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Printed by Nichols, Son, and BEMTLBr» 
Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London. 




















jESoHUN (Edmund)^ a .voluminous political and mis- 
celJaneoua writer of t^e seventeenth century, was born at 
Bingsfieldy in Suffolk, the only son of Baxter Bohun, who 
with his ancestors, had been lords of the manor of West<- 
hall, in that county, from the 2Sth Henry VIII. In 1663^ 
he was admitted feUow-commoner of Queen's college, 
Cambridge, and continued there till the latter eiid of 1666^ 
when the plague obliged him and others to leave the uni- 
versity. In 1675 he was made a justice of peace for Suf» 
folk, and continued in that ofiBce till the second of James 
XL when he was discharged, but was restored to that office 
in the first of William and Mary. The time of his death 
is nob mentioned, but he was alive iu 1700. He wrote, 
1. ^' An Address to the Freemen and Freeholders of the 
nation, in three parts,, being the history of three sessions 
of parUament in 1678, 1682, and 1683,'' 4to. 2. <<A De- 
fence of the Declaration of king Charles IL against a 
pamphlet styled, A just and modest Vindication of the 
proceedings of the two last Parlis^ments." This was printe4 
with and a^ded to the Address. 3. ^' A Defence of Sir 
Robert Filmer, against the mistakes and representations of 
Algernon Sydney, esq. in a paper delivered by him to th^ 
aherifTs upon the scaffold on Tower*hill, on Friday, Dec. 
7, 1683, before his execution there," Loud. 1684. 4. " Th^ 
Justice of Peace's Calling, a moral essay," Lond. I6849 
8vo. 5. *' A Preface and Conclusion to Sir Robert Filmer's 
Patriarcha," ibid. 1685, 8vo» 6. ^^ A Geographical Die* 
tionary," ibid. 1688, 8vo. 7. "The History of the Deser- 
tion ; or an account of ail the public affairs of England, 
Vol. VI. B 

2 B O H U N, 

from the beginniog of Sept 16S8 tor Feb. 12 following/* 
ibid. 1689, 8yo« 8. *' An Answer to a piece calied The 
Desertion discussed (by Jerenay Collier)," printed at the end 
of the << History of the Desertion.'' 9. << The Doctrine of 
Passive Obedience and Non*Resistance no way concerned 
in the controversies now depending between the Williamites 
and the Jacobites,'* ibid. 1689, 4to. In page 24th is a 
passage respecting bishop Ken, which Mr. Bohun found to 
be untrue, and therefore requests that it may be cancelled. 
10. ^^The Life of John Jewell, bishop of Salisbury," pre- 
fixed to a translation of his Apology, 1685. 11. << Three 
Charges delivered at the general quarter sessions hdlden at 
Ipswich, for the county of Suffolk, in 1691, 1692, and 
1693," 4to. 12. <<The great Historical, Geographical, 
and Poetical Dictionary," Lond. 1694, fol. He also trans- 
lated Sicurus' origin of Atheism — the Universal Biblio* 
theque, or account of books for Jan. Feb. and March 1687 
— ^Sieidan's History of the Reformation — PufFendorfPs Pre- 
sent State of Germany, and Degory Wheare's Method of 
reading History, Lond. 1698, 8vo. ' 

BOIARDO (Matted-Maria), count of Scandiano, an 
Italian poet, was bom at the castle of Scandiano, near 
'Reggio in Lombardy, about the year 1434. He studied at 
the university of Ferrara, and remained in that city the 
greater part of his life, attached to the ducal court. He 
was particularly iu great favour with the duke Borso and 
Hercules I. hb successor. He accompanied Borso in a 
journey to Rome in 1471, and the year following was se« 
lected by Hercules to escort to Ferrara, Eleonora of Ara* 
gon, his future duchess. In 1481 he was appointed go« 
vernor of Reggio, and was also captain-general of Modena. 
He died at Reggio, Dec. 20, 1494. He was one of the 
most learned and accomplished men of his time, a very 
distinguished Greek and Latin scholar, and at a time when 
Italian poetry was in credit, one of those poets who added 
to the reputation of his age and country. He translated 
Herodotus from the Greek into Italian, and Apuleius from 
the Latin. He wrote also Latin poetry, as his ** Carmen 
Bucolicum,** eight eclogues in hexameters, dedicated to 
duke Hercules!. Reggio, 1500, 4to; Venice, 1528; and 
in Italian, << Sonetti e Catizoni,** Reggio, 1499, 4to ; Ye- 
nice^ 1501, 4t0| in a style rather easy than elegant, and 

» Aili. Os. vol, n. 

B a I A R D d. i 

occasionally betraying the author's leamingi but tiritfaout 
affectation. Hercules of Este vras the 'first of the Italian 
soyeretgns who entertained the court with a magnificent 
theatre on which Greek or Latin comedies, translated into 
Italian, were performed. For this theatre Boiardo wrote 
bis '* Timon/' taken from a dialogue of Lucian, which 
may be accounted the first comedy written in Ital^tn. The 
first edition of it, according to Tiraboschi, was that printed 
at Scandiano, 1500, 4to. The one, without a date, in 
8to, he thinks was the second. It was afterwards reprinted 
at Venice, 1504, 1515, and 1517, 8vo. But Boiardo is 
principally known by his epic romance of << Orlando In*, 
namorato,^' of which the celebrated poem of Ariosto is not 
only an imitation, but a continuation. Of this work, he did 
not live to complete the third book, nor is it probable that 
any part of it had the adyantage of his last corrections, yet 
it is justly regarded as exhibiting, upon the whole, a 
warmth of imagination, and a vivacity of colouring, which 
rendered it highly interesting : nor is it, perhaps, withoujt 
reason, that the simplicity of the original has occasioned 
it to be preferred to the same work, as altered or reformed 
by Fi-ancesco Berni (See Brrni). The ** Orlando Innamo- 
rato" was first printed at Scandiano, about the year 1495, 
and afterwards at Venice, 1500, which De Bure erro- 
neously calls the first edition. From the third book where 
Boiardo's labours cease, it was continued by Niccolo Agos* 
tini, and of this joint production numerous editions have 
been published. ^ 

BOILEAU (Nicholas Despreaux), an eminent French 
poet, usually called by his countrymen Despreaux, was 
born on November 1, 1636. His parents were Gilles 
Boileau, register of the great chamber, and Ann de Nielie» 
his second wife ; but it is uncertain whether he was bom 
at Paris or Crone. In his early years, he was the reverse 
of those infiintine prodigies who often in mature age scarcely 
attain to mediocrity ; on the contrary, he was heavy and 
tacsiturn ; nor was his taciturnity of that observing kind 
which denotes sly mischief at the bottom, but the down- 
right barren tacitumi^ of insipid good-nature. His father^ 
on comparing him with his other children, used to say, 
" as for this, be is a good-tempered fellow, who will never 


1 Oliifiieiii Hist Litt. A'lulie.'^IUMCoe's Lto.^Morcri,--Tirtbof€lil— Snil 


B 2 

4 B O I L E A U; 



fpeak ill of any one." In his infancy, however, he ap- 
pears to have been of a very tender constitution, and U 
said to have undergone the operation for the stone at the 
age of eight. Through compliance with the wishes of bis 
family, he commenced with b^eing a counsellor; but the 
dryness of the Code and Digest soon disgusted him with 
this profession, which, his eulogist thinks, was a loss to 
the bar. When M. Dongois, his brother-in-law, register 
of parliament, took him to his house in order to form him 
to the style of business, he had a decree to draw up in an 
important cause, which he cqinposed with enthusi^m^ 
while he dictated it to Boileau.with an emphasis which 
shewed how much he was satisfied with the sublimity of 
bis work; but when he had finished, he perceived that 
Boileau was fallen asleep, a^fter having written but few 
words. Transported with anger, he sent him back to hia 
father, assuring him he ^* nothing but a blpck«» 
head all the rest of his life,'- .. Aft^r this he began tp study 
scholastic divinity^ which was still less suited to bis taste, 
and at length he became v^rhat he himself wished . to be — ^a 
Poet; and, as if to belie, at setting out, his Aitlier^ pre- 
diction, be commenced at the age of thirty, with satire, 
which let loose against him the crowd of writers whom he 
attacked, but gave him friends, or rather readers, among 
that very numerous class of the pubUc, who, through an 
inconstancy cruelly rooted in the human heart, love to see 
those humbled whom even they esteem the most. But 
whatever favour and encouragement so general a dispo* 
sition might promise Boileau, he could not avoid nieeting 
with censurers among men of worth. Of this number was 
the dfike de Montausi^r, who valued himself upon an in- 
Bexible and rigorous virtue^ and disliked satire. But, as 
it was. of the greatest importance to Boileau tp.gain over 
to his interest one of the first persons about cpurt, whose 
credit was the more formidable^ as it was. sjuppqrted by 
that personal cpnsid^atjbOQ wbj^ch is;not always joined to 
it, he intrpdo9/ed into one Qf h^s pieces a panegyrical no- 
tice of the;duke ,de Monta,usier, which iy as. neither flat noi; 
exag^rat^d, a^d it produced the desired efleqtv Encoun 
feged by this first sucqe^s, Boileau lost no time'^iqg 
the final b)ow to the tottering austerity of ^his cen^ur^r^ 
by confessing to him, with an air of contrition, how hu- 
nuliated hei^ himself at missing the foendahip of << the 
worthiest man at court" From that moment, the wor- 

B O I L E A U. * 

t^iest man at court became the protector and apologist 
of the most caustic of all writers. Though we attach 
kss value to the satires of Boileau than to his other 
works, and think not very highly of his conduct to his 
patroU) yet it must be allowed that be never attacks bad 
taste and bad writers*, but with the weapons of pleasantry ; 
and never speaks of vice and wicked men but with indig- 
nation. Boileau, however, soon became sensible that in 
oiyler to reach posterity it is not sufficient to supply some 
ephemeral food to the malignity of contemporaries, but 
to be the writer of all times and all places. This led him 
to produce those works which will render his fame per- 
petual. He wrote his *< Epistles,^* in which, with delicate 
praises, he has intermixed precepts of literature and mo- 
rali^', delivered- with the 'most striking truth and the hap« 
piestfM^ecision ; and in 1674 bis celebrated mock-heroic, the 
** Lutrin/' which, with so small a ground of matter, contains 
so much variety, action, and grace ; and his ^' Art of Poetry/' 
which is in French what that of Horace is in Latin, the 
code of good taste. Tn these he expresses in harmonious 
terse, full of strength and elegance, the principles of 
season and good taste ; and was the first who discovered 
and developed, by the union of Example to precept, the 
highly difficult art of French versification. Before Boi- 
leau, indeed, Malberbe had begun to detect the secret, 
hot be had guessed it only in part, and had kept his know- 
ledge for his own use ; and Comeille, though he had writ- 
ten ^' Cinna'' and ** Polieucte,'* had no other secret than 
his instinct, and when this abandoned him, was no longer 
CorneiUe. Boileau had the rare merit, which can belong 
only to a superior genius, of forming by his lessons and 
prodactions the first school of poetry in France ; and it 
may be added, that of all the poets who have preceded 
or followed him, none was abetter calculated than himself 
to be the head of such a school. In fact, the severe and 
decided correctness which characterizes his works, renders 
them singularly fit to serve as a study for scholars in poetry. 
In Bacine he had a disciple who would have secured him 
immortality, even if he had not so well earned it by his 
own writings. Good judges have even asserted, that the 
popil surpassed the master; but Boileau, whether inferior 
or equal tc his scholar, always preserved that ascendancy 
over him, which a blunt and downright self-love will ever 
asaaose over a timid and delicate self-love^ such as that of 

§ B O I L E A U 

Hacine. The author of " Phaedra" and of " Athaliah'" 
had always, either from deference or address, the com- 
plaisance to yield the first place to one who boasted of 
having been his master. Boileau, it is true, had a merit 
with respect to his disciple, whrch in the eyes of the latter 
piust have been of inestimable value, that of having early 
been sensible of Racine's excellence, or rather of what he 
promised to become ; for it was not easy, in the author of 
(he '^ Freres Ennemis,'* to discover that of ^' Andromacha^" 
^nd ** Britannicus," and doubtless perceiving in Racine's 
0rst essays the germ of what be was one day to become, 
be felt how much care and culture it required to give it 
full expansion. 

^oileau knew how to procure a still more powerful pro^ 
tection at court than the duke de MontausiePs, that of 
|Lewis XIV. himself. H.e lavished upon this monarch 
praises tlie more flattering, as they appeared dictated by 
the public voice, and merely the sincere and warm ex- 
pression of the nation's intoxication with respect to its 
king. To add value to his homage, the artful satirist had 
Ithe address to make his advantage of the reputation of 
frankness he had acquired, 'which served as a passport to 
those applauses which the poet seemed to bestow in spite 
pf his nature ; and he was particularly attentive, while be- 
stowing praises on all those whose interest might either 
support or injure him, to reserve the first place, beyond 
comparison, for the monarch. Among other instances, 
l)e valuf&d himself, as upon a great stroke of policy, for 
paving cpntrived to place Monsieur, the king's brother, 
by the si4^ of the king himself, in his verses, without ha- 
seard of wounding the jealousy of majesty ; and fur having 
celebrated (be conqueror of Cassel more feebly than the 
aubduer pf Flanders. He had however the art, or more 
properly the merit, along with his inundation of praises, 
to convey some useful lessons to the sovereign. Lewis 
XIV. as yet young and greedy of renown, which be mis* 
took for real glory, was making preparations for war with 
Holland. Colbert, who knew bow fatal to the people is 
the mpst glorious war, wished to divert the king from his 
design* He engaged Boileau to second his persuasions, 
by ^ddre^sing to Lewis his first epistle, in which he proyeii 
t^ a kipg'S true greatness consists in rendering his sub-^* 
jects happy, by securing them the blessings of peace. But 
although t^i^ ^pisti^ fiid Wt answer the ^lteQtiona of the 


minister or the poet, yet so much attention to please, the 
moharch, joined to such excellence, did not remain unre- 
compensed. Boileau was loaded with the king^s favour, 
admitted at court, and named, in conjunction with Racine, 
royal historiographer. The two poets seemed closely oc« 
cupied in writing the history of their patron; they even 
read several passages of it to the king; but they abstained 
from giving any of it to the public, in the persuasion that 
the history of sovereigns, even the most worthy of eulogy^ 
cannot be written during their lives, without running the nsk 
either of losing reputation by flattery, or incurrinflr hazard 
by truth. It was with repugnance that Boileau had un- 
dertaken an oiSce so little suited to his talents and his 
taste. •* When I exercised,*' said he, ** the trade of a 
satirist, which I understood pretty well, I was overwhelmed 
with insults and menaces, and I am now dearly paid for 
exercising that of historiographer, which I do not under- 
stand at all.*' Indeed, far from being dazzled by the fa- 
vour be enjoyed, he ntther felt it as an incumbrance. He 
often said, that the first sensation his fdrtune at court in- 
spired in him, was a feeling of melancholy. He thought 
the bounty of his sovereign purchased too dearly by the 
loss of liberty — ^a blessing so intrinsically valuable, which 
all the empty and fugitive enjoyments of vanity are un- 
able to compensate in the eyes of a philosopher. Boileau 
endeavoured by degrees to recover this darling liberty, in 
proportion as age seemed to permit the attempt ; and for 
the last ten or twelve years of his life he entirely dropped 
his visiu to court *^ What should I do there ?*' said he, 
^* I can praise no longer.'' He might, however, have 
found as much matter foi: his applauses as when he lavished 
them, without the least reserve. While he attended at 
courts he maintained a freedom and frankness of speech^ 
especially on topics of literature, which are not common 
among courtiers. When Lewis asked his opinion of some 
verses which he had v^itten, he replied, '^ Nothings 
sire, is impossible to your majesty ; you wished to make 
bad verses, and you have succeeded." He also took 
part with the persecuted members of the Port-royal; and 
when one of the courtiers declared that the aing was 
making diligent search after the celebrated Arnauld, in 
order to put him in the Bastile, Boileau observed, '< His 
majesty is too fortunate ; he will not find him :" and whea 
the king asked him^ what was the reason why the whole 



world was running after a preacher named le Toumeux^ a 
disciple of Arnauld, ** Your majesty," he replied, " knows 
how fond people are of novelty : — ^this is a minister who 
preaches the gospel.'' Boileau appears from various cir- 
cultnstances, to have been no great friend to the Jesuits, 
whcfm he offended by his " Epistle on the Love of God,** 
^nd by many free speeches. By royal favour, he was ad- 
tnitted unanimously, in 1684, into the French academy, 
with which he had made very free in his epigrams ; and 
be was also associated to the new academy of inscriptions 
and belles-lettres, of which he appeared to be a fit mem«> 
ter, by his *^ Translation of Longinus on the Sublime.*^ 
To science, with which he had little acquaintance, he 
Tendered, however, important service by his burlesque 
'^* Arret in favour of the university, against an unknown 
personage called Reason,^' whidh was the means of pre- 
venting the establishment of a plan of intolerance in mat* 
ters of philosophy. His attachment to the ancients, as 
the true models of ^terary taste and excellence, occasioned 
a controversy between him and Perrault concerning the 
comparative nierit of the ancients and moderns, which was 
prosecuted for some time by epigrams and mutual re- 
proaches, till at length the public began to be tired with 
'their disputes, and a reconciliation was effected by the 
jgood offices of their common friends. This controversy 
laid the foundation of a lasting enmity between Boileau 
and Fontenelle, who inclined to the party of Perrault* 
Boileau, however, did not maintain his opinion with the 
pedantic extravagance of the Daciers ; but he happily 
exercised his wit on the misrepresentations of the noted 
characters of antiquity, by the fashionable romances of the 
time, in his dialogue entitled ** The Heroes of Romance," 
composed in the manner of Lucian. In opposition to the 
absurd opinions of father Hardouin, that most of the clas- 
sical productions of ancient Rome had been written by the 
monks of the thirteenth century, Boileau pleasantly re- 
marks, ** I know nothing of all that ; but though I am not 
very partial to the monks, I should not have been sorry 
to have lived with friar Tibullus, friar Juvenal, Dom Vir- 
gil, Dom Cicero, and such kind of folk.'* After the death 
of Racine, Boileau very much retired from court; induced 
partly by his love of liberty and independence, and partly 
by bis dislike of that adulation which was expected, and 
for which the close of Lewis's reign afforded more scanty 

B O I L E A U. 9 

materials than its commencement. Separated in a great 
degree from society, be indulged that austere and misan- 
thropical disposition^ from which he was never wholly' 
exempt His conversation, however, was more mild and 
gentle than bis writings ; and, as he used to say of him- 
self, wkbout ** nails or claws,*' it was enlivened by occa- 
sional sallies of pleasantry, and rendered instructive by 
judicious opinions of authors and their works. He was re- 
ligious without bigotry ; and he abhorred fanaticism and 
hypocrisy. His circumstances were easy ; and his pru- 
dent economy has been charged by some with degenerating 
into avarice. Instances, however, occur of his liberality 
and beneficence. At the death of Colbert, the pension 
which he had given to the poet Comeille was suppressed, 
though he was poor, old, infirm, and dying. Boileau in- 
terceded with the king for the restoration of it, and offered 
to transfer his own to Comeille, telling the monarch that 
he should be ashamed to receive bis bounty while such a 
nan was in want of it. He also bought, at an advanced 
price, the library of Patru, reduced in his circumstances, 
and left him in the possession of it till his death. He gave to 
the poor all the revenues he had received for eight years 
from a benefice he had enjoyed without performing the 
dnties of it. To indigent men of letters his purse was 
always open ; and at his:death he bequeathed almost al^ 
his possessions to the poor. Upon rtfe whole, his temper, 
though naturally austere, was on many occasions kind and 
benevolent, so that it has heen said of him, that he was 
^ cmel only in verse ;" and his general character was 
distinguished by worth and integrity, with some alloys of 
literary jealousy and injustice. Boileau died of a dropsy 
in the breast, March 11, 1711, and by his will left almost 
all his property to the poor. His funeral -was attended by 
a very numerous company, which gave t woman of the 
lower class occasion to say, ** He had many friends then ! 
yet they say that he spoke ill of every body." 

Boileau^s character as a poet is now generally allowed 
to be that of taste, judgment, and good sense, which pre- 
dominate in the best of his works as they do in the most 
pbpular of Pope's writings. The resemblance between 
these two poets is in many respects very striking, and in 
one respect continues to be so ; they are, in France* and 
England, mor^ read and oftener quoted than any other 
poets. Both were accused of stealing from the ancients ; 

10 B I L E A U." 

but says an elegant critic of our nation, those who flat* 
tercd themselves that they should diminish the reputation 
of Boileauy by printing, in the manner of a. commentary 
at the bottom of each page of his works, the many lines be 
has hoTCPwed from Horace and Juvenal, were grossly de* 
ceived. The verses of the ancients which he ha» turned 
into Frqnch with so much address, and which he has hap* 
pily made so homogeneous, and of a piece with the rest of 
the work, that every thing seems to have been conceived 
in a continued train of thought by the very same person, 
confer as much honour on him, as the verses which are 
purely his own. The original turn which he gives to his 
translations, the boldness of his expressions, so little forced 
and unnatural, that they seem to be born, as it were, with 
his thoughts, display almost as much invention as the first 
production of a thought entirely new. The same critic. 
Dr. Warton, is of opinion that Boileau^s " Art of Poetry'* 
is the best composition of that kind extant. '< The brevity 
of his precepts," says this writer, *^ enlivened by proper 
imagery, the justness of his metaphors,' the harmony of 
bis numbers, as far as alexandrine lines will admit, the 
exactness of bis method, the perspicuity of his remarks, 
and the energy of his style, all duly considered, may ren- 
der this opinion not unreasonable. It is to this work he 
owes his immortality, which was 'of the highest utility to 
his nation, in diffusing a just way of thinking and writings 
banishing every species of false wit, and introducing a 
general taste for the manly simplicity of the ancients, on 
whose writings this poet had formed his taste."' 

Of the numerous editions of Boileau's works, the best 
are, that of Geneva, 1716, 2 vols. 4to, with illustrations 
by Brossette ; that of the Hague, with Picart's cuts, 1718, 
2vols. foL and 1722, 4 vols. 12mo; that by Allix, with 
Cochin's cuts, 1740, 2 vols. 4to; that of Durand, 1745, 
5 vols. 8vo ; and lastly, a beautiful edition in 3 vols. 8vo. 
or 3 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1809, with notes by Daunou, a 
member of the Institute. ^ 

BOILEAU (James), one of the brothers of the prece* 
diog, a doctor of the Sorbonne, was born in 1635, studied 
in the university of Paris, took his degree of doctor in 
theology in 1662, was appointed dean of Sens, and vicar 

t D*Alembert'f Eulogies tremUted by Aikip, 8 vqIi, 8tfo.— Gen. DicU-— Wal- 
ton t Eksay on Pope, fce. 

B O I L E A U. II 

of the archbishop Gondoin, id 1667; and in 1694, was 
presented by the king with a canonry in the holy chapel of 
Paris. He died dean of the faculty of theology in 1716. 
He is well known by a number of works in a peculiar style, 
some of which were not remarkable for decency ; but these 
he wrote in Latin, ^^ lest the bishops," he said, ^* should 
fondemn them." He was not more a friend to the Jesuits 
than his brother ; and he described them as '^ men who 
lengthened the creed, and shortened the commandments." 
As dean of the chapter of Sens, he was appointed to 
banngue the celebrated prince of Cond^, when he passed 
through the city. This great commander took particular 
pleasure on these occasions in disconcerting his panegy- 
rists; but the doctor, perceiving his intention, counter- 
feited great confusion, and addressed him in the following 
manner: '< Your highness will not be surprised, I trusty 
at seeing me tremble in your presence at the head of a 
company of peaceful priesu ; I should tremble still more, 
if I was at the head of 30,000 soldiers." He manifested a 
contempt of fanaticism, as well as of decorum, by his 
'^ Historia Flagellantium, &c." or, an account of the ex* 
travagant, and often indecent, practice of discipline by 
flagellation, in the popish church. It was translated 
into French ; and not many years ago {vis. 1777, 4to. and 
again in 1782, Svo.) by M. de Lolme, into English. In 
his treatise ** De antiquo jure presbyterorum in regimine 
ecclesiastico," he endeavours to shew, that in the primi- 
tive times the priests participated with the bishops in the 
government of the church. He was also the author of se- 
veral other publications, displaying much curious learning 
and a satirical turn, --which are now consigned to oblivion. 

GihLES, the eldest brother of Boileau Despreaux, was 
bom iu 163], and had a place in the king's household. 
He was a man of wit and learning, and published a trans- 
lation of Arrian's Epictetus, with a life of the philosopher, 
Paris, 1655, dvo. He also published a translation of Dio-- 
genes Laertius, 1668, in 2 vols. 12mo; and two disserta- 
tions against Menage and Costar. His << Posthumous 
Works" were published in 1670. He also wrote verses» 
in no high ^timation. * 

BOILEAU (John JaM£S), canon of the church of St. 
Honors at Paris^ was of the diocese of Agen, in whiqh he 

1 IVAlembert's Eulogies train Uted by Aikio, 8 T»lt. 8vo.-«4kB* jAcL'^Wu* 
tm*! Eftay oil Pope^ He and pict, Hift, 

1^ B O t L £ A U. 

45njoyed a curacy. The delicacy of his constitution having 
obliged him to quit it, he repaired to Paris. The cardinal 
de Noailles afforded him many marks of his esteem. He 
died the 10th of March, 1735, aged 86. There are by 
him, 1. Letters on various subjects of morality and devo- 
tion, 2 vols. l2mo. 2. The life of the da|hess of Lian- 
court, and that of madame Comb^, supert(^ of the house 
of the Bon Pasteur. All these works evince a fuqd of 
sense and good sentiments ; but his style is too much in- 
flated. ^ 

BOINDIN (Nicholas), born at Paris in 1676, the son 
of an attorney in the ofRce of the finances, entered into the 
regiment of musqueteers in 1696. The weakness of hi» 
constitution, unable to resist the fatigues of the service, 
obliged him to lay down his arms and take to his »tadies. 
He was received in 1706 into the academy of inscriptions 
and belles-lettres, and would have been of the French 
academy, if the public profession he made of atheism had 
ftot determined his exclusion. He was afflicted towards 
the latter etid of his' days with a fistula, which carried hiin 
off the 30th of Nov. 1751, at the age of 75. He was de- 
nied the honours of sepulture;;, being inhumed the day 
following without ceremony rat three o clock in the morn- 
ing. M. Parfait the elder, who inherited the' works of 
Boindin, gave them to the public in 1753, in 2 vols, 12mo. 
In the first we have four comedies in prose : and a me- 
moir on his life and writibg^, composed by himself. This 
man, who plumed himself on being a philosopher, here 
gives himself, without scruple, all the praises that a dull 
l^negyrist would have found some difficulty in affording 
him. There is also by him a memoir, very circumstantial 
and very slanderous, in which he accuses, after a lapse of 
forty years, la Motte, Saurin, and MalafFaire a merchant, 
of having plotted the stratagem that caused the celebrated 
and unhappy Bousseau to be Condemned. Boindin, though 
an atheist, escaped the punishment due to his arrogance, 
because, in the disputes between the Jesuits and their ad- 
▼ersaries, he used frequently to declaim in the coffee- 
houses against the latter. JVI. de la Place relates, that he 
said to a man who thought like him, and who was threatv 
cned for his opinions, " They plague you, because yoi^ 
Itfe a JaAsenistic atheist ; but they let me alonte, becauso 

» JE>ict. Hist.— Morcri. 

B O I N P'l N, i< 

I am ft Molimstic atbeist.^^ Not that he lacUnedmore t^ 
Molina than to Jansenius ; but he found that be should get 
more by speaking in behalf of those that were then in 
favour. * 

BOIS (Gerard du), of the Oratory, a native of Orleans, 
was born in 1629, and died July 15, 1696. lie sycce€ida4 
father le Cointe his friend in the place of librarian^ to the 
house of St. Honors, and inherited his papers, which were 
not useless in his hands. He revised the eighth volume of 
« the '* Ecclesiastical Annals of France," and published it in 
1683. This work procured hioi a pension of a thousand 
livres granted him by the clergy. He afterwards under* 
took, at the entreaty of Harlay, archbishop of Paris^ the 
History of that church ; 1 6£r0, 2 vols, folio. The se;con4 
did not appear till ;eight years afiier his death, by the car# 
of father de la Rippe, and father Desmolets of the oratory. 
Be frequently mingles civU with ecclesiastical historj) and 
these digressions have lengthened his work ; but they have 
also diversified it. The dissertations with which be has 
accompanied. it evince great sagacity in discerning what is 
true irom what is false. His history is written in . Latiu^ 
and the style is pure and elegant. * 


BOISROBERT (Francois Metel oe), of the French 
academy^ to the. establishment whereof he contributed 
greatly, abbot of Chatilly-sur* Seine, was born at Caen in 
1592^ and died in 1662. He was remarkably brilliant in 
conversation, but with his natural and borrowed powers 
often repeating scraps from many of the tales ot Boc* 
cace, of Beroald^^md especially the ^' Moyen de parvenir'* 
of the latter. His hnagination, fostered early by the 
writings of all the facetious authors, furnished him with the 
means of aipusing and of exciting laughter. Citois, first 
physician to the cardinal de Richelieu, used to say to that 
mj^ister, when he was in^isposed^ '^ Mons^gneur, all our 
Anpsare of no avail, unless you mix with ,them a dram oC 
BMsrobert." The cardinal for a long time was never 
happy without his company and jokes, and employed him 
as ins buflFoQn* When Boisrob^ert fell into disgrace with 
the cardinal^ he had recourse to Cit^i^ who put at the 
Vottom of his paper to the cardinitl, as* if it had been a pre- 
%c^2^wXf, REQlPfi Boi$apB£RT. Ij^his jest had its effect^ 


by causing him to be recalled. — Boisrobert publishe<ly 
]. Divers poems ; the first part 1647, 4to, and the second 
1659, 8vo. 2. Letters in the collection of Faret; 8vo. 
3. Tragedies, comedies, and tales, which bear the name 
of his brother Antoine ie Metel, sieur d^Ouvilie. 4. ^^ His« 
toire Indienne d*Anaxandre et d'Orasief' 1629, 8vo. 
5. " Nouvelles h^roiques," 1627, 8vo. His theatrical 
pieces, applauded by cardinal Richelieu and by some of 
his flatterers, are now totally forgot. All his friends, in- 
deed, were not flatterers, if the following anecdote may be 
relied on. Boisrobert, among his other follies, was a 
gamester, and on one occasion lost ten thousand crowns to 
the duke de Roquelaure, who loved money, and insisted 
upon being paid, Boisrobert sold all he had, which 
amounted to four thousand crowns, which one of his friends 
carried to the duke, telling hini, he must forgive the rest, 
and that Boisrobert, in return, would compose a panegy- 
rical ode upon him, which would certainly b^ a bad one. 
^ Now,'* added this friend, *^ when it is known that your 
grace has rewarded a paltry piece with six thousand crowns, 
every one will applaud your generosity, and will be anxious 
to know what you would have given for a good poem.^* 
It is most to his honour, however, that he contributed to 
the establishment of the French academy, and always em- 
ployed his interest with cardinal Richelieu in behalf of men 
of merit. * 

BOISSARD (John James), a famous French antiquary, 
was born at Besanfon, 1528, and published several collec- 
tions, which tend to illustrate the Roman antiquities, on 
which he had bestowed great attention, having drawn plans 
of all the ancient monuments in Italy, and visited all the 
antiquities of the isles of Corfu, Cephalonia, and Zante. 
He went also to the Morea, and would have proceeded to 
Syria, had be not been prevented by a dangerous fever, 
which seized him at Metbone. Upon bb return to his own 
country, he was appointed tutor to the sons of Anthony de 
Vienne, baron de Clervaut, with whom he travelled into 
Germany and Italy. He bad left at Montbeliard his anti- 
quities, which he bad been collecting with so much pains ; 
and had the misfortune to lose them all when the people 
of Lorraine ravaged Franche Comt6. He had now none 
left except those which be bad transported to Metz, where 

1 Moreri.-^-Dict Hitt— Biof. OaHica, vol. K^-BalUet Ju^ment dte ^v«iig» 

B O I S S A R D. 15 

he himself bad retired ; but as it was well known that he 
intended to publish a large collection of antiquities, there 
were sent to him from all parts many sketches and draughts 
of old monuments, by which means he was enabled to fa- 
vour the public with bis work, entitled, *^ De Roman® 
urbis topographia et antiquitate.** It consists of four vo* 
lumes in folio, which are enriched with several prints, by 
Theodore de Bry and his sons, 1597— >1 602. He pub* 
lished also the lives of many famous persons, with their 
portraits, entitled, << Theatrum vitis human*je,'' divided into 
four parts, in 4to : the first printed at Francfort, ] 597 ; 
the second and third in 1598; and the fourth in 1599. 
His treatise, ^* De divinatione et magicis pnestigiis,*' was 
not printed till after his death, which happened at Metz, 
Oct. 30, 1602.' There have been two editions of it: one 
at Haitiau in 1611, 4 to; another at Oppenheim in 1625, 
folio. He wrote also a book of ^* Emblems,'* with de Bry^s 
engravings, Fraricfort, 1595, 4to; ** Parnassus Biceps," 
ibid, 1627, fol. a very rare book ; and '^ Habitus variaruxn 
orbis gentium,'' 1581, fol. with plates. He published also 
some " Poemata, Epigrammata, &c.'' 1574, 16mo; but 
these are not so much esteemed as his other performances. 
His adventure in a garden of cardinal Carpi at Rome, 
shews him a genuine antiquary. This garden was full of 
ancient marbles, and situated on the Mons Quirinalis* 
Boissard went thither one day with his friends, and imme- 
diately parted from them, let them return home, and con- 
cealed himself in some of the alleys. He employed the 
rest of the day in copying inscriptions and drawing the 
monuments ; and as the garden gates were shut, he staid 
there all night. The next morning, the cardinal, finding 
him at this work, could not imagine how a stranger should 
get into his garden at an unseasonable hour ; but when he 
knew the reason of Boissard's staying there all night, he 
ordered him a good breakfast, and gave him leave to 
copy and draw whatsoever he should think curious in his 
palace. ^ 

BOISSI (Louis de), a celebrated French comic writer 
of natire wit and genuine humour, was born at Vie in 
AuFergne in 1694. He came early to Paris, and began to 
write for the stage. The rest of his life is a moral. As 
1113 often been the fate of extraordinary favourites of the 

* Horeri—Dict Hist.— aem. Diet.— Baillet Jmgmaett de SAT^iu.<i-S«»i 

16 B O I S 3 L 

musedy thou^ he laboured incessantly for the public^ bi9 
works procured hi.m only a competency of fame — he 
wanted bread, and while the theatres and coffee-houses of 
Paris were ringing with plaudits on his uncommon talents 
to promote their mirth, he was languishing, with a wife 
and child, under the pressures of the extremest poverty. 
Yet, melancholy as his situation was, he lost nothing of 
that pride, which forbid him to creep and fawn at the feet 
of a patron. Boissi had friends, who would readily have 
relieved him ; but they were never made acquainted with 
his real condition, or had not that friendly impetuosity 
which forces assistance on the modest sufferer. He at 
length became the prey of distress, and sunk into despon* 
dency. The shortest way to rid himself at once of his 
load of misery seemed to him to be death, on which he 
speculated with the despair of a man who has none of the 
consolations of religion. His wife, who was no less weai^ 
of life, listened with participation as often as he declaimed^ 
in all the warmth of poetic rapture, on the topic of deliver* 
ance from this earthly prison, and the smiling prospects of 
futurity ; till at length she took up the resplution to ac« 
company him in death. But she could not bear to think 
of leaving her beloved son, of five years old, in a world of 
misery and sorrow; it was therefore agreed to take the 
child along with them, on their passage into another and a 
better, and they made choice of starving. To this end, 
they shut themselves up in their solitary and deserted 
apartment, waiting their dissolution with immovable forti-* 
tude. When any one came and knocked^ they fled trem-» 
bifng into a comer, for fear of being discovered. Their 
little boy, who had not yet learned to silence the caUs of 
hunger by artificial reasons, whimpering and crying, asked 
for bread ; but they always found means to quiet him. 

It occurred to one of Boissi's friends, that it was very 
extraordinary he should never find him at home. At first 
he thought the family had changed their lodgings ; but, oa 
assuring himself of the contrary, he began to be alarmed. 
He called several times in one day, and at last burst open 
the door, when he saw his friend, with his wife and son^ 
extended on the bed, pale and eo^aciated, scarcely able tq 
utter a sound ! The boy lay in the middle, and the hus- 
band and wife had their arms thrown over him. The ^chiI4 
stretched out his little hands towards his deliverer, and his 
first word was— Bread ! It was now the third day that not 


B O I S S I. It 

atDorsel of food had entered bis lips. The parents lay 
«ull in a perfect stupor ; tbey bad never heard the bursting 
open of the door, and felt nothing of the embraces of their 
agitated friend. Their wasted eyes were directed towards 
the boy \ and the teuderest expressions of pity were in the 
look with which they bad last beheld him, and stilLsaw 
him dying. Their friend hastened to take measures for 
their recovery ; but could not succeed without difficulty. 
They thought themselves already far from the troubles of 
life, and were terrified at being suddenly brought back to 
them. Void of sense and reflection, they submitted to the 
attempts that were made to recall them to life. At length 
a thought occurred to tbeir friend, which happily sue* 
ceeded. He took the child from their arms, and thus 
roused the last spark of paternal and maternal tenderness. 
He gave the child to eat ; who, with one hand held his 
bread, and with the other akernaiely shook his father and 
mother. It seemed at once to rekindle the love of life in 
their hearts, on perceiving that the child had left the bed 
and tbeir embraces. Nature did her ofBce. Their friend 
proQared them strengthening broths, which he put to tbeir 
lips with the utmost caution, and did not leave them till 
every symptom of restored life was fully visible. 

This transaction made much noise in Paris, and at length 
reached the ears of the marchioness de Pompadour. Boissi's 
deplorable situation moved her She immediately sent 
him a hundred louis-d^ors, and soon after procured him 
the profitable place of editor of the Mercure de France, 
with a pension for his wife and child, if they outlived him. 
— His (£uvres de Theatre^ are in 9 vols. 8vo. His Italian 
comedy, in which path he is the author of numerous pieces, 
has not the merit of the above. His early satires, of which 
he had written many, being remembered, prevented bis 
admission into the French academy till he was sixty years of 
age, though be was well entitled to that honour, by hi$ 
labours and talents, twenty years sooner. He died April, 
1658, complaining in his last moments, that his misery 
was not shortened by an earlier death, or bis felicity ex« 
tended by longevity. * 

BOIVIN (Fkancis de), baron of Villars, bailif of Gex, 
in which office he was living in 1618, maitre d'hotel to 

' Diet. Hist. — D^AlemHert's Hist, of Uie Members of the French Academy.— 
Cbaofepje.— Hi^ory of tbe Marchiouest de Pompadour, Part ill. Lund. 19mo. 

Vou VL C 

18 B o I V I n: 

queen dowager Louisa of France, was also secretary to tbe 
niarecbal de Brissac, and accompanied him into Pigment 
under Henry IL We have by bim, ^^L'Histoire des Guerres 
de Pi^monty depuis 1550 jusqu'en 1561 ;" Pahs, 1607, 
4to, and 8vo. This histonan is neither elegant nor accu- 
rate in general ; but be may be consulted with safety on 
tbe exploits that passed under his own observation. Boi« 
▼in died very old, but at what time is not known. Hi& 
History, continued by CI. Malinger, appeared in 1630, 
2 vols 8vo. ' 

BOIVIN (John), professor of Greek in the royal coU 
lege of Paris, was born at Montreuil PArgil^, in Upper 
^ormandy. Being sent for to Paris by his elder brother, 
young Boiviu soon made great progress in literature, in 
tbe languages, and especially in the knowledge of tbe 
Greek. He died October ^ 9, 1726, aged 64, member of 
tbe French academy, and of that of belles lettres, and 
keeper of the king^s library. He profited by this literary 
treasure, by drawing from it a variety of information, and 
to a great extent In his private character he was of 
gentle manners, and truly amiable. He wrote, i. '^ The 
Apology for Homer, and the Shield of Achilles, in 12mo» 

2. Translation of the Batrachomyomacbia of Homer into 
French verse, under his name Latinised into Biberimero* 

3. The (£dipus of Sophocles, and the Birds of Aristo* 
phanes, translated into French, in 12mo. 4. Pieces of 
Greek poetry. 5. The edition of the '^ Mathematici ve* 
teres,^' 1693, in folio. 6. A Latin life of Claude le Pele- 
tier, in 4to, written in a style rather too inflated. 7. A 
translation of the Byzantine history of Nicephorus Gre<* 
goras, correct, elegant, and enriched with a curious pre*' 
face, and notes replete with erudition. * 

BOIVIN (Louis), brother to the preceding, a distin- 
guished scholar and pensionary of the academy of belles 
lettres, was born at Montreuil TArgil^, and educated, first 
under the Jesuits at Rouen, and afterwards at Paris, where 
he settled. His acquirements in literature were various 
and extensive ; but his temper, according to his own ac- 
count, was intractable and unsocial, enterprising, vain, and 
versatile. He was employed by several eminent magis- 
trates as the associate and director of their private studies ; 
but tbe litigiousness of his disposition involved him in 

> Moreri.— Pict. Hist • Ibid. 

fi O I V I M. 19 

great trouble and expence. He publbhed sottie learned 
dissertations on historical subjects, in the ^^ Memors of 
the Academy of Belles Lettres/' and made great progress 
towards a new edition of Josephus. He died in 1724^ ^g^ 
75 years. ^ 

BOLD (John), a pious and useful clergyman of Leices^ 
tershire, was born at Leicester in 1679, and at the age of 
fifteen had made such progress in letters as to be matricu- 
lated at St. John's college, Cambridge. Having taken thcj 
degree of B. A. in 1698, he retired to Hinckley in Leices- 
tershire, where he engaged in teaching a small endowed 
school, and retained that employment until 1732, at the 
humble salary of le/. per annum. At the usual age, he 
was admitted into holy orders to serve the curacy of Stoney 
Stanton near Hinckley. It appears from the parish regis-* 
ter, that he comtienced his parochial duties in May 1702 ; 
and the care of the parish was confided to hhn, his rector 
then residing on another benefice. His stipend was only 
30/. a year, as the living was a small one, being then in the 
open-field state. Nor does it appear that he had made 
any saving in money from the profits of his school — all the 
property he seems to have brought with him to his curacy 
was, his chamber furniture, and a library, more valuable 
for beiug select than extensive. When Mr. Bold was ex«* 
amined for orders, his diocesan (Dr. James Gardiner^ 
bishop of Lincoln) was so much pleased with his profi- 
ciency in sacred learning, that he had determined to make 
Mr. Bold his domestic chaplain : but the good bishop^s 
death soon after closed his prospect of preferment as soon 
as it was opened in that quarter ; and Mr. Bold framed his 
plan of life and studies upon a system of rigid opconomy 
and strict attention to his professional duties, which never 
varied durbg the fifty years he passed afterwards on his 
curacy. Remote from polished and literary society, which 
he was calculated both to enjoy and to adorn^ he dili« 
gently performed the duties of an able and orthodox 
divine; a good writer; an excellent preacher, and an 
attentive parish priest. He appears, from the eariy age of 
24 years, to have formed his plan of making himself a 
living sacrifice for the benefit of his flock ; and to have de- 
clined preferment (which was afterward offered to him) 
with a view of making his example and doctrine the more 

1 Monri.— DtcU Hiit, 
C 2 


20 BOLD. 

striking and effective, by his permanent residence and la*' 
hours in one find the sapie place. He appears to have be* 
gun his ecclesiastical labours in a spirit of self-denial, 
humility, chanty, and piety. He had talents that might 
have rendered him conspicuous any where, and an impres* 
sive and correct delivery. His life was severe (so far as 
respected himself) ; his studies incessant ; his spiritual 
labours for the church and his (lock, ever invariably the 
same. His salary, we have already mentioned, was only 
. 30/. a year, which was never increased, and of which he 
paid at firsts/, then ]2/. and lastly 16/. a year, for his 
board. It needs scarcely be said that the most rigid osco- 
nomy was requisite, and practised, to enable him to sub- 
sist; much more to save out of this pittance for beneficent 
purposes* Yet he continued to give away annually, 5/. ; 
and saved 5/. more with a view to more jpermanent chari- 
ties : upon the rest he lived. His daily iare consisted of 
water-gruel for his breakfast ; a plate from the farmer's 
table, with whom he boarded, supplied his dinner ; after 
dinner, one half pint of ale, of his own brewing, was hia 
only luxury ; he took no tea, and bis supper was upon 
milk-pottage. With this slender fare his frame Was sup- 
ported under the labour of his various parochial duties. In 
the winter, he read and wrote by the farmer's fire-side ; in 
the summer, in his own room. At Midsummer, he bor- 
rowed a horse for a day or two, to pay short visits beyond 
a walking distance. He visited all his parishioners, ex- 
horting, reproving, consoling, instructing them. 

The last six years of his life he was unable to officiate 
publicly ; and was obliged to obtain assistance from the 
Rev. Charles Cooper, a clergyman who resided in the 
parish on a sipall patrimonial property, with whom he di- 
vided his salary, making up the deficiency from his savings. 
Mr. Bold's previous saving of 5/. annually, for the pre- 
ceding four or five and forty years (and that always put out 
to interest) enabled him to procure this assistance, and to 
continue bis little charities, as well as to support himself, 
though the price of boarding was just doubled upon him 
from his first entrance on the cure, from Si. to 16/. a year* 
But, from the annual saving even of so small a sum as SL 
with accumulating interest during that term, he not only 
procured assistance for the last years of his life, but 
actually left by his will securities for the payment of be- 
quests to the amoimt of between two and three hundred 

BOLD. 21 

pounds: of which 100/. was bequeathed to some of his 
nearest relations ; 100/. to the farmer^s family in which he 
died, to requite their attendance in his latter end, and with 
which a sou of the family was enabled to set up in a little 
farm ; and 40/. more he directed to be placed oiit at inte- 
rest, of which inti*rest oue half is paid at Christmas to the 
poorer inhabitants who attend at church; and the other, 
for a sermon once a year, in Lent, '* on the duty of the 
people to attend to the instructions of the minister whom 
the bishop of the diocese should set over them.'' 

7'his very singular and exemplary clergyman, whose 
character it is impossible to contemplate without admira- 
tion, died Oct. 29, 1751. He wrote for the use of his 
parishioners the following practical tracts: 1. "The sin 
and danger of Mglectin^ the Public Service of the Church,*' 
1745, 8vo, one<)f the books distributed by the Society for 
promoting Christian knowledge. 2. ** Religion the most 
delightful employment, &c»" 3. " The duty of worthily 
communicating. ' 

BOLEN, or BOLEYN (Anne), second wife of king 
Henry VIII. was born in 1507. She was daughter of sir 
Thomas Bolen, afterwards earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, duke of Nor- 
folk. W ben she was but seven years of age, she was carried 
over to France with the king's sister Mary, who was mar- 
ried to Lewis XII. And though, upon the French king's 
death, the queen dowager returned to England, yet Anne 
Bolen was so highly esteemed at the court of France, that 
Claude,, the wife of Francis I. retained her in her service 
for some years; and after her death in 1524, the duchess 
of Alenzon, the king's sister, kept her in her court during 
her stay in that kingdom. It is probable, that she returned 
from thence with her father, from his embassy in 1527; and 
was soon preferred to the place of maid of honour to the 
queen. She continued without the least imputation upon 
her character, till her unfortunate fall gave occasion to 
some malicious writers to defame her in all the parts of it. 
Upon her coming to the English court, the lord Percy, 
eldest son of the earl of Northumberland, being then a 
domestic of cardinal Wolsey, made his addresses to her, 
and proceeded so far, as to engage himself to marry her ; 
and her consent shews, that she had then no aspirings to 

1 Nichols's Hift. of Leicestenhire, vol. IV. Part II. 

22 B O L E N. 

the crown. But the cardinal, upon some private reasons, 
using threats and other methods, with great difficulty put 
an eud to that nobleman's design. It was probably about 
1528, that the king began to shew some favour to her, 
which caused many to believe, that the whole process with 
regard to his divorce from queen Catherine was moved by 
the unseen springs of that secret passion. But it is not rea« 
^onable to imagine, that the engagement of the king's affec«» 
tion to any other person gave the rise to that affair ; for so 
sagacious a courtier as Wolsey would have infallibly dis« 
covered it, and not have projected a marriage with the 
French king's sister, as he did not long before, if he had 
seen bis roaster prepossessed. The supposition b much 
more reasonable, that his majesty, conceiving himself in a 
inanner discharged of his former marriage, gave a full 
liberty to his affections, which began to settle upon Mrs. 
Bolen ; who, in September 1532, was created marchioness 
of Pembroke, in order that she might be raised by degrees 
to the height for which she was designed ; and on the 25 th 
pf January following was married to the king, the office 
being performed by Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of 
Coventry and Lichfield, with great privacy, though in the 
presence of her uncle the duke of Norfolk, her father, 
mother, and brother. On the 1st of June, 1533, she was 
crowned queen of England with such pomp and solemnity, 
as wa& answerable to the magnificence of hb majesty's 
temper ; and every one admired her conduct, who had so 
Jong managed the spirit of a king so violent, as neither to 
surfeit himwith too much fondness, nor to provoke with too 
much reserve. Her being so soon with child gave hopes of 
a numerous issue ; and those, who loved the reformation, 
entertained the greatest hopes from her protection, as they 
knew she favoured them. On the 13th or 14th of Septem-* 
ber following, she brought forth a daughter, christened 
Elizabeth, afterwards the renowned queen of England, 
Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, being her god-father. 
But the year 1536 proved fatal to her majesty ; and her 
ruin was in all probability occasioned by those who began 
to be distinguished by the name of the Romish party. For 
the king now proceeding both at home and abroad in the 
point of reformation, they found that the interest which 
the queen had in him was the grand support of that cause. 
She had risen, not only in his esteem, but likewise in that 
of the nsition in general; for in t)ie last niqe inon^ of 

3 O L E N. ^ 2S 

her life, she gave above fourteen thousand pomicis to the 
poor, and was engaged in several noble and public designs. 
But these virtues could not secure her against ^he artifices 
of a bigoted party, which received an additional force 
from sever&l other circumstances, that contributed to her 
destruction. Soon after queen Catharine^s death in Jan, 
1535-6, she was brought to bed of a dead son, which was 
believed to have made a bad impression on the king*s mind ; 
and aa he had concluded from the death of his sons by 
his former queen, that the marriage was displeasing to 
God, so he might upon this misfortune begin to have the 
same opinion of his marriage with queen Anne. It was 
aUo considered by some courtiers, that now queen Catha- 
rine was dead, his majesty might marry another wife, and 
be fnUy reconciled with the pope and the emperor, and 
the issue by any other marriage would never be questioned ; 
whereas, while queen Anne lived, the ground of the con- 
troversy still remained, and her marriage being accounted 
null from the beginning, would never be allowed by the 
court of Rome, or any of that party. With these reasons 
of state the king's own passions too much concurred ; for 
be now entertained a secret love for the lady Jane Sey- 
mour, who had all the charms of youth and beauty, and 
an humour tempered between the gravity of queen Catha- 
rine, and the gaiety of qpeen Anne. Her majesty there- 
fore perceiving the alienation of the king^s heart, used all 
.possible arts to recover that affection, the decay of which 
she was sensible of ; but the success was quite contrary to 
what she designed. For he saw her no more with those 
eyes which she had formerly captivated ; but gave way to 
jealousy, and ascribed her caresses to some other criminal 
passion, of which he began to suspect her. ^Her chearful 
temper indeed was not always limited within the bounds of 
exact decency and discretion ; and her brother the lord 
Rochford*s wife, a woman of no virtue, being jealous of 
her husband and her, possessed the king with her own ap- 
prehensions. Heiuy Norris, groom of the stole, William 
Brereton, and sir Francis Weston, who were of the king's 
privy chamber, and Mark Smeton, a musician, were by 
the queen's enemies thought too odicious about her ; and 
something was pretended to have been sworn by the lady 
Wingfield at her death, which determined the king : but 
the particulars are not known. It is reported likewise, 
that when die king held a tournament at Greenwich oo the 

24 B O L E N. 

1st of May, 1536, he was displeased at the queen for 
letting her handkerchief fall to one, who was supposed a 
favourite, and who wiped his face with it. Whatever the 
case was, the king returned suddenly from Greenwich to 
Whitehall, and immediately ordered her to be confined to 
her chamber, and her brotner, with the four persons above- 
mentioned, to be committed to the Tower, and herself to 
be sent after them the day foUowin^^. On the river some 
privy counsellors came to examine her, but she made deep 
protestations of her innocence ; and as she landed at the 
Tower, she fell down on her knees, and prayed Heaven 
*^ so to assist her, as she was free from the crimes laid to 
her charge.'' The confusion she was in soon raised a storm 
of vapours within her ; sometimes she laughed, and at 
other times wept excessively. She was also devout and 
light by turns ; one while she stood upon her vindication, 
and at other times confessed some indiscretions, which 
upon recollection she denied. All about her took advan- 
tage from any word, that fell from her, and sent it imme- 
diately to court. The duke of Norfolk and others, who 
came to examine her, the better to ntake discoveries, told 
her, that Norris and Smeton had accused her; which, 
though false, had this effect on her, that it induced her to 
own some slight acts of indiscretion, which, though no ways 
essential, totally alienated the king from her. Yet whe- 
ther even these small acknov^ledgmeots were real truths, 
or the eifecis of imagination and hysterical emotions, is 
very uncertain. On the 12th of May, Norris, Brereton, 
Weston, and Smeton, were tried in Westminster-hall. 
Smeton is said by Dr. Burnet to have confessed the fact ; 
but the lord Herbert's silence in this matter imports him to 
have been of a different opinion ; to which may be added, 
that Cromwell's letter to the king takes notice, that only 
some circumstances were confessed by Smeton. However, 
they were all four found guilty, and executed on the I7tb 
of May. On the 15th sf which month, the queen, and her 
brother the lord Rochford, were tried by their peers in 
the Tower, and condemned to die. Yet all this did not 
satisfy the enraged king, who resolved likewise to illegiti- 
mate his daughter Elizabeth ; and, in order to that, to an- 
nul his marriage with the queen, upon pretence of a pre- 
contract between her and the lord Percy, now earl of Nor- 
thumberland, who solemnly denied it ; though the queen 
. was prevailed upon to acknowledge, that there were some 

B O L E N. 25 

just and lawful impediments against ber marriage with the 
king ; and upon this a sentence of diyorce was pronounced 
by the archbishop, and afterwards confirmed in the convo« 
catfon and parliament. On the )9th of May, she was 
brought to a scaifold within the Tower, where she was 
prevailed upon, out of regard to her daughter, to make no 
reflections on the hardships she had sustained, nor to say 
any thing touching the grounds on which sentence passed 
against her ; only she desired, that ^' all would judge the 
best.'* Her head beidg severed from her body, they were 
both put into an ordinary chest, and buried in the chapel 
in the Tower. 

Her death was much lamented by many, as she bad been 
an eminent patroness of men of learning and genius, and 
in all other jespects of a most generous and charitable dis« 
position ; and it is highly probable, that, if she had lived, 
the vast sums of money, which were raised by the sup* 
pression of religious hojises, would have been employed in 
the promotion of the most public and valuable purposes. ' 

BOLLANDUS (John), a learned Jesuit, was born at 
Tillemont, in the Netherlands, Aug. 13, 1596, and at 
sixteen, a very usual a^^e, entered the society of the Je- 
suits, and soon became distinguished as a teacher, both in 
the Netherlands, and in other countries. What entitles 
him to notice here, is the share he had in that voluminous 
work, the ** Lives of the Saints," or " Acta Sanctorum.'* 
The history of this work is not uninterestnig, although the 
work iiself, otherwise than for occasional consultation, 
defies time and patience. The design of this vast collec- 
tion was first projected by father HesibertRoseweide, a 
Jesuit of the age of &ixty, and consequently too far ad- 
vanced to execute much of his plan, which was to extend 
no farther than eighteen volumes folio, a trifle in those 
days, had he begun earlier. In 1607, however, he began 
by printing the manuscript lives of some saints, which he 
happened to find in the Netherlands ; but death put an 
end to his labours in 1629. It was then entrusted to BoU 
landus, who was about rhis time thirty*four years of age, 
and who removed to Antwerp for the purpose. After exa- 
mining Roseweide's collections, he established a general 
correspondence over all Europe, instructing his friends to 

* BirchN LiTea, to Hoabraken*s Hsadg. — Tiodge*f Livei to Holbein's ditto.~- 
Burnet's Hist, nf the Rfformntion. — Rapin, Htinie, and Henry> Uitt. of Bng- 
land, tec. — ^Park*a editioo of Walpole't Royal and Noble Authoni. 


•esreh every library/ register, or repository of any land, 
where informatiun uiight be found; but becoming soon 
sensible of the weight of his undertaking, he cailed in the 
assistance of another Jesuit, Henschenius of Gueiderlandy 
younger than himself, more healthy, and equally qualified 
in other respects. With this aid he was enabled in 1641 
to publish tiie first two volumes, folio, which contain the 
lives of the saints of the month of January, the order of 
the Kalendar having been preferred. In 1658 he pub<- 
lished tiiose of February ; and two years after, his labours 
still encreasingy he had another associate^ father Daniel 
Paperbroch, at that t;me about thirty-two years old, whom 
he sent with Henschenius to Italy and France to collect 
manuscripts, but he died before the publicatiou of another 
volume, Sept. 12, 1665. After his death the work was 
continued by various bands, called Bollandists, until it 
amounted to forty-two folio volumes, the last published 
1753, which, after all, bring down the lives only to the 
fourteenth of September. In such an undertaking, much 
legendary matter must be expected, and many absurdities 
and fictions. Dupin allows that Boliandus was more par* 
tial to popular traditions than Henschenius ancl Paperbroch, 
yet it would appear that they found it difficult to please 
the taste of the different orders of monks, &c. who were 
to be edified by the work. Boliandus published separately: 

1. " Vita S. Liboni Episcopi," Antwerp, 1648, 8vo. 

2. "Brevis Notitia Iialise," ibid. 1648. 3. " Breves No- 
titis tripUci status, Ecclesiastici, Monastic! et Ssecularis,'* 
ibid. 16 48 J 

BOLLIOUD-MERMET (Louis), a French writer, was 
born at Lyons, Feb. 13, 1709, of a distinguished family, 
and died there in 1793. He wrote, 1. ^^ De la corruption 
du gout dans la Musique Frangaise,*' 1745, 12mo. 2. <* De 
la BiBLiOMANifi,'' 1761, 8vo, a subject since so ably 
handled by Mr. Oibdin. 3. ^^ Discours sur I'Emulation," 
1763, dvo. 4. '* Essai sur la lecture," 1763, 8vo. He 
left in manuscript a history of the academy of Lyons, of 
which he was secretary, and after fifty years attendance at 
their sittings, pronounced a discourse entitled ^* Reno- 
vation des voeux litteraires," whiph was afterwards pub* 

1 Dupin. — ^Morcri. — ^Foppen Bibl. Belgic— Sazii Onomast. 
t Diet Hist 

B O L S E C. . 27 


BOLSEC (Jerome), a writer, .whose whole merit was 
iuventing abominable lies and absurdities agaiost the first 
reformers id the sixteenth century ; and, by this means 
supplying popish missionaries with matter of invective 
against tl^m, be was often quoted, and became respected* 
He was a Carmelite of Paris, who, having preached some- 
what freely in St. Bartholomew's church, forsook his order, 
and Bed into Italy,/ where he set up for a physician, 
and married; but soon after committed some crime, for 
which be was driven away. He set up afterwards in 
Geneva as a physician; but not succeeding in that 
profession, he studied divinity. At first he dogma* 
tized privately on the mystery of predestination, ac- 
cording to the principles of Pelagius; and afterwards 
had the boldness to make a public discourse against 
the received opinion. Upon this, Calvin went to see 
hioi, and censured him mildly. Then be sent for him 
to bis house, and endeavoured to reclaim him from his 
error ; but this did not hinder Bolsec from delivering in 
public an insulting discourse against the decree of eternal 
predestination. Calvin was among his auditors; bnl, 
hiding himself in the erowd, was not seen by Bolsec, 
which made him the bolder. As soon as Bolsec had ended 
his sermon, Calvin stood up, and confuted all he had been 
saying. ^* He answered, overset, and confcHinded him,'' 
says Beza, *^ with so many testimonies from the word of 
God, with so many passages, chiefly from St. Augustine-— i 
in short, with so many solid arguments, that every body 
was miserably ashamed for him, except the brazen-fticed 
monk himself.'' On this, - a magistrate who was present 
in that assembly, sent him to prison. The cause was dia- 
cussed very fully, and at last, with the advice of the Swiss 
churches, the senate of Geneva declared Bolsec convicted 
of sedition and Pelagianism; and as such, in 1551, ba- 
nished him from the territory of the republic, on pain of 
being whipped if he should return thither. He retired 
into a neighbouring place, which depended on the canton 
of Bern, and raised a great deal of disturbance there, by 
accusing Calvin of making God the author of sin. Calvin, 
to prevent the impressions which such complaints might 
make upon the gentlemen of Bern, caused himself to be 
deputed to them, and pleaded his cause before them. He 
was so fortunate, that though he could not get a deter- 

fi« B O L S E C. 

mination upon his doctrine, wnether it was true or false, 
yet Bolsec was ordered to quit tne country. 

He returned to France, and applied himself to the Pro- 
testants; first at Paris, afterguards at Orleans. He shewed 
m g' eat desire to be promoted to the ministry, and to be 
reconciled to the church of Geneva; but the persecution 
that arose against ttie Protestants, made him resolve to 
take up his first rehj^'.on, and the practice of pnysic. He 
went and settled at Autun, and prostituted his wife to the 
canons of that place ; and to ingratiate Himself the more 
with the Papists, ext rted a most flaming zeal against the 
reformed. He changed his habitation often : he lived at 
Lyons in 1582, as appears' by the title of a book, which 
he caused to be printed then at Paris against Beza, and 
died there in the same year. The book just mentioned is 
entitled ** The history of the life, doctrine, and behaviour 
of Theodorus Beza, called the spectable and great minister 
of Geneva." 1 his was preceded by the " History of the 
life, actions, doctrine, constancy, and death of John 
Calvin, heretofore minister of Geneva," which was printed 
at Lyons, in 1577. Both these histories are altogether 
unworthy of credit, as well because they are written by an 
author full of resentment, as because they contain facts 
notoriously false. ' 

BOLSWERT, or BOLSUERD (Boetius Adam a^), 
was an engraver, of Antwerp, who flourished about 1620; 
but by what master he was instructed in the art of en- 
graving, does not appear. He imitated the free open 
style of the Bloemarts with great success ; and perhaps 
perfected himself in their school. When he worked from 
Rubens, he altered that style ; and his plates are neater, 
fuller of colour, and more highly finished. The two fol- 
lowing from this master may be here mentioned : 1. The 
Resurrection of Lazarus, a large upright plate. 2. The 
Last Supger, its companion. Basan, speaking of this print, 
says, that it proves by its beauty, and the knowledge with 
which it is engraved, that Boetius could sometimes equal 
bis brother Scheltius. * 

BOLSWERT, or BOLSUERD (Scheltius v), an ad- 
mirable engraver, was the brother of the preceding. The 
time of his birth and of his death, and the name of the 
master he studied under, are equally unknown. Bolswert, 

1 Gen. Diet— Mosbeim.— Mererk— Heza's life of Caltin.— ^kii Oiiomast. 
9 Striitt'f Dictionary. 


like his brother, worked Entirely with the graver. His 
general character as an an artist is well drawn by Basan, 
who says : *^ We have a large number of prints, which are 
held in great esteem, by this artist, from various masters ; 
bat especially from Rubens, whose pictures he has copied 
with ail possible knowledge, taste, and great elfev t. The 
freedom with which this excellent artist handled the graver, 
the picturesque roughness of etching, which he could 
imitate without any other assisting instrument, and the 
ability he possessed of distinguishing the different masses 
of colours, have always been admired by the connoisseurs, 
and give him a place. in the number of those celebrated 
engravers whose prints ought to be considered as models 
by all historical engravers, who are desirous of rendering 
their works as useful as they are agreeable, and of ac- 
quiring a reputation as lasting as it is justly merited." He 
drew excellently^ and without any manner of his own ; 
for his prints are the exact transcripts of the pictures he 
engraved from. His best works, though not always 
equally neat or finished, are always beautiful, and mani- 
fest the hand of the master. Sometimes we find his' en* 
gravings are in a bold, free, open style; as the Brazen 
Serpent ; the Marriage of the Virgin, &c. from Rubens. 
At other times they are very neat, and sweetly finished ; 
as, the Crowning with Thorns, and the Crucifixion, &c, 
from Vandyck. Mr. Strutt observes, that his boldest en- 
gravings are from Rubens, and his neatest from Vandyck 
and Jordan. How greatly Bolswert varied his manner of 
engraving appears from some prints, which, like the 
greater part of those of his brother Boetius, bear great re- 
semblance to the free engravings of tbe Bloemarts, and to 
those of Frederic Bloemart especially ;- and form a pare of 
the plates for a large folio volume entitled ^^ Academie die 
TEsp^e," by Girard Thibault of Antwerp, where it was 
published A.D. 1628; and to these he signs his name 
^^ Scheltius," and sometimes '^ Schelderic Bolswert,'' ad* 
ding the word Bnixelle. His works are pretty numerous, 
and his name is usually affixed to his plates in this manner: 
" S. A. Bolswert." * 

BOLTON, or BOULTON (Edmund), an ingenious 
writer and antiquary, in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was a retainer to the great George Villiers, duke 
ct Buckingham, under whom he probably enjoyed some 

> Strait's Dictionary. 


office. He was a Roman catholic ; and distingaished bim^ 
self by the following curious writings; l.^^Tbe Life of 
king Henry IL" intended to be inserted in Speed^s Chro* 
nicle; but the author being too partial to Thomas Becket, 
another life was written by Dr. Barcham. 2. ^< The Ele- 
ments of Armories/' Lond. IGIO, 4to» S. A poem upon 
the translation of the body of Mary queen of Scots, from 
Peterburgh to Westminster-abbey, in 1612, entitled " Pro- 
sopopcftia Basilica," a MS. in the Cottonian library. 4« 
An English translation of Lucius Florus's Roman History. 
5. *^ Nero Ciesar, or Monarchie depraved. An hIstoricalL 
worke, dedicated with leave to the duke of Buckingham, 
lordoadmiral," Lond. 1624, fol. This book, which con- 
tains the life c^ the emperor Nero, is printed in a neat 
and elegant manner, and illustrated with several curious 
medals. In recapitulating the affairs of Britain, from the 
time of Julius Csesar to the revolt under Nero, he relates 
the history of Boadicea, and endeavours to prove that 
Stonehenge is a monument erected to her memory. Howr 
much he differs from the conjectures of the other anti- 
quaries who have endeavoured to trace the history of 
Stonehenge, it would be unnecessary to specify. He 
wrote also, 6. ^^Vindicise Britannic®, or London righted 
by rescues and recoveries of antiquities of Britain in gene- 
ral, and of London in particular, against unwarrantable 
prejudices, and historical antiquations amongst the learned ; 
for the more honour, and perpetual just uses of the noble 
island and the city.*' It consists of seven chapters. In 
the first, he treats *^ of London before the Britann rebells 
sackt and fired it in hatred and defiance of Nero.*' In the 
second he shows, that ^^ London was more great and fiai- 
mous in Nero's days, than that it should be within the 
description, which Julius CsBsar makes 6f a barbarous Bri-> 
tann town in his days." In the third, he proves, '* that 
the credit of Julius Caesar's writings may subsist, and yet 
London retain the opinion of utmost antiquity." In the 
fourth, << the same fundamental assertion is upholden with 
other, and with all sorts of arguments or reasons." The 
fifth bears this title, ^ The natural face of the seat of 
London (exactly described in this section) most sufficiently 
proved, that it was most antiently inhabited, always pre- 
supposing reasonable men in Britain." The sixth contains 
'^ a copious and serious disquisition about the old book of 
Brute^ and of the authority thereof^ especially so far forth 

B O L T O N, SI 

as cpncenis the present cause of the honour and antiquity 

of London, fundamentally necessary in general to our na« 

tionai history." The last chapter is entitled, '* Special, as 

well historical, as other illustrations, for the use of the 

coins in oiy Nero Csesar, concerning London in and before 

that tioie." This MS. (for it never was printed) was in the 

poflsession of Hugh Howard, esq and afterwards sold among 

Thomas Rawlinsou's to Endymioii Porter. Mr Bolton was 

also author of *^ Hypercritica, or a rule of judgement for 

writing or reading our histories. Delivered in four super- 

censoriafi addresses hy occasion of a censorian epistle, 

prefixed by sir Henry Savile, knt. to his edition of some 

of our oldest historians in Latin, dedicated to the late 

queen Elizabeth. That according thereunto, a complete 

body of oar affairs, a Corpus Berurn Anglkaruyn may at 

last, and from among our ourselves, come happily forth in 

either of the tongues. A felicity wanting to our nation, 

DOW when even the name thereof is as it were at an end.*' 

It was published by Dr. Hall, at the end of <^ Txiveti An- 

uales,*' Oxford, 1722, 8vo. Bolton hkewise intended to 

compose a '* General History of England, or an entire and 

complete body of English affairs ;" and there is in the 

Cottonian collection, the outline of a book entitled *^ Agon 

Heroicus, or concerning Arms and Armories," a copy of 

which is in the Biog. Britannica. The time and place of 

his death are unknown. ^ 

BOLTON (HoBBRT), an eminent puritan divine, and 
one of the best scholars of his time, was born at Blackburn 
in Lancashire, in 1572, and educated in queen Elizabeth^s 
free*school in that place, where he made such proficiency 
as to be accounted a young man of extraordinary talents 
and industry. In his eighteenth year he went to Oxford, 
and entered of Lincoln college, under the tuition of Mr. 
John Randal, where he went through a course of logic and 
philosophy with distinguished approbation, and particu* 
larly took pains to acquire a critical knowledge of Greek, 
transcribing die whole of Homer with his own hand. By 
this diligence he attained a greater facility than was then 
usual, writing, and even disputing, in Greek with great 
correctness and fluency. From Lincoln he removed to 
Brazeo-nose, in hopes of a fellowship, as that society con- 

1 Biog. Brit-.Wvtoii>s Hilt of Poetry, rol. III. p. 81^^78.— Ritson't 



ftisted most of Lincolnshire and Cheshire men. In 159^ 
he took his bachelor's degree in this college, and was 
kindly supported by Dr. Brett of Lincoln, himself a good 
Grecian, and who admired the proficiency Bolton had 
made in that language, until 1602, when he obtained a 
fellowship, and proceeded M. A. the same year. His re- 
putation advancing rapidly, he was successively chosen 
reader of the lectures on logic, and on moral and natural 
philosophy in his college. In 1605, when king James 
came to Oxford, the vice-chancellor (Abbot, afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury) appointed him to read in natural 
philosophy in the public schools, and to be one of the 
disputants before his majesty. Afterwards he increased 
his stock of learning by metaphysics, mathematics, and 
scholastic divinity. .About this time, one Anderton, a 
countryman and schoolfellow, and a zealous Roman ca- 
tholic, endeavoured to seduce him to that religion, and a 
place of private conference was fixed, but Anderton not 
keeping his appointment,' the affair dropped. Mr. Bolton, 
with ail his learning, had been almost equally noted for 
immorality, but about his thirty-fourth year, reformed his 
life and manners, and became distinguished for regularity 
and piety. In 1609, about two years after he entered into 
holy orders, which be did very late in life^ he was pre- 
sented to the living of Broughton in Northamptonshire, by 
Mr. afterwards sir Augustine Nicolls, serjeant at law, who 
sent for him to his chambers in Seijeant's kin and gave 
him the presentation. Dr. King, bishop of London, being 
by accident there at the same time, thanked the seijeant 
for what he had done for Broughton, but told him that he 
bad deprived the university of a singular ornament. He 
then went to his living and remained on it until his death, 
Dec. 17, 1631. He was, says Wood, a painful and con- 
stant preacher, a person of great zeal in his duty, cha- 
ritable and bountiful, and particularly skilled in resolving 
the doubts of timid Christians. Of his works, the most 
popular in his time, was ** A Discourse on Happiness.'* 
Lund. 1611, 4to, which was eagerly bought up, and went 
through six editions at least in his life-time. He published 
also various single and volumes of sermons, a list of which 
may be seen in Wood. After his death Edward Bagshaw, 
esq. published ^^ Mr. Bolton's last and learned work of the 
Four last Things, Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven, 
with an Assize Sermon, and Funeral Sermon for his patron 


Judge KichoU^'^ Load. 1633. Ptefixed to this is the life 
of Mr. Bokoii, to which ail bis subsequent biographers 
have been indebted. ' 

BOLTON (Robert), dean of Carlisle, was botn in Lon« 
don in April 1697, and was the only surviving child of 
Mr. John Bolton, a merchant in that city, whom he lost 
when he was but three years 'old. He was first educated in 
a school at Kensington, and was admitted a commoner at 
Wadham college, Oxford, April 1 2, 1 7 1 2. He was after^ 
wards elected a scholar of that house, where he took his 
degreeof B. A. in 1715, and of M.A.June 13, 17 1 8^ ex- 
pecting to be elected fellow in his turn ; but in this he^was 
disappointed, and appealed, without success^ to the bishop 
of Bath and Wells, the visitor. In July 1719 he removed 
to Hart Hall ; and on the 20th December following, was 
ordained a deacon, in the cathedral church of St Paul, by 
J3r. John Robinson, bishop of London. He then went to 
reside at Fulham> and seems to have passed two years'tbere : 
for he was ordained priest by the same bishop in the cha- 
pel of Fulham palace, April 11, 1721. While at Fulham 
he became acquainted with Mrs. Grace Butler of Kowdell 
in Sussex, on whose daughter Elizabeth he wrote an epi- 
taph, which is placed in Twickenham church-yard, where 
she was buried. This epitaph gave occasion to some verses 
by Pope, which appear in HufFhead^s life of that poet, 
and were communicated to the author by the hon. Mr. 
Yorke, who probably did not know that they first appeared 
in the Prompter, a periodical paper. No. VIIL and after- 
wards in the.woirks of Aaron Hill, who by mistake ascribes 
the character ibf Mrs. Butler to Pope. 

Being chosen senior fellow of Dulwich college, he went 
to reside there^ March 10, 1722, where he remained three 
years, and resigned his fellowship Mav 1, 1725. About 
this time he removed to Kensington, hving upon a small 
fortune be possessed ; and here he appears to have become 
acquainted with the celebrated Whiston ; and partly, as it 
b said, by his recommendation^ became known to sir Jo- 
seph Jekyll, master of the rolls, by whom he was ap- 
pointed his domestic chaplain, and, in 1729, preacher at 
the Rolls, on the resignation of Dr. Butler, afterwards 
bishop of Dorham. .This connection introduced him to 

1 life nbl tapra>— pAUi. Ox. I. — Fuller's Worthies and Abel KediviTiii.— 
Cork's EecL HUtory.— Granfer, aid a blunder Gomroiued by bim corrected m 
BenL Mag. vol XLVIU. p. 75. 

Vol. VL D 


the patronage of lord Hardwicke, by whose means, in 1734^ * 
he was promoted to the deanery of Carlisle, and, in 1738, 
to the vicarage of St Mary*s Reading. He had his degree 
of doctor of civil law from the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Jan. 13, 1734| and went to reside at Carlisle in 1736. Both 
these preferments, the only ones he ever received, he held 
until the time of his death. He waa an excellent parish-^ 
priest, and a good preacher, charitable to the poor, and 
having from his own valetudinary state acquired some know- 
ledge of physic, he kindly assisted them by advice and 
medicine. He was greatly beloved by his parishioners, 
and deservedly ; for he performed every part of his duty 
in a truly exemplary manner. On EasterTuesday in L739 
he preached one of the spital sermons at St. Bride's, Fleet* 
street, which was afterwards printed in 4to, but we dv 
not find that he aspired to the character of an author, 
though so well qualified for it, until late in life. His first 
performance was entitled ^* A Letter to a lady on Card- 
playing on the Lord's day, 8vo, 1748 ; setting forth in a 
lively and forcible manner the many evils attending the 
practice of gaming on Sundays, and of an immoderate at- 
tachment to that fatal pursuit at any time. In 1750 ap- 
peared *^ The Employment of Time, three essays,'^ 8vo, 
dedicated to lord Hardwicke ; the most popular of our 
author's performances, and, on its original publication, 
generally ascribed to Gilbert West. In this work two dis- ' 
tioguished and exemplary female characters are supposed 
to be those of lady Anson and lady Heathcote, lord Hard- 
wicke's daughters. The next year, 1751, produced ^* The 
Deity's delay in punishing the guilty considered on the 
principles of reason," 8vo; and in 1755, <* An answer to 
the question, Where are your arguments against what you 
call lewdness, if you can makb no use of the Bible ?" 8vo. - 
Continuing to combat the prevailing vices of the times, he 
published in 1757, ^ A Letter to an officer of the army 
on Travelling on Sundays,** 8vo ; and, in the same year, 
** The Ghost of Ernest, great grandfather of her royal 
highness the princess dowager of Wales, with some ac- 
count of his life," 8vo« Each of the above performances 
contains good sense, learning, philanthropy, and religion, 
and each of them is calculated for the advantage of society. - 

The last work which Dr. Bolton gave the public was not 
the least valuable. It was entided *^ Letters and Tracts on 
the Choice of Company, and other subjects/' 1761, 8vo. 


This he dedicated to his early patron, lord Hardmcke, to 
whom he had inscribed The Etnployment of Time, and 
who at this period was no longer chancellor. In his address 
to this nobieman he says, *^ An address to yoar lordship on 
this occasion in the osual style would as ill suit your incli- 
nations as it doth my age and profession. We are both of 
us on the confines of eternity, and should therefore alike 
make truth our care, tiiiat truth which, duly influencing our 
practice, will be the security of our eternal happiness. 
Distinguished by my obligations to your lordship, I 
would be so by my acknowledgments of them : I would not 
be thought to have only then owned them when they might 
have b^n augmented. Whatever testimony I gave df 
respect to you when in the highest civil office under your 
prince, I would express the same when you have resigned 
it; amd shew as strong an attachment to lord Hardwicke as 
I ever did to the lord chancellor. Receive, therefore, 
a tribute of thanks, the last which I am ever likely in this 
manner to pay. But I am hastening to my grave, with a 
prospect which must be highly pleasing to me, unless di- 
vested of all just regard to those who survive me.*' 

Dr. Bolton was originally of a valetudinarian habit, 
though he preserved himself by temperance to a consi- 
derable age. In the preface to the work now under con- 
aideration, he speaks of the feeble frame he with so much ^* 
diflBcnIty supported ; and afterwards says, << My decay Is 
now such, that it is with what I write as with what I act ; 
I see in it the &ults which I know not how to amend.*' He 
however survived the publication of it two years, dying in 
London, where he came for Dr. Addington*s advice, on 
the 26th Nov. 1763, and was buried in the porch between 
the first and second door of the parish-church of St. Mary, 
Reading. Since his death a plain marble has been erected 
to his memory. 

Dr. Bolton was a very tall man, very thin, very brown. 
He understood well, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Ita- 
lian, and French. Mr. Whiston, jun. says that it was a 
long time before he could prevail on himself to subscribe 
to the thirty-nine articles for preferment ; but at last, as 
articles of peace, and so far as authorised by scripture, 
he did ; for it was generally supposed he did not approve * 
of all the Atbanasian doctrine. There is nothing of this, 
however, to be deduced from his works, ^ and he appears 
to have accepted his preferments when offered. He mar- 

D 2 


ried Mrs. Hoiroes, a widow-lady, with whom he lived 
about Xwenty-five years in great domestic happiness, but 
left no children by her. Besides the several performances 
already mentioned, he wrote and printed a ** Visitation 
sermon** in 1741 ; and under bis inspection, Mr. David 
Henfy, then printer at Reading, abridged ** Twenty Dis- 
courses** from Abp. Tillotson*s works, to which Dr. Bolton 
is said to have prefixed a preface, lind added a sermon of 
his own, but the sermon on Sincerity is supposed to have 
been abridged by Mr. Wray, his son-in-law. Mr. Wray, 
now rector of Darley, in Derbyshire, published ** A Ser- 
mon occasioned by the death of Robert Bolton, LL. D« 
&c.'* 1764, with an affectionate tribute to his memory. ^ 

BOLZANIO (Urbano Valeriako), one of the revivers 
of letters in the fifteenth century, was bom in 1440, and 
is said by his nephew Pietro Valeriano to have been the 
earliest instructor of Leo X. in the knowledge of the Greek 
tongue. Although an ecclesiastic of the order of St. Fran- 
cis, he quitted the walls of his monastery with the laudable 
curiosity of visiting foreign parts ; and, having had an 
opportuni^ of accompanying Andrea Gritti, afterwardsr 
doge of Venice, on an embassy to Constantinople, he thence 
made an excursion through Greece, Palestine, Egypt, 
Syria, Arabia, and other countries ; always travelling on 
foot, and diligently noting whatever appeared deserving of 
observation. His nephew adds, that he travelled also into 
Sicilv, where he twice ascended the mountain of £tna, 
and looked down its crater. The disinterestedness of Ur- 
bano is also strongly insisted on by his nephew, who in- 
forms us that he rather chose to suffer the inconveniencies 
of poverty, than to receive a reward for those instructions 
which he was at all times ready to give, and that he always 
persevered in refusing those honours and dignities which 
Leo X. would gladly have conferred upon him. His ac- 
tivity, temperance, and placid disposition, secured to him 
a healthful old age ; nor did he omit to make frequently 
excursions through Italy, until he was disqualified from 
these occupations by a fall in his garden whilst he was 
pruning his trees. His principal residence was at Venice, 
where he not only assisted Aldus in correcting the editions 
which he published of the ancient audiors, bat gave in- 

1 CoAtet't HitC. q( Re«ding.-~Former edition of thit Diet, priflcipall j from • 
MS mcoount by tbe late Mr. John Wbiiton. 


stnictioiM in the Greek language to a great number of 
scholars ; and there was scarcely a person in Italy distin- 
guished by his proficiency in that language who had not at 
some time been his pupil. His grammar, *' Urbani Gram* 
matica Graeca,'' Venice, 1497, 4to, was the first attempt 
to explain in Latin the rulea of the Greek tongue, and 
was received with such avidity, that Erasmus, on inquif ing 
for it in 1499, found that not a copy of the impression 
remained unsold. He died in the convent of St. Niccolo, 
at Venice, in 1524, and bequeathed to that convent his 
valuable library. His funeral oration, by. Alberto da Cas- 
telfranco, was printed at Venice in the same year, 4to. * 

BOMBEBG (Daniel), a celebrated printer of the six* 
teenth century, was a native of Antwerp, but fettled at 
Venice, where he commenced business by printing a He- 
brew Bible, which was published in 2 voli. fol. 1518, and 
eeprinted by bim in 4to and 8vo. He learned Hebrew 
from Felix Pratenois, an Italian, who engaged him to print 
a Rabbinical Bible, which appeared in 1517, fol. dedicated 
by Bomberg to Leo X. The Jews, bowever, not appro- 
ving of this edition, the rabbi Jacob Haum suggested an* 
other, which Bomberg published in 4 vols, fol, in 1525. He 
also, in 1520, began an edition of the Talmud, which he 
finished, after some years, in 11 vols, fol. This he re- 
printed twice, and each edition is said to have cost him an 
hundred thousand crowns. These two last editions are 
more complete and beautifully printed than the first, and 
are in more estimation than the subsequent editions of 
Bragadin and Burtorf. Bomberg appears to have been a 
man highly zealous for the honour of his art, spared no 
cost in embellishments, and is said to have retained about 
an hundred Jews as correctors, the most learned he could 
find. In printing only, in the course of his life, he is 
thou^t to have expended four millions in gold (Scaliger 
says, three millions of crowns), and Vossius seems to hint 
that he injured bis fortune by his liberality. He died at 
Venice in 1549.' 

BONA (JoflN), an eminent cardinal of the church of 
Rome, and author of several devotional pieces, was bom 
the 19th of October, 1609, at Mondovi, a little city in 
Piedmont^ of a noble family. Having finished his first 

> RoMoe's LeoX. 

* lloreri.--FoppeD, Bibl. Belg.^Lt Long, Bibl. Sac— Baillet Jugemeni des 
SsTanf..»Stxii Onomfttt. 


Studies with great success, he entered hiinsdf in a monas*- 
tery of the order of St. Bernard near Pignerol in July 1635, 
when he was but fifteen years of age» and was professed 
there the 2d of August the year following, according to 
Bertolot, who wrote his Life ; though Moroti, in ^^ Cistercii 
refiorescentis Historia/' places this in 1627. He was sent 
that year «to Monte Grosso near Asti to study philosophy^ 
and iiaving passed through a course of it, he returned to 
Pignerol, where he applied himself to divinity without the 
assistance of any master for two years, and afterwards went to 
Home to perfect himself in that science under a professor. 
Being ordained priest at the proper age, the sentiments of 
piety which had influenced him in his youth, and which 
appear through all his writings, were heightened and im- 
proved. Ue had been scarce three years in his course of 
divinity, when he was sent to Mondovi to teach it there. 
He had some reluctance against accepting of that post on 
account of his aversion to disputes ; but obedience, which 
was the rule of all his actions, obliged him to submit to i|. 
He was afterwards made prior of Asti ; and eight months 
after he was nominated abbot of the monastery of St. Mark 
at Mondovi ; but he was so importunate in his solicitations 
to the general of the congregation to he discharged from 
that office, that his request was granted. He was sent, 
therefore, to Turin, where he spent five years in collect- 
ing the materials for his book of Psalmody. He was after- 
wards appointed again prior of Asti, abbot of Mondovi, and 
general of his order in 1651. While he held the last post, 
be had occasion to speak with cardinal Fabio Chigi, who 
entertained a very great esteem for him, of which he af- 
terwards gave him signal proofs. When the time of his 
being general of the order was expired, he left Rome, and 
returning to Mondovi in order to profess divinity, cardinal 
Chigi, who was chosen pope under the name of Alexander 
Vn. appointed our author general of the order again of 
his own accord, the plague, which then n^ed in many 
^parts of Italy, preventing any assembly of the general 
chapter. He made him afterwards consultor of the con- 
gregation of the index, and then qualificator of the sacred 
office ; which place he resigned for that of consultor in 
the same court. The . pope» who had a particular friend- 
ship for him, and made him his confident in all his secrets, 
WQuld have raised him to the dignity of a cardinal, if the 
humility of Bona bad not prevented him. from accepting^ 

.BONA. 89 

kj and he bad not made use of his interest with the pope 
ip order to avoid it. But pope Clement IX. his successor, 
thought himself under an obligation to reward his virtues 
by making him a cardinal the 29tfa of November, accord- 
ing to Moroti, or of December, according to Bertolot, in 
1669. Upon the death of this pope, cardinal Bona was 
proposed to be elected his successor ; which gave occasion 
to this pasquinade, Papa Bona sarebhe solecisniOy upon 
which father Daugieres, the Jesuit, wrote an ingenious 
epigram, which our Latin readers are aware will not bear 
a translation : 

Grammaticse leges plemmque ecclesia spernit : 

Forte erit ut liceat dicere Papa Bona. 
Vana soloecismi ne te conturbet imago : 

Esset Papa bonu8» si Bona Papa f&et. 

He died at Rome the 20th of October, according to Ber- 
tolot, or the 28th of that montb, according to Moroti, in 
1674, being seventy-four years of age. He directed him- 
self, that he should be interred in the monastery of his 
own order, called St. Bernard at the Baths, with the fol- 
lowing inscription upon his tomb : ^^ D. O. M. Joannes 
Bona Pedemontanus, Congreg. Sancti Bernardi Monachus 
et hujus ecclesiss translalo hue titulo S. Salvatoris in Lauro, 
Primus Presbyter Cardinalis, vivens sibi posuit.^* Baillct, 
Labbe, and Sallo, bestow high praises on his principal work, 
** De Divina Psalmodia, deque variis ritibus omnium ec« 
desiarum in psallendis Divinis OfBciis,^* Rome, 1663, 4to, 
which includes a complete history of church music, and 
lias been often celebrated and quoted by musical writers. 
Yet Dr. Burney, an authority of great importance in ques- 
tions of this kind, informs us that he was constantly dis- 
appointed when he had recourse to it for information, as 
the author *' never mounts to the origin of any use that has 
been made of music in the church, or acquaints us in what 
it consisted,'*, and appears to have profited very little by 
the information which at that time must have been within 
his reach. His other distinguished work was '< Rerum Li- 
turgicarum. Lib. duo,** Rome, 1671, fol. and often re- 
printed. The best edition is that by Sala, printed at Tu- 
rin, in 3 vols. 4to, 1747 — 1753. In J 755 Sala added an- 
other volume of Bona*s select epistles with those of his 
porrespondents» The rest of his works are of the ascetic 
lund. He carried on a controversy for some time with 


40 3 O N A.. 

Mabillon concerning the copsecration of leavened or ua* 
leavened bread. ^ 

BONAMY (PETER-NfCHOLAs), a French antiquary and 
miscellaneous writer, was born at Louvres, in the district 
of Paris, in 1694, and educated for the ecclesiastical pro- 
fession; but^ devoting hiniseif entirely to literature, be 
became under-librariaQ pf St Victor, and distinguished 
both by the politeness of \ih manners, ^nd the variety a« 
well as assiduity of his studies. In 1727, he was admitted 
a member of the ^ademy of inscriptions and belies lettresy 
and made many y^uable cqntributiQns to its memoirs. Hia 
papers are charactfsifised by simple bu1» correct Unguage, 
variety of erudition, clearness of argument, and solidity 
of criticism. At the instigation of M. Turgot, a place was 
created of historiographer of Paris, and Bonamy being 
appointed to occupy it, w^ led to write various memoirs 
relative to the history and antiquities of the city ; and on 
occasion of the bequest of a curious library to the city^ he 
was made librarian. From the year 1747, he conducted thfi 
^^ Journal. of Verdun^' with the strictest propriety and de* 
coram, and indeed in every thing displayed candour and 
probity, as well as learning. He died at Paris in 1770.^ 

BONANNI (Philip), a learned Jesuit, who died'al 
Rome in 1725, at the age of eighty-seven, after having 
honourably filled different posts in his order, left several 
works of various kinds, principally relating to natural his- 
tory, which was his favourite pursuit He was engaged in 
1698 to put in order the celebrated cabinet of father Kir« 
cher ; and he continued to employ hiipseif in that biisiness 
and the augmentation of it till his death. The chief of his 
works are, I- ** Recreatio mentis et oculi in observatione 
Animalium Testaceorum,*^ Rome, 1684, 4 to, with near 6iX> 
figures. He first composed this book in Italian, and it wa^ 
printed in tbatl^guage in 1681 in 4to; and translated by 
the author into Latin for the benefit of foreigners, ^t 
** History of the Church of the Vatican ; with the plana 
both antient and modern," Rome, 1696, folio, in Latin* 
3. *^ Collection of the Medals of the popes, froni Martiii 
V. to Innocent XII." Rome, 1699, 2 vols» fol. in Latia. 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri. — Fabroni Vite Italoniin.r-BailUt Jugeomis 4» Sa« 
vans. — Bumey't Hist, of Music, vol. II. 

• Diet. Hist~*Re€i'a Cydopsdia.— Saxii Onomast where is a Kit of bii li» 
terary contributions. 

B O N A N N I. 41 

4. ** Catiilogue of the Orders^ Religious, Milttaiy, and 
Equestrian, with plates representing their several babili« 
ments/' in Latin and in Italian, Rome,1706,1707,17iO, and 
1711, 4 vo)s. 4to. The plates in particular render this last 
work highly interesting and much in request. 5. " Obser- 
Fationes circi viveutia in non viventibus,*' Rome, 1691, 
4to. 6. ** Mussum collegii Romani Kircherianum,*^ Rome, 
1709, fol. 7. << A Treatise on Varnishes," in Italian, Pa- 
ris, 1713, 12mo. 8. Gabinetto armonico,'' 1723, 4to. ' 

BONARELLI (Guy Ubaldo), was bom December 25, 
)563, at Urbino, of one of the most ancient and noble 
femilies m the city of Ancona, and was sent into France 
at the age of fifteen, to be educated suitably to his birth 
and the customs of that time. Bonarelli was but nineteen 
when he was oiFered a philosophical professorship of the 
Sorbonne, in the college of Csilvi ; but, his father having 
sent for him home, he was satisfied with having merited 
that honour, and declined accepting it. He attached him- 
self, for some time, to cardinal Frederick Borromeo (ne^^ 
phew of St. Charles Borromeo) who had a regard for men 
of letters, and who founded the famous Ambrosian library 
^ Milan. He went afterwards to Modena, to which place 
his father had removed. After his death, the duke Al- 
phonso, knowing the merit of Bonarelli, employed him in 
several important embassies, and the success of these ne- 
gociations proved how well they had been carried on. 
Bonarelli went to Rome with the hope of recovering the 
marquisate of Orciano, of which his father had been de« 
prived ; but an attack of the gout obliged him to stop at 
Fano, where he died January 8, 1608, aged forty-five, 
with the character of an able politician, a distinguished 
bel esprit, and a good philosopher for the age be lived in. 
The pastoral poem for which he is best known is entitled 
** Filli di Sciro,'* and was printed first at Ferrara, 1607, 
4to, with plates : there have been many editions sinc6, the 
hest of which are that of the £lzevirs, 1678, 4to, those of 
Loudon, 1725, or 1728, and of Glasgow, 1763, 8vo ; but 
with all its merit it is full of unnatural characters and dis- 
torted conceits. His shepherds are courtiers, and his shep- 
herdesses are frequently prudes, whose conversation sa* 
▼ours of the toilette. The author was censured for having 
made Celia, who has so great a share in the piece, nothing 

1 Diet. Hist— Maoget BibU Med. 

42 BON A R E L L I. 

more than an episodical personage, but still more for giv- 
ing lier an equally ardent love for two shepherds at once. 
He attempted to excuse this defect in a tract written oti 
purpose ; *^ Discorsi in difesa del doppio amore della sua 
Celia," but this was rather ingenious than conclusive; We 
have likewise some academical discourses of his. ^ 

B6NAS0NE (Julius), called sometimes Boloqnbse, 
from the place of his birthy flourished in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and is better known as an engraver than as a painter* 
He is supposed, but without sufficient authority, to have 
b'een a scholar of SabbatinL Some remaining oiUpictures- 
of his, on canvas, which are, in general, weak, and of dif- 
ferent styles, make it probable, says Lanzi, that he re- 
solved to be a painter when he had passed youth. There 
is, however, in the church of St. Stephano, in Bologna, 
a Purgatory of his, which has great beauties, and is sus« 
pected to have been done with the assistance of SabbatinL 
As an engraver, he worked from the pictures of Raphael, 
Julio Romano, and other great masters ; and occasionally 
from his own designs. Mn Strutt^s opinion is, that ex* 
cepting one or two subjects, in which he called in the 
assistance of the point (the use of which| however, he ne- 
ver well understood), his plates are executed ohiefiy with 
the graver, in a manner though much varied from that of 
his tutor. Marc Antonio Raimondi, yet evidently founded 
upon it, although neither so firm, clear, or masterly. His 
drawing is often heavy, and the extremities of his figures 
frequently neglected ; the folds of his draperies are seldom 
well expressed, and the back grounds to his prints, espe* 
cially his landscapes, are extremely flat and stiff. However, 
with all these faults (which are not always equally conspi- 
cuous), his best prints possess an uncommon share of 
merit ; and though not equal to those of his master, are 
deservedly held in no small degree of estimation by the 
greatest collectors. Bonasone has lately found an inge- 
nious and able advocate in George Cumberland, esq. who, 
in 1793, published ** Some Anecdotes** of his life, with a 
catalogue of his engravings, &c. ^ 

BONA VENTURE (John Fidauza), a celebrated doc- 
tor, cardinal, and saint of the church of Rome, was bom 
at Bi^narea in Tuscany, 1221. He was admitted into the 

> M<nreri.— Erythnei Pinac — Baillet Jugemens des Savan^.. 
* Pilkington.— SU'utt,--<;uaib9rUiid, u aborc 


order of St. Francis, about 1243; and studied divinity at 
the uoiversity of Paris nnder the celebrated Alexander de 
Hales, with so much success, that at the end of seven 
years he was thought worthy to read public lectures upon 
the Sentences. He was created doctor in 1255 along with 
St. Thomas Aquinas, and the year after appointed general 
of his order, in which office he governed with so much 
zeal and prudence, that he perfectly restored the discipline 
of it, which had been greatly neglected. Pope Clement IV. 
nominated him to the archbishopric of York in England ; 
but Bonaveuture disinterestedly refused it. After the death 
of Clement the see of Rome lay vacant almost three years, 
and the cardinals not being able to agree among themselves, 
who should be pope, came at length to a most solemn en- 
gagement, to leave the choice to Bonaventure ; and to 
elect whoever he should name, though it should be even 
biiBself, which, from his modest character, was not very 
probable. Accordingly, he named Theobald, archdeacon 
of Liege, who was at that time in the Holy land, and who 
took the title of Gregory X. By this pope he was made a 
cardinal and bishop of Albano ; and appointed to jissist at 
a general council, which was held at Lyons soon after. He 
died there in 1274, and was magnificently and honourably 
conducted to his grave ; the pope and whole council at- 
tending, and the cardinal Peter of Tarantais, afterwards 
pope Innocent V. making his funeral oration. Sixtus IV. 
canonized him in 1482. He has had the good fortune to 
be almost equally praised by popish and protestant writers. 
Bellarmine has pronounced Bonaventure a person dear to 
God and men ; and Luther calls him ^* vir prastantissi-- 
masy^ a most excellent man. His works were printed at 
Rome in 1588, in 8 vols, folio. Excepting his commen- 
tary upon the master of the Sentences, they are chiefly on 
pious and mystical subjects, and have gained him the name 
of the Seraphic doctor. Biiicker gives us the following 
accoDiit of his method of philosophizing, from his treatise 
'* De reductione Artium ad Theologiam ;*' on the *^ appli- 
cation of Learning to Theology :*' Hiiman knowledge he 
divides into three branches, logical, physical and moral. 
Each of these he cbnsiders as the effect of supernatural 
illumination, and as communicated to men through the 
medium of the holy scriptures. The whole doctrine of 
scripture he reduces to three heads \ that which respects 
the eternal generation and incarnation of Christ, the study 


of which is the peculiar province of the doctors of the 
church ; that which concerns the conduct of life, which is 
the subject of preaching ; and that which relates to the 
union of the soul with God, which is peculiar to the mo- 
nastic and contemplative life. Physical, knowledge he ap- 
plies to ttie doctrine of scripture emblematically. For ex-* 
ample, the production of the idea of any sensible object 
from its archetype, is a type of the generation of the Logos ; 
the right exercise of the senses typifies the virtuous con^ 
duct of life ; and the pleasure derived from the senses re* 
presents the union of the soul with God. In like manner, 
logical philosophy furnishes an emblem of the eternal 
generation and the incarnation of Christ: a word con« 
*ceived in the mind resembling the eternal generation ; its 
expression in vocal sounds, the incarnation. Thus the 
multiform wisdom of God, according to this mystical wri- 
ter, lies concealed through all nature; and all human 
knowledge may, by the help of all^ory and analogy, be 
spiritualised and transferred to theology. How wide a 
door this method of philosophising opens to the absurdities 
of mysticism the reader will easily perceive from this spe- 
cimen. ' 

BONAVENTURE of Padua, a cardinal, was bom in 
that city June 22, 1332, and descended from a noble and 
illustrious family. He studied divinity at Paris, where he 
distinguished himself by his uncommon parts and applica- 
tion, and afterwards taught divinity. He was of the order 
of St. Augustin, of which he was made general in 1377, on 
the de*ath of Beauregard, Pope Urban VI. gave him a 
cardinal's cap the year after, or as some say, in 1384. 
This engaging him to stand up for the rights of the church 
against Francis de Carrario of Padua, that petty tyrant 
contrived to have him murdered. He was dispatched with 
the shot of an arrow, as he was passing St. Angelo's bridge 
at Rome. This event some place in 1385, others in 1389, 
1396, and 1398. The manner of his death gave occasion 
to the following Latin distich, which cannot be translated 
so as to be intelligible to an English reader : 

" Quse Bona tarn cupide ccelo vbntura rogabas. 
In te liToris miasa sagitta dedit." 

He was the author of several works : as, Commentaries 
upon the Epistles of St. John and St. James, Lives of the * 

1 Butler*! Lives of the Saints.— Dupin.— Care, toI. II.— Fabric BibU Ut. 
Med.—Bnicker.— Frcheri Theatrum. — Sazii OnomasticoD. 


Saints, Sermons^ tec. Some improperly attribute to him 
the *' Speculum de laudibos B* MarisE;," Nuremberg, 1476; 
but Fabricius gives it to tbe preceding cardinal, in whose 
works it appears, toL VL He had a very close and inti- 
mate friendship with the celebrated Petrarch, whose fune- 
ral oration he pronounced in 1S69. ^ 


BONCIARIUS . (Mark Anthony), a distinguished La* 
tin scholar and poet, was born at Perugia in 1555, became 
a disciple of the celebrated Muretus, and afterwards prin* 
cipal teacher of tbe schools of Perugia. He appears next 
to have been professor of eloquence at Bononia, keeper 
of the Ambrosian library, and professor of rhetoric at Pisa, 
where he had the misfortune to lose his sight. During his 
career of teaching, his &ther, who was a poor shoemaker, 
having lost his wife, had an inclination to join the society 
of the Jesuits, and lest he should be rejected for his igno- 
rance of Latin, became one of his son's scho^rs, and made 
very considerable proficiency. Bonciarius died Jan. 9, 
i6i6, leaving many works, which are very scarce, except 
his Latin Grammar, which, being adopted in the schools, 
was frequently reprinted. His *^ Epistols** were first 
printed in 1603, 8vo, and reprinted 1604, at Marpurg, of 
which last edition Freytag gives an analytical account. 
They are written in an elegant style. His Latin poems 
are among the ^* Carmina Poetarum Italorum,** Florence^ 
1719, voLIL* 

BOND (John), a celebrated commentator and gram* 
marian, was born in Somersetshire in 1550. He was edu- 
cated at Winchester school, and in 1569 was entered a 
student at New college in Oxford, where he became 
highly esteemed for his academical learning. In i57S he 
took the degree of B. A. and in 1579 that of M. A. and 
soon after the warden and fellows of his college appointed 
him master of the free-school of Taunton in Somersetshire. 
Here he continued many years, and several of his scholars 
became eminent both in church and state. Being at 
length, however, tired with the fatigue of this irksome 
employment, he turned his thoughts to tbe study of physic, 
and practised it with great reputation, although without 
taking any degree in that faculty. He died at Taunton the 

^ Dapiii.-^Moreri.— Vabric. Bibl. Med. ct Infim. Latin. 
* FrcTta^. Adparat Litt— nMoreri.«*£ryibrsi PiBa€ot]Mca.««iGeii. Diet.--* 
I>uii ODonaf t. 

46 . BOND. 

3d of August, 1612, and was buried in the chancel of tbb 
church, with the foUomng epitaph over his grave : 

Q(d medicus doctus^ prudentis nomine clarus, 

Eloquii splendor, Pieridumque deeus, 
Virtutis cultor, pietatis viut amicua> « 

Hie jacet in tumuio ; ^[liritas alta tenet. 

Mr. Bond has left ^ Annotationes in poemata Quinti 
Horatii,'^ Lond. 1606, 8vo. Uaxu 1621, Svo, and Leyden, 
1653, 8vo. The best edition is that of Amst. 1686, 12[no. 
His Persios was not priated till two years after his death, 
in 8vo, under the following title, ^* Auli Persii Flacci Sa^- 
tyrae sex, cum posthumis commentariis Johannis Bond,** 
1614, 8vo. It was published by Roger Prowse, who had 
married his daughter Elizabeth, and who, in the dedication 
to Dr. Montague, bishop of Bath and Welk, informs us^ 
that his father-in-law had not put the last hand to these 
Commentaries ; which may be the reason of those con* 
siderable defects in some points of history and philosophy 
which are to be found in them. Mr. Wood is of opinion 
that, besides these, he wrote several other pieces, which 
were never published. * 

BOND (John), L L. D. was the son of Dennis Bond,. 
esq. of Dorchester, a violent adherent of the republican 
party in the seventeenth century, and at whose death, a 
little before that of the protector, the wits said Oliver 
Cromwell had given the devil Bond for his appearance^ 
Our author was educated under John White, commonly 
called the patriarch of Dorchester, and was afterwards en- 
tered, not of St. John's college, Cambridge, as Wood re- 
ports, but of Catherine-hali, of which he was afterwards 
chosen fellow, and took the degree of B. A. in 16S 1, com- 
menced M. A. in 1635, was nominated LL.D. in 164lf, 
and completed the year following, while he was yet a mem- 
ber of that society. But, although he took his doctor's de- 
gree in law, he was by profession a divine, and had before 
this preached for some years, first as a lecturer in Exeter, 
and frequently afterwards before the long parliament at 
Westminster. In 1643, both he and his tutor, Mr. White, 
were chosen of the assembly of divines; and when Mr. 
White took the rectory of Lambeth, Dr. Bond succeeded 
him as minister of the Savoy, and on Dec. 11,1 645, he 
was made master of the Savoy hospital under the great 

> Biog. Brit,-.Wood'» Ath. rpl I.— Bireh's Life of Priocc Hcniy, p. 73. 

/ fi OND. 47 


seaL On the decease of Dr. fiden, matter of Trinity- hall, 
Cambridge, the fellows made choice of the celebrated 
Seklen, and- the choice was coufirmed by parliament, but 
be declining the office. Dr. Bond was chosen, chiefly by 
the authority or intarfereUce of pariiament, March, 1 646. 
In 1649 he was chosen law professor of Gresham college, 
and in 1654 was made assbtant to the commissioners of 
Middlesex and Wesminster, for the ejection of scandalous 
and ignorant ministers; and in 1658 served as vice-chan* 
cellor of Cambridge. He held his mastership and law 
professorship until the restoration, when he was ejected 
from both for his adherence to the politics by which he 
had obtained them. He then retired into Dorsetshire, and 
died at Sandwich in the isle of Purbeck, July 1676. 
Wood, who has committed several mistakes in his life, 
corrected by Dr. Ward, gives a list of his works, which 
are few: 1." A Door of Hope," Lond. 1641, 4to. 2. 
*'Holy and Loyal Activity," Lond. 1641, 4to, and some 
sermons preached before the long parliament, to whose 
measures he adhered with great zeal. He appears, how- 
ever, to have been a man of real learning. Calamy, we 
know not why, has mentioned his name, without one word 
of life.' 

BOND (Wiluam), a native of Suffolk, translated Bu- 
chanan's hbtory, and was concerned with Aaron Hill in 
the ^ Plain Dealer^" a periodical paper of inferior merit. 
Hill appears to have had a friendship for him, and devoted 
the profits of his tragedy of Zara to bis use. Bond him- 
self played the character of Lusignan, but only for one 
nigh^ being* seized with a fit on the stage, which ter- 
minated his life the following morning, somer'time in 1735. * 

whom Ridolfi believes to have been a scholar of Palma, 
hut Boschini numbers ainong the disciples of Titian, 
and says he followed him as the shadow the body. He is, 
indeed, often his close imitator, but oftener has a charac- 
ter of his own, a free and creative genius, unborrowed 
elegance and spirit. The public offices at Venice abound 
in pictures all^ his own, and the ducal palace, amongst 
others, possesses an Expulsion of the Publicans from the 
Temple, which for copiousness of composition, colour, 
and admirable perspective, might be alone sufficient to 

* Ward's Lives of the Greiham Profetsorf .«-*Wood'8 Ath. vol. T. 

• Biog. Dram. 

46 fiONEFAClO. 

make his Dame immortal, had hb own times and tectfrd 
not placed him with Titian and Palma4 Lanzt ascribes to 
Bonifazio, what he styles the celebrated pictures from the 
Triumphs of Petrarch, once at Naples in a private collec- 
tion, and now, he says, in England ; it matters little, says Mr« 
Fuseli, where they are : of powersi such as he ascribes to 
BonifaziO) those meagre, dry, and worse than Peruginesque 
performances, can never be the produce. He died in 
1553, aged sixty-two.^ 


BO NET, or BONNET (Theophilus), an eminent phy- 
sician and medical writer, was born at Geneva, March 5^ 
1620, and following the steps of his father and grandfather^ 
«arly attached himself to the practice of physic. After vi- 
siting several foreign academies, he was admitted doctor 
in medicine at Bologna, in 1643, and was soon after made 
physician to the duke de Longueville. Though he soon 
attained to high credit in his profession, and bad a large 
share of practice, he dedicated a considerable portion of 
his time to reading, and to dissecting such subjects as the 
hospital afforded him, with a view of discovering the seats 
of diseases, minuting every deviation he observed from the 
natural structure of the viscera, or other parts of the body, 
and thus opening a new road for improving the science he 
cultivated. He also appears to have made extracts of every 
thing he deemed worthy of notice, from the various works 
he read. His hearing from some accident becoming de- 
fective, he withdrew from practice, and employed the last 
ten or twelve years of his life in arranging the materials he 
had collected. The first fruit of his labour, which he gave 
to the public iin 1668, was ^ Pharos Medicorum,** 2 vols« 
12mo. This was printed again, much improved and en- 
larged, in 1679, in 4to, under the title of '^ Labyrinthi 
Medici, extricati,*' &c. compiled principally firom Bellonius 
and Septalius. In 1675, << Prodcomus Anatomise practice, 
sive de abditis morborum causis," fol. ; the precursor of 
his principal work, '* Sepulchretum,^u Anatome practica, 
ex cadaveribus morbo denatts proponeus historias et obser* 
vationes,** &c. Genev. 1679, 2 vols. fol. which Car exceeded 
the expectation raised by the Prodromus. It was enlarged 
by nearly a third part, and republished by Manget, 1700, 2 
vols. fol. and was afterwards taken by Morgagni, as the basis 
of his work» *' De sedibus et causis Morborum,'* by which 

1 Pilkiagton. 

B O N E T. 4ft 

the ^ Sepulchretam'* i« in a great measurer superseded. 
The author begins vrith observations on the appearances of 
the brain and other paru of the head ; then of the con- 
tents of the thorax, abdomeci, and pelvis ; and lastly, of 
the eztreipities ; forming an immense body of dissections, 
which be has illustrated by many pertinent and ingenious 
observations. *' Cours de medicine, et de la chimrgte,*^ 
1679, 2 vols. 4to. An epitooie of the art of surgery, with 
some sections relating to the practice of medicine selected 
from the most accredited authors of the age. ^^ Medicina 
septentrionalis, eollectitia,'* 1634, 2 vols. fol. shewing how 
largely the practitioners of the northern parts of Europe, 
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Hc^land, and England, have 
contributed to the improvement of anatomy, surgery, and 
medicine, by extracts and accounto of the works of tlie 
principal writers of those countries. *^ Mercurius compi- 
Jatitius, seu index medico^practicus," 1682, fol. A most 
useful work, shewing under the name of every disease of 
affectioQ where cases or observations may be found, and 
what authors have written upon them. Such an index 
continued to the present time, though very voluminous,' 
would be highly useful. Bonet also published ^< Epi* 
tome operum Sennerti," 1685, fol. '^J. D. Turqueti de 
Mi^eme, de Arthrittde," 1671, I2mo, and ^^ Rohaulti trac- 
tatua physicus, e Gallico in Latinam versus," 1675, 8vo. 
Ue died of a dropsy, March 3, 1 689, ^ 

BONFADIO (James), an elegant Italian scholar of th0 
sixteenth century, was bom at Goreano in the Brescian 
territory, but in what year is not known. He was three 
years secretary to cardinal Bari at Rome^ but lost the 
fruits of his services by the death of his master. He then 
served cardinal Glinncci in the same capacity ; but long 
sicdcness made him incapable of that employment When 
he was recovered, he found himself so disgusted with the 
court, that he resolved to seek his fortune by other means* 
He continued a good while in the kingdom of Naples, then 
went to Padua, and to Genoa ; where he read public lee* 
tures on Aristotle's politics. He was ordered to read some 
likewise upon his rhetoric, which he did with great sue* 
cess to a numerous auditory. His reputation increasing # 

daily, the republic of Genoa made him their historio^ 
g^apher, and assigned him a handsome pension for that 

1 HmHer Bibl. M««L^Mftii|;«t.— Rees't C>'c1op«dit«-*Moreri. 

Vou VI. E 


office. He now applied himself laboriously to compose 
the annalis of that state, and published the five first books ; 
but by speaking too freely and satirically of some families, 
he created himself enemies who resolved to ruin him, by a 
prosecution for an unnatural crime, and being conyicted, 
be was condemned to be first beheaded, and then burnt, 
dr as some say, sentence of burning was changed into that 
of beheading. Some have attributed this prosecution to 
the freedom of his pen ; but the generality of writers have 
agreed that Bonfadio was guilty, yet are of opinion, that 
be had never been accused, if he had not given offence by 
something else. He was executed in 1560. Upon the 
day of bis execution he wrote a note to John Baptist Gri* 
maldi, to testify his gratitude to the persons who bad en- 
deavoured to serve him, and recommended to them his 
nephew Bonfadio, who is perhaps the Peter Bonfadio, 
author of some verses extant in the ** Gareggiamento poe* 
tico del confuse accademico ordito,** a collection of verses, 
divided into eight parts, and printed at Venice iu 161 K 
The first five books of Bonfadio's history of Genoa were 
printed at Padua, 1586, 4to, under the title ^ I. Bonfiulii 
annales Genuensium ab anno 1528, ubi desinit Folieta, ad 
annum 1550,*^ and was in 1597 published in Italian. He 
also published an Italian and very elegant translation of 
Cicero^s oration for Milo, an edition of which was pub- 
lished at Bologna in 1744, with his letters and miscella- 
neous works, *^ Lettere famigliari, &c.^* 8vo, dedicated to 
pope Benedict XIV. with a life of the unfortunate author, 
and a curious Latin poem by Paul Manutius, in honour cJh 
.those persons who used their interest to save Bonfadio 
from punishment. * 

BONFINIUS (Anthony), an historian of the fifteenth 
century, was born at Ascoli in Italy. Mathias Corvinus, 
king of Hungary, having heard of bis abilities and learn- 
ing, sent for him to his court, and Bonfinius paid his re- 
spects to him at Rees, a few days before that prince made 
his public entry into Vienna. At his first audience, as he 
himself tells us, be presented him with his translations of ^ 
Hermogenes and Herodian, and his genealogry of the Cor* 
vini, which he dedicated to his majesty ; and two other 
works addressed to the. queen, one of which treated of vir- 
ginity and conjugal chastity, and the other was a history of 

> OcD* Diet.— Moceri.'^Satii Onomast 


AscoIL He had dedicated dso a small collection of epi- 
grams to the young prince John Corvinas, to which there 
.is added a preface. The king read his pieces \%ith great 
pleasure, distributed them among his courtiers in high 
terms of approbation, and would not allow him to return 
to Italy, but granting htm a good pension, was desirous 
that he should follow him in his army. He employed him 
to write the history of the Huns, and Bonfinius accordingly 
set about it before the death oF this prince ; but it was by 
"Order of king .Uladislaus that he wrote the general history 
of Hungary, and carried it down to 1495. The original 
of this work was deposited in the library of Buda. In 1 543 
Martin Brenner published thirty books from' an imperfect 
-copy, which Sambucus republished in 1568, in a more 
voorrect state, and with the addition of fifteen more books^ 
a seventh edition of which was printed at Leipsic, in 177 1, 
foL Sambucus also published in 1572 Bonfinius's *' Sym- 
posion Beatricis, seu dialog, de fide conjugali et virginitate, 
lib. lU.'' Bonfinius wrote a history of the taking of BeU 
grade by Mahomet 11. in 1456, which is printed in the 
" Syndromus rerum Turcico-Pannonicarum," Francfort, 
1627, 4to; and, as ah'eady noticed, translated the works of 
Philostratus, Hermogenes, and Herodian. His Latin style 
was much admired, as a successful imitation of the ancients. 
The tioie of his death has not been ascertained. * 

BONFRERIUS (James), a learned Jesuit and com*- 
mentator, was bom at Dinau in Liege, 1573. He wsls 
admitted into the society of Jesuits in 1592, and taught at 
Doway, philosophy, divinity, and the Hebrew tongue, 
which, as well as Greek, he understood critically. He 
died at Toumay, May 9, 1643. .Dupin says that of all the 
Jesuiu who have been commentators on the scriptures, 
there is no one superior in learning, and clearness of me- 
thod, to Bonfrerius. His ** Commentary on the Penta- 
teuch*' was published at Antwerp in 1625, and his << Ono- 
masticon" of the places and cities mentioned in the Bible, 
composed by Eusebius, and translated by Jerome, with 
learned notes, was published along with his ^' Commen- 
taries on Joshua, Judges, and Ruth,'* at Paris in 163], but 
the most complete edition of his works appeared in 1 736. ' 

BONGARS (James), an able classical scholar and negd^ 
ciator, was born at Orleans of a protestant family in 1 554 ; 

^ Qeo. Diet — Moreri.— &xii Onomast. 

* Af«rari.<»0upia.— >Foppen Bibl. Bel^. — Saxii Ouomast. 

S 2 

52 B O N G A R S. 

and studied at Strasburgin I57\j but in 1576^ be studied 
the civil law under the celebrated Cujacius. -During this 
time he applied much t6 critical learning ; and though, 
says Bayle, he went not so far as the Lipsiuses and Casau- 
bons, yet he acquired great reputation, and perhaps would 
have equalled them if he had not been engaged in poli- 
tical affiiirs. He was employed near thirty years in the 
most important negociations of Henry IV. for whom he 
was several times resident with the princes of Germany, 
and afterwards ambassador,' but however published bis 
edition of Justin at Paris, 1581, in 8vo. He had a critical 
and extensive knowledge of books, both manuscript and 
printed ; and made a very great collection of them, some 
of which cadae afterwards to the library of Berne in Swis^ 
serland, and some, with his manuscripts, to the Vatican. 
Besides an edition of Justin, he was the author of other 
works ; which, if they did not shew his learning so much, 
have spread his fame a great deal more. Thuanus highly 
x^ommends an answer, which he published in Germany, to 
a. piece wherein the bad success of the expedition of i5Si 
was imputed to the French, who accompanied the Ger- 
mans ; and the world is indebted to him for the publication 
^f several authors, who wrote the history of the expeditions' 
into Palestine. That work is entitled '^ Gesta Dei per 
Francos;*' and was printed at Hanau in 161 1, in two vo- 
lumes, folio. He published also in 1600, at Francfort, 
** Rerum Hnngaricarum Scriptores," fol. There are let- 
ters of Bongars, written during his employments, which 
are much esteemed; and upon which Mr. Bay le remarks, 
that though he did not, like Bembo and Manucius, reject 
all termb that are not in .the best Roman authors, yet bis 
style is elegant. His letters were translated, when the 
dauphin began to learn the Latin language ; and it appears 
by the epistle dedicatory to that young prince, and by the 
translator's preface, that nothing was then thought more 
proper for a scholar of quality, than to read this work of 
Bongars. Bongars died at Paris in 1612, when he was 69 
years of age: and the learned Casaubon, whose letters 
shew that he esteemed him much, laments in one of them, 
that ^* the funeral honours, which were due to his great 
jnerit, and which he would infallibly have received from 
tl^ learned in Germany, were not yet paid bim at Paris.V 
Mr. Bayle thinks that Bongars was never married : yet tells 
us, that he was engaged in 1597, to a French lady, who 
had the misfortune to die* upon the very day appointed for 

B O N G A R S. 5S 

the wedding, after a courtship of near six years. This. 
BoDgars speaks of in his letters, and appears to have been 
exceedingly afBicted at it. His Latin lett^ers were pub-' 
lished at Leyden in 1647, and the French translation above- 
mentioned in 1668, along with the originals, 2 vols. 12mo, 
but that of the Hague iu i695isthe most correct. HkC 
edition of Justin is rare and valuabie. It was printed from 
eight manuscripts, accompanied with learned notes, various* 
r^ings, and chronological tables ; but the Bipoot editors 
seem to think he sometimes took unwarranted liberties 
with the text ' 

BONIFACE (St.)} a celebrated saint of die eighth cen- 
tury, and usually styled the Apostle of Germany, was an 
Englishman, named Wilfrid, and born at Crediton or Kir- 
ton in Devonshire, about the year 680. He was educated, 
from the age of thirteen in the monastery of Escancester 
or Exeter, and about three years after reraoveid to Nutcell,. 
in the diocese of Winchester, a monastery which was after^v 
wards destroyed by the Danes, and was never rebuilt. 
Here be was instructed in the sacred and secular learning 
of the times ; and at the age of thirty, was ordained priest, 
and became a zealous preacher. The same seal prompted 
him to undertake the functions of a missionary among the 
pagans ; and with that view he went with two monk^ into 
Friezeland, about the year 716 ; but a. war which broke out- 
between Charles Martel, mayor of the French palace, and 
Radbod, king of Friezeland^ rendering it impracticable to 
preach the gospel at that time, he returned to England 
with his companions. Still, however, zealously intent on 
the conversion of the pagans, he refused being elected 
abbot of Nutcell, on a vacancy which happerted on his re- 
turn ; and having received recommendatory letters from 
the bishc^p of Winchester, went to Rome, and presented 
himself to the pope Gregory II. who encouraged his de- 
sign, and gave him a commission for the conversion of the 
inndels, in the year 719. With this he went into Bavaria 
and Thiiringia, and had considerable success : and Bad- 
bod, king of Friezeland, being now dead, he had an oppor-^ 
tunity of visiting that country, where he co-operated with 
Willibrod, another famous missionary, who would have 
appointed him bis successor, which Wilfrid refused, be- 
cause the pope had particularly enjoined him to preach in 
the eastern parts of Germany. Through Hesse, or a con« 

* Gen. Diet, — Morerl— 'Dibdlo's Classsics.— *Saxii Onomast 


siderable part of it, even to the confines of Saxony/ he 
extended his pious labours, and had considerable success, 
although he suffered many hardships, and was often ex- 
posed to danger from the rage of the intidels. 

After some time he returned to Rome, where Gregory 
II. consecrated him bishop of the new German churches, 
by the name of Boniface, a Roman name, which Gregory 
probably thought might procure from the German con- 
verts more respect to the pope, than an English one. 
Solicitous also to preserve bis dignity, Gregory exacted 
from Boniface an oath of subjection to the papal authority, 
drawn up in very strong terms. Boniface then returned to 
the scenes of his mission, and had great success in Hesse, 
encouragred now by Charles Martel, the dominion of the 
French extending at this time a considerable way into Ger- 
many. We do not, however, find that he derived any 
other assistance from the civil authority, than personal 
protection, which doubtless was of great importance. If 
he complied with the instructions sent from England, he 
employed no means but what became a true missionary. 
These instructions, or rather advice sent to him by Daniel, 
bishop of Winchester, about the year 723, afford too 
striking an instance of good sense and liberality in that 
dark age, to be omitted. DaniePs method of dealing with 
idolaters was conceived in these words, ** Do not contra^^ 
diet in a direct manner their accounts of the genealogy of 
their gods ; allow that they were born from one another 
in the same way that mankind are : this concession will 
give you the advantage of proving, that there was a time 
when they had no existence. — Ask them who governed the 
world before the birth of their gods, and if these gods have 
ceased to propagate ? If they have not, shew them the 
consequence ; namely, that the gods must be infinite in 
number, and that no man can rationally be at ease in wor- 
shipping any of them, lest he should, by that means, offend 
one, who is more powerful. — Argue thus with them, not 
in the way of insul^ but with temper and moderation : and 
take opportunities to contrast these absurdities with the 
Christian doctrine : let the pagans be rather ashamed than 
incensed by your oblique mode of stating these subjects.*^ 
Shew them the insufficiency of their plea of antiquity ; in** 
form them that idolatry did anciently prevail over the 
world, but that Jesus Christ was manifested, in order to 
reconcile men to God by his grace.** From this same pre- 
late he received other instructions respecting reforming the 


churchy and exercising discipline with the refractory and 
scandalous priests, who occasioned much obstruction to 
his mission. In the mean time, the report of his success 
induced many of his countrymen to join him, who dispersed 
themselves and preached in the Tillages of Hesse and Thu* 

lo the year 732, he received the title of archbishop from - 
Gregory III. who supported his mission with the same 
spirit as his predecessor Gregory II. ; and under this en* 
couragement he proceeded to erect new churches, and 
extend Christianit}-* At this time, he found the Bavarian 
churches disturbed by one Cremvolf, who would have se* 
duced the people into idolatry, but whom he condemned, 
according to the canons, and restored the discipline of the 
church. In the year 738, he again visited Uome; and 
after some stay, he induced several Englishmen who re- 
sided there, to join with him in his German mission. Re- 
turuing into Bavaria, he established three new bishoprics, 
at Saltzburgh, Frisinghen, and Ratisbon. At length he 
was fixed at Mentz, in the year 745, and although after- 
wards many other churches iu Germany have been raised 
to the dignity of archbishoprics, Mentz has always re- 
tained the primacy, in honour of St. Boniface. He also 
founded a monastei'y at Fridislar, another at Hameuburgh, 
and one at Ordorfe, in all which the monks gained their 
livelihood by the labour of their hands. In the year 746, 
he laid the foundation of the great abbey of Fulda, which 
continued long the most renowned seminary of religion 
and learning iu all that part of the world. The abbot is 
now a prince of the empire. In the mean time his con- 
nection with England was constantly preserved ; and it is 
in the epistolary correspondence with his own country, 
that the most striking evidence of his pious views appears. 
Still intent on his original design, although now advanced 
in years, he determined to return into Friezeland, and 
before his departure, acted as if he had a strong preseuti- 
jnent of what was to happen. He appointed Lullus, an 
Englishman, his successor as archbishop of Mentz, a privi- 
lege which the pope had granted him, and ordained him 
with the consent of king Pepin. He went by the Rhine to 
Friezeland, where, assisted by Eoban, whom he had or- 
dained bishop of Utrecht, he brought great numbers of 
pagans into the pale of the church. He bad appointed a 
day to confirm those whom he had baptized ; and in w^iit? 

6^ B O N I F AC E. 

ing for them, encamped with his followers on the banks of 
the Bordue, a river which then divided East and West 
Friezeiand. His intention was to confirm, by imposition 
of bands, the converts in the plains of Docicum. On the 
appointed day, he beheld, in the morning, not the new 
converts whom he expected, but a troop of enraged pa^ 
gans, aimed with shields and lances. The servants went 
out to resist ; but Boniface, with calm intrepidity, said to 
. his followers, ^^ Children, forbear to fight ; the scripture 
forbids us to render evil for evil. The day which 1 have 
long waited for is come ; hope in God, and he will save 
your souls." The pagans immediately attacked them 
furiously, and killed the whole company, fifty- two in 
number, besides Boniface himself. This happened on 
June 5, 755, in the fortieth year after his arrival in Ger- 
many. His body was interred in the abbey of Fulda, and 
4vas long regarded as the greatest treasure of that monas- 
tery. Boniface's character has been strangely misrepre* 
aented by Mosheim, and by his transcribers, but ably vin« 
dicated by Milner, who has examined the evidence on 
both sides with great precision. His works, principally 
sermons and correspondence, were published under the title 
'^ S. Bonififtcii Opera, a Nicolao Serratio," Mogunt. 1605^ 

BONIFACIO (Balthasar), the son of a lawyer of the 
same name, was bom at Crema, in the Venetian state 
about 1 584. In his thirtieth year he went to study at Padua, 
and made such proficiency as to be created doctor of laws 
at the age of eighteen. About two years after he was ap- 
pointed law professor in the college of Rovigo, where he 
first lectured on the institutes of Justinian. He afterwards 
accompanied the pope's nuncio Jerome Portia, as secre- 
tary, and was himselr employed in some affairs of import- 
ance. On his return to Venice, he had several prefer- 
ments, and among others that of archpriest of Rovigo. In 
Oct.'l6199 he was elected Greek and Latin professor at 
Padua, bat declined accepting the office. In 1620, he 
assisted at Venice, in the establishment of an academy 
for the education of the young jiobiIity,*aod gave lectures 
on the civil iajw. Pope LJrban VIII. bestowed on him the 
arcbdeacoary of Trerisa, which lie held, with the office of 
grand vicar of that diocese, uader four successive biehopa. 

' Mifner'y Church Hist. vol. III. pu l89.^Dupin. — Mosheim. — Care.-^ 
r»bm, Bibl. M«d/ Lat^Swii Ouomairt— Tanner in Wilfrid. 


He assisted also very essentially in founding a new academy 
at Padna for the Venetian nobility, in 1636, and was tlie 
first dii*ectoT or president of it, and founded a similar es- 
tablishment at Trevisa. In 1653 he was appointed bishop 
of Capo dUstria, which he held until his death in 1659« 
He was a man of various learning, as appears by his ^< His- 
toria Trevigiena," 4to, his '^ Historia Ludicra," 1656, 4to^ 
a collection of singular narratives from authors of every 
description. He published also some '^ Latin poems" in 
1619, 12mo. '^ De Romanas Historias Scriptoribps es-* 
eerpta ex Bodino, Vossio et aliis," Venice, 1627, 4to. ' 

BONIFACIO (John), an eminent Italian lawyer, poet, 
and historian, was born iu 1547, at Rovigo in the state of 
Venice, and educated at Padua, where, during his law-> 
studies, he composed some pieces for the theatre which 
were much approved. After marrying at Trevisa, or Tre- 
vigni, Elisabeth Martinagi, the daughter and heiress of 
Marc Antonio, he settled in tliat place, of which he wrote 
the history, and acquired so much reputation that the re«> 
public of Venice bestowed on him the office of judge^s 
counsellor or assessor, the duties of which he executed 
with great probity ; and during his holding it wrote hie 
law tracts. In 1568, he published his commentary on the 
feudal law of Venice. After the death of his wife,, he 
married a lady of Padua, where he was admitted to the 
rank of citizenship, and where he resided for the remain-* 
der of his life. He died June 23, 1635, at a very ad^^ 
vanced age, and was buried in the church of St. James^ 
With a modest inscription written by himself in 1 630. His 
principal writings are, 1. " Sto|pia Trevigiaha," Trevisi, 
1591, 4to, but a better edition, Venice, 1744, 4to. 2, 
^ Lettere Famigliari,'' Rovigo, 1624, 4to. 3. ** Orazione 
&c. per dirizzare una Statua a Celio Kicchiero RodtgriK>,** 
ibid. 1-624, 4to. 4. '^ Lezione sopra un Sonetto del Pe<* 
trarca," ibid, 1624, 4to. 5. *< Lezione sopra un altro So- 
netto del Petrarca," ibid. 1625, 4to. 6. " L'arte de 
Cenni," Vicenza, 1616, 4to, one of the earliest attempts 
to instruct the deaf and dumb. 7. <' Discorso del modo 
di ben £armare a questo tempo una Tragedia,'' Pactua^ 
1624, 4to. . 8. ^' Discono sopra la sua Itnpresa ne(l^ 
Accadeoiia Filarmomoa,'* ibid. 1624,* 4tOt 9. ^^ L.a Re- 
publica delle Api, con la quale si dimostra il modo di b^q 

• 4 

> Moreri.<-^NioeroD, vol. XVI. and XX. — Sazii Oaomasticpn. 


formare un ouovo Governo Democratico/' Rovigo, 1627, 
4to. 10. *^ Comentario sopra la legge deiP Senato Veneta, 
&cJ^ ibid. 1624, 4to. Freber also mentions ** Comment. 
de Furtis, et de componendis Epitapbiis,*' but witbout 
giving tbe exact titles or dates. ^ 

BONJOUU (William), a learned Augustin, was born 
at Toulouse in 1670^ and at Rome, whither be was sent 
for by cardinal Norris in 1695, be became distinguished 
by bis learning and piety. He was employed by pope 
Clement XI. in several matters of importance, and partis 
cularly in the examination of the Gregorian calendan 
Bonjour had also tbe superintendence of the seminary 
established by cardinal Barbarigo at Montefiascone, and 
denominated the academy of sacred letters. He was ac- 
quainted with almost all tbe oriental tongues, and espe* 
cially with the Coptic, or ancient Egyptian. Actuated by 
a zeal for acquiring knowledge, and for propagating tbe 
gospel, he visited China, wbere be died in February 1714, 
whilst be was employed in forming a map of that empire, 
which be undertook to conciliate the favour of tbe empe* 
ror, and thereby promote the objects of his mission. He 
published, I. '^ Dissertatio de nomine patriarch! Joseph! a 
Pbaraone hDposito,^in defensionem vulgatse editionis, et 
patrum qui Josephum in Serapide adumbratuni tradide- 
runt,** &c. Rome, 1696, fol. 2. *^ Selects^ dissertationes 
in Sac. Scripturam," Rome, 1705, fol. which prove bis 
acquaintance with the oriental languages, and wiUi ancient 
history and chronology. 3. *^ In monumenta Coptica, seu 
£gyptiac8e bibliotbecse Vaticanse brevis exercitatio,** ibid. 
1699, fol. 4. ** Calendarium Romanum chronologorum 
causa constructum, &c.** ibid. 1701.' 

BONNEFONS (John), or Bonnefonius, a Latin poet, 
was bom in 1554, at Clermont in Auvergne, and filled tbe 
post of lieutenant-general of Bar-sur-Seine. His ** Pan* 
charis,^' in the style of Catullus, is of all modern per- 
formances, the nearest to the graces, tbe easy pencil, tbe 
delicacy and softness of that ancient poet. La Bergerie 
has translated the Paiicharis into French verse, very infe- 
rior to the Latin. Tbe poems of Bonnefons are at the end 
of those of Beza, in the edition of that author given at 
Paris by Barbou, 1757, 12mo. There is also one of Lon^ 

' Freheri Thcatram. — ^Moreri.— Saxii Onomait 
• Moreri.^Lc Clerc Bibl. CiiQisie^ vol. XV. 


don, 1720 and 1727, 12mo. Bonnefons died in 1614, 
learhig a son, who likewise cultivated Latin poetry, but 
his performances, enumerated by Moreri, are in less re* 
quest. ^ 

BONNELL (James), a man celebrated for piety and 
virtue, was bom at Genoa, Nov. 14, 1653, being the son 
of Samuel Bonnell, merchant, who resided some time at 
Genoa, and of Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Sayer, near 
Norwich, esq. His grandfather was Daniel Bonneli of 
London, merchant, and his- great-grandfather, Thomas 
Bonneli, a gentleman of good family near Flan- 
ders, who, to avoid the duke of Alva*s persecution, re* 
moved with his family into England, and settled at Nor- 
wich, of which, before his death, he was chosen mayor. 
Samutd Bonneli, father of James Bonneli, being bred Up 
under that eminent merchant, sir William Courteen, knt. 
applied himself to the Italian trade, at Leghorn and Ge- 
noa, with such success, that about 1649, he was worth at 
least 10,000/. and his credit much greater than his fortune. 
But both were soon impaired by several accidents, by 
great losses at sea, and particularly by his zeal for king 
Charles 11. during his exile, and the rest of the royal 
fiunily, whom he privately supplied with large sums of 
moQey. About 1655, he removed with his family into 
England ; and, yt the restoration, on account of the ser- 
vices he had done the royal family, and as a compensatioa 
for the large sums he had advanced them (which, it seems, 
were never repaid otherwise) there was granted him a pa* 
tent to be accomptaut-general of the revenue of Ireland, a 
place worth about 800/. a year, his son's life being included 
in the patent with his own. But this he was not long pos- 
sessed of, for he died in 1664, leaving his son and one 
daughter. , 

After this son, the object of the present article, had 
been instructed in the first rudiments of learning at Dublin, 
be was sent to Trim school, where he was eminent for 
sweetness of temper, and for a most innocent, gentle, and 
religious behaviour. At fourteen years of age he left that 
place, and was sent to a private philosophy school at Nettle- 
bed in Oxfordshire, kept by Mr. William Cole, who had 
formerly been principal of St. Mary Hall in Oxford, and 
remained there two years and a half. But finding his 

1 Moreri.— Baillct JugemenB det Sarans. 


roaster was too remiss in matters of morality and religion*, 
a thing quite unsuitable with his strict temper; and ob- 
serving there were in that place ail the dangers and vices 
of the university, without the advantages, be removed to 
Catherine-hall in Cambridge, where he prosecuted his 
studies with indefatigable diligence, and performed all hi^ 
exercises with general approbation. After taking the de- 
grees of A.B. in 1672, and A. M. 1676, he removed into 
the family of Ralph Freeman of Aspenden-hall in Hert- 
fordshire, esq. as tutor to his eldest son, and there conti- 
nued till 1678, when, going with his pupil into Holland, 
be stayed about a year in sir LeoKne Jenkyns's family at 
Nimeguen. From Nimeguen he went, in the ambassador's 
company, throdgh Flanders and Holland : and returning 
to England, continued with his popil till 1683, when Mr. 
Freeman was sent into France and Italy. In 1684, Mr. 
Bonnell went into France, and met Mr. Freeman at Lyons, 
imd in his company visited several parts of that country. 
From thence, however, he went directly to Ireland, and 
took bis employment of accountant-general into his own 
hands, which had, since his father's death, been managed 
by others for his use. In the discharge of it be behaved 
with so much diligence and Bdelity, that he soon acquired 
the esteem of the government, and the love of all who 
were concerned with him. During the troublesome reign 
of king James II. he neither deserted his employment, as 
others did, nor countenanced the arbitrary and illegal mea- 
sures of the court, and yet was continued in his office^ 
which proved a great advantage to the protestant interest 
in Ireland, for whatever he received out of his office, he 
liberally distributed among the poor oppressed protestants. 
lie also took every opportuuity to relieve the injured, and 
boldly to plead their cause with those who were in power. 
But tnougfa his place was very advantageous, and furnished 
him with ample means of doing good, yet either the weight 
of the employment, or his ill state of health, or perhaps 
his desire of entering into holy orders, which he had long 
designed, but never effected, made him resolve to quit it ; 

^ This Cole was ejecUid from Ox- Afaiosi this bfi is defemded ia Mr. S.. 

ford at the Restoration, aod continued Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial 

afterward^ a nonconfbrmrst Mr. Wes- vol. I. p. 249; bat Mr. P. appears not 

, ley, thu lather of the celebrated John to have seeo Mr. BoBseU's stateaaeaJS* 

Wesley, accused him of being an en- Life, p. 9. 
coiirager of immorality in his family. 


«nd he accordingly parted with it to another person in 
1693. In the whole course of big life he behaved in so 
upri^t and worthy a roanner, that be was courted by his 
superiors and re?erenced by his equals. lu piety, jus^ 
tice, charity, sobriety, aud temperance, few have excelled 
him. His devotion was confined within the strictest bounds 
of sobriety and reason, and free from the least appearance 
of affectation* He commonly gave away the eiglith part 
of his yearly income to the poor, and his charity was not 
ouly extensive but impartiaL His learning was very con- 
siderable ; he thoroughly digested the Greek and Roman 
authors, understood French perfectly, and had made great 
progress in the Hebrew language. In philosophy and 
oratory he exceeded most of his contemporaries in the 
university, and applied himself with success to mathe- 
matics and music. In the course of his studies he read 
several of tbe fathers, and translated some parts of Sy^ 
nesius into English. There is nothing, however, of his 
published, but some Meditations and Prayers inserted iu 
his Life, and a ^^ Harmony of the Gospels,'^ written by 
another hand, but ^^ improved by James Bonnell, esq. for 
bis own use/' Lond. 1705, 8vo. This excellent man died 
of a malignant fever, April 28^ 1699, and was buried in 
St. John's church in Dublin. In 1693 he married Jane, 
daughter of sir Albert Conyngham, by whom be had three 
children, of whom only one daughter survived him a very 
short time. A neat monument was erected to his memory 
by his relict, i ^' Such a character," says Mr. Granger, 
'< may, perhaps, be overlooked by some, because there is 
nothing remarkably striking in it But the man who is 
uniformly goody and tliat to such a degree as Mr. Bonnell 
was, ought to stand high in our opinion, and to be esteem- 
ed what he certainly was, a great man." ' 

BONNER (Edmund), bishop of London, proverbial for 
hb cruelty, was the son of an honest poor man, and born 
at Hanley in Worcestershire, although some have very 
eagerly reported that he was the natural son of one George 
Savage, a priest, as if the circumstance of bis birth could 
have had any effect on bis future disposition. He was 
maintained at school by m ancestor of Nicholas Lechmere, 
esq. a baron of the exchequer in the reign of king Wil* 

* Biog. Brit. — Ufe of Bonnell, by Wm. Hamilton, A. M. Archdeacon of 
Armagh, and Fnneral Sermon for, by Bishop Wetenhall, Lond. 8vo, 1702— IS, 
aad repriDlMl by Mcnurs. Riving toos, 1807, being tbe fifth edition. 


Ham; and in 1512, he was entered at Broadgate-hall in 
Oxford, now Pembroke college. On June 12, 1519, be 
was admitted bachelor of the canon, and the day following 
bachelor of the civil law. He entered into orders about 
the same time, and bad some employment in the diocese 
of Worcester ; and on the 12th of July 1525, was created 
doctor of the canon law. He was a man of some, though 
not great learning, but distinguished himself chiefly by 
his skill and dexterity in I he iosanagement of af&irs, 
which made him be taken notice of by cardinal Wolsey, 
who appointed him his commissary for the faculties ; and 
he was with this prelate at Cawood, when he was arrested 
for high treason. He enjoyed at once the livings of Blay- 
don and Cherry Burton in Yorkshire, Ripple in Worcester- 
shire, East Dereham in Norfolk, and the prebend of Chis* 
wick in the cathedral church of St. Paul : but the last he 
resigned in' 1539, and East Dereham in 1540. He was 
installed archdeacon of LeiceAer, October 17, 1535. 

After the cardinaPs death, he got into the good graces 
of king Henry VHI. who appointed him one of his chap- 
lains. On this he began his career in a manner not very 
consistent with his after-conduct He was not only a fa- 
vourer of the Lutherans, but a promoter of the king's di- 
vorce from queen Catlierine of Spain, and of great use to 
his majesty in abrogating the pope^s supremacy. He was 
also in high favour with lord Cromwell, secretary of state,' 
by whose recommendation he was employed as ambassador 
at several courts. In 1532, he was sent to Rome, along 
with sir Edward Karne, to excuse king Henry's personal 
appearance upon the pope's citation. In 1533, he was 
again sent to Rome to pope Clement VII. then at Mar* 
seilles, upon the excommunication decreed against king 
Henry VIII. on account of his divorce ; to deliver that 
king's appeal from the pope to the next general council. 
But in tliis he betrayed so much of that passionate temper 
which appeared afterwards more conspicuously, and exe- 
cuted the order of his master in this aflair with so much 
vehemence and fury, that the pope talked of throwing him 
into a caldron of melted lead, on which he thought proper 
to make his escape. He was employed likewise in other 
embassies to the kings of Denmark and France, and the 
emperor of Germany. In 1538, being then ambassador 
in France, he was nominated to the bishopric of Hereford^ 
Nov. 27 ; but before consecration he was translated t» 

fi O N N E R. €t 


LondoD, of which he was elected bishop Oct 20, 1589, 
and consecrated April 4, 1540. 

At the time of the king's death in 1547, Bonner was 
ambassador with the emperor Charles V. ; and though dur^ 
ing Henry's reign he appeared zealous against the pope, 
and had concurred in all the measures taken to abrogate his 
supremacy, yet these steps he appears to have taken merely 
as the roidiest way to preferment ; for his principles, as 
hr as such a man can be . said to have any, were those of 
popery, as became evident from bis subsequent conduct. 
On the 1st of September 1547, not many months after 
the accession of Edward VI. he scrupled to take an oath, 
to renounce and deny the bishop of Rome, and to swear 
obedience to the king, and entered a protestation against 
the king's injunction and homilies. For this behaviour he 
was committed to the Fleet ; but having submitted, and re- 
canted his protestation, was released, and for some time com* 
plied outwardly with the steps taken to advance the refor- 
mation, while he used privately all means in bis power to 
obstruct it. After the lord Thomas Seymour's death, he ap- 
peared so remiss in putting the court orders in execution, 
particularly that relating to the use of the common prayer 
book, that he was severely reproved by the privy coundl. 
He then affected to redouble his diligence : but still, through 
his remissness in preaching, and his connivance at the 
mass in several places, many people in his diocese being 
observed to withdraw from the divine service and com- 
monion, he was accused of neglect in the execution of the 
king's orders. He was summoned before the privy coun- 
cil on the i 1th of August, when, after a reproof for his 
negligence, he was enjoined to preach the Sunday three 
weeks after at Paul's cross, on certain articles delivered to 
him ; and also to preach there once a quarter for the fu- 
ture, and be present at every sermon preached there, and 
to celebrate the communion in that church on all the prin- 
cipal feasts : and to abide and keep residence in his house 
in London, till he had licence from the council to depart 
elsewhere. On the day appointed for his preaching, he 
delivered a sermon to a crowded audience on the points as- 
signed to him. But he entirely omitted the last article, 
the king's royal power in his youth ; for which contempt 
he was complained of to the king by John Hooper, after- 
wards bishop of Worcester: and archbishop Cranmer, 
bishop Ridley, sir William Petre, and sir Thomas Smith, 


secretaries of state, and William May, LL. D. and dean 
of St. Paul's, were appointed commissioners to proceed 
against him. Appearing before them several days in Sep- 
tember, he was, after a long trial, committed to the Mar- 
shalsea ; and towards the eud of October deprived of his 

On the accession of queen Mary, Bonner had an oppor- 
tunity of shewing himself in his proper character, vHbich 
indeed had been hitherto but faintly concealed* He was 
restored to his bishopric by a commission read in St. 
Paul's cathedral the 5th of September 1553 ; and in 1654, 
he was made vicegerent, and president of the convocation, 
in the room' of archbishop Cranmer, who was committed 
to the Tower. The same year he visited his diocese, in 
order to root up all the seeds of the Reformation, and be- 
baved in the most furious and extravagant maimer; at 
Hadbam, he was excessively angry because the bells did 
not ring at his coming, nor was the rood-loft decked, or 
the sacrament hung up. He swore and raged in the church 
at Dr. Bricket, the rector, and, calling him knave and 
heretic, went to strike at him ; but the blow fell upon sir 
Thomas Joscelyn'sicar, and dmost stunned him. On his 
return he set up the mass again at St. Paul's, before the 
act for restoring it was passed. The same year, he was in 
commission to turn out some of the reformed bishops. In 
1555, and the three following years, he was the occasion 
of above two hundred of innocent persons being put to 
death in the mpst cruel manner, that of burning, for their 
firm adherence to the Protestant religion. On the 1 ^th of 
February l555-6y he came to Oxford (with Thirlby bishop 
of Ely), to degrade archbishop Craomer, whom he used 
with great insolence. The 29th of December following he 
was put into a commission to search and raze all registers 
lind records containing professions against the pope, scru- 
tinies taken in religious houses, &c. And the 8th of Feb** 
ruary 1556*7, he was also put in another commission, or 
kind of inquisition, for searching after and punishing all 

Upon queen Elizabeth^s accession, Bonner went to meet 
her at Highgate, with the rest of the bishops; but she 
looked on him as a man stained with blood, and therefore 
would shew him no mark of her favour. For some months, 
however, he remained unmolested ; but being called be- 
fore the privy council on theidOthof May 1559, he re« 

B O N N E H. ^fi 

fosed to take the oadi of allegiance and supremacy : for 
which reason only, as it appears, he was deprived a second 
time of his bishopric the 29th of June following, and com«- 
mltted to the Marsbalsea. After having lived in confine*' 
ment some years, be died September 5, 1 569, and three 
days after he was buried at midnight, in St. George's church- 
yard, Southwark, to prevent any disturbances that might 
hav# been made by the citizens, who bated him extremdy. 
He had stood excommunicated several years, and might 
have been denied Christian burial ; but of this no advan- 
tage was taken. As to his character^, he was a violent, fuiious^ 
and passionate man, and extremely cruel in his nature $ 
in his person he was very fat and corpulent, the conse- 
quence of excessive gluttony, to which he was much ad- 
dicted. He was a great master of the canpn law, being 
excelled in tbat faculty by, very few of his time, and well 
skilled in politics, but understood Jittle of divinity. Scr 
veral pieces were published under his name, of which the 
following is a Ust : 1 . Preface to the Oration of Stephen 
Gardiner, bbhop of Winchester, concerning true Obedi- 
ence. Printed at London, in Latin, 1534, 1535, and s^ 
Hamburgh in 153.6, 8vo. Translated into English by Mi- 
chael Wood, a zealous Protestant, with a bitter preface to 
the reader, and a postscript. Roan, 1553, 8vo« It is also 
inserted in J. Fox's book of Martyrs. In the preface Bon- 
ner speaks much in favour of king Henry the Vlllth's 
marriage with Ann Boleyn, and against the tyranny exer- 
cised by the bishop of Rome in this kingdom. 2. Several 
letters to the lord Cromwell. 3. A declaration to lord 
Cromwell, describing to him the evil behaviour of Stephen 
(bishop of Winchester), with special causes therein con- 
tained, wherefore and why he misliked of hinu 4. Letter 
of his about the proceedings at Rome concerning the king's 
divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 5. An admonition and 
advertisement given by the bishop of London to all readers 
of the Bible in the English tongue. 6. Injunctions given 
by Bonner, bishop of London^ to his clergy (about preach- 
ing, with the names of books prohibited). 7. Letter to 
Mr. Lecfamere* 8. Responsum & exhortatio, Lond. 1553, 
8vo. Answer and exhortation to the clergy in praise of 
priesthood : spoken by the author in St. Paul's cathedral, 
the 16th October, 1553, after a sermon preached before 
the clergy, by John Harpesfield. 0. A letter to Mr. Lech- 
Vol. VI. F 

€6 fi O N N E ft. 

mere, 6tb September, 1553. 10. Articles to be enquired 
t>f in the general visitation of Edmund bishop of Londoif, 
lexefcised by him in 1554, in the city avid diocese of Lon« 
don, &c. To ridicale them, John Bale, bishop of Ossory^ 
wrote a book, entitled, A declaration of Edmund Bonner's 
articles, concerning the clergy of London diocese, whereby 
that execrable anti-christ is in his right colours rerealed, 
1554, and 1561, 8to. 1 1. A profitable and necessary doc«* 
trine, containing an exposition on the Creed, seven Sacra- 
ments, ten Commandments, the Pater Nosier, Ave Maria^ 
with certain homilies adjoining thereto, for the instruction 
and information of the diocese of London, Lond. 1554-5^ 
4to. This book was drawn up by his chaplains John 
Harpesfield and Henry Pendleton ; the former part of it^ 
which is catechism, is mostly taken out of the Institution 
of a Christian man, set out by king Henry VIIL only va- 
ried in some points. 12. Several letters, declarations, ar*- 
guings, disputes, &c. of his are extant in John Fox's 
book of Martyrs, vol. last. 13. His objections against the 
process of Robert Horn, bishop of Winchester, who had 
tendered the oath of supremacy to him a second time, are 
preserved by Mr. Strype in his Annals of the Reformation. 
The character of bishop Bonner is so familiar to our rea* 
ders as to require little illustration, or any addition to the 
preceding account from the former edition of this Diction- 
ary ; yet some notice may be taken of the defence set up 
by the Roman Catholic historians. Dodd, alluding to his 
cruelties, says, that ** Seeing he proceeded according to 
the statutes then in force, and by the direction of the le- 
gislative power, he stands in need of no apology on that 
score." But the history of the times proves that Bonner's 
character cannot be protected by a reference to the sta^ 
tutes^ unless his vindicator can likewise prove that he had 
no hand in enacting those statutes ; and even if this were 
conceded, his conduct will not appear less atrocious, be^ 
cause, not content with the sentence of the law carried into 
execution by the accustomed officers, Bonner took- fre- 
quent opportunities to manifesfthe cruelty of his disposi- 
tion by anticipating, or aggravating, the legal punishments. 
He sometimes whipped the prisoners with bis own bands^ 
till be was tired with the violence of the exercise ; and oh 
one occasion he tore out the beard of a weaver who refused 
to relinquish his religion ; and that he might give him a 
ipecimen of burning, be held bis hand to a candle,* till 


the sinews and veins shrunk and burit *. The fact is, that 
Bonner was constitutionally cruel, and delighted in the 
sufferings he inflicted. Granger very justly says, that 
^^ Nature seems to have designed him for an executioner," 
and as, wherever he could, he performed the character, how 
can he be defended by an appeal to the statutes I The 
most remarkable circumstance in bis history is the lenity 
shown to him after all this bloody career. There seems 
no reasoh to think that he would have even been de- 
prived of bis bishopric, had he consented to take the oaths 
of allegiance and supremacy, a circumstance which is 
surely very extraordinary. His compliance, had he taken 
that step, could have been only hypocritical, and what an 
object it would have been to have seen the duties and 
power of a protestant prelate intrusted to such a monster, 
and in that diocese, where so many families preserved the 
bitter remembrance of his cruelty ! ^ 

BONNET (Charles), an eminent natural philosopher, 
was bom at Geneva, on the 13th of March, 1720. His 
ancestors, who were compelled to emigrate from France, 
in 1572, after the dreadful slaughter of St. Bartholomew's 
day, established themselves at Geneva, where his grands- 
father was advanced to the magistracy. His father^ wh6 
preferred the sution of a private citizen, paid unremitted 
attention to the education of his son, which the latter re- 
compensed, at a very early period, by the amiableness of 
his disposition, and the rapid progress he made in general 
literature. When about sixteen years of age, he applied 
himself, with great eagerness, to the perusal of ** Le 
Spectacle de la Nature,'* and this work made such a deep 
impression on his mind, that it may be said to have di- 
rected the taste and the studies of his future life. What 
that publication had commenced, was confirmed by the 
work of La Pluche ; but having accidentally seen the trea- 
tise of Reaumur upon insects, he was in a transport of joy. 
He was very impatient to procure the book, but, as the 

* There is, rays Granger, a wooden on the foo), how could he get my pic- 
print of hioiy whipping Thomas Hio- lure drawn so right !'* lliere is ano- 
shawe, in tlie Srst editioa of Fox's ther print of him in that book, buming 
" Acts and Monoments.*' Sir John a man's bands with a candle. With re- 
Rarrington tells ns that ** when Bon- gard to his corpulence, a punster of 
■«r was shown this priot in the Book of the tiroes said of him, that *' he was 
Martjrrs on purpose to vex him, he full of guts, but empty of bowels.'* 
laughed at it, saying, " A Tengeance 

^ Biog. Brit— Burnet's Hist, of the Reformation. — Strype's Life of Cranmer, 
ilimab and Mefflorials.-*Fox's Acta and Monuments.-»Dodd'9 Cb. Uist toL I. 

F 2 


only copy in Geneva belonged to a public library, and tiM 
the librarian was reluctant to entrust it in the bands of a 
youth, it was with the utmost difficulty that he could ob* 
tain his end. By the possession of this treasure, our as- 
siduous youth was enabled to make several neW and .curi- 
ous experiments, which he comtnunicated to Reaumur him^' 
self; and the high applause he gained, from so great a 
naturalist, added fresh vigour to his assiduity. 

In compliance with his father's desires, he applied him- 
self, though with much reluctance, to the study of the 
law. The works of Burlamaqui pleased him the most, on 
account of the perspicuous and philosophic manner in 
which the subject was treated ; the institutes of Heinec** 
cius gave him' some courage also, as he perceived order 
and connection ; but the Roman law terrified him. Not* 
withstanding his application to these authors, he still con* 
tinned attached to natural history, and was very active in 
making experiments. Some experiments respecting tree- 
lice happening to be communicated by Reaumur to the 
academy of sciences, occasioned an epistolary correspon* 
dence between M. Bonnet and that great naturalist, a cir- 
cumstance, doubtless, very flattering to a youth of twenty- 
years, and the letter of Reaumur was accompanied with a 
present of that very book which he had borrowed, with so 
much difificulty, two years before. 

Animated by such distinguished marks of approbation^ 
he diligently employed every moment he could steal from 
the study of jurisprudence to the completion of his natural 
history of the tree-louse ; to experiments on the respira* 
tion of caterpillars and butterflies, which he discovered to 
be effected by stigmata, or lateral pores ; to an examina* 
tion of the construction of the tinea, or tapeworm ; in fre- 
quent correspondence with Reaumur; and in assisting 
Trembley in his discoveries and publication concerning 
millepedes, &c. Having, in 1743, obtained the degree 
of doctor of laws, he relinquished a pursuit which be bad 
commenced with so much reluctance. In the same year 
be was admitted a member of the royal society of Lon- 
don, to which he had communicated a treatise on insects. 

Bonnet being now liberated from his other pursuits, ap- 
plied himself, without intermission, to collecting together 
his experiments and observations concerning the tree-louse 
and the worm, which he publisbed in 1744, under the 
title of " Insectology." This work acquired deserved ap» 


probation from the public, and was honoured by the com- 
mendation of the celebrated B. de Jussieu. He was ra» 
proached, however, as some other naturalists have de* 
served, with having paid too little attention to the delicacy 
of his reader, though his patience and accuracy w«re ac- 
knowledged to be deserving of praise. Such unremitted 
application and labour could not fail of becoming injurious 
to his health. Inflammations, nervous fever, sore eyes,. &c 
compelled him to relinquish the use of the microscope and 
the study of insects. This prevention was* so extremely 
mortifying to a man of his taste and activity of mind, that 
he was thrown into a deep melancholy, which could only 
be subdued by the resolution inspired by philosophy, and 
the consolations of religion ; these gradually roused him 
ft'om a dejected state of mind. About the end of 1746, 
he was chosen member of the literary institution at Bo-^ 
logna, which introduced him to a correspondence with the 
celebrated Zanotti, who may be deemed the Fontenelle of 

In 1747, he undertook a very difficult work on the 
leaves of plants ; which, of all his publioations ki natuial 
history, bore the strongest marks of originality, both with 
respect to the manner in which his experiments were made, 
and the discoveries resulting from them, ^ut from this 
extreme attachment to natursJ history, he was gradually le4 
to a study of a very different nature ; and ^speculative phi- 
losophy now engaged his whole attention. The first result 
of his meditations in tliis department was his " Essay 
on Psychology,^' in which the principal facts observable 
in human nature, and the consequences resulting from 
them, are stated in a concise and perspicuous manner. He 
contemplated man, from the first moment of his existence^ 
and pursued the developement of his senses and faculties, 
firom simple growth up to intelligence. This work, which 
was published without his name, met with great .opposi-* 
tion, and was criticised with severity; but the censures 
were directed more against his expressions than his prin* 
ciples, nor were they of sufficient importance to impede 
the general acceptance of the performance. His ^^ Analy- 
sis of the mental faculties'* was simply a developement of 
the ideas contained in the preceding work. It engaged 
bis incessant attention for the space of five years ; nor was 
it completed before 1759. It is somewhat singular, that 
both be and the abb£ de Coadillac should have illustrated 


their principles by the supposition of a statue, organized 
like the human body, which they conceived to be gradu- 
ally inspired with a soul, and the progressive euiargement 
of whose powers they carefully traced. In 1760 this work 
was published at Copenhagen by order and at the expence 
of Frederic v.; and it was followed in 1762 by " Con- 
siderations on organized bodies/' in which the author had 
three principal objects before him ; the first was to give a 
concise view of every thing which appears interesting in 
natural histoi^, respecting the origin, growth, and re- 
production of organized bodies ; the second was to confute 
the two different systems founded upon the Epigenesis; 
and the third was to explain the system of Germs, indicate 
the ground upon which it was founded, its correspondence 
with facts, and the consequences resulting from it This 
work was received with much satisfaction by natural philo- 
sophers. The academy of Berlin, which had proposed the 
same subject, as a prize-question for 1761, declared that 
they considered this treatise as the offspring of close obser- 
yaUon and profound reasoning ; and that the author would 
have had an undubitable right to the prize, if he had confined 
bis labours to the precise statement of the question, and 
Malesherbes reversed the interdict which the public censor 
had laid upon this book, as containing dangerous princi- 

The ^'Contemplations of Nature" appeared in 1764. 
In this work, the author first enlarged upon the common 
conceptions entertained concerning the existence and per- 
fections of God 3 and of the order and uniformity observ- 
able in the universe. He next descends to man, examines 
the parts of his composition, and the various capacities 
with which he is endowed. He next proceeds to the 
plants : assembles and describes the laws of their oeco- 
nomy; and finally, he examines the insects, indicates the 
principal circumstances in which they differ from large 
animals, and points out the philosophical inferences tl^t 
may legitimately be deduced from these differences ; and 
he concludes with observations respecting the industry of 
insects. This work being of a popular nature, the author 
spared no pains in bestowing upon it those ornaments of 
which it was susceptible. The principles which he thus 
discovered aqd explained, induced him to plan a system 
of moral philosophy ; which, according to his ideas, con- 
sisted solely in the observance of that relation in whicb 


man is placed, respecting all the beings that sarround hinu 
The first branch would have comprehended various means, 
which philosophy and the medical science have discovered, 
for the prevention of disease, the preservation and aug- 
mentation of the corporeal powers, and the better exertion 
of their force : in the second, he proposed to show, that 
natural philosophy has a powerful tendency to embellish 
and improve our mind, and augment the number of our 
suional amusements, while it i^ replete with beneficial ef« 
fects respecting the society at large. To manifest the 
invalidity of opinions, merely hypothetical, he undertook, 
in the third place, to examine, whether there were not 
truths within the compass of human knowledge, to which 
the most sceptical philosopher must be compelled to yield 
his consent, and which might serve as the basis of all our 
reasonings concerning man and his various relations. He 
then would have directed his attention to a first cause, 
and have manifested how greatly the idea of a deity, and sun 
preme law-giver, favoured the conclusions which reason 
bad drawn from the nature and properties of things ; but 
his ill health, impaired by incessant labour, would not 
permit him to complete the design. His last publication 
iras the *^ Palingenesis,'* which treats of the prior exist- 
ence and future state of living beings. 

Of.his publications in natural history, those deemed the 
most excellent, are, his Treatise on the best means of pre- 
serving Insects and Fish in cabinets of Natural History ; 
a dissertation on the Loves of the Plants; sundry pieces 
on the experiments of Spallanzani, concerning the repro* 
duction of the head of the Snail ; a dissertation on the Pipa^ 
or Surinam Toad ; and different treatises on Bees. 

In 1783, he was elected honorary member of the aca- 
demy of sciences at Paris, and of the academy of scien- 
ces and the belles lettres at Berlin. Much of his time was 
employed in a v^ry eiftensive correspondence with some of 
the most celebrated natural philosophers and others. Of 
ibis number were Reaumur; De Geer, the Reaumur of Swe- 
den ; Du Hamel ; the learned Haller ; the experimental 
philosopher Spallanzani ; Van Swieten ; Merian ; and that 
ornament of Switzerland, the great Lambert He enter- 
tained, however, the utmost aversion to controversy. He 
thought that no advantage to be obtained by it could com- 
pensate for the loss of that repose which he valued, with 
Hevton^ as the rem prorsus substtmtialem. He never 


aoflw^ed remarks that were made to the prejudi<;e of his 
writings, but left the decision mth the public : yet, ever 
ready to acknowledge his errors, he was sincerely thankful 
to every one who contributed to the perfection of his works. 
He was used to say, that one confession, ^^ I was in the 
wrong,*' is of more value than a thousand ingenious 
confutations. His literary occupations, and the care he 
was obliged to take of his health, prevented him from tra- 
velling. He delighted in retirement, and every hour was 
occupied in the improvement of his mind. The last 
twenty-five years of his life were spent in the same rural 
situation where he had passed the. greater part of his early 
days; yet, notwithstanding the pursuit of literature was 
Ii'is supreme delight, he never refused to suspend his stu- 
dies, when the good of his country seemed to demand bis 

He was chosen, in 1752, member of the grand council, 
in' the republic of Geneva ; and he assisted regularly at 
their deliberations, till 1768, where he distinguished him- 
self by his eloquence, his moderation, united with firm- 
Bess ; by his good sense and penetration, in cases of diffi- 
culty ; and by the zeal with which he endeavoured to re- 
claim his fellow citizens to that ancient simplicity of man- 
ners which had been so conducive to the welfare of the 
state, and to the love of virtue, so essential to the exist- 
ence of genuine liberty. His conduct, in every case, was 
consistent with his principles. He took no pains to accu* 
mulate wealth, but remained satisfied with a fortune equal 
to his moderate wants, and to the exercise of his benevo- 
lence. The perfect correspondence between his extensive 
knowledge and virtuous deeds, procured him universal 

In the year 1788, evident symptoms of a dropsy of the 
chest manifested themselves ; and from this time he gra- 
dually declined. He sustained his indisposition with un- 
remitted cheerfulness and composure. After various fluc- 
tuations, usual in that complaint, he died, on the 20th of 
May, 1793, in the seventy-third year of his age ; retaining 
his presence of mind to the last moment; administering 
comfort to surrounding friends and relatives ; and attempt- 
ing to alleviate the distress of his disconsolate wife, in 
whose arms he expired. 

As a demonstration of the high value placed upon his 
labours and talents, by the literati, we have only to add^ 


lfaatt*he ^s member of most of the learned societies of Eu- 
rope. The latter part of his life was employed in revising 
his works, of which a complete edition was published at 
Neuchatel in 9 vols. 4tOy or 18 vols. 8¥0, containing, be- 
sides these already noticed, several smaller pieces in na<« 
tural history and metaphysics. Notwithstanding the high 
praises bestowed on Bonnet by his countrymen, there are 
many parts of his works which must be read with caution, 
nor, where there is not much danger in his speculations, 
is he always a very conclusive reasoner. ^ 

BONNEVAL (Claudius Alexander de), count, known 
in the latter part of his Jife by the name of Osman Bashaw, 
descended from a family related to the blood royal of 
France, was born in 1672, and entered himself at the age 
of sixteen, in the service of that crown, and married the 
daughter of marshal da Biron. He made the campaign in 
Flanders in 1690, but soon after leffc the French army, 
and entered into the Imperial service under prince Eugene, 
who honoured him with an intimate friendship. The in-* 
trigues of the marquis de Pri^, his inveterate enemy, ruined 
his credit however at the court of Vienna, and caused him 
to be banished the empire. He then offered his service to 
the republic of Venice, and to Russia ; which being de- 
clined, his next tender was to the grand Signior, who 
gladly received him : it was stipulated that he should have 
a body of 30,000 men at his disposal ; that a government 
should be conferred on him, with the rank of bashaw of 
three tails; a salary of 10,000 aspers a day, equal to 
45,000 livres a year ; and that in case of a war, he should 
be commander in chief. The first expedition he engaged 
in after his arrival at Constantinople, was to quell dn in* 
surrection in Arabia Petraea, which he happily effected ; 
and at his return, had large offers made him by Kouli 
Khan, which he did not choose to accept Some time 
after, he commanded the Turkish army against the em- 
peror, over whose forces he gained a victory on the banks 
of tb% Danube. But success does not always protect a 
person against disgrace; for Bonneval, notwithstanding 
his service, was firstimprisoned, and then banished to the 
island of Chio. The sultan, however, continued his friend; 
and the evening before his departure made him bashaw 
general of. the Archipelago, which, with his former ap<^ 

' Menioires ponr leryir a Phistoiro. &c. de M. Cbarlas Bonnet* Bem» 8to« 


pointment of beglerbeg of Arabiay rendered him one of the 
most powerful persons in the Ottoman empire. In this 
island) he found a retirement agreeable to his wishes, but 
did not long enjoy it, being sent for back, and made to- 
pigi or master of the ordnance, a post of great honour and 
profit. He died in this employment, aged 75, in 1747; 
and wrote the memoirs of his own life, which were pub- 
lished in London in 1755, 2 vols. 12 mo, and give but an 
indifferent idea of his personal character. ^ 

BONONE (Carlo), an eminent artist, was born at 
Ferrara in 1569, and died in 1632. He was the scholar of 
Bastaruolo, and the rival of Scarselliuo, whose suavity of 
manner he attempted to eclipse by energy and grandeur. 
He studied at Bologna, for that purpose, the Carracci ; at 
Rome, with nature and the antique, perhaps the Roman 
style ; at Venice, Paolo, and at Parma, Corregio. In 
compositions of a few figures only, he resembles Lod« 
Carracci sometimes to a degree of delusion ; but in works 
of numerous grouping, such as the *^ Feast of Herod,^* 
and the ^^ Nuptials of Cana," at Ferrara^ and chiefly in 
the ^^ Supper of Ahasuerus," at Ravenna, he rivals in 
abundance and arrangement the ornamental style of Paolo. 
At St. Maria' in Vado at Feri-ara, his science in Corre* 
giesque fore-shortening and forcible effects of chiaroscuro, 
fixed and astonished the eye of Guercino. His cabinet 
pictures possess a high degree of finish. That such powenr 
should not hitherto have procured Bonone an adequate de- 
gree of celebrity in the annals of painting, proves only, 
that no felicity of imitation can ever raise its possessors to 
the honours of originality and invention. * 

BONOSUS^ an ancient prelate of the fourth century, 
is known in church history as the heretical bishop of 
Naissus in Dacia, though some authors say of Sardica, the 
metropolis of that province. In the year 391 he was ac- 
cused of crimes against the cations of the church and the 
law of God, and was reported for heresy at the council of 
Capua, which met the latter end of that year. The par- 
ticulars of his crimes cannot now be known, but his heresy 
may be gathered from St. Augustin and St Ambrose. He 
had, before, been condemned by Damasus, bishop of Rome, 
who died A. D. 384. The council of Capua committed the 
hearing of his cause to the bishops of Mecodon,- his neigh«« 

( M€iiioin.^Di€t. Hiit t Pilkiofton by FoBeli« 

B O N O S U S. 73 

bours^ under their metropolitan Anysius, bishop of Thes- 
salonica. The bishops assembled, agreeably Jtp the order 
of the council, and Bonosus appeared before them ; «after 
ezaminaiion, they were so well convinced of the truth of 
the charge, that they immediately suspended him from 
all episcopal functions ; at the same time writing a letter 
to Syricius bishop of Rome, declaring their abhorrence of 
the detestable error, that the virgin Mary should have other 
children than Christ, Bonosus died A. D. 410; but hia 
doctrine did not die with him, being maintained by some 
200 years after his death. Pope Gregory makes mention 
of the Bonosians in the latter end of the sixth century. ' 
. BONTEMPI (Anoelini), a native of Perugia, and au- 
thor of the first history of music in the Italian language 
with which we are acquainted, was an able professor, of 
considerable learning, who Bourished about the middle of 
the seventeenth century. His work, which has for title 
\^ Historia Musica di Gio. And. Angelini Boutempi,^' was 
published at Perugia, in small folio, 1695. It is become 
somewhat scarce, which enhances its value with collectors 
of books; but Dr. Burney^s opinion is unfavourable. He 
says that with great parade of his learning, science, and 
acquaintance with the Greek theorists, that are come down 
to us, he leaves us in as utter darkness concerning the 
practice of ancient music as ever, and has furnished us 
with but little information concerning the modern of bis 
own time, with which, however, as a contrapuntist, he 
seems to have been perfectly well acquainted. Indeed, by 
the frequent use he makes of scientific terms, his book, 
when casually opened, has more the appearance of a dry 
mathematical treatise, than the history of an elegant art. 
The most curious and interesting part of his work is, the 
account which he gives of the discipline of the college of 
singers in the service of the pontifical chapel, and of the 
great masters who then flourished at Rome, who had dis- 
tinguished themselves in writing <^ Alia Palestrina'* for the 
church : secular music was then but little cultivated, and 
less respected there, till operas and oratorios had made 
some progress in polishing melody, and in the just ac- 
centuation and expression of words. ' 

BONTEMS (Mapame), a lady who was born at Paris 
in 1718, and died in the same city April 18, 1768, had 

* Morefi.-!-fLardne|r. 

S Burney't aod Uawkiiu's Hist, of Music. — Rees's Cyclopadia. 

76 B O N T E M S. 

received from nature a good understanding; and an excel- 
lent taste, which were cultivated by a suitable education. 
She possessed the foreign languages, and was mistress of 
all the delicate turns of her own. It is to her that the 
French are indebted for a translation, said to be accurate 
and elegant, of Thomson's Seasons, 1759, ]2mo. Madame 
Bontems had a select society that frequented her house, 
and though she had a great talent for wit, she only made 
use of it for displaying that of others. She was not less 
esteemed for the qualities of her heart than those of her 

BONTIUS (Gerard), professor in medicine at the uni- 
versity of Leyden in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was a man of profound erudition, and critically 
versed in the Greek language. He was born at Ryswick^ 
a small village of Guelderland, and died at Leyden, Sept. 
15, 1599, sixty-three years old. Boutins is the inventor 
of a composition of pills, which, from his name, are called 
Pilulse tartaress Bontii. The Dutch for a long time kept 
this composition a secret; but they have been analysed by 
the industry of some physicians, and the ingredients are 
now well known. He wrote some commentaries on Hip- 
pocrates, but published no part of them. He left two 
sons, both eminent in the medical art, James and Reyner. * 

BONTIUS (James), called by some, JoH^I, a native of 
i.eyden, was educated in philosophy and medicine under 
his father, Gerard ; and being sent to the East Indies, 
practised physic at Batavia about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. On his return to Europe he wrote several 
valuable works on the diseases and practice of medicine of 
India. These are, ** De conservanda Valetudine, ac dieta 
' sanis in India observandis -y** << Metbodus medendi, qui 
oportet in India orientali uti ;*^ ^^ Obs^rvationes selecta^ 
ex dissectione cadaverum ac autopsia descripta^.** He also 
published curious observations relating to the botany and 
natural history of those regions, especially the vegetables 
used in medicine and diet, in his work entitled ** De Me- 
dicina Indorum,** in 1642, and afterwards, with Alpinus'a 
work, *< De Medicina -^gyptiorum,*' 1718, 4to. He also 
published ^^ Historia Nat. et Med. Indiee orientalis,^' 165H^ 
fol. His brother Reyner was many years professor of me- 

1 Diet. Historique. 

* Freberi Theatrum.— ^looDet ac Vitse Rect Acad. Leideoi 4to, 1714. 

3 O N W I C K E. 77 

dicine at Leyden, and rector of the universitj. He died 
in 1623. * 

fiONWICKE (Ambrose), a nonjuring clergjnnan of 
great piety and learning, son of the rev. John Bonwicke^ 
rector of Mickleham in Surrey, was born April 29, 1652, 
and educated at Merchant Taylors school. Thence he was 
elected to St John's college, Oxford, in 1668, where he 
was appointed librarian in 1670 ; B.A. 1673 ; M. A. March 
18, 1675; was ordained deacon May 21, 1676; priest^ 
June 6 (Trinity Sunday), 1680 ; proceeded B. D. July 21^ 
1682 ; and was elected master of Merchant Taylors school 
June 9, 1686. In 1689, the college of St. John's peti* 
tioned the Merchant Taylors company, that he might con-* 
tinue master of the school (which is a nursery for their 
college) for life; but, at Christmas 1691, he was turned 
out for refusing to take the oath of allegiance, and was 
afterwards for many years master of a celebrated school at 
Headley, near Leatherhead in Surrey, where he had at 
one time the honour of having the poet Fenton for his 
usher, and Bowyer (who was afterwards the learned prin- 
ter) for a scholar, 

Mr. Nichols has in MS« a curious correspondence of 
Mr. Bonwicke with Mr. Blechynden, on occasion of his 
ejection from the Merchant Taylors school, with many of 
his college exercises, and letters to his father. Some let- 
ters, which convey ap admirable idea of his unaffected 
piety and goodness, may be seen in the Life of Bowyer. 
A copy of his verses, whilst fellow of St. John's, is printed 
in an Oxford collection, on the death of king Charles IL 
1685. By his wife (Elizabeth Stubbs) Mr. Bonwicke had 
twelve children, one of whom furnished the subject of a 
very interesting little volume, entitled " A Pattern for 
Young Students in the University, set forth in the Life of 
Mr. Ambrose Bonwicke, some time scholar of St. John's 
College, Cambridge," 1729, 12mo, of which Mr. Nichols 
has given an excellent analysis, with additions, in his late 
Literary History.* 

. BOOKER (John), one of those impostors who amused 
the public in the seventeenth century, was born at Man- 
chester in 1601, and was bred a haberdasher in Lawrence- 
lane, Loudon, but quitted this employment and followed 

1 Preheri Theatrum. — Icones ac ViUe Rect Acad. Leiden, 4tOj 17U.— R«e8*8 
* NichoU'n Bowyer, vols. I* and V. 


that of a writing-master at Hadley in Middlesex, and w^S 
afterwards for some time clerk to the sitting aldermen at 
Guildhall. He in a few years rendered himself so eminent, 
tibat he was appointed licenser of mathematical books, under 
which were included all those that related to the celestial 
sciences. Lilly tells us, that he once thought him the 
greatest astrologer in the world ; but it appears that he 
afterwards sunk in his esteem, and that he thought himself 
a much greater man. We are told by the same author, 
that ^< he had a curious fancy in judging of thefts, and 
was as successful in resolving love questions,'* which was 
a capital branch of his trade. George Wharton, who was 
formerly one of his astrological friends, had a great quarrel 
with him, which occasioned his publishing ^' Mercurio* 
Coelico Mastix ; or an Anti-caveat to all such as have here- 
tofore had the misfortune to be cheated and deluded by 
that great and treacherous impostor John Booker; in an 
answer to his frivolous pamphlet, entitled Mercurius Coe- 
licus, or a Caveat to all the people of England ;" Oxon. 
1644, 4to. The only work of Booker's worth notice is, 
his ^^ Bloody Irish Almanac,'* which contains some me- 
morable particulars relative to the war in Ireland; He 
died April 1667, and his books were sold to Elias Ashmole^ 
who, as Lilly informs us, and we may readily believe, gave 
more for them than they were worth. ' 

BOONEN (Arnold)^ a portrait-painter, was born at 
Bort, in 1669, and after having been for some time a 
disciple of Arnold Verbuis, placed himself under Godfrey 
Schalcken, who recommended to him, after having re- 
ceived his instructions for six years, to study nature. By 
following this advice, Boonen obtained the reputation of a 
great master at the age of twenty-five years. His style of 
colouring was extremely good ; the attitudes of his figures 
were elegantly disposed ; his touch neat. The whole pos- 
sessed such harmony, and his portraits maintained such a 
striking likeness, that he was ranked among the ablest 
artists of his time ; he had a number of admirers, and a 
greater demand for works than he was able to execute. He 
bad the honour of painting the portraits of the czar of 
Muscovy, of Frederick I. king of Prussia, of the victorious 
duke of Marlborough, as well as of many of the princes of 
Germany, and most of the noblemen who attended the 

1 Granger.^Ully'f Ufe and Times, p. 40, edit 1774. 

B O O N E N. »9 

czar. His heali^ was impaired by bis excessive applica^ 
tioQ, and be died ricb in 1729.^' 

BOOT, or BOETIUS (Gerard), of a noble famUy, was 
bom at Gorcuniy in Holland, in 1604. After taking bis 
degree of doctor in medicine, be came to England, and was 
in sucb estimation for bis skill in bis profession, that be 
was made pbysician to king Charles I. On the death of 
that prince be settled in Dublin, but died soon after, viz. 
in 1630. In 16S0 be published ^^ Heures de Recreation,^' 
4 to, in the Dutch language; and in 1640, " Philosophia 
Naturalis reformata,^' which are not, however, much esteem- 
ed. His brother Arnold, likewise a physician, was well 
versed in the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac languages. 
After taking his degree of doctor in medicine, be came also 
to London ; but on the breaking out of the troubles here, 
he removed to Ireland, where he practised with success 
and reputation for some years. Tired at length with the 
hurry and confusion incident to civil commotions, and hav- 
ing experienced some losses, he went to Paris, and there 
passed the remainder of his life in retirement and study. 
He died in 1653. He published, in 1649, ^ Observationes 
Medicae de affectibus a veteribus omissis," 12mo. Haller 
gives a particular account of this volume, which contains 
many interesting and curious observations. ' 


BOOTH (Abraham), a pious and popular dissenting 
minister of the Baptist persuasion, was born at Blackwell 
in Derbyshire, May 20, 1734, of poor parents, who were 
anable to give him any education. He spent a consi- 
derable part of his youth in the farming business, and that 
of the stocking frame, but appears to have during this time 
read much, and at length began to preach among the sect 
called the general baptists, throughout the towns and vil- 
lages in his neighbourhood. In his twenty-third year he 
married ; and this producing a numerous family, he opened 
a school at Sutton-Ashfield. At this time he beld the 
doctrine of universal redemption, and disliked predestina* 
tion to such a degree as to ridicide it in a poem (of which 
he was afterwards ashamed), but he now changed his sen- 
timents and became a zealous Calvinist in that and other 
poinu supposed to constitute the Caivinistic system. The 


* Pilkington. — Descamps, toI. FV. 

s Haller, Bibl. Med.— R«e«*s Cydopedia^-^forerf. 

so BOOTH. 

coosequence af this change was^ aa arowal and defence of 
bis new opinions in his first publication, ^^ The Reign of 
Grace,'' in which he was encouraged by the late rev. Henry 
Venn, vicar of Huddersfield, who wrote a recommendatory 
preface to it. It appeared in 1768, and led to a new and 
important sra in his life, being so much approved by the 
congregation of particular baptists in Prescot^street, Good- 
man's fields, whose pastor was just dead, that they invited 
Mr. Booth to succeed him. This invitation he accepted, 
and in Feb. 1769, took possession of his pulpit, after being 
regularly ordained for the first time. Here he appears for 
some years to have spent what time he could spare from 
his public labours in laying in a stock of knowledge ; and 
although he always lamented the want of a regular educa- 
tion, his proficiency, and the extent of his reading were so 
great as in some measure to redeem his time, and place 
him on a footing, both aa a scholar, preacher, and writer, 
with the ablest of his brethren. He knew Greek and 
Latin usefully, if not critically : the Greek Testament he 
went through nearly fifty times by the simple expedient 
of reading one chapter every day. General science and 
literature, history, civil and ecclesiastical, he investigated 
with acuteness in the ablest writers, English, French, 
Dutch, and German; and his works show that he partica* 
larly excelled in a knowledge of controversial divinity, 
and of those arguments, pro and con, which wei^ con- 
nected with his opinions as a baptist. After exercising 
his ministry in Present- street for nearly thirty«-seven years, 
he died Monday, Jan. 27, 1806, and his memory was ho* 
noured by a tablet and inscription in his meeting-house, 
recording his virtues and the high respect his congrega- 
tion entertained for him. Besides the work already men- 
tioned, he published, 1. ** The Death of Legal Hope, the 
Life of Evangelical Obedience," 1770, 12mo. 2. "The 
Deity of Jesus Chrbt essential to the Christian Religion,'* 
a translation from Abbadie, . and occasioned by the sub- 
scription controversy, 1770. 3. " An Apology for the Bap- 
tists — ^in refusing communion at the Lord's Table to. Psa- 
dobaptists," 1778. 4. ^^ PsBdobaptism examined, on the 
principles, concessions, and reasonings of the most learned 
Psedobaptists," 1784, and enlarged 1787, 2 vols, a work 
which his sect consider as unanswerable. He published 
also some lesser tracts and occasional sermons. ' 

> Essay on his Life and WritiDgSi by William Jones^ 1808, Sro. 

BOOTH. ai 

BOOTH (Barton), a celebrated tragife actof, wis boi*ii 
in the county palatine; of Lancaster,^ 1681. At the age of 
nine years be was put to Westminster school, under the 
tuition of the famous Dn Busby, where he soon discovered 
an excellent genius and capacity. He had a peculiar turn 
for Latin poetry, and had fixed many of the finest passaged 
of the antients so firmly in his memory, that he could 
repeat them with such propriety of emphasis, and graces 
fulness of action, as to charm every body who heard him. 
Thence it was, that when, according to custom, a Latin 
play was to be acted, one of the first parts was given to 
young Booth ; who performed it in such a manner as gained 
him universal applause, and particular respect from the 
doctor. This first gave him an inclination for the stage. 
His father intended him for the church : but when Bartoo 
reached the age of seventeen, and was about to be sent to 
the university, he stole away from school, and went over 
to Ireland in 1698, with Mr. Ashbury, master of the com-* 
pany. Here he was soon distinguished greatly by his 
theatrical abilities^ especially in tragedy, for which he 
teemed to be formed by nature ; for he had a grave coun* 
tenance and a good person^ with a fine voice and a manly 
action. When he had been three seasons in Dublin, in 
which time he had acquired a great reputation, he resolved 
to return to England; which he accordingly did in 1701, 
and was recommended to Mr. Betterton^ who behaved to 
him with great civility, and took- him into his oompany. 
The first character in which he appeared on the Eng- 
lish stage, was that of Maximus, in the tragedy of Va- 
lentinian ; and it was scarce possible for a young actor to 
meet with a better reception. The Ambitious Stepmother 
coming on soon after, he performed the part of Artaban^ 
which added considerably to the reputation he had ac« 
quired, and made him esteemed one of the first actors. 
Nor was his fame less in all the succeeding characters 
which he attempted ; but he shone with greatest lustre in 
the tragedy of Cato, which was brought on the stage in 
1712. '< Although Cato (says Mr. Gibber) seems plainly 
written upon what are called whig principles^ yet the 
tones at that time had sense enough not to take it as the 
least reflection on their administration ; but, on the con- 
trary, seemed to brandish and vaunt their approbation of 
every sentiment in favour of liberty, which, by a public 
act of their generosity, was carried so high, that one day 


uhile the play was acting, they collected 50 guineas in 
the boxes, and made a present of tbem to Booth, with this 
compliment — For his honest opposition to a perpetual dic- 
tator, and his dying so bravely in the cause of liberty.*' 
The reputation to which Booth was now arrived seemed to 
entitle him to a share in the management of the theatre ; 
but this perhaps his merit would never have procured, had 
it not been through the favour of lord Bolingbroke, vfhop 
in 1713, recalling all former licences, procured a new one^ 
in which Booth's name was added to those of Gibber, 
Wilks, and Dogget. Dogget, however, was so much of- 
fended at this, that he threw up his share, and would not 
accept of any consideration for it ; but Gibber tells us, he 
only made this a pretence, and that the true reason of his 
quitting was his dislike to Wilks, whose humour was be* 
come insupportable to him. When Booth came to a share 
in the management of the house, he was in the thirty*third 
year of his age, and in the highest reputation as an actor : 
nor did his fame as a player sink by degrees, as sometimes 
has happened to those who have been most applauded, but 
increased every day more and more. The health of Bootb^ 
however, beginning to decline, he could not act so often 
as usual ; and hence became more evident the public fa- 
vour towards him, by the crowded audiences his appear-* 
ance drew, when the intervals of his distemper permitted 
him to tread the stage: but his constitution broke now 
very fast, and he was attacked with a complication of dis- 
tempers, which carried him off. May 10, 1733. 

His character as an actor has been celebrated by some 
of the best judges. Mr. Aaron Hill, a gentleman, who bjr 
the share he had in the management of the play-hous^ 
could not' but have sufficient opportunities of becoming 
well acquainted with his merit, has given us a very high 
character of him. *^ Two advantages (says this gentleman) 
distinguished him in the strongest light from the rest of his 
fraternity ; he had learning to understand perfectly what- 
ever it was his part to speak, and judgment to know how 
far it agreed or disagreed with his character. Hence arose 
a peculiar grace, which was visible to every spectator, 
though few were at the pains of examining into the cause 
of their pleasure. He could soften, and slide over with a 
kind of elegant negligence, the improprieties in a part he 
acted ; while, on the contrary, he would dwell with energy 
upon the beauties, a,» if he ezorted a latent spirit, which 

BOOTH* ti 

had been kqpt back for such an occasiot), that he might 
alarm, awaken, and transport in those places only where 
the dignity of his own good sense conid be supported by 
that of his author* A little reflection upon this remarkable 
qoality will teach us to account for that manifest languor^ 
which has sometimes been observed in his action, and 
which was generally, though I think falsely^ imputed to 
the natural indolence of his temper. For the same reason^ 
though in the customary rounds of his business he would 
condescend to some parts in comedy, he seldom appeared 
in any of them with much advantage to his character* 
The passions which he found in comedy were not strong 
enough to excite his fire, and what seemed want of quali* 
fication, was only absence of impression. He had a tisdent 
at discovering the passions, where they lay hid in some 
celebrated parts, by the injudicious practice of other actors^ 
which when he had discovered, he soon grew able to ex* 
press : and his secret for attaining this great lesson of the 
theatre was an adaption of his look to his voice, by which 
artful imitation of nature, the variations in the sound of his 
words gave propriety to every change in his countenance* 
So that it was Mr. Booth's peculiar felicity to be heard and 
seen the same — whether as the pleased, the grieved, the 
pitying, the reproachful, or the angry. One would almost be 
tempted to borrow the aid of a very bold figure, and, to ex- 
press this excellence the more significantly, beg permtssioQ 
to affirm, that the blind might have seen him in his voice* 
and the deaf have heard him in his visage. His gesture^ 
or, as it is commonly called, his action, was but the result 
and necessary consequence of his dominion over his voice 
and countenance; for haying, by a concurrence of two 
such causes, impressed his imagination with such a stamp 
and spirit of passion, he ever obeyed the impulse by a 
kind of natural dependency, and relaxed or braced sue* 
cessively into all that fine expressiveness, with which he 
painted what he spoke without restraint or affectation.'' 

Mr. Cibber has also taken particular notice of Booth, 
nor has he omitted either his excellencies or defects : this 
writer, speaking of Wilks and him, says, ** they were ac« 
tars so opposite in their manner, that if either of them 
could have borrowed a little of the other's fault, they 
would both have been improved by it. If Wilks had some* 
times too great a vivacity. Booth as often contented him* 
eelf with too grave a dignity. The latter seemed toe 

Q 2 ' 


mueh to heave up his words, as the other to dart them to 
the ear with too quick and sharp a vehemence. Thus 
Wilks would too frequently break into the time and mea- 
sure of the harmony by too many spirited accents in one 
line ; and Booth, by too solemn a regard to harmony, would 
as often lose the necessary spirit of it : so that (as I have 
observed) could we have sometimes raised the one and 
sunk the other, they had both been nearer the mark. 
Yet this could not be always objected to them ; they had 
their intervals of unexceptionable excellence, that more 
than balanced their errors. The master-piece of Booth 
was Othello ; then he was most in character, and seemed 
npt more to animate and please himself in it than his spec- 
tators. It is true he owed his last and highest advance- 
ment to his acting Cato ; but it was the novelty and critical 
appearance of that character, that chiefly swelled the tor- 
rent of his applause ; for, let the sentiments of a declaim- 
ing patriot have all the sublimity of poetry, and let them 
be delivered with all the utmost grace and elocution, yet 
this is but one light wherein the excellence of an actor 
can shine ; but in Othello we may see him in the variety 
of nature. In Othello, therefore, I may safely aver, that 
Booth shewed himself thrice the actor that he could in 
Cato, and yet his merit in acting Cato need not be di- 
minished by this comparison. Wilks often regretted, that 
in tragedy he had not the full and strong voice of Booth, 
to command and grace his periods with. But Booth used 
to say, that if his ear had been equal to it, Wilks had 
voice enough to have shewn himself a much better trage- 
dian. Now, though there might be some truth in this, yet 
these . two actors were of so mixed a merit, that even in 
tragedy the superiority was not always on the same side. 
In sorrow, tenderness^ or resignation, Wilks plainly had 
the advantage, and seemed more pathetically to. feel, look, 
and express his calamity. But in the more turbulent tran- 
sports of the heart. Booth again bore the palm, and left 
all competitors behind him.*' 

Besides his professional merit, Booth was a man of let- 
ters, and an author in more languages than one. He had 
a taste for poetry, which discovered itself when he was 
very young, in translations from several Odes of Horace ; 
and in his riper years, he wrote several songs and other 
4>riginal poems, which were very iar from injuring his re« 
putation. He was also the author of a mask or dramatic 

BOOTH. 85 

entertainment called ''Dido and JEneas,^' that was very 
well received upon the stage ; but his best performance 
was a Latin inscription to the memory of a celebrated 
actor, Mr. William Smith, one of the greatest men of his 
profession, and of whom Mr. Booth always spoke in rap- 
tures. This short elogy has much strength, beauty, and 
elegance. In his private life he had many virtues, and 
few of the failings so common to his profession. He had 
DO envy in his composition, but readily approved, and as 
readily rewarded, merit, as it was in his power. He was 
something rough in his manner, and a little hasty in his 
temper, but very open and free to speak his sentiments, 
which he always did with an air of sincerit}^ that procured 
him as much credit with people at first sight, as he had 
with those to whom he had been long known. He was 
kind to all the players whose circumstances were indifferent, 
and took care not to make them uneasy, either in point of 
salary or of usage. He was no great speaker in company, 
but when he did, it was in a grave lofty way, not unlike 
his pronunciation on the stage. He had a great venera- 
tion for his parents while they were living, and was also 
very useful to his brother and sister after their decease* 
Booth was twice married; first in 1704, to Miss Frances 
Barkham, daughter of sir William Barkham, of Norfolk, 
bart. who died in 1710, without issue; and secondly, to 
Mrs. Santlowe, an actress, who survived him forty years, 
and in 1772, erected a monument to his memory in West- 
minster abbey. In 1737 she married Mr. Goodjer, a 
gentleman of fortune in Essex. ^ ^ 

BOOTH (George), Lord Delamer, the son of William 
Booth, esq. and grandson of sir George Booth, bart. ren- 
dered himself remarkable by heading an insurrection in 
Cheshire, about a year af^er the death of Oliver Cromwell. 
He received a commission from king Charles H. under his 
signet and sign-manual, bearing date July 22, 1659, by 
wfaicb he was constituted commander in chief of all forces 
to be raised for his majesty'» service in Cheshire, Lan- 
cashire, and North Wales. A duplicate of this was dated 
at Brussels, Aug. 9, the same year, but sir George did 
not openly profess to act by the king^s authority, or with 
a view to his restoration, but oiily in opposition to the 

1 Biog. Brit— Biog. Drftm.— Cibber'i Lives -.!-Lif« by TheophiluB Cibber, 
1753, Svo.— Victor's Works, toL I. p. 79» 96, 316.-^Bowle8*s edit of Pope's 
Wofto^— ^eot Mag. voL Vll, p. S59, 

86 BOOTH. 

tyranny of the parliament. He assembled about four thou- 
sand men, took possession of Chester, and was joined by 
the earl of Derby, sir Thomas Middleton, and major Brook. 
But the parliamentary forces pursued sir George and his 
adherents so closely, that they could not avoid coming to 
an action ; and, after a sharp contest, on the 1 9th of Au- 
gust, 1659, Lambert totally routed sir George Booth's 
troops, pursued them a considerable way, and killed and 
took many of them. Ludlow informs us, that ^ Sir George 
Booth, after his defeat, put himself into a woman's habit, 
and with two servants hoped to escape to London, riding 
behind one of them. The single horseman going before, 
went to an inn*n the road ; and, as he had been ordered, 
bespoke a supper for his mistress, who, he said, was 
coming after. The pretended mistress being arrived, 
either by alighting fi-om the horse, or some other action, 
raised a suspicion in the master of the house, that there 
was some mystery under that dress. And thereupon re- 
solving to make a full inquiry into the matter, he got to- 
gether some of his neighbours to assist him, and with them 
entered the room where the pretended lady was. But sir 
George Booth suspecting their intentions, and being un- 
willing to put them to the trouble of a farther search, dis- 
covered himself. Whereupon they took him into their 
custody, and sent him up to London, where the parlia- 
ment committed him prisoner to the Tower.'* Sir George 
made applications to many of the parliament and council, 
by his friends, for favour ; was examined by Haselrig and 
Vane, who referred his examination to the council of state; 
and applications were made from the lord Say, and others, 
to save his life. 

He was afterwards set at liberty, upon giving bail ; and 
being member of parliament for Chester, he was the first 
of the twelve members sent by the house of commons, in 
May 1660, to carry to king Charles U'. the answer of that 
house to his majesty's letter, as appears by the journals of 
the house of commons, May 7, 1660. And on the 13th of 
July following, the house of commons ordered, that the 
sum of ten thousand pounds should be conferred on him, 
^ a mark of respect for his eminent services, and great 
sufferings for the public. In this resolution the lords &er* 
wards concurred. It appears, that the first motion was for 
twenty thousand pounds, which the house of commons 
was about to agree to, had not sir George Booth himself^ 

BOOTH. 87 

in his place,' requested of the house, that it might be no 
more than ten ; declaring, that what he had done was 
purely with intention of serving his king and country, as 
became him in duty to do, without view of any reward. 
After the restoration, his services were also considered as 
so meritorious, that the king gave him liberty to propose 
six gentlemen to receive the honour of knighthood, and 
two others to have the dignity of baronet conferred on 
them. He was also himself created baron Delamer of Dun- 
ham- Massey ; and on the 30th of July, 1660, he was ap- 
pointed custos rotulorum for the county of Cheshire, but 
on the 30th of May, 1673, he resigned this office to 
Henry, his son and heir. << After this," scys Collins, <' he 
not being studious to please the court in those measures 
which were taken in some parts of that reign, both he and 
liis family were soon afterwards disregarded by the king, 
and ill used by his successor king James the Second.** His 
lordship died at Dunham- Massey, in the 63d year of his 
age, on the 8th of August, 1684, and was buried in a very 
splendid manner at Bowdon, in the burial-vault of the 
family. He was twice married : his first wife was the lady 
Catherine Clinton, daughter and co-heir to Theophilus 
earl of Lincoln, who died in child-bed in 1643, by whom 
be had issue one daughter, Vere, who died unmarried at 
Canonbury-house, in 1717, in the seventy-fourth year of 
ber age, and was buried in Islington church. His second 
wife was the lady Elizabeth Grey, eldest daughter of 
Henry earl of Stamford, by whom be had issue seven sons 
and five daughters. His eldest son, William, died young, 
and he was succeeded in his honours and estate by his se- 
cond son, Henry, who is the subject of the following 
article. ^ 

BOOTH (Henry), earl of Warrington, and baron De- 
lamer of Dunham Massey, an upright senator and distin- 
guished patriot, was born on the 13th of January, 1651. 
He was the second son of the preceding George lord De- 
lamer, by the lady Elizabeth Grey. In the life-time of 
his father, he was custos rotulorum for the county palatine 
of Chester, and also knight of the shire for that county, in 
several parliaments during the reign of king Charles the 
Second. He very early rendered himself conspicuous by 
his zeal for the protestant religion, and the liberties of his 

1 Biog. Brit, 

88 BOOTH. 

country. When tbe bill for excluding the duke of York 
from, the throne was brought into parliament, Mr. Booth 
was very active in the promotion of it, and also made a 
spirited speech in support of tbe necessity of frequent par* 
liaments, and against governing by favourites \ and be op« 
posed, with a becoming spirit, tbe unjust and arbitrary 
power assumed by the privy council, of imprisoning men 
contrary to law. 

As he was solicitous for frequent parliaments, so he was 
also anxious that they should be preserved incorrupt. Hek 
was, therefore, desirous of procuring an act for the punish- 
ment of those who had received bribes from the court, as 
members of that> parliament which was styled tbe pension* 
parliament. He proposed, that a bill should be brought 
in, by which these prostituted senators should be rendered 
incapable of serving in parliament for the future, or of 
enjoying any office, civil or military ; and that they should 
be obliged, as far as they were able, to refund all the money 
that they had received for secret services to the crown. 

He made likewise a speech in parliament against the 
corruption of the judges, in which he affirmed, that, in a 
variety of cases, they had sold, denied, or delayed justice. 
'' Our Judges,'* said he, /^ have been very corrupt and 
lordly, taking bribes, and threatening juries and evidence; 
perverting the law to the highest degree, turning tbe law 
upside down, that arbitrary power may come in upon their 
shoulders.*' He therefore recommended, that an inquiry 
should be made into their conduct, and that such of them 
as were found gqitty inight receive the punishment they 

Mr. Bpoth was also extreipely zealous against tbe pa- 
pists ; and this circumstance, together with the vigorous 
opposition that he made in parliament to the arbitrary 
measures of the court, occasioned him to be put out of the 
commission of the peace, and removed from the office of 
custos rotulorum of the county of Chester. In 1684, by 
the death of his father, he became lord Delamer; but 
about this time he was committed close prisoner to the 
Tower of London. The pretence probably was, that he 
was suspected of being concerned in some practices against 
the crown ; but we have met with no particular account of 
(l^e accusation against him : and as no parliament was then 
pitting, it may be presumed, that less attention was paid 
tf) ftny iU^g^i^y in the proceedings respecting him. He 

BOOTH. 89 

sras, however, set at liberty, after a few months imprison- 
ment. But soon after the accession of king James IL he 
was again committed prisoner to the Tower. After being 
/confined for some time, be was admitted to bail ; but was, 
shortly after, a third time commiued to the Tower. This 
was oil the 26th of July, 16S5; and a parliament being 
assembled in the November following, on the first day of 
the session he stated his case in a petition to the house of 
peers. He represented to their lordships, that the king, 
by his proclamation, bad required htm to appear before 
him in council within ten days. He had accordingly sar« 
xendered himself to lord Sunderland, then principal secre- 
tary of state ; and being brought before his majesty, then 
sitting in council, he was neither confronted by any per- 
son who accused him, nor otherwise charged with any 
kind of treason, but only questioned about some inferior 
matters, and which were of such a nature, that, if he had 
been really guilty of them, he ought by law to have been 
admitted to bail : notwithstanding which, he had been 
committed close prisoner to the Tower, by a warrant from 
^e secretary of state, in which he was charged with high 
treason. After some debate, it was resolved, that the lords 
.with white staves should wait upon his majesty, ** to know 
/the reason why the lord Delamer, a member of their house, 
was absent from his attendance there.'' The day follow- 
ing, the earl of Rochester, lord treasurer, reported to the 
house, '^ That he, with the other lords, having waited on 
his majesty with their message, his majesty was pleased to- 
answer. That the lord Delamer stood committed for high 
treason, testified upon oath; and that his majesty had 
already given directions, that he should be proceeded 
against according to law." 

After the parliament was broken up, lord Delamer was 
brought to bis trial, before a select number of the peers, 
on the 14th of January, 1685-6. The peers who tried 
him were, the dukes of Norfolk, Somerset, Beaufort, and 
Grafton ; the earls of Rochester, Sunderland, Mulgrave, 
Oxford, Shrewsbury, Huntingdon, Pembroke, Bridg- 
water, Peterborough, Scarsdale, Craven, Feversham, 
Berkeley, Nottingham, and Plymouth ; the viscounts Fal- 
conberg and Newport ; and the lords Ferrers, Cromwell, 
Maynard, Dartmouth, Godolphin, and Churchill. Jef- 
feries, then lord chancellor, was appointed lord high 
steward on the occasion. He was known to be a personal 

90 BOOT H. 

enemy of lord Delamer, who had arraigned in parliament 
the conduct of Jeiferies as chief justice of Chester. Lord 
Delamer, after the indictment against him was read, ob* 
jectecl against the jurisdiction of the court ; alleging, that 
he ought not to be tried by a select number of the peers, 
but by the whole body of the house of peers in parliament^, 
because the parliament was then only under a prorogation, 
and not dissolved. But his plea was overruled. In Jef* 
feries*s charge to the peers, previous to the opening of the 
evidence against lord Delamer, he threw out some hints 
relative to the share bis lordship had in promoting the bill 
of exclusion, and introduced an eulogium on the conduct 
of king James the Second. The only positive evidence 
against lord Delamer was one Thomas Saxon, a man of a 
very bad character, and who in the course of the trial was 
proved lo be perjured. Jefferies maintained, that there 
was no necessity, in point of law, that there should be two 
positive witnesses to convict a man of treason ; and that 
where there was only one positive witness, additional cir« 
cumstances might supply the place of a second* Lord 
Delamer made a very able defence ; and by the lords who 
were appointed to try him he was unanimously acquitted. 

After this he lived for some time in a retired manner, 
at his seat at Dunham-Massey ; but matters being at length 
ripe for the revolution, he exerted himself in the promo«> 
tion of that great event. Upon .the prince of Grangers 
landing, he raised, in a very few days, a great force in 
Cheshire and Lancashire, with which he marched to join 
that prince. On his first appearance in arms, besides as^ 
signing other reasons for his conduct, he is said to have 
made this declaration : *^ I am of opinion, that when the 
nation is delivered, it must be by force, or miracle : it 
would be a great presumption to expect the latter ; and, 
therefore, our 'deliverance must be by force; and I hope 
this is the time for it." Af^er he had joined the prince^ 
he was sent by his highness, together with the marquis of 
Halifax, and the earl of Shrewsbury, on the 17th of De- 
cember, 1688, with a message to king James, intimating 
to him, that he must remove from Whitehall. Lord Dela« 
mer, though little attached to that prince in his prosperity, 
was too generous to insult him in his distress ; and there*> 
fore, on this occasion, treated him with respect. And 
James was so sensible of this instance of his lordship's civi* 
lity to bim^ that, after bis retirement into France^ he aaid^ 

BOOTH. 91 

that '^ the lord Delamer, whom be had used ill, bad then 
treated him with much more regard than the other two 
lords, to whom he had been 1cind| and from whom he 
might better have expected it.*' 

Lord Delamer, however, had no inclination that an ac- 
commodation should take place between king James and 
the nation. For in a debate in the bouse of peers, the 
31st of January, 1688-9, relative to declaring the throne 
vacant, lord Delamer said, that ** it was long since he 
thought himself absolved from his allegiance to king James; 
that he owed him none, and never would pay him any ; 
and, if king James came again, he was resolved to fight 
against him, and would die single with his sword in his 
hand, rather than pay him any obedience.*' It is inti- 
mated by sir John Dalrymple, that lord Delamer was not 
sufficiently expeditious in joining the prince of Orange 
when he first landed in England ; and that gentleman 
affirms, that this was never forgiven by king William : but 
this IS an assertion unsupported by any proper evidence. 
It is certain, that his services in the promotion of the revo- 
lution were thought so meritorious at that period, that on 
the 15th of February, 1688-9, he was sworn a privy coun- 
sellor ; on the 9th of April following, he was appointed 
chancellor and under treasurer of the exchequer ; on the 
12th of the same month, made lord-lieutenant of the city 
and county of Chester; and on the 19th of July made 
custos rotulorum of the same county. These last officeS| 
together with that of privy counsellor, he enjoyed for life : 
but he continued in the others only for about a year. The 
reason appears to have been, that lord Delamer seems to 
have wished for more retreuchments of the regal preroga- 
tive, than were made at the revolution. That he was de- 
sifous of some new limitations of the prerogative, is evi- 
dent from a protest signed by him, relative to a clause 
proposed to be added to the bill of rights. He also signed 
a protest respecting an amendment to the bill for recog- 
nizing king William and queen Mary. 

Though lord Delamer was removed from the administra- 
tion, it was thought necessary to confer on him some mark 
of royal favour. Accordingly, by letters-patent, bearing 
date at Westminster, April 17, 1690, he was created earl 
of Warrington, in the county of Lancaster, to continue to 
him and the heirs-male of his body. A pension likewise of 
two thousand pounds per ^fmum was granted to him^ for 

92 BOOTH. 

the better support of that dignity. And it was said, in the 
preamble of the patent for his earldom, that it was eon- 
• ferred on him, ** for his great services in raising and bring* 
ing great forces to his majesty, to rescue his country and 
religion from tyranny and popery.'* On the 3d of January, 
1692-3, the earl of Warrington signed a protest against 
the rejection of the biil for incapacitating persons in office 
under the crown, either civil or military, from sitting in 
the house of commons. Two other protests were also 
signed by him on different occasions. But this patriotic 
peer did not live' long to enjoy his new dignity ; for he 
died at London on the 2d of January, 1693-4, having not 
quite completed the forty-second year of his age. He was 
interred in the family-vault in Bowdon church, in the 
county of Chester, on the 14th of the same month. Mr. 
Granger says, that lord Delamer was '^ a man of a gene- 
rous and noble nature, which disdained, upon any terms, 
to submit to servitude; and whose passions seemed to 
centre in the love of civil and religious liberty." In every 
part of his life, indeed, he appears to. have been actuated 
by the same principles; and in bis ^^ Advice to his Chil- 
dren," printed in his works, he says, " There never yet 
was any good man who had not an ardent zeal for his 
country.'* He was not only illustriously distinguished by 
his public spirit, and his noble ardour in defence of the 
liberties of his country ; but in his private life he appears 
to have been a man of strict piety, and of great worth, bo- 
nour, and humanity. He married Mary, sole daughter 
and heiress to sir James Langham, of Cottesbrooke, in the 
county of Northampton, knight and baronet, by whom he 
^ had four sons, and two daughters. His first son died an 
infant, and his second son, George, upon the death of his 
father, became earl of Warrington. He died on the 2d 
of August, 1758, and leaving no heirs male, the earldom 
became extinct, but was revived in his daughter's husband. 

The works of Henry earl of Warrington, the subject of 
this article, were published in 1694, in one volume 8vo. 
They consist chiefly of speeches made by him in parlia- 
ment, prayers used by his lordship in his family, some 
short political tracts, and the case of William earl of De« 
▼onshire. He published also, ^' The late lord Russers 
case, with observations upon it,'* 1689, fol. 

The son of the preceding, who, we have just mentioned^ 
died in 1768, has obtained a place, among the royal and 


noble authors^ for having published, but without his oame^ 
** Considerations upon the institution of* Marriage, with 
some thoughts concerning the force and obligation of the 
marriage contract ; wherein is considered, how far divorces 
may or ought to be allowed. By a gentleman. Humbly 
submitted to the judgment of the impartial," Lond. print* 
ed for John Whiston, 1739. It is an argument for di« 
vorce on disagreement of temper, which was the aim of 
Milton in his *' Tetrachordon," and would, it' we may con- 
jecture from the effects of the experiment in a uei^u[hbour« 
ing nation, create more dissoluteness and misery than it 
was intended to remove. He also wrote a letter to the 
writer of die '^ Present state of the Republic of Letters** in 
August 1734, vindicating his father from some reflections 
cast on him in Burnett's ** History of his own times.** 
His only daughter married Henry earl of Stamford, in 
whose son, the title of Earl of Warrington was revived in 
1796. » 

BOQUINE (Peter), or BOQUINUS, a French di- 
vine, and one of the coiitributors to the reformation, was 
born in Aquitaine, and educated in a monastery at Bourges^ 
of which be became prior, and in high estimation with his 
brethren. Having, however, perused some of the writings 
of Luther, Bucer, &c. he imbibed their sentiments, and 
went to Wittemberg, where he became acquainted with 
Luther and Melancthon, and at Basil he attended the lec- 
tures of Myconius, Carlostadt, and Sebastian Muncer. 
Melancthon afterwards recommended him as a proper per- 
son to supply Calvin's place at Strasburgb, who had gone 
back to Geneva ; and there he gave lectures on the epistle 
to the Galatians, and soon after had for his coadjutor 
Peter Martyr. Boquine being at some distance of time 
invited by his brother, who was a doctor in divinity, and 
not an enemy to the reformation, removed to Bourges, iu 
hopes that the French churches were friendly to his doc- 
trine, and there he publicly read and expounded the He* 
brew Bible; About this time, Francis, king of France^ 
being dead, the queen of Navarre came to Bourges, when 
Boquine presented her with a book he had written on the 
necessity and use of the Holy Scriptures, which she re- 
ceived very graciously, allowed him a yearly stipend out 

1 Biog. Brit.— Paik'i edit, of Walpolc's Royal and NobU AmOum, yoL UU 

54 B O a U I N E. 

of her treasury, and appointed him to preach a public lec« 
ture in the great church of Bourges, with the consent of 
the archbishop. He remained in Uke favour with her suc^ 
cesser, king Henry^s sister; but the enemies of the re- 
formation threatening his life, he was obliged to desist 
from his labours, and went back to Strasburgh, where he 
was appointed pastor to the French church. This office, 
however, he filled only about four months, and in 1557 
went into Heidelberg, at the invitation of Otho Henry, 
prince elector Palatine, who was carrying on the reformat 
tion in his churches. Here he was- appointed professor of 
divinity, and continued in this office about twenty years, 
under Otho and Frederic HI. After the death of the lat- 
ter in 1576, the popish party again prevaiUng, drove him 
and the rest of the reformed clergy from the place, but 
almost immediately he was invited to Lausanne, where he 
remained until his death in -1582. He left various works^ 
the dates of which his biographers have not given, except 
the following ** Oratio in obitum Frederici HI. Comit. 
Palatini," Leyden, 1577, 4to; but their titles are, 1. ^^De- 
fensio ad calumnias Doctoris cujusdam Avii in Evangelii 
professores.'' 2. ^^ Examen libri quern Heshusius in- 
scripsit de prsesentia corporis Christi in ccena Domini.'* 
3. ** Theses in ccena Domini.'* 4. " Exegesis divinae 
communicationis." 5, " Adsertio veteris, ac *veri Chris- 
tianismi adversus novum et fiictum Jesuitismum." . This* 
appears to have been one of his ablest works, and was 
translated into English under the title, '^ A defence of the 
old and true profession of Christianitie against the new * 
counterfeite sect of Jesuites, by Peter Boquine, translated 
by T. G.'\London, 1581, 8vo, by John Wolf, city printer. 
6. '^ Notatio praecipuarum causarum diuturnitatis contro- 
versial de coena Pomini," &c. ^ 


BORCHT, or BORGT (Henry Vander,) a pwnter, 
engraver, and antiquary, was bom at Brussels in 1583, but 
when in his third year, the war obliged his parents to re^ 
move into Germany. From his earliest years he discovered 
a taste for painting, which induced his father to place hiai 
under Giles Van Valkenberg. He afterwards studied in 
Italy, and travelling over Germany, settled first at Franhen- 
daly and in 1627 at Francfort on the Maine. His paint* 

* Melchior Adam de VitUTbeolog.— Freheri Tb«atnuiii 

B O R C H T. 9< 

iQg% principally fntit and flowers, were much admired, but 
he perhaps bad more reputation as an antiquary, in which 
c^apacity, the earl of Arundel sent him into Italy to Mr. 
Petty, who was then collecting for his lordship, and re« 
tained him in his service as long as he lived. After the 
death bf this patron, Vander Borcht was employed by the 
prince of Wales (afterwards Charles II.) and lived in esteem 
at London severail years, till he returned to Antwerp, where 
be died in 1660. As an engraver we have some few etch* 
ings by him ; among the rest the ^^ Virgin and Chikl,^* a 
small upright print, from Parmigiano, engraved at London 
in 1637 ; a ** Dead Christ, supported by Joseph of Arima* 
thea," from the same master, and ^< Apollo and Cupid," a 
small upright oval from Perin del Vago K 

BORDA (John Charles), a celebrated French mathe- 
matician and- natural philosopher, was born at Dax, in the 
department of the Landes, May 4, 1733. His mother was 
Maria Theresa de Lacroix, and bis father John Anthony 
Borda, whose ancestors had acquired considerable distinc* 
liOD in the French army. He began his studies in the col« 
lege of the Bamabites at Dax, where he gave early indica- 
tions of his future genius. He was a considerable time after 
put under the charge of the Jesuits of La Fleche, and by 
Iris ardour for study and superior talents, frequently carried 
off the prizes which were held but as the reward of youthful 
genius. This induced the Jesuits to endeavour to press 
him into their order, but his attachment to geometry was 
too powerful to be weakened by their persuasions. He en* 
countered afterwards a more formidable opposition from his 
lather, who was hostile to the prosecution of what he called 
unprofitable studies, and endeavoured to please him by 
proposing to enter into the engineer service of the army, 
where the objects of his profession would necessarily re« 
quire a knowledge of geometry and physics. His father^ 
however, having eleven children, and being obliged to sup-* 
port two of his sons who were already in the army, was anx- 
ious that Charles should look forward to some situation in 
the magistracy, which might be obtained without much ex-« 
pence and trouble. To uese views Borda reluctantly sub* 
mitted; but after having thus lost some of the most precious 
years of his youth, a friar, who was a particular friend of 
his father, obtained, by earnest solicitation, that he should 


1 Dcf campf, roL I.~Pilkiiigton and Strait.— Orford's Kograren* 

9« B O R D A. 

be allowed to devote himself to his favourite science ; and^ 
every restraint being now removed, he was in 1753, when 
only twenty years of age, introduced to D'Alembert, who 
advised him to remain in the capital, and look forward to a 
situation in the academy. Borda accordingly entered the 
light horse, and continuing his mathematical studies, he be** 
came professor to his comrades. 

In 1756, he laid before the academy a memoir on the 
motion of projectiles, which was particularly mentioned in 
the history of its proceedings ; and in the same year he was 
appointed an associate of the academy. In the following 
year he was called into active service, and was present at 
the battle of Hastembeck, July 26, 1757, as aid-de-camp 
to M« de Maillebois. He willingly returned, however, 
from a species of duty which interrupted the progress of 
bis studies ; and, upon his arrival at Paris, he became a 
candidate for a situation in the engineer service : and such 
was the estimation in which his talents were held, that he 
was received without examination, and immediately em* 
ployed as an inspector of the dock-yards. This new ap- 
pointment was highly &vourable.for calling into action the 
peculiar talents of Borda. It inspired him with a fondness 
for every thing that related to the naval service : and, what 
seldom happens to the man of genius, he found himself ia 
a situation in which he was led both by his profession and 
by his inclination to the same line of study. 

The first object of his research was an examination of the 
theories of the resistance of fluids, a subject intimately 
connected with the advancement and perfection of naval 
architecture. The experiments upon this subject made by 
the academy of sciences, were by no means fitted to de<* 
termine the resistance of bodies that were wholly immersed 
in the fluid. Borda, however, employed a method which 
was suscepuble of great accuracy, and had also the advan- 
tage of ascertaining accurately the velocity of the, motion; 
The surfaces upon which his experiments were made were 
of various forms, and the experiments were made both io 
air and water. The results of these inseresting experi- 
ments are given at length in the Memoirs of the Academy 
for 1763 and 1767. The apparatus, however, employed 
by Borda, was not of his own invention. A machine of the 
same kind had been used some time before by our. inge* 
jiious countryman, Benjamin Robins, in his admirable ex« 
periments oa the resistance of air. Yet we are indebted 

B O R D A. 97 

to Borda for many iogenious experiments and obser- 
vations on the motion of fluids through different orifices. 
He prepared a theory of the motion of fluids different from 
that which had been given by Bernouilli and D'Alembert| 
and he made new experiments on the vena caniracia. 

In 1767, he published an excellent dissertation in the 
Memoirs of the Academy, entitled '' Memoire sur les Roues 
Hydrauliques/* shewing that an undershot wheel produces 
a maximum effect when its velocity is one-half that of the 
current, though in practice the velocity is never more than 
three-eighths that of the current. He proved, after De- 
parcieux, from theory, before Smeaton had determined it 
by experiment, that the effect of overshot wheels increases 
with the slowness of thehr motion z that they are capable of 
raising, through the height of the fall, a quantity of water 
equal to that by which they are driven; that undershot ver** 
tical wheels produce only three-eighths of this effect; that 
horizontal wheels produce about one-half of this effect with 
plain float>board8,and a little more than one half with curvi<» 
lineal float-boards. This memoir was followed by another, 
in 1768, on the construction of water-pumps. About 
this time Borda's attention was directed to isoperimetrical 
problems, in which he obtauied the same results as La- 
grange, though by a different method. His last work, in 
the Memoirs of the Academy, was a dissertation on the 
** Theory of Projectiles." 

These labours induced M. Prasslin, the minister of the 
marine, to wish for theaid of his talents in the French navy, 
and after some opposition from official etiquette, he ap- 
pointed him sub-lieutenant, in which character he first ap- 
peared in 1768; but nothing occurred of consequence un- 
til 1771, when the French and English were employed in 
many inventions for the discovery of the longitude at sea^ 
and the French government having determined to try the 
accuracy of some improved chromMneters, the academy of 
sciences appointed Borda and Pingre to sail for that pur* 
pose in the Flora frigate. The result of dieir voyage was 
published at Paris in 1778, entitled, <' Voyage fait par 
ordre du Roy en 1771 et 1772, &c." 2 vols. 4to. He 
was afterwards employed to determine the position of the 
Canary Isles, and being promoted to the rank of lieutenant, 
sailed in 1776, and in the course of his voyage, performed 
its immediate object, with others. Being appointed major- 
general to the naval armament which served under Count 
Vol. VI. H 

98 B O R D A. 

D'Estaign in America, his experience led him to discover 
many defects in the construction of vessels, which he thought 
might be easily remedied. He considered the want of 
uniformity in the construction of ships, which were to act 
together, as a great defect, because a great discordance 
arose in their movements and in the execution of signals. 
Upon his return to France he communicated this idea to 
government, who immediately resolved to carry it into ef- 
fect, and his profound knowledge and patriotic exertions 
did not fail to be acknowledged not only by France, but by 
the best-informed men in England. The reputation which 
he had now acquired enabled him to be further serviceable 
to his country, by drawing up a plan for the schools of na- 
val architecture, of which he may justly be termed the 
founder, as he not only suggested the idea, but formed the 
scheme for regulating these seminaries, and laid down the 
rules for the instruction of the pupils admitted into them. 

As a naval officer, however, Borda acquired little fame^ 
and being captured by the English, though after a very 
brave resistance, be determined to devote the remainder of 
his days to science and philosophy. During his voyage 
along with Pingre in 177 J, Borda found by experience 
that Hadley's quadrant was susceptible of great improve- 
ment. The celebrated Tobias Mayer had already endea- 
voured to remove its imperfections, but the merit of this 
Borda*s biographer has transferred to him, declaring that 
Mayer^s idea was never carried into eSect, which is com* 
pletely false : one of Mayer's circles was made for Admiral 
Campbell by Bird ; and Mayer had himself used an instru- 
ment for measuring terrestrial angles upon the repeating 
principle, which is described in <* Commentaries of the 
Royal Society of Gottingen.'* for 1752. Borda having ex- 
amined, wHh the utmost attention, the construction pro- 
posed by Mayer, pointed out iis defects^ and in a great 
measure removed them by a circle of his own invention in 
1777, known by the name of the '* Circle of Borda," but 
still it was not without its numerous imperfections, and it 
was reserved to our ingenious countryman Troughton to 
bring to perfection one of the happiest inventions that was 
ever made. 

To Borda France is indebted for the invention of the 
mensuration-rod, with which the new station -lines were 
lately ascertained. He was also a zealous promoter of the 
reform in weights and measures ; and in order to assist ia 
tills, be published "Tables of Sines in the decimal sys- 

B O R D A. 99 

tern/* at his own expence. One of his last labours T^as, 
the accurate determination of the length of the pendulum 
vibrating seconds at Paris. Such were the acknowledged 
reputation and patriotism of Borda, that the highest offices 
in the state were not deemed too great for merit such as 
his ; and we accordingly find the name of a man who ba4 
been decorated with the cross of merit during the mo- 
narchy, entered in the list of candidates for the office of 
Director under the republic. This occurred in 1797, and 
on the 20th of February 17:^9, the National Institute lost 
one of its greatest ornaments and most assiduous sup- 
porters, in consequence of his death, which was occasioned 
by a dropsy, that cut him off Feb. 20, 1799, in the 64tli 
year of his age. 

At tlie interment of his corpse, nearly the whole of his 
colleagues attended. — Notwithstanding a heavy rain, up- 
wards of one hundred members of the National Institute 
walked on foot to Montmartre, two a-breast, with a black 
crape round their arms, and with the eyes of nearly all suf- 
Aised in tears* On their arrival at the place of interment, 
Bougainville, a man no less distinguished in arms, than in 
letters, spoke an oration in honour of the deceased.^ 

BORDE, or BOORDE (Andrew), or as he styles him- 
self in Latin, Andreas Pbrforatus, was a very singular 
character, and the reputation he acquired among his con- 
temporaries must be considered in a great measure as a 
proof of the ignorance and credulity of the times. He was 
bom at Pevensey in Sussex about 1 500, and was educated 
at Oxford; but before he had taken a degree, entered 
among the Carthusians in or near London. He afterwards 
left them, and studied physic^ at Oxford ; and then tra- 
velled over n^.ost parts of Europe and Africa, On his re- 
turn he settled at Winchester, where he practised physic 
with considerable reputation, and in this capacity he is said 
to have served Henry VIII. In 1541 and 1542 he was at 
Montpellier, where he probably took the degree of doctor, 
in which he was soon after incorporated at Oxford. He 
lived then for some time at Pevensey, and afterwards re- 
turned to Winchester, still observing all the austerities of 
die order to which he formerly belonged ; though he has 
been accused of many irregularities. It is certain that bis 

t Principally from Brewgter't Socyclopedia.-«-S«e alsg LaUmil«'s History of 

H 2 

100 B O R D E. 

character was very odd and whimsical, as appears from the 
books he wrote ; yet he is said to have been a man of great wit 
and learning, and an *' especial physician/^ That he was not 
of consequence eminent enough to rank with the first of his 
profession, may be inferred from his dying insolvent in the 
Fleet, April 1549. Bale intimates that he hastened his end 
by poison on the discovery of his keeping a brothel for his 
brother bachelors. His works are very various in their 
subjects', one of the most considerable is intituled, ^'A 
book of the introduction of knowledge,'' black letter, im- 
printed by William Coplande, without date. He there pro- 
fesses to teach all languages, the customs and fashions of 
all countries, and the value of every species of coin. This 
is a motley piece, partly in verse and partly in prose ; and 
is divided into thirty-nine chapters, before each of which is 
a wooden cut, representing a man in the habit of some par^ 
ticular country. His well known satire on the Englishman, 
who, 'to express the inconstancy and mutability of his 
fashions, is drawn naked with a cloth and a pair of sheers in 
his hand, is borrowed from the Venetians, who characterised 
the French in that manner. Before the 7th chapter is the 
effigies of the author, under a canopy, with a gown, a lau^ • 
rel on his head, and a book before him. The title of this 
chapter shews how the author dwelt in Scotland and other 
islands, and went through and round aboiut Christendom. 
An edition of this singular work was printed in London in 
1342. His " Breviary of HealtV which is a very trifling, 
coarse, and weak performance, was published in 1547, and 
is supposed by Fuller to be the first medical piece written 
in English. As a specimen of the style, take what follows, 
which is the beginning of the Prologue, addressed to phy- 
sicians : *^ Egregious doctors and maisters of the eximious 
and arcane science of physicke, of your urbanity exasperate 
not yourselves against me for making this little volume.^* 
This work, with a second part called the ** Extravagants," 
was reprinted in 4to, 1575. He was also author of the fol- 
lowing; <^ Coropendyouse Regimente, or Dietary of 
Healthemade in Mounte Pyllor,*' an edition of which was 
printed several years after his death, in 1562. A famous 
jest book called the *^ Merrye tales of the madmen of Go- 
tham ;" " The historye of the miller of Abingdon and the 
Cambridge scholars," the same with that related by 
Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales; a book of " Prognostics,** 

B O R D E. 101 

and another of Urines, &c. It is said that the phrase 
«* Merry Andrew" is derived from him. ' 

BOllDE (John Benjamin de la), a French historical and 
miscellaneous writer of considerable fame, was born at Pa- 
ris in 1734, of an opulent family, and devoted himself in 
his youth to high like and the fine arts. From being first 
valet de cbambre to Louis XV. he became his favourite, 
and on the death of that monarch, he obtained the place of 
farmer-general, the duties of which unpopular office he 
performed with great assiduity, emplojtfng his leisure hours 
in cultivating music and general literature. He became one 
of the most celebrated composers of songs, and his *' Re* 
cueil d'airs," 4 vols. 8vo, ornamented with fine engravings, 
is in high esteem. He composed also the music of the 
opera of " Adela de Ponthieu," which was performed with 
considerable success. Happening to read in De Bure, that 
there had been only thirty copies published of the Collec- 
tion of antient paintings of Home, coloured after Bartoli*s 
designs, he made inquiry for the coppers, had them re- 
paired, and published a second edition of that work. His 
other works are : 1 . ^^ Essais sur la Musique ancienne et mo- 
derne,*' 1780, 4 vols. 4to, a vast mass of useful materials, 
but many parts of it are written in the spirit of system and 
partiality, and many valuable passages of considerable 
length are borrowed from Dr. Burney and other authors of 
eminence, without any acknowledgment. The best part 
is that which treats of the French lyric music and poetry. 
2. ** Essai sur Thistoire chronologique de plus de quatre- 
vingts peuples de Tantiquit^,'* 1788, 8vo. 3. "Memoires 
historiques, de Coucy,** 2 vols. 8vo« 4. ** Pieces interes- 
santes pour servlr k Thistoire des regnes de Louis XHI. et 
de Louis XIV." 12mo. 5. " Lettres sur la Suisse," 1781, 
2 vols. 8vo. 6. ** Abreg^ chronologique des principaux 
faits arriv68 depuis Henoch jusqu'a Jesus Christ," 1789, 8 vo. 
7. *^ Recueil de vers dedies a Adelaide par le plus heureux 
des epoux," I6mo, a tribute to conjugal happiness, so sel- 
dom celebrated by poets. La Borde also published a trans« 
lation of Swinburne's Travels ; a fine edition of the Histo- 
rical Romances of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
printed by Didpt, in 11 vols. l^mo. ; *' Tableaux topogra- 

. * Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Heame's Pre&ce to Beoedictos Abbat Petrobarg entit.r* 
l>0(l<)'s Cb. Hist. vol. I — WartOD's Hist, of Poetry, vol. Uf. p. 70 — 78.--.Gent. 
Mag. vol. LVin. BndLlX — Ritson't Bibl. Poet ^-Cooper's Muses Librar)', p. 
§6.— Pbilips*! Tbeitrmn Poet. Ao|U 

ia2 B O R D E. ' 

phiques et pittoresques de la Suisse/' with letter-pr^ss and 
beautiful engravings by Robert: and lastly, in 1792, 
** L'Histoire abregde de la mer du Sud," 3 vols. 8vo, con- 
taining an analysis of all the voyages to that sea from the 
time of Goneville, in the fifteenth century, to that of our 
countryman, Capt. Riou, in 1789. In this also he urges the 
Spaniards to widen the passage of Nicaragua, which is only 
three leagues, and make it navigable, anda communication 
between the North and South Seas, pointing out the ad- 
vantages this woul4 be attended with in voyages from Eu- 
rope to Chin^. During the Convention, la Borde retired 
to Rouen where he hoped to be overlooked, but the spies 
^f the reigning tyrants discovered him, and conducted him 
to Paris, where he was beheaded July 22, 1794. His wife 
was the authoress of some '^ Poems" imitated from the En* 
glish, and printed by Didot in 1785, 18mo. ^ 

BORDENAVE (Toussaint,) regius professor and di- 
rector of the academy of surgery, veteran associate of the 
academy of sciences of Paris, aud member of the imperial 
academy of Florence, was born at Paris April 10, 1728. 
His father, who was also a surgeon, destined him for the 
same profession, which had long been followed by the 
branches of his family, but began with giving him the or- 
dinary course of a learned education that he might acquire 
the languages in which the most celebrated anatomists of 
former ages wrote, and some of those principles of phi- 
lo.<;ophy which are the « foundation of all sciences and arts. 
Young Bordenave's proficiency fully answered his father^s 
expectations, and he soon filled the distinguished situations 
already mentioned, a[\d contributed many valuable paper& 
to the Memoirs of the academy of surgery, *on extraordinary 
cases which occurred in his practice : the treatment of gun* 
shot wounds, and anatomical subjects. He also in 1757 
inade some experiments to illustrate Haller's opinion on the 
difference between sensible or irritable paits, and wrote a 
work in defence of that celebrated anatomist's opinion on 
the formation of the bones, against that of DuhameL He 
also, in 1768, translated Haller's Elements of Physiology 
for the (ise of his students, but he had previously, in 1756^ 
published a new work on the same subject, admired for 
precision of method. Bordenave bad long wished for a 
place in the academy of sciences, and in 1774 was elected 

' Diet Hist. — ^Bnmey's Hist, of Music, vol. IV.-^nd da article in the Grit* 
Kc7> vol. t. p. 378. probably by the latne pen. 

V B O R D E N A V E. 103 

a veteran associate. This title, it seems^ indicates that the 
party has been chosen contrary to the statutes, and that the 
academy did not choose hitn of their own will ; but for this he 
was not to blame, as such an election was totally contrary to 
his wish. In a short time, however, the academicians were 
reconciled, and Bordenave enriched their memoirs with 
some important papers. Bordenave also became echcviuj 
or sherii)^ of Paris, an office never before conferred on a 
snrgeon, but which be filled in a manner highly creditable, 
and directed his attention, as a magistrate, chiefly to the 
health of the city. On the birth of Louis XVII. be was ho* 
noured with the ribbon of the order of St, Michael, in con- 
sideration of his talents and services, but did not long enjoy - 
this honour, being seized with an apoplexy, which after 
eight days proved fatal, March 12, 1782. Besides the 
works already noticed, he published, *^ Dissertations sur 
les Antiseptiques," 1769, 8vo; and ^^Memoires sur le 
danger des Caustiques pour la cure radicale des Hernies,'' 
1 774. * 

BORDEU (Anthony,) a French physician of consider* 
able eminence, was born at Tseste, in Beam, in 16^. Af- 
ter being initiated in the study of medicine by his father^ 
he went to Montpellier, where he was admitted doctor in 
that faculty in 1719. Invited, in 1723, to Pau, the capi* 
tal of the province, he acquired so much reputation, as to 
be appointed physician to the military hospital at Bareges, * 
and inspector of the mineral waters there. To the waters 
he paid^eat attention, and in 1750, he published a small 
treatise, shewing the effects he bad esperienced from them 
in a variety of diseases. He lived to an advanced age, but 
the precise time of his death is not known.* 

BORDEU (Theophilus de), son to the preceding, was 
born Feb. 22,- 1 722, at Iseste in the valley of Ossan in Beam, 
and at the age of twenty, for his degree of bachelor in the 
university of Montpellier, where be was then a student, he 
beld a thesis ^' De sensu generic^ considerate,^' which contains 
the ground-work of all the publications he afterwards gave. 
Such early knowledge determined his professors to dispense 
vtrith several acts usual before admission to practice. In 
1743, he was created M. D. at Montpellier, and two years 
after succeeded bis father, as inspector of the mineral wa- 
ters, and professor of anatomy. In 1747, he was made 

^ Eloges des Academiciens, vol. III.— Hallei^BihL Cbinurg, 
? J}ict.Uist.-^Ree8'sCyclop8Bdiiu 

104 B O R D E U. 

corresponding member of the royal academy of Sciences at 
Paris, whither he soon after went, and where he acquired 
great reputation. Having taken out bis licence in that city 
in 1754, he was appointed physician to the h6pital de la 
charity. He died df an apoplexy, Nov. 24, 1776. A 
deep melancholy, occasioned by the flying gout, was the 
fore-runner of his end. He was found dead in his bed. 
One of the faculty, jealous of his fame, and who bad tried 
to ruin him by a prosecution, said on the occasion : ^^ I 
should never have thought he would have died in a horizon- 
tal position." But a witty lady retorted by observing 
<' that death was so much afraid of him, that he was obliged 
to catch him napping.^' The facility with which be exer-- 
cised his profession, his reluctance to give medicines, and 
fais great confidence in nature, sometimes drew upon him 
the reproach that he had not much faith in medicine ; but 
bis doubts were so much the less biameable, as be was con* 
tinually occupied in rendering the resources of his art more 
certain. He neverdisputed at all towards the latter end of his 
life, because probably he had disputed much to no purpose 
in his youth. Nobody knew better how to doubt, and be 
had little confidence in his own knowledge, and trusted with 
difficulty to that of others. Seeing the great number of 
courses of lectures in all branches of science, adveirtised 
every day, he observed once to a friend : " Will no one 
ever give a course of good sense ?** As he expressed him-> 
self at times with rather too much acerbity on the merits 
of others, some of his professional brethren have called his 
own into question. His works, however, sufficiently attest 
bis abilities. The principal are, i. *' Cbyliticationishisto- 
ria,^' 1742, reprinted at Paris, 1752, 12mo. with his 
^'Recherches sur les Glandes." He thought he observed a 
duct passing from the thyroid gland to the trachsa ; an 
opinion which he repeats in another of his works, but with- 
out sufficient ground. 3. '^ Dissertatio pbysiologica de 
sensu generice considerato," Monspelii, 1743, 8vo; Paris, 
1751, with bis '' Chylificationis historia.'* 4. ^' Lettres con^ 
tenant des essaissur Tliistoire des Eaux minerales du Bearn, 
&c. 1746, 12mo." In these he treats of the properties of 
the waters, and of the geography of Ream. 5. << Re- 
cherches anatomiques sur la position des Glandes, et sur leur 
actions,'' Paris, 1751, 8vo. 6. '^ Recherches sur le poub 
par raport aux crisesj" Paris, 1756, 12mo; in which he 
bas gone much beyond Solano in bis discrimination of 

B O R D E U. 105 

pulses, and beyond what can be followed in practice. 7. 
** Recherches sur ie tissu muqueux, et Torgane cellulaire/' 
Paris, 1766, 12Eno. Haller accuses him of disingeuuity in 
attributing to himself .the discovery of some properties of 
the cellular membrane^ which had been before described 
by him and others, but allows the work to have, on the 
whole, considerable merit. ' 

BORDEU (Francis), brother to Theophilus, and edu- 
cated under his father and him, was born at Pau, in L737. 
Having taken his degree of doctor in medicine at MontpeU 
lier, in 1756, he retunied to Pau, and was appointed to 
supply the place of his brother, as inspector of the waters 
there. In 1757, he published ^^ De sensibilitate et con- 
tractibilitate partium in corpore humano sano/' Monspell.; 
and in 1760, *' Precis d' observations sur les Eaux de Bare- 
ges,^' &c. 12mo, collected principally from the works of 
his father, brother, and other writers on the subject. *' Re- 
cherches sur les maladies chroniques, leur rapports avec les 
maladies aigues,'' &c. 1775, 8vo; principaJly with the 
view of shewing the utility and the manner of administer- 
ing mineral waters in the cure of chronical complaints. * 

BORDONE (Paris), an Italian artist, was born atTrevigi, 
in 1513, and at eight years of age was conducted to Venice, 
where he was carefully educated by one of his relations. 
At a proper age he was placed as a disciple witli Titian, 
under whom he made so happy a progress, that he did not 
continue with hida many years ; especially as he observed 
that Titian was not so communicative as he wished, or in- 
deed had just reason to expect, and he lamented that 
Gior^one was not then alive to instruct him, because he 
preferred the manner of that master to all others. How- 
ever, to the utmost of his power, he studied and imitated 
the style of Giorgione, and very soon rose into such repii* 
tatioD, that he was appointed to paint a picture in the 
church of St. Nicholas, when he was only eighteen years 
of age. Some time after he received an invitation to Vin- 
cenza, to adorn a gallery with paintings in fresco, part of 
which had been formerly enriched by the hand of Titian, 
with a design representing the '* Judgment of Solomon.'* 
Bordone engaged in the undertaking with an inward satis« 
factioD, at his work was to be contrasted with the work of 

master; and he composed the history of ^* Noah and 

1 Dkst HitfU— Haller Bibl. Anat^Reet't Cyclopvdia. > Ibid. 

106 B O R D O N E. 

his Sons," which he finished with his utmost care ; nor 
was it esteemed lufehor to the work of Titian, both per- 
formances seeming to have been the product of one pencil. 
He likewise finished several considei^ble works at Venice 
and Trevigi, and in each city painted many portraits of the 
nobility and persons of distinction: But, in the year 1538, 
he entered into the service of Francis I. of France, and 
added continually to his reputation, by every historical 
subject and portrait which he finished, as they were ex- 
cellently designed, and had a charming tone of colour to 
recommend them. On bis quitting France, he visited the 
principal cities of Italy, and left a number of memorable 
works, as monuments of his extraordinaiy abilities. His 
colouring has all the appearance of nature, nor can any 
thing be more lively or more admired than the portraits of 
Bordone. Several of them are still preserved in the Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, at. Florence, of which the colouring is exces- 
sively clear, fresh, and truly beautiful. He died in 158S 
according to Vasari, but in 1578 according to Felibien 
and Argenviile. * 

BOREL (P£TEK), a French physician, naturalist, and 
chemist, was born at Castres, in Languedoc, about 1620. 
After studying medicine, he received his doctor's degree, 
as is supposed, in 1641, and began practice at his native 
place. He collected a very fine museum of natural curio- 
sities, of which be published a catalogue, ^'Catalogue des 
Raretes de Pierre Borel de Castres,^' ibid. 1645, 4to. 
Niceron thinks be published this to get a name and prac- 
tice : it appears, indeed, from the dedication of his << Bib- 
liotheca Chimica,'' that he was not rich, as he there com- 
plains that he could not afford to print his works. In 1 653, 
he came to Paris, and some time after was appointed phy* 
sician to the king, but it is thought this was merely an ho- 
norary title, and we are not certain whether he remained 
afterwards at Paris. He was, however, elected in 1674 
into the academy of sciences, as a chemist. Niceron says 
be died in 1689^ but a letter addressed to Bayie in 1678 
speaks of him as then just dead. He published, 1 . ^* Les 
Antiquity, Raretes, &c. de la ville et comte de Castres, 
&c.** Castres, 1 649, 8vo. 2. ** Historiarum et observa- 
tionum Medico-Physicarum, centuria prima et secunda,'* 
ibid. 1653, 8to, and often reprinted. 8. << Bibliotheea 

I PiikiBstoa.^AixeDyUle.— >Vuaa4 

B O R E L. 107 

cbimica, sea catalogus librorum philosophicorum hermeti- 
corum, in quo quatuor millia circiter authorum cbemico-* 
rum, &c. dim eorum editionibus, usque ad annum 1653 
cx>ntiuentiir/' Paris, 1654; Heidelberg^ 1656, 12mo. In 
this work be gives the titles of these chemical works, but 
very rarely the dates. 4. " De vero Telescopii Inventore, 
cum brevi omnium conspicillorum historia,*' &c. Hague^ 
1655, 4to. 5. *' Tresor des Recherches et Antiquit6) 
Gauloises, reduites en ordre alphabetique, et enricbies de 
beaucoup d^origines, .^pitapbes, et autres choses rares et 
curieuses, comme aussi de beaucoup de mots de la lamgue 
Tbyoise o»^ Tbeutfranque,*^ Paris, 1655, 4to. This is a 
Tery curious and rare work, much prized by the French 
antiquaries. 6. ^^ Poeme a la louange de rimprimerie/* 
7. *^ Carmina in laudem regiS| reginse, et cardinalis Maza- 
rini,'* 4to. 8. " Auctarium ad Vitara Peirescii," in the 
Hague edition of that life published in 1655, 4to. 

9. ** Commentum in antiquum philosophum Syrum,*' 1655. 

10. '^ Hortus seu Armamentarium simplicium Plantarum et 
Animalium ad artem medicam spectantium,'' &c. Castres, 
1667, 8vo. 11.*^ De Curationibus Sympatheticis,'* printed 
in the "Theatrum Sympatheticum," Nurimberg, 1662, 
4to. 12. '^ Discours nouveau, prouvant la Plurality des 
IVIondes,'' Geneva, 8vo, and translated into English by D. 
Sashott, Lond. 1658. 13. *^ Vitse Renati Cartesii com- 
pendium,'' Paris, 1656, 8vo. Borel appears to have been 
a man of great learning, and indefatigable in his researches, 
but in medicine somewhat credulous. His antiquarian pro- 
ductions are most esteemed. ^ 

BORELLI (John Alphonso), a celebrated philosopher 
and mathematician, was born at Naples the 28th of Janu- 
ary, 1608. He was professor of philosophy and mathema- 
tics in some of the most celebrated universities of Italy, 
particularly at Florence and Pisa, where he became highly 
in favour with the princes of the house of Medici. But 
having been concerned in the revolt of Messina, he was 
obliged to retire to Rome, where he spent the remainder 
of his life under the protection of Christina queen of Swe- 
den, who honoured him with her friendship, and by her 
liberality towards him softened the rigour of his hard for- 
tune. He continued two years in the convent of the regu* 
}^i clergy of St. Pantaleon, called the Pious Schools, where 

1 Chaqfepie'fl Dict« — Niceron. — Kloges des Academiciens, Tol. I. p. ISO.-* 
MaBsct «Bd Halter.-^axii OnoHWiticon. 

108 B O R E L L I. 

lie instructed the youth iii mathematical studies. And thi^ 
study he prosecuted with great diligence for many years 
after veard, as appears by his correspondence with sereral 
ingenious mathematicians of his time, and the frequent 
mention that has been made of him by others, who have 
endeavoured to do justice to his memory. He wrote a let- 
ter to Mr. John Collins, in which he discovers his great 
desire and endeavours to promote the improvement of those 
sciences : he also speaks of his correspondence with, and 

' great affection for, Mr. Henry Oldenburgh, secretary of 
the royal society ; of Dr. Wallis ; of the then late learned 
Mr. Boyle, and lamented the loss sustained by his death to 
the commonwealth of learning. Mr. Baxter, in his ^* Ed* 
quiry into the Nature of the Human S0UI3'* makes frequent 
use of our author's book *^ De Motu Animalium,'' and 
tells us, that he was the first who discovered that the force 
exerted within the body prodigiously exceeds the weight 

* to be moved without, or that nature employs an immei\se 
power to move a small weight. But he acknowledges that 
Dr. Jaihes Keil had shewn that Borelli was mistaken in his. 
calculation of the force of the muscle of the heart ; but 
that be nevertheless ranks him with the most authentic writ- 
ers, and says he is seldom mistaken : and, having remarked 
that it is so far from being true, that great things are 
brought about by small powers, on the contrary, a stu- 
pendous power is manifest in the most ordinary opera* 
tions of nature, he observes that the ingenious Borelli first 
remarked this in animal motion ; and that Dr. Stephen 
Hales, by a course of experiments in his ** Vegetable 
Statics,*' had shewn the same in the force of the ascend-^ 
ing sap in vegetables. After a course of uifceasing labours, 
Borelli died at Pantaleon of a pleurisy, the 31st of De- 
cember 1679, at 72 years of age, leaving the following 
works : 1. ** Delle cagioni dellefebri maligni," 1649, 12mo. 
2, " Euclides restitutus," &c. Pisa, 1658, 4to. 3. << Apol- 
lonii Pergaei conicorum, libri v. vi. & vii. parapbraste AbaU 
phato Aspahanensi nunc primum editi,*' &c. Floren. 1661, 
fol. 4. " Theorice Medicorum Planetarum ex causis phy- 
sicis deduct®," Flor. 1666, 4to. 5. " De Vi Percussionis,'* 
Bologna, 1667, 4to. This piece was reprinted, with his 
famous treatise *' De Motu Animalium," and that ^ De 
Motionibus Naturalibus,*' in 1686. 6. " Osservazione in* 
torno alia virtu ineguali degli occhi." This piece was in-* 
serted in the Journal of Rome for the year 1669, 7. " De 

B O R E L L I. 109 

tnodonibus naturaltbus e gravitate pendentibus/* Regio 
Julio, 1670, 4to. 8. '< Meteorologia ^tnea," &c. Re- 
gio Julio, 1670, 4to. 9. '^ Osservazione deir ecclissi lu- 
nare, fatta in Roma,*' 1675. Inserted in tfaie Journal of 
Rome, 1675, p. 34. 10. ^' Elementa conica Apollonii Per* 
gsei et Arcbimedis opera nova et breviori methodo demon- 
strata,*' Rome, 1679, 12mo, at the end of the 3d edition 
of his Euclides re^titutus. 11. <^ De Motu Animalium: 
pars prima, et pars altera," Romee, 1681, 4to. This was 
reprinted at Leyden, revised and corrected ; to which was 
added John Bernouilli's mathematical meditations concern- 
ing themotion of the muscles. 1 £. At Leyden, 1 686, in 4to^ 
a more correct and accurate edition, revised by J. Broen, 
M. D. of Leyden, of his two pieces ^* De vi percussionis, 
et de motionibus de gravitate pendentibusy &c. 1 3. ^' De 
reoum usu judicium:" this had been published with Bel- 
lini's book ^^ De structura rcnum," at Strasburgh, 1664^ 
«vo. * 

BOREMAN (Robert), D. D» a pious and learned di- 
vine of the seventeenth century, and brother to sir Williaoi 
Boreman, clerk of the green cloth to Charles IL was fel- 
low of Trinity college, Cambridge, S. T. P. per literas 
regias, 1661, and afterwards rector of St. Giles's in the 
Fields, London. He died in November, 1675, at Green- 
wich, where he was buried. He published, I. ** The 
Churchman's Catechism : or the Church's plea for Tithes," 
Lond. 1651, 4to. 2. ^^ The Triumphs of learning over 
ignorance, and of truth over falsehood ; being an answer 
to four queries, first, whether there be any need of uni- 
versities," &c. ibid. 1653, 4to. 3. <* A Panegyrick and 
Sermon at the funeral of Dr. Comber, master of Trinity 
college, and dean of Carlisle," 1654, 4to. 4. <^ Life and 
death of Freeman jSonds, esq." and *^ Relation of sir 
George Sonds' narrative of the passages on the death of 
bis two sons," ibid. 4to. This Freeman Sonds was exe- 
cuted for the murder of his brother. 5. '' Life and death 
of Alice dutchess Dudley," ibid. 1669, 4to; and two or 
three occasional sermons. * 

BORGHINI (Vincent), was born at Florence in 1515 
of a noble family, and became a Benedictine monk in 1^3 1. 
He was one of the persons appointed to correct the Deca- 

> Fahrooi Vit« Italorom.— Martin's Bio;. Philotophica.— <3en. Diet.— Hallcr 
Bibl. Anat^-Saxii Onomasticon. — Muttoirs Math. Diet, 
t AUi. Oz. f ol. II. Faali. — Lysons^t Eovironti vol. IV. 

llQ B O R G H I N L 

meron of Boccace, by order of the council of Trent, and 
performed this curious task for the edition of Florence, 
1573, Sro. But the best known of his works, and which 
did him the most honour, is that entitled, ** Discorsi di 
M. Vincenzo Borghini," printed at Florence 1584 and 
1585, in 2 vols. 4to, and reprinted at the same place in 
1755, with annotations. In these dissertations he treats of 
the origin of Florence, and of several interesting particu- 
lars of its history, of its families, of its coins, &c. Borg- 
hini died in 1680, after having refused, through humility, 
the archbishopric of Pisa, which was offered to him some 
time beTore his death. His only promotion was that of 
prior of the hospital of St. Maria degli Innocenti in FIo« 
rence. Another writer of the same name [IIafaello Borg* 
hini], was author of several comedies, and of a tract on 
painting and sculpture, in some estimation, under the title 
of <^ Riposo delia Pittura, e della Scultura/' published at 
Florence in 1584, 8vo.* 

BORGIA (C£Sar), a monster of ambition and cruelty, 
was a natural son of pope Alexander VI. What year he 
wa6 born in, we do not find : but he was at hi$ studies ia 
the university of Pisa, when Alexander was elected pope, 
in August 1492. Upon the news of his father's advance* 
ment, he banished all thoughts of his former private con- 
dition of life ; and, full of ambition, as if himself was to be 
made emperor of the world, he hastened directly to Rome, 
where Alexander received him with formality and coldness^ 
but whether it was real or but affected, is not easy to deter- 
mine. CcBsar, however^ took it to be real ; and, greatly 
disgusted as well as disappointed, went immediately and 
complained to his mother Vanozza, who bid him not be 
cast down ; and told him, that she knew the pope's mind 
better than any body, and for what reasons his holiness had 
given him that reception. In the mean time the court- 
flatterers solicited the pope to make Csesar a cardinal, 
which he absolutely refused ; but, that he might not seem 
altogether forgetful of him, he created him archbishop of 
Valenza, a benefice which his holiness had enjoyed in bis 
younger days. This preferment was by no means accept- 
able to Csesar, yet he affected to be content, since the 
pope, he found, was determined to confer the best of bis 
secular dignities on his eldest sou Francis, who at that time 

* Diet, IlisL— Saxu Oaomaiticoa. 


was made duke of Gandia by Ferdinand king oF Castile 
and Arragon. 

Alexander VI. had five children by his mistress Vanoz- 
za; Francis and Cs^ar, already mentioned, two other sons, 
and a daughter named Lucretia. Francis was a gentleman 
of good disposition and probity, and in every respect op- 
posite to his brother Cssar ; but Caesar seems to have pos- 
sessed abilities superior to those of Francis : which made a 
certain historian say, *^ that Caesar was great among the 
wicked, and Francis good among the great.'* Cssar how- 
ever was the mother's favourite, as having a temper and 
principles more conformable to hers : for which reason, s^t 
the time when Alexander was undetermined on which of 
these brothers he should bestow the cardinal's cap, Va- 
nbzza declared herself in favour of Caesar, who was accord* 
ingly made a cardinal in the second year of Alexander's 
pontificate. From this time he acted in concert with his 
fiither, and was an useful instrument in executing all th# 
schemes of that wicked pope, as he had no scruples of 
honour or humanity, nor was there any thing too atrocious 
for him to perpetrate, to promote his insatiable ambition. 
This is said to have even incited him to the murder of his 
elder brother Francis, duke of Gandia. All the secular 
dignities, which then were much more coveted than the 
ecclesiastical, were heaped' upon Francis, which obstructed 
Caesar's projects so entirely, that he was resolved at all ad- 
ventures to remove him. The story is, thafin 1497, hir- 
ing assassins, he caused him to be murdered, and thrown 
into the Tiber ; where his body%ras found some days after, 
full of wounds and extremely mangled. The pope was 
afflicted to the last degree ; for though he made use of 
Caesar as the abler, he loved Francis as the better man. He 
caused therefore strict inquiry to be made after the mur- 
derers ; upon which Vanozza, who for that and other reasons* 
was justly suspected to be privy to the affair, went privately 
to the pope, and used all the arguments she could, to dis- 
suade him from searching any further. Some say, that she 
went so for as to assure his holiness, that if he did not desist^ 
the same person who took away his son's life would not spare 
bis own . The whole of this story, however, appears doubtful ; 
nor, indeed, is there any positive proof that ^orgia was even 
privy to his brother's death. Gordon, only, has asserted 
It with accompanying proofs, but the latter appear to be 
Ustoric fictions. It cannot be necessary to add to Cvesar's 

112 BORGIA. 

crimes. He now, however, succeeded to his brother*« 
fortunes and honours, began to be tired of ecclesiastical 
matters, and grew quite sick of the cardinalate, and there- 
fore determined to throw it off as soon as possible, that be 
might have the greater scope for practising the excesses, 
to which his natural ambition and cruelty prompted him : 
for cruel as well as ambitions he was in the highest degree. 
Numbers he caused to be taken off by poison or the sword ; 
and it is recorded, that assassins were constantly kept in 
pay by him at Rome, for the sake of removing all who 
were either obnoxious or inconvenient to him. Getting 
rid of the cardinalato, he was soon after made duke of Va« 
lentinois by Lewis XII. of France :, with whom he entered 
into a league for the conquest of the Milanese. From this 
time he experienced various turns of fortune, being some- 
times prosperous, sometimes unfortunate. He very nar- 
rowly escaped dying of poison in 1503 ; for, having con<« 
certed with the pope a design of poisoning nine newly 
created cardinals at once (or, as some say, only one car- 
dinal), in order to possess their eflPects, the poisoned wine 
destined for the purpose was by mistake brought to them- 
selves and drank. The pope died of it ; but Cssar, by 
the vigour of his youth, and die force of antidotes, after 
many struggles, recovered. He only recovered, however, 
to outlive his fortune and grandeur, to see himself de- 
pressed, and his enemies exalted ; for be was soon after 
divested of all his acquisitions, and sent a prisoner to 
Spain, in order to free Italy from an incendiary, and the 
Italian princes from tbose*tlangers which his turbulent and 
restless spirit made them feiar, even though he was un-> 
armed. From Spain he escaped to IvTavarre to king Joha 
his brother-in-law, where he met with a very friendly recep- 
tion* From hence he designed to go into France; and 
there, with the assistance of Lewis, to try if he could once 
more re-establish his fortune, but Lewis refused to receive 
him, not only because he and Spain had concluded a 
truce, but because they were also at enmity with the king 
of Navarre. The French king also, in order to gratify 
Spain, had confiscated Csesar^s duchy of Valcntinois, and 
taken away the yearly pension which he had from France* 
So that this fallen tyrant, in a poor and abandoned condi- 
tion, without revenue or territory, was forced to be de^ 
pendent upon his brother«in-law, who was then at war 
with bis subjects. Borgia served as a volunteer in tha^ 


war ; atad^ while the arfoies were engaged in battle^ and 
fighting under the walls of Viana, was wounded, and 
died in consequence, March 12, 1507. On bis death-bed 
he is said to hare excUtimed, '< I had provided in the course 
of my life for every thing but death ; and now, alas ! I am 
to die^ though completely unprepared for it.'' €flesar 
Borgia took these words for bis device, ^* Aut Caesar aut 
nihil ;'' which gave occasion to the following epigrams : 

Bdgia CiBsar erat &ctis et nomine Cffisar ; 
Aut liifail>'aut C8esar> dixit > utrumqua fiiit* 

Aut nihil, aut Csesar, vult did Borgia : quid ni } 
Cum simul et Qedar possit, et esse nihiL 

Omnia vincebas ; sperabas omnia, Ceesar ^ 
Omnia deficiunt, incipis esse nihil.- 

The first of these, Mr. Seward has translated, . * 

Borgia, whilst wild ambition's fever fiam*d^ 
"Caesar or nothing, let me be,*' exclaim'd. 
What truth insjnr'd the unsuspecting prince. 
Too well, alas ! b^ life aad death evince. 

The same author informs us that the portrait opposite td 
the face of the fA in Baptista de la Porte's '* Treatise on 
Physiognomy," is that of this monster of iniquity. 

*• Of this extraordinary character,'* says Mr. Roscoe, 
^* it may with truth be observed, that his activity, courage^ 
and perseverance, were equal to the greatest attempts. In 
the pursuit of his object he overlooked or overleaped all 
other considerations : when force was ineffectual^ he had 
recourse to fraud ; and whether he thundered in open hos- 
tility at the gates of a city, or endeavoured to effect his 
purpose by negociation and treacheiy^ he was equstUy irr^- 
aisttble. If we may confide in the narrative of Guicciar* 
dini, cruelty, rapine, injustice, and lust, are the only par* 
ticular features in the composition of this monster? yet it 
is difficult to conceive that a roan so totally unredeeitied by 
a single virtue, should have been enabled to maintain 
himself at the -head of a po\^etfnI army : to engage in so 
eminent a degree the favour of the people conquered ; to 
form Chances with the fifrst sovereigns of Europe: to de- 
s»oy or overturn the most pbiverful families of Italy, and 
to lay the foundations of a dominion, of which it is ac« 
ILnowtedged that the sbprt duration is to, be attabuted ra- 
ther to his ill-fortune and the treachery, of others, tlian 

Vol. VI. I 

114 BORGIA. 

either to his errors or his crimes. IF, however, he ti» 
been too indiscriminately condemned by one historian, he 
has in another met with as zealous and as powerful an en- 
comiast, and the maxims of the politician are only th« 
faithful recordf of the transactions of his hero. On the 
principles of Machiavelli, Borgia was the greatest man of 
the age. Nor was he, in fact, without qualities which in 
some degree compensated for his demerits. Courageous, 
magnificent, eloquent, and accomplished in all the exer- 
cises of arts and arms, he raised an admiration of his en- 
dSwments which liept pace with and counter-balanced the 
abhorrence excited by his crimes. That even these crimes 
have been exaggerated, is highly probable. His enemies 
were numerous, and the certainty of his guilt in some in- 
stances gave credibility to every imputation that could be 
devised against him. That he retained, even after he had 
survived his prosperity, no inconsiderable share ofpublip 
estimation, is evident from the ' Gdelity and attachment 
shewn to him on many occasions. After his death, his 
memory and achievements were celebrated by (Strozza) 
one of the most elegant Latin poets that Italy has pro- 
duced. The language of poetry is not indeed always that 
of truth ; but we may at least give cre#t to the account 
of the personal accomplishments and warlike talents of 
Borgia, although we may indignantly reject the spurious 
praise, which places him among the heroes of antiquity^ 
and at the summit of fame.^' 

The evidence of a poet is certainly inconclusive, and 
although the *' personal accomplishments and wariike ta* 
lents^' may be proved, and have not been lessened, yet 
they weigh little against those crimes which stand uncon« 
tradicted, and form one of the vilest characters in bistory.^ 

BORGIA (Stephen), a learned Roman cardinal, was 
born of a noble family at Velletri, in L731 ; and as the se- 
cond son of the family, was from his birth destined for the 
clerical dignities. In youth he appears to have been stu- 
dious, and particularly attentive to historic and diplbmatie 
science, and modern and ancient languages. In 1770, he 
was appointed secretary to the congregation of Propa-* 
gandHf the purposes of which are to furnish n^isionaries to 
propagate Christianity, on popish pxiuciples ; and into this 

» Gen. Diet.— Gordon's Lives of Alexancler VI. and hit bqu^ 1728-9^ U>U-^ 

BORGIA. lis 

college children are admitted from Asia and Africa^ in 
order to be instructed in religion, and to di£Fuse it) on 
their return, through their native countries. A more fit 
person could not be selected than Borgia^ as he had both 
zeal and learning. In 177 1, the abb^ Amaduzzi, director 
of the printing-house of the college, procured the casting 
of the Malabar types, and published some works in that 
language, as well as in those of the Indians of Ava and of 
Pegu. By the care of this new secretary also, an Etruscan 
alphabet was published^ which soon proved of the highest 
benefit to Passeri : for, by its means, this celebrated anti- 
quary, in the latter part of his life, could better explain 
than he had ever done some £truscan monuments of the 
highest interest. About this time he began to lay the 
foundation of the family museum at Velletri, which, be- 
fore 1780, exhibited no less than eighty ancient Egyptian 
statues in bronze or marble, many Etruscan and Greek 
idols, numerous coins, inscriptions, &c. To form some 
idea of the total of this museum, it may be observed that 
only a small part of it, relative to Arabic antiquity, was the 
subject of the description which, in 1782, was published 
under the title of ** Musceum Cusicum.*' He had long 
before this published ** Monumento di Giovanni XVI; 
summo Pondfice iilustrato," Rome, 1750, 8vo. '^ Breve 
Istoria deir antica citta di Tadino nelP Umbria, &c.'* ibid. 
1751, 8vo. <' Dissertatione sopra un' antica Iscrizione 
rinuentaneir Isoladi Malta neir anno 1749,'' Fermo, 1751, 
and ^' Dissertatione Filologica sopra un' antica gemma in-* 

About 1782, he gave a new proof of his attention to the 
interests of learning and religion, on the following occa* 
lion. An island, near Venice, is inhabited by Armenian 
monks ; and those fathers make no use of any language 
but their own, printing rituals and devotional books in 
Armenian, and carrying on a considerable commerce in 
such books through the East No one^ however, had 
thought of going to pass some time among these fathers, 
with a view of U»rning their language, until Borgia, fore- 
seeing the advantages that might result from it, sent one 
Gabriele, a Capuchin, to spend some time with these 
monks in learning the Armenian ; and afterwards engaged 
him to go on a mission to Astracan, to preach in Arme- 
nian, and to avail himself of that opportunity to compile 
an Italian-Armenian, and Armenian-Italian Dictionary. 

I 2 

}16 BORGIA. 

father Gabriele fulfilled these injunctions, and, on his re* 
turn, he delivered the Dictionary into the bands of the 
librarian of the Propaganda. 

In 1798 he published his ^' Vindication of the rights of 
tike Holy See on the kingdom of Naples/' 4to, a work now 
of little importance, and relating to a dispute which will 
probably never be revived. On the 30th of March, 1789, 
%e was promoted to the rank of cardinal, and about the 
same time was appointed prefect of the congregation of 
the Index ; and, what was more analogous to his pursuits, 
be held the same office in the Propaganda, and in th# 
congregation for the correction of the books of the oriental 
churches. After th^se promotions, he continued to be the 
liberal patron of all who had any connection either with 
bis offices or with his literary pursuits, until Italy was in- 
vaded by the French, when, like the greater part of hit 
colleagues, he was involved in losses and dangers, both 
with respect to his fortune and to- his pursuits. He for* 
feited all his benefices, and was near witnessing the de« 
struction of all the establishments committed to his care, 
especially the Propaganda. He was soon, however, extri- 
cated from bis personal <lifficulties ; and, by his timely 
measures, the invaluable literary treasures of the Propa- 
ganda were also saved. He was allowed a liberal pension 
from the court of Denmark, and he soon obtained the re- 
moval of the establishment of the Propaganda to Padua, a 
city which, being then under the dominion of the emperor 
of Germany, was thought to be sheltered from robbery. 
Here he remained till the death of pope Pius VI. aftef 
which he repaired, with his colleagues, to Venice, to at- 
tend the conclave ; and, a new pope being elected^ he 
returned to Rome. When the coronation of the emperor 
of France was ordered, cardinal Borgia was one of those 
individuals who were selected by the pope as the compa- 
pions of his intended journey to Paris, but having caught 
^. violent cold. on his way, he died at Lyons, Nov. 23, 1804. 

Cardinal Stephen Borgia was not much favoured by na« 
ture with req^ect to person. He was so clumsy, and his 
^notions so much embarrassed, as to have little of the ap- 
pearance of a person of birth and rank. He was far, also» 
from being nice in his house or equipage. These littis 
defects, however, were compensated by the superior qua« 
titles of his mind. From the time of Alexander Albania 
no Roman cardinal had so many distinguished connections 

B O R O I A. lit 

and correspondents in every part of Europe : and a great 
similarity (elegance of manners excepted) was remarked 
between the character of tliot illustrious prelate and his 
own. The Borgian MS. so called by Michaelis, is a frag* 
ment of a Coptic*Greek manuscript, brought by a monk 
from Egypt, consisting of about twelve leaves, and sent to 
cardinal Borgia. The whole of it is printed in *^ Georgii 
Fragmentum Gra&co^Copto-Thebaicum,** Rome, 1789^ 

BORGIANNI (Horatio), a painter and engraver, was 
born at Rome, in 1630, and learned design from Giulio 
Borgiamii his brother ; but improved himself by studying^ 
the capital performances of the ancient and modern artists^ 
which he was enabled to contemplate every day in his na« 
tive city. Having had an offer from a nobleman, of travel* 
ling with him in a tour through Europe, he willingly ac-* 
cepted it, from a desire of being acquainted with the dif* 
ferent customs and manners of different nations. But his 
progress was stopped by his falling in love with a young 
woman in Spain, to whom he was afterwards married ; and 
finding his circumstances reduced to a narrow compass, he 
applied himself to bis profession with double diligence, to 
procure a comfortable support. His endeavours were soon 
successful ; and he was happy enough to find many friends^ 
admirers, and employers, and was accounted one of the 
best painters in Spain. After the death of his wife, hav- 
ing then no attachment to that country, he returned to 
Rome, and painted some historipal subjects larger than 
life; but the figures being above hia. accustomed size^ 
shewed a want of correctness in several of the members^ 
which made his pictures not quite acceptable to the re<* 
fined taste of the Roman school. He was, however, en« 
gaged in some great works for the chapels and convents^ 
and also to paint portraits, by which he acquired honour, 
and lived in affluence. He died in 1681, of a broken 
heart, in consequence of the ill treatment he received, 
through the envy and villainy of one Celio, a painte^*, who 
proved a most malicious competitor, and to whom he had 
been often preferred, by the best judges of painting at 
Rome ; but be died lamented and pitied by every worthy 
man of his profession. 

^ Atbenseoip, to). V,— Saxii Onoina8tioQ|i.<^Ree8*s Cyclopedia, art Borgian 

n^ B O R G I A N N I. 

As an engraver, he is probably best known to many of 
our readers, for bis engravings of the Bible histories, 
which were painted by Raphael in the Vatican, commonly 
called *^ Raphael's Bible,*' small plates, length-ways, 
dated 1615, which are very slight, and seem to be the 
hasty productions of his point. Mr. Strutt says, that his 
most finished etching is *^ a dead Christ," a small square 
plate, the figure greatly foreshortened, and behind ap-* 
pear the two Mary's and St. John, who is kissing one of 
the hands of our Saviour. His etchings are, in general, 
in a bold, free manner, and more finished than usual, wh«n 
considered as the works of a painter, but in some the 
drawing is not correct.' 

BORLACE (Dr. Edmund), son of sir John Borlace, 
master of the ordnance, and one of the lords justices of 
Ireland, was born in the seventeenth century, and educated 
at the university of Dublin. Then he travelled to Leyden, 
where he commenced doctor of physic in 1650, and waa 
afterwards admitted to the same degree at Oxford. At 
last he settled at Chester, where he practised physic with 
great reputation and success; and where he died in 1682, 
Among several books which he wrote and published, are^ 
1. '' Latham Spaw in Lancashire : with some remarkable 
cases and cures effected by it,'* I^nd. 1670, 8vo, dedi- 
cated to Charles earl of Derby. 2. ** The Reduction of 
Ireland to the Crown of England: with the governors 
tfince the conquest by king Henry IL anno 1172, and some 
passages in their government. A brief account of the re- 
bellion, ann. Dom. 1641. Also the original of the univer* 
aity of Dublin, and the college of physicians," Lond. 1675, 
a large octavp. 3. *^ The History of the execrable Irish 
Rebellion, traced from many preceding acta to the grand 
eruption, Oct 23, 1641 ; and thence pursued to the act of 
aetdement, 1672," Lond. 1680, folio. Wood tells us, that 
much of this book is taken from another, entitled ** The 
Irish Rebellion; or. The History of the beginnings and 
first progress of the general rebellion raised within the 
kingdom of Ireland, Oct 23, 1641," Lond. 1646, 4to, 
written by sir John Temple, master of the rolls, one of bis 
majesty's privy council in Ireland, and father of the cele* 
f)rated sir William Temple. 4. " Brief Reflections on the 
far) of Castlebayen^s Memoirs of his engagement and car*t 

f riftiWtoii sad Stn(^ 

B O R L A C E. . 119 

liage in die War of Ireland. By i^ich the government of 
that time, and the justice, of the crown since, are vindi- 
cated from aspersions cast upon both," Lond. 1682, 8vo. ^ 

BORLASE (WiLLUM), a learned English antiquary, 
was born at Pendeen, in the parish of St. Just, Cornwall, 
February 2, 1695-6. The family of that name, from which 
he was descended, had been settled at the place from 
whence they derived it (Borlase), from the time of king 
William Rufus. Our author was the second son of John 
Borlase, esq. of Pendeen, in the parish before mentioned, 
by Lydia, the youngest daughter of Christopher Harris, 
esq. of Bayne in the county of Devon ; and was put early 
to school at P,enzance, from which he was removed, in 
1709, to the care of the rev. Mr. Bedford, then a learned 
school-master at Plymouth. Having completed his gram- 
"Inatical education, he was entered of Exeter college, Ox- 
ford, in March 1712-13; where, on the 1st of June 17 19, 
he took the degree of master of arts. In the ^ame.year, 
Mr. Borlase was admitted to deacon's orders, and ordained 
priest in 1720. On the 22d of April, 1722, he was in* 
stituted, by Dr. Weston, bishop of Exeter, to the rectory 
of Ludgvan in Cornwall, to which he had been presented 
by Charles Duke of Bolton *. On the 28th of July, 1724, 
be was married in the church of lUuggan, by his elder 
brother. Dr. Borlase of Castlehorneck, to Anne, eldest 
surviving daughter and coheir of William Smith, M. A. 
rector of the parishes of Camborn and lUuggan. In 1732, 
the lord chancellor King, by the recommendation of sir 
William Morice, bart. presented Mr. Borlase to the vicar- 
age of St. Just, his native parish, and where his father 
had a considerable property. This vicarage and the rec- 
tory of Ludgvan were the only preferments he ever re- 

When Mr. Borlase was fixed at Ludgvan, which was a 
retired, but delightful situation, he soon recommended 

* This was not precisely the case, soon after (viz. Mar. 1721); and by 
ffis fktber purchased for him, of the the application of bis father, tlien de- 
rev. Mr. Charles Wrong hton, tlien pro- paty recorder of St. Ives, strengUicned 
prictor of the next turn, as well as in- by a recommendation of sir John Ho^ 
enoibeat, the next presentation to the bart, bart afterwards earl of Bucking- 
rectory of Lodgvan ; but the then ban, added to that of the corporation 
grantor, Charles duke of Bolton, oh- of St. Ives, W. B. was presented by 
ginal proprietor of the church of Ludg- Charles, the subsequent duke of BoU 
v»ii» dyii^i before the grantee, the pur* ton, to the rectory of Uid|p'an.-^M$ 
fixate was void. Mr« Wroughton died account by Dr. Borlase. 

I Wood'n Ath. vol. Xi. Fafti. 

120 B O R L A S E. 

himself as a pastor, a gentlieman, and a man of learning^ 
The duties of liis profession he discharged with the most 
rigid punctuality &nd exemplary dignity. He was esteemed 
and respected by the principal gentry of Cornwall, and 
lived on thd most friendly and social terms with those of 
his neighbourhood. In the pursuit of general knowledge 
he was active and vigorous ; and his mind being of an in- 
quisitive turn, he could not survey with inattention or 
indifference the peculiar objects which his situation pointed 
to his view. There were in the parish of Ludgvan rich 
copper works, belonging to the late earl of Godolphin. 
These aboiyided with mineral and metallic fossils, which 
IVIr. BorKse collected from time to time; .and his collec- 
tion increasing by degrees, he was encouraged to study 
at large the natural history of his native county. While 
he was engaged in this design, he could not avoid being 
Struck with the numerous mon\iments of remote antiquity 
that are to^ be met with in several parts of Cornwall ; and 
which had hitherto been passed over with far less examina- 
tion than they deserved. Enlarging, therefore, his plan, 
he determined to gain as accurate an acquaintance as pbs- 
sible with the Druid learning, and with the religion and 
customs of the ancient Britons, before their conversion to 
Christianity. To this undertaking he was encouraged by 
Heveral gentlemen of his neighbourhood, who were men of 
literature and lovers of British antiquities ; and particu- 
larly by sir John St Aubyn, ancestor of the present ba- 
ronet of that family, and the late rev. Edward Collins^ 
Ticar of St Earth. In the year 1748, Mr. Borlase, hap- 
pening to attend the ordination of his eldest son at Exeter^ 
commenced an acquaintance with the Rev. Dr. Charles 
Lyttelton, late bishop of Carlisle, then come to be in- 
stalled into the deanry, and the Rev. Dr. Milles, the late 
dean, two eminent antiquaries, who, in succession,, have 
so ably presided over the society of antiquaries in London. 
Our author's correspondence with these gentlemen was a 
'great encouragement to the prosecution of his studies ; and 
he has acknowledged his obligations to them, in several 
parts of his works. In 1750, being at London, he was 
admitted a fellow of the royal society, into which he had 
been chosen the year before, after having communicated 
an ingenious Essay on the Cornish Crystals. Mr. Borlase 
having completed, in 1753, his manuscript of the Anti- 
quities of Cornwall^ carried it to Osdbrdj where he finished 

B O R L A S E. 121 

the whole impression, in folio, in the February following. 
A second edition of it, in th^ same form, was published 
at London, in 1769. Our author's next publication was, 
*' Observations on the ancient and present state of the 
Islands of Scilly, and their importance to the trade of 
Great Britain, in a letter to the reverend Charles LytteU 
ton> LL. D. dean of Exeter, and F. R. S." This work, 
which was printed likewise at Oxford, and appeared in 
1756, in quarto, was an extension of a paper that had 
been read before the royal society, on the 8th of February 
1753, entitled, '^ An Account of the great Alterations 
which the Islan(ls of Scilly have undergone, since the time 
of the ancients, who mention them, as to their number, 
extent, and position*'' It was at the request of Dr. Lyt- 
telton, that this account was enlarged into a distinct 
treatise. In 1757, Mr. Boriase again employed the Ox- 
ford press, in printing his <' Natural History of Corn* 
wall,'' for which he had been many years making collec- 
tionsy and which was published in April 1758. After this, 
he sent a variety of fossils, and remains of antiquity, which 
be had described in his works, to be placed in the Ash- 
molean museum ; and to the same repository he continued 
to send every thing curious which fell into his hands. 
For these benefactions he received the thanks of the uni- 
versity, in a letter from the vice-chancellor, dated Novem- 
ber 18, 1758 ; and in March, 1766, that learned body con- 
ferred on him the degree of doctor of laws, by di|^loma, 
the highest academical honour. 

Though Dr. Boriase, when he had completed his three 
principal works, was become more than sixty years of age, 
he continued to exert his usual diligence and vigour in 
quiet attention to his pastoral duty, and the study of the 
Scriptures. In the course of this study, he dre\V up para- 
phrases on the books of Job, and the books of Solomon, 
and wrote some other pieces of a religious kind, rather, how- 
ever, for his private improvement, than with a view to pub- 
lication. His amusements abroad were, to superintend the 
care of his parish, and particularly the forming and re- 
forming of its roads, which were more numerous than in 
any parish of Cornwall. His amusements at home were the 
belles lettres, and especially painting ; and the correction 
and enlargement of his ^* Antiquities of Cornwall,'* for a 
second edition, engaged some part of his time ; and when 
this business was completed, he applied bis attention to a 


I2d fii O R L A S £. 

minute revisiod of his '^ Natural History/* AAer tliis, be 
prepared for the press a treatise he had composed some 
years before, concerning the Creation and Deluge. But a 
violent illness, in January 1771, and the apprehensions of 
entangling himself in so long and close an attention as the 
correcting of the sheets, solely, and at such a distance from 
London, would require, induced him to drop his design, 
and to recal the manuscript from his bookseller, when only 
a few pages of it had been printed. From the time of his 
illness, he began sensibly to decline, the infirmities of old 
age came fast upon him ; and it was visible to all his friends 
that his dissolution was approaching. This expected event 
happened on the 31st of August, 1772, in the 77th year of 
his age, when he was lamented as a kind father, an affec- 
tionate brother, a sincere friend, an instructive pastor, and 
a man of erudition. He was buried within the communion 
rails in Ludgvan church, by the side of Mrs.. Borlase, who 
bad been dead above three years. 

The Doctor had by his lady six sons, two of whom alone 
survived him, the rev. Mn John Borlase, and the rev. Mr. 
GecHTge Borlase, who was Casuistical Professor and Regis- 
trar of the university of Cambridge, and died in 1809. 

Besides Dr. Borlase's literary connections with Dr. Lyt- 
telton and Dr. Milles, before mentioned, he corresponded 
with most of the ingeuioos men of his time. He had apar* 
ticular intercourse of this kind with Mr. Pope ; and there i& 
still existing a large collection of letters, written by that 
celebrated poet to our author. He furnished Mr. Pope 
with the greatest part of the materials for forming his grotto 
at Twickenham, consisting of such curious fossils as the 
county of Cornwall abounds with : and there might have 
been seen, before the destruction of that curiosity, Dr.. 
Borlase's name in capitals, composed of crystals, in the 
grotta On this occasion a very handsome letter was written 
to the Doctor by Mr. Pope, in which he says, *< 1 am much 
obliged to you tor your valuable collection of Cornish dia- 
monds. I have placed them where they may best represent 
yourself, in a shadCy hut shining ;^' alluding to the obscurity 
of Dr. Borlase^s situation, and the brillianoy of his talents. 
— ^Tbe papers which he communicated at different times 
to the lloyal Society are numerous and curious. ' 

1 Biofr. Brit, corrected by a MS. account written by himself aoi inierted ia Ni* 
ehoU*s Bowyer, vol. V. au4 Gent. Ma^. 1803.^Son*s death, ihid. 1809. 

BORN. 133 

BORN (Ignatius), Baron, dn eminent mineralogist, was 
born of a noble family at Carlsburg, in Transylvania, Dec, 
26, 1742. He came early in life to Vienna, and studied 
under the Jesuits, who, perceiving his abilities, prevailed 
on him to enter into their society, but he remained a mem-^ 
ber only about a year and a half. He then went to Prague, 
ivhere, as it is the custom in Germany, he studied law, and 
having completed his course, made a tour through a part' 
of Germany, Holland, the Netherlands, and France, and 
returning to Prague, he engaged in the studies of natural 
history, mining, and their connected branches, and in 
1770, he was received into the department of the mines 
and mint at Prague. The same year he visited the princi* 
pal mines of Hungary and Transylvania, and during this 
tour kept up a correspondence with the celebrated Ferber, 
who, in 1774, published his letters. It was in this town 
also that he so nearly lost his life, and where he was struck 
with the disease which embittered the rest of his days. It 
appears from bis eighteenth letter to Mr. Ferber that, when 
at Felso-Banya, he descended into a mine, where fire was 
used to detach the ore, to observe the efficacy of this means, 
but too soon after the fire had been extinguished, and while 
the mine was full of arsenical vapours raised by the heat. 
How greatly he suffered in his health by this accident ap- 
pears from bis letter, in which he complained that he could 
hardly bear the motion of his carriage. After this he was 
appointed at Prague counsellor of the mines. In 1771, he 
published a small work of the Jesuit Poda, on the machinery 
used about mines, and the next year his '^ Lithophylacium 
Borneanum," a catalogue of that collection of fossils, which 
he afterward disposed of to the hon. Mr. Greville. This 
work drew on him the attention of mineralogists, and 
brought him into correspondence with the first men in that 
study. He was now made a member of the royal societies 
of Stockholm, Sienna, and Padua; and in 1774, the same 
honour was conferred on him by the royal society of 

During his residence in Bohemia, his active disposition 
induced him to seek for opportunities of extending know* 
ledge, and of being useful to the world. He took a part 
in the work, entitled ^^ Portraits of the learned men and 
artists of Bohemia and Mgravia.'* He was likewise con* 
cerned in the " Literary transactions, or Acta Litteraria, of 
J^obemia and Adorayia/' and tj;ie i^ditor of the latter pub-. 

124 B O R N. 

licly acknowledges in the preface, how much Bohemian li- 
terature is indebted to him. Prague and Vienna were 
both without a public cabinet for the use of the students : 
it was at bis instigation that government was induced to 
foi*m one, which be assisted by his contributions and his 
labours. In 1775, be laid the foundation of a literary so- 
ciety, which published several volumes under the title of 
" Memoirs of a private Society in Bohemia.'* His fam6 
reaching the empress Mary Theresa, in 1776, she called 
him to Vienna to arrange and describe the liuperial collec- 
tion, and about two years after, he published the splendid 
work containing the Conchology : in the execution of 
which he had some assistance. The empi^ess defrayed the 
expences for a certain number of copies. On the death of 
this patron the work was discontinued, her successor, the 
emperor Joseph, not favouring the undertaking. He had 
likewise the honour of instructing the arch-duchess Maria 
Anna in natural history, who was partial to this entertain- 
ing study ; and he formed and arranged for her a neat mu« 
fteum. In 1779, he was raised to the office of actual coun- 
sellor of the court-.chamber, in the department of the 
mines and mint. This office detained him constantly in 
Vienna, and engaged the chief part of his time. 

The consequences of his misfortune at Felso-Banya be- 
gan now to be felt in the severest manner; he was attacked 
with the most excruciating cholics, which often threatened 
a speedy termination of his life and miseries. In this depth 
of torment, he had recourse to opium, and a large portion 
of this being placed by his side, which he was ordered 
only to take in small doses, on one occasion, through the 
intensity of his pain, he swallowed the whole, which 
brought on a lethargy, of four and twenty hours ; but when 
he awoke he was free of his pains. The disorder now at- 
tacked his legs and feet, particularly his right leg, and in 
this he was lame for the rest of his life, and sometimes the 
lameness was accompanied by pain. But his feet by de- 
grees withered, and he was obliged to sit, or lie, or lean, 
upon a sopha; though sometimes he was so well as to be 
able to sit upon a stool, but not to move from one room to 
the other without assistance. 

His free and active jjenius led him to interest himself in 
all the occurrences of the times, and to take ati active 
part in all the institutions and plans which professed to 
enlighten and reform mankind. With these bedevoleat 

BORN. . 12$ 

intentions be formed connexions with the free-masons^ 
whose views in this part of the world occasioned the laws 
and regulations made against masonry by the emperor Jo- 
seph. Under Theresa, this order was obliged to keep it- 
self very secret in Austria ; but Joseph, on his coming tQ 
the throne, tolerated it, and the baron founded in the 
Austrian metropolis, a lodge called the ^' True Concord," 
a society of learned men, whose lodge was a place of ren- 
dezvous for the literati of the capital. The obstacles these 
gentlemen found, to the progress of science and use- 
ful knowledge, had the tendency to draw their attention 
to political subjects ; and subjects were really discussed 
here which the church had forbidden to be spoken of, and 
to which the government was equally averse. At thetc 
meetings, dissertations on some subject of history, ethics, 
or moral philosophy, were read by the members; and 
commonly something on the history of ancient and modern 
mysteries and secret societies. These were afterward pub- 
lished in the Diary for Free-masons, for the use of the ini* 
tiated, and not for public sale. — In the winter they met 
occasionally, and held more public discourses, to which 
the members of the other lodges were allowed access. As 
most of the learned of Vienna belonged to this lodge, it 
was very natural to suppose, that many of the dissertations 
read here^ were not quite within the limits of the original 
plan of the society. It was these dissertations which gave 
rise to another periodical work, which was continued fos 
some time by the baron, and his brother masons. He was 
likewise active in extirpating what be reckoned supersti- 
tions of various kinds, which had crept into the other 
lodges, and equally zealous in giving to these societies 
such an organization, as might render them useful to the 

The baron, and many others of his lodge, belonged to 
ihe society of the Ulumiiiaied. This, says his biographer, 
was no dishonour to him : the views of this order, at least 
tl first, seem to have been commendable ; they were 
the improvement of mankind, not the destruction of so- 
ciety. Such institutions are only useful or dangerous, and., 
to be approved of or condemned, according to the state of 
society ; ,and this was before the French revolution, and 
in a country less enlightened than almost any other part of 
Germany. But this was before the French revolution as a 
cause is before its effect, aud there can. be no doubt tiutt 

126 6 O R JJ. ' 

much of the misery inflicted on Europe is to be traced t<^ 
these societies. So zealous, however, was the baron id 
^favour of the illuminati, that when the elector of Bavaria 
ordered all those in his service to quit this order, he was s6 
displeased that he returned the academy of Munich the 
diploma they had sent him on their receiving him among 
them, publicly avowed his attachment to the order, and 
thought it proper to break off all further connexion with 
Bavaria, as a member of its literary society. The free- 
masons did not long retain the patronage of their sove- 
reign : the emperor Joseph soon became jealous of their 
influence, and put them under such restrictions, and clog- 
ged them with such incumbrances, as to amount almost to 
a prohibition ; and the society found it necessary to dis- 

What raised the baron more justly high in the public 
opinion, was his knowledge of mineralogy, and his success- 
ful experiments in metallurgy, and principally in the pro- 
gress of amalgamation. The use of quick- silver in extract- 
ing the noble metals from their ores, was not a discovery 
of the baron's, nor of the century in which he lived ; yet 
he extended so far its application in metallurgy as to form 
a brilliant epoch in this most important art. After he had 
at great expence made many private experiments, and was 
convinced of the utility of his method, he laid before the 
emperor an account of his discovery, who gave orders that 
a decisive experiment on a large quantity of ore should be 
made at Schemnitz, in Hungary, in the presence of Char- 
pentier from Saxony, Ferber from Russia, Elhujar from 
Spain, Poda, and other celebrated chemists, which met 
with universal approbation, and estabUshed the utility of 
his discovery. In 1786, Born published, at the desire of 
the emperor, his treatise on Amalgamation ; and in the fol-> 
lowing year, a farther account of it was published by his 
friena Ferber. As a considerable saving in wood, time^ 
and labour, attended his process, the emperor gave orders 
that it should be employed in the Hungarian mines ; and 
as a recompence to the inventor, a third of the sum that 
should be saved by adopting his method was granted to 
him for ten years, and tor ten years more the interest of 
that sum. Such, however, was the hospitality of Bom; 
and his readiness to admit and entertain all travellers, and 
to patronize distressed talents of every kind, that his ex- 
pences exceeded his income, and be was at last reduced to 

BORN., i27 

m state of insolvency. Amidst all his bodily infirmitiea and 
pecuniary embarrassments, and notwithstanding the variety 
of his official avocations, he was indefatigable in his literary 
pursuits; and in 1790, he published in two volumes, a 
^< Catalc^ue methodique raisonn^,*' of Miss Raab's collec- 
tion of fossils^ which is regarded as a classical work on that 
subject. He employed himself also in bleaching wax by a 
new chemical process, and in boiling salt with half the 
wood commonly used for that purpose. Whilst he was en- 
gaged in writing the ^^ Fasti Leopoldini,'* or a history of 
the reign of Leopold II. in classical Latin, and a work on 
Minerdlogy, his disease rapidly advanced, and being at- 
tended with violent spasms, terminated his life nn the 28th 
of August, 1791. Hb treatise on Amalgamation was trans- 
lated into English, and published by R. E. Raspe, Lond« 
1791, 4to, and his travels through the Bannat of Temeswar, 
&c. were published in 1787. ^ 
BORRI (Joseph Francis), a famous chemist, quack, 
and heretic, was a Milanese, and bom in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. He finished his studies in the se* 
minary at Rome, where the Jesuits admired him as a pro- 
digy for his parts and memory. He applied himself to 
chemistry, and made some discoveries ; but, plunging him- 
self into the most extravagant debaucheries, was obliged 
at last, in 1654, to take refuge ma church. He then set 
up for a pietist; and, affecting an appearance of great 
zeal, lamented the corruption of manners which prevailed 
at Rome, saying, that the distemper was come to the 
height, and that the time of recovery drew near : a happy 
time, wherein there would be but one sheepfold on the 
earth, whereof the pope was to be the only shepherd. 
^ Whosoever shall refuse, said he, to enter into that sheep- 
fold, shall be destroyed by the pope^s armies. God has 
predestinated me to be the general of those armies : I am 
sure, that they shall want nothing. I shall quickly finish 
my chemical labours by the happy production of the phi- 
losopher's stone ; and by that meai^ I shall have as much^ 
gold as is necessary for the business. I am sure of the 
assistance of the angels, and particularly of that of Michael 
the archangel. When I began to walk in the spiritual life, 

I Jiad a vision in the night, attended with au angelical 


! Townson's Travels in Hungary, 1797. 4t». 

128 B O R R L 

voice, which assured me, that I should become a prophet. 
The sigh that was given tne for it was a palm, that seemed 
to me surrounded with the light of paradise."' 

He communicated to bis confidants, in this manner, the 
revelations whicli he boasted to have received : but after 
tlie death of Innocent X. finding that the new pope Alex- 
ander XII. renewed the tribunals, he despaired of succeed- 
ing, left Rome, and returned to Milan. There too be 
acted the devotee, and gained credit with several people, 
whom he caused to perform certain exercises, which car- 
ried a wonderful appearance of piety. He engaged diei 
members of bis new congregation, to take an bath of se- 
crecy to him; and when he found them confirmed in the 
belief of his extraordmary mission, he prescribed to them 
certain vows, one of which was that of poverty ; for the 
performance of which he very ingeniously caused all the 
money that every one had to be consigned to himself. The 
design of this crafty impostor was, in case he could get a 
sufficient number of followers, to appear in the great 
square of Milan ; there to represent the abuses of the 
ecclesiastical and secular goveniment ; to encourage the 
people to liberty ; and then, possessing himself of the city 
and country of Mrlan, to pursue his conquests. But his 
design miscarried, in consequence of the imprisonment of 
some of his dis^ciples ; and as soon as he saw that first step of 
the inquisition, befled^ on.whichthej' proceeded against him 
for contumacy in 1659 and 1660; and he was condemned 
as an heretic, and burnt in effigy, with his writings, in the 
field of Flora at Rome, on the 3d of Jaiiuary 1661. He 
is reported to have said, that he never was so cold in bis 
life as on the day that he was burnt at Rome : a piece of 
wit, however, wliich has been ascribed to several others* 
He had dictated a treatise on his system to his followers : 
but took it from them as soon as he perceived the motions 
of the inquisition, and hid all his papers in a nunnery^ 
from which they fell into the hands of the inquisition, and 
were found to contain doctrines very absurd and very im- 

Borri staid some time in the city of Strasburgfa, to which 
be had fled ; and where he found some assistance and 
support, as well because he was persecuted by the inqui- 
sition, as because he was reputed a great chemist But 
this was not a theatre large enough for Borri : he went 
therefore to Amsterdajxi| where he appeared in a stately 

B O R R I. 129 

anci splendid equipage, and took upon him the title of 
Excellency: people flocked to him, as to the physician 
who could cure all diseases ; and proposals were concerted 
for marrying him to great fortunes, &c. But his reputa« 
tion began to sink, as his impostures became better under- 
stood, and he fled in the night from Amsterdam, with a 
great many jewels and sums of money, which he had pii« 
fered. He then went to Hamburgh, where queen Chris-* 
tina was, and put himself under her protection : persuad* 
ing her to venture a great sum of money, in order to find 
out the philosopher's stone. Afterwards he went to Co- 
penhagen, and inspired his Danish majesty to search for 
the same secret ; by which means he acquired that prince's 
favour so far, as to become very bdious to all the great 
persons of the kingdom. Immediately after the death of 
the king, whom he had cheated out of large sums of money, . 
be left Denmark for fear of being imprisoned, and resolved 
\o go into Turkey. Being come to the frontiers at a time 
when the conspiracy of Nadasti, Serini, and Frangipani, 
was discovered, he was secured, and his name sent to his 
Imperial majesty, to see if he was one of the conspirators. 
The pope's nuncio, who happened to be present, as soon as 
he heard Borri mentioned, demanded, in the pope's name, 
that the prisoner should be delivered to him. The em- 
peror consented to it, and ordered that Borri should be 
sent to Vienna ; and afterwards, having first obtained from 
the pope a promise that he should not be put to death, he 
sent him to Rome ; where he was tried, and condemne4 
to perpetual confinement in the prison of the inquisition. 
He made abjuration of his errors in the month of October^ 
1672. Some years after he obtained leave to attend the 
duke d'Estr^e, whom all the physicians had given over; 
and the unexpected cure he wrought upon him occasioned 
it to be said, that an arch-heretic had done a great miracle 
in Rome. It is said also, that the queen of Sweden sent 
for him sometimes in a coach ; but that, after the death of 
that princess, he went no more abroad, and that, none 
could speak with him without special leave from the pope. 
The Utrecht gazette, as Mr. Bayle relates, of the 9th of 
September, 1695, informed the public, that Borri was 
^tely dead in the castle of St. Angelo, being 79 years of 
age. It seems that the duke d'£str6e, as a recompence 
for recovering him, had procured Borri' s prison to be 
Vol. VI. K 

130 B O R R L 

chatiged, from that of the inquisition to the castle of St 

Some pieces were printed at Geneva in 1681, which are 
ascribed to him ; as, 1. " Letters concenring Chemistry ;'* 
and 2. " Political reflections." The first of these works is 
entitled, *f La chiave del gabinetto ;'* the second, " Istru- 
zioni politichi." We learn from the life of Borri, that when 
he was at Strasburg, he published a letter, which went all 
over the world. Two other of his letters are said to havd 
been printed at Copenhagen in 1699, and inscribed to Bar- 
tholinus; one of them, " De ortu cerebri, et usu medico;'* 
the other, ** De artificio oculorum humores restituendi.'* 
The Journal des Savans, of the 2d of September, 1669, 
speaks fully of these two letters. Konig ascribes also ano- 
ther piece to him, entitled, " Notitia gentis Burrhornm.*' 
Sorbiere saw Borri at Amsterdam, and has left us a de« 
scription and character of him. He says, that " he was a 
tall black man, well shaped, who wore good clothes, and 
spent a good deal of money : ihat he did not want parts, 
and had some learning, was without doubt somewhat skilled 
in chemical preparations, had some knowledge in metals, 
some methods of imitating pearls or jewels^i and some pur- 
gative and stomachic remedies : but that be was a quack, 
an artful impostor, who practised upon the credulity of 
those whom he stood most in need of ; of merchants, as 
well as princes, whom he deluded out of great sums of 
money, under a pretence of discovering the philosopher's 
stone, and other secrets of equal importance : and that, 
the better to carry ph this scheme of knavery, he had as- 
sumed the mask of religion." * 

BORRICHIUS, or BORCH, a very learned physician, 
son of a Lutheran minister in Denmark, was born 1626, and 
sent to the university of Copenhagen in 1644, where he 
remained six years, during which time he applied himself 
chiefly to physic. He taught publicly in his college, and 
acquired the character of a man indefatigable in labour, 
and of excellent morals. He gained the esteem of Caspar 
Brochman, bishop of Zealand, and of the chancellor of 
the kingdom, by the recommendation of whom he obtained 
the canonry of Lunden. He was offered the rectorship of 
the famous school of Heslow, but refused it, having formed 
a design of travelling and perfecting his studies in physic^ 

< 0«D. Pict.-^Mofbeim*f EctK BisL-^Sorbitre, R«l«Uoa d'on Vqj*^ etk 
^f lettrre, p. 15jf. 

B O R R I C H I U $; lit 

He began to practise as a physician during a most terriblei 
plague in Dentnark, and the contagion being ceased, hd 
prepared for travelling as he intended ; but was obliged to 
defer it for some time, Mr. Gerstorf, the first minister of 
state, having insisted on bis residing in his house in the* 
quality of tutor to his children. He continued in this ca« 
pacity five years, and then set out u'^on his travels ; but 
before bis departure, he was appointed professor in poetry, 
chemistry, and botany. He left Copenhagen in Novem* 
ber 1660, andj after having visited several eminent physic 
cians at Hamburgh, went to Holland, the Low Countries^ 
to England, and to Paris, where he remained two years* 
He visited also several other cities of France, and at An^ 
gers had a doctor^s degree in physic conferred upon him. 
He afterwards passed the Alps, and arrived at Rome in 
October 1665, where he remained till March 1666, when 
he was obliged to set out for Denmark, where he arrived 
in October 1666. The advantages which Borrichius reaped 
in his travels were very considerable, for he had made him- 
self acquainted with all the learned men in the different 
cities through which he passed. At his return to Denmark 
he resumed his professorship, in the discharge of which he 
acquired great reputation for his assiduity and universal 
learning. He was made counsellor in the supreme council 
of justice in 1686, and counsellor of the roval chancery in 
1689. This same year he had a severe attack of the stone, 
and the pain every day increasing, he was obliged to beS 
cut for it I the operation however did not succeed, the 
stone being so big that it could not be extracted. He 
bore this affliction with great constancy and resolution till 
bis death, which happened in October 1690. 

Borrichius died rich, and made a most liberal use of his mo^ 
ney* After satisfying his relations (who were all collateral, as 
be had no family) with bequests to the amount of fifty thou- 
sand crowns^ he left twenty-six thousand crowns to found 
a college for poor students, consisting of a house, com-^ 
plete^ furnished for sixteen students, with library, che- 
mical laboratory, garden, &c« to be called the Medicean 
collie. His principal medital productions consist of ob-» 
servations published in the Acta Haffniensia, and othet 
similar collections^ and of the letters sent by him while on 
his travels, to F. Bartboline, under whom be bad been 
l^ucated. The letter^ are the most valuable of those pub-, 
lisfaed by Bartboline in his ^^ Epistole Medicas ^'* but tbe 

132 B O R R I C H I U S. 

works by which he acquired his principal celebrity, were 
'^ De ortu et progressu Chemise/' published in 1668, 4to; 
and his *^ Heroietis ^gyptiorum et Chemicorum sapientia, 
ab H. Conringio vindicata/' 1674. In this very learned 
and elaborate work, the author defends the character of the 
ancient Egyptians against the strictures of Conringius : at* 
tributing to them the invention and perfection of che- 
mistry, and even of alchemy ; persuading himself that 
among their secrets they possessed the art of transmuting 
metals. But either from infatuation, or a desire of victory, 
be cites several manuscripts, since known to be spurious, 
as genuine, and some written since the time of our Saviour, 
as of much higher antiquity. He shews, however, from 
undoubted authority, that the Egyptians were early ac* 
quainted with the medical properties of several of their 
plants ^ that they used saline, and even mineral prepara- 
tions, some of them prepared by chemistry ; that incuba- 
tion, or the method of hatching eggs by artificial beat, was 
first used by them ; in fine, that the art of medicine, in- 
vented by them, passed from them to the Grecians* Bor- 
richius was also author of ** Conspectus pr»stantionim 
scriptorum linguas Latins;*' 16t8, 4to; ** Cogitationes de 
variis lingus Latin® SBtatibus," 1675, 4to; *' Analecta 
philologica, et judicium de lexicis Latinis Grsecisque,*' 
1682, 4to; and various other philological works. * 

BORROMEO (Charles), an eminent Romish saint and 
cardinal, was bom the 2d of October 1538, of a good fa- 
mily, in the castle of Arona, upon lake Major in the Mila« 
tiese. He addicted himself at an early period to retirement 
and study. His maternal uncle, Pius IV. sent for him to 
the court of Rome, made him cardinal in 1 560, and after- 
wards archbishop of Milan* Charles was then but 22 
years of age, but conducted the affairs of the church with 
disinterested zeal iind prudence. The Romans were at 
that time ignorant and lazy : he therefore formed an aca- 
demy composed of ecclesiastics and seculars, whom, by hi» 
example and his liberality, he animated to study and to 
virtue* Each of them was to write upon some chosen, sub- 
ject, either in prose or verse, and to communicate to each 
other in frequent conferences the fruits of their studies. 
The works produced by this society have been published ia 

. 1 Gcii. Dict-^Borrichios da Vita sua, in vol. II. of Oelicis Poetanim Dtam^ 
run^ Leydeu, 1693.— -Haller and Maofet^-Saxii 0D0inatt-«4tees*t Cycl«padia« 

B P R R O M E O. 1S3 

many volumes, under the title of ^^Noctes Vaticanse/' 
their assemblies being held in the Vaticani and at night, 
after the business of the day was over. About the same 
time he also founded the college at Pavia, which was dedi- 
cated to St Justina. 

In the mean while, however, the young cardinal, in the 
midst of a brilliant court, went along with the torrent, fitted 
up grand apartments, furnished them magnificently, and kept 
splendid equipj^es. His table was sumptuously served; his 
house was never empty of nobles and scholars. His uncle, 
delighted with this magnificence, gave him ample reve- 
nues to support it. In a very short time he was at once 
grand penitentiary of Rome, archpriest of St. Mary Major; 
protector of several crowns, and of various orders, religious 
and milititry ; legate of Bologna, of Romania, and of the 
marche of Ancona, It was at that time that the famous 
council of Trent was held. Much was said about the re- 
formation of the clergy, and Charles, after having advised 
it to othera, gave an example of it in his own conduct He 
suddenly discharged no less than eighty lively servants, 
left off wearing silk, and* imposed on himself a weekly fast 
on bread and water. From this beginning he soon pro- 
ceeded greater lengths. He held councils for confirming 
the decriees of that of Trent, terminated partly by his 
means. He made his house into a seminary of bishops ; he 
established schools, colleges, communities ; re- modelled 
his clergy and the monasteries ; made institutions for the 
poor and orphans, and for girls exposed to ruin, who were 
desirous to return to a regular life. His zeal was the ad- 
miration of good men, but was far from acceptable to the 
corrupt clergy. The order of the Humiliati, which he 
attempted to reform, excited against him a Ariar, Farina, a 
shocking member of that society, who fired a gun at the 
good man while he was at evening prayer with his domes- 
tics. The ball having only grazed his skin, Charles peti- 
tioned for the pardon of his assassin, who was punished with 
death, notwithstanding his solicitations, and his order was 
suppressed. These contradictions did not abate the ardour 
of the good archbishop. He visited the desolate extremi- 
ties of his province, abolished the excesses of the carnival, 
preached to his people, and shewed himself every where as 
their pastor and father. During the ravages of a cruel 
pestilence, he assisted the poor in their spiritual concerns 
by his ecclesiastics and his personal attentions, sold the fur* 

134 B O R R O M E O. 

niture of his house to relieve the sick, put up prayers and 
made processions, in which he walked barefoot, and with a 
rope round his neck. His heroic charity was repaid with 
ingratitude. The governor of Milan prevailed on the ma? 
gistrates of that city to prefer complaints against Charles, 
whom they painted in the blackest colours. ^* They ac- 
cused him (says Baillet) of having exceeded the limits of 
his authority during the time of the plague ; of having in- 
troduced dangerous innovations; of having abolished the 
public games, the stage-plays, and dances; of having 
revived the abstinence on the first Sunday in Lent, in vio- 
lation of the privilege granted to that town of including that 
day in the carnival.*' They published an injurious and in* 
suiting manifesto against him : but, contented with the tes- 
timony of his own conscience, he resigned the care of hi$ 
justification to the Almighty. At length, worn out by the 
labours of an active piety, he finished his course the 3d of 
November 1594, being only in his 47th year. He was ca- 
nonized in 16 10. He wrote a very great number of workflf 
on doctrinal and moral subjects, which were printed 1747 
at Milan, in 5 vols, folio, and the library of St. Sepulchre 
in that city is in possession of thirty-one vols, of his manu^ 
script letters. The clergy of France reprinted at their ex- 
pence the Institutions he composed for the use of confes- 
sors. Among his works are many homilies and sermons, 
as he thought it incumbent on him to preach the word of 
God himself to his people, notwithstanding the various bu- 
siness and government of so large a diocese. The edition 
of ^^Acta £cclesi}£ Mediolanensis," Milan, 1599, fol, i^ 
much valued. 

Upon the whole St Charles Borromeo appears entitled 
to the praises bestowed on him. His piety, however mis- 
taken in some points, was sincere, and he practised with 
perfect disinterestedness and true consistency what he rer 
commended to others. His life was written by Austin Va- 
lerio, bishop of Verona, Boscape, bishop of Novara, and by 
Giussano, a Milanese priest ; but the best life of him, and 
the most free from superstitious narrative, is that of the 
abb6 Touron, ^* La Vie et I'esprit'de St. Charles Borromeo,** 
iParis, 1761, 3 vols. 12mo. ' 

BORROMEO (Frederic), cousin german to the pre- 
ceding, and also a cardinal and archbishop of Milan, wa^ 

1 Diet. Hist. — Bullet's Lives of the Saints. — ^Touroo abridged^ Gent. Mar. 
)762.^M«reri.^Frehen Theatrum. 

B O R R O M £ O. 135 

first educated under St. Charles, who afterwards placed 
him in his newly-founded college at Pavia. In 1587, pdpe 
Pius V. made him a cardinal^ and in 1595, Clement VIIL 
promoted him to the archbishopric of Milan. He died in 
1632, leaving various pious works, written in Italian, the 
principal of which is " Sacri Ragionamenti,"' Milan, 1632 
— 1G46, 4 vols, folio, and " Kagionamenti Spirituali,'* 
ibid. 1673 — 1676 ; " De Piacere della mente Christiana," 
ibid. 1625. All his works are said to be scarce, but litera- 
ture was most indebted to him as the founder of the cele- 
brated Ambrosian library at Milan, which was enriched in 
his time with ten thousand manuscripts collected by An« 
tony Oggiati, whom he made librarian, and by a large 
collection of books from the Pinelli library. ^ 

BORROMINI (Francis), an eminent French architect, 
was born at Bissona in the diocese of C6mo in 1599^ and 
acquired great reputation at Rome, where be was more 
employed than any architect of his time. A great num- 
ber of bis works are seen in that city, but the major part 
are by no means models for young aitists. They abound 
in deviations from the received rules, and other singulari- 
ties ; but, at the same time, we cannot fail of perceiving 
in them talents of a superior order, and strong marks of 
genius. It was in his violent efforts to outdo Bernini, whose 
iame he envied, that he departed from that simplicity 
Which is the true basis of the beautiful, in order to give ex- 
travagant ornaments in that taste; which have induced some 
to compare his style in architecture to the literary style of 
Seneca or Marini. With his talents, had he studied the great 
masters in their greatest perfections, he would have . beeu 
the first architect of his time, merely by following their 
track ; but he unfortunately deviated into the absurdities of 
siogularity, and has left us only to guess from the college 
of the Propaganda, and a few other buildings at Rome, 
what be might have been. Even in his own time, his false 
taste was decried, and it is supposed that the mortifications 
he met with brought on a derangement of mind, in one of 
the fits of which he put an end to his life in 1667. From a 
vain opinion of his superiority, he is said to have destroyed 
all his designs^ before his death, lest any other architect 
should adopt them. There was published, however, in 
1725, at Rome, in Italian and Latin^ his ^^ Description of 

1 Moreri. — Le Oallois Traits des plus belles Bibliotheques dc I*Europe| 1G85, 
Itoo-^ — ^Morbpff Polyhift— Saxii Onomasticoo. — Frelitri Theatrum. 

138 B O R R O M I N I, 

the cburch of Vallicela,*' which he huilt, with the plws 
and designs, and a plan of the church of Sapienza, at 
Rome. ^ 

BOS (Jerom£), an artist of singular taste, was bom at 
Bois-le-Duc. He seethed to have a peculiar pleasure in 
painting spectres, devils, and enchantments : and although 
he possessed considerable powers as a painter, both in free- 
dom of touch and strength of colouring, his pictures rather 
excite a horror mixed with admiration than any degree of 
real delight. Among the singular objects which he chose, 
there is one which represents the Saviour delivering the Pa* 
triarcbs from hell. The fire and flames are painted with 
great truth. Judas in the attempt of slyly escaping with the 
Saints, is seized in the neck by the devils, who are going 
to hang him up in the air. A most remarkable' painting of 
this master's hand, among several others in the Escurial, is 
an allegory of the pleasures of the flesh : in which he repre- 
sents the principal figure in a carriage drawn by monstrous 
imaginary forms, preceded by demons, and followed by^ 
death. As to hi$ manner, it was less stiff than that of iQost 
of the painters of his time ; and his draperies were in a bet- 
ter taste, more simple, and with less sameness, than any 
of his contemporaries. He painted on a white grouna, 
which he so managed as to give a degree of transparence 
to his colours, and the app^rance of more warmth. He 
laid on his colours lightly, and so placed them, even at the 
first touch of his pencil, as to give them their proper ef- 
fect, without distilrbing them : and his touch was full of 
spirit. Bos was also an engraver, apd, as Struit thinks, 
the first artist who attempted to engrave in the grotesque 
style. His engravings have that stiffness which so strongly 
characterises the works of the early German masters, and 
prove that he possessed a great fertility of invention, though 
perhaps but little judgment. He died in 1500.* 

BOS (Lambert), a learned philologist, was born at 
Worcum in Friesland, Nov. 23, 1670. His father who 
was rector or principal regent of the schools, and accus- 
tomed to mark the early appearance of talents, soon disr . 
covered his son's aptitude for learning, and taught him 
Greek and Latin. His mother, a woman of abilities, an4 
aunt to Vitringa, when she saw the latter, then a very 

1 Di^ Hist-^IVArgenYiUe. s Pilklagton aad Stnitt 

B O a iST 

yoong man, advanced* to the professorthip of Oriental laD* 
gaages, exclaimed with maternal fon4ness that she hoped 
Ito see her son promoted to a similar rank. In this, bow* 
ever, she was not gratified, as she died before be had 
finished his studies. When he had gone through the ordi- 
nary course of the classes in his Other's school, he conti- 
nued adding to his knowledge by an attentive perusal of the 
Greek and Latin authors, and had many opportunities for . 
this while he lived with a man of rank, as private tutor to 
bis children. Cicero, above all, was his favourite Latin 
author, whom he read again and again. In 1694 he went 
to the university of Franeker, where his relation, Vitringa, 
encouraged him to pursue the Greek and Latin studies, to 
which he seemed so much attached. In October 1696 he 
was permitted to teach Greek in the university, and in Fe* 
bruaiy of the following year, the curators honoured him 
with the title of prelector in that language. In 1704, when 
the Greek professorship became vacant by the death of 
Blancard, Mr. Bos was appointed his successor, and on 
taking the chair, read a dissertation on the propagation of 
Greek learning by their colonies, '^ de eruditione Grsecoi- 
rum per Colonias eorum propagata." About the end of 
1716 he was attacked with a malignant fever, ending in a 
^nsumption, a disorder he inherited from his mother, 
which terminated his life Jan. 6, 1717. Bos was a man of 
extensive classical learning, a solid judgment, and strong 
memory. In his personal character he was candid, amia- 
ble, and pious ; in his studies so indefatigable that he re- 
gretted every moment that was not employed in them. 
About five years before his death he married the widow of 
a clergyman, by whom he left two sons. 

He published, I . ^^ Exercitatioues Philologicse, in quibus 
Novi Fcederis nonnulla loca i profanis maxime auctoribus 
Grsecis illustrantur,"' Franeker, 1700, 8vo; and in 1713 
much enlarged, particularly with an ingenious e^mologi- 
cal dissertation, on which, as well as on the work itself, Le 
Clerc bestows high praise in his *' Bibliotheque Cboisie,*' 
vol. XV. and his " Bibl. Anc. et Moderne," vol. II. 2. « Mys- 
terii Ellipsios Grecsc expositi Specimen," ibid. 1702, 
i2mo. There have been many editions of this useful work 
to Greek students. 3. ^< Observationes Miscellaneas ad 
loca quaedam cum Novi Fcederis, tum exteroorum Scripto* 
rum GrsBCorum," ibid. 1707, 8vo. 4. An edition of the 
^* Septuagint/' 1709| 2 vols. 4to, with Prolegomena^ &c. 

%St B O S. 

wbicb Breitinger, who published another edition in 1730"— 
1132, bus criticised with considerable severity in the ^^ Jour- 
nal Litteraire/* vol. XVIIL which the reader nnay compare 
with what is said of Breitinger's edition in vol. XI. of the 
<^ Bibliotheque Raisonn^e/' 5. ** Antiquitatum Graecarum, 
prsBcipue Atticarum, brevis Descriptio,'' Franeker, 1713, 
.12mo. Of this there have been several editions, as it be- 
'<»ine a school book. That of Leisner, at Paris^ 1769, was 
in 1772 translated into English by our countryman, the late 
vev. Percival Stockdale, and published in octavo, in hopes 
that it might supply yoang scholars with a manual more 
useful than Potter's Antiquities, but it did not answer the 
translator's expectations in this respect. 6. " Animadver- 
giones ad Scriptores quosdam Gra;cos. Accedit specimen 
animadversionum Latinarum,*' Franeker, 1715, Svo, The 
same year he published a new edition of Weller's Greek 
Grammar, adding two chapters on accentuation and syn- 
tax, shorter and more methodical than those of Weller. 
F. H. Schoefer published a variorum edition of his ** Ellip- 
ses,'' in 1^09, Leipsic. Saxius only, of all his biogra^ 
phers, notices a work by Bos which appears to have been 
his first, ^* Thomas Magistri Dictionum Atticarum Ecloga,** 
Franeker, 1698, 8vo.* 

BOS (Lewis Janssen, or John Lewis), an artist, was 
boni at Bois*Ie-Duc, and liaving been carefully instructed 
in the art of painting by the artists of his native city, be 
applied himself entirely to study after nature, and ren- 
tiered himself very eminent for truth of colouring and 
neatness of handling. His favourite subjects were flowers 
and curious plants, which he usually represented aa 
grouped in glasses, or vases of chrystal, half filled with 
water, and gave them so lively a look of nature, that it 
seemed scarcely possible to express them with greater 
truth or delicacy. In representing the drops of dew on 
the leaves of his subjects, be executed them with uncoin<* 
mon transparence^ and embellished his subjects with but«> 
terflies, bees, wasps, and other insects, which, Sandrart 
says, were superior to any thing of that kind performed by 
his contemporary artists. He likewise painted portraits 
with very great success. * 

BOSC (Claude du), an engraver, was a native of 
France, and being invited to England by Micbolas Do«« 

* ChMfepie Koureau Diet vol. 11.— Fabric. Grtft.— Saiii OnoBiast. 
f Pilklogtar 

B O S C. 13a 

jigny^ assisted him for some time in engraving the car<- 
tooiis of Raphael ; and afterwards separating from Dorigny, 
he undertook to engrave the cartoons for the printsellers. 
fie also engraved the duke of Marlborough's battles, for 
which he received 80/. per plate ; and, assisted first by 
Du Guernier, and afterwards by Beauvais and Baron, be 
i^ompleted them within two years, in 1717. He then be- 
came a printseller, and published, by subscription, the 
translation of Picart's Religious Ceremonies. As an en- 
graver, he possessed no great merit: his style is coarse 
.and heavy, and the drawing of the naked parts of the 
£gure in his plates is very defective. The <* Continence 
i>f Scipio,*' from a picture of Nicholas Poussin, in the 
Houghton collection, is one of his plates. He flourished 
in 1714. > 

BOSC (Peter du), a French minister, and the greatest 
preacher in his time among the protestants, was son of 
William du Bosc, advocate to the parliament of Roan, and 
born at Bayeux, February 21, 1623. He made such pro- 
gress, after having studied divinity eighteen months at 
Montauban, and three years at Saumur, that although he 
was but in his three and twentieth year, he was qualified to 
serve the church of Caen, to which he was presented Nov; 
15, 1645, and received the imposition of hands- Dec. 17^ 
the same year. The merit of his colleagues, and above all 
that jof Mr. Bochart, did not hinder Mr. du Bosc from ac« 
quiring speedily the reputation of one of the first men of 
bis function ; and his eloquence became so famous 
throughout th^ whole kingdom, that the church of Cha- 
renton would have him for their minister, and sent to de«- 
sire him of his church, in the beginning of 1658. The 
strongest solicitations were made use of; but neither the 
eloquence of the deputies of Paris, nor the letters of per- 
sons of the greatest eminence in France amongst the pro* 
teslants, could engage the church of Caen to part with 
him, nor him to quit his flock. It was impossible that such 
talents and fame should not give umbrage to the enemies 
pf the protestant religion, which they shewed in 1664, by 
procuring a leitre de cachety which banished him from Cha- 
lons till a new order, for having spoke disrespectfully of 
auricular confession. Mr. du Bosc, as lie passed through 
f aris to go to the place of his banishment, explained tQ 

1 Strutt.— Walpole*s EngrsTers,. 

140 B O S C. 

Mr. le Tellier his opinion on confession, and in what man-- 
jier be had spoken of it, with which Le Tellier was satis^ 
fied, and told him that he had never doubted of the false- 
ness of the accusation. Mr. du Bosc recovered the liberty 
of returning to his church October 15, 1664, and the joy 
which was at Caen among the brethren, when he came 
there, November 8, was excessive. A great many honour* 
able persons of the other party congratulated him ; and 
there was a catholic gentleman who celebrated the event 
in a very singular manner, as thus related by Du Bosc^s 
l>iographer. *^ A gentleman of the Roman religion, of 
distinction in the province, whose life was not veiy regu- 
lar, but who made open profession of loving the pastors 
who had particular talents, and seemed particularly ena- 
moured with the merit of Mr. du Bosc, having a mind to 
solemnize the feast with a debauch, took two Cordeliersi 
whom he knew to be honest fellows, and made them drink 
so much, that one of them died on the spot He went to 
see Mr. du Bosc the next day, and told him that he thought 
himself obliged to sacrifice a monk to the public joy ; that 
the sacrifice would have been more reasonable, if it had 
been a Jesuit ; but that his offering ought not to displease 
him, though it was but of a Cordelien This tragical ac- 
indent, of which he was only the innocent occasion, did 
not fail id disturb the joy which he had upon seeing him- 
self again in his family and amongst his flock." During 
the prosecutions of the protestant churches in 1665, he 
defeuded that of Caen, and many others of the province, 
against the measures of the bishop of Bayeux. The king 
having published in 1666 a severe proclamation against 
the protestants, all the churches sent deputies to Paris to 
snake humble remonstrances to his majesty. The churches 
of Normandy deputed Mr. du Bosc, who departed from 
Caen July 3, 1668. As soon as he was arrived at Paris, 
the other deputies chose him to draw up several o^emoirs. 
It being reported that the king would suppress some cham- 
bers of the edict, all the deputies ran to Mr. de Ruvigni, 
the deputy general, to speak with him about so important 
an affair, in hopes of procuring leave to throw themselves 
at his majesty's feet ; but Mr. du Bosc only was admitted 
to the audience. He harangued the king, who was alone 
in his closet, November 27, 1668 ; and after having ended 
his discourse, he had the courage to represent several 
things, and succeeded so well as to make all the court 

B O S C. 141 

speak of his eloquence and prudence. After several con- 
ferences with Mr.ieTellier» and many evasions and delays, 
in April 1669, be obtained some relaxation of tbe declara- 
tion of 1666. After tbat time Mr. du Bosc went several 
journies about the churches' afiairs, and supported them 
before the ministers of state and the intendants, with 
great force and ability, until he was commanded himself 
by an act of the parliament of Normandy June 6, lo85, 
not to exercise his ministry any more in tbe kingdom. It 
was, however, universally acknowledged, that if it had 
been possible to preserve the reformed church of France 
by the means of negotiation, he was more likely to suc- 
ceed than any one tbat could be employed. He retired 
into Holland after his interdiction, and was minister of 
the church of Rotterdam, until his death, which happened 
January 2, 1692. He published some volumes of ser- 
mons ; and after his death, P. Le Gendre, his son-in-law, 
published his ** Life, Letters, Poems, Orations, Disser- 
tations,^' and other curious documents respecting the his- 
tory of the reformed churches in his time, Rotterdam, 
1694, 8vo, dedicated to lord viscount Galloway. ^ 

BOSCAN (John Auiogaver), a Spanish poet, of a 
noble family, was born at Batrcelona, about the end of the 
fifteenth century, and is supposed to have died about 1543. 
He was bred to arms, and, having served with distinction, 
was afterwards a great traveller. From the few accounts 
we have of him, as well as from what appears in his works, 
he seems to have been a very good classical scholar ; and 
he is said to have been highly successful in the education 
of Ferdinand, the great duke of Alba, whose singular qua« 
lities were probably tbe fruit of our poet's attention to him. 
He married Donna Anna Giron di ReboUedo, an amiable 
woman, of a noble family, by whom he had a very nume- 
rous offspring. Garcilaso was his coadjutor in his poetical, 
labours, and their works were published together, under 
the title ^^Obras de Boscan y Garcilaso," Medina, 1544, 
4to, and at Venice, 1553, 12mo. The principal debt 
which Spanish poetry owes to Boscan, is the introduction 
of the bendecasyllable verse, to which it owes its true 
grace and elevation. His works are divided into thtem 
books, tbe first of which cont^iius his poetry in the redon- 
diglia metre, and the other two his bendecasyllables. In 

^ Gen. Dict.-^Le Gendre't Lifet Qt supnu 

142 B O S 6 A N. 

diese lie seems to have made the Italian poets hh models^ 
imitating Petrarch in bis sonnets and canzoni ; Dante and 
Petrarch in his terzine ; Politian, Ariosto, and Bembo, in 
his ottave rime ; and Bernardo Tasso, the father of Tor-^ 
quato, in his versi sciolti. It is said he also translated a 
play of Euripides, which is lost ; but he has left us a prose 
translation, no less admirable than his poetry, of the fa* 
mous II Cortegiano, or the Courtier of Castiglione. M. 
Conti, in his " Collecion de Poesias, &c." or collection of 
Spanish poems translated into Italian verse, has given as 
q[)ecimens of Boscan, two canzoni, six sonnets, and a 
familiar epistle to Don Hurtado de Mendoza. ^ 

BOSCAWEN (Right Hon. Edward), a brave English 
admiral, the second son of Hugh, lord viscount Falmouth, 
was born in 1711, and having early embraced the naval 
service, arose, through the usual gradations, to be captain 
of the Shoreham of 20 guns, in 1740, and distinguished 
himself as a volunteer under admiral Vernon, in Novem- 
ber, at the taking and destroying the fortifications of Porto 
BeUo. At the siege of Carthagena in March 1741, he 
had the Command of a party of seamen, who resolutely 
attacked and took a fascine battery of fifteen twenty-four 
pounders, though exposed to the fire of another fort of 
five guns, which they knew nothing of. Lord Aubrey 
Beauclerk being killed March 24, at the attack of Boca- 
chica, capt. Boscawen succeeded him in the command of 
the Prince Frederic of 70 guns ; and on the surrender of 
that castle, was entrusted with the care of its demolition. 

In December following, after his return home, he mar- 
ried Frances, daughter of William Glanville, esq. of St 
Clere in Kent ; and the same year was elected member of 
parliament for Truro in- Cornwall. In 1744, he was made 
captain of the Dreadnought of sixty guns, and on the 29th 
of April, soon after war had been declared against France, 
be took the Medea, a French man of war of 26 guns and 
240 men, commanded by M. Hoquart, being the first 
king^s ship taken that war. In January 1745, he was one 
of the court-martial appointed to inquire into the conduct 
of capt. Mostyn : and, during the rebellion, an invasions 
being apprehended, he commanded as commodore on 
board the Royal Sovereign at the Nore, whence he sent 

1 Antonio BibL flisp.— Baillet Jngemenf det SftTani .^Maty's RcTi««t ^^^ 
V. p. 1. 

fiOSCAWKN. lit 

away several of the new-pressed men that were brought to 
him, in company with some experienced seamen, in fti- 
gates and small vessels, to the mouths of many of the 
creeks and rivers on the coasts of Kent and Sussex, t^ 
guard in those parts. 

In November 1746, being then captain of the Namur^ 
of «eventy-four guns, he chased into admiral Anson's fleet 
the Mercury, formerly a French ship of war, of fifty-eight 
guns, but then serving as an hospital ship to M . d'Anvilie^s 
squadron. On May 3, 1747, he signahzed himself under 
the admirals Anson and Warren, in an engagement with a 
French fleet off Cape Finisterre, and was wounded in the 
shoulder by a musquet-ball. Here M. Hoquait, then com- 
manding the Diamant of fifty-six guns, again became has 
prisoner, and all the French ships of war, ten in nttmber, 
were taken* In July of the same year, he was appointed 
rear-admiral of the blue, and commander in chief of the 
land and sea-forces employed on an expedition to the 
East Indies. Nov. 4, he sailed from St. Helen's, with six 
ships of the line, five frigates, and two thousand soldiers : 
and though the wind soon proved contrary, the admiral 
was so anxious of clearing the channel, that he rather 
chose to turn to the windward than put back. After re^ 
freshing bis men some weeks at the Cape of Good 
Hope, where be arrived March 29, 1748, he made the 
island of Mauritius, belonging to the French, on June 23. 
But on reconnoitering the landing place, and finding it 
impracticable, without great loss, it wa^ determined by a 
cooncil of war, to proceed on the voyage, that not being 
the principal design of the expedition. July 29, he ar- 
rived at Fort St. David's, where the siege of Pondicherry. 
beine imnoediately resolved on, the admiral took the com- 
mand of the array, and marched with them, August 8tb, 
and on the 27th opened trenches before the town : but the 
men growing sickly, the monsoons being expected, the 
chief engineer killed, and the enemy being stronger in 
garrison than the besiegers, the siege was raised Oct. 6th, 
and in two days the army reached for St. David's, Mr* 
Boscawen shewing himself in the retreat as much the ge* 
neral as the admiral. Soon after the peace was concluded, 
and Madras delivered up to him by the French* 

In April 1749, he lost in a violent storm his own ship 
the Namur, and two more, but was himself providentially 
on shore. In April 1750 he arrived at St Helenas, in the 

144 B O S C A W E N. 

Exeter, haying, in bis absence, been appointed rear^ad*. 
miral of the white. In June 1751, he was appointed one 
of the lords commissioners of the admiralty, and in July* 
was chosen an elder brother of the Trinity -house. In May 
1754, he was re-elected for the borough of Truro. 

In February 17^5 he was appointed vice-admiral of the 
blue, and on April 19, he sailed from Spithead with a 
strong fleet, in order to intercept the French squadron 
bound to North America. June 10th, he fell in, off New«> 
foundland, with the Alcide and Lys, of sixty-four guns 
each, which were both taken by the Dunkirk and Defiance, 
being the first action of that war. On this occasion, it was 
very extraordinary, that M. Hoquart became a third time 
his prisoner. In November, the admiral arrived at Spit* 
head with his prizes, and fifteen hundred prisoners. In 

1756 he commanded the squadron in the Bay; and in 
December was appointed vice-admiral of the white. In 

1757 he again commanded in the Bay; and in 1758 was 
appointed admiral of the blue, and commander in chief of 
the expedition to Cape Breton. Feb. 15, he sailed from 
St Helen's, and in conjunction with general (afterwards 
lord) Amherst, took the important fortress of Louisburgh^ 
July 27 th, with the islands of Cape Breton and St. John. 
On Nov. 1st. the admiral arrived at St. Helen's with four 
ships, having fallen in, off Seilly, with six French ships 
from Quebec, which escaped him in the night; but in 
chacing one of them, the fielliqueux of sixty-four guns, 
having carried away her fore top-mast, was forced up 
Bristol Channel, where she was taken by the Antelope. 
December 12th, on his coming to the house of commons, 
the thanks of that august assembly, the greatest honour 
that can be conferred on any subject, were given him by 
the speaker. 

In some French memoirs, admiral Boscawen is repre* 
sent^ as having, at the siege of Louisburgb, wholly givea 
himself up to the direction of a particular captain in that 
arduous and enterprising business. This, however, was 
not the case. Whoever knew Mr. Boscawen's knowledge 
in his profession, with his powers of resource upon every 
occasion, his intrepidity of mind, his manliness and inde* 
pendence of conduct and of character, can never give the 
least degree of credit to such an assertion. The admiral, 
however, upon other occasions, and in other circumstances^ 
deferred to the opinions of those with whom he iwas pro?^ 


fessionally connected. When once sent to intercept a 
St. Domingo fieet of merchantmen, and while waiting near 
the track which it was supposed they would take, one of 
bis seamen came to tell him that the fleet was now in sight. 
The admiral took his glass, and from his superior power of 
eye, or perhaps from previous information, said, that the 
sailor was mistaken, and that what he saw was the grand 
French fleet The seaman, however, persisted. The ad- 
miral desired some others of his crew to look through the 
glass ; who all, with their brains heated with the prospect 
of a prize, declared, that what they saw was the St. Do- 
mingo fleet. He nobly replied, " Gentlemen, . you shall 
never say that I have stood in the way of your enriching 
yourselves : I submit to you ; but, remember, when you 
find your mistake, you must stand by me.'* The mistake 
was soon discovered ; and the admiral, by such an exertion 
of manoeuvres as the service has not often seen, saved bis 

In 1759, being appointed to command in the Mediter«* 
raneao, be sailed from St. Helen's April 14th. The Tou- 
lon fleet, under M. de la Clue, having passed the Streights^ 
with an intent to join that at Brest, the admiral, then at 
Gibraltar, being informed of it by bis frigates, immediately 
got under sail, and on Aug. 18th, discovered, pursued, 
and engaged the enemy. His ship, the Namur, of ninety 
guns, having lost her mainmast, he instantly shifted bia 
flag to the Newark, and, after a sharp engagement, took 
three large ships, and burnt two, in Lagos-bay. On Sept. 
15th be^rrived at Spithead with his prizes, and two thou- 
sand prisoners. In December of the following year, he was 
appointed general of the marines, with a salary of SOOO/L 
per annum, and was also sworn of his majesty's most ho- 
nourable privy-council. In the same year he commanded 
in the Bay, till relieved by admiral Hawke : and, returning 
home, died at his seat at Hatchland park, near Guildford, 
of a bilious fever, Jan. 10, 1761. A nionument was after- 
wards erected to him in the church of St Michael Pen- 
kevel in Cornwall, where he was buried, with an elegant 
inscription said to have been written by bis widow. 

This excellent officer was so anxious for the honour of 
the sea-service^ and his own, that when lord Anson, then 
first lord of the admiralty, refused to confirm his promo- 
tion of two naval officers to the rank of post-captains, in 
consequence of their having distinguished themselves at 

VcwL VL L 

ue fi S C A VV E N. 

the siege of Louisburgb (Laforey and Balfour, if we mis- 
take not), he threatened to give up his seat at the board of 
admiralty, and lord Anson, rather than lose the advice 
and experience of this great seaman, thought fit to retract 
bis opposition. Admiral Boscawcn was so little infected 
with the spirit of party, that when, on his return from one 
of his expeditions, he fodnd his friends out of place, and 
another administration appointed, and was asked whether 
he would continue as a lord of the admiralty with them, 
he replied, *^ the country has a right to the services of its 
professional men: should I be sent again upon any ejfpe- 
dition, my situation at the admiralty will facilitate the 
equipment of the fleet I am to command." He probably 
thought, with bis great predecessor, Blake, " It is not for 
Qs to mind state affairs, but to prevent foreigners from 
fooling us." No stronger testimony of the merit of ad- 
miral Boseawen can be given, than that afforded by the late 
lord Chatham, when prime minister : " When I apply,'* 
said he, " to other officers respecting any expedition I 
may chance to project, they always raise 'dilHculties; you 
always find expedients.'* * 

BOSCAWEN (Wilijam), an English miscellaneous 
writer, and poet of coh^iderable merit, was nephew to the 
preced ilg, being the younger son of general George Bos- 
eawen, third son of lord Falmouth. He was born August 
28, 1752, and was sertt to Eton school before he was seven 
years old, where he obtained the particular notice and 
favour of the celebrated Dr. Barnard. From school he was 
removed to Oxford, where he became a gentlen^n com- 
moner of Exeter college, but left it, as is not unusual with 
gentlemen intended for the law, without taking a degree. 
Ue then studied the law, as a member of the Middle Tem- 
ple, and the practice of special pleading under Mr. (after- 
wards judge) Buller : was called to the bar, and for a time 
w^nt the Western circuit. Nor were his legal studies un- 
fruitful, as he published an excellent work under the title 
of <^ A Treatise of Convictions on Penal Statutes ; with 
approved precedents of convictions before justices of the 
peace, in ^ variety of cases ; particularly under the Game 
Laws, the Keveuue Laws, and the Statutes respecting Ma- 
nufactures, &c.'' 1792, 8vo. He was also appointed on^ 

^ Gent. Mag. voK XXXI.— Soward's Anecdotes, toL Il.-*SmoUeU's Histar j. 
•-Annual KegUler, v©l. L 11. ill, IV. 

^ B O S C A W E N. 147 

of the commissioners of bankrupts, which situation be held 
till his death. On Dec. 19, 1785, he was appointed by 
patent to the situation of a commissioner of the victualling 
office, in consequence of which, and of hi$ marriage ia 
April J 786, he soon after quitted the bar. He married 
Charlotte^ second daughter of James Ibbetson, D. D. arch- 
deacon of St. Alban^s, and rector of Bushey. By Mrs. 
Boscawen, who died about seven years befoi'e him, he had 
a numerous family, five of whom, daughters, survived both 

Being an excellent classical scholar^ and warmly at* 
tacbed to literary pursuits^ he published, in 1793, the 
first volume of a new translation of Horace, containing the 
"Odes, Epodes, and Carmen Seculare," This being much 
approved, was followed, in 1798, by his translation of the 
" Satires, Epistles, and Art of Poetry," thus completing 
a work, which, though Francises translation still holds its 
popularity, is^ in the judgment of all classical men, very 
greatly superior to it, in many essential points of merit. 
in 1801 he published a small volume of original poems^ 
in which, if he does not take a, lead among his contem- 
poraries, he at least discovers an elegant taste, a poetical 
mind, and a correct versification. He was for several years 
before his death a constant and able assistant in the*^^ British 
Critic." He is also the supposed writer of" The Progress 
of Satire, an essay, in verse, with notes, containing re- 
marks on * The Pursuits' of Literature*," 175)8, and "A 
•Supplement to the same," 1799, two pamphlets occa- 
sioned by some freedoms taken with eminent cnaracters in 
the " Pursuits." 

Mr. Boscawen's constitution was delicate, and probably 
not improved by close continement to the duties of his 
commissionership. He had, consequently, for several j-ears 
suffered much by asthmatic affections of the lungs, which 
gradually exhausted the powers of life, and in the begin- 
ning of May, ISll, from ai) accidental accession of cold^ 
proved fatal on the sixth of that month. The character of 
Mr. Boscawen, says a writer, whom we know to have 
b^en one of his intimate friends, could it be truly drawn, 
would exhibit a consummate picture of every tlung that is 
amiable and estimable in human nature, improved by 
knowledge and exalted by religion, in every .possible re-* 
lation of life, whatever was kind, whatever was affectionate, 
whatever was benevolent, might with certainty be expected 

L 2 

U« B O S C A W E N. 

from him. That excellent institution^ the Literary Fund^ 
he considered almost as his child ; and his affection to it 
was testified^ not only by contributions, but by annual 
terses in its praise, and assiduous attendance on its meet- 
ings. Within five days of his death he wrote a copy of 
verses for its anniversary, and even contemplated the de- 
sign of attending it. A new edition of his Horace, much 
improved by his long continued attention, is intended to 
be brought forward, accompanied by the original, and by 
many additional notes. ^ 

BOSCH (Balthasar Vanden), an artist, was bom at 
Antwerp, in 1675, and was placed under the care of one 
Thomas, whose subjects were apartments with figures, in 
the manner of Teniers ; and he decorated the insides of 
those apartments with bustos, vases, pictures, and other 
curiosities, which sort of subjects were at that time in great 
request. Bosch studied the same manner of painting, and 
with great success ; but the connoisseurs and his friends 
advised him to employ his pencil on subjects of a more 
elegant and elevated kind ; because it seemed a little ab- 
surd, to see apartments designed with so much magni- 
ficence, and so richly ornamented, occupied by persons so 
mean and vulgar in their appearance as the figures gene- 
rally represented. Bosch profited by the advice, and soon 
acquired a different style of design and elegance in bis 
composition, which* afforded more pleasure to the eye, 
and more value to bis productions. He also painted por-* 
traits with a great deal of reputation, particularly a portrait 
of the duke of Marlborough on horseback, which gained 
him all the applause that he could possibly desire. The 
horse was painted by Van Bloemen. His paintings rose to 
a most extravagrant price, and were at that time more dear 
than those of Teniers or Ostade. Some of his works have 
true merit, being very good in the composition and design, 
and also in respect of the colouring ; and the forms of his 
figures were more elegant than most of his contemporaries* 
His subjects were judiciously chosen, and for the most 
part they were sculptors or painters, surrounded with pic- 
tures or bustos of marble, brass, or plaster, to which he 
gave abundance of variety, and a great degree of truth. 
His pencil is light, his touch spirited, and his figures a^e 

» Gent Mag. 1811.— New Cat of Living Antfcors, vol. L 179S.— Brit CriC 
toU XJl^H. p. 468. 

BOSCH. 149 

dressed in the mode of the time. However, notwithstand- 
ing he possessed so much merit, as is generally and justly 
ascribed to him^ his works cannot enter into competition 
with those of Ostade orTeniers ; nor is he now esteemed 
as he formerly had been, even by his own countrymen. 
He died of excess, in 1715. * 

BOSCOLI (Andrea), an historical painter, was born at 
Florence, in 1553, and educated under Santi di Titi. H^ 
was the first person who had a just notion of the cbiaro 
scuro, and used it successfully in the Florentine school ; 
where, though it had been happily practised by Giorgione, 
at Venice, and also by Titian, it was not well understood 
before bis time. He possessed great freedom of hand, and 
gave a surprising force of colour; and both in design and 
composition the grandeur of his style resembled that of his 
master. He studied after nature ; and in his travels he 
drew sketches of any particular objects that struck him ; 
but pursuing this practice at Loretto, with regard to the 
fortifications of the city, he was seized by the ofiicers of 
.justice, and condemned to be hanged; but.he happily es- 
caped, within a few hours of execution, by the interposition 
of signior Bandini, who explained to the chief magistrate 
his innocent intention. He was also an engraver; but the 
subjects of his plates are not specified either by Marolles or 
Florent le Comte. He died in 1606.' 

BOSCOVICH (Roger Joseph), one of the most emi- 
nent mathematicians and philosophers of the last century, 
was born May 11, 1711, in the city of Ragusa, and studied 
Latin grammar in the schools of the Jesuits in his native 
city, where it soon appeared that he was endued with su- 
perior talents for the acquisition of learning. In the begin- 
ning of his fifteenth year, he had already gone through the 
grammar classes with applause, and had studied rhetoric 
for some months^ and as it now became necessary to deter- 
mine on his course of life, having an ardent desire forlearn- 
jng, he thought he could not have a better opportunity of 
gratifying it, than by entering the society of the Jesuits ; 
and, with the consent of his parents, he petitioned to be 
received among them. It was a maxim with the Jesuits 
to place their most eminent subjects at Rome, as it was of 
importance for them to make a good figure on that theatre; 
and as they had formed great expectations from their new 
pupil, they procured his being called to that city in 1725, 

_ m 

^ PilkiDftODf^-Descamps, voL IV. ' Pilklngton and Strutt. 

150 B O S C O V I C H. 

where he entered his noviciate with great alacrity. After 
this noviciate (a space of two years) had passed in the usual 
probationary exercises, he studied in the schools of rheto- 
ric, became well acquainted with all the classical authors, 
and cultivated Latin poetry with some taste and zeal. 

After this he removed from the noviciate to the Roman 
college, in order to study philosophy, which he did for 
three years, and as geometry made part of that course, he 
soon discovered that his mind was -particularly turned to 
this science, which he cultivated with such rapid success, as 
to excel all his condisciples, and had already begun to give 
private lessons in mathematics. According to the ordinary 
course followed by the Jesuits, their young men, after stu- 
dying philosophy, were employed in teaching Latin and 
the belles lettres for the space of five years, as a step to 
the study of theology and the priesthood at a riper age ; 
but as Boscovich had discovered eswti-aordinary talents for 
geometrical studies, his superiors dispensed with the teach- 
ing of the schools ^, and commanded hitn to commence the 
study o( divinity, which he did for four years, but without 
neglecting geometry and physics, and before that space 
was ended, he was appointed professor of mathematics, an 
office to which he brought ardent zeal and first-rate talents. 
Besides having seen all the best modern productions on ma- 
thematical subjects, he studied diligently the antient geo- 
metricians, and from them learned that exact method of 
reasoning which is to be observed in all his works. Al- 
though he himself easily perceived the concatenation of ma- 
thematical truths, and could follow them into their most ab- 
struse recesses, yet he accommodated himself with a fa- 
therly condescension to the weaker capacities of his scho- 
lars, and made every demonstration clearly intelligible to 
them. When he perceived that any of bis disciples were 
capable of advancing faster than the rest, he himself would 
propose his giving them private lessons, that so they might 
not lose their time ; or be would propose to them proper 
books, with directions how to study by themselves, being 
alwa3's ready to solve difficulties that might occur to them. 
He composed also new elements of arithmetic, algebra, 

* Our account of Boscoyick* U takeo vlch, written by a dignified clergymaii 

from^ Tarious authorities, ox will be of the church of Rome for Dr. Gleig'a 

specified, but we have found it some- Supplement ; but every other account 

vbat difficult to reconcile tbeir difie- nre have sees, particularly that by Pa « 

rcnces. The above fact, with respect broni, expressly asserts that be did 

t» the dispensation ft-om teaching the teach these sobools^ at lea^t tbre^ 

fchotls, is taken from a life of Bo«co« years. 

B O S C O V I C H. 151 

|ritfin and solid geometry, &c. and although these subjects 
had been w^ll treated by a great many authors, yet Bosco* 
vich's work will always be esteemed by good judges as a 
masterly performance, well adapted to the purpose for which 
it was intended. To this be afterwards added a new expo* 
sition of Conic Sections, the only part of his works which 
lias appeared in English. It was withiii these few years 
translated, abridged, and somewhat altered, by the rev. Mr. 
Newton of Cambridge. 

According to the custom of the schools, every class in 
the Koman college, towards the end of the scholastic year, 
gave public specimens of their proficiency. With this view 
lioscovich published yearly a dissertation on some interest- 
ing physico-mathematicai subject, the doctrine of which 
was publicly defended by some of bis scholars, assisted by 
their master, and in the presenoe of a concourse of the 
most learned men of Rome. His new opinions in philosophy 
were here, rigorously examined and warmly controverted by 
persons well versed in physical studies : but he proposed 
nothing without solid grounds: he had foreseen all their 
objections, answered them victoriously, and always came 
off with great applause and increase of reputation. He 
published likewise dissertations on other occasions: and 
these works, though small in size, are very valuable both 
for matter and manner. It was in some of them that he first 
divulged his sentiments concerning the nature of body, 
which be afterwards digested into a regular theory, and 
which is justly become so famous among the learned. 

Father Noceti, another Jesuit, and one of his early pre« 
ceptors, iaad composed two excellent poems on the rainbow 
and the aurora borealis, which were published in 1747, 
with learned annotations by.Boscovich, His countryman, 
Benedict Stay, after having published the philosophy of 
Descartes in Latin verse, attempted the same with regard 
to the more modern and more true philosophy, and has ex- 
ecuted it with wonderful success. The first two volumes of 
this elegant and accurate work were published in 1755, and 
1760, with annotations and supplements by Boscoviclu 
These supplements are short dissertations on the niost im- 
portant parts of physics and mathematics. In these he af- 
fords a solution of the problem of the centre of oscillation, 
to which Huygens had come by a wrong method ; confute^ 
{^uler, who had imagined that the vis ijinftia was necessary 

152 B O S C O V I C H. 

in matter ; and refutes the ingenioas efforts of Riccati on 
the Leibnitzian opinion of the forces called living, 

Benedict XIV. who was a great encourager of learning, 
and a beneficent patron' of learned men, gave Boscovich 
many proofs of the esteem he had for him ; and both he 
and his enlightened minister, cardinal Valenti, consulted 
Boscovich on various important objects of public economy, 
the clearing of harbours, and the constructing of roads and 
canals* On one occasion, he was joined in a commission 
with other mathematicians and architects, invited from dif^ 
ferent parts of Italy, to inspect the cupola of St. Peter's, 
in which a crack had been discovered. They were divided 
in opinion ; but the sentiments of Boscovich, and of the 
marquis Poleni, prevailed. In stating, however, the re» 
sult of the consultation, which was to apply a dircle of 
iron round the building, Poleni forgot to refer the idea to 
its real author, and this omission grievously offended Bos« 
covich, who was tenacious of fame, atid somewhat irritable 
in temper. About the same time other incidents bad con- 
curred to mortify bis pride ; and he became at last dis- 
gusted with his situation, and only looked for a convenient 
opportunity of quitting Rome. While in this temper of 
mind, an application was made by the court of Portugal to 
the general of the Jesuits, for ten mathematicians of the 
society to go out to Brazil, for the purpose of surveying 
that settlement, and ascertaining the boundaries which di- 
vide it from jthe Spanish dominions in America. Wishing 
to combine with that object the mensuration of a degree of 
latitude, Boscovich offered to embark in the expedition, 
and his proposition was readily accepted. But cardinal 
Valenti, unwilling to lose his services, commanded him, 
in the name of the pope, to dismiss the project, and per- 
suaded him to undertake the same service at home in the 
Papal territory. In this fatiguing, and often perilous ope- 
ration, .be was assisted by the English Jesuit, Mayer, an 
excellent mathematician, and was amply provided with the 
requisite instruments and attendants. They began the 
work about the close of the year 1750, in the neighbour- 
hood of Rome, and extended the meridian line northwards, 
across the chain of the Appennines as far as Rimini. Two 
whole years were spent in completing the various measure- 
ments, which w6re performed with the most scrupulous 
accuracy. The whole is elaborately described by Bosco- 
Tich in a quarto volume, full of illustration and minute 


details, and with seTeral opuscules, or detached essays^ 
which display great ingenuity, conjoined with the finest 
geometric taste. We may instance, in particular, the dis* 
course on the rectification of instruments, the elegant syn- 
thetical investigation of the figure of the earth, deduced 
both from the law of attraction, and from the actual mea* 
suremeut of degrees, and the nice remarks concerning the 
curve and the conditions of permanent stability. This last 
tract gave occasion, however, to some strictures from 
D*AIembert,. to which Boscovich replied, in a note an« 
nexed to the French edition of his works. The arduous 
service which Boscovich had now performed was but poorly 
rewarded. From the pope he received only a hundred se* 
quins, or about forty-five pounds sterling, a gold box, and 
^ abundance of praise^*' He now resumed the charge of 
the mathematical school, and besides discharged faithfully 
the public duties of religion, which are enjoined by his order. 
A trifling circumstance will mark the warmth of his tem- 
per, and his love of precedence. He had recourse to the 
authority of cardinal Valenti, to obtain admission into the 
oratory of Caravita, from which his absence excluded him, 
and which yet afforded only the benefit of a free, but fru- 
gal supper. In presiding at that social. repast, the philo- 
sopher relaxed from the severity of his studies, and shone 
by his varied, his lively, and fiuent conversation. 

At this time a dispute arose between the little republic 
of Lucqa, and the government of Tuscany, on the subject 
of draining a lake. A congress of mathematicians waa 
called, and Boscovich repaired to the scene of contention^ 
in order to defend the rights of the petty state. Having 
waited three months in vain, expecting the commissioners^ 
and amused with repeated hollow promises, he thought it 
better for the interest of his constituents, to proceed at 
once to the court of Vienna, which then directed the affairs 
of Italy. The flames of war had been recently kindled on 
the continent of Europe, and Boscovich took occasion to 
celebrate the first successes of the Austrian aims, in a 
poem, of which the first book was presented to tiie em- 
press Theresa; but the military genius of Frederic the 
Great of Prussia soon turned the scale of fortune, and our 
poet was reduced to silence. More honourably did he 
t;mploy some leisure in the composition of his immortal 
work, '* Theoria philosophise naturalis reducta ad unicam 
legem virium in natur^ existentium,"' printed at Vienna in 



1758. This he drew up, it is alledged, in the very short 
space of thirty clays, having collected the materials a con- 
siderable time before ; yet we must regret the appearance 
of haste and disorder, which deforms a production of such 
rare and intrinsic excellence. 

After a successful suit of eleven months at Vienna, Bos- 
oovich returned to Rome, and received from the senate of 
Lucca, for his zealous services, the handsome present of 
a thousand sequins, or about 450/. Thus provided with 
the means of gratifying his curiosity, he desired and ob- 
tained leave to travel. At Paris he spent six mx)nth8, in 
the society of the eminent men who then adorned the 
French capital ; and, during Jiis stay in London, he was 
elected, in 1760, a fellow of the Royal Society, and he 
dedicated to tliat learned body his poem on eclipses, which 
contains a neat compendium of astronomy *, and was pub- 
lished at London the same year. The expecUtion of the 
scientific world was then turned to the transit of Venus, 
calculated to happen in the following year. Boscovidh, 
eager to observe it, returned through Holland and Flan- 
ders to Italy, and joined his illustrious friend, Correr, at 
Venice, from whence they sailed to Constantinople, hav- 
ing on their way, visited the famous plain of Troy. In 
Turkey, he scarcely enjoyed one day of good health, and 
his. life was repeatedly despaired of by the physicians. 
After spending half a year in this noiserable state, he re- 
turned in the train of sir James Porter, our ambassador at 
the Porte ; and having traversed Bulgaria, Moldavia, and 
part of Poland, his intention was to penetrate into Russia, 
if the agitation which there prevailed, on the death of the 
emperor Peter, had not deterred him from executing the 
project. The diary 6f his journey, which he published in 
Italian and French, is inferior to any of his works, and 
contains many trifling and insipid remarks. The truth was. 

^ Tlie occasion of bis comio|: to 
JLondon is thus related in his life in Or. 
Oieig*s Supplement: The British minis- 
try had been informed, that ship* of 
war, for the French, had been built 
and fitted out in the sea-ports of Ra- 
giisa, and bad signified their displea- 
sure ou that account'b This occasioned 
uneasiness to the senate* of Kagusa, as 
their sohjects are very sea-faring, and 
much emploj'ed in the carryin^j^ tfade ; 
and therefore it would have been in- 
con vvntent for them to have caused 

any disgust against them in the prin- 
cipal maritime |)ower. Their country- 
man Boscovich was desired to go to 
London, in order to satisfy that court 
on the above-mentioned head ; and 
with this desire he complied cheerfully 
on many accoupts. His soi:oess at 
London was equal to that at Vienna. 
He pleaded the cause of his country- 
men eflfectually Q^n, and that wKb<>uC 
giving ufience to the French, with 
whom Ragusa soon after entered Inl^ 
a treaty vf ooDimerce. 

B O S C O V I C H. 155 

Boscovich began his travels at too late a period of life to 
profit much by them. 

At Home his arrival was welcomed, and he was again 
consuhed on various plans of pubUc improvement. But iu 
the spring of 1764, he was called by the Austrian gover- 
nor of Milan, to (ill the mathematical chair in the univer- 
sity of Pavia, The honours which he received provoked 
the jealousy of the other professors, who intrigued to un- 
dermine his fame. He took the most eflFectual mode, how- 
ever, to silence them, by ymblishing his dissertations on 
optics, which exhibit an elegant synthesis and well-devised 
set of experiments. These essays excited the more atten- 
tion, as, at this time, ^he ingenuity of men of science was 
particularly attracted to the subject, J^y Dollond's valuable 
discovery of achromatic glasses. 

The expulsion of the Jesuits from the dominions of 
Spain prevented Boscovich from going to California, to 
observe the second transit of Venus, in 1769, and which 
expedition the royal society of London had strongly so- 
licited him to undertake. And as his rivals began now to 
stir themselves again, he sought to dispel tl>e chagrin, by 
a second journey into France and the Netherlands. At 
Brussels he met with a peasant, famous for curing the 
gout, and from whose singular skill he received Yno^t es- 
sential benefit. On his return to Italy in 1770, he was 
transferred from the university of Pavia to the Palatine 
schools at Milan, and resided with those of his order, at 
tt^ college of Brera, where he furnished, mostly at his 
own expence, an observatory, of which he got the direc- 
tion. But he was still doomed to experience mortification. 
Some young Jesuits, who acted as his assistants, formed a 
conspiracy, and, by their artful representations, prevailed 
with the government to exclude his favourite pupil and 
friend from holding a charge of trust. This intelligence 
was communicated to him at the baths of Albano, and filled 
him with grief and indignation. He complained to prince 
Kaunitz, but implored his protection in vain. To the go- 
vernor of Milan be wrote, that he would not return, un- 
less things were restored to their former fooling. He re- 
tired to Venice, where, having staid ten months in fruitless 
expectation of obtaining redress, he meditated spending 
the remainder of his days in honourable retirement at his 
native city of Ilagusa. But while he waited for the oppor- 
tuaity of a vessel to convey him thither, be received the 



afflicting news of the suppression of his order in Italy. He 
now renounced his scheme, and seemed quite uncertain 
what step he should take. Having come into the Tuscan 
territory, he listened to the counsels and solicitation of 
Fabroni, who held forth the prospect of a handsome ap* 
pointment in the Lyceum of Pisa. In the mean time he 
accepted the invitation of La Bord, chamberlain to Louis 
XV. accompanied him to Paris in 1773, and through His 
influence obtained the most liberal patronage from the 
French monarch ; he was naturalized, received two pen« 
sions, amounting to 8000 livres, or 3.33/. and had an office 
expressly created for him, with the title of '^ Director of 
optics for the marine.*^ Boscovich might now appear to 
have attained the pinnacle of fortune and glory ; but Paris 
was no longer for him the theatre of applause, and his ar- 
dent temper became soured by the malign breath of jea- 
lousy and neglect. Such extraorduiary favour bestowed 
cm a foreigner could not fail to excite the envy of the 
sgavansy who considered him as rewarded greatly beyond 
his true merit. The freedom of his language gave oiFence, 
his perpetual egotism became disgusting, and his repetition 
of barbarous Latin epigrams was most grating to Parisian 
ears. Besides, the name of a priest and ajesuit did not 
now command respect ; and the sentiments of aystere de- 
votion, which he publicly professed, had grown unfashion- 
able, and were regarded as scarcely befitting the character 
of a philosopher. 

But, notwithstanding these dbcouragements, Boscovich 
applied assiduously to the improvement of astronomy and 
optics \ revised and extended his former ideas, and struck 
out new paths o^ discovery. His solution of the problem 
to determine the orbit of a comet from three observations^ 
is remarkable for its elegant simplicity; being derived 
from the mere elementary "principles of trigonometry. 
Not less beautiful are his memoirs on the micrometer, and 
on achromatic telescopes. But his situation becoming 
more irksome, in 1783, he desired and obtained leave of 
absence. Two years he spent at Bassano, in the Venetian 
state, where he published his opXiscuIes, in five volumes, 
4to, composed in Latin, Italian, and French, and contain^ 
ing avariety of elegant and ingenious disquisitions con- 
nected with astronomical and optical science. During that 
time he lived with his editor Remondini, and occupied 
himself in superintending the press. After fioishing hit 

3B O S C O V I C H. 157 

task, he came to Tuscany^ and passed some months at the 
tonvent of Valombrosa. Thence he went to Milan, and 
issued a Latin prospectus, in which he proposed to reprint 
the remaining two volumes of the philosophical poem of 
Sta^, enriched with his annotations, and extended to ten 
books. But very few subscribers appeared ; his opuscules 
experienced a slow sale ; and the Imperial minister neither 
consulted nor employed him in some mathematical opera- 
tions which were carrying on ; all symptoms that he was no 
more a favourite of the Italian public. These mortifica- 
tions preyed upon his spirits, and made the deeper im- 
pression, as his health was much disordered by an inflam- 
mation of the lungs. He sunk into a stupid, listless me- 
lancholy, and after brooding many days, he emerged iotQ 
insanity, but not without lucid intervals, during which re- 
ligion suggested topics of consolation, and he regretted 
having spent his time in curious speculation, and con- 
sidered the calamity with which he was visited as a kind of 
chastisement of heaven for neglecting the spiritual duties 
of his profession. In this temper of resignation, he ex** 
pired on the 13th of February, 1787. He was interred 
decently, but without pomp, in the parochial church of 
S. Maria Pedone. *' Such was the exit," says Fabroni^ 
** of this sublime genius, whom Rome honoured as her 
master, whom all Italy regarded as her ornament, and to 
whom Greece would have erected a statue, had she for 
want of space been obliged even to throw down some of 
her heroes." 

Boscovich was tall in stature, of a robust constitution, 
but pale complexion. His countenance, which was rather 
long, was expressive of cheerfulness and good humour. 
He was open, sincere, communicative, and benevolent. 
We have already noticed that with all these qualities, he 
was too irritable, and too sensible of what he thought a 
neglect, which gave him unnecessary uneasiness. He was 
a man of strict piety, according to his views of religion. 
His great knowledge of the works of nature made him en- 
tertain the highest admiration of the power and wisdom of 
the Creator. He saw the necessity and advantages of a 
divine revelation, arid was sincerely attached to the Chris* 
tian religion, 'having a sovereign contempt for the pre- 
•sumption and foolish pride of infidels. 

Zamagna, his countryman, and also a Jesuit, published 
a panegyric on him in elegant Latin, and a short encomium 

158 B O S C O V I C H. 

of him IS to be found in the " Estratto della Litteratnni 
Europa ;" and another, in the form of a letter, was di- 
rected hy Lalande to the Parisian journalists. A more full 
life and eulogium is in Fabroni's collection ; another is in 
the Journal of Modena ; a third was published at Milan by 
the abbate Ricca ; and a fourth at Naples by Dr. Julius 
Bajamonte. Fabroni has given the most complete cata- 
logue of his works. * 

fiOSIUS (James)) a native of Milan, and servitor of the 
order of Malta, lived about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, when he was appointed agent for the religion of 
Malta at Rome,^ and discharged the duties of this office 
with fidelity. The knowledge he found it necessary to ac- 
quire, appears to have suggested the design of writing a 
history of that celebrated order, which was published under 
the title " Historia dell* orditie di S. Giovanni Gieroso- 
limitano,*' in thx*ee parts or volumes, the first two at 
Rome, 1594, and the third in 1602, a work in which he is 
said to have been assisted by two monks, and which con- 
tains many curious facts, that have been highly service- 
able to the subsequent historians of Malta. It happened 
that Bosius resided with Petrochini at Rome, and when he 
was made cardinal by Sixtus V. Bosius attached himself 
to him, in hopes of being promoted to the same honour, 
when Petrochini should be pope ; but the latter being 
overlooked at the next election for the papal chair, Bosius 
went home and passed the remainder of his days, how 
many we are not told, in exercises of devotion. He appears 
to have had much of the superstition of bis order, and of the 
age in which he lived, as he wrote a histbiy of the sacred 
cross on which our Saviour suffered, from its discovery in 
the reign of Constantino the great; and decorated the 
church of St. Blaise with this cli«ice morsel of authentic 
history. His nephew, 

BOSIUS (Akthony), and the inheritor of his property, 
was educated by him, studied law, and by his nucleus in- 
terest was appointed agent to the order of Malta. He 
was a very little man, of a dark countenance, resembling 
that of bis mother, who had been an African slave, whom 
his father married. In his youth he was very wild, but re- 
formed, lest his uncle should disinherit him, and addicted 
himself to the study of antiquities, producing the *' Roma 

1 Fabroni Vite Italoram, rol. X1V,<— Dr. Gleig's Supplement to the Eacyclopw 
Brit. — Dr. Ree8*i Cyclopedia. 

B S I U S. 133 

SoUeranea,'' Rome, 1632, fol. a description of the tombs 
and the epitaphs of the early Christians which are found in 
the catacombs at Rome. For this purpose he investigated 
them with great *care, often remaining five or six days 
together under ground, but he did not live to put the fi- 
nishing hand to the work, which was published by John 
Severani, a priest of the oratory. Father Aringhi, another 
of the oratory, translated and published it in l^tin, 1651, 
2 vols. fol. an edition in more request than the original, and 
more full and correct. ^ 

B08IUS (John Andrew), an eminent philologer and 
historian, was born at Leipsic, June 17, 1626, and sac* 
ceeded so rapidly in his first studies, that he was admitted 
to his bachelor's degree in the college of his native city 
when he had scarcely attained his fifteenth year; and af- 
terwards wrote and defended some theses, as is the custom 
at Leipsic. In 1643 he went to study at Wittemberg, 
lodging first with Balthasar Cellarius, and afterwards with 
J. C. Seldius, two learned men, by whose assistance he 
was enabled to improve what he heard from the public 
lecturers. In 1645 he returned to Leipsic, and again at- 
tended some of the able professors under whom he was 
first educated, particularly Muller andllivinus; and the 
following year, after a public disputatiotv in which he ac- 
quitted himself with great applause, he was admitted to 
his master's degree* In 1647 he went to Scrasbargh, and 
studied divinity and ecclesiastical history, and the modern 
languages, until he was recalled to Leipsic, where, after 
two dis{>utations on the solar spots, he was, in 1655, ad- 
mitted assessor of philosophy. The following year he was 
invited to be professor of history at Jena, and acquired 
the greatest reputation as a teacher, while he employed 
his leisure hours in composing his own works, or editing 
some of those of the ancients, making considerable pro- 
gress in an edition of Joseph us, and some of the Byzantine 
historians. For five years he was dean, and, in 1661, rec- 
tor of the college, and in 1672 he founded the society of 
inquirers, '* Societas disquirentium,'' at Jena. He died of 
repeated attacks of the gout, which had undermined his 
constitution, on April 29, 1674. Bosius was the particular 
friend of Heinsius and Grxvius,botii of whom speak highly 
of his talents. Among his works may be enumerated, 1« 


f Mortri.— Eiytbrxi Pioacothcca. 


*< Dissertatio de veterum adoratione/' Leipsic, 1 646, 4ta. 
2. His edition of '* Cornelius Nepos/' 1657, and again at 
Jena, 1675, 8vo, which gave such general satisfaction to 
the learned men of 4ii9 day, that few subsequent editors 
Tentnred to depart from his text. 3. ^^ Dissertatio de Pon* 
tificatu Maximo Imperatorum prsecipue Christianorum,^' 
Jena, 1657, 4to, reprinted by Graevius in the fifth vol. of 
his Thesaurus. 4. ^^ De ara ignoti Dei ad Act. 17," Jena^ 
1659, 4to. 5. «De Tiberio," ibid. 1661. 6. « Exerci- 
tatio historica de Clinicis Ecclesias teteris," ibid. 1664, 
4to. 7. An edition of Tacitus, " De Vita Agricolae, Jena, 
1664, 8vo. 8. '< Schediasma de comparanda notitia Scrip- 
torum Ecclesiasticorum,'' ibid, 1673, 4to, reprinted by 
Crenius in his ^* Tractatus de eruditione comparanda,'* 
Leyden, 1699, 4to, and by J. G. Walch, Jena, 1723,.8vo. 
After his death were published, 9-. *^ Introductio in noti- 
tiam rerum publicarum," with his Essay on the state of 
Europe, Jena, 1676, 4to. 10. *^ Dissertatio Isagogica de 
comparanda prudentia civili, deque scriptoribus et ljbri» 
ad earn rem maxime aptis,'' ibid. 1679, 4to, and reprinted 
by Crenius. 11.'* Ejusdem et Reinesii Epistolse mutuae,'* 
ibid. 1700, 12mo. 12. '^Petronii Satyriconpuritatedonatum 
cum fragmento Traguriensi et Alba; Graecss, &c" ibid* 
1701, 8vo. 13. «'* Hispaniffi, Ducatus Mediolanensis, et 
Regni Neapolitani Notitia,'* Helmstadt, 1702, 4to.^ 

BOSQUET (Francis), bishop of Lodeve, and after- 
wards of Montpellier, was one of the most learned French 
prelates in the seventeenth century. He was born at Nar* 
bonne, May 28, 1605, and studied atThoulouse* He was 
afterwards appointed judge royal of Narbonne, intendant 
of Guienne and Languedoc, solicitor general to the par- 
liament of Normandy, and counsellor of state in ordinary. 
For his services in this last office he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Lodeve, Jan. 1650. When the affair of the 
five propositions was agitated at Rome, Bosquet was ap- 
pointed deputy on the part of the king and clergy of 
France, and while there, the cardinal Este appointed him 
bishop of Montpellier. He was exemplary for piety, dis-^ 
interestedness, and charity, and, like the best of his bre« 
thren at that time, practised rigorous austerities. He as- 
sisted at the general assembly of the clergy held at Paris 

1 Freheri Tbeatrum.— BaiUct Jufemens dei Saraqy,— Saxii Okkomast,— Dib* 
4ia*i Classics. 

fi O S a U E T- lei 

in 1610, Eod was distinguished for his learning and elo' 
quence. An apoplexy carried him off July 24, 167€, and 
be was interned in the cathedral, with an epitaph cele* 
brating his many virtues. The first work he pubhahed 
was ♦• Pselli Synopsis Legum," 1632, apiece never feo- 
fore printed, and written in Greek verse by PselUs fat 
the use of his pupil Michael Dttcas,in the ele\ieiith century. 
Bosquet translated it into Latin^ and added notes to it. 
He then published, 2. ^' Ecdesias Galiicanx Historiarum 
liber primus," 1636, 4to. 3. ^^ Pontificum Romanorum 
qui ^ Gallia oriundi in ea sederunt, historia, ab anno 1315 
ad ann. 1394 ex MSS. edita," Paris, 1632« The second 
edition of bis history of the Gallican Church, the one 
above nienticmed in 1636, was much enlarged, but some 
passages were omitted that had appeared in the Arst octavo 
edition, which archbishop Usher has transcribed. By 
these it appears that Bosquet was of opinion chat the 
mistaken zeal of t^e monks was the chief cause of tboae 
fabulous traditions which have destroyed ail confidence in ' 
the eariy history of the Gallican church, and while be 
jnakea some apology for the credulous believers of those 
stories, fae makes none for those who origiiially invented 
•diem, a concession of great liberality from a prelate of the 
Aomish church. ^ 

fiOSS£ (Abraham), a French engraver, was born at 
Tenrs, and gave the first lessons of perspective in the 
academy of painting at Paris. He had groat judgement in 
that branch as well as in architecture. He left, 1. Three 
good tracts, on the manner of drawing the orders of av- . 
chitectoTe, 1684, folio; on the art of engraving, 164lf, 
Svo; oa perspective, 1682, 3vp. 2. Representation of di- 
vers human figures, with their measure;^, taken from the 
antiques at Rome, Paris, 1656; a pocket volume all en- 
graved. His plates in aqua fortis, but in a peculiar me- 
thod, are agreeable. The work of Bosse on the art of 
engravidg was re-published some years ag0, with the re^ 
juarks and augmentations of M. Cochin the younger. Bosse 
died in his own country about the year 1660, according to 
Jombert Bosse was a turbulent character, and created 
laany* enemies, particulariy owing to his having published 
some pieces of Desargues on perspective, and having 
adopted* the opinions of this writer, which were adverse 

> Gen. Diet.— Moreri«—'Vt8errai in Pvf.Brit. Eccles. iUitiq.— 3udi Onomait. 

Vol. VI. M 

.162 B O S S E. 

to those of Le Brun and the ablest academicians; Th» 
produced a controversy, in which he so displeased the^ 
academicians that they expelled him from their society. * 

BOSSO (Matthew), an Italian scholar and writer of 
considerable eminence, was born at Verona in 1427, and 
in 1451 entered the congregation of the regular canons of 
St. John of Lateran, where he bore several employments, 
as visitor of the order, procurator- general, and abbot of 
Fiesole in Tuscany. Cosmo de Medici, who had a high 
respect for him, spent seventy thousand crowns in the 
repairs of that monastery, and it was in the church be* 
longing to it that Bosso delivered the ensigns of the car- 
dinalship to John de Medici, afterwards pope Leo X. Six- 
tus VI. also employed him in many important affairs, par- 
ticularly in reforming the religious houses of Genoa, and 
other neighbouring districts, and he thrice offered him a 
valuable bishopric, which be refused. He vigorously op- 
posed the decree of pope Innocent VIII. which ordered 
' all sorts of monks to pay part of their yearly revenues to 
the clerks of the apostolic chamber. Hermolaus Barbarus 
Mras his pupil and guest at Fiesole, and Picus of Miranduia, 
his friend. He died at Padua in 1502. Mr. Roscoe says 
he was a profound scholar, a close reasondr, and a con- 
vincing orator ; and to these united a candid mind, an in- 
flexible integrity, and an interesting simplicity of life and 
manners. His literary productions were, 1. *'De Insti- 
tuendo Sapiential animo,*' Bologna, 1495. 2. ** De verb 
et salutaribus animi gaudiis,*' Florence, 1491. 3. '* Epis- 
tolar. Lib. tres,'' or rather three volumes, printed 1493, 
1498, 1502. — Some orations of his are in the collection 
entitled <^ Recuperationes Fsesulance,'' a rare and beauti- 
ful book, said to have been printed in 1483. His whole 
works were published by P. Ambrosini, at Bologna, 1627^ 
with the exception of the third book, or volume, of letters, 
which, on account of its extreme rarity, was at that time 
unknown to the editor. His moral writings were verjr 
highly esteemed ; and one of his pieces on female dress, 
.<< de vanis mulierum ornamentis," excited a considerable 
interest. The editor of Fabricius throws some doubu on 
the date of the ^^ Recuperationes,*' and if there be letters 
in it dated 1492 and 1493, it is more probable that it is a 
typographical error for 1493.^ 

1 Diet Hist.-— Strait. 

« Morcri. — MafTei degli fcittori Veronesi. — Rotcoe'f Lor«MO tnd l«a-* 
Fabricii Bibl. Med. et Inf. Utio.— Gi%9»wcira PoliUtrt.— Saxii Onomttt 

B O S S U. 16f 

' BOSSU (Rene le), a distinguished French critici was 
born at Paris, March 16, 16;il. He began his studies at 
Nknterre, where he discovered an early taste for polite 
literature, and soon made surprising progress in all the 
valuable parts of learning. In 1649 he left Nanterre, wai 
admitted a canoti regular in the abbey of St. Genevieve^ 
and after a year's probation took the habit in this abbey. 
Here he applied to philosophy and divinity, in which he 
made great proficiency, and took upon him priest's orders 
in 1657; but, either from inclination, or in obedience to 
bis superiors, he resumed the belles letters, and taught 
polite literature in several religious houses. After twelve 
years, being tired of the fatigue of such an employment, 
he gave it up, with a resolution to lead a quiet and retired 
life. Here he published his ^< Parallel, or comparison 
betwixt the principles of Aristotle^s natural philosophy, and 
those of Des Cartes,'* Paris, 1674. His intention in this 
piece was not to shew the opposition betwixt these two 
philosophers, but to prove that they do not differ so much 
as is generally thought ; yet this production of his was 
but indifferently received, either because these two phi- 
losophers differ too widely to be reconciled, or because 
Bossu had not made himself sufficiently acquainted with 
their opinions, and it is of little consequence now, since 
both have given way to a more sound system. The next 
treatise he published was that on *^ epic poetry," which 
gained him great reputation : Boileau says it is one of the 
best compositions on this subject that ever appeared in the 
French language. Bossu having met with a piece wrote 
by St. Sorlitt against this poet, be wrote a confutation of 
it, for which favour Boileau was extremely grateful ; and 
it produced an intimate friendship betwixt them, which 
continued till our author's death, March 14, 1680. He 
left a vast number of manuscript volumes, which are kept 
in the abbey of St John de Chartres. 

Bossu's treatise on the epic was long thought a stan* 
dard book, even in this country, being translated into 
English in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo, and there are, undoubtedly, 
many just remarks in it, but he is too visionary and fan*- 
tastic for the present more refined state of public taste. 
Jlis notion that Homer fixed on some moral truth or axiom^ 
smd then added a fable or story, in which it was of little 
coosequence whether men or beasts were the heroes and 
upeakersj has been acutely exposed by Drs. Blaif ai)4 

M 2 

16* B O S S U. 

Wiirton. The first edition of this " Traitg de porcme 
epique'* was published at Paris in 1675, and it went through 
several other editions. There was one printed at the Hague 
in 17 14, which F. Le Conrayer had the care of, and to which 
be prefixed a discourse to the abb6 de Morsan, containing 
an account of the treatise, and some encomiums npon it, 
and some tnerooirs concerning Bossu's life. * 

BOSSUET (James), bishop of Meaux,an eminent French 
ivriter and preiicber, was born att Dijon, 27th of Septem- 
ber 1*627. He received the first radiments of his edncation 
there, and in 164^ was sent to Paris to finish his studies at 
the college of Navarre. In 1652 he took his degrees in 
divinity, and socm after went to Metz, where he was made 
a canon. Whilst he resided here, he apj^ed himself 
chiefly to the study of the scriptures, and the reading of 
the fathers, especially St. Augustine. In a little time he 
became a celebrated preacher, and was invited to Paris, 
Where he had for his hearers many of the most learned men 
of his time, and several persons of the first rank at court. 
In 1669 he was created bishop of Condom, and the same 
month wa^a appointed preceptor to the dauphin; upon 
y/AAch occasion, anrd the appladse he gained in the dis- 
charge of so delicate an office, pope Innocent XI. con- 
gratulated him in a very polite letter. When he bad al- 
itiost finished the education of this prince, he addressed 
to him his *^ Biscotirs sur THistoire Universelle," whicb wa& 
pubKsbed hi I'eSl, and is by far the best of his perform- 
ances. About a year after be was made preceptor he gav% 
tip bis bishopric, because he could not reside in his dio-* 
cese, on account of his engagement at court. In 1680 the 
king appointed him first almoner to the dauphiness, and 
the year after gave him the bishopric df Meaux. In 1697 
he wafe made c<mnseTlor of state, and the year following; 
first almomer to the dtichess of Burgundy. Nor did the 
learned world honour him less than the codtt ; foT he had 
been admitted a member of the French academy ; and in 
tte95, at the desire of the royal college of Navarre, of 
which he was a member, the king constituted hrm their 

The writings of Bossuet g^iined bhn no less feme than 
bis sermons. From the year 1655 he had entered the lists 

1 Moreri.-^Dict Hist—- B1«M Lectatts^-iiiiowtei*! Bdit of Pii^e^ Wtfrits.^^ 
€eii. Diet— ^aiUet JugeKeai. 

B O S S U E'T. 169 

ftgaiost the proteatants; and the most famous piece he 
wrote agaiti^iC them was his ** Refutation du catechisme de 
Paul Ferri," In 1671 he wrote another, intituled **Vex- 
position de la doctrine de T^glise catliolique sur les ma- 
lieres de controverse.'' This had the approbation of the 
bishops of France^ as well as of the prelates and cardinals 
of Rome. Innocent XI. wrote him two letters on the sub- 
ject, and the work was translated into most of the Euro- 
peau languages ; M. Tabb^ Montague, a relation of the 
Sandwich family, was the author of the English translation. 
He is said to have brought back several to the Romish 
church who had embraced the protestant religion ; and it 
was for the benefit of such that in 1682 he published his 
" Traite de la communion sogs les deux especes," and bis 
** Lettre pastorale aux nouveaux catholiques.'* In 1686 he 
published his " Histoire dcs ^glises protestantes,'' for 
which, as well as several other of his writings, he was suc- 
cessfully attacked by Mess. Jurieu, Burnet, Basnage, and 
several other protestant ministers. He always distinguished 
himself as a zealous advocate for the catholic religion ; and 
so great was bis desire to bring about a re-union of the pro- 
testants with the church of Rome, that for this purpose he 
voluntarily offered to travel into foreign countries. He 
formed several schemes for this purpose, which were ap- 
proved of by the church of Rome, but the succeeding wan* 
prevented his putting them in execution. His writings in 
controversy with the protestants, and against quietisrp, the 
religion of Madame Guion, Fenelon, and many of the pious 
French, make several volumes. 

There are still extant several of his very celebrated fu- 
neral orations, particularly those on the* queen-mother of 
France in 1667, on the queen of England 1669, on the 
dauphiness 1670, on the queen of France 1633, on the 
princess Palatine 1685, on chancellor le Tellier 1686, on 
the prince de Cond6, Louis de Bourbon 1687. These are 
printed in the " Recueil de Diverses Oraisons Funebres,** 
5 vols. 1712, a neglected book, but containing the best 
specimens of French oratory. Nor, amidst all the great af- 
fairs in which he was employed, did he neglect the duty of 
his diocese. The " Statuts Synodaux," which be published 
in 1691, and several other of his pieces^ shew how attentive 
he was to maintain regularity of discipline. After having 
«pent a life in the service of the church, he died at. Paris, 
April 12, 1704, and was buried 9i Meaux; where ^ fur 

166 B O S S U E T. 

t)eral was honoured with the presence of many prelates hi* 
friends, and an oration pronounced in his praise by father 
de la Rue the Jesuit. The same honour was likewise paid 
to his memory at Paris, in the college of Navarre, where 
cardinal Noailles performed the pontifical ceremonies, and 
the funeral oration was spoken by a doctor of the house. 
Nor was Rome silent in bis praise ; for an eulogium was 
spoken to bis memory ; and, what was unusual, was deli- 
vered in the Italian tongue, at the college De propaganda, 
by the chevalier Maffei, in presence of several cardinals, 
prelates, and other persons of the first rank. It was after- 
wards printed, and dedicated to his illustrious pupil the 

In estimating the character of this celebrated prelate, we 
must not be guided by d'Alembert's desultory and artful 
Eloge, who, however, struggles in vain to conceal the 
truth, that Bossuet was, with all his taste and talents^ a fu- 
rious bigot in favour of the Catholic religion, and while he 
affected to dislike persecution, either submitted to the ex- 
ercise of it, or promoted it by the asperity of his writings. 
We shall come nearer the truth by adopting Bossuet^s cha- 
racter as contrasted with that of Fenelun by the writer of 
the " Letters concerning Mythology," who represents him 
as a prelate of vast parts, learned, eloquent, artful, and 
aspiring. By these qualities he rose to the first dignities in 
the Gallican church : while another of finer fancy and 
better heart (Fenelon), humble, holy, and sincere, was 
censured at Rome,, and disgraced at the French court. 
-Both were intrusted with the education of princes, and ac- 
quitted themselves of those duties in a very different man- 
ner. The one endeavoured to make his royal pupil noble, 
virtuous, and just, a father to his people, and a friend to 
mankind, by the maxims of his inimitable Telemaque. The 
other in bis discourses upon universal history, is perpetually 
turning his prince's eyes from mankind to the church, as 
the sacred object of his care, from whose everlasting stem 
whoever separates is lost : and for whose interests, in the 
extirpation of heresy, and aggrandizement of her ministers, 
be is, like his father Lewis XIV. to exert all the power be 
has received from God. 

His celebrated ^'Exposition of the Roman Catholic 
Faitb/^ mentioned above, was designed to show the pro- 
testants, that their reasons against returning to the Romish 
church might be easily removed, if they would view the 

B O S S U E T. 167 

doctrines of that church in their true light, and not as 
they had been erroneously represented by protestaut 
writers. Nine years, however, passed before this book 
could obtain the pope's approbation. Clement X. refused 
it positively ; and several catholic priests were rigorously 
treated and severely persecuted, for preaching the doctrine 
contained in the exposition of Bossuet, which was likewise 
formally condemned by the university of Louvain in the 
year 1685, and declared to be scandalous and pernicious. 
All this we should have thought a proof of the merit of the 
work, if it had not been at length licensed and held up as 
unanswerable by the protestants. The artifice, however, 
employed in the composition of it, and the tricks that were 
used in the suppression and alteration of the first edition, 
have been detected with great sagacity by archbishop Wake 
in the introduction to his ^' Exposition of the Doctrine of 
the Church of England,** and in his two ^* Defences^* of 
that Exposition, in which the perfidious sophistry of Bos« 
suet b unmasked and refuted in the most satisfactory man* 
ner. There was also an excellent answer to Bossuet's, book 
by M. de la Bastide, one of the most eminent protestant 
ministers in France. Qf this answer the French prelate 
tqpk no notice during eight years : at the end of which he 
published an advertisement, in a new edition of his ^^ Ex- 
position,'* which was designed to remove the objections of * 
La Bastide. The latter replied in such a demonstrative 
manner, that the learned bishop, notwithstanding all his 
eloquence and art, was obliged to quit the field of contro* 
versy. There is a very interesting account of this insidi* 
ous work of Bossuet, and the controversies it occasioned, iu 
the *^ Bibliotheque des Sciences,** published at the Hague, 
vol. XVIH. This account, which is curious, ample, accu* 
rate, and learned, was given partly on occasion of a new 
edition of the ^^ Exposition** printed at Paris in 1761, and 
accompanied with a Latin translation by Fleufy, and partly 
on occasion of Burigny's ^' Life of Bossuet,*' published the 
same year at Paris. 

Had the French press, however, remained open, the 
controversy between the catholics and protestants might 
have soon been brotjght to a conclusion : but other mea* 
sores were to be adopted, more cliaracteristic of the genius 
•f popery. Bossuet has been praised by most French 
writers for his laudable attempts to promote an union be- 
tween the catholic and reformed churches of France. The 


m& B O S S U E T. 

basis of this union vres not very protnising. The ceformed 

were to give up ever}' thing, the catholics nothing, and the 

subsequent practice vras worse than this principle. In the 

'* Memoirs pourscrvir a Thistoire des Refugles Francois daiis. 

les ettiXs du Roi," or Memoirs of the French refugees in 

the dominions of the king of Prussia, by Messrs. Ermaa 

and Heclam, published at Berlin in 1782, we have a curioua 

developement of the plan of union, as detected by the 

celebrated Claude. Tlie reformed church of Paris, which 

was a considerable edifice, was to be surrounded with 

troops ; the archbishop of Paris and the bishop of Meaux 

(Bossuet) accompanied with a train of priests and the lieu«> 

tenant of the police, were to march thither in procession^ 

during divine service : one of these prelates was to mount 

the pulpit and summon the congregation to submit to the 

mother church and re-unite; a number of Roman Catholics^ 

posted for the purpose in different parts of the church, as 

If they belonged to it, were to answer the prelate^s sum-* 

mons, by crying out " re-union !" after which the other 

prelate was to give the congregation a public absolution 

from the charge of heresy, and to receive the new pre-? 

tended converts into the bosom of the church ; and thia 

scandalous farce vvas to be imposed upon the world for ^i 

nctual re-union. This plan affords a tolerable specimen of 

Bossuet as a prelate, and a man of candour ; and it is wor* 

thy of notice, that his associate in this expedition, was tho 

libertine Harlai, archbishop of Paris, whose life and death 

were so scandalous, that not a single curate could be found, 

among the most unprincipled part of the Romish clergy^ 

who would undertake to preach his funeral sermon. 

> Bossuet's works were published in 1 743, in 20 vols, 4t09 

and some of them have been often reprinted in various 

forms. His controversial works are no longer read, but his 

Essay on universal history, aod his Sermons, particularly 

the funeral orations above-mentioned, still preserve their re^ 

putation. In 1800 Mr. Jerningham translated and pub« 

lished some "Select Sermons," and very recently the ex* 

pectations of the French public were raised by the public 

cation of someinedited pieces by Bossuet, which, however, 

are thought to be spurious. * 

BOSTON (John), a monk of St Edmund's bury in tha 
fourteenth century, and who is thought to have died io 

. > Diet Hi8t.~.Moi«ri.~D'AIeinbert'd Eulogy— Month. Rev. vo\. XXVlih 
liod LXVIII.— MoKbelm'8 Eccl. HUU'-^Life by BurigDy.->SaxU Ononu^ft. 

BOSTON. laa 

]4lOy was one of the first collectors of the lires of Engiiah 
writers, and the precursor of Lelaod, Bale, and Pitts. He 
searched indefatigably all the UlKaries of the kiagdaB, and 
wrote a catalogue of the authors, with short opinions of 
ihem. Archbishop Usher had the most curious MS copy of 
this book, which became afterwards Mr. Thomas Gale's pro- 
perty. Wood mentions another smaller catalogue of his 
writing. He wrote also ^'Speculum ccenobitarum," in 
which be gives the origin and progress of monachism ; 
and a history of his own monastery. <^ De rebus cmnobii 
sui/' « which last is- lost, but the former was printed at 
Oxford ,1722, 8vo, by Hall at the end of " Trivet. Annal." * 
BOSTON (Thomas), a popular and learned Scotch di- 
vine, was born in the town of Duase, March 17, 1676, 
and educated at the grammar school of that place, where 
he was taught the elemenls of Latin, Greek, rhetoric, and 
arithmetic. In 1692, he went to the university of Edin- 
burgh, where he went through the usual courses for ibree 
years, and entered on the study of divinity, 'in 1695, be 
returned home with ample testimonials of his diligence aod 
good character. Next year he taught school at Glencairo 
for a short time, and then was appointed tutor to a young 
gentleman of family at Edinburgh,' where he continued the 
study of divinity, until he accompanied his pupil into the 
country. In 1699, after the usual trials before the presby-* 
tery, he was licenced to preach the gospel, as a probationer 
for the ministry, agreeably to the forms of the church of 
Scotland, aikl in September of that year was ordained to the 
living of Simprin, one of the smallest in Scotland. In the 
following year he married Katberine Brown, whom he de- 
scribes as a woman possessed of many valuable qualifica* 
tions. In May 1707, lie exchanged the living of Simpria 
for that of Etterick, on which he remained until his death. 
About this time he began to improve his knowledge in the 
Hebrew, having before only read the Psalter, but 1771 
was, according to bis own account, ^^ the happy year 
wherein he was first m:ister (possessor) of a Hebrew Bible, 
and began the study of it ;'" and some day, which he for-* 
got, in Oct. 1712, was the happiest day in his life, for he 
then borrowed " Cross's I'aghmicaJ Art." More than half 
his cares and anxieties after this related to the Hebrew ac- 
cents. About this time, he was one of the clergy of Scot* 

iBale and PilU*— Taimer.— FulUr's Wprthies. 

170 3 O S T O N. 

land, who refused taking the oath of abjuration, and in 
dread of the penalty, made oyer his little property to one of 
his sons, and another person, but it does not appear that 
the penalty was ever levied. Returning in 1715 to the 
study of the ^^ Taghmical Art," after incredible pains, he 
found that he could make nothing of it ; but still perse- 
Tering, he became persuaded that the accents are the key 
to the true version of the Hebrew text, and the intrinsic 
light which illuminates it. Compared to this, as to him, 
the digging in the mines of Peru was but a trifle. From 
this time he began to write, as leisure permitted, a work 
on the accents, accompanying his labours with constant 
prayer, particularly that he might be instructed in the se- 
crets of double accentuation, which he bad not been able to 
comprehend. All this zeal and industry at length produced 
an ^^ Essay on the Hebrew accentuation,^' which he exhibited 
in manuscript to some learned friends, who gave him various 
degrees of encouragement, but he often met with delays 
and evasions which occasioned great uneasiness to the good 
man. It being supposed that there were few persons in 
Great Britain very much interested in the Hebrew accents, 
he was advised to translate it into Latin that it might circu- 
late among the learned on the contineiU. Accordingly he 
began his translation, and as a help to his style, he men- 
tions the following expedient, which perhaps others have 
made use of on similar occasions. ** As I went on, I read 
something of Cicero, in my leisure hours, for the lan- 
guage, and noted in a book some terms and phrase.<<, taken 
irom him and others : particularly out of Calepin'it dic- 
tionary, which Providence had in the year 1724 laid to my 
hand, when 1 knew not for what use it was designed, and 
to this collection 1 had frequent recourse, while I wrote 
that book : and found it to be of good use to me. I had 
formerly, upon occasion of appearing in print, done the 
same as to the English tongue : by which means my style, 
that I had been careless of before, was now somewhat re- 
fined.'' This work, which he pursued with uncommon en« 
thusiasm, and which was to prove the antiquity and divine 
authority of the Hebrew accents, was occasionally inter- 
rupted by his pubUc services, and the publication of some 
of his practical works, particularly " The Fourfold State," 
in 1 720. That on the Hebrew accents did not appear until 
1738, when it was published at Amsterdam under the care 
of the learned David Mill, professor of Oriental languages 

BOSTON. 171 

in the university of Utrecht, in a quarto volume entitled 
*< Thomie Boston ecclesiae Atricensis apud Scotos pastoris^ 
Tractatus Stigmologicus HebrsBo-Biblicus,'* dedicated to 
sir Richard Ellys, who had been very friendly to Boston in 
the prosecution of his studies on this subject. Mr. Bostoi)^ 
died May 20, 1732. His works in practical divinity, which 
are still well known and popular in Scotland, were collected 
in a large fol. Tolume in 1768, and since that time others, 
particularly his ** Body of Divinity," 3 vols. 8vo. 1 77S, have 
been published from his MSS. but this last mentioned work 
IS eked out by extracts from other authors without acknow- 
ledgment, a disingenuous artifice of which the author never 
would have been guilty. The most remarkable of his' 
posthumous pieces is the ** Memoirs of his Life, Time, and 
Writings,** written by himself, a closely printed octavo 
volume, 1776. This is in the form of a diary, tedious and 
minute beyond all precedent, but evincing a wonderful 
simplicity of heart, ignorance of the world, and a mind 
continually harrassed by conscientious scruples about the 
merest trifles ; much of it, however, may be interesting to 
curious inquirers, as exhibiting characteristics of the man* 
ners and sentiments of the Scotch clergy of the seventeenth 
and part of the eigbteenth century. ^ 

BOSWELL (James), the friend and biographer of Dr. 
Johnson, was tba eldest son of Alexander Boswell, lord 
Auchinleck, one of the judges in the supreme courts of 
session and justiciary in Scotland. He was born at Edin- 
burgh, Oct 29, 1740, and received the first rudiments of 
education in that city. He afterwards studied civil law in 
the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. During bis 
residence in these cities, he acquired by the society of the 
English gentlemen who were students in the Scotch col- 
leges, that remarkable predilection for their manners, 
which neither the force of education, or national prejudice^ 
could ever eradicate. But bis most intimate acquaintance 
at this period was the rev. Mr. Temple, a worthy, learned, 
and pious divine, whose well -written character of Gray has 
been adopted both by Dr. Johnson and Mason in the life 
of that poet. Mr. Boswell imbibed early the ambition of 
distinguishing himself by his literary talents, and had the 
good fortune to obtain the patronage of the late lord So* 
inerrille. This nobleman treated hun with the most flat* 

} Mmamn ubi fiipra, 

178 B O S W E L L. 

t;efing kindness ; and Mr. Boswell ever reoven^bered with 

Satitude the friendship he so long enjoyed with this wor- 
y peer. Having always entertained an exalted idea of 
the felicity of London, in the year 1760 he visited that ca- 
pital ; in the manners and amuseoienls of which he found 
1^ much that u^as congenial to his own taste and feelings, 
Dhat it became ever after his favourite residence, whither 
he always returned from bis estate in Scotland^ and from 
his V{vriou9 rambles in different parts of Europe, with in- 
Qreasing eagerness and delight ; and we And him^ nearly 
twenty years afterwards, condemning Scotland as too narrow 
ai sphere, and wishing to make his chief residence in London, 
vbich he calls the great scene of ambition and instruction. 
He was, doubtless, confirmed in this attachment to the me- 
tropolis by the strong predilection entertained towards it 
by his friend Dr. Johnson, whose sentiments on this sub* 
ject Mr. Boswell details in various parts of his life of that 
great man, and which are corroborated by every one in 
pursuit of literary and intellectual attainments. 

The politeness, affability, and insinuating urbanity of 
manners, which distinguished Mr. Boswell, introduced him 
into the company of many eminent and learned men, whose 
acquaintance and friendship he cultivated with the greatest 
assiduity. In truth, the esteem and approbation of learned 
men seem to have been one chief object of his literary am* 
bition ; and we find him so successful in pursuing his end^ 
that he enumerated some of the greatest men in Scotland 
among his friends even before he left it for the first time. 
Notwithstanding Mr. Boswell by his education was intended 
for the bar, yet he was himself earnestly bent at this pe- 
riod upon obtaining a commission in the guards, and soli- 
cited lord Aocbinleck's acquiescence; but returned, how* 
ever, by hts desire, into Scotland, wherehe received are* 
gular course of instruction in the law, .and passed his trials 
as a civilian at Edinburgh. Still, however, ambitious of 
displaying himself as one of the ^^ manly hearts who guard 
the fair," he visited London a second time in 1762 ; and^ 
various occurrences delaying the purchase of a commis- 
aion, he was at length persuaded by lord Auchinleck to re* 
Unquish his pursuit, and become art advocate at the Scotch 
bar. In compliance, therefore, with his father's wishes, 
he consented to go to Utrecht the ensuing winter, to hear 
the lectures of an excellent civilian in that university; after 
which he had permission to make bis grand tour of £urope» 

' B O S W E L L. ' 173 

The year 1763 may b^ considered the mwt important 
epocba io Mr. Boswell's life, as he had, what he thought a 
BiDgaiar felicity^ an introduction to Dr. Johnson, This 
event, so anspicious for Mr. Bosweli, and eventually si> 
fortunate for the public, happened on May ]6, lie's. 
Having continued one winter at Utrecht, during which 
time he visited sevei:al parts of the Netherlands, he com- 
menced his projected travels. Passing from Utrecht into 
Germany, he pursued his route throiig)i Switzerland to Ge^- 
neva ; whence he crossed the Alps into Italy, having visited 
on his jonrney Voltaire at Femey, and Rousseau in the 
wilds of Neufchatel. Mr. Boswell continued some time in 
Italy, where he met and associated with lord Mountstuart^ 
to whom he afterwards dedicated his Theses Juridical. 
Having visited the most remarkable cities in Italy, Mr. 
Boswcdil sailed to Corsica, travelled over every part of that 
island, and obtained the friendship of the illustrious Pas- 
quale de PaoU, in whose palace he resided during his stay 
at Corsica. He afterwards went to Paris, whence he re* 
turned to Scotland in 1766, and soon after became an ad- 
vocate at the Scotch bar. The celebrated Douglas cause 
was at that time a subject of general discussion. Mr. Bos- 
well published the ^' £ssence of the Douglas cwase ;*' a 
pamphlet which contributed to procure Mr. Douglas the 
popularity which he at that time possessed. In 1768 Mr. 
Boswell published his *^ Account of Corsica, with memoire 
of General Paoli." Of this printed performance Dr. John- 
son thus expresses himself : ^^ Your journal is curious and 
delightful. I know not whether I could name any narra- 
tive by which cariosity is better excited or better gratified.** 
This book has been translated into the German, Dutch, 
Italian, and French languages ; and was received with ex- 
traordinary approbation. In the following winter, the the- 
at^-royalat Edinburgh, hitherto restrained by party -^spirit, 
ivas opened. On this occasion Mr. Boswell was solicited 
by David Ross, esq. to write a prologue. The effect of 
this prologue upon the audience was highly flattering to the 
•authi^r, and beneficid to the manager ; as it secured to the 
lattier, by the annihilation of the opposition which had 
been till that time too 8;iiccessfully exerted against him, 
ike tiafnterrupted possession of his patent, which be en- 
joyed till his death, which happened in September 1790. 
'Mr. Botwetl attended his funeral as chief mourner^ and 
paid the last honours to a man with whom he had spent 
many a pleasant hourr 

174 B O S W E L L. 

In 1769, was celebrated at Stratford on Avon the jubilee 
in honour of Shakspeare. Mr. Bosweli, an enthusiastic ad*> 
mirer of the writings of our immortal bard, and ever ready 
to join the festive throng, repaired thither, and appeared 
at the masquerade as an armed Corsican chief; a character 
he was eminently qualified to support This year he mar- 
ried miss Margaret Montgomery, a lady who, to the ad- 
vantages of a polite education, united admirable good 
sense and a brilliant.uuderstanding. She was daughter of 
David Montgomery, esq. related to the illustrious family 
of Eglintoune, and representative of the jintient peerage 
of Lyle. The death of this amiable woman happened in 
June 1790. Mr. Boswell has honoured her memory with 
an aflectionate tribute. She left him two sons and three 
daughters ; who, to use Mr. BoswelPs own words, *< if 
they inherit her good qualities, will have no reason to 
complain of their lot. Dos magna palrentum virtus.^' In 
1782 lord Auchinleck died. In 1783, Mr. Boswell pub- 
lished his celebrated Letter to the People of Scotland ; 
which is thus praised by Johnson in a letter to the author : 
** 1 am very much of your opinion — your paper contains 
very considerable knowledge of history and the constitu- 
tion, very properly produced and applied.'' Mr. Boswell 
communicated the pamphlet to Mr. Pitt, who naturally 
gave it his approbation. This first letter was followed by 
a second, in which Mr. Boswell displayed his usual energy 
and political abilities. In 1785, Mr. Boswell published 
'^ A journal of a tour to the Hebrides" with Dr. Johnson ; 
which met a success similar to his entertaining account of 
Corsica, and to which we owe his life of that illustrious 
character. This year Mr. Boswell removed to London^ 
and was soon after called to the English bar, but his pro- 
fessional business was interrupted by preparing bis most 
celebrated work, *' The life of Samuel Johnson, LL. 0.'*^ 
which was published in 1790, and was received by the 
world with extraordinary avidity. It is a faithful history 
of Johnson's life ; and exhibits a most interesting picture 
of the character of that illustrious moralist, delineated with 
a masterly hand. The preparaxion of a second edition of 
this work was the last literary performance of Mr. BoswelL 
Mr. Boswell undoubtedly possessed considerable intellect 
tual powers ; as he could never have displayed his coUec* 
tion of the witticisms of his friend in so lively a manner 9m 
he has done, without having a picturesque imagination^ 

B O S W E L L. 175 

and a taro for poetry as well as humour. He had a oon* 
siderable share of melancholy in his temperament; and^ 
though the general tenor of his hfe was gay and active, he 
frequently experienced an unaccountable depression of 
spirits. In one of these gloomy moods he wrote a series 
of essays under the title of ** The Hypochondriac/* which 
appeared in the London Magazine, and end with No. 6$ 
in 1782. These he had thoughts of collecting into a vo- 
lume, but they would have added little to his reputation, 
being in general very tri6ing. Soon after his return from 
a visit to Auchinleck, he was seized with a disorder which 
put an end to his life, at his house in Portland-street, on 
the 19th of June 1795, in the 55th year of his age. Of 
his own character he gives the following account in his 
journal of the tour to the Hebrides : ^< I have given a 
sketch of Dr. Johnson. His readers may wish to know a 
little of his fellow-traveller. Think, then, of a gentleman 
of ancient blood ; the pride of which was his predominant 
passion. He was then in his 33d year, and had been about 
four years happily married : his inclination was to be a 
soldier ; but his father, a respectable judge, had pressed 
him into the profession of the law. He had travelled a 
good deal, and seen many varieties of human life. He 
bad thought more than any body supposed, and had a 
pretty good stock of general learning and knowledge. He 
had all Dr. Johnson's principles, with some degree of relax* 
ation. He had rather too little than too much prudence ; 
and, his imagination being lively, he often said things of 
which the effect was very different from the intention. He 
resembled sometimes ^ The best good man, with the worst- 
natured muse.' He cannot deny himself the vanity of 
finishing with the encomium of Dr. Johnson, whose friendly 
partiality to the companion of this tour represents him as 
one * whose acuteness would help my enquiry, and whose 
g:iiety of conversation, and civility of manners, are suffi- 
cient to counteract the inconveniencies of travel, in coun* 
tries less hospitable than we have passed*." 
* His character in all its lights and shades is, however, 
best delineated in his life of Dr. Johnson, a work of un- 
common merit and of still increasing popularity. An 
anonymous biographer has justly said of it, that it was 
" found to exhibit an inimitably faithful picture of the 
mingled genius aqd weakness, of the virtues and the vices, 
the sound sense and the pedantry, the benignity and the 

176 « s w *: L L- 

pasi5i(iriatebftf*nei<», df i\te gre^tuntl e^icellent, Elthotrgb 
not oofl&ummifitely perfect nrm», tbe Oram of whos« life rt 
«tideiivo*m-ed to wiiMd. k appeared to be filled with a 
rich BtJOTfe of his ^n«me dictates, so -eloquent and wise, 
tlia* they nrced hariily ^\m comparisoti with the most ela- 
boitfte af those weries which he hiinself pu^blish^d. John- 
irori was seen in it, not tts a flolkary figure, but associated 
^ith those groupes of his distinguished contemporarres* 
4nth which it \Vas his good fortane, in all the latter and 
mope ilitistrious years of his life, often to meet and to con- 
verse. It displayed nwrny fine specimens of that propor- 
tion, in which, in the lattor part of the eighteenth century, 
literature and philosophical wisdom were liable to be care- 
lessly intermingled in the ordinary conversation of thebe^ 
company in Britain. It preserved a thousand precioti* 
anecdotical memorials of the state of arts, manners, and 
policy among us during this period, such as must be in- 
valuable to the philosophers and antiquaries of a future 
Hge. It gave, in the most pleasing fnode of institution, 
and in many different points of view, almost all the ele- 
mentary practical principles both of taste and of moral 
science. It showed the colloquial tattle of Boswell duly 
chastened by the grave and rounded eloquence of Johnson- 
It presented a collection of a number of the most elaborate 
of Johnson's smaller occasional compositions, which might 
otherwise perhaps have been entirely lost to future times. 
Shewing Boswell's skill in literary composition, his general 
acquaintance with learning and science, his knowledge of 
the manners, the fortunes, and the actuating principles of 
mankind, to have been greatly extended and improved 
since the time when he wrote his account of Corsica, it 
exalted the character of his talents in the estimation of the 
world ; and was reckoned to be such a master-piece in its 
particular species, as perhaps^ the literature of no other 
nation, ancient or modern, could boast. It did not indeed 
present its author to the world in another light than as a 
genius of the second class ; yet it seemed to rank him 
nearer to the first than to the third. This estimation of the 
character of BoswelPs life of Johnson, formed by the best 
critics soon after its publication^ seems to have been since 
fully confirmed.' 

»> 1 

1 GenUeman^s, SwopeaD, and Moothlj MafBsiaei, p^tim^ 


BOTALLUS (Leonard), an eminent physician of Pied- 
ifnont^ who flourisiied about the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, was a disciple of Fallopius, and took his degree of 
doctor in medicine at Padua. It appears by his writings, 
that he was a diligent observer, and enjoyed a considera- 
ble share of practice. He was in succession physician and 
aulic counsellor to Charles IX. Henry II. of France, and 
to William prince of Orange. He was also skilled in the 
practice of surgery, and published, *^ De curandis vulue- 
ribus sclopetorum,'* Venet. 1560, 8vo. This has been 
frequently reprinted, and continued, for a long time, to be 
esteemed the most useful manual that had been published 
on the subject He wrote also ^' Commentarioli duo, alter 
de medici, alter de agroti, munere," Lion. 1565,* 8vo; 
containing rules for the conduct of the physician, the sur- 
geon, and the apothecary, in their attendance upon the 
sick. But the work by which he is most known, and 
which produced an important revolution in -the practice of 
medicine, is his ^' De curatione per sanguinis missione, de 
incidends venae, cutis scarificanclae, et hirudinum afiigen- 
darum modo," Antw. 1583, 8vo, Though bU^eding had 
always been occasionally used in the cure of diseases, yet 
in his time it was nearly constantly superseded by purging 
medicines, or it was too sparingly used, and seldom re- 
peated. Our author made frequent recourse to it, with 
complete success, he says, in diarrhoea, dysentery, in 
fever, the plague, and during pregnancy ; and flattered 
with success, he became, as he advanced in life, more and 
more bold and free in the use of the lancet, and bleeding 
became a general remedy all over Europe ; but in no 
country was it carried to such excess as in France, where 
the professors of medicine, for their too frequent recur- 
rence to it, were held up to ridicule by Le Sage, in his 
inimitable novel of Gil Bias. The works of Botallus were 
collected, ana published under the title of ^* Opera Om- 
nia," in 1660, at Leyden, by I. V. Home.' 

BOTH (John and Andrew), were two eminent Dutch 
painters and engravers ; John was born at Utrecht, in 1610, 
and was the disciple of Abraham Bloemart, who at thd 
tame time instructed Andrew ; but to perfect themselves 
in a good taste of design, they went together to Rome, 
aod resided there for a great many years. The genius of 

1 Oen. Diet — Moreri. — Holler and M^get-o-K^M'* Cyclopmiia^ 

Vok. VI. N 



John directed him to the study of landscape, in which he 
rose almost to the highest perfection, making the style of 
Claude Lorraine his model ; and by many his works are 
mentioned in copnpetition even with those of Claude. The 
warmth of his skies, the judicious and regular receding of 
the objects, and the sweetness of his distances, afford the 
eye a degree of pleasure^ superior to what we feel on 
viewing the works of almost any other artist John and 
Andrew had very*different talents, and each of them were 
admirable in their different way. The former excelled in 
landscape, the latter inserted the figures, which he de- 
signed in the manner of Bamboccio ; and those figures are 
always so well adapted, that every picture seemed only the 
work of one master. The works of these associate brothers 
are justly admired through all Europe; they are univer-* 
sally sought for, and purchased at very large prices. 
Most of his pictures are, for size, between two and five 
feet long ; but in those that are smaller, there is exquisite 
neatness. They generally express the sunny light of the 
morning, breaking out from behind woods, hills, or moun- 
tains, and diffusing a warm glow over the skies, trees, and 
the whole face of nature ; or else a sun-set, with a lovely 
tinge in the clouds, every object beautifully partaking of 
a proper degree of natural illumination. And it is to be 
observed, that even the different hours of the day are per- 
ceptible in his landscapes, from the propriety of the tints 
which he uses. By some connobseurs he is censured for 
having too much of the tawny in his colouring, and that 
the leafings of his trees are too yellow, approaching to 
saffron ; but this is, not a general fault in his pictures^ 
though some of them, accidentally, may justly be liable 
to that criticism, for he corrected that fault ; and many of 
his pictures are no more tinged with those %olours, than 
truth and beautiful nature will justify ; and his colouring 
obtained for him the distinction which be still possesses, of 
being called Both of Italy. 

Descamps, in the life of Both, after having said that 
John painted landscapes, and Andrew figures, in the maa« 
ner of Bamboccio, asserts that Andrew was drowned in at 
canal at Venice, and John returned to Utrecht ; in whicb 
account be appears to follow Sandrart ; though other writers 
agree, that it was the landscape-painter who was drowned^ 
and Andrew, returning to his own country, painted con- 
versations and portraits as long as he lived, of which the 

BOTH. 119 


Other was incapable. The two brothers mutually assisted 
each other till the death of John in 1650; and then An- 
drew retired from Italy, settled at Utrecbt, and continued 
lo paint sometimes portraits, sometimes landscapes, in the 
manner of his brother, and also conversations, and players 
at cards, in the manner of Bamboccio. Both of those 
masters had extraordinary readiness of hand, and a free, 
light, sweet pencil ; and that they were expeditious, may 
be evident from the great number of pictures which they 
finished. Andrew, during the remainder of his life, had 
as much, employment as ixe could possibly execute ; but 
was so affected by the melancholy death of his brother, 
that he survived him only a few years, dying in 1656. 
Strutt mentions a few engravings- by both these artists, 
'but neither arrived at any great perfection in* the art. * 

BOTONER (William), or William Worcester, an 
ancient English writer, acquainted with history, antiquities, 
heraldry, physic, ana astronomy, was born at Bristol 
about 1415 3 his father's name was Worcester, and bis 
mother's Botoner, hence he i^rften names himself William 
Wyrcester, alias Botoner; and hence the error in Pits, 
and others, of making two distinct persons of the two names. 
He studied at Hart-hall, Oxford, 1434. He had been exer- 
cised in wars above 44 years ;* and had so faithfully served 
sir John FastolfF that he left him one of his executors. He 
wrote many books, the first of which, that was printed, was 
his translation from the French, of ^* Cicero de Senop- 
tute," which he addressed to William Wainfteet, bishop of 
Winchester. He tells us that he presented it to the bishop 
at Asfaer [Eshtr] August 10, 1475, but received no reward 
f nullum regardum recepi de episcopoj. He wrote also "An- 
tiquities of England ;*' " Abbreviations of the Learned ;" 
** Medicinal collections ;*' a book of Astrology ; another 
of Astronomy ; besides a particular treatise, gratefully pre- 
serving the life and deeds of bis master, under the title of 
*' Acta Domini Johaunis Fastolff ;'* " the Acts of John duke 
of Bedford ;" ** Polyandrium Oxoniensiuro, or memoirs of 
Oxford Students ;" and other lesser pieces ; of which see 
Tanner Bibl. Brit. p. 115. His "Annals of England" 
were printed by Hearne at the end of his " Liber Niget 
Scaccarii,** p. 424 — 451. His " Itinerary" was published 
from a MS. hot improbably the original, in the library at 


1 PilktDgton.*-Stratt.— D'AifenvUle.^DescaDipt, ▼•!• U. 

If 3 


Ifco B O T O N E it 

Corpus Cbristi college, Cambridge, by Mr. JalBes Nal^ 
mith, fellow of the said college, Cantab. 1778, 8vo. Ful^ 
ler cites a book of Botoner^s, containidg all tbii sncient 
gentry of the county of Norfolk, long preserved hr the 
county, but not now extant. He also wrote iioinethiiig' inr 
poetry, as that humorous ballad in Nasmitb^fr edition of hig 
Itinerary, called ** Comedia ad Monasteriam Hulme,'* &c/ 
and a long chronographidal epitaph in verse, on tlie lady 
Milicent Fastolf; in the possession of Richard Pdey, esq^ 
late prothonotary of the common pleas. He as supposed 
to have died about 1490. The son of this Worcester, 
among other things, also made a collection of several au- 
thentic instruments relating to the English wars and go^ 
vemment in France ; which he dedicated to king Edward 
IV. containing a catalogue of the princes, dukes, earls,- 
Ji>arons, bannerets, knights, and other persons of eminence, 
who were of the regent's court A copy of this collection, 
in quarto, was some time in the custody of the late Brian 
Fairfax, esq. one of the commissioners of the customs. ^ 

BOTT (John d£), an architect, who was bom in France' 
in 1670, of protestant parents, quitted his country early in 
life, and went into the service of William of Orange, after-* 
wards king of Great Britain. After the death of that 
prince, he attached himself to the elector of Brandenbourg, 
who gave him a post of captain of the guards, which did 
not slacken his industry in architecture. His first edifice 
was the arsenal at Berlin, and he afterwards signalized 
himself by various monuments of his art Frederic I. being 
dead, Bott conciliated the favour of Frederic William, who 
raised him to the rank of major-general. The fortifica- 
tions of Wesel, of which place he was commandant, were 
constructed under his direction. In 1728 he went into 
the service of the king of Poland, elector of Saxony, in 
quality of lieutenant-general and chief of the engineers. 
In Dresden are several edifices of his erection^ where he 
died in 1745, with great reputation for probity^ intelli- 
gence, and valour. * 

BOTT (Thomas), an EiigKsh clergyman of kigenuitj 
and learning, was descended from an ancient family iu 
Staffordshire, and bom at Derby in 1688. His grands 
father had been a miyor on the parliament side in the civil 
wars; his father had diminished a considerable paternal 
estate by gaming ; but his mother, a woman of great pru-> 

1 B'tog. Brit art. Fattolf, vol. V. p. 706, note.-.Areb0olofia, vol. IX p. S57* 
— TaniMr.— Wartoo's Httt of Poetry, vol. IL p. 119^496. » Oiet. tt^it. 

B O T T. 181 

ieocef contrived to give a good education to lix /cfafldrent 
Thomas the youngest acquired his grammatical learning as 
Derby ; had bis education amopg the dissenters ; and wat 
appointed to preach to a presbyterian congregation a 
Spalding in Lincolnshire. Not liking this mode of life, he 
removed to London at the end of queen Anne's reign, with 
a view pf preparing hiniself for physic ; but changing his 
measure^ j^geLin^ he took orders in the church of England, 
soon after the accession of George L and was presented to 
the rectory of Winburg in Norfolk. About 1725 he was 
presenjted to the l^ene&ce of Reymerston; in 1734, toAe 
rectory of Spixworth ; and, in 1 747, to the rectory of 
Edgefield ; all in Norfolk. About 1750, his mental powers 
began to decline; and, at Christmas 1752, be ceased to 
appear in the pulpit. He died at Norwich, whither he bad- 
removed, in 1753, with his family, Sept 23, 1754, leav« 
ing a wife, whom he married in 1739 ; and also a son, Ed* 
piund Bott, esq. of Christ church In Hampshire, a fellow 
of the Antiquarian society, who published, in 1771, A col- 
lection of cases relating to the Poor laws. Dr. Kippis, 
who was bis nophew by marriage, has given a prplii^ article 
on him, and a minute character, in which, however, there 
appears to have been little of the amiable, and in his relir 
gioiis opinions he was capricious and unsteady. His works 
were, i. *' The peace and happiness of this world, the 
immediate design of Christianity, on Luke ix. 56^*^ a pam- 
phlet in 8vo, 1724. 2. A second tract in defence of this, 
1730, 8vo. 3. <^ The principal and peculiar notion of a 
late book, entitled. The religion of nature delineated, con- 
sidered, and refuted," 1725. T)iis was against Wollas- 
ton^s notion of moral obligation. 4. A visitation sermon, 
preached at Norwich, April 30th, 1730. 5. A 30th of 
January sern)on, preached at Norwich, and printed at 
the request of the mayor, &c. 6. '^Remarks upqn Put- 
]er*s 6th chapter of the Analogy of Religion, &c. concern- 
ing Necessity," 1730. 7. Answer to the first volume of 
Warburton^s Divine Legation of Moses. , 

Among other learned acquaintance of Mr. Bott was Dr. 
Samuel Clarke, of whom he relates, that he was npt only 
of ^cheerful, but of a playful disposition. Once, when 
Mr. Bott called upon him, be found bin) swimming upon 
a table. At another time, when several of them were 
amusing themselves with diverting tricks, Dr. Clarke,, look- 
ing out of the window, and seeing a grave ^blockhead ap- 


nt B O T T. 


proaching, called out, ** Boys, boys, be wise ; here comes 
a fool." We have beard the like of Dr. Clarke from other 
quarters, and are not' sure that the ^^ grave blockhead^' 
may not have been the most decorous character. ^ 

BOTTARI (John), a very learned prelate of the court 
of Rome, was born at Florence, Jan. 15, 1689, and be* 
came early distinguished for the purity of his style, and 
his intimate knowledge of the Tuscan dialect. He studied 
rhetoric and Latin under Antonio- Maria Biscioni, who was 
afterwards dictator of the Mediceo-Lorenzian library. (See 
Biscioni). He then studied philosophy, divinity, mathe- 
matics, and Greek, the latter under the learned Salvioi. 
His proficiency in these branches of knowledge soon made 
him noticed, and he was appointed by the academy della 
vCrusca, to superintend the new edition of their diction- 
ary, in which labour he was assisted by Andrea Alamaorni 
and Rosso Martini. He had afterwards the direction of the 
printixig-ofEce belonging to the Grand Duke, from which 
several of his works issued. Clement XII. made him li* 
brarian of the Vatican, in which he arranged a cabinet of 
medals, which that pope wished to be considered as a part 
of the library. On his death, Bottari entered the conclave 
Feb. 6, 1740, witli the cardinal Neri Corsini. Next year 
was published by P. Marmoreus, the edition of Virgil^ 
'Rome, 1741, fol. a fac-simile of the famous Codex Vati- 
canus, to which Bottari prefixed a learned preface. He 
was the first who had the curiosity to examine this valuable 
manuscript, which belonged formerly to Pontanus, after- 
wards to Bembus, and lastly to Fulvius Ursinus, who de- 
posited it in the Vatican, when he became librarian there. 
Benedict XIV. being elected pope, who had long been 
the friend of Bottari, he conferred on him the canonry of 
St Maria>Transteverini, and that he might reside in his 
palace, appointed him his private almoner. He was also 
a member of all the principal academies of Italy ; and Fon- 
tanini, Apostolo Zeno, Gori, and others, have written his 
eloges, having all profited, in the publication of their 
works, by his valuable communications. His long and 
studious life terminated June 3, 1775, in his eighty-sixth. • 

Jrear. Among his works, of which Mazzuchelli has given a 
ong list, are, 1. Vita di Francesco Sacchetti," Vicenza 
(Naples) 1725, with Sacchetti's " Novelle/* «vo. 2, « L' Er- 

1 Biof. BrU. 

B O T T A R I. 183 

colanoy dialogo di Benedetto Varchiy" Florence, 1730, 4to. 
3. ** Lezione tre sopra il tremuoto,^' Rome^ 1733 and 1748, 
4to. 4. " Scuiture, e Pitture sacre estratte dai cimeteri 
di Roma, &c." Rome, 1737, 1747, 1753, 3 vols. fol. 5. 
" Vocabularia della Crusca,'' Florence, 1738, 6 vols. 6. 
The Virgil already noticed. 7. " De Museo Capitolino," 
1750, 3 vols. fol. 8. " Raccolta di lettere salla Pittura, 
Scultura, ed Architettura,^' Rome, 1754^ 1757, and 1759, 
3 vols. 4to; and again, an enlarged edition at Naples, ^ 
1772. 9. " DialogTii sopra tre arti del Disegno," Lucca, 
1754,^ 4to. He also contributed to a new edition of Va- 
sari and Passori's Lives of the Painters. * ' 

BOTTICELLI (Alexander, or Sandro,) an Italian 
painter and engraver, was born at Florence, in 1437 ; and 
being placed as a disciple with Filippo Lippi, he imitated 
that master, as well in his ^lesign as colouring. He per- 
formed several consideruble works at Florence, and several 
at Rome, by which he gained great reputation ; at the for- 
mer, a Venus rising from the sesl, and also a Venus adorned 
by the graces ; and at the latter, he painted sacred sub- 
jects from the New Testament, which at that time were 
very much commended. He obtained great honour by his 
performances in the chapel of Sixtus IV. for which he was 
very amply rewarded ; and for the family of the Medici he 
finished some portraits, and many historical compositions. 
It was customary with this master to introduce a great num* 
ber of figures in all the subjects be designed, and he dis^- 
posed them with tolerable judgment and propriety; but in 
one of his designs, representing the Adoration of the Magi, 
the variety and multitude of his figures-are astonishing. He 
received large sums of money for his works, all of which 
he expended, and died in 1515 in great distress, and far 
advanced in years. 

Mr Strutt has introduced him in chap. VI. of his ^* Ori- ' 
gin and Progress of Engraving," to which we refer tiie 
reader. Baldini, according to the general report, com* 
municated to him the secret of engraving, then newly dis* 
' covered by their townsman Finiguerra. The curious edi- 
tion of Dante printed at Florence in 1481 (or 1488) and to 
which, according to some authors, Botticelli undertook to 
write notes, was evidently intended to have been orna- 
mented with prints, one for each canto : and these prints 

1 Diet. Hist— Haym Bibl. Italjm.— Mazzucbelli, vol. II. part III.— .S«xii 


(as many of them as were (inishec)) were designed, if no^ 
engraved, by Botticelli. Mr. Roscoe, however, says, that 
they were designed by Botticelli, and engraved by Baldini. 
It is remarkable, that the first two plates only were printed 
upon the leaves of the book, and for want of a blank space 
at the head of the first canto, the plate belonging to it is 
placed at the bottom of the page. Blank spaces are left 
for all the rest, that as many of them as were finished 
might be pasted on. Mr. Witbraham possesses the finest 
copy of this book extant in any private library ; and tb^ 
number of prints in it amounts to nineteen, the first 
two, as usual, printed on the leaves, and the rest pasted 
on ; and these, Mr. Strutt thinks, were all that Botticelli 
ever executed. Mr. Roscoe describes another copy as in 
his possession, formerly in the Pinelli library. * 

BOTTONI (Alb£rtino), • physician, descended of an 
illustrious family of Parma, was. born at Padua in the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, and in \555 became pro- 
lessor of medicine in that city, where he was esteemed for 
his talents and success as a practitioner. He died in 1596^ 
leaving behind him an immense property, an elegant house, 
&c. He published, l.'^De Vita conservanda," Padua^ 
1582, 4to. 2. ''De morbis muliebribus," ibid. 1585, 
and twice reprinted, besides in the collections of Bauhine 
and Spachius. 3. ^^ Consilia medica," Francfort, 1605, 
4to. in Lautenbach*s collection. 4. ^' De modo discurr^pdi 
circa morbos eosdem curandi tractatus,'* ibid. 1607, 12mof. 
with the Pandects of John George Schenck. An edition 
was afterwards published at Francfort in 1695, 8vo, with 
the title, " Methodus medicinales duoe," &c. ' 

BOTTONI (Dominic),' the son of Nicholas Bottoni, a 
celebrated philosopher and physician of Leontini, in Si- 
cily, was born the 6th of October 1641, and received his 
education under Peter Castello. In 1658, he was admitted 
to the degree of doctor, and was soon after made physician 
to the marquis De Villa Franca, viceroy of Sicily, physi- 
cian to the royal hospital of Messina, and superintendant of 
the physicians there, with a pension of 50 crowns per 
month. He afterwards enjoyed a similar situation under 
the viceroy of Naples. Jn 1697, he was made correspond- 
ing or honorary member of the royal society of London, to 
which he had previously sent his ^^ Idea historico-physica 

1 Pilkington — Strutt. — Roscoe*8 Leo. 

« Diet. Mite— Morvri. — Ualler and Man^et. 

B O T T O N I. IM 

^e magno trinacrise terre motu/^ which is published ia 
their transactions. He was the first Sicilian physician who 
had received that honour. He wrote also ** Pyrologia to- 
pographica, id est^ de igne dissertatio, juzta loca, cum 
eorum descriptione," Neapolty 1692, 4to. ^' Febris rheu« 
.knatics malignse, historia medica/' Messina, 1712, 8to. 
f' Preserve salutari contro il contagioso malore/' Messina, 
1621, 4to. He died about the year 1731. ^ 

BOUCHARDON (Edmund), a French sculptor, wa9 
the son of a sculptor and architect, and born at Cbaumont 
in Bassigni in 1698. He was drawn by an irresistible pas- 
sion for these two arts, but confined himself at length to 
the former. After having passed some time at Paris under 
the younger Coustou, and obtained the prize at the aca- 
demy in 1722, he was carried to Rome at the king's ex« 
pence. Upon his return from Italy, where his talents had 
been greatly improved, he adorned Paris with his works : 
a list of them may be seen in a life of him, published in 
1762, 12mo, by the count de Cay 1 us, but some of them no 
longer exist, particularly his fine equestrian statue of Louis 
XV. formerly in the square named after that monarch. I^ 
1744 he obtained a place in the academy ; and, two years 
after, a professorship. He died July 17, 1762,. a loss 
to the arts, and much lamented ; for he is described as a 
man of great talent, disinterested spirit, and of most ami* 
able manners. Music was bis object in the hours of recre- 
ation, and his talents in this way were very considerable. 
Count Caylus, in his '^ Tableaux tir^s de Tlliade et de 
i'Odysse d'Hom^re," mentions Bouchardon, with honour, 
among the few artists who borrowed their subjects from Hor 
iner, and relates the following anecdote : '^ This great ar- 
tist having lately read Homer in an old and detesftable 
French translation, came one day to me, his eyes sparkling 
with fire, and said, ' Since I have read this book, men 
seem to be fifteen /eet high, and all nature is enlarged in 
my sight'.'* This anecdote, however, does not give a very 
high idea of the education of a French artist, and a profes^ 
pOT of the art. ' 

BOUCHAUD (Matthew Anthony), a law-writer of 
gr^at reputation in France, was born at Paris, April 16, 
1719, of an honourable family. His father, who was also 
a lawyer, spared no expence in his education. From the 

> Diet. HisC— Aforari—HaUer and MsDgtt * Diet Hiit,— ArgenTUle. 

1S6 B O U C H A U D. 

age of sixteen he studied jurisprudence nvith such persever- 
ance and success as to be admitted to a doctor's degree in 
1 747. Being employed to prepare the articles on jurispru* 
dence and canon law for the Encyclopaedia, he wrote those 
on council, decretals, &c. but, for what reason we are 
not told, they gave offence to the encyclopedists, who be-^ 
came on that account his enemies, and prevented him for 
sometime from attaining the rank of professor, which was 
the object of his ambition. Bouchaud, however, consoled 
himself by cultivating a taste for modern poetry. He 
translated several ot the dramas of Apostolo Zeno into 
French, and published them in 1758, 2 vols. 12mo, and in 
1764 he translated the English novel of ** Lady Julia Man- 
devilie.*' In the interval between these two, he published 
^^^Essai sur la poesie rhythmique," 1763, which was 
thought a work of great merit. This wa^ followed by the 
first of his more professional labours, '' Traits de Timpot 
du'vingtieme sur les successions, et de Pimpot sur les mar* 
cbandises chez les Romains,^' a very curious history of the 
taxes which the ancient emperors' imposed. In 1766, on 
the death of M. Hardron, he was elected into the French 
academy, notwithstanding the opposition of the encyclope- 
dists, whose dislike seems not ill calculated to give us a fa- 
vourable idea of the soundness of his principles. This was 
followed by a law professorship, and some years after he 
was advanced to the professorship of the law of nature and 
nations in the royal college of France. He was nominated 
to this by the king in 1774, and was the first professor, it 
being then^ founded. On this he wrote in the memoirs of 
the academy, a curious paper concerning the societies that 
were formed by the Roman publicans for the receipt of the 
taxes. The body of the publicans was taken from the or- 
der of knighis, and had great influence and credit. They 
were called by Cicero " the ornament of the capital," and 
the ^* pillars of the state." The knights, though rich, entered 
into associations, when the taxes of a whole province were 
farmed out by the senate, because no individual was opulent 
enough to be responsible for such extensive engagements; 
and the nature of these societies or associations, and the 
various conventions, commercial and pecuniary engage* 
ments, occupations, and offices, to which they gave rise, 
form the subject of this interesti/ig paper, which was fol- 
lowed by various others on topics of the same nature. In 
1777 he published his '^Theorie des trait6s de commerce 

B O U C H A U D. 18T 

entre les nations/' the principles of which seem to be 
founded on justice and reciprocal benefits. In 1784 ap- 
peared another curious work on the ancient Roman laws and 
policy, entitled,.'^ Rechercbes historiques sur la Police des 
Romains, concernant les grands chemins, les rues, et les 
marches.*' His ** Commentaire sur les lois des douze ta- 
bles/' first published in 1767, was reprinted in 1803, witl^ 
improvements aud additions, at the expense of the French 
government, and he was employed in some treatises in- 
tended for the national institute, when he died, Feb. 1, 
1 &04, regretted as a profound and enlightened law-writer. It 
is remarkable that in his essay on commercial treaties above- 
mentioned, he contends for our Selden's Mart Clausum^ 
as the opinion of every man who is not misled by an immo- 
derate zeal for his own country. ^ 

BOUCHER (Francis), first painter to Louis XV. was 
bom at Paris in 1706, and was educated under Le Moine^ 
after which he studied at Rome. On his return to Paris, 
he employed himself on every species of the art,* but espe<- 
cially in the light and agreeable.- His Infant Jesus sleep- 
ing, is finely coloured, and designed with a most flowing 
contour. The Shepherd asleep on the knees of his shep- 
herdess, is a little landscape of singular merit, Many of 
bis other landscapes are peculiarly happy. His other most 
noted pieces are pastorals for the manufacture of tapestry, 
at Beauvais ; the muses in the king's library ; the four 
seasons, in the figure of infants, for the ceiling of the 
council-room at Fontmnbleau ; a bunt of tigers, &c. He 
was usually called the painter of the graces, and the Ana- 
creon of painting ; but his works did not justify these high 
encomiums, and seem to have rather sunk in the estimation 
of his countrymen. He died of premature old age in 
1770. « 

BOUCHER (Jonathan), a learned English clergyman 
and philologer, was bom at Blencogo, in the county of 
Cumberland, March 12, 1738; and after receiving his 
education at Wigton, under the rev. Joseph Blaine, went 
in his sixteenth year to North America. At the proper age 
he returned to England to be ordained, previously to 
which, in 1761, the vestry of the parish of Hanover, in the 
county of King George, Virginia, had nominated him to 
the rectory of that parish. He afterwards exchanged thui 

• DioL Hilt— MoDth. Re?. tqU LIV. and LXIV.-K^rit Rtr. vol. XUII.— 
Saxii Onomait. vol. VIII. < Diet. Hiit. 


for the parish of St. Mary's in Caroline county, Virginia, 
When the late sir Robert Eden, hart, became governor of 
Maryland, be appointed Mr. Boacber rector of St. Anne's 
m Annapolis, and afterwards of Queen Anne's in Prince 
George's county, where he faithfully and zealously dis- 
charged the duties of a minister of the church until 1775. 

Of his exemplary conduct in the discharge of kis minis- 
terial functions in the western hemisphere, abundant 
proof is furuished by a work published by him in the year 
1797, intituled, ^'A View of the Causes and Consequences 
of the American Revolutipn, in thirteen discourses, 
preached iq North America between the years 1763 and 
1775." In the preface to that work, which contains anec* 
do|bes iCn4 obsjsrvations respecting the writers and most emi- 
nent persons concerned in the American Revolution, he 
observes, that, '^cast as his lot was by Providence, in 
, a situation of difficult duty, in Aich an hour of dan- 
ger, it would have been highly reproachful to have 
islept on his post* Investigations on the important sub- 
jects of religion, and government, when conducted with 
sobriety and decorum, can never be unseasonable; but 
they seem to be particularly called for in times like thoso 
in which these discourses were written — 'times when the 
kings of the earth stood up, and the riders took counsel against 
the Lord and against his anointed, ^Jfing, Let us break their 
bonds asunder, and cast away their cords from k^." He 
adds, in the words of Bishop Wetenhall's preface to his 
Roysil Sermons, printed in Ireland in 1695, that his Dis- 
courses in America were preached by him *^ with a smcere 
intention of conscientiously performing his duty, and ap- 
pi!oying himself tp God, in his station, by doing wbajt lay in 
him (at a time of exigence) to pqnfirm the wavering, to 
animate the diffident, to confirm, excite, and advance all 
in their loyalty and firm adhesion to his gracious majesty, 
our present, alone, rightful liege lord and sovereign." 
Indeed, these sermons unequivocally demonstrate that 
their pious author was not to be deterred, by the personal 
difficulties in which the schism and faction that then prcr 
vailed had placed him, from maintaining, with undaunted 
resolution, those doctrines, political and religious, in which 
he had been educated. 

In 1784, long after his return to England, he was pre- 
sented by the rev. John Parkhurst, editor of the Greek and 
Hebrew Lexicons, to the vicarage of Epsom in Surrey ; but 
the same year he had the misfortune to lose his first wife, 


ifliho in^ a native of Maryland, of genteel conneciiontf^ and 
of the same name and family as the celebrated Joseph Ad* 
dison, whom in many of the great points of his character 
she resembled. — ^Through life Mr. Boucher enjoyed the 
society and friendship of men of erudition and science ; and 
on various occasions employed his pen, not only in defence 
of those political principles on which the British monarchy 
is founded, but in critical inquiries, and in theological du- 
ties. Of his discourses from the pulpit in Great Britain, 
two Assise Sermons, preaclied in 1798, have been printed, 
and fully justify the request of the Grand Juries to wfaooi 
we are indebted for their publication. He was also an am« 
pie contributor to Mr. Hutchinson's History of Cumberland* 
The account of the parish of Bromfield, and the very inte- 
resting biographical sketches of eminent Cumberland men^ 
published in thesame work, and marked ^^Biographia Cum- 
briensis," were written by him. Mr. Boucher was a patriot 
in the best sense of the word: he was ever anxious to pro« 
mote the happiness of his fellow countrymen ; and iil many 
instances per:$onally contributed, either by pecuniaiy or 
literary e^teftions, to naeliorate the condition of sotvety,- 
In 1792, he published an anonymous pamphlet, subscribed 
'' A Cumberland Man/' which was reprinted in the Ap^* 
pendix to sir Frederick Morton Eden's *^ State of the Poor,'* 
published in 1797. This pamphlet is addressed to the in- 
habitants of Cumberland, and .has for its object the im- 
provement of that county in every point which can render 
a country opulent and happy. 

During the last fourteen years of his life, Mr. Boucher's 
literary labours were chiefly dedicated to the compilation of 
a Glossary of Provincial and Archseological words, intended 
as a '* Supplement to Dr. Johnson's Dictionary," the pro-* 
posals- for which he issued in 1802, under the title- of 
'* LtngusB AnglicansB Veteris Thesaurus." The printed 
aid which he collected for this work appeared sufficiently 
by the library he left^ and which was sold by auction after 
bis death. Few collections are more copious in early 
printed literature. A part of this undertaking was pub- 
lished in 1807, containing words under the letter A. by 
which it appeared that the author's plan, including Scotch 
words, was more extensive than originally intended. The 
encoaraeement given to this specimen has not been suffi- 
cient to induce his relatives to publish more, or to encou- 
rage any gentleman of adeqaate talents to attempt the com* 

A m 


pletion of the work. Mr. Boucher died April 27, 1804, 
leaving eight children by. his second wife Mrs* James, wi- 
dow of the rev. Mr. James, rector of Arthuret, &c. in Cum* 
berland, whom he married in 1789.' 


BOUETTE DE BLEMUR (Jacqueline), a lady, who 
merits some notice as a specimen of French female piety in 
former days, was born Jan. 8, 1618. Her parents, who 
were of noble rank, and distingubhed for their piety, gave 
her a suitable' education, and from the age of five she was 
brought up with one of her aunts in the abbey royal of the 
Holy Trinity at Caen. When eleven, at her own earnest re- 
quest, she was admitted to take the habit, and such was her 
wise conduct, that only four years after, she was appointed 
mistress of the novices. She was soon after chosen prio« 
ress, and then commenced her great work, the ^'Ann^e Be* 
nedictine,'' or lives of the saints, the application to whicb^ 
however, did not make her relax from the duties of her of- 
fice. One of the consequences of her biographical labours, 
was a more enlarged sense of what, in her opinion, she 
ought to do, and to be, after the example of the Saints 
who8e< lives she was writing. She blushed, we are told, to 
praise and to record what she did not practise (not a com- 
mon feeling among biographers), and although she knew 
that the kingdom of heaven was not to be gained by ab* 
stinence from certain meats, yet she firmly believed tbat in 
order to be the exact imitator of St Benedict, she must 
join that privation to her other rules : and bad an occasion 
to bring her principles to the test, when the duchess of 
Mecklenburgh formed the design oif a new establidiment at 
Chatillon of the female Benedictines of the Holy Sacra- 
ment, and requested her to be one of the number. Ma- 
dame Bouette assented, although then sixty years old, and 
from the rank of prioress in the abbey of St. Trinity, con- 
descended to the humble state of a novice -in this new es- 
tablishment, and afterwards preferred the lowest place in it 
to the rank of abbess which wa^ afterwards offered to her. 
In her last days, her strength, bodily and mental, decayed : 
she became blind, 'and lame, and lost the use of speech, 
in which state she died March 24, 1696, leaving the foU 
lowing momuments of her industry: 1. '^ L'Annie Bene* 
dictine, ou, Les Vies des Saints de I'ordre de St Benoit,'* 

1 Life ID OtBt Maf . 1S04, drawn up by tbe late tir Frad. Morton £dcQ, barV 

B O U'E T T E. i»l 


Paris, 1667, 7 toIs. 4to. 2. ^^Eloges de plusietira per- 
wofine» illustres en piet£ de I'ordre de St Benoit,^' 2 vols. 
4to. 3. " Vie de Fourrier de Matincourt" 4. " Exer- 
cices de la Mort." 5^ '* Vies des Saintes/' 2 vols. fol. 6. 
'< Monologue hiptorique de la Mere de Dieu/' Paris, 1682^ 
4to. These works are written with some degree of elegance 
of style, but her lives are replete with those pious iables 
which amused the religious houses, 'and those superstitious 
austerities which regulated their conduct in former times. ^ 
BOUFLERS (Louis Francis, dugde), peer and mar6« 
chal, dbthiguisbed in the French history, was bom Jan. 
10, 1644. His dispositions for the art of war having dis- 
played themselves at a very early period, he was cbosea 
in 1669 to be colonel of a regiment of dragoons, at the 
head of which he demonstrated his bravery under the 
marechal de Crequi, and under Turenhe. He received a 
dangerous wound at the battle of Voerden ; and another in 
the af&ir of Entsheim, to the capture whereof he contri- 
buted much, by the confession of Tureune. After several 
signal exploits, he gained immortal renown by the defence 
of Lille in 1708. The siege lasted near four months. 
Bouflers said to his officers, ^* Grentlemen, I trust to you ; 
but I answer for myself.'* Prince Eugene carried on the 
siege with so much vigour that it was obliged to submit. 
'< I am very vain," said he to Bouflers, ^ on having taken 
Lille; but I had rather still have the glory of having de- 
fended it like you.'* The king rewarded him for this ser- 
vice as if he had gained a battle. He was created a peer 
of France ; had the honours of first gentleman to the king, 
and the reversion of the government of Flanders for his 
eldest son. When he entered the parliament for his first 
reception in it, turiting to a crowd of officers who had 
defended Lille with him, he said, ^^ It is to you that I am 
indebted for all the favours that are heaped upon me, and 
on yon I reflect them ; 1 have nothing to glory in but the 
honour of having been at the head of so many brave men.'* 
During the siege, one of his party having proved to him 
that he could easily kill prince Eugene, '* Your fortune is 
made," returned Bouflers, << if you can take him prisoner : 
but you shall be punished* with the utmost severity if you 
make an attempt on his life ; and if I but suspected that 
you had any such intention, I would have you shut up for 

1 Moreri— Diet Hist 

i92 • B O U F L K R g. 

the rest of your life.'* TUis generosity^ which formed fl 
part of his character, induced him to ask permission to 
serve under the orders of marechal de Villars^ though he 
was his senior. At the battle of Malplaquet in 1 709, he 
made the retreat in such good order, that he left behind 
him neither cannon nor prisoners. The marquis de Bouflers 
united the virtues of a good citizen with the activity of a 
general ; serving his prince as the ancient Romans served 
their republic ; accounting his life as nothing when the 
safety of his country was in question. The king having 
ordered him to go and succour Lille, and having left to 
himself the choice of his lieutenants ; he set out that in* 
stant) without settling his affairs, or taking leave of his 
family, and chose for his officers a man that had been dis- 
graced, and a prisoner of the Bastille. His magnificence 
was equal 'to his love for his country and his sovereign; 
When Louis XIV. formed the camp of Compi£gne, to 
serve as a lesson to his grandson the duke of Burgundjr, 
and as a spectacle to the court, Bouflers lived there in 
such a splendid .style, that the king said to Livii, hit 
maitre*d*hotei, ^^ The duke of Burgundy must not keep a 
table ; we cannot outdo the marechal ; the duke of Bur- 
gundy shall dine with him when he goes to the camp.** 
This patriot general died at Fontainbleau, Aug. 22, 17 11^ 
aged 68. '< In him (writes madame de Maintenon) the 
heart died last.** We read in the continuation of the 
history of England by Rapin, an anecdote too honourable^ 
to the memory of this great man to be passed over here in 
silence. King William having taken Namur, in 1691^^ 
made Bouflers prisoner, in violation of the articles that 
had been agreed on. Surprised at so unjust a pro- 
ceeding, the marechal, ffesh from the glorious defence he 
had made, demanded the reason of this perfidious treat- 
ment. He was answered that it was by way of reprisals 
for the garrison of Dismude and of Deiuse, which the 
French had detained contrary to capitulation. << If that be 
the case (said Bouflers), then my garrison ought to be 
arrested, and not I.'* <^ Sir (he was answered), you are 
valued at more than ten thousand men.*' ^ 

BOUGAINVILLE (John Pbter de), born at Paris 
Dec. 1, 1722, was educated with great care. His talents 
thus improved procured him celebrity at an early period, 

* Diet Httt-^Moneri. 



and pbtained for him the places most flattering to literary 
men at Paris. He became pensionary and secretary to 
the royal academy of inscriptions, member of the French 
academy, and some other foreign .societies, censor-royal, 
keepei^ of the ball of antiquities at the Louvre, and one of 
the secretaries in ordinary to the duke of Orleans. His 
extraordinary industry impaired his health, and brought 
on premature old age, of which he die4 stt the chateau de 
Loches, June 22, 1763, at the age of forty-one. His ta- 
lents and personal virtues acquired him zealous patrons 
and affectionate friends. In his writings^ as in his man- 
ners, all was laudable, and yet nothing shewed the desire 
of being praised. With the talents that contribute to 
fame, he principally aspired at the honour of being useful. 
Nevertheless, literary ambition, which is not the weakest 
of ambitions, found him not insensible. Accordingly he 
was desirous of being admitted of the French acadeiny ; he 
made vigorous application to Duclos, at that time secre- 
tary; mentioning, among other things, that he was af- 
flicted with a disorder that was sapping his constitution, 
and that consequently his place would soon be vacant again ; 
the secretary, an honest man, but of a hard and rough 
character, replied, with more wit than feeling, that it was 
not the business of the French academy to administer ex- 
treme unction. He wrote, 1. A translariou of the Anti- 
Lucretius of the cardinal de Polignac, 2 vols. 8vo, or one 
vol. 12mo, preceded by a very sensible preliminary dis- 
course. 2. Parallel between the expedition of Kouli Khan 
in the Indies, and that of Alexander, a work of great 
learniog, abounding in ideas, flights of imagination and 
eloquence ; but sometimes rather bombastic. He also 
wrote several papers of very superior merit in the Memoirs 
of the French Academy. In his twenty-flfth year he wrote 
a tragedy on the death of Philip, father of Alexander, 
which is said to evince considerable talents for poetry ; and 
in the Magazin Encyclopedique was lately published a 
metrical translation by him of tbe'^ymn of Cleanthes, 
which appears to have suggested to Pope his Universal 
Prayer. * 

BOUGEANT (Williai^ Hyacinth), a French historian 
and miscellaneous writer, was born at Quimper, Nov. 4, 
1690, and entered among the Jesuits in 1706. In 1710, 

^ Diet. Hiit.-«Saxu OiiomasticoDi where ii a lift •f hit academical paperi. 

VouVL O 

194 • B O U G E A N T. 

after finishing bis course of philosophy, he taught Latin at 
Caen, and afterwards rhetoric at Nevers. From that time 
be remained principally in the college of Louis le Grand 
at Paris, utitil his death, Jan. 7, 1743, employing himself 
in writing. Besides the part which he took for many years 
in the " Memoires de Trevoux,'' he wrote : 1. " Anacreon 
and Sappho," dialogues in Greek verse, Caen, 17i2, 8vo. 
2. " Recueil d^observations physiques tiroes des meilleurs 
ccrivains,'* Paris, 1719, 12mo, to which were added two 
more volumes, 1726 and 1730, by Grozelier. 3. ** Histoire 
des guerres et des negociations qui precederent le trait6 
de Westphalie sous le regne de Louis XIIL &c." 1727^ 
4to, and 2 vols. 12mo, taken from the Memoirs of count 
d*Avaux, the French ambassador. This history still en- 
joys high reputation in France. 4. ** Exposition de la 
Doctrine Chretienne pair demandes et par reponses,'* 1741, 
4to, and some other theological tracts that are now for- 
gotten. 5. " Histoire du traits de Westphalie," 2 vols. 4to, 
and 4 vols. 12mo, a superior work to that mentioned before, 
and highly praised by all French historians. It did not 
appear until after his death, in 1744. Besides these he 
wrote several pieces of a lighter kind, as an ingenious 
romance, entitled ** Voyage Merveilleux du prinee Fan- 
Feredin dans la Romancie, &c.'' 1735, 12mo; ^' Amuse* 
ment philosophique sur le Langagedes Betes,*' 1 739, 12mo9 
which, being censured for its satire, the author was ba- 
nished for some time to la Fleche, and endeavoured to de- 
fend himself in a letter to the abb£ Savaletta. He wrote 
also some comedies of very little merit, but his reputation 
chiefly rests on his historical works. ' 

BOUGEREL (Joseph), a French biographer, descended 
from an honourable family in Provence, was a priest of 
the oratory, and born at Aix in 1680, where he was also 
^educated. The love of a retired life induced him to be- 
come a member of the congregation of the oratory, where 
he taught the belles lettres with fame and success, and 
filled the several posts of his profession with great credit* 
Happening to be at Marseilles during the plague in 1719 
and 1720, he risked his life in administering relief to the 
diseased. He appears to ha^ been in that city also in 
1726, but sonie time after came to Paris, where he passed 
bis life in the bouse belonging to his order, in high esteem^ 

1 Mored^Dict Hiit. 

B O U G E R E L- \9$ 

with all who knew him. He died of a stroke of apoplexy^ 
March 19, 1753. Just before his death he had prepared 
for the press his lives of the illustrious men of Provencei 
which was to have formed four volume.«>, 4to, and was to 
be pubiisfaed by subscriptiou, but we do not fiud tiiat the 
•cheme was carried into execution by his friends. During 
his life he published in the literary journals, various me- 
Hioirs of eminent men, and, in separate publications, the 
Life of Gassendi, Paris, 1737, of John Peter Gibert, ibid. 
J737, 12mo; and apart of his great work, under the title 
of *^ Memoires pour servir k Thistoire des hommes illustres 
de Provcnce,'Mbid. 1752, 12mo, containing fourteen lives.* 
BOUGUER (P£T£R), a celebrated French mathema* 
tician, was born at Croisic, in Lower Bretagne, the 10th 
of February 1698. He was the son of John Bouguer, 
professor royal of hydrography, a tolerable good mathe* 
matician, and author of '^ A complete Treatise on Naviga*- 
tion.'* Young Bouguer was accustomed to learn mathe- 
Biatics from his father, from the time he was able to speak, 
and thus became a very early proficient in those sciences* 
He was sent soon after to the Jesuits' college at Vannes, 
where be had the honour to instruct his regent in the ma« 
tfaematics, at eleven years of age. Two years after this he 
had a public contest with a professor of mathematics, upon 
a proposition which the latter had advanced erroneously; 
and be triumphed over him ; upon which the professor, 
unable to bear the disgrace, left the country. Two years 
after this, when young Bouguer had not yet finished his 
studies, he lost his father, whom he was appointed to suc«r 
ceed in his office of hydrographer, after a public examina- 
tion of his qualifications, being then only fifteen years of 
age ; an occupation which he discharged with great respect 
and dignity at that early age. 

In 1727, at the age of twenty-nine, he obtained the 
prize proposed by ihe academy of sciences, for the best 
•ray of masting of ships. This first success of Bouguer was 
soon after followed by two others of the same kind ; he 
successively gained the prizes of 1729 and 1731 ; the for- 
mer, for the best manner of observing at sea the height of 
the stars, and the latter, for the most advantageous way of 
observing the declination of the magnetic needle, or the 
variation of the compass. In 1729, he gave an ^^ Optical 

• > Moreri. 

O 2 

l96 B O U G U E R. 

Essay upon the Gradation of Light ;*' a subject quite neW^ 
in which he examined the intensity of light, and deter* 
mined its degrees of diminution in passing through dif« 
ferent pellucid mediums, and particularly that of the sun 
in traversing the earth's atmosphere. Mairan gave an ex* 
tract of this first essay in the Journal des Savans, in 1730. 
In this same year, 1730, he was removed from the port 
of Croisic to that of Havre, which brought him into a 
nearer connection with tlie academy of sciences, in which 
he obtained, in 1731, the place of associate geometrician, 
vacant by the promotion of Maupertuis to tliat of pen- 
sioner; and in 1735 he was promoted to the office of 
pensioner-astronomer. The same year he was sent on the 
commission to South America, along with messieurs Godin, 
Condamine, and Jeussieu, to determine the measure of 
the degrees of the meridian, and the figure of the earth. 
In this painful and troublesome business, of ten years du- 
ration, chiefly among the lofty Cordelier mountains, our 
author determined many other new circumstances, beside 
the main object of the voyage ; such as the expansion and 
contraction of metals and other substanpes, by the sudden 
and alternate changes of heat and eold among those moun- 
tains; observations on the refraction of the atmosphere 
from the tops of the same, with the singular phenomenon 
of the sudden increase of the refraction, when the star can 
be observed below the line of the level ; the laws of the 
density of the air at different heights, from observations 
made at different points of these enormous mountains ; a 
determination that the mountains have an effect upon a 
plummet, though he did not assign the exact quantity of 
it; a method of estimating the errors committed by navi- 
gators in determining their route; a new construction of 
the log for measuring a ship^s way ; with several other 
useful impravements. Other inventions of Bouguer, made 
upon different occasions, were as follow : the heliometer^ 
being a telescope with two object-glasses, affording a good 
method of measuring the diameters of the larger planets 
with ease and exactness : his researches on the figure in 
•which two lines or two long ranges of parallel trees ap- 
piear : his experiments on the famous reciprocation of the 
pendulum : and those upon the manner of measuring the 
force of the light : &c. &c. 

The close application which Bouguer gave to study^ 
undermined his health, and terminated his life the l^th of 

B O U G U E R. 197 

August 1758, at 60 years of age. — His chief works, that 
have been published, are, 1. " The Figure of the Earth, 
determined by the observations made in South America," 
1749, in 4to. 2. "Treatise on Navigation and Pilotage," 
Paris, 1752, in 4to. This work was abridged by M. La 
Caille, in 1 vol. 1768, 8vo, and was reprinted in 1769 and 
1781, and in 1792 with the notes of Lalande. 3. "Trea^ 
tise on Ships, their construction and motion^," 1756, 4to. 
4. " Optical treatise on tlie Gradation of Light," first in 
1729 ; then a new edition in 1760, in 4to. . 

His papers that were inserted in the Memoirs of the 
Academy, are very numerous and important. They ap« 
pear in their volumes from 1726 to 1757. 

In bis earlier years, Mr. Bouguer had lived in a state of 
seclusion from general intercourse with the world, and he 
had thus ac^quired a cast of temper, which marked his cha-* 
racter in more advanced life. Although he was universally 
acknowledged to possess superior talents, and to be distin-^ 
guished by an assiduity and zeal, no less successful than 
indefatigable, in various departments of useful science, be 
indulged a degree of suspicion and jealousy, with regard 
to bis reputation, which disgusted some of those with whom 
be was under a necessity of associating, and which dis« 
quieted his own mind. Fully sensible of the importance 
and utility of his own performances, he was apt to con* 
sider others, who were engaged in similar pursuits, as com* 
petitors with himself, and to grudge them the reputation 
which they justly acquired, from an apprehension that hik 
own credit would be thus diminished. Hence arose his 
disputes with La Condamine, one of the companions of his 
voyage, and associate in his labours in America ; and the 
mortification he experjienQed from the public suffrage that 
seemed to have been bestowed on that academician. His 
character in other respects was distinguished for modesty 
and simplicity. The truths of Keligion were instilled into 
him along with the first principles of geometry, and had 
made such an impression upon his mind, as to regulate and 
adorn his moral conduct. On his death-bed he cherished 
the same views which had thus guided him through life^ 
and be closed his career with philosophical fortitude, and 
with a piety and resignation truly Christian. -»In the year 
1784, a very singular book was published at Paris, en*, 
titled ** Relation de la conversion et de mort de Bou- 
guer," by P. La Berthonie. His piety naturally offended 

19ft B O U G U E IL 

Lalande, who, in noticing this book, ascribes his piety to 
fear; this was a common' opinion with the French deists, 
and had very pernicious influence on the minds of their 
disciples. Laiande, however, if our information be not 
incorrect, lived to experience the fear he once ridiculed.* 
BOUHIER (John), president d nwrtter of the parlia- 
ment of Dijon, and a member of the French academy, was 
born March 16, 1673. He began his studies under the 
direction of his father (who was also president d viortier of 
the same parliament) at the Jesuits* college of Dijon, and 
finished them in 1688 with great approbation. Being as 
yet too young for the law schools, he studied the elements 
of that science in private, and perfected himself at the 
same time in the Greek language. He also learned Ita- 
lian, Spanish, and acquired some knowledge of the He- 
brew. After two years thus usefully employed, he went 
through a course of law at Paris and Orleans ; and in 1692 
he became counsellor of the parliament of Dijon. In 1 704 
he was appointed president, the duties of which oflSce he 
executed until 1727, and with an assiduity and ability not 
very common. In this latter year he was elected into the 
academy, on the condition that he would quit Dijon and 
settle at Paris, to which condition he acceded, but was 
Unable to perform his promise, for want of health. Though 
remote, however, from the capital, he could not remain in 
obscurity ; but fromt the variety and extent of his learning, 
be was courted and consulted by the literati throughout 
Europe : and many learned men, who had availed them- 
selves of his advice, dedicated their works to him. At 
length, his constitution being worn out with repeated at- 
tacks of the gout, he died March 17, 1746. A firieud ap* 
proaching his bed, within an hour of his death, found him 
in a seemingly profound meditation. He made a sign that 
he wished not to be disturbed, and with diflSculty pro<^ 
nounced the words J^epit la mort-^^^ I am watching death.** 
Notwithstanding his business and high reputation as a 
lawyer, be contrived to employ much of his time in the 
cultivation of polite literature, and wrote many papers oa 
critical and classical subjects in the literary journals. Se* 
parately he published, 1. A poetical translation, not in^ 
elegant, but somewhat careless, of Petronius on the Civil 

> HaUoa'i MaUiematical Diot^ReeiHi C^Qpadm.— BievHer^ Xda»bwgli 
£ncjclope<lift.r-Dict, Hist 

B O U H I E IL 199 

War between Cxsar and Pompey, with two epistles of 
Ovid, &c. AxnsL 17^57, 4to. Alluding to the negligence 
which sometimes appears in his poetry, his wife, a very 
ingenious lady, used to say, ** Confine yourself to think- 
ing, and let me write/' 2. ^^ Remarques sur les Tuscu* 
laoes de Ciceron, avec une dissertation sur Sardanapale, 
dernier roi d' A syrie," Paris, 1737, 12mo. 3. " Des Let- 
tres sur les Therapeutes," 1712. 4. "Dissertations sur 
Herodote," with memoirs of the life of Bouhier, 1746, Di- 
jon, 4to. 5. " Dissertation sur le grand pontificat des 
empereurs Romains," 1742, 4lo. 6. "Explications de 
quelques marbres antiques,'' in the collection of M. Le 
Bret, 1733, 4to. 7. " Observations sur la Coutume de 
Bourgogne," Dijon, 2 vols. fol. A complete edition of 
his law works was published in 1787, fol. by M. de Bevy. 
He wrote a very learned dissertation on the origin of the 
Greek and Latin letters, which is printed in Montfaucon's 
Palsograpby, Paris, 1708, p. 553 ; and bis "Remarques 
sur Ciceron" were reprinted at Paris in 1746. * 

BO U HOURS (Dominick), a celebrated French critic, 
was born at Paris in 1628 ; and has by some been cgnsi- 
dered as a proper person to succeed Malherbe, who died 
about that time. He entered into the society of Jesuits at 
sixteen, and was appointed to read lectures upon polite 
literature in the college of Clermont at Paris^ where he 
had studied ; but he was so incessantly attacked with the 
head-acb, that be could not pursue tbe destined task. He 
afterwards undertook the education of two sons of the duke 
of Longueville, which he discharged to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the duke, who had such a regard for him, that he 
would needs die in his arms ; and the " Account of the 
pious and Christian death" of this great personage was the 
first work which Bouhours gave the public. He was sent 
to Dunkirk to the popish re^gees from England ; and, in 
the midst of his missionary occupations, found time to 
compose and publish many works of reputation. Among 
these were " Entretiens d'Ariste & d' Eugene," a work of 
a critical nature, which was printed no less than five times 
at Paris, twice at Grenoble, at Lyons, at Brussels,, at Am* 
sterdam, at Leyden, &c. and embroiled him with a great 
number of critics, and with Menage in particular ; wbo» 
boweverj lived in friendship with our author before and 

1 MorerL-^Dict Hist.«-Saaui OnooMStiooD.— Hontb. Iten IXKX. 


after. There is a passage in this work which gave great 
offence in Germany, where he makes it a question', 
<* Whether it be possible that a German could be a wit ?** 
The fame of it, however, and the pleasure he took in read- 
ing it, recommended Bouhours so effectually to the cele- 
brated minister Colbert, that he trusted him with the edu- 
cation of his son, the marquis of Segnelai. The Remarks 
and Doubts upon the French language has been reckoned 
one of the most considerable of our author's works ; and 
may be read with great advantage by those who would per- 
fect themselves in that tongue. Menage, in his Observa- 
tions upon the French language, has given his approbation 
of it in the following passage : "The book of Doubts,** 
says he, ** is written with great elegance, and contains 
many fine observations. And, as Aristotle has said, that 
reasonable doubt is the beginning of ail real knowledge ; so 
we may say also, that the man who doubts so reasonably 
as the author of this book, is himself very capable of de- 
ciding. For this reason perhaps it is, that, forgetting the 
title of his work, he decides oftener than at first he pro- 
posed." Bouhours was the author of another work, ** The 
art of pleasing in conversation," of which M. de la Crose, 
who wrote the eleventh volume of the Bibliotheque Uni- 
verselle, has given an account, which he begins with this 
elogium upon the author : " A very little skill," says he, 
**in style and manner, will enable a reader to discover the 
author of this work. He will see at once the nice, the 
ingenious, and delicate turn, the elegance and politeness 
of father Bouhours. Add to this, the manner of writing in 
dialog^ie, the custom of quoting himself, the collecting 
strokes of wit, the little agreeable relations interspersed, 
and a certain mixture of gallantry and morality which is 
altogether peculiar to this Jesuit. This work is inferior to 
nothing we have seen of father Bouhours. He treats in 
twenty dialogues, with an air of gaiety, of every thing 
which can find a way into conversation ; and, though he 
avoids being systematical, yet he gives his reader to under- 
stand, that there is no subject whatever, either of divinity, 
philosophy, law, or physic, &c. but may be introduced 
into conversation, provided it be done with ease, polite- 
ness, and in a manner free from pedantry and affectation.** 
He died at Paris, in the college of Clermont, upon the 
v27th of May 1702; after a life spent, says Moreri, ijnder 
f ^ch constant and violent fits of the h^ad-acb, that he ha4 


but few intervals of perfect ease. The following is a list 
of his works with their dates : 1. *' Les Entretiens d^Ariste 
etd* Eugene/' 1671, 12nK>. 2. << Remarques et Doutes 
sur la langue Fran^aise/' 3 vols. ]2mo. 3. ^ La Manier 
de bien penser sur les ouvrages d'esprif," Paris, 1692, 
12nio. 4. *^ Pens^es ingenieuses des anciens et des mo- 
denies,'* Paris, 1691, 12nio. In this work he mentions 
Boiieau, whom he had omitted in the preceding; but when 
be expected Boiieau would acknowledge the favour, -he 
coolly replied, *^ You have, it is true, introduced me in your 
new work, but in very bad company," alluding to the fre- 
quent mention of some Italian and French versifiers whom 
Boiieau despised. 5. *^ Pens^es ingenieuses des Pdres de 
PEglise," Paris, 1700. This he is said to have written as 
an answer to the objection that he employed too much of 
his time on profane literature. 6. ** Histoire du grand* 
maitre d'Aubusson,'' 1676, 4to, 1679, and lately in 1780. 
7. The lives of Su Ignatius, Paris, 1756, 12mo, and^of 
St. Francis Xavier, 1682, 4to, or 2 vols. 12mo, Both these 
are written with rather more judgment than' the sapie lives 
by Ribadeneira, but are yet replete with the miraculous 
and the fabulous. The life of Xavier was translated by 
Dryden, and published at London in 1688, with a dedica- 
tion to king James II.'s queen. Dryden, says Mr. Malone, 
doubtless undertook this task, in consequence of the queen, 
when she solicited a son, having recommended herself to 
Xavier as her patron saint. 8. ^ Le Nouveau Testament,'^ 
translated into French from the Vulgate, 2 vols. 1697-* 
1703, I2mo.' 


BOUILLL' (MAitauis D£), a French nobleman, and 
officer of bravery and honour, was a native of Auvergne, 
and a relative of the marquis La' Fayette. After having 
served in the dragoons, he became colonel of the regiment 
of Vexin infiintry. Having attained the rank of major- 
general, the king appointed him governor-general of the 
Windward islands. In 1778 he took possession of Domi-* 
nica, St. Eustatia, and soon after St. Christopher^s, Nevis, 
•and Montserrat. His conduct while in that command was 
allowed by the English commanders to be honourable and 
disinterested. On his return, he was made lieutenant-^ 
general. On the breaking out of the tevolution in 1789, 

^ 9siUtt jDj^emeiffl des SaTan8.-«>Morcri.«7Dict« Hiit--Sazii ODOQMt 

PM B O U I L L £'. 

finding that be commanded in the three bishoprics, he 
brought hack to its duty the revolted garrison of Metz, and 
on that occaaion saved the life of M. de Pont, intendant of 
the province. He afterwards caused Frangois de Neuf- 
efaateau, and tvifo other electors, arrested by order of the 
king's attorney, to be set at liberty. On the 5th of Sep- 
tember the same year, the national assembly was informed 
by one of its members, Gregoire, that M. de Bouill^ had 
not administered the civic oatn individually, and a decree 
was passed obliging him to do so. In 17 90, he was com- 
missioned to bring under subjection the garrison of Nancy^ 
which had risen against its chiefs; accordingly he advanced 
. upon the town with four thousand men, and succeeded in 
' this enterprize, in which he shewed much bravery, and 
which at first gained him great praises from the national 
Assembly, and afterwards as many reproaches. Being 
chosen by the unfortunate Louis XVI. to facilitate hia 
escape from Paris in June 1791, he marched at the head 
of a body of troops to protect the passage of the royal 
family ; but this design failed from reasons now well known^ 
aud which l«e has faithfully detailed in his memoirs : and 
the marquis himself had some difficulty in making bis es- 
cape. From Luxembourg he wrote his memorable letter 
to the assembly, threatening, that if a hair of the king^a 
head were touched, he would not leave one stone upon 
another in Paris. This served only to irritate the revolu* 
tionists, who decreed that he should be tried for contumacy; 
but he was fortunately out of their reach. From Vienna 
whither he had at first gone, he passed to the court of 
Sweden, where he was favourably received by Gustavus III. 
but after his^ death, M. de Bouill6 found it necessary to 
retire to England, where he passed the remainder of hia 
days in security, aud much esteemed for his fidelity to his 
sovereign. He died in London Nov. 14, 1800. In 1797 
be published in English, ^^ Memoirs relating to the French 
Jlevolution,'* 6vo ; one of those works of which future hia-> 
torians may avail themselves in appreciating the characterg 
IMid events connected with that important period of French 
history. ' 

BOUILLET (Jojsn)^ a French medical writer, was bom 
at Servian, in the diu<;ese of Beziers, May 14, 1690, and 
created doctor in medicine, at Montpellier, in 1717. £n« 

s Biof . Moderae.— Diet— Hist both erraneovt in the time of his doaUi, 

B O U I L L E T. «03 

joying, during the course of a long life, a considerable por- 
tion of reputation, he was, in succession, made professor in 
mathematics, and secretary to the academy at Beziers, 
member of the royal society at Montpellier, and corre- 
sponding member of the academy of sciences at Paris. He 
was also author of several ingenious dissertations : *^ On 
the properties of Rhubarb,*' published at Beziers, 17 17, 
4to, probably his ** Inaugural Thesis." " Sur la cause de 
la Pesanteur,'* 1720, l2mo, which obtained for him a prize 
from the academy at Bourdeaux ; ** Avis et remedes, cen- 
tre la Peste,*' Beziers, 1721, 8vo. '*On Asthma and on 
the Gout," in which complaints he recommends the Venice 
soap as a powerful auxiliary ; ^^ Sur la maniere de traiter 
la Petite Verole,*' Beziers, 1736, 4to ; and some years 
after, ^* On the best method of preserving the district of 
Beziers from that disease ;" ** Recueil des lettres, et autres 
pieces pour servir i rbistoire de Pacademie de Beziers,'* 
1736, 4to, with several other publications. He died in 
1770, leaving a son, Henry Nicholas Bouillet, who was 
made doctor in medicine at Montpellier, and member of 
Che academy of Beziers. He published, in 1759, in 4to, 
'' Observations sur I'anasarque, le bydropesies de poitrine^ 
des pericarde, &c.*' * 

BOULAI (CiESAR EoASSB de), the historian of the uni- 
versity of Paris, was born at St. Ellier or Helier, and be- 
came professor of rhetoric in the college of Navarre, and 
afterwards register, historiographer, and rector of the uni- 
versity of Paris, where he died Oct. 16, 1678. Of all his 
works, his history of the university of Paris, *^ Historia 
Universitatis Parisiensis,** 6 vols. 166S — 1673, foL contri* 
buted most to his fame. The publication of this vast un- 
dertaking was at first interrupted by some objections from 
the theological faculty of Paris, who carried their remon- 
strances to the king; but the commissioners, whom his 
majesty employed to inspect the work, having reported 
that they saw no reason why it should not be continued, he 
proceeded to its completion, and in 1667 published an an- 
swer ta their objections, entitled ^^"NotsB ad censuram.** 
Not entirely satisfied with this triumph, he also published 
a poetical satire against them, with the title of '< Ad Zoilo* 
sycophantam, sive Bul»istarum obtrectatorem,'' a work of 
considerable spirit and elegance of style. His history is 

1 Diet Hist. -Se6i'« Cyd'opMlit^ 

204 B O U L A I. 

an useful repository of facts and lives of Jearned men con* 
taected with the revival of literature, and especially the pro- 
gress of learning in that eminent university, and is blame- 
able only for the fabulous accounts, in which our own uni- 
versity-historians have not been wanting, respecting the 
early history. of schools of learning. Boulai^s other writ- 
ings are, 1. ^^Tresor des antiquit^s llomaines,*' Paris, 
1650, fol. 2. ** Speculum eloquentis,** ibid. 1658, 12mo. 
3. ** De Patronis quatuor nationum universitatis Parisi- 
ensis,** Paris, 1662, 8vo. 4. ^* Remarques sur la diguit^, 
rang, preseance, autorit^, et jurisdiction du recteur de Tuni- 
versit6 de Paris," ibid, 1668, 4to. 5. " Recueil des Pri- 
vileges de r University de Paris accord^s par les rois de 
France depuis sa fondation, &c." ibid. 1674, 4to. 6. 
*' Fondation de Tdniversit^, &c." 1675, 4to. Boulai was 
frequently involved in disputes with the members of the 
university respecting the election of officers, &c. which 
occasioned the publication of many papers on these su^ 
jects, which, if we may judge from hit extensive labours, 
be must have understood very accurately ; and from these 
disputes, and the general bent of his researches, he ap<« 
pears to have very closely resembled the celebrated histo- 
rian of the university of Oxford. * 

BOULAINVILLIERS (Henry de), comte de St. Saire, 
where he was born October 21, 1658, of a noble and an< 
cient family, was educated at Juilli, by the fathers of the 
oratory, and gave proofs of genius and abilities from hit 
childhood. His chief study was history, which he after <> 
wards cultivated assiduously. He died January 23, 1729, 
at Paris, having been twice married, and left only daqgh<> 
ters. He was author of a History of the Arabians, and 
JVlahomet, 12mo, '^ Memoires sur I'ancien Governement de 
France ; ou 14 lettres sur les anciens Parlemens de 
France," 3 vols, 12mo; ♦* Histoire de France jusqu'a 
Charles VIII.'' 3 vols. 12mo; and "TEtatde la France,'* 
6 vols. 12mo, in the Dutch edition, and eight in the edi-> 
tion of Trevoux, " Memoire pr^sentg a M. le due d'Or- 
leans, sur T Administration des Finances,'' 2 vols. 12mo; 
'* Histoire de la Pairie de France," 12mo ; ^' Dissertations 
sur la Noblesse de France,'^ 12mo. All his writings on 
the ^ rench history have been collected in 3 vols. fol. Thej 
IM^e not written (says M. de Montesquieu) with all the free-% 

I Moreri, — Gen. J)ict,---BaiUetJugeiiMDideSftTaoi.— Sasii Onomait^ 


dom and simplicity of the ancient nobility, from which he 
descended. M. Boulainvtiliers left some other works in 
MS. known to the learned, who have, with great reason, 
been astonished to find, Uiat he expresses in them his 
doubts of the most incontestable dogmas of religion, while 
he blindly gives credit to the reveries of judicial astrology ; 
an inconsistency common to many other infidels. Mosheim 
informs us that Boulainvilliers was such an admirer of the 
pernicious opinions of Spinosa, that he formed the design 
of expounding and illustrating it, as is done with respect to 
the doctrines of the gospel in books of piety, accommo- 
dated to ordinary capacities. This design he actually exe- 
cuted, but in such a manner as to set the atheism and im* 
piety of Spinosa in a clearer light than they had ever ap- 
peared before. The work was published by Lenglet du 
Fresnoy, who, that it might be bought with avidity, and 
read without suspicion, callad it a Refutation of the Errors of 
Spinosa, artfully adding some separate pieces, to which this 
title may, in some measure, he thought applicable. The 
whole tide runs, <^ Refutation des Erreurs de Benoit de 
Spinosa, par M. de Fenelou, archeveque de Cambray, par 
le Pere Lauri Benedictin, et par M. Le Comte de Boulain- 
villiers, avec la Vie de Spinosa, ecrite par Jean Colerus, 
minister de TEglise Lutherienne de la Haye, augment^e 
de beaucoup de particularit^s tir6es d'une vie manuscrite 
de ce pbilosophe, fait par un de ^es amis,*' (Lucas, the 
atheistical physician), Brussels, J 731, 12mo. The ac- 
count and defence of Spinosa, given by Boulainvilliers, 
under the pretence of a refutation, take up the greatest 
part of this book, and are placed first, and not last in or* 
der, as the title would insinuate ; and the volume concludes 
with what is not in the title, a defence of Spinosa by Bre- 
denburg, and a refutation of that defence by Orobio, a 
Jew of Amsterdam.-^It remains to be noticed, that his 
Life of Mahomet, which he did not live to complete, was 
)>ublished at London and Amsterdam, \vl 1730, 8vo ; and 
about the same time an English translation of it appeared. 
His letters, also, on the French parliaments, were translated 
And published at London, 1739, 2 vols. 8vo.^ 

BOULANGER (NicHOUis Anthony), one of the earliest 
French infidels, who assumed the name of philosophers 

s born at Paris in 1722, and died therein 1759, aged 

1 MQreri.-*Oict. HUt--Motlieim*i Eccl. Illit— Saxli Onomatt. 



£06 & O U L A N G £ R. 

only tbrrty-seveTi. Durkrg his education, he is said t» 
have com^ out of the college of Beauvais almost as igiioratit 
as be went in ; but, struggling hard against his iitaptitude 
to study, he at length overcame it. At seventeen years of 
age be began to apply himself to mathematics anil arobi*- 
tecture ; and, in three or four years made such progress 
as to be useful to the baron of Thiers, whom he accom« 
panied to the army in quality of engineer. Afterwards be 
bad the supervision of the highways and bridges, and exe* 
cuted several public works in Champagne, Burgundy, and 
Lorr&in. In cutting through mountains, directing and 
changing the courses of rivers, and in breaking up and 
turning over the strata of the earth, he saw a multitude of 
different substances, which (he thought) evinced the great 
antiquity of it, and a long series of revolutions which it 
must have undei^one. From the revolutions in the globe, 
he passed to the changes that must have happened in the 
manners of men, in societies, in governments, in religion ; 
and formed many conjectures upon all these. To be far* 
ther satisfied, he wanted to know what, in the history of 
ages, had been said upon these particulars ; and^ that he 
might be informed from the fountain*head, he learned 
first Latin, and then Greek. Not yet content, he plunged 
into Hebrew, Syriac, .Chaldaic, and Arabic : and from 
these studies accumulated a vast mass of singular and pa- 
radoxical opinions which he conveyed to the public in the 
following works: 1. ^^ Traits du Despotisme Oriental," 2 
vols. ]2mo. 2. '^ L'antiquit6 d£voil6, par ses usages," 3. 
vols. 12mo. This was posthumous. 3. Another work, en- 
titled *^ Le Christianisme d^masqu^," 8vo, is attributed 
to him, but it is not certain that he was the author of it. 
4. He furnished to the Encyclopedie the articles D^luge^ 
Corvde, and Soci^t6. 5. A dissertation on Elisha and 
Enoch. 6. He left behind him in MS. a dictiouary, vrfiich 
nay be regarded as a concordance in antient and modera 
languages. Voltaire, the baron D'Holbacb, and other dis- 
seminators of infidelity, made much use of Boulanger's 
works, and more of his name, which, it is supposed, they 
prefixed to some of their own compositions. Barruel gives 
some reason for thinking that Boulanger retracted hia 
opinions before his death. His name, however, still re-^ 
mained of consequence to the party ; and as late as 179 1 , 
an edition of his works, entitled the Philosophical Li« 

boulAnger. sot 

Jmry, wm published at the philosophic press in Swisser« 
land. > 

BOULANGER (John), an engraver, who flotirisbed 
about the year 1657, was a native of France. His first 
manner of engraving was partly copied from that of Francis 
de Poilly ; but he afterwards adopted a nianher of his own, 
which, though not original, he greatly improved ; and, 
accordingly, he finished the faces, bands, and all the naked 
parts of bis figures very neatly with dots, instead of strokes, 
or strokes and dots. This style of engraving has been of 
late carried to a high degree of perfection, particularly in 
England. Notwithstanding several defects in the naked 
parts of his figures, and in his draperies, his beist prints 
are deservedly much esteemed. Such are " A Holy Fa- 
mily," from Fran. Corlebet ; " Virgin and Child," from 
Simon Vouet; ^'The Pompous Cavalcade,'* upon Louis 
the XlVth coming of age, from Chauveau ; " The Virgin 
vrith the infant Christ,'' holding some pinks, and therefore 
called « The Virgin of the Pinks," from Raphael ; " The 
Virgin de Passau," from Salario j" " Christ carrying his 
Cross," from Nicolas Mignard ; " A dead Christ, sup- 
ported by Joseph of Arimathea." He also engraved many 
portraits, and, among others, that of Charles II. of Eng- 
land. He likewise engraved frpm Leonardo de Vinci, 
Guido, Champagne, Stella, Coypel, and other great mas- 
ters, as well as from his own designs. 

There was another John Boulanger, a painter, who 
was bom in 1606, and died in 1660. Mr. Fuseli informs 
us that he was a pupil of Guido, became painter to the 
court of Modena, and master of a school of art in that 
city. What remains of his delicate pencil in the ducal 
palace, proves the felicity of his invention, the vivid har- 
mony of his colour, and in the attitudes a spirit bordering 
on enthusiasm. Such is the Sacrifice (if it be his, as fame 
asserts) of Iphtgenia ; though the person of Agamemnon is 
veiled in a manner too whimsical to be admitted in a heroic 
subject Of his scholars, Tomaso Costa of Sassuolo, and 
Sigismondo Caula a Modenese, excelled the rest. Costa, 
a vigorous colourist, laid his hand indiscriminately on 
every subject of art, greatly employed at Reggio, his usual 
residence, and much at Modena, where he painted the 

I Diet. Hilt 


cupola of S. Vicenzo. Caula left his home only to iinproT6 
himself at Venice, and returned with a copious and welU 
toned style ; but sunk to a more languid one as he advanced 
in life. * 

BOULLONGNE (Louis de), the elder, painter to the 
JLingy and professor in the French academy , was born at 
Paris in 1609, and was principally distinguished for his 
ability in copying the works of the most famous ancient 
painters, which he did with astonishing fidelity. There 
are also in the church of Notre Dame at Paris three pic* 
tures of his own of considerable merit. . He died at Paris 
in 1674, leaving the two following sons : 

BOULLONGNE (Bon de), eldest son of the preceding, 
was born at Paris in \649, and acquired the principles of 
painting from his father, whom he resembled in his talent 
of imitating the works of the greatest masters. After a re- 
sidence of five years in Italy, he was admitted into the 
academy, of which he became a professor, and employed 
by Louis XIV. at Versailles and Trianon. He excelled in 
history and portrait; his designs were accurate, and his 
colouring good. Besides his paintings in fresco, in two 
of the chapels of the Invalids, he painted several pieces 
for the churches and public buildings of Paris, several of 
which have been engraved. We have also three etchings 
done by him, from his own compositions, viz. a species of 
" Almanack ;" " St. John in the Desert ;" and " St. Bruno 
in a landscape ;*' its companion. He died at Paris in 
1717. His brother Louis de Boullongne the younger, 
was born at Paris in 1654>, and educated under his father, 
by whose instruction he made such improvement, that he 
obtained the prize of \he academy at 18. His studies were 
completed at Rome, where he particularly studied the works 
of Raphael, and from his copies which were sent home, the 
Gobelin tapestries were executed. After his return he was 
received into the academy in 1680 ; and his vrorks in the 
churches of Notre Dame and the Invalids, and particularly 
his frescos in the chapel of St. Augustin, were so much 
esteemed, that Louis XIV. honoured him with his special 
patronage, allowing him a considerable pension ; confer* 
ring upon him the order of St. Michael ; choosing him de- 
signer of medals to the academy of inscriptions, after the 
death of Anthony Coypel ; appointing him his principal 

A Strutt Add PilkingtOR. 

B O U L L O N G N E. S0» 

painter, and ennobling bim and all bis descendants. The 
academy of painting also chose him first for its rector, and 
afterwards director, which place he occupied till his death. 
He chiefly excelled in hbtorical and allegorical subjects. 
From Us performances it appeared, that he had carefully 
studied the most eminent masters; his colouring was 
strong, his composition was in a good style, the airs of his 
heads had expression and character, and his figures were 
correctly designed. His regular attendance at the aca- 
demy, and his advice to the students, commanded respect : 
and the general mildness and affability of his disposition 
engaged esteem among those who knew him. He raised a 
considerable fortune by bis profession, and died in 1734. 
Two sisters of this family, *^ Genevieve'' and ** Magdalen,'* 
painted well, and were members of the royal academy in 

BOULTER (Hugh), D. D. archbishop of Armagh, pri« 
mate and metropolitan of all Ireland, was bom in or near 
London, Jan. 4, 1671, of a reputable and opulent family^ 
received his first rudiments} of learning at M erchant^Tay* 
tor's school, and was admitted from thence a commoner of 
Christ-church, Oxford, some time before the Revolution. 
His merit became so conspicuous there, that immediately 
after that great event, he was elected a demi of Magdalen- 
college, with the celebrated Mr. Addison, and Dr. Joseph 
Wilcox, afterwards bishop of Rochester and dean of West- 
minster, from whose merit and learning Dr. Hough, who was 
then restored to the presidentship of that college (from which 
he had been unwarrantably ejected in the reign of king James 
IL) used to call this election by the name of the golden 
eUcitoHf and the same respectful appellation was long after 
made use of in common conversation in the college*. 
Mr. Boulter was afterwards made fellow of Magdalen-col- 
lege. He continued in the university till he was called to 
London, by the invitation of sir Charles Hedges, principal 
secretary of state in 1700^ who made him bis chaplain ; 

* Dr. Welttad, a physician, was also The primato maintained a sod of tiM 

of this golden election, and when he doctor's, as a commoner, at Hart^hall 

became poor in the latter part of his in Oxford ; and would efl^Mrtoalif have 

Ills, the archbishop, though he was no provided for him, if the young gentle* 

relation, gare him, at the least, two man had not died helbre he had taken 

hundred pounds a year, tilt his death, a degree. Dr. Welsted was one of tho 

Nor did his grace's kindness to the editors of the Oxford Pindar, and 

doctor's family end with hi« decease, esteemed y exceUent Greek scbolaiv « 

1 PUkingtOB,— Stratt.<-*Abreg6 des Vies des Peiatreib ToU IV. 

Vol. VL P 



aud some titxie after be was preferred to the same honomr 
by Dr. Thomas Tenison, archbishop of Canterbury. In 
these stations he was under a necessity of appearing often 
i^t court, where his iperit obtained him the patronage of 
Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, principal secretary 
of state, by whose interest he was .advanced to the rectory 
of St. Olave in Southwark, and to the archdeaconry of 
Surrey. The parish of St Olave was very populous, and 
for the most part poor, and required such a liberal and vi- 
gilant pastor as Dr.' Boulter, who relieved their wants, 
' and gave them instruction, correction, and reproof. When 
king George L passed ovei to Hanover in 1719, Dr. Boul- 
ter was recommended to attend him in quality of his chap- 
lain, and also was appointed tutor to prince Frederic, to 
instruct him in the English tongue ; and for that purpose 
drew up for his use " A set of Instructions.*' This so re- 
commended him to the king, that during his abode at 
Hanover^ the bishopric of Bristol^ and deanery of Christ- 
church, Oxford, becoming vacant, the king granted to 
him that see and deanery, and he was consecrated bishop 
of Bristol, on the fifteenth of November, 1719. In this 
last station be was more than ordinarily assiduous in the 
visitation of his diocese, and the discharge of his pastoral • 
duty ; and during one of these visitations, be received a 
letter by a messenger from the secretary of state, acquaint- 
ing him, that his majesty had nominated him to the arch- 
bishopric of Armagh, and primacy of Ireland, then vacant 
by the death of Dr. Thomas Lindsay, on the 13 th of July^ 
1724, and desiring him to repair to London as soon as 
possible, to kiss the king^s hand for his promotion. After 
some consultation on this affair, to which he felt great re« 
pugnance, ' he sent an answer by the messenger, refusing 
the honour the king intended him, and requesting the se- 
cretary to use his good offices with his majesty, in making 
his excuse, but the messenger was dispatched back to him 
by the secretary, with the king's absolute commands that 
he should accept of the post, to which he submitted^ 
though not withaut some reluctance, and soon after ad- 
dressed himself to his journey to court. Ireland was at 
that juncture not a little inflamed, by the copper-coin 
project of one Wood, and it was thought by the king and 
ministry, that the judgment, moderation, and wisdom of 
the bishop of Bristol would tend much to allay the ferment. 
He arrived in Ireland on the third of November, 1724, 


ted had no sooner passed patent for the pHmacy, than he 
appeared at all the public boards, and gave a weight and 
rigour to them ; and, in every respect, was indefatigable 
in promoting the real happiness of the people. Among 
his other wise measures, in seasons of great scarcity in 
Ireland, he was more than once instrumental in averting a 
pestilence and famine^ which threatened the nation. When 
the scheme was set on foot for making a navigation, by a 
canal to be drawn from Lough-Neagh to Newry, not only 
for bringing coal to Dublin, but to carry on more effec* 
toally an inland trade in the several counties of the north 
of Ireland, he greatly encouraged and promoted the de- 
signj not only with bis counsel but his purse. Drogheda 
is a large and populous town within the diocese of Armagh^ 
and bis grace finding that the ecclesiastical appointments 
were not sufficient to support two clergymen there, and 
the ciire over-burthensome for one effectually to discharge, 
he allotted out of his own pocket a maintenance for a se- 
cond curate, whom he obliged to give public service every 
Sunday in the afternoon, and prayers twice every day. 
He had great eompassion for the poor clergy of his dio- 
cesCy who were disabled from giving their children a pro- 
per education^ and maintained several of the sons of 
such in the university^ in order to qualify them for future 
preferments He erected four houses at Drogheda for the 
reception of clergymen^ s widows, and purchased an estate 
for the endowment of them, after the model of primate 
Marshes charity ; which be enlarged in one particular : for 
as the estate he purchased for the maintenance of the 
widows, amounted to twenty-four pounds a year more than 
h* had set apart for that use, he appointed that the surplus 
should be a fund for setting out the children of such 
widows apprentices, or otherwise to be disposed of for the 
benefit of such children, as his trustees should think proper. 
He also by his will directed, which has<> since been per-* 
formed, that four bouses should be built for clergymen's 
widows at Armagh, and endowed with fifty pounds a yean. 
During his life, he contracted for the building of a stately' 
market-house at Armagh, which was finished by his exe- 
cutors, at upwards of eight hundred pounds expence. He 
was a benefactor also to Dr. Stevens's hospital in the city 
of Dublin, erected for the maintenance and cure of the 

£oor. His charities for augmenting small livings, and 
uying of glebes, amounted to upwards of thirty thousand 


f l« BOULTER. 

pounds, besides what he devised by his will for the liktf 
purposes in England. Though the plan of the incorpo- 
rated society for promoting English protestant working 
schools, cannot be imputed to primate Boulter, yet he 
was the chief instrument in forwarding the undertaking, 
which he lived to see carried into execution with consider* 
able success. His private charities were not less munifi* 
cent, but so secretly conducted, that it is impossible to 
give any particular account of them : it is affirmed by 
those who were in trust about him, that he never suffered 
an object to leave his house unsupplied, and he often sent 
them away with considerable sums, according to the judg- 
ment he made of their merits and necessities. — ^With respect 
to his political virtues, and the arts of government, when 
his heakh would permit him he was constant in his attend- 
ance at the council-table, and it is well known what weight 
and 'dignity he gave to the debates of that board. As be 
always studied the true interest of Ireland, so he judged^ 
that the diminishing the value of the gold coin would be a 
means of increasing silver in the country, a thing very 
much wanted; in order to effect which, be supported a 
scheme at the council- tab)e, which raised the clamours of 
unthinking people, although experience soon demonstrated 
its wisdom, fie was thirteen times one of the lords justices, 
or chief governors of Ireland ; which office he administered 
oftener than any other chief governor 'on record. He em- 
barked for England June 2, 1742, and dfter two days ill- 
ness died at his house in St. James's place, Sept. 27, and 
was buried in Westminster-abbey, where a stately monu- 
ment has been erected to his memory .-^His deportment 
was grave, his aspect venerable, and his temper meek and 
humble. He was always open and easy of access both to 
rich and poor. He was steady to the principles of liberty, 
both in religion and politics. His learning was universal, 
yet more in subsiance than shew ; nor would his modesty- 
permit him to make any ostentation of it. He always pre- 
served such an equal temper of mmd that hardly any thing 
could ruffle, and amidst obloquy and opposition, steadily 
maintained a resolution of serving his country, embraced 
every thing proposed for the good of it, though by persona 
remarkable for their opposition to him : and when the most 
public-spirited schemes were introduced by him, and did 
not meet with the reception they deserved, he never took 
offence, but was glad when any part of his advice for the 


public good was pursued, and was always willing to drop 
some points, that he might not lose all; often saying, 
** he would do all the good to Ireland he could, though 
they did not suffer him to do all he would.'* His life waf 
mostly spent in action, and therefore it is not to be ex* 
pected that he should have left many remains of his learn« 
ing behind him ; nor do we know of any thing he hath 
written, excepting a few Charges to his clergy at his visita« 
tions, which are grave, solid, and instructive, and eleveu 
Occasional Sermons, printed separately. In 1769, however^ 
were published, at Oxford, in two volumes 8vo, ^^ Letters 
written by bis excellency Hugh Boulter, D. D. lord pri- 
mate of all Ireland, &c. to several ministers of state in 
England, and some others. Containing an account of the 
most interesting transactions which passed in Ireland from 
1724 to 1738/' The originals, which are deposited in the 
library of Christ church, in Oxford, were collected by 
Ambrose Philips, esq. who was secretary to his grace, and 
lived in his house during that space of time in which they 
bear date. They are entirely letters of business, and are 
all of them in Dr. Boulter's hand-writing, excepting some 
few, which are fair copies by his secretary. The editor 
justly remarks, that these letters, which could not be in- 
tended for publication, have been fortunately preserved, 
as they contain the most authentic history of Ireland, for 
the period in which they were written : ^* a period," he 
adds, ^ which will ever do honour to his grace's memory, 
and to those most excellent princes George the first and 
second, who had the wisdom to place confidence in so 
'Worthy, so able, and so successful a minister ; a ministeir 
who had the rare and peculiar felicity of growing still 
more and more into the favour both of the king and of the 
people, until the very last day of his life." It is niuch to 
be regretted that in some of his measures, he was opposed 
by dean Swift, particularly in that of diminishing the gold 
coin, as it is probable that they both were actuated by an 
earnest desire of serving the country. In one affair, that 
of Wood's halfpence, they appear to have coincided, and 
in that they both happened to encourage a public clamour 
which had little solid foundation. — ^The writer of archbishop 
Boulter's Life in the Biog. Brit, seems to doubt whethef 
he assisted Ambrose Philips in the paper called the 
♦* Freethinker ;" but of this we apprehend there can be na 


doubt It was published while he held the living of St 

His widow died March 3, 1754. On the contingency of 
his having no issue by her, which was the case, he had 
bequeathed fiv^ hundred pounds to Magdalen-college in 
Oxford, to be applied towards rebuilding the same ; and ^ 
thousand pounds to Christ-church in the same university, 
to be applied to the purchase of an estate for founding five 
exhibitions of equal value, to be distributed among five of 
the poorest and most deserving of the commoners of that 
college, to be enjoyed by them for four years from the 
time of their election ; and directed, that no commoner of 
above three years standing should be elected into the said 
exhibitions. He vested the said election in the dean and 
canons of that house, and directed that the exhibitioners 
should be chosen upon a public examination in the hall, 
and recommended the sons of clergymen to be in the first 
place, cateris paribus^ considered. He also bequeathed the 
further sum of five hundred pounds to the last mentioned 
college, to buy an estate, to be distributed in equal exbi* 
bitions to five servitors of the said college, of whom noiie 
ivere to be capable of election who were of above two years 
standing, nor to enjoy the exhibition longer than for three 
years ; and he vested the right of election in the dean and 

BOULTON (Matthpw), who justly ought to be classed 
among public benefactors, the son of Mattliew Boulton, by 
Christian, daughter of Mr. Peers, of Chester, was born at 
Birtpingham Sept. 3, 1728, and was principally educated 
at a private grammar school, kept by the rev. Mr. Ansted. 
He learned drawing under Worlidge, and mathematics un- 
der Cooper, and laid in a stock of that useful knowledge 
by which he was enabled so highly tq improve the manu- 
factures of his country. So early as the year 1745, Mr. 
Boulton invented and brought to great perfection, the in- 
laid steel, buckles, buttons, watch chains, &c. Great 
quantities of these were exported to France, from whence 
they were re-purchased with avidity by the English, as the 
oflFspring of French ingenuity. His manufactory at Bir- 
Diingham, however, being inadequate to his extensive im- 
provements, and further experiments, he, in 1762, pur* 
thased a lease of the Soho, at Handsworth, in the couqity 

1 Biog. Brit.^-Prefaoe to hit I«itera. 

B O U L T O N. 215 

of StafFord, distant about two miles; at that time, a bar« 
reR heath, on the bleak summit of which stood a naked 
hut, the habitation of a warrener. These extensive tracts 
of common were converted by Mr. Boulton into the present 
superb manufactory, which was finished in 1765, at the 
expence of 9000/.; and in the year 1794, he purchased the 
fee simple of Soho, and much of the other adjoining lands. 

Impelled by an ardent attachment to the arts, and by the 
patriotic ambition of bringing his favourite Soho to the 
highest perfection, the ingenious proprietor soon esta* 
blished a seminary of artists, for drawing and modelling ; 
and men of genius were sought for, and liberally patronized^ 
which shortly led to the successful establblmient of an ex- 
tensive m^anufactory of ornaments, in what the French call 
or mouiu ; and these ornaments not only found their way 
into the apartments of his majesty, but also into those of 
the nobility and curious of this kingdom, France, and the 
greatest part of Europe. ^ *■ 

Finding that the mill which he had erected fell infinitely 
6hort, even with the aid of horses, of the force which was 
necessary for the completion,of his vast designs, Mr. Boul- 
ton, in 1767, had recourse to that master- piece of human 
ingenuity, the steam engine. This wonderful machine was 
yet in its infancy, and did not at first answer the expecta- 
tions that had been formed of it. In 1769, Mr. James Watt, 
of Glasgow, obtained a patent for a prodigious improve- 
ment in the steam engine. This induced Mr Boulton to 
form connexions with Mr. Watt, and invited him to settle 
at' Soho, to which the latter consented. In 1775, parlia- 
ment granted a prolongation of the patent for twenty -five 
years ; and Messrs. Boulton and Watt entering into a part- 
nership, established a very extensive manufactory of these 
engines at Soho, whence most of the great mines and ma- 
nufactories in England continue to be supplied, and they 
are now applied in almost every mechanical purpose, where 
great power is requisite. 

Amongst the various applications of the steam engine, 
that of coining seems to be of considerable importance, as 
by its powers, all the operations are concentrated on the 
same spot. It works a number of coining machines with 
greater rapidity and exactness by a few boys from twelve to 
fourteen years of age, than could be done by a great num- 
ber of strong men, without endangering their fingers, as 
the machine itself lays the blanks upon the die perfectly 

216 B O U L T O N. 

cpncentral with it, and, when struck, displaces one pieca 
and replaces another. The coining mill, which was erected 
in 1788, and has since been greatly improved, is adapted 
to. work eight machines, and each is capable of striking 
from sixty to an hundred pieces of money in a minute, the 
size of a guinea, which is equal to between 30,000 and 
40,000 per hour, and at the same blow, which strikes the 
face and reverse, the edge of the piece is also struck, either 
plain or with an inscription. 

About the year 1773, the ingenious art of copying pic* 
tures in oil colours, by a mechanical process, was invented 
at Soho ; and was brought to such a degree of perfection 
that the copies were taken for originals by the most expe- 
rienced connoisseurs. This art was brought to perfection 
under the management of the late ingenious Mr. F. Elgin- ' 
ton," who ^as no less celebrated for his paintings on glass. 

In 1788, Mr. Boulton struck a piece of gold, the size of 
a guinea, as a pattern, the letters of which were indented 
instead of a relief; and the head and other devices, although 
in relief, were> protected from wear by a flat border; and 
from the perfect rotundity of shape, &c. with the aid of a 
steel guage, it may with great ease and certainty, by as- 
certaining its specific gravity, be distinguished Irom any 
base metal. Previous to his engagement to supply go- 
Ternment with copper pence, in order to bring his appara- 
tus to perfection, he exercised it in coining silver money 
for Sierra *Leone and the African Company ; and copper 
for the East India Company and Bermuda. Various beau- 
tiful medals, also, of superior workmanship to any of the 
modern money of this country, of our celebrated naval and 
other officers, have, from time to time, been struck here by 
Mr. Boulton, for the purpose of employing and encouraging 
ingenious artists to revive that branch of sculpture. 

Since the demise of the late empress Catherine of Russia, 
Mr. Boulton presented her successor, the la^e emperor 
Paul T. with some of the curious articles of his manufactory, 
and in return received a polite letter of thanks and appro- 
bation, together with a splendid collection of medals, mi- 
nerals from Siberia, and specimens of all the modem mo- 
ney of Russia. Among the medals which, for elegance of 
design and beauty of execution, have never yet been 
equalled in this or any other country, is a massy one of 
gold, imjMressed with a striking likeness, it is said, of that 
monarch. This unrivalled piece was struck from a die en- 

B O U L T O N. 21f 

graved by the present empress dowager, who has, from her 
youth, taken great delight in the art of engraving onsteeL 

With a view of still further improving and facilitating 
the manufactory of steam engines, Messrs. Boulton and 
Watt have lately, in conjunction with their sons, esta« 
blished a foundery at Smethwick, a short distance from 
Soho. Here that powerful agent is employed, as it were, 
to multiply itself, and its various parts are fabricated and 
adapted together with the same regularity, neatness, and 
expedition, which distinguish all the operations of their ma« 
oufactory. Those engines are afterwards distributed to ail 
parts of the kingdom by the Birmingham canal, which com* 
tnunicates with a wet dock belonging to the foundery. 

In a national view, Mr. Boulton's undertakings have been 
highly valuable and important. By collecting around him 
artists of various descriptions, rival talents have been called 
forth; and, by successive competition, have been multi- 
plied to an extent highly beneficial to the public. A bar- 
ren heath has been covered with plenty and population ; 
and these works, which in their infancy were little known 
and attended to, now cover several acres, give employment 
to more than six hundred persons, and are indubitably the 
first of their kind in Europe. No expence has been spared 
to render these works uniform and handsome in architec- 
ture, as well as neat and commodious. The same liberal 
spirit and taste have been displayed on the adjoining gar- 
dens and pleasure grounds, which at the same time that 
they form an agreeable separation from the proprietors 
residence, render Soho a much admired scene of pictu*« 
resque beauty. As his great and expanded mind formed 
and brought to perfection the wonderful works thus briefly 
described, so he felt no greater felicity, than that of diffus- 
ing happiness to all around him. Mr. Boulton was not^only 
a fellow of the royal societies of London and Edinburgh, 
but likewise of that which bears the title of the free and 
ceconomical at St. Petersburg, and many other foreign 
institutions of the highest celebrity in Europe. He died in 
his eighty»first year, at Soho, AygustlT, 1809, regretted 
^ an illustrious contributor to the wealth and feme of his 
country, and a man of amiable and generous character. 
^ He was succeeded in estate and talents by his only son, the 
. present proprietor of Soho, in conjunction with his 

I Ftrom ** Memoin of M. boulton, esq," printed at Binningham 1609. 

8ia B o u a U E T. 


BOUQUET (DoM Martin), an eminent French histo- 
rian and antiquary, was a Benedictine of the congrega-i 
tion of St. Maur, and born at Amiens, Aug. 6, 1685. Af* 
ter finishing his course of philosophy and divinity, he 
studied the learned languages with, great success, and his 
superiors obser\'ing his decided taste for literature, made 
him librarian of St. Germain- des-prez. He afterwards 
assisted the celebrated Montfaucon in some of his works, 
and undertook himself an edition of Josephus. When, 
however, he had made considerable progress in this, he 
understood that a man of learning in Holland was em« 
ployed on a similar design, and therefore, with a liberality 
not very common, sent to him all the collections he had 
formed for the work. On the death of father Le Long, of 
the oratory, in 1721, Bouquet was employed in making 
a collection of the historians of France. Of this important 
work, a brief account will not be uninteresting. 

The first who attempted a collection of the kind was the 
famous Peter Pithou. It was his intention to have pub- 
lished a complete body of French historians, extracted 
from printed books and MSS. but he died in 1596, having 
published only two volumes on the subject, one in Svo, 
the other in 4to. These carried the history no lower tliau 
the year 1285. Nothing more was done till 1635, when 
Du Chesne, who is called the Father of French history^ 
took up the subject again^ and published a prospectus for 
a history, to be comprised in fourteen volumes fol. and 
end with th/e reign of Henry II. The first two volumes ac- 
cordingly came out in 1636, but the author died whilst the 
two next were in the press. These, however, were pub- 
lished in 1641, by his son, who added a fifth volume, end- 
ing with the life of Philippe le Bel, in 1649. The next 
attempts were vain, though made under the auspices of 
such men as Colbert, Louvois, and chancellor D'Aguesseau : 
the plan proposed by the first miscarried through the ob- 
stinacy of the famous Ducange (who would have the work 
done in his own way, or have nothing to do with it) and 
the modesty of Mabillon. Another was, as we have just 
mentioned, put a stop to by the death of Le Long, who, 
having pointed out the materials in his ^^ Bibliotbeque 
Historique de la France," was the fittest to have made use, 
of them. In this state of things the Benedictine congre- 
gation of St Maur recommended Bouquet, who accord- 
ingly went to ^ork under the inspection of a society of 


learned men named by the chancellor, in whose presence 
the plan of the work, and the materials fit to be made use 
of, were discussed. Bouquet was so assiduous in his la- 
bour, that about the end of the year 1729 he was ready 
with two volumes ; buty owing to his removal to the abbey 
of St. John de Laon, they were not published until 1738, 
when the chancellor D'Aguesseau called him to Paris, and 
he then proceeded so rapidly, that the eighth was published 
in 1752. He had begun the ninth, in which he hoped to 
have completed what regarded the second race of the 
French kings; but, in 1754, was seized with a violent dis- 
order, which proved fatal in four days, April 6. He was 
a msin of extensive learning,^connected with aU the learned 
men and learned societies of his time, and beloved for his 
personal virtues. For many years the work was continued 
by the congregation of St. Maur, but without the name of 
any editor. Seven more volumes have appeared since 
Bouquet's death, and the sixteenth is now in the press, 
and almost ready for publication. ^ 


BOURBON, or BORBONIUS (Nicholas), a Latin 
poet of France, was born in 1 503 at Vandeuvre, near Lan- 
gres, the son of a rich forge-master. Margaret de Valois 
appointed him preceptor to her daughter Jane d^Albret de 
Navarre, mother of Henry IV. He retired afterwards to 
Cond6, where he had a benefice, and died there about 1550. 
Bourbon left eight books of epigrams, and a didactic poem 
on the forge entitled " Ferrarie," 1533, 8vo; " De puero^ 
rum moribus," Lyons, 1536, 4 to, a series of moral dis- 
tichs, with a commentary by J. de Caures. He was ex- 
tremely well acquaiuted with antiquity and the Greek 
language. . Erasmus praises his epigrams, and he appears 
to have been the friend and correspondent of Erasmus, 
Scaiiger, Latimer, Carey, Harvey, Saville, Norris, Dud- 
ley, &c. having frequently visited England, where he was 
patronized by Dr. Butts, the king^s physician, and William 
Boston, abbot of Westminster, an hospitable man, with 
whom he speaks of having passed many pleasant hours in 
archbishop Cranmer's garden at Lambeth. He treats sir 
Thomas More with great asperity in one of his epigrams, 
from which we may probably conclude that he inclined to 
protestantism, although this is not consistent with his his-^ 

) Moreri.— Diet. Hist^-^aty'i Review, v^. II. p. 472. 



tory* His epigrams were published undev the title of 
*« Nugarum libri octo," Paris, 1533, and often reprinted, par- 
ticularly by Scaliger, 1 577 ; in 1608 by Passerat, with notes ; 
and lastly, by the abb6 Brpcbard in 1723, a handsome 
quarto edition, printed at Paris. ^ 

BOURBON (Nicholas), nephew to the above, and 
taperior to him as a Greek and Latin poet, was the son of 
a physician. He taught rhetoric in several colleges at 
Paris, and cardinal du Perron appointed him professor of 
eloquence at the royal college. He was also canon of 
Langres, and one of the forty of the French academy. He 
retired at last among the fathers of the oratory, where be 
died August 7, 1644, aged seventy. Bourbon is justly 
considered as one of the greatest Latin poets whom France 
has produced. His poems were printed at Paris, 1651,- 
12mo. The " Imprecation on the Parricide of Henry IV." 
is his chef-d'oeuvre. He wrote the two beautiful lines 
which are upon the gate of the arsenal at Paris, in honour 
of Henry the Great : 

^tna haec Henrico Yulcania tela ministrat^ 
Tela Gigantteos debeUatura furores. * 

BOURCHIER (Sir John), lord BERNERS, was bom 
about 1467, son and heir of sir Humphrey Bourchier by 
Elizabeth, daughter and heir of sir Frederick Tilney 
(widow of sir Thomas Howard), which Humf)hrey was 
killed at Barnet-field, on Edward IVth's part, and buried in 
Westminster abbey, during the life of his father, who was 
sir John Bourchier, K. G. fourth son of William earl of 
Ewe, and baron Berners, by marriage with Margery^ 
daughter and heir of Richard lord Berners. Lord Bour- 
chier succeeded his grandfather, May 16, 1474, b^i^g 
then only seven years old. He was educated in Baliol 
college, Oxford, and afterwards travelled abroad, and re- 
turned a master of seven languages, and a complete gen*- 
tleman. In 1495 he obtained the notice of Henry VII. by 
bis valour in quelling the fury of the rebels in Cornwall 
and Devonshire, under the conduct of Michael Joseph, a 
blacksmith. In 1513 he was captain of the pioneers at 
the siege of Therouenne. In 1514, being made chancellor 
of the king's exchequer for life, he attended the lady 
Mary, the king's sister, into France, to her marriage with 

* Moreri. — Lounger's Commoii-pUce-booky toI. I. 

* Moreri. — Baillet J ugtstuent des Savans. 


king Lewis XIL and in 1527 obtained a grant from the 
king of several manors. Afterwards he was made lieute-* 
nant of Calais and the marches adjoining to France, and 
spending most of his time there, wrote several learned 
works in that situation. There he made his will, March 
2j 1532, bequeathing his body to be buried in the chancel 
of the parish church of our lady, within the town of Calais^ 
and appointing that an honest priest should sing mass there 
for his soul, by the space of three years. He died March 
!6th following, leaving by Katherine his wife, daughter of 
John duke of Norfolk, Joane his daughter and heir, mar« 
ried to Edmund Knyvet of Ashwelthorpe in Norfolk, esq. 

Lord Berners is now principally known for his transla- 
tion of " Froissart's Chronicle," which he undertook by 
command of the king, and was published by Pinson, 1523, 
1525, 2 vols. fol. It is unnecessary to add how much this 
translation has been superseded by that of Thomas Johnes| 
esq. which lately issued from the Hafod press, and has 
passed through two editions since 1803. Others of lord 
Bemers^s works were a whimsical medley of translations 
from the French, Italian, and Spanish novels, which seem 
to have been the mode then, as they were afterwards in the 
reign of Charles IL These were, " The Life of Sir Ar- 
thur, an Armorican Knight ;'* ** The famous exploits of 
fir Hugh of Bourdeaux ;" ** Marcus Aurelius ;" and the 
** Castle of Love." He also composed a book " Of the 
duties of the inhabitants of Calais,'* and a comedy entitled 
'^ Ite in Vineam." Of all these an ample account may be 
seen in our authorities. ^ 

mas), archbishop of Canterbury in the successive reigns of 
Henry VI. Edward IV. Edward V. Richard III. and Henry 
VII. was son of WiHiam Bourchier earl of Ewe in Nor- 
mandy, and the couDtess of Stafford, and brother of Henry 
earl of Essex, and, consequently, related to the preceding 
lord Berners. He had his education in Neville's-inn at 
Oxford, and was chancellor of that university three years, 
viz. from 1433 to 1437. His first dignity in the church, 
was that of dean of the collegiate church of St. Martin's in 
London ; from which, in 1433, he was advanced, by pope 
Eugenius IV. to the see of Worcester :* but his consecration 

1 Censura Literaria, vol. I.— Park's Royal and Noble Attthon,^Woad'f 
AUi, vol. L 

822 B O U R C H I E R; 

was deferred to May 15, 1436, by reason (as is supposed^ 
of a defect in age. He bad not sat a full year, before her 
was elected by the monks of Ely bishop of that see, and 
confirmed by the pope : but, the king refusing his consent^ 
Bourchier did not dare to comply with the election, for 
fear of incurring the censure of the laws, which forbad,^ 
under very scver€i penalties, the receiving the pope^s bull 
without the king^s leave. Nevertheless, seven or eight 
years after, the see of Ely still continuing vacant, and the 
king consenting, he was translated thither, the 20th of 
December 1443. The author of the '* Historia Eliensis'* 
speaks very disadvantageously of him, as an oppressor, 
and .neglectful of his duty during his residence on that see, 
which was ten years twenty-three weeks and five days. At 
last he was elected archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
room of John Kemp, the 23d of April 1454. This election 
was the more remarkable, as the monks were left en- 
tirely to their liberty of choice, without any interposition 
either from the crown or the papal chair. On the con*^ 
trary, pope Nicolas Vth's concurrence being readily ob-* 
tained, the archbishop was installed with great solemnity. 
In the month of December following, he received the red 
hat from Rome, being created cardinal-priest of St. Cyria* 
cus in Thermisy but Bentbam thinks this was not till 1 464. 
The next year, he was made lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land, but resigned that office in October the year follow- 
ing. Soon after his advancement to the see of Canterbury, 
he began a visitation in Kent, and made several regula- 
tions for the government of his dioce«<s. He likewise 
published a constitution for restraining the ^excessive abuse 
of papal provisions, but deserved most highly of the learned 
world, for being the principal instrument in introducing 
the noble art of printing into England. Wood's account^ 
although not quite correct, is worth transcribing. Bour*' 
chier *' being informed that the inventor, Tossan, alias 
John Guthenberg, 'had set up a press at Harlem, was ex- 
tremely desirous that the English might be made masters 
of so beneficial an art. To this purpose he persuaded 
king Henry YI. to dispatch one Robert Toumour, be- 
longing to the wardrobe, privately to Harlem. This man^ 
furnished with a thousand marks, of which the archbishop 
supplied three hundred, embarked for Holland, and, to 
disguise the matter, went in company with one Caxton^ a 
merchant of London, pretending himself to be of the same 


profession. Thus concealing his name and his business, he 
went first to Amsterdam, then to Ley den, and at last settled 
at Harlem ; where having spent a great deal of time and 
money, he sent to the king for a fresh supply, giving his 
Highness to understand, that he had almost compassed the 
enterprise. In short, he persuaded Frederic Corselli, one 
of the compositors, to carry off a set of letters, and embark 
with him in the night for London. When they arrived, the 
archbishop, thinking Oxford a more convenient place for 
printing than London, sent Corselli down thither. And, 
lest be should slip away before he had discovered the whole 
secret, a guard was set upon the press. And thus the mys- 
tery of printing appeared ten years sooner in the university 
of Oxford than at any other place in Europe, Harlem and 
Mentz excepted. Not long after, there were presses set up 
at Westminster, St. Alban's, Worcester, and other monas- 
teries of note. After this manner printing was introduced 
into England, by the care of archbishop Bourchier, in the 
year of Christ 1464, and the third of king Edward IV.'* 

Bourchier, we are told, was strangely imposed upon by< 
the specious pretences of Richard duke of Gloucester, 
when he undertook to persuade the queen to deliver up the 
duke of York, her son, into the protector^s hands. He 
presided over the church thirty-two years, in the most 
troublesome times of the English government, those of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. He also performed the 
marriage ceremony between Henry VII. and the daugh- 
ter of Edward IV.; and had the happiness to be con* 
temporary with many prelates of distinction in English 
history. He was certainly a man of learning; though 
nothing written by him has come down to us, if we 
except a few Sy nodical decrees. Dart tells us, he 
founded a chantry, which was afterwards surrendered to 
king Henry VIII. Archbishop Bourchier died at his pa- 
lace of Knowie, on Thursday the thirtieth of March 1486, 
and was buried on the north side of the choir of his cathe- 
^ dral, by the high altar, in a tomb of marble, on which is au 
inscription merely recording the event 

Archbishop Bourchier's benefactions are stated by Mr. 
Bentham as follows : He gave to the prior and convent of 
Christ Church in Canterbury, the alien priory of Cranfield 
in Essex, a grant of which he had obtained from the crown 
in the time of Edward the Fourth. To the church of Can- 
terbury, besides the image of the Trinity, he bequeathed 

224 B O U R C H I £ R* 

twenty-seven copes of red tissue, and left to his successor, ipi 
recompence for dilapidations, 2000/. ; also 125/. to each of 
the universities, to be kept in chests, for the support of the 
poor scholars. The chest at Cambridge, which was united 
with Billingford's, was in being in 1601, when 100/. was 
borrowed out of it for the use of the university ; but this 
fund was afterward embezzled, through the iniquity of the 
times. The archbishop left also legacies to several mo- 
nasteries. ^ 

BOURDALOUE (Lewis), a Jesuit, and one of the most 
eloquent preachers France ever produced, was born at 
Bonrges, Aug. 20, 1632, and entered the society of the 
Jesuits in 1648. After having passed some years in teach- 
ing grammar, rhetorick, philosophy, and divinity, his ta^ 
lents pointed him out for the office of preacher, and the ex-* 
traordinaty popularity of his sermons in the country, deter- 
mined his superiors to call him to Paris in 1669, to take 
the usual course of a year's preaching in their church of St. 
Louis, which soon became crowded With multitudes of both 
sexes both from the court and city ; nor was this a trans- 
ient impression, as whoever heard him once wished to hear 
kim again, and even Louis XIV. listened with pleasure, al- 
tiiough he appears to have introduced subjects in his dis- 
courses which could not be very acceptable in his court* 
On the revocation of the edict of Nantz, the king sent him 
into Languedoc to strengthen the new or pretended con- 
verts from the heresies of the protestant faith, and we are 
told the effect of his eloquence was great. His eloquence 
was undoubtedly superior to that of his contemporaries, and 
he has justly been praised for introducing a more pure 
style than was customary in the French pulpits. One ef- 
fect of his preaching was, that great numbers of his hearers 
requested him to take their souls into his hands, and be the 
director of their consciences, in other words, to turn father 
confessor, with which he complied, and fiequently sat five 
or six hours in the confessional, completing there, says his 
biographer, what he had only sketched in the pulpit. He 
was yet more admired for his charitable attentions and the 
sick and poor, among whom he passed much of his tin^e, in 
religious conference and other acts of humanity. He died 
at Paris May 13, 1704, universally lamented and long re- 
membered as the most attractive and eloquent of preachers. 

1 Biog. Britr— BenUttm'i Ely, 


He had preached thirty -four years at court and io Paris* 
Father Bretooneau published two editions of his works, the 
first of 16 yols. 8vo. 17 i 6, reckoned the best, or at least, 
the most beautifully printed ; and the second in 18 vols. 
12aio. Comparisons have been formed between him and 
Massillon, but several are still inclined to give him the pre- 
ference. There is warmth, z*eal| and elegance in his style 
and reasoning, but he is frequently declamatory and ver- 
bose. It is difficult, however, for English critics to appre- 
ciate the merits of his sermons, calculated as they were for 
a class of hearers with whose taste we are unacquainted. 
Of his catholic spirit we have an instance on record, that 
in an interview with bishop Burnet at Paris, he told the 
English prelate that he believed *^all honest protestants 
would be saved/' ^ 

BOURDEILLES (P£T£R de), betier knowp by the name 
of Brant6me, of which he was abbot, added to that title 
those of lord and baron of Richemont, chevalier, gentle- 
man of the chamber to the kings Charles IX. and Henry 
IIL and chamberlain to the duke of Alengon. He had the 
design of being created a knight of Maltha in a voyi^e he 
made to that isle during the time of the siege in 1565. He 
returned to France, where he was fed with vain expecta- 
tions ; but he received no other reward (as he tells us ^him- 
self) than being welcomed by the kings his masters, great 
lords, princes, sovereigns, queens, princesses, &c. He 
died July 5, 1614, at the age of 87. His memoirs were 
printed in ten volumes, 12mo, viz. four of the French 
commanders; two of foreign commanders ; two of women 
of gallantry; one of illustrious ladies; and one of duels. 
There is another edition of the Hague, 1741, 15 vols, l^mo^ 
on acpount of the supplement, which makes five, and also 
a Paris edition 1787, 8 vols. 8vo. These memoirs may be 
of some use, if read cautiously, by those who would know 
the private history of Charles IX. of Henry III. and of 
Henry IV. Here the man is more represented than the 

Erince. The pleasure of seeing these kings in their pecu* 
arities in private life, added to the simplicity of Brantdme'a. 
style, renders the reading of his memoirs extremely agree- 
able. But some of his anecdotes are grossly indecent, aqd 
jQany of them fictions. 

^* Brantome," (says M. Anquetil) ^ is in the hands of 

> 1C9r«i.«*-Bi9S« OalUea.— DioU HiiU 

Vol. VI. Q 

t26 B O U R BE I L L £ S. 

erery body. All the world pretends to have read him ; bat 
he ought particularly to be put into the hands of princes, 
that they may learn how impossible it is for them to hide 
themselves; they they have an importance in the eyes of 
their courtiers, which draws attention to all their actions; 
and that, sooner or later, the most secret of them are re* 
vealed 4x) posterity. The reflections that would occur, oil 
seeing that Brant6me has got together all the little transac* 
tions, all the idle words that have escaped them^ all the 
actions pretended to be indifferent, which were thought to 
be neglected and lost, and which nevertheless mark the 
character, would render them more circumspect.— ^In read^ 
ing Brant6me a problem forces itself on the mind, which 
it is difficult to solve. It is very common to see that author 
joining together the most discorc^nt ideas in regard to mo^ 
rals. Sometimes he will represent a woman as addicted to 
the most infamous refinements of libertinism, and then will 
conclude by saying that she was prudent, and a good Chris* 
tian. So likewise of a priest, of a monk, or any other ec* 
clesiastic, he will relate anecdotes more than wanton ; and 
will tell us very gravely at the end, that this man lived re* 
gularly according to his station. Almost all his memoirs 
are full of similar contradictions in a sort of epigram. On 
which 1 have this question to propose : Was Brant6me a li- 
bertine ; who, in order to sport more securely with religion 
and morals, affects in the expression a respect to which the 
very matter of the recital gives the lie? or, Was he one of 
those persons who generally go under the name of amiable 
fops ; who, without principles as without design, confound vir- 
tue and vice, making no real difference between one character 
and another? Whatever judgment we may form of him, we 
must always blame him for omitting to observe a proper re* 
▼erence for decorum in his writings, and for frequently 
putting modesty to the blush. We perceive in Brant6me 
the character of those young ttien, who, making a part of 
the court by their birth, pass their lives in it without pre- 
tensions and without desires. They amuse themselves with 
every thing : if an action has a ridiculous side, they seize 
it ; if it has liot, they give it one. Brant6me only skime 
along the surface of a subject; he knows nothing of diving 
into an action, and unfolding the motives that gave it birth. 
He gives a good picture of what he has seen, relates in stm«> 
pie terms what be has heard; but it is nothing uncommoQ 
to see him quit his main object, return to it, quit it again^ 


* * • • 

•ad conclude by thiDking no more of it. With all this ir« 
regularity he pleas^, ht^cause he amuses." ' 

BOURDEILLES (Claude de), grand-nephew of the 
former, comte de Montr^sor, attached to Gaston of Or* 
lews, both whil<e he was in favour, and when he had lost 
it, was several times deprived of his liberty for serving that 
prince* Disgusted with the tumult and the artifices of the 
court, he took up the resolution, of enjoying the sweets of 
privacy. He died at Paris in 1663. He left memoirs, 
known under the name of Montr&or, 2 vols. 1 2raio, which 
are curious, as containing many particulars of the history 
of his time. Montrespr makes no scruple of relating the 
projects he formed against the life of cardinal Richelieu \ 

BOURDELOT (John), a learned French critic, who 
distinguished himself in the republic of letters by 
writing notes upop Lucian, Petronius, and Heliodorus, 
lived at the end of the 16th, and in the beginning of the 
17th century, was of a good family of Sens, and educated 
with care. He applied himself to the study of the belles 
lettres and of the learned languages; and Baillet tells us, 
that he passed for a great connoisseur in the oriental 
tongues, and in the knowledge of manuscripts. These pur* 
suits did not hinder him from being consummate in the law. 
He exercised the office of advocate to the parliament of 
Paris in 1627, when Mary of Medicis, hearing of his un* 
common merit, made him master of the requests. He died 
suddenly at Paris in 1638. His edition of Heliodorus^ 
which is one of the best, was published in 1619, 8vo: 
That of Lucian at Paris, 1615, fol. with the potes of Mi- 
cyllus, Guerinus, Marsilius, and Cognatus, and some short 
and learned ones by himself, at that time a very young 
man. Among the sources from which Bourdelot professes 
to have compiled his edition, are two ancient MSS. in the 
' royal library at Paris, the existence of which Faber (ad Lu« 
ciamTimonem,c. 1.) denies in the most. positive terms. His 
Petronius was first published at Paris, 12 mo, in 1618, a 
▼ery scarce edition, and reprinted in 1645, 1663, and 

BOURDELOT (Peter Michon), nephew to the above, 
sind educated by him, was a very celebrated physician at 
Paris, where he died Feb. 9, 1685, aged seventy-six. In 
1684, he obtained leave to adopt the name of Bourdelet, 

1 Morefi.«^DtGt Hist ' Ibid. 3 Ibid.— Dibdin't 


Mg B O U R D E L O T. 

pursttant to his uncle's desire, who ou that condition left 
hioi bis library and fortune. H6** wrote some treatises 
on -** the Viper,** on "Mount Etna,*' "La relation des 
appartmens de Versailles,** &c. with three yolumes of 
" Conferences,'* which were published by M. le Gallois, ' 

BOURDELOT (Peter Bonnet), physician in ordinal^ 
to Louis XIV. and first physician to the dnchess of Bur- 

Sundy, was sister's son to the preceding P. Michon Bour- 
elot, who enjoined him to change his name from Bonnet 
to Bourdelot, on the same terms that himself adopted that 
name, viz. his library and fortune. P. Bonnet Bourdelot 
was a skilful physician, and a man of general literature. 
He wrote some useful notes on the " Bibliotheque choisie 
de M. Colomi^s,** which were added to the Paris edition of 
1731, and left a manuscript catalogue of all printed medi- 
cal works, with lives and criticisms on the authors. He 
wrote also some papers on the history of music, which wer^ 
used by his brother Bonnet in his " llistoire de la Mu- 
sique,'* 1715. He died in 1709, aged fifty-four. • 

BOURDON (Sebastun), a very celebrated French 
painter, was born at Montpellier in 1616. His father, who 
was a glass-painter, gave him the first instructions in his 
art. When only seven years old, one of his uncles brought 
him to Paris, and placed him with a very indifferent painter^ 
whose defects, however, were supplied by young Bour* 
don's natural genius. Returning to Bourdeaux at the age 
of fourteen, he painted the cieling of a neighbouring cha- 
teau, and then went to Toulouse. Finding here no em* 
ployment, he went into the army ; but his captain, a maa 
of some taste, judging that he would one day excel in his 
profession as an artist, gave him his discharge. He was 
eighteen when be went to Italy, and became acquainted 
with Claude Lorrain, whose manner, as well as that of 
Saccbi, Caravagio, and Bamboccio, he imitated with great 
success. After a residence of three years here, he hap« 
pened to have a difference with a painter, who threatened to 
inform against him as a Calvinist, and Bourdon immediately 
set out for Venice, and thence to France. At the age of 
twenty-seven he painted his famous Crucifixion of St. Peter 
for the church of Notre Dame at Paris, which could not fail 
to raise his reputation. Du Guernier, a miniature painter, 
jDucb employed at court, and whose sister he married. 


Bisted htm with his advice, and procured him work. But 
the civil wars interrupting the progress of the fine arts, in 
1652 he went to Sweden, where queen Christina appointed 
him her first painter. While employed on many wocks for 
her, chiefly portraits, she mentioned to him one day some 
pictures which the king her father had found when he took 
Prague ; these had till now remained unpacked, and she de- 
skred Bourdon to examine them/ Bourdon reported fa* 
vourably of them, particularly of some, by Corregio, on 
which the queen requested he would accept them as a pre* 
sent from her. Bourdon, with corresponding liberality and 
dbinterestedness, represented that they were some of the 
finest paintings in Europe, and that her majesty ought ne- 
ver to part with them, as a fit collection for a crowned head* 
The queen accordingly kept them, and took them with her 
to Rome when she abdicated the throne. After her death, 
the heirs of Don Livio Odeschalchi, who had purchased them, 
sold them to the regent duke of Orleans ; and they after- 
wards made part of the fine collection known in this coun« 
try by the name of the Orleans Collection. 

Bourdon, however, not finding much exercise for his ge- 
nius in Sweden, and the queen having become Roman 
catholic after her abdication, he returned to France, then 
more favourable to the arts, and soon had abundance of 
emplo3rment Among his first performances after his re<« 
turn, were a ** Dead Christ,^' and the ^^ Woman taken in 
adultery.*' Some business occasioning him to go to Mont* 
pellier, during, his short stay there he painted several 
portraitsofpersonsof fashion. An anecdote is told, that, when 
in this place, a taylor who had a great esteem for him, and 
knew he was not rich, sent lo him, by the hand of one 
Francis, a painter, a complete suit of clothes, cloak, and 
bonnet. Bourdon, in return, sent him his portrait dressed 
In this suit ; but Francis, thinking it a very fine specimen 
of the art, presented the taylor with a copy, and kept the 
original. In 1663 he returned to Paris, where he couti* 
nued to execute many fine pictures, until his death in 

He had an uncommon readiness of hand, though he was 
frequently incorrect, and was particularly so in the extre^ 
mities of his figures. As a proof of his expeditious man* 
ner of painting, it is reported, that in one day he pl^nted 
twelve portraits after life, as large as nature, and those not 
the worst of his performances. His touch is extremely 


Ugbt, his colouring good, his attitudes are full of variety, 
and sometimes graceful, and his expression is lively and 
animated. However, it most be confessed, that his con- 
ceptions were often extravagant, nor would many of his 
compositions abide a critical examination. His landscapes 
«re in the taste of Titian, but they seem rather designed 
from imagination than after nature ; yet, in several of them, 
the product of that imagination has a beautiful effect ; and 
he usually enriched his pastoral scenes with a great num- 
ber of figures and animals. His pictures are seldom finish- 
ed, and those which appear mostso, are not always his best. 
The most esteemed work of Bourdon is the Martyrdom of 
St. Peter, in the church of Notre Dame at Paris, which is 
considered as a curiosity. Sir Joshua Reynblds had his 
'^ Return of the Ark from captivity,'* which he bequeathed 
to sir George Beaumont. Sir Joshua in his fourteenth 
discourse speaks very highly of this picture. A3 a proof 
of the value of Sebastian Bourdon^s pictures in this country, 
we may mention that in 1770, a holy family by him was 
sold by the late Mr. Christie, for 341/. 5s. 

SebastiaiK Bourdon has also a place among engravers* 
His etchings, which are numerous, are executed in a bold, 
masterly style ; and convey a clear idea of his manner of 
painting. The lights are broad, the draperies are formed 
with great taste, and the folds well marked, though some- 
times too dark and hard upon the lights ; the heads ai'C 
very expressive ; the back-grounds are finely conceived, 
and executed in a grand style. Some of the principal firom 
his own compositions are the following ; the *' Seven acts 
of mercy ;'• the " Flight into Egypt," and the " Return 
from thence ;" several subjects of the ** Virgin and Child ;" 
in one of which is seen a woman washing linen, hence dis- 
tinguished by the name of the washer-womsm ; the ** Re- 
turn of the ark," from the above-mentioned picture, said 
to be very scarce ; the " Baptism of the eunuch ;" ** Twelve 
large landscapes," very spirited and fine prints. ^ 


BOURGELAT (Claude), veterinary surgeon, was a 
native of Lyons, and in his youth a soldier, after which he 
studied law, but quitted that pursuit on being appointed 
chief of the riding-school of Lyons, where he seems to 
have discovered the employment for which he was best 

> D'AnserviHe:— Pilkmgtoii.*-StrDU. 

B O U R G E LA t. 231 

fitted. From this time he applied himself to the principles 
of horsemanship, which he debiiled in his '^ Nouveau 
Newcastle, ou Trait6 de Cavalerie," Lausanne, 1747, 8va 
He laboured no less assiduously to rescue the veterinary 
art from the hands of ignorance and empiricism, and with 
that view published in 1750, his ^^Elemens d'hippiatrique, 
ou Nouveaux principes sur la connoissance des chevaux,'' 
Lyons, 3 vols. 8vo. The knowledge he displayed in this 
work probably rendered it easy for him to obtain the leave 
of government to establish a veterinary schpol at Lyons, of 
the great utility of which the public soon became sensible, 
and many able scholars educated under Bourgelat extended 
this new branch of the medical art to every part of the 
kingdom. In 1765, he published his ^'Matiere medicale 
rdsonn^e a Tusage de Tecole veterinaire,^' Lyons, 8voi» 
His success at Lyons induced the government to invite him 
to Paris, and he founded a second school at Alford, near 
Charenton, and published several elementary treatises for 
the use of his scholars, such as ^< Cours theorique et pra* 
tique des bandages ;** "Trait6 de la ferrure,'* 1776, l2mo; 
^ L'Anatomie compar^e de tons les animaux,*' and ^^ Me« 
-moire stir les maladies contagieuses du betail,*' 1776, 4to. 
After a life spent on this important science, he died in 
1779, aged sixty-seven. At his death he bore the titles 
of inspector-general of the veterinary schools, and com- 
missary-general of the stud. Besides his &vourite pursuit^ 
he was a man of general knowledge. ^ 

BOURGEOIS (Sir Francis), knight of the Polish or- 
der of Merit, and an artist of distinguished reputation, was 
the descendant of a considerable family in Switzerland, but 
was bom in London in 1756. His early destination was 
the army, under the patronage of lord Heathfield, who was 
bis father^s friend; but having been instructed while a 
child in the rudiments of painting, by a foreigner of incon- 
siderable merit as a horse-painter, be became so attached 
to the study, a^ soon to relinquish the military profession, 
and devote himself wholly to the pencil. For this purpose 
he was placed under the tuition of Loutherboui^, and hav« 
ing, from his connexions and acquaintance, access to many 
of the most distinguished collections, he sood acquired 
considerable reputation by his landscapes and sea-pieces. 
In 1776^ he travelled through Italy, France, and Holland, 

» Diet. Hist, 

ISS B O U R G E O I ^S. 



where his correct kaowledge of the language of each coun* 
try, added to the poUtCDess of his address^ and the plea* 
sures of his conversation, procured him an introduction to 
the best society, and most valuable repositories of the arts 
on the continent. At his return to England, he exhibited 
several specimens of his studies at the royal academy, which 
obtained him reput&tion and patronage. In 1791 he was 
appointed painter to the king of Poland,- whose brother, 
the prince primate, had been much pleased with his per- 
formances during his residence in this country ; and at the 
same time he received the honour of knighthood of the 
order of Merit, which was afterwards confirmed by his pre* 
sent majesty, who, in 1794, appointed him landscape- 
painter to the king. Previous to this he had, in 1792, 
been elected a member of the royal academy. Some time 
before his death, by the will of the late Noel Desenfans, 
esq. an eminent picture-dealer, he became possessed of 
sufficient property to render a laborious application to his 
profession no longer necessary, and from that time he lived 
in the circle of his friends, highly respected for his talents 
and agreeable manners. He died Jan. 8, 181 1^ at his house 
in Portland- street, bequeathing bis fine collection of pic- 
tures, and his fortune, to Dulwich college. According to 
the terms of his will, he leaves the whole of these pictures, 
besides 10,000/. to keep them in due preservation, and 
2,000/ for the purpose of repairing the gallery in the col- 
lege for their reception. He also bequeathed legacies of 
1000/. each to the master of the college, and to the chap- 
lain : and the fellows of the college are to be the residuary 
legatees, and are to possess, for its advantage, all the rest 
of his property, of every denomination. Most part of this 
will, however, does not take effect until after the death of 
Mrs. Desenfans, the widow of his benefactor ; and after 
that event he directs that the body of the late Noel Desen- 
fans, which is no,w deposited in a sarcophagus within a 
mausoleum in a chapel, attached to his late house in Char- 
lotte*Btreet, Portland-place, shall be removed, together 
with hb own body (which has, by his desire, been depo-» 
sited in the same mausoleum), and entombed in a sarco- 
phagus, to be placed in the chapel of Dulwich college; 
So singular a will, with respect at least to the place 
chosen for this collection, excited much surprise. The 
following circumstances^ however, which have been com* 
luunicated by an intimate friend of the testator, may in 


some measure account for it After sir Francis became 
possessed of the Desenfans collectioni by the owner's 
friendly will in his favour, he wished to purchase the fee 
simple of his fine house in Charlotte-street, enlarge it, and 
endow it as a perpetual repository for the collection, easily 
accessible to the public, and particularly to students as a 
school of art ; but unluckily, his landlord, a nobleman lately 
deceased, refused his consent, although he afterwards ex- 
pressed an inclination to grant it, when too late. Sir Fran- 
cis then conceived the design of bequeathing the collection 
to the British Museum, but did not execute it, from a fear 
that the pictures might not be kept entire and unmixed, he 
being told that it was in the power of the trustees to dis-* 
pose of what might appear superfluous or inferior. Such 
was his respect for his deceased friend, that his only am- 
bition was to discover a place where the collection might 
be kept together, and known in perpeiuum, not as his, but 
4IS the Desenfans Collection. By whom Dulwich col- 
lege, an hospital for poor men and women, remote from 
the residence of artists and men of taste, was suggested^ 
we know not. It was a place sir Francis had probably never 
before seen ; but, having once visited it, and been informed 
that his terms might be .complied with there, without risk of 
alteration, be dispi^sed of his property as we have related. 

As an artist, sir Francis may be placed in the second 
rank. He was a close imitator of Loutherbourg. His con-* 
ception of his subject, as well as the grouping of his 
%ure8, was happy, and in conformity with nature ; but he 
was often defective in his finishing, and so much a man- 
nerist in his colouring, that his paintings may be recog- 
nized by a very distant 'glance. ' 

BOURGET (DoM John), was born at the village of 
Beaumains near Falaise, in the diocese of Seez^ in 1724. 
He was educated at the grammar-school at Caen, whence 
be was removed to that university, and pursued his studies 
with great diligence and success till 1745, when he be- 
came a Benedictine monk of the abbey of St. Martin de 
Seez, then m regky that is, under the direction of a con- 
Tentual abbot. Some time after this, Dom Bourget was 
appointed prior cl^iustral of the said abbey, and continued 
ux years in that office, when he was nominated prior of 
7iron en Perche ; whence being translated to the abbey 

«34 1^ O U R G E T. 

of St. Stephen at Caen, in the capacity of sub-prior^ he 
managed the temporalities of that religious house during 
two years, as he did their spiritualities for one year longer ; 
after which, according to the custom of the honse, he re- 
signed his office. His superiors, sensible of his merit and 
learning, removed him thence to the abbey of Bee, where 
he resided till 1764. He was elected an honorary member 
of the society of antiquaries of London, Jan. 10, 1765 ; in 
which y^ar.he returned to the abbey of St. Stephen at 
Caen, where he continued to the time of bis death. These 
honourable offices, to which he was promoted on account 
of his great abilities, enabled him not only to pursue his 
favourite study of the history and antiquities of some of the 
principal Benedictine abbies in Normandy, but likewise 
gave him access to all their charters, deeds, register-books^ 
&c. &c. These he examined with great care, and left be- 
hind him in MS. large and accurate accounts of the abbies 
of St. Peter de Jumieges, St. Stephen, and the Holy 
Trinity at Caen (founded by William the -Conqueror and 
his queen Matilda), and a very particular history of the 
abbey of Bee. These were all written in French. . The 
History of the royal abbey of Bee (which he presented to 
Dr. Ducarel in 1764) is only an abstract of his larger work. 
This ancient abbey, (which has prod|>ced several arch-> 
bishops of Canterbury and other iUustrious prelates of this 
kingdom) is frequently* mentioned by our old historiana 
The death of this worthy Benedictine (which happened on . 
new-year's day, 1776) was occasioned by his unfortunate 
neglect of a hurt he got in his leg by falling doym^ two or 
three steps in going from the hall to the cloister of the 
abbey of St. Stephen at Caen, being deceived by the am- 
biguous feeble light of a glimmering and dying lamp that 
was. placed in that passage. He lived universally esteemed^ 
and died sincerely regretted by all those who were ac- 
quainted with him ; and was buried in . the church of the 
said abbey, Jan. 3, 1776. ' 

BOURGUET (Louis), who was bom at Nimes in 1678, 
became celebrated for his proficiency in natural history. 
The revocation of the edict of Nantes having forced his 
family to go and seek an asylum in Switzerland, Zurich 
was indebted to them for its manufactures of stockings 
muslins, and several silk stuffs. Young Bourguet wett 

> Menoirs by Dr. Ducarel, prefixed to the Histoiy »f th« alibey of Bt% 

B O U R G U E T. 235 

through a course of study there ; afterwards married at 
Berne, and settled at, where he became pro- 
fessor of philosophy and mathematrcs. He died Dec. 31, 
1742, at the age of . 64, after publishing, 1. A Letter on 
the formation of salts and crystals; Amsterdam, 1729, 
12mo. 2. ^^ La bibliotheque Italique," 16 vols. 8vo. This 
journal, begun at Geneva in 1728, found a welcome re- 
ception among the learned, as a solid and useful book de- 
seriring to be continued, altiiough deficient in styles and 
hastily written. He wrote also, " Trait^ des petiifactions,^* 
Paris, 1742, 4to, and 1778, 8vo. Many of his learned 
papers on subjects of natural history were inserted in the 
literary journals, and his eloge is in the Helvetic Journal 
for 1745.* 

BOURIGNON (Antoinette), a famous female enthu- 
siast, was born Jan. 13, 1616, at Lisle in Flanders. She 
came into the world so very deformed, that a consultation 
was held in the family some days about stifling her as a 
monstrous, birth. But if she^unk almost, beneath humanity 
in her exterior, her interior seems to. have been raised as 
much above it. For, at -four years of age, she not only 
took notice that the people of Lisle did not 'live up to the 
principles of Christianity which they professed, but ear- 
nestly, desired to be retnoved into some more Christian 
country ; and her progress was suitable to this beginning.- 
Her parents lived unhappily/ together, JVIr.:Bourignon using 
his spouse with too much severity, especially in his passion : 
upon which occasions, Antoinette endeavoured to soften 
him by her infant embraces, which had some little effect ; 
but the mother^s uuhappiness gave the daughter an utter 
.aversion to matrimony. This falling upon a temper strongly 
tinctured with enthusiasm, she grew a perfect devotee to 
virginity, and became so immaculately chaste, that, if her 
own word may be taken,, she never .had, in all her life, not 
even by temptation or surprise, the least thought unworthy 
of the purity of the virgin state : nay, she possessed the 
gift of chastity in so abundant a manner, that her presence 
9ind her conversation shed an ardour of continence over all 
who knew her. . 

Her father, however, to whom all this appeared unna- 
tural, considered her as a mere woman ; and, having found 
.an agreeable match, promised her in marriage to a French* 

> MeKrL<— Diet. Hist. 

J36 B O U R I G N O N. 

taian. Easter-day, 1636, w£i8 fixed for the nuptials ; bat, to 
avoid the execution, the young lady fled, under the disguise 
of a hermit, but was stopped at Blacon, a village of Hai- 
nault, on suspicion of her sex. It was an officer of horse 
quartered in the village who seized her ; he had observed 
something extraordin_ary in her, and mentioning her to the 
archbishop of Cambray, that prelate came tb examine her, 
and sent her home. But being pressed again with proposals 
of matrimony, she ran away once more : and, going to the 
archbishop, obtained his licence to set up a small society in 
the country, with some other maidens of her taste and tem- 
per. That licence, however, was soon retracted^ and An- 
toinette obliged to withdraw into the country of Liege^ 
whence she returned to Lisle, and passed many years there 
privately in devotion and great simplicity. When her patri- 
monial estate fell to her, she resolved at first to renounce it ; 
but, changing her mind, she took possession of it ; and as 
she was satisfied with a few conveniences, she lived at little 
expence : and bestowing no charities, her fortune increased 
apace. For thus uking possession of her estate, she gave 
three reasons? first, that it might not come into the hands 
of those who had no right to it ; or secondly, of those who 
would have made an ill use of it ; thirdly, God shewed her 
that she should have occasion for it to his glory. And as 
to charity, she says, the deserving poor are not to be met 
with in this world. This patrimony must have been some- 
thing considerable, since she speaks of several maid ser- 
vants in her house. What she reserved, however, for this 
purpose, became a temptation to one John de Saulieu, the 
son of a peasant, who resolved to make his court to her ; 
and, getting admittance under the character of a prophet, 
insinuated himself into the lady^s favour by devout acts 
and discourses of the most refined spirituality. At length 
he declared his passion, modestly enough at first, and was 
easily checked ; but finding her intractable, he grew so 
insolent as to threaten to murder her if she would not com- 
ply. Upon this she had recourse to the provost, who sent 
two men to guard her house ; and in revenge Saulieu gave 
out, that she had promised him marriage, and even bedded 
with him. But, in conclusion, they were reconciled ; he 
retracted his slanders, and addressed himself to a young 
devotee at Ghent, whom he found more tractable. This^ 
however, did not free her from other applications of a. 
similar nature. The parson^s nephew of St. Andrew's pa- 
rish near Lble fell in love with her^ and as her koiis^ 

B O U R I G N O N. Ml 

Btood in the neighbourhood, he fireqaently enrironed it^ 
in order to force an entrance. Onr recluse threatened to 
quit her post, if she was not delivered from this trouble- 
some suitor, and the uncle drove him from his house : 
upon which he grew desperate, and sometimes discharged 
a musquet through the nui)*s chamber, giving out that she 
was his espoused wife. Tlus made a noise in the city ; 
the devotees were offended, and threatened to afironi 
Bourignon, if they met her in the streets. At length she 
was relieved by the preachers, who published from their 
pulpits, that the report of the /marriage was a scandalous 

Some time afterwards she quitted her house, and put 
herself as governess at the head of an hospital, where she 
locked herself up in the cloister in 1658, having taken the 
order and habit of St Austin. But here again, by a very 
singular fate, she fell into fresh trouble. Her hospital was 
found to be infected with sorcery so much, that even all 
the little girls in it had an engagement with the deviL 
This gave room to suspect the governess ; who was ac« 
cordingly taken up by the magistrates of Lisle, and exa« 
mined : but nothing could be proved against her. How« 
ever, to avoid further prosecutions, she retired to Ghent 
in 1662 : where she tio sooner was, than she professed that 
great secrets were revealed to her. About this time she 
acquired a friend at Amsterdam, who proved faithful to 
her as long as he lived, and left her a good estate at his 
death : his name was De Cordt: he was one of the fathera 
of the oratory, and their superior at Mechlin, and was di'^ 
rector also of an hospital for poor children. This prose- 
lyte was her first spiritual birth, and is said to have given 
her the same kind of bodily pangs and throes as a natural 
labour, which was the case also with her other spiritual 
children ; and she perceived more or less of these pains^ 
according as the truths which she had declared operated 
Biore or less strongly on their minds. Whence another of 
her disciples, a certain archdeacon, talking with De Cordt 
before their mother on the good and new resolution which 
they had taken, the latter observed, that her pains were 
much greater for him than for the former : the archdeacon, 
looking upon De Cordt, who was fat and corpulent, 
whereas he was a little man himself, said, smiling, ** It is 
so wonder that our mother has had a harder labour for you 
tkan for me, since you are a great, huge child, whereas I 

188 BO U R I G N O k 

am but a little one ;*' which discomposed the gravtfy of all 
the faces present : This has beeo recorded as a proof that 
our Antoinette's disciples somedmes descended from the 
sublimity of their devotion to the innocent raillery of peo- 
pie of the world. 

Our prophetess staid longer than she intended at Amster*- 
dam, where she published her book of ^'The light of the 
world/' and some others; and finding all sorts crowd to 
visit her, she entertained hopes of seeing her doctrine ge- 
nerally embraced; but in that she was sadly deceived* 
For, notwithstanding her' conversations with heaven were, 
as it is said, frequent, so that she understood a great num«r 
ber of things by revelation, yet she composed more books 
there than she had followers. The truth is, her visions 
and revelations too plainly betrayed the visionary and en- 
thusiastic temper of her mind, and many of them were too 
grossly indecent to proceed from a mind that was not 
tainted with insanity. She had likewise some qualities not 
Tery well calculated to attract proselytes ; ber temper was 
morose and peevish ; and she was extremely avaricious and 
greedy of amassing riches. This quality rendered her ut- 
terly uncharitable as to the bi*anch of almsgiving, and so im* 
placably unforgiving to such poor peasants as had robbed 
her of any trifle, that she used to prosecute them with tha 
utmost rigoun 

Her stay at Amsterdam was chiefly owing to the happi- 
ness she had in her dear De Cordt : that proselyte had ad« 
Tanced almost all his estate to some relations, in order to 
drain the island of Noordstrandt in Holstein, by which 
means he had acquired "tome part of the island, together 
with the tithes and government of the whole. He sold also 
an estate to madame Bourignon, who prepared to retire 
thither in 1668 ; but she rejected the proposal of Labadie 
and his disciples to settle themselves there with her. It 
seems they haid offered De Cordt a large sum of money to 
purchase the whole island, and thereby obtained his con- 
sent to their settlement in it : this was cutting the grass 
under her feet, an injury which she took effectual care to 
prevent. Accordingly De Cordt dying on the 12th of No-* 

vember 1669, made her his heir^: which inheritancey 


* This fanatic designed Noordstrandt He had sold them a part, giviof up atl 

for the persecuted saints of God ; and the rest, with his rights and pretensions 

taking the Jansehists to be snch, he to the oratory of Mechlin, under cer- 

drew tbeni from ail parU into tb« »!•• tain couditioiiSi which Mt bciog •h- 

B O U R I G N O N. 


bowever, brought ber into new troubles. Many law-suiti 
were raised to hinder her from enjoying it : uor were ber 
doctrine and religious principles spared on the occasion. 
However, she left Holland in 1671, to go into Noordstrandt. 

But stopping in her way at several places of Holstein, 
where she dismissed some disciples (who followed her, she 
found, for the sake of interest) she plied her pen, whicb 
was so prolific that she found it convenient to provide her« 
self with a press, where she printed her books in French, 
Dutch, and German. Among others she answered all her 
adversaries, in a piece entitled, ^< The testimony of truth,*^ 
in which she handled the ecclesias^cs in a severe manner. 
In these controversial pieces she demonstrated her want of 
the first fundamental of all religion both natural and re^- 
vealed, humility. Two Lutheran ministers raised the 
alarm, against her by some books, in which they declared, 
that people had been beheaded and burnt for opinions 
more supportable than hers. The Labbadists also wrote 
against her, and her press was prohibited. In this distress 
she retired to Heusberg in 1673, but was discovered, and 
treated so ill by the people under the character of a sor- 
ceress, that she was very happy in getting secretly away. 
Afterwards, being driven from city to city, she was at length 
forced to abandon Holstein, and went to Hamburgh in 
1676, as a place of more security ; but her arrival was no 
sooner known, than they endeavoured to seize her. On 
this she lay hid for some days, and then went to East Fries- 
land, where she got protection from the baron of Latz- 
bourg, and was made governess of an hospital. 

It is observable, that all other passions have their holi- 
days, but avarice never suffers its votaries to rest. When 
our devotee accepted the care of this charity, she declared 
that she consented to contribute her industry both to the 
building and to the distribution of the goods, and the in- 
fpectibn of the poor, but without engaging any part of her 

wnred, he recovered bis estate, bat not 
without great lav-suits; whereby he 
was imprisoned at Amsterdam, in 
March 1669, at the suit of the famous 
ianseoist Mr. St. Amour. Before he 
went to prison, he wae severely cen- 
■ored by a bishop, who treated him as 
a heretic, and as a man who coveted 
the goods of this world, to the detriment 
•f those whom he had deceived, by 
l^lUag theoft tobdi ia Noordstraadt ; u 

a man given to drinking ; suspected of 
having tost both faith and charity ; and 
who had even suffered himself to be se- 
duced by a woman of Lisle, with whom 
he lived, to the great scandal of every 
one. He continued six months In pri« 
son, and came out only by accident: 
be went into his own island, and died 
of poison, in 1669. Vie continu4« dt 
M. de Bottr^BODi P* ^^> ^^h 

i40 B O U R I G N O N. 

estate ; for which she^ alleged two reasons, one, that ber 
goods had already been dedicated to God for the ase of 
those who sincerely sought to beeome true Christians ; the 
other, that men and all human things are very inconstant. 
On this principle, she resolved never to part with any 
thing, but refer all donations to her last will a|id testa- 
ment ; and accordingly, when she had distributed among 
these poor people certain revenues of the place annexed 
to this hospital by the founder, being asked if she would 
not contribute something of her own, she returned an an- 
swer in writing, that because these poor lived like beasts, 
who had no souls to save, she had rather throw her goods, 
which were consecrated to God, into the sea, than leave 
the least mite there. It was on this account that she found 
persecutors in East Friesland, notwithstanding the baron 
de Latzbourg^s protection ; so ihat she took her way to 
Holland in 1680, but died at Franeker, on the 30tb dT 
October the same year. 

We have already mentioned the crookedness of her out* 
ward form, which probably was the reason why she would 
never suffer her picture to be taken : however, her con- 
stitution was so tough, that, in spite of all the fatigues and 
troubles of her life, she seemed to be but forty years of 
age, when she was above sixty : and, though she was al- 
most continually wearing her eyesight, both by reading 
and writing, yet she never n(|iade use of spectacles. She 
was lucky enough to have the three most remarkable 
periods of her life, as her birth, her arriving to the rank 
of an author, and her death, characterised by comets ; a 
circumstance greatly favourable to a prophet and a teacher 
of a new religion. Her writings were voluminous, but it 
would be impossible to draw from them an aiccurate and 
* consistent scheme of religion ; for the pretended ^^ Di- 
vine light,^' that guides people of this class, does not pro- 
ceed in a methodical way of reasoning and argument ; it 
discovers itself by flashes, which shed nothing but thick 
darkness in the minds of those who investigate truth with 
the understanding, and do not trust to the reports of fancy, 
that is so often governed by sense and passion. Madame 
Bourignon^s intellect was probably in a disordered state. 
One of ber principal followers was Peter Poiret, a man of 
bold and penetrating genius, who was a great master of the 
Cartesian philosophy, and who proves in his own example, 
that knowledge and ignorance, reason and superstition, are 

B O U R I G N N. 241 

often divided by thin partitions, and that they sometimes 
not only dwell together in tLe same person, but also, by 
an unnatural and unaccountable union, afford mutual as- 
sistance, and thus engender monstrous productions. 

Antoinette Bourignon had more disciples in Scotland than 
in any other country perhaps of the world. Not only lay- 
men, but some of their ecclesiastics, embraced Bourig- 
nonism : and one of Antoinette's principal books was pub- 
lished, entitled <* The light of the world,*' in English, in 
1696 ; to which the translator added a long preface, to 
prove that this m^id ought at least to pass for an extraor- 
dinary prophetess. Her teuets at one time gained so 
much ground in Scotland, as to become an object of great 
jealousy with the church, aiid measures were adopted by 
the General Assembly for checking the growth of this blas- 
phemous heresy. Dr. George Garden, a minister of Aber- 
deen, was deposed in 1701, for teaching its ^* damnable 
errors," and all candidates for orders are to this day re- 
quired to abjure and renounce the Bourignian doctrine. 
Mr. Charles Lesley, in the preface to the second edition 
of bis *^ Snake in the grass," observed the errors of this 
sect ; and they were refuted at large by Dr. Cockburn, in 
a piece entitled, Bourignonism detected, against messieurs 
Poiret, De Cordc, and the English translator of the *^ Lux 
Muudi,*' who endeavoured to shew that she was inspired^ 
and bad received a commission from God to reform Chris- 
tianity. This was answered by the Bourignonists in an 
apology for their leader ; who has still a remnant left in 
some parts of North Britain. ' 

BOURNE (Immanuel), the son of a clergyman, was 
born in Northamptonshire, Dec. 27, 1590, and was edu- 
cated at Christ church, Oxford,- where be took bis master's 
degree in 1616. About that time he preached under Dr. 
Piers, rector of St Christopher's, Threadneedle- street, 
London, and was much encouraged in his studies and pro- 
fession by sir Samuel Tryon, knt and inhabitant of that 
parish. In 1622, he got the living of Ashover, in Derby- 
shire, which be retained many years. During the rebel- 
lioo, he sided with the predominant party, and removed to 
London, where he becanfie preacher of St. Sepulchre's, 
and was much followed. In 1656, he became rector of 
Waltham in Leicestershire, and having conformed at the 

I GtQ. l>ict.*-Mo9htiD| fcc. 

Vou VI. R 


restoration, ysuM iDStituted to the rectory of Ailston in the 
s^ame county. Wood says be was well acquainted with, 
the fathers and schoolmen. He died Dec. 27, 1672, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church of Ailston, Beside& 
some occasional sermons, he published, 1. ^^ A Light from 
Christ, &c." or a preparatory to the Sacrament, London, 
1645, 8vo» 2. ** Defence of Scriptures," ibid. 1656, 4»to* 
3. '* Defence and justiiication of ministers* maintenance 
by tithes, &c.'* against the Anabaptists and Quakers, ibid^ 
1659, 4to. 4. " A Gold Chain of directions with twenty. 
Gold Links of love to preserve firm love between husband 
ijnd wife," ibid. 1669, 12mo.* 

BOURNE (Vincent), an elegant Latin poet, and. a 
Tery amiable man, of whom we regret that our memoirs 
are so scanty, ^was admitted a scholar of Westminster- 
school in 1710, from whejnce he was elected to the univer- 
s)ty of Cambridge in 1714, where, in Trinity college, he 
took his degree of A. B. 1717, and A. M. 1721, and ob- 
tained a fellowship. He was afterwards for several years 
an usher in Westminster- school, and died of a lingering 
disorder December 2, 1747. He married ; and in a letter 
^hich he wrote to his wife a few weeks before his death, 
gives the following reasons why he did not take orders : ' 
*^ Though I think myself in strictness answerable to none, 
but God and my own conscience, yet, for the satisfaction 
of the person that is dearest to me, I own and declare, that 
the importance of so great a charge, joined with a mistrust 
of my own sufficiency, made me fearful of undertaking it ; 
if I have not in that capacity assisted in the salvation of 
souls, I have not been the means of losing any ; if I have 
^ndt brought reputation to the function by any merit of 
mine, I have the comfort of this reflection, I have given 
no scandal to it, by my meanness and unworthiness. It 
bas been my sincere desire, though not my happiness, to 
be as useful in my little sphere of life as possible : my own. 
inclinations would have led me to a more likely way ofi 
being serviceable, if I might have pursued them : however^ 
as the method of education I have been brought up in was, 
I am. satisfied, very kindly intended, I have notiung to 
find fault with, but a wrong choice, and the not kpowing. 
those disabilities I have since been truly conscious of: 
those difficulties I have, endeavoured to get over j butfouad 

> \iV:oQd'iAUi,v«»iii. 

BOURNE. f 4S ' 

them insuperable. It hat been the knowledge of diese dis^ 
couragementSy that has been the chief subject of my sleep* 
ingf as well as my waking thoughts, a fear of reproach and 
contempt/* While we admire the conscientious motives 
which induced him to contemplate, with reverential awe, 
the duties of a clergyman, we must regret the concurrence 
of events which, according to the conclusion of this letter, 
seems to have led him into a way of life not agreeable to 
his inclinations. Cowper, however, in one of his excellent 
letters, throws some light on those peculiar habits, which 
were not certainly very happily adapted to his situation as 
a public teacher. " I love," says Cowper, " the memory 
of Vinny Bourne. I think him a better Latin poet than 
TibuHus, PropertiuS) Ausenius, or any of the writers in 
kit* way, except Ovid, and not at all inferior to him. ' I 
lovie him too, with a love of partialily, beoause he* was usher 
ofi the fifth form at Westminster when I passed through it; 
He was so good»natured, and so indolent, that I lost more 
than: I got by him ; for he made me as idle as himself. Hb 
was such a sloven, as if he bad trusted to his genius as a 
cloak for every thing that could disgust you in his per- 
son ; and indeed in his writings he has^almost made amende 
for ail. ^ His humour is entirely original— 4ie can speak of 
a magpie or a cat, in terms so' exquisitely appropriated to 
the character he draws, that one would suppose him ani- 
mated by the spirit of the creature he describes. And 
with all bis drollery, there is a mixture of rational, and 
even religious reflection, at times, and always an air of 
pleasantry, good nature, and humanity, that makes him, in 
my mind, ope of the most amiable writers in the world: It 
k not common to meet with an author who can make yon 
mnile, and yet at nobody's expence ; who is always ent^iK 
ttttning, and yet always- harmless ; and wbo, though always 
degant and classical, to a degree not always found in the 
olassies themselves^ charms more by the simplicity and 
playjuiness of his ideas, than by the neatiiess and purity of 
his vetse : 3^et such was poor Vinny. I remember seeing 
die dukeof Riohmond set fine to his greasy locksj andboz 
bis ears to put it out again.*' 

His- writings, thus characterised, were published in 1772; 
under the title of^ ^' Miscellaneous Poems, consisting of 
originals and translations,'* 4to, and certainly will be a 
lasting testimony of bis talents. He was, perhaps^, at the 
time he wrote, the best Latin poet in Europe. Most of 

a 2 


244 BOURNE. 

the pieces in this volume had been printed in his life- time, 
if we mistake not, in a smaller volume. Dr. Beattie, after 
noticing that Boileau did not know that there were any 
good poets in England, till Addison made him a present of 
the ^' MussB AnglicanaB," remarks that ^^ those foreigners 
must entertain a high opinion of our pastoral poetry, who 
have seen the Latin translations of Vmcent Bourne, par* 
ticularly those of the ballads of * Tweedside/ ' William 
and Margaret,* and Rowers ' Despairing heside a clear 
stream,' of which it is no compliment to say, that in sweet- 
ness of numbers, and elegant expression, they are at least 
' equal to the originals, and scarce inferior to any thing in 
Ovid or Tibullus." » 

BOURSAULT (Edmund), a French dramatic writer 
and satirist, was born in 1638, at Mussi-P^veque in Bur- 
gundy. He was not brought up at school, and could only 
speak the rude provincial dialect of his country, when he 
came to Paris in 1651, yet, by the perusal of good books, 
with his good memory, he was soon able to converse and 
to write elegantly in French. Having composed, by or- 
der of Louis XIV. a book of no great merit, entitled *^ Of 
the proper study of sovereigns/* 1671, 12mo, the king 
was so well pleased with it, that he would have appointed 
him sub-preceptor to Monseigneur, if Boursault bad been 
master of the Latin language* The duchess of Angoul^me, 
widow of a natural son of Charles IX. having taken him to 
be her secretary, he was engaged to turn every week the 
gazette into rhyme, which procured him a pension of 2000 
livres. Louis XIV. and bis court were much entertained 
with him; but, having employed his satire against the 
Franciscans and the C^uchins, he was silenced. The 
queen's confessor, a Spanish cordelier, caused both the 
gazette and the pension to be suppressed ; and would have 
had him imprisoned, had it not been for the interest exert- 
ed in his behalf by his patrons. He shortly after obtained 
a new licence, and published his gazette under the title of 
the ^' Merry Muse ;'* but it was again suppressed* He 
afterwards got into &vour once more, and was made re- 
ceiver of the excise at Montlu9on, where he died of a. vio- 
lent colic, aged 63, Sept. 5, 1701. He wrote several 
theatrical pieces, and other works. The chief of them 

" Ciitictl Rer. vol. XXXTU ^B«attie»i Emyi, p. 733.— Hayley's Life of 

Cowper.— Wdcb's Westminster •cliolan.<»Caiitabri|pensM Graduat'i. 

B O U R S A U L T. 245 

are, '^ JE^op in the city," and ^'JEsopat court;" which 
long remained to the stage. These two pieces and the 
following are an agreeable satire on the ridiculous manners 
of the several ages and conditions of life. His verse in 
general is harmonious, but his styie sometimes negligent, 
yet in general e.asy and i^uitable to the subject. 2. The 
^' Mercure galante," or ^^ La comedie sans titre,*** in which 
he ingenipusly ridicules the rage for getting a place in the 
Mercure galant. 3. ** La satyre des satyres,'* in one act. 
Boileau's satirical notice of Boursault, .to avenge Moli^re, 
with whom he had had a difference, gave occasion to this 
piece, which fioileau had interest enough and meanness 
enough to prevent being played. The satirist being some 
years afterwards at the baths of Bourbon, Boursault, at that 
time receiver of the excise at Montlufon, repaired thither 
on purpose to offer him his purse and his services. At this 
9Ct of generosity Boileau was much affected; and they 
immediiitely engaged in a mutual friendship, of which 
Boursault waa highly deserving by the gentleness of his 
manners, and the cheerfulness of his disposition. He be- 
haved with less tolerance, however, towards his other cen- 
sors ; and was able sometimes to chastise them with effect. 
A cabal having prevented the success of the first repre- 
sentatioi^ of .^*i£sop in the city," the author added to it a 
jfable of the dog and the ox, applying the mpral of it to 
the pit ; which so effectually silenced the caba), that the 
piece had a run of forty- three nights withoul: interruption. 
Thomas Corneille had a sincere regard fpr Boujrsault, whom 
he used to call his son, and insisted on his applying to be 
adipitted a n^ember of the academy. Bou^rsault desired to 
be excused on accpunt of his ignorance, adding with his 
usual simplicity, ^^ What would the academy do with an 
ignorant and illiterate (ignare & non lettr6) member, who 
knows neither Latin nor Greek ?" " We are not talking 
(returned Corneille) of a Greek or I^atin academy, but of 
a Fl^ench academy ; and who uviderstands French better 
than youi" There are likewise by him, 1. Some ro- 
mancesy " The marquis de Chavigny," " The prince de 
Cond6;" which are written with spirit; "Artemisia and 
Polyanthus ; and, " We should only believe what we see." 
2. A collection of letters on subjecu of respect, obligation^ 
and gallantry ; known under the name of " Lettres k Ba- 
bet ;" Yiow forgotten. 3. " Lettres nouvelles,*' with fc- 
bles, tales, epigrams, remarks, bon-mots, &c. 3 vols. 12mo, 

146 1 O U R S A U L T. 

•ev«ral times .reprinted^ though mostly written in a loose 
and inelegant style : a miscellany, wbicfa was very popu* 
lar when it first came out ; but is oiuch less at present^ as 
the tales and bon-mots which Boursault has collected, or 
put into verse, are found in many other books. His fables 
have neither the simplicity of those of La Fontaine, nor 
the elegant precision of Phndrus. There is an edition of 
the "Iheatre de Boursault,*' in 3 vols. 1746, J2mo. ^ 

BOURSIER (Lawrence Francis), doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, was born at Ecoven in the diocese of Paris, in 
1679, and died at Paris in 1749, at the age of 70. He 
psblisbed, 1. ^^ L' action de Dieu sur les cr^tures," Paris, 
2 vols. 4to, or 6 vols. 12mo. This treatise, in which he 
endeavours to establish physical premotion by argument, 
was attacked by Malebranche ; but it discovers the powers 
of a profound metaphysician. 2. A memoir presented to 
Peter the Great by the doctors of Sorbonne for the re- 
union of the Greek and Latin churches. When the tzar 
appeared in the Sorbonne, Boursier addressed him on the 
subject of this memoir. The monarch immediately an- 
swered, that he was but a soldier. Boursier replied, that 
he was a hero ; and that, as a prince, he was a protector of 
religion. — ^* This re*union is not so easy a matter (said the 
tzar) ; there are three points that divide us : the pope, the 

procession of the Holy Ghost ^" As he had forgot the 

third point, which is the unleavened bread and the cup, 
Boursier recalled it to his mind. " As for that article," re- 
turned the emperor, ''we shall have no difficulty in coming 
to an agreement." At the end of the conversation, the 
Russian sovereign asked for a memorandum of it : it was 
given him'; but nothing more was ever heard of ic 3. An 
enormous quantity of publications on subjects of eccle- 
aiastical controversy, . enumerated by Moreri. There waa 
another of the name, almost a contemporary, Philip Bour- 
sier, deacon of Paris, where he was born in 1693, and died 
in 1768, aged 77. He was the first author, in 1727, of 
the ** Nouvelles eccl^siastiques ;" in which work he had 
several coadjutors, as Messrs. d'Etemare, de Fernanville, 
Berger, de Russy^, de Troya, Fontaine. But he alone 
composed the greatest part of the discourses that annually 
precede this periodical work. * 

* M«r€fi.— Diet. HiM.— Otn. 0ict.^Niceroii, rol. XIV.^-Biov. Gall^ 
vol, IL « X)icU Hist.— M orcri. 

B O U V A R T. t4f 

BOUVART (Michael Philip), physician and doctor 
regent of the faculty of Paris, and associate-veteran of the 
academy of sciences, was bom at Chartres Jan. 11, 1717. 
Many of his ancestors having been physicians, he deter- 
mined on the same profession, which he practised at Pa- 
Ws with so much success that no physician was more con- 
bulted ; yet this did not prevent his being jealous of Tron- 
chin, Bordeu, and some others, of whom he spoke very 
illiberally, but he was a man otherwise of great kindness 
and benevolence. One anecdote is recorded as character- 
istic. A banker, who had experienced some heavy losses, 
was taken ill, and Bouvart, who was called in, Suspected 
that this weighed on his mind, but could not obtain the se- 
cret from him. The banker's wife, however, was more 
communicative, and told him that her husband had a pay- 
iheht of twenty thousand livres to make very shortly, for 
which he was unprovided. Bouvart, without making any 
professions of sorrow or assistance, went iihmediately hom0 
Tttid sent the money to his patient, who recovered surpris- 
ittgly. Bouvart wrote only two or three small tracts : one a 
'critique on Tronchin's book, "de colica Pictonum,'* 1758, 
Bvt) ; a ^' Consultation siir une naissance tardive/' against 
the anatomists Petit and Bertin, 1765, Svo; and a^^Me- 
tiioire au sujet de Phonoraire des medicines," 1768, 4to, 
all written in a keen, controversial style. He was also an 
opponent of inoculation for the small pox. He introduced 
the use of the polygaia of Virginia in cases of the bite of ve- 
nomous reptiles, and this was the subject of the only paper 
lie contributed to the academy ; but the remedy, although 
siiid to be successful in his hands, fell into disrepute. He 
died Jan. 19, 1787.* 

BOWER (Archibald), a person of a very celebrated, 
but dubious character, was a native of Scotland, bom oil 
the 17th of January 1686 at or near Dundee, of an ancient 
}kmily, by his own account, which had been for several 
bhhdred years possessed of an estate in the county of Ali- 
gns in Scotland. In September 1702, at the age of six- 
teen, he was sent to the Scots college of t)ouay, where he 
*tddftd Until the year 1706, to the end of his first year of 
phildsophy. From thence he was removed to Rome, and 
en the 9th day of December 1706, was admitted into the 
prder of Jesus. After a noviciate of two years, he went^ 

« Diet. Hist.— £lbg<5s del Acadejnicieos* toL IV. 

248 BOWER. 

in the year ^712, to Fano, where he taught huinaniliei 
during the space of two years. He then rei^ioved to Fer* 
ino, and resided there three years, until the year 17 17^ 
when be was recalled to Rome to study divinity in the Bo- 
man college. There be remained until the year 1721^ 
when he was sent to the college of Arezzo, where he st^i4 
until the year 1723, and became reader of philosophy, and 
consultor to the rector of the college. He then was sent 
to (Florence, where he remained but a short time, being in 
the same year removed to Macerata, at which place he con- 
tinued until the year 1 726. Between the two latter periods 
]t seems probable that he made his last vows, his own ac- 
count fixing that event in the month of March 1722, at 
^Florence ; though, as he certainly was that year at Arezzo^ 
it is most likely to have been a year later. 

Having thus been conBrmed in the order of the Jesuits^ 
and arrived at the a^e of almost forty years, it was reason* 
able to suppose that Mr. Bower would have passed through 
life with no othier changes than such as are usual with per* 
sons of the same order; but this uniformity of life was not 
destined to be bis lot. To whatever cause it is to be as- 
cribed — whether, according to his own account, to bis dis- 
gust at the enormities committed by the inquisition, id 
which he performed the office of counsellor ; or, as his ene-* 
inies assert, to his indulgence of his passions, particularly 
with a nun to whom he was ghostly father ; certain it is, 
that in the year 1726 he was remoyed from Maceratato Pe- 
rugia, and from thence made his escape into England, where 
be arrived at the latter end of June or July, after various 
adventures, which it now becomes our duty to communicate 
to the reader, and which we shall do in his own words; 
premising, however, that the truth of the narrative has 
been impeached in several very material circumstances. 
Having determined to put into execution his design of 
quitting the inquisition and bidding for ever adieu to 
Italy, be proceeds : ^' To execute that design with some 
safety, I purposed to beg leave of the inquisitor to visit the 
Virgin of Loretto, but thirteen miles distant, and to piuSi 
a week there ; but in the mean time to make the best of 
my way to the country of the Grisons, the nearest country 
to Macerata, out of the reach of the inquisition. Having 
therefore, after many conflicts with myself, asked leave to 
visit the neighbouring sanctuary, and obtained il^ I set out 
on horseback the very next morning, leaving, as I purposed 
to keep the horse, his full value with the oiper. I took 

BOWER. ft49 

J^be rM^ to LorettOy but turned out of it at a small distance 
jfrom Recanati, after a most violent struggle with myself^ 
the attempt appearing tome, at that juncture, quite de- 
sperate and impractic^ible ; and the dreadful doom reserved 
Tor me, should I miscarry, presenting itself to my mind in 
the strongest light But the reflection that I had it ini my 
jpower to avoid being taken alive, and a persuasion that a 
man in my situation might laivfully avoid it, when every 
other means failed bim, at the expence of his life, revived 
my staggered resolution ; and all my fears ceasing at once, 
I steered my course, leaving Loretto behind me, to Calvi 
in the dukedom of Urbino, and from thence through the 
Romagna into the Bolonese, keeping the by-roads, and at 
a good distance from the cities of Fano, Pisaro, Rimini^ 
Forli, Faenza, and Imola, thipugh which the high road 
passed. Thus I advanced very slowly, travelling, generally 
speaking, in very bad roads, and often in places where 
there was no road at all, to avoid not only the cities and 
towns, but even the villages. In the mean time I seldom 
had any other support than some coarse provisions, and a 
very small quantity even of them, that the poor shepherds, 
the countrymen, or wood cleavers, I met in those unfre- 
quented by-places, could spare me. My horse fared not 
much better than myself ; but in choosing my sleeping* 
place I consulted his convenience as much as my own ; 
passing the night where I found most shelter for myself, 
and most grass iPor him. In Italy there are very few soli* 
tary farm*houses or cottages, the country people there all 
living together in villages ; and I thought it far safer to lie 
where I could be any way sheltered, than to venture into 
any of them.' Thus I spent seventeen days before I got out 
of the Ecclesiastical State; and I very narrowly escaped 
being taken or murdered on the very borders of that state. 
It happened thus: 

'' I had passed two whole days without any kind of sub- 
sistence whatever, meeting nobody in the. by-roads that 
would supply me with any, and fearing to come near any 
house, as 1 was not far from the borders of the dominions 
of the pope — I thought I should be able to hold out till I 
j;ot into the Modenese, where I believed I should be in less 
danger than while 1 remained in the papal dominions ; but 
finding myself about noon of the third day extremely weak, 
and ready to faint, I came into the high road that leads 
from Bologna to Florence, at a few miles distance from the 

fesb BO W E R. 

ibrtner city, and alighted at a post house that ^tood quite 
by itst If. Having asked the woman of the house whiether she 
had any victuals ready, and being told that she had, I Vetit 
to o|>en the door of the only room in the house (that being & 
})lace where gontlemen only stop to change horsed), ahd 
saw, to my great surprise, a placard pasted on it with a 
inost minute description of my whole person, and the pro- 
mise of a^ reward of 800 crowns, about 200/. English taoney, 
fot delivering me up alive to the inquisition, being a fugi- 
tive from the holy tribunal, and 600 crowns for my head. 
Jby the same placard all persons wene forbidden, on the pain 
of Ih'e greater excommunication, to receive, harbour, or en- 
tertain Aie, to conceal or to streen me, or to be any way 
Riding and assisting to me in making my escape. This greatly 
alarmed me, as the reader may well imagine ; but I Was 
still more affrighted when entering the room I saw two fel- 
lows drinking there, who, fixing their eyes upon me as 
soon as I came, continued looking at me very steadfastly. I 
strove, l)y wiping my face, by blowing my nose, by look- 
ihg out at the window, to prevent their having a full vie^ 
of me. But one of them saying, * The gentleman seem» 
afraid to be seen,' I put up my handkerchief, and turning 
to the fellow said boldly, ,* What do you mean, you rascal r 
Look at me ; I am not afraid to be seen.* He said nothing, 
but, looking again stea Jfastly at me, and nodding his head, 
%v'ent out, and his companion immediately followed him, I 
ivat ched them ; and seeing them with two or three more in close 
Conference, and, no doubt, consulting whether they should 
ftpprehend me or not, I walked that moment into the stable, 
tiiounted my horse unobserved by them, and, while they 
Ivere deliberating in an orchard behind the house, rode off 
full speed, and in a few hours got into the Modenese, where 
I refreshed both with food and with rest, as I Was there in 
no immediate danger, my horse and myself. I was indeed 
surprised to find that those fellows did not pursue me ; nor 
Cah I any other way account for it but by supposing, what i^ 
fiot improbable, tliat as they were strangers as well as my- 
self, and had all the appearance of banditti or ruffians flying 
6tjtof the dominions of the pope, the woman of the house 
did tiot care to trust them with her horses. From the Mo- 
denese I continued my journey more leisurely through the 
Parmesan, the Miistnese, and pai-tof the Venetian territory, 
lo Chiiivenna, subject, with its district, to the tJrisons, who 
tbhor tlie veiy name of the inquisition, and are ever readjr 1% 


receive and protect all who, flying from it, take refftige, dt 
many Italians do, in their dominions. However, as T proposed 
getting as soon as I could tothe city of Bern, the metfopo* 
Us of that great protestant canton, and was informed that mj 
beat way was through the cantons of Ury and Underwald, 
and partof the canton of Lucei^i, all three popish cantoiM, 
I carefully concealed who I was atid from whence I came. 
For though no inquisition prevails among the Swiss, yet the 
pope's nuncio, who resides at Lucern, might have per*' 
suaded the magistrates of those popish cantons to stop me 
as an apostate and deserter from the order. 

*^ Having rested a few days at Chiaveuna, I resumed my 
journey quite refreshed, continuing it through the country 
of the Grisons, and the two small cantons of Ury and Un- 
derwald jto the canton of Lucern. There I missed my way, 
as I was quite unacquainted with the country, and discover* 
iDg a ci^ at a distance, was advancing to it,' but veiy 
slowly, as I knew not where I was ; when a countryman 
whom I met informed me that the city before me was Lu* 
cern. Upon that intelligence I turned out of the road as 
soon as the countryman was out of sight ; and that night 
I passed with a good-natured shepherd in his cottage, who 
Mpplied me with sheep's milk, and my hOrse with plenty of 
grass, I set out very early next morning, making the best 
of my way westward, as I knew that Bern lay west of Lu- 
cern. But after a few miles the country proved very moun- 
tainous ; and having travelled the whole day over moun** 
tains, I was overtaken amongst them by night. As I wai 
looking out for a place where I might shelter myself during 
the night against the snow and rain, for it both snowed and 
rained, I perceived a light at a distance ; and, making to-^ 
wards it, got into a kind of footpath, but so narrow and 
rugged that I was obliged to lead my horse and feel my way 
with one foot, having no light to direct me, before I durst 
move the other. Thus with much difficulty I reached the 
place where the light was, a poor little cottage ; and, 
knocking at the door, was a^ked by a man within who I 
wasy. and what I wanted. I answered that I was a stranger, 
and had lost my way. * Lost your way !' replied the man ; 
' there is no way here to lose.' I then ask^d him in what 
canton I was; and upon his answering that 1 was in the 
canton of Bern, * I thank God,' I cried out, transported 
with joy, • that I am.' The good man answered, * * And so 
do V I then told him who I was, and that I was going to 

252 BOWER- 

Bern, but had quite lost myself by keeping out of all the high 
roads to avoid falling into the hands of those who sought niy 
destruction* He thereupon opened the door, received and 
entertained me with all the hospitahty his poverty would 
admit ot^ regaled me with sour-krout and some new-laid 
eggs, the only provisions he had, and clean straw with a 
kind of rug tor my bed, he having no other for himself and 
his wife. The good woman expressed as much satisfaction 
and good-nature in her countenance as her husband, and 
said many kind things in the Swiss language, which her 
husband interpreted for me in the Italian ; for that language 
he well understood, and spoke so as to be understood, hav- 
ing learnt it as he told me in his youth while servant in a 
public-bouse on the borders of Italy, where bpth languages 
are spoken. I never passed a more comfortable night; and 
no sooner did I begin to stir in the morning, than the good 
jj^m and his wife came both to know how I rested, and 
wishing they had been able to a,ccommpdate roe better, 
obliged me to breakfast on two eggs, which Providence, 
they said, had supplied them with for that purpose. I 
then took leave of the wife, who, with her eyes lifted up to 
heaven, seemed most sincerely to wish me a good journey. 
As for the husband, he would by all means attend me to 
the high road leading to Bern ; which road, he said, was but 
two miles distant from that place. But he insisted on my 
first going back wiih him to see the way I had come the 
night before, the only way, he said, I could have possibly 
come from the neighbouring canton of Lucern. I saw it, 
and shuddered at the danger 1 had escaped; for I found 
that I had walked and led my horse a good way along a 
very narrow path on the brink of a dreadful precipice. The 
man made so many pious and pertinent remarks on the oc« 
casion, as both charmed and surprised me. I no less ad* 
mired his disinterestedness than his piety : for, upon our 
parting, after he had attended me till I was out of all dan- 
ger of losing my way, I could by no means prevail upon 
nim to accept of any reward for his trouble. He had the sa« 
tisfaction^ be said, of having relieved me in the greatest 
distress, which was in itself a sufficient reward, and he cared 
for no other. 

** I reached Bern that night, and purposed st^tying some 
time there ; but being informed by the principal minister of 
the place, to whom I discovered myself, that boats went 
frequently down the Rhine at that time of the year with 

BOWER. as* 

goodfl and passengers from Basil to HollancI, and advised 
by him to avail myself of that opportunity, I set out accord- 
ingly the next day, and crossing the popish canton of So- 
leurre in the night, but very carefully avoiding the town of 
that name, I got early the next morning to Basil. There I 
met with a most friendly reception from one of the minis* 
ters of the place, having been warmly recommended to him 
by a letter I brought with me from his brother at Bern. 
As a boat was to sail in two days, he entertained me very 
elegantly during that time at bis house ; and I embarked 
the third day, leaving my horse to my host in return for 
his kindness. 

'^The company in the boat consisted of a few traders, of 
a great many vagabonds, the very refuse of tue neighbouring 
nations, and some criminals flying from justice. But I was 
not long with them ; for the boat striking against a rock 
not far from Strasburgh, I resolved not to wait till it was re- 
fitted (as it was not my design to go to Holland), but to 
pursue my journey partly in the common diligence or stage 
coach, and partly on post-horses, through France into 

^' And here I must inform the reader, that though the 
cruelties of the inquisition had inspired me with great hor- 
ror at their being encouraged under the name of religion, 
and I had thereupon "begun to entertain many doubts cou^p 
cerning other doctrines that I had till that time implicitly 
swallowed, as most Italian catholics dp, without examina- 
tion ; nevertheless, as I had not thoroughly examined them, 
nor had an opportunity of examining them, being employed 
in studies of a quite different nature, I was not yet deter- 
mined to quit either that church or the order. Having 
therefore got safe into French Flanders, I there repaired to 
the college of the Scotch Jesuits at Douay ; and discover- 
ing myself to the rector, I acquainted him with the cause 
of my sudden departure from Italy, and begged him to 
give immediate notice of my arrival, as well as the motives 
of my flight, to Michael Angelo Tamburini, general of the 
order, and my very particular friend. My repairing thus 
to a college of Jesuits, and putting myself in their power, 
is a plain proof, as may be observed here by the way, that 
it was not because I was guilty of any crime, or to avoid the 
punishment due to any crime, that I had fled from Italy ; 
for, bad that been the case, no man can think that instead 
uf repairing to Holland or England, as I might have easily 

«JI4 B O W B R. 

don^y and bid the whote order defiance^ I would have tho^ 
di^liver^d, myself up to them^ aod put k ia their power to* 
]j)fl4ct oui me what punishment soever they pleased. 

^'The rector wrote, as I had desiredi hLm, to the- general; 
sind th^ general) taking no notiee of my flight in hi» an- 
swen (for be cou)d> not disapprove it^ and did not think it 
iV^fe to approve it), ordered, me to continue where I was 
till, farther ordera. I arrived at Douay early in Afey^ and 
con^nufid there till the lajtter end of June or the beginning . 
qf July,, whuen the: sector received a second letter from the 
general, acquainting him^ that he had been, commanded- 
by the congregation of the inquisition to order me, wherever 
I; wB»f back to Italy ; to promise me in their name iiill 
pardon and forgiveness^ if I obeyed ; but if I did not obey^ 
tp tjreat me a9 an. apostate. He added, that the same order 
. had- baeoi transmitted soon after my flight to the mincio^ 
at the diflPerent Romani catholic courts ; and he therefore* 
^vised me to consult my own safety without farther d^lay. 
^' It is tO: be observed here, that it is deemed apostacy 
1(1 s^ person of any religioua. order to quit his habit, and* 
withdraw, without the knowledge of his superiors, from- 
the college, ponvent, or monastery, in which they have 
placed, him ; and. thai all bishops are not only impowered, 
but bound to apprehend such an apostate within the limits^ 
ofi their respective jurisdictions, and deliver him up to hia- 
superiors to be punished by them. A^ 1 had quitted the 
habit, and withdrawn from the college of Macerata, with-* 
out leave from my superiors who had- placed me there, I' 
^lould have been treated as an apostate, had I been dis- 
covered in my flight in a Koman catholic country, even^ 
where no inquisition prevailed^ But my returning voluft- 
tarilyf and resuming the habit, cleared me from the guilt 
of apositacy at the general's tribunal, nay, and at that of 
the inquisition itself. However, the congregation of the^ 
inquisition hadi it.sitill in their power to oblige the general' 
to recalme to Italy, and to treat me as an apostate if I; 
did not. obey ; disobedience to an express command of a> 
li^wfiil superior being dee&ied apostacy^ and punished as' 
SMch with close confinement^ and with bread and water for 
fpod till the order i^ complied with. That order the gene^ 
IB^ received ; but fiis friendship for me, of which he had 
given me some remarkable instances, and his being fuUy: 
QOnvinced of my innocence, the inquisitor himself having^ 
AQthing; to laj^ tomy^ charge but. my flight, prompted. hiiiL 


to warn ma of the danger thaJ. threatened me. Indeed I 
thought myself quUe sate in the dominions of France ; and 
s&houid accordingly have lived there unmolested by the in-i 
quisition, what crime soever 1 had been guilty of cogniz- 
able by that uibunad ^lone ; but as I had belonged to it^ 
sind was coo^oqueiitly privy to their hellish proceedings, 
they were apprehensive 1 should discover them to the 
world ; and it was tp prevent me from ever discoveringv 
them, that they obliged the general to order me back to 
Italy, and promise me, in their i^ame, a. free pardon if Ij 
cpmpliedi but to confine me for life if I did not comply) 
with the order. 

*^ Upon the receipt of the. general's kind letter^ the rec- 
tpr wa» of opinion, that I should repair by all means, andi 
without \qs» of tinae, to England^ not only as the salest 
asylum I could fly to in my present situation, but as a. 
plaqe where I should soon recover my native language^ 
and be usefully employed, as soon as I recovered it, eithec 
there or in Scotland. I readily closed with the rectof s* 
qpiuion, being very uneasy in my mind, as my old doubta 
in point, of religion daily gained ground, and new ones, 
aros^ upon my reading, which wsui my only employment^ 
the books of controversy I found in the library of the col* 
lege. The place being thus agreed on, and it being at 
t^p same time settled between the rector and me that I- 
s)^pi)ld set. out the 'very next morning, I solemnly pro- 
mised, at his request and desire, to take no notice, after 
my arrival in England, of his having been any ways privy/ 
to my flight, or of the generaPs letter to him. This pro- 
mise I have faithfully and honourably observed ; and I 
should have thought myself guilty of the blackest ingrati- 
tfide if 1 had not observed it, being sensible that, had it 
IjeeD known at Rome that either the rector or general had< 
b^n. accessary to my flight, the inquisition would have re- 
sf^oted it severely on boUi. For though a Jesuit in France, 
or.ifi.GermfUiy is out of the reach of the inquisition, the 
general is not ; and the high tribunal not only have it in 
t^ie^r power to punish the general himself, who resides^ 
<;oQ9taotly at Rome, but may oblige him to inflict whati 
Dupisbaient they please oa any of the orde;r obnoxious to. 

** The rector went, that very night out of town ; and in- 
l^.al^sence, but not without his privity, I took one of the- 
h^i^9.o{ the college. Qarlyufxt morning, as if I were» 

2S6 B-H]f'W-E% 


going for change of aft^ bfeitig isbmewliaf ftidil(Wifl(f^^^ 
pass a fevjr'days at Lisle. ' Batsteei-iTrg 'sT ditffer^r^tS^cfiim 
I reached^ Atre that night; and €alai« lfie*keki diij;"'*T C?jw 
there hi* no danger of beirfg stopped incl'seteed" at the pr6- 
secutiou'of the inq\flsfrfon, a tribunal 0o^eis*abllfo*rffed' In 
France riliati in'Engfantl. '*B^t'b6in'^i6'tehAedlpr the^g*8|. 
ral, that the tiuiitios*^! thV(filPerent*coum"*h»J beelrf*^^^^ 
dered, soon sifter my fl^ " 
hi the Roman c^holic 
p9LMy as an* apostate' 

thought the passag^niUdK sboYte^^hkciHt'i'^^^^M^ayW^il 
to engage some fMx€)tti^&^tA 'tshrvf^tnehhix^i^^ 
on^oF their smatFv^s^lt/4>^r'fo£t^liMd:'*'^inii$aRffl^h 
the gnards'^^ tli^ 'haAno^^^T^d'P sRolM ^^aHlit^fi^-b 
been ippruh^udell,' a« ^ilty ^'^ixiip^tlid^'^f'^^'^t^A 
- criiM, ' fly htg Itdhi jhsti^e*,' Md MOt %ndi^ BlikhikHi^/^iwdirfr 

i had ch^ ^Md kiek t6 theigfi at^'the^ hhi MJfcftMA -Vif Hny 
•dBRg^/ and i>ityhig <Vft»f ^ic^itMivaMeilAe^ ^in^^ thMrl^ot 
ment with ail his company to the port, aiiU'-^dMlVI 
imtnediately bn boand^hHT 5^)IUo.'rpitei^vif(^;^l,|^^ ^^^^ 
letting every thing I Imr) b«ti^ttie >dl«tll^#^3hl iifyVA» ^ 
the iiin ; and the nest dayhk« lwdri4p ;4etMI^(m^bAft \A 
Baver, fix>m Whence I Vaine in ttMr\;(MalMi iMl^^<<M?itf 
den.'* * . to.i. ; • • «* ^i iio«itiq a Lir^o^^* 

^ "Thi^ is the n^mtive<^mchyi'BUm^t\AAf*f^^ !lllK 
.Bo#er gave the- public* Asa g^mibiCI^ ac^MM; AA^KlWli 
owifig t6 theHinaccuracy- 6f^ those wtfiKt(ittMllMidl)|^4ft' 
i% to thevariatfons to wiikb k taile ''<W<{tt^tly^fi^l^ 
alwfyalKfedbl^^rto^ilSefi^aA o(^>^rtUMlf i rf' l ifa H k itt , _. 
certainly differed from ^ccmtttMiifHidtiilMfiim^^^t^ 

tkMuriaor; K>h bar aitMriMbi Hh^a^MMMi^plMsHA MM^ 
liMir<4ii8fe fit«t :ii^ttst tp pioc«r^-iiB'4ii»d tf j lMiM W lo^'gilMg 
perfdnr •# vespectiMt^ itt{ *e eoxiUfi'jf J ii rtH i it 4i# MV 
fittui^diittideMer ^Ite Jiad>^lMldi^^4MMMvMnM# 
Mh«r4riiH«iriMi; 4Uid<ilB*4iMneiMBl4h|^olM^^ 

is doubts i^tij^l 

B O W £ K. 257 

Jus tnnbm After •areral confertDoes with these gentleiDeii^ 
and soqi« with Berkeley, the bishop of Cloyne, then deaa 
of Loodooderrjr, added to his own reading and reasonings 
he obtained, as he says, the fullest conviction that many 
of the &vourite doctrines of Rome were not only evidently 
repttgnant to scripture and reason, but wicked, blasphe- 
mous^ and utterly inconnistent witli the attributes of the 
supreme and infinite being. He therefore withdrew him- 
self ffom the communion of the church without further de- 
Jay, took leave of the provincial, quitted the order, and 
broke off all connection with those of the communion. 
This happened in the month of November 1726. 

He did not, however, become immediately a member 
of any other church. ** I declined,** says he, " conform* 
ing to any particular churchy but, suspecting ail alike, 
after I bad been so long and so grossly imposed upon, I* 
formed a system of religion to myself, and continued a pro- 
testaut for the space, I think, of six years, but a protestant 
-of no. pantcuUr denomination. At last I conformed to the 
church of Engtaod, as free in her service as any reformed 
church fr^Nn toe idolatrous practices and superstitions of 
popery^ and less inclined than many others to fanaticism 
and eotbuaiasm/* 

. By Dr. Aspinwairs means he was introduced to all that 
gentlMuin*s friends aod acquaintance ; and among others 
to Dr. Goodman (physician to king George the firstj, who 
procured him to be recommended to iprd Aylmer, who 
waoted a parsoo to assist htm in reading the classics. With 
this nobleman be continued several years on terms of the 
greatest lAtimaey ; aad was by him made known to all his 
tordsiu|i*s CMMctioDSt and particularly to the family of 
lord LyttdtOD» who afterwards became his warm, steady, 
aad 10 ite lasit whM deserted by almost every other per* 
aatt| lits uaaltwrablw fritiid* 

Owittg tkt ttsae he lifed with lord Aylmer, he under* 
leeli^ feir Mr. PteMit, a hooksdler, the <' Historia Ute- 
mria,** a mowthly pubKcatton in the nature of a ret iew, 
ikw tUsa aisttibar at which was published in the year 1730. 
lit w tai s ite prefcee ta that week, and several of the ar« 
liakes^ ia Italian ; aol being, m ha asserts, yet sufficiently 
^ witk the Suflish lo write i« that kofuage *« 

a TW waaisavai a— tiiil bjr Mr, ley, wim kept dl fr<r^>ar a 
ne»aa» mUmm nmkfUr. Bark- gdioot at LHSI* Cbel««i. 

VouVt & 

258 6 6 W ft It 

ttt the mdtn' lim^be ct&a^l^ appltfcd to tbi.rtud3r<iC;thfei 
Cnglifth tongue, and lifter ^ix months begun t^.thiAfk^tbii 
be had no liifiHef^ 6eeasiioH fdt a transEaMr, laad lie eoAf^ 
ployed hign no more/ • r 

Wbife be «ms yet etig^aged in irrttingthe Hntomi L^iten 
raria, thd propHetors: tif the ** Universtl History'' wbvid 
have engaged him in that undertaking. Bat though Bomt 
advantageous offers Mvete maddp hifYi, bedttdtned: tliem; 
until the Hi^taria LiVerarIa was relinquidied in 17*34^ vlti 
the next yekr he Agreed'ivith thfe proprietors of the *^ Uiii-» 
verbal flTstOry/*^ and ^hii employed by tfaeia to I74^^;bein^ 
the space o^ nini yeahi ♦. ' ri i •<; -. . 

While be'Wai engajje* In the ** Universal History^'* he 

undertook) ^tthe request Of Mr. Cbartmi^'oE ApMyiC^le^ 

in Shropshire, the eld ucat^bnoPybhngMiC Thompson) miA 

of Mr.Thompsdn, &( Oo^i^, tn.'Befk0birre'?:<bp^^te2bftll 

stat^ of bi^ health tit that t^me-dkl^^ novVaUovv! him .<» odAi' 

tinue mdfre than a tWelVeAiontb in that-fiunil^'^ijaiHJhiiptfo 

bis recovery, lonrAylnier etigaged hioiuonsdixi^atE/rtrOiof 

bis bbildretif on^ of Whot^'atftiSrUFaydsitoeainera vaptaihbitr 

colonel Leer's re^ldieiit/ and •tb&!^tUbnii>^prffbeAdi»]f ti 
Bristol. • '^ V I ^, ..^ -..,c.^ 3,|, ^,, f.j^^ g^ ^^ 

By the emolumenrs atii^lhg from^timtibH tM l^i^rnVJ- 
ings, it appears that ih th^ ycaf i740'teei9itlrtanfll tb^isBih 
of 1 l6of/ in the Q\A Se^th SiNi anMities^ MKith twUctrTiit 
had r^olved to purchase a 1if&-)snnuiiy»' IntthediipQiittott 
of tbiVmdni^y be was e^^fi^ed iH a ile^oeiAlon'A»nibht()lbAa 
of it; Whfch aft^rward^^foved'^M wMsslidta^ateft >jk^ 
shall aj^JiTn baVe recmk^^' to- hbi tkiweth^ov^nlagitfitsKt 
tlavTng^ determin^d^ i6 pn!k:baie fhitf 'fRniUty/VTbeifirbOMib 
ih th% n^'alnner : ^TbFstes^mior>:l Iwpa^d trf ben^ltf 

"^^'tiVM «4if««i^^wRM<lM1rfay*4nftm»tpignt(!Mai^<^f<^>4l$y^ 

e)wcatioo uf «rhicb he is dbdrgcd'Oy fiii requii ed sdK^7 ; ' vntdtPirto BraeailiV 

fei low-labourer, George PsalcnanaZur, greater loss to Ihe public* inavmtich 

\k^ii theM»fA« e^MMw tei«i»atfl?4^MM •« tiit/<iliQnl^ioMltMI»i^Mi fR veN 

6^dre«Mt,««1ll!'jptii4A&iili^lf'oUbr Afcv knovtif«»^,4|ii^ii«|g sqci^/iimM^yi^ 

iHV«.drtArfr«to%l«>l»»caw>iitiilies. Um| (^Ddiffh Uktt>ili<sh^)iA»9^t»f<^.?H^ 
l^r^liMt Wa#^iylitiv« lNew.:tlirfBatM oesiiiv « more. HMiMWaf. Jo^at^ire^jfWf 

of tH ConttiiMlliopaKtatt. em^vrQin, tn tmB<mt iiM W^a^) I^j^b4. cUrvpIi H^LW^ 

)»reiH«»4||e «firt4c <Ur)elk|fti iaio a»Jnutav «riHlCiiHalti)i,MiAh»s t>l^ fffib^^W 

mous bulk*, i^n4 he hitttitfll^haUi^ai. <kiiie» ii^.b^Wix^Km^s^.^^p^Tery^ 

bridged it id sacb a manner at hath verso of w)iftt Jri^ iH|fh4,^a|^i)^ 0^^ 

quite manred it, tince the leader wiU .-Pialinaojzar^s Life, p.^Pf* . ^ . 

iij'pliMmtatttliiends; 41049 Mf»f>ff4h#,ir(a^ t»^ir Thanffi 
lloityo^s; \9mjmrt An4 to «ir Thoa^» ^Mns^lf, ofiV^ripg 3ft 
Ihe «aMe tMBe tibeabovt^-qie^tioQ^fl sfia^ t^ bim^ i^.he we(l 
remembers, and is ready to attest But nc^ex.^r TbQn 
■utt^JttOT «hy ofiipy.oftber proMAtimt, ffien^s, pjuingp toi 
^wrthen tjb«ir etitaLeB ifiib.'i^ lif^ront^ Irieftn^y i^f^ej^.jjDt 
Cfae:&ifida^Il jAtlgust 174U wbeQibfM'g i^forqo^.j^aj, f^n 
aotdE pa9Uaai«itJ]a(lpA$s«4/i^ r0l)uil4>fig'^ ohi^^^^i^^ 
ciky pi iLdndob^ St ;Bt:ttQijpb*AAIrig^^ f^ /upo)? : J^fer^n puir, 
Hcv ataeteD per^ti^ttu I wient'ltip^^ .tba^t.ii^Cjl^i^tJQq ip^. 
ibe»ity(^t>wl(b: audi^ti^ M>.dim9^'^ ipy 0109^ i^ft.MiJ^y, 
That tbi» was my intention^ Mr. Ni;>^4ri^ 4fl4^8A>s9P ^). Uva 
biie'ai![7 J^lB Iflornfi. y^tk mhom »lMa^ipup4/^<^-iO^Hie 
|iitle^J8l9llcr6nief|ihft% iia)c( k n^si|E,.i,^,r,^q4ir^^ tq xj#cUre« 
Bitt In«ttqie4od kM,%od.&92uitb^i(^b8pri|>itiQ9 ^ys^lpsed* 
3%is ftuappoinmiwt) I taQi^iap^..^ ^r.^HiJI|.,^bc)m,Iiacr 
eiAm\tfy''mttfJiatL^Vi\\\wff9»^om^s f^V. tbq B,Qy^ijCz,T 
cb^0gl^;;.apd iip0Q. bis. ofie#;ipgoWQ v^i^e same ipterest.tbac 
lNea«^-<(iniv% 6biut«Mtee«'4if fibej^i^V^ripe^^ 
tbe(i>argasnJMitMjM»diild^ io ft fumtPQ^eptipgii, a^d ib^^uia 
tf )r>00£ithHiffarre4 Ai|g>>2f , :A7.4f.« not 1^ Mb:, $bfrbmrD« 
R3 is laid in tbe letter from Flaodiers, p. ^4, bqt U) Jtf 6 

WrygbtvMniliilliVbaokfsr^^s^aiH^^ f^^ ^^ boolmcf 
cbS'^Ohl S«nit^ifi^38iH>«itie% vMrKjH4U;3ffra»a.Je%^^^ h»t 
^ntstei^ iDoaef flMMnra M^«^;§M9ri^jri fifvi was fxf.^ik^i 

•wfis^ifirfyaibtfrf mfi^ibpiiP4beiPbw5«W 

aiidicfadt. vtffjpla^gcibjtfi^itffair^ :«f J)l?0|l)eir 

iMi^udbnlt);r«s ^is jmniifciM fr<HK|«^#) j^ei;^ an^ j^9, jbaq)^^ 
iprJoaabi^r^fiMt^'Wiigblpiiin^fte:^!)^ ^^iibel, j)d^iw.Yv;«ff 
allliqfMd bf bkn^sittA b3t>oaipi0^y»#fefYi aod Jb^e, ji^d ff^ ^ 
puDctoally, that fome time after I added 2501, to tbe auin 
MeAJltTin^hk^^^avsA^ i«K) liecdved km tbe ^M9t9^i\09^ 
i^y/Wfe ;.,J|;;ift^i^w4t*f Y^feSllyfed to ta^rty } atnl it w«iiiebiefl/ 

' r* 

V MiBb drclii0itMaii kwirmr, ks HM^LbasbaU 4M^ k» ^nm^.'? . J^ 

tM^^i.'1ttt^Jdi&7ft)[^C(Wlii«i;%HM tedio^ pAiniti^ mi^ftesc»irM^ l^9t^ in<»i»t 
.deoiif %«;«Vi4'#iffr 'liri' Mill si Witt^ nid«m^» «!• wittli. «. <4ipl#BM. «C. t'lM 


- 4 

J8 2 

ii9 B O W Iv R* 

«p«tn. tl^,.<»Q«j^iteii»t>Q(V thoDgIt not :ti.poa that •Icne, 1 
apjpliied tp^. ,(4r. iit^ , tfi Kqqw upoo what terms be woiiM 
retiirt) qie tl^j^c^it^l.^ T^e tevws he proposed, were a%e«^ 

*«-^V*ll4 fifPffih.' f^Sf i»^i,»gRee4 a< ope? u> repay it, ouly 
lle4w'?.'»g,*r*ttt!;l,Mjr^Cfivet| pte^ f^d alpve the com, 

jpoa.iptfir^f$,of,tflor,peB.5:^i«, (Ju ring the time it haij been 
l«>.ttjft. •i'M»^M..«n4M «)ljl «o.a<wordi»giy,,.as soon, a^. be 
BW^Vf^Pi^y BMil^l'w l!!?"* d|fl,»hi» »P»»«y. twwwtiou begin 
with Mr. Hill,'^was carried un by Mr. Hill, and mtb A'ir> 

i,n?tflF!-.f««HHft 9f,|tilHllri»W?«t>oo fei»*<> ^y bis opponent* 
):j, n:^jyi^|y(^iffi>e^t^i jpy them it is asserted, thttt'afiter 

tt'ttm^ h9.,i^^t)ed-t9.,fj^^r§,^nlp the wpis ,of the chu/ch be 
had' reno^ftc^,,^o4,;^ereWe,, ip>«r4er t% ^ecogwieHd 
lumsplf. ji|9 Ip^.jfi^qrio^t be bad . r^Q^i w» Jo jf -pvethod 
wWoli ,i|^ithjyigjit,firp<j^^ eflr^OjuallyilxroTfe, his sinofr.iiy ipy 
W^S,f)>W;;,]# JVflPW*4jtOi^U»er, tsWrburti, tb*fl*K»r 
_vj»cial,i^(^ig|^pc^'.|ip 4jivi(,yp lo lHia,.a#,|tppep<eciiwi»{e ,qf 
.^H '"f ''f^'' "^' ew'-f*' )?« \h^n j>9a?f sse^ op. ^editiaa 
9^ Meiiig.fiaiU figr i^i,du|riijg^,his, life*. a«iaw»«|y,*t^^H»;P»'« 
if^iw^yep ,|Pf,^ CW*- ' 1chlf'...<?^Fa»':,afloepfp4.5! V#fiPR,-the 
9,}/st, o( AMgi^t,, J 1 4 1, -be ipj^fid . ^ . £>4b<!«t; Sb.«b(ttH»^S19?^; 
andoAKhe,F!ebrvftry,,j:?VA2, ^ps^ t<i,tfe%jMne 
^<erpqp,J5q/, oporetippn ;he.9nf«(]^4)diVfPi>^ ,*<«md[^hw 
f^Pf^m^WtfP^ k9r9.'>!it<*h-m^*^ ««h,pf ^«8W»)»^7^ be 

?^i^.WR?fj*<l i»eypr^l„4nBuitifi8 .«(e«e rif4w>ft4r,»»4«r/o«»«, 

WfJ»flgir»9/ 94/„Aj{ft^ofijffihioh ^,^?»»4iy|8bglren»fiiTh^ 

V«8^«mt)Wi, ."»?!. ffifb^ effect r,(W4'<?««!, fWtlWa^f^ 
l«-i|»4fl?ttte^ i^, ft (ojrng^lf jpmyMa- vito.ti»ft{Ofd^ pfrjJesi)^ ^ 

.^^P9P1»fi?bwtrt^¥!pndj<i^j7.44 qr, twgiQflWg.^ AWa.jif!«, 

oaviiig been re-admittedr to the order, he should again 
•;gKW«(>rfdiMatMfie4r:/iiri|lhrbif;<eittta)M>»t; ■chaagbf|S«aHk'«Dnj«c> 

>«uit^ una'. )Bbt«ii»>. bis"' mbney egaiiw '< Tv •laeeiiH>1tsh'"«ins 
•vWHiM)) dkiiobii c»av°aaseu>i Jt aknawe«ed^ hMKeveffxaxcptir^ 

eiatf; HTu] tliey bad teeotii^,'i(inKft4lirvifei',t1iem^^ 
sHid^^iie ere^lit of theworlc, toih€l4id*prMfr.'Bo«f€fr, to re- 
vxsle'ZLttd cdtrect it. Por'<lni^s«^Sce'hfe^fc«fceiTea the soni 
oif W)0/. tboiigh it h asseftfed Hb'xlf flf Wl'y HWa to ttife work; 
aHU' ifertit cVeti iipot^ ^bTHiihg' VhfeUUtJ-etiHibnfej^iso far zi 
»fr. iSilfe Wot^; wfcer^ heproffes^fedttttki^'do^e liitich, Tt 
«ppe!ar^ he bad not mad^a ilngli^ S^iHitioii/ -6ry|'^ ^bsti- 
ttit6d' irt tt few rilaces iKe «ebrt^' thro!iol<)gy^iii kn^ irooni 
dfihte^Sam^Wuti.^'^ - ^' i^'' ''' ''^^-'^ ' •^- ' -^ ''\ ''' '', 

Jei^t^i'^he; <yri 111e^^3tH'^f' Mihrcb, 'l^iT, ))i 
piblid^('^> fbFlih *«l«s(di-Jr bf ihfe'PbtJok;*^ i^'^BrK;- which, 
be^iV^;' m iii^d^?tddk soii»^ ;y^fli^fl^ibi6^ iftloitn^; &ri^ tbea 
b!r^ddf|bt <t^ao#fr<^ tUe ptfneJflcatt df Vfcloi^,. tftat is, to 
xbk tlb^^btihif SsfdbMttmitj. ' iW^He eit^^ti^tton of this . 
w^fk^^t lbae'|^fldir'hF|irrdf6;rs^ to ba'^b t^eiV(^ the first 
bhW#tiUfk%rtf"ietAftn*^ti bf 'Hilfe'f^pfe's' *tjpr6ribicyr Oh 

VWha^r'^ad oh^^He- dfeitfr cif^MH^a^i Ittepei^crf quTeen 
«felr<rti^feVliblfal^-'fWtB (jflSqrt orfc oflii^frxfeTiids 

(fHR^lLytl6*t6iV," srftei^ardi'lbfa iSyte^tdii) applied to Mr. 
V^ihmmi ki&t!piyice fdf h Jcn,;^iid olrta^ed it. tht mxt 
^^ial^'^n^, 0^' ihe 4tb df Atigiiiti^ hfe nrarHed a 'iiJcfce of 
«tskbi>^^4«i«^b<^i($ !<iirdF'M^i]gbt^r' of ^ def^Tnian pf ibis 
'^l^ftWt^df^Eftgltfftd/ tf foiiftgefi- tJort oTa |feiitleinati*^faiitily 
•AP<Wtttakft*friwa. ^Nii*^6 -^BiW- tf "foiifiiiie^ of •400<W."iiterlili g, 
''«ATth^tr^Sd''£'^l»M4)^ si'folriAcfvliri^Bctp^ wbi«b (^Id he 
^Sfief^im d!6pbM^n 6m^viif^i\b ^af^jt^edh^f^Mt^ 
^«ag«.«-^«l6' l^d^l^tti^'^Hg^^a' W^-' Iteaty^ lif -ttiatyfegi^^ 

^«n&<M (U^«!^m «l'(b« PS^^ ^al« itS'a^^S^^ t* 

HKlaiUfin^fdll^MJ^ ^%»MgttA Jibe pil^jM^aiMI^ aMMB 4lll#«if»« 


UMir lio jmaJ 


In the saiA^ yiar, 1751, Mr. Bower puWU^ed 1)^ way of 
sqpplemeftt to his second Tolume, sevepteen sheets, which' 
iy ere delivered to fets sutiscribera gratis; and about <he^ 
Htief ^\\i\ of l7'63 be produced a third vo|ume, which* 
brought down 'his history to the death of pope Scepheft, 
in 757, -His ^nstant friend Mr. Lyttelion, al this tiiiie 
bt*xoQie a.baronety in April 1754 appointed nim derit of 
^he>hipcfc warrabts^ ini^stead o? Henry Read, esq. whb hem 
tiiai place undjer.the earl of Lincoln. This office was prd* 
bablVfX)!. no great emolument. His apnomtment to it. 
bowey.ef,, .>erv^s to snew tpe credit m was m with^iij 

Itw^riin tfiia,vear.tVe.fir»t serious attack' was mkdie ilpoli 


ft(m\fft gepitleo^an to e fxiei>d jn the ^roiintry,*' §yo j^apd 
1rF}tten,*ab Mr«' Bower asserted, by a^ popish priest^ i&u lief ^ 
<>ne\6f 'tfte 9idsf ^itWi and tiangerous^imsi^ari'es <Jf' Rorfi^ 
iiitliifr]fikigdiNn«)« itik correspondeDca wUh tjtci! 4^M^3r4t 
klst't5dtoiii'to'Hgtrt; >t)^'iai'Un^ mtO'tfae^lmiKkr^of^a penotr 
ifiro pos^ess^d both the, sagacity td dmi>\etl,i^S^ jl^^M^ 
4wiWf %o'p€irsfie mul'dpa^lo p^iblie n^ttofritbe/praclici^ 
of ouj frf^toriari,; rtie t^^mre begad iA/r;?^6^|>rtd;trti^cr»ft 
the toial><Jbgiuie&. of Mx. Bower. AfterJ^cart^uScp^fi^ 
<5ff !hi^ tfcftrttdvetsy, ii list «f whith .Is^hferer ^Uited in ^ft'iMM^ 
w^are.wbjpalMVp heli'ev^ that ohi:,aut'^qr''twJitSp\^ftQ^^ 
ifigf^as'it^'imirbs 4o t)bseri*e, ififlRlier<^n«ftaiffidaviifi.uaajrMiff 
the Uuii{fen6ci.ty ;fc/ letters' we iMafe '^u|<V^'fn'o\^fedjf ^S 
eieasly oonticted^ or the .material cliArgeji:.iaJJegi^,8|^ir^ 
Ynin. " fi^^*tH«jji^1f^^l^6'awadc, howeret";iimi3e^wi'Mifii'*wftlr 
graaisfwit'v.^n'y' assert tu;^ iftUP'fipJ^lflS^i ^ifiM 
charge" bis- eiietni«s ' whh <foui pra4?tioes9^:'l<ingi<^«ftiersm 

*3t?t^i^rj>fjthejPoii^c M wen ^ jVJ«)?',,^??t5f;',t«i 

£aii€ii>ii^io, c4)inte»pit.i) W^find^ an tae^jef^^ms At j^%ffiil>6f> 
tnivfer^j'^hljj-T^^ \fif^ of *eif^df'bf6i5[he^nn4)et^btM« 

by MiviGwTiiM w,«aip Q^itlie-M.lwSpcrj^^^^^ 

hb6iif irLjfctttt '<^]ffflttfrf^toiiA^,"tfit9 iMm. \M ttelP^fti^ik^r'VH^'^''^* 

tfi« pifefiht x^E&i^hLhiMi-K #ifl «»« fifci«tii'aD84^'td»iftA^'%«ia%MfW<tifttf 
more barm to yoW ibitii ^m tl> faf ttr4 any tMt^laltiH^ia^in^ f^iMf^dll^i 
thanerii of the work wiU bear it ap drid|;e's Leticfs, p. 47}, Sto^ 1790. 

ffieniipn?<l th«t iiMiQqii)ara^le actof iind bU lady in one 9C 

r. .Frprx) this period his whqle time seei^xs^tp fiave heen 
8per>t ill ineSectuat attacks upon his ^ileaiiesn fiiid eaually 
vain eiTojts co recover the reputation of ]i;iimseir and hts. 
" Bistory of the ,Popef ;'* which points he' puj^'ued with 
;^re|^ spirit, considerin|; \\\e, age to wliicH ^e bud (hen at- 
tained. Before the controy^rsv had ended^ he'^ptjblifhed 
bis fourth volume i andi in 1737 ati abridgdn'entf pf'the fir^t 
ibur. yojurnes of bis work was published in' l^rench'at Am4 

the saQ»e tim^ prodqced the fif^K vqlume of f/islFltstory qf 
tbfi( Popes.^is volunve ne annexed ;{(''6);Lmitiary viev/ 
pf t,Ue controvecsjr between liimf elf 'ancl the 'jpdpists, Sa 

iMfid Uiif Alt^oi/* A«o, |N l^,i wbvc* {fo^ vxittAH ^Rpioft Il9«r^ ^**«IW^ 
m, afi«r talfing Qotice of ao observa^ to countenance and protect him, be 
.m of^ fi{« aata^ial/ 'thiu fete Had- tiot 4bot|ghl a do act* of ^oaacy 16 aow 
tmlpmr^of l«|« MiwnH Ui¥ KiBQll^aQ fiui^ipt'bit lofftliWp ifilb hit iotCDlira* 
•Qci iji^ ai^tioD^ ope of the Mr. Qarnck read bif oirn Tetter to im, 
p4iiAphUu p(ib1isb«<) agaitisi hrm, be as ^fWM hh ldr^*bi|rs i lfl ^ eii IVs 
^ttH i ^^^dii, that lbtf«%:qtri» ani^ ^nt contaiaed' oo«ip(aHits^ df Bomrti 
lllff wb9. iif^fiM^ i^fMp^-fn>in Lon- itj bebav^oqr «Q Mr. Garrick : his reto- 
ld, mav Qot think that I dlare not fution to write a fa^ce, m\m k shofc 
ahtfwtiit^ fafeif at the Houi•'b^aDy pk^' dutlibeof itt in vMbb B«iwe»-««s to^-fo 
fai|ltbn»tP tt- :rai«{ Iftdy •wb4re I m^$ Jotrpduodd on iba fiage^^g OM^k coa. 
<^QfHP blUioucpj) with admittance, I bf^ vert, and to be shewn in a vaneW bf 
JeareCD iofomi^Uieai Mrho'tb^ gentt^- ' attitude^, iVi WbidithetirMngatyofllW 
Ml Mid lady vrf, .^llter^fentliwian, 'vbarMter was lo 'bo «fpoaed^ How* 
.IjIfO, 'ia.,J^^^Qfftri9^. ^ aciojc wt|o ever, ^^: sob^itied the matter to his 
.BOW acta UDon the ttage. ' The tadjr lorcltHip, aha de^hir(id^' that IVer should 
wHli^ii^, irArilwrrick; alias Vloli»tti, notpraoceil a step In. kit loteadad rfe- 
Mt^ /;«i|bi» ; t(M(« Mw^if^^in , (Uac^ s«aUaen^ w^bqiit his fcnaiuioo. Tho 
VH^ItlA^ *|MC« To do tfieiD justice, answer, i remetotitrf perfectly 'weN, 
fifty 'at% >alk V(Din>kV in f^elr wa^. WAs eotti|irt>ed to ^ry {:Mde«c«M(ag 
Tbl gtod<lfta% tbduglKim^RoacMif, is. i^d-^ppJi/te.^frm*^; biit» at the saa^e 

. HJP^^ VWBi^ '^^Wf I' 'iff ^\^ ^"i" ^ ^Jp*> iiejdcclii^d the c<)untepandng ai^ 

IQC a« %he laay tor "^er dancing! and ' attempt^ fkbich-woifht be atttedUed, p«r» 

d£ lAlf 4^ 'A 'wtlMltooias Ina ' ad- Safis/Mih kqflnr little^ uatoiiiaad ! to 

•g«4^«5i+Fr..lMiWl«||.i^;ffif<^i^rte^ l^i^tKfl flQexprCH^dhipi'H'.in thn 

.miBi ia fpr his aotibr; and Inev are most oblieTngandrriendrv'tfrinsto Mr^ 

W^xAi ve\tts«'^r £ikn2k>-^''^1*hti liMt^Ytek r^iM*/ as iftr-w^f ^caty^ec^U 

eonttfoiptaaoa notioe," as Mr. Oa- lect, recommended the suppressing hia 

li«%cO»lMrr%tf n«\MW4' % ipifiti iaten4adfbaillsei9«»«3[^o^r,f»-4-ifa 

aili (|i4dl ll^Mrfsapt^iftt of our ma- of Oarrick^ rol. (. p^27%. ^ir^ Da vies 

••Mr«*« V^'^^WJNJHrf U m^a fM> «»- fdda, Jb*t/* Mr. Garrick, in cons(^- 

aispIr-IPiitilc ipp«»liH^rlMi4 tp brijig qp«oc^ el (o^d tyt^ltpqV l^er, gave 

tolf ^ iPt 0» »vMP9>k *^Jta6^ «at #4 «P ^\\, farlHpr t)hoii|;;i{9 o^ iotfoducing 

^fri!l^ti^Jto|i.JMi4^iR>iN»d^n «ub Baacr to the public.? 


m » o w R It 

l9«k%4ts^^]ipe«ifanq€)iimiUV/u;(: btfoi!0 Cba^Uj^r^ 4^^ 

c4iu!febr)rfu^f>tlvidi ^0) jnM>n>ti0ii .0iMm^iiiM)C^ i^i»irpiiK^ 
und 4linpceiif:efti ^ By,bw><Y»ll> flBtK^iOfkitbiB A^fof(jA#fi^ 

aMiBted 'UA'biifmgi<di^iiiti4b^tiM0H^t^ifipy^ t > )o 

itwat very mgcb tbe pracUce oftne ax:cu8iiiionsorotigmr agamstntm Dy tn« 

_ ^^' - ' . 

pared, p. 3, lie ^ays be was married pampniet enlitleaSixXeCren, Kc/PiTt 

earlier than August. preUqdfd original and prcte&unt Hit- 

f Thia we remember to bave aeen tory of the Popes shewn to be chiefly m 

Mi>ih^ iamdd« CBrtJtticte:^' ' ' » ^ <l«h#ld*i«? frtfBd^ a^ipBpirit <*d>j -^tJ; 

X The foHb^rMg b« Ii6tdf iMH f<1**tt -f757t^tO.'*f>yilll».T«Mw*«i^T4ii«i««r*» 

i^obUibed iir<*otiie<|«i«b^«'^'th^(niifL U- ^*thikgt»'^ft9nM. agnWt^ftidi «t»% 

•ome^b^ekif)attoUi= u^oii'^e ^^di^^ Fl*itWllkfr><8vmKi itai«itfH)f4a4tMt. 

Mfltf dprt^tfet^'tcr file Hl^^l^yafl tlUb ^HMs ¥ililiri|mMD<490. t^TV^it^nrn. 

a^^s'/ltc^lTW. 8«ol '4.i»^<SlillMl lA-^tfU^GMllliiiliMvtfriMliHfeAMttMli*. 

ibt" lftiViD^<bis ^di^ skeHmHy, «): >flrai M7{«vo.9ni8J^M»J »We#fK|l8. 

17i^'ev^.^'^(>K«!ttiMtl(l "litf ^i^'V«» jiiy l^'^dP i^rf ilMiriof;iiiHv'>ttiCEM»'& 

tfrit ▼6libMbs'>6f< ifie '^l«ft((<f>UiVl!« m\Ht IOl»C(Wf<iila1«iiiS'^iil»<47««r-»ve^ -^^L 

Pd|^«i; * ^Jil'liCiei^'Iroiir a f4^ir««kj^ -A'(loM^«WMI##0aHl4lMtilMplliAwfi. 

with sev4rMf^4i^\ib^H f^i,^ ^dM^ ^Mi|K^ tf c4a.^fctel yi< t t4gWM ^tii» 
t63sc«rtaitvHBfeVtkbeViticii^brti(e's<lld'^:'ilMiiir>^ tib cMilidM<^«iie»^MtUia 
lMf<^rsr, and'ib^ 'tfy^^'cbarabit^^r tMi'' #«A?^tift» l»<iMr^»t»i«1?iHilflrnaill 

vnter, 1756, 8toV 5. ^r. A^fOlilbAld' greaify toiki^bQt^'to^ia^rft^r 

tiHVcteftmt t6 SpmMi^itt^nitatiey wa9 tHuftllj ealled by iiii 
ffiMd^CtofiYB»#te/wai'li'4es6eflihu>t ftdnri^Dr. Joha Bow4«> 
bishop of Rochester in the early part of *tb€} ^Mt^tite^nUl 

%<rilt^«9^i0^fbi^ ^^hei^^be.'tMit* his^mciil^^^ ^ti^fpree in 
<9750> felrltfltel^n^linterttf •mti«n^H^4rdleMi<'i«lF«6 ]»l^e«^rtterf 

IMA'fbe'J^sMJVC'i^tiiM^Db be- €(c»tf^d^red ib'tbQiMqgtfiiik'di^ 
HK9«^oP»that ^ilpriPhd^eil 'ldifMMCb«(<^ Ir >i^^5» h^ Wri* 
«Miot»%i^ Wilc^eilaMedai fAe0et»»M<iai«i«M E^yglisli* Poes{e^i» 

of cJassietlt](^^i ^^tj^clllltl ^^(tdffd ^ddil|^r«l vkiAt4i i^ J^ hpoMpe^ 

particularly of the 
\fir;g^^'tdfrv^|y of liis 

rfftimWi 'WMbh^<^4MMi«imtely'bcr'Mii:^^ co'4>e >kef)«^n«<iib(i^ 

f9?tl^<Withiid0xisnefiliitiMa8i«rthaiii Mr. Bowle>)rwhaii in 1777 

AtiMirtaHM tQU9U:aI ^ Jii^tarH). 4ci c:f |L|oiiK>fP^Ci<av»r 

* ^ft')C '• id f** 'ifl'MlZ r.u\',*l .,«"lj /-„> !««•■» •/.*,* T •'.'..«,»; ■■' ^« ' t ' 

. nola MNt^^Mihg Jiwrti JUhiftonn^rM^ ^«Waihi; .Suiuiss.v y«efV}4t#f:. ^K- 

Jrt»M^tot>irfij»a4H P»i i i »» IW MrHI>t^oPrjt- i^lVff^fHS- ., ^ Ji^ft S^^^i lLe||^rp;4> 

nk itwtiMiioafitfthcoitii^Sriifilwth l^.i«»«rtiA» ''ff^.i;r'<?*»^jr Dr. jpoi^, 
liM«fyi«firSoBi«f0tiMaf<' fudMojilk. Ror. I|)a^y«>8. S e ^)so r,HiK favounWe 

266 S O W L X. 

notflltonft.andl emrs^tt frnm'lhefai$ttHJflifriy*|>Qtft$^.aiiid'tD^ 
mances of Spain and Iialyy and otbef «n^eiis ftiiimrnsiianjd 
modern, with- A ^losBaif y aadt tndextt^ in ^icb 1 tt0J Mka- 
•sionaHy'iiiten^rsed'adiBe*refleorion5 ^a t^f« ^eerrniiiipmiM 
gaiiul^f' the :airih«r^ -wiilr'sl iship'o£<B{Mta Adapted i^Mt 
hhtjarfi' amd^lo (every toaffislatibfi. of it^V 4to. ' He gaver^bn 
ao ontiiheiicrf the lift lef OenvantcrB'io ahe -Gvnt.JUa^. for 
1791^ Slid circulated: propofleiB to iiriivbibe work by^autb* 
8criprien»ac three g^infieaffeseh] copy « * ft 9pp^»riMiUf4cMd^ 
ingiy in 178), in six quavie" motonieSy the'fim fiovr/centist^ 
iag of* the text, the fifth- of .the amieitationai and IfadifiiaBib 
18 wholly Cfttiafiefihy the teder^' bat jilivrr work: ^didNeoa 
answer ttis ^srpeotBt iooai The literary ^oornnlai weM^ «Mni 
silent or tpofee aUf^htingly 4»f bis M)e«nr9'ftad>iditti |niblk> 
sentiment seemed tobtttlavt annotetiimB eo CeroaetdMHeae 
net 4{ut»e 'so neceasaay 3ea<iMiwShKkspearej <^J9« je^pcns^ 
however, to have talceo *some .paias/4o^kitaxliiQe^:)tfacbntio 
the pablic to a favoamble lighti u in i164. ^fieoiL Magu 
LIV»p. 565) weirnd liiai<lame«ting^ceitaiivVioafiMro|»raoNi 
ticesrespeccinij thejudmisaon «if iaiiiiacaHintcuf the'SPfrfe 
into two -periodical poblccatloiis'to iwbbsb^tf hi^d sooad. 
reason to think he vm$ ieiitiaied.'^ lte-«ddS)*jih«fc the /paiU 
petratoi's of these pfacticx^s ^webte' ^^a^faise frieiid, .and 
another, whose enc^tiwiiiDhe'sheiitd-regamliian^i^ivaffrdafc 
and real stander'; ttseoneos-fohdiofi fetke.^rdHFst'flatairjr^ 
ms thtr other readjr tci givie'it,ian4' both, alike'.wbflecalw 
dealers in abu^e'ianid tteticaetioiU''^" Nor was ibis/^aH;.iM 
-1985 be -pobbshedi ^f iHfranNwliS' loi9 Uhci 'Cdbtrabrdi^ 
doet of tbe<Knigibto£itbeirenigftafrs4ndthia>IiAliin Stpiiwvt 
to the Editor of DdnCitnxeie. i ^Iwsiettcir]toai&v/Db.pj^ 
&vo« ' 'Tbis Iproduoqd 'Sh Aiisfevw froai*tfae'^itk]iaoiA^lreyTi 
Banatti^i siot of *tl»i)n(ibit)gaitJetnoB^iikb'ikJiidpueai]tkBdL 
<' Tblondrdn. /^SpeechtnTdo ^oiiil ^ptrle,r«jbe«ri| bitieditikin i^ 
Bwo/QiUinite/* '8<pk»v 'ITMlvand'witbitbti Aie (ie^Mreser^ 
endbdjM lln^Bdwke comrittuiiad^fnwQrfiT^inOleBlUfiiailuab 
ciorrQOlions'ta^tynaA^i'iiiHiclory^' 'aad abmycidbicitafB ^nad: 
and; Wstaicpir^ HisUnry'jariFbetcyJviHia Qotnmw hS^aretaim^ 
ftell t}Qbiified<fhihi<)fep ilitdrary aid)ififacis»deieiiptiotiJi>bl£ 

bioi>>on iheiawnifait pqronuooiatibri'ofutieiFreac^dabfCla^ey 
on» some tnosicriaiy ^u U tttdnts tntRiaimved^iiwIHdiocBabBaii^idar 
V ^<?se f] -on parisli registers ; and on c^ipip^. fHf yf^if^^ 
under various aignauires, a frequent contrabiitar!.(t(iijli)ie 

B O W ¥ E B. 267 

GMIIeaan^s- Magazine, but as ar divine be was not- knowir 
to the pulylsc; He died Oct. 26, 1 7S8«^ 

fiOW¥£R (WitLiAi«H' ^^^ >"06t learned Eugliah printer, 
ef <wboin we hnve arty aecoont^'waa bem in OogivelUcour^ 
White Fi7an^,Londoi)^oTrriae I9iib of December,' 16f 9.. His 
ftAeSf wbose name W^as also'WiiKani) was ef dbtsngutsiied 
entinenife inHtBesatxie prefessioif ^ t^ndiHis maternal ?grandv 
fatber/fTbcmiaa Dawks) was enptoj^ed'in^piBintiog; the cirie-f 
btated^.iPcdjxglQtt Bible of bishop- Wahem * At n proper 
a2ie.>b0WBs^]^laced» (for gran^matieal educaftion^ under the 
-tave^f Mn jAaDbfose Bonwieke, a non^jmiritg'cierf^yfnan of 
knoinhfi'pUty andr keaming^'^viio then liteki at Headley,. near 
lioatiievhettd'in'Snrvey. H^re'Mr. Birnfyer matie soob /ad-^ 
TBMb^ iarttitbrBlureaa rrfleidted the higbest credit both oir 
hiQiaelf^Md^biil pf^eeptor; -for wiiose- memory, te his iotes^ 
yfan(i<fieetdtert8)ned'^tbe«iocerest respect; and to whose 
iuDilyrbesalifay!8r.reo]aiiied an itsefni friends The'atiacb* 
Ug^i, iii9dc!^,^#ainsiltoah|: tmd^ 'the fothiwingv instance of 
thsTgoaiftlaebbolMttaster's ^beneivblente niade iA\ indeJibfd 
ahifN>e^Hbnti>a>^the!miiiid vf Iris pnpil. 0|V the -^Oth of 
Aniaarjs/^'Mia-fl'^,^j^e' whole pp6pertyV)f tbe- elder Mr. 
BoHfyenwaa^de^h^yed^by A'dreadfud finer t>ti wbidi occa«* 
fiioB, ^r>iSofl#ftke,''widb great ^nerosity, and no les^ 
deH^ey ^fiddaiunuing'riQr.conteai its igeini^ biaiowu act of 
kiiwki <w fc i ),t^teook-*'t|ipgfc him; bit ^ne^year, the oKpences^ of 
lii»eclM)lar'9 j>6ard^arldheducaiiion:-^ In Jdne H16,, J^^^^ff 
Mr.;Bow^df was arlifiittedas a isiei^ it St. John's: college, 
GMKibrfdge^I of iiriMcb.^Dr. Robert JSfnkibWaaAlr/^hat: Htms 
DSBBt^ nTheldodthrhad -bl&en \Ek biarrtefacit^ H> tlie eideat 
MfJB8w|f^rliD'the»stiaaooTof htacialjiiintyji knd thb^osi^ at* 
mij&diqlfinoe of li^ttyiiyearF^t badrtberha^pitii^>:Qf ndflfrniiig^ 
tiiia(lbiPOur(io'BlrdiiionrQfotbe iprortbjjrt^ iiira qiaimeM 

hf iwhicfiBthcl pMsfatfi.oblt^dt^krib (letaH^'ignti^aji*) oaiiiiilbd^ 
iittiwas liniiobteA £Mfjthf8iprteent-tel«c^««i.'\'Mn36)vvi^^ 
dontiancdii al[Oaalbri(^.tinde0LtboituitiQii^/6Ht,i^ Dn>An«p. 
Utify^ anrfna&eri^aBia lolRtbe*riwilHD^i'ij|oittirl4cM^ 
innsbii'ltSki aduRiDgr r^kftdhi^me ih!eb obtaioredr) 8loper?a nsxhiK : 
l^ttdi^viM vroiep ifiH>7 l^v'^likt'he^^eAl^^.^Efmltah ptm 
Sridalttm j^i rei^ {yiroinRbpei^^tnibiilegalor;!^ ribbt ik 

^VJ^au^lfdtfa^baof^bitliaV'rak^'tiass vi^ dibpoBittoii^ '^wbiohi 
iahs"ffisnfaiAorkblerft6)Jkiavr8trrbtSffiniti^pfiehr^ ihe^^re^y 

•'*fificf;«i«,l\fe of i^ii^?r/i^^ lik i^ 


gulaiityiof Ufr oondyict^Aatid'tit^iippUeA^ioh ff^ M^^iyi pro* 
cured hiriiahe estecai of imnyvery'rt^kpectiib^e'nf^fters 
af the imiinsmty . rHeimk wai lh»t>h)» formed un itt^M^a^ 
witb Mr. MarkUnd .wiJI Ii^/CW^4w^^ liilrlt^d'rfi^ffdi 

Ibroogb. Ufific) nand/thm totttfi teoi)^ivh}k .((^a^diie/^ jto-i 
lite jUeratuva -mil flouiid^ criiiftKmi' <^fk '^tl^i' &ekih J6t' R^h 
9oDwt<^kej>hisigraccAil; soboiMf UiA an bpty6r(lia)f;^ of 4i^ 
quiting/iii some tne&uT^ tbe'obtig«t'k)il»^o6'b^d'ft,deii^di 
by officiating!^ forra'aibiie^ in ^thi^ icafkoky <^' a^«il^bobT« 
inostor, fior> the: bendfit.of lim fattiifly v biil bef^^rr^^Msr, -K^ 
baci entered iiitkn tbe^Atukig* busSMgpi,' tbgekh^l^^^cb bli 
fatiier^ an June 3;7iSU2TJM*!oy\^^f thi^ Srvl liMta^wMdi^i 
ceired^ tbe beotfti of bii^coTr«oti«Mi «ra#^Yb«<^€^p)«t^ -e^ 
tion of Seidell' by Dp. DayiiiWiMh^pM^^bt^er^&ri^ 
folio* . This^ mA\fiMmmilh^\ln'hV<^rji&^ 
172i$ and Mr. floMiyqrV^^t^tJlltCMjliull l^t-i^^ 
hisi draieu)gJBp MnefntO^eMtif >lSeUMi^'4to^l^lii^d4^ 
he .read iiABe> pnK)fi4be^t^ 4iidi^biPi«Mi>tr H^iti^MMtfl 
frum 'i'The)Pi)iMl^9SiQfi4be'BttrotfKg^ri^attti'^SlU<Hei^ 
in Parliameitir'^^&c w4iichrar« nbw^mid M''tlW'''|]l^ 
cellaneoQa TraoU;? v >Iii 1^727^1 thlcr^te^ed ^rlQUvas^^ 
debtei'tor bimior aniaKiMrablei^^b^^ 1^ii(«^m^1%«tei4 
Glossary 'Of the lUiimK) A^i^Mttftlil^^mid^ilk'^t^'Uitt 
eaiied.:MA LVkw^of.a^fddk.i'^MtilM;'^'^ R^l^srOBI^l 
termflD.* < In a LeUtr )tori»^ Brt^nd^ a sUgte'Mi<lrle(^ iJB4^« 
Yeryvfeiir 4s6pi«0 40m9eipi'wi^\ btidt^xklv^J^MMt-i^ ij^ 
puhiiabed^ at ii add^Fbbml iwiib <bbcdnE>8A%)^4>tiri%(WsA 
repriuied in tb^^Mi^eUbaeaifii^iet^at^ '(^t:]^;^!^^^^)^^^)}! 
Mr. ObrkajmreUugbly "plAveil »with;rMs i<ym^pabIi<^^t^W(cff 
«itenik^MnB«qvya^eiibitiliMi4ytaMliil^tf2i 'QHilMte^dni 
of. Dckieinfafv, ;17^7v^tfib68t a«iifiittitWNilMi>(fek^My^^,"tfj^ 
vbiob(O0easioi»:bb l-eMtad 444t|<^^f£pbMii«!ant6M!9oh 
froniiMrjAl^iikiin,; iibi@|^ftiid tditoi^^f^^M AWRfoIti^ 

: !.V^Cy'h9|fblyc<6^4i«i»loMm (iind^lm4Hteir*^M»lbftitH>HpKb 
eotered^ 01D itfae/»diiurfdOQ;tilM|<»iU9d4, in'fc«<tttV%MarAtf^ 
uttate^/anr)tb(iAfi&e 'PtidoA^itfUctiuMbei^V^ ^< ito^'bifif- 

Mitftfli bot*eaerieAtM»i tbte 'a«loofi^teUkdjn#cm8^ 
tW4ittli\a)^re^tiMai:ib«etf vylbni^'MibjM^^i^rtV^ «PH6K 
byiidstehy onUbe^i^th ^^f^ OeioUet>.il««l$3 {Of^^v^^idM, 
.iub<iM»4Mi:b8diby 4ler,.^iHlbi»:diad tofi^MltliitV'iwadtbciUlib 
-sur^iDed bim^ till MHiitt Mf.^C)*i<kd'^d I^J^blJIMl 
wrote blni vwy flfinsriotiate atld Obfiitibti 'tet^Ys 6S^(fAs 
nselancboly event 

B O"^ IP Era*! «9 

hf IT^V be -iDsbiered kitor'tbe wjorki' a curinuB tresiUse^ 
WUi\ed ** A Patl^D' f^r yotii»^:St«)clciiis in^ the University, 
het,(ot\h ip iii9 :Uf#:of *<Idr; AariHitoe BorvmcIw^ Bonie 
0me sipbolar pf St# Jo)M).'ftCdllQgft, Offlnbridg(e/T<(Scl^.Boi7* 

Ifafinpd c4)i:it^lep, (though ijt MTft^ibl 9c«Jity)tfae pnoduotioQ of 
Biltf; A.<nW9«l» Bptm'kit^ x\w eUI«r$. butfidnetfiflefiuieiwftftt^ro-i 
\>§\>^ Mr. :Bawy«r>»r Abo^u nbo: imftneut'vne^iX'^^ppewn^ 
fi;^nia^.Ut|€r.of,^)r» Olitfkc^^t'biii ^nifieiviy«Vibad'fwpUien a 
p^p\pbJej^ dgaiiasib^ tJt^'i^epB»*aAbt^)rrbntind(ifaef4tbe>titIe. not 
^^e^9C4:as^il^f idftrf D,t pp^stftut ^ecalltfrtcld.^ • •Tiaitougfa'ibe 
ff/ief^^iii^ifi^f^f ilm rvgbt :buUot;rablei(j(kFiHiiP)OQsla««pibe vrw; 
l>)^)rrifSf;^9iPQin^^ i«l P?Mv<^tnlerxi^«he(!Vr6t6t pf^ tb^ 
t^s4$tP^Qi<^ni)09%i^Br^o8i«9(wi»ifita He btM^.risDd^it tbrree 
J»fffif4W^®3^^k^r^r fo«i>»a^b^i.»'tJ«(S'^ WOy !>• 

J??^>^WH^^Iy !lh?S5^tt|on 0fntf^^fl>ii cDiiocr^iiny tbe 

fiofiS^IWPcfJ^f )t#PgUIIB*tJ%tiIW)^ ***** 

SmtWgiliVi^l>fi9PMiG»Jpfi>]Vi l^^toi^ anc| oibersi^i iWali 
#JL JK9fl»ify *i«l»cth^;p»imiUlrft fjai^^ui^ befoteb that ironi 
diff^frifn^ hBghi^^ff karnteliWiUiain Woftinci,! Di IX 
iS^P-Vfiv/lB ilJ3l3l>^b«.40^lfiipK«in alconlrorony eocasioned 
J^y^Afff^fflpftiidf MiVi^A»in^ianci«rgjsiiian in.Yorkdbire, 
l^>MtVr4?^^Thtf1I]ra(liMtl9t<ff Uiii OiorgsiMdealniotiva of Re«- 
l^e^vMi^^ ei\^iytAilto,;tb0GGB>Uod» and Seaaoiit of 
m^ ^^x\0^\l & 'F^brrpetfoffnuincy;^ wbkh Iras' ebarged 
^b ^qa|i|»nw^7«pm^;«f lUAJStfutiiMats ywtt(faadvhaeii act- 
;j^Mif|p4.<bx7tte«or^dill i)aiviifai]J61U«bts^'Crfr tb^lGbractiaii 

^l^<^^e4> f SPqspHi^ 24tgrb^A)C^&iii|c^^iiMidMseaeaih adkwefa 
tfffife^mm^ tQiilliMiii MfioMrtkiiiecWguf^ h|Abp(ibidof ^ 

(fmumtffpVQ^Mdqalfia^pble^ ItaMaddf' a?bai >'EcaddidDS('of 
i^«jfSiw^>»6i(^^ b£(RdJ|g^;,lhai8gitteiMrka^ti 

Mr. Bowman's Si^tnoii; exposii>g tbat gentlei&as'a 'deA^- 

*f^«M<|fi»m44Wi^*fll*«9i**l*nW fiwiol«silwiic«I(l(^oi7^ /and 
Jmrl^ifi^ i».999fifu<'Wllll)ipUiti9«»ol/iii4138a/J¥»}p«bHsh0d 

b9itlT<^ Aifm>«^4)ddMiMn9M M* slbnKs,! iDdtoKi fftiMiq- 

,»8M^*h»©y c»r « lil\«sOo«i(tf^ in ttbti Sbrtidcmi^ ateat^d, 
^8»Aa♦«8Wi^^l«W>W {»tbbarilt»vi'*Oa(tltelItkio«]idly, 
;Ai(ft^'::^l^^iP«^^iN«l.>d4a4tedrioii^ Ite SooMiylofiAiui- 
2ffl¥»«SVis^ t«hiftbjlWfto4 bacfljcbotan priatTKr \ml 

. J I f / • Vd»4, - ~ 

97d ^aw V t^ 

o«dliig -y and' be wm m ootrre^ «t^ iwcU as an anrif meiabeii 

of thui, revocable bod;, regularly aueo^i rig tUair^iaeaU 
ings, aiiit flreqttently tommufiioattiig. ta- tfaem niatteca.of 
urikity Affid ctiriostty, which wer»r0pniNed)in lits '^Tcaolt:?^ 
111 confunctton with Dt,. Bircb^ 1m iwas» al60y ^^malcnmUjr 
coacei'nad ill iii»iitiiuu^>.< The Society for the EocoKirage^ 
meat <o^ Leading.*' Of tttti Mt^ Nicbols bar giv€li>aft mi^' 
ter^ling account. It vrasceviainly welUmaaat, JNk inpt»c 
diciousy and becama df«ttotved-by itft «wi» insaffictancj^ 
Oa ibi' 29ih of bacemfoer, lfa7> Mr. Bomyeru \q^ <\um 
fatlier, at- tbe age of )se«eiity«foar; -ml ft is evideat|Ofi;aa» 
his «ciiti[ered papcri^ t^at he taverely felt thia affiicdLaiif 
applying to himself iba be^utifiil- apostrophe Ot ^peas'jta 
Aacbi«tiS| inVirjjil: ^ rr. ^» i... 

' ^^-^ ^*^Hlc me, pater opttin^i fafiim ^ 

Deter is, ilea! tantUnisquioqaaiiiei^pta^pertdiai*' ^; Ji-i. 

His fH-end Mr. Ciarke agraiiY addressed to hrm a i^ttH^^of 
sympathy and consolation. In i74l^ Mr. Botrye^^torffe<sl*i 
ed, ^ndput irito a convenient ToriDyflt^uset'^^'Setorrtt'lf 
Vetterr Te^tam^Mo Historiaer," and ^ Sbl^ctce eii pi^fti^i^ 
&c.*^ ' The prehccs io both tbesd vointiitff wefie traiMlSitiM 
by Mr. Bo^yer, and are inserrted irt bS!i ''^^UeiiNaiieMit 
Tracis.** In 17412, he t)iibUshed'str^Mlktion^f^Taip(M 
" I-aHn hectares on Poetry," Mrith lididitibDaFhbtiea.'^Iiif 
translating' this work, he bad not only the ^dviee, 1^41 ~th^ 
assitta:it:a, of brs 6'tend Mr. Clarke^: itnti yet'tbir^irMe^ 
man had nd high bpinioir oF ibe of i'gtiial ^erfbtotfaribe.' Her 
thought it a very superficial book ; and vfig pahicufarly 
dfiehd^d with Tfapp for aflFebtingtoflad i^uhlViehVV>sstua 
on etety litrire odcasion. \ '* i - : ^ * •, o 

.Thdtjpfh it fe not our inVentfon' to notifee"t%r^ WoHck' 
printed by Mr. Boi/v'yer, excepting #befn bef 'hthisdf ic^Mt^v 
bn ted' to ihefai by p ^^faces, notes, or othet^ ' addMoos; ^ 
we sbaH mention Siis baving'been the pi^int^h,^ }ii''l'?4fi; ^ 
tbe^ddiiionaV bookoftlie Dunciad; as^be'i^e^efiVe^l,'^ dt ^U 
occasion,' testinrbni^s'of refgard both f itim' Ibe ^neat ij'tel 
^d hi^. learned xrommentsitor., Acttohg o^bb^fAetidly^MU 
pressiona 6f Dr. 'WsM^iiitbn; be says, 'H'Htvii Mbv^ di6re 
Sitea^ure vWen there ^ia i^ondon); tha'n^wiklh' ^^1^'Mdf 
<alk wtiH'yo^ at tbreas^e, de'^ualOfit tnii'ymi y6ui»iUn%u 
^oomt** And agi^, •** The . Greek I* fcitow w«i^ be ^^l 
printed in ydof edition, holtinth5taniifig'1heMsei9t&'}if Sift^ 
bterUsr The kam^ celebrated writer had long be^lre fdM 
Mr.'Bowyer, **tlQ:one*s thoughts wiH tiavir greliier Wei^ 

fi O W Y E B. 271 

wMr me thaa yoar own, in whom I biire •tf |3^eriented $o 
ORiMfeicandoar^ gocKlmsA, And le;irmi>g.** It is not, bow« 
6iiep^tto^be coticetledv tliftt a difference afterwards arose 
y^tweeii theia^ in wbtcb^.aa la comoionly the case, each 
patlgriwas cQciAdent tba( h0 was right. Mr. Bowyer, who 
ihiifiigbt hiiiiself sligbted^ used often to renMrk, tbati ^^ after 
the deatis of the. Eirglisb HoiDer, the letters of bis learned 
fritind wdre^a dtlfereac coin|>iexion/^ ^^Bat, perhaps,*' 
as Mr.* iHfohols candidly and judleioasly observes^ f* this 
wiatj he one of the itiaiiy instanees, which occur through 
lifi», of the impropriety, of judging ^ ourselves, in cases 
whiob affect our interest or our feelings.-' Mr. Bowyer, 
indeed, had a* great sensibility of temper with regard to- 
any neglects whiob were skewed bim by his liierury frieitda^ 
in the way of hb business. Tliis did not proceed from a 
principled ofararipe, but from a conscious ness of ^be nespect 
wbifcb tvpf due to b ion from bis acquniprance^ as tbefira^ 
of , his profession: for he expressed his resentment as 
afrpQ^ly in cases wbcye - profit could be no material^bject 
as.Ue^idiA moce important -insianctts. Dr. Sij^uire, then 
dean' of Bristol^ qq^J)avi;ig appointed, him to print a sermoa 
whj,ch had b^M piracbed before the bouse of commons, 
9f( the general fisst-'day^'Feb* 13, 1761, lilr« Bowyer wrote 
^^ the, dpptof, upo^ the occastoo» an expostubtovy letter. 
Vfff w^ tl^iiS /t|ie,pnly evidence be. gave how much be was 
o^^tuled|.;44ienb®.>b^ught that (if slight bad been put upon 
hhji fr9nifa'qv^rxer; where he tini^ned be had a natural 

/iiM W^Aj JWkvPPffSf^^^ suppop*^ to have written a small 
pamphlet on the present state of Europe, taken principally 
^jH'l/P^^<b>i;i^.: la 1746, be .projected, what during his 
w^9J^'J^^^b<^.fh^ Yiew^ a regular. ediMon of Cicero*a 
VJfi^teffK Mji^phf^npjog^cai order, on a plaa which it is to 
^§ lanpeift^ft thflit hedidroot completes asaa uniform series 
M>»P (Wop«;rJ35,*ajp5ai^ge4 y^oulAh^q fofipi^d a real )iJstory o|t 
7^rtto^yiifr^.*n4f!M^pseJ^vviii^^ camiot^b.^ dated, might be 

tl>wp^n>ho^itl^^rfinri wM*\^^^a'^y.i^coc\veplence. In ^he sapie 
IWHib^ ipt^bli|»hefl5«Jbe ,lH»f« Pf tbp. J&mp^ror Julian,*^ 
IffWsIwtedi firpgV/tl^seJfreoRb of AL^Ble^erje, an4.improved[ 
wMbi:«fr^lr^/ B?g5^u9f f ^^<M>« P^tesj and a genealogical 
^ihk.-^.^'ri]^' npxwj \Tere, net entirely J^r. Bowyer^s,. but 
V^^jf ^ra,wii ap, in part, by Mr, Clark^ and oilier Jearn^ 
tier). : l!tie trao^latipn, by Miss, Anpe Williams (Dn John^ 
apti^a^hiiim^), aod the two sisiera pf the oane of Wilkin* 

272 JPOWY^B. 

S09, ftM oiaik ttoiler Mr. Bowyor'« ia^ineduile lOipecM*. 
Jn i^is y«ar also, be priuted^ and is sAipposed to have m- 
sUt^d JD Umi .c<»iiipo$uioo of, >*A DiiMfUtia»y in wjwcb ihe 
pbj^icMoiM of a laie miaphlet (by bishop Boas) td (be Writ- 
/ugi !»/ ibe^iMMient«» after the iinattiier. of Mr* Marklee<V 
#re cle^iy aftuwered :. tbo0e paimpgei io TuUy oorrecied, 
OQ wbicb. aoa»e of ibe <»b|eclioef ar# foovded; witb 
Am^dflaeiiu of a few pi^c^ of criticiifn in Mr. Merklasd'a 
£pi»ioia Cruu:a/* Siro. Oo.Ui# 9d of Augyal^ 1747, Mr. 
^OKiyer enHer^d a af&cood ume into the, matrifpofiial state, 
|Wiih a au)H i^enevoieot and wortby womaOft Mrs- Kliaabetti 
Bill, by.wboui lie bad no cbildre9* Io l75Qf be bad tbe 
.honour of «bariu||^ with Dr. BiirtoD| io.tbe in^ecuve^iBost 
liberaliy bekU)vie4 by Dr. Kiiigt in his ^' £logi»iiB f anne 
iiiservieos Jacci .Kioi^fibiifn sive, Gi^zaotis : or^ iiie Praises 
of Jack of Latoii, ceiufnooly ceiled Jack the Giaot*''. Af. 
King*» abu3e was prpliably owiiig lo^bis baving heard that 
4i>iirTearueci p^inier ba4 bintedt in coover^ioni bis doubis 
coocerQfo^ the do(;^Qr*s ,Lati%iiy. Af^* Bowyer drew ^ap 
^trictur^^ io.hi^ own d^(eju:^» , which bVioftemied (a iofeft 
at tbe vf>n<;lusiQn.of a>pr4^jpice Uh. Mm^Hpii^u's U^A^fi^ 
tip^isy &c,^ ^u^9 Ml «Oii#i^q)ier)^ W'tArvCl^rii^i'aadvkQi'UiB/ 

were i^Aiit^d.. |n tbe f^mei.yifMt ,• pr%&Wj»f<^ritksal disr 
sertacion, aiul some v|J|l^(;klo 4^1^, w^r#/.Mnfu^d, bjr-oiM- 
.auth^r,.to Ku9t^r*s Xrj94iti#e *f C)|^K»ro: usii Y^ttniium 
Mediqrum ;^*. a.ji^w tfliua^. qf* which, ^fk, tvith further 
WPro.veinwMU Wpeftr«A.»n J77^f ,, fi#.»^ro>ei Ubewbie^ 
about the same timei f iLaiin.prefai^e |qrLee^*> ^^ Vel«ree 
Po^^9 pitsfi, Ice' |U^Uf <^po|i «ft^i^.«(npi9gOldAQ pritii ao 
edit|9f>yi coli>i)eI,^«dett*s tcaAslMion pf X^maf^aOoasoMn^ 
taries^ (h»t wof k J^«4?f9d. Ag«|sideriyUe( impmresflMa fiMs 
Mri Bowyery h|^fi4i, ;^ ^l^t e44«HM. I^f .«Mb 4M»ieahi ia 

^V'^^y/W J^^^%> ^'IF^f^ mm^' kHIH^ J^m^^m- m 

auA fait 9f ibe.KQ|iM^> JNpur^iT fp «et» i <i' ibf nJeliyKi. 

^^^^}f%'%.H>'^.fS9fr^Mlfi «m4^ 9e«#i4^IM«ifl»#» ^ 
t|i^ w^k ^oiii.;i^^Ba)i^'«^i<J^^ Imps'! afwIiiayifuA 

^ w^A bU, ov^^iiotM^^. A^neif wlirii | ln»itb jptMJ M«r 

public, m ufi^ «i>K*|mfiK% i)»e #fi» mwhifiB .tbt 

^«lba arlf tnd •tyencet, «i1iicti gtined tbtf priM st^e acai> 

^Aeitoj'of IM)v)n^ in 1750; imd wfai«li ffa-flt annmiaced that 

s^ngahkf genius to the Attention stid mdtDtfatt<^ of Earope* 

On the ^ub)icati#iT*0f tfae thM erfilidTi of ford Orrer^V 

<^4UiMrkt \jn tbe Life mitd Wrttuigs <yf Br. 9wtfk/* ih 

^#M| Mr. tBowjer wnnwnd ptinted, but netef pftblisbed, 

.MCwO'L^leri fK>m Dr. fieottoy in ^ ihtttet below, t6 

i^lofd Orfcry in a' )and 6f ibklt dattitfta.^ The notes 

wgned B) in ^ «iintb quarto volume t>r Swift's wdrks, are 

«»lraoied from these Letter^, which ai^e reprinted at largie 

ifi^bit'*<l>tets/' In- 175^« when B^ Clayton puWishei 

vImb ««Vifidicetioii of the Histories of the Old and NewTet- 

-laMetH, in aiittwef to the Obj^ctlon^ oT L^rd BnliT^ghVoke,^ 

^4A^ b^s^'er drew mfi an analysis oFtbe s^uid, with an inten* 

^tion dir aetidtng it to the Oemleminli A^a^^* it ii how 

pAnt^ in Mr^NiehnW^^'Anecdotb.^ jti 1759; to allj^y 

Triiia feroienl^ Medtinn^ by tbetl^t>Hi» be published, in 

4^vio, <»Retliark4tm a Speetft^'tfafkhft ih>CbfmiHm Council 

^ tlM^^iUftyf p^iAHtingrpeNoitt (ki^fbnitigtheJf^^sh R^'^ 

4igida fd he irtttwralfhfeed/ M'fai* ib PMdfa^cie* ar^ supposed 

t«sfe4iffe(fted'|iT^M.**i4'M» d^i^ of Ihfar senlfble little tracts 

>«jil:b %<fe #iMM%i^ li^tHt; and'Wetl recieiVed by those 

tilbiaMM<iUtlQi^l»harl«^p^$ttail^e8, ^ai to shew, tha( 

tiAMilpfre^ *pdlUlaa^^i«hs<fti« ttti^^ kWi^A agsihst tVe 

MVdShVisaiMityt%t>i^ in Yrd^'dWre« be pfejudiMd by 

ilM^tf«4al|ten<iJ'|M^rfU^ In 

fjbm^mM )%hr>M>iMW Mr; Boti^yer^i nbtet iHrera aifneiced 

tnibMi6p Olii|f«onl^#trhnilrtiUn of ^«'\Jnurnht frotfi dran4 

CaiMt«>v'hl<Mgiv44Mllai,'Jiitad «adl^>m^ Id^Sii; wl^ 

aft«uw^lei«ilili^4)ft fitigMi iJipJiMhe^' int6 partner- 

flN||) w4ib««tlillOH f>yil1tMil^di^li^MelkiehM atislhg;, m 

eoMfOtiMi ilM^liteonMMf^?^. 4llM<lie l«j|d^^^ ac^ 

e«aia«Qirf^iiU«i4t)P««<feMhfclff^^ Wis. 

Wywi^gidhaW tt tit. llMMMMfj^W'^^ 

Vou VI. T 

274 BO W Y E R. 

the Nation) on Janu^t^ I5th foHowlng, beih^ the l^V ^ 
the Inaogumtion of Queen dizabetb/ their Ibundress^j 
with a T^nBtacion df all the Latin copies : Tb6 whbl^ 
placed In ordei* pf the transactions ''6f that important day^ 
Adof lie?* with the Cottmatibn Medals df the lX,oy'z\ ^air, 
And a bust of ottr present Kng. ' To i>i?hich*is sttbjbinefl the 
Cer^momal oP the august Processiori, viery proper to be 
compareil witii the approaching one ! atid^ Catat6^ue of 
the Corbhatioh MedaK df the Kings and Qlieens of fingi 

pally by Mr. Nithois. Odr learned prirfter*8 neit pti'Mfi 
cation was of a mor^ ^^riou^ and weighty nature, ati e^ 
«eilent edition 6f vhb ^Greek Testament, in tWo vo^ilme^ 
1763, •t2mo,'iinUoi^'rhe fofbwing titltl f* •' Novnm T^i^tfl 
mentum Ors^uin, ad Ftdetn Grseeoruin ^scMtm CodVctuM 
IMSS. nunc prrimuih expresstrm, ad^tSpnlainte J^oanne 5)i- 
cobo Wetfetenioi ^u:tta Sectiones Jo. Albert! ^Ben^elit cH^ 
visum; et nova ImerpunctTOne sa^pltks MHtxstrat'um. Ad- 
cessere in altero Voldmine Cmendationes'ccynjettur^les Vi- 
rorum doetorum titidectiKque collect*.'*' Th*t^ «old^witb 
great rapidity ; thoiigh'Mr. BoVy^^ iVi Wd' kd*,rt<is6rtieirti 
of it in the prubtic papefrs, Wa^ pleased ''td' ddd; th^t it 
boasted neither elegance of typf^ nor pkpet, l)at trtrsteiA to 
other merits. The conjectural ^tn^nldsitions ar6 a' t&tjr 
valuable addition' to the Greek Te^^m^nt; ahd Wi^e eit- 
tremely well received bV ihe learned. ' lit a'Uttef df iHiinVs 
from the preMdeht and fellows of HUtHM college; in CintiL 
bridge, New- England, to Mr: JBouf^f, 5A' I'r^?, fcr s^^- 
ral benefections of hh to that cdllefe theV ^>rf/fds8 &%W- 
selves a« folloivs : *«^K fs' i barticWit'bl'eiurtirfe"tB^>sf ib 
'tiientidti your tery chx^m &litiV)«' 6¥ WGrttft'TeStS- 
htoctrt, 1n tWo vohimfes; with iVitfekl Wot^i' W<J' iHkWtiA\>pk 
Iconjfetttifesi iip^lalTy As td lhe4nihathktioHr^H^mir Vf 
th^ ^A6fct impbrtiirfc^ a^io aiii!dfeim^b^^tW6'^«HSe,''^^ 
'Worit; ^ihottfeh small ih^li^,''t^e'^A^^«m?<*'4rgl6i/ffe 
%f.'sacVetl learhitt^; and o^rnVJi^e m'lim fkHt* itM'iimy 
Ikr^^ \tA\ittiii^ tif ehe*c6thmerit^t<iyi'.*^ 'A^^mWe^Si^oHf 
the Cinjeettfifes Cfh tfce NtvifTiB^athen? '^lt\/\ai^' dorfrf- 
'Uerable fehlargiBMaits,^^>u4 sfep^tify''tiWiriiri«8/^in 
volume, 8vo, in 47tl!,'a'tiiitd W^tB, mii; 'ahda fp^ 
from die inierieaVedWropy of T)r.- O^n,- tWiicii''h^ 
tjueathcd ttrthe'hdftourable'and rifght^V^feii'A'IBr. iftdife 
Barrington, bishop of Durham, is just published (1812).. 

B O W^Y E R. 875 

tippi ^r 9owj?e( se^it qini ^copy of ^h^ j5econd,.\vith a con» 
QlV\fil^Tjr\mer. ,^ la. 1 76^, , at jie^ requpst pf T^^qaas llolli^,' 
csg.ouf; lpVj*j?d p|fiifter,v|rrQte a,8portjLatia prefacp.t9 t)r. 
Willis 9 ** (f rAQinruuica HojgqeB Anglicapa^.'* A larger Eng- 
lifb pref^c^ .whipii lyas wrirti^jrx by. u\a>, and intended tor 
that work, is.priAted in biis "Traf ta." S.oijna copies^fjf, thif 
bpi^k.were «ep^.,bj bi,?n t© the, reV. fid.ward Clpke,, when 
cj(^;^plaiq to th^ e^l of Bristol at Mailridj jto be given ty thq 
3p^i)i{h ,tite|;aL^, Tpwa^rdi the l^ttjE^i? end of the sapie year^ 
ip cppjje^iee^e of overtgre^ (torn a f^yf r.espeqtable frie^ndjf 
93L Catptj^ndge, Mr» Ba>yj^r had, spmo^ inclination xq hav^ 
i%ii4^rta^^i;i thfi^ management ot the IJmyersity press, by 
pnrchasi/xg, a lea^e ,of i^ exclnsiyp poyilegesi. He weat^ 
accord ii^glj;^ tp.Caipbddge for fhii-pt^rpos^ 5. ^*^ ^he treaty 
pryc^viej^ iruiu^«, aud he diauoljnpuphr^gr^t th^.^^is^ppoint- 

^P^\rhi}^^]f^^^^^^ ^f ^"^^^ yy eiigafflng; in a part. 
n^]^i/^,>vHtb.^]j^r, Nichols, he was .again .enabled to witb- 
c(rawj,,^;h ^epe fiegre^/. firorp thatLcliasp app which 

ha^ be^^^ jjp p|-(yudicial tp^iif be^l^ .His new asso- 
ciate ^ad j^jfjf jj ^traiued by (^iup totbejprofessian, aud bad 
assji^teVi pip 9averaL|'ears ia the^ouMDagenaent of busioessu 
jHf^jyj^ y^y^api^Jn tlji^ c^nnfetioni; and it is unneces- 
^ary.^jp ^M %S*^i^SRfi*®'^^"y ^f* r*}icbpl3 has trod in the 

stqj^,^f^hif,,(WQ;cjby.,and ^earned /riend and partner. In 
tbAtyjpaf ,y 764Jij^r/,J^af^^ an e?iqellent tatin prcr 

f^pCy^P,. *f Jganw^^^ 'Jefuit8^> ad Cep^qram Scrips 

:^^.5»W J/^§r^?^jt,fH^KW??a4,jnxiaj^Autograpbum/V Ip 
t^ij»5)rie^(Mt^e.g^ve8i ^n pccoqi>t ^t ih^ n^tpre of ^, 'l^ork^ 
V)^ of i^eiqannef in wbvc^ it bad. been preserved* Mr- Dp 
?j^i?^ j/rj^jfo^r^Ks^nihecerl^^ 

W;*'^!o?RBP*8ffP^ilf^ 8^5^!^^^? ,tp whom is testifieji 

i« Jfe^-ii^ftSITOB 7W^'?^>^f^.^^^^^ V}^^^9 be,p)ac^4.+p 

fVI8l) ^'..- . \- , -T^ 

PftiMORDli PABLi/^ in ialhision to the w^l-known early 
etIitiaYiB of Tuliy^a Offices. Having printed tfais year Mr/ 
Ciarbe^s exoelleht and tearncrd work on *'Tbe Conntexioti 
of tbe'Eoteaiii SatOn, and Coglish Coins/* be wrot^ sotne 
maennspon it^ itkith ure inicrspersed tbrouorhout the v6- 
1 tt4kir^ith tboae df tbe^^Mtb^^. Part of the . dissertation oh 
ibeJKoiDaa Sesieree vms, (ikevrise, Mr. Bowyer*3 produc- 
tii^ti; Jthd-jkM ittd^x^ iwbtH^b iji'ah uncommoniy gaod pne, 
aodim^wbidb^bedld IIQ4 ^ iittle pride bin^self, was draWni 
up'omivelyibytbifDi On.^lbe I4th of January, 177 ^^ He lost 
hii letOfHl wife^' wbo died at .(he age of seventy. His old 
fpidnd) ^. Clarke^ mbf^ bad adnninistered consoUtion to 
hiio/onraaiiliibnr oocasioni nearly forty years before, again 
addreiaefi^biiii with. ifi|icWil»6Stf on this event. In the Phi** 
lesopbiod Tranlaeti«kn« ^r -lT7t iras j^rinted a very inge- 
nieQ8<^£n^iry Aug 'the valy^ of the antjent Greek, and 
Eornan Money/' l>y »th0 Mt^ l^^Uliew Raper, esq. "Tile 
opidfons' idvan<^ by ibis respectable gentleman, on (hiese 
tfi^ecta, tioIl e«ili0)diiig ;wHb,lbo^ft' oif Mr. Bp^yer^ he 
printed ^s^aalt pamphlet^ ^otitled^* /^Beipaiks, occasioned 
By a btte Dbsertatton on ,dm Creek apol J^omaa Money .^ 
Tbe plmiphlet was iotemled us an^apj^i^dix^to Mr. Clarke^s 
Treatise on Coint^ Tbe ppinions ot mk^yiexxrelfent wri- 
ters in Gefrmany and ^France bfajirin>&.]^eD,^^ly.^ontiPo^- 
verted in thai elaborate worky Mr* Bpyryer'^ciitiisinitted k 
copy of it tt the f renqb>Uug!s jibffiry^ ^d, jjisfbrib'e^ hi^ 
Uale apptadiX ;, s. . \ ^ ,], . 

, '^R^Gn PnaisxiAmssfMp - .? ' 

., GwniLMus BtowYsa/ Ttpoobaphus* As'oucwirtf. ^^ •' 
" iwdiciunk ut 8i;beat niagls'eemnmi candidms^^ t ^ - 
j[^u} pcfni tk)tuit eomtooeioie Mt>r • 'i (.k 

He was very detirofifTlhf^t Mr. CUrRe^s l^qok sHpuJdSbe 
traQfikted and re(Ifinjted in Frajiceg a^id he tbok^oMe p^fiis ' 
though without auccasSf to get it accooiplisbed. (n ij%ii 
thcee Jiale tracts uf^re published by hitn, under tbe title pT 
^Select;Dis<Qursea: 1. Of tbe Correspondence df ^tj^Vfe^* 
brew moil tJis. with tbi? JuIiar^ from the Latin o^ l^ro^ssor 
Michaelta* 1 2. Of ik^^ Sjebbatical years^ froip the ^saipe. J' %' 
Of .the years of Jubilee.^ frcpn an anonyibou,^ writ|r^^iif 
Masson*s Histoire Critique de la Hepubliqu^ desXe^Cr^^^ 
1t> 1774, he cQrrected a new editioii^f Scbreyehus^fGrc^ 
Lexicon, to which he added a nunib^ of words (distih^ 
guished by an asterisk) be had himself collected' in the 
idourse of his own stedie^ Gonsid^able additions, wl^tcb 

B O W Y £ R. «? 

^re still in maimscript, vrere made by iiii9 to the.JLuiQon» 

of Hederic and of Buxtorf, the Lathi ofies of Faber and of 

Littleton, and the EngRsh DictiMary of Bailey | and be 

left behind him many other prooftf of fai»turitical ikitt in 

the learned languages. Hit Gmek laid Latin. grammaram 

general ar€^ filled with- iuch etiVioifts f apbuHUocj" tiobea m 

bear the most convincing proofs of conwwwiatgtadttQai 

knowledge in thoise language$i and chat kniyviricdgQ be^apn: 

plied particularly to the advanoeAi^M ^a^'sattred Ivanvag^ 

It wsLs bis constant cnstom, in-tshe conrieioffhia vcading^ 

to note down every thing wt^h 'Ite 'tfaougkt iiigJiJbcoa«< 

tribute to illustrate any passage 6f ^^lipiaref, .^^e^eUt^ 

of the preek Testament. Iiv piit^iianee o£'thiaimstl)Qa> 

it is hardly to be conceived what a fftKnbar of uaefal^alDd 

curioua remarks stand inserted ; in the margina of hb A/oo^ 

logipal books, which may gi*eat<y' cantrtbuto'la' snofproore 

future editions, tn 1774» wa^ published "^^Tbe Qri^<a£ 

Printing, in two, essays. I. The Bnb^talfiee of Dn: MuU 

dieton's Dissertation on the'OYigln of i^iotiog ia'£p[g«> 

land. 2. Mr. Meermah^s Account of the IpTtsmioa of the 

Art at Harljem, and its progress ta'Mdbtlt) with aouuional' 

remark^; arid an appendix.^ (See RlCHAaay'A9%i)fa.) ,Tlie 

original idea'of it tras Mr. BowyeF^a } but it vraa^complatad 

by Mr. Nich61sl ^e two teamed friefida, wlK»e assiataac^ 

is acknowledged ifi the preface, vi^nrethe rav« Dr. Hemry> 

Oweri, and the late Mr. Caesar de^ Mis6y. Though thca 

work appeared without a name, it waa immadiaitely judged 

to be Mr. Bowyer^s/' and was w^li ree^ved in the world of 

letters, aqdi jnatfy spoj^en of in tetoi's of great ebrnthenda-* 

tioD, both at hqiM )|nd^ abroad, ^ A ^^^opd. edition, with 

Tery^coosidefable improvements, wis published in 1776^ 

and a Suppleipeht fi^ 1781 ; \V'heri liK^lti^btdswaisr engaged 

in pri^ti^g the « Original Wbrks bf 'fH<.' Ktogi «f the Con. 

molif/'' And the '< SUppli^^nafeht to Swifty'^^Ml*^ Bia«f>}di^ hy^ 

$ugge^in^ QSfeffif h!nts,.iitd aiMSng mtM UluM-at^tss, as* 

bb tb^ t^t\^i'drifhiihtik;^ 1ft. Beniley Wad 
" '*" ' ^^ " •* ^!f^miki'^<^^^\J^ 

ifceMtioa^ > Mr. ^Bbvi^etf 
u^rt^d iiii iemW^^icfi kM;'6dt\iirM to Him in the 
^r;ie ofW£t^^e^^ atterttlon Hkythe^sftb^tBtbi^e treated 
dr^Uod <aik;ri^d tb^bi to the respettlvt! authors firom wfaos^ 

278 B O W Y E R. 

bodkj or personal comqEiuii^iGation they vtrera selected. ^He 
was mucb iodet^ted, ob this Qcqs^sio^ni to the IfriendTy assist- 
.lince of Dn Salter and pr« Owen. \ '' .,".,,! 

i Mr* Bowyer bad alwayil)^en sulyebt to a hilious c^ti'c ; 
f cul duriiifg tli^ ta9iit tep ypars of ImVxti he was affiicted 
-with the palsy an4 th^ itpjie. But^ nbtwUhstanding these 
inBrmities, l^e presery^ed, in general/ a feiparkable cheer- 
.fula^5|it of dis|>ositj[on;'^nd received great satisFaction from 
the coi^versation p^ a few literary friendsV l?v whom be con- 
tinued tQ be yisitfidi fTlie faculties 6f his mind/ though 
aome what impaired,.. were strong enougli to'supporti;he la- 
bour of almost ijucessaiit readiug, which bad ever been his 
Jjrincip^l arpusexneut i /arid h^ regularly corrected" l^e 
. earned works, fLndesp^fiiaHy the Greet hooks, which came 
froiu bl§ press* • Tbii be di^ '^^^^ within a ver^ few w^eks of 
)iia death; Ji^hjch b^pJbued Qu tb§ iViJi'of Novedibei*, 
JL777,. whep he ha|^'Dearlj';\ibrDpMed!his 7$tli year. The 
pub'Jicationa pf Mf,^po)/Q^r ^re a/i incoritrqvei-tibte e?jitence 
of bi^ abilities a^d llearniriW: to which may be ^dded^itiat 
j^e washon6ured witq \w^ friendship and patronage pi many 
,9f, ^ie post di$cinguis||ed^ prnf^ments of bis a^e. We al- 
ready have bad ot:capion to mention the ear)s of Ma9cles- 
fielaand MaVcbtnOift, pr-Mfotton/mr/Pope, Mr, CbisbutI, 
Mr. CJIarkft Mr^ MarkT^nd, hisbop Warfeurfon, tlie right 
honourable Arthur Opslgw^ Mr. Ho^is/ Pr. Salter, iVfr. fefe 
l^is^yi Dr. Owen, and* Dr. Hebearden". ^6 these/ among 
Other /espectabfe na^esl might l^ ai4<)ed' tliose of arch- 
bishop Seeker, bishop' Keon^t, bishop* Tannifer^^ (ns^cjp 
Sherlock^, bish^op Hoaotfy, jijshop tyttettpn^.bisly)pjf*rf^^ 
,hUbop Wt^ bishop JBArrip^^^^ 
Percy, lord Lyttelton, jgrd %.dys,^i?^fan.K-i^ 
,.Kjob^rt ^nd John Fr§iud, de^n F^ewd^^^^^ 

jPography /and aiUifluities, |S apparent fromrfiw last will; 
^ where; n\^ ^pbiigat^uns to Dr. Jeokinifdean Stanhope, ^id 

Mr, I^elson, are agknov^ledged. ' ^he fate Jex(fenen'r!fir. 
, Roberf Cljiytoc^ bisJ^p of Clogher,'i6 bigbfy^este^i^d^is 

frietidsnip^, that he* liot only honoured fiimD^y a regdltr'^k- 

tglary.intercoursei but presented him with the copy-right 
olf ajl b^ valuable writing^. Mf . ,Bbwyer stobd nurivalled^ 
tor more than half a century ,' a^' a learned priqter; and 
8piii(^ of the most masterly produciiopi^ of this kingdom have 
ifndoii^btedly appeared from his press. To bi^litel-ary and 
proTessional abilities he added aft ^xceUi^|it morftl cbaractel'. 
His regard to religion was dispTayed in his publications, and 
ill (|ie course of bis life and studies; sind he wks particularly 
distinguished by his intlexibte probity, and an uncommon 
alacrity in assisting the necessi^QUS. ^ His Kberality iti re- 
Kpving every species of distress, atid his endeavours tb coti- 
ceal hif benefactions, reflect great honour oh his tp^inory* 
^l*bough he was naturally food of i^tirement, and ' seldorin. 
entered into company,, excepting with men of letter^, I^ 
u^s, perhaps, excelled by few it) th0'tafent of justly discri- 
niinating^h^ real, characters q( mankind. He judged of the 
P^sons he saw by EfSoft of intuitioti ;. itnd his judgments 
^^J^P generally right. From a ck)nscioitsne<s of literary so- 
perV>ntv^ he did not always pay that p^rticuhir attention tio 
tbe booksellers which wa$ expedient iir the way of his busi-. 
ness, ,Too proud to solicit the favour^ in that way ivhich be 
believc*d io be his due, he was often disappointed in htn ex- 
pectationsp. On the 9ther haod^ he frequently experi^c^ 
' friends/iips in casds where he had'qf\ucb less reason to h^ve 
, {vopeu for thi^m;. so tbat^ agreeably to his bwni expressioo, 
^'f in what hie h^d receivedi and v^hat he had been denied, 
^j^e thankfully acknowledged the will of Heaven.'* ' The two 

Jri)ea( pbject&of Mr. BoWyer*s yiew, in the deotine of his 
^ ifej ^f/tre to rejiay the benebctibns bis Aither had met 
; W^hji'a^d tA be himself a bene^tor to the meritorious of 
'£is6fMnJpr6te^9^n. .The^e purposes are firfly displnyed in 
^}s last will :' for wbict^ reason, ahd beci^uve it illustra^s 
tb^^tucii ^ iiis'nfind In o^ber respects, we shall insert it at 
'^a(rg^.'^o After ^libe'rdl b^^ for lus'son, among oth^r 
Ugajcies ifjpe t^ji^se: ^' I likew^^ giveto my son all my p]a|e» 
' efc^pi:*^h£ SD- " -^•-— - -- -»-— ^ --- '— — ^^i^— 

tnr^^rve*it as a memorial. ' Having committed liiy body to 

ifi f^^i,^ would testify my duty and gratitude to my fiw 

I reia and^nttmeirousbeoefa^tors after my iather^B loss by 

^£re^,.|)t give anc| bliciuea^h to my cousin Scott, lateIy];^of 

, n^^stmiqster, brewer, and to bid sister, fifty pounds etch. 

' J eiy^^find be^oektb to m^Telations Mir. Tbomas Linley aiiil 


MQftUie^ to be tmnil«md to tbem^ oi* to tke noftiivop^ 
«hoii|»c«il4^bMi I W|MfrTibejrwiil take care to sttttie, *^ 
tb|^ domH f^r ihe* kenefitof tbev sd* abd^dkugimn ^ 1 
fiv# Uljtb^i.twotfOilt ikod ooodaEM^toT'tf the* late'rc^i-MK 

'vttfl^t^r ofr lliv Ricbfltrd WitliMiisoo» book«eil«r <m IM«M 
f^r ^r ifilb9i^VM^9bi|iLlo «utt6)^. ooe^tbovsanrifiMnrfs 
jour pofiOeiH; qiMolidaied'anoiikieB^ tao^ba dt«idod«qtiri4y' 

tbera ia^ p#t ^«k I ean biear o^ ona nKvur tp liettrifal ' e^ 
da^oi^ I f9a4^ #a aNTkoowledgaiBeiiti Biit oiiie tiPtf^ectoM^ 
bod; l^m^Uil tndobt^ lo» tte (hdirdrBiiy!:6f€lt«ffbrUlge; 
tO'Who9i Jl^gifoy oTimthitr.reatoiieyitbe'tain of Ally poitftdM^' 
ki reliMFi) foftibo dofMUfoptof ibii|jr ^Qondt madato my feibdr 
fttba motM>ft^ (be lQ^lnned«ndrfik)iis aiaitef of 8»nt #dbiO 
follag% ii^Q^T ftob«iniledbia: to a nepbewof bii Tt^a^' 
alMft^ givM aa!(ilbor'fifly poaad^ ^aa appaaraby bti vjkiMpp 
of the tb^rtVrfifstof M»yv<>aetbiwaand «fbian buktdrod^ftMf 
8oveot}?^« '4^0 banefaotioiis adi«i^<oy€BtkcriieMU^'fr#A^ 
Oifocd I pao only «flp«!|P witb ^rAMitiidr^ at iUtt ^MaMitit^ 
tbM)^ iifil ftiMi tbo onivtitrBity « a body^^ but froaa pafrtife'tf^ 
lur 'Hiamb^r^ I gihrotbivi^.|ioiindft avtbindwcf iiadt^ha^Ml^ 
of Cani^bury^ io gnUftbde for tbe kindafe^a^f oba vfiiktQ^* 
doctor Stanb^e (sofnatime dean ofCaDaeiib«ry)i to Mytt^ 
tbar^>^aftl»miiicet)f vi\mh aiiK>iigit(bj(afifOp^)MQr9^>6f 
bit workfi I baaeJoAg oMttbed, iiaiba<ve eaqiociaM^ by^Mtt- 
bomg emptoyod ^ (HPiiift tbeaif jbh»lU»*rmgbi>Miy oMi^ 
wof bs^f !VI^ Nols6n» attaiber respieetaMB firibodaad putmil^^ 
my fatbei^ai a^nd of many otbamt i*i gif;a» to^dpoib^^WilHiafei^ 
Heberdoi) my liuU aabioetof «oin% M^iUi Hiahc»fiiVh«iiinw,^ 
Tristaft^ {uid tba oddvpliu*^ Spanheite^a(NiHiim»t4^iff ilM 
dm'sQpcira^MMt^omlbtid, NiimaiiJ Repa(krai»^«V>W£^ 
bUim^ |Ri|«i»rto, aodawyotherof^ydibol^bi^abiMMi^- 
mM:epti-tQ«b0 Yof ercjad* dcacftofi Henf^ Obpm^ -aaMK^f UffJ^s 
li«bhw hoaba aad priricfl boofcaf oq cfaia Ns<rc7wiMi4m«' 
fg b«^ pleataa to tabe MtotBicbacd Gcnigbyomi'iw IMmt iNlhtc 
nary lyiy Jb.Qoka-OD AopdgmpbicbL'Sipljeatin ^•tlp 'Mr. 'ift^'! 
NioboK tUbKHHiaibatiiel0teloCimN»,iU^y,MA(Ai!^^ 
biatoryy ftartiaoiarly the^CeootbpfaiB^ iirfiM(Mh^ai»dnF)^ 
hiii8$ aoy ifraqpoHirs * aad"^ diotia«ianei^t« ariih''#i9Mr%" iftifl^ 
Fap^'ft woika; lo 'wyMOt whate^ef<-bMii8,<(lldfaltiMilM|' 
above) he, tbii>ka paopor to tabe. ^^Aaid itoir i bMlttt^itMy ^ 
be allowad M laaw foaaiMiuit for tho^b^M|i^4)Hw9l%,'' 

B O W y £ IL 281 

MciwoimoQrfitjt of 4he.fliytt)eryi0n«it of oa^ltiltioalk* ^<(M 
eky^ Londioiiv tooh-E'ram/of m«»t^ is iriti |^iifbl^u#t%ir6 
Ihoufwd pMti<U ftbvee fier.<^t. rdldc^diBavk inft^iM^^ 

%Q be dkkM lor Mar cqiitUy attoiigsttllM^t^^ bdtirl 

|i98kQrs.#rf>fewittBii9 io 4m 0l«tunl>llroA dlSe^foi^liliif'by 
tk» n90tor^ wantefOy atsd a»tMa9W»^>«&*tiltf lllkl4k>lll|^Ayj 
Md'Vfiioat the iinia of Mwh #lwtf«ii#kM b^^llil^ilr«$ 
jmrs pid or. apiravd^ for ihtst TMpeeiiii^ livet$ #t>4M^ fAi 
kalf-f^tilyr bcqMisdHU mch* m ehall^b^ «io»t d^Wfttf 
vili be.frtferml. ^ And ivhemM i'tHi9e'b«r«^ liefM^ ^^^ 
lajoy aQ«i>^tsiiia^Q£tbreie ttouwndpomtdsJfMir^^i^ 66nW 
i^ofMolida^adL aonoities^ in ojiie:li6'«MMa» wkta ttie c^ttsefiC 
f^i iVf^ Mecntors r Nowy I do luereby g«r0>ttnd^ b^uMlb the 
difiMk^^ ftod >tfiiercste of Alnft 8M[|» nU'Stioh Mt^tiKge Mket 
yJ««#, to. th^ «Md' cosipany ef j^aitmMto to 'b« diVMiitf 
0^^^f ht»m^9n 8MB jDtber pnioteift,' tsompcMkMrs <>r {^fti%9^ 
i|M99i'Mi«foiieiiid^ iii^ awwer w^^iMaid ; Md, If tiiy initf 
«0» 4Mi4ie4inioimfedv or jnfeMrried ^^Mbout soci> con^rft a» 
^oceaiad^ ftben I gite md |>a^ooatte ibo said dsf>iial ^^ <^ 
|l^re0 jUipll9Md poiioda ite . the catnupntiy of ftfationers, ^be 
di^n^liMMlt Md j^rly fMPOdiKxe tliMsof to^bift divided for ev^ 
M)MUy Miongtt aiflifr other socb fiikd ^vinters, cOiepositdrs or 
piAB^qiei^ fepihok j^Octai«eliT0S>i;o4A»tiOi4ified/6tiO3^H, 
^i^i^PMii^Siif M(9^;a» a&irdsaid. 4t tel ktfig been to tfiii 
i|Mt«r. <^«MMrii^ ^tirai ftieh EoiolH«ftiftra^ifMi«^tippi'ei)t(cea 
yi|aompoiitfi(r%ivitbottt «ny sbaw of 4tfbo6UleoirH1ftgy wbb 
(KMgbt tp. bAve itiie giMsctit I kt bo^ of rem^jriifig Ibi^V 
li^f)^ 9*^ beqUoaibnto tbe s«Mi6oi»{>atiy'Of'MatM»Mr9 sb^b; 
M MWip£i«IMiqM»9i#iU puMbaMftewibMsftud po^fldir vt^^6' 
lM9!kftqt;rfHl«Md4)«%fc^ fbrtbiB^iis^ %)f otie jotfrrie;^-^ 

tbis (IV)MmU> ^«iat#< tfabtf *b« imster»Nr«rardeissy aiid a^istani9, 
sbltt fl»jft.lllii dim>^icK«tti paoditeo>«bc^tor bftlf-yeartf td^ 
•W^mnipqiilmtVfi tte saidrauHtelv 'Wardemt and asriAi^l* 
ofl^ 9tM ^fHiffNU^ii^^baU »oHttnato4Mr tbiia pufr|»08e a coitir ^ 
PfMit%r vIM> i#ia nft»olfood life and^onvergatiiM> wh^sb^tl^ 
iWllllyifcoqtMWii; some jplwe of pnWio-^^owWf^ e»v«ryafti^^ 
'da^itHnkmti pnanotiied by sicfcoes$; aifdi4(bMl'tiot have workM^ 
^(fk niPini|iaper oa. oMigasMie for f^iuf yeara at lean before 
sfM^ QOqiiitoM<MS M« sball ever aftenmurds wbttst be holds' 
tiyifiMiniMiji^ wbioh may be for Kfe, -if be oontinues & jourw 
RiQHfilfHr M^^bpUW >able to <ea4 and eonacriie Latin^ ^d H 

?*2 » Q w * « a. 

)M$t iQ; F»9^ (&rf^k 6i^j9nUy ivjji;b accf nU ; of. whiqh be 4b^l 
bring ^ l:.^i»uia[HUliaI from Uierec^ of SuMartiii*;^ Ludgate 
for tb^ ^iin^ b^iogn t CQuld. ivUh that be shall bavefaeen 
bFQugbt vip(piMU4ly;9o4.vii-tuffQ«|y, if it be.possib]e,,litMer- 
cliwiT^^yipr^^ pr.i^e QXhex public acboply from sevcfn 
y^V9..Qf ^e till h^.i^ fuU.^e^ent^en^ and (fauen to serve so- 
yen jeart(>.fujib£MHy^i&iCOO)pQsituXy s^nd work seven years 
pfire ^ A jpiun«J4A^l^f ,^ I WQulA not (lave this annuity b«3- 
staw^ ma^y ojpe .un^c thirtyTone ^ears of. age : if after 
^ is 4bo^9. be isbo^^d. behave illy let .himbe turned. ot|t, 
#od anxubef b<e ^osie;,.bis stead, ^-nd whereas it may 
hi^,w^yr,ye^ts before ^ copt^positor fouAdii)at,$baJl 
exactly. ansii^ th^ above description^ and it oiay at soi^e 
^isDtts. happep tiiatsuQh a ooe caanot be. foynd^. i^wom^l 
ib^va.tb^ the mftan timeapplied to sucb.p^csqn 
as tbe liB^fter^i ward/^n^^ and.^sislants^;$liaIltbiok apptco^cl^es 
nearest to wbati have, described,, Aad;vvbereas the aboore 

tmfti^)will^opcasi94i mn^e trouble.; I give to^tbesai^'^t^ff* 
pany^ in, .case th^y think, proper- to iM;cept>|b^.t£iistf^ tM^o 
hui^dred and fifty pound^^'* hh a]i}?psjt superBuoust^ add* 
that the trwt was acpf^pted^ and is.prpp^jly .e^tecfiHed^..^ 

Mr. Bawyert agreeably to bis owi»r4itrectioA, ifira%|>qriQd 
at Low iUey ton in £$^ex„ wJtieve a nealj i^onu^^ is 9]!^(^d 
lA the •church to his father's ^nefctpry a^^d i^ijs o),^^a 
Latin inscripUQ^ wri^qw, by himsi^lf^^.^Ai^bftft ^f. hijoir i» 
placed in Sutioners' UalJlii..nHb ^^gppdi^p^rjt^i^pf bis^4a- 
ther, and an^tbecof bia pMnon Mi:«l^^l^o^ji^U )vhicb^;n^h 
good portraits of ^teeU a^d .Pr,i^, .xye^.pre«exitfi4<^tbe 
Coii»pany.of S^atipu^s by Mr. Nicbpl?- . v / > ,- r. -jij 

Rarly w 1778, .Mn I^ichoU ptiiued .tweiitjr; copies. )ff 
aome ahoxt ** fiiiogr^yi^biQal Mefla^i^sirf ,Mr» Qo^er^V (W .^- 
taxo paq^p^ilel^ of fiftyrtovo p^e^^whicbi «r^^)giveo.>)a|Hre- 
^n|s \Q,i.i^, f ri^pdfi, ai)d .reprijfti^d: .ia.,ih?i /G^fr^Mafe^«>l. 
XLyUlfi Tbefp, wew>ipi, .althQfigjl^|in);eflBi^Upgi^i^ 
selv^y.iHere po^r^spfl^pieutp^p gK?t^y/i|^ O^fp^H fj^Hcon- 
ter^J^PW'Sies.qf Mr* 9o^v^, )rbQtforeftayV.4)ftf,Btttb fipfl|t»i^|Vf d 

, in^u Wy WHJ wei^rpbrMc^Nipbi?!^. migb t^ffi^^nj^rg^flcmp- 

tiM>»f. ip#nAim(W^»,j9.4#e,i^lff>ry,of j)i^,Ji$^^ 
AwjpriJiflgly, kim tWany ^YMu^bl^rP^flr^l^ ji^^ VP^fi^VfSPt 
a*i4 .^b^ ,aid ^ fPfpe MMsrary, friep4s^,he>,Bjr9dj^fdyift(*^J|2> 
i^^ihf pd»o,i»(e qwrtf^ wlwwei, c\^^g^n^^^,\^^Bii^g^i:' 
caltfipd, Li(ftrary;^ii^«yi9tea of W^bafqi^^wj^^lfr^n^^ 

Ft ^i4 a^d4>ifmaiH&4?^ bia learnedifriefvW^^^O^^'^''^'^ 
Vejrf^ui^l jvi^ pf 3^,pri9grfs^^n0f9Mlvf^eip|f»M^9f^^ 

B O W Y fi R. 483 

tare in tins lingcbm from tbe beginning 6f *fhe|!ii«seht (Peti- 
tory to the end of the year 1777." The impdrtEnce oflMs 
vork was soon acknowledged by men of leatniftgand curki- 
itty. It contained memolirs of several hundreds of efmneinc 
aicbolars who bad been unnoticed ot* imperfectly nbttded-iti 
biographical compilations, and opened so many tiew'aird rtbii 
sources of information and inqftiiry; that the amho^ was ftir* 
ther urged to extend his labours, and improve upon bif dwn 
plan so as to include a larger portibti of ' literary l^istery. 
With this view, during the interval^ becoutdgpinreAroman 
'exfensire business^ and the publication of m^tiy'-ufti^l 
Works, amono; which his elaborate ^ History of L-eldeitershife'* 
standi prominent, aihidst too his indefatrgabte ahetition to 
tfaeafl^rrs of tbe corporation of- London, of whiab be wis 
^jr many years a distinguished thember, be* was enabled in' 
the present year to pnbiish a new editibn'of his Memorrs of 
'Bowjer, liocler the title bf " Literary Anecdotes of the 
Eightefenth Gentjiry ; comprizing^ Bidgraphieal Memoirs' 
,6F WHIiam Bowyer,'* &c,  extended to sijt copious arid 
' elbsHy printed volumes in octavo, illastrated- by* a se- 
ries- of engraved ?jiortrfetts. Gf thb work tbe editor of 
-ibis Dictionary, orof any compilatToii of the kind, cahhot 
-ypeit without' gratitude. It will appear, indeed, by our 
•i^eR/feficife^, 'that our obligations are numerous and Impoi*-; 
*'^atrt,' rior sbt^tild we Be confteot with this brief aeknowledtr- 
tt^ttt,^but^omia mbtfvfe of deKtacy, rt being known to our 
-'r^&ders that the autfaoi^ to wHcrm we are sdmticb indebted' 
'^fi at'the sattie iime the medium of tohveying bur iVtaises to 
the public. Wecannot help 'i&dlt^^^ however, that where iVe 
'•iefti^ttr JVli',W6li(fls'»*^ Arf^^ We wish it to b^ uiider- 

"IWobfl thift'it is* for the'irorpbse oF more ample htf^miftlon 
'^bkiV WV^'faav^ tisualfy extracted^ and that no book has^pefbalis 
^^eiit^^eii'p^llsbed in this dr any country by which'Ute- 
IWy dUrii^grty fs io-mijeb *Hcited, or so pleasingly gratified. 
; "^^OXHtollW flffAH* Z*E«m*), ftn eminent phitelogfer, 
^»lfl4Wfi9ii,'it/d antlcjuiijr, born S^: 1»2, I€l^, •Wadtbe^sbn 
WSiiHeifZuferib^, *«oistet kt«Wgen'-bp- Zoom, by' Anne 
'B*Mii6i^ri^*tb*'dteg!itter^of HehirrBoxh^^rn. a mtnlstef'of 
*'^W6W;Wf^iAYf'^ Roman Catholic, btit irbo eAbbhicfhg^ ^e 
-felfbi^teetf +^UglHn;^became miniirt*r lihrf in the dycb^^^t>f 
't!IW*i,-tlien at Wfabrdfen in HolWh^l, and^dstly at Breda. 
'Wbicb pTa^c^ hriefkin 1625 whehthe'Spaniards^tookit^ and 
^itfi^ed^o Eeydiin't hertf be superintcuvded the eduction of 
i |ffaiid»<)H,- •*€? stibject of tbe pftiient wrttcle^ who lost 

284 B O X M O R N. 

* - « ' 

bis father when only six years old, and as be had no male 
children, g&ve young Zuerius his name of Boxhorn. (Jnder. 
his tuition, the youth made great progress in bis- studies, 
and in 1629 published some good poetry on |be taking of 
Bois-le-duc, and some other victories which the Dutch bad 
gained. This was when he was only seventeen years old, 
and he was but twenty when he published some moreconsi*- 
derable works, as will appear in our list, which induced tbe 
curators ot the university of Leyden in the same year, 1 632^ 
to promote him to the professorship of eloquence. His 
reputation extending, chancellor Oxenstiern, the Swedisli 
ambassador, made Him great offers in- queen Christina's 
name, but preferring a residence in bis own country, he 
was afterwards appointed professor of politics and History 
in tbe room 6f Daniel Heinsius, now disabled by age. For 
some time he carried on a controversy with.Salmasius, but' 
they were afterwards apparently reconciled. Besides his 
numerous works, )ie contributed frequ^tly to the labours, 
of bis learned friends : his career, however, was abort, as 
he died, after a tedious illness^ at Leydeo, Oct. 3, 1653, at 
the age of only forty-one. How industriously this, time was 
employed will appear from the following list of his publica- 
tions. 1. '^ Poemata," 1629^ 12mo. .?.» " Graiiataruip. 
encomium/* Amsterdam, 163l, 4to. 3. ** Hi^tori'd^^Ai^* 
gustae Scriptores,'' a new edition with his ucrtea^ Leyden, 
1631, 4 vols. 12mo, whicli Hafwood calls, beautiful l>ut in-' 
correct. 4.* *'Tbeatrum, siye Descripiio Cbmltatus et.Ur- 
bium HoUandi^,*' ibid* 1632, 4to,.aTid translated into Ger- 
man the same year by Peter 'Montanus. 5, An eclition pi 
^^ Ptinii P<^)egyricus,'^ Ley^et), 1632 and 1^4.6, Aai$t^rdai% 
1649, 12mQ. 6. AnimaOversioties a^ Suetpoi^^un '^rar^iuilr 
lum,^Leyden^ 1632 and J«45, 12moV . .^.*'*'P9et» ^ftiri^^^ 
minores, cum Cpmtnent^nis,*,* ibid,, iyj2j,iSvo, '8. *^p.e^ 
publica Leo^lien&i'um^'^. ibid. 1633^ .2 4j(i^*, , .$.,** /^pold*^ 
gia pro Nayi^^ionibus .HbUandorMtp'^ j'atdveffus^ 1^^ 
Heuteriim^** ibid. 163^, Wmo/ , 'artd . xegrijti!^d .at' Xon- ^ 
don, 16i6,. RyoL -IQ. **^ EmbXeiftata l^bli^iu ^t t^issen * 

eptiis saeculi,'' ibid. 1635, fol. 1 5. '< Oratio iDaiiguralis de 
raajestate eloquentias Romans,*' ibid. 1636, 4to. 16. 

B O X H. O R 11 281 

^< Olfttiofies Tret| de theotogia pftganoram^ fftbnlis poeta- 
roiPy et aniinaruih immortalitate," ibid. 1636, 4to. 17. 
** Oratio fanebris in obitum Dominict Molini/* ibid. 1636, 
foK 1*8. " Character oeusaram Paironi,** ibid. 1 637, 4to. 1 9/ 
** Cbaracter Amoris/* ibid. 1697, 4to: 220. '^ Panegyricus 
Principi Fred. Henrico, post Bredam 6ppugnaUiii dictus,^^ 
Ley den; 1637, fol 21. *^ Qussttones Romanae, cum Plu- 
tarchi quflestionibiis Rooianis, commentario uberrimoexpli^ 
cdtis,*' ibid. 1637, 4to, and reprinted in Gr^vius, vol. V. 
22. ** Monomeuta illustrium virorum eri incisa et elogia,^ 
ibid. 1633, fol.*. £3. ^^ Justin us, cum notis,** Amsterdam, 
1638. 24., '* Panegyricus in classem Hispanorum profli- 
gatanV Leyden, 1639, .fol. .25. <* Oratio de Somniis,*' 
ibid. 1639, 4to. 26.. ^' Historla obsidlonis Bredanee, 
tier ibid. 1640, fol.. 27. " De Typographicae artis in- 
ventione et inventoribus, Dlssertatio,*' ibid. 1640, 4to. 
Iti this be i& rndined to think that the art of printing was 
first discovered at Maerlem, and not at Mentz, as he first 
supposed. 28. << Dissertatio de Trape^ltis, vulgo Longo^ 
bardis,** ibid. ' 1^40, Svo,; and Groningen, 1658, 4to. 29. 
^'t^anegyricqs in Nuptial prfncipis ArausiQnensium Guli- 
elmi,>t Matl»; Britannia .regis fili»/* Levden, 1641, foL 
30. '< O^iio in excessuiD Corneiii' Vander Mjle^*' ibid. 
I(t4{2, fot ih,** Oratio qua Ser. IJenricse MarisD, magnoe 
B^funni^ 'regime prbem Leydensem subeuntis adventum 
veneratUr,*^ ibid. .1 642, fol. ^rU? compliment to our exiled 
qufeen, ahd a sabs6<)uent publication,'- Bayle informs us, 
was disliked by ^ome republicans. 32. ** Oratio in exces* 
sum principb Const. AleK£Midri,'^ ibid. r642^ fol'. 33. 
^' Commentarius in vhs^ Agfjcofe^ Corn. Taciti/^ ibid. 
lli%2, I26io, 'aridf an'Aoolojgy for this edition, **adversus 
Dtaloj^Utam, , ^Atn^eroam, 1643^ i2mo. 34. ^Anlmad- 
v^rB\ooes in Cbrp. i>citum,' Aiiistferdam,*^ 1643, and often 
repHfotpd;.; 35. 'The Belgiq ^mtory to the time of, Charles 
V. IrfiDutch^ Levdfeii, 1644, 164^^ 4tb. 36: " CHro'nicdii 
^tud'dfidb,^ MiiMItburgfa, i64i,4iQ,[ 37. On the worship 
of'ty edUdl^'t^hHeiinia, Iti Ui^tcb, %eydef)^ 11^47, 4to. 
3l?.^*^'Plina Bfj^ktote piim ejui Panegyrico," ibid. 164'8ii 
9L^d^'k\niieriikai^f6gi^, XHmo. 39.'^<J)is^ertatjo.(}e, Am- 
nea^^'^ibld.n'e^J.B', ;^^^^ 40. <' Dis$ertatio de i^ccessione 
et^tfr« pHi^iogtmttircitp, iaadeuudo.p^incipata, ad Caroium 
Iiy)jliijtoi:»Tta|^^^ regeno^'* iljid, 1649, 4ta: 41, '* De 
MciJI^sMte Re^^ Prirtcipumc^ue Tiber sinsularis,^* adefeoce 
of^d former, ibid. 1^4^, 4t<5. ' 42. ^^ Commentairiolus de Statu 

jiJ^ • »:•) J \ 

I . . .. V . I ; f 

886 B O. X H O R N. 

rcBderattnun PrwNMnruoi BelgfUy * liagiiev 164A.»' Jlbme 
offence uken ^j^ ih» StAt«8 of Ho(lap4 ^l^iid th^autjbor M 
alter part.oftbi^ Mrorkin tbeediiioD 1650» 43. ^^<Qrftli# 
funebrU ii) e:i(cemui& A4ci«ttiFaikobuiigii Meil. Dace'' JU»f9 
f)eQ> JL 6^0^ 4to. 44. '' tI»ymofii8{ Hiat. eceJ^siMtiovBrenlah 

Gtaiui bt^t^oria setect9|?' ila^^ t^34, Erfun, l-M4't l^m^ 
46. ^^Oi^^i^r^atioAleGrvca, Eloioaff^,^ Gerfnanioi»Lii^gua« 
ru(u bari^iQuia,*^ Ley4en, 1660, -47. *f HUt^ria Univeiaalif 
Sacra ejt. Pxpfana a oato CbrUio ad aAHUin 1650/' ibi4» 
1661,1652, 4fto» and. i,€ipftie» 167^1 4lo« M^nckfl^.AjM 
(;gnunuator, speaks of thU as a<i ejccelleni aeoount qC ^bto 
Qfigiii and rights of natloim. .48. ^* Or«Atf>i\i6t varil«rgMH 
loeiui/' Amst. le^l, ISmo. 49. *' Oratioi in exc«paina 
GuL principb Arausis, coinuis Nassovii,'' L^d. 16^1^ /ol* 
5,0. ^' JVIetamorphoaU Augloruin/' Hague, 1653* li^vM 

51. '< OrigiQUiD CaUicaraaa liber/' Anuit. 1654^ 4lo. Tbi* 
criti€;al bUtory of aacieiit Gaul ^ocured biiO/ino^b' reputa^ 
lion. Hf 'was employed on it in bis lati^r^aya^ bu( did 
nol live to. publish it. The folJoiwing aroalso poaihwtpnfl^* 

52. ^MdesB oration um d^sekcii^ri oiat^ria mqdetoi S4il«9 
pofiuci desujnpttti," Leyden> Uo7, 18f»9, and Lelpflio^ 
1661, }!2xtto. 53..'niistittttionuci sen disqilHsitioniiinvBftT 
liticarui)^ Libri Duo/' Leipsic, 1659^ Amstb li^{k:i54u 
'< Cbronolojria Ba<^a «( . prophaiiai*' edit<ed hyr Bosiisi^ 
Francf. 1660, folc 55. ^< Epistolsr ei Poeimu/' Attialb 
1662^ Umo, H-itb bis lifo wriueo by JaiMaBas^Ktis^iaCUU 
vipist minister, and s?pr4uted at Xeipsic in 167-^ li^lii^i^ 
preface by Thomasins. 56. ** Dis^ertalio de Implnmi iRe& 
ipano/' Jena, U64f l2o»o.* ' /. 

BO.YCE {WihUAuy^ an eminent EogUsb mujriciiani obat 
pel-oiaater and organist u> George J.I..Aod.LlI. nlAs ilho «oli 
of WitliajcD Boyce, a joiner and oabi^jet^ouikc^y and blAisti^ 
keeper of Joiuers'-bail, wbere our fl|f«9iciat> waai bdrn» £iAi^ 
7» 17 iO. He was bi first a si[>ging<4>ay «t fit. Pansl'^i'iMKl 
aftecward^ apprenticed to ihe eelebralc4 Dr.v'Gre^ne,:twii0 
bequeskihed to bim Jais .manusoripta*. la 1184. hft^ntabr^a 
candidate for tbe place of orgao^iat of Sv^Mfltcbaiai'isIcbiirtH 
Cornbilii with Froud, Young, James Wi^rgan, andiKieJhiiayg 
but tbougb unsoccessful in this appiiesJ'mH^'KelWay Mmg 
elected, be was .appointed tbe same ytee to-4he plwfei^ 
organist of OxI'ord chapel i and in 1736^ ti|K)a^<fae.4eilli 

^ Get). Diet. vol. X. art. 2uerius» — Foppcn Bibl. Belg.^SsxJi Oooqiastu:^,,^ 

B O T C B. Hi 

MftttfaY^iii tbv'JFieldiv re§lgrie(it hris pl«c^ at St. Michael's 
Cornhili, Boyce was^ ndt oftty dedted orgainist of that 
tbmitoby bai ot^niu aiut covh/poBtr m the chapei roynl; 
The tampe year be tet Datkl's "** Lainentbtion o? ef Saol and 
ionatban^* < 4nrbifeh«wa# perForiiied at tbe^ Apollo Socfety. 
About the^yeaAT 174*3^* be prodaced fan serenata of ^ Sofo- 
1HOP5'** wiiiohh'«ra» ^tvo^ >otity k>n^ aM justly admired as' a 
f)l«aMirrg'anid''degant eoinpcysitiORy J^ujt still affords' ^^t 
dttlight tathefMMds'of'Engflish mosic^wb^hever h i^jpfiift^ 
f^m/eA. His neftt publicatton- M^ks'^^Twdlre So^afiis of 
3^ios'tort«iK>'vi!dtns a4)d a base/* Whieb w«re Idnger and 
nvore genetadly fyiwdvased, perfontAed, -and admired,' diaki 
any frodnciioiM of the kind in tins Uitgdom, except thosii 
of Cjipelli. Tbey -^ere not otAfiA constant use, as thatn- 
bev«ifiu$tc, in pvitate cont^em,. for which they were ori^ 
ginally designed, b«t iii our i^atresj as^ act-tunes, and 
pUblio gardens,' as 4^MuHl^ pieces, dtrring many years. - 
Iff*l749|' be aet> the odtf writteif by' the feV. Mr. Mason^ 
fof tbaitistalkttion of <lie kte doke of Newcastle, as cfaan-^ 
Mltor of ihe> uaitnetnity of Oaimiiiklge, ^t -vrHich time he 
in^aa boAofif ed wirth the degree of'<loctor'in ttnisifc by that 
utiireiairtyi SMti aifter <Ms' eH^ent, he set the ^ Chaplet,^* 
li-'imiaioiU' drama, written by tbe late Mr. Merrdez, fbr 
^rury^laQe tbeatve, wbieb bad a very favc^raUe reception^ 
0Md longtu^ and contrinued many years in use. Not long 
air«eir4b« fltwi' peiafoi^msMu:^' of fhi» drama, his- friend Mr. 
Beard b-eu^bt on tiie* same tilage^the secular ode,' wrhten 
fay^Dryd^n^iatid ofi^inaiiy set by Dr. Boyce for Hickford's 
room, or the Castle concert, wbet^ it was first |^rformed, 
tAiatiHlitfe^' Tins ^pi^c^, though' les^^uceesbful than the 
CUtapleft^ '^by itbe animat^ perfonriattce ahd friendly zeU 
ttf-'iMi^. Seard,> was ^atty time^ exhibited before it wk9 
Wbdiljn laJd'asidei 'Tkiese^ com^sitions, vnth occasionatl 
faifiigl0ryoiii^-for'VaraiBhalliaind Ranetagb, disseminated tbe 
fakire of Dr^£oybe^ibro4}gbeiyt tb^' kin^donti, as a dramatic 
andiimisttdllani^uslcom^ser, while luts choral compositions 
ibvitb^ kiag^a oh&pef^ for'tb^ (ea^t ofiliesdns of the clergy 
air'^^SttuMat*)^ can^ fc^ tbe triefintal meetings at the three 
l^aobiklfals of 'Wo«e«iter^ Hereford, and Gloucester, at the 
'lieefefHiaaeea in '«tl wbteh ph^es be: constantly presided 
dm^ilie^cjimeje^ihi^ xTaatb, 'established his repiltatioti as an 
ecclesiastical composer, and able master of harmony. Dr. 
Bcyycfe'Wa's Otf^'of thfe few of our church composers, who 

28S fi O Y C E. 

neither pillaged or MrviMy imitittd HavM. ftert it W 
origiasl and staiiing oMrit in bis prodaciioM, laaoded at 
much anlbe stvdy ol oar owfl old oMMlerti as on tha bait 
BKxIeU of other coaatriet, that gtvas to all bis ivorka a pa^ 
culiar stamp and cbaiacter of his owni for slranetbi ahiaa* 
nass, and facility, witboitt any atstiire of styieSy or ax« 
tnuieoas and betarogenaous ornameDts. On tha daeease 
of Dr. Greaooi in 1761, be was appointed by the dufca of 
Devonshire, master of the king's band ; and, in I Tsa, oa 
tbe death of Travers, organist of the ehapeUroyai. He 
published, at a great expence to hioiiolf, three voiaaics 
of cathedral oiustc, being a coilactioo in scdra of ibe most 
valuable compositions for that service by the several £«ig- 
iisb masters of the preceding two oenturies, which was 
designed to have been published by Dr. Greene: and in 
thu Dr. Boyce was assisted by tbe first Dr. Hayes, of Oa* 
ford, and by Dr. Howard. Dr. Boyce died, of repeated 
attacks -of tbe gout, Feb. 7, 177^, and was interred in 8r. 
PaoPs cathedral. An anonymous biographer records a 
very singular circumsunce in Dr. Boyce*s history, oaately, 
that be was from his youth incurably deaf' 

BOYD (HuoH, or Hugh Macai/ley), a writer who 
would scarcely have deserved notice, if be had not bean 
obtruded oii the public as the author of Juaius> L ai t a ri» 
was the eecond son of Alexander Macautay, esq. a# the 
county of Antrim, in Irehtad. Ha waabora in I7|ia; waa 
educated at Trinity aoilege, Dublin; and waa dasi ga a rf 
for the bar ; but, instead of prasscating bia Ofigiaal mowi, 
came over to Londoa, where, under the panooaga of Bfr^ 
Richard Burke^ he soon banma kaown bosh in %kfB Himhurf 
and fftshbuabie world* A prapansi^ to astfavaganaa had 
already reduced bin to coasiderabla aasbairasaasaMit 
when, in 1777, he nsarvied a lady of good foitaaa; baa 
this relief waa only taasporary ; for the aaaM aa p a a s ifa 
habits still continued, a»d as length obiifad Uat lo ae^ 
company lord Macartney to Madras, ia iba aapaei^ af m 
secornl secretary. He resAained there altar hia laailhip'a 
return, and died in 1791, having for seasw years pt f iou s ly 
to his death, held the lucrative oAce a# waster atiandinty 
with little advantage to his circaowlaiieao. Ha wra sw iw 
Ireland, a political periodical paper, called ^ Tbw Ffwa«» 
holder,*' in 1772; an latroductioa to lorA 

« Buraey^s Hitt ofMasic, toI. III.— Londoa Chisoisle, F«^. ia»tTI9. 

B O Y; D. 289 

t^f^fmlnthe ^J^Mtmm HrwTi /rfporttfl and puUisked by 

ttii^JU^fldon CMlra^4,, iiklJSOi .'In .1794, M ^Iso ,Trr«»t2ft a 
feMi^4>c^VJ^ical estfu^f Qalifl4 ^' TheJUidiaa Obsarv^,'^- pub* 
Ii4ti4>%t S|yadi9f^« Tbe^ti^ wi^FD i epriat^d in ^n 8va^olttmey 
in i7^9> )>y.tbfilat« Mc/L^rpo^e J>^iU£ias,Cain{ibell, with' 
& VJ^^ to ^iaUi»h a^ «4«i^r^oaj9rbioh^isoi» tirst. made^ 
if .y/Qjamtsike^ w^r ff^porUfig ihi^ Mr. JBioy/d iKa9 ttie ail^ 
thor of J^u»iu8 i but .i4nforvua,»tgIy,'the r^tuler lias '^^>tbe 
bao{^ au4 auticloia". bpt^h b^foce.iyai i«i jthi$ itoiiine^ and 
few,a|fceq[ipt0 of the kiad can^piK^iv^d.ixiore ii^yxLtci* 
oua toa^ a oompari^qi^ ^tween th§ ^yUa of Boyd and Jii« 
mu«, 3Qyd ivrate c^^^/vJiU^iuiiit^i^di iike jcnost political 
wri(jqf8, ,aiqis at JiU »^^ % J^nd.jh§ >9oly ooticiusion which 
big friends 1^V|^. lori v^jl fit fMsaODntaij^o- thk absurdity, that 
an i^^or imist))ei§|i.9ngi(u4 v^i(^j&jLiid«veDthisin the 
cascof.^IV^^ Ppydjifi ]E^9C4l)ady; unfpfitvin^te,. for bis imita- 
tioDs^ax^ /a9)e9g,i tJiq. ip9^fit ie|sb)e t^hitf./||aM^ been ever at, 
teinpted,r-rMr. C5^W^J><$M r^^nrniefl^Q^t^^cbarge, however, 
in 1900,; wit^. a^ publii;at;iqp ^: \\ ThatOiiftc^Uaneou^ .works 
ofHughBoydy the €^tb(^;.of;.th($j]^|^^rs. of Junius : with 
an affioimt o^h^ Life an.4 >Y^^ti»gt9,^' 2 vols^.Bva ' 

BO^V.C^Uriw Ale^an;d&^], |^,$cotcb syrifer of consi- 
dera^le^^/«pu.tati9q i(^ .the ,, s/xtef i^tb c^^ury, th$ s^ of 
Robert -Boy d^, of Pijikill in Ayrsliifi[e,j ,w^ b^rn Js^n. 13, 
J 56 2^^ ^.^^ipg Ips^ kb ja^l^ earjy,. h§ ^asr educated under 
the^lngfiectiou^^^ ijW.J^ncle^. Mr- 4^a)^^^,JPoyd, pf Trochrig, 
who' v^ith ,)tb<e^ Jjl)^ Vj'np^u^laf . titiq of "Arphbishop of 
Gl^fe)w^'\perfgrfPed tk^fi%]es qi.^lmsi;^^pi the Barony 

paria^* in tl^iat^^fi^y^ - XwWi ?Pj4. W-l^s-rnaiiure .lively 
andfieadsUon^^ponjgr^w wq^jcy ptacacj^mipal discipline,, 
quarrej.^cljvi^ venoi^nc^^^is studies, and, 

eager, ^o pecpnii^ fii.TO",;Pf' ^ worjd, , pyusented hinaself at 
coiirL * Jt IS Do^i^ jjgii^ly\hat\\s SjCjlujuiebe reU(^ chiefly 
on *ffip pa^ropagfi pJ.B^bert, fiiurth/lord 3oyd, who was 
prohatly i^e. cous^ij;^rnifia of Boyd's j^ther. All, how- 
eve^, W^flWe yggro (^ iiW .j^roiicieucy sl\ court is, that be 
fouffBi.jMe dueu.aiicl, 1^^^ eugage.a in numberless broils. 
His retatipns. ^dvisi^l^ {tin t^^foilov^ the profebsiou of arms 
in the t^bvMCouhtrie,s,".,fQr they could not moderate his im- 
petiJ^us'ana uhnily.temperj and perhaps they were little 

1 m'^iMpe ^MicfttV>nB.^MontMy Review, N. S. vol. XXVII. and XXXIV. 
— ^See atso another advocate for Mr. Bnyd, in Mr. C. Ctia)aiert*t " A^ pMldn tp 
the S«pplMMtaA J^iiBl9gy« ^'' UQO. 

Vol. VI. U 

290 BOYD. 

inclined or little able to support him in a manner of life 
which bad no determined object or aim. Boyd readily 
consented to become a soldier ; but he chose France rather 
than the Low Countries/ for the theatre of his future 
achievements. He went therefore to Paris, furnished with 
a small stock of money, all of which he soon lost at dice. 
This the author of his life ascribes to some secret fate, 
** occulto veluti fato ;^* but says his more recent biogra- 
pher, lord Hailes, we may dhsoWe/atey for when the raw 
and self-sufficient go amongst sharpers, they ought to as- 
cribe their ruin to folly. 

Boyd, observing that young persons of quality, and even 
military men, were wont to attend academical lecturer 
at Paris, resumed )iis studies. The teachers to whom 
be attached himself were, J. Marius d'Amboise, profes- 
sor of philosophy ; J. Passerat, professor of eloquence^ not 
only a scholar, but a wit also, and a poet; and Gilb. Franc. 
Genebrand, professor of the Hebrew language, who after- 
wards by his zeal for the French league, tarnished the re- 
putation that he had gained by bis literary abilities. Guil- 
lonius also is mentioned amongst the professors under 
whom Boyd studied. He next resolved to apply hin^self 
to the civil law, and went to the university of Orleans, 
where that science was taught by J. Robertus, a man prin- 
cipally known for having dared to become the rival of Cu- 
jacius. But be soon quitted Orleans, and went to the 
university of Bourges. Cujacius, who taught the civil 
law there, received him with kindness, and possibly, not 
with the less kindness because his new scholar had quitted 
Orleans and professor Robertus. It was said that Boyd ob- 
tained the friendship of Cujacius, by writing some verses 
in the obsolete Latin language. Perhaps that learned man 
liked those verses' best which approached nearest to the 
standard of the Twelve Tables. 

While at Bourges, however, Boyd applied his mind to 
serious study, with more earnestness than could have been 
looked for from a person of his age and desultory temper. 
But unfortunately his studies were interrupted, not by the 
constitutional ^ckleness of his own disposition, but by a 
public calamity. The plague broke out at Bourges, and 
Boyd, dreading the infection, fled to Lyons, and on its 
appearance at Lyons, he went into Italy. There he be- 
came acquainted with a person whom he calls Corneliu!? 
Varus, but having been seized with. an ague, he returned 

B O V D. 291 

to Lyons fer change of air. It is said that the being de- 
prived of the conversation and salutary advices of his 
irtend Varus was the only regret which he had in quitting 
Italy. Varus flattered him with all the extravagance of 
.Italian hyperboles, and finding that Boyd prided himself 
on the excellence of his Latin poetry, addressed some 
verses to him in which he asseit^ that Boyd surpassed Bu- 
chanan and all other British poets in a greater degree than 
Virgii surpassed Lucretius, Catullus, and all other Roman 

In 1587, a numerous army, composed of mercenary 
Germans and Swiss, invaded France, in support of the 
king of Navarre. Boyd joined the troops that marched 
^rom Auvergne'to reinforce the army of Henry III. His 
commander was a Greek by birth, an officer of cavalry. 
Boyd mentions not his name ; but describes him as one 
-who, with the specious advantages of elocution, and a 
-fioble figure, was volatile, forward, easily provoked, and 
of ungovernable passion. The temerity of this commander 
exposed his soldiers to more hazards in skirmishes with 
the peasants, than they would have found in storming of 
towns. Boyd received a shot in the ancle, and this is all 
we know, with certainty, of his military services. 

In L588, Boyd fixed his residence at Toulouse, and 
again applied himself to the study of the civil law under 
Fr, Rouldes, a celebrated professor. It appears that, 
about this time, he wrote some tracts on that -science, and 
projected others; and that he even had it in view to com- 
pose a system of the law of nations. Toulouse having, 
about this time, by means of a popular insurrection, fallen 
into the hands of the faction of the league, Boyd, who had 
assisted the r<^al cause, was thrown into prison; and, 
from the hatred of the Jesuits, was in great danger of his 
life. When he had obtained his liberty, which was granted 
hifn at the solicitations of the learned men of Toulouse, he 
went first to Bourdeaux, and thence to Rochelle. In this 
last journey he was attacked by robbers, and with difficulty 
escaped being assassinated by them, after having lost all 
the property he had with him. Disliking the air of Ro- 
chelle, he retreated to the borders of Poictou, where 
he enjoyed an agreeable rura^l retirement; devoting his 
time partly to polite literature, «nd partly to the aid of his^ 
friends, when they were occasionally exposed to the incur* . 
«ioos of th^ enemies. He so equally applied himself to 


292 JB O Y D. 


the study of learning and war, that it was not easy to say 
which he ^ost preferred ; but bis character appears now to 
have been more decided than when in youth. Among men 
of the sword he appeared to be the accomplished soldier, 
and as eminently the scholar among those of the gown. 
In his person he was tali, compact, and well proportioned ; 
bis countenance was beautiful, sprightly, and engaging ; 
and there was a singularly noble air in his discourse, aspect, 
voice, and gesture. He was polite, pleasant, acute, 
courteous, a ready speaker, and entirely free from enyy 
and avarice. He could easily bear with the boasting of 
the ignorant, but extremely disliked the abusive manner 
of writing which prevailed so much among the learned of 
his time. He thought it unworthy of a Christian^ in a li- 
terary controversy, to throw out any thing, either in speech 
or writing, which should hurt the reputation of an adver- 
sary. In injuries of an atrocious nature, he chose to do 
himself justice by having recourse to the laws off arms. 
Among the ancients, Xenophon was his favourite as a phi- 
losopher, Cesar as an historian, and Virgil as a poet. So 
admirably was he skilled in the Greek language, that he 
could write, dictate, and converse in it, with copiousness- 
and elegance. He despised the centos, which were then 
not a little in fashion ; and said, that however learned the 
authors of them might be, they were dull and ignorant 
men. Besides his epistles after the manner of Ovid, and 
his hymns, he wrote a variety of LAtin poems, which have 
not been printed. He was the author of notes upon Pliny, 
and published an excellent little book, addressed to Lip- 
sius, in defence of cardinal Bembo and the ancient elo- 
quence. He translated, likewise, Csesar's Commentaries 
into Greek, in the style of Herodotus ; but would not per- 
mit his translation to appear in public. He afterwards ap- 
plied himself to the cultivation of poetry in his native lan- 
guage, and arrived at considerable excellence in it. In all 
his composition^, genius was more apparent than labour. 

Boyd, at length, returned into Scotland, where be soon 
after died, of a slow fever, in April 1601, at Pinkill^ 
his fietther^s seat, in the 38th or 39th year of bis age ; and 
was buried with his ancestors in the church of Dalie or 
Darlie. Among the manuscripts which he left behind him, 
the following were in sir Robert Sibbald's possession^ 
** Iti Institutiones Imperatoris Commenta,*' 1591, folia 
'* L'£stat du Royaumfi d*£scosse ft present," fol. <* PoU- 

BOYD. 2d3 

ticus, ad Joaonem Metellanunii canceUariam Scotife.'* 
** Scriptom de Jurisconsulto, ad Franciscum Balduinuin.'* 
^' ^oeta^ ad Corneliam Varum Floreutinum." ^* Poemata 
▼aria." ** Epistols." But of tkese, the only works now 
known are his ** Epistoise Heroidum/' and his *^ Hjmni." 
These are inserted in the ** Delitis Poetarum Scotorum,** 
Anist 1637, in two volumes 12oio; and a great character 
has been given of them by several authors. His biogra- 

£her questions whether any of the ancients have excelled 
, im in elegiac poetry, and is positive that^ none of the 
Latins have equalled his hymns. Olaus Borrichius, an 
eminent critic, in his " Dissertationes Academicse de Poe« 
tisy" says, ** In Marco Alexandro Bodio, Scoto, redivivnm 
spectamus Nasonem ; ea est in ejusdehi Epistolis Heroi- 
dum, lux, candor, dexteritas.'' The same critic speaks as 
^igl^ly of Boyd*s Hymns, but modern taste will not coin« 
<;ide with these praises. Boyd undoubtedly was a man of 
genius and elegant accomplishments, yet we learn this 
rather from his history than his writings. ' 

BOYD (Robert), a nobleman of Scotland, of whose 
early years we have no account, began to make a figure in 
public life towards the end of the reign of James I{. of 
Scotland. Being a man of great penetration and sound 
judgment, courteous and affable, he acquired the esteem 
and confidence of all ranks of people, as well as of *hia 
prince, who created him a baron by the title of lord Boyd, 
of Kilmarnock. In 1459, he -was, with several other no« 
blemen, sent to Newcastle, with the character of plenipo- 
tentiary, to prolong the truce with England, which had 
just then expired. On the death pf James II. who was 
killed at the siege of Roxburgh^ lord Boyd was made jus« 
ticiar}', and one of the lords of the regency, in whose 
hands the administration was lodged during the minority 
of the young king. His lordship had a younger brother 
who had receited the honour of knighthood, sir Alexander 
Boyd of Duncow, a man in great credit with the king, 
whom he was appointed to teach the rudiments of military 
discipline ; and between them, the two brothers found 
means to engross most of the places and preferments about 
the court. Sir Alexander began to instil into the young 
king, then twelve years old, that be was now capable of 
governing without the help of guardians and tutors, and 

> Sketch of the life of Boyd, by Lord Hailes, Edin. 1783, Stc^Biok. Brit^ 

?94 BOY D. 

liiat he might free himself from their restndnt. This ad- 
vice was readily listened to, and the king, resolved to take 
upon himself the government, which, however, was po 
other than transferring the whole power, from the other 
regents, to the Boyds, The king was at this time at Lin- 
lithgow, and it was necessary to remove him to Edinburgh, 
to tUke upon him. the regal government, which the Boyda 
effected, partly by force, and partly by stratagem. Hav- 
ing got the king to Edinburgh, lord Boyd began to pro* 
vide for his own safety, and to avert. the danger which 
threatened him and his friends, for what they had done ii| 
the fece of an act of parliament ; and accordingly prevailed 
upon the king to call a parliament at Edinburgh, in Octo« 
her 1466; in which lord Boyd fell down upon his knees 
before the throne, where the king sat, and in an elaborate 
harangue, complained of the hard construction put upon 
the king's removal from Linlithgow, and how ill this was 
interpreted by his enemies, who threatened that the ad- 
visers of that affair should one day suffer punishment; 
humbly beseeching his majesty to declare his own sense 
and pleasure thereupon, and that if he conceived any ill- 
will or disgust against him for that journey, that he would 
openly declare it. The king, after advising a little with 
the lords, made answer, that the lord Boyd was not his 
adviser, but rather his companion in that journey; and 
therefore that he was more worthy of a reward for his cour- 
tesy, than of punishment for his obsequiousness or com- 
pliance therein ; and this he was willing to declare in a 
public decree of the estates, and in the same decree pro- 
vision should be made, that this matter should never be 
prejudicial to the lord IBoyd or his companions. His lordr 
ship then desired, that this decree might be registered in 
the acts of the assembly, and confirmed by letters patent 
under the great seal, which was also complied with. At 
the same time also the king, by advice of his council^ 
gave him letters patent, whereby he was constituted sole 
regent, and had the safety of the king, his brothers, sisters, 
towns, castles, and all the jurisdiction over his subjects, 
committed to him, till the kinp^. himself arrived to the age 
of twenty-one. years. And the nobles then present so- 
lemnly prontised to be assistant to the lord Boyd, and also 
to his brother, in all their public actions, and that they 
would be liable to punishment, if they did not carefully, 
and with faithfulness, perform what they then promised. 

BOYD. 295 

to ^ich stipalation the king also subscribed. Lord Boyd 
next contrived to be made lord great chamberlain, and 
after this had the boldness to procure the lady Mary Stew* 
art, the late king^s eldest daughter, in marriage for his son 
sir Thomas Boyd, notwithstanding the care and precaution 
of the parliament. The lord Boyd's son was a most ac- 
complished gentleman, and this match and near alliance 
to the crown, added to his own distinguished merit, raised 
him to a nearer place in the affection as well as confidence 
of his sovereign, by whom he was soon after created 
earl of Arran, and was now himself considered as the 
fountain Arom whence ail honours and preferments must 
flow. The lord chamberlain, by this great accession of ho- 
nour to bis family, seemed to have arrived at the highest 
pinnacle of power and grandeur; but what seemed toesta- 
blish his power, proved the very means of its overthrow. 
About this time, a marriage having been concluded, by 
ambassadors sent into Denmark for that purpose, between 
the young king of Scotland, and Margaret, a daughter of 
the king of Denmark, the earl of Arran was selected to go 
over to Denmark, to espouse the Danish princess in the 
king his brodier-iu->law*8 name, and to conduct her to Scot- 
land. The earl of Arran, judging all things safe at home, 
willingly accepted this honour ; and, in the beginning of 
the autumn of 1469, set sail for Denmark with a proper 
convoy, and a noble train of friends and followers. This 
was, however, a fatal step, for the lord chamberlain, the 
earPs father, being now much absent from the court in 
the necessary dischai^e of his office, as well as through 
age and infirmities, which was the case also of his brother 
«ir Alexander Boyd ; the earl of Arran had no sooner set 
out on his embassy, than every endeavour was tried to 
alienate the king's affection from the Boyds. {Ivery pub* 
lie miscarriage was laid at their door ; and the Kennedies, 
their ancient enemies, industriously spread abroad reports, 
to inflame the people likewise against them. They repre- 
sented to the king, that the lord Boyd had abused his 
power during his majesty's minority ; that his matching his 
son, the earl of Arran, with the princess Mary, was stain- 
ing the royal blood of Scotland, was an indignity to the 
crown, and the prelude to the execution of a plot they had 
contrived of usurping even the sovereignty itself; for they 
represented the lord chamberlain as an ambitious, fispiring 
man, guilty of the highest offences, and capable of con*- 

296 BOY D. 

triving and executing the worst of villanies: with ^at 
justice^ hbtory does not inform us. Buchanan only says 
the Boyds were the occasion of the king^s degeneracy into 
all manner of licentiousness, by their indulgence of his 
pleasures. The king, however, young, weak, credulous, 
and wavering, and naturally prone to jealousy, began to 
be alarmed, and was prevailed on to sacrifice, not only the 
earl of Arran, but all his family, to the resentment of their 
enemies, notwithstanding their ancestors' great services to 
the crown, and in spite of the ties of blgod which united 
them so closely. At the request of the adverse faction, 
the king summoned a parliament to meet at Edinburgh, 
the 20th of November, 1469, before which lord*Boyd, tae 
earl of Arran, though in Denmark, and sir Alexander Boyd 
of Duncow, were summoned to appear, to give an account 
of their administration, and answer such charges as should 
be exhibited against them. Lord Boyd, astonished at this 
sudden blow, betook himself to arms ; but, finding it im* 
possible to stem the torrent, made his escape into England ; 
but his .brother, sir Alexander, being then sick, and trust* 
ing to his own integrity, was brought before the parlia- 
ment, where he, the lord Boyd, and his son the earl of 
Arran, were indicted of high-treason, for having laid haiid|< 
on the king, and carried him, against an act of parliament^ 
and contrarjrto the king's own will, from Linlithgow to 
Edinburgh, in 1466. Sir Alexander alleged in bis de<* 
fence, that they had not only obtained the king's pardon 
for that offence in a public convention, but it was even 
declared a good service by a subsequent act of parliament; 
but no regard was had to this, because it was obtained by 
the Boyds when in power, and masters of the king's per- 
son : and the crime being proved against them, they were 
found guilty by ^a jury of lords and barons ; and sir Alex^ 
ander Boyd, being present, was condemned to lose his 
head on the Castle-hill of Edinburgh^ which sentence was 
executed accordingly. The lord Boyd would have under* 
gone the same fate, if he had not made his escape into 
England, where, however, he did not long survive his 
great reverse of fortune, dying at Alnwick in 1470* The 
earl of Arran, though absent upon public bnsiaessy was 
declared a public enemy, without being granted a hear- 
ing, or allowed the privilege of defending himself, and his 
estates confiscated. Things were in this ^ituatioDf when 
he arrived from Depmark, with the espoused queen, in tlie 

BOYD. 297 

Frith of Forth. Before he landed he received intelligence 
of the wreck and ruin of his family, and resolved to retnre 
into Denmark ; and without staying to attend the cere- 
monial of the queen's landing, be took the opportunity of 
one of those Danish ships which convoyed the queen, ,and 
were under his command, and embarking his lady, set sail 
for Denmark, where he met with a reception suitable to 
his high birth. From thence he travelled through Ger* 
many into France, and went to pay a visit to Charles duke 
of Burgundy, who received him most graciously, and 
being then at war with his rebellious subjects, the unfortu« 
tiate lord ofiered him his service, which the duke readily 
accepted, and finding him to be a brave and wise man^ he 
honoured and supported him and his lady in a manner' be* 
coming their rank. But the king their brother, not yet 
satisfied with the miseries of their family, wrote over to 
f landers to recal his sister home ; and fearing she would 
not be induced to leave him, he caused others to write to 
Jier, and give her hopes that his anger towards her hijsband 
might be appeased, and that if she would come over and 
plead for him in person, there was no doubt but she might 
prevail with her brother to restore him i^ain to his favour. 
The countess of Arran^ flattered with these hopes, returned, 
gnd was no sooner arrived in Scotland, than the king urged 
her to a divorce from her husband, cruelly detained her 
from going back to him, and . caused public citations, at* 
tested by witnesses, to be fixed up at Kilmarnock, the 
9eat of the Boyds, wherein Thomas earl of Arran was com<» 
manded to appear in sixty days, which he not doing, his 
marriage with the king^s sister was. declared null and void, 
and a divorce made (according to Buchanan), the earl still 
absent and unheard ; and the lady Mary was compelled, by 
the king, to marry James lord Hamilton, a man much in- 
ferior to her former husband both in point of birth and 
fortune. This transaction was in 1474; and the earl of 
Arran, now^in the last stage of his miseries, and borne 
4own with the heavy load of his misfortunes, soon after 
died at Antwerp, and was honourably interred there. The 
churacter of him and of his father is variously represented. 
That they were ambitious, and regardless of the means of 
•gratifying that ambition, cannot well be denied, nor are we 
permitted to censure with great asperity their enemies who 
effected their ruin by similar measures and with similar 
motives. Their fall undoubtedly holds out an useful les^ 


son, but the experience of others, especially of examples 
wt history, seldom checks the progress of that ambition that 
has once commenced in success. ^ 

BOYD (William), a descendant of the preceding, and 
fourth and iast earl of Kilmarnock, was born in (704, and 
was but thirteen years old when his father died : he dis- 
covered early a genius not unequal to his birth, but found 
the famiiy estate pretty much encumbered, and great part 
of the patrimony ajienated, which was by no means an- 
swerable to his lordship's^ generous and noble disposition. 
It was also his misfortune to be too soon let loose among 
the gaieties and pleasures of life. As he grew up, instead 
of applying himself to study, he launched out into the 
world in pursuit of pleasures which were more expensive 
than his - fettune could support, and by this means consi- 
derably Teduced his estate, which, from the most probable 
conjecture, was the true reason of his taking up arms against 
the king. > Indeed, his lordship himself owns in his confess 
sioQ to Mr. Foster (while under sentence), that his rebeUion 
was a kind of desperate scheme, proceeding originally from 
his vices, to extricate himself from the distress of his cir- 
cumstances; for he says, *^ the true root of all was his care* 
less and dissolute life, by ^Uch be had reduced himself to 
great and perplexing dimculties ; that the exigency of hh 
iSHfs was in particular very pressing at the time of the 
rebelHon ; and that, besides the general hope be had of 
mending bis fortune by the success of it, he was also 
tempted by ' another prospect of retrieving his circum- 
stances, by following the Pretender's stand^trd.'^ It does 
not appieat- that his lordship was in the original design of 
the rebellion : on the contrary, he declared both in his 
speech at the bar of the house of lords, and in his petition 
to the king after his sentence, that it was not till af^eir the 
battle of Preston Pans that he became a party in it, having, 
till then, neither influenced his tenants or followers to 
assist or abet the rebellion ; but, on the <;ontrary, inr- 
fluenced the inhabitants of the town of Kilmarnock^ 
«nd the neighbouring boroughs, to rise in arms for his 
majesty's service, which had so good an effect, that two 
hundred men from Kilmarnock very soon appeared m 
arms, and remained so all the winter at Glasgow and other 
places. It is said^ that when the earl joined the Preten- 

1 Biog. Briu 

BOYD, 299 

Aer*9 standardi he was received by him with great niark^ 
of eftteem and distinction ; was declared of his privy-coan-« 
eil, uuide colonel of the guards^ and promoted to the de- 
gree of a general (though his lordship himself says, he was 
far from being a person of any consequence amcAig them). 
How he behaved in these stations (quite new to him, and • 
foreign from his former manner of .life), we cannot deter- 
mine ; bat common fame says, he displayed considerable 
eourage till the fatal battle of Culloden, when he was 
taken, or rather surrendered himself, pirisoner, to the king^s 
troops, though involuntarily, and with a design to have 
facilitated his escape : for he acknowledged to Mr. Foster, 
whilst under sentence, that when he saw the king^s dra- 
goons, and made towards them, he thought they had been 
Fitz-James^s horse ; and that if he could have reached 
them by mounting behind one of the dragoons^ his escape 
would iiave been more certain, than when he was on foot. 
Yet, in his speech to the house of lords, he made a merit 
of having surrendered himself, at a time when be said he 
could easily have made his escape, and in this he owned, 
when in a state of repentance, that he bad not spoken 
truth. His lordship was brought to the Tower, and on 
Monday the 28th of July, 1746, was, together with the 
earl of Cromartie, and lord Balmerino, conducted to West- 
minster-hall, and at the bar of the lord high-steward's 
court, arraigned, and pleaded guilty to his indicttnent, 
submitting himself to his majesty's mercy and clemency. 
On the Wednesday following, the three lords were again 
broug;ht from the Tower to receive sentence, when the 
lord Kilmarnock being asked by the lord high-steward, if 
be had any thing to ofier why sentence of death should not 
be passed upon him, his lordship, addressing himself to 
his grace and the whole august assembly, then consisting 
of an hundred and thirty-six peers, delivered an eloquent 
speech, after which, sentence of death was pronounced 
upon him, and he returned to the Tower. After this,' he 
presented petitions to the king, the prince of Wales, and 
duke of Cumberland, wherein he set forth his family's 
constant attachment to the revolution interest, and that of 
the illustrious bouse of Hanover; bis father's zeal and 
activity in support of both in the rebellion in 1715, and 
his own appearing in arms (though then but young) under 
his father, and the whole tenour of his conduct ever since 
that time. But the services of his forefathers could not 



satisfy the public demand for justice^ nor avail him so far 
as to procure liim pardon. He was beheaded on Tower* 
hill, August I89 1746, and was interred in the Tower 
church, with tliis inscriptioti upon his coffin, viz. '* GulieU 
mus Conies de Kilmarnock, decollat 18 August!, 1746, 
setat. sus 42.'* His lordship's whole deportment, from the 
time he was condemned till his execution, was suitable to 
one in his unhappy circumstances. He gave the most 
lively marks of a sincere humiliation and repentance for 
all his miscarriages, and his behaviour in the hour of death 
was resigned, but strictly decent and awful. He had him-* 
self observed, with great truth, that for a man who had led 
a dissolute life, and yet believed the consequences of 
death, to put on an air of daringness and absolute intre^ 
pidity, must argue him either to be very stupid or very 
impious. He was a nobleman of fine address and polite 
behaviour ; his person was tall and graceful ; his^ conn* 
tenance mild, but his complexion pale ; and he had abi- 
litiesj which, if they had been properly applied, might 
have rendered him capable of bringing an increase of ho- 
nour to his family, instead of ruin and disgrace. His 
lordship lived and died in the public profession of the 
church of Scotland^ and left behind him a widow (who 
was the lady Anne Livingston, daughter of James earl of 
Linlithgow and Callander (attainted in 1715), with whom 
he had a considerable fortune), and three sons, the eldest 
of whom his lordship bad educated in the principles of 
duty and loyalty to his majesty, and in whose service he 
fought against the rebels. He succeeded, upon the death 
of Mary, countess of Enrol, in 1758, to her estate and 
honours, his mother having been undoubted heir of line of 
that noble family, and he was the sixteenth earl of ErroL 
He died June 3, 1778, leaving issue.* 

BOYD (RoBRRT), an eminent Scotch divine, of the 
same family as the preceding, being a descendant of Ro- 
bert Boyd, earl of Arran, sometime protector of Scotland, 
^rom whom descended James Boyd, baron of Trochrig, the 
father of the subject of this article. He was bom in 1578, 
and educated at the university of Edinburgh, where he 
took his master^s degree. In 1604, according to the cus* 
torn of the times, he travelled into France, and studied for 
some time under Rivet, improving himself in Greek and 

^ Biof . Brit Se« wt. Janet Foitffr. 

BOYD. 801 

Hebrew, and in French, which he spoke with great fluency. 
He was afterwards invited by the university of Montauban 
to be professor of philosophy, and in the mean time him- 
self studied divinity, and was ordained according to the 
forms of the French reformed church. In 1608 he was 
removed to a professorship at Saumur, which be filled un- 
til 1614, and both as a preacher and teacher was much 
admired and eagerly followed. His fame reaching the ^ars 
of his sovereign^ king James, he sent him a pressing in-^ 
vitation to Bll the divinity chair in the university of Glas- 
gow, in consequence of which he removed thither in 1615^ 
to the great sorrow of his friends at Saumur, and the uni- 
versity at large. He was enabled soon, in conjunction 
with some able colleagues, to raise the reputation of the 
Glasgow university, the mode of study in which he re- 
formed from the useless and disputatious modes of the 
schools. His situation, however, afterwards became em- 
barrassed from the disputes which arose respecting the 
scheme of king James to assimilate the churches of Eng« 
land and Scotland, which was highly unpopular in the 
latter country. Boyd^s education, and especially his as- 
sociations abroad, had inclined him to the presbyterian 
form of church government, and finding that be could not 
under such circumstances retain his situation as preacher 
and professor at Glasgow, he resigned both, and went ta 
live privately on an estate which he possessed. Endea* 
▼ours were made to fix him in Edinburgh, and afterwards 
to recall him to Glasgow, but these not being successful, 
he finally retired from public life to Carrick, his estate, 
^here he died Jan. 5, 1627. He wrote in very elegant 
Latin, a commentary on the epistle to the Ephesians, 
which was published under the title " Roberti Bodii Scoti 
Prselectiones in Epistolam ad Ephesios,*' Lond. 1652, fol. ^ 
BOYDELL (JoHi^), a liberal patron of the arts, and an 
honour to his country, was born at Stanton in Shropshire^ 
Jah. 19, 1719. His grandfather was the rev. John Boy- 
dell, D. D. vicar of Ashbourne, and rector of Mapleton in 
Derbyshire *, whose son Josiah married Mary Milnes, eld- 
est daughter of Samuel Milnes, esq. of Ash-house near 
Turnditch, Derbyshire, Jan. 22, 171 8. Dr. Boydell was 
an excellent scholar, and for some time superintended the 

* See some verses bjr this genllenuii, published by the Alderoua in 179S^. 
Gent. Mag. 18U8, vol. LXXVlll.p. 771. 
I aarke's Uves, foL 16S3^ 

302 B O Y D E L L* 

education of his grandson^ intending him for the cirarcb, 
but dying in 1731, the youth was brought up by his&thery 
a land-surveyor, who very naturally intended him for his 
own profession, and as a taste for drawing generally dis«- 
covers itself very early, he might probably foresee great 
advantages from his son's possessing this talent. For- 
tunately, however, for young Boydell, and for the arts, a 
trifling accident gave a more decided direction to his mind, 
and led him to aim at higher efforts in the art than the 
mere mechanism of ground-plans and outlines. This was 
no other than the sight of a print by Toms, a very indif- 
ferent artist, of sir John Giynne's seat and the old castle 
attached to it, in ** Baddeley's Views of different Country 
Seats.*' An exact delineation of a building that he hod 
so often contemplated, afforded him pleasure, and excited 
some reflections which gave a new turn to his ambition. 
Considering it as an engraving, and from the copper of 
which might be taken an almost indefinite number of im* 
pressions, he determined to quit the pen, and take up 
the graver, as an instrument which would enable him to 
disseminate whatever work he could produce^ in so mack 
wider a circle. This resolution was no sooner made, than 
it was put in execution ; for, with that spirit and perse^ 
verance which he manifested in every succeeding scene of 
life, he, at twenty-one years of age, walked up to the 
metropolis, and bound himself apprentice for seven years 
to Mr. Toms, the engraver of the print which had so forci- 
bly attracted his attention. These, and accidents equally 
trifling, sometimes attract men of strong minds into the 
path that leads direct to fame, and have been generally 
considered as proving that they were born with some pe- 
culiar genius for some peculiar study. Sir J. Reynolds 
had the first fondness for his art excited by the perusal of 
<^ Richardson's Treatise on Painting ;" and Mr. Boydell 
was induced to learn the art of engraving, by a coarse 
print of a coarse artist, representing a mis-shapen gothic 

This step, however, gave his father no little uneasiness, 
'und every argument and remonstrance of himself and his 
friends were employed to divert him £rom a pursuit which 
they considered as likely to be very unprofltable. But 
this producing no effect, his fiather took into business 
with him a younger son, Thomas, who succeeded him, 
and who died a few years before the subject of the present 

B O Y D E L L. 803 

article, at Trevaliyn Hall, Denbighshire, where his father 
had lived before him, but did not live long enough to wit* 
ness the success of his son John, in the pursuit he so much 

His conduct during his apprenticeship was eminently 
assiduous. Eager to attain aU possible knowledge of an 
art on which his mind was bent, and of every thing that • 
could be useful to him, and impelled by an industry that 
seemed inherent in his nature, he, whenever he could^ 
attended the academy in St. Martinis-lane to perfect him- 
self in drawing ; his leisure hours in the evening were de-* 
' voted to the study of perspective, and to the learning of 
French without the aid of a master. After very steadily 
pursuing his business for six years, and tinding himself a 
better artist than his teacher, he bought from Mr. Toms 
the last year of his apprenticeship, and became bis own 
master. In 1745 or 1746 he published six small land- 
scapes, designed and engraved by himself. This publi- 
cation, from his having in most of the views chosen a si- 
tuation in which a bridge formed part of the scenery, was 
entitled <^ The Bridge book,** and sold for a shilling. 
Small as this sum was, he sometimes spoke with apparent 
pleasure of a silversmith in Duke*s-court, St. Martin's 
lane, having sold so many, that when he settled his annual 
account, he thought it would be civil to take a silver pint 
mug in part of payment, and this mug he retained until 
bis dying day« He afterwards designed and engraved 
many other views, generally of places in and* about Lon- 
don, and published the greater part of them at the low 
price of one shilling each. But even at this early period 
he was so much alive to fame, that after having passed 
4ieveral months in copying an historical sketch of Corio- 
lanus . by Sebastian Concha, he so much disliked his'own 
engraving, that he cut the plate to pieces. Besides these, 
he engraved many prints from Brocking, Berchem, Sa^- 
vator Rosa, &c. The manner in which many of them are 
executed, is highly respectable ; and, being doiie at a 
time when the artist had much other business to attend to, 
displays an industry rarely paralleled, and proves 
that had he devoted all his time to engraving, he would 
have ranked high in the profession. His facility of exe- 
cution, and unconquerable perseverance, having thus en- 
abled him to complete one hundred and fifty-two prints, 
h^ collected the whole in one port-folio, and published ir 

30f B O Y D £ L L. 

at five guineas. He modestly allowed that he himself ha<fi 
not at that time arrived at any eminence in the art of en* 
graving, and that those prints are now xbiefly valuable 
from a comparison of them with the improved state of the 
art within the last fifty years. . In fact, there were at that 
thne no eminent engravers in England, and Mn BoydelL 
saw the necessity of forcing the art by stimulating men of 
genius with suitable rewards. With the profits of the folio 
volume of prints above-mentioned, he was enabled to pay 
very liberally the best artists of his time, and thus pre- 
sented the world with English engravings from the works. of 
the greatest masters. The encouragement that he ex- 
perienced from the public was equal, to the spirit and pa- 
triotism of his undertaking, and soon laid the foundation 
of an ample fortune. He used to observe, that he believed 
the book we have alluded to was the first that had ever 
made a lord mayor of London ; and that when the smali- 
ness of the work was compared with what had followed, it 
would impress all young men with the truth of what be 
had often held out to them, ^^ that industry, patience, and 
perseverance, if united to moderate talents, are certain 
to surmount all difficulties.*' Mr. Boyde.ll, though he 
never himself made any great progress as an engraver, was 
certainly the greatest encourager of the art that this country 
ever knew. The arts were at the time be began, at a 
very low ebb in this country. Wottou*s portraits of hounds 
and horses, grooms and squires, with a distant view of the 
dog-kennel and stable ; and Hudson's portraits of gentle- 
men in great coats and jockey caps, were in high repute.. 
Inferior prints from poor originals were almost the only 
works our English artists were thought capable of per- 
forming ; and, mortifying as it must be to acknowledge it, 
^et it must be admitted, that (with the exception of the 
mimitable Hogsurth, and two or three others) the gene- 

?Jity of them were not qualified for much better ihin^ 
he powers of the artists were, however, equal to the 
taste of a great majority of their customers ; and the few 
people of the higher order who had a relish for better 
productions, indulged it in the purchase of Italian and 
Flemish pictures and French prints; for which, even ai 
that time, the empire was drained of immense sums of 
money. To check this destructive fashion, Mr. Boydell 
•ought for an English engraver who could equal, if not 
jBxqel them ; and in WooUett he found one. The Temple 


•f Apollo, from Claude, and two premium pictures from 
the Smiths of Chichester, were amongst the first large 
works which this excellent artist engraved ; but the Niobe 
and the Phaeton, from Wilson, established his fame. For 
the first of them the alderman i^reed to give the engraver 
fifty guineas, and when it was completed paid him a 
hundred. The second, the krtist agreed to engrave for 
fifty guineas, and the alderman paid him one hundred and 
twenty. The two prints were published by subscription^ 
at five shillings each. Proof prints were not at that time 
considered as having any particular value ; the few that 
were taken off to examine the progress of the plate were 
delivered to such subscribers as chose to have them, at the 
subscription price. Several of these have since that time 
been sold at public auctions, at ten and eleven guineas 
each. By these and similar publications he had the satis* 
faction to see in his own time the beneficial effects of his 
exertions. We have before observed, that previous to hia 
establishing a continental correspondence for the exporta- 
tion of prints, immense sums were annually sent out of 
the country for the purchase of those that were engraved 
abroad ; but he changed the cour^ of the current, and 
for many of the later years of his life, the balance of the 
print-trade with the continent was very much in favour of 
Great Britain. 

On the 5th of August 1782, Mr. Boydell was chosea 
alderman of London, for the ward of Cheap, in the room 
of alderman Crichton, deceased. In the year 1735 he 
served the office of sheriff; and in 1790, was chosen lord 
mayor of London, an office of which he discharged the 
duties and the honours with a diligence, uprightness^ 
and liberality, that may be equalled, but will rarely be ex- 

Having been so successful in promoting the art of en- 
graving in this country, he resolved to direct his next 
efforts to the establishing an English school of historical 
painting; and justly conceiving that no subject could be 
more appropriate for such a national attempt than Eng- 
land's inspired poet, and great painter of nature, Shak- 
speare, he projected, and just liv^ed to see completed, a 
most splendid edition of the works of that author, illus- 
trated by engravings from paintings of the first artists that 
the country could furnish, and of which the expence was 
prodigious. These paintings afterwslrds formed what was 

Vol. VI. X 


termed *' The Shakspeare gallery," in Pall Mall ; and v¥€ 
believe there are few individuals possessed of the least 
taste, or even curiosity, who have not inspected and beeit 
delighted by them. 

It is always interesting to trace the origin of a great un- 
i}ertaking. The Shakspeare gallery arose from a conver- 
sation at the dining-tabie of Mr. Josiah Boydetl (the alder-* 
man's nephew and successor) in November 1786, in the 
presence of Mr. West, Mr. lloraney, and Mr. P. Sandby, 
artists, and Mr. Haylty, Mr. Hoole, Mr. Braithwaite, Mr, 
Nicol, and the alderman. The literary part of the com- 
pany were joining with the professional gentlemen in 
complimenting the alderman on having lived to see the 
Avhole tide of the commerce in prints with the continent 
•entirely changed from importing to exporting, and that 
effected in the space of one life, by the alderman's great 
and munificent exertions. The only answer the alderman 
made to these compliments was^ that he was not yet sa- 
tisfied with what he had done ; and that, old as he was, he 
should like to wipe away the stigma which all foreign 
critics threw on this nation, " that we had no genius foi 
historical painting." Ue said he was certain from his sac- 
cess in encouraging engraving, that Englishmen wanted 
nothing but proper encouragement and subjects to excel 
in historical painting, and this encouragement he himself 
would endeavour to lind, if a proper subject was pointed 
out. Mr. Nicol (bis majesty's bookseller, and afterwards 
the alderman's nephew by marriage) replied that there 
was one great national subject, concerning which there 
could be no difference of opinion, ;ind mentioned Shak- 
espeare ! The proposition was received with acclamation 
by the alderman and the whole company ; aud on Decem- 
ber 1 of tke same year, the plan being considered, wa< 
Jaid before the public-in a printed prospectus. 

After having expended in his favourite plan of advlncin^ 
the fine arts in England no less a sum than 330,000/. this 
worthy and venerable character was necessitated, by the 
•stoppage cf his foreign trade during a dozen years of war> 
to apply to parliament, in the beginning of 1804, for per- 
mission to dispose of the Shakspeare gallery, and his other 
collections of pictures and pruits, by way of lottery. Hit 
letter to sir John William Anderson, bart. on the occasion 
of his introducing a petition for that purpose to the house 
«f commons, is a document of too much curiosity and in-* 

B O Y D E L L 


terest to the feelings to be omitted. We have therefore 
thrown it into a note. * 

The act of parliament being passed to sanction this lot* 
tery, the worthy alderman had the gratification of living 

 ** To sir John William Anderson, 
bart. one of the representatives of the 
city of London, 

<* Dear Sir, Ckeapside, Feb, 4, 1 804. 

'* The kindness with which you ha?e 
undertaken to represent my case, calls 
upon me to lay open to you, wi:h the 
utmost candour, the circum:itances at- 
tending it, which I will now endeavour 
to do as briefly as possible. 

'*' It IS above sixty years since I be- 
gan to study the art of engraving, in 
the course of which time, besides em> 
ploying that toug period of life in my 
profession, with an industry and assi- 
duity that would be improper in me to 
describe, I have laid out with my 
brethren in promoting the commerce 
of the fine arts in this country, above 
three hundred and fifty thousand 

'* When I first began busiuess, the 
whole commerce of prints in this comitry 
consisted in importing foreign prints, 
principally from France, to supply 
the cabinets of the curious in this 
kingdom. Impressed with the idea 
that the. genius of our owq couotrymeu, 
if properly encouraged, was equal to 
that or foreigners, I set about esiab* 
lishtng a Scheol of Engraving in Eag- 
hind; with what success the public 
are well acquainted. It is, perhaps, 
at present, sufficient to say that the 
whole course of that commerce is 
changed, very few prints being now 
imjiorted into this country, while the 
foreign market is principally supplied 
with prints from England. 

** In effecting this favourite plan, 
i have not only spent a long life, bat 
have employed near forty years of the 
labour of my nephew, Josiah Boydell, 
who has been bred to tlie business, 
and whose assistance duving that pe- 
riod has been greatly instrumental in 
promotiog a School of Engraving in 
this cuontry. By the bUssing of Pro- 
vidence, these exertions have been 
very successful ; not only in that re- 
spect, but in a commercial point of 
view ; for the large sums I regularly 
received from the continent, previous 
to the French revolution, for impres- 
^OBi taken fron the numerous plates 

engraved in' England, encouraged me 
to attempt also an English School of 
Historical Painting. 

** 1 had observed with indignation that 
the want of such a school bad been 
tong made a favourite topic of oppro* 
brium against this country, among 
foreign writers on national taste. No 
subject, therefore, could be more ap- 
propriate for such a national attempt, 
than England's inspired poet, and 
great painter of nature, Shakspeare ; 
and I flatter myself the most preju- 
diced foreigner must allow that thf 
Shakspeare gallery will convince the 
world that Englishmen want nothing 
but the fostering hand of encourage^ 
ment, to bring forth their genius in 
this line of art, I might go further, 
and defy any of the Italian, Flemish, 
or French schools^ to show in so short 
a space of time, such an exertion at 
the Shakspeare Gallery ; and if they 
could have made such an exertion in 
so short a period, the pictures would 
have been marked with all that mo« 
notonouR sameness which distinguishes 
those different schools. Whereas, in 
the Shakspeare Gallery, every artist, 
partaking of the freedom of his coun- 
try, aud eud:>wufl with that originality 
of thinking so peculiar to its natives, 
has chosen his own road to what he 
conceived to be excellence, 'unshackled 
by the slavish imitation and uniformity 
that pervade all the foreign schools. 

'* This Gallery I once flattered my- 
self with being able to leave to tliat 
generous public who have for so long 
a period encouraged my undertakings ^ 
but, unfortunately for ail thos^e con- 
nected with the tlnn arts, a VanJalick 
revoluliou has arisen, which, in con- 
vulsing all Europe, has entirely ex- 
tinguished, except iu this happy island, 
all those who had the taste or the 
power to promote the 6ne arts ; while 
the Tyrant that at present governs 
France tells that believing aud he- 
sotted nation, that, in the midst of all 
bis robbery and rapine, be is a great 
patiou and promoter of the flue arts; 
just as if those arts, that humanise and 
polish mankind, could be promoted by 
such mcansj aud by such a man. 




B O Y D E L L. 

to see every ticket sold. We are, at first sight, inclined to 
lament that he did nof live to see the prizes drawn, and 
the whole terminated. But for him to have witnessed hi9 
gallery transferred to other hands, besides a number of 
pictures, for the painting of which he had paid immense 
sums, scattered like the Sybiirs leaves, might possjbly 
have given him many a heart-rending pang. It may be 
sufficient in this place to notice that the gallery of 
paintings, in one lot, and consequently the highest prize^ 
became the property of Mr. Tassie, of Leicester-square, 
nephew to the late welKknown imitator of ancient cameos 
and intaglios, and by him the pictures were afterwards sold 
by auction. 

Mr. Boydell's death was occasioned at last by a too 
scrupulous attention to his official duties. Always early 

<* You iriH excuse, I am sare, my 
dear Sir, some warmth in an old man 
on this subject, when I hiform you 
that this unhappy rerolnttog has cut 
up by the roots that rerenue from the 
continent which enabled me to under- 
take such considerable works in this 
country. At the same time, as I am 
laying my case fairly before yon, it 
should not be disguised, that my na- 
tural enthusiasm for promotiug the fine 
'arts (perhaps buoyed up by success) 
made me improvident. For had I 
laid by but ten pounds ont of every 
hundred pounds my plates produced, 
I should not now have had occasion to 
trouble my firiends, or appeal to the 
public ; but, on the . contrary, I flew 
vith impatience to employ some new 
artist, with the whole gains of my for- 
mer undertakings. I see too late my 
errors for I have thereby decreased my 
ready money, and increased my stock 
of copper-plates to such a size, that 
all the print-sellers in Europe could 
not purchase it, especially at these 
times, so unfavourable to the arts. 

*' Having thus candidly owned my 
error, I have but one word to say in 
extenuation. My receipts from abroad 
had been so large, and continued so 
regular, that I at all times found them 
fully adequate to support my under- 
takings at home. — I could not calcu- 
late on the present crisis, which has 
totally annihilated them.— I certainly 
calculated on some defalcation of these 
roc4 ipts, by a French or Spanish war, 
or both ; but with France or Spain I 
auricd on but little commerce. Flan- 

ders, Holland, and Germany, (and 
these countries no doubt supplied the 
rest of Eurc^) were the great marts ; 
but, alas ! they af% now no more. 
The oonvulsion that has disjointed 
and ruined the whole continent I did 
not foresee— I know no man that did. 
On that head, therefore, though it has 
nearly ruined me and mine, I can take 
but little blame to myself. 

*' In this state of things I throw my- 
self with confidence upon that public 
who have aliii^ys been but too partial 
to my poor endeavours, for the dia- 
posal of that, which, in happier days, 
I flattered myself to have presented to 

*< I know of no means by which that 
can be efiected, just now, but by a Lot- 
tery; and if the legislature will have the 
goodness to grant a permission for thai 
purpose, 'they will at least have the 
assurance of the even tenonr of a long 
life, that it will be fairly and honour- 
ably conducted. The objects of it are 
my pictures, galleries, drawings, &c. 
&c. which, unconnected with my cop- 
per-plates and trade, are much more 
than sufficient to pay, if properly dis- 
posed of, all I owe in the world. 

*' I hope you, my dear Sir, and 
every honest man, at any age, will 
feel for my anxiety to discharge my 
debts; but at my advanced age, ii 
eighty-five, 1 feel it becomes doubly 

'* I am, Dear Sir, with great regard. 
Your obedient and obliged Servant, 

John Boyobll.'' 

B O Y D E L L; 309 

in bis attendance on public business, he arrived at the 
•essibns-faouse in the Old Bailey, on Friday the 7th De- 
cember, 1804, before any of the other magistrates, and 
before the fires were lighted. « Standing near a grate while 
this was done, the damps were drawn out, and he took a 
cold : this produced an inflammation of the lungs, which 
terminated bis life on the Tuesday following. He was in- 
terred with great civic pomp (the spontaneous result of 
private friendship and public respect), on the 1 9th bf the 
same month, in the church of St. Olave, Jewry ; leaving 
behind him for ther instruction of mankind a striking ex- 
ao^ple to what heights of fame and fortune men may attain 
by the united efforts of persevering industry, prudent en- 
terprize, and honourable dealing. 

The alderman bad long before his death arrived at that 
period of life which demands additional repose ; and cer- 
tain it is, he could not have carried on his business in the 
manner it was carried on, without the active and unremit- 
ting exertions of his nephew and partner, Mr. Josiah Boy- 
dell; whose professional qualifications enabled him to ap-^ 
preciate the value and merits of the different works sub- 
mitted to his inspection ; and to point out the errors which 
ought to be corrected ; and whose own productions, even 
at the very early period when he made a great number of 
drawings from th^ Orford collection, gave weight to his 

It yet remains to be added lo the character of alderman 
Boydell, that in his magisterial capacity, though inflexibly 
just, he was constitutionally merciful ; and when masters 
came before him with complaints of their apprentices, or 
husbands with complaints of their wives, he always at- 
tempted, and very often successfully, to accommodate 
their differences; and, when he could with propriety, 
usually recommended the complaining party to amend his 
own conduct, as an example to those whom he accused. 
Wishing to disseminate a taste for the fine arts, he has 
within these few years presented to the' corporation of the 
city of London, several valuable pictures, which now orna- 
ment the council chamber at Guildhall. Some of them 
commemorate the actions of our military distinguished cha- 
racters, and others are calculated to impress upon thQ 
* minds of the rising generation, the sentiments of industry, 

£rudence, and virtue. Several of these well-imagined aU 
(gorical deliaeatioos by Rigaud, Smifke>.Westall, &c. h^ 

810 B O Y D E L L. 

has had engraved, and in tb6 dissemiuation of either prinM 
or books which had a moral tendency he always appeared 
to take great pleasure*. 

In 1748, he married Elizabeth Lloyd, second daughter 
of Edward Lloyd, esq. of the Fords near Oswestry in 
Shropshire, by whom he had no issue. ' 

BOYEK (Ab£L), a lexicographer and miscellaneous wri« 
ter, was born June 13, 1667, at the city of Castres in Upper 
Languedoc. His great-gran dfatlier and grandfather were 
masters of the ridino-school at Nismes ; his father was 
president of the supreme court at Castres, and his mother 
was Catherine, daughter of Campdomerius, a celebrated 
physician, circumstances which have been recorded to 
prove that he was of a good family. He was certainly of a 
conscientious one, his relations being exiles for their ad- 
herence to the protestant religion. He was first educated 
by his mother's brother, Campdomerius, a noted divine 
and preacher of the reformed church, and then was sent to 
the protestant school at Puy Laurent, where he applied 
assiduously, and excelled all his schoolfellows in Greek 
and Latin. In 1685, when the persecution prevailed 
against the protestants in France, he followed his uncle tp 
Hoi land, and pressed by want, was obliged to enter into 
the military service in 1687 ; but soon, by the advice of 
his relations, returned to his studies, and went to the uni- 
versity of Franeker, where he went through a regular course 
of education, and added to philosophy, divinity, history, 
&c. the study of the mathematics. In 1689 be came over 
to England, and the hopes of being able to return to France, 
ivhich the protestants in general entertained, being disap- 
pointed, he was obliged to. have recourse to his pen for a 
livelihood. His first employment appears to have been to 
transcribe and prepare for the press Camden^s letters from 
the Cottonian library, for Dr. Smith, who afterwards pub« 
lished them. In 1692, he became French and Latin tutor 
to Allen Bathurst, esq. eldest sou of sir Benjamin Bathurst^ 
who, being much in favour with the princess Anne of Den-* 
mark, afterwards queen of Great Britain, he bad hopes of 
some preferment at court With this view he paid great 

* In 1779 he preseoted to the worthipful company of Stationers, West's fine 
picture of " Aified dividing the loaf j*' and afterwards, Giaham's '* Escap« of 
Mary queen of Scots/' and a whole length portrait of himself; all which are in 
the court-room of that company. 

' Various periodical publications, and from informatioD obligingly oommtt^ 
•icated hy the famiiy.-^^See also Nichob'i Life of fiowyer. 

B O Y E R. Jit 

fttteodod to his pupil's education (who was afterwards lord 
Batburst), and for his use composed two compendious 
grammars, tt)e one Latin, the other French; but the lafct^r 
Only was printed, and to this day is a standard book. His 
hopes of preferment, however, appear to have been fal- 
lacious, which his biographer attributes to his siding^ with 
a different party from the Batburst family in the political 
divisions which prevailed at that time in the nation, Boyer, 
like tlie rest of his countrymen who had fled hither for re«t 
ligion, being a zealous whig. After this, having made 
himself master of the English tongue, he became an authoc 
by profession, and engaged sometimes alone, and some-, 
times in conjunction with the booksellers, in various com- 
pilations, and periodical works of the political kind, partin 
cularly a newspaper called the *' Post-Boy ;" the "Political 
State of Great Britain,'' published in volumes from 17 JO 
to 1 729 ; a " History of William HI.'* 3 vols. 8vo ; " Ari^ 
rals of the reign, of Queen- Anne,'' 11 vols. 8vo, and a 
'^ Life of Queen Anne," fol. all publications now mofe 
useful than when published, as they /contain many state 
papers, memorials, &c. which it would be difficult to find 
.elsewhere ; but his name is chiefly preserved by his French 
Dictionary, 1699, 4to, and a French Gramnnar, of both 
which he lived to see several editions, and which still con- 
tinue to be printed* His political principles involved hiR% 
with Swift, who often speaks contemptuously of him, im4 
with Pope, who has given him a place in the Dunci^ Ijle 
died Nov. 16, 1729, at a house he had built in Five Fields^ 
Chelsea, and was buried in Chelsea church-yard..^ .. ^ 

BOY£R (Claude), of the French academy, was bom 
at Alby in 1618. He came young to Paris, where he v^^l^ 
tivated his talent for eloquence ; but, having preached wit^ 
little success, he quitted the pulpit for the stage, which he 
had been declaiming against, and now devoted himself to 
it for life, always satisfied with himself, bu( seldonri witi| 
the public. Born. with an imagination which submitted to 
po restraint, he made choice of subjects strangely compli-r 
cated, and equivocal heroes who had no character wbatt 
ever« Aiming always at th^ sublime, where the simplicity 
of nature was required, he fell into a strain of bombastii 
unintelligible perhaps to himself. He is the author of 
two-and-twenty dramatic pieces, full of fustian, and coQ^ 

> Biog, Draiaatica, — Moreri.'**Swlft'i Y^orkf i Mt (n4«3(» 

312 B O T E R. 

ducted without any knowledge of the drama. His Judith 
had a transient success. The epigram it produced froni 
Hacine is generally known. ^^ Je pleure^ h^las ! pour ce 
pauyre Holopherne, si m^cbamment mis k mort par Judith.'* 
This piece, applauded during a whole Lent, was hissed off 
the stage in the Easter holidays. Champmesl^e, asking 
the reason of the fickleness of the pit, was answered, that 
the hissers had been at Versailles at the sermons of the 
abb^ Boileau, who had ridiculed him^ Boyer, at length 
disfaeaiStened by this constant run of ill*success, brought 
out his tragedy of Agamemnon under a borrowed name, 
and Racine, his grand tormentor, applauded the piece. 
Boyer could not refrain from crying out in the pit, *^ It is 
however Boyer's, in spite of Mous. de Racine ;'' but this 
transport cost him dear, for his tragedy was hissed at the 
next performance. He died at Paris, July 22, 1698, aged 
eighty. * 

• BOYER (John Baptist Nicholas), a learned French 
physician, was born at Marseilles, Augusts, 1693. His 
iather, intending to bring him up to business, gave him a 
suitable education, and afterwards sent him to Constan- 
tinople, to his uncle, who was consul there ; but finding 
him inclined to literature, and to the study of medicine, he 
sent him, on hb return from the Levant, to the university 
at Montpellier. In 1717, he took the degree of doctor, 
and gave for his inaugural thesis, ^^ A dissertation on Inos- 
culation of the Small Pox," which he had seen practised 
at Constantinople. On the plague breaking out at Mar- 
seilles, in 1720, he was sent there with five other pljysi- 
eians ; and his conduct on that occasion having been ap- 
proved, he was rewarded by the king with a pension, and 
was made physician to a regiment of guards. He was some 
years after invited to Hunspruche, a town in the bishopric 
0t Treves, where an infectious fever was making great ra- 
vages, and, in 1742, to Paris, on a similar occasion. His 
success at these places occasioned him to be sent for to 
Beauvais, in 1750, where by his judicious management he 
prevented the spreading of an infectious fever, infesting 
that country. For these services he was honoured by the 
king with letters of nobility, and invested with the order of 
Bt Michael He died at Paris, April 2, 1768. His works 
$r0, ^^ Methode indiqu^e centre la maladie epidemique qui 

> Pkt. Hiit^Moreii 

B O Y E R* Sig 

vient de regner il Beauvais/^ Paris, 1750, a quarto pam* 
phlet, of only ten pages. *' Afethode a suivre dans ie 
traitement de differentes maladies epidemiques qui regnent 
le plus ordinairemem dans la generalit6 de Paris,'* 1761^ 
12ino. He wrote, in 1745, a ^< Memoir" on the disease 
infesting the cattle at that time, which was sent to the 
royal society in London, and procured him a place in 
the list of their foreign members. He also gave a new 
edition of the ** Codex medicamentarius,** seu ^^ Pharma- 
copoeia Parisiensis,'* 4to, a very useful and well d%ested 
work. * 

BOYLE (Richard), a celebrated statesman, descended 
from an ancient and honourable family, and distinguished 
by the title of the great earl of Cork, was the youngest 
son of Mr. Roger Boyle of Herefordshire, by Joan, daugh- 
ter of Robert Naylor of Canterbury, and born in the city 
of Canterbury, Oct. 3, I5i66. He was instructed in gram- 
mar learning by a clergyman of Kent ; and after having 
been a scholar in Ben^et college, Cambridge, where he 
was remarkable for early rising, indefatigable study, and 
great temperance, became student in the Middle Temple. 
He lost his father when he was but ten years old, and his 
mother at the expiration of other ten years; and being 
unable to support himself in the prosecution of his studies, 
be entered into the service of sir Richard Manwood, chief 
baron of the exchequer, as one of his clerks : but per- 
ceiving few advantages from this employment, he resolved 
to travel, and landed at Dublin in June 1588, with a very 
scanty stock, his whole property amounting, as he himself 
informs us, to 27/. 3^. in money, two trinkets which his 
mother gave him as tokens, and his wearing apparel. He 
was then about two-and-twenty, had a graceful person^ 
and all the accomplishments for a young man to succeed in 
a country which was a scene of so much action. Ac- 
cordingly he^made himself very useful to some of the 
principal persons employed in the government, by pienning 
for them memorials, cases, and answers ; and thereby ac- 
quired a perfect knowledge of the kingdom and the state 
of public affairs, of which he knew well how to avail him- 
self. In 1595 he married at Limeric, Joan, the daughter 
and coheiress of Wilham Ansley of Pulborough, in Sussex, 
«sq. who had fallen in love with him. This lady died 1599^ 

^ Diet Hi0t»^Moreri«-»Rees'8 Cyclo] 

914 BOYLE. 

in labour of her first child (born dead) leaving her bo|4» 
band an estate of 500/. a year in lands, which was the be- 
ginning of his fortune. Some time after, sir Henry Wal- 
lop, of Wares, sir Robert Gardiner, chief justice of the 
ling's beiK'h, sir Robert Dillam, chief justice of the com* 
mon pleas, and sir Richard Bingham, chief commissioner 
of Connaught, envious at certain purchases he had made in 
the province, represented to queen Elizabeth that he was 
in the pay of the king of Spain (who had at that time some 
thoughts of invading Ireland), by whom he had been fur-' 
nished with money to buy several large estates ; and that 
he was strongly suspected to be a Roman catholic in bis 
heart, with many other malicious suggestions equally 
groundless. Mr. Boyle, having private notice of this, 
determined to come over to England to justify himself: 
but, before he could take shipping, the general rebellion 
in Munster broke out, all his lands were wasted, and he 
had not one penny of certain revenue left. In this distress 
he betook himself to his former chamber in the Middle 
Temple, intending to renew his studies in the law till the 
rebellion should be suppressed. When the earl of Essex 
was nominated lord-deputy of Ireland, Mr. Boyle, being 
recommended to him by Mr. Anthony Bacon, was received 
by his lordship very graciously ; and sir Henry Wallop^ 
treasurer of Ireland, knowing that Mr. Boyle had in his 
custody several papers which could detect his roguish 
manner of passing his accounts, resolved utterly to depress 
him, and for that end renewed his former complaints 
against him to the queen. By her majesty's special direc* 
tions, Mr. Boyle was suddenly taken up, and committed 
close prisoner to the Gatehouse : all his papers were 
seized and searched; and although nothing appeared to 
his prejudice, yet his confinement lasted till two months 
after his new patron the earl of Essex was gone to Ireland. 
At length, with much difficulty, be obtained the favour of 
the queen to be present at his examination ; and having 
fully answered whatever was alledged against him, be gave 
a short account of his behaviour since he first settled in 
Ireland, and concluded with laying open to the queen 
and her council the conduct of his chief enemy sir Henry. 
Wallop. .Upon which her majesty exclaimed with her 
usual intemperance of speech, " By God's death, these ar^ 
but inventions against this young man, and all his suffer* 
ings are for being able to do us service^ and these com* 


plaints urged to forestal him therein. But we find hini to 
be a man tit to be employed by ourselves ; and we will em* 
ploy him in our service : and Wallop and his adherentf 
shall know that it shall not be in the power of any of them 
to wrong him. Neither shall Wallop be our treasurer any 
longer." Accordingly, she gave orders not only for Mr; 
Boyle's present enlargement, but also tor paying all the 
charges and fees his confinement had hrought upon him, 
and gave him her hand to kiss before the whole assembly, 
Ji few days after, the queen constituted him clerk ,of the 
council of Munster, and recommended him to sir George 
Carew, afterwards earl of Totness, then lord president of 
Munster, who became his constant friend ; and very sooa 
after he was made justice of the peace and or the quorum, 
throughout all the province-, lie attended in that capacity 
the lord president in ail his employmenis, and was sent by 
bis lordship to the queen with liie news of the victory 
gained in December 1601, near Kinsale, over the Irish 
end their Spanish auxiliaries, who were totally routed, 
1200 being slain in the field, and 800 wounded. " I 
wade," says he, " a speedy expedition to the court, for I 
left my lord president at Shannon -castle, near Cork, oti 
the Monday morning about two of the clock ; and the next 
day, being Tuesday, I delivered my packet, and supped 
with sir Robert Cecil, being then principal secretary of 
state, at his house in the Strand ; who, after supper, held 
me in discourse till two of the clock in the morning ; and 
by seven that morning * called upon me to attend him to 
the court, where he presented me to her majesty in her 
bedchamber." A journey so rapid as this would be thought, 
even in tlie. present more improved modes of travelling, 
requires all his lordship's authority to render it credible. 

Upon his return to Ireland, be assisted at the siege of 
Don boy, near Beer- haven, which was taken by storm, and 
|he garrison put to the sword. After the reduction of the 
western part of the province, the lord president sent Mr. 
Boyle again to England, to procure the queen's leave for 
his return ; and having advised him to purchase sir Walter 
Kaleigh's lands in Munster, he gave him a letter to sir 

 Pnor Budgell, who, when he wrote hours our ministers keep ftt presettt* 
bis " Lives of the Boyles," was out of we shall be the less sOrprtsed to find 
bumour with all mankind, and espe- that our afTairs are not managed alto- 
dally with ministers of state, says on gether so successfully as in the dayf 
thii Mirly v^it, *' IS we reflect upon the of queen Elisabeth." Liveii jp« 15, 



Kobert Cecil, secretary of state, containing a very advan* 
tageous account of Mr. Boyle's abilities, and of the ser* 
vices he had done his country ; in consideration of which, 
be desired the secretary to introduce him to sir Walter, 
and recominend him a^ a proper purchaser for bis lands in 
Ireland, if he was disposed to part with them. He wrote 
at the same time to sir Walter himself, advising him to 
sell Mr. Boyle all his lands in Ireland, then untenanted, 
and of no value to him, having, to bis lordship's know- 
ledge, never yielded him any benefit, but, on the contrary, 
stood him in 200/. yearly for the support of his titles. At 
a meeting between sir Robert Cecil, sir Walter Raleigh, 
and Mr.Boylq, the purchase was concluded by the media- 
tion of the former ♦. 

In 1602, Mr. Boyle, by advice of his friend sir George 
Carew, paid his addresses to Mrs. Catherine Fenton, 
daughter of sir Geoffry Fenton, whom he married on the 
25th of July, 1603, her father being at that time principal 
secretary of state. ** I never demanded," says he, " any 
marriage portion with her, neither promise of any, it not 
being in my considerations ; yet her father, after my mar- 
riage, gave me one thousand pounds in gold with her. But 
that gift of his daughter to me, I must ever thankfully ac- 
knowledge as the crown of all my blessings ; for she was 
a most religious, virtuous, loving, and obedient wife to me 
all the days of her life, and the mother of all my hopeful 
children t.'* He received on his wedding day, July 23, 
1^03, the honour of knighthood from his friend sir George ^ 
Carew, now promoted to be lord-deputy of Ireland : March 
12, 1606, he was sworn a privy counsellor to king James, 
for the province of Munster : Feb. 15, 1612, he was sworn 
a privy counsellor of state of the kingdom of Ireland : 
Sept 29, 1616, he was created lord Boyle, baron of Youg- 
hail : Oct. 16, 1620, viscount of Dungarvon, and earl of 
Cork. Lord Falkland, the lord-deputy, having represented 

• Sir Walter Ra1eigh*8 estete con- 
sisted of twelve tbousaod acres in the 
counties of Cork and Waterford (Cox's 
Hi&t. of Ireland, vol. f. p. 352), which 
was so nauch improved in a few years 
by Mr. Boyle's diligence, that it was not 
only well tenanted, but in the most 
thriving condition of any estate in Ire* 
land. Cox's History of Ireland, vol. 
11. Pref. 

t An absurd story is told by Dr. 

Anthony Walker in bis fiineral sermon 
on the countess of Warwick,, daughter 
to our nobleman, that Mr. Boyle 
happening to call on sir Oeoffry Fen- 
ton who then was engaged, amused 
himself with an infant in the nurse's 
arms ; and on sir Qeoffry's appearance 
told him be would be happy to marry 
her when grown up, &c« Dr. Birch 
has shewn bow little foundation Dr* 
Walker bad for this account. 

B 9 T L E. in 

his services in a just light to king Charles I. his majesty 
sent his excellency a letter, dated Nov. 30, 1627, direct- 
ing him to confer the honours of baron and viscount upon 
the earl's second' surviving son Lewis, though he was thea 
only eight years old, by the title of Baron of Bandon* 
bridge, and viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky in the county 
of Cork. 

On the departure of lord-deputy Falkland, the earl of 
Cork, in conjunction with lord Loi'tus, was appointed one 
of the lords justices of Ireland, Oct. '26, 1629, and held 
that office several years. Feb. 16th following, the earl 
lost his countess, by whom he had fifteen children. Nov. 9^ 
1631, he was constituted lord high treasurer of Ireland, 
and had interest enough to get that high office made here- 
ditary in his family. Nevertheless, he suffered many mor* 
tifications during the administration of sir Thomas Went- 
worth, afterwards earl of Strafford, who, before be went to 
Ireland, had conceived a jealousy of his authority and in- 
terest in that kingdom, and now conceived that if he could 
bumble the great earl of Cork, nobody in that country 
could give him much trouble. On the breaking out of the 
rebellion in Ireland in 1641, the earl of Cork, as soon as he 
returned from England (where he was at the time of the 
earl of Strafford's trial), immediately raised two troops of 
horse, which he put under the command of his sons the 
lord viscount Kinalmeaky and the lord Broghill, maintain- 
ing them and 400 foot for some months at bis own charge* 
In the battle which the English gained at Liscarrol, Sept. 
3, 1 642, four of bis sons were engaged, and the eldest was 
slain in the field. The earl himself died about a year 
after, on the 1 5th of September, in the 78th year of his 
age ; having spent. the last, as he did the first year of his 
life, in the support of the crown of England against Irish 
rebels, and in the service of his country. Though he was 
no peer of England, he was, on account of his eminent 
abilities and knowledge of tbe world, admitted to sit in the 
house of lords upon the woolpacks, ut consiliarius. When 
Cromwell saw the prodigious improvements he had made, 
which he little expected to find in Ireland, he declared, 
that if there had been an earl of Cork in every province, it 
would have been impossible for the Irish to have raised a 

He affected not places and titles of honour until he was 
well able to maintain them, for he was in the 37th year of 

318 BOYLE. 


his age when knighted, and in bis 50th when made ft 
baron. He made large purchases, but not till be was able 
to improve them ; and he grew rich on estates which had 
ruined their former possessot*s. He increased his wealth, 
not by hoarding, but by spending ; for he built and walled 
several towns at his own cost, but in places so well situated, 
that they were soon filled with inhabitants, and quickly re- 
paid the money he had laid out, with interest, wliich he as 
readily laid out again. Hence, in the space of forty years, 
he acquired to himself what in some countries would have 
bee^ esteemed a noble principality ; and as they came to 
years of discretion, he bestowed estates upon his sons, 
and married his daughters into the best families of that 
country. He outlived most of those who had known the 
meanness of his beginning ; but he delighted to remember 
it himself, and even took pains to preserve the memory of 
it to posterity in the motto which he always used, and 
which he caused to be placed upon his tomb, viz. <^ God's 
providence is my inheritance." 

It is much to be regretted that so faithful a servant of 
the public should have lived at variance with the earl 
of Strafford, himself a man of virtue, talents, and pa* 
triotism, and afterwards a sacrifice to the fury of the re- ' 
publican party in England ; yet it cannot be denied that 
the earl of Strafford behaved in a very arrogant and 
haughty manner to the earl of Cork ; and that the conduct 
of the lord deputy was such, as it could not reason-* 
ably be expected any man of spirit would patiently sub- 
mit to, and especially a man of so much worth and 
merit as the noble subject of this article. His lordship 
gave evidence at Strafford's trial, that when he had com-* 
menced a suit at law, in a case in which he apprehended 
himself to be aggrieved, the earl of Strafford, in the 
most arbitrary manner^ forbad his prosecuting his suit, . 
saying to him, «* Call in your writs, or if you will not, 
I will clap you in the castle ; for I tell you, I will not have 
my orders disputed by law, nor lawyers." We have, 
however, already seen that lord Cork had other enemies, ' 
who took various opportunities of displaying their jealousy 
of his power and talents. One singular opportunity was 
taken on the death of his second lady, which we shall de- 
tail, as including some traits of the taste and prejudices of 
the times. This lady was privately interred on the 27th of 
February 1629-30, but her funeral was publicly solemnize^ 

B O Y L El. 819 

cm the 11th of March following ; soon after which, the 
earl of Cork purchased from the dean and chapter of St. 
Patrick's church, the inheritance of the upper part of the 
chancel where the vault was, in which the bodies of her 
grandfather by the mother's side, the lord chancellor Wes- 
ton, and of her father sir Geoffry Fenlon, were laid, over 
which the earl her husband caused a fine marble tomb to 
be erected. This presently gave offence to some people^ 
who suggested that it stood where the altar ought to standi 
of which they complained to the king, who mentioned it 
to Dr. Laud, then bishop of London ; who after the lord 
Wentworth was made lord deputy of Ireland, and himself 
archbishop of Canterbury, moved him that it might be 
inquired into, as it was, and this affair made afterwards a 
▼ery great noise. The earl of Cork procured a letter from 
Dr. Usher, then lord primate of Ireland, and also from Dr. 
Launcelot Bulkeley, then archbishop of Dublin, justifying^ 
that the tomb did not stand in the place of the altar, and 
that instead of being an inconvenience, it was a great or- 
nament to the church ; which letters archbishop Laud 
transmitted to the lord deputy, and at the same time ac- 
quainted him that they did not give himself any satisfac- 
tion. The postscript to this letter, dated Lambeth, March 
1 1, 1634, is very remarkable, and shews both the rise and 
the falsehood of the common opinion, that it was the lord 
deputy, afterwards earl of Strafford, who set this matter on 
foot out of prejudice to the earl of Cork. ^' I had almost 
forgot to tell you, that all tliis business about demolishing 
my lord of Cork's tomb is charged upon you, as if it were 
done only because he will not marry his son to my lord 
Clifford's daughter, and that I do it to join with you; 
whereas the complaint came against it to me out of Ireland, 
and was presented by me to the king before I knew that 
your lordship was named for deputy there. But jealousies 
know no end." The archbishop afterwards wrote in very 
strong terms to the earl of Cork himself, in which he af- 
firms the s^me thing, and deals very roundly with his lord* 
ship upon that and other subjects, advisiui^ him to leave 
the whole to the lord deputy and the archbishops. As to 
the issue of the affair, it appears clearly from a letter of 
the lord deputy Wen tworth's, dated August 23, 1634, to 
the archbishop, in which he delivers himself thus : " I 
have issued a commission, according to my warrant, fop 
viewing the earl of Cork's tomb : the two archbishops and 


himself, with four bishops, and the two deans and chap« 
ters, were present when we met, and made them all so 
ashamed, that the earl desires he may have leave to pull, it 
down without reporting further into England ; ^so as I am 
content if the miracle be done, though Mohammed do it, 
and there is an end of the tomb before it come to be en* 
tombed indeed. — And for me that my lord treasurer do 
what he please ; I shall ever wish bis ways may be those of 
honour to himself, and dispatch to my master's affliirs ; but 
go it as it shall please God with me, believe m^, my lord, 
I will be still thoraw and thorowout one and the same, and 
with comfort be it spoken by myself, and your grace's 
commendations." It may be added that though the tomb 
has been taken away above a century, yet the inscription 
that was upon it is still extant ' 

BOYLE (Roger), earl of Orrery, fifth son of Richard 
carl of Cork, was bom April 25, lo21, and created 
baron Broghill in the kingdom of Ireland when but seven 
years old. He was educated at the college of Dublin, and 
about the year 1636, sent with his elder brother lord 
Kinalmeaky to make the tour of France and Italy. - After 
his return he married lady Margaret Howard, sister to the 
earl of Suffolk. During the rebellion in Ireland, he com-^ 
manded a troop of horse in the forces raised by his father, 
and on many occasions gave proofs of" conduct and cou- 
rage. After the cessation of arms, which was concluded 
in 1643, he came over to England, and so represented to 
the king the Irish papists, that his majesty was convinced 
they never meant to keepi the cessation, and therefore sent 
a commission to lord Incbiquin, president of Munster, to 
prosecute the rebels. Lord Broghill employed his interest 
in that county to assist him in this service ; and when th6 
government of Ireland was committed to the parliament, 
he continued to observe the same conduct till the king wat 
put to death. That event shocked him so much, that he 
immediately quitted the service of the parliament; and, 
looking upon Ireland and his estate there as utterly lost, 
embarked for England, and returned to his seat at Marston 
in Somersetshire, where he lived privately till 1649. In 
this retirement, reflecting on the distress of his country, 
and the personal injury be suffered whilst his estate was 
held by the Irish rebels, he resolved, under pretence of 

1 liio;. Brit— BttdgeH's Ltves of Uie Boyles.-~Biich«» Ii& of Robert Boyle. 

B O T L B, 321 

^ing to the Spa for hit heskb, to crost tie •§•% rad fl^ 
ply to king Chsrlet 11. for a oomimtsion to rftite iorcen in 
Ireluidi in order to restore bit nHtjesty, and recover bis 
oirn estate, lie desired the eari of Wanvioki niio had an 
jifterest ia the prevaiUng parqr, to proeitne a licenoe fafer 
Jiioi to go to the Spa. He pretended to the earl, that his 
aole view was the recovery of liis health ; biit^ to some of 
4i8 friends of the royal party, in wbbni be thought be could 
confide, be discovered his veal design ; and havtag raised 
a considefaUe simv of tntMiey, came to Loodoa to pi^ose- 
-eam :hts Yoya|^ "Hie oovaasittee of state, wbo spared no 
pains to get pMper int^lligenee, beiog soon inforosed ef 
hia whole design, detenDitiedio proceed agunvt him with 
the utmost s i e v eiity ^ = Cvonsivell, at that time general of 
ahe paittsimeot*<a farcM, and « metndbfer ef the cotnmitte^ 
waa no sitaagiir to Lent iBveghill's merit; and dotiindering 
that this yoAftg ni^UtniaQ mt]^ \^ of great ase to him in 
vwdiicing Ireiand, he «arnestly entreated the committee^ 
chat be aright hsive leave to 4alk with him, and endeavour 
10 gain him, h^fare tbey pi«M:tfeded to extretnities. Hav- 
kig, with great >diAcaftty, •obtained this permission, he im«- 
medietdy diapatdhed a genaleosan to lond Broghill, to let 
him know tbiit he intended to wait upon him. Broghili 
was surprised at this message, having never had the least 
aefeainianee with Cromwell, and therefore desired the 
gendeBMn lo let the general know that he would wait upon 
hia exoelleney« But while he was expecting the return of 
the aaessenter, Cromwell entered the room; and, after 
aaotual eivilitiea, tdd him in few words that the eonmiittee 
of slate were apprised of his design of going over, and ap^ 
plying to Chartes Stnart for a commissioO'to mtse forces ia 
Iffihind ; and that tbey had determined to make an exam* 
idie of him, if he bad not diverted them from that msolu^ 
iio& The li»d Brogbill interrupted bim> and assured him 
lilai the intelKgeace which the committee had received 
%ea fake ; that be was neither in a capacity, nor had any 
incfinatioii, to raise disturbances in Ireland ; and concluded 
wilfa entreating his excelleney to have a kinder opinion of 
kim. Oiomwell, inatead of diaklog any reply, drew some 
Mpera out of his pockety which were the copies of several 
fetters aent by lord Broghill to those persons in whom he 
uoost confided, and put them into his- hands. Broghitt, 
finding it was to no purpose to dissemble any longer, asked 
hia ezcelleucy^s pardon for what he had said, returned him 

922 BOYLE. 

•his Humble thanks for his pcoteetion. against the cDOnniittee, 
and entreated bis advice bow be ought to behave in so deli- 
cate a conjoneture: Cromwell told him, that though .till. ibis 
time be bad been a stranger to bis person^ he was. not so to 
bis merit and character; xhat, he had beard bow gallantly 
'bis lordship bad already behaved in. the Irish wars; .and 
therefore, Moce he was named lord lieutenant of Ireland^ 
and the reducing that kingdom was now b6come bis pro>p 
vince, that .he had obtained leaive of the committee to.ofier 
his brdship the command of a general officer, if be would 
serve in that war: that he.should have no oaths or engage- 
ments imposed upon bim^ nor be obliged to- draw his swond 
against any hut the Irish rebels. Lord Brogfaill was.infi* 
'^itely surprised at so generous and unexpected, an offer: 
Jie saw himself at liberty, by. all the rulep af.Jbononr, Jto 
serve against the Irish, whose rebellion anil • barbarities 
.were equally detested by the royal party and the parlia* 
ment: be desired, however^ the general ^o 'give himt some 
time to consider of what he :had - proposedi tp^iim. Crom- 
well briskly told him, that he must coflM4o some resoltt<« 
tion that very instant; that he himself was relurniug to the 
committee, who were still sitting ; and- if bis lordship re- 
jected their offer, they had determined to send him to the 
Tower. Broghill, finding that his life and liberty were in 
the utmost denger, and charmed with the frankness <«Dd 
generosity of Cromweirs behaviour, gave bim bis word 
and honour that.he would faithfully serve him against^the 
Irish rebels; upon which, Crprnwell once more assured 
bim, that the conditions which be bad made with bim 
should be punctually observed; and then, ordered bim to 
repair immediately to Bristol, to which place forces should 
be sent him, with a sufficient number of ships to transport 
him into Ireland. ' 

', He soon raised in that kingdom a troop .and a regiment 
of l^QO men, with which he joined Cromwell on bis «r« 
rival ; and, acting in the course of the war Qoojointly with 
Cromwell and Ireton, contributed greatly to the reductiou 
of the Irish. Cromwell was so exceedingly struck with Us 
eonduot and courage, that after be was declared protector 
be sent for lord Broghill, made bim one of his privy coun- 
cil, and allowed him as great a share of bis confidence 
ais^oy man, except Thurioe*. In 1656, the protector, 

' * Iq 1654, be was chosen knight for pftrittment men of Ireland nraonf the 
tiie ooanty of Cork, to tit.witii oUier Eotlish knigliU and borfOfsesatWei^ 

BOYLE. 398 

etther sotpecttng Monk's: attachinent t« Us p€rson» or de- 
sirous of iwliefing the people of Scotland, who complained 
of th\s man's severity, proposed to lord Broghill to go to 
that kingdom- with an absolute authority ; to which his 
lordship consented, upon condition that he should have a 
difcnationary power to act as he should see proper ; that 
JBO credit should be given to any complaints, till he bad 
an opportunity of vindicating himself ; and that he should 
he recalled in a year. Cromwell kept bis word to bim ; 
for though the complaints against Broghill were more nn- 
flieroua than those against Monk, upon giving, at his re- 
turn to London when the year was expired, an account of 
tbe reasons of his conduct, Cromwell conceived a higher 
esteem for him than ever. 

After the death of Cromwell, Broghill did his utmost to 
serve his son, to whom bis lordship, in conjunction with 
lord Howard and some others, made an offer, that if he 
would not be wanting to himself, and give them a sufficieht 
antfaority to act under him, they would either force bis 
enemies to obey him, or cut them off. Richard, startled 
at this proposal, answered in a consternation, that he 
thanked them for their friendship, but that he neither bad 
done, nor would do, any person any barm ; and that . ra- 
ther than that a drop of blood should be spilt on bis ac« 
coanfc, he would lay down that greatness which was a bur- 
den to him. He was so fixed in his resolution, that what- 
ever the lords could say was not capable of making him 
aker it ; and they found it to no purpose to keep a man in 
power who would do nothing for himself. Lord Broghill, 
therefore, finding the family of Cromwell thus laid aside^ 
and not being obliged by any ties to serve ' those who as- 
snmed the government, whose schemes too be judged wild 
•nd . ilUccMBcerted, from this time shewed himself most ac- 
tive and zealous to restore the king, and for that purpose 
vepaired forthwith to bis command in Muuster; where, 
finding himself at the bead of a considerable force, be de- 
termined to get the atmy in Ireland to join with him in the 
design, to gain, if possible, sir Charles Coote, who bad 
great power in the north, and then to send to Monk in 

pio«t^. He WAS likewiae appointed Cork in another parliament, wb^ch met 

•Mr of thi proleelor'i oouncil in Sect- at Wettminater the tame year. He 

indf wkick «a« worth to him 1414/. was likewise msde one of the.protee* 

per ukmum. And io 1656. he was not tor's lords, and a member of the other 

mMj ohoseo |»arliameBt nan for Bdia* honte. fiorlase's HiftorT of the Rednc- 

bat knisht for the coiiaty of tion of Irolssd. BadftU. 

Y 2 

324 B O T L E. 

Scotland. Whilst aieditattog ibu design, a soaimans camt 
to him from the aeven commissioners, sent over by the 
committee of safety to take care of the a&irs of Ireland^ 
requiring him to attend them immediately at the castle ef 
Dublin. His friends advised him to be upon bis guards 
and noc put himself in the power of his enemies ; but, as 
he thought himself not strong enough yet to take such a 
step, he resolved to obey the summons. Taking, there* 
fore, his own troop with htm as a guard, he set out for 
Dublin. When he came to the city, leaving his troop in 
the suburbs, he acquainted the commissioners, that^ in 
obedience to their commands, be was come lo know their 
farther pleasure. Next day, on appearing before theni, 
they told him, that the state was apprehensive he woaid 
practise against their government, and that therefore ihey 
had orders to confine him, unless he would give soffieient 
security for his peaceable behaviour. He desired to know 
what security they expected. They told him, that since 
be bad a great interest in Munster, they only desired hioi 
to engage on the fbrfeitore of bis life and estate^ that 
there should be no commotion in that province. He new 
pbuuly perceived the snare which was laid for him ; and 
that, if he entered into such an engagement, his^enemies 
themselves might raise some commotions in Moostec He 
saw himself, however, in their power, and made no man« 
ner of doubt but that if he refused to give them the secu- 
rity they demanded, they wonld immMiately put bim up 
in prison. He therefore desired some tinse to consider of 
their proposal ; but was told they could give bim^ no time^ 
and expected bis immediate answer. Finding himself tbvs 
closely pressed, he humbly desired to be satisfied in one 
point, nsmely, whether they intended to put tbe whole 
power of Munster into bis bands ? if tbey did, he said, be 
was ready to enter into the engagement they demanded ; 
but if they did not, he must appeal to all the world bow 
cruel and unreasonable it was, to expect be should answer 
for the behaviour of people over whom he bad no com* 
mand. The commissioners found themselves so much em-^ 
barrassed by this question, that they ordered bias to with«; 
draw ; and fell into a warm debate in what manner to pro«* 
ceed with him. At last Steel, one of the commissionen^ 
who was also lord chancellor of Ireland, declared himself 
afraid, that even tbe honest party in Ireland would think it 
very hard to see a man thrown into prison who had done 

BOYLE. 325 

such ugtial services to the Protestants; but ibati on the 
other band, he could never consent to the increase of loixl 
Bfoghiirs power, which the state was apprehensive might 
one day be employed against them. He therefore pro«« 
posed that things should stand as they did at present; that 
bis lordship should be sent back to his command in Mun« 
ster in a good humour, and be suffered at least to continue 
there till they received further instructions from England. 
This proposal was agreed to by the majority of the board, 
and lord Broghill being called in was told, in the most 
obliging manner, that the board was so sensible of the 
gallant actions he had performed in the Irish wars, and had 
so high an opinion of bis honour, that they would depend 
upon that alone for his peaceable behaviour. 

Upon bis return to Munster he applied himself as closely 
as ever to form a party for the king's restoration. After 
making sure of his own officers, the first person of weight he 
engaged in the design was colonel Wilson, governor of Li- 
merick, in which* place there was a garrison of 2000 men; 
and having now secured all Munster,. he sent a trusty agent 
to sir Charles Coote, to persuade that gentleman to do in 
the north of Ireland what he himself had done in the 
south. 8ir Charles, who had taken disgust at the supe- 
riority oiF lieutenant-general Ludlow, and the parliament's 
commissioners, and thought his eminent services not suffi* 
ciently rewarded by the presidency of Connaught, came 
readily into the design. Lord Broghill being empowered 
by most of the ehief officers in Ireland under their hands, 
dispatched bis brother, the lord Shannon, to the king, 
then in Flanders, with a letter quilted in' the neck of hia 
doublet, to acquaint bis majesty with the measures he bad 
taken, and inviting him to come into his kingdom of Ire-^ 
land ; assuring him that if be pleased*to land at Cork, he 
should be received with a sufficient force to protect him 
agaiBst all his enemies^ At the same time he dispatched 
a messenger to general Monk, then on bis march from 
Scotland, to let him know what they were doing in Ire- 
land, and to persuade him to do the like. Shannon was 
scarce embarked for Flanders when lord Broghill received 
a letter from sir Charles Coote, to acquaint bim that their 
design of declaring for the king had uken air, and that be 
had therefore been obliged to declare somewhat sooner 
than they had agreed upon ; and to conjure his lordship to 
declare himself likewise; which Broghill did immediately. 

326. BOYLE. 

that be might not desert his friend, though he was a little 
apprehensive that sir Charles's precipitancy might niin 
their design. By this means those who had assumed the 
government of Ireland, finding themselves in the midst of 
two powerful parties, made little or no resistance; and 
lord Brogbill and sir Charles Coote secured that kingdom 
for his majesty. 

Upon the king's renoration, lord Broghill came to Eng* 
land; but, instead oF being thanked for his service in 
Ireland, be was received with the utmost coldness. Upon 
inquiry he learnt that sir Charles Coote had assured ibeking 
that he was the first man who stirred for him in Ireland ; that 
lord Broghill opposed his majesty's return, and was not at 
last brought to consent to it without much diflSculty. His 
lordship, recollecting that he had still by him sir Cbarles^s 
letter, in which were these words, ^* Remember, my lord, 
that you first put me on this design; and I beseech you, 
forsake me not in that which you first put me upon, which 
was, to declare for king and parliament," desired his bro* 
ther Shannon to put it into the hands of the king; who 
being /ully convinced by it how serviceable Broghill bad 
been to him, looked upon him with as gracious an eye as 
he could himself desire or expect. His lordship was soon 
after (Seph 5, 1660,) made earl of Orrery, sworn of the 
king's privy-council, appointed one of the lords justices, 
and lord president of M unster. 

After the king's return the Irish Roman catholics sent 
over sir Nicholas Plunket^ and some other commissioners^ 
with a petition to his majesty, praying to be restored to 
their estates. As this would in effect have ruined the 
Protestants, they therefore chose the earl of Orrery, 
Montrath,-and six more, to oppose their adversaries be* 
fore the king and his council. The Irish commissioners 
were so apfxrebensive of the earl's eloquence and address 
upon this occasion, that they offered him eight thousand 
pounds in money, and to settle estates of seven thousand 
pounds a year upon him, if hje would not appear against 
them^; which proposal the earl rejected with proper dis- 
dain. When the cause came to a hearing, after the Irish 
commissioners had oflSered all they thought proper, the 
earl of Orrery boldly affirmed to the King that bis Pro- 
testant subjects in Ireland were the first who formed an 
effectual party for restoring him ; ^tbat the Irish had broken* 
all the treaties which jiad been made wiffa, them; that tbev 

BOYLE. S27 : 

hiMl.fottght against the authority both of the late and pra- 
MBt king; and bad offered the kingdom. of Ireland to the 
pope, to. the king of Spain^ and the king of France.. 
Lastly, to the great surprise, not only of the Irish, but of. 
bis own brother-coipniissioners, he proved his assertions 
by. producing several original papers signed by the Irish 
supreme council, of which sir Nicholas Plunket himself 
was one. This last unexpected blow decided the dispute, 
in favour of the. Protestants; and obliged his majesty |o. 
dismiss the Irish commissioners with some harsher expres*/ 
sions than he. commonly made use of. 

Soon after this affair, his lordship, with sir Charles. 
Coote, lately made earl of Montrath, and sir Maurice. 
Eustace, were constituted lords justices of Ireland, and 
coiBmissioned to call, and hold a parliament. Some time 
b#fore the . meeting of the parliament, he drew with his. 
own hand the famous act of settlement, by which he fixed 
the. property, and gave titles to their estates to a whole na- 
tion. When the duke of Ormond was declared lord lieu- 
tenant, the earl of Orrery went into Munster, of which, 
province he. was. president. By. virtue of this office, he. 
beard and determined causes in a court called the resi-. 
dency-court; and acquired so great a reputation in his 
judicial capacity, that he was offered the seals both by the 
king and the duke of York after the fall of lord Clarendon ; 
but, being very much afflicted with the gout, he declined 
a post that required constant attendance. During the first. 
Dutch war, in which France acted as a confederate with 
Holland, he defeated the scheme formed by the duke de 
Beaufort, admiral of France, to get possession of the har- 
bour of Kinsale, and. took advantage of the fright of , the; 
people, and the alarm of the government, to get a fort 
erected under his own directions, which was named Fort 
Charles. He promoted a scheme for inquiring into, and 
improving the king's revenue in Ireland ; but his majesty 
having applied great sums out of the revenue of that king- 
dom which did not come plainly into account, the in- 
quiry was never begun. Ormond, listening to some ma- 
licious insinuations, began to entertain a jealousy of 
Orrery, and prevailed with the king to direct him to lay 
down bis residential court; as a compensation for which, 
his majesty made him a present of 8000/. Sir Thomas 
Clifford, who had been brought into the ministry in £ng* 
laudj apprehensive that he could not carry his ends in. 

38S B O Y L-E. 

Ireland wba|it Orrery cdntiooed prendeot of MiSMter, 
proeoi^d artielet of impAcbment of high treason and inia^ 
demeanoura to be esbibiced against him in tbe 
House of Comnions ; but his lordslup being beard in 
jllace, gave an answer so dear, cireomstantiai, and in« 
genuottsy tbat tbe affair was dropt. The king laboured in 
vain to reconcile bim to tbe French alliance, and the re* 
dticing of the Dutch. At tbe desire of the king and tbe 
duke of York, be drew tbe plan of an act of limitation, by 
which the successor would have been disabled fron en« 
croaching on civil and religions liberty ; but tbe proposing 
thereof being postponed till after the exclusioo-biil was 
set on foot, the season for making use of it was past. Tbe 
king, to binder bis returning to Ireland,, and to keep him 
about his person, offered him the place of lord-treasuiwr ; 
but the earl of Orrery plainly told his mi^esty tbat be was 
guided by unsteady counsellors, with whom he could not 
act. He died in October 1679, aged fifty-eight ; leaving 
behind him the character of an able general, statesman, 
and writer. . He had issue by his lady, two sons and five 
daughters* His vrritings are these : 1. '* The Irish colours 
displayed ; in a reply of an English Protestant to a letter 
of an Irish Roman catholic,^' London, 1662, 4to. 2. *< An 
answer to a scandalous letter lately printed, and subscribed 
by Peter Walsh, procurator for the secular and regular 
popish priests of Ireland, entitled A letter desiring a just 
and merciful regard of the Roman catholics of Ireland, 
given about tbe end of October 1660, to tbe then marquis, 
now duke of Ormond, and the second time lord lieutenant 
of that kingdom. By the right honourable tbe earl of Or- 
rery, &c. being a full discovery of tbe treachery of tbe 
Irish rebels since the beginning of tbe rebdlion there, ne^ 
cessary to be considered by all adventurers, and other 
persons estated in that kingdom,'* Dublin, 1662, 4to. 
3. ** A poem on his majesty's happy restoration.'' 4. ** A 

})oem on the death of tbe celebrated Mr. Abraham Cowl- 
ey," London, 1667, fol. 5. " The histpry of Henry V, 
a tragedy/' London, 1668, fol. 6. *^ Mustapha, the son 
of Soliman the Magnificent, a tragedy," London, 1667, 
fol. and 1668. 7. '< The Black Prince, a tragedy," 
London, 1672, fol. 8. << Tripbon, a tragedy," London, 
1672, fol. These four plays were collected and published 
- together in 1690, folio, and make now the entire first vo- 
lume of the new iedition of tbe earl's dramatic works. 


9. ^ P^vtbeoissa, a romatice in three volomet/* LondM, 
1665, 4to, 1667, fol. 10. << A DreAoi/* In ibis piece be 
introduces the genius of France persuading Charles IL 
to promote the interest of that kingdom, and act vpott 
French principles. He afterwards introduces the ghotS ol 
his fistber, dissoading him from it, answering all i^ wig«- 
mentathe genius of France had urged, and proving to bttDy 
from his own misfortunes and tragical end, that a king** 
chief treasure, and only real strength, is the affections ef 
bis people. 11. '^ A treatise upon the Art of War/* It^ 
Poems on the Fasts and Festivals of the Church." His 
posthumous works are: 1. *^ Mr. Anthony, a comedy^*^ 
1692. 2. <^ Guzman, a comedy,*' 1693. 3. ** Herod th« 
great, a tragedy,*' 1694. 4. ^ Altemira, a tragedy,'* 
brought upon the stage by Mr. Francis Manning, in 17041, 
with a prologue by Henry St. John, esq. afterwards lord 
viscount Bolingbroke, and an epilogue by the hon. Charles 
Boyle, esq. the late earl of Orrery, who also interspersed 
several songs in the work itself. 5. ** State Letters," pub« 
lisbed in 1742, fol. Mr. Morrice tb^ editor, who was bis 
biographer and chaplain, says that his patron drew up a 
very curious account of what was done in the court of 
camp, in which he had any part, or could speak of with 
certainty. But this has never been published. The duke 
of Ormond having by bis majesty^s command consulted 
with the earl of Orrery upon the propositions to be laid 
before the parliament of Ireland in 1 677, bis lordship de* 
livered to hidi five sheets of paper containing the most ef* 
fectual methods of protectiog the nation from foreign and 
domestic enemies, advancing the Protestant interest, in« 
creasing the revenue, and securing private property. Bel 
these, with other papers, were destroyed when lord Or* 
rery*s house was buint to the ground in 1690, by a party of 
king Janses's soldiers, with the duke of Berwick at their 
head ; Lionel, then earl of Orrery, and grandson to our 
author, being a minor, and abroad on his travels. 

There is some use in retaining this list of bis lordship's 
writings, fddungh it must be confessed that he dtes not 
appear lo much advantage as a writer. The charge made 
by lord Orford, that the Biograpbiai Brrtannica is % ** de« 
fence of every body,*', oever appeared better fe i M i ded 
than in the high character given of lord Orrery's, poetry^ 
a character probably borrowed from such critics as Aubreir 
and Winstaoley. It would have been quite suiicieot to- 

360 B O.Y L E. 

have Timlicated his poems from the general coDtempt witb 
which they have sometimes been mentioned. 

It is more pleasing to recur to his private character^ 
which Dr. Campbell has described with more troth. He 
was, says this biographer, a kind and good, as well as a 
very well-bred and courteous husband : and lady Orrery 
was e«te^med one of the handsomest and most prudent 
wctfflien about the court. He was a tender, and even a 
fond parent ; but very attentive to the edupation and beba* 
nour of his children, by which the benefit they received was 
not small. As a landlord, he was both attentive to his own 
interest, and indulgent to hfs tenants; If a man was op* 
pressed, no one more readily relieved him ; if a farmer's 
family was numerous, or bis circumstances narrow, hia 
vaasistance was never wanting ; but he was in all cases so- 
licitous that the people should thrive, aa well as obtain 
aubaistence ; and bis saying was, ^< that the greatest cha- 
rity consisted in keeping people from needing it.*' With 
this view, he procured by the royal favour, grants of fairs 
and markets for Rathgogran and Ballymaathra, two viU 
kgeg of his, which by this means were so far improved 
that be afterwards obtained charters, by which they were - 
erected into boroughs, ipacb sending two members to the 
Irish parliament, and established besides manufactures in 
them lor their better support. But in nothing his good- 
ness, and beneficence of heart appeared more than in his 
treatment of his domestics. He was alike careful of their 
bodies, estates, and minds ; they lived in the utmost 
plenty, but he suffered no waste ; and for debauchery, he 
h«d the utmost abhorrence. He provided for them ac- 
cording to their several capacities, that, having lived well 
^ with him, they might not fall into indigence after tbey 
}eft him. He frequently observed, that the meanest of 
them had a soul to be saved, as well as himself; and there- 
fore, he not only obliged bis chaplain to have a due atten- 
tion to their spiritual concerns, but frequently inspected 
the discharge of his duty in this particular. His lordship 
loyed company, and kept always an open tablei to which 
all the gentlemen in the country were welcome; and this 
was a public benefit, the conversation on such occasions 
being as delicate as the provisions. \ 

» Biog. Brit. — ^Park's Royil and Noble Aathon. — Gibber's Livcf, vol, II.— 
An>. Ox. vol. II.— Oranger, vol. III.— Morrice*f Life and State Letters. 

BO Y L E. 331. 

BOYLE (Robert), the most illustrious philosopher of 
modern times, was the seventh son, and the fourteedtb 
child of Richard earl of Cork, and born at Lismore^ in 
the prbvince of Munster, in Ireland, the 25th of Jau. 
1 626-7. He was committed to the care of a country nurse,, 
with instructions to bring him up as hardy as if he had, 
been her own son ; for his father, he tells us, ** had a per- 
fect aversion for the fondness of those parents which made 
them breed their children so nice and tenderly, that a hot. 
sun or a good shower of rain as much endangers them as if 
they were made of butter or of sugar." By this he gained, 
a -strong and vigorous constitution, which, however, he 
afterwards lost, by its being treated too tenderly. He 
acquaints us with several misfortunes which happened to 
bim in his youth. When he was about three years oFd, 
he lost bis mother, who was a most accomplished woman, 
and whom he regcets on that account, because he did not 
know her. A second misfortune was, that he learned to. 
stutter; by mocking some children of his own age ; of 
which, thotlgh no endeavours were spared, he could never 
perfectly be curod. A third, that in a journey to Dublin, 
be bad like to have been drowned, if one of his father^s 
gentlemen had not taken him out of a coach, which, in 
passing a brook raised by some sudden showers, was over-* 
turned and carried away with the stream. 

While he continued at home, he was taught to write a 
very fair hand, and to speak French and Latin by one of 
the earPs chaplains, and a Frenchman that he kept in the 
house. In 1635, his father sent him over to England, in 
order to be educated at Eton school under sir Henry Wot- 
ton, who was the earl of Cork^s old friend and acquaintance* 
Here he soon discovered a force of understanding which 
promised great things, and a disposition to cultivate aud . 
improve it to the utmost. While he remained atEton^t 
there were several extraordinary accidents that befel biniy. 
of which he has given us an account ; and three of which 
were very near proving fatal to him. The first was, the- 
sudden fall of the chamber where he lodged, when himself, 
was in bed; when, besides the hazard he ran of being 
croshed to pieces, he had certainly been choked with the: 
dust during the time he lay under the rubbish, if he had 
not had presence of mind enough to have wrapped his head 
up in the sheet, which gave bim an opportunity of breath* 
iog without hazard. A. little after this, he had been 

332 BOYLE. 

crushed to pieces by a starting horse tfaat rote up suddenly 
and threw himself backwards, if he had not happily diseti* 
gaged his feet from the stirrups, and cast himself from his 
back before he fell. A third accident proceeded from 
the carelessness of an apothecary's servant ; who, mis- 
taking the phials, brought bim a strong emetic instead of 
ft cooling julep. 

He remained at Eton between three and four years ; 
after which, hb father carried him to his own seat at Stal- 
bridge, in Dorsetshire, where he remained some time 
Mder the care of the rev. William Douch, one of his chap- 
Isinsi who was the rector of the place. In the autumn of 
163^, he attended his father to London, and remained 
with him at the Savoy, till his brother Mr. Francis Boyle 
espoused Mrs. Elizabeth Killegprew ; and then, towar€ls the 
end of October, within four days after the marriage, the two 
brothers, Francis and Robert, were sent abroad upon their 
travels^ under the care of Mi'. Marcombes. They en^ 
barked at Rye, in Sussex, and from thence proceeded to 
Dieppe, in Normandy; then they travelled by land to 
Bouen, to Paris, and from thence to Lyons;* from which ctty 
they continued their journey to Geneva, where his go- 
vernor had a family ; and there the two gentlemen pursued 
their studies quietly, and without interruption. Mr. Boyle, 
during his stay here, resumed his acquaintance with the 
Biathematics, or at least with the elements of that scieuce, 
of which he had before gained some knowledge. For he 
tells us in his own memoirs, that while he was at Etony 
and afflicted with an ague, before be was ten years old, 
hyi way of diverting bis melancholy, they made him read . 
Aandi^ de Gaul, and other romantic books, which pro- 
iluced such restlessness in him, that he was obliged to 
•pt^y himself to the extraction of the square and cube 
roots, and to the more laborious operations of algebra, in 
•rder to fix and settle the volatility of his fancy. 

White he remained at Geneva, he made some excursions 
to visit the adjacent country of Savoy, and even proceeded 
sa far as to Grenoble in Dauphin6. He took a view also 
of those wild mountains, where Bruno, the first author of 
the Carthusian monks, lived in solitude, and where the 
first and chief of the Carthusian abbies is seated. Mr. 
Boyle relates, that *< the devil, taking advantage of that 
deep raving melancholy^ so sad a place, his own humour, 
which was aaturally graire and serious, and the strange 


fliorieft aiMl picliint hti foond tbeni of Brasd, tuf goMad 
«ttcb straoge and bideoos distractiiig doubts of some of the 
ftrndaHtentabi of CbiistiaoiCyf tbat though, he smjs. Us looks 
did liide betray his thoughts, nothing but the forbiddea- 
ness of self-dispatch hindered his acting iu" He labourad 
«uider this perplexity and Bselancboly many months : bat 
at length getting out of it, be set about inqoiriog into the 
fpnounds and foundation of the Christian religion ; ^ that 
so^" says he, ^^ though he believed more than be could 
•comprehend,, he might not believe more than he could 
prove ; and owe the steadfastness of his faith to so poor a 
oause, as the ignorance of what might be objected agaiqst 
it.'^ He became confirmed in the belief of Cbristianity, 
and in a conviction of its truth ; yet not so^ be say^ but 
that << the fleeting ck>ods of doubt and disbelief did never 
after cease now and iben to darken the serenity of bis 
quiet ; which made him often say, tbat injections of this, 
nature were such a disease to his faith, as the tooth-acb is 
to the body -, for though it be not mortal, it is very trou- 

September 1641, he quitted Geneva, after having spent 
one-and«twenty months in that city ; and^ passing tbroagh 
Switzerland, and the country of the Grisons, entered Lorn- 
hardy. Then, taking his route through Bergamo, Bres- 
cia, and Verona, he arrived at Venice; where having 
made a short stay, he returned to the continent, and spent 
the winter at Florence. Here he employed his spare hours 
in reading the modem history in Italian, and the works of 
the celebrated astronomer Galileo, wHbo died at a village 
near this city during Mr. Boyle^s residence in ft. It was at 
Florence tbat he acquired the Italian language ; which he 
understood perfectly, though he never spoke it so fluently 
as the French. Of tbb indeed he was such a master, tba^ 
as occasion required, he passed for a native of that country 
in more places than one during his travels. 
• March 1642, he began his journey from Florence to 
Rome^ which took up hot five days. He surveyed the nu- 
merous curiosities of tbat city ; among which, he tells us, 
^ he had the fortune to see pope Urban VlIL at chapel, 
with the cardinab; who, severally appearing migh^ 
princes, in tbat assembly looked like a company of com- 
mon friars.** He visited the adjacent villages, which had 
any thing curious or antique belongirig to them ; and had 
probably made a longer stay, had not the heat of the cli-" 

S34 B O T L 8. 

male disagreed with hit broiber. He retotned to Florence, 
-from thence to Leghorn, and so by sea lo Genoa. Tfaeii 
passing tbrongb the county of Nice, he crossed the sea at 
Antibes, *where be incurred some danger for refusing to 
honour the crucifix : from whence be went to MarseiileK 
by land. He was in that city in May 1642, when be re^ 
ceired bis father's letters,- which informed him of the re- 
bellion broke out ^in Ireland, and b^^w diffienltlyhe bad 
procured the 2iOL then remitted to them, in order to help 
diem home* But they nerer received this money ; and 
were obliged to go to Greneva with their governor Mar- 
combes, who supplied them with as much at least as car- 
ried them thither. They continued there a considerable 
time, without, either advices or supplies from £ngiand : 
upon which Mr. Marcombes was obliged to take up some 
jewels on his own credit, which were afterwards disposed 
of with as little loss as possible ; and with the^money thus 
raised, they continued their journey for England, whither 
they arrived in 1644. On his arrival Mr. Boyle found his 
father dead ; and though the earl had made an ample pro* 
vision for him, as well by leaving him his manor of Stal- 
bridge in England, as other considerable estates in Ireland, 
yet it was some time before he could receive any money. 
However, lie procured protections for his estates in both 
kingdoms from the powers then in being ; from whom also 
he obtained leave to go over to France for a short space, 
probably to settle accounts with his governor Mr. Mar- 
combes : but he could not be long abroad, since we find 
him. at Cambridge the December following. 

March 1€46, he retired to bis manor. at Stalbridge, 
where he resided for the most part till May 1650. A room 
is still shown here, in which our author studied, and where 
he is said to have made his earliest experiments iu natural 
philosophy and chemistry. He mtfde excursions, sometimes 
to London, sometimes to Oxford; and in February 1647, 
he went over to Holland; but be made no considerable 
stay any where. • During his retirement at Stalbridge, he 
applied himself with incredible industry to studies of va^ 
rious kinds, . to those of natural philosophy and chemistry 
in particular, and omitted no opportunity of obtaining the 
acquaintafice of persons distinguished for parts and learn* 
ing, ' to whom he was in every respect a ready, useful, ge- 
nerous assistant, and with whom he held a constant cor- 
respondence, lie ^aa also one of the first members of 

.B o r L E. mi$ 

.lli«t sxnMf but knued body of men, wbicfa, wben' aM^aea*- 
demical studies were interrupied by the civil wars, 9^ 
creted tbeoisekes about 1645 ; and held private meettngi, 
first in LondoB, afterwards at Oxford, for the sake of can- 
vassing subjects of natural knowledge, upon that plan of 
experiment which lord Bacon bad delineated. They styled 
themselves then - the Philosophical College ; and after the 
restoration, when they were incorporated and distinguished 
openly, took the name of the Royal Society. His retired 
course of life, however, could not hinder his repotatum 
from rising to. such a height, as made him be takcsn notice 
of by some of the niost eminent members of the republic 
of letters; so that, in 1651, we find Dr. Nathaniel Uigh^ 
more, a very eminent physician, dedicating to him a bmk, 
under the title of ^^ Tbe history of Generation :" eKaorin* 
iog the several opinions of divers authors, especiilly that 
of 9ir Kenelm Digby, in bis Discourse upon Bodies. 

In 1652, he went over to Ireland, in order to visit-and 
aettle his estates in that kingdom; and returned from 
thence in August 1658. He was soon after obliged to. go 
over to Ireland again ; where be had spent his time very 
unpleasantly, if it had not been for his intimate friend and 
acquaintance, sir William Petty, in whose conversation he 
was extremely happy. In tbe summer of 1654, he re* 
turned to England, and put in execution a design he had 
formed some time, of residing at Oxford ; where he con* 
tinued for the most part till April 1668, and then be set* 
tied at London in the house of his sister lady Ranelagh in 
Pall Mali. At Oxford he chose to live in the bouse of 
Mr. Crosse, an apothecary, rather than in a college; for 
tbe sake of his health, and because be had more room 4o 
make experiments. Oxford was indeed at that time the 
only place in England where Mr. Boyle could have lived 
with much satisfaction ; for here he found himself sor* 
rounded with a number of learned friends, such as Wil- 
kins, Wallis, Ward, Willis, Wren, &c. suited exactly to 
his taste, and who had resorted thither for the same reasons 
that he had done; the philosophical society being now 
removed from London to Oxford. It was during his resi- 
dence here that be invented that admirable engine, the 
air-pump ; which was perfected for him by the very inge- 
nious Mr. Robert Hooke, in 1676 or 1679. By this be 
made several experiments, and was enabled to discover and 
demoamate several qualities of the air, so as to lay a foiin- 


4itttiaii for a copiplete tbeory. He «rat net, however^ sMifr- 
fied wkh tbi»y but laboufed inceisaatiy in collecting aod 
digestiug, obiefly from bit own experimeots, tbe materials 
requisite for ibis purpose. He declared against tbe pbiio- 
sopby of Aristotle, as baying in it more of words than 
tbings, promising much aod performing tattle ; and as gir- 
ing tbe intFentions of men for indubitable proofs, instead 
of building upon obseriration and experitnent. He was so 
aiealous for, and so careful about, this true method of 
learning by experiment, that, thongb tbe Cartesian philo^ 
sopby tdben made a great noise in tbe world, yet be would 
never be persuaded to read the works of Descartes ; for 
fear be should be amused and led away by plausible ac- 
counts of things, founded on fancy, and merely bypo* 

But philosophy and inquiries into nature, though tbey 
engaged bis attention deeply, did not occupy it entirely ; 
since we find, that he still continued to pursue critical 
and theological studies. In these be had tbe assistance of 
aome great men, particularly Dr. Edward Pocock, Mr. 
Thomas Hyde, and Mr. Samuel Clarke, all of great emu 
nence for their skill in the oriental languages. He bad- 
also a strict intimacy with Dr. Thomas Barlow, at that time 
bead^eeper of the Bodleian library, and afterwards bishop 
of Lincob), a man of irarious and extensive learning. In 
1659, Dr. Wallis, so distinguished for his mathematical 
and philosophical learning, dedicated to faim his excellent 
treatise on the Cycloid. This year also Mr. Boyle, being 
acquainted with die unhappy circumstances of the learned 
Sanderson, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, who bad lost all 
bis preferments for bis attachment to tbe royal party, con- 
ferred upon him an honorary stipeiid of 60L a year. This 
stipend was given as an encouragement to tbat excellent 
master' of reasoning, to apply himself to tbe writing of cases 
of conscience : and accordingly he printed bis lectures 
'* de obHgatione conscientiss,'' which be read at Oxford, 
1647, and dedicated them to his friend and patron. Tbe 
dedication bears date Nov. 22, 1659. 

Upon the restoration of Charles II. he was treated wkh 
great civility and respect \>y the king, as well as by tbe 
two great ministers, Southampton aod Clarendon. He 
was solicited by tbe latter to enter into orders, for Mr. 
Boyle's distingut#bed learning and llnblemisbed repute* 
ttan induced lord Clarendon to tfaink that so very reapeet«- 



Mt a personage would do great honour to the dergy^ 
,Mr. Boyle couBidered all this with due attention ; but re« 
fleeted, that in bis present situation, whatever he wrote 
upon religion, would have so much the greater weight, as 
coming from a layman ; since he well knew, that the irre-* 
ligious fortified themselves against all that the clergy could 
offer, by supposing and saying that it was their trade, and 
that they were paid for it* He considered likewise that^ 
m point of fortune and character, he needed no accessions ; 
and indeed be never had any appetite for either. But 
bishop Burnet, who preached his funeral sermon, and to 
whom Mr. Boyle communicated memorandums concerning 
his o^n life, tells us, that what had the greatest weight ia 
determining his judgment was, ** the not feeling withia 
himself any motion or tendency of mind which he could 
safely esteem a call from the Holy Ghost, and so not ven- 
turing to take holy orders, lest he should be found to have 
lied unto it/* He chose therefore to pursue his philoso- 
phical studies in such a manner as might be most effectual 
,£>r the support of religion ; and began to communicate to 
the world the fruits of those studies. The first of them 
was printed at Oxford, 1660, in 8vo, under the title of 
1. ^* New experiments, physico-mechanical, touching the 
spring of the Air and its effects, made for the most part 
in a new pneumatical engine : addressed to his nephew 
the lord Dungarvan." This work was attacked by Fran- 
ciscus Linus and Mr. Hobbe^, which occasioned Mr. Boyle 
to subjoin to a second edition of it, printed at London^ 
1662, in 4to, " A Defence,'^ &c. in which he refuted the 
objections of those philosophers with equal candour, clear- 
ness, and civility. A third edition was printed in 1682^ 
4to. 2. ** Seraphic Love ; or,, some motives and incen- 
tives to the Love of God, pathetically discoursed of in a 
letter to a friend,'' 1660^ 8vo. This piece, though it did 
not appear till now, was finished as early as the year 1 648. 
It has run through many editions, and been translated into 
Latin. The fame of Mr. Boyle^s great learning and abi- 
lities extended itself even at this time beyond the bounds 
of our island, so that the grand duke of Tuscany, a prince 
distinguished for learning, was extremely desirous of a 
correspondence with him : of which he was advertised in 
sleder, dated Oct. 10, 1660, from Mr. Southwell, then 
resident at Florence* 3. *< Certain physiological Essays 
and other Tracts,*' 1661, 4to. They were printed again 
Vol. VL Z 

338 BOYLE. 

in 1669, 4t9, with large additions^ especially of *A 
course about the absolute rest of bodies :*' and were trans* 
lated into Latin. 4. '^ Sceptical Chemist/' 1662, Svo, a 
Very curious and excellent work; reprinted in 1679, HYOf 
with the addition of divers experiments aud notes about 
the producibleness of chemical principles. 

In ]662, a grant of the forfeited impropriations in the 
kingdom of Ireland was obtained from the king in Mr* 
Boyle*s name, though without his knowledge ; which ne- 
vertheless did not hinder him from interesting himself very^ 
warmly for procuring the application of those impropria-* 
tioiis to the promoting religion and learning. He inter^ 
posed likewise in favour of the corporation for propagating 
the gospel in New England ; and was very instrumental in 
obtaining a decree in the court of chancery, for restoring 
to that corporation an estate which had been injurioosly 
repossessed by one col. Bedingfield, a papist, who had 
sold it to them for a valuable consideration. His activity 
in matters of this nature was so much the more honourable, 
as his inclination led him generally to be private and re- 
tired. But whenever the cause of virtue, learning, or re- 
ligion, required it, his interest and endeavours were never 
wanting ; and what is very remarkable, were seldom em- 
ployed but with success. In 16G3, the royal society being 
incorporated by king Charles II. Mr. Boyle was appointed 
one of the council ; and, as he might be justly reckoned 
among the founders of that learned body, so he continued 
one of its most useful and industrious members during the 
whole course of his life. 

In June 1663 he published, 5. ^* Considerations touching 
the usefulness of experimental Natural Philosophy,'* 4to, 
reprinted the year following. 6. '^ Experiments and con- 
siderations upon Colours ; to which was added a letter, 
containing observations on a diamond that shines in the 
dark," 1663, 8vo, reprinted in the same size in 1670. It 
was also translated into Latin. This treatise is full of 
curious and useful remarks on the hitherto unexplained 
doctrine of light and colours ; in which be shews great 
judgment, accuracy, and penetration, and may be said to 
have led the way to that mighty genius, the great sir Isaac! 
. Newton, who has since set that important point in the 
clearest and most convincing light. 7. *^ Considerations 
upon the style of the Holy Scriptures," 1663, 8vo. A 
Latip translation of it was printed at Oxford, where most 

• / 

BOYLE. 88!^ 

of his writings were published in 1665; ' It was an'^traet 
from a larger work entitled " An Essay on ScHptuhe ;'* 
which was afterwards published by sir Peter Pett, a ft'ieifl 
of Ms, Boyle. 

In 1664 he was elected into the company of the royal 
mines; and was all this year taken up in the prosecutiott 
of various good designs, which probably was the reason 
why he did not send abroad any treatises either of religion 
or philosophy. The year followipg, however, appeared; 
8. '^ Occasional Reflections upon several subjects ; whereto 
19 prefixed a discourse about such kind of tbosghts*,*' 
1665, 8vo, reprinted in 1669, Svo. This piece is ad- 
dressed to Sophronia, under whose name he concealed that 
of his beloved sister, the viscountess of Ranelagh. The 
thoughts themselves are on a vast variety of subjects, writ-* 
ten many years before ; some indeed upon trivial occasions^ 
but all with great accuracy of language, nfuch wit, morte 
learning, and in a wonderful strain of moral and pious re^ 
flection. Yet this exposed him to the only severe censure 
that ever was passed upon him,' and that too from no less 
a man than the celebrated dean Swift ; who, to ridicule 
these discourses, wrote " A pious ineditation Upon a Bfoooi-^ 
sticky in the style of the honourable Mr. Boyle.'^ A certain 
writer, by way of making reprisals upon Swift for his treat* 
ment of Mr. Boyle, which he affirnis to be as cruel and 
tinjust as it is trivial arid indecent, has observed, that, front 
this very treatise, which he has thus turned into ridicule, 
he borrowed the first hint of his Gulliver's Travels. H^ 
grounds his conjecture upon the following passage, to be 
found in the Occasional Reflections :. '^ You put me in 
mind of a fancy of your friend Mr. Boyle, who was saying, 
that he had thoughts of making a short romantic story, 
where the scene should be laid in some island of the 
southern ocean, governed by some such National laws and 
customs as those of the Utopia or the New Atalantis. And 
in this country he would introduce an observing native^ 
that, upon his return home from his travels inade in Eu- 
rope, should give an account of our countries and manners 
under feigned names ; and frequently intimate in his re- 
lations, or in his answers to questions that should be made 
him, the reasons of his wondering to find our customs so 
extravagant, and differing from those of his own country.' 
For your friend imagined thai, by siich'a way of exposing 
many of our practices, we should burselves be brought 

z 2 

3iO B Y L ZL 

unawares to condemni or perhaps to laugh at them ; aodi 
should at least cease to wonder, to find oiher nations think 
them as extravagant as we think the manners oi the Dutch 
and Spaniards, as they are represented in our travellers* 
\KX>ks/* The same year Mr. Boyle published an important 
work| entitled, 9. ^^ New experiments and observations 
upon Cold ; or, an experimental history of cold begun ; 
with several pieces thereunto annexed/' 1665^ Svo, re* 
printed in 1683, 4to. 

. His excellent character in all respects had procured hint 
so much esteem and affection with the king, as well as 
with every body else, tliat his majesty, unsolicited, no- 
gninated him to the provostship of Eton college in August 
1665. This was thought the fittest employment for him 
in the kingdom ; yet, after mature deliberation, though 
contrary to the advice of all his friends, he absolutely de- 
clhied it, for which he had several reasons. He thought 
the duties of that employment might interfere with his 
studies : he was unwilling to quit that course of life, which, 
by experience, he found so suitable to his temper and 
constitution : and, above all, he was unwilling to enter 
into orders : which be was persuaded was necessary to qua- 
lify himself for it. In this year and the next, he was much 
interested in an affair that made a very great noise in the 
world ; and the decision of which, from the high reputa- 
tion he had gained, was in a manner universally expected 
from him* The case was this ; one Mr. Valentine Great- 
racks, an Irish gentleman, persuaded himself that he had 
a peculiar gift of curing diseases by stroking ; in which 
though he certainly succeeded often, yet he sometimes 
failed ; and thjs occasioned a great controversy, in which 
most of the parties concerned addressed themselves to Mr. 
Boyle. Among the rest, the famous Mr. Henry Stubbe 
wrote a treatise upon this subject, entitled ^ The mira- 
culous Conformist ; or^ an account of several marvellous 
cures, performed by the stroking of the hands of Mr. Va^ 
lentine Greatracks ; with a physical discourse thereupon, 
in a letter to the honourable Robert Boyle, esq.*' Mr. 
Boyle received this book upon the 8th of March 1666 ; 
and wrote a letter to Mr. Stubbe the next morning, which 
shews how extremely tender Mr. Boyle was of religiou ; and 
how jealous of admitting and countenancing any principle 
or opinions that he thought might bai'e a tendency to hurt 
or discredit it. But what is most incumbent on us to ob-> 

BOYLE. 341 

serve at present is, that this letter is certainly one of the 
clearest testimonies of Mr. Boyle's vast abilities and ex* 
tensive knowledge, that is any where extant. It is a very 
long letter, upwards of twenty pages in 8vo ; very learned 
and very judicious; wonderfully correct in the diction and 
style, remarkably clear in the method and form, highly 
exact in the observations and remarks, and abounding in 
pertinent and curious facts to illustrate his reasoning. Yet 
it appears from the letter itself, that it was written within 
the compass of a single morning : a fact we should have 
imagined next to impossible, if it had not been attested 
by one whose veracity was never questioned, that is, by 
Mr. Boyle himself. In 1666, Dr. Wallis addressed to Mr. 
Boyle his piece upon the Tides ; as did the famous phy«' 
sician. Dr. Sydenham, his method of curing fevers, ground* 
ed upon his own observations. Mr. Boyle likewise pub- 
lished that year, 10. '^ Hydrostatical paradoxes made out 
by new experiments, for the most part physical and easy^** 
8vo, which he printed at the request of the royal society, 
those experiments having* been made at their desire about 
two years before. M. *' The Origin of Forms and Qualities, 
according to the Corpuscular philosophy, illustrated by 
considerations and experiments," 1666, 4to, and reprinted 
the year following, in 8vo. This treatise did great honour 
to Mr. Boyle, whether we consider the quickness of his 
wit, the depth of his judgment, or his indefatigable pains 
»n searching after truth. We must not forget to observe^ 
that, both in this and the former year, he communicated 
to his friend Mr. Oldenburg, who was secretary to the 
royal soeiety, several curious and excellent short treatises 
ef his own, upon a great variety of subjects, and others 
transmitted to him by his learned friends both at home * 
and abroad, which are printed and preserved in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions. Another thing it mHy not be im- 
proper to observe, that, in the warm controversy raised by 
Mr. Stubbe at this time about the royal society, Mr. Boyle 
' escaped all censure ; and though Mr. Stubbe, among 
ethers, attacked it in several pamphleu with all ttie fury 
imaginable, yet he preserved a just respect for Mr. Boyle^s 
l^eat learning and abilities, who, on bis part, shewed a 
singular goodness of temper in bearing, as b«i did, with so 
much indecent treatment from a person whom he had 
highly obliged, because he thought him, with all hisfaults^ 
capable of being useful to the world. 

5^? P O Y L E. 

^ About this tiipei^ namely, 1669, Mr. Boyle resolved.ta 
aettle himself in London for life; and removed, for t\is^% 
purposGi to the house of his sister, the lady Kanelagh, in 
Fall Mall. This was to the infiniie benefit of the learned 
in generali and particularly to the advantage of the royal 
society ;, to whom he gave great and continual assistance, 
as the several pieces communicated to them from time to 
tixney and printed in their TransaqtioniSy abundantly testify* 
Those who applied to him, either to desire his help, or to 
communicate to him any new discoveries in science, he 
had his set. hours for receiving ; otherwise it is easy to 
conceive, that he would have had very little of bis time to 
himself. But, besidies these, he kept a very extensive 
correspondence with persons of the greatest figure^ and 
most famous for Warning, in all parts of Europe. 

In 1669 he published, 12. ^^ A continuation of new 
experiments touchnig the spring and. weight of the Air ;** 
to which is added a discourse of the atmospheres of con- 
sistent bodies ; and the same year he revised, and ix^ade 
many additions to several of his former tracts, some of 
which, as we have before observed, were now translated 
into Latin, in order to gratify the curious abroad. 13. 
*^ Tracts about the cosmical qualities of things ; cosmical 
suspicions ; the temperature of the subterranean regions ; 
t;be bottom of the sea ; to which is prefixed an introduction 
to the history of particular qualities,'* 1670, 8vo. This 
book occasioned much speculation, as it seemed to con- 
tain a vast treasure of new knowledge which bad never 
been communicated to the world befoice.; and this too, 
grounded upon actual experiments and arguments justly 
drawn from them, instead of that notional and conjectural 
philosophy, which in the beginning pf the seventeenth 
century had been so much in fashion. 

In the midst of all these studies and labours for the pub* 
lie, he was attacked by a severe paralytic distemper, of 
which, though not without great difficulty, be got the bet- 
ter, by strictly adhering to a proper regimen ; and returning 
to his pursuits, in 1671, be published, L 4. ^' Considera- 
tions on the usefulness of experimental and natural phi- 
losophy, the second p;act," 4to. And, 15. " A collec- 
tion of tracts upon several useful and important points of 
practical philosophy,'* 4to; both which works were received 
^fi new and valuable gifts to the learned world. 16. ^< An 
essay about the origin aad virtue «f Qem%** 167S, Syo. 

BOYLE. 348 

17: *' A coHection of tracts upon the relation between 
flame and air ; and several other useful and curious sub- 
jects ;'' besides furnishing, in this and in the former year, a 
great number of short dissertations upon a vast variety of 
topics, addressed to the royal society, and inserted in 
their Transactions. 1 8. '< Essays on the strange subtlety, 
great efficacy, and determinate nature of Effluvia;" to 
which were added variety of experiments on other subjects, 

1673, 8vo. Tne same year Anthony le Grand, the famous 
Cartesian philosopher, printed his '' Historia Naturs,'^ &o. 
at London, and dedicated it to Mr. Bqyie. He does jus- 
tice to Mr. Boyle^s universal reputation for extensive learn- 
ing and amazing sagacity in every branch of experimental 
philosophy ; and says of him, what Averroes said of Aris- 
totle, that nature had formed him as an exemplar or pattern 

•of the highest perfection to which humanity can attain. 
19. ''A collection of tracts upon the saltness of the sea, 
the moisture of the air, the natural and preterpatural state 
of bodies; to which is prefixed a dialogue concerning cold," 

1674, Svo. 20. *^ The excellency of theology compared 
with natural philosophy," 1673, Svo. 21. ** A collection 
of tracts, containing suspicions about hidden qualities of 
the air; with an appendix touching celestial magnets; ani- 
madversions upon Mr. Hobbes's problem about a vacuum ; 
a discourse of the cause of attraction and suction," 1674, 
Svo. 22. '^ Some considerations about the reconcileable- 
ness of reason and religion. By T. £. a layman. To which 
is annexed, a discourse about the possibility of the Resur- 
rection by Mr. Boyle," 1675, Svo; both these pieces were 
of his writing ; only he thought fit to mark the former with 
the final letters of his name. Among other papers that he 
communicated this year to the royal society, there were 
two discourses, connected into one, that deserve particular 
notice. The former was entitled ** An experimental Ah* 
course of quicksilver growing hot with gold ;" the other re- 
lated to the same subject; and both of them contained 
discoveries of the utmost importance *. In 1676, be pub« 

* To be convinced of thit, the rea- " Yesterday, readinf the two last 

der may pt^rune the following passages Pliilo80|*hicaJ Transactions, I had an 

ff a letter written by Mr. (afterwards oppoitunity to consider Mr. Boyle'a 

fh*) Isaac Newton to Mr. Oldenburg, uncommon experiment about the ia« 

the secretary of the Royal Society, caU'Scem*e of gold and mercury, t 

upon the occasion of it. The letter is believe the fingers of many will itch to 

dated from Cambridge, April ^6, be. at the knowl4%e of the preparation 

1676. of such a memry ; and for that end 



Usbedy 23. ^^ Experiments and notes about the mecbanieal 
origin or production of particular qualities, in several dis- 
courses on a great variety of subjects, and, among the rest^ 
of Electricity." 

He bad been orany years a director of the East India 
company, and very useful in tiiis capacity to that great 
body, especially in procuring their charter ; and the only 
return be expected for his labour was, the engaging the 
company to come to some resolution in favour of the pro* 
pagation of the gospel, by means of their flourishing fac«- 
tories in that part of the world. As a proof of his own in- 
clination to contribute, as far as in him lay, for that pur- 
pose, he caused five hundred copies of the gospels and acts 
of the apostles, in the Malayan tongue, to be printed at 
Oxford in 1677, 4to, and to be sent abroad, at his own 
expence. This appears from the dedication, prefixed by 
his friend Dr. Thomas Hyde, to that translation, which was 
published under his direction. It was the same spirit and 
principle, which made him send, about three years before, 
several copies of Grotius << de Veritate Christians religion 
nis," translated into Arabic by Dr. Edward Pocock, into 
the Levant, as a means of propagating Christianity there. 
There was priuted in 1677, at Geneva, a miscellaneous 
collection of Mr. Boyle^s works in Latin, without his con- 
sent, or even knowledge; of which there is a large account 
^ven in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1678, he 
communicated to Mr. Hooke a short memorial of some ob- 

some will not be wanting to more for 
the publishiog of it, by urging tbe good 
H may do to the world. But, in my 
simple judgment, tbe noble author^^ 
since he has thought fit to reveal him- 
self so far, does prudently in being 
r«ser\'ed in the rest. Not that 1 think 
any great excel ienoe in such a mer- 
cury* either for medicinal or chemical 
operations; for it seems to roe, that 
the metalline particles with which that 
mercury is impregnated, may be 
grosser than the particles of the mer- 
cury, &c.—- But yet, because tbe way 
by which mercury may be so impreg- 
nated has been thooglit fit to he con- 
eealed by others that have kno^n it, 
and therefore may pos<tibly be au inlet 
io something more noble, not to be 
* iRomm'.'niciitfd 'ivithout immense da- 
mage to the world, if there f^hoald he 
•ay veiity in the hermetic writers; 

therefore I qoestioo not hnt that the 
great wisdom of the noble author will 
sway him to high silence, till he shall 
be resolved of what consequence tbe 
thing may be, eitheir by his own expe- 
rience, or the judgment of some othera 
that thoroughly understands what he 
speaks about; that is, of a true her- 
metic philosopher, whose Judgment, if 
there be any such, would be more to 
be regarded in this point, than that of 
all the world beside to the contrary ^ 
there being other things beside the 
t ransmutation of mei a i s , if those grant 
pretenders brag ool, which none but 
thev undf^rstand. Sir, because the 
author seems desirous Of the sense of 
others in this point, I have been so 
free as to shoot my bolt; but pray 
keep this letter private to yourself. 
Your servant, 

Isaac Niwtov.'* 

BOYLE 345 

servations made upon an artificial substance that shines 
without any preceding illustration ; which that gentleman 
thought tit to publish in his *^ Lectiones Cutlerianae." He 
published the same year, 24. *^ Historical account of a de-* 
gradation of gold made by an anti-elixir ; a strange che- 
mical narrative/' 4to, reprinted in the same size 1739. 
This excited great attention both at hogfie and abroad, and 
is looked upon as one of the most remarkable pieces that 
ever fell from his pen ; since the facts contained in it would 
have been esteemed incredible, if they had been related by 
a man of less integrity and piety than Mr. Boyle. 

The regard which the great Newton had for Mr. Boyle, 
appears from a very curious letter, which the former wrote 
to him, at the latter end of this year, for the sake of laying 
before him his sentiments upon that ethereal medium, 
which he sifterwards proposed, in his Optics, as the mecha- 
nical cause of gravitation. This letter is to be found in the 
life of our author by Dr. Birch. In 1680, Mr. Boyle pub- 
lished, 25. ** The Aerial Noctiluca ; or some new pheno- 
mena, and a process of a factitious self-shining substance^'* 
8vo. 26, *^ Discourse of things above reason ; inquiring, 
whether a philosopher should admit there are any such ?'* 
IGSl, 8vo. 27. '^ New experiments and observations made 
upon the Icy Noctiluca ; to which is added a chemical pa- 
radox, grounded upon new experiments, making it proba- 
ble, that chemical principles are transmutable, so that out 
of one of them others may be produced,'* 1682, 8vo. 28. 
^' A continuation of new experiments physico-mechanical, 
touching the spring and weight of the Air, and their etft^ts,*' 
1682, 8vo. 

It was upon the 30th of November 1680, that the royal 
society, as a proof of the just sense of his great worth, 
and of the constant and particular services which through a 
course of many years be had done them, made choice of 
bim for their president ; but he being extremely, and, as he 
says, peculiarly tender in point of oaths, declined the ho- 
nour done him, by a letter addressed to bis much respected 
friend Mr. Robert Hooke, professor of mathematics at 
Cresham college. About this time, Dr. Burnet being em- 
ployed in compiling his admirable History of the Reforma- 
tion, Mr. Boyle contributed very largely to the expence of 
publishing it ; as is acknowledged by the doctor in his pre- 
face to the second volume. It was probably about the be- 
ginning of the year 1681, that he was engaged in promot- 

946 BOYLE. 

ing the preaching and propagating of the gospel among the 
Indians ; since the letter, which he wrote npon that sub- 
ject, was in answer to oie from Mr. John Elliot of New 
England, dated Nov. 4, 1 680. This letter of Mr. Boyle 
is preserved by hi<i historian ; and it shews, that he had a 
great dislike to persecution on account of opinions in reli- 
gion. He published in 1683, nothing but a short letter to 
Dr. Beal, in relation to the making of fresh water out of 
$alt ; but in 1684 he printed two very considerable works ; 
29. " Memoirs for the natural history of human blood, es- 
pecially the spirit of that liquor," 8vo. 30. " Experiments 
atid considerations about the porosity of bodies,** 8to. 

Mr. Boyle's writings grew now so very numerous, that 
Dr. Ralph Cudworth, the celebrated author of "The In- 
tellectual System," wrote to him in most pressing terms, to 
make an entire collection* of his several treatises, and to 
publish them together in the Latin tongue; and *' then,'* 
says he, '* what you shall superadd, will be easily collected 
and added afterwards. And I pray God continue your life 
and health, that you may still enrich the world with more. 
The writers of hypotheses in natural philosophy will be 
confuting one another a long time before the world will 
ever agree, if ever it do. But your pieces of natural his- 
tory are unconfutable, and will afford the best grounds to 
build hypotheses upon. You have much outdone sir Fran- 
eis Bacon in your natural experiments; and you hare not 
insinuated anything, as he is thought to have done, tend- 
ing to irreiigion, but the contrary." This letter is dated 
October 16, 1684, 

In 1635, he obliged the world with, 31. ^^ Short me- 
itioirs for the natural experimental history of mineral wa- 
tersy with directions as to the several methods of trying 
them, including abundance of new and useful remarks, as 
well as several curious experiroenti$." 32. ** An essay on 
tbe great effects of even, languid, arid unheeded motion ; 
whereunto is ani>exed an experimental discourse of some 
hitherto little regarded causes of the salubrity and insalu- 
brity of the air, and its effects ;" reprinted in 1 690, 8vo. 
None of his treatises, it is said, were ever received with 
greater or more general applause than thia. 33. ^* Of the 
reconcileableness of specific medicines to the corpuscular 
philosophy ; to which is annexed, a Discourse about the 
advantages of the use of simple medicines," 8vo. Besides 
these philosopliical tracts, he gave the world likewi^, th# 

P O Y L E. • W7 

same year, an excellent theological one^ 04. ^' Of the high 
veneration man's intellect owes to God, peculiarly for his 
wisdoin and power,*' 8vo. . This was part of a much larger 
work, which he mentioned in an advertisement, to prevent 
any exception from being taken at the abrupt manner of its 
beginning. At the entrance of the succeeding year, came 
abroad his, 35. ^^ Free inquiry into the Vulgarly received 
notion of Nature ;" a piece, which was then, and will al- 
ways be, greatly admired by those who have a true zeal and 
Eelish for pure religion and sound philosophy. It was trans* 
ited into Latin, and reprinted in 12mo the year after. 

In June 1686, his friend Dr. Gilbert Burnet, afterwards 
Vishop of Salisbury, transmitted to him from the Hague the 
9ianuscript account of his travels, which he had drawn up 
in the form of letters, addressed to Mr. Boyle : who, in 
his answer to the doctor* dated the 14th of that montli, ex- 
presses his satisfaction in *' finding, that all men do not 
travel, as most do, to observe buildings and gardens, and 
yiodes, and other amusements of a superficial and almost 
insignificant curiosity ; for your judicious remarks and re- 
Sections, says he, may not a Little improve both a states* 
man, a critic, and a divine, as well as they will make the 
writer pass for all three." In 1687, Mr. Boyle published, 
36. ** The martyrdom of Theodora and Dydimia," 8vo; a 
work he had drawn up in his youth. 37. ^' A disquisition 
about the final causes of natural things ; wherein it is en- 
quired, whether, and, if at all, with what cantion, a natu- 
ralist should admit them." With an appendix, about vi- 
tiated light, 1688, 8vo. 

In the month of May this year, our author, though very 
iinwiUingly, was constrained to make his complaint to the 
public, of some inconveniences under which he had long 
laboured ; and this he did by ^^ an advertisement about the 
loss of many of his writings addressed to J. W. to be com- 
municated to those of his friends that are virtuosi ; which 
ipay serve as a kind of a preface to most of his mutilatedl 
and unfinished writings." He complains in this advertise^* 
ment of the treatment he met with from the plagiaries, 
both at home and abroad ; and thojagh it might have keen 
difficult in any other man to have done so, withont incur-^ 
ring the imputation of self'-concett and vanity, yet Mn 
Boyle's manner is such, as only to raise in us an higher 
esteem and admiration of him. This advertisement i» in- 
seeled aAlength in. his life. 

.348 BOYLE. 

He now began* to find that bis health and strength^ i^ot* 
withstanding all his care and caution, gradually declined, 
as he observes in a letter to M. le Clerc, dated May 30, 
1689 ; which put him upon using every possible method of 
husbanding his remaining time for the benefit of the 
learned. In doing this, as a certain writer says, he pre- 
ferred generals to particulars ; and the assistance of the 
whole republic of letters to that of any branch, by what 
ties soever he might be connected therewith. It was with 
this view, that he no longer communicated particular dis* 
courses or new discoveries to the royal society ; because 
this could not be done, without withdrawing his thoughts 
from tasks which he thought of still greater importance. 
It was the more steadily to attend to these, that he resigned 
his post of governor of the corporation for propagating the 
gospel in New England ; nay, he went so far as to signify 
to the world, that be could no longer receive visits as usual, 
in an advertisement, which begins in the following manner. 
^^ Mr. Boyle finds himself obliged to intimate to thpse of his 
friends and acquaintance, that are wont to do him the ho* 
nour and favour of visiting him, 1. That he has by some 
unlucky accidents, namely) by his servant's breaking a hot* 
tie of oil of vitriol over a chest which contained his 
papers, bad many of bis writings corroded here and 
there, or otherwise so maimed, that without he himself fill 
up the lacune out of his memory or invention, they will not 
be intelligible. 2. That his age and sickliness have for a 
good while admonished him to put his scattered, and partly 
defaced, writings into some kind of order, that they may 
not remain quite useless. And, 3. That his skilful and 
friendly physician, sir Edmund King, seconded by Mr. 
Boyle^s best friends, has pressingly advised him against 
speaking daily with so many persons as are wont to visit 
him, representing it as what cannot but much waste his spi* 
rits,'' &c. He ordered likewise a board to be placed over 
bis door, with an inscription signifying when he did wA 
did not receive visits. 

. Among the other great works, which by this means be 
gained time to finish, there is reason to believe, that one 
was a collection of elaborate processes in chemistry; bon« 
ceming which he wrote a letter to a friend, which is still 
extant ; but the piece itself was never published, though 
we read in the letter, << that he left it as a kind of hermetic 
legacy to the studious disciples of that art" Besides these 

B O r L E. 849 

impere, 6oiniiiitted to the care of one whom he esteemed 
his friend, he left also very many behind him at the time 
of his death, relating to chemistry ; .which, as appears by a 
letter directed to one of his executors, he desired might 
be inspected by three physicians whom he named, and that 
some of the most valuable might be preserved. *' Indeed,** 
says the writer of his life, ^* it is highly reasonable to sup* 
pose, that many important discoveries were contained in 
them ; chemistry being his favourite study, and opening 
to him perpetually such a new scene of wonders, as easily 
persuaded him of the possibility of transmuting metals into 
gold. This persuasion of his is evident from several parts 
of bis writings, and was avowed by himself to the great Dr. 
Halley, the late royal astronomer, who reiated to me his 
conversation with him upon that subject. And it was pro- 
bably in consequence of this opinion, that he took so much 
pains to procure, as he did in August 1689, an act for the 
repeal of a statute made in the fifth year of king Henry IV. 
against the multiplying of gold and silver.*.' 

In the mean time Mr. Boyle published some other works 
before his death; as, 38. ^^ Medicina. Hydrostatica : or^ 
Hydrostatics applied to the materia nciedica, shewing how, 
by the weight that divers bodies used in physic have in wa- 
ter, one may discover whether they be genuine or adulte- 
rate. To which is subjoined a previous hydrostatical way 
of estimating ores,*' 1690, 8vo. He informs us, in the 
postscript of this treatise, that he had prepared materials 
for a second volume, which he intended to publish ; but it 
never appeared. S9. *< The Christian virtuoso ; shewing 
that, by being addicted to experimental philosophy, a man 
is rather assisted than indisposed to be a good Christian.'* 
The first part. To which are subjoined, L. A discourse 
about the distinction that represents some things as above 
reason, but not contrary to reason, 2. The first chapters 
of a discourse, intituled, Greatness of mind promoted by 
Christianity, 1690, Svo. In the advertisement prefixed to 
this work, he mentions a second part of the Christian vir- 
tuoso; which, however, he did not live to finish. But the 
papers he left behind him for that purpose are printed, im- 
perfect as they are, in the edition of his collected works. 
The last work, which he published himself, was in the spring 
of 1691; and is intituled, 40. << Experimenta & observa- 
tiones physicee ; wherein are briefly treated of, several sub- 
jects relating to natural philosophy in an experhnental way. 

850 B O Y L E. 

To which is added, a amall collection of stftinge r^w 
ports," 8vo. 

About the entrance of the summer, he b^gan to feel such 
an alteration in bis health, as imiuced him to think of set* 
tling his affairs; and accordingly, on the Idth of July, h^ 
signed and sealed his last will, to which be afterwards added 
several codicils. In October his distempers increased ; 
which might perhaps be owing to his tender concern for the 
tedious illness of his dear sister the lady Ranelagb, with 
whom he had lived many years in the greatest harmony 
and friendship, and whose indisposition brought her to the 
grave on the 23d of December foiloiving. He did not sur^^ 
vive her above a week ; for, on the dOth of December 
169 1, be departed this life in the 65th year of his age. 

He was buried in St. Martin's church in the Fields, West-^ 
minister, on the 7tb of January following : and his fmieral 
sermon was preached by hid friend Dr. Gilbert Burnet, bi«- 
shop of Salisbury. The bishop made choice upon this oc^ 
casion of a text very apposite to his subject, namely, 
^' For God giveth to a man, tliatisgood in bis sight, wis- 
dom^ knowledge^ and joy." * Eccles. xi. 26. After ex* 
plaining the meaning of the words, he applies the doctrine 
to the honourable person deceased ; of whom, he tells us, 
he was the better able to. give a character, from the many 
happy hours he had spent in conversation with him, in the 
cour:^ of nine-and-twenty years. He gives a large ac- 
count of Mr. Boyle's sincere and una^ected piety, and 
ftiore especially of his zeal for the Christian religion, with* 
out having any narrow notions concerning it, or mistaking'^ 
as so many do, a bigoted heat in favour of a particular sec^ 
for that zeal which is the ornament of a true Christian. He 
fiientions, as a proof of this, his noble foundation for lec- 
tures in defence of the gospel against infidels of all sorts ; 
the effects of which have been so conspicuous in the many 
Volumes of excellent discourses which have been published 
in consequence of that noble and pious foundation *. He - 

* The design of these lectures, as within the biib of mortality, to b^ 

expressed hy the founder, is, to prove elected for a term not exceeding three 

the truth uf the Christian religion years, by the late archbishop 1*enison, 

•gainst inSdtfls, without descending* to and others. But the fund prdring pr*k 

any oontroTersiea among Christians ; cariou«, the salarjr was ill paid : to re- 

«td to answer new difficulties, scruples, medy whicb inconvenience, the said 

ftc. For the support of this lecture, archbisliop procared a yearly stipend 

he Msigiied the rent of his. house in of 50 pounds, for ever, to ^ 

Cfoobed-laoe to some learned divine quarterly i charged en a ftiro^* 

B O t L E. 


lutd, says our prelate, designed it in his life-time, tboogh 
some accidents did, upon great considerations, divert him 
from settling it ; but not from ordering by his last will, that 
a liberal provision should be made for one who should, in a 
very few well-digested sermons, every year set forth th« 
truth of the Christian religion in general, without descend'^ 
ing to the subdivisions among Christians. He was at the 
charge of the translation and impression of the New Testae 
ment into the Malayan tongue, which be sent over all th^ 
East Indies. He gave a noble reward to him that translated 
Grotius's incomparable book of the truth of the Christian 
religion into Arabic : and was at the charge of a whole im- 
pression, which he took care should be dispersed in all the 
countries where that language is understood. He was re«* 
solved to have carried on the impression jof the New Testa- 
ment in the Turkish language ; but the company thought 
it became them to be the doers of it, and so suffered him 
only to give a large share towards it. He was at 700/* 
charge in the edition of the Irish Bible, which he ordered 
to be distributed in Ireland : and he contributed liberally^ 
both to the impression of the Welsh Bible, and of the Irish 
Bible for Scotland. He gave, during his life, 300/. to ad- 
vance thedesignof propagating the Christian religion in Ame-* 
rica ; and, as soon as he heard that the East India com- 
pany were entertaining propositions for the like design in 
the East, he presently sent a hundred pounds for a begin- 
ning, as an example ; but intended to carry it much farther 
when it should be set on foot to purpose. When he under- 
stood how large a share he had in impropriations, he or- 
dered considerable sums to be g:iven to the incumbents in 
those parishes, and even to the widows of those who were 
dead before this distribution of his bounty. He did this 
twice in bis life-time, to the amount of above 600/. and or- 
dered another distribution, as far as his estate would bear, 
by his will. In other respects his charities were so boun- 
tiful and extensive, that they amounted, as this prelate tella 

parish of Brill, in the county of Buck*. 
To this appointmeot we are indebted 
tw many elaborate dcfeaces both of na* 
tnral and revealed religion. A collec- 
tion of these sermons from the year 
1691 to 1732, was printed in 1739, 
under the title of " A defence of natu- 
ml and revealed religion/' in 3 vols. 
foLi and those of several of the preach- 

ers have been printed and published in 
disiinct volomes. An abridgement of 
these lectures in 4 vols. 8vo. was pub-, 
lished by the rev. Mr. Gilbert Burnet, 
vicar of Coggeshall, in Essex, who died 
in 1746 ; and a complete list of all tha 
preachers since the foundation to the. 
preitent time may be seen in Nichols'^ 
Life of Bowycr, voL VI. p. 433-^-456. 

SS2 J5 O Y L E. 

JUS, from his own knowledge, to upwards of 1000/. pt^ 

But that part of his discourse which concerns us most^ 
is, the copious and eloquent account he has given of this 
great man's abilities. '^ His knowledge,'' says he, '' was 
of so vast an extent, that if it were not for the variety of 
vouchers in their several sorts, I should be afraid to say 
all I know. He carried the study of the Hebrew very far 
into the rabbinical writings, and the other oriental tongues* 
He had read so much of the fathers, that he had formed a 
clear iudgment of ail the eminent ones. He bad read a 
vast deal on the scriptures, bad gone very nicely through 
the various controversies in religion, and was a true master 
of the whole body of divinity. He read the whole coin- 
pass of the mathematical sciences ; and, though he did not ' 
set himself ta spring any new game, yet he knew the ab- 
strusest parts of geometry. Geography, in the several 
parts of it that related to navigation or travelling ; history 
and books of uovels, were his diversions. He went very 
nicely through all the parts of physic ; only the tenderness, 
of his nature made him less able to endure the exactness 
of anatomical dissections, especially of living animals, 
though be knew these to be most instructing. But for the 
history of nature, ancient and modern, of the productions 
of 2^11 countries, of the virtues and improvements of plants, 
of ores, and minerals, and all the varieties that are in them 
in different climates, he was by much, by very much, the 
readiest and the perfectest I ever knew, in the greatest 
compass, and with the nicest exactness. This put him in 
the way of making all that vast variety of experiments be- 
yond any man, as far as we know^ that ever lived. And 
in these, as he made a great progress in new discoveries, 
so he used so nice a strictness, and delivered them with so 
scrupulous a truth, that all who have examined them have 
found how safely the world may depend upon them. But 
his peculiar and favourite study was chemistry, in which he 
was engaged with none of those ravenous and ambitious 
designs that drew many into it. His design was only to 
£nd out nature, to see into what principles things might 
be resolved, and of what they were compounded, and to 
prepare good medicaments for the bodies of men. He 
spent neither his time nor fortune upon the vain pursuit 
of high promises and pretensions. He always kept himself 
within the compass that his estate might well bear i and^ 


' as be made chemistry much the better for his dealing in it, 
so he never made himself either worse or the poorer for it. 
It was a charity to others, as well as an entertainment to 
himself; for the produce of it was distributed by his sister 
and others, into whose hands he put it.** To thiseulogiuui 
of the bishop, we will only add that of the celebrated phy- 
sician, philosopher, and chemist. Dr. Herman Boerhaave ; 
who, after having declared lord Bacon to be the father of 
experimental philosophy^ asserts, that *^ Mr. Boyle, the 
ornament of his age and country, succeeded to the genius 
and enquiries of the great chancellor Verulam. Which,** 
says he, " of all Mr. Boyle's writings shall I recommend ? 
-AH of them. To him we owe the secrets of fire, air, water, 
animals, vegetables, fossils : so that from his works may be 
deduced the whole system of natural knowledge.** The 
reader perhaps recollects, that Mr. Boyle was born the 
same year in which lord Bacon died. ** Sol occubuit^ 
nox nulla secuta est.** 

As to the person of this great man, we are told that he 
was tall, but slender ; and his countenance pale and ema- 
ciated. His constitution was so tender and delicate, that 
he had divers sorts of cloaks to put oh when he went abroad, 
according to the temperature of the air ; and in this he go- 
verned himself by his thermometer. He escaped indeed 
the small-pox during his life ; but for almost forty years he 
laboured under such a feebleness of body, and such low- 
ness of strength and spirits, that it was astonishing how h6 
could read, meditate, make experiments, and write as he 
did. He had likewise a weakness in his eyes, which made 
him very tender of them, and extremely apprehensive of 
auch distempers as might affect them. He imagined also, 
that if sickness should confine him to his bed, it might 
raise the pains of the stone to a degree which might be 
above his strength to support ; so that he feared lest his 
last minutes should be too hard for him. This was tb^ 
ground of all the caution and apprehension with which he 
was observed to live: but as to life itself, he had that just 
indifference for it, which became a philosopher and i| 
Christian. However, his sight began to grow dim, not 
above four hours before he died ; and, when death came 
upon him, it was with so Uttle pain, that the fiame ap« 
peared to go out merely for want of oil to maintain it. Thd 
reader may wonder that Mr. Boyle was never made a peer) 
specially when it is remembered, that his four elder bro« 

Vol. VL A a 

'354 B O Y L £. 

Ihers were all peers. A peerage was, however, ofteir offered 
bioi, and as often refused by him. It is easy to imagine, 
that he might have had any thing he should express an in- 
clination for. He was always a favourite at court : and 
king Charles II. James II. and king William, were so 
highly pleased with his conversation, that they often used 
to discourse with him in the most familiar manner. Not 
that Mr. Boyle was at any time a courtier ; he spake freely 
of the government, even in times which he disliked, and 
upon occasions when he was obliged to condemn it ; but 
then he always did it, 2^ indeed he did every thing of that 
nature, with an exactness of respect. 

Mr. Boyle was never married : but Mr. Evelyn was as- 
sured, that he once courted the beautiful and ingenious 
daughter of Gary, earl of Monmouth ; and that to this pas* 
sion was owing his Seraphick Love. In the memorandum 
of Mr. Boyle's life, set down by bishop Burnet, it is re- 
marked, that he abstained from marriage, at first out of 
policy, afterwards more philosophically j and we find, by 
a letter of Dr. John Wall is to him, dated at Oxford, July 
17, 1669, that he had an overture made him with respect 
to the lady Mary Hastings, sister to the earl of Hunting- 
don. But it does not appear from any of bis papers, that 
he had ever entertained the least thoughts of that kind ; 
nay, there is a letter of his, written when he was young to 
the lady Barrymore his niece, who had informed him of a 
report that he was actually married, which almost shews 
that he never did. The letter is written with great polite- 
ness, and in the true spirit of gallantry ; and is a clear 
proof, that though Mr. Boyle did not choose to marry, yet 
it was no misanthropic cynical humour which restrained 
him from it. It is impossible to entertain the reader better, 
than by presenting him with that part of it which concerns 
the point in question. — ^< It is high time for me to hasten 
the payment of the thanks I owe your ladyship for the joy 
you are pleased to wish me, and of which that wish possi- 
bly gives me more than the occasion of it would. You 
huve certainly reason, madam, to suspend your belief of a 
juarriage, celebrated by no priest but fame, and made un- 
.known to the supposed bridegroom. I may possibly er^ 
long give you a fit of the spleen upon this theme; but at 
present it were incongruous to blend such pure raillery, as 
>I ever prate of matrimony and amours with, among things 
I am so serious in, as those this scribble presents you. I 

BOYLE. 355 

shall therefore only tell you, that the little gentleman and 
I are still at the old defiance. You have carried away too 
many of the perfections of your sex, to leave enough in 
this country for the reducing so stubborn a heart as mine ; 
whose conquest were a task of so much difficulty, and is so 
little worth it, that the latter property is always likely to 
deter any, that hath beauty and merit enough to overcome 
the former. But though this untamed heart be thus insen- 
sible to the thing itself called love, it is yet very accessible to 
things very near of kin to that passion ; and esteem, friend- 
ship, respect, and even admiration, are things that their 
proper objects fail not proportionably to exact of me, and 
consequently are qualities, which, in their highest degrees, 
are really and constantly paid my lady Barrymore by her 
most obliged humble servant, and affectionate uncle, 

" Robert Boyle.'* 
Mr. Boyle's posthumous works are as follow : 1. '< The 
l^eneral history of the Air designed and begun,'* 1692, 4to. 
Concerning the nature and value of this work, we have 
the testimonies of two of the most ingenious and able men 
of that age, Mr. Locke and Mr. Molineux. Mr. Locke, in 
a letter to Mr. Molineux, dated December 26, 1692, ob- 
serves, that, though this treatise was left imperfect^ ^^ yet 
I think,'' says he, '^ the very design of it will please you ; 
and it is cast into a method, that any one who pleases may 
add to it under any of the several titles, as his reason and, 
observation shall furnish him with matter of fact. If such 
men as you are, curious and knowing, would join to wha( 
Mr. Boyle had collected and prepared, what comes ii\ 
their way, we might hope in some time to have a consider-r 
able history of the air, than which I scarce know any part 
of natural philosophy would yield more variety and use« 
But it is a subject too large for th& attempts of any on^ 
man, and will require the assistance of many hands, tQ 
make it an history very short of complete." To which Mr, 
Molineux answered : 'M am extremely obliged to you for 
Mr. Boyle's book of the air, which lately came to my hands. 
It is a vast design, and not to be finished but by the united 
labours of many heads, and indefatigably prosecuted for 
nany years ; so that I despair of seeing any thing com- 
plete therein. However, if many will lend the same help- 
ing hands tliat you have done, I should be in hopes ; and 
certainly there is not a chapter in all natural philosophy of 
jjreater use to mankind than what is here proposed." 

A A 2 

356 BOYLE. 

2. " General beads for the natural history of a country, 
great or small ; drawn out fov the use of travellers and na- 
vigators. To which are added, other directions for navi- 
gators, &c. with particular observations on the most noted 
countries in the world. By another hand/* 1692, i2mo. 
These general heads were first printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions, being drawn up by IVlr. Boyle, at the request 
of the royal society. The other directions added in this 
edition were drawn up by various persons at divers times, 
by order of the royal society, and printed in different 
numbers .of the Philosophical Transactions ; but, being in 
pursuance of the plan sketched out by Mr. Boyle, were 
very properly annexed to the preceding ones. 3. A paper 
of the honourable Robert Boyle's, deposited with the se- 
cretaries of the royal society, October 14, 1680, and 
opened since his death ; being an account of bis making 
the phosphorus, Sept. 30, 1680; printed in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions. 4. An account of a way of examin- 
ing waters, as to freshness or saltness. To be subjoined 
as an appendix to a lately printed letter about sweetened 
water, Oct. 30, 1683 ; printed in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions. 5. " A free discourse against customary swear- 
ing, and a dissuasive from cursing,*' 1695, 8vo. 6. " Me- 
dicinal experiments': or, a collection of choice remedies, 
chiefly simple, and easily prepared, useful in families, and 
fit for the service of the country people. The third and 
last volume, published from the author's original manu- 
script ; whereunto are added several useful notes, explica- 
tory of the same," 1698, 12mo. The first edition of this 
book was printed in 1688, under the title of Receipts sent 
to a friend in America : in 1692, it was reprinted with the 
addition of a second part, and a new preface : and in 1698, 
as we now observe, wis added the third and last volume. 
They have been all several times reprinted since in a single 
volume, and justly accounted the best collection of the 

; These posthumous works, joined to those before men- 
tioned, together with many pieces in the Philosophical 
Transactions, which we had not rodm to be particular 
about, were all printed in one cdllection, at London, in 
5 volumes folio, and 6 volumes 4to. Dr. Shaw also pub- 
lished in 3 volumes 4to, the same works ** abridged, me- 
thodized, and disposed under the general heads of Physics, 
Statics, Pneumatics, Natural History, Chymistiy,'and Me* 

BOYLE. '557 

dicine ;^' to which he has prefixed a short catalogue of the 
philosophical writings, accorii^ug to the order of time when 
they were first published^ &c.* 

JbOYLE (Charles), earl of Orrery, second son of 
Roger second earl of Orrery, by lady Mary Sackville, 
ddu^iiter to ilichard earl of Dorset and Midjlesex, was 
born in August 1676, at his father's house in Chelsea; 
and at fifteen entered a nobleman of Christ-church, in 
Oxford, under the care of Dr. Francis Atterbury, after* 
wards bishop .of Rochester, and Dr. Freind. , Dr. Aldrich, 
the bead of that society, observing his uncommon appli- 
cation, drew up for his use that compendium of logic 
wnich is now read at Christ-church, wherein he styles him 
*' the great ornament of our college." Having quitted the 
university, he was in 1700 chosen member for the town of 
Huntington. A petition being presented to the house of 
commons, complaining of the illegality of bis election, he 
spoke in support of that election with great warmth ; and 
this probably gave rise to his duel with Mr. Wortley, the 
other candidate, in which, though Mn Boyle had the ad* 
vantage, the wounds he received threw him into a dan- 
gerous fit of sickness that lasted for many months. On the 
death of his elder brother, he became fourth earl of Orrery ; 
soon after, he had a regiment given him, and was elected 
a knight of the Thistle. In 1706 he married lady Eliza* 
beth Cecil, daughter to the earl of Exeter. In 170J> he 
was promoted to the rank of major-general, and sworn of 
her majesty's privy council. He was envoy extraordinary 
from the queen to the states of Flanders and Brabant, with 
an appointment of ten pounds a day, at a very critical 
juncture, namely, during the treaty of Utrecht. I'here, 
some in authority at Brussels, knowing they were soon to be- 
come the emperor's subjects, and that his imperial majesty 
\vas not on good terms with the queen, shewed less respect to 
her minister than they had formerly done : upon which^ 
Orrery, wlio considered their behaviour as an indignity to 
the crown of Great Britain, managed with so much reso- 
lution and dexterity, that, when they thought his power 
was declining, or rather that he had no power at all, he 
cot every one of them turned out of his post. Her ma- 
jesty, in the tenth year of her reign, raised him to the 
dignity of a British peer, under the title of lord Boyle, 

» Birch's Life.— Biog. Brit. 

358 B O Y L E. 

baron of Marston, in Somersetshire. On the accessioii of 
king George I. he was madfi a lord pf the bedchamberji 
^nd lord -lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the county 
of Somerset. His frequent voting against the ministers 
gave rise to a report that he was to be removed from all 
nis posts ; upon which he absented himself from the court: 
but his friends assuring him that they had ground to be- 
lieve the king had a personal esteem for him, he wrote a 
letter to his majesty, signifying that though he looked 
upon his service as a high honour, yet, when he first en- 
tered into it, he did not conceive it was expected ffom 
him that he should vote against his conscience and his 
judgment; that he must confess it was 'his misfortune to 
'differ widely in opinion from some of his majesty's mi- 
nisters ; that if those gentlemep had represented this to 
liis majesty as a crime not to be forgiven, and his majesty 
himself thought so, he was ready to resign those posts he 
enjoyed, from which he found he was already removed by 
a common report, which was rather encouraged than con- 
tradicted by the ministers. The king going soon after to 
Hanover, lord Orrery's regiment was taken from him ; 
which his lordship looking upon as a mark of displeasure, 
resigned his post of lord of the bedchamber. 

On the 28th of September 1722, he was committed 
close prisoner to the Tower, by warrant of a committee of 
the lords of the privy council, upon suspicion of high 
treason, and of being concerned in Layer's plot. His 
confinement brought on such a dangerous fit of sickness, 
that, as Dr. Mead remonstrated to the council, unless he 
was immediately set at liberty, he would not answer for 
his life twenty-four hours : upon which, after six months 
imprisonment, he was admitted to bail. Upon the strictest 
inquiry, no suflficient ground for a prosecution being 
found, he was, after passing through the usual forms, ab- 
solutely discharged. After this he constantly attended in 
"his place in the house of peers, as he had done before, and 
though he never spoke in that assembly, his pen was fre- 
quently employed to draw up the protests entered in its 
journals. He died after a short indisposition, on the 21st 
of August, 1731. He had a good relish for the writings 
of the ancients, and gave some productions of his own. 

Lord Orford, in enumerating his works, attributes to him 
a translation of the life of Lysander from Plutarch, which 
be says is published in the English edition of that author ^ 

BOYLE, 359 

bat the life of Lysander in that edition is givon to one 
Leman, a Cambridge man. His first appearance as an 
author, was when Dr. AUirich, dean of Christ- church, 
finding him to be a good Grecian, put him upon publishing 
a new edition of the epistles of Phalaris, which appeared 
in the beginnhig of 1695, under the title of << Phalaridis 
Agrigentinorum tyranni epistolsp.. Ex MSS. recensuit, 
versione, annotationibus, & vita insuper auctoris donavit 
Car. Boyle, ex aede Christi, Oxon," 8vo. In this edition 
be was supposed to have been assisted by Aldrich and At- 
terbury. The authenticity of these epistles being called 
in question by Dr. Bentley, Mr. Boyle wrote an answer, 
entitled *' Dr. Bentley^s Dissertation on the epistles of Pha-* 
laris examined.'' In laying the design of this work, in re- 
viewing a good part of the rest, in transcribing the whole, 
and attending the press, half a year of Atterbury's life 
was employed, as he declares in his ^^ Epistolary Correspon* 
dence," 1 783, vol. II. p. 22. * His lordship wrote a comedy^ 
called *^ As you find it,'* printed in the second volume of 
the works of Roger earl of Orrery. He was also author 
of a copy of verses to Dr. Garth, upon his Dispensary, and 
of a prologue to Mr. Southerne's play, called << The Siege 
of Capua." 

The instrument called the Orrery obtained his name 
from the following circumstance : Rowley, a mathematical 
instrument-maker, having got one from Mr, George Gra- 
ham, the original inventor, to be sent abroad with some 
of his own instruments, he copied it, and made the first 
for the earl of Orrery ; sir Richard Steele, who knew no- 
thing of Mr. Qraham'9 machine^ thinking to do justice to 
the first encourager, as well as to the inventor of such a 
curious instrument, called it an Orrery, and gave Rowley 
the praise due to Mr. Graham. ^ 

BOYLE (John), earl of Cork and Orrery, a nobleman 
who added fresh lustre to bis name and family, was the 

* See Bbntlbt, and Atterbury* wrote the body of the criticisms ; and 
Pope gave Warburton the following, that Dr. King of Uie Coinmoos wrote 
account of this celebrated composition; the droll argument to prove Dr. Bent- 
be said, ** that Boyle wrote ouly the ley was not the author of the Disserta- 
narrative of what passed between bim tion on Pbalaris, and the ludex. And 
and the bookseller, which too was cor« a powerful cahal gave it a surprising 
rected for him ; that Freind, the mas- run." 
ter of Westminster, and Atterbory, Warhurton's Letters, 8vo. p. 11. 

» Biog. Brit— Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Swift's Works.— Life by Budgell.— Nichols'^ 
Paems, vol, IV. — Nichols's Atterbury.— Park's Royal and Noble Authors, 

8flO BOYLE. 


only son and heir of Charles, the fourth earl of Orrery (the 
subject of the preceding article), by the lady Elizabeth 
Cecil, daughter of John earl of Exeter. He was born on 
th^ 2d of January, 1706-7, and put early under the tuition 
of Mr. Fenton> the author of Mariamne, and one of the 
coadjutors of Mr. Pope in the translation of the Odyssey^ 
by whom he was instructed in English ; and carried through 
the Latin tongue from the age of seven to thirteen. Be- 
tween this amiable poet and bis noble pupil a constant 
friendship subsisted ; and his lordship always spoke of hini 
after bis decease, and often with tears, as ^^ one of the 
>vorthiest and modestest men that ever adorned the court 
of Apollo." After passing through Westminster school, 
lord Boyle was admitted as a nobleman at Christ-churchy 
Oxford, of which college, as we have already seen, bi» 
father had been a distinguished ornament. One of his 
first poeticdl essays was an answer to some verses by Mrs« 
Jlowe, on an unsuccessful attempt to draw his picture. 

When the earl of Orrery was committed prisoner to the 
Tower on account of Layer's plot, such was the filial piety 
of his son, that he earnestly entreated to be shut up with 
his noble father ; but this indulgence was thought too con- 
siderable to be granted. Not long after he had completed 
the twenty-first year of his age, he married, on the 9th 
pf May 1728, lady Harriet Hamiltoh, the third and 
youngest daughter of George earl of Orkney. Though 
this marriage had the entire approbation of lord Orrery, 
it unfortunately happened that a dissension arose between 
the two earls, which placed the young couple in a very 
delicate and difficult situation ; but lord Boyle maintained 
at the same time the tenderest affection for his wife, and 
the highest attachment to his father. The earl of Orrery, 
however, was too much irritated by the family quarrel, to 
see at first his son's conduct in a proper point of light, al- 
though his excellent understanding could not fail in the 
end to get the better of bis prejudices, when a reconcilia- 
tion took place, and the little coldness which had subsisted 
between them served but the more to endear them to each 
other*. , The earl of Orrery was now so much pleased 
with lord Boyle, that he could scarcely be easy without 

* In the addenda to the Biog. Brit, at fable with his father's mistress. If 

we are (old that the dissensions between thi^e true, it must greatly diminish 

Oie earl and his son originated in tlie his lordship*d character, 
latter rafusiog to suffer his wife to sit 

BOYLE. 861 

him ; and when in town, tbey were seldom asunder* It 
is to be lamented, that this happiness was rendered Tery 
transient by the unexpected death of lord Orrery ; and 
that the stroke was embittered by a circumstance pecu- 
liarly painful and affecting to his noble son and successor. 
The father, whilst under the impression of his dissension 
with the earl of Orkney, had made a will, by which he 
had bequeathed to Christ-church, Oxford, his valuable 
library, consisting of above ten thousand volumes, toge- 
ther with a very fine collection of mathematical instru- 
ments. The only exceptions in favour of lord Boyle were 
the Journals of the House of Peers, and such books as 
related to the English history and constitution. The earl 
of Orrery left, besides, though he was greatly in debt^ 
several considerable legacies to persons nowise related to 
him. ' Upon his reconciliation with his son, he determined 
to alter his will, and had even sent for his lawyer with that 
view, when the suddenness of his decease prevented the 
execution of his just and reasonable design. The young 
lord Orrery, with a true filial piety and generosity, in- 
stead of sutfering his father^s effects to be sold, took his 
debts upon himself, and fulfilled the bequests, by paying 
the legacies, and sending the books and mathematical in- 
struments within the limited.time to Christ-church. The 
loss, however, of a parent, thus aggravated and embittered, 
left a deep impression upon his mind, and was succeeded 
by a fit of illness which endangered his life, and obliged 
him to repair to Bath. Whilst he was in that city, be re- 
ceived a letter from a friend, with a copy of verses in- 
closed, exhorting him to dispel his grief by poetry^ and 
to shew that Bath could inspire, as well as Tunbridge ; 
from which place he had written some humorous verses 
the year before. To this letter his lordship returned the 
following answer : 

'' Nor Bathj nor Ttmhridge^ can my lays inspire^ 
Nor radiant beauty make me strike the lyre : 
Far from the busy crowd I sit forlorn. 
And sigh in secret, and in silence mourn : 
Nor of my anguish ever find an end 5 
I weep a fether, but I Ve lost a friend." 

In a few months lord Orrery so far recovered his health 
and spirits as to be able to attend his public duty as an 
English baron. He took his seat in the house of peers in 
the session of parliament which opened on the fstb of 

*36^ © O Y' L E. 

January, 1731-2, and soon distinguished himself by a speech 
in opposition to the ministry, against the mutiny-bill ; th^ 
inconsistency of a standing army with the liberties of a 
free people being at that period the topic constantly in- 
sisted upon by the patriotic party. Though no notice in 
taken of his lordship*s speech in Timberland's Debates, it 
IS certain that he acquired considerable credit on this oc- 
casion. Mr. Budgell, in the dedication to his Memoirs of 
^e Family of the Boyles, published in 1732, celebrated 
our noble lord as having displayed the united forces of 
Teason and eloquence ; and Mr. Ford, in a letter to Dr. 
Bwift, written in the same year, mentions with pleasure a 
{character which the de^n had given of the earl of Orrery, 
and says, that he was extremely applauded for a speech 
be made against the army-bill. The approbation which 
liis lordship received in this first exertion of his plarlia- 
mentary talents, did not encourage him to become a public 
speaker ; and we meet with only another instance in which 
he took any active part in a debate, on the 13th of Fe* 
bruary, 1733-4, in favour of the duke of Marlborough^s 
bill for preventing the officers of the land forces from being 
deprived of their commissions, otherwise than byjudg* 
ment of a court martial to be held for that purpose, or by 
address of either house of parliament. The delicacy of 
lord Orrery's health, his passion for private life, and the 
occasions he had of sometimes residing in Ireland, seem 
to have precluded him from a very constant and regular 
attendance in the English house of peers. However, he 
did not fail to go thither when he apprehended himself to 
be called to it by particular duty ; and we find his name 
to a considerable number of the protests which were so 
frequent during the grand opposition to sir Robert Wal-» 
pole's administration. 

In the summer of 1732 the earl of Orrery went over to 
Ireland to re-establish his affairs, which were much em- 
barrassed by the villainy of his father's agent. As the 
family s^at at Charleville had been burnt to the ground by 
a party of king Jameses army in 1690, his lordship resided 
sometimes with a friend at that place, and sometimes at 
Cork. Whilst he was in this city, he met with a most se? 
vere affliction, in the loss of his countess, who died on the 
22d of August, 1732. The character of this amiable lady 
has been drawn by lord Orrery himself, in his Observa- 
tions On Pliny. The couptess was interred with her an- 

BOYLE. 363 

cestors, at Taplow, in Bucks ; and Mr. S. Wesley, in a 
poem on her death, fully displayed her excellent qualities 
and virtues. Mr. Theobald did the same, in his dedication 
of Shakspeare's Works to the earl. The dedication, it 
seems, was originally intended for her ladyship ; and 
therefore lord Orrery is represented as succeeding to it by 
the melancholy right of executorship. Mr. Theobald pro- 
fesses to have borrowed m^ny hints from hearing his patron 
converse on Shakspeare ; and adds, ** Your lordship may 
reasonably deny the loss of the jewels which I have dis« 
paraged in the unartful setting.'^ Such language, how* 
ever, must be considered as partly complimentary; for 
if the earl of Orrery had contributed any material criti- 
cisms upon our great dramatic poet, they would undoubt- 
edly have been distinctly specified. Some pathetic verses 
en the death of the countess, dated Marston, Dec. 17, 
1734, were addressed by bis lordship to Mrs. Kowe, who 
lived in bis neighbourhood, and with whom he had an 
intimate friendship during the latter part of her life. How 
much this ingenious and excellent lady valued his esteem 
and regard, is evident from her observing, that ^^ his ap- 
probation would be her vanity and boast, if she could but 
persuade herself she deserved it." The house where she 
was born belonged to him ; and he always passed by it^ 
after her decease, with the utmost veneration. It appears 
from Mrs. Rowe's posthumous letter to his lordship, that 
he had charged her with '^a message to his Henrietta 
(Harriet), when she met her gentle spirit in the blissful 

Whilst our noble lord resided in Ireland, he commenced 
a friendship with dean Swift, which produced also that of 
Mr. Pope. The earl having sent a copy of verses to the 
dean on his birth-day, they were so pleasing to that cele- 
brated genius, that he begged the author ^^ to accept his 
most humble thanks for the honour done him by so ex- 
cellent a performance on so barren a subject*" ** In spite,'* 
says the dean, ** of those who love me not, it will be said 
in future ages, ^that one of lord Orrery's first essays in 
poetry was these verses on Dr. Swift." There are, in- 
deed, several evidences in Pope's and Swift's letters, of 
the sincere esteem they entertained for his lordship. 

In October 1733, lord Orrery returned to England, and 
having now no attachment to London, he disponed of his 
})0use in Downin^-street^ Westqiinsteri as likewise of bis 


seat at Britwell^ near Windsor, and retired to his seat at 
Marston, in Somersetshire. As this place had been much 
neglected by his ancestors, and was little more than a shell 
of a large old house, be amused himself in building offices, 
in fitting out and furnishing apartments, and laying out 
gardens and other plantations. Study and retirement 
being his principal pleasures, be took care to supply the 
loss he had sustained from bis father^s will, by furnishing 
his library anew with the best authors. In the summer of 
1734, probably in his way to France, where he sometimes 
went, he visited the tomb of his aticestors, Roger Boyle, 
esq. and Joan his wife, in Preston church, near Fe^ersham. 
This monument, when the title of earl of Cork devolved 
upon him, he intended to have repaired, if his life had been 
prolonged. In the middle of the year 1735, we find him 

' again in Ireland. On the 3ist of October, in the same 
year, an amiable relation, and a most promising youth, 
Edmund duke of Buckingham, died at Rome, upon which 
melancholy event, lord Orrery paid a just tribute to the 
memory of the young nobleman, in an elegiac poem. It 
was printed, in 1736, and is one of the most pleasing spe- 
cimens which our author has afforded of his poetical abili- 
ties. In the winter of 1735-6, the duke of Dorset being 
then lord lieutenant of Ireland, the earl of Orrery neg- 
lected no opportunity of endeavouring to render his ad- 
ministration easy. If Dr. Swift is to be credited, Ireland 
was about that time in a wretched condition. As a proof 
of it, the dean asserted in a letter to Mr. Pope, that lord 
Orrery had 3000/. a year in the neighbourhood of Cork, 
and that more than three years rent was unpaid.. In 
April 17 37, his lordship, who was then at Cork, earnestly 
pressed Dr. Swift to accompany him to England ; but the 
doctor, who never saw Marston, did not accept the invi- 
tation. Lord Orrery took over with him to Mr. Pope all 
the letters of that great poet to Swift, which the dean had 

. preserved or could find, which were not more in number 

^ than twenty-five. About tnis time, our noble author, 
that his sons might be educated under his own eye, and 
also have the benefit of attending Westminster-school^ 
took a small house in Duke-street, Westminster. On the 
30th of June, 1738, the earl of Orrery, after having been 
six years a widower, married, in Ireland, Mrs. Margaret 

' Hamilton, only daughter and heiress of John Hamilton, 

BOYLE. 365 

'esq. of Caledon, in the county of Tyrone; grand-daughter 
of Dr. Dopping, bishop of Meath, and niece of Dr. Dop- 
ping, bishop of Ossory. Swift, in a letter to Miss Ha- 
miltoH) on her intended nuptials^ after pretending a prior 
claim, as she had made so many advances to him, and 
confessed "herself to be nobody's goddess but his," archly 
waves it, and politely " permits lord Orrery to make him- 
self the happiest man in the world ; as I know not," 
he adds, '^ any lady in this kingdom of so good sense or 
so many accomplishments." He gives a great character 
of her, likewise, ih his last printed letter to Mr. Pope. 
In this lady, the e^rl of Orrery, with gratitude to Heaven, 
acknowledg^ed that the loss of his former countess was re- 
paired. In 1739 he published a new edition, 2 vols. Svo, 
of the dramatic works of his great-grandfather. Though 
these volumes cannot be particularly valuable, they are 
now become exceedingly scarce. In 1741 he published 
separately, in folio, " The first Ode of the first book of 
Horace imitated, and inscribed to the earl of Chesterfield;" 
and " Pyrrha, an imitation of the fifth Ode of the first 
book of Horace." In the preface to the last, lord Orrery 
characterises Dacier's and Sanadon's translations^ and 
makes some observations on Horace, which shew that he 
entered with taste and spirit into the peculiar excellencies 
of that poet. In 1742 he published in one volume, folio, 
the " State Letters'* of his great-grandfather, the first 
earl; to which were, prefixed Morrice's memoirs of that 
eminent statesman. On the 25th of August, 1743, hislord« 
ship was presented by the university of Oxford to the 
honorary degree of D. C. L. ; and he was, likewise, F. R. S. 
Lord Boyle, in 1746, being settled at Oxford, and Mr. 
Boyle in the college at Westminster, their father quitted 
London, and fixed his residence at Caledon, in Ireland* 
During one of his occasional visits to England, after the 
puhlication of the second volume of the Biographia Britan- 
iiica, he thanked Dr. Campbell, ** in the name of all the 
Boyles, for the honour he had done to them, and to his 
own judgment, by placing the family in such a light as to 
gfve a spirit of emulation to those who were hereafter to 
inherit tfie title." Lord Orrery resided in Ireland, with 
very little intermission, from 1746 to 1750; happy in that 
domestic tranquillity, that studious retirementr and inac- 
tivity, from which, as be himself expressed it, he was 
scarcely ever drawn, but with the utmost reluctance. 

3e6 BOYLE. . , 

** Wheneyer/* as he observed in a private letter, *' we step 
out of domestic life in search of feUcity, we come back 
again disappointed, tired, and chagrined. One day passed 
under our pwn roof, with our friends and our family, is 
worth a thousand in any other place. The noise and 
bustle, or, as they are foolishly called, the diversions of 
life, are despicable and tasteless, when once we have ex- 
perienced the real delight of a fire-side.*' These senti- 
ments, which do so much honour to the rectitude of his 
lordship's understanding, and the goodness of his hearty 
reflect, at the same time, a just reproach on the absurd and 
criminal dissipation that prevails for the most part among 
persons of rank and fortune. During the earl of Orrery's 
residence in Ireland, he employed his leisure in laying out 
gardensf and plantations at Caledon, and in improving and 
adorning its fine situation. On his return to Marston, he 
continued his alterations and improvements in the house 
and gardens at that place, many of the plans for which 
were designed' by lord Boyle, who had a taste for architec- 
ture. In the mean while, the amusement of our noble 
author's winter evenings was his translation of ^' The Let- 
ters of Pliny the Younger, with observations on each letter, 
and an Essay on Pliny's life, addressed to Charles lord 
Boyle." The essay is dated Leicester-fields, January 27, 
1750-1; and, together with the tianslation, was published 
at London, in the following April, in 2 vols. 4to. This 
work met with so good a reception from the public, that 
three editions of it in octavo have since been printed. In 
the summer of the same year, lord Orrery addressed 
to his second son Hamilton a series of letters, containing 
^^ Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. Swift, dean of 
St. Patrick's, Dublin." This work gave rise to many .stric- 
tures and censures on his lordship for having professed 
himself Swift's friend while he was exposing his weak- 
nesses. Subsequent inquiries into Swift's character have 
proved that the portrait he drew was not unfaithful. To 
this, however, we shall have occasion to recur in our ac- 
count of Swift. 

On the 3d of December, 1753, by the death of Richard 
the third earl of Burlington, and fourth earl of Cork, 
without issue male, lord Orrery succeeded to that noble- 
man's Irish titles, viz. earl of Cork, viscount Dungarvan, and 
lord Boyle, baron of Youghall. About this time, Mr. 
Moore undertook the periodical publication called ^< The 

BOYLE* 3«1 

World ;^' to which our noble author contributed three 
papers, viz. No. 47, 68, 161. The two first are papers 
of some humour, intended to ridicule the practice of duel- 
ling, as it prevailed in the last age; and the third is a 
father's account of his son, Charles lord Dungarvan, whose 
weakness of temper was such, that he could not resist the 
temptation to indulgences which at last proved fatal. The 
earl of Cork was a contributor, likewise, to the ^* Con* 
noisseur,*' carried on by Mr. Thornton and Mr. Colman. 
In the last number of this publication, G. K. which was his 
lordship's signature, is distinguished, by the ingenious 
authors, as their ^^ earliest and most frequent correspond- 
ent;" and " we are sorry," they add, " that he will not 
allow us to mention his name ; since it would reflect as 
much credit on our work, as we are sure will redound to 
it from bis compositions/^ His communications to the 
'^ Connoisseur" were the most part of No. 14 and 17 ; the 
letter signed Goliah English, in No. 19 ; great part of 
No. 33 and 40 ; and the letters, signed << Reginald Fitz- 
worm," ** Michael Krawbridge,** " Moses Orthodox," and 
"Thomas Vainall," in No. 102, 107, 113, and 129. These 
papers are chiefly of the humourous kind ; and they con- 
firm, in no small degree, Mr. Duncombe's character of 
our author, that *^ for humour, innocent humour, no one 
had a truer taste, or better taleut." On the 20th of Sep* 
tember, 1754, the earl and countess of Cork, with their 
daughter lady Lucy Boyle, began a tour to Italy. His 
lordship's chief object was Florence, in which city and its 
neighbourhood he resided nearly a year. Whilst he waitf 
at that place, he presented to the academy della Crusca, 
his friend Dr. Samuel Johnson's English Dictionary. ' Hit 
inveterate enemy, the gout, introduced by a severe winter, 
overtook him even in Italy, and prevented his attendance 
on the exercises of the academy. He enjoyed, at Flo-' 
rence, a general esteem ; and, by a free conversation with 
books and men, and the assistance of manuscripts, col- 
lected materials for the History of Tuscany, which h^ 
intended to write in a series of Letters, twelve of which 
only he lived to finish. In November 1755, he arrived at 
Marston, having, in his return to England, on account of 
the commencement of the war with France, gone throu^& 
Germany and part* of Holland. The situation of public 
afiairs, in this country, at the beginning of the year 1757, 
being such as required, in our national councils^, the 


most exertion of wisdom and integrity, one pf lord Cork^fl 
friends urged him, in an ode, to exchange his retirement 
for a more active scene. 

When Dr. Swift's " History of the four last years of 
Queen Anne*' appeared in 1758, and it was reported that 
our noble lord had consented to the publication of that 
work, he requested his friends to contradict the report. 
His opinion was, that the more the work was examined, 
the less it would answer the end either of the author or of 
the publisher. In that year he sustained, by the death 
of his excellent lady, Margaret countess of Cork and Or- 
lery, the severest domestic affliction which could befal 
him. She departed this life, after a short illness, on the 
24th of November, in lodgings at Knightsbridgei, to which 
she had been removed, at her own request, a few days 
before, from a tender apprehension that her lord would 
quit his house, just taken, in Marlborough-street, if she 
died there. This shock, however, he supported with the 
resignation becoming a man and a Christian. We have 
already seen the high opinion which Dr. Swift entertained 
of her ladyship. The earl of Cork, in his distress, took 
refuge, like Pliny, in his studies, as the best retreat from 
grief, and published, in the beginning of 1759, in one 
volume, octavo, from an original manuscript presented 
to him by a relation, ^^ Memoirs of the Life of Robert 
Cary, earl of Monmouth," with a preface, and explanatory 
notes, and a short but tender dedication to his youngest 
son. It is dated Marlborough-street, January 13, 1759^ 
and signed, '* Now, alas ! your only parent." There Ls^ 
also, as a frontispiece, engraved from an old painting by 
Marc Garrard, "The Royal Procession of queen Elizabeth^ 
to visit her cousin german, Henry lord Hunsdon, governor 
of Berwick." A second edition of the Memoirs appeared 
in 1760. Mrs. Lennox was considerably indebted to lord 
Cork, in her translation of Brumoy's Greek Theatre, pub« 
lished in 1759. The preface was written by him ; and he 
also translated " The Discourse upon the Theatre of the 
Greeks," « The Original of Tragedy," and « The Pa- 
rallel of the Theatres." Some smaller things, of his lord«* 
ship's writing, are in the Gent. Mag. * On September 

* }o the Qentleman*8 Magazine, for Several of hia letters are to be met wttM 
1741, p. 325, are some verses by lord id Swift's Works. In Derrick's Let- 
Orrery, to Mrs. Cssan In 1751 be ten, toL II. p. 17, there is, likewise, 
»rot« the prologue to Mallet'* Alfred* one from his loidship ia that fentltt* 

B O Y L SI. S69 

the 16tbj 1759, the earl of Cork lost his eldest son, 
Charles lord viscount Dungarvan, already mentioned. Thd 
earl survived him about three, years, during which he di- 
vided his time between his hous^n Great George-street, 
Westminster, and his seat in Somersetshire. An heredi- 
tary gout, which all his temperance could only parry, not 
subdue, put a comparatively early period to his life, at 
Marston house, on the 16th of November, 1762, in the 
56th year of his age. His remains were deposited near to 
those of his second lady, in the burial-place of his family 
in Frome church. 

His last work was posthumous, ** Letters from Italy,'* 
written in 1754 and 1755, to William Buncombe, esq. and 
published, in 1774, by the rev. Mr. John Duncombe, who 
well knew and highly esteemed lord Cork's talents and 
virtues. Mr. Duncombe has prefixed a life of his lord* 
ship, with the following particulars of his character : " The 
character of John earl of Cork, as a writer and as a man, 
may partly be collected from his own works, and partly 
from the testimonies which have been given of him by some 
of the most distinguished among his contemporaries. I 
shall only beg leave to add, that, in every domestic and 
social relation, in all the endearing connections of life, as 
a husband, a ifatber, a friend, a master, he had few equals. 
The lustre which he received from rank and title, and from 
the personal merit of his family, he reflected back, unim- 
paired and undiminished ; and though ^ the post of honour* 
which he chose and preferred was ' a private station,* 
though he was neither a <itatesman nor a soldier, .like the 
first lord Cork, the first lord Orrery, and his own father ; 
the rival of Palladio^ like the late lord Burlington ; or the 
rival of Bacon, like Mr. Robert Boyle ; yet in a general 
taste for literature, or, as they are commonly called, po- 
lite studies, he was by no means inferior to his ancestors. 
Being much in the great world at the beginning of his life, 
he despised and detested it when he arrived at years of re- 
fiection. His constitution was never strong, and he was 
very thankful that it was not so ; as his health was a true 
and no very irksome excuse to avoid those scenes, by 

roan» dated November 85, 1760, an^ a poetiaal Tereioo of a namber of pat- 
in the Gent. Mag. vol. LXIt. one from sages quoted from the ancient classics, 
him to Dr. Birch on Johnson's Die- there are interspersed setreral small 
tionary. original pieces. — See also NicboU's 
Ia his Translation of Pliny, betides PocniSi vol. VII. 

Vol. VI, B B , 

»70 B Q Y L E. 

wbich his body would bave bften hurt^ and his mind offend- 
ed* He loved truth even to a degree of adoration. He 
wa3 a real Christian ; and, as such, constantly hoped for a 
better life, there trusting to know the real causes of those 
effects, which here, struck him with wonder, but not with 

Dc Johnson, les^ biassed by friendship, and more dis- 
criminating, ss^id of him, '^ My friend, the late earl of 
Cork, had a gre^t d<99ire to maintain the literary character 
of his family : he was a genteel man, but did not keep up 
the dignity of his rank. He was so generally civil, that 
nobody thanked him for it." Warburton, in his letters to 
bishop Hurd, lately published, employs the full measure 
of his coarse censure on him for publishing bis character of 
Swift. ' 

. BOYLE (Richard), third earl of Burlington and fourth 
earl of Cork, another branch of the illustrious family of 
Boyle, was born on the 25th of April, 1695 ; and was mar- 
ried on the 21st of March, 1720-i, to the lady Dorothy 
Savile, the eldest of the two daughters and co-heirs of 
William Savile, marquis of Halifax. By this lady he had 
three daughters, the youngest of whom, Charlotte, alone 
survived him* She was married to the duke of Devonshire, 
i^nd was mother to the late duke, and grandmother to the 
present. On the 18th of June, 1730, the earl ol Burling-- 
ton was installed one of the knights' companions of the 
most noble order of the garter; and in June 1731, he was 
constituted captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners. 
In 1732, beiqg at the city of York, the lord mayor, alder- 
men, and Qorporation, sent a deputation to return their 
thanks to him fgr the favour he had done them in building 
their assembly-room, and for his other benefactions to the 
city, and to beg his acceptance of the freedom of it; 
which was, accordingly, presented to him in a gold box. 
In 1733, he resigned his place of captain of the band of 
pensioners. After this he lived retired, employing him- 
self in adorning his gardens at Cbiswick, and in construct- 
ing seypfa) pieces, of architecture. Never, says lord Or- 
ford, were protection and great wealth more generously 
and more judiciously diffused than by this great person, 
who had every quality of a genius and artist, except envy. 

» Biog. Brit — Nichols's Bowyer, — ^Nicho1s*s Poems. — Boswell'* Life of JohD<* 
0011, aod Jouraey.— Swift's Works, passim — Park's Royal and Noble AiUborfc 
-^Warburtoa's Letters, p. 66, 69, 19, U9, 4lo edit. 

B O V L E. Sii 


Though bis own designs were more chaste aindf clasde Chaft 
Kent^s, he entertained him in his house tiff hisr death, arnd 
was more sttrdious to extend his friend's feme than hid own. 
Nor was his^ nmnrfrcence confined to himself, and hi».own 
iKnise^ and gardens. He spent great sums in contributing 
to public works, and wa!s kno^vn to choose that the eitpenc^ 
sbouid fall on himself, rather than that his country should 
be deprived of some beautiful edifices. Hi^ entbosiasm: 
for the works of Inigo Jones was so active, that be repaired 
the cbarc^f of Covent-garden, because it was the ptodnc* 
tion of that great master, and purchased a gate-way of hig ^ 
at Beaufort-garden in Chelsea, and transported tile iden« 
tical stones to Chiswick with religious attachment. With 
the same zeal for pure architecture, he assisted Kent rnr 
publishin^r the diesigns for Whitehall, and gave a beautifidf 
edition of the antique baths from the dra^vings of F^atfadio^ 
whose papers he procured with great cost Besides his 
works on bis own estate at Lanesborough it)' Yoffesfaire, be 
new fronted bis house in Piccadilly, built by hi^ father^ 
and added the grand colonnade within the court. It itf 
recorded that his father being asked, wby he built im* house 
so far out of town ? replied, because he was determined 
to have no building beyond him. Thii^ is now in the heart: 
of that part of the town. Our nobility formerly wished! 
for town-houses, and not for tovtn-neighhduthoodsj but thd 
latter being now obtruded upon them is probably the 
cause of their paying so little attention' to the keep of their 
London-palaces. Bedford-house has been levelled* to* the 
ground some years, and Burlington-house is likewise saitf 
to be doomed to destruction. 

Lord Burlington's house at Chiswick, the idea of which 
was borrowed from a well-known villa of Palladio, is s 
model of taste, though not without ftiults. Other works 
designed by lord Burlington were, the dormitory at West- 
minster-school, the assembly-room at York, lord Harring- 
ton's at Petersham (afterwards lord Camelford's), except 
the octagon buildings at each end, which were added by 
Shepherd; the duke of Richmoud's house at Whitehall, 
and general Wade's in Cork-street* Both these last were^ 
iU-eontrived and inconvenient ; but the latter has so beau- 
tiful a front, that lord Chesterfield said, '^ as the general 
could not live in it to hLs easO; he bad better t;ake a bouse- 
over against it, and look at it." Pope dedicated to him his 
Epistle IV. and addressed to him his incomparable letter oi\ 

BB 2 

372 BOYLE. 

a Journey to Oxford with Lintot. He is also to be nO' 
ticed with honour as the first patron of bishop Berkeley, 
whom he loved for his taste in architecture. He died 
December 1753, and by his death the title of Earl of Bur- 
lington became extinct. — His lady, Dorothy Saville, had no 
less attachment to the arts than her lord. She drew in 
crayons, and succeeded admirably in likenesses, but work* 
ing with too much rapidity, did not do justice to her 
genius. ^ 

BOYLE (Hamilton), earl of Cork and Orrery, the se- 
cond sou of John, earl of Orrery, the subject of the last 
article but one, was born in February 1730, and educated 
at Westminster-school, where the masterly manner in 
which he acted the part of Ignoramus, and spoke the epi- 
logue, did great credit to his genius. In June 1748, he 
was inatriculated at Oxford, and December following wa» 
admitted student of Christ-church, and proceeded regularly 
to the degree of LL. B. In 1762 he succeeded his fa- 
ther in the earldom, his elder brother having deceased 
three years before. In 1763, he was created LL. D. by 
diploma, and at the same time appointed high steward of 
the university of Oxford; He continued student of Christ 
church on a faculty till his death, which happened at Mars- 
ton house, Jan. 17, 1764« He is recorded as an author 
from having contributed two papers to the ^^World,^* 
drawn up with vivacity, elegance, and humour, and affording 
a proof that if his life had been continued, be would have 
added new literary honour to his celebrated name and fa- 
mily*. These papers are No. 60 and 170,* 

BOYLE (Henry), Lord Carleton, and lord president of 
the council in the reign of king George I. was descended 
from Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork in Ireland, and was 
third son of Charles lord Clifford of Lanesborough in the 
county of York, by Jane, youngest daughter of William 
Seymour, duke of Somerset. Being elected a member of 
the ^ house of commons, be soon distinguished himself to 

• Among many Won-motf of Hamil- weddioga, his aon» Uien lord Dung ar- 
ton Boyle, Mr. Duncombe recollected van, replied, Utat neither oould he 
the following : his father once wonder- conceive the reason, unless it were 
ing why the Iriih peers were allowed that the Irish peers were expeclod to 
to walk . at royal funerals, but not at hovBL 

1 Biog. Brit, note on the preceding. — Walpole's Painters. — Bowles's Pope's 

* Biog, Brit. toI. K. p. 5^.— British Essay isU, Preface to the World, voL 

BOYLE. 373 

mich advantage, that in March 1700-1, he was appointed 
chancellor and under- treasurer of the exchequer by king 
William, and was admitted into a high degree of favour ana 
confidence with that prince. He continued in that post 
till the 1 1th of February, 1707-8, when he was made one 
of the prhicipal secretaries of state, in the room of Robert 
Harley, esq. and was consequently one of the ministry 
when the reputation of England was carried to so great 
an height, and when the queen obtained so many successes 
in defence of the common cause of Europe. In this sta- 
tion he took all occasions of shewing his regard for men of 
genius and learning ; and soon after the battle of Blen- 
heim, was employed by the lord treasurer Godolphin, at 
the solicitation of the lord Halifax, to go to Mr. Addison, 
and desire him to write some piece, which might transmit 
the memory of that glorious victory to posterity. Mr. Ad- 
dison, who was at that time but indifferently lodged, was 
surprised with this visit from a person of Mr. Boyle's rank 
and station ; who, after having acquainted him with his 
business, added, that the lord treasurer, to encourage him 
to enter upon this subject, had already made him one of 
the commissioners of the appeals ; but entreated him to 
look upon that post only as an earnest of something more 
considerable. In short, Mr. Boyle said so many obliging 
things, and in so gi'aceful a manner, as gave Mr. Addison 
the utmost spirit and encouragement to begin that poem, 
which he entitled ^^ The Campaign ;" soon after the pub- 
lication of which, he was, according to Mr. Boyle's pro* 
mise, preferred to a considerable post. In 1710, Mr. 
Boyle was one of the managers at the trial of Dr. Sache- 
verell ; but upon the general change of the ministry, not 
long after, was dismissed from the post of secretary of state ; 
in which he was succeeded by Henry St John, esq. after- 
wards lord viscount Bolingbroke. " I never," says Swift, 
*^ remember such bold steps taken by a court ; I am al- 
most shocked at it, though 1 did not care if they were all 
hanged." Upon the accession of his late majesty king 
George I. in 1714, be was created a baron of this kingdom, 
by the title of baron Carleton of Carleton, in the county 
of York, and was soon after made lord president of the 
council, in which post he continued till his death, which 
happened on Sunday the 14th of March, 1724-5, at his 
bouse in Pall-mall, now the residence of bis royal high- 
ness the Prince Regent. 

374 BOYLE. 

Mr. Ettdgetl tells us, tk^l hfi was endowed with great 
prudeQce aad a wionLng ^ddres^ ; and thai bis )ong ^xpe- 
riencie in public affairs had giveo hiai a thorough knovr* 
Ledge in business. He spoke frequently wbjje he was a 
member of the bouse of commons; and it was allowed by 
very good judges, that be was oe?er once knowo to say 
w imprudent thing iu a public debate, or to burt the 
cause which he engaged in ; a. cirCumsjLance peculiar to 
himself above most other speakers in so public an assembly. 
The author of the *' Spectator,'' in the dedication to biin 
of the third volume of diat work, observes likewise, that 
there, was no person, whose merit was more .universally 
acknowledged by all parties, and who had made himself 
more friends and fewer enemies : that his great abilitiea 
and unquestioned integrity in those high employments 
which he had passed through, would not have heen able 
to have raised this general approbation, had they not been 
accompanied with that moderation in a high fortune, and 
that afiability of manners, which were so conspicuous 
through all parts of bis life : that his aversion to any osten- 
tatious arts of setting to show those great services whi<^ 
he had done the public, contributed likewise not a little to 
that universal acknowledgment which was paid him by bis 
country : and that he was equally remarkable for the great 
figure which he made in the senate, as for that elegance 
and politeness, which appeared in his more retired con* 
versation. Davis, in his characters published under the 
name of Mackay, says of him, ^^ He is a good companion 
in conversation ; agreeable among the ladies ; serves the 
queen very assiduously in council ; makes a considerable 
figure in the house of commons ; by his prudent adminis- 
tration obliges every body in the exchequer ; and in time 
may prove a great man." To this Swift added in bis copy 
of the book, <* had some very scurvy qualities, particularly 
avarice." ' 

BOYS (Edward), a learned clergyman of the seven- 
teenth centary, and nephew to the dean of Canterbury, 
hereafter mentioned, was of a good family in Kent, and 
was educated at Eton school, from which be was admitted 
a scholar of Corpus Cbristi college, Cambridge, in May 
1620. Here he took the degree of A. B. in 1623, of A. M. 

» Birch's LiYe8.--BudgeII'8 Liyw of Uie Boyles.— Swift's Y^oiliS, yflJ. XIV. 
p. 305. XVill, 230, edit. IBOU 


1627, and was dected feUovr in 16&t. He proceeded 
B. D. and was appointed one of the university preachers in 
1694 ; and in 1640, was presented to the rectory of Maat- 
boy in Norfolk, upon the death of Mr. Thomas D'Engayne ; 
but before be left college, he gave to its library a fine set 
of Binntus's Councils. His patron was William Paslon^ 
es<}. his friend and contemporary at college, to whose sou 
air Robert Paston, bart. of Oxnead in that county, a volume 
of bis '^ SermonS)^' Lond. 1672, 4to, was dedicated some- 
time after bis decease, by his friend the editor, Roger 
Flynt, who had likewise been of Bene't cdilege. He died 
either in 1665 or 1667, March 10. He was a much ad- 
mired pteacher, a favourite of the bishop of Norwich (the 
celebrated Hall), and a chaplain to Charles I. His editor^ 
in the preface to the above *^ Sermons,^ informs us that it 
was with difficulty he obtained leave of the dying author to 
make them public, and pbtained it only upon condition that 
he should say nothing of him. He has, however, given a 
short, but excellent character of him. ^ 

BOYS, orBOIS (John), one of the translators of the Bible 
in the reign of James I. was son of William Bois, rector of 
West-Stowe, near St« Edmundsbury, in Suffolk, and bora 
at Nettlestead in that county, Jan. 3, 1560. He was taught 
the first rudiments of learning by his father ; and his ca- 
pacity was such, that at the age of five years he read the 
Bible in Hebrew, and before he was six could write it in 
an elegant hand. He went afterwards to Hadley school^ 
and at fourteen was admitted of St. JobnU college, Cam« 
bridge, where he distinguished himself by his s^^ill in the 
Greek; and such was his diligence that we are told he 
would go to thq university library in summer, at four in 
the morning, and remain till eight in the evening without 
any intermission. Happening to have the small-pox when 
be was elected fellow, to preserve his seniority, he caused 
himself to be carried, wrapped up in blankets, to be ad- 
mitted. He applied himself for some time to the study of 
medicine, bat fancying himself affected with every disease 
be read of, he quitted that science. June 21, 1583, he 
was ordained deacon, and next day, by virtue of a dispen- 
sation, priest. He was ten years chief Greek lecturer in 
bis college,* and read every day. He voluntarily read a 
Greek leetmw for socAe years, at four in the morning, in 

^ Mssten's Hist, of C. C. C. a 

?76 BOY S. 

bis own chamber, which was frequented by many of the 
fellows. On the death of his father, he succeeded him iu 
the rectory of West Stowe ; but his mother going to live 
with her brother, he resigned that preferment, though he 
might have kept it with his fellowship. At the age of. 
thi(ty-six, he married the daughter of Mr. Holt, rector of 
Poxworth, in Cambridgeshire, whom he succeeded in that 
living, 1596. On quitting the university, the college gave 
him one hundred pounds. His young wife, who was be- 
queathed to him with the living, which was an advowson, 
proving a bad economist, and himself being wholly im-? 
mersed in his studies, he soon became so much in debt, 
that he was forced to sell his choice collection of books to 
a prodigious disadvantage. The loss of his library afflicted 
him so much, that he thought of quitting his native coun- 
try. He was, however, soon reconciled to his wife, and 
be even continued to leave all domestic affairs to her ma- 
pagemen.t. He entered into an agreement with twelve of 
the neighbouring clergy, to meet every Friday at one of 
their houses by turns, to give an account of their studies. 
He usually kept some young scholar in his house, to in-r 
struct his own children, and the poorer sort of the town, 
lis well as several gentlemen's children, who were boarded 
with him. When a new translation of the Bible was, by 
James I. directed to be made, Mr. Bois was elected one of 
the Cambridge translators. He performed not only his 
own, but also the part assigned to another (part of the 
Apocrypha), with great reputation, though with little profit ; 
for he had no allowance but his commons. The king in-^ 
deed nominated him one of thq fellows of his new college 
at Chelsea, but he never derived any benefit, a« the 
scheme was not executed. He was also one of the six who 
met at Stationers-hall to revise the whole tram»lation of the 
Bible, which task they went through in nine months, hav^ 
ing each from the company of stationers during that time 
thirty shillings a week. ^ He afterwards assisted sir Henry 
Saville in pubUshing the works of St. Chrysostom, and re- 
ceived a present of one copy of the book, for many years 
labour spent upon it ; which however was owing to the 
death of sir Henry Saville, who intended to have made 
him fellow of Eton. In 1615, Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bi- 
shop of Ely, bestowed on him, unasked, a prebend in hit 
church. He died 1643, in the 84th year af his age ; leav- 
ing a great many manuscripts behind him* particularly ai 

BOYS. 377 

collation of the text of the Gospels and Acts. Wbeu he 
was a young student at Cambridge, he received from th^ 
learned Dr. Whitaker these three rules, for avoiding those 
distempers which usually attend a sedentary life, to which 
he constantly adhered : the first was, to study always stand* 
ing ; the second, never to study in a window ; the third, 
never to go to bed with his feet cold *. The work men- 
tioned above, which Wolfius says is ^^ Liber ihfrequentissi- 
mus et rarissime occurrens," owing to very few copies hav- 
ing been printed, was entitled " Veteris interpretis cum 
Beza aliisque recentioribus Collatio in Quatuor Evange- 
liis et Apostolorum Actis, autore Johanne Boisio, Eccl. 
Eliensis Canon ico, opus auspiciis rev. Praesulis Lancelot!^ 
Winton. Episc. ceeptum et perfecturo,*' Lond. 1655^ 
12mo. ^ 

BOYS (John), dean of Canterbury, descended from 
John de Bosco, who entered England with the Conqueror, 
and allied to a family so opulent and extensive as to be di- 
vided into eight branches, each residing in their respective 
seats in the county of Kent, was born in 1571. He was 
the fourth son of Thomas Boys of Eythorne in that county, 
esq. by Christian, daughter and co-heiress of John Searles, 
of Wye, esq. Having most probably received the earlier 

* The author of his life having he learned from Tully, viz. " a mis- 
shewn how indefat));able he was in lus spent youth leaves a spent body to 
studies, enters into a very curious ac- old age." According to this rule, his 
count of his manner of liring, which, person, even at the time of his de- 
for the sake of sedentary persons, de- cease, gave evidence of bis having 
serves to be taken notice of. He made lived virtuously and soberly in the 
but two meafs, dinner and supper^ days of his youth; for his brow was 
between which, if well, he never so without wrinkles, his sight was quick* 
much as drank. Afuir meat he was his hearing sharp, his countenance 
^ery careful in picking and rubbing fresh, his head not bald, and his body 
bis teeth, by which means he carried perfectly sound, a rupture only ex. 
tbem almost nil to his grave. After cepted ; which accident, when it first 
dinner he either sat ur walked an hour befel him, a person skilled in the cure 
before he went into his study. Fasting of that distemper, told him he could 
he used occasionally, bometimes twice not survive half a year, in hopes of 
in a week, sometimes once m three getting a considerable sum out of him 
weeks. Towards the latter end of his for renewmg, which he pretended was 
life he would not. study after supper, in his power, of a lease so near exptr* 
but diverted himselt wiih cheerful con- ing. But the doctor, either having no 
versalion fr two hours, at which opinionof this man's skill, or not think- 
time he would divert his friends with ing his own caste so desperate, declined 
harmless and entertaining stories, of his assistance, and defeated bis pre- 
which be had a great fund. He had a diction, by living twenty years with* 
Saying in his mouth frequently, which out any great inconvenience. 

1 Biog. Brit. — Peck's Desiderata, vol. II. where is his Life by Dr. Anthony 
Walker, a very curious and interesting work. — Peck's Cromwel(, Collectipnii; 
]f. 94.— WaUon's Halifax, p. 4C0,— Wood's Fasti^ vol. L 

$T» B o r a 

pVt of his education at the king's school in Canterbaiy, Be. 
went to Cambridge in 15S6, where be became a scholar of 
Corpus Christ! college, and proceeded to the degree of 
M. A. in 1593. He was about this time elected to a fel* 
lowship of Clare- ball, which is appropriated to a oatire of 

He entered on the dnties of a parish priest first at Hol^ 
lingbourne in bis native county, of which place, however^ 
be was not the yicar, as Mr. Masters conjectures ; and to 
the inhabitants of it he dedicated his Exposition of the 
Festival Epistles and Gospels. In 1597, he was preferred 
by his uncle, sir John Boys, who had been the patron of 
his studies at the university, to the rectory of Bettishanger 
near Deal. In the same year he was also collated by arch« 
bishop Whitgift to the mastership of East-bridge hospital 
in Canterbury. In 1592/, the same patron presented him 
to tlie vicarage of Tilmanstone, adjoining to Bettishanger. 
He had now acquired the character of a distinguished the- 
ologist, and proceeded soon afterwards to the degree of 
D. D* He was likewise what then was termed '^ a painful 
preacher/' one who in preaching was frequent and labori-* 
ous, as his works testify, which were aU delivered ori- 
ginally in the pulpit. 

His merit becoming known to James I. be was appointed 
one of the first fellows of Chelsea-college ; but that scheme, 
as we have had occasion to remark in the preceding arti- 
xle, never having been carried into execution, his title 
was only nominal. Of this college we shall give some ac- 
count in the life of Dr. Sutclifl'e the founder.* In 1618, 
Dr. Boys was collated«by archbishop Abbot to the rettory 
of Great Mougeham, adjoining also to his benefice of Bet- 
tishanger,. and resigned the vicarage of Tilmanstone. On 
the death of Mr. Fotherby, king James promoted him to 
the deanry of Canterbury, to which he was admitted May 
9, 16 i9; but this preferment he did not enjoy Long, dying 
suddenly in his study Sept. 26, 1625, aged fifty-four. 

If wo examine his " Postils,^' or the Defence of our 
Liturgy, we shall have reason to admire his unwearied di- 
ligence, and his profound kuowledge ; to respect him as » 
scholar and a divine. His style, indeed, partakes of the 
quaintness of the age, but upon the whole we think him 
less biameable on this score than some of his contempora- 
ries. His main object was opposition to popery. He ac«- 
cordingly attacks the pope both with unsparing ridiculci^ 

BOYS. Bl$ 

und with elaborate argmnient. lo a aermon preached on 
the Giiupoivder treasan^ be introduced a parody o» the 
Lord's Prayer m Latin, ** Papa noster qui es liontty ma*' 
ledicetur nomeQ tuuiD, intereat regnuoi tuuoi, impediatur 
voluntas tua, aicut in oaelo sic et in terra. Potum oostruiii 
in coena dominica da nobis hodie, et remitte iiuiniBoa' 
nostros <juoa tibi dedioius ob induigentias, et ne nos in- 
ducas in bsresin. Bed libera noa a miseria, qiumiam tuum 
est inferoum, pix et sulphur in sa^ula sseculoi-uai.'* Grau* 
ger gives this prayer in English, as if Dr. Boys had used 
it in that la-nguage, and adds, what be certainly could not 
know, that ^^ he gained great i^plauae by turning the 
Lord's Prayer into an execration." The truth is, he only 
quatei it, saying '* I have another prayer, aad forasmuch 
as it is in Latin, &c." It occurs in a MS. of sir Henry 
Fynes, who says be found it in an old book. Sir Henry 
Fynes was born in 1587, and Dr. Boys's works could not 
be deemed an old book in his time* 

His ^^ Postils," a series of Sermons on the book of Com- 
mon Prayer, Epistles, and Gospels, &c. were first pub- 
lished ii) 1614, 4to ; and afterwards reprinted in folio, 
1622 and 1629, with some additional lectures. The edi- 
tions of 1622 and 1629 have an engraved frontispiece, with 
four portraits of the author in different attitudes. After 
his death his remains, viz. ^' Certaine Sermons,^ were 
printed, 1631, 4to. He is also said to have written a 
^' Defence of bishop Andrews's Tortura Torti," against Be- 
canus the Jesuit. The manuscript of his Postils was de- 
posited by his nephew Edward in the library of Bene't coU 
lege, Cambridge. ^ 

He married Angela, the daughtei^ of Robert Bargrave 
Ci Bridge, in the county of Kent, esq. and sister to hia 
successor dean Bargrave. She survived him many years, 
and was rudely treated by the nebels in 1 642, at the age 
of eighty. To his memory a very fine monument was 
placed by her, in the dean's chapel, in Canterbury cathe- 
dral, where he was buried. ^ 

BOYS (WitUAM), esq. F. A. and L. S. 8. was bom at 
Deal in Kent, Sept 7, 1735; and was for many years an 
eminent surgeon at Sandwich, in the same county. He 
was the eldest of two sons of the late William Boys, esq. 

» Todd's Df aos of Canterbury.-^M^sters's Hitt ofC. C. C. C FuUer»« Ww. 

thie9.-*Wood*» Fasti, toI. I.— Granger'i HUtorr ^d tetUrs, p. 121, 304.— 
QifH. M«c. vtt XLIl. p. 60, ai. . 

380 B O Y 3. 

commodore by commission in the royal navy, and lieute* 
nant-governor of Greenwich hospital, by his wife Eliza- 
beth Pearson of Deal ; and was descended, paternally, 
from an ancient and knightly family, who were seated at 
Bonnington, in the parish of Goodnestone, in- Kent, at 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

Mr. Boys, early in life, shewed a strong propensity to 
cultivate literature and science. Every moment he could 
spare from his professional duties was devoted to some use- 
ful pursuit. Residing within a mile of Richboroogh, (the 
ancient Rhutupium,) he was soon led to investigate the 
history of his neighbourhood. He acquired an uncommon 
facility in decyphering ancient MSS. and inscriptions ; 
and being fortunately in very easy circumstances, inde- 
pendently of his professional income, he was enabled to 
gratify his taste at no inconsiderable expence ; and gradu- 
ally collected together many valuable and curious books, 
manuscripts, coins, and other antiquities. He likewise ap- 
plied himself witli great zeal and success to the study of 
natural history; to mathematics, astronomy, and other 
branches of philosophy. In 1786 he circulated, among 
bis friends, proposals to print, privately, " Collections for 
a History of Sandwich, with notices of the other Chique 
ports ; and of Richborough." Disclaiming all views of 
profit, he proposed to fix such a price on the work as 
should merely defray the expence of printing and engrav- 
ing ; and so conscientiously did he adhere to this proposal, 
that, after the distribution of the book, he found himself 
a considerable loser. A part of the volume (printed at the 
Canterbury press) appeared in 1788; and a second part, 
completing this elaborate and valuable work, in 1792; 
making together a volume in quarto of 877 pages. 

This was his principal literary production ; but being of 
a most liberal and communicative disposition, he was at 
all times ready to assist his friends with hints and observa- 
tions on any subject which had engaged his attention. 
Thus, in 1783, we find him communicating, to the late rev. 
John Duncombe some '^ Observations on the Antiquities 
of Reculver ;'' which are inserted by that writer in his His- 
tpry of Reculver and Herne: and, in 1784, appeared a 
small work of 25 pages in quarto, with three plates, en- 
titled " A Collection of the minute and rare Shells lately 
discovered in the sand of the sea-shore near Sandwich, by 
William Boys, esq. F. S. A. considerably augmented, and 

BOYS. 381 

m\\ th^r figures accurately drawn, as magnified with the 
microscope, by George Walker, bookseller at Faversham ;^' 
which in the preface is candidly acknowledged, by the 
editor, to be the joint production of Mr. Boys and himself, 
assisted by their common friend, the late Edward Jacobs 
esq. of Faversham. Plancus, in a treatise '^ De Conchis 
minus notis," printed at Venice in 1739, is the only writer 
who had before described shells so minute as those which 
are the subject of Mr. Walker's work. 

In 1787, Mn Boys printed, in 40 pages quarto, an af- 
fecting narrative, drawn up by his father, lieutenant-go- 
vernor Boys, and left by him in manuscript (a copy of 
which has since been inserted in the History of Greenwich 
Hospital), entitled, ^' An account of the Loss of the Lus- 
borough Galley by Fire, on her voyage from Jamaica to 
.London, with the sufferings of her crew, in the year 1727; 
by William Boys, second mate ;" to which he added a 
preface and an appendix containing some additional anec- 
dotes of the sufferers. 

In 1792, Mr. Boys communicated to the society of anti- 
quaries '^ Observations on Kits-Coity house in Kent," which 
have been inserted in the Archaeologia, vol. XI. ; and Mr. 
Pennant, Dr. Latham, and many other antiquaries and na- 
turalists in their respective works acknowledge their obli- 
gations for assistance contributed by him. Dr. Latham, in 
his Index Ornithologicus, has given his name to a new spe- 
cies of Fern communicated by Mr. Boys. In 1737 Mr. 
Boys was appointed surgeon to the sick and wounded sea- 
men at Desd ; but this appointment, during the progress of 
the late war, was found to require so much of his time 
and attention that in 1796 he was induced to relin- 
quish entirely his medical practice at Sandwich, and to 
reside near the naval hospital at Walmer till 1799, when 
the commissioners of the sick and hurt office accepted his 
resignation of the oflGlce of surgeon of the hospital, and ap- 
pointed to it his fourth son, Edward Boys, M. D. who now 
holds it. At this period he returned to Sandwich, but with 
very impaired health. In the month of February of that 
year, he had a slight attack of apoplexy, and in December 
following, another and more alarming paroxysm occurred, 
from the effects of which he did not recover for nine or ten 
months. On the 2d of March 1803, his servant, on coming 
into the parlour where he was sitting after breakfast, found 
bim fallen back in his chair in a state of apoplexy. He 

S83 B O T S. 

remained m this state^ bat with symptoms which, for soma 
days^ at intervals, encouraged his friends to hope that be 
might still recover, till the 15ch of the same month in the 
after]K>on, when he placidly breathed his last. 

He was for many years a very useful magistrate of the 
totm in which he resided ; havmg been elected a jurat of 
Sandwieh in 1761, and sewed the oftice of mavor in- P767 
and 1782. In 1775, when the corporation found it expe- 
dient to oppose an inten<ied act of parliament for draining 
the general valleys of East Kent, on the grounds that the 
TOfoedy proposed to be adopted might, without effecting 
the pro£e»ed object of the bill, prejudice, if not totally 
destroy, the haven and harbour of Sandwich ; Mr. Boys 
drew up* a very sensible memorial on the subject, which 
waa printed in 4to at the Canterbury press, bot without his 
name, onder the title of '' I'be Case of the inhabitants and 
corporation of the town and port of Sandwich, in the 
eoanty of Kent^ touching a bill lately brought into the 
house of commons, to enable the commissioners of sewers, 
for several limitsin the eastern parts of the county of Kent, 
more effectually to drain and improve the lande within the 
general valleys." The attention be paid to this subject ren- 
dered him afterwards very useful as one of the commis- 
sioners of sewers for East Kent, at whose meetings he was 
a constant attendant as long as his health permitted. 

He was twice married, first in 1759, to Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Benry.Wise, jurat of Sandwich, who died in 
1761, by whom he had a son- and daughter : and secondly, 
in 17&3, to Jane, daughter of Thomas Fullef, esq. and co- 
heiress of her uncle John Paramor, esq. of Statenborough, 
who died in 1783, and by whom he had eight children. An: 
elegant mural monument has been erected itv the parish 
church of Su Clement at Sandwich, by his family, with a 
Latin inscription '. 

BO YS£ (Joseph,) a protestant dissenting minister, was 
bom at Leeds in Yoi*kshire, in January, 1659-60. Ailer 
eariy instruction under the care of his parents, he received 
the first part of his education for the ministry at the private 
academy of the rev. Mr. Frankland, near Kendal, in West- 
moreland, and completed it under the tuition of the rev. 
Mr. Edward Veal, who kept a private academy at Stepney, 
Bear London. Having continued in these seminaries five 
years, and availed himself of the- opportunities which he 

> Qent Mmir. toI. LXXIU. p. 893, 4SI, and vol. LXXXIL part I. p. SOT. 


B O r S £. S8S 

enjoyed in the latter situation of attending on the preaching 
of many able divines, both conrorniists and non^conibrneiists, 
be entered on the exercise of his ministry about the year 
1630. In 1683, finding that he could not discharge the 
duties of his function in England without molestation, he 
accepted an invitation to be joint pastor with Mr. (after-> 
'wards Dr.) Daniel Williams^ in Dublin; and had afterwards 
for his coadjutor the rev. Mr. Thomas Emiyn, so well known 
for his writings and his sufferings. This connection sub-* 
aisted for more than ten years with mutual friendship and 
uninterrupted harmony ; but it was at length dissolved in 
consequence of Mr. £mlyn*s sentiments concerning the 
doctrine of the Trinity. On this occasion the zeal of Mr. 
Boyse for the orthodox led him to take some steps that were 
thought injurious to hi» former colleague, and inconsistent 
with the friendship that had subsisted betw^eiv them*; 
though he disapproved the prosecution which Mr. Emlyn 
suffered, and behaved towards him with a greater degree of 
kindness than any of the other dissenting ministers of Dufo-* 
lin. The latter years of Mr. Boyse's life were embittered 
by bodily disorders and straitened circumstances. His 
funeral sermon was preached in December, 1728 ; but the 
precise time of his death is not known. He was considered 
as a pious, learned, and useful divine ; assiduous in the ex- 
ercise of his ministry, and in bis conduct generally es«> 
teemed. He had a principal concern in promoting the act 
of toleration in Ireland. His works were published in 1728, 
in 2 vols. fol. The first contains 71 sermons^ 6 disserta- 
tions on the doctrine of justification, and a paraphrase oa. 
those passages of the New Testament which chiefly relate to 
that doctrine. One of his sermons, originally printed se^ 
parately, on " the OflSce of a Christian Bishop," was or*- 
dered to be burnt by the Irish parliament in Nov. 171 L. 
The second volume contains several pieces, of which thi3 
principal isa " Vindication of the true Deity of ourblesseil 
Saviqur,'* in answer to Mr. EmIynV" Humble inquiry into 
the Scripture account of Jesus Christ, &c." An Mr. 
Boyse^s answer was published at the time when Mr. lilmlyu 
was under prosecution for his sentiments, bis condu ct diil 
not escape censure from the friends of Emlyn, who did not 
diink it candid, liberal, or ingenuous ^ 

BOYSE (Samuel), the only son of the preceding., and 
svhoae life affords an excdlent moral, was born in the year 

> Biof . Brit— SwUt'i Workt, vol XI. p. 194. 

384 B O Y S E. 

1708) and after receiving the rudiments of education in 
a private school in Dubiiny.was sent at the age of eighteen 
to the university of Glasgow. His father's intention was^ 
that he might cultivate the studies that are preparatory to 
entering into the ministry, but before he had resided many 
mouths at Glasgow, he contracted an attachment for a Miss 
Atchenson, the daughter of a tradesman in that city, and 
married her about a year after, probably without the con- 
sent of the parents on either side. By this imprudent 
match his studies were in some measure interrupted, and 
his expenses increased. The family of his wife were either 
unwilling or unable to support their new relation, and he 
soon found it necessary to repair to Dublia in hopes of re- 
ceiving assistance from his father. On this expedition he 
Was accompanied by his wife and her sister ; but uotwith-^ 
standing this additional incumbrance, and the general le- 
vity of his conduct, his falher received him with kindness, 
and out of the scanty and precarious income which he de« 
rived from his congregation by voluntary subscriptions^ and 
from a small estate of eighty pounds a year in Yorkshire^ 
endeavoured to maintain his son, and to reclaim him to the 
prosecution of his studies. Tenderness like this, however, 
which only to mention is to excite gratitude, produced no 
corresponding effects on our poet, who abandoned his mind 
and time to dissipation and idleness, without a thought of 
what he owed to his father or to himself. In this course too 
he was unhappily encouraged by the girl he married, who, 
while she imposed upon the good old man by a show of de« 
cency, and even sanctity, became in fact devoid of all 
shame, and at length shared her favours with other meu, 
and that not without the knowledge of her husband, who is 
»aid to have either wanted resolution to resent her infidelity, 
or was reconciled by a share of the profits of his dishonour. 
i>uch a connection and such a mind, at an age when the 
iinanly and ingenuous feelings are usually strongest, may 
(;asily account for the miseries of his subsequent life. 

His father died in the year 1728, and his whole property 
having' been exhausted in the support of his son, the latter 
repaired in 1730 to Edinburgh, where his poetical genius 
raised him many friends and some patrons of considerable 
eminence, particularly the lords Stair, Tweedale, and 
Storm ont; and there is some reason to think that he was 
occasionally entertained at their houses. In 1731, he pub- 
lished a volume of poeias^ to which was subjoiued a transla- 

B Y S £. zii 

lion of the Tablature of Cebes, and a Letter upon Liberty 
which bad been before published in the Dubliit Journal. 
This volutne, which was addressed to the countess of Eg* 
linton, a lady of great accooipIishmentSy procured him 
much reputation. He also wrote an elegy on the viscountess 
Storroont, entitled, " The Teirs of the Muses,'* in com- 
pliment to her ladyship's taste as a patroness of poets. 
Lord Stormont was so much pleased with this mark of fe- 
spect to the memory of his lady, that he ordered a hand- 
some present to be made to the author, whom, however, it 
was not easy to find. Such was Boyse^s unsocial turn and 
aversion to decent company, that his person was ' known 
only among the lower orders, and Lord Stormont's gene^ 
rous intention would have been frustrated, if his agent had 
not put an advertisement into the papers desiring the author 
of ** The Tears of the Muses" to call upon him. By means 
of lady Eglinton and lord Stormont, Boyse became known 
to the duchess of Gordon, who likewise was a person of li- 
terary taste, and cultivated the correspondence of some of 
the most eminent poets of her time. She was so desirous 
to raise Boyse above necessity, that she employed her in« 
terest in procuring the promise of a place for him ; and 
accordingly gave him a letter, which he was next day to 
deliver to one of the commissioners of the customs at Edin- 
burgh. *^ But it unluckily happened that he was then some 
miles distant from the city, and the morning ou. which he 
was to have ridden to town wiih her grace's letter, proved 
to be rainy. This trivial circumstance was sufficient to dis- 
courage Boyse, who was never accustomed to look beyond 
the present moment: he declined going to town on account 
of the rainy weather ; and while he let slip the opportu* 
nity, the place was bestowed upon another, which the com- 
missioner declared he kept for 50771^ /tm^vacant, in expecta- 
tion of seeing a person recommended by the duchess of 

Such is the story of this disappointment in which all 
Boyse's biographers have acquiesced, although it is not 
very consistently told. If the commissioner kept the plac^ 
open for s&mt time, which seems to imply weeks, Boyse 
might have easily repaired the neglect of not presenting bis 
letter next day ; but the truth perhaps was that he disliked 
the offer of regular employment, and loitered about until 
he could pretend that it was no longer in his choice. It is 

Vol. VL C c 

3S6 B O Y S E. 

certain that this as. well as every other kind intention of ht» 
patrons in Scotiaud,. were defeated by his perverse conduct, 
and that he remained at Edinburgh until contempt and po- 
verty were followed by the dread of a jail. 

While any prospect, however, remained of a more advan- 
tageous lot, he could still depend on the friends who (trst 
noiiced him, and he had no sooner communicated bis design 
of going to England, than the duchess of Gordon gave him 
a recommendatory letter to Mn Pope, and obtained another 
for him to sir Peter King, then lord chancellor. Lord Stor- 
. mont also recommended him to his brother, the solicitor ge- 
neral, afterwards the celebrated lord Mansfield. On his ar- 
rival in London, in 1 7 37, he waited on Pope*,.but, ashe hap- 
pened to be from home, he never repeated the visit. By the 
lord chancellor he is said to have been received with kindness, 
and to have occasionally been admitted to his lordship's ta- 
ble: so sordid were his habits, however, and such his aver- 
sion to polite company, that this latter part of his history^ 
which he used to relate himself, has been doubted by those 
who lived near enough to the time to have known the fact. 
But whatever advantage he derived from the recommenda- 
^ lions he brought from Scotland, it does not appear that it' 
made any alteration in his habits^ In London he was soon 
reduced to indigence, from which he attempted no means 
of extricating himself, but by writing complimentary po* 
ems, or mendicant letters, except that he frequently ap- 
plied for assistance to some of the more eminent dissenters, 
from whom he received many benefactions, in consequence 
of the respect which they paid to the memory of his father. 
But such supplies were soon dissipated in the lowest gratifi- 
cations, and his friends were at length tired of exerting their 
bounty that was so useless to the object of it. The author 
of his life in Cibber^s work informs us, that often, wbeo 
he had received half a guinea, in consequence of a suppli- 
cating letter, he would go into a tavern, order a supper ta 
b^ prepared, drink of the richest wines, and spend all the 
iponey that had been just given him in charity, without. 
having any one to participate and regale with him, and 
while his wife and child were starving at home. 

About the year, 1738 he published a second volume of 
ppems, but with what success ia not known ; and, aa he did 

* There ii some reason tothink that been ashamed to hare written. Bajse 

be was afterwards known to Pope> who complains to one of his correfpondeots 

acknowledged (hat there were lines in that nothing was approved of, unless 

bit Deity whicb ba should not have sanctioaed hj the iAfailibiHtf of a Port* 

B O Y S E. 387 

not put his name to this volume^ his biographer has not 
been able to find any mention of it. In the year 1740 he 
was reduced to the lowest state of poverty, having no clotlies. 
left in which he could appear abroad ; and what bare sub- 
sistence be procured was by writing occasional poems for 
the magazines. Of the disposition of his apparel, Mr. Ni- 
chols received from Dr. Johnson, who knew him well, the 
following' account. He used to pawn what he had of this 
sort, and it was no sooner redeemed by his friends, than 
pawned again. On one occasion Dr. Johnson collected a 
sum of money for this purpose*, and in two days the clothes 
were pawned again. In this state he renjained in bed, with 
no other covering than a blanket, with two holes, through 
which he passed his arms when he sat up to write. The au- 
thor of his life in Gibber, adds, that when his distresses 
ware so pressing as to induce him^to dispose of his shirt, he 
used to cut some white paper in slips, which he tied round , 
his wrists, and in the same manner supplied his neck. In 
this plight he frequently appeared abroad, while his other 
apparel was scarcely sufficient for the purposes of decency. 
While in this wretched state, he published " The DEitY," 
a poem f, which was highly praised by some of the best 
critics of the age. Among those whose praise was of con- ' 
siderable value, Hervey introduced the mention of it in his 
Meditations, ''as a beautiful and instructive poem ;'' and' 
Fielding, in bis Tom Jones, after extracting a few lines, 
adds that they are taken from '' a very noble poem called 
the Deity, published about nine years ago (1749), and long 
since buried in oblivion ; a proof that good books no more, 
than good meq, do always survive the bad.'* These enco« 
miums tended to revive the poem, of which a third edition 
was published in 1752 ; and it has since been reprinted in 
various collections |. An account of the Deity was sent to 
the Gentleman's Magazine, and, although not inserted, 

^ *< The ram (said Johnson) was col- to genUemeo likely to make him a pve* 

lected by sixpences, at a time when to sent, before the time of general. publU 

nie sixpence was a serions considera- cation. This letter, ,it must be aidded, 

tioB." BosweU's Life of Johnson. oooclodes with returning a shilling 

f The Oeitt was published in 1740, which sir Hans Sloane had sent him, 

as appears by the notices of books in as it was net a good one. 

the Gentleman's Magazine, yet in a J Fielding's rpspect lor this fioett 

• letter from the author to sir Hans was uniform. He praised it in a perio- 

Sloane, now in the British Museum, dical paper called The Champion, dated 

dated Feb. 14, 1738-9, he reminds sir Feb. U, 1739-40, but at the same Ume 

Hans, who denied any knowledge of points on| its defeoW, andaeemf toob* 

him, that he had sent him this poem, ject to the auihor't orthodoxy, 
Frobably Boyse lent oopiei in this way 

C C2 

38S JB O Y S E. . 

was probably the means of Boyse's introduction to Mr» 
Cave, from whom he obtained some supplies for writing 
and translating in that jour ual between the years 1741 and 
1743. Cave's practice was to pay by the hundred lines, 
which after a while he wanted poor Boyse to make what is 
called the hng hundred. His usual signature for his poems 
was Y. or Alaeus. When in a spunging-house in Grocer*s- 
alley, in the Poultry, he wrote the following letter to Cave, 
which was communicated by the late Mr. Astle to the edi- 
tor of the Biographia Britannica. 

^< Inscription for St. Lazarus* Cave. 

Hodie^ teste coelo summo^ 
Sinepanno, sinenummo, 
Sorte positus infest^, 
Scribo tibi dolens mcest^ : 
Fame^ bile^ tumet jecur, ^ 

Urbane^ mitteopem^ precor^ 
Tibi enim cor humanum 
Non k malls alienum : 
Mihi mens nee male grata. 
Pro h, te faiYore data. 
Ex gehensa debitoria, Alcjbusv 

Vulgo domo spongiatoria. 

« Sir, 
*^ I wrote you yesterday an account of my unhappy case. 
I am every moment threatened to be turned out here, be- 
cause I have not money to pay for my bed two nights past, 
which is usually paid before-hand, and I am loth to go into 
the Compter Uill I can see if my affair can possibly be made 
up : I hope therefore you will have the humanity to send me 
half a guinea for support, Uill I finish your papers in my 
hands. — ^The Ode to the British Nation I hope to have done 
to-day, and want a proof copy of that part of Stowe you 
design for the present magazine, that it may be improved 
as far as possible from your assistance. Your papers are but 
ill transcribed. I agree with you as to St. Augustine^s Cave. 
I humbly entreat your answer, having not tasted any thing 
since Tuesday evening I came here, and my ooat will be 
taken off my back for the charge of the bed, so that 1 must 
go into prison naked, which is too shocking for me to 
think of. 

** I am, with sincere regsyrd. Sir, 

Your unfortunate humble servant, 
Crown Coffee-house, Grocers* 8* BOYSE* 

aHey, Poultry, July 21, 17A2* 

B O Y S E. 389 

"July 21, 1742. 
*' Received from Mr. Cave the sum of half a guinea, by 
me, in confinement. S. BOYSE. 

« 10^. ed. Sent. . 
" I send Mr. Van Haren*s Ode on Britain.'* 

" To Mr- Cave, at St. Jobn*s-gate, Clerkenwell.'* 

The Ode on the British Nation, mentioned here, is a 
translation from Van Haren, a Dutch poet, from whose 
works he translated some other passages. The *' part of 
Stowe" was a part of his poem on lord Cobham's gardens. 

The greater number of the poems which he wrote for the 
Gentleman's Magazine during the years above mentioned, 
are reprinted in the late edition of the English Poets ; but 
all of bis fugitive pieces were not written for the magazine, 
sonpe of them having been composed long before he had 
formed a connection with Cave, and, as there is reason to 
believe, sent in manuscript to such persons as were likely 
to make him a pecuniary return. 

By a letter to Dr. Birch ^, dated Oct 23, 1742, it ap- 
pears that he had, among many similar projects, an in- 
tention of publishing a translation of Voltaire's poetical 
works, and sent to the Doctor a specimen of three of bis Ethic 
epistles. On the next day, he sent another letter suppli- 
cating assistance, an4 assuring Dr. Birch that his distress 
was not in any way the effect of his own misconduct ! In a 
letter dated Nov. 5, after acknowledging Dr. Birch's kind- 
ness to him, and urging him to make his case known to 
others, he gives the following account of himself: 

'^ I am. Sir, the only son of Mr. Boyse of Dublin, a man 
whose character and writings are well known. My father 
died in 1728 in very involved circumstances, so that I had 
nothing left to trust to, but a liberal education. In 1730 I 
removed to Edinburgh, where I published a Collection of 
Poems vnth a translation of the Tablature of Cebes. After 
^ some years $tay there, and many disappointments, I came 
in 1737 to London, where I have done several es^ys in the 
literary way (chiefly poetry) with but slender encourage-' 
ment. Mr. Cave, for. whose magazine I have done many 
things, and at whose desire I removed to this neighbour- 
hood (St John's-court, Clerkenwell,) has not used me so 
lundly as the sense he expressed of my services gave me 
veason to expect Learning, however it may be a conso* 

« MSS. Birclb 4301, in Brit Mas. 

390 B O Y S E. 

lation under afllictioDy is no security against the common 
calamities of life. I think myself capable of business in 
the literary way, but by my late necessities am unhap* 
pily reduced to an incapacity of going abroad to seek it. 
I have reason to believe, could 1 wait on lord Halifax 
(which a small matter would enable me to do) I should re- 
ceive some gratuity for my dedication, so as to make me 
easy. This is all tbe hope I have left to save me from the 
ruin that seems to threaten me if I continue longer in the 
condition 1 1am in : and as I should be willing most grate- 
fully to repay any assistance I might receive out of my 
lord's bounty, so I should ever retain a deep impression of 
the obligation. I humbly beg you will forgive this liberty, 
and believe me, with the greatest gratitude and esteem, 

" Yours, &c. 

'^ P. S. Mrs. Boyse has so deep a sense of your goodness 
that it is with difficulty she undertakes this." 

Mrs. Boyse was generally employed in conveying his let- 
ters of this description, and if she felt so much on deliver- 
ing the above, her feelings were again tried on the 16th of 
the same month, when.fioyse sent another importunate 
letter, which Dr. Birch probably found it necessary to dis- 
regard. When he had thus exhausted the patience of some, 
be made attempts on the humanity of others by yet meaner 
expedients. One of these was to employ his wife in cir- 
culating a reoort that he was just expiring; and many of 
his friends were surprized to meet the man in the streets 
to-day, to whom they had yesterday sent relief, as to & 
person on the verge of dissolution. Proposals for works 
written, or to be written, was a more common trick : besides 
the translation of Voltaire, we find him, in one of hb let- 
ters, thanking sir Hans Sloane^s goodness in encouraging 
bis proposals for a life of sir Francis Drake. But these ex- 
pedients soon lost their effect : his friends became ashamed 
of his repeated frauds £Lnd general meanness of conduct, 
and could only mix with their contempt some hope that his 
brain was disordered. 

In 1743^ he published without his name, an ode on the 
battle of Dettingen, entitled ^< Aibian*s Triurhph," a frag« 
ment of which is printed in the last edition of the Poets. 
In 1745 we find him at Reading, where he was employed 
by the late Mr. David Henry in compihng a Work, pub- 
Usbed in 1747j in two volumes octavo, undetr the'title of 
*^ An iiistorical Review of the Transactions of Europe, 

B »0 T » E. ' 391 

&aai the commencenent «f tlie war with Spain in 1?39 to 
the insurrection in Scotland in 1745 ; with the proceedings 
in parliamenty and the most remarkable domestic occur- 
rences during that period. To which is added. An impar- 
tiai History of 'the late Rebellion, interspersed with cha- 
racters and memoirs, and illustrated with notes." 1 o this 
he affixed his name, with the addition of M. A. a degree 
which it is probable he assumed without authority. 7'he 
work, however, considered as a compilation of recent and 
ooasequently very iroperfectly^known events, is said to 
possess considerable merit. In a letter, published by Mr. 
Nichols, we have some information relative to it, and to 
the present state of his mind and situation.— -^^^ My salary 
is wretchedly small (half a guinea a week) both for writing 
the history and correcting the press; but 1 bless God f 
enjoy a greater degree of health than I have known for 
many years, and a serene melancholy, which I prefer to 
the most poignant sensations of pleasure I ever knew. — All 
I sigh for is a settlement, with some degree of independ- 
ence, for my last stage of life, that 1 may have the comfort 
of my poor dear girl to be near me, and close my eyes. 
I should be glad to know if you have seen my history, from 
which you must not expect great things, as I have been 
over-persuaded to put my name to a composure, for which 
we ought to have had at least more time and better ma- 
terials, and from which I have neither profit nor reputation 
to expert. I am now beginning * The ^History of the 
Rebellion,' a very ditficult and invidious task. All the 
accounts I have yet seen are either defective, confused^ 
or heavy. I think myself, from my long residence in Scot- 
land, not unqualified for the sittempt, but I apprehend it 
is premature ; and, by waiting a year or two, better ma- 
terialfi would offer. Some account, I think, will probably 
be published abroad, and give us light into many things 
we are now at a loss to account for. I am. about a trans- 
lation (at my leisure hours) of an invaluable l«rench work^ 
entitled * L'Histoire Universelle," by the late M. Bossuet, 
bishop of Meaux, and preceptor to the dauphin, eldest 
son of Lewis XIV. I propose only to give his dissertations 
•n the ancient empires, viz. the Egyptian, Assyrian, Gre- 
cian, and Roman, which he hals described with surprising 
csonciseness, and with equal judgment and beauty. 1 de- 
sign to inscribe it to the right honourat)le Mr. Lyttelton, 
one of the lords of the treasury, one of the most aimiabte 

892 B O Y S E. . 

men I have ever known, and to whose uncommon good- 
ness, if you knew my obligations, you would esteem him 
as much as he deserves.'^ 

During bis residence at Reading, his wife died, and 
notwithstanding the good sense expressed in the above 
letter, he put on airs of concern on this occasion, which 
inclines us to think that intemperance bad in some degree 
injured his reason. Being unable to purchase mouniing, 
he tied a piece of black ribbon round the neck of a lap- 
dog which he carried about in his arms ; and when in li- 
quor, he always indulged a dream of his wife's being still 
alive, aqd would talk very spitefully of those by whom he 
suspected she was entertained. This he never mentioned, 
however, but in his cups, which was as often as he had 
money to spend. The manner, it is added, by his bio- 
grapher, of his becoming intoxicated, was very particular. 
As he had no spirit to keep good company, he retired to 
some obscure alehouse, and regaled himself with hot two* 
penny, which, though he drank in very great quantities, 
yet he had never more than a pennyworth at a time. Such 
a practice rendered him so completely sottish, that his 
abilities, as an author, were sensibly impaired. 

After his return from Reading, bis behaviour, it is said^ 
became so decent, that hopes were entertained of his re- 
formation. He now obtained some employment from the 
booksellers in translating, of which, from the French lan- 
guage at least, he was very capable ; but his former irre- 
gularities had gradually undermined his constitution, and 
enfeebled his powers both of body and mind. He died, 
after a lingering illness, in obscure lodgings near Sboe- 
lane, in the month of May 1 749. The manner of his death 
is variously related. Mr. Giles, a collector of poems, says 
he was informed by Mr. Sandby, the bookseller, that Boyse 
was found dead in his bed, with a pen in his hand, and in 
the act of writing : and Dr. Johnson informed Mr. Nichols 
that he was run over by a coach, when in a fit of intoxica*^ 
tion ; or that he was brought home in such a condition as 
to make this probable, but too far gone to be able to give 
^ny account of the accident. 

Another of Mr. Nichols's correspondents produces a 
letter from Mr. Stewart, the son of a bookseller at Edin- 
burgh, who had long been intimately acquainted with Mr. 
Boyse, in which the particulars of bis death are related ia 
1^ different mapuer^ 

fi O Y S E. < S93 

" Poor Mr. Boyse was one evening last winter attacked 
ID Westminster by two or three soldiers, who not only 
robbed him, but used him so barbarously, that he never 
recovered the bruises he received, which might very pro- 
bably induce the consumption of which he died. About 
nine^iuonths before his death he married a cutler's widow, 
SL native of Dublin, with whom he had no money ; but she 
proved a very careful nurse to him during his lingering 
indisposition. She told me, that Mr. Boyse never ima- 
gined he was dying, as be always was talking of his reco- 
very ; but, perhaps, his design in this might be to comfort 
her, for one incident makes me think otherwise. About 
four or five weeks before he breathed his last, his wife 
went out in the morning, and was surprised to find a great 
deal of burnt papers upon the hearth, which be told her 
were old bills and accompts ; but I suppose were his ma« 
iiuscripts, which he had resolved to destroy, for nothing 
of that kind could be found after his death. Though from 
this circumstance it may be inferred that he was appre- 
hensive of death, yet, I miist own, that he never intimated 
it to me, nor did he seem in the least desirous of any 
spiritual advice. For some months before his end, he had 
left off drinking all ferm'ented liquors, except now and 
then a glass of wine to support his spirits, and that he 
took very moderately. After his death I endeavoured all 
I could to get him decently buried,