough. (See Hou€»H ) • 

flaying now openly rejected the 4:hurch of £nglamd| 



124 P A H K £ R. 

which h^ had «aeriftoed to his ambition, be became oiie' of 
the Romish^ m^cenariesi prostituttng bis pen in defepcd 
of transubslantiation, and the worship of saints and itaagen* 
The papists, it is certain, made sure of htm as a proselyte; 
one of whom, in a letter from Liege, informs his. cor-* 
respondent that be even proposed in council, whether ii 
was not expedient that at least one college in Oxford should 
be allowed to be catholics, that they niight not be f6rced 
to be at such charges by going beyond the seas^ to study. 
In the same spirit, having invited two popish noblemen, 
with a third or the church of England, ta dn entertaifi^ 
rhent, he drank the Icing's health, v^ishing a happy succesi 
to all bis affairs ; adding, that the religion of the protest- 
ants in England seemed to him to be- in no better a 
condition than Buda was before it was takeo, and thai 
tbey were next to Atheists who defended that faith« So 
very notorious was his conduct, that the more prudent and 
artful of the popish party condemned it Father Peter, a 
JjCsnit, and privy-counsellor to king James, in a letter ti^ 
father la Chaise, confessor .to Louis XIY. uses these ex^ 
pressioos: ^^ The bishop of Oxford has not yet declared 
himself openly; the great obstacle is his wife, whdm he 
cannot rid himself of; his design being to. continue d 
bishop, and only change communion, as it is not doubled 
but the king will permit, and our holy father confirm ; 
though I don't see how he can be farther useful to. u^siu< 
the religion be is in, because he is suspected, and of no* 
esteem among the heretics of tbe Eirglish cbdrch ; nor dty 
I see that tbe example of hi^ conversion is like to dtaw^ 
many others aft^r hitn, because be declared bimlself, so> 
s,udd:enly. If he bad believed my counsel, which ii^as to 
teotiporize for some longer time, he would have done beuer ; 
but it is his temper, or rather zeal, that hurried hi in 4n to 
it" These two letters were first printed in a ** Third Col-. 
lection of Papers relating to the present juQctt»re of affairs 
in England,^' &c. 1689, 4ta^ and havd been sinee inserted^ 
in Ecbard's and Rapin's bistoi^ies. 

His character vf^as now become ctotemiptible, amd hk- 
authority in his diocese so very insignificant, that when be> 
assembled his ckrgy and desired them to s^ubftcribe an 
^' 4ddress of Thanks to tbe king fi» bis deotai'^iofi of Li*' 
beity of Conscience,'' tbey rejected it with such ananlmity, 
that be got btit one clergyman td eo^tir wifb him in it. 
The last eiffbrt be ^nade to serve the ^jsurt was ]»s pub*- 



. P A R K e R. i25 

iisbiug << Reasons for abrbgating the Test ;*' and this pro- 
duped 'a controversy, in which be was completely foiled, 
bis character despised, and his spirit broken. He died nn- 
l^rpeoted at Magdalen college, May 20, 1687, and was 
buried in the outer chapel. He was a man of learning, 
iM>d in sooie instances an acute writer*. Of that character 
l^aryeirs wit cannot deprive him. But it may be allowed, 
with Burnety that he was a man of no judgment, and of as 
little virtue ; and as to religion, rather impious ; that he 
wa? covetous and ambitious, and seemed to have no other 
suiise of religion but as « politioal interest, and a subject 
pf party and faction. He seldom came to prayers, or to 
finy exercises of devotion ; and was so lifted up with pride 
that be grewinsuflPerable to all that came near him. 

It iQUst have been as the last effort of a desperate cause 
when he sent a ** Discourse'' to James, persuading him to 
embrace the protestant religion, with a ^' Letter" to the 
same purpose, which was printed at London in 1690, 4to. 
His works have but few readers at this day ; and Swift 
observes, tliat /' Marvell's remarks on Parker continued to 
be read when the book which occasioned them was long 
ago sunk.'* He left a son of his own name, who was an 
ei^cellent scholar, and a man of singular modesty. He 
Qever took the oaths after the revolution. He married a 
bookseller's daughter at Oxford, where he resided with a 
numerous family of children ; to support which he pub-> 
liahed some books, particularly, I . <^ An English Transla- 
tion of TuUy de finibus, 1702,'' Svo, in the preface to 
which he has some aoimad versions upon Locke's Essay con- 
cerning Human Understanding. 2. *^ An abridgment of 
the Ecclesiastic Histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, 
s^nd Theodoret," 1729. He also published a Latin ma- 
nuscript of bis father, containing the history of his own. 
tigie, under this title, '^ Reverendi admodum in Christo 
patris Sartiuelis Parkeri episcopide rebus sui temporis com* 
mentariprum Jibri quatuor," 1726, 8vo, of which, two 
English translations were afterwards published, one by the 
rev. Thomas Newlin, fellow of Magdalen college. But 
Mr. Paifker's last and greatest work wa^ entitJed ** Biblio- 
tbeca Biblica," printed at Oxford in 5 vols. 4to, the first 
of which appeared ia two parts in 1720, and the fifth. in 

.* Lafdoer ipeaks ia termi of r«* use of it in chapter xmcix of fans »< Tes- 
•pect of his " Demonstration of tb6 limonies uf Ancient Hfathsns," vol. 
itriM Authority," !atnd' makes great VILI, of his Works. 



126 P A R k E ft. 

* 1735| with an account of the other writings of the autbo^ 
and some particulars of his life, drawn up by Dr. Thomas 
Haywoody of St. John^s college, to whom were attributed 
most of the dissertations in the work. He describes it asr 
.^* being a neW Comment upon the five Books of Moses, 
extracted from the ancient fathers, and the most famous 
critics both ancient and modern, with occasional annota- 
tions or dissertations upon particular difficulties, as thej 
were often called for." Mr. Parker died July I*, 1730, 
in his fiftieth year, leaving a widow and children. The 
metrical paraphrase of Leviticus xi. 13, &c. in vol. IIL 
was written by Mr. Warton, of Magdalen college, father 
to the late learned brothers, Joseph and Thomas Warton ; 
and the ^^ Fragment of Hyppolitus, taken out of two Arabic 
M8S. in the Bodleian," in the fourth vol. was translated by 
the late Dr. Hunt. Mr. Parker never was in orders, as he 
could not reconcile his mind to the new government; but 
he associated much and was highly respected by many 
divines, particularly nonjurors, as Dr. Hickes, Mr. ColHer, 
Mr. Dodwell, Mr. Leslie, Mr. Nelson, and Dr. Grabe, 
whose liberality lessened the difficulties which a very large 
family occasioned. He appears to have had a place in the 
Bodleian library, as Mr. Wheatly, in a letter to Dr. Raw- 
linson^ dated Dec. 1739, says, *^ Sam. Parker's son I had 
heard before was apprenticed to Mr. Clements : but the 
account you give me of his extraordinary proficiency is 
new. If it be true also, I hope some generous patron of 
learning will recall him from the bookseller's shop, and 
place him in his father's seat, the Bodleian library.'* This 
son, Sackville Parker, was afterwards for many years an 
eminent bookseller at Oxford, and one of the four Octo* 
genarian booksellers, who died in 1795 and 1796, namely, 
James Fletcher, at eighty-six ; Sackville Parker, at Weighty- 
nine ; Stephen Fletcher, at eighty -two, and Daniel Prince, 
at eighty-five. They were all born at Oxford, except 
James Fletcher. The present worthy bookseller, Mr. Jo- 
seph Parker, is nephew and succer^sor to Mr. Sackville 
Parker." 

PARKHURST (John), an eminent prelate of the six- 
teenth century, was born at Guildford, in Surrey, in 1511, 
and was tfae son of Mr. George Parkhurst of that place. 

 Alfa. Ox. vol. If. — Bfcg. Brit.->Bor»el'8 Own Tines.— Gnit. Mag. Tof. 
LXX. p..7.— LeUers by eminent PerscMS, 1813, 3 vols. 8vo —D* Israeli's QuftrW 
rel?, vol. II. p. 174.— Crosby's Baptists, vol. II.— Nichols** Bowyer. 



P A R K H U R S T. 12T 

fie was educated there in the grammar-school adjoining" 
to Magdalen college gate, under Thomas Robertson, a 
▼ery falnous teacher. He was elected fellow of Merton 
college in 1529, and three years after, proceeding in arts, 
entered into holy orders; Anthony Wood says that he was 
at this time better esteemed for poetry and oratory than 
divinity. Yet we find him recorded in the life of Jewell, 
as the tutor of that excellent prelate, who entered of Mer- 
ton college in 1535, and as " prudently instilling, tog^her 
with his other learning, those excellent principles into this 
young gentleman, which afterwards made him the darling 
and wonder of his age." Among other useful employ^ 
ments, we find him collating Coverdale and TindaPs trans* 
lations of , the Bible along with his pupil, of whom he 
conceived a very high dpinion, and on one occasion ex- 
claimed *^ Surely PauPs Cross will one day ring of this 
boy,'* a prophecy which was remarkably fulfilled in JewelPs 
celebrated sermon there in 1560. Parkhurst, it is true, 
was a poet and an orator, but he had very early examined 
the controversy that was about to end in the reformation, 
and imbibed the spirit of the latter. In 154S, according 
to a MS note of Baker, he was presented by Thomas lord 
Seymour to the rich benefice of Bishcfp's Cleve in Glou- 
cestershire, which he held three years in commendam, 
and where be did much good by his hospitality and charity ; 
but the author of Jewell's life says that he held this living 
in 1544, and when in that year Jewell commenced master 
of arts, he boce the charges of it. Nor, says Jewel l*s bio- 
grapher, ^' was this the only instance wherein he (Jewell) 
did partake of this good man's bounty, for he was wont 
twice or thrice in a year to invite him to his house, and not 
dismiss him without presents, money, and other things that 
were necessary for the carrying on bis studies* And one 
time above the rest, coming into his chamber in the morn- 
ing, when he was to go back to the university, he seized 
upon his and his companions purses, saying, What money, I 
wonder, have these miserable, and beggardly Oxfordians? 
And finding them pityfuUy lean and empty, stuffed them 
with money, till they became both fat and- weighty.'* 

After the death of Edward VI. be joined the exrlei 
abroad, and took up his residence at Zurich, where he 
remained till the death of queen Mary. Here he met 
with his pupil Jewell, and on the change of affairs in 
England they intended to have retvirned together^ bu^ 



128 F A B K H U R S T. 

Parkhur9t, thinking that Jewell bad not chosen the sa&i^ 
route for bis travels, lef( bim and went by himself^ tbe cod^ 
sequence of wbicb was tbat Parkhorst was robbed of all he 
ba^ on the road^ and Jewell arrived safe in England, and 
had the satisfaction of relieving tbe wants of bis fbrmer 
benefactor. Soon after Parkburst arrived, be was elected 
to the see of Norwich April 13, 1560, and consecrated by 
archbishop Parker, &c. on Sept. 1. He held tbe living of 
Cleve for some tiine after this along with bis bisbopiic« 
He now married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Garnish^ 
of Kenton in Suffolk, esq. by Margaret bis wife, daugihter 
of $ir Hugh Francis, of Giffard^s Hall in Suffolk, kin'ght. 
In. 15 66, by virtue of a commission from the principal 
ministers of tbe university of Oxford, directed to Laurence 
Humphrey, the queen's divinity professor, he and four 
other bishops were created doctors of divinity, Oct. 30, in 
the house of one Stephen Medcalf in Loudon, in tbe pre-^ 
sence of William Standbib, public nc^ary and registrar of 
the university, and others. 

In the conduct of his diocese, it appears that be differed 
in many respects from his metropolitan archbishop Parker, 
and exerted bis authority towards tbe puritans with such 
moderation, as was accounted ^^ great remissness." This 
produced frequent remonstrances on the part of tbe arch- 
bishop. To one of the last of these recorded l^ Strype,* 
our prelate returned for answer, ^^ What I am and what 
my doings are, cannot be hidden. And therefore do refet' 
myself to the reports not of any one, but of all severally. 
This I find by good proof, that the rough and austere, 
manner of ruling doth the least good. And on the other 
part, the contrary hath and doth daily reclaim and win 
divers. And therefore do I chuse rather to continue my 
accustomed and natural form and manner, which I know, 
how it hath aiid doth work, than with others by rigour and 
extremity to over-rule," &c. 

Strype» on the authority of his contemporary Becaij^^' 
who knew him well, gives him this character : '^ He war 
naturally somewhat hasty ; but soon appeased again. He 
would speak his mind freely, and fear none in a good 
Qause. A true friend, and easily reconciled to any 
against whom be had taken a displeasure. He appointed: 
in his diocese (that was %ge) for the better oversight 
thereof, ten commissaries^ to whom he, as occasion servied, 
il^nt instructions for the. regulation and ordef of bis iffe^' 



P A R K H U H S T. 129 

He could bave been willing lo allow a liberty of officiating 
in the church, to such as could not conform to some of the 
ceremonies of it, looking upon them as indifferent matters ; 
but upon command from aboye, he readily obeyed his 
prince's and metropolitan's authority. He was a friend to 
frophesjfes ; that is, to the meetings of the ministers in 
several appointed parish churches in his diocese, as in St. 
Edmund's Bury, &c. to confer together about the inter- 
pretation and sense of the scriptures. But the queen for- 
bidding it, upon some abuses thereof, the archbishop sig- 
nified to him her will, and he in obedience sent to his 
archdeacons and commissariesi, to have them forborn for 
the future.'' *' As for his life and conversation, it was 
such as might be counted a mirror of virtue ; wherein ap- 
peared nothing but' what was good and godly; an example 
to the flock in righteousness, in faith, in love, in peaces 
in -wordy in purity. He preached diligently, and exhorted 
the people that came to him. He was a learned man, as 
well in respect of human learning/ as divine, well seen in 
the sacred Scriptures; an earnest 'pro test ant, and lover of 
sincere religion ; an excellent bishop, . a faithful pastor, 
and aAvorthy example to all spiritual ministers in his dio- 
cese, both for doctrine, life, and hospitality." This cha- 
racter is confirmed by Bale, in the dedication to Parkhurst^ 
of his << Reliques of Rome," printed in 1563. 
. Dr. Parkhurst died Feb. 2, 1574, and was buried in the 
nave of the cathedral of Norwich, on the south side be- 
tween the eighth and ninth pillars. Against the west part 
of the latter was a monument, now inuch mutilated ; his 
figure iu a gown and square cap, and the inscription, being 
taken away during the rebellion, with the epitaph, which 
is still on record in Blomefield's History of Norwich. 

His works bave not mncb connexion with his profession, 
ail, except his letters, being Latin poetry on sundry oc*- 
casions. He was. indeed one x)f the translators of the Bi- 
shops' Bible, of which bis share was the Apocrypha from 
the book of Wisdom to the end ; but he is best known to 
the curious by his ^' Ludicra, sive £pigrammata juvenilia," 
In 1572 he sent a copy of thes^to his old and dear friend 
Dr. Wilson, master of St. Catherine's, as a new-year's gift, 
and styled them his ^^ good, godly, and pleasant epigrams;" 
and they were in the following year printed by Day, in u 
small 4to volume* Why Anthony Wood should give thd 
report that these epigrams were as mdecent as Martial's, 

Vol. XXIV. K 



1 sa P A B K H U R S T. 

wbeo he adds at the same time that *< be cannot perceive 
it»^' seems unaccountable ; but even Blomefield has adopted 
this fierlse accusation. Many of them appear to have been 
first printed at Zurich in 15689 whejce they were written^ 
and republished now. Among the commenda;iory verses 
is a copy by dean Nowell, to whom two of the epigrams 
are: addressed, and -who was not likdy to have comsiended 
indecencies, if we could sn[^K>se our pious prelate capable 
of publishing such. ^^ His epigrams,'^ says archdeacon 
Churton, ^'affcM-ding notices of persons and things not 
elsewhere easily found, arie on the Grecian rather than the 
Rotnan model, not sparkling with wit, but grave and di>- 
dactic.V The other works attributed to bishop Parkhurst 
are, 1. ^^ £pigrammata in mortem duorom fratrum Suffol-- 
oiensium, Caroli et Henrici Brandon,'* Lond* 1552, 4to. 
These were the sons of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk^ 
and died of the swearing-sickness. 2. ^^ Epigrammata 
secia," ibid. 1560, which seem to be a part of bis larger 
collection ; and some of them had been long before pub^ 
liafaed at Strasburgb, alpng with Shepreve's ^* Summa et . 
synopsis Nov. Test, distichis ducentis sexagiiita compre*^* 
bensa^" 3. ^* Vita Christi, carm. LaL in lib. precum pri- 
vat." ibid. 1578. He also addressed Henry VIII. and 
qjaeen Catherine in some complimentary verses, wbein they 
were about to Visit Oxford in 1 543 ; and there is ao epkapb^ 
of his on queen Catherine in the chiq)el of Sudtey-castie» 
Several of his letters )have been published by Strype^ and- 
more in MS. are in the British Miiseum.^ 

PARKHURST (John), a late learned divine and lexi<- 
cograpber^ was the second son of John Parkhurst, esq^ of 
Catesby, in Nortbampt6nsbire, by Ricarda Dormer, daugh- 
ter of judge Dormer. He was born in June 172,9, was 
educated ^t Rugby school in Warwickshire, and was after- 
wards of Clar^-^ball^ Cambridge^ where he took his degr^- 
of B. A. in 174S, that jof M. A. in 1^512, and was many 
years fellow, of his college. Being a younger brother, he 
waa intended for the church, and entered into ovders, but^ 
becoming heir to a very considerable estate, he was re^ ' 
lieved from the 'Usual anxieties respecting preferment, and 

was, now a patron himself. Still he continued to cultivate 

^  % 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. 1, new edit. — ^.Tanner and Bale.— Strype'fi AQoals.— Stnrpe's 
Parrkef, |>, 67. 106, 101. 192. 209. 246—8. 310. 335. t548. 368. 450. 452. 455. 
460. 480.--JLif(B ot Jewell. -^Bloinefleld's Norwich. ^ Neat's PiirUa«s<i—Arch»o* 

logia,ro!. IX.— Churtou's Life of Noweti, — Eeloe's AneCjdQiet, Tol. 11. 



P A B K H U R S T. 131 

the fttidie» becoming a clergjrman ; and in the capacity o£ 
a curate, but without any salary, he long did the duty, 
with exemplary diligence and zeal, in bis own chapel at 
Catesby, which, after* the demolition of the church of ther 
nunnery there, served as a parisb-church, of which' also be 
was the patron. When several years after, in 1784, it fell 
to bi$ lot to exercise the right of presentation, he presented 
to the vicarage of Epsom in Surrey, the late rev. Jonathan 
Boucher (see BouCHBl), as one who in his opinion had 
given the best proofs of his having a due sense of the 
duties of his office. It was by marriage be bad become 
patron of this living, having in 1754 married Susanna 
Myster, daughter, and, we believe, heiress of John Myster, 
esq. Of Epsom. 

- In 17^3 he began his career of authorship,^ by publish- 
ing in 9vo, ^^ Aisetious and friendly Address to the rev. 
Jdbn Wesley, in relation to a principal doctrine advanced 
and maintained by him and his assistants." This doctrine 
is what is called the faith of assurance, which Mr. Park-* 
huri^t objects to^ in the maooer stated by Wesley, as lead<) 
ittg to presumption and an uncharitable spirit. Mr. Park* 
burst's next publication was of jnote importance, ^< An 
Hebrew and English Lexicon, without points; to which is 
added, a methodical Hebrew grammar, without points, 
adapted to the use of learners," 1762, 4to. To attempt a 
vindication of all the etymological and philosophical dis^ 
quisitions scattered through this dictionary, would be very 
fruitless; but it is not perhaps too much to say, tbat we 
have nothing of the kind equal to it in the Ekiglish lan^- 
guage. * The author continued to correct and improve it^ 
trough various editions, the last of which was publish^ 
ed in 1813. But his philological studies were not .con- 
fined to the Hebrew language ; for be published a *^ Greek 
and Engliah Leiicou,*' with a grammar, 17fi9, 4u>, which 
ba^ Jikewise gone t^irongh many editions, tbe first of whiob, 
in octavo^ the form in which they are now printed, was 
ftuperintended by his learned daughter, the wife of i^he rev. 
J^^epb TlMUnas. The continued demaiKl for both these 
l0smiQ»% seems to be a sufficient proof of their merit; and 
th^MT usefulflie&s to biblLoal students has indeed been gene- 
/aUy acknowledged. 

. Mr.' ParkUurst*$ only remaining publication was eoititled, 
'^ The Divinity and Pne-«xtstenc;e of our Lord and Saviour. 
Jeaiks Christ, demonstrated from Scripture ; in answer to 

K 2 



132 P A R K H U R S T. 

the first section of Dr. Priestley's Introduction to the history * 
of early opinions concerning Jesus Christ ; together witb 
strictures on some other parts of the work, and a postscript 
relating to a late publication of Mr. Gilbert Wakefield/' 
1787, 8vo. This work was very generally regarded a»' 
completely performing all that its title-page promised; 
and accordingly the whole edition was soon sold off. A 
very unsatisfactory answer was, however, attempted by 
Dr. Priestley, in "A Letter to Dr. Home,'* &c. 

Mr. Parkburst died at Epsom in Surrey, March 21, 17d7. 
He was a man of very extraordinary independency of 
mind and firmness of principle. In early life, along with 
many other men of distinguished learning, it was objected 
to him that he was a Hutchinsonian ; and this has been 
given as a reason for his want of preferment. Abetter 
reason, however, may be found in the circumstances of 
bis acquisition of property, which rendered him indepen^ 
dent, and his love of retirement, which was uniform. He 
always gave less of his time to the ordinary interruptions 
of life than is common. In an hospitable, friendly, and 
pleasant neighbourhood, he visited little, alleging th^t such 
a course of life neither suited his temper, bis healthy or 
brs studies. Such a man was not likely to crowd the levee 
of a patron. Yet he was of sociable manners; and bis 
conversation always instructive, often deligrhtful 'y for has 
stores of knowledge were so large, that he has often beeti 
called a walking library. Like many other men of infirm 
and sickly frames, he was occasionally irritable and quick, 
warm and earnest in his resentments, though never unfor- 
giving. Few men, upon the whole, have passed through 
a long life more at peace with their neighbours, more re* 
spected by men of learning, more beloved by their friends^ 
or mere honoured by their family. 

' Of his strict sense of justice, the following has been re- 
' lated ^ a very striking instance. One of bi| tenants fall^ 
ing behind-hand in the payment of bis rent, wluch was 
SOOL per annum, it was repitiserited to bis landlord that it 
was owing to bis being over*rented. This being believed 
to be tbe case, a new valuation was made ^ and it was then 
agreed, that, for the future, the rent should not be more 
than 450/. Many in his situation would have stopped here, 
iand considered the sacrifice as sufficient. Mr. Parkburst, 
. however, justly inferring that if the farm* was then tdo 
dear, it must necessiarily have been, always too dear,. 



P A R K H U R S T- 13$ 

unasked^ and of his own accord, immediately stracfc off 
60L from the commencement of the lease, and iastantly 
refunded all that he had received more than 450/. 

Mr. Parkhurst was in his person rather below the middle 
size, but remarkably upright, and firm in his gait He 
was throughout life of a sickly habit ; and his leading a life 
8o remarkably studious and sedentary (it having, for many 
years, been his constant practice to rise at five, and, in 
winter to light his own. fire), to the v^ry verge of David's 
limits of the life of man, is a consolatory proof to men of 
similar habits, how much, under many disadvantages, may 
still be effected by strict temperance and a careful regimen. 

Mr. Parkhurst^s first wife died in 1759, leaving him a 
daughter, now the widow of the rev. James Altham, and 
two SODS, both since dead. In 1761 he married again 
Milicent Northey, .daughter of Thomas Northey, esq. by 
whom he had the daughter, Mrs. Thomas, whom we have 
already mentioned. This lady having received, under the 
immediate inspection of her learned and piou$ father, an 
.education. of the first order, acquired a degree of classical 
knowledge rarely to be met with in the female world. 
She wrote a very affectionate memorial of her father!8 
worth, which is e^ngraven over his remains in Epsom 
church. Her mother, the second Mrs^ Parkhurst, died in 
1800.' 

PARKINS (John), one of our early law-writers, was 
born of a genteel family, and educated at Oxford, but 
left it without a degree, and became a student of the Inner 
Temple, where, Wood says, he n^ade wonderful proficiency 
in the common law. After being called to the bar, be 
became eminent in his profession,, aqd had great practice 
as a cbamber-^counsel. Whether be was ever a reader of 
his inn, or a bencher, seems doubtful. He died, accord- 
ing to. Pus, in 1544, but according to Bale, in 1545, and 
is supposed to have been buried in the Temple church. 
He wrote, in Norman French (but Wood gives the title in 
Latin), ^* Perutilis Tractatus ; sive explanatio quorundam 
capitulorum vaide necessaria,*' Lood. 1530, a work, which 
.must have answered its character of ^^ valde necesaaria,'^ 
as.it was reprinted in 1532, 1541, 1545, 1567, 1597^ I6OI9 
and 1639. There were also, two English translations, of 
. 1642 and 1657^ all in 8vo.* 

> Gent. Ma;, vols. LXVII. tXX, — ^^Dr. Gleig's Sapplement to the Eocyclojp. 
Brit. 3 Tannery Bale, and Pit>.— Atb. Ox. vol. I. 



184 I» A R K 1 N S ON. 

PARKINSON (JoHN)^ a celebrated old herbaKst; wa$ 
barn in 1567, and bred up as a London apothecary, ill 
which profession he became eminent, and was it length 
appointed apothecary to king James I. King Charles I. 
afterwards conferred upon him the title of Botamcus R^giks 
Primaritis, A great share of bi& attention^ during. a long 
life, was devoted to the study of plants. He had a garden 
well stored with rarities, and he bestowed equal pottee 
upon the curiosities of ihe flower-garden, and on thena* 
iiire productions of hit» own and other countries, embracing 
their literary history^ as well as their practical investiga-i 
tion. 

His first publication was his *^ Paradisi in Sole Paradi- 
sus terrestris, or a choice Garden of all sorts of Rarest 
Flo.weri, &c. ; to which is annexed a Kitchen Garden," &c. 
This was primed at London, anno 162d, in a folio of 612 
pages. A second edition, ** much corrected and enlarged,'^ 
appeared in 1656, after the decease of the author. Both 
editions are dedicated '^ to the Qiueen's most excellent 
Majesty,' • which could hardly have been, as Dr. Pulteney 
supposed, qiieen Elizabeth; but rather the queen of 
Charles L ; and it is to the honour of tho^e who edited the 
new impression, in 1656, that this dedication was not then 
suppressed. About a thousand plants, either species or 
varieties, are described in this book, of which 780 are 
figured, in wood cuts, partly copied frd^i Clusius and 
Lobel, . partly original, but all of them eoarse and stifF, 
though sometimes expressive. Numerous remarks are in- 
terspersed, respecting the botanical history or mediqal vir- 
tues of the plants, as well as their culture ; but the latter 
subject is, for the most part, given in the introductory 
chapters, which display no small degree of intelligence 
and experience. This book affords a very correct and 
pleasing idea of the gardens of our ancestors, at the time 
it was written -, and has been considered, by the learned 
authors of the f' Hortus Kewensis," unequivocal authority 
as to the time when any particular species was introduced 
or cultivated among us. Though our kitchen-gardens had 
not arrived at such perfection as they attained in king 
William^s days, and have since preserved,, there is reason 
to think. the science of horticulture declined considerably 
after the time of Parkinson, previous to its restoration at 
the end of the seventeenth century. It is no small praise 
to Parkinson's work, that the late Mr. Curtis held it in parti-^ 



PARKINSON. 135 

cubir escalation, always citing it in his Maga2ine with pe- 
culiar pleasure and respect. 

In 1640 our author published his principal work, the 
^^ Theatrum Botanicum, or Theatre of Plants, or an Herbal 
of large extent;" &c. a ponderous folio of 1746'page8, with 
innumerable wooden cuts. This work and the Herbal of 
Glhrarde were t^ie two main pillars of botany in England 
till the time of. Ray ; one or other, or bod), being the in- 
exbanstibie resource of all who had any love for plants, or 
any interest in inquiring into their qualities. « Of th^se two 
writers it is justly obsierved that Parkinson was by far the 
most original and the most copious, but his cuts being of 
▼astly inferior merit to those admirable ones prepared for 
Conrad Gesner, with which Gerarde had the means of 
adorning his publication, the latter has greatly prevailed 
in popularity, as a book of reference. It is indeed chiefly 
for the figures that we ncfw cit^ these ^vorks. Nrce.dis- 
tinctiops of species, or any discrimination between species 
and Varieties, are not to be expected ; still less, any ideas 
of classification or scientific arrangement, -worthy a mo- 
inent^s consideration or comparison. It is not to be won- 
dered at if these great i?i^orks contain some hundreds of 
repetitions, when we consider how obscurely many [Hants 
had been described, or even figured, by previous authors ; 
insomuch that it was in many tases next to impossible to 
discover whether a given plant had been described before. 
Parkinson, however, is entitled to superior praise on this 
head, having taken all possible pains to avoid such mistakes, 
by his deep study of synonyms. Some papers of Lobel 
are said to have fallen into the hands of Parkinson^ after 
the death of the former, which proved of use to his under- 
taking ; but it does not appear that he implicitly confided 
in such, any more than in previously printed authorities, 
without a due investigation, and therefore they became in 
some measure his own. 

The time of Parkinson's decease is not known, but he 
appears lb have been living when his Herbal was published, 
^n 1640, at which period he was, if Dr. Pulteney's date of 
his birth he correct, seventy-^three years old. Nothing is 
-recordi^d of his family. Some copies, of . his " Paradjsus" 
have an engraved portrait of the author, done in his sixty- 
seconayear; and there is a small oval one in the title-page 
of bis ^' Herbal, or Theatrum Botanicum.'* * . 

1 Pulteney's Sketches, voL I.— R«et'» Cyctopttdii. 



iSg PA RMENIDE3. 

PARMENIDES, a philosopher of the Eleatic sect, flon*. 
rished about the sixty-ninth olympiad, or 504 B. C. Some 
have supposed he was a pupil of Anaximander. He was, 
however, at first a. man of property and Consequence in 
civil life, until Diocbetas, a Pythagorean, introduced him 
into the recesses of philosophy. Cebes, in> bis allegorical 
table, speaks of Parmenides as an eminent pattern of Virtue. 
He wrote the doctrines of his school in verses, of which a 
few fragments still remain in the collection ^^ Poesis Pfat« 
losopbica,'* by Henry Stephens, Paris, 1573, but insuffi* 
cient to explain his system of philosophy. Plato, in the 
dialogue which bears the name of Parmenides, professes 
to represent his tenets, but confounds them with his own. 
From the scattered reports of the ancients, Brucker has 
compiled the following Abstract of the philosophy of Par* 
menides. 

Philosophy is two-fdid, that which follows the report ef 
the senses, and that which is according to reason and truth. 
The former treats of the appearances of sensible objects^ 
the latter considers the abstract nature of things, and in« 
quires into the constitution of the universe. Abstract phi- 
losophy teaches that from nothing nothing can proceed. 
The universe is one, immoveable, immutable, eternal, 
and of a spherical form. Whatever is not comprehended 
in the universe, has no real existence. Nothing in nature 
is either produced or destroyed, but merely appears to be 
so to the senses. Physical philosophy teaches that the 
principles of things are heat and cold, or fire and earth, of 
which the former is the efficient, the. latter the material 
cause ; that the earth is spherical, and placed in the center, 
being exactly balanced by its distance from the heavens, 
so that there is no cause why it should move one way ra- 
ther than another; that the firs) men were produced from 
mud, by the action of heat upon cold ; that the frame of 
the world is liable to decay, but the universe itself remains 
the same ; and that the chief seat of the soul is the heart. 
Brucker adds, that there is a near resemblance between 
the metaphysical doctrine of Parmenides and Xenophanes, 
but that Parmenides adhered more strictly to the Pytha* 
gorean doctrine. Telesius revived the doctrine of Par-> 
menides in the sixteenth century.^ 

PARMENTIER (John), a French author and poet,^ 
whose works are now scarce, as well as obsolete, was orU. 

\ Brucker. — Fabric. Bibl. Gr»c. kc 



P A R M E N T I E R. 137 

ginally a merchant at Dieppe^ where he was born in 14d4, 
and b^caIne famous by means of his voyagesi and his taste 
for the sciences. He died in the island of Sumatra, A. D* 
1j5 30, being then only thirty-six. The collection of his 
verses in 4to, printed in 1536, is entitled ** Description 
nouvelle^ des . Dignit^s de ce Monde* et de la Dignity de 
'Pfaomme, compos^e en rHhme Frangoise et en maniere 
d'exhortatiqn, par Jean Parmentier : avec plusieur chantii 
Royaulx, et une Morality a I'Honneur de la Vierge, mise 
par personaiges ; plus la d^ploration sur la mort dudit Par* 
mentier et son frere,. compos6e par Pierre Crignon.** 
This book is very rare. Crignon, who published it, was 
Parmentier^s particular friend, and thus speaks of him : 
** From the year 1522, he had applied to the practice of 
cosmography, on the great fluctuations of the sea ; he be- 
came very profound in astrology ; he composed several 
maps, spherical and plain, which have been used with 
-success in navigation. He was a man worthy to be known 
by all the learned ; and capable, if he had lived, of doing 
honour to his country by great enterprises. He was the 
.first pilot who conducted vessels to the Brasils, and the 
• first Frenchnian who discovered the. Indies, as far as the 
inland Samothra or Sumatra, named Taprobane by the an- 
cients. He reckoned also upon going to the Moluccas ; 
and b^ has toiid me several times, that when he should re- 
turn to Fjfance, his intention was to seek a passage to the 
North, and to make disc5veries from thence, to the South.'* 
Another work by him i3 entitled ^' Moralit^s tres-excel- 
lens en rhonneqr de la benoiste Vierge Marie ; mise e^ 
rime Frangoise et en personnaiges, par Jehan Parmentier,'' 
Paris, 1 5 3 1 , 4 to, black letter. This, also is extremely scarce, 
but is reprinted in the ** Description nouvelle," &c.^ 

PARMIGIANO (II), whose family naoie was Francis 
Mazzuoli, is more generally called Pakmigiano, from 
Parma, where he was. bom in 1503. He.studied under two 
.uncles, Micbele and Philip, but the chief model of his 
imitation was Correggio, from whose works, compared with 
those of Michael Angelo, Raphael, and Julio, he formed that 
peculiar, style .for which he is celebrated. He displayed 
^is natural genius for painting so very early, that at six- 
teen be is said to have produced designs which would have 
^one honour to an experienced painter. His first public 

1 Diet. Hist. — Brujiet M^auel da Xibrair^^ 



138 PARMIGIANO. 

\ 

>^orky the St. Eostacfaius, iv the church of St^ PetroniOB^ 
SB Bolog-na,^ wi^s done when be was a boy. In 1527, when 
Some was sacked by the emperor Charles V. Parmigiano 
was found, like Protogenes at Rhodes, so intent updh his 
work as not to notice the confiisioo of the day. The e^ent 
is variously reUited ; some say that he escaped, like the an- 
cient artist, from all violence, by the admiration of the 
soldiers*; others, that he was plundered by them of kb 
pictures, though his person was safe ; the first party who 
came' taking only a few, while those who followed swept 
away the rest. His turn for music, and particularly Ids 
talent for playing on the lute, in some degree seduced him 
from his principal pursuit ; and Vasari says hi^ was much 
diverted from bis art by the quackery of the alchymists ; 
but this fact has by some writers been questioned. He 
died of a violent fever, in 1 540, at the early age of 36. - 
' The ruling features, says Mr. Fuseli, of Parmigiano's 
style, are elegance of form, grace of countenance, con- 
trast in attitude, enchanting qhiaro-scuro, and blandish- 
ments of colou'r. When these are pure, be is ininskable ; 
bat his elegance is often stretched to excessive slenderness^ 
hi^ grace deformed by affectation, contrast driven to esc- 
Iravagance, and from the attempt to anticipate the beauties 
which time alone can give, his shade presents often nothing 
but a pitchy m^ss, and his lights a faded bloom. The 
taste of Parmigiano was exquisite, but it led him iliol^e'to 
imitate the effects than the principles of his .ttiasters ; with 
less comprehension than ardour, he adopted the grace of 
Raphael, the contrasts of Michael Angelo^ ti[ie harmony of 
Correggio, without adverting that they were fouiided oti 
propriety, energy, and grandeur of conception, and the 
permanent principles of chiaro-scuro ; hence the cautious 
precept of Agostino Caracci, which confines his pupil to a 
little of Parmigiano^s grace. 

Parmigiano was a learned designer; to his depth in de- 
sign we mu^t ascribe that freedom of execution, those de- 
cided strokes of his pencil, which Albano calls divine, and 
which add grace to the finish of his pictures ; they have 
not, indeed, all equal ** impasto^* of colour^ nor equftl 
effect, though soilde, for the amOre with Whitib ib^ are 

'* It is said that at this dangerous quis of Aberoorn .purchased in Italjr 
time he was employed on the famous for 1500/. and sold to Mr. Davis, of 
picture of the Vision^ which the mar- Bristol, in 1809, for 3000 guineas. 



P A It M I G r A N O. 139 

inducted, haFe been ascribed to €onreggio ; such is the 
Cupid scooping his bovr, with the two infants at his feet^ 
one laughing, the other crying, of which thiere are scTeral 
repetitions. We see indeed, some of the pictures of Par« 
migiano so often repeated, that though we may grant them 
the respect due to age, we can scarcely allow them all the 
praise of originality. Such is, among his lesser works, 
the picture of the Madonna with the Infant, St, John and 
St* Catherine, and the bead of St. Zaocbaria, or some 
other sainted elder, in the fore-ground ; its duplicates are 
nearly spread over every gallery of Italy. His altar-pieces 
are not numerous, and the most valued of them is perhaps 
that of St. Marguerita, in Bologna, a composition rich in 
figures, contemplated with admiration, and studied by the 
Csu^cci; Guido even preferred it to the 'St. Cecilia of 
Raphael. The last of his works is the '^ Moses breaking 
the Tables," at Parma, in which, says sir Joshua Reynolds, 
we are. at a loss which to admire most, the correctness of 
drawing, or the grandeur of the conception. The etchings 
of Parmigiano, models of freedom, taste, and delicacy, are 
universally known. 

Parmigiano had u cousin and pupil, G. Maz^uoli; who 
JB little known beyond Parma and its districts, though for 
f^ impasto," and the whole mystery of colour, he has few 
equals. There is reason to believe that several pictures 
ascribed to Francis, especially those of a stronger atid 
gayer tone, have been painted by this artist. He was 
inore attacjbed to the style of Correggio than Francis^ and 
seized its character with great felicity in the Nuptials of 
St. Catherine, in the church del Carmine. He excelled 
in pel'spective, and in the Last Supper, in the refectory of 
8. Giovanni, placed and painted a colonnade with all the 
illusion of Pozzo. To the most harmonious chiaro-scuro, 
he added grandeur, variety, vivacity, in fresco. None of 
his fellow artists equalled him in copiousness, fertility, and 
execution; and tb these perhaps we may ascribe the in-* 
equality perceptible in his works. He flourished about 
1580, and had a son Alexander, who painted in the dome 
of Parma, in 1571. He was a feeble imitator of the fa-* 
mily style.^ . 

PARNELL (Thomas), a very pleasing English poet, 
was descended from an ancient family, settled for some 

• •' 

1 Argenville, vol. II,— Fiikin^n, by Fuseli. — Reynolds's Works, fol II. p. 194» 



140 P A R N E L L. 

centuries at Congleton, in Cheshire. His fatbier, of tfa^ 
same name, was attached to the republican party in tb^ 
reign of Charles I. ; and on the restoration found it conve- 
nient to go over to Ireland, carrying with him a large per- 
sonal fortune, with which he purchased estates in that 
kingdom. These, with the lands he had in Cheshire, de- 
scended to the poet, who was born in 1679, in Dublin. 
In this city he was educated, and entered of Trinity-col- 
lege, Dublin, at the age of thirteen. He becaaie M. A« 
in 1700, and in the same year was ordained deacon, al- 
though under the canonical age, by a dispensation from 
the primate. Three years after he was admitted into 
priest's orders, and in 1705, Dr. Ashe, bishop of Clogher^ 
conferred upon him the archdeaconry of Clogber. About 
the same time, he married miss Anne Minchin, an amiable 
lady, by wbom be had two sons, who died young,, and a 
daughter who long survived him. 

He had by this time given some occasional specimens 
of his poetical talent, but his ruling passion led him to the 
enjoyments of social life, and the company of men of wit 
and learning ; and as thiis was a taste he could gratify at 
home but in a very small degree, he contrived many e:c«* 
cursions to London, where he became a favourite. From 
some letters published by his biographer. Dr. Goldsmith, 
we learn that he was admired for his talents as a cdmpanioii, 
and his good nature as a man ; but with all this, it is ac- 
knowledged, that his temper was unequal, and that he wns 
always too much elevated, or too much depressed* It is added^ 
indeed, that he was sensible of this ; but bis attempts to 
remove his spleen were rather singular. Goldsmith tells 
us, that, when under its influence, he would fly with all 
expedition to the remote parts of Ireland, and there make 
out a gloomy kind of satisfaction in giving hideous descrip- 
tions of the solitude to which he retired. Having tried 
this imaginary remedy for some time, he used to collect 
his revepues, and set out again for England to enjoy the 
conversation of his friends, lord Oxford,^ Swift, Pope, Ar- 
buthnot, and Gay. With Pope he had a more than usual 
share of intimacy. Pope highly respected biQ^j) dn<l they 
exchanged opinions on each other's productions with free*^ 
dom and candour. He afforded Pope sonfie assistance in 
his translation of Homer, and wrote the life prefixed to it | 
but Parnell was a very bad prose- writer, and Pope had 
more trouble in correcting this Ufe than it would have cost 



P A R N E L L* l;ll 

him to write it Being intiniate with all the Scriblerus* 
tjribe,' ^be contributed the *^ Origin of the Sciences :** and 
alao wrote the ^ Life of Zoiius,'' as a satire on Dennis 
and Theobald, with whom the club had long been at va- 
riance. To the Spectator and Guardian he contributed a 
few papers of very considerable merit, in the form of 
** Visions." 

. It seems probable that he bad an ambition to rise by 
political interest. When the Whigs were ejected, in the 
end of queen Anne's reign, he was persuaded to change 
his party, not without much censure from those whom he 
forsook, and was received 'by the earl of Oxford and the 
new. ministry as a valuable reinforcement When Oxford 
was told that Dr. Parnell waited among the crowd in the 
outer.room, he went, by the persuasion of Swift, with bis 
treasurer's staff in his hand, to inquire for him, and to bid 
him welcome ; and, as may be inferred from Pope's dedi- 
cation, admitted him as a favourite companion to his con- 
vivial hours; but it does not appear that all this was fol- 
lowed by preferment Parnell also, conceiving himself 
qnaltfied to become a popular preacher, displayed his elo- 
cution with great success in the pulpits of London ; but 
tbe* queen's death putting an end to his expectations, 
abated his diligence, and from that time he fell into a ha- 
bit of intemperance, which greatly injured his health. The 
death of his wife is said to have first driven him to this 
miserable resource. 

Having been warmly recommended by Swift to arch- 
bishop King, this prelate gave him a prebend in 1713, and 
in May 1716, presented him to the vicarage of Finglass, 
in the diocese of Dublin, worth 400/. ayear. << Such no- 
tice," says Dr; Johnson, *^ from such a man, inclines me 
to believe, that the vice of which he has been accused was 
not gross, or not notorious." But h^ enjoyed these pre- 
ferments little more than a year, for in July 1717 he died 
at Chester, on his way to Ireland, in his tbirty*eigbth yean 
Dying without male, issue, his estate, but considerably em-' 
barrassed by his imprudence, devolved to his nephew, sir 
John Parnell, bart. one of the justices of the King's-bench 
^ in Ireland, and father to the Irish chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, sir John Parnell,. who died in 1801. 

A collection of his poems was published in 1 72 1 by Pope, 
with an elegant epistle to the earl of Oxford. The best of 
ibis collection, aod on which ParnelPs fame as a poet is 



142 P A R N E L L. 

juatly founded, are, his ^^Rise of Womas;** the ^^Faoy 
Tale;" the "Hymn to Contentment;" "Health;" the: 
"Vigil of Venus;" the " Night-piece on Death ;" the 
<f Allegory on Man," and " The. Hermit.^' These have 
been respectively criticised by his biographers Goldsmithf 
and Johnson, and hare stood the test of nearly a century. 
" His praise," says Dr. Johnson, " must be derived fironi 
the easy sweetness of his diction ; in his verses there is 
more happiness than pains : he is sprightly without effort, 
and always delights, though he never ravishes: every 
thing is proper, yet every thing seems caaual.'' 

In 17.589 a volume was pubUshed, it is not known by 
whom, entitled ". The Posthumous Works of Dr. Thomas 
Parnell." This, although it exceeded the volume published 
by Pope in bulk, appeared so far inferior in merit, tha^ 
the admirers of Parneil questioned the authenticity of mosi; 
of the pieces; and there are but a few of them. indeed 
which can be ascribed to him without some injury toM» 
character. Goldsmith refused to. incorporate them wtth 
the collection he published in 1770; but they 'were after-" 
wards added to the edition in Johnson's Poets, and iappm-» 
lently without, his consent. He says of them*. <^Irkoo«P 
not whence they came, nor have ever inquired whithertfaey 
are going." * 

PARR, Catherine. See CATHERINE. 

PARR, (Richard), an English divine, was the son of 
Richard Parr, likewise a divine, and was born at Fermoy^ 
in the county of Cork, where, we presume, his fal;her was 
beneiiced, in 1617 ; and this singularity is secorded of hii 
birth, that bis mother was then fifty^five years of age. H« 
wai educated in granmiar at a country school, under the 
care of some popish priests, who w^e at that time the orAj 
schoolmasters for the Latin-tongue^ In 16S5, hfi was seat 
to England, and entered as a servitor of Exeter college, 
Oxford, where his merit procured him the patronage of 
Dr. Prideaux, the rec4{or, by whose interest, as soon as 
he bad taken his baohelor^s degree in arts, in 1641, he w^ 
chosen chaplaio*feUow of the college. • He found here 
another liberal patron and instiHustor . in the celebra/ted 
archbishop Usher, who, in 1643,- retired to this coUege 
from the tumult then prevailing through the nation; and 

* Life by Goldsmith, prefixed to his Poenfis.— Johnson's Life. — Swiftjs lua^ 
Pope's Works; (Bowles's edition) see Indexes.— Nichols's Poems^ to). III. &c, 



P A R ». 14$ 

obsertiiig the talents of Mr. Parr a» a preacher, roadeiiiia 
bis cbaptaki ; and, about the end of that year, took him 
with him to Glamorganshire. On his return with this pre* 
lat^, he obtained the vicarage of Ryegate in Surrey, on the 
presentation of Mr* Roger James, gent, son of sir Roger 
James, knight, whose sister he married, a widow lady of 
considerable property. In doctrinal points he appears to 
have concurred with the assembly of divines, who were 
mostly Calvinists ; but it seems doubtful whether he ever 
took the Covenant. In 1649, he resigned his fellowship 
of Exeter college, and continued chaplain to archbishop 
Usher, while that prelate lived. In 1653, he was instituted 
U> the living of C^mberwell in Surrey, and appears to have 
been some time rector of Bermondsey, where his signa- 
ture occurs in the register of 1676, and he is thought to 
have resigned it in 1682. • At the Restoration he was cre-« 
atdd D. J5. and bad the deanery of Armagh, and an Irish 
bishopric^ offered to him, bo<;h which he refused; but 
accepted a canonry of Armagh. He remained vicar of 
Camberwell alfnost thirty-eight years, and was greatly be- 
loved and followed. Wood, in his quaint way says, << He 
was so constant $ind ready a preacher at Camberwell, that 
his preaching beipg generally approved, he broke two coU'- 
venticles thereby in his neigbh.ourbood ; that is to say, that 
by his out-vying the Presbyterians and Independents ia 
bis extempormian preaching, their auditors would leave 
them, and flock to Mr. Parr." All who speak of him* in- 
deed concur in what is inscribed on his monument, that 
'^ be w^s in preaching, constant : in life, exemplary : in 
piety and charity, most eminent : a lover of peace and 
hospitality : atid, in fine, a true disciple of Jesus Christ.'' 
He died at Can^erwdl November 2, 1691, and was bu- 
ried in the church-yard, where the abotve monument was 
erected to his memory. His wife died before him. Dn . 
Parr wrote ^^ Christian Reformation : being an earnest 
p^suas)on to the fiipeedy practice of it : proposed to all,' . 
but .especially designed tor the serious consideration of his . 
dear kindred and coui^trymen of the county of Cork in 
Ireland, and the people of Ryegate and Camberwell in 
Sarrey," Lond. 1660, 8vo. He published also three oc- 
casional sermons;, but the most valuable present he made 
to the publick was his "Life of Archbishop tFsher,'* pre- 
fixed to that prelate's Letters, printed in folio, 1 ^^6. It is the 
most ample account we have of Usher ; and fevrtnen could 



144 1> A R R 

have enjoyed better opportunities of knowing his real cba-* 
racter. Wood, mentions Dr. Thomas Marsbairs intetitiofi 
of enlarging this, as noticed in our account of him. ' 

PARRHASIUS) a celebrated painter of Epbesns, or, 
according to others, of Athens, flourished in the time of 
Socrates, as we learn from Xenophon, who has introduced 
him iq a dialogue, discoursing with that philosopher. He 
was one of the most excellent painters of his time. Pliny 
tells us, that it was be who first gave symmetry and just 
proportions in the art ; that he also was the first wbo knew 
how to express the truth of character, and the different 
airs of the face ; that he found out a beautiful disposition 
of the hair, and heightened the grace of the visage. It was 
allowed even by the masters in the art, that he bore away 
firom all others the glory of succeeding in the outline, in 
which consists the grand secret of painting. Bat the same 
author observes, that Parrhasius became insupportable by 
his pride ; and affected to wear a crown of gold upon his 
head, and to carry in his hand a baton, studded with nails 
of the same metal. It is said that, though Parrhasius was 
excelled by Timanthes, yet he excelled Zeuxis. Among 
bis pictures was a celebrated one of Theseus ; and another 
representing Meleager, Hercules, and Perseus, in agroupe 
together ; as also £neas, with Castor and Pollux in a third. 
But of him, or bis pictures, the accounts handed down to 
us are extremely imperfect, and little to be relied on in 
forming a just estimate of his merit* 

PARRHASIUS (AuLUS Jakus)) an eminent grammarian 
in Italy, was born at Codenzain the kingdom of Naples, 
in 1470. He was designed for the law, the profession of 
bis ancestors ; but bis inclination was to study classical li* 
terature. His family name was Giovanni Paulo Parisio ; 
^et, according to the humour of the grammarians of that 
age, he adopted that under which we have classed him. 
He taught at Milan with great reputation, being particu* 
larly admired for a graceful delivery, which attracted many 
auditors to his lectures. He' went to Rome during the 
pontificate of Alexander VI. and was like to have been in- 
volved in the misfortunes of the cardinals Bernatdint Ca->^ 
jetan, and Silius Savello, whose estates were confiscated^ 

a 

1 Ath. Ox. Tol. 11^— Lysoiu'8 Environs, vol. I«— Manning and Bfay'« Surrey^ 
▼ol. I. 

* Pliny, lib. xxXT.^Qainlilian, lib. xii.— Diodorns, lib. zxT.^^Atbenseas, lib. 
sMi.— fVasari«--*Felibien. — Junius de pictura veterua. 



PARR HA St us. 141 

«nil thMiselvet Wished for ooiMpiriig lo d^poit the pope* 
A» it wa$ well known that he b»d corresponded with thest 
Bien, lie took the atlvioeof a friend, in retiring frooi Rome. 
N<^t leiig after, be was appointed public professor of rbe^ 
toric at Milan, where his superior merit drew upon him.thft 
eiiTjr of his contemporary teachers, who, by f»lse aecusa<» 
lions, tendiered his situation so uneasy, that he was obliged 
IQ taave Milan, and retire to Vicejiza,. where he (diiained 
the professorship of eloquence, with a larger salary ; and 
^ held tbisptofessorship, till the states of the Venetians 
awre laid waste by the troops of the league of Cambray. 
Hejiow withdrew to his native .country^ having made hia 
•aeape through the amy of the enemies. He was after«» 
war«ds sent for by Lee X. who was before favourably tn^ 
dined to him; and on bit arrival at Rome, appointed him 
piro&ssor of polite liieratuce. He had been aow some 
time married tia a daughter of Demetrius Cfaalcondylas; 
and he took with him to Rome Basil . Chalcondyla^, has 
wife's brother, and brother ai DeoAetrius Chalcondylaa, 
pcofesaor.^ Greek at IMao* He did not long enjoy fthi^ 
em(rioyment eooferned upon him by tiie pope : for, beinjj; 
worn out by his st-udies and labocMrs, be became so cruelly 
•fl^ed with the gout^ m» to lose the use of bis limbs. 
Poverty was added to his other suibrings ; and in this un^ 
happy state lie left Rome, and returned into Calabria^ hia 
nalive country, where he died of a fever in ISS$. 
. His wosks were published, collectively, by Henry 8te» 
piietm, itt' 15^7, of which -the principal is entitled *^ Lfbec 
de rebus per Epistoiam dusesitis.** This consists of a 
Bumbec; of leUers written to different learned men, con* 
Inining explanations of passages in the ancient writers, and 
elucidations of paints of antiquity, which display mucherii* 
dition. There are also iildstratioua of Ovid's Heroical 
Epistles; of Horace's Art of Poetry; of Cicero^s Oratioa 
for Milo, and various other tracts on classical subjects. Thie 
whole collection was reprinted in the £rst volume of 6ra« 
ler^s *> Thesaurus Critkus." A new edition of the book 
^>DeQ,ttflBsitis,'* with .additions from the author's manvi* 
aonpt, was given at Naples in 1771.^ 
• PARR¥ (BiCHAmD), D. O. rector of Wioharapton ia 
Dorsetshire, and preacher at Market«Harborough in Lei* 

eestershire, for which latter county he was in the commia* 

. >• 



iiob of tbe pMcOy 9Vfts born in Bary street, St Jtaoen'u^ 
in 1722. He was admitted a soholar of Westminster in^ 
1736, whence, in 1 740, be was elected i^ student of Christ-^ 
church, Oxford, and took the degree of M. A. March 31, 
1747 ; B. p. May 25, 1734; and D. D. July 8, 1757, He 
was a very learned divine; and an able, active, magis<* 
trate. He was appointed chaplain in 1750; preacher ai 
Market* Harborough in Leicestershire in 1754; and in 1756 
.was presented by Richard Fleming, esq. to the rectory of 
Wichamptoo. He died at. Market •Harborough,. April 9^ 
1780. His publications were, 1. *<The Christian Sabbatk 
as old as the Creation,'' 1753, 4to. 2. **The Scripture Ac^ 
count of the Lord's Supper. The Substance of Thre# 
Sermons preached at Market-Harborough, in 1755, 1756," 
6vo. 3. '* The Fig-tree dried up ; or the Story of that re* 
markable Transaction as it is related by St. Mark consi* 
dered in a new light ; explained and vindicated ; in a Let*. 

ter to . . • esq." 1758, 4to. 4. ** A De-» 

ieuce of the Lord Bishop of London's [Sherlock] Inter*, 
pretation of the famous text in the book of Job, * I know 
that my Redeemer liveth,' against the Exceptions of the 
Bishop of Gloucester [Warburton], the Examiner of the 
jbishbp of London's Principles; with occasional Remarks, 
on ' the arjgument of the Divine Legation, so far as this/ 
point is concerned with it," 1760, 3vo, 5. ^* Dissertation 
on Daniel's Prophecy ot. the Seventy Weeks,'' 1762, 8vo. 

6. << Remarks on Dr. Kennicott's Letter," &c. 1763^.8yo. 

7. ''The Case between Gerizim and EbaV*^&c. 1764| 
8vo« 8^ '' An Harmony of the Four -Gospels^ so far as re- 
lates to the History of our Saviour's Resurrection, with a^ 
Commentary^and Nojtes," 1765, 4to. 9. '' The Genealogy 
olJesus Christ, in .Matthew and Luke, explained ; aud the 
Jewish Objections removed,'* 1771, 8vo. 10. Dr. Parry 
wrote one of the amovers to. Dr. Heathcote's pamphlet on 
^ibe. Leicestershire election in 1 775. ' 

PARSONS (James), an excellent physician and polite 
«sbolar, was born at Barnstaple, in Devoo;ihire, in Marpl^ 
005. His father, who was the youngest of nine sons of 
colonel Parsons, and nearly related to the baronet of that 
name, being appointed baitack-m^ster at Bolton, in. Ire* 
litod, reinoved with his familjr into that, kingdom * sood 

• • • . • . " ' • 

1 NichoIf'sBoiryer. 
* In the Preface ta ihe " Memoiri ye«n pf my life in Irelattd^ wad tlMre 
•f Japhet," be leyf, •• I s|ieat tersrsl attained to a tokral^Js KBP«i*!d$0 Ifi.tba . 



PAR«0>Ja Ut 

tffier the birth of hit ihen only son, James,' who TeceiTed 

9X Dublin the early part of bis education, and, by the as^ 

•istahce of prufier Inasterd, laid a considerable founda^ 

lion of classical and other useful learning, which enabled 

bim to become tutor to lord Kingston. Turning bis at<^ 

.tentioti to the study of medicine, be went afterwardi 

to Paris, where (to use his own words) ** be followed th^ 

most eminent professors in the several schools, as Astruc^ 

Dubois, Lemery, and' others; attended the anatomical 

l^tures of the most famous (Hunaud and Le Cat) ; an4 

chemicals at the king^s garden at St. Come. He followed 

the physicians in. both hospitals of the Hotel Dieu and Li 

Cfaariti, and the chemical lectures and demonstrations of 

Lemery and Bdulduc ; and in botany, Jussieu. Having 

finished these studies, his professors gave hitfi honourable 

attestations of brs having followed them with diligence and 

industry, which entitled him to take the degrees of doctor 

and professor of the art of medicine, in any university in 

the domiaions of France. Intending to return to England^ 

he judged it unnecessary to take degree's in Paris, unlesa- 

he had resolved ta reside there ; and as it was more ex-* 

pensive, be therefor went to the nniversity of Rheims, in 

Champaign, where, by virtue of his attt^stalions, be wae 

immediately admitted to three examinations, as if he bad 

fibished his studies in that academy;' and* there was- ho-^ 

Ronred with his degrees June 11, 1736. In the July foU 

lowing be came to London, and was* first employed by Dr« 

James Douglas to assist him in bis anatomical works, but: 

after some time began to practise. He was elected a meOK^ 

ber of tbe royal society in 1740 ; and, after due examina-^ 

tion, was admitted a licentiate:^f the college of pbysiciansy 

April 1, 1751. 

On his arrival in London, by the recommendation of hit 

^ery ancient tongue of that Ofrantry, nnd inrfiriae, ivticn, tiM more I iik 

nliicli enablnl me to oontull lome of qaired. the more nearly relat^td thai 

tbeW aairatcript#9 and become io^ Irish and Welsh taafvagei appeared, 

atmcted. in, their rranmattcal insti* When 1 was tent abrofd to ttvdy the. 

tntea. Afterwards I became acqyaint* medicinal art» I frequently conversed . 

cd with several gentlemen from Wafea^ with young gentlemen fronl moat parts 

wen versed in their own hiatory and of BorOpe, who caaw to ?laris,. and? 

^Bgnage ^ men of sfiiso and liberal IbHowed the ^^aoie maslersy in evefy 

learning; who, in many oonversationa branch of the profttsioo, with lAe; and 

upon tttch tobjeett, gave me such sa- my snrprixe was agreeably increased' 

ti»iaoiien and light» in matters of high in finding that, in every one, of their 

•ntiquityy at to occasioo my applica- naiive tongoet, I cq«M, discover tbe 

tioir to' the study of the Welsh toi^e roots ^f 'moat of their espreasioia iai' 

1^^ ittt mhieti thod-eqanl pieMre . theliiilrotWeMu*' 



t4t n R 9 O M K 

P«rts frieadv h^ w^ ioUroduced to the ^tciqwainfiDce of Ok 
Meadv sir Hans Sloanc, and Dr. James Douglas. TUa 
gf^at difiatofnist inade use of his assisiftnce^ not only in his 
^n^tomical preparations, but also in his repfesentations of 
inorbtd and other appearances^ a list of several of which 
i^as in the hands of his friend Dr. Maty; who bad prefKirod 
Hn eioge on Dr. Parsons^ which was never used, but wluolii 
\>y the favour of Mns. Pacsons» Mr. Nichols has preserved 
M Wge. Though Dr. Parsons cultivated the » several 
branches t>f the profession of physic, he was j^rincipalljt 
tmpl^y^d in midwifery. In 1738, by the interest of hiS 
ifrfend Dri. Doughs^ be was appointed physician to iIm 
)>ublic infirnaafry in St. Giles's. In 1739 be carried luisi 
Elizabeth Reynolds, by whodi he bad two sons and ft 
dMigbter^ who all died youngw I)i^. Parsons raided fof 
teany yeai^ in Red Lion-squaf«| where he freqaentlj^ 
^n^oyed the company and conversation of Dr. I^tukeley^ 
Vishoip Lytiieloii^ Mr. Henry Baker, Dr. Knight, apd mftaj^ 
iAber of tbe most distinguished members of the rOyal and 
Antiquarian socteues, and that :of arts, manufactures, and 
ceasmerce ; giving weekly an elegant dinner to a ki^ but 
f rieot (MM*tjr. He enjoyed also the Uterary correspoudence 
id D'Ai'geQviMe, Bufibiif Le Cat, Beccaria, AnU> Bertraod^ 
VaiisaSrers, Aseaoius, Tarb^ville Needhaipn, Dr. GardcA, 
ami others of the most distingubhed rank in science* Ai 
a jiracfiitioner he was judicious, careful, hooest, abd re* 
mftirka9bl||r buasane to the poor ; as a friend, obligk>g and 
-todiiliialiiioalive ; cheerful and decent isn conversation ; ae* 
ireie and alrictin bis morala, and attentive to ftll with pco^. 
pm^ aH tbe various duties of life. In 1769, fVodiiig -hia 
Jl^ealtk i|9ipatired, he proposed to retire from business and 
from London, and with that view disposed of a conssidefaUA 
Buoiber of lua jbodis aad fossils, and went to BmM, Sut 
he returned soon after to his old house, and died in it after 
^ W^ek^s iHneSs, 'on tbe 4th of April, 1770, much lamented 
by his iamly and frienda. By bis 4ast will, dated in Oc|x>« 
ber 17^6, be gave bia whole property to M<rs. Parsons; 
^ndy in (base 61 he): death before him, t6 miss Mary ft^* 
Holda^ ^r only sister, '< in t«co«peffioe' £or>l>er aftectionate 
siMehtion to him htfd to his lirife, foi" a long cout^edf ye^rs, itt 
sickness and io health.^'* It was bis parrticujac requ^t tbit 
he Bbeuid ttotbe %«rried tnli some change shonkl bopetfr in 
his corpse;, anofoest which occasioned bim td be l^t un- 
buried 17 day«, Mftd^^vaiD ^d soaice4lp««li^te8t aikopa^ 



P A K S Q K & ««# 

H^n wM pereemUe. He irts burred ml Hfiiddn^ ih ft vault 
ivhick be brnd etaiosed ta be btiili on the grbaiid fmrcbMed 
on the death ef bis aen James, where hit tomb had a nerf 
commendatory inscription. . A portrait of Dh Parsont, bjr 
Mr. Wilson, is now in tjhe British Mbseum ; aaotbeiv by 
Wells^ .lisft in the hands of bit widovr, who died ia 17M; 
^t£h a third udfini^hed ; and one of hifi son Jainei; also « 
fainity piece, in which the same son is iairpdtt€ed> with 
the doctor and bis lady, aoeompanied by bcr aistf r. Amooy 
vaey 40ther portrait, Mnau Parsons had acme that were 
Miy fine of the illastrious H&rvey, of bishop Burnet, atid 
of Dr. John Freind ; a beautiful miniature of Dr. Stakeleyt 
wattib good paintings, by .her hpsband's own band^ pata^ 
etilariy the rhinoceros which ha described in the ** Pbih)4 
•ephical Transactions." She posaessed alio hfe Md^* and 
tome capital printed book's -) a large £aUe yoliiaie eniiikid 
^ Figorss quasdam Mis^eUaneidB :qisflB ad rem ^matomiosiii 
HistorisfiiiqQe Natutalem speotant; quas proprii adam^ 
bravifc ttano Jabobqs Pavsons, M. D. S. S. &• Ant;'' &ei 
another, called ^^ Drawings of curious Fossils, Shells,". &ce\ 
in Dr. Parsons^s CoUectioti^ dr^wn by himself;'' &c. &c; 
Mrs. Parsons professed herself ready tq give, on proper 
applicsition, either to the royal or abtiquarian society^ m 
ponrait of her husband, and a sum of oioney to fomd It 
lecture to perpetuate hisinei^iory, simiiar to thai; estebtished 
by his fitend Mr. Henry Baker. 

Of. Parsons left the following worlds : 1« ^^ A flie<dianical 
end cri()ieal Enquiry into the nature ef I}jef>niapbfedite9^'^ 
1741, 8vo, wfaieh' was principally a cooipikitioa. 9. ^ A 
description of the Urinary Hiiflian Bladder, and the parti 
betonging to it, with figures,'^ 1742^ which was intended 
to disprore the reported utility of Mrs. fitepheas-s oaedisifief. 
for thestone* 6. ^ Philosof^ical Obseryiitions .on the ana* 
logy between the Propagation of Animals and that of Ve» 
getables,'* 1752, 8vo. As an antiquary^ Di^ Par^on<^ disir 
tingttlshed bimself by an elaborate publication,, eniide4 
^^'^eihaiiis of iapfaet; being historical inquiries into the 
affinity and origin of the £]uropean languages,^* 1767, 4to* 
Thia is a pierforniairc^ of great erudition »nd raseaffciL 
Besides these separaite publioatijDos, Dr. Parsons was the 
4«tfaor of sererwl papers, prisited in the Pbilosophaaal Trans* 
fctions; v\%. ^* €rooni»n: Lectunes oo Muscular* Motion,^^ 
l74JS(f m whieh be considers the enmcwlai fibres as tubes | 
^Hunien Phji^siogeomy eapiained^'^ io the iAppe&di|^ ^ 



tS6 



LARSONS. 



the Philbs. Trant. for 1746; and several otlie^ papert eit 
^nlktdmical and physiological sobjects, especially >an ac* 
tiountof the dissection of a rhinoceros,* which is yaluable, 
Ifnd illustrated by ^ood figures. . 

We sbali close this article with: an extract from Df« 
Maty*s eulogium: ^ The surprising variety of branches 
iifhich Dr. Parsons embracedi and the several living as well 
as dead languages, be had a knowledge of, qualified him 
abundantly for the place of assistant secretary for foreign 
correspondences, which the eouncil of the royal society 
jbestowed upon him about 1750. He acquitted himself to 
the utmost of bis poiver of the functions of this plac^/till a 
few years before his death, when be resigned in favour of bia 
friend, who now gratefully pays this Ijast tribute to hia 
memory. Dr. Parsons joined to his academical faondura 
those -which the royal ^soUege of physicians of London 
bestowed upon him, by admitting him, after due exami- 
nation, licentiate, on the first day of April, 1751. The 
lUffusive spirit of our friend was only equalled by his desire 
cftf information. To both these principles he owed tire 
intimacies which he formed with som^ 6f the greatest men 
of his time. The^names of Fotkes, Hales, Mead, Stukeley, 
Needham, Baker, Collinson, and Garden, may be meri^ 
tioned on this occasion ; and. many more might be added^ 
Weekly meetings were formed, where the earliest intellt'* 
gence was received and communicated of any discovery 
both here and abroad ; and new trials were made, to bring 
to the test of experience the reality or usefulness of these 
discoveries. Here it was that the microscopic;al animals 
found in several infusions were first produced ; the propa* 
gation of seieral inse<its by section ascertained; the con** 
•tancy of nature amidst these wonderful changes esta-< 
hiished. His < Remains of Japhet, being historical in^ 
quiries into the affinity and origin of the European Lan«t 
guages,* is a most laboriotis performfaoce, tending to 
jprove the antiquity of the first inhabitants of these islands^ 
as being originally descended from Gotner and Mi^g, 
abovQ lOOO'years before Christ, their '4)rimitive and still 
subsisting language, and its affinity with some others. It 
cannot be denied that there is much ingenuity as ivell 
true learning in this work, which helps conviction, and 
often supplies the want of iu But we cannot help thinking 
that our. friend^s warm feelings now and then mislead his- 
jiidgment,^ and tkataome at least of bia coajeciures^ rtsti^ 



^ A R 8 O N S. m 

|pg vpOQ partinl tradUions, and poettctl ipmps of IriA 
fiiids and Wel«b bards, are less satisfactory than bis table$ 
Qif affinity between tbe several northern languages, as de- 
duced from one common stock. Literature, bowever, i^ 
ipneb obliged to him for having in this, as well as iii many 
Qf bi^ other works, opened a new field of observations and 
discoveries. In enumerating our learned friend's disserta- 
tions, we find ourselves at a loss whether we should foilovr 
tbe order of subjects, or of time ; peitber is it easy to ac- 
count for their surprising variety and quick succession. 
The truth is, that bis eagerness after knowledge was suctr, 
as to embrace almost with equal facility ail its branches,- 
and with equal zeal to ascertain tbe merit of inventions, 
sod ascribe to their respective, and sometimes unknown, 
authors, the glory of tbe discovery. Many operations 
which tbe ancients have transmitted to us, have been 
thought fabulous, merely from our ignorance of the art by 
which they were performed. Thus the burning of the 
abips of tbe Romans at a considerable distance, during the 
j^ege of Syracuse, by Archimedes, would, perhaps, still 
continue to be exploded, had not the celebrated Mji BufTon 
ill France shewn the possibility of it, by presenting and 
describing a model of a speculum, or rather assemblage 
of mirrors, by which he could set fire at the distance of 
several hundred fee^* In the contriving, indeed, though 
ijqt in tbe executing of such an apparatus, be had in some 
measure been forestalled by a writer now very little known 
or read. This Dr. Parsons proved in a very satisfactory 
manner; and be had the pleasure to find fhe French phi- - 
losopher did not refuse to the Jesuit his share in tbe inven- 
tionj and was not at all oiFended by the liberty he had 
V^ken. Another French discovery, .1 mean a new kind of 
painting fathered upon the ancients, was reduced to its 
Ileal value, in a paper which shewed our author was pos- 
sessed of a good taste for the fine arts : and I am informed 
^ai his skill in music was by no means inferior, and that 
bis favourite amusement was tbe flute. Richly, it appeairs 
from these performances, did our author merit the honour • 
of being a member of the antiquarian society, which long 
ago bad associated him to its labours. To another society,^ 
£Dunded upon the great principles of bumanity, patriotism, 
s^tid uatural emulation, be undoubtedly wsus greatly Useful *•- 

* The society for the encoitragt' the Oeconomicsl toewty at 
■i^til of, ant, manufactures, and com-; QaOi S^iil^d* . 
folarde. Ue likewisi^ *m associi^i^d t«^ 



U^ P AK80N & 




He iwiitaJ 9t moit of tbeir gcwnl mced^ aad 
littaff ; ^mi was finr mw^f years chainMB ta that of 
cnitoic ; ahfmjs cqaaily mady to porat oot and to pioaftot^' 
vsefol loipgoreaKatSy and io oppoce the int eieitcA 
of fraed and q^noranccy so inseparabie froai very ei 
aawciatioiia. No soooer was iUs society^ fbffMed» thaa* 
Dr* Panoos becaoie a member ctf k. Indnately eoovioeed 
of the oobleocss of its Tiean^ iboogh froai his statioii m 
life little cooceroed io its saceesSy he gmdged neither at«» 
teodanee nor expenoe. Neither ambitioiis of ukingtho' 
lead, nor fond of oppositioD, he- joined in any aseasnre he 
thot^ght right ; and submitted ehcerfaUy to the seotimeBts 
of the majority, though against his own private opinioB. 
The just ideas he had of the dignity of onr piofcssioa, atf 
well as of the common links which ought to unite all its- 
memben, notwithstanding the differences of coontry, re« 
ligion, or places of education, made him bear impatiently 
the shackles hud upon a great number of respectable prac^ 
tiiiooers ; he wished, fondly wished, to see these broken ;• 
not with a view of emp^ h<mour and dangerous power,* 
but as the only means of serving mankind more effectually,* 
checking the progress of designing men and illiterate prtc* 
titioners, and diffusiDg through the whole body a spirit of 
emulation* Thongh by frequent disappointments he fore-* 
saw, as well as we, the little chance of a speedy redress, 
be nobly persisted in the attempt ; and, bad be lived te* 
the final event, would undoubtedly, like Cato, still have 
preferred the conquered cause to that supported by the 
gods. After having tried to retire from business and from 
London, for the sake of bis health, and having disposed of 
most of his books with that view, be found it inconsistent 
with his happiness to forsake all the advantages which a 
long residence in the capital, and the many connexions 
be bad formed, bad rendered habitual to him. He tfaere*- 
fore returned to his old bouse, and died in it, after a short 
iHness, April 4, 1770» The style of our friend's compo«> 
sitions was sufficiently clear in description^ though in ar- 
gument not so close as coutd have been wished. Full of 
his ideas, he did not always so dispose and connect them, 
together as to produce in the minds of bis readers that 
conviction which was in his own^ He too much despised 
those additional graces which command attention when 

• * K meMcu} 9oe^y mitituti^d by' Dr. their privile^e^: where,' it should seem, 
7o(bergiU, and other reipectable phy* this eulogy WM intended to ba pr6- 
tictaniy Ucentiatesy in ^ikidieation of flOuDCtd. 



I 

PARSON S. 15% 



JYiloed to teaming', obienratton, and sound rea9i>ning> Let 
IIS Jiope that bis exampAe and spirit will animate all his 
o^lea^es^; and that those practitioners who are in the 
same cirenanstances will be indaced to join their brethren,^, 
atte to find amongst tbem those great blessings of life^ 
fi^edoBD) eqaalicy, information, and friendship. As long* 
as these gveat principles shall subsist in this society, and [ 
trost they will outlast the longest lirer, there is no doubt 
hot the members will meet with the reward honest men 
2ste ambitiouB of, the approbation of their conscience, ther 
esteem of the trirtuous, the remembrance of posterity.*' ' 

PARSONS (JoBN), another learned and amiable phy-* 
sieian, thdngh less known as an author, the son of major 
Parsdtis, of the dragoons, was bom in Yorkshire, in 1742. 
He was educated at WestminMer school, whence in 1759 
he was eleeted to a studentship in Christ Church, Oxford. 
Having made ehoioe of medicine as a profession, he pro-^ 
secated the study of it with uncomknon assiduity, , not oniy^ 
at Oscfiird, but also at London and Edinburgh. But while 
he bestowed much attention on every branch of medicat 
knowledge, he at first showed a particular predilection for 
natsral history and botany, and in the latter branch made 
a vety distinguished figure during- his stay at Edinburgh^ 
In 1766 he had the honour of obtaining the prize medal 
givon by Dr. Hope for the most extensive and elegant 
hmrtus siccus, and the same year took his degree of M. A^ 
ThiSi however, was only a prelude to more distinguished 
honours. In 1769# when he took his degree of M. B. he 
was appointed to the anatomy lecture at O^^ford, and was 
also the first reader in anatomy at Christ Church, on the 
institution of John Freind and Matthew Lee, M. D. and 
students of that hous^. In consequence of this appoint-^ 
ment, his attention, it may natur^iUy be supposed, was 
more particularly directed to anatomy, and under his di-i 
rection a very commodious anatomical theatre was built ; 
and for the instruction of 'his pupils he provided a set of 
anatomical preparations, which for neatness and elegance 
have seldom be^n surpassed. From the time of his ap« 
pointment he read two courses of anatomical lectures every 
yeal*; and although they were calculated rather for the 
general philosopbei* than the medicat practitioner, yet they 
were not only highfy instructive to alt his audience, but 
afforded incoutestable evidence of his genius and abilities. 

f Ni«hoI»'s Bowyer. 



15* PARSONS; 

be was soon after elected one of the pb jsici«ii9 to the Hb6^ 
clifFe in6rrnary, and in J«nel772 proceeded M« D. Ha 
bad a considerable share also of private practice^ and from 
bis attention and success bis reputation with the pubtiii 
kept pace with the esteem in wbicb be was held by the 
nnivertiity. In 1780 he was elected the first clinical pro* 
fessor on the fonndation instituted in 1772 by Gforg^. 
ilenry, earl of Lichfield, late chancellor of the university. 
In this departnient also he read lectures daring the winter 
Hionths with much credit to himself. But it is not impro* 
bable. that the various active employments in which he waa 
engaged, and which necessarily exposed him to fatigtie and 
danger, bad some share in overthrowing a constitution na* 
turatly «trong. He was not, however, cut off by any te- 
dious or painful ailment, but died of a fever April 3, 178^4, 
in the forty* fourth year of bis age, and was buried in tbd 
north transept of the cathedral, where four of bis cbildreii 
were buried before him. ' 

• PARSONS (Phi UP), ah English divine, and iiiiscellft<»- 
neous writer, was born at Dedham, in Essex^ in 1729. Hisfa* 
mily was ancient, and aettled at Hadleigb^ in Suffolk, as 
early as the reign of Henry VII. whbre some of their 
descendants • still reside^ He lost his father when- veryi 
young, and owed the care of his education to bis materjial 
uncle, the rev. Thomas Smythies, master of the grammar 
school at Lavetiham, in Suffolk, with whom be continwd 
till he went to Cambridge, where be was entered of Sidney 
Sussex college, and took bis degrees there of B; A. in 1752» 
and M« A. in 1776. After be bad taken , orders be vf^ 
appointed to the free school of Oakham, in Rutlaadshirciy- 
and remained there till 17f}l, -when he was presetited to 
the school and curacy of Wye by Daniel earl of Win*- 
Chelsea and Nottingbami In the sedulous discharge of tliii. 
twofold duties of this preferment he was engaged upwards 
of half a century, and was distinguished by his iirbanity^ 
diligence, and classical talents, nor was be less esteeoied' 
in bis clerical character. He was^ also presented to tb» 
rectory of Eastwell, in 1767, by the same patron, ajid to 
the small rect^ory of Snave in 1776, by archbishop Corn« 
wallii^, who enhanced the value of this preferment by a- 
very kind letter, in which his grace testified his high respect 
for the character and talents of the new inoumbent. 

1 Life in' the Edinburgh Medical Commentaries, ▼ol. X. and publitked tai*^ 
parULaly at fidiuburi^h, 1786.— CoDlinttauoo of ^ood'i Aimaia by Qutcb. 



PARSONS; I5i 

^Iff. l^arsODS wfts the author of «iereral publications, among 
^hicb were, The nine first papers in* the second volume of 
the '< dtudent/* publkbed in 1750^; *< On advertising for 
Carates;** a paper in The World; "The inefficacy of 
Satire, a poem,*'* 17€6) 4to; ^* Newmarket, or an Essay on 
the Turf,*' 1774, 2 vols.; ^< Astronomic Doubts, a pamphlet,** 
r774 ; ^ A volume of Essays,** 1775 ; ^^ Dialogues of the 
Dead with the living^** 1782; << Simplicity,'* a poem, 
1784 ; and ** Monuments and Painted Glass in upwards of 
loo churches, chiefly in the eastern part of Kent/* 1794^ 
lto« This work, which is interspersed with judicious re« 
marks and interesting anecdotes by the compiler, is become 
scarce, owing to the 6re in Mr. Nichols's premises^ but \i 
highly valuable to. the antiquary and lorer of such researches* 
Mr. Parsons also established a Sunday school at Wye ; and 
recommended and contributed much to their establishment 
in the county of Kent by a sermon and some letters which 
be published on this occasion. The last years of his life 
^ere passed in great retirement; alternately engaged iii 
the discharge of his ministerial functions, and in literary 
pursuits and correspondence, which, boweyer, were tnter<^ 
Yupted by the loss of his sight about a year before his deathj 
and at the same time by a very painful disorder. He bore 
these trials with exemplary patience and resignation, ft 
was his frequent practice, when on his bed, and free froni 
the more excruciating pains of bis disorder, to compose 
moral, lively, and religious pieces^ which be afterwardi 
dictated to a faithful amanuensis, who wrote them dowhj 
He died at Wye, June 12, 1812, in the eighty-third year 
of his age. ' . 

PARSONS, or PERSONS (Robert), in both which 
Ways he wrote his name, a celebrated English Jesuit, was 
the son of a. blacksmith, at Nether Stowey, near Bridge- 
Water in Somersetshire, where he was horn in 1546; and, 
j^ppearing to be a boy of extraordinary parts, was taught 
Latin by ihe vicar of the parish, who conceived a great 
affection for him f, and contributed to his support at Ox« 
ford, where he was admitted of fialiol college in 1563. In 

« * This it not accurate. He may f He wai sii(j>6cte<l to b<* hit real 

.liave been a contribuior to the ** Stu- fattier ! an«l ir is «aid that Baiiol college. 

dent,'* bcri could not have written either had a cenificaie that he was a bastard. 

XhfSTOHgJini, or the Jirsi nine papers of Poulis's Life of Parsons tn bis '* H'i$^ 

^ lecond Tolume. tory of Ronii>h TreaiODi." 

^ » Gcot. Mag« Tol. LXXXII* 



IM 1^ A H S O N. $1 

the university he becaise 96 reoaiirkiLbh^ M nn aetft^ dist- 

Julant io jscholasuc exereisesi then mocb in rogu^) tbiit^ 
eving tfiken his first degree in arts in 1568» he was iJbe 
same year made j^robationer fellow of his coliege. Ht 
Upon after became the most famous tutor in the society^ 
and when be entered into orders, was made socips saeerdoSi 
or chaplain fellow. In 1^572 he proceeded M. A, was bur- 
9ar4batyear, and the ne^t dean of the college; but it if 
laid that being cbarg^ by the society with incontinency^ 
^nd en^beezling thie college-money, to avoid. the shame of 
a format expulsion, be was permitted, out of respect t^ 
bis leairuing, to resign, which be did in Feb. 1574^ obr<t 
laioifig leave to keep his chsmber apd pupils as long as b« 
pleased, and to have his commons also till the ensuing 
Caster. These last circumstances have induced some wk'iters 
%o tbink that it was merely a change of rtsligious prineiples 
ivhicb occasioned his resignatioik 

He had till this time opi^nly professed himself a protests 
it^t, and was very zealous in introducing books of that re^ 
Iigion into the college library : but soon after bis resigna-* 
tidQ, he quitted Oxford for London, and went tbence^ 
^une 1374, to Louvain : where, meeting with fether Wih 
iiam Good, his countryman, a Jesuit, he spent a week in 
the spiritual exercises at the* collie of that order, and 
began to entertain an affection for it. He proceeded^ 
however, to Padua, in consequence of a determination bo 
bad formed before be left England, which was to study 
physic as a profession ; but he had not been long at Padua, 
beforto the unsettled state, of bis. mind and fortune excited 
in him a curiosity to visit Rome, where meeting with some 
£riglish Jesuits, he gavfa up all thoughts of the mediical 
profession foir that of the church. He now went back to 
Padcia, settled bis afiairs there, and at Rome in May 1515^ 
W%B chosen a member of the society of Jesusi, and admitted 
into the English college. 

He was indeed in all respects qualified to make a'figure 
in this society, being, according to Camden, fierce, tur» 
bolent, and bold ; and he soon answered every expectation 
his new friends could entertain. Having completed the 
eoarse of his studies, he became one of the principal pe» 
nitentiaries ; and was in such credit with the pope iii l&79p 
that he obtained a grant fronil his holiness to change ati 
hospital at Rome, founded in queen Mary's titne, into 4 
college or seminary for the English^ by the name of " CoU 



JP A R 8 Q N S. iSf 

jium de urbe^'* dedicated to the Holy Tritiiiy and St. 
Thomas (k Becket), where the students were obliged to 
take the following oath: ^^I. N. N. consideriag with ho^ 
great benefits God kath biessed me, ^c. do promise, by 
God^s assistat>ce, to enter into holy orders as soon as I 
shall be fit, and to return to England to conirert my coun- 
trymen there, whenever it shall please the superior of this 
faonse to cominand me/' He had no sooner seen thia cot-* 
lege established, and bis friend father Allen chosen, by 
his recommendation, rector of it, than he was appointed' 
to go as superior missionary to England, in order to pro* 
mote the Romish religion in that kingdom, being tlie firA 
e^er appointed on stich a business. Edmund Campian wai 
joined with him, and other assistants, in this arduous pro« 
yince; and they managed matters ao artfully, that, not<r 
withstanding the time of their departure from Rome, and 
the whole route of their journey, and even their portrait 
bad been setit to England before them, yet they found 
means by disguise to escape the strictest aearcb that wai 
made, and arrived safe in London. 

Here they bired a large house, in the name 6f lord 
Paget ; and, meeting the heads of their party, communi** 
eated to them a £aouHy they brou^t from the pope^ Gre« 
gory XIIL dispensing with the Romanists for obeying 
que^i Etizab^th ; notwithstanding the bull which had been 
published by bis predecessor Pius V. absolving tbe ^ueen'i 
aiftbjects from their oath of allegiance, and pronouncing an 
anaitbema against all that should obey hen They then 
dispersed tbemselves into different parts of the kingdom^ 
the mid4atid coandea being chosen by Parsons, that he 
mi^bt be near etiongh to London, to be ready upon atl 
emergencies, Campian went into the North, where th^ 
bad tbe least success. Tbe harvest was greatest in Wales. 
Parsons tra^^l ted about the tamstry to gentlemen' if houses, 
disguised either in the habit of a soldier, age^leman, a 
mifytstef, or an iapf»arhoT; and appKed himself to the work 
iMk so much dihgence, that, by ^hevhelp of bis associates, 
be entirely psit an end to the cnstom^ that had till then 
pKfrailed among the ^wipists, -of frequenting the protestant 
ofaorthes, and joining 4a the servioe. And notwithstand- 
itig the opposition made by a more moilerate class of 
paptstft, who denied the pope's deposing power, and some 
of %bo« even took the oath of lallegiance, yet, if we may 
believe himself, be bad^pai^the way for a general insure 
rection before' Christmas, 



ISS P A R S O N & 

But all bis desperate designs were defeated by the Tlgil 
lance of lord fiurleigb ; and CampiaQ being discovered, 
ioipiisoiiedy and afterwards executed, Parsons,, wbo was 
then in Kent, found it necessary to revisit the continent^ 
and went to Koaen in Nornandy. He had contrived pri^^ 
vately to print several books for the promotion of his cause^ 
while he vvas in England : and now being more at ease, be 
coa»po8ed others^ which he likewise procured to be dis- 
persed very: liberally. In 1583,- he returned to Rome, 
being succeeded in his office of superior to the English 
mission by a person named Hey ward. The management 
of that mission, however, was left to him by Aqua▼iw^ tb^ 
general of the order; and be was appointed prefect of it 
in 1592. In the interim, having procured for the EngHsh 
sen[iinary before mentioned, at Rome, a power of choosing 
an i^nglish xector in i586, be was himself elected into 
that office the following year. 

Whrn Spain bad prepared her 'Mnvincible armada'Vto 
invade England, Parsons was dispatched thither^ to avail 
himself of the present temper of the Spanish monarch, and 
reconcile him a little to the order of. the Jesuits, whose 
etiormtties h^d nearly brought them under the eensure of 
the inquisition. Parsons found means not only to elude the^ 
severity of that tribunal, but obtained of the king, that: 
bis majesty should ap|)oint one of the judges^ and hiiaself 
another, for this inquififition; atid then ^undertook the prtn*' 
cipal business of the voyage. While he was. iu England,: 
be bad laboured to promote the popish recusancy, and tot 
bring the English papists under the government of the 
Jesuits., In the same spirit, after he was obliged to quit: 
this icountry, he employed all his arts and interest for the 
erection of seminaries to supply England from time to time- 
with priests to keep up that .recusancy, and to prepare the^ 
papists there, to join with any invasion which those abroad; 
should procure* / > 

Thus, for instance, as Mr. Gee remarks in his^introduc**^ 
tion to the Jesuit's memorial. Parsons treated witb Abe- 
duke of Guise to erect a seminary: for such a •purpoae in: 
Kormandy ; and he now prevailed with Philip U. to ex** 
tend these foundations in Spain : so that in a short time* 
they could boast not only, of their seminaries at Rome and ^ 
Rbeims, but of those at Valladolid, Seville* and St.. Lucarr 
in Spain, at Lisbon in Pc^rtogal, and at Douay atid St»> 
Omers in Flanders, Xn all these, their youth wem eduf-^ 



. I 



^ted with the strongest prejudices agftinst' their cbuntrjr^ 
and their minds formed to all the purposes that Parsiont 
had in his head. AmOog other favourite objects, he obliged 
them to subscribe to the rig^t-of the Infanta of Spain to 
the crown of England, and defended this position in hit 
*^ Conference* about the next* succession to that crown/^ 
which went so far as to ^sert the lawfulness of deposing 
queen Elizabeth. The secular priests likewise inform us^ 
that, after the defeat of his designs to dethrone that queen^ 
while he stayed in England, he consulted with the duke of 
Guise in France upon the. same subject; and endeavoured 
to make a list of catholics, who, under the conduct of the 
duke, were to, change the state of England, upon pretenc^ei 
0f sopporting the title of Mary queen of Scots. 

After the defeat of the armada in J5S8, he used every 
IDQeans in his power to persuade the Spanish monarch to a 
second invasion; and when he failed in this, be endea* 
▼oured to raise a rebellion iq England, urging the earl of 
Derby to appear at the head of it, who is said to have been 
poisoned, at his instigation, for refusing to acquiesce. Nor 
did he stop here. We find sir Kalph Winwood informing 
secretary Cecil from Paris, in 1602, of an attempt to 
assassinate the queen that year by another English Je^uit^' 
at the instigation of father Parsons ; and when, all these 
plans proved abortive, he endeavoured to prevent the suc-> 
cession of king James by several means.; one of v\hich was,' 
exciting the peopleao set;up a democratic form of govern^ 
mentf tor which be had furnished them with principltfs ia 
seveial of bis books* Another was, to persuad^^ ttie pope 
to.make<his kinsman the duke of Parma king of England, 
by joining with the lady Arabella, and marrying her to the 
duke^s brother, cardinal farnese* Cardinal d'Ossat gives 
the king of France a large account of both these projects ia 
eiie of bis letters; aad in another mentions a third contriv-. 
ance which Parsons had communicated to him, and whose 
object was, that the pope, the king of France, and the king 
of Spaiui should first appoint by common consent a successor 
for England, who should be a> catholic ; and then should 
form an armed confederacy to establish him on the throne. 

The death of his friend cardinal Allen, hpwever,}iH. 1594, 
diverted bis attention for a while from these weighty public 
affairs, to the objects of bis private a(nbitj,on; As.itwa#. 
chiefly .by- bis interest, that the cardinal liaii obtained the 
littrple.(sM. AtAii. or A|iL££(, WudMU), be conceived^ 



tee PAIS ON ft. 

great hop^ of succeeding bim in it The dignity vi« 
worth his utmost endeayoursy and b^ spared ho p»tns to 
compass it. Among other eiforts be employed sofoe Je- 
suits to obtaiti in Flanders a petition to the king of Spaiin^ 
in his favour, subscribed by great numbers of the lowest 
Df the pisople, as well as those of superior rank. He ap** 
f>lied also to that monarch by John Pir^ueS; one of bia 
prime coiifideRts, but received no ai^wer.; and then went 
bimseif to RoEOse in UBS, under pretenee of settling some 
dis-putesy that bad arisen in the English college there duiy 
ing his absence. He bad the^year before been compU*- 
inented, in a letter from some of the principal persans oi 
his order there, on the assured prospect of success ; and 
upon his arrival was visited, among others of the higheat 
rank, by cardinal Bellarmin, who encouraged bim to wait 
upon the pope. At tfai^ interview he entertained the pomt 
ttff with an artful account of tiie reports tkat w^efie spi^eiMl 
all over Flanders, and even at Rome, of bis boUaess'a de<* 
sign to confer tbe purple «pon ham^ and that the king of 
Bpain had written to^kia boltnesa iifMU tbe «>ceasion'. Father 
More, w^ho furnishes tbese particulars, lells us further^ 
that Parsons made a modest speedb, as usual an -^uob oo<» 
casions, intimating that he &ared he was unworthy of se 
high an honour: but he wsis mncb mortified when the 
pope, Clement VII I. wbo was moire in tbe secret than h# 
supi>osed, assured him, thait be bad beard toothing from tbufk 
Spaniards upon any suich subject; that idle reports were iKOt 
to be minded ; that he was very well satisfied with his aer* 
vices, and exhorted him to continue in tbe same ctmrae* 
The truth appeared to be, that the pope having received 
many complaints of him from the secular clergy., instead of 
bringing bim into tbe sacred . college, had some thoughta 
of stripping bim of tbe posts be already possessed. Dis^ 
appointed in this attempt, and threatened with such dis^ 
grace, Parsons withdrew on pretence of health. to Naples^ 
ai)d did »ot return to .Rome till after the death' of dlesaeot 
in 1606. 

But this check did not hinder him from exercisiog bia 
j^uriedictfou over the Romanists in England, as prefect of 
the English mission ; and, after his return to Rome» tvi. . 
find him removuig tbe arch-presbyter of England, Blaki* 
well, for taking tbe oath «if suptemaoy to James I^ Hm 
likewise obtained a brief from Paul V. to deprive all such 
priesta as should take that oatb ; and thus-fiontiuttad aealoua 



PARSONS. 161 

ia tbe discharge of this office lo the last. Father Mdre 
bas. given copies of three letters, one to the mission in 
England, another to the rector of St. Omer's, and the 
tibird to the arcb^-presbyter Berkit, successor to Blakwell ; 
aU dictated by him, while he Jay past recovery in the 
opinioD of his physicians. The last was Bhisbed the. 13th 
of April ; and the fever^ which bad seized him on the lOtb^ 
pnt a period to his life on the 18th, 1610.. Pope Paul, as 
sflfoti ' as be . heard of his illness, indulged him in all the 
ceremonies usually granted. to cardinals at the point of 
deathi- His body was afterwards embalmed and interred^ 
pursuant to his owa request, in the chapel, of his college 
^ Rome^ close to that of . cardinal AHen. A monument 
was. soon after erected to his memory, with an inscription ; 
a-eopy. of which may be seen in Ribadineira's Bibl. Soc, 
Jes. under the letter P. . 

The character of father Parsons was variously reprei- 
aented by proteatants and catholics, but even the latter 
are not agreed. More recent writers seem' litde disposed 
to eieyate it, although belonging to the same communiofi. 
B«rringtoii» who has draWn a very impartial character^ 
begins with asserting that *^ intrigue, device, stratagem, 
and all the crooked policy of the Miachiavelian school," aria 
associated with the sound of his name. Dodd, the getie^al 
biographer of the popish writers, is not without a consider-* 
able degree of impartiality in characterizing Parsohs,.hut 
yet appears more zealous to defend him than strict impar- 
tiality admits. Parsons, however, was certainly a man of 
talents, and beyond comparison th^ best wiiter of his party. 

His works are, 1. *^ A brief Discourse, containing the 
ReasMs why Catholics refuse to go to Church," with a De- 
dication to Queen Elizabeth, under the fictitious name of 
John .Howlet, dated Dep. i5, .1580. 2. ^< Reasoos for 
his coming into the Mission of England, &c." by sonrie 
ascribed to Campian. 3. " A brief Censure upon two 
Books, written against the Reasons aud Proofs." 4. " A 
Discovery, of John Nichols, misreported a Jesuit;" all 
written and printed while the author was in England. 5. 
** A Defence of the Censure given upon his two Books; 
&.C." 15&3. 6. " De persecutione Anglicana epistola,'* 
Rome and Ingolstadt, 1582. 7. " A Christian Directory," 
1583. 8. " A Second Part of a Christian Directory, &c.*' 
i591. l^bese tvvo parts being printed erroneously at Lon^- 
doB, Parsons published an edition of them under this title: 

Vol. XXIV. M 



162 



PARSONS. 



^< A' Christian Directorj, guidiog miein to their Salvatioiri; 
&c. with many corrections and additions by the Author, 
himself." This book is really an excellent one, and wa» 
afterwards put into modern English by Dr. Stanhope, dean 
of Canterbury ; in which form it has gone through eight or 
ten editions. 9. ^* Responsio ad Eliz. Reginse edkctum 
contra Catholicos," Romse, 1593, under the name of And. 
Philopater. 10. '^ A Conference about the next Succes* 
sion to the Crown of England, &c." 1594, under the 
feigned name of Doleman. This piece was the production 
of cardinal AHen, Inglefield, and others, who furnished 
the materials, which Parsons, who had a happy talent thi» 
way, put into a proper methods Parsons's style is among 
the best of the Klizabethan period*. 11. ^^ A temperate 
Ward word to the turbulent and seditious Watchword of sir 
t^r. Hastings, knight," &c. 1599, under the same name.. 
12. " A Copy of a Letter written by a Master of Arts at 
Cambridge, &c." published in 1583. This piece was com- 
siionly called " Father Parsons's Green Coat," being sent 
from abroad with the binding and leaves in , that livery, 
but there seems reason to doubt whether this was his (see 
4Ath. Ox. vol. XL new edit, note, p. 74). 13. " Apologe- 
tical Epistle to the Lords of her Majesty's Privy Council,. 
&c." 1601. 14. " Brief Apology, or Defence of the Ca-. 
* tholic Ecclesiastical Hierarchy erected by pope Clement 
VIIL &c." St. Omers, 1601. 15. "A Manifestation o£ 
the Folly and bad Spirit of secular Priests,'* 1 602. 1 6. " A 
Becachordon often Quodlibetical Questions," 1602. 17.* 
" De Peregrinatione." 18. ** An Answer to O. E. whether 
Papists or Protestants be true Catholics," . 1 603. 1 9. " A 
Treatise of the three Conversions of Paganism to the 
Christian Religion," published (as are also the two folk>'w-^ 
fng) under the name of N. D. (Nicholas Doleman), in 3. 



* The intention of this book was to 
•up|V)rt the- title of the Infanta against 
that of king James, after the death of 
^ueen' Elizabeth, and to prove that 
there are better titles than lineal de- 
scent It is^reoiarkable that this wea- 
pon, which was obliquely aimed at 
Elizabeth, should afterwards be em- 
ployed against Charles 1. Ibbotson's 
pamphlet concerning the power of par- 
Laments, &c. which was published pre- 
paratory^ to the destruction of that 
prince, was no more than a republica- 
lioa of X^Qleraan (or PurtODs), with 



very few alterations. Bradshaw's lonf 
speech at the king's condemn ati0O|,' 
and a considerable part of MiltonTs 
*' Defensio pro Populo Angl." are 
chiefly borrowed from the same per- 
formance ; and it was even reprinted 
in 1681, when the parliament were de- 
bating the subject of the exclnaioii of 
the duke of York; but in 1683 the uni- 
versity of Oxfonl ordered it to b« 
burnt by the hands of the hangman. 
Podd labours hard to prove that Par- 
touf was not the aathor of it. 



V. 



PARSONS. 161 

Tbis. 1 2mo, , 1 603, 1 604. 20. " A Relation of a Trial made, 
before the king of France in 1600, between the bishop. of 
Ei^reux ancl the lord Plessis Mornay," 1604. 21. "A. De- 
fence of the preciedent Relation, &c." 22. "A Review, 
of ten public Disputations, &c. concerning the Sacrifices 
and Sacranjent of the Altar," leo*. 23. '< The Forerun- 
ner of Bell's Downfall of Popery," 1605. 24. "An An- 
swer to the fifth Part of the Reports of Sir Edward Coke, 
&c." 1606, 4to, published under the name of a Catholic; 
Divine. 25.^^ De sacris alienis ndn adeundis,- queatipnes 
duae," 1607. 26. " A Treatise tending to Mitigation to-* 
wards Catholic subjects in England, against Thomas Mor- 
ton (afterwards bishop of Durham)," 1607. 27. ." The 
Judgment of a Cathplic Gentleman concerning king James's 
Apology, &c." 1608. 28. " Sober Reckoning with Thomas 
Mortoo," 1609. 29. "A Discussion of Mr. Barlow's 
Answer^ to the Judgment of a Catholic Englishman con- 
cealing the Gath of Allegiance," 1612. This book being 
left not quite finished at the author's death, was afterwards 
completed and published by Thomas Fitzherbert. .The 
following are also posthiicftous pieces : 30. <^ The Liturgy^ 
of the Sacrament of the Mass," 1620. 31. "A Memorial 
for. Reformation, &c. ;" thought to be the same with' 
"The High Court and Council of the Reformation,'** 
finished after twenty years' labour in 1596, but not pub- 
lished till after Parsons's death ; and republished from a 
copy presented to James II. with an introduction and some 
animadversions by Edward Gee, under the title of, " The 
Jesuits Memorial for . the intended Reformation of the 
Church of England under tbieir first Popish Prince," 1690, 
Svo. 32. There is also ascribed to him, " A Declaratioa 
of the true Causes of the great Troubles pre-supposed to 
be intended against the Realm of England, &c.. Seen 
and allowed, anno 1581." 33. Parsons also translated 
from the English into Spanish, ^^ A Relation of certain 
Martyrs Jn England^" printed at Madrid 1590, Svo. Seve- 
ral of bis MSS. are preserved in Baliol college library, pac- 
ticularly a curious one entitled ^^ Epitome controversiarum 
hujus temporis." ^ « 

PARUTA (Paul), a noble Venetian, born in 1540, 
was made historiographer of the republic in 1579, and 

* Ath. Ox. ?ol. I. new edit. — Biog. Brit. art. Parsons.— Dodd's Ch. Hist. — 
Berrin^on's Panzani, Iniroduction^ p. 24. — Gent. Mag. LXIV.- wher« is a fine 
portrait of Panons . 

M 2 



U^ P A R U T A. 

afterwards was employed in aereral embassies, was xnida 
goirernor of Brescia, and finally elected a procurator ot 
St. Mark. Sucb was his character for wisdom, integrity, 
and aeal for the public welfare, that be was called the 
Cato of Venice. He died in 1598, at the age of 58. He 
culti^ed the sciences and general literature, and was tfao 
author of several works of merit. Among these are : 
*i DeUa Perfczioue della vita Political'* " Dbcorsi PoU^r 
tici,'* published by his sons in 1599 ; " A HistcNry of Ve-* 
nioe, from i5l3 to 1551, with the Addition of an Aceouni 
of the War of Cyprus :'' written silso in Italian, but he had 
begun to write it in Latin, in. imitation of the style o£ 
Sallust, and had finished foiiir books in that language. A 
new edition of this history was given by Apostolo Zeno in 
1T03.* 

i PARUTA (Philip)^ a learned antiquary, was a t^oble of 
Palermo, and secretary to the senate of that city, where 
1^ died in 1629. He was author of several works, but is 
principally known by his ^* SiciliadescrittaconMedaglie,'* 
Palermo, 1612, fol. This wovk waa afterwards enlarged 
by LeoBardo Agostini, and printed at Roiae in 1649, and 
at Lyons in 1697. Havercan^ published a Latin edition 
of it in three volumes folio, 1 72^3,. which makes part of the 
Italian Antiquities of Gra&vius and Barman* * 
 PAS. See FEUQUIERJES. 

' PASCAL (Blaisk), a French matbemfatician and philo«« 
aopber, and one of the greatest geniuses and best writers 
that country has produced^ was horn at Clermont in Au« 
vergne, June 19, 1623. His father, Stephen Pascal, was 
president of the Court of Aids in his province, and was 
aleo a very learned man, an able naathematiciai^ and a 
friend of Des Cartes. Having an extraordinary tenderuess 
for this child, his only son, he quitted bis office and 
settled at Paris in 1631, that he might be quite at leisure 
|o attend to bis son's education, of which he was the sole 
superintendant, yoiing Pascal never having had any other 
master. From his infancy Blaise gave proofs of a very 
extraordinary capacity. He was extremely inquisitive ; 
desiring to know .the reason of every thing; and when 
ffiood reasons were not given him, he would seek for better; 
nor would he ever yield his assent but upon aucb as 'ap<» 
peared to him well grounded. What is told 9f his manner 

1 Chaufepic-^Nicerod, rol. XI. « Laiidi Hist. I<it. d»ltaUe.--Pict mst. 



PASCAL. 166 

of learning the matbemattcsy as well as the progress h^ 
qui ckiy made in tliat Bcienct^, neems almost ttiiractilou^. 
His fatfaier, perceiving in him an extraordinary inclination 
to reasoning, was aiVaid lest the knowledge of x)k6 madie« 
nutics mig^ht hinder bis learning th« languages, so n^eces^ 
sary att a foundation to all sotind leaming. He therefore 
kept hitti as much a« he eo^ld fnom all notion's of geometry^ 
locked ap alt hn books of ttuae kind, and refrained even 
from speaking of it in his presence. He eonld not h<^^ 
ever pmvetit his son from mmitig oti that -seiefice ; and 
one day io pani«(^Ut he «ar(kised him at work with ehat*^ 
t^at upon his isfaamber ftdor, and i«i the mid^ of figu^ea; 
The father asked Idm what he was doing r 'M am search^ 
mg/^ says ^Alcai) <<fe>r sueh athing;^' whitsh was jtist the 
sanve as the 3!2d proposition of the 1 lU book of Euclid. Ht 
asked hiai then how he came to think of this : *^ It was/' 
^ys Blaise, *' because I fonnd o«i t soch another thing ;'^ and 
•o, going backw«ird, and ysing th^ names of bdl^ aAd roiuid, 
be came at length to tbe definitions and axioms he had 
foimed to himself. Of this singalar progress we are 
assured by his sifter, madame Perier, and several other 
pnrsons, the credit of whos^ testimony cannot reasonably 
be questiotied. 

From this time he had full liberty to indnlge his genius 
in mathematical pursuits. He understood £uclid^s Ele« 
fnents as soon as he cast his eyi^s npon them. At sixteen 
years of age he wrote a treatise on Conic Actions, which 
wasaccotmted a great effoft of genius; so mnch so, that 
Des Cattes, who had been in Holland a long time, upon 
i?eading it, fancied that M. Pascal ikte father was tbe reiA 
author of it. At nineteen he cofrtrived an admirable arith-* 
tnetioal machine, whit^hwoald have done credk as an 'm^^ 
rention to any man vei'led in tetence, and much more to 
tittch a yoath. 

AboHt this time his health became so impaired^ that he 
was obliged to suspend his labours for the' space of fbur 
years. After this, having seen Tbrricelli^s experiment re* 
apf^cting a Tacanm and the Weight of the air, he turned 
his thoaghts towards these objects, and nndertook several 
new experiments, one of which was as follows: having 
provided a glass tube, 46 feet in length, open at oiie end^ 
and hermetically sealed at the other, he fiiied it with red 
wine, that be might distinguish tbe liquor from the tube, 
(Mid stopped up the orifice j then having inverted it, ^and 



I66r PASCAL. 

placed it in a .vertical position^ with the lower' end. itB.<« 
mersed into a vessel of water one fqot deep, he opened the 
lower end, and the wine descended xo the distance of 
about 32 feet from' the surface of the vessel, leaving a eon« 
siderable vacuum at the upper part of the tube. He next 
inclined the tube gradually, till the upper end. becanie 
only of 32 feet perpendicular height above the bottom, and 
be observed the liquor proportionally ascend up to the 
top of the tube. He made also a great many experiments 
with siphons, syringes, bellows, and all kinds of tubes, 
making use of different liquors, »uch as quicksilver, water, 
wine, oil, &c. ; and having published them in 1647, he 
dispersed his work through all countries. 
• All these experiments, however, only ascertained effects, 
.without demonstrating the causes. Pascal knew that Tor- 
xicelli conjectured that those phenomena which :he had 
observed were occasioned by the weight of the air, though 
they had formerly been attributed to Nature's abhorrence 
of a vacuum : but if Torricelii's theory were true, he rei^* 
soned that the liquor in the barometer tube ought to stand 
higher at the bottom of ^ hill, than at the top of Jt*. An 
order therefore to discover the truth of this theory, h^ 
made an experiment at the top apd bottom of a mountain 
in Auvergne, called le Puy de DomCy the result of which 
gave him reason to conclude that the ait was indeed heavy. 
Of this experiment he published an account, and sent 
copies of it to most of the learned men in Europe. He 
also renewed it at the top and bottom pf several high 
towers, as those of Notre Dame at Paris, St. Jaques de la 
Boucherie, &c.; and always remarked rthe same difference 
in the weight of the air, at different elevations. This fully- 
convinced him of the general pressure of the atmosphere ; 
smd from this discovery he drew many useful and iolporr 
tant inferences. He composed also a large treatise, in 
which he fully explained this subject, and replied to .all 
the objections that had been started against it. As be 
jtifterwards thought this work rather too prolix, and being 
fond of brevity and precision, he divided it into two small 
treatises, one of which he entitled "A Dissertation on the 
Equilibrium of Fluids ;'' and the other, ^^ An Essay on the 
Weight of the Atmosphere." These labours, procured 
Pascal so much reputation, that the greatest mathemati*^ 
cians and philosophers of the age proposed various que^-* 
tiods to him, and consulted hioi respecting such di(&cultie4 



PASCAL. Ul 

T«s they could not resolve* Upon one of these oceasioiii? 
'he discovered the solution of a problem* proposed by Me^- 
seone, which had baf&ed the penetration of all that had 
attempted it« This problem was to determine the curve 
.described in the air by the nail of a coaqh-wheel^ while 
the machine is in motion ; which curve was thence called 
a FoulIette> but now commonly known by the name of cy« 
eloid. Pascal offered a reward of 40 pistoles to any one 
who should give 9 satisfactory answer to it. No person 
having succeeded, he published his own at Paris ; but, as 
lie ,begaji now to be disgusted with the sciences, he would 
.not set bis real ntame to it, but i^eot it abroad under that 
«f A. d'Ettooville. This wasthe last work which he pub** 
lished in the mathematics; his infirmities, from a delicate 
jconstitutiop, though still young, now increasing so much, 
.that he was under the necessity of renouncing severestudy, 
iiuid of living so repluse, that be scarcely admitted any 
person to se^ him. Another subject on which P^sc^l wrota 
•very ingeniously, and in which he has been spoken of af 
jBLU inventor, was; what has been called his Arithtnetical 
Triangle, being a set of figurate numbers disposed in that 
jTorm. But such a table of numbers, and many properties 
of them, had been treated of. more than a century before^ 
py. Cardan, Stifelius, and other arithmetical writers. 

After having thus laboured abundantly in ipathematical 
wd philosophical disquisitions, he forsook those studies 
and all human learning at onc^ to devote himself to acts 
4of devotion and penance^ He was not tweaty^four years 
of age, when the reading some pious books had put him 
ppon taking this resolution ; and he became as great a de- 
votee as any age has produced. He now gave himself up 
entirely to a state of prayer and mortification ; and he had 
|tlwa3&s in his thoughts these great maxims pf renouncing 
all pleasure wd aU superfluity ; and this he practised with 
ligour even in his illnesses, to which he was frequently 
,^bject, being of a very invalid habit of body. 

.Though P^tscal bad thus abstracted himself from the 
. W^orld^ yet he could not forbear paying some attention to 
what was doing in it; and he even interested himself in 
the contest, between the Jesuits and the Jansenists. Tak- 
ing the side of the latter, he wrote his celebrated " Let- 
tees Provinciales,^', published in 1656, under the name of 
jCouis de MimtaltCf making the former the subject of ridii- 
.. i^e. ** TTl^ese letters," says Voltaire, " may be consider^ 



m i^ A S C A t. 

tti k mod^l of i^loqu^TXits mA huifioiir. Ttae btfMTcOff^^i^ 
of Moli^re have dot ntbr^ vrit thtfn the first part of tb^b 
letters ;' and the sublimity 6f the iauet part of tb^tfi i^ 
equal to aify thing in Bossu^t* It is true indeed that tb« 
whole book was bdiUupon a fftlsfe fouhdatioh \ for the 4ixi. 
travagAnt notions of a f^w'Spariish and Fl^ttil^h Jesuits were 
artfully ascribed i\S the whole sociexy. Mdny absurdtti^ 
ttiight Hk6wise have been discovered affk)D«f the Dominican 
and Franciscan tasuisis; bii! this would* rfOt hav^ answered 
the purpose ; for tftfe whole raillei^y was to be ieved^ only 
at the Jesuits. Thdse letters were int€'nded to pi'o^e, that 
the Jesuits had formed d d^sigti td corrupt mankind ; -h 
design which no sect oi* sociefjr evtr had, or can hftre.'* 
Here, however, Voltaire is not altogether cori'ect ; for th^ 
Jesuits cited by Pascal, were considered, as oracles by 
theii* order ; and the ^hole society always acted so system 
Ihatically as a body, that th^ ddcirines of*onG may beimw 
puted to the rest, ttiore fairly than in any othef class <rf 
tneh\ ' Voltaire calls Pascal the first of their satirists; fot 
toespr^aux, saj's be, nlu&t be considered ai only thfe ie^' 
cond. In another placd, Speaking df this work <rf Pascal^ 
he says, that "exarfiples of all thd various spades of elp** 
quence are to be fburtd in it. Thoiigh it has now beeA 
written almost 100 years, yet riot a single word occurs irt 
It, savouring of that vicissitude t6 which living languages 
^re so subject. Here then- we are to fix the epoch wheti 
6ur language may be sdid to have sujsunried A settled fofm; 
The bishop of Lucori, k)ti of the celebrated Biissy, told 
itie, that asking one day the bi^hdp of Meaair What Work 
he would covet mbst to be the author of, sU)>posing hi^ 
6wn performances set iiside, Bossu replied, • The Proviil^ 
6ial Letters*." These letters were first published in 1^59, 
l2mo, an edition highly valued, and were aJFfcerwards trans« 
lated into all languages, and printed over and bver agaio; 
Some have said that there were decrees of fdrmfal cohdeld-^ 
nation against them ; and also that Pascal himself ill his 
last illness, detested them, and repented bf tlaVrng been a 
Jansehist : but both these particulars are without foi:inda<>; 
tion. It was supposed that father Daniel was the inony* 
mous author of a piece against tlieih, entitled ** The Dia-« 
logues of Oleander and Eudoxusi" 

Pascal was but about thirty years oJF age when these li?t* 
ters were published ; yet he was extremely infirm, and his 
disorders increasing soon after so much, that he conceived- 



PASCAL. 169 

bk ttid fiu^ ftpptoaching^ he gtiTe tip all farther thoughts 
d€ literary composition. He resolved to spend the remain^, 
der of his days in retirement and pious meditation ; and 
i^tb this view be broke off all his former connections, 
changed bis habitation^ and spoke to no one, not even to 
Us own servants, and hardly ever even admitted them into 
his room. He made his own bed, brought his dinner from 
the kitchen^ and (tarried back the plates and dishes in the 
evening; so that he employed his servants only to cook 
for bim> to go to town, and to do such other things as he 
could not absolutely do bimsejf. In his chamber nothing 
was to be seen but two or three chairs, a table, a bed, and 
a few books. It had ho kind of ornament whatever ; he 
had neither a carpet on the floor, nor curtains to his bed. 
But this did not prevent him from sometimes receiving 
visits ; and when his friends appeared surprised to see him 
thfis without furnitdre, he replied, that he had what was 
necessary, and that any thing else would be a superfluity, 
unworthy of a wise man. He employed his time in prayer, 
and in treading the Scriptures ; writing down such thoughts 
as this exercise inspired. Though his continual infirmities 
obliged him to use very delicate food, and though his ser- 
vatlts employed the utmost cave to provide only what was 
^iccelient, he never relished what he ate, and seemed 
quite indifierent whether they brought him good or bad. 
ii is indifference in this respect was so great, that though 
his ^aste was not vitiated, he forbad any sauce or ragout to 
be made fat him which might excite his appetite. 

Though Pascal had now given up intense study, and 
though be lived in the most temperate manner, his health 
continued to decline rapidly; and his disorders had so en*- 
feebled his organs, that his reason became in some mea- 
Mte affected. H6 always imagined that he saw a deep 
abyss on one side of him, and he never would sit down till 
a chair was placed there, to secure him from the dangler 
Which he apprehended. At another time he pretended 
that he had a kind of vision or ecstasy ; a memorandum of 
ithith he preserved during the remainder of his life in a 
Mt of paper, put between the cloth and the lining of his 
coat, and which he always carried about him. Some of the 
JesuitSTeproached him with insanity ; but his disorder had 
nothing more in it than a fever, or a vertigo. During the 
last years of his life, indeed, he became very superstitious, 
and exhibited a melancholy example of human infirmity 
in that respect. 



IW t A S C A !• 

' In company Pascal was distinguished by his amiable be* 
haviour, by bis easy, agreeable, and instructive conversa- 
tion, and by great modesty. He possessed a natural kind 
of eloquence, which was in a manner irresistible. The ar- 
guments he employed, for the . most part produced the ef- 
fect which he proposed ; and though his. abilities entitled 
Jiim to assume an air of superiority, he never displayed 
that haughty and imperious tone, which ipay often be pb« 
served in men of shining talents. Toward the close of bis 
life, he employed himself whoHy in pipus and , moral re- 
flections, writing down those which he judged worthy <^ 
being preserved. The first piece of paper he could find 
was employed for this purpose ; and be commonly put 
down only a few words of each sentence^ as be wrote 
them merely for his own use. The bits of paper uppu 
liirhich'he had written these thoughts, were found, after his' 
death, filed upon different pieces of string, witho.ut .any 
order or connection; and being copied exactly as they 
were written, they were afterwards arranged and publisbed* 

Pascal died at Paris, August 19, 1662, aged thirty^-iiioef 
He had been some time about a work against atheists and 
infidels ; but he did not live long enough to digest the ma-r 
terials he had collected. What was found among, his papers 
was published under the title ^* Pens^es,'' or Thougbts 
upon Religion, and other subjects; and has been much 
admired. After bis deiath appeared also two other. little 
tracts ; one of which is entitled ^' The Equilibrium of 
Fluids;" and the other ^^ The Weight of the mass qf 
Air." 

The celebrated Menage, in that collection called ** Me* 
nagiana," selects the two following passages in the wri- 
tings of M. Pascal, for the acute observations theycour 
tain : " Those minds which are capable of invention are 
;very scarce. Those to whom this power is denied, being 
much the greater number, are of course the prevailing 
party ; insomuch, that when works of invention come for^ 
ward, to claim the praise due to their authors, the public 
opinion treats them as visionaries." And again, ^'It seems 
jptber a fortunate circumstance, that some conamon error 
should fix the wanderings of the human mind. For instancpi 
tb^ moon is supposed to influence the disorders of the buf 
man body, and to cause a change in human affairs, &c. 
which notion, though it be false, is not without its advan*^ 
tage ; as men are thereby restrained from an inquiry 'i0tj| 



PASCAL. 171 

things to^rhich the fafumai> understanding is incompetent, 
•and from a kind of curiosity which is a malady of the 
imind.'* 

The works of Pascal were collected in five volumes oc* 
.tavo, and published at Paris in 1779. This edition of Pas- 
cal's works may be considered as the first published ; at 
fleast the greater part of them were not before collected into 
«one body ; and some of them had remained only in manu- 
script. For this collection the public were indebted tp 
the abbot Bossut, and Pascal deserved to have such an 
editor. " This extraordinary man^" says he, " inherited 
,from nature all the powers of genius. He was a geome«- 
.trician of the first rank, a profound reasoner, and a sub- 
lime and elegant writer. If we reflect^ that in a very short 
.life, oppressed by continual infirmities, be invented a cu- 
rious arithmetical machine, the elements of the calculation 
xjtf chances, and a method of resolving various .problems 
.respecting the cycloid ; that he fixed in an irrevocable 
manner the wavering- opinions of the learned respecting * 
the weight of the air ; that he wrote one of the completes^t 
:Works which exist in the French language; and that in 
^Bis thoughts there are passages, the depth and beauty of 
which are incomparable? — we shall be induced to believe^ 
'that a greater genius never existed in any age or nation. 
AH those who . had occasion to frequent his company in 
the ordinary commerce of the world, acknowledged his su- 
periority ; but it excited no envy against him, as he was 
never fond of shewing it. His conversation* instructed^ 
without making those who heard him sensible of their own 
{inferiority ; and. he was remarkably indulgent towards the 
faultsnof others. It may be easily seen by his Provincial 
Xetters, and by some of his other works, that he was born 
jRrith a great fund of humour, which his infirmities could 
^ever entirely destroy. In company, he readily indulged 
in that-harmless and delicate raillery which never gives of«- 
fence, and which greatly tends to enliven conversation*; 
Jbut its principal object . generally was of a moral nature. 
JPoT example, ridiculing those authors who say, *^ my book, 
my commentary, my history; they would do better,'' added 
J>e, ** to say o^r book, aur commentary, ot^r history ; mibt 
^here are in them much more of other people's tbaa their 



A Life by Bossat and by madsune Perler.—Hutton's Dictionary.— Tbomion's 
Hist, of the Royal Society, &c. 



172 P A S C H A S I U S. 

PASCHASruS tlATB£RT^ a celebrated llenedictiii^ 
of the dinth century, was born at Soissonsy and carefully 
educated by the monks of Notre Dame jn his native 
-city, in the exterior part of their abbey. He afterwards 
took the religious habit under St. Adelard in the abbey of 
Corbey^ and during the exile of his abbot Wala, who suc^ 
eeeded Adelard, wrote, about the year 831, a treatise 
" On the Body and Blood of Christ;*' for the instnictioti 
of the young monks at New Corbey in Saxony, where he 
teaches, that the same body of Christ which was born df 
the Virgin, which was crucified, rose again, and ascended 
iikto heaven, is really present in the Eucharist. This trea- 
ti^ made a great noise in the reign of Charles the BaU. 
Bertram (otherwise Ratram), John Scotus Erigena, and 
-some others, wrote against Paschasius, who was then 
Abbot of Corbey ; and Frudegard, abbot of New Corbey, 
Wrote to him on the subject about the year 8^64, in*- 
forming him that many persons understood in a figu^ 
yative sense the words " this is my Body ; this is my 
Blood,*' in the institution of the Eucharist, and supported 
theinselves on the authority of St. Augustine. Paschasiua 
on the other side maintained that be taught nothing in hia 
treatise different from the faith of the church, nor from 
what had been tiniversaliy believed from the time of thO 
apostles; but these disputes^ together with some dis* 
turbances raised against htm, induced htm to resign hia 
«ibbey, and he died soon after, April 26, in theyea^ 8€5. 
lie was only a deacou, having declined taking piiest*a 
orders from a principle of humility. Claude, and several 
other protestant writers, have asserted that Paschasius waa 
the fifst who taught the doctrine of thi real presence; but 
the popish writers maintain that this doctrine has been al^ 
ways believed and taught in the Romish church. Hift ye*- 
ttiaining works are, " Commentaries" on St. Matthew^ oft 
l^alm xliv. and on the Lamentations of Jeremiah; *<Tbe 
Life of St. Adelard,'* and other works in the Library of the 
Fathers, which Father Sirmond printed separatoly at Parla^ 
1€18, folio. Father d'Acheti, in tom.XlL of his " Spi- 
Oiteglum, has published Paschasius Ratbert*a treatiao *^ Bt 
Partu Virginis ;'* another question itiudi agitated in iho 
. iiimh century. His treatise " De Corpore Chriatl** baa 
been inserted by Martenne in his collection, where it ia 
' more accurate than in P. Sinnond*s edition. V 

> Care, toI. U.— Dupin.— Diet, HHrt. de L'Avoeat 



P A S O R.. ^79 

PASOR (Matthias), the son of George Pasw, a learned 
professor of divinity and Hebrew in the academy of Her«> 
borne^ by ApoUonia bia wife, daughter of Peter HepdschiiiSt , 
fliensttot of that • place, was bom there April 12, I $99. 
Discovering a very docile dispositipn, he was carefully 
educated in the elements of Greek and Latin iu his native 
place, until the appearance of the plague obliged him lo 
be removed toMarpurgia 1614; but the following year 
i^e returned toHerborne, and again applied hi^9e^lf plosely 
to bis studies. In 1616, he was sent to Heidelberg; and> 
meeting there with skilful professors, he i&ade such im** 
provement, that he wuis employed as a tutor, and tavxght 
in private, both mathematics and Hebrew^ He was ho** 
noured also with the degree of M. A. by the university ixk 
Feb. 1617, and then studied divinity under David ^Pareus^ 
Abraham Scultetus, and Henry Alting. : In April 1620, ha 
was appointed mathematical professor ; which ofBoe be re* 
tained until Heidelberg was invested by the duke of Bava«« 
ria^s troops, in September 1622, when he lojst bis books 
and MSS. and narrowly escaped with his life to Herbprite» 
where he found a comfortable employment in the aci^ 
demy till 1623. .Proceeding thence to Leydeo, he con- 
stantly attended the lectures of the most eminent Dutch 
divines, particularly those of Erpenius upon Om. Arabia 
Ji^ngue, and of Snellius upon divinity. 

After a few weeks stay at this university, be arrived in 
{England; and^ bringing proper testimonials with him to 
Oxford, was incorporated M. A. there, in June 1634.. Here 
be began to teach Hebrew and the mathematics privately^ 
but at the end of the year took a tour into France with 
some gentlemen of Germany ; and spending the winter at 
Paris, attended the lectures of Gabriel Sionita, regius pro^ 
fessor of Syrtac and Arabic : who, having left off reading; 
ip public some years for want of auditors, wajs prevailed 
upon by Pasor to resume those exercises in his own houses 
Having much improved himself under this excellent mastety 
he returned to Oxford in 1625, and bad chambers in 
Exeter college, in v^hieh he preferred residing, notwith* 
sounding the plague had ^dispersed the studeuis,. rather 
than go to Ireland with archbishop Usher, who offered 
him bis table and a handsome pension. As soon as the in* 
fection ceased, he had some pupils, either in divinity or 
the oriental tongues; and in tlie latter he was tutor to the 
celebrated Pococke. Afterwards, upon bis petition, he was 



114 PASO R. 

appointed to read public lectures in Arabic, Cbaldee, and 
Syriac, twice a week in term time, in the divinit/-scbooI^* 
for whicb he was handsomely rewarded. He held this 
temporary professorship for about three years from Oct.* 
1626, during which time he also delivered a Hebrew lee— 
ture-in New college. In 1629 he accepted an invitation to* 
be professor of moral philosophy at Groningen ; and, upon' 
the death of Muller, the mathematical professor, six years- : 
itfiter, Pasor succeeded to that chair; but when, in 1645,' < 
he was raised to that of divinity, oJF which faculty he W3»- 
then created doctor, be resigned his mathematical profes- 
sorship, retaining that of moral philosophy. AH these fa*- • 
vours induced him to remain at Groningen, where he died- 
Jan. 28, 1658. 

He published few books, for which be is said to have' 
given two reasons: first, '* Because be was not willing ^ 
that youth should be diverted from reading the good books' 
already published ;'* arid secondly, ** Because he did not' 
care that the booksellers should risk their money." Hes 
published, however, while at Oxford, an ** Oratio pro- 
lingusB Arabicas professio^le, publice ad academicos babita 
in Scbola Tbeologica universitatis Oxon. 25 Oct, 1626,'* 
Oxon. 1627, 4to. He was also editor of those useful- 
works which his father (who' died in 1637) compiled' 
for the use of Greek scholars, and whicb were at one* 
time very popular; viz. his " Manuale GraeGorum vo- 
cum Novi Testamenti, deque Graecis N, Testamenti; 
accentibus.'' Leyden, 1634, 12mo, often reprinted BlV 
Herbom, Amsterdam, and other places ; ^* Syllabus sive 
idea omnium Novi Test, dictionutn, seu diaiectorun^,'* 
] 2mo, Amsterdam, Franeker, Francfort, &c. &c. ; "Lex- 
icon Grseco-Latiuum in N. Testanfientum,** 8vo. There 
are editions of this printed at London, Amsterdam, Ge- 
i^eva, &c. and two at least with Leusden's ijfnprovementSy 
Amsterdam, 1675*, and Leipsic, 1695*. George Pasor 
was nineteen years professor at Herbprn, and eleven yeari^ 
at Franeker, where he was buried with a monumental in- 
scription. It remains to be mentioned, that a Latin life of 
Matthew Pasor was published, containing his journal, 

^ Tn the Bodleian catalogue we find litia Christiana ;*' " Oratio in obitunif 

the following works attributed to hioi : J. Piscatoris," ibid. 1624» 4to ; '* Am- . 

**£tymonpropriorumnominuminNov. lysis difBciliorum vocum in openbaa 

Test." Herborn,! 680, 8T03"Ptedagogu8 • Hesiodi/' Amst. 162), 8vo, often re* 

Cbristianus de quiuque religiunis ca- printed; and " Index ad Hesiodani>*, 

^itibu8»\' ibid. 1 624, Syo; " Oratio de mi- Amst. 1701; 8ro. 



P A S O R. . 175 

mttny trifling particulars in which, Bayle says, ought to 
have been left out. But what would have become of 
Bayle^s own wotks, particularly his Dictionary, had his* 
editors left out what was trifling, obscene, and impious ? ^ 

PASQUIER, or PAQUIER (Stephen), a learned 
Fr^nchiqan, was born in, 1528 at Paris; of which city he* 
was an advocate in parliament, afterwards a* counsellor,- 
and at last advocate-general in the chamber of accounts!. 
He pleaded many years with very great success before the 
parliament, where be was almost constantly retained in the. 
most difficult causes, and every day consulted as an oracle. 
He did not, however, confine his studies to the law ; but 
was esteemed a general scholar. Henry IH. gave hiin the 
posb of advocate of the chamber of accounts, which he filled 
with his usual reputation, and resigned it some tim^ after 
to Theodore P^uier, bis eldest son. He was naturally' 
beneficent and generous ; agreeable and easy in conversa* 
tion ; his manner sweet, and his temper pleasant. > He died 
at Paris, at the advanced age of eighty-seven, Aug. -31, 
1615, and was interred in the church of St. Severin. 

His works show considerable knowledge of ancient bis-r 
tory, especially that of France; and he raised no little re- 
putation by his attacks on the Jesuits in his <^ Les Re- 
cherches," which war answered by father Garasse. His 
animosity to that order laid him in some measure open to 
(his antagonist, for he very readily adopted any story, ever 
so improbable, which he heard of them from their bitterest 
enemies. All his works, however, are written with de* 
gance and humour, and he appears to have been formed! 
by nature equally for a poet and a lawyer. His works were 
first printed together atTrevoux, and passed through many 
editiousj the last in 1665. They were afterwards printed 
along with those of his son Nicholas, at Amsterdam, in 1 723, 
2 vols. fol. Of his ^^ Letters," the best edition is that at 
Paris, in 1619, in 5 vols. 8vo. His "Poems" consist of 
one book " Of Portraits ;" six books of " Epigrams ;•■ and 
a bo^k of " Epitaphs." But in this collection is wanting 
his " Catechism of the Jesuits ;" instead of which are in-» 
iertied the letters of his son Nicolas. Among his pieces in 
verse, "La Puce" had atone time a fashionable reputa* 
tion. It is entitled " La Puce des grands tours de Poitiers ;'* 

I • • » 

» Effigies et Vit» Prof. Acad. Groninga," 1654, fol— Gen, Dicf.--Ath. Ox. 
vol. 11.— Foppen Bibl. Belg, toK I.-^Saxii Oaomatf. 



\is P A S Q U I £ R. 

and cotitaina several poems upon a 6ea which P&qnier 
spied on the breast of tbe learned Catharine de Roches^ m 
a visit to her on tbe extraordinary sessions at Poitiers in 
1569. Such are the trifles by which a nation is sometimea 
aroused. He left three sons, of whom the eldest, Tbao- 
dore, was advocate»generaI in the chamber of accounts i 
Nicolas, master of requests, whose ^^ Letters'* were printed 
in 1623, at Paris, containing several discourses upon the 
occurrences in France in tbe time of Henry IV. and Loaia 
XUL ; and Guy, who was auditcur of tbe accounts. ^ 
. PASSE, or PAS (Crispin), tbe chief of a family of en*, 
gravers, and likewise a man of letters, was a native of 
Utrecht, but we have no account of bis education, or dates 
either of birth or death. It appears that he applied him- 
self very early in life to tbe study of the arts, and particu** 
larly delighted in drawing and designing from tbe works of 
the most eminent artists his contemporaries. He was sent 
by prince Maurice to teach drawing in an academy at Paris. 
At what time he came to England is not very clear ; none 
of his works done here are dated, says Vertue, later than 
1635. From tbe paucity of English beads engraved by 
Crispin, and other circumstances, lord Orford seems in* 
dined to doubt whether he ever was in England, and 
thinks it not improbable that drawings were senttohioi 
from this country, as we know was the case afterwards 
with Houbraken, when he was employed on the ^^ lUus-^ 
trious Heads." 

How long he lived is not known* His fame was at itt 
highest from 1610 or sooner to 1643. In this last year^ 
when probably very old, he published at Amsterdam bia 
famous drawing book in Italian, French, High aiid Low 
Dutch, a foiioy with forty-eight plates. His next work, 
according to lord Orford, was entitled ^^ Instruction du roy 
en Pexercise de mohter a cheval, par Messire Antoine de 
Pluvinel," a work in dialogues, French and Dutch, foolisb 
enough in itself, but adorned with many cats admirably 
designed and engraved, and with many portraits* Hoi* 
land's ^^ Heroologia^* was executed at bis expence, for 
which he employed the best Flemish engravers, but does 
not mention any share he had himself in that cotlectioaof 
j^ortraits. Crispin Passers works are so numerous tbaa it 
would be difficult to obtain a complete catalogue* Lord 

 ^ Moreri.««X)ict. Hietii 



PASSE. 177 

Oxford and Mr. Strutt have mentioned the principal^ as 
connected with the English series ; but they have omitted 
his Virgil, Hoiner^ and Ovid, and his *^ Eiortus Flohdus/* 
the latter a folio, and the other in 4to, which are much 
valued abroad, but very scarce. There is, or was, a com* 
plete collection of bis illustrated books, and single plates, 
in the royal library at Paris, and many of them are in 
every English collector's portfolio or library. 
. Passe -worked entirely with the graver, in a neat, clear 
style, which has much originality in it; and, excepting 
S|Ome little stiffness which frequently appears, and the want 
of harmony, with respect to the distribution of the light 
aiid shadow, a fault which prevailed at the time in which 
he lived, his best worka possess a very considerable share 
of merit, especially his portraits, many of which he drew 
from the life ; and the far greater part of his historical and 
emblematical subjects are engraved from his own compo- 
sitions. He drew the human figure very correctly, and 
marked th^ extremities with a degree of ei^actness, not 
usually found in the works of those masters who employed 
themselves upon small subjects ; when he attempted large 
ones he was not equally successful. 

His family consisted of three sons, Crispin, William, 
and Simon, and a daughter Magdalen, all of whom, except 
perhaps the first, attained considerable fame in their 
fjBither's art. William and Simpn resided some time in 
England, and executed many portraits in the English 
series, but particulars of their lives are unknown. V 

PASSEMANT (Clau0E Simeon), an able French opti-. 
eian, was born in 1702, and at first brought up to trade, 
which he partly relinquished for the study of natural philo-^ 
aophy and astronomy, and being already known to his ad*« 
vantage by several members of the academy of sciences, he 
published a volume in 1738, 12mo, on the construction of 
a reflecting telescope from sixeeen inches to six feet and 
a half, the latter producing the effect of a telescope 15a 
£eet long; and some time after, he wrote *^The Descrip-* 
tion and use of Telescopes, Microscopes," &c. of his own 
invention. He also constructed an astronomical pendulum^ 
orowued with a moving sphere, which was made to repre*" 
sent the revolutions of the planets, in a manner that exactly 
Corresponded with the astronomical tables. He presented 

i WftI|>Qle and SUutt. 

Vol. XXIV. N 



174 P A S S E M A N r. 

this machine to Lewis XV. and it was formerly to be seeirf 
id the royal apartments at Versailles. He made a similar 
instrument for the Turkish emperor, which shewed th« 
rising and setting of the sun and moon. He furnished the 
king and other great men in France with sets of instruments 
for making experiments in optics, and other branches of 
science. In 1765 he gave some plans for making canals^ 
by means of which ships might come up to Paris ; and bi» 
proposal is inserted in M. de la Lande'^s work on '^Navi* 
gable Canals,'' published 1778; but be had not the satis* 
faction of seeing it accomplished, being carried off in 
twenty-four hours, by a lethargy, November 6, 1769.* 

PASS£RAT (John), a celebrated professor of eloquence 
in the royal college at Paris, and one of the politest writers 
of his time, was born Oct. 18, 1534, atTroyes in Cham-^ 
pagne. His uncle, who undertook to educate him, placed^ 
him at the college of his native city, where som^ harsh 
condpct of his master induced him to run away; Arriving 
at Bourges, he entered first into the service of a farrier, and 
afterwards waited upon a monk ; but, growing in time sa-' 
gacious enough to see his folly, he returned to his uncle, 
who pardoned him, and maintained him for three years at 
college, where he proceeded in his studies with so much 
diligence, that he became in a short time able to teach in' 
public. In that capacity his first post was master of the- 
second class in the college of Du Plessis, from which he 
jremoved to that of cardinal Le Moine ; but being obliged 
to retire for some time from Paris on account of the plague, 
oh his return he engaged in the business of teaching Latin. 
At length he took up a resolution to study the law ; for 
which purpose he went to Bourges, apd spent three years' 
tinder Cujacius ; but at last became professor of elo-' 
queuce, having obtained that chair in 1572, on the va- 
cancy which happened by the assassination of Ramus. In 
the discharge of this post he grew so eminent, that the^ 
most learned men of the time, and the counsellors of the' 
aupreme courts at Paris, went to hear his lectures.. He 
was an indefatigable student, passing frequently whole days' 
without taking any food ; yet to an extraordinary erudition 
he joined an uncommon politeness of manners, having^^ 
nothing of the mere scholar, except the gown and hood.' 
These accomplishments brought him acquainted with all 

4 

.»PictHist 



PA S S E R A T. It? 

' the people of quality ; but he contracted an intims^cy only 
with M . de Mesmes^ in whose house he lived for thirty 
years, till his deaths which was occasioned by a palsy, Sept* 
14, 1602. 

He was highly esteemed by Ronsard, Belleau, and Baif ; 
and was much admired as a Latin poet ; he was indeed 
chiefly partial to the Latin authors, and formed a dictionary 
of that language, which some say was incorporated in an 
improved edition of Calepin. His chief works are, 1. 
^* Chant d'altegresse pour Pentrle de Charles IX. en sa 
▼ille de Troyes,** Troyes, 1564, 8vo. 2. *^ Complainte sur 
la mort d'Adrien Tumebe,'' Paris, 1565, 8vo. 3. << Son* 
nets sur le tombeau du Seigneur de la Ch&tre, 1569, 8vo, 
4. *^- Hymne de la paix, Paris, 1563, 8vo. 5. '^ Recueil 
des poesies, Francoises et Latines,** Paris, 1606, 8vo. 6. 
** Orationes et prsefationes.*' 7. " Conjecturarum liber.'* 

8. ^^ De literarum inter se cognatione et permutatione/* 

9. ** Commentarii in Catullum, TibuUum, et Propertium.'* 

10. ^* Kalends Januariee." 11.^* Oratio.de Csscitate." 12. 
** Not» in Petronii Arbitri satyricon*" 13. ^^ Encomium 
Asini." Besides which, Grievius tells us that be had met 
with academical questions by Passerat in manuscript upon 
some of Cipero^s orations, out of which he took what was 
for his purpose in illustrating that author; and Pithou said 
that Passerat knew nothing else but Cicero. ^. 

PASSE RI (John Baptist), a painter and a poet, of no 
great merit in either lide, died at Rome in 1679, at the 
age of about seventy. The work which is most likely to 
preserve bis name is his ** Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, 
ftnd Architects, who flourished at Rome in his own time.'' 
This book is full of curious and interesting anecdotes, and 
was published in Italian at Rome in 1772. Fuseli speaks 
of him as celebrated for his impartiality and acumen in 
this work. Though no great painter, he was a disciple of 
the famous Dominichino; and though his sonnets were bad, 
one of them is said very materially to have promoted his 
fortune. • 

PASSERI (Joseph), nephew of the former, was born at 
Rome in 1654, and was at first a pupil of his uncle, but, 
soon discovering the inability of that teacher, became the 
disciple of Carlo Maratti. Under such a master he made 

1 Life by Le Clerc in Bibl. Anc. et Moderae, yol. VII.— >Niceron, toI. U,*^ 
BttUurt'« Acadeniie des Scieoce«i— Blount's Ceosura. ' Pilkini^on. 

V a 



tSO PASSER I. 

great progress^ and became famous. His style of bisto^-f • 
cal composition, was grand, bis colouriDg like tbal of bU 
master Mamitr, bis invention fruitful, aad bis expre»sioi» 
natural and agreeable. One of bis best works is bis ^ Stv 
Jerome meditating on the last Judgmenty'' at Pesaro^ He 
died in 1714. ' 

PASSERI (John Baptist), a learned Italian antkyijh^ry 
and philologer, was born at Gubioin the duchy of Urbino, 
in Nov. 1694^ His father, who was a pbrysician atTo^i, 
desigiied him fov the study of the law, wbicb aocordingly * 
be followed, but pursued with it that of antiquities, fo^r 
which he had a strong genius. After residing four yeaKI 
at Rome he returned to Todi, and began to coil^ct th^ 
antiquities of that city and its environs. In 1 72^. he turned 
his attention chiefly to the Etruscan antiquities, and cot^ 
lected a vast number of. lamps, which he arraAged ia 
classes. Having lost his wife in 1733, after twelve yeaf« 
of happy uniony he became asi ecclesiastic, and was apos-^ 
tolic prothonotary, and vicar'-general of Pesaro. In' Fe^ 
bruary 1780; hd was overturned in bis cairiage, an-d died 
in consequence of the falk His works are, 1. ^ Lucernae 
ftetiles Musei Passerii," a splendid book in 3 voia. folio^ 
He- hadi drawn up a fourth, on the lampa of the Christians^ 
but this h^ not been publisbed. These came ouli in 1739^ 
1743, and 1751. 2, ** LettereRoncagliesi ;" Letters from 
bis villa at Roiicaglia, on Etruscan aiitiquities, 173^. There 
were seventeen letters, and a continuation was after ward«( 
published; S.^^ In Tbonise' Dempsteri Libros d^ Etmria 
cegaii Paralipomena,, quibus taboke. eidem operi additdB 
illustrantnr. Aocednnt dissertatio de re numaria Etrusco^ 
rum } de nominibus Etruscorum ; et notas in tdbulas Eogar 
binaa, auctore I. Baptistei Passecio," Lucsb, 1767, folio. 4» 
*^ Picturaei Etruscorum in vaseulis, nunc primum in unum 
'collectse, explibataonxbus et dissevtationibus iUustmtac,'? 
Romae, 1767, 3 vols, folio. 5. Many leavned. disaertation$ 
published in several collections ; as^ for example, five in 
the third volume of Gori's Museum Etruscum ; De Geni^ 
domestico, de Ara sepulehrali, de funeribu^ Etruscorum^ 
de Velciorum familia, de Architectura Etrusca. Theae'are 
^i full of the most recondite leambng. * 

PASSEROTI (Bartholomew), an artist of Bdogna, was 
one of the pupils and assistants of Zuccari, and the first of 

} PllkiDgtQ]i««»ArgeDTille, vol. !•' f Pict. Bi8t.-ii»Saxu Ofiovittt. 



P A S S £ R O T L ISl 

Bologne$6 paknters who introduced naked torsoes in sacred 
suiojecte. The^most eminent ^ bis ahar-pieces are ti>e 
Decoilatioo of St. Paul alte Tre Fontane, at Rome» and at 
S. Giacoiao, of Boiogua^ our Lady with various Saifrts, 
painted in tompetition with the Caracci, and honoured bj 
tbeir praise. His Tityus, \vb«n exhibited to the public at 
Bologna, was by the Dilettanti mistaken for a work of 
Michael Angelo. But ko did not always husband his powers 
with equal diligence and refinemeiit^ hurried away by that 
frankness and facility of execution which debauched Cesari', 
whom he howiever excelled in correctness of design. In 
portrait, for character, digfiity, and proporiety of eotnpo- 
sitioa, he approached Titian himself, in the opinion of 
Guido. His power of drawing with the pen attracted 
Agbstitio Caracci to his s6ho6l^ who made it the guide of 
his line in engraving. He ciimposed a book on symmetry 
and anatomy, which may be considered as a commentary 
on his works. He had three sons of consider2d>le merit as 
artists. A sparrow, often- introduced in the works of Bar* 
tholomew, is an allusion to his name* He died in 1595.^ 

PASSIONEl (DOMIKICK), an Italian cardinal, famous 
rather as a patron of letters, than as a writer, and em*- 
ployed by the see of Rome in many important negooiations^ 
was bom at Fossombrone in the dtftchy of Urbino, in 1682. 
He studied in the Clementine college at Rome, where he 
afterwards formed that vast library and curious collectioH 
of manuscripts, from which the learned world has derived 
so much advantage* In 1706 he attended the nuncio GuaU 
terio, his relation, to Paris, where he formed an intimacy 
witli the most learned men of the time, and examined 
every thing that deserved attention. He was particularly 
intimate with Mabiilon, and Montfaucon. In 1708 he 
went into Holland, at first for the sak^s of lit^ary inquiries, 
but afterwards as a kind of secret agent for the pope at the 
Hague, where he resided four years, and attended the 
congress at Utrecht in 1712. On his return to Rome, he 
passed through Paris^ where he was most graciously and. 
honourably received by Louis XIV. who gave him bis 
portrait set with diamonds. He then proceeded to Turiu 
to accommodate some differences between the pope and 
the duke of Savoy ; and upon his return to Rome was de^ 
stared president of the apostolic ehamber. In the two 

^ PilkJDgto«» by FoselU 



182. >ASSIONEI. 

coDgressesatBale in 1714, and at Soleure in 1715, be was 
again employed, and strongly ennced bi^ zeal, talents, 
activity, prudence, and otber qualities of a great nego- 
tiator. His account of this embassy was published in 1738, 
in folio, under the title of ^^ Acta Legationis Helvetica^/* 
which may be considered as a model of conduct for persons 
employed in such services. Upon the accession of Cle- 
ment XII. he was sent as nuncio to. the court of Vienna, 
where he pronounced the funeral oration of prince Eugene. 
In the pontificate of Innocent XIII. which lasted from 1721 
to 1724, Passionei had been made archbishop of Ephesus ; 
lie continued in favour with the successors of that pope, 
Benedict XIIL and Clement XII. the latter of whom, in 
1738, raised him to the dignity of cardinal, having at the 
same time made him secretary of the briefs. Benedict 
XIV. in 1755 made him librarian of the Vatican, whicli 
he enriched by many important accessions; and in the same 
year he was admitted into the French academy, under the 
peculiar title of associ6 etranger. He died on the 15th of 
July, 1761, at the age of seventy-nine. 

Cardinal, Passionei did not write much besides the ar- 
ticles that have been already mentioned. He worked, in- 
deed, witb Fontanini, in revising the ^^ Liber diurnus Ro- 
manorum Pontificum,'' and produced a paraphrase on the 
nineteenth psalm, with a few more small pieces : but he 
was most illustrious for his enlightened knowledge of let- 
ters, and his judicious and liberal patronage of learned 
men and useful works ; an example but too little followed 
in the present age. He had one of the most valuable li- 
braries in Rome, composed of the best, the scarcest, and 
most remarkable books in all sciences, and in all languages, 
ancient and modern. He himself was the librarian, and 
did the honours of it in a manner the more satisfactory to. 
the learned, as no one was more able to second and extend 
their views on the subjects of their researches. *^ In this,^* 
says a Swedish traveller, " he was very different from the 
cardinals Davia, Gualterio, and Imperiali, all three also 
very rich in books. . The first was always readingj^ and 
never wrote; the second was always writing, and never 
read ; and the third neither read nor wrote." Cardinal 
Passionei's temper, however, was not equable, and Bene- 
dict XIV. delighted to put him in a rage, sometimes by 
taking away one of his books, and making him think it was 
lost, but more frequently, which was the greatest prove- 



P A S S I O N E I. l«8 

cation out cardinal could receivCi by introducing a wor|c 
written by a Jesuit. On one occasion when the pope did 
this, the cardinal opened the window, and threw the book 
with all his force into the square of Monte Cavallo. At 
this instant the pope appeared, and vouchsafed hioi his 
grand benediction. It is said, that by way of answer to 
this benediction, a certain gesture of the cardinal's put a 
stop to the pleasantry that the pope had promised himself 
from this scene. He most cordially hated the Jesuits ; and 
bad it depended on him, tl^eir society would have beea 
soon dissolved. On this subject and every other on which 
he entered with the pope Benedict, he spoke with the 
firmest independence, and the pope generally found it 
necessary in all disputes to yield to him. Let us not 
forget, however, that it was this cardinal who opened the 
treasures of the Vatican to Dr. Kennicott, in a very hand- 
some order signed by his name. This was at the time 
justly said to be an honour which no work relating to the 
Bible could boast of since the reformation. 

His nephew, Benedict Passionei, rendered an important 
service to the learned world by publishing at Lucca, in 
1763, '^ Inscrizioni antiche, con annotaz/' a folio volume, 
containing all the Greek and Latin inscriptions collected 
by the cardinal. His valuable collection of antique urns, 
bas-reliefs, and other works of art, was dispersed after his 
death. * 

PATEL, a celebrated painter, was a native of France ; 
but neither his Christian name, his age, nor the master 
under whom he studied, are known to the writers on these 
subjects. He has sometimes been called the French 
Claude, from his successful imitation of that master. In 
bis figures he is clearly superior to him. The forms of his 
trees are elegant and free, his scenery rich, and his build- 
ings and other objects designed in a very pleasing manner. 
His touch is light, yet firm ; bis colouring generally clear 
^nd natural. Two of his works have been engraved by 
Strange, and all of them prove that he studied nature with 
nice observation, and his choice from her productions was 
always agreeable. In France he is sometimes called, Patel 
le tue, or le ban Patel; and there was also a Patel le Jeune^ 
pf whom still less is known.' 

* Diet. Hist. — « Aoecdotes of Rome. &c, by a Swedish Traretler/' 1768, in 
«efit,MBg.vol, XXXVIII. 

* Pilkin^ton,— Strangers Catalogue. 



184 P A T E R C U L U S. 

PATERCULUS (Caius Velletits), an ancient Roman 
historian, who flourished in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, 
was born in the year of Rome 735. His ancestors were 
illustrious for their merit and their offices. His gi'and* 
father espoused the party of Tiberius Nero, the emperor^s 
father ; but being old and infirm, and not able to accom- 
pany Nero when he retired from Naples, he ran himself 
through with his sword. His father was a; soldier of rank, 
and Paterculus was a military tribune, when Caius Caesar, 
a grandson of Augustus, had an interview with the king of 
the Parthians, in an island of the river Euphrates, in the 
year 753. He commanded the cavalry in Germany utider 
Tiberius, 'and accompanied that prince for nine years* suc- 
cessively in all his expeditions. He received honourable 
rewards from him ; but wef do not find that he Was preferred 
to any higher dignity than the prsetorship. The praises he 
bestows upon Sejanus give some probability to the conjec- 
ture, that he was looked upon as a friend of this favourite; 
and, consequently, that he was involved in his ruin. His 
-death is placed by Dpdwell in the year 784, when he was 
in his fiftieth year. 

' He wrote "An Abridgment of the Roman History, in 
two Books," in which although his purpose was, to begin 
from the foundation of Rome to the time wherein he 
lived, we find in what remains of the^ beginning of his first 
book, some account of many cities more ancient than 
Rome. He promised a larger history, of which this is 
only an outline, and had opportunities to have acquired 
valuable materials, during bis military expeditions and tra« 
Tels. Even in the present work we have many par^culars 
related, that are no where else to be found. The style of 
Paterculus, although injured by the carelessness of tran- 
scribers, and impossible to be restored to purity for want 
of manuscripts, is yet manifestly worthy of an age, which 
produced his celebrated contemporaries Vifgil^ Sallust, 
Livy, &c. His manner of drawing characters is one of his 
chief merits ; yet he is condemned, and indeed with the 
greatest reason, for his partiality to the house of Augustus, 
and for his extravagant praise, not only of Tiberius, but 
even of his favourite Sejanus. 

Of Velleius Paterculus, as of Hesychius among the 
Greeks, one MS. only was discovered, called the codex 
Murbacensis, and even that is now lost. In it, says Ben^- 
lej, " the faults of the 9cribes are found so numerous, and 



PATERCULUS. t85 

the defects so beyond all redress, that, notwithstanding 
the pains of the learnedest and acutest critics for two whole 
centuries, these books still are, aird are like to continue, 
a mere heap of errors." No ancient author but Priscian 
makes mention of Paterculus : the moderns have done him 
infinitely more justice, and bav6 illustrated him with notes 
and commentaries. He was first published, from the ma- 
nuscript of Morbac, by Rhenanus, at Basil, in 1520, but 
under such circumstances, that this edition was considered 
as a spurious work. It was reprinted by Paul Manutius at 
Venice in 1571 ; afterwards by Lipsius, at Leyden, in 1581*: 
then by Gerard Vossi us, in 1639: next by Boeclerus, at 
Strasburg, in 1642: by Peter Burman, at Leyden, in ^719, 
in Svo: by Ruhnkenius, at Leyden, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo: 
and lastly, by Krausius, at Leipsic, 1 800, Svo. To the 
Oxfbrd edition, in 1693, Svo, were prefixed the •* An- 
nales Velleiani" of Dodwell, which shew deep learning, 
and a great knowledge of antiquity.* 

PATERSON (Samuel), a gendeman who deserves ho- 
nourable notice in the literary history of his country, was 
the son of a wool I en -draper in the parish of St. Paul, Co- 
vent-garden, and born March 17, 1728. He lost bis father 
when about the age of twelve years ; and his guardian not 
only neglected him, but involved his property in his own 
bankruptcy, and sent him to France. Having there ac- 
quired a knowledge of foreign literature and publications 
beyond any persons of his age, he resolved to engage in 
the importation of foreign books; and, when little more 
than twenty years old, opened a shop in the Strand : the 
only person who then carried on such a trade being Paul 
Vaillant. Though, by the mis-conduct of some who were 
•charged with his commissions in several parts of the conti- 
nent, it proved unsuccessful to the new adventurer, he 
continued in business till 1753, when he published Dr. 
•Pettingars ** Dissertation on the original of the Equestrian 
Figure of the George and ,of the Garter." At the same 
early period in which he engaged in business he had mar- 
Tied Miss Hamilton, a lady of the most respectable con- 
nexions in North Britain, still younger than himself, both 
-their ages together not making 38 years. He next com- 
. flieuced auctioneer in Essex-house. This period of hts 
life tended to develope completely those extraordinary 

, I VoMiai Qiit, lat,"r-Saiii OooMMt-HOibditt'* Clastic^. 



186 P A T E R S O N. 

talents in bibliography (a science hitherto so little attended 
to) which soon brought him into the notice of the literary 
world. The vahiable collection of MSS. belonging to the 
right hon. sir Julius Caesar, knt. judge of the Admiralty in 
the reign of queen Elizabeth, and, in the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I. chancellor and under-treasurer of the Ex- 
chequer, had fallen into the hands of some uninformed 
persons, and were on the point of being sold by weight to 
a cheesemonger, as waste paper, for the sum of ten pounds; 
3ome of them happened to be shewn to Mr. Paterson, who 
examined them, and instantly discovered their value. He 
then digested a masterly catalogue of the whole collection, 
and, distributing it in several thousands of the most singu- 
lar and interesting heads, caused them to be sold by auc- 
tion, which produced 356/.; and had among the purchasers 
the late lord Orford, and other persons of rank. These 
occurrences took place in 1757. 

The first person who attempted to give a sketch of 
universal bibliography and literary history was the learned 
and laborious Christopher-Augustus Hermann, professor 
in the university of Gdttingen, in the year 1718, when 
he published his well known work, '^ Conspectus Rei- 
publicae Literarise, sive Via ad Historiam Literariam ;'' 
which gradually went through seven editions, the l^t 
of which was published at Hanover, 1763. Numberless 
other Works, analogous to this, were published in th^ 
same interval, in Germany. About the period alluded 
to, many detailed, descriptive, and rational catalogues of 
books appeared in the several countries of Europe ; the 
art and the taste of constructing libraries becatme mor^ 
general than in any preceding age; and the only thing 
which appears worthy of remark, and rather unaccountable, 
is that, even after the progress of philosophy or bibliogra^ 
phy, the Germans, in this department, have excelled every 
other people in Europe. It is universally acknowledged, 
that the best work of the kind that ever appeared, about 
,that time, was the catalogue of the celebrated library of 
the count of Bunau, better known under the name of 
<^ Bibliotheca Bunaviana,!' so remarkable, indeed, for num- 
ber, selection, order, connexion, references, and universal 
inteirest. The only historical system of national literature, 
exhibited in Europe was that of the Italian, by Tiraboschi. 
Mr. Paterson supplied some important materials towards 
one among ourselves, in his ^^ Bibliotheca Anglica Curiosa^ 



P A T E R S O N. 18T 

1771/' He was an enemy to those systems of bibliogra* 
pby which are now generally practised on the continent ; 
and he set no importance even on the newly-established 
classification of the " Universal Repertory of Literature,*^ 
published at Jena. We hope, indeed, that those among 
the> readers themselves, who have happened to look at the 
above-mentioned catalogue, will not only coincide with 
our bibliographer's opinion, but will perhaps smile at see- 
ing all th^ branches of human knowledge confined in six- 
teen classes, and the last of them entitled ** Miscellaneous 
Works ;" the proper meaning of which words has a ten- 
dency to destroy the whole classification ! Mr. Paterson 
acted consistently with these ideas in all his bibliographical 
performances ; and it is owing to the merit of an appropri- 
ate, , circumstantial, and judicious classification, that his 
catalogues are unrivaled, and some of them are justly re- 
garded as models. We refer the readers to the catalogues 
themselves, and especially to the Bibliotheca Fleetwoodi- 
ana, Beauclerkiana, Croftsiana, Pinelliana, published from 
time to time, as well as to those of the Strange, Fagel, and 
Tyssen libraries, which he performed within the last two 
years of his life ; and they will perceive in each of them 
an admirable spirit of order, exhibited in different ways, 
and suggested by those superior abilities which alone can 
discover and appreciate these variable combinations of the 
several circumstances. 

A man so thoroughly conversant in the history of lite- 
rature could not fail to perceive that a vast number of 
books were held as valuable and scarce in £ngland, 
which were rathier common in other countries. He thought 
he could do his native country an essential service, and 
procure emolument for himself, if he should undertake 
a journey through some parts of the continent, and suc- 
ceed in purchasing some articles of this description. With 
this view he set out for the continent in the year 1776, and 
actually bought a capital collection of books, which, 6n 
his return to England, he digested in the catalogue (the 
best, perhaps, of his performances) that bears the title of 
" Bibliotheca Universalis Selecta." One of the most re- 
spectable booksellers of London bad been his fellow-travel- 
ler in that journey; and, being informed of bis design, 
and relying on his good sense and excellent ini^ention, 
offered him his friendly assistance. He lent him a thou- 
sand pounds, to be employed in an additional purchase 



1SS P A T E R S O N. 

of bookfiy in hopes that be might hare the moiiey re- 
turned to him when the speculation was carried into exe^ 
cution. Mr. Paterson, as usual, proved unsuccessful ; and 
ihe generous friend, sympathising in his misfortunes, never 
claimed the return of his loan! Mr. Paterson^s fame 
had come to the ears of the late marquis of Lansdown, who 
requested the learned bibliographer to arrange his elegant 
find valuable library, to compile a detailed catalogue of 
his books and manuscripts, and to accept, for the purpose, 
the place of his librarian, with a liberal salary. Mr. Pa- 
terson accordingly entered into the office of librarian, re- 
mained in it for some years, and perhaps expected to close 
bis life in the same station ; when, unfortunately, a mis- 
understanding took place between the noble lord and him^ 
by which he was obliged to withdraw. 

Mr. Paterson was a writer of some consideration, and 
from time to time indulged in several publications, to 
none of which he ever put his name. The first, in order 
of time, is, to our knowledge, "Another Traveller; or, 
Cursory Remarks made upon a Journey through Part 
of the Netherlands, by Coriat, jun. in 1766," in three 
volumes 12mo; the second is " The Joineriana : or, The 
Book of Scraps," in two volumes 8vp, 1772, consisting 
of philosophicat and literary aphorisms ; the third is 
** The Templar," a periodical paper, of which only four- 
teen numbers appear to have been published, and the last 
of thein in December 1773, intended as an attack on 
the newspapers for advertising ecclesiastical offices, and 
places of trust under government ; and the last is ** Spe- 
culations on Laiv and Lawyers," 1778, tending to evince 
the danger and impropriety of personal arrests for debt 
previous to any verification. At the pressing solicitations 
of his friends, he consented, as soon as the Fagel cata- 
logue was completed, to undertake some " Memoirs of the 
Vicissitudes of Literature in England during the latter 
Half of the Eighteenth Century;" of which it is not im- 
probable some materials may be found among his papers. 

Mr- Paterson died in his house in Ndrton-street, Fitzroy- 
isquare, on the 29th of October, 1802, in the 77tb year of 
his age ; and on the 4th of ^be subsequent November, he 
was buried in the parish-church of his birth, in Covent- 
garden. He was rather below the middle size, and thiii, 
but well proportioned, of philanthropic looks, sonorous 
voice, and unassuming and polite manners. His mordl 



PATERSON. 18* 

character was eminent^ and unexceptipoable, in every seos^ 
of the wore,!.* 

PATIN (Guy), a French physicUn, wit, and free-thinker, 
was born Aug. 3 1, 1601, ac Uodenc en Bray, a Tillage 
tiear Beauvais. He appears to have been at first a cor* 
rector of the press at Paris, and in that capacity was noticed 
by the celebrated Kiolan, who became his friend and ad- 
viser ; and Patii^ baying applied to the study of niedicinei 
acquitted himself so ably in all his academic trials, that he 
received the degree of doctor in the Paris school of medif 
cine in 16^7. In this city he began practice, but became 
iBore. noted for his wit and humour, both of the inost sar^ 
castic kind, whije he laid himself open to the wit of 
others by the pecuUarity^f bis opinions, by his censure 
of every thing modern, and his utter aversion to all iin« 
proveoiefM: in medicine* Notwithstanding these .singula- 
rities, his entertaining conversatioa procured him. acc^s to 
Qtany families of distinction ; and the president LamoignoQ 
ofteo diverted the cares of bis professional life by the sal-* 
ties and bon-motst of Patin. Patin was an excellent Latia 
scbiolar, and expressed hioiself with such elegance in that 
la&^«iage, that all Paria fiocked to his theses as to a comedy^ 
Some fancied be bad tbe air and countenance of Cicero,- 
^01 he won more upon them by having the disposition of 
Rabelais^ 

In 1650 be was chosen dean of tbe faculty of medicine^ 
and afterwards succeeded Riolaa^ the younger, in the pro* 
fessorship of medicine in the Royal-college, where he 
taught with great reputation. The disputes which took 
place in bis time respecting tbe use of antimony roused all 
his spleen, as he regarded this medicine ajs a poisoo,, and 
had even made out a list of patients, which he called the 
martyralogy of antimony. Great, however, was his naor« 
tification when, in 1666, a majority of the faculty decided 
to admit emetic wine into the list of prescriptions; He 
was quite inconsolable. 

Patin died iri 1672, with the character of a man of learn- 
ing. He had a good library, and knew books well, but his 
judgment was not equal to his erudition; he projected 
some works in his profession, particularly a history of cele- 
brated physicians, but executed little, except a life of 
Simon Pietre, which appears not to have beeo printed* 

1 Gent. Mag. 1802.-«Sk6toh of His Life by Mr. Dstmiani— and another hj 
Mr. Mortimer in European Mag. 1802. 



190 i» A r I N. 

I 

His memory is preserved by his ** Letters," publiiibed iff 
six vols. li2mOy a miscellany of literary history, criticism^ 
and satire, mixed with many of those loose opinions which 
have made some rank, him among the philosophers of 
France. His great consolation on his death-bed was that 
he should meet in. the other world with Aristotle, Plato^ 
Virgil, Galen, and Cicero. His " Letters" were long read 
with avidity, but are not to be relied on in point of fact. 
Every thing of that kind is disfigured by prejudice. Therel 
is a collection of his sayings among the ^^ Ana." ^ 

PATIN (Charles), son of the preceding, and an able 
physician and antiquary, was born at Parisi Feb. 23, 1633; 
He was educated with great care by his father, and made^ 
such surprizing progress in his studies, that at the. age of 
fourteen he defended Greek and Latin theses in philoso* 
phy, with the greatest applause in an assembly composed 
of thirty-four prelates, the pope's nuncio, and many other 
persons of distinction. Being intended for the bar, he 
completed his law studies^ and became an advocate in the 
parliament of Paris, but he soon relinquished this career 
for the study of medicine, which in his opinion promised 
greater advantages. He became afterwards a considerable 
practitiouer, and a teacher of reputation in the medical 
school of Paris, where he took his doctor's degree in 1656 ^ 
but was about this time obliged to leave France for fear of 
imprisonment. The cause of this is variously related, but 
the most probable account is, that he had been in some 
way accessary to the circulation of certain libels which 
drew upon him the resentment of the court. 

He then visited Germany, Holland, England, Swisser-* 
land, and Italy, and finally settled at Padua, where he was, 
in Sept. 1676, appointed professor extraordinary, in 1681 
first professor of chemistry, and in* 1663, professor of the 
practice of physic. In all these appointments he acquitted 
himself with such credit and ability, that the Venetian 
state honoured him with knighthood of the order of St. 
Mark ; the academy ^^ naturae curiosorum" also admitted 
him a member, under the titled of Galen I., and he was a 
long time chief director of tlie academy of the Ricovrati. 
He died at Padua Oct. 2, 1693. He was a man of exten* 
sive learning, and a voluminous writer both iu Latin^ 
Jrench, and Italian. 

1 Eloy, Diet, mit de Mediciae. 



? A T I N. 191 

' Such of his works as relate to medicine are only inau- 
gtiral orations ; hut those by which he is best known, relate 
to the medaliic science, in which he was a great proficient. 
These are, 1. ^* Familiae Romans ex antiqais numismatic 
bus ab urbe condita ad tempora D. Augusti," 1663, folio. 
This is chiefly founded on the work of Fulvius Ursinus. 
2. '< Introduction a 1' Histoire par la Connoissance des Me- 
dailies,'* 1665, 12mo. 3. <* Imperatorum Romanorum 
Numismata,'' 1671, folio. 4. " Thesaurus Numismatum,'* 
1672, 4to. 5. "Practica delle Medaglie," 1673, 12mo. 
6. ^' Suetonius ex Numismatibus illustratus,'* 1675, 4to,'^ 
and some other pieces. He published also the lives of the 
professors of Padua, with the title of ^' Lyceeum Patavi- 
Bum, sive Icones et Vits Professorum Patavi, anno 1682, 
docentium,'' Pat. 1682, 4to. His wife and two daughters 
were learned women, and members of the Academy of Ri- 
covrati at Padua, in which they distinguished themselves. 
Charlotte-Catherine, the eldest daughter, pronounced a 
Latin oration on the raising of the siege of Vienna, and 
published ^' Tabellee Selects," which contained an expla- 
nation of forty-one engravings from the most celebrated 
painters. Gabrielle-Charlotte, the youngest daughter, 
published a panegyrical oration on Louis XIV., and a La- 
tin dissertation on the phcenix on a medal of Caracalla, Ve- 
nice, 1683. His wife was author of a collection of moral 
and Christian reflections. ' 

PATRICK (Simon), a learned English prelate, suc- 
cessively bishop of Chichester and Ely, was born at Gains- 
borough in Lincolnshire, Sept 8, 1626. His father was a 
mercer of good credit in that place, and sent him to a 
school, with a view to alearned education, which was kept 
by one Merry weather, a good Latin scholar, and the trans-> 
lator of sir Thomas Browne's *^ Religio Medici.'* In 1644, 
June 25, he was admitted as a sizar of Queen's college, 
Cambridge, and was elected fellow March 1, 1648. He 
took the degree of B. A. in 1647 ; that of M. A. in 1651 ; 
and that of B. D. in 1658. Previous to this period he 
received holy orders from the celebrated Dr. Hall, bishop 
of Norwich, then ejected from his bishopric by the usurp- 
ing powers, and living at Higham. This was probably about 
1651, as in 1652 Mr. Patrick preached a sermon at the fu^ 

serai of Mr. John Smith, of Queen's college, who died 

t .   

> Eloy, Diet, Hi8t, de Medicine.— den. Dict^ 



•• 



193 PATRICK. 

Aug. 7/16^52, and was buried in the chapel of that collegtf^ 
He was soon after taken as chaplain inta the family of sit 
Walter St. John of fiattersea, who gave him that living in 
1656. This vacated his fellowship, and the same year 
he took his degree of bachelor of divinity, and published 
his first work (if we except the funeral -sermon above men-* 
tioned), entitled '^ Mensa Mystica: or a Discourse eon«» 
teeming the Sacrament of tFw Lord's Supper ; to which is. 
added, a Discourse concerning Baptism,,'' Land. 8vo. In 
^tbe following year he published " The Heart's Ease, or a 
remedy against all troubles ; with a consolatory discourse,, 
particularly directed to those who have lost Uieir friends 
and dear relations," ibid. 1659, 12mo^ this went through 
many editions. In 1660 appeared " Jewish hypocrisy ; a 
caveat to the present generation," &c. 
. In 1661, he was elected, by a majority of the fellows, 
master of Queen's college, in opposition to a royal man- 
damus, appointing Mr. Anthony Sparrow for that place; 
but the affair being brought before the king and CQuncil| 
was soon decided in favour of Mr. Sparrow; and ^om^ o£ 
the fellows, if not all, whp bad sided with Patrick, were 
ejected. His next preferment was the rectory of St. Paul's^ 
Covent- Garden, LondoU) in room of the celebrated non- 
conformist. Dr. Manton. Tbis was given him by Williamr 
^arl of Bedford, in 1662, He endeared himself much t(> 
the parishioners by instruction and example, and parti- 
cularly by continuing all the while among them during 
the plague in 1665. It is said further, that, oat of a spe^ 
^ial regard to them, he refused the archdeaconry of Hun-< 
tingdoa. His rem^aiding in London, however, during the 
plague was an instance of pio.us heroisya which ought not 
to be slightly passed over. He was not indeed the on.ly 
clergyman who remained at hi^ po»t on this occasion ; but 
their number was not great. We s;hall now prdsent qur 
readers with a few extracts from some letters which ha 
wrote to his friends who importuned htm to leave Lon« 
don, as they give a nvore faithful and pleasing picture 
of his real character than is elsewhere to be found. 

In one of them, dated Sept. 9, 1665, be says, *^ I S0p« 
pose you think I intend to stay here still : though I un* 
-derstand by your question, you would not have me. But^ 
loy friend, what am I better, than another.? Somebody 
must be here ; and is it^ fit I should set such a value upon 
myself as my going away, and leaving unotheri will sig- 



Ak 



PATRICK. J» 

tify^ For it will, io eflpect, be to say, that t am too good 
IQ be io8it ; but it is no matter it another be. Truly^ I do 
pot think myself so considerable to the world : and though 
pay friends ^et a great price upon me» yet that temptation 
hath uot yet made me of their mind : and I know their 
love makes me passe for more with them than I am worth. 
Wh^n I mention that word, love, I confess, it moves me 
much, and I have a great passion for them, and Wish X 
fBigbt live to embrace them odce again ; but I most not 
take any undue courses to satisfy this passion, which i!i 
but too strong in me. I must let reason prevaile, and stay 
with my charge, which I take hitherto to be my duty, whatr 
ever come. I cannot tell what good we do their souls : 
though I preach to those who are well, and write to those 
who ^re ill (I mean, print little papers for them, which yet 
are too big %o send you by the post) : but I am sure, 
while I stay here, I shall do good to their bodies; and, 
perhaps, save some from perishing; which I look upon ais 
A considerable end of my continuing. •My dear friend, do 
not take it ill, that I cannot comply with your desires ia 
this thing : you see what sways me, and I know you will 
yeild to it, and say, it ought to be stronger than the love 
of you. If you can convince me, that I may, with a good 
conscience, go, you may think it will be acceptable ; bul; 
I know DQt upoQ what grounds you will make it good. Try^ 
if you have a mind.'' 

Ill another letter, dated Sept. 21, he resumes the sub- 
ject of the former, " My deare friend, I must tell you, 
for you will heare it from other hands, that the plague is 
again increased, as I suspected it would, according ad 
you would understand by my last. Our only comfort is^ 
that we are in the hands of God, and not in the bands df 
men ; for his mercies are very great, I am very joyfull to 
heare at last, that you bend your thoughts to resign me 
up to God. I hope it will make your life inore happy, 
whether I die or live. . You do not trouble me by your 
instances to leave this place, because I think most of yoiir 
love, which is conspicuous therein : and I should have re** 
fleeted ds much without these intreaties of yours, upon 
the desirableness of seeing my friends once more, who, I 
think, I may truly say, have fasten hold of me than anjf 
thing in this world. But if God will ))ull me from them, 
his will be done! I ought to esteem him^my best frit-nd, 
who doth not envy to me any other, apd will spare my Ufi^» 

Vol. XXIV. O 



lU JP A T R 1 C It 

iinless it be l)etter for me to die. To him I stilt refern^ 
myself, which I call trusting in God, (as you would hare 
veene^ if ft had been fit, before this time : but I doubt 
you will be afraid to receive papers printed in London) t 
but It is not to accomplish )ei martyrdome, as you call ii 
(that 's too high a name); but to do a little service to my 
neighbors^ who I think would not be so well if I was not 
here.** 

One more extract will not be thought uninrterestingr 
<< There are people who rely opon pitiful things as certain 
tokens of its (the plague's) going away shortly. I have 
been totd, more than once, of the falling ont of the clap^ 
per of the great bell at Westminster, which, they sayv 
it did before the great plague ended ; and this they take 
>for a very comfortable sign. Others speak of the dawei 
0iore frequenting the pallace and abbey, which, if true> 
is a better sign, supposing the aire to have been infected^ 
'For the bookes I read tell mee, that the goeinge away of 
birds is the forerunner of the plague, and that one shaU 
see few in a plague-year. The death of birds in houses 
where they are caged, ordinarily preceeds the death of 
the inhabitants ; for these aiery creatures feel the alteration 
in that element sooner than wee. Thus you see how de^ 
sirous all are for some token for good, and how they catch 
at the smallest shadows for it. But the best sign of all, I 
doubt, is much wanting: and that is, the reformation of 
•men's manners ; of which I^heare little, unless that those 
come to church who did not before. I think often of a 
saying in the second book of Esdras, wJhich describes the 
•temper of the world exactly, chap. xvi. 19, 20. A sad 
thing that the event of these judgments proves no better; 
but so it commonly falls out, and men soon forget both 
their smart, and also the good resolutions which it formed. 
I hop^e, my friend, the hand of God will not be without 
its instruction to us, and that we shall be careful, if he l6t 
tis live, to improve it as we ought. I cannot but acknp\r* 
ledge a great wisdom, as well as justice, in this restraint 
-which I now suffer; and therefore I thankfully accept jt, 
and intreat you to assist me with your prayers, that I may 
1>oth understand the meaning of it, and likewise make 
the right use which God intends. I must ever also acknoww 
ledge a wonderful kindnesse of God to me, mixed with this ; 
for It^m well and cbearful to my admiratioii and 'asti(>n]sli^ 
went, when I seriously think ofJt.!' '• ^ .f 



-P A T R I C K* 19* 

• Two of the papers mentioned in the above letters, wjxich 
lie circulated during the plague^ » wiere printed in the latter 
editions of his *^ Hearths Ease." Having some reason to 
.be offended with the treatment he met with at Cambridge, 
he went. to Oxford for bis degrees in divinity; and enter- 
ing himself of Christ-church, was incorporated B. D. and 
completed bis doctor's degree in 1666, about which time 
he was made| chaplain in ordinary to the king. In 1668 
he published his " Parable of the Pilgrim," 4to, which 
some have thought the precursor of Bunyan's more popu* 
lar work ; but the di^erence is too strikingly marked in the 
reception these two " Pilgrims" have met with to admit 
of any comparison, or detract from the genius that pre- 
dominates in the humble tinker's performance. This was 
followed by tir. Patrick's " Exposition of the Ten Com-> 
Inandments," 1668, 8vo, and by a controversial work of 
some importance, printed the following year, with the 
title " A friendly debate betwixt two Neighbours, the one 
9L conformist, the* other a non^conformist, about several 
weighty matters^ Published for the benefit of this city. By 
^ lover of it, and of pure religion." This consisted of twp 
iparts^ to which a third was added in 1670, and was an- 
swered by some of the non-conformist writers, who were; 
inuch exasperated at it^. 

* Harris, the Writer of the Life of y^ars ; hut th&t he had lived Ion|^ 
"Di, Mantoa the fion«confonni8t, flays, enough to see reason to alter his opl> 
that " it has been generally allowed, nion of that people, and that way of 
that Dr. Patrick wrote the first volume^ writing ; and that he was verily per* 
'Of the * Friendly Debate,' in the heat , suaded there were some, who were ho- 
of his youth, and in the midst of his nest men, atid good Christians, who 
expectations ; which by aggravating would b^e neither, if they did not ordi« 
^me weak and undautiods expressions narily gb to church and sonietimes to 
in a few particular writers, designed to the meeting; and on the other bari^^ 
«xp08« the noQ-confbrmist ministry to some were honest men and good Chris- 
<»ntempt and ridicule. The design was tiahs, who would be neither, if they^ 
afterwards carried on by a worse hand did not ordinarily go to the meet* 
..(bishop Parker), and with a more yiru- ings, and sometimes to the church.' A 
lent spirit: a method altogether un- rare instance this of retractation and 
reasonable and unworthy, because it moderation, which, I think, redounds 
will be always easy to gather rash and greatly to bis honour, and is wurtby 
unadvised expressions firom the weaker of imitation." This was, bovver, 
persons of any party of men$ and only viewed in a dtflerent light by Wharton, 
serves to expose religion to the scorn who i^ his MS notes, says, i>r. Pv 
and contempt of the profane. But bi- trick ** was a person of great leaminj^ 
shop Patrick, in his advanced age, and and reputation, for goixtness and wit- 
in a public debate in the House of dom, before he was made bishop ; but 
Iiords abbnt the Occasional Bill, took . after that, he losthi^ reputation through 
Ihe opportunity to declare himself to impndent management, openly &• 
this purpose ; * Hiat he bad been vouring the dissenters, an^ employifi|f 
known to write against the Dissenters none bnt such*" 
with seg^e warmth ia liis younger 

O 2 



IQB PATRICK. 

Dr. Patrick's next publication, of the more ptacticsd 
kind, was his " Christian Sacrifice; a tt-eatise showing the 
necessity, end, and manner of receiving the rioly Commur 
liion, &c.'* 1671, 8vo. This was followed by his " Devout 
Christian,*' a book of forms of prayer, 1672; >* Advice 
to a Friend," 1677, 12mo; "Jesus and the Resurrectioh 
Justified by witnesses in Heaven and Earth,** 1677, 8vo ; 
**The Glorious Epiphany,*' 1674, 8vo; a translation cf 
Grotius, " De Veritate,'* 16^0, 8vo; and various 'piou)^ 
tracts of the popular kind, published from this date to 
1703, and a considerable number of occasional sertnobs. ^ 

In the interim, in July 1672 he was made pi'ebendarjr 
of Westminster, and dean of Peterborough in Atig. 167i?. 
Here he completed the ** History of thd Church of Petet* 
borough,'* which had been coulpiled by Simon Gunton'^ 
who was a native and prebendary of Peterborough. Guh- 
toh died in 1676; and Patrick published, in 1686, hik 
inanuscript in folio, with a large "Supplement," from 
page 225 to 332, containing a fuller aCcoutit 6( the abbots 
and bishops of Peterborough, than had been given by 
Gunton. In 1680, the lord-chancellor Fin<Jh offered hiih 
the living of St. Martin's in the Fields; but be refused it, 
"and recommended Dr. Thomas Tenison. fn 1682, "DK 
Lewis de Moulin, who had been * history-professor at O:^-^ 
ford, and had written much against the church of England, 
tent for Patrick upon his death-bed^ and solemnly dcf- 
xlared, before l3r. Burnet also, his regret tipon that ac- 
count ; which declaration being signed, was published after 
lis death. - • 

During the reign of James II. t)r. Patrie^L ftras one of 
those able champions, who defended the proteslant reii- 
igion against the designs of the court, ail'd published som% 
pieces, which were afterwards reprinted in the coUeetion of 
:" Controversial Tracts," 3 vols. fol. ButhiifiAdst rematif- 
able service in this way was his conference with twp 
Romish priests, of which we have the followttrg accoui6t': 
'** 0reat endeavours were used to bring Laurence Hy<Jfe, 
earl of Rochester, lord high treasurer in king Jameses 
yeign, ^o embrace popery ; but in vain. At length hi« loi*d- 
fhip being pressed and fatigued by the king^ intreatiey, 
told his majesty, that to let him^ee it was not tlii'ougb an% 
rejudice of education, or obstinacy, that lie persevere<J in 
is religion, be would freely consent to bear some protec- 
tant divines dispute with some popish priests, ^nd prd«« 



« 



PATRICK. 19T 

ipbed to side with the conquerors. On this the king ap- 
Ipointed a cpnfference to be held at Whitehall, at which hii 
ftiaj^stjr and se?eral persons of rank were present. Th§ 
fliptjsstAnt champions were Dr. Patrick and Dr. Willian) 
J[^Re,.ithe two chaplains then in waiting. Those on th^ 
popisli side were GifFord, a doctor of the^Sorbonne, pro* 
babl^ the same ^yhom king James wished to obtrude upogi 
Magdat/fn- college, a^id a Mr. Tilden, who, having turne4 
jlStpi^t at Lisbon, went by the name of Dr. Godden. Th^ 
fll^ject o^ tbjeir dispute was the ^ rule of faith,' and * th^ 
proper judge iacontrpyersies.* The conference was ver^r 
iQOg ; Md at last t^e Ropnish doctors were pressed with s9 
tQu^h strength of reason and authority 'against them, that 
they were really put to silence. 0,n this the earl of Ro- 
chester declared ^ that the victory the protestant divines 
Jpad gained made no alteration in his mind, being before- 
i^apd co.|iv^a<ced of the truth of his religion, and firmly rer 
Italved never to forsake it.* The king, going off abruptly^ 
Sv^ heard t0 say, he never saw a bad cause so well, nor ^ 
^ood on^ SQ ill maintained." , 

^ Such .is the account given of this debate by Kennet in 
^ VCompl^lie Ijiisjtory of England :" bishop Burnet*s aci- 
pp^njt. is somewhat different He says, *^ That the king 
^j^siried of the earl, he wpuld suffer himself to be instructed 
ff^ teji^ifi^. He answered, he was fully satisfied about hi$ 
f^ljglon; but, \ipon the king's pressing it that he jwould 
ikear his priests, he said l^e desired then to have some qf 
ijlie £nglish clergy pXi^stent, to which the king consented ; 
D^ly ih(e ^xc^pted to JiHotson ^nd.Stillingfleet.. Lord Ro'^ 
<?hester said be would take those who should happen to bp 
^ waiting ; for the forms of the chapel w^re still kept up. 
i^nd Drs, Patrick and Jane w^re the men.'* " Patrick,'* 
Jidds Burqet, '^ told, me, that at the conference there was 
j}0 occasion lor them to say much. The priests began the 
attack. And when they had done, the earl said, if they 
tod i^iothiag stifonger to urge, be would not trouble those 
jyearsi^d gentjleme^i to say any thing ; for he was sure he 
iKM^td anaw^ all ,that he had heard. And so SLiiswered all 
;fli|h<m^h he9,t a^d spirit, ,not without some scorn, saying, 
dJKer^ibe^e grounds to persiuade men to chapge their reli-' 
l^ion^? This be \irg<ed over and over again with great vehe- 
jUieiM^e. T4>e king, seeing in wh^ temper he was, broke 
#ff the c^nf^rence, charging all that w^e present to say 
fiJ^pg of it.'* 



l9S PATRICK* 

' The ting had often taken pains to gain tfftr Patrick^ 
isent for biniy treated him kindly, desired him to abate biti 
zeal against his church, and quietly enjoy his own religion t 
but the dean replied, with proper courage, **That he 
tcould not give up a religion so well proved as that of the 
Protestants." Conforniably to this principle, he opposed 
the reading of his majesty's declaration for liberty of con-^ 
science ; and assisted Dr. Tenison in setting up a school 
)at St. Martin's, in opposition to the popish one, opened ill 
the Savoy, in order to seduce the youth. of the town i^nto 
popery ; and this was the origin of the ward and parish 
schools of London. He bad also a great share in the cooi^ 
prehension projected by archbishop Sancroft, in order t<l 
bring over the dissenters, which, it is well known, was \xfkm 
successful. * 

' At the Revolution in 1688, great use was tnade of the 
dean, who was very active in settling the affairs of the 
church : he was called upon to preach before the prince 
^nd princess of Orange; and was soon after appointed one 
of the commissioners for the review of the liturgy. H0 
\vas thought to have excellent talents for devotional com*? 
position, and his part now was. to revise the collects of the 
whole year, in which he introduced some amendments und 
improvements of style^ In October 1689, he was made 
bishop of Chichester ; and employed, with others of the 
new bishops, to compose the disorders of the church of 
Ireland. In July 1691, he was translated to the see c^ 
Ely, in thp room of Turner, who was deprived for refusr 
ing. the oaths to government. Here he continued to per«<- 
form all the offices of a good bishop, as well as a good man^ 
which he had' ever proved himself on all occasions, - He 
died at Ely, May 31, 1707, aged eighty; and was interre4 
in the cathedral, where a moiiumefit is erected to his me* 
Ipoioryi^ with an inscription said to have been written by Dev 
Leng^ afterwai^ds bishop of Norwich* 

This prelate was one of the most learned men as well e$ 
best writers of his time* We have noticed his principal 
■writings, but have still to add his ^^ Paraphrases'^ and dom*^ 
mentaries upon the Old Testament, as far as the prophets,; 
which are the result of extensive reading, and perhaps tbei 
most tiseful of any ever written in the English language 
They were published at various times, <but reprinted in 
^ vols, folio; and, with Lowth oa the Rropbets, Arnald oa 
|be Apocrypha, and Whitby on the New TesitameQt^ bav^ 



PATRICK. W9 

%een ^pubUsbedt, in folioi and very recently in 4t6, a$ ^ 
regular commentary upon all ibe sacred books. The ^tyle 
of this prelate is even and easy, bis compositions rational, 
iand full of good and sound sense. Burnet ranks him. 
among those many .^vorthy and eminent clergymen in this 
laation, who deserved a high character; and were indeeci 
an hodour to the church, and to the age in. which they 
lived*. 

; Our prelate bad a brother John Patrick, preacher at the 
Charter»house, according to Wharton, aud one of the trans- 
lators of Plutarch* Dr. Samuel Patrick, the editor of an 
edition of Ainsworth's Pictionary was also at ibe Charter- 
kouse, but whether a relation does not. appear. Wharton^ 
also says he had a son, who wasted an estate left him by bis 
father, and it was sold,' after his death, *^ for debts and 
portions." Mrs. Catherine Patrick, a maiden lady of eighty <• 
two years old, said to be oijr prelate's grand-daughter, died 
At Bury in 1792. Wbtstoa speaks of a life of bishop Patrick, 
written by himself, which he had read, and which was in 
Dr. Knight's hands, but where now, is not known. ^ 

PATRIX (Peter), a French minor poet, was born at 
Caen in 1585, and being the son of a lawyer, was designed 
by his father for the same profession. This destination, 
which seldom suits a poetical imagination, was accordingly 
rejected by Patrix, who addicted himself entirely to poetry, 
^bont the age of forty, he attached himself to the court of 
Gaston, duke of Orleans, to whom, and to his widow^ 
Margaret of Lorraine, he faithfully devoted *his services, 
A Norman accent, and a certain affectation of rustic sim<7 
pHcity, did not prevent him from being in high f^.vour at 
jtbat little court: his wit, liveliness, and social talent| 
snaking amends for such imperfections. Towards the latter 
«nd oif life, he became strongly touched with sentiments of 
religion, and suppressed, as far as hie could, the licentious 
poems which bjC had written in his youth. H^ lived to th0 
great age of eighty rejght, and died at Paris in 1672. At 
^g;hty, he had a violent illness, and when he recovered 
from it, bis friends advised bim to leave his bed ; ^^ Alas V* 
said he, " ajt my time of life, it is hardly worth while to 
jtake the trouble of dressing myself again.^' He proved 
Jiowisver jaaistaken, as to the shortness of his subsequent 

* Biog. Brit— Gfeq. Diet. — ^Buraet*^ Own Times.— Whision's Meinoir8.-^R»- 
•titata, Tol. i. p. 56,<^Birch'8 I^fe of Tiilotson.— Cole's MiS Atheaa in Britiel 



too P A T R I X. 

life. Of bis works there are extant, 1. A eoUectioti of 
verses entitled *^ La misericorde de Diea sur on pecbeor 
p6niient,'* Blois, 1660, 4to. These were written in his 
stge, yet possess some fire. 2. ** Plaiiiu des Consonnes 
^ui n'ont pas Thonneur d^entrer dlaifis le nom de Neufger* 
main,'' preserved in the woriis of Voiture. S. Misceilane-* 
ous paems, in the collection of Barbin» ^ The greater patt 
of them are feeble, with the exception of a few original 
passages. The poem most known was made a few days 
before bis deatb. It is called the Dream ; and, though it 
is of a serious cast, a translation of it, oddly enough, po$*- 
sesses a place in all our English jest books, beginning, <* I 
dreamt tbat buried in my fellow-clay,*' &c. It asserts a 
inoral and religious axiom, which is undeniable, tbat death 
levels all conditions. The original is little known ; it ik 
this : 

Je songeois cette nuit que, de mal consume, 

C6te k c6te d'un Pkuvre on m*avait inhum^^ 

£t que n*en pouvant pas soui&ir le voisinage^ 

En mort de quality je lul tins ce langage : 

'' Retire toi> coquin ! va pourrir loin d'ici, 

II ne t'appartient pas de m*approcher ainsi.'* 

** Coquin!" me dit il> d*une arrogance extreme, 

*' Va chercher tes coquinsiailleurs, coquin toi-m^me ! 

Ici tous sont egauxj je ne te dois plus rien $ 

Je suis sur mon famier« comme toi sur le tien.'* ' 

PATRIZI (Francis, or Patricius), a platonic pbiloso*^ 
pber and man of letters, was born, in 1529, at Clissa in 
Illyricum, and was educated at Padua. In 1553 he began 
to appear as an author by some miscellaneous Italian tracts. 
In 1537, with the view of obtaining the patronage -of the 
duke of Ferrara, he published a panegyrical poem on tlie 
house of Este, entitled "L'Eridano," in a novel kind of 
heroic verse of thirteen syllables. After this, for several 
years, he passed an unsettled kind of life, in which he 
twice visited, the isle of .Cyprus, where he took up his 
abode for seven years, and which be finally quitted on liil 
reduction by the Turks in 1571. He also travelled intb 
France and Spain, and spent three years in the httdr 
jcoiintry, collecting a treasure of ancient Greek MSS, 
which he lost on his return to Italy. In 1578 be was irtm 
vited to Ferrara by duke Alptionso 11. to teach philosophy 
in the university of that city. Afterwards^ upon the 9bc^ 

i l^icerwh TQi. iP^lV.-T-Moreri,— Ptct. Bist/ 



P .A T R I Z I. SOI 

^essson of CSetnent VIII. to the popedom^ he was appointed 
public profesior of the Platonic philosophy at Rome,: an 
effice which be held with high reputation till his death, m 
1597. He professed to unite the doctrines of Amtotle and 
Plato, but in reality undermined the authority of the for«> 
met. He wholly deserted the obscurity of the Jewish 
Cabbala, and in teaching philosophy closely followed the 
ancient Greek writers. During his lecturing at Rome, be 
more openly discovered his av^sion to the Aristotelian 
philosophy, and advised the pope to prohibit the teaching 
of it in the schools, and to introduce the doctrine of Ptatb^ 
as more consonant to the Christian faith. His ^' Discus*- 
■iones Peripatetiess,'* a learned, perspicuous, and elegant 
«vork, fully explains the reason on which his disapprobation 
cf the Peripatietic philosophy was founded. He was one of 
the first of the moderns who attentively observed the pheno- 
mena of nature, and be made use of every opportunity, 
that bis travels afforded him, for collecting remarks con- 
cerning various points of astronomy, meteorology, and 
natural history. In one of his ^* Dialogues on Rhetoric,** 
he advanced, under the fiction of an Ethiopic tradition, a 
theory of the earth which some have thought similar to 
that afterwards proposed by Dr. Thomas Burnet. His 
other principal works were, "Nova Geometria," 1587; 
*' Parallel! Milikari," 1594, both of which are full of whim- 
aical theories ; and an elaborate edition of *> Oracula Zo- 
Toastris, Hermetis Trismegisti, et aliorum ex scriptis Pla- 
tonicorum collecta, Orece et Latine, prehxa Dissertatione 
fiistorica/' 1591.' 

PA.TRU (Oliver), a polite scholar, and memorable for 
being one of the first polishers and refiners of the French, 
language, was born in 1604 at Paris, where bis father was 
procurator to the parliament. After studying the law, and 
peing received an advocate, he went into Italy ; and, on 
bis retarn to Paris, frequented the bar. *^ He was the 
fitrst,** says Voltaire, '^ who introduced correctness and 
^rity of language in pleadings.*' He obtained the repu- 
taftion of a tnost exact speaker and excellent writer, and 
Wsts esteemed so perfectly knowing in grammar and in hit 
Wn language, that all his decisions were submitted to aa 
foracles.- Vaiigelas, the famous grammarian, to whom tb^ 
.French language was greatly indebted^ for much ofJtU 

^ Gen. Dist.—'Liadi Hist, I<itk. 4^ti|He.--BnidMr^*-4Kaes's Cyofc^eduu 



lOJ F A T B IT. 

* 

perfection, confesses that be learned much from Palm i 
and Boileau applied to him to review his works, and usei) 
to profit by bis opinion. Patru was an extremely rigid 
censor, though just; and when Racine made some obser* 
Nations upon the works of JBoileau a little too subtle and 
fefined, Boileau, instead of the Latin proverb, <^ Ne sia 
mihi patruus,*' '* Do not treat me with the severity of an 
sincle,'' replied^ ^' Ne sis mihi Patru,'* '* Do not tr^t me 
)with the severity of Patru*'* 

.' Satra was in his personal character honest, generous^ 

#incere^; and preserved a gaiety of temper which no advert 

•i^ty could affect: for this famous advocate, in spite of all 

his talents, lived almost in a state of indigence. -The love 

of ,t.b^ belles lettres made him neglect the law * and thja 

barren glory of being an oracle to the best French writers 

■had more charms for him, than all the profits of the bas^ 

Henqe be became so poor, as to be reduced to the neces« 

^ity of selling his books, which seemed dearer to him tfaaa 

hh life ; and would actually have sold them for au under? 

jirice^ if Boileau had not generously advanced him a larger 

jaum> with this further privilege, that he should have th^ 

(Use of them as long as be livedo. His death was preceded 

^y a tedious illness, during which he received a present of 

iive hundred crowns .from the statesman Colbert, as a 

4»ark of the esteem which the king bad for him. He died 

Jan. 16, 1681. He had been elected a member of tb^^ 

French academy in 1640, by the interest of cardinsd Hiche*- 

lieu, and made a speech of thanks on bis reception, with 

which the academicians were so much pleased, as to order 

*tbat' every vevt member should in future make one of a 

similar kind on being admitted; and this rule has been oh* 

served ever since. When At. Conrart, a member of th# 

JFrench academy died, one of the first noblemen at court^ 

ibut whose miiKl was very moderately cultivated^ having 

ipfFered. for the vacant place, Patru ppened the me^tin^ 

■mth the following apologue; ^^ Gentlemen, an ancient 

4j^recian, had an admirable Lyre; a string broke, but m^ 

vtead of replacing it with one of catgut, he ^ould h^veit 

silver one, and the Lyre with its silver string was no longer 

Jiavmonious," The fastidious care with which he retouched 

fuid finished eyery thing he wrote, 4i4 Mt permit him t^ 

, • . ; •. . ' : .  ■' ti 

* This act of generosity was dramatised at Paris in 1802, In a piece entitled 
** La BiJ>lioth«au«. de Patri^,*? in which Boileau is made tft |iye ;3Q^0QO liTI^ ^^ 
Mie libr^'r^/wlucii really cbsl; him only 40QQ, 



PAT R U. «0» 

fitiblish muofa.' His niMcelianeoiis works were printed at 
Pms in 1670,. 4to; the third edition of whichy in 1714^ 
was augmented with several pieces. They <*onsist of 
f* Pleadings," *^ Orations," "Letters," << Lives of sooie of 
bis Friends," <^ Remarks upon the French Language," &o; 
^ very ingenious tract by. him was published at Paris in 
^651, 4to, with this title, " Reponse du Cur6 a la Lettm 
4u Marguillier sur la conduite de M. le Coadjateun"^ » 
: PATTEN. See WAYNFLETE. 
. PATTISON (William), an yn fortunate poet, was bom 
«tt Peasmarsb, in the county of Sussex, in 1706, and wa* 
the son of a farmer at that place, who rented a consider* 
able estate of the earl of Thanet. He discovered excellent 
parts, with a strong propensity to learning ; and his father, 
iiot being in circumstances to give' him a proper educatioi^ 
applied to his noble Jandlord, who took him under bis pro« 
lection, and placed him at Appleby school- in Westmore* 
land» Here he became acquainted with Mr. Noble, a cier* 
gyman of great learning and fine taste, who promoted hig 
«$tudiea and directed his taste. Mp^o his leaving Appleby^ 
he went to Sidney college in Cambridge, where he pura* 
3$ued the plan Mr. Noble had given him, and went through 
the classics, as well as ail our English poets, with great 
iadvantage. Of these last, Spenser*!* <* Fairy Queen" and 
Brown's *< Britannia's Pastorals^' are said to have given him 
4he greatest delight. He had, however, unfortunately 
contracted a habit of desultory reading, and bad no relish 
lor academical studies. His temper could not brook rem 
-^traint; and his tutor, be thought, treated him with great 
^ Tigour. A quan^el ensued ; and, to avoid the scandal .of 
expulsion, with which he was threatened, be tQok histiame 
out of the college book, and went to London* Even now 
}ii$ friends would have forgiven him, and procured bis re^ 
admission ; but the ple!asures of the town, the desire of 
peing known^ and his romantic expectations of meeting 
««vith some generous patron to reward his merit, rendered 
iiim: deaf to all advice. He led a pleasurable life, fre^ 
quented Button'i^, and became acquainted with some of 
%he most eminent wits of the time. As he had no fortuneu 
mor any means of aubsistence, hut what arose from the 
subscriptions for the poems he proposed to publish ; and^ 
f(S he wanted oveu common prudence to manage this 

I iH»a«f<7is«T^ieer«|» t^L VI,— Pemnlt^ ^Ui B<»Bn|et Iltiigtrli,>* 



f 04 I^ A T T I 3 O N. 

carious 'incoipey be was soon iovolr^d in the dee|jes| 
^isstress and most deplorable- wretcbedoe^s. In » poeco^ 
entitled ^^ Effigies Autboris/' addreaised to lord Burling** 
Ion, be describes himself as destinite of friends, of money; 
a prey to hunger; and pa$si«ig bis nights on » bench, ii 
Bt. James's paric. In a private letter to a gjentleman, be 
thus expressed jiimself: ^' Spare my blushes; 1 have not^ 
enjoyed the common necessaries of life these two dayS| 
and caVi hardly bold to subscribe myself/' &c* CurU» the 
iHKikseller, finding some of his compositions well received, 
And going through several impressions, took him into his 
house; and, as Pope affirms in one of his letters,. starved 
him io death. But this does not appear to be strictly true; 
^od his death is more justly attributed to the smsJUpox^ 
ivbicb carried him off iu 1727, in his 21st year. His biot- 
grapber says, that he bad a surprising genius, and bad 
xatised hopes in all that knew him, that he would become 
4D!oe of the most eminent poets of the age ; but such of hiit 
^ems as we find in the collection published in 2 vols. 8vq, 
in 1728, would not in our days be thought calculated to 
eupport such high expectations*^ 

PAUL OF BuRQOS, a learned Jew, born in that city, in 
13.53, embraced Christianity, and entered the ecclesiastic 
iE:al profession after his wife's decease. He was appointed 
preceptor to John tl. king of Castillo ; afterwards accbdea- 
^n of Trevigno, bishop qf Carthagena, bishop of Burgos, 
and is said to have died patriarch of Aquileia, August 29, 
JL435, aged St. He has left additions to Nicholas de 
J^yra's *<* Postills;" .a treatise, entitled " Scrutinium Serifs 
lurarum," Man^t. 1474, &I. reprinted several times; and 
^her; learned wo^ks, abounding, according to.Dupin, m 
Mseful hiblinal criticism. ^ His three sons were baptized 
jwi^ium, and i;ecommended themsdves by tb^ir merit. 
i^L^HOiitSQ wa^ bishop of Burgos, and wrote an abridgm^it 
^ ;the: Spanish. History, which is in the f' Jiispania illuS^ 
itcat^'^ 4 .vob. foK GoNSALyo, the second son, was bishop 
x^.PI,acentia; and Alivarbz, the third, published a History 
jDf ioiMi.ILlang.of Caftille.* ^ / 

^; PAUL, ibe: Deacon, or Paulus DiAcaNUS, so called 
jhecanse.he bad been a d^eon .of the church o^ f riuU^ 
|ii€Migh somei ^^ him ,by (bis .father's name Warn^aidus^. 
and others, from due pixrfiBssiou .he took up Ja iiis 



PAUL. S04 

5reara PAtrtus Monachcs, was originally a Lombard, boro 
kk the city of Frialiy'in the eighth century, and educated 
hi the court of the Looillard kings at Pavia. After Desi-^ 
derias, the last king of the Lombards, was taken prisoned 
by Charlemagne^ and carried to t'rance, tired of the tu^. 
Inult of the public world,' he retired from the busy scene's 
h^ had been engaged in, and became a monk in the &« . 
mous monastery of Monte Casino, where he wrote his history 
of the Lombards, in six books, from their first origin down 
to the reign of Luitprandus, who wa^ their eighteenth king 
that reigned in Italy, and died in the year 743. He was 
an eye-witness of many of the transactions he relates ; tfnd 
as he was a Lombard, we may suppose him well informed 
of the affairs of his own nation, and had rdad the history of 
the Lombards, written in the same century in which they 
bbgan to reign in Italy, by Sectindus Tridentinus, origi- 
fiAlly a Lombard, biit a. native of the city of Trent, whb 
flourished, according to Baronins, in the year 615 ; but hi^ 
faistory is now lost. He often quotes his authority, and 
though he sometimes falls into trivial mistakes, about fo- 
ireign afFaifs, and such as happened long before his time, 
as Grotius learnedly evinces, yet, in the transactions of liis 
own nation, he is, generally speaking, very exact. He died 
In the year7'91^. His history was printed at Hamburgh in 
16 1 1, and is besides to be fotlnd in the eighteenth volume of 
IMuratori^s Reru^ Italic. Scriptores. ^ 
' PAUL of Samosata, so named froth the place of hfs 
birtlr, flourished in the third century, and was eimong the ' 
first who entertained the opinions since known by the nama 
of Sdcinian, or Unitarian. In the' year 260 he was chbsen 
bishop. of Antioch, and having begun to preach against the 
diVinity of Jestis Christ, be was admonished, in a council 
assembled at Antioch, in the year 264 : but, in anothei|, 
l^ld' in the year 269 or 270, sentence of deposition wks 
pas&ed. To this he refused t6 submit, and was supported 
|ti liis diflob^dience by Zenobia the consort of Odenatus. 
At length^ when this queen was driven from Antioch, the 
^peror Aurelian expelled Paul in^ the year 272 or 273* 
iHls no|t known what became of him afterwards; nor are 
aiiy of his writings extant. His morals appear to' bav6 
ftfeen ' ^s obnoxious as his doctrines. Dr. L§rdner has en- 
lle^votired to defend both, yet it appears evident that be 



(OS P- A U Lr 

bad tlie whole Christian world against him^ aod qiteett 
Zenobia only for him. His wealth, says Gibbon, was » 
sufficient evidence of bis guilt,/since it was neither de-* 
rived from the inheritance of his fathers, nor acquired by 
the arts of honest industry. His followers were for a €oq-< 
siderable time called Paulianists, but have since been known 
by many other names^ according to the shades of difference 
ia their opinions. ^ 

PAUL DE VINCENT (St.), a wprthy ecclesiastic of the 
llomish church, wa^ born April 24, 1576, and studied at 
Toulouse, where he was ordained a priest in 1600. On 
bis return to Narbonne from Marseilles^ his ship was taken 
by the Turks, and he remained for a considerable time ia 
$layery^ under three, masters, the last of whom he con^ 
Terteda Returning at length to France, Louis XIII. made 
bim abbot of St. Leonard , de Chaulme, and he had after^* 
^wards.tbe care of the parish church pf Clicby, which he 
completely .repaired and furnished at his own expeiTce« 
Towards the end of 1 609, he went to reside in the bouse 
of Emmanuel de Goudy, as tutor to his children, but does 
not appear to have remained here long. He then obtained 
the curacy of Ch&tillon^les-Dombes, which he kept only 
five months. Con^pelled by the solicitations of numberr 
less persons of the highest distinction, to rethrn to the 
Opudy family, he resigned himself wholly to his natursd 
desire of orelieving the poor and afflicted. Louis XIII. being 
made acquainted with his zeal, appointed him almonerr 
general of the gallies, 1619 ; and the following yea% St^ 
Francis de Sales, because, as he says, he '^ knew not a 
worthier priest in the church,^' made him superintendant 
of the nuBs of, the visitation. On madame de Goudy's def 
cease, M. Vincent retired to the college des Bon Enfans, 
of which he was principal, and which he never quitted^ 
"but to perform the office of a missionary.. Some yearft 
after, he accepted the house de St. Lazare, though with 
great reluctance. His life was a continued series of good 
works, and it is scarcely to be conceived how one maa 
could plan so many, still less, how he could execute them. 
Among these were missions in all parts of France, as we|| 
as in Italy, Scotland, Barbarv, Madagascar, &c. ; ecclef 
siastical conferences, at whicn the most eminent bishops 
^f the kingdom were present; spiritual retirementSj its thc^ 

I Lardaer.--Milaer's Cbarch Hist.^GiblH»'t Hi»t— Care, Vol. U 



r A U L. 



«0T 



were tdHed, Which were also gratuitous ; an Hospital for 
'^Foundlings, for which bis humane applications procured 
can income of 40,000 livres; the foundation of the Chari« 
table VirginSf for the relief of sick poor ; to which we 
CDfiay ^dd| the hospitals de BicStre, de la Salp^triere, de 
Ja Piti6 ; those of Marseilles for galley-slaves ; of Sr. Reine 
for pilgrims, and of le Saint N09) de Jesus, for old men^ 
which are principally indebted to him for. their establish* 
ment« In times of the greatest distress, he sent above two 
millions of livres into Lorraine in money and effects ; nor 
<did Picardy and Champagne experience much less of bis 
bounty, when the scourges of heaven badjreduced those 
provinces to the most deplorable indigence. During ten 
years that M. Vincent presided in the council of conscience^ 
«nder Anne of Austria, he suffered none but the most 
worthy to be presented to benefices. Being a zealous pa« 
iron of nunneries, he supported the establishment of the 
Duns de la Providence, de Sainte Genevieve^ and de U 
Croix. He laboured with success for the reform of Cram« 
mont, Premontr6, and the abbey of St. Genevieve, as well 
las for the establishment of the great Seminaries. Even 
those, who have doubted whether his talents were veiy 
-extensive, have openly acknowledged that he was one of 
the most pious priests in the kingdom, and more useful to 
the poor and to the church, than most of those who are 
-considered as -great geniuses. This excellent man died 
loaded with years, labour, and mortificationg, Sept. 27,1660^ 
ftged near 85. He was canonized by Clement XII. or 
July 16, 1737« Those who wish to know more of St. Vio« 
cent de Paul, may consult his Life by M. Collet, 2 vols.4to^ 
mnd ** I'Avocat du Diable,'* 3 vols. l2mo./ > ^ 

PAULINUS, an ecclesiastical writer of the fifth century^ 
^vas descended from an illustrious family of Roman senators^ 
mud bom a^ Bourdeaux about the year 253. He was directed 
-in bis studies by the famous Ausonius ; and applied himself 
^so earnestly to the best' Latin authors, that he acquired ^ 
style tiot unlike theirs. He was advanced afterwards to the 
most considerable offices of the empire. Ausonius saySy 
4bat Paulinus was consul with him ; but bis name not being 
^ound in the f*asti Consulares, it is probable he obtained 
«^bac dignity only in the room oF ^ome other person, who 
tlU^ in^the office, and perhaps in the year 378^ after the 



SOS PAULINUS. 

, death of Valens; He married' T4ierasia/ tn opulent; 'fipa* 
nish lady, who proved instrumental in converting him lb 
Ohristianity ; and he was- baptized in the year 389. He 
dwelt four years in Spain, where he embraced voluntarj 
poverty ; selling his goods by degrees, and giving them to 
the poor. The inhabitants of Barcelona, where he:i^esidec^ 
conceived such an esteem for him, that they would have 
him ordained a l^riest ; to which, after a long resistance, he 
consented, upon condition that he should not be obliged to 
remain in Barcelona, because his design was to withdraw to 
Nola. This ordination was performed in the year 393, and 
the next year he left Spain to go into Italy. In his way he 
saw St. Ambrose at Florence, who ahewed him marks of 
respect ; and was kindly received at Rome both by the qua«- 
lity and the people : but the clergy there growing jea^ 
lous of him, be left that city quickly, and went to Nola, 
where he dwelt in a country-house about half a league 
£rom the town. He lived thefe sixteen years with his wife 
Therasia, in the study and exercises of a monastic life; and 
then, in the year 409, was chosen and ordained bishop 
of N(>la. The beginnings of his episcopate was disturbed by 
t|ie incursions of the Goths, who took that city ; but the 
assault being over, he enjoyed it peaceably to his deaths 
which happened in the year 43 1. 

* His works consist of *^ Poems,*' and ^^ Letters,*' and are 
written with much art ahd elegance; his manner of expres- 
iion being close and clear, his words pure and well chbsen, 
and his sentences strong and lively* All his writings are 
short, but pretty numerous, and compos:ed with great 
care. Ausonius highly commends bis poems; yet they 
cannot pass for perfect, especially those which he made 
after his conversion. He uas esteemed, beloved, and ca« 
jressed by all the great men of that age, of what party so- 
ever they were ; and corresponded with them all, without 
falling out with any! He was, in truth, like I'itus, the de- 
light of his times. Milner says that he appears, through' 
the mist of superstition, which clouds his narrative, to have 
heen one of the best Christians of the age. He was a mir« 
rorofpit^ty, liberality, and humility, worthy of a more in- 
telligent age, and of more intelligent writers, than of those 
who have recorded his life. The first edition of his works 
was at Paris, in 1516, by Badius ; the seconxl at Cologne, 
by Graevius: Roswedius caused them to be printed at 
Antwerp^ in 1622; and the last edition of them was at 



P A U 1 1 N U S. 20» 

VsLvisj in 2 vols, quarto, the former of which contains hit 
genuine work9. Du Pin wishes, that ^^ the booksellers had 
taken as much care to have it upon good paper, and ia 
a fair character, as the editor did to make it correct and 
useful." ' . - - 

PAULINUS> patriarch of Aquileia in the eighth century^ 
and one of the best bishops of his time, owes his fame ia 
a great measure to his zeal in behalf of the doctrine o£ 
the Trinity. He was born near Friuli, in the year 726, 
and became greatly distinguished by bis laborious appli<* 
cation^ and zeal for the advancement of learning and 
science. The emperor Charlemagne bestowed on him va- 
rious substantial marks of bis favour, and, towards the 
close of the year 776, promoted him to the patriarchate of 
Aquileia, where he died in the year 804. A complete 
edition of all his works, with learned notes and com* 
mentaries, was published at Venice, in 1737, by John 
Francis Madrisi, a priest of the congregation of the Ora« 
tory. * 

PAULLI (Simon), a Danish professor and physiciaOj^ 
was born at Rostock, in the circle of Lower Saxony, April 
Gy 1603, and died at Copenhagen, April 25,1680. Ha 
published some medical treatises, and in 1639 a Latia 
quarto, on medicinal plants, entitled Quadripartitum Bo- 
tanicum ; and in 1648 a thicker volume, in Danish, with 
wooden cuts, called ^' Flora Danica,'' which, ^however, em«< 
braces the garden plants as well as the pativeones, known 
in Denmark at the time of its publication. He wrote alsa 
against tobacco and tea, and his work was translated into 
English by the late Dr. James, in 1746. The most re* 
mailable circumstance attending it is his contending, with 
the positiveness, usual to those who are in the wrpng) that 
the Chinese Tea is no other than our European Myrica. 
gale; an error which Bartholin very cautiously and repect*-; 
fully corrects, in his Acta Medica, v. 4. 1, where the true; 
tea is, not very accurately, figured. The Paullipii^j ia 
Ibotany, is so named in honour of him, by LinnaBus« ^ 

PAULMIER DE GRENTESMENIL (Jambs lb), mor« 
coouBodly known to the learned by his Latinized namf ^ 

1 Ddpin. — Milner, vol. 11. p. 485 and 528« — Cm, voL I.;-Savii Onomuit* . 
« Dupin.—Cave, Vol. I.— Mi!ner'« Church Hist. vol. Ill, p. 211. ' 
4 £ioy, Diet. Hitt. d« M«di6io«,-^Ree8*g C^cIop»di«« 

VduXXIV. f 



810 PAULMIER. 

Palmerlus, was born in the territory of Auge, in 1587, the 
ion of Julien le Paulmier, who was a physician of eminence. 
Be was bred a protestant, embraced a military life, and 
liefrved with credit in Holland and in France. After a time, 
Be retired to Caen, where he gave himself up entirely to 
the study of letters and antiquity ; and was the firsi pro-* 
nioter of an academy in that city, which has since been 
Considered as a valuable institution. He died at Caen, 
Oct. I, 1670, being then eighty-three. His works are, 1. 
** Obiervationes in optimos auctores Graecos," Lugd. Bat. 
166S, 4to. 2. "Graeciae antiquae Descriptio," Lugd. Bat. 
1678, 4to. This work contains a very learned and useful 
digest of what the ancients have written concerning Greece. 
Prefixed to it is a life of the author, written at some length, 
but in a very affected style, by the editor Stephen Mori- 
nets. 3. Some poems in the Greek, Latin, French, Italian, 
and Spanish languages. These, however, are the worst 
^art of his works. He versified in too many languages to 
be very excellent in any. ' 

PAULO (Mark), a celebrated traveller, was. the son of 
Nicholas Paulo, a Vienetian, who went with his brother 
Matthew, about 1225, to Constantinople, in the reign of 
Baudoin. While they were on this expedition Marco wa» 
borri. On their return through the deserts they arrived at 
the city where Kublai, grand khan of the Tartars, resided. 
This prince was highly entertained with the account which 
they gave him of the European manners and customs, and 
atppointed them his ambassadors to the pope, in order to 
demand of his holiness a hundred missionaries. They 
aeccordingly came to Italy, obtained from the Roman pon- 
tiff two Dominicans, the one an Italian, and the other an 
Asiatic, and carried with them young Marco, for whom the 
Tartar prince expressed a singular affection. This youth 
was at 'an early period taught the different dialects of Tar- 
tary, and was afterwards employed in embassies which gave 
him the opportunity of traversing Tartary, China, and 
Othe^ eastern countries. After a residence of seventeen 
years at the court of the great khan, the three Venetians 
came back to their own country in 1295, with immense 
wealth. A short time. after his return, Marco served bis 
country at sea ags^nst the Genoese,, his galley iii a naval 
engagement was sunk, and himself taken prisoner and 

1 NiceroD, vols. VIII and X — 'Chaufepie.— Diet. Hist, 



PAOLO. 2U 

carried to Genoa. He remained there many years in con- 
finement; and, as well to amuse bis melancholy, as to 
gratify those who desired it of him, sent for his notes from 
Venice, and composed the history of his own and his 
father's voyages in Italian, under this title, ** Delle mara- 
viglie del mondo da lui vidute,'' &c. of which the first 
edition appeared at Venice in 1496, 8vo. ' This work has 
been translated into several foreign languages, and hat 
been inserted in various collections. The best editions are 
one in Latin, published by Andrew MuUer at Cologne in 
1671, and one in French, to be found in the collection of^ 
voyages published by Bergeron, at the Hague in 1735, in 
two vols. In the narrative there are many things not easily 
believed*, but the greater part of his accounts has beem 
verified by succeeding travellers. He not only gave better 
accounts of China than had been before received ; but 
likewise furnished a description of Japan, of several islands 
of the East Indies, of Madagascar, and the coasts of Africa, 
so' that from his work it might be easily collected that a di-* 
rect passage by sea to the East Indies was not only pos* 
nible, but practicable.^ 

PAULUS (iEGiNETA), a native of the island iEgina, now 
Engia, whence he has his name, flourished, according to 
Le Cierc, in the fourth century ; but with more truth he 
is placed by Abulfaragius, who is allowed to give the best 
account of those times, in the seventh. It is said that he 
travelled over Greece and other countries to gain infor- 
mation respecting the medical art ; and that he studied at 
Alexandria before it was taken and plundered by Amrour, 
and there copied a part of the works of Alexander Tralliany 
who was his favourite author. On his return from his 
travels he made an abridgment of the works of Galen, and 
wrote several treatises, which are deservedly famous. It. 
appears that his knowledge in. surgery was very great ; for 
Fabricius ab Aquapendente, one of the best chirurgical 

* Among these, it seems difficult is^qoalljr difficult to believe that the 

to belieye, that as sooo as the grand pope, who donbtles had an ardent zeal 

khan was informed of the arriTal of for the propagation of the faith, instead 

two Venetian roerchantSi who were' of a hundred shoald have sent him only 

come to tell theriaoa (or treacle) at his two missionaries.-— The authors of th« 

court, he sent before them an escort Universal History are of opinion that 

of '40,000 men, and afterwards dis- what Mark Paulo wrote from his owa 

.patched these Venetian ambassadors knowledge is both curious and true, 

to the pope» to beseech his holiness to and where he erred he was probably 

«tnd bim a bundled missionaries. It deceived by his father and udde, 

1 Eacyd. Briiannica.— Univ; Htltory. 

P 2 



,212 P A U L U S. 

. writers,, has thought fit to transcribe hinx in a great number 
Qf places. 

^giheta's principal workd are» 1. '^Salubria de sanitate 
.tuenda prse^^eptayV Argent^. .15 11, !8vo. 2. *^ De remedica 
libLrL.septen)/',Ot?eekj V^nioe, 152S; foU aofl often re- 
.printed l;K>th in: Greek, "Latin, and oiiber languages, with 
;CGampent|iries. 3. ^^ ,De 0risi et • diebus critici^ : eommqne 
;SignJ8," ^^i^'l^^^, tS^Q^ ' He: appeaiii toihave -beeD ' par- 
.tic^qlarlyisjkilful in the.disordei*s of itfae female sex, ^ and is 
4he first in aatiqqit^r.^bo deserves tbe tide ^f accoucheur.^ ^ 
* P4tJSA£^lA^ '4n ,anciejDt>Greek'-vi'feriter, who h^s left 
^s a:.<^ri<)iusde9<(rJiptiQn pf^Gr^eecaief' lived iin the second 
f entury^. but i^erji ;fei¥^ paiftistiiars' :of .Us'; life are known. 
Suicls^ m^ntioiis two .of .this, name :^t)ne of^ Laponia^ who 
.wrptf) c;oncemiePg. t^e^ ;HeUespont) ^ Laconia, the ' Ampbye^ 
^ons^! Sac* ; anQtbes^: who was\a sophist i;or rhetorician of 
C^s|u:e^:in;Capps(d«eiav lived at the same time with Arisw 
tid^S). .and is mendoHed bjr.Pbildstrat<is,,in his! Lives of'tfaA 
b^stlPrs;. Tbislaat>is supposed to ibel our Pausanias.': He 
ivas^ accprding: to; the satn^ Pbilostratus, .^ a disciple of the 
famous sophist Herodes Atticus, whom' he: imitated in many 
sefp^cts, but espieeiiilly in compo^ng without premedita- 
tion>r. His prpnujiciation^ was according .to the manner of 
tbe:CappiidoeiaDis» -who bad a* way of lengthening short 
lylljiibJef^and^ihQrteni^g lon^ones. The character of bi<^ 
9on>pp9itiQeQ yi9^i negligent, yet* npt without forcr. He 
decUimf^d.a long:. time at Rome, where he died very old; 
tbpugU.he contitiii^dall: the while a member of the college 

S Athens/' His work is properly an accountof n journ^ 
rough Greece,. Ja which the author noted every thing*^ 
tb^t was reqaarkabler All public monuments, as temples; 
tlieatres,. tombs^ Statues; paintings,. &c. came within hitf 
design: be tpcdc thedamenaionsoEcities^ which* had for-^ 
Q^exly been ^reat end, famous,, but were then in' ruins ; ^ nor 
did.he bastit^ >pasa over places' that were ^memorable for^ 
illustrious transactions of old. By these observations he 
thi'dWs much light upon the history and' ant^uities o£ 
Greece; and. clears up many passages in ancient author^,- 
which would otherwise have remaiiled very pei^plexed and 
obscure. His work has been recommendj^d to modern .tra-> 
vellers, and it is well known that Spon and Wheler made' 
grea^ use„ of it . '■ 

} JUof, i>lct.. Hist, de liftediciaei . : 



P A'U-S'A^ 1 As. «13 

^uBatiias was firA p/uMiBned^at-Venicein' 1^16, fol. by 
Aldtts^ who «i^a assisted bj Marcus 'Masurus: Musurus^ 
wrotea'prefaco in Gt^^k^ which is jJrfefixed tcytbis-edition," 
and addressed to Jv>hn Lascar is, a -learned Greek of ttie- 
%ime age. * Afterwards^ in: 1547, Rotttulus Atnaseus pub*' 
lisfaed a' Latin version of this work tic Rome; and, three' 
years afcer;'an edition was pt-inted at Basil, with a new^ 
Latinverftion by Abr: Loescherus. A better edition than 
had yet appeared^' with the Greefc'texl of Aldus corrected ' 
by Xyhinder, and <he Latin version of Amaseds by Sylbur- 
gius, came out at Francfort,»1583,' in folio; from which;^' 
that of Hanover,' 1613, in folio, wa» printed word for wbrd/ 
But the best of all is that of Leipsic^ 16^96, in folio; with 
the notes of Kuhnius. This learned inan had already 
given proofs by bis critical labours- upon iElian, D.Laer- 
tius, suid Pollux, that he was- very well qualified for a work ' 
of this nature ; and bis tioties, . though short, are very good. 
When he undertook this* edition or Pausanias he proposed ' 
great advantages from "four maniiscrlflls in the king of 
France's library ; but, npon con^dltittg them on several 
corriipt and obscure* passages, he foiind that they did not 
vary from Aldus's copy. ' The ^inain succours he derived 
were from soine manuscript notes of Isaac Casaubon, upon 
the margin of Aldus's edition ; atid^ by the help of these, 
and hi3 Own critical skill, he w&s enabled to correct and 
amend an infinite nnmber of places. 'A new edition, in 4i 
vols.^ 8vo, Was published at . Leipsic, in 1794-^1'797, by 
Jo. Frid. Facius,' which by the few who hate had an oppor- 
tunity of Examining it, ia thought excellent. It ha^ very 
correct indexes, and some aid from a Vienna and a Mos* 
cow manuscript. An English translation was published ia 
] 794 hy Mr. Thomas Taylor. * 

PAUTRE (Anthony le), a Parisian architect of tho 
seventeenth cefntury, and one of a family of ^rtistsj. ex- 
ceHed iil- the ornaments and decorations of buildings, and 
was architect to Louis XIV; and monsieur hts only brother. 
He planned the cascades, which are so justly admired, at 
thie castJ^ of St. Cloud, and built the church of the nUns 
of Port- toy al, at Paris, in 1625. LePautreWas received' 
into the royal academy 6f sculpture, December 1, 1671, 
and died some years after. His " CEuvres d*Architect(ire'* 
are engraved in one vol. folio, sometimes bound up in five; 

1 Voisiui de Hist Gne«,— -Fabijc* BibU Gnoc«"*<Sa3di Onomait^ 



»!♦ P A U T R E. ' 

John 1e Pautre, bis relation, born in 1617, at Paris, was 
placed wittv a joiner, who taugbt bim the first rudiments of 
drawing ; but he soon surpassed his master, and became 
an excellent designer, and skilful engraver. He perfectly 
understood all the ornamental parts of architecture, and 
the embellishments pf country bouses, such as fountains, 
grottos, jets-d'eau, and every other decoration of the gar- 
den. John le Pautre was admitted a member pf the. royal 
academy of painting and sculpture April 11, 1677, and 
died February 2, 1682, aged sixty-five. His ^^ CEuvres 
d' Architecture,*' Paris, 1751, 3 vols. fol. contains above 
782 plates, which were much valued by the chevalier Ber- 
xiin. PoTER le Pautre, related to the two preceding, was 
born at Paris, March 4, 1659, and excelled so much in 
statuary as to be appointed sculptor to bis majesty. He 
executed at Rome, in 169.1, thebeautiful group of £neas 
and Anchises, which is in the grand walk attheThuilleries; 
and completed, in 1716, that of Arria and Pstus (or rather 
of Lucretia stabbing herself in presence of CoUatinus) 
which Theodon had begun at Rome. Several of his other 
works embellish Marly. This ingenious artist was profes- . 
8or and perpetual director of St. Luke's academy, and died 
at Paris, January 22, 1744, aged eighty-four.' 

PAUW (Cornelius de), a native of Amsterdam^ who 
distinguished himself by his philosophical writings, was 
born there in 1739; no particulars of his early life are 
given in our authority, but it appears that he was educated 
for the church, and held a canonry in some part of Ger- 
many. He died July 7, 1799, at Xantem, near Aix-Ia« 
Chapelle. He was uncle to the famous, or rather infamous, 
Anacharsis Cloots, who was the idol of the lowest of the 
mob of Paris about the time of the revolution, and his 
opinions were in some respects as singular; but he had far 
more learning, and more skill in disguising them. He i$ 
principally known for his '^ Recherches philosopbiques, 1. 
sur lesGrecs; 2.sur les Americains, les Egyptiens, et les 
Chinois," Paris, 1795, 7 vols. 8vo. In this his countryniei^ 
seem willing to allow that he asserts more than he proves ; 
that bis object is to contradict all preceding historians, and, 
to lessen the character of the nations he describes. His style 
is agreeable, but he is full of paradoxes, and of those bold 
opinions which were once in vogue in France, and recpm^ 

1 L'AfociU's Diet Hi^t; 



PAYS. 215 

mended him much to Frederick the Great of Prassia, while 
they rendered bim obnoxious to the ministers of religion. * 

PAYS (Rene'le), sieur of Villeueuve, a French poet, 
born at Nantes in 1636, was For a considerable time comp- 
tfoller-general of the imposts in Dairphin^ and Provence j 
y«t he. mingled the flowers of poetry with the thorns of' 
t)iat occupation, and became celebrated at court by a mis« 
cellaneous publication of prose and verse, entitled " Ami- 
ties, Amours, et Amourettes/* published in 1685> This . 
publication gained him particularly the favour of the la« 
dies; and the duke of Savoy honoured him with the title of 
chevalier of St. Maurice, and he was made a member of. 
the academy of Aries. The latter part of his life was em- 
bittered by a law-suit/ which obliged him to pay for the 
dishonesty of one of his associates in office^ He died April , 
30, 1690, at the age of 6fty-four. His remaining works 
are, 1. ** Zelotide," a novel of gallantry, which was ad- 
loired in the country, but despised at Paris. 2, A collec- 
tion of poetry, containing eclogues, sonnets, stanzas, &c, 
published at Paris in 1672, in 2 vols. 12mo, under the , 
title of " Nouvelles Oeuvres." These contain rather th^ 
fancies of a minor wit, than the efforts of real genius. * 

PEACHAM (Henry), a writer of considerable note in 
bis day, appears to have been the son of Mr. Henry 
Peacham of Leverton, in Holland, in the county of' Lin- 
coln, and was born in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, unless he was the Henry Peacham who published 
** The Garden of Eloquence,*' a treatise on rhetoric, in 
1577, 4to, and then he must be referred to the early part 
of the reign of queen Elizabeth. But we are more inclined 
to think, with Mr. Malone, that the ** Garden of Elo- 
quence" was a production of his father's. Very littFe i» 
known with certainty of his history, and that little has 
been gleaned from his works, in which he frequently intro- 
duces hin)«elf. In his " Compleat Gentleman," he sayg , 
he was born at North Mims, near St. Alban's, wliere he 
received his education unde** an ignorant schoolmaster. 
He was afterwards of Trinity college, Cambridge, and in 
the title to his " Minerva," styles himself master of arts. 
He si^eaks of his being well skilled in music, and it appears 
that be resided a considerable time in Italy, where he 
learut music of Orazio Vecchi. He was also intimate witb 

1 Diet Hist, * MorerL— Gen. Diet— DiQt. Hist 



216 P E AC HAM. 

all the gr0at roasters of the time at home, and has cbarac* 
terized their several styles, as well as those of many oh the 
continent. His opinions, ' says Dr. Burney, conceruiog 
their works are very accurate, and manifest great know* 
ledge of all that was understood at the time respecting 
practical music. 

He informs us also of his skill in painting ; that he could 
take likenesses, and on one occasion took his majesty's 
(James L) as he sat at dinner. He also madCy perhaps en-> 
graved, a map of Cambridge. Lord Orford mentions his 
engraving of a good print, after Holbein, of ^ir Thomas 
Cromwell, knight, afterwards earl of Essex. From his' 
** Gentleman's Exercise" we learn that he either kept 
school, or had private pupils. Lord Orford says that he 
Was tutor to the children of the earl of Arundel, whom he 
accompanied to the Low Countries, In the same work,* 
Peacham says he .translated king James's ^^ Basilicoa 
Doron" into Latin verse, and presented it to prince Henry, 
16 whom he also dedicated his ^^ Minerva Britannica" in 
1612, He also published in 1613, ** Prince Henry re-^ 
vived ; or a poem upon the birth of prince H. Frederick, 
heir apparent to Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine.'* 
The only other particulars we derive from his own hints 
are, that he lived for some time in St. Martinis in the 
Fields, and was addicted to melancholy. It is said that he 
was reduced to poverty in his old age, and wrote penny 
pamphlets for bread. This last is asserted in a MS note 
by John Gibbon, Bluemantle, on' a copy of one of Pea<* 
champs tracts sold at Mr. West's sale. It is entitled <* A 
Dialogue between the cross in Cheap and Charing crosses 
Cbmfortibg each other, as fearing their fall, in these un-* 
certain times. By Ryhen Pameach'* (Henry Peacham). 
The chief merit of this, Mr. Gough says, is that its wooden 
frontispiece exhibits the ruined shaft of Charing Cross, 
and the entire cross of Cheap. It has no date. Cheap-» 
side cross, we know, was taken down in 1640, 

'The work by which Peacham is best known is his '^ Com* 
plete Gentleman,*' a 4to volume, printed in 1*622, and re- 
printed in 1627, 1634, 1654, and 1661. This last edition 
received some ioiprovements in the heraldic part from 
Thomas Blount^ author of the *♦ Jocular Tenures." It 
treats of *' nobilitie in geuerall ; of dignitie and necessitie 
of learning in princes and nobilitie; the time of learning; 
th^ dutie of (N^reQt^ in tb^ir children's education ; of a 



' P E A C H A M. ai» 

gentleman's carriage in the.universitie ; of style in apeak- 
ing, writing, and reading history ; of cosmography ; of 
memorable observation in the survey of the earth ; of geo- 
metry ; of poetry ; of musicke ; of statues and medalls ; of 
drawing and painting in oyle; of sundry blazonnes both 
ancient and modern ; of armory or blazing armes ; of ex- 
ercise of body ; of reputation and carriage ; of travaile ; of 
warre ; of fishing.'* 

His other works are, 1. " Minerva Britannica, or a gar- 
den of Heroical Devises," &c. 1612, 4to. This is a collec- 
tion of emblems in vefrse, with a plate to each. Mr. Ellis 
has selected several specimens from this curious volume* 
2. "The period of Mourning, in memory of the late prince. 
Together with Nuptial Hymnes in honour of this happy 
marriage betweene Frederick count Palatine and Elizabeth 
daughter of our Sovereigne," 1613, 4to. 3. "A most 
true relation of the affairs of Cleve and Gulick/* &c; 1614, 
4to, in prose. 4. " Thalia's Banquet,'* a volume of epi- 
grams,'* 1620, 12mo. 5. " The Valley of Varietie," 1638, 
12mo. 6. " The Duty of all true subjects to their king; 
as also to their native country in time of extremity ^nd 
danger," in two books, 1639, 4to. 7. "The worth pfa 
penny, or a caution to keep money ; with the causes of 
the scarcity and misery of the want thereof, in these bard 
and merciless times; as also how to save it, in our diet,, 
appare], recreations, &c." 4to. This piece of humour, 
which appeared first ia 1647, was reprinted in 1667, 1677, 
and 1695, and perhaps oftener. 8. "The Gentleman's 
Exercise; or an Exquisite Practise as well for drawing all 
manner, of beasts in their true portraiture, as also the 
making of colours for limning, painting, tricking,, and 
blazoning of coats of ai*ms, &c." 1630, and 1634, 4to. All • 
these are- works of considerable merit, Peacham being a , 
man of general knowledge, good taste, and. acute obser* , 
vation, and were very popular during the seventeenth cen-r 
tury. His ** Complete Gentleman " particularly was in 
high estimation with the gentry of that age. Sir Charles , 
Sedley, who had been guilty'of an offence against good 
Planners, and was indicted for it, was asked on his trial by 
the chief justice, sir Robert Hyde, whether he had ever 
read the ^* Complete Gentleman" ? ^ 

t Cole's MS Atbeos in Brit Mtt8.-^HawkinB>f Hist of Maiic. — Gongb's To- 
potrrapby.-rDr. Barney in Rees's Cyclop9dia«— Ellis's SpeoineBs,— 'Walpole't 
£iigr»fers» 



S18 PEACOCK. 

• • . ' • t « I 

- PEACOCK, or PECOCK (Reynold), bishop of St. 
Asapfb, and Chichester, in the reign of Henry VI. is sup- 
posed to have been born in Wales about 1390. He was 
educated in Oriel college, Oxford, of w^iich he was chosen 
fellow in October 1417, in the room.of Richard G^r&dale, 
S. T. P. who was then elected provost of the college. 
Having studied with a view to the church, he was ordained 
deac(.n and priest in 1420 by Fleming, bishop of Lincoln. 
In 14^5 he took his degree of bachelor of divinity, and 
about this time is supposed to have left the university. 
Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, was now protector of the 
kingdom, and being a great patron of learned men, in- 
vited Mr. Ptacock to court, where he was enabled to make 
a very considerable figure by his taknts. In !431, he was 
elected niastt r of the college of St. Spirit and St. Mary, 
founded by sir Richard Whittington ; and with it was ap- 
pointed, to the rectory of St. Michael in Riola, now St. 
Michael Royal, situated in the street called Tower Royal 
in Vifitry ward. This situation he resigned in 1444, on 
being promoted to the bishopric of St. Asaph. To whom 
be owed this preferment se^ms uncertain, as bis patron 
the duke of Gloucester was now declining in court interest, 
but perhaps the estimation he was held in at court may ac- 
count for it. He now was honoured with the degree of 
D. D. at Oxford, in his absence, and without performing ' 
any exercises, an omission for which he was reproached 
afterwards by his enemies, although it was not then un- 
common. In 1447 he preached a sermon at Paul's cross^ 
in which he maintained that bishops were not under obli* 
gation to preach or to take the cure of souls, and that their ' 
duties consist entirely in the.variousacts of church govern- 
ment. This doctrine was npt very palatable even then, 
and he was under the necessity of explaining himself to 
the archbishop of Canterbury ; but it showed, what ap- 
peared more clearly afterwards, that he was accustomed to 
think for himself, and to pay little deference to authority 
or custotn. 

In 1 449, he was translated to the see of Chichester, and 
now began to give opinions which were ill suited to the 
times in which he lived. Although he had taken great ' 
pains both in his preaching and writings to defend the esta-* 
blished church against the disciples of Wickliffe, now called 
Lollards, he gave it as his opinion, that the most probable 
means of reclaiming ihem was by allowing them the use of 



PEACOCK. ii9 

tbeir reason, andnot insisting on the infallibility of the' 
church. The clergy, we may suppose, were not satisfied ' 
with such doctrine; and many of the learned men of the 
universities were so highly offended with it, and with his 
writing in the English language on subjects which ought 
to be concealed from the laity, that they at last prevailed 
with the archbishop of Canterbury to cite him. The arch- 
bishop accordingly issued his mandate, in Oct. 1457, or- 
dering all persons to appear who had any thing to allege 
against the bishop of Chichester; and his books being 
found to contain various heretical opinions, he read a re- 
cantation, first in the archbishop^s court at Lambeth, and 
afterwards ^t St. Paul's cross, where his books weref burnt, ' 
as they also were at Oxford. He was likewise deprived of 
his bishopric, and confined in Tborney abbey, in Cam- ' 
bridgeshire, where it is supposed he died about 1460. His ' 
biographer has given an ample account of his writings, all 
of which remain in MS. except his " Treatise of Faith,'* 
published by Wharton in 1688, 4to. He appears to have ' 
been a man of learning, and an acute reasoner. The 
opinions for which be suffered were not perhaps so decided 
as to pro(!ure him admittance to the list of reformers ; but 
it is evident that he was one of the first who contended 
against the infallibility of the Romish church, and in f&-» ' 
vour of the holy scriptures being the principJil guide. In 
1744 the rev. John Lewis, of Margate, published " The 
Life" of this prelate, which, as he justly styles it, forms a 
•^ sequel to the Life" of Wickliff, and is an useful intro- 
duction to the bi>tory of the Ecjglish refornnation. ' ' 

PEARCE (ZachaRy), a learned English prelate, was 
born at London, Sept. 8, 1690. He was the son of Tho- 
mas Pearce, a distiller, in High Hotborn, who having ac^ ' 
quired a cdmpetent fortune by his business, purchased an 
estate at Little Ealing, in Middlesex, to which he retired 
at the age of forty, and where he died in 1752, aged 
eighty -eight. His son, after some preparatory education 
at a school at Ealing, was removed in 1704 to Westminster 
school, where he was soon distinguished for his merit, and 
in 1707 was elected one of the king's scholars. He re* 
meined at this school till the year 1710, when he was 
twenty years old. This long continuance of his studies 
JlSta been attributed to the high opinion Dr. Busby enter- 

) Life as abore. 



i20 P E A R C E. 

tained of bim, who. was accustomed to detain those boys 
longer under his discipline^ of whose future eminepce be. 
bad most expectation. That Dr. Busby had such a custom 
i^ cei^tainyi.and that it was continued by his successor is 
probable, but Mr. Pearce could not have been under the 
tuition of Busby, who died in 1695. To this delay, how* 
ever, without doubt, Mr. Pearce was greatly indebted for 
the philological neputation by which he was very early dis« 
tiuguished. 
. He w^s elected to Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1710^ 
and during his first yearns residence, amused himsejf occa* 
sionally with the lighter species of composition. Among 
these were a letter in the Guardian, No. 121, signed iV<;ci{.. 
Muvfi; and two Spectators, No. 572, and 633; speoimeua 
of that easy humour which characterizes these periodical 
works. In 17 16. the first fruits of his philological studies 
appeared at the university press, in an excellent edition of 
Cicero /* De Oratore,'* with very judicious notes and 
emendations. This volume, at the desire of a friend^ he^ 
dedicated to lord chij^f jus^ce Parker, afterwards ^arl of 
Macclesfield, to whom he wi^s then a stranger, but who > 
became his patron. The first favour he bestowed on Mr« 
Pearce, was to apply to Dr. Bentley for his interest in the 
election of a fellowship, for which he was a candidate, ;and 
which. he accordingly obtained. Soon after this he paid a 
visit to. thjB chief justice, who received him in the kindest, 
inanner, invited him to dinner at Kensingtoui apd gave- 
him a purse of fifty guineas. From that time an intimacy 
commenced, which was dissolved only by his lordship's 
d^th.. 

Jo 1717 Mr. Pearce was ordained a deacon by Dr. Fleet- 
wood, bishop of liXjf and in the following year, priest, bj . 
the same prelate. It had always been his intention to de- 
vote himself to the chuGcb; but, as he himself inforfns us, 
^^ he delayed to take orders till he was twenty-seven years . 
o( age ; and, as he thought, had taken time . to prepare 
himself, and to attain so much knowledge of that sacred . 
o$ce, as should be sufficient to answer all the good pur- 
posets for which it is designed." In 1 7 1 8 he went to reside 
as, domestic chaplain with lord Parker, then lord Chan- 
cellor, who in 1719 gave him the rectory of Stapleford 
Abbots, in Esse:;, and in the following year that more 
valuable one of St. Bartholomew Exchange. When he 
attempted to return his thanks to the chancellor for this 



1^ E A R C E, £21 

last preferment, his lordship said, ^*f You are not to thank 
me sQ much as Dr. Bentiey, for this benefice/* << Hoiv as 
that/ m J lord?" J *^Why," added hia lordship, ^* wharf I 
asked Dr. Ben.tley to ma/ce you a fellow of Trinity college, 
he consented so to do but on this condilioit, that I would 
promise to uwmkejQ^ again as soon as it lay in my power; 
and now be, by having performed his promise, has bound 
me to give you this living/* . 

Not long after this, Mr^ Pearce was. appointed chaplain to 
his majesty ; and in 1723 was presented by tbecbancelidr 
to the vicarage of St Martin's in the Fields, on which he 
resigned St. Bartholomew's. The parish, of which he was 
now vicar, being large, and. honoured with the residence 
of the royal family in it, the chancellor represented to Mr. 
Pearce the propriety of taking the degree of doctor in di- 
vinity ; and as he was not of sufficient standing in the uni- 
versity^, that honour was obtained for him by application 
to the '(archbishop of Canterbury. In 1724 be increased 
his reputation, 9s a critic, both at home and abroad, by 
his edition of .Longinus '^ De Sublimhate," with a new 
Latin version and learned notes. This appeared first in 
an elegant 4to^ but has since been reprinted in 8vo, and 
remained the best edition, until the publication of that of 
Toup. ' 

In 1739, in consequence of the late queen Car6line*f 
having recommended him to. sir Robert Walpole, Dr. Pearce 
waf appointed dean loi Winchester. He informs us in bis 
meoMMfs k>f ^^hatied to 1 this promotion. When vicar of St. 
lAavtih^s, lard Sundon ;wa» onip of his .'parishioaers, and 
oneof the membeiis of parliament foit W^stvnrnster. These 
two! ciroumstances ihrqught them acquainted together, and 
Dr^ Pearce was sdm^times invited to dinner, where he be* 
came acquainted with' lady Sundon, iqueisn Caroline's fa-> 
vburite, ;andbyher meaias was introduced to her majesty, 
wiio frequently honoqred hihir.with. her conversation ^t the 
diaiiriDg^room. The;i8ub)ccts which .her majesty started 
werd/^nbt what ate ditkn. introduced in that cirde- One 
day^fllie asked hida if) herhad.iread .the pamphlets published 
by ^Djt. 8tebbing,> and Alr.iFosteii, upon. the. sort ofrheretics 
Bieanft^by jSt..Patri^*\.whio^ itt. 10, 11, he repre< 

%6i\ts Z3 self" c(nidemned, '^Yes, madam," replied the doc- 

# He was at this time only of f^t^ he refased to accept a degree by royal 
teea year« tftanrding; but nineteea are mandate, as proposed by the chaDcel- 
leqaired. It ouglit to be added, that lori and preferred the Lambeth degree,.' 



2S2 p E A R C E. 

tor, *^ I bare read all the pamphlets written by theat oil 
both sides' of the question." •* Well," said the queen, , 
. ** which of the two do you think to be in the right ?'* 'The 
, doctor answered, ^* I cannot say, madan), which of the 
two is in the right, but I think that both of them are in 
the wrong *' She smiled, and said, •* Then what is your 
opinion of the text?" "Madam," said the doctor, "it 
would take up more time than your majesty can spare at 
this drawing-room, for me to give my opinion and the 
reasons of it ; but if your majesty should be pleased to lay 
your commands upon me, you shall know my sentiments 
of the matter in the next sermon which I shall have the 
honour to preach before his majesty." " Pray do then," 
.said the queen, and he accordingly prepared a sermon on 
that text, but the queen died a month before his term of 
preaching came about, and before he was promoted to the 
deanry of Winchester. In iT't^ the dean was elected pro- 
locutor of the lower house of convocation for the province 
of Canterbury, the archbishop having signified to some of 
the members, that the choice of biol would be agreeable 
to his grace. ... 

In 1748 dean Pearce was promoted to the seeof Bangor^ 
but the history of this and of his subsequent translation to 
Rochester, . will be best related in his own words : " In the 
year 1746," sajs he, " archbishop Potter being alone with 
dean Pearce one day at Lambeth, said to him, ^ Why do 
you not try to engage your friend lord Bath */ to get you 
made a bish9p ?* ' My lord,' said the dean; * I am ex- 
tremely obliged to your grace for your good opinion of 
me, and for your kind intentions iti my favour ; but I have 
never spoken to him on that subject, nor ever thought of 
doing so, though I believe he would do what lies in his 
power ; but I will tell your grace very frankly, that I have 
no thoughts of any bishopric. All that I have in view is 
this : I am now dean of Winchester ; and that deanry is 
worth upwards of 600^/ a year ; my vicarage of St. Martinis 
is about 500/. a year, and this last I should be glad of an 
opportunity of resigning, on account of the great trouble 
and little leisure which so large a parish gives me ; but if 
I should out-live my father, who is upwards of eight^^ years 

* His acquaintance wiUi Mr. Pul- improved into a friendship that lasted 

teney arose iu 1724i at an interview very nearly forty yearsi and till the 

with him respecting the re-building of death of this statesman, who sat tbea 

^t, Martin's church, and gradually in the- bougeof loVd» as earl of .Bi^tfe, 



\ 



P E A R C E, 22i 

old, I shall come to his. estate, being his eldest son, which 
will enable me to resign my vicarage ; and the profits of 
the deanry aione, with my father's estate, will make me 
quite contented.' The archbishop smiled, and said, " Well, 
if you will not help yourself, your friends must do it for 
you.' Accordingly he spoke to the earl of Bath, and they 
two agreed to try what they could do to make the dean of 
Winchester a bishop. 

" In 1748 the bishopric of Bangor became vacant. The 
dean was then at Winchester, and received there a letter 
from Mr. Clark (afterwards sir^homas, and master of the 
rolls) informing him, that lord chancellor Hardwicke wished 
to see dean Pearce thought of on that occasion, a,nd that 
he hoped the dean would answer Mr. Clarke's letter in 
such a way, as when seen, might be approved of by the 
ministry. Dean Pearce answered the letter with acknow- 
ledgment of the favour thought of for him; but assuriog 
Mr. Clark, who, as he perceived, was to communicate the 
answ,er to lord Hardwicke, that he had long had np thoughts 
of desiring a bishopric, and that he was fully satisfied with 
his situation in the church ; and that as to the ministry, he 
was always used to think as favourably of them as they 
could wish him to do, having never opposed any of the 
public measures, nor designing so to do. In truth, the 
dean had then fixed upon a resolution to act no otherwise 
than as he had told the archbishop he should do, upon 
his father's death. The dean received no answer to this 
letter written to Mr. Clark, and he thought that there 
was an end of that matter. 

" About a fortnight after this, the dean went up to his 
parish in Westminster; but in his way thither, lay one. 
night at his father's house, in Little Ealing, near Brent- 
ford ; where, the next morning early, a letter was brought 
to him from the duke of Newcastle by one of his grace'* 
servants, signifying that his grace had his majesty's order 
to make the dean of. Winchester an offer of the bishopric 
of Bangor, and desiring to see him at the cockpit the next' 
day at 12 o'clock.. Accordingly he waited upon him,' 
when, with many kind expressions to the dean, the duke' 
signified the gracious offer of his majesty, which he had 
the order to make him. The dean asked his grace, whe- . 
ther he might be permitted to hold his deanry of Win- ^ 
Chester in commendam with Bauijor, to which the answer 
waiB^ No \ but tliat h^ might hold the vicarage of St. Mar* ' 



/ t 



«24 P E A R C E. 

tin^s mAi it. The dean said, that he was desirous fo quit 
the living, which was troublesome to him, and would be 
more so as he vt^as growing in years ; but if that could not 
be indulged him, he rather chose to cpntipiiie in his present' 
situation. The duke used some arguments to persuade 
the dean to accept of the offer with a commehdam to hold 
the living. He could not, however, prevail with the dean 
any farther, than that he would take three days^ time to 
consider of it. During that time, the dean had brought 
his father and lord Bath to <?onsent, that he might decline 
to accept of that bishopric without their displeasure ; but 
before the dean saw the duke a second time, lord Hard- 
wicke, then chancellor, sent for him, and desired him to 
be, without fail, at his house, that evening. He went, and 
lord Hardwicke told him, that he found, by the duke of 
Newcastle, that he made difficulties about accepting the 
bishopric which was so graciously offered him. The dean 
gave his lordship an account of all that had passed between 
the duke and him ; upon which his lordship used many 
arguments with the dean to induce him to accept the offer, 
as intended. Among other things, he said, * If clergy- 
men of learning add merit will not accept of the bishoprics, 
how can the ministers of state be blamed, if they are 
forced to fill them with others less deserving ?' The dean 
was struck with that question, and had nothing ready in 
his thoughts to reply to it. tie therefore promised lord 
Hardwicke to consent, the next day, when he was to see 
the duke of Newcastle. * Well then,' Said' lord Hard- 
wicke, ^ when jou consent, do it with a good grace.' The 
dean promised to do that too ; and accordingly he declared 
to the duke, the next day, bis ready .acceptance of his 
majesty's offer, with such acknowledgments of the royal 
goodness as are proper on the occasion; and on Feb; 21, 
1748, he was consecrated bishop of Bangor. 

'^ In the year 1755, the bishop of Bangor being with 
archbishop Herring at Croydon, and walking with him in 
his garden, he said, ' My Lord, you know that the bishop' 
c)f Rochester, Dr. Wilcocks, is very ill, and jitobably wilj 
not live long; will you accept of his bishopric s^nd the 
deanry of Westminster, in exchange fbr yours of Bangor ?V 
The bishop excused himself, and. told him plainly, that hift 
father being dead, and his estate come to him, he bad nbvr 
nothing in view, but to beg his majesty's leave to resigb 
the see of Bangor^ and (o r^tir^i ta a private life in> the year 



P E A R C E. 22* 

\l5i ; that so long, be was contented to continue in the 
possession of ttie bishopric of Bangor ; but that then he 
designed to try if he could obtain leave to resign, and live 
upon bis private fortune. The archbishop replied^ * I' 
doubt whether the king will grant it, or that it can be 
done.* A second time, at another visit thei^, he mentioned 
the same thing, and a second time the bishop gave him 
the same answer. But in a short time after, upon another 
tisit, when the archbishop mentioned it a third time, he 
added, * My lord, if you will give me leave to try what I 
Can do to procure you this exchange, I promise you not to 
take it amiss of you^ if you refuse it, though I should ob« 
tain the offer for you.' * This is very generous in your 
grace,' siaid the bishop, ' and 1 cannot refuse to consent 
to what you propose to do.* 

'* Sometime after, in the same year (the bishop of Roches** 
ter declining very fast), the duke of Newcastle sent to the 
bishop of Bangor, and desired to see him the next day. 
He went to him, and the duke informed him^ that he was 
toid^ that the chancellorship of Bangor was then vacant^ 
and he pressed the bishop so much to bestow it upon one 
whom he had to recommend, that the bishop consented to 
comply with his reqiiest. * Well, my lbrd>' said the duke, 
* liow I have another favour to ask of you.* * Pfay, my 
lord duke,* said the bishop, * what is that ?* * Why,' said 
the duke, ' it is, that you will accept of the bishopric of 
Rochester, and deanry of Westminster, in exchange for 
Bangor, in case the present bishop of Rochester should 
die.* * My lord,' said the bishop, * if I had thoughts of 
Exchanging my bishopric, I should prefer what you men- 
tion before any other dignities.* *Thal is not,' said th6 
duke, • an answer to my question : \^ill you accept them irt 
exchange, if they are offered to you ?* 'Your grace offers 
them to me,^ said the bishop, * in so generous and friendly 
a mafiner, that 1 promise you to accept them.* Here the 
tionversation ended ; and Dr. Wilcocks dying in the begiti- 
«ihg of the year 1756, the bishop of Bangor was promoteil 
to the bishopric of Rochester and deanry of Westminster.** 
On the death of Dr. Sherlock, bishop of London, lord 
^ath spoke to the bishop of Rochester, and offered to use 
his endeavours with his majesty fbr appoititing him to sue- 
treed thit eminent prelate; but Dr. Peah^ told him, that 
fMA the earliest time that be could remember himself t^ 
iiliv^ ^cynsidereA about bishoprics, he had determiried ti^reir 
V«>t. XXIV. Q . J 



22* IP E A R C E, 

to accept the bishoprip of London, of the archbishopric of 
Canterbury, and he begged his lordship not to make any 
application in his behalf for the vacant see of London., 
Lord Bath repeated his offer on the death of Dr. OsbaldiS': 
ton in 1763, but Dr. Pearce again declined the proposal,, 
and was indeed so far from desiring a higher bishopric,, 
that he now meditated the resignation of what he possessed^ 
This is one of the most remarkable circumstances in the 
life of Dr. Pearce. Being now (1765) seventy-three year* 
old, and finding himself less fit for the duties of bishop 
and dean, he informed his friend lord Bath of his intention 
to resign both, and to live in a retired manner upon hi» 
own private fortune ; and after much discourse upon 
the subject at different times, he prevailed upon his 
lordship at last to acquaint his majesty with his intention, 
and to desire, in the bishop's name, the honour of a pri- 
vate audience from his majesty for that purpose. Thia 
being granted, Dr. Pearce stated his motives as he had 
done to lord Bath, adding that he was desirous to retire 
for the opportunity of spending more time in his devotions 
and studies ; and that he was of the same way of thinking 
with a general officer of the emperor Charles V. who, 
when he desired a dismission from that monarch's service, 
told him,; *^ Sir, every wise man would, at the latter end 
of life, wish to have an interval between the fatigues of 
business and eternity.'' The bishop then shewed the king, 
in a written paper, instances of its haying been done seve- 
ral times, and concluded with telling his majesty, that he 
did not expect or desire an immediate answer to his' re<- 
quest, but rather that bis majesty would first consult some 
pf his ministers as to the propriety and legality of it. This 
the king consented to do ; and about two months after, he 
sent for the bisihop and told him, that he had consulted 
with two of his lawyers, lord Mansfield and lord Nprthing^ 
:ton, who saw no objection to the proposed resignation, 
and in consequence of their opinion, bis majesty signified 
his own consent. The interference, however, of lord Bath, 
in requesting that his majesty would give the bishopric and 
deanry to Dr. Newton, then bishop of Bristol, alarmed the 
ininistry, who thought that no dignities in the church should 
be obtained from the crown, but through their hands., 
Lord Northington suggested to his majesty some doubts 
on the subject, and represented that the bishops in gene-r 
ral disliked the design ; and at length Dr. Pearce was told 
by his majesty, that he piust think so more about resigQipg 



I 
) 

I • ^ 



P E A R G ft 927 

^e bishopric ; but ^^ that he would have ali the merit o^ 
paving done it." Iq 176S, however, be was permiued to 
resign his deanry, which was nearly double in point of in* 
coaae to the bishopric which be was, obliged to. retain; 

With respect to Dr. Pearce'is earnest desire of resigning 
his preferments, his biographer observes, that it gave oc^ 
casion to niuch disquisition and conjecture. ^* As it could 
iiot be founded in avarice, it was sought in vanity^ and 
Dr. Pearce was suspected as aspiring to the antiquated 
praise of contempt pf wealth, and desire of retirement.'^ 
But his biographer, who had the best opportunities ot 
judging, is of opinion, t)iat bis motives were what he pab- 
licly alleged, a desire of dismission from public cares, ancj 
of opportunity for more continued study. To a private 
friend the bishop declared that *' as he never made a sine^ 
cure of his preferments, he was now tired of business, and 
Jbeing in his 74th year^ he wished to resign while his facul- 
ties were entire, lest he might cbaiice ^o outlive then), and 
the church suffer by bis iufirmities.^' 

Being now disengaged from bis deanry, bishop Pearce 
fteexped to consider himself as freed from half his burthen^ 
and with su'ph vigour as time had left him, and such ala^ 
crity as hope cpntinued to supply^ he prosecuted his episr 
copal functions and private studies. It redounds greatly 
to his honour, that in the disposal of ecclesiastical prefer* 
ments, he never gave occasion to censure, except in th^ 
isingle instance of a, young man ^, on whom he bestowed 
the valuable rectory of Stone, in consideration of his being 
great-grandson of his first patron, the ^arl of Macclesfield, 
^hose favours, co^ferned forty years before, his gratitude 
4id not suffer him to forget. 

In 1773, by too much diligence in his officei bishop 
Pearce had exhausted his strength beyond recovery. Hav- 
ing confirmed at Greenwich, seven hundred persons, h^ 
found himself, the next day, unable to speak, and nevef 
Regained his former readiness of utterance. This hap*> 
pened gn the first of October, and from that time, be 

* 

- # The reverend Thomas Heatboote. tacked, than many panegyrict ; be- 

**.Thit appoiatment save so much of- cause it shews, that he w|io deaii^pd to 

fenpe to one, named by bimsejf Cleri- say evil, had at last tiothing to say.'' 

cus Roffeusis, who seemed to Chink the With respect to lord Macclesfield, ths 

fights of seniority Violated, that he reader will fiiid one of the ablest vindr- 

#cote against his diocesan* a pamphlet cations of that nobleman from the pen 

filled with the acrimony of disappoint- of bishop Pearce, in the " Life*' pub- 

ment ; but which mnst coiidace more li»hed by Mr. Derby. 
.tilrmite the charaoter of the man ati .."../ 

Q 2 



iii ^ £ A R G C. 

ifemained in a languishing state; bis patalytictomplsintifi^ 
Creased, and at length his power of swallowing was almost 
lost. Being asked bj one of his fatnily, who constantly^ 
attended him, how he cauld live with so little nutrimert^ 
** I live," said hej ** upon the recollection of aft innocent 
and welUspent life, which is my only sustenance.'" After 
some months of lingering decay, he died at Little Eatings 
June 29, 1774, aged eighty-four, and was buried by his 
wife in the church of Bronaiey in Kent, where a monun>ent 
is erected to his memory with anejpit^ph written by him* 
^elfj merely rehearsing the dates of bis birth and death, 
and of his various preferriients. A cehotaph was afterwards 
Erected in Westmilister-abbey, with a Latin inscription. 

Bishop Pearce married, in Feb. 22, the daughter of Mr. 
Adams, an eminent distiller in Holborn, with a consider* 
able fortune, and lived with her upwards of fifty-one y^ars 
in the highest degree of connubial happiness. Their chil^ 
dren all dying young, he made his brother Williaifi Pearce', 
esq. his heir and executor. He bequeathed his library to 
the dean and chapter of Westminster, except such books 
as they already had. His manuscripts, with the books not 
left to Westminster, and the copy-right of all his works, 
except the Longinus sold to Mr. Tonson, he gave to hi^ 
chaplain, the rev. John Derby. Besides some legacies t6 
individuals, and sortie to various public charities, he left 
a noble bequest of five thousand pk)unds Old South Se^ 
Annuities, towards the better support of the twenty widows 
of clei^ymen, who are maintained in the college of Brom-. 
ley, the funds of which had become too scanty for that 
kind of genteel provision intended by the founder, bishop 
Warner. Bishop Pearce's benefaction raised the widow's 
pensions to 30/. per ann. and the chaplain's salary to 60/. 
His heir, William Pearce, esq. who died in 1782, left a 
reversionary legacy df 12,000/. for the purpose of building 
ten houses for clergymen's widows, in addition to bishop 
Warner's college, and endowing them. This leg^acy fall- 
ing in a few years ago, 'the houses were completed i^ 
1 802. 

The diligence of bishop Pearce's early studies,' says his 
biographer, appeared by its effects ; he was first known to 
the public by philological . learning, which he coutiuued 
to cultivate in his advanced age. Cicero " De Oratore'* 
was published by him, when he was bachelor of arts, and 
Cicero ^< De Officiis^'^ when be was dean of Winchester^ 



]P E 4 5 C S^ e^9 

in 1745. Tbe edition pf Cicero undertaken by OUvet, 
prpduced a ^orreipond^nce between bimi^nd Dr* Pearce, ii^ 
wbicb Olivet express^s^ in terms of great re^pecl^ bis eateeqi 
of his learning, and bi$ cpngdence in bis criUcism, Qui Df. 
Penrce did not ^pofine bis ^tteption to the learned lan- 
giiage9 \ he was p^vticul^ly stndiqus Qf Milton's poetry^ 
and when Dr, Bentley publi^bed his imaginary emendation^ 
pf the ^^ Paradj$e LjQsV ijirro^e in opposition to thepi a fuU 
^Findioation of tbe establifdied %^^t This was puhlisbed in 
J 733, 9vo> under the ti|le of •« Review of ^he Teyt of Par 
radise Loat,'' a|id is) ww becQme v^ry 9parce; but many, 
bpth of tbe GonjectuFes and jrefatatipn^, are preserved in 
bishop Newton'^ edition^ 

In his dQiiiestiip life he was <iuie( wd pkQid, not dimcuU 
f be pleaded, nor inclined tp harass his a^te^dants or ia<- 
feriors by peevishness pr qaprioe. This oalmness of mind 
appea^d in his whole manner and depcH'iment;. His sta- 
ture was tally his appearan<?e venei^bley and his counter 
nance e^pressivie pf benevolencet 

In his piairoohial cure he was pun4:tually diligent, and 
Tery seldom pmitted to preach ; but bis sermons had np( 
aU the efieot which he desired^ for his voioe was low and 
feeble, and cpuld opt reach the whole of a numerpps cpur 
gregatiop. Those whpm it did reaoh were both pleased 
and edifipd With the good sense and sound doctrine which 
he never failed to deliver. When advanced to the honours 
of episcopacy, he did not ponsider himself as placed in a 
state that allowed him any iHsmisaiou^from the Jid>ours of his 
ministry. He was not hindered by the distance of Bango? 
from annually resorting to that diocese (one year only exr 
cepted), and discharging his episcopal duties there, tp 
IT 53; after which, having suffered greatly from the fatigue 
of his last journey, he was advised by his physician and 
feieud, Dr. Heber^eo, and prevailed upon, not to attemf^t 
another. When he accepted the bishopric of Bangor, he 
established in himself a resolution of conferring Welsh pre- 
ferments or benefices only on Welshmen ; and to this re« 
solution he adhered, in defiance of influence or importu- 
nity. He twice gave away the deanry, and bestowed 
many benefices, but always chose for his patronage the 
natives of the country, whatever might be the murmurs of 
bis relations, or the disappointment of bis chaplains. The 
diocese of Rochester conjoined, as had been for some time 
usual, with the deanry of Westminster, afforded him a 



gS0 > £ A R C £. 

bourse of duty more commodious. He divided his tim^ 
between his public offices, and his solitary studies. Hq 
preached at Bromley or Ealing, and by many years labour 
in the explication of the New Testament, produced the 
^* Commentary," &c. which was offered to th^ public after 
his decease. It was bequeathed to the care of the rev. 
John Derby, his lordship's chaplain, who published it in 
1777, in 2 vols. 4to, underthe title of ** A Commentary, 
with notes, on the Four Evangelists and the Acts of the 
Apostles, together with a new trani^ation of St. PauPs 
first epistle to the Corinthians, with a paraphrase and 
notes. To which are added other -Theological pieces.'* 
Prefixed is an elegant dedication to the king, in the name 
of the editor, but from the pen of Dr. Johnson ; and a life 
written by the bishop himself, and connected in a regular 
narrative by paragraphs, evidently by Dr. Johnson's pen. 
This life is highly interesting, and contains many ourious 
particulars which we have been obliged to omit. 

Dr. Pearce published in his life-time nine occasional 
sermons, a discourse against self-murder, which is now in 
the list of tracts distributed by the Society for promoting ' 
Christian knowledge; and soon after -the publication of 
his ^' Commentary," bis editor gave the public a coHec-« 
tion of the bishop- s <^ Sermons on various subjects," 4 vols^ 
8vo. ^ Besides what have been already specified, our au- 
thor published in 1720, a pamphlet entitled ^' An Account 
of Trinity college, Cambridge;" and in 1722, " A Letter 
to the Clergy of the Church of England^" on occasion of 
the bishop of Bochester's commitment to the Tower. He 
had also a short controversy with Dr. Middleton, against 
whom* he published " Two Letters," and fully convicted 
that writer of disingenuousdess in quotation. His editor, 
Mr. Derby, who had married his neice,< did not long sur- 
vive his benefactor, dying Oct. 8, 1778, only five dayi after ^ 
the datef of his dedication of the bishop*s " Sermons," ' 
- PEARSALL (Richakd), a pious dissenting divine, was 
born £^t Kiddenhinster in Warwickshire, Aug. 29, 1698, 
and received his education at a dissenting academy at 
Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, under Mn Jones, who was 
likewise the master of this school when IV^ssrs. Butler and 
Pecker, afterwards the well-known prelates, were educated 
t^^ it. Mr. Pearsali having been admitted into ^he ministry 

^ } Life M alitove. 



P E A R S AX L. 231 

«inong the dissenters, was settled for ten years at Bromyard, 
in Herefordshire^ and afterwards for sixteen years at War- 
minster, in Wiltshire. His last charge, for about fifteen 
years, was at Taunton, in Somersetshire, where he died 
Nov. 10, 1762. He is known in the religious world by two 
works of considerable reputation, his ** Contemplations on 
the Ocean," &c. in 2 toIs. 12mo, which are mentioned 
with respect by Hervey in the third volume of his '^ Theroa 
andAspasio;" and bis '^ReliquiaD Sacrsej" which were pub« 
lished by Dr. Gibbons, 1765, 2 vols. 12mo. They consist 
of meditations on select passages of scripture, and sacred 
dialogues between a father and his- children. He is much 
an imitator of Hervey^ particularly in his ^^ Contempla- 
tions," but has less imagination, although enough to catch 
the attention of young reader's. ^ 

PEARSON (John), a very learned English bi8hop,Vas 
born Feb. 12, 1612, at Snoring in Norfolk; of which place 
his father was rector. In 1623 he was sent to Eton school ; 
whence he was elected to King^s coUe^, Cambridge, in 
1632* He took the degree of B. A. in 1635, and that of 
master in 1639; in which year he resigned bis fellowship 
of the college, and lived afterwards a fellow- commoner in 
it. The same year he entered into orders, and was collated 
to a prebend in the church of Sarum. In 1640 he was 
appointed chaplain to Finch, lord-keeper of the great seal ; 
by whom in that year he was presented .to the living of 
Torrington, in Suffolk. Upon the breaking out of the civil 
war he became chaplain to the lord Goring, whom he at- 
tended in the army, and afterwards to sir Robert Cook in 
London. In 1650 he was made minister of St. Clement's, 
Eastcheap, in London. In 1657 he and Gunning, after- 
wards bishop of Ely, had a dispute with two Roman catho- 
lics upon . the subject of schism. This conference was 
roaoaged in writing, and by mutual agreement nothing was 
to be made public without the consent of both parties ; yet 
a partial account of it was published in 1658, by one of the 
Romish disputants, cum prtvilegio^ at Paris, with this title, 
^^ Schism unmasked; a late conference," Scc*^ In 1639 

1 Gibbons's Preface. 

* To the piece if, '* A Preface of to Mr. Den*s Quaker no Papist, hy 

the Catholic disputauts, contaioing the Mr. Thomas ^mith, of Christ's-college 

proceedings of both parties on matter in Cambridge," Lond. 1G59. Thecon- 

Qf fact." There is an account of this ference was reprinted at Oxford durin.ir 

publication in a piece entitled *' A. the reign of king James II. under this 

Gagg for the Quakers i with an Answer title, ** Th^ Schism of the Church »f 



23a PEARSON. 

lie published ^^ An Exposition of the Creed," ai I^ondon^ 

in 4to ; dedicated to hia parisbiopers of St. Clemem^&gi 
Eastcheap, to whpoi the substance of that excelleot wprli^ 
kad been preached several years, before^ and by whom hQ 
had been desired to noake it public. This ^ £.xpositi.€K»» ' 
which has gone through twelve or thirteen edition^i is ac-r 
counted cMie of the most finisihed pieces of theology in ow 
language, it is itself a body of divinity^ the style' of which 
is just; the periods^ for the most part, well turned; tbi« 
method very exact ; and it is, upQu the whoie^ free from 
those errors which are toQ often found in theological 
, systems. There is a traoslation of itlnto Latin by a foreign 
divine, who styles himself ^^ Simon Joannes Arnoldus, Eccle?; 
siarum balliviae, sive prsefeeturae Sonnenburgensis Inspec- 
tor;" and a very valuable and judicious abridgment was in 
18 to published by the rev. Charles Burney, LU D. F. R« S. 
In the same year (165.9) bishop Pearson, published ^^The 
Golden Remains of the ever-rmemorable Mr. John Hales^ 
of Eton ;*^ to which he wrote a preface, containing the 
character of that great man, with whom he had been, acr 
quainted for many years, drawn with great elegance and 
force. Soon after the restoration he was presented by 
Juxon, then bishop of London, to the rectory of St. Christ 
topher*s, in that city ; created D. D. at Cambridge^ in 
pursuance of the king's letters mandatory; installed pre-* 
bendary of Ely^ archdeacon of Surrey, and made master 
'of Jesus college, Cambridge;* all before the endof 166Q. 
March 25, 166}, he succeeded Dr. Love in the Mai^aret 
professorship of that university ; and, the first day of the 
ensuing year, was nominated one of the commissioners for 
the review of the liturgy in the conference at the Savoy, 
where the nonconformists allow he was the first of their 
opponents for candour and ability. In April 1662, he was 
admitted master of Trinity college, Camltridge; and, in 
August resigned bis rectory of St. Christopher's, and pre« 
bend of Sarucp. In 1667 he was admitted a fellow of the 
royal society. In 1672 he published, at Cambri4ge, in 
4to, ^ Vindiclse Epistolarum S. Igoajtii,'' in answer to 
nions. Daille ; to which is subjoined, ** Isaaci Vossii epis* 

Eni^Iand demonstrated in four Argu. bridf^e in 1688, 4t6, under this title, 

nents," &c. which was scon afier ani- <* The ReforiDation of the Cbureh of 

knadverted upon by William Saywelf, England justified, &c. being an An« 

D, I), master of Jesus-coHrge, Cam- 8w<>r to a paper reprinted at Oxford^ 

l^rid^e^ i9 a pamphlet printed at Cam- callfid, The Schisme/' &c\ 



PEARSON. «S 



tobe dds adv^tsas Davtdett BloA4ellttm.^* Upon the 
death of Wiikins^ bishop of Chester, Pearson was prof 
noted to that see, to whidi he vas coAsoecated Feb, 9, 1673. 
In 1684 his '^ Aatiales Cypriaaici) save tredecita annoruoiy 
quibas S. Cyprian, inter Christianos Tersatus est, bkttoria 
chroDokgica^^' was pnblished at Oxford, with Fell's edition 
of that father's works* Dr. Pearson was disabled from all 
p\ihlio service by ill healthy having emticely lost his me^ 
mory, a consider^le time befieure his death, which hoif^ 
Opened at Chester, July 16, 1686. Two years after, his 
pQsdiumous works were publi^ied by Dodwell at London, 
^^CLJoaanis Pearsoni Cestrienais nuper Episcopi opera 
posthuma, &c. &c.'' There are extant two sermons pob-^ 
lished hy him, 1. ^^ No Necessity for a Reformation,'' 166 1, 
4to. 2. ** A Sermon preached before the King, on Eccles. 
Tii. 14, published by his majesty's special command," 1671^ 
4to. An anonymous writer in the Gentleman's Magazioe 
(nS9 p. 493) speaks of some unpviblished MSS. by bishop 
Pearson in his possession. His MS notes on Suidas are in 
the library of Trinity college, Cambridge, and were used 
by Kuster in his edition. 

Oar prelate was reckoned an excellent preacher, very 
judjcioas and learned, particuJariy accurate and exact in 
chronology, and well versed in the fathers and the eccle<^ 
aiastioal historiai^s. Dr. Bentiey used to say that bishop 
Pearson's " very dross was gold." In bishop Burnet's 
opinion he ^' was in all respects the greatest divine of his 
Age." ^ Bishop Huet also, to whom he communicated va^- 
rious readings on some parts of Origen's works, gives hint 
a high character. But; as Burnet reminds us, he was an 
affecting instance ^^ of what a great man can fall to ; for his 
memory went from him so entirely, that he became a child 
aoime years before he died." He had a younj^er brother 
Richard, professor of civil law in Gresham college, and 
under-keeper of the royal library at St. James's, of whom 
Ward gives some account, but there is nothing very in- 
teresting in his history. ^ 

PECHANTRE (Nicolas de), a French wit, the son of 
a surgeon of Toulouse, where he was born in 1638, wrote 
several Latin poems, which were reckoned good^ but ap- 
plied himself chiefly to the poetry of his native country.. 

1 Biog. Brit — Cole's MS Athense in Brit. Museum.-— Ward's Gresbam^Pro^ 
lessors.— Burnet's Own Time«. ' - 



034 PECHANTRE- 

Having been three times honoured with the laurel at the 
academy of the Floral games, he wrote a.^ tragedy called 
Gela, which was acted, in 1687, with applause, in conse- 
quence of which he published it, with a dedication to the 
first prince of the blood. He wrote, also ^'Le sacrifice 
d' Abraham ;*' and/^ Joseph vendu par ses Freres,'* two sin- 
gular subjects for tragedies ; but received with favour. He 
produced besides a tragedy called ^< La Mort de Neron,'* 
concerning which an anecdote is related, which nearly 
coincides with one which is current here, as having hap- 
pened to our dramatic poet Fletcher. He wrote usually 
at public-houses, and one day left behind him a paper, 
containing his plan for that tragedy ; in which, after va- 
rious marks and abbreviations, he had written at large, 
.^Mci le roi sera tu6 :'' Here the king is to be. killed. 
The tavern-keeper, conceiving that he had found the seeds 
of a plot, gave information to the magistrate. The poet 
was accordingly taken up ; but on seeing his paper, which 
he had missed, in the hands of the person who had seized 
him, exclaimed eagerly, *^ Ah ! there it is ; the very scene 
which I had planned for the death of Nero." With this clue, 
bis innocence was easily made out, and he was discharged. 
Pecbantre died at Paris in 1709, being then seventy-one; : 
be bad exercised the profession of physic for some time, 
till he quitted it for the more arduous task of cultivating 
the drama. ^ 

PECHMEJA (John de), a man of letters in France, who 
was for some time professor of eloquence in the royal col- 
lege of la Fleche, was born in 1741, at Villa Franca in 
Bouergue. He was a disinterested scholar, a plain, modest, 
and virtuous man. His eulogium on the great'Colbert re- 
ceived the public approbation of , the French academy in 
1773. His principsfl fame has arisen from a poem (as he 
calls it) in prose, named <* Telephus," in twelve books. 
It was published in octavo in 1784, and is said to have been 
translated into English. The piece is well written, and 
contains, among other things, a beautiful picture of true 
friendship, of vibich he himself afforded a noble example. 
Pechmeja, and M. du Breuil, an eminent physician of the 
time, were the Py lades and Orestes of their age. The for-* 
mer bad a severe illness in 1776, when his friend flew to 
bis assistance, and from that time' they were inseparable, 

J Moreri.— Diet. Hist 



P E C H M E J A. iis 

Itnd had every thing in common. A person once inquired 
of Pechmeja what income he possessed, ** I have/* said he^ 
** 1200 livres a-year*" Some wonder being expressed hoir 
he could subsist on so little, ** Ob/* said he, '^ the doctor 
has plenty more.^ The doctor died first of a contagious 
disorder, through which his friend attended him, and died 
only twenty days after, a victim to the strength of his friend<» 
4ihip. He died about the end of April 1785, at the age of 
only forty-f6ur. * 

PECK (Francis), a learned antiquary, the younger son 
of Robert and Elizabeth Peck, was born in the parish of 
St, John the Baptist, at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, May 4, 
and baptized May 12, 1692. His mother^s maiden name 
was Jephson. It does not appear at what seminary he re* 
ceived the early part of his education ; but it was probably 
at the grammar-school of his nat,ive town. He completed 
bis studies at Trinity-college, Cambridge, where he took 
thedegreeof B.A. 1715; and of M. A. 1727. 

The first work discovered of his writing is "To 34^^ aymi 
4)f an Exercise on the Creation, and an Hymn to the Creator 
of the World ; written in the express words of the Sacred 
Text ; as an attempt to shew the Beauty and Sublimity of 
Holy Scripture," 1716, 8vo. This was followed by a poem, 
entitled ^^ Sighs on the Death of Queen Anne," published 
in 1719 ; subjoined to which are three poems, viz. 1. ** Pa- 
raphrase on part of the cxxxixth Psalm." 2. "The Choice," 
3. " Verses to Lady Elizabeth Cecil, on her Birth-day, 
Nov. 23, 1717." At the end of this work he mentions, as 
preparing for the press, *^ The History of the two last 
31onths of King Charles I." and solicits assistance; but 
this never was published. He also mentions a poem on 
Saul and Jonathan, not then published. During his resi* 
dence at the university, and perhaps in the early part of 
it, he wrote a comedy called the " Humours of the Uni- ' 
Ti^rsity ; or the Merry Wives of Cambridge." The MS. of 
this comedy is now in the possession of Octavius Gilchrist, 
esq. of Stamford, who has obliged the editor with a tran- 
script of the preface *• 

1 Diot Hist. 

* ** It may be necessary to inform no pleasure in drawing those descrip- 

4be reader, that the university cha- tious which scandalize ih« place of my 

racters m this play are of those despi* education^ were it not to inform' the 

cable wretches only who dishonour a libertine that a college is sacred in a 

college, and are generally expelled as double sense $ to learning, and what 

fK>on as discovered. For I should take is beyond it^ to religion. 



««6 PECK, 

In August 1719) hii occurs cerate of King's Cliffy in 
NorthamptQa^hirey and iq 1721 be pfF<^red to the world 
proposals for printing tb^ history find antiquities of bis P&*- 
tive tgwn. In 1723^ hq obtaiped tb^ rectory of Godeby 
Maurew^rd^ by purcbaa^, from Sapimel Lpwe^ esq. who ait 
tthat time was Iprd of ibe oianor, and patron of the ad*- 
yow^n. In 1727^ he drew up a poetical description of 
JSelvoir and its neighbourhood^ which is printed in Mr« 
Kichols^s History of Leicestershire; and in i^at year bit 
first considerable work appeared, und^r the title of '^ Aca-> 
de^nia Tertia Anglicana ; or, The Antiquarian Annals of. 
Stanford, in Lincoln, Rutland, and Northampton Shires; 
containing the History of the University, Monasteriea» 
Gilds, Churches, Chapels, Hospitals, and Schools there,'^ 
^c« ornamented with XLI plates ; and inscribed to John 
duke of Rutland) in an elaborate dedication, which con*^ 
tains a tolerably complete history of the principal events of 
that illustrious family, from the founder of it at vhe Coni- 
quest. This publication was evidently hastened by ^^An Essay 
on the ancient and present State of Stamford, 1726,*' 4to^ 
by Francis Hargrave, who, in the preface to his pamphlet, 
mentions a difference which had arisen between him and 
Mr. Peck, because his publication forestalled that intended 
by the latter. Mr. Peck is also rather roughly treated, oq 
account of a small work he had formerly printed, entitled 
" The History of the Stamford Bull-running." In 1729, 
be printed a single sheet, containing, ^* Queries concern^ 
ing the Natural History and Antiquities of Leicestershire 
and Rutland," which were afterwards reprinted in 174(X 
He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
March 9, 1732, and in that year he published the first vo» 
lume of ^^ Desiderata Cu^osa; or, A Collection of dii^ers 
scarce and curious Pieces, relating chiefly to matters of 

" Wit ceases to be so when it plays " The u Diversity then is pot intend.- 

upon religion or good manners, and, ed to be affronted, or the nobility and 

in my opinion, he hath but an awk- gentry discouraged from sending tbeir 

ward genius «ho can't exert himself sons thither for education. The satire 

without affrouting Ood, or the most is just, and no man need quarrel, but 

Taluable part of mankind. be who knows it to be.his own character. 

*< Wherefore the good and virtuous " To conclude, 1 was incapable of 

man hath no reason to be angry with drawing a man of fine sense, iu so 

him who- shows him the pictures of much perfection as be ia frequently 

some persons who dishonour that sa* met with in the nnirersity ; and tiiera»> 

cred place, more by their scandalous fore waved that graceful part for fesMc 

behaviour than any writer can by the of doing injustioe to it, thro' die feiat»> 

discovery of shamefiil truths, or de« oess of my strokes, and the wdakocss 

scriptions of^viMaioous falsehoods. of my descriptions." ' 



. PECK. as» 

4 • 

English Itistory; consisting of choice Tracts, Menioirs, 
Letters, Wills, Epitaphs, &c. Transcribed, many of 
them, from the originals thenisielves, and the rest from di->- 
ters ancient MS Copies, or the MS Collations of sundry 
famous Antiquaries, and other eminent Persons, both of the 
hist and present age : the whole, as nearly as possible, di-^ 
gested into order of time, and illustrated with ample Notes^ 
Contents, additional Discourses^ and a complete Index.'* 
This volume was dedicated to lord William Manners ; and 
was followed, in 1735; by a second volume, dedicated to 
Dr. Reynolds, bishop of Lincoln. There being only 250 
copies of these volumes printed, they soon became scarce 
and high-priced, and were reprinted in one volume, 4to', by 
subscription, by the late Mr. Thomas Evans, in 1779, 
without, however, any improvements, or any attempt, 
which might perhaps have been dangerous by an unskilful 
hand, at a better arrangement. In 1735, Mr. Peck printed, 
in a quarto pamphlet, ** A complete Catalogue of all the 
Discourses written both for and against Popery, in the 
tinie of King James the Second; containing, in the whole 
&n account of four hundred and fifty-seven Books and 
Pamphlets, a great number of theth not mentioned in the 
three former Catalogues ; with references after each title, 
for the more speedy finding a further Account of the said 
Discourses arid their Authors in sundry Writers, and an 
Alphabetical List of the Writers on each side." In 1736, 
he obtained, by the favour of bishop Reynolds, the pre- 
bendal stall of Marston St. Lawrence, in the cathedral 
church of Lincoln. In 1739, he v^as the editor of "Nine- 
leen Letters of the truly reverend and learned Henry 
Hammond, D. D. (author of the Annotations on the New 
Testament, &c.) written to Mr. Peter Stainnough and Dr» 
Nathaniel Angelo, many of them on curious subjects,** 
&c. These were printed from the originals, communi- 
cated by Mt. Robert Marsden, archdeacon of Nottingham, 
and Mr. John Worthington. The next year, 1740, pro- 
duced two volumes in quarto; one of them entitled "Me- 
moirs of the life and actions of Oliver Cromwell, as de* 
livered in three Panegyrics of him written in Latin ; th6 
first, as said, by Don Juan Roderiguez de Saa Meneses, 
Conde de PenguiaO, the Portugal Ambassador; the se- 
cond, as affirmed by a certain Jesuit, the lord ambassador's 
Chaiplain ; yet both, it is thought, composed by Mr. John 
Milton (Latin Secretary to Oliver Cromtvell), as was the 



i^» 



> E C K . 



.third : with an English version of each. The whole itltisf 
trated with a large Historical Preface -, many similar pas-' 
sages from the Paradise Lost) and other works of Mr. John 
Milton, and Notes from the best historians. To all which 
is added, a Collection of divers curious Historical Pieces 
relating to Cromwell, and a great number of other remark-^ 
able persons (after the mariner of Desiderata Curiosa, voU 
1. and II.)" The other, " New Memoirs of the Life an4 
Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton ; with, first, an Exa-* 
mination of Milton^s Style ; and, secondly. Explanatory 
and Critical Notes on divers passages in Milton and Shakr 
speare, by the £lditor. Thirdly, Baptistes ; a sacred Dra- 
matic Poem in Defence o^ Liberty, as written in Latin by 
Mr. George Buchanan, translated into English by Mr^ 
John Milton, and first published in 1641, by oirderofthe 
House of Commons. Fourthly, The Parallel, or arch^ 
bishop Laud and cardinal Wolsey compared, a vision, by 
Milton. Fifthly, The Legend of sir Nicholas Throckmor- 
ton, knt. Chief Butler of England, who died of poison, 
anno 1570, an Historical Poem, by his nephew sir Thomas 
Throckmorton, knt. Sixth, Herod the Great> by the Edi- 
tor. Seventh, The Resurrection, a Poem, in imitation of 
Milton, by a Friend. And eighth, a Discourse on tbg 
Harmony of the Spheres, by Milton ; with Prefaces and 
Notes." Of these his ** Explanatory and Critical Notes 
on divers passages of Shakspeare" seem to prove that 
the mode of illustrating Shakspeare by extracts from con* 
temporary writers, was not entirely reserved for the mo- 
dern commentators on our illustrious Uard, but had oc-f 
curred to Mr. Peck. The worst circuo^tance respecting 
this volume is the portrait of Milton, engraved from a 
painting which Peck got from sir John Mere? of Kirkby-* 
Beler in Leicestershire. He was not a little proud to pos<^' 
sess this painting, which is certainly not genuine ; and what 
is worse, he appears to have known that it was not genu-* 
ine. Having asked Vertue whether he thought it a picture 
of Milton, and Vertue peremptorily answering in the ne^ 
gative. Peck replied, "I'll have a scraping from it, how-* 
ever : and let posterity settle the difference." 

In 1742, Mr. Peck published his last work : ^^FourDis*^ 
courses, viz. 1. Of Grace, and how to excite it. 2. Jesus 
Christ the true Messiah, proved from a consideration of 
bis miracles in general. 3. The same proved* from a con^ 
jsideration of his resurrection in particular. 4. The he^ 



PECK. ^39 

cessitjr and advantage of good laws and good magistrates : 
as deiiyered in two visitation and two assize^sermons.'*" 
At this time he bad in contemplation no less than nine 
different works; but whether he bad not met with encou- 
ragement for those which he had already produced, or 
whether he was rendered incapable of executing themb^ 
reason of his declining health, is uncertain ; none of them^ 
however, ever were made public. He concluded a labo* 
rious, and it may be affirmed, an useful life, wholly de- 
voted to antiquarian pursuits, Aug. 13, 1743, at the ao-e 
of sixty<^one years. He was buried in the church of Godeby^ 
with a Latin inscription. There are two portraits of him ; 
one^ in his *< Memoirs of Milton ; the other prefixed to the 
second edition of his " Desiderata Curiosa,". inscribed^ 
** Francis Peck, A. M. natus Stanfordias, 4 Maii, mdcxcii.'* 
By his wife, the daughter of Mr. Curtis of Stamford, he had 
two sons, Francis, a clergyman, who died in 1749, rector 
of Gunby in Lincolnshire; and Thomas, who died young; 
and a daughter, Anne, widow (in 1794) of Mr. John SmaU 
ley, farmer at Stroxton in Lincolnshire. 
. The greater part of Mr. Peck's MSS. became the pro- 
perty of sir Thomas Cave, bart. Among others, he pur- 
chased 5 vols, in ' 4to, fairly transcribed for the press, in 
Mr. Peck's own neat hand, under the title of ^' Monasticoit 
Anglicanunu'' These volumes were, on the 1 4th of May,r 
1779, presented to the British Museum, by the last sir 
Thomas Cave, after the death of his father, who twenty 
years before had it in contemplation to bestow them on that 
excellent repository. They are a most valuable ^nd almost 
inestimable collection, and we hope will not be neglected 
by' the editors of the new edition of Dugdale. Mr. Peck's 
4>ther literary projects announced in the preface to his 
"Desiderata," and at the end his " Memoirs of Cromwell,'* 
are, 1. "Desiderata Curiosa," vol. IIL Of. this Mr. Ni- 
^bolfi has a few ttcattered fragments. 2. " The Annals of 
i^Canford continued." 3. " The History and Antiquities 
of the; Town and Soke of Grantham, in Lincolnshire." 

4. "The Natural History and Antiquities of Rutland." 

5. ** The Natural History and Antiquities of Leicester* 
•hire." The ; whole of Mr. Peck's MSS. relative to this 
work, were purchased by sir Thomas CaVe, in 1754, whose 
grandson, with equal liberality and propriety, presented 
them to Mr. Nichols for the use of his elaborate history ot 
that county. It appears from one of Mr. Peck's MSS. on 



UO P t C K. 

Ldcestershire, that he meditated a ebaptef on appariticXfi^ 
in which he cordially believed. 6. *^ The Life of Mr. Ni«^ 
chokia Ferrar, of Little Gtdding^ in ihe county of Hiin-f 
tittgdon, gent, oommonly called the Protectant St. Nicho-^ 
}as, and the pious Mr. George Berber t*s Spiritual Brother^ 
done from original MSS." This MS. of Ferrar is novir in the 
possession of Mr. Gilchrist of Stamford^ before meotioaed^ 
who informs us that there is nothing in it beyond wiiatoiay ' 
be found in. Peckard's Life of Ferrar. 7. ** The Lives of 
William fiurton, esq. author of the Antiquities of Leices-* 
tershire^ and bis brother Robert Burton, B. D. stu^nt of 
Christ-church, and rector of Seagrave, in Leicestershire, 
better known by the name of Democritusf jun.** Mr. Ni-» 
cbols had also the whole of this MS. or plan^ which was 
merely an outline. 8. " New Memoirs of the Restoratidii 
of King Charles the Second (which may be considered aisor 
as an Appendix to secretary Thurloe's Papers)> containing 
the copies of Two Hundred and Forty*-six Original Letters 
and Papers, all written annis 1658, i659y amd 1660 (none 
of them ever yet printed). The whole comtnu^MCated by 
William Cowper, esq. Clerk of the Parliament." In 1731^ 
Mr. Peck drew up a curious ** Account of the Asshebys and 
De la Launds, owners of Blo^ham, in the county of Lia^ 
coin," a MS. in the British Museum. Mr. Gilchrist has 
a copy of Langbaine's Lives, carefully intei'lined by him^ 
whence it should seetti that he meditated aci enlargemetit 
of that very useful volume. Mr. Peck also left a great 
many MS sermons, some of which are in the possession of 
the same gentleman, who has obligingly favQured us witb 
some particulars of the Stamford antiquary.* 

PECKHAM (John), archbishop of Canterbury in thi 
reign of Edward I. was born in the county of Sudsex, aboiA 
1240, and educated in the monanery at Lew^ whence 
he was sent to Oxford, and became a minorite friar. Him 
name occurs in the registers of Merton-cdlege, which wa* 
founded in his time, but not with suiBdient precision to 
enable us to say that he was educated there. He was^ 
however, created D. D. at this university, and read publie 
lectures. Pits says he was professor of divintly, &nd after- 
wards provincial of his order in England. H« appears X^ 
have been twi<se at Paris, where he also read l<;ctures wi^K 
great applause. He went from Paris, after bis seooiul 

 • a 

/ .4 . , . • 

^ Nichols's L«icefitershire-^Bd Bowj[«v.-— WartoD'tf Miltoi^ f » 545* ; 



PEC K H A M. Wt 

vidty to Lyons, where he obtained a canonry in the ta* 
tfaedral, which Godwin and. Cave inform usvwas held with 
the archbishopric of Caiiterbnry for two centuries after. 
Faller says it was a convenient half-way house between 
Canterbury and Rome. He then went to Rome, where 
the pope appointed him auditor or chief* judge of his pa* 
lace, but Leland calls the office which the pope bestowed 
upon him that df Palatine lecturer or reader, ** lector, ut 
vocant, Palatinus.** In 1278, this pope consecrated hint 
archbishop of Canterbury, on Peckham's agreeing to pay 
his. holiness the sum of 4000 marks, which there is some 
xeasoB to think be did not pay ; at least it is certain he 
was so slow in veikiitting it, that the pope threatened te 
excommunicate kim. - , 

On his anivai in Snglaud, he summoned a convocation 
at Lambeth, reformed various abuses iif the church, and 
punished several of the clergy for holding pluralities, or 
for being ndn*residents; nor did he spare the laity, of what-* 
ever rank^ if found guilty of incontinence. In 1282 he 
went 1x1 person to the prince of Wales, then at Snowdon^ 
m order to bring about a reconciliation between him and 
r the king (Edward I.) but was unsuccessful, and therefore^ 
ivhen on his return he passed through Oxford, he excom^ 
Bfiunicated^the prince and his followers. He died at Mort- 
lake, in 1292, and was buried in Canterbury cathedral^ 
Bear the remains of St. Thomas a Becket. Godwin repre* 
sents him as a man of great state and outward pomp, but 
easily accessible and liberal, except to the Jews, whom he 
persecuted severely. He founded a college at Wingham^ 
ID Kent, which at the dissoldtion had an annual revenue of 
i 84/. Wood, in his *^ Annals,*' makes fiequent mention of 

I , Peckham's attention to the interests of the university of 

I Oxford; and in some of his regulations he showed his taste 

and learning in censuring certain logical and grammatical 
absurdities which prevailed in the schools, and appears to 
have always promoted discipline and good morals. Tan- 
ner enumerates a great number of his works on divinity, 
which show him accomplished in all the learning of his age. 
' These remain, however, in manuscript, in our different ii« 

braries, except some of his letters published by Whartpn^ 
s^nd his statutes, institutions, &e. in the ^' Concil. Mag. 
Brit et Hib. vol. II." Two only of his woifks were pub- 
lished, separately, and often reprinted; viz. hb '* Collec-* 
ianea Bibliorum libri quinque," Colon. l^iS, 1691 '^ Paris, 
Vol. XXIV. R 



242 P E t! Q: U E T- 

15 \4 ;:ancl bU.^VPer^p^ctiva Comiminis," Venice, 1504 j 
Colon. 1592,. Norioib, 1542, and Paris, 1556, 4tQ.^ 
. PECOCK. See PEACOCK- 

PECQUET (John), a learned anatomist, and a natire 
of Dieppe, a considerable author of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, has rendered bis name famous by his discovery of 
the tborticic duct, and the receptacle of the chyle ; with 
wbicb, however, some alledge that Bartbolomeus Eusta* 
Hcbius was acquainted before him. But tfae world is obliged 
to Pecquet for shelving, beyond $iU contradiction, that the 
lacteal vessels convey the chyle tp this receptacle ; and for 
proving that il| is^ thence carried, by particular vessels, 
through the thorax, almost as high as the left isboulder, 
and there thrown into the left subclavian vein, and so di- 
rectly carried to the heart. He died at Paris, in February 
1674. The work in which be published the discovery was: 
entitled ^* Experimenta nova Anatpmica, quibus incogni- 
tum bactenus Chyli Receptaculum, et ab eo per Thoracem 
in Ramos usque subclavios Vasa lactea delegnntur ;'' to 
which was subjoined a dissertation, *^ De Circulatione San* 
guinis et Chyli Motu," 1651. It was reprinted in 165-4, 
together with' an essay ** De Thoracis lacteb,'' in answer 
to Riolan ; and many subsequent editions have appeared.* 
PEDRUSI, or PEDRUZZI (Paul), a learned anti- 
quary, was born of a noble family at Mantua, in 1 646.. He 
entered himself among the Jesuits, and became distirirt 
guished for his deep knowledge of history and antiquities. 
His private character too was such as made him beloved bj^ 
every person who knew him., He was chosen by Rannuncio, 
duke of Parma, to arrange bis rich and curious cabinet of 
medals, of which, in 1694, he began to publish an account 
under the title of " I Csesari in oro raccoiti nel Farnese 
Musseo o publicati colle loro congrue iiiterpretazioni ;'* and 
be continued his labours till his death, Jan. 20, 1721. This 
work, in its complete form, consists of ten vols, folio, and 
bears the title of ^< Museo Farnese ;'' but is not held in so 
much estimation on the continent as to bear a high price. '^ : 
PEELE (George), an English poet, wbp flourished in 
the reijgn of queen Elizabeth, was a native of Devonshire 
He was first educated at Broadgate^s Hall, but was some 
time afterwards made a student of Christ Church college, 
Oxford, about 1573, where, after going tbcough all the 

* Tanner. — Cave," — Whiirton's Anglia Sacra. — Archaeologia, vol. X. 

• £loy,-*Di6t. Hiat de Medicine. » Moreri.— Diet. Hist» 



P E E L E. 24i 

• » t 

several forms of logic and philosophy, and taking all the 
necessary steps, he was admitted to his master of arts degree 
in 1570. After this it appears that he removed to London, 
became the city poet, and had the ordering of the pageants. 
He lived on the Bank-side, over against Black-friars, and 
maintained the estimation in his poetical capacity which he 
had acquired at the university, which seems to have been 
of no inconsiderable Vank. He was a good pastoral poet ; 
and Wood informs us that his plays were not only often 
acted with great applause in his life-time, but did also 
endure reading, with due commendation, many years after 
his death* He speaks of him, however, as a more volu-** 
minous writer in that way than he appears to have beet)^' 
mentioning his dramatic pieces by the distinction of tra- 
gedies anil comedies, and has given us a list of those which 
be says he had seen ; but in this he must have made some 
mistake, as he has divided the several incidents in one of 
them, namely, his " Edward I.'* in such manner as to 
make the " Life of Lleweliirt," and the " Sinking of Queen 
Eleanor,'' two detached and separate pieces of themselves; 
the error of which will be seen in the perusal of the whole 
title of this play. He moreover tells us, that the last* 
mentioned piece, together with a ballad on the same sub- 
ject, was, in his time, usually sold by the common ballad- 
mongers. The real titles of the plays written by this 
author, of which five only are known, are, L ** The Arraign- 
ment of Paris," 1584, 4to. 2. *' Edward the First, 1593," 
4to. 3. " King David and Fair Bethsabe," 1599, 4to. 4. 
" The Turkish Mahomet and Hyren the Fair Greek.'* 5, 
** The Old Wives Tale," a comedy, 1595, 4to. 
\ Wood and Winstanley, misguided by former cataloguesi 
have also attributed to him another tragedy, called ** AW 
pbonsus,' emperor of Germany." But this, Langbaine 
assures us, was written by Chapman, he himself having th« 
play in his possession, with that author's name to it. 
About 1593 Peele seems to have been taken into the pa- 
tronage of the earl of Northumberland, to whom be dedi- 
cated in that year, ** The Honour of the Garter, a poem 
gratulatorie, the Firstling, consecrated to his noble name.** 
He was almost as famous for his tricks and merry pranks as 
Scoggau, Skelton, or Dick Tarleton; and as. there are 
books of theirs in print, so there is one of bis called 
^* Merrie conceited Jests of George Peele, gent, sometime 
student in Oxford; wherein is shewed the course of bia 

R 3 ' 



94^ !^ E £ L E; 

life, how lie lived/* &c. 1627, 4to« These jesU, as tbey 
«re called^ might with more propriety be termed the tricks 
of a shanper. Peele died before 15^8, of the coiisequence» 
of his debaucheries* Oldys says he left behind htm a wife 
and a daughter. He seems to have been a person of a 
very irregular life ; and Mr. Steevens, with great proba- 
bility, supposes, that the character of George Pieboard, in 
VThlft Puritan,** was de#igaed as a, representative of George 
l^eelQ. 8eei a> note on that cpqi^ily^ as publ^hed by VU^ 
li^aloaeJ ? - . .. 

P£GQ£ (8AMtJSL},,an'emio€tntaj^d.|abpriousaotiqQaryy 
descended. fifom aa , ancient family in. Derbyshire, was the 
son of Christopher Peigg^ a wpolieu-dir^per, and was bom 
at Che;$'terfield» Nov. j», 1704* He was Emitted a peo«- 
sipner of Sl,^ John's cc^lege, XanU)iridge, May 20, 1722^ 
and in Novembi^rMV^as ^elected. a schQlar.itpoD Lupton's 
finindalion. In Jan. 1 725 he took bis degree of B. A. and 
in Mar(;h;172l$ was,el^te.4 U>t a fellowsdiip,. wbiob he^ did 
00^ bold long, owing^tQ a-singular circumstaupe. His feU 
low ; competitor, was Mr^ Michael Bui^ton, whp bad.th^ 
supeiior righjt as being a-k|in jto the. fpwder of tb^ fellow 
ship, hut this cjaimwaa-set ailid^, p\ying to his b^ing de- 
ficient in.liteiratMre. He now artfqlly applied, to the coli^ 
l^ge ibr ,a testimp^Qial, that b^ might receive orders, and 
vndfertaE;^ some cure ia tbc^ vicinity of Cambridge ;,and thia 
hwif^ unadvisedly. granted, h^ immediately Appealed: ta 
the visitor {Dr.Tbov^as Greene, bishop of Ely), represent- 
ing tbi|t, as. the college had, by the testimonial, thought 
h|.m qualified for prdination^. it could, not, injustice, defsm 
him unworthy of becoming a fellow of « the. society. Tha 
9Ptisequei;i.ce^was,.tba|; the visitor found .hims^elf relnctantly 
obliged to ^jept Mr.Pegg^ and Burton took pos$es$ioo, o.f 
%\j^ fellov^ship*. The visitor, however, recomm^nfled Mx* 
^^gg^ in sapb a manpier to the muster and seniors of the 
college, that h^ was .from that, time coi^sider^ as(an bo^ 
oorary member pf the bpdy of f<ello;is;s {(anyufim fiocius)^ and 
kept his seat ^t their table and in the (^ba,pi^l, .b^ing placed 
la. the siti^atioq^.of a f/ellawncommoner. .Feeling, yiet more 
the indignity of i;h€^ trick i^layed upon tb^<n.by Qurton, thejf 
^bose /Mr. Pe^ge tp,a Platt-f^Howship in ,17;2^^, ... 
: plassiqarcriticiaip. being onje of his^ earliest studies, itia 
fought that he bad before this time meditated^ )an editioQ 

> }Vtog. Dram.— Warton's HJit o^ Pbistrjr. — Atb. 6x. vtfK I. new e<li 
tUrkUker«nfei;'ran.'4i:^»QdUi. < • 



P E G G K. ir4* 

t>f Xeaopbdn's " df ropeedia^* antl ^* Anafcasis/* ifrttm a cal- 
lation of thera withf the DaportMS; in theilibrjify bf Ettort, 
to convince the world that he had not been unjustJy pre- 
ferred to Burton ; biit this undertaking was pr6bably pre*, 
vented by the appearance of Hutcbinson^s edition. HaV- 
ing t&ken the degree of M, A. in July 1729, he was or- 
dained deacon in December, and prieistin February follow* 
ing, on both occasions by Hr. Baker, bishop of Norwich. 
His first clerical employnyent \vks accurate to the ReV. Dr. 
John Lyncb, at Sandwich, in Kem. This he held fr^m 
Lady Day 1730, to Midsummer 1731, when 'he' removed 
to Bishopsbour^ne, another living belongiiijrito Dr. Lyn«b, 
who at the end of the same year procured fof him th^ liv* 
ing of Gddmersham. , • ' 

Being now possessed of ai living, and of 'some indepencK 
cnt personal property iirherited from his mother,- be ihar* 
ried, in April 1732, miss Anne Clarke, the only daughter 
of Benjamin Clarke, esq. 6f Stanley, near Wafcefidd^ in 
Yorkshire. While he resided in Kent, which was for th^ 
space of twenty years, he made hifnself universally ac* 
ceptable by his general knowledge, his agreeable conver- 
sation, and his vivacity. Having an early propensity to the 
study of antiquities as well as of the classics, he here laid 
the foundation of what in time beeame a consriderabie cot« 
lection of books, and his cabinet of coins grew in propor^ 
tion ; by which two assemblages, so scarce among country 
gentlemen in genera;!, be was qualiBed to pursue those 
collateral studies, without neglecting bis 'parochial duties, 
to which he was always assiduously attentive! Here, bow- 
ever, the p'lacid course of his life was irtterrapted bythe 
deatth of Mrs. Pegge, whom he lamented Vrith unfeigned 
sorrow; and now » meditated on some lAode of removing 
feimself, without disadvantage, to his native country, either 
by obtaininfg a preferment tenable with bis present vicarage, 
or by exchanging this for an equivalent. - Having been in«- 
doced to reside for sometime at Surrenden, to superintend 
the* edutatidti 'of Sir Edward 'Dering*s son, that baroneC 
obtained for him the perpetual curacy of Brampton, near 
Chesterfield, in the gift of the dean of Lincoln ; but the 
parishioners insisting th^t they had a right to the presenta- 
tion, law proceedings took place, before the termination^ 
of which in favour of the dean of Lincoln, Mr. Pegge was 
presented by the new dean of Lincoln, Dr. George, totlm 
lectofy of Whittington, near Chesterfield. He way ao« 



U6 .P E G G E. 

cordingly inducted Nov. 11, 1751, and resided here up- 
wards of forty-four years without interruption. About a 
fortnight after, by the interest of his friend sir Edward 
J)ering with the duke of Devonshire, he was inducted into 
the rectory of Brtnhill, or Brindle, in Lancashire, on which 
be resigned Godmersham. Sir Edward also obtained for 
bim in the same year a scarf from the marquis of Harting- 
ton (afterwards the fourth duke of Devonshire) who was. 
then called up to the house of peers by the title of baron 
Cavendish of Hardwick. In 1758 Mr. Pegge was enabled^ 
by the acquiescence of the duke of Devonshire, to ex- 
change Brinhill for Heath, alias Lown, which lies within 
§even miles of Wbittington ; a very commodious measure, 
as it brouglit his parochial preferments within a smaller 
distance of each other. The 'vicarage of Heath he held till 
his death. His other preferments were, in 1765, the per- 
petual curacy of Wingerworth ; the prebend of Bobenhull, 
in the church of Lichfield, in 1757; the living of Wbit- 
tington in Staffordshire, in 1763 ; and the prebend of Loutb^ 
in Lincoln church, in 1772. Towards the close of his life 
)ie declined accepting a residentiaryship in the church of 
Lichfield, being too old to endure, with tolerable conve- 
"nience, a removal from time to time. His chief patron 
^as archbishop Cornwallis, but he bad an admirer, if liot a 
patron, in. every dignitary of the church who knew him , 
and his protracted life, and his frequent and almost unin- 
terrupted literary labours, made him very generally known. 
In 1791, whet) on a visit to his grandson, sir Christopher 
Pegge, of Oxford, he was created LL. D. by that univer- 
sity. He died, after a fortnight's illness, Feb. 14, 17 96, 
in the ninety-second year of his age, and was buried, ac- 
cording to bis own desire, in the chancel of th^ church of 
Whittington, near Chesterfield, where his son placed a 
mural tablet of bl^ck marble^ over the east window, viith 
a shprt inscription. 
' Dr. Pegge's manners were those of a gentleitian of libe- 

, r^l education, who had seen much of the world, and bad 
formed them upon the best models within his observation. 
Haying in bis early years lived in free intercourse with 

, many of the. principal and best-bred gentry in various parts 
of Kent, he ev^r after preserved the same attention, by 
associating with superior company, ^nd forming honoura« 
ble attachments. In his avocations from reading and re« 
tiremei^t, few qien cou(d relax with npore ease and cheeri\ 



P; KG G R J47 

fulness, or better understood the desipcrt in loco: and as he 
did not mix in business of a public nature, he appeared to 
most advantage in priTate circles ; for he possessed an 
equanimity which obtained the esteem of his friends, and 
an a£Fability which procured the respect of his dependents. 
His habits of life were such as. became his profession and 
istation. In his clerical functions be was exemplarily cor- 
rect, performing all his parochial duties himself, until the 
failure of his eye-sight rendered an assistant necessary ; but 
tbat did not happen till within a few years before his death. 
As a preacher, his discourses from the pulpit were of the 
didactic and exbortatory kind, appealing to the under* 
standings rather than to the passions of his auditory, by 
expounding the Holy Scriptures in a plain, intelligible^ 
and unaffected manner. Though he had an early propen- 
sity to the study of antiquities, he never indulged himself 
much in it, as longas more essential and professional oc^ 
cupations had a claim upon him; for he had a due sense 
of the nature and importance of his clerical functions, and 
had studied divinity in all it^ branches with much attention. 

As an antiquary, by which character chiefly be will 
hereafter be. known, he was one of the most laborious of 
bis time. He was elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in 1751, tbe year in which the charter of incorpon 
ration was granted ; and when their " Archaologia" began 
tp'be published, he contributed upwards of fifty meqDoirs^ 
many of which are of considerable length, being by much 
the greatest number hitherto contributed by any individual 
member of that learned body. He also wrote seven curi- 
ous memoirs for the " Bibliotheca Topographica Brit." and 
many hundred articles in the Gentleman^s Magazine from 
the year 1746 to 1795. His principal signatijres were Paid 
Gemsege^ (Samuel Pegge), and Tl jRow, (the rector of 
Whittingtpn), and sofmetimes Z. E, the final letters of his 
name. Numerous as these articles are, there is scarcely 
one of them w.hich does not convey some curious informa**- 
tion, or illustrate some doubtful point in history, classical 
criticism, or antiquities; and if collected together, with 
some kind. of arrangement, might form a very interesting 
;ind amusing volume, or volumes. . 

His independent publications on numismatical, antiqua*. 
rian, and biographical subjects wer^ also very numerous: 
i. ^' A Series of Dissertations on some elegant and v^ery 
ipiluable , Anglo- Saxon . Repaains/? )175$> 4to» 2k VMe- 



U9 P E G G E. 

moirs of Rbger de Wesebam, dean of Lineolii| nher^ 
vards bishop of Lichfield^ add tbe principal fayou rite of 
Robert Grossetete, bishop of Lincoln/^ 1761| 4to. 3^ 
'< An Essay on the Coins of Cunobelin : in an epistle to 
the right rev. bishop of Cariide (Dr. Lf ttelton), president 
of the society of antiquaries," 1766, 4to. 4. " An assem- 
blage of coins fabricated by authority of the archbishops of 
Canterbury. To which are subjoined two Dissertations,'* 
1772, 4to. 5. " Fitz-Stephen's Description of the city of 
London,'' &c. 1772, 4to. 6. <« The Forme of Cury. A 
roll of ancient English cookery, compiled about the yeat 
1390, temp. Rich. II. with a copious index and glossary,** 
1780, dvo. The original of this curious n>U was the pro- 
perty of the late Gustavos Brander, esq. who presented it 
afterwards to the British Museum. Prefixed to thJ0 
publication is his portrait, engraved at the expence of 
Mr. Braivden 7. ^' Annates Elise de Trickenham, mo^ 
nachi ordinis Benedictini. Ex Bibliotheca. Lamethana.'* 
To which is added, '< Compendium compertorum ; eir 
bibliotheca ducis Devonise," 17S9, in 4to. Both parts 
of this publication contain copious annotatioins by the 
editor. The former was communicated by Mr. Nichols, 
to whom it it inscribed, << ad Johannem Nicolsium, eele- 
berrimum typographum ;" and the latter was published by^ 
permbsion of the duke of Devonshire, to whom it is dedi^ 
cated. 8. << The Life of Robert Grossetete, the celebraUM 
bishop of Lincoln," 1793, 4to. This has very justly been 
considered as the cktf^d^csuvre of the author. . Seldom has 
research into an obscure period been more successful. Jt 
is a valuable addition to our literary history. 9. ^^ An his« 
torical account of Beauchief Abbey, in the county of 
Derby, from its first foundation to its final dissolotibfi,^^ 
1801, 4to. 10. HAnonymiana; or Ten centuries of ob* 
servations on various authors and subjects," 1809, 8vd^ a 
very entertaining assemblage of judicious remarks artd 
anecdotes. It is needless to add that these two last public 
cations were posthucnous. 

In the way of his profession. Dr. Pegge published, in 
1739,; a pamphlet on a controversy exbited by Dr. Sykes; 
entitled ^< The Inquiry into the meaning of Demoniacs in 
the New Testament ; in a Letter to the author," 8vo. ^ He 
afterwards published two occasional sermons, and thr^e^ 
small tracts fof the use of bis flock, which he distributed 
among them gratis, 6u the subjects of coufirmatioRi th# 



P E G G E- U^ 

church catecbisiDy and tbe' Lord's Prajeh -TUe late I>iL 
Farmer attriboted to Dr. Pegge, a pamphlet firinted in 
1731, and entitled ^^ Remarks on the Miscellaneous Obser-* 
vattons upon Authors ancient and modern. In several let^ 
ters to a Friend.'' A short address to the reader says, that 
** These letters are now made public, in order to stop the 
career, and to curb the insolence, of those Goths and 
Vandals the minor critics of the age, the Marklands, the 
Wades, and the Observators.^' From this we should sup- 
pose tbe work to be ironical. 

Dr. ]^egge left many MSS. a considerable part of which 
are in the possession of his grandson. While vicnr of God'^ 
mersbam, lie collected a good deal relative to the college 
at Wye, in that neighbourhood, which he thought of pnb^. 
lishing, and engraved the seal, before engraved in Lewis'^ 
seals. He had *^ Extracts from the rental of the royal 
manor of Wye, made about 1430, in the hands of Daniel 
earl of Winchelsea ;" and " Copy of a survey and tental 
of the coj^lege, in the possession of sir Windham Knatdi-> 
bull, 1739." He .possessed also a MS ^^ Lexicon Xeno^ 
pboaticum" by himself; a Greek Le:tioon ill MS.; aa 
*^ £nglidi Historical Dictionary," in 6 vols. fol. ; a French 
and Italian, a Latin, a British and Saxon one^ in oife v6» 
lume each ; all corrected by bis notes ; a *^ Glossarium 
Generale ;" two volumes of collections: in English history ; 
collections for the city and church of Lincoln, now in Mr; 
Gough's library at Oxford; a *^ Monasticon Cantialium," 
2 vols, folio; and various other MS collections, which afford 
striking proofs of unwearied industry, zeal, and judgment.* 

P£GGE (Samuel), son of the preceding, was born in 
173 1. He studied law, and became a barrister of the Mid-** 
die Temple ; one of tbe grooms of his majesty^is plrivy-cham«* 
ber, and one of the esquires of the king^s' household. He 
was, like his fatther, a frequent contributor to the Gentle- 
man^s Magazine. He ^as also author of ** Curialia ; or an 
historical acccnint of some brahcfaai of the Royal Houses 
bold,'* part I, 1782 ^ part II, 1784, and part III, 17^1. 
He had been several years engaged in preparing the re-i* 
maining numbers of the ^^ Curialia'' for tbe press ; the ma-r 
terials for which, and also his vei*y amasing *' Anecdotes 
of the English Language,'' he bequeathed to Mr. Nichols, 
who published the ^* Anecdotes?' in 1 803, 8vo, a second 
edition in 18L4; and the ibuith and fifth numbers of tfair 

< Life by hif Son ia Gent. M»f . toI. UCVl,«HiBd in Nicholi 'i Bowyer. 



130 P E G G E- 

^^ Curialia*' in 1806« He also assisted Mr. Nichols in 
publishing his father's '^History of Beauchief Abbey," 
and wrote bis father's life, to which we xhave referred in 
the preceding article. He died May 22, 1800, aged sixty-* 
seven, and was buried on the west side of Kensington 
church-yard. By his first wife, he had one son, Christo- 
pher Pegge, M. D. F. R. S. knighted in 1799, and now 
Tegius professor of physic at Oxford. ' 

PEGUILON. See BEAUCAIRE. 

PEIRCE (James), an eminent dissenting minister, dis-r 
tinguished for his zealous defence of the principles of non- 
conformity, and a no less zealous latitudinarian in opinion, 
was born in 1673, at Wapping in London> of' reputable 
parents. By his mpther, who died last, when he was 
about seven y^ars old, he, with a brother and sister, both 
older than himself, was committed to Mr. Matthew Mead, 
the famous dissenting minister at Stepney, as his guardian, 
at whose house he lived for some time after his mother^s 
death, and was taught by the same tutors Mr. P^^ad kept 
for his own sons. He was afterwards, by Mr. Mead's direc« 
tion, put to pther grammar-schools, and at last sent to 
Utrecht in Holland, where he had his academical institu- 
tion, and studied under Witsius, Leydecker, Grsevius, Leu^r 
den, De Vries, and Luyts, and was well known to the 
celebrated Mr. Hadrian Reland, who was then his fellow 
student, and afterwards when he was professor corresponded 
with Mr. Peirce. The latter part of his time abroad Mr, 
Peirce spent at Leydeh, where he attended Perizouius 
and Noodt especially, hearing Gronovius, Mark and Span- 
heim, occasionally ; and with some of these professors in 
both universities be afterwards held a correspondence. 
After he had spent above Ave years in these two places, he 
lived privately in England, for some time at London, 
among his relations, and for some time at Oxford, where 
he lodged in a private house, and frequented the Bodleian 
library. After this, at the desire of his friends, he prea9hed 
an evening lecture on Sundays at the meeting-house in 
Miles-lane^ London, and occasionally in other places, until 
he settled at Cambridge, where he was treated with great 
respect and civility by many gentlemen of the university. 
In 1713 he was removed to a congregation at Exeter, 
vvhere he continued till 1718, when a controversy arising 
among the dissenters about the doctrine of the Trinity^ 



P E I R C Er 251 

ffom which some of them were at this time departing, 
three articles wer^ proposed to him, and Mr. Joseph Hal- 
let, senior, another dissenting minister in Exeter, in order 
to be subscribed ; which both of them refused, and were 
ejected from their congregation. After this a new meeting 
was opejied March 1^, 1613-9, in that city, of which Mr. 
Peirce continued minister till his death, which happened 
March 30, 1726, in the 53cl year of his age. His funeral 
sermon was preached April the 3d following by Mr. Joseph 
Hallet, jun. and printed at London, 1726, in 8vo; in 
which he was restrained by Mr. Peirce himself from bestow* 
iug amy encomiums on him ; but Mr. Hallet observes in a 
letter, that ** he was a man of the strictest virtue, Exemplary 
piety, and great learning ; and was exceedingly communis 
native of his knbwledge. He would condescend to con- 
verse on subjects of learning with young men, in whom he 
found any thirst after useful knowledge ; and in his dis-. 
^oursing with them would be extremely free, and treat 
them as if they had been his equals in learning and years.'* 
• His works have, been divided into four classes. Under 
the philosophical class, we find only his ^* Exercitatio Phi-^ 
losophica de Homoeomeria Anaxagorea,'' Utrecht, 1692. 
3ut be was more voluminous in the controversy between 
the church of England and the dissenters. Of the latter, 
he has been esteemed, a greaf: champion. In their defence 
be published, L " Eight Letters to Dr. Wells," London, 
1706 and 1707. - 2. *' Consideration on the sixth Chaptec 
of the Abridgment of the London. Cases, relating to Bap- 
tism and the sign of the Cross," Loiidoii, 1708. 3. " Vio- 
diciae Eratrum Dissentientium in AngliV London, 1710, 
8vo. 4. "An Enquiry into the present duty of a Low 
Churchman," London, 1711, 8vo. ^. " Vindication of the^ 
I)issenters," London, 1717, 8vo. 6. "A Letter to Dr. 
Ben.net, occasioned by bis late treatise concerning the 
Nonjurors' Separation," &g. London, 1717, 8vo. 7. '* Pre- 
face to the Presbyterians not chargeable with King Charles's 
death," Exeter, 1717, in 8vo. 8. "Defence of the Dis<^ 
senting Ministry and Ordination," in two parts, London, 
1718, 8vo. 9. " The Dissenters' Reasons for not writing 
in behalf of Persecution. Designed for the satisfaction of 
Dr. Snape, in a letter to him," London, 1718, 8vo. 10. 
^^ Interest of th.e Whigs with relation to the Test- Act,'* 
I^ndon, .1718, 8vo. 11. ^^Reflections on Dean Slier- 
Ipck's Vindication of the Co/poration and Test Acts,'* 



fi52 P E I R C E, 

London, 1718, 8vo. 12. <* Charge of misrepresentationi 
miantained against Dean Sherlock/' London, 1719, 8voc 
13. ^< Loyalty, integrity, and ingenuity of High Cbureh 
and the Dissenters compared,*' London, 1719, 8vo. — R6^ 
lative to his controversy at Exeter, which produced bin 
ejectment, were published by him, 1. ^* The Case of the 
Ministers ejected at Exon,'' London, 1719, 8va 2. ** De-> 
fence of the Case,'' London, 1719, 8vo. 3. ^'Animadrer-* 
sions on the true Account of the Proceedings at Salter's 
Hall: with a Letter to Mr. Eveleigh," London, 1719, 8vo» 
4. ** A Second Letter to Mr. Eveleigh, in answer to hk 
Sober Reply," Exeter, 1719, 8vo. 5. " A Letter to a 
Mibscribing Minister in Defence of the Animadversiolis/* 
&c. London, 1719, 8vo. ,6. ** Remarks upon (be Accouot 
^ what was transacted in the assembly at Exon," London^ 

1719, Bvo. 7. " An Answer to Mr. Enty's Defence of tU^ 
Assembly," Lorrdon, 1719, 8yo. 8. **The Western In- 
otiisition," London, 1 720, 8 vo. 9. " The Security of Truths 
manner to Mr. Enty," London, 1721, 8vo. 10. .V Inqai-' 
Sftion-^bonesty displayed,"' London, 1722, 8vo. — On the 
doctrine of the Trinity he published, 1. ** A Letter to a 
Dissenter in Exeter," London, 1719, 8vo. 2. <^ Plain 
Christianity defended," in four parts, London, 1719, nw, 
9vo. 3. ** Thirteen Queries propounded to the Rev. Mr. 
Walrond, in an appendix to the Innocent yindicated,'* 
London, 1719, 8vo. There was an Answer to these que^ 
ries printed in 1721, under the title of *' An Answer lo 
soiAe Queries printed at Exon, relating to the Arian Con* 

? overly," and ascribed to Dr. Daniel Waterlaod. Mr. 
eirce had some thoughts of writing a reply, bnt changing 
his purpose, Mr. Joseph Hallet, jun. wrote a defence of 
them, printed at London in 1736^ 8vo, with this tide: 
*^ The Truth and Importance of thfe Scripture Doctrine of 
the Trinity and Incarnation demonstratM : in a defence of 
the late learned Mr^ Peirce's thilrteen Queries^ and a Reply 

to Dr. W ^'s, and a gentleman's Answer to tbem," &g. 

4. ^^Propositions relating to tbe ControVe^y <5oncernuig 
the Trinity, in a Letter to the Rev. Mr. Enty," London^ 

1720, 8vo. 5. '< An Answer to a pamphlet, entitled Text« 
of Holy Scripture compared, &e." London, 1721, 8va 6^ 
<< A Reply to Mr. Enty's late piece, entitled Tmth and 
Liberty consistent,'^ &c. London, 1721, 8vo.**-His nsost 
valuable works, however, are bis commentaries on the 
Scripture ; L <* A Paraphrase and Notes on the Episde of 



P E I R C E. 253 

St. Paul to tbe Colossians. With an Appendix upon Epbes^ 
iv. 8/' London^ 1725, 4to. 2. *^ A Paraphrase and Notes 
<m the Epistle of St. Paul to the Philippians/^ Lond. 1725^ 
4to. 3. << A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle to the 
Hebrews/* 1727, 4to. Theological: 1. " An essay in 
fiiTonr of giving the Epcharist to Children,'* 1728, Svo* 
2. '* Fifteen Sermons, and a Scripture Catechism,** 1728, 
«vo. » 

PEIRESC (Nicolas Claude Fabri p^), a very learned 
Frenchman, was descended from an ancient, and nobl^ 
family, seated originally at Pisa in Italy, and born in 1580^ 
His father, Renaud Fabri, lord of Beaugensier, sent ^ioiL 
at ten years of age to Avignon, where he spent five yeara 
on his classical studies in the Jesuits' college, and wi^s re« ^ 
moved to Aix in 1595, for the study of philosophy. In the 
mean time, he attended the proper masters for ds^npip^ 
riding, and handling arms,all which he learned to perform wijtb 
expertness, but rather as a task, than a pleasure, for even at 
(bat early period, he esteemed all time lost, .that was not 
employed on literature. It was during this period, that biy 
father being presented with a medal of the emperioi^ Ar- 
cadius, which was found at Beaugensier, Peiresc beggp^l 
to have it : and, charmed with decyphering. the characters 
in the exergue, and reading tbe emperor^s name« in. that 
transport of joy be carried the medal to bis uncle ; who for 
his encouragement gave him two more, together with s^ome 
books upon that subject. This incident seems ta hs^ve iied 
him first. to the 3tudy of antiquities, for which he became 
afterwafds so famous. In 15^6, he.fyassent to finish. bis 
course of philosophy uqder the Jesuits at Tournoiu vvhernl 
he also ati^died mathematics aqd cosmography,. Ira being 
necessary in the study pf history, yet all this without^ rer 
laxing from his application to antiquity, in which he was 
much assisted b^ one of the professors, a dcilful medallist>i 
nor from the study of belles lettres in general. So .n^utb 
labour and attention, often protracted .till midnight, conr 
•iderably impaired hi9 constitution, which was not origir 
lially yery strong. In 1597, his uncle, from vjrbom he had 
gceat expectations, sen)t him to Aix, where be entered 
|ipoo the law ; and thp following year be pursued the same 
study at Avignon, uqder a private master, whose name was 
]Peter David ; who, being well skilled likewise in antiqui- 

I tMti9VT0X,jyi9tu Mtgmn% rol. IL-^Gea. Diet, 



854 P E I R E S C. 

ties, was not sorry to find bis pupil of the same taste, anq 
encouraged him in this study as well as that of the law. 
Ghibertus of Naples, also, who was auditor to cardinal 
Aquaviva, much gratified bis favourite propensity, by a 
display of various rarities, and by lending him Goltzius^s 
" Treatise upon Coins." He also recommended a visit to 
Rome, as affording more complete gratification to an anti- 
quary jhan any part of Europe. Accordingly, his under 
having procured a proper governor, he and a younger bro- 
ther set out upon that tour, in Sept. 1599; and passing 
through Florence, Bologna, Ferrara, and Venice, he fixed 
his residence at PaduaL, in order to complete his course of 
law. He could not, however, resist the temptation of go- 
ing frequently to Venice, where he formed an acquaint- 
ance with the most distinguished literati there, as Sarpi, 
Molinus, &c. in order to obtain a sight of every thing cu- 
rious in that famous city. Among others, he was particu- 
larly caressed by F. Contarini, procurator of St. Mark, who 
possessed a curious cabinet of medals, and other antiqui- 
ties, and found Peiresc extremely useful and expert id 
explaining the Greek inscriptions. After a year's stay at 
Padua, he set out for Rome, and arriving there in OctI, 
1600, passed six months in viewing whatever was remark- 
able. After Easter he gratified the same curiosity at Na* 
pies, and then returned to Padua about June. He now 
resumed his study of the law; and at the same time ac- 
iquired such a knowledge of Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, 
and Arabic, as might enable him to interpret the inscrip- 
tions onr the Jewish coins, &c. In these languages he 
Availed himself of the assistance of the rabbi Solomon, who 
was' then at Padua. His taste for the mathematics was 
also revived in consequence of his acquaintance with Ga- 
lileo, whom he first saw at the house of Pinelli at Rome ; 
and he began to add to his other acquisitions a knowledge 
of astronomy and natural philosophy. From this time it 
was said that ^^he had taken the fae)m of learning into hi» 
hand, and begun to guide the commonwealth of letters." 

Having now spent almost three years in Italy, he re- 
turned to France in the end of 1602, and arrived at Mont- 
pellier in July, where he heard the law lectures of Julius 
Pacins, until he returned to Aix, about the end of 1 603, 
at the earnest request of his uncle, who having resigned to 
him his senatorial dignity, had, ever since the beginning 
of the year, laboured to get the king's patent. The de- 



P E I R E S C. »5ir 

gree of doctor of law being a necessary qualification for 
that dignity, Peiresc kept the usual exercise, and took 
that degree Jan. IS, 1604 ; on which occasion he made a 
most learned s()eech, upon the origin and antiquity of the 
doctoral ornaments. 

In 1605, he accompanied Du Vair, first president of the 
senate at Aix, who was very fond of him, to Paris ; whence^ 
having visited every thing curious, he crossed the water, 
in company with the French king's ambassador, in 1606, 
to England. Here he was very graciously received by 
kipg James ; and having seen Oxford, and visited Camden, 
sir Robert Cotton, sir Henry Saville, and other learned 
men, be passed over to Holland ; and after visiting the 
several towns and universities, with the literati in each, he 
went through Antwerp to Brussels, and thence back to 
Paris, returning home in Sept. l606, on account of some 
family affairs. 

Soon after this, he made a purchase of the barony of 
Rians, which he completed in 1607 ; and in the same year, 
at the solicitation of his uncle, having approved himself 
before that assembly, he was received a senator on the 1st 
of July. In the following year his uncle died. In 1616, 
he attended Du Vair to Paris; where, in 1618, he pro- 
cured a faithful copy, and published a second edition of 
** The ^cts of the Monastery of Maren in Switzerland.'* 
This was in defence of the royal line of France against the 
title of the Austrian family to the French crown by right of 
succession ; and, upon this, he was nominated the same- 
year^ by Louis XIII. abbot of Guistres in Guienne. He 
rdntained in France till 1623, when, upon a message from 
hii father, now grown old and sickly, he left Paris, and 
arrived at Aix in October. Not long after he presented to 
the court a patent from the king, permitting him to con*- 
tiquein the function of his ancient dignity, and to exer- 
cise the office of a secular dr lay person, notwithstanding 
that, being an abbot, be had assumed, the person of a 
churchman. The court of parliament^ not assenting to 
this, decreed unanimously, that, being already admitted 
into the first rank^ he shoyld abide perpetually in it; not 
returning, as the custom of the court was, to the inferior 
auditory,, in which trials are usually had of criminal cases. 
He. obtaittctd also, a rescript from the pope, to license (lim 
t<^ be present at the judgment of capital causes, as even in 
the higher auditory some select cases of that nature w^re* 



256 P E I R E S C. 

eustomarily heard : but he never made use of this lioeneei 
always departing when they came to rote, without voting 
himself* In 1627, be prevailed with the archbishop of 
Aix, to establish a post thence to Lyons, and so to Paris 
and all Europe ; by which the correspondence that he 
constantly held with the literati every where, was much 
facilitated. In 1629, be began to be much tormented ^ith 
complaints ineident to a sedentar}' life ; and, in. 1631, liav* 
ing ooQ^leted. the marriage .of .his nephew Claude with 
Margaret D'Alries, a noble lady of the county of Avignon, 
he bestowed upon him the barony of Rians, together with 
a grant of his senatorial dignity, only r^erviug the func- 
tioD to himself for three; years. The parliament pot agree* 
ing jbo this, he pt'ocured, in 1635, letters^patent from the 
king, to be reistored, and to exercise the oflSce for five 
years longer, which he did not outlive, for^ being seized 
June 1637, with a fever, he died, on the 24th of that month, 
in his fifty-seventh year. 

A very honourable funeral was provided for him by his 
nephew. Claude, in the absence of his brother, who was 
then at Paris ; but who, returning shortly to Province, 
hastened to perform the funeral rites, and to be present at 
the. obsequies. He also procured a blo<:k of marble from 
Genoa, from which a monument was made and erected to 
bis memory, with an epitaph by Rigault. As he had been 
chosen in his life-time a member of the academy of the 
Humoristi at Rome, his eulogium was pronounced by John 
James Bouchier, of that learned socieiy, in the presence 
of cardinal Barberini, his brother Autonio, cardinal Benti- 
VQglio, and several other cardinals, and such a multitude 
of celebrated and learned men, that the hall was scarce 
able io.cootain them. Many copies of' verses, in Italian, 
Latin,, and Greeks were recited; which were afterwards' 
printed together, with a collection of funeral elegiest in 
forty languages, under the title of ^^ Panglossia.*' Peiresc 
was, ill his person, of a middle size^ and of a thin habit ; 
his forehead large, and his eyes grey ; a little hawk-nosed, 
bis checks tempered withered ; the hair of his head yellow, 
as also his beard, which he used to wear long ; his whole 
countenance bearing the marks of uncommon courtesy and 
aflability. In his diet he a£Eected cleanliness^ and in all 
things about him ; but nothing superfluous or costly. His 
clothes were suitable to his dignity ; yet be never wore 
flUkt la like manner, the rest of bis house was adorned 



p E I R E s G ayr 

liccoTding to bis condition^ and very well furnished.; hvtt 
he neglected bis own chamber. Insteaci of tapestry, there 
bung the pictures of his chief friends and of famous men^ 
besides innumerable bundles of commentaries, transcripts, 
notes, collections JFrom books, epistles, and such like papers* 
His bed was exceeding plain, and his table continually 
loaded and covered with papers, books, letters, and other 
things 3 as also all the seats round about, and the greatest 
part of the floor. These were so many evidences of the 
turn of his mind^ which made the writer of his eulogium 
compare hiin to the Roman Atticds; and Bayle, consider- 
ing his universal correspondence and general assistance to 
all the literati in Europe, called him ^' the attorney-general 
of the literary republic." The multiplicity of his engage-, 
ments prevented him from finishing any considerable wprk ; 
but he left behind him a great number of M3S. oh local 
history and antiquities, mathematics and astronomy, thia^ 
inedallic science, languages^ &c. Of the writings of thig 
scholar there have been published 48 Italian letters, ad- 
dressed to Paul and John Baptist Giialdo^ in the ^^ Lettero 
d'uomini illustri;" a considerable nurpber of letters among 
those of Camden, and a long and learned dissertation on 
an ancient tripod found at Frejus., in the ^^ M6m. de Litei'a'i- 
ture et de I'Histoire," by Desaialets, in 173 1. It is re- 
markable> that though Peiresc bought more books thaa 
any nab of his time, yet the collection which he left was 
hot large. . The reason was, that a^ last as he purchased, 
be kept continually making presents of them to learned 
men to whom he knew they would be useful. Biit the de- 
struction of a multitude of his papers after his death, by 
feome of bis near relations, is mentioned by the learned 
with indignation and regret; they were applied to the 
vile uses of heating the oven and boiling the pot. Gas- , 
sendi, another ornament of Finance, has given us his life in 
detail, in elegant Latin, one of those delightful works, 
which e;chibit a striking likeness of a great and good man 
at full letigtb, and shew every feature and fold of the dra- 
pery in the strongest and clearest light. ^ 

PELA^GIUS (the Heresiarch), was born in Great Bri- - 
tain in the fourth century, and is said to have been abbot 
of the naopastery of Bangor. His real name is said to be 

i vita i Gassendo, Ha|piie> 1655, 4to.<^Gen. Dict/^Moreri.— Bungny'g Lift 
•fOrotiut, &c« X 

Vol. XXIV. S 



^58 P E L A G I U S. 

Morgan, which signifying in the Celtic languages sea bom, 
from MdVy sea, and gan born, was translated into IliXayios^' 
i^ Latin l^elagius. For the greater part of his life, he was^ 
distinguished among his brethren both for piety and learn-" 
ing, -but towards the close of bis life, he went to Rome,' 
and began to teach certain doctrines in that city abotit the 
year 400, which occasioned no small disturbance in the 
church He absolutely denied all original sin, which he 
held to be the mere intention of St. Augustine ; and taught^ 
that men are entire masters of their actions, and perfectly; 
free creatures; in opposition to all predestination, repro- 
bation, election, &c. He owned, indeed, that the natural 
power of roan nee Jed to be assisted by the grace of God,- 
to enable him to work out his own saltation ; but, by tfatd* 
grace, he only meant outward assistance, vis. the d6c- 
trineB of the law, and of the gospel. Though, when press*- 
ed by those words of St. Paul, " Deus est eniiln, qui opera-^ 
tur in nobis,'* &c. he owiJed that it is God, in effect, tbalf 
makes us will what is good, when he warns and excites us^ 
by the greatness of the glory we are to obtain, and by the 
promises of rewards ; when he mak^s us love him by re^ 
dealing his wisdom, &c. These ar^ Pelagius^s own words, 
as cited by St. Augustine*; who confutes him, and shears, 
thatj, besides these exterior graces," there are required 
other real and interior ones. He owned, that the will of 
man is indeed aided by a real grace ; but he added, that 
Jhis grace is not absolutely nieeessary in order to live well i 
but that it only helps us to do well with the more ease, 
Julian, one of his adherents, went farther yet ; and'owned 
that the assistance of grace was absolutely  necessary t<^ 
enable us to do perfect works. In effect, the grand doc- 
trine of the Pelagians was, that a man might accomplish' 
all the commands of God by the mere power of nature; 
knd that the gifts of grace were only necessary to etiable 
him to act well more easily, and more perfectly. 

As the morals of Pelagius had long been irreproachable, 
he found it easy to gain a crowd of followers ; and tbe 
heresy spread so much, that it 'became necessary for him 
to quit Rome, in the year 409, going to Sicily, and accom* 
panied by Celestius, his chief disciple and fellow-tabourer^ 
and, as is said, his countrynlan. They continued. in Sicily, 
till the report of a conference, held at Carthage betweea 
the orthodox and the donatists, induced them to go to 
Africa : but Pelagius did not stay long-there ; and, after 



P £ L A 6 I U S. 059 

, » 

his cJepaftune,. Celestias being accused of denying origin* 
nalsin by Paulinufr, was cpndemned by a council held aft 
Carthage in the year 412, under Aareliuft, primate of 
Africa. Upon this, he repaired to his friend Pelagiuty 
who bad retired to Palestine. 

Here they were well received by John bishop of Jerusa* 
leiii, the enemy of St. Jeromi and well looked- op by the 
better sort of people. Count Marcellinus, being desiroui 
to know in what their doctrine, .which was much talked of, 
consisted, appiied • to St. Augustin, bishop of Hippo, for 
tnforiaatioil ; and Pelagias, fearing to engajge with.so for«i 
midable tan antagonist, wrote the bishop a letter foil of 
protestations of the purity of his failh, and St Augustia 
seems always unwilling to believe that Pelagius had fallen 
into terror until the year 414, when Pelagius resolved tq 
undertake his treatise of the natural strength of man, in 
support of his doctrine of free-will; which, however, htt 
iliM expressed in ambiguous terms, but not so as to de* > 
teive either Augustine or Jerome, who wrote against (liuit 
In Palestine, his doctrine was approved in a council held 
at Diospolis in the year 415, consisting of fourteen bisbopK 
Theodore of Mopsuestia was one of Pelagius's most power* 
ful frietids in the east, a man of profound erudition and 
great reputation ^ who, though he wrote zealously against 
aU heresies, fell into that of Pelagius, as 'also of Nesto^ 
rius. On the other hand, the African bishops held a 
council, according to custom, in the year 416, at Car^ 
thage, and decided that Pelagius and Celestius ought ta 
be anathematized, and communicat^ed tbeir judgment to 
|he pope Innocent I. in order to join the authority of the 
see of Rome to their own, and, prompted by St Augustine^ 
refute in a summary way the chief errors imputed to Pela* 
gius, and conclude thus : '^ Though Pelagius and Celes^ 
tins disown this doctrine, and the writings produced against 
them, without its being possible to convict them of falser 
hood; nevertheless, we must anathematize in general 
whoever teaoheth that human nature is capable of avoid* 
ing sin, and of fulfilling the commands of God ; as he 
•hews himself an enemy to his grace." About the' same 
time a council was held at Milevum, composed of sixtyr 
one bishops ; who, after the example of that of Carthage^ 
wrote to pope Innoeent, desiring him to condemn this 
heresy^ wfaicb^ took away the benefit of prayer from adults^ 
and baptism from infants. ^Besides ti^^se twQ synoc^cal 

% 2 



J60 P E L A G I U S. 

letters, another was written by St. Augastin, in the name 
of himself and four more bishops ; in which he explained 
the whole matter more at large, and desired the pope to 
prder Pelagius to Rome, to examine him more minutely^ 
^ud know what kind of grace it was that he acknowledged ; 
or else to treat with him on that subject by letters^ to the 
end that, if he acknowledged the grace which the chufch 
teacheth, he might be absolved without difficulty. . 
. These letters were answered by Innocent in the year 
417, who coincided in sentiment with his correspondents, 
ftnd anathematized all who said that the grace of Grod ii 
not necessary to good works; and judged them unworthy 
of the comtnunion of the church. In answer to the five 
African bishops, who had written to him on his being sus- 
pected of favouring Pelagianism, be sajrs, ^^ He caR uei^ 
ther affirm nor deny, that there are Pelagians in Romte^ 
because, if there are any, they take care to conceal tbemr. 
selves, and are not discovered in so great a multitude of 
people.'' He adds, speaking of Pelagius, *'We oaopot 
believe be has been justified, notwithstanding that, some 
laymen have brought to us acts by which be pretends to 
baye been absolved. But we doubt the airthenticity of 
these acts, because they have not been sent us by t^e 
council, and we have not received any letters from tjiose 
who assisted at it. For if Pelagius could have relied on 
bis justification, he could not have failed to have obliged 
his judges to acquaint us with it; and even in these acts 
be has not justified himself clearly, but has only sought to 
evade and perplex matters. We can neither approve uor. 
blame this decision. If Pelagius pretends he has nothing 
to fear, it is not our business to send for him, but rather 
his to make haste to come and get himself absolved. For 
if he still continues to entertain the same s€lntiments, what* 
ever letters he may receive, be will never venture to eK^ 
pose himself to oqr sentence. If he is to be summoned, 
that ought rather to be done by those who are n^eareat to 
bim* We have perused the book said to be written by him, 
which you sent us. We have found in it many propositions 
against the grace of God, many blasphemies,, nothing that . 
pleased us, and hardly any thing but what displeased us^ 
and ought to be rejected by all the world.'* 

Celestius, upon his condemnation at Carthage in the 
year 41*2, had indeed appealed to this pope ;^but, ins^ad 
of pursuing his appeal^L he retired into Palestiue. Pela? . 



P E L A G I U S. 461 

gius, however, who had more art, did not despair of bring-*' 
iog Rome over to his interest, by flattering the bishop of 
that city, and accordingly drew up a confession of faith, 
and sent it to pope Innocent with a letter, which is now 
lost. Innocent was dead ; and Zosioius had succeeded 
him, when this apology of Pelagius was brought to Rome. 
On the first notice of this change, C^lestius, who had been 
driven from Constantinople, hastened to the west, in 
hopes of securing the new pope's favour, by making him 
hiSr judge, and Zosimus, pleased to be appealed to in a 
cause that had been adjudged elsewhere, readily admitted 
Celestius to justify himself at Rome. He assembled his 
clergy in St. Cleuiem^s church, where Celestius presented 
him a confession of faith ; in which, having gone through 
all the articles pf the Creed, from the Trinity to the resur- 
rection of the dead, he said, '^ If any dispute has arisen on 
questions that. do not concern the faith, I have not pre« 
tended to decide 4;.hem, as the author of a new doctrine ; 
but I offer to your examination, what I have frooi the 
source of the prophets and apostles ; to the end that, if I 
have mistaken through ignorance, your judgment may 
correct and set me right." On the subject of original sin, 
he continued, '^ We acknowledge that children ought to 
be baptized for the remission of sins, agreeably to the rule 
of the universal church, and the authority of the gospel ; 
because the Lord bath declared, that the kino^dom of bea- 
' yen cap be given to those only who have been baptized. 
But we do not pretend thence to establish the transmissioa 
of sin from parents to their children : that opinion is widely 
different from the catholic doctrines. For sin is not born 
with man; it is man who commits it after he is born: it 
docs not proceed from nature, but from will. We there-^ 
fore acknowledge the first, in order not to admit of several 
baptisms; and take this precaution, that we may not de- 
rogate from the Creator.*' Celestius having confirmed by 
word of mouth, and several repeated declarations, whlit 
was contained in this writing, the pope asked him, whe« 
ther he condemned all the errors that had been published 
under his name ? Celestius answered, that he did con- 
demn them in conformity with the senteiice of pope Inno- 
cent, and promised to condemn whatever should be con^ 
demned by the holy see. On this Zosimus did not hesitata^ 
to coddemn Heros and Lazarus, who hsnl taken upon then) 
19 be the chief prosecutors of the Pelag;ian doctrine Df 



46a P E L A 9 I U S; 

deposed tkem from the episcopal office^ and^^KcooimQiii* 
eated them; after which he wrote to Aurelius, and the 
other bishops of Africa^ acquainting them with what he 
had done, and at the same time sending them the a^ti of 
his synod. 

Soon after this, Zosimus received a letter from Praylum 
bishop of Jerusalem, successor to John, . recommending tp 
^im Pelagius's affair in affectionate terms. This letter was 
accompanied by another from Pelagius himself, togethei: 
with the confession of faith before mentioned. . In thi4 
tetter Pelagius said, that his enemies wanted to aspe^^ie hi^ : / 
. chfiracter in two points: first, that he refused ,t9 baptize 
infants, and promised them the kingdom of heaven, withr 
9Ut the redemption of Jesus Christ; seoondl}!, that he re* 
posed so much confidence in free-will, as to refuse the as- 
sistance of grace. He rejected the first of these errors, -a^ 
Oianifestly contrary to the gospel ; and upon the article of 
grace he said, ^' We have our free-will either to sin or nol 
to sin, and in all good works it is ever aided by the 4i^i°4 
assistance. We say, that all men have free- wilt, as w«ll 
Christians as Jews and Gentiles : all of them have it by 
nature, but it is assisted by grace in none but.ChristiauAi 
|n others this blessing of the creation is naked and unas* 
sisted. They shall be judged and condemned ; because 
having free-will, by which they might arrive at fai^b, and 
merit the grace of God,- they make an ill use of this liberty^ 
The Christians will be rewarded ; because they, by making 
1^ good use of their free^wili, merit the grace of the Lor<{^ 
and observe his commandments.'* His confession of faith 
)¥as like that of Celestius* On baptism he said, /< We 
bold one single baptism, and we assort that it ought to be ' 
administered to children in the same form of words as to 
adults." Touching grace he said, ^* We confess a free- 
yvill: at the same time holding, that we stand continually 
in need of God's assistance ; and that those are as weU 
pnistaken, who say with the Manicbee^, that man cannot 
Ikvoid sinning, as those who say with Jovinian, that> man 
cannot sin*" He concluded with these words: ^VSucb^ 
blessed pope, is the faith which we have learned in th^ 
patholic church, the faith which we have always held, i^nd 
ftill continue in* If any thing contained therein shall,no( 
have been. explained clearly enough, or not with aoffic^nt 
paution, we de^iff that you would correct it.$ ypu.wbp 
the faitb^ and the see of Peter. If you apprpve of 



P E L A G I U S. 2S3 

.my confession of faith, whoever pretends to attack it, will 
shew either his ignorance or his malice, or that he is not 
orthodox ; but he will not prove me an heretic." 

For some time this defence answered its purpose, and 
Zo^imus wrote a second letter to Aurelius, and to all the 
bishops of Africa, informing them that he was now ^atis^ 
fied with Pelagius and Celestius*s confession of faith, and 
persuaded of their sincerity. Aurelius, however,' and hi& 
.brethren, were more surprised than daunted at this letter^ 
and firmly maintained the judgment they had given, and 
"which had been confirmed by Innocent I. At the h^ad of 
their decrees they addressed a second letter to pope Zosi- 
mus, in these terms : ** We have ordained, that the sen-r 
.tence given by the venerable bishop Innocent shall subsist^ 
until they shall confess without equivocation, that the grace 
of Jesus Christ does assist us, not only to know, but also 
,to do justice in every action ; insomuch, that without it we 
can neither think, say, or do any thing whatever, that be- 
longs to true piety." They added, "That Celestius^s 
having said in general terms, that he agreed with Innocent's 
^letters, was not satisfactory in regard to persons of inferior 
understandings; but that he ought to anathematize in cleafr 
terms all that was bad in his writings, lest many should 
believe that the apostolical see had approved his errors, 
Vather than be persuaded that he had reformed theAn." The 
]bi$hop of Africa likewise reminded pope Zosimiiis of his 
predecessor's decision, relattng to the council of Dios- 
polis ; shewed him the artifice made use of in the confes- 
sion of faith which Pelagius had sent to Rome; and refute4 
after their manner the cavils of the heretics : and, as Zosi- 
mus had reprimanded them for having too easily giveii 
credit to th^ accusers of Celestius, they justified themselves 
at his expence ; by shewing, that he himself had been too 
precipitate in this affair. They also declared plainly, that 
'this cause arising in Africa, and having been judged there, 
Celestius could have no right to appeal from thence, nor 
the pope to take cognizance of it : to which they added a 
protest, to prevent Zdsimusfrom attempting to pronounce 
any sentence by default, in favour of Celestius and Pela- 
gius. 

Zosimus, either through a persuasion that these heretics 
had dealt insincerely with him, pr finding it prudent to 
yield to the necessity of the occisision, upon the receipt oif 
this letter^ issued out a formal conden^nttion of the Pela- 



26^ P E L A G I U S. 

giansy 4n4 applied also to Honorius, requesting him 0^ 
qause all heretics to be driven put of Rome { in compliance 
with which, the emperor gave a rescript at Raveona,^ 
April 41^1 directed to the pretorian prefect of Italy, 
who, in consequence, issued his ordinance jointly with th^ 
pretorian prefect of the east, and the prefect of Gaul, pur- 
porting, that all such as should be convicted of this error 
should suffer perpetual banishment, and that all their pos- 
sessions should be confiscated. The pope also vigorously 
prosecuting his design to extirpate the friends of Pelagius, 
caused all the bishops to be deposed who would not sub- 
scribe the condemnation of the new heresy, and drove 
them out of Italy by virtue of the laws of the empire. At- 
ticus, bishop of Constantinople, likewise rejected their 
deputies. They were driven from Ephesus ; and Theodo- 
tus bishop of Antiocb condemned them, and drove Pela- 
gius thence^ who was lately returned from Palestine, where 
he ha^d taken refuge from the emperor's rescript. We have 
no certain account of him after this ; but there is reason to, 
believe, that he returned to England, and spread his doc- 
trine there; which induced the bishop of Gaul to send 
thither St. Germain of Auxerre, in order to refute it. 
However that be, it is| certain that Pelagian heresy, as it 
is called, spread itself both in the east and west, and took 
so deep root, that it subsists to this d^y in different sects, 
who all go by the general name of Pelagians, except a 
more moderate part who are called Semi-Pelagians. 

This Heresiarcb wrote several things, anaong wht9h are, 
f? A Treatise upon the^ Trinity;" " A Commentary on St. 
Paul's Epistles," which oddly enough has been annexeil 
to those of St. Jerom, and was long thought tti be written 
by him, although a decided Anti-Pelagian; " A Book of 
Eclogues, or Spiritual Maxim?;" several letters, among 
which is one addressed to a virgin, named Demetrias, 
which is printed in the works of JSt. je'rom; several pieces' 
in his own defence ; and a (reatise on free-will. The His- 
tory of Pelagianism by Jansenius^ in his treatise called 
** Augustine," is thought the best.* ' 

PELL (John), an eminent English mathematician, de- 
scended from an ancient family in Lincolnshire, was born. 
at Southwyke in Sussex, March i, 16J0; and educated in 
crammar-learning at the free-school, then newly founded, 

1 Dopin.— *Ca?e, vol. I.^Mosheim and Milnet»*Ch. ^Ist. 



P E! L L. 5?65 

rt Steyning in that county. At thirteen, he was sent to 
Tjrinity college in Cambridge, where he pursued bis stu- 
fdies with unusual diligence, but although capable of un-r 
dergging any trials, and one of the best classical scholars 
of his ag^, he never offeired hiniself a candidate at the 
flection of scholars or fellows of this cbllege. After taking 
the degree of B. A. in 1628, he drew up the " Descrip- 
tion and Use of the Quadrant, written for the use of a 
friend, in two books;'* the original MS. of which is still 
extant among his papers in the Royal Society ; and the 
same year he held a correspondence \vith Mr. Henry 
Briggs on logarithms. In 1630 he wrote *« IV^odus suppu- 
tandi Ephemerides Astronomicas (quantum ad motum soils 
attinet) paradigmat^ ad an. 1630 accommodato 5" and " A 
Key to unlock the Meaning of Johannes Trithemius, in his 
Discourse of Steganography ;" which key Pell the sanie 
year imparted to Mif. Samuel Hartlib and Mr. Jacob Ho'r 
imedae. The same year, he took the degree of master of 
arts at Cambridge, and the year following was incorporated 
in the university of Oxford. In June he wrote " A Letter to 
Mr Edward Wingate oq Logarithms;" atid, OcL S, 1631, 
** Cbmmentationes in Cosmographiam Alstedii." July 3, 
1632, he married Ithaiparia, second daughter of Mr. Henry 
Seginolles of London, by whom he had four sons and foi^r 
daughters. In 1633 he finished his " Astronomical History 
of Ubservations of heavenly Motior^s and Appearances ;" 
and his ** Ecl^pticus Prognostica ; or foreknower of th^ 
Eclipses ; teaching how, by calculation, to foreknow and 
foretell all sorts of Eclipses of the heavenly lights/' lA 

1634, he translated ^« The everlasting Tables of Heavenly 
Motions, grounded upon the observations of all times, 
and -agreeing with them all, by Philip Lansberg, of Ghent 
in Flanders ;'* and the same year he committed to writingj^ 
^* The Manner of deducing his Astronomical Tables out of 
the Tables and axioms of Philip Lansbferg." In March 

1635, he wrote "A Letter of Remarks on Gellibrand'$ 
Mathematical Discourse on the Variation of the Magnetic 
Needle; and, June following, another on the same subr 
ject. Such were the employments of the first six years of 
Mr. Pell's public life, during which mathematics entirely 
engrossed his attention. Conceiving this science of the 
utmost importance,' he drew op a scheme for a mathema- 
tical school on an extensive scale of utility and emulatiop^ 
which ws^s much approved by Des Cartes, Uut sq censure^ 



a66 PELL. 

* 

by Mersenne in. France, that our author was obliged to 
write in its defence. The controversy may be seen in 
Hooke's Philosophical Coliectionsj and with PelPs ^* Idea 
of the Mathematics.^' 

Mr. Pell's eminence, however, in mathematical know-  
ledge, was now so great, that he was thought worthy of a 
professor'9 chair in that science ; and, upon the vacancy 
of one at Amsterdam in 1639, hit William Boswell, the 
English resident with the States-general, used his interest, 
that he might succeed in that professorship; which was not 
filled up till above four years after, 1643, when Pell was 
chosen to it. The year following he published, in two 
pages 4to, *' A Refutation of Longomontanus's Discourse, 
De vera circuli mensura," printed at Amsterdam in 1644« 
In June 1646, he was invited by the prince of Orange to 
be professor of philosophy and mathematics at Breda, in 
the college newly founded there by bis highness, with the 
offer of a salary of 1000 guilders a year. This tie ac- 
cepted, but upon his removal to Breda, he found that he 
was re quired to teach mathematics only. His '* Idea ,Ma* 
theseos," which he had addressed to Mr. Hartlib, who in 
1639 had sent it to Des Cartes and Mersenne, was printed 
'1650 at London, 12mo, in English, with. the title of '^Ab 
Idea of Mathematics," at the end of Mr. John Dury's 
^* Reformed Library- keeper." On the death of the princ^ 
of Orange, in 1650, and the subsequent war between thf 
jCnglish and Dutch, he left Breda, and returned to Eng* 
land, in 1652; and, in 1654, was sent by Cromwell as his 
agent to the protestant cantons in Switzerland, his instruc-^ 
iions being dated March 30th of. that year. His first 
speech in Latin to the deputies of Zurich was on the I3th 
of Jun^; and he continued in that city during most of his 
employment in Switzerlafnd, in which he bad afterwards 
the title of resident. Being recalled by Cromwell, be toot 
bis leave of the cantons in a Latin speech at Zurich, the 
23d of June, J 658; but returned to England sp short a 
time before the usurper's death, that be had no opportu- 
nity of an audience from him. Why Cromwell eraployecl 
him does not appear, but it is thought that during his re* 
sidence abroad, he contributed to the interests of Charted 
IL and the church of England ; and it is certain that, aftejr 
the restoration, he entered into holy orders, although aJt 
an unusually advanced period of life. He was ordaine^ 
deacon March 31, 1661, and priest in June following, by 



PELL. 9tf 

{Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln; and, on the i6th of that 
pipntb, instituted to the rectory of Fobbing in Essex^ giveii 
\xim by the king. On Dec. the 5th foUowingi h^ brought 
into the upper house of convocation the calendar reformed 
hy him, assisted by Bancroft, afterwards abp. of Canter-* 
bury. In 1^63, he vras presented by Sheldon, bishop o^ 
Loudon, to the rectory of Laingdon in Essex ; and, upon ' 
the promotion of that bishop to the s^e of Canterbury in 
%he next month, became one of his grace's domestic chap* 
kins. He was then doctor of divinity, and expected, as 
Wood tells us, ** to be made a dean ; but being not a per* 
son of activity, as others who mind not learning are, could 
never rise higher than a rector.*' The truth is, add^ 
Wood, '^ be was a helpless man as to worldly affairs; and 
bis tenants and relations dealt so unkindly by him, that' 
they defrauded him of the profits of his rectory, and kept 
bim so indigent, that he was in want of necessaries, even 
ink and paper, to bis dying day." He was for some tim^ 
confined to the King*s-bench prison for debt; but, ^^ 
March 1682, was invited by Dr. Whistler to live in tbt 
college of physicians. Here he continued till June fol* 
lowing, when he was obliged, by his ill state of health, t^ 
remove to the bouse of a grandchild of his in St. Margaret'f 
church-yard, Westminster. .From this too he was agak| 
removed, for we find that he died at the house (in Dyo( 
street) pf Mr. Cothorne, reader of the church of St. Giles's 
in the Fields, Dec. the 12th, 1685, and was interred bj 
the charity of Busby, master of Westminster school, an^ 
Sharp, rector of, St. Giles's, in the rector's vault undef* 
Ihat church. Besides what have been mentioned. Dr. Peli 
was the author of, 1. ^^ An Exercitation concerning Easter,'* 
1644, in 4to. 2. ** A Table of 10,000 square numbers,? 
&c. 1672, folio. 3. An Inaugural Oration at his entertnf 
upon the Professorship at Breda. 4. He made grea| 
alterations and additions to ^^ Rbonius's Algebra,*^ printed 
at London 1668, 4to, under the title of >^ An Introduce 
tion to Algebra; translated out of the High Dutch into 
English by Xhoiiias Branker, much altered and augmented 
by D. P. (Dr. Pell).'' Also a Table of odd numbers, leaf 
than. 100,000, shewing those that are incpmposite, &.a 
supputated by the same Thomas Branker. 5. His Contro- 
versy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature ojf 
the Circle, Amsterdam, 1646, 4to. He likewise wrote a 
Bemonstratibn of tb^ 2d liod 10th bbbks of Eutlid; which 



?6S PELL. 

piece was in MS. in the library of lord Brereton iri 
Cheshire : as also Archimedes's Arenarius, and the great*^ 
est part of Diophantus^s six books of Arithmetic ; of which 
author he was preparing, Aug. 1644, a new edition, with 
a corrected translation, and new illustrations. He designed 
likewise to publish an edition of Apollonius, but laid it 
aside, in May, 1645, at the desire of Golius, who was en- 
gaged in an edition of that author from an Arabic ma,nu» 
script given him at Aleppo 18 years before. This appears 
from the letters of Dr. Pell to sir Charles Cavendish, in 
%he Royal Society. 

Some of his manuscripts he left at Brereton in Cheshire, 
where he resided some years^ being the seat of William 
lord Brereton, who had been bis pupil at Breda. A great 
many others came into the hands of Dr. Busby ; which Mr. 
Hook was desired to use his ejideavours to obtain for the 
society. But they continued buried under dust, and mixed 
with the papers and pamphlets of Dr. Busby, in four large 
boxes, till 1735; when Dr. Birch, secretary to the Roy^l 
Socibty^ procured them for that body, froni the trustees of 
Dr. Busby. The collection contains noi only Pell's nia- 
theHiatical papers, letters to him, and copies of those from 
him, &c. but also several manuscripts of Walter Warner, 
the riiathematician and philosopher, who lived in the reigns 
of James the First and Charles the First. 

Dr. Pell invented the method of ranging the several 
steps of an algebraical calculus, in a proper order, in sa 
ttiany distinct lines, with the number affixed to each step, 
and a short description of the operation or process in the 
line. He also invented some mathematical characters.* 

PELLEGRIN (Simon Joseph), an abb6, and an author 
"by profession, of some celebrity at Paris, was borrt j^t 
Marseilles in 1663, and became a religious of the order of 
Servites. Being tired of this mode of life, he took some 
voyages as chaplain to a vessel. On his return, he wrote 
a poem called "An Epistle to the King on the glorious 
Success of his Arms,-' which gained the prize in the 
French academy in 1704. With this Epistle Pellegrin had 
sent an Ode on the same subject, which proved the only 
formidable rival to his Epistle, and for some time divided 
the opinions of the academy. This singular success made 
bim known at cQiirt. Madame Maintenon took notice of 

1 Atb Qx^yol. Lr-^Bios. Brit.-^Martia'i 5io|;, P^l9S.T-)HvttOA's DicUo^aiy^ 



P E L L E 6 R I K. a^ 

hiai) and gained btm a brevet to be translated into th0 
Order df Cluni. Peilegrin subsisted solely by the prizes 
be gained in several literary academies, and his other lite- 
rary, labours. He even kept a kind of shop, , where those 
who wanted occasional verses, as epigrams, sonnets, ma- 
drigals, &c were supplied at certain prices, according to 
the number and goodness of the lines. This trade growing 
slack, be began to write for the theatres, but here a new 
obstacle arose. The cardinal de Noailles insisted that he 
should either cease to write for the stage, or to officiate at 
the mass. He would fain have had a dispensation on this 
subject, but, .the cardinal being inexorable, he gave up 
the mass, as least profitable. He would, however, havjs 
felt che loss of the latter, bad not his friends procured him 
a salary for writing the account of the theatrical enter- 
tainments in the Mercure. Peilegrin deserved to be in 
better circumstances, for a great part of what he earned 
so laboriously was distributed among his relations : and hi^ 
disposition was singularly candid and modest. He was, at 
the same time, negligent of his appearance, and had an 
ipipediment in his speech ; circumstances which conspired 
to plunge him in that neglect he so severely experienced. 
He lived, however, to the age of 82 ^ and closed this long, 
life on the 5th of September, 1745. His works are very 
various ; poems of all kinds, sacred and profane ; version^ 
of the Psalms and other parts of Scripture; comedies, 
operas, &c<; the general character of all which is, that, 
they are seldom excellent in their plans, and that the ver- 
sification is almost invariably flat and tedious. ^ 

PELLEGRINI. See TIBALDL 

PELLEGRINI (Camillo), an Italian historian and an- 
tiquary, was born in 1598, at Capua, and educated at the 
Jesuits* school at Naples. He entered into the clerical 
order, but appears to have passed his whole tinie in the 
researches of an historian and antiquary, which produced, 
1. " L'Apparato alle Antichita di Capua," printed in 1651, 
in which he minutely describes all the parts of Campagna 
Felice, and relates its history and revolutions. 2. <^ His- 
toria Principum Longobardorum,*' containing several his- 
torical pieces not yet published, illustrated with learned 
annotations and dissertations. . This was republished in the 
collections of Burmann and Muratori, and with various 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hict^ 



if^ PELL t il 1 N. i 

additions, at Naples, 1749, by Sig. Fr. Moria Pratilli. Pel* 
legrini died at Naples in 1660, at tfae age of sixty-five. ^ 

* PELLERIN (Joseph), famous for bis collection of me- 
dals, and bis publications respecting" tbem, was for a long 
time commissary-general, and cbief-clerk of the Frencfai 
tearing. He united tbe knowledge of a man of letters mtii 
all tbe activity of a man of business; but haying, afteif 
forty years of service, obtained leave to retire, he thence-' 
forth gave himself up entirely to the study of antiquities^ 
and wrote upon the subject after be was blind with age^ 
by means of an invention described in the last voiume of 
his works. His cabinet of medals, which was purchased 
by the king in 1776, was the richest ever formed by a pri- 
vate individual ; and learned men of all countries highly 
respected the collector of so valuable a treasure. He died 
|n August 1782, at the surprising age of ninety -nine. He 
enriched the science of medals by a valuable set of works 
on that subject, forming altogether, with the supplements^ 
ten volumes in quarto, with many plates ; these were pub- 
lished at different times from 1762 to 1778, and contain 
judicious and learned explanations of the plates, which are 
executed with great exactness and beauty. It is to Pelleriii 
that we are indebted for the firbt plates of medals perfectly 
representing tbe originals in every flaw and irregularity of 
edge and impression, which is a most capital improvement, 
and makes the view of siich plates almost equal to the coins 
themselves. • 

* PELLETIER (Bernard), a chemist of considerable emi- 
nence, was born at Bayonne in 1761. He acquired the ru- 
diments of pharmacy in his father^s house, and afterwards 
studied the subject at Paris with such constant application, 
that at a very early age he was familiarly acquainted with'che- 
mical processes, and even with the exact state of th^ science. 
At the age of twenty-one he published a set of experiments 
on the arsenic acid, in which be explained the properties 
of M acquer's neutral arsenical salt, and demonstrated the 
real nature of Macquer^s process. In these observations be 
bad been anticipated by Scheele, by Bergman, by tbe 
Dijon academicians, and by Berthollet ; but it was no in- 
eonsiderable merit in so young a man to have advanced aa 
far in the subject as these mastery of the science. 

* Moieri.— Landi Hist. Lit D'ftalie. 
. * DujiL Hist. — pinkertoo*! Esiay oo Medals, preface. 



P E L L E T I E R. «7f 

Soon after, he published several observations on the crys- 
tallization of sulphur and cinnabar, on the distillition of 
phosphorus from bones, on deliquescent salts, on oxymu-^ 
riattc acid, on the formation of ethers, and particularly on 
muriatic and acetic ethers. His success in these encou* 
raged him to attempt the Analysis of the zeolite, at that 
time a much more difficult task than at present, when the 
mode of analyzing minerals has been reduced to a regular 
system. In 1785 he undertook the analysis of pi umbago, 
a labour in which he had been antici|>ated by Scheele, and 
which was completed the year following, in the course o^ 
the celebrated experiments made upon iron and its com* 
binations, by Berthollet, Monge| and Vandermonde. His 
text object was the combination of phosphorus with the 
metals ; the existence of which had been merely pointed 
out by Margraif. To Pelletier we owe almost all the 
knowledge concerning the metallic' phosphurets which we 
s^t present possess. The next object of his researches was 
aurum Musivum, a brownish yellow scaly powder some^ 
times used in painting. He demonstrated it to be a com- 
pound of sulphur and the oxide of tin, and pointed out 
several improvements in the method of preparing it. 

In 1790, when the churches of France were stript of 
their bells, and it was proposed to extract the copper from 
them, Mr. Pelletier pointed out a method of scorifying the 
tin, which constitutes the other ingredient, by means of 
the black oxide of manganese. His first essays were made 
in Paris, but be demonstrated in the foundery of Romilly 
that his process succeeded also in the large way. Soon 
after he analyzed the blue pigment manufactured in Eng- 
land, and known in France by the name of cendres bleues 
d*Angleterre, and gave a process for preparing it. No- 
thing more was necessary than to precipitate copper from 
nitrous acid by means of a sufficient quantity of lime. His 
next set of experiments consisted in an examination of 
strontian, and in a comparison of it with barytes. They 
confirmed the previous experiments pf Dr. Hope and Mr. 
Klaproth. He had formerly examined a small Specimen of 
carbonat of strontian without finding in it any thing pe« 
culiar. 

In 1791, on the death of Tillet, he was admitted a mem- 
ber 6{ the academy of sciences, and on the abolition of the 
academy» he was chosen one of the original members of 
the national institute which was substituted in its place. 



r. 

i 



Its P E L L E t I E Ri 

In 1792 be went to La Fere to assist at the trials of a ne^ 
kind of gunpowder. Being obliged to spend the greatest, 
part of the day in the open air, in a cold raw day, hid 
health, naturally delicate^ was considerably impaired. But 
be bad gradually recovered almost completely, when he 
fell a sacrifice to the science to which be had devoted the', 
whole of his attention. He breathed at different' times^ 
and during long periods, oxymuriatic acid gas. Tbe con-^ 
sequence was a consumption, which wasted biro rapidly^ 
and at last carried him off on the 2 1st July 17:^7, in thei 
thirty-sixth year of his age. 

Short as the period of bis life was, the services which. 
he rendered to chemistry were by no means inconsiderable. 
His analyses are always precise, and his dissertations writ- 
ten with that perspicuity which marks the clear thinker^ 
and the master of his subject. His fondness for the science! 
was extreme ; be continued bis labours to the very last/ 
and even on bis death-bed spoke of them with satisfaction^ 
His constitution was always weak, and his character marked 
'Wih timidity ; but his mind was remarkably active, and bis 
conduct irreproachable.' 

PELLETIER (Claude pe), one of the few who have 
been able to unite attention to business^ with the love and 
cultivation of letters, was born at Paris in 1630, and bred 
to the law, but always in strict intimacy with Boileau^ 
Bignon, Lamoignon, and the other great men of his time» 
He was first counsellor of the Chatelet, then in the parlia- 
ment, afterwards president of the fourth chamber of re-^ 
quests, and next Pr^vot des Marchands." . To this place be 
was nominated in 1668, and signalized his situation therel 
by building a quay at Paris, which ,still retains bis name.- 
Being much approved in this office, be was appointed in 
1683 to succeed the famous Colbert in that of controller- 
general of the finances. He held this place only six yearsy 
8kfter which be resigned it, and in 16;[)7 retired from court 
entirely, to lead a life of meditation and devotion. He 
died ih August 1711, at tbe age of eighty-one. Though 
the life of Pelletier was so much occupied by business, he 
either produced or was concerned in several publications. 
1. Extracts and Collections from the fathers, the eccle- 
siastical writers, and from scripture, made with great judg- 
ment, in several volumes, 1 2mO. 2. Editions of the/'Come» 

I Mem. d0 riott, Nation, in Bald>iria*8 Lit, Journal; - 



P E L L £ T t E R. Uf 3 

Tbec^gus^^* and *^ Comes^ Juridicus^*' of PeteirPhbow^ Who 
Iras his maternal great grandfather. 3. '< Comes Seneecutis/* 
and 4. " Comes Rusticus/' both in 12mo, aiYd writterf in 
imitation of the former works of Pithoiii, consist chiefly of 
the thoughtii of various authors. 5. The best edition of the 
Body ofCanoiiLawy in Latin, with* the notes^of Pefter^and 
Francis Pitboa^ in 9 vdts. fol. 6. 'An edition of the Obser* 
Vations of Peter Pithou on the Code and on the Novelliae. ' 

P£LLETIER (Jaqves), a celebrated French physician, 
born at Mans in 1517^ was eminent also as a schoi^ir, and 
became principal of the colleges of Bayeux and Man» at 
Paris^ where he died in 1582. His writings have not re* 
tained all the estimation whidh tiiey possessed in his ttdje; 
but th^y are fidmerous. 1. Commentaries on Euclid, written 
in Latin, 8vo. 2. <* De dimensioiie circuli," Basil. 1563, 
fol. ' 3.^' Disqubitfones Geometriccb,'' Lugd. 1567^ 8vo, 
^itfa sonie other works of this kind. 4; ** Dialogue de 
POitografe ^ prononciacion Fran^oase,-^ Lyon, 155 5 ^^^vo, 
in which, as may be se^n by the title, he proposes to write 
words as th<^y are pronounced; a theoretical improvement^ 
bat attended with • too many difficulties in practice to bo 
itidopted in any country. Mr.^ James Elpbinston' made 
similar attempts, with similar success, in England. 5. Two 
W three collections of Very bad poetry.' 6. A description 
of Savoy. 7. A translation of Horace's Art of Poetry. 8. 
A French Aft of Poetry written in* prose. He published 
alao on his own profe^ort, 9. A small treatise in Latin, on 
the Plague. And 10. ^ Concdrdance of several passages 
in^ Galen^ with some detached treatises, 1 559, one vol. 4to. ' 

PELLICAN (Conrad), a learned German divine and 
reformer, was born Jan. 8, 1478, at RufFach, in- Alsatia. 
His family name was Kursiner, or Kirsner, but the name 
'Pellican, which means the same thing in Latin as Kirsner 
in German, and is in neither Very significant, was given 
him by bis maternal uncle. Pellican began his studies at 
RufFach in his sixth year, and under an excellent master, 
'#ho inspired him with a love for literature-; yet his diffi- 
culties ^ere many, as, among other> hindrances, he was 
obliged to #rite down every thing taught him, printing 
being then in its infancy, and no elementary treatise bad 
issued from the press. His maternal uncle already men- 

1 Mofferi.^I>ict. Hint 

S Nicerop, vol. XXI.— Diet. Hist*— Eloy Diet. Hist. de. Medicine. 

Vofc. XXIV. T 



if* P E t L I C A K. 

tioned, who lived at Heidelberg, and bad often been rector 
of tbe university, hearing of the progress bis nephew mad# . 
in his studies, 9ent for bioi to that seminary, where, he 
applied to the belles lettres and logic for about sixteep 
months, which was probably as long as his uncle could 
afford to maintain him. He returned therefore in Sept. 
1492 to his parents, who were poor, and qould giv« Upa 
little support, but got some employment as assistant ^ 
a schoolmaster, and had, what was then of great import- 
ance to him, the power of borrowing books from the con« 
vent of the Cordeliers. His frequent visits for this purpose 
brought on an acquaintance with those holy fathers^ who 
conceived a very high opinion of Pellican, now in his six- 
teenth year, and appear to have found little diifficulty in 
persuading him to enter their order, whi^h accordingly be 
did in January 1493, but against the consent of bis rela- 
tions. He then commenced his theological studies, and in 
the following year was admitted to tl^e order of subdeappo. 
In 1496, at the request of his uncle, he was sent to Tabi|i- 
gen, and recommended to Paul Scriptor, a very learned 
professor of philosophy and mathematics, under whc^m be 
profited much, and wbo*conceived a great affection for hif 
pupil. In 1499, meeting with a converted Jew, who was 
now one of his own order, Pellican expressed his wish t6 
learn Hebrew, and with the assistance of this Jew accom- 
plished tbe elementary part, although not without great 
difficulty. Melchior Adam mentions his enthusiastic. jojf' 
on receiving tbe loan of a part of the Bible in Hebrew. 
Reuchlin, who came to Tubingen in 1 500, gave Pellicaii 
some assistance in this language ; and with this, and other 
helps, certainly very difficult to be procured at that time^ 
and by indefatigable industry, he at length acquired such 
knowledge of it, as to be accounted, after Reuchlin, the 
first Hebrew scholar in Germany. 

In 1501, in bis twenty-third ynaff he was ordained priest,, 
and the following year he was appointed to teach theology 
in the convent of bis order at Basil, and he likewise gavj^ 
lectures on philosophy and astronomy. After remaWiing 
here for six years, be was in 1508 sent to Ruflieu^h to teach 
the same branches, and had Sebastian Munster for one of 
bis pupils in Hebsew and astronomy. In 1511 he .wiu 
chosen guardian of the convent of Pfortzheim, where he 
taught theology until 1514, when Caspar Sazger, provln* 
cial of his order, engaged him as his secretary ^jmd as yiis 



P E L L I C A N. 275 

office required his attendance on the provincial in all his 
journeys, Peliican had many opportunities of becoming ac- 
quainted with the learned of his time, and particularly of 
transcribing from the libraries whatever might add to his 
stock of oriental and biblical literature, which appears now 
to have been the fixed object of his studies. On his return 
frOm Rouen, where he had been to assist at a chapter, he 
stopped three months at Basil, with leave of the provincial, 
to superintend an edition of the Psalter in four languages, 
which Froben had then at press. 

M elcbior Adam is rather prolix * in his account of Pelli- 
can*s journeys with the provincial, little of which is interest- 
ing. It appears to have been in 1519 that be was ap- 
pointed guardian at Basil, and where he met with the wri- 
tings of the illustrious Luther, which, some say, converted 
him to the protestant faith ; but it would be more correct 
to say that they served to confirm him in certain sentiments 
which he had for some time entertained, and was now so 
little afraid of avowing, that in 1522 he was accused of 
Lutheranism in a chapter of his order. By what means he 
defended himself we are not told, but it was with such suc- 
cess, that he obtained permission for some of the ablest of the 
students and preachers to read the works of Luther. The 
following year the provincial Sazger paying a visit at 
Basil, the professors of the university and some of the ca- 
nons tendered complaints against Peliican and others, as 
being Lutherans, and contributing to the circulation of 
Luther's works. Sazger was for deposing them, but the 
senate would not admit of it, and said that, if he obliged 
Peliican and his friends to leave the city for this cause, 
they, the senate, would take care to s,end every one of the 
order after them. Sazger took the hint, and left Basil, 
where Oecolampadius a;nd Peliican being put into the situ- 
ation of those professors who had been their accusers, Pelii- 
can entered on a course of lectures on the Bible, which 
formed the foundation of the commentaries he afterwards 
{published in several volumes folio, from i533 to 1537. 

Peliican continued professor at Basil until 1526, when 
Zuinglius invited him to Zurich in the name of the senate 
of that city, to teach Hebrew. Although be had been 
for three years explaining the Hebrew Bible, yet he was 

4F He H Qot altogether to blame, however. The life given by Mclchior wm 
imtttn by Peliican himself, and is upon the whole a rery interesting one. 

T 2 



276 PEL Lie A N. 

modest enough to doubt his abilities for this ofBcd^and^wotifd 
have declined it had not his friends represented to him how 
much inore effectually he might promote the reformation 
at Zurich than at Basil, where he was already in some 
danger from the enemies of the new principles. Accord- 
ingly he consented, and at Zurich threw off the clerickt 
dress be had usually worn for thirty-three years ; and, at 
was generally done by the reformers, entered into tb^ 
married state with a lady, who died ten years after (in 15Z^, 
when he married a.second time). He continued toexecuti 
the office of professor of Hebrew at Zurich until biff death, 
April 1, 1556, in the seventy-eighth year of bts^age. 

Pellican was a man of extensive learning, and j[)artrcti-i^ 
larly an able biblical critic. His skill in the languages^ 
and his critical talents, made his services of great impon* 
ance in the publication of various works. Amerbach, the 

f)rinter, employed him on the works of St. Augustine pub* 
ished in 1506, in 9 vols, folio; and he executed many trans« 
lations, particularly of the Bible, orparttf of it, theChaldee 

{)araphrases, &c. His works are said to have been pub^ 
ished together in 7 volumes, folio; but, although they may 
amount, including his commentaries, to that number, there 
IS no such collective edition.' 

PELLISSON-FoNTANiER (Paul), a French academi- 
cian, and a man of genius, was descended from an ancient 
and distinguished family, and born at Beziers in 16^4. 
His mother, who was left a widow very young, brought 
him up in the protestant religion, and sent him toCastres 
to learn the belles lettres of Morus, or More, a learned 
Scotsman, who was principal of a college of the protestants 
at that place, and father of the famous Alexander More. 
At twelve years of age he was removed to Mbntaubon to 
study philosophy ; and thehce to Toulouse, where he ap- 
plied himself to the law. ^e. acquired a' good knowledge 
of the Latin, Greek, Spaniel, and Italian languages ; but 
his love for the belles lettres did not make him neglect the 
law, which he studied so diligently as to publish, when he 
was not qutfe one-and-twenty, ** A Commentary upon. the 
Institutes of Justinian,'* Paris, 1645, 12tno. Some little 
time after he went to Paris, where the celebrated Conrart, 
to whom he had been recommended by the protestanis of 
Castres, introduced him to the gentlemen of the. academy 

1 Melcbior Adam."— Chaufepie. 



P E L L I S. S ON, 271 

ffho asteiiibled at bis hou^ ; but Pellisson soon returned to. 
Castres, tbe residence of bis family, and applied himself 
to the business of the bar. He had excited the admiration 
of all about himi and was going on in a most flourishing 
way, when the small-pox seized him, and disfij^ured his 
countenance so much that his friend mademoiselle dq 
Scudery told him he had abused the common liberty of 
men to be ugly. Having come to Paris a second time, he 
bad contracted a friendship for this lady, and for nianjr 
years, it is said, they did not fail either to see pr write tq 
each other erery day. In 1652 he became secretary to the 
king; and the same year read his '^ History of the French 
Academy, from its establishment in 1635 to 1652," to that 
society, who were so well pleased with it that they decreed 
bim the first vacant place in the academy, and that, in the 
meat) time, he should be empowered to come to all their 
meetings, and give his vote as an academician; with a 
proviiOy however, that the like favour could not hereaft^s 
be granted to any person, up6n any consideration whatever^ 
This work of Pellisson, which has always been reckoned a^ 
master-piece, was printed at Paris, 1653, in. 8vo. 

Fo^iquet, the celebrated superintendant of the finances,^ 
who well knew his merit and talents, made him his first clerk 
and confidant in 1657 ; and Pellisson, though niuch to his 
injury, always preserved the sincerest attachment to him* 
Two years after, he was made master of the accounts a^ 
Montpelicr, and had scarcely returned from that place to 
Paris, when the disgrace of his patron Fouqiret involved 
him in much trouble, and in 1661 he was «ent to the^ 
Bastile, and confined there above four year^. Though a 
very strict watch was set over him, he found means to cor- 
respond with his friends, and even with Fouquet bioiself^ 
from whom he also received letters. He used hia utropst 
endeavours, and employed a thousand arts to serve this 
minister ; and he composed in his behalf three famous 
pleadings, which, Voltaire says, ^^ resemble thgse of the 
Roman orator thcj most of any thing in the French, lan- 
guage. They are like many of Cicero^s orations ; a mix* 
ture.of judicial and state affairs^ treated with an art vovi 
of ostentation, and with all the ornaments of an affecting 
elo(|Uence." In the mean time, the public was so con- 
vinced of his innocence, and he was sp esteemed in tb^ 
micist of his misfortunes, that Tanaquil Faber dedicated his 
fditaon of . Lacretitts tp him; and. the very day 4bat Imve 



«7S P E L L I S S O N; 

was given to see him, the duke de Moiitausier, and dtheir 

Persons of the first distinction, went to visit him in the 
iastile. He was set at liberty in 1666; and, two years 
after, had the honour to attend Louis XIV. in his first ex- 
{^edition against the United Provinces,- of which he wrote 
e history. In 1670 he abjured the protestant religion, for 
which, it is said, be was prepared, during his imprisoh- 
ment, by reading books of controversy. Voltaire says, 
*' he had the good fortune to be convinced of his errors^ 
and to change his religion at a time when that change 
opened his way to fortune and preferOient.** He took the 
ecclesiastical habit, obtained several benefices, and the 
place of master of the requests. The king settled on him 
a pension of 6000 Hvres; and, towards 1677, entrusted 
him with the revenues of some abbeys, to be employed in 
converting the protestants. He shewed great zeal in this 
Work; but was averse to harsh measures. He published 
^^ Reflexions sur les differens de la Religion ;'^ a new edi* 
cion of which came out in 1687, augmented with an ^* Aii- 
iwer to the objections from England and Holland,*' in the 
same language. He employed also his intervals of leisure, 
for many years, in writing a large controversial voiume 
upon the sacrament ; but did not live to finish it, and the 
world has probably lost little by it. What he wrote on 
religious subjects does little credit to his pen. Eved when 
he died^ which was on Feb. 7, 1693, his religion was a 
matter of dispute ; both papists and protestants claiming 
him for their own, while a third party thought he had no 
other religion than what he found necessairy at court. He 
wrote some other works than those mentioned, lioth in 
prose and verse, but they have not been in request for 
many years. A selection, indeed, was published lately 
(in 1805), at Paris, somewhat in the manner of the com- 
pilations which appeared in this country about thirty years 
ago,- under the name of " Beauties.'' * 

PELLOUTIER (Simon), an historical writer, was born 
Oct. 17, 1694, atLeipsic, but his family were originally of 
I^yons. Being appointed preceptor to the prince de 
Montbelliard's son, with whom he spent the years 1712 
and 1713, at Geneva, he had ab opportunity of atteiKling 
Messrs. Turretin and Pictet'^ theological lectures ; and M. 
. Lenfaat, whose pupil he also was, consecrated him to' the 

1 den. Pict.«*»NiccfM, vol. IL and X^-JUfift. Hitt, 



I 

I 



PELLOUTIER. 479 

^rvice of the altar. He became pastor of the French 
•church at Berlin, counsellor to the Upper Consistory, 
member, and librarian of the academy, and died 1757, aged 
sixty-three. His << Histoire des Celtes,'' printed in Hol- 
land, 1740, and 1750, in 2 vols. 12mo, was reprinted at 
Paris, 1770, 8 vols. 12mo, or 2 vols. 4to, and is esteemed 
a work of accuracy and merit' 

PEMBERTON (Henry), a learned physician, mathe- 
matician, and mechanist, was born at London, in 1 694^1 
After studying grammar at a school, and the higher classics 
under Mr. John Ward, afterwards professor of rhetoric at 
Oresham college, he went to Ley den, and attended^ the 
lectures of the celebrated Boerhaave, to qualify himself for 
the profession of medicine. Here also, as well as in Eng- 
land, he constantly mixed with his professional studies 
those of the best mathematical authors, whom he contem- 
plated with great effect From hence be went to Paris, to 
perfect himself in the practice of anatomy, to which be 
readily attained, being naturally dexterous in all manual 
operations. Having obtained his main object, be returned 
to London, enriched also with other branches .'of scientific 
knowledge, and a choice collection of mathematical books, 
both ancient and modern, from the sale of the valuable li- 
brary of the abb£ Gallois, which took place during his stay 
in Paris. After his return he assiduously attended St. 
Thomases hospital, to acquire the London practice of 
physic, though he seldom afterwards practised, owing to 
his delicate state of health. In 1719 he returned to Ley- 
den, to take bis degree of M. D. where he was kindly en^ 
tertained by his friend Dr. Boerhaave. After his return to 
London, he became more intimately acquainted with Dr. 
Mead, sir I. Newton, and other eminent men, with whom 
be afterwards cultivated the most friendly connexions. 
Hence he was useful in assisting sir L Newton in preparing 
a'liew edition of his *^ Principia,*' in writing an account of 
bis philosophical discoveries, in bringing forward Mr. Ro- 
bins, and writing some pieces printed in the 2d volume of 
that gentleman'^s collection of tracts, in Dr. Mead's *' Trea- 
tise on the Plague,*' and in his edrtion of Cowper on the 
Muscles, &c. Being chosen professor of physic in Gre- 
sbam-college, he undertook to give a course of lectures on 
chemistry, which was improved every time he exhibited it, 

I Diet HisU 



28Q P E 1^ B E R T O N. 

and was publisned in 177 1^ b^y bis friend Dr. Jan^es WUspo* , 
In this situation too,: at the request of the college of pby- , . 
siciaiis, .he revised and reforiii^^ their pbarmacopcsiay in ft 
new ajid muqh improved edition, After a long and labo^ 
ripus, life, spent .in improving science, and assisting its 
cultivators, Dr. Pemherton^died ip 1771,. at seventyrscvea. 
years'ofage. . , 

Besides the doctor^s writings aboverfnentioned, be wrote 
numerous other pieces^ a^.,, 1. '* Epistoli^ ad Amicuni de^ 
Cotetiii iqventis;" dempnstrating Cotes's celebrated tbeor 
T^ai, and showing how his tbeprems by ratios and Ipga- . 
ritbiyis may be done by the. circle and hyperbola. 2, ".Ob»r 
servations on Poetry," especially the epic, occasioned by 
Gloyer's " Leonidas.'' 5. "A plan of a Free. State, witji .. 
a 'King at the head :" not published. . 4. "Account of tl\€^ 
aiicient ode printed in the. preface to West's Pindar"- 5* 
" On the Dispute aboMt Fluxions; in the 2d vol, of Robins* 
works. 6. " On the Alteration of the Style and Calendar-" 
7* ^^ Oq reducing the. Weights and Measures to one stan- 
dard.? 8., " A Dissertation on Eclipses. 9. " On the . 
Loci.Plani,'* &c. His nupnerous communications to th^ 
Royal Society, . on a variety of interesting subjects, extend, 
from, the 32d to .the 62d vol., of the Philos. Trans. He alfso 
carried on a lopg controversy w^th Phili^letbes Cantabri^ 
giensis, i. e^ Dr. Jurin, in ** The Works of the Learned,*! 
\Qh. for 1737, 1738, aijd .1739. 

After his death, many valuable pieces were, found* anK)ng- 
his papers, viz. A short IJistory of Trigonometry, from 
Menelaus to Napier. A Comment on ^n English transla^ 
tion of Newton's Principia. , Demonstrations of th^ Sphe^ * 
rics and Spherical Projections, enough to compose a 
trjeatise pn t,hose subject^r, ,' A Dissertation on Archimedes^- ' 
Screw, Improvements in Gauging. In a* given latitude 
to iind the.point of the-'Ecliptip, that ascends the slowest^ 
To 6nd when the Obtique Ascension differs .most frofn.tUe 
arch to which it belongs. On the principles: of Merca* . 
tor^s and fiddle-latitude sailing. .To. find the Heliacal: 
Rising, of a Sta^ To compiite the Moan's Parallax. To, 
dete^niine. the Course of a Comet in a Parabolic Orbijt*. 
And others, all neatly perfor^edr Op, the w^ole," Dr^ 
Pemberton appears to have been a ql^ai^ .and industripus,. * 
author^.. bpt his writings ^are too diffuse and la^O||red«^ , , 

1 Button and Shaw'f AbridfuaeDt «f ^f Pbilof« TraMaeCionf . 



P E M B L E, 281 

Pil^MBLE (Willum), a learned divine, was born, ac- 
cording, to FuUer, in Sussex, but more probably at Ecer-, 
ton,.in Kent, in 1591, and was educated at Magdalen- 
college, Oxford, on one of the exhibitions of John Baker,' 
of M^ayB^ld, in Sussex, esq. Wood informs us that having 
completed his degree of hachelpr by determination, in. 
11^13, \^e removed to Magdalen-hall, where he became a 
npted reader and tutor, took the degree of M. A. entered 
into orders, was made divinity reader of that house, be* 
came ^ famous preacher, a well-studied artist, ^ skilful 
linguist, a good orator, an expert mathematician, and an 
ornament to the society. '< All which accomplisbmei^tSt'* 
he adds, *f were knit together in a body of about thirty- 
two, years of age, which had it lived to the age of man, 
migljt have proved a prodigy of learning.^' As be was a 
zealous Calvinist^ be may be ranked among the purit^Q^^, 
bu( l^e was not a nonconformist. He died while on a visit 
to bis tutor, Richard Capel, who was at this time minister 
of 'E^stipgtpn, in Gloucestershire, in the thirty-second 
y^ar of his age, April 14, 1623. H,is works, all of which 
we^r^ separately printed after his death, wer^ collected in 
1 vol. foi. in 1635, and reprinted four or five times; bu( 
this volume does not include his Latin works, ^^ De forma- 
rum prigine ;" ^' De Sensibus internis,*' and ^' Enchiridion 
Qratoriuau^' J^isbQp Wilkins includes Pemble*s Sermons 
in tbe list of the best of his age.^ 

, PENA (Jo^n), a celebrated matbematiciati, who de-r. 
spenxlecl from an illustrious family of Aix, was. born ^t. 
Moustiers, in the diOcesp of Riez, in Provence, in 1530« 
He studied the belles lettres tender Ramus, but is said to 
baye afterwards instructed h^s master in mathematics, which, 
SjcieiiQe he taught with great credit in the royal college at. 
Pai^s, ^e died A^g* 23, 1560, aged thirty. M. Pena, 
left a Latin translation of Euclid's *^ Catoptripa,"' with a 
curioqs preface, ajud alsp employed his pen uppn that geo- 
metrician^ other works^ and i^pon an edition of the ^^ Sphe- 
rica" of Theodosius, Greek and Latin, Paris, 155.8, 4ta, &c.* 

. PENGELLY (Sin Thomas), a learped j^idge, was born, 
in I^oorfields, May 16, 1675, and, as the anonymous au- 
t^pv 9f bis life says, was baptii^d by the name of Thomas^ 
app.of. Xhoi^^^ P^pgelly ; ^ui others have, suppose^ that^ 
he was a natural son of Richard Cromwell the protector. 

f Atb. Ox. vol. I.— FttUcr'i WorOiifs. , « MorarU««^Dict, Hitt. 



2$2 P E N G E L L Y. 

« 

For this supposition we find lio other foundation than tb4t 
Cromwell, who lived very privately in the neighbourhood, 
bad known Mr. Pengelly from bis youth, afterwards kept 
up a friendship with him, and died at his seat at Cheshunt, 
in August 1712. Mr. Pengelly was brought up to the bat^ 
and becoming eminent in his profession, was made a ser-^ 
jeant May 6, 1710; knighted May 1, 1719, and in June 
following appointed bis majesty's prime Serjeant at law, on 
the decease of sir Thomas Powis. He sat as member for 
Cockermouth, in Cumberland, in the parliaments called 
in 1714 and 1732. He was made chief baron of the ex- 
chequer Oct. 16, 1726, on the death of sh* JefFery Gilbert; 
and bis conduct on the bench corresponded with the higb 
reputation he had acquired at the bar. He died of an in- 
fectious fever, caught at Taunton assizes, April 14, 1730. 
He excelled in profound learning, spirit, justice, iind ge- 
nerosity, arid dared to offend the most powerful, if he 
thought their conduct reprehensible. He was a florid, yet 
convincing orator, an excellent judge, a pious Christian, 
and an accomplished, sprightly companion. By a humane 
codicil in his will, dated in 1729, be left a considerable 
part of his fortune to procure the discharge of persons con- 
fined for debt, which was accordingly done by his executor 
Mr. Webb. There is a copy of this will published in bis 
life, but the name of his residuary legatee is for some rea- 
son omitted. The anonymous history of Oliver Cromwell, 
first printed in 1724, has been supposed to have been 
written by him, but this is doubtful. It has been also at- 
tributed to Dr. Gibson, bishop of Londoi^.^ 

PENINGTON (Isaac), a writer of considerable estima- 
tion among the people called Quakers, was the son of' an 
alderman of London during Cromwell's time, who was lord 
mayor in 1642, and Appointed one of the judges on the 
trial of the king. For this he was at the restoration pro- 
secuted, and died in the Tower. ^ Isaac the son, was bom 
about 1617, and in his education is said to have bad the 
advantages which the schools and universities of bis country 
could give ; but what school or university had the honour 
of his education, is not mentioned. From his father's sta- 
tion, we are told, be bad a reasonable prospect of rising in 
the world, but chose a life devoted to religrion and retire- 

1 Some private pasiag et of the Life of Sir Thommt Penfelly, 1733, Sto.*— 
NobVfSttppkmenttoQraDger* ' • . * 



P E N I N G T O N. 28S 

iB€nt; and, as he has himself said, received impressions of 
piety from his childhood. He is represented by himself 
and his sect, as one who passed much of the early part of 
bis life in a state of spiritual affliction, perceiving in him- 
aelf, and in the world at large, a want of that vital religion 
and communion with the divine nature, which he believed 
the holy men of ancient time to have possessed. What- 
ever he read in the Scripture, as opened to his under- 
standing, he determined fully to practise, and was con- 
tented to bear the reproach, opposition, and suffering 
which it occasioned. It appears also, that he met with 
opposition from his relations, and, among the rest, from 
bis father ; but ha declares that his heart was preserved in 
tove to them amidst all he suffered from them. On his first 
hearing of the Quakers, he thought them a poor, weak, 
and contemptible people, although, while his judgment 
Seemed to reject them, the conferences which he occa- 
Monally had with them, seemed to increase his secret at- 
tathmfent. At length, in 1658, he became fully satisfied 
respecting them, partly through the preaching of George 
Fox; and became himself an unshaken and constant as- 
«erter of their peculiar tenets, as a minister and author. 

He married about 1648 Mary Springett, a widow, whose 
daughter, by her former husband, became the wife of Wil- 
liam Penn. . He resided on his own estate, called the 
Grange, at Chalfont, in Buckinghamshire. It does not 
appear that he travelled much as a minister ; for of six im- 
prisonments which he suffered, during the reign of Charles 
II. five were in his own county. The first was in 1661, 
when the nation was alarmed on account of the fifth mo- 
narchy men, which occasioned much disturbance to the 
meetings of Dissenters. He was taken from a meeting 
in his own family, and committed to Aylesbury gaol, 
where, although a weakly man, he was kept for seventeen 
weeks (great part of which was in winter) in a cold room 
without a fire-place, by which means he became unable to 
turn himself in bed. In 1664, he was again taken out of 
a meeting, and remained a second time prisoner in the 
same gaol for nearly the same time. In 1665, he was 
taken up at Amersham as he was attending the corpse of a 
friend to the burial-ground of the Quakers. The concourse 
of that people who walked after it in the street, seems to 
have been construed into a conventicle, for he was com- 
mitted to Aylesbury gaol for one month only, on the Con* 



?8* P ? N I N 9 T N. 

^ Tenticle- Act, in order to baBishment. 1% is remarkable 

^hat the justice, because it was not then convenient tq 
4 lend bim from Amersham to Aylesbury, dismissed him tn 

i his word to come again the next day but one, when he ac- 

cordingly came, and was committed : as did on the same 
occasion 'several other Quakers. The same year he was 
' arrested in his hous,e by a soldier without a warrant, and 

.^ carriecj beforie a deputy-lieutenant, by whom he was again 

sent to his old quarters at Aylesbury; and, though the 
pestilence was suspected to be in the gaol, and no crjmQ 
was laid tp Bis* charge, he was kept there till a pqrsoi^ 
{ died of it. . After about nine months* confinement be was 

; discbargeid ; but when he had been at home about three 

j weeks, a party of soldiers came and seized bim in bed^i 

i carrying bim* again to prison at Aylesbury. The coldjj 

\ damp, and uhbealtbiaess of the room, again gave him 4 

I fit of illn&ss, which lasted some D)onths. At length he was 

brought by Habeas Corpus to the bar of the |Cing*s-bencb, 
and (with the wonder of the court that a inan should be so 
|on.jg; imprisoned for nothing) he was discharged in 166S« 
ptirihg one of these imprisonments his estate was seized| 
I and his wife and family turned out of hU house, 

 In ,1670, he was imprisoned a sixth time. He was visit- 

* ing some of bis friends, confined at that time in Reading- 
gaol ; on which he was taken before a justice and conQned 
there himself. Etiwood relates, that during this con6ne<r 
ment, which lasted a year and nine months, he incurred a 
premupire, as did many of the Quakers. For being from 
time to time examined at the assizes, it was common to 
tender them the oath of allegiance, which they refusing, 
from their scruple to swear at all, they became criminals 
in thd view of the law when they went out of court, how7 
ever innocent they might have been on their coming in. 
It seems probable, that the political principles of the fa; 
ther had some share in occasioning the sufferings of the 
son ; who, from his writings, appears to have been of a 
meek and quiet spirit. He died at Goodnestone-courr^ 
Sussex, in 1679, being about sixty-three years of age. 
Ellwpod says, that his disposition was coii^rteous and ^m- 
hle; his ordinary discourse cheerful and pleasant, neither 
morose nor light, but innocently sweet, anid tampered 
with suph a serious, gravity, as rendere^d his conversatioi^ 
both delightful and profitahle. His pumeipys wntibgt 
wercf collected into, o^e Yo}^mct (blip^ and published 1681 \ 



i 



P E N 1 N G T ON. S85 

lePterwftrds reprinted in two volumes 4to, and next in 4 vols. 
tvQ, Some select pieces have also been reprinted, and 
lately^ tome of bis letters, 179^, in octavo; niany of them 
ire dated from Aylesbury. They breathe a spirit 6f ge- 
nuine philanthropy, but, being deepiy tinctured with tnys* 
ticism, have been more sought for by such as are fond of 
that species of writing, than by other readers. * 

PENN (William), afterwards sir William Penn, knt. 
kdmiral of England, and one of the conimanders at the tak- 
ing of Jamaica, was born at firistol in 1621, of an anciei^t 
family. He was addicted from his youth to maritime affairs; 
&nd before he had reached his thirty-second year, went 
throogh the various promotions of captain ; tear-admirat of 
Ireland ; vice-admiral of Ireland ; admiral to the Straits ; 
Vice-admiral of England ; and general in the first Dutch 
war, and commander in chief under the duke of Vork, ih 
the signal victory over the Dutch in 1665, on which oc- 
casion he was knighted. On his return he was elected into 
parliament for the town of Weymouth ; in 1660, commis- 
sioner of the admiralty and navy, g(dvern6r of the fort and 
town of Kinsale, vice-admiral of Munster, and a member 
of that provincial council. He then took leave of the sea, 
but still continued his other employments till 1669 ; when, 
through bodily infirmities, he withdrew to Wanstead in 
"Essex, and there died in 1670. Though he was thus en- 
jgaged, both under the parliament and king, he took no 
part in the civil war, but adhered to the .duties of his pro- 
fession. Besides the reputation of a great and patriot 
officer, he acquired credit for having improved the naval 
service in several important departments. Qe was the au- 
thor of several little tracts on this subject, some of whicb 
are preserved in the British Museum. The monument 
erected to his memory by his wife in Radclilfe church, Bris- 
tol, contains a short account of his life and promotions. 
But in Thurloe*s State Papers there are minutes of his pro- 
ceedings in America, not mentioned on his monument, 
which he delivered to Oliver Cromwell's council in Sept. 
1655. He arrived at Portsmouth in August, and thence 
Wrotfe to Cromwell, who returned him no answer: and, 
"^Bpolihis first appearing before the council, he was commit- 
ted to the Tower, for leaving his command without leave, 

to the hazard of the army; but soon after discharged.* 

' ' ' ' 

^ ^ Pemi's and Elhrood's Tfistinonief!, prefixed to liisATOr^. ,| 
"^ 'Biog. Brit,— CUrkson's Life of TViiltam PeoD.' 



2S6 P E N N. 

PENN (WiLUAM), the son of the preceding^ was bom 
in the parish of St Catherine, near the Tower, of London^ 
Oct 14, 1644. He was sent to school at Chigwell in Es-* 
sex, which was near his father^s residence at Wanstead ; 
and afterwards, in his twelfth year, to a private school on 
Tower^hill ; and he had also the advantage of a domestic 
tutor. Penn relates, in a conference he had with some 
religious persons on the continent,, that '^ the Lord/* as he 
expresses it^ ** first appeared to him about the twelfth year 
of his age ; and that, between that and the fifteenth, the 
Lord visited him, and gave him divine impressions of him« 
self.'* Wood informs us, that during the time of Penn's 
residence at this school at Chigwell, ^' being retired in a 
chamber alone, he was so suddenly surprized with an in-? 
ward comfort, and (as he thought) an external glory in the 
room, that, he has many times said how from that time 
he had the seal of divinity and immortality ; that there was 
a God, and that the soul of man was capable of enjoyidg 
bis divine communications." It appears, that before this 
time, he had been impressed by the preaching of one 
Thomas Loe, a quaker, but no particulars of the <;ircum* 
stance are known ; it is however incidentally mentioned^ 
that it Was by the same person that be was afterwards 
confirmed in his design of uniting himself with that sect 

In 1 660, he was entered a gentleman-commoner at Christ- 
church, Oxford ; where, although he is said to have taken 
great delight, at the times of recreation, in manly sports^ 
he, with some other students, withdrew from the national 
forms of worship, and held private meetings, where they 
both preached and prayed among themselves. This gave 
great offence to the heads of the college, and Penn, at the 
age of sixteen, was fined for nonconformity ; but, having 
theii a degree of that inflexibility, where he thought him-« 
self right, which he shewed on subsequent occasions, he 
not only persisted in his religious exercises, but in his zeal 
joined a party who tore i;i pieces the surplices of every 
student whom they met with one on : an outrage so fla- 
grant, that he was expelled from the college. 

On his return home his lot was not more easy. His fa<* 
ther, observing his delight to be in the company of so*^ 
ber and religious people, such as in the gay and licentious 
reign of Charles IL was more likely to prevent, than to 
promote, his rising in the world, endeavoured by severity 
to divert him from his purpose. Penn, as he relates liim« 



P E N N. 287 

9dfy was whipped, beaCeOi and finally turaedoutof doors, 
in. 1662. The father, however, either relenting, or hoping 
to gain his point by other means, sent his son to Paris, in 
company with some persons, of quality who were tra- 
velling that way. In France he continued some time^ 
and returned so well skilled in the language, and in the em- 
bellishments of a polite behaviour, that he was joyfully re- 
ceived by his father. During his residence in Paris he was 
assaulted in the street one evening by a person with a 
drawn sword, on account of a supposed affront ; but, 
among other accomplishments of a gay man, he had be- 
come so good a swordsman as to disarm his antagonist. la 
one of his writings he very rationally condemns this bar- 
barous practice, reflecting how small a proportion the I 
omission of a piece of respect bears to the loss of life ; | 
which in this case might have been consequent upon the 
rencounter. 

After his return from France, he was admitted of Lin- 
coln's Inn, with the view of studying the law, and continued 
there till the memorable year 1665, when the plague raged 
in London. In 1666, his father committed to him the care 
of a considerable estate in Ireland, which occasioned him. 
for a time, to reside in that kingdom. At Cork he was 
informed, by one of the people called Quakers, that Tho- 
mas Loe, whose preaching had affected him so early in life^ 
was shortly to be at a meeting in that city. To this meeting 
he went. It is said that Loe, who preached in the meetings 
began his declaration with these words : ^* There is a faith 
that overcomes the world, and there is a faith that is over- 
come by the world.** The manner in which Loe eplarged 
upon this exordium is not known ; but the effect was the 
conviction of young Penn, who afterwards constantly at- 
tended the meetings of the Quakers, notwithstanding all 
obstacles. The year after his arrival in Ireland he was, 
with many others, taken from a meeting at Cork, and car- 
ried before the mayor, by whom he was committed to prU 
son; but was soon released, on application to the earl of 
Orrery. This was his first imprisonment, at which time he 
was about twenty-three years of age; and it tended to 
strengthen the ties of his union with a people whom he 
* believed to suffer innocently. His father, understanding 
his attachment to the Quakers, remanded him home ; and 
tl|oagh there was yet no great alteration in his dress, yet 
his serious deportment evincing the religious state of his 



288 P E N N. 

mind, confirmed the fears of his iatfaer, and gavtft 6ccas!<Hli 
to a species of conflict between them not easily descrifaled* 
The father felt great affection for an accomptish^d and 
dutiful son, apd ardently desired the promotion of his tern*- 
poral interests, which he feared would be obstructed l)y thi^ 
Way of life he had embraced. The son was sensible of the 
duty he owed to his parent, and afflicted in believing that he 
eould not obey him but at the risk of his eternal welfarie. At 
length the father Wauld have compounded with* the son, 
and suffered him to retain the simplicity of his manners to 
fitll'othersj if tre would Consent to be uncovered before the 
khig,' the duke (afterwards James II.), and himself. Pbnn 
desired time to ct!>n$ider of this requisition ; and having 
iemplbyed it in fksting and supplication, in order, as he 
conceived, to kiiow the divine will, he humbljj^ signified td 
hiK hxhet that he corfld not comply with it. Afteir thi^, th6 
father being utterly disappointed in his expectations, could 
no fon^el" endure the sight of his son, and ^'second time 
llrove him from his family. In this seclusion he comforted 
farmis^If with the protnise of Christ, to those who teav^ 
fcotfse dr parents for his sake. His support, outwardly, wai 
tlre*charity of his friends, and some supplies privately fent 
him by Ijis mother ; but, by degrees, his father, becoming 
bontinced of bis integrity by his perseverance; permitted 
bim to Veturn to the family ; and, though lie did riot give 
kim open countenance, he privately used his interest to get 
him released, when imprisoned for his attendance at the ^ 
Quakers' meetings; 

Irt 16i58, he first appeared both a,s a minister arid ari 
Author among the Quakers. We shall riot pretend t6 
gi^e the titles of all his numerous tracts, tirs first pVece 
has this title, which is very characteristic of the man : 
** Truth exalted, in a short but sure testimony gainst aB 
those rfeligions, faiths, and worships, that have' been formed 
and followed in the darkness of apostacy; and for 'that 
glorious light Which is now risen and shines forth in the life 
and doctrine of the despised Quakers, as the alone good 
old way of life and salvation ; presented to princes, priests, 
and people, that they may repent, believe, and obey; By 
William Penn; Whom Divine love constrains, in an holy 
cdntehipt, to trample on Egypt's glory, not' fearing the 
king^s wrath, having beheld the majesty of tim who is invi- 
sible." The same year, on occasion of a flispute with Tho- 
mas Vincent, a Prgjfbytcrian. Penn wrote Ms •* Satidy 



P E N N. Ma 



loiiiidatk)!! shakin ; which ooctsioned biiii to be imprbonedf 
a second dme in the Tower of London^ where be remaiDedf 
abotti seven months; and from whieb he obtamed his re*: 
kfase abo^ 6j anotber book entitled ** Innooency with hei 
open faee,'^ in which . be vindicated himself from the 
thsagei which had beeo east on bifm for theiormer treatise. 
In the Tower abo be wrote his faxdoua ^^ No Gross no 
Grown/' or ratfaeri probably^ tbe first edition of it» of 
which the title was different It may be esteencied bis 
master^piece^ and contains a strong picture of Ghris^t 
^« morality* The copnplete title is, ^^ No Gross, no 
Grown ; a Diseotijrse, shewing the nature and discipline 
ef.the llojy Cross of Ghrist; and that the denying of Self^ 
and daily bearing of Gbiist^s Gross, is the alone w^y to 
tke R^t and KMi^dam of God» To which are added, the 
living and dying testimoniea of many persoojs. of fame and 
learniflg, botb of ancient and modem times, in fa/vour of 
tbis treatise^'* It baa gone ibroogb several editions, and 
bas been laAely tranalated into Freneh« After fats release^ 
be again visited keiand, where bis time was employed^ m^ 
enlj in hi$ iiithev's business, but in bis own function as si 
mi4iister among dae QaalpeKs, and in applieations to the 
government fbir tbeiar relief from suffering; ini which appli* 
cation he succeeded so well, as to obtain^ in 1*670, an order 
of council for their general release from prison. Thor same 
year be returned to London,, and experienced that aoffering 
fron» which his influence bad rescued bis. finendis in Ire« 
bmd. The Goafventicle^ci came out this yeu-, by whieh 
tbe meetings of Dissenters were forbidden under severe 
pena/itiee. The Quakers, however, believing, it their reli« 
gioui duty, eontinoed to meet as usual ; af d when some* 
ttmea forcibly kept out of their meeting-houses^ ihey as^ 
sembted ds near to tbeoa as tbey could in the streiet. Ait 
one of these open and public meetings in' Grecechurcb* 
s^eet^ Peaa preached, for wbicb be wa&>commitiied to 
Kewgate^ bis third imprisonment ^ and at t:be next sesaioa 
at tl^ Old Bailey^ togeiber with William Mead,, woi'.iii* 
dic^ted for ^^ being present at^ and preaching to kn uadaavful^ 
seditious^ and riotous assetefaiy/' He- plealded hia own 
Cause,^made a long and* vigoroua defence) though mon^^eed 
and iH tc^oted by the recorder^ and was' finally acquitted 
by the jury, wbo first brought, in &. verdict) of ^< Guilty of 
•peaJiing in Graeeehurch^s<)reet ;^' and when that was not 
afdtoitted, ^ verdiet of ^ Not guiky.'* He was, never tbe». 
Vol. XXIV. U 



290 P E N N- 

Ies8| detained iii Newgate, and the jury fined. Tbe trial 
was soon after published, under the title of ^' The Peofile'9 
ancidnt and just liberties asserted, in the Trial of WiUiaoi 
Penn and William Mead, at the Sessions held at the Old' 
Bailey in London, the 1st, 3d, 4th, .'and 5th of 'September, 
167a, against the most arbitrary procedure of that Court.^ 
This trial is inserted in his works, and at once affords a, 
proof of ills legal knowledge and firmness, . and of the op- 

?ression of the times. The pretence for the detention of 
enn in Newgate was for his. fines^f* which were imposed oti 
bim cfor what wks, called contempt of c6urt : but he i/^aar 
liberated by his father's prirately paying these fines. . His 
paternal kindness now seems to have returned, and flowed 
abundantly; for he died this year, ftiUy reconciled to his 
sou, ,and left him in possession of a plentiful estate : it isf 
said, about 1,500/. per annum. Tenn, in his ^^No Gross,' 
ho Crown,'* p. 473, edit xiii. 1789), bas collected ^ome of 
bis father's dying expressions ; among which' we find tbia 
remarkable one, in the mouth of a man wbo'had so much 
opposed the religious conduct of his son :---«^ Sou William^ 
let nothing in this world tempt you to wrong your. C6n- 
science : I charge you, do nothing against your conscience; 
So wi)l you keep peace at home, wh^cfa will be a feast to 
you in a day 6f trouble." . . . i 

. Near this time he held a public dispute at Wycombe, in 
Buckinghamshire, with a Baptist teacher, concerning- the 
universality of (he divine light. He also, wrote a letter ta 
the vice-chancellor of Oxford, on account of the abuse 
which his friends suffered there from the junior scholars. 
And during his residence this wiater at Penn, in Buckings- 
hamsbire, he published his *^ Seasonable Caveat against 
Popery,*' though it was the religion of tbe queen and of the 
heir- apparent. This has been brought to prove the unrea«- 
«pnableness of the clamour that was; aftervvards raised 
against bim, that he favoured Popery: an aspersion to 
ivhich Burnet gave some ear, but which Tiilotsbn retracted. 
Near the close of the year, he. was led to his fourth impris- 
onment. A seijeani and soldiers waited at a meeting 
Vtitil he stood up and preached ; then the seijeant arrested 
tiim, and he was led before the lieutenant of the Tdwer^ 
by whom, on the act for restraining, nonconformist^ from 
inhabiting in corporations,, he was again con^mitted^ for 
six miontfas, to Newgate; During his confinement, • lie 
wrote sereral treatises^ and also addressed tbe pairliaot^ent^ 



ft E N Ni. «9l 

^Jbtch WIS then about £o take meatures* for enforcing 4b€ 
Conventicle Act with, greater seveiity. Shortly after the 
ireleaseofPeoD from this imprisoDineDt, he travelled) in. the 
exercise of his mioifttry, in. Holland and Germany., j^eyir 
particulars of this jpur^iey ve. preserved ; but it is a,lliuied 
to^n the account of .a subsequent one which he plublished. 

in 1672, be married Gulielma Maria Springett, whose 
rather having been killed at tbe siege of Bamberi in the 
civil wars, and her mother having married Isaac PeniqgtQti 
of CbaUbnt, Bucks, in his fiimily (which was a plaqe.of 
l^neral resort for Quakers in that'oou^ty) Guliel^ma bad 
her education, and probably became acquainted, with 
Penn. After bis.marriage he resided at Rickmansworth, 
in Hertfordshire. The same year he wrote several contro* 
versial pieces ; and, among the rest,'One against IVtuggleton. 
In this employment, about ibis time) be seems, to baye 
spent much of bis leisure In 1674, be ventured, to write 
to the king, complaining of the severity of some justices, 
and -Others, to. the Quakers ;• and some time after, he pre- 
sented to the king, and to both houses of. parliament, a 
Ibook entitled >VThe continued Cry of the oppressed ^ for 
J^istice ;. giving .an .account of the cruel: and unjust pro- 
ceedings against the- persons^ ,and estates of many of the 
people called^ Quakers^" In 1675 he; held a public dispute 
near Rickmansworth, with the famous Richard .Baxter* •. 

In, 1677, in company .with ^Geprge ¥oj^ and Robert 
Barclay, he again set sail on a religious visit to the Conti* 
nenL He travelled by Rotterdam, Leyden, apd Ha^rlepi, 
to Amsterdam, at which place, bearing of a persecution of 
the Quakers at Dantzick, he wrote to tbe king of Poland 
an expostulatory letter on their behalf. He .then». after 
aoQie further stay ,at Amsterdam, proceieded by Ospabrug 
to Herwerden> or Herford, the residence of the princess 
Elizabeth, daughter, of the king of Bohjemia, ,^d. grand- 
daughter of James L . . . 

it may not^be amiss to mentipa, tnat tjae m^nqer in which 
the ministers of the people called Quakers/tranrel in^he 
husiness of their ministry is simply this *m Having a vie^ 
of the country, in which they believe themselvea4iTinely 
required to niinister, they prpcejBid from place vtp ; place, 
according as their minds feel disposed, by the touches of 
the same influence which they conceived, to have,driS.w|i 
|bem from their habitations. Their employment is visiting 
^ meetings, and often the families of their friends ^ a^d 

'^ "■ • '   ' u:2 > • • . 



ftom^times appdintifig UMihrd pMtt irieetkgii lor Ite-irtfer^ 
ttiatioti ef peF9<»ns ef 'O^et docietlces, whom 'iilafo they Visit, 
fit their dirty dr incliiiiMlon kiftftd th^m. Tbi» seems to tei¥^ 
b«6en the case with Penli and his eomfNfr^tomi whose pnii- 
* cipal busiaeds at Herv^erdea wa^ iti- liisitiyig the prihces* 
and her family. I^ie ri^eiT^ thefll wi^H gi*eikt rtodiHfe^, 
and they remained fi^t day» at hertowtf, iti wfaieh iimp 
Ibey had many ^ligio^te i^p6rtfmitfe^> botb fer worship 
tod conf&c^nte^ with her and iii ber bdto^, trne of which 
was open to theiul^abirtaDts d^the t^wti. Oh keai4nj^ iter- 
werden, b^ to^l 4 eiremt in Gfef^marty, l>y OAi*iM, Prttnc* 
fort^ Ghri>she}m, Maiibeim, Merrtas, Ocloghe (eaHcid by 
bim8etfCui|ei>>) Mulbein^ Wesd^ Cte^, atidNim^uen; 
and re^raed t^ Amstterdani io less than a fftohtb after h'^ 
had left it. Aft^fr sts^ying ^kbout three days^ h'6 again left 
tt, and went by fiorn> Woreiim, fiarfin^en, L^feehwardebj 
LippenhiiS) Gf oningen, Embden, and Bi^6n, to his bospi- 
table frieiid the princess Elizab^h at Berw^den^ whence, 
after anbdiet stay ef about (avtv d^ys, ^ ^i^^ofid circah 
brought hirfn to Aimsterdahti ; and^ fi^din lioHi^nd he f^ttirnelf} 
borne, by Harwich tiid London, tobfs wife and ^famify sit 
Weraai^ngfrui^st, in Strss*^x. We eefnd^udes the iiirratitis of 
hh joutfiey in theise \vprdi : <• t had tbtit erettitig i^it. of 
liit^ reiurh) a siveet'oMibting atAongthem, rn #fafdh^(S6d** 
blesfiied power iinade to tritly glad t^getht^r : and I c*rn sayi 
truly blessed are tbey'trtk) feiwi cheerfully give tip *to serve 
tbe Lord. Great ^>H be ^tbe ihereiase ^ti6 giroiVtb of th^it 
treacittrey wbick i»hatl nev^cil^. 1?6 Plim that 'was, and ts^ 
aad is to cohie; the ^^ririA, h^}' Uess^, righteous, 
powerful, andfaitbftrt Ofee; btgtery, 'hoiioAr, tod praise, 
dociiln<i6n, and a kingdom, fbr i^Vet and evtir. Amen."-*-** 
Jtlainy remarkable ^ircit^ina(fetnce^ otiettrlh bis aifccon'nt oTtfie 
j^^urney, partietilbi^ tbei^eflf^ood sensibility and cohlfritidti 
^4811^ eirinefed by the j^ihbdsa, aftild by ber iWend stnii 
companion^ Anna Maria, countess of Hdn^si Baft ive mmtt 
refer tc^Ptenti'sbWn kbcbdMtv^'Wbic4l is in Vh wotkst, and 
ako^fepariE^lji^ ^taiYt. At l^etim^ofMs t^ttrrti, and be« 
ibvehifei ejfrterirtg 6i> ttiis jWney^, hi* re^d^bce was*tWeJr- 
loiiighurst, in j^ssex^ an n&stsite, "probably, of his wife*^; 

Ab4fut the tiknfe of bis return -frbro the tsbntinexit, Wft 
feietvds the Quakers;, ainofi^ b^er tnethods^ cised at thH 
time to liarass tbcHin, #er6 vexed bj Idws wliiefb bad been 
ttiade agadni9t Papists, and peniihies of twenty pound's 'i 
moiitbjor tvro-^third»of tb^ijr estates (Stat. &i wid i^a Mir.) 



^«bf Qwdbin ciiencji H9i»s^ of P«i4(iaoa^ot,i audi Wns (wioei 
4ilM»«d ta tpeak cm tfaeir l»elialf| kl ii|[ cq<l(aM(t^| probaUj; 
^ tti^ . CosKQoag, fof a bitt for Ibe jfeii^ Of the Quakers sqqi^ 
ilM pMsed tbut bD«f9 ; bul| before it b^ p«a«Qd tbe Qtb?v 
Imtifi^, it was set atidle fa^ a prai?9gAti(Hi of patHafloefit 
, In l<SBi> king Cbarios,, in ^ofi9«|era|tiQia ^ the «ervic8a 
«f bit faib^r^ • Se adnMraii, «iid Qif a d§bt due lo him frQBft 
ibo^owaat his deatki.wJudi ib»t ext^^t^aat tnwar9hba4 
vo olfaer raeam «f payings ^ranteil to Peao a provio^^ iff 
Vorth America^ lying on ite W«4t ai^e .Of tbe I>eUwitre» 
called ihe Now Nelberia^da ; bttft, on this^ Qc<|aBipfi^ dono*« 
pnaated by tbe king» Jo tespect.lo the gratH^ee^ PenuiyU 
vnmtu PeoB teon after publisdml W aepoMnt of the pto^ 
vidoe^ vvith tbe kUig'a potent, det^^ibing the coup try aad 
iteipiiiKlOoe, a)nd ptfapoftitigoany terois of Bettlemeot to such 
aa onight be incUhed to go tbitboif. Ho ai^o ^nt a tetter 
to ffaie nattTie Indians^ tfiforming ibom of bit dewe to bojld 
bid possessioB, not only fay ibe king's grants but with their 
ponseot awd leve^ acknowledging the iDJiuHioo wbicb bad 
beeif-done them by EordpeHoai arid assuring- tbem of btl 
poaicsable inteotiioiidi He fthea drew up» in twenty-foot 
ertieles^ ^'The ffandaniefttal ConstittttiOfi of Paansyl* 
▼jiiija ;'' and tbe Mbiring year bo pnbUsbed the '^ Frame 
of G<M»ernflMmt of PennayUaoia*'' This baying all tbe 
attraetloni of a popoltMP forib, and pvofoinirig ulhlimited 
freedom to all religbus SO.cts; and, wbat wa^^ mofd of aU 
agreeable to them, an emancipation from the expenees of 
an eslabltshed religion, mapy single . pf^fsons, end som^ 
fiuniliei;, went to the new province. They sooa begon to 
clear and imfiiof e their lands^ and to build ^ city, wbi^h 
Peooi keying in view the priomple of. brotherly Ioto^ 
which is the strength of civil society^ ni^med Pbiladelphioi 
CiomniimoBers irere abio appointed to treai^ !l^itb the In<f 
dians;.a]id| in.l6i% he v&iMl bis dewly-acqoired terri<^ 
•toiy. At this time be parsed about two yei^rs in the pro<t 
viace, adjusting its ipterior concerns^ and ef.i»^li^ing a 
frickidly correspondence with bis neigbbMrs ; but fojund iti 
at tbe same time, necessary to vindicaie biotself, in a spi^ 
riled letteri from .die accusation of ambition and die desire 
of irealtk Tbe fbUowing^ y^tet, 1693, be gave a more full 
description of Pesuisylvaiiia, in *^ A Leuer axldressed to the 
Goiteiiaee ^f the Free Society of Traders to that province^ 
residing in Lmukn/^ Ho.j||&n):ionsi^bat two general 



39« FE^N N. 

assembliigs'tiad been beld; and mtb i^och concord and :dif^ 
patchy that they sat but three weekft, and at^eaatt seventjr 
laws were passed, without one dissent in any materiat 
point. He also informs the traders, tlmt the assembly^ ha<l 
presented him with an impost on certain goods imparted 
and exported; which impost, after bis acknowledgmenta 
of their afFectioti, he bad freely remitted. He also says, 
after mentioning the establishment of com*ts of justice, that 
to prevent law- suits, three peace-makers htA beeii ch^seti 
by every co>inty-court,'in the nature of common arbrtratorii; 
Before he left tbe provin(;e, he addressed an epistle of 
caution to his friends of the same religious persuasion set^ 
tied in it; feminding them of the conspicuous station iit 
which they were then placed ; being transplanted from op* 
pression, not only to liberty, but to power ; and beseech-*'^ 
ing them to improve the opportunity which God had noW 

{)ut into thei^ bands. Having thus settled his infant co;^ 
ony, hereturned to his wife and family in England iu'lS84; 
Not many months after the return of Penn from faia 
colony, Charles 11. died, and the respect which Jan^es H;^ 
bore tolhe late admiral, who had recommended his son t0 
bis care, together with that monarch's personal acquaiflt^^ 
ance with Penn himself, procured for him a free access at 
court. He therefore, made use of the opportunity, thus 
afforded him, of soliciting relief for his persecuted. firiendi^ 
tbe Quakers, fifteen hundred of whom remained prisoners 
at the decease of Charles II. All this was ineritorioiis j 
but the r^st of Penn^s conduct seems not quite consistent; 
The nation, at this time, was justly alarined, as welt know^ 
ing the king's inclination to popery; but Penn's bi6gra«> 
phera teli us, that he had no such fears. He bad long been 
intimate with the king, and had given credit to the protesi^ 
tatioiis which James had repeatedly made, of his intention 
to establish liberty of conseience. On his accession, there^ 
fore,.Peiltt took lodgings at Kensington; and his: ready 
s^nd frequent reception at court, drew on him the suspicion 
of being himself a Papist ' Burner, as was hinted before,' 
so far leaned to this opinion, as to mention it in bis biso* 
tory, and to declare that Penn was intimate with Petre 
the Jesuit, and employed by James IL in H6liahd,'*]h 
1686. Burnet also adds the following description of Pernios 
character: ** He was a talking vain man, who had. long 
been in the king's favour. He bad sudi an opinion of his 
own faculty of persuading^ that he thought none coiild 



suail ' befoi^ 4l^ though he was siiigtilar in that opbion ; 
fbrlie4Mi3 a tedious luscious way, that was dot apt to over- 
<toaaea inaii*s reason, though it might tire his patience.'* 
Burnet, therefore, was evidently no friend to Peun. But 
miich of this t^diousness and egotism may 'be proved from' 
P«nn*s works. TUlotson bad the same suspicions as Bur- 
net ; and having mentioned them publicly, Penn, by let- 
ter, inquired of him, if he had really spread the report of 
his being a. Papist? In this letter Penn has these words, 
ampng others : ** I abhor two principles in religion, and 
pity them that own them : obedience upon authority, with- 
out conviction ; and, destroying them that differ from me for 
God^s sake/' Tillotson, in reply, mentions the ground of his 
suspicion ; namely, that he had lieard of Penn's correspond- 
ing with some persons, at Rome, and particularly with Jesfuits j 
but professes his particuli^r esteem of Penn's parts and tem-^ 
per, and says not a word of his intimacy «^tb Petre, who was 
in England ; which, had it subsisted, as both were public 
fiaen at court, Tillotson must have known. In reply, Penri 
declared; that he held no correspondence with any Jesuit,' 
priest, or regular, in tbo world, of the ^Lomish communion^ 
and «v.en that he knew not one any where ; declaring him^ 
eelfto be a Christian whose creed was the Scripture. In 
conclusion, Tillotson declared himself fully satis6ed, . and^ 
as in that case he had promised, he heartily begs pardon 
.of Penn. The correspondence may be seen at length in 
Penn's Works*. In this year, 1686, he published <<A 
PerjBuasive to Moderation .to Dissenting Christians, &c» 
bumbly submitted to the kinjg and his great council ;" sooa 

* / ' ' • 

* Theq«estioaofPemi*«iQcliiiati<Mi Tbe king, by admittiog him At court, 

to popery is scarcely worth contend* and flattering and caressing him, bad 

Ifig; but bir friends who have iaboared turned Che pialn meek qojier into a 

this poin^ so mino^y, seem much less downvigbt man of !the world. ' Perhaps 

successfbl in TiBdicating his consist- in all the annals of courtly, trick and 

imcyin other matters. .That Peon was artiac# there caonbt be found an ia- 

not a papist is admitted ;. hot he xe- stance more striking than Penn's in- 

joiced in that toleration of king James terview with the president and fellows 

' If. the object of which was the exten- of Magdalen college,' as related ii( 

fioo of popery and papists into all our Wilmot*s Life of bishop Hough. The 

Siblic eitablishmenls, schools, and se- fellows seem indeed to have £pU the 

ioarjes, that it might ultimately be mortification of applying to Peon, a^ 

the predominant reliigion. If Penn did a mediator with the king^ but it is to 

, not see tbia^Kmsequenceof king James!*s their honour that none of his artful 

measures, he. most have been the dupe bints prevailed, and that they left him 

ofa man of far less capacity than him- with the same inclination to sufiWr ia 

*U^'i and the truth appears to have the cause of oonscifnce, which bad 

^9 that>he.»a« the dope^ either of the been the boast of him and his sect, 
i, or of his own vanity and interest. ^ 



\ 



%H 1^ E N N^ 



pardon $ wbipfa wm fotiow^ ^e Oiext; y«»r) ^^jr .^m sias^ 
peiiabG^ of tbie petial laif^. P^i^n presented at) fuld^resA of 
Ibe Quakers on thi$. occasion. He alsp weote a* boc^ ^li 
#€ca3i<>n of ^e ol^e€^ip0$ rawed i^gAinst tbe repeal <>f peo»l 
laws and ^est; rad, ibe clamour ftgaia^t hipa eo»tkmMi(^ 
be w^ i)rg0d tp i^ttidtcat# himiielf from i^ by one^^f hm 
friends, Mr. Popfie^ mareiary to tbe Pkuitei^ooTofiiQe^ 
V^bijsh be <&1 in «*longf»ply« ^a|;ed 16^. But %e bi4 
How t;o cope with inore powerful opponf nts tbai) 4ruoiottr<« 
Tbe revoiuiiion took pUcOr i^nd an ia4imal(& ^f Jav^es i«as of 
eouQse a auspected pevtoo* As bo was walkv^ ,h) Wbke^r 
ballf be was ^Ofsmoned befem ibe .eoimoili tfa^ sitting! 
and, iboof^ votfaiag wU proved mgsimi )uIb» be Ym» boiml 
|o ^appear ibe &tU day of tbo: fol^wing tor ff^i hu% bekig 
continued 1^ ^be neist 'on (the ^ame bail, ho was. thiaa dia^ 
okarged in^ipiso oooi^: notbang^tHig laid to kis obarg^» 
In i£e beginning of 1^90^ lie f99» again broiigbt befiofo 
tbe couBciJ, and aAouiod of ^inreapoodiQg wi^b Ja»«iSt 
fhey required baU ^f ^afi ^la^fore; but ke ^a^poaM ^ 
^be king kinsaei^ wbo> $fier a long oontoeaeO) inclined 
to acquit kioi ; neirartkeless, M tbe iosi^aoe of aoipe of ike 
oounctl^ be ¥Mt»»i5eooad: Mmekoki a wbite ro baU^ <biufi #( 
length disekafgerf,. <Sk¥)ii after lijbifw io ike ^%ini» year, be 
wa3 <chaM|red i^iib odfaering to. die ^ngwee of tbe killgdoaq^ 
but proo? ^aUjtti^ be was ia^m cfeased b^ ibe coiu^ of 
King^^beocb. fieiog now» a^ be tbofight;^ ^ likerty^ -bt 
prepared to go Again io PenQsyl^Mia» and pubUsbed pm^- 
poaals,for «iiotk^ ^dttiiemwt tberis ; bilt.^ii toy^e wal 
prevented by another accusation, supported by the oath 
df otife Ifl^IKat^ Fulte^ (a man wl^m tbe parimnkem after- 
wards declared tp/he a cheat and impostor) ; Mpon wbiicb ^ 
warrant was granted lor arresting kim, and he uMpmiAy 
js^seapied it, at hi^ retufu ft-om the burial of George Fo^. 
Hitherto he kad sucoessfuUy defended kimself; but noiw^ 
Hot choosing to expose his character to tbe oaths of a pnfO^i 
Sigate man, he withdrew f«>0Qi^ public notiice, tUl tbe k^tier 
part of 1693 ; when, through the aiediation of bis frteaFdi 
jat court, he was once more adoditted to plead b!s own clause 
before the king and council ; and he so levaooed kis kuio«r 
cence, that he was a foprth time acquitted. He e^aptoy^ 
himself in his reUrements in writing. Tbe most geoeralljr 
known production of hfs 'seclusion^ bears the ti«ie ^ 
Fruits of Solitudoi in Reflections and Maxims relatiog 



€t 



 



PENN* 

to 4M Msdiict of 4mi»m life;** And «nt>tter'iiot' ks9 valued 
^f hi9 met it bk ^< Key, Ac. to discern the diiFereiice be^ 
tween ibeiselifiofi .prole^aed by ibe peeple cnUed Q»aker$» 
m4 ^e pervei^itty &c. ef ihetr eiWermries, Ac/* : wbiob 
baft :gfme #mnigh, ttpnabe editions at least Not long afteir 
liiiB «estoliation to #ocfttfty, he loal Ms wile, which affected 
tarn so misbhi that he seid all bis other troubles were nth* 
tbtegiflkeefiipatisoe of ibis; e«dlbe published a short tuQ^ 
counts ber cfaarioter^ dybig^expresMons^ tod pioua end. 
T'he'foUowi'fig year, be s^^peared as the eulogist of George 
FoUi ta m loeg fMefece to Fex*8 Jouitiai, then fmblished* 
Ttbe pr^iee, giiriiig a aummary account of .the people 
wbeoi Fox bad been ae nraob the ineaos of imiting, has 
beetfi aevAml times primed s^paralelyv under tbe title of 
f < A l>vief AcoemH: of tbe rise and .progtess of the people 
caUed 42uakera/* It has passed through mftay edit^otw in 
^a^sbi two in French^ and has been translated into Ger-» 
nan hy A. -F. Wenderbern* Tbe same year he travelled 
a»ia minialer in aoove of tbe western counties $ and. in the 
liei^ me find bim tbe public ad^rocate of the. Qoafcers to 
perliettient, before wbooi a bQI waa then dqieodiirg for 
4beir eese in die case of oatbt^ In tbe early pkrt of i 696^ 
be flMirried a aecond wife^ and soon aifoer lost his- eldest son^ 
S^ageitt 3Pemi, who appi^ars, from the character given 
to Uin by bis father^ to have been a Itopefvil atid pioiis 
yeswg frnTO) just ooomig of age. Tbe same year he added 
eee ^nere to bis abort tracts despriptifre of Quakerism, 
under tbe title of ^'Prioiiti^e Christiufiity revived," &c. 
and now began bis paper controversy with the noted 
Qewge Keidiy who from a champion of Qoakerismi and 
Umb itttilnate «f Barclay, bad become one ef its violent op^ 
pouents. Keitb'a severest sract accuse Penn and fail 
btwlbr^ irf^hstsm. in Ifidf, a bill depending in parUa« 
ttiBiMt egaiost blaspfaeasy, be presented to the House of 
QeeT% ^ A Caudoe requiaite in the coasideratioH of that 
Bill;** u^erefai beedvimd that the teitii .migbt besode^ 
fitted^ as to prevent malidoos prodecutiona under that pre-^ 
leace. BkitdMe bill was dropped. , In 169^^ be travelled as 
m> preaicber in Ireland^ and the following winter resided at 
Briatol. la 1699^ he again sailed for bis pnmuce, with 
las wile and fkmilyv intending to inake it bis future resi« 
den^e^ but^ during bis abvmcei an attempt was made \o 
Undermine proprietary goverlimeot^, tinder colour of ad* 
wneieg <the 4itig*s piefogaitive. A bUl for libe purpes^waa 



29fi PE NiN: 

brought into pafliMient, biit the tneii^tt're vihM po^pobed^ 
ttntil his return, at the intercession of his frieiidi ; who 
atso gave him early infonnatibn of the hostiie pt^eparatibns^- 
amd be arrived in England the latter part of 1701. After 
his arrival, the' measure was laid aside,: and Penn once 
more became welcome at court, by the death of king Wil« 
Ham, and the consrequent accession of queen Anne. Oti 
this occasion, he resided once more at Kensington, and 
afterwards at Knightsbridge, till, >ia 1706, be removed to 
a convenient house about a mile from Brentford. Next 
year he was iuv-olved in a law-suit with the executors of a 
person who had been bis steward ; and, though many 
thought him aggrieved, his cause was attended with such 
circuniisUtnces, as prevented his obtaining relief, and he 
was driven to change his abode to the rules of the Fleet,' 
until the business was accommodated; -which did not hap^ 
pen ' until the ensuing yean It was probably at this time, 
that he raised 6,600^. by the mortgage of his province. 

After a life of almost constant activity and- employment^- 
he found, at the age of sixty-five, that the infirmities ol 
age began to visit him, and to lessen his abilities for tra<^ 
veiling with his wonted alacrity; yet, in the y«ar 1T09, 
be visited the west of England, and some counttea nearer 
bis residence in the metropolis. But at length, in 1710, 
finding the air near the city not to agree with bis declining 
constitution, he took a handsome seat at Rushcombj near 
Twyford, in Berkshire, at which 'he continued to reside to 
the time of his decease. In 171 2, be had, at distant tindesj 
three fits, thought to be of the apoplectic kind. The last 
of these impaired his understanding and memory, so. much 
as to render him unfit for public action afterwards. His 
friend, Thomas 'Story, an eminent Quaker^ who had beea 
the first recorder of the corporation of Pfaiiadelphia, made 
bim annual visits after this time, to his death. In 17 IS 
and 1714, he found him cheerful,- and able ta relate past 
transactions, but deficient in utterance, and recollection 
of the names of absent persons. In 1715, bis ibemory 
seemed further decayed ; but both in this, and the foriiier 
year,' Story relates, that he' continued to* -utter in the 
Quakers* meeting at Aeading, short, but sound and sen- 
sible expressions. This year he also tried, but without 
benefit,, the effect of the waters at Bath. In ]7.i€, 'he 
aeemfed glad to see his. friend, and at parting with him an^ 
another, he said, ** My ;iove is with you» The .I^ord pr&p' 



P E N N. 99$ 

serre jtm, and renmember me in tbe everbttiag coVtoMt.** 
In Uify -lie scarce^ knew fab old acquaintan^) or could 
i9alk> without leading. His decease was on the .30th. of 
Jiily>'17l8, and his. interment the 5tb of the next, ii^ontb, 
at'iordan, near BeacenafieAdy Bujckioghamshire. Without 
attempting to draw up ar^ular.ofaaracterof WiUiam.PenUp 
it must be evident from bis woAs, that . he was a iban (d 
abiiitiea; aodyfnom his conduct through iife, that, he was 
a man:of tbe'^pnsest cohscieooe. This, without acqedlng 
to.biftoptiiioo8 iu religioo, we are perfectly willing to allow 
smd to dadare J i 

.P£NNANT (Thomas), an eminent traveller, naturalist^ 
and antiquary, was born June 14, 1726*, at Downing,, in 
Flintshire, the. seat of his family for several generations. 
He .was. the son of David. Pennant, and his mother was tbe 
daagliter.of'Riofaard MyttonQf..HaUtoo..^ He was educated 
first: * at ^;Wrexham, then .at Mr. Croft^s school at Fulbam, 
and .last at .Ctueen's.and O^Lel . colleges, Oxford, where, 
however, he took no degcee, but was qompliooented with 
diat-vf : LL. D« in the year 1771, long after be bad left the 
university. .... j 

A present of the ornithology of Francis Willougbby, 
made to him at the age of twelve, gave him a taste, for that 
fitudy^ andta love for natural history in general, which be 
afterwards pursued with j constitutional ardour,, and great 
reputation ; to such small matters do. men. of talents some* 
times owe their prevailing bias,. In 1746-7, he made a 
toiur: into: Com wall^ where he contrapted a strong passion 
fox minerals and fossils. The first production of bis which 
appeared tu pnot, though unknown to.himself, was an abr 
ataract of aletter which be wrote to his uncle, John Mytton, 
esq« on an earthquake which, was felt at Downing, April 2« 
dl7.i&0; ,: This. appeared'!^ tbe Philostopbical Transactions. 
Inrl7^4, be wtts. elected a fellow*of tbe Society of Antir 
quaries,: an booonr? which he resigned in 1760.; Accord;^ 

* «To,pra?eQt al) disputes about to Miss Jenny Parry, of Merton, in 

ttie place and time of my birth, " be it this pdrish; who, to her dying day» 

fcntWn thai^I wflia bum .<m Juife 14, . nerer . failed tefling »e, <* Ab, y(^ 

1736, old style, in the room .bow called rogue ! I remember you when you had 

the yellow room ; that tbe 'celebrated ' not a shirt to your back.*' 

Itri. Clayton, of ahrewsbnry, ushered Pennsat's Hist, of Whitefgnd 

fa^ intO'-the wwld, %od delivered me , : . ^^^ Holywell. 

' ^.']^>je aepouDt, now altered in some jmrts,. was drawn up for the last edition 
pi this Dictionary.— A very elaborate life lias lately been published^ by Mir. 
<nkiiist>n, in S'rols.' etO.^>i«8ee also Bior. Brit.<*-^nd Life prefixed to bit Wori», 

a'las, 3 Toll, folio. 



3«0 PEWNAN.T. 

!i>g 40 fais own aceosmt^ Iki^ foreti|^ at this fime ipm snialk 
^^I bad)^' sajsJae^ ^'married a most amiahlewtrwUyVi^f 
circoinstances M^ere very narrow, my worthy father; btiog 
dlive, and i vainly thought my faappihesi wcnsid h^^VB bteh 
^^manent, and that I never ahould hame he&k called aga^n 
lirom my tetire^tient to amuse myself in toWn^ or to be of 
toe to the society.'* 

Pt«vk>U8 to thii resif^tion, however^ m 1754^ be viaitM 
Ireland ; \m% such was the oonviviality of .the eouiitry) that 
fate jooTQal proved as meagpre ^s his ent^rtahmreot was 
plentiful, '* so it never was a dish fit to bb offered to tfas 
|>uUick.'- In 1756, be published in the ^'. Philosophical 
Transactions/' a paper on severai coralloid bodies he had 
4:oiiected at Coali]rrook-dale, in Shropshire* In 17i7, aft 
the, instance of the ceiebratcd Linnssu^^ he was elected df 
the Royal Society, at Upsal, which he calls the first and 
greatest of his Kterary honoun/* He kept «p a.corre«- 
«pondence with Linnaeus, till age and infittfiities' obliged 
the latter to desist. 

In i 761, he began his << British Zoology," wfaidh^ wiicfa 
completed, consisted of 132 plates on imperial paper, att 
engraved by Mazel. Edwards, the celebfated omithor 
logist, conceived at first a little jealousy on this attemipl^ 
lynt it very soon subsided, and they contracted a great tti^ 
tamacy, which ended only with the death of Mr. Edward 
He devoted the profits of the '* Bntidi Zoology" to the 
'Welsh charity school, in Gray's inn-bne, London, and 
supported the far greater part ol the e^enoe ; but he lost 
Considerably by it, and the school did ndt gain so much as 
it might if the work had been printed in a quarto, instead 
4>f a large folio siee. But he confesses be ivas at that time 
inexperienced in these affairs. 

In 1765, he made a abort tiowe to tiie epnlinent, whirls 
lie enjoyed the company of the celebrated Bttfbii,^ who 
publicly acknowledged his &vouraUe sentiments of Mtk 
Pennant's studies in the fifteenth volume of his ^^ Natural 
.iHistory." They had afterwards a dispute on branches o^ 
their respective studies, but, adds our author, ^^ our blows 
were light, and I hope that neither of us felt atiy material 
it^ary." At Ferney he visiteql Voltaire, who happeJ>ed tp 
be in gdod humour, and was very entett^ining ; bfft in his 
'attempt to ^peak English^ satisfied the visitors that he ^as 
perfect master of the oj^ths and curses wb^ch disgrace ihi^ 
language. 



PENNANT*. 301 

' Dtfriog iHAb tour, Mr. Pennant visited Itlso bistron Halter, 
the two Gesneriy the poets, and Dr. Trew, a venerable 
patron of natural history, who resided at Nuremberg. At 
the Hague, he met with Dr. PaHas, and this meeting gave 
the to hn " SjmopMs of Quadrupeds,'* and the second edi* 
tion, tinder the name of the ** History of Quadrupeds,'' a 
work received by the naturalists of different parts of Europe 
in a manner uncommonly favourable. Mr. Pennant had 
proposed this plan ^o Pallas, but owing to the latter being 
promoted at the court of Petersburgh, it ultimately de« 
▼olved on himself. In 1767, after his return, he was 
elected fellow of the Royal Society. In 1768, his British 
Zoology was published in two volumes, 8vo, and the book* 
teller gave Mr. Pennant \00L for permission to do so, which 
he immediately vested in the Widish charity-school. 

In 1769, he added a third volume, in octavo, on the 
reptiles and fishes of Great Britain. In the fifty-eighth 
▼oiume of the Philosophical Transactions, was published 
his account of a new species of Pinguin, brought by cap* 
tain Macbride, from the Falkland islands. In the same 
year, in conjunction with sir Joseph Banks, and Mr. Leten^ 
who had been a governor in one of the l>Qtch islands in 
the Indian ocean, he published twelve plates of Indian 
Zoology, but chat work was afterwards discontinued. In 
the spring of this year, he^acqaired one whom he calk ^ 
treasure, Moses Griffith, to whom the public are indebted 
for numberless scenes and antiquities, and who accom- 
panied Mr. Pennant in all his journeys except that of the 
present year, which was his first tour into Scotland. " I 
had,** says he, **th« hardiness to venture on a journey ta 
the remotest part of North Britain, a country almost as 
little known to its southern brethren as Kamtschatka. I 
brought home a favourable account of the land. Whether 
it will thank me or ho I cannot say, but from the report I 
have mad«, and shewing that it might be visited with safety^ 
H has ever since been inondit with southern visitants." This 

J ear, also, be was elected fellow of the Royal Academy at 
)rontheim. 

In 1770, he published 103 additional plates to the Bri- 
tish Zoology, with descriptive additions ; and in 1771, he 
|irinted, at Chester, his ** Svnopsis of Quadrupeds,** irt 
erne yoluine, 8vo. In May of the same year, he was Ho- 
notfred bV the university of Oxford, with the degree of 
doctor or laws, conlferred in full convocation. About th^ 



MB PENNANT. 

close of the year^ be gare to the public his ''Tomr itt 
Scotland," in one 8vp volunae^ oroameDted, as all h^ works 
are, with plates. A candid accoui;it of that country was 
80cb a novelty, that the impression was instantljr bought 
up, and in the next year another waa printed, and a&; soon 
sold. In this tour^ as in all the succeedinir, he laboured 
earnestly to conciliate the aflFections of the two nation^ so 
wickedly and studiously sc^t at variance by evil^desigiiiqg 
people; and he received several yety flattering letters on 
the occasion. In the Philosophical Transactions of this 
year, he has an (Recount of two new species of tortoises.. ; 

On Allay 18, 1772, he began the loo^st^of his journey^, 
in our island. This was his ^' Second Tour in Scotland^ 
and Voyage to the Hebrides.*' "My success," he ob- 
serves on this occasion, ^^ was equal,to my hopes : I pointed 
out every thing I thought would be of service totbexoun- 
try : it was roused to look into its advanti^es ; societies 
have been formed for the improvements of the fishieries, 
and for founding of towns in .proper places : ,to all whicb^ 
I sincerely wish the most happy event; vast sums will, be 
flung away;. but incidentally numbers will be benefited, 
and the passionsof patriots tic)£led« I confess that my own 
vanity was greatly gratified by the compliments paid tome 
in every corporated town. Edinburgh itself presented me 
with its freedom, and I returned rich in civil honours." . . 

In 1773, be pablishe^ the. 8vo edition of "Genera. of 
Birds,'* and performed a topr through . the north of Eng* 
land,, where his companion Mr. Griffith made a great 
many drawings of antiquities, &c. several of which were 
afterwards used by Mr. Grose, in his <* Antiquities of Eng* 
land," In this tour he contracted 'an, acquaintancfi ..with 
Mr. Hutchinson, the historian of Durham, in a singular 
manner,, which we shall give in his own words : ^^ I. was 
mounted on the famous stones jn the church^yard of Pen«-^ 
rith, to take a nearer view of them, and see whether the 
drawing I had procured, done by the rev. Dr. Tod, had the 
least foundation in truth." Thus engaged, a person. of 
good appearance, looking up at me, observed ^^ what fine 
work Mr. Pennant had made with those stones.^' I saw he 
|iad got into a horrible scrape ; so, unwilling to make bad 
worse, I descended, laid bold of his button, and told hiai> 
*<.! am the man !" /After his confusion' was over, I 'made ^ 
short defence^ shook bim by the hand, and we Uecame 
from that moment fast friends." An account ofbiurtof 



pt;k n a Jiir sos 

(bis }&tirriey, Mr. Pennant left in m8ni]9<;ripfy HloStrBled 
Witb drawings by Mr.GrliBth. Mr. Pennant performed all 
his joarneys on horseback, and to that be aitdbnted.bis 
healtby old age. He considered the absolate resijcnatibn 
of one^s person to the luxury of a carriage, to forebode a 
▼ery short interral between tbat^ andthe vehicle which is 
to convey us to our last, stage. 

- In 1774, he published a third edition, with additional 
plates, of his *} Tour in Scotland,^* in 4to, and his Voyage 
to the Hebrides in the same size. In the same year, he 
visited the Isle of Man, and journeyed through various parts 
of England. In 1775, appeared his third and last volnme 
(^ the ^'Tour in Scotland,*' perfomied in 1772. These 
tburs have been translated into German, and abridged inr 
French. In 1777, he published a fourth volume of the 
*^ British Zoology,'* containing the vermes, the crustacecus 
and iestaceotts ^nimah of our country. 

After several journeys over the six counties of North 
Wales, in which be collected ample materials for their 
history, he published the first volume of them in. the form 
of a tour in 1778; and. in 1781, the second, under the title 
of ** A Journey to Snowdon." In the same year a ,new 
edition appeared of. his *' Synopsis of Qaadr upefds,"- in 
2 vols. 4to, with considerable improvements. The liberties 
which the country gentlemen, in the character of deputy*. 
Ueiitenahts,' and inilitia-officers,' now and then took with 
their fellow*subjects, urged him about this time to publish 
** Free Thoughts on the Militia Laws." 
/ In this year, 1781, he was elejcted an honbrairy member 
of the'society of Antiquaries at. Edinburgh. In tte Philo- 
•opbicfti Transactions of the same year, was published his 
history 'of the Turkey^ which he made appear was a bird 
pleeuliar to America, and unknown before the 4iscQvery of 
that continent : also a paper on earthquakes felt in Flint-* 
ibire. In 1782, he published his "Jodmey-ftom Chester 
lb London." In 1783, he was elected a miember ^of the 
Societas Physiographica, at Lund, in Sweden. In 17B4> 
appeared his " Letter from a Welch Freeholder to his Re^ 
presentative." The same year he published his ** Arctic 
Zoology,- two volumes, quarto, containing the classes of 
quadrupeds and birds. This work gave occasion to bis 
being honoured,' in. the year 179^^1, by being elected mem r 
ber: of the American Philofophiual Society ' at . PWla- 

delpbia. , :/ : ii 



SM t K K N A N T. 

In M»j ]r7 94, fa& was deciei membeir . of the fiayni 
Aeademy of Sciences at Stockbolfli.; ancl in J^nuaiy llSi^^ 
an bonorapy member of the Edinburgli Socictjr for pm^ 
noting' of uainral koo«ledgc ;. of the Sbciety of Asniqiia-t 
vie» at Pevtb ; and tiope Agnculiural Socitty at Odiasn^ in 
Hampslure. In i797^ be publisii«d. a Sappleinent to tile 
Arctic Zoology. As in 1777^ be bad again narfiedi htt 
dfacofitinued lifs temrt until tbe spving^ lilBI^ whitn .be- vi- 
sited tbe dockyardf, and tra^itlled by brad ffem Ba^tfo^ 
following die coast tor the Landla^cndL 
' Besides tbese greater works, of eeraflMhor, he att seirerii 
times gttTe the public seme tribes, which he eoliect^d some 
years ago, and printed foe the amusenient of his frieadii^ 
shirty eopies at a pvivute ptess^ Tbe prindpai' wba hitt 
^ History of tbe Patagoniaaa ;^* wipiefa, wkb seihe etfaenl^^ 
he gave to- the pobiic, along wkbbia ^^Xitarary lifa/^: ^ 
In 1790, he published bis ^* Aceowit of Lmdodv'^ tto 
antiquities of wbioh be had studied with gi^BJtimi&tktiiMU Of 
this work be saysy ^^^ I had so o£te» walked sdoNMit ihei^e^ 
yal pans of London^ 'with* my note4iai^ in toy faan<^ that 
I could not help formiRgconskieKableeoliectiioaa a#iliatf^ 
rials. Tbe. publk veeeii«ed this work wiib cbe^utaMist avi^ 
dky. It went through thvee lanrge impiisssiQiis in sdbadf 
two years and a baH/' Maay addbtioiM' wete wade ta» tfal| 
second edition. ;. ." 

In 1793, be published hi^ Hfe, under «fae indiioMest tidai 
ef << Tbe Li^emry Life of tJm kte Thomas IPeriiianty £a^; 
by himself." In the advertkeaieiit be states^ febat/tbe tir^ 
aaination of bis aatfaorial esctftence took fAfice aa Mctreb 1, 
1791. He came to life again, bowewer^in 1197, andfMibf^ 
Kshed «^Tbe History of tbe pasqsbea of Whiiefof^ and 
Holywell ;'' and in the last year of bis Ufe, he gave «b# 
public hia ^* View of Hindostan," 2 itob.. 4«e^ tot whielf 
he thus aecount^: ':* A few yeavs aigo> i gsew fmi of im^ 
ginartf iowrs, and determvned on one la €liiae» inofe seited 
to my years^ Okore genial then that lo the' frozen nonb* i 
sdH found, or fancied that I founds aih|ii>^S' to direct «y 
pen^ I determined on aToyage to India,^ fonoed ewacetij^ 
on the plan of the introdnetion to tim^ Arctic Zeolegy^ 
which comoiences at auch pa»t^ pf tfae^M^Mth' as ac« aceea* 
sible Co mortala« From Londoit' 1 follow^ the eeasia^a^tttfaera 
to part of our Iskuid, and fit)Oi> Calais, along' the' oataine 
8bore» of Europe, Afeica, .and Asia, ^iV Vhvfo attained! 
those of New Guinea. Respecting these I have caileqjMdl 



F E N N A N T» $o# 

frv€ffy ifi|6rioitiotv. possible frofn books anci^t^ i(n4 iqo^ 
^ern ; from tt^e most autbeqtic^. and ffom living traveller^ 
g>i tbjS mofC respectable characters of my time* I i^ingU 
PAtijral history^ accounts ot' the .coasts, climates, and every 
tbing wbich I tbougbt could instruct or amus^. They are 
jffritt^a ott imperial quarto, and, when bound, make a fQlid 
of no inconsiderable size : and are illustrated, at 9. va^t ^y» 
pence, by prinu taken from booksy or by charts and 
maps^ and by drawings by the skilful hand of Moses Grif«- 
fiib, and by presents from friends. With th^ bare pos*- 
sfbiitty of tbe volume relative to India, none of these booka 
are to be printed in my life^time ; but to resto^myshelv^s^ 
the amusement of my advancing age.'' Of these inaniih 
fciripjta there were in all twenty«*two .volumes oHgiciaUy ; 
but Mr. Pennaiftt, as we have roentioued, printed in bis 
}ife^tifne that which relates to India. We may add,, in his 
l^wn wordsi f^ Happy is the age that could thus beguile its 
Deetiitg jbours, withoiiit injury to atiy one ; andy with th^ 
addition of years^ continue to rise in its pursuits.'' 
r His useful life at last terminated, Dec. 16^ 1798, when ba 
left a private character in all respects irreproachable^ as a 
900, husband, and father. He had great public spirit, and 
fooctered himself eminently useful in his county. In his 
political principles he was a whig of the old school. His 
fortune, as w^l as time^ was liberally devoted to learned 
psniuits. He mwrried first, in 1759, the sister of the late 
Thomas Falconer, esq, of Cheater, and of Dr. Falconer of 
Bath, by whom he had a son, David, and a daughter ; and 
tecoodly, in 1777, to miss Mostyn, sister to the late sir 
&oger Moatyn, who survives him. 

^ ¥^w men have so unceasingly devoted themfeielves to th^ 
pfomotion of useful knowledge. Or published so many vo* 
iumes, especially on subjects of natural history; Hia 
iiw)fks have been so generally read, and are in such .high 
esteem with the public, that it would be unnecessary in 
diis place to enter into their respective merits. It is ael* 
dom that works so expensive run through so many editions ; 
bat Mr. Pennant had the happy art of relieving the dullest 
subjects by ei|livening and amusing digressions -.-and his 
tours and bis account of London are distinguished, by a 
fund of anecdote, an easy familiarity of style,, and that 
pleasant turn for research which engages the reader^s atp 
tention because it agreeably refreshes his memory, and sup«i> 
{dies hnn with information at a< small expeiice of trouble. 
Vot.XXIV, X 



$0* r^ E N N A N T- 

{D^ lobtkson said of him, when some objeetions vrtre • 
inade to his tours, that " be had greater variety of inquiry 
than almost any man ; and has told us more than perhaps 
pt\e in ten thousand could have done, in the time that he 
took.'^ In 1800, bis Son published the third and fourtb 
volumes of << The Outlines of the Globe,*' the title which 
Mr. Pennant gave to bis imaginary tours, and wbicb were 
the continuation of his " View of HindoStan." Thi« 
work was accompanied by an elegant tribute to his memory 
by his affectionate Son, who also published, in the follow- 
ing year, Mr. Pennant's last work, left by him nearly fi<* 
liished for the press, entitled ^' A Journey from London to 
the Isle of Wight," 4to. } 

PENNI (John Francis), a native of Florence, where b« 
was born in 1488, was called II Fttttate, or the Steward^ 
from having been* intrusted with the domestic concerns c^ 
Kapbael, and soon became one of his •prHici|>al assistants; 
He more than any other* helped him in the execution of 
the cartoons of th^ Arazxi; and in the Loggie of the Vati^^ 
can painted the histories of Abraham and Isaac. After the 
death of his master be executed the fresco of the corona* 
tion in the stanza of Constantine* The upper part of the 
Assumption of the Virgin, a work of Raffaellesque grace, 
at Monte Lupi, in Perugia, is ascribed to him, thougti 
Vasari gives it to Perino del Vaga: the under* part witk 
the Apostles is painted by Julio. Of the works which \m 
performed alone, no frescoes, and so few oil-pictures re^ 
main, that they may be considered as the principal raritiea 
of galleries. Facility pf conception, grace of •execution^ 
and a singular felicity in landscape, are mentioned as hik^ 
characteristics. Penni wished much to unite himself with 
his coheir Julio, but being coldly received by him at 
Mantua, went to Naples, where bis works and pripcipleA 
might have contributed much toward the » melioration of 
style, had he not been intercepted by death in 1528, ior 
bis fortieth yean He left at Naples, with his copy of the 
Transfiguration, a scholar of considerable merit, LiofHtnh. 
Malaies$€Lf or Grazia^ of Pistoja. He had a brother Luca% 
who having a close connection with Perino del Vaga, wfaa 
bad married his sister, worked with that master (seeP£R<t^ 
^iTO) for some years at Genoa, Lucca, and other cities «f 
Italy, with great credit. Afterwards be went to/limgland^ 

J Literary Lifs— Hlstpry of Whiteford.;— Outlines of tbe GloVe. 



trtd wiasi employed by king* Henry VITI; for wtiom he 
painted severaV designs; and was also engaged by some df 
the merchants of 'London ; but at last be almost entirely 
quitted t^e pendl/ devoting all his time and application t6 
engraving, as some say, but Mr. Fuseli maintains that b4 
«nly famished designs for engravers.* . '" 

- PENROSE (Thomas), an English poet, was the son 6t 
the riev. Mti Pet)K>se, rector bf Newbury in Berkshirei a 
ittmn of high character and abilities, descended from an 
aaeient Cornish (ami ly, who died in 1769. He was bora 
in 1743, and being intended for the church, pursded hiik 
studies at Christ-churchy Oxford, ' until ' the summer of 
1762, when his eager turn for the naval and military pro* 
fessidn overpowering.his attXchoient to his real'interest, he 
laft bis college, i and embarked in the unfortunate expedi<i 
idoo againsi Nova Coldnia, in South America, under tb# 
cOmmaad'of captain Mac Aamara. - The irsue was fatal; the 
dive, thettargest vessel, was' btiriU, and although th# 
Ambuscade escaped (on board of which Mr. Penrose, acting 
as^lieutenant of marines, was wounded), yet the hardships' 
which he- afterwards sustained in'a priee sloop, in whicb 
lie was stationed, utterly ruined his constitution/ 
. -Returning to England, with ample testimonials of bit 
gallantry and good behaviour, he finished at Hertford-col* 
lege, Oxford, : his course of studies;' and having takeh 
cvders, accepted the curacy of Newbury, the income of 
which, by the voluntary subscriptions Of the inhabitants; 
was considetuble augmented. After he had continued in^ 
tibat station about trine yearrs, it seemed aS' if the clouds Of 
disappointmem, whiteh had hitherto overshadowed his pro^ 
fpects, and tinctured his poetical essays with gloom, wertf 
elearing away ; for he Avas then presented by a frietid, who 
Jtnew his worth, and honoured his abilities, to the rectory 
of Beckington and Standerwick, in Somersetshire, wortli 
near 500/. per annum. This came, however, too late ; for 
the state of Mr. Penrose's health was tiow such as left little 
liope> except in the assistance of the waters of BristoK 
Thither be went, and there he died in 1779, aged thirty* 
•ix. In 1768 he married miss Mary Slocook of Newbury^ 
by whom he had one child, Thomas, who inherits bis fa« 
dber*« genius, taste, and personal worth. He was edd- 
<;ated at Winchester and New-college, Oxford, of which 
he is now B. C. L^ 

> PilkiiigtoD, by Fottliif 
X 2 



' « 



,-■ • I 

. Mr. Pj^nme vras retp«<^ fior bis elctensi vie eniditton;^' ajk 
'iisired for bis eloq^enc^ and equally beloved and esteemed 
for bis social qualities. By the poor^ towards whom bm 
(Was libeml to bis utmtist ii[bility, he i/»as venerated in th« 
btgbest degree. In oriitory and composition ^is talents 
were great. Hrs pencil w%m as i;eady as bis pen, and on 
fi^bl^ct^ of humour bad tmcommon merit. lu 178 1 a eol- 
jkction of bis '^Poems'* was published by bis fnend anl 
jee^Iatipn James Peter Andrews, esq. wboprefixed theabove 
ftccouDt of Mr. Penrose. They are dist^guisbed hj ez^ 
quisite ft»ding^ and taste. Hie thoughts ar^ pathetic ao4i 
pati^ral, and bcr seems possessed of a great portion of die 
fire a0d feetiiig of Collins. Siicb poems as '^Tbe Carousal 
sfOdin/' ^ Madness'' and «'The Kield of Battle,'* af« 
ainong tbe rare prodiiptioris of modern genius. 'That thesd 
l^aems are so litde k|iow» is unaeccmiiiable. Mr. Penrose 
pvblisbed two oeeasioiial smroioos of considerable^ merit. * 
. PENRY (JoBK), or AP HENRY, coomoidy known by 
^is assumed name of Martm Miar^prdkie^ or Mar^priesi^ 
ivas bora iii 151^9 la Wales, and stodied first at Peter* 
bpuse, Caipbridge, of wbith be was A. B. in 1584, and 
afterwards at Oxford, in which latt^ university be took tbc^ 
degree i>f master of arts, and was ordained a priei^ After- 
wards, mating with some dts^tisfinetion, as it is said, and 
being yeiry warm in his tem)>er, be changed his religion, 
and became an Anabaptist, or ratber a Brownist He was 
|iencefor#sird a viruleot eftcmy to the church «f England; 
a«d the bierarcby df liiat communioa, as appears usuffi^ 
(pieittly by bis coatse Itbell, In wbicsb be has sbewO' bis 
apleeii to « gi'eat degme# At length, after be' had con- 
cealed himself Sot aome yeaarst be was apprehended at 
^ixoprtey^ afid triisd aa tbe KingfsnBench, befiore sir John 
Popham, chief •justice jmd the rest of the judges, wfaieii 
be Mias iitd^Mid and condenmed for Mouy, fer papema 
^ndr kl bis pockety purpoitiilg to be a petition to the 
qUeen^ and. was eJtecttt!Ddl, acicOiMliBg to J^uller, ^t r^SlX, 
Thomas Wateptogs, in'l$93. .1)1 appears, that some vio- 
laHceHM/as put upon the laws, even as they then stood, tb 
jfem a c8pitaI\accnsatioQ 4^iost him. For .bils libels .hS 
cduld nott be accused, the legal time Sot such an accusal 
tioo baring elapsed, befdre be was taken : itbe piapers i^oa 

^ Poems a< above. The editor of the last edition of Johiuoa's Poets was r^ 
IvetaHily oUi5«4 lo omit Fcof ose^ from being iuia1>le to procure a copf • 






- », 



FEN RT. . 



M9 






jfcbich be was coDTidted^ contained only an impUed dcniak 
of tUe^ queen^ft absolute authoriijf to make^, eoact» decneeji 
and ordain laiv9;.and impliad, merely, by' aFOiding la usa 
tbosei termS) according i to the veiy . y(ford$ . o( th^ lord'^^.; 
keeper PuckeViiig. His execotion. was therefore in, a higb, 
degree unjust. > His chief publications kre,; \i '^ Martin 
Mari-prelatfi^'^l^ tract, that gave so nisich offence*. -S^ 
'^ Theses MarttniansB,'' dvo. . 3. >^ Avvievr .of publioke 
Wants, and Disorders ia, the serrtce of God, ir> a PeiUioa 
ta the: high court of Pariiement/' 15HS^ Svo* i. ^^^Ain 
Exhortation to the. Govtcnora and People of 'Wales, to 
labour earnestly to havetbe/preacbingof the GospelpiaiUod ^ 
aoDoiig thenii^'t 15B<8,iBvxK ('5. ^^Reformation no Knenrifi ^ 
to hex Majesty and the Statc^'M^i^Q, 4to. *^6» V Sir 8i- -^^^^-'^-'^ 
B|on.Syttod^s<Hue<and Cry Cor:.tbe Apprebehsion of ypun^ 
Martin Mar«-prtest, with Martin's Echo,'! 4to. ^^^'^j^^'^^^j ,r 
these^ s^nd sqo^«othersy i^crre full i of low sourril^y^ ^^^ im'w^^'ll!^ -» 
petulant satire. .Several tnacts, equally scorriio^gp. werp/w«^Vyv:^x^^j 
published ag^ns.t turn; as,." Papfe witli a Hatchet, or a f^'y*^'-^ -z^/*-- 
Gqaotry Cuffe for the Idiott Martin to hpld vfaii^ PeaceV* '^''^''^'^''^J' 
^ A' Whip fpr aiv Ape,, or 'Mariixi displaiedj" and Qther^^ of ' 

tlie:aaine kind. In the conifositipn of these paasphietSs 
\st is said to have bad ^he assistance of John Udal), John 
Field, and Job < Throckmorton^ who pubhshed their Joini 
efitisions at a private printing press. Pcnry was, a man dl 
iooie learning and zeal for religipo, but in- his notions of 
government, both of church and state, appears to hava 
adopted more wild theories than- ever his, successors, whas 
in power, atteropj^^d to carry iiito practice* His^saateace^ 
however, was liaju^t, and the enemies of th^ hierarchy . 
have therefore found it qo. difficult matter to place Joho 
Pei^ry at the head of their list of martyrs.^ 
PEPANUS. See DEMETRIUS. 
' PEPUSCH (JoHiH CuRisTOPHBst), one of the greateef 
theoretic musicians of modern timed, was ^iorn at Beriitf 
about 1667, and became so early a proficient oa the bai^ 
fiehord, that at the age of fourteen he was sent for ta 
court, and appointed to teach the prince, father of the- 
l^feat Frederic king of Prussia^ About 170Q, he cama 
over to England, and was retained as.a performer at Druryi^ 
lane, and it is supposed that he assisted in composing ttie 

1 Brook*». Lives of the PqritaDt«-i*Scryp«*t. Lile af GrMal, ,p. 4«— Lifc> at 
Wbitsif^ p. 28d. ^^. 343. 346. 40^.— Atli. Ox. vol. 1.-^See an cxcelleDt ol»ar 
l4r«B llartiA if «r*pr»Uit la |l*|ifMlf»s ftaantls of Asthsrt, vsk \M, 



Sio P E P U S C H. 

Operas which were performed there. In 1 707 he had acquirei) 
English suflBcient to adapt Motteaux*s translation of the 
Italian opera of ^* Thomyris^' to airs of Scarktti and Bo« 
nonciuiy and to new-set the recitatives. In 1709 and 1710, 
several of his works were advertised in the first edition of 
the Tatters^ particularly a set of sonatas for a flute and 
bast, and his first book of cantatas. In 1713 be obtained, 
at the same time as Crofts, the degree of doctor of music 
at the university of Oxford. And soon after this, upon 
the establishment of a choral chapel at Cannons, he was 
employed by the duke of Chandos as maestro di capella ; 
in which capacity he composed anthems and morning and 
evening services, which are stiil preserved in the Academj: 
of ancient music. In 1715 he composed the masque of 
** Venus and Adonis/* written by Cibber; arid in 171,6 
."The Death of Dido," by Booth, both for Drury-lane. 
These pieces, though not very successful, were more fire- 
quently performed that any of his original draniatic com- 
positions. In 1723 he published an ode for St. Cecilia's 
day, which he had set for the concert in\York~buildings. 
In 1724 be accepted an offer from Dr. Berkeley to accom- 
pany him to the Bermudas, and to. settle as professor <>f 
music in his intended college there; but, the: ship ia 
which they sailed being wrecked, be returned. to Loudoih, 
and married Francesca Margarita de TEpine. This person 
was a native of Tuscs^ny, and a celebrated singer, who 
performed in spine of the first of the Italian operas th4t 
were represented in England. She came hither with one 
Greber, a German, and from this connection became dis- 
tinguished by the invidious appellation of Greber's Peg. 
She continued to sing on the stage till about 1718 ; when 
having, at a ^modest computation, acquired above xAfi 
thousand guineas, she retired from the theatre, and aftet- 
wards married Dr. Pepusch. She was remarkably tall, 
and remarkably swarthy; and, in general, so destitute o£ 
personal charms, that Pepusch seldom called her by any. 
other. name than Hecate, to which she is said to have 
answered very readily. 

} The change in Pepusch^s circumstafices by Margarita^s 
,' fortune was no interruption to his studies : he loved music, 
and he pursued the knowledge, of it with ardour. At the. 
instance of Gay and Rich, he undertook to composeV or 
iratheV to correct, the music for ** The Beggar's OpenC'V 
His rep.atation'was now at a great height^ add in 1737.; Kc. 



P E E U, § O H. 811 



> I r 



W98 chosen organist . of the Cbarter'^bouse; and retireij. 
with his, wife, to that, venerable mansion. The wife clira 
in 1740, before which he lust a sop, bis only cbild; so 
that be bad no source of delight left, but the prosecution 
of his studies, and the teaching of a few favourite pupils, 
who attended bim at his apartments. Here be drew up 
that account of the ancient genera, which was read before 
the Royal Society, and is published in the *^ Philosopjiical 
Transactions** for Oct.. Nov. and Dec. 1746; and, soon 
.after the publication of that account, he was chosen a fel- 
low of the. Royal Society. 

He died the 20tb of July, 1752, aged eighty-five; and 
was buried in the chapel of the Charter- hoiuse, where a 
tablet lyitb au inscription is placed over hitn. 
^ As a practical musician, though so excellent a harmonist, 
be wasposses^ed of so little invention, that few of his com- 
positions were ever in general use and favour, except one 
of his* twelve cai\tatas, '^ Alexis,** and his airs for two flutes 
or violins, consisting of simple easy themes or grounds 
>vitb variations, each part echoing the other in common 
divisions for the improvement of the band. Indeed, tbougb 
only one cantata of the two books be published was ever 
much noticed, there is considerable barmonical merit in 
^bem all; the. recitatives are in general good, and the 
counterpoint perfectly correct and masterly. Among all 
the publications of Pepusch, the niost useful to musical 
students was, perhaps, bis correct edition of CorellL*s so- 
natas and concertos in score, published in 1732. He 
treated all other music in which there was fancy or invehr 
tion with sovereign contempt. Nor is it true, as has beeq^ 
asserted, that ^f be readily acquiesced in HandePs superior 
^lerit.** Handel despised, the pedantry of Pepusch, and 
]^epuscb, in return, constantly refused to join in the gene* 
ral chorus of HandePs praise. 

The sole ambition of Pepusch, during the last years of 
bis life, seems to have beep the obtaining the rejiutatioci 
of a profound theorist, perfectly skilled in the music of 
the ancients;. and attadhiog himself to the mathematician 
Se Moivre and Geo. Lewis Scot, who helped him to calcu« 
late ratios, and to construe the Greek writeris on music, be 
bewildered, himself and some of his scholars with the Greek 
jgenera, scales, diagrams, geometrical, arithmetical, and har« 
monical proportions, surd quantities, apotomes, lemmas, and 
«very thing concerning ancient harmonics, thai waa dack^ 



n^iiitelligiblei and foreign to cbmnion ami useful practice. 
But with all his pedantry and ideal admiration of ibe muste 
bf iht ancients, he certainly had read more books on tb^ 
theory of modern music, and examined more curious com- 
positions, than any of the musicians of his tinie ; and 
though totally devoid of fancy a^d invention, he was al^le to 
correct the productions of his contemporaries, and toassi^ 
teasohs for whatever i)ad been done by the gi^c^a'test master* 
who preceded him. But when he is called the most learned 
musician of his time, it should be said, in the music of tfa^ 
^xteenth century.. Indeed, he had at last sudi a partiallt]^ 
for musical mysteries, and a spirit so truly antiquarian, ^at 
he allowed no composition to be music but What was ^Id 
and obscure. Yet, though he fettered the genius of his 
Scholars by antiquated rules,' he knew the mechanical lawf 
of harmony so well, that in glancing his eye ^er a score, 
he could by a stroke of his pen smooth the' wildest and 
most' incoherent notes into melody, and make them aub« 
inissive to harmony ; instantly seeing the supet^ous or 
deficient tlotes, and suggesting a bass fi-om which tbete 
X tvas no appeal. His ** Treatise on Harmony'* has lately 
been praised, as it deserves, in Mr. Shield's valuable ** In*- 
troduction to Harmony.** ' .; , . r 

His admirable library, the most curious and codaplete iti 
scarce musical authors, theoretical and practical, was dis- 
persed after his death. H6 bequeathed a considerable " 
part of his best books and manuscripts to Keln^rj an oM 
Oerman friend, who played the double-'bass in tile theatres 
ind concerts of the tim6; some to Traver^ and' these *and 
the rest were at last sold, dispersed, and embefisi^led^ in % 
^banner diflicuU to describe or Understand. ^ 

PEPYS (Samuel), secretary to the admiralty in the 
reigns of Charles H. and James II. and an eminet^ bene^ 
factor to the literature of his country, was a descendant of 
tlie ancient family of the Pepys's of Cottenbam in Cam« 
bridgesbire, and probably the son of Richard Pepys, Mvho 
was lord chief jtistice in Ireland in 1654. - He was boro, 
according to Collier, in London; but Knight, in this par- 
ticular a better authority, says he was born at Brampton in 
]^unti|)gdonshire, and educated at St. Paul's scbboK 
Thence he was removed to Magdalen-colleg6» Cambridge, 
liow Ipn^'he remained here, we are not^ told, but it ap^ 



P E P Y S: SW 

bj €he college-books, Ibat on June 26, 1660, he was 
^sreated M.A. by proxy, he bqing then on board of strip als 
focretary to the navy. He appears to have been related ii> 
general Montague, afterwards eaK of Sandwich, who first 
introdaced bim into public business, and employed hidi 
£rst in various secret services for Cliarles II. and then ii^ 
secretary in the expedition for bringing his majesty froiti 
Holland. His majesty being thus restored, Mr. Pepys wak 
immediately appointed one of the principal officers of thfe 
liavy, by the title of clerk of the acts. In this employment 
be continued \intii 167.3; and during those great events, 
the plague, the fire of London, and the Dutch war, the care 
of the navy in a great measure rested on him alone. 

In this last-mentioned year, when thie king thought pi'o- 
({)er to take the direction of the admiralty into his own 
bands, he appointed Mr. Pepys secretary to that office, 
jwbo introduced an order and method that has, it is said, 
formed a model to his successors. Important, however, 
a^ bis services were, they could not screen him from the 
-malevolence of party-spirit; and happening, in 1684, to 
be concerned in a contested election, this opportunity was 
iaken by his opponent to accuse him of being a Papist, 
which the house of commona inquired into, but without 
^finding any proof. . This we learn from the journals of tbe 
bouse. But Collier informs us that he was confined in the 
Tower for. some time, and then discharged, no Accuser 
appearing against him ^. After his release, the king made 
•M^ alteration in the affairs of the admiralty, by putting the 
. inrboie power and execution of that office into commission ; 
^nd tbe pubJic was thus, for some years, deprived of Mr^ 
Pepys's services as secretary. He was not, boweyier, un» 
lempioyed ; fpr be was commanded by his majesty to ac- 
company lord Oartinputb in his expedition against Tangier : 
'^and at tbe same time be bad an opportunity of making ex-« 
leursions injbo Spain, as, at^ other times, he had already 
jdone into Fraiice, Fianden, Holland, Sweden, and Den- 
. marie.. He also sailed firequently with the dukeofYorl^ 
into Scotland, and along the coast of England. 

In April 1684, on bis return from Tangier, and on the 

* By Grey's debates it would ap- ofploU and aecasttions were fabricated 

i^U that' Mr. Pepys was accused of to amme tbe pobUc. The only aiUck 

^yingsfiDt iafpimatioB to the Prcoafa oq Mr Pepys's character, ip modem 

fBoort of the state of the Bavy : a thiog times, is in Harris's *' Lifeof CharlesI t.>» 

^H^f^jjUe, «t ,apy tiine I b||l perhaps mnit m si|cl|. a collection of c^umnrf 

pff h\ iliid belicTetii, when i^ll' manner teeips not at *U out of place. 



314 P E P Tf S. 

i 

re*ass£iinption of the office of lord-highradmiral of EnglanJ 
by Cbaries II. Mr. Pepys was again appointed secretary^ 
]and held that office, during the whole of Cl^arles's and 
James's. reigns. During the last critical period, he restricted 
himstflf to the duties of his office, and never asked or ac- 
cepted any grant of honour or.proiit, nor meddled with any 
afiair that was not .within his province as secretary of the 
admiralty. In Charles's time he procured that useful be- 
nefaction from his majesjty, for placing ten of the mathe- 
matical scholars of Christ's hospital^ as apprentices to mas- 
ters of ships. . . 

On the accession of William and Mary, he resigned hij^ 
office; and, in 1690, published hiis " Memoirs" relating 
to the state of the .royal navy of England for the ten years 
preceding the revolution ; a well-written and valuable work. 
Be appears to have, led a retired life after this, sufFeriag 
very much from a constitution impaired by the stone,^ for 
which he had been cut in his twenty-eighth year. About 
two years before his death he went to the seat of an old 
naval frientd, William Hewer,, esq. at Clapham, in Surrey, 
where he died May 26, 1703, and was interred in the same 
vault with his lady, whp died in 1669, in th^ church of St. 
Olave, Hart-street, this being the parish in which he lived 
during the whole of his employment in the Admiralty. 

He appears to have had an extensive knowledge of naval- 
affairs, and to have always conducted them with the greatest 
skill and success. Even after his retirement he was con- 
.suited as an oracle in. all matters respecting this grand de- 
fence of the, nation ; and, while in office, was the patron 
and friend of every man of merit. in the service. But he 
was far from being a mere man of business : his conversa* 
tion iand address bad been greatly, improved by travel, and 
be was qualified to shine ix\ the literary as well as the poli- 
tical circles. He thoroughly understood and practised mu- 
^ic ; was a judge of painting, sculpture, and architecture; 
and bad more than a superficial knowledge in history ai^ii 
philosophy. His fame., indeed, was such, that in 1684 be 
was elected president of the Royal Society, and held that 
honourable office for tvyo years. To Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, he left that invaluable collection of MS naval 
.memoirs, of prints, and ancient English poetry, which has 
«o oft^n beenconsulted by poetical critics and commenta- 
tors, and is indeed unrivalled in its kind. One of its most 
fipgular curiosities is, a collection of English balla4»i in 



P E P Y S. . 5i« 

five large folio volumes, begun by Mr. Seldeiii and carried 
down to the year 1700. . The '^ Reliques of ancient English 
Poetry," published by . Dr. Percy, are for the most part 
takea from this collection. His nephew, John Jackson^ 
esq. of the Temple, was Mr. Pepj's's heir to his personal 
property. .It ought not to be omitted, that among other 
instances of his regardfor the advancement of knowledge, 
be gave sixty plates to Ray^s edition of Willougbby's ** His- 
toria Piscium,*' puUisbed in 1686.^ 

PERAU (Gabaiel Louis Calabre), a Frtoch author, 
whose character was not less fssteemed for its candour and 
iDode^, than his writings for their neatness of style. and 
4;xactnes8 of research, is most known for his continuation, 
of the " Lives of illustrious men of France,'* begun by 
D'Au.vign£, but carried on by him, from the thirteenth 
Volume to the. twenty-third. He also wrote notes and pre-: 
faces to several works. His edition of the works o^ Bossuet 
was the best, till they were published by the Benedictines 
of St. Maar; and he was author of an esteemed life of Je- 
rpme Bignon; in J2mo, 1757. He died in March 1767, 
at the age of sixty-seven •. - - . 

. PERCEVAL (JoHijr), fifth baronet of the family, and 
first earl of Egmoht, was born at Barton, in the county of 
York^ July 12, 1663, and received, his education at Mag- 
dalen, college, .Oxford. On quitting the university, in 
June 1701, he made' the tour of England, and was ad-, 
mitted F.R. S. at the age of nineteen. Upon the death of 
king William, and/the calling of a new parliament in Ire- 
land, he went over with the dukie of Ormond, and though 
not of age, was. elected for the county of Cork, and soon 
after. appointed a privy-counsellor. In. July 1705, he 
began the. tour of Europe, which he finished in October^ 
1707; and returning to Ireland in May i70S,> was again 
representative for the county of Oork. In 1713, be erected 
a lasting. moitument^ of his charity, in a fr^e^sphobl at Bur-, 
ton. On the accession of George.!., he was advanced to 
tbe.'peerage of Ireland by the title of baron Perceval, in 
1715^ and viscount in 172^. In the parliament of 1722, 
and .1727, he ,waa member for Harwich, in Es^iex, and in 
1728 was .chosen recorder of that borough. Observing^ 

I Coltier^s Dictionary, Soppleoiept to vol. f IL-^Cole'g MS. Athenae in Brit.' 
Mas.— Granger.— Knight's Life.of Colet. — Noble's Memoirs of Cromwelt^ vol. J. 
pi 437.— >Niehol8*s Bewyer. 
■'- , f X>ie(. Hist.— ^Nforoiogie pour aan^e 1769. 



5ie PERCEVAL. 

by the clecay of a beneficial commerce, tbat multitudes inca-: 
pable of finding employment at home, mightbe rendered set**- 
Ticeable to their coutitry abroad, he and a few others iappUed 
to the crown for the grant of a district of land in Ame* 
rica, since called Georgia, which they proposed to people 
with emigraats from England^ or persecuted Protestants^ 
from other parts of Europe, by means of private contribu- 
tiod and parliameiltary aid. The charter being granted^ 
in June 1732, Lord Perceval was appointed first president^ 
wd the king having long experienced his fidelity to bis 
person and government, created him earl of Egoiontin 
Nov. 1733. Worn out by a paralytic decay, he died 
May 1, 1748. His lordship married Catherine, daughter oC 
sir Philip Parker ^ Morley, by whom be had seven chil-* .^ 
dren, who all died before him, except his eldest son . and ^ 
successor, of whom we shall take.some notice^ . 

The first earl of Egmoot, according to Mr. Lodge^ f^P*^s. 
pears to have been a man of an exemplary character, botb. 
in public and private life, and a writer of considerable 
elegafice arid acuteness. He published, 1. f' A Dialogpoei 
between a member of the church of England and a Protest* 
tknt Dissenter, concerning a repeal of ahe Test Act,*' \1%%. 
^* ^^ The Question of the Precedency of th^ Peers of Ire«^; 
land in England,^ 1739. Part only of this bfK)k waa writ« .. 
ten by the earl of Egmont; which was in consequence of a / 
mhmorial presented by his loitlship to bis majesty "Nov*^,^ 
1733, upon occasion of the solemnity of tlie marriage o£. 
the princess-royal with the prince of Orange* %. ^ {fc^-^ , 
marks upon a scandalous piece, entitled A brieFacednot<]f - 
the c^ses that' have retarded the progress af ti^^^lony^ofj. 
Georgia, V 1743. His lordship puMished iHSvefaV 9tlier< 
tracts about that time, relating to .the colony; aW maitf. 
letters and essays upon moral subjcicts, in % paper callea. :; 
^^ The Weekly Miscelb^ny.^ His Lords^i^ alsofoirmied a coU . 
Jection of the '^'Livesand Characters of eminent men in . 
i^rtgiand, from very ancient ta very modem timet.'*. Thi^ : 
ICi'ppis appears to have had the use of this collection, when . 
employed on the Biographia, It is in the possession of 
loi^d Ardiiiil. The earl of Egmont wrote a ; cowderabl^ 
pan of a; i^enealogical history of his own faadiily, which waa ] 
liftervvafcls enlarged and methodized by Ander^pn^ authgk • 
of the Royal Genealogies; and by Mr. Whiston, of the 
Tally Court. This book, which was pjfint^d by the seoond 
earl of Egmont, is ^n^itledi *^ A genealogical Htsrtory of the 



P E R C E V A C. %l> 

^ouse of Ivery/* aod is illustrated by a great nqmber of 
portraits and plates. *^ It was not inteoded for sale ; but a 
tew copies are got abroad, and sell at a very high price. 
Lord Orford, in the first edition of his <' Royal and Noble 
Authors,'* attributed *^ Th^ great Importance of a religious 
Life,'' to this noblemao, which, however, was soon disco-* 
Tered to be from the pen of Mr. M^lmotb.^ 

PERCEVAL (John), second earl of Egmont, and son t6 
the preceding, was born at Westminster, Feb. 24, 1711; and ' 
after a learnect education at home, and the advantages of tra- 
VeUingi was chosen in 1731 (though then under age) a bur- 
gess for Harwich; and on Dec. 31, 1741, unanimously elected 
rqiresentative for the city of Westminster ; as he was in 
'1747 for WeobTy in Herefordshire. In March 1747, he was 
appointed one of the lords of the bedchamber to Frederick 
prince of Wales, in which station he continued till the 
death of that prince. In 1754, he was elected a-membeir 
•f "parliament for the borough of Bridgwater, in the county 
ofSomersiet; and on Jaiiuary 9, ns5^ was sworn one of 
the lords of his majesty's most honourabte privy-council. 
He was likewise appointed one of the privy-council upon 
she accession of his present majesty to the throne; and 
wai again elected in April 1761, for the borough of II- 
chester, in the county of Somerset, but was next day re- 
chosen for the borough of Bridgwater, for which place he 
«iAde his election. Oh May 7, 1762, his lordship was 
culled up to the house of peers in Great Britain, by the 
title of lord Lovelapd Holland, baron Loveland Holland, 
<^;£itmofe, iii the county of Somerset, two of those baro* 
fkifsA ^bich were forfeited by attainder of Francis viscount . 
L6ve(, iii the 1st of Henry Vll. On Nov. 27, 1762, the 
Jiitirg Was plesised to appoint him one of the postmasters- 
genetal, in" the i*6om of the terl of Besborough ; but this 
m ie^l^ned^n S(Sp't l6', 1763, in consequence of being ap- 
|>dfnted fiirst lord 'df the admiralty, which office he resigned 
«bb in £Nept;i7(r6. Bis Lordship died at his house in 
Patf Itfall, Bee. 4, 1770, and was biiried at Charlton, in 
Kittt.' 

%f. <!!6i^e oharactertsles this nobleman as *' a fluent and 

plfiftiSlbte debater, warm in his friendship, and violent in his 

^^iihilt]^;^* Lord Orford, after mentioning some of his foi- 

M^\ iinioti^ vi^Kich was a superstitious veneration for the 

' > t)64ce^ Petrasc^Walpo1e*t Koyal mod Noble Aatbprfi bj Pari:. 



St8 P E R C E V A t. 

feudal systepai says, that, with all tHese/' he bad' stsaong 
parts, great knowledge of the history, of this couivtry, and 
was a very able, thpugh . not an agreeable orator. Hit 
domestic virtues more than competi^ated for sonrie singun 
laricies that were very innocent: and had he lived in the 
age whose manners he emulated^ his spirit would have 
maintained the character of an ancient peer with as tnueb 
dignity, as his knowledge would have effaced that of others 
of his order. . ? 

As a writer, he deserves most credit for a very able and 
celebrs|ted pamphlet, long attributed to lord Bath, entitled 
*^ Faction detected by the evidence of facts ; containing^^ 
an impartial view of Parties at home and aflFairs abroad.*^ 
Of this a fifth edition was published in 1743, 8vo. Thd 
following also are said to have been written by him: 
1. ^^ An Exa^mination of the principles, and an inquiry into 
.the conduct of the two brothers (the Duke of Newcasrid 
And Mr. Pelham)," 1749. 2. " A sedbnd series of facts and^ 
arguments" on the same subject, 1749. S. *^ An occasional 
Letter from a gentleman in the country to his:frietid m 
. town, concerning the Treaty negociated at Hahati in tbc^ 
year. 1743," 1741*. 4. "Memorial soUcititjg a grant of ibc: 
whole island of St. John, in the gulph of St. Lawrence. 
This was not published, but copies were given by the aa*- 
thor to ministers and some members of both houses. Lord 
Orford says, that its object was to revive the feudal sysi^ 
tem in this island. 5. "A Proposal for selling part of the 
J^orest Land aqd Chaces, and disposing of the produce to<>> 
wards the discbarge of that part of the national debt due to 
the Bs^nk of England ; and for the establishment of a Na^ 
tipnal Bank, &c." 1763!, 4to.* 

PERCEVAL (Spencer), second $on to the preceding^ 
by his second lady, was born in Aqdley Square, Nov. 1, 
176:;. His infancy was spent at Charlton, the seat of his - 
family, in Kent, where he went tfaipugh the first radi^- 
diments of learning, and also contracted an early attacln 
ment for the youngest daughter of the late Sir ThomM - 
Spencer Wilson, hart, who afterwards became his wife^ 
From Charlton he removed to Harrow,, where be success- 
fully prepared himself for the university. At the proper 
age he entered of Trinity College,- Cambridge, where tbe 
present bishop of Bristol, Dr. William- Lort Mauaell,. y9m- 

1 WftVo^^'s Royal and Noble Authors^ edit in hif workf| and in ^fOt |»J 
PaTk.-^eoiiiAsVP«eni|;». 



F E R C E V A L; $19 

bis tutor. There unwearied application and splendid abi- 
lities led him to the highest academioal honours. In 1782- 
be obtained the degree of master of arts, and on the I6tti 
of December of the following year was admitted of. Lin« 
coin's Inn ; where, after performing the necessary studies^ 
be was called to the bar in Hilary Term 17S6. He com- 
menced, his professional career in the. Court of.King'a 
Bench, and accompanied the Judges tbrough the -Midland 
circuit. His chief opponents were then Mr. (now Sir S.) 
RomiUy, Mr. Clarke, .and Mr. serjeant Vaughan; and, 
notwithstanding a degree of modesty, which at that period 
almost amounted to timidity, he displayed encouraging 
promises of forensic excellence, on some of the firsc. trials 
on which he was retained, particularly that of George 
Tbomas, of Brackley, Northamptonshire, for forgery. In 
this case he. was retained, for the prosecution ; and had the 
honour of contending with Mr. Law, since Lord Chief Jus-^ 
tiee Ellenborough* This trial eiccited much public atten- 
tion ; and the ability evinced, by Mr. Perceval increased the 
number of his clients. . His advancement was ndw both re- 
gular and rapid. In Hilary term 1 7 SI 6, be obtained a silk 
gown, and became the leading counsel on the; Midland 
circuit, not only in point ofrank, but also in quantity of 
business. He was soon after appointed counsel to the Ad-^ 
tftiralty ; and the university of Cambridge acknowledged its 
w^tise of (lis merits by nominating him one.of its two counsel* 
About tbb time^ be had attracted the notice of an attentive 
observer and acute judge of men and talents, the late Mr. 
Pitt, by a pamphlet which he had < written, to prove ^' that 
au impeachment of the House of Commons did not abate 
by a dissolution of parliament'* This work became the 
fqundation of his intimacy with the .premier, and his.subse- 
qvient connexion with the government, and caused a sudden 
alteration in bis prospects.: His object now was to obtain a 
•eat in parliament, where he might support those measures 
for which the situation of the country seemed to call, and 
ajnost favourable opportunity. presented itaelf.> His first 
cousin, lord Compton, succeeded to the earldom of North- 
ampton in April 1796, on the demise of bis maternal uncle, 
and consequently vacated his seat for the borough of that 
name. Mr. Perceval immediately oflFered hiniiielf to repre- 
HQftt the vacant borough, and was too well known^ and too 
universally esteemed, to meet with any opposition. He 
bad been preyiou^y appointed, deputy recorder } and so 



S2<y PERCEVAL, 

highly did hit constituents approve of his political conduct 
diict private worth, that they returned him to serve in three 
parliaments. 

« Mr. Perceval now endeavoured to become thoroughly 
master of every branch of policy ; and particularly dedw 
eated much of his attention to the subject of finance ; and 
some of his plans, in that important department, are de- 
serving of high commendation. In Hilary vacation, in 
1801, at the formation of the Addington administratioi), 
Mr. Perceval, then in his 39th year, was appointed solici- 
tor-general, on the resignation of sir William Grant,, who 
succeeded sir Pepper Arden, afterwards lord Alvanley, as 
master of the rolls. In Hilary vacation, 1B02, he was 
promoted to the situation of attorney-general, beconae 
Vacant by the elevation of sir Edward Law (now lord Ellens- 
borough) to the seat of chief justice of the Court 'of King's 
Bench. 

• Mr« Perceval^ on receiving the appointment of solicitor- 
general, relinquished the Court of King's Bench, and prac« 
tised only in that of Chancery. In taking this step, he 
was influenced chiefly by the wish of having more time tp 
^dicate to bis political duties. But it is doubtful whether 
he succeeded in, this view. In the King^s Bench, though 
he was occasionally engaged in conducting causes of great 
importance, his business had never been so great as wholly 
to occupy his time. Nor is this to be wondered at, when 
it is considered, that at that time he had to contend with, 
as competitors in that coturt, Mr. Erskine, Mr. Mingay, Mir. 
Law, Mr. Garrow, and Mr. Cribbs, all of them king*$ 
edun^d, much older than himself, and established in great 
practice before even Mr. Perceval was called to the bar. 
It is no disgrace to him, that he did not, before the age of 
forty, dispossess these gentlemen of their clients. But 
when he came ipto Chancery, he found competitors less 
powerful; and though his disadvantages, in entering a 
eotirt in the practice of which he bad never been regularly * 
Initiated, were great, he advanced rapidly in practice) 
and long before his abandonment of the bar, he had begun 
tp be considered as the most powerful antagonist of sir Sa* 
tnuel Romilly, the Coryphaeus of Equity Draftsomen. 
^ Mr. Perceval retained his situation as attorney^general, 
when Mr. Pitt resumed the reins of government,' and con*^ 
tiniied to distinguish him^self as a ready and staunch sup«» 
porter of th^ measures of that great rnitn. Be had :tbe 



PERCEVAL; 921 

honour sometioles to call down. uponihiAis^lfaH tbo elq^ 
quexice of the opposition, and proved a most useful partisai^ 
of the administration. On Mr. Pittas deatbi a coalitioa 
took place between the Fox and Grenville parties, in which 
Mr. Perceval declined to share ; and having resigned bia 
office, appeared for the first time on the benches of the 
opposition^ on which he continued until . Lord jCiawick^ 
in 1807, brought forward the Catholic, petition, and.abHl 
was proposed to remove the political disabilitiiesiof which 
the members of that sect complain* Mr. P^rqeval, then^ 
alarmed for the safety of the Protestant Church, rose io 
its defence ; and Catholic emancipation being a measure 
generally obnoxious, the dissolution of the admioistratioa 
followed. As Mr. Perceval, at this time^ . was coo«idered 
the ablest man of his party, it might have been expected 
that he would have claimed. one of the first places in tbt 
new ministry as his right. On the contrary, the chancel«' 
lorship of the exchequer was several times rejected by .him^ 
whose pnly wish. was to resume the situation of attorney- 
general. This, however, not being satisfactory to his 
majesty, Mr. Perceval was offered the chanoellorsbip of 
the duchy of Lancaster for life, as a compensation fqr his 
professional loss, and a provision for his fsimily, provided 
lie should agree to fill the o(Bce to which the e&teem and 
confidence of thci nionarch called him. Notwithstanding 
that the value of the chanceHorship proposed did not much 
.exceed 2000/. a year, nearly one thousand less than Mf« 
P.^cevara profession produced per annum, his sense of * 
public duty induced him to , comply; and .when, after bi^ 
Domination, parliament expressed their dissatisfactioo at the 
Mature of the grant, he aljowed it to be canceUed, and ise^ 
peated in the house the assurance of his readiness to serve 
•his majesty even without the chancellorship of the duchy c^ 
Lancaster, for life. 

The new administraticxi was no sooner formed, in March 
Jl dQ7> than it becaine necessary to consolidate it by an apr 
peal to the sense of the people. Parliament was in conae* 
quence dissolved ; and in the iiew one, Mn Perceval found 
sn increase of strength, which enabled him to carry oa 
that system of public measures . begun by Mr. Pitt. To 
recapitulate these, and notice every occasion in which he 
atood prominent in debate, belongs to future >histQry. . It 
may suffice here to mention, that he had the voice of thjd 
country with hini} and that when a regency became agaia 

VouXXIV. V > 



SM' Perceval.. 

• 

necessary, and when the general expectation was that the 
regent would call to his councils those men who bad for-^ 
merly been honoured with his confidence, his royal high- 
ness preferred retaining Mr. Perceval and his colleagues in 
his service. 

As a public speaker, Mr. Perceval rose much in reputa* 
tion and excellence, after he became minister. As the 
leading man in the house of commons, it was necessary that 
he should be able to explain and defend all his measures; 
and this duty, arduous under all circumstances, was parti* 
cularly so in his case, as there was scarcely any other mem- 
ber of administration, in that house, competent to the task 
of relieving or supporting bim. He, in a short time, proved 
that he stood in need of no assistance : he made himself so 
Completely acquainted with every topic that was likely to 
be regularly discussed, that he was never taken unawares 
or at a loss. In the statement of his measures he was re- 
markably methodical and perspicuous. By many persotts 
he was deemed particularly to excel in his replies ; in re- 
butting any severe remark that came unexpectedly upon 
him, and in turning the fact adduced, or the argument 
used, against bis opponent. Had his life been spared, it 
is- probable he would have risen t6 the highest degree <5f 
reputation for historical and constitutional knowledge, and 
political skill 

The death of this valuable servant of the public was occa- 
sioned by the hand of an assassin, one of those men who brood 
over their own injuries, or supposed injuries, until they become 
the willing agents of malignity and revenge. This catastror 
.phe happened on Monday, May Li, 1312. About five o'clock 
rn. the evening of that day, Mr. Perceval was entering tl*e 
lobby 6f the bouse of commons, when he was shot by a 
person named Jphn Bellingfaam, and almost instantly ex- 
pired. The murderer, when, apprehended, acknowledged 
his guilt, iiut pleaded that he had claims on administratigii 
which had been neglected ; and it appeared, on his trial, 
that he had deliberately prepared to murder some person 
in administration, .without < any particular choice; and 
that when he was. possessed by. this hellish spirit, Mr. Per- 
.x^eval presented himself. No marks of insanity appeared 
either previous to or on his trials nor could he be brought 
to any proper senseof his crime. He was executed on the 
Monday following. 

Both J30uses of parliament expressed their sense of Mr. 



p E R c E y A l; iia 

Perceval's public services and private 'worth by erery tes- 
timony of respect, and by a liberal grant for the provifiioit 
of his family, while the public at large were no less im- 
pressed with the horror which his cruel death created, and 
with the loss of »uch a minister, at a time when the recon- 
ciliation of contending political parties appeared hopeless.! 
' PERCIVAL (Thomas), an eminent physician, was 
born at Warrington, September 29, 1740. Having lost 
both his parents in one day, he was placed at' the age of 
four .3rears under the protection of his uncle, Dr. Thotnas 
Percival, a learned physician, r^ident at the same place ; 
botof his parental guidance he was also deprived at the 
age of ten, after which his education was directed with the 
most kind and judicious attention by his eldest sister. His 
literary pursuits commenced at a private school in the 
neighbourhood of Warrington, whence he was removed^ 
at the age of eleven, to the free grammar-school of that 
town, where be exhibited great promise of talent, and 
much indusjtry. . In 1757 be -became one of the first pupils 
of a dissenting academy then established at Warrington, 
where be pursued with unabating diligence th^ -classical 
studies in which he had already made conisiderable pro- 
gress, and in particular had attained great facility and ele- 
gance in Latin composition. 'The study of ethics, however, 
appears to have principally engaged his attention here, as 
it did afterwards throughout the whole of his life, and 
farmed the basis of all his works, except those on pror 
feasional subjects. It appears that before Mr. Perceval 
went to Warrington academy, bis family was induced to 
^iiit communion with the church of England, s^nd to es- 
pouse the tenets of protestant dissent. This was in one 
respect peculiarly unfortunate for him who had thoughts of 
entering the university of Oxford ; but now, after studying 
the thirty-nine articles, he determined against subscript 
tion, and Consequently relinquished the advantages^of aca- 
demical study at either English university. He therefore 
went in 1761 to Edinburgh, and commenced his studies in 
medical science, which be also carried on for a year m 
London. In 1765 be removed to the university of Leyden^ 
with a view to complete his medical course, and to be ad- 
mitted to the degree of doctor of physic. Having accord- 
ingly defended in the public schools his inaugural disserta* 

1 QejBt. Ma(. UlS^-^Collint's Peeragt by Sir S. Bryd|^«i. 

■-    . •  . ■•i 

Y 2 , 



824 9 E E C I V A L. 

lion *' De Fn^bre,** he Wa$ presented ^ith tb^ diploma df 
M. D. Joly 6y 1765. On his return, which was through 
France and Holland, at the close of the same year, he 
joined his family at Warrington, and soon after married 
Elizabeth, the daughter and only surviving chikl of Na- 
ihatiiel Bassnett, edq. merchant, of London. In 1767 he 
removed with bis family to Manchester, and commenced 
hfis professional career with an uncommon degree of success, 
^ The leisure which Dr. Percival had hitherto enjoyed, 
hhA given faim.the opportunity of engaging in variods phi- 
Idsopbical and experimental inquiries, relating, for the most 
part, to the science of physic. The ** Essays" which he 
foi^med on the result of bis investigations, were sometimes 
presented to the Royal Society, and were afterwards in* 
verted in the volumes of its Transactions; at other times they 
fvere communicated to the public through the medium of 
the most current periodical journals. These miscellaneous 
pfcfces were afterwards collected, and published in' one 
volume, under the title df ** Essays medical and experi*- 
friental.'' A second volume appeared in 1773', and a third 
in 1776^ and were received by the learned world as thepro- 
dijctioDs of a man of profound knowledge and sound judg- 
iQent 

Extensive as Dr. Percival's practice was, he found lei-, 
scire to continue those publications on which his fame is 
fouifided, and by which he was soon known- throughout 
Europe. Among these we may mention " Observations 
und Experiments on the Poison of Lead,** 1774; ** A Fa- 
ther's' Instructions, consisting of tales, fables, and reflect 
tions^ designed to promote the love of virtue, a taste for 
ktiowledge^ and an early acquaintance with the works of 
nature," 1 775, T^wo years after be added another volume; 
completing the work, which is executed in a manner ex- 
cellently a^apt^d to its object. ^^ On the Use of Flowers 
tif Zinc in epileptic cases*' (Medical Commentaries, vol. ILJ 
>* Miscellaneous prkctical Observations,** (ibid. V.) •* Ac^ 
count of the Earthcjuake at Manchester^* (ibid.) **The 
Disadvantages of early Tkioculation.** ^* Experiments and 
Observation^ oh Watet.*' ' ** Moral anc^ literary Disserta-^ 
tions,** 1 784, 8Vo. " On the Roman Colonies and Stations 
in Cheshire and Lancashire,*' (PhiL Trans. XLVII. 216.) 
•'Accbuntofadonble Child,'* (ibid. 360.) ** Experiments 
on the Peruvian Bark, (ibid.LVII. ??1) ." Experiments 
and. Observations on the Waters of B.ux'ton and Maacbes- 



P E R C I V A L. $2« 

- / ' 

tef/* (ibid. LXII. 455.) '< On the Population of Maocbei- 
ter and other adjacent plades," (ibid. LXIV. 54; LXV. 
a22» and Supplement, LXVI. 160.) ''Nevir and cheap 
way of preparing Potiish," (ibid. LXX, 545.) 

The ^' Manchester Memoirs*' were also frequently bo* 
noured by Dr. Percival's communications. The societyi 
indeed, by which they were published, derived its origin 
from the stated weekly meetings for conversation, which 
Dr. Percival held at his own bouse ; the resort of the. lite- 
rary characters, the principal inbabitanlts, and of ocea^ 
sional strangers. As these meetings became mOre numef 
rous',. it was imtime fopnd convenient to trs^nsfer them to a 
tavern, and to constitute a few rules for the better direOf' 
tion of their i3roceedings. The members thus insensibly 
formed, themselves into a club, which was. supported witb 
so much succei$s, as at length, in 1781,, to assume the title 
of ^^Tfae Litelrary and Philosophical Society of Manches- 
ter.'* Dr. Percival was appointed joint presideht with 
James. .Massey, esq. and bis literary contributions were fire^ 
quentand valuable. When acting as president, bis powers 
both of comprehension and discourse were sometimes called 
forth to considerable exercise; and perhaps on to occasion 
were iiis talents more fully exerted, than when he at once 
guided and systematized the topic$rof aaitnated discussion. 
Another scheme which he patronised was for the establish- 
ment of public lectures on mathematics, the 6ne arts^ and 
commerce, somewhat in the manner of tlie institutions lately 
attempted in Loudon ; but that of Manchester, ^fter two . 
winters of unfavourable trials was at length reluctaotly 
abandoned, and those of the metropolis have not yet much 
to boast on the score of encouragement or utility. Dr. 
Percival experienced two other disappointmants, in bis en- 
deavours to support the dissenting academy at Warjrington, 
and. to establish one at Manchester in its room, neither of 
which schemes was found practicable. 

Dr. Percival died of an acute disea:seon August 30, 1804, 
id the sixty-fourth year of his age, universally respected 
and regrdtted. His works we^re coUected and published 
in 1807y 4 vols. 8vo, by one o^ his sons, .with. a^ very inte*- 
resting biographical memoir, froniwhich we have borrowed 
the preceding particulars. For what^ follows of Dr; Peree^ 
vaPs character, we are principally, indebted to Dr. Magee, 
of Trinity college, Dublin. . 

^^ Thie cham^ter of Dn Percival was in eveiy way oalcu^ 



:S26 P E iEl C I V A t. 

}ated to secure for bioi tbat eminence in Un profession/and 
that general respect; esteem, and attachment, which be 
every where obtained. A quick penetration, a discrimi- 
nating judgment, a patient attention, a comprehensive 
knowledge, and, above all, a solemn sense of responsi- 
bility, were the endowments which so conspicuously fitted 
faim at once to discharge the duties, and .to extend the 
boundaries, of the healing art; and his external accom* 
plishments and manners were alike happily adapted to the 
offices of his profession. In social discussion, he possessed 
powers of a very uncommon stamp, combining the kcco- 
racy of science, and the strictest precision of method, with 
the graces of a copious and unstudied elocution; and to 
these was superadded the polish of a refined urbanity, : the 
joint result of innate benevolence, and of early and habi« 
tual intercourse with the most improved classes of society. 
In few words, he was an author without vanity, a philoso- 
pher without pride, a scholar without pedantry, and a 
Christian without guile. Affable in bis manners, courteous 
in his conversation, dignified in bis deportment, cheerful 
in his temper^ warm in bis affections, steady in bis friend- 
ships,^ mild in his resentments, and unshaken in his princi- 
ples; the grand object of his life was usefulness^ and the 
grand spring of all his actions was religion. > v 

" As a literary character, Dr. Percival held a distin« 
guisbed rank. His earlier publications were devoted to 
medical, chemical; and philosophical inquiries, which he 
pursued extensively, combining the cautious but assiduoos 
employment of experiment, with scientific observation, 
and much literary research. His ^ Essays Medical and 
Experimental,' obtained for the author a considerable re- 
putation in the philosophical world, and have gone through 
many editions. The subjects which occupied his pen,, in 
later year;, were of a nature most congenial to his feel- 
ings ; and in the several volumes of ' A Father's Instrue- 
,tions to his Children,' and of * Moral DissertaUons^' which 
appeared at different periods, through a space of twenty- 
.five years, and which were originally conceived- with the 
-design of exciting in the hearts of his children a desire of 
knowledge and a love of virtue, there is to be found as 
much of pure style, genuine feeling, refined taste^^ apt 
illustration, and pious reflection, as can easily be disco- 
vered, in the same compass, in any didactic composition. 
His last wqrky. whiqU be expressly dedicated as a ^pa- 



P E R C I V A L. 327 

'rental legacy' to' a much-loved son, under the title of 
**^ Medical Ethics, or a Code of Institutes and Precepts, 
adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and sur- 
geonSf' published in 1803, is a monument of his profes- 
.sional integrity^ in. which, while he depicted those excel- 
leocies of the medical character which he approved in 
theory, he unconsciously drew the portrait of himself, and 
described those which he every day exemplified in prac- 
tice."' 

PERCY (Thomas), a late learned prelate, a descendant 
of the ancient earls of Northumberland, was born at 
Bridgenorth in Shropshire, in 1728, and educatiedat Christ 
' church, Oxford. In July 1753 he took the degree of M.A.; 
and in 1756 he was presented by that college to the vi- 
carage of Easton Mauduit, in Northamptonshire, which be 
•held with the rectory of Wilbye, in the same county, given 
Irim by the earl of Sussex. In 1761 he began. his literairy 
career, by publishing ^^ Han. Kiou Chouan," a translation 
from the Chinese; which was followed, in 1762, by a col- 
Jection of '^ Chinese Miscellanies,"' and in 1763 by ^'Five 
Pieces of Runic Poetry,'* translated from the Icelandic lan- 
guage. In 1764 he published a new version of the ** Song 
of Solomon," with a commentary and annotations. The 
year following he published the .^^ Reliques of.Antient 
JEnglish Poetry,^' a work which constitutes an eera in the 
history of, English literature in the eighteenth century. 
Perhaps the perusal of a folio volume of ancient manuscripts 
given to the bishop by a friend in early life (from i)phich 
he afterwards made large extracts in the '^ Reliques,") led 
lits mind to those studies in which he' so eminently distin*- 
guished himself. It appears likewise that Sbenstone en- 
couraged him in publishing the " Relique.s." The same 
year he published " A Key to the New. Testament," a con- 
cise man^ual for Students, of Sacred Literature, which. has 
been adopted in the universities, and often repriniedl After 
^e publication of the " Reliques," he was invited by the 
Jateduke and duchess of Northumberland to reside with 
«them as their domestic chaplain. In 1769 he published 
-" A Sermon preached before the Sons of the Clergy ^t St. 
Paul's." In 1770 he condu;Cted ^* The Nprthumbe^Und 
Household Book" through the press; the same year he 
piblisbed ^' The Hermit of Warkwortb," and a translation 

^ Life prefixed to hi» Works.— Gent. Mag, 180^. 



m PERCY. 

of MaUet's << Northern Antiquities/' with notes. A second 
edition of the ** Reliques of Ancient Poetry'' was published 
in 177 Jr, a third in 1794, and a fourth in 1814. In 1769 
be wa$ nominated chaplain in ordinary to bis majesty ; in 
1778 he was promoted to the deanery of Carlisle ; and in 
1782 to the bishopric of Dromoreio Ireland, where be oou-^ 
stantly resided, promoting the instruction and comfort of 
■the poor with unremitting attention, and superintending 
the sacred and civil interests of the diocese, with vigilance 
and assiduity; revered and beloved for bis piety, liberality, 
benevolence, and hospitality, by persons of every rank 
and reUgiouB denomination. Under the loss of sight, of 
'which be was gradually deprived some years before bis 
death, he steadily maintained bis habitual cbeerfulness ; 
and in bis last painful illness be displayed such fortitude 
and strength of mind, such patience and resignation to the 
divine will, and expressed such bearifelt thankfuiaess for 
the goodness and mercy shewp to him; in the course of a 
long and bappy life, as were truly impressive and worthy 
of that pure Christian spirit, in bim so eminently eoiispi- 
euQUs. His only son died in 1783. Two daughters sur« 
vive bim; the eldest is married to Samuel Isted, esq. of 
Ectoui^in Northamptonshire;, and the youngest to the bon* 
and rev. Pierce Meade, archdeacon of Dromore. In 1777 
the rev. John Bowie addressed a printed letter to Dr^ 
Percy^ announcing a new and classical edition of ^* Doa 
Quixote." In 1780 Mr. Nichols was indebted to bim for 
many useful communications for the '^ Select Collection of 
Miscellany Ppems." When elevated to the miore, Mr. 
Nichols was also under further obligations in the ^ History 
of Hinckley," 1782. In 1786 the edition of the Tatler, in 
six volumes, small 8vo, was benefited by the bints sag^ 
gested by bishop Percy to the rev. Dr. Calder, the learned 
and industrious annotator and editor of those volumes. 
The subsequent editions of the Spectator and Guardian were 
also improved by some of his lordship's notes. Between 
1760 and 17 64, Dr. Percy bad proceeded very for at the press 
with an admirable edition of *^ Surrey's Poetes,'' and ake 
with a good edition of the Works of Villiers duke of Buck- 
ini^am ; both which, from a variety of caiises, remained 
many years unfinished in the warehouse of Mr. Tonson in 
the Savoy; but were resumed in 1795, ai)d nearly brought 
to a conclusion, when the whole impression of both'wprks 
was unfortunately consumed by the fire in Red Lion Pas-* 



PERCY. 839 

tGTge ill 1 808. His lordship died at his episcopal palace^ 
DrooftHre, on Sept. 30, 1811, in his eighty-third year. So 
moch of his life had passed in the literary world, strictly 
so called, that authentic memoirs of his life would form an 
interesting addition to our literary history, but nothing hag 
yet appeared from the parties roost able to contribute such 
informatiion. The preceding particulars we believe to be 
correct, as far as they go, but we cannot offer them as sa>» 
tisimctory.' 

PEREFIXE <Hardouin de Beaumont de), a cele- 
brated archbishop of Pdris, and master of the Sorbonne^ 
was s6n of a steward of the household to cardinal' Richer 
lieu, who took care of his education. He distinguished 
himself as a student, was admitted doctor of the house and 
society of «he Sorbonne, preached with great applause^ 
and was appointed preceptor to Louis XIV. and afterwards 
bishop of Rhodes, but resigned this bishopric because he 
could not reside in bis diocese. In 1664, M. de Perefixe 
was made archbishop of Paris ; and, soon after, by the ad- 
vice of fttther Annat, a Jesuit, published a mandate for the 
pure and simple signature of the formulary of Alexander 
VII. His distinction between divine faith and human faith, 
made much noise, and was attacked by the celebrated Ni* 
cole. His attempt also to make the nuns of Port«Royal 
sign the formulary, met with great resistance, which occa* 
sioned many publications against him ; but his natural dis- 
position was extremely mild, and it was with the utmost 
Reluctance that he forced himself to proceed against these 
celebrated nuns. He died December 31, 1670, at Pariii. 
^He had bee)i admitted a member of the French academy ia 
1654. His works ai^, an excellent " Hist, of K. Henry IV.** 
Amst. 1661, 12mo. This and the edition of 1664 are 
scarce and in much request, but that of 1749 is more com- 
mon. Some writers pretend that Mezerai was the real au«* 
thor of this history, and that M. de Perefixe only adopted 
it ; but they bring no proofe of their assertion. He pub* 
Itshed also a bop^k, entitled "lostitutio Principis/' 1647^ 
}6to, containing a collection of maxims relative to the du« 
ties of a king in his minority .* 

• PERGOLESl (John Baptist), one of the moa* excel-^ 
lent of the Italian composers, was bom at Casoria in the 

1 Gent M«g; toI. LXX$I«-^99lweU'ft Life Qf Jp^nfoiu^'Ni^NtU'f 9swy«CM 
^ Moreri. — ^Dict. Hist. 



580 P E.R G O L E S I. 

.kingdom of Naples,- in 1704; and was educated. at Nafsles 
under Gaetano Greco^ a very famous musician of that time. 
The prince of San->Agliano, or Siigliano, becoming acr 
quaiBted with the talents of young Pergolesi} took him 
under fats protection, and, from 1730 to 1734, procured 
him employment in the new theatre at Naples, where his 
-operas had prodigious success. ^Ue then visited Rome, 
.for which place his " Olympiade*' was composed, and there 
performed, but was by no means applauded as it deserved.; 
.after which he returned to Naples, and falling into a con- 
sumptive disorder, died, in 1737, at the premature age of 
.thirty*three. It is not true, as some authors have asserted, 
tbat^e was poisoned by some of his rivals, nor iudeed was 
thesuccessof his productions suxEcieotly great to render him 
an object of envy. His fame was posthumous* From the 
style of his composition, the Italians have called him the 
•Domenichino of music. Ease, united with deep knowledge 
•of harmony, and great richness of melody, forms the cha- 
jracteristic of his music. It expresses the passions with the 
very voice of nature, and speaks to the soul by the natural 
•force of its effects. It has been thought, by some, of too 
/nelancholy a cast, which might. arise, perhaps, from the 
depression produced by iufirmity of constitution. Bis 
principal works are, 1. The ^^ Stabat Mater/* usually con* 
.sidered as bis most perfect work, and much better known 
than any other, iti this country. 2. Another famous mass, 
beginning, ^^ Dixit et laudate/^ first heard with rapture at 
•Naples, soon after his. return from Rome. 3. The mass 
called '^ Salve Regina," the last of his productions, com- 
posed at Torre del Greco, a very short time before bis 
death, but as much admired as any of his compositions. 
4* His opera of ^' Olympiade/' set to the words of Metas- 
lasio. 5, '< La serva Padroha/' a comic opera. 6. His 
famous Cantata of *^ Orfeo e £uridice." The greater pa^t 
of bis other compositions were formed for pieces written in 
the Neapolitan dialect, and unintelligible to the rest; of 
Italy. Pergolesi's first and principal instrument was the 
.-violin. Dr. Burney says, that '^ be bad, . perhaps, more 
energy >of genius, and a finer /ac/, than any of his prede* 
cessorS; for though no lal^ur appears in bis productions, 
^evea jfor the church, where the parts are thin, and fre- 
quently in unison, yet greater and more beautiful effects 
are often produced in the performance thaii are promised 
in the score." — *^ The church-music of Pergolesi has been 



PERGOLESI. tsi: 

^M6urad by his countryman. Padre Martini, as well as by 
sofile English musical critics, for too much levity of move- 
ment, and a dramatic cast, even in some of his slow airs ; 
while, on the contrary, Eximeno sa}ps, that he never heard^ 
and perhaps never shall hear, sacred music accompanied 
with msftnimfents, so learned and so divine, as the Stabat 
Mater.*' Dr. Bumey thinks it very doubtful whether the 
sonatas ascribed to this author are genuine; but observes, 
that the progress since made in instrumental music, ought 
not, at all events, to diminish the reputation of Pergolesi, 
*^ which,** he adds, <^ was not built on productions of that 
kind, but on vocal compositions, in which the clearness,* 
simplicity, truth, and sweetness of expression, justly en* 
title him to supremacy over all his predecessors, and con- 
temporary rivals; and to a niche in the temple of fame,, 
among the great improvers of the art ; as, if not the foun- 
der, the principal polisher of a style of composition both' 
for the church and stage, which has been constantly cnltir 
vated by his successors ; and which, at the distance of half 
a century from the short period in which he flourished, 
still reigns throughout Europe.'* The learned historian, 
for this reason, justly considers the works of Pergolesi as 
forming a great sera in modern music' < 

PERIERS, or PERRIERS (Bonaventure des), an old 
French satirist, was born at Arnay-le-Duc, a small town of 
Burgundy, about the end of the fifteenth century. He 
went through his early studies with credit, and was. ad«« 
vanced to the place of valet-de-chambre to the queen of 
Navarre, sister of Francis I. Abopt this time a considerable 
freedom of opinion prevailed at court, and the disputes of 
certain theologians had occasionally furnished subjects for 
ridicule. Des Periers, who was young and lively, wrote 
his celebrated work entitled ^^ Gymbalum mundi,*' in which 
•the divines of the time found nothing but atheism and im- 
piety, while others considered the satire as general and 
legitimate. A modern reader will perhaps discover more 
fbtly and extravagance- than either impiety or wit. The 
work, however, was prohibited by an order of council sooa 
«ifter it appeared ; and, according to De Bure and Brunet, 
but one copy is known to exist of the original edition. Des 
Periers^ did not lose his situation at court, but coutioued in 
the same favour with the queen of Navarre^ and, is sup- 

\ IHwiiol and Bvlrnejr's Hist* ofMu*i«>-'^n^ Buinejr in Reet's Cycloptidia. 



&J2 P E R I E R S, . 

» 

posed to hare written some p^rt of the tal&l which were^ 
published under the name of that princei^. Pes Periers is 
said to have indulged in excesses which ruined his hi^altbi 
and in theparoxysm of a fever he comoiitled suicide in 1544» 
His works are, 1. The ^^ Andria" of Terence^ translated into 
French rhyme, Lyons, 1537, Svo. 2. ^^Cymbaliim mundi, 
en Fran^ais, contenant quatres dialogues ppetiques, fort 
antiques, joyeux, et facetieux," Paris, 1537, 8vo* This^ 
which was the first ediiion, be published under the name 
of Thomas du Clevier. It was reprinted at Lyons in 1538, 
8vo, also a rare edition. In 1711, Prosper Marchand pub-» 
lished an edition in 12mo, with a long letter on the history 
ef the work. Of this an £nglish translation was published 
in 1712, -Svo. The last- edition is that with notes by FaU 
conet and Lancelot, which appeared in 1732, 12mo. 3. 
**Recueil desCEuvres de B. Desperiers," Lyons, 1544, Bvo.. 
This is the only edition of his works which contains his 
poetry. 4. " Nouvelles recreations et joyeux devfs," Ly- 
ons, 155S, 8vo, a collection of tales attributed to Des 
Periers, but which some think were the production of Ni-» 
Qolas Denisot, and James Peletier; and it is certain that 
there are some facts mentioned in them which did not 
occur uQtil after the death of Des Periers^ I'he reader 
may derive more infprmation on this subject, if he think 
it interesting, from La Monnoye^s preliminary dissertation 
to the edition of these tales published at Amsterdam (Paris) 
in 1735, 3 vols. 12mo. * 

PERINGSKIOLD (John), a learned Northern anti* 
qiiary, was born Oct. 6, 1654, at Strengnes in Sudermania, 
and was the son of Lawrence Frederic Peringer, professor 
of rhetoric and poetry. Having acquired great skill in 
tiortbern antiquities, he was in 1689 appointed profess^or 
at Upsal; in 1693, secretary and antiquary to the king of 
Sweden, and in 1719 counsellor to the chancery for anti^v 
quities. When appointed secretary to the king he changed 
bis name from Peringer to Peringskiold, He died. March 
S4, 1720. His principal works, which are very much var 
lued by Swedish historians and antiquaries, are, I. '^ Snar* 
ronis Sturlonidm Hist, regum Septeutrionalium,^* .with 
two translations, 1697, fd. 2. '^ Historia Wilkipensjum; 
Theodorici Veronensis, ac Niflungorum," &c. copied from 
an ancient Scandinavian MS. with a translation, 17 1^^., fqL^ 

1 Letter by Mardiand^ m abof«»>«^Bicf .»l7ntrerieUc, aijL Oeppfrijarff; . 



PERINOSKIOLD. 3sy 

S.^Hist. Hialniari regis/* from a Runic MS.: diis is in- 
serted in Hickes^s Thesaurus. 4. *^ Monumenta Sueco^ 
Gothica," 2 vols. fol. 1710— 1719, &c. &c.^ 

PERINO DEL VAGA (otherwise FiERiNoBuONACCORSt), 
one of the most distinguished scholars and assistants of 
Raphael in the Vatican, was born in a Tuscan village in 
1'500. Vasari seems to consider him as the first designer 
of the Florentine school after Michael Angelo, and as the 
best of Raphael's pupils : it is certain, that in a general 
grasp of the art, none approached Julio Romano so near^ 
equally fit to render on a large scale the historic designs of 
his master, to work in stucco and grotesque ornaments with 
Giovanni da Udine, or with Polidoro to paint chiaroscuros; 
The Immolation of Isaac in the Stanze, the taking of Jeri- 
cho, Joseph sold by his Brethren, Jacob with the Viftion^ 
the Drowning of Pharaoh, with others among the frescos of 
the Loggia, are bis. That he had much of the Florentine 
style may be seen in the works of his own invention, such as 
the Birth of ^ve in the church of St. Marcello, at Rome,' a 
high-wrought performance, with some Infants that have an 
air of life. At a monastery in Tivoli there is a St. John in 
the same style, with an admirable landscape, and many 
more in Lucca and Pisa. 

* But the real theatre of Perino's art is Genoa, where be 
arrived in 1528,* to preside over the embellishments and 
decorations of the magnificent palace of prince Doria: witb* 
out the gate of St. Tommaso. Every thing in this mansion^ 
whether executed by Pierino himself, or from bis cartoons, 
breialhes the spirit of Raphael's school, in proportion to the 
felicityor inferiority of execution ; a nearer approach neither- 
his powers nor principles permitted : eager to dispatch, and 
greedy to acquire, he debased much of his plan by the 
indelicate or interested choice of his associates. It is, 
however, to the style he introduced, and the principles he 
established, that Genoa owes the foundation of its school. 
Pedno died in 1547, aged forty-seven. • 

PERION (Joachim), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, 
was bom at Cormery, in Touraine, in 1500. He took the 
Benedictine habit in the abbey of this name, 1517, add 
died there about 1559, aged near sixty. Among his writ«^ 
ings are four ^* Dialoguies,^* in Latin, on the origin of the 

1^ Ntoeron, vol. I.-^ib). Oeranoique, to?. III. p. 955. 
* Piikioyton, by FiMeli. S«e alto our artjd« of PaiiNr. 



'W4 P E iR I O N. 

French language, and its resemblance to the Greek, Pari t, 
1555, . 8vo ; some tracts in defence of Aristotle and Cicero^ . 
against Peter Ramus, 8vo ; Latin translations of somebooIcK 
of Plato, Aristotle, St. John Damascenus, &c. ; "Loci 
Theologici," Paris, 1549, 8vo. He wrote in more elegant 
Latin than was common with the divines of that age ; but his 
accuracy and critical skill have been in many respects justly 
called in question. ^ 

PERIZONIUS (James), a learned German, was of' a 
family originally of Teutorp, a small town in Westphalia : 
their name was Voorbrock; but being changed for Peri- 
zonius (a Greek word of similar import, implying soiner 
ihing of the nature of a girdle) by one who published ao 
** Epithalamium,*' with this name subscribed, it was ever 
after retained by the learned part of the family. Anthony 
Perizonius, the father of the subject of this article, was 
rector of the school of Dam, professor of divinity and the . 
Oriental languages, first at Ham, and afterwards at De* 
venter ;. at which last place he died in 1672, in his forty* 
sixth year. He published, in, 1669, a lear^ned treatise, 
" De Ratione studii Theologici." 

Jame^ his eldest son, was born at Dam, Oct. 26, 1651. 
He studied first under Gisbert Cuper, at Deventer, and, 
was afterwards, in 1671, removed to Utrecht, where he 
attejided the lectures of Graevius. His father designed him 
for the church, but«after his death he preferred the mixed 
studies of polite learning, history, and antiquity, and went,, 
in 1674, to^Leyden, where his preceptor was Theodore 
liyckius, professor of history and eloquence in that city. 
He became afterwards rector of the Latin school at Delft, 
from, which he was promoted in 168^1 to the professorship 
of history and ^ eloquence at Franeker. His reputation 
bringing a^ great concourse of scholars to this university, he 
was complimented by the addition to his stipend of aa 
hundred crowns, and when on the death of Ryckius la 
1690, Perizonius was offered the vacant professorship, thq^ 
curators of Franeker were so desirous of his continuing 
with them that they added another hundred crowns to bi« 
stipetid. H^ was, however, in 1693, persuaded to goto 
Leyden to fill the place of professor of history, eloquence, 
and the Greek language ; and in this employment con^^. 

tiuued till his death. He was a man of incredible dili- 

• • • 

1 Niceron, toI. XXXVK— Diet. Hitt^: 



P E R I Z ONI U S. 8$5 

feme as w^ll as accuracy, never committing any tbiDg to 
the press without the strictest revisal and examination* 
Such uninterrupted application is said by bis biographers 
to have shortened his iife^ which, however, extended to 
sixty*six years. He died April 6, 1717, and left a wilt 
that savoured a little of that whim and peculiarity whicb 
sometimes infects the learned in their retirements. He 
ofi-dered, that as soon as he should expire, bis body should 
be dressed in his clothes, then set up in a obair, and thac 
a beard should be made for him. Some say this was done 
that a painter might finish his picture, already begun, in 
order to be placed over the manuscripts and ^ooks. which 
he left to the library of the university. He was a man of a 
good mien, well made, of a grave and serious air, but far 
from any thing of pedantry and affectation ; and so modesty 
that be never willingly spake of himself and his writings. 

He published a great many works in Latin relating to 
history, antiquities, and classical literature, among which 
are, 1. *• M.:T. Ciceronis eruditio," an inaugural oration, 
Skt his being installed professor of Franeker in 1681. 2. 
'^ Anin\adversiones Historic8e, 1685,'^ 8vo, a valuable mis- , 
eelhiny of remarks on .the mistakes of historians and critics. 
3. ^^ Q. Curtius in integrum r^estitutus, et vindicatus ab 
immodica atque acerba nimis crisi viri claris$imi Joannis 
Clerici," 1703, Svo. To this Le Clerc replied, in the 
third volume of his ^^Bibliotheque Cbois^e." 4.. ^^ Rerum 
.per Euryopam sseculo sexto-decimo maxime gestarum Com- 
, mentarii Historici,'- 1710, Svo. 5* ** Origines JEgyptiacse 
et Babylonicse,'* 1711, 2 vols. i2mo, being, an attack on 
ti^e " Chronological Systems" of Usher, Capellus, Pezron, 
but especially of sir Jobn Marsham. Duker reprinted this 
.work with additions in 1736; Perizonius wrote.also several 
dissertations upon particular points of antiquity, which 
would have done no small credit to the collections of Gne- 
vius. and Gronovius. Perizonius published an edition of * 
" iEIian^s Various History," corrected from the -manu- 
acripts, and illustrated with notes, in 17.01, 2 vols. Svo. 
.James Gronovius having attacked a passage in bis notes, a 
controversy ensued, which degenerated at length into such 
. personal abuse, that the curators of the university of Ley^ 
.den tboiight proper to put a stop to it by their authority. 
,1 -he. edition, however, was reckoned the best until that of 
Gronovius appeared in 1731. He wrote also large notes 
upon ^^ Sanctli Minerva, sive de causis linguse Latinae 



ii$ p i; RX I N s. 

Comm^ntarius ;*' the best edition of which is that oj^ 
1714, 8 vo.' 

PERKINS (Willum), a learned and pious divine, wa& 
born at Marton in Warwickshire, in 1553, and educated in 
Christ's coUiege, Cambridge. His conduct here was at first 
90 dissolute that he was pointed at as an object of con^ 
tempt, which recalled him to his senses, and in a short, 
tiine, by sobriety and diligent application, he regained his 
eharaoter .both as a scholar and a man, ' and took his de- 
grees at the statutable periods with approbation. In 15^2 
he was chosen fellow of his college, and entered into holy 
orders. His first ministrations were confined to the prh* 
aoners in Cambridge jail^ Recollecting what he had been 
himself, with all the advantages of education, and good 
advice, he compassionated these more ignorant objects^ 
and prevailed upon the keeper of the prison to assemble, 
them in a spacious room, where he preached to them every . 
fabbath; This was no sooner known than others came to 
hear him ; and so much, was he admired, that he was imv 
mediately chosen preacher at St. Andrew's church, the first, 
and only preferment he ever attained. 

While here, he was not only esteemed the first preacher 
of his time, hut one of fhe most laborious students, as 
indeed his works demonstrate. During the disputes between 
the church and the puritans, he sided with the latter in 
principle, but was. averse to the extremes to which the 
conduct of many of his brethren led. Yet he appears to 
have been summoned more than once to give an ^account 
of his conduct, although in general dealt with as his pi^ty^ . 
learning, and peaceable disposition merited. Granger 
says that he was deprived by archbishop Whitgift, but we 
iind no authority for this. He had been a great part of 
his life much afflicted with the stone, which at last short- 
ened his days. He was only forty-four years of age when, 
he died in 1602. H^s remains were interred in St. An- 
drew's church with great solemnity, at the sole expence of 
Christ's college, and his funeral sermon was preached by 
Dr. Montague (who was also one of his executors) after- 
ivards bishop of Bath and Wells, and of Winchester, who. 
spoke highly of his learning, piety, labours, and usefulness 
His works were collected and published in 1606, in 3 vols, 
fol. and are written in a better style than was usual in hit 



PERKINS. 337 

time. They have been, however, far more admired abrpad 
than at home. We know not of any of them reprinted in 
this country since their first appearance/ but several of 
them have, been translated into French, Dutch, and Spa- 
nish. Bishop Hall said *' he excelled in a distinct judg- 
roent| a rare dexterity iti clearing the obscure subtleties of 
the schools, and in an easy explication of the most per- 
plexed subjects.'' * 

PERNETY (Anthony Joseph), was born Feb. 15, 1716, 
at Rpanne, in Forez. He entered into the order of Bener 
dictinesy and devoted himself to study, and the composition 
of numerous works, some of which are correct and useful, 
and others deformed by absurd hypotheses, and that affec- 
tation of novelty which gained many French writers in his 
day the title of philosophers. These whims are principally 
found in bis ** Fables Egyptiennes et Greques devoili^es," 
1786, 2 vols. 8vo, anid in bis '' Dictionnaire mythoherme- 
tique.** His more useful publications were, bis '^ Dic- 
tionnaire de Peinture, Sculpture, et'Gravure," 1757; **pis- 
cburs sur la Physionomie ;*' ^' Journal Historique d^un 
Voyage faite aux ties Malouines, en 1763 et 1764," 1769, 
2 vols. 8vo. This account of a voyage made by himself was 
thiDslated into English, and read with some interest at the 
time of the dispute with Spain, relative to these islands, 
which are the same with the Falkland islands. *' Disserta- 
tion sur TAm^rique et les Am^ricains :'* in this work and 
in his *^ Examen des R^cherches Philosophiques de Pauw 
sor les Am^ricains,'* he controverts the opinions of Pauw. 
I|6 was author of many other works, and communicated 
several memoirs to the academy of Berlin, of which he was 
a inember, and in which capital he resided a long time as 
librarian to Frederic II. Heat length returned to Valence, 
IB the department of La Dr6me, where he died about the 
close of the century.' 

PEROT, or PERROT (Nicholas), a learned prelate 
of the fifteenth century, was born at Sasso Ferrato, of an 
ilhistrious but reduced family. Being obliged to maintain 
himself by teaching Latin, he brought the rudirnents of that 
language into better order, and a shorter compass for the 
use of- bis scholars ; and going afterwards to Rome, was 
innch esteemed by cardinal desiiarion, who chose him for 

I FUVIer** Cb. Hiflory, Abel Redivif ut, «nd Holy State. — Lupion's Modf ra 
<X>hriDe».-»Brook'» Pnritaoi** * Did. Hint. 

VuL. XXIV. z 



338 :^ E R 61 f .- 

'his conclavist or attendant in the coVicfe'vfe, bn tfa^ deaCb lilf 
i^dvil II. It w^s dt this junc^ture tb^t he is saki to bf^ 
deprived I^eskavion of the papacy By his iihpriid^iiieid ; (At 
the cardlnaU being agreed in 'their choice, three of th'^ 
.'went to disclose it, and to salute him pope; bHt P^i5t 
Wuld not sufFeir them to enter, alledginig that they migHl 
interrupt him in his studies. When the cardinal Wiis ifi- 
formed of this blui^der, he gave himself no farther trouM^^ 
and only said to h\h conclavist in a mifii^ traifi(j[uil tone, 
'* Your ill-timed care has deprived me of the tiari, and ^dd 
if the hat.'* Perot *vas esteemed by sevei^I popes, Sp- 
*pointed governor of Perugia, and afterwards of Oriibrft, 
and was made archbishop of Siponto, 1458. He died 14S0, 
Ht Fi^giciira, a country bouse so called, vHbich he fiiLd bulk 
neAr Sasso Ferrato. He translated the first five libok^^f 
** Polybius, from Greet into Latin, wrote a treatise ** De 
gefaeribud metrorOtn,'* I4d7, 4to; also ^' Rudimenta GAm- 
matices,*' Rome, 14"? 3, fol. a very rire and valuable eifc- 
tion, ds' irideed air the subsequent ones are; but his-dfu^t 
Celebrated work is a long commentary on Martial,* entitf^d 
'^* Cornucopia^ seii Latins Linguse Commentarius,'* the 
best edition of which is that of 15 Id, fol. This last is 
a very learned work, and has been of great use to Cal^^n 
'in his Dictionary.. V , . , 

PEROUSE (J(J«N Francis Calat!* dr la), an aMe but 

unfortunate na^Vigatc^r, was "born at Albi in 1741. He eh- 

tered into the French navy when he was only in his fifteenth 

: year, and acquired such professidnal skill, that he W^ls 

regarded, as .pt f6r' the most arducVds ehterpirise's'. Tfee 

triurnphs 6f th^ Wfench marine wiere few in his time; y^t 

' he commanded in the successful attetript t!6 destfoy tlfe 

Enj^lish settlement i^ Hudson^s bay in 173^. On the rfe- 

storation of peace, it was resolved by the French intiifefty 

^that a voyage of discovery should be undert'aken fo'M^- 

^ply what had b%en left aefective In the voyages of our 

' iilustrious havfgatoV captain James Cbpkj'^nd fii^ assOtffa^SL 

, Lijuis XVr. dreW 13^ thfe pfatj of the intehdiid e^glffHftAi 

' wiVh. great ju'd'gbifent aiid intelligence, arid La Peroii^lVis 

the person fixed upon to conduct it. Witb tWo f^igsRb^ 

ta Boussole, et ^Astrolabe, the first under his owti cfflUi- 

' mahd, the second mider that of H. de Larigle, but ^lA^iftkt 

t Nieerob, votrX^nCirf.— tirkbo«ihit— Oen. 0i,ct,«^BnltMt Iffamuldtt Li- 
braire,-— Saxii OnbmaMiicoA. 



P IS ^ Q \^ i B. Ji9 

Hi bis Qrj^^y% Ibey sfAHfiA fifpuo Br^rt in Augpst .1785; 
tpifc^d f|t S^s^eii^a and Teneriffp^ and in Nav9)nber ao- 
fil^oc^d qi» the .ftq^st of ]^r|if i^. Tb^nce^ they proqeecjlq^ 
round Q^fip, Hcycn ipto thp ^outh Se^,. apd in JFebrKfu;/ 
1786 i^s^ anqtiQr in t\\e bs^y of Gonceptioiii on tjie cqa^t 9/ 
Chili. At this tifpet ^ Y'^^U bad the ineans of pretervipg 
bealth been employed, that they had not a pian sick. The 
ships r^ac\^d Efuit^r islapd in the nionth of April, and 
thenqe s^edy without ^touching at ^py land, to the Sand- 
irich islaifds. Op June 23d th^y anchored qn the -^eri- 
G^a Cf^st, ifk l^t. &8* 37'y and landed on an i$Un^ to ^.^- 

Slotjp tl^e country and qiake observations* At tjiijis pla9^ > 
L,Perpase had themisfprtuQe pf having two boats wrecked, 
with ,tbe iq9s of t^ll t^eir c^ew. T)^epce he fan down to 
CalifiQfPia, ^pd in S^pt^.9ib^r fiac))ored in tne bay ^f Mpn- 
It^re^, jwjtiegqe tbey tqok their d|ep;|rtpre across tbe Pacific 
p$f^n^ jiwl in 4fii>iifti;y 1787 arrived in the .^a9aQ rpads. 
In F^bfTuary tb<ey rcjUj^hed iM^*^l}^> which tb^y quitted ia 
April) ifb^ii^ their cour^fqr t^e i^lafids of Jarpan. Pass- 
ing the.c/g^U.of poreia smd J^pan,,|bey ^ell in with Chinese 
iTarury, in |fit ^^1% and ran ^to the pprthv^ard. They 
a^bpi^ in a b^y of the |f}ap|d of, S^£|Alien, and thence 
prQcee4^d if p. the shallow channel between th^t island and 
the continent as far as 51^29'. Returning thence they 
r^a^b^ tb^ squtbem extrei^i^y qf Sagalien in August, and 
fi^Lsaed a. strait b^F^^^n it andJ^sso, since named Perouse 
^ff^ty into tbe North Pacific. On the six^ , of September 
tt^ey ^apchored in the harbour , of . $t. Peter au)l Paul in 
J^a^tjsisji^atka. . The ships .bs^ying refitted, jthey s^t sail, 
^d rf^t'^^d fit tj^e JJ avigajtfjrs $}fiu4i in Decenjb^r. In 
Axe^y ^f Maoi^i^a they ip^tiyi^ a friendly reception f^pm 
pmserqus nati^s, a^nd began to ^k,e in refi;ejsl^ments« A 
party of sixty, un<ier thecommaiul of M. de Langle, went 
9^9X0 1^0 .fijipcpire . frqsh )y^a^ter, wb.en .a most unfort^unate 
ffci}urxepi^e topk filac^, .in .wjxich tjiey .were attacked by t|he 
^ftii^es, and ,^. ^e Xwgie . jtp^ .eleven of his m^n jlpst t;he^r 
j^vfss. QfUitting this .place without jeiny ,a^tempu jkt yen- 
l^f^^npe, f erou^ j^ro^e^ded to I^ew Ho^and, and. ar^r^y^d 
M JBotwy, Su ill Jariqary 1788, ^nd We t.erpainates j,U 
that is ,^npwo of tbe voyage pf ,tbis. nayigator,^ fi:om.the 
jflurppl.^hich ^ t^apsp^itted to^)fapge^ .,^^.^d^^^aoy,^nd 
jfffty ifpportant objects of research remaipii>g, but was 
never more heard of. The vessels were probably wrecked, 
and all the ccewa perished, since all efforts made to obtain 

2 2 



340 P K R O U 8 E. 

iofofmatioD of tbem have been fruitless. In 1798^ was pob^ 
lished,. at the expence of the French nation, and for the 
benefit of the widow of Perouse, **^ Voyage auitour dd 
Monde par J. F. 6. de la Perbuse," .in three i^ls. 4to. It 
was translated into the English. The discoveries of thi^ 
navigator are chiefly in the seas between Japan ,and China,' 
and China and Tartary. ^ 

PERRAULT (Claude), an eminent French architect^ 
was the son of an advocate of parliament, and' born at Paris, 
in 1613. He was bred a physician, but' practised only 
among his relations, his friends, and the poor. He dis- 
covered early a cbrrect taste for the sciences and fine arts ; of 
which he acquired a consummate knowledge, without the 
assistance of a master, and was p^rticularTy skilled in ar-> 
chitecture, painting, sculpture, and , mechanics. He still 
continues to be reckoned one of the greatest architect^ 
France ever produced. Louis XIV. who had a good tas^ 
for architecture, sent for Bernini from Rome, and other 
architects ; but Perrault was preferred to them all ; and 
what he did at the Louvre justified this preference. The 
fayade of that palace, which was designed by him, '^ is,^* 
says Voltaire, *^ one of the most august monuments of ar-^ 
chitecture in ibe world. We sometimes," adds he, ^* go 
a great way in search of what we have at home«. There is 
not one of the palaces at Rome, whose entrance is com- 
|)arable to this of th^ Louvre ; for which we are obliged to 
Perrault, whom Boileau has' attempted to turn into ridi* 
cule.^' Boileaa indeed went so far as to deny that Per- 
rault was the real author of those great designs in architec- 
ture that passed for his.. Perfault was involved in the 
quarrel his brother Charles . bad with Boileau, who, how* 
ever, when they became reconciled, acknowledged Claude^s 
merit. 

Colbert, the celebrated French minister, who' loved ar* 
chitecture, and patronized architects, advised Perrault t6 
undertake the translation of Vitruvius into French, and i}l 
lustrate it with notes; which he did, ind published it iii 
1673, folio, with engravings from designs of bisown^ whioii 
have been esteemed master-pieces. Perrault was sup- 
posed to have succeeded in this work beydnd all who went 
before him, who were either architects without learning, or 
learned men without any skill in architecture. He uhitedA 

1 Preface to4uiVoy«f9.«-4ieEft'«Cyelf>p94ii. *^ 



f •• 



I 

I 



P ERR A U L T. 341 

knowledge of every science directly or remotely-connected 
with architecture, and had so extraordinary a genius for 
mechanics, that he invented the machines by whjch those 
stones of fifty^two feet in length, of which the Front of the 
Louvre is formed, were raised. A second edition of his 

Vitruvius, revised, corrected, and augmented," was 
printed at Paris, 1684, in folio; and he afterwards pub- 
lisbed an abridgment for the use of students ; and another 
valuable architectural work, entitled ** Ordonnance des 
cinq Especes de Colonnes, selonla methode'des Anciens,'* 
1683, fol. 

When the academy of sciences was established, he was 
chosen one of its first members, and was chiefly depended 
upon in what related to mechanics and natural philosophy. 
He gave proofs of his great knowledge in these, by the 
publicatipn of several works; among which were, ^ ^* Me- 
tnoires pour servir i, Phistoire naturelle des animaux,*'16'71 
—76, 2 vols. fol. with fine plates; " Essais de Physique/* 
in 4 vols. 12mo, the three first of which came out in 1680^ 
and the fourth in 1688 ; '^ Recueil de plusieurs machines 
de nouvelle invention," 1700, 4to, &c. He died Ooc. 9, 
1688, aged seventy-five. Although he had never pub- 
licly practised physic, yet the faculty of Paris, of which 
he was a member, had such an opinion of his skill, and so 
much esteem for the man, that after his death th^y desired 
his picture of his heirs, and placed it in their public schools 
with that of Fernelius, Riolanus, and others, who had done 
honour to their profession.^ 

PERRAULT (Charles), younger brother to the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris, Jan. 12, 1628, and at the age 
of eight was placed in the college of fieauvais, where he 
distinguished himself in the belles-lettres, and bad a con- 
siderable turn to that kind of philosopliy which consisted 
fatostly in -the disputatious jargon of the schools. He also 
Wrote verses, and indulged himself in burlesque, which was 
then much in vogue ; ^n one occasion he amused himself 
in turning the sixth book of the iEneid into burlesque verse.. 
He had, however, too much sense when his ideas became 
matured by reflection, to attach the least valtke to such 
effusions. When his studies were completed, he was ad- 
mitted aii advocate, and pleaded two causes with a success 
sufficient to induce the magistrates to wish to see him at- 

> Niceron, ?oL XXXIf I.— Moreri.-^Perrau11?i Les Honunei lUostrei* 



S*2 P E li R A l/ L fi 

« 

^ach6d to the W. But Colbert, tfre FrAhch mlnlitei-, wM 
^eas acquainted with bis fnerity soon deprived the laW of 
bis services. He chose him for secretary to a small aca- 
demy o^ four or five men 6f letters, who assembled at his 
Wuse tvirice k week. This was the cradle of that Iearne4 
Society afterwards calTed ** Academiy of Inscfriptions an4 
lielles Lettries," The little academy employed itself ori 
Ae medals arid devices required from it by Colbert, in th^ 
ling's name; and those proposed by Charles Perrault 
Were almost always preferred. He had a singular iaieni 
for compositions of this kind, which require more int^llec- 
iUal qualities than is generally supposed, tn the number 
of his happy devices may b6 ranked that of the medal 
struck on account of the apartments given by the l^ing to 
tbe French academy in the Louvre itself. This was Apbltff 
Pdlatintis; an ingenious allusion to the tWraple of Apollo^ 
(erected within the precincts of the palace of Augustus. 
Pieirrauit not only was the author of this device, but lij^e** 
Wise procured the academy the apartments it obtained froni 
the chonarch, who at the same tioie was pleased to ^declare 
faimself its protector. Colbert, enlightened 'by the wis^ 
cbunselis of Perraiirt, inculcated upon the king, thai th^ 
protection due Ito genius is oiije o^f th6 noblest prerogatives 
of siipreme authority. He also procured the establish- 
ment of the academy pf science^^ which at jSrst had the 
' same form with the Frencb academy, that of perfect 
.(^quality among its members. His brother Claqde had 
also a considerable share in this useful establishment. 

Scarcely was the academy of*sciences established, when 
Colbert set ap^rt a yearly fund of 100,000 livres, to be 
distributed by the king's order among celebrated rt'en cJf 
letters, whether French or foreigners. Charles Pterrautt 
partook likewise in the scheme .of these donatives^ and in 
their distribution. It was extended throughout Europi^ 
to the remotest north, although ire do hot find any English 
among the number. Colbert, whose'esteem For 'the talents 
and character of Perrault continually increased, soon em- 
ployed. hina in an important anfl confidential office. 'Being 
himself siiperintendant of the royal buildings, be appointed 
him their "comptroller general ; and this oiBcej in the haad> 
bfPerraiilt^ procured a new favour to the arts, ih^t of tfi^ 
establishment of the acadeinies'of painting, sculpture, and 
architecture. Then it was that bis brother Claude pro- 
duoed the celebrated design of the front of the Louvre. ' 



P I 8 R Ay i- T- 343 

l^fet fit^ilfe P«5r^l4^ fiSJoyHi w4 t;hg gmita4e due to 
, Jlijlja^ lirpip ipen pf IgJt^^, ba^l f^om 167* gigep bim »daii»^ 
sipp injp tt)^ Frfipc)) ^padi^pay. Qq the rt*iy of bi? feoep^ 
^1, ]p^ retoroed (t^anj^s in ati b^rangu^ ^ybicli gaye iSQ 
VPHPcb e^sfactioQ to ^.e spciety, ^at th^y ffpqfl tb^t linif 
resolved to maK^ public the admission •di^cqufrses of ^fUt 
fPf mbers. B«t a^ the favpur of the great; I? rarely ia^tingi 
j^^prault MpderwQQtfoipe mortifications from Colbert, Wbi<$b 
5:pmpelled bim to retire; and altbougb ^be muii§ter> ^eosibi^r 
p/ hi^ lo^i solicit.ed bim to ceturp, b^ fefysed, «Qd ^r^tlt 
io jnbabit a hou^^e in the suburbs of St. Jacqiies^ |lie yi«' 
Sinity qf wbiqh to ^hjs colleges facilitated tb^ supj^r.intend* 
aiice of tjie eduqation of his sons, ^j^ft^r tbe deatb of C(4- 
Sprty be received a fresh mortification, tbat of bavit^g hi$ 
jpagiQ erased fjrom ibjB acpidemy of medals, by Louvp^^, 
yM\s ipioisler did nQC love Colbert ; and bis hatred to tb^, 
patron fell upon the person patronized, tboug<b hq had 
c^sed to be 90. 

Puring bis retreat, Perrault eiuplojed bis I^isurp in tbe 
jpoii^ppsition of several works, among which wer^ bfs ^^iPpem 
pn the ^ge of L^m^ xh^ Oreat,^^ and his f * Parallel beiltweiOii 
jtbe Ancients and Moderns/' Tbe Ipug and bijtt^r w«f 
tb^se piec^ f^xci^ed between BQil(ea,u and the au^tu*, i^ 
jivell known. The chief fault pf Perrauh was his ceusfutiog 
^e apciputs in bad verses^ w.|iicb ^\e Boileauthe adyaur 
f4ge. japid tbe twp adyers^jgies rtojpb^^tpd in pros^, tb0 
^atcb wQuld h^ve been iqore eqiiaL In t^e cpili^^tJQn qf 
Boileau's works, ipay be s^<^ a letter addressed to him by 
Perrault, in the height pf this jwi^fare, against wbiich thi^ 
great poet*s prose^ somewhat inclined to harshnes$ and 
|>onderQ9ity» i^ .scarcely ^ble to suslain itself^ notwithstand** 
jng 4II tbe aptbor*$ ^talents fpr sarcasm ' and ifooy. Per>- 
rft tilt's letter, ^ougb fi)ljed with reproaches, for tb,e wots^ 
part well tnerit.ed by h\^ g^i?.tiigpnist, is a model of decorum 
^nd delicacy. With rj^spenQt to the grpuna of the jdispMt^, 
the two adversaries} as usu^ in tb.ese €),uarreU, ^rjQ ^Uerr 
juately right and wrong* Perrault, too.bttle ppnversant ifi 
jthe Greek hngmg^, too (jjc^uMvi^y ^e.ti^iWe pftbe defectis 
of Homer, shows too little feeling of tbe suj^^erior beaiiiMei 
p{ this great hard) and is not 0opi|gh iiudulgent to bis errors 
in favour of his gooius* SfpiJ^u, perpetually on bis koees 
JMore bis. i4o[l, defends :biin:9ometiQies ijnb.appily^ and 
alwftyswitb a judeni^s 9iimf^% equatltp ,^at yfiph wbich tbf 
^e)^of.lbe;IUad.a1>.u««^i{J»:0lb^..> -n 



344 P E R R A U L T. 

It is, indeed, asserted tbat the enmity of Boileau against 
ihe author of the " Poehi on Louis le Grand,** bad a secret 
-csause^ m6re potent than his devotion for the ancients; 
'which was, that the writer, when justly celebrating^ the 
great Corneille, had aflecced to avoid all mention of the 
author of " Phosdra'' and " Iphigenia.'* There is some.rea* 
son to believe that Boileau was not better satisSed with the 
silence observed with respect to himself in this poem^ 
^hich had not disdained to notice Godeaux and Tristan. 
But the satirik's self-love in the displeasure he professed, 
pifudendy concealed itself behind his friendship for Ra^ 
tune, and perhaps was thus concealed e^en from himself* 
If on this occasion he displayed an excess^ of feeling, 
his adversary had been guilty of great injustice. To de- 
prive the age of Lewis the Fourteenth of Boileau and 
Kacine, is to deprive the age of Augustus, of Horace 
and VirgiL • ^ 

The enmity of the two academicians was of older datd 
than their quarrel concerning the ancients and moderns. 
•Charles Perrault and his brothers, friends of those writers 
whom Boileau had treated with most. severity, did not coh-^ 
XMt themselves with a silent disapprobation- of his attacks 
upon them ; they freely expressed their sentiments of the 
satirist, who, on his part, did not spare them.  We ought 
not, on this occasioft, to suppress an anecdote of Perrault^ 
which does him much honour. The Frtoch academy, itl 
1671, had proposed as the subject of their first poetical 
pri^e, the ** abolition of dViels." Some daj^ before the 
prizes were distributed, Perraillt bad spoken highly in com- 
ni€fndation of the successful piece, the writer of whicb^ M. 
de la Monnoj'e, was unknown. A person who heard him, 
-said tO' Perrault, ** You woOld be much surprized were the 
piece to prov« Boileau's." ** Were it the devil's," an- 
nwered Perrault, "it deservesthe prize, and shall have it.'^ 
vBoileau oii his part, as if through emulation, rendered 
-some justice to Perrault, and even on aec<>unt of his verses. 
'He praised the six lines which conclude the preface to 
Perradlt's *^ Parallels,*' though the ancients are not treated 
iti'tllem with mnch respect. 

' Perrault,' besides the verses alluded to, has written somci 
others, nOt^^ unworthy of praise. Such are tliose^ iti his 
poem ^^ On Painting,'^ inwhii^h he happily, ' and even 
poietically, describes the beauties added bytime to pte^^ 
lures. In these line% «he image be draws ^f tinie gi^itig 



P E R R A O L T. 3#« 

the fioislring touches to the master-pieces of t^e great 
arttstSy while with a sponge he effaces even the remem- 
brance of inferior productions^ is noble and picturesque^ 
Somewhat more of harmony and elegance in the expres** 
sioD would have rendered this draught worthy of the first 
masters. 

When the quarrel between Boileau and Perrault bad 
lasted long enough to make them both almost equally in 
the wrong, and the two adversaries had satiated themselves, 
the one with reproaches, the other with epigrams ; when 
even the public began togrow wearyof it; common friends, 
who ought sooner to have interposed, endeavoured to effect 
a reconciliation. They were indeed entitled to mutual 
est^m, whi£;h the one commanded by his uncomooion 
{lowers, the other by his knowledge and understandings 
and both by their probity. On the side of Perrault,. the 
reconciliation was, sincere. He even suppressed several 
strokes against the ancients, which he had in reserve for 
the fourth tolume of his ** Parallels,"' ** choosing rather,'* 
said he, *^ to deprive himself of the satisfaction of pro* 
ducing fresh proofs of the goodness of his cause, than longer 
to embr(»l himself with persons of merit like that of hit 
adversaries, whose friendship could not be purchased at too 
bighea rate.'' With respect to Boileau, he wrote what he 
tQfmed a letter of reconciliatioif to Perrault ; but in which^ 
through its forced compliments, he could not avoid dis^t 
p^laying that relic of gall or maliguity, of which it is so dif« 
ficuit for a professed satirist entirety to discharge himself. 
Thfis letter might almost pass for a new critique on Perrault, 
so Equivocal was the turn of its reparation. Accordingly, 
a friend' of Boileau said to him, < ** I doubt not that we^hall 
always keep up0n good terms together, but if ever, after 
a difference, we should be reconciled, no reparation ! I 
beg : I fear your reparations more tlian your reproaches.'' 

We shall at present pass over some works of Perrault, 
less considerable than the two, which made him most talked 
of^ and most disturbed bis repose. We shall only mention 
kis'^> History of Illustrious Men of the Age of Lewis XlV.'* 
Freed from his controversy with Boileau, but still a zealous 
partizan for his age, Perrault celebrated its glory in this 
wprk, which did equal honour to his understanding and 
hi»impairtiality. Somewhat more life and colouring migbl 
be desired in' it,, but not more sincerity and j^istice. llhc^ 
auihorjeyen. confesses that Jie has denied himself ornameot^ 



Umtiotg QOicoiiurai ig the simple recital of ^aot^ *' I fyM 
apt ignoranf /^ say« be, ^f tbajt if I bad m94^ thes^ 0ylpg>fii 
i90i:e •loqueoty I shoold by^vie dimmed loodre glorjr &m 
tbem; buti Uiaugbt only of ibe glpry of i^piis vboio I 
commemorate. It is well known, that funeral oral&H^93 itk 
generai 4n» moxe the eiilQgy oftbe preAcber tban qC tbe 
BeQeA«6|j i and tbat if Ite refsitatioD of top composer jft 
pfte^ ^Mgineiiied by tbem) th^yt of iJie ;iui;y ^q): ftlm^^ pJlwayf 
Keioains Kba^ it was befoi^.V 

We have bitb^rto .fql lowed Q'Alembfrt, m 9^v i^cqqihU 
pf M* Perrauit. It o^ay be necessary now to ^d^ a feir 
partAjQulars ftom otber autWitie^. With rismfi^dp %^ h\» 
ff Age of Lewis the Great,'' U waa a kiiid of preludp to » 
ipar wi/ib ail the Jiear^ed- In this po^m he ii^et the jSAodero 
tuthocs abpve ^he anoieati an attempt which would of 
coan^e appear ^bockiog tp'jthe jafiajority^ who cppsideo^ 
tbe ^Muents asAupi^iot in evpry afSeci^ pf cQ^posifjon* 
SoUmu w^s ^icesent a^t ihe Acadepa}? yfbm Ma, ^^xm^ wi» 
V6ftd tbeie, in i&ST, asd was greatly dJMttstad ; yet took 
no farther npiice of it, tbap AAsi^^ering it by Ap ^igram, aa 
d&d also Jtfesiagn m anptbex, tp ,wbicb SermuU rppjy^ ^ 
a letter, xvhichherppriol^d^e sam^year, an;} %M^ Xq 
Ithia M FacaUel between the AiMsiaats and Mi^efQ9,i' m 
regard to arts aud aciences. A tiiecoiid y^ame pf this isip^ 
peared in 1£S0, where the aAbject of ^eir eloquj^pae if 
considered ; a third, in l$92, to determine tbair poetica^ 
merit; and a fourth, in 1.686, .which treats of the»r a$i;rQ> 
pomy, getogtaphy, navigation, mftonjerof i^arring, .philo* 
^pp)}y, xxumc, obedicinf , &c. 152 mo. In the .third y plume, 
xyiueh jrdfites .to .poetry, P^ecrault bg^ xhA odly eqii»lied 
the xnodfirn .poeb v^fd^hjt^e ancient, and pifttu^iridr^r ficif 
kau, hnt.had also ^set tip .Ohapdaijr), JSLaimvlpf .and .oiiher 
French .poj^s, .whom .Boileau ia.hia ^Satires bad (re^i^ 
irith coTttempt. This brought on the anjfioaiQ^.of jivtech 
n^ httre already giv£{i anaccmuaA. >Yoh;aire'say^, wiithi^giuol 
to thia famous comroversy, .^hich was carried on at tf^ 
tone, time in £ng)and, by sir W4Uiam>Templpand.ptber% 
that .^f^ Ferrault has Jieesi j'eproached with having found 
tiQiO' many ^auits with itbe ancients, .bpt that i his great &uU 
iras the having criticised . them inj udici9usly#V 
- .jPerrijult's iwork, the MiUfltoiry of the* IllijsCidaiis^^iiiH 
is now .(^ieAy valued. of all his writings, i^Dd.nQt.tb6 Xtt(k 
:&)rjdie.fioe portraits from the colkctiQa of the oeIefaiafie4 



B^j^. Ofthe fetter-press^ we hme an EkiglUb transla* 
tion by OceM, X70^"r-Sy 2 tols. 6vo. Perratih was detier* 
mined lyy the pubKc toice m the ehoice of hn heroes, 
wfiooi be conned to. an bundred ; but there are an hnndred 
tod two m the collection ; the reason of which was tbis^ 
ArtfanM and Pascal were deservedly in Ms Ust ; but the. 
Jesuits made interest to have them excluded, and prevailed, 
Ferrauh thought h necessary to substttule two fresh ones ; 
hat the public refused to accept the work, tinless Arnauld 
and Pascad might keep their places ; and hence it arose, 
tb^t instead of a hundred lives, which was Perrault's ori- 
l^al design, we find an iiundred and two. There ar^ 
other works of Perrault, which are much esteemed, as 
^ Le Cabinet de Beaux Arts/' 8co. or, A Collection pf 
Copper-plates relating to Arts and Sciences, with lUustra* 
tions in Verse and Prose, 4 "vols, oblong 4to ; ^ Faernus^s 
Fables, translated Into French Verse," &c. 

Perrauit died in 1708, aged seventy-seven. Madame 
dacier, in the preface to her translation of ^' Homer's 
Odyssey,*' has given the following character of this.au- 
thor. ^ He was/* says she, ^ a man of talents, of agree^^ 
able conversation, and the author of some little workji* 
Which have foe(en <)eservedly esteenrred. He had also an 
the quahtied of an honest and good man ; was pious^ sin? 
eere, virtuous, potlte, modest, teady to serve, and punq» 
t.nal in the discharge of every duty, ile had a consider^ 
icble place under one of the greatest ministers durance ever 
had, who reposed jthe utmost confidence in him, n^icfa -he 
never employed for himself, but always ^br his friends:^ 
3ach« character from madame Daciermust suggest to u^ 
the iiighest opinion of Perrault as a man, when it is con* 
tfidered, that, as an isiutfaor, she thought liira gtftlty of thjp 
greatest of all crimes, an attempt to degrade the -ancient 
Writers, whom she not only reverenced, hut adored. 
' ^Besides Claude and Charles, there were two otberbrothers, 
Peter and Nicholas, who distinguished themselves in the 
literary world. TeTer, the eldest of them nil, was re- 
ceiver-geueral of the finances, and published, in 1074, a 
t^iece, "De rOrigine des Fontaines/* and, in 1&78, a 
French tmi^slaltion of Tassoni^s " La ^cehia rapita.^' Ni- 
COLAS was admitted doctor of <the -Sorbonne in 1632; and 
died in, Ml6i.; leaving .be(und him a work, entitled ^* |^a 
Morale des Jesuites, extraite fidelemeut.4e Jj^iUi:^ Ji^yij^a,** 
srhich was printed in 1667, 4to. 



348 PERBAULT. 

» • t » r 

, Charles Perrault is said to have bad a son, Perrault 
P^Armancourt, who, although he made a less figure in the 
learned world than his father or uncles, was the author of 
a book of tales, lately transferred from the nurserj to the 
stage. The French edition is entitled f* Contes de ma 
Mere I'Oye." Hague, 1745, with a translation, "Mother 
Gooseys Tales." • 

PERRENOT (Anthony), better kdown by the name 
of cardinal de Granvelle, was born 1517, at Besan^on, and 
was son of Nicholas Perrenot, seigneur de Granvelle, 
chancellor to the emperor Charles V. Born with an atn- 
bitious, intriguing, and firm temper, joinecf to great abi* 
lities, he speedily raised himself, was made canon and 
archdeacon of Besan^on, then bishop of Arras, in which 
character he spoke very forcibly at the council of Trent 
when but t*venty-four years of age,' and afterwards served 
the emperor Charles Y. in several embassies to . France, 
England, and elsewhere. This prince had so particular 
an esteem for Granvelle, and such confidence in him, that 
on abdicating the empire, he recommended him to his son 
Philip II. who scarce ever took any step relative either to 
private or public aflPairs, without his advice and assistance. 
Granvelle was afterwards appointed the first archbishop of 
JMlalines, was made cardinal in 1^61, by Pius IV. and at 
length counsellor to Margaret of Parma, governess of the 
Netherlands, where, according to Strada*s account, his am- 
bition and cruelty occasioned part of the outrages which 
were committed. Philip II. recalled him a second time to 
court, and entrusted him with all the affairs of the Spanfsh 
monarchy. Cardinal de Granvelle died at Madrid Septem* 
ber21, 1586, aged seventy, after having' been nominated 
to the archbishopric of Besangon. His Life, written by 
T>. Prosper Levfique, a Benedictine, was printed at Pari^ 
1753, 2 vols. 12mci. It is interesting, but the author h 
nnpardonably partial, and conceals the cruelty, ambition, 
and other faults of this celebrated cardinal.' 

PERKIER (Francis), a French artist of merit, bom 
at Ma^on in 1590, was a goldsmith's son; but contract* 
ing dissipated habits, ran away from bis parents, and is said 
to have literally begged his way to Rome, in partnership 
fvith a blind man. At Rome, after suffering much for want 

' D'Alemb«ri*i EulogieB by Aikin, toI. II.— Nicwoo, toU XXXia 
« iIorcri.^Dlct Hist. 



P E R R I E R. 



349 



of resources, he had^ recourse to his pencil, and was .soon 
enabled tb maintain himself. Having become acquainted 
with Lanfranco, he endeavoured to follow his manner, and 
was not unsuccessful. Thi^ giving him a con6dence in his 
powers, he resolvetd to return to France ; and stopping at 
Lyons, he [tainted the Carthusians cloister there. From 
Lyons he proceeded to Paris ; and having worked some time 
for Vouet, who engrossed all the great works, he took a 
second journey to Italy, where he stayed ten years, and 
returned to Paris in 1645. About this time he painted the 
gallery of the Hotel de la Villiere, and drew several e^seU 
pieces for private persons. He died professor of the aca^ 
demy, in 1655. He etched several things with a great 
d^al of spirit, and, among others, the finest basso-relievos 
that are in Rome, a hundred of the most celebrated an- 
tiquities, and some of RaphaePs works. He also engraved, 
in the chiaro oscuro, some antiquities, after a manner, 
jof which, it was said, he was the first inventor; but 
Parmegiano used it a long time before him. It consists 
of two copper*plates, whose impression is made on paper 
faintly stained : the one plate is engraved after the usual 
way, and that prints the black ; and the other, which b the 
secret, prints the white *. " 

P£RRI£R (Charles), orDuPERiER, a French poet, was 
bom at Aix in Provence. He first devoted himself to 
Latin versification, in which he si^cceeded greatly ; and he 
boasted of haying formed the celebrated. SanteuiL They 
quarrelled afterwards from poetic jealousy, and made Me* 
Bage the arbitrator of their differences; who, however, dor 
cided in favour of Perrier, and did not scruple to call hioi 
^* The ..prince of Lyric poets." They afterwards became 
reconciled, and there are in Perrier*s works several trans- 
lations of pieces from Santeuil. Perrier afterwards applied 
liimself to French poetry, in which he was not so success- 
ful, thoiigh he took Malherbe for his model. His obtrusive 
Tanity, which led him to repeat his verses to all who came 
near htm, made him at last insupportable. Finding Boileaa 
one day at church, he insisted upon repeating to him an 
ode during the elevation of the host, and desired his opi-^ 
nion, whether or no it was in the manner of .Malherba 

* This iaTention ha^ ' been mueh perfection by Mr. KenU who performed 
improved since, and especially of late it in any two otlier colours as well as 
iii Eoglaod t(as been carried to great black and white. 

\ Pilkingtoa aiid Strutt.~^D*Ar(eaTine, vol. iy,«*Moreri«' 



IMF P S « it i S R. 

MM 

Pope's Iitie% ^'No ptace so aaovod ffpm sqcli rfi^pe jii 
bayr'd^" &e.«iielit«raUy:a|rtnsUtioD of Boileau^s on Pe»ioi^ 
<< 6ard)SB<^#«i0 d'inher ce rimcur fiurie^ix," &c* Iii4i£^ 
feitent, bowrelrer) as bW xFrench poetry was^ the ob^ned 
tibe academy^pri^e two.yeai^ togetb^) namely, in IMl 
and 16 84. He di<9d JVIeSpcfa 28, 16d2. Hk Latio poems 
are to hefdiiod in ^arioifts: collections, bot bave neir^r beea 
puMiaked in 4a separate ^iiim» althougb tbiay wiply de- 
innre tbat dbiiffiction.^ 

PEillilON {hkUBs Davy «iv), a cardinal oiore lewoeM 
^(kr'igDeBt talonis nad learw^ tjian forprificiple, .vi^4e^ 
soeiided him aacieAt «aki aDble faoiiUes on bolb sid^s/ 
HtBipareDls, bavitig been educate in the protesmnti^- 
gsoD, finiiidtt naeestary to remove froot liQw^r ^^oir^i^dy |p 
Ovn^ira^'aml'aetiled af^rw«rds/ia tbe qinfcoiiof Berufi ^be«e 
be was born, NoTl 25, liiS6« His fattfceci Juliao Iliavy, a^ 
able pfaysiciaa, .and e man ^ learnings injB4riieted>bim till 
jie<Mraa ten years of ;age» and ^ai»ght bj»n>iii$itj)^m.atics aad 
^tiao Lalii^ tongne. 'Youag Petreo aeomsf afterwajrds to ba¥f 
' bisiit tipoti this fdUMbtioa, for, whjble jws par^A,ts <wer^ 
4ibligedrtD*«eaK)feYfoin place to place .by dsU «ars 41^ 
peraeoatioB, ketaug^ bimself tbe 6re#k-t0i^¥ie.aiKl pbir 
losopby, beginning that study vt^ithibe Jo^vof Ariaitoifcie: 
Ifaenoe^fae 'passed ftoAe ^y»loars anfd;f]|Oi^ ; tand afterwards 
appbed. aa tbe Hlsbnew language .wi^b*4u0h snec'esf;, tbat 
be bmldTead it ^tfaiaiit points, aod lw^«rad on 4t to t^^ 
pMftestantdei^. 

in dkeveign of HiMxy III. >li^ mfi» asiii«d)l» tbeij^aimill 
emrt, 'Wbieh was then at BIdia, mhexe tke ^U^es .w^i^e 
assembted^in 1576 ;. and introdut^Ml^fto the l(ing as^a 4f«?^i- 
digy^of pans and learning. His ^on^p? erslal t^«i^ts,iM^re 
alrmdy so eonspieuous, i^but few m^ji to««di;ip^$e ^9N4b 
bim. fiis mgenaity does not^ kom^etf ^appfiarvtOibMa 
graatJy 4Mkaiioed bisi intenaat, ior •^-we )#r0 told ^t iidlp#^^ 
aftttr'«iiis,4ie earner WBaarli, be-biMiillo gather ^esa^roe ttta9 
t& teach Latin for breads oand-tbatiat-a^^iiaQ wb^n he ,bfi|d 
pdbHoc<mferem:e&ttpo&iibefSfikfiM3Miblbe9ar)d Ml^o^it^ 
Augutines. He^et hiniaelf aftef waf ds tomf^d^ tk^ ^Sl^ltpr 
naa^'of St. Thonsas^AqiiiAas, jaad €i4iivfiled^a ftckt iri^mdr 
sfaip-^itb^Pbilip.IkapQiaes, iBibbat of Titrop, iiwbo .proc^imid 
bim> his own place of reader to Henry IIL and was the 
jGjrstjt9.ad?jao him to renouqcebis religion. Preldously to 



P £ R II Q N. S3i 



his uftiBg this dtep, he i» nai to haVe^eflfended Henry IIL 
by M af ow»l of religkmd iildtfferencie, whidh is thos rex 
kted : ,onfe day, white the king Wis^t dinner, he marie wk 
admirlBiUe discourse agaanst atheists ; on #btcb the kiag 
cbbimetidcd him mnch for ha^ng proved die being 'bf% 
Bod by arguinetits so'sdid. Perron insttatty replied^ 
that <^ if his majesty was disposed to hear faim^ he wouM 
prove the contrary by Itrguneots^ -as soKd ;*' wbicl^. ^ 
oflfeoded the king, that he forbad' him to come into his 
pretantee. This story has been denied by sonie Fretitk 
writers, lis derogatory to Duperroii's religroas principles'; 
but others say that, granting it to be true, it means tio 
more than that Du Perron vaanted his ability to take either 
side of a question, a practice unii^ersal at that tUne in tbte 
acbools ; yet they allow that his t^ly to tbe Bng was r«^ 
ther ill-timed, and ili^expressed. 

H«, recovered, however, from any loss Hf ebaracter 
which this affair might occasion, by abjuring the religion 
Jn which he had been educated. It is rather aingiriar tih*t 
he is stiid to have acquired a distaste of the protestant re- 
iigion by studying the <^Summa'* of St. t^omfts AqaiMi, 
arid the writibgs of St. Austaa; but bavttlg by this or by 
some other means, reconciled his mind to the change '^f 
hia I'eUgioa, he displayed all the zeal of a^neweonvarrtfay 
•labouring earnestly in th^ conversion of otheite, efeo %%- 
fore b)e had embraced the ecclesiluitieal funetitm. ''By tlMMe 
arts, and his uncommon abilities, he acquired giMt infla- 
ence, and was appointed to pronounee the foiieral orailoa 
of Mary queen of Scdts, in 1 5^1 ; as iie had diMie also that 
of the poet ilonsard^ in ISM. He wrote, sosciie time after, 
. by oc^der of the king, ** A te:omparisofi of moral and thee* 
logical virtues;'* and two *^ Discourses,'* one upM the 
soul, the other uponself-kndvdedge, which he proa octf need 
before that prhioe; After the murder of 'flienry III. ^he 
: retired to the house of Cardinal de Bourbon, and h^Kmred 
more vigdrdusly than ever in the conversion of the re- 
. forjcned. Among his converts was Henry Spondanns, after* 
ward^ bMlo^ of Pamiea ; as this prelate ttckaowledge8,'4n 
his dedioation to 'Cardinal du Perron of *his <^ Abridgdieiit 
of BareoAis^s Antials." Bat his saocess'with Henry IV. is 
1 supposed to redound most' to due' tredit of Us pdvters of 
^-freiteaMon. He wfent tcrwait onrcbat^piifyee wkh'oai^dhitd 
ode Bdurboo, at the '^ge 6f iloa^ ; and fallowed him ut 
fteoti^ Avfa^reiieiBald ^ .finVu^ diapewe infh iilur |>rec(iW< 



352 PERRON. 

talat ministers. Th6 ^ingj afterwards resolving to have 4 
conference about religion with the principal prelates of tho' 
kingdom, sent for Du Perron to assist in it ; but, as he 
was yet only s, layman, he nominated him to the bishopric- 
of Evreux, that he might be capable of sitting in it. He 
came with the other prelates to St^ Denis, and is said 
to have contributed more than any other person to the 
chapge in Henry^s sentiments. 

; Ai'ier tfais^ he was sent with M. d'Ossat to Rome, to ne« 
gotiate HenryU reconciliation to the holy see;. which at 
Jengtb he effected more to the satisfaction of the king, than 
of his subjects; that part of them at leftst, who were zea^ 
lous for Galilean liberties, and thought the dignity of their 
king prostituted upon this occasion. After a year's resi«- 
di^oce at Rome,. he returned to France; wheie^ ;by such 
services as have already been mentioned, he. obtained pro^ 
motion to the highest dignities. He wro^e> and preiMched, 
and disputed, against the reformed ; particularly against 
Dii Plessis Mornay, with whom he had a public conferencer, 
ia the presence of the king, at Foqtatnbleau. . 'The king' 
resolved to make him grand almoner of France^ to give 
him the archbishopric. of Sens, and wrote to Clement VIII. 
to obtain for him the dignity of a cardinal ; which that 
pope conferred on him, in 1604, with singular oKirks of 
esteem. The indisposition of Clement soon after made 
the king resolve to send the French cardinals to Rome; 
where JDu Perron was no sooner arrived, than he was em-' 
ployed by the pope in the congregations. - He liad a great 
share in the elections of, Leo X. and Paul Y. He assisted 
, afterwards in the congregations upon the subject of Grace, 
and in the disputes wbicH were agitated betweeuthe Jcduits 
and the Dominicans : and it was principally owing to his 
advice, that the pope, resolved to leave these questions uii-* 
decided. He was sent a third time to Rome, to accom- 
modate the differences between Paul V. and-the republic 
of Venice. This popehad such an opinion of the power of 
bis eloquence and address, that he said to those about 
him, ^* Let us beseech God to inspire cardinal Du Perron, 
for he will persuade us to do whatever he pleases.*' 

.After the murder of Henry IV. in 1610, Du Perrpn de- 
voted himself entirely to the court and see of Rome, and 
prevented every measure in France which might displease 
that power, or hurt its interests. He rendered useless the 
arret of the parliament of Paris, . against die book of cardi* 



/ P E Jl^ p N; Ijll 

«pa 9f llmrqiuie ; wa4 |^Fqure4 ijti^ wifelUbility of ih,^ pop?r 
lyid bis sup^ciori,ty .ov:^^ fi couacU, in « thiesis lO^intainQi) 
in 1611, before the npnciQ. .He -after war4^ heJd 91 prQ-s 
vioeifil ii9f»embly, in wbicb b^ .con4^ipqe{I Rbb^r'ji book, 
<# coDcerpii^g .ecclesiastical ^nd civil authority :" f^pd, being 
^ the ^^si^aibly of Blois, b^ m^^^ an baran^gue to prore# 
t}^ they ov^t n^ to ^^cide some qiAestiiqns, 91^ acqouni: 
c^ tjbeir being pqi^ts ^f ffiith. f^e wa|i qpe of the presi-^ 
4^^ €^ the %sseipb)y ,Qf the clergy, which wad held fit: 
Il^R^ in 1,61;^ ; and foa^e hiaun^gues tp the Jjing ^t th^ 
^^^ing and ^bu^ing pf i,)^9t agsembly, which ii^ere .am^ok 
smpjaiid^d* This wa3 |h^ l^st pf bis public services; Xq^ 
aflifsr thi^ :b? rQlice^ tp bisbc^ViiSe at 3^gnplQt» and eipploy^cl 
)^lli$^lf wboliy ip ^r^yisipg and copipleting hU works. Tl^m 
WfLs withbim va fi^tt^r of gre^t ioiporunce, for ba not only 
M^^ priFJVte p^e^s in bis hpusei tjbat he might h^vp tbeoi 
|t^bUsbed4M>i;irecUy9 Apd revised ev^ry ^b^pt bifnself, but^ 
is )9$Md fdsv tp have printed a few cppie/s pf every wQrk (bat 
b^e^ivi^ed rtp appear to advi^ntage, fpr ,the r^vi^al oif U^ 
fri<eods bef<K^ .p«bU<?atiQn. .Hp ;di^d at Pari^, Sept. 4f, 
i^hh i^ed piif:ty-thre^. He wap ft ipan of great abilities ; 
bad;a ^iviely ^apd penetrating wity and a particular taleni; 
^t. making bis yietms appear .roasonabte. iHe delivered 
bioiaelf iipoa ajl /occa^ipn^ wiib great cLearne^s^ dignity, 
and doquen^e. He ;bad a prpdigigus mei^pry, and bad 
smdiedn^ncb. He.iwras very wellver^d in antiquity^ both 
eqp^^iastipal aiij^ profane » wd b^d re^d much in tbp fa*- 
thera, cpun<;ils4 ^d.eccle^imtical bistgprians, of vfhicb be 
kunw bpw to eiiake %h^ best t»se tP perplas, if npt to coiir 
Tince bi9;adveir^ri^f. He was wafoily at^aQbed to ibe $ee 
of jteme, and j»ti:ennpns in defending it$ righ^ and. prero- 
gii|iv€^; and tberi$&>re it Ciannqt ,be wp«idcjred> that bis 
imme ba3 i^ver b^en b^ld in high bpt)pnr acnpng tho^e of 
bU^PQantryn^en who have been a^jcnstoinipd-^p^tund np for 
tbe;Gallican libertiqj^* Tbey consider indeed that a<nbi^ 
tinn was bisnnUng.|2assiont and that it e^tepd^d ^^en to 
liteia^re» it) wbicb be thopgbt b^ Qught tp bpM the Grift 
IMk* in: bis youth he bad translated intp French yer$e a 
part of tbe ^neid; and;tbo pnaises which Pesporties and 
•B^tai;it bestowed pn this .perforrxianee mad^ bim fancy, 
itial bis ^tyle was .^up^ripr to, that of Virgi). lie was }oi 
liis.Qwn opinion, says tbe abb^ LongMerii}e» tbp ^pm- 
^nanderninrchief of ; literature ; and antbots found thai bis 
i^pi/iion was to,be s^a(edibe&re.tbat^.tb^.p«blic« fiis 
Vol. XXIV. A A 



SSi P E R R O 1^ 

fiBkvourite ^mbors were Montaigne, whose essays be eallecf 
the breviary of all good men, and Rabelais, whom, by way 
of disCinction, he called " The author.*' 

The works of Du Perron, the greatest patt of which bad 
been printed separately in his life-time, were collected' 
after his death, and published at Paris, 1 620 and r622, iif' 
3 Tols. folio. The first coirtahis his great ** Treatise uponf 
the Eucharist,** against that of Du Plessrs Mornay., The 
second, his *' Reply to the Answer of the -King' of Great 
Britain.** The following was the occasion of that work : 
James I. of England sent to Henry IV. of France a book, 
which he had written himself, concerning differences iH 
religion. Henry put it into the hands of Du Perron*s bro^ 
ther, who informed his majesty, from what the cardinal 
had observed to him, that there were many passages in 
that book, in which the king of England seemed to cumi^ 
near the catholics ; and that it might be proper to send 
some able person, in hopes of converting him entirely. 
Benry accordingly, after taking the advice of his preiatea 
in this affair, desired to know of the king of England, whe- 
ther he would approve of a visit firom the cardinal Du Per- 
ron ? King James answered that he should be well pleased 
to confer with him, but for reasons of state could not d0 
it. After this, Isaac Casaubon, who had been engaged in 
several conferences with Du Perron about religion, and 
seemed much inclined to that egregious absurdity, a re- 
union between the popish and reformed church, was pre-* 
▼ailed on to take a voyage into England j «vbere he spoke 
advantageously of Du Perron Co the king, «nd presented 
some pieces of poetry to him, which the cardinal bad pot 
into his hands. The king receivcid them kvndiy, and ex* 
pressed much esteem for the author ; which Casaubon no- 
ticing to Du Perron, he returned a tetter of civility and 
thanks to his Britannic majesty ; in which he told him, tbat| 
*< except the sole title of Catholie, be could find notbing 
wanting in his majesty, that was necessary to maj^e a mo$t 
perfect and accomplished prince.** The king re[^ied^ thal^ 
*\ believ4ag all things which the ancients had unanimously 
ibmtght necessary to salvation^ the title of Catholic could 
.«ot be denied him.** Casaubon halving sent this' answer to 
Du Perron, he replied to it in a letter, dated the 1 5th of 
July, 161 1| in which he assigns 4he reasons tbait "obliged 
hioft to Tefuse*the name of Catholic to 'his Britaniiic mas 
jesty* Casaubon sent him a writing by ^^vay of answer, iA. 



P E R R O N. 355- 

the nanie of the king, to all the articles of his letter; to 
which the cardinal made a large reply, which constitutes 
the bulk of the second volume of his works. The third 
contains his misceUaneons pieces; ilmong which are, '* Acts 
of the Conference held at Fontainbleau against Du Plessis 
Mornay ;^ moral and religious pierces in prose and verse, 
orations, dissertations, translations, and letters. 

There was a fourth volume of his embassies and negoti- 
ations, collected by Ciesar de Ligni, his secretary, and 
printed at Paris in 1629 and* 1633, folio: but these are 
Supposed not to have done him much honour,, and Wic« 
^i^uelbrt thinks him as a diplomatic charactef inferior to 
d'Ossat in every respect There were also published 
afterwards, under his name, *' Perroniana,'' which, like 
most of the ontf, is a colleetion of puerilities and imperti- 
^nenccs. ' 

- PERROT (Nicolas)^ sieur d^ABLANCOURT, a scholar of 
considerable parts, and once admired for his translations 
^tom aociefit authors, was born at Chalons, April 5, 1606. 
He sprung from a family which had been illustrious in the 
law, and the greatest care was bestowed on his education, 
liis father, Paul Perrot de la Sailer, who was a protestant, 
iLud also a man learning, sent him to pursue his studies in 
the college of fiedan ; where he made so rapid a progress^ 
that, at thirteen, he had gone through the classics. He 
was then taken honiie, and placed for some time under a 
private tutor, after which be was sent to Paris, wb^re he 
studied the law Sve or six moriths, and was, when only in 
bis* eighteenth y^ntr, admitted advocate of parliament ; bilt 
did not adhefcf long to the bar. Another change he made 
about this time of great- importance, was that of his reli« 
gioiil/ for popery, of winch he eoibraced the tenets at the 
persuasion of his uncle Cvprian Perrot, who, in hopes of 
procuring him some valuable benefices, took great pains to 
jrecommenfd the church as a profession, but in vain. Nor 
did he succeed better in' retaining him as a convert, for b# 
bad scarcely distinguished himself in the republic of leuersj 
by writin-g a preface to the ** Hono^te F^mme/' for bis 
friend, father Du Bosc, than he felt a desire to return to 
the religion he had qukted. He^as now, however, in bis 
twenty ••seventh year, and bad sense enough ; to guard 

t Dup(i|.-^Bullart's Academie des Sciencet.— Vie de Du PerroB| by Buris^ny. 
Jliog. Uni?, inDiiperron.-— Pcnrault'sLet HomoBCtlHiiitw. 

A A 2 



356 P E R R O T. 

agamat'pi^otpita^tion in a^matter of bo much conseqiienoe. 
He:6tuclied» therefofe, the diffenenoes heVmita the RomUlif 
and reformed oburoby and after three years 'iiurestigotion^ 
daring i^htch .be did ^not disclose bis intention to. any otwe; 
be set oot from Paris to Champagne, where be abjured 
popeiy ; and very soon af;^r went lo Holland, till the oia<« 
mour which followed ibis step waa over. He was .near « 
year in Leyden, where ^he learned Hebrew, and contracted 
a friendship with Salmasius. firom Holland be went to 
England-; then ; returned to Paris; and, after passing some 
wedES witb.M* Patru, took an apartment meartbeXuxem-' 
bourg* He passed bis days very agreeably ; and tfaongb 
be devoted the .greatest part of his leism'e to books, mixed 
occasionally in socie^, and was the respected assodate of 
all the* learned in Paris. In 1637 he was admitted a mem* 
ber of the French academy, but was soon after forced to 
leave Paris, on account of the wiaurs ; and therefore retired 
to his estate, called Ablancourt, where he lived till his 
death. He died Nov. 17, 1664, of the gravel, with whick 
be bad been afflicted the greater part of his life. 

He was a man of great acuteness, imagination^ judg<^ 
Qient, and learning, and thought equal to the prodttctioa 
of any work ; yet we have no original pieces of his, ez-^ 
ceptiqg the '^Preface*' above mentioned,^* A Discourse 
upon the Immortality of the Sonl,'' and a (ew letters to 
Patru. But be made French translations of many ancient 
writers, which were once admired for their elegance, purity^ 
and chasteness of style. Among these ar« Tacitus, Lu* 
cian, CflBsar, Thucydides, and Arrian ; but he took too 
great liberties with the sense- of his author, for the sake of 
imitating his liianner, and producing something like aa 
original. He is said to have succeeded best wfailebe^ppo^ 
JBted by the advice ^f Patru, Contart,'and>Chapelain ; «nd: 
it is certain that those translations written in. his latter days, 
when be had not' that advantage, are inferior to the otliera» 
When be was 4islced, why be chose to be a tnmslatoi^ 
rather than an author, be answered, tlmt '< hewas nritfaer 
a divine nor lawyer, and t^on^quently not qualified to 
compDie pleadings or sermons; that the world was fflled 
with trii^ses on politics; that all discourses on morality 
were only ^so many repetitions of Plutarch and* Seneca; 
and that, to serve one*8 country, a man ought rather to 
translate valuable authors, than to write new books, which 
seldom contain any thing new/' The minister Colbert^ 



P E R B O T. S&t 

jttdgbj^ hin vary capable of writing the *^ Hktoiy Of Lotiit 
XI V/* recomaiended htm to that monarcb ; who however^ 
i^KNi being informed that Perrot waa a protestant, said, 
that ^< be would not have an historian of a religion difierent 
from his own." Perrot was a man of great talents in con^ 
▼ersation^ aad said so many good things that Feltsson. i!e<» 
gretted these was not some one present to write down ail 
bespoke.' 

PILKHY (John), captain, a celebrated engineer, the sev 
cond son of SaoMiel Perry, of Rodborpugh in Gloucester- 
shire, gent, and Sarah bis wile, daughter of sir Thomas 
Nott, knt. was, in or before 169^3, lieutenant of the Moft^* 
tague; which about that year coming into Portsmouth 
dock to be refitted, be exerted his skill in the impvow* 
ment of an engine for throwing out a large quantity of 
water from deep sluices in a short space of time. In 1695^ 
be publislied ^* A Regulation Hot 8eamen ; wherein a me* 
Ibod is humbly proposed, whereby their Majesties fleet 
may at all times be speedily and effectually manned, and 
the Merchants be more readily and cheaper served^ without 
baring their men at any time pressed or taken away ; set*» 
ting forth the gieat advantages that will accrue thereby 
to the king, merchant^ and subject in general, whereby 
these islands will be asore secure and happy, the king's 
revenue considerably be eftsed, trade in general be quick<« 
ened and encouraged^ and every individual subject receive 
benefit thereby, in lessening the price of all naval com^ 
modities ; wherein is also proposed, a method or nursery 
for training up of Seamen to supply the loss and decay of 
them ia time of War: as also, the giving hereby equal 
Kberty and advantage to all seamen, removing many hard« 
abtps that they now suffer under, and giving them many 
et^courageroents that they do not now enjoy.. By John 
Perry, late Captain of the Signet Fire-ship, now a prisoner 
in the Marsbalsea, according to sentence of a late Court** 
Martial. To which is added, a short Narrative, of his 
Case relating to his loss of the said ship in company 6f 
the Diamond Frigate, in September 1693,'^ 4to. By thia 
pamphlet it appears that he bad been sentenced to a fine et 
1000/. and to ten years' imprisonment. In 1698, when tbe^ 
Czar Peter was in this country, being desirous of eogagict|^ 
some eminent astbts, Mr. Perry was introdooed to his 

1 Mvnri^D'KU Hist-^^Life by Pstnu 



35S PERRY. 

tiotice>by idle CDar^uiB of Carmarthen, and by Mr. Dfinimef^ 
surveyor of the Navy, as a person capable of serving hiiiK 
on several occasions, relating to bis new design of ^sta^ 
biishing a fleet, making his rivers navigable, &c.; and be 
was taken jnto the service of the Czar as comptroller of the 
marine works, at a salary of 300/. per annum, with travel* 
ling charges, and subsistence-money, on whatever service 
he should be employed ; besides a JFurther reward to ht^ 
satisfaction, at the conclusion of any work he ishould finish; 
After some conversation with the Czar himself, particularly 
respecting a communication between the rivers Volga and 
Don, he was employed on this work three successive suni- 
mers ; but not being properly supplied with men, partly 
on account of the ill-success of the Czar against the Swedes 
at the battle of Narva, and partly by the discouragement 
of the governor of Astracan, he was ordered at the end of 
1707 to stop, and next year employed in refitting the ships 
at Veronise, and in 1709 in making the river of that nami( 
navigable. After repeated disappointments, and fniitlessr 
applications for his salary, he at last quitted the kingdom,^ 
under the protection of Mr. Whitworth, the English ataa* 
bassador, in 1712. ^ 

^ After his return he published *^ The State of Russia^ 
under the present Czar ; in relation to the several great 
and remarkable things he has done, as to bis naval prepa- 
rations, the regulating his army, the reforming his people, 
and improvement of his country ; particularly those works 
on which the author was employed ; with the reasons of 
his quitting the Czar's service, after having been fourteen 
years in that country. Also, an Account of those Tartars, 
and other people, who border on the Eastern and extreme 
Northern parts of the Czar's dominions; their religion 
and manner of life. With many . other observations. To 
which is annexed a more accurate Map of the Czar's do'^ 
minions than has hitherto .been extant," 1716, 8vo. 

In. 1721 he was employed in stopping the breach at 
Dagenham, made in the bank of the river Thames, near 
the village of that name in Essex, and about three miles' 
below Woolwich, in which he happily succeeded, after 
several other persons had failed in that undertaking. He 
was also employed, the same year, about thp harbour at 
Dublin, and pubKshed at that time a^ answer to. the ob« 
jections raised against it. A publication by Capt. Perry 
on these subjects is thus entitled, *^ An Account of thq 



PERRY. 35a 

Stoppiog of Dagenbam Breach ; with the accidenU that 
have attended the aame from the first undertaking: con- 
taining also proper Rules for performing any the like 
work^ and Proposals for rendering the ports of Dover and 
Dublin (lyhich the author has been employed to survey) 
commodious for entertaining large ships. To which is pre- 
fixed a plan of the levels which were overflowed by the 
breach/' 1721, 8vo. Upon this project 1600Z. had been 
spent by the author of ^* An impartial Account of the 
frauds and abuses at Dagenbam Breach, and of the hard^ 
ships- sustained by Mr. William Boswell, late undertaker 
of the works there : in a Letter to a Member of Parlia- 
ment/* London, 1717, 8vo. 

Capt Perry was elected a Member of the Gentlemen's 
Society at Spalding, April 16, 1730, to which Society was 
^communicated his original Map or Chart of the Sea Coasts* 
lie died Feb. 1 1, 1733, and was buried in Spalding church, 
where an inscription on a slab erected by his kinsman and 
heir William Perry, of Penshurst in Kent, preserves his 

PEESIUS (AuLUS Flaccus), one of the three gre^t Ro- 
man satirists, was born at Volterra, in Tuscany, in the 22d 
year of Tiberius's reign, or A. D. 34. At the age of 12 he 
wa3 removed to Rome, where he pursued his studies under 
Palaemon the grammarian, and Virginius Flaccus the rhe- 
torician. He afterwards, at sixteen, applied himself to 
philosophy under Cornutus, a Stoic, who entertained so 
great a love for him, that there was ever after a most inti- 
mate friendship between them. Persius has immortalized 
that friendship in bis fifth satire, and his gratitude for the 
good oiBces of his friend. This he shewed still farther by 
his will, in which he left him his library, and a great deal 
of money; but Cornutus, like a true philosopher, who 
jknew how to practise what he taught, accepted only the 
books, and gave the money to the heirs of the testator. We 
bave nothing deserving the name of a life of Persius, but 
bis character appears to have been e3u;ellent. He bad, a 
strong sense of virtue, and lived in an age when such a 
sens^ would naturally produce a great abhorrence of the 
reigning vices. His moral and religious sentiments we^o 
form^ on the best systems which the philosophy of his age 
afforded ; and so valuable is bis matter, that Mr. Harris, of 

. ^ Nicliolf!sBowyer«— HttttonV Dictionary. —*PKfac« to hit StattftfRustin. 



Mb P tut S I tJ '6. 

I 

•S^iisbtii'jr, jMtl^ isafici, <<U6 ^a^sf t(h<5 ofiTjr difflclillf Lftth^ 
IKAthor tbai Wo^M re^atd ^bei'edddt fot £b^ ^)sM4 i^lifich te 
must ealce to unfd^mdnd Mmf.'^ 

f6tM^ is iaid to iMLv^ been of a* ifeak cdti^titti(i6ir, aiifd 
ttofubfled with indigestio'nf, of isbitU be dfied fh his 3oVh 
^e^r Of Irid ^tires, sri± ai^e extatit, and kave j^^^ocur^d 
lAm tb be n^nti^d Whh tibyacef ahd JtiVeififal aii tUe third 
gf eat Latin satifriW. With rtfgird to M^ ob;9curity^ crilifcli 
have Varred in their opinlo'n^ of th^ dattse of ii: 86ttie attri- 
bute It sts sLii origin^ defect ih his st^le; #Uil6 Mh6V^ ai- 
iett, ihsit wh^t we caitl! obscurities and difEfecihr^s'^n^^ 
ftbm ^lltaibtis to pertohsl, events, and practTcel, with ^hich 
we are now unacquainted. Th^^^ are, undd^bt^dly, ^uf^ft 
Mttisions in aff tbdr Romati p/o^i ; but Perkins taitiitn be 
idtbgetfaer acquitted of h^r^bn^^^ tod obscttfrt^ of stjr!^; 
it/deperident of sdch. Hd h^ thore of itid fotckl knd Std^ 
df Jchrenal, tban of the pohteness bf Hoi^acf^; but a^ a 
ttOi'dl v^riter h^ excels both. 

• Tbd best ediiioTfi* of this poet are that bf tondori, 1 64t, 
8vo, with Casaubon's "Commentary;" and that of Wdd- 
d^bjlrn, Ainst. 1664, l^mb; biit be is generallir printed 
kfdhg Urith Juveri^l ; dnd ba^ b&d th^ i^atbe editoN. Wi 
Itave several Engiish mefarifc^l Crdiisiiiiioni : the first bj" Drjr^ 
A^ii ; the setoiid^ and a ietf thiiiabte one^ by a Vt BrfeW- 
ster, in ll51, Bvb; zM, nidi-b ieceniily, tih degftrtft ntA 
s|)iritfed ^erjiidn by Mr. Drufnitiond.' 

t>ERUGlNO (PiETtto), d' c^lebmect milktt piaiht^f, th4 
master of Raphael, v(^ad Borh: Ih 1446, dt l^^i^ugia, ^b€ric<i 
he took the ndcrr^ thslt h^s totally obliterated bis fattiiily dp* 
pellatioU, wbicH iir^sr Vanacct. Etis pdr&titi; ^re pdcN-^ 
but^ being desirbbs to pdt hlbi in h way 6f snppoi^titlg bibt-^ 
Mfy plaeed hini with d pointer, undler Whoxh b6 imblbiiti 
at Ibast ft strong entbu^iatsnt for his dri, dnd diesire to exc^l 
in it. His applibation to study was ititcibsd; dnd iVhen hi^ 
bdii mad^ a suffibierit prb^res^^; hb ^tnt to Flbt^bbe, dhii 
becaiiie a disciple of Andrea Veroccbio. FironI this paihtet 
He kcoiiired a graceful tndde bf d^idgtiing hi^dds, pdrtidu- 
Hirly those of bi^ female figui'e$. He i*bse by degrees td 
{^Obsidei-able ^blihence> and wds bniplbyed b^ Si^ttu^ IV, 
tb liairit seterdl pieces for his cha[)i^l at Rpihe. Gr^at ad 
]EiU t£ilbiltk «^ei^e, h€l wd^ iinfot>tbnatei^ infected ^itb tbS 
^bfii df cbvi^toush^kss It ^ds f rbm tlli^ cduS^ thit, ^Hbn jti^ 

1 Voftibi de Poet. Ltt-*^olius'8 lim of Uis iUnria Poeti#-i^-45txil OttMbdit. 
•^-Druoimond's Preface* 



PERUGI.Nt). sei 

» 

iretuTnef} lb Florenifee,f lie qiAivr^Uod with Miehacl Afi^do, 
and befaaTed lo ill, ihat the Florentine^ htva% ehraged 
against him, dtfove hia# from their city: on whickhere* 
turned to- hi^ native Pefiigia* The stime foible proved aooif* 
dentally the caiise of his death; for^ h«?ing aeoumulated 
aome money, which he ^as v^ry anxious not to \o%e^ be 
always carried it about hirii. H^ continued thitf praeti^e 
till some thief robbed him of bis treasure ) and, tbe %ti€i 
foT\nk toss being, too severe fdr bis streogtby be di^ ifi 
1524, at the age of 78. 

His touch was light, a6d biii pifcttires highly finished ; 
but hia mfanne^ was stiff «ad dry^ and bift ohtiirte ^asl fre- 
qneniiy inobri^eel. His nktstoapitail paliifting is in tbe ehwrt^h 
0f St. Peter at Pefagia. It is dn altar- piece,, tie- subject 
of which is tb^ Asoension of CUfist The disdpl<ds artf fbei^ 

' represented in various aimddes, but aii directing Hheir' ey^b 
to heaven, and looking «fte# the L<nrd^ whv is suppose U> 
have as<:ended. ' 

PERUZZI (BAiiDilssaR/B)^ a paiiiter of history atfd arc'br- 
teeture^ vTas born in l#81^ at Aceiljaao^ in the dioc€^e tif 

. Voherrd, but In tbe territory and a OitiM» of l$ieiia< H fe 
coaimenced bis stadia^ as a paiiiterlit Siena ; and wheni hfe- 
bad gained a cofaipeteet d^ree of knowledgey he cdpi^d 
tbe works of tbti best mfitsters^ With a diligt^ilice arid succ^isa 
that were equally extraordinary. From Sienli he i^eii!it t<^ 
Rome, where be was employed by the pcipe Aleiiander Vl^ 

^ Julias II. and Leb Xw in their palates^ aild in seversll cba^ 
pels and contents. He was particularly sueee^fol in paints- 
ing architecture ; and so tompletely undeffetood the pfih^ 
ctples of ohiaro-dscnro, and of p^^rspeetive^ that eveA 
Titian iii ^&id to have fteeli tbe eflSsdta with surpriae^ beifig^ 
Mrdiy able to believe that what be saw wan the work of the 
pencil, and not real architecturei His usual snbjedts were 
itreets,^ palaces, corridors^ porticoes, ilnd the insides 6f 
magnificefit apartments^ which Jte represented with a truth 
tbat produced an absolute deception^. He received some 
instructions frbm Braitiante^ the architect of 8t< Peter's^ 

* " His frescoes, " says Mr. Fusel i, ever, was arcbiiectur^ : Ijomaszo calll 

*'* approach the style of itapliael : such him ^ Arch iter to Universale;' and as 

H fbe * Jvia^farteilt of PaHs;* iil tH« dil^ ftiwih hi stit>eHbi(ind^<), fhf- sr>the tXthii^ 

U« pf ^elcard ; and the eelhhraie^ , %hk fabrick of $tw Peter, mri«i»ard)Bll 

Sibyl, at Foute Giusta, of.^iena, whose and pitifully paid. With regard' to bis 

^ aivise eQtbu6ia^th hk% fa^Vef- b)i«h (^«- dfigii), t^ ' lett<^Nf Setti;)!,* (oin. XiV. 

eelled. His great prerofative, bow- page 178." 



Z62 P E R U 2 Z I. 

and was himself employed by Leo X. in fonnihg designs and 
models for that building. He was. anfortunately in Rome 
.when it was sacked by the army, of Charles V/in 1527; and 
was made a prisoner, but obtained his liberty by painting a 
portrait of the coiistable de Bourbon. Peruzzi died in 
l5o6f very poor, though he had been always in great em« 
ploy men t. They who were indebted to him were not always 
very ready to pay, and he was too modest to demand his 
right, by \\hicfa means he lost a great part of what he had 
fairly earned. * 

PESARO. See CANTARINI. 

PE8SKLIER (Charles biEPHEN), member of the aca- 
demies of Nancy, of Amiens, of Houen, and Angers, was 
born at Paris on the 9th of July, 1712, of a reputable 
family. In his early youth his progress in his studies was 
rapid. His assiduous application, his lively genius, and 
jytild demeanour, conciliated the esteem of his master/ and 
gained the friendship of his juvenile companions. His taste 
for poetry was apparent at a very early period ; but the de- 
signs of his parents for the advancement of bis fortune would 
pot permit him to resign himself entirely to bis favourite 
-pursuits, and he sacrificed in some degree his propensity to 
their wishes. He was placed under M. Rolland, an advo- 
cate, and constantly attended to the regular discharge of 
business. His leisure hours were devoted to the Muse; 
and he gave up that time to poetry, which by many, at his 
age, is sacrificed to pleasure. In 1738 his^^ Ecole du 
Temps,'' a comedy in verse, was represented with ap- 
plause on the Italian theatre. Encouraged by this success, 
and with the approbation of M. Rolland, he produced, in 
the following yeajr, at the French theatre, his '* Esope au 
Parnasse," a comedy in verse. The reputatibn of the young 
poet, and his character for probity, recommended him to 
M. Lallemand of Bety, a farmer-general, who was at that 
time forming a system of finance, and who felicitated him- 
self in procuring such an assistant, and in attaching him to 
bis interest. The occupations incident to this new depart- 
ment were^ probably the causes which prevented Pesselier 
from producing any other pieces for the stage. Poetry 
was, however, still the amusement of the time that could 
be spared from business. In 1 748, he published his fables, 
and ^mong his dramatic works appears a comedy, *^I^ 

t Pilluostooj br Faseli. 



P E S S E L I E R. 361 

Mascarade du.Parnasse/' inverse, and io one act, which 
was never perforaaed. 

His attachment to poetry could not prevent him from 
dedicating some of the moments that could be spared from 
the labours of finance to the elucidation of that science- 
Accordingly, be published the prospectus of a work upon 
that subj«ct» This publication, exhibiting in one view a 
perfect knowledge and extensive prospects for the im- 
provement of that necessary resource, attracted the atten- 
tion of the ministry, who established an office for promoting 
the plan, and placed the author at the head of it, with 
appointments proportioned to his talents and the import-p 
mce of his labours. The views of Pesselier now extended, 
further than the, operations of finance. He undertook a 
treatise on the customary laws of the kingdom, of which, 
however, only the preliminary discourse appeared. Soon 
aifterwards. he published his *^ Letters on Education,'' iu:. 
two volumes 12mo. 

Incessant application and a delicate constitution, with 
an extreme vivacity of spirits, probably shortened his life, 
His health began to decline ; but he ceased not from his 
diligence. His attention to the business of his office was 
almost without remission; till, overcome by fatigue, he 
fjBll s^k in November 1762, languished under his disorder 
for six months, and died the 24th of April, 1 763. ^ 

PETAU (Denis), perhaps better known by his classical 
appellation of Dionysius Petavius, was born at Orleans 
Aug. 21, 1583. His father, Jeromb Petau, although a 
merchant, was a man of considerable literature, and rather. 
more attentive to matters of taste than of commerce : the 
consequence of which was, that he left very little property 
to^his children, six sons and two daughters. He gave them 
8|ll, however^ a learned education ; the daughters as well 
as the sons being taught Latin and Greek, and able to write 
verses in both languages. But we find, that with all his 
learning, Jerome was a superstitious bigot to his religion; 
which" his biographer, father Oudin, as warm a zealot as 
himself, says was at one time in danger of being shaken by 
s^me of his Protestant friends, who were very numerous in 
QjrleanSk Nay, he was, according to Oudin, about to re* 
nounce Popery altogether, and retire with his family, when 
ai|i extraordinary apcident prevented his design. A part 
of his house fell down, and so frightened him, that, while 
hp lay buried under the ruins, be made a vow, that if ever 

1 Diet Hitt. in tbe last edition of irbich be is Mlled Joseph* 



U4 F E T A U. 

he^^itkpeAf h«f would break oiF alt acquaintance ivilb die 
Protestants ; and being dug out alive and uiiburc, he kept 
Mtt tofw, a^d endeavou>r^ to gWe faw ehiUren thesaine 
dislike to the Proie«tsint faitb as be haflk forineriy dtvemined 
to give thtm to tht RomafiOatliolic. 

' As be pereeif ed hi bis second sob, De«»is, a more tban 
erdintfry capacity, aa well as eagetnesa for knowtedga, bi^ 
paid panrtiicula/ attention to tbe fidmivtioDf of bta taate amd 
the ditection of hia studies; avid olien told bioftv <h«t be 
flbould lay up sQcb a fuiK^ of kaewledge, as to be able td 
cope witb << tbe giant of tbe AHopbylse,*' b$ be called Sea^ 
liger, whose learning and works were of socb iflaportaiioif 
to the Protestants. Thi9 advice was not thrown a;way oW 
Denid, who studied^ with the greatest diiigetice, both itf 
Orleanfs and Paris $ an-d when be caiM to* take bis degred 
cf master of arts, supfKyrted a thesis in Gre^k; a langu8g<^ 
Which he knew as intimately as Latin, and both iliore 86 
than he knew French. For two years be beard tbe lecturetT 
t)f tbe most eminent doctors of tbe Sorbonne, \i» his traiie ; 
and was ^o assiduous, that he never left bis study, uuies# 
Ibr the king's library, where be wa4 permitted to coitsiiiti: 
tbe vftUmble Greek and Latinf mauiiscripts. Ab<ya€ tfaisr 
tiiYie he hecam6 acouainred wifth the learned Isaae Casau-^ 
bon, whom Henty lY. bad tavited to l^atis m 1600, and 
their friendship continued until Oa'^aoboti^'s departure fm^ 
England, and, what hurt P'etau ttiost^ bi^ departure from 
Popery, afier which he treated him wrth as much aspeifity^ 
as any other of bis opponents. In the mean time, it was ii^ 
Consequence of Casaubon^s advice, that, young as be wAs,* 
he undertook to pi'^pare for the press aA edition of the 
whole works of Synesius; thiit is, to eoMat^ mitnuscript 
copies, to translate whitt was in Gre^k, and to add e3t|Ma«^ 
liatory notes, fie had no sooner undertaken this work, 
than he was promoted to the professorship of philosopby 'm* 
the university of Bourges, when only in bis nineteeni^ti year/ 
The course which this office enjoined him to teaeb lasted 
two years, during which be also rted the ancient pbilbsCN 
phers and mathematicians. 

In the second year of hh being at Bourges, Frederick 
Morel, Greek professer at Paris, brought out a comfiletc/ 
edition of the works of Dio Chrysostom, and itraerted tf 
discourse 6f Synesius, translated by Petau, whe waa nof 
sorry to have this opportunity of sounding tbe taste of the 
j^ublic dn the merits of his tranalatidn. In the title ar'e the 



P E T A IL &65 

ffpr^B : InUrpreU Dianymo Bato^ iJne nanie he assuaged 
tom^ time before thik Hitherto bi$ intieniion bad been to 
enter the church ; AQd he was already subdeacon, and had 
baen {preferred to^aci^aonry in the cathedral of Orleans. 
He had never yet $een the Jesuits ; hut having become 
adquaittted with tbe natutfe of/their order, when at Bourges, 
partly froin inolination, .and partly from the pePBuasions of 
the learned Fionto DucflBUs, he entered as a noviciate 
among them at Nancy, in June 1^5, After two years of 
pgobalion, be studied for two years longer .at the college of 
Pont^a-Monssoni'tben very flourbdung. Thence be was sent 
to Biieimii, where, for <thcee years,* he taught rhetoric* 
In 16 ID, he did the hoaOuKSiof the college at. the consecra- 
tion of Louis XIIL 

Notwithstanding these employments, .andthe p?oducttoa 
of some occasionaT pieces in prose and verse, which they 
required, he was enabled to publish his edition of Syne* 
sius in 161J2 ; but, as he .was absent fromtthe press, it suf* 
fered much by the carelessness and ignorance of the prints 
frs; and even the. second edition, of L631, retains a great 
many of the ecrors of the first It gave the learned, how- 
ei^er, an opportunity of knowing what was to be expected 
f«om the talents, diligence, and learning, of father Petau ; 
and they entertained .hopes which were not .disappointed. 
I>ariqg the years 1613, .16,14, and 1615, he taught rhetoric 
in the cpllege.of JLa:Fldche, inAnjou; and, in the (irst of 
these years, he .published some works of the emperor Ju* 
lian, which had thitherto remained in MS. «and announced 
his intention of publishing an edition of Themistius, the 
Greek orator and sophist. In 1614, when the college of 
La Fi^che .was .visited by Louis XIH. with the queen mo- 
ther and the whole court, he contributed many of the 
complimentary tvecses on the occasion ; which, as we shall 
notice, were afterwards published. In |he mean time, he 
undertook an edition of Nicephorus's historical abridg- 
ment, wbidi bad never been printed either in Greek or 
Latin. In. this he -was assisted .with the copy of « valuable 
manuscript, which father Sirmond sent'to him from Rome. 
In. 1617, tl^ Biblical professor of La Flfiche being removed 
to another charge, Petau supplied his place, until cdlled to 
Paris. by order of iiis superiors, ^to be professor of rhetoric: 
It;was>aliaut.this time that he was attacked by that violent 
fever, which he has so well described in his poem entitled 
'':Soteria;*'.a.circnmstance scarcely worth mentioning, if 



/ 



8186 P E t A d. 

it had not been connected wiih an instance of superstuiolU/ 
which AiewB that his father's prejudices had acquired p'Os- 
session of his mind. During this fever, and when in^appa* 
rent danger, his biographer tells us, be made a vbw to St. 
Genevieve, and the fever left him. The object of his vow 
was a tribute of poetical thanks to his patroness and d^ti- 
verer. In order to perform this as it ought to be performed^ 
.be waited until his mind had recovered its tone ; but he 
waited too long, and the fever seized him again, as a re- 
membrance of his neglect. Again, however, St. Gene^ 
vieve restored him; and, that ae might not hazard her 
displeasure any more, he published his ^< Soteriay" in 16 1 9^, 
which the connoisseurs of that time thought his dkefd^critore 
in poetry ; and his biographer adds, that *^ it is in Virgit 
only we can find lines so completely Virgilian." 

The remainder of his life was spent in performing the 
several o6kes of his order, or iif those publications, a 
list of which mil prove the magnitude of his labour^, 
tie died at Paris, December 11, 1652, in the sixty* 
ninth year of his age. He seems, by the general'consent, 
not only of the learned men of his communion, but of 
many Protestants, to have been one of the greatest scho^- 

* lars the Jesuits can boast : and would have appeared in the 
eyes of posterity as deserving of the highest character, had 
not his turn for angry controversy disgra<ied his style, and 
shown, that with all his learning and acuteoess, he did not 
rise superior to the bigotry of his time. We have a striking 
instance of this, in his connection with Grotius. He had, 
at first, such a good opinion of that illustrious writer, as to 
think him a Roman Catholic in heart ; and on his death, 
said a mass for his soul; but some time after, writing to 
cardinal Barberini, he uses these remarkable words: *^ I 
had some connection with Hugo Grotius, and IttishI could 
say he is now happy /" 

The catalogue of the works of Petau aflbrds an uncom* 

^mon proof of diligence; for we are assured, that besfdes 
the labour of composing, compiling, &c. he transcribed 
every thing with his own hand for the press, and employed 
no amanuensis or reader to assist him. Among his works 
are: I. ^^Synesii Dio, vel de ipsius vits instituco,'* men* 
iioned already as published in MorePs edition of St. Chry* 
sostom. 2; *^ Panegyricus Ludovico XIII. Francias et Na^* 
varrsB regi, &c; in natalemi diem," &c. 1610, 12mol 
^, <^ De laudibus Henrici magni carmen/' &c; 1610, 410*. 



y 



P E T A U. »«* 

4«'*Oratio de laudibus Henrtci magni,** Rheintsi^ }€H^ 
4to. 5. <^Sjrfiesii Opera/' Paris, 1612— 1633, 3 vols, fo- 
lio. 6. /< Juliani imperatoris orationes tres panegyricae/* 
FlexiflB (La FiSche), 1613, 8vo. 7. ^^Themistii Orationes 
aeptemdecim. Gr. Lat'' ibid. 1613, 8vo. 8. <' Tragjoedia^ 
Qarthaginieusets'* ibid. 1614, 8to, a tragedy in the manner 
of Seneca, which it was then the fashion to imitate.. 
0. *' Pompa regia Ludovici XIII." &c. a collection of the 
complimentary verses on the royal visit to La FlSchCj men* 
tioned before, 1614, 4ta 10. ^^ Nicephori Breviarium 
Historicum,'' Gr. et Lat." Paris, 1616, 8vo. 11. "The- 
mistii, cognomento Suad®, orationes novemdecim, Gr. et- 
Lat.'' ibid. 1618, 4to. 12. *< Soteria ad S. Genovefam/' 
ibid. 1619, 4to, his votive poem to St. Genevieve. 13. Ano- 
ther, in praise of the same saint, *^ Panegyricus in S. Ge* 
neveftim,'' ibid. 1619, 4to. 14. " D. Petavii Orationes,'* 
ibid. 1620, 1622, 1624, 8vo, 15. << D. P^tayii O^emPoe-* 
tica," ibid. jL621, 8vo, reprinted at l^t three times. 16. 
^^ Office de S. Genevieve," ibid. 1621, 16mo. 17. Epiphanil 
Opera o^mia," ibid. 1622, 2 vols, folio, reprinted at Co« 
logn 1682. In April following the publication of this work, 
Salmasius took ocicasion to attack Petau, in his edition of 
the ^^ Pallio" of Tertallian, and certainly not in very re- 
spectful language. Petau's biographer says he ought to 
have taken no notice of such an atltack, . 9s in that case his 
silence would have completely disconcerted Salmasius, a 
man who could not exist without a quarrel with some con- 
temporary ; or, at all events, Petau should have been con- 
tent with a short answer to such an opponent. Perhaps 
Petau might have been of this opinion, if he bad not con- 
sidered that Salmiisius was a Protestant, and regarded by 
Protestants as the man who would one day supply the loss 
^f Joseph Scaliger ; and he was not therefore sorry to have 
this opportunity, not only to defend himself against Sal** 
masius, but to attack him in his turn. He published, a<:<* 
cordingly, I84 << AnimadversioUum Uber,'' under the ficti** 
tiotts name of Antonius Kerkoetiqs Aremoricus, and the 
fictitious place of >* Rhedonis apud Yvonem Halecium," 
i. e. *^ Parisiis, apud Sebast Cramoisy," 1622, 8vo. This 
brought on an angry controversy, in which Salmasius cer- 
tainly had some advantages, from his superior knowledge 
of the manner of handling the weapons of controversy ; 
and perhaps we may be permitted to say, from his having 
the better cause to support* Petau^s pamphlets, oa .w$ 



$«« !» 5 T.A tr: 

cpsi^o^ were eotieled ^ MastigMipbcv'^^'' «|id i^cmifMul <tf 
three, and a ^supplemen^ publi^lved 4a l.@$# imd ^634. 
-^But .ij^e iifistea lo bis more impontooA .^facpBologiQal 
woriu, wbioby of ali others, fMresevrvve .^U i^fspnAily M^ .Qiic 
times : Id. ^* Opus de docirina Tempofiuoii^' Pmh I ^^If 
2 ^ois. folio, jrepriuted, wuh additions &otn )ii^ awa pop^^, 
AmibL 1708, folio. 20. ^^ (UranoLogion, :sive sy^ema .var 
noruREi author urn, qui de spbsra ac Mderl!>i>^> eQjruinquA 
motibiis Gtmot oooiiiientati tsuni/^ ibid* 163Q, fc^i^^'* ia^ 
teoded as a sapplement to vhis ^ Dpctriiia temporim T* lo 
which an xjtdditioiin^l volume was published, wi^b idi^serta^ 
dons fron the MSS. of Petau apd Sirmood, io X7P?, folio* 
21. ^^TabuiiB CbrooologicsB Regum, Dyn^tarpoa, JJrbium, 
&c. d mundo coadito, &c/.&c.^' ibid. l^2Ay qd large 
sheets, and ofteQ seprinted : 4he best edition is (that of . 
Vesel, il902. 22. <^ Rationarium TeinpQruai,'V ibid.. 1633, 
12ino.>ihe best liDown and most useful of ^11 bis ^orks, »nd 
long the standard book in all .sc^min^ries.andpriii^ate libra- 
vies, /or chronology and history. It was consequently 
often ^rej^nted^ inipvoved, and enlarged, notiMoly by the 
author, but >by various ptber .editonn. There.arie two edi-» 
tions, pointed at Ley den in 1724 and 1745, 2 a^ols. H$;o, 
wluch are said to ibe the .best;. Besides these, and many 
ocber work&of.ioferioriimportaBoe enumemted by his bio« 
grapher, ^Petan published a considerable number of theo^ 
logical pieces, which have sunk into oblivion, except per- 
haps bis ^ Theologica dogmata,'' Paris, 1644, 5 Fols. folio; . 
reprinted 'Dftore correctly at Antwerp, i70Q, 3 voU. fplio. 
Of this work, B^yle has observed, that Petavius did: the 
(Socinians ^eat service, t;bough unsArares, andagainat.his 
intentions ; and quotes the following passage from the 
*< Lettres Choisi^^' of Mr. Simon : *^ If there be any thing 
to censure in Petavius's works, it is chie^ in the .second 
tome of hi|3 *f Dogmata Tbeologica,.' .in. which he i|e)dms to 
favour the Arians. It is true, that he softened thqse pasr 
sages in bis preface ; but as the body of the work coptinuea 
entire, and the preface, whichis an. excellent piece, oarae 
afterwards, it has not eqtirely prevented the hfirni. which 
that book is like to do, at this time, when, the i^Wi Unitarians 
boast, that father Petavius declared fpr theiB.^' BayW 
tbiiiks he has resolved this, by infprming us. that Petaviusfs 
original design, in the second volume of : his* ^fDc^^mata 
Theologica," wsus, to r^resent ingenuously die doiftruie 
of the three -first centuries. Having no particular system 



P E^ A^j . 3#^ 

i(i defend, he' did not disguise the opinions of the fathers f 
but acknowledged that some of them entertained false andf 
absurd notions concerning the Trinity. All this, however^ 
either from fear, or upon better consideration, he re« 
tracted, and published a ^^ Preface,'* in which he laboured 
solely to assert the orthodoxy of the fathers. The ** Dog-^ 
mata Theologica of Petavius/' says Gibbon, '^ is a work of 
incredible labour and compass : the volumes which relate 
solely to the incarnation (two folios of 837 pages) are divi- 
ded into sixteen books i the first of history, the remainder of 
controversy and doctrine*" " The Jesuit's learning,'* adds 
oar infidel historian, *^ is copious and correct : his Latinity 
is pure, his method clear, bis argument profound and well 
connected : but he is the slave of the fathers, the scourge 
of heretics, and the enemy of truth and candour, as often 
as they are inimical to the Catholic cause.'^ 

PETER CHRYSOLOGUS (St.), an eminent prelate of 
the fifth century, and called Chrysologus from his elo- 
quence, was descended of a noble family, and bom at 
Imola, then called Forum Cornelii. After a suitable edu- 
cation, he was elected archbishop of Ravenna, about the 
year 433, and was mtich celebrated for his virtue and his 
eloquence. He died about the year 45 U Tbefe are l26 
sermons or homilies of his in the library of the fathers, in 
which he unites perspicuity with brevity ; their style iai 
concise and elegant, but not unmixed with quaintnesses* 
Father d'Acheri has published in his " Spicilegium," five 
other sermons written by him ; and in St. Peter's works, is 
bis answer to Eutyches, who had written to him in the year 
449, complaining of St Flavianus of Constantinople, ia 
which he defends the orthodox faith, and refers Eutyches 
tb the excellent letter sent by St. Leo to Flavianus, which 
teaches what is to be believed concerning the mystery of 
the incarnation. The best edition of St. Peter Chrysologus 
' is that printed at Augsburg, 1758, folio.' 

PETER DE Blois, or Petrus Blesensis, one of the 
most learned and celebrated writers of the twelfth century^ 
studied at Paris and Bologna, and was appointed preceptor 
find secretary to William IL king of Sicily, and afterwards 
was invited into England by Henry II. who made him arch« 

>Life by Oudho, in Nioeron, vol. XXXVII. '^ Batesii Vit» Setectonini 
VironiiD.— Dopio.^Burigny's Life of Grotios. — Gibboo's Hiatory. — Saiii 
OoomaslicoD. 

« Care, toI. I.-»Dapin«— Saxii Onomaat. 

Vox. XXIV, B B 



deacon of Bath, but permitted him to reside netir Ricbi^d^' 
archbishop of Canterbury, whose chancellor he was. Peter 
de Blois lost this archdeaconry towards tiie end of his life, 
and had that of London, where it is said he laboured much 
-for little profit. He died in 1200> in England. There are* 
some letters^ sermons^ and other works of bis, in the library ' 
^ of the fathers, in which he strongly condemns the abuses 
^nd disorders which then reigned in the church. He ia 
said to have been the first who used the word transubstan- 
tiation^ to express the doctrine of the Romish church on 
the subject of the eucharist. The best edition of this author 
is by Peter de Gussanville, 1667, folio.' 

PETER CoMBSTOR, or the Eater, a celebrated writer 
in the twetfth century^ was born at Troyes, of which city* 
he was canon and dean, afterwards chancellor of the church 
of Paris. These benefices he resigned to enter as a regu* 
lar canon of St. Victor at Paris, where he died in October 
1198, leaving a work entitled '^ Scholastica historia super: 
Nov. Test.'^ which contains an abridgment of the sacred 
history, from Genesis to the Acts, first printed at Utrecht 
in 1473, small folio, and reprinted at Vienna in the same- 
year^ and several times since. He dedicated this work to 
cardinal William de Champagne, archbishop of Sen^. He 
is the author likewise of *^ Sermons," published by Bus^e, 
under the name of Peter de Blois, 1600, 4to; and a *f Ca* 
lena temporum/' or universal history, is attributed to hiin» 
which was printed at Lubec, 1475, 2 vols, folio, and trans- 
lated in French under the title of ** Mer des Histoixes^^' 
JParis, 1488, 2 vols, folio.' 

PETER DE CLUGNY, or PETER the Venerable^. 
s native of Auvergne, descended from the family oC the 
counts Maurice, or de Montbois^ier, took the. monk^s habit 
at Clugny^ was made prior of Vezelay, afterwards abbot^ 
and general of hi& order in 1121, at the age of twenty- 
eight. He revived monastic discipline in the abbey of 
Clugny> apd received pope Innpcent II. there in 1130. 
He opposed the errors of Peter de Bruys and Heiiry» and* 
died in his abbey, December 24, 1156. We have six 
books of his letters, with several other works of very little, 
consequence, in the ^' Library of Clugny,^^ and some ho* 
milies in Martenne's ^' Thes. Anecd.'* That so ignorant 
and trifling a writer should have been honoured with the. 

 * 

1 Cave, YoL IL— -Pupift. . ' Cave, yoI. Il.*-Diip:n.— .Diet Hiit^ 



tttlte of Venerable, is a strong miirk of the low state of re^^ 
tfgious knowledge at that time. In these his works he takes* 
great pains to vindicate the manners and customs of hiff 
monastery, &ind appears to place the essence of Christianity 
in frivolous punctilios and insignificant ceremonies. It 
was be, however, who received the celebrated Abelard in 
his afflictions with great humanity^ and who consoled Eloisa 
after his death, by sending to her, at her request, the form 
of Abelard's absolution, which she inscribed on his se- 
pulchre.* 

PETER THE GliEAT, cxar of Russia, who civilized that 
nation, and raised it from ignorance and barbarism, to po-i* 
liteness, knowledge, and power, a man of p, wonderful com- 
position and character, was bom the 30th of May, 1672^ 
and was son of the czar Alexis Michaelowitz by a second 
wife. Alexis dying in 1672, Feodor, or Theodore, bis 
eldest son by his first wife, succeeded to the throne, and 
died in 1682. Upon his decease, Peter, though but ten' 
, years of age, was proclaimed czar, to the exclusion of John; 
his elder brother, who was of a weak body, and a weaken 
mind. The strelitzes, who were the established guard of 
the czars, as thejanisaries are of the grand seigniors, madei 
an insurrection in favour of John, at the instigation of thet 
princess Sophia, who, being own sister to John, hoped^ 
perhaps, to be sole regent, since John was incapable of 
acting ; or at least to enjoy a greater share of authority 
under John, than if the power was lodged solely in her 
half-brother Peter. The matter, however, was at lastcom-^ 
promised ; and it was agreed, that the two brothers should 
jointly share the imperial dignity. The Russian education 
was, at that time, like the country, barbarotis, so thelt Pe* 
ter had no advantages ; and the princess Sophia, who, with 
considerable talents, was a woman of great ambition and 
intrigue, took all imaginable pains to stifle bis natural de** 
sire of knowledge, to deprave and corrupt bis mind, and to 
debase and enervate him with pleasures. Yet his' abhor-' 
rence of pageantry, and love of military exercises, dtsco<^ 
tered itself in his tenderest yeats ; and, to gratify this in** 
clination, he formed a company of fifty men, commanded 
by foreign officers, and clothed and exercised after the' 
German manner. He entered himself among them in tb« 
lowest post, and performed the duties of it with the utmost 

* Cave, y^, II.«**]>apii».— Mitnn't Cbttreb Hiit0nr, 

p B 2 



373 1^ E T E R. 

diligence* tie ordered them entirely to forget that he Wa» 
c:Qar» and paid the utmost deference and submission to the 
<!ibaimanding officers. He lived upon his pay only, and 
lay in a tent in the rear of his company. He. was some 
time after raised to be a serjeant, but only as he was en<- 
^tled to it by his merit ; for he would have punished his 
^oldiersi bad they discovered the least partiality in his 
favour : and he never rose otherwise, than as a soldier of 
fortune. The strelitzes looked upon all this as the amuse- 
ment of a young prince : but the czar, who saw they were 
too formidable, and entirely in the interest of the princess 
Sophia, bad secretly a design of crushing them ; which hsi 
wisely thought could not be better effected, than by se-« 
curing to himself a body of troops, more strictly disci- 
plined, and on whose fidelity he could more fully rely. 

At the same time, he had another project in view, of 
vast importance, and most difficult execution. The sight 
of a small Dutch vessel, which he had met with on a lake, 
where it lay us^eless and neglected, made a wonderful im- 
pression on his mind, and he conceived thoughts of forming 
a navy; a design, which probably then seeo^ed next to 
impossible, even, to himself^. His first care was to get 
Hollanders to build some small vessels at Moscow, and 
afterwards four frigates, of four guns each, on the lake of 
Pereslave. He had already tauo^ht them to combat one 
another ; and in order to instruct himself in naval affairs, 
lie passed two summers successively on board English or 
Dutch ships, which set out from Archangel. In 1696, the 
czar John died, and Peter became sole master of the em- 
pire. He began his reign with the siege of Asoph, then ia 
the hands of the Turks, but did not take it till 1697. He 
had already sent for Venetians, to build gallies on the river 
I)on, which might shut up the mouth of that river, and 
prevent the Turks from relieving the place. This gave 
him a stronger idea than ever, of the importance and ne- 
cessity of a naval force ; yet he could have none but fo- 
reign ships, none at least but what he was obliged to em- 
ploy foreigners in building. He was desirous of surmount^ 
ing these disadvantages^ but the affairs he projected were 

< * See '* An Account of the Rise printed in the leeond volame of V.Tbt 

and Naval Poorer of Russia, or, the . Present State and Regulations of the 

•tory of the little Boat which gave Church of Ruifia.'* ByTho^Coniett 

rise to the Russian Fleet," said to be M. A. 
^vritten by the caar Pet«r himselfj and 



P E T E It S73 

ef too new and singular a nature to be so much as con- 
sidered in his council, nor were they proper to be coaimu« 
nicated. He resolved therefore singly to manage this 
bold undemaking; with which view, in 1698, he sent an 
embassy to Holland, and went himself incognito in the 
retinue. He entered himself in the India admiralty-office 
at Amsterdam, caused himself to be inrolled in the list of 
ship-carpenters ; and worked in the 3rard with greater assi- 
duity than any body there. His quality was known to all ; 
and he was pointed at with a sort of veneration. King^ 
William, who was then in Holland, paid him all the respect 
that was due to his uncommon qualities ; and the czar^s 
disguise freed him from that which was merely ceremonious 
and troublesome. The czar worked with such success, as 
in a little time to pass for a good carpenter ; and afterwards 
studied the proportions of a ship. He then wept into Eng- 
land ; where, in four months, he made himself a complete 
master in the art of ship-building, by studying the princi- 
ples of it mathematically, which he had no opportunity of 
learning in Holland. In England he met with a second ' 
reception from king William ; who, to make him a present 
agreeable to his taste, and which might serve as a model of 
the art he was so very desirous to learn, gave him a magni- 
ficent yacht. He carried with him from England several 
English ship-builders and artificers, among whom was one 
f^hose name was Noy ; but the czar took also upon him- 
self the title of a master-builder, and was pleased to sub- 
mit to the conditions of that character. Thus he and Noy 
received orders from the lord high admiral of Russia, to 
build each of them a man of war ; and, in compliance with 
that order, the czar gave the first proof of his art. tie 
never ceased to pursue it, but had always a ship Upon the 
stocks ; and, at his death, left one of the largest ships in 
Europe half-built. 

' During the czar^s absence, the princess Sophia^ being 
uneasy under her confinement, and meditating to regain 
that liberty which she had forfeited by former insurrections^ 
found means to correspond with the strelitzes, who were 
now quartered at a distance from Moscow, and to instigate 
them tb a third rebellion in her favour. The news of this 
obliged him to hasten home : and, arriving at Moscow 
about the end of 1699, he executed terrible vengeance 
iipon the ringleaders ; yet took no other satisfaction of his 
Blister the princessy than by continuing her confinement in 



574 P E T E B, 

the nunnery, and hanging up the priest, who had carried 
her lettiers, on a gallows before her window. In 1 700, be 
got together a hody of standing forces, consisting of thirty 
thousand foot; and now the vast project which he haq 
JFormed began to display itself in all parts. He first sent, 
the chief nobility of his empire into foreign countries, ta 
improve themselves in knowledge and learning : he opened 
his dominions, which till then had been shut up, and in* 
yited all strangers who were capable of instructing his sub* 
jects ; apd he gave the kindest recept^qn to all (and andi. 
sea Queers, sailors, mathematicians, architect, miners^ 
'porkers in metals, physicians, surgeons, and indeed open 
rators and artificers of every kind, who would settle iu hi^ 
^dominions. In the ipean time, h^ had to do with a dullj, 
heavy, untoward people ; so that it is no wqn^er, that pro« 
ceedipgs sp.new and strange should raise many discontenta 
fmd tumults, and it was sometimes almost i[mpossible with 

,» ^11 bis power, to suppress them* 

^ One very singular reason, on which these discootenta 

^were grounded, was, that the Russians considered gran* 
deur and superiority, the czar's greiit object, in no other 
light than as a power of doing evil. In 1700, being 
strengthened by an alliance with August^$ king of Poland, 
he made war upon Charles XII. of Sweden ; from cooti<* 
. nuing which, he w^s not deterred by the ill success of ht9 
first campaigns : for he ysed to say, ^* I know that my ar«r 
xnics n^ust ^e oyercomf fo^ a great while ; but even thia 
will at last te^ch them to conqu^^.^' Afterwards, howeverji 
he gained considerable advantages in t.iYQni^ apd Ing^ia^i 
provinces subject to the Swedes. His acquisition^ here 
were so important, that tbey induced him to build a for- 
tress, whose port, situated on the Baltic, might be large 
f^nough to receive a fleet; and iiccordingly, in 1703, bc^ 
laid the foundation of Petersburgh, now one of the strongeat 
pities in Europe, which wi^s to him what Alexandria was to 
Alexander. He waged war with the Swedes for several 
years, and, without ever gaining any considerable advan- 
tage, was frequently most miserably heat by them. But 
firmness of mind and perseverance were qualities pecu«* 
liarly eminent in him ; and therefore at length, ip 1 7Q9| ' 
he obtained a complete victory over them in his own domi- 
nions, at Pultowa. A great part of the Swedish army weve 
pade prisoners. The Swedish generals who were takeq 
'jpex^ constantly entertained at his own table ^ and one daji 



1* E T E It: 575 

ttrbeti he had drunk a health to his masters who had in- 
Uructed him in the art of war, count Rinschild, a chief 
officer among the prisoners, asked him, ^^ Who they were 
whom he honoured with so glorious a title ?" ^* Yourselves, 
gentlemen,'* said he. " Your majesty is very ungrateful 
then,** replied the count, *^ to have so beaten your masters.'' 
Upon which the czar, to niake them some reparatioti, for 
this ingratitude, immediately gave orders that their swords 
should be returned them ; and treated them with the 
greatest generosity and goodness. Nea^r 3000 Swedish 
officers, however, were dispersed up and down his domi- 
nions, and particularly in Siberia, a country of vast ex- 
lent, and running as far as China ; and, havihg little pro- 
fpeot of returning to Sweden, they soon formed a kind of 
colony, and began to apply themselves to the various pro- 
fessions with which they were acquainted. Thus they for- 
warded the czar's great purpose, in polishing an^ civilizing 
the ancient inhabitants of the country; and many arts, 
which^ although established at Moscow and Petersbiirgh, 
might not have reached Siberia a long tkne, were thus sud«' 
ilenly established there. 

) In the mean time, Petersburgh ha,d risen into a large 
and powerful city ; and the king of Sweden having been 
obliged to fly from Pultowa to Bender in the Turkish do- 
minions for refuge, the czar availed himself of his absence, 
,by making a complete conquest of Livonia and ingria ; to 
which he added Finland, and a part of Pomerania* The 
Turks having broken a truce they had concluded with him,; 
he was inclosed by their army in 1712, on the banks of 
the Pruth ; and that in so disadvantageous a situation, that 
he seemed to be inevitably lost. While the army wa& 
under great consternation, the czarina Catherihe projected 
an expedient for its deliverance. She sent to negociate 
with the grand vizir, and let him privately know, th^^t a 
great sum of money was at his service : he was ten»pted, 
add the czar's prudence completed the work. To per-^^ 
petuate the memory of this event, he caused the czarina 
to institute the order of St. Catherine, of which she was 
declared sovereign, and into which none but women were 
to be admitted. The king of Sweden having at last quitted 
the Turkish dominions, in 1713, the czar found this for- 
midable enemy advancing to oppose him : but he was now 
strengthened by an alliance with the king of Denmark. He- 
^ried the waur into the duchy of Holstein, which was vx 



.1 



376 PETER. 

alliance with the Swedes ; and, in 17 14| obtained over them 
a victory at sea, near the coasts of Finland, upon which he 
entered triumphantly with his fleet into the haven of Pe- 
tersburgh. 

All tliis while he continued his pursuits after all kinds of 
knowledge. He caused his engineers to draw the plan o( 
every city, and to take designs of all the different machines 
which he had not in hisiown cpuntry. He instructed him- 
self in husbandry, and in all sorts of trade, wherever he 
came. In 1716, he paid a visit^ with his consort, to the 
king of Denmark at Copenhagen, where he spent three 
inonths. He visited there. every school of the university, 
and all the men of letters : for, regardless of ceremony 
and pageantry, which he hated, it was indifferent to him, 
whether they waited on him, or he went to them. He 
coasted every day some part of the kingdoms of Denmark 
and Sweden, attended by two engineers ; surveyed all the 
windings, sounded every part of the straits, and afterwards 
had the whole so exactly described in charts, that not so 
much as the smallest shelf or bank of sand escaped his ob- 
servation. From Copenhagen he went to Hamburgh, Han- 
over, Wolfenbuttle^ and from thence to Holland. Here he 
left the czarina, and went to France in 1717 ; and, in June 
that year, visited the royal academy of sciences at Paris, where 
he was entertained by seeing the latest invented and most 
curious machines and experiments. He was no sooner re- 
);urned to his own dominions, than he signified his inclina- 
tion of becoming a member of that society ; and the aca- 
demy having made their most respectful acknowledgments 
for the great honour he did them, he wrote them a letter 
with his own hand. • These particulars may be. seen in the 
history of that academy for 1720 : the academy sent him 
^very year a volume of their proceedings, to which, as an 
academician, he was entitled; and he always accepted it 
with pleasure, as from his brethren. 

It would be endless to enumerate all the various estab- 
lishments, for which the Russians are indebted to this great 
emperor: Foutenelle has recorded some of the principal, 
which are, 1. A body of 100,000 foot, under as regular a 
discipline a^ any in Europe. .2. A navy of forty* ships of 
the line, and 200 gallies. 3. Fortifications iii lall main 
towns, and an excellent civil government in the greater- 
ties, which before were as dangerous in the night, as the 
.most yQfre(][uented deserts. ,4* Aa i^cadem^ far naval 



PETER, 37T 

ijflhirs and navigation^ where all the nobility are . obliged 
to send some of their children. 5. Colleges at Moscow^ 
Petersburgby and Kiof, for langpages, polite literature, 
and mathematics ; and schools in the villages, where the 
children of the peasants are taught to read and write, 6, 
A college of physicians, and a noble dispensatory at Mos* 
eow, which funiishes medicines to the great cities, and to 
the armies; whereas bejfore there was no physician but 
the czar's, and no apothecary in all his dominions. 7* 
Public lectures in anatomy, a word never heard before in 
Bussia. Voltaire relates, that the czar had studied this 
branch of knowledge under Ruysch at Amsterdam ; and 
made such improvements under this master, as to perform 
even chirurgical operations himself. He afterwards pur« 
chased the cabinet of that anatomist, which contained an 
immense collection of the most curious, instructive, and 
uncommon preparations. 8. An observatory, not only for 
the use of astronomers, but as a repository for natural cu* 
nosities. 9. A physic garden, to be stocked with plants, 
not only from all parts of Europe, but from Asia, Persia^ 
and even the distant parts of China. 10. Printing-hoMses, 
where he abolished their old barbarous characters, which, 
through tbe great number of abbreviations, were almost 
become unintelligible. 11« Interpreters for all the lan- 
guages of Europe; and' likewise for the Latin, Greek, 
Turkish, Kalmuc, Mogul, and Chinese. 12. A royal li^ 
brary, composed af three very large collections, which he 
purchased in England, Holstein, and Germany. 
' These, and many more, were particular institutions 
and establishments : but the czar made general reforma- 
tions, to which indeed the other were only subservient. 
He changed the architecture of his country, which was 
ugly and deformed ; or, more properly, he first introduced 
that science into his dominions. He sent for a great num-« 
ber of pictures from Italy and France ; and thus instructed 
in the art of painting a people, who knew no more of it, 
than what they could collect from the wretched daubing of 
iRea who painted the imaginary beads of saints. He sent 
ships laden with merchandize to Genoa and Legborn, 
which returned freighted with marble and statues ; and 
pope Clement XI. pleased with his taste^ presented him 
with a fine antique, which the cza)*, not caring to trust by 
$ea, ordered to be brought to Petersburgh by land. Reli** 
gi(Hi was not neglected in this general reform ; ignoraqc^ 



SJt PETER* 

tad saperstition had orer-run it so much, that it scarceljT 
mmted the name of Christian. The czar introduced know- 
ledge, wliere it was miserably wanted ; and this knowledge 
enabled him to abolish, at least in a considerable degree, 
fasts, miracles, and saint*worship. He ventured further 
than to the correction of rites : he abolished the pa- 
triarchate, though much independent of him ; and thiift 
got rid of a power, which was always interrupting and dis- 
concerting bis measures. He took away part of the rere- 
Hues of those churches and monasteries which he thought 
too wealthy ; and, leaving only what was necessary for their 
subsistence, added the overplus to his own demesnes. He 
made many judicious ecclesiastical canons, and ordered 
preaching in the Russian language. Lastly, he established 
a general liberty of conscience throughout his dominions. 
There is one more reformation, and perhaps as necessary 
and useful as any of the former, which he made even in 
bis last illness, though it was exceedingly painful. When- 
the senators and great personages, then about him, men-^ 
^ioned the various obligations which Russia lay under to 
bim, for abolishing ignorance and barbamsm, and intro- 
ducing arts and sciences, he told them, thst be had forgot 
to reform one of the most important points of allj namely, 
the mal-administration of justice, occasioned by the tedious 
and litigious chicanery of the lawyers ; and signed an order 
from his bed, limiting the determination of all causes to 
eleven days, which was immediately sent to all the courts 
of his empire. 

: This wonderful man died of the strangury, caused by 
an imposthume in the neck of his bladder^ Jan: 28, 1725, 
aged fifty rthree. He was tall, and remarkably well shaped ; 
bad a noble countenance, eyes sparkling with vivacity, and 
a robust constitution. * His judgment was sound, which, as 
Voltaire has observed, may justly be deemed the foundation 
of all real abilities : and to this solidity was joined an active 
disposition, which led him into the most arduous under^ 
takings* Whoever reflects upon the interruptions, diiE- 
c^ulties, and oppositions, that must unavoidably occur in 
civilizing and reforming a Urge and barbarous empire, 
must suppose the czar to have been, as indeed he really 
was, a man of the greatest firmness and perseverance. His 
education was far from being worthy of his genius : it bad 
been spoiled by the princess Sophia, whose int^est it waa 
ibfl^ he should be iouneraed in liceutiou3 ^Ke»s»^ How^ 



PETER. 87^ 

i^veri in spite of bud example, and even fain own strong 
propensity to pleasure, his natural desire of knowledge and 
magnanimity of soul broke through all habits ; nay, they 
broke through something even greater than habits, h is 
remarkable, that from his childhood he had such a dread 
of water, as io be seized with a cold sweat and with con- 
vulsions, even in being obliged to pass over a brook. The 
cause of this aversion is thus related : When he was aboul 
fiv,e years of age he was carried in the spring seasoa over a 
dam, where there was a water-fall or cataract* He was 
asleep^ in his mother's lap, but the nmse and rushing of 
the water frightened him so much that it brought on a 
fever ; and, after his recovery, be retained such a dread 
of that element, that he ooiikl not bear to see any standing 
water, much less to hear a ninning stream. Yet stich was 
the force of his resolution, that he gradually conquered 
this antipathy, and bis aversion of water was afterwards 
changed into an excessive fondness for that element* He 
bad a son who lived to be a man ; but this son engaging 
vith his mother, whom Peter had divorced in 1692, and 
Other malcontents, in a conspiracy agaipst his father in 
1717, was condemned to die. He saved the exeputionera 
the trouble by dying a natural death ; and an account of 
this unfortunate prince, with original papers, was pub- 
lished by the czar himself. The title of it, as it stands in 
the second volume oif the ** Presept State of Russia," trans- 
lated from the German, and printed at London, 1722, in 
8vo, runs thus : *' A Manifesto of the Criminal Process of 
the Czarewitz Alexi Petrowitz, judged and published at 
St. Petersburg, the 25th of June, 1718, translated from 
^he Russian original, and printed by order of bis czarisb 
majesty at the Hague, 171$.*' The czar composed several 
pieces upon naval afFi^rs i and his name must therefore be 
^ded to the short catalogue of sovereigns who have fa- 
Toured the public with their writings^ 

The czarina, his widow, whom he nominated his suc^ 
pessor, was, upon his death, immediately acknowledged 
empress of Russia by the several estates of the empire^ 
The history of this lady is rather extraordinary. She waa 
|>orn in Livonia, in 1684; and losing her parents, who 
wer^ of low condition, she becam% destitute. The parish-* 
clerk, who kept a school, took her into his house, and 
supported her, till Dr. Gluck, minister of Marienbqrgj^ 
l^appeuing to coi^e to that village, eased the clerk of the 



480 PETER. 

girl^ whom he liked exceedingly, and carried her home, 
witbhiof). Dr. Gluck treated her almost in the same man* 
ner as if she bad been bis own daughter ; and not only bad 
her taught spinning and sewing, but instructed her also 
himself in literature above her sex, and especially in the 
German language. At length a Livonian serjeant in the 
Swedish army, fell passionately in love with her, and she 
Agreed to marry him : but the next day the Russians made 
themselves masters of Marienburg; and the general^ cast- 
ing his eyes accidentally on Catherine, and observing 
something very striking in her air and manner, took her 
then under his protection, and afterwards into his ser- 
vice. Some time after, she was advanced to be a house- 
keeper to prince MenzikofF, who was the general's patron ; 
and there the czar seeing her, she made such an impression 
on him that he married her. She was taken at Marienburg 
in 1702, and married to the czar in 1710: what became of 
ner former husband, the serjeant, is not known. She was 
a woman of wonderful abilities and* address, and a very fit 
consort for siich a man as Peter the Great. It has been 
already observed in what manner she rescued him from 
ruin by her management, when he was surrounded by tKe 
Turks : and he seems to have made her the partner of hii 
councils and undertakings, as well as of bis bed. He 
shewed the high opinion he had of her by nominating her 
to succeed him ; but she died in little more than two years 
after him. She had several daughters by the czar ; the 
youngest of which, Elizabeth, after the heirs of the elder 
branches were extinct, ascended the throne in 1741.* 

PETERS (Hugh), a noted fanatic in the time of Charles 
I. -Was the son of a merchant at Fowey, in Cornwall, and 
was some time a member of Trinity college, in Cambridge, 
whence, it is said, he was expelled for irregular behaviour ; 
but this expulsion must have taken place after he had taken 
both his degrees, that of A. B. in 1618, and of A. M. in 
1622. He afterwards betook himself to the stage, where 
he acquired that gesticulation and buffoonery which he so 
often practised in the pulpit. He was admitted into holy 
orders by Dr. Mountaine^ bishop of London, and was for a 
considerable time lecturer of St. Sepulchre's, in that city ; 
but, being prosecuted for criminal conversation with another* 

1 Voltaire's Hist, of Peter the Great.— Modern Unirenal H»tory.<r'Po«« 
Unt\W» Eioge.^'^Cox^'i }Trayel8.«^Tooke'8 Baiiia. 



PETERS. ZSX 

muxk*s wife, he fled to Rotterdam, where he was pastor of 
the English ciiurch, together with the learned Dr. Wiitiam 
AmeSy who, it is .probable, either did not know, or did 
not believe the report of bis being prosecuted for adultery^. 
He afterwards went to America, and after a residence of 
seven .years, returned to England at a time when men of 
his character were sure of employment. He became, 
therefore, a violent declaimer against Charles I. and in fa-> 
▼our of all the measures of the republican party ; and Crom-* 
well found him one of his most useful tools with the army 
and the lower classes of the people. When king Charles 
was brought to London for bis trial, Hugh Peters, as sir 
William Warwick says, '^ was truly and really his gaoler.*' 
Dr. Kennet informs us that he bore a colonel's commission 
in the civil war ; that he was vehement for the death of 
the king; that it was strongly suspected that be w^s ond 
e( his masked executioners, and that one Hulet was the 
other. After the restoration he was executed with the 
other regicides. His character appears to have been in all 
respects unworthy of his religious profession ; what can be 
iftlleged in his favour may be seen in our authorities. ^ 

PETIS DE LA CROIX (Francis), an agreeable French 
writer and learned Orientalist, was born in 1654. After a 
suitable education he became the king of France's secre- 
tary, and interpreter for Oriental languages, and succeeded 
his father in those offices, which, his countrymen inform 
us, he was eminently well qualified to fill. To a very con- 
siderable share of general learning, he added an integrity 
and firmness of mind which enabled him to resist the im- 
portunities of corruption in a very remarkable instance. 
He had great offers made to him if he would insert in the 
treaty between the Algerines and Lewis XIV. that the six 
hundred thousand livres, to be received by the latter, 
should be paid in Tripoli crowns, which would have made 
a difference of a sixth part. But this he rejected with con- 
tempt, although the trick could not have been discovered, 
QV known to any except those who were to profit by it. 
' His own court, however, imposed a duty upon him more 
congenial to bis disposition,- and highly conducive to the 
advancement of his favourite studies. In compliance with 

^ Peters published ** Amesii Lectiones in Psalmos, cam Epist. Dedic.*' Loud, 
1647, Svo. * 

JLtfe by Harris.-^BrooVs Lives of the Parttatis.-<*Barnet's Gwd Times.'-* 
Barwick's Life, Itc,—- Grangec 



S82 P E T 1 S. 

his royal master^s commands, he undertook several voyag<$# 
to the East, and to Africa, and performed some negocia-^ 
tions so much to the satisfaction of Louis XIV. that, be- 
sides other rewards of his merit, he was appointed in 1692 
Arabic professor in the rojai college, which he hetd until 
his death in 1713. 

Besides the Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Tartarian 
languages, he was acquainted with the Ethiopian and Ar* 
menian. His '< Persian Tales^* were first published afteir 
bis death in five small volumes, in 1722. His own account 
of them was, that they were Indian plays, turned into Per- 
sian stories by the dervice Modes, who communicated 
them to him, and gave him leave to transcribe them. Those 
who are acquainted with the Arabian Tales will perceive 
the similarity of the present, in which we have the same 
method, the same taste, and the same design, with thb 
only difference, that in the Arabian Nights, a prince ia 
prepossessed against women, and in the Persian Tales, a 
princess aflfects the. same aversion to men. Of these 
^' '1 ales" we have an English translation, which has often 
been reprinted. His. other works were ^^ The History of 
Tiniur biec, or the great Taraerlan," 1722, 4 vols. I2mo; 
'^The State of the Ottoman Empire, 3 vols. 12mo; the 
^^ History of Genghizcan ;" which have all been published, 
but he left other translations, which are yet in manuscript. 
His son Alexander. Louis Maria, was also professor of 
Arabic in the royal college, and. translated the canon of 
Soliman II. for the instruction of Mourad IV. He died in 
1 7 5 1 , aged fifty«three. * 

PETIT (Anthony), a celebrated French anatomist, waa 
horn in 1708, at Orleans, and received the degree of doctor 
of physic at Paris, in November 1746. He was elected a 
member of the royal academy of sciences in 1760. His 
talents in the practice of his profession procured for him< 
the appointment of inspector of military hospitals in 1768; 
and in the following year he. was appointed professor of 
anatomy and surgery at the king's garden, where bis 
science and eloquence attracted a crowd of auditors^ In 
1775 he wa,s succeeded by M. Vicq d'Azyr in the duties of 
this chair, while he remained titular professor. He died 
in 1794. He was author of the following works ; viz. ^^ Let* 
%rm d'un Medecin de Montpeliier, au sujet de Texamea. 

> Morer4.— Pick Hbt, 



PETIT* SS5 

llublie qfie 1^ Sienr Louis a subi ii siunt CAine^ en 1749,. 
pour servir d^Eclaircbsement a ce qu^en dit M. Fr6ron/' 
1749, 4to. ** Discours sur la Chirurgie,'' an introdaclory 
lecture delivered at the schools of medicinei 1757 ; /^ Con- 
tultation en faveur des Naissances tardives/* 1764, Svo; 
** Premier et seconde Rapport en faveur de rinoculation,'* 
1766, 8vo ; " Deux Consukations Medico*iegales/V rela-» 
t)ve to a case of supposed self-murder, and to a supposed 
infanticide, 1767. He also edited *^ Anatomie Chirurgi- 
cale public cidevant par Jean* Palfin/' 1753, 2 torn. 8vo. ^ . 
PETIT (John Lewis), a celebrated surgeon, was born 
at Paris, March 13, 1674, From bis childhood he dis- 
played uncommon acuteness, and received his first instruc- 
tions in anatomy from M. de Littre, a celebrated anatomist, 
who resided in his father^s house. Under this master he 
made such rapid progress, that he had scarcely attained the 
age of twelve, when M. de Littre found that he might be 
intrusted with the care of his anatomical theatre. He after- 
wards studied surgery under Castel and Mareschal, and 
was admitted master in 1700. In the course of no long 
time he became the first practitioner in Paris, and wascon* 
suited in all cases of importance; and there were few ope- 
rations of difficulty and delicacy which he did not super- 
intend, or actually perform ; and his band and his counsels 
were alike successful. Such a reputation soon extended 
throughout Europe. In 1726 he was sent for by the king 
of Poland, and again in 1734 by Dpn Ferdinand, after- 
wards king of Spain ; he re-established the health of both 
these princes, who endeavoured to retain him near their 
persons with the offer of great rewards, but could not over- 
come his attachment to his native place. Among his pro- 
fessional honours was that of member of the academy of 
sciences, director of the academy of surgery, censor and 
royal professor at the schools, and fellow of the royal so-, 
ciety of London. He died at Paris, April 20, 1730, aged 76, 
regretted as much for his private virtues as his public ser- 
vices.— He communicated many memoirs to the academy of 
sciences, and several to the academy of surgery, which 
were. printed in their first volume. His only separate pub- 
lication was his " Traite des Maladies des Os," printed at 
^^aris in 1705, in. 12mo, and frequently reprinted, with, 
additions. An edition in 1758, in two volumes, l2mo, waa 

« 

^ ^ Plot* Hjst.—El03r,. Diet. Hist. dcMedtciae. 



S84 PETIT. 

published by M. Ant. Louis^ with an historical and critieal 
essay respecting it subjoined ; and hi^ pupil» M. Lesne, . 
published his posthumous works in 1774, with the title of 
** Trait6 des Maladies Chirurgicales et des Operations qui 
leur conviennent," in three vols. 8vo, with many plates 
of chirurgical instruments. His treatise on the bones in- 
volved him in several controversies ; but the only chagrin' 
which he felt arose from finding Winslo^, who, as censor 
royal, had approved the work, retract his approbation, in 
a letter inserted in the Journal des Savans for May 1725. * 

P£TIT (Peter), a considerable mathematician and phi^ 
losopher of France, was born at Montlu^on, in the diocese 
of Bourges, in 1598, according to some, but in 1600 ac- 
cording to others. He first cultivated the mathematics and 
philosophy in the place of his nativity; but in 1633 he re- 
paired to Paris, to which place his reputation had procured 
him an invitation. Here he became highly celebrated for 
his ingenious writings, and for his connections with Pascal, 
Des Cartes, Mersenne, and the other great men of that 
time. He was employed on several occasions by cardinal 
Kichelieu ; particularly to visit the sea-ports, with the title 
of the king's engineer ; and Was also sent into Italy upon' 
the king's business. He was at Tours in 1640, where be 
married ; and was afterwards made intendant of the fortifi- 
cations. Baillet, in his Life of Des Cartes, says, that Pe- 
tit had a great genius for mathematics; that he excelled 
particularly in astronomy ; and had a singular passion for 
experimental philosophy. About 1637 be returned to 
Paris from Italy, when the dioptrics of Des Cartes were 
much spoken of. He read them, and communicated his 
objections to Mersenne, with whom he was intimately ac- 
quainted, and yet soon after embraced the principles of 
Des Cartes, becoming not only his friend, but his partisan 
and defender. He was intimately connected with Fascal, 
with whom he made at Rouen the same experiments con- 
cerning the vacuum, which Torricelli had before made in 
Italy; and was assured of their truth by frequent repeti- 
tions. This was in 1646 and 1647; and though there ap- 
pears to be a long interval from this date to the time of his 
death, we meet with no other memoirs of his life. He died 
August 20, 1667, at Lagny, near Paris, whither he ha4 
retired for some time before his deceased. 

1 Eloy, Diet. Hilt, de MetJicine.— Recs's Cycl^paBdit. 



? E T ft. 38* 

' P^it Was the author of several works upon' physical and 
astronomical subjects; the principal of which afe, I. *^ Chro* 
uological Discourse/' &!c. 1636^ 4tOy in defence of Sea- 
liger. 2. ** Treatise on the Proportional. Compasses/' 3, 
" Qn the Weight and Magnitude of Metals." 4. " Con- 
struction and Use of the Artillery Calibers." 5. " On a 
Vacuum." 6. " On Eclipses." 7. "On Kennedies against 
the Inundations of the Seine at Paris." 3. " On the Junc- 
rioii of th6 Ocean with the Mediierra^ean Sda/ by .misansof 
the rivers Aude and Garonne."' 9. " On Comets." JO. 
**^On the proper Day for celebrating Easter." 11. "On 
the nature of Heat and Cold/' &c.* 

^ETIT (Peter), another very learned Frenchman, was 
born at Paris inf 1617, atid brought up to the profession of 
physic, in which faculty he todk a doctor's degree at Mont- 
pellier : but, afterwards returning to Paris, neglected the 
practice of it, and gave himself up entirely to the study of 
polite litcfrature. He lived sonne time with thie first presi- 
dent Lamoignon, as preceptor tX) hi'^ sobs ; and afterwards 
with mons^ Nicolai, frrst president of the chamber of ac* 
counts, as a mah of letters and companion. He spent the 
greatest part of his life in composing; and had a wonder^ 
ful facility with his p6n, which enabled him to write much. 
lie was deeply read in the ancient Greek and Latin au- 
thors, and joined to his skill in these, an uncommon' kn6w« 
ledge in philosophical matti^rs. He died in 1687,' aged 
seventy. 

He wrote much, both in verse and pfosey but in Latiri' 
only. His first production seems to have b^n^ 1. " An 
Elegy upon the Death of Gabriel Natld6, in 1653." In 
1660, he published in 8vo, Sf. " De motu animaliuni spon« 
taneo libet unus." Petit wiis a great partisan for the Pe- 
ripatetic philosophy ; and, in this as well as some other 
works of the ^me kind, he has strenuously supported the 
principles of Aristotle, and combated those of Des. Cartes. 
3. " EpistolsB ApologeticsB A. Menjoti de variis sedtis am-» 
plectendis examein : ad. medicos Parisiehses, aotore Adri- 
ano Scauro, D. M. 1666," 4to. Menjot had maintained 
that a man should attach hiibself to no particular sect, but 
take from each whatever he found good. This sentiment did 
not please Petit, and he opposed it in this work under9the 
fictitious name of Scauirus. He published the same year, ia 

I Chaafepie.— .Hiittoh'i Dictiomurr.— Ni^Mdn, v^faf/XI andX!^ 

Vol. XXIV. C c 



3M PETIT; 

8vo, todder' the feigfied naiae of Marians SuiUeot^ «4» 
*^fApo\ogiaL pro genaitate fragmeuti Satyrioi Petroniani ;'f' 
which Badriao Vaie8iii9 then, and the best cxkics since, 
have agreed to reject as spurious. Eutbypbiron was anos 
tber assumed namei under which he published,. ^^ ^^^De 
voya curaiidofun» morborum ratiooe per transfasioneiDsan^-/ 
guinis^'*'in 1667, 4to. He there rejects 'this method of 
cure, which was approved by many physicians i>( his ifnie^^^ 
and supports his own opinion with much elegance andr 
learning. In 1683, were published at Utrecht^ in 8ro^ 
6. f ^ Miscellanearum Observationum, libri iv.'' These are 
verbal criticisms upon various authors^ and shew great ac«-* 
curacy as well as profound erudition. The same year at 
Paris came out in 8vo, 7. ^^ Seleetorupi Poematum, librt ii* 
Accessit Dissertatio de Furore Poetica*' The dissertation^ 
is curious, and the poems have merit enough to rank hiiii;< 
with Rapin, Menage, and the best writers of modem LatiA 
poetry. 8. ^> De Amazonibus Dissertatio,*' Paris, 1685^ 
ISmo. The edition of Amsterdam, 1687, 12mo, is pre** 
ferabie, there being additions by the author, and critical 
observations by M. de la Monnoye. 9. ^^ De natura et 
iDoribns Antbropophagorum Dissertatio,*' at Utrecht, 1688,: 
8vo. A curious and leiirned work. 10.. *' In tres prioresi 
Areteeii libros Commentam : Una cum dissertatiuncula de 
Petiti vita, et copioso in eosdem Commentarios indice^' 
1726," 4to. It was Maittaire, who published this post-i 
humous work, and placed the life of Petit at the iiead of 
it. There dre several works of this author^ but we have 
mentioned the most important. Care must be taken, in 
the mean time, not to confound him with the preceding 
Peter Petit, who was his contemporary.* 

PETIT (Francis Pourfour du), a learned physioiaiv 
was born June 24, 1 664^ at Paris. Heattended the hos-^ 
pitals of the army, but settled at Paris, after the peace of 
Utrecht in 1513 ; was admitted into the academy of scien-v 
ces in 1723, and acquired great reputation, particularly bjr 
hiB skill in disorders of the eyes. M. Petit kivented .an 
Ophihahjmneter for measuring the parts of the eye» and 
sevieral other instruments to direct . the thaad in its -.ope^ 
rations upon that delicate organ. '- He died at Paris June 
18,«»-I74l, ageil 77. His works^ .which are written ip m«* 
ther a careless style, are^ '^Trois Lettres d*iia Medecim 



1 Omi^k^JM. miA^IOfff, Diet. Hist ds Madicwe. 



^E T I t: $ii 



^ BosptUHic 4'a: Rot il un watte Medechi d^ fM ftmb; 
war^nn NoUvcaa Bylttetnfe' dti CenieauV' Namur, 1710^ 4to.' 
f^ Dissertfttion sur une Noavelle Metbode de faird TOpera^ 
liota de la Catairtete/' Par. 1727, ]2aio. << Lettre dans 
kqucAleU^est^MliNMitr^ que la Crystallin est fort fn^de 
l*U^e^ et oil Von rappone do ttoat<eU6s proores de I'Qpe- 
fUtion de*la'€ataracte/^ 1^29, 4to. ^ t«ettres contenant 
dos BoflexioiiS'Siir'ce que M* Hecquet, M.D. a fisit impri*« 
mei tbochafit les Maladies des Yohx,*' 1729^ 4to. : ^ LeU 
Ijres* cofi tenant ' des lleflexions sur lefit Decouverte^ fidteil' 
Aries Y^ux,'' I7S2, 4toJ 

•- PETIT (SAMimL), or PETITUS, a celebrated scholar,^ 
mts born at ^isme^ in 1594« He studied at Geneva, witb 
a sntibesS'So uncomnkm, that, at the age of seventeen, he^ 
was admitted to tho sacred ministry. Soon after, be wai^ 
misled to'the professorships of theology, atid of Greek: and 
HobieW in^that eity^- where he parsed the chief part of his. 
Ufoj and where be died in December 1645, at the age of 
fifcy^ne. He has left behind him several works of grieat 
learning. For instance, 1. '*' Miscellanea,** Paris, 1630, 
4to,*'in nine books, cotitaining corrections of passages in 
a vast number of anoient authors. 2:^* Eclogse Cbrono-t. 
Jogicae,*' Paris, i6S2, 4to. S. <♦ Varios Lectiones,'* Paris, 
1633, 4to. This is in four books, three of which are em« 
pibydd on the custoins, ceremonies, &c. of the Old and 
New Testament. 4; ** Legei Afticse,*' first published at 
Parisj h) 1615, but again in 1635, &c. This is a work of 
die highest reptitation, and htfrfng been enriched by the 
subsequent- remarks of Palmerins, Salvini, Dillker, and 
Wesseling, wasrefMrinted in 1742, fol. In this shape, it 
^orms a third volume of the collection entitled '' Jurispru- 
dentift Rornam et Atti6a,'' published by Heineccius, Ou- 
ker/ and Wesseling.- Petit was the author alsO of other 
publications oMess consequehc^, but all evincingprofound; 
and extensive leamiflfg. His character was not less amia^' 
bte, than his accoihpliriiments were extraordinary. Ho 
was mild and gentle in an uncommon degree. It is related 
df 'him, that going once from curiosity into a synagogue at 
Av%n^n, a rabbin, supposing himseUffree from aU danger 
of detection, railed against him in Hebrew, in a very gross 
manner. . P^tit, without any angier^ coolly answered him 
iQ the same language, • and thus covered the assailant with 

> Sloy, Diet. Hitlt. de Medicine.-— Moreri. 

C C 2 



S8§ . " il* £ T I T* 

Gonfosion. In answer to ihe apologies and excuses of t^ 
iew, be only, in .4 oiild mannery exhorted bim to eoihntQ^ 
Christianity. ' 

PETIT-D IDIER (Ma^tthe w), a celebrated Beoedietioe, 
of the coDgregatioQ of St^ Vannes, was born jDecember 18, 
1659^ at St. Nicholas in Lorrain. Ho taught philosophy 
and theology in the abbey de St Michael ; was mad^ ab- 
bot of Senones 1715, and bidiop of Macra 1726. He diad 
June 14, .1728, aged 69. The principal among bis bu* 
meroQS works are, 3 vols. 8vo, of ^^ Remarks on M. Dupin> 
Ecclesiastical Library ;" and *^ An Apology for M. Pascal's 
Provincial Letters,*' in seventeen letters. This^work:hc^ 
afterwards disavowed in a letter to cardinal Corradiniy 
dated September 30, 1726, where be declares that tbeso. 
seventeen letters have been rashly and falaely attribated 
to. him ; but TAvocat says, that it^ is' nevertheless certain 
that he wrote them. He wrote also a treatise ^^ On the 
Pope's Infallibility,'^ in favour of the Holy See, and against 
the liberties of the Galilean church, Luxemburg, 1724, 
12mo; and a ^^Dissertation on the Council of Constance,'* 
1725, 12ma He not only accepted the constitution ^' Unt* 
genitus," but wrote in. its defence, and by that. means 
gained the abbey of Senones, which the person to whom it 
bad lapsed disputed with him.! 

PETITOT (John), a celebrated pointer, was born at 
Geneva in 1607, of a father who was a sculptor and archi* 
tect, and who, after having passed part of his life in Italy, 
retired to that city. His son was designed to be a jewellery 
Ind, by frequent employment in enaoielling, acquired so 
fipe a taste, and so precious a tone of colouring, that Bor- 
dier, who afterwards became his brother»in-law, advised 
bim to attach himself to portrait, believing he might pudi 
his art 00 still to greater lengths ; and though both, the one 
and the other wanted several colours which they could not 
bring to bear the fire, yet they succeeded to admiration. 
Petitot padnted the heads and hands, in which his cplouv* 
ing was excellent; Bordier painted. the hair, the draperies, 
and the grounds. * These two friends, agreeing in their 
work and their projects, sc(t out for Italy. The long^ stajf 
they made there, frequenting the best chenu^ts, joined .to 
^ strong desire of learning, improved them in the prepara* 

1 Cb&ufepie.— Blount's Centura. -^olomesii Gallia Oricatalift.— Saiii 0^ 
waaticeo*. * Oupm^««Msraii 



P E T I T T. 389 

tidn of their colours; but the completion of their succesii 
«fnust be ascribed to a journey they afterwards made to 
England. There they found sir Theodore Mayerne, phy- 
sician to Charles I. and a great chemist ; who had by his 
experiments discovered the principal colours to be used for 
enamel, and the proper means of vitrifying them; These 
by their beauty surpassed all the enamelling of Venice and 
.Limoges'. Mayerne introduced Petitot to the king, who 
retained him in his service, and gave him a lodging in White- 
kali. Here he painted several portraits after Vahdyck, iii 
which he was guided by that excellent master, who was 
^ben in London ; and his advice contributed greatly to the 
ability of Petitot^ whose best pieces are after Vandyck. 
King Charles often went to see him work ; as he took A 
pleasure both in painting and chemical experiments, to 
which his physician bad given him a turn. Petitot painted 
Ibat monarch and the whole royal family several times. 
The distinguished favour shewn him by that prince was 
only iMterrupted by his unhappy and tragical end. This 
was a terrible stroke to Petitot, who did not quit the royal 
family, but followed them in their flight to Paris, where 
he was looked on as one of their most zealous servants. 
During the four years that Charles II. stayed in France^ 
he visited Petitot, and often eat with him. Then it was, 
that his name- became eminent, and that all the court of 
France grew fond of being painted in enamel. When^ 
Charles II. returned to England, Louis XIV. retained Pe« 
titot in his service, gave him a pension, and a lodging in 
the gallery of the Louvre. These new favours, added to 
a considerable fortune he had already acquired, encouraged 
him to marry in 1661. Afterwards Bordier became his 
brother-in-law, and ever regained in a firm union witlf 
biai : they lived together, till their families growing too « 
numerous, obliged them to separate. Their friendship was 
fimnded on the harmony of their sentiments and their reci* 
procal merit, much more than a principle of interest; 
They had gained, as a reward for their discoveries and their 
labours, a million of livres, ivhich they divided at Paris ; 
and they continued friends without ever having a quarrel^ 
or even a misundjerstfin()ing, in the space of fifty years. 

Petitot copied at Paris several portraits of Mignard and 
Le Brun ; yet his talent was not only copying a portrait 
with an exact resemblance, but aisp designing a head most 
Pisrfectly after iiature. To this be also joined a softness 



IWf f ^ T I T Q T. 

;and liyetf neis of colouxingy wliich will never <iimge, i^tii 
,will ever render bU W9rks valual^ie.) jEl^ pa^nt^d