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Printed by Nichols, Sow, and Buouv, 
Red Lion Pftisagt, Fleet Street, Loiidjffi. 



flOARE (William), an ingenious and amiable English 
artist, was born about the year 1707, at Eye, near Ipswich, 
in Suffolk. His father was possessed of considerable pro- 
perty, holding a farm of large extent in his owu hands. 
William shewing very early a disposition to study, was sent 
to a school at Faringdon in Berkshire, where the master 
enjoyed a high reputation for classical learning. The pupil 
eagerly availed himself of every opportunity of improve- 
ment, and in the course of a few years attained such a 
degree of proficiency as to assist his master occasionally in 
the tuition of the other scholars. To these acquirements 
be added no indifferent skill in drawing, which was also 
taught in the school ; and be soon distinguished himself 
above his competitors in the prize exhibitions, which took 
place once a year. Indulging the bent of his mind to this 
art, be solicited and obtained his father's permission to 
follow bis studies in painting with a professional view. For 
this purpose, after having completed the school courses 
with great credit to himself, he was removed to London, 
where be was placed under the care of Grisoni, an Italian 
painter of history, the best, and perhaps the only one, 
which that time afforded. Grisoni, however, was at the 
best a very poor painter, and the example of his works 
was little calculated to produce eminence in his scholar. 
But he was a man of sound judgment and benevolent dis- 
position, and it is probable that the sense of his own in- 
sufficiency induced him to persuade young William to 
seek a more satisfactory guidance in the pursuit to which 
be devoted himself so earnestly. The .schools of Italy 
appeared to him the place to which a learner should resort 
for the means of accomplishment in his art. William 
Vol. XVIII. B 

2 H O A R E. 

caught the suggestion with eagerness, and the father's per- 
mission was again earnestly sought, for visiting the foreign 
treasures of painting and sculpture, which were then 
known to the English only through the communications of 
such of our gentlemen and nobility as travelled on the 
continent for the purposes of polite accomplishment. Wil- 
liam Hoare was the first English painter who visited Rome 
for professional study. 

At the time of his departure from London he had formed 
a frieudship with Scheemackers, the celebrated Flemish 
sculptor, and with Delvaux, his pupil, who were both on 
their way to Rome, and on his arrival at that city he has- 
tened to rejoin them, and lodged in the same house with 
'them. His next care was to place himself in the school of 
Francesco Imperiale, the disciple of Carlo Maratti, and 
the most eminent master then living. In this school he 
was a fellow- student with Pompeo Battoni, with whom he 
maintained through life a cordial friendship, and with 
others of the same profession. Here he acquired a tho- 
rough knowledge of all that could be taught in his art, and 
a perfect acquaintance with the system and method of study 
adopted in the Roman school ever since the time of Raf- 
faelle; to which method he at all times adhered in the 
execution of historical works. 

Under the direction of Imperiale, Mr. Hoare made many 
copies from the most celebrated works of the great painters 
in the Roman palaces ; a circumstance which became of 
great utility to him in a very different manner from that 
which was intended ; for the circumstances of his family 
having been unfortunately impaired by the explosion of the 
South Sea adventure, he now found it necessary to turn 
the skill he had gained to a provision for his own mainte- 
nance. This was no difficult task, and he continued his 
studies at Rome for the term of nine years, when he finally 
returned to London, bringing with him the few copies of 
the finest works which he had been able to preserve for 
himself, and the most enthusiastic feelings in regard of 
bis art. 

In London the young painter looked around in vain for 
the encouragement which he had hoped to find in the his- 
torical department of his profession ; and the impoverished 
state of his family not allowing' him any alternative, he 
immediately resorted to portrait-painting, in which, from 
his superior talents, he was sure to fiud an unfailing re- 

H A R E, 3 

• source. In this situation of his circumstances lie formed 
a matrimonial engagement with a young lady of the name 
of Barker, between whose relations and his own there had 
long subsisted the most cordial intimacy, arising from 
mutual respect Among the connexions of Miss Barker** 
family were some who were established at Bath, and 
Mr. Hoare soon received an iavitation to settle at that city, 
where, as there was no person of any eminence in his 
profession, he might reasonably look to the highest pro- 
spects of success. He accordingly accepted the invitation, 
and fully realized the expectations of his friends in every 
poiut His painting-room was the resort of all that could 
boast the attractions either of beauty or fashion ; and the 
number of his sitters was for a long time so great, as 
scarcely to allow him a momentary interval of relaxation, 
much less sufficient leisure for such an attention to the 
higher performances of his art as formed the constant 
object of his wishes. 

His eminent success in bis portraits brought to his gal- 
lery all the distinguished characters of the time, who oc- 
casionally visited Bath for health or pleasure ; among whom 
were Mr. Pitt, the Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Legge, Mr. 
Grenville, Lord Chesterfield, &c. &c.' and his acquaint- 
ance with them was improved into friendship on their part, 
by the variety of his learning, the amenity of his manners, 
the ingenuousness of his mind, and the high respectability 
of his domestic establishment. To the list of his friends 
and patrons were soon added the virtuous Allen, and his 
learned nephew-in-law, Warburton ; and Mr.' Allen's house, 
. where be was always a welcome visitor, gave him also an 
introduction to Pope, and other distinguished inmates of 
Prior- park. 

In the midst of such society and such success* life might 
have been passed with sufficient enjoyment and ease ; but 
the indulgences attendant on so prosperous a career did 
not dimiuish his ardour for higher excellence in his art : he 
made a voluntary offer of an altar-piece to the church of 
St Michael, and his offer being accepted, hfe painted 
for it a figure larger than life, of our Saviour holding 
a cross, which now occupies one side of the wall of the 

On the building of the octagon chapel, be received an, 
application from the proprietors to paint a large altar-piece 
for their church, leaving the subject entirely to his owm 

l ' - B 2 

4 H O A R E. 


decision. He chose the appropriate subject of the Pool 
of Betheada? and found in it the long wisbed*for oppor- 
tunity of displaying his knowledge of historical composition 
and character. The picture forms one of the principal 
ornaments of the chapel. 

It should be noticed, that in an early part of his success- 
ful practice at Bath, finding a general desire prevailing for 
pictures in crayons, he sent an order to Roselba, the cele- 
brated Venetian paintress, for two heads of fancy painted 
in that manner, and he received from that eminent mistress 
of her art two of her most studied performances ; the one 
" Apollo with his lyre," the other " A Nymph crowned 
with vernal flowers." These beautiful works became the 
models of the Bath painter in his first efforts in crayons, 
in which mode of painting be afterwards carried the practice 
of the art to so high a degree as to be scarcely excelled by 
Rosalba herself. On the formation of the Royal Academy 
in London, his long-established reputation secured him 
an election among its original members, and he was a 
constant exhibitor for many years. 

During this long course of professional industry, be had 
shewn himself a no less diligent guardian of a numerous 
family. At an early period of its increase he maintained 
a regular correspondence on the -subject of " parental 
duties" with Mr. Chandler, a 9 brother of the dissenting 
minister of that name, and distinguished among his friends 
for the integrity of his mind and conduct Many of these 
letters and replies still exist He extended to all bis 
children the most unwearied attention, and bestowed on 
them every advantage of education which Bath could sup- 
ply. He expended on them all that his long life of dili- 
gence had amassed, and left them, at his death, which 
happened in 1792, scarcely any other possessions than- the 
remembrance of his virtues and his useful labours. 

He retained the vigour of health and the strength 
.©f his mind till a few years previous to his dissolution. 
There is a copy of Guido's " Aurora," painted by him (the 
figures nearly as large as life) when he was upwards of 
seventy years of age. The picture is finished with great 
firmness and precision of pencil. 1 

HOBBES, or HOBBS (Thomas), an eminent English 
philosopher and miscellaneous writer, was born at Malms- 
bury in Wiltshire, April 5, 1588, bis father being minister 

» From information obligingly communicated by bis ton, Princ* Hoare, can,, 
foreign secretary to the Royal Academy. 

H O B B E S. 5 

of that town. The Spanish Armada was then upon the 
coast of England ; and his mother is said to have been so 
alarmed on that occasion, that she was brought to bed of 
him before her time. After having made a considerable 
progress in the learned languages at school, he was sent, in 
1603, to Magdalen-hall, Oxford; and, in 1608, by the 
recommendation of the principal, taken into the family of 
the right honourable William Cavendish lord Hardwicke, 
soon after created earl of Devonshire, as tutor to his son 
William lord Cavendish. Hobbes ingratiated himself so 
effectually with this young nobleman, and with the peer 
bis father, that he was sent abroad with him on his travels 
in 16(0, and made the tour of France and Italy. Upon 
bis return with lord Cavendish, he became known to per- 
sons of the highest rank, and eminently distinguished for 
their abilities and learning. The chancellor Bacon ad- 
mitted him to a great degree of familiarity, and is said to 
have made use of his pen for translating some of his works 
into Latin. He was likewise much iu favour with lord 
Herbert of Cherbury ; and the celebrated Ben Jonson had 
such an esteem for htm, that he revised the first work which 
be published, viz. his " English Translation of the History 
of Tbucydides." This Hobbes undertook, as he tells us 
himself, " with an honest view of preventing, if possible, 
those disturbances in which he was apprehensive his coun- 
try would be involved, by shewing, in the history of the 
Peloponnesian. war, the fatal consequences of intestine 
troubles." This has always been esteemed one of the best 
translations that we have of any Greek writer, and the 
author himself superintended the maps and indexes. But 
while be meditated this design, his patron, the earl of 
Devonshire, died in 1626; and in 1628, the year his work 
was published, his son died also. This loss affected him 
to such a degree, that he very willingly accepted an offer 
of going abroad a second jime with the son of sir Gervase 
Clifton, whom be accordingly accompanied into France, 
and staid there some time. But while he continued there 
he was solicited to return to England, and to resume his 
concern for the hopes of that family, to which he had 
attached himself so early, and owed many and great 

In 1631, the countess dowager of Devonshire was de- 
sirous .of placing the young earl under bis care, who was 
then about the age of thirteen ; a trust very suitable to bis 

6 H O B B E S. 

inclinations, and which he discharged with great fidelity 
and diligence. In 1634 he republished his translation of 
Thucydides, and prefixed to it a dedication to that young 
nobleman, in which he gives a high character of his father, 
and represents In the strongest terms his obligations to that 
illustrious family. The same year he accompanied bis noble 
pupil to Paris, where he applied his vacant hours to natural 
philosophy, especially mechanism, and the causes of animal 
motion. He had frequent conversations upon these sub- 
jects with father Mersenne, a man deservedly famous, who 
kept up a correspondence with almost all the learned in 
Europe. From Paris he attended bis pupil into Italy, and 
at Pisa became known to Galileo, who communicated to 
him bis notions very freely. After having seen all that was 
remarkable in that country, he returned in 1637 with the 
earl of Devonshire into England. The troubles in Scot- 
land now grew high, and began to spread themselves south- 
ward, and to threaten disturbance throughout the kingdom. 
Hobbes, seeing this, thought he might do good service by 
composing something by way of antidote. to the pestilential 
opinions which then prevailed/ This engaged him to com- 
mit to paper certain principles, observations, and remarks, 
out of which he composed his book " De Cive," and which 
grew up afterwards into that system which he called his 
" Leviathan." 

Not long after the meeting of the long parliament, 
Nov. 3, 1640, when all things fell into confusion, he with- 
drew, for the sake of living in quiet, to Paris ; where he 
associated himself with those learned men, who, under the 
protection of Cardinal Richelieu, sought, by conferring 
their notions together, to promote every kind of useful 
knowledge. He had not been long there, when by the 
good offices of his friend Mersenne, he became known to 
Des Cartes, and afterwards held a correspondence with 
him upon mathematical subjects, as appears from the letters 
of Hobbes published in the works of Des Cartes. But 
when that philosopher printed afterwards his "Meditations,*' 
in which he attempted to establish points of the highest 
consequence from innate ideas, Hobbes took the liberty of 
dissenting from him; as did also Gassendi, with whom 
Hobbes contracted a very close friendship, which was not 
interrupted till the death of the former. In 1642,* he 
printed a few copies of his book " De Cive," which raised 
him many adversaries, by whom, he was charged with uk 

H O B B E & 7 

stilling principles of a dangerous tendency. Immediately 
after the appearance of this book, Des Cartes 'said of it to 
a friend, " I am of opinion that the author of the book ' De 
Give/ is the same person who wrote the third objection 
against my * Meditations.' I think him a much greater 
master of morality, than of metaphysics or natural philo- 
sophy ; though I can by no means approve of his principles 
or maxims, which are very bad and extremely dangerous, 
because they suppose all men to be wicked, or give them 
occasion to be so. His whole design is to write in favour 
of monarchy, which might be done to more advantage than 
be has done, upon maxims more virtuous and solid. Ha 
has wrote likewise greatly to the disadvantage of the church 
and the Roman catholic religion, so that if he is not par- 
ticularly supported by some powerful interest, I do not see 
bow he can escape having his book censured." The learned 
Conringius censures him very severely for boasting, in 
regard to this performance, " that though physics were a 
new science, yet civil philosophy was still newer, since it 
could not be styled older than his book * De Cive ;' where* 
as," says Conringius, " there is nothing good in that work 
of bis that was not always known." But vanity was 
throughout lif^ a prevailing foible with Hobbes. 

Among many illustrious persons who upon the shipwreck 
of the royal cause retired to France for safety, was sir 
Charles Cavendish, brother to the duke of Newcastle, who, 
being skilled in every branch of mathematics, proved a 
constant friend and patron to Hobbes : and Hobbes him- 
self, by embarking, in 1645, in a controversy about the 
quadrature of the circle, became so celebrated, although 
certainly undeservedly as a mathematician, that, in 1647, 
he was recommended to instruct Charles prince of Wales, 
afterwards Charles II. in that branch of study. His caro 
in the discharge of this office gained him the esteem of that 
prince in a very great degree : and though he afterwards 
withdrew his public favour from Hobbes on account of bis 
writings, yet he always retained a sense of the services he 
had done him, shewed him various marks of his favour 
after he was restored to his dominions, and, as some say* 
had his picture hanging in his closet. This year also was 
printed in Holland, by the care of M. Sorbiere, a second 
and more complete edition of bis book"De Cive," to 
which are prefixed two Latin letters to the editor, one by 
Gassendi, the other by Mersenne, in commendation of it. 

8 H O B B E & 


While Hobbes was thus employed at Paris, he was attacked 
by a violent fit of illness, which brought him so low that 
bis friends began to despair of his recovery. Among those 
who visited him in this weak condition was his friend Mer- 
senne, who, taking this for a favourable opportunity, began, 
after a few general compliments of condolence, to mention 
the power of the church of Rome to forgive sins ; but 
Hobbes immediately replied, " Father, all these matters I 
have debated with myself long ago. Such kind of business 
would be troublesome to me now ; and you can entertain 
toe on subjects more agreeable; when did you see Mr. 
Gassendi ?" Mersenne easily understood his meaning, 
and, without troubling him any farther, suffered the con- 
versation to turn upon general topics. Yet some days 
afterwards, when Dr. Cosin, afterwards bishop of Durham, 
Came to pray with him, be very readily accepted the pro- 
posal, and received the sacrament at his hands, according 
to the forms appointed by the church of England. 
. In 1650 was published at London a small treatise by 
Hobbes entitled " Human Nature," and another, "De cor- 
pore politico, or, of the Elements of the Law." The latter 
was presented to Gassendi, and read by him a few months 
before his death ; who is said first to have*kissed it, and 
then to have delivered his opinion of it in these words : 
" This treatise is indeed small in bulk, but in my judgment 
the very marrow of science." All this time Hobbes had 
been digesting with great pains his religious, political, and 
moral principles into a complete system, which he called 
the " Leviathan," and which was printed in English at 
London in that and the year following. He caused a copy 
of it, very fairly written on vellum*, to be presented to 
Charles II ; but after that monarch was informed that the 
English divines considered it as a book tending to subvert 
both religion and civil government, he is said to have with- 
drawn his countenance from the author, and by the* marquis 
of Ormoinl to have forbidden him to come into his presence. 
After the publication of his " Leviathan," Hobbes returned 
to England, and passed the summer commonly at his pa- 
tron the earl of Devonshire's seat in Derbyshire, and his 

* This copy appears to be now in How it came there has not been dis- 
the library of the late earl of Macart- covered. The library is now in the 
Bey, at Lis*auoare in Ireland, if toe possession of a lady, the late earl's re- 
one very accurately described by the preservative, who probably knew little 
Rev, W. H. Pratt, in the Gentleman's of its history. 
Magazme for January 1813, p. 30. 


winters in town ; where be had for his intimate friends 
some of the greatest men of the age ; such as Dr. Harvey, 
Selden, Cowley, &c. In 1654, he published bis " Letter 
upon Liberty and Necessity," which occasioned a long 
controversy between him and Bramhall, bishop of Lon- 
donderry. About this time he began the controversy with 
Wallis, the mathematical professor at Oxford, which lasted 
as long as Hobbes lived, and in which he had the misfor- 
tune to have all the mathematicians against him. It is in* 
deed said, that he came too late to this study to excel in it; 
and that though for a time he maintained his credit, while 
he was content to proceed in the same track with others, 
and to reason in the accustomed manner from the established 
principles of the science, yet when he began to digress into 
new paths, and set up for a reformer, inventor, and im- 
prover of geometry, he lost himself extremely. But not- 
withstanding these debates took up much of his time, yet 
he published several philosophical treatises in Latin. 

Such were his occupations till 1660, when upon the king's 
restoration he quitted the country, and came up to London* 
He was at Salisbury-house with his patron, when the king 
passing by one day accidentally saw him. He sent for 
him, gave him his hand to kiss, inquired kindly after his 
health and circumstances; and some time after directed 
Cooper, the celebrated miniature-painter, to take his por- 
trait His majesty likewise afforded him another private 
audience, spoke to him very kindly, assured bim of bis 
protection, and settled a pension upon bim of 100/. per 
annum out of his privy purse. Yet this did not render 
bim entirely safe; for, in 1666, his "Leviathan," and 
treatise " De Cive," were censured by parliament, which 
alarmed him much ; as did also the bringing of a bill into 
the House of commons to punish atheism and profaneness. 
When this storm was a little blown over, he began to think 
of procuring a beautiful edition of his pieces that were in 
Latin ; but finding this impracticable in England, he 
caused it to be undertaken abroad, where they were pub- 
lished in 1668, 4to, from the press of John Bleau. In 
1669, he was visited by Cosmo de Medicis, then prince, 
afterwards duke of Tuscany, who gave him ample marks 
of his esteem ; and having received his picture, and a com- 
plete collection of his writings, caused them to be depo- 
sited, the former among his curiosities, the latter in bis 
library at Florence. • Similar visits he received from several 


H O B B E S. 

foreign ambassadors, and other strangers of distinction ; 
who were curious to see a person, whose singular opinions 
and numerous writings had made so much noise all over 
Europe. In 1672, he wrote his own Life in Latin verse, 
when, as he observes, he had completed his eighty-fourth 
year: and, in 1674, he published in English verse four 
books of Homer's " Odyssey," which were so well re- 
ceived, that it encouraged him to undertake the whole 
* c Iliad" and " Odyssey," which' he likewise performed, 
end published in 1675. These were not the first speci- 
mens of his poetic genius which he had given to the* 
public: he had published many years before, about 1637, 
e Latin poem, entitled " De Mirabilibus Pecci, or, Of the 
Wonders of the Peak." But his poetry is below criticism, 
and has Ijeen long exploded*. In 1674, he took his leave 
of London, and went to spend the remainder of his days 
in Derbyshire; where, however, he did not remain in-' 
active, notwithstanding his advanced age, but published 
from time to time several pieces to be fouijd in the collec- 
tion of bis works, namely, in 1676, his "Dispute with 
Laney bishop of Ely, concerning Liberty and Necessity ;" 
In 1678, his " Decameron Physiologicum, or, Ten Dia- 
logues of Natural Philosophy ;" to which he added a book, 
entitled " A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Stu- 
dent of. the Common Law of England." June 1679, he 
tent another book, entitled " Behemoth, or, A History of 
the Civil Wars from 1640 to 1660," to an eminent book- 
seller, with a letter setting forth the reasons for his com- 
munication of it, as Ave 1 1 as for the request he then made, 
that he would not publish it till a proper occasion offered. 
The book, however, was published as soon as he was dead, 
and the letter along with it ; of which we shall give a cu- 
rious extract : — " I would fain have published my Dia- 
logue of the Civil Wars of England long ago, and to that 
end I presented it to his majesty ; and some days after, 

* " Hobbes could construe a Greek 
author; but bis skill in words must 
have been all derived from the dictio- 
nary ; for he seems not to have known, 
that any one articulate sound could 
be more agreeable, or any one phrase 
more dignified, than any other. In 
bis Iliad aud Odyssey, even when he 
hits the author's sense (which is not 
always the case), he proves by his 
tboice of words, that of harmony, ele- 

gance, or energy of style, he had no 
manner of conception. And hence 
that work, though called a translation 
of Homer, does not even deserve the 
name of poem j because it is in every 
respect un pleasing, being nothing more 
than a fictitious narrative delivered in 
mean prose, with the additional mean- 
ness of harsh raime, and untnneablt 
measure." Beattie's Essay on Poetry 
and Music. 

R0BBE8. 11 

when I thought be had read it, I humbly besought him to 
let me print it. But his majesty, though he heard me gra- 
ciously, yet he flatly refused to have it published : there- 
fore I Drought away the book, and gave you leave to take 
a copy of it ; which when you had done, I gave the ori- 
ginal to an honourable and learned friend, who about a 
year after died. The king knows better, and is more 
concerned in publishing of books than I am; and therefore 
I dare not venture to appear in the business, lest I should 
offend him. Therefore I pray you not to meddle in the 
business. Rather than to be thought any way to further 
or countenance the printing, I would be content to lose 
twenty times the value of what you can expect to gain by 
it. I pray do not take it ill ; it may be I may live to send 
you somewhat else as vendible as that, and without offence. 
J am, &c." However he did not live to send his book- 
seller any thing more, this being his last piece. It is in 
dialogue, and full of paradoxes, like all bis other writings. 
More philosophical, political, says Warburton, or any thing 
rather than historical, yet full of shrewd observations. In 
October following, he was afflicted with a suppression of 
urine ; and his physician plainly told him, that he had 
little hopes of curing him. In November, the earl of De- 
vonshire removing from Cbatsworth to another seat called 
Hardwick, Hobbes obstinately persisted in desiring that he 
might be carried too, though this could no way be done 
but by laying him upon a feather-bed. He was not much 
discomposed with his journey, yet within a week after 
lost, by a stroke of the palsy, the use of his speech, and 
of his right side entirely ; in which condition he remained 
for some days, taking little nourishment, and sleeping 
much, sometimes endeavouring to speak, but not being 
able. He died Dec. 4, 1679, in bis ninety-second year. 
Wood tells us, that after his physician gave him no hopes 
of a cure, he said, " Then 1 shall be glad to find a hole to 
creep out of the world at." He observes also, that his not 
desiring a minister, to receive the sacrament before he 
died, ought in charity to be imputed to his being so sud- 
denly seized, and afterwards deprived of his senses; the 
rather, because the earl of Devonshire's chaplain declared, 
that within the two last years of his life he had often re- 
ceived the sacrament from his hands with seeming devotion. 
His character and manners are thus described by Dr. 
White Keuott, in his " Memoirs of the Cavendish Family ; u 


12 H B B E S. 

" The earl of Devonshire," says he, " for bis whole life 
entertained Mr. Hobbes in his family, as his old tutor 
rather .than as his friend or confidant. He let him live 
under his roof in ease and plenty, and in his own way, 
without making use of him in any public, or so much as 
domestic affairs. He would often express an abhorrence 
of some of bis principles in policy and religion ; and both 
he and his lady would frequently put .off the mention of 
bis name, and say, ' he was a humourist, and nobody could 
account for him.' There is a tradition in the family of the 
manners and customs of Mr. Hobbes somewhat observable. 
.His professed rule of health was to dedicate the morning 
to his exercise, and tbe afternoon to his studies. At his 
first rising, therefore, he walked out, and climbed any hill 
within bis reach; or, if the weather was not dry, he fa- 
tigued himself withiu doors by some exercise or other, to 
be in a sweat : recommending that practice upon this opi- 
nion, that an old man bad more moisture than heat, and 
therefore by such motion beat was to be acquired, and 
moisture expelled. After this he took a comfortable 
breakfast; and then went round the lodgings to wait upon 
tbe earl, the countess, and the children, and any consider- 
able strangers, paying some short addresses to all of them. 
He kept these rounds till about twelve o'clock, when he 
bad a little dinner provided for him, which he eat always 
by himself without ceremony. Soon after dinner he re- 
tired to his study, and had his candle with ten or twelve 
pipes of tobacco laid by him ; then shutting his door, he 
fell to smoaking, thinking, and writing for several hours. 
He retained a friend or two at court, and especially the lord 
Arlington, to protect him if occasion should require. He 
used to say, that it was lawful to make use of ill instru- 
ments to do ourselves good : * If I were cast,' says be, 
' into a deep pit, and the devil should put down his cloven 
foot, I would take hold of it to be drawn out by it.' To- 
wards the end of his life he had very few books, and those 
be read bjut very little ; thinking he was now able only to 
digest what he had formerly fed upon. If company came 
to visit bim, he would be free in discourse till he was 
pressed or contradicted; and then he had the infirmities 
of being short and peevish, and referring to his writings 
for better satisfaction. His friends, who had the liberty 
of introducing strangers to bim, made these terms with 
them before their admission, that they should not dispute 
with the old man, nor contradict him." 

H O B B £ S. 13 

After mentioning the apprehensions Hobbes was under, 
when the parliament censured his book, and the methods 
he took to escape persecution, Dr. Kennet adds, " It is 
not much to be doubted, that upon this occasion he began 
to make a more open shew of religion and church commu- 
nion. He now frequented the chapel, joined in the ser- 
vice, and was generally a partaker of the hoi/ sacrament : 
and whenever any strangers, in conversation with him 
seemed to question his belief, he would always appeal to 
his conformity in divine services, and referred them to the 
chaplain for a testimony of it. Others thought it a mere 
compliance to the orders of the family, and observed, that 
in city and country he never went to any parish church ; 
and even in the chapel upon Sundays, he went out after 
prayers, and turned his back upon the sermon ; and when 
any friend asked the reason of it, he gave no other but this, 
* they could teach him nothing, but what he knew. 9 He 
did not conceal his hatred to the clergy ; but it was visible 
that the hatred was owing to his fear of their civil interest 
and power. He had often a jealousy, that the bishops 
would burn him : and of all the bench he was most afraid 
of the bishop of Sarum, because he had most offended him ; 
thinking every man's spirit to be remembrance and re- 
venge. After the Restoration, he watched all opportuni- 
ties to ingratiate himself with the king and his prime mi- 
nisters ; and looked upon his pension to be more valuable, 
as an earnest of favour and protection, than upon any other 
account His following course of life was to be free from 
danger. He could not endure to be left in an empty 
house. Whenever the earl removed, he would go along 
with him, even to his last stage, from Chatsworth to Hard- 
wick. When he was in a very weak condition, he dared 
not to be left behind, but made his way upon a feather-bed 
in a coach, though he survived the journey but a few days. 
He could not bear any discourse of death, and seemed to 
cast off All thoughts of it : he delighted to reckon upon 
longer life. The winter before he died, he made a warm 
coat, which he said must last him three years, and then 
be would have such another. In his last sickness his fre- 
quent questions were, Whether his disease was curable i 
and when intimations were given that he might have ease, 
but no remedy, he used this expression, ' I shall be glad 
to find a bole to creep out of the world at -,' which afe re-* 
ported to have been his last sensible words ; and his lying 

U H O B B E 9. 

some days following in a silent stupefaction, did seem 
owing to his mind more than to his body. The only thought 
of death that he appeared to entertain in time of health, 
was to take care of some inscription on his grave. He 
would suffer some friends to dictate an epitaph, among 
which he was best pleased with this humour, ' This is the 
philosopher's stone'." A pun very probably from the hand 
which wrote for Dr. Fuller, " Here lies Fuller's earth." 

After this account of Hoboes, which, though undoubt- 
edly true in the main, may be thought too strongly co- 
loured, it will be but justice to subjoin what lord Claren- 
don has said of him. This noble person, during his banish- 
ment, wrote a book in 1670, which was printed six years 
after at Oxford with this title, " A brief View of the dan- 
gerous and pernicious Errors to Church and State in Mr. 
Hobbes's book entitled Leviathan." In the introduction 
the earl observes, that Mr. Hobbes's " Leviathan" " con- 
tains in it good learning of all kinds, politely extracted, 
and very wittily and cunningly digested in a very com- 
mendable, and in a vigorous and pleasant style : and that 
Mr. Hobbes himself was a man of excellent parts, of great 
wit, some reading, and somewhat more thinking ; one who 
has spetit many years in foreign parts and observations; 
understands the learned as well as the modern languages ; 
' hath long had the reputation of a great philosopher and 
mathematician ; and in his age hath had conversation with 
very many worthy and extraordinary men : to which it may 
be, if he had been more indulgent in the more vigorous 
part of his life, it might have had greater influence upon 
the temper of his mind ; whereas age seldom submits to 
those questions, inquiries, and contradictions* which the 
laws and liberty of conversation require. And it hath been 
always a lamentation among Mr. Hobbes's friends, that he 
spent too much time in thinking, and too little in exer- 
cising those thoughts in the company of other men of the 
same, or of as good faculties ; for want whereof his natu- 
ral constitution, with age, contracted such a morosity, 
that doubting and contradicting men were never grateful to 
bim. In a word, Mr. Hobbes is one of the most ancient 
acquaintance I have in the world ; and of whom I have 
always had a great esteem, as a man, who, besides his 
eminent parts, learning, and knowledge, bath been always 
looked upon as a m$m of probity, and of a life free from 
scandal.' 9 



There have been few persons, whose writings have had 
a more pernicious influence in spreading irreligion and in- 
fidelity than those of Hobbes; and yet none of his trea- 
tises are directly levelled against revealed religion. He 
sometimes affects to speak with veneration of the sacred 
writings, and expressly declares, that though the laws of 
nature are not laws as they proceed from nature, yet " as 
they are given by God in Holy Scripture, they are properly 
called laws ; for the Holy Scripture is the voice of God, 
ruling all things by the greatest right*." But though hc| 
seems here to make the laws of Scripture the laws of God, 
and to derive their force from his supreme authority, yet 
elsewhere he supposes them to have no authority, but what 
they derive from the prince or civil power. He sometimes 
seems to acknowledge inspiration to be a supernatural gift, 
and the immediate hand of God : at other times be treats 
the pretence to it as a sign of madness, and represents 
God's speaking to the prophets in a dream, to be no more 
than the prophets dreaming that God spake unto them. 
He asserts, that we have no assurance of the certainty of 
Scripture but the authority of the church f, and this he 
resolves into the authority of the commonwealth ; and de- 
clares, that till the sovereign ruler had prescribed them, 
" the precepts of Scripture were not obligatory laws, but 
only counsel or advice, which he that was counselled might 
without injustice refuse to observe, and being contrary to 
the laws could not without injustice observe ;" that the word 
of the interpreter of Scripture is the word of God, and that 
the sovereign magistrate is the interpreter of Scripture, 
and of all doctrines, to whose authority we must stand. 
Nay, he carries it so far as to pronounce J, that Christians 
are bound in conscience to obey the laws of an infidel king 
in matters of religion ; that " thought is free, but when it 
comes to confession of faith, the private reason must sub- 
mit to the public, that is to say, to God's lieutenant." Ac- 
cordingly he allows the subject, being commanded by the 
sovereign, to deny Christ in words, holding the faith of 
,him firmly in his heart ; it being in this " not he, that 
denieth Christ before men, but his governor and the laws 
of his country." In the mean time he acknowledges the 
existence of God§, and that we must of necessity ascribe 

* De Cire, c iii. s. 33. J De Cive, c. 17, Leviathan, pp. 169, 

f Uriathao, p. 196. 283, 284. 

i Urialbap, pp. 238, 272. 

16 H O B B £ S. 

the effects we behold to the eternal power of all powers, 
and cause of all causes ; and he reproaches those as ab- 
surd, who call the world, or the soul of the world, God, 
But then he denies that we know any thing more of him 
than that he exists, and seems plainly to make him corpo- 
real ; for he affirms, that whatever is not body is nothing 
at all. And though he sometimes seems to acknowledge 
religion and its obligations, and that there is an hpnour 
and worship due to God ; prayer, thanksgivings, oblations, 
&c. yet he advances principles, which evidently tend to 
subvert all religion. The account he gives of it is this, 
that " from the fear of power invisible, feigned by the 
mind, or imagined from tales, publicly allowed, ariseth 
Teligion ; not allowed, superstition :" and he resolves reli- 
gion into things which he himself derides, namely, " opi- 
nions of ghosts, ignorance of second causes, devotion to 
what men fear, and taking of things casual for prognos- 
tics." He takes pains in many places to prove man a 
necessary agent, and openly derides the doctrine of a fu- 
ture state : for he says, that the belief of a future state 
after death, " is a belief grounded upon other men's say- 
ing, that they knew it supernaturally ; or, that they knew 
those, that knew them, that knew others that knew it su- 
pernaturally." But it is not revealed religion only, of 
which Hobbes makes light ; he goes farther, as will ap- 
pear by running over a few more of his maxims. He as- 
serts, " that, by the law of nature, every man hath a right 
to all things, and over all persons ; and that the natural 
condition of man is a state of war, a war of all men against 
all men : that there is no way so reasonable for any man, 
as by force or wiles to gain a mastery over all other per- 
sons that he can, till he sees no other power strong enough 
to endanger him : that the civil laws are the only. rules of. 
good and evil, just and unjust, honest and dishonest; and 
that, antecedently to such laws, every action is in its own 
nature indifferent ; that there is nothing good or evil in 
itself, nor any common laws constituting what is naturally 
just and unjust: that all things are measured by what 
every man judgeth fit, where there is no civil government, 
and by the laws of society, where there is : that the power 
of the sovereign is absolute, and that he is not bound by 
any compacts with his subjects : that nothing the sovereign 
can do to the subject, can properly be called injurious or 
wrong ; and that the king's word is sufficient to take any 


thing from the subject if need be, and that the king it 
judge- of tbat need." This scheme evidently strikes at 
the foundation of all seligion, natural and revealed. It 
tends not only to subvert the authority of Scripture, but 
to destroy God's moral government of the world. It con- 
founds the natural differences of good and evil, virtue and 
vice. It destroys the best principles of the human nature; 
and instead of that innate benevolence and social disposU 
tion which should unite men together, supposes all men 
to be naturally in a state of war with one another. .It 
erects an absolute tyranny in the state and church, which it 
confounds, and makes the will of the prince or governing 
power the sole standard of right and wrong. 

Such principles in religion and politics would, as it may 
fee imagined, raise adversaries. Hobbes accordingly was 
attacked by many considerable persona, and, what may 
seem more strange, by such as wrote against each other. 
Harrington, in his " Oceana," very often attacks Hobbes ; 
and so does sir Robert Filmer in his " Observations con* 
cerning the Original of Government." We have already 
mentioned Bramhall and Clarendon; the former argued 
with great acuteness against that part of his system which 
relates to liberty and necessity, and afterwards attacked 
the whole in a piece, called "The Catching of the Levia- 
than," published in 1685 ; in which he undertakes to de«* 
monstrate out of Hobbes' s own works, that no man, who is 
thoroughly an Hobbist, can be " a good Christian, or a 
good commonwealth's man, or reconcile himself to him- 
self!" Tenisou, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, gave 
•a summary view of Hobbes's principles, in a book called 
♦"The Creed of Mr. Hobbes examined, 1670;" to which 
we may add the two dialogues of Dr. Eachard between* Ti- 
mothy and Pbilautus,- and Dr. Parker's book, entitled 
" Disputationes de Deo & Divina Providential Dr. Henry 
More has also in different parts of his works canvassed and 
refuted several positions of Hobbes; and the philosopher 
of Malmesbury is said to have been so ingenuous as to own, 
that " whenever he discovered his own philosophy to be 
unsustainable, he would embrace the' opinions of Dr. 
More." But the two greatest works against him were, 
Cumberland's book " De legibus Nature," and Cudworth's 
" Intellectual System :" for these authors' do not -employ 
themselves about his peculiar whimsies, or in vindicating 
revealed religion from his exceptions and- oevils, but 
Vol. *VIIJ. C 

1ft HOBBES. 

endeavour to establish the great principles of all religion 
and morality, which his scheme tended to subvert, and to 
shew that they have a real foundation in reason and nature. 

There is one peculiarity related of Hobbes, which we 
have not yet mentioned in the course of our account of 
him— his dread of apparitions and spirits. His friends in* 
deed have called this a Cable. " He was falsely accused/* 
say they, " by some, of being afraid to be alone, because 
he was afraid of spectres and apparitions; vain bugbears 
of Cools, which he bad chased away by the light of his phi- 
losophy." They do not, however, deny, that he was 
afraid of being alone ; they only insinuate, that it was for 
fear of being assassinated ; but the fact probably was, that 
he had that tenacity of life which is observable in men 
whose religious principles are unsettled. Upon the whole, 
we may conclude, with the intelligent Brucker, that Hobbes 
was certainly possessed of vigorous faculties, and had 
he been sufficiently careful to form and improve bis judg- 
ment, and to preserve his mind free from the bias of pre- 
judice and passion, would undoubtedly have deserved a 
place in the first class of philosophers. The mathematical 
method of reasoning* which be adopted, greatly assisted 
him in his researches; but he was often led into error, by 
assuming false or uncertain principles or axioms* The 
vehemence with trbich be engaged in political contests 
biassed his judgment on questions of policy, and led him 
to frame such maxims and rules of government, as would 
be destructive of the peace and happiness of mankind. 
An arrogant contempt of the opinions of others, an impa- 
tience of contradiction, and a restless ambition to be dis- 
tinguished as an innovator in philosophy, were qualities 
which appear to have contributed in no small degree to 
the perversion of his judgment It is also to be remarked, 
that though he had the precept and example of lord Bacon 
to guide him, he 'neglected the new and fertile path of 
experimental philosophy. So little was he aware of the 
value of this kind of knowledge, that he censured the royal 
society of London, at its first institution, for attending 
more to minute experiment than general principles, and 
said, that if the name of a philosopher was to be obtaiued 
by relating a multifarious farrago of experiments, we 
might expect to see apothecaries, gardeners, and per- 
fumers rank among philosophers. 

• A U*t of the works of this remarkable man, in the order 

HOBBE9. 19 

of publication, seems not unnecessary to close our account 
of him, 1. His " Translation of Thucydides," Lond. 1628, 
and 1676, fpl. reprinted iu 2 vols. 8vo. 2. " De Mira- 
bilibus Pecci," a Latin poem, Lond. 1636, 8vo> 1666, 4to. 
3. " Elementa philosophica seu politica de Cive," Paris, 
1642, 4to, A rase 1647, 12 mo. 4. " An Answer to sir 
William Davenaut's Epistle or Preface to Gondibert," Pa- 
ris, 1650, 12 mo, afterwards printed with Gondibert. 5. 
" Human Nature ; or the fundamental elements of policy, 9 * 
Lond. 1650, 12mo. 6. " De Corpore Politico; or the 
Elements of the Law," Lond. 1650, 12rao. 7. " Levia- 
than ; or tbe matter, form, and power of a Commonwealth," 
ibid. 1651, and 1680, fol. 8. "A Compendium of Aris- 
totle's Rhetoric, and Ramus' s Logic." 9. " A Letter about 
Liberty and Necessity," Lond. 1654, 12mo. This was 
answered by Dr. Laney and bishop Bramball. 10. " Tbe 
Questions concerning Liberty, and Necessity, and Chance, 
stated and debated between Mr. Hobbes and Dr. Bramhall, 
bishop of London- Derry," Lond. 1656, 4to. 11. "Ele- 
mentorum Philosophise sectio prima de Corpore," ibid. 
1655, 8vo; in English, 1656, in 4to. " Sectio secunda," 
London, 1657, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, in 4to. 12. "Six 
Lessons to the professors of mathematics of the institution 
of Bir Henry Savile," ibid. 1656, 4to, written against Mr. 
Seth*Ward, and Dr. John Wallis. 13. " The Marks of the 
absurd Geometry, rural Language, &c. of Dr. John Wal- 
lis," ibid. 1657, 8vo. 14. " Examinatio et emendatio 
Mathematics hodiernse, sex Dialogis comprehensa," ibid. 

1660, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 15. "Dialogus Phy- 
sicus, sive de Natur& Aeria," Lond. 166 Jj 4to; Amster- 
dam, 1668, 4to. 16. " De Duplicatione Cubi," London, 

1661, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 17. " Problemata 
Pbysica, una cum magnitudine circuit," Lond. 1662, 4to; 
Amsterdam, 1688, 4ta 18. " De principiis et ratiocina- 
tione Geometrarum, contra fastuosiim professorem," Lond. 
1666, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 1$. " Quadrature Cir- 
cuit, cubatio sphsnt, duplicatio cubi j uni cum respon- 
aione ad objectiones geometriss prbfessoris Saviliani Ox- 
oniae editasanno 1669." Lond. 1669, 4to. 20. " Rosetum 
Geometricum, sive propositiones aliquot frustra antehac 
tentatse, cuqa censuri brevi doctrine mo'tu," 
London, 1671, 4to, of wttycb an account is given in the 
Philosophical Transactions, (to. 72, for the year 1671. 
f 1. Three Papers . presented to the royal society 

G 3 

20 H O B 6 E & 

Dr. WalHs, with considerations on Dr. W*lHf s Answer to 
them," Loud. 1671, 4to. 22. "Lux Mathematics, &e. 
censur* doctrine? Wallisianoe de Libra : Rosettrm Hob- 
besii/ 9 Lortd. 1672, 4to. 23. u Prineipia et Problemattt 
aliquot Geomretrica ante desperata, nunc breritef ex pit* 
data et demonstrata, 9 ' London, 16*4, 4to. 24. " Epis* 
tola ad Dom. Anton, i Wood, Aathorem Historise et Anti- 
quitat Universit. Oxon. : w dated April the 20th, 1674, 
printed in half a sheet on one side. " It Was written to 
Mr. Wood, 9 * says Wood himself, "upon bis complaint made 
to Mr. Hobbes of Several deletions and additions made in 
and to his life and character (which he had written of him 
rn that book) by the publisher (Dr. Jo. Fell) of the said 
Hist and Aritrq. to the great dishonour and disparagement 
6f the said Mr. hobbes. Whereupon, when that history 
was finished, came out a scurrilous answer to the said 
epistle, written by Dr. Fell, which is at " the end of the 
said history. 99 In this Answer Dr. Fell styles Mr. Hobbes, 
"irritabtle illud et vanissimum Malmsburierise animal*, 99 
and tells us, that one Mr. J. A. had sent a magnificent eulo- 
gium of Mr. Hobbes drawn up by him, or more probably 
By Hobbes himself, in order to be inserted in the Hist, et 
Antiq. Univers. Oxon. ; but the editor finding in this eulo- 
gium a great many things foreign to the design of that work, 
and far from tfutb, he suppressed what he thought proper. 
25. " A Letter to William duke of Newcastle, concerning 
the Ccmtroverty had with Dr. Latiey, bishop of Ely, about 
Liberty and Necessity," Lond. 1670, 12mo. $6. *< Deca- 
meroh Physiologicum ; or ten dialogues of natural philo- 
sophy, &c." London, 1678, 8Vo. To this is added " The 
Proportion of a strait line to hdld the Arch of a Quadrant 99 
27. " His last words and dying Legacy :" printed on one 
side of a sheet of paper in December 1679, and published 
by Charles Blunt, esq. from the " Leviathan, 99 in order to 
expose Mr. Hobbes's doctrine. 28. His " Memorable Say* 
ings in his books and at the table ;' 9 printed on orte side of 
a broad sheet of paper, With his picture before them. 29. 
"Behemoth: The History of the Civil Wars of England 
from 1640 to 1666,** Lond. 16*0, 8*6. 30. M Vita Tho- 
mfle Hobbes, 99 a Latin poem written by himself, and printed 
At London in 4fo, in the latter end of December 1679 ; 
and a fortnight after that, viz. about the 10th of January, 
it was published in English Verse by another hand, at Lon- 
don 16ftO, in five sheets in folio. The Latin copy was 

HOBBEt 21 

reprinted and subjoined to « Vile Hobbianse AuetariufQ." 
31. "Historical narration of Heresy, find the punishment 
thereof," London, 1 680, in lour sheets and an half io folio ; 
and in 1682 in 6vo. This as chiefly extracted out of the 
second chapter De Hseresi of has Appendix to the JLevia- 
than. 32. " Vita Thomas Hobbes," written by himself in 
prose, and printed at Caropolis, i. e. London, and pre- 
fixed to " Vitas Hobbianss Auctarium," ,1681, Svo, and 
1682, 4to. 33. " A Brief of the ait of Rhetoric, contain- 
ing in substance ail that Aristotle hath written in his three 
4>ooli8 of that subject/' 12roo, without a date. It was 
afterwards published in two books, London, 1681, in 8vo, 
the first bearing the title of " The /Art of Rhetoric;," and 
the other of " The Art of Rhetoric plainly set forth ; witfr 
pertinent examples for the more ready understanding 
and practice of the same." To which is added, 34. " A 
Dialogue between a philosopher and a student of the Com- 
mon Laws of England/* Mr. Barrington in his Observa- 
tions on the Statute of Treasons, says it appears by this 
dialogue, that Hobbes bad considered most of the funda- 
mental principles of the Engiuh taw wish great care aod 
attention. 35. " An Answer to archbishop Brfuphall'a Book 
<c»HedThe catching of the Leriatban," London, 1682, 6w. 
56. " Seven philosophical Problems, and two Propositions 
of Geometry ," London, 1682, Svo, dedicated to the king 
in 1662. 37. « An Apology for himself and his Writings." 
36. " Historia Ecclesiastica carmine elegiaco coaoinnata." 
Aug. Trinob. i. e. London, 168$, 8vo. 3>9. " Tractates 
Opticus,*' inserted in Merseunus'a u Cogitata Physieo- 
Ufatbematica," Paris, 1644, 4to. 40. "Observationes in 
Certesii de prima Pbitosophii Meditationes." These ob»- 
jections are published in all the editions of Des Cartes's 
"Meditations." 41. "The Voyage of Ulysses; or Ho- 
sier's Odysses," book 9, 19, 11, 12. London, 1674, in 8vo* 
And 42. " Homer's Iliads and Odysses," London, 1675 
and 1677, 12mo. ' 

HOBBIMA (MiKDERHObr), a very eminent painter, it 
supposed to have been born about J61 1, at Antwerp ; but 
the master from whom be received his instruction is not 
known. He studied entirely after nature, sketching every 

l Bi«g\ BwU—Qeo. Efct.-nBaroet'fl.Qvii Tte>e*H*-Ufc prefixed to Wood's 
Anoali, 4u>, p. 18. — Atb. Ox. vol. II. — Inland's Deiitical Writers —Letters 
from the Bodleian Library, 3 jrols. tro, 1 SI 3.— D* Israels Qearrelt of Author*, 
to). 111. p. 1—89. 



scene that afforded him pleasure, and bis choice was ex- 
ceedingly picturesque. His grounds are always agreeably 
broken, and be was particularly fond of describing slopes 
diversified with shrubs, plants, or trees, which conducted 
the eye to some building, ruin, grove, or piece of water, 
and frequently to a delicate remote distance; every object 
perspectively contributing to delude our observation to that 
point. The forms of bis trees are not unlike Ruysdael and 
Dekker; and in all his pictures he shews an admirable 
knowledge of the chiaroscuro. His colouring is extremely 
good, and his skies evidently shew that be made nature 
his principal director, by the shape and disposition of his 
clouds, as also by those peculiar tints, by which he ex- 
pressed the rising and setting of the sun, the morning and 
evening. His touch is light, free, and fircn ; and his paint- 
ings have a very striking effect, by the happy distribution 
of his light and shadow. The figures which he himself 
designed are but indifferent, which was a defect imputable 
to Claude Lorraine and Gaspar Poussin, as well as to Hob- 
bima; but the latter, conscious of his inability in that re- 
spect, admitted but few figures into his designs, and those 
be usually placed somewhat removed from the immediate 
view, at a prudent distance from the front line. However, 
most of his pictures were supplied with figures by Ostade, 
Teniers, and other very famous masters, which must always 
give them a great additional value. The works of Hobbima 
are now exceedingly scarce, and industriously sought fof. 
A very fine landscape of his, the property of the late Edward 
Coxe, esq. was sold a few years ago for nearly 700 Z. 1 

HOCCLEVE, or OCCLEVE (Thomas), an ancient 
English poet, who scarcely, however, deserves the name, 
was born probably about 1370, and has been Btyled 
Chaucer's disciple. He studied law at Chester's Inn, in 
the Strand, and was a writer to the privy seal for above 
twenty years. When he quitted this office, or what means 
of subsistence he afterwards had, cannot be easily deter- 
mined. Pits seems wrong in asserting that he was pro* 
vided for by Humphrey duke of Gloucester. Nor is Bale 
more correct in saying that he had imbibed the religious 
tenets of Wickliff. Prom his poems the following scanty 

1>articulars of bis history have been communicated by a 
earned friend : " He dwelt in the office of the privy seal, 
a writer * unto the seal twenty-four years come Easter, and 

. » Pilkiogtoo. 


that is nigh.' The king granted him an annuity of twenty 
narks in the exchequer, which it appears he had much- 
difficulty in getting paid. He expresses much doubt of 
obtaining it from ' yere to yere ;' fears it may not be con- 
tinued when he is no longer able to ' serve 1 (i. e. as a writer 
in the privy seal office). Besides this annuity be has but 
six marks coming in yearly * in noo tide.' Speaks of dwell- 
ing at home in his * pore coote,' and that more than two 
parts of his life are spent— he is ignorant of husbandry ; 
' scarcely could skare away the kite ;' can neither use 
plough or barrow, knows not ' what land is good /or what 
corn ;' unable to fill a cart or barrow from long use to 
writing ; descants on the troubles and difficulties attending 
writing; says that ' bit is welle grett laboure,' and con- 
trasts very happily the life of an husbandman or artificer 
with that of a writer, adding that he has continued in 
writing twenty years and more. He * whilom* thought to 
have been a priest, but now is married, having long waited 
for a benefice ; describes the corruption in bis office, but 
that no share of the bribes come to the clerks. Name 
4 Qkkleve' acquainted with Chaucer- — has small knowledge 
of Latin and of French. . He is advised to complain to the 
prince that he cannot get paid in the exchequer, and peti- 
tion that his patent be removed into the haniper, but ob- 
serves this cannot be done because of the * ordinance, 9 for 
' longe after this shall noo graunt be chargeable.' He says 
* my lorde the prince is good lorde' to him, and is advised 
to write him ( a goodlie tale,or two/ therein to avoid flat- 
tery, and write ' nothinge that sowneth to vice, 9 " &c. 

Hocpleve is supposed to have died in 1 454. Some of 
his poems were printed by Mr. George Mason, in 1796, 
4to, from a MS. in his possession, and a preface, notes, 
and glossary. The glossary is useful, but the attempt to 
revive the poems impotent. Instead, indeed, of removing, 
they confirm Warton's objection to him as a feeble poet, 
" whose chief merit seems to be, that his writings contri- 
buted to propagate and establish those 1 improvements in 
our language, which* were in his time beginning to take 
place. 9 ' The most favourable specimen of Hoccleve's 
poetry is his " Story of Jonathas," which the reader will 
find in the " Shepherd's Pipe," by William Browne, au- 
thor of Britannia's Pastorals. ' 

1 Preface to Mason's edition. — Extracts communicated by Mr. Archdeacon 
Nares from Mr. Sharp of Coventry.— Ellis'* Specimens*— Warton's Hist, of 


HOCHSTETTER (Andrew-Adam), a protectant di- 
vine, was born at Tubingen, July 1688. After studying 
with credit in the principal universities of Germany, be 
became successively professor of eloquence, of mora4 phi- 
losophy! of divinity, and finally rector of Tubingen. He 
died at the same place, April 27, 1717. His principal 
works are, 1. "Collegium Puffendorfianum." 2. " De 
Festo Expiationis, et Hirco Azazel." 3. " De Conradino* 
ultimo ex Suevis duce." 4. "De rebus Elbigensibus." 
His historical works are in most esteem. 1 

HODGES (Nathaniel), an English physician, was the 
son of Dr. Thomas Hodges, dean of Hereford, of whom 
there are three printed sermons. He was educated in 
Westminster-school, and became a student of Christ-church, 
Oxford, in 1648. In 1451 and 1654, he took the degrees 
6f B. and M. A. and, in 1659, accumulated the degrees of 
B. and M. D. He settled in London, and was, in 1672, 
made fellow of the College of Physicians. He remained in 
tile metropolis during the continuance of the plague in 
1665, when most of the physicians, and Sydenham among 
the rest, retired to the country ': and> with another of his 
brethren, he visited the infected during the whole Of that 
terrible visitation. These two physicians, indeed, appeal 
to have been appointed by the city of London to attend the 
diseased, with a stipend. Dr. Hodges was twice taken ill 
during the prevalence of the disease ; but by the aid of 
timely remedies he recovered. His mode of performing 
his perilous duty was to receive early every morning, at his 
own house, the persons who came to give reports of the 
sick, and convalescents, for advice; he then made his 
forenoon visits to the infected, causing a pan of coals to be 
carried before him with perfumes, and chewing troches 
While he was in the sick chamber. He repeated his visits 
in the afternoon. His chief prophylactic was a liberal use 
of Spanish \vine, and cheerful society after the business of 
the day. It is much to be lamented that such a man after- 
toards fell into unfortunate circumstances, and was confined 
for debt in Ludgate prison, where he died in 1684. His 
body was interred in the church of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 
London, where a monument is erected to him. He is 
fcttthor of two works : 1 . '.' Vtndich* Medicine et Merit* 
corum: An Apology for the Profession and Professors 

i DioCHuL 


of Physic, &c. 1660," 8vo. 2. " Avytitoyia : sive, pestis 
nupers* apud populam Londinensem grassantis narratio his- 
torical' 1672, 8vo% A translation of it into English was 
printed at London in 1720, 8vo, under the following title : 
" Lotmologia, or, an Historical Account of the Plague of 
London in 1665, with precautionary Directions against the 
like Contagion. To which is added, an Essay on the different 
causes of pestilential diseases, and how they become con- 
tagious. With remarks on the infection now in France, 
and the most probable means to prevent its spreading here ;" 
the latter by John Quincy, M. D. In 1721, there was 
printed at London, in 8vo, " A collection of very valuable 
and scarce pieces relating to the last plague in 1665;" 
among which it " An account of the first rise, progress, 
symptoms, and cure of the Plague; being the substance of 
a letter from Dr. Hodges to a person of quality, dated from 
his house in Watling-street, May the Bth, 1666." The 
author of the preface to this collection calls oar author 
" a faithful historian and diligent physician;* 9 and tells us, 
that " he may be reckoned among the best observers ift 
any age of physic, and has given us a true picture of the 
plague in his own time." l 

HODGES (William), an English landscape painter, 
was born in London, in 1744, and received his tuition in 
the art from Wilson, whom he assisted for some time, and 
under whom he acquired a good eye for colouring, and 
'great freedom and boldness of band ; but unluckily, like 
too many pupils, he caught the defects of his master more 
powerfully than his beauties ; and was, in consequence, 
too loose in his definition of forms, by which means, that 
which added grace to the works of the master, became 
tlovenliness in the pupil. " Hodges, 9 * says Fuseli, * had 
the boldness and neglect of Wilson, but not genius enough 
to give authority to the former, or make us forgive the 
latter : too inaccurate for scene-painting, too mannered for 
local representation, and not sublime or comprehensive 
enough for poetic landscape; yet, by mere decision of 
band, nearer to excellence than mediocrity ; and, peifeaps, 
superior to some who surpassed him in perspective, or 
(diligence of execution. 19 He accepted an appointment to 
go mit draughtsman with captain Cook on his second voyage 
\<9 the South Setts, from which he tetarned after an ab~ 

» Afh.0*. toI II.— Gen. Dict.«--Heei'8-Cych>pB4ift. 


sence of three years, and painted some pictures for the 
admiralty, of scenes in Otaheite and Ulietea. . Afterwards, 
under the patronage of Warren Hastings, he visited the 
East Indies, where he acquired a decent fortune. On bis 
return home, after practising the art some time, be en- 
gaged in commercial and banking speculations ; which not 
proving successful, he sunk under the disappointment, and 
died in 1 797. 1 

HOD Y (Humphrey), an eminent English divine, was born 
Jan. 1, 1 659, atOdcombe iu the county of Somerset, of which 
place his father was rector. He discovered while a boy, a 
great propensity to learning ; and, in 1676, was admitted 
into Wadhatn-college, Oxford, of which he was chosen 
fellow in 1684. When he was only in his twenty -first year 
he published his " Dissertation against Aristeas's History of 
the Seventy-two Interpreters." The substance of that 
•history of Aristeas, concerning the seventy-two Greek in- 
terpreters of the Bible, is this: Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, and founder of the noble library at Alex- 
andria, being desirous of enriching that library with all sorts 
of book*, committed the care of it to Demetrius Phalereus, 
a noble Athenian then living in bis court. Demetrjus being 
informed, in the course of his inquiries, of the Law of 
Moses among the Jews, acquainted the king with it ; who 
signified his pleasure, that a copy of that book, which was 
then only in Hebrew, should be sent for from Jerusalem, 
with interpreters from the same place to translate it into 
Greek. A deputation was accordingly sent to Eleazar the 
bigb-priest of the Jews at Jerusalem ; who sent a copy of 
the Hebrew original, and seventy-two interpreters, six out 
of each of the twelve tribes, to translate it into Greek. 
When they were come to Egypt the king caused them to 
be conducted into the island of Pharos near Alexandria, 
in apartments prepared for them, where they completed 
their translation in seventy-two days. Such is the story 
told by Aristeas, who is said to be one of king Ptolemy's 
court Hody shews that it is the iuvention of some Hel- 
lenist Jew ; that it is full of anachronisms and gross blun- 
ders ; and, in short, was written on purpose to recommend 
and give greater authority to the Greek version of the Old 
Testament, which from this story has received the name of 
the Septuagint. This dissertation was received with the 

1 Piikiagton, by Futelh— Edwudrt Coatiimatioft of Walpde. 

HODY. tl 

highest applause by all the learned, exeept Isaac Vossius. 
Charles du Fresne spoke highly of it in his observations on 
the u Chronicon Paschale," published in 1688; and Me- 
nage, in his notes upon the second edition of " Diogenes 
Laertius," gave Hody the titles of " eruditissimus, doc- 
tissimus, elegantissimus, &c." but Vossius alone was 
greatly dissatisfied with it. He had espoused the contrary 
opinion, and could not bear that such a boy as Hody should 
presume to contend with one of his age and reputation for 
letters. He published therefore an appendix to his " Ob- 
servations on Pomponius Mela," and subjoined an answer 
to tiiis dissertation of Hody's ; in which, however, he did 
not enter much into the argument, but contents himself 
with treating Hody very contemptuously, vouchsafing him 
no better title than Juvenis Oxoniensis, and sometimes 
using worse language. When Vossius was asked after- 
wards, what induced him to treat a young man of promis- 
ing hopes, and who had certainly deserved well of the re- 
public of letters, so very harshly, be answered, that be had 
received some time before a rude Latin epistle from Oxt 
ford, of which he suspected Hody to be the author ; and 
that this had made him deal more severely with him than 
be should otherwise have done. Vossius had indeed re- 
ceived such a letter ; but it was written, according to the 
assertion of Creech, the translator of Lucretius, without 
Hody's knowledge or approbation. When Hody published 
his " Dissertation, &c." he told the reader in his preface, 
that lie had three other books preparing upon the Hebrew 
text, and Greek version ; but he was now so entirely drawn 
away from these studies by other engagements, that he 
could not find time to complete his work, and to answer 
the objections of Vossius, till more than twenty years after. 
In \ 704, be published it altogether, with this title, " De 
Bibliorum textibus originalibus, versionibus Graecis, et 
Latina Vulgata, libri IV. &c." The first book contains 
his dissertation against Aristeas's history, which is here re- 
printed with improvements, and an answer to Vossiu» Y s 
objections. In the second he treats of the true authors of 
the Greek version called the Septuagint; of the time 
when, and the reasons why, it was undertaken, and of the 
manner in which it was performed. The third is a history 
of the Hebrew text, the Septuagint. version, and of the 
■ Latin Vulgate ; shewing the authority of each in different 
age*, and that the Hebrew text has been always most 


m H O D Y. 

esteemed and valued. In the fourth be gives an account 
of the rest of the Giteek versions, namely, those of Sym- 
macbus, Aquila, and Tbeodotion ; of Origen's *• Hexapla," 
end other ancient editions ; and subjoins lists of the books 
of the Bible at different times, which exhibit a concise, but 
fall and dear view of the canon of Holy Scripture.- — Upon 
the whole, be thinks it probable, that the Greek version, 
called the Septuagint, was done in the time of the two 
Ptolemies, Lagus and Philadelphia; and that it was not 
dooe by order of king Ptolemy, or under the direction of 
Demetrius Phalereus, in order to be deposited in the Alex- 
andrine library, but by Hellenist Jews for the use of their 
own countrymen. 

In 1689, he wrote the "Prolegomena*' to John Malela's 
"Chronicle," printed at Oxford; and the year after was 
made chaplain to Stillwgfleet bishop of Worcester, being 
tutor to his son at Wad ham college. The deprivation of 
the bishops, who had refused the oaths to king William and 
queen Mary, engaged him in a controversy with Dodwell, 
who had till now been his friend, and had spoken hand- 
somely and affectionately of him, in his " Dissertations 
upon Irenaeus," printed in H>89. The pieces Hody published 
on this occasion were, in 1691, " The Unreasonableness of 
a Separation from the new bishops : or, a Treatise out of 
Ecclesiastical History, shewing, that although a bishop 
was unjfMtly deprived, neither he nor the church ever made 
a separation, if the successor was not an heretic. Trans- 
lated out of an ancient manuscript in the public library 
at Oxford," one of the Baroccian MSS. He translated it 
afterwards into Latin, and prefixed to it some pieces out 
of ecclesiastical antiquity, relating to the same subject. 
Dodwell publishing an answer to it, entitled ** A Vindica- 
tion of the deprived bishops,** &c. in 1692, Hody replied, 
in a treatise which he styled " The Case of Sees vacant 
by an unjust or uncanonical deprivation stated ; in answer 
to a piece intituled, A Vindication of the deprived Bishops, 
&c. Together with the several pamphlets published as 
answers to the Baroccian Treatise, 1693.** The part he 
acted in this controversy recommended him so powerfully 
to Tftlotson, who had succeeded Sancroft in the see of 
Canterbury, that he made him his domestic chaplain iu 
May 1694. Here he drew up his dissertation " concern- 
ing the 'Resurrection of the same body/ 9 which he dedi- 
cated to BtillingAeet, -whose chaplain be had been from 

BODY. 29 

149a Tillotson dying November following, he was con- 
tinued chaplain by Tenison his successor; who soon after 
gave him the rectory of Chart near Canterbury, vacant 
by £be death of Wharton. This, before be was collated, 
he exchanged for the united parishes of St Michael's 
Royal and St Martin's Vintry, in London, being instituted 
to these in August 1&95. In 1696, at the command of 
Tenison, he wrote " Animadversions on two pamphlets 
lately published by Mr. Collier, &c." When sir William -/. 
Perkins and sir John Friend were executed that year for 
the assassination- plot, Collier, Cook, and Snatr, three 
nonjuring clergymen, formally pronounced upon them the 
absolution of the church, as it stands in the office for the 
visitation of the sick, and accompanied this ceremony with 
a solemn imposition of hands. For this imprudent action 
they were not only indicted, but also the archbishops and 
bishops published " A Declaration of their sense concern- a£> J 6 c t C 
ing those irregular and scandalous proceedings." Snatt ^ 

and Cook were cast into prison. Collier absconded, and 
from bis privacy published two pamphlets to vindicate his 
own, and his brethren's conduct ; the one called, " A De- * 

fence of the Absolution given to sir William Perkins at the 
place of execution ;" the other, " A Vindication thereof, 
occasioned by a paper, intituled, A Declaration of tbe 
sense of the archbishops and bishops, &c." ; in answer to 
which Hody published the " Animadversions" above-men- 

March 1 £98, he was appointed regius professor of Greek 
in the university of Oxford ; and instituted to the arch- 
deaconry of Oxford in 1704. In 170!, he bore a part in 
the controversy about the convocation, and published upon 
that occasion, " A History of English Councils and Con- 
vocations, and of tbe Clergy's sitting in Parliament, in 
which is also comprehended the History of Parliaments, 
with an account of our ancient laws." He died Jan. 20, 
1706, and was buried in the chapel belonging to Wad- 
ham-college, where he had received his education, and to 
which he had been a benefactor : for, in order to encourage 
the study of the Greek and Hebrew languages, of which 
he was so great a master himself, he founded in that col- 
lege ten scholarships of ten pounds each ; now increased 
to fifteen pounds each; and appointed that four of the ' 
scholars should apply themselves to the study of the He- 
brew, and six to the study of the Greek language. He 

30 HODY. 

left behind hjm in MS. a valuable work formed from th* 
lectures which he had read in the course of his professor- 
ship, containing an account of those learned Grecians who 
retired to Italy before and after the taking of Constantly 
nople by the Turks, and restored the Greek tongue and 
learning in these western parts of the world. This was 
published in 1742, by Dr. S. Jebb, under this title, " De 
Graecis illustribus. linguae GrseCae literarumque humanio- 
rutn instauratoribus, eorum vitis, scriptis, et elogiis Ubri 
duo. £ Codicibus potissimum MSS. aliisque authenticis 
ejusdem aevi monimends deprompsit Humfredus Hodius, 
8. T. P. baud ita pridem Regius Professor et Archidiaco* 
nus Oxon." Prefixed is an account in Latin of the author's 
life, extracted chiefly from a manuscript one written by 
himself in English. ' 

HOE (Matthias de Hoenego), of a noble family at 
Vienna, was born Feb, 24, 1580. After being eight years 
superintendant of Plaven in Saxouy, he took holy orders 
at Prague in 1611. In 1613 he left Prague, and was ap- 
pointed principal preacher to the elector of Saxony at 
Dresden, where he died March 4, 1645. He was a stre- 
nuous Lutheran, and wrote with as much zeal against 
Calvinists as Papists. His works, which are very numerous 
both in Latin and German, are not at this day much 
esteemed, or indeed known. Their titles, however, are 
giveu by the writers of his life* and among them we find, 
" Solida detestatio Pap® et Calvinistarum," 4to. " Apo- 
logia pro B. Luthero contra Lampadium," Leipsic, 1611, 
4to. " Philosophise Aristotelicse, partes tres." " Septem 
verborum Christi explicatio." The greater part of his 
tracts appear evidently, from their titles, to be contro- 
versial, 1 

HOELTZLINUS (Jeremias), a philologer, was born at 
Nuremberg, but settled at Leyden, and is best known by 
his edition of Apollonius Rbodius, which was published 
there in 1641. This edition is generally esteemed for th* 
beauty of the printing; but Ruhnkenius, in his second 
Epistola Critfca, calls the editor " tetricum et ineptum 
Apollonii Commeotatorem ;" and his commentary has been 
censured also by Harwood, Harles, and other learned 
men. He published in 1628, a German translation of the 

t Lift ■• abovc—Biog. Brit— Birch's Titlotsoa.— Chalmers*! Hilt off Oxford 
* frcberi Thtatrum.— Gen. Diet.— Mpthehn.— 8t«i OoonafL 


Psalms, which has the credit of being accurate. He died 
in. 1641. 1 

HOESCHELIU9 (David), a learned German, was born 
at Augsburg in 1556; and spent his life in teaching the 
youth in the college of St. Anne, of which be was made 
principal by the magistrates of Augsburg, in 1593. They 
made him their library- keeper also, and he acquitted him- 
self with true literary zeal in this post : for be collected a 
great number of MSS. and printed books, especially Greek, 
and also of the best authors and the best editions, with 
which be enriched their library; and also published the 
most scarce and curious of the MSS. with his own' notes. 
His publications were very numerous, among which were 
editions of the following authors, or at least of some part 
of their works; Origen, Philo Judseus, Basil, Gregory of 
Nyssen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Hori ApoU 
linis Hieroglypbica, Appian, Pbotius, Procopius, Anna 
Comnena, &c. To some of these he added Latin transla- 
tions, but published others in Greek only, with notes. 
Huetius has commended him, not only for the pains he 
took to discover old manuscripts, but also for his skill and 
ability in translating them. He composed, and published 
in 1595, " A Catalogue of the Greek MSS. in the Augs- 
burg library," which, for the judgment and order with 
which it is drawn up, is reckoned a masterpiece in its kind. 
He may justly be ranked among those who contributed to 
the revival of good learning in Europe : for, besides these 
labours for the public, he attended his college closely; 
and not only produced very good scholars, but is said to 
have furnished the bar with one thousand, and the church 
with two thousand, young men of talents. He died at 
Augsburg in 1617, much lamented, being a man of good as 
well as great qualities, and not less beloved than admired. J 
HOET (Gerard), an eminent historical and landscape 
painter, born at Bommel in 1648, was a disciple of War- 
nard van Rysen, an excellent artist, who had been bred in 
the school of Polemburg. He was at first invited to Cleve, 
where bis paintings procured him very great credit; but 
be was afterwards prevailed on to visit Paris, where not 
meeting with encouragement in any degree proportioned 
to his merit, he turned his attention to England, whither he 


1 Gen. Diet.— Mor«ri.— Saxii Onomast 

1 Niceroo, vol. XXVIII.— Frthtri Tfamttum.— Gen. Diet— Surii QaoBMtt. 

32 HOET. 

certainly would have directed his course, bad he not been 
dissuaded by Vosterman. After practising, therefore* for 
some time at Paris and Cleves, he settled at Utrecht, and 
in that city and its neighbourhood displayed bis abilities, in 
executing several grand designs for ceilings, saloons, and 
apartments, and also in finishing a great number of ease) 
pictures for cabinets ; and his reputation was so universally 
established at Utrecht, that he was appointed director of 
an academy for drawing and painting, which he conducted 
with great honour to himself, and remarkable advantage to 
his pupils. He had a lively imagination, a very ready in- 
vention, a talent for composition and correctness in the cos- 
tume. His manner of painting was clean and neat, and he 
was thoroughly master of the true principles of the chiaro- 
scuro. His figures in general are designed with elegance, 
his colouring is vivid, natural, and harmonious, his touch 
is light and firm, and his pictures have a great deal of trans- 
parence. His small easel-paintingsare as distinctly touched 
as highly finished ; and yet his larger works are always 
penciled with a freedom that is suitable to those grander 

Many capital pictures of this master are iu the palace of 
Slangenberg ; and his eminent talents may be seen in the 
grand staircase at Voorst, the seat of the earl of Albemarle. 
In Holland, and also in our kingdoms, several charming 
pictures of Hoet are preserved ; some of them in the man- 
ner of Polemburg, and others in the style of Caret du Jar- 
din. He died in 1733. l 

HOFFMAN (Daniel), a Lutheran minister, superin- 
tendant and professor at Helmstad, was the author of an 
idle controversy towards the end of the sixteenth century. 
He started some difficulties about subscribing the concord, 
and refused to concur with Dr. Andreas in defence of this 
confession. He would not acknowledge the ubiquity, but 
only that the body of Jesus Christ was present in a great 
many places ; this dispute, though laid asleep soon after, 
left a spirit of curiosity and contradiction upon people's 
minds, so that in a little time they began to disagree and 
argue very warmly upon several other points, Hoffman 
being always at the bead of the party. Among other tilings 
in an academical disputation, he maintained that the light 
of reason, even as it appears in the writings of Plato and 

» PUkiogton. 


Aristotle, is averse to religion ; and tb€ more th$ hiuftaa 
understanding is cultivated by philosophical study, the 
more perfectly is the enemy supplied with weapons of dec 
fenoe. The partiality which at this time universally pre* 
vailed ia favour of the Aristotelian philosophy was such, 
that an opinion of this kind could not be advanced publicly* 
without exciting general dissatisfaction and alarm. A jiu* 
meroos band of professors, though they differed in opinion 
among themselves, united to take up arms against the 
common enemy. At the head of this body was John Cas* 
ael ; whence the advocates for philosophy were called the 
Casselian party. They at first challenged Hoffman to a 
private conference, in expectation of leading him to a 
sounder judgment concerning philosophy ; but their hopes 
were frustrated* Hoffman, persuaded that interest and 
envy had armed the philosophers against him, in his reply 
to bis opponents inveighed with great bitterness against 
philosophers, and acknowledged, that he meant to oppose 
not only the abuse of philosophy, but the most prudent and 
legitimate use of it, as necessarily destructive of theology. 
This extravagant assertion, accompanied with many con* 
tumelious censures of philosophers, produced reciprocal 
vehemence; and Albert Graver published a book " De 
Unica Veritate," which maintained " the Simplicity of 
Truth ;" a doctrine from which the Casselian party were 
called Simplicists, whilst the followers of Hoffman (for he 
found means to engage several persons, particularly among 
the Theoeophists, in his interest) opposing this doctrine, 
were called, on the other hand, Duplicista* John Angel 
Wendenhagen, a Boehmenite, who possessed some poe- 
tical talents, wrote several poems against the philoso- 
phers. Ia short, the disputes ran so high, and produced 
so much personal abuse, that the court thought it neces- 
sary to interpose its authority, and appointed arbitrators to 
examine the merits of the controversy. The decision was 
against Hoffman, and he was obliged to make a public re- 
cantation of his errors, acknowledging the utility aad a** 
oellence of philosophy, and declaring that bis invectives 
bad been only directed against its abuses. 

Hoffman and Beza wrote against each other apoo the 
subject of the Holy Eucharist. Hoffman accused Hunnius, 
an eminent Lutheran minister, for bavkg misrepresented 
the book of the Concord; for here, says Hoffman, the 
cause of -election is not made to depend upon the qualifi- 

Vol. XVIII. D 


cations of the person elected ; but Hunnius, says be, and 
Mylius assert, that the decree of election is founded upon 
the foresight of faith. Hunnius and Mylius caused Hoff- 
man to be condemned at a meeting of their divines in 
1593, and threatened him with excommunication, if he 
did not comply. The year following, Hoffman published 
an apology against their censure. Hospinian gives the 
detail of this controversy : he observes, that some divines 
of Leipsic, Jena, and Wittemburg, would have had Hoff- 
man publicly censured as a Calvinist, and such a heretic 
as was not fit to be conversed with ; others who were more 
moderate, were for admonishing him by way of letter be- 
fore they came to extremities : this latter expedient was 
approved, and Hunnius wrote to bim in the name of all his 
brethren. Hoffman's apology was an answer to this letter, 
in which be gives the reasons for refusing to comply with 
the divines of Wittemburg, and pretends to shew that they 
were grossly mistaken in several articles of faith* At last 
he was permitted to keep school at Helmstadt, where he 
died in 1611. He must not be confounded with Melchior 
Hoffman, a fanatic of the sixteenth century, who died in 
prison at Strasburgh. There was also a Gasper Hoffman 
(the name being common), a celebrated professor of medi- 
cine at Altdorf, who was bom at Gotba in 1672, and died ( 
in 1649 ; and who left behind him many medical works. * 

HOFFMAN (John James), professor of Greek at Bale, 
was born in that city in 1635, and died there in 1706. 
Little besides is known of his history. His great work, the 
" Lexicon Universale Historico-Geographico-Poetico-Phi* 
losophico-Politico-Philologicnm," was first published at 
Geneva, in 1677, in two volumes, folio. This being re- 
ceived by the learned with great avidity, he published, a 
£ew years after, a Sapplement; which was also rapidly sold 
off In 1698, some of the principal booksellers at Leyden, 
encouraged by this success of the work, and having re- 
oeived from the author all his subsequent collections, and 
many other additions from various learned men, digested 
the whole, with the Supplement, into one alphabet, and 
published it in four volumes, folio. In this form it is now 
known as a' most useful book of reference, and finds a 
place in every learned library. For this edition the au- 
thor wrote a new preface. He also published a " History 

1 Gta» Dictt— MomL*-Bmck*r. 


of the Popes" in Latin, 1687, 2 vols, and " His tori a Au- 
gusta," 1687, fol. 1 

HOFFMAN (Maurice), a physician, was born of a good 
family, at Furstenwalde, in the electorate of Branden- 
bourg, Sept. 20, 1621 ; and was driven early from his na- 
tive country by the plague, and also by the war that fol- 
lowed it. His parents, having little idea of letters or 
sciences, contented themselves with having him taught 
writing and arithmetic ; but Hoffman's taste for books and 
study made him very impatient under this confined instruc- 
tion, and he was resolved, at all events, to be a scholar. 
He first gained over his mother to his scheme ; but she 
died when he was only fifteen. This, however, fortunately 
proved no impediment to his purpose; for the schoolmaster 
of Furstenwalde, to which place after many removals he 
had now returned, was so struck with bis talents and laud- 
able ambition, that he instructed him carefully in secret. 
His father, convinced at length of his uncommon abilities, 
permitted him to follow his inclinations; and, in 1637, 
sent him to study in the college of Cologne. Famine and 
the plague drove him from hence to Kopnik, where he bu- 
ried his father; and, in 1638, he went to Altdorf, to an 
uncle by his mother's side, who was a professor of physic. 
Here he finished hie studies in classical learning and philo- 
sophy, and then applied himself, with the utmost ardour, 
to physic. In 1641, when he had made some progress, 
he went to the university of Padua, which then abounded 
with men very learned in all sciences. Anatomy and bo- 
tany were the great objects of his pursuit ; and he became 
very deeply skilled in both. Bartholin tells us, that Hoff- 
man, having dissected a turkey-cock, discovered the pa- 
nacreatic duct, and shewed it to Versungus, a celebrated 
anatomist of Padua, with whom he lodged; who, taking 
the hint, demonstrated afterwards the same vessel in the 
human body. When he had been at Padua about three 
years, he returned to Altdorf, to assist his uncle, now 
growing infirm, in his business ; and taking the degree of 
doctor, he applied himself very diligently to practice, in 
which he had abundant success, and acquired great fame. 
In 1648, he was made professor extraordinary in anatomy 
and surgery ; in 1649, professor of physic, and soon after 
member of the college of physicians; in 1653, professor 

» Moreri.— Diet* Hist— Suit Onomatt. 

» 2 


of botany, and director of the physic-garden. He acquit- 
ted himself very ably in these various employments, not 
neglecting in the mean time the business of his profession ; 
in which his reputation was so extensive, that many prin- 
ces of Germany appointed him their physician. He died 
of an apoplexy in 1698, after having published several 
botanical works, and married three wives, by whom he had 
eighteen children. His works are, 1. " Altdorfi deliciae 
hortenses," 1677) 4to. 2. " Appendix ad Catalogum Plan* 
tarum hortensium," 1691, 4to. 3. " Deliciae silvestres," 
1677, 4to. 4. " Florilegium Aitdorfinum," 1676, &c. 4to. K 
HOFFMAN (John Maurice), son of the former by his 
first wife, was born at Altdorf in 1653 ; and sent to school 
at Herszpruck, where having acquired a competent know- 
ledge of the Greek and Latin tongues, he returned to his 
father at Altdorf at the age of sixteen, and studied first 
philosophy, and then physic. He went afterwards to 
Francfbrt upon the Oder, and proposed to visit the United 
Provinces and England j but being prevented by the wars, 
he went to Padua, where he studied two years. Then 
making a tour of part of Italy, he returned to Altdorf, in 
1674, and was admitted to the degree of M. D. He spent 
two years in adding to the knowledge he had acquired ; 
and then, in 1677, was made professor extraordinary in 
physic, which title, in 1681, was changed to that of pro- 
fessor in ordinary. He now applied himself earnestly to the 
practice of physic > apd in time his fame was spread so far, 
that he was sought by persons of the first rank. George 
Frederic, marquis of Anspach, of the house of Braoden- 
bourg, chose him in 1695 for his physician ; and about the 
latter end of the year, Hoffman attended this prince into 
Italy, and renewed his acquaintance with the learned there. 
Upon the death of his father in 1 698, he was chosen to suc- 
ceed him in his places of botanic professor and director of 
the physic garden. He was elected also the same year 
rector of the university of Altdorf; a post which be had 
occupied in 1686. He lost his great friend and patron, 
the marquis of Apspach, in 1703; but found the same 
kinduess from his successor William Frederic, who pressed 
him so earnestly to coa\e nearer him, and made him such 
advantageous offers, that Hoffman in 1713 removed from 
Altdorf to Anspach, where he died fa 1727. He had mar- 

> Niceroq, roL XVL~Hftlkr Bibk Aost. et Botaa. 


ried a wife in 1661, by whom he had fire children. He 
left several works of repute t yiz. two dissertations on an*- 
tqmy and physiology ; one on what has since been called 
morbid anatomy, entitled " Disquisitio corporis humatu 
Anatofliico»Pathologica ;" ibid. 1713. u Acta Laboratoni 
chemici Altdorffini," 1719. " Syntagma Patbologico-the- 
rapeuticum," 1726, in 2 vols. 4to, and t$ Sciagraphia In- 
atitutionum Medicarnm," a posthumous publication. He 
also continued his father's " Flora Altdorffinse." 1 

HOFFMANN (Frederick), the most eminent physi- 
cian of bis name, was born at Halle, in Saxony, Feb. 19 9 
1660. He received bis early education in bis native town, 
and bad made great progress in philosophy and the mathe- 
matics, when, at the age of fifteen, he lost his father and 
mother during the prevalence of an epidemic disease. In 
1 679 he commenced the study of medicine at Jena, and in 
the following year attended the chemical lectures of Gas- 
par Cramer, at Erfurth; and, on his return to Jena, re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. in February 1681. In 1682 he 
published an excellent tract " De Cinnabari Antimonii," 
which gained him great applause, and a crowd of pupils 
to the chemical lectures, which he delivered there. He 
was then induced to visit Minden, in Westphalia, on the 
invitation of a relation, and practised there for two years 
with considerable success. He then travelled into Holland 
and thence to England, where he was received with dis- 
tinction by men of science, and particularly by Paul Her* 
nan, the botanist, in the former, and Robert Boyle in the 
latter. On bis return to Minden, in 1685, he was made 
physician to the garrison there, and in the following year 
was honoured by Frederic William, elector of Branden- 
burg, with the appointments of physician to his own per- 
son, and to the whole principality of Minden. Yet he 
quitted that city in 1688, in consequence of an invitation 
to settle at Halberstadt, in Lower Saxony, as public phy- 
sician. H6re be published a treatise " De insufficientia 
acidi et viscidi," by which he overthrew the system of 
Cornelius Bontekce. In 1689 he married the only daugh- 
ter of Andrew Herstel, an eminent apothecary, with whom 
he bad lived forty-eight years in perfect union, when she 
died. About this time, Frederic III., afterwards first king 
of Prussia, founded the university of Halle; and in 1693 

i Nicer*), is*. XVI. 


Hoffmann was appointed primary professor of medicine, 
composed the statutes of that institution, and extended its 
fame and elevated its character, while his own reputation 

{nrocured him admission into the scientific societies at fier- 
in, Petersburgh, and London, as well as the honour of 
being consulted by persons of the highest rank. He was 
called upon to visit many of the German courts in his ca- 
pacity of physician, and received honours from several 
pynces ; from whom some say that he received ample re- 
muneration in proportion to the rank of his patients ; while 
others have asserted that he took no fees, but contented 
himself with his stipends. Haller asserts that he acquired 
great wealth by various chemical nostrums which be 
vended. In 1 704 he accompanied some of the Prussian mi- 
nisters to the Caroline warm baths in Bohemia, on which 
occasion he examined their nature, and published a dis- 
sertation concerning them. On subsequent visits, he be- 
came acquainted with the Sedlitz purging waters, which 
he first introduced to public notice, having published a 
•treatise on them in 1717 : and he afterwards extended his 
inquiries to the other mineral waters of Germany. In 1 708 
he was called to Berlin to take care of the declining health 
of Frederic, and was honoured with the titles of archiater 
and aulic counsellor, together with a liberal salary. After 
three years residence at this court he returned to Halle,' 
and gladly resumed his academical functions. He con- 
tinued also to labour in the composition of his writings; 
and in 1718, at the age of 60, he began the publication 
of bis " Mediciua Rationalis Systematica," which was re- 
. ceived with great applause by the faculty in various parts 
of Europe, and the completion of which occupied him 
nearly twenty years. He likewise published two volumes 
of " Consultations," in which be distributed into three 
" centuries," the most remarkable cases which had oc- 
curred to him ; and also " Observationum Pbysico-Che- 
micarum Libri tres," 1722. In 1727 he attended the 
- prince of Schwartzemburg through a dangerous disease; 
in recompence for which bis noble patient created him 
count palatine. He quitted Halle in 1734, in order to 

}>ay a short visit to bis daughter and son-in-law at Ber- 
in, and was detained five months by the king of Prussia, 
Frederic William, in order to attend him during a danger- 
ous illness, by whom he was treated with great honour, 
being elevated to the rank of privy counsellor, and pre- 

fi O F F M A N K. 39 

sented with a portrait of the king, set in diamonds. Hoff- 
mann declined a pressing. invitation to settle at Berlin, on 
account of bis advanced age, and returned to Halle in 
April 1735. The illness and death of his beloved wife, in 
1737, turned his thoughts to the consolations of religion, 
and he drew up in Latin a summary of Christian doctrine, 
which, at the king's desire, was translated into German. 
He continued to perform his academical duties until 1742, 
when he died in the month of November, aged eighty-two. 
Frederick Hoffmann was an industrious and copious writer. 
Haller has occupied thirty-eight quarto pages in the enu- 
meration of his works in detail. The principal of these 
were collected, during the life of the author, by two Oe- 
oevese booksellers, and published with his approbation, 
and with a preface from his pen, in 1740, in six vols, folio. 
It was reprinted by the same booksellers, the freres de 
Tounies, in 1748; and in the following year, having* raked 
together every thing which his pen had touched, they pub- 
lished a supplement in three additional volumes folio, which 
was also reprinted in 1753-4. The writings of Hoffmann 
contain a great mass of practical matter of considerable 
value, partly compiled from preceding writers, and partly 
the result of bis own observation ; but they contain also 
many trifling remarks, and not a little hypothetical con- 
jecture, which was indeed a common fault of the times ; 
and in the detail there is considerable prolixity and repeti- 
tion. As a theorist his suggestions were of great value, 
and contributed to introduce that revolution in the science 
of pathology, which subsequent observation has extended 
and confirmed. His doctrine of atony and spasm in the 
living solid, by which he referred all internal disorders to 
some " preternatural affection of the nervous system/ 9 
rather than to the morbid derangements and qualities of 
the fluids, first turned the attention of physicians from the 
mere mechanical and chemical operations of the animal 
body to those of the primary moving powers of the living 
system. To Hoffmann Dr. Cullen acknowledges the obli- 
gations we are under for having first put us into the proper 
train of investigation ; although he himself did not rfpply 
his fundamental doctrine so extensively as he might have 
done, and every where mixed with it a humoral pathology 
as incorrect and hypothetical as any other. Hoffmann pur- 
sued the study of practical chemistry with considerable 
ardour, and improved the department of pharmacy by the 


addition of some mineral preparations ; but on the whole, 
and especially in bis latter years, bis practice was cautious, 
end even inert, and be trusted much to vegetable simples* 1 

HOGARTH (William), a truly great and original 
genius, is said by Dr. Burn to have been the descendant of 
a family originally from Kirkby Thore in Westmoreland. 
His grandfather, a plain yeoman, possessed a small tene- 
ment in the vale of Bampton, a village about fifteen miles 
north of Kendal in that county, and had three sons. The 
eldest assisted his father in farming, and succeeded to his 
little freehold. The second settled in Troutbeck, a village 
eight miles north-west of Kendal, and was remarkable for 
his talent at provincial poetry. The third, Richard, edu- 
cated at St Bee's, who had been a schoolmaster in the 
same county, went early to London, where he was em- 
ployed as a corrector of the press, and appears to hate 
been a man of some learning, a dtctiopary in latin and 
English, which he composed for the use of schools, being 
still extant in manuscript. He married in London, and 
kept a school* in Ship-court in the Old Bailey. The 
subject of the present article, and his sisters Mary and 
Anne, are believed to have been the only product of the 

William Hogarth was born in 1697, or 1698, io the 
parish of St. Martin, Ludgate. The outset of bis life, 
however, was unpromising. " He was bound," says Mr* 
Walpole, " to a mean engraver of arms on plate." Ho* 
garth probably chose this occupation, as it required some 
skill in drawing, to which bis genius was particularly 
turned, and which he contrived assiduously to cultivate* 
His master, it since appears, was Mr. Ellis Gamble, a sil- 
versmith of eminence, who resided in Cranbourn-street, 
Leicester-fields. In this profession it is not unusual to bind 
apprentices to the single branch of engraving arms and 
Cyphers on every species of metal, and in that particular 
department of the business young Hogarth was placed ; 
" but before his time was expired he felt the impulse of 
genius, and that it directed him to painting." 

During his apprenticeship, be set out one Sunday, with 
two or three companions, on an excursion to Higbgate. 

1 Rets*s Cyclopaedia.— Life of Hoffmann, by Scbnlse, So. 
' * He published, in 1713, a volume UUones Grammatical** j site Examen 
si Lfttia «a*rait#s, for tb« mm of hi* Ooto Part'raraOratfOftit, interrogatorim* 
ova totoPV **** ** titte *i " Jtimr- * mpqnppfiiM* A»glo»I*(uwflfc" *▼* 


Hie weather being hot, they went into * public bouse, 
where they had not been long before a quarrel arose be- 
tween some persons in the same room. One of the dis- 
putants struck the other on the head with a quart pot, and 
cut him very much. The blood running down the man's 
face, together with the agony of the wound, which had 
distorted bis features into a most hideous grin, presented 
Hogarth, who shewed himself thus early " apprised of the 
fpode Nature intended be should pursue/ 9 with too laugh- 
able a subject to be overlooked. He drew out his pencil, 
and produced on the spot one of the most ludicrous figures 
that ever was seen. What rendered this piece the more 
valuable was, that it exhibited an exact likeness of the 
man, with the portrait of his antagonist, and tbp figures 
in caricature of the principal persons gathered round 

How long he continued in obscurity we cannot exactly 
learn ; but the first piece in which he distinguished himself 
as a painter, is supposed to have been a representation of 
Wanstead Assembly. The figures in it, we are told, were 
drawn from the life, and without any circumstances of 
burlesque. The faces are said to have been extremely like, 
and the colouring rather better than in some of his later 
and more highly- finished performances. From the date of 
the first plate that can be ascertained to be the work of 
Hogarth, it may be presumed that he began business, on 
bis own account, at least as early as 1720. 

His first employment seems to have been the engraving 
of arms and shop-bills. The next step was to design and 
furnish plates for booksellers ; and here we are fortunately 
supplied with dates. Thirteen folio prints, with bis name 
to each, appeared in Aubry de la Motraye's Travels, in 
J 723; seven smaller prints for ApuleinY Golden Ass, in 
} 724; fifteen head-pieces to Beaver's Military Punishments 
of the Ancients ; five frontispieces for the translation of 
Cassandra, in five volumes, 1 2mo, 1 725*; seventeen cuts 
for a duodecimo edition of Hudibras (with Butler's head), 
in 1726 l two for Perseus and Andromeda, in 1730; two 
for Milton [the date uncertain] ; and a variety of others 
between 1726 and 1733. Mr. Bowles, at the Black-horse 
in Cornhill, was one of his earliest patrons, but paid him f 
▼ery low prices. His next friend in the same business was ; 
Mr. Philip Overton, who rewarded him somewhat better for 

labour and ingenuity. 

A '• 


There are still many family pictures by Hogarth existing, 
in the style of .serious conversation-pieces. What the 
prices of bis portraits were, Mr. Nichols strove in vain to 
discover ; but he suspected that they were originally very 
low, as the persons who were best acquainted with them 
chose to be silent on the subject. At Rivenhall, in Essex, 
the seat of Mr. Western, is a family-picture, by Hogarth, 
of Mr. Western and his mother, chancellor Hoadly, arch- 
deacon Charles Plumptre, the Rev. Mr. Cole of Milton 
near Cambridge, and Mr. Henry Taylor, the curate there 
1736. In the gallery of Mr. Cole of Milton, was also a 
whole-length picture of Mr. Western by Hogarth, a striking 
resemblance. He is drawn sitting in bis fellow-commoner'* 
habit, and square cap with a gold tassel, in his chamber at 
Clare-ball, over the arch towards the river ; and the artist, 
as the chimney could not be expressed, has drawn a, cat 
sitting near it, agreeable to bis humour, to shew the situ- 
ation. Mr. Western's mother, whose portrait is in the con- 
versation-piece at Rivenhall, was a daughter of sir Anthony 

It was Hogarth's custom fo sketch out on the spot any 
remarkable face which particularly struck him, and of which 
he wished to preserve the remembrance. A gentleman 
informed his biographer, that being once with him at the 
Bedford coffee-house, be observed him drawing something 
.with a pencil on his nail. Inquiring what had been bis 
employment, he was shewn a whimsical countenance of a 
person who was then at a small distance. 

It happened_in the early part of Hogarth's life, that a 
nobleman who was uncommonly ugly and deformed, came 
to sit to him for his picture. It was executed with a skill 
that did honour to the artist's abilities ; but the likeness 
was rigidly observed, without even the necessary attention 
to compliment or flattery. The peer, disgusted at this 
counterpart of bis dear self, never once thought of paying 
for a reflector that would only insult him with his de- 
formities. Some time was suffered to elapse before the 
artist applied for his money ; but afterwards* many appli- 
cations were made by him (who bad then no need of a 
.banker) for payment, but without success. The painter, 
however, at la$t hit upon an expedient which he knew must 
alarm the nobleman's pride, and by that means answer his 
purpose. It was couehed in the following card : " Mr. 
Hogarth's dutiful respects to lord— j finding that he 



does not mean to have the picture which was drawn for him, 
is informed again of Mr. H.'s necessity for the money ; if, 
therefore, his lordship does not send for it in three days, 
it will be disposed of, with the addition of a tail, and some 
other little appendages, to Mr. Hare, the famous wild-beast 
man ; Mr. H. having given that gentleman a conditional 
promise of it for an exhibition picture, on his lordship's 
refusal/ 9 This intimation had the desired effect. The 
picture was sent home, and committed to the flames. 

Mr. Walpole has remarked, that if our artist " indulged 
his spirit of ridicule in personalities, it never proceeded 
beyond sketches and drawings," and wonders " that he 
never, without intention, delivered the very features of 
any identical person. 19 But this elegant writer, who may 
be- said to have received his education in a court, bad per- 
haps few opportunities of acquaintance among the low 
popular characters with which Hogarth occasionally peopled 
his scenes. The friend who contributed this remark, was 
assured by an ancient gentleman of unquestionable veracity 
and acuteness of remark, that almost all the personages 
who attended the levee of the Rake were undoubted por- 
traits ; and that in " Southwark Fair," and the " Modern 
, Midnight Conversation," as many more were discoverable. 
In the former plate he pointed out Essex the dancing- 
master ; and in the latter, as well as in the second plate to 
the " Rake's Progress," Figg the prize-fighter. He men- 
tioned several others by name, from his immediate know- 
ledge both of the painter's design and the characters re- 
presented ; but the rest of the particulars by which he 
supported his assertions, have escaped the memory of our 
informant. While Hogarth was painting the " Rake's Pro- 
gress," he had a summer residence at Islewortb, and never 
failed to question the company who came to see these pic- 
tures if they knew for whom one or another figure was 
designed. When they guessed wrongly, he set them right, 
^i The duke of Leeds has an original scene in the Beggars 

^ Opera, painted by Hogarth. It is that in which Lucy and 
Polly are on their knees before their respective fathers, to 
intercede for the life of the hero of the piece. All the 
figures are either known or supposed to be portraits. If 
we are not misinformed, the late sir Thomas Robinson 
(better known perhaps by the name of long sir Thomas) is 
standing in one of the side-boxes. Macheath, unlike his 
spruce representative on our present, stage, is a slouching 


bully ; and Polly appears happily disencumbered ef such 
a boop as the daughter of Peachum within the reach of 
younger memories has worn. The duke gave 95/. for this 
.picture at Mr. Rich's auction. Another copy of the same 
scene was bought by the late Sir William Saunderson, and 
is now in the possession of sir Harry Gougb. Mr. Walpold 
has a picture of a scene in the same piece, where Macheath 
is going to execution. In this also the likenesses of Walker 
and Miss Fenton, afterwards duchess of Bolton (the original 
Macheath and Polly) are preserved. 

In the year 1726, when the affair of Mary Tofts, the 
rabbit-breeder of Godalming, engaged the public attention, 
a few of the principal surgeons subscribed their guinea 
It-piece to Hogarth, for an engraving from a ludicrous 
sketch he had made on that very popular subject. This 
plate, amongst other portraits, contains that of St. Andng, 
then anatomist to the royal household, and in high credit 
as a surgeon. 

In 1727, Hogarth agreed with Morris, an upholsterer, to 
furnish him with a design on canvas, representing the ele- 
ment of earth, as a pattern for tapestry. The work not 
being performed to the satisfaction of Morris, be refused 
to pay for it, and the artist, by a suit at law, recovered 
the money. 

In 1730, Hogarth married the only daughter of sir James 
Thornhill, by whom he had no child. This union, indeed, 
was a stolen one, and consequently without the approbation 
of sir James, who, considering the youth of his daughter, 
then barely eighteen, and the slender finances of her hus- 
band, as yet an obscure artist, was not easily reconciled to 
the match. Soon after this period, however, be began his 
" Harlot's Progress," and was advised by lady Thornhill 
to have some of the scenes in it placed in the way of his 
father-in-law. Accordingly, one morning early, Mrs. Ho- 
garth undertook to convey several of them into his dining- 
room. When he arose, be inquired whence they came ; 
and being told by whom they were introduced, be cried 
out, " Very well ; the man who can furnish representations 
like these, can also maintain a wife without a portion." He 
designed this remark as an excuse for keeping his purse- 
strings close ; but, soon after, became both reconciled and 
generous to the young people. An allegorical cieling by 
sir James Thornhill is at the house of the late Mr. Hoggins, 
at Headly-park, Hants. The subject of it is the story pf 


Zephyrus and Flora ; and the figure of a satyr and sortie 
others were painted by Hogarth. 

In 1792 be ventured to attack Mr. Pope, in a plate called 
u The Man of Taste," containing a view of the gate of 
Burlington-house, with Pope white-washing it, and be- 
spattering the duke of Chandos's coach. This plate was 
intended as a satire on the translator of Homer, Mr. Kent 
the architect, and the earl of Burlington. It was fortunate 
for Hogarth that he escaped the lash of the first. Either 
Hogarth's obscurity at that time was bis protection, or the 
bard was too prudent to exasperate a painter who had 
already given such proof of his abilities for satire. What 
must he have felt who could complain of the " pictured 
shape" prefixed to " Gulliveriana," " Pope Alexander's 
Supremacy and Infallibility examined," &c. by Docker, 
and other pieces, had such an artist as Hogarth undertaken 
to express a certain transaction recorded by Gibber ? 

Soon after his marriage, Hogarth had summer lodgings 
at South-Lambeth ; and, being intimate with Mr. Tyers, 
contributed to the improvement of the Spring Gardens at 
Vauxbsll, by the hint of embellishing them with paintings, 
some of which were the suggestions of his own truly comic 
pencil. For his assistance. Mr. Tyers gratefully presented 
him with a gold ticket of admission for himself and his 
friends, inscribed 


This ticket remained in the possession, of his widow, and 
was by her occasionally employed. 

In 1 733 bis genius became conspicuously known. The 
third scene of bis " Harlot's Progress," introduced him to 
the notice of the great At a board of treasury which was 
held a day or two after the appearance of that print, a 
copy of it was shewn by one of the lords, as containing, 
among other excellencies, a striking likeness of sir John 
Gonson. It gave universal satisfaction : from the treasury 
each lord repaired to the print-shop for a copy of it, and 
Hogarth rose completely into fame. 

The ingenious abb£ du Bos has often complained, that 
no 4ustory-painter of his time went through a scries of 
actions, and thus, like an historian, painted the successive 
fortune of an hero, from the cradle to the grave. What 
Du Bos wished to see done, Hogarth performed. He 
launches out his young adveuturer a simple girl upon the 
town, and conducts her through all the vicissitudes of 


wretchedness to a premature death. This was painting* to 
the understanding and to the heart ; none had ever before 
made the pencil subservient to the purposes of morality 
and instruction ; a book like this is fitted to every soil and 
every observer, and he that runs may read. Nor was the 
success of Hogarth confined to his figures. One of his 
excellencies consisted in what may be termed the furniture 
of his pieces ; for as in sublime and historical representa- 
tions the seldomer trivial circumstances are permitted to. 
divide the spectator's attention from the principal figured, 
the greater is their force ; so in scenes copied from familiar 
life, a proper variety of little domestic images contributes 
to throw a degree of verisimilitude on the whole. " The 
Bake';s levee-room," says Mr. Walpole, " the nobleman's 
dining-room, the apartments of the husband and wife in 
Marriage a la Mode, the alderman'* parlour, the bed- 
chamber, and many others, are the history of the manners 
of the age." The novelty and excellence of Hogarth's 
performances soon tempted the needy artist and print- - 
dealer to avail themselves of his designs, and rob him of 
the advantages which he was entitled to derive from them* 
This was particularly the case with the " Midnight Coo* 
versation," the " Harlot's" and " Rake's Progresses," and 
others of .his early works. To put a stop to depredations 
like these on the property of himself and others; and to 
secure the emoluments resulting from bis own labours, as 
Mr. Walpole observes, he applied to the legislature, and 
obtained an act of parliament, 8 Geo. II. cap. 38, to vest 
an exclusive right in designers and engravers, and to restrain 
the multiplying of copies of their works without the con* 
sent of the artist. This statute was drawn by his friend 
Mr. Huggins, who took for his model the eighth of queen 
Anne, iu favour of literary property ; but it was not so 
accurately executed as entirely to remedy the evil ; for, in 
a cause founded on it, which came before lord Hardwicke 
in chancery, that excellent lawyer determined, that 'no 
assignee, claiming under an assignment from the original, 
inventor, could take any benefit by it. Hogarth, imme- 
diately after the passing of the act, published, a small 
print, with emblematical devices, and an inscription ex- 
pressing his gratitude to the three branches of the legisla- 
ture. Small copies of the " Hake's Progress" were pub- 
lished by his permission. 


. Id 1745, finding that, however great the success of bis 
prints might be, the public were not inclined to take his 
pictures otf his hands, he was induced to offer some of 
them, and those of the best he had then produced, for 
disposal by way of auction ; but after a plan of his own, 
viz. by keeping open a book to receive biddings from the 
first day of February to the last day of the same month, at 
12 o'clock. The ticket of admission to the sale was his 
print of " The Battle of the Pictures," a humourous pro* 
duction, in which he ingeniously upheld his assertions 
concerning the preference so unfairly given to old pictures, 
and the tricks of the dealers in them* 

The pictures thus disposed of were, £. *. tL 

The six of the Harlot's Progress, for 88 4 

Eight of the Rake's Progress 184 16 O 

Morning 21 

Noon 38 17 O 

Evening 39 18 O 

Night 27 6 O 

Strolling Players dressing in a Barn . 27 6 O 

In the same year he acquired additional reputation by 
the six prints of " Marriage a la Mode, which may be 
regarded as the ground-work of a novel called u The Mar- 
riage Act," by Dr. Shebbeare, and of " The Clandestine 

Hogarth had projected a " Happy Marriage,' 9 by way of 
counterpart to his " Marriage a la Mode." A design for 
the first of his intended six plates be bad sketched out in 
colours; and the following is as accurate an account of it 
as could be furnished by a gentleman who long ago enjoyed 
only a few minutes sight of so great a curiosity. The time 
supposed was immediately after the return of. the parties 
from church. The scene lay in the hall of an antiquated 
country mansion. On one side the married couple were 
represented sitting. Behind them was a group of their 
young friends of both sexes, in the act of breaking bride* 
cake over their heads. In front appeared the father of the 
young lady, grasping a bumper, and drinking, with a 
seeming roar of exultation, to the future happiness of her 
and her husband. By his side was a table covered with 
refreshments. Jollity rather than politeness was the desig- 
nation of his character. Under the screen of the hall, 
several rustic musicians in grotesque attitudes, together 
with servants, tenants, &c. were arranged. Through the 


arch by which the room was entered, the eye was led "long 
a passage into the kitchen, which afforded a glimp e of 
sacerdotal luxury. Before the dripping-pan stood a well- 
fed divine, in his gown and cassock, with bis watch in bis 
band, giving directions to a cook, dressed all in white, who 
was employed in basting a bauncb of venison. Among 
the faces of the principal figures/ none but that of the 
young lady was completely finished. Hogarth had been 
often reproached for his inability to impart grace and dig- 
nity to his heroines. The bride was therefore meant to 
vindicate bis pencil from so degrading an imputation. The 
effort, however, was unsuccessful. The girl was certainly 
pretty ; but her features, if we may use the term, were 
uneducated. She might have attracted notice as a chamber- 
maid, but would have failed to extort applause as a woman 
of fashion. The clergyman and his culinary associate were 
more laboured than any other parts of the picture. It is 
natural for us to dwell longest on that division of a subject 
which is most congenial to our private feelings. The 
painter sat down with a resolution to delineate beauty 
improved by art, but seems, as usual, to have deviated into 
meanness, or could not help neglecting bis original pur- 
pose, to luxuriate in such ideas as his situation in early life 
bad fitted him to express. He found himself, in short, 
out of his element in the parlour, and therefore hastened 
in quest of ease and amusement, to the kitchen fire. 
Churchill, with more force than delicacy, once observed 
of him, that he only painted the backside of nature. It 
must be allowed, that such an artist, however excellent in 
his walk, was better qualified to represent the low-bom 
parent than the royal preserver of a foundling. 

Soon after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, be went over to 
France, and was taken into custody at Calais, while he was 
drawing the gate of that town, a circiimstance which he 
has recorded in bis picture entitled " O the Roast Beef of 
Old England !" published March 26, 1749. He was actu- 
ally carried before the governor as a spy, and, after a very 
strict examination, committed a prisoner to Gransire, bis 
landlord, on his promise that Hogarth should not go out of 
bis house till be was to embark for England. Soon after 
this period be purchased a small house at Chiswick, where 
be usually passed the greatest part of tbe summer season, 
yet not without occasional visits to his house in Leicester* 


In 1753 he appeared to the world in the character of an 
Author, and published a 4to volume entitled " The Analysis 
of Beauty, written with a view of fixing the fluctuating 
ideas of Taste. 1 ' In this performance he shews by a variety 
of examples, that a curve is the line of beauty, and that 
round swelling figures are most pleasing to the eye ; and 
the truth of his opinion has been countenanced by subse- 
quent writers on the subject In this work, the leading 
idea of which was hieroglyphically thrown out in a frontis- 
piece to his works in 1745, he acknowledges himself in- 
debted to his friends for assistance, and particularly to one 
gentleman for bis corrections and amendments of at least 
a third part of the wording. This friend was Dr. Benjamin 
Hoadly the physician, who carried on the woVk to about the 
third part (chap, ix.), and then, through indisposition, de- 
clined the friendly office with regret. Mr. Hogarth applied 
to his neighbour, Mr. Ralph ; but it was impossible for two 
such persons to agree, both alike vain and positive. He 
proceeded no further than about a sheet, and they then 
parted friends, and seem to have coutinued such. The 
kind office of finishing the work and superintending the 
publication was lastly taken up by Dr. Morel], who went 
through the remainder of the book. The preface was in 
like manner corrected by the Rev. Mr. Townley. The 
family of Hogarth rejoiced when the last sheet of the 
" Analysis 9 * was printed off; as the frequent disputes he 
had with his coadjutors in the progress of the work, did 
not much harmonize his disposition. This work was trans- 
lated into German by Mr. Mylius, wheu in England, under 
the author's inspection ; and the translation was printed in 
London, price Ave dollars. A new and correct edition' 
was, in 1754, proposed for publication at Berlin, by Ch. 
Fr. Vok, with an explanation of Mr. Hogarth's satirical 
prints, translated from the French ; and an Italiau transla- 
tion was published at Leghorn in 1761. 

Hogarth had one failing in common with most people who 
attain wealth and eminence without the aid of liberal edu- 
cation. He affected to despise every kind of knowledge 
which he did npt possess. Having established his fame 
with little or no obligation to literature, he either conceived 
it to be needless, or decried it because it lay out of his 
reach. His sentiments, in short, resembled those of Jack 
Cade, who pronounced sentence on the clerk of Chatham, 
because he could write and read. Till, in evil hour, this 

Vol. XVIII. E 

« m 


celebrated artist commenced author, and was . obligedr to 
employ the friends already mentioned to correct his " Ana-, 
lysis of Beauty," he did not seem to have discovered that 
even spelling was a necessary qualification; and yet he 
had ventured to ridicule the late Mr. Rich's deficiency as 
to this particular, in a note which lies before the Rake 
whose play is refused while he remains in confinement foe; 
debt Before the time of which we are now speaking, one. 
of our artist's common topics of declamation, was the use- 
lessness of books to a man of his profession. In Beer- 
street, among other volumes consigned by him to, the 
pastry-cook, we find "Turnbull on Ancient Painting," a 
treatise which Hogarth should have been able to under- 
stand before he ventured to condemn. Garrick himself, 
however, was not mpre ductile to flattery. A word in 
favour of " Sigismunda," might have commanded a proof 
print, or forced an original sketch out of our artist's bands. 
The person who supplied this remark ovyed one of Hogarth's 
scarcest performances to the success of a compliment, 
which might hav.e seemed extravagant even to sir Godfrey 

The following well-authenticated story will also serve to 
shew how much more easy it is to detect ill-placed or hy* 
perbolical ad ulatiori respecting others, than when applied 
to ourselves. Hogarth being at dinner with the celebrated 
Cheselden, a nd some other company, was told that Mr. 
John Freke, surgeon of St. Bartholomew's hospital, a few 
evenings bef ore at Dick's coffee-house, had asserted that 
Greene was as eminent in composition as Handel. "That 
fellow Frek<3," replied Hogarth, " is always shooting his* 
bolt absurdity one way or another! Handel is a giant in 
music ; Grc *ene only a light Florimel kind of a composer." 
— "Ay," said the informant, " but at the same time Mr. 
Freke declared you were as good a portrait-painter as 
Vandyck."' — >" There he was in the right," adds Hogarth : 
" and so I . am, give me my time, and let me choose my 
subject !'• 

*Hogarf .h was the most absent of men. At table he would 
sometime » turn round his chair as if he had finished eat-, 
ing, anc* i as suddenly would return it, and commence his 
meal af r a in. He once directed a letter to Dr. Hoadly, 
thus : c < To the Doctor at Chelsea." This epistle, how- 
ever, I >y good luck, did not miscarry ; and was preserved > 
by the late chancellor of Winchester, as a pleasant memo- 


ml of his friend's extraotdirtary inattention. Another re- 
mark^ble instance of Hogarth's absence was related by one 
of bis intimate friends. Soon after he set tip his carriage** 
he had occasion to pay a visit to the lord-mayor, Mr. Beck- 
ford* When he went, the weather was fine ; but business 
detained him till a violent shower of rain came on. He 
was let out of the mansion-house by a different door front 
that at which he entered ; and, seeing the rain, began im-' 
mediately to call for a hackney-coach. Not one was to be 
met with on any of the neighbouring stands ; and the asM 
tfrst sallied forth to brave the storm, and actually reached 
Leicester-fields without bestowing a thought on his owir 
carriage, till Mrs. Hogarth (surprised to see him so wet 
ajid splashed) asked him where be had left it. 

A specimen of Hogarth's propensity to. merriment, on 
the most trivial occasions, is observable in one of bis cards? 
requesting the company of Dr. Arnold King tp dine with 
him at the Mitre. Within a circle, to which a knife and 
fork are the supporters, the written part is contained. la 
the centre is drawn a pye, with a mitre on the top of it ; 
and the invitation concludes with the following sport on 
three of the Greek letters — to Eta Beta Pu The rest of 
the inscription is not very accurately spelt A quibble by 
Hogarth is surely as respectable as a conundrum by Swift. 

In one of the early exhibitions at Spring-gardens, a very 
pleasing small picture by Hogarth made its first appear- 
ance. It was painted for the earl of Cbarlemont, in whose 
collection it remains; and was entitled " Picquet; or Virtue irt 
Danger,' 9 and shews us ay ounglady, who, during a iite-d+titet 
had just lost all her money and jewels to a handsome officer 
of her own age. He is represented in the act of offering hep 
the contents of his hat, in which are bank-notes, jewels, and 
trinkets, with the hope of exchanging them for a softer 
acquisition, and more delicate plunder. Oi the chimney- 
piece a watch-case and a figure of Time over it, with this 
motto — NUNC. Hogarth- has caught his heroine during 
this moment of hesitation, this struggle with herself, and 
has marked her feelings with uncommon success. 

In the "Miser's Feast," Mr. Hogarth thought proper 
to. pillory sir Isaac Shard, a gentleman proverbially avariU 
cious. Hearing this, the son of sir Isaac, the late Isaac 
Pacatus Shard, esq. a young man of spirit, just returned 
from his travels, called at the. painter's to see the picture; 

z 2 


and among the rest, asking the Cicerone " whether that 
odd figure was intended for any particular person ;" on 
bis replying, " that it was thought to be very like one sir 
Isaac Shard/' he immediately drew his sword, and slashed 
the canvas. Hogarth appeared instantly in great wratb J 
to whom Mr. Shard calmly justified what he bad done, say* 
ing, " that this was a very unwarrantable licence ; that 
he was the injured party's son, and that he was ready to 
defend any suit at law ;" which, however, was never insti- 
tuted. ' 

About 1757, his brother-in-law, Mr. Tbornhill, resigned 
the place of king's serjeant-painter in favour of Mr. Ho- 
garth. " The last memorable event in our artist's life/ 9 as 
Mr. Walpole observes, " was his quarrel with Mr. Wilkes, 
in which, if Mr. Hogarth did not commence direct hostili- 
ties on the latter, he at least obliquely gave the first of- 
fence, by an attack on the friends and party of that gen- 
tleman. This conduct was the more surprising, as he had 
all his life avoided dipping his pencil in political contests, 
and bad early refused a very lucrative offer that was made, 
to engage him in a set of prints against the head of a court- 
party * Without entering into the merits of the cause, I 
shall only state the fact* In September 1762, Mr. Hogarth 
published bis print of * The Times. 9 It was answered by 
Mr. Wilkes in a severe ' North Briton. 9 On this the painter 
exhibited the caricatura of the writer. Mr. Churchill, the 
poet, then engaged in the war, and wrote his * Epistle to 
Hogarth, 9 not the brightest of bis works, and in which the 
severest strokes fell on a defect that the painter had nei- 
ther caused nor could amend — his age ; and which, how- 
ever, was neither remarkable nor decrepit ; much less had 
it impaired his talents,, as appeared by his having composed 
but six months before, one of his most capital works, the 
satire on the Methodists. In revenge for this epistle, Ho- 
garth caricatured Churchill, under the form of a canonical 
bear, with a club and a pot of porter— tf vituld tu dignus 
K hie — never did two angry men of their abilities throw 
mud with less dexterity. 

" When Mr. Wilkes was the second time brought from 
the Tower to Westminster-hall, Mr. Hogarth skulked be- 
hind m a corner of the gallery of the court of Common 
Pleas; and while the chief justice Pratt, with the elo- 
quence and courage of old Rome! was enforcing the great 


principles of Magna Charta, and the English constitution, 
while every breast from him caught the holy flame of li- 
berty, the painter was wholly employed in caricaturing 
the person of the man, while all the rest of his fellow- 
citizens were animated in his cause, for they knew it to 
be their own cause, that of their country, and of its laws. 
Jt was declared to be so a few hours after by the unanimous 
sentence of the judges of that court, and they were all 

" The print of Mr. Wilkes was soon after published, 
drawn from the life by William Hogarth. It must be al- 
lowed to be an excellent compound caricature, or a carica- 
ture of what nature bad already caricatured. ' I know but 
one short apology that can be made for this gentleman, or, 
to speak more properly, . for the person of« Mr. Wilkes. It 
is, that he did not make himself, and that he never was 
solicitous about the ease of his soul, as Shakspeare calls it, 
only so far as to keep it clean and in health. I never heard 
that he once hung over the glassy stream, like another 
Narcissus, admiring the image in it, nor that he ever stole 
an amorous look at bis counterfeit in a side mirrour. His 
form, such as it is, ought to give him no pain, because it 
is capable of giving pleasure to others. I fancy he finds 
himself tolerably happy in the clay-cottage to which he is 
tenant for life, because he has learnt to keep it in good 
order. While the share of health and animal spirits, which 
heaven has given him, shall hold out, I can scarcely ima- 
gine he will be one moment peevish about the outside of 
so precarious, so temporary a habitation, or will even be 
brought to own, ingeniurn Galbar male habitat. Monsieur 
est rml l<?gi. 

" lV{r. Churchill was exasperated at this personal attack 
pn his friend. He soon after published the c Epistle to 
Willmm Hogarth,' and tqok for the motto, yt piclura poesis. 
Mr. Hogarth's revenge against the poet terminated in 
vamping up an old print of a pug-dog and a bear, which 
he published under the title of < The Bruiser C. Churchill 
(oqce the Revd. !)' in the character of a Russian Hercules* 

At the time when these hostilities were carrying on in a 
manner so virulent and disgraceful to all the parties, Ho- 
garth was visibly declining in his health, hi 1762, he 
complained of fin inward pain, which, continuing, brought 



qo a general decay that proved incurable*. This fast year 
of bis life be employed in re-touching his plates, with the 
assistance of several engravers whom he took with him to 
Chiswick. Oct. 25, 1764, he was conveyed from thence 
to Leicester-fields, in a very weak condition, yet remark- 
ably cheerful ; and, receiving an agreeable letter from the 
American Dr. Franklin, drew up a rough draught of an 
pnswer to it ; but going to bed, he was seized with a 
vomiting, upon which he rung his bell with such violence 
that he broke it, and expired about two hours afterwards. 
His disorder was an aneurism ; and his corpse was interred 
in the church-yard at Chiswick, where a monument is 
erected to his memory, with an inscription by his friend 
Mr. Garrick, 

It may be truly observed of Hogarth, that all his powers 
of delighting were restrained to his pencil. Having rarely 
been admitted into polite circles, none of his sharp corners 
tiad been rubbed off, so that he continued to the last a 
gross uncultivated man. The slightest contradiction trans- 
ported him into xage. To some confidence in himself he 
was certainly entitled ; for, as a comic painter, he could 
have claimed no honour that would not most readily have 
been allowed him ; but be was at once -unprincipled and 
variable in bis political conduct and attachments. He is 
also said to have heheld the rising eminence and popu- 
larity of air Joshua Reyuolds with a degree of envy ; and, 
if we are not misinformed, frequently spoke with asperity 
both of him and his performances. Justice; however, ob« 
liges us to add, that our artist was liberal, hospitable, and 
the most punctual of paymasters ; so that, in spite of the 
emoluments his works had procured to him, he left but anr 
inconsiderable fortune to his widow. His plates indeed 

ed in November 1764, the compiler of 
this article took occasion to lament that 
" — «-r- 8caree had the friendly tear, 
For Hogarth f bed, escap'd the generous 
Of feeling Pity, wheo again it flow'd 
For. Churchill's fate. Ill can ire bear 

the loss [•Hy*4 

Of Fancy's twin- born offspring, close 

■Id energy of thought, though different 

paths (passions sway'ift 

Theysought for fame ! Though jarring 
The living artists, let the funeral wreatH 
Uuite their memory \ n 

* * It may be worth observing, that 
in " Independence," a poem which was 
not published by Churchill till the last 
week of September 1764, he considers 
his antagonist as a departed Genius v 
", Hogarth would draw him (Envy must 
allow) [mow." 

Ren to the life, was Hogarth living 
How little did the sportive satirist ima- 
gine the power of pleasing was so soon 
to cease m both ! Hogarth died in four 
weeks after the publics? ion of this poem; 
and Churchill survived him but nine 
days. In tome lines which were print- 


were such resources to her as could not speedily be ex- 
hausted. Some of his domestics had lived many years in 
his. service, a circumstance that always reflects credit on a 
master. Of most of these he painted strong likenesses, on 
a canvas which was left in Mrs. Hogarth's possession. 

His widow had also a portrait of her husband; and an. ex- 
cellent bust of him by Roubilliac, a strong resemblance ; 
and one of his brother-in-law, Mr. Thornhill, much resem- 
bling the countenance of Mrs. Hogarth Several of his 
portraits also remained in her possession, but at her death 
were dispersed. 

Of Hogarth's smaller plates many were destroyed. When 
he wanted a piece of copper on a sudden, he would take 
any plate from which he had already worked off such a 
number of impressions as he supposed he should sell. He 
then sent it to be effaced, beat out, or otherwise altered 
to his present purpose. 

The plates which remained in his possession were se- 
cured to Mrs. Hogarth by his will, dated Aug. 12, 1764^ 
chargeable with an annuity of 80/. to his sister Anne, who 
survived him. When, on the death of his other sister, she 
left off the business in which she was engaged, he kindly 
took her home, and generously supported her, making her, 
at the same time, useful in the disposal of his prints. Want 
of tenderness and liberality to his relations was not among 
the failings of Hogarth. 

Iti 1745, one Launcelot Burton was appointed naval 
officer at Deal. Hogarth had seen him by accident ; ana 
on a piece of paper, previously impressed by a plain cop- 
per-plate, drew his figure with a pen in imitation of a 
coarse etching. He was represented 6n a lean Canterbury 
back, with a bottle sticking out of his pocket • and under- 
neath Was an inscription, intimating that be was going 
down to take possession of his place. This was inclosed ta 
him in a letter ; and some of his friends, wno were in the 
secret, protested the drawing to be a print which they had' 
seen exposed to sale at the shops in London j a circum- 
stance that put him in a violent passion, during which he 
wrote aA abusive letter to Hogarth, whose name was sub-, 
scribed to the work. But, after poor Burton's tormentors 
had kept him in suspense throughout an uneasy three weeks, 
they proved to him that it was no engraving, but a sketch, 
with a pen and ink. He then became so perfectly recon- 
ciled to his resemblance, that he shewed it with exulutioa 


to admiral Vernon, and all the rest of bis friends. In 1153, 
Hogarth returning with a friend from a visit to Mr. Rich 
at Cowley, stopped his chariot, and got out, being struck 
by a large drawing (with a coal) on the wall of an alehouse. 
He immediately made a sketch of it with triumph ; it was 
a St. George and the Dragon, all in straight lines. 

Hogarth made one essay in sculpture. He wanted a 
sign to distinguish his house in Leicester- fields ; and think- 
ing none more proper than the Golden Head, he out of a 
mass of cork made up of several thicknesses compacted to- 
gether, carved a bust of Vandyck, which he gilt and 
placed over his door. It decayed, and was succeeded by 
a head in plaster, which in its turn was supplied by a head 
of sir Isaac Newton. Hogarth also modelled another re- 
semblance of Vandyck in clay ; which has also perished. 
His works, as his elegant biographer has well observed, are 
his history ; and the curious are highly indebted to Mr. 
Walpole for a catalogue of his prints, drawn up from his 
own valuable collection, in 1771. But as neither that ca- 
talogue, nor his appendix to it in 1780, have given thq 
whole of Mr. Hogarth's labours, Mr. Nichols, including 
Mr. Wal pole's catalogue, has endeavoured, from later dis* 
coveries of our artist's prints in other collections^ to ats 
range them in chronological order. There are three tyrge 
pictures by Hogarth, over the altar in the church of St. 
Mary Redcliff at Bristol. Mr. Forrest, of York-buildings, 
was in possession of a sketch in oil of our Saviour (designed 
as a pattern for painted glass) ; and several drawings, de- 
scriptive of the incidents that happened. during a five days' 
tour by land and water. The parties were Messrs. Hogarth, 
Thornhill (son of the late-sir James), Scott (an ingenious 
landscape-painter of that name), Tothall, and Forrest. 
They set out at midnight, at a moment's warning, from 
the Bedford-Arms tavern, with each a shirt in his pocket. 
They had all their particular departments. Hogarth and 
Scott made the drawings ; Thornhill the map ; Tothall 
faithfully discharged the joint offices pf treasurer and ca- 
terer ; and Forrest wrote the journal. They were out five 
days only ; and on the second night after their return, the 
book was produced, bounds gilt, and lettered, and read 
at the same tavern to the above parties then present, 
Mr. Forrest had also drawings of two of the members, re- 
markably fat men^ in ludicrous situations. Etchings from 
all these have been made, and the journal has been printed, 


A very entertaining work, by Mr. John Ireland, entitled 
" Hogarth illustrated/' was published by Messrs. Boydell, 
in 17 92, and has since been reprinted. It contains the 
small plates originally engraved for a paltry work, called 
" Hogarth moralized/ 9 and an exact account of all his 
prints. Since that, have appeared " Graphic illustrations 
of Hogarth, from pictures, drawings, and scarce prints, in 
the possession of Samuel Ireland." Some curious articles 
were contained in this volume. A supplementary volume 
to " Hogarth illustrated," has more recently appeared, con- 
taining the original manuscript of the Analysis, with the 
first sketches of the figures. 2. A Supplement to the Ana- 
lysis, never published. 3. Original Memoranda. 4. Ma- 
terials for his own Life, &c. But the most ample Me- 
moirs of Hogarth are contained in Mr. Nichols's splendid 
publication of his life and works, 2 vols.*4to, with copies 
of all his plates accurately reduced. 1 

HOLBEIN (John), better known by his German name 
Pans Holbein, a most excellent painter, was born, accord- 
ing to some accounts, at Basil in Switzerland in 1498, but 
Charles Pat in places his birth three years earlier, supposing 
it very improbable that be could have arrived at such ma- 
turity of judgment and perfection in painting, as he shewed 
in 1514 and 1516, if be bad been born so late as 1498. 
He learned the rudiments of his art from his father John 
Holbein, who was a painter, and had removed from Augs- 
burg to Basil ; but the superiority of his genius soon raised 
him above his roaster. He painted our Saviour's Passion 
in the town-house of Basil ; and in the fish- market of the 
same town, a Dance of peasants, and Death's dance. These 
pieces were exceedingly striking to the curious ; and Eras- 
mus was so affected with them, that he requested of bim 
to draw his picture, and was ever after his friend. Hol- 
bein, in the mean time, though a great genius and fine ar- 
tist, had no elegance or delicacy of manners, but was given 
to wine and revelling company ; for which he met with 
the following gentle rebuke from Erasmus. When Eras- 
mus wrote his " Moris Encomium," or u Panegyric upon 
Folly," be sent a copy of it to Hans Holbein, who was so 
pleased with the several descriptions of folly there given, 
that he designed them all in the margin ; and where he 
bad not room to draw the whole figures, pasted a piece of 

i Nichols's Hogtrth.— Walpolc's Aftecdotea, 


f>aper to the leaves. He then returned the book to Eras* 
mus, who seeing that he had represented an amorous fool 
by the figure of a fat Dutch lover, hugging bis bottle and 
bis lass, wrote under it, " Hans Holbein/' and so sent it 
back to the painter. Holbein, however, to be revenged 
of him, drew the picture of Erasmus for a musty book- worm, 
who busied himself, in scraping together old MSS. and an- 
tiquities, and wrote under it u Adagia." 

It is said, that an English nobleman, who accidentally 
saw some of Holbein's performances at Basil, invited him 
to come to England, where hb art was in high esteem ; and 
promised him great encouragement from Henry Will. ; but 
Holbein was too much engaged in his pleasures to listen to 
so advantageous a proposal. A few years after, however, 
moved by the necessities to which an increased family and 
his own mismanagement had reduced him, as well as by 
the persuasions of his friend Erasmus, who told him how 
improper a country his own was to do justice to his merit, 
lie consented to go to England : and he consented the mord 
Yeadily, as he did not live on the happiest terms with his 
wife, who is said to have been a termagant. In his journey 
thither he stayed some days at Strasbarg, and applying to 
a very great master in that city for work, was taken in, 
and ordered to give a specimen of his skill. Holbein 
fiuisbed a piece with great care, and painted a fly upon 
the most conspicuous part of it ; after which he withdrew 
privily in the absence of his master, and pursued his jour- 
ney. When the painter returned home, he was astonished 
at the beauty and elegance of the drawing ; and especially 
at the fly, which, upon his first casting his eye upon it, he 
so far took for a real fly, that he endeavoured to remove it 
with his hand. He sent all over the city for his journey- 
man, who was now missing ; but after many inquiries, 
found that he had been thus deceived by the famous Hol- 
bein. This story has been somewhat differently told, as 
if the painting was a portrait for one of his patrons at Ba- 
sil, but the effect was the same, for before he was disco- 
vered, he had made his escape. 

After almost begging his way to Eftgtondj as Patin teH* 
us, he found an easy admittance to the lord-chancellor, 
sir Thomas More, having brought with him Erasmus's 
picture, and letters recommendatory from him to that great* 
man. Sir Thomas received him with all' the joy imagina- 
ble, and kept him in his house between two and three 

H O L B EI W. 69 

years ; during which time he drew sir Thomas's picture, 
and those of many of his friends and relations. One day 
JHolbein happening to mention the nobleman who had some 
years ago invited bim to England, sir Thomas was very 
solicitous to know who he was. Holbein replied, that he 
had indeed forgot his title, but remembered his face so 
welly that he thought he could draw his likeness ; and this 
be did so very strongly, that the nobleman, it is said, was 
immediately known by it. This nobleman some think was 
the earl of Arundel, others the earl of Surrey. The chan- 
cellor, having now sufficiently enriched his apartments 
with Holbein's productions, adopted the following method 
to introduce him to Henry VIII. He invited the king to 
an entertainment, and hung up all Holbein's pieces, > dis- 
posed in the best order, and in the best light, in the great 
hall of his house. The king, upon his first entrance, was 
so charmed with the sight o( them, that he asked, " Whe- 
ther such an artist were now alive, and to be had for mo* 
ney ?" on which sir Thomas presented Holbein to the king, 
who immediately took him into his service, with a salary of 
200 florins, and brought him into great esteem with tbe 
nobility of the kingdom. The king from time to time ma- 
nifested the great vajue he had for him, and upon the death 
of queen Jane, his third wife, sent him into Flanders, to 
draw the picture . * the duchess dowager of Milan, widow 
to Francis Sforza, whom the 'emperor Charles V. had re^ 
commended to him for a fourth wife *, but the king's de- 
fection from the see of Rome happening about that time, 
he rather chose to match with a protestant princess. 
Cromwell, then his prime minister (for sir Thomas More 
had been removed, and beheaded), proposed Anne of 
Cleves to him ; but the king was not inclined to the match, 
till her picture, which Holbein bad also drawn, was present- 
ed to him. There, as lord Herbert of Cherbury says, she was 
represented so very charming, that the king immediately re- 
solved to marry her; and thus Holbein was unwittingly the 
cause of the ruin of bis patron Cromwell, whom the king 
never forgave for introducing him to Anne of Cleves. 

In England Holbein drew a vast number of admirable 
portraits ; among others, those of Henry VII. and Henry 
VIII. on the wall of the palace at Whitehall, which perished 
when it was burnt, though some endeavours were made to 
remove that part of tbe wall on which the pictures were 
ckanun There happened, however, an affair in England, 


which might bate been fatal to Holbein, if the king 
not protected him. On the report of his character, a no- 
bleman of the first quality wanted one day to see him, when 
he was drawing a figure after the life. Holbein, in answer, 
begged his lordship to defer the honour of his visit to ano- 
ther day ; which the nobleman taking for an affront, came and 
broke open the door, and very rudely went up stairs. Holbein, 
hearing a noise, left his chamber ; and meeting the lord at 
his door, fell into a violent passion, and pushed him back- 
wards from the top of the stairs to the bottom. Consider- 
ing, however, immediately what he bad done, he escaped 
from the tumult he bad raised, and made the best of bis 
way to the king. The nobleman, much hurt, though not 
so much as he pretended, was there soon after him ; and 
upon opening his grievance, the king ordered Holbein to 
ask pardon for bis offence. But this only irritated the no- 
bleman the more, who would not be satisfied with less than 
his life ; upon which the king sternly replied, '* My lord, 
you have hot now to do with Holbein, but with me; what- 
ever punishment you may contrive by way of revenge 
against him, shall assuredly be inflicted upon yourself : 
remember, pray my lord, that I can, whenever I please, 
make seven lords of seven ploughmen^ but I cannot make 
one Holbein even of seven lords." > -•. 

We cannot undertake to give a list of Holbeiry's works, 
but this may be seen in Walpole's Anecdotes. Soon after 
the accession of the late king, a noble collection of bis 
drawings was found in a bureau at Kensington, amounting 
to eighty-nine. These, which are of exquisite merit, have 
been admirably imitated in engraving, in a work published 
lately by John Chamberlaine, F. S. A. certainly one of the 
most splendid books, and most interesting collections of 
portraits ever executed. Holbein painted equally well in 
qil, water-colours, and distemper, in large and in minia- 
ture : but he had never practised tbe art of painting in 
miniature, till be resided in England, and learned it from 
Lucas Cornelii ; though he afterwards carried it to its 
highest perfection. His paintings of that kind have all 
tbe force of oil-colours, and are finished with tbe utmost 
delicacy. In general be painted on a green ground, but 
in his small pictures frequently he painted on a blue. The 
ipvention of Holbein was surprisingly fruitful, and often 
poetical ; his execution was remarkably quick, and his ap- 
plication indefatigable. His pencil was exceedingly. delU 


date ; his colouring had a wonderful degree of force ; he 
finished bis pictures with exquisite neatness ; and his car- 
nations, were life itself. His genuine works are always dis- 
tinguishable by the true, round, lively imitation of flesh/ 
visible in all bis portraits, and also by the amazing deli- 
cacy of bis finishing. 

It is observed „by most authors, that Holbein always 
painted whb his left hand ; though Walpole objects against 
that tradition, (what he considers as a proof), that in a por- 
trait of Holbein painted by himself, which was in the Arun- 
delian collection, he is represented holding the pencil in 
the right hand. But that evidence cannot be sufficient to 
set aside so general a testimony of the most authentic writers 
on 'this subject ; because, although habit and practice 
might enable him to handle the pencil familiarly with his 
left band, yet, as it is so unusual, it must have had but an 
unseemly and awkward appearance in a picture; which pro- 
bably might have been his real inducement for represent- 
ing himself without such a particularity. Besides, the 
writer of Holbein's life, at the end of the treatise by De 
Piles, mentions a print by Hollar, still extant, which de- 
scribes Holbein drawing with his left. hand. Nor is it so 
extraordinary or incredible a circumstance ; for other 
artists, mentioned in this volume, are remarked* for the very 
same habit ; particularly Mozzo of Antwerp, who worked 
with the left ; and Amico Aspertino, as well as Ludovico 
Cangiagio, who worked equally well with both hands. 
This great artist died of the plague at London in 1554; 
some think at bis lodgings in Whitehall, where he had 
lived from the time that the king became his patron, but 
Vertue rather thought at the duke of Norfolk's house, in 
the priory of Christ church near Aldgate, then called 
Duke's-place. Strype says that he was buried in St. Ca- 
therine Cree church ; but ibis seems doubtful. 1 

HOLBERG (Louis de), a Danish historian, lawyer, 
and poet, was born at Bergen in Norway, in 1685. His 
family is said by some to have been low, by others noble ; 
but it is agreed thut he commenced life in very poor cir- 
cumstances, and picked up his education in his travels 
through various parts of Europe, where he subsisted either 
by charity, or by his personal efforts of various kinds. On 

1 Vita Holbetiii a Car. Patiffi), prefixed to Erasmus 1 * Moris Encomium.— 
Walpole'a Aaecdotet^ir J. AtyagloVi Works. 


&» HO L-&ER Oi 

his return to Copenhagen, be found means to be appointed* 
assessor of the consistory coort, which place affording bin* 
a competent subsistence, be was able to indulge his ge- 
nius, and produced several works, which gave him great 
celebrity. Agnong these are some comedies, a volume of 
which has been translated into French. He wrote also a* 
History of Denmark, in 3 vols. 4to, which has been consi- 
dered as the best, that hitherto has been produced, though- 
in some parts rather minute and uninteresting. Two vo- 
lumes of " Moral Thoughts," and a work entitled "The 
Danish Spectator," were produced by him : and he is ge- 
nerally considered as the author of the " Iter subterraneumr 
of Klimius," a satirical romance, something in the style of 
Gulliver's Travels. Most of these have been translated 
also into German, and are much esteemed in that country* 
His " Introduction to Universal History" was translated 
into English by Dr. Gregory Sharpe, with notes, 1755, 
8vo. By his publications, and his place of assessor, he 
had oeconomy enough to amass a considerable fortune, and 
even in his life gave 70,000 crowns to the university of 
Zealand, for the education of young noblesse ; thinking 
it right that as his wealth had been acquired by literature, 
it should be employed in its support. This munificence 
obtained him the title of baron. At his death, which hap- 
pened in 1754, he left also a fund of 16,000 crowns to por- 
tion out a certain number of young women, selected from 
the families of citizens in Copenhagen. 1 

HOLBOURNE (Sir Robert), a lawyer of considera- 
ble eminence, and law writer, flourished in the time of 
Charles I. but of his early history, we have no account. In 
1640 he was chosen representative for St. Michael in Corn- 
wall in the Long-parliament, and on one occasion argued 
for two hours in justification of the canons. In 1641 he 
was Lent reader of Lincoln's- inn, but soon after quitted the 
parliament when he saw the extremities- to which they were 
proceeding. He had formerly given his- advice against 
ship-money, but was not prepared to overthrow the consti- 
tution entirely, and therefore went to Oxford, where, in 
1643, he' sat in the parliament assembled there by Charles 
I. was made the prince's attorney, one of the privy coun-* 
cil, and received the honour of knighthood. In 1644 he 
was present at the treaty of Uxbridge, and afterwards at 

1 Diet. HtiU— Annual Register for TOP.' • 


tjiat of the Isle of Wight. Returning to London, after these 
ineffectual attempts to restore peace, be was forced to com* 
pound ,for his estate, and was not permitted to remain in 
any of the inns of court. He died in 1647, and was in- 
terred in the crypt under Lincolo's-inn chapel. His " Read- 
ings on the Statute of Treasons, 25 Edward HI. c. 2." were 
published in 1642, 4to, and in 1681. He; was the author 
also of "The Freeholder's Grand Inquest touching our So- 
vereign Lord the King and his Parliament," which bears, 
the name of sir Robert Filmer,, who reprinted it in 1679, 
and 1680, 8vo, with observations upon forms of govern- 
ment. He'left also some MSS. 1 

HOLCROFT (Thomas), a dramatic and miscellaneous 
writer and translator, was born in Orange-court, Leicester- 
fields, Dec. 22, 1744. His father was in the humble oc- 
cupation of a shoe-maker, and does not appear to. have 
given his son any education. The first employment men- 
tioned, in which the latter was concerned, was as servant 
to the hon. Mr. Vernon, of whose race-horses be had the 
care, and became very expert in the art of hprsemanship. 
He is said also to have worked for many years at his fa- 
ther's trade. He possessed, however, good natural abili- 
ties, and a thirst for knowledge, of which he accumulated 
a considerable fund, and learned with facility and success 
the French, German, and Italian languages. When about 
his twenty-fifth year, he conceived a passion for the stage, 
and his first performance was in Ireland. He had after- 
wards an engagement of the same kind in London, but 
never attained any eminence as an actor, although he al- 
ways might be seen to understand his part better than those 
to whom nature was more liberal He quitted the stage in 
1781, after the performance of his first play, " Duplicity/ 9 
which was successful enough to encourage his perseverance 
as a dramatic writer. From this time he contributed up- 
wards of thirty pieces, which' were either acted on the 
London stages, or printed without having been performed. 
Scarcely any of tbem, however, have obtained a perma- 
nent situation on the boards. He published also the fol- 
lowing novels : " Alwyn," 1780 ; " Anna St. Ives," 1 792 ; 
"Hugh Trevor," 1794 ; and " Brian Perdue," 1807. His 
translations were, " The private Life of Voltaire," 12mo ; 

« Atb.Ox.vol. II.-— Lloyd'f Mtmoiri, folio, p.584.— Bridgman'* LfrftlB'ifc- 


*4 H O L C ft O F t. 

"Memoirs of Baron Trenck," 3 vols. 12mo; Mirabeau'rf 
" Secret History of the Court of Berlin," 2 vols. 8vo ; ma- 
dame de Genlis's "Tales of the Castle," 5 vols. 12 mo; 
" The posthumous Works of Frederick II. of Prussia," 13 
vols. 8vo; " An abridgment of Lavatef's Physiognomy," 3 
vols. 8vo. Mr. Holcroft having imbibed the revolutionary 
principles of France, had joined some societies in this 
country, which brought himr under suspicion of being con- 
cerned with Hardy, Tobke, and Thelwall, who were tried 
for high treason in 1794, but they being acquitted, Mr. 
Holcroft was discharged without being put upon his trial. 
His last work was his " Travels," in Germany and France, 
2 vols. 4to, which, like some other of his speculations, was 
less advantageous to his bookseller than to himself. In 
1782 be published a poem called " Human happiness, or 
the Sceptic, 9 ' which attracted little notice on the score of 
poetical merit, but contained many of those loose senti- 
ments on religion, which he was accustomed to deliver 
with more dogmatism than became a man so little ac- 
quainted with the subject. In these, however, he persisted 
almost to the last, when, on bis death- bed, he is said to 
have acknowledged his error. He died March 23, 1809. 1 

HOLDEN (Henry), an English Roman catholic divine, 
was born in Lancashire in 1596, and in 1618 was admitted 
a student in the English college at Doway, where he took 
the name of Johnson. Here he improved himself in the 
classics, and studied philosophy and divinity, and going 
to Paris in 1623, took the degree of D. D. in that univer- 
sity, to which he continued attached during the remainder 
of his life, having no other preferment but that of peniten- 
tiary or confessor in the parish church of St. Nicholas du 
Chardonet. He died about 1665, esteemed one of the 
ablest controversial divines of his time, and in this respect 
has been highly praised by Dupin.- Some suspected him 
of Jansenism, but his biographers wish to repel I this 
charge, as they think it Among bis works are 'three, 
which chiefly contributed to his fame, 1. " Analysis Fidei," 
Paris, 1652, 8vo, translated into English by W. G. 4to, 
1658. Of this Dupin has given a long analysis. It was 
'reprinted by Barbou in 1766, and contains a brief sum- 
mary of the whole (economy of faith, its principles and 
motives, with their application to controversial questions* 

» Bios* Dran*— Gent. M»f. * 


H O L D E N. 6$ 

\t is considered as argumentative and sound. 2. " Mar- 
ginal Notes on tbe New Testament/' Paris, 1660, 2 vols. 
12mo. 3. " A Letter concerning Mr. White's Treatise 
De Medio Aniroarum statu," Paris, 1661, 4 to. 1 

HOLDER (William), a learned English philosopher, 
was born in Nottinghamshire, educated in Pembroke ball, 
Cambridge, and, in 1642, became rector of Blechingdon 9 
Oxfordshire. In 1660 he proceeded D. D. was afterwards 
canon of Ely, fellow of the royal society, canon of St. 
Paul's, sub-dean of the royal chapel, and sub-almoner to 
his majesty. He gained particular celebrity by teaching 
a young gentleman of distinction, who was born deaf and 
dumb, to speak, an attempt at that time unprecedented. 
This gentleman's name was Alexander Popham, son of 
colonel Edward Popham, who was some time an admiral 
in the service of the long parliament. The cure was per- 
formed by him in his house at Blechingdou, in 1659 ; but 
Popham, losing what he had been taught by Holder, after 
he was called home to his friends, was sent to Dr. Wallis, 
who brought him to his speech again. On this subject 
Holder published a book entitled " The Elements of 
Speech ; an essay of inquiry into the natural production of 
letters *: with an appendix concerning persons that are deaf 
and dumb," 1669, 8vo. In the appendix he relates how 
soon, and by what methods, be brought Popham to speak. 
In this essay he has analysed, dissected, and classed the 
letters of our alphabet so minutely and clearly, that it is 
well worthy the attentive perusal of every lover of philology, 
but particularly, says Dr. Burney, of lyric poets and com- 
posers of vocal music ; to whom it will point out such harsh 
and untunable combinations of letters and syllables as from 
their difficult utterance impede and corrupt the voice in 
its passage. In 1678 he published, in 4to, " A Supple- 
ment to the Philosophical Transactions of July 1670, with 
some Reflections on Dr. Wallis's Letter there inserted." 
This was written to claim the glory of having taught Pop- 
bam to speak, which Wallis in the letter there mentioned, 
bad clajmed to himself : upon which the doctor soon after 
published, " A Defence of the Royal Society and the Phi- 
losophical Transactions, particularly those of July 1670, 
in answer to the cavils of Dr. William Holder," 1678," 4to. 

Holder was skilled in the theory and practice of music, 

* » 

1 Bupin.— Dodd't Church Bift vol. IIL 

Vol. XVIII. F 


and composed some anthems, three or four of which are 
preserved in Dr. Tudway's collection in the British mu- 
seum. In 1694 he published " A Discourse concerning 
Time," in which, among other things, the deficiency of 
the Julian Calendar was explained, and the method of re- 
forming it demonstrated, which was afterwards adopted in 
the change of style. It is to be lamented that in treating 
this subject with so much clearness and ability, so good a 
musician did not extend his reflections on the artificial 
parts of time, to its divisions and proportions in musical 
measures; a subject upon which the abbate Sacchi has 
written in Italian, " Del Tempo nella Musica ;" but which 
rhythmically, or metrically considered in common with 
poetry, has not yet been sufficiently discussed in our own 

The same year was published by Dr. Holder, " A Trea- 
tise on the natural grounds of Harmony," in which the 
propagation of sound, the ratio of vibrations, their coinci- 
dence in forming consonance, sympathetic resonance, or 
sons harnioniques, the difference between arithmetical, geo- 
metrical, and harmonic proportions, and the author's opi- 
nion concerning the music of the ancients, to whom he 
denies the use of harmony, or music in parts, are all so 
ably treated, and clearly explained, that this book may be 
read with profit and pleasure by most practical musicians, 
though unacquainted with • geometry, mathematics, and 
harmonics, or the philosophy of sound. This book is said, 
in the introduction, to have been drawn up chiefly for the 
sake and service of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, of 
which he was sub-dean, and in which, as well as other 
cathedrals to which his* power extended, he is said to have 
been a severe disciplinarian ; for, being so excellent a 
judge and composer himself, it is natural to suppose that 
be would be the less likely to tolerate neglect and igno- 
rance in the performance of the choral service. Michael 
Wise, who perhaps had fallen under his lash, used to call 
him Mr. Snub-dean. Dr. Holder died at Amen Corner, 
London, Jan. 24, 1696-7, and was buried in Su Paul's, 
with his wife, who was only sister to sir Christopher Wren. 
Dr. Holder had a considerable share in the early education 
of that afterwards eminent architect. 1 
i • • 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. IF.— Ward's Lives of the Gretbtm Profetsori.— L«tUn ttvm 
12m 9odl«ian Library, 3 wis* 8ro, 19l9.-»Rte»'s Qrclojwadia, 


HOLDSWORTH (Edward), a very polite and elegant 
scholar, son of the rev. Thomas Holdsworth, rector of 
North Stoneham, in the county of Southampton, was bora 
Aug. 6, 1688, and trained at Winchester- school. He was 
thence elected demy of Magdalen college, Oxford, iiv 
July 1705; took the degree of M. A. in April 1711 ; be- 
came a college tutor, and bad many pupils. In 1715, 
when he was to be chosen into a fellowship, he resigned 
his demyship, and left the college, because unwilling to 
swear allegiance to the new government. The remainder 
of his life was spent in travelling with young noblemen and 
gentlemen as a tutor: in 1741 and 1744 he was at Rome 
in this capacity, with Mr. Pitt and with Mr. Drake and Mr. 
Towtison. He died of a fever at lord Digby's house at 
Colesbill in Warwickshire, Dec. 30, 1746. He was the 
author of the i€ Muscipula," a poem, esteemed a master- 
piece in its kind, written with the purity of Virgil and the 
pleasantry of Lucian, and of which there is a good English 
translation by Dr. John Hoadly, in vol, V. of " Dodsley's 
Miscellanies/' and another among Dr. Cobden's poems. 
He was the author also of a dissertation entitled " Pbarsalia 
and Philippi ; or the two Philippi in VirgiPs Georgics at- 
tempted to be explained and reconciled to history, 1741/* 
4to ; and of " Remarks and Dissertations on Virgil ; with 
some other classical observations, published with several 
notes and additional remarks by Mr. Speuce, 1768," 4to. 
Mr. Spence speaks of him in his Polymetis, as one. who 
understood Virgil in a more masterly manner than any per- 
son he ever knew. The late Charles Jennens, esq. erected 
a monument to his memory at Gopsal in Leicestershire. ' 

HOLDSWORTH (Richard), sometimes written Olds- 
worth, and OUliswortfi, a learned and loyal English divine, 
the youngest son of Richard Holdsworth, a celebrated 
preacher at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was born in 1590, and 
after the death of his father was committed to the care of 
the rev. William Pearson, a clergyman of the same place, 
who had married his sister. He was first educated at New- 
castle, and in July 1607 admitted of St. John's college, 
Cambridge. In 1610 he took his bachelor's degree, in 
1613 was chosen fellow of his college, in 1614 was made 
roaster of arts, and incorporated at Oxford in the same 
degree in 1617, and in 1620 was chosen one of the twelve 

* Kichols's Bowjer— and H»t. of Leicestershire,— Gent. Mag. rol. LXI, 

F 3 


university preachers at Cambridge. While at college he 
was tutor, among others, to the famous sir Symond D'Ewe* 
After this he was for some time chaplain to sir Henry 
Hobart, lord chief justice of the common pleas, and then 
bad a living given him in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
which he exchanged for the rectory of St. Peter the Poor, 
Broad-street, London. He settled there a little before 
the great sickness in 1625, during which he continued to 
do the duties of his office, became a very popular preacher, 
and was much followed by the puritans. In 1 629 be was 
chosen professor of divinity at Gresham college, and in 
his lectures, afterwards published, he discovered an un- 
usual extent and variety of learning. They were fre- 
quented by a great concourse of divines and young scholars* 
About 1631 he was made a prebendary of Lincoln, and irv 
1633 archdeacon of Huntingdon. In the same year be 
stood candidate for the mastership of St John's college, 
but neither he nor his competitor, Dr. Lane, being ac- 
ceptable at court, the king, by mandate, ordered Dr. 
Beale to be chosen. In 1637, however, Mr. Holdsworth 
was elected master of Emanuel college, and created doctor 
of divinity. In the same year he kept the act at Cambridge, 
and in 1639 was elected president of Sion college by the 
London clergy. In 1641 be resigned bis professorship at 
Gresham college, and the rebellion having now begun, he 
was marked out as one of the sacrifices to popular preju- 
dice, although he had before suffered somewhat from the 
court. While vice-chancellor Dr. Holdsworth bad sup- 
plied the king with money contributed by the university, a 
crime not easily to be forgiven. When, however, the 
assembly of divines was called, Dr. Holdsworth was no- 
minated one of the number, but never sat among them. 
Soon after, in obedience to the king's mandate, he caused 
such of bis majesty's declarations to be printed at Cam- 
bridge as were formerly published at York, for which, and, 
as Dr. Fuller says, a sermon preached then by him, he 
was forced to leave the university before the expiration of 
his office as vice-chancellor. After some concealment he 
was apprehended near London, and imprisoned, first in 
Ely house, and then in the Tower. Such was the regard, 
however, in which he was held at Cambridge, that while 
under confinement he was elected Margaret professor of 
divinity, which he held until his death, although he could 
neither attend the duties of it nor receive th* profits ; but 


his rectory of St Peter the Poor, and the mastership of 
Emanuel, were both taken from him. It seems uncertain 
when be was released. We find him attending the king at 
Hampton Court in 1647 ; and in January following, when 
the parliament voted that no more addresses should be 
made to the king, he preached a bold sermon against that 
resolution, for which he was again imprisoned, but being 
released, assisted, on the king's part, at the treaty in the 
Isle of Wight The catastrophe that soon after befell his 
royal master is thought to have shortened his life, which 
terminated Aug. 29, 1649. He lived unmarried, and left 
his property to charitable uses, except bis books, part of 
which went to Emanuel college, and part to the public 
library at Cambridge. He was buried in the church of St. 
Peter the Poor, where is a monument to his memory. He 
was of a comely appearance and venerable aspect ; warm 
in bis temper, but soon pacified ; a great advocate for the 
king, and zealous in the cause of episcopacy. He was * 
devout, charitable, and an excellent scholar. In bis " Prte- 
lectiones" be shows not only an intimate acquaintance with 
the fathers and schoolmen, but likewise most of the emi- 
nent divines of later ages, popish as well as protestant, 
and his style is good. His works are, 1. " A Sermon 
preached in St. Mary's, Cambridge, on his majesty's in- 
auguration," 1642, 4to, the only thing he ever published* 
2. " The Valley of Vision ; or a clear sight of sundry sa- 
cred truths; delivered in twenty-one sermons," Lond. 
1651, 4to. These were taken in short hand, and Dr. 
Pearson says they are very defective> S. " Pnelectiones 
theologies*," Lond. 1661, fol. published by his nephew, 
Dr. William Pearson, with a life of the author. ' 

HOLINSHED (Raphael), an English historian, and fa- 
mous for the Chronicles that go under his name, was 
descended from a family which lived at Bosely, in Cheshire : 
but neither the place nor time of his birth, nor scarcely 
any other circumstances of his life, are known. Some say 
he had an university education, and was a clergyman ; 
while others, denying this, affirm that be was steward to 
Thomas Burdett, of Bromcote in the county of Warwick, 
esq. Be this as it will, be appears to have been a man of r $ 

considerable learning, and to have had a particular turn for 

1 Life m above.— Ward's Greaham Profefson.— Atb. Ox. tol. I.— Barwiok't 
Life.—Walker'i Sufftringf of U» Clergy /~Uoyd»i Memoir*, fol^peck'i Da- 
aidermU, ?oU II, 


•% • 




history. His " Chronicles" were first published in 1577, 
in 2 vols, folio; and then in 1537, in three, the two first 
of which are commonly bound together. In this second 
edition several sheets were castrated in the second and 
third volumes, because there were passages in them dis- 
agreeable to queen Elizabeth and her ministry: but the 
castrations were reprinted apart in 1723. Holinshed was 
not the sole author or compiler Of this work, but was as- 
sisted in it by several other writers. * The first volume 
opens with " An historical Description of the Island of 
Britaine, in three books," by Wiyiam Harrison; and then, 
" The Historie of England, from the time that it was first 
inhabited, until the time that it was last conquered," by 
R. Holinshed. The second volume contains, " The de- 
scription, conquest, inhabitation, and troublesome estate 
of Ireland ; particularly the description of that kingdom :" 
by Richard Stanihurst. "The Conquest of Ireland, trans- 
lated from the Latin of Giraldus Cambrensis," by John 
Hooker, alias Vowell, of Exeter, gent. "The Chronicles 
of Ireland, beginning where Giraldus did end, continued 
untill the year 1509, from Philip Flatsburie, Henrie of 
Marleborow, Edmund Campian," &c. by R. Holinshed ; 
and from thence to 1586, by R. Stanihurst and J. Hooker. 
" The Description of Scotland, translated from the Latin 
of Hector Boethius," by R. H. or W. H. « The Historie 
of Scotland, conteining the beginning, increase, proceed- 
ings, continuance, acts and government of the Scottish 
nation, from the original thereof unto the yeere 1571," 
gathered by Raphael Holinshed, and continued from 1571 
to 1586^ by Francis Bote vi lie, alias Thin, and others. The 
third volume begins at " Duke William the Norman, com- 
monly called the Conqueror ; arid descends by degrees of 
yeeres to all the kings and queenes of England/ 1 First 
compiled by R. Holinshed, and by him extended to 1577 ; 
augmented and continued to 1586, by John Stow, Fr. 
Thin, Abraham Fleming, and others. The time of this 
historian's death is unknown ; but it appears from bis will, 
which Hearne prefixed to his edition of Camden's " An- 
nals," that it happened between 1578 and 1582. 

As for his coadjutors; Harrison, as we have already 
noticed in his article, was bred at Westminster school, sent 
from thence to Oxford, became chaplain to sir William 
Brooke, who preferred him, and died in 1593. Hooker, 
who was uncle to the famous Richard Hooker, will be n,o* 


ticed hereafter. We know nothing of Botevile ; only that 
Hearne styles him " a man of great learning and judgment, 
and a wonderful lover of antiquities." In the late reprint 
of the series of English Chronicles by the booksellers of 
London, Holinshed very properly took the precedence, 
and was accurately edited in 6 vols. 4to.' 

HOLLAND (Philemon), a noted translator, was de- 
scended from an ancient family of the Hollands of Lan- 
cashire, and was the son of John Holland, a pious divine,, 
who, in queen Mary's reign, was obliged to go abroad for 
the sake of religion ; but afterwards returned, and became 
pastor of Dunmowin Essex, where he died in 1578. Phi- 
lemon was born at Chelmsford in Essex, .about the latter 
end of the reign of Edward VI. and after being instructed 
at the grammar-school of that pi ape, was sent to Trinity- 
college, Cambridge, where he was pupil to Dr. Hampton, 
and afterwards to Dr. Whitgift. He was admitted fellow of 
his college, but left the university after having taken the 
degree of M. A. in which degree be was incorporated at 
Oxford in 1587. He was appointed bead master of the 
free-school of Coventry, and in this laborious station he pot 
only attended assiduously to the duties of his office, but 
served the interests of learning, by undertaking ttiQse nu- 
merous translations, which gained him the title of " Trans- 
lator general of the age." He likewise studied medicine, 
and practised with considerable reputation in his neigh- 
bourhood ; and at length, when at the age of forty, became 
a doctor of physic in the university of Cambridge. He 
was a peaceable, quiet, and good man iti all the relations 
of private life, and by his habits of temperance and regu- 
larity attained his 85th year, not only with the full pos- 
session of his intellects, but bis sight was so good, that 
he never had occasion to wear spectacles. He continued 
to translate till his 80th year; and his translations, though' 
devoid of elegance, are accounted faithful and accurate. 
Among these are, translations into English of " Livy,^ 
written, it is said, with one pen, which a lady of his ac- 
quaintance so highly prized that she had it embellished 
with silver, and kept as a great curiosity. u Pliny's Na- 
tural History,** "Plutarch's Morals," « Suetonius, 1 * "Am- 
mianus ' Marcellinus," " Xenophon's Cyropaedia," and 
'* Camden's Britannia, 11 to the last of which he made seve- 

> Fiog . Brit.--Taiin# rt Bibliothtca. 


t*1 useful additions : and into Latin he translated the geo- 
graphical part of " Speed's Theatre of Great Britain/ 1 and 
a French " Pharmacopoeia of Brice Bauderon." A quib- 
bling epigram upon his translation of Suetonius has often 
been retailed in jest books : 

"Philemon with translations does so fill us, 
He will not let Suetonius be Tranquillus. 1 * 

He died Feb. 9, 1636, and was buried in the church of 
Coventry. He married a Staffordshire lady, by whom he 
had seven sons and three daughters, all of whom he sur- 
vived except one son and his daughters. One of his sons, 
Henry, appears to have been a bookseller in London, and 
was editor of the " Heroologia Anglicana," a valuable col- 
lection of English portraits, with short lives, but the latter 
are not very correct, or satisfactory. These portraits were 
ehiefly engraved by the family of Pass, and many of them 
are valued as originals, having never been engraved since 
but as copies from these. They are sixty-fiice in number. 
He also published " Monumenta Sepulchralia Ecclesiae S. 
Pauli, Lond." 4to; and, " A Book of Kings, being a true 
and lively effigies of all our English kings from the Con- 
quest, 1 ' 1618. When be died is not mentioned. l 

HOLLAR, or HOLLARD (Whntzel, or Wences- 
I*aus), a most admired engraver; was born at Prague in 
Bohemia, in 1607. He was at first instructed in school- 
learning, and afterwards put to the profession of the law ; 
but not relishing that pursuit, and his family being ruined 
when Prague was taken and plundered in 1619, so that 
they could not provide for him as had been proposed, he 
removed from thence in 1627. During his abode in seve- 
ral towns in Germany, be applied himself to drawing and 
designing, to copying the pictures of several great artists, 
taking geometrical and perspective views and draughts of 
cities, towns, and countries, by land and water ; in which 
at length be grew so excellent, especially for his land- 
scapes in miniature, as not to be outdone in beauty and 
delicacy by any artist of his time. He had some instruc- 
tions from Matthew Merian, an eminent engraver, and 
who is thought to have taught him that method of pre- 
paring and working on his plates which he constantly used. 
He was but eighteen when the first specimens of his art 

i Atb. Ox. ™L I^-Letten from the Bodkfeo, 3 vol* 8?o. 1813,— Follcr'i 
Woitbkf .— Centura Literaria, vol I. 


appeared; and the connoisseurs in bis works hare ob- 
served, that he inscribed the earliest of them with only a 
cypher of four letters, which, as they explain it, was in- 
tended for the initials of, " Wenceslaus Hollar Prageosis 
excudit." He employed himself chiefly in copying heads 
and portraits, sometimes from Rembrandt, Henzelmao, 
Faelix Biler, and other eminent artists ; but his little deli- 
cate views of Strasburgb, Cologne, Mentz, Bonn, Franc- 
fort, and other towns along the Rhine, Danube, Necker, 
&& got him his greatest reputation; and when Howard 
earl of Arundel, was sent ambassador to the emperor Fer- 
dinand II. in 1636, he was so highly pleased with his per- 
formances, that he admitted him into his retinue. Hollar 
atteuded his lordship from Cologne to the emperor's court, 
and in this progress made several draughts and prints of the 
places through which they travelled. He took that view of 
Wurtzburgh under which is written, " Hollar delineavit, 
in legatione Arundeliana ad Imperatorem." He then made 
also a curious large drawing, with the pen and pencil,- of 
the city of Prague, which gave great satisfaction to his pa- 
- tron, then upon the spot 

After lord Arundel had finished his negotiations in Ger- 
many, he returned to England, and brought Hollar with 
him: where, however, he was not so entirely confined to 
his lordship 1 s service, but that he had the liberty to accept 
of employment from others. Accordingly, we soon find 
him to have been engaged by the printsellers ; and Peter 
Stent, one of the most eminent among them, prevailed 
upon him to make an ample view or prospect of and from 
the town of Greenwich, which he finished in two plates, 
1637 ; the earliest dates of his works in this kingdom. In 

1638, appeared his elegant prospect about Richmond ; at 
whieh time he finished also several curious plates from the 
fine paintings in the Arundelian collection. In the midst 
of this employment, arrived Mary de Medicis, the queen- 
mother of France, to visit her daughter Henrietta Maria 
queen of England ; and with her an historian, who recorded 
the particulars of her journey and entry into this kingdom. 
His work, written in French, was printed at London in 

1639, and adorned with several portraits of the royal fa- 
mily, etched for the purpose by the hand of Hollar. The 
same year was published the portrait of bis patron the earl 
of Arundel on horseback ; and afterwards be etched ano- 
ther of him in armour, and several views of bis country* 


•eat at Aldb rough in Surrey. In 1640, he seems to hare 
been introduced into the service of the royal family, to 
give the prince of Wales some taste in the art of design* 
ing ; and it is intimated, that either before the eruption 
of the civil wars, or at least before he was driven by them 
abroad, be was in the service of the duke of York. This . 
year appeared his beautiful set of figures .in twenty-eight 
plates, entitled, " Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus," and 
containing the several habits of English women of all ranks 
or degrees: they -are represented at full length, and have 
rendered him famous among the lovers of engraving. In 
1641, were published his prints of king Charles and his 
queen : but now the civil wars being broke out, and his pa- 
tron the earl of Arundel leaving the kingdom to attend 
upon the queen and the princess Mary, Hollar was left to 
support himself. He applied himself closely to his busi- 
ness, and published other parts of his works, after Hol- 
bein, Vandyck, &c especially the portraits of several 
persons of quality of both sexes, ministers of state, com- 
manders of the army, learned and eminent authors ; and es- 
pecially another set or two of female habits in divers nations 
in Europe. Whether he grew obnoxious as an adherent 
to the earl of Arundel, or as a malignant for drawing so 
many portraits of the royal party, is not expressly said : 
but now it seems he was molested, and driven to take 
shelter under the protection of one or more of them, till 
they were defeated, and he taken prisoner of war with 
them, upon the surrender of their garrison at Basing- house 
in Hampshire. This happened on Oct. 14, 1645; but 
Hollar, either making his escape, or otherwise obtaining 
bis liberty, went over to the continent after the earl of 
Arundel, who resided at Antwerp, with his family, and 
had transported thither bis most valuable collection of 

He remained at Antwerp several years, copying from 
his patron's collection, and working for printsellers, book- 
sellers, and publishers ; but seems to have cultivated no 
interest among men of fortune and curiosity in the art, to 
dispose of them by subscription, or otherwise most to bis 
advantage. In 1647, and 1648, he etched eight or ten of 
the painters' heads with bis own, with various other curious 
pieces, as the picture of Charles I. soon after his death, 
and of several of the royalists ; and in the three following, 
years, many portraits and landscapes after Breughel, jl\* 


-sbeimer, and Teniers, with the Triumphs of Death. He 
etched also Charles II. standing, with emblems ; and also 
published a print of James duke of York, aetat 1 8, aon. 
1651, from a picture drawn of him when he was in Flan* 
ders, by Teniers. He was more punctual in his dates than 
most other engravers, which have afforded very agreeable 
lights and directions, both as to his own personal history 
and performances, and to those of many others. At last, 
either not meetiug.with encouragement enough to keep 
him longer abroad, or invited by several magnificent and 
costly works proposed or preparing in England, in which 
his ornamental hand might be employed more to his ad- 
vantage, he returned hither in 1652. Here he afterwards 
executed some of the most considerable of his publications: 
but though he was an artist superior to almost most others 
in genius as well as assiduity, yet he had the peculiar fate 
to work here, as he bad done abroad, still in a state of 
subordination, and more to the profit of other people than 
himself. Notwithstanding his penurious pay, be is said to 
have contracted a voluntary affection to his extraordinary 
labour ; so far, that he spent almost two-thirds of his time 
at it, and would not suffer himself to be drawn or disen- 
gaged from it, till his hour-glass had run to the last mo* 
ment proposed. Thus he went on in full business, till the 
restoration of Charles II. brought home many of his friends, 
and him into fresh views of employment. It was but two 
yearfe after that memorable epocha, that Evelyn published 
his " Sculpture, or the History and Art of Chalcography 
x and engraving in copper:" in which he gave the following 
very honourable account of Hollar: " Winceslaus Hollar/' 
says be, " a gentleman of Bohemia, comes in the next 
place : not that he is not before most of the rest for his 
choice and great industry, for we rank them very promis- 
cuously both as to time and pre-eminence, but to bring up 
the rear of the Germans with a deserving person, whose 
indefatigable works in aqua fortis do infinitely recommend 
themselves by the excellent choice which he hath made of 
the rare things furnished out of the Arundelian collection, 
and from most of the best hands and designs : for such 
were those of L. da Vinci, Fr. Parmensis, Titian, Julio 
. Romano, A. Mantegna, Corregio, Perino del Vaga, Ra- 
phael Urbin, Seb. del Ptombo, Palma, Albert Durer, 
Hans Holbein, Vandyck, Rubens, Breughel, Bassan, Et- 
abeimer, Brower, Artois, and divers other masters of prim* 


note, whose drawings and paintings be hath faithfully 
pied ; besides several books of landscapes, towns, solem- 
nities, histories, heads, beasts, fowls, insects, vessels, and 
other signal pieces, not omitting what he hath etched after 
De Cleyn, Mr. Streter, and Dankerty, for sir Robert Sta- 
pleton's ' Juvenal, 9 Mr. Ross's * Siltus Italicus,' * Poly* 
glotta Biblia,' * The Monasticon,' first and second part, 
Mr. Dugdale's ' St. Paul's,' and ' Survey of Warwickshire,* 
with other innumerable frontispieces, and things by him 
published, and done after the life ; and to be on that ac- 
count more valued and esteemed, than where there has been 
more curiosity about chimeras', and things which are not in 
nature : so that of Mr. Hollar's works we may justly pro- 
nounce, there is not a more useful and instructive collec- 
tion to be made.'* 

Some of the first things Hollar performed after the Re- 
storation, were, " A Map of Jerusalem ;" " The Jewish 
Sacrifice in Solomon's Temple ;" " Maps of England, Mid- 
dlesex, &c." " View of St. George's Hospital at Wind- 
sor ;" " The Gate of John of Jerusalem near London ;" 
and many animals, fruits, flowers, and insects, after Bar- 
low and others : many beads of nobles, bishops, judges, 
and great men ; several prospects about London, and Lon- 
don itself, as well before the great fire, as after its ruin 
and rebuilding : though the calamities of the fire and plfcgue 
in 1655 are thought to have reduced him to such difficul- 
ties, as he could never entirely vanquish. He was after- 
wards sent to Tangier in Africa, in quality, of his majesty's 
designer, to take the various prospects there of the garri- 
son, town, fortifications, and the circumjacent views of the 
jcountry : and many of his drawings on the spot, dated 
1669, preserved in the library of the late sir Hans Sloane, 
•were within three or four years after made public, upon 
some of which Hollar styles himself " Stenographus Regis." 
-After his return to England, he was variously employed, 
in finishing his views of Tangier for publication, and taking 
several draughts at and about Windsor in 167 1, with many 
.representations in honour of the knights of the garter. 
About 1672, he travelled northward, and drew views of 
•Lincoln, Southwell, Newark, and York Minster ; and after- 
wards was engaged in etching of towns, castles, churches, 
.and their fenestral figures, aims, &c. besides tombs, monu- 
mental effigies with their inscriptions, && in such num- 
bers as it would almost be endless to enumerate. Few 



artists have been able to imitate his works ; for which rea* 
sob many lovers of the art, and all the curious both at 
home and abroad, have, from his time to ours, b6en 
zealous to collect them. But bow liberal soever they might 
be in the purchase of his performances, the performer 
himself, it seems, was so incompetently rewarded for them, 
that he could not, in his old age, keep himself free from 
the incumbrances of debt ; though he was variously and 
closely employed to a short time before his death. But as 
many of bis plates are dated that year, in the very begin* 
ning of which he died, it is probable they were somewhat 
antedated by him, that the sculptures might appear of 
the same date with the book in which they were printed : 
thus, in " Tborqton's Antiquities of Nottinghamshire," 
some of them appear unfinished ; and the 50 1st page, 
which is entirely blank, was probably left so for a plate 
to be supplied. When he was upon the verge of his 
seventieth year, be had the misfortune to have an execu- 
tion at his house in Gardiner's-lane, Westminster: ha 
desired only the liberty of dying in his bed, and that he 
might not be removed to any other prison but his grave. 
Whether this was granted him or not, is uncertain, but he 
died March 28, 1677, and, as appears from the parish* 
register of St. Margaret's, was buried in the New Chapel 
Yard, near the place of his death. Noble and valuable 
as the monuments were which Hollar had raised for 
others, none was erected for him : nor has any person 
proposed an epitaph worthy of the fame and merits of the 

Mr. Grose, from the information of Oldys, has favoured 
the public with some anecdotes of the conscientiousness of 
this eminent artist which are not noticed by Vertue. He 
used to work for the booksellers at the rate of four-pence 
an hour; and always bad an hour-glass before him. He 
was so very scrupulously exact, that, when obliged to at- 
tend the calls of nature, or whilst talking, though with 
persons for whom he was working, and about their own 
business, he constantly laid down the glass, to prevent the 
sand from running. It is to be lamented that such a man 
should have known distress. His works amount, according 
to Vertue's catalogue, to nearly 2400 prints. They are 
generally etchings performed almost entirely with the 
point, yet possess great spirit, with astonishing freedom 
and lightness, especially when we consider how highly he 


lias finished some of them. In drawing the human figure 
he was most defective ; his outlines are stiff and incorrect, 
and the extremities marked without the least degree of 
knowledge. In some few instances, he had attempted to 
execute his plates with the graver only : but in that has 
failed very much. 1 

HOLL1S (Thomas), esq. of Corscombe in Dorsetshire; 
a gentleman whose " Memoirs" have been printed in two 
splendid volumes, 4to, J 780, with a considerable number 
of plates by Bartolozzi, Basire, and other engravers of 
eminence, and an admirable profile of himself in the fron- 
tispiece, was born in London, April 14, 1720; and sent 
to school, first at Newport in Shropshire, and afterwards 
at St. Alban's. At 14, he was sent to Amsterdam, to 
learn the Dutch and French languages, writing, and ac- 
compts; stayed there about fifteen months, and then re* 
turned to his father, with whom he continued till his death 
in 1735. To give him a liberal education, suitable to the 
ample fortune he was to inherit, bis guardian put him 
under the tuition of professor Ward, whose picture Mr. 
Hollis presented to the British Museum ; and, in honour 
of his father and guardian, be caused to be inscribed 
round a valuable diamond ring, Mnemosynon pairis tuioris- 
que. He professed himself a dissenter ; and from Dr. Fos- 
ter and others of that persuasion, imbibed that ardent love 
of liberty, and freedom of sentiment, which strongly 
marked his character. In Feb. 1739-40, be took cham- 
bers in Lincoln's-Inn, and was admitted a law-student; 
but does not appear ever to have applied to the law, as a 
profession. He resided there till July 1748, when he set 
out on his travels for the first time ; and passed through 
Holland, Austrian and French Flanders, part of France, 
Switzerland, Savoy, atid part of Italy, returning through 
Provence, firitanny, &c. to Paris. His fellow-traveller 
was Thomas Brand, esq. of the Hyde in Essex, who was 
his particular friend, and afterwards his heir. His se- 
cond tour commenced in July 16, 1750; and extended 
through Holland to Embden, Bremen, Hamburg, the prin- 
cipal cities on the north and east side of Germany, the rest 
of Italy, Sicily, and Malta, Lorrain, &c. The journals of 
both his tours are said to be preserved* in manuscript. 

On his return home, he attempted to get into parlia- 

* Life by Vertsc, 1745, 4to.— Biof, Brit.<-Stn>tt'0 Dtcttaury. 

H O L L I S. 79 


ment; but, not being able to effect this without some 
■mall appearance of bribery, he turned his thoughts en- 
tirely to other objects. He began a collection of books 
and medals ; " for the purpose," it is said, " of illustra- 
ting and upholding liberty, preserving the memory of its 
champions, rendering tyranny and its abettors odious, ex- 
tending art and science, and keeping alive the honour due 
to their patrons and protectors." Among his benefactions 
to foreign libraries, none is more remarkable than that of 
two large collections of valuable books to the public library 
of Berne; which were presented anonymously as by w an 
Englishman,' a lover of liberty, his country, and its excel- 
lent constitution, as restored at the happy Revolution.' 9 
Switzerland, Geneva, Venice, Leyden, Sweden, Russia, &c. 
shared his favours. His benefactions to Harvard-college 
commenced in 1758, and were continued to the amount of 
1400/. His liberality to individuals, as well as to public 
societies, are amply detailed in the " Memoirs' 9 above- 
mentioned. In Aug. 1770, he carried into execution a 
plan, which he had formed five years before, of retiring 
into Dorsetshire; and there, in a field near bis residence 
at Corscombe, dropped down and died of an apoplexy, on 
New-year's-day, 1774. The character of this singular 
person was given, some time before, in one of the public 
prints, in the following, somewhat extravagant terms. 
** Thomas Hollis is a man possessed of a large fortune: 
above half of which he devotes to charities, to the encou- 
ragement of genius, and to the support, and defence of 
liberty. His studious hours are devoted to the search of 
noble authors, hidden by the rust of time ; and to do their 
virtues justice, by brightening their actions for the review 
©f the public. Wherever he meets the man of letters, he 
is sure to assist him : and, were I to describe in paint this 
illustrious citizen of the world, I would depict him leading 
by the hands Genius and distressed Virtue to the temple of 
Rewavd. 99 

If Mr. Hollis had any relations, his private affections 
were not as eminent as his public spirit, for be left the 
whole of his fortune to his friend T. Brand, esq. who, on 
that account, took the name of Hollis, and was as violent a 
zealot for liberty as his patron, although less pure in his 
practice. In 1764, .Mr. Hollis sent to Sidney-college, 
Cambridge, where Cromwell was educated, an original 
portrait of him by Cooper ; and, a fire happening at his 

ft* HOLLIS. 

lodgings in Bedford-street, in 1761, he calmly walked out, 
taking an original picture of Milton oply in bis band. A 
new edition of " Toland's Life of Milton" was published 
under his direction, in 1761; and, in 1763, he gave ai> 
accurate edition of "Algernon Sydney's Discourses on 
Government," on which the pains and expence he be* 
stowed are almost incredible. He meditated also an edi- 
tion of Andrew Marvell ; but did not complete it. In 
order to preserve the memory of those patriotic heroes 
whom he most admired, he called many of the farms and 
fields in his estate at Corscombe by their names ; and, in 
the middle of one of these fields, not far from his house, 
he ordered his corpse to be deposited in a grave ten feet 
deep, and the field to be immediately ploughed over, that 
no trace of his burial place might remain. His religious 
principles have been suspected, as he joined no denomina- 
tion of Christians. Another of bis singularities was, to 
observe his nominal birth-day always, without 'any regard 
to the change of style. He never took it amiss that he was 
charged with singularities; be owned that he affected 
them : " the idea of singularity, 99 says he, " by way of 
shield, I try by all means to hold out," and in this way 
got rid of those who would otherwise break in upon bis 
time, customs, and way of living. Mr. Brand Hollis, hi* 
heir, died in Sept. 1 804, and bequeathed his estates in 
Dorsetshire and Essex, to his friend Dr. Disney. This 
Brand Hollis did not exactly inherit the independent prin- 
ciples of his benefactor ; for whereas Mr. Hollis would not 
accept of a seat in parliament, for fear of being led into 
corrupt practices, Mr. Brand had no scruple to apply his 
fortune to acquire a seat for Hindon, and was convicted of 
the most scandalous bribery, and imprisoned in the King's 
Bench. It is not unuseful to know of what stuff clamorous 
patriots are made. l 

HOLMES (George), an English antiquary, born in 1662, 
at Skipton, in Craven, Yorkshire, became about 1695 clerk 
to William Petyt, esq. keeper of the records at the Tower; 
and continued near sixty years deputy to Mr. Petyt, Mr. 
Topham, and Mr. Polhill. On the death of Mr. Petyt, 
.which happened Oct 9, 1707, Mr. Holmes was, on ac- 
count of his singular abilities and industry, appointed by 

1 Memoir* ai abore.— Gent. Mag. LXX1 V.— Dr. Diinty kas Lately printed 
but aot published, a Memoir of Mr. Brand Hollif, 


lord Halifax (then president of a committee of the House 
of lords) to methodize and digest the records deposited m 
the Tower, at a yearly salary of 200/. which was continued 
to his death, Feb. 16, 1748-9, in the 87th year of his age. 
He was also barrack-master of the Tower* He married & 
daughter of Mr. Marshall, an eminent sword-cutler in 
Fleet-street, by whom he had an only son George, whb 
was bred at Eton, and was clerk under bis father, but died, 
aged 25, many years before htm. Holmes re-published 
the first 17 volumes * of Rymer's "Foedera," in 1727. 
His curious collections of books, prints, and coins, &c. 
were sold by auction in 1749. His portrait was engraved 
by the society of antiquaries, with this inscription : " Vera 
effigies Georgii Holmes generosi, R. s. s. & tabularii pub- 
lico in Turre Londinensi Vicecustodis; quo munere anntis 
ci re iter LX sum ma fide & diligentia perfunctus, xiv kalend. 
Mart A. D. mdccxlviii, setati* suse lxxxvii, fato demum 
concessit. In fratris sui erga se meritorum testimonium 
banc tabulam Societas Antiquaiuorum Londini, cujus 
commoda semper promovit, sumptu suo sen incidendum 
curavit, mdccxlix. R. Van Bleek, p. 1743. G. Vertue 
del. & sculp.'* — In Strype's London, 1754, vol, I. p. 746, 
is a fac-simile of an antique Inscription over the little door 
next to the cloister in the Temple church. It was in old 
Saxon capital letters, engraved within an half-circle ; de- 
noting the year when the church was dedicated, and by 
whom, namely, Heraclius the patriarch of the church of 
the Holy Resurrection in Jerusalem ; and to whom, namely, 
the Blessed Virgin ; and the indulgence of forty days par- 
don to such who, according to the penance enjoined them, 
tesorted thither yearly. This inscription, which was scarcely 
legible, and in 1695 was entirely broken by the workmen, 
having been exactly transcribed by Mr. Holmes, was by 
him communicated to Strype. Mrs. Holmes out-lived her 
husband, and received of government 200/. for his M SS, 
*bout the records, which were deposited and remain in his 
office to this day. Few men, in a similar office,, were ever * 
more able or willing to assist the researches of those who 
applied to him, than Mr. Holmes ; and he received many 
handsome acknowledgements of his politeness and abilities, 
in that respect, from Browtie Willis, Dr. Tovey, principal 

» Before this second edition, a set «f the seventeen volumes was sold (or 100 
guineas. See the preface to the " Acta R«gia," 17x6, 8vo. 

Vol. XVII 1. G 


of NTew-Inn-baU, Oxford, Dr. Richardson, editor of " God- 
win de Presulibus," and others. ' 

HOLMES (Robert), D. D. a learned English divine, 
rector of Stanton in Oxfordshire, canon of Salisbury and 
Christ church, and dean of Winchester, was born in 1749, 
and educated at Winchester school. He was afterwards 
.chosen to New-college, Oxford, where he took his degrees 
of M.A. 1774, of B. D. in 1787, and of D.D. in 1789. 
In 1790, on the death of Mr. Warton, he was appointed 
professor of poetry. His last ecclesiastical promotion was 
to the deanery of Winchester in 1 804, which he did not 
long enjoy, dying at his house in St Giles's, Oxford, 
Nov. 12, 1805. 

His first publication was a sermon preached before the 
university of Oxford, entitled " The, Resurrection of the 
body deduced from the Resurrection of Christ," 1777, 
4to, a very ingenious discourse, in which the subject is il- 
lustrated in a manner somewhat new. In the same year he 
published " Alfred, an Ode, with six Sonnets/' 4to, in 
which Gray's style is attempted with considerable success. 
In 1782 he was chosen the third Bampton lecturer, and in 
,1783 published his eight lectures " on the prophecies and 
testimony of John the Baptist, and the parallel prophecies 
of Jesus Christ," in which he displayed great abilities and 
judgment. These were followed, in 1788, by a very able 
defence of some of the essential doctrines of the church, 
respecting the nature and person, death and sufferings of 
Christ, in " Four Tracts ; on the principle of religion, as 
a test of divine authority; on the principle of redemption; 
on the angelical message to the Virgin Mary, and on the 
resurrection of the body; with a discourse on humility,' 9 
8vo, the whole illustrated by notes and authorities. He 
published also one or two other single sermons, and an ode 
for the enccenia at the installation of the duke of Portland 
in 1793 ; but what confers the highest honour on his abili- 
ties, critical talents, and industry, was his collation of the 
MSS. of the Septuagint version, which he appears to have 
begun about 1786. Induced to think that the means of 
determining the genuine tenor of the Scriptural text would 
be much enlarged if the AJSS. of the Septua$nt version 
were carefully collated, as those of the Hebrew had been, 
jand the collatians published in one view, be laid down his 

I Nichols* Bowycr. 

HOL ME S. &3 

plan, the essential parts of which were: that all MSS. 
known or discoverable at home or abroad, if prior to the 
invention of printing, should be carefully collated with 
one printed text; and all particularities in which they dif- 
fered from it distinctly noted ; that printed editions and ver- 
sions made from all or parts of that by the seventy, and 
citations from it by ecclesiastical writers (with a distinction 
of those who wrote before the time of Aquila or after it), 
should also be collated with the same printed text, and all 
their variations from it respectively ascertained ; and that 
these materials, when collected, should all be reduced to 
one plain view, and printed under the text with which the 
several collations have been made, as by Dr. Kennicott — 
or without the text, as by De Rossi. Upon these general 
principles, Dr. Holies embarked on his enterprize, hav- 
ing iu the first instance been patronized by the delegates 
of the Clarendon press, and by liberal subscriptions from 
other universities, and the public at large. The delegates 
of the press agreed to allow him 40k a year for three years, 
" on his exhibiting to them bis collations annually, to be 
deposited in the Bodleian library, and when the whole was 
finished, to be printed at the university press, at his ex- 
pence, and for his benefit, or of bis assigns, if he should 
live to complete his collations ; or if they were left imper- 
fect, they were to be at the discretion of the delegates, they 
undertaking to promote the finishing of them to the best 
of their power, and to publish them when finished, allow- 
ing to his assigns a just proportion of the profits. 9 ' 

With these encouragements, Dr. Holmes exhibited in 
1789 his first annual account, by which it appeared rthat 
eleven folio volumes of collations were deposited, at the 
end of that year, in the Bodleian library ; subsequent an- 
nual accounts followed, and at the end of 1795, the total 
number of MS volumes deposited in that library was seven- 
ty-three, and* the sum received by subscriptions 4445/. 
which, liberal as it may seem, fell very far short of the er- 
pences incurred by the editor. Notwithstanding this he 
proceeded in the last-mentioned year to submit two folio 
specimens to the opinion of scholars and critics, the first 
containing chapters I. and II. of Genesis, and the second, 
chapter I. according to the Vatican text, the divisions of 
chapters and verses in which somewhat differs from the 
Vulgate. He was aware, however, that his original plan 
was so extensively laborious, that no perseverance or life 

« 2 


would hive been equal to its execution. He determined, 
therefore, to contract it, and in this form published in 1798 
part of his first volume, containing the book of Genesis, 
which exhibits a very extraordinary monument of diligence. 
This was followed in 1801, by another portion of the same 
volume, containing Exodus and Leviticus; and in 1804 
the volume was completed by the addition of Numbers and 
Deuteronomy, with a valuable preface, giving a history of 
the Septuagint and its various editions. Dr. Holmes then 
published the prophecy of Daniel, according to Theodo- 
tion and the Septuagint, departing from his proposed 
order, as if by a presentiment of his end. The loss of such 
a man at this critical time was unquestionably great, and 
was duly appreciated by every scholar who was a judge of 
his labours. They felt therefore a proportional gratifica- 
tion, in seeing the work resumed, in an uniform manner, 
after an interruption of only four years, by the rev. James 
Parsons, M. A. of Wadham college, who in 1810 published 
the first part of vol. II. containing the book of Joshua, and 
who appears in every respect qualified to carry on the la* 
bortous design with honour to himself and to the univer- 
sity. * 

HOLSTENIU8, or HOLSTEIN (Lucas), an ingenious 
and learned German, was born at Hamburg in 1596 ; and after 
a liberal education in his own country, went to France, and 
at Paris distinguished himself by uncommon parts and learn- 
ing. He was educated aprotestant, but afterwards by the 
persuasions of Sirmond the Jesuit, embraced the Roman 
catholic religion, and going from France to Rome, attached 
himself to cardinal Francis Barberini ; who took him under 
his protection, and recommended him to favour. He was 
honoured by three popes, Urban VIII. Innocent X. and 
Alexander VII. The first gave him a canonry of St. 
Peter's ; the second made him librarian of ,the Vatican ; 
and the third sent him, in 1665, to Christina of Sweden, 
wbsoe formal profession of the Catholic faith he received at, 
Inspruck. He spent his life in study, and died at Rome 
jn 1661. Cardinal Barberini, whom he made his heir, 
caused a marble monument to be erected over his grave, 
with a Latin inscription much to his honour. He was very 
learned both in sacred and profane antiquity, was an acute 
critic, and wrote with the utmost purity and elegance. 

I (tat. Mag* toI. LXXV.— Moith. Critical, and British Critic 


fis works consisted chiefly of notes and dissertations, which 
have been highly esteemed for judgment and precision. 
Some of these were published by himself; but the greater 
part were communicated after bis death, and inserted by 
his friends in their editions of authors, or other works that 
would admit, them. His notes and emendations upon $u« 
sebius's book against Hierocles, upon Porphyry's " Life of 
Pythagoras/' upon Apollonius's "^Argonautics," upon the 
fragments of Hemophilus, Democrates, Secondos, and Sal- 
lustius the philosopher, upon Stephanas Byzantinu* de 
Urbibus, &c. are to be found in the best editions of those 
authors. He wrote a " Dissertation upon the Life and 
Writings of Porphyry," which is printed with his notes on 
Porphyry's w Life of Pythagoras ;" and other dissertation* 
of his are inserted in Grevius's " Collection of Roman An- 
tiquities," and elsewhere. 1 

HOLT (Sir John), knight, lord chief justice of the court 
of King's-bencb in the reign of king William, was son of 
sir Thomas Holt, knight, serjeant at law; and born at 
Thame in Oxfordshire, 1642. He was educated at Abing- 
don~school, while his father was recorder of that town ; 
and afterwards became a gentleman* commoner of Oriel - 
college, Oxford. In 1658 he entered himself of Gray's- 
inn, before he took a degree ; some time after which he 
was called to the bar, where he attended constantly, and 
soon became a very eminent barrister In the reign of 
James II. he was made recorder of London* which office* 
he discharged with much applause for »bo»t a year and a- 
half; but refusing to give his hand towards abolishing the 
test, and to expound the law according to the king's design, 
lie was removed from his place. In 1686 he was called to* 
the degree of a serjeant at law, with many others. On the 
arrival of the prince of Orange, he was chosen a member 
of the convention parliament ; and appointed one of the 
managers for the commons at the conferences held with the 
lords, abput the abdication and the vacancy of the throne. 
He bad here an opportunity of displaying his abilities ; and 
as soon as the government was settled, be was made lord 
chief justice of the court of King's-bench, and admitted 
into the king's privy-council. 

In 1700, when lord Somers parted with the great seal, 
king William pressed chief justice Holt to accept of it: 

' Niceren, val. XXXL— Cbmfepw— Mowri.~-S**ii OdmdmU 

86 HOLT. 

but he replied, that he never had but one chancery cause 
in his life, which he lost ; and consequently could not think 
himself fitly qualified for so great a trust. He continued in 
his post twenty-two years, and maintained it with great 
reputation for steadiness, integrity, and complete know- 
ledge in his profession. He applied hims'elf with great as- 
siduity to the functions of his important office. He was 
perfect master of the common law ; and, as hi? judgment 
was most solid, bis capacity vast, and understanding most 
clear, so he had a firmness of mind, and such a degree of 
resolution, as never could be brought to swerve in the least 
from what he thought to be law and justice. Upon great 
occasions he shewed an intrepid zeal in asserting the au- 
thority of the law ; for hfe ventured to incur the indigna- 
tion of both houses of parliament, by turns, when he 
thought the law was with him. Several cases of the utmost 
importance, and highly affecting the lives, rights, liberties, 
and property of the people, came in judgment before him. 
There was a remarkable clearness and perspicuity of ideas 
in his definitions; a distinct arrangement of them in the 
analysis of his arguments ; and the real and natural differ- 
ence of things was made most perceptible and obvious, 
when he distinguished between matters which bore a false 
resemblance to each other. Having thus rightly formed 
bis premises, he scarcely ever erred in his conclusions ; his 
arguments were instructive and convincing, and his in- 
tegrity would noV suffer him to deviate from judgment and 
truth, in compliance to his prince, or, as observed before, 
to either house of parliament. They are most of them 
faithfully and judiciously reported by that eminent lawyer, 
chief justice Raymond. His integrity and uprightness as 
a judge are celebrated by the author of the " Tatler," 
No. 14, under the noble character of Verus the magistrate. 
There happened in the time of this chief justice a riot 
in Holborn, occasioned by an abominable practice then 
prevailing, of decoying young persons of both sexes to the 
Plantations. The persons so decoyed they kept prisoners 
in a house in Holborn, till they could find an opportunity 
of shipping them off; which being discovered, the enraged 
populace were going to pull down the house. Notice of 
this being sent to Whitehall, a party of the guards were 
commanded to march to the place ; but they first sent an 
officer to the chief justice to acquaint him with the design, 
and to desire him to send some of his people to attend the 

HOLT. 87 

soldiers, in order to give it the better countenance. The 
officer having delivered bis message. Holt said to him, 
" Suppose the populace should not disperse at your ap- 
pearance, what are you to do then ?" " Sir," answered 
the officer, " we have orders to fire upon them." " Have 
you, Sir ? (replied Holt) then take notice of what I say ; 
if there be one man killed, and you are tried before me, I 
will take care that you, and every soldier of your party, 
shall be hanged. Sir, (added he) go back to those who 
sent you, and acquaint them, that no officer of mine shall 
attend soldiers ; and let them know at the same time, that 
the laws of this kingdom are not to be executed by the 
sword : these matters belong to the civil power, and you 
have nothing to do with them." Upon this, the chief jus- 
tice, ordering his tipstaves with a few constables to attend 
him, went himself in person to the place where the tumult 
was ; expostulated with the mob ; assured them that justice 
should be done upon the persons who were the objects of 
their indignation : and thus they all dispersed quietly. 

He married Anne 4 , daughter of sir John Cropley, bait, 
whom he left without issue; and died in March 1709, 
after a lingering illness, in his 68th year. The following 
reports were published by himself, in 1708, fol. with some 
notes of his own upon them : " A Report of divers Cases in 
Pleas of the Crown, adjudged and determined, in the reign 
of the late King Charles the Second, with directions for 
justices of the peace, and others, collected by sir John 
Keyling, knight, late lord chief justice of his Majesty's 
court of King's-bencb, from the original manuscript under 
his own band. To which is added, The Report of three 
modern Cases, viz. Armstrong and Lisle; the King and 
Plumer ; the Queen and Mawgridge." A second edition 
was pretendedly published in 1739, but the title only was 
new. * 

HOLT (John), a miscellaneous writer of considerable 
merit, was born at Mottram in Cheshire in 1742, and 
educated with a view to the ministry among the dissenters; 
but this pursuit he very early relinquished, in consequence 

• Dr. Arbuthnot in a Letter to Swift justice Holt's wife, whom he attended 

fays, " 1 took the same pleasure in out of spite to the husband, who wished 

•awing bin (Gay, the poet), as Rad- her dead. 
cJiffe did in preserving my lord chief 

' Life, 1*764, 8vo.— Biog. Brit. vol. VII. Supplement— Burnet's Own Times. 
—Alb. Oi. toI. II.— Nichols's Atterbury. 

88 HOLT. 

of becoming a member of the church of England. He 
continued, however, to cultivate his mind by every oppor* 
tunity within his power, although his circumstances in early 
life were unfavourable to a liberal education. About the 4 
year 1*761 he removed to Walton in Lancashire, three mi lea 
from Liverpool, where he commenced schoolmaster and 
parish- clerk ; the latter he resigned some years before his. 
death. Having married a very sensible and worthy woman, 
he opened a boarding-school for young ladies, with the 
assistance of his wife, and carried it on with great reputa- 
tion. His time was for many years divided between the 
cares of the school and the study of agriculture, which 
had always in some measure engaged his mind* For bia 
scholars be compiled several useful manuals, particularly 
the " Characters of the Kings and Queens of England," 
1786 — 1788, 3 vols. 12mo, so judiciously laid down, and 
illustrated by so many sensible and original remarks, that 
had Mr. *Holt applied himself to history only, it is not 
improbable he might have produced a work of higher im- 
portance in that science. In the course of bis agricultural 
pursuits, he wrote " An Essay on the Curie iu Potatoes," 
for which he received the medal from the society of arts, 
manufactures, and commerce. The many essays and me- 
moirs which he drew up on such subjects having acquired 
bim the character of a minute and skilful observer, the 
Board of agriculture appointed him surveyor of the county 
of Lancaster, and the " Report" which hf returned, rich 
in valuable matter, judiciously arranged, was the 6rst that 
was republished by the Board ; and he had various pre- 
miums and other testimonies of approbation adjudged to 
him. It appears to have been his utmost ambition to em- 
ploy, his time in what was useful, and no part of that time 
was allowed to pass without adding something to his stock 
of knowledge. He was at last employed in collecting 
materials for a History of Liverpool, when a bilious disorder 
carried him off, March 21, 1801, to the very great regret 
of all who knew his amiable character. A portrait, and 
some other particulars of his life, may be seen in our 
authority. 1 

HOLTE (John), author of the first Latin grammar of 
any note in England, was a native of the county of Sussex! 
and flourished about the latter part of the fifteenth cen* 

l Gent Mag. vol. LXXI. 

H O L T E. 19 

tttry. Jrfter having been for tome time usher of the sohool 
next to Magdalen college gate in Oxford, be took bis 
degree of B. A. and in 1491 was admitted fellow of that 
college* He afterwards completed his degrees in arts, and 
Commenced schoolmaster, in which capacity he acquired 
great reputation, and prepared for college many students, 
who were afterwards men of eminence. When he died is 
Unknown, bat be was alive in 1511. The grammar he 
published was entitled " Lac Puerorum. M. Holti. Mylke 
for chyldven," 4to, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 149T. 
It is dedicated to Morton archbishop of Canterbury, and 
lias some very elegant Latin verses by sir Thomas More, 
when he was a young man. The only copy known is in 
Mr. Heber's fine collection. This grammar, the first me* 
thodical piece of the kind for the use of schools, was long 
followed by John Stanbridge, Robert Whitlington, William 
Lily, Leonard Cox, Henry Prime, and other school- 
masters. 1 

HOLWELL (John Zbphaniah), a learned English 
gentleman, well known in the history of British India, 
was the son of Zepbaaiah Holwell, timber-merchant and 
citizen of London, and grandson of John Holwell, a mathe- 
matical writer of much fame in the seventeenth century* 
The father and grandfather of this John Holwell both fell 
in support of the royal cause daring the usurpation, and 
the family estate of Holwell- ball, in Devonshire, was lost 
to their descendants for ever ; for although Mr. Holwell 
applied to king Charles at the restoration, the only re- 
compense be obtained was to be appointed royal astrono- 
mer and surveyor of the crown lands, and the advancement 
of his wife to a place of some honour, but of little emolu- 
ment, about the person of the queen. Some years after 
he was appointed mathematical preceptor to the duke of 
Monmouth, for whom he conceived a warm attachment, 
and, believing him to be tbe legitimate son of the king, 
was induced to take a very active and imprudent pact 
against tbe succession of tbe duke of York, which in the 
end proved bis ruin. Having published in 1683 a small 
Latin tract called '< Catastrophe Mujidi," which was soon 
after translated, and is a severe attack on the popish party, 
he was marked for destruction as soon* as the duke of York 

* Taqpec— D«fe.— Pitt.— Atin Ox. vol* I,— Dibdinfe Typographies! Anti- 
quities, vol. IT. 

•0 H O L W E L L. 

came to the throne. Accordingly, in 1685, it was con- 
trived that, in quality of surveyor to the crown, he should 
be sent to America, to survey and lay down a chart of the 
town of New York ; and at the same time secret orders 
were sent to the government agents there, to take some 
effectual means to prevent his return. In consequence of 
this, it is said, that he had no sooner executed his commis- 
sion, than he died suddenly, and bis death was attributed, 
at the time and on the spot, to the application of poison 
administered to him in a dish of coffee. His son was father 
to the subject of the present article. 

John Zephaniab Holwell was born at Dublin, Sept. 17, 
1711, and at the age of eight *was brought over to England, 
and placed at Mr. M'Kenzie's grammar-school at Richmond 
in Surrey, where be distinguished himself in classical 
learning. After this, his father having determined to breed 
him up to mercantile life in Holland, sent him to an aca- 
demy at Iselmond on the Mouse, where he learned the 
lYench and Dutch languages, and was instructed in book- 
keeping. He was then placed in the counting-house of 
Lantwoord, a banker and ship's-husband at Rotterdam, 
with a stipulation that he was to be admitted as a partner at 
the expiration of five years. The unceasing toil, however, 
of his new situation soon affected his health to a very 
alanqing degree; and although be recovered by consulting 
the celebrated Boerbaave at Ley den, bis inclination for 
trade was gone, and on bis return to England, his father, 
finding him inflexible on this point, bound him appren- 
tice to Mr. Forbes, a surgeon in the Park, Southwark, and 
upon the death of that gentleman he was placed under the 
care of Mr. Andrew Cooper, senior surgeon of Guy's 

Being now duly qualified, and having lost his father in 
1729, who left a very slender provision for his widow and 
son, he quitted the hospital, and engaged himself as sur- 
geon's mate on board the Duke of Cumberland Indiamao, 
which sailed from Gravesend Feb. 2, 1732, and proceeded 
to Bengal, where be? was appointed surgeon of a frigate 
belonging to the company, bound for the gulph of Persia. 
In the course of this voyage he acquired some knowledge 
of the Arabic tongue, and on his return to Calcutta em- 
ployed his leisure hours in studying the Moorish and com- 
mon Hinduee languages, and the Lingua Franca of the 
Portuguese. In January 1734 he made another voyage, as 


surgeon of the ship Prince of Wales, to Surat, &c. and 
soon after his return to Bengal, be was appointed surgeon- 
major to the. Patna party, usually consisting of about 400 
European infantry, which annually left the presidency in 
the latter end of September, with the company's trade for 
their factory at Patna. His next voyage was in the ship 
Prince of Orange, to Mocha and Judda in the Arabian 
gulph. During his stay there he added to his knowledge 
of the Arabic tongue, and on his return to Calcutta was 
«ble to speak it with tolerable fluency. After another 
visit, however, to Patna, as surgeon-major, he was anxious 
to quit this rambling life, and by the interest of his friends 
was appointed surgeon to the company's factory at Decca ; 
and here, besides farther improving himself in the Moorish 
and Hinduee tongues, he commenced his researches into 
the Hindu theology. 

At the close of the year 1736 he returned to Calcutta, 
and was elected an alderman in the mayor's court ; and in 
1740 was appointed assistant surgeon to the hospital, which 
first gave him a solid establishment in the company's ser- 
vice. In 1746 be succeeded to the place of principal 
physician and surgeon to the presidency ; and in the years 
1747 and 1748 was successively elected mayor of the cor- 
poration. In Sept. 17^9 his bad state of health rendered 
it necessary for him to return to England, where he arrived 
in the March following. During this voyage he had leisure 
to arrange his materials on the theology and doctrines of 
the ancient and modern Brahmans, and to digest a plan 
which he had formed for correcting abuses in the Zemin- 
dar's court at Calcutta. This scheme of reform he sub- 
mitted to the court of directors, who, in consequence of 
the advantages it promised to produce, appointed him per- 
petual Zemindar, and twelfth, or youngest, in the council 
at the board of Calcutta ; but with an exception to any 
further advancement in it. On bis arrival in Calcutta, in 
August 1751, he immediately began his system of reform, 
which gave so much satisfaction to the directors, that the 
exception against his rising in the council was removed, 
and 4000 rupees added to his salary. The nature and 
object of this reform is fully delineated in his "India Tracts," 
a 4 to volume, which he published at London in 1764. 

In 1756 he rose to be seventh in council, and in the 
month of June in that year, Surajah Dowlah, nabob of 
Bengal, attacked Calcutta. The governor and seniors ii> 


council having deserted the place, the remaining members 
of the board, with the inhabitants and troops, elected 
Mr. Holwell governor and commander in chief of the fort 
and presidency ; who, supported by a few gallant friends, 
and the remains of a feeble garrison, bravely held out the 
fort to the last extremity ; but a noble defence could not 
preserve an untenable place, or affect an ungenerous 
enemy. The opposition be had met "with so incensed the 
nabob, that although on the surrender he had given Mr. 
Holwell his word that no harm should come to him, he 
ordered him and his unfortunate companions in arms, 146 
persons in number, to be thrust into a close prison called 
the Black Hole, not eighteen feet square, into which no 
supply of air could come but by two small windows in one 
end. Here for one whole night they were confined, and 
in the morning only twenty-three were found alive, one of 
whom was Mr. Holwell, whose affecting and highly inte- 
resting " Narrative" of the event was published at London 
in 1758 *. On his delivery from this place he was carried 
in irons to Muxadabad, but was released on July 31st fol- 
lowing, by the intercession of the Begum, Surajah Dowlab's 
grandmother, who was influenced to this act of compassion 
by the reports of his upright and lenient conduct to the 
natives during the time he presided in the Zemindar and 
Cotcherry courts. He soon after joined the wretched 
remains of the colony at Fultah. In December following 
the presidency was retaken by vice-admiral Watson and 
colonel CKve, and the governor and council re-established 
by them. 

Mr. Holwell being in a most deplorable state of health, 
from "his unparalleled sufferings, obtained leave to take 
dispatches for the company to England, and for that pur- 
pose embarked on board the Syren sloop, of no more than 
eighty tons burthen. In February 1757, after a most ha- 
zardous voyage of six months in that small vessel (a very 
curious journal of which he afterwards published), he 
arrived in England ; and in consideration of his meritorious 
services, eminent abilities, and distinguished integrity, 

* At the tine of Mr. Holwall's death ttamn who, as mentioned in the Dar- 
in 1798, there were two survivors of rafive, manifested the truest friendship, 
tsat horrible tyranny, in England : Mr. by resigning h s station near the window 
Buntett, reading at Tot ton near South- of the dungeon to Mr. Holwell, who 

atnpton, and Capt Mills on the Hamp- otherwise must have expired in a few 
stead-road. The latter, who, if we minutes, 
misuse oof, a still living, it the gen- 


was appointed* by a majority of fifteen against time, in 
tbe court of directors, to return to Bengal as successor to 
colonel Clive in that government ; but this appointment 
he, with great modesty, declined in favour of Mr. Manning- 
ham. He was then named second in council) and succes- 
sor to that gentleman. In this situation he embarked on 
board tbe Warren Indiamaft in March 1758; but being 
detained by adverse winds till an election of new directors 
took place, they reversed the whole proceedings of the 
former court, and Mr. Hoi well was returned to his previous 
situation as seventh in council. With what justice or libe- 
rality this proceeding was instituted we know not: Mr. 
Holwell, however, on his arrival in Bengal, found himself, 
by the departure of some senior members of the council, 
fourth in rank; and in 1759, from a similar removal, he 
became second, when colonel Clive resigned the govern- 
ment to him. The conduct of his administration, and the 
benefits the company derived from it, are displayed with 
equal truth and modesty in the " India Tracts 9 ' already 

At the close of the year 1760 he was superseded by 
Mr. Vansittart, and in February following he resigned all 
employment in the company's service ; and in the succeed-* 
• ing month embarked for England in a most wretched state 
of health, which it required upwards of J twelve months 
residence and care to re-establish. Tired of the bustle of 
public life, he now made his election in favour of retire- 
ment and tranquillity, being possessed of an ample and 
independent fortune, acquired in the most honourable 
manner; although it has been complained th^t he did not 
receive those returns from the East India Company, to 
which he was entitled by bis long and meritorious services 1 . 
Mr. Holwell was the first European who studied the Hindu 
antiquities ; and although he was unavoidably led into 
many errors concerning them, from his being totally un- 
acquainted with the Sanscreet language, he mast be 
allowed the merit of having pointed out the path which has 
finally conducted others to those repositories of learning 
and science. By the capture of Calcutta in 1 756, governor 1 
Holwell lost many curious Hindu manuscripts, and Among 
them two copies of the Sastras, or book of divine autho- 
rity, written in the common Hinduee language, for which 
the commissioners of restitution allowed him two thousand 
Madras rupees. He also lost a translation of a considerable 


part of that work, on which he had employed eighteen 
months. However, during bis residence in Bengal, after 
he was removed from the government, he resumed his 
researches, and having recovered some manuscripts by an 
unforeseen and extraordinary event* he was enabled* in 
August 1765, to publish the first part of bis " Interesting 
historical events relative to Bengal and Indostan ; as also 
the Mythology of the Gentoos ; and a dissertation on the 
Metempsychosis," Lond. 8vo. In 1760 and 1771 he pub- 
lished the second and third parts of the same work, in 
which there is much curious information, although in his 
reasonings be has been supposed to attribute too much of 
divine authority to the Sastras. One of his most valuable 
publications was " An account of the manner of inoculat- 
ing for the small pox in India," with observations on the 
medical practice and mode of treating that disease in the 
east. He published also " A new experiment for the 
prevention of crimes," 1786, which consisted chiefly in 
establishing a system of rewards for virtue. His last pub- 
lication, " Dissertations on the origin, nature, and pursuits 
of intelligent beings, and on Divine Providence, Religion, 
and religious Worship," which appeared in 1788, bore some 
marks of the whims of old age, and contains some singular 
and fanciful opinions * such as that God created angels of 
different degrees, who on their fall became, the best of 
them, men, dogs, and borses ; the worst, lions, tigers, and 
other wild beasts, &c. Mr. Hoi well survived this publica- 
tion about ten years, dying Monday, Nov. 5, 1798, at his 
house at Phi ner, Middlesex. He was* twice married, and 
of his family three of his children only survived trim, 
lieut.-col. James Holwell, of Southborougb in Kent; Mrs. 
Birch, the wife of William Birch, esq. ; and Mrs. Swinney, 
relict of the late Dr. Swinney. 

Mr. Holwell's mind was stored with general knowledge : 
his understanding was at once sagacious and comprehen- 
sive; while his imagination gave a lively and pleasing 
colour to all he knew and every thing he said. A taste for 
elegant literature, and the possession of elegant accom- 
plishments, completed bis intellectual qualifications. There 
was a superior urbanity in his manners, which did not pro- 
ceed more from the habits of his life than the benevolence 
pf his heart; and while bis demeanour assimilated him to 
the highest station, it rendered him eminently pleasing in 
every subordinate rank of social life. He was, indeed, 

H O L Y D A Y. 95 

throughout life a man of great benevolence, generosity, 
and candour. 1 . 

HOLYDAY (Barten), an ingenious and learned English 
divine, was the son of a taylor in Oxford, and born in the 
parish of All Saints there about 1593. He was entered 
early of Christ-church in the time of Dr. Ravis, his relation 
and patron, by whom he was chosen student; and in 1615 
he took orders. He was before uoticed for his skill in 
poetry and oratory, and now distinguished himself so much 
by his eloquence and popularity as a preacher, that he had 
two benefices conferred on him in the diocese of Oxford. 
In 1618 he went as chaplain to sir Francis Stewart, when 
he accompanied the count Gundamore to Spain, in which 
journey Holyday exhibited such agreeable conversation* 
talents, that the count was greatly pleased with him. 
Afterwards he became chaplain to the king, aud was pro- 
moted to the archdeaconry of Oxford before 1626. In 
1642 he was made a doctor of divinity by mandamus at 
Oxford ; near which place he sheltered himself during the 
time of the rebellion. When the royal party declined, 
he so far sided with the prevailing powers, as to undergo 
the examination of the triers, in order to be inducted into 
the rectory of Chilton in Berkshire ; for he had lost his 
Jivings, and the profits of his archdeaconry, and could not 
well bear poverty and distress. This drew upon him much 
censure from his own party ; some of whom, however, 
says Wood, commended him, since lie had thus made 
provision for a second wife he had lately married. After 
the Restoration he quitted this living* and returned to Iffley 
near Oxford, to live on his archdeaconry ; and had be not 
acted a temporizing part, it was said he might have been 
raised to much higher promotion. His poetry, however, 
got him a name in those days, and he stood fair for pre- 
ferment. His philosophy also, discovered in his book 
" De Aniipa," and his well-languaged sermons, says Wood, 
speak him eminent in his generation, and shew him to 
have traced the rough parts of learning, as well as the 
pleasant paths of poetry. He died at Iffley, Oct 2, 1661, 
and was buried at Christ-church. 

His works consist of twenty sermons, published at dif- 
ferent times. " Technbgamia, or the Marriage of Arts, 
a comedy," 1630*. " Philosophise polito-barbarce speci- 

1 Asiatic Anouat Register, vol. I. 

* Wood tells us that this piece bad hall in the year 1617, hat with no very 
been publicly acted in Christ- church- % reat applause ; but that the «rht of 



win, in quo de anima & ejus habitibufl intfellectttelibtis 
qusestiones aliquot libris duobus illustrantur," 1633, 4t<>. 
m Surrey of the World, in ten books, ft poem/' 1661, Svo. 
But the work he ii known for now is his " Translation of 
Ike Satires of Juvenal and Persius ;" for though hi* poetry 
ifl but indifferent, his translation is allowed to be faithful, 
and his notes good. The second edition of his " Persius" 
wad published in 1616 ; and the fourth at the end of the 
" Satires of Juvenal illustrated, with notes and sculptures," 
1679, folio. Dryden, in the dedication of his "Trans* 
lation of Juvenal abd Persius," makes the following critique 
upon our author's performance : "If," says he, "rendering 
the exact sense of these authors, almost line for line, had 
been our business, Barten Holyday bad done it already to 
our hands ; and by the help of his learned hotes and illus- 
trations, not only Juvenal and Persies, but (what is y6t 
more obscure) his otvn verses might be understood." 
Speaking, a little further on, of close and literal translation, 
he adds, that " Holyday, who made thi* way bis choice, 
seized the meaning of Juvenal, but the poetry has always 
escaped bim«" In his account of Holy day V writings, 
Wood has omitted an instructive and entertaining little 
work .entitled " Comes jucundus in via," which he pub* 
lished anonymously in 1658. In the latter part of the 
second address to the reader, there is a quaint allusion to 
bis name. 1 

HOLYOAKE (FkANCis), a learned Englishman, memor- 
able for having made an " Etymological Dictionary of Latin 
words," was born at Nether Whitacre in Warwickshire* 
about 1567, and studied in the university of Oxford, about 
1 582 ; but it does not appear that he ever took a degree, 

those times, being willing to distinguish persuaded by those who were about 

themselves before the king, were re- him to hare patience till it was over, 

solved, with leave, to act the same co* lest the young men should be disco u- 

medy at Woodstock. Permission being raged by so apparent a slight » hew ft to 

obtained, it was accordingly acted on them, he did sit it out, though much 

Sunday evening, Aug. 26, 1621. But, against bis will. On which the follow- 

whether it was too grave for bis majesty ing smart and iogeniofts epigram was 

and too scholastic for the audience, or made by a certain scholar; 

whether, as some said, the actors had " At Christ-church Marriage, done be- 
taken too much wine before they begat), fore the king, 

in order to remove their timidity, his Lest that their mates should want an 
majesty grew so tired with the perform- offering, 

aace, that, after the two 6rst acts were The king himself did oiler. What, 1 
over, be several times made efforts to pray ? 

begone. At length, however, being He offerM twice or thrice — to go away. ** 

> Ath. Os. vol. 11.— Wood's Life, 8vo. 1779.—Llovd's Memoirs, fbl— Ma- 
lone'« Dryden, vol. IV. p. 186. Sid. 


He taught school at Oxford, and in his bwn country ; and 
became rector of Southam in Warwickshire, 1604. He 
was elected a member of' the convocation of the clergy in 
the first year of Charles the First's reign ; and afterwards, 
in the civil wars, suffered extremely for his attachment to 
that king. He died Nov. 13, .1653, and was buried at 
Warwick. His " Dictionary" was first printed in 1606, 
4to ; and the fourth edition in 1633, augmented, was dedi- 
cated to Laud, then bishop of London. He subscribed* 
himself in Latin, " Franciscus de sacra quercu." 1 

HOLYOAKE (Thomas), son of the preceding, was 
born in 1616 at Stony-Thorp near Southam in Warwick- 
shire, -and educated in grammar learning under Mr. White 
at Coventry ; from whence he was sent in Michaelmas term 
1632, at the age of sixteen years, to Queen's college in 
Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of arts July 
5, 1636, and that of master, May 16, 1639, and became 
chaplain of the college. In the beginning of the civil 
wars, when Oxford became the seat of king Charles, and 
was garrisoned for his use, he was put into commission 
for a captain of a foot company, consisting mostly of 
scholars. In this post be did great service, and had the 
degree of doctot of divinity conferred upon him by the 
favour of his majesty, though no such matter occurs in the 
public register pi the university, which was then sometimes 
neglected. After the surrender of the garrison of Oxford 
to the parliament, he, by the name of Thomas Holyoke, 
without the addition of master of arts, bachelor or doctor 
of divinity, obtained a licence from the university to prac- 
tise physic, and settling in his own country, he practised 
with good success till the Restoration in 1660, in which 
year Thomas lord Leigh, baron of Stone Leigh in War- 
wickshire, presented him to the rectory of Whitnash near 
Warwick. He was soon after made prebendary of the col- 
legiate church of Wolverhampton in Staffordshire. In 
1674 Robert lord Brook conferred upon him the donative 
of Breamour in Hampshire (which he had by the mar- 
riage of his lady), worth about two hundred pounds per 
annum ; but, before he had enjoyed it a year, be died of a 
fever, June 10, 1675, His body was interred near that of his 
father in the church of St. Mary in Warwick. His Dic- 
tionary was published after his death in 1677, in fol. and, 

t Ath. Ox. vol. II. 

Vol. XVIII. H 


as Wood says, " is made upon the foundation' laid by 
his father." Before it are two epistles, one by the 
author's son, Charles Holyoake of the Inner Temple, 
dedicating the work to lord Brooke, and another by Dr. 
Barlow, bishop of Lincoln, which contains many parti- 
culars of the work and its author. He had another son, 
the Rev. Henry Holyoake, who was for forty years 
master of Rugby school in Warwickshire, and died 
in 173 1. 1 

HOLYWOOD (John), or Halifax, or Sbcrobosco, was, 
according to Leland, Bale, and Pits, born at Halifax in 
Yorkshire, which Mr. Watson thinks very improbable; 
according to Stainhurst, at Holywood near Dublin ; and 
according to Dempster and Mackenzie, in Nitbsdale in 
Scotland. There may perhaps have been more than one 
of the name to occasion this difference of opinion. Mac- 
kenzie informs us, that having finished his studies, he 
entered into orders, and became a canon regular of the 
order of St Augustin in the famous monastery of Holy- 
wood in NithsdaJe. The English biographers, on the con- 
trary, tell us that he was educated at Oxford. They all 
agree however in asserting, that he spent most of his life at 
Paris ; where, says Mackenzie, he was admitted a member 
of the university, June 5, 1221, under the syndics of the 
Scotch nation ; and soon after was elected professor of ma- 
thematics, which he taught with applause for many years. 
According to the same author, he died in 1256, as appears 
from the inscription on his monument in the cloisters of the 
convent of St. Maturine at Paris. 

Holywood was contemporary with Roger Bacon, but 
probably older by about 20 years. He was certainly the 
first mathematician of his time; and he wrote, 1. "De 
Sphsera Mundi," Venice, 1478, 1490, 4to, a work often 
reprinted, and illustrated by various commentators. 2. " De 
Anni Ratione, seu de Computo Ecclesiastico." 3. " De 
Algorismo," printed with " Comm. Petri Cirvilli Hisp." 
Paris, 1498. 1 

HOMBERG (William), a celebrated chemist, was born 
at Batavia in the island of Java, Jan. 3, 1652, the son of 
John Homberg, a Saxon gentleman, governor of the 
arsenal of that place. His father at first put him into the 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. II.— Gen. Diet.— Gent. Mag. vol. I. 
« Maekensie's Scotch Writers, toL I.— Harris's edition of Ware's lreJand>- 
Watson's Halifax.— Hutton's Dictionary. 

H O M B E R G. 99 

army, but soon after quitting the service of the Dutch, and 
a military life, brought him to Amsterdam, where he settled. 
He was now educated, by paternal indulgence, at Jena and 
Leipsic, for the law, and was received as an advocate in 
1674 at Magdebourg, but the sciences seduced him from 
the law : in his walks he became a botanist, and in his noc- 
turnal rambles an astronomer. An intimacy with Otto de 
Guericke, who lived at Magdebourg, completed his con- 
version, and he resolved to abandon bis first profession. 
Otto, though fond of mystery, consented to communicate 
his knowledge to so promising a pupil ; but as his friends 
continued to press him to be constant to the law, he soon 
quitted Magdebourg, and went into Italy. At Padua and 
Bologna he pursued his favourite studies, particularly me- 
dicine, anatomy, botany, and chemistry. One of his first 
efforts in the latter science was the complete discovery of 
the properties of the Bologna stone, and its phosphoric 
appearance after calcination, which Casciarolo had first 
observed. The efforts of Homberg in several scientific 
inquiries, were pursued at Rome, in France, in England 
with the great Boyle, and afterward in Holland and Ger- 
many. With Baldwin and Kunckel he here pursued the 
subject of phosphorus. Not yet satisfied with travelling 
in search of knowledge, he visited the mines of Saxony, 
Hungary, Bohemia, and Sweden. Having materially im- 
proved himself, and at the same time assisted the progress 
of chemistry at Stockholm, he returned to Holland, and 
thence revisited France, where he was quickly noticed by 
Colbert. By his interposition, he was prevailed upon to 
quit his intention of returning to Holland to marry, accord- 
ing to the desire of his father, and fixed himself in France. 
This step also alienated him from his religion. He re- 
nounced the Protestant communion in 1682, and thus losing 
all connexion with his family, became dependent on Louis 
XIV. and his minister. This, however, after the death of 
Colbert in 1683, became a miserable dependence ; men of 
learning and science were neglected as much as before 
they had been patronized; and Homberg, in 1687, left 
Paris for Rome, and took up the profession of physic. He 
now pursued and perfected his discoveries on phosphorus, 
and prosecuted bis discoveries in pneumatics, and other 
branches of natural philosophy. Finding, after some time, 
that the learned were again patronised at Paris, he returned 
there in 1690, and entered into the academy of sciences 

H 2 

loo H O M B E R G. 

under the protection of M. de Bignon. He now resumed 
the study of chemistry, but found his finances too limited 
to carry on his experiments as he wished, till he had the 
good fortune to be appointed chemist to the duke of Orleans* 
afterwards regent. In this situation he was supplied with 
the most perfect apparatus, and all materials for scientific 
investigation. Among other instruments, the large burning 
mirror of Tscbirnaus was given to his care, and he made 
with it the most interesting experiments, on the combusti- 
bility of gold and other substances. In. examining the 
nature of borax he discovered the sedative salt, and traced 
several remarkable properties of that production. Pleased 
with the researches of his chemist, the duke of Orleans in 
1704 appointed him his first physician. About the same 
time he was strongly solicited by the elector palatine to 
settle in his dominions, but he was too much attached to 
his present patron to quit Paris, and was besides not without 
an inclination of a more tender kind for mademoiselle 
Dodart, daughter to the celebrated physician of that name. 
He married her in 1708, though hitherto mueh averse to* 
matrimony ; but enjoyed the benefit of his change of sen- 
timents only seven years, being attacked in 1715 with a 
dysentery, of which he died in September of that year. 

Homberg was indefatigable in application, and his man- 
ners were mild and social. Though his constitution 'was 
not robust, he was rather addicted to. pleasure, and was glad 
to forget bis fatigues in the charms of good company.. 
He did not publish any complete work, the .productions 
he has left being only memoirs in the volumes of the 
academy. 1 

HOME (David), was a protestant minister of a distin- 
guished family in Scotland, but educated in France, where 
Se passed the chief part of his life. James,I. employed 
him to reconcile the differences between Tilenus and du 
Moulin, on the subject of justification; and, if possible, to 
reconcile the protestants throughout Europe to one single 
form of doctrine ; but this was found impracticable. The 
chief work of Home is, his, 1. " Apologia Basilica; sea 
M&chiavelli ingenium examinatum," 1626, 4to. There are 
attributed to him also, 2. " Le contr' Assassin, ou rcponse 
a l'Apologie des Jesuites," Geneve, 1612, in 8vo. 3. 
" L'Assasainat du Roi, ou maximes da Yiel de la Moo- 

* Niteron, vol. XIV.— Ctaanfepi*. 

HOME. loi 


togne, pratiqu£es en la personne de defunt Henri le 
•Grand,*' 1617, 8vo. He is also the. author of several com- 
positions in the t€ Delicisc Poetarum Scotorum." The 
times of his birth and death are not known, 1 

HOME (Henry), usually called Lord Kames, an emi- 
nent Scotch lawyer, philosopher, and critic, the son of 
George Home of Kames, in the county of Berwick, was ' 
born at Kames in 1696. He was descended from an an- 
cient and honourable family ; being on his father's side, 
the great grandson of sir John Home of Renton, whose 
ancestor was a cadet of the family of the earls of Home, 
who held the office of lord justice- clerk in the reijrn of 
king Charles II. His mother was a daughter of Mr. WaJ- 
kinshaw of Barrowfield, and grand-daughter of Mr. Ro- 
bert Baillie, principal of the university of Glasgow, of 
whom an account is given in our third volume. His father 
having lived beyond bis income, and embarrassed his 
affairs, Henry, on entering the world, had nothing to trust 
to but his own abilities and exertions, a circumstance which 
although apparently unfavourable, was always most justly 
regarded by him as the primary cause of his success in life. 
The only education lie had was from private instructions 
at home from a tutor of the name of Wingate, of whom he 
never spoke in commendation. 

With no other stock of learning than what he had ac- 
quired from this Mr. Wingate, he was, about 1712, bound 
by indenture to attend the office of a writer of the signet 
in Edinburgh, as preparatory to the profession of a writer 
or solicitor before the supreme court ; but circumstances; 
inspired him with the ambition of becoming an advocate ; 
and now being sensible of his defective education, be re- 
sumed the study of the Greek and Latin languages, to 
which he added French and Italian, and likewise applied 
himself to the study of mathematics, natural philosophy, 
logic, ethics, and metaphysics. These pursuits, which he 
followed at the same time with the study of the law, af- 
forded, independently of their own value, a most agree- 
able variety of employment to his active mind. His atten- 
tion appears to have been much turned to metaphysical 
investigation, for which he all bis life entertained a strong 
predilection. About 1723, he carried on a correspond- 
ence with the celebrated Andrew Baxter, and Dr. Clarke, 
upon subjects of that kind. 

1 Marchand, voL I.— Diet Hist 

102 H O M E.' 

la January 1724, he was called to the bar, at a time 
when both the bench and bar were filled by men of un- 
common eminence. As be did not possess in any great 
degree the powers of an orator, he engaged for some time 
but a moderate share of practice as a barrister. In 1728, 
he published a folio volume of " Remarkable Decisions of 
the Court of Session/' executed with so much judgment, 
that be began to be regarded as a young man of talents, 
who had his profession at heart, and would spare no pains 
to acquit himself, with honour, in the most intricate causes 
in which he might be employed* His practice was quickly 
increased ; and after 1732, when he published a small vo- 
lume, entitled " Essays upon several subjects in Law," he 
was justly cdnsidered as a profound and scientific lawyer* 
These essays afford an excellent. example of the mode of 
reasoning which he afterwards pursued in most of his juris- 
prudential writings, and, in the opinion of his biographer, 
furnish an useful model for that species of investigation. 

Mr. Home, in every period of his life, was fond of so* 
cial intercourse, and with all his ardour of study, and va- 
riety of literary and professional occupations, a consi- 
derable portion of his time was devoted to the enjoyments 
of society in a numerous circle of acquaintance. Among 
his early friends or associates we find the names of colonel 
Forrester, Hamilton of Bangour, the earl of Findlater, Mr. 
Oswald, David Hume, and Dr. (afterwards bishop) But- 
ler, with whom he had a correspondence. In 1741 be 
married miss Agatha Drummond, a younger daughter of 
James Drummond, esq. of Blair, in the county of Perth. 
His fortune being then comparatively small, oeconoray 
became a necessary virtue, but unfortunately, this lady, 
who had a taste for every thing that is elegant, was parti- 
cularly fond of old china ; and soon after her marriage had 
made such frequent purchases in that way as to impress 
her husband with some little apprehension of her extra- 
vagance. After some consideration, he devised an inge- 
nious expedient to cure her of this propensity. He framed 
a will, bequeathing to his spouse the whole of the china 
that should be found in his possession at his death ; and 
this deed he immediately put into her own hands. The 
success of the plot was complete ; the lady was cured from 
that moment of her passion for old china. This stratagem 
his biographer justly considers as a proof of the author's 
intimate knowledge of the humau mind, and discernment 

HOME. -103 

*f the power of the passions to balance and restrain each 
other. It is, indeed, in its contrivance and result, equally 
honourable to the husband and wife. 

The mode in which Mr. Home occupied his time, both 
in town and country, appears to have been most judicious. 
In town he was an active and industrious barrister; in the 
country he was a scientific farmer On his paternal estate, 
which came to him in a very waste and unproductive con- 
dition. He had the honour to be among the first who in- 
troduced the English improvements in agriculture into 
Scotland. Amidst all this he found leisure, during the 
vacations or the court, to compose those various works 
which he has left to posterity. In 1741 be published, in 
2 vols. fol. the " Decisions of the Court of Session, Yroni 
its institution to the present time, abridged and digested 
under proper heads, in the form of a Dictionary," a com- 
position of great labour, the fruit of many years, and a 
work of the highest utility to the profession of the law in 
Scotland. In 1747 he published a small treatise entitled 
" Essays upon several subjects concerning British Anti- 
quities." The subjects are, the feudal law ; the constitu- 
tion of parliament; honour and dignity; succession or 
descent; and the hereditary and indefeasible rights of 
kings. These were delicate subjects at that time in Scot- 
land, and the general doctrines perhaps more, seasonable 
than now. 

In 1751 Mr. Home, though now at the head of the bar, 
published a work entitled " Essays on the principles of 
Morality and Natural Religion," the object of which is to 
prove that the great laws of morality which influence the 
conduct of man as a social being, have their foundation in 
the human constitution ; and are as certain and immutable 
as those physical laws which regulate the whole system of 
nature. His biographer attributes this publication to the 
desire of its author to counteract some sceptical doctrines 
of his friend David Hume, which he had in vain endeavoured 
to Suppress. That the work, however, had not this effect, 
we know, in point of fact; and we have no hesitation in 
asserting that it was not calculated to produce the effect, 
as it leads to consequences as fatal as any which have fol- 
lowed David Hume's works. It accordingly attracted the 
notice of the church of Scotland, although he appears to 
have had friends enough in the general assembly to prevent 
its being censured. In some respect he saw his eiror, and 

104 H O M E. 

endeavoured to amend it in a second edition ; but in the 
third it seems doubtful whether he has not retained the 
most offensive of his opinions. 

Jo Feb. 1752 he was appointed one of the judges of the 
court of session, and took his seat on the bench by the title 
of lord Kames. This promotion was attended with the 
general satisfaction of bis country, a? he stood high in 
the public esteem, both on the score of his abilities, and 
knowledge of the laws, and his integrity and moral virtues. 
As a judge, his opinions and decrees were dictated by an 
pcute understanding, an ardent feeling of justice, and a 
perfect acquaintance with the jurisprudence of his country, 
which, notwithstanding the variety of pursuits in which his 
comprehensive mind had already found exercise, had al- 
ways been his principal study, and the favourite object of 
his researches. The situation which he now filled, while 
H extended his opportunities of promoting every species 
of improvement, gave the greater weight and efficacy to 
bis patronage ; and his example and encouragement were 
more particularly beneficial in exciting a literary spirit, 
which now began to prevail among bis countrymen, and 
which was destined to shine forth in his own times with no 
common lustre. It was but a just tribute to his merit, 
when, many years afterwards, Dr. Adam Smith, then in 
the height of his literary reputation, said, in reference to 
a remark on the great number of eminent writers which 
Scotland had of late years produced, " We must every 
one of us acknowledge Kames for our master. 19 

It was not, however, to the cultivation and patronage 
pf literature, and to the duties of a judge in the court of 
session, that the time and talents of lord Kames were 
wholly confined. He was appointed in 1755 a member of 
the board of trustees for the encouragement of the fisheries, 
prts, and manufactures of Scotland, and soon after one of 
the commissioners for the management of the forfeited 
estates; and in the discharge of these important trusts he 
was a zealous and faithful servant of the public. Amidst 
such multifarious employment, he found leisure to com- 
pose, and in 1757, to publish, in one volume 8vo, "The 
Statute Law of Scotland abridged, with historical notes,'* 
a work which still retains its rank among those which are in 
daily use with barristers and practitioners. About this 

£eriod be conceived the hope of improving the law of Scot- 
md by assimilating it ps much as possible with tjie law of 

HOME. 105 

England With this view, after corresponding on the sub- 
ject with the lord chancellor Hardwicke, he published 
" Historical Law Tracts/ 9 1759, 8vo. In this he advances 
some singular opinions on the subject of the criminal law, 
which are, in our opinion, but feebly defended by his 1 
biographer. The work, however, has undergone several 
editions, and still preserves its reputation ; and with the 
same view of counteracting, as far as possible, the incon- 
veniencies arising from two systems of law regulating the 
separate divisions of the united, kingdom, he published in 
1760 his " Principles of Equity," fol. Courts of equity 
and common law are separate in England, but the powers 
of both are united in- the supreme civil court of Scotland, 
and it is for this union lord Karnes contends in the publica- 
tion just mentioned. 

The greater part of lord Karnes's works had hitherto been 
connected with bis profession, but in 1761 be published a 
small volume on the elementary principles of education, 
entitled an " Introduction to the art of Thinking." This 
has often been reprinted as an useful manual for young 
persons, although some parts of it are rather above their 
comprehension.. In 1762 he published, in 3 vols. 8vo, his 
" Elements of Criticism," the wojk, which, of all others, 
is best known in England. We cannot, however, agree 
with his biographer, that it entitles him to be considered 
as the inventor of philosophical criticism, although he has 
unquestionably done much to advance it, and some of his 
principles have been followed by subsequent writers on the 
subject. Blair is evidently much indebted to him. 

In 1763 he was appointed one of the lords of justiciary, 
the supreme criminal tribunal in Scotland. The mere fact 
of his appointment is stated by his biographer, but we have 
seen a letter from him in which he applied for it to a no- 
bleman in power. This important duty he continued to 
discbarge with equal diligence and ability, and with the 
strictest rectitude of moral feeling. In 1766 he received 
a very large addition to his income by succession to an 
estate called Blair-Drummond, which devolved on his wife 
by the death of her brother, and which furnished him with 
opportunities of displaying his taste and skill in embellish- 
ing his pleasure-grounds and improving his lands. His 
ideas as a land-holder do him much honour : " In point of 
morality," he says in a letter to the late duchess of Gordon, 
" I consider, that the people upon our estates are trusted by 

106 HOME. 

Providence td our care, and that we are accountable for 
our management of them to the great God, their Creator 
as well as ours/' Before this accession to his fortune he 
bad published, in 1765, a small pamphlet on the progress 
of flax* husbandry in Scotland, with the patriotic design of 
stimulating his countrymen to continue their exertions in 
a most valuable branch of national industry* He was also 
very active in promoting the project of the canal between 
the Forth and Clyde, now completed, and which has been 
beneficially followed by other undertakings of a similar 
kind. In 1766 he published " Remarkable decisions of 
the Court of Session, from 1730 to 1752," fol. a period 
which includes that of his own practice at the bar. These 
reports afford the strongest evidence of the great ability 
and legal knowledge of their compiler, but his biographer 
allows that the author's own argument is generally stated 
with greater amplitude, and is more strenuously enforced 
than that which opposes his side of the question. 

In 1774 he published, in 2 vols. 4to, his u Sketches of 
the History of Man," which of all his works, if we except 
the " Elements of Criticism," has been the most generally 
read. It is greatly to his honour that when many of his 
opinions were controverted, be not only received the hints 
and remarks with candour, but sought out and behaved with 
great liberality to the authors. In pursuance of his pa- 
triotic wish to improve the agriculture of his country, he 
published, in 1776, when be had attained the age of eighty, 
the " Gentleman Farmer, being an attempt to improve 
agriculture by subjecting it to the test of rational prin- 
ciples." None of his works is more characteristic of his 
genius and disposition in all their principal features than 
this, which was one of the most useful books that had ap- 
peared at the time of its publication. 

At the advanced period we have just mentioned, lord 
Karnes's constitution had suffered nothing from the attacks 
of old age. There was no sensible decay of his mental 
powers, or, what is yet more extraordinary, of the flow of 
his animal spirits, which had all the gaiety and vivacity of 
his early years. Indefatigable in the pursuit of knowledge ; 
ever looking forward to some new object of attainment ; 
one literary task was no sooner accomplished than another 
was entered upon with equal ardour and unabated perse- 
verance. In 1777 he published " Elucidations respecting 
the Common and Statute Law of Scotland," 8vo, in which 

HOME. 107 

it k bis object to vindicate the municipal law of his country 
from the teproach it baa incurred from the writings of the 
old Scotch jurists. In 1780 he published a supplement to 
bis " Remarkable Decisions," under the title of " Select 
Decisions of the Court of -Session," recording the cases 
most worthy of notice from 1752 to 1763. 

The subject of education had always been regarded by 
lord Karnes in a most important point of view, and fur* 
nished the matter of that work with which he closed his 
literary labours. In 1781 he published, when in his eighty- 
fifth year, an octavo volume entitled " Loose hints on 
Education, chiefly concerning the Culture of the Heart." 
A work composed at such an advanced age ought not to 
be subjected to rigorous criticism, yet there are many 
shrewd and useful remarks in the book, although mixed 
with others in which the decay of mental powers is visible. 
In the following year his constitution began to give way, 
principally from old age, for he bad very little that could 
be called disease. In November he left his seat at Blair-* 
Drummond for Edinburgh, and the court of session meet- 
ing soon after, for the winter, be went thither on the first 
day of the term, and took his seat with the rest of the 
judges. He continued for some little time to attend the 
meetings of the court, and to take his share in its usual 
business, but soon became sensible that his strength was 
not equal- to the effort. On the last day of his attendance 
he took a separate and affectionate farewell of each of his 
brethren. He survived that period only about eight days. 
He died December 27, 1782, in the eighty-seventh year 
of his age. 

His excellent biographer, the late lord Woodhouselee, 
has drawn up his character with impartiality and just dis- 
crimination, without dwelling extravagantly on bis virtues, 
or offensively and impertinently on his foibles. The latter 
appear to have been of a kind perhaps inseparable from 
humanity in some shape or other, such as a degree of fond- 
ness for flattery, and somewhat, although certainly in a 
small proportion, of literary jealousy. A suspicion of lord 
Karnes's religious principles has long prevailed iu his own 
country, and bis biographer has taken such pains on this 
subject as to leave the reader with an impression that lord 
Karnes was more a friend to revealed religion than he ap- 
pears to be in some of his writings ; but while those writ- 
ings remain, we question whether the suspicion to which 


we allude can be effectually removed. Too much, how* 
ever, cannot be said in favour of his genius and industry 
in many brandies of literature ; his private virtues and 
* public spirit ; his assiduity through a long and laborious 
life in the many honourable offices with which he was en- 
trusted, and his zeal to encourage and promote every thing 
that tended to the improvement of his country, in laws, 
literature, commerce, manufactures, and agriculture. The 
preceding sketch has been taken, often literally, from lord 
Woodhouselee's valuable work, which appeared in 1807, 
entitled " Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the hon. 
Henry Home of Karnes, &c." 2 vols. 4to, which contains 
what we have, been in other instances indebted to," Sketches 
of the progress of Literature and general improvement 
in Scotland during the greater part of the eighteenth 
century." * 

HOME (John), a clergyman of the church of Scotland, 
but known only as a dramatic writer, was born in the vi- 
cinity of Ancrum iu Roxburghshire, Scotland, in 1724, 
and was educated at the parish school, whence he went to 
the university of Edinburgh, and went through the usual 
academical course, as preparatory for his entering the church. 
Here his studies were for some time suspended by the re- 
bellion in 1745. On the approach of the rebels, the citi- 
zens, of Edinburgh assembled, and formed themselves into 
an association for the support of their sovereign, and the 
defence of their city. Mr. Home, having once taken up 
arms in this cause, was not to be deterred by danger, and 
marched with a detachment of the royal army to Falkirk, 
where he was taken prisoner in the battle fought in that 
neighbourhood, and confined for some time in the castle of 
Donne. He contrived, however, to make his escape about 
the time that tranquillity was restored to the country by 
the battle of Culloden ; and having resumed bis studies, 
was licensed to preach the gospel in 1747. 

Not long after, while on a visit in England, he was in- 
troduced to Collins, the poet, at Winchester, and Collins 
addressed to him his "Ode on the Superstition of the 
Highlanders." Iu 1750 Home was settled as minister of 
the parish of Athelstaneford in East Lothian, on the de- 
mise of the rev. Robert Blair, author of the " Grave ;" but 

1 Life as above. — See also British Critic, tol. XXX. in which are many va- 
luable remaskaoa the Life of lord Karnes. 

HOME. !(* 

web a situation could not be very agreeable to one who 
bad tasted the sweets of literary society, and who, in par- 
ticular, had a paramount ambition to shine as a dramatic 
writer. His first tragedy was " Agis," with which it is 
said be went to London, where the managers refused it, 
and immediately returning home he wrote his " Douglas/' 
which Garrick peremptorily refused. By such discourage- 
ment, however, the ardour of the author was not to be 
suppressed. Being acquainted with the leading characters 
in Scotland, a ready reception of his play was secured ; 
and accordingly " Douglas" was performed at the theatre 
in the Canongate, Edinburgh, in December 1756, Mr. 
Home and several of his clerical brethren being present. 
Such a departure from the decorum enjoined by the church 
of Scotland could not be overlooked, and the author was 
so threatened with ecclesiastical censures, and in reality be- 
came so obnoxious in the eyes of the people, that in the 
following year he resigned his living, and with it all con- 
nexion with the church, wearing ever afterwards a lay ha- 
bit. In the mean time the presbytery of Edinburgh pub- 
lished an admonition and exhortation against stage- plays, 
which was ordered to be read in all the pulpits within their 
bounds on a Sunday appointed, immediately after divine 
service. In it there is no mention of Home or his play, 
although the latter was probably the cause. It merely con- 
tains a recapitulation of what had formerly been done by 
the church and the laws to discourage the theatres. 

This opposition, which has been too hastily branded with 
the epithets of " bigotry and malice," turned out much to 
Mr. Home's advantage, whose friends contrived now to add 
to his other merits that of being a persecuted man ; and 
David Hume, whose taste for the drama was the least of 
his qualifications, addressed his " Four Dissertations" to 
the author, and complimented him with possessing " the 
true theatric genius of Sbakspeare and Otway, refined from 
the unhappy barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of 
the other." With such recommendation, " Douglas" was 
presented at Covent-garden in March 14, 1757, but re- 
ceived at first with moderate applause. Its worth? how- 
ever, was gradually acknowledged, and it is now fully esta- 
blished as a stock- piece. It would have been happy for 
the author bad be stopt here ; but the success of " Dou- 
glas" had intoxicated him, and he went on from this time 
so 1778, producing "Agis," "The Siege of Aquileia," 



u The Fatal Discovery;* " Alonzo," and « Alfred," none 
of which had even a temporary success. In the mean time 
lord Bute took him under his patronage, and procured him 
a pension. In March 1763 be was also appointed a com* 
missioner for sick and wounded seamen, and for the ex- 
change of prisoners ; and in April of the same year was 
appointed conservator of the Scotch privileges at Camp* 
vere in Zealand. With his "Alfred," which lived only 
three nights, he took his leave of the stage, and retired to 
Scotland, where he resided the greater part of his life* In 
1778, when the late duke of Buccleugh raised a regiment 
of militia, under the name of feucibles, Mr. Home received 
a captain's commission, which he held until the peace. A 
few years ago, be published " The History of the Rebel- 
lion in Scotland in 1745-6," 4to, a work of which great 
expectations were formed, but whether he delayed it un- 
til too late, for he was now seventy-eight years eld, or 
'whether he did not feel himself at liberty to make use of 
all his materials, the public was not satisfied. For a con- 
siderable time prior to his death, his mental faculties were 
impaired, and in this distressful state he died at Merchis- 
ton-house, Sept. 4, 1808, at the advanced age of eighty* 
five. 1 

HOMER, the most ancient of the Greek poets extant, 
has been called the Father of poetry; but, however cele- 
brated by others, he has been so very modest about him- 
self, that we do not find the least mention of him through- 
out his poems : Where he was born, who were his parents, 
at what exact period he lived, and ulmost every circum- 
stance of bis life, remain at this day in a great measure, if 
not altogether unknown. The Arundel marbles say that he 
flourished in the tenth century before Christ, and other 
authorities say the eighth. The most copious account we 
have of the life of Homer is that which goes under the 
name of Herodotus, and is usually printed with his history : 
and though it is generally supposed to be spurious, yet as it 
is ancient, was made use of by Strabo, and exhibits that 
idea which the later Greeks, and the Romans in the age of 
Augustus, entertained of Homer, an abstract of it cannot 
be unnecessary. 

A man of Magnesia, whose name was Menalippus, went 
to settle at Cumae, where be married the daughter of a citi- 

1 Bieg . Dram.— Athenoom, vol. V.— Daviei'i Life of Garrick, vol. L p. 818, 
Tal, U. Pt 8S0 — GenL Mag. LXXV1U. 


sen called Homyres, and had by her a daughter called 
Critheis. The father and mother dying, Critheis was left 
under the tuition of Cleonax her father's friend; and, suf- 
fering herself to be deluded, became pregnant The 
guardian, though his care had not prevented the misfor- 
tune, was however willing to conceal it ; and therefore 
sent Critheis to Smyrna. Critheis being near her time, 
went one day to a festival, which the town of Smyrna was 
celebrating on the banks of the river Meles; where she 
was delivered of Homer, whom she called Melesigenes, 
because be was born on the banks of that river. Having 
nothing to maintain her, she was forced to spin : and a 
man of Smyrna called Phemius, who taught literature and 
music, having often seen Critheis, who lodged near him, 
and being pleased with her housewifery, took her into his 
house to spin the wool he received from his scholars for 
their schooling. Here she behaved herself so modestly 
and discreetly, that Phemius married her, and adopted her 
son, in whom he discovered a wonderful genius, and an 
excellent natural disposition. After the death of Phemius 
and Critheis, Homer succeeded to his father-in-law's for- 
tune and school ; and was admired not only by the inhabi- 
tants of Smyrna, but by strangers, who resorted from all 
parts to that place of trade. A ship-master called Mentes, 
who was a man of wit, very learned, and a lover of poetry, 
was so pleased with Homer, that he persuaded bim to leave 
his school, and to travel with him. Homer, whose mind 
was then employed upon his " Iliad," and who thought it 
of great consequence to see the places of which he should 
have occasion to treat, embraced the opportunity, and 
during their several voyages, never failed carefully to note 
down what he thought worth observing. He travelled into 
Egypt, whence he brought into Greece the names of their 
gods, and the chief ceremonies of their worship. He 
visited Africa and Spain, in his return from which places 
he touched at Ithaca, and was there much troubled with a 
rheum falling upon his eyes. Mentes being in haste to 
visit Leucadia his native country, left Homer well recom- 
mended to Mentor, one of the chief men of the island of 
Ithaca, and there he was informed of many things relating 
to Ulysses, which he afterwards made use of in composing 
bis " Odyssey." Mentes returning to Ithaca, found Homer 
cured. They embarked together; and after much time 
spent in visiting the coasts of Peloponnesus and the 

ii2 Homer. 

Islands, they arrived at Colophon, where Homer was again 
troubled with the defluxion upon his eyes, which proved 
so violent, that he is said to have lost his sight *. This 
misfortune made him resolve to return to Smyrna, where 
be finished his " Iliad." Some time after, the bad state of 
bis affairs obliged him to go to Cumse, where be hoped to 
have found some relief. Stopping by the way at a place 
called the New Wall, which was the residence of a colony 
from Cumae, he lodged in the bouse of an armourer called 
Tichius, and recited some hymns be had made in honour 
of the Gods, and bis poem of Amphiaraus's expedition 
against Thebes. After staying here some time and being 
greatly admired, be went to Cumse ; and passing through 
Larissa, he wrote the epitaph of Midas, king of Phrygia, 
then newly dead. At Cumse he was received with extra- 
ordinary joy, and his poems highly applauded ; but when 
he proposed to immortalize their town, if they would allow 
him a salary, he was answered, that " there would be no 
end of maintaining all the**Ofnp*i or Blind Men," and hence 
got the name of Homer. From Cumse he went to Phocaea, . 
where he recited his verses in public assemblies. Here 
one Thestorides, a schoolmaster, offered to maintain him, if 
be would suffer him to transcribe bis verses : which Homer 
complying with through mere necessity, the schoolmaster 
privily withdrew to Chios, and there grew rich with Ho- 
mer's poems, while Homer at Phocsea hardly earned his 
bread by repeating them. 

Obtaining, however, at last some intimation of the school- 
master, he resolved to find him out ; and landing near 
Chios, he was received by one Glaucus, a shepherd, by 
whom he was carried to his master at Bolissus, who, ad- 
miring his knowledge, intrusted him with the education of 
his children. Here his praise began to get abroad, and the 
schoolmaster bearing of him, fled before bim. At Chios, 
Homer set up a school of poetry, gained a competent for- 
tune, married a wife, and had two daughters ; one of which 
died young, and the other was married to his patron at 
Bolissus. Here he composed his " Odyssey," and inserted 
the names of those to whom he had been most obliged, as 
Mentes, Phemius, Mentor ; and resolving to visit Athens, 

* The blindness of Homer hat been title of " Curatto ctsci Homeri." If be 

contested by several author*, and par- was blind at all, it was probably only * 

ticularly by a scholar name Andreas in extreme old age 
WiUios, in a book bearing the quaint 

HOMER. 113 

he made honourable mention of that city, to dispose the 
Athenians for a kind reception of him. Bnt as he went, 
the ship put in at Samos, where he continued the whole 
winter, singing at the houses of great men, with a train of 
boys after hjm. In the spring he went on board again, in ' 
order to prosecute his journey to Athens ; but, landing by 
the way at Chios, he fell sick, died, and was buried on the 

This is the most regular life we hare of Homer; and 
though probably but little of it is exactly true, yet it haft 
this advantage over all other accounts which remain of him, 
that it is more within the compass of probability. The 
only incontestable works which Homer has left behind 
him, are the " Iliad," and the " Odyssey." The " Batra- 
chomyomachia," or " Battle of the Frogs and Mice," has 
been disputed, but yet is allowed to, be his by many au- 
•thors. The Hymns have been doubted also, and attributed 
by the scholiasts to Cyncethus the rhapsodist : but Thucy- 
dides, Lucian, and Pausanias, have cited them as genuine. 
We have the authority of the two former for that to 
Apollo ; and of the last for a " Hymn to Ceres," of which 
he has given us a fragment The whole hymn has been 
lately found by Matthsei at Moscow, and was published by 
Ruhnkenius in 1782, at Leyden. A good translation has 
since been given by Mr. Hole. The Hymn to Mars is 
objected against; and likewise the first to Minerva. The 
,c Hymn to Venus" has many of its lines copied by Virgil, 
in the interview between jEneas and that goddess in the 
first " ^Eoeid." But whether these hymns are Homer's or 
not, they were always judged to be nearly as ancient, if 
not of the same age with him. Many other pieces were 
ascribed to him : " Epigrams," the " Margites," the " Ce- 
ctopes," the " Destruction of Oechalia," and several more. 
Time may here have prevailed over Homer, by leaving 
only the names of these works, as memorials that such 
were once in being ; but, while the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" 
remain, he seems like a leader, who, though he may have 
failed in a skirmish or two, has carried a victory, for which 
he will pass in triumph through all future ages. 

Homer had the most sublime and universal genius that 
the world has ever seen ; and though it is an extravagance 
of enthusiasm to- say, as some of the Greeks did, that all 
knowledge may be found in his writings, no man pene- 
trated deeper into the feelings and passions of human. 

Vol. XVIII. I 


114 HOMER. 

nature. He represents great things with such sublimity, ami 
inferior objects with such propriety, that he always make* 
the one admirable, and the other pleasing. Strabo, whose 
authority in geography is indisputable, assures us, that 
Homer has described the places and countries, of which he 
gives an account, with such accuracy, that no man can 
imagine who has not seen them, and no man can observe 
without admiration and astonishment Nothing, however, 
can be more absurd, than the attempts of some critics, 
who have possessed more learning and science than taste, 
to rest the merit of Homer upon the extent of his know- 
ledge. An ancient encomiast upon Homer proves him to 
have possessed a perfect knowledge of nature, and to have 
been the author of the doctrine of Thales and Xenophanes, 
that water is the first principle of all things, from his hav- 
ing called Oceanus the parent of nature ; and infers, that 
he was acquainted with Empedocles' doctrine of friendship^ 
and discord, from the visit which Juno pays to Oceanus 
and Thetis to settle their dispute : because Homer repre- 
sents Neptune as shaking the earth, he concludes him t» 
have been well acquainted with the causes of earthquakes; 
and because he speaks of the great bear as never touching 
the horizon, he makes him an eminent astronomer. The 
truth is, the knowledge of nature, which poetry describes* 
is very different from that which belongs to the philosopher. 
It would be easy to prove, from the beautiful similes of 
Homer, that he was an accurate observer of natural ap- 
pearances ; and to show from his delineation of characters* 
that he was intimately acquainted with human nature. But 
he is not, on this account, to be ranked with natural phi- 
losophers or moralists. Much pains have been taken to 
prove, that Homer expresses just and subline conceptions 
of the divine nature. And it will be acknowledged, that, 
in some passages, he speaks of Jupiter in language which 
may not improperly be applied to the Supreme Deity. But, 
if the whole fable of Jupiter, as it is represented in Homer, 
be fairly examined, it will be very evident, either that he 
had not just conceptions of the divine nature, or that he 
did not mean to express them in the portrait whjeh he has * 
drawn of the son of Saturn, the husband of Juno, and the 
president of the council of Olympus. It would surely have 
been too great a monopoly of perfection, if the first poet in 
the world had also been the first philosopher. 

HOMER. 115 

Homer has had his enemies; and it is certain, that Plato 
banished his writings from his commonwealth ; bat lest this 
should be thought a blemish upon the memory of the poet, 
we are told that the true reason was, because he, did not 
esteem the common people to be capable readers of them. 
They would be apt to pervert his meaning, and have wrong 
notions of God and religion, by taking his bold and beau- 
tiful allegories in a literal sense. Plato frequently declares, 
that he loves and admires him as the best, the most plea- 
sant, and divine of all poets, and studiously imitates his 
figurative and mystical way of writing : and though he 
forbad his works to be read in public, yet he would never 
be without them in his closet. But the most memorable 
enemy to the merits of Homer was Zoilus, a snarling cri- 
tic, who frequented the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, and wrote ill-natured notes upon his poems, 
but received no encouragement from that prince ; on the 
contrary, he became universally despised for his pains, and 
Was at length put, as some say, to a most miserable death. 

It is said that though Homer's poems were at first pub- 
lished all in one piece, and not divided into books, yet 
every oue not being able to purchase them entire, they 
were circulated in separate pieces; and each of those 
pieces took its name from the contents, as, " The Battle 
of the Ships ; $> " The Death of Dolon ;" " The Valour of 
Agamemnon ;" " The Grot of Calypso ;" " The Slaughter 
of the Wooers," &c. ; nor were these entitled books, but 
rhapsodies, as they were afterwards called, when they were 
divided into books. Homer's poems were not known en- 
tire in Greece before the time of Lycurgus ; whither that 
law-giver being in Ionia carried them, after he had taken 
the pains to transcribe them from perfect copies with big 
own hands. This may be called the first edition of Homer 
that appeared in Greece, and the time of its appearing 
there was about 120 years before Home was built, that is, 
about 200 years after the time of Homer. It has been said, 
chat the " Iliad" and " Odyssey" were not composed by 
Homer in their present form, but only in separate little 
poems, which beipg put together and connected afterwards 
by some other person, make the entire works they now ap- 
pear ; but this is so extravagant a conceit that it scarcely 
deserves to be mentioned. 

The editions of Homer are numerous beyond those of 
any other classic, and the^e are many excellent ones; per- 

i 2 

116 HOMER. 

baps the best are, that by Dr. Barnes with the Greek scho* 
lia, in two vols. 4to ; that by Dr. Clarke published in 1729, 
4 to; and that by the learned Heyne, 1802, 8 vols. 8vo. 
The most elaborate commentary is that by Eustatbius, bi- 
shop of Thessalonica, and the best English translation is 
that by Pope : though Cowper's, in blank verse, is thought 
to come nearer to the original/ The French, and almost 
every nation, has its translation of Homer. ' 

HOMER (Henry), an excellent classical scholar, the 
son of the rev. Henry Homer, rector of Birdingbury, in 
Warwickshire, who died a few months after this son, in 
1791, was born in 1752, and at the age of seven was sent 
to Rugby school, where he remained seven years, and be* 
came the head* boy of about Vixty. He afterwards went to 
Birmingham-school, where he remained three years more. 
In November 1768, he was admitted of Emanuel-college, 
Cambridge, under Dr. Farmer, where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Samuel Parr, and was in some measure directed 
in bis studies by this eminent scholar. He proceeded re- 
gularly to his degree of B. A. in 1773, of M. A. in 1776, 
and that of B. D. in 1783. ' He was elected fellow of his 
college in 1778, but had lived in Warwickshire about three 
years before he became fellow, and returned to the uni- 
versity soon after his election. He then resided much at 
Cambridge, frequently visiting the public library, and mak- 
ing himself acquainted with the history or contents of many 
curious books which are noticed only by scholars, and par- 
ticularly turned his attention to several philological works 
of great utility and high reputation. He was well versed 
in the notes subjoined to some of the best editions of vari- 
ous authors; and of his general erudition, the reader will 
form no unfavourable opinion from the following account 
of the works in which he was engaged. He joined with 
Dr. Parr in the republication of Bellenden's Tracts in 1 787, 
and about the same year published three books of " Livy,'* 
viz. the 1st, 25th, and 31st from Drachenborch's edition, 
with dissertations, &c. This was followed by, 1. " Trac- 
tatus varii Latini aCrevier, Brotier," &c. 1738. 2. Ovid's 
u Epistles" ex editione Burman. 1789. 3. "Sallustex 
editione Cortii," 1789. 4. " Pliny, ex editione Cortii et 
Longolii," 1790; 5. " Caesar, ex edit. Oudendorp," 1790. 

1 Life by Herodotus.— Vorii Poet. Qr*c.— DiDofe** CfaMkfc—flui Oao- 
-msticon.— Brucker. 

HOME R. M7. 

6. * ( Persius ex edit. Heninii." 7. " Tacitus, ex edit 
Brotier," complete all but the Index, 8. " Livy" and 
" Quintilian," in the press at the time of bis death. He. 
also intended to have published " Quintus Curtius," but 
no steps were taken towards it. To these, however! may 
be added his " Tacitus de Moribus Germanorum et de 
Vita Agricolie," 1788* and Tacitus " De Oratoribus," 
1789. Dr. Parr having considered him as a very proper 
person to undertake a variorum edition of Horace, he had 
made some progress in that work, which was finally pub* 
lished by Dr. Combe, and occasioned a paper-war between 
Dr. Combe and Dr. Parr, which we had rather refer to 
than detail. Mr. Homer, in consequence of some religious 
scruples, refused to take priest's orders, when by the 
founder's statutes he was required to take them, in order 
to preserve the rank he had attained in the college ; in con* 
sequence of which his fellowship was declared vacant in 
June 1788. He died May 4, 1791, of a decline, hastened, 
if not occasioned, by too close an attention to his literary 
pursuits. The works he left unfinished were completed by 
his brothers, but, we are sorry to hear, have not met with 
that encouragement from the public, which they amply 
merit. 1 

, HOMMEL (Charles Frederick), a lawyer, philologer, 
and historian of Leipsic, was born in 1722. He published 
his first work in 1743, which was a tract in 4to. 1. " De 
Legum civilium et naturalium Natura." 2. " Oblecta- 
menta Juris Feudalis, sive Grammatics Observationes jus 
rei clientelaris, et antiquitates Germanicas, varie illustran- 
tes," 1755. This was also in quarto, and tends, as well 
as his other works, to prove the pleasing qualities and the 
acuteness of his mind. 3. " Literatura Juris," 1761, 8vo. 
4. " Jurisprudentia numismatibus iilustrata, necnon sigil- 
lis, gemmis, aliisque picturis vetustis varie exornata," 1763, 
8vo. 5. " Corpus juris civilis, cum notis variorum," 1768, 
Svo. 6. " Palingenesia librorum juris veterum," &c. 
1768, 3 vols. 8vo. He published some smaller tracts, but 
these are the most important, Hommel died in 1781. • 

HONA1N, an Arabian, and celebrated translator of the 
ninth century, was a Christian and a native of Hira. Hav- 
ing quitted Bagdad, where he had been improperly treated, 

l Gent. Mag. toL LXXVI. and LXXX.— Brit Crit. vol. 111.— Dr. Parr'i 
« Remarks on the Statement of Dr. Charles Combe," 1795, 8ro. 
* Diet. HisC— Saxii OaomMticon. 

US H O N A I N. 

he went to Greece, and remained there two years, study- 
ing the language, and collecting a library of the best Wri- 
ters. He then returned to Bagdad, and some time after 
went to Persia, where he learned the Arabic, and then 
finally settled at Bagdad, and executed very valuable trans- 
lations of the Elements of Euclid, the Almagestus of Ptole- 
my, and the writings of Hippocrates and other Greek au- 
thors. At the desire of Almamon or Abdallah III. he trans- 
lated into Arabic all the works of Aristotle; and for every 
book of that philosopher is said to have received from Al- 
mamon its weight in gold. An anecdote very honourable 
to him is told by Abulfaragius. One day, after some me- 
dical conversation, the Caliph said to him, " Teach me a 
prescription by which I may take off any enemy I please, 
without being discovered." Honain declining to give an 
answer, and pleading ignorance, was imprisoned. Being 
brought again, after a year's interval, into the Caliph's 
presence, and still persisting in ignorance, though threat- 
ened with death, the Caliph smiled upon him, and said, 
u Be of good cheer, we were only trying thee, that we 
might have the greater confidence in thee.' 9 As Honain 
upon this bowed down and kissed the earth, " What hin- 
dered thee, 19 says the Caliph, " from granting our request, 
when thou sawest us appear so ready to perform what we 
had threatened?" " Two things ;" replied Honain, "my 
Religion, and my Profession. My religion, which com- 
mands me to do good to my enemies ; and my profession, 
which was purely instituted for the benefit of mankind." 
" Two noble laws," said the Caliph ; and immediately pre- 
sented him, according to the Eastern usage, with rich gar- 
ments, and a sum of money. This Caliph yvas not only an 
illustrious patron of the learned, but was himself no mean 
adept in several branches* of science. He was well ac- 
quainted with astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy; 
and was frequently present at the conferences of learned 
men, entering with great spirit into the subjects of their 
debates. In the midst of the praise which is due to this 
Caliph, it must, however, be mentioned with regret, that, 
through an ill-judged partiality for his vernacular tongue* 
lie gave orders that, after the Arabic versions were finished, 
the original Grgek manuscripts should be burned. A simi- 
lar folly seized the Caliphs of Africa : and tq this cause we 
are, doubtless, to ascribe the entire loss of many ancient 
writings. The diligence, however, with which this Caliph 

H O N A I N. 119 

cultivated and encouraged learning, cancels in some mea- 
sure this disgrace, and leaves him entitled to an honour- 
able station among philosophers. 1 

HONDEK OTTER (Melchior), the son and grandson 
of two Dutch painters of considerable reputation, was born 
at Utrecht ifi 1636, and carefully trained up to the profes- 
sion by his father. He chose the same subjects ; but, in 
his manner, he surpassed not only bis master, but even 
the best of his contemporaries, in a very high degree. Till 
he was seventeen years of age he practised under his father's 
direction, and accustomed himself to paint several sorts of 
bircls ; but he was particularly pleased to represent cocks, 
bens, ducks, chickens, and peacocks, which he described 
in an elegant variety of actions and attitudes. After tlie 
death of his father, in 1653, he received some instructions 
from his uncle John Baptist Weeninx ; but his principal 
and best instructor was nature, which he studied with in- 
tense application, and that enabled him to give to every 
animal he painted such truth, such a degree of force, ex- 
pression, and life, as seemed to equal nature itself; nor 
did any artist take more pains to study every point that 
might conduce to the perfection of his art. His pencil 
was wonderfully neat and delicate ; his touch light, his co- 
louring exceedingly natural, lively, and remarkably trans- 
parent ; and the feathers of his fowls were expressed with 
sucb a swelling softness, as might readily and agreeably 
deceive the eye of any spectator. It is reported, that he 
had trained up a cock to stand in any attitude he wanted to 
describe, and that it was his custom to place that creature 
near his easel ; so that, at the motion of his hand, the bird 
would fix itself in the proper posture, and would continue 
in that particular position, without the smallest perceptible- 
alteration, for several hours at a time. 

The landscapes which he introduces as the back grounds 
of his pictures, are adapted with peculiar judgment and 
skill, and admirably finished ; they harmonize with his 
subject, and always increase the force and the beauty of 
his principal objects. His touch was very singular in imi- 
tating the natural plumage of the fowls he painted ; which 
not only produced a charming effect, but also ftiay prove' 
serviceable to an intelligent observer, to assist him in de- 
termining which are the genuine pictures of this master; 

1 Moreri.— Chanfepie.— tracker.— Sjje Atinamoo, vol II. 1 of thii Dictionary. 


and which are impositions. The works of Hondekotter are 
justly in very great request and estimation, and they gene- 
rally afford a large price, almost in proportion to their va- 
lue. He died 1695, aged 59. * 

HONDIUS (Abraham), another artist, well known in 
this kingdom, was born at Rotterdam in 1638, according 
to the most authentic writers, though Descamps fixes his 
birth in 1650. He appears to have been an universal mas- 
ter, painting, with equal readiness, landscapes, animals of 
all kinds, particularly dogs, huntings of wild animals, boars, 
deer, wolves, and foxes, as also conversations and fowls ; 

. but his favourite subjects were huntings. His maniler 
seems peculiar to himself; it was bold and free; and, ex- 
cept Rubens and Snyders, few masters have painted ani- 
mals in a greater style, or with more spirit There is cer- 
tainly a great deal of fire in his compositions ; but his co- 

• louring is often extravagant, and his drawing extremely 
incorrect In general his pencilling was harsh, and he de- 
lighted in a fiery tint ; yet some of his small pictures are 
very neatly finished. There is a great inequality as to the 
merit of the works of Hondius, some of them being in 
every respect abundantly superior to others ; but there is 
scarce any master whose compositions are so easily distin- 
guishable as those of Hondius, by certain particularities in 
his touch, his taste of design, and his qolouring. 

Several of his pictures of dogs are much esteemed ; and 
one especially is mentioned, in which he represented thirty 
different species of those animals, all being well designed, 
and every distinct animal being characterised with some 
peculiar air, action, expression, or attitude. As he was 
exceedingly harassed and tormented with the gout, the 
works of his latter time are more negligently executed than 
those which he finished in his prime ; and, therefore, they 
very much contribute to lessen the reputation he had ac- 
quired by some of his more studied and better finished per- 

'formances. His most capital picture is the burning of 
1 roy, in which there are .a variety of figures, many of them 
Well designed, and disposed with judgment Hoabraken 
also mentions a candle-light of this master's band, in which 
appeared a fine opposition of light and shadow, and the 
figures were extremely well designed and well coloured. 
When he came to England is not known. Vertue says be 

I Kiki^jtoB.— jyAryeprilk, to), III 

H O N D I U S. lit 

was a man of humour. He lived on Ludgate-hill, but died 
of a severe fit of the gout in 1695 at the Blackmoor's head, 
over against Water-Jane, Fleet-street. — Iodocus or JuSSE 
Hondius is supposed to' have been his grandfather. He 
was born at Wackerne, a small town in Flanders, in 1563, * 
and died in 1611. He was a self-taught engraver both on 
Copper and ivory, and a letter-founder; in ail which 
branches he attained great excellence. He studied geo- 
graphy also, and in 1 607 published a work entitled " De- 
scriptio Geographica orbis terrarum," in folio. 1 

HONE (George Paul), a lawyer of Nuremberg, was, 
born there in 1662. He became counsellor to the duke of 
Meinungen, and bailli of Cobourg, at which place he lied 
in 1747. His works are chiefly these: 1. " Iter Juridicum, 
per Belgium, Angliam, Galjiam, Italian).*" 2. " Lexicon 
Topographicum Franconiae." 3. " History of the Duchy 
of Saxe- Cobourg," in German. 4. " Thoughts on the 
Suppression of Mendicity," in the same language. 9 

HONE (Nathaniel), was born in Dublin in 1767, and 
came to England in the. early part of life, painting in se- 
veral parts of the country, particularly at York, where he 
married a lady of some property. A short time after bis 
marriage, he settled in London, and practised with repu- 
tation, both as a painter in oil, and in miniature, particu- 
larly enamel; and after the death of Zincke, ranked among 
the. principal artists of his day in that branch. He was 
chosen one of the members of the royal academy at its 
first institution ; but took offence at one of his pictures, 
intended as a satire on sir Joshua Reynolds, being rejected 
from the exhibition* Another was also objected to, as 
containing a very profane allusion, which he altered with 
a substance easily washed away, and the picture was again 
exhibited in its original state at an exhibition of his own, 
in 1775. As a painter in oil, he was by no means an in- 
ferior artist, yet the colouring of his pictures was too red 
for the carnations, and the shadows not sufficiently clear. 
A few years before his death, be removed to Rathbone- 
place. He died Aug. 14, 1784, and was buried at Hendon, 
where five of his children lie. 9 

HONESTIS, Petrus de. See DAMIAN. 

HONORATUS, bishop of Marseilles, flourished about 
the year 490. He was, according to Gennadius, who 

i Pilkiogton,— Orford'f Anecdote*.— Strait's Dictionary.— Reel's Cyclopaedia. 
f Diet Hist. » Edwards's Continuation of Walpole'a Anecdotes. 


celebrates him, a man of ready and abundant eloquence. 
He published many homilies, some delivered in an ex- 
temporary manner, others regularly composed ; in which 
his object was to confute the dreams of heretics, and ex- 
hort his hearers to piety. He wrote also lives of many 
eminent leaders of the church, of which no one is extant, 
except his life of St. Hilary of Aries. 1 

HONORIUS De Sancta Maria, whose proper name 
was Blaize Vauzelle, was born July 4, 1651, at Limoges. 
He made profession among the Carmelites at Toulouse, 
in 1671 ; taught theology with reputation in his order, in 
.which he was prior, counsellor, provincial, and visitor- 
general of the three provinces of France. He died 1729, 
at Lisle, aged seventy-eight. His most curious work is 
entitled " Reflexions sur les regies, et sur l'usage de la 
Critique," 3 vols. 4to ; the first volume is most esteemed. 
He also left, " La Tradition des Peres, et des Auteurs Ec- 
clesiastiques, sur la Contemplation; avec un Traitl sur 
les motifs, et la pratique, de r Amour Divin," 3 vols. 
12mo; '* Trait6 des Indulgences et du Jubilg," 12mo; 
" Dissertations historiques et critiques sur les Ordres mili- 
taires," 1718, 4to. He wrote some pieces in favour of 
the Formulary, and the constitution Unigenitus, &c* 

HONTAN (the Baron de), was a native of Gascony, 
in the seventeenth century, and is principally known by 
his travels in North America, which, however, are writ- 
ten in an embarrassed and barbarous style, confounding 
truth and falsehood, disfiguring names, and disguising 
facts. Tbey contain some episodes of pure fiction, par- 
ticularly the narrative of the voyage up the long river, 
which is supposed to be of equal authority with the Voyage 
to Lilliput. He describes, nevertheless, with some suc- 
cess, the general face of the country, and the disposition, 
customs, government, and other particulars of the inha- 
bitants. There is an edition of his. travels published at 
Amsterdam in 1705, 2 vols. 12mo. He began his career 
in Canada as a common soldier, was raised to the rank of 
an officer, went to Newfoundland in the quality of 'royal 
lieutenant, there quarrelled with the governor, was broken, 
and retired first to Portugal, and finally to Denmark.* 

HONTHORST (Gerard), a celebrated artist, called 
also Gerardo Dalle Norn, from his principal subjects^ 

1 Cave, vol. I.— Moreri. » Morcri.— Diet, Hift » Diet, HiiL 


was born at Utrecht in 1592, and was a disciple of Abra- 
ham Bloemart ; but completed his studies at Rome, where 
he continued several years, employed there by persons of 
the first rank, and particularly by prince Justiniani. He 
imitated the style of Caravaggio, with whose vivid tone 
and powerful masses of light and shade, he attempted to 
combine correctness of outline, refinement of forms, grace- 
ful attitudes, and that dignity which ought to be the cha- 
racteristic of sacred subjects. In this he often succeeded. 
His subjects are generally night-pieces as large as life, 
and illuminated by torch or candle-light. Among his 
numerous pictures, that of our Saviour before the Tribunal 
of Pilate, in the gallery Justiniani, for energy, .dignity, 
and contrast, is the most celebrated. Soon alter his re- 
turn to his own country he visited London, and obtained 
the favour of king Charles I. by several grand performances 
and portraits; especially by one allegorical picture, in 
which he represented the portraits of the king and queen, 
in the characters of two deities, and the portrait of the 
duke of Buckingham in the character of Mercury, intro- 
ducing the liberal arts to that monarch and his consort. 
For that composition, which was well drawn and extremely 
well coloured, the king presented him with three thousand 
florins, a service of plate for twelve persons, and a beauti- 
ful horse ; and he had afterwards the honour to instruct 
the queen of Bohemia, and the princesses her children, in 

His pencil is free and firm, and his colouring has a 
great deal of force, although it often is not pleasing, by a 
predominancy of the yellow and brown tints; yet un- 
doubtedly Honthorst would have been an excellent painter 
if he had known how to give more grace and more correct- 
ness to his figures. At his return from London to Holland 
he adorned the pleasure houses of the prince of Orange 
with many poetical subjects, which he executed in fresco 
as well as in oil ; but he principally was employed in 
painting portraits, which are described as having good ex- 
pression, and extraordinary life and force, by their broad 
masses of light heing contrasted by strong shadows. He 
died in 1 660, aged sixty-eight. His brother, William, was 
born at Utrecht in 1 604, and learned the art of painting 
from Abraham Bloemart. The portraits which he painted 
were very much esteemed, and are far superior to, bis histo- 
rical subjects, which are iq no degree equal to those of 

124 H O O F T. 

Gerard, although they are frequently sold for the works of 
that master. He died in 1683, aged seventy-nine. 1 

HOOFT (Peter Cornelius van), a Dutch poet and 
historian, but principally eminent in the latter capacity, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1581. He was honoured by 
Louis XIII. with a ribband of the order of St. Michael, 
probably iu consequence of his history of Henry IV. Fre~ 
deric Henry prince of Orange being dead, Hooft was pre- 
paring to attend his funeral, when he was himself taken 
violently ill, and died in 1647. His works consist of, 1. 
" Epigrams, Comedies, and other Poems/ 9 2. " The 
History of the Low Countries, from the abdication of 
Charles V. to the year 1598.° A good edition of it ap- 
peared in 1703, in 2 vols, folio. 3. "A History of Henry 
IV. of France, 1 ' in Latin. 4. " A Translation of Tacitus 
into Dutch," very highly esteemed in that country. To 
familiarize the style of his author completely to his mind, 
he is said to have read all the extant works of Tacitus fifty- 
two times.* 

HOOGEVEEN (Henry), a very celebrated Dutch 
philologer, was born at Leyden, in the latter end of Ja- 
nuary 1712. His parents were poor, but of great pro- 
bity ; and, had it not been for a very laudable ambition in 
* his father to make his son a scholar, the obscurity of- a 
mechanical trade would probably have concealed his powers 
through life. At ten years of age he was sent to school, 
but for a considerable time gave not the slightest proof of 
talents for literature, so completely depressed was he by 
the wanton tyranny of a severe master. When at length 
he was removed into another class, and was under a 
milder teacher, his powers began to expand, and he took 
the lead among those of his standing, instead of holding an 
inferior place. So early as at fifteen he began the task of 
teaching others, to alleviate the expences of his parents, 
being now highly qualified for such an undertaking. He 
was employed in teaching the inferior classes of the school 
to which he still belonged. While he was yet employed 
in his studies, he lost his father; but this misfortune 
rather redoubled his efforts than subdued his spirit la 
1732, before he had exceeded his twentieth year, be ob- 
tained the appointment of co-rector (or under-master) at 

1 PilkiogtoB.— Walpote'i Aneolotei.— Reet's Cyclopedia. 
• Moreri.— Foppen fiibl. Belf . 


Gorcum. Within nine months the magistrates of the city 
of Woerden gave him an appointment there, which in- 
duced him to think of matrimony. He married in March 
1733, and began the care of this school in May, the same 
year. By this wife, who died in 1738, he had three sons 
and two daughters. In the same year he was solicited by 
the magistrates of Culembourg to undertake the care of 
their school, to which, with much reluctance in leaving 
bis former situation, he at length consented. Here he 
took a second wife, who produced him eight children ; 
and here, notwithstanding solicitations from other places, 
be continued for several years. At length, much fatigued 
by incessant attention to a great number of scholars, he 
went in 1745 to Breda, on a more liberal appointment. 
The very next year, Breda being harassed by a French 
invasion, Hoogeveen was obliged to send his collection of 
books to Ley den, and literary pursuits were at a stand. 
He remained, however, sixteen years at Breda, and had 
determined there to end his days, but Providence decided 
otherwise. The malice and turbulence of a person who 
bad taken up some unreasonable cause of offence agaihst 
him, inclined him to leave Breda. His intention being 
known, he was liberally invited to Dort, whither he trans- 
ferred his residence in 1761. From this place, after living 
there three years, he was in a manner forced away by the 
importunity and liberality of the city of Delft. ' On his 
first arrival there, he encountered some difficulties from 
calumny and malice, but he weathered the storm, and re- 
mained there the remainder of his life in peace and ho- 
nour. He died about Nov. 1, 1794, leaving some surviving 
children by both his marriages. 

His works are, 1. An edition of * Vigerus de Idiotismis 
Linguae Grecse," published at Leyden in 1743, and se- 
veral times republished. His improvements to this work 
are of the highest value. 2. " An Inaugural Speech at 
Culembourg/' in 1738. 3. " An Alcaic Ode to the 
people of Culembourg, " De Inundatione feliciter aver- 
runcata." 4. " An Elegiac Poem," in defence of poets, 
against Plato ; and several other occasional pieces, few of 
which are published. 5. " Doctrina particujarum Linguae 
Graecae," 1769, 2 vols. 4to. This great work, the foun- 
dation of his well-earned fame, is executed with a prodi- 
gious abundance of learning, and has been approved and 
received throughout Europe. He followed Devarius pro- 


fessedly to a certain point, but went far beyond him in 
copiousness and sagacity. A very useful abridgment of 
this work, the only fault of which is too great prolixity, 
was published at Dessau, in 1782, by Schiitz. This edi- 
tiou will be found more useful to the young student than 
the vast work on which it is founded, as more easily pur- 
chased, and more easily read. 1 

HOOGSTRATEN (David van), a professor of the 
belles lettres, was bom at Rotterdam in 1658, and died at 
Amsterdam in 1724. In the evening of Nov. 13, there 
suddenly arose 60 thick a mist, that he lost his way, and 
fell into a canal. He was soon taken out; but the coldness 
of the water, and the fright from the fall, brought on so 
strong an oppression up6n the breast, that he died in eight 
days after. There are of his, I. " Latin Poems." 2. " Fle- 
mish Poems." 3. " A Flemish and Latin Dictionary ." 
4. " Notes upon C. Nepos and Terence." 5. " An edition 
of Phaedrus," for the prince of Nassau, 4to, in imitation 
of the Delphin editions. 6. A fine edition of " Janus 
Broukhusius's Poems." ' I 

HOOGUE (Romain de), a Dutch designer and engraver, 
who flourished towards the close of the seventeenth century, 
had a lively imagination, by which he was sometimes led 
astray ; and his works must be viewed with some allowance 
for incorrectness of design and injudicious choice of sub- 
jects, which were in general of an allegorical cast, or dis- 
tinguished by a kind of low caricature. His works are 
chiefly extant in certain editions of books for which he was 
employed; as, 1. Plates for the Old and New Testament, 
in folio, published by Basnage in 1704. 2. Plates to "the 
Academy of the Art of Wrestling," in Dutch, 1674, and 
in French in 17J2. 3. Plates to the Bible, with Dutch 
explanations. 4. Plates for the Egyptian Hieroglyphics, 
Amsterdam, 1735, small folio. 5. Plates to Fontaine's 
Fables, 1685, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. To Boccace, 1695, 2 vols. 
8vo. 7. To the Tales of the Queen of Navarre. 8. To 
the "Cent Nouvelles nouvelles," 1701, 2 vols. 8vo. Such 
of his plates as are to be met with separate from the works 
to which they belong, bear a higher price.* 

HOOKE (Nathaniel), celebrated for a " Roman His- 
tory," died July 19, 1763, but we know not at what age; 

1 Harlet de Vitis Philologorum, vol. IV,— Sawi Ooomtsticon, vol. VIII. 
* Moreri.— Saxii Ooomast. • Strati's Diet, of Eojrmmt. 

HOOKE. 127 

as indeed few particulars of him are recorded, though he 
is said, "from 1723 till his death, to have enjoyed the 
confidence and patronage of men not less distinguished by 
virtue than by titles." The first particular that occurs of 
him is from a letter to lord Oxford, dated Oct. 17, 1722, 
by which it appears, that, having been " seized with the 
late epidemical distemper of endeavouring to be rich, 19 
meaning the South-sea infatuation, " he was in some mea- 
sure happy to find himself at that instant just worth 
nothing." Some time after, however, he was recommended 
to Sarah duchess of Marlborough, who presented him with 
5000/. the condition of which donation was expressly, that 
he the said Hooke should aid and assist her the said duchess 
in drawing up and digesting "An account of the conduct 
of the dowager duchess of Marlborough, from her first 
coming to court to the year 1710." This was done, and 
the work was published in 1742, 8vo ; but soon after she 
took occasion, as was usual with her, to quarrel with him, 
" because," finding her without religion, " he attempted," 
as she affirmed, " to convert her to popery." Hooke was 
a mystic and quietist, and a warm disciple of Fenelon, 
whose life he translated from the French, and published in 
1723, 12 mo. It was he who brought a catholic priest to 
take Pope's confession upon his death-bed : the priest had 
scarcely departed, when Bolingbroke coming in, flew into 
a great passion upon the occasion. He is said to have 
been a remarkably fine reader. Richardson informs us, 
that he once read some speeches of his Roman History to 
the speaker Onslow, who piqued himself too upon reading, 
and begged him to give his opinion of the work : the 
Speaker answered, as in a passion, " he could not tell what 
to think of it : it might be nonsense for aught he knew ; 
for that his manner of reading had bewitched him." 

The " Roman History" of Hooke was published in. 4 vols. 
4to; the first in 1733, the second in 1745, the third in 
1764, and the fourth in 1771. It embraces the events 
from the building of Rome to the ruin of the common- 
wealth. In 1758 he published " Observations on four 
pieces upon the Roman Senate," among which were those 
of Middleton and Chapman ; and was answered in an auo- 
nymous pamphlet, entitled " A short Review of Mr. Hooke's 
Observations, &c. concerning the Roman Senate, and the 
character of Dionysius of Halicarnassus," 1758, 8vo. But 
the author of this was Edward Spelman, esq. who was then 



publishing an English translation of Dionysius. Hooke 
published also a translation of Ramsay's " Travels of Cyrus/*, 
1739, 4to. Mr. Hooke left two sons; one a clergyman of 
the English church, rector of Birkby and vicar of Leek in 
Yorkshire, who died in 1791 ; the other a doctor of the 
Sorbonne, and professor of astronomy in that seminary. 1 

HOOKE (Robert), an eminent English mathematician, 
And one of the most inventive geniuses that the world has 
ever seen, was son of Mr. John Hooke, rector of Fresh- 
water in the Isle of Wight, and born there July 18, 1635. 
He was designed for the church ; but being of a weakly 
constitution, and very subject to the head-ache, he was left 
to follow the bent of his genius, which led him to me* 
chanics, and Brst appeared in his making little toys, which 
he did with wonderful art and dexterity. Seeing, on one 
occasion, an old brass clock taken to pieces, he made a 
wooden one that would go : he made likewise a small ship 
about a yard long, fitly shaped, masted, and rigged, with 
a contrivance to make it fire small guns, as it was sailing 
across a haven of some breadth. These indications led his 
friends to think of some trade for him in which such talents 
might be useful ; and after his father's death in 1648, as he 
had also a turn for drawing, he was placed with sir Peter 
Lely, but the smell of the oil-colours increased his head- 
aches, and he quitted painting in a very short time*. After- 
wards he was kindly taken by Dr. Busby into his house, 
and supported there while he attended Westminster-school. 
Here he not only acquired Greek and Latin, together with 
some knowledge of Hebrew and other oriental languages, 
but also made himself master of a good part of Euclid*! 
Elements ; and Wood adds, that while he lived with Dr. 
Busby he " learned of his own accord to play twenty 
lessons on the organ, and invented thirty several ways of 
flying ; as himself and Dr. Wilkins of Wad ham- college- 
have reported." 

* Aubrey says he tad tome instruc- 
tions in drawing from the celebrated 
Sam. Cooper, but does not know whe- 
ther this Vat before or after he went to 
Lely. He gives us an anecdote of 
Hooke, however, which is very charac- 
teristic of that sordid regard for money 
which predominated all his life. His 
father left him 100/. which was to have 

I Nichols's Bowyer.— Ruff head's Life of Pope, 4to edit p. 381.481. 
terfield's Memoirs, <4to, p. 116.— Boswell's Tour to the Hebrides. 

ben paid as an apprentice fee to Lely; 
but after he had been some time upon 
trial, Hooke left him, as thinking he 
could do all thai was to be done, and 
keep his hundred pound*. When he 
went to Busby's he " lodged his 100/, 
with him." — Letters by Eminent Per- 
sons, 1813, 3 vols. 8vo» 

» O O K R M 

. About 1653 he went to Christ-church, Oxford, and ia 
)l655 was introduced to the philosophical society there; 
.where, discovering his mechanic genius, he was first em* 
ployed to assist Dr. Willis in his operations of chemistry, 
and afterwards recommended to Mr. Boyle, whom he served 
many years in the same capacity. He was also instructed 
about this time by Dr. Seth Ward, Savilian professor of 
astronomy, in that science ; and from henceforward distin- 
guished himself by a greater number of important inven- 
tions and improvements of the mechanic kind, than any 
one man had ever discovered. Among these were several 
astronomical instruments for making observations both at 
sea and land ; and he was particularly serviceable to Boyle, 
in completing the air-pump* Wood tells us, that he also 
explained " Euclid's Elements," and " Des Cartes's Philo- 
sophy," to Boyle* In Nov. 1662, sir Robert Moray, then 
president, having proposed him for curator of experiments 
to the Royal Society, he was unanimously accepted, and 
.« Jit was ordered that Boyle should have the thanks of the 
society for dispensing with him for their use ; and that he 
should come and sit among them, and both exhibit every 
day three or four of his own experiments, and take care 
of such others as should be mentioned to him by the so- 
ciety. He executed this office so much to their satisfac- 
tion, that when that body was established by the royal 
charter, his name was in the list of those who ware first 
^nominated by the council, May 20, 1663; and he was 
admitted accordingly, June 3, with a peculiar exemption 
from all payments. Sept. 28 of the same year, he was 
nominated by Clarendon, chancellor of Oxford, for the 
degree of M.A.; and Oct 19 , it was ordered that the 
^repository of the Royal Society should be committed to his 
care, the white gallery in Gresbam-college being appointed 
for that use. In May 1664, he began to read the astrono- 
mical lecture at Gresbam for the professor, Dr. Pope, then 
in Italy ; and the same year was made professor of mecha- 
nics to the Royal Society by Sir John Cutler, with a salary 
of 50/. per annum, which that gentleman, the founder, 
settled upon him for life. On Jan. 11, .1664-5, he wa$ 
elected by that society curator of experiments for life, with 
an additional salary of 30/. per annum to sir John Cutler'* 
annuity, settled on him " pro tempore :" and, March fol- 
lowing, was elected professor of geometry in Gresbap^ 

Voju XVIII. K 


In 1665, he published in folio bis " Micrographia, or 
some philosophical descriptions of minute bodies, made by 
magnifying glasses, with observations and enquiries there- 
upon :" and the same year, during the recess of the Royal 
Society on account of the plague, attended Eh*. Wilkins 
and other ingenious gentlemen into Surrey, where they, 
made several experiments. In Sept. 1666, he produced 
his plan for rebuilding the city of London, then destroyed 
by the great fire ; which was approved by the lord-mayor 
and court of aldermen. According to it, all the chief 
streets were to have been built in regular lines ; all the 
other cross streets to have turned out of them at right 
angles ; and all the churches, public buildings, market- 
places, &c. to have been fixed in proper and convenient 
places ; but the nature of the property, and the impossi- 
bility of raising funds to indemnify the landholders who 
would be injured by this scheme, prevented its being car- 
ried into execution. The rebuilding of the city, however, 
according to the act of parliament, requiring an able per- 
son to set out the ground to the several proprietors, Hooke 
was appointed one of the city surveyors, and Oliver, a 
glass-painter, the other. In this employment he acquired 
the greatest part of that estate of which he died possessed ; 
as appeared sufficiently evident from a large iron chest of 
money found after bis death, locked down with a key in it, 
and a date of the time, which shewed that the contents bad 
been so shut up for above thirty years, and seldom dis- 
turbed, for he almost starved himself and all in his house. 
In 1668, Hevelius, the famous astronomer at Dantzick, 
presented a copy of his " Cometograpbia" to Hooke, in 
acknowledgment for an handsome compliment which Hooke 
had paid to him on account of his " Selenographia," printed 
in 1647 ; and Hooke, in return, sent Hevelius a description 
of the dioptric telescope, with an account of his manner 
of using it, and recommended it to him as preferable to 
those with plain sights. This circumstance gave rise to a 
great dispute between them, noticed in our account of 
Hevelius, in which many learned men afterwards en- 
gaged, and which Hooke so managed, as to be uni- 
versally condemned, though it has since been agreed 
that he had the best side of the question. In 1671 he 
attacked sir Isaac Newton's " New Theory of Light and 

y Colours ;" where, though he was forced to submit in re- 
spect to the argument, he is said to have come off with A 

. better reputation than in the former instance. The Royal 

HOOKS. 131 

Society having began their meetings at Gresb&m-eollege, 
ifl Nov. 1674, the committee in December allowed hitfc 40/. 
to erect a turret over part -of his lodgings, for proving his 
instruments, and making astronomical observations ; and 
the year following he published " A Description of Tele- 
scopes, and some other instruments," made by him, with 
a postscript, complaining of some injustice done him by 
Oldenburg, the publisher of the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," in regard to his invention of pendulum watches. 
This charge drew him into a dispute with that gentleman, 
which ended in a declaration of the Royal Society in their 
secretary's favour. Oldenburg dying in Aug. 1677, Hooke 
was appointed to supply his place, and began to take 
minutes at the meeting in October, and published seven 
numbers of the " Philosophical Collections," which have 
been always considered as a part of the €t Philosophical 
Transactions." Soon after this be grew more reserved than 
formerly, and though he read his Cutlerian lectures, and 
often made experiments, and shewed new inventions before 
the Royal Society, yet he Seldom left any account of them 
to be entered in their registers, designing, as he said, to 
fit them for himself, and make them public, which however 
he never performed. In 1686, when sir Isaac Newton's 
Principia were published, Hooke, with that jealousy which 
was natural to him, claimed priority respecting the idea 
of gravitation. Newton, with a candour equally natural 
to him, admitted his claim, but shewed at the same time 
that Hooke' s notion of gravitation was different from his 
own, and that it did not coincide with the phenomena. In 
reality, the notion of gravitation is as ancient at least as 
the days of Lucretius, and is particularly noticed by Keplet. 
Newton's merit consisted, not in ascribing the planetary 
motions to gravitation, but in determining the law which 
gravitation follows, and in shewing that it exactly accounts 
for all the planetary phenomena, which no other system 

In 16S7, his brother's daughter, Mrs. Grace Hooke, who 
had lived with bim several years, died ; and he was so 
affected at her death, that he hardly ever recovered it, but 
was observed from that time to grow less active, more 
melancholy, and, if possible, more cynical than ever. At 
the same time a chancery-suit, in which he was concerned 
with sir Joiin Cutler, on account of his salary for reading 
the Cutlerian lectures, made bim very uneasy, ami In- 

K 2 

132 HOOK E. 

creased bis disorder. In 1691, he was employed in forming 
the plan of the hospital near Hoxton, founded by Aske, 
alderman of London, who appointed archbishop Tillotson 
one of his executors ; and in December the same year, 
Hooke was created M. D. by a warrant from that prelate. 
He is also said to have been the architect of Bedlam, and 
the College of Physicians. In July 1696, his chancery- 
suit for sir John Cutler's salary was determined in bis 
favour, to his inexpressible satisfaction. His joy on 
that occasion was found in his diary thus expressed : 
" Domshlgissa ;< that is, Deo Optimo Maximo sit honor, 
laus, gloria, in ssecula soeculorum. Amen. I was born on 
this day of July, 1635, and God has given me a new birth : 
may I never forget his mercies to me ! whilst be gives me 
breath may I praise him !" The same year an order was 
granted to him for repeating most of his experiments, at 
the expence of the Royal Society, upon a promise of his 
finishing the accounts, observations, and deductions from 
them, and of perfecting the description of all the instru- 
ments contrived by him, which his increasing illness and 
general decay rendered him unable to perform. For the 
two or three last years of his life he is said to have sat 
night and day at a table, engrossed with his inventions and 
studies, and never to have gone to bed, or even undressed ; 
and in this wasting condition, and quite emaciated, he died 
March 3, 1702, at his lodgings in Gresham-college, and 
was buried in St. Helen's church, Bishopsgate- street, his 
corpse being attended by all the members of the Royal 
Society then in London. 

Waller, the writer of his life, has given the following 
character of him, which, though not an amiable one, seems 
to be drawn with candour and impartiality. He was in 
person but a despicable figure; short of stature, very 
crooked, pale, lean, and of a meagre aspect, with dark 
brown hair, very long, and hanging over his face, uncut, 
and lank. Suitable to this person, his temper was penu- 
rious, melancholy, mistrustful, and jealous ; which qualities 
increased upon him with his years. He set out in his youth 
with a collegiate or rather a monastic recluseness, and 
afterwards led the life of a cynical hermit ; scarcely allow- 
ing himself necessaries, notwithstanding the great increase 
of his fortunes after the fire in London *. He declared 

* Sir Godfrey Copley, in a letter sayt, " Dr. Hooke it v*ry ci'asy ; much 
written about the time of Hooke** death, oooceraed far fear he ihouid outlive hit 

H O O K E. 133 - 

sometimes, that he had a great project in his head as to 
the disposal of his estate, for the advancement of natural 
knowledge, and to promote the ends and designs for which 
the Royal Society was instituted ; to build a handstime 
fabric for the society's use, with a library, repository, la- • 
boratory, and other conveniences for making experiments ; 
and to found and endow a physico- mechanic lecture like 
that of sir John Cutler. But though he was often solicited 
by his friends to put his designs down in writing, and 
make his will as to the disposal of his estate, yet he could 
never be prevailed on to do it, but died without any will 
that could be found. In like manner, with respect to his" 
philosophical treasures, when be first became known to the 
learned world, he was very communicative of his inventions * 
and discoveries, but afterwards grew close and reserved to' 
a fault ; alledging for an excuse, that some persons chal- 
lenged his discoveries for their own, and took occasion from 
his hints to perfect what he had not finished. For this 
reason he would suggest nothing, till he had time to perfect 
it himself; so that many things are lost which he affirmed ' 
he knew, though he was not supposed to know every thing 
which he affirmed. For instance, not many weeks before 
his death, he told Mr. Waller and others, that he knew a 
certain and infallible method of discovering the longitude 
at sea; yet it is evident that his friends distrusted his 
asseveration of this discovery ; and how little credit was * 
then given to it in general, appears from Waller's own 
account. " Hooke," says he, " suffering this invention to 
be undiscovered to the last, gave some persons cause to 
question, whether he was ever the possessor of it ; and to 
doubt whether what in theory seemed very promising, 
would answer when put in practice. Others indeed more 
severely judged, that it was only a kind of boasting in him 
to assert that which had not been performed though at- 
tempted by many." In the religious part of his character' 
he was so far exemplary, that he always expressed a great 
veneration for the Deity, and seldom received any remark- 
estate. He hath starved one old woman the days of bis life, I mean mathema- 
already ; and I believ* he will endanger tteat experiment*, than to have it go to 
himself to save sixpence for any thing tjibee whom he never saw or cared for. 
he wants." In another, written a few It is rare that virtuosos die rich, end it 
weeks after his death. Sir Godfrey say«, is pity they should if they were like 
«« I wonder old Dr. Hooke did not choose him." Dr. Oticerel's M£S. in Mr. 
rather to leave hie U«000/. to continue Nichols's possession, 
what he had promoted and it a died all 

194 HOOKE. 

able benefit in life, or made any considerable discovery in 
nature, or invented any useful contrivance, or found out 
aiw difficult problem, without setting down bis acknow- 
ledgment to God, «6 many places in bis diary plainly shew. 
He frequently studied the sacred writings in the originals ; 
for be was acquainted with tbe ancient, languages, as well 
as wjth all the parts of mathematics* " To conclude," 
says Waller, " all his errors and blemishes were more than 
made amend* foe by the greatness and extent of bis natural 
aed acquired parts, and more than common if not wonder* 
ful sagacity, iu diving into the ittopt bidden secrets of 
nature, and io contriving proper methods of forcing her to 
confess the tfutb, by driving and pursuing tbe Proteus 
through all her changes to her last and utmost recesses. 
There needs no other proof of this, than the great number 
of experiments he made, with the contrivances for them, 
amounting to some hundreds ; his new and useful instru- 
ments and inventions, which were numerous j bis admirable 
facility and clearness in explaining the phenomena of na- 
ture, and demonstrating his assertions j his bappy talent 
in adapting theories to tbe phenomena observed, and con* 
triving easy and plain, not pompous and amusing, expe- 
riments to back and prove those theories; proceeding from 
observations to theories, and from theories to farther trials, 
which he asserted to be the most proper method to succeed 
in tbe interpretation of nature. For these his happy qua- 
lifications he was much respected by tbe most learned phi* 
losop'hers at homfc and abroad ; and as with all bis failures 
he may be reckoned among the great men of tbe last age, 
so, had he been free from them, possibly he might have 
stood in the front." 

His papers being put by bis friends into tbe hands of 
Richard Waller, esq. secretary to the Royal Society, that 
gentleman collected such as he thought worthy of the press, 
and published them under the title of his " Posthumous 
Works," in 1705, to which he prefixed an account of bis 
life, in folio, It is thought, that this gentleman would 
have published more of Hooke's manuscripts, had he 
lived. Mr. Professor Robison of Edinburgh, who ascribes 
the invention of spring- watches to Hooke, had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing some of Hooke's MSS. that had been 
rescued from the fire at the burning of Gresham-college, 
and says that they are full of systematic views : many of 
them, it must be acknowledged, hasty, inaccurate, and 

HOOKL 13$ 

futile, but still systematical. Hooke called them algebras, 
and considered them as having a sort of inventive power, 
or rather as means of discovering things unknown by a 
process somewhat similar to that art He valued himself 
highly on account of this view of science, which he thought 
peculiar to himself: and he frequently speaks of others, 
even the most eminent, as childishly contenting themselves 
with partial views of the comers of things. He was like- 
wise very apt to consider other inventors as encroachers on 
his systems, which he held as a kind of property, being 
seriously determined to prosecute them all in their turn, 
and never recollecting that any new object immediately 
called him off, and engaged him for a while in the most 
eager pursuit. His algebras had given him many signal 
helps, and he had no doubt of carrying them through in 
every investigation. Stimulated by this overfond expec- 
tation, when a discovery was mentioned to him he was too 
apt to think and to say, that he had long ago invented the 
same thing, when the truth probably was, that the course 
of his systematic thoughts on the subjects with which it was 
connected had really suggested it to him, with such viva- 
city, or with such notions of its importance, as to giake f 
him set it down in his register in its own systematic place, 
which was his constant practice : but it was put out of hi$ 
mind by some new object of pursuit. These remarks are 
part of a series, by the same learned professor, on the 
merits and inventions of Dr. Hooke, which are new, and 
highly necessary to enable the reader to form a just esti- 
mate of Hooke as a benefactor to science. They are to 
be found in the " Encyclopedia Britannica," under the 
article Watch, and in Dr. Gleig's supplement to that 
work, under Hooke. No English biographer appears to 
have done so much justice to our philosopher. * 

HOOKER, or VOWELL, (John,) an English historian, 
was born at Exeter, about the year 1524. His father Hu- 
bert Hooker, a wealthy citizen, was in 1529 mayor of that 
city. Dr. Moreman, vicar of Menhinit in Cornwall, was 
his tutor in grammar, after which he studied at Oxford, 
but in what college Wood was not able to discover. Having 
left the University, he travelled to Germany, and resided 
some time at Cologn, where he studied the law ; and thence 

> Life by Waller. — Biog. Brit. — Ward's Gretbam Piofessort. — Ath. Oa. 
▼oh II. — Encyclopaedia as abore. 

m bookeh 

to Strasburgb, where he heard the divinity lectures of 
Peter Martyr. He intended also to have visited France, 
Spain, and Italy, but a war breaking out, he returned to 
England, and, residing at his native city, Exeter, was 
elected chamberlain in 1554, being the first person who 
held that office; and in 1571 he represented Exeter in 
parliament. He died in 1601, and was buried in the cathe- 
dral of Exeter. His works are, 1. " Order and usage of 
keeping of Parliaments in Ireland." The MS. of this is 
in Trinity-college-library, Dublin. He had been sent into 
Ireland by sir Peter Carew to negotiate his affairs there, 
and was elected burgess for Athenry in the parliament of 
156S. This tract is printed with his Irish Chronicle in 
Holinshed, 2. " The events of Comets, or blazing stars, 
made upon the sight of the comet Pagonia, which appeared 
in November and December 1577." Lond. 1577, 8vo. 
3. " An addition to the Chronicles, of Ireland from 1546 
to 1568," in the second volume of Holinshed. 4. " Ca- 
talogue of the bishops of Exeter," and " a Description 
of Exeter," in the third volume of Holinshed. 5. A trans- 
lation of the history of the conquest of Ireland from Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, in the second volume of Holinshed, and 
some other pieces not printed. This gentleman was uncle 
to the celebrated Richard Hooker. l 

HOOKER (Richard), an eminent English divine, and 
author of an excellent work, entitled H The Laws of Ec- 
clesiastical Polity, in eight books," was born at Heavy- 
tree near Exeter, about the end of March 1554. His 
parents, not being rich, intended him for a trade ; but his 
schoolmaster at Exeter prevailed with them to continue 
him at school, assuring them, that bis natural endowments 
and learning were both so remarkable, that he must of 
necessity be taken notice of, and that God would provide 
him some patron who would free them from any future care 
or charge about him. Accordingly his uncle John Hooker, 
the subject of the preceding article, who was then cham- 
berlain of the town, began to notice him ; and being known 
to Jewell, made a visit to that prelate at Salisbury soon 
after, and " besought him for charity's sake to look favour- 
ably upon a poor nephew of his, whom nature had fitted 
for a scholar ; but the estate of his parents was so narrow, 
that they were unable to give him the advantage of learn- 

I Prince's Worthies of Devon.— Mb. Ox. vol. I — Warel Ireland bj ilarri* 

HOOKER. t %1 

Ing ; and that the bishop therefore would become his pa- 
tron, and prevent him from being a tradesman, for he was 
a boy of remarkable hopes." The bishop examining into 
his merits, found him to be what the Uncle bad repre- 
sented him, and took him immediately tinder his protec- 
tion. He got him admitted, in 1567, one of the clerks of 
Corpus-Christi College in Oxford, and settled a pension 
on him ; which, with the contributions of bis uncle, af- 
forded him a verv comfortable subsistence. In 1571, 
Hooker had the misfortune to lose his patron, together 
with his pension. Providence, however, raised him up 
two other patrons, in Dr. Cole, then president of the col- 
lege, and Dr. Edwyn Sandys, bishop of London, and after- 
wards archbishop of York. To the latter of these Jewell 
had recommended him so effectually before his death, that 
though of Cambridge himself, he immediately resolved to 
send his son Edwyn to Oxford, to be pupil to Hooker, who 
yet was not much older; for, said he, " I will have a tutor 
for my son, that shall teach him learning by instruction, 
and virtue by example." Hooker had also another con- 
siderable pupil, namely, George Cranmerj grand nephew 
to Cranmer the archbishop and martyr; with whom, ai 
well as with Sandys, he cultivated a strict and lasting 
friendship. In 1573, he was chosen scholar of Corpus, 
and in 1577, having taken his master's degree, was elected 
fellow of his college ; and about two years after, being 
well skilled in the Oriental languages, was appointed de- 
puty-professor of Hebrew, in the room of Kingsmill, who 
was disordered in his senses. In 1581, he entered into 
orders ; and soon after, being appointed to preach at St. 
Paul's-cross in London, was so unhappy as to be drawn 
into a most unfortunate marriage ; of which, as it is one 
of the most memorable circumstances of his life, we shall 
give the particulars as they are related by Walton. There 
was then belonging to the church of St. Paul's, a house 
called the Shunamites house, set apart for the reception 
and entertainment of the preachers at St. Paul's cross, two 
days before, and one day after the sermon. That house 
was then kept by Mr. John Churchman, formerly a sub- 
stantial draper in Watling-street, but now reduced to po- 
verty. Walton says, that Churchman was a person of vir- 
tue, but that he cannot say quite so much of his wife. To 
this house Hooker came' from Oxford so wet and weary, 
that he was afraid he should not be able to perform his 

}3* HOOKER. 

duty the Sunday following: Mrs. Churchman, however, 
nursed him so well, that he presently recovered from the 
Ul effects of his journey. For this he was very thankful ; 
to much indeed that, aa Walton expresses it, he thought 
himself bound in conscience to believe all she said ; so 
the good man came to be persuaded by her, "that he 
had a very tender constitution ; and that it was best fo? 
bim to have a wife, that might prove a nurse to him ; such 
a one as might both prolong his life, and make it more 
comfortable ; and such a one she could and would provide 
for him, if be thought fit to marry." Hooker, not con- 
sidering " that the children of this world are wiser in their 
generation than the children of light," and fearing no 
guile, because he meant none, gave her a power to choose 
a wife for him ; promising, upon a fair summons, to return 
to London, and accept of her choice, which be did in that 
pr the year following. Now, says Walton, the wife pro- 
Tided for him was her daughter Joan, who brought nim 
neither beauty nor portion ; and for her conditions, tbey 
were too like that wife's which Solomon compares to a 
dripping- bouse ; that is, says Wood, she was " a clownish 
silly woman, and withal a mere Xantippe." 

Hooker, having now lost his fellowship by this marriage, 
remained without preferment, and supported himself as 
well as he could, till the latter end of 1584, when he was 
presented by John Cheny, esq. to the rectory of Drayton- 
Beauchamp, in Buckinghamshire, where he led an uncom- 
fortable life with bis wife Joan for about a year. In this 
situation he received a visit from bis friends and pupils 
Sandys and Cranmer, who found him with a Horace in bis 
hand, tending a small allotment of sheep in a common 
field ; which he told them he was forced to do, because his 
servant was gone borne to dine, and assist his wife in the 
household business. When the servant returned and re- 
leased him, his pupils attended him to his house, where 
their best entertainment was his quiet company, which was 
presently denied them, for Richard was called to rock the 
cradle, and the rest of their welcome being equally re- 
pulsive, they stayed but till the next morning, which was 
long enough to discover and pity their tutor's condition. 
At their return to London, Sandys acquainted his father 
with Hooker's deplorable state, who entered so heartily 
into his concerns, that he procured him to be made master 
of the Temple in 1585. This, though a valuable piece of 



preferment, was not so suitably to Hooker's temper, at the. 
retirement of a living in the country, where he might be 
free from noise ; nor did he accept it without reluctance. 
At the time when Hooker was chosen master of the Temple^ 
one Walter Travers was afternoon -lecturer there ; a man 
of learning and good manners, it is s*id, but ordained by 
the presbytery of Antwerp, and warmly attached to the 
Geneva church discipline and doctrines, Travers bad 
some hopes of establishing these principles in the Temple, 
and for that purpose endeavoured to be master of it ; hut 
not succeeding, gave Hooker all the opposition be could 
in his sermons, many of which were about the doctrine, 
discipline, and ceremonies of the church ; insomuch that 
tbey constantly withstood each other to the face ; for, as 
somebody said pleasantly, " The forenoon sermon spake 
Canterbury, and the afternoon Geneva." The opposition 
became so visible, and the consequences so dangerous,, 
especially in that place, that archbishop Wbitgift caused 
Travers to be silenced by the high commission court* 
Upon that, Travers presented hi* supplication to the privy* 
council, which being without effect, he made it public* 
This obliged Hooker to publish an answer, which was in- 
scribed to the archbishop, and procured him as much re* 
verence and respect from some, as it did neglect and 
hatred from others. In order therefore to undeceive and 
win these, be entered upon his famous work " Of the 
Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity * ;" and laid the foundation 

* The Mowing Memoir relative to 
our author 1 * << Itoolesiastical Polity," 
was drawn up by sir John Hawkins, 
and inserted ta a work inio which Ibe 
admirers of Hooker were doc very likely 
to look for information, the " Anti- 
quarian Repertory." Neither Walton, 
lays sir John, nor bishop Gauden, nor 
any other that give an account of 
Hooker and his writings, make men- 
lion of the particular books or tracts 
which gave occasion to bis writing the 
Ecclesiastical Polity. Wbitgift bad 
written an answer to the " Admonition 
to the Parliament," and thereby en- 
gaged in a controversy with Thomas 
Cartwright, tbe supposed author of it. 
Hooker, in his excellent work, under- 
took Ibe defence of our ecclesiastical 
establishment, against which .Cart* 
wrigbt appears to have been the most 
powerful of all its opponents. Ac* 

cordingly, we find throughout bit worn 
references to T. C lib. p. ; but 
giving only these initials, and citing 
no book by its proper title, we are at 
a loss now to know with whom he was 
contending. It is necessary therefore 
to stale the controversy, tbe order 
whereof U this : " Admonition to tbe 
Parliament, viz. the first and second,'* 
in a small duodecimo volume, without 
date or place; " An Answer to ao Ad* 
monition to Parliament, by John Whit- 
gift, O. of Divinttic," 4to. Printed by 
Bynoeman, 1572. 1. ,€ A Rep lie to 
the Answer, by T. C." 4to. No date or 
place. Or this there art* two edition*, 
differing in the order of numbering 
the pages. " A second answer of 
Whit gift," as most be presumed from 
the title of the next article, and is pro- 
bably no other than a book mentioned 
in Ames's Typ. Antiq. 329, by the 


and plan of it, while be was at the Temple. But he found 
the Temple no 6t place to finish what be had there de- 
signed ; and therefore intreated the archbishop to remove 
him to some qnieter situation in the following letter : 

" My lord, When I lost the freedom of my cell, which 
was my college, yet I found some degree of it in my quiet 
country parsonage. But I am weary of the noise and op- 
positions of this place ; and indeed God and nature did not 
intend me for contentions, but for study and quietness. 
And, my lord, my particular contests here with Mr. Tra- 
vers have proved the more unpleasant to me, because I 
believe him to be a good man ; and that belief hath occa- 
sioned me to examine mine own conscience concerning his 
opinions. And to satisfy that, I have consulted the Holy 
Scripture, and other laws, both human and divine, whe- 
ther the conscience of him, and others of bis judgment, 
ought to be so far complied with by us as to alter our frame 
of church government, our manner of God's worship, our 
praising and praying to him, and our established ceremo- 
nies, as often as their tender consciences shall require us. 
And in this examination I have not only satisfied myself, 
but have begun a treatise, in which I intend the satisfac- 

title of a " Defence of the Answer to question is of the authority of a man 
the Admonition," 1574, fol. Printed by &c." Eccl. Pol. Edit. 168ft, p. H7, is 
Bynneman. 21 «• A second reptie of to be found in p. 25 of one edition, and 
Cartwright against Wbitgift's second in p. 13 of the other. In Ames, p. 
Answer/' 1575, 4to. No place. 3. 329, is this article, which seems to be 
*' The rest of the second Replie of a collateral branch of the controversy, 
Cartwright against Wbitgift's second « A Defence of the Ecclesiastical Re- 
Answer," 1577, 4to. No place. giment of England defaced by T. C. in 
Upon a reference to these several bis Replte against D. Whitgift, D. D." 
publications of Cartwright, and a earn- 1574, 12mo. It does, not here appear 
ful examination of sundry passages that this defence is of Wbitgift's writing, 
cited from him by Hooker, h most yet it has the name of his printer, 
.evidently appears, that by •* T. C. Bynneman. Puller, in hi« Church His* 
Lib. I." is meant No. 1, as above de- lory, Book IX. 102, gives an account 
scribed ; by T. C. Lib, 2," is meant of Cartwright, and of his dispute with 
No. 2 ; and by " T. C Lib. 3/' No. 3. Whitgift, which is very erroneous $ for 
But here it is to be observed, that the be makes it to end at Wbitgift's De- 
reference* to Lib. 1 , agree but with one fence of his Answer ; nay, he goes 
edition of it, namely, that which has further, and assigns reasons for Cart- 
the " Table of the principal Poyntcs" Wright's silence. The truth is, he was 
at the beginning and not at. the end, not silent till long after, but continued 
as the other has. The difference be- the dispute in the Tracts No. 2 and 3, 
tweeu them is, that in the former the above noted. The relation of the con- 
numbers of the pages commence with troversy by Neal, in his ".History of 
the M Address to the Church of Eng. the Puritans," vol. I. 2S5, et seq. is 
land," in the latfr with the book it- very fair and accurate. Antiquarian 
•vlf ; so that to give one instance of Repertory, vol. HI. p. ISA. 
difference, this passage, ** When the . 


tion of others, by a demonstration of the reasonableness 
of our laws of ecclesiastical polity. But, my lord, I shall 
never be able to finish what I have begun, unless I be re- 
moved into some quiet parsonage, where I may see God's 
blessings spring out of my mother earth, and eat my own 
bread in peace and privacy ; a place where I may without 
disturbance meditate my approaching mortality, and that 
great account which all flesh must give at the last day to 
the God of all spirits." 

Upon this application, he was presented in 1591 to the 
rectory of Boscomb, in Wiltshire*; and July the same 
year, to the prebend of Nether*- Haven, in the church of 
Sarum, of which he was also made sub-dean. At Boscomb 
he finished four books, which were entered into the re- 
gister-book at Stationers'-hall, in March 1592, but not 
printed till 1594. In 1595 he quitted Boscomb, and was 
presented by queen Elizabeth to the rectory of Bishop' s- 
Bourne, in Kent, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. In this place be composed the fifth book of his " Ec- 
clesiastical Polity," which was dedicated to the archbishop, 
and published by itself in 1597. He finished there the 
6tb, 7 th, and 8th books of that learned work $ but whe- 
ther we have them genuine, and as left by himself, has 
been a matter of much dispute. Dr. Zoucb, however, 
seems to have advanced almost unanswerable arguments 
against their being directly from the pen of Hooker. Some 
time after, he caught cold in a passage by water between 
London and Gravesend, which drew upon him an illness 
that put an end to his life when he was only in his forty- 
seventh year. He died Nov. 2, 1600. His illness was 
severe and lingering; he continued, notwithstanding, his 
studies to the last. He strove particularly to finish his 
" Ecclesiastical Polity," and said often to a .friend who 
visited him daily, tHaf " he did not beg a long life of God 
for any other reason, but to live to finish the three re- 
maining books of Polity ; and then, Lord, let thy servant 
depart in peace," which was bis usual expression. A few 
days before his death, his house was robbed ; of which 
having notice, he asked, " are my books and written pa- 
pers safe ?" And being answered that they were, " then," 
said he, " it matters not, for no other loss can trouble 



But whatever value Hooker himself might put upon his 
books of " Ecclesiastical ^Polity," he could not in that 

113 HOOKE R. 

respect'exceed the estimate which has been formed by thfe 
general judgment of mankind, with the exception only of 
the enemies of our church establishment. This work has 
ever been admired for soundness of reasoning, and prodi- 
gious extent of learning; and the author has universally 
acquired from it the honourable titles of " the judicious," 
and " the learned" When James I. ascended the throne 
of England, he is said to have asked Whitgift for his friend 
Mr. Hooker, from whose books of " Ecclesiastical Polity" 
he had so much profited; and being informed by the arch- 
bishop that be died a year before the queen, he expressed 
the greatest disappointment, and the deepest concern* 
Charles I. it is well known, earnestly recommended the 
reading of Hookers books to his son ; and they have evet 
since been held in the highest veneration and esteem by 
all. An anecdote is preserved by the writer of his life* 
which, if true, shews that his fame was by no means con- 
fined to his own country, but reached even the ears of the 
pope himself. Cardinal Alen and Dr. Stapleton, though 
both in Italy when his books were published, were yet so 
affected with the fame of them, that they contrived to have 
them sent for ; and after reading them, are said to have 
told the pope, then Clement VIII. that " though his ho- 
liness had not yet met with an English book, as be was 
pleased to say, whose writer deserved the name of an au- 
thor, yet there now appeared a wonder to them, and sb 
they did not doubt it would appear to bis holiness, if it 
was in Latin ; which was, that * a pure obscure English 

{>riest bad written four such books of law and church po- 
ity, in so majestic a style, and with such clear demon- 
strations of reason/ that in all their readings they had not 
met with any thing that exceeded him." This begetting 
in the pope a desire to know the contents, Stapleton read 
to hiito the first book in Latin ; upon which the pope said, 
" there is no learning that this man bath not searched into; 
nothing too hard for his understanding. This man indeed 
deserves the name of an author. His books will get re- 
verence by age ; for there is in them such seeds of eter- 
nity, that if the rest be like this, they shall continue till 
the last fire shall devour all learning ;" all which, whether 
the pope said it or mo, we take to be strictly true. 

Dr. Gauden published Hooker's " Works," 1662, fol. 
With a life, in which there are some inaccuracies. A se- 
cond edition, with Hooker's Life by Walton, appeared in 

HOOKER. 143 

1666, fot. reprinted in 1676, 1682, and 1723, which last 
some call " the best edition." A moire commodious one 
for uie was printed at Oxford, 1793, 3 vols. 8vo. It is 
needless to add how much Walton's Life of Hooker has 
Men Improved in Zouch's edition of those valuable me- 
morials. Hooker's other works, published separately, 
were, 1 . " Answer to the Supplication that Mr. Travefs 
made to the Council," Oxon. 1612, 4to. 2. " A learned 
discourse of Justification, Works, and how the foundation 
of Faith is overthrown, on Habak. i. 4." ibid. 1612, 4 to. 
3. " A learned Sermon on the nature of Pride, on Habak. 
ii. 4." ibid. 1612, 4to. 4. "A Remedy against Sorrow 
and Fear, delivered in a funeral sermon on John xiv. 27." 
ibid. 1612, 4to. 5. " A learned and comfortable Sermon 
of the certainty and perpetuity of Faith in the elect ; es- 
pecially of the prophet Habakkuk's faith," ibid. 1612, 4to. 
6. " Two Sermons upon part of Jude's Epistles," ibid. 
1613, 4to. These Sermbns were originally published by 
Mr. Henry Jackson, with " WicklifPs Wicket," and after- 
wards reprinted without that tract, and met with a very 
welcome reception from the public. 7. " A Discovery of 
the causes of these Contentions touching Churcb-govera- 
ment, out of the fragments of Richard Hooker," published 
in 1641, along with a work entitled "A Summarie View 
of the government both of the Old and New Testament ; 
whereby the episcopal government of Christ's church is 
vindicated,' 9 out of the rude draughts of Launcelot An- 
drews, late bishop of Winchester. 8. " Three treatises 
inserted in a work edited by bishop Sanderson, and en- 
titled " Clavi Trabales," on the king's power in matters of 
religion, in the advancement of bishops, &c. Dr. Zouch 
mentions as a publication of great merit, " A faithful 
abridgment of the Works of Hooker, with an account of 
his life : by a Divine of the Church of England," London, 

HOOKER (Thomas), a celebrated divine of New Eng- 
land, whose works frequently occur in our public libraries, 
and may render their author the object of curiosity, was 
born at Marfield, in Leicestershire, in 1586, and was edu- 
cated at Emanuel-college, Cambridge, of which he be- 
came fellow. On his leaving the university, he preached 

1 Life by Wilton.— Bio* Brit— Prince's Worthies of Dtvon.— Neil'j Pa- 
ritsos, fee. fcc. 


144 BOOKE R- 

occasionally for some time in London, bat in 1626 was 
chosen lecturer and assistant to a clergyman at Chelms- 
ford, where he officiated with great reputation, until si- 
lenced for non-conformity by Laud, then bishop of Lon- 
don, On this occasion forty-seven of the neighbouring 
clergy sent a petition to the bishop, attesting his ortho- 
doxy and peaceable disposition. But this had no effect ; 
and even when Mr. Hooker set up a grammar-school in 
the neighbourhood of Chelmsford, be was cited to appear 
before the high commission court, which determined him 
to go to Holland, where be preached for two or three 
years, and in 1633 went to New-England, and became 
pastor of the church of Hertford, in the colony of Con- 
necticut, and from his pious services and usefulness, was 
called the father of that colony. He died July 7, 1647. 
Among his works are, 1. " An exposition of the Lord's 
Prayer," Lond. 1645, 4to. 2. " The Saint's Guide," 
ibid. 1645, 12mo. 3. " A Survey of the Summe of Church 
Discipline, wherein the way of the churches of New Eng- 
land is warranted," ibid. 1648. 4to» 4. " The Covenant 
of Grace opened in several Sermons," ibid. 1649, 4to. 
5. "The Saints' Dignity and Duty," ibid. 1651, 4to. ! 

HOOLE (Charles), a schoolmaster of very consider* 
able note in his day, and the publisher of some school* 
books not yet out of use, was born at Wakefield, in York* 
shire, in 1610, and educated at the free school there. At 
the age of eighteen years, by the advice of his kinsman 
Dr. Robert Sanderson, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, he 
was sent to Lincoln-college, Oxford, where be became a 

J>roficient in the Greek and Hebrew tongues, and in phi- 
osophy. After he had taken one degree in arts, he can- 
tered into orders, retired to Lincolnshire for a time, and 
was appointed master of the free-school at Rotheram, in 
Yorkshire. In the beginning of the civil war he went to 
London, and by the invitation of some of the citizens, hp 
taught a private school, first near Red-cross street, and 
afterwards in Token-house garden, in Lpthbury. About 
the restoration, he was invited into k Monmouthshire.; but 
the promises made to induce him to go there not being 
answered, he returned to London, aud was taken under 
the protection of his relation bishop Sanderson, who gave 
him a prebend in the church of Lincoln. About that time 

1 2f*al'fl Hi*, of Mow England.— Bodleian and Brit. Huston Catalog ae* 

hooh; up 

he became rector of StocJc, near Billericay, io Ewex, 
where be died oq {he 7th of March, 1 666. He published^ 
w Pueiilesconfabulatiuncula?;" " Aditus facilis ad lingua** 
Latiaam j" " Corderius's Colloquies ;" u Rudiments of the 
Latin Grammar;" "Examination of the Common Acci- 
dence," Add in all, above twenty little books of this kind- 
many of which, were adopted in schools, and repriote* 
again and again for the remainder of the seventeenth and 
pari of the eighteenth century. 1 

HOOLE (Joan), a dramatic poet and translator, was 
the son of Samuel Hoole, of London, watch-maker, by 
Sarah his wife, the daughter of James Drury, a clock- 
mafccr , whose family came from Warwickshire. He was 
born ia Moorfields, in December 1727, and received part 
of his early instruction from his uncle, a taylor, who lived 
in Grub-street *• He was afterwards sent to a private 
boarding-school in Hertfordshire, kept by Mr. James Ben- 
net, the publisher of Roger Ascham's works, where he 
acquired an accurate knowledge of the Latin and French 
languages, and a small portion of the Greek. His father, 
who had carried on the business of watch-making to con- 
siderable advantage, in consequence of some newly-in- 
vented machinery of bis own construction, wished to have 
bis son brought up to bis own trade, but his being ex- 
tremely near-sighted proved an insuperable objection, and 
therefore, at the age of seventeen, be was placed as a clerk 
in the East- India-bouse, in the accountant's office At 
this time, as he often accompanied his father to the theatre, 
who had access behind the scenes, and assisted in con- 
structing some of the pantomime scenery, he contracted 
ja fondness for this amusement which might have been 
fatal to him, for be had no qualifications for the stage, had 
not im father prevented him. N He employed bis leisure 
hours, therefore, more profitably, in improving himself ia 
the Latin, and especially the Italian tongue, which last 
he studied with a view to be able to read in the original 
has favourite Ariosto, of wboai, when a boy, he became 
enamoured by reading the " jOdaodo Furioso" in sir John 
Harrington's old translation. 

From admiring be proceeded to translate this,poe^, but 
laid this task aside for some time, to execute a trajislatjon 

» Ath. Ox. vol. n. / 

* When this little tircumjUpce wai mentioned by ffr.tiode-iofe. Mf*Q* t 
4t»vt**er Mid, xntlmf, « Sir, you hMre *tca r^pfefc fJiKtfttd** 

Vol. XVIII. L 

146 H O O L £. 

of Tasio's " Jerusalem Delivered," which he began fit 
1758, and printed in 1761 a specimen for the perusal of 
his Mends, who probably encouraged him to proceed, as 
in 1763 he published the whole, and was permitted to de- 
dicate atfd pfeseirt it at court to the queen. The dedica- 
tion was" written by Dt. Johnson. This was Mr. Hoole' s 
first avowed production, but he had before printed a few 
ptfetical essays without his name, and a Monody on the 
death of Mrs. Woffington, which is in Pearch's collection; 
In L767 he published two volumes of the dramas of Metas- 
tasio, consisting of six pieces, a copy of which he trans- 
mitted to the author, who wrote a very elegant letter' to 
him. His own dramas were, " Cyrus," 1768; "Tima»- 
thes," 1770; and " Cleonice," 1775; none of which bad 
success on the stage. 

In 1773, the first volume of his " Orlando Furioso" ap- 
peared, and was favourably received, but the farther pro* 
secution of the work was interrupted by his appointment 
to the office of auditor of Indian accounts to the East India 
company, which occupied much of his time and attention. 
Returning again, however, to his task, be completed the 
«' Orlando Furioso" in 1783, in 5 vols. &vo. In 1785 he 
wrote the life of his friend Mr. Scott, the poet of Amwell, 
with whom he had become acquainted in 1757, by mar- 
rying a qoaker lady, Susannah Smith, of Bishop Stortford. 
About the end of 1783 he resigned his employment in the 
India- house, aftf r a service of nearly forty-two years ; and 
in April 1786 retired with his wife and .son, the rev. Sa- 
jfcuel Hoole, to the parsonage-house of Abinger, near 
Dorking. Here, adverting to the objections which had 
been made to the length and perplexity of Ariosto's poem, 
he published " The Orlando, reduced to twenty-four books, 
the narrative connected, and the stories disposed in a re- 
gular series," 1791, 2 vols. 8vo; but this has not prevented 
the republication of bis former edition, which, with all its 
imperfections, conveys the truest idea of the tedious and 
extravagant original. In 1792 be gave to the English 
public Tasso's juvenile poem of " Riaaldo." His last pro- 
duction was a more complete collection of Metastases 
u Dramas and other Poems 99 in 3 vols. 8vo. In this, if we 
mistake not, Mr. Hoole has displayed more poetical energy 
and variety than in his translations of Tasso and Ariosto, 
in which his chief merit is smooth versification, and his 
chief defect a want of variety in his harmony. Mr. Hoole 


HOOLt 14* 

4M at Dorling, Aug. 2, 1803, leaving the reputation of 
an amiable and estimable man in his private character ; a 
man of taste, and a good scholar. He lived much in ha<» 
bits of friendship with Dr. Johnson, and attended that 
eminent man in his last illness, of which he left an in- 
teresting diary. l 

HOOPER (Dr. George), an eminent English divine* 
son of George Hooper, gent, was born at Grimley, in 
Worcestershire, Nov. 18, 1640, and educated in grammar 
and classical learning first at St. Paul's, and afterwards at 
Westminsters-school, where he was a king's scholar. From 
thence be was elected to Christ-church in Oxford, in 1657, 
where he took his degrees at the regular times ; and dis- 
tinguished himself above his contemporaries by his supe± 
rior knowledge in philosophy, mathematics, Greek and 
Roman antiquities, and the oriental languages, in which 
last be was assisted by Dr. Pocock. In 1672 he became 
chaplain to Morley, bishop of Winchester, who collated 
him to the rectory of Havant, in Hampshire, which, the 
situation being unhealthy, he resigned for the rectory of 
East Woodhay^ in the same county. In July 1673 he 
took the degree of B. D. and not long afterwards became 
chaplain to archbishop Sheldon, who begged that favour 
of the bishop of Winchester, and who in 1675 gave him 
the rectory of Lambeth, and afterwards the precentorship 
of Exeter. In 1677 he commenced D. D. and the same 
year, being made almoner to the princess of Orange, he 
went over to Holland, where, at the request of her royal 
highness,* he regulated her chapel according to the usage 
of the church of England. After one year's attendance, 
he repassed the sea, in order to complete his marriage to 
Abigail, daughter of Richard Guildford, gent, the treaty 
for which had been set on foot before his departure. He 
then went back to her highness, who had obtained a pro* 
mise from him to that purpose ; but, after a stay of about 
eight months, she consented to let him return home. In 
1680 he is said to have been offered the divinity-profes- 
sorship at Oxford, but the succession to that chair had 
been secured to Dr. Jane. About the same time, however, 
Dr. Hooper was made king's chaplain. In 1685, by the 
king's command, he attended the duke of Monmouth, and 

. I European Ma*, for lm—SU*. JDfam — Gent. Mag. Vol. LXXIll ~Ni. 
chols't Bowyer.— Jkwwell's Johnson. 

L 2 

140 HOOPER. 


had touch free conversation with bin in the Touter, Mtfr 
the evening before, and the day of bis execution,, on 
which,, that unhappy nobleman assured bin " he bad made 
hts pesrte with God/ 9 the nature of which persuasion Dn 
Hooper solemnly entreated him to consider well, and then 
waited on him in his last moments. The following year 
he tobk a share intbe popish controversy, and wrote a 
treatise, which will be mentioned presently with His work* 
Jo 1691, he succeeded Dr. Sharp iu the deanery of Can- 
terbury. As he never made the least application for pre* 
ferment, queen Mary surprised him with this offer, when 
the king her husband was absent in Holland. With a dis- 
interestedness not very common, he now proposed to i*» 
sign either of his livings, but the queen observed that 
though the king and she never gave two livings to one 
i, yet they never took them away,'* and ordered him 
to keep both. However,* he resigned the rectory of Wood- 
hay. He was made chaplain to their majesties the same 
year. In 1693, when a preceptor was chosen for the duke 
/ of Gloucester, though both the royal parents of that prince 
N pressed earnestly to have Hooper, and no objection was 
1 ever made against him, yet the king named bishop Burnet 
for that service. In 1701, he was chosen prolocutor to 
the lower house of convocation ; and the same year was 
offered the primacy of Ireland by the earl of Rochester, 
then lord -lieutenant, which he declined. In May 1703, 
lie was nominated to the bishopric of St. Asaph. This he 
accepted, though against bis inclination : on this occasion 
he resigned Lambeth, but retained his other preferments 
with this bishopric, in which, indeed, he continued but 
si few months, and on that account he generatsly refused 
the usual mortuaries or pensions, then so great a burthen 
to the clergy of Wales, saying u They should never pay 
ee dear for the sight of him." In March following, being 
translated to the bishopric of Bath and Wells, he ear- 
nestly requested her majesty to dispense with the order, 
not only on account of the sudden charge of such a trans- 
lation, as well as a reluctance to nesaove, bat also in re- 
gard to his frieed Dr. Ken, the deprived bishop of that 
place, for whom he begged the bishopric. The queen 
.readily complied with Hooper's request; but the offer 
being declined by Ken, Hooper at his importunity yielded 
to become bis successor. He no* relinquished the deanery 
of Canterbury, but wished to have retained the precentor* 


ship of Exeter tto iwmmidatu, solely for the use of Dr. 
V Ken. But this was. not agreeable to Dr. Trelawney, bi- 
shop of Exeter. His intention, however, was supplied by 
the bouoty of the queen, who oonferred an annual peur 
aion of 2002. on the deprived prelate. In 1705, bishop 
Hooper distinguished himself in the debate on the danger 
of the church, which, with many other persons, he ap- 
prehended to be more than imaginary. His observation 
was -candid; he complained with justice of that invidious 
distinction which the terms high church and low church ocr 
casioned, and of that enmity which they tended to pro- 
duce. In the debate in 1706, he spoke against tho*fflioti 
between England and Scotland, but grounded bis augur 
asents.on fears which have not been realized. In 1 709- 10, 
when the articles of SacheveieU's impeachment were 
debated, he endeavoured to excuse that divine, and tot- 
tered his protest against the vote, which he -could not 

But, whatever were bis politieal opinions, his ipcvdent, 
courteous, and liberal behaviour in his diocese, secured 
the estefem both of the laity and clergy. To the hitter he 
was a faithful frieud. For while he confined his prefer* 
taents to those of his own diocese, his disposal of thrtn 
was judicious and disinterested. The modest were often 
dignified without any expectation, and the* diligent wex* 
always advanced without the least solicitation* His regn* 
lation also in official proceedings was so coaspieuons, that 
" no tedious formalities protracted business, no imperious 
officers insulted the clergy." The regard which he ex* 
perienced, inseparably attached him to this diocese, and 
it is said that be could not be prevailed on to accept *he | ^ 
see of London on the death of Dr. Campion, or that of 
York on the death of Dr. Sharp. 

Having presided over the see: of Bath end Wells twenty ♦ 
three yean and six months, and having nearly attained fee 
the great age of etgbtywseven, he died /at Berkley, in So* 
mersetshtre, whither he sometimes retired, Sept. 0, 1727. 
His remains were interred, at his own request, in ithe ca» 
thedral of Wells, under, a marble monument with a Latin 
inscription, end adjoining to it is Jt monomeotiwilb en iw* 
scrtption to the memory of his wife, who didd the jyflar. he* 
fore him. By this lady heibad nine children, one of tthoflfe 
only, a daughter, .survived him, then the widow ef 
Peovse^esij* .- • .r- n j '• 



1 /'/ 

150 HOOPER. 

It had been observed of this prelate by the celebrated 
Dr. Busby, " that be was the best scholar, the finest gen* 
tleman, and would make the completest bishop that ever 
was educated at Westminster-school; 99 and Dr. Coney, 
<who knew the bishop well, has proved this testimony to 

r % ^, have been just in every respect. Bishops Burnet and At- 

• ' * V V -terbury are the only writers of any note who Save spoken, 

J* . , * J u " evidently from prejudice, against him, as an ambitious 

'• ^ ^ • ^jnan, a charge which the history of his promotions amply 

. l^.j r * ^ **** refutes. 

- Besides eight sermons, he published several books in 
his life-time, and left several MSS. behind him,' some of 
which he permitted to be printed. The following is a ca* 
talogue of both : 1. " The Church of England free from 
the imputation of Popery," 1682. 2. "A fair and me- 
thodical Discussion of the first and great Controversy be* 
tween the Church of England and the Churcl} of Rome, 
concerning the Infallible Guide: in three Discourses.** 
The first two of these were licensed by Dr; Morrice,' in 
1 687, but the last was never printed. 9 . " The Parson's case 
tinder the present Land-Tax, recommended in a Letter to 
a member of the House* of Commotis,*' 1689. 4* « A 
Discourse concerning Lent, in two Parts. The first, aft 
historical account of its observation : the second, kn essay 
concerning it* original. This subdivided into two repar- 
titions, whereof the first is preparatory, and shews that 
most of our Christian ordinances are derived from the 
Jews ; and the second conjectures, that Lent is of the same 
original/ 1 1694. $. A paper in the " Philosophical -Trans* 
actions** for Oct. 1699, entitled " A Calculation of the 
Credibility of Human Testimony ." 6. " New Danger of 
Presbytery,** 1737. 7. << Marks of a defenceless Cause.** 
8. " A Narrative of the Proceedings of the lower House 
of Convocation from Feb. 10, 1700, to June 25, 1701, vin- 
dicated.*'* 9. " De Valentinianorum Hseresi conjecture, 
quibus illius origo ex JEgyptiaca theologia deducitur," 
17 II . LQ. " An Inquiry into the state of the ancient Mea- 
r f sqres, the Attic^lhe Roman, and especially the Jewish. 

« . >■ 

With an Appendix concerning our old English money and 
measures of content,** 1721. 11. "De Patriarch* Jacobi 
Benedictiooe Gen. 49, conjectural," published by the rev. 
JDr. Hunt, afterwards the Hebrew professor, with a . pre* 
fcoe and notes, according to the bishop's directions to the 
pditor, * l|ttle before his death. The MSS. before meat 

HOOPER. 151 

tioned are the two following ; 1. " A Latin Sermon, 
preached in 1 672, when he took the degree of fi. D. ; and, 
2. " A Latin Tract' on Divorce." A beautiful edition of 
his whole works was printed at Oxford, 1757, folio, by the 
above Dr. Hunt 1 

HOOPER, or HOPER (John), an eminent prelate and 
martyr, was born in Somersetshire, in 1495, and entered 
ofMerton college, Oxford, in 1614, under the tuition of 
his uncle John Hooper, a fellow of that house* In 1518 
he was admitted fi. A. ; the only degree he took in this 
university* It is supposed that he afterwards became one 
q( the number of Cistercians, or white monks, and conti- 
nued some years, until, becoming averse to a monastic life, 
he returned to Oxford, where, by the writings of some of 
the reformers which had reached th^t place, be was in- 
duced to embrace the principles of protestantism. In 
1539, when the statute of the six articles was put in exe- 
cution, he left Oxford, and got into the service of sir Tho- 
mas Arundel, a Devonshire gentleman, to whpm he be* 
came chaplain, and steward of his estate; but this gentle- 
man discovering his principles, withdrew his protection, 
and he was then obliged to go to France, where he conti- 
nued for some time among the reformed, until, bis dislike 
of some of their proceedings made him return to England ; 
but, being again in danger here, he in the disguise of * 
tailor escaped to Ireland, and thence to Holland apd Swia> 
aerland. At Zurich be met with Bullinger, himself a re- 
fugee from his country for the sake of religipn, and > wbo> 
therefore, gave Hooper a friendly reception. During his 
residence here, Hooper married a Burgundian lady. 

On the accession of king Edward in 1547, Hooper wa# 
enabled to return to England, and settled'in London, when* 
he frequently preached the doctrines of the reformation ; 
but bad imbibed abroad such notions on the subject of- 
church government, and the habits, as rendered his.prinr 
ciples tomewhat suspected by archbishop Cranmer,' and 
Ridley, and prevented his co-operating with them so cor T 
dially as could have been wished in that critical time. In 
doctrinal matters, however, be was an able assistant, being 
a man of learning, and a good philosopher and critic* When 
Bonner was to be deprived of his bishopric, he was one of 

> Todd'i Litti of the Demi of Caattrimnr*-G«i. Did,— Gent Ma* .... 
XVII. and LXIL— Burnet'i Own Timei.— Nielli'* AUtrtwy— Atb. Ox. ** 
II.— NicboU'f Bovjer. 

m a 6 o P t ft. 

hi* accusers ; wfrich, nfo ddttbt, would recoitfmetftl hhn as 
An acceptable sacrifice in the following bloody reigrt. By 
the interest of the eari of Warwick, he was nominated and 
elected bishop of Gloucester ; but, when he came to be 
consecrated or invested by archbishop Cranmer and bishop 
Ridley, he refused to wear a canonical habit ; and it was 
dot until these ceremonies were dispensed with by the 
king's authority, that he Was consecrated bishop, in 1550; 
mud about two years after, he had the bishopric of Wor- 
cester given to him, to keep in coiAmendam with the for- 
titer. He now preached often, visited his dioceses, kept 
great hospitality for the poor, and was beloved by many. 
But hi the persecution under Mary, being then near sixty 

2 eats of age, and refusing to recant his opinions, he was 
ttrfted in the city of Gloucester, Feb. 9, 1554, and suf- 
fered death with admirable constancy. 

He published many writings, some of which are to be 
found in Fox's book of the " Acts and Mftn omenta of the 
. Church." The others are, 1. " Answer to the Lord Win* 
Chester's book, entitled A detection of the Devil's Sophre- 
*y, 5tc." Zurich, 1 547, 4to. 2, W A Declaration of Christ 
and his office," ibid. 1547, Sv6, and afterwards 12mo. 1 
"lesson of the Incarnation of Christ," Lortd. 1549, 8Vd. 
*. " Sermons on Jonas," ibid. 1 550, Bto. 5. " A godltr 
Confession send protestation of the Christian Faith/' ibid. 
1550. 6. " Homily to be read in the time of pestilence," 
Worcester, 1553. 7. u Certain sentences written utpri- 
ddn," Lend. 155$, 8vo. S. " An Apology against the un- 
title and slanderons report, that he should be a maintainer 
and encourager of such that cursed the queen's highness, 9 
ibid 1562. 9. " Comfortable Expositions on the 23d, 
«2d, 73d, and 77th Psalms," ibid. 1 580, 4to. it). «• An- 
notations' on the 13th Chapter to the Romans, 91 ibid. 168*. 

11. "lNrelve Lectures on the Creed," ibid. 1581, 8vo. 

12. u Confession of the Christian Faith, containing 106 
articles,'* ibid. 1331, 8vO, 1584, 4to. 13. ** Declaration 
ef the ten holy Commandments," ibid. 1550, 1588, 8vd. 
There are also some pieces of Hooper's in Bfcrnet's " His- 
tory of the Reformation," to which, as well as to Fox, the 
Jfeader may be referred for many particulars of Ms life and 


H o 6 ft N B £ fee K. itt 

HOORNBEECK (JOHN), an illustrious professor of di- 
vinity in the universities of Utrecht and Leyden, was born 
at Haerlem in 1617, and studied there till he was sixteen, 
when he was sent to Leyden, and afterwards in 1635, went 
to study at Utrecht In 1632, he was admitted a minister, 
went to perform the functions of his office secretly at Co- 
logne, and was neter discouraged by the dangers to which 
he vfas exposed, in a city where most of the inhabitants were 
zealous papists. He returned to Holland in 164S, and thai 
year was made D. D. The proofs he gave of his great 
learning were such, that he was chosen in 1644 to fill the 
ehair of divinity professor at Utrecht ; and the next year 
was made minister in ordinary of the church in that city. 
However difficult the functions of these two employments 
were, yet he acquitted himself in them with great diligence 
almost ten years. As a pastor, he often visited the mem- 
bers of his church : he encouraged the pious, instructed 
the ignorant, reproved the wicked, refuted the heretics, 
comforted the afflicted, refreshed the sick, strengthened 
the weak, cheered the drooping, assisted the poor. As a 
professor, he took as much care of the students in divinity, 
as if they had been his own children: he used to read not 
ofrfy public lectures, but even private ones, for them ; and 
to hold ordinary and extraordinary disputations. He was 
chosen to exercise the same employments at Leyden 
which he had at Utrecht, and accepted them in 1654. He 
died in 1666; and though he was but forty-nine years of 
age, ydt considering his labours, it is rather a matter of 
wonder that he lived so long, than that he died so soon. 
He published a great number of works, didactical, pole- 
mical, practical, historical, and oratorical. The principal 
are, " A Refutation of Socinianism," from 1650 to 1664, 
3' vols. 4to; a treatise for the " Conviction of the Jews, 
1658, 8vo, and " of the Gentiles," 1669, 4to; " A System 
of Practical Divinity , tf 4to ; " Theological Institutions,* 
&c. ; all in Latin. He understood many languages, both 
ancient and modern; the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, 
Syriac, Rabbinical, Dutch, German, English, French, Ita- 
lian, arid tome little of Arabic and Spanish. He never 
departed one inch from the most strict orthodoxy ; and 
was not less commendable for his integrity, than for his 
parts and learning. Bayle, who bad little in common with 
so sound a diving, eihibits him as the complete model of 

154 HOORNE. 

a good pastor and divinity-professor. He married at 
Utrecht in 1650 ; and left two sons. 1 

HOORNE (John Van), a distinguished anatomist and 
physician, wsp born at Amsterdam in 1621, and educated 
at the university of Utrecht, where he went through his 
medical studies with honour. With a view to farther im- 
provement he visited Italy ; but on his arrival in that coun- 
try he .entered the Venetian army, in which be served for 
some time. Subsequently, however, his taste for science 
returned ; and haviug studied under the most eminent 
professors of Italy, he went to the universities of Basil, 
Montpellier, and Orleans, in the first of which he received 
the degree of M. D. On his return he was appointed pro* 
fessor of anatomy and surgery at Amsterdam ; aud in 1653 
he was made professor of the same sciences in the univer- 
sity of Leyden, where he died January 1670. 

Van Hoorne was a man of considerable literary attain- 
ments, being master of eight languages. His reputation 
with posterity, however, rests principally on his anatomical 
knowledge. He seems to have first described the thoracic 
duct in the human body, which Pecquet had already de- 
monstrated in other animals ; and the intimate structure of 
the testes. He drew a great number of anatomical figures, 
with great elegance; and besides editing the works of 
Botallus, in 1660, and the book of Galen " De Ossibus," 
with the commentaries of Vesalius, Sylvius, &c. in 1665, 
he wrote, 1. " Exercitationes Anatomies I & II ad Obser* 
vationes Fallopii anatomicas," &c. Liege, 1649, 4to. 2. 
" Novus ductus chyliferus, nunc primum delkieatus, de- 
scriptus, et eruditorum examini propositus," ibid. 16$2. 
3. iC Microcosmus, seu brevis manuductio ad historian 
corporis humani, in gratiam discipulorum," ibid. 1660, aod 
several subsequent editions. 4. "Microtecbne, id est, bre- 
vissima Cbirurgiae Methodus," ibid. 1663, 1668, Lipsiae, 
1675. 5. " Prodromus Observationum suarum circa partes 
genitales in utroque sexu," Leyden, 1668. This work was 
afterwards published by Swammerdam, who had made the 
greater part of the experiments there recorded, of which 
Van Hoorne only paid the expenoes, under the title " Mi- 
raculum Naturae," 1672, 4to. 6. " Observationes Anato- 
mico-Medics," &c. Amst. 1674, 1 2 mo. 7. A posthumous 

•i Oem. Diet.— Niceron, toI. XXXin,— Bnnnui Tnyect Brod.— Fretari 
The«Uom^~S«xii Ownat. • 

II O O R N E. 16$ 

collection, under the title of " Opuscula Anatomico~Cbi- 
rurgica," was published by professor Pauli, at Leipsic, ia 
1707, 8vo, with annotations. 1 

HOPE (John), an eminent professor of botany in the 
university of Edinburgh, was the son of Mr. Robert Hope, 
surgeon, and grandson of lord Rankeilar, one of the sena- 
tors of the college of justice in Scotland. He was bora 
May 10, 17*5, and educated at the university of Edin- 
burgh, where his attention was first directed to the medi- 
cal art He afterwards visited other medical schools, par* 
ticularly Paris, where he studied bis favourite science, 
botany, under the celebrated Bernard Jussieu. On bis 
return to Scotland, he obtained the degree of M. D. from 
the university of,£lasgow in 1750, and being a few months 
after admitted a member of the royal college of physicians, 
Edinburgh, entered upon the practice of medicine. in that 
city. On the death of Dr. Alston, in 1761, he was ap- 
pointed king's botanist in Scotland, superintendant of the 
royal garden, and professor of botany and materia medica. 
The latter, the professorship of materia medica, be resigned 
in 1768, and by a new commission from bis majesty, was 
nominated regius professor of medicine and botany in the 
university, and had the offices of king's botanist and super- 
intendant of the royal gardens conferred upon him for life, 
which till that time had been always granted during plea- 
sure only. While he thus enjoyed his honours at home, 
Jhe received the most flattering marks of esteem from the 
learned of other countries, having been elected a member 
not only of the royal society of Loudon, but also of several 
celebrated foreign societies, and having been enrolled in 
the first class of botanists even by Linneus, who denomi- 
nated a beautiful shrub by the name of Hopea ; and at a 
time when he might be justly considered as at the very 
head of his profession in Edinburgh, holding the distin- 
guished office of president of the royal college of phy- 
sicians, he was seized with an alarming illness, which, in ' 
the space of a few days, put a period to his life, Nov. 10, 
1786. This gentleman richly deserves to be remembered 
as one of the earliest lecturers on the vegetable physiology, 
as well as an experienced practical botanist* Edinburgh 
is indebted to his spirit and perseverance, in establishing 
and providing suitable funds for its botanic garden, one of 
the first in the kingdom. 

} More ri«— Reet'i Cyc! 

It* HOPE. 

Betides some uscrful manuals for facilitating the acquisi* 
tk>D of botfcrty by his students, Dr. Hope was long engaged 
in the composition of an extensive work, on which be be- 
stowed much study and reflection ; the object of which 
was, to increase the advantages which result from the highly 
ingenious artificial system of Linntens, by conjoining with 
it a system of vegetables distributed according to their 
great natural orders. He had made very considerable pro- 
gress in this valuable work ; and it is much to be regretted 
by every tover of botany, that it was left imperfect at his 
death. Two valuable dissertations were published by him 
in the Philosophical Transactions, one on the Rheum pal- 
maiuniy and the other on the Ferula Assafcctida, in which 
he demonstrates the practicability of cultivating these tw6 
officinal. plants in our own country. The true rhubarb has 
been aince extensively and successfully cultivated ; but that 
of the ftssafrntida plant has not been equally attended to. 1 

HOPE (Sir ThobIas), a Scotch lawyer, was the son of 
Henry Hope, a merchant of Edinburgh, who had many 
commercial transactions with Holland, where he afterwards 
resided, and where he married Jacqne o& Jacqueline de 
Tott. His son Thomas soon distinguished himself at the 
bar ; and was made king's advocate in 1627, when be was 
also created a baronet by Charles I. He however attached 
bimself to the covenanters, and was consulted by them in 
all difficult points. The king nevertheless, perhaps either 
to Tender him suspected to that party, or with a view to 
Witi him over, appointed sir Thomas commissioner to the 
general assembly in August 1643. 

Sir Thomas Hope died in 1 64f., leaving large estates to 
three sons ; the youngest, sir James, being ancestor of 
the Hopetoun family, which arose to great wealth from 
his marriage with Anne, heiress of John Foulis of Lead- 
bills in Lanarkshire, these mines being an unfailing source 
of opulenfce. The works of sir Thomas Hope on the Scot* 
tish law continue to be valued : they are his " Minor 
Practics," and his "Decisions." He also wrote some 
Latin poems, and an account of the earls of Man There 
are several of his MSS. in the Advocates* library, Edin- 

HOPKINS (Ezekiel), a learned and worthy prelate, 
who experienced a fate extremely singular, was born in 

> life by Dr. Duncan, Medical Commentaries, Dec ii. vol. HI. 
• Putarton't Scottish 0»%ry. 




1633, at Sandford in Devonshire, where hit father wa* 
cerate $ became chorister of Magdalen college, Oxford, in 
1649 ; at the age of about sixteen, be was usher of the 
school adjoining, being already B.A. ; he was chaplain of 
the college when M. A. ; and would bare been fellow, had 
bis county qualified him. All this time he lived and was 
educated under presby terian and independent discipline ; 
and about the time of the restoration became assistant to 
Dr. Spur stow of Hackney. He was afterwards elected 
preacher at one of the city churches ; the bishop of Lon- 
don, however, refused to admit him, as he was a popular 
preacher among the fanatics ; but after some time be was 
settled in the parish church of St. Mary Wolnoth. Having 
retired to Exeter on account of the plague, he obtained 
the living of St. Mary's church at Exeter, was counte- 
nanced by bishop Ward, and much admired for the come- 
liness of his person and elegance of preaching. The lord 
Robartes in particular (afterwards earl of Truro ) was so $ A ^n > * 
pleased with him, that be gave htm his daughter Araraiuta 
in marriage, took him as his chaplain to Ireland in 1 669, 
gave him the deanery of Raphoe, and recommended htm 
so effectually to his successor lord Berkeley, that he was 
consecrated bishop of Raphoe, Oct 27, 1671, and trans- 
lated to Londonderry in 1 681. Driven thence by the 
forces under the earl of Tyrconnel, in 1688, he retired 
into England, and was elected minister of Aldermanbuty 
in Sept. 1689, where he died, June 22, 1690. He pub- 
lished five single sermons, afterwards incorporated in two 
volumes ; " An Exposition of the Ten Commandments," 
1692, 4to, with his portrait; and an " Exposition of the 
Lord's Prayer," 1691, aH printed in one volume, 1710, 
folia. An edition of his works has very recently appeared 
in 4 vols. 8vo. l 

HOPKINS (Charles), son of the preceding, was born 
aft Exeter, in 1664 ; but his father being taken chaplain to 
Ireland, he received the early part of his education At Tri- 
nity college, Dublin ; and afterwards was a student at 
Queen's college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of 
B. A. in 1688. The rebellion breaking out in Ireland in 
that year, be returned thithqc, And exerted bis early valour 
in the cause of his country, religion, and liberty. When 
public tranquillity was restored, he came again into Eng- 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. II.— Prince's Wortbtet 'of pevoo — Nichot»'»?oe»t> 


land, and formed an acquaintance with gentlemen of wit* 
whose age and genius were most agreeable to his own. la 
1694 he published some "Epistolary Poems and Transla- 
tions,** which may be seen in Nichols's " Select Collec- 
tion ;" and in 1695 he shewed his genius as a dramatic 
writer, by " Pyrrhus king of Egypt,"* a tragedy, to which 
Congreve wrote the epilogue. He published also in that 
year, "The History of Love,** a connection of select fables 
from "Ovid's Metamorphoses,** 1695; which, by the 
sweetness of bis numbers and easiness of his thoughts, pro- 
cured him considerable reputation. With Dryden in par* 
ticular be became a great favourite. He afterwards pub* 
lished the " Art of Love,*' which, Jacob says, " added to 
his fame, and happily brought him acquainted with the 
earl of Dorset, and other persons of distinction, who were 
fond of his company, through the agreeableness of his 
temper, and the pleasantry of his conversation. It was in 
his power to have made his fortune in any scene of life ; 
but he was always more ready to serve others than mindful 
of his own affairs ; and by the excesses of hard drinking, 
and too passionate an addiction to women, he died a martyr 
to the cause in the thirty-sixth year of his age. 9 ' Mr. 
"Nichols has preserved in his collection an admirable hymn, 
" written about an hour before his death, when in great 
pain.** His " Court -Prospect,** in which many of the prin- 
cipal nobility are very handsomely complimented, is called 
by Jacob "an excellent piece ;'* and of his other poems he 
adds, " that they are all remarkable for the purity of their 
diction, and the harmony of their numbers." Mr. Hopkins 
was also the author of two other tragedies; "Boadicea 
Queen of Britain,'* 1697; and " Friendship improved, or 
the Female Warrior,** with a humourous prologue, com- 
paring a poet to a merchant, a comparison which will hold 
in most particulars except that of accumulating wealth. 
The author, who was at Londonderry when this tragedy 
came out, inscribed it to Edward Coke of Norfolk, esq. in 
a dedication remarkably modest and pathetic. It is dated 
Nov. 1, 1699, and concludes, " I now begin to experience 
how much the. mind may be influenced by the body. My 
Muse is confined, at present, to a weak and sickly tene- 
ment; and the winter season will go near to overbear her, 
together with her household. There are storms and tem- 
pests to beat her down, or frosts to bind her up and kill 
her; and she has no friend on her side but youth to beat 


her through ; If that can sustain the attack, and hold out 
till spring comes to relieve me, one use I shall make of 
farther life shall be to shew how much I am, sir, your most 
devoted humble servant, C. Hopkins." 

His feelings were but too accurate ; be died in the course 
of that winter, 1700.' 

HOPKINS (John), another son of the bishop of Lon- 
donderry, who deviated likewise from his father's charac- 
ter, was born January 1, 1675. Like his elder brother, 
his poetry turned principally on subjects of love ; like him 
too, his prospects in life appear to have terminated unfor- 
tunately. He published, in 1698, "The Triumphs of 
Peace, or the Glories of Nassau ; a Pindaric poem occa- 
sioned by the conclusion of the peace between the Con- 
federacy and France ; written at the time of his grace the 
duke of Ormond's entrance into Dublin." " The design 
of this poem, 9 ' the author says in his preface, " begins, 
after the method of Pindar, to one great man, and rises to 
another; first touches the duke, then celebrates the ac- 
tions of the king, and so returns to the praises of the duke 
again." In the same year be published " The Victory of 
Death ; or the Fall of Beauty ; a visionary Pindaric poem, 
occasioned by the ever-to-be-deplored death of the right 
honourable the lady Cutts," 8vo. But the principal per- 
formance of J. Hopkins was " Amasia, or the works of the 
Muses, a collection of Poems," 1700, in 3 vols. Each of 
these little volumes is divided into three books, md each 
book is inscribed to some beautiful patroness, among 
whom the duchess of Grafton stands foremost. The last 
book is inscribed " To the memory of Amasia,' 9 whom be 
addresses throughout these volumes in the character "of 
Sylvius. There is a vein of seriousness, if not of poetry, 
runs through the whole performance. Many of Ovid's sto- 
ries are very decently imitated ; " most of them," he says, 
" have been very well performed by my brother, and pub- 
lished some years since ; mine were . written in another 
kingdom before I knew of his." In one of his dedications 
he tells the lady Olympia Robartes, "Your ladyship's 
father, the late earl of Radnor, when governor of Ireland, 
was the kind patron to mine: he raised him to the first 
steps by which he afterwards ascended to the dignities be 
bore ; to those, which rendered his labours more conspicu- 
ous, and set in a more advantageous light those living 

1 Jacob's LWes.— -Bio£ Dram.— NichoU's Poems. 

J«9 HOP,K|Nfl. 


merits, Which now make his memory beloved. These, and 
et greater temporal honour*, your family heaped on him, 
y making even me in some sort related and allied to y^ 
by his inter-marriage with your sister the lady Aramipta, 
How imprudent a vanity is it in me to boast a father so 
meritorious! how may 1 be ashamed to prove myself his son, 
by poetry, the only qualification be ao much excelled in, 
but yet esteemed no excellence. I bring hut a bad proof 
of birth, laying my claim in that only thing he would not 
own., These are, however, madam, but the products of 
immature years ; and riper age, may, I hope, bring forth 
more solid works." We have never seen any other of his 
writings : nor have been able to collect any farther parti- 
culars of his life : but there is a portrait of him, under his 
poetical name of Sylvius. 1 

HOPKINS (William), a learned divine of the church 
of England, was born at Evesham, in Worcestershire, in 
August 1647, and was the son of the rev. George Hopkins, 
whom Hickes terms a pious and learned divine, and who 
was ejected for non-conformity. At school his son was so 
great a proficient, that at twelve years of age he translated 
an English poem into Latin verse, which was printed some 
time before the restoration. At thirteen he was admitted 
commoner of Trinity-college, Oxford, under the learned 
Mr. Stratford, afterwards bishop of Chester. He proceeded 
M. A. in 1668, sometime before which be removed from 
Trinity-college to St. Mary-hall. He was much noticed 
by Dr. Fell, dean of Christ-church, who, it is supposed, 
recommended him to the Hon. Henry Coventry, as bis 
chaplain and companion in his embassy to Sweden ; on 
wbich be set out in Sept. 1671. While in Sweden, Mr. 
Hopkins applied himself to the study of norther* antiqui- 
ties, having previously studied the Saxon. After bis re- 
turn in 1675, by Mr. Coventry's recommendation, be was 
preferred to a prebend in Worcester cathedral ; and from 
bis installation, began to collect materials for a history of" 
this church, some of which fell afterwards into the hands of 
Wharton and other antiquaries. In June 1678 he was made 
curate of Mortlake in Surrey, and about 1680 was chosen 
Sunday lecturer of the church of St Lawrence Jewry, and 
in 1686 was preferred to the vicarage of Liadridge in 
Worcestershire. In 1697 lie was chosea master <rf St. Oa? 

* Jttchsfe'i Ffctflu. 

ft O t> K 1 ft 8, *fei 

wald's hospital in Worcester, of the profits of which he 
made a fund for the use of the hospital, and the benefit of 
his poor brethren there. He had proceeded D. D. at Ox- 
ford in 1692. He died of a violent fever May 18, 1700, 
and was interred in Worcester cathedral. Hickes, who 
prefixed his Life td a volume of his Sermons, published in 
1708, 8vo, gives him a high character for piety, learning, 
and benevolence. He was a great benefactor to the library 
of Worcester cathedral. Although a man of extensive 
reading and study, he published only, 1. " Bertram or Ka* 
tram, concerning the Body and Blood of the Lord, &c. 
wherein M. Boileau's version and notes upon Bertram are 
considered, and his unfair dealings in both detected/ 1 Of 
this a second edition appeared in 1688. 2. " Animadvert 
sions on A Mr. Johnson's answer to Jovian, in three letters 
to a country friend ;" and a Latin translation, with notes, of 
a small tract, written in the Saxon tongue, on the burial- 
places of the Saxon saints, which Dr. Hickes published in 
his " Septentrional Grammar," Oxford, 1705. Dr. Hop- 
kins also assisted Gibson in correcting his Latin version of 
the Saxon Chronicle ; and made a new translation, with 
notes and additions, of the article " Worcestershire" In 
Camden's Britannia, published by Gibson. 1 

HOPKINS (William), an Arian writer, although be* 
longing to the Church of England, was born at Monmouth 
in 1706. He received the elements of a learned educa- 
tion at his native town, whence he was sent to All-Souls, 
Oxford, in 1724. He was admitted to deacon's orders in 
1728, and in the following year undertook the curacy of 
WalHron, in Sussex. In 1731 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Bolney, in the same county. In 1753 he pub- 
lished anonymously, "An Appeal to the common sense 
of all Christian people, more particularly the members of 
the Church of England, with regard to ah important point 
bf faith and practice, imposed upon their consciences.* 9 
This excited a controversy which was carried on manjr 
years. In 1756 he was elected master of the grammar 
school of Cuckfield ; and in 1766, undertook the curacy of 
Slaugham, and continued to officiate there many year*, 
and in his own parish of Bolney, making what alteration's 
he pleased in the service, at which the churchwardens Verfc 
pleased to connive. He supported the famous petition to 

1 Life by Dr. Hickej.— Ath. Ox. vol. II. 

Vol. XVIII. M 

162 H O P K I N a 

parliament for relief, in the matter of subscription to the 
liturgy and thirty-nine articles of the church ; and wrote 
some pamphlets on the subject, but all anonymously. His 
last work, in 1784, was " Exodus, a corrected translation, 
with notes critical and explanatory," in which notes there 
is little that can gratify the taste of curious and critical 
readers, but so many severe reflections on the articles and 
liturgy of the Church of England, that the Monthly Re- 
viewer took for granted he had quitted it, although in the 
title he called himself the vicar of Bolney. Immediately 
after this publication, his health began to decline ; and his 
mental faculties were greatly impaired before his decease, 
which happened in 1786, when he had attained to bis 
eightieth year. 1 

HOPTON (Arthur), an English mathematician, was 
son of sir Arthur Hopton, and born in Somersetshire. He 
was educated at Lincoln college, Oxford, and after taking 
his degree of B. A. removed to the Temple, where he lived 
in habits of friendship with the learned Selden. He died 
in 1614, a very young man, not having attained to more 
than his twenty-sixth yea*. He wrote a treatise on the 
" Geodetical Staff;* 1 " The Topographical Glass, contain* 
ing the uses of that instrument, the theodolite, plane table* 
and circumferentor;" " A Concordance of Years, con- 
taining a new and a most exact computation of time, ac* 
cording to the English accompt ;" " Prognostications for 
the years 1607 and 1614."* 

HORAPOLLO, or HORUS APOLLO, was a gram- 
jnarian, according to Suidas, of Panoplus in Egypt, who 
taught first at Alexandria, and then at Constantinople! 
under the reign of Theodosius, about the year 380. There 
are extant under his name two books " concerning the 
Hieroglyphics of the Egyptians," which Aldus first pub- 
lished in Greek in 1 505, folio. They have often been re* 
published since, with a Latin version and notes; ,but the 
best edition is that by Cornelius de Pauw at Utrecht, in 
1 727, 4to. Meanwhile there are many Horapollos of an* 
tiquity; and it is not certain, that the grammarian of 
Alexandria was the author of these hooka. Suidas does 
not ascribe them to him ; and Fabricius is of opinion, that 
they belong rather to another Horus Apollo of more ancient 

l Life prefixed to titi edition of fats " Appeal," printed in 1787.— Rees't Cj- 
cloptjdU,— Monthly R«Titv, rol. LXXII. 9 Ath. Ox. Vol. I. 



standing, who flourished about 1500 B. C. and wrote upon 
Hieroglyphics in the Egyptian language, and from whoso 
work an extract rather than a version has been made of 
these two books in Greek. l 

H OR ATI US (Quintus Flaccus), an ancient Roman 
poet, and the most popular of all the classical writers, 
flourished in the age of Augustus, and was born at Venu- 
sium, a town of Apulia, or of Lucania, Dec. 8, U. C. 689, 
i. e. 65 B. C. His father, the son of a freedman, and a 
tax-gatherer, being *man of good sense, knew the neces- 
sity of instructing his son by setting before him the exam- 
ples of all sorts of persons, and shewing him what beha- 
viour he should. imitate, and what be should avoid : spur- 
ring him on all the while to this imitation, by pointing out 
the good effects of virtue, and the ill effects of vice. With 
this view be removed him to Rome when about ten years 
of age, where he had the advantage of an education under 
the best masters ; and when he was abeut eighteen, was 
sent to Athens, where he acquired all the accomplishments 
that polite learning and education could bestow. 

Brutus about this time going to Macedonia, as he passed 
through Athens, took several young gentlemen to the army 
with him ; and Horace, now grown up, and qualified to set 
out into the world, among the rest. Brutus made him a 
tribune, but he did not distinguish himself for courage, as 
at the battle of Philippi he left the field and fled, after he 
had shamefully flung away his shield. This memorable 
circumstance of his life he mentions himself, in an Ode to 
his friend Pompeius Varus, who was with him in the same 
battle of Philippi, and accompanied bim in his flight : but 
though running away might possibly save his life, it could 
not secure bis fortune, which he forfeited ; and being thus 
reduced to want, be applied himself to poetry, in which he 
succeeded so well, that he soon made himself known to 
some of the greatest men in Rome. Virgil, as he has told 
us, was the first that recommended bim to Mecenas ; and 
this celebrated patron of learning and learned men grew so 
fond of him, that he became a suitor for him to Augustus, 
and succeeded in getting his estate restored. Augustus, 
highly pleased with his merit and address, admitted him 
to a close familiarity with him in his private* hours, and 
afterwards made him no small offers of preferment, all 

1 ftfcric. BiM. Gnec— r Saxii Onomast, 

M 2 

164 HO R A T I U S. ' 

which the poet had the greatness of mind to refuse ; and 
the prince generosity enough not to be offended at his 
freedom. It is a sufficient proof of his indifference to the 
pride of a court, that he refused a place so honourable and 
advantageous as that of secretary to Augustus. But he had 
a strong partiality to retirement and study, free from the 
noise of hurry and ambition, although his life does not ap- 
pear to have been untainted by the follies of his youth and 

When Horace was about twenty»six years of age, Au- 
gustus found it necessary to make peace with Antony, that 
theyfmight unite against Pompey, their common enemy; 
and for this end persons were sent to Brundusium as de- 
puties, to conclude the treaty between them. Maecenas 
going on Caesar's part, Horace, Virgil, and some others; 
accompanied him thither: and Horace has given a very 
entertaining description of the journey in the fifth Satire of 
his first book. This happened in Pollio's consulship, who was 
about that time writing a history of the civil wars for the 
last twenty years ; which occasioned Horace to address the 
first Ode of the second book to him, and to represent the 
many inconveniences to which such a work must necessa-J 
rily expose him, if impartial enough to assign the truet 
causes of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, and 
their motives for beginning it From the notes of Dacier 
and Bentley, who have successfully fixed the time of bis 
writing some Odes and Epistles, it appears, that before he 
was thirty years of age, he bad introduced himself to the 
acquaintance of the most considerable persons in Rome ; 
of which this Ode to Pollio may furnish a proof: for his 
merit must have been well known, and his reputation well- 
established, before he could so familiarly address one of 
Pollio's high character: and he was too great a master in 
the science of men and manners, to have taken such a li- 
berty if it had been inconsistent with propriety. 

His love for retirement seems to have increased with his 
age, and for some years he was only at Rome in the spring, 
passing the summer in the country, anil the winter at Ta- 
rentum. He never could be prevailed on to undertake any 
great work, though be was strongly solicited to it ; yet hit 
gratitude to Augustus called upon him sometimes to sing 
bis triumphs over Pompey and Antony, or the victorious 
exploits of Tiberius and Drusus. His " Carmen sseculare" 
he composed at the express command of Augustus; and to 

HORATIU5. 16* 

oblige bin; wrote aJso the first epistle of the second book. 
That prince had kindly reproached him with having said so 
little of him in his writings ; and asked him in a Jetter 
written on this occasion, " whether he thought it would 
disgrace him with posterity, if he should seem to have 
been intimate with him?" upon which he addressed the 
epistle just mentioned to him. 

Horace, although not a philosopher in the strictest ^sef 
discovered an inclination for the Epicurean philosophy dur- 
ing the greatest part of his life; but at the latter end of it, 
seetas to have leased a little towards the Stoic, He was of 
a cheerful temper, fond of . ease and liberty, and wept 
pretty far into the gallantries of his times, until he ad- 
vanced in years. Dacier has very justly said that he was a 
poet in hia philosophy, and a philosopher in bis poetry. 
He met with his greatest misfortune, when his beloved 
friend and patron Maecenas died ; and this event is sup* 
posed to have touched him so sensibly, that he did not 
survive it long enough to lament him in an elegy. He died 
not many days after, aged fifty-seven, Nov. 17, in the year 
of Home 746, about eight years B. C. He was buried near 
Maecenas's tomb, and declared in hia last words Augustus 
his heir ; the violence of his distemper being such, that he 
was not able to sign his will. In his person he was very 
short and corpulent, as we learn from a fragment of a let- 
ter of Augustus to him, preserved in his life by Suetonius ;• 
where the emperor compares him to the book he sent him, 
which was a little short thick volume. He was grey-haired 
about forty ; subject to sore eyes, which made him use but 
little exercise ; and of a constitution probably not the best, 
by its being unable to support him to a more advanced age, 
though he seems to have managed it with very great care. 
Confident of immortal fame from his works, as all allow he 
very justly might be, he expressed his indifference to any 
magnificent funeral rites, or fruitless sorrows for his death. 
Of an author so well known, and whose merits have been 
so often and so minutely canvassed by classical critics, it 
would be unnecessary to say much in this place. Yet we 
know riot how to refrain from adding the sentiments of an 
eminent living scholar, which cannot easily be rivalled for 
acuteness and elegance. The writings of Horace, says thii 
learned critic, are familiar to us from our earliest boyhood. 
They carry with them attractions which are felt in every 
period of life, and almost every rank of society. Thejp 

166 HORATI03. 

charm alike by the harmony of the numbers, and the parity 
of the diction. They exhilarate the gay, and interest the 
serious, according to the different kinds of subjects opori 
which the poet is employed. Professing neither the pre- 
cision of analysis, nor the copiousness of system, they have 
advantages, which, among the ordinary class of writers, 
analysis and system rarely attain. They exhibit human 
imperfections as they really are, and human excellence as 
it practically ought to be. They develop* every principle 
of the virtuous in morals, and describe every modification 
of the decorous in manners. They please without the glare 
of ornament, and they instruct without the formality of 
precept They are the produce of a mind enlightened by 
study, invigorated by observation ; comprehensive, but not 
visionary ; delicate, but Got fastidious ; too sagacious to be 
warped by prejudice, and too generous to be cramped by 
suspicion. They are distinguished by language adapted to 
thf sentitaent, and by effort proportioned to the occasion. 
They contain elegance without affectation, grandeur with- 
out bombast, satire without buffoonery, and philosophy 
without jargon. Hence it is that the writings of Horace 
are more extensively read, and more clearly understood, 
than those of almost any other classical author. The ex- 
planation of obscure passages, and the discussion of con- 
jectural readings, form a part of the education which is 
given in our public schools. The merits of commentators, 
as well as of the poet himself, are the subjects of our con- 
versation ; and Horace, like our own countryman Shak- 
speare, has conferred celebrity upon many a scholar, who 
has been able to adjust bis text, or to unfold his allusions. 
The works of some Roman and more Greek writers are in- 
volved in such obscurity, that no literary adventurer should 
presume to publish a variorum edition of them, unless he 
has explored the deepest recesses of criticism. But in. In- 
spect to Horace, every man of letters knows where infor- 
mation is to be had, and every man of judgment will feel 
little difficulty in applying it to useful and even ornamen- 
tal purposes. 

The editions of Horace are numerous beyond those of 
any other poet. Dr. Douglas, an eminent physician im 
the last reign, collected four hundred and fifty. Among 
these are valuable editions by Baxter, Bentley, Bond, 
Gruquius, Dacier, Desprez (the Delphin), Gesner, Lam* 
bin us, Miiretus, Pulroan, Saaadon, Zeunius, tec. fcc. t# 


which may be added the more recent editions of Jantis, 
Combe, Wakefield, Hunter, and Mitscherlichius. & 

HORBERY (Matthew), a learned English divine, was 
born at Haxay in Lincolnshire, in 1707, His father w^S 
vicar of Haxay, but both he and his wife died when their 
son was very young. The provision made for him was 
400/. which barely defrayed the expence of his education, 
first at Epwortb, and then at Gainsborough. He was then 
entered of Lincoln college, Oxford, where he obtained % 
small exhibition, but afterwards was elected to a fellow- 
ship of Magdalen, which extricated him from many diffi- 
culties, his poor inheritance having been long before ex* 
pended. He took his master's degree, at Lincoln previous 
to this, in 1733, and when admitted into orders preached 
before the university with great approbation ; and be- 
coming known as a young man of much learning and 
personal merit, Dr. Smallbroke, bishop of Lichfield, who 
had appointed him his chaplain, collated him successively 
to the vicarage of Eccleshall, and the curacy of Gnosal), 
to which were afterwards added a canonry of Lichfield and 
the vicarage of Hanbury, on which last promotion be re- 
signed Giiosall. The whole, however, of these prefer- 
ments, even with the, addition of his fellowship, were 
scarcely equal to his expences, for he had very little no- 
tion of Accounts, or care about worldly things. He was 
afterwards promoted by his college to the rectory of Stan- 
lake, and then quitted Eccleshall, preferring Stanlake 
from ks retired situation, where he might indulge his fa- 
vourite propensity to reading and meditation, and have 
easy access to his beloved Oxford. He took his degree of 
B. D. in 1743, and that of D. IX in 1745, and died at 
Stanlake, Jan. 22, 1773. 

In early life he was a coadjutor of Dr. Waterland in hit 
celebrated controversy on the Trinity ; and wrote, in 1735, 
" Animadversions upon a late Pamphlet, entitled ' Chris* 
tian Liberty asserted, 9 &c." The Author of this pamphlet 
was John Jackson, whom be charges with having misre- 
presented bishops Pearson and Bull, and particularly Dr. 
Waterland*, with whom he had then no personal acquaintf 
ance. About this time bishop Hoadly made some ad- 
vances to him, to which he paid no attention, as he greatly 

I Hormtii Operm.— Crusius's Lives of the Poets.— Life prefixed to Beecewea's 
translation.— Brit Critic, Tel. 111.— Saaii Ooomasl 

j-6* HORBERY. 

disapproved his notions. By. desire be published thr£e 
occasion*! sermons, but bis principal work was bis treatise 
on the " Eternity of Hell Torments, 1 * which appeared in. 
1744, and was written at the solicitation of bishop Small- 
broke. After bis death a volume of his " Sermons' 9 waff 
published by bis wife's nephew. 

. Dr. Horbery bore the character of an -amiable and ex* 
cellent man, as well as of an able and sound divine, who 
walked, as his biographer says, steadily through those 
profound depths of theology, in which men of inferior 
powers and attainments are Tost: but such was his uncom- 
mon modesty and invincible diffidence, that nothiug could 
draw him out into public life; On the death of Dr. Jenner* 
president of Magdalen college, be resisted the solicitation 
of a majority of th? fellows to become a candidate, and Dr. 
Home, who was elected, paid him the compliment to say 
that he would never have presented himself if Dr. Horbery 
would have come forward. His library, consisting of 2QQO 
volumes, in the best preservation, was sold for the small 
4um of J 20/. ; but such was his reputation as a preacher; 
that two hundred of his MS sermons, in the rough state in 
which he first composed them, were disposed of for si» 
hundred guineas. 1 

HORNE, John Van. See HOORNE, 

HORNE (George), the late amiable and exemplary 
bishop of Norwich, was born Nov. I, 1730, at Otham, near 
Maidstohe, in Kent, where his father, the rev. Samuel 
Home, was rector. Of four sons and three daughters be 
was the second son ; and his education was commenced at 
home under the instruction of his father* At thirteen* 
having made a good proficiency, he was sent to school at 
Maidstone, under the rev, Deodatus.Bye, a man of good 
principles ; and at little more than fifteen, being elected to 
a' Maidstone. scholarship at. University college, Oxford, be 
went there to reside* He was so much approved at his 
college, that about the time when he took his bachelor's 
degree, which waa Oct. 27, 1749, in consequence of a 
strong recommendation from that place, he was elected to 
«• Kentish fellowship at Magdalen. On June 1, 1752* ha 
took his master's degree, and on Trinity Sunday, in the* 
yfcar following, he was ordained by the bishop of Oxfordf 
and soojv after preached bis first sermon for his friend an^L 

• « GAt M»g. Tdl LXIX. mod XiXVI. 

HORNS. 169 

biographer, Mr. Jones, at Finedon, in Northamptonshire. 
A sbprt time after he preached in London with such snq* 
cess, that a person, eminent himself for the same talent, 
pronounced him, without, exception, the beat preacher in 

At the early age of nineteen, Mr, Home had imbibed & 
very favourable opinion of the sentiments of Mr* Hutchin- 
son ; which* be afterwards adopted and disseminated with- 
out disguise. Supported by the learning and zeal of his 
friends, Mr. Watson of University college, Dr. Hodges, 
.provost of Oriel, and Dr. Patten, of Corpus, he ably vin- 
dicated his principles against the intemperate invectives 
to which their novelty exposed them. That part indeed 
pf the Hutchin8onian controversy which relates to Hebrew 
etymology was discountenanced by Mr.. Home as,*in a 
great measure, fanciful and arbitrary. He considered it 
of infinitely more importance to be .employed iu investi- 
gating facts than to be disputing about verbal criticisms. 
The principles of Mr. Hutchinson beginning- to extend, 
their influence in the university, in 1756 a bold attack was 
made upon them in .an anonymous pamphlet, entitled " A 
Word to the Hutchinsonians." Mr. Home, considering 
himself more particularly called upon for a defence, as 
being personally aimed at in the animadversions, produced 
an Apology, which has been universally admired for its 
temper, learning, and good sense. The question agitated 
seems rather to involve the very essense of religion, than 
to concern Mr. Hutchinson or his principles. The pam- 
phlet was attributed by the public in general, and Mr. Home 
in particular, to Mr. Kennicott, of Exeter college ; a man 
who had distinguished himself by an accurate acquaintance 
with the Hebrew, and two masterly dissertations, one on 
the Tree of Life, the other on the Sacrifices of Cain, and 

. After bis Apology, Mr. Home took an active part in the 
controversy with Mr. Kennicott ott the propriety of col- 
lating the text of the Hebrew Bible with such manuscripts 
as could then be procured, in* order to reform the text, 
and prepare it for a new translation into the English laa* 
guage* Mr. Home strongly objected to the proposal, from 
a persuasion, among other serious reasons, that the wide 
principle upon which k was to be conducted might en- 
danger the interest of genuine Christianity* He conr 
ceived that the uofcoyfid.oriticisjn to which the tt*t would 

17b HORNE, 

be liable by this measure, might afford some additional 
pretexts for the sceptical cavils of those, who, with affecta- 
tion of superior learning, bad already shewn themselves 
active in discovering imaginary corruptions. Whatever, 
in these speculative points, the opinions of Mr. Home 
might be, -be was esteemed both now and throughout his 
life, a good and valuable man, a sincere Christian in 
thought and in action, and in all respects worthy of the 
preferment he obtained. About 1756, he had planned 
and begun to execute bis " Commentary on the Psalms, 9 * 
which he did not complete and publish till twenty years 
After. It was a work in which he always proceeded with 
-pleasure, and on which he delighted to dwell and meditate. 
- Soon after the publication of this valuable work, Dr. 
-Horne, feeling much concern at the progress of infidelity, 
to which the writings of Mr. Hume seemed in no small 
degree to contribute, endeavoured to undeceive the world 
with respect to the pretended cheerfulness and tranquillity 
of the last moments of this unbelieving philosopher. He 
addressed an anonymoos " Letter to Dr. Adam Smith," in 
which, with clear and sound argument, and the most per- 
fect natural good humour, be overthrows the artificial 
account given in Mr. Hume's life, by allusions to certain 
well-founded anecdotes concerning him, which are totally 
inconsistent with it. 

In 1784 this Letter was followed by bis u Letters on 
Infidelity ;" which abound with instruction and entertain- 
ment, and are exceedingly well adapted both to arm the 
minds of youth against the dangerous tendency of philo- 
sophizing infidelity, and to counteract any impressions 
which its specious garb and licentious easy temper may 
have already made. The unsoundness of Mr. Hume's 
opinions, and the futility of his arguments, are displayed 
in so happy a strain of ridicule, that none, says oue of his 
biographers, " but an unbeliever can be angry, or even 
feel displeased." The latter part of these Letters is em- 
ployed in attempting to shew |he fallacy of some miscel- 
laneous objections against Christianity, brought forward 
by a more modern advocate for infidelity. 

The character and conduct of Mr. Horne were so much 
approved in the college to which be belonged, tbat on a 
vacancy happening in 1768, he was elected to the high 
office of president of that society. Nearly at the same 
time he married the daughter of Philip Burton, esq, of 

HORNE. 171 

Ehbam, in Kent, by whom be had three daughter*. The 
public situation of Mr. Home now made it proper for him 
to proceed to the degree of doctor in divinity ; and he was 
also appointed one of the chaplains to the king. In 1776 
Dr. Home was elected vice-ehancellor of the university of 
Oxford, which office he held for the customary period of 
four years. In this situation he became known to lord 
North, the chancellor, and this, it is probable, prepared 
the way to his subsequent elevation. In 1781, the very 
year after the expiration of his office of vice-chancellor, he 
was made dean of Canterbury, and would willingly have 
relinquished bis cares at Oxford, to reside altogether in 
his native county of Kent ; but he yielded to the judg- 
ment of a prudent friend who advised him to retain his 
situation at Magdalen. In 1739, on the translation of 
bishop Bagot to St. Asaph, Dr. Home was advanced to tha . 
episcopal dignity, and succeeded him in the see of Nor- 
wich. Unhappily, though he was no more^than fifty-nine, 
he had already begun to suffer much from infirmities* 
" Alas!" said he, observing the large flight of steps wl^ich 
lead into the palace of Norwich, " I am come to these 
steps at a time of life when I can neither go up them nor 
down them with safety." It happened consequently, that 
the church could not long be benefited by bis piety and 
zeal. Even the charge which he composed for his primary 
visitation at Norwich, he was unable to deliver, and it was 
printed " as intended to have been delivered. 19 From two 
visits to Bath he had received sensible benefit, and was 
meditating a third in the autumn of 1791, which he bad 
been requested not to delay too long. He did, however, 
delay it toe long, and was visited by a paralytic stroke on 
the road to that place. He completed bis journey, though 
very ill ; and for a short time was so far recovered as to 
walk daily to the pump-room ; but the hopes of his friends 
and family were of short duration, for, on the 17th of Ja- 
nuary, 1792, in the sixty-second year of his age, bis death 
afforded an edifying example of Christian resignation and 
hope ; and he was buried at Eltbam in Kent, with a com- 
mendatory but very just epitaph, which is also put up in 
the cathedral at Norwich. 

It cannot often fall to the lot of the biographer to re- 
cord a man so blameless in character and conduct as bishop 
Home. Whatever might be his peculiar opinions on some 
points, he was undoubtedly a sincere and exemplary Chris- 

47* HOSNE. 

iiap ; and as a scholar, a writer, and a preachfer, a man of 
no ordinary qualifications. , The cheerfulness of bis dispo* 
sition is often marked by tbe vivacity of hi* writings, and 
the. sincerity of bis heart is every where conspicuous in 
them. So far was be from any tincture of covetousness; 
that be laid up nothing from bis preferments in the church* 
Jf lie wa$ no loser at the year's end be was. perfectly satis** 
$ed» What he gave away was bestowed with so much se- 
crecy, tfiat it was supposed by some persons to be little j 
but, after his death, when the pensioners, to whom he had 
been a constant benefactor, rose up to look about them 
for some other support, it began to be known who, and 
bow many they were. 

The works of bishop Home amount to a good many 
articles, which we shall notice in chronological order: 1. 
'.' Tbe Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's Somnium 
Scipionis explained ; or a brief attempt to demonstrate that 
tbe Newtonian system is perfectly agreeable to the notions 
of tbe wisest antients, and that mathematical principles are 
the oply sure ones," Lond. 1751, 6vo. 2." A fair, can- 
did, and impartial state of tbe Case between sir Isaac New- 
ton and Mr. Hutchinson," kc. Oxford, 1753, 8vo. 3. 
" Spipilegium Sbuckfordtauum ; or a nosegay for the cri- 
tics," &a Lond. 1754, 12 mo. 4. " Christ and tbe Holy 
Ghost, tbe supporters of the Spiritual Life," &c. two ser- 
mons preached before the university of Oxford, 1755, 8vo. 
4. '* The Almighty justified in Judgment," a sermon, 1756. 
6. " An Apology for certain gentlemen in the university of 
Oxford, aspersed in a late anonymous Pamphlet," 1756, 
8vo. 7. " A view of-Mr. Kennicott's method of correcting 
die Hebrew Text," &c. Oxford, 1760, 8vo. 8. " Consi- 
derations on tbe Life and Death of St. John tbe Baptist," 
Oxford, 1772, 8vo. This pleasing tract contained the 
substance of several sermons preached annually at Magda- 
len-college, in Oxford, the course of which had commenced 
in 1755. A second edition in 12mo, was published at 
Oxford in 1777. 9. " Considerations on the projected 
Reformation of the Church of England, in a letter to the 
right lion. . lord North. By a clergyman," London, 1772, 
.4to. 10. " A Commentary on the Book of Psalms," &c. 
&c. Oxford, 1776,' 2 vols, 4to. Reprinted in 8vo, in 1778, 
4nd three times, since. With what satisfaction ibis good 
man composed this pious work, may best be judged from 
the following- passage in bis preface. " Could tbe author 

H O R N E. 173 

Batter himself that any one would have half the pleasure ih 
reading the following exposition, which he hath had ih 
writing it, he would not fear the loss of his labour. The 
employment detached him from the bustle and hurry of 
life, the din of politics, and the noise of folly. Vanity 
and vexation flew away for a season, care and disquietude 
came not near his dwelling. He arose fresh as the morning 
to hi* task ; the silence of the night invited him to pursue 
it; and he can truly say that food and rest were not pre- 
ferred before it. Every psaltti improved infinitely on his 
acquaintance with it, and no one gave him uneasiness but 
the last ; for then he grieved that his work was done. Hap- 
pier hours thin those which have been spent in these me* 
ditations on the songs of Sion he never expects to see i& 
this world. Very pleasantly did they pass, and move 
smoothly and swiftly along ; for when thus engaged he 
counted no time. They are gone, but have left a relish 
and a fragrance on the mind, and the remembrance of them 
is sweet." 1 1. " A Letter to Adam Smith, LL. D. on the 
Life, Death, ami Philosophy of David Hume, esq. By 
one of the people called Christians," Oxford, 1777, 12mo, 
12. " Discourses on several subjects and occasions, 9 * Ox- 
ford, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. These sermons have gone through 
five editions. 13. " Letters on Infidelity ," Oxford, 1784. 
12mo. 14- M The Duty of contending for the Faith," Jude^ 
ver. 3. preached at the primary visitation of the most re- 
verend John lord archbishop of Canterbury, July 1, 1786. 
To which is subjoined, a " Discourse oh the Trinity in 
Unity, Mattb. xxviii. 19." 1786, 4to. These sermons, 
with fourteen others preached on particular occasions, and 
all published * separately, were collected into one volume, 
8vo, at Oxford, in 1795. The two have also been pub* 
lished in 12 mo, by the society for promoting Christian 
knowledge, and are among the books distributed by that 
society. 1 5. " A letter to the rev. Dr. Priestley, by an 
Undergraduate," Oxford, 1787. 16. " Observations on 
the Case of the Protestant Dissenters, with reference to 
the Corporation and Test Acts," Oxford, 1790, 8vo. 17. 
*' Charge intended to have been delivered to the Clergy 
of Norwich, at the primary visitation," 1791, 4to. 18. 
" Discourses on several subjects and occasions," Oxford, 
1794, 8vo, vols. 3 and 4 ; a posthumous publication. The 
four Volumes have since b^en reprinted in an uniform edi- 
tion ; and lately an uniform'editioQ of these and his other 
works, with his life, by Mr. Jones, baa been printed in 6 

174 H O R N E. 

vols. Svo. Besides these, might be enumerated severil 
occasional papers in different periodical publications, but 
particularly the papers signed Z. in the " Olla Podrida," 
a periodical work, conducted by Mr. T. Monro, then ba- 
chelor of arts, and a demy of Magdalen college, Oxford. ' 
HORNECK (Dr. Anthony), an English divine, was 
born at Batcharack, a town in the Lower Palatinate, in 
1641. His father was recorder or secretary of that town,- 
a strict protestant ; and the doctor was brought up in the 
same manner, though some, we find, asserted that he was 
originally a papist He was designed for the sacred mi* 
nistry from his birth, and first sent to Heidelberg, where 
he studied divinity under Spanheim, afterwards professor 
at Leyden. When he was nineteen he came over to 
England, and was entered of Queen's college, in Oxford, 
Dec 1663; of which, by the interest of Barlow, then pro- 
vost of that college, and afterwards bishop of Lincoln, be 
was made chaplain soon after his admission. He was in- 
corporated M. A. from the university of Wittemberg, Dec. 
1663 ; and not long after made vicar of All Saints, in Ox* 
ford, a living in the gift of Lincoln-cotlege. Here he con* 
tinned two years, and was then taken into the family of 
the duke of Albemarle, in quality of tutor to his son lord 
Torrington. The duk/ presented him to the rectory of 
Doulton, in Devonshire, aud procured him also a prebend 
in the church of Exeter. In 1669, before he married, be 
wefct over into Germany to see his friends, where he was 
much admired as a preacher, and was entertained with 
great respect at the court of the elector Palatine. At his 
return in 1671, he was chosen preacher in the Savoy, 
where he continued to officiate till he died *• This, how- 

* He bad been recommended for the Garden to Dr. Horaeck are not easy to 
living of Cotem-garden; but the perish be assigned at this dittance el tine. 
was to averse to him, that Tiftotson But their dislike to him was the more 
•aid* if the earl of Bedford had liked extraordinary, considering his prodi- 
fcim, be could not have have thought gions popularity, on account of hit 
it fit to bestow the living on him, reputation for piety, and hit pathetic 
" knowing how necessary it it to the sermons, hit church at the Savoy being 
good effect of a man's ministry, that crowded by auditors from the most 
be do not lie under any great prejudice remote parts, which oc c asioned dean 
with the people." Dr. Bjrch remarks Freeman to say that Dr. H.'s parish 
en this, that the grounds of the great was much the largest tn town, since it 
averseness in the parish of Covent reached from Whitehall to Wbitechapeh, 

* life by the Rev. W. Jones.— See some valuable remarks on his cha- 
racter in Dr. Gleig's Supplement to the Encyclop. Britaonica.— Gent Mag* 
LXII, LX11I, and LXVI<— Betwel!*s Life of Johnson.— Forbes't Life nf 
Beattie, fccJtc To his works may be addld, " Considerations on the Life and 
Death of Abel, Enoch and Noah," Itao, 1813, a work which we happened njaY 
to tee ip time to insert in the teat, 

H O R N E C K, 175 

ever, was but poor maintenance, the salary being small as 
well as precarious, and he continued in mean circum- 
stances for some years after the revolution ; till, as his 
biographer, bishop Kidder, says, it pleased God to raise up 
a friend who concerned himself on his behalf, namely, 
the lord admiral Kussel, afterwards earl of Orford. Before 
he went to sea, lord Kussel waited on the queen to take 
leave ; and when he was with her, begged of her that she 
" would be pleased to bestow some preferment on Dr* 
Horneck." The queen told him, that she " could not at 
present think of any way of preferring the doctor ;" and 
with, this answer the admiral was dismissed. Some time 
after, the queen related what had passed to archbishop 
Tillotson ; and added,- that she " was anxious lest the ad- 
miral should think her too unconcerned on the doctor's 
behalf." Consulting with him therefore what was to be 
done, Tillotson advised her to promise him the next pre- 
bend of Westminster that should happen to become void. 
This the queen did, and lived to make good her word in 
1693, In 1681 he bad commenced D. D. at Cambridge, 
and was afterwards made chaplain to king William and 
queen Mary. His prebend at Exeter lying at a great dis- 
tance from him, he resigned it; and in Sept 1694 was 
admitted to a prebend in the church of Wells, to which 
he was presented by his friend Dr. Kidder, bishop of Bath 
and Wells. It was no very profitable thing; and if it 
had been, he would have enjoyed but little of it, since he 
died so soon after as Jan. 1696, in his fifty-sixth yiear. 
His body being opened, it appeared that both bis ureters 
were stopped ; the one by a stone that entered the top of. 
the ureter with a sharp end ; the upper part of which was 
thick, and much too large to enter any farther ; the other 
by stones of much less firmness and consistence. He was 
interred in Westminster-abbey, where a monument, with 
an handsome inscription upon it, was erected to his memory. 
He was, says Kidder, a man of very good learning, and 
bad good skill in the languages. He had applied himself 
to the Arabic from his youth, and retained it to his death. 
He had great skill in the Hebrew likewise: nor was his 
skill limited to the Biblical Hebrew only, but he was also 
a great master in the Rabbinical. He was a most diligent 
-Jind indefatigable reader of the Scriptures in the original 
languages : " Sacras literas tractavit indefesso studio," says 
bis tutor Spanheim of him : and adds, that he was then 


of an elevated Wit, of which he gave a specimen in 165$, 
by publicly defending " A Dissertation upon the Vow of 
Jephthafa concerning the sacrifice of his daughter." Hfr 
had great skill in ecclesiastical history, in controversial and 
casuistical divinity ; and it is said, that few men were so 
frequently consulted in cases of conscience as Dr. Horneck. 
As to his pastoral care in all its branches, he is set forth 
as onfe of the greatest examples that ever lived. " He had 
the. zeal, the spirit, the courage, of John the Baptist/* 
says Kidder, " and durst reprove a great man ; and per- 
haps that man lived not, that was more conscientious in 
this matter. I very well knew a great man," says the 
bishop, " and peer of the realm, from Whom he had just 
expectations of preferment ; but this was so far from stop- 
ping his mouth, that be reproved him to his face, upon a 
very critical affair. He missed of his preferment, indeed, 
but saved his own soul. This freedom," continues thq 
bishop, " made his acquaintance and friendship very de- 
sirable by every good man, that would be better. He 
would in him be very sure of a friend, that would not suf- 
fer sin upon him. I may say of him what Pliny. says of 
Corellius Rufus, whose death he laments, ' amisi meae vita* 
testem,' &c. M have lost a faithful witness of my life*; 1 
and may add what be said upon that occasion to his friend 
Calvisius, ' vereor ne negligentius vivam,' * I am afraid lest 
for the time to come I should live more carelessly .' " His 
original works are, 1. " The great Law of Consideration,: 
or, a discourse wherein the nature, usefulness, and abso- 
lute necessity of consideration, in order to a truly serious 
and religious life, are laid open,'* London, 1676, 8vo' 
which has been several times reprinted with additions ana 
corrections. 2. " A letter to a lady revolted to the Romish 
church," London, 1 678, 1 2mo. 3. " The happy Asce- 
tick: or the best Exercise/ 1 London, 1681, 8vo. To this 
is subjoined, " A letter to a person of quality concerning 
the holy lives of the primitive Christians. 9 ' 4. " Delight 
and Judgment : or a prospect of the great day of Judg- 
ment, and its power to damp and imbitter sensual delights, 
sports, and recreations,'* London, 1683, 12mo. 5. "The 
Fire of the Altar : or certain directions how to raise this 
soul into holy flames, before, at, and after the receiv- 
ing of the blessed Sacrament of the Lord's Supper : with 
suitable prayers and devotions,*' London, 1683, l2mo. To 
this is prefized A " A Dialogue between a Christian and hi* 

HORN E C K. ill 

own Conscience, touching the true nature of the Christian 
Religion. 1 ' £. " The Exercise of Prayer ; or a help to de* 
votion ; being a supplement to the Happy Ascetick, or 
best exercise, containing prayers and devotions suit- 
able to the respective exercises, with additional prayers 
for several occasions," London, 1685, 8vo. 7. "The first 
fruits of Reason : or, a discouse shewing the necessity of 
applying ourselves betimes to the serious practice of Re- 
ligion," London, 1685, Svo. 8. "The Crucified Jesus: 
or a full account of the nature, end, design, and benefit of 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, with necessary di- 
rections, prayers, praises, and meditations, to be used by 
persons who come to the holy communion," London, 1686 f 
3vo. 9. " Questions and Answers concerning the two 
Religions ; viz. that of the Church of England and of the 
Church of Rome." 10. " An Answer to the Soldier's Ques- 
tion : What shall we do ?" 1 J . Several single Sermons, 
12. " Fifteen Sermons upon the fifth chapter of St. Mat- 
thew," London, 1698, 8vp. 

Besides these he translated out of German into English, 
" A wonderful story or narrative of certain Swedish wri- 
ters," printed in Glanvil's " Sadducismus Triumphatus ;" 
in the second edition of which book is a " Preface to the 
wonderful story," with an addition of a " new relation from 
Sweden," translated by him out of German. He trans- 
lated likewise from French into English, " An Antidote 
against a careless indifferency in matters of Religion; in 
opposition to those who believe that all religions are alike, 
and that it imports not what men profess," London, 1693, 
with an introduction written by himself. He collected and 
published " Some discourses, sermons, and remains of 
Mr. Joseph Glanvil," in 1681. He wrote likewise, in con- 
junction with Dr. Gilbert Burnet, " The last Confession, 
Prayers, and Meditations, of Lieutenant John Stern, de- 
livered by him on the cart, immediately before his execu- 
tion, to Dr. Burnet : together with the last Confession of 
George Borosky, signed by him in the prison, and sealed 
up in the lieutenant's pacquet. With which an account is 
given of their deportment, both in the prison, and at the 
place of their execution, which was in the Pall-mall, on 
the 10th of March, in the same place in which they had 
murdered Thomas Thynne, esq. on the 1 2th of February be- 
fore, in 1681." This was published at London, in folio, 1G82. 1 

i Atb. Ox. vol. II— Life by Bp. Kidder, 8*o. 169S.—Biroh'» Life of Tillot ion, 


m H O R N I u $. 

1HORNIUS (George), an historian is the 17th cen- 
tury, was born in the Palatinate. He visited most of the 
countries in Europe ; was tutor to Thomas Morgan, a young 
English gentleman who lived at the Hague ; and appointed 
professor of history, politics, and geography, at Harder- 
wick; afterwards professor of history at Leyden, where, 
having sustained a great loss by confiding in an alchemical 
impostor, he became deranged, and died in 1670. His 
principal works are, " An Ecclesiastical History," with an 
introduction to the universal political history ; a curious 
and instructive work, which has been translated into French, 
and continued to 1704. •' The History of England, dur- 
ing the year 1645, and 1646," Leyden, 1648, 8vo. " History 
of the Origin of the Americans," Hague, 1652, 8vo. " His- 
tory of Philosophy," in seven books, 1655, 4to. An edi- 
tion of * Sulpitius Severus," with notes, 8vo. u Noah's 
Ark," or, A History of Monarchies. This work is fuM of 
curious inquiries into the origin of each monarchy, &c. The 
above are all in Latin. * 

HORREBOW (Peter), a celebrated Danish astrono- 
mer, and professor of that science at Copenhagen, was 
born at Laegsted, in Jutland, in 1679. He studied at Aal- 
burg under very unfavourable circumstances, beingobliged, 
at the same period, to submit to various kinds of labour. 
In 1714, he was appointed professor of mathematics at Co- 
penhagen, and in 1725 he was elected a member of the 
Danish academy of sciences. He died in 1764. He was 
author of many works connected with bis favourite pur- 
suits, among which were " Copernicus Triumphans, sive 
de Parallaxi Orbis Annui;" in which he shews himself an en- 
thusiast for the system of Copernicus ; the " Elements of As- 
tronomy ;" and " the Elements of Mathematics ;" but he is 
best known in this country by his " Natural History of Ice* 
land," fol. 1758. His mathematical works were published 
in four vols, 4to, Copenhagen, 1735, &c.' 

HORROX (Jeremiah), an English astronomer, and 
memorable for being the first who bad observed the pas- 
sage of Venus over the sun's disk, was born at Toxteth in 
Lancashire, about 1619. From a school in the country, 
where he acquired grammar-learning, be was sent to 
Emanuel-college in Cambridge, and there spent some titne 

J More ri — Fr«heri ThMlrum.— Foppeo Bibl. BeJg .— Saxii Ooonatf. 
t Di«t. Hiit. w 

H O R R O X 179 

in academical studies. About 1633, he began with real 
earnestness to study astronomy : but living at that time 
with his father at Toxteth, in very moderate circumstances* 
and being destitute of books and other assistances for the 
prosecution of this study, he could not make any consider- 
able .progress. He spent some of his first years in study- 
ing the writings of Lansbergius, of which he repented and 
complained afterwards ; neglecting in the mean time the 
more valuable and profitable works of Tycho Brahe, Kep- 
ler, and other excellent astronomers. In 1636, he con- 
tracted an acquaintance with Mr. William Crabtree of 
Broughton near Manchester, and was engaged in the same 
studies ; but living at a considerable distance from each. 
other, they could have little correspondence except by 
letters. These, however, they frequently exchanged, com- 
municating their observations to one another; and they 
sometimes consulted Mr. Samuel Foster, professor of as- 
tronomy at Gresham-college in London. Horrox having 
now obtained a companion in his studies, assumed new 
spirits. Procuring astronomical instruments and books, he 
applied himself to make observations ; and by Crab tree's 
advice, laid aside Lansbergius, whose tables he found er- 
roneous, and bis hypotheses inconsistent He was pursuing 
his studies with, great vigour and success, when he was cut 
off by a sudden death, Jan. 3, 1640-1. 

What we have of his writings is sufficient to shew, that 
his death was a loss to science. A little before that time 
he had finished his " Venus in Sole visa." He made his 
observations upon this new and extraordinary phenomenon 
at Hool near Liverpool ; but they did not appear till 1662 9 
when Hevelius published them at Dautzick, with some 
works of his own, under this title, "Mercurius in Sole 
visus Gedani anno 1661, Maij 3, cum aliis quibusdam re- 
rum coelestium observationibus rarisque ptnenomenis. Cui 
annexa est Venus in Sole pariter visa anno 1639, Nov. 24, 
&c." Besides this work be had begun another, in whiufa 
he proposed, first, to refute Lansbergius' s hypotheses, and 
to shew, how inconsistent they were with each other and 
the heavens ; and, secondly, to draw up a new system of 
astronomy, agreeably to the heavens, from his own ob- 
servations and those of others ; retaining for the most part 
the Kepleriaa hypotheses, but changing the numbers as 
observations required. Wallis, from whose " Epistola 

N 2 

180 H O R R O X 

Nuncupatoria" we have extracted these memoirs of Hor- 
rox, published some of his papers in 1673, under the title 
of " Opera Posthuma :" others were carried into Ireland 
by his brother Jonas Horrox, who had pursued the same 
studies, and died there, by which means they were lost : 
and others came into the hands of Mr. Jeremiah Shakerly, 
who, by the assistance of them, formed his " British Ta- 
bles," published at London in 1653 : which last papers, 
after Shakerly's voyage to the East- Indies, where he died, 
are said to have remained in the possession of a book- 
seller, till they were destroyed by the great fire at London 
in 1666. ! 

HORSLEY (John), author of a very learned and excel- 
lent work, entitled, " Britannia Romana," by which only 
he is known, is supposed to have been a native of North- 
umberland, where, at a village called Long-Horsley, near 
Morpeth, the family, in all probability, originated. This 
parent stock, if such it was, is now lost in the Withering- 
tons, by the marriage of the heiress of Long-Horsley, about, 
the middle of this century, with a person of that name. 
We know only of two other branches ; one settled in York- 
shire, the other in the West, from which latter, we under- 
stand the late learned bishop of St. Asaph to have sprung : 
but the branches have been so long separated, that they 
cannot trace their relationship to each other. John Hors- 
ley was educated in the public grammar-school at Newcas- 
tle, and afterwards in Scotland, where he took a degree; 
he was finally settled at Morpeth, and is said, in Hutchin- 
son's View of Northumberland, to have been pastor to a 
dissenting congregation in that place. The same author 
adds, from Randall's manuscripts, that he died in 1732, 
which was the same year in which his great work appeared ; 
but the truth is, as we learn from the journals of the time, 
that be died Dec. 12, 1731, a short time before the pub- 
lication of his book. He was a fellow of the royal society. 
A few letters from him to Roger Gale, esq. on antiquarian 
subjects, are inserted in Hutchinson's book ; they are all 
dated in 1729. His " Britannia Romana 9 ' gives a full and 
learned account of the remains and vestiges of the Romans 
in Britain. It is divided into three books ; the first con- 

. i Gea. Diet.— .Martin's Biog. Philoi*— Hotton's Diet,— Birctfi Hist of tho 
1*7*1 Society. 

H O R S L E Y. 181 

taining " the History of all the Roman Transactions in 
Britain, with an account of their legionary and auxiliary 
forces employed here, and a determination of the stations 
per lineam valli ; also a large description of the Roman 
walls, with maps of the same, laid down from a geometri- 
cal survey." The second book contains, " a complete 
collection of the Roman inscriptions and sculptures, which 
have hitherto been discovered in Britain, with the letters 
engraved in their proper shape, and proportionate size, 
and the reading placed under each ; as also an historical 
account of them, with explanatory and critical observa- 
tions." The third book contains, " the Roman Geography 
^ of Britain, in which are given the originals of Ptolemy, 
Antonini Itinerarium, the Notitia, the anonymous Raven- 
nas, and Peutinger's Table, so far as they relate to this 
island, with particular essays on each of those ancient au- 
thors, and the several places in Britain mentioned by 
them/ 9 with tables, indexes, &c. Such is the author's 
own account in his title-page ; and the learned of all coun- 
tries have testified that the accuracy of the execution has 
equalled the excellence of the plan. The plates of this 
work were purchased of one of his descendants for twenty 
guineas by Dr. Gifford, for the British Museum, where is 
a copy of the work, with considerable additions by Dr. 
Ward. l 

HORSLEY (Samuel), a very learned and highly dis- 
tinguished prelate, was the son of the rev. John Horsley, 
M, A. who was many years clerk in orders at St. Martin's in 
the Fields. His grandfather is said to have been at first 
a dissenter, but afterwards conformed, and bad the living 
of St. Martin's in the Fields. This last circumstance, how- 
ever, must be erroneous, as no such name occurs in the 
list of the vicars of that church. His father was in 1745 
presented to the rectory of Thorley in Hertfordshire, where 
he resided constantly, and was a considerable benefactor 
to the parsonage. He also held the rectory of Newington 
Butts, in Surrey, a peculiar belonging to the bishop of 
Worcester. By his first wife, Anne, daughter of Dr. Ha- 
milton, principal of the college of Edinburgh, he had only 
one son, the subject of the present article, who was born 
in his father's residence in St. Martin's church-yard, in 
OcJ. 1733. By his second wife, Mary, daughter of George 

1 Mdwlrt Bowyer. 


1*3 H O R S L E 1 


Leslie, esq. of Kimragie in Scotland, he Bad three sons and 
fbur daughters, who were all born at Thorley. He died 
in 1777, aged seventy- eight; and bis widow in 1787, at 
Nasing in Essex. 

Samuel was educated in his early years chiefly by bis 
fether, and we are assured, never was at Westminster 
school, as has been asserted ; but of this and the other 
transactions of bis youth, his studies, and early character, 
we have very few particulars that can be depended on, and 
Have failed in obtaining information on these subjects from 
the only quarter whence it could have been expected. It 
is certain, however, that be was entered of Trinity-hall, 
Cambridge, where it is easy to conceive that he was an 
industrious student, applying himself much to the study of 
mathematics, and storing his mind with the writings of the 
ancient and modern divines and logicians. Why with 
such qualifications he took no degree in arts, cannot now 
be ascertained. We find only that he took that of LL. B. 
in 1758, and became his fathers curate at Newington, to 
which living he succeeded, on the resignation of his father, 
in the following year, and held it till his translation to the 
see of Rochester in 1793. 

Fn April 1767, he was elected a fellow of the royal so- 
ciety, of which he continued for many years an active, 
member ; and in the same year he published a pamplilet, 
entitled " The power of God, deduced from the compu- 
table instantaneous productions of it in the Solar System/* 
BVo. This he allows to be a " very singular, and perhaps 
a whimsical speculation/ 9 and says, in language not un- 
characteristic of his future style, that in all probability this 
production would " roll down the gutter of time, forgotten 
and neglected." His object was undoubtedly to display 
the wonderful power of God ; but it was thought that he 
magnified omnipotent power at the expence of omniscient 
wisdom, and instead of supposing that the planets continue 
for ever to perform their courses, in consequence of the 
almighty jSa/, and original impulse impressed upon them, 
when first they were drawn out of chaos, he maintains the 
necessity of a new force every instant to preserve the sys- 
tem in motion. 
. In 1768 he went to Christ church, Oxford, as private 

fn x tutor to Heneage earl of Aylesbury, then lord Guernsey. 

j To this university he appear* to have become attached ; 

end his first mathematical publication was elegantly printed 

H O R 8 L E T. 183 

at the Clarendon press, " Apollonit Pergai inclhiationum 

libri duo. Restituebat S. Horsley," 1770. This work waa 

criticised with some severity at the time, but does not 

appear to have injured his rising reputation, especially 

with the members of the royal society, who chose him to 

the office of secretary in November 1773. In 1774 he 

was incorporated B. C. L. at Oxford, and immediately pro* 

eeeded to the degree of D. C. L. and was presented by his J J f 

patron, the earl of Aylesboay, to the rectory of Aldbury in rT*'*~ > 

Surrey, with which he obtained a dispensation to hold the 

rectory of Newington. In the same year he published 

" Remarks on the Observations made in the late Voyage 

towards the North Pole, for determining the acceleratioa 

of the Pendulum, in latitude 79° 51". In a letter to the 

bon. Constaotine John Phipps," 4to. His intention in this 

pamphlet, which ought ever to be bound op with " Phipps's 

Voyage," is to correct two or three important errors and 

inaccuracies that had been introduced, by I srael L yont^ >/ 

the mathematician employed on the voyage,- in the name*- ' 

sons mathematical calculations which appear in that valua* 

We work ; and this it was acknowledged, was performed by 

our learned author with equal skill, delicacy, and c anil our. 

Dr. Horsley had long meditated a complete edition of 
the works of sir Isaac Newton, and in 1 776 issued proposals 
for printing it, by subscription, in 5 vols. 4to, having ob» 
taspedf the royal permission to dedicate it to his majesty ; 
but the commencement of it waa for a considerable time 
delayed by severe domestic affliction, arising from the ill- 
ness of his wife, for whom be bad the tenderest regard. 
She died in the following year, and sofae time after, the 
works of Newton were put to press, but were net Anally 
completed until 1785. In the mean time bis great dih* 
gence and proficiency in various sciences attracted the no* 
tice of an excellent judge of literary merit, the late Dm 
Lowth, bishop of London, who on his promotion to that 
see in 1777, appointed Dr. Horsley his domestic chaplain; 
and collated him to a prebend in St. Paul's cathedral. He 
also, by the- same interest, succeeded his father as clerk ia 
orders at St Martin's in the Fields. 

In 1778, during the controversy between Priestley, Price, 
and others, respecting materialism, and philosophical ne- 
cessity, Dr. Horsley preached a sermon, on* Good Friday, 
April 17, entitled " Providence and free Agency," 4*o, in 
which be dvew a very acute distinction between the philo« 

184 H O R S L E Y. 

tophical necessity of our subtle moderns, and the predes- 
tination of their ancestors. It waq evident he bad an eye 
to the writings of Dr. Priestley in this discourse, but that 
polemic did not take any immediate notice of it. In 1779, 
Dr. Horsley resigned Aldbury, and in 1730, bishop Lowth 
presented him to the living of Thorley, which he held, by 
dispensation, with Ne wing ton, but resigned the former on 
being appointed archdeacon of Essex, and, in 1782, vicar 
of South Weald in that county, both which he owed to 
the same patron. In 1783, we find him deeply involved 
in a dispute with some of the members of the royal society, 
not worth reviving in a regular narrative ; it is only to be 
regretted that it ended in his withdrawing himself from 
the' society. 

Dr. Horsley was now about to enter on that controversy 
with Dr. Priestley, in which he displayed his greatest learn* 
ing and abilities, and on which his fame is irremoveably 
founded. In the year 1782 (we use Dr. Horsley' s words), 
an open and vehement attack was made by Dr. Priestley 
upon the creeds and established discipline of every church 
in Christendom, in a work in 2 vols. 8vo, entitled a " His- 
tory of the Corruptions of Christianity." At the bead of 
these Dr. Priestley placed both the catholic doctrine of 
our Lord's divinity, and the Arian notion of his pre-exist- 
ence in a nature far superior to the human, representing 
the Socinian doctrine of his mere humanity, as the unani- 
mous faith of the first Christians. It seemed to Dr. Hors- 
ley that the most effectual preservative against the in- 
tended mischief would be to destroy the writer's credit, 
and the authority of his name, which the fame of certain 
lucky discoveries in the prosecution of physical experi- 
ments had set high in popular esteem, by a proof of his 
incompetency in every branch of literature connected with 
his present subject, of which the work itself afforded evi- 
dent specimens in great abundance. For this declared 
purpose, a review of the imperfections of his work in the 
first part, relating to our Lord's divinity, was made the 
subject of Dr. Horsley's Charge, delivered to the clergy of 
the archdeaconry of St. Alban's at a visitation held May 22, 
1783, the spring next following Dr. Priestley's publication. 
The specimens alledged by Dr. Horsley of the imperfec- 
tions of the work, and the incompetency of the author, 
may be reduced to six general classes. 1. Instances of 
masoning in a circle. 2. Instances of quotation* mjsap* 


plied through ignorance of the writer's subject. 3. In- 
stances of testimonies perverted by artful and forced con- 
structions. 4. Instances of passages in the Greek Fathers 
misinterpreted through ignorance of the Gfeek language. 
5. Instances of passages misinterpreted through the same 
ignorance, driven further out of the way by an ignorance 
of the Platonic philosophy ; and 6. Instances of ignorance 
of the phraseology of the earliest ecclesiastical writers. 
Dr. Horsley concludes this masterly and argumentative 
Charge, by saying, " I feel no satisfaction in detecting the 
weaknesses of this learned writer's argument, but what 
arises from a consciousness, that it is the discharge of some 
part of the duty which 1 owe to the church of God." The 
whole of this charge affords a characteristic specimen of 
Dr. Horsley's controversial style, with a mixture of tem- 
per leading him, perhaps, somewhat nearer the bounds of 
irony than became the solemnity of an address of this kind. 
After speaking of many things that may be perfectly ob- 
vious to the penetration of such a mind as Dr. Priestley's, 
how absurd and contradictory and improbable soever they 
may appear to persons of plain sense and common under- 
standings, unsubtilized by sophistry and metaphysics, and 
not stimulated by the love of paradox, he observes, that, to 
those who want the doctor's sagacity, the " true meaning 
of an inspired writer" will not very readily be deemed " to 
be the reverse of the natural and obvious sense of the ex- 
pressions which he employs." 

Dr. Priestley, however, felt none of the alarm with 
which his admirers were affected. He promised an early 
and satisfactory answer. He predicted that he should rise 
more illustrious from his supposed defeat ; he promised to 
strengthen the evidence of his favourite opinion by the 
very objections that had been raised against it ; he seemed 
to flatter himself that he should find a new convert in his 
antagonist himself, and even hinted in print somewhat 
concerning the shame and remorse with which be was con- 
fident his adversary must be penetrated. From all this it 
soon became evident that Dr. Priestley, who could not 
but feel personally what every unprejudiced man felt ar- 
gumentatively, that Dr. Horsley was an antagonist of no 
mean stamp, did not profit by this conviction so far as to 
take sufficient leisure to revise his own writings, but im- 
mediately repeated his former assertions respecting the 
dpctrige of the Trinity not having been maintaineQ by the 

136 H O H S L E Y. 

Christian church in the first three centuries, in a publica- 
tion entitled u Letters to Dr. Horsley, in answer to hi* 
animadversioos on the * History of the Corruptions of 
Christianity :' with an additional evidence that the primi- 
tive Christian church was Unitarian," 1783, 8vo. In this 
there are more of the weaknesses of argument, and the 
errors of haste, than could have been expected from one 
who bad so much at stake, and it was therefore no vwy 
difficult task for Dr. Horsier to continue the contest, m 
the same epistolary form which his antagonist had adopted, 
by " Letters from the archdeacon of St. A) ban's in Keply 
/ to Dr. Priestley, with an Appendix, containing short stric- 

Jf€ hc^f *H r *s on Dr. Priestley's Letters, by an unknown hand,** 
/ ff 1784, 8vo. These letters are seventeen in number, and 

/ «' ' their object is to prove that if Dr. Priestley's mistakes 

which he pointed out, are few in number, they are too 
comiderable in size to be incident to a welt-informed wri- 
ter; that they betray a want of such a general comprehen- 
sion of the subject as might have enabled Dr. P. to draw 
the true conclusions from the passages he cited ; that they 
prove htm incompetent in the very language of the writers 
from whom his proofs should be drawn, and unskilled in 
the philosophy whose doctrines he pretended to compare 
with the opinions of the church. These are serious charges, 
hut our author did not confine himself merely tx> substan- 
tiate them, but followed up his numerous proofs by ethers* 
in behalf of the doctrine of the Trinity, drawn from the 
early fathers of the church, and the best ecclesiastical his- 
torians. The display of reading and research in these 
letters is wonderful. The style also is admirable, and 
while it assumes the lofty and somewhat dictatorial manner 
peculiar to Dr. Horstey, and which indeed the high ground 
on which he stood in this case, seemed to justify, the 
reader of taste finds himself often charmed with the ele- 
gance of the language, and always with the closeness of 
the reasoning. 

Dr. Priestley, in his letters, had expressed a great de- 
sire to draw Dr. Horsley into a tedious controversy on the 
main question, the article of our Lord's divinity, but our 
author, knowing that question to have been long since ex- 
hausted, and that nothing new was to be said on either 
side, ehose, in his " Letters in Reply," to adhere closely 
to his own main question. Re, therefore, as we have men* 
. tioned, defended his own argument, and collected netr 

H O R S L E IT. 187 

specimens from Dr. Priestley's new publication, of his 
tatter inability to threw light upon the subject. Thus a 
useless and endless contention on the main question was 
avoided ; but many discussions necessarily arose upon se- 
condary points, wbieb perhaps the learned reader will es- 
teem the most interesting parts of the controversy, such as, 
the authority of the writings that go under the name of the 
apostolical Fathers j the rise of the two sects of the Naza- 
ranes and Ebaonites ; the difference between the two ; and 
the difference of both from the orthodox Hebrew Chris- 
tians ; and particularly an article on the accusation of 
Trtthekm, which Dr. Priestley had brought against the 
Trinitarians of the seveivteenth century. The " Short \\ 
Strictures on Dr. Priestley" hi the appendix to these Let- J^ 
tecs, it is now known, were written by Dr. Townson* 

Dr. Priestley (we still use his antagonist's words), mor- 
tified to find that bis letters had failed of the expected 
success ; that Dr. Horsley, touched with no shame, with 
no sememe, remained unshaken in his opinion-; and that 
die authority of his own opinion was still set at nought, hi9 
learning disallowed, his ingenuity in argument impeached ; 
and what was least to be borne— finding that a haughty 
chswchman ventured incidentally to avow his sentiments of 
the (£vine commission of the episcopal ministry, and pre- 
sumed to question the authority of those teachers who usurp 
the preacher's office without any better warrant than their 
own: opinion of their own sufficiency, lost all temper. A 
second set of " Letters to the archdeacon of St. AlbanY" 
appeared in the autumn of 1784, in which all profession 
of personal regard and civility was laid aside. The charge 
of insufficiency in the subject was warmly retorted, and 
** the incorrigible dignitary" was taxed with manifest mis- 
representation of his adversary's argument ; with injustice 
to the character of Origen, whose veracity he had called 
in question ; and with the grossest falsification of ancient 
history. He was stigmatized in short as a * falsifier of 
history, and a defamer of the character of the dead." 

Regardless of this reproach, Dr. Horsley remained 
silent for eighteen months. A sermon " On the Incarna- 
tion,' 9 preached in bis parish church of St. Mary NeWing- 
ten, upon the feast of the Nativity in 1785, was the pre* 
lude to a renewal of the contest on bis side, and was fol- 
lowed early in the ensuing spring, by bis " Remarks on 
Dr. Priestley's second Letters to the archdeacon of Saint 

183 H O R S L E Y. 

Alban's, with proofs of certain facts asserted by the arch* 
deacon." This tract consists of two parts ; the first is a 
collection of new specimens of Dr. Priestley's temerity in 
assertion ; the second defends the attack upon the character 
of Origen, and proves the existence of a body of Hebrew 
Christians at JElia. after the time of Adrian — the fact upon 
which the author's good faith had been so loudly arraigned 
by Dr. Priestley. With this publication Dr. Horsley pro- 
mised himself that the controversy on his part would be 
closed. But at last he yielded, as be says, with some 
reluctance, to collect and republish what he had written in 
an octavo volume (printed in 1789) and took that oppor- 
tunity to give Dr. Priestley's Letters a second perusal, 
which produced not only many important notes, but some 
disquisitions of considerable length ; and the remarks on 
Dr. Priestley's second letters having produced a third set 
of " Letters" from him, upon the two questions of Origen's 
veracity, and the orthodox Hebrews of the church of 
£lia : these two are partly answered in notes, and partly 
in two of the disquisitions. Towards the conclusion of 
Dr. Horsley' s " Remarks," after exhibiting specimens of 
Dr. Priestley's incompetency to write on such subjects as 
fell within their controversy, he says, " These and many 
other glaring instances of unfinished criticism, weak ar* 
gument, and unjustifiable art, to cover the weakness and 
supply the want of argument, which must strike every one 
who takes the trouble to look through those second letters, 
put me quite at ease with respect to the judgment which 
the public would be apt to form between my antagonist 
and me, and confirmed me in the resolution of making no 
reply to him, and of troubling the public no more upon the 
subject, except so far as might be necessary to establish 
some facts, which he hath somewhat too peremptorily de- 
nied, and to vindicate my character from aspersions which 
he bath too inconsiderately thrown out." It ought not to 
be forgot, that in this controversy Dr. Horsley derived n 

not a little support from the Rev. Mr. Badcock, whose cri- / 

ticisms on Dr. Priestley's works in the Monthly Review left 
scarcely any thing unfinished that was necessary to prove 
his errors as a divine, and his incompetency as a historian. 

The reputation Dr. Horsley had now acquired, recom- 
mended him to the patronage of the lord chancellor Thur-. 
low, who presented him to a prebendal stall in the church of 
Gloucester j and in 1 788, by the same interest, he was made * 

H O R S L E Y. 189 

bishop of St. David's, and in this character answered the 
high expectations bf eminent usefulness which his elevation 
to the mitre so generally excited. As a bishop his conduct 
was exemplary and very praiseworthy. In this diocese, 
which was said to exhibit more of ignorance and poverty 
than that of any other in the kingdom, he carried through 
a regular system of reform. He regulated the condition 
of the clergy, and proceeded to a stricter course* with 
respect to the candidates for holy orders, admitting none 
without personally examining them himself, and looking 
very narrowly into the titles which they produced. With 
all this vigilance, his lordship acted to them as a tender 
father, encouraging them to visit him during his stay in 
the country, which was usually for several months in the 
year, assisting them with advice, and ministering to their 
temporal necessities with a liberal hand. In his progress 
through the diocese, he frequently preached in the parish 
churches, and bestowed considerable largesses on the poor. 
He was, in short, a blessing to his people, and they fol- 
lowed him with grateful hearts, and parted from him with 
infinite reluctance ; and this diocese may be congratulated 
in being again placed under a prelate whose zeal for the 
promotion of its best interests has seldom been equalled, 
and cannot easily be exceeded. Bishop Horsley's first 
Charge to the clergy of St. David's, delivered in 1790, was 
deservedly admired, as was his animated speech in the 
house of lords on the Catholic bill, May 31, 1791. These 
occasioned his subsequent promotion to the see of Ro- 
chester in 1793, and to the deanery of Westminster, on 
which he resigned the living of Newington. As dean of 
Westminster he effected some salutary changes. Finding 
the salaries of the minor-canons and officers extremely 
low, he liberally obtained an advance, and at the same 
time introduced some regulations in the discharge of their 
office, which were readily adopted. 

During the turbulent period of 1793-4-5, &c. when the 
religion, government, and morals of the country were in 
imminent danger from the prevalence of democratic prin- 
ciples, the warmth and zeal of his endeavours in parlia- 
ment to oppose the enemies of the constitution, procured 
him a considerable share of illiberal censure, which, how- 
ever, was more than balanced by the general applause which 
followed the steady uniformity, consistency, and manly 
decision of his conduct. As a senator he was deservedly 

190 H O R S L E Y. 


considered in the first class ; and there were few iaaportMf 
discussions, not only on ecclesiastical topics, bat on 
those which concerned the civil interests of the couwy, 
in which he did not take an active part. He was net, 
however, an every- day speaker, nor desirous of adding to 
the debates unless he bad something original to produce, 
and he was on that account listened to with eagerness even 
by those with whom he could not act, and who found k 
easier to arraign bis manner than his matter. In 1802 he 
was translated to the bishopric of St. Asaph, and resigned 
the deanery of Westminster. During all this period his 
publications were frequent, as we shall notice in a list 
of them ; and his vigour of body and mind was happily 
preserved until the year 1806, which proved his last. In 
July of that year he went to his diocese, a part of which 
he had visited and confirmed, and after two months' resi- 
dence intended to visit his patron lord Thurlow at Brighton, 
where he arrived Sept. 20, after hearing on the road that 
his noble friend was dead. On the 30th, a slight complaint 
in bis bowels affected him, and very soon brought on a 
mortification, which proved fatal Oct. 4, in his 73d year. 
His remains were interred in the parish church of St. Mary 
Newington, where a monument has since been erected to 
his memory, with an inscription written by himself. 

He was twice married : first to Mary, one of the daugh- 
ters of the Rev. John Botham, his predecessor at Aldbury, 
by whom hi had one daughter, who died young, and a 
son, now the rev. Heneage Horsley, rector of Gresford id 
Denbighshire, prebendary of St Asaph, and Chaplain to 
the Scotch episcopalian church at Dundee. By his second 
wife, who died the year before him, he had no children. 
She is commemorated in the above inscription by the name 
of Sarah only. 

Bishop Horsley's works not yet mentioned, were, beside* 
various occasional Sermons and Charges, 1. " On the pro- 
perties of the Greek and Latin languages," 1796, 6vo, 
without his name. 2. " On the acronychal rising of the 
Pleiades," a dissertation appended to his friend Dr. Vim- 
cent's " Voyage of Nearchus," 1797. 3. " A circular Let- 
ter to the diocese of Rochester, on the Scarcity of Corn,** 
1796. 4. Another circular Letter to that diocese, on 
" the Defence of the Kingdom," 1798. 5. " Critical Dis- 
quisitions on the 18th chapter of Isaiah: in a letter to 
Edward King, esq. F. E. S. &c." 1799, 4to. Towards tka 

H O 1 8 L E Y. 191 

dote of this daemaioit, io which he applies the words of 
Isaiah to the aspect of the times, he says, with almost a 
prophetic spirit, " I see nothing in the progress of the 
French arms which any nation fearing God, and worship- 
ping the Son, should fear to resist : 1 see every thing that 
should rouse all Christendom to a vigorous confederate 
resistance. I see every thing that should excite this country 
in particular to resist, and to take the lead in a confederacy 
of resistance, by all measures which policy can suggest, 
and the valour and opulence of a great nation can supply.' 9 

6. " Hosea, translated from the Hebrew ; with notes ex- 
planatory and critical," 1801, 4to. Archbishop Newcome, 
io his " Improved Version of the Minor Prophets," bad 
pseceded bishop Horsley in translating Hosea ; but our 
prelate has thought proper in so many instances to reject 
his emendations, that bishop Horsley's labours will probably 
be thought indispensable to a just illustration of the sacred 
text. This was reprinted with large additions in 1804. 

7. " Elementary treatises on the fundamental principles of 
practical Mathematics; for the use of students," 1801, 
ttvo. These tracts were at first composed, without any 
design of publication, for the use of his son, then a student of 
Christ-chinch ; and the work was to be considered, although 
then first published, as the third and last in the order of the 
subject, of three volumes of elementary geometry, to be 
issued one after another from the university press of Ox- 
ford. The first accordingly appeared in 1 802, under the 
title of u Euclidis Elenientorum Libri priores XII. ex Conv- 
mandini et Gregorii versionibus Latinis," Oxon, Svo ; and 
the second in 1804, " Euclidis datorum liber, cam addtta* 
mento, necoon tractatus alii ad geometriam peninentes," 
ibid. 8vo. 

Since his death have appeared, "Sermons," 1810 and 
1812, 3 vols. 8vo ; " Tracts in controversy with Dr. 
Priestley, upon the historical question of the belief of the 
first ages in our Lord's Divinity, originally published in the 
years 1783, 1784, and 1786: afterwards revised and aug- 
mented, with a large addition of notes and supplemental 
disquisitions; by the author. The third edition. To which 
i* added, an Appendix by the rev. Heneage Horsley," 
1812, Bvo ; "The Speeches in Parliament of Samuel 
Horsley, &c." 1813, 8vo ; and lastly, "The Charges 
delivered at his several visitations of the dioceses of St. 
David's, Rochester, and St. Asaph," 1813, 8 vo. In 


enumeration of bis printed works, a few temporary tract* 
of lesser importance may probably have escaped us, as 
being published without his name ; but a complete edition 
of his works, for which there is likely to be a demand, 
will supply this deficiency. His papers in the Philosophical 
Transactions would form a very necessary part of such a 
collection. It may also be noticed here, that he occasionally 
wrote some very elaborate criticisms in the " British Critic,'* 
the plan and principles of which Review he cordially ap- 

Dr. Horsley was throughout life an indefatigable stu- 
dent ; he indulged no indolence in youth, and amidst an 
accumulation of preferments, contemplated no time when 
he might rest from his labours. His mind was constantly 
intent on some literary pursuit or discovery, and setting a 
high value on the fame he had acquired, his ambition was 
to justify the esteem of the public, and the liberality of 
his patrons. Knowing likewise, how much his fame was 
indebted to his theological contest, he endeavoured by la- 
borious researches, to acquire that degree of accuracy 
which renders a controversialist invulnerable. It is evi- 
dent that in the study of ecclesiastical history, particularly 
that of the early ages, on which his controversy with 
Priestley hinged, his range was most extensive, and it is 
no breach of charity to suppose that he vexed as well as 
surprized his antagonist, by proving himself more intimate 
with the minutiae of remote antiquity than himself, who, 
from a wish to become the re-founder of a sect, had made 
the subject the study of his whole life. Dr. Horsley, on 
the contrary, appears to have prepared himself as the exi- 
gencies of the times in which be lived demanded, and 
whether the subject was theological or political, he quickly 
accumulated a mass of knowledge which his genius enabled 
him to illustrate with all the charms of novelty. While 
the ablest champion of orthodoxy which the church has 
seen for many years, he was so much of an original thinker, 
and so independent of his predecessors or contemporaries, 
that his mode of defence was. entirely his own, and his style 
and authoritative manner, like Warburton's and Johnson's, 
however dangerous to imitate, were yet, perhaps, the best 
that could be devised in the conflict of opinions with which 
he was surrounded. His writings possessed some of the 
most prominent features of his personal character, in which 
.there was nothing lukewarm, nothing compromising. He 


liberality itself, if it prescribed courtesy tonjen. 
whose arrogance in matters of faith led by easy steps to, 
more violent measures, and who, while they affecte^ only 
a. calm and impartial inquiry into the doctrines gjt the 
church, had nothing less in view than the destruction of, 
her wholq fabrick. Such men might expect to encounter 
with a roughness of temper which was patural to n,im on' 
more common occasions, although, in the? latter, qualified 
by much kindness of heart,, benevolence, and charity. 
Wfien he had once detected the ignorance of Juis oppo- 
nents, and their misrepresentation of the aiiotebt records, 
to which they appealed, , when be, foutyd tha,t ,tfyey had no, 
scruple to \pend authorities to preconceived tjheqry, ad<£ 
tt^at their only way of prolonging a .contest was by- jre^, 
plating the same assertion? without additional proofs, hej 
frequently assumed flf^t high tone pf ; contempt pr Irony 
whic^wquld have been out of place with ppponents, wl» 
k*d no other object in view than the esUblisljiojent.fOt 

, , As a preacher, or rather as a writer of s^rrnoua^Dr^ 
Horsley might be allowed to stand in the first qlass, tf wf. 
knew with whom of that class we can compare J^uri., Sotnp 
comparisons we have seen, the justice, of wjaich we do nojt 
think quite obvious. In force, profundity,, and eruduioq* 
in precision and distinctness of ideas, >** aptitude { and fcp* 
Hcity of expression, and above all, in, selection of subject? 
and original ppwers of thinking. Dr. Horsley' s Sermons 
have been very justly termed " compositions wi generis" 
Upon most of these accounts, or rather; upon all in thi£ 
aggregate, they remove him ftpma cpmfiarison with t^o^ 
wlio may have, acquired very just fame as popular preach- 
ers. Bishop (iorsley everywhere addresses himfetf to 
scholars, philosophers, and biblical cities, Py.tbepe li*} 
was heard with delight^ apd by these his works wilf con* 
tinue to be appreciated as the component parts of ^verpr 
theological library, although t^ey may not assent to all his 
doctrines. 1 .... ' . 

.HORSTIUS (^ames), an eminent physician, washoro 
x at Torgau in 1 537 j. and took the degree of M. D. in thf 

• From material! collected 'in Mr. Nichols's ftowycr."— TTithop Horaley'a 
print** works, end ihe Rertawi «wd Magazine* of the period. A minute lift 
of* him woakj be ctyiiratrie, Ht •* IW« Kmh tor be hf*w>» of his early ly> iU 
labour*, that if now attempted, it would contitt principally of an analysis of hie 
later literary progress, which it *tUt ki)Owii^«td wUHooftlp rtnewhereC 

Vol. XVIII. ' 6~ 

IS* H O Tt S T I 1 

itfrltettlty of Fraricfbrl oti the Oder, in 158ft. He was 
diterttd the plate of pobHt physician in several places; and 
toe ftttttised successively at £agaft and Suidnita in Silesia, 
aha At IgUw In MofaW*, tin 15*0, when he was made 
jjbySirJianttl Ordinary to the archduke of Austr ia ; and four 
years dfbfe'i', quitting that plate, was promoted to the me- 
dkat professorship tn the university t)f Hetmstadt. The 
dfattbq he delivered at hfc installation, « Of 1 the Difficul- 
ties \Vhich attend the SVndy of Physic, and the means to 
rdrhdve thetft,* a very good one, is printed With his 
* EplsWa WillosOpbtete & Medicinales* Lips. 1 $»<>•, Bvo. 
tfpontenterftg'Oir thte pmt, he distinguished himself by 
rifrat wad thought a great fciirguhrrty ; he joined devotion 
to Abe practice of pftyafc. He alwayft prayed to God to 
fiKssltis prefcerfyitibn* ; and he published a form of prayer 
Up6n J this sobjm, which he presented to the university, 
tfe W^itt^dmihseff worthily in tih functions, and pob- 
rtsWd Vome books which kept Up tlje reputatioh he had 
already acquired, but among them was one which £ro- 
dttoc^k^6tttrary effect, Ms u Dissertation npon ihi Golden 
TOoft *f W ttilld ih SfVesSa;* concerning which he suf- 
feftecfaim&6ff to be egregiqusly imposed hpon. Van Dale 
has related In what manner this imposture was discovered. 
Htorstlift, th the tae&n time, tbofc it for a ^reat prodigy, 
which tfutfht to be U comfort to those Christians who were 
Oppressed by the Turk* ; as certainly foreboding the down- 
fall Of the Ottoman efapire. ftorstifts's dissertation was 
EubKshed at Leipsic, in r595, *vo, with another piece of 
Is Writing, "' t)e NoctamlHilis." or * Concerning those 

tifro walk in their Bleep."'' He xfted about I&*). 1 

tfOftSTltfS (GHEboHY), also a learned physician, **• 
fclie^ bf The preceding, was bom at Torgau, where his 
rather was One of the chief magistrate* in 157 a. After 
being educated in the schools of Torgau and HalberstadL 
fcfc went to this university b( Wittemberg, and commenced 
the study of medicine ; atrti received the degree of M. D. 
in March 1 606, at Basil. On bis return in the same year, 
to his native place, lie Was immediately appointed to a 
Vn'edtcal professorship in the university of Wittembarg, by 
the elector of Saxony. Two years afterwards he was pro* 
rooted by the landgrave of Hesse to a medical chair ia 
tfee college Wt Giefcsen* and in i€09 was honoured with 

t 6«l Di6t— mmi.-*aiii Onaa**. 


the title of Archiater of Hesse. At this time his profes- 
sional character had risen in the public estimation, and be 
numbered among bis patients the principal nobility of the 
district. In 1630, he received a public invitation from 
the magistracy of Ulm to settle there as physician to that 
cUy, and as president of the college. He fulfilled his du- 
ties in both these offices with great reputation ; and his 
integrity and humanity, not less than his extensive era* 
ditioti, and bis successful practice, endeared him to his fel- 
low-oiftoens* and claimed the respect and admiration of 
the adrrottnding stales. He died in August 1636, aged 
ftfty-eight years. He left a considerable number of works, 
which were collected, and published under the title of 
*' Opera Medico," in 1660, 3 vols, folio, at Nuremberg, 
by hfc youngest ton, Gregory, who, as well as his bro- 
ther John Daniel, acquired eminence as physicians. They 
wete also both professors of medicine ; Gregory died at the 
age of thirty-five ; but John Daniel lived to bis sixty-fifth 
year, and was the author of several wofks, chiefly anato- 
mical, and of little value at present. He was concerned 
with his brother Gregory in editing the collection of bis 
father's works, and likewise published an edition of the 
•* Questiones Medico-legales" of Paul Zacchiaa, Fraocfbrt, 
1696, in folio; and an edition of the " Opera Medina" of 
Riverius, at the same place, in 1674, folio. 1 

HORT or HORTE (Josiah), archbishop of Tuam, ap- 
pears to hdte been of a dissenting family, as. he was edu- 
cated in a dissenting school, between 1690 and 1695, un- 
<l£r the direction of the rev. Thomas Rowe, and was a 
fellow-student with, the celebrated Dr. Watts, who said of 
him, that he was " the first genius in that seminary." 
After his academical studies were finished, he resided some 
time as chaplain with John Hampden, esq. M. P. for Bucks, 
and afterwards settled as a dissenting minister at Marshfield, 
in Gloucestershire. The time of his conformity is not asr 
cer tained, though it is evident that he was a clergyman of 
the church of England so early as 1708, for in that year he 
published a sermon preached at the archdeacon's visitation at 
Aylesbury. In the preceding year be bad printed a Thanks- 
giving Sermon on our national Successes, from Ps. cxlht. 
6—8. There is a tradition in the fami ly, that he bad so greatly 
recommended himself to the court by his zeal apd services 

l Gen. Wet.— M«rtri.-'~*opp«i Bibl. Btlg.-'4tt4fl's Cft Ispriift.. 

9 2 

196 HO R T. 

in support of the Hanover succession, that, as he scruple4 
re-ordination, it was dispensed with, and the first prefer* 
-ment bestowed on him, was that of a bishopric in . Ireland. 
It is certain that he went into that kingdom as chaplain to 
the lord lieutenant. He was consecrated bishop of Ferns 
and Leigblin, February 10, 1721, was translated to KiJ- 
more and Ardagh, July 27, 1727, and preferred to the 
archiepiscopal see of Tuam, January 27, 1742, with th* 
united bishopric of Enaghdoen, in the room of Dr. Synge, 
deceased, and likewise with liberty to retain bis other bi- 
shopric of Ardagh. He died December 14, 1751, in a 
very advanced age. His publications were, 1. in 1738, at 
Dublin, a volume of Sermons, sixteen in number, .in 8vo.; 
they are judicious and impressive discourses. These were 
reprinted in London, in 1757, with the addition of the 
Visitation Sermon mentioned before. In tbift volume is a 
Sermon preached in the castle of Dublin, before the duke 
of Bolton the lord lieutenant of Ireland, after the sup- 
pression of the Preston rebellion. 2* A Charge entitled 
" Instructions to the Clergy of the Diocese of Tuam, at 
the primary visitation, July 8, 1742." This, after the 
death of the author, was reprinted in London, with the 
approbation and consent of the rev. Dr. Hon, cation of 
Windsor — it is an excellent address. In the preface to 
the volume of sermons we learn, that for many years pre- 
vious to its appearance from the press, the worthy author 
had been disabled from preaching by an over-strain of the 
voice in the pulpit, at a time when he bad a cold with a 
hoarseness upon him. The providence of God, he says, 
having taken from him the power of discharging that part 
bf his episcopal office which consisted in preaching, be 
thought it incumbent on him to convey his thoughts and 
instructions from the press, that he might dot be useless. 
The solemn promise that he made at his consecration, " to 
exercise himself in the Holy Scriptures, so as to be able 
by them to teach and exhort with wholesome doctrine," 
was no small motive to that undertaking, as being the only 
means left him for making good that promise. It appears, 
that be kept up an epistolary correspondence with his 
" old friend," as he called him, and fellow-student, Dr. 
Watts, to the closing period of the life of each. In Swift's 
, works wet find a humorous paper of Dr. Hort's, entitled 
" A* New Proposal for the better regulation and improve- 
ment of Quadrille," and some letters respecting it. 1 

1 From Mtmoirs by Dr. Toulmia.— Swift's Works. 


:HORT£NSIU9 (Lambert), was a philologer, a writer 
of verses, and a historian. His real name is unknown ; be 
took that of Hortensius, either because his father was a 
gardener, or because his family name signified gardener. 
He was born at Montfort, in the territory of Utrecht, in 
1501, and studied at Louvain. Hortensius was for several 
years rector of the school at Naarden, and when that city 
was taken in 1572, be would bare fallen a sacrifice to the 
military fury, had he not been preserved by the gratitude 
of one who had been bis pupil. His death happened at 
Naarden, in 1577. There are extant by him, besides sa- 
tires, epithalamia, and other Latin poems, the following 
works: 1. Seven books, " De Bello Germanico," under 
Charles V. 8vo. 2. " De Tumultu Anabaptistarum," fol. 
3. " De Secessionibus Ultrajectinis," fol. 4. Commen- 
taries on the six first books of the .£neid, and on Lucan. 
5. Notes on four Comedies of Aristophanes. ' 

HORTENSIUS (Quintus), a Roman orator, was the con- 
temporary and rival of Cicero, and so far his senior, that he 
was an established pleader some time before the appear- 
ance of the latter. He pleaded his first cause at the age of 
nineteen, in the consulship of L. Licinius Crassus, an.d Q. 
Mutius Scevola, ninety-four years before the Christian 
«ra, Cicero l>eing then in his twelfth year. This early 
effort was crowned with great success, and he continued . 
throughout his life a very favourite orator. His enemies, 
however, represented hif action as extravagant, and gave 
him the name of Hortensia, from a celebrated dancer of 
that time. He proceeded also in the line of public ho- 
nours, was military tribune, praetor, and in the year 68 
fi. C. consul, together with Q Ctecilius Metellus. He 
was tui eminent member of the collage of augurs, and was 
the person who elected Cicero into that body, being sworn 
to present a man of proper dignity. By him also Cicero 
was there inaugurated, for which reason, says that author, 
" it was my duty to regard him as a parent." He died in 
the year 49 B. C. ; *nd Cicero, to whom the news of that 
event was brought when he was at Rhodes, in his return 
from Cilicia, has left a most eloquent eulogy and lamenta- 
tion upon him, in the opening of his celebrated treatise 
on orators entitled Brutus. " I considered him," says that 

I Oen. Diet— Moreri.— Foppcn Bibl. Btlf .— Burmtn Trajtct. Erudit.— Saxii 
Onontft. • 

]»$ U OH TINilUa 

writer, ?< not, m many supposed, in the light of in ad- 
versary, or one who robbed me of any praise, but at a 
companion and sharer in my glorioos labour. It was much 
more honoorable to hare such an opponent, than to stand 
unrivalled ; more especially as neither his career was im- 
peded by me, nor mine by him, but each, on the contrary, 
was always ready to assist the other by communication, 
advice, and kindness. 91 If, however, Cicero was sincere 
in his attachment, it was surmised that Hortensius was mot, 
and this is even insinuated in one of the epistles of Cicero. 
Hortensins amassed great wealth, but lived at the same 
time ina splendid and liberal manner; and it is said that 
at his death his cellars were found stocked with 10,000 
hogsheads of wine. His orations have all perished; but* 
it was the opinion of Quintillian, that they did not in pe- 
rusal answer to the fame be obtained by speaking them. 
Hortensius must have been sixty-four at the time of his 
death. 1 - 

HORTON (Thomas), a learned and pious English di- 
vine, the son of Laurence Horton, a merchant of London* 
was born in that city. In July 1623 be was admitted a 
pensioner of Emanuel college, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of B. A. in 1626, and that of master in 1630. 
He was also a fellow of his college. In 1637 he took the 
degree of B. D. and was appointed one of the twelve uni- 
versity preachers. The following year he was chosen 
master of Queen's-college, in that university, after tbe 
death of Mr. Herbert Palmer, and in July of the same year 
minister of St. Mary Coleohurch, in London, a donative 
of the Mercers 9 company, of which his father was. a 

In Oct. 1641, he was elected professor of divinity at 
Gresham -col lege, and in May 1647, was elected preacher 
to the honourable society of Gray Vinn, of which he was 
also a member. In 1649 he was created D. D. and the en* 
suing year was chosen vice-chancellor of Cambridge. « In 
1651. he appears to have resigned tbe office of preacher of 
GrayVinn ; and marrying about the same time; be pro- 
cured an order from parliament that he should not be 
obliged by that *tep to vacate his professorship at Gresham 
college. The Gresham committee, however, referring to 
the founder's will, came to a resolution that she place was 

1 Geni Diet— Cicero*i Orations. 

EOETON. \(» 

vncaot, but did not *t this time proceed |» *o etentipn. 
to August 1652} Dr, Horton was incorporated D.JX |a tt^ 
university of Oxford, and the year following was no mi ri ate 4 
one of the triers or commissioners for the approbation pf 
young ministers. In 1656, the Greaham co^u^ittee re* 
turned the affair of his professorship, and proceeded to a new 
election, but Dr, Horton obtained a fresh dispensation froo* 
Cromwell by means of secretary Tburjoe, and continued 
in qpiet possession! holding with it his headship of Queen's 
college, Cambridge. Ou the restoration he was obliged 
to resigu the headship to Dr. Martin, who had been ejected 
by the parliamentary visitors; and although he had iuterest 
enough at court to retain his professorship for a little time, 
be was obliged in 1661 to resign it. When the Savoy 
conference was appointed, he was nominated as. an as$U? 
tant ou the side of the presbj terians, but, according Up 
Baxter, never sat among them*; and although one of the 
number of the divines ejected by the Bartholomew net, h* 
conformed afterward*, and. in June 1666, was admitted to 
the vicarage of Great St- Helen, in Bishopsgate- street, 
London^ which he held till bis death, in March 1673. 

Dr, Wallis, who bad been under bis tuition at Cain* 
bridge, and after bis decease published a volume pf hif 
sermons, with some account of his life, says be was "* 
pious and learned man, an hard student, a sound divine, 
% good textuary, very well skilled in the oriental languages, 
very well accomplished for the work of the ministry, and 
very conscientious in the discharge of it." Nor did tbf 
close application to his province as a divine, occasion him 
wholly to neglect his juvenile studies. In the Cambridge 
verses, entitled " Ztfrffo," written upon the restoration of 
Charles II. there is a poem oomposed bv Dr. Horton, while 
master of Queen V He printed but three sermons him- 
self, but left many others prepared for the press; and 
after his death were published, 1. " Forty-six Sermons 
upon the whole eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Ho* 
mans," Loud. 1674, fol. 2. " A choice and practical 
Exposition, upon the 4, 47, 5l> and 63 Psalms," ibid, 
1675, fol, 3. " Ope hundred select Sermon* upon seyeraj 
texts," with the author's life by Dr. Wallis, ibid. 167$, 
fol. He left also spme sacramental, funeral, and other 
sermons, prepared for the press, but which have not been 
printed. 1 

2QQ B O B I U 8. 

r H0S1JJ8 (Stanislaus), cardinal, was bom at Cracow, 
iti Poland, In 1503, of low parents, bat being well edu- 
cated, bore such a character after taking bis degrees, as 
to be admitted into the Polish senate. He was here dis- 


tinjguished by the acuteness of hi9 genius, the retentive- 
fless a of his memory, and other accomplishments mental 
and personal ; and was advanced successively to the place* 
of secretary to the king, canon of Cracow, bishop of Culm; 
and bishop of Warmia. He was sent by the pope Plus 
IV. to engage the emperor Ferdinand to continue thd 
council of Trent ; and the emperor was so charmed with 
his eloquence and address, that he granted whatever he 
asked. Pius then made him a cardinal, and employed him 
as his legate, to open and preside at the council. Hosius 
was a zealous advocate for the Homish church, and ' de* 
fended it ably, both in speeches and writings ; the latter 
of which amounted to two folio volumes, and were often 
printed during his life. He died in 1579, at the age of 
seventy-six, and was buried in the church of St. Lawrence; 
from which he took his title as cardinal. By bis will he left faii 
library to the university of Craeow, with an annual sum to 
provide for its support and increase* Among his works, 
the chief are, 1. " Confessio Catholics Fidei,' 9 said to 
have been reprinted in various languages, thirty-four timer. 
2. " De Communione sub utraque specie." 3. " De sa* 
cerdotum conjugio." 4. " De Missa vulgari lingua cple- 
branda," &c. His works were first collectively published 
at Cologne, in 1584. 1 

HOSKINS (John), an English lawyer and poet, was 
born in 1566, at Mownton, in the parish of Lanwaroe, in 
Herefordshire, and was at first intended by his father for 
a trade,, but his surprizing memory and capacity induced 
him to send him to Westminster, and afterwards to Wind- 
cheater school, at both which he made great proficiency. 
From Winchester he wa§ in 1584* elected probationer-fol- 
low of. New-college, Oxford, and two years afterwards 
admitted actual fellow. In 159 J he took his master's de- 
gree ; but being terra filim, in the act following, he way, 
says Wood, "so bitterly satirical, 9 ' as to be refused td 
complete his degree as regent master, and was also ex- 
pelled the university. He then, for bis maintenance, 
taught school for some time at Ilchester, in. Somersetshire, 


*Geo. Diet— Freteri TbeatrQm.~-Moreri.#->l>upm. a 

I! O S K I N S. 201 

Where he compiled a Gre*ek lexicon as far as the letter M. 
Marrying afterwards a lady of property, he entered him- 
self as student in the' Middle temple, and at the usual 
time was called to the bar. In 1614 he had a seat rnpari 
Jiament, where some rash speeches occasioned his being 
imprisoned for a year. He was afterwards elected Lent- 
reader of the Middle-temple, and four years after was 
made a serjeant at law, a justice itinerant for Wales,- and 
one of the Council of the Marches. He died at his house 
at Morehamptou, in Herefordshire, Aug. 27, J 638. 

He was much admired fot bis talent in Latin and Eng- 
lish poetry, and highly respected by the most eminent 
men of his time, Camden, Selden, Daniel, Dr. Donne, 
sir Henry Wotton, sir Walter Raleigh, whose u History* 1 
he revised before it was sent to press; and others, par* 
ticularly Ben Jonson, who used to say, " *t was he that 
polished me, Ido acknowledge it." Wood speaks of him 
as the author of the Greek lexicon already mentioned, left 
in MS. and imperfect; of several epigrams and epitaphs, 
in Latin and English, interspersed in various collections ; 
u The Art of Memory," in which he himself excelled ; and 
of some law treatises, in MS. which became the property 
of his grandson, sir John Hoskihs, knt. and bart. mas- 
ter in chancery, but better known to the world as a phllo-* 
gopher, and one of the first members of the royal society, 
of which he was president in I682. 1 

HOSPINIAN (Ralph), a learned Swiss writer, whd 
tendered important service to the Protestant cause, was 
born at Altdorf near Zurich, where his father was minister, 
in 1547. He began his studies with great diligence and 
success at Zurich, under the direction of Wolfius, his 
uncle by his mother's side; and losing his father in 1563, 
found an affectionate patron in his godfather Rodolphus 
Gualterus. He left Zurich in 1565, in order to visit the 
other universities ; and spent some time in Marpurg and 
'Heidelberg. He was afterwards recalled, and received 
into the ministry in 1 568 ; the year following he obtained 
•the freedom of the city ; and was made provisor of the 
abbey school in 1571. Though his school and bis cure 
^engrossed iriuch of bis time, he had the courage to under- 
take a noble work of vast extent, " An History of the Er* 
rors of Popery." He considered, that the Papists, when 

1 Alt* Ok. rot. 1.— Graoftr. 

fm ho 8PIN14N. 

defeated by the Holy Scriptures, ha& recourse to, tradition j. 
were for ever boasting of their antiquity, and despised tbe 
protestants for being modern, To. deprive them of this 
plea, be determined to search into the ripe and progress of 
the Popish rites and ceremonies ; and to examine by what 
gradations the truth, taught by Christ and bis apostles, 
bad been corrupted by innovations. He could not, how- 
ever, complete bis work, agreeably to the plan be .had 
drawn out ; but he published some considerable parts, ot 
it, as, 1. " De Templis : hoc eat, de origine, .progressu, 
usu, & abusu Templorum, ac omnino rerum omnium ad 
Templa pertinentium," 1587, folio. 2. %t De Atonachisf 
seu de origine & progressu monachatus & ordioum 
monasticorum," 1588, folio. 3. w De Festis Judseoruro, 
et Etbnicorum : 1m>c est, de origine, progressu, cerema- 
uiis, et ritibus festorum dierum Judseorum, Grsecorum, 
Romanorum, Turcarum, & Indianorum," U92, folio. 4. 
"Festa Cbristianorum," &c 159$, folio. 5. " Historia 
Sacramentaria : hoc est, libri quinque de Ccenae Dominic® 
prima institutione, ejusque vero usu & abusu, in primieva 
ecclesia ; necnon de origine, progressu, ceremoniia, & rU 
tibus Miasse, Transubsuntiationis, & aliorum pene infini* 
torum errorum, quibus Cmnae prima institutio borribiliter 
in papatu polluta & profanata est," 1598, folio. 6. " Part 
altera : de origine et progressu controversial sacramentarias 
de Ccena Domini inter Lutheranos, Ubiquistas, & Orthon 
doxos, quo? Zuinglianos seu Calvinistas vocant, exortqp ab 
anno 1517 usque ad 1602 deducta, 1602," folio, These 
are all of tbem parts of his great work, which he eujargeti 
in succeeding editions, and added confutations of the ar* 
gumeots of Bellarmin, Baronius, and Gretser. What be 
published on the Eucharist, and another work entitled 
" Concordia Discots," &c. printed in 1607, exasperated 
the Lutherans in a high degree ; and they wrote against 
bim with great animosity. He did not publish any answer, 
though he bad almost finished one, but turned bis arm* 
against the Jesuits; and published " Historia Jesuitic*; 
hoc est, de origine, regulis, constitution^*, privileges, 
increments, progressu, & propagatione ordinis Jesuitaruin^ 
Item, de eorum dolis, fraud ibus, icnposturis, nefariis facw 
noribus, cruentis consiliis, falsa quoque, aeditioss, & sen* 
guinolenta doctrina," 1619, folio* 

These works justly gained bim high reputation, and 
considerable preferment He was appointed archdeacon 

H O S P I N I A N. 203 

ef .Caroline church in 1588; and, in *5$4, minister at the 
abhey-cburch. He was deprived of his sight for near a. 
year by a cataract* yet continued to preach as usual, and 
was happily coached in 1613. In 1623, being 76 years of 
age, his faculties became impaired, and so continued till 
bis death in 1626. The public entertained so high an 
opinion of his learning from his writings, that he was ex- 
horted from all quarters to refute Baronius's " Annals ;" 
and no one was thought to have greater abilities for the 
task. A new edition of his works was published at Geneva, 
1681, in "seven thin volumes, folio. 1 

HOSPITAL (Michel de l 9 ), chancellor of France, and 
one of the most liberal-minded men of his time, was the 
son of a physician, and born at Aignepcrae in Auvergne* 
in 1505. His father sent him to study in the most cele- 
brated universities of France and Italy, where he distin- 
guished himself at once by his genius for literature, and 
for business. Having diligently studied jurisprudence, he 
was quickly advanced to very honourable posts ; being suc- 
cessively auditor of the congregation called the congregation 
ef Rota at Rome, and counsellor in the parliament of Paris, 
which he held during twelve years. He has described in one 
ef his poems bis habits of life during this time. He rose at a 
very early hour, and in the autumnal, winter, and spring 
sessions, was often in the court of justice before day-break, 
and reluctantly rose from his seat, when the beadle, at ten 
o'clock (the hour of dinner) announced the breaking up of 
the court. He says, that he made it a rule to listen to all 
with patience, to interrupt no one, to express himself as 
concisely as possible, and to oppose unnecessary delays. 
He mentions, with evident satisfaction, the joy which ha 
felt when the vacations allowed him to quit Paris, and 
breathe in the country. The cares of magistracy he then 
banished wholly from his thoughts, and endeavoured, by 
harmless relaxation, %o enable himself, on his return to the 
discharge of his functions, to resume them with fresh vi« 
geor. M But," says he, " there is nothing frivolous in 
my amusements ; sometimes Xenophon is the companion 
of my walks ; sometimes the divine Plato regales me with 
the discourses of Socrates. History and poetry have their 
turns ; but my chief delight is in the sacred writings : what 
comfort, what holy calm, does the meditation of them 
confer !" 

1 Gen* Dict.~N1ceroo, vol. XXXVII I.— Saxti Qnonuit, 


- L'Hospital was then appointed by Henry II. to be bit 
ambassador at the council of Trent, which was sitting at 
Bologna. By his own desire* be was soon recalled from 
that honourable employment, and on bis return experien- 
ced, at first, some coldness from the court, but was soon 
restored to tbe royal favour, and appointed master of the 
requests. In the beginning of 1554 he was made super* 
intendant of the royal finances in France. His merits in 
this post were of tbe most singular and exalted kind. By 
a severe ceconomy, be laboured to restore the royal trea- 
sure, exhausted by the prodigality of the king, Henry II. 
and tl|e dishonest avarice of bis favourites ; be defied the 
enmity of those whose profits be destroyed, and was him- 
self so rigidly disinterested, that after five or six years 9 con* 
tinuaoce in this place, he was unable to give a portion to 
bis daughter, and tbe deficiency Was supplied by tbe libe- 
rality of the sovereign. On tbe death of Henry, in 1519, 
the cardinal of Lorraine, then at the bead of affairs, intro- 
duced T Hospital into the council of state. Hence he was 
removed by Margaret of Valois, who took him into Savoy, 
as ber chancellor. But tbe confusions of France soon made 
it necessary to recal a man of such firmness and undaunted- 
integrity. .In tbe midst of faction and fury, he was ad* 
vanced to tbe high office of chancellor of that kingdom, 
wbere be maintained his post, like a philosopher who was. 
superior to fear, or any species of weakness. At tb,e break-* 
ing out of the conspiracy of Amboise, in 1560, and on all 
other occasions, be was tbe advocate for mercy and recon- 
ciliation ; and by the edict of Romorantin, prevented tbe 
establishment of tbe inquisition in France. It was perhaps- 
for reasons of this kind, aud his general aversion to perse-' 
cutioa for; religion's sake, that the violent Romanists ac- 
cused him of being a concealed Protestant ; forgetting that 
by such suspicions they paid the highest compliment to 
the spirit of Protestantism. The queen, Catherine of 
Medicis, who had contributed to the elevation of V Hospi- 
tal, being too violent to approve his pacific measures, ex* 
eluded him from the council of war ; on which he retired 
to his country- house at Vignay near Estampes. Some days 
after, when the seals were demanded of him, he resigned 
them without regret, saying, that '' tbe affairs of tbe world 
were too corrupt for him to meddle with them." In let- 
tered ease, amusing himself with Latin poetry, and a se- 
lect society of friends, be truly enjoyed bis retreat, till his 


happiness was interrupted by the atrocious day of 8t Bar* 
tholomew," in 1572. Of this disgraceful massacre, lie 
thought at posterity has thought ; but, though his friends 
conceived it probable that he might be included ia the - 
proscription, he disdained to seek his safety by flight. So 
firm was he, that when a party of horsemen actually ad- 
vanced to his bouse, though without orders, for the horrid 
purpose of murdering him, he refused to close his gates : 
" If the small one," said be, " will not admit them, throw 
open the large ;" and he was preserved only, by the arrival 
of another party, with express orders from the king to de- 
clare that he was not among the proscribed. The persona 
who made the lists, it was added, pardoned him the oppo* 
sition be had always made to their projects.. " I did not 
know," said he coldly, without any change of counte- 
nance, " that I had done any thing to deserve either death 
or pardon." His motto is said to have been, 

Si fractus illabatur orbis^- 
• lmparidum ferient ruins, 

and certainly no person ever bad a better right to assume" 
that sublime device. This excellent magistrate, and truly 
great man, died March 13, 1573, at the age of 63 years. 
" L* Hospital,*' says Bran tome, " was the greatest, wor- 
thiest, and most learned chancellor, that was ever known 
in France. His large white beard, pale coitntenance, 
austere manner, made all who saw him think they beheld 
a true portrait bf St. Jerome, and he was called St Jerome 
by the courtiers. All orders of men feared him ; particu- 
larly the members of the courts of justice ; and, whetr he 
examined them on their lives, their discharge of their 
duties, their capacities, or their knowledge, and particularly 
when he examined candidates for offices, and found them 
deficient, he made them feel it. He was profoundly verse i 
in polite learning, very eloquent, and an excellent podt. 
His severity was never ill-natured -, he made due allowance 
for the imperfections of human nature ; was always equal 
and always firm. After his death his very enemies acknow- 
ledged that be was the greatest magistrate whom France 
had known, and that they did not expect to see such "ano- 
ther." There are extant by him, 1. u Latin Poems.* 1 
Their unpretending simplicity is their greatest merit; but 
they shew such real dignity of character, they breathe so 
pure a spirit of virtue, and are full of such excellent seu- -» 
timents of public and private worth, that they will always 


fee read with pleasure* 2. " Speeches delivered in the 
meeting of the Slates at Orleans." As an orator be shines 
•fcach less than as a poet. 3. " Memoirs, containing 
Treadle* of Peace," &c. &e. It is said that be bad also 
projected a history of his own time in Latin, but this he 
did not execute. The best edition of his poems is that of 
Amsterdam) 1732, Svo. He left only one child, a daugh- 
ter, married to Robert Hurault, whose children added the 
name of f Hospital to that of their father; but the male 
line of this family also was extinct in 1706. Nevertheless* 
the memory of the chancellor has received the higbeet 
hocKKirs within a few years of the present time. In 1777, 
Louis XVI. erected a statue of white marble to him* and 
in the same year he was proposed by the French academy 
for the subject of an eloge* M.Guibert and the abb< 
Eemi contended for the prize. It waa adjudged to the 
latter, wbo did not, however, print his work ; M. Guibert 
was less prudent, but bis ek>ge gave little satisfaction. 
The celebrated Coodorcet afterwards entered the lists, but 
with equ^l want of success. Such fastidiousness of public 
opinion showed the high veneration entertained for the 
character of L' Hospital. In 1807, ML Bernardi published 
bis " Essai sur la Vie, les Ecrit% et les Loix de Michel de 
L'Hospital," in one vol. 8vo, a work written with taste and 
judgment j from these and other documents, Charles But- 
ler, esq. has lately published an elegant " Essay on the 
Life" of L* Hospital, principally with a view to exhibit; 
him as a friend to toleration. 1 

HOSPITAL (William-Francis-Antony, marquis Di 
L'), a great mathematician of France, was born of ar branch 
of the preceding family, in 1661. He was a geometrician 
almost from his infancy ; for one day being at the duke de 
Rohan's, where some able mathematicians were speaking 
of a. problem of Paschal's, which appeared to them ex- 
tremely difficult, he ventured to say, that he believed he 
could solve it. They were amazed at what appeared such 
unpardonable presumption in a boy of fifteen, for he was 
then no more, yet in a few days he sent them the solution* 
He entered early into the army, but always preserved his 
love for the mathematics, and studied them even an his 
tent; whither be used to retire, it is said, not only to 
study, but also to conceal his application to study ; for ia 

1 Gen, Diet.— Mereri.— BulTei»i Life.-^Sttli OftOmaSt 


those days, to be knowing in the sciences was thought to 
derogate from nihility ; and a soldier of quality, to pre* 
serve his dignity, was in some measure obliged to hide hi* 
literary attainments. De PHoipital was a captain of hone* 
hot, being extremely short-sighted, and exposed on that 
acooant to perpetual inconveniences and errors, he at 
length quitted the army, and applied himself entirely 
to his favourite amusement, He contracted a friend* 
ship with Malbmnche, judging by his " Recherche de la 
Verity," that he must be an excellent guide in the sciences) 
and he took his opinion upon all occasions* His abilities 
and knowledge wave no longer a secret : and at the age off 
thirty- two 'he gave a public solution of problems, drawn 
from the deepest geometry, which bad been proposed to 
mathematicians in the acts of Leipsic. In 1693 he was re* 
reived an lionomry member of the academy of sciences at 
Paris ; and published a work upon sir Isaac Newton's caU 
eolations, entitled " L* Analyse des infiftimens petks." He 
was the first in Prance who wrote on this subject : and on 
this account was regarded almost as a prodigy. {ieen~ 

! raged afterwards in another work of the mathematical kind f 
n which he included " Les£ectiones coniques, lea Lieux 
geometriques, la Construction dee Equations," and " Une 
Theorie des Courbes mechaniques :" but a little before be 
had finished it, be was seized with a fever* of which he 
died Feb. 2, 1704, aged 49, It was published after his 
death, via. in 1707. There are also six of bis pieces in* 
eerted in different volumes of the memoirs of the academy 
of sciences. 4 

HOSTE^ er I/HOSTE (Jon*), a learned matbemati- 
*aan of Nancy, towards the end of the sixteenth century, 
taught taw and mathematics with uncommon reputation at 
Pont^i-Mousson, and was appointed superintendent of for* 
tifioations, end counsellor of war by Henry duke of Lor- 
rain. His genius was extensive, penetrating, and formed 
for the sciences. He died in 1631, leswing several vau> 
*ble works: the principal ones are, "La soesnsaire et 
fusnge de la Sphere Arttficielie," 4to ; "La Pratique de 
C4om<trie," 4tto ; M Description et usage des principal)* 
tastrumens de G£om6trie," 4to ; " Du Qoadraaet querns; 
Rayon astnmomiqoe ; Baton de Jacob ; interpretation dn 
grand ar« de Raymond Lulle," &c* 

» Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Mtttm'i Bto*. ttritt. • Mor*i— Diet Hat. 

#)* HOSTE 

J • 

HOSTE (Paul), born May 19, \&5Z, at Pont4WVesl*,r 
entered amongj the Jesuits in ±669,. aad acquired gceat 
skill in mathematics; accompanied them arech a) 8 d'Estr£e* 
and de Tourvjjle, during twelte years,, in all their aaval 
expeditions, and gained their esteem. He was appointed 
king's professor of mathematics at Toulon, and died there 
February 03, 1700, leaving, " Recueil des Ma* 
thlmatiques les plus necessaires a tut officier," 3 vols. 
!2mo; " L'Art des armies navales, :0u Traitg des evolu- 
tions navales," Lyons, 1697, and more completely in 1727; 
folia This work ia not less historical Ahen scientific,: And 
Contains an account of the most considerable naval events 
of the fifty preceding years. He presented it to Louis 
XIV. who received it graciously, and rewarded the author 
with 100 pistoles, and a pension of 600 livres ; a treatise 
on the construction of ships, which he wrote in conse- 
quence of some- conversation with marechal de Tourville, 
ia printed at the end of the preceding.* In 1 762, lieute- 
nant O'Bryen published in 4to, " Naval Evolutions, or a 
System of Sea-discipline," extracted from father L'Hoste's 
'* L'Art des armies navales." 1 . 

HOTMAN (Francis), in Latin Hotomanus, a learned 
French civilian, was born in 1524, at Paris, where his fa- 
mily, originally of Breslau in Silesia, had flourished for 
some time. He made so rapid a progress in the belles 
lettres, that at the age of fifteen, he was sent to Orleans 
to study the. civil law, and in three years was received doc- 
tor to that faculty. His father, a counsellor in parliament, 
had already designed him for that employment; andtherer 
fbre sent for him home, and placed him frt the bar. But 
Hotman was soon displeased with the chicanery of the 
court, and applied himself vigorously to the study of the 
Roman law and polite literature. At the age of twenty- 
three, he was chosen to read public lectures in the schools 
of Paris : but, relishing the opinions of Luther, on ac- 
count of which am»y persons were put to death in France^ 
eud finding that- he could not profe** them. at P<uris> he 
went to Lyons hi 1548. Having now nothing to expect 
from his father, who was greatly irritated at the change of 
Jus religion* he left France, and retired to Geneva ; t where 
he lived some time in Calvin's bouse. . From hence, he went 
to Lapsanne, where the magistrates .of Bern gave bim the 

« Mores.— Diet. HUC 

- i 


HOTMAN. 209 

place of professor of polite literature. He published there 
some books, which, however, young as he was, were not 
his first publications ; and married a French gentlewoman, 
who bad also retired thither on account of religion. His 
merit was so universally known, that the magistrates of 
Strasburg offered him a professorship of civil law ; which 
he /accepted, and held till 1561, and during this period, 
received invitations from the duke of Prussia, the land- 

frave of Hesse, the dukes of Saxony, and even from queen 
Elizabeth of England ; but did not accept them. He did 
not refuse, however, to go to the court ox the king of Na- 
varre, at the begining of the troubles ; and be went twice 
into Germany, to desire assistance of Ferdinand, in the 
name of the princes of the blood, and even in the name of the 
queen- mother. The speech he made at the diet of Franc* 
f&rt is published. Upon his return to Strasburg, he was 
prevailed upon to teach civil law at Valence ; which he did 
with such success, that be raised the reputation of that 
university. Three years after, he went to be professor at 
Bourges, by the invitation of Margaret of France, sister of 
Henry II. but left that city in about five months, and* re- 
tired to Orleans to the heads of the party, who made great 
nse of his advice. The peace which was made a month 
after, did not prevent him from apprehending the return 
of the storm : upon which account h? retired to Sancerre, 
and there wrote an excellent book, " De Consolatione," 
which his son published after bis death. He returned after- 
wards to his professorship at Bourges, where he very 
narrowly escaped the massacre of 1572: which induced 
him to leave France, with a full resolution never to return. 
He then went to Geneva, where he read lectures upon the 
civil law. Some time after, he went to Basil, and taught 
civil law, and was so pleased with this situation, that he 
refused great offers from the prince of Orange and the 
States-general, who would have drawn him to Leyden. 
The plague having obliged him to leave Basil, he retired to 
Montbeliard, where be lost his wife ; and went afterwards 
to live with her sisters at Geneva. He returned once more 
to Basil, and there died in 1590, of a dropsy, which had 
kept him constantly in a state of indisposition for six years 
before. During this, he revised and digested his works 
for a new edition, which appeared at Geneva in 1599, in 
3 vols, folio, with his life prefixed by Neveletus Doschius. 


£10 H O T M A N. 

The - first two contain treatises upon the civil law ; the 
third, pieces relating to the government of France, and the 
right of succession ; five books of Roman antiquities ; com-* 
mentaries upon Tully's " Orations and Epistles;" notes 
upon Caesar's " Commentaries/* &c. His " Frftnco-Gallia/' 
or, " Account of the free state of France/ 9 has been trans- 
lated into English by lord Moleswortb, author of " The 
Account of Denmark;" He published also several other 
articles without his name ; but, being of the controversial 
kind, they were probably not thought of consequence 
enough to be revived in the collection of his works. 

He was one of those who would never consent to be 
painted ; but we are told, that his picture was taken while 
he was in his last agony. His integrity, firthness, and 
piety, are highly extolled by the author ef his life ; yet, if 
Baudouin may be believed (Whom, howfever, it is more rfea«* 
sonable not to believe, as -he was his antagonist in teligipurf 
opinions), be was suspected of being avaricious : biit it 
must be remembered, that he lost his all when he changed 
his religion, and had no supplies but what arose from read- 
ing lectures; for it does not appear that his wife brought 
him a fortune. It is very probable, however, that his lee** 
tures would have been sufficient for his subsistence ; had 
he not been deluded by schemes of finding out the philo- 
sopher's stone ; and we find him lamenting to a friend in' 
his last illness, that he had squandered away his substance 
upon this hopeful project. With aH these wfeaknessefe, he 
was esteemed one of the greatest civilians France overpro- 
duced. 1 » 

HOTT1NGER (John-Henry), fe very learned writer, 
and famous for his skill in the oriental languages, Was born 
at Zurich in Switzerland, in 1620. He had a particular 
talent for learning languages; and the progress he made in 
his first studies gave such promising hopes, that it was reV 
solved he should be sent to study in foreign -countries, at 
the public expend?. He began his travels in 1^38, and 
went to Geneva, where he studied two months under Fr. 
Spanheim. Then he went into France, and thence into 
Holland ; and fixed at Grdnhigen, where he studied divi- 
nity (inder Gomarus and Alting, and Arabic trndAr Pasor. 

Here he intended *to have remained ; but being >ery desi- 1 

f ... , «... 

1 Gen* Dieo^NkOTOfe'to], &L aod X**^M$>vm t -*fr*htu Tbtatnunv-r 
Saxii OoomasU 


tons of improving himself in the oriental languages, bo 
went in 1639 to Leyden, to be tutor to the children of Go- 
lius, who was the best skilled in those languages of any man 
of that age. By the instructions of Golius, he improved 
greatly in the knowledge of Arabic, and also by the assist- 
ance of a Turk, who happened to be at Leyden. Besides 
these advantages! Golius bad. .a fine collection of Arabic 
books and MSS, from which Hottiuger was suffered to copy 
what he pleased, during the fourteen months he staid at 
Leyden. In 1641, he was offered, at the recommendation 
of Golius, the place of chaplain to the ambassador of the 
States-general to Constantinople; and he would gladly 
have attended him, as such a journey would have co-ope- 
rated wonderfully with his grand design of perfecting him- 
self in the eastern languages : but the magistrates of Zu- 
rich did not consent to it : they chose rather to recall him* 
in order to employ him for the advantage of their public 
schools. They permitted him first, however, to visit Eng- 
land ; and the instant be returned from that oouatry, they 
appointed tnm professor of ecclesiastical history; and • - 
year after, in 1643, gave him two professorships, that of' 
catechetical divinity, and that of the oriental tongues. 

He married at twenty-two, pnd began to publish book* 
at twenty rfour. New professorships were bestowed upon 
him in 1653, and be was admitted into the college of 
canons. In 16£5, the ejeptqr Palatine, desirous to re* 
store the credit .of his university of Heidelberg, obtained 
leave of the senate of Zurich for Hottinger to go there, on 
condition that he should return at the end of three years 1 
but before be s§t out for that city, he went to Basil, and 
took the degree of D, D« . He arrived at Heidelberg, the 
same year, and wsp graciously received in that city. Be- 
sides the professorship of divinity and the oriental tongues, 
he was appointed principal of the Collegium Sapiential 
He was rector of thp university the year following, and ' 
wrote a book concerning the re~umon of the Lutherans 
and Cftlvinists; which be did to please the elector, who 
was jealous in that affair : but party~afiimosities rendered 
bis performance ineffectual. Hottinger accompanied this 
prince tQ the electoral diet of Rrancfoit in 1 658, and there 
had a conference with Job Ludolf- Ludolf bad acquired a , 
vast knowledge of Ethiopia ; and, in conjunction with Hot- - 
tinger, concerted measures for sending into Africa some 
persons skilled io the oriental tongues, who might make 

p 2 


exact inquiries concerning the state of the Christian reli- 
gion in that part of the world. Hottinger was not recalled 
to Zurich till 1661, his superiors, at the elector's earnest 
request, having prolonged the term of years for which they 
lent him : and be then returned, honoured by the elector 
with the title of Ecclesiastical-counsellor. 

Many employments were immediately conferred on him : 
among the rest, he was elected president of the commis- 
sioners who were to revise the German translation of the 
Bible. A civil war breaking out in Switzerland in 1664, 
he was sent into Holland on state affairs. Many universi- 
ties would willingly have drawn Hottinger to them, but 
were not able. That of Leyden offered him a professor- 
ship of divinity in 1667 ; but, not obtaining leave of his 
superiors, he refused it, until the magistrates of Zurich 
consented, in complaisance to the States of Holland, who 
had interested themselves in this affair. As he was pre* 
paring for this journey, be unfortunately lost his life, June 
5, 1667, in the river which passes through Zurich. He 
went into a boat, with his wife, three children, his brother- 
in-law, a friend, and a maid-servant, in order to go and 
Jet out upon lease an estate which he had two leagues from 
Zurich. The boat striking against a pier, which lay under 
water, overset : upon which Hottinger, his brother-in-law, 
and friend, escaped by swimming. But when they looked 
Vpon the women and children, and saw the danger they 
were in, they jumped back into the water : the conse- 
quence of which was, that Hottinger, his friend, and three 
children, lost their lives, while his wife, bis brother-in-law, 
and servant-maid, were saved. His wife was the only 
daughter of Huldric, minister of Zurich, a man of very 
great learning, and brought him several children : for be- 
sides the three who were drowned with him, and those who 
died before, he left four sons and two daughters. 

As an author, he was very prolific, and it is surprising, 
that a man, who had possessed so many academical -em- 
ployments, was interrupted with so many visits (for every 
body came to see him, and consulted him as an oracle), 
and was engaged in a correspondence with all the literati 
of Europe, should have found time to write more than 
forty volumes, especially when it is considered, that he 
did not reach fifty years of age. The most considerable 
of his works are : 1. " Exercitationes Anti-Moriniaiue, def 
FeQUtteucho Samaritano, $c.*' 1644, quarto. Morin had 


asserted, in the strongest manner, the authenticity of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch ; which he preferred to the Hebrew 
text, upon a pretence that this had been corrupted by the 
Jews ; and it was to combat this opinion, that Hottinger 
wrote these Exercitations. This work, though the first, 
is, in the judgment of father Simon, one of the best he 
wrote ; and if he had never written any thing more, it is 

I>robable that he would have left hig&er notions of his abi- 
ities : for certainly it was no small enterprise for him,, so 
early in life, to attack, on a very delicate and knotty sub- 
ject, and with supposed success too, one of, the most 
learned men in Europe at that time* 2. " Thesaurus Phi- 
lologicus, seu claris scripturae," 1649, 4to. There was a 
second edition in 1649, in 4to, with additions. 3. ". His- 
toria Orientalis, ex variis Orientalium monumentis col- 
lecta," 1651, 4to. No man was better qualified to write 
1 on oriental affiurs than Hottinger, as he was skilled in most 
of the languages which were anciently, as well as at pre- 
sent, spoken in the East: namely, the Hebrew, Syriac, 
Chaldee, Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Coptic. 4. "Promp- 
tuarium, sive Bibliotheca Orientalis, exhibens catalogum, 
sive centurias aliquot tarn auctorum, quam librorum He- 
braicorum, Syriacorum, Arabicorum, .£gyptiacorum : ad- 
dita mantissa Bibliotheearum aliquot Europsarum," 1658, 
4to. Baillet does not speak very advantageously of this 
work of Hottinger, whom he accuses of not being very 
accurate it} any of his compositions : and indeed his want 
of accuracy is a point agreed on by both papists and pro- 
festants. 5. " Etymologicon Orientate, sive Lexicon Har- 
monicum Heptaglotton," &c. 1661, 4to. The seven lan- 
guages contained in this Lexicon are, the Hebrew, Chaldee, 
Syriac, Arabic, Samaritan, Ethiopic, and Rabbinical. 
. These works are valuable for containing materials of a 
curious nature, and which were before only accessible to 
persons skilled in oriental languages. A catalogue of his 
other works may be seen in the " Bibliotheca Tigurina ;" 
or the Latin life of Hottinger, published by Heidegger at 
Zurich, 1667: in either of which they are all drawn up 
and digested into regular order. — John James Hottinger 
his son, was also a learned protestant divine, succeeded 
Heidegger in the divinity chair at Zurich, and died Dec. 
18, 1735, leaving a great number of works, chiefly " Tbeo* 
logical Dissertations, 19 on important subjects. 1 

-i Gen. Diet,— Mortri,— Nicerop, vol. VIII.— Swui Onontftioon,— Fitfatrl 


H0UB1GANT (Charles Francis), a pious and learned 
translator of the Hebrew Scriptures, and commentator on 
them, was born at Paris in 1686. In 1702 he became * 
priest of the congregation named the Oratory ; and bein^, 
by deafness, deprived of the chief comforts of society, ad- 
dicted himself the more earnestly to books, in which he 
found his constant consolation. Of a disposition naturally 
benevolent, with great firmness of soul, goodness of tem- 
per, and politeness of manners, be was held in very gene* 
ral estimation,, and received honours and rewards from the 
pope (Bened. XIV.) and from his countrymen, which he 
bad never thought of soliciting. Though his income was 
but small, he dedicated a part of it to found a school near 
Chantilly ; and the purity of bis judgment, joined to the 
strength of bis memory, enabled him to carry on his lite* 
rary labours to a very advanced age. Evert when his fa* 
culties had declined, and were further injured by the acci- 
dent of a fall, the very sight of a book, that well-known 
consoler of all his cares, restored him to peace and rational 
lity. He died Oct 31, 1783, at the advanced age of ninety- 
eight. His works, for which he was no less esteemed in 
foreign countries than in his own, were chiefly these r 1. 
An edition of the Hebrew Bible, with a Latin version and 
notes, published at Paris in 1753, in 4 vols, folio. This is 
the most valuable and important work, of the author, and 
contains the Hebrew text corrected by the soundest rtolet 
of criticism, a Latin version, and useful notes : and pre* 
fixed to each book is a very learned preface. Benedict 
XIV. who justly appreciated the value and difficulty of the 
work, honoured the author with a medal, and some other 
marks of approbation ; and the clergy of bis own country, 
unsolicited, conferred a pension on him. 2. A Latin trans- 
lation of the Psalter, from the Hebrew, 1746, lamo. 3. 
Another of the Old Testament at large, in 1753, in 8 vols; 
8vo. 4. " Racines Hebraiques," 1733, 8vo, against the 
points. 5. " Examen du Psautier des Capuchins/* 12mo, 
the mode of interpretation used in which, he thought too 
arbitrary. 6. A French translation of an 'English work by 
Forbes, entitled " Thoughts on Natural Religion." 7. 
Most of the works of Charles Leslie translated, Paris, 1770; 
8ve. Father Houbigant is said also to have left several 
works in manutioript, which, from the excellence of thosd 
he published, may be conjectured to be well deserving of 
the press. An>ong these are a " Trait6 des Etudes;] 9 a 


translation of " Origen against Celsus ;" a " Life of Car- 
diaal Berulle ;" and a complete translation of the Bible, 
according to his own- corrections. The first of these was 
to have been published by father Dotteville, and the rest 
by Lalande, but we do not find that any of them have ap* 
peared. 1 

HOUBRAKEN '(Jacob), an eminent engraver, was 
the son of Arnold Houbraketi, a native of Holland, and a 
painter, but of no very superior merit. He is known, how* 
ever, to the literary world, as the author of a work in Dutch, 
entitled '< The Great Theatre of the Dutch and Flemish 
Painters," in 3 vols, folio, with their portraits. He came 
over into England, to make drawings of the pictures of 
Vandyke, which were afterwards engraved by Peter Van 
Gunst. He died at Amsterdam in the fifty-ninth year of 
bis age, 1719. 

His son Jacob was born December 25, 1698. By what 
master be was instructed in the art of engraving, we are 
not informed, but he was probably initiated in the art by 
his father ; and Mr. Strutt supposes that he studied the 
neatest portraits of Edelink very attentively, especially that 
of Le Bran, which is usually prefixed to the engravings of 
Girard Audran, from his battles of Alexander. He work-. 
ed, however, for some time with little profit, and with less 
celebrity ; and he had arrived at the meridian of life be- 
fore he engaged in that work by which he is best known ; 
a work, which, notwithstanding some well-founded objec- 
tions, will reflect honour on the several persons engaged 
in it.. It seems to have been a plart of the accurate and 
industrious George Vertue, who proposed to give sets or 
classes of eminent men ; but his design was adopted by 
others, and at length taken out of his hands, who, as lord 
Orford observes, was best furnished with materials for such 
a work. 

The persons who undertook and brought to conclusion 
this great national work, were the two Knaptons, book- 
sellers, encouraged by the vast success of Kapin's History 
of England. Iliey employed both Vertue and Houbraken, 
but chiefly the latter, and the publication began in num- 
bers in 1744. The first volume was completed in 1747, 
and the second in 1750. It was accompanied with short 
lives of Che personages, written by Dr. Birch. Lord Orford 

» Diet. Hist— (Mi Oaovust. 


observes, that some of Houbraken's heads were care- 
Jessly done, especially those of the moderns ; and the en- 
graver living in Holland, ignorant of our history, uninqut- 
aitive into the authenticity of what was transmitted to him, 
engraved whatever was sent His lordship mentions twa 
instances, the beads of Carr earl of Somerset, and secre- 
tary Thurlow, which are not only not genuine, but have 
not the least resemblance to the persons they pretend to 
represent. Mr. Gilpin, in his Essay on Prints, says, 
" Houbraken is a genius, and has given us in his collection 
of English portraits, some pieces of engraving at least 
equal to any thing of the kind. Such are the heads of 
Hampden, Scbomberg, the earl of Bedford, and the duke 
of Richmond particularly, and some others. At the same 
time, we must own that he has intermixed among his works 
a great number of bad prints. In bis best, there is a won- 
derful union of softness and freedom. A more elegant and 
flowing line no artist ever employed." Mr. Strutt esti- 
mates his general merits more minutely. Houbraken's 
great excellence, says that ingenious writer, consisted in 
the portrait line of engraving. We admire the softness 
and delicacy of execution, which appear in his works, 
joined with good drawing, and a fine taste. If his best per- 
formances have ever been surpassed, it is in the masterly 
determination of the features which we find in the works 
of Nanteuil, Edelink, and Drevet ; this gives an animation 
to the countenance, more easily to be felt than described. 
From his solicitude to avoid the appearance of an outline, 
beseems frequently to have neglected the little sharpnesses 
of light and shadow, which not only appear in nature, but, 
like the accidental semitones in music, raise a pleasing 
sensation in the mind, in proportion as the variation is judi- 
ciously managed. For want of attention to this essential 
beauty, many of bis celebrated productions have a misty 
appearance, and do not strike the eye with the force we 
might expect, when we consider the excellence of the- en- 
graving. The Sacrifice of Manoah, from Rembrandt, for 
the collection of prints from the pictures in the Dresden 
gallery, is the only attempt he made in historical engrav- 
ing ; but in it he by no means succeeded so well* — Of his 
private life, family, or character, nothing is known. Ho 
lived to a good old age, and died at Amsterdam, in 4 7 BO.* 

* StruU'i Dictionary ,—EuropeaD Mag. 1803. 

H O U D R Y. *I7 

HOUORY ( Vincbnt), * Jesuit, was born Jan. 22, 1 63 1 , at 
Tours, and taught ethics, rhetoric, and philosophy among 
the Jesuits, and devoted himself afterwards to preaching 
twenty* four years; the rest of his life was spent in com* 
posing useful books. He died at Paris, in the college of 
Louis le Grand, March 29, 1729. His works are, " La 
Bibliotbeque des Predicateurs," Lyons, 1733, 22 vols. 4to. 
" Morality," 8 vols, the supplement 2 vols. " Panegyrics," 
4 vols, and the supplement 1 vol. The " Mysteries," 3 
vols, and the supplement 1 vol " The Tables, 9 ' 1 vol. 
" The Ceremonies of the Church, 1 vol. " Christian 
Eloquence," 1 vol. " Trait6 de la maniere d'imiter lea 
bons Predicateurs," 12mo. " Ars Typographica, carmen," 
4to ; and twenty volumes of " Sermons,' 1 ail which shew 
more industry than genius, but some of them are consulted 
as repositories of facts and opinions. 1 

HOUGH (John), an English prelate, memorable for the 
firm and patriotic stand which he made against the tyranny 
and bigotry of James J I. was the son of John Hough, a 
citizen of London, descended from the Houghs of Leighton 
in Cheshire, and of Margaret, the daughter of John 
Byrche of Leacroft in the county of Stafford, esq. He was 
born in Middlesex, April 12, 1651 ; and, after having re* 
ceived his education either at Birmingham or Walsall in 
Staffordshire, was entered of Magdalen college, Oxford, 
Nov. 12, 1669, and in a few years was elected a fellow. 
He took orders in 1675, and in 1678 was appointed do- 
mestic chaplain to the duke of Ormond, at that time lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, and went over with him to that 
country; but he returned soon after, and in 1685 waa 
, made a prebendary of Worcester. He was also preseuted 
to the rectory of Tempsford in Bedfordshire, in the gift of 
the crown. From these circumstances, it should seem that 
he must have been considered as a man of talents and 
merit, before he acted the conspicuous part he did in 
October 1687. 

In March of that year, the presidentship of Magdalen 
college being vacant by the death of Dr. Henry Clarke, 
the usual notice was given that the election of a president 
would take place on the 13th of April* but the fellows 
being afterwards informed, that his majesty James II. had 
.granted letters mandatory, requiring them to elect Mr, 

» Moreri —Diet Hat. 


Anthony Farmer, who had not been fellow either of this 
or New college, as indispensably required by the statutes, 
who bad also given strong proofs of indifference to all 
religions, and whom they thought unfit in other respects to 
be their president, petitioned the king, either to leave them 
to the discharge of their duty and conscience, and to their 
founder's statutes, or to recommend such a person as might 
be more Serviceable to his majesty and to the college. 
No answer being given to this petition, they met on the 
13th of April, but adjourned first to the 14th, and then to 
the 15th, the last day limited by the statutes for the election 
of a president, and having still received no answer (except 
a verbal one by the rev. Thomas Smith, one of the fellows, 
from lord Sunderland, president of the council, which was, 
*' that bis majesty expected to be obeyed 91 ) they proceeded 
to the election, according to the usual forms, and the 
Rev. Mr. Hough was chosen, who is stated in the college 
register to be "a gentleman of liberality and firmness, 
who, by the simplicity and purity of his moral character, 
by the mildness of his disposition, and the happy tempe- 
rament of his virtues, and many good qualities, had given 
every one reason to expect that he would be a distinguished 
ornament to the college, and to the whole university." 

He was accordingly presented next day, April 16, to the 
visitor, Dr. Mews, bishop of Winchester, and was the same 
day sworn in president of the college. He returned next 
day, and was solemnly installed in the chapel. Many ap- 
plications were made to the king during this and the fol- 
lowing month in behalf of the fellows, both by themselves, 
the bishop Of Winchester, and by the duke of Ormond, 
chancellor of the university : notwithstanding which, they 
were cited to appear at Whitehall, in June following, before 
his majesty's commissioners for ecclesiastical causes, who 
decreed that the election of Mr. Hough, who had now 
taken his doctor's degree, was void, and that he be amoved 
from bis office of president. Still as Farmer's moral cha- 
racter was too strong to get over, another mandate was sent 
to the fellows on August 27, to admit Dr. Samuel Parker 
' president, who was at that time bishop of Oxford, and a 
Roman Catholic. But this was declined, on the ground 
of the office* being full," and being directly contrary to 
their -statutes and the oath they had taken; although the 
king went to Oxford in September in order to enforce his 
mandate, attended by lord Sunderland and others. Among 

HOUGH. fi» 

these was the celebrated William Penn the quaker, whose 
influence with his brethren, and the dissenters in general, 
James II. made use of to promote his own designs in favout 
of popery, under the colour of a general toleration and 
suspension' of the penal laws against all sectaries, as well 
as against the Roman catholics. Penn's interference in the 
present business, however, does not appear to have- been 
improper. He even allowed, after making himself ac- 
quainted with the circumstances of the case, that the 
" fellows could not yield obedience without a breach of 
theif oaths, and that such mandates were a force on con- 
science, and not agreeable to the king's other gracious 

The king, however, with whom no good advice had any 
weight, as soon as he arrived at Oxford, sent for the fel- 
lows, Sept. 4, to attend him in person, at three in the 
afternoon, at Christ Church, of which the bishop of Ox- 
ford was dean. The fellows accordingly attended, and 
presented a petition, recapitulating their obligations to 
obey the statutes, &c. which the king refused to accept, 
and threatened them, in a very gross manner, with the 
whole weight of his displeasure, if they did not admit the 
bishop of Oxford, which they intimated was not in their 
power; and having returned to their chapel, and being 
asked by the senior fellow whether they would elect the 
bishop of Oxford their president, they all answered in their 
turn, that it being contrary to their statutes, and to the 
positive oath which they had taken, they did not apprehend 
it was in their power. Their refusal was followed by the 
appointment of certain lords commissioners to visit the 
college. These were, Cartwright bishop of Chester, sir 
Robert Wright, chief justice of the king's bench, and sir 
Thomas Jenner, baron of the exchequer, who cited the 
pretended president, as he was called, and the fellows, to 
appear before them at Magdalen college on Oct. 21, the 
day before which the commissioners had arrived at Oxford, 
•with the parade of three troops of horse. Having assem- 
bled on the day appointed in the hall, and their commis- 
sion read, the names of the president and fellows were 
called over, and Dr. Hough was mentioned first. It 
was upon this occasion that he behaved with that cou- 
rage, and intrepidity, prudence and temper, which will 
endear his memory to the latest posterity. Tte commis- 
sioners, however, struck his name out of . the books of the 


college, and admonished the fellows and others of the 
society no longer to submit to his authority. At their next 
meeting the president came into court, and said, " My 
lords, you were pleased this morning to deprive me of my 
place of president of this college : I do hereby protest 
against all your proceedings, and against all that you have 
done, or hereafter shall do, in prejudice of me and my 
right, as illegal, unjust, and null : and therefore I appeal 
to my sovereign lord the king in his courts of justice." A* 
he bad refused them the keys, they sent for a smith to 
force the door of the president's lodgings. Burnet says, 
" the nation, as well as the university, looked on all this 
proceeding with a just indignation. It was thought an 
open piece of robbery and burglary, when men, authorized 
by no legal commission, came forcibly and turned men out 
of tbeir possessions and freeholds.*' 

It is remarkable, and highly honourable to the college, 
that out of twenty-eight fellows, there were only two who 
at all submitted to these proceedings ; the rest were all 
deprived of their fellowships ; and those demies, or pro* 
bationer fellows, who did not appear when summoned, 
amounting to fourteen, were removed and dismissed. These 
proceedings, harsh as they may seem, were confirmed by 
the commissioners for ecclesiastical causes, who met at 
Whitehall Dec. 10 following, and who, " having taken into 
consideration all that had passed in the business of St. Mary 
Magdalen college, Oxford, and the contemptuous and dis- 
obedient behaviour of Dr. John Hough, and several of the 
fellows of that college," whom they named individually, 
declared and decreed, that they should be incapable of 
receiving, or being admitted to, any ecclesiastical dignity, 
benefice, or promotion. Such of them as were not yet in 
holy orders, were adjudged incapable of receiving or being 
admitted into the same ; and all archbishops, bishops, &c. 
were required to take notice of the said decree, and to yield 
obedience to it *. 

It was not until the end of September in the following, 
year, 1688, that the infatuated James II. began to see 
the folly of his conduct, and, conscious both of his past 

• Parker Hid not long enjoy the ad- infatuation was now at its height, sent 

vantages of this most illegal and arbi- another mandate to the college to elect 

trary art He was installed by proxy one Bona venture GhTorri, a doctor of 

Oct. 25, J 687; and, after presiding over the Sorbonne, who accordingly took 

an almost empty house for a few months, possession June 15, but was removed^ 

died March 20, USS. The king, whet* by the king himself as mentioned p.Wl. 



HOUGH. 22t 

error and present danger, began to be alarmed* Among 
other steps taken too late for the preservation of his crown, 
be ordered lord Sunderland to write to the bishop of Win- 
chester, that " the king, having declared his resolution to 
preserve the church of England, and all its rights and im- 
munities, bis majesty, as an evidence of it, commanded 
him to signify to his lordship his royal will and pleasure, 
that, as visitor of St Mary Magdalen college in Oxford, be 
should settle that society regularly and statuteably." In 
consequence of this, Dr. Hough, as president, and the 
fellows and demies who had been expelled, were all 

Soon after the revolution, viz. in April 1690, Dr. Hough 
was nominated bishop of Oxford, with a licence to bold the 
presidentship of Magdalen -college in commendaro, which 
be did till he succeeded Dr. William Lloyd, bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry, in 1699* It must have been a singular 
satisfaction to him, as it was a most appropriate reward, 
that he should receive that mark of elevation in a plac« 
which was the scene of his degradation, or rather of bis 
exemplary fortitude and manly virtue ; nor does it appear 
that this accession of rank at all altered the general be* 
nignity of his nature towards those with whom he was 
connected, either in his college or in his diocese ; for even 
they who had taken a different part at the time of his elec- 
tion, or were of a different opinion with himself, were 
always treated by him with the greatest humanity and in* 

The remainder of bishop Hough's life affords few inci- 
dents for biography, as he very seldom employed his pen, 
unless in correspondence, or other compositions not in- 
tended for the press, but the steady virtues of his charac- 
ter appeared throughout his whole conduct, and afforded 
subject for many a heart-felt and many a studied pane- 
gyric. Whilst in the see of Lichfield and Coventry, be 
repaired and almost rebuilt as well as adorned the episcopal 
bouse at Eccleshall, and afterwards, on his removal to 
Worcester, he rebuilt great part of the palace there, par- 
ticularly the whole front, where his arms are impaled with 
those of the see iu the pediment, and made considerable 
improvements at his other seat at the castle of Hartlebury, 
so as to have laid out many. thousand pounds upon them. 
He had before repaired the lodgings at Magdalen college 
at his own expence, and contributed 1000& towards the 

222 HOUGH. 

new building at that place of his education. He likewise 
contributed 1000/. towards building All Saints church in 
Worcester. In 1715 the metropolitan chair was offered to 
him, on the death of archbishop Tenisou, which he de«* 
clined, from the too modest and humble sentiments which 
he entertained of himself; but afterwards, in 1717, he 
succeeded bishop Lloyd in the see of Worcester. As his 
public benefactions hare been just mentioned, it is neces- 
sary to add that his private acts of charity were very exten- 
sive. His usual manner of living was agreeable to his function, 
hospitable without profuseness, and his conversation with 
all was full of humanity and candour, as well as prudent 
and instructive. 

His earliest biographer says, that " his heavenly temper 
of mind, his contempt of the world, and his indifference 
to life, were most visible in the latter period of his own ; his 
firm faith in the promises of the gospel exerted itself most 
remarkably in his declining years, as well in conversation 
with some of his friends about his hopes of a better state, 
and even in his own private thoughts on the nature of that 
stale, as in several letters to others about the gradual decay 
of his body, the just sense he had of his approaching* 
dissolution, and his entire resignation to the will of God* 
As he had on many occasions expressed bis well-grounded 
hopes of immortality, so they gradually grew stronger on 
him, aud seemed to be more vigorous in proportion to the 
decays of his body. Indeed, even the temper of his mind 
bore so just a proportion to his well-tempered constitution 
of body, asTay an happy result of both, to extend his age 
to the beginning of his ninety-third year, and almost to 
the completion of the fifty-third year of his episcopate. 
But he cast only a cursory eye upon the minute distinct 
tions of human life, as the whole is at best of a short 
duration. Bishop Hough's lamp of life burnt clear, if not 
bright, to the last ; and though his body was weak, he had 
no pain or sickness, as he himself acknowledged on several 
occasions, not only at a considerable distance from hia 
death, but even a few minutes before he expired. 9 ' A little 
before his death, he wrote a letter to his friend lord 
Digby, where we find the following remarkable words ? 
"lam weak and forgetful — In other respects I have ease 
to a degree beyond what I durst have thought on, when 
years began to multiply upon me. 1 wait contentedly for 
a deliverance out of this life into a better, in bumble 

HOUGH. 923 

confidence, that by the mercy of God, through the merits 
of his Son, I shall stand at the resurrection on his right 
hand* And when you, my lord, have ended those days 
which are to come, which I pray may ba many and com- 
fortable, as innocently and as exemplary as those which are 
passed, I doubt not of our meeting in that state where the 
joys are unspeakable, and will always endure." He died 
March 8, 1743, and was buried in Worcester cathedral 
near his wife, where his memory is preserved by an elegant 

It does not appear that Dr. Hough ever prepared any 
thing for the press, except eight occasional sermorfs, and 
he gave a strict charge that none should be published from 
his manuscripts after his death. Many of his letters, how* 
ever, with various important documents to illustrate his 
character and public services, have lately been given to 
the world in a splendid publication, entitled "The Life of 
the rev* John Hough, D. D. &c." by John Wilmot, esq. 
F.R.S. and S. A. To this we are indebted for the pre- 
ceding sketch; and Mr. Wiknot has accumulated so much, 
information respecting Dr. Hough, that it is now unneces- 
sary to refer to any other authority. l 

HOULIERES(Antoniettad8 la Garde dbs), a French* 
poetess, was born at Paris in 1638, and, possessed all the> 
charms of her sex, and wit enough to shine in the age of 
Louis XIV. Her taste for poetry was cultivated by the- 
Celebrated poet Henault, who is said to have instructed her 
in all he knew, or imagined he knew ; but she not only- 
imitated him h) his poetry, but also in his irreligion ; for 
her verses savour strongly of Epicureanism. She com- 
posed epigrams, odes, eclogues, tragedies; but succeed* 
ed best in the idyllium or pastoral, which some affirm 
she carried to perfection. She died at Paris in 1694, 
and left a daughter of her own name, who had some talent* 
for poetry, but inferior to that of her mother. The first ' 
verses, however, composed by this lady, bore away the ' 
prize at the Fvench academy ; which was -highly to her 
honour, if it be true, as is reported; that Fontenelle wrote 
at the same time, and upon the same subject. She was a 
member of the academy of the Kicovrati ef Padua, as wa* 
her (nether, who was also of that of Aries. She died at 
Paris in 1718. The works of these two ladies were col- 

> Ufe, at store. 


lectively published in 1747, in 2 vols. 12mo. Several 
maxims of the elder of these ladies are much cited by 
French writers ; as, that on gaming, " On commence par 
Atre dupe, on fioit par Atre fripon." People begin dupes, 
and end rogues. And that on self-love : " Nul n'est con* 
tent de sa fortune, ni mteontent de son esprit 99 No one 
is satisfied with his fortune, or dissatisGed with bis talents. ' 

HOUSTON (William), an able promoter of exotic 
botany in England, went first to the West Indies, in the 
character of a surgeon, and upon his return, after two 
years 9 residence at Leyden, took his degrees in physic 
under Boerhaave, in 1728 and 1729. At Leyden he. insti- 
tuted a set of experiments on brutes ; some of which were 
made in concert with the celebrated Van Swieten. They 
were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions 
under the title of " Experimenta de perforatione thoracis, 
ejusque in respiratione affectibus," the result of which 
proved, contrary to the common opinion, that animals 
coold live and breathe for some time, although air was 
freely admitted into both cavities of the thorax. Soou 
after his return from Holland, he was in 1732 elected a 
fellow of the royal society, and went immediately to the 
West Indies, where he fell a sacrifice to the heat of the 
climate, July 14, 1733. He bad previously sent over a 
description and figure of the dorsteria contrayerva, which 
were published In the Philosophical Transactions, vol. 
XXXVII. This was the first authentic account received 
of that drug, although known in England from the time of 
sir Francis Drake, or earlier. He also sent to his friend 
Mr. Miller, of Chelsea, the seeds of many rare and new 
plants collected by him in the islands. His MS Catalogue 
of plants also came into the hands of Mr. Miller, and after 
bis death into the possession of sir Joseph Banks, who, 
out of respect to the memory of so deserving a man, gra- 
tified the botanists with the publication of them, under the 
title of " Reliquiae Houstonianae, 1781, 4to. f 

HOUTEVILLE (Claude Francis), a native of Paris, 
was eighteen years a member of the congregation called 
the oratory, and afterwards secretary to cardinal Dubois, 
by whom he was much esteemed. He was appointed in 
J 7 42 perpetual secretary to the French academy, but did 

> Morcri.— Diet. Hut.— Bios* Gatltea. 
• Pulteney's Hist sod Bfef, SkrtdM*. 




Rot bog ttagoy his preferment, for he died the same year* 
freiiig about fifty- four years old. He published a work 
emitted "X* Verity de la Religion Chrgtienne prouvde par 
les feits," the latter editions of which are far superior to 
the first. The best edition is that of Paris, 1741, 3 vols. 
4to. This book had an astonishing success on its ftrst ap- 
pearance; but sunk afterwards into a state of discredit no 
less ffrtonishing : it had been extolled too highly at first, 
Md afterwards too much* depredated. The style is af- 
fected, and the author lays down useless principles, and, 
spmetimes, even such as are dangerous and hurtful to his 
cause* His proofs are not always solid or well chosen ; 
hut he is particularly blameable for having separated the 
difficulties and objections from the proofs brought against 
them. By thus heaping objections on objections at the 
end of his work, and giving very short and concise answers 
for fear of repetitions, he gives greater force to the former 
than to the latter, makes us lose sight of his proofs, and 
seems to destroy what he had established. ' 

HOVEDEN (Roger de), an English historian, who 
flourished in the reign of Henry II. was born in Yorkshire, 
most probably in the town of that name, was of a good 
family, and lived beyond the year 1204, but the exact pe- 
riods of his birth and death are not known. He is said to 
have had some situation in the family of Henry II. and to 
have been employed by that monarch in confidential ser-J 
vices, such as visiting monasteries. He was by profession 
a lawyer, but, like other lawyers of that time, in the 
church, and also a professor of theology at Oxford. After 
the death of Henry, he applied himself diligently to the 
writing of history, and composed annals, which he com* 
menced at the year 731, the period where Bede left off, 
and continued to the third year of king John, 1202. These 
annals were first published by Savile among the Historic! 
Anglici, in 1595, and reprinted at Francfort in 1601, folio, 
in two books. Leland says of him, "If we consider his 
diligence, his kuowiedge of antiquity, and his religious 
strictness of veracity, be maybe considered as having sur- 
passed, not only the rude historians of the preceding ages, 
but even what could have been expected of himself. If to 
that fidelity, which is the first quality of a historian, he bad 
joined a little more elegance of Latin style, he might have 

J Afmri.-- Dwt Hiit. 
Vol. XVJIi Q 


stood the tint among the authors of that class." Vdssios 
says that he wrote also a history of the Northumbrian kings, 
and a life of Thomas & Becket. Edward the Third caused 
a diligent search to be made for the works of Hoveden 
when he was endeavouring to ascertain his title to the crown 
of Scotland. Savile bears the same testimony to his fide- 
lity that we have seen given by Leland. 1 

HOW ( William), the first English botanist who gave a 
sketch of what is called a " Flora," was born in London in 
1619, and educated at Merchant Taylors 9 school. He 
became a commoner of St John's college in 1637, took 
his degree of B. A. in 1641, and that of M. A. in 1645, 
and began to study medicine, but we do not find that he 
graduated in that faculty, although he was commonly 
called Dr. How. With many other scholars of that time, 
he entered into the royal army, and was promoted to the 
rank of captain in a troop of horse. Upon the decline of 
the king's affairs he prosecuted his studies in physic, and 
began to practise. His residence was first in Lawrence- 
lane, and then in Milk-street. He died about the begin- 
ning of Sept, 1656, and was buried by the grave of his 
mother in St. Margaret's church, Westminster; leaving 
behind him, as Wood says, " a choice library of books of 
bis faculty, and the character of a noted herbalist." The 
work which he published, "to which we have alluded, was 
entitled " Phytologia Britannica, natales ezhibens indige- 
narum Stirpium sponte emergentium," Lond. 1650, 12rfio. 
This list contains 1220 plants, which (as few mosses and 
fungi are enumerated) is a copious catalogue for that time, 
even admitting the varieties which the. present state of 
botany would reject, but there are many articles in it which 
have no title to a place as indigenous plants of England. 

HOWARD (Thomas), earl of Surrey, and duke of 
Norfolk, an eminent commander in the reign of Henry 
VIII. was born in 1473, and brought up to arms, and soon 
after the accession of Henry was decorated with the knight- 
hood of the garter. He served with his brother sir Edward, 
against sir Andrew Barton, a Scotch free-booter, or pirate, 
who perished in the action. When his brother, sir Ed-* 
ward, was killed in an action near Brest, in 1513, he was 
appointed to the office in bis stead, and in the capacity of 
high admiral he effectually cleared the channel of Fee nch 

1 Ltland.— Tanner. — Nieolsov'fc. Historical Library. 

HOWARD. 227 

i * 

cruisers. The victory of Hodden-field* in which the king 
of Scotland was slaih, wa6 chiefly owing to his valour and 
good conduct For this his father was restored to the title 
of duke of Norfolk, and the title of earl of Surrey was con* 
ferred on him. In 1521 he was sent to Ireland as lord* 
lieutenant, chiefly for the purpose, it was thought, of hav- 
ing him out of the way during the proceedings against his 
father-in-law, the duke of Buckingham. Here he was 
very instrumental in suppressing the rebellion, and having 
served there two years he returned, and bad the command 
of the fleet against France. By the death of his father he 
Succeeded to the title and estates as duke of Norfolk. 
Notwithstanding his great services, Henry, at the close of 
bis tyrannical life and reign, caused the duke to be sent 
to the Tower on a charge of high treason, and his son to 
be beheaded in his presence. The death of the king saved 
the duke's life. He was, however, detained prisoner du- 
ring the whole of the reign of Edward VI. but one of the 
first acts of Mary, after her accession to the throne, was 
to liberate him. He was, after this, the principal instru- 
ment in suppressing* the rebellion. sir Thomas 
Wyatt. He died in August 1554, having passed his 
eightieth year. He was father to the illustrious subject 
of our next article. ' 

HOWARD (Henry), Earl of Surrey. This highly- 
accomplisbed nobleman has been peculiarly unfortunate in 
his biographers, nor is there in the whole range of the 
English series, a life written with less attention to proba- 
bility. Even the few dates on which we can depend have 
been overlooked with a neglect that is wholly unaccount- 
able in men so professedly attentive to these matters, as 
Birch, Walpole, and Warton. The story usually told con- 
sists of the following particulars -. 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, was the eldest son of 
Thomas, the third duke of Norfolk, lord high treasurer of 
England in the reign of Henry VIII. by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham. He was born 
either at his father's seat at Framlingham, in Suffolk, or 
iti the city of Westminster, and being a child of great 
hopes, all imaginable care was taken of bis education. 
When he was very young he was companion, at Windsor 
castle, with Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond, natural 

( . * ColHns'tPearap, by Sir B. Brydfes. 


*2« HOWAJtfi, 

•ion tg Hjenry VIII. and afterwards student in Carding 
'college, now Christ Church, Oifora. %r in 1532 he was 
with the duke of Kichmaud at Paris, and continued there 
for some time in the prosecution of his studies, and learn- 
ing the French language j and upon the death of that duke 
ju July 1536, travelled into Germany, where he resided 
some time at the emperor's court, and thence went to 
Florence, where he fell in love with the fair Geraldiu^ 
the great object of his poetical addresses, and in the grau? 
duke's court published a challenge against all whp should 
dispute her beauty; which challenge bfeing accepted^ he 
came off victorious. For this approved valour, tbe (take 
of Florence made him large offers to slay with him; bus 
he refused them because he intended to defend the honour 
of his Geraldine in all the chief cities of Italy. But this 
design of his was diverted by letters sent tQ pirn by king 
Henry VIIL recalling him to England. He left Italy, there- 
fore, where he had cultivated his poetical genius by the 
reading of the -greatest. writers of that country, and re* 
turned to his own country, where he was considered as 
one of the first of the English nobility, who adorned his, 
high birth with the advantages of a polite taste apd exten- 
sive literature. On the first of May, 1540, he was one of 
the chief of those who justed at Westminster, as a defend- 
ant, against sir John Dudley, sir Thomas Seymour, and 
other challengers, where he behaved himself with ad- 
mirable courage, and great skill in the use of his arms, 
and, in 1542,* served in the army, of which his father was 
lieutenant-general, and which, in October that year, en- 
tered Scotland, and burnt divers villages. In February or 
March following, he was confined to Windsor castle fof 
eatihg flesh in Lent, contrary to the king's proclamation 
of the 9th of February 1542. In 1544, upon the expe* 
dition to Boulogne, in France, he was field-marshal of the 
English army; and after taking that town, being then 
knight of the garter, be was in the beginning of September 
1545, constituted the king's lieutenant and captain-general 
of all bis army within the town and country of Boubgne. 
During his command there in 1546, hearing that a convoy 
of provisions of the enemy was coming to the fort at Oul- 
treau, he resolved to intercept it ; but the Rbingraye, with 
four thousand Lanskinets, together with a considerable 
number of French under the marshal de Biez, making an 
•bstinate defence, the English were Touted, and sir Id- 

Howard; *j* 

*trd Pojraingv, with divers other gentlemen, kitted, and 
the earl of Surrey himself obliged to fly ; though it appears 
Ify a letter of his ta the king, dated January 8, 1 545-6, that 
tfcts advaritoge cost the enemy a great number of meni 
But the kiftg was so highly displeased with this ill success, 
tfcat, from that time he contracted a prejudice against tha 
earf, and, soon after, removed him from his command, 
appointing the earl of Hertford to succeed him. On this 
«r WHtiain Paget wrote to the earl of Surrey to advis* hiar 
to procure some emihent post under the earl; of Hertford, 
that he fright not be unprovided in the town and field. The 
earl being desirous, in the mean time, to regain his for- 
mer favour with thfe king, skirmished against the Trench; 
and routed them ; bur, soon after, writing over to thai 
ling's council, that as the enemy had cast much large? 
cannon than had been yet steen, with Which they imagine*! 
they should soon deoio)isfr Boulogne, it deserved consi- 
deration,' whether the low6r town should stand, as not 
being dlefensible, the couricil ordered him to return ta 
England, in order to represent his sentiments more folly' 
upon those points, and the earl of Hertford was imme- 
diately sent over in his room. This exasperating the earl 
of Surrey, occasioned him to let fall some expressions 
which savoured of revenge, and a dislike of the king, and' 
an hatred of his counsellors ; and was, probably, one great 
cause of his ruin soon after. His father, the duke of Nor* 
folk, bad endeavoured to ally himself to the earl of Here* 
ibrd, and to his brother, sir Thomas Seymour, perceiving 
how much they were in the king's favour, and how great 
an interest they were likely to have under the succeeding 
prince ; and therefore he would have engaged his son, 
being then a widower (having lost bis wife Frances, daughter 
of John ear! of Oxford), to marry the earl of Hertford's 
daughter, and pressed bis daughter, the duchess of Rich* 
mond, widow of the king's natural son, to marry sir Tho- 
mas Seymour. But though the earl of Surrey advised his 
sister to the marriage projected for her, yet he would not 
consent to that designed for himself; noV did the propo- 
sition about himself take effect The Seymours could not 
but perceive the enmity which the earl bore them ; and 
they might well be jealous of the greatness of the Howard 
family, which was not only too considerable for subjects, of 
itself, but was raised so high by the dependence of the 
whole popish party, both at home and abroad, that they 


were likely to be very dangerous competitors for the 
government of affairs, if the king should die, whose disease 
was now growing so fast upon him that he CQuld npt live 
many weeks. Nor is it improbable, that they persuaded 
the king, that, if the earl of Surrey should marry (he 
princess Mary, it might embroil his son's government, and, 
perhaps, ruin him. And it was suggested that Jbe had 
some such high project in his thoughts* both by his con- 
tinuing unmarried, and by his. using the arms of Edward 
tfee Confessor,* which, of late, he bad given in his coat 
without a diminution. To complete the duke of Norfolk's 
and his son's ruin, his duchess, who bad complained of his 
using ber ill, and had beenf separated from. him about four 
years, turned informer against him. And the earl and his 
sister, the duchess dowager of .Richmond, being upon ill 
terms together, she discovered all she knew against him ; 
4f likewise did one Mrs. Holland, for whom the duke was 
believed to have had an unlawful affection. But all these 
discoveries amounted only to some passionate expressions 
of the son, and some complaints of the father, who thought 
he was not beloved by the king and his counsellors, and 
that he was ill used in not being trusted with the secret 
of affairs. However, all persons being encouraged to bring 
informations against them, sir Richard Southwel charged 
the earl of SuVrey in some points of an higher nature ; 
which the earl denied, an<J desired to be admitted, accord* 
jng to the martial law, to fight, in his shirt, with sir Ri- 
chard. But, that not being granted, he and his father 
were committed prisoners to the Tower on the 12th of 
December 1346 ; and the earl, being a commoner, was 
brought to his trial in Guildhall, on the 13th of January 
following, before the lord chancellor, the lord mayor, and 
other commissioners; where he defended himself with 
great skill and address, sometimes denying the accusa- 
tions, and weakening the credit of the witnesses against 
him, and sometimes interpreting the words objected to him 
in a far different sense from what had been represented. 
For the point of bearing the arm* of Edward the Confessor, 
he justified himself by the authority of the heralds. And 
when a witness was produced, who pretended to repeat 
some high words of his lordship's, by way of discourse, 
which concerned him nearly, and provoked the witness to 
return him a braving answer; the Qarl left it to the jury to 
judge whether it was probable that this man should speak 

HOWARD. 931 

thus to him, and he not strike him again. In conclusion, 
he insisted upon his innocence, but was found guilty, and 
had sentence of death passed upon him. He was beheaded 
on Tower-hill on the 19th of January 1546-7; and his 
body interred in the church of All Hallows Barking, and 
afterwards removed to Framlingham, in Suffolk. 

Such is the account drawn up by Dr. Birch for the " Il- 
lustrious Heads," from Anthony Wood, Camden, Herbert, 
Dugdale, and Burnet's History of the Reformation. The 
principal errors, (corrected in this transcription,) are his 
making the earl of Surrey son to the second duke of Nor- 
folk *, and the duke of Richmond natural son to Henry the 

His next biographer to whom any respect is due wai 
the late earl of Orford, in his Catalogue of " Royal and 
Noble Authors." The account of Surrey, in this work, de- 
rives its chief merit from lord Orford's ingenious expla- 
nation of the sonnet on Geraldine, which amounts to this, 
that Geraldine was Elizabeth (second daughter of Gerald 
Fitzgerald earl of Kildare), and afterwards third wife of 
Edward Clinton earl of Lincoln ; and that Surrey proba- 
bly saw her first at Hunsdon-house in Hertfordshire, where, 
as she was second cousin to the princesses Mary and 
Elizabeth, who were educated in this place, she might 
have been educated with them, and Surrey, as the com- 
panion of the duke of Richmond, the king's natural son, 
might have had interviews with her, when the duke went 
to visit hir sisters. — All this is ingenious; but nto light is 
thrown upon the personal history of the earl, and none of 
the difficulties, however obvious, in his courtship of Gerald- 
ine removed, or even hinted at; nor does lord Orford 
condescend to inquire into the dates of any event in his 

Mr. Warton commences his account of Surrey by ob- 
serving, that " Lord Surrey's life throws so much light on 
the character and subjects of his poetry, that it is almost 
impossible to consider the one, without exhibiting a few 
•anecdotes of the other." He then gives the memoirs of 
Surrey almost in the words of lord Orford, except in the 
following instances : 

* The tame error appears on the second ton Henry earl of Northamp* 
nonumeiit erected to the earl'i me- too. Dugdale admits the error in p. 
mot? at Framliofham m 1619, by hit 963, but corrects it in p. 974. ▼©!. Ik 


** A friendship of the closest kind commencing befweeri 
these two illustrious youths (Surrey and the duke <rf 
Richmond), about the year 1 530, they were both removed 
to cardinal Wolsey'g college at Oxford.-^-Two years bfter* 
wards (1532) for the purpose of acquiring every accbrh- 

Elishment of an elegant education^ the earl accompanied 
is noble friend and fellow-pupil into France, whete they 
received king Henry, on his arrival at Calais to visit 
Francis I. with a most magnificent retinue. The friend- 
ship of these two young noblemen was soon strengthened 
by a new tie ; for Richmond married the lady Mary How- 
ard, Surrey's sister. Richmond, however, appears to have 
died in the year 1536, about the age of seventeen, having 
never cohabited with bis wife. It was long before Surrey 
forgot the untimely loss of this amiable yotlth, the friend 
and associate of his childhood, and who nearly resembled 
himself in genius, refinement of manners, and liberal ac- 

After adopting lord Orford's explanation df the sonnet 
on Geraldine, Mr. Warton proceeds to Stirrers travels, 
beginning with a circumstance on which much more atten- 
tion ought to have been bestowed. 

w It is not precisely known at what period the earl of 
8urrey began bis travels. They have the air of a romance. 
He made the tour of Europe in the true spirit of chivalry, 
and with the ideas of an Amadis : proclaiming the unpar* 
alleled charms of his mistress, and prepared to defend the 
cause of her beauty with the weapons of knight-errantry. 
Nor was this adventurous journey performed without the 
intervention of an enchanter. The first city in Italy which 
he proposed to visit was Florence, the capital of Tuscany, 
and the original seat of the ancestors of his Geraldine. Iri 
bis way thither, be passed a few days at the emperor's 
court ; where he became acquainted with Cornelius Agrippa, 
a celebrated adept in natural magic. This visionary 
philosopher shewed our hero, in a mirror of glass, a llvinj 
image of Geraldine, declining on a couch, sick, and redd- 
ing one of his most tender sonnets by a waxen taper. 
His imagination, which wanted not the flattering Frepre- 
sentations and artificial incentives of illusion, was heated 
anew by this interesting and affecting spectacle. Inflamed 
ivith every enthusiasm of the most romantic passion, he 
hastened to Florence : and on his arrival, immediately pub* 
lished a defiance against any person who could handle a 



Howard: *ss 

• t 

hmce and was in love, whether Christian, Jtew, Turk, Sa- 
racen, or Canibal, who should presume te dispute the stt* 
periority of Gerakline's beauty. As die lady was pre* 
tended to be of Tuscan extraction, the pride ef rite Flo- 
rentines was flattered on this occasion : and the grand dukt) 
of Tuscany permitted a general feud unmolested ingres* 
into his dominions of the combatants of all countries, till 
this important trial should be decided. The challenge was 
accepted, and the earl victorious. The shield which he 
presented to the duke before the tournament tegan, H 
exhibited in Vertue's valuable plate of tbe Arundel family, 
and was actually in the possession of the late duke of 

*' These heroic vanities did not, however, so totally en* 
gross the time which Surrey spent in Italy, as to alienate 
Sis mind from letters : he studied with the greatest sue-* 
£ess fe critical knowledge of the Italian tongue ; and, that 
he might give new lustre to the name of Geraldine, attained 
a just taste for the peculiar graces of the Italian poetry. 

" He was recalled 'to Eggland for some idk reaton by 
the king, much sooner than he expected : -and he returned 
home, the most elegant traveller, the oKfct p&Htc l&ver % the 
most learned nobleman, and the most accomplished gen* 
tleman, of bis age. Dexterity in tilting, and gracefulness 
in managing a horse under arms, were excellencies now 
viewed with a critical eye, and practised with a high degree 
of emulation. In 1 540, at a tournament held in the pre* 
sence of tbe court at Westminster, and in which the prin- 
cipal of the nobility were engaged, Surrey was distirr* 
guished above the rest for his address in the use and ex- 
ercise of arms. But his martial skill was not solely dis- 
played in the parade and ostentation of these domestic 
combats. In 1 542, he marched into Scotland, as a chief 
commander in his father's army; and was conspicuous for 
his conduct and bravery at the memorable battle of 
Flodden-ficld, where James the Fourth of Scotland was 

The only other passage in which Mr. Warton improves* 
upon bis authorities is a very proper addition to the above 
account pf lord Surrey's travels. 

" Among these anecdotes of Surrey's life, I bad almost 
forgot to mention what became of his amour with 1 the fur 

* It is perhaps unnecessary to point this story, for' which we are entirety 
•at tbe many little embellishments in indebted to Mr. Wartoa's elegant pen* 




Geraldioe. We lament to find that Surrey's devotion to 
this lady did not end in a wedding, and that all bis gal- 
lantries and verses availed so little. No memoirs of that 
inebrious age have informed us whether her beauty was 
equalled by her cruelty; or whether her ambition pre- 
vailed so far over her gratitude, as to tempt her to prefer 
the solid glories of a more splendid title and ample fortune 
to the challenges and the compliments of so magnanimous* 
so faithful, and so eloquent a lover. She appears, bow- 
ever, to have been afterwards the third wife of Edward 
Clinton, earl of Lincoln. Such also is the power of time 
and accident over amorous vows, that even Surrey himself 
outlived the violence of bis passion. He married Frances, 
daughter of John earl of Oxford, by whom he left several 
children. One of his daughters, Jane countess of West- 
moreland, was among the learned ladies of that age, and 
became famous for her knowledge of the Greek and Latin 

It is truly wonderful that lord Orford and .Mr. Warton, 
delighted as they were with the " romantic air" of lord 
Surrey's travels, should by any enchantment have been 

Erevented from inquiring whether tfce events which they 
ave placed between 1536 and 1546, when lord Surrey 
died, were at all consistent with probability. Had they 
made the slightest inquiry into the age of lord Surrey, al- 
though the precise year and day of his birth might not 
have been recoverable, they could not have failed to ob- 
tain such information as would have thrown a suspicion on 
the whole story of his knight-errantry. 

The birth of lord Surrey may be conjectured to have 
taken place some time between 1515 and 1520, probably 
the former, or at least earlier than 1520*. He was, it is 
universally agreed, the school companion of the duke of 
Richmond, who died in ] 536, in his seventeenth year, and 
if we allow that Surrey was two or three years older, it will 

* In bis fetter addressed to the 
Lordi of the Council when be was in 
the Tower, previous to bit trial and 
execution, we find him more than once 
pleading hit youth. He request* their 
lordships to ♦* impute bit error to the 
fnrie of .recbelease awta."— r«« Let my 
youth unpractised tn durance, obtain 
pardon. ■»— •* Neither am I the first 
newng men that, gnrejned by fury. 

bath enterprised such things at he bath 
afterwards repented." These expres- 
sions give some couotenauce to the 
•opposition that the date onhispor* 
trait in the picture-gallery at Oxford is 
nearly right. See the above letter in 
the Historical Anecdotes of the Howard 
Family; or in Mr. Park's valuable 
edition of the Royal and Noble Au- 

HOWAK R 2»5 

not much affect the high probability that he was a very 
young man at the time when his biographers made him fall 
in love with Geraldine, and maintain her beauty at Flo- 
rence. None of the portraits of Surrey, as far as the pre- 
sent writer has been able to ascertain, mention his age, ex- 
cept that in the picture gallery at Oxford, on which is 
inscribed, that he was beheaded in " 1547, set. 27." The 
inscription, indeed, is in a hand posterior to the date of 
the picture (supposed to be by Hotbein), but it may have 
been the hand of some successful inquirer. None of the 
books of peerage notice his birth or age, nor are these cir- 
cumstances inserted on his monument at Framlingham. 
Conjecture, it has been already observed, supposes him to 
have been born some time between 1515 and 1520. If 
we take the earliest of these dates, it will still remain that 
Jlis biographers have either crowded, more events into bis 
life than it was capable of holding, or that they have de- 
layed his principal adventures until they become unde- 
tsxvtng of credit, and inconsistent with his character. 

Mr, Warton observes, that " it is not precisely known 
at what period the earl of Surrey began his travels ;" but 
this is a matter of little consequence in refuting the ac- 
count usually given of those travels, because all his bio- 
graphers are agreed that he did not set out before 1 536. 
At this time he had ten years only of life before him, which 
have been filled up in a very extraordinary maimer. First, 
be travels over a part of Europe, vindicating the beauty 
of Geraldine — in 1540 he is celebrated at the justs at 
Westminster — in 1542 he goes to Scotland with bis father's 
army — in 1543 (probably) be is imprisoned for eating 
flesh in lent — in 1544 — 5, he is commander at Boulogne— 
aud lastly, amidst all these romantic adventures, or serious 
events, he has leisure to marry the daughter of the earl of 
Oxford, and beget five children, which we may suppose 
. would occupy at least five or six of the above ten years, 
and those not the last five or six years, for we find him a 
widower a considerable time before his death. Among 
other accusations whispered in the ear of his jealous sove«* 
reign, one was his continuing unmarried (an expression 
whiot} usually denotes a considerable length of time) after 
the period when a second marriage might be decent, in 
order that he might marry the princess Mary, in the event 
of the king's death, and so disturb the succession of Ed- 


S96 H 4) W A ft D. 

The placing tf these>events in this series would render 
tbe story of hts knight-errantry sufficiently imprbVmbJe r 
were we left without any information respecting the date 
of Surrey's marriage, hut that event fenders the whole im- 
possible, if we wish to preserve any respect for the con* 
ststency of his character. Surrey was actually married 
before the commencement of his travels in pursuit or in 
defence of Gerakfme's beauty. His eldest son, «T homas, 
third duke of Norfolk, was eighteen years old whetf his 
grandfather died m 1554. He was consequently born in 
1536, and his father, it is surely reasonable to suppose, 
was married in 1535*. It would, therefore, be unneces- 
sary to examine the story of Surrey's romantic travels any 
farther, if we had not some collateral authorities which 
may still show that whatever may be wrong in the' pre- 
sent statement, it is certain that there is nothing right in 
the common accounts, which have been read and copied! 
without any suspicion. 

If it be said that Surrey's age is not exactly known, atnff . 
therefore allowing 1536, the date of his travels, to be er- 
roneous, it is possible, that he might have been enamoured 
of Geraldine long before this, and it is possible that his 4 
travels might have commenced in 1 526, or any other pe- 
riod founded on this new conjecture. This, hdwevei^ is) 
as improbable as all the rest of the story, for it can be de- 
cidedly proved that there was no time for Surrey's gal- 
lantries towards Geraldine, except the period which his 
biographers, however absurdly, have assigned, nariiely, 
when he was a married man. The father of lady Eliza- 
beth* the supposed Geraldine, married in 1519, one of 
the daughters of Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset, and 
by her had five children, of whom Elizabeth was the 
fourth, and therefore probably not born before 1523 or 
1524. If Surrey's courtship, therefore, must be carried 
farther back, it must be carried to the nursery *, for even 
in 1536, when we are told he was her knight-errant, she 
could not have been more than devetf or twelve years old. 
Let us add to this a few particulars respecting Geraldine'* 
husband. She married Edward lord Clinton. He was 
born in 1512, was educated in the court, and passed his 

* If, according to tbe preceding supposition, there ere not wanting- m« 

conjecture, be was born in 1515, be stances of as early marriages in past 

was now twenty years of age ; but bad times. The duke of Richmond, we 

no been born in 1520, the morn usual find, died a married man at 

H O W A R D. *S7 

youth iii those magnificent and romantic amusements which 
distinguished the beginning of Henry VIII.'s reign, but 
did not appear as a public character until 1544, when he 
,waj thirty -two years of age, Geraldine about twenty-four, 
and Surrey within two years of his death, and most pro- 
bably a widower. This earl of Lincoln had three wives ; 
the date of his marriage with any of them is not knowq, 
nor how bug they lived, but Geraldine was the third, the 
only one by whom he had no children, and who survived 
nis death, which took place in 1584, thirty-eight years 
after the death of Surrey. Mr. Warton, iu his earnest 
desire to counect her with Surrey, insinuates that she might 
Wire been either cruel, or that her " ambition prevailed 
so Jar over her gratitude as to tempt her to prefer the 
$olid glories of a more splendid title and ample fortune, 
to the challenges and the compliments of so magnanimous* 
so faithful, and so eloquent a lover." On this it is only 
necessary to remark, that the lady's ambition might have 
been as highly gratified by marrying the accomplished and 
galhmt iSorrey, the heir of the duke of Norfolk, as by al- 
lying herself to a nobleman of inferior talents and rank. 
But of his two conjectures, Mr. Warton seems most to 
adhere to that of cruelty, for he adds, that " Surrey him- 
self outlived his amorous vows, and married the daughter 
pf the earl of Oxford/' This, however, is as little de- 
serving of serious examination, as the ridiculous story. of 
Cornelius Agrippa showing Geraldine in a glass, which 
Anthony Wood found in Drayton's " Heroical Epistle," 
or probably, as Mr. Park thinks, took it from Nash's 
fanciful "Life of Jack Wilton," published in 1594, 
where, under the character of his hero, he professes to 
have travelled to the emperor's c'ourt as page to the earl of 
Surrey. Bat it is unfortunate for this story, wheresoever 
borrowed, that Agrippa' was no more a conjurer than any 
Other learned man of his time, and that he. died at Gre- 
noble the year before Surrey is said to have set out on bis 
romantic expedition.. Drayton has made a similar mistake 
in giving to Surrey, as one of the companions of his 
voyage, the great sir Thomas More, who was beheaded in 
1535, a year likewise before Surrey set out. Poetical 
authorities, although hot wholly to be rejected,, are of all 
others to be received with the greatest caution, yet it was 
probably Drayton's " Heroical Epistle * " .which led Mr. 

♦ SttOraytM'f Wwiu, v*l. IV. p.f6, «t M<n. " - 

2*8 H O W A R D. 

Warton into so egregious a blander as that of our poet 
being present at Flodden-6eld, in 1513. Dr. Sewell, in- 
deed, in the short memoirs prefixed to bis edition of Sur- 
rey's Poems, asserts the same ; but little credit is due to 
the assertion of a writer who at the same time fixes Sur- 
rey's birth in If 20, seven years after that memorable 
battle was fought. 

It is now time to inquire whether the accounts hitherto 
given can be confirmed by internal evidence. It has been 
•o common to consider Geraldine as the mistress of Surrey, 
that all his love-poems are supposed to have a reference 
to bis attachment to that lady. Mr. Warton begins his 
narrative by observing, that " Surrey's life throws so much 
light on the character and subjects of bis poetry, that it is 
almost impossible to consider the one without exhibiting a 
few anecdotes of the other." We have already seen what 
those anecdotes are, how totally irrecopcileablo with pro- 
bability, and how amply refuted by the dates which bis 
biographers, unfortunately for their story, bare uniformly 
furnished. When we look into the poems, we find the 
celebrated sonnet to Geraldine, the only specious (bun-* 
dation for his romantic attachment; but as that attachment 
and its consequences cannot be supported without a con- 
tinual violation of probability, and in opposition to the 
very dates which are brought to confirm it, it seems more 
.safe to conjecture that this sonnet was one of our author's 
earliest productions, addressed to Geraldine, a mere child, 
by one who was only not a child, as an effort of youthful 
gallantry, in one of his interviews with her at Hunsdon, 
Whatever credit may be given to this conjecture, for 
which the present writer is by no means anxious, it is cer- 
tain that if we reject it, or some conjecture of the same 
import, and adopt the accounts given by his biographers, 
we cannot proceed a single step without being opposed by 
invincible difficulties. There is no other poem in Surrey's 
collection that can be proved to have any reference to 
Geraldine, but there are two with the same title, viz. " The 
Complaint of the absence of her lover being upon the sea,* 
which are evidently written in the character of a wife, la- 
menting the absence of her husband, and tenderly alluding 
to " his faire litle Sonne." Mr. Warton, indeed, finds 
Geraldine in the beautiful, lines beginning " Gsae place, 
ye lovers, here before," and from the lines " Spite drave 
me into Boreqs reign/' infers that her. anger " drave bit* 

HOWARD. 239 

into a colder climate/ 9 with what truth may now be left to 
the reader. But another of his conjectures cannot be 
passed over. " In 1544," he says, " lord Surtey was field- 
marshal of the English army in the expedition to Boulogne, 
.which he took. In that age, love and arms constantly 
went together ; and it was amid the fatigues of this pro- 
tracted campaign, that he composed his last sonnet, called 
' The Fansie of a Wearied Lover." Bnt this is a mere 
supposition. The poems of Surrey are without dates, and 
were arranged by their first editor without any attention 
to a matter of so much importance. The few allusions 
made to his personal history in these poems are very dark, 
but in some of them there is a train of reflection which 
seems to indicate that misfortunes and disappointments 
had dissipated bis Quixotism, and reduced him to the so- 
ber and serious tone of a man whose days bad been " few 
and evil." Although he names his productions songs and 
sonnets, they have less of the properties of either than of 
the elegiac strain. His scripture- translations appear to be 
characteristic of his mind and situation in his latter days. 
What uuless a heart almost broken by the unnatural con- 
duct of his friends and family, could have induced the 
gay and gallant Surrey, the accomplished courtier and 
soldier, to console himself by translating those passages 
from Ecclesiastes which treat of the shortness and uncer- 
tainty of all human enjoyments, or those Psalms which 
direct the penitent and the forsaken to the throne of al- 
mighty power and grace ? Mr. Warton remarks that these 
translations of Scripture " show him to have been a friend 
to the reformation ;" and this, which is highly probable, 
may have been one reason why his sufferings were em- 
bittered by the neglect, if not the direct hostility of his 
bigotted father and sister. The translation of the Scriptures 
into prose was but just tolerated in his time, and to fami- 
liarize them by the graces of poetry must have appeared 
yet more obnoxious to the enemies of the reformation. 

Although the present writer has taken some liberties with 
the Historian of English poetry, in his account of Surrey's 
life, he has not the presumption to omit Mr. Warton's ele- 
gant and just criticism on his poems'. " Surrey for just- 
ness of thought, correctness of style, and purity of ex- 
pression, may justly be pronounced the first English clas- 
sical poet. He unquestionably is the first polite writer of 
love-verses in our language, although it must be allowed that 


/» « 

there U a striking, native beauty ia some, of our love-vejsef 
written much earlier than Surrey V* It » also worthy #( 
notice, that while all his biographers send him to Italy to 
study its poetry* Mr. Warton finds nothing in his works of 
jtbat metaphysical cast which marks the Italian poets bis 
supposed masters, especially Petrarch. ," Surrey's senti- 
ments are for the most part natural and unaffected ; arising 
from bis own feelings, and dictated by the present circum* 
stances. His poetry is alike unembarrassed by leajrped air 
lusions, or elaborate conceits. If our author copies Pe- 
trarch, it is Petrarch's better planner ; when be descends 
from his Platonic abstractions, bis refinements of passion, 
bis exaggerated compliments, and his play upon opposite 
sentiments, into a track of tenderness, simplicity, and na- 
ture. Petrarch would have been a better poet had be been 
a worse scholar. Our author's mind was not too much 
over-laid by learning." 

The translation of the two books of the Eneid is "exe* 
cuted with fidelity, without a prosaic servility ; the diction 
is often poetical, and the versification varied with proper 
pauses." Its principal merit, however, is that of being 
the first specimen in the English language, of blank verse, 
which was at that time growing fashionable in the Italian 

I>oetry. It is very probable that be intended to have trans* 
ated the whole, and. be is so much more elegant and cor- 
rect in this than in hi* other translations, that the Eneid 
appears to have been the production of his happier days. 

The fidelity which Mr. Warton attributes to the transla* 
tions from Virgil, our author baa not preserved in his trans- 
lations from Scripture, which are very liberal, and by 
frequent omissions, and a different arrangement, made to 
suit his situation and feelings at the time they were writ* 
ten, wbich was probably when he was in the Tower, 

Surrey's poems were in high reputation among bis con* 
temporaries and immediate successors, who vied with each 
other in compliments to his genius, gallantry, and personal 
worth. They were first printed in 1557, by Tottel, in fto, 
with tbe title of " Songes and sounettes by the right ho- 
norable Henry Howard, late earl of Surrey, and other." 
Several editions of the same followed in 1565, 1567, 1569, 
J574, 1585, and 15S7. So raauy editions prove a degree 
of popularity which fell to the lot of very few poems of 
that age- But after the time of Elizabeth they became 
gradually obscure, and we find no modern edition until 


Pope's incidental notice of him (in Windsor-Forest), at 
the " Granville of a former age," induced the bookseller* 
to employ Dr. Sewell to be the editor of Surrey's, Wyat's, 
and the poems of uncertain authors. But the doctor per* 
formed bis task with so little knowledge of the language, 
that this is perhaps the most incorrect edition extant of 
any ancient poet. It would have been surprizing bad it 
contributed to revive his memory, or justify Pope's com- 
parison and eulogium. 

. The translation of the second and fourth book of th» 
Eneid was published in 1557, but it seems doubtful whe- 
ther together or separately. The translations of the Psalms, 
Ecclesiastes, and the few additional original poems, were 
printed*, but not published, many years ago, by Dr* 
Percy, from a MS.f now in the possession of Thomas HilJ, 
esq. A more correct and perfect edition of Surrey may 
soon be expected from Dr. Nott 1 

HOWARD (Henry), earl of Northampton, second 
son of the preceding, but unworthy of such a father, waft 
born at Shottisham in Norfolk about 1539. He was edu- 
cated at King s college, and afterwards at Trinity-hall, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of A. M. to which 
he was also admitted at Oxford, in 1568, Bishop Godwin 
says, his reputation for literature was so great in the uni- 
versity, that he was esteemed " the learnedest among th6 
nobility; and the most noble among the learned." Hd 
was at first, probably, very slenderly provided for, being 
often obliged, as Lloyd records, " to dine with the chair 
of duke Humphrey." He contrived, however, to spend 
some years in travel ; but on his return could obtain no 
favour at court, at least till the latter end of queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, which was probably owing to bis connections. 
In 1597, it seems as if he was in some power (perhaps, 
however, only through the influence of his friend lord Es- 
sex), because Rowland White applied to him concerning 
air Robert Sydney's suits at court He was the grossest of 
flatterers, as appears by his letters to his patron and friend 

* The whole impreesion wai con- tie* of the Nags Aotiqas. In his 

tutted io the destructive fire which edition of the Royal awl Noble Author*, 

took place in Mr. Nichols's premises, are some /interesting particulars re- 

Feb. 1808. tpecting the Tenons editions of Sqr* 

f This MS. descended from the Har- rey't Poems, 
f iagton family. See Mr. Park's edi- 

1 Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets. 

Vpfc-xviii; r 


lord Essex; but while he professed the most unbounded 
friendship for Essex, he yet paid his suit to the lord trea- 
surer Burleigh. On the fall of Essex, be insinuated him- 
self so far into the confidence of bis mortal enemy, secre- 
tary Cecil, as to become the instrument of the secretary's 
correspondence with the king of Scotland, which passed 
through his bands, and has been since published by sir 
David Dalrycnple. It is not wonderful, therefore, that a 
man of his intriguing spirit, was immediately on king 
James's accession, received into favour. In May 1603, 
he was made a privy-counsellor; in January following, 
lord warden of the Cinque Ports ; in March, baron of 
Marnhill, and earl of Northampton; in April 1608, lord 
privy seal; and honoured with the garter. In 1609, he 
succeeded John lord Lumley, as-high steward of Oxford ; 
and in 1612, Robert,, earl of Salisbury, as chancellor of 
Cambridge. Soon after he became the principal instru- 
ment in the infamous intrigue ojf his great niece the coun- 
tess of Essex with Carr viscount Rochester. The wretch 
acted as pander to the couutess, for the purpose of conci- 
liating the rising favourite ; and it is impossible to doubt 
his deep criminality in the murder of Uverbury. About 
nine months afterwards, June 15, 1614, he died, luckily 
for himself, before this atrocious affair became the subject 
of public investigatiqn. He was a learned man, but a 
pedant dark and mysterious, and far from possessing mas- 
terly abilities. . It causes astonishment, says the elegant 
writer to whom we are indebted for this article, " wbea 
we reflect that this despicable and wicked wretch was the 
son of the generous and accomplished earl of Surrey. 
One of his biographer* remarks, that " his lordship very 
prudently died a papist ;. he stood no chance for heaven in 
any other religion." 

His works are, 1. "A Defensative against the poison of 
supposed Prophecies," Lond. 1583, 4to, and 1620, folio* 
This is well analysed by Oldys in bis " British Librarian." 
2. " An Apology for the government of Women," a MS. 
in the Bodleian, and in lord Orford's library. 9. •< An ab- 
stract of the frauds of the officers in the. navy," MS. in the 
king's library. 4. " A devotional piece, with the judg- 
ment of primitive interpreters." It seems doubtful whe- 
ther: this exists. It is mentioned by him in a letter to lord 
Burfeigh, to whom he sent it 5. " Forms ef Prayer/ 9 MS. 

HOWARD. 2** 

Mr. Park has specified a few other articles among the Har- 
Jeian MSS. 1 

HOWARD (Charles), earl of Nottingham, lord high 
admiral of England, was son of William lord Howard 
of Effingham, and grandson of .Thomas second duke of 
Norfolk. He was born in 1 536, and initiated early into 
the affairs of stale, being sent in 1 549, on the death of 
Henry 11. king of France, with a compliment <of condolence 
to his successor Francis II. and to congratulate him on bis 
accession to the throne, &c. On his return he was elected 
one of the knights of the shire for the county of Surrey in 
1 562, and in 1 569 was general of the horse under the eart 
of Warwick, in the army sent against the earls of Northum- 
berland and Westmoreland, then in rebellion. The year 
following he went with a fleet of men of war to convoy the 
princess Anne of Austria, daughter of the emperor Maxi- 
milian, going into Spain, over the British seas; and id 
1573, upon the death of his father, succeeded him it\ ho- 
nours and estate; The same year he was installed knight 
of the garter, and likewise made lord chamberlain of the 
household ; and in 1585 constituted lord high admiral of 

In 1588, the memorable year of the Spanish invasion, 
the queen, knowing his abilities in naval affairs, and popu- 
larity with tile seamen, gave him the command of her whole 
fleet, with which be entirely dispersed and destroyed the 
Spanish armada; and when, in 1596, another invasion was 
apprehended from the Spaniards, and a fleet of 150 ships 
was equipped with a proper number of land-forces, he was 
appointed commander in chief at sea, as the earl of Esses 
was at land. In this expedition Cadiz was taken, and the 
Spanish fleet there burnt ; and the lord high admiral had 
so great a share in this success, that on Oct 22 of the same 
year he was advanced to the dignity of Earl of Nottingham, 
and appointed justice itinerant for life of all the forests 
south of Trent In 1599, upon an eppreheusipn of the 
Spaniards again designing the invasion of England, and on 
private inteUtfeence, that. the earl of Essex, then lord de- 
puty of Ireland, discontented at the power of bis advert 
saries, was meditating to return into England with a select 
party of men, the queen baring raised 6009 foot soldiers 

■ Collioi't Peerafe, by t'nr E, Brydget.— Lloyd'i Worthiet._Pttk's rittioft 
•ftfct ftoytl »o<] Noble Authors.— Censurm LKcrtria, Vol. V. 

A % 

844 HOWARD. 

to be jeady on any emergency, reposed so entire a confi* 
deuce in the earl of Nottingham, that she cotanmitted* to 
bun the chief commend. But these forces being again 
disbanded a few days after, be had no opportunity for ac- 
tion until ISO*, when be suppressed the eat* of Essexfc 
instim^tipo. The same year he was appointed one of 4he 
cooHiMssiojMjrs for eaercising the office, of earl* marshal of 
England; and in the beginning . of l£Dfi-? 9 during the 
queen's last illness, he was deputed by the conned, with 
the lord keeper Egertoo and secretary Cecil, to know her 
majesty's pleasure in reference to the succession* which 
she declared in favour of James, kkjg of Scotland. 

Upon the accession of that king to the throne of Eng- 
land, the earl was continued in his post of lord adaairai, 
and at the coronation was made lord high steward oi Eng- 
land lor tfcaf occasion,; and she year following, upon the 
renewing the commission to seven tends for exercising 
the office of earl marshal, he was appointed one of thai 
99n)ber, In 1604 he was one of the commissioners to 
treat of an union between. England and Scotland ; and iff' 
1$Q£, sent ambassador to the court of Spain, attended with 
a splendid retinue, who being, as Wilson says, " persons 
pf quatyy, accoutred with ail ornaments suitable, were the 
more admired by the Spaniards for beaaiy and ejtcdl^ncy, 
by h<*w mmch the Jetuiu had made impressions in the vul- 
gar opinion, that since the English left, the Roman reli- 
gion, they jvere twisforaoed into strange horrid shapes, 
with heailsand jails like, beasts and monsters/' His em* 
ploy roent .there was to take the oath of the king of Spain 
to the treaty of peace lately made with him ; nod be had a 
particular instruction, that in perfonnsog that ceremony^ 
which was most likely in the royal chapel, be should 
have especial care, that it might be done, not in .the fore- 
noon in the time of mass, but miher in the afternoon, at 
which time the Romish service is mast fsee from sqpessfU 
tion. During this embassy, the kin? of Spain did more 
honour to the earl, than ever he had done to any person in 
bis employment in that kingdom; and the people. in gene-, 
ral shewed all possible regard for him, as his lo«dshfp*s be^ 
haviour there justly deaenred ; and. at his departure from 
thence in June the same year, heibad; present* made jrim: 
by that king in plate, jewels, aud horses, to the value pf 
80,000/. besides the gold" chains and jewels given to his 
#Uendants, Upon the marriage of the lady Elizabeth to 


the Elector Palatine, February 14, 1612-13, the earl off 
Nottingham with, the duke ef Lenox conducted be* high- 
ness frofe the chapel ; and had the honour of convoying 
her with a royal navy to Flushing. He continued lord high 
admiral of £ogbnd till February $, 1618-19, when finding 
himself, unable any lohger to perform the. necessary duties 
of. that, great employment, which he bad enjoyed about 
thirty ~tbree yeara with the highest applause* bd; tolun* 
flacily resigned it to, his majesty ; who being sensible of the 
important sendees which he had' done the n*tk>n, remitted 
him a debt otoing to the croWn of 18*0002. settled upon 
him a pension of 1000/. a year for life, and granted him 
tike -place and precedency of John Mowbray, who had beeh 
treated earl of Nottingham by kirig Richard 11. at the time* 
o£ his coronation* 

i He died at the *ge of eighty-eight, leaving rather an 
everlasting memorial of his extraordiaary worth, thfcn any 
graat estate to his family ; although he had enjoyed sd 
long the profitable post of lord adfniral. . He lived to- a 
meat . splendid and magnificent te&tiner, keepihg seVed 
standing houses at the same lime ; and was tdwdys far* 
ward to promote any design serviceable td bis eoiintry* 
He expended in several expeditions great dutos out of his 
private fortune ; and in the critical year 1588* wb4n* on 
4 surmise, that the Spaniards were unable to set sail thaf 
year, secretary Walsingham, by order of the queen, wrote 
to -him to send back four of bis largest ships, he desiredj 
that nothing might be rashly credited in so weighty a mat* 
ter,>aod that he might keep those ships with him, though 
it wese at his own cost; ind in the expedition to.€adiej 
be", add the efcrl of Essex, the tW6 eomcnanders; contri* 
buled very lahgdy out of their own estates* Sir Better* 
Natraton styles Jiiiii # a good, honest, and brave Man ; and 
as for his. person*, as/ goodty a gentleman a4 any of tbrfs 
age:' 9 and. Mr* Oahbrae telb u< that his "fidelity wrf» 
impregnable in relation to coiruptfoni'* By his firet wiiey 
Cathatind, daughter to Henry Cfcry lowj Hbnsdon* be had 
Mm sbni and tnree daughters; and by his seeond* Mac* 
gsnetj daughter to Jaosea Bttiart earl of Murray in Scot*- 
lendj^ubo tons. 1 . » -' v. 

HOWARD (Jobx), the indefatigable friend of the rloor; 
and iinibrtdnhtej was horn tert Habkriey, ;ta IMfa His' 

1 Bjog. Brit,— flireb> Lif«f.— LloyJ'* Su|t Wctjtbiep,— Ho}srt Hist; 0* 4 
England* '**** *'* 


*4* nowAio. 

fctber, who kept a carpet-wueboose in Long»lane, Smith* 
field, dying while be was very young, left him to the oare 
of guardians, by whom he was apprenticed to Mr. Newp- 
fcam, grandfather to the late alderman Newnham, a whole- 
sale grocer in the city of London. His constitution ap- 
pearing too weak for attention to trade, and his father hav- 
ing left him, and an only sister, in circumstances which 
placed them above the necessity of panning it, he bought 
oat the remainder of his indentures before the time, and 
took a tour in France and Italy. On his return, be lodged 
at the house of a Mrs. Lardeau, a widow, in 8toke-Newuig- 
ton, where be was so carefully attended by the lady, that 
though she was many years older than himself, he formed 
an attachment to her, and in 1752 made her bis wife. She 
was possessed of a small fortune, which he generously pre- 
sented to ber sister. She lived, however, only three years 
after their union, and he was a sincere mourner for .her 
loss. About this time be became a fellow of the royal so- 
ciety, and, in 1756, being desirous to view the state' of 
Lisbon after the dreadful earthquake, be embarked for that 
city. In this voyage, the Hanover frigate, in which he 
sailed, was taken by a French privateer, and the inconve- 
niences which he su ffered during bis subsequent confine- 
ment in France, are supposed to bave awakened his sym- 
pathies with peculiar strength in favour of prisoners, and 
to have given rise to his plans for rendering prisons less. 
pernicious to health. It is supposed, that after his release, 
he made the tour of Italy. On bis return, be fixed himself 
at Brokenhurst, a retired aild pleasant villa near Lymiug- 
ton, in the New Forest. Mr. Howard married a second 
time in 1758 ; but this lady, a daughter of a Mr. Leeds, 
of Crozton in Cambridgeshire, died in child-bed of her 
only child, a son, in 1765. Either before or soon after 
the death of his second wife, he left Lymington, and pur- 
chased an estate at Cardington, near Bedford, adjoining to 
that of his relation Mn Wbitbread. Here be much conci- 
liated the poor by giving them employment, building them 
cottages, and other acts of benevolence; and regularly at- 
tended die congregations of dissenters at Bedford, being 
of that persuasion. His time was also a good deal occo-* 
pied by the education *of his only son, a task 
is said to have been litde qualified. With all his benevo- 
lence of heart, he is asserted to have been disposed to a 
rigid severity of discipline, arising probably from a very 

HOWARD. 247 

•trict sense of rectitude, but not well calculated to form a 
tender mind to advantage. 'In 1773, be served tfoeT office 
of sheriff, which, as he has said himself, " brought the dis- 
tress of prisoners more immediately under his notice/' and 
led to his benevolent design of visiting the gaols and other 
places of confinement throughout England, for the sake of 
procuring alleviation to the miseries of the sufferers. In 
1774, trusting to his interest among the sectaries at Bed* 
ford, he offered himself as a candidate for that borough, 
but was not returned ; and endeavouring to gain his seat' 
by petition, was unsuccessful. He was, however, in the 
same year, examined before the House of Commons, on 
the subject of the prisons, and received the thanks of the 
house for his attention to them. Thus encouraged, be 
completed bis inspection of the British prisons, and ex- 
tended his views even- to foreign countries. He travelled 
with this design, three times through France, four through 
Germany, five through Holland, 1 twice through Italy, once 
in Spain and Portugal, and once also through the northern 
states, and Turkey. These excursions were taken between 
1-775 and 1787. In the mean time, 'his sister died, and 
left him a considerable property, which he regarded as 
the gift of Providence to premoce bis humane designs, and 
applied accordingly. He published also in 1777, "The 
Skate of the Prisons in England and Wales, with prelimi- 
nary Observations, and an Account of some Foreign Pri- 
sons/' dedicated to the House of Commons, in 4to. In 
1780 he published an Appendix 'to this book, with the 
narrative of his travels in Italy ; and in 1784, republished 
it, extending his account to many other countries. About 
this time, his benevolence had so much attracted the pub- 
lic attention, that a large subscription was made for the 
purpose of erecting a statue to his honour; but be was too* 
modest and sincere to accept of such a tribute, and wrote 
himself to the subscribers to put a stop to it. " Have I 
not one friend in England," he said, when he first heard 4 
of the design, " that would put a stop to such a proceed* 
ingr" In 1789, he published "An Account of the prin- 
cipal Lazarettos in Europe, with various Papers relative to ' 
the Plague, together with further Observations on some 
foreign Prisons and Hospitals ; and additional remarks on ; 
the present state of those 'in Great Britain and Ireland.' 9 
He had published also, in 1780, a translation of a French 
account of the Bastille; and, in 1789, the duke ofTus- 
cany's new code of civil law, with an English translation. 


In his book on Lazarettos, he had announced bit intert* 
tion of revisiting Russia, Turkey, and some other coun- 
tries, and extending his tour in the East. "I am not iti- 
spnsible," says be, " of the dangers that must attend such 
a journey. Trusting, however, in the protection of that 
kind Providence which has hitherto preserved me, I calmly 
and cheerfully commit myself to the disposal of unerring 
wisdom. Should it please God to cut off my life in the 
prosecution of this design, let not my conduct be uncan- 
qidly imputed to rashness or enthusiasm, but to a serious, 
deliberate conviction, that I am pursuing the path of duty ;. 
and to a sincere desire of being made an instrument of 
more extensive usefulness to my fellow-creatures, than 
could be expected in the narrower circle of a retired life." 
He did actually fell a sacrifice to this design ; for in visiting, 
a sick patient at Cherson, who had a malignant epidemic 
fever, he caught the distemper, and died, Jan. 30, 1790. 
An honour was now paid to him, which we believe is with* 
out a precedent : his death was announced in the London 

' Mr. Howtrd was, in his own habits of life, rigidly tem- 
perate, and even abstemious ; subsisting entirely, at ooe 
time, on potatoes ; at another, chiefly on lea and bread 
and butter ; of course not mixing to convivial society, nor 
accepting invitations to public repasts. Bis labours have 
certainly bad the admirable effect of drawing the attention of 
this country to the regulation of public prisons. In many 
places his improvements have been adopted, and perhaps 
in all our gaols some advantage has been derived faun 
them. We may hope that these plans will terminate in 
such general regulations as will make judicial confinement* 
instead of the means of confirming and increasing depra- 
vity (as it has been too generally), the successful instrument 
of amendment in morality, and acquiring habits of industry. 
While the few criminals, and probably very few, who may 
bie too depraved for amendment, will be compelled to be 
beneficial to the community by their labour } and* being 
advantageously situated in point of health, may suffer 
nothing more than that restraint which is necessary for the 
sake of society, and that exertion which they ought never 
to have abandoned. Considered as the first mover of thes* 
important plans, Howard will always be honoured with th* 
gratitude of his country ; and his monument, lately erected 
in St. Paul's cathedral, is a proof that this gratitude ia not 

HOWARD. $49 

inert. The monument is at the same timet a noble proof 
of the skill and genius of the artist, Mr. Bacon, and re-* 
presents Mr. Howard in a Roman dress, with a loot and 
attitude expressive of benevolence and activity, holding in 
one hand a scroll of plans for the improvement of prisons, 
hospitals, &c. and in the other a key ; while be is tramp- 
ling on chains aud fetters. The epitaph contains a sketch of 
bis life, and concludes in words which we also heartily adopt: 
" He trod an open but unfrequented path to immortality, 
in the ardent and unremitted exercise of Christian charity* 
Jlay this tribute to bis fame excite an emulation of his truly 
glorious achievements !" To this may be added the eloquent 
eulogium pronounced upon Mr. Howard by Mr. Burke, in 
his " Speech at Bristol, previous to the election in 1780.** 
Having occasion to mention him, be adds, " I cannot name 
this gentleman without remarking, that his labours aud 
writings have done much to open the eyes and hearts .of 
mankind. He has visited all Europe, — not to survey the 
^imptuousness of palaces, or the stateliness of templet £ 
not to make accurate measurements of the remains of an- 
cient grandeur, nor to form a scale of the curiosity pf 
modern art ; not to collect medals, or collate manuscript^ \ 
—but to dive into the depths of dungeons ; to plunge inte 
the infection of hospitals ; to survey the mansions of sor- 
row and pain ; to take the gage and dimension? of misery, 
depression, and contempt; to remember tbe forgotten, to* 
attend to the neglected, to visit the forsaken, and to com* 
pare and collate the distresses of all men in all countries. 
His plan is original, and it is as full of genius as it is of 
humanity. It was a voyage of discovery ; a circumnaviga- 
tion of charity. Already the benefit of bis labour is felt 
more or less in every country ; I hope he will anticipate 
his final reward, by seeing ail its effects fully realised itt 
his own: He will receive, not by retail, bat in gross, the 
reward of those who visit the prisoner ; and he 1ms so fore- 
stalled aud monopolized this branch of charity, that there 
will be, 1 trust, little room to merit by such acts of bene* 
yolence hereafter.'* ' 

HOWARD (Sia Robert), an English writer of sotoe 
abilities and learning, born Jan. 1626, was a younger son 
ef Thomas earl of Berkshire, and educated at Magdalen 

1 Aikin!« fife of Howard, 8ro. — Account of his death, Clarke's Travels^ 
Tol. I. p. 604.— (km. AU* *>1. UC UtUI. UtVL UUX-iUjley'i Ufe of 
Kearney, p. 87, 

950 HOW A R D, 

college, Cambridge. During the civil war he suffered with 
his family, who adhered to Charles I. but at the Restora- 
tion was made a knight, and chosen for Stockbridge in 
Hampshire, to serve in the parliament which began in 
May. 1661. He was afterwards made auditor of the. ex- 
chequer, and was reckoned a creature of Charles II. whom 
the monarch advanced on account of his faithful services, 
in cajoling the parliament for money. In 1679 he was 
chosen to serve in parliament for Castle Rising in Norfolk; 
and re-elected for the same place in 1688. He was a 
strong advocate for the Revolution, and became so pas-* 
sionate an abhorrer of the nonjurors, that be disclaimed all 
manner of conversation and intercourse with persons of- 
that description. His obstinacy and pride procured him 
many enemies, and among them the duke of Buckingham ; 
who intended to have exposed him under the name of 
Bilboa in the " Rehearsal,*' but afterwards altered his 
resolution, and levelled his ridicule at a much greater 
name, under that of Bayes. He was so extremely posi- 
tive, and 86 sure of being in the right upon every subject, 
that Shad well the poet, though a man of the same prin- 
ciples, could riot help ridiculing him in his comedy of the 
" Sullen Lovers," under the character of Sir Positive At-all. 
In the same play there is a lady Vaine, a courtezan ; which 
the wits then understood to be the mistress of sir Robert, 
whom he afterwards married. He died Sept. 3, 1698. He 
pa Wished, I. "Poems and Plays." 2. "The History of 
the Reigns of Edward and Richard II. with reflections and 
characters of their chief ministers and favourites ; also a 
comparison of these princes with Edward I. and III." 1690, 
8vo. 3. " A letter to Mr. Samuel Johnson, occasioned by 
a scurrilous pamphlet, entitled Animadversions on Mr. 
Johnson's answer to Jovian," 1692, 8vo. 4. " The History 
of Religion," 1694, 8vo. 5. « The fourth book of Virgil 
translated," 1660, 8vo. 6. " Statius's Achilleis translated," 
1660, 8va 

Edward Howard, esq. likewise, bis brother, exposed him* 
self to the severity of our satirists, by writing bad plays ; 
and the hon. James Howard, probably a relative, wrote 
two plays about the same time, called " All Mistaken," and 
" The English Monsieur," which were successful ; but little 
else is recorded of him. 1 

» Gibber's Lhrcs.-~Bioff. Dram<— Nichols'* Poems^-fiilis'i Specimen!.— 
If float's Dryden, rot 1, 398, II. 34, 117, 145, 155. 

HOWARD. 251 

~ HOWARD (Samuel), Mus. D. was brought up in the 
king's cbapel, and took bis degree of doctor of music at 
Cambridge at the timeof the Installation of the duke of Graf- 
ton as chancellor of that university. Dr. Howard had studied 
much under Dr. Pepusch at the Charter-house, and was 
well acquainted with the mechanical rules of counterpoint. 
His overture in the " Amorous Goddess/ 9 a happy imita- 
tion of Handel's overture in "Alcina," particularly the 
musette and minuet,, was very popular in the theatres and 

{Niblic gardens. But his ballads, which were long the de- 
igbt of natural and inexperieticed lovers of music, had 
the merit of facility ; for this honest Englishman preferred 
the style of bis own country to that of any other so much, 
that be never staggered in his belief of its being the .best 
in the world, by listening to foreign artists or their pro- 
ductions, for whom and for which he had an invincible 

He began to flourish about the year 1740, and from that 
time till Arne's Vauxball songs were published under the 
title of " Lyric Harmony," they were the most natural and 
pleasing which our country could boast. After the decease 
of Michael Christian Festing, Dr. Howard took the lead 
in managing the affairs of the musical fund ; but not with 
equal address and intelligence. • He was a dull, vulgar, 1 
and unpleasant man ; and by over-rating his own import- 
ance, aod reigning paramount over his equals, he rendered 
the monthly meetings disagreeable, and cooled the zeal 
of many well-wishers to the society. He long laboured 
under a dropsy, yet walked about with legs of an enormous 
size, during several years. But it was not this disorder 
which put an end to his existence at last, but repeated 
paralytic strokes. He died about the year 178S. 1 

HOWE (Charles), the author of a very popular book 
of " Devout Meditations," was the third son of John 
Grubham Howe, of Langar in Nottinghamshire, by his 
wife AnnabeHa, third natural daughter and coheiress of 
Emanuel earl of Sunderland, lord Scrope of Bolton. He 
was born in Gloucestershire in 166 1 , and during the latter 
end of the reign of Charles II. was much at court. About: 
1686 be went abroad with a near relation, who was sent by 
Janes J L as ambassador to a foreign court. The ambas- 
Isadordied'; and our author, by powers given to him lo 

t • . * 

» Barney*! Hist, of Music— By the fame, n Beet'f Cycfatodit* 


ass tt o WE. 

that effect, concluded the business of the embatfjy. Hfe 
had an offer of beiog appointed successor to. bis Crieed in 
bis public character ; but disliking the measures that were 
then carried on at court, be declined, it, and returned to 
England, where be soon after married a lady of rank and 
fortune, who, dying iij a few years, left behind her an 
only daughter, married afterwards to Peter Bather*** esq* 
brother to the first earl Bathurst. Afte* bis lady's death, 
Mr. Howe Uvea for the most part in the country, where 
he spent many of his latter years in a close retirement, 
consecrated to religious meditations and exercises* Ha 
was a man of good understanding, .pf an : exemplary life* 
and cheerful conversation. He died in 1745* The work 
by which he, is still remembered, was entitled ** Devert 
Meditations ; or a collection of thoughts upon religious 
and philosophical subjects," Svp, and was first published 
anonymously ; but the second edition, at the instance of 
Dr. Young and others, came out in 1758. with the adtbor's 
name. It has often been reprinted sine*. Dr. Young said 
of this book, that he " should never lay it far fent of his 
reach ; for a greater demonstration of a sdend bead and 
sincere heart he never paw. 1 * . . 

HOWE (John, esq.), a relation, of the preceding, was 
the younger brother of. sir Scroop Howe* of Nottingham- 
shire. In the convention-parliament, which met at WesU 
minster .Jan. 22, 1688-9, be served for Cirencester, and 
was constantly chosen for that borough, Or aa a knight of 
the shire for the county of Gloucester, in the three last 
parliaments of king William, and in the threp first of quiets 
Anne. . In 1696 he was a strenuous advocate for sir John 
Feawick ; and his pleading in behalf of that unfortunate 
gentleman, shews his extensive knowledge of the laws^ an4 
aversion to unconstitutional measures. In 1699, wfa6n, the 
army was reduced, it was principally in consideration of 
Mr. Howe's remonstrances, that thd House of: Goonfcsni 
agreed to allow half-pay to the disbanded officers; and 
when the partition- treaty wis afterwards under the const* 
deration of that house, he expressed his sentiments of it in 
such terms, that king William declared, that if it wets hoi 
for the disparity of their rank, he would demand satisfaction 
with the sword. At the accession of quedn Anne* be wat 
aworn of ber privy-council April 21, 1702 ; and* oh Jimw 
7 following, constituted vice-admiral of the county of 

i Gent. Mag. LXlV.— Bauer's Life of HiMMsy, p. 35& 

BOWE, * 39 

Gloucester. Before the end of that yea*, Jan. 4, 1 702-3, 
he was constituted paymaster-general of her majesty** 
guards and garrisons. Macky says of him, " he seemed 
to be pleased with and joined in the Revolution, and was 
made vice-chambertain to queen Mary ; but having asked 
a grant, which was refused him, and given to lord Port- 
land, he fell from the court, and was all that reign the most 
violent and open antagonist king William had in the bouse. 
A great enemy to foreigners settling in England ; most 
clauses hi acts against them being brought in by hhn. He 
is indefatigable in whatever be undertakes; witness the old 
East India company, whose cause he maintained till be. 
fixed it Upon as sure a foot as the new, even when they 
thought themselves past recovery. He lives up to what his 
visible estate can afford ; yet purchases, instead of Tunning 
in debt. He is endued With good natural parts, attended 
with an unaccountable boldness; daring to say what he 
pleases, and will be beard out; so that be passeth with 
some for the shrew of the house. On the queen's acces- 
sion to the throne he was made a privy-counsellor, and 
paymaster of the guards and garrisons. He is a tali, thin, 
pale-faced man, with a very wild look ; brave in his person, 
bold in expressing himself, a violent enemy, a sure friend, 
and seems to be always in a hurry. Near fifty years old.** 
Such is the character given of this gentleman in 1 70S. 
A new privy council being settled May 10, 1708, according 
to act of parliament, relating to the union of the two 
kingdoms, he was, among the other great officers, sworn 
into it. He continued paymaster of the guards and garri- 
sons till after the accession of George I. who appointed 
Mr. Walpole to succeed him on Sept. 23, 1714 : the privy 
council being also dissolved, and a new one appointed to 
meet on Oct. I following, he was left out of the list Re- 
tiring to his seat at Stowell in Gloucestershire, he died 
there in 1721, and was buried in the chancel of the church 
of Stowell. 

Mr. Howe was author of " A panegyric on king William,'* 
and of several songs and little poems ; and is introduced in 
Swift's celebrated ballad " On the Game of Traffic." He 
married Mary, daughter and coheir of Humphrey Basker- 
yille, of Pantryllos in Herefordshire, esq. widow of sir 
Edward Morgan, of Laternam in Monmouthshire, bs^rt. by 
whom he was father to the first lord Cbedworth." 

* Nic^oU's Pjf»»i.— Co'Jiiu'i Peerafe. 

M* HOW E. 

HOWE (John), »- learned non-conformist divine in. the 
seventeenth century, was a minister's son, end nephew to 
Mr. Obadiah Howe, vicar of Boston in Lincolnshire. He 
was bom May 17, 1630, at Loughborough in Leicester* 
shire, of which town his father was minister, being settled 
there by archbishop Land, though afterwards ejected by 
that prelate on account of his adherence to the Puritans; 
upon which *be went with his son to Ireland, where they 
continued till the Irish Rebellion broke out, when they 
returned to England, and settled in Lancashire, where our 
author was educated in the first rudiments of learning and 
the knowledge of the tongues. He was sent pretty early 
to Christ college in Cambridge, where he cootinfted till he 
had taken the degree of bachelor of arts, and then removed 
to Oxford, and became bible-clerk of Brazen-nose college 
in Michaelmas term 1648, and took the degree of bachelor 
of arts Jan. 18, 1649. He was made a demy of Magdfclen 
college by the parliament visitors, and afterwards fellow ; 
and July 9, 1642, took the degree of master of arts. 8oon 
after this he became a preacher, and was ordained by Mr. 
Charles Herle at bis church of Winwick in Lancashire, 
and not long after became minister of Great Torrington in 
Devonshire. His labours here were characteristic of the 
times. He informed Dr. Calamy, that on the public fasts 
it was his common way to begin about nine in the morning 
with a prayer for about a quarter of an hour, in which he* 
begged a blessing on the work of (he day ; and afterwards 
read and expounded a chapter or psalm, in which be spent, 
about three quarters ; then prayed for about an hour,, 
preached for another hour, and prayed for about half an 
hour. After this he retired, and took some little refresh- 
ment for about a, quarter of an hour or more (the people 
singing all the while), and then came again into the pulpit^ 
and prayed for another hour, and save them another ser- 
mon of about an hour's length, and so concluded the ser- 
vice of the day, about four o'clock in the evening, with 
half an hour or more in prayer. 

In March 1634 be married the daughter of Mr. George 
Hughes, minister of Plymouth. Having occasion to take 
a journey to London, he went as a hearer to the chapel at 
Whitehall. Cromwell was present, and, struck with his 
demeanor and person, sent a messenger to inform him that 
he wished to speak with him when the service was over. 
In the course of the interview he desired him to preach 

HOWE. 251 

before bim the following Sunday : be requested to be ex- 
cused, but Cromwell would not be denied, and even un- 
dertook 10 write to bis congregation a sufficient apology 
for his absence frocn them longer than be intended. This 
led to the appointment of Mr. Howe to the office of bis 
domestic chaplain, and he accordingly removed with his 
family to Whitehall. Dr. Calamy tells us, that while he 
was in this station, he behaved in such a manner that he 
was never charged, even by those who have been most for- 
ward to inveigh against a number of his contemporaries, 
with improving bis interest in those who then had the ma- 
nagement of affairs in their hands, either to the enriching 
himself, or the doing ill offices to others, though of known 
differing sentiments. He readily embraced every occasion 
that offered, of serving the interest of religion and learn* 
ing, and opposing the errors and designs which at that time 
threatened both. The notion of a particular faith pre- 
vailed jnuch at Cromwell's court ; and it was a common 
opinion among them, that such as were in a special manner 
favoured of God, when they offered up prayers and sup- 
plications to him for his mercies, either for themselves or 
others, often had such impressions made upou their minds 
and spirits by a divine hand, as signified to them, not only 
in the general that their prayers would be heard and an- 
swered, but that the particular mercies which were sought 
for would be certainly bestowed ; nay, and sometimes also 
intimated to them in what way and manner they would be 
afforded, and pointed out to them future events beforehand,, 
which in reality is the same with inspiration. Mr. Howe 
told Dr. Calamy, that not a little pains was taken to cul- 
tivate and support this notion at Whitehall ; and that he 
once heard a sermon there from a person of note, the 
avowed design of which was to defend it. • He said, that 
be was so fully convinced of the ill tendency of such a 
principle, that after hearing this sermon, be thought him- 
self bound in conscience, when it came next to his turn 
to preach before Cromwell, to set himself industriously to 
oppose it, and to beat down that spiritual pride and con- 
fidence, which such fancied impulses and impressions were 
apt to produce and cherish. He observed, while he was 
in the pulpit, that Cromwell beard him with great atten- 
tion, bet would sometimes knit his brows, and discover 
great uneasiness. When the sermon was over, a person 
of distinction came to him, and as^ed him, if he knew 

35« HOWE. 

wfeaf he fcacl cfone ? and signified it to bim ai his *ppr£- 
hension, that Cromwell woald be so incensed at that dis- 
conrse, that he would find it very difficult ever to make hi? 
peace with him, or secure his favour for the future. Mr. 
Howe replied, that he had but discharged his conscience, 
and could leave the event with God. He afterwards ob- 
served, that Cromwell was cooler in his carriage to htm 
than before; and sometimes he thought he would have 
spoken to him of the matter, but never did. 

Upon the death of Oliver Cromwell, his son Richard 
succeeding him as protector, Mr. Howe stood in the same 
relation to him of chaplain as he bad done to the father ; 
and was* in bis judgment very much averse to Richard's 

Carting with his parliament, which he' foresaw would prove 
is ruin. When the army had set Richard aside, Mr. Howe 
returned to his people at Great Torrington, among whom 
he continued till the act of uniformity took place August 
24, 1662, after which he preached for some time in private 
bouses in Devonshire. In April 1671 he went to Ireland, 
where he lived as chaplain to the lord Massarene in the 

Sarish of Antrim, and had leave from the bishop of the 
iocese and the metropolitan to preach in the public church 
of that town every Sunday in the afternoon, without sub- 
mitting to any terms of conformity. In 1675, upon the 
death of Dr. Lazarus Seaman, he was chosen minister of 
his congregation, upon which he returned to England and 
settled at London, where be was highly respected, not 
only by his brethren in the ministry among the dissenters, 
but also by several eminent divines of the church of Eng- 
land, as Dr. Whichcot, Dr. Kidder, Dr. Fowler, Dr. Lucas, 
and others. In August 1685 he travelled beyond sea with 
the lord Wharton, and the year following settled at Utrecht, 
and took his turn in preaching at the English church in 
that city. In 1687, upon king James's publishing his 
u Declaration for liberty of conscience," Mr. Howe returned 
to London, where he died April 2, 1 705, and was interred 
in the parish church of Allhallows Bread-street. 

Mr. Howe, abating his attachment to the family of the 
Usurper, was a man of more moderation than most of his 
brethren, and as a divine laboured zealously to promote the 
interests of real practical religion, and to diffuse a spirit of 
candour, charity, and mutual forbearance, among his dis- 
senting brethren. He was a man of distinguished' piety 
and virtue, of eminent intellectual endowments, and' of 

HOWE. 257 

ettensive learning. Granger says, " He was one of the 
most learned and polite writers among the dissenters. His 
reading in divinity was very extensive: he was a good 
Orientalist, and understood several of the modern lan- 

Among his works are, 1. " A Treatise on the blessedness 
of the righteous/ 9 1668, 8vo. 2. " A Treatise on delight- 
ing in God," 1674. 3. " Of thoughtfulness for the mor- 
row ;" and many sermons and discourses on several sub- 
jects. His whole works were printed in 1724, 2 vols* folio, 
with a life by Dr. Calamy. 1 

HOWE (Josiah), an accomplished scholar of the seven- 
teenth century, was born at Crendon in Buckinghamshire, 
and elected scholar, of Trinity -college iu 1632, of which* 
when B. A. he became fellow in 1637. By Hearne, in his 
preface to " Robert of Gloucester," he is called " a very 
great cavalier and loyalist, and a most ingenious man." 
He appears to have been a general scholar, and in polite 
literature was esteemed one or the ornaments of the uni- 
versity. In 1644 he preached before* Charles I. at Christ- 
church cathedral, Oxford ; and the sermon was printed, and 
in red letters (but only thirty copies), of which perhaps the 
only one extant is in the Bodleian library. In 1 646 he was 
created bachelor of divinity by decree of the king, among 
others who were complimented with that degree for having 
distinguished themselves as preachers before the court at 
Oxford. He was soon afterwards ejected frojn his fellow- 
ship by the presbyterians, but not in die general expulsion 
in 1648, according to Walker. Being one of the bursals 
of the college, and foreseeing its fate, and having resolved 
at the same time never to acknowledge the authority of 
Cromwell's visitors, be retired, in the beginning of 1648, 
to a college estate in Buckinghamshire, carrying with him 
many rentals, rolls, papers, and other authentic documents 
belonging to his office. These he was soon after induced 
to return on a promise of being allowed to retain his fel- 
lowship j but they were no sooner recovered than he was 
expelled, apd not restored until 1660. He lived forty-two 
years after this, greatly respected, and died fellow of. the 
college, where he constantly resided, Aug. 28, 1701, and 
was interre4 in the college chapel. Hearne says, " be 

1 Life by Calamy.— Gen. Diet— Biog. Brit, vol. VII.— Birch's Tillotson.— 
Wilson's Hist, of Ditsentiof Churches. 

Vol. XVIII. S 


258 HOWE. 

lived so retiredly 'in the latter part of his life, that be rarely 
came abroad ; so that I could never see him, though I have 
often much desired to have a sight of him." , 

Mr. Howe has a copy of recommendatory English verses 
prefixed to the folio edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
printed in 1647; another to Randolph's poems, 1640, and 
another to Cartwright's comedies and poems, 1651. These 
pieces, says Warton, which are in the witty epigrammatic 
style that then prevailed, have uncommon acuteness, and 
. highly deserve to be revived. Denham, Waller, Jonson, 
Corbet, Brome, Shirley, &c. appear to have been, of his 
intimate acquaintance. Wood says that he wrote some 
English verses, which wer$ much applauded, spoken be- 
fore the duke and duchess of York, in 1683, at lYinity- 
ctollege. ' 

HOWE (Richard), fourth viscount Howe, and earl 
Howe, and first baron Howe of Langar, a gallant English 
admiral, was the third son of sir Emanuel Scrape, second 
lord viscount Howe, and Mary Sophia Charlotte, eldest 
daughter to the baron Kilmansegge. He was born in 1725, 
was educated at Eton, entered the sea-service at the age 
of fourteen, on board the Severn, bon. captain Legge, 
part of the squadron destined for the South Seas under 
Anson. He next served on board the Burford, 1743, under 
.admiral Knowles, in which he was afterwards appointed 
acting lieutenant; but bis commission not being confirmed, 
he returned to admiral Knowles in the West- Indies, where 
he was made lieutenant of a sloop of war; and being em- 
ployed to cut an English merchantman, which had been 
taken by a French privateer under the guns of the Dutch 
settlement of St. Eustatia, and with the connivance of the 
governor, out of that harbour, he executed the difficult 
and dangerous enterprise in such a manner, as to produce 
the most sanguine expectations of his future services. In 
1745, lieutenant Howe was with admiral Vernon in the 
Downs, but was in a short time raised to the rank of com- 
mander, in the Baltimore sloop of war, which joined the 
squadron then cruizing on the coast of Scotland, under the 
command of admiral Smith. During this cruize an action 
took place, in which captain Howe gave a fine example of 
persevering intrepidity. The Baltimore, in company with 

i Ath. Ox. ▼•!. 11*— Wartta'i life of fir Thomu Pope, preface— «nd of 
Bathunt, pp. 154,211, 

HOWE. , 25» 

another armed vessel, fell in with two French frigates of 
thirty guns, with troops and ammunition for the service of 
the pretender, which she instantly attacked, by running 
between them. In the action, which followed, capt. Howe 
received a wound in his head, which at first appeared to be 
fatal. He, however, soon discovered signs of life, and 
when the necessary operation was performed, resumed all 
bis former activity, continued the action, if possible, with 
redoubled spirit, and obliged the French ships, with their 
prodigious superiority in men and metal, to sheer off, leav- 
ing the Baltimore, at the same time, in such a shattered 
condition, as to be wholly disqualified to pursue them. He 
was, in consequence of this gallant service, immediately 
made post-captain, and in April 1746, was appointed to 
the Triton frigate, and ordered to Lisbon, where, in con* 
sequence of captain Holbourne's bad state of health, he 
was transferred to the Rippon, destined for the Coast of 
Guinea. But he soon quitted that station to join his early 
patron admiral Knowles in Jamaica, who appointed him 
first captain of his ship of 80 guns ; and at the conclusion 
of the war in 1748, he returned in her to England. In 
March 1750-51, captain Howe was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Guinea station, in La Gloire, of 44 guns; 
when, with his usual spirit and activity, be checked the 
injurious proceedings of the Dutch governor- general on the 
coast, and adjusted the difference between the English and 
Dutch settlements. At the close of 175 1, he was appointed 
to the Mary yacht, which was soon exchanged for the Dol- 
phin frigate, in which he sailed* to the Streights, where be 
executed many difficult and important services. Here he 
remained about three years ; and soon after, on his return 
to England, he obtained the command of the Dunkirk of 
60. guns, which was among the ships that were commis- 
sioned from an apprehension of a rupture with France. 
This ship was one of the fleet with which admiral Boscawen 
•ailed to obstruct the passage of the French fleet into the 
Gulpb of St Lawrence, when captain Howe took the AU 
cide, a French ship of 64 guns, off the coast of Newfound- 
land. A powerful fleet being prepared, ip 1757, under 
the command of sir Edward Hawke, to make an attack 
upon the French coast, captain Howe was appointed to the 
Magnanime, in which ship be battered the fort on the 
island of Aix till it surrendered. In 1758 he was appointed 
commodore of a small squadron, which sailed to annoy the 

260 HOW E. 

enemy on their coasts. This be effected with his usual 
success at St. Malo, where an hundred sail of ships and 
several magazines were destroyed ; and the heavy gale 
blowing into shore, which rendered it impracticable for 
the troops to land, alone prevented the executing a similar 
mischief in the town and harbour of Cherbourg. On the 
1st of July he returned to St. Helen's. This expedition 
was soon followed by another, when prince Edward, after* 
wards duke of York, was entrusted to the care of commo- 
dore Howe, on board his ship the Essex. The fleet sailed 
on the 1st of August 1758, and on the 6th came to an 
anchor in the Bay of Cherbourg ; the town was taken, and 
the bason destroyed. The commodore, with his royal 
midshipman on board, next sailed to St. Malo; and as his 
instructions were to keep the coast of France in continual 
alarm, he very effectually obeyed them. The unsuccess- 
ful affair of St. Cas followed. But never was courage, 
skill, or humanity, more powerfully or successfully dis- 
played than on this occasion. He went in person in his 
barge, which was rowed through the thickest fire, to save 
the retreating soldiers ; the rest of the fleet, inspired hy 
his conduct, followed his example, and at least seven hun- 
dred men were preserved, by his exertions, from the fire 
of the enemy or the fury of the waves. In July in the 
same year (1758), his elder brother, who was serving his 
country with equal ardour and heroism in America, found 
an early grave. That brave and admirable officer was kil- 
led in a skirmish between the advanced guard of the French, 
and the troops commanded by general Abercrombie, in the 
expedition against Ticonderago. Commodore Howe then 
succeeded to the titles and property of bis family. In the 
following year ( 1759), lord Howe was employed in the Chan- 
nel, on board his old ship the Magnanime ; but no oppor- 
tunity offered to distinguish himself till the month of No* 
vember, when the French fleet, under Conflans, was -de- 
feated. When he was presented to the king by sir Edward 
Hawke on this occasion, his majesty said, " Your life, my 
lord, has been one continued series of services to your 
country. 19 In March 1 760, he was appointed colonel of the 
Chatham division of marines ; and in September following, 
he was ordered by sir Edward Hawke to rfeduce the French 
fort on the isle of Dumet, in order to save the expence of 
the transports employed to carry water for the use of the 
fleet. Lord Howe continued to serve, as occasion required, 

HOWE. 261 


in the Channel; and in the summer of 1762, he removed 
to the Princess Amelia, of 80 guns, having accepted the 
command as captain to his royal highness the duke of York> 
now rear-admiral of the blue, serving as second in com* 
mand under sir Edward Hawke, in the Channel. On the 
23d of August, 1763, his lordship, was appointed to the 
board of admiralty, where he remained till August 1765 : 
he was then made treasurer of the navy ; and in October 
1770, was promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue, and 
commander in chief in the Mediterranean. In March 1775, 
he was appointed rear-admiral of the white ; and was soon 
after chosen to represent the borough of Dartmouth in par- 
liament. In the month of December, in the same year, he 
was made vice-admiral of the blue. It was on one. of these 
promotions that lord Hawke, then first lord of the admi- 
ralty, rose in the house of peers, and said, " I advised his 
majesty to make^ the promotion. I have tried, my lord 
Howe on important occasions ; be never asked me how he 
was to execute any service, but always went and performed 
it." In 1778, France having become a party in the war, 
the French admiral D'Estaiog appeared, on the 11th of 
July, in sight of the British fleet, at Sandy Hook, with a 
considerable force of line of battle ships, in complete equip- 
ment and condition. Most of the ships under lord Howe 
had been long in service, were not well manned, and were 
not line of battle ships of the present day. The French 
admiral, however, remained seven days without making an 
attack, and by that time lord Howe had disposed his in- 
ferior force in such a manner as to set him at defiance. On 
D'Estaing's leaving the Hook, lord Howe heard of the 
critical situation of Rhode Island, and made every possible 
exertion to preserve it. He afterwards acted chiefly on the 
defensive. Such a conduct appears to have been required, 
from the state of bis fleet, and the particular situation of 
the British cause in America. He, however, contrived to 
baffle all the designs of the French admiral ; and may be 
said, considering the disadvantages with which be was sur* 
rounded, to have conducted and closed the campaign with 
honour. Lord Howe now resigned the command to admjr 
ral Byron; and; on his return to England in October, im- 
mediately struck his flag. In the course of this year, he 
had been advanced to be vice-admiral of the white, and 
shortly after, to the same rank in the red squadron* On 
the change of administration in 1782, lord Howe was raised 


26* how e. 

to the dignity of a viscount of Great Britain, having been 
previously advanced to the rank of admiral of the blue. He 
was then appointed to command the fleet fitted out for the 
relief of Gibraltar ; and he fulfilled the important objects 
of this expedition. That fortress was effectually relieved, 
the hostile fleet baffled, and dared in vain to battle ; and 
different squadrons detached to their important destina- 
tions ; while the ardent hopes of his country's foes were 
disappointed. Peace was concluded shortly after lord 
Howe's return from performing this important service : and 
in January 1783, he was nominated first lord of the admi- 
ralty. That office, in the succeeding April, he resigned 
to lord Keppel ; but was re-appointed on the 30th of De- 
- ceraber in the same year. On the 24th of September 1 787, 
he was advanced to the rank of admiral of the white ; and 
in July 1788, he finally quitted his station at the admiralty. 
In the following August be was created an earl of Great 

But the greatest glory of lord Howe's life was reserved 
almost to its close. On the breaking out of the revolu- 
tionary war in 1793, he accepted the command of the 
western squadron. Three powerful armaments were pre- 
pared for the campaign of 1794: one under lord Hood 
commanded the Mediterranean, reduced the island of Cor- 
sica, and protected the coasts of Spain and Italy ; a second 
under sir John Jervis, afterwards lord St Vincent, with a 
military force headed by sir Charles Grey, reduced Marti- 
nico, 'Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, and. St. Domingo; but the 
most illustrious monument of British naval glory was raised 
by earl Howe. During the preceding part of the war, 
France, conscious of her maritime inferiority, had con- 
fined her exertions to cruizers and small squadrons for ha- 
rassing our trade ; but in the month of May, the French 
were induced to depart from this system, and being very 
anxious for the safety of a convoy daily expected from 
America, with an immense supply of corn and flour, naval 
stores, &c. the Brest fleet, amounting to twenty-seven sail 
of the line, ventured to sea under the command of fear- 
admiral Villaret. Lord Howe expecting the same convoy, 
went to sea with twenty ships of the line, and oh the 28th 
of May descried the enemy to windward. After various 
previous manoeuvres which had been interrupted by a thick 
fog, the admiral found an opportunity of bringing the 
French to battle on the ! st of June. Between seven an4 

HOWE. 263 

eight in the morning, our fleet advanced in a close and 
compact line; and the enemy, finding an engagement un- 
avoidable, received our onset witlr their accustomed va- 
lour. A close and desperate engagement ensued, in the 
course of which, the Montague of 130 guns, the French 
admiral's ship, having adventured to encounter the Queen 
Charlotte of 100 guns, earl Howe's ship, was, in less than 
an hour, compelled to fly ; the other ships of the same' 
division, seeing all efforts ineffectual, endeavoured to fol- 
low the flying admiral : ten, however, were so crippled 
that they could not keep pace with the rest ; but many of 
the British ships being also greatly damaged, some of these 
disabled French ships effected their escape. Six remained 
in the possession of the British admiral, and were brought 
safe into Portsmouth, viz. two of- 80 and four of 74 guns ; 
and the Le Vengeur, of 74, was sunk, making the whole 
loss to the enemy amount to seven ships of the line. The • 
victorious ship* arrived safe in harbour with their prizes ; 
and the crews, officers, and admiral, were received with 
every testimony of national gratitude. On the 26th of the 
same month, their majesties, with three of the princesses, 
arrived at Portsmouth, and proceeded the next morning in 
barges to yisit lord. Howe's ship, the Queen Charlotte, at 
Spithead. His majesty held a naval levee on board, and 
presented the victorious admiral with a sword, enriched 
with diamonds and a gold chain, with the naval medal sus- 
pended from it. * The thanks of both houses of parliament, 
the freedom of the city of London, and the universal ac- 
clamations of the nation, followed the acknowledgments of 
the sovereign. In the course of the following year, he 
was appointed general of marines, on the death of admiral 
Forbes ; and finally resigned the coajraand of the western 
squadron in April 1797. On the 2d of June in the same 
year, he was invested with the insignia of the garter. The 
last public act of a life employed against the foreign ene- 
mies of bis country, was exerted to compose its internal 
dissentions. It was the lot of earl Howe to contribute to 
the restoration of the fleet, which he bad conducted to 
glory on the sea, to loyalty in the harbour. His experi-* 
ence suggested the measures to be pursued by government 
on the alarming mutinies, which in 1797 distressed and 
terrified the nation ; while his personal exertions power- 
fully promoted the dispersion of that spirit, which bad, for 
a time, changed the very nature of British seamen, and 

364 HOWE. 

greatly helped to recall them to their former career of doty 
and obedience. This gallant officer, who gained the first 
of the four great naval victories which have raised the re- 
putation of the British navy beyond all precedent and all 
comparison, died at his house in Grafton->street, London, 
of the gout in his stomach, August 5, 179D. In 1758 hit 
lordship married Mary, daughter of Chiverton Hartop, esq. 
of Welby, in the county of Leicester. His issue by this 
lady, is lady Sophia Charlotte, married to the hon. Pen 
Ashton Curzon, eldest son of lord Curzon, who died in 
1797 ; lady Mary Indiana, and lady Louisa Catharine, 
iparried to earl of Altamont, of Ireland. . He was succeeded 
t in his Irish viscounty by his brother, general sir William 
Howe, who died (1814) while this sheet was passing through 
the press ; and in the English barony by lady Curzon. ' 

HOWELL (Jamrs), a voluminous English writer, the 
son of Thomas Howell, minister of Abernant in Caer- 
marthenshire, was born about 1594, and, to use his own 
words, " his ascendant was that hot constellation of cancer 
about the midst of the dog-days." He was sent to the free- 
school at Hereford •, and entered of Jesus* college, Oxford, 
in 1610. His elder brother Thomas Howell was already a 
fellow of that society^ afterwards king's chaplain, and was 
nominated in 1644 to the see of Bristol. James Howell, 
having taken the degree of B. A. in 1613, left college, and 
removed to London ;■ for being, says Wood, " a pure 
cadet, * true cosmopolite, not born to land, lease, house, 
or office, be had his fortune to make; and bding withal not 
so much inclined to a sedentary as an active life, this situ- 
ation pleased him best, as most likely to answer his views." 
The first employment be obtained was that of steward to a 
glass-house in Broad'-ttreet, which was procured for him 
by sir Robert Mansely who was principally concerned in it 
The proprietors of this work, intent upon improving the 
manufactory, came to a resolution to send an agent abroad, 
who should procure the best materials and workmen; and 
they made choice of Howell for this purpose, who, setting 
off io 1619, visited several of the principal places in Hol- 
land, Flanders, France, Spain, and Italy. In Dec. 1621, 
he returned to London ; having executed the purpose of 
his mission very well, and particularly having acquired 4 

' Collins'! Peerage by Sir R Brydges.— Charaock'f Biog. Nif ilii.— N»T*l 
Chronicle, fcc. Sec. 

HOWELL. 265 

masterly knowledge in the modern languages, which af- 
forded him a singular cause for gratitude. " Thank God/ 9 
be says, " I have this fruit* of my foreign travels, that I 
can pray unto him every day of the week in a separate 
language, and upon Sunday in seven." 

Soon after his return, be quitted bis stewardship of the 
glass-bouse; and having experienced the pleasures of tra- 
velling, was anxious to obtain more employments of the 
same kind. In 1622 be was sent into Spain, to recover a 
rich English ship, seized by the viceroy of Sardinia for his 
master's use, on pretence of its having prohibited* goods 
on board. In 1*23, during his absence abroad, he was 
chosen fellow of Jesus college in Oxford, upon the new 
foundation of sir Eubule Thelwal : for he bad taken unre- 
mitting care to cultivate hia interest in that society* He tells 
sir Eubule, in bis letter of thanks to him, that he " will 
reserve his fellowship, and lay it by as a good warm gar- 
ment against rough weather, if any fall on him :" in which 
he was followed by Prior, who alleged the same reason 
for keeping his fellowship at St. John's- college in •Cam- 
bridge. Howell returned to England in 1624; and was 
soon after appointed secretary to lord Scrope, afterwards 
earl of Sunderland, who was made lord-president of the 
North. This office carried him to York \ and while he 
resided there, the corporation of Richmond, without any 
application from bimself, and against several competitors, 
chose him one of their representatives, in the parliament 
which began in 1627. In 1632, be went as secretary to 
Robert earl of Leicester, ambassador extraordinary from 
Charles I. to the court of Denmark, on occasion of the 
death of the queen dowager, who was grandmother to that 
king: and there gave proofs of his oratorical talents, in 
several Latin speeches before the king of Denmark, and 
other princes of Germany. After bis return to England, 
his affairs do not appear so prosperous ; for, except an 
inconsiderable mission, on which he was dispatched to 
Orleans in France by secretary Windebankin 1635, he was 
for some years destitute of any employment At last, in 
163d, he went to Ireland, and was well received by lord 
Strafford, the lord-lieutenant, who had before made him 
very warm professions of kindness, and employed him as 
an assistant-clerk upon some business to Edinburgh, and 
afterwards to London ; but bis vising hopes were ruined by 
the unhappy fate which soon overtook that nobleman. In 

46« HOWELL. 


1640 he was dispatched upon some business to France; 
and the same year was made clerk of the council, which 
post was the most fixed in point of residence, and the most 
permanent in its nature, that be had ever enjoyed. But 
his royal master, hairing departed from bis palace at White- 
hall, was not able to secure bis continuance long in it : for, 
in 1643, baying visited London upon some business of his 
own, all his papers were seized by a committee of the 
parliament, his person secured, and, in a few days after, 
be was committed close prisoner to the Fleet This at 
least he himself assigns as the cause of his imprisonment : v 
but Wood insinuates, that he was thrown into prison, for 
debts contracted through his own extravagance ; and in- 
deed some of his own letters give room enough to suspect 
it. * But whatever was tbe cause, he bore it cheerfully. 

He had now no resource except his pen : and applied 
himself therefore wholly to write and translate books. 
" Here," he says, " I purchased a small spot of ground 
upon Parnassus, which I have in fee of the muses, and I 
have endeavoured to manure it as well as I could, though 
I confess it hath yielded me little fruit hitherto.*' This 
spot, however, brought him a comfortable subsistence, 
during his long stay in prison, where he was confined till 
some time after the king's death ; and as he got nothing 
by his discharge bpt his liberty, he was obliged to continue 
the same employment afterwards. His numerous produc- 
tions, written rather out of necessity than choice, shew, 
however, readiness of wit, and exuberant fancy. Though 
always a firm royalist, he does not seem to have approved 
the measures pursued by Buckingham, Laud, and Straf- 
ford ; and was far from approving the imposition of ship- 
money, 'and the policy of creatiug and multiplying mono- 
polies. Yet the unbridled insolence and outrages of the 
republican governors so much disgusted him, that be was 
not displeased when Oliver assumed the sovereign power 
under the title of protector ; and in this light he addressed 
him on that occasion in a speech, which shall be mentioned 
presently. His behaviour under Cromwell's tyranny was 
pruderitial, and was so considered; for Charles II. at his 
restoration, thought him worthy of bis notice and favour : 
and his former post under the council being otherwise dis- 
posed of, a new place was created, by the grant of .which 
be became tbe first historiographer royal in England. He 
.died. Nov. 1666, and was interred in tbe Temple-church, 

HOWELL. 267 

London, where a monument was erected to his memory, 
with the following inscription, which was taken down when 
the church was repaired in 1683, and has not since been 
replaced: "Jacobus Howell, Cambro-Britannus, Regius 
Historiographus in Anglia primus, qui post varios pere- 
grinationes tandem nature cursum peregit, satur anno- 
rum & fame ; domi forisque hue usque erraticus, hie fixus 

His works were numerous. 1. " Dodpna's Grove, or, 
The Vocal Forest, 1640." 2. "The Vote :" a poem, pre- 
sented to the king on New-year's day, 1641. 3. " In- 
structions for Forraine Travel! ; shewing by what course, 
and in what compass of time, one may take an exact sur- 
vey of the kingdomes and states of Christendome, and ar- 
rive to the practical knowledge of the languages to good 
purpose, 1642." Dedicated to prince Charles. Reprinted 
in 1650, with additions. These works were published before 
he was thrown into prison. 4. " Casual Discourses and 
Interlocutions between Patricius and Peregrin, touching 
the distractions of the times." Written soon after the bat- 
tle of Edgehill, and the first book published in vindication 
of the king. 5. " Mercurius Hibernicus : or, a discourse 
of the Irish Massacre, 1644." 6. " Parables reflecting on 
the Times, 1644." 7. " England's Tears for the present 
Wars, &c. 1644." 8. " Preheminence and Pedigree of 
Parliaments, 1644." 9. " Vindication of some passages 
reflecting upon him in Mr. Prynne's book called The Po- 
pish Royal Favourite, 1644." 10. " Epistolse Ho-Elianse : 
or, Familiar Letters, domestic and foreign, divided into 
sundry sections, partly historical, partly political, partly 
philosophical," 1645. Another collection was published 
in 1647 ; and both these, with the addition of a third, came 
out in 1650. A few additional letters appeared in some 
subsequent editions : of which the eleventh was printed in 
1754, ttvo. It is not, indeed, to be wondered at, that these 
letters have run through so many editions ; since they not 
only contain much of the history of his own times, but are 
also interspersed with many pleasant stories properly intro- 
duced and applied. It cannot be denied, that he has given 
way frequently to very low witticisms, the most unpardon- 
able instance of which is, bis remark upon Charles the First's 
death, where he says, " I will attend with patience how 
England will thrive, now that she is let blood in the Ba- 
silical vein, and cured as they say of the king's evil :" and 

268 HOWELL. 

it is no great excuse, that he was led into this manner by 
the humour of the times. Wood relates, it does not aj>~ 
pear on what authqiity, that " many of these letters weie 
never written before the author of them was in the Fleet, 
as he pretends they were, but only feigned and purposely 
published to gain money to relieve his necessities ;" be this 
as it will, he allows that they " give a tolerable history of 
those times/' which, if true, is sufficient to recommend 
them*. There are also some of bis letters among the 
Strafford papers. 

These letters are almost the only work of Howell that is 
now regarded : the rest are very obscure. 11. "A Noc- 
turnal Progress : or, a Perambulation of most Countries in 
Christendom, performed in one night by strength of ima- 
gination," 1645. 12. "Lustra Ludovici : or the Life of 
Lewis XIII. King of France, &c." 13. " An Account of 
the deplorable state of England in 1647, &c." 1647. 14. 
" Letter to Lord Pembroke concerning the Times, and the 
sad condition both of Prince and People/ 9 1647. 15. 
" Bella Scot- Anglica : A Brief of all the Battles betwixt 
England and Scotland, from all times to, this present/* 

1648. 16. " Corollary declaring the Causes, whereby the 
Scot is come of late years to be so heightened in his Spi- 
rits." 17. " The Instruments of a King : or, a short Dis- 
course of the Sword, Crown, and Sceptre, &c. 1648." IS. 
" Winter-Dream/' 1649. 19. " A Trance, or News from 
Hell, brought first to town by Mercurius Acheronticus/' 

1649. 20. " Inquisition after Blood, &c." 1649. 21. 
" Vision, or Dialogue between Soul and Body/ 9 1651* 
22. " Survey of the Signory of Venice, &c." 1651. 29. 
" Some sober Inspections made into the carriage and con- 
sults of the late Long Parliament, whereby occasion is 
taken to speak of Parliaments in former times, and of 
Magna Charta : with some Reflections upon Government 
in general/' 1653. Dedicated to Oliver lord protector, 
whom he compares to Charles Martel, and compliments in 
language much beyond the truth and the sentiments of 
his own heart. The fourth edition of this book came out 

* •• I believe the secood published friend of Jonsoo, and* Ihe 6rst who bore 

eorrespondence of this kind {after As- the office of the royal historiographer, 

Cham), aod in our own language, at which discover a variety of literature, 

least of any importance after (bishop) and abound with much entertaining 

Hall, will be found in the " KpistoUe and useful information." War ton > 

HoelianaV 1 or the letters of James History of Poetry, vol. IV. p. 54. 
Howell, a grant traveller, an intimate 

HOWELL. 369 


in 1660, with several additions. 24. " History of the 
Wars of Jerusalem epitomised. 19 25. " Ah, Ha; Tumu- 
lus, Thalamus : two Counter- Poems : the first an Elegy 
on Edward late earl of Dorset: the second an Epithala- 
mium to the Marquis of Dorchester/ 9 1653. 26. "The 
German Diet: or Balance of Europe, &c." 1653, folio, 
with the author's portrait, at whole lengths 27. " Parthe- 
nopeia: or, the History of Naples, &c." 1654. 28. " Lon- 
dinopolis," 1657 : a short discourse, says tVood, mostly 
taken from Stowe's " Survey of London," but a work 
which in our time bears a high price, and is worth con- 
sulting, as containing particulars of the manners of Lon- 
don in his days. 29. " Discourse of the Empire, and of 
the Election of the King of the Romans," 1658. 30. 
" Lexicon Tetraglotton : an English-French-ItaKan-Spa- 
nish Dictionary, &c." 1660. 31. " A Cordial for the Ca- 
valiers," 1661. Answered immediately by sir Roger L'Es- 
trange, in a book entitled " A Caveat for the Cavaliers :" 
replied to by Mr. Howell, in the next article, 32. " Some 
sober Inspections made into those ingredients that went 
to the composition of a late . Cordial for the Cavaliers," 
1661. 33. "A French Grammar, &c." 34. "The Par- 
ley of Beasts, &c." 1660. 35. " The second Part of casual 
Discourses and Interlocutions between Patricius and Pe- 
regrin, &c." 1661. 36. " Twelve Treatises of the late 
Revolutions," 1661. 37. "New English Grammar for 
Foreigners to learn English : with a Grammar for the Spa- 
nish and Castilian Tongue, with special Remarks on the 
Portuguese Dialect, for the service of her Majesty,' 9 1662. 
38. " Discourse concerning the Precedency of Kings," 

1663. 39. " Poems :" collected and published by ser- 
jeant-major P. F. that is, Payne Fisher, who had been 
poet-laureat to Cromwell. The editor tells us, that his 
author Howell " may be called the prodigy of the age for 
the variety of his volumes ; for there hath passed the press 
above forty of his works on various subjects, useful not 
only to the present times, but to all posterity. And it is 
to be observed," says he, " that in all his writings. there is 
something still new, either in the matter, method, or fancy, 
and in an untrodden tract." • It is quite impossible, how- 
ever, to say any thing in favour of his poetry. He pub- 
lished next, 40. " A Treatise concerning Ambassadors, 1 ' 

1664. 41. " Concerning the surrender of Dunkirk, that it 
was done upon good Grounds," 1664. 


Besides these original works, he translated several from 
foreign languages; as, l. " St. Paul's late Progress upon 
Earth about a Divorce betwixt Christ and the Church of 
Rome, by reason of her dissoluteness and excesses, &c." 
1644. The author of this book published it about 1642, 
and was forced to fly from Rome on that account. He 
withdrew in the company, and under the conduct of one, 
who pretended friendship for him ; but who betrayed him 
at Avignon, where he was first hanged and then burnt. 
2. " A Venetian Looking-glass : or, a Letter written very 
lately from London to Cardinal Barberini at Rome, by a 
Venetian Clarissimo, touching the present Distempers in 
England/' 1648. 3. "An exact History of the late Re- 
volutions in Naples, &c." 1650. 4. " A Letter of Advice 
from the prime Statesmen of Florence, how England may 
come to herself again," 1659. All these were translated 
. from the Italian. He translated also from the French, 
" The Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, &c." 1654; and from 
the Spanish, " The Process and Pleadings in the Court of 
Spain, upon the death of Anthony Aschani, resident for 
the Parliament of England, &c." 1651. 

Lastly, he published, in 1649, " The late King's Decla- 
ration in Latin, French, and English :" and in 1651, " Cot- 
ton i Postbuma, or divers choice Pieces of that renowned 
antiquary sir Robert Cotton, knight and baronet," in 8vo. 
The print of him prefixed to some of his works was taken 
from a painting which is now at Landeilo house, in Mon- 
mouthshire, the seat of Richard Lewis, esq. 1 

HOWEL (Laurence), a learned, but somewhat unfor- 
tunate divine, was born soon after the restoration, and edu- 
cated at Jesus college, Cambridge, where he took his de- 
gree of B. A. in 1684, and that of M. A. in 1688, after 
which it is not improbable that he left the university, as he 
.not only scrupled the oaths to the new government, but 
adhered to the nonjuring party with a degree of firmness, 
zeal, and rashness, which no considerations of personal loss 
or suffering could repress. In 1712 he was ordained and 
instituted into priest's orders by Dr. Hickes, the celebrated 
nonjuror, who was titled Suffragan Bishop of Tbetford. 
Before this, in 1708, he published " Synopsis Canonum 
S. S. Apostolorum, et conciliorum oecumenicorum et pro- 

l Biog. Brit— Lloyd'i Memoirs, folio, p. 523.— Atb. Ox. vol. U.— Cenfm 
Literaria, vol. III. 

HOWEL 271 

vincialium, ab ecclfcsia Graca receptorum," 1710* in folio; 
" Synopsis canooum ecclesise Latins/* folio ; and in 1715 f 
the third and last volume was announced " as once more 
finished*' by Mr. Howel, the manuscript having been burnt 
at the 6re which consumed Mr. Bowyer's printing-house. 
Soon after this he printed a pamphlet entitled " The case 
of Schism in the Church of England truly stated/' which 
was intended to be dispersed or sold privately, there being 
no name of any author or printer. Both, however, were 
soon discovered, and Redmayne, the printer, was sentenced 
to pay a fine of 500/. to be imprisoned for five yeaiv and 
to find security for his good behaviour for life. The prin- 
ciples laid down in Howel's pamphlet are these: 1. " Thai 
the subjects of England could not transfer their allegiance 
from king James II. ; and thence it is concluded, that all 
who resisted king James, or have since complied with such 
as did, are excommunicated by the second canon : 2. That 
the catholic bishops cannot be deprived by a lay-power 
only ; and thence it is inferred, that all who have joined 
with them that were put into the places of the deprived 
bishops, are schismatics." As such assertions seemed to 
aim at the vitals of government, both civil and ecclesias- 
tical, it was thought necessary to visit Mr. Howel's crime 
with a more severe punishment than had been inflicted on 
the printer. Accordingly he was indicted at the Old Bailey 
Feb. 18, 1717, for a misdemeanour, in publishing "a se- 
ditious libel, wherein are contained expressions denying 
his majesty's title to the crown of this realm, and asserting 
the pretender's right to the same ; &c« &c." and being 
found guilty, he was ordered to pay a fine of 500/. to be 
imprisoned for three years, to find four securities of 500/. 
each, himself bound in 1000/. for his good behaviour during 
lif^ and to be twice whipped. On hearing this last part of 
the sentence, he asked, if they would whip a clergyman ? 
and was answered by the court, that they paid no deference 
to his cloth, because he was a disgrace to it, and had no 
right to wear it; that they did not look upon him as a 
clergyman ; in that he bad produced no proof of his ordi- 
nation, but from Dr. Hickes, under the denomination of 
the bishop of Thetford, which was illegal, and not accord- 
ing to the constitution of this kingdom, which knows no 
such bishop. And as be behaved in other respects haugh- 
tily, on receiving his sentence, he was ordered to be de- 
graded, and stripped of the gown he bad no right to wear, 

272 HOWEL 

which was accordingly done in court by the executioner, 
A few days after, however, upon his humble petition to 
his majesty, the corporal punishment was remitted. He 
died in Newgate, July 19, 1720. The history of this man 
may now excite unmixed compassion* He was a man of 
irreproachable character, and of great learning and ac- 
quaintance with ecclesiastical history. One of the ablest 
attacks on popery was of his writing, entitled u The View 
of the Pontificate, from its supposed beginning, to' the end 
of the Council of Trent, A. D. 1663, in which the corrup- 
tions of the Scripture and sacred antiquity, forgeries in 
the councils, and encroachments of the court of Rome on 
the church and state, to support their infallibility, supre- 
macy, and other modern doctrines, are set in a true light" 
The first edition of this appeared in 1712, and a second 
was published while the author was in prison, along with 
a second edition of his well-known " History of the Bible,' 9 
3 vols. 8vo, with above 150 cuts by Sturt; and a second 
edition of his " Orthodox Communicant." From the list 
of nonjurors at the end of Kettlewell's Life, we learn that 
he was at one time master of the school at Epping, and at 
-another time curate of Estwich in Suffolk. 

There is another work, often reprinted, and once a very 
popular book, which has been attributed to this Mr. Howel, 
but in 1712 the publisher ascribed it to Dr. William Howell. 
It is an abridged history of England, under the title " Me- 
dulla Histories Anglicanee," with many wood-cuts, and we 
are inclined to think was really the production of Dr. Wil- 
liam Howell, an Oxford graduate, but originally of Mag- 
dalen college, Cambridge, afterwards chancellor of Lin- 
coln, and admitted a civilian in 1678. He acquired higher 
reputation by writing a History of the World, from the ear- 
liest times to the ruin of the Roman empire in the west, a 
work praised by Gibbon. It was published in 3 or 4 vols, 
in 1680, folio. He also published " Elementa Historic 
Civilis," Ox. 1660, of which an enlarged edition was pub- 
lished in English in 1704 by another band. Dr. Howell 
died in 1683. 1 

" HOWSON (John), successively bishop of Oxford and 
•Durham, was born in St. Bride's parish, London, in 1556, 

1 Nichols's Bowyer.— Ath. Ox. vol. II. — Coote's Catalogue of Civilians— 
Cole'i MS Athens in Brit. Mus.— Disney's Life of Sykes, p. 04.— Whi stem's 
MS notes on the first edition of this Dictionary. — Historical Register for 1717 
«Bd 1720. 

H O W S O N. 273 

and educated at St. Paul's school, whence he became stu- 
dent ef Christ church, Oxford, in 1577. After taking his 
degrees in arts, and entering into holy orders, he was vicar 
of Bampton in Oxfordshire, rector of Brightwell in Berk- 
shire, a fellow of Chelsea college, and canon of Hereford* 
When vice-chancellor of Oxford he exerted himself against 
those puritans who opposed the discipline and ceremonies, 
but was afterwards a more distinguished writer and preacher 
against popery. He appears to have eutered the lists 
against Bellarmine and his friends with determined reso- 
lution, declaring " that he'd loosen the pope from hii 
chair, though he were fastened thereto with a ten penny 
nail." King James commanded his polemical discourses, 
which are the most considerable of his works, to be printed, 
in 1622, 4to. They are all in the form of sermons. 

He was, 6rst, bishop of Oxford, and Sept. 28, 1628, trans- 
lated to Durham, which he held only two years, dying Feb. 
6, 1631, aged seventy-five, and was interred in St. Paul's 
church, London, leaving behind him, as Wood says, " the 
character of a very learned man, and one plentifully en- 
dowed with all those virtues which were most proper for a 
bishop." J 

HO.ZIER (Peter d'), a man famous in his time, and 
even celebrated by Boileau, for his skill in genealogies, 
was born of a good family at Marseilles, in 1592, and bred 
to military service ; but very early applied himself with 
great zeal to that study for which he became so eminent. 
By his probity as well as talents, he obtained the confidence 
of Louis XIII. and XIV. and enjoyed the benefit of their 
favour in several lucrative and honourable posts. After 
rising through several appointments, such as judge of arms 
in 1641, and certifier of titles in 1643, he was admitted in 
J 654 to the council of state. He died at Paris in 1660. 
Hozier was author of a History of Britany, in folio, and of 
many genealogical tables. — His son, Charles, was born 
Feb. 24, 1 640, at Paris. His father had given him some in* 
structions in genealogy, which he made use of to draw up, 
under the direction of M. de Caumartin, " the Peerage of 
Champagne," Chalons, 1673, folio, in form of an Atlas. 
He received the cross of St. Maurice from the duke of 
Savoy in 1631, and had also the office of judge of the arai9 

1 Atfa. Ox. vol. 1. but principally Wood's Annals, vol. II.— Hutchinson's 
Durham. — Fuller's Worthies. 

Vol. XVIII. T 

274 HOZIER. 

of the French nobility, and was rewarded with a pension 
of 4000 livrea. He died in 1732. This gentleman's 
nephew succeeded him in his office, and died in 1767. 
He compiled the " L' Armorial, on Registres de la No- 
blesse de France," 10 vols, folio. Such works, of late 
years, have been of very little use in France. 1 

HUARTE (John), a native of French Navarre, though 
he is usually supposed to be a Spaniard, lived in the se- 
venteenth century. He gained great fame by a work which 
be published in Spanish, upon a very curious and interest- 
ing subject. The title of it runs thus : " Examen de in- 
genios para las Sciencias, &c. or, an examination of such 
geniuses as are fit for acquiring the sciences, and were 
born such : wherein, by marvellous and useful secrets, 
drawn from true philosophy both natural and divine, are 
shewn the gifts and different abilities found in men, and 
for what kind of study the genius of every man is adapted, 
in such a manner, that whoever shall read this book atten- 
tively, will discover the properties of his own genius, and 
be able to make choice of that science in which he will 
make the greatest improvement. 19 This book has been 
translated into several languages, and gone through seve- 
ral impressions. . It was translated into Italian, and pub- 
lished at Venice in 1582; at least the dedication of that 
translation bears this date. It was translated into French 
by Gabriel Chappuis in 1580 ; but there is a better French 
version than this, by Savinien d'Alquie, printed at Amster- 
dam in 1672. He has taken in the additions inserted by 
Huarte in the last edition of his book, which are consider- 
able both in quality and quantity. It has been translated 
also into Latin, and lastly, into English, by Carew and 
Bellamy. This very admired author has been highly ex- 
tolled for acuteness and subtlety, and undoubtedly had a< 
great share of these qualities : Bayle, however, thinks, that 
" it would not be prudent for any person to rely either on 
his maxims or authorities ; for," says he, " he is not to be 
trusted on either of these heads, and his hypotheses are 
frequently chimerical, especially when he pretends to teach 
the formalities to be observed by those who would beget 
children of a virtuous turn of mind. There are, in this 
- part of his book, a great many particulars repugnant to 
modesty (a discovery which we are surprized Bayle should 

1 Moreri.— Diet, Hilt— Niceron, vol. XXXII. 


have made) : and he deserves censure for publishing, as a 
genuine and authentic piece, a pretended letter of Len- 
tulus the proconsul from Jerusalem to the Roman senate, 
wherein a portrait is given of Jesus Christ, a description of 
his shape and stature, the colour of his hair, the qualities 
of his beard, &c." The work, however, has now altogether 
lost its popularity, and deservedly. 1 

HUBALD, Hucbald, or Hug bald, a monk of St. 
Amand, in Flanders, who preceded Guido more than one 
hundred years, was contemporary with Remi, and author 
of a treatise on music, which is still subsisting in the king 
of France's library, under the title of " Enchiridion Mu- 
sics," No. 7202, transcribed in the eleventh century. In 
this work there is a kind of gammut, or expedient for de- 
lineating the several sounds of the scale, in a way wholly 
different from his predecessors ; but the method of Guido 
not only superseded this, but by degrees effaced the 
knowledge and remembrance of every other that had been 
adopted in the different countries and convents of Europe. 
However, the awkward attempts at singing in consonance, 
which appear in this tract, are curious, and clearly prove 
that Guido neither invented, nor, rude as it was before his 
time, much contributed to the improvement of this art. 

Hubald was not only a musician, but a poet ; and an 
idea may be formed of his patience and perseverance, if 
not of his genius, from a circumstance related by Sigebert, 
the author of his life, by which it appears that he van- 
quished a much greater difficulty in poetry than the lippo- 
grammists of antiquity ever attempted: for they only ex- 
communicated a single letter of the alphabet from a whole 
poem ; but this determined monk composed three hundred 
verses in praise of baldness, which he addressed to the em- 
peror Charles the Bald, and in which he obliged the letter 
C to take the lead in every word, as the initial of his pa- 
tron's name and infirmity, as thus : 

" Oarmina Garisona Calvis Caatate Camaenae." 
Hubald died in the year 930, at the age of ninety. 1 

HUBER (John James), a celebrated anatomist, was 
born at Basle, in 1707. He was a pupil of Haller at 
Berne, in 1730, after which he studied at Strasburgb, and 
in 1733 took the degree of M. D. at his native place. He 
visited Paris in 1735, and in the same year was appointed 

* Gen. Diet.— Moreri • Moreri.— Rett's Cyclopedia! by Dr. Barney. 

T 2 

5176 H U fc fc It- 

physician to the court of Baden Dourlach. At the request 
of Haller, he examined the Graubund mountains, in Swit- 
zerland, and transmitted to him his collection of plants 
found in that district, previous to the publication of Hol- 
ler's work on jhe botany of Switzerland. Haller then in- 
vited him to Gottingen in 1738, to be dissector, where, 
having acquired considerable reputation, he was made ex* 
traordinary professor of anatomy in that city in 1739 ; pro- 
fessor in the Caroline college at Cassel, with the rank of 
court-physician, in 1742; and counsellor of state and 
body -physician to the prince in 1748. He died in 1778. 
His principal works are entitled, " Commentatio de Me- 
dulla Spinali, speciatim de Nervis ab ea provenientibus," 
cum icon. Goett. 1741, 4to. " Commentatio de Vaginas 
Uteri structura rugosa, necnon de Hymene," 1742, 4to. 
He published a letter in the Philos. Transactions, vol. 
XLVI, " De cadavere aperto in quo non existit vesica 
fellea, et de Sterno gibboso." ' 

HUBER (Mary), a voluminous female author, was bom 
at Geneva in ,1710, and died at Lyons in 1753. Her 
principal works are, 1. " Le monde fou, pr£fer6 au monde 
sage," 1731—1744, in 8vo. 2. " Le Systfime des Theo- 
logiens anciens et modernes, sur l'etat des Ames s£ parses 
des corps," 1731 — 1739, 12mo. 3. " Suite du mgme 
ouvrage, servant de rlponse a M. Ruchat," 1731 — 1739, 
12mo. 4. " Reduction du Spectateur Anglois." This 
was an. abridgment of the Spectator, and appeared in 
1758, in six parts, duodecimo; but did not succeed. 5. 
€t Lettres sur la Religion essentielle & Phomme," 1739 — 
1754. Mary Huber was a protestant, and this latter work, 
iii particular, was attacked by the divines of the Romish 
communion. She had wit and knowledge, but was some- 
times obscure, from wautirfg the talent to develope her 
own ideas.* 

HUBER (Ulric), a native of Dockum, in' the Dutch 
territories, famous as a lawyer, an historian, and a philo- 
loger, was born in 1635, and became professor at Franeker, 
and afterwards at Lewarde. He published, 1. in 1662, 
seven dissertations, " De genuina state Assy riorum, et 
regno Medorum." Also, 2. A treatise " De Jure civi- 
tatis.'' 3. " Jurisprudentia Frisiaca." 4. " Specimen 
Philosophise civil is." 5. " Institutiones Histories civilU f 

1 feet's Gycfepadia. • Diet HiiU 

HUfiEU 277 

and several other works. From 1683/ he was engaged in 
violent controversy with Perizonius, on some points of 
jurisprudence, and on his work last-mentioned, the " In- 
stitutiones historian civil is." He died in 1694. The dis*» 
pute with Perizonius was carried on with sufficient scur- 
rility on both sides. 1 

HUBER (Zach arias), son of the former, was born at 
Franeker in 1669; aud afterwards advanced to the same 
professorships. He published in 1690, 1. "A disserta- 
tion " De vero sensu atque interpretatione, legis IX. D. 
de lege Pompeia, de Parricidis," Franeker, 4to. 2. Also, 
" Disse rtation um libri tres, quibus explicantur, &c. selecta 
juris publici, sacri, privatique capita/* Franeker, 1702. 
He died in 1732. 1 

HUBERT (Matthew), a celebrated French preacher, 
was born in 1640, and was contemporary with BoOrdaloue, 
whom, indeed, he could not rival, but was skilful enough 
to please; being esteemed by him one of the first preachers 
of the time. He was a priest of the congregation of the 
Oratory, and no less remarkable for his gentle piety and 
profound humility, than for his eloquence. He excelled 
consequently rather in the touching style of the sacred, 
than the vivid manner of the temporal orator. He was 
used to say, that his brother Massilion was fit to preach to 
the masters, and himself to the servants. He died in 
1717, after displaying his powers in the provinces, in the 
capital, and at court. Eight years after his death, in 1725, 
his sermons were published at Paris, in 6 vols. 12 mo, and 
were much approved by all persons of piety and taste. 
" His manner of reasoning," says his editor, father Mon- 
teuil, " had not that dryness which frequently destroys the 
effect of a discourse ; nor did he employ that studied elo- 
cution which frequently enervates the style by an excess 
of polish." The best composition in these volumes is the 
funeral oration on Mary of Austria. As a trait of bis hu- 
mility, it is related, that on being told by a person in a 
large company, that they had been fellow- students ; he 
replied, " I cannot easily forget it, since you not only 
lent me books, but gave me clothes."' 

HUBNER (John), a native of Lusatia, or, according 
to some authorities, of Torgau, in Saxony, highly cele- 

> Ch*ufepic— Diet. Hilt * Diet. HUt— S*xii Ouomart. 

* Morerk— • Diet. UltL 

t78 HUBNER, 

brated for his skill in history, geography, and genealogy, 
was born in 1668. His works were chiefly written in the 
form of question and answer, and so popular in Germany, 
that his introduction to geography went through a vast 
number of editions in that country, and has been trans- 
lated into English, French, and other languages. His 
works, therefore, are calculated rather for the instruction 
of the ignorant, than the satisfaction of the learned ; but 
are well executed in their way. Hubner was professor of 
geography at Leipsic, and rector of the school at Ham* 
burgh, in which city be died in 1731. His questions on 
modern and ancient geography were published at Leipsic 
in 1693, in 8vo, under the title of " Kurtze Fragen aus 
der newen und alten Geographic" He published, 2. in 
1697, and several subsequent years, in 10 volumes, similar 
questions on political history, entitled " Kurtze Fragen 
aus der Politischen Historie, bis zum Ausgang des Sie- 
benzenden sseculi." 3. His next work was Genealogical 
Tables, with genealogical questions subjoined, 1708, &c. 
4. " Supplements to the preceding works. 5. Lexicons, 
resembling our Gazetteers, for the aid of common life, 
entitled " Staats, Zeitungs, und Conversations-Lexico." 
6. A Genealogical Lexicon. 7. " Bibliotheca Historica 
Hamburgensis," Leipsic, 1715. And, 8. " Museum Geo- 
graphicum." The two last were more esteemed by the 
learned than any of bis other works. 1 

HUDSON (Captain Henry), was an eminent English 
navigator, who flourished in high fame in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. Where he was born and edu- 
cated, we have no certain account ; nor have we of any 
private circumstances of his life. The custom of disco- 
vering foreign countries for the benefit of trade not dying 
with queen Elizabeth, in whose reign it had been zealously 
pursued, Hudson, among others, attempted to find out a 
passage by the north to Japan and China. His first voyage 
was in 1607, at the charge of some London merchants; 
and his first attempt was for the north-east passage to the 
Indies. He departed therefore on the 1st of May ; and 
after various adventures through icy seas, and regions in- 
tensely cold, returned to England, and arrived in the 
Thames Sept. 15. The year following be undertook a se- 
cond voyage for discovering the same passage, and ac- 

1 Moreii— Diet. Hot— Saxii OnomasU 

HUDSON. 279 

cordingly set sail with fifteen persons only, April 22 ; but 
not succeeding, returned homewards, and arrived at 
Gravesend on Aug. 26. 

Not disheartened by his former unsuccessful voyages, 
be undertook again, in 1609, a third voyage to the same 
parts, for further discoveries ; and was fitted out by the 
Dutch East India company. He sailed from Amsterdam 
with twenty men English and Dutch, March 25; and on April 
25, doubled the North Cape of Finmark, in Norway. He 
kept along the coasts of Lapland towards Nova Zembla, but 
found the sea so full of ice that he could not proceed. 
Then turning about, he went towards America, and ar- 
rived at the coast of New France on July 18. He sailed 
from place to place,* without any hopes of succeeding in 
their grand scheme ; and the ship's crew disagreeing, and 
being in danger of mutinying, he pursued his way home- 
wards, and arrived Nov. 7, at Dartmouth, in Devonshire ; 
of which he gave advice to bis directors in Holland, send- 
ing them also a journal of his voyage. In 1610, he was 
again fitted out by some gentlemen, with a commission to 
try, if through any of those American inlets which cap- 
tain Davis saw, but durst not enter, on the western side 
of Davis's Streights, any passage might be found to the 
South Sea. They sailed from St Catharine's April 17, 
and on June 4, came within sight of Greenland. On the 
9th they were off Forbisher's Streights, and on tbe 1 5th 
came in sight of Cape Desolation. Thence they proceeded 
north-westward, among great quantities of ice, until they 
came to the mouth of the streights that bear Hudson's 
name. They advanced in those streights westerly, as the 
land and ice would permit, till ( they got into the bay, 
which has ever since been called by the bold discoverer's 
name, " Hudson's Bay." He gave names to places as he 
went along ; and called the country itself " Nova Britan- 
nia," or New Britain. He sailed above 100 leagues south 
into this bay, being confident that he had found tbe de- 
tired passage ; but perceiving at last that it was only a bay, 
he resolved to winter in the most southern point of it, with 
an intention of pursuing his discoveries tbe following 
spring. Upon this he was so intent, that he did not con* 
■ider how unprovided he was with necessaries to support 
himself during a severe winter in that desolate place. On 
Nov. 3, however, they drew their ship into a small creek, 
where they would all infallibly have perished, if they had 

480 HUDSON. 

not been unexpectedly and providentially supplied with 
uncommon flights of wild fowl, which served them for pro- 
vision. In the spring, when the ice began to waste, Hud- 
son, in order to complete his discovery, made several ef- 
forts of various kinds; but notwithstanding all his endea- 
vours, be found it necessary to abandon bis enterprise, and 
to make the best of his way home ; and therefore distri- 
buted to his men, with tears in his eyes, all the bread be 
had left, which was only a pound to each : though it is 
said other provisions were afterwards found in the ship. 
In his despair and uneasiness, he had let fall some threat* 
ening words, of setting some of his men on shore ; upon 
which, a few of the sturdiest, who had before been very 
mutinous, entered his cabin in the night, tied bis arms 
behind him, and exposed him in his own shallop at the 
west end of the streights, with his son, John Hudson, and 
seven of the most sick and infirm of his men. There they 
turned them adrift, and it is supposed that they all perished, 
being never heard of more. The crew proceeded with the 
ship for England ; but going on shore near the straight'* 
mouth, four of them were killed by savages. The rest, 
after enduring the greatest hardships, and ready to die for 
want, arrived at Plymouth Sept. 161 1. 1 

HUDSON (Dr. John), a learned English critic, was 
born at Widehope, near Cockermouth, in Cumberland, 
1662; and, after having been educated in grammar and 
classical learning by Jerome Hechstetter, who lived in that 
neighbourhood, was entered in 1676 of Queen' s-college, 
Oxford. Soon after he had taken the degree of M. A. in 
1684, he removed to University-college, of which he was 
unanimously chosen fellow in March 1686, and became a 
most considerable and esteemed tutor. In April 1701, on 
the resignation of Dr. Thomas Hyde, he was elected prin- 
cipal keeper of the Bodleian library ; and in June fol- 
lowing, accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D. With 
this librarian's place, which he held till his death, he kept 
his fellowship till June 1711, when, according to the sta- 
tutes of the college, he would have been obliged to resign 
it; but he had just before disqualified himself for holding 
it any longer, by marrying Margaret, daughter of sir Ro- 
bert Harrison, knight, an alderman of Oxford, and a 
mercer. In 17 12, he was appointed principal of St Mary* 
frail, by the chancellor of the university, through th$ 

1 Bio;. Brit. 

HUDSON. 281 

interest of Dr. Radcliffe ; and it is said, that to Hudson's 
interest with this physician, the university of Oxford is 
obliged for the very ample benefactions she afterwards re- 
ceived from him. Hudson's studious and sedentary way of 
life, and extreme abstemiousness, brought him at length 
into a bad habit of body, which turning to a dropsy, kept 
him about a year in a very languishing condition. He died 
Nov. 27, 1719, leaving a widow, and one daughter. 

His publications were, 1. " Introductio ad Chrono- 
graphiam ; sive ars chronologica in Epitomen redacta," 
1691, 8vo. Extracted from Beveridge's treatise on that 
subject, for the use of his ptkpils. 2. " Velleius Patercu- 
lus, cum variis lectionibus, & notis, & indice," 1693, 
8vo. A second edition, with the notes enlarged, in 1711, 
3. " Thucydides," 1696, folio. A neat and beautiful 
edition, but somewhat eclipsed in its credit by that of 
Duker and Wasse. 4. " Geographies Veteris Scriptores 
Graeci Minores: cum Dissertationibus & Annotationibus 
Henrici Dodwelli," 8vo. The first published in 1698, the 
second in 1 703, and the third and fourth in 17 12. 5. " Dio- 
nysii Halicarnassensis opera omnia/ 9 1704, 2 vols, folio. 
A beautiful and valuable edition, enriched with the various 
readings of an ancient copy in the Vatican library,' and of 
several manuscripts in France. The learned editor has 
subjoined to his own notes several of Sylburgius, Portus, 
Stephens, Casaubon, and Valesius. 6. " Dionysius Lon- 
ginus," 17 to, 4to, and 1718, 8vo. A very beautiful edi- 
tion, and the notes, like all the rest of Hudson's, very 
short. 7. " Moeris Atticista, de vocibus Atticis & Hel- 
lenicis. Gregorius Martinus de Graecarum literarum pro- 
nunciatione," 1712, 8vo. 8. " Fabulae ^sopicap," Greek 
and Latin, 1713, 8vo. 9. " Flavii Josephi Opera/' he 
had just finished, but did not live to publish. He had 
proceeded as far .as the third index, when, finding himself 
unable to go quite through, he recommended the work to 
bis intimate friend Mr. Antony Hall, who published it in 
1720, in 2 vob. folio. It is a correct and beautiful edition, 
and deserving of the ample commendation bestowed upon 
it by Fabricius, Harwood, Harles, and Oberthur. The 
care of Mr. Hal) extended not only to the works of his 
deceased friend, but to his family, for he married his wi- 
dow, whom he also left a widow. 

Dr. Hudson intended, if he had lived, to publish a ca- 
talogue of the Bodleian library, which he had caused to 


be fairly transcribed in 6 vols, folio* He was an able 
assistant to several editors in Oxford, particularly to Dr. 
Gregory in his " Euclid," and to the industrious Mr. Hearne 
in his " Livy," &c. He corresponded with many learned 
men in foreign countries ; with Muratori, Salvini, and 
Biancbini, in Italy; with Boivin, Kuster, and Lequien, in 
France ; with Olearius, Menckenius, Christopher Wolfius, 
and, whom he chiefly esteemed, John Albert Fabricius, in 
Germany ; Eric Benzel, in Sweden ; Frederic Rostgard, 
in Denmark ; with Pezron, Reland, Le CI ere, in Holland, 
&c. He used to complain of the vast expence of foreign 
letters ; for he was far from being rich, never having been 
possessed of any ecclesiastical preferment; of which he 
used also to make frequent and not unjust complaints. He 
met, sometimes, however, with generous patronage. When 
employed on his edition of Josephus, the earl of Caernar- 
von (afterwards duke of Chandos) hearing of his merit and 
the expensive nature of his undertaking, sent him a pre* 
sent of two hundred guineas, which Dr. Hudson band* 
aomely acknowledges in the dedication to the earl's son, 
lord Wilton, of his edition of Esop's Fables. On his de- 
£;'/,, - / cease, several sets of his Josephus were disposed of by his 
/^ f vgdow, _at twelve shillings ger_ set, a work which now 

/' / *' <Ican ' is * n ^ e ver y ^ rs ^ c ' ass °f Variorum editions in folio. 

* -**•'• Dr. Hudson had been long conversant with Josephus, had 

A ' ? ' - j <, f a ; revised sir Roger L'Estrange's translation, and added some 

-\ /--.. critical notes. He also digested and finished Dr. Willis's 

/ . . .. r )- two discourses prefixed to that work. Hearne was a kind 

/t'\,l*>S °f pupil to Dr. Hudson, and directed by him in bis critical 

*/^ /^ HUDSON (Thomas), a portrait-painter of some ce- 
U*.^. ^^ <l e brity, born in 1701, was the scholar and son-in-law of 

* .- '*..- Richardson, and enjoyed for many years the chief bu- 
/n ' , ». j « " siness of portrait-painting in the capital, after the favourite 
,Vv j^ />- artists, his master and Jervas, were gone off the stage. 

* . t .j // Though Vanloo first, and Liotard afterwards, for a few 

r ' , * ? * *$&rs diverted the torrent of fashion from the established 

' ; '^ v ^ *% p ro f esgor> st j[j t |, e coun try gentlemen were faithful to their 

V '"^ v * compatriot, and were content with his honest similitudes, 

' * / V anc * w '*k t ' le **** *' e( * ™%*> blue velvet coats, and white 
'ft * f . sat * n waistcoats, which be bestowed liberally on his cus- 

/ ' BiOf . Brit.— Hill's prefect to the Josephus.— Ath. Ox. vol. I [.—Story of 

kit daughter'* niarriige, G«nU Mftg. *»!• IV. p. 353. 

HUDSON. 28$ 

tomers, and which with complacence they beheld multi- 
plied in Faber's mezzotintos. The better taste introduced 
by sir Joshua Reynolds, who bad been for some time his 
pupil, put an end to Hudson's reign, who had the good 
sense to resign the throne soon after finishing his capital 
work, the family- piece of Charles duke of Marlborough, 
about 1756. He retired to a small villa he had built at 
Twickenham, on a most beautiful point of the river, and 
where he furnished the best rooms with a well-chosen col* 
lection of cabinet-pictures and drawings by great masters ; 
having purchased many of the latter from his father-in- 
law's capital collection. Towards the end of his life ha 
married to his second wife, Mrs. Fiennes, a gentlewoman 
with a good fortune, to whom he bequeathed his villa. He 
died Jan. 26, 1779. 1 

HUDSON (William), one of the earliest Linnaean bo- 
tanists in England, was born in Westmoreland, about the 
year 1730. He served bis apprenticeship to an apothecary 
in Pan ton -street, Haymarket, to whose business he sue* 
ceeded, and with whose widow and daughters he continued 
to reside. His acquaintance with the amiable and learned 
Mr. Benjamin Stillingfleet greatly advanced his taste and 
information in natural history. This gentleman directed 
his attention to the writings of Linnaeus, and gave bis mind 
that correct and scientific turn, which caused him to take 
the lead as a classical English botanist, and induced him to 
become the author of the " Flora Anglica," published in 
1762, in one volume octavo. The plan of this book was, 
taking Ray's " Synopsis" as a ground-work, to dispose bis 
plants in order, according to the Linnaean system and no- 
menclature, with such additions of new species, or of new 
places of growth, as the author or his friends were able to 
furnish. The particular places of growth of the rarer spe- 
cies were given in Ray's manner, in English, though the 
rest of the book was Latin. The elegant preface was writ- 
ten by Mr. Stillingfleet, and probably the concise, but not 
less elegant, dedication to the late duke of Northumber- 
land, " artium, turn uiilium, turn elegantiorum, judici et 

This publication gave Mr. Hudson a considerable rank 
as a botanist, not only in bis own country, but on the con* 

1 Pilkiqftoq.— Walpolt'i Awcdotei.— MtJone'i sod Northcols>i Memoirs* 
Sir J. Reynolds. 

*84 HUDSON. 

tinent, and derived do small advantage from a comparison 
with Dr. Hill's attempt of the same kind. He had indeed 
previously, in the course of his medical practice, formed 
some valuable connexions, which were cemented by bota- 
nical taste; and his correspondence with Linuseus, Haller, 
and others, as well as amongst his countrymen, was fre- 
quent, and very useful to him in the course of his studies, 
which were extended, not only to botany- in all its crypto- 
gamic minutiae, but with great ardour also, to insects, 
shells, and other branches of British zoology. He was 
elected a fellow of the royal society Nov. 5th, and ad- 
mitted Nov. 12th, 1761. He took the lead very much in 
the affairs of the Apothecaries* company, and was their 
botanical demonstrator in the Chelsea-garden for many 

Mr. Hudson, having never married, continued to reside 
in Panton-street with the last surviving daughter of his 
friend and master, an amiable and valuable woman, mar- 
ried to Mr. Hole. His " Flora" being grown very scarce, 
be published, in 1778, a new edition, in two volumes, with 
many additions, and various alterations, which, on the 
whole, was worthy of the advanced state of the science. 

Mr. Hudson's tranquillity received a dreadful shock in 
the winter of 1783, when bis house, and the greater part 
of his literary treasures, were destroyed by a sudden fire, 
caused, as it was believed, by the villany of a confidential 
servant, who knew of a considerable sum in money which 
)x\s master bad received a day or two before ; and the in- 
surance having been neglected, although for a short time 
only, the loss was considerable, in a pecuniary point of 
view, to a man whose resources were not extensive. He 
bore the whole like a philosopher and a Christian, giving 
up his practice, and retiring, with Mr. and Mrs. Hole, to 
a more economical residence in J ermyn -street, where he 
died May 23d, 1793, and was buried in St. James's 

The accident of the fire entirely defeated a project Mr. 
Hudson had for many years kept in view, of publishing a» 
" Fauna Britannica," on the plan of his " Flora," for 
which he had long been collecting materials. His taste for 
bis favourite pursuit remained to the last, unimpaired and 
unembittered by these disappointments. He became a 
fcllpw of tl)e Linnaean Society early in 1791, liberally con- 

H U E R T A. S85 

tributing to its infant funds, and attending the meetings as 
often as his now declining heakh would allow. l 

HUERTA (Vincent Garica de la), a Spanish poet 
and critic, and a member of the Spanish academy, was bora 
at Zaira in Estremadura, about the year 1730. Among 
his countrymen he acquired considerable fame by the ex- 
ercise of his poetical and critical talents, and .was at least 
successful in one of his dramas, *' La Raquel," a tragedy, 
which, to many stronger recommendations, adds that of 
being exempt from the anachronisms and irregularities so 
often objected to the productions of the Spanish stage. 
He published "A Military library;" and "Poems" in 
2 vols, printed at Madrid in 1778 : but bis principal work 
is his u Teatro Hespanol," Madrid, 1785, 17 vols. 4to, a 
collection of what he reckoned the best Spanish plays, with 
prefaces, in which he endeavours to vindicate the honour 
of Spanish literature from the strictures of Voltaire, Lin- 
guet, Signorelli, and others of its adversaries ; but on the 
whole, in the opinion of lord Holland, who appears well 
acquainted with this work, so far from retrieving the lost 
honours of the Spanish theatre, he has only exposed it to 
the insults and ridicule of its antagonists. La Huerta died 
about the close of the last century. ■ 

HUET (Peter Daniel), bishop of Avranches in France, 
a very eminent scholar, was born of a good family at Caen 
in Normandy, Feb. 8, 1630. His parents dying when be 
was scarcely out of his infancy, Huet fell into the hands 
of guardians, who neglected him : his own invincible love 
of letters, however, made him amends for all disadvantages ; 
and be finished his studies in the belles lettres before he was 
thirteen years of age. In the prosecution of his philoso- 
phical studies, he met with an excellent professor, father 
Mambrun, a Jesuit ; who, after Plato* s example, directed 
him to begin by learning a little geometry, and Huet con- 
tracted such a relish for it, that he went through every 
branch of mathematics, and maintained public theses at 
Caen, a thing never before done in that city. Having 
passed through his classes, it was his business to study, the 
law, and to take his degrees in it ; but two books then 
published, seduced him from this pursuit. These were, 

The Principles of Des Cartes," and u Bochart's Sacred 


i Reel's Cyclop, by sir E. Bmitb.— Pulteney's Sketcbri of Botany.— -Gent. 
Mag. vol. LXIII. 
> Diet, ilitt.— Lord Holland'! Life of Lope de Veg», p. 325, lie. 

386 HUE T. 

Geography/ 9 He was a great adifairer of Des Cartes, and 
adhered to his philosophy for many years ; but afterwards 
saw reason to abandon it as a visionary fabrick, and wrote 
against it. Bocbart's geography made a more lasting im- 
pression upon him, as well on account of the immense 
erudition with which it abounds, as by his acquaintance 
with its author, who was minister of the Protestant church 
at Caen. This book, being full of Greek and Hebrew 
learning, inspired Huet with an ardent desire of being 
versed in those languages, and, to assist his progress iu 
these studies, be contracted a friendship with Bochart, and 
put himself under his directions. 

At the age of twenty years and one day, he was delivered 
by the custom of Normandy from the tuition of his guar- 
dians : and soon after took a journey to Paris, noi so much 
from curiosity to see the place, as for the sake of purchas- 
ing books, and making himself acquainted with the learned 
men of die times. He soon became known to Sirmond, 
Petavius, Vavassor, Cossart, Rapin, Naud£, and, in short, 
to almost all the scholars in France. With Petavius 
in particular he passed much of his time : he was a 
great admirer of the splendour of his diction, and the 
variety of bis erudition ; but he confesses, that in weigh- 
ing the arguments which he offered in support of his dog- 
mas, he perceived in them a degree of weakness and am- 
biguity, which obliged him to suspend his assent, and in- 
clined him towards scepticism. Naturally excelling rather 
in genius than judgment, and the vigour of his under- 
Standing having been rather repressed than unproved by 
an immense variety of reading, Huet found his mind too 
feeble to master the difficulties of metaphysical and theolo- 
gical studies, and concluded that his want of success in 
the search after truth was owing, not to any peculiar infe- 
licity in his own case, but to the general imbecility of the 
human mind. 

With this bias towards scepticism Huet entered upon his 
travels, and Christina of Sweden having invited Bochart to 
her court, Huet accompanied him, in April 1652. He 
■aw Salmasius at Leyden, and Isaac Vossius at Amsterdam. 
He often visited the queen, who would have engaged him 
in her service; but Bochart not having been very gra- 
ciously received, through the intrigues of Bourdel, another 
physician, who was jealous of him, and the queen's fickle 
temper .being well known, Huet declined all offers, and 

H U E T. £« 

after a stay of three months returned to France. The chief 
fruit of his journey was a copy of a manuscript of Origen's 
" Commentaries upon St. Matthew/' which he transcribed 
at Stockholm ; and the acquaintance he contracted with 
the learned men in Sweden and Holland, through which he 
passed. Upon his return to his own country, Caen, he re* 
sumed his studies with more vigour than ever, in order to 
publish his manuscript of Origen *. While he was em- 
ployed in translating this work, he was led to consider the 
rules to be observed in translations, as well as the different 
manners of the most celebrated translators. This gave oc- 
casion to his first performance, which came out at Paris in 
1661, under this title, " De interpretatione libri duo: 1 * 
and it is written in the form of a dialogue between Casau- 
bon, Fronto Ducaeus, and Thuanus. M. de Segrais tells 
us, that "nothing can be added to this treatise, either 
with respect to strength of critical judgment, variety of 
learning, or elegance of style ;" " which last," says abb6 Oli- 
vet, " is so very extraordinary, that it might have done 
honour to the age of Augustus.' 9 This book was first printed 
in a thin 4to, but afterwards in 12mo and 8vo. In 1688, 
were published at Rouen, in 2 vols, folio, his " Origenis 
Commentaria, &c. cum Latina interpretatione, notis & 
observationibus ;" to which is prefixed, a large preliminary 
discourse, in which is collected all that antiquity relates of 
Origen. The iuterval of sixteen years, between bis return 
from Sweden atid the publication of this work, was spent 
entirely in study, excepting a month or two every year, 
when he went to Paris ; during which time he gave the 
public a specimen of his skill in polite literature, in an 
elegant collection of poems, entitled "Carmina Latina & 
Greca;" which were published at Utrecht in 1664, and 
afterwards enlarged in several successive editions. While 
he was employed upon his " Commentaries of Origen," he 
had the misfortune to quarrel with his friend and master 
Bochart ; who desiring one day a sight of his manuscript 

* Here be alto instituted m society to reside at Caen. Tl)it new intimacy 

lor the improvement of natural philo- very much contributed to confirm Huet 

•opfay and? anatomy, which, through in hia propensity towarda scepticism, 

the interest of Colbert, wai liberally For Cormissus, who wat well read in 

endowed by the king, for the purpose autient philosophy, was a greet ad- 

*f defraying the espenoes of philoso- mirer of the Pyrrhonic sent, and earn* 

phicat experiments and anatomical estly recommended to bis friend the 

dissections. About this time Hoet etudy of Pyrrhonism in the Institutes 

formed a friendship with Coraiis, pre- of Seattua Empiricus. 
sideatof toe senate of Aix* who came 

281 "** BUET, 

for the take of consulting some passages about the Eucharist, 
which had been greatly controverted between Papists and 
Protestants, discovered an hiatus. or defect, which seemed 
to determine the sense in favour of the Papists, and re- 
proached Huet with being the contriver of it. Huet at first- 
thought that it was a defect in the original MS. but upon 
consulting another very antient MS. in the king's library at 
Paris, he found that he had omitted some words in the 
hurry of transcribing, as he says, and that the mistake wa* 
his own. Bochart, still supposing that this was a kind of 
pious fraud in Huet, to support the doctrine of the church 
of Rome in regard to the Eucharist, warned the Protestants 
against Huet's edition of Origen's "Commentaries," and 
dissolved the friendship which had so long subsisted be- 
tween Huet and himself. 

In 1659 Huet was invited to Rome by Christina, who 
bad abdicated her crown, and retired thither; but, re- 
membering the cool reception which Bochart had expe- 
rienced from her majesty after as warm an invitation, he 
refused to go. His literary reputation, however, when 
Bossuet was appointed by the king preceptor to the Dau- 
phin, procured -him to be chosen for his colleague, with 
the title of sub- preceptor, which honour had some time 
been designed him by the duke de Montausier, governor 
to the Dauphin. He went to court in 1670, and stayed 
there till 1680, when the Dauphin was married. Though 
his employment must of necessity occupy a considerable 
part of his time, he found enough to complete his " De- 
monstrate Evangelica," which, though a great and labo- 
rious work, was begun and ended amidst the embarrass- 
ments of a court*. It was published at Paris in 1679, in 

* This work, says Brucker, in which vain to attempt to establish by argu- 

kc undertakes to exhibit the evidences mentation, without the grace of God. 

of Christianity in a geometrical form, Accordingly, he professes to write his 

indeed discovers great erudition, but " Demonstration,*' merely as an ex- 

ihe judicious reader will perceive that traaeous and adventitious support to 

the writer was more desirous to display faith, by means of which the mind may 

bis learning, than to establish the be more easily ioclined to submit itself 

Christian faith upon rational grounds, to the authority of Christ. Bishop 

In his preface to this work, he maintains Watson thinks that a very valuable 

at large the uncertainty of all human part of it in which he traces the heathen 

knowledge, whether derived from the mythology to the Scriptures, for though 

senses or from reason ; and declares it he may carry bis hypothesis ton far, 

as his opinion, that those methods of of Moses representing under different 

philosophising which lead to a suspen- names most of the gods of the heathens, 

sion of judgment are by no means hos- yet the deduction of the heathen my* 

tile to Christianity, but serve to pro tbology from sacred history, is a strong 

pare the mind for an implicit submis- proof of the truth of the latter. 

•ion to dinne revelation, which it is in Watson's Cat. at the end of bit Tract*, 

HUET. 219 

folio:; and has been reprinted since in folio, 4to 9 and 8vo. 
Huet owns that this work was better received by foreigners 
than by his own countrymen ; many of whom considered it 
as a work full of learning indeed, but utterly devoid of that 
demonstration to which it so formally and pompously pre- 
tends. Others, less equitable, borrowed from it, and at- 
tacked it at the same time, to cover their plagiarism ; 
which Huet complains of. Father Simon had a design of - 
making an abridgment of this work ; but Huet being in- 
formed that his purpose was likewise to alter it as he 
thought proper, desired him to excuse himself that trouble. 
Huet was employed on the editions of the classics " in 
usum Delphini :" for though the first idea of these was 
started by the duke de Montausier, yet Huet formed the 
plan, and directed the execution, 9s far as the capacity 
of the persons employed in that work would permit. He 
undertook, he tells us, on)y to promote and conduct the 
work, but at last came in for a share of it, in completing 
Faye's edition of Manilius. He was also chosen a member 
of the French academy ; f}nc) his speech pronounced on the 
occasion before that illustrious body was published at Paris 
in 1674. 

While he was employed in composing his " Demonstra- 
te Evangelica," the sentiments of piety, which he had 
cherished from his earliest youth, moved him to enter into 
orders, which he did at the late age of forty-six ; and he 
tells us, that previous to this he gradually laid aside the 
Jay habit and outward appearances. In 1678, he was pre* 
sented by the king to the abbey of Aunay in Normandy, 
which was so agreeable to him, that he retired there every 
summer, after he had left the court. In 1685, he was 
nominated to the bishopric of Soissons ; but before the 
bulls for bis institution were expedited, the abbe de Sillery 
having been nominated to the see of Avrancbes, they ex- 
changed bishoprics with the consent of the king ; though, 
owing to the differences between the court of France and 
that of Rome, they could not be consecrated till 1692. 
In 1689, he published his " Censura Philosophise Carte- 
sians," and addressed it to the duke de Montausier : it 
appears that he was greatly piqued at the Cartesians, when 
he wrote this book ; but it may be questioned whether he 
thoroughly understood the system. In 1690, be published 
in Caen, in 4to, his " Qusestiones Alnetan® de Concor- 
dia Rationis & Fidei :" which is written in the form of a 

Vol. XVIII. U 

290 HUE T. 

dialogue, after the manner of Cicero* a Tuscnlan Questions. 
In this heendeavoun to fix the respective limits of feason 
and faith, and maintains, that the dogmas and precepts 
of each have no alliance, and that there is nothing, how- 
ever contradictory to common sense, or to good morals, 
which has not been received, and which we may not be 
bound to receive, as a dictate of faith. He honestly con* 
fesses that he wrote this work to establish the authority of 
tradition against the empire of reason. 

In 1699, he resigned his bishopric of Avranches, and 
was presented to the abbey of Fontenay, near the gates of 
Caen. His love to his native place determined him to fix 
there, for which purpose he improved the house and gar- 
dens belonging to the abbot But several grievances and 
law-suits obliged him to remove to Paris, where he lodged 
among the Jesuits in the Maison Profess^, whom be had 
made heirs to his library, reserving to himself the use of it 
while he lived. Here he spent the last twenty years of his 
life, dividing his time between devotion and study. He 
did not consider the Bible as the only book to be read, 
but thought that all other books must be read, before it 
could be rightly understood. He employed himself chiefly 
in writing notes on the vulgate translation : for which pur- 
pose he read over the Hebrew text twenty-four times ; com- 
paring it, as he went along, with the other Oriental texts, and 
spent every day two or three hours in this work from 1681 
to 1712. He was then seized with a very severe distemper, 
which confined him to his bed for near six months, and 
brought him so very low, that he was given up by bis phy- 
sicians, and received extreme unction. Recovering, how- 
ever, by degrees, he applied himself to the writing of his 
life, which was published at Amsterdam in 1718, in 12mo # 
under the title of "Pet. Dan. Huetii, Episcopi Abrincensis, 
Commentarius de rebus ad eum pertinentibus :'* where the 
critics have wondered, that so great a master of Latin as 
Huetius was, and who has written it, perhaps, as well as 
any of the moderns, should be guilty of a solecism in the 
very title of his book ; in writing " eum/ 9 when he 
should have manifestly written " Be." This performance, 
though drawn up in a very amusing and entertaining man- 
ner, and with great elegance of style, is not executed 
with that order and exactness which appear in his other 
works : his memory being then decayed, and- afterwards 
declining more and more, so that he was no longer capable 

H U E T. 891 

tof a continued work, bot only committed detached thought* 
to paper. Olivet in the mean time relates a most remark- 
able singularity of him, namely, that, " for two or three 
hours' before his death, be recovered all the vigour of his 
genius and memory. 91 He died January 26, 1721, in his 
9 1 st year. 

Besides the works which we have mentioned in the course 
of this memoir, be published others of a similar nature, 
viz* " De TOrigine des Romans," 1670; published in 
English 1672, i2mo. " De la situation du Paradis Ter- 
restre," 1691. , " Nouveaux Memoires pour servlr & 
l'Hhtoire du Cartesianisme," 1692. « Statute Syriodaufc 
pour le diocese d'Avranches, &c." 1693; to which were 
added three supplements in the years 1695, 1696, 1698. 
" De Navigationibus Salomonis," Amst. 1698. " Notae in 
Autbologiam Epigrammatum Grecorum," Ultraj. 1700. 
" Origines de Caen,' 9 Roan, 1702. " Lettres & Mons. 
Perrault, sur le Parallele des Anciens & des Modemes, du 
10 Oct. 1692," printed without the author's knowledge in 
the third part of the " Pieces fugitives," Paris, 1 704. 
" Examen do sentiment de Longin sur ce passage de la 
Genese, Et Dieu dit, que la lumiere soit faite, & la lumiere 
fut faite," inserted in tome X of Le Clere's " Bibliotheque 
Choice," Amst. 1706. Huet, in his " Demonstratio Evan- 
gelica," had asserted, that there was nothing sublime in 
this passage, as Longinns had observed, but that it was 
perfectly simple. Messrs. de Port Royal and Boileau, 
who gave translations of Longinus, asserted its sublimity 
on that very account ; and this occasioned the " Examen" 
just mentioned. " Lettre & M. Foucault, conseiller d'etat, 
sur 1'origine de la Poesie Franchise, du 16 Mar. 1706," 
inserted in the " Memoires de Trevoux," in 171 1. " Let- 
tre de M. Morin (that is, of M. Huet,) de Pacademie des 
inscriptions & M. Huet, touchant le livre de M. Tolandus 
Anglois, intitule, Adeisidaemon, & Origines Judaicae," in- 
serted in the " Memoires de Trevoux" for Sept 1709, and 
in the collection which the abbe* Tilladet published of 
Huet's works, under the title of " Dissertations sur diverses 
matieres de la Religion & de Philologie," 1712. "His- 
toire de Commerce & de la Navigation des Anciens," 1716. 
After his death were published, " Traite* Pbilosophique de 
laFoiblesse de 1' esprit humain," Amst. 1723 ; in which the 
sceptical spirit which followed Huet through every change 
of situation appears in its-full vigour. Of this work, which 

u 2 

tn H U E T. 

was originally written in French, the author left behind 
him a Latin translation. It has also been translated into 
English. " Huetiana, ou pens6es diverses de M. Huet," 
1722. These contain those loose thoughts he committed to 
paper after his last illness, when, as we have already ob- 
served, he was incapable of producing a connected work. 
" Diana de Castro, ou le faux Yncas," 1728, a romance, 
written when he was very young. There are yet in being 
other MSS. of his, which, as far we know, have not been 
published ; vie* " A Latin translation of Longus's Loves 
of Daphnis and Chloe ;" " An Answer to Regis, with 
regard to Des Cartes's Metaphysics ;" '* Notes upon the 
Vulgate translation of the Bible ;" and a collection of be- 
tween 5 and 600 letters in Latin aqd French written to 
learned men. 

On the whole, though it cannot be questioned that Huet, 
on account of his great learning and fertile genius, may 
justly claim to have his name preserved with honour in the 
republic of letters, several circumstances must prevent us 
from ranking him among the first philosophers of the seven- 
teenth century. Better qualified to accumulate testimonies 
than to investigate truth, and more disposed to raise diffi- 
culties than to solve them, he was an injudicious advocate 
for a good cause. If we are not very much mistaken, Huet 
did not strictly adhere to the scholastic art of reasoning 
which be had learned in the schools of the Jesuits ; other- 
wise he must have seen that there can be no room for faith, 
or for, what be artfully conceals under that name, the au- 
thority of the church, if every criterion of truth be re- 
jected, and human reason be pronounced a blind and fal- 
lacious guide. 1 

HUGH (St.). There are several ecclesiastics of this 
name in French history, few of which perhaps will be 
thought now very interesting. St. Hugh, bishop of Gre- 
noble in 1080, was a native of Chateau-neuf-sur-l'Isefe, 
near Valence in Dauphiny, who received St. Bruno and 
his companions, and fixed them in the Grande Chartreuse. 
He was author of a Cartulary, some fragments of which 
are in Mabillon's posthumous works, and in Allard's Me- 
moirs of Dauphiny, 1711 and 1727, 2 vols. fol. He died 
April 1, 1132. He must be distinguished from the subject 
of the next article.' 

' Gen. Diet. — Moreri. — Brucker.-*Saxii Oooawftt. 
t Moreri.— Dupio.— Diet. Hit*. 

hUGH, 293 

tlUGH of Cluni, a saint of the Romish calendar, . Was 
bf a very distinguished family in Burgundy, and was born 
in 1023. When he was only fifteen, be rejected all worldly 
Views, and entered into the monastic life at Cluni, under 
the guidance of the abbot Odilon. After some years, he 
was created prior of the order, and abbot in 1048, at the 
death of Odilon. In this situation he extended the reform 
of Cluni to so many monasteries, that, according to an 
ancient author, he had under his jurisdiction above ten 
thousand monks. In 1058 he attended pope Stephen when 
dying, at Florence; and in 1074 he made a religious pil- 
grimage to Rome. Some epistles written by him are ex- 
tant in Dacheri Spicilegium* There are also other pieces 
by him in the " Bibliotheque de Cluni." He died in 1 108 
or 9. He is said to have united moderation with his ex- 
emplary piety ; and was embroiled, at one time, with the 
bishop of Lyons, for saying the prayer for the emperor 
Henry IV. when that prince was under excommunication. 1 

HUGH de Fleury, or de St. Marie, a celebrated 
monk of the abbey of Fleury towards the end of the 1 1th 
century, was called Hugh de St. Marie from the name of a 
village which belonged to his father. He is little known 
but by his works, which are two books 2 " De la Puissance 
Royale, et de la Dignity Sacerdotale," dedicated to Henry 
king of England, in which he establishes with great soli- 
dity the rights and bounds of the priestly and royal powers, 
in opposition to the prejudices which prevailed at that time. 
This work may be found in torn. IV. of the " Miscellanea 9 ' 
of Beluze. He wrote also " A Chronicle,* 9 or History, 
from the beginning of the world to 840, and a small Chro- 
nicle from 996 to 1109, Munster, 1638, 4to, valuable and 
scarce. It may also be found in Troher's collection. s 

HUGH de Flavigny, born in 1065, was a monk of 
St. Vannes at Verdun, and afterwards abbot of Flavigny in 
the 12th century, but was dispossessed of that dignity by 
the bishop of Autun, who caused another abbot to be elected. 
Hugh, however, supplanted St. Laurentius, abbot of Vannes, 
who was persecuted by the bishop of Verdun for his attach- 
ment to the pope, and kept his place till 1115, after which 
time it is not known what became of him. He wrote the 
" Chrotiicle of Verdun,* 9 which is esteemed, and may be 
found in P. Labbe's " Bib!. Manuscript. 99 ' 

» Morsri.— Dupio.— Diet. Hist. » ibid. > Ibid. 

49* HUG H. 

HUGH of Amiens, ah* called Heoa of RoUen, left 
Amiens, bw native place, and going to England was made 
first, abbot of Roding, and afterwards bishop of Rouen, 
1 1 SO, and died 1 1 64. He has the character in his church 
of being one of the greatest, most pious, and most learned 
bishops of his age. He wrote three books for the instruc- 
tion of his clergy, which are in the library of the fathers, 
and P. d'Achery has printed them at the end of Guibert 
de Nogent's works. Some other pieces by Hugh may be 
found in the collections by Martenne and Durand. 1 

HUGH de St. Victor, an eminent divine in the 12th' 
century, originally of Flanders, devoted himself to reli- 
gion in the abbey of St Victor at Paris, at that time go- 
verned by its first abbot Gilduin in 1115, and taught theo- 
logy with so much reputation, that he was called a second 
Augustine. He died in 1 142, aged 44, after having been 
prior to St. Victor, leaving several works, in which he 
imitates St. Augustine's style, and follows his doctrine. 
The principal among these is a large treatise " On the Sa- 
craments." They have all been printed at Rouen, 1648, 
3 vols. fol. ; and some may also be found in Martenne's 
" Thesaurus." f 

HUGH de St. Cher, a celebrated cardinal of the Do- 
minican order, was so called from the place of bis birth, 
at the gates of Vienne, where there is a church dedicated 
to St. Cher. He acquired great reputation in the 13th 
century by his prudence, learning, and genius ; was doctor 
of divinity of the faculty of Paris, appointed provincial of 
bis order, afterwards cardinal by Innocent IV. May 28, 
1244, and employed by this pope and his successor Alex- 
ander IV. in affaire of the greatest consequence. He died 
March 19, 126 a, at Orvieto. His principal works are a 
collection of the various readings of Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin MSS. of the bible, entitled " Correctorium Biblise," 
which is in the Sorborroe in MS. ; a " Concordance of the 
Bible," Cologn, 1684, 8vo; the earliest work of this kind. 
He is said to have been the inventor of concordances. 
" Commentaries on the Bible ;" " Speculum Eeclesise," 
Paris, 1480, 4to, &c* 

HUGHES (John), an English poet, was son of a citizen 
of London, and born at Marlborough in Wiltshire July 29, 
1677. He was educated at a dissenting academy, under 

' Morerl-^Dupin.— Diet. Hitt* • Ibid. > » Ibid. 

HUGHES. 29* 

the qpe of Mr. Thomas Rowe, where, at the same time* 
the afterwards celebrated Dr. Isaac Watts was a student, 
tarhoqe piety and friendship for Mr. Hughes induced him to 
regret that he employed any part of his talents in writing 
for the stage. Mr. Hughes had a weak or at least a deli- 
cate constitution, which perhaps restrained him from 
severer studies, and inclined him to pursue the softer arts 
of poetry, music, and drawing ; in each of which he made 
considerable progress. His acquaintance with the Muses 
find the Graces did not render him averse to business; be 
had a place in the office of ordnance, and was secretary to 
several commissions under the great seal for purchasing 
lands, in order to the better securing of the royal dock? 
and yards at Portsmouth, Chatham, and Harwich. He 
continued, however, to cultivate bis taste for letters, and 
added to a competent knowledge of the ancient, an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the modern languages. The first 
testimony he gave the public of his poetic vein, was in a 
poem "on the peace of Ryswick," printed in 1697, and 
received with uncommon approbation. In 1699, "The 
Court of Neptune" was written by him on king William's 
return from Holland ; and, the same year, a song on the 
duke of Gloucester's birth-day. In the year 1702, he 
published, on the death of king William, a Pindaric ode, 
entitled " Of the House of Nassau," which he dedicated 
to Charles duke of Somerset ; and in 1 703 his " Ode in 
Praise of Music" was performed with great applause at 

His numerous performances, for be had all along em- 
ployed his leisure hours in translations and imitations from 
the ancients, had by this time introduced him, not only to 
the wits of the age, Addison *, Congreve, Pope, Southerne, 
Rowe, and others, but also to some men of rank in the 
kingdom, and among these to the earl of Wharton, who 
offered to carry him over, and to provide for him, wheq 
appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland; but, having other 
other views at home, he declined the offer. His views, 

* " His acquaintance with the great was desired by Addison to supply. If 

writers of bis time," says Dr. Johnson, the request was sincere, it proceeded 

" appears to have been very general ; from an opinion, whatever it was, that 

but of his intimacy with Addison there did not last long; for when Hughes 

b a remarkable proof. It is told, on came in a week to shew him his first 

good authority, that « Cato* was finish- attempt, he fooad half the not written 

id and played by his persuasion. It by Addison himself." 
had long wanted the Inst act, which be 

2*6 HUGHES. 

however, were not yery promising, until in 1717 the lord 
chancellor Cowper made him secretary to the commissions 
of the peace; in which he afterwards, by a particular 
request, desired his successor, lord Parker, to continue him. 
He had now affluence ; but such is human life, that he had 
it when his declining health could neither allow him long 
possession nor full enjoyment. His last work was bis 
tragedy, " The Siege of Damascus ;" after which a Siege 
became a popular title. This play was long popular, and 
is still occasionally produced ; but is not acted or printed 
according to the author's original draught, or his settled 
intention. He had made Phocyas apostatize from his 
religion ; after which the abhorrence of Eudocfc would 
have been reasonable, his misery would hare been just, 
and the horrors of his repentance exemplary. The players, 
however, required that the guilt of Phocyas should ter* 
minate in desertion to the enemy ; and Hughes, unwilling 
that his relations should lose the benefit of bis work, com- 
plied with the alteration. He was now weak with a linger* 
ing consumption, and not able to attend the rehearsal ; 
vet was so vigorous in his faculties, that only ten days 
before his death he wrote the dedication to his patron lord 
Cowper. On Feb. 17, 1720, the play was represented, 
and the author died. He lived to hear that it was well 
received; but paid no regard to the intelligence, being 
then wholly employed in the meditations of a departing 

A few weeks before he died, he sent, as a testimony of 
gratitude, to his noble friend earl Cowper, his own picture 
drawn by sir Godfrey Kneller, which he had received as a 
present from that painter : upon which the earl wrote him 
the following letter. " 24 January 1719-20. Sir, I thank 
you for the most acceptable preseut of your picture, and 
assure you, that none of this age can set an higher value 
on it than I do, and shall while I live ; though I am sen* 
sible that posterity will outdo me in that particular. 

A man of his amiable character was undoubtedly re- 
gretted ; and Steele devoted an essay in the paper called 
" The Theatre," to the memory of his virtues. In 1735 
his poems were collected and published in 2 vols. 12mo, 
under the following title : " Poems on several occasions, 
with some select Essays in prose." Hughes was also the 
author of other works in prose. " The Advices from 
Parnassus," and " The Political Touchstone of Boccalini,** 

HUGHES. 197 

translated by several hands, and printed in folio, 1706, 
were revised, corrected, and had a preface prefixed to - 
diem, by him. He translated himself " Fontenelle's Dia- 
logues of the Dead, and Discourse concerning the Ancients 
and Moderns ;* "the-Abbl Vertot's History of the Re- 
volutions in Portugal ;" and " Letters of Abelard and He- 
loisa." He wr ote the pr eface to the collection of the <f , x . 4 
u History oTTngland 11 by various hands, called "The -''• X /?' 
Complete History of England," printed in 1706, in 3 vols. ,/tU />/«,'// 
folio ; in which he gives a clear, satisfactory, and impartial v - , r 

account of the historians there collected. Several papers '- *' n n f 
in the « Tatlers," " Spectators," and " Guardians," were 
written by him. He is supposed to have written the whole, 
or at least a considerable part, of the " Lay Monastery,** 
consisting of Essays, Discourses, &c. published singly under 
the title of the " Lay Monk," being the sequel of the 
" Spectators." The second edition of this was printed in 
1714, 12mo. Lastly, he published, in 1715, an accurate 
edition of the works of Spenser, in 6 vols. 12mo ; to which 
are prefixed the " Life of Spenser," " An Essay on Alle- 
gorical Poetry," " Remarks on the Fairy Queen, and other 
writings of Spenser," and a glossary, explaining old words ; 
all by Mr. Hughes. This was a work for which be was well 
qualified, as a judge of the beauties of writing, but he wanted 
an antiquary's knowledge of the obsolete words. He did 
not much revive the curiosity of the public, for near thirty 
years elapsed before his edition was reprinted. The cha- 
racter of his genius is not unfairly given in the correspond* 
ence of Swift and Pope. "A month ago," says Swift, 
" was sent jne over, by a friend of mine, the works of John 
Hughes, esq. They are in prose and verse. I never heard 
of the man in my life, yet I find your name as a subscriber. 
He is too grave a poet for me ; and I think among the 
mediocrists, in prose as well as verse." To this Pope 
returns : " To answer your question as to Mr. Hughes ; 
what he wanted in genius, he made up as an honest man ; 
but he was of the class you think him." ' 

HUGHES (Jabez), was the younger brother of Mr. John 
Hughes, and, like him, a votary of tbe Muses, and an 
excellent scholar. He was born in 1685. He published, 
in 1714, in 8vo, a translation of "The Rape of Proser- 

1 Biof. Bril.— Johawn and Chalmers's Engluh Poet*, 1810 — Briton Bisay- 
iV* r Preface to tbe Spectator, r»l. VI. — Oent. Mag. «ee lodr*. 

29* HUGHES, 

pine,** from Claudian, and " The Story of Sextos and 
Erictho,* from Lucan's " Pharsalia," book vi. Th$s# 
translation!, with notes, were reprinted in 1723, 1 2 mo. He 
also published, in 1717, a translation of Suetonius' s " Live* 
of the Twelve Caesars/' and translated several " Novels" 
from the Spanish of Cervantes, wbich are inserted in the 
" Select Collection of Novels and Histories," printed for 
Watts, 1729. He died Jan. 17, 1731. A posthumous 
volume of his " Miscellanies in Verse and Prose" was 
published in 1737. His widow accompanied the lady of 
governor Byng to Barbadoes, and died there in 1 740. 1 

HUGHES (John), of a different family from the former, 
was born in 1682, and became a fellow of Jesus college, 
Cambridge. He was called by bishop Atterbury " a learned 
hand," and is known to the republic of letters as editor of 
St Chrysostom's treatise " On the Priesthood." Two let- 
ters of his to Mr. Bonwicke are printed in " The Gentle* 
man's Magazine," in one of wbich he says, " I have at last 
been prevailed on to undertake an edition of St. Chryso- 
atom's wtp <7p0M% and I would beg the favour of you to 
send me your octavo edition. I want a small volume to lay 
by me ; and the Latin version may be of some service to 
me, if I cancel the interpretation of Fronto Duccsus." A 
second edition of this treatise was printed at Cambridge in 
Greek and Latin, with notes, and a preliminary dissertation 
against the pretended " Rights of the Church," &c. i* 
1712. A good English translation of St Chrysostom " On 
the Priesthood," a posthumous work by the Rev. John 
Bunce, M. A. was published by his son (vicar of St Ste- 
phen's near Canterbury) in 1760. Mr. Hughes died Nov. 
18, 1710, and was buried in the church of St Nicholas,. 
Deptford, where there is a long Latin inscription to his 
memory. 1 

HUGO (Herman), a learned Jesuit, was born at Brus- 
sels in 1588 ; and died of the plague at Rhioberg in 1639. 
He published his first work in 1617, wbich was " De prima 
scribendi origine, et universe rei literaris antiquitate," 
Antwerp, 8vo. This book was republished by Trotzius in 
1738, with many notes. 2. "Obsidio Bredana, sob Am- 
brosio Spinola," Antwerp, 1629, folio. 3. " Militia eques- 
tris, antiqua et nova,* 9 Antwerp, 1630, folio. 4. HU " Pia 

1 Nichols*! Select Collection of Poems. 

* Nicbols'i Atterbury. — Gert. Mag. vol. XLVH1.— Lyioni's EnrifOo* 
vol IV. 


Desideria," th6 work by which he is best known, was first* 
published in 1632, 8vo* aud reprinted in 32mo, with all the 
clearness of Elzevir, and adorned with rather fanciful en-' 
gfavings: These " Pia Desideria" are in Latin, and con- 
sist of three books, the subjects of which are thus arranged. 
B. 1. " Gemitus Aniens* penitentis." 2. u Vota animse 
sanctfe." 3. " Suspiria animae amantis." They consist of 
long paraphrases in elegiac verse, on various passages of 
scripture. His versification is usually good, but he wants 
simplicity and sublimity ; yet he is sometimes p oetical, 
though his muse is not like that of David. 1 

HUGO (Charles Louis), a voluminous author in Lav 
tin and French, whose works, from their subjects, are little 
known here, was a canon of the Premonstratensian order, 
a doctor of divinity, abb£ of Etival, and titular bishop of 
Ptolemais. He died at an advanced age, in 1735. His 
works are, 1. "Annates Premonstratensium," a history of 
his own order, and a very laborious work, in two volumes, 
folio ; illustrated with plans of the monasteries, and other 
curious particulars ; but accused of some remarkable er- 
rors. 2. " Vie de St. Norbert Fondateur des Premontrls," 
1704, 4to. 3. " Sacra antiquitsdis monumenta historica, 
dogmatica, diplomatica," 1725, 2 vols, folio. 4. "Trait6 
historique et critique de la Maison de Lorraine," 1711, 
8vo. This being a work of some boldness, not only the 
name of the author, but that of the place where it was 
printed, was concealed : the former being professedly Bal- 
cicourt, the latter Berlin, instead of Nanci. Yet the au- 
thor was traced out, and fell under the censure of the par- 
liament, in 1712. In 1713, he published another work, 5. 
entitled " Reflexions sur les deux Ouvrages concernant 
la Maison de Lorraine," where he defends his former 
publication. ft 

HULDRICH (John James), a protestant divine, of a 
considerable family, was born at Zurich in 1683, and was 
educated partly at home, and partly at Bremen, devoting 
his chief attention to the study of the Hebrew language 
and the writings of the Rabbins. From Bremen he went 
to Holland, where be published at Leyden a very curious 
book, not in 4to, as Moreri says, but in 8vo, entitled 
" Sepher Toledot Jescho," or the history of Jesus Christ^ 
written by a Jew, full of atrocious calumnies, which HuU 

■ Moreri— Diet Hist. * Ibid. 

300 HULDRICtt. 

drich refates in bit notes. The work is in Hebrew aft} 
Latin. On bis return to Zurich in 1706, he was made, 
chaplain of the house of orphans, and four years after pro- 
fessor of Christian morals, in the lesser college, to which 

' was afterwards added the professorship of the law of nature. 
This led him to write a commentary on Puffendorff " on 
the duties of men and citizens." His other works are the 
" Miscellanea Tigurina," 3 vols. 8vo, and some sermons in 
German. He died May 25, 1731. Zimmerman, who wrote 
his life,, published also a Sermon of his on the last words 
of St Stephen. He was a man of considerably learning, 
and of great piety, sincerity, and humility. 1 ; / t - , , 

HULL (Thomas), a late dramatic and miscflfciicpus 
writer, and an actor, was born in the Strand, London, in 
1728, where bis father was in considerable practice as an 

jtpotbecary. He was educated at the Charter-house, with 
a view to the church, but afterwards embraced his father's 
profession, which, however, be was obliged to relinquish 
after an unsuccessful trial. What induced him to go on 
the stage we know not, as nature bad not been very boun- 
tiful to him in essential requisites. He performed, how- 
ever, for some time in t%* provincial theatres, and in 1759 
obtained an engagement at Covent-garden theatre, which 
he never quitted, unless for summer engagements. In 
one of these he became acquainted with Sbenstone the 
poet, who, observing bis irreproachable moral conduct, so 
different from that of his brethren on the stage, patronized 
him as far as be was able, and assisted him in writing his 
tragedy of " Henry II." and " Rosamund." It was in- 
deed Mr. Hull's moral character which did every thing for 
him. No man could speak seriously of him as an actor, 
but all spoke affectionately of his amiable manners and un- 
deviating integrity. He was also a man of some learning, 
critically skilled in the dramatic art, and the correspondent 
of some of the more eminent literary men of bis time. His 
poetical talents were often employed, aqd always in the 
cause of humanity and virtue, but be seldom soared above 
die level of easy and correct versification. In prose, per- 
haps, be is entitled to higher praise, but none of his works 
have bad more than temporary success. He died at his 
house at Westminster, April 22, 1808. For the stage he 
altered, or wrote entirely, nineteen pieces, of which a list 

1 Bibl. Germanique, vol. XXIV. 

HULL. 301 • 

may be seen in our authority. His other works were, 1. 
" The History of sir William Harrington," a novel, 1771, 
' 4 vols. 2. -" Genuine Letters from a gentleman to a young 
lady his pupil/' 1772, 2 vols. 3. " Richard Plantagenet," 
a legendary tale, 1774, 4to. 4. " Select Letters between 
the late duchess of Somerset, lady Luxborough, miss Dol- 
man,* Mr. Whistler, Mr. Dodsley, Shenstone, and others," 
1778, 2 vols* This is now the most interesting of his pub- 
lications, and contains many curious particulars of literary 
history and opinions. The letters were given to* him by 
Shenstone. 5. " Moral Tales in verse," 1797, 2 vols. 8va' 
HULME (Nathaniel), an English physician, was born 
at Holme Torp in Yorkshire, June 17, 1732, and was 
taught the rudiments of medical science by his brother, 
Dr. Joseph Hulme, an eminent physician at Halifax, and 
afterwards was a pupil at Guy's hospital. In 17,55, he 
served in the capacity of surgeon in the navy, and being 
stationed at Leitb after the peace of 1763, he embraced the 
favourable opportunity of prosecuting his medical studies 
at Edinburgh, where he took bis degree of doctor in 1765. 
His inaugural thesis was entitled " Dissertatio Medica 
Inauguralis de Scorbuto." Soon after his graduation, he 
settled in London as a physician, intending to devote his 
attention particularly to the practice of midwifery. This, 
however, he soon relinquished : and, on the establishment 
of the general dispensary (the first institution of the kind 
in London), he was appointed its first physician. He was 
also some time physician to the City of London Lying-in 
hospital. About 1774, he was, through the influence of 
)or.4 Sandwich, then first lord of the admiralty, elected 
physician to the Charter-house. His other official situa- 
tions be resigned many years before bis death, and with- 
drew himself at the same time in- a great measure from the 
active exercise of his profession ; but continued in the 
Charter-house during the remainder of his life. In March 
1807, he was bruised by a fall, of which he died on the 
28th of that month, and was buried at his own desire in 
the pensioners' burial-ground, followed by twenty-four 
physicians and surgeons, who highly respected his cha- 

Dr. Hulme was the author of several dissertations ; viz. 
a republication of his thesis, with additions, 1768. "A 

* Biof. Dm*— Greaves*! Recollection* of Shenitose. — Preface to the 
"Select Utters. •» 

Z02 H U L M E. 

ttestistvon Puerperal Fever," 1 1772. An oration « De Re 
Medica cognoscenda et protnoveuda," delivered at the an- 
niversary of the medical society in 1777, to which a snail 
tract was annexed, entitled " Via ttita etjucunda Cekulum 
solvendi in vesica urinaria inhsBrfentem." An enlarged 
edition of this tract, in English, appeared in the following 
year, under the title 6f " A safe and easy Remedy for the 
relief of the Stone and Gravel, the Scurvy, Gout, &c. ; ' 
and for the destruction of Worms in the human body; 
illustrated by cases; together with an extemporaneous 
toetbod of impregnating water and other liquids with fixed 
air, by simple mixture only, &&" 1778. In 1787 be was 
presented with a gold medal by the royal society of medi* 
cine at Paris, for his treatise on the following prize ques- 
tion, " Rechercher quelles sont les causes de l'endnrcisse- 
ment de twsu cellulaire auquel plusieurs enfans nouveaux- 
n6s sont sujets " In 1800, Dr. Hulme instituted a serieft 
of experiments " on the light spontaneously emitted from 
various bodies,' 9 an account of which was published in the 
Philosophical Transactions of that and the following year. 
-He had been chosen a fellow of that society in 1794, and 
of the society of antiquaries in 1795. To the Arcbeeologia 
be contributed an account of a brick brought from the site 
of ancient Babylon. Dr. Hulme was also one *of the edi- 
tors of the " London Practice of Physic." — In ! 791, a Mr. 
Obadiah Hulme died in Charter-house square, author of 
an " Historical Essay on the English Constitution,* 9 and 
other tracts, probably a relation of Dr. Hulme. 1 

HUME (David), a celebrated philosopher and histo- 
rian, was descended from a good family in Scotland, and 
born at Edinburgh April 26, 1711. His father was a de- 
scendant of the family of the earl of Hume or Home, and 
his mother, whose name was Falconer, was descended from 
that of lord Halkerton, whose title came by succession to 
her brother. This double alliance with nobility was a 
source of great self-complacency to Hume, who was a phi- 
losopher only in bis writings. In his infancy he does not 
appear to have been impressed with those sentimebts of 
religion, which parents so generally, we may almost add 
universally, at the time of his birth, thought it their duty 
to inculcate. He once owned that he had never read the 
New Testament with attention. However this may be> As 

• Athenaam, nA. If.— Beet's Cyetopadis.— Gent, Meg, vol. LXI. sad LXXV1I. 


he was a younger brother with a very slender patrimony, 
and of* studious, sober, industrious turu, he was destined 
by his family to the law : but, being seized with an early 
passion for letters, he found an insurmountable aversion 
to any thing else ; and, as he relates, while they fancied 
htm to be poring upon Voet and Vinnius, he was occu* 
pied with Cicero and Virgil His fortune, however, being 
very small, and his health a little broken by ardent appli- 
cation to books, he was tempted, or rather forced, to make 
a feeble trial at business; and, in 1734, went to Bristol, 
with recommendations to some eminent merchants: but, in 
a few months, found that scene totally unfit for him.. He 
*eems, also, to have conceived some personal disgust against 
the men of business in that place : for, though he was by 
no means addicted to satire, yet we can scarcely interpret 
him otherwise than ironically, when, speaking in bis His-* 
tory (anno 1660) of James Naylor's entrance into Bristol 
Upon a horse, in imitation of Christ, he presumes it to be 
** from the difficulty in that place of finding an ass !" 

Immediately on leaving Bristol, be went over to France, 
with a view of prosecuting his studies in privacy ; and prac- 
tised a very rigid frugality, for the sake of maintaining his 
independency unimpaired. During his retreat there, first 
at Rbeims, but chiefly at La Fleche, in Anjou, he composed 
his " Treatise of Human Nature ;" and, coming over to 
London in 1737, he published it the year after. This 
work, he informs us, he meditated even while at the uni- 
versity; a circumstance which, it has been observed, proves 
the self-sufficiency of Hume in a very striking manner. For 
a youth, in the fall tide of blood and generous sympathy, 
to meditate the diffusion of a system of universal scepticism, 
in which it is endeavoured to prove, not only that all the 
speculations of the philosopher or the divine, but every 
virtuous feeling of the heart, every endearing tie by which 
man is bound to man, are no better than ridiculous preju- 
dices and empty dreams, is the most singular deviation from 
the natural and laudable propensities of a mind unhacknied 
in the ways of the world, that has yet occurred in the ano- 
malous history of man. The scepticism and irreligion of 
Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau, "grew with their growth, 
and" strengthened with their strength," but Hume started 
as if from the nursery, a perfect and full-grown iufidet. 

Never, however, according to the avowal of the author 
.himself, was any literary attempt more unsuccessful. " It 

304 HUME. 

fell," he says, * dead born from the press, without reach- 
ing such distinction as even to excite a murmur among the 
zealots." He adds, however, that " being naturally of a 
cheerful and sanguine temper, he soon recovered the 
blow." But this equanimity, we shall afterwards find was 
mere affectation, nor was the work quite unnoticed. It 
was criticised with great ability in the only review of that 
period, " The Works of the Learned •" and from a peru<* 
sal of the article, we have no hesitation in ascribing it to 
Warburton. Whether it be true, that Hume called on 
Jacob Robinson, the publisher, and demanded satisfaction, 
we will not affirm. One remark of the Reviewer seems 
somewhat singular, and it may be thought prophetic. 
" This work abounds throughout with egotisms. The au- 
thor would scarcely use that form of speech more fire* 
quently, if be had written his awn memoirs" 

In 1742, he printed, with more success, the first part of 
bis '< Essays. 19 In 1745, he lived with the marquis of 
An nan dale, the state of that nobleman's mind and health 
requiring such an attendant : the emoluments of the situa- 
tion must have been his motive for undertaking such a 
charge. He then received an invitation from general St 
Clair, to attend him as a secretary to his expedition ; which 
was at first meant against Canada, but ended in an incur- 
sion upon the coast of France. Next year, 1747, be at- 
tended the general in the same station, in his military em- 
bassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin : be then wore 
the uniform of an officer, and was introduced to these 
courts as aid-de-camp to the general. These two years 
were almost the only interruptions which his studies re- 
ceived during the course of his life: his appointments, 
however, had made him in his own opinion " independent; 
for he was now master of near 1000/.° 

Having always imagined, that his want of success, in 
publishing the u Treatise of Human Nature,' 9 proceeded 
more from the manner than the matter, he cast the first 
part of that work anew, in the " Inquiry concerning Hu- 
man Understanding, 99 which was published while he was at 
Turin ; but with little more success. He perceived, how- 
ever, some symptoms of a rising reputation ; bis books 
grew more and more the subject of conversation ; and " I 
found, 99 says he, " by Dr. Warburton's railing, that they 
were beginning to be esteemed in good company. 99 In 
1752, were t publi6hed at Edinburgh, where he then lived, 

HUME. 305 

his " Political Discourses ;" and the same year, at London, 
his " Inquiry concerning the Principles of Morals." Of 
the former he says, " that it was the only work of his 
which was successful en the first publication, being well 
received abroad and at home: 99 and be pronounces the 
latter to be, " in bis own opinion, of all his writings, his- 
torical, philosophical, or literary, incomparably the best ; 
although it came unnoticed and unobserved into the world. 99 

In 1754, be published the first volume, in 4to, of "A 
Portion of English History, from the Accession of James L 
to the Revolution. 99 He strongly promised himself suc- 
cess from this work, thinking himself the first English his- 
torian that was free from bias in bis principles : but he says, 
'* that he was herein miserably disappointed ; and that, in- 
stead of pleasing all parties, he bad made himself obnoxious 
to all. 99 He was, as he relates, " so discouraged with this, 
that, had * not the war at that time been breaking out be- 
tween France and England, he had certainly retired to 
some provincial town of the former kingdom, changed his 
name, and never more have returned to his native country. 9 * 
The " cheerful and sanguine temper 99 of which he formerly 
boas(ed, bad now forsaken him, and the philosopher had 
dwindled to a mere irritable author. He recovered him* 
self, however, so far, as to publish, in 1756, his second vo- 
lume of the same history ; and this was better received. 
" It not only rose itself, 99 he says, " but helped to buoy 
up its unfortunate brother. 99 Between these publications 
came out, along with some other small pieces, his " Natu- 
ral History of Religion : 99 which, though t>ut indifferently 
received, was in the end the cause of some consolation to 
him ; because, as he expresses himself, " Dr. Hurd wrote 
a pamphlet against it, with all the illiberal petulance, arro- 
gance, and scurrility, which distinguish the Warburtonian 
school ;" so well aware was he, that, to an author, attack of 
any kind is much more favourable than neglect. Dr. Hurd, 
however, was only the ostensible author ; he has since de- 
clared expressly, that it proceeded from Warburton him- 
self. In 1759, he published his " History of the House of 
Tudor; 99 and, in 1761, the more early part of the English 
History : each in 2 vols. 4to. The clamour against the 
former of these was almost equal to that against the history 
of the two first Stuarts ; and the latter was attended with 
but tolerable success : but he was now, he tells us, grown 
callous against the impressions of public censure. He had, 

Vol. XVIII. X 

; i 306 HUME. 

indeed, what be would think good reason to be to ; for the 
copy-money given by the booksellers for bis history, ex- 
ceptionable as it was deemed, had made him not only in- 
dependent, but opulent. 

Being now about fifty, he retired to Scotland, deter- 
mined never more to set his foot out of it; and carried 
with him " the satisfaction of never having preferred a 
request to one great man, or even making advances of 
friendship to any of them/' But, while meditating to 
spend the rest of his life in a philosophical manner, he 
received, in 1763, an invitation from the earl of Hertford 
to attend him on his embassy to Parts ; which at length he 
accepted, and was left there charg6 d'affaires in the sum- 
mer of 1765. In Paris, where his peculiar philosophical 
opinions were then the mode, he met with the most flatter- 
ing and unbounded attentions. He was panegyrized by 
die literati, courted by the ladies, and complimented by 
grandees, and even princes of the blood. In the begin- 
ning of 1766 be quitted Paris ; and in the summer of that 
year went to Edinburgh, with the same view as before, of 
burying himself in a philosophical retreat ; but, in 1767, 
be received from Mr. Conway a new invitation to be 
under-secretory of state, which, like the former, he did 
not think it expedient to decline. He returned to Edin- 
burgh in 1769, a very opulent," be sap, " for he pos- 
sessed a revenue of 1 000/. a year, healthy, and, though 
somewhat stricken in years, with the prospect of enjoying 
long his ease/' In the spring of 1775, he was struck with 
a disorder in hh bowels ; which, though it gave him no 
alarm at first, proved incurable, and at length mortal. It 
appears, however, that it was not painful, nor even trouble- 
some or fatiguing : for he declares, that " notwithstanding 
the great decline of bis person, he bad never suffered a 
moment's abatement of his spirits ; that he possessed the 
same ardour as ever in study, and the same gaiety in com- 
pany : insomuch, 9 ' says he, " that, were I to name a pe- 
riod of my life which I should most choose to pass over 
again, I might be tempted to point to this latter period." 
He died August 25, 1776; and his account of his own life, 
from which we have borrowed many of the above particu- 
lars, is dated only four months previous to his decease. 
As the author was then aware of the impossibility of a re- 
covery, this may be considered as the testimony of a dying 
man respecting his own character and conduct. But it 

HUME. 507 

disappointed those who expected to find in it some acknow- 
ledgment of error, and some remorse on reflecting on 
the many whom he bad led astray by his writings. Hume* 
however, was not the man from whom this was to be ex- 

Cgted. He bad no religious principles which he had vio- 
ted, and which his conscience might now recall. He 
had none of the stamina of repentance. From a mere fond- 
ness for speculation, or a lore of philosophical applause, 
the least harmful motives we can attribute to Hume, it was 
the business of his life, not only to extirpate from the 
human mind all that the good and wise among mankind 
have concurred in venerating, the authority and obligations 
of revealed religion ; but he treats that authority and the 
believers in, and defenders of revealed religion, with » 
contempt bordering on abhorrence ; or, as has been said 
of another modern infidel, " as if he had been revenging a 
personal injury." Hume early imbibed the principles of a 
gloomy philosophy, the direct tendency t>f which was to 
distract the mind with doubts on subjects the most serious 
and important, and, in (act, to undermine the best in- 
terests, and dissolve the strongest ties of society. Such is 
the character of Hume's philosophy, by one who knew him 
as intimately as Dr. Smith *, who respected his talents and 
his manners, but would have disdained to insult wisdom 
and virtue by bestowing the perfection of them on the 
studies, the conversation, and the correspondence that were 
constantly employed in ridiculing religion. Another rea- 
son, perhaps, why Hume died in the same state of mind 
in which he had lived, gibing and jesting, as Dr. Smith 
informs us, with the prospect of eternity, may be this, 
that he was at the last surrounded by men who, being of 
nearly the same way of thinking, contemplated his end 
with a degree of satisfaction ;* or as the triumph of philo- 
sophy over what he and they deemed superstition. Even 
his clerical friends, the Blairs and Robertsons, who pro- 
fessed to know, to feel, and to teach what Christianity is, 
appear to have withheld thi solemn duties of their office, 
and by their silence at least, acquiesced in his obduracy. 
His social qualities, his wit, bis acuteness, and we may 

* Dr. SaaUb'aabsnrd language it, "I perfectly wite and virtooat mi at 

hate always eooiidcrod aim both in bit perhaps the oatnro of soman frailty 

IhVtima, and tinea hit death, at ap- will parawt" 
p r oq e hiog aa nearly to tha idea of a 

X 2 

908 HUME. 

add, his fame, preserved to him the regard of his learned 
countrymen, who forgot the infidel in the historian. 

It is, indeed, as an historian, or perhaps occasionally as* 
a political writer, that Hume will probably be best known 
to posterity ; and it is in these capacities that be can be 
read with the greatest pleasure and advantage by the 
friends of sound morals and religion. Yet even as an his- 
torian, he has many faults ; he does not scruple to dis- 
guise facts from party motives, and he never loses an op* 
portunity of throwing out his cool sceptical sneer at Chris- 
tianity, under the. names of fanaticism and superstition. 
" When Mr. Hume rears the standard of infidelity," says 
Gilpin, " he acts openly and honestly; but when he scatters 
his careless insinuations, as be traverses the paths of his- 
tory, we characterize him as a dark, insidious enemy." * 

HUMPHREY (Laurence), a learned English writer, was 
born at Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire, about 1 527, 
and had his school education at Cambridge ; after which 
he became first a demy, then a fellow, of Magdalen-college 
in Oxford. He took the 'degree of M. A. in 1552, and 
about that time was made Greek reader of his college, and 
entered into orders. In June 1555 he had leave from his 
college to travel into foreign countries ; be went to Zurich, 
and associated himself with the English there, who bad 
fled from their country on account of their religion. After 
the death of queen Mary be returned to England, and was 
restored to bis fellowship in Magdalen college, from which 
he had been expelled because he did not return within the 
space of a year, which was one condition on which he was 
permitted to travel ; another was, that he should refrain 
from all heretical company. In 1560 he was appointed 
the queen' a professor of divinity at Oxford ; and the year 
after elected president of bis college. In 1562 he took 
both the degrees in divinity; and, in 1570, was made 
dean of Gloucester. In 1580 he was removed to the 
deanery of Winchester ; and had probably been promoted 
to a bishopric if he had not been disaffected to the church 
of England. For Wood tells ug, that from the city of 
Zurich, where the preaching of Zuinglius had fashioned 

» I Life by fcimiflf, prefixed to his Hiitory, ami Dr. Smith's Letter on hi* 
deoth.—Ritcbie't Life of Heme — Botweit's Life of Johnaoo, aud Tour.— 
Bcattie't Dissertation!, 4to, p. 37.— Lehmd'* DvmticaJ WrHen.~-Forbea'a Lifaof 
Beattie.— Tytler'a Life of Kamet.— - Warburton'a Lettere to Hard.— Brit. Critic* 
toI. XXXIV.— Work* of the Learned for 1739, Ice. &c. 


people's notions, and from the correspondence he bad at 
Geneva, he brought back with him so much of the Cal- 
vin is t both in doctrine and discipline, that the best whifch j 
eould be said of him was, that he was a moderate and con- 
scientious nonconformist. This was at least the opinion 
of several divines, who used to call him and Dr. Fulke of 
Cambridge, standard-bearers among the nonconformists ; 
though others thought they grew more conformable in the 
end. Be this as it will, " sure it is," says Wood, that 
" Humphrey was a great and general scholar, an able 
linguist, a deep divine ; and for his excellency of style, 
exactness of method, and substance of matter in his writ- 
ings, went beyond toost of our theologists V* He died in 
Feb. 1590, N. S. leaving a wife, by whom he had twelve 
children. His writings are, 1. " Epistola de Gr&cis literis, 
et Homeri lectione et imitatione ;" printed before a book 
of Hadrian Junius, entitled "Cornucopia," at Basil, 1558. 
2. " De Religionis conservatione et reformatione, deque 
primatu regum, Bas. 1559." 3. " De ratione interpre- 
tandi auctores, Bas. 1559." 4. " Optimates: sive de no- 
bilitate, ejusque antiqua orjgine, &c." Bas. 1560. 5. 
"Joannis Juelli Angli, Episcopi Sarisburiensis, vita et 
mors, ejusque verse doctrines defensio, &c. Lond. 1573." 
• 6. u Two Latin orations spoken before queen Elizabeth ; 
one in 1572, another in 1575." 7. " Sermons;** and 8. 
" Some Latin pieces against the Papists, Campian in par- 
ticular." Wood quotes Tobias Matthew, an eminent arch- 
bishop, who knew him well, as declaring, that " Dr. 
Humphrey had read more fathers than Campian the Jesuit 
ever saw ; devoured more than he ever tasted ; and taught 
more in the university of Oxford, than he had either 
learned or heard." l 

HUNAULD (Francis Joseph), an eminent anatomist 
and physician, was born at Chateau- Brian t, in February 
1701. His father was a physician, and practised at. St 
Malo. He studied first at Rennes, and afterwards at An- 
gers and Paris, and received the degree of M. D. at Rheims 
in 1722. On his return to Paris he studied anatomy and 

* Warton says that about the year Christ Church, who ware capable of 

1563, th«re were only two divine*, and preaching the public sermons before 

those of higher rank, the President of the UoWertity of Oxford.— History of 

Magdalen college, and the Dean of Poetry, vol. II. p. 460* 

1 Atfc.Oi.rol. I Puller's Abel Redrorus.— Strype's Craauer, p.9€4,35t, 

393.— Strype's Parker, p. 112, 168—165, 184, 317. 



surgery with great assiduity, under the celebrated teachers 
Window and Du Verney, and was admitted into the aca- 
demy of sciences in 1724. Having been honoured with 
the appointment of physician to the duke of Richelieu, be 
accompanied that nobleman in his embassy to the court of 
the emperor Charles VI. at Vienna, and ever afterwards 
retained his entire confidence, and had apartments in his 
house. On the death of Du Verney, in 1730, Hunauld 
was appointed his successor, as professor of anatomy in 
the king's garden, where he soon acquired a reputation 
little short of that of his predecessor, and found the spa- 
cious theatre overflowing with pupils. Having been ad- 
mitted a member of the faculty of medicine of Paris, he 
practised with great success, and attracted the notice of 
the court. He took a journey into Holland, where he 
became acquainted with the celebrated Boerhaave, with 
whom be ever afterwards maintained a friendly correspond- 
ence; and, in 1735, he visited London, where he was 
elected a member of the royal society, at one of the meet- 
ings of which he read some " Reflections on the operation 
for Fistula Lacrymalis," which were printed in the Trans* 
actions^ He was cut off in the vigour of life by a pu- 
trid fever, in December 1742, being in his forty-second 
year. The greater part of his writings consist of papers, 
which were published in various volumes of the memoirs 
of the academy of sciences, between 1729 and 1742 in- 
clusive. Osteology was a favourite subject of his enquiry, 
and some of the most curious of his observations relate to 
tbe formation and growth of the bones of the skull. He 
likewise traced with great accuracy the lymphatics of the 
lungs to the thoracic duct, and the progress of some of the 
nerves of tbe thoracic viscera. He published anonymously, 
in 1 726, a critique, in tbe form of a letter, on the book of 
Petit, relative to the diseases of the bones, which occa? 
sioned some controversy, and received the formal disap- 
proval of the academy. Hunauld had collected a consi- 
derable anatomical museum, which was especially rich in 
preparations illustrative of osteology and the diseases of 
the bones, aud which came into the possession of the aca- 
demy after his death. l 

HUNIADES (John Corvinus), waiwode of Transyl- 
vania, and general of the armies of Ladislas, kiqg of Hun* 

■ Diet, IlitU— Rest*! Cjdopmti). 

H U N I A D E S. 311 

gary, was one of the greatest commanders of his time* He 
fought against the Turks like a* hero, and, in 1442 and 
1443, gained important battles against the generals of 
Amurath ; and obliged that prince to retire from Belgrade, 
after besieging it seven months. In the battle of Varnes, 
so fatal to the Christian cause, and in which Ladislas fell, 
Corvinus was not less distinguished than in his more for- 
tunate contests ; and, being appointed governor of Hun- 
gary, became proverbially formidable to the Turks. In 
1448, however, he suffered a defeat from them. He was 
more fortunate afterwards, and in 1456, obliged Ma- 
. hornet II. also to relinquish the siege of Belgrade; and died 
the 10th of September in the same year. Mahomet, 
though an enemy, had generosity enough to lament the 
death of so great a man; and pride enough to allege as 
one cause for his regret, that the world did not now con- 
tain a man against whom he could deign to turn his arms, 
or from whom he could regain the glory he had so lately 
lost before Belgrade. The pope is said to have shed 'tears 
on the news of his death ; and Christians in general la- 
mented Huniades as their best defender against the infidels. * 
HUNNIUS (Giles), a celebrated Lutheran divine, was 
born at Winende, a village in the duchy of Wirtemburg, 
in 1550. He was educated at the schools in that vicinity, 
and took his degree in arts at Tubingen, in 1567. He 
then applied himself earnestly to the study of theology, 
and was so remarkable for his progress in it, that in 1576 
lie was made professor of divinity at Marpurg. About the 
same period he married. He was particularly zealous 
against the Calvinists, and not long after this time began 
to write against them, by which he gained so much repu- 
tation, that in 1592 he was sent for into Saxony to reform 
that electorate, was made divinity-professor at Wittemburg, 
and a member of the ecclesiastical consistory. In these 
offices he proved very vigilant in discovering those who 
had departed from the Lutheran communion ; and, from 
the accounts of the severities practised against those who 
would not conform to that rule, it appears that nothing less 
than a strong persecution was carried on by him and his 
colleagues. In 1595 he was appointed pastor of the church 
at Wittemburg, and in the same year published his most 
celebrated polemical work, entitled " Calvinus Judaizans," 

) Moreri.— UniTenal History. 

312 HUNNIU& 

in which he charges that reformer with all 
At the same time he carried on a controversy with Huberus, 
about predestination and election. Against Calvin he 
wrote wi{h the most intemperate acrimony. Hunnius was 
present at the conference at Ratisbon in 1601, between 
the Lutherans and Roman catholics. He died of an in- 
flammation brought on by the stone, in April 1603. His 
works have been collected in five volumes ; and contain, 
funeral orations, a catechism, prayers, colloquies, notes 
on some of the evangelists, &c. &c. His acrimony in 
writing went beyond bis judgment. * 

HUNT (Jeremiah), a dissenting divine, was born in 
London in 1678, and was the son of Benjamin Hunt, a 
member of the mercers 9 company in London. He was 
educated under Mr. Thomas Rowe,and after he had finished 
his course with him, be went first to Edinburgh, and then 
to Leyden; at the latter place be applied himself most 
diligently to the study of the Hebrew language and the 
Jewish antiquities. In Holland- he preached to a small 
English congregation, and upon bis return he officiated 
some time at Tunstead, in Norfolk, from whence he re- 
moved to London about 1710, and was appointed pastor of 
the congregation at Pinners 9 hall. In 1729 the university 
of Edinburgh conferred on him the degree of O. D. He 
died in 1744. He was author of several single sermons; 
and likewise of " An Essay towards explaining the History 
and Revelations of Scripture in their several periods; to 
which is annexed a dissertation on the Fall of Man." After 
his death four volumes of his " Sermons," with tracts, 
were published, to which was prefixed Dr. Lardner's Fu- 
neral Sermon for him.* 

HUNT (Stephen), of Canterbury, the son of Mr. Ni- 
cholas Hunt of that city (an intimate and worthy friend of 
Arch. Tillotson, and to whom, whilst labouring under a 
cancer, he addressed that most excellent letter of console* 
tion, printed in his life by Birch, p. 135), was admitted a 
scholar of C. C. C. Cambridge, Jan. 29, 1693. After tak- 
ing the degree of M. B. in 1699, he practised physic at 
Canterbury, and became a collector of Roman coins, ves- 
sels, and utensils, particularly of those about Reculver and 
Ricbborough, after the manner of archdeacon Batteley, in 

1 Geo. Diet — Melchior Adam. — Freheri Theatrad).— Saxti Onomast. 
* Lanloer>t Funeral Sermon.-- Kippis's Life of Laxdner, p. 11, S3.— Protec- 
tant Duientert* Magazine, vol. II. 

HUNT. 313 

bis " Antiquitates Rutupina? ;" all which, together with 
his books and manuscripts, he bequeathed to the library of 
that cathedral. He was esteemed a learned antiquary. 
The time of his death is uncertain. 1 

HUNT (Thomas), a learned Hebraist, and Regius pro- 
fessor of Hebrew, Oxford, was born in 1696, but where 
or of what parents we have not been able to learn, or in- 
deed to recover any particulars of his early life. He was 
educated at Hart-hall, Oxford, where he proceeded M. A. 
in Oct. 26, 1721, and was one of the first four senior fel- 
lows or tutors, when the society was made a body corporate 
and politic under the name of Hertford college; and he 
took his degree of B. D. in (743, and that of D. D. in 
1744. His first literary publication, which indicates the 
bent of his studies, was " A Fragment of Hippolytus, 
taken out of two Arabic MSS. in the Bodleian library,'* 
printed in the fourth volume of " Parker's Bibliotbeca 
Biblica," 1728, 4to. In 1738 he was elected Laudian 

f>rofessor of Arabic, which he retained the whole of his 
ife, and was succeeded by the late Dr. Joseph White. 
, In the following year he delivered in the schools, a Latin 
speech " De antiquitate, elegantia, militate, Linguae Ara- 
bic®," published the same year ; and another " De usu 
Dia lee tor urn Orientalium, ac prsecipue Arabics, in He- 
braico codice interpretando," which was published in 1748. 
In 1746 he issued proposals for printing " Abdpllatiphi 
Histories iEgypti compendium," with a full account of that 
work, which, however, he never published. The sub- 
scribers were recompensed by receiving in lieu of it his 
posthumous " Observations on the Book of Proverbs," 
edited by Dr. Kennicott after his death. 

In 1747, Dr. Hunt was appointed regius professor of 
Hebrew, and consequently canon of the sixth stall in Christ 
church. He had in 1740 been elected a fellow of the royal 
society, and was also a fellow of that of antiquaries. In 
1757, as we have noticed in the life of bishop Hooper, he 
published the works of that prelate, in the preface to which 
he represents himself as " one who had received many ob- 
ligations from his lordship, was acquainted with his family, 
and had been formerly intrusted by him with the care of 
publishing one of his learned works, 1 ' viz. " De Benedtc- 
tione patriarchs Jacobi, conjecturse," Oxon. 1728! 4to, 

I Masters'! Hist, of Corpus Chriiii College, Cambridge. 

314 BUN T. 

by the preface to which it appears that bishop Hooper was 
one of his early patrons. Of this only 100 copies were 

E rinted as presents to friends, but it is included in the 
ishop's works. 

Dr. Hunt's epistolary correspondence both at home and 
abroad, was considerable. Some of his letters are to be 
found in " Doddridge's Letters/' published by S ted man. 
He frequently mentions his " Egyptian History, 9 ' and his 
" attendance on Abdollatiph," as engrossing much of his 
time. He also highly praises Dr. Doddridge's " Rise and 
Progress of Religion," and his " Life of colonel Gardiner." 
In 1759 Dr. Kennicott dedicated his second volume on the 
" State of the printed Hebrew text of the Old Testament" 
to his much respected friend Dr. Hunt, to whom he stood 
" indebted for his knowledge of the very elements of the 
Hebrew language.' ' Anquetil du Perron, the French orien- 
talist, having made some unhandsome reflections on Dr. 
Hunt, the celebrated sir William Jones, then a student at 
Oxford, repelled these by a shrewd pamphlet, published 
in 177 1, entited " Lettre a monsieur A[nquetil du P(erron) 
dans laquelle est compris l'examen de sa traduction des 
livres attribues a Zoroastre." 

Among Dr. Hunt's intimate friends was Dr. Gregory 
Sharpe, who sought his acquaintance and highly prized it, 
and their correspondence was frequent and affectionate. 
Dr. Hunt not only promoted Dr. Sharpe's election into the 
royal society, but was a liberal and able assistant to him in 
his literary undertakings. When, however, Dr. Sharpe 
published his edition of Dr. Hyde's Dissertations in 1767, 
no notice was taken of these obligations ; and the reason 
assigned is Dr. Hunt's having declined a very unreasonable 
request made by Dr. Sharpe, to translate into Latin a long 
English detail of introductory matter. Such treatment 
Dr. Hunt is said to have mentioned " to his friends, with 
as much resentment as his genuine good-nature would per- 
mit" This very learned scholar, who had long been 
afflicted with the gravel, died Oct. 31, 1774, aged seventy- 
eight, and was buried in the north aile joining to the body 
of the cathedral of Christ-church, with an inscription ex- 
pressing only his name, offices, and time of his death. 
His library was sold the following year by honest Daniel 
Prince of Oxford. In that same year Dr. Kennicott pub- 
lished a valuable posthumous work of his friend, entitled 
f* Observations on several passages in the Book of Proverbs, 

HUNT. 315 

with two Sermons. By Thomas Hunt," &c. 4to. A con- 
siderable part of this work was printed before his death ; 
and the only reason given why he himself did not finish it, 
was, that he was remarkably timorous, and distrustful of 
his own judgment; and that, in bis declining years, he 
grew more and more fearful of the severity of public criti- 
cism, for which he certainly had little cause, had this been 
his only publication. His character, as an Orientalist, had 
been fully established by his former works; and he justly 
retained it to the close of his life, leaving the learned 
world only to regret that he did not engage in some grand 
and critical work, or that he did not complete an edition 
of Job which he had long intended. 1 * 

HUNTER (Christopher), an eminent physician and 
antiquary of Durham, was the son of Thomas Hunter, 
gent, of Medomsley, in the county of Durham, where he 
was born in 1675 : he was educated at the free-school of 
Houghton- le-Spting, founded by the celebrated Bernard 
Gilpin, and was admitted of St. John's college, Cambridge, 
where be continued until he had taken his bachelor's degree 
in 1698. In 1701 he received a faculty or licence from 
Dr. John Brookbank, spiritual chancellor at Durham, to 
practice physic through the whole diocese of Durham. 
After some years he removed to the city of Durham ; and 
though he published little, was always ready to assist in any 
literary undertaking. He is acknowledged by Mr. Horsley 
and Mr. Gordon to be very exact and masterly in the know- 
ledge of antiqQities. Dr. Wilkins mentions him with re- 
spect in the preface to the first volume of his " Councils," 
to which he furnished some materials; and Mr. Bourne was 
much indebted to him in compiling his " History of New- 
castle" He published a new edition of " The Ancient 
Rites and Monuments of the church of Durham," 1733, 
without his name; and a curious, and now very scarce 
work, entitled " An Illustration of Mr. Daniel NesJe's 
History of the Puritans, in the article of Peter Smart, M. A. 
from original papers, with remarks." 1736, 8vo. In April 
1743, he published proposals for printing by subscription, 
jn 2 vols. 4to. " Antiquitates Parochiaies Dioc. Dunelm. 
hucusque inedttss," but no further progress appears to have 
been made. Perhaps this might be owing to an unfortu- 

1 Gent. Mag. LXX I.— Doddridge's Lettrn.— Nichols's Bowyer.— MS cor* 
tespoadence with Dr. Sbarpe, in the possession of the Editor. 

316 HUNTER. 

nate accident be met with, in searching the archives of the 
cathedra^ where he spilt a bottle of ink on the celebrated 
copy of Magna Charta, and was never afterwards permitted 
to come there. In 1757 he retired from Durham, with 
bis family, to Un thank, an estate belonging to his wife, in 
Sbotley parish, Northumberland, where he died July 13 
of that year, and was buried in Sbotley church. 1 

HUNTER (Henry), a popular preacher and writer, was 
born at Culross, in Perthshire, in 1741. He had the best 
education that the circumstances of bis parents would per- 
mit, and at the age of thirteen was sent to the university 
of Edinburgh, where, by bis talents and proficiency, he 
attracted the notice of the professors, and when he left 
Edinburgh he accepted the office of tutor to lord Dun- 
donald's sons at Culross abbey. In 1764 he was licensed* 
to preach, having passed the several trials with great ap- 
plause: and very quickly became much followed on ac- 
count of his popular talents. He was ordained in 1766, 
and was appointed minister of South Leith. On a visit to 
London in 1769, he preached in most of the Scotch meet- 
ing-houses with great acceptance, and soon after his re- 
turn he received an invitation to become pastor of the Scotch 
church in Swallow-street, which be declined; but in 1771 
be removed to London, and undertook the pastoral office 
in the Scotch church at London-walL He appeared first 
as an author in 17S3, by the commencement of his " Sa- 
cred Biography," which was at length extended to seven 
volumes octavo. While this work was in the course of pub- 
lication, he engaged in the translation of Lavater's " Essays 
on Physiognomy," and in order to render bis work as com- 
plete as possible, be took a journey into Swisserland, for 
the purpose of procuring information from Lavater himself. 
He attained, in some measure, his object, though the au- 
thor did not receive him with the cordiality which be ex- 
pected, suspecting that the English version must injure the 
sale of the French translation. The first number of this 
work was published in 1789, and it was finished in a style 
worthy the improved state of the arts. From this period 
Dr. Hunter spent much of bis time in translating different 
works from the French language. In 1790 he was elected 
secretary to the corresponding board of the " Society for 
propagating Christian Knowledge in the Highlands and 


1 Nicholt'i Bevyer. 

HUNTER. 317 

Islands of Scotland." He was likewise chaplain to the 
"Scotch Corporation;" and both these institutions were 
much benefited bj his zealous exertions in their behalf* 
In 1795, he published two volumes of Sermons; and in 
1798 he gave the world, eight " Lectures on the Evidences 
of Christianity," being the completion of a plan begun by 
Mr. Fell. The whole contains a popular and useful eluci- 
dation of the proofs in favour of the Christian religion* 
arising from its internal evidence, its beneficial influence, 
and the superior value of the information which it conveys 
with respect to futurity. During the latter years of his 
life, Dr. Hunter's constitution suffered the severest shocks 
from the loss of three children, which, with other causes, 
contributed to render him unable to withstand the attacks 
of disease. He died at the Hot- Wells, Bristol, on the 
37th of October, 1802, in the 62d year of his age. Dr. 
Hunter was a man of learning : his writings are eloquent, 
and shew how well he had studied human nature. In the 
pulpit his manner was unaffected, solemn, and impressive. 
He indulged his liberal and friendly heart in the exercise 
of hospitality, charity, and the pleasures of social inter- 
course, but the latter frequently beyond the limits which a 
regard to prudence and economy should have prescribed* 
He was the translator of " Letters of Euler to a German 
Princess, on different Subjects in Physics and Philosophy ;" 
" The Studies of Nature by St. Pierre ;" " Saurin's*Ser- 
mont;" " Soonini's Travels." Miscellaneous pieces and 
sermons of his own have been published since his death, to 
which are prefixed memoirs : from these the foregoing par- 
ticulars have bfeen taken. Dr. Hunter, about 1796 or 7, 
began " A History of Loudon and its Environs," which 
came out in parts, but did little credit to him, as he evi- 
dently had no talents or research for a work of this de- 
scription. 1 

HUNTER (William, M. D), an eminent anatomist and 
physician, was born May 23, 1718, at Kilbride in the 
county of Lanark. He was the seventh of ten children * 


1 Gent. Mag. toI. LXXII.— Ree*'* Cyclopaedia. 

* These were, John, Elizabeth, Ad- to London in 1743, with an intention 

drew, Janet, James, Agnes, William, to study anatomy under his brother 

Dorothea, Isabella, and John. Of the William, but was prevented from pur- 

sons, John the eldest, and Andrew, died suing thU plan by ill health, which in-* 

young; James, born hi 1715, was a duced him to return to Long Calder* 

writer to the aigtiet at Edinburgh, who, wood, where he died soon after, aged 

dttlUriog the profession of the law, cam* 28 years; John, the youngest, is the 


of John and Agnes Hunter, who resided on a small estate 
in that parish, called Long Calderwood, which had long 
been in the possession of his family. His great grand- 
father, by his father's side, was a younger son of Hunter 
of Hnnterrton, chief of the family of that name. At the 
age of fourteen, his father sent him to the college of Glas- 
gow ; where he passed five years, and by bis prudent be- 
haviour and diligence acquired the esteem of the professors, 
and the reputation of being a good scholar. His father 
ha J designed him for the church, but the necessity of sub- 
scribing to articles of faith was to him a strong objection. 
In this state of mind he happened to become acquainted 
with Dr Cullen, who was then just established in practice 
at Hamilton, under the patronage of the duke of Hamilton* 
By the conversation of Dr. Cullen, he was soon determined 
to devote himself to the profession of physic. His father's 
consent having been previously obtained, he went, in 1737. 
to reside with Dr. Cullen. In the family of this excellent 
friend and preceptor he passed nearly three years, and 
these, as he has been often heard to acknowledge, were 
the happiest years of his life. It was then agreed, that he 
should prosecute bis medical studies at Edinburgh and 
London, and afterwards return to settle at Hamilton, in 
partnership with Dr. Cullen.. 

Mr. Hunter set out for Edinburgh in Nov. 1740, and 
continued there till the following spring, attending the 
lectures of the medical professors, and amongst others those 
of the late Dr. Alexander Monro. He arrived in London in 
the summer of 1741, and took up his residence at Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Smellie's, who was at that time an apothe- 
cary in Pall-mall. He brought with him a letter of recom- 
mendation to bis countryman Dr. James Douglas, from Mr. 
Foulis, printer at Glasgow, who had been useful to the 
doctor in collecting for him different editions of Horace. 
Dr. Douglas was then intent on a great anatomical work on 
the bones, which he did not live to complete, and was 
looking out for a young man of abilities and industry whom 
be might employ as a dissector. This induced him to pay 
particular attention to Mr. Hunter; and finding him acute 

•abject of the ensuing article.— Of the James Batllie, D. D. professor of dhri- 

daughters, Elisabeth, Agnes, and Isa- uity in the university of Glasgow, by 

bella, died young; J anei married Mr. whom she had a son Matthew Bail lie* 

Buchanan of Glasgow, ami died in now a very eminent physician* ami 

1149: Dorothea married the late rev. two daughters. 


and sensible 9 he after a short time invited him into his fa- 
mily, to assist in his dissections, and to superintend the 
education of his son. Mr. Hunter having communicated 
this offer to his father and Dr. Cullen, the tatter readily 
and heartily- gave his concurrence to it; but his father, 
who was very old and infirm, and expected his return with 
impatience, consented with reluctance. His father did not 
long survive, dying Oct. 30 following, aged 78. 

Mr. Hunter, having accepted Dr. Douglas's invitation, 
was by his friendly assistance enabled to enter himself as a 
surgeon's pupil at St. George's hospital under Mr. James 
Wilkie, and as a dissecting pupil under Dr. Frank Nichols, 
who at that time taught anatomy with considerable reputa- 
tion. He likewise attended a course of lectures on expe- 
rimental philosophy by Dr. Desaguliers. Of these means 
of improvement be did not fail to make a proper use. He 
soon became expert in dissection, and Dr. Douglas was at 
the expence of having several of his preparations engraved. 
But before many months had elapsed, he bad the misfor- 
tune to lose this excellent friend. Dr. Douglas died April 
1, 1742, in his 67th year, leaving a widow and two chil- 
dren* The death of Dr. Douglas, however, made no 
change in his situation. 'He continued to reside with the 
doctor's family, and to pursue his studies with the same 
diligence as before. In 1743 he communicated to the 
royal society " An Essay on the Structure and Diseases of 
articulating Cartilages." This ingenious paper, on a sub- 
ject which till then had not been sufficiently investigated, 
affords a striking testimony of the rapid progress he had 
made in bis anatomical inquiries. As he had it in cdntem- 
plation to teach anatomy, his attention was directed prin- 
cipally to this object ; and it deserves to be mentioned as 
an additional mark of his prudence, that he did not pre- 
cipitately engage in this attempt, but passed several years 
in acquiring such a degree of knowledge, and such a col* 
lection of preparations, as might insure him success. After 
waiting some time for a favourable opening, he succeeded 
Mr. Samuel Sbarpe as lecturer to a private society of sur- 
geons in Covent-garden, began his lectures in their rooms, 
and soon extended bis plan from surgery to anatomy. This 
undertaking commenced in the winter of 1 746. He is said 
to have experienced much solicitude when he began to 
apeak in public, but applause soon inspired him with cou- 
rage ; and by degrees he became so food of teaching, that 



for many yean before his death be was never happier than 
when employed in delivering a lecture. 

The profits of bis -two first courses were considerable *, 
but by contributing to the wants of different friends, be 
found himself, at the return of the next season, obliged to 
defer bis lectures for a fortnight, merely because he had 
not money to defray the necessary expence of advertise- 
ments. This circumstance taught him to be more reserved 
in this respect. In 1747 he was admitted a member of 
the corporation of surgeons, and in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year, soon after the close of his lectures, be set 
out in company with his pupil, Mr. James Douglas, on a 
tour through Holland to Paris. His lectures suffered no 
interruption by this journey, as he returned to England 
soon enough to prepare for his winter course, which began 
about the usual time. At first he practised both surgery 
and midwifery, but the former he always disliked ; and, 
being elected one of the surgeoo-men-midwtves first to the 
Middlesex, and soon afterwards to the. British lying-in 
hospital, and recommended by several of the most emi- 
nent surgeons of that time, his line was thus determined. 
Over his countryman, Dr. Smsllie, notwithstanding his 
great experience, and the reputation jjie bad justly ac- 
quired, he had a great advantage in person and address* 
The most lucrative part of the practice of midwifery was 
at that time in the hands of sir Richard Manningham and 
Dr. Sandys. The former of these died, and the latter re- 
tired into the country a few years after Mr. Hunter begad 
to be known in midwifery. Althoijgh by these incidents 
he was established in the practice of midwifery, it is well 
known t^at in proportion as bis reputation increased, his 
opinion was eagerly sought in all cases where any light 
concerning the seat or nature of any disease, could be ex* 
pected from an intimate knowledge of anatomy. In 1750 
he obtained the degree of M. D. x from the university of 
Glasgow, and began to practise as a physician. About 

* Mr. Watson, P. R. S. who was 
one of Mr. Hunter's earliest pupils, 
accompanied him home after bis in- 
troductory lecture. Mr. Hunter, who 
had received about seventy guineas 
from bis pupils, and had got the aao- 
jiey in a bag under hie cloak, observed 
to Mr. Wat«on, that it was a larger 
Sum than he had ever been master of 
before. Dr. Pultent?, in his " Life of 

Linnaeus," has not thought it super- 
fluous to record the slender beginning 
from which that great naturalist rose to 
ease and affluence in life. " Exivi 
patria triginti sex nutnmis aureis dives," 
are Linnssns's own words. Anecdotes 
of this sort deserve to be recorded,, as 
an encouragement to young meu, who, 
wiib great merit, happen to possess 
. but little advantages of fortune. 



this time he quitted the family of Mrs. Douglas, and went 
to reside in Jenny n -street. In the summer of 1751 he 
revisited his native country, for which he always retained 
a cordial affection. His mother was still Jiving at Long 
Calderwood, which was now become his property by the 
death of his brother James. Dr. Cullen, for whom he always 
entertained a sincere regard, was then established at Glasgow. 
During this visit, he shewed his attachment to his little 
paternal inheritance, by giving many instructions for re- 

- pairing and improving it, and for purchasing any adjoining 
lands that might be offered for sale. As he and Dr. Cullen 
were riding oue day in a low part of the country, the lat- 
ter pointing out to bim Long Calderwood at a considerable 
distance, remarked how conspicuous it appeared. " Well," 
said be, with some degree of energy, " if I live, I shall 
make it still more conspicuous." After his journey to 
Scotland, to which he devoted only a few weeks, he was » 
never absent from London, unless bis professional en- 

- gagements, as sometimes happened, required his attend- 
ance at a distance from the capital. 

In 1762 we find him warmly engaged in controversy, 
supporting his claim to different anatomical discoveries, in 
a work entitled " Medical Commentaries, 9 * the style of 
which is correct and spirited*. As an excuse for the tar- 
diness with which be brought forth this work, he observes 
in his introduction, that it required a good deal of time, 

Mr. Noguez, hi the second edition of 
a work entitled '< L' Anatomic do Corps 
de l'Homme en abr£ge," printed at 
Paris. Who may hare first succeeded 
in a lucky injection, seems a matter 
scarcely worthy of contest; bnt Dr. 
Hunter was extremely tenacious of any 
claims of this kind, and would not suf- 
fer the interference even of his own 
brother. Same papers, in which a 
claim of Mr. John Hunter, relative to 
the connection between the placenta 
and uterus, was disputed by the doc- 
tor in 1780, are preserved in tbe ar- 
chives of the royal soctf ty. In the 
" Commentaries" there are also some 
observations on the insensibility of the 
dura mater, periosteum, tendons, and 
ligaments, as taught with some slight 
difference by Haller; and likewise 
" Observations ou the State of tbe Testis 
in the Fort us, and on tbe Hernia Con- 
genita, by Mr. John Hunter." 

* In his " Medical Commentaries, n 
to which a "Supplement" wss after- 
wards added, he supported tbe priority 
of his discoveries over those of Dr. 
Monro, jon. professor of anatomy at 
Edinburgh, in respect to the ducts ef 
the lachrymal glands, injections of tbe 
testicle, the origin and use of the lym- 
phatic vessels, and absorption by veins. 
There is, however, some difficulty in 
adjusting the claims of contemporary 
anatomists. The great doctrine of the 
absorbent action of the lymphatic sys- 
tem, which is now fully received, at 
least by the anatomists of Great Bri- 
tain, was taught and illustrated at the 
same time in the schools of London 
and of Edinburgh, and exercised the in- 
genuity of Hunter, Monro, Hewson, 
Croikshaak, and other anatomists. 
Bnt Dr. Simmons has shewn, that the 
principal points of this system bad 
been stated so long ago as 1796, by 

Vol. £VIIL 

832 HUNTER. 

and be had little to spare ; that the subject was unplea- 
sant, and therefore he was very seldom in the humour 
to take it up. In 1762, when our present excellent aueen 
became pregnant, Dr. Hunter was consulted ; and two 
years after he had the honour to be appointed physician- 
extraordinary to ber majesty. About this time his avoca- 
tions were so numerous, that he became desirous of les- 
sening his fatigue, and having noticed the ingenuity and 
assiduous application of the late Mr. William Hewsoo, 
F. R. S. who was then one of his pupils, he engaged him, 
first as an assistant, and afterwards as a partner in his lec- 
tures. This connection continued till 1770, when some 
disputes happened, which terminated in a separation. [See 
Hewson]. Mr. Hewson was succeeded in the partnership 
by Mr. Cruikshank, whose anatomical abilities were de- 
servedly respected. 

April 30, 1767, Dr. Hunter was elected F. R. S. and the 
year following communicated to that learned body " Ob- 
servations on the Bones commonly supposed to be Ele- 
phants* bones, which have been found near the river Ohio 
in America." This was not the only subject of natural 
history on which Dr. Hunter employed his pen ; for in a 
subsequent volume of the " Philosophical Transactions,** 
we find him offering his " Remarks on some Bones found, 
in the Rock of Gibraltar," which he proves to have be- 
longed to some quadruped. In the same work, likewise, 
he published an account of the Nyl-ghau, an Indian ani- 
mal not described before, and which, from its strength 
and swiftness, promised, he thought, to be an useful ac- 
quisition to this country. 

In 1768, Dr. Hunter became F. S. A. and the same 
year, at the institution of a royal academy of arts, he was 
appointed by his majesty to the office of professor of ana- 
tomy. This appointment opened a new field for his abi- 
lities ; and he engaged in it, as he did in every other pur- 
suit of his life, with unabating zeal. He now adapted his 
anatomical knowledge to the objects of painting and sculp- 
ture; and the novelty and justness of his observations 
proved at once the readiness and the extent of bis genius. 

In January 1781, he was unanimously elected to suc- 
ceed the late Dr. John Fothergill as president of the so- 
ciety of physicians of London. " He was one of those," 
says Dr. Simmons, " to whom we. are indebted for it* 

HUNT'E R. 323 

establishment, and oar grateful acknowledgments are due 
to him for his zealous endeavours to promote the liberal 
Views of this institution, by rendering it a source of mutuaj 
improvement, and thus making it ultimately useful to the 
publifc." As his name and talents were known and re- 
jected in every part of Europe, so the honours conferred 
on him Were not limited to his own country. In 1780 the 
royal medical society at Paris elected him one of their fo- 
reign associates; and in 1782 he received a similar mark 
of distinction from the royal academy of sciences in that 
city. We come now to the most splendid of Dr. Hunter's 
medical publications, " The Anatomy of the Human Gra- 
vid Uterus." The appearance of this work, which had 
been begun so early as 17 51 (at which time ten of the 
thirty-four plates it contains were completed), was re- 
tarded till 1775, only by the author's desire of sending it 
into the world with fewer imperfections. This great work 
is dedicated to the king. In his preface to it we find the 
author very candidly acknowledging, that in most of the 
dissections he had been assisted by his brother, Mr. Johiji 
Hunter. This anatomical description of the gravid uterus, 
was not the only work which Dr. Hunter had in contem- 
plation to give to the public. He had long been em- 
ployed in collecting and arranging materials for a his- 
tory of the various concretions that are formed in the hu- 
man body. He seems to have advanced no further in the 
execution of this design, than to have nearly completed 
that part of it which relates to urinary and biliary concre- 
tions. Among Dr. Hunter's papers have likewise been 
found two introductory lectures, which are written out so 
fairly, and with such accuracy, that he probably intended 
no further correction of ihem, before they should be 
given to the world. In these lectures Dr. Hunter traces 
the history of anatomy from the earliest to the present 
times, along with the general progress of science and the 
arts. He considers the great utility of anatomy in the 
practice of physic and surgery ; gives the ancient divisions 
of the different substances composing the human body, 
Which for a long time prevailed in anatomy ; points out 
the most advantageous mode of cultivating this branch of 
natural knowledge; and concludes with explaining the 
particular plan of his own lectures. Besides these MSS. he 
has alsb left behind him a considerable number of cases of 

Y 2 

324 HUNTER. 

dissection *• The same year in which the tables of the 
gravid uterus made their appearance, Dr. Hunter commu- 
nicated to the royal society "An essay on the Origin. of 
the Venereal Disease." After this paper had been read 
to the royal society, Dr. Hunter, in a conversation with 
the late Dr. Musgrave, was convinced that the testimony 
on which he placed his chief dependence was of less 
weight than he had at first imagined ; he therefore very 
properly laid aside his intention of giving his essay to the 

In 1777, Dr. Hunter joined with Mr. Watson in pre- 
senting to the royal society " A short account of the late 
Dr. Maty's illness, and of the appearances on dissection;" 
and the year following he published his " Reflections on 
the Section of the Symphysis Pubis." 
' We must now go back a little in the order of time, to 
describe the origin and progress of Dr. Hunter's Museum, 
without some account of which these memoirs would be 
very incomplete. When he began to practise midwifery, 
he was desirous of acquiring a fortune sufficient to place 
inm in easy and independent circumstances. Before many 
years had elapsed, he found himself in possession of a sum 
adequate to his wishes in this respect ; and this he set apart 
as a resource of which he might avail himself whenever 
age or infirmities should oblige him to retire from business. 
He has been heard to say, that he once took a considerable 
sum from this fund for the purposes of his museum, but 
that he did not feel himself perfectly at ease till he had 
restored it again. After he had obtained this competency, 
as his wealth continued to accumulate, he formed a laud- 
able design of engaging in some scheme of public utility, 
and at first had it in contemplation to found an anatomical 
school in this metropolis. For this purpose, about 1765, 
during the administration of Mr. Grenville, he presented 
a memorial to that minister, in which he requested the 
grant of a piece of ground in the Mews for the site of an 
anatomical theatre. Dr. Hunter undertook to expend 7000/. 
on the building, and to endow a professorship of anatomy in 
perpetuity. This scheme did not meet with tbe reception 

* The work on tbe Gravid Ute.ut teoded to supply thii defect. It is eu- 

wu published without a descriptive ac- tided " An Anatomical Description of 

count. Id 1795, Or. Baillie published tbe Humajfrtirmvid Uterus, and its Coo- 

from Dr. Hunter's papers, improved teuts. By the late W. Hunter, M. D." 

by his own observations, • bowk in- &c wad forms ft'lhin 4to. 

HUNTER. 325 

it deserved. In a conversation on this subject soon after- 
wards with the earl of Shelburne, his lordship expressed a 
wish that the plan might be carried into execution by sub* 
scription, and very generously requested to have his name 
set down for 1000 guineas. Dr. Hunter's delicacy would 
not allow him to adopt this proposal. He chose rather to 
execute it at his own expence, and accordingly purchased 
a spot of ground in Great Windmill-street, where he erected 
a spacious house, to which he removed from Jermyn-street 
in 1770. In this building, besides a handsome amphi- 
theatre and other convenient apartments for his lectures 
and dissections, there was one magnificent room, fitted up 
with great elegance and propriety as a museum. 

Of the magnitude and value of his anatomical collection, 
some idea may be formed, when we consider the great 
length of years he employed in making anatomical prepa- 
rations, and in the dissection of morbid bodies ; added to 
the eagerness with which he procured additions, from the 
collections that were at different times offered for sale in 
London. His specimens of rare diseases were likewise 
frequently increased by presents from his medical friends 
and pupils, who, when any thing of this sort occurred to 
them, very justly thought they could not dispose of it 
more properly than by placing it in Dr. Hunter's museum. 
Before his removal to Windmill-street, he had confined 
his collection chiefly to specimens of human and compa- 
rative anatomy, and of diseases ; but now he extended his 
views to fossils, and likewise to the branches of polite li- 
terature and erudition. In a short space of time he be- 
came possessed of " the most magnificent treasure of Greek 
and Latin books that has been accumulated by any person 
now living, since the days of Mead." A cabinet of an- 
cient medals contributed likewise greatly to the richness 
of his museum. A description of part of the coins in this 
collection, struck by the Greek free cities, has been pub- 
lished by the doctor's learned friend Mr. Combe, under the 
title of " Nummorum veterum populorum & urbium qui 
in museo Gulielmi Hunter asservantur descriptio figuris 
illustrata. Opera & studio Caroli Combe, S. R. & S. A* 
Soc. Londini," 1783, 4to. In a classical dedication of 
this elegant volume to the queen, Dr. Hunter acknow- 
ledges his obligations to her majesty. In the preface, 
some account is given of the progress of the collection, 
which had been brought together since 1770, with sin- 

326 HUM T E R. 

gular feisty wd at the espence pf upwards of 20, OOO f. 
|n J 781, the museum received a valuable addition of sheila, 
corals, and other curious subjects of natural history, which 
bad been collected by the late Dr. Fottyergill, who give 
directions by his will, that his collection should be apr 
praised after bis death, and that Dr. Hunter should have 
the refusal of it at 500/* under the valuation. This waa 
accordingly done, and Dr. Hunter purchased it for the 
sum of 1200/. 

Dr. Hunter, at the head of his profession, honoured, with, 
the esteem of his sovereign, and in the possession of every 
thing that bis reputation and wealth could confer, seemed 
now to have attained the summit of his wishes. But these, 
sources of gratification were embittered by a disposition 
to the gout, which harassed him frequently during the 
latter part of his life, notwithstanding his very abstemioe* 
manner of living* ; About ten years before his death his 
health was so much impaired, that, fearing he might soon 
become unfit for the fatigues of his profession, he began 
to think of retiring to Scotland. With this view he re- 
quested his friends Dr. Cullen and Dr. Baillie, to look out 
for a pleasant estate for him. A considerable one, and 
such as they thought would be agreeable to him, was of- 
fered for sale about that time in the neighbourhood of 
Alloa. A description of it was sent to him, and met with 
his approbation : the price was agreed on, and the bargain 
supposed to be concluded. But when the title-deeds of 
the estate came to be examined by Dr. Hunter's counsel 
in London, they were found defective, and he was advised 
not to complete the purchase. After this he found the 
expences of his museum increase so fast, that he laid aside 
all thoughts of retiring from practice. 

This alteration in his plan did not tend, tor improve his 
health. In the course of a few years the returns of his 
gout became by degrees more frequent, sometimes af- 
fecting his limbs, and sometimes his stomach, but seldom 
remaining many hours in one part Notwithstanding this 
valetudinary state, his ardour seemed to be unabated. In 
the last year of his life he was as eager to acquire new 
credit, and to secure the advantage of what he had before 
gained, as he Could have been at the most enterprising 
part of his life. At length, on Saturday, March 15, 1783, 
after having for several days experienced a return of wan- 
dering gout, he complained bf great head-ache and nausea. 


I n this state be went to bed, and for several days felt more 
pain than usual, both in his stomach and limbs. On the 
Thursday following he found himself so much recovered, 
that he determined to give the introductory lecture to the 
operations of surgery. It was to no purpose that his 
friends urged to him the impropriety of such an attempt. 
He was determined to make the experiment, and accord- 
ingly delivered the lecture; but towards the conclusion, his 
strength was so exhausted that he fainted away, and was 
obliged to be carried to bed by two servants. The fol- 
lowing night and day his symptoms were such as indicated 
danger ; and on Saturday morning Mr. Combe, who made 
him an early visit, was alarmed on being told by Dr. Hun- 
ter himself, that during the night he had certainly had a 
paralytic stroke. As neither his speech nor his pulse were 
affected, and he was able to raise himself in bed, Mr. 
Combe encouraged him to hope that he was mistaken. 
But the event proved the doctor's idea of his complaint to 
be but too well founded ; for from that time till his death, 
which happened on Sunday March 30, he voided no urine 
without the assistance of the catheter, which was occa- 
sionally introduced by his brother; and purgative medi- 
cines were administered repeatedly, without procuring a 
passage by stool. These circumstances, and the absence 
of pain, seemed to shew that the intestines and bladder 
had lost their sensibility and power of contraction ; and it 
was reasonable to presume, that a partial palsy had affected 
the nerves distributed to those parts. The latter moments 
of his life exhibited a remarkable instance of calmness and 
fortitude. Turning to his friend Mr. Combe, " If I had 
strength enough to hold a pen/' said he, " I would write 
how easy and pleasant a thing it is to die." 

By his will, the use of his museum, under the direction 
of trustees, devolved to his nephew Matthew Bail lie, and 
in case of his death, to Mr. Cruikshank, for the term of 
thirty years, at the end of which period the whole collec- 
tion-was bequeathed to the university of Glasgow, but Dr. 
Baillie removed it to its destination some years before the 
completion of that term. The sum of 8000/. sterling was 
left as a fund for the support and augmentation of the col- 
lection. Thetrustees were, Dr. George Fordyce, Dr. Da- 
vid Pitcairne, and Mr. Charles (since Dr.) Combe, to each 
of whom Dr. Hunter bequeathed an annuity of 20/. fur 
thirty years, that is, during the period in which they 


328 H y N T E JL 

would be executing the purposes of the will. Dr. Hunt** 
likewise bequeathed an annuity of WQl. to his sister Mr?. 
Baillie 9 during her life, and the sum of 2000/. to each of 
her two daughters. The residue of his estate and effects 
went to his nephew. On Saturday April 5, his remains 
were interred in the rector's vault of St, James's church, 

Of the person of Dr. Hunter it may be observed that he 
was regularly shaped, but of a slender make, and rather 
below a middle stature. There are several good portraits 
of him extant. One of these is an unfinished painting by 
Zoffany, who has represented him in the attitude of giving 
a lecture on the muscles at the royal academy, surrounded 
by a groupe of academicians. His manner of living w^s 
extremely simple and frugal, and the quantity of bis food 
was small as well as plain. He was au early riser, and 
when business was over, was constantly engaged in his 
anatomical pursuits, or in his museum. There was some- 
thing very engaging in his manner and address, and he had 
such an appearance of attention to his patients when he 
was making his inquiries, as could hardly fail to conciliate 
their confidence and esteem. In consultation with his me- 
dical brethren, he delivered his opinions with diffidence 
and candour. In familiar conversation he was chearful and 
unassuming. All who knew him allowed that he possessed 
an excellent understanding, great readiness of perception, 
a good memory, and a sound judgment. To these intel- 
lectual powers he united uncommon assiduity and preci- 
sion, so that he was admirably fitted for anatomical inves- 
tigation. As a teacher of anatomy, he was long and de- 
servedly celebrated. He was a good orator, and having 3 
clear and accurate conception of what he taught, he knew 
how to place in distinct and intelligible points of view 
the most abstruse subjects of anatomy and physiology. 
How much he contributed to the improvement of medical 
science in general, may be collected from the concise view 
we have taken of his writings. The munificence he dis- 
played in the cause of science has likewise a claim to our 
applause. Dr. Hunter sacrificed no part of his time or his 
fortune to voluptuousness, to idle pomp, or to any of the 
common objects of vanity that influence the pursuits of 
mankind in general. He seems to have been animated 
with a desire of distinguishing himself in those things which 
are in their uature laudable *, and being a bachelor, and 

HUNTER. 3*9 

without views of establishing a family, he was at liberty to 
indulge his inclination. Let us, therefore, not withhold 

« the praise that is due to him ; and undoubtedly bis tem- 
perance, his prudence, his persevering and eager pur- 
suit of knovfledge, constitute an example which we may, 

a with advantage to ourselves and to society, endeavour to. 
imitate. ' 

HUNTER (John), younger brother of Dr. Hunter, one 
of the most profound anatomists, sagacious and expert 
surgeons, and acute observers of nature, that any age has 
produced, was born at Long Calderwood, before-men- 
tioned, July 14, 1728. At the age of ten years he lost 
his father, and being the youngest of ten children, was 
suffered to employ himself in amusement rather than study, 
though sent occasionally to a grammar-school. He had 
reached the age of twenty before he felt a wish for more 
active employment ; and hearing of the reputation his bro- 
ther William had acquired in London as a teacher of ana- 
tomy, made a proposal to go up to him as an assistant 
His proposal was kindly accepted, and in September 1748 
he arrived in London. It was not long before bis dispo- 
sition to excel in anatomical pursuits was fully evinced, 
and his determination to proceed in that line confirmed 
and approved. In the summer of 1749 he attended Mr. 
Cheselden at Chelsea-hospital, and there acquired the ru- 
diments of surgery. In the subsequent winter he was so 
far advanced in the knowledge of anatomy, as to instruct 
his brother's pupils in dissection ; and from the constant 
occupation of the doctor in business, this task in future 
devolved almost totally upon htm. In the summer of 1750 
he again attended at Chelsea, and in 1751 became a pupil 
at St. Bartholomew's, where he constantly attended when 
any extraordinary operation was to be performed. After 
having paid a visit to Scotland, he entered as a gentleman 
commoner in Oxford, at St. Mary-hall, though with what 
particular view does not appear. His professional studies, 
however, were net interrupted, for in 1754 be became a 
pupil at St George's hospital, where in 1756 he was ap- 
pointed house-surgeon. In the winter of 1755, Dr. Hunter 
admitted him to a partnership in his lectures. 

The management of anatomical preparations was at this 
time a new art, and very little known ; every preparation, 

« Life of Dr. Hunter, by the late S.F. Simmons, M. D. F. R.8. published in 


therefore, that was skilfully made, becaine ad object of 
admiration ; many ware warning for the use of the lectures, 
and Dn Hunter having himself art enthusiasm for the art, 
Us brother had every advantage in the prosecution of that 
pursuit towards which his own disposition pointed so 
itrongly ; and of which he left so noble a Monument in 
his Museum of Comparative Anatomy. Mr. Hunter pur- 
sued the study of anatomy with an ardour and perseverance 
•f which few examples can be found. By this close appli- 
cation for ten years, he Aiade himself master of all that 
was already known, and struck out some additions to that 
knowledge. He traced the ramifications of the olfactory 
nerves upon the membranes of the nose, and discovered 
the course of some of the branches of tbe fifth pair of 
nerves. In the gravid uterus, he traced thfe arteries of 
the uterus to their termination in tbe placenta. He 
also discovered the existence of the lymphatic vessels in 
birds. In comparative anatomy, which he cultivated with 
indefatigable industry, his grand object was, by examining 
various organizations formed for similar functions, under 
different circumstances, to tfece out the general principles 
of animal life. With this object in view, tbe commonest 
animals were often of considerable importance to htm; but 
be also took every opportunity of purchasing those that 
were rare, or encouraged their owners to sell the bodies 
to him when they happened to die. 

By excessive attention to these pursuits, his health was 
so much impaired, that he was threatened with consump- 
tive symptoms, and being advised to go abroad, obtained 
the appointment of a surgeon on the staff, and went with 
the army to Belleisle, leaving Mr. Hewson to assist his 
brother. He continued in this service till the close of the 
war in 1763, and thus acquired his knowledge of the na- 
ture and treatment of gun-shot wounds. On his return to 
London, to his emoluments from private practice, and his 
half-pay, he added those which arose from teaching prac- 
tical anatomy and operative surgery ; and that he might 
be more enabled to carry on his inquiries in comparative 
anatomy, he purchased some land at EarPs-court, near 
Brompton, where he built a house. Here also he kept 
such animals alive as be purchased, or were presented to 
bim ; studied their habits and instincts, and cultivated an 
intimacy with them, which with tbe fiercer kinds was not 
always supported without personal risk. It is recorded by 


ins biographers fcbflt, on finding tw* leop a r ds loosep and 
likely to escape or bei killed, h* went ooti, and seizing 
them with his qwq hands, carried them back to their den. 
The horror he felt afterwards at the danger he bad run, 
would not, probably, have prevented him from making a 
similar effort, had a like occasion arisen. 

On the 5th of February, 1767, Mr. Hunter was elected 
a fellow of the royal society ; and in order to make thai 
situation as productive of knowledge $s possible, he pre- 
vailed on Dr. George Fordyce, and Mr. Cumming (the 
celebrated watch,- maker) to form a kind of subsequent 
meeting a* a coffee-house, for the purpose of philosophical 
discussion, and inquiry into discoveries and improvements. 
To this meeting some of the first philosophers of the aga 
very speedily acceded, among whom none can be more 
conspicuous than sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander, Dr. 
Maskelyne, sir Geo. Sbuckburgb, sir Harry Englefield, sir 
Charles Blagden, Dr. Noothe, Mr. Ramsden, and Mr. 
Watt of Birmingham. About the same time, the accident 
of breaking his ttndo AchUlis^ led him to some very sue* 
cessful researches into the mode in which tendons are re- 
united ; so completely does a true philosopher turn every 
accident to the advantage of science. In 1768, Dr. Hun* 
ter having finished his bouse in Windmill-street, gave up 
to his brother that which he had occupied in Jermyn-street; 
and in the same year, by the interest of the doctor, Mr. 
Hunter was elected one of the surgeons to St. George's 
hospital. In 1771 he married Miss Home, the eldest 
daughter of Mr* Home, surgeon to Burgoyne's regimetot 
of light-horse, by whom he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters. In 1772 he undertook the professional education of 
his brother-in-law Mr. Everard Home, then leaving West- 
minster-school, who has assiduously pursued his steps, 
ably recorded his merits, and successfully emulates his re- 

As the family of Mr. Hunter increased, his practice and 
character also advanced ; but the expence of his collec- 
tion absorbed a very considerable part of his profits. The 
best rooms in his house were filled with his prepara- 
tions ; and his mornings, from sun -rise to eight o'clock, 
were constantly employed in anatomical and philosophical 
pursuits. The knowledge which he thus obtained, he ap- 
plied most successfully to the improvement of the art of 
surgery \ was particularly studious to examine morbid 

332 HUNTER. 

i, and to investigate the cause of failure when opera- 
tions bad not been productive of their due effect It was 
thus that be perfected the mode of operation for the hy- 
drocele, and made several other improvements of different 
kinds. At the same time the volumes of the Philosophical 
Transactions bear testimony to his success in comparative 
. anatomy, which was his favourite, and may be called al- 
most his principal pursuit When he met with natural 
appearances which could not be preserved in actual pre- 
parations, he employed able draughtsmen to represent 
them on paper ; and for several years he even kept one in 
his family expressly for this purpose. In Jan. 1776, Mr. 
fiunter was appointed surgeon-extraordinary to his ma- 
jesty. In the autumn of the same year, he bad an illness 
of so severe a nature, as to turn his mind to the care of a 
provision for his family in case of his decease ; when, con- 
sidering that the chief part of his property was vested in 
bis collection, he determined immediately to put it into 
such a state of arrangement as might make it capable of 
being disposed of to advantage at his death. In this he 
happily lived to succeed in a great measure, and finally 
left his museum so classed as to be fit for a public si- 

Mr. Hunter in 1781 was elected into the royal society of 
sciences and belles lettres at Gottenburg; and in 1 7 S3, 
into the royal society of medicine, and the royal academy 
of surgery at Paris. In the same year he removed from 
Jermyn-street to a larger house in Leicester-square, and, 
with more spirit than consideration, expended a very great 
sum in buildings adapted to the objects of bis pursuits. 
He was in 1785 at the height of his career as a surgeon, 
and performed some operations with complete success, 
which were thought by the profession to be beyond the 
reach of any skill. His faculties were now in their fullest 
vigour, and his body sufficiently so to keep pace with 
the activity of his mind. He was engaged in a very 
extensive practice, he was surgeon to St. George's hos- 
pital, he gave a very long course of lectures in the 
winter, had a school of practical anatomy in his house. 
Was continually engaged in experiments concerning the 
animal (economy, and was from time to time producing 
very important publications. At the same time he in- 
stituted a medical society called " Lyceum Medicum 
Londinense," which met at his lecture-rooms, and soon 


rose to considerable reputation. On the* death of Mr. 
Middletoo, surgeon- general, in 1786, Mr. Hunter obtained 
the appointment of deputy surgeon-general to the army ; 
but in the spring of the year he had a violent attack of ill- 
ness, which left him for the rest of his life subject to pe- 
culiar and violent spasmodic affections of the heart In 
July 1787, he was chosen a member of the American phi- 
losophical society. In 1790, finding that his lectures oc- 
cupied too much of his time, he relinquished them to his 
brother-in-law Mr. Home ; and in this year, on the death 
of Mr. Adair, he was appointed inspector-general of hos- 
pitals, and surgeon-general of the army. He was also 
elected a member of the royal college of surgeons in 

The death of Mr. Hunter was perfectly sudden, an.d the 
consequence of one of those spasmodic seizures in the 
heart to which he had now for several years been subject. 
It happened on the 16th of October, 1793. Irritation of 
mind had long been found to bring on this complaint ; and 
on that day, meeting with some vexatious circumstances at 
St. George's hospital, he put a degree of constraint upon 
himself to suppress his sentiments, and in that state went 
into another room ; where, in turning round to a physician 
who was present, he fell, and instantly expired without a 
groan. Of the disorder which produced this effect, Mr. 
Home has given a clear and circumstantial account, of a 
very interesting nature to professional readers. Mr. Hun- 
ter was short in stature, but uncommonly strong, active, 
and capable of great bodily exertion. The prints of him 
by Sharp, from a picture by sir Joshua Reynolds, give a 
forcible and accurate idea of his countenance. His tem- 
per was warm and impatient ; but his disposition was can- 
did and free from reserve, even to a fault. He was supe- 
rior to every kind of artifice, detested it in others, and in 
order to avoid it, expressed his exact sentiments, sometimes 
too openly and too abruptly. His mind was uncommonly 
active ; it was naturally formed for investigation, and so 
attached to truth and fact, that he despised all unfounded 
speculation, and proceeded always with caution upon the 
solid ground of experiment. At the same time his acute- 
ness iu observing the result of those experiments, his inge- 
nuity in contriving, and his adroitness in conducting them, 
enabled him to deduce from them advantages which others 
would not have derived. It has been supposed, very 

13* HUNTER. 

falsely, that h* wv fond of hypothesis ; on the ttmtrary, if 
be was defective in any talent, it was ill that of imagina- 
tion ; he pursued truth on all occasions With Mathematical 
precision, but be made no fanciful dxcuriibns. Conver- 
sation in a mixed company, where no subjedt could b^ 
connectedly pursued, fatigued instead of amusing him ; 

Earticularlr towards the latter part of bis life. Re slept 
ttle ; seldom more than four boars in the night, and 
about an hour after dinner. Bnt his occupations, laborious 
'as they woisM have been to others, were far from being 
fatiguing to bim, being so perfectly congenial to his mind. 
He spoke freely and sometimes hardily of his contempo- 
raries; but he considered sorgery as in its infancy, and, 
being very anxious for its advancement, thought meanly or 
those professors whose exertions to promote it were unequal 
to his own. Money be valued no otherwise than as it 
enabled him to pursue his researches ; and in his zeal to 
benefit mankind, he attended too little to the interests of 
bis own family. Altogether he Was a man suoh as few ageif 
produce, and by his great contributions to the stores of 
kaowledge, will ever deserve the gratitude and veneration 
of posterity. 

The contributions of Mr. Hunter to the Transactions of 
the Royal Society cannot easily be enumerated : his other 
works appeared in the following order. 1. A treatise on 
" the Natural History of the Human Teeth," 1771, 4to; a 4 
second part to which was added in 1778. 2. " A treatise 
on the Venereal Disease," 1786, 4to. S. " Observations 
on certain Parts of the Animal (Economy ," 1786, 4to. 
4. " A treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gun- 
shot Wounds," 4to. This was a posthumous' work, not 
appearing tilf the year 1794; but it had been sent to the 
press in the preceding year, before his death. There are 
also some papers by Mr. Hunter in the " Transactions of 
the Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirur- 
gical Knowledge," which were published in 1793. The 
collection of comparative anatomy which Mr. Hunter left' 
behind him, must be considered as a proof tff talents, 
assiduity, and labour, which cannot be contemplated with- 
out surprize and admiration. His attempt in this collection 
hat been to exhibit the gradations of nature, from the 
most simple state in which life is found to exist, up to the 
most perfect and complex of the animal creation, to man 
himself. By his an and cai-e, he baa been able sq to 


expose and preserve in a dried stole, or in spirits, the 
corresponding parts of animal bodies, that the various links 
in the chain of perfectness may be readily followed and 
clearly understood. They are classed in the following 
order '• first, the parts constructed for motion ; secondly, 
the parts essential to animals as respecting their own 
internal economy ; thirdly, parts superadded for purposes 
concerned with external objects ; fourthly, parts designed 
for the propagation of the species, and the maintenance 
and preservation of {he young. To go further into these 
particulars, would lead us to a detail inconsistent with the 
nature of this work; hut they are of the most curious 
kind, and may be found described in a manner at once ' 
clear and instructive, in the " Life of John Hunter," from 
which we have taken this account By his will, Mr. Hun- 
ter directed that this museum should be offered to the 
purchase of government ; and, after some negotiation, it 
wps bought for the public use for the sum of 15,000/. and 
given to the College of Surgeons, on condition of exposing 
it to public view on certain days in the week, and giving a 
set of annual lectures explanatory of its contents. A large 
building for its reception has been completed in Portugal- 
street, connected with the College of Surgeons, in Lin- 
coln's-inn fields; and in the spring of the year 1810 the 
first course of lectures was delivered by Mr. Home and sir 
William Blizard. 1 

HUNTER (Robert, esq.), author of the celebrated 
" Letter on Enthusiasm," and, if Coxeter be right in his 
MS conjecture in his title-page of the only copy extant, 
of a farce called " Androhoros." He was appointed lieu* 
tenant-governor of Virginia in 1708, but was taken by the 
French in his voyage thither. Two excellent letters, ad* 
dressed tq colonel Hunter while a prisoner at Paris, which 
reflect equal honour on Hunter and Swift, are printed in 
the 12th volume of the Dean's works, by one of which it 
appears, that the " Letter on Enthusiasm" had been 
ascribed to Swift, as it has still more commonly been to 
the earl of Shaftesbury. In 17 10 he was appointed gover- 
nor of New York, and sent with 2700 Palatines to settle 
there. From Mr. Gough's " History of Croyland Abbey," 
we learn, that Mr. Hunter was a major-general, and that, 
during his government of New- York, he was directed • by. 

1 Life by Ererard Home. 

336 HUNTER. 

her majesty lo provide subsistence for about 3000 Palatines 
(the number stated in the alienating act) sent from Great 
Britain to be employed in raising and manufacturing naval 
stores; and by an account stated in 1734, it appears that 
the governor had disbursed 20,000£ and upwards in that 
undertaking, no part of which was ever repaid. He re- 
turned to England in 1719; and on the accession of 
George II. was continued governor of New York and the 
Jerseys. On account of his health he obtained the go- 
vernment of Jamaica, where he arrived in February 1728 ; 
died March 31, 1734 ; and was buried in that island. 1 

HUNTINGTON (Henry or), an ancient English his- 
torian, was the son of one Nicholas, a married priest, and 
was born about the beginning of the twelfth century, or 
end of the eleventh, for he informs us that he was made 
an archdeacon by Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, who 
died in 1123. He was educated by Albinus of Anjou, a 
learned canon of the church of Lincoln, and in his youth 
discovered a great taste for poetry, by writing eight books 
of epigrams, as many of love verses, with three long 
didactic poems, one of herbs, another of spices, and a 
third of precious stones. In his more .advanced years he 
applied to the study of history ; and at the request of 
Alexander bishop of Lincoln, who was his great friend 
and patron, he composed a general History of England, 
from the earliest accounts to the death of king Stephen, 
1 154, in eight books, published by sir Henry Savile. In 
the dedication of this work to bishop Alexander, he tells 
us, that in the ancient part of his history he had followed 
the venerable Bede, adding a few things from some other 
writers: that he had compiled the sequel from several 
chronicles he had found in different libraries, and from 
what he had beard and seen. Towards the conclusion be 
very honestly acknowledges that it was only an abridgment, 
juid that to compose a complete history of England, many 
.aiore books were necessary than he could procure. Mr. 
Wharton has published a long letter of this author to his 
friend Walter, abbot of Ramsay, on tbe contempt of the 
world, which contains many curious anecdotes of the kings, 
nobles, prelates, and other great men who were his con- 
temporaries. In the Bodleian library is a MS Latin poem 
by Henry, on tbe death of king Stephen, and the arrival 


' Nicholt»t Bovyer.— Biog. Dram.— grift's Work* 

ft U N T E It. 83* 

df Henry II. in England, which is by no* ifteans contemp* 
• tible, and in Trinity college library, Oxford, is a fine MS. 
of his book " De imagine mundi." When he died is 
uncertain. 1 

HUNTINGTON (Robert), a learned English divine, 
was born at Deorhyrst in Gloucestershire, where his father 
was minister, in 1636. Having been educated in school 
learning at Bristol, he was sent to Merton-college, Oxford, 
of which in due time he was chosen fellow. He went 
through the usual course of arts and sciences with great 
applause, and then applied himself most diligently t0 
divinity and the Oriental languages. The latter became 
afterwards of infinite service to him, for he was chosen 
chaplain to the English factory at Aleppo, and sailed from 
England in Sept. 1670. During his eleven years 9 resideuce 
in this place, he applied himself particularly to search out 
and procure manuscripts ; and for this purpose maintained 
a correspondence with the learned and eminent of every 
profession and degree, which his knowledge in the Eastern 
languages, and especially the Arabic, enabled him to do. 
He travelled also for his diversion and improvement, not 
only into the adjacent, but even into distant places ; and 
after having carefully visited almost all Galilee and Samaria, 
he went to Jerusalem. In 1677 he went into Cyprus; and 
the year after undertook a journey of 150 miles, for the 
sake of beholding the venerable ruins of the once noble 
and glorious city of Palmyra ; but, instead of having atx. 
opportunity of viewing the place, he and they that were 
with him were very near being destroyed by two Arabian 
princes, who had taken possession of those parts. He had 
better success in a journey to Egypt in 1680, where he 
met with several curiosities and manuscripts, and had the 
pleasure of conversing with John Lascaris, archbishop of 
mount Sinai. 

In 1682 he embarked, and landed in Italy; and having 
visited Rome, Naples, and other places, taking Paris in his 
way, where he stayed a few weeks, he arrived, after many 
dangers and difficulties, safe in his own country. He retired 
immediately to his fellowship at Merton college ; and in 
1683 took the degrees in divinity. About the same time, 
through the recommendation of bishop Fell, he was ap- 

1 Nicolson's English Hist Library.— Henry'* Mist, of Britain — Wbarton't 
Jtaglia Sacra.— Warton'i Hist, of Poetry.— Reram Aogl, Scriptures a, SayiU. 

Vol. XVIII. 2 


pointed master of Trinity college in Dublin, and weift 
over thither, though against his will ; but the troubles that 
happened in Ireland at the Revolution forced him back for 
a time into England ; and though he returned after the 
reduction of that kingdom, jet he resigned his mastership 
in 1691, and came home, with an intention to quit it no 
more. In the mean time be sold for 700/: his fine collec- 
tion of MS8. to the curators of the Bodleian library ; 
having before made a present of thirty- fire. In 1692 he 
was presented by sir Edward Tornor to tbe rectory of 
Great Hatiingbury in Essex, and the same year he married. 
He was offered about that time the bishopric of Kilmore 
in Ireland, but refused it; in 1701, however, he accepted 
that of Rapboe, and was consecrated in Christ-church, 
Dublin, Aug. 20. He survived bis consecration but twelve 
days, for he died Sept. 2, in his 66th year, and was 
buried in Trinity college chapel. 

All that be published himself was, " An Account of tbe 
Porphyry Pillars in Egypt," in the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions, No. 161." Some of his "Observations" are 
printed in "A Collection of curious Travels and Voyages," 
in two vols. 8vo, by Mr. J, Ray ; and thirty-nine of his 
letters, chiefly written while he was abroad, were published 
by Dr. T. Smith, at the end of his life. 1 

HURD (Richard), an eminent and accomplished pre* 
fete, was born at Congreve, in tbe parish of Penkrich, in 
Staffordshire, Jan. 13, 1720. He was the second of three 
children, all sons, of John and Hannah Hurd, whom be 
describes as " plain, honest, and good people, farmers, but 
of a turn of mind that might have honoured any rank and 
any education ;" 'and they appear to have been solicitous 
to give this son the best and most liberal education. They 
rented a considerable farm at Congreve, but soon after 
removed to a larger at Penford, about half-way between 
Brewood and Wolverhampton in the same county. There 
being a good grammar-school at Brewood, Mr. Hurd was 
educated there under the rev. Mr. Hilman, and upon his 
death under bis successor the rev. Mr Bud worth, whose 
memory our author affectionately honoured in a dedication, 
in 1757, to sir Edward Littleton, who bad also been edu- 
cated at Brewood school. He continued under this roaster** 
care until 1733, when he was admitted of Emanuel college* 

l Lift by Dr. Sraiib, io Utio, Loud. 1704, **».— Bio* BriL 



Cambridge, but did not go to reside there till a year or twd 

In this college he had the happiness of being encouraged 
by, and hearing the lectures of, that excellent tutor, Mr. 
Henry Hubbard, although he had been admitted ueder 
another person. He took the degree of B. A. in 1739, 
proceeded Ajl. A. and was elected fellow in 1742. In June 
of that year he was ordained deacon in St. Paul's cathedral, 
London, by Dr. Joseph Butler, bishop of Bristol and dean 
of St. Paul's, on letters dimiasory from Dr. Goocb, bishop 
of Norwich; and was ordained priest May 20, 1744, in the 
chapel of GonvJJe and Caius college, Cambridge, by the 
aarne Dr. Goocb. 

Mr. Hurd's first literary performance, as far as can be 
ascertained, was." Remarks on a late book entitled * An 
Enquiry into the rejection of the Christian miracles by the 
Heathens, by William Weston, B. D.'" 1746. On the 
peace of Aiz-la-Chapelle, in 1748, he contributed some 
verses to the university collection of 1749. In the same 
year be took the degree of B. D. and published bis " Com- 
mentary on ^Horace's Ars Poetica*," * n the preface to 
which he took occasion to compliment Mr. Warburton in a 
manner which procured him the acquaintance of that au- 
thor, who soon after returned the eulogium, in his edition 
of Pope's works, in which he speaks of Mr. Hurd's Com- 
mentary in terms of the highest approbation. Hence 
arose an intimacy which remained unbroken during the 
whole of their lives, and is supposed to have had a con* 
siderable effect on the opinions of Mr. Hurd, who was 
long considered as the first scholar in what has been called 
the Warburton ian. school. His Commentary was reprinted 
in 1757, with the addition of two Dissertations, one on 
the Province of the Drama, the other on Poetical Imitation, 
and a letter to Mr. Mason, on the " Marks of Imitation." 
A fourth edition, corrected and enlarged, was published id 
3 vols. 8vo. in 1765, with the addition of another Disser* 

* This Commentary endeavour? to 
establish, that Horace writes, in his 
V Art of Poetry," with systematic or- 
der and the strictest method; an idea 
which has been combated- by several 
critics. Colman's method of account- 
ing for this epistle, published in 1783, 
u thought preferable. On that occa- 
sion Or. Hurd said to Dr. Douglas, the 
late bishop of Salisbury, " Give my 

compliments to Colman, and thank him 
for the handsome manner in which be 
has treated me, and tell him that 1 thiol 
he is right." Drs. Warton and Beatti* 
were of the same opinion. Yet we 
know not whether all this much dimu 
nishee the Talue of Dr. Hurd's perform* 
ance as a piece of miscellaneous cri- 

Z 2 

340 ftURD. 

tation on the idea of universal Poetry ; and the whole were 
again reprinted in 1776. It is needless to add that they 
fully established Mr. Hurd's character as au elegant, acute, 
and judicious critic. 

In May 1750, by Warburton's recommendation to 
Dr. Sherlock) bishop of London, Mr. Hurd was appointed 
one of the Whitehall preachers. At this period the uni- 
versity of Cambridge was disturbed by internal divisions, 
occasioned by an exercise of discipline against some of its 
members, who had been wanting in respect to those who 
were entrusted with its' authority. A punishment hav- 
ing been inflicted on some delinquents, they refused 
to submit to it, and appealed from the vice-chancellor's 
jurisdiction. The right of the university, and those to 
whom their power was delegated, becoming by this means 
the subject of debate, several pamphlets appeared, and 
among others who signalised themselves upon this occasion, 
Mr. Hurd was generally supposed to have written " The 
Academic, or, a disputation on the state of the university 
of Cambridge, and the propriety of the regulations made 
in it on the 1 1th day of May and the 26th day of June 
1750, 8vo ;" but this was, as we have already remarked, the 
production of Dr. Green : Mr. Hurd, however, wrote 
" The opinion of an eminent lawyer (the earl of Hard wicke) 
concerning the right of appeal from the vice-chancellor of 
Cambridge to the senate ; supported by a short historical 
account of the jurisdiction of the university ; in answer 
to a late pamphlet, intituled ' An Inquiry into the right 
of appeal from the vice-chancellor, &c. 9 By a fellow of a 
college, 19 1751, 8vo. This passed through three editions; 
and being answered, was defended in " A Letter to the 
Author of a Further Inquiry," 1752, 8vo. It is also pre- 
served in the bishop's works. 

In 1751, he published the " Commentary on the Epis- 
tle to Augustus ;" and a new edition of both Comments, 
with a dedication to Mr. Warburton, in 1753. In 1752 
and 1753, he published two occasional sermons, the one 
at the assizes at Norwich, on " The Mischiefs of Enthu- 
siasm and Bigotry," and the other, for the charity schools 
at Cambridge, neither of which has been retained in his 
works. The friendship which had already taken place be- 
tween Warburton and Mr. Hurd had from its commence- 
ment continued to- increase by the aid of mutual good 
offices; and in 1755 an opportunity offered for the Utter 

KURD. 341 

to shew the warmth of his attachment, which he did per- 
haps with too close an imitation of his friend's manne& 
Dr. Jortin having, in his " Dissertations," spoken of War* 
burton with less deference and submission than the claims 
of an overbearing and confident superiority seemed to de- 
mand, Mr. Hurd wrote a keen satire, entitled " The Deli* 
cacy of Friendship, a seventh dissertation ; addressed to 
the author of the sixth," 1755, 8vo. It has been said, that 
upon reflection, he was so little satisfied with the warmth 
of zeal he had displayed on this occasion, that he took 
great pains to suppress this pamphlet. If so, it is difficult 
to account for the eagerness with which it was brought for- 
ward again in a new edition in 1788, by an eminent living 
scholar, in a volume entitled "Tracts by Warburton and 
a Warburtonian." It was this obtrusion, however, for 
which it would not be easy to assign the most liberal mo- 
tives, that probably induced the author in his latter days, 
not only to acknowledge the tract, but to include it among 
those which he wished to form his collected works. 

Although Mr, Hurd's reputation as a polite scholar and 
critic had been now fully established, his merit bad not 
attracted the notice of the great. He still continued to 
reside at Cambridge, in learned and unostentatious retire- 
ment, till, in Dec. 1756, he became, on the death of Dr. 
Arnald, entitled to the rectory of Tburcaston, as senior 
fellow of Emanuel college, and was instituted Feb. 16, 1757. 
At this place he accordingly entered into residence, and, 
perfectly satisfied with his situation, continued his studies, 
which were still principally employed on subjects of polite 
literature. It was in this year that he published " A Let- 
ter to Mr. Mason on the Marks of Imitation," one of his 
most agreeable pieces of this class, which was afterwards 
added to the third edition of the " Epistles of Horace." 
This obtained for him the return of an elegy inscribed to 
him by the poet, in 1759, in which Mason terms him " the 
friend of his youth," and speaks of him as seated in " low 
Thurcaston's sequester' d bower, distant from promotion's 
view." The same year appeared Mr. Hurd's " Remarks 
on Hume's Essay on the Natural History of Religion." 
Warburton appears to have been so much concerned in 
this tract, that we find it republished by Hurd in the quarto 
edition of that prelate's works, and enumerated by him in 
his list of his own works. It appears to have given Hume 
some uneasiness, and he notices it in his account of his 
life with much acrimony. 

34* HUB D. 

Id 175$, he published a volume of " Dialogues on sin- 
cerity, retirement, the golden age of Elizabeth, and the 
constitution of the English government," in 8vo, without 
bis name. In this work be was thought to rank among those 
writers who, in party language, are called constitutional ; 
but it is said that he made considerable alterations in the 
subsequent editions*: This was followed by his very en- 
tertaining " Letters on Chivalry and Romance/' which with 
his yet more useful " Dialogues on foreign Travel" were 
republished in 1765, with the author's name, and an excel* 
lent preface on the manner of writing dialogue, under the 
general title of " Dialogues moral and political." In the 
year preceding, he wrote another of those zealous tracts in 
vindication of VVarburton, which, with the highest respect 
for Mr. Hurd's talents, we may be permitted to say, nave 
added least to his fame, as a liberal and courteous po- 
lemic. This was entitled " A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Tho- 
mas Leland, in which his late ' Dissertation on the prin- 
ciples of Human Eloquence* it criticized, and the bishop 
of Gloucester's idea of the nature and character of an in- 
spired language, as delivered in his lordship's Doctrine of 
Grace, is vindicated from all the objections of the learned 
anther of the dissertation." This, with Mr. Hurd's other 
controversial tracts, is republished in vol. VIII. of the late 
authorized edition of his works, with the following lines, 
by way of advertisement, written not long before his death 
— " The controversial tracts, which make up this volume, 
were written and published by the author at different times, 
as opportunity invited, or occasion required. Some sharp- 
ness of style may be objected to them ; in regard to which 
be apologizes for himself in the words of the poet : 

— — Me quoque pectoris 
Tentavit in duki juventa 
Fervor — 
■ nunc ego mitibus 
ltutare qussro trietia." 

With this apology, we return to his well-earned promo- 
tions. In 1762, he had the sine-cure rectory of Folkcon, 
near Bridlington, Yorkshire, given him by the lord chan- 
cellor (earl of Nortbington), on the recommendation of 

. • " Dr. Johaton, however, was on- being arebbiahop of Canterbury, John- 
willing to allow him full credit for hit too laid, * I am glad he did not go to 
political conversion. I remember when Lambeth* for after alt, I fear he w a 
sis lonbhsj etodbwd tfae honour ff whig in h» hearts SotwtU's /ohaaoo. 

HUED. ft«« 

Mr. Allen of Prior- Park; and in 1765, on the recommen- 
dation of bishop Warburton and Mr. Charles Yorke, ha 
was chosen preacher of Lincotn's-inn ; and was collated to 
the archdeaconry of Gloucester, on the death of Dr. 
Geekie, by bishop Warburton, in August 1767. On Com- 
mencement Sunday, July 5, 1768, he was admitted D. D. 
at Cambridge; and on the same day was appointed to 
open the lecture founded by his friend bishop Warburton, 
for the illustration of the prophecies, in which he exhibited 
a model worthy of the imitation of his successors. His 
"Twelve Discourses" on that occasion, which had been 
delivered before the most polite and crowded audiences 
that ever frequented the chapel, were published in 1772, 
under the title of " An Introduction to the Study of the 
Prophecies concerning the Christian Church, and in parti- 
cular concerning the Church of Papal Rome ;" and raised 
his character as a divine, learned and ingenious, to an emi- 
nence almost equal to that which be possessed as a man of 
letters ; but his notion of a double sense in prophecy, which 
he in general supposes, has not passed without animadver- 
sion. This volume produced a private letter to the author 
from Gibbon the historian, under a fictitious name, re- 
specting the book of Daniel, which Dr. Hurd answered ; 
and the editor of Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works having 
printed the answer, Dr. Hurd thought proper to include 
both in the edition of bis works published since his death 
(in 1811). It was not, however, until the appearance of 
Gibbon's " Miscellaneous Works," that he discovered the 
real name of his correspondent. 

In 1769, Dr. Hurd published "The Select Works of Mr. 
Abraham Cowley," with a preface and notes, in 2 vols. Svo. 
This has not been thought the most judicious of Dr. Hurd's 
attempts, yet it was too fastidiously objected to, as inter- 
fering with the totality of Cowley's works. Dr. Hurd had 
no intention to sink the old editions; he only selected 
what he thought most valuable. 

In 1775, by the recommendation of lord Mansfield, who 
had for some time cultivated his acquaintance, and had a 
high esteem for his talents, he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry, and consecrated Feb. 
12, of that year. On this occasion he received an elegant 
and affectionate letter of congratulation from the members 
of Emanuel college, to which he returned an equally ele- 
gant and respectful letter of thanks. In this year he edited 

344 HUB D. 

a republication of bishop Jeremy Taylor's " Moral Demon* 
stration of the Truth of the Christian Religion," 8vo ; and 
eariy in 1776, published a volume of " Sermons preached 
at Lincoln's-inn," which was followed afterwards by a se- 
cond and third. These added very greatly to the reputa- 
tion he bad derived from his sermons on prophecy, and are 
equally distinguished by elegant simplicity of style, per- 
spicuity of method, and acuteness of elucidation. On June 
5th of this year, be was appointed preceptor to their royal 
highnesses the prince of Wales, and prince Frederick, now 
duke of York. Very soon after entering into the episco- 
pal office, appeared an excellent " Charge delivered to the 
clergy of the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, at the 
bishop's primary visitation in 1775 and 1776," and soon 
after, bis " Fast Sermon" for the " American rebellion, 1 * 
preached before the House of Lords. In 1781 he was 
elected a member of the royal society of Gottingen. It is 
somewhat remarkable that he did not belong to that of 

On the death of the bishop of Winchester, Dr. Thomas, 
in May 1781, bishop Hurd received a gracious message 
from his majesty, with the offer of the see of Worcester 
{vacant by the promotion of bishop North to Winchester)^ 
and of the clerkship of the closet, in the room of Dr. 
Thomas, both which he accepted. On his arrival at Har- 
tlebury castle, one of the episcopal seats of Worcester, he 
resolved to put the castle into complete order, and to 
build a library, which was much wanted. The library was 
accordingly finished in 1782, and furnished with a collect 
tion of books, the property of his lately deceased friend 
bishop Warburton, which be purchased. To these he af- 
terwards made several considerable additions, and be- 
?ueathed the whole of his own collection. On the death of 
>r. Cornwallis, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1783, bishop 
Hurd had the offer of the archbishopric from his majesty, 
with many gracious expressions, and was pressed to accept 
it : but he humbly begged leave to decline it, " as a charge 
Dot suited to his temper and talents, and much too heavy 
for him to sustain, especially in these times," alluding to 
the political distractions arising from a violent conflict be- 
tween Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox, and their respective sup- 
Jtorters. The king was pleased not to take offence at this 
reedom, and then to enter with Dr. Hurd into some con«* 
fidential conversation on the subject, " I took the liberty,' 1 


Said the good bishop to Mr. Nichols, when relating this 
affair, " of telling his majesty, that several much greater 
men than myself bad been contented to die bishops of 
Worcester ; and that I wished for no higher preferment.*! 

In the end of February 1788, was published in 7 vols, v. 'v i]$o 
4to, a complete edition of the Works of bishop Warburton, 
prepared by our prelate, but who did not publish the 
" Life" until 1795. In March 1788, a fi^e gold medal was 
given to him by bis majesty at the queen's house; the 
king's head on one side ; the reverse was taken from the 
bishop's seal (a cross with the initials on a label, 1. N. R. I. 
a glory above, and the motto below « rafav), which his 
majesty chanced to see and approved. The die was cut 
by Mr. Burch, and the medal designed for the annual 
prize-dissertation on theological subjects, in the univer- 
sity of Gottingen. In the summer of the same year he 
was honoured with a visit from their majesties at Hartle- 
bury castle. 

In 1795 the life of bishop Warburton appeared undef 
the title of " A Discourse, by way of general preface to 
the quarto edition of bishop Warburton's works ; contain- 
ing some account of the life, writings, and character of 
the author." Of this work, which excited no common 
portion of curiosity, the style is peculiarly elegant and 
pure, but the whole is too uniform in panegyric not to 
render the author liable to the suspicion of long- confirmed 
prejudices. Even the admirers both of Warburton and 
Hurd would have been content with less effort to magnify 
the former at the expence of all bis contemporaries ; and 
conscious that imperfection is the lot of all, expected that 
age and reflection would have abated, if not wholly extin- 
guished, the unscholarlike animosities of former times. 
But in this all were disappointed ; and it was with regret 
they saw the worst characteristics of Warburton, his inve- 
terate dislikes, his strong contempt, and sneering rancour, 
still employed to perpetuate his personal antipathies ; and 
employed, too, against such men as Lowth and Seeker. If 
these were the feelings of the friends who venerated War- 
burton, and who loved Hurd, others who never had much 
attachment to Warburton, or his school, found little diffi- 
culty in accumulating charges of gross partiality, and illi- 
beral language, against his biographer. This much may be 
sufficient in noticing this life as the production of Dr. Hurd. 
It will come hereafter to be more particularly noticed a* 
regarding Warburtob. 

Ui H U ft D. 

The remainder of bishop Hurd's life appears to hare 
been spent in the discharge of his episcopal duties, as far 
as his increasing infirmities would permit ; in studious re- 
tirement ; and often in lamenting the loss of old and tried 
friends. So late as the first Sunday in February before his 
death, though then declining in health and strength, he 
was able to attend his parish church, and to receive the 
sacrament. Free from any painful or acute disorder, he 
gradually became weaker, but his faculties continued per* 
feet After a few days* confinement to his bed, he ex- 
pired in his sleep, on Saturday morning, May 28, 1808, 
having completed four months beyond his eighty-eighth 
year. He was buried in Hartlebury church-yard, accord- 
ing to his own directions.— As a writer, Dr. Hurd's taste, 
learning, and genius, have been universally acknowledged, 
and although a full acquiescence has not been given in all 
his opinions, he must be allowed to be every where shrewd, 
ingenious, and original. Even in his sermons and charges, 
while he is sound in the doctrines of the church, his argu- 
ments and elucidations have many features of novelty, and 
are conveyed in that simple, yet elegant style, which ren- 
ders them easily intelligible to common capacities. Dr. 
Hurd's private character was in all respects amiable. 
With his friends and connexions he obtained the best eulo- 
gium, their constant and warm attachment ; and with the 
world in general, a kind of veneration, which could neither 
be acquired nor preserved, but by the exercise of great 
virtues. One of his last employments was to draw up a 
series of the dates of his progress through life. It is to be 
lamented he did not fill up this sketch. Few men were 
more deeply acquainted with the literary history of his 
time, or could have furnished a more interesting narra- 
tive. Much of him, however, may be seen in his Life of 
Warburton, and perhaps more in the collection of War- 
burtoti's " Letters" to himself, which he ordered to be 
published after his death, for the benefit of the Worcester 
I Infirmary. Of this only 250 copies were printed, to oor- 
I respond with the 4-to edition of Warburton's works, but it 
has since been reprinted in Svo. 

Dr. Hurd was early an admirer of Addison, and although 
afterwards seduced into the love of a style more flighty and 
energetic, maturer judgment led him back to the favourite 
of his youth. " His taste is so pure," Dr. Hurd says in a 
letter to Mason, " and his Virgiliau prose (as Dr. Young 

HURD, Sit 

styles it) so exquisite, that I have but now found out, it 
the close of a critical life, the full value of his writings." 
This letter, is dated 1770; and the author, whose life was 
then far from its close, employed his leisure hours in pre- 
paring an edition of Addison's works, which he left quite 
ready for the press. It was published accordingly in six 
handsome volumes, 8vo, with philological notes. These 
are accounted for in a very short address prefixed in these 
words : " Mr Addison is generally allowed to be the most 
Correct and elegant of all our writers ; yet some inaccura- 
cies of style have escaped him, which it is the chief design 
ef the following notes to point out. A work of this sort, 
well executed, would be of use to foreigners who study 
our language ; and even to such of our countrymen as 
wish to write it in perfect purity." This is followed by an 
elegant Latin inscription to Addis\>n, written in 1805, by 
which we learn that he intended this edition as a monu- 
ment to Addison — " Hoc monumentum sacrum esto." In 
die same year, 1810, a new edition of the works of bishop 
Warburton appeared, according to Dr. Hurd's directions ; 
and, for the first time, an edition of his own works, in 8 
vols. 8vo, consisting of his critical works, moral and poli- 
tical dialogues, his sermons, and controversial tracts. 1 

HURDIS (James), an ingenious poet, and very amiable 
man, the son of James Hurdis, gent, was born at Bishop- 
stone in Sussex in. 1763. His father dying, and leaving 
bis mother in no affluent circumstances, with seven children, 
seems to have laid the foundation of that extreme tender- 
ness and liberality of brotherly affection which formed the 
most striking feature in the character of Mr. Hurdis. He 
was educated at Chichester school, where being of a deli* 
cate constitution, he seldom partook in the juvenile sports 
of his school companions, but generally employed bis hours 
of leisure in reading. His inclination to poetry soon ap- 
peared in various juvenile compositions, and he contracted 
at the same time a fondness for the sister art, music, which 
ended in his being a very considerable performer pn several 
instruments. Before he left school, he nearly completed 
the building of an organ, an instrument he preferred to all 

In 1 780 he was entered a commoner of St. Mary-hail, 
Oxford ; and at the election in 1782, was chosen a demy 

> U'muim of hit lift prated to bit Workt.— Nicholt't Bowrer, 

348 H U R D I S. 

of St. Mary Magdalen college. Here his studies, which 
were close and uninterrupted! were encouraged, and his 
amiable character highly respected, by Dr. Home, presi- 
dent of Magdalen, and his successor Dr. Routh, by Dr. 
Sheppard, Dr. Rathbone, and others. About 1784 he went 
to Stamne( in Sussex, where he resided for some consider- 
able time as tutor to the late earl of Chichester's youngest 
son, the hon. George Pelham, now bishop of Exeter. la 
May 1785, having taken his bachelor's degree, he retired 
to the curacy of Burwash in Sussex, which he held for six 
years, but in the interim, in 1786, was elected probationer 
fellow of Magdalen, and the following year took his mas- 
ter's degree. Finding himself how sufficiently enabled to 
assist his mother in the support of her family, be hired a 
small house, and took three of his sisters to reside with 
him. In 1788, he first' appeared before the public as a 
poet, in " The Village Curate," the reception of which 
far exceeded his expectations, a second edition being 
called for the following year. This poem, although per- 
haps not highly finished, contained so many passages of 
genuine poetry, and evinced so much elegance, taste, and 
sense, as to pass through the ordeal of criticism with great 
applause, and to be considered as the earnest of future 
and superior excellence. Such encouragement induced 
the author to publish in 1790, his " Adriano, or the first of 
June," which was followed in a short time by his "Panthea," 
" Elmer and Ophelia," and the " Orphan Twins," all which 
were allowed to confirm the expectations of the public, 
and place the author in an enviable rank among living 
poets. These were followed by two publications, connect- 
ed with. his profession ; " A short critical Disquisition on 
the true Meaning of the word tffWm* found in Gen. i. 21, 
1790," and " Select critical Remarks upon the English 
version of the first ten chapters of Genesis." In 1791, 
through the interest of the earl of Chichester, he was ap«» 
pointed to the living of Bishopstoue ; and about the same 
time wrote his tragedy of " Sir Thomas More," a poem of 
considerable merit, but not intended for the stage. In 
1792, he was deprived by death of his favourite sister Ca^ 
therine, whose elegant mind he frequently pourtrayed in 
his works, under the different appellations of Margaret and 
Isabel. On this affliction he quitted his curacy, and re- 
turned with his two sisters to Bishopstone. Here the 
t rouble of his mind was considerably alleviated by an affeo 


H U R D I S. SW 

tionate invitation from his much-esteemed friend Mr. Hay* 
* ley to visit Eartham, where he had the pleasing satisfaction 
of becoming personally known to Cowper, the celebrated 
poet) with whom he had maintained a confidential corre- 
spondence for some years. 

In 1792, he published his " Cursory Remarks upon the 
arrangement of the plays of Shakspeare, occasioned by 
reading Mr. Malone's Essay on the chronological order of 
those celebrated pieces ;" which showed that he had be- 
stowed much attention on this curious subject In April 
1793, he went to Oxford, and with two of his sisters, re- 
sided in a small house at Temple Cowley. In November 
of the same year, he was elected professor of poetry in that 
university, and in the year following took 'the degree of 
B. D. On being elected professor, be published a speci- 
men of some intended lectures on English poetry, and 
meant to have published the lectures themselves, a few of 
which he printed at a private press, but the scheme was 
dropped for want of encouragement. In 1797 he took his 
degree of D. D. and in 1799, married Harriet, daughter of 
Hughes Minet, esq. of Fulbam, Middlesex. In 1800 he 
published his " Favourite Village, 9 * and the same year bis 
(< Twelve Dissertations on the Nature and Occasion of Psalm 
and Prophecy," 8vo, in which he displays much ingenuity 
and acumen, as in all his publications, but has in some in- 
stances yielded too much to the hypotheses which arise 
from a fertile imagination, and are repugnant to the genius 
of the Hebrew criticism, and the rules of Hebrew gram- 
mar. Dr. Hurdis's fame seems indeed more solidly esta- 
blished on his poetical than his critical works. 
- Dr. Hurdis died Dec. 23, 1801, after a very short illness, 
in his thirty-eighth year, leaving a widow and two sons, 
and a posthumous daughter. He was buried, by his own 
desire, at Bishopstone. As few men bore so. excellent a 
character in every station and duty of life, few have been 
more generally lamented. In 1808, a correct and elegant 
edition of his " Poems,' 1 in 3 vols, was printed at the uni- 
versity-press, Oxford, encouraged by a very large list of 
subscribers. They have since been partly reprinted, and 
are likely to retain their popularity. 1 

HURE (Charles), a French divine of some eminence, 
was born at Champigny-sur-Youne, in 1639, the son of a 

1 Life pr«6xed bv Miss Hurdis to the Oxford edition of h)s Poems,— Hay ley's 
Ufe of Cowper.— Monthly Review, &c. 

350 IURI 

labourer. He made it bis object to know every thing that 
could throw any light upon theology ; and with this view 
be studied the oriental languages. He was a member of 
the learned society of Port-Royal, where he imbibed at 
once his zeal for religion and for letters. He was after*, 
wards professor of tbe learned languages in the university 
of Paris, and principal of the college of Boncoort He 
died in 1717. There are extant by him, 1. A Dictionary 
of tbe Bible, 2 vols, folio, less full, and less complete, than 
that of Calmet, published in 1715. 2. An edition of the 
Latin Testament, with notes, which are much esteemed, 
S vols. 12mo. 3. "A French translation of the former, 
with tbe notes from the Latin augmented, 1 70S, 4 vols. 
12 mo. 4. " A Sacred Grammar," with rules for under- 
standing the literal sense of the Scripture. He* was con* 
sidered as a Jansenist ; and by some said to be only Ques- 
nel a little moderated. 1 

HU8S (John), a celebrated divine and martyr, was born 
at a town in Bohemia, called Hossenitz, about 1376, and 
liberally educated in the university of Prague. Here be 
took the degree of B. A. in 1 393, and that of master in 
1395 ; and we find him, in 1400, in orders, and a minhter 
of a church in that city. About this time the writings of 
our countryman Wickliffe had spread themselves amongr 
the Bohemians, which was owing to the following circum- 
stance : Queen Anne, the wife of Richard II. of England, 
was daughter to the emperor Charles IV. and sister to 
Wenceslaus king of Bohemia, and Sigismund emperor of 
Germany. She was a princess of great piety, virtue, and 
knowledge, nor could she endure the implicit service and 
devotion of the Romish church* Her death happened in 
1394, and her funeral was attended by all the nobility of 
England. She had patronized Wickliffe, and after her 
death, several of Wickliffe'* books were carried by her at- 
tendants into Bohemia, and were the means of promoting 
the reformation . there. Tbey had also been carried into 
the same country by Peter Payne, an Englishman, one of 
his disciples, and principal of Edmund-hall. Fox men- 
tions another person, a young nobleman of Bohemia, who 
had studied some time at Oxford, and carried home with 
htm several of Wickliffe's tracts. Tbey were particularly 
read by the students at Prague, among the -chief of whom 

> MorwU-Dict. Hltt. 

H U S S. 351 

was Huss; who, being much taken with Wickliffe's no- 
tions, began to preach and write with great zeal against 
the superstitions and errors of the church of Rome, fie 
succeeded so far, that the sale of indulgences gradually 
decreased among the Bohemians ; and the pope's party de- 
clared, that there would soon be an end of religion, if 
measures were not taken to oppose the restless endeavours 
of the Hussites. With a view, therefore, of preventing this 
danger, Subinco, the archbishop of Prague, issued forth 
two mandates in 1408 ; one, addressed to the members of 
the university, by which they were ordered to bring toge- 
ther all Wickliffe's writings, that such as were found to 
contain any thing erroneous or heretical might be burnt; 
the other, to all curates and ministers, commanding them 
to teach the people, that, after the consecration of the 
elements in the holy Sacrament, there remained nothing 
but the real body and blood of Christ, under the appear- 
ance of bread and wine. Huss, whose credit and authority 
in the university were very great, as well for his piety and 
learning, as on account of considerable services he had 
done, found no difficulty in persuading many of its mem* 
bers of the unreasonableness and absurdity of these man- 
date* : the 'first being, as he said, a plain encroachment 
upon the liberties and privileges of the university, whose 
members had an indisputable right to possess, and to read 
all sorts of books ; the second, inculcating a most abomin- 
able error. Upon this foundation they appealed to Gre- 
gory XII. and the archbishop Subinco was summoned to 
Rome. But, on acquainting the pope that the heretical 
notions of Wickliffe were gaining ground apace in Bohe- 
mia, through the zeal of some preachers whp had read his 
books, a bull was granted him for the suppression of all 
such notions in his province. By virtue of this bull, Su- 
binco condemned the writings of Wickliffe, and proceeded 
against four doctors, who bad not complied with bis man- 
date in bringing in their copies. Huss and others, who 
were involved in this sentence, protested against this pro- 
cedure of the archbishop, and appealed from him a second 
time, in June 1410. The matter was then brought before 
John XXIII. who ordered Huss, accused of many errors 
and heresies, to appear in person at the court of Rome, 
and gave a special commission to cardinal Colonna to cite 
him. Huss, however, under the protection and counte- 
nance of Wenceslaus king of Bohemia, did not appear, but 

S52 huss. 

sent three deputies to excuse his absence, and to answer 
all which should be aMedged against him. Colonna paid 
do regard to the deputies, nor to any defence they could 
make ; but declared Huss guilty of contumacy to the court 
of Rome, and excommunicated him for it. Upon this the 
deputies appealed from the cardinal to the pope, who com- 
missioned four other cardinals to examine into the aflair. 
These commissaries not only cojiBrmed all that Colonna 
had done, but extended the excommunication, which was 
limited to Huss, to his friends and followers : they also 
declared him an Heresiarch, and pronounced an interdict 
against him. 

All this time, utterly regardless of what was doing at 
Rome, Huss continued to preach and write with great zeal 
against the errors and superstitions of that church, and in 
defence of Wickliffe and his doctrines. His discourses 
were pointed directly against the pope, the cardinals, and 
the clergy of that party ; and at the same time be published 
writings, to shew the lawfulness of exposing the vices of 
ecclesiastics. In 1413, the religious tumults and sedi- 
tions wefe become so violent, that Subinco applied to 
Wenceslaus to appease them. Wenceslaus banished Huss 
from Prague ; but still the disorders continued. Then the 
archbishop bad recourse \o the emperor Sigismond, who 
promised him to come into Bohemia, and assist in settling 
the affairs of the church ; but, before Sigismond could be 
prepared for the journey, Subinco died in Hungary. About 
this time bulls were published by John XXIII. at Prague 
* against Ladislaus king of Naples ; in which a crusade was 
proclaimed against that prince, and indulgences promised 
to all who would go to the war. This furnished Huss, 
who had returned to Prague upon the death of Subinco, 
with a favourable occasion of preaching against indul- 
gences and crusades, and of refuting these bulls : and 
the people were so affected and inflamed with his 
preaching, that they declared pope John to be Anti- 
christ. Upon this, some of the ringleaders among the 
Hussites were seized and imprisoned ; which, however, 
was not consented to by the people, who wefe prepared 
to resist, till the magistrate had promised that no harm 
should happen to the prisoners ; but the Hussites disco- 
vering that these persons had been executed in prison r took 
up arms, rescued their bodies, and interred them ho- 
nourably, as martyrs, in the church of Bethlehem, which 

HU8S. S5I 

was Buss's church. Huss, says Mr. Gilpin, discovered on 
this occasion a true Christian spirit The late riot had 
given him great concern ; and he had now so much weight 
with the people as to restrain them from attempting any 
farther violence, whereas, at the sound of a bell, be could 
have been surrounded with thousands, who might have 
laughed at the police of the city. 

Matters were in this state at Prague and in Bohemia, till 
the council of Constance was called; where it was agreed 
between the pope apd the emperor, that Huss should ap- 
pear and give an account of himself and his doctrine. The 
eqiperor promised him security against any danger, and 
that nothing should be attempted against his person; upon 
which he set out, after declaring publicly, that he wa* 
going to the council of Constance, to answer the accusa- 
tions that were formed against him ; and challenging all 
people yho bad any thing to except to his life and conver- 
sion, to do it without delay. He made the same decla- 
ration i n a i{ the towns through which he passed, and ar- 
rived at Constance, Nov. 3, 1414. Here he was accused 
In foriq, and a list of his heretical tenets laid before the 
pope and the prelates of the council. He was summoned 
to appear the twenty-sixth day after his arrival ; and de- 
clared himself ready to be examined, and to be corrected 
by them, if he should be found to have taught any doc- 
trine worthy of censure. , The cardinals soon after with- 
draw to deliberate upon the most proper method of pro- 
ceeding against Huss ; and the result of their deliberations 
wjp, that he should be imprisoned. This accordingly was 
done, notwithstanding the emperor's parole for his secu- 
rity ; nor were all his prince's endeavours afterwards suf- 
ficient to release him, though he exerted himself to the 
ytipost. Huss was removed from prison to prison for six 
months, suffering great hardships from those who had the 
care of him ; and at last was condemned of heresy by the 
council in his absence, and without a hearing, for main- 
taining that the Eucharist ought to be administered to the 
people in both kinds. The emperor, in the mean time* 
jCQipplajned heavily of the contempt that was shewn to 
Jiiipself, and of the usage that was employed towards Huss; 
insisting, that Huss ought to be allowed a fair and public 
hearing. In pretended compliance with this, he was oa 
the 5th and 7th of June 1415, brought before the council, 
and permitted to say what he could in behalf of himself 
Vol, XVIII. A a 

is* H U S SL 

afid his doctrines ; but every thing was carried on witfc 
noise and tumult, and Hass soon given to understand that 
fbey were not disposed to hear any thing from biro but m 
recantation of bis errors ; which, however, he absolutely 
refused, and was ordered back to prison. On July 6, be 
was brought again before the council, where be was con-* 
detuned of heresy, and ordered to be burnt The cere- 
mony of his execution was this : be was first stripped of hi* 
sacerdotal vestments by bishops nominated for that pur- 
pose ; next he wa£ formafly deprived -of his uriiversity-de-' 
grees; then he had a paper-crown put upon his bead, 
painted round with devils, and the word heresiarch in- 
scribed in great letters ; then he was delivered over to the 
magistrate, who burnt him aHve, after having first burnt 
his books at the door of the church. He died with great 
firmness and resolution; and Iris ashes were afterwards 
gathered up and thrown inter the Rhine. His writings^ 
which are very numerous and learned, were collected into 
a body and published, 1558, in two volumes folio, under 
this title, " Joapnis Hussi Openg quie extant.** To pre- 
serve his memory, it is said that the 7th of July was, for 
many years, held sacred among the Bohemians. In some 
places large fires were lighted in the evening of that day 
upon the mountains, to preserve the memory of bis suf- 
ferings; round which the country people would assemble 
and sing hymns. Huss, although a martyr for the opinions 
of Wickliflfe, did not imbibe the whole of them. He was 
in most points a strenuous Calvinist, if we may anticipate 
the epithet, but neither he nor Jerom of Prague dented 
the real presence in the eucbarist,« and transubstamtatfenr* 
It is said that at his execution he ssked the excutioner. 
" Are you going to burn a gtose}" (the meaning of Huss m 
the Bohemian language) " In one century you will have 
a swan you can neither roast nor boil.* This was after- 
wards interpreted to mean Luther, who had a swan for his 
arms. Much of Huss's writings are in Fox, Gilpin, and 
other ecclesiastical writers. * 

HUSSEY (Giles), a distinguished artist, was the sixth, 
but only surviving son arid heir of John Hussey of Mam- 
bull, esq. descended from a very ancient family, and was 
born at Marnhutt (in Dorsetshire), Feb. 10, 1710. At 

> GflpM's Life.~-C*ve.— Frekeri TliettrvD* fcc—Sift m nowa* * fr» 
Mdal <feot. M» f . voL UX p. 1002. 

J& U S S E V. i$S 

seven years of age he was sent by bis. father, v>ho was * 
Roman catholic, to Poway for his education, where he 
continued two years. He then was removed to St. Osier's, 
where he pursued his studies for three years mote. Hid 
father, though willing to afford him some education, yet 
designed him for trade; to which, perhaps, he was the 
more inclined, as a near relation, in the commercial world, 
offered to take him under his protection and care. Though 
from a sense of parental authority, and filial obedience, 
Mr. Hussey did not at first openly oppose this design, yet 
it was so repugnant to his natural turn and bent, that 
he found his mind greatly embarrassed and perplexed; 
but after some opposition, his father very wisely yielded 
to his son's request, to be permitted to follow the di- 
rection of his genius; and for that end he placed him 
under the care and tuition of Mr. Richardson, the painter ; 
with whom he continued scarcely a month ; revolting at 
the idea and proposal of being kept in the bondage of 
apprenticeship for seven years. He then commenced pu~ 
pil at large under one Damini, a Venetian artist, esteemed 
one of the best painters at that time in England, with 
whom he continued nearly four years. During this time 
lie was principally employed in copying pictures, and 
finishing those of his master, whom he assisted in painting 
the ornaments of the cathedral of Lincoln. During their 
work, on a scaffold nearly twenty feet high, as Mr. Hussey 
was drawing back to see the effects of his pencil, he would 
have fallen, had not his master saved him as ingeniously 
as affectionately, and at some risque to himself. Mr. 
Hussey entertained such a sense of his master's humanity 
and kindness, that he could not bear the thought of being 
separated from him, and therefore requested permission 
of his father for Damini to attend him whilst pursuing his 
studies in Italy. This he obtained ; and under the care 
and direction of the Venetian, our young and inexpe- 
rienced pupil set out for the seat of science and genius ; 
bending first his course for Bologna. But, soon after their 
arrival, the poor unsuspecting pupil found that one act of 
friendship is by no means a sure pledge of another ; Da- 
mini having in a few days decamped, taking with him all 
his pupil's money and the best of his apparel. Mr. Hus- 
sey was, however, kindly relieved from this state of dis- 
tress by signor Gislonzorii, who had been ambassador from 

A A 2 

*M ft U » » E Y. 

the States of Venice id the coort ef London, and bow he* 
eame hi* friend and pretectofe 

Air. Hussey prosecuted hie studies at Bolognai for lk*ee 
years and a hal^ end then removed to Rone* where he 
was received wkh the most obliging courtesy by a cele- 
brated artist^ Uercule Lelli, who r refusing any ceespen* 
satioe, imparled to bin in the moat friendly manner all 
that be. knew of the art. This did not entirely satisfy Mr. 
Hussey* who seems, to have aimed at establishing soara 
fixed and unerring principles : hence be was led into a 
search after theory, which ended, although be knew no* 
thing of music, in his adopting the ancient hypothesis of 
aoussaal or harmonic proportions, as being the governing 
principle of beauty, in all forms produced by art, and even 
by nature. Delighted with this discovery, aa he thought 
it, he continued his studies at Rome with increasing plea* 
sure and reputation. At length, in 1737, be returned to 
his friends in England, with whom he resided till 1749, 
when be went to London, where he submitted to the drud«< 
gery (as he used to call it) of painting portraits for hie 

Whilst thus employed, our artist met with greet oppo» 
sitien and very illiberal treatment from those to whom, 
in the simplicity of bis heart, be communicated his prio-> 
ciple*, as well as from those whose professional pride wan 
piqued, and envy excited, by those masterly, elegant, and 
graceful performances which were the result of these 
principles. The meek spirit of Hussey, as well as bis pride 
of conscious superiority, could ill bear the treatment both 
himself and bis performances met with from the envy of 
those who depreciated their merit. This, as he often com* 
plained, affected him deeply ; and so depressed his spirits, 
and repressed his ardour, as to give him a disgust to the 
world, and almost a dislike to his profession, and his tern* 
per, though not Tendered sour and morose, was certainly 
exasperated. After conflicting with this and other diffi- 
culties and misfortunes, Mr. Hussey left London in the 
month of October 1768, and retired for three years into 
the country, to recover his health and spirits ; and having 
at length, by the death of his elder brother, Mr. Hussey, 
in 1773, succeeded to possession of his paternal estate at 
Marnholl, be vended there in affluence, ease, and content* 
and pursued bis favourite studies, and amusements of gar* 
dening, till the autumn of 1787 ; when, from motives purely 


a religious nature (after laving transferred and resigned 
all bis worldly possessions to a near relation) he retired to 
Bea&on, nearAshburton, hi Devonshire ; at which place, 
in the month of June 1788, as be was working in fhe gar* 
den in a very sultry day, he suddenly fell, and expired. 

The great merit of Mr. Hussey^ pencil drawings from 
life was, that he has preserved the best characteristic like* 
tiesses of any artist whatever. And, with respect to those 
of mere fancy, no man ever equalled him in accuracy, ele- 
gance, simplicity, and beauty. The academical -drawings 
he left at Bologna, notwithstanding the school has been 
often purged, as it is called, by removing old drawings to 
make room for those of superior merit, are still shewn on 
account of their superior merit. 

Mr. Barry, that ingenious and liberal artist, whose great 
work in the paintings which adorn the large room at the 
Society of Arts in the Adelphi, together with his descrip- 
tion of these paintings, do no less honour to himself than 
to his country, has, among other illustrious character^ 
thought Mr. Hussey entitled to an eminent place in his 
Elysium, and thus notices him : 4C Behind Phidias, I have 
introduced Giles Hussey, a name Hhat -never occurs to me 
without fresh grief, shame, and horror, at the mean, 
wretched cabal of mechanics, for 4bey deserve not the 
name of artists ; and their still meaner runners,* and as- 
sistants, that could have co-operated to cheat such an 
artist out of the exercise off abilities, that were so admirably 
calculated to have raised this country to an immortal repu- 
tation, and for the highest species of excellence. Why 
will the great, who can have no interest but in the glory 
of their country, why will they suffer any dirty, whisper* 
ing medium to interfere between diem and -such characters 
as Mr. Hussey, who appears to have been no less amiable 
as a man, than he was admirable as an artist 1 ? 

" The public are likely never to know the Whole of What 
they have lost in Mr. Hussey. The perfections that were 
possible to him, but a very few artists can conceive.; and 
it would be time lost to attempt giving an adequate iAea <rf 
them in words. 

" My attention -was first turned to this great character 
by a conversation I had, 'very early in life, -with Mr. Stuart, 
better known by the name of Athenian Stuart, as qpiftbet 
richly merited J>y the essential advantages Mr. Blurt J*4 
rendered the public, by his establishing just ideas, and a 

43* H U S S E Y. 

true Uste for the Grecian arts. The discourses of this 
truly intelligent and very candid artist, and what I saw of 
the works of Hussey, had altogether made such an impres- 
sion on my mind, as may be conceived, but cannot be 
expressed. With fervour I went abroad, eager to retrace 
mil Hussey* s steps, through the Greeks, through Rafaelle, 
through dissected nature, and to add to what he had been 
cruelly torn away from, by a laborious, intense study and 
investigation of the Venetian school. In the hours of re* 
taxation, I naturally endeavoured to recommend myself to 
the acquaintance of such of Mr. Hussey 9 s intimates as were 
still living : they always spoke of him with delight. And 
from the whole of what I could learn abroad, added to the 
information I received from my very amiable and venerable 
friend Mr. Moser since my return, Mr. Hussey must have 
been one of the most amiable, friendly, and companionable 
men, and the farthest removed from all spirit of strife and 

Mr. Edwards and Mr. Fuseli have spoken less respect* 
fully of Hussey. The latter says, that " disdaining por- 
traiture, discountenanced in history, Hussey was reduced 
to the solitary patronage of the then duke of Northumber- 
land, who, says Edwards, * offered to receive him into his 
family, and to give him a handsome pension, with the at- 
tendance of a servant, upon condition that he should em- 
ploy his talents chiefly, 9 though not exclusively, ' for the 
duke. This offer he rejected, because the duke did not 
comply with the further request of keeping a priest for him 
in the house. 9 Hussey, a bigot in religion, was attached 
to the creed of Rome; but had he not been so, com mis • 
•ions and patronage, almost confined to drawing copies, 
even from the antique, was certainly sufficiently provoking 
for a man of an original turn, to be rejected." It is not 
strictly true, however, that the duke of Northumberland 
was bis only patron. Mr. Duane was another, who pos- 
sessed many of his works. Mr. West bought some peuciled 
heads at Mr. Duane's sale, and said of one of them, that "he 
would venture to show it against any head, ancient or mo- 
dern ; that it was never exceeded, if ever equalled ; and 
that no man bad ever imbibed the true Grecian character 
and art deeper than Giles Hussey. 99 * 

1 NichoU*! Bowyer, an inttrwtiof memoir by Frtncii Webb, esq.— E4« 
vardVi Supplement to Walpok't Aneakcei,— PttkJnftco, by FomJL 


HUTCHESON (Dr. Francis), a philosopher of the 
Shaftesbury school, was the son of a dissenting minister in 
Ireland, and was born Aug. 8, 1694. He discovered early 
a superior capacity, and ardent thirst after knowledge; 
and when he had gone through his school-education, was 
sent to an academy to begin his course of philosophy. la 
1710 he removed from the academy, and entered a student 
in the university of Glasgow in Scotland. Here he renewed 
his study of the Latin and Greek languages, and applied 
himself to all parts of literature, in which he made a pro- 
gress suitable to his uncommon abilities. Afterwards he 
turned his thoughts to divinity, which he proposed to make 
the peculiar study and profession of his life, and for the 
prosecution of this he continued several years longer at 

He then returned to Ireland; and, entering into the 
ministry, was just about to be settled in a small congre- 
gation of dissenters in the north of Ireland, when some 
gentlemen about Dublin, who knew his great abilities and 
virtues, invited him to set up a private academy in that 
city, with which he complied, and met with much success, 
fie bad been fixed but a short time in Dublin, wheu his 
singular merits and accomplishments made him generally 
known; and his acquaintance was sought by men of all 
Tanks, who had any taste for literature, of any regard for * 
learned men. Lord Moles worth is said to have taken great 
pleasure in his conversation, and to have assisted him with 
his criticisms and observations upon his " Enquiry into the 
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue," before it came abroad. He 
received the same favour from Dr. Synge, bishop of Elphin, 
with whom he also lived in great friendship. The first 
^edition of this performance came abroad without the author's 
name, but the merit of it would not suffer him to be long 
concealed. Such was the imputation of the work, and the 
ideas it bad raised of the author, that lord Granville, who 
was then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, sent his private secre- 
tary to inquire at the bookseller's for the author ; and when 
he could not learn his name, he left a letter to be 'con- 
veyed to him : in consequence of which Mr. Hutcheson 
soon became acquainted with his excellency, and was 
treated by him, all the time he continued in his govern- 
ment, with distinguished marks of familiarity and esteem, 

from this time he began to be still more courted by men 
<>f distinction, either for rank or literature, in Ireland 


Abp. King beld him in great esteem ; and the friendship 
of that prelate was of great use to him hi screening him 
from two attempts made to prosecute him, for taking upon 
him the education of youth, without having qualified him- 
self by subscribing the ecclesiastical canons, and obtaining 
k license from the bishop. He had also a large share in 
the esteem of the primate Boulter, who, through his in- 
fluence, made a donation to the university of Glasgow of a 
Jrearly fund for an exhibitioner, to be breJ to any of the 
earned professions. A few years after his Inquiry into the 
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, his "Treatise on the Pafcsions" 
*as published : these works have been often reprinted, 
and always admired both for the sentiment and language, 
eveti by those who have not assented to the philosophy off 
them, nor allowed it to have any foundation in 'nature. 
About this time he wrote some philosophical papers, ac- 
counting for laughter in a different way frota Hobbe*, arrd 
teore honourable to human nature, which were published 
In the collection called " Hibernicus's Letters." Some 
letters in the " London Journal," 1723, subscribed Phfl*<- 
fetus, containing objections to some parts of tb£ doctrinfe 
In " The Enquiry," &c. occasioned his giving answers to 
thetn in those public papers. Both the letters and answers 
Vere afterwards published in a separate pamphlet. 

After he had taught in a private academy at Dttbtifi for 
seven or eight years with great reputation and success; he 
tvas called in 1729 to Scotland, to be professor of philoso- 
phy at Glasgow. Several young gentlemen came along 
'With him from the academy, and his high reputation drew 
tnany more thither both from England and Ireland, After 
lis settlement in the college, the profession of moral phi- 
losophy was the province assigned to him ; so that now he 
liad full leisure to turn all his attention to his favourite 
study, human nature. Here he spent the remainder of his 
life in a manner highly honourable to himself, and orna- 
mental to the university of which he was a member. His 
whole time was divided between his studies and the duties 
of his office ; except what he allotted to friendship and so- 
ciety. A firm constitution, and a pretty uniform state of 
good health, except some few slight attacks of the gout, 
seemed to promise a longer life ; yet he did not exceed 
his 55d year, dying in 1747. He was married soon after 
his settlement in Dublin, to Mrs. Mary Wilsob, a gemle- 
»aan> daughter in the county of Longford ; by whOta fcfc 


left behind him one son, Francis Hutcheson, M. D. By 
this gentleman was published, from the original MS. of hift 
fother, " A System of Moral Philosophy/' in three books, 
Glasgow, 1755, 2 vols. 4to. To which is prefixed, " Some 
account of the Life, Writings, and Character of the Author,* 9 
by Dr. Leechman, professor of divinity in the same uni- 
versity. J>r. Hutcheson's system of morals is, in its founda- 
tion, very nearly the same with that of lord Shaftesbury. 
He agrees with the noble author in asserting a distinct 
•class of the human affections, which, while they have no 
relation to our own interest, propose for their end the wel- 
fare of others ; but be makes out his position rather more 
clearly than Shaftesbury, who cannot exclude somewhat of 
the selfish as the spring of our benevolent emotions. Hut- 
cheson maintains, that, the pleasure arising from the per- 
formance of a benevolent action, is not the ruling princi- 
ple in prompting to such actions ; but that, independently 
of the selfish enjoyment, which is allowed in' part to exist, 
there is in the humap mind a calm desire of the happiness 
•of all rational beings, which is not only consistent with, 
but of superior influence in regulating our conduct, to the 
desire of our own happiness; insomuch that, whenever 
these principles come into opposition, the moral sense de- 
cides in favour of the former against the latter. Dr. Hut- 
cheson deduced all moral ideas from what he calls a "moral 
•sense, implanted in our natures, or an instinct like that of 
self-preservation, which, independently of any arguments 
taken from the reasonableness and advantages of any ac- 
tion, leads us to perform it ourselves, or to approve it 
when performed by others ; and this moral sense he main- 
tained to be the very foundation of virtue. His hypothe- 
sis was new, but whether much better than other theories of 
the same kind H may be questioned. His fame, in the opi- 
nion of an eminent author, rests now chiefly on the tradi- 
tionary history of his academical lectures, which appear to 
have contributed very powerfully to diffuse, in Scotland, 
that taste for analytical discussion, and that spirit of liberal 
inquiry, to which the world is indebted for some of the 
taost valuable productions of the eighteenth century . Ul 

HUTCHINS (John), a topographical historian, the son 
of the rev. Richard Hutcbins, was born in the parish of 

1 Biog. Brit. Supplement,— TyUs^t £ifc of Kaac i * ft w rnitfUdfe of Dt. 
4dam SmiUk 


Bradford Peverel, Sept 21, 1698. His father was rector 
of All Saints in Dorchester, and curate of Bradford Peve- 
ret His income was small, and bis son's education was 
suited to the frugality of the station in which he was born. 
He appears to have been sent early to the grammar-school 
at Dorchester, where his master was the rev. Mr. Thornton, 
rector of West Stafford, whom he afterwards mentioned 
with gratitude, as behaving to him with the kindest atten- 
tion, and as a second parent He was afterwards sent to 
Oxford, where his residence was not long ; for he took his 
master of arts degree at Cambridge, a proof that he had 
not kept a statutable residence for that degree in his own 
university, by applying to another in which none is re* 
quired ; aud it is also a proof that he determined in Ox* 
ford ; for, unless that exercise be performed, a certificate 
of a bachelor ofjarts degree is never granted. He was ma- 
triculated in Easter term, 1718, from Hart-hall, now Hert- 
ford college ; but was afterwards removed by a bene disces- 
sit to fialiol college; and, as it appears by their book% 
lie was admitted a member of that society in Easter term, 
April 10, 1719, and was regularly admitted to the degree 
of bachelor of arts in Lent term, Jan. 18, 1721-2. He was 
a determining bachelor in the same term ; so that his whole 
residence in the university did not exceed four years ; yet 
the friendships he contracted in both societies of which 
he was a member, continued with life; of which Mr, 
Charles Godwyn, fellow of Baliol college, was an instance 
in one; and bis tutor, Mr. Davis, vice- principal of Hart- 
hall, in the other; and in what esteem beheld both the one 
and the other, different passages in his " History" evince. 

He was soon after admitted into holy orders, and be- 
came curate and usher to the rev. George Marsh, rector of 
Burleston, vicar of Milton Abbas, and master of the free 
^grammar school of Milton Abbas. This engagement at 
Milton procured him the acquaintance of Jacob Bancks, 
esq. then the possessor of that estate, by whose interest he 
obtained in 1729 the rectory of Swyre, and in 1733 the 
rectory of Melcombe Horsey. About this time he began 
first to engage in the study of antiquities, and having a 
competent income, was enabled to pursue it with the less 
interruption, as an incurable deafness prevented bis en- 
joying the pleasures of society. In 1744 he was presented 
to the living of Wareham, which was attended with a con- 
siderable increase in his clerical duties; yet without ever 

H U T C H I N S. 36S 

relaxing in his attention to these, he continued to accumu- 
late materials for the history of his native county, and en- 
tered into an extensive correspondence with gentlemen 
most likely to assist his researches. He had many difficul- 
ties, however, to encounter. He was himself rather a 
man of diligence than of extraordinary genius ; his collec- 
tions were many years making, and a great part of them 
fell into his hands on the 4eath of a prior collector. The 
book, however, which he did not live to see published, 
was most .liberally conducted through the press, by a very 
handsome subscription of the gentlemen of the county, an J 
the -kind patronage of Dr. Cuming and Mr. Gougb, for the 
benefit of the author's widow and daughter. Several arti- 
cles were added, relative to the antiquities and natural 
history ; and such a number of beautiful plates were con- 
tributed by the gentlemen of the county, that (only 600 
copies having been printed, a number not quite sufficient 
for the subscribers) the value of the book increased, im- 
mediately after publication, to twice the original price, 
which was only a guinea a volume. The title of it is, 
" The History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset, 
compiled from the best and most ancient historians, Inqui- 
sitiones p*st mortem, and other valuable Records and MSS. 
in the public offices, libraries, and private hands ; with a 
Copy of Domesday-book and the Inquisitio Gheldi for the 
county, : interspersed with some remarkable particulars of 
Natural History, and adorned with a correct map of tho 
county, and views of antiquities, seats of the nobility and 
gentry," Lond. 1774, 2 vols, folio. 

In the decline of life, when he had a reasonable prospect 
of seeing his " History" through the press, he was seized 
with a paralytic stroke, which greatly debilitated him, and 
hastened his dissolution, which took place June 21, 1773. 
He was buried in St. Mary's church at Wareham, in the 
ancient chapel under the south aile of the church. He 
married Anne, daughter of the rev. Thomas Stephens, for- 
merly rector of Pimperne, by whom he bad issue one 
daughter, who was married to the late John Bellasis, esq* 
major-general of artillery in the service of the East-Iudia 
company, who died at Bombay in 1808. The profit arising 
from his " History, 9 ' was the chief provision Mr. Hutchins 
made for his family. A second edition was brought forwards, 
af which vol. L was published in 1796, and vol. II. in 1803, 
under the auspices of gen. Bellasis, who expended a large 


sum to promote the undertaking, and -with the assistance 
<tf Mr. Gough and Mr. Nichols. The improvements in this 
edition were so many as to extend the work to four vo- 
lumes, the third of which was nearly ready for publication 
at the time when the unfortunate 'fire m Mr. Nichols's 
printing-office and warehouses destroyed that and a vast 
tnass of other valuable literary property. Mr. Nichols baa 
since printed the third and fourth volumes, so essential to the 
completion of the work, and we may add so indispensable to 
every public library and private topographical collection. 1 
• HUTCHINSON (John), an English author, whose writ- 
ings have been much discussed, and who is considered as 
the founder of a party, if not of a sect, was born at Spen- 
nythorn in Yorkshire in 1674. His father was possessed of 
about 40/. per ann. and determined to qualify his st>& for a. 
stewardship to some gentleman or nobleman. He had 
given him such school-learning as the place afforded ; and 
the remaining part of his education was finished by a gen* 
tleman that boarded with his father. This firrend -is said to 
have instructed him, not only -in such parts of the mathe- 
matics as were more immediately connected with his 
destined employment, but in every branch df that science, 
and at the same time to have furnished him with a compe- 
tent knowledge of the writings of antiquity. At the age c(f 
nineteen, he went to be steward to Mr. Bathurst of SkuU 
terskelf in Yorkshire, and from (hence to the earl of Scar- 
borough, who would gladly have engaged him in hft ser- 
vice ; but his ambition to serve the duke of Somerset would 
not suffer him to continue there, and accordingly he re- 
moved soon after into this nobleman's service. About 1700 
be was called to London, to manage a law-suit of conse- 
quence between the duke and another nobleman; and 
during his attendance in town, contracted an acquaintance 
with Dr. Woodward, who was physician to the duke his 
master. Between 1702 and 1706, his business carried 'him 
into several parts of England and Wales, where be made 
many observations, tvhich he published in a tittle pamphlet, 
entitled, " Observations made by 3. H. mostly in the year 

While he travelled from place to place, he employed 
himself in collecting fossils; and we are told, that the 

i Life, byWr.BmghMM, in "BiN. Topographic* Brituulica/' ^Q.«XXWT. 
— 1 'Nkkoli>i £owyw.~Sot a)* frovMag. id* XJQSXI.ip. ?9. 

iTUTCXtlNSOtt $*$ 

large and noble collection, which Woodward bequeathed 
to the university of Cambridge, wag aetoally formed by 
bin Whether Woodward had no notion of Hutchinson 9 ! 
abilities in any other way than that of steward and miaora- 
logist, er whether he did not suspect him at that time as 
likely to commence author, is not certain: Hutchinson* 
however, complain* in one of his books, that " he was be- 
reft, in a manner net to be mentioned, of those observa* 
tions and these collections; nay, even of die credit of 
being the collector." He is said to have put-his collections 
into Woodward's hands, with observations on them, wbick 
Woodward was to digest and publish, with further obser* 
vations of bis own : bat bis putting him off with excuses^ 
when from time to time he solicited him about this work, 
first suggested to Hutchinson unfavourable notions of his 
intention* On this Hutchinson resolved to wait no lengeiy 
bet to trust to his own pen ; and that he might be more at 
leisure to prosecute his studies, he begged leave of the 
duke of Somerset te quit his service. The request at first 
piqued the pride of that nobleman ; but when he was made 
to understand by Hutchinson, that he did not intend te 
serve any other master, and was told what weve the real 
motives of his request, the duke not only granted his sui^ 
but made, him his riding purveyor, being at that time 
master of the hone to George I. As there is a good house 
in the Mews belonging to the office of purveyor, a fixed 
salary of 1200/. per ann. and the place a kind of sinecure^ 
Hutchinson's situation and circumstances were quite agree- 
able to his mind ; and be gave himself up to a studious and 
sedentary life. The duke also gave him the next presen- 
tation of the living of Sutton in Sussex, which Hutcbinsoa 
bestowed on the rev. Julius Bate, a great favourite with 
him, and a zealous promoter of his doctrines. 

In 1724 he published the first part of his " Moses's Priu- 
eipia ;" in which he ridiculed Woodward's " Natural His* 
tory of the Earth," and his account of the settlement of 
the % several strata, shells, and nodules, by the laws of gra- 
vity ; which, he tells him, every dirty impertinent collier 
could contradict and disprove by ocular demonstration. 
This work, in which gravitation is exploded, is evidently 
opposed to Newton's " Principia," where that doctrine is 
established. Hutchinson also threw out some hints concern- 
ing what had passed between Woodward and himself, and 
the doctor's design of robbing him of his collection of 


fossils. From this time to his death, he continued to pub* 
lish a volume every year, or every other year ; which, with 
the MS8. he left behind bins, were collected in 1748, 
amounting to 12 vols. 8vo. An abstract of them was also 
published in 1723, in 12mo. Hutchinson's followers look 
upon the breach between Woodward and him, as a very 
happy event ; because, say they, had the doctor fulfilled 
his engagements, Hutchinson might have stopped there, 
and not have extended bis researches so far as he has done; 
in which case the world would have been deprived of writ- 
ings deemed by them invaluable. Others are as violent 
opposers and censurers of bis writings and opinions ; and 
the dispute has been carried on at various times with no 
small degree of warmth* 

In 1727, Hutchinson published the second part of " Mo- 
ses's Principia ;" which contains the sum and substance, or 
the principles of the Scripture-philosophy. As sir Isaac 
Newton made a vacuum and gravity the principles of his 
philosophy, this author on the contrary asserts, that a ple- 
num and the air are the principles of the Scripture-philo- 
sophy. In the introduction to this second part, be hinted* 
that the idea of the Trinity was to be taken from the three 
grand agents in the system of nature, fire, light, and spirit; 
these three conditions of one and the same substance, 
namely, air, answering wonderfully in a typical or sym- 
bolical manner to the three Persons of one and the same 
essence. This, we are told, so forcibly struck the cele- 
brated Dr. Samuel Clarke, that he seut a gentleman to 
Mr. Hutchinson with compliments upon the performance, 
an<l desired a conference with him on that proposition in 
particular : which, however, it is added, after repeated so- 
licitations, Hutchinson thought fit to refuse. This doc- 
trine a certain admirer of Hutchinson, particularly in his 
opinions on natural philosophy, has lately attempted to re- 
vive and illustrate, in a pamphlet entitled, " A short Way 
to Truth, or the Christian doctrine of a Trinity in Unity, 
illustrated and confirmed from an Analogy in the Natural 
Creation." It was published in 1793. 

Some time in 1712, Hutchinson is said to have com* 
pleted a machine of the watch -kind, for the discovery of 
the longitude at sea, which was approved by sir Isaac New- 
ton ; and Whiston, in his " Longitude and Latitude," 
&c. has given a testimony in favour of his mechanical 
abilities. " I have also," says he, " very lately been shew 


by Mr. Hutchinson, a very curious and inquisitive person, 
a copy of a MS map of the world, made about eighty 
years ago, taken by himself from the original : wherein 
the rariation b reduced to a theory, roach like that which 
Dr. Haltey has since proposed, and in general exactly 
agreeing to his observations. — But with this advantage, that 
therein the northern pole of the interna) loadstone is much 
better stated than it is by Dr. Haltey — its place then beings 
according to this unknown very curious and sagacious au- 
thor, about the meridian, &c. which ancient and authentic 
determination of its place, I desire my reader particularly 
to observe.*' 

Hutchinson had been accustomed to make an excursion 
for a montb or so into the country for his health : but to 
neglecting this in pursuit of his studies, he is supposed 
have brought himself into a bad habit of body, which pre- 
pared the way for bis death. Tbe immediate cause is said 
to have been art overflowing of tbe gall, occasioned by the 
irregular sallies of an bigb-kept unruly horse, and the sud- 
den jerks given to his body by them* On the Monday be- 
fore his death, Dr. Mead was with him, and urged him to 
be bled ; saying at tbe same time m a pleasant way, " I 
will soon send yon to Moses.** Dr. Mead meant to bis 
studies, two of his books being entitled "Moses's Princi- 
pia : >r but Hutchinson, taking it in the other sense, an- 
swered in a muttering tone, "I believe, doctor, yon will ;" 
and was so displeased with Mead, that he afterwards dis- 
missed him for another physician* He died August 2S, 
1737, aged 63-. He seems to have been in many respects 
a singular man. He certainly bad eminent abilities, with 
much knowledge and learning; but many people have 
thought it very questionable, whether he did not want 
judgment to apply them properly, and many niore have 
inveighed against his principles without previously making 
themselves acquainted with them. They were^ however, 
in some measure, adopted by rainy pious and learned di- 
vines of the last century, by Home, Parkborst, Romaine, 
and the late Rev. William Jones, who, of all others, has 
exhibited the ablest analysis and defence of Mr. Hotchin- 
aoo*s sentiments, or what is called Hutekin$&nia>ii$m, in the 
** Preface to the second editiou" of his life of bishop 
Home. 1 

1 71ojdt BibTrotheca Ttfegrapfcico, end of vol, 1IL an article 
by Robert 9pe*rmar>> esq. who W9 Hum land Vila Ibe Ver. 1 
tat jmUfeatm of JlaftcoiiBim** Wwka. 

$68 tt T T E N. 

HUTTEN (Ulric de), a gentleman of Franconia, of 
Uncommon parts and learning! was born in 1488 at Stec* 
kenburg, the seat of his family ; was sent to the abbey of 
Fulde at eleven years of age ; and took the degree of 
)f. A. in 1506 at Francfort on the Oder, being the first 
promotion made in that newly-opened university. Id 
1509, he was at the siege of Padua, in the emperor Maxv* 
piilian's army ; and he owned that it was want of money, 
which forced him to make that campaign. His father, oqt 
having the least taste or esteem for polite literature, 
thought it unworthy to be pursued by persons of exalted 
birth ; and therefore would not afford his son the accessary 
supplies for a life of study. He wished him to apply him- 
self to the civil law, which might raise him in the world; 
but Hutten had no inclination for that kind of study. 
Fiadutg, however, that there was no other way of being 
upon good terms with his father, he went to Pavia in 1 5 H, 
where he stayed but a little time ; that city being besieged 
and plundered by the Swiss, and himself taken prisoner. 
He returned afterwards to Germany, and there, contrary 
to his father's inclinations, began to apply himself again tq 
literature. Having a genius for poetry, he began his cat 
veer as an author in that line, aud published several coovr 
positions, which were much admired, and gained him ere? 
dit. He travelled to various places, among the rest to Bo- 
hemia and Moravia ; and waiting on the bishop of Olmut? 
in a very poor condition, that prelate, who was a great Ms?? 
cenas, received him graciously, presented him with a hors% 
and gave him money to pursue his journey. The cerre» 
spondence also be held with Erasmus was of great advantage 
to him, and procured him respect from all the literati ii§ 
Italy, and especially at Venice. 

At his return to Germany in 1516, he was recommende4 
in such strong terms to the emperor, that he received froni 
him the poetical crown ; and from that time Hutten had 
himself drawn in armour, with a crown of laurel on hit 
head, and took great delight in being so represented. H# 
was of a very military disposition, and had given many 
proofs of courage, as well in the wars as in private ren T 
counters. Being once at Viterbo, where an ambassador 
of France stopped, ,a general quarrel arose, in which Hut* 
ten, forsaken by his comrades, was attacked by five French* 
men at once, and put them all to flight, after receiving 
some small wounds. He wrote an epigram on thai: 

HUTTEN. 86» 


bttcasion, " in quinque Gallos a se profligates," which may 
oe seen in Melchior Adam. He had a cousin John de 
Hutten, who was court-marshal to Ulric duke of Wirtem- 
berg, and was murdered by that duke in 1515, for the sake 
of his wife, whom the duke kept afterwards as a mistress. 
The military poet, as soon as he heard of it, breathed np- 
thing but resentment ; and because he had no opportunity 
of shewing it with his sword, took up his pen, and wrote 
several pieces in the form of dialogues, orations, poems, 
and letters. A collection of these was printed in the castle 
of Steckelberg, 1519, 4to. 

He was in France in 151&, whence he went to Mentz* 
and engaged in the service of the elector Albert ; and at- 
tended him a little after to the diet of Augsburg, where the 
elector was honoured with a cardinal's hat. At this diet, 
articles were exhibited against the duke of Wirtemberg^ 
on which occasion the murder of John de Hutten, marshal 
of his court, was not forgotten : and a league was after 
formed against him. Ulric Hutten served in this war with 
great pleasure ; yet was soon disgusted with a military life, 
and longed earnestly for his studies and retirement. This 
we find by a letter of his to Frederic Piscator, dated May 
21, 1519 : in which lip discovers an inclination for matri- 
mony, and expresses himself somewhat loosely on that 
subject v< 

Believing Luther's cause a very good one, he joined in it 
with great warmth; and published Leo the Xth's bull 
against Luther in 1520, with interlineary and marginal 
glosses, in which that pope was made an object of the 
strongest ridicule. The freedom with which he wrote 
against the irregularities and disorders of the court of 
Rome, exasperated Leo in the highest degree ; and induced 
bim to command the elector of Mentz to send him to 
llome bound hand and foot, but the elector suffered him 
to depart in peace. Hutten then withdrew to Brabant, and 
was at the court of the emperor Charles V. but did net 
stay long there, being told that his life would be in danger. 
He then retired to Ebernberg, where he was protected by 
Francis de Sickingen, Luther's great friend and guardian, 
to whom the castle of Ebernberg belonged. There he 
wrote in 1520 bis complaint to the emperor, to the elec- 
tors of Mentz and Saxony, and to all the states of Ger- 
many, against the attempts which the pope's emissaries 
made against him. From the same place also he wrote te 

Vol. XVIIJ. B b 


Luther in May 1521, and published several pieces in fa- 
vour of the Reformation. He did not declare openly for 
Luther, till after be bad left the elector of Mentz's court ; 
but he had written to him before from Mentz, and his first 
letter it dated June 1520. While he was upon his jour- 
x ney to Ebernberg, he met with Hochstratus, and, drawing, 
bis sword, run up to him, and swore he would kill htm, 
for what he had done against Reuchlin and Luther : but 
Hochstratus, throwing himself at bis feet, conjured him so 
earnestly to spare bis life, that Hutten let him go, after 
striking him several times with the flat sword. Such was 
bis turbulent zeal, so disgraceful to the cause he espoused, 
that Luther himself, warm as he was, blamed it. During 
bis stay at Ebernberg, however, be performed a very ge- 
nerous action in regard to his family. Being the eldest 
•ob, and succeeding to the whole estate, he gave it all up 
to his brothers ; and even, to prevent their being involved 1 
in the misfortunes and disgraces which he expected, by the 
suspicions that might be entertained against him, he en- 
joined them not to remit him any money, nor to bold the 
least correspondence with him. 

It was now that be devoted himself wholly to the Luthe- 
ran party, to advance which he laboured incessantly both 
by his writings and actions. We do not know the exact 
time when he quitted the castle of Ebernberg ; but it ap« 

Sears, that in January 1529, he left Basil, where he had 
attered himself with the hopes of finding an asylum, and 
bad only been exposed to great dangers. Erasmus, though 
bis old acquaintance and friend, had here refused a visit 
from him, for fear, as he pretended, of heightening the 
suspicions which were entertained against him : but bis 
true reason, as be afterwards declared, in a letter to Me- 
lancthon, was, " that be should then have been under a 
necessity of taking into his house that proud boaster^ op- 
pressed with poverty and disease, who only sought for a 
nest to lay himself in, and to borrow money 6f every one 
be met' 1 This refusal of Erasmus provoked Hutten to at- 
tack him severely, and accordingly he published an " Ex- 
postulate" in 1523, which Erasmus answered the same 
. year, in a very lively piece, entitled, " Spongia Erasmi 
adversus adspergines Hutteni." Hutten probably intended 
to reply, had he not been snatched away by death ; but he 
died in an island of the lake Zurich, wfa^re he bad hid 
himself for security, August 1523, 

HUTTEN, 371 

tie was a man of little stature ; of a weak and sickly 
constitution ; extremely brave, but passionate : for he was 
not satisfied with attacking the Roman Catholics with his 
pen, he attacked them also with his sword. He acquainted 
Luther with the double war which he carried on against 
the clergy. " I received a letter from Hutten," says Lu- 
ther, " filled with rage against thfc Roman pontiff, declar- 
ing he would attack the tyranny of the clergy both with 
his pen and sword : he being exasperated against the pope 
for threatening him with daggers and poison, and com- 
manding the bishop of Mentz to send him bound to Rome." 
Camerarius says, that Hutten was impatient, that his air 
and discourse shewed him to be of a cruel disposition ; and 
applied to him what was said of Demosthenes, namely, 
that " he would have turned the world upside down, had 
his power been equal to bis will.' 9 His works are nume- 
rous, though he died young. A collection of his '* Latin 
Poems'* was published at Francfort in 1538, 12mo*, all 
which, except two poems, were reprinted in the third part 
of the '* Deliciee Poetarum Germanorum. " He was the 
author of a great many works, chiefly satirical, in the way 
of dialogue; and Thuanus has not scrupled to compare 
him to Lucian. Of this cast were his Latin Dialogues 01% 
Lutheranism, published in 4to, in 1520, and now very 
scarce. He had also a considerable share in the cele- 
brated work called " Epistolae virorum obscurorum," 
which Meiners, in his " Lives of Illustrious Men," says, 
was the joint work of Ulrick and Crotus Rubianu9, alias 
John Jaeger, of Dorhbeim in Tburingia. The produc- 
tions of each, according to Meiners, may easily be dis- 
tinguished. Wherever we are struck with the " peculiar 
levity, rapidity, and force of the style— with a certain sol- 
dier-like boldness and unclerical humour, in obscene jests 
and pictures, and comical representations of saints, re- 
liques, &c. — with no small degree of keenness in the rela- 
tion of laughable anecdotes, — with a knowledge of Italy, 
to be obtained only by experience, — with a pleasant ex* 
planatton and derivation of words in the style of the mon- 
kish schools ;— in all these places, the hand of Ulrick Hut- 
ten may be traced." That these letters were the work of 
different hands, says an acute critic, is not improbable; 
but we are not certain that Crotus Rubianus had any star? 
in them; nor can we tell from what authority it. i* t« 



affirkned. Goethe, who wrote his "Tribute to the memory 
of Ulrick of Hutten," translated into English by Antony 
Aufrere, esq. 1789, and who wrote that some years before 
the appearance of Meiners* Biography, seems to have led 
the latter into this opinion. With much more probability 
might Reuchlin have been mentioned, who, indeed, by 
«ome has been supposed the sole author. Upon the whole,. 
however, there is most reason to think them Hutten's. l ■ 

HUTTEN (Jacob), a Silesian of the sixteenth century, 
was the founder of the sect called the Bohemian or Moravia* 
brethren, a sect of Anabaptists. Hutten purchased a ter- 
ritory of some extent in Moravia, and there established his 
society. They are considered as descended from the bet- 
ter sort of Hussites, and were distinguished by several re- 
ligious institutions of a singular nature, but well adapted 
to guard their community against the reigning vices > of 
the times. When they heard of Luther's attempts to re* 
form the church, they sent a deputation to him, and he, 
examining their tenets, though he could not in every par* 
ticular approve, looked upon them as worthy of toleration 
and indulgence. Hutten brought persecution upon him- 
self and his brethren by violent declamations against the 
magistrates, and the attempt to introduce a perfect equality 
among men. It has been said that he was burnt as a he- 
retic at Inspruck, but this is by no means certain. By de- 
grees these sectaries, banished from their own country, 
entered into communion with the Swiss church ; though, 
for some time, with separate institutions. But in the sy- 
nods held at. Astrog in 1620 and 1627, all dissensions were 
removed, and the two congregations were formed into one, 
under the title of the Church of the United Brethren. 
The sect of Herrenhutters or Moravians, formed by count 
Zinzendorff in the beginning of the present century, pre- 
tend to be descended from these brethren, and take the 
same title of unitas fratrum ; but Mosheim observes that 
" they may with more propriety be said to imitate the 
example of that famous community, than to descend from 
those who composed it, since it is well known that there 
are very few Bohemians and Moraviaus in the fraternity of 
the Herrenhutters ; and it is extremely doubtful whether 

, > Gen. Diet— Morcri.— Goethe'i w Tribute," by Aufrere— Jortio'i Eraimus., 
— Melchior Adam. — Niceron, vot XV, and XX — Monthly Review, vol II* 
fttew fieri**, 

HUTTEN. 373 

«ven this small number are to be considered -as tbe pos- 
terity of the ancient Bohemian brethren, who distinguished 
themselves so early by their zeal for the reformation," * 

H UTTER (Elias), a Protestant divine, was born at 
Ulm, in 1553, and died at Nuremberg after 1602. He 
was deeply versed in languages, oriental and occidental ; 
particularly Hebrew, which he seems to have taught at 
Leipsic. He published, l,"A Hebrew Bible/* remark- 
able for being printed with the radical letters in black, tbe 
servile in hollow types, and tbe quiescent or deficient let- 
ters in smaller characters above the line. At the end is 
the 11 7th Psalm in thirty different languages. 2. "Two 
Polyglotts," one in four languages, printed at Hamburg in 
1596 ; the other in six languages, at Nuremberg, iu 1599 ; 
both in folio. 8 

HUTTER (Leonard), was also a native of Ulm, and 
born in 1563.. He studied at Strasbourg, and early ap- 
plied himself with great -diligence to theology ; he was af- 
terwards at Leipsic, Heidelberg, Jena, and Wirtemburg, 
and in tfce latter place was appointed one of the public 
professors of theology. He married a lady of illustrious 
birth in 1599 ; and died of a fever in 1616, being then 
for the fourth time rector of the university. The opinion 
held of his principles may be judged by five anagrams of 
bis names Leonardos HutUrus, four of them implying that 
he was another Luther. They are formed, says the author 
who gives them, " per literarum haud vanam trans^osi- 
tionem ;" thus, iC lledonatus Lutherus ;" " Leonhartus 
Hutterus;" " Ah tu noster Lutherus *," " Notus arte Lu- 
therus;*' " Tantus ero Lutherus." His works are very 
numerous ; a great part of them controversial, directed 
against the church of Rome. Besides these, I, " Com- 
pendium Theologies, cum Nofcis D. Gotofredi Cundisii." 
2. "Explicatio Libri Concordiae Christiana," 3vo. 3. " Loci 
Communes Theologici," folio. 4. u Formulae concionandi," 
8vo. 5. " Disputationes de verbo Dei scripto, ac traditioni- 
bus non scrjptis," in 4to. 6. " Collegium Theologicum, sive 
XI disputationes de articulis confessionis Augustansc," 8vo. 
7. " Libri Christians Concordiae," 8vo ; and several pieces in 
defence of the Formula Concordiae, which in his time were 
iighly esteemed; besides many other tracts in Lutin and in 

i Mothcim's Hist. toI. IV. p. 102, and V. p. 84. 
* Chaufepie,— -Morcru— Saxii Qnomait* 


Germao, all of which are enumerated by Fteher # but seen* 
too uninteresting at the present day to be transcribed. 1 

HUTTON (James), an ingenious philosopher of the 
sceptical class, was the son of Mr. William Hutton, mer- 
chant in Edinburgh, and born in that city on the 3d of 
June, 1726. He entered the university as a student of 
humanity, in Nor. 1740. He studied afterwards under 
the celebrated Maclaurin, but did not prosecute the ma- 
thematical sciences to any great extent The origin of his 
attachment to the study of chemistry is traced to the acci- 
dental mention of a chemical fact by professor Stevenson, 
in his prelections on logic. The fact was, that aqua regia 
is the only solvent of gold which requires the united action 
of two acids, each of which singly is capable of dissolving 
any of the baser metals. This important phenomenon 
drew him, as if by a kind of electric attraction, to the study 
of chemistry, with a force that could never afterwards 
be overcome. His philosophical career was however in- 
terrupted by his engaging, at the request of his friends, as 
an apprentice to a writer to the signet. But instead of 
copying writs and deeds, or studying the forms of legal 
proceedings, it was found that his favourite object of pur- 
suit was the experiments of the crucible and retort. He 
was accordingly released from his engagement as an ap- 
prentice, and permitted to direct his attention to studies 
more congenial to his inclinations. He applied himself to 
the study of medicine as being the most closely connected 
with chemistry, and after attending the lectures in the 
university for some years, repaired, as was then customary, 
to the continent, to finish his course of study. He took 
the degree of M. D. at Leyden, in 1749. 

After his return from the continent, he began to think 
Seriously of settling in the world. His views were first di- 
rected to the medical profession, but were soon abandoned 
for others that afforded better hopes of success. He re* 
solved to apply himself to the study and practice of agri* 
culture. With this view he fixed his residence for some 
time with a farmer in Norfolk, from whom he received 
practical lessons in husbandry. During his stay in Eng- 
land he made many journeys on foot into different parts of 
the country, for the purpose of studying mineralogy or 
geology. He afterwards visited Flanders with the view of 

1 Geu, Diet,— Frehcri Tbwtrum.— Saxii Ouomast. 


promoting both bis mineralogical and agricultural studies. 
In 1754 he returned to Scotland, and fixed bis residence 
on bis own farm in Berwickshire! where he introduced the 
new husbandry which has since made such rapid advances 
in that quarter. About 1768 he left Berwickshire, and 
went to reside in Edinburgh, giving his undivided attention 
to scientific pursuits* This gave him the advantage of 
enjoying with less interruption, the society of his literary 
friends, among whom were Dr. Black, Mr. Russel, and 
professor Adam Ferguson. 

Dr. Button's first publication was given to the world in 
1777, entitled " Considerations on the nature, quality* 
and distinctions of Coal and Culm." It proves that culm 
is the small or refuse of the infusible or stone-coal, but 
wery different in its properties from the small of the fusible 
coal. A sketch of his great work, his " Theory of the 
Earth," the formation of which had been the object of 
many years of previous study, was communicated to the 
royal society of Edinburgh soon after its original institution. 
Another paper, a " Theory of Rain," appeared also in 
the first volume of the Edinburgh Transactions. This 
theory, as is well known, met with a most vigorous and 
determined opposition from M. de Luc, and became a 
subject of controversy, which was conducted with perhaps 
too much warmth. After the period of these two publi- 
cations, Dr. Hutton made several excursions into different 
parts of Scotland, with a view of comparing certain results 
of his theory with actual observation ; and in these he 
seems to have been very successful. In 1792 he published 
" Dissertations on different subjects in Natural Philoso- 
phy," in which his theory for explaining the phenomena 
of the material world, seems to coincide very closely with 
that of Bosoovtch, though there is no reason to suppose 
that the former was suggested by the latter. But Dr. 
Hutton did not confine himself merely to physical specu- 
lations ; be directed bis attention also to the study of meta- 
physics, the result of which was the publication of a work 
entitled " An Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge, 
and of the Progress of Reason from Sense to Science and 
Philosophy," 3 vols. 4to. The metaphysical opinions ad- 
vanced in this work coincide for the most part with those 
*f Dr. Berkeley, and abound in sceptical boldness and phi- 
losophical infidelity. In 1794 appeared his " Dissertation 
upon the Philosophy of Light, Heat, and Fire," Syo, 


which may be considered as a kind of supplement to the 
two preceding works. In 1796 his " Theory of the Earth" 
was republished in 2 vols. 8vo, from the Edinburgh Phi* 
losophical Transactions, with large additions, and a new 
mineratogical system. Many of his opinions here have 
been ably combated by Kirwan and others. 

In 1792 Dr. Hutton's health began to decline, and in 
the summer of 1793 he was seized with a severe illness, 
which after some intervals of convalescence, terminated at 
last in his death, March 26, 1797. 1 

HUXHAM (John), was a physician of considerable re- 
putation, who practised his profession at Plymouth, where 
he died in 1768. It is remarkable that no biographical 
memoirs of this able and learned practitioner are extant 
Mr. Polwhele informs us only that he was the son of a 
butcher at Halberton. Yet he possessed an innate genius 
and a strong propensity for medical acquisitions. By these 
lie was led to the university of Leyden, where he pursued, 
his studies with indefatigable application, and took his 
doctor's degree in medicine. At length, settling at Ply* 
mouth, by a successful course of practice he acquired a 
considerable fortune, and by several admirable publications 
gained universal . fame. His " Treatise on Fevers'* Mr. 
Polwhele notices, as the most eminent, and as it leads to 
the subsequent anecdote. " The queen of Portugal being 
ill of a fever, and being reduced to the last extremity, not- 
withstanding the efforts of the physicians of the country ; 
bis majesty, hearing of the eminence of a physician of the 
English factory at Lisbon, sent for him, and giving him 
the particulars of the queen's disorder, inquired whether 
it was in his power to administer any assistance. The phy- 
sician replied that he was not without hope, but that he 
could do nothing unless her majesty was left to his sole 
care and direction. This being granted, the disorder soon 
took a turn, and in a short time the queen was restored to 
perfect health. The doctor being complimented by the 
king on his abilities and success, said he had no claim but 
to the application ; for that the merit was due to Dr. Hux-< 
ham, an eminent physician at 'Plymouth, whose tract on 
the management of fevers he had implicitly followed. Upon 
which, the king immediately procured the treatise, had it 
translated into the Portuguese language, printed it ity 

1 Philosophical Transactions of Edinburgh, tol.V. 

H U X H A M, 37T 

handsome 4to, and sent it richly bound to Dr. Huxham, as 
an acknowledgment of the sense he entertained of his abi- 
lities, and of his debt of gratitude on the recovery of the 

Dr. Huxham' s writings display a most intimate acquaint- 
ance with the writings of the ancients, and a great vene- 
ration for those of Hippocrates in particular; and he quotes 
the ancient languages, and writes the Latin, with great 
fluency and familiarity. He appears to have spent his life 
at Plymouth in the active exercise of his profession ; for 
he kept a register of the state of health and reigning dis- 
eases at that place, together with an account of the variety 
of the seasons, for nearly thirty years, (namely, from 1724 
to 1752 inclusive); which were published in Latin, under 
the title of" Observationes de Aere et Morbis Epidemicis," 
&c. in 3 vols. 8vo. The first of these volumes commences 
with an account of the year 1728 ; but in the dedication 
to sir Hans Sloane, he refers to an account of the consti- 
tution and diseases of the seasons from 1724 to 1727, al- 
ready published. The third volume was edited in 1770, 
after the death of the author, by his son J. Cor. Huxham, 
A. M. F. R. S. ; who, it is to be regretted, did not insert 
any memoirs of his father's life. 

Dr. Huxham was at an early period elected a member of 
the royal society, and communicated several papers on 
the subjects of pathology and morbid anatomy, which 
were published in the Philosophical Transactions. But 
the work upon which bis reputation principally rests, is 
his " Essay on Fevers," published about 1739, of which a 
fifth edition appeared the year before his death, containing 
also " A Dissertation on the Malignant, Ulcerous Sore 
Throat" His accuracy and acuteness, as an observer of 
the phenomena of disease, were particularly exemplified 
in his discriminative history of the " Slow Nervous Fever," 
to which his name is often annexed when this fever is 
mentioned by succeeding authors. His theory was the an- 
cient humoral pathology, which much influenced his prac- 
tice ; but that was the general fault of the age. He was 
the author of some " Observations on Antimony,' 9 1766, 
4to ; and was elected a fellow of the royal college of phy- 
• sicians at Edinburgh. He has given few prescriptions in 
his works ; for he observes, with Hippocrates, that the phy- 
sician who knows a disease, cannot be at a loss in respect 
to the form of his remedy; hut, having mentioned a 


favourite formula for the preparation of a tincture of the 
Peruvian bark, in his Essay on Fevers, in which the bitter 
is corrected by aromatics, bis name has become attached 
to the tincture of bark which is commonly prepared in the 
shops according to his prescription, and is also adopted in 
the Pharmacopoeia of the college of physicians. 1 

HUYGENS (Christian), a very celebrated mathema- 
tician and astronomer, was born at the Hague April 14, 
1629, and was son of Constantine Hay gens, lord of Zuy« 
lichem, who had served three successive princes of Orange 
in the quality of secretary, and bad spent bis whole life in 
cultivating the mathematics ; not in the speculative way 
only, but in making them subservient to the uses of life. 
From his infancy our author applied himself to this study, 
and made a considerable progress in it, even at nine yean 
of age, as well as in music, arithmetic, and geography ; in 
all which he was instructed by bis father, who in the mean 
time did not suffer him to neglect the belles lettres. At 
thirteen he was initiated in the study of mechanics ; having 
discovered a wonderful curiosity in examining machines 
and other pieces of mechanism ; and two years after bad 
the assistance of a master in mathematics, under whom be 
made surprising progress. In 1645 he went to study taw/ 
at Leyden, under Vinnius ; yet did not attach himself so 
closely to that science, but that he found time to continue 
his mathematics under the professor Schooten. He left 
this university at the end of one year, and went to Breda, 
where an university had just been founded, and placed 
under the direction of bis father; and here, for two or 
three years, be made the law his chief study. In 1649 he 
went to Holstein and Denmark, in the retinue of Henry 
count of Nassau ; and was extremely desirous of going to 
Sweden to visit Des Cartes, who was then in that country 
with the queen Christina, but the count's short stay in 
Denmark would not permit him. In 1651, he gave the 
world a specimen of his genius for mathematics, in a trea- 
tise entitled " Theoremata de quadrature Hyperboles, 
Ellipsis, & Circuli, ex dato port ion um gravitatis centro :" 
in which he shewed very evidently what might be expected 
from him afterwards. 

In 1655 be travelled into France, and took the degree 
of doctor of laws at Angiers. In 1658 he published his 

* Polwhele'f History of Devoashte, vol. I. p. 386.— Reel's Cyclopia, 


H U Y G E N & 37f 

" Horologium oscillatoritim, sive de motu pfcndulorani,'* 
&c at the Hague* He had exhibited in a preceding work 
entitled " Brevis institutio de usu Horologiorum ad inve* 
aiendas longitudioes," a model of a new invented pendu* 
lum j but as some persons envious of his reputation were 
labouring to deprive him of the honour of the invention, 
he wrote this book to explain the construction of it, and 
to shew that it was very different from the pendulum of 
astronomers invented by Galileo* la 1659 he published 
his " 8y sterna Saturninum, sive de causis mirandorum Sa* 
turni phenomenon, & comiteejus planfeta novo." Galileo 
had endeavoured to explain some of the surprising appear- 
ances of the planet Saturn. He had at first perceived two 
stars which attended it ; and some time after was amazed 
to find them disappear* Huygens, desirous to account for 
these changes, laboured with his brother Constantine to 
bring the telescopes to greater perfection ; and made him- 
self glasses by which he could view objects at a greater 
distance than any that had yet been contrived. With 
these he applied himself to observe all the phases and ap- 
pearances of Saturn, and drew a journal of all the different 
aspects of that planet. He discovered also one of the sa- 
tellites belonging to that planet, which bad hitherto es- 
caped the eyes of astronomers ; and, after a long course 
of observations, perceived that the planet is surrounded 
with a solid and permanent ring, which never changes its 
situation. These discoveries gained him an high rank 
among the astronomers of bis time. 

In 1660 he took a second journey into France, and tho 
year after passed over into England, where be communis 
oated his art of polishing glasses for telescopes, and was 
made a fellow of the royal society. About this time the 
air-pump was invented, which received considerable im- 
provements from him. This year also he discovered the 
laws of the collision of elastic bodies : as did afterwards 
our own countrymen, the celebrated Wallis and Wren, 
with whom he had a dispute about the honour of this dis- 
cover)*. After he had stayed some months in England, he 
returned to France in 1663, where bis merit became so 
conspicuous, that Colbert resolved to fix him at Paris, by 
aettling on him a considerable pension. Accordingly, ift 
1665, letters written in the king's name were sent to him 
to the Hague, where he then was, to invite him to Paris, 
with the promise of a large stipend, and other considerable 

850 H U Y G E N S. 

advantages. Huygens consented to the proposal, and re« 
Bided at Paris from 1666 to 1681 ; where he was made a 
member of the royal academy of sciences. During this 
time he was engaged in mathematical pursuits, wrote several 
works, which were published from time to time, and invented 
and perfected several useful instruments and machines. 
But continual application began then to impair his health ; 
and, though he had twice visited his native air, in 1670 
and 1675, for the sake of recovering from illness, he now 
found it permanently necessary to bis constitution ; but 
perhaps the revocation of the edict of Nantz was a prin- 
cipal reason for his wishing to return to his own country* 
Though he was assured that he should enjoy the same 
liberty as before, and not be molested for his religions 
opinions, be would not consent to live in a country where 
his religion was proscribed, and therefore left Paris in 
J 681, and passed the remainder of his life in his own 
country, occupied in bis usual pursuits and employments. 
He died at the Hague June 8, 1695, in his sixty-seventh 
year, while his " Cosmotheoros," a Latin treatise con- 
cerning the plurality of worlds, was printing ; he provided, 
however, in his will for its publication, desiring his bro- 
ther Constantioe, to whom it was addressed, to take that 
trouble upon him. But Constantine was so occupied with 
business, as being secretary in Holland to the king of 
Great Britain, that he died also before it could be printed; 
so that the book did not appear in public till 1698. 

In 1703 were printed at Leyden, in 1 vol. 4to, Huy- 
gens' s " Opuscula Posthuma, quae continent Dioptricam, 
Commentarios de vitris figurandis, Dissertationem de Co- 
rona & Parheliis, Tractatum de motu & de vi centrifuga, 
descriptionem Automati Planetarii." Huygens had left by 
will to the university of Leyden his mathematical writings, 
and requested de Voider and Fullenius, the former pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy and mathematics at Leyden, 
and the other at Franeker, to examine these works, and 
publish what tbey should think proper. This was per- 
formed in the volume here mentioned. Huygens had writ- 
ten in Low Dutch the second of the tracts it contains, re- 
lating to the art of forming and polishing telescope-glasses, 
to which he had greatly applied himself; and Boerbaave 
translated it into Latin for this work. In 1700, were pub- 
lished in 4to, his " Opera Varia." This collection is ge- 
nerally bound in 4 volumes. It contains the greatest pari 

B U Y G E N S. 3*1 

of the pieces which he had published separately, and is 
divided into four parts. The first part contains the pieces 
relating to mechanics ; the second, those relating to geo- 
metry ; the third, those relating to astronomy ; and the 
fourth, those which could not be arranged under any of 
the former titles. Gravesande had the care of this edition, 
in which he has inserted several additions to the pieces con- 
tained iu it, extracted from Huygens's manuscripts. In 1723 
were printed at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. 4to, his " Opera Reli- 
qua ;" which new collection was published also by Grave- 
sande. The first volume contains his " Treatises on Light 
and Gravity ;" the second his " Opuscula Posthuma," 
which had, been printed in 1703. His whole time had been 
employed in curious and useful researches. He loved a 
quiet and studious life ; and perhaps through fear of inter- 
ruption, never married. He was an amiable, chearful, 
worthy man ; and in all respects as good as he was great* 
As an inventor, the first and not the least considerable of 
his discoveries was that he made of the real nature, or 
rather figure of the luminous appearance which accompa- 
nies the planet Saturn ; but the most important was his 
pendulum clock and his micrometer. His history, how- 
ever, includes many controversies respecting priority in 
these inventions, which may be seen ax large in our autho- 
rities. 1 

HUYGHENS (Gomarus), a celebrated doctor of Lou- 
vain, was born in 163 1, at Lier, or Lyre, a town in Brabant. 
He professed philosophy at Louvain with reputation, and 
was made president of the college of pope Adrian VI. 
where he died, October 27, 1702, leaving several works in 
Latin : the principal are, " The Method of remitting and 
retaining Sins," 1686, 12mo; it has been translated into 
French ; " Theses on Grace," 4to ; " Theological Con- 
ferences," 3 vols. 12mo, &c. ; a " Course of Divinity," 15 
vols. 12 mo, &c. He refused to write against the four ar- 
ticles of the French clergy, which displeased the court of 
Rome. Huyghens was P. Quesnel's intimate friend, and 
zealously defended his cause and his opiuions. M. Ar- 
nault! speaks highly In his praise.* ■ 

1 Gen. Diet.— Eloges del Academicians, vol. I. — Martin's Biog. Philosophic*. 
—Ward's Gresham Professors.— Nic^roo, rot. XIX.— Huttou'i Dictionary.— 
Encyclopaedia Britanoica, rol. XV III, p, 803, note— Tbtauon'a History of Up 
Hoy&l Society. 

9 MonrMKct. Hjit. 

?8* ft U Y S U Ml 

HUYSUM (John Van), an illustrious painter who stir* 
passed all who have ever painted in his style, and whose 
works excite as much surprise by tbeir finishing, as admi- 
ration by tbeir truth, was born at Amsterdam in 1682, and 
was a disciple of Justus Van Huysum, his father. He set 
out in his profession with a most commendable principle, 
not so much to paint for the acquisition of money, as of 
fame ; and therefore be did not aim at expedition, but at 
delicacy, and if possible, to arrive at perfection in his art. 
Having attentively studied the pictures of Mignon, and all 
other artists of distinction who had painted in his own style, 
he tried which manner would soonest lead him to imitate 
the lightness and singular beauties of each flower, fruit, or 
plant ; and then fixed on a manner peculiar to himself, 
which seems almost inimitable. He soon received the 
most deserved applause from the ablest judges of painting; 
even those who furnished him with the loveliest flowers, 
confessing that there was somewhat in bis colouring and 
pencilling that rendered every object more beautiful, if 
possible, than even nature itself. His pictures art finished 
with inconceivable truth ; for he painted every thing after 
nature, and was so singularly exact, as to watch even the 
hour of the day in which his model appeared in its greatest 

By the judicious he was accounted to paint with greater 
freedom than Mignon or Brueghel ; with more tenderness 
and nature than Mario da Fiori, Michael Angelo di Cam* 
pidoglio, or Sogers ; with more mellowness than De Heem, 
and greater force of colouring than Baptist. His reputa- 
tion rose to such a height at last, that he fixed immoderate 
prices on his works ; so that none but the very opulent 
could pretend to become purchasers. Six of his paintings 
were sold, at a public sale in Holland, for prices that were 
almost incredible. One of them, a flower-piece, for four- 
teen hundred and fifty guilders ; a fruit-piecfe, for a thou- 
sand and five guilders ; and the smaller pictures for nine 
hundred. These vast sums caused him to redouble his en* 
deavoors to excel ; no person was admitted into bis room 
while he was painting, not even his brothers; and hie 
method of mixing the tints, and preserving the lustre of 
his colours, was an impenetrable secret which he never 
would disclose. From the same principle he woaki never 
take any disciples, except one lady, named Haverman, 
and be grew envious and jealous even of her merit. 


By several domestic disquiets, bis temper became 
clanged ; be grew nborose, fretful, and apt to withdraw 
himself from society. He bad many enviers of his fame, 
which has ever been the severe lot of the most deserving in 
all professions ; but he continued to work, and his reputa- 
tion never diminished. It is universally agreed, that he 
has excelled all who have painted fruit and flowers before 
him, by the confessed superiority of his touch, by the de- 
licacy of bis pencil, and by an amazing manner of finish* 
ing ; nor does it appear probable that any future artist will 
ever become his competitor. The care which he took to 
purify his oils, and prepare his colours, and the various ex- 
periments he made to discover the most lustrous and du- 
rable, is another instance of his extraordinary care and 

From having observed isome of his works that were per- 
fectly finished, some only half finished, and others only 
begun, the principles by which he conducted himself may 
perhaps be discoverable. His cloths were prepared with 
the greatest care, and primed with white, with all possible, 
purity, to prevent his colours from being obscured, as be 
laid them on very lightly. He glazed all other colours, 
except the clear and transparent, not omitting even the 
white ones, till he found the exact tone of the colour ; and 
ever that he finished the forms, the lights, the shadows, 
and the reflections ; which are all executed with precision 
and warmth, without dryness or negligence. The greatest 
truth, united with the greatest brilliancy, and a velvet soft- 
ness on the surface of his objects, are visible in every part 
of his compositions ; and as to his touch, it looks like the 
pencil of nature. Whenever he represented flowera placed 
in vases, he always painted those vases after some elegant 
model, and the bas-relief is as exquisitely finished as any 
of the other parts. Through the whole he shews a delicate 
composition, a fine harmony, and a most happy effect of 
light and shadow. Those pictures which he painted on a 
clear ground, are preferred to others of his hand, as having 
greater lustre; and as they demanded more care and 
exactness in the finishing ; yet there are some on a darkish 
ground, in which appears rather more force and harmony. 

It is observed of him* that in the grouping of hb fl o we rs, 
he generally designed those which were brightest in the 
centre, and gradually decreased the force of his. colour 
from the centre to the extremities The birds* nests and 

384 H U Y S U Bf. 

their eggs, the feathers, insects, and drops of dew, arg 
expressed with the utmost truth, so as even to deceive the 
spectator. And yet, after all this merited and just praise, it 
cannot but he confessed, that sometimes his fruits appear 
like wax.or ivory, without that peculiar softness and warmth 
which is constantly observable in nature. Beside his merit 
as a flower-painter, he also painted landscapes with great 
applause. They are well composed ; and although he had 
never seen Rome, he adorned his scenes with the noble 
remains of ancient magnificence which are in that city. 
His pictures in that style are well coloured, and every tree 
is distinguished by a touch that is proper for the leafing. 
The grounds are well broken, and disposed with taste and 
judgmeat ; the figures are designed in the manner of 
Lairesse, highly finished, and touched with a great deal of 
spirit; and through the whole composition, the scene re- 
presents Italy, in the trees, the clouds, and the skies. He 
died in 1749, aged sixty-seven. 

Of his brothers, Justus Van Huysum was born at Ata- 
„ftterdam, and died when he had arrived only at his twenty* 
second year. He painted battles in a large and a small 
size, with exceeding readiness and freedom, without hav- 
ing recourse to any models ; and he composed his subjects 
merely by the power of his own lively imagination, dis- 
posing them also with judgment and taste; and Jacob 
Van Huysum, also born at Amsterdam, in 1680, died at 
London, where be had resided for several years. His merit 
chiefly consisted in imitating the works of his brother John ; 
.which he did with so much critical exactness, beauty, and 
delicacy, as frequently to deceive the most sagacious con- 
noisseurs; and he usually had twenty guineas for each 
copy. He also composed subjects of his own invention 
in the same style, which were very much prized; and his 
paintings increased in their value like those of his brother 
John. He died in 1740. 1 

HYDE (Edward), earl of Clarendon, and chancellor of 
England, was descended from an ancient family in Che- 
shire, and born at Dinton in Wiltshire, Feb. 16, 1608. In 
1622, he was entered of Magdalen-hall in Oxford, and in 
1625, took the degree of bachelor in arts ; but failing of a 
fellbwship in Exeter college, for which he stood, he re- 
moved to the Middle Temple, where he studied the law 

* PiDuogton.— Aigenville, yoLIII.— Walpole'i Anccdotcv 

HYDE. 38$ 

for several yean with diligence and success. When the 
lawyers resolved to give a public testimony of their dissent 
from the new doctrine advanced in Prynoe's " Histrio 7 
mastix," in which was shewn an utter disregard of all man* 
ner of decency aqd respect to the crown, Hyde and White- 
locke were appointed the managers of the masque pre- 
sented on that occasion to their majesties at Whitehall on 
Candlemas-day, 1633-4. At the same time he testified, 
upon all occasions, his utter dislike to that excess of power, 
which was then exercised by the court, and supported by 
■the judges in Westminster-hall. He condemned the op- 
pressive proceedings of the high-commission court, the 
star-chamber, the coqncil-bdard, the earl-marshal's court, 
or court of honour, and the court of York, This just way 
of thinking is said to have been formed in him by a do- 
mestic accident, which Burnet relates in the following 
manner : " When he first began," says that historian, " to 
grow eminent in his profession of the law, he went down to 
visit his father in Wiltshire ; who one day, as they were 
walking in the fields together, observed to him, that ' men 
of his profession were apt to stretch the prerogative too 
far, and injure liberty : but charged him, if ever he came 
jto any eminence in his profession, never to sacrifice the 
laws and liberty of his country to his own interest, or the 
will of bis prince. 9 He repeated this twice, and imme- 
diately fell into a fit of apoplexy, pf which he died in a 
few hours ; and this advice had so lasting an influence upot} 
•the son, that he ever after observed and pursued it" 

In the parliament which began at Westminster April 
.10, 1640, he served as burgess for Wotton-Basset in Wile- 1 
shire; and distinguished himself upon the following occa- 
sion. His majesty having acquainted the bouse of com- 
mons, that he would release the ship-money, if they would 
grant him twelve subsidies, to be paid in three years, great 
debates arose in the house that day and the next ; when 
Hampden, seeing the matter ripe for the question, desired 
it might be put, " whether the hpuse should comply with 
the proposition made by the king, as it Was contained in 
the message ?" Serjeant Glanvile, the speaker, for the 
Jbouse was then in a committee, endeavoured in a pathetic 
speech to persuade them to comply with the king, and so 
reconcile him to parliaments for ever. No speech ever 
united the inclination of a popular council more to the 
speaker than this did ; and if the question had been tip? 

Vou XVIII. Cc 

*S* HYDE. 

Mediately put, it was believed that few would have opposed ; 
it But, after a short silence, the other side recovering 
new courage, called again with some earnestness, that 
Hampden's question should be put ; which being like to 
meet with a concurrence, Hyde, whb was desirous to pre- 
serve a due medium, after expressing his dislike of Hamp- 
den's question, proposed, that " to the end every man 
might freely give his yea or no, the question might be put 
only upon giving the king a supply ; and if this was car- 
ried, another might be put upon the manner and propor- 
tion : if not, it would have the same effect with the other 
proposed by Mr. Hampden." This, after it had been some 
time opposed and diverted by other propositions, which 
were answered by Hyde, would, as it is generally believed, 
have been carried in the affirmative, though positively op- 
posed by Herbert the solicitor-general* if sir Henry Vane 
the secretary had not assured them as from his majesty, 
that if they should pass a vote for a supply, and not in the. 
proportion proposed in his majesty's message, it would, 
not be accepted by him, and therefore desired that the 
question might be laid aside. ' This being again urged by 
tie solicitor-general, and it being near five in the after- 
noon, a very late hour in those days, it was readily con- 
sented to, that the house should adjourn till the next 
morning, at which time they were suddenly dissolved.. 
And within an hour after Hyde met St. John, who was sel- 
dom known to smile, but then had a most cheerful aspect; 
and observing Hyde melancholy, asked him, " what trou- 
bled him ?" who answered, " The same he believed that 
troubled most good men, that, in a time of so much confu- 
sion, so wise a pad lament should be so imprudently dis- 
solved.' 9 St. John replied somewhat warmly, " that .all 
wa* well : that things must grow worse, before they would 
grow, better ; and that that parliament would never have 
tjone what was requisite." 

. This parliament being dissolved, Hyde was chosen for 
Saltash in Cornwall in the Long-parliament, which com-* 
inenced Npv. 3 the same year, where his abilities begafl 
to be noticed ; and when the commons prepared a charge, 
against lord chief baron Davenport, baron Weston, and 
baron Trevor, he was sent up with the impeachment to 
the lords, to whom he made, a most excellent speech. It 
begins thus : " My lords, there cannot be a greater instance 
qf ; a sick and languishing oommoa wealth, than the business. 

HYDE. 38? 

of this day. Good Gad ! how have the guilty these late 
years been punisbedT, when the judges themselves have 
been such detaquents ? It is no marvel, that an irregular, 
extravagant, arbitrary power, like a torrent, hath broken 
in upon us, when our banks and our bulwarks, the laws, 
were in the custody of such persons. Men, who bad left 
their innocence, could not preserve their courage ; nor 
could we look that they, who had so visibly undone us, 
themselves should have the virtue or credit to rescue us 
from the oppression of other men. It was said by one, 
who always spoke excellently, that ' the twelve judges were 
like the twelve lions under the throne of Solomon ;' under 
the throne of obedience, but yet lions. Your lordships, 
shall this day bear of six, who, be they what they will else, 
were no lions : who upon vulgar fear delivered up their 
precious forts they were trusted with, almost without as- 
sault ; and in a tame easy trance of flattery and servitude, 
lost and- forfeited, shamefully forfeited, that reputation, 
awe, and reverence, which the wisdom, courage, and gra- 
vity of their venerable predecessors bad contracted and fas- 
tened to the places they now bold. They even rendered 
that study and profession, which in all ages hath been, and 
I hope, now shall be, of honourable estimation, so contemp- 
tible and vile, that had not this blessed day come, all men 
would have had that quarrel to the l?w itself which Marius 
bad to the Greek tongue, who thought it a mockery to 
learn that language, the masters whereof lived in bondage 
under others. And I appeal to these unhappy gentlemen 
theipselves, with what a strange negligence, scorn, and in- 
dignation, the faces of all men, even of the meanest, have 
been directed towards them, since, to call it no worse, that 
fatal declension of their understanding in those judgments, 
of Which they stand here charged before your lordships." 
The conclusion runs thus : " If the excellent, envied con- 
stitution of this kingdom Jjath been of late distempered, 
your lordships see the causes. If the sweet harmony be- 
tween .the king's protection and the subject's obedience 
hath unluckjlv suffered interruption; if the royal justice 
and honour of the best of kings have been mistaken by his 
people ; if the duty and affection of the most faithful and 
loyal nation hath been suspected by their gracious sove- 
reign ; if, by these misrepresentations, and these misunder- 
standings, the king and people have been robbed of the 
delight and comfort of each other, and the blessed peac§ 

c c 2 

38S HYDE. 

of this island been shaken and frightened into tumults and 
commotions, into the poverty, though not into the rage, of 
war, as a people prepared for destruction and desolation ; 
these are the men, actively or passively, by doing or not 
doing, who have brought this upon us : * Misera servitut 
falso pax vocatur ; ubi judicia deficiunt, incipit bellumV 

But though Hyde was very zealous for redressing the 
grievances of the nation, he was no less so for the security 
of the established church, and the honour of the crown. 
When a bill was brought in to take away the bishops' vote 
in parliament, and to leave them out of all commissions of 
the peace, or any thing that had relation to temporal aflairs, 
he was very earnest for throwing it out, and said, that, 
" from the time that parliaments begun, bishops had al- 
ways been a part of it ; that if they were taken out, there 
was nobody left to represent the clergy ; which would in- 
troduce another piece of injustice, that no other part of 
the kingdom could complain of, who, being all represent- 
ed in parliament, were bound to submit to whatever was 
enacted there, because it was, upon the matter, with their 
own consent : whereas, if the bill was carried, there waa 
nobody left to represent the clergy, and yet they must be 
bound by their determination.*' He was one of the com* 
mittee employed to prepare the charge against the earl oC 
Strafford : but, as soon as he saw the unjustifiable violence 
with which the prosecution was precipitated, he left them, 
and opposed the bill of attainder warmly. He was after- 
wards appointed a manager at the conference with the 
house of lords, for abolishing the court of York, of which 
that earl had been for several years president ; and waa 
chairman also of several other committee^ appointed upon 
the most important occasions, as long as he continued to 
sit among them. But, when they began to put in execu- 
tion their ordinance for raising the militia against his ma- 
jesty, Hyde, being persuaded that this was an act of open 
rebellion, left them ; and they felt the. blow given to their 
authority by his absence so sensibly, that in their instruc- 
tidns shortly after to the earl of Essex their general, no 
wa,* excepted with a few others from .any grace or favour. 

Hyde withdrew to the king at York, having firs| obtained! 
the great seal to be sent thither on May 20, 1642 : and, 
upon his arrival, wa* admitted into the greatest confidence, 
though he was not uuder any official character in the court 
for some months. But, towards the latter end of the year, 

HYDE. 389 

upon the promotion of sir John Colepepper to be master of 
the rolls, he succeeded him in the chancellorship of the 
exchequer, and the same year was knighted, and made a 
privy-counsellor. With these characters he sat in the 
parliament assembled at Oxford, Jan. 1643 ; and, in 1644, 
was one of the king's commissioners at the treaty of Ux- 
bridge. Not long after, the king sending the prince of 
Wales into the West, to have the snperintendency of the 
affairs there, sir Edward Hyde was appointed to attend his 
highness, and to be of his council ; where he entered, by 
his majesty's command, into a correspondence with the 
marquis of Ormond, then lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Upon 
the declension of the king's cause, he with the lords Capel 
and Colepepper sailed from Pendennis castle in Cornwall 
to Scilly, and thence to Jersey, where he arrived in March 
1645 ; but being greatly disgusted at the prince's removal 
thence the following year to France, he obtained leave to 
stay in that island. His opinion respecting the prince's 
removal into France, is warmly expressed in the following 
letter to the duke of Ormond : 

" My Lord, 
" Your lordship hath been long since informed, whither 
my lord Digby attended the prince ; and from thence have 
pardoned my not acknowledging your grace's favour to me, 
from the impossibility of presenting it to you. I confess, 
in that conjuncture of time, I thought the remove from 
Jersey to Ireland to be very fit to be deliberately weighed, 
before attempted ; but I would have chosen it much more 
cheerfully than this that is embraced, which I hope will be 
a memorial to my weakness ; for it is my misfortune to 
differ from those with whom I have hitherto agreed, and 
especially with my best friend, which I hope will not ren- 
der me the less fit for your charity, though 1 may be for 
your consideration. Indeed, there is not light enough for 
me to see my way, and I cannot well walk in the dark ; and 
therefore I have desired leave of the prince to breathe in 
this island a little for my refreshment, till I may discern 
some way in which I may serve his majesty. I hope your 
j^rdship will never meet with any interruption in the exer- 
cise of that devotion, which hath rendered you the envied 
example of three kingdoms, and that I shall yet find an 
opportunity to attend upon your lordship, and have the 
honour to be received by you in the capacity of 

" My Lord, your Lordship's, &c 

" June 22, 1646. " Ed ward Hyde." 

390 H X D E. 

We see here not barely a disgust, but even a resentment 
shewn to the prince's going to Paris ; the ground of which 
undoubtedly lay in the manifest danger his religion might 
be brought into from the restless endeavour* of his mother; 
since it is notorious, that the chancellor was never upon any 
tolerable terms with the queen, dn account of his watch- 
fulness against every attempt of this kind. 

During his retirement in Jersey, he began to write his 
" History of the Rebellion/ 9 which had been particularly 
recommended to him, and in which he was assisted also by 
the king, who supplied him with several of the materials for it* 
We learn from the history itself, that upon lord Capei't 
waiting on the king at Hampton-court in 1647, his ma- 
jesty wrote to the chancellor a letter, in which he " thanked 
him for undertaking the work he was upon ; and told hiiri* 
he should expect speedily to receive some contribution 
from him towards it;" and within a very short time after- 
wards, he sent to him memorials of all that bad passed 
from the time he had left his majesty at Oxford, when he 
waited upon the prince into the west, to the very day that 
the king left Oxford to go to the Scots ; out of which me- 
iqprials the most important passages, in the years 1644 
and 1645, are faithfully collected. Agreeably to this, the 
ninth book opens with declaring, that " the work was first 
undertaken with the king's approbation, and by his en- 
couragement; and particularly, that many important points 
were transmitted to the author by the king's immediate 
direction and order, even after he was in the hands and 
power of the enemy, out of his own memorials and jour- 
nals." Thus we may trace the exact time when this his- 
tory was begun ; and the time when it was 6nisbed may be 
ascertained with the same degree of exactness, from the 
dedication of the author's " Survey of the Leviathan," in 
which he addresses himself to Charles II. in these terms : 
" As soon as I had finished a work, at least recommended, 
if not enjoined to me by your blessed father, and approved, 
and in some degree perused by your majesty, I could not," 
&c. This dedication is dated Moulins, May 10, 1673; 
whence it appears, that the history was not completed tHU 
the beginning of that, or the latter end of the preceding 
year ; and this may account for certain facts being related 
which happened long after the Restoration ; as for instance, 
that " sir John Digby lived many years after the king's 
return ;" and that the " earl of Sandwich's expedition was 

HYDE. 391 

never forgiven him by some men: 1 * which might very;' 
consistently be introduced in this history, though that! 
nobleman did not lose his life till 1672. 

In May I648> sir Edward received a letter from the 
queen to call him to Paris ; where, after the king's death, ' 
he was continued both in his seat at the privy council, and ' 
in his office of the exchequer, by Gbarles II. In Nov. 
1649, he was sent by the king with lord Cottington am- 
bassador extraordinary into Spain, to apply for assistance 
hi die recovery of his crown ; but returned without success 
in July 1651. Soon after his arrival, the king gave himf 
an account of his escape after the battle of Worcester, in 
that, unfortunate expedition to Scotland, which had been 
undertaken during sir Edward's absence, and much against 
his judgment. He now resided for some time at Antwerp, 
but left no means unattempted, by letters and messages to 
England, for compassing the Restoration ; in which, how- 
ever, he solely relied upon the episcopal party. In 1658, 
he was accused of holding a correspondence with Crom-i 
well ; but being declared innocent by the king, was after* 
wards made secretary of state. More attempts were made 
to ruin him with the king, but in vain ; for in 1657 he was 
made chancellor of England. Upon the Restoration, as 
he had been one of the greatest sharers in his master's 
sufferings, so he had a proportionable share in his glory. 

Besides the post of lord chancellor, in which he was. 
continued, he was chosen chancellor of the university of 
Oxford in Oct. 1 660 ; and, in November following, created 
a peer by the title of baron Hyde of Hindon in Wiltshire; 
to which were added, in April 1661, the titles of viscount 
Cornbury in Oxfordshire, and earl of Clarendon in Wilt- 
shire. These honours, great as they were, were, however, 
by no means beyond his merit. He had, upon the Resto- 
ration, shewn great prudence, justice, and moderation, 
in settling the just boundaries between the prerogative of 
the crown and the liberties of the people. He had reduced 
much confusion into order, and adjusted many clashing 
interests, where property was concerned. He had endea- 
voured to make things easy to the Presbyterians and mal- 
contents by the act of indemnity, and to satisfy the Royal- 
ists by the act of uniformity. But it is not possible to 
stand many years in a situation so much distinguished, 
without becoming the object of envy ; which created him 
such enemies 'as both wished and attempted his ruin, . and 

392 HYDE. 

at last effected it Doubtless ndthiug more contributed tor 
inflame this passion against him, than the. circumstance of 
his eldest daughter, being married to the duke of York/ 
which became known in a few months after the king's 
teturn. She bad been one of the maids of honour to the 
princess roya| Henrietta* some time during the exile, when 
the duke fell in love with her ; and being disappointed by 
the defeat of sir George Booth, in a design he had formed 
of coming with some forces to England in 1659, he went 
to Breda, where his sister then resided. Passing some 
weeks there, he took this opportunity, as Burnet tells us* 
of soliciting miss Hyde to indulge bis desires without mar- 
riage ; but she managed the matter with such address, that 
in the conclusion he married her* Nov. 4 that year, with 
all possible secrecy, and unknown to her father. After 
their arrival in England, being pregnant, she called upon 
the duke to own his marriage } and though he endeavoured 
tq divert her from this object, both by great promises and 
great threatenings, yet she had the spirit and wisdom to 
tell him, " She would have it known that she was his wife* 
let him use her afterwards as he pleased." The king 
ordered some bishops and judges to peruse the proofs of 
her marriage ; and they reporting that it had been solem- 
nized according to the doctrine of gospel and the law 
of England, he told his brother, that he must live with 
her whom be had ihade his wife, and at the same tune 
generously preserved the honour of an excellent servant* 
who had not been privy to it ; assuring him, ' that " this 
accident should not lessen the Esteem and favour be bad 
lor him." 

The first open attack upon lord Clarendon wis made by 
the earl of Bristol; who, in 1663, exhibited against him a 
charge of high treason to the house of lords. There had 
been a long course of friendship, both in prosperity and 
adversity, between the chancellor and this earl : but they 
had gradually fallen into different measures in religion and 
politics. In this state of things, the chancellor refusing 
what lord Bristol considered as a small favour (which was 
said to be the passing a patent in favour of a Court lady), 
the latter took so much offence, that lie resolved upon re- 
yenge, The substance of the wholg accusation was as 
follows : " That the chancellor, being in place of highest 
trust and confidence with bis majesty, and having arrogated 
a supreme direction iii all things, had, with a traitepou* 


latent t6 draw contempt upon his majesty 'a person, and tcr 
alienate the affections of. his subjects* abased the said 
trust in manner following. 1. He had endeavoured to 
alienate the hearts of his majesty's subjects, by artfully 
insinuating to his creatures and dependents, that his majesty 
wap inclined to popery, and designed to alter the esta- 
blished religion. 2. He had said to several persons of hit 
majesty's privy council, that his majesty was dangerously 
corrupted in his religion, and inclined to popery: that 
persons of that religion bad such access and such credit 
with him, that, unless there were a careful eye had upon 
it, the protestant religion would be overthrown in this 
kingdom. 3. Upon his majesty's admitting sir Henry 
Bennet fo be secretary of state in the place of sir Edward 
Nicholas, he said, that his majesty had given 10,000/. to 
remove a most zealous Protestant, that he might bring into 
that place a concealed Papist 4. In pursuance of the 
same traiterous design, several friends and dependents fit 
his have said aloud, that * were it not for my lord chan- 
cellor's standing in the gap, Popery would be introduced 
into this kingdom.' 5. That he had persuaded the king, 
contrary to his opinion, to allow his name to be used to the 
pope and several cardinals, in the solicitation of a cardinal's 
cap for the lord Aubigny, great almoner to the queen : in 
order to effect which, he had employed Mr. Richard Beat- 
ing, a known Papist, and had likewise applied himself to 
several popish priests and Jesuits to the same purpose, 
promising great favour to the Papists here, in case it should 
be effected. 6. That he had likewise promised to several 
Papists, that he would do his endeavour, and said, ' he 
hoped to compass taking away all penal laws against them; 9 
to the end they might presume and grow vain upon hi* 
patronage ; and, by their publishing their hopes of tole- 
ration, increase the scandal designed by him to be raised 
against his majesty throughout the kingdom, 7. That, 
being intrusted with the treaty between his majesty and hia 
royal consort the queen, he concluded it upon articles 
scandalous and daugerous to the Protestant religion. More- 
Over, he brought the king and queen together without any 
settled agreement about thtf performance of the marriage 
rites; whereby, the queen refusing to be married by a 
Protestant priest, in case of her being with child, either 
the succession should be made uncertain for want of the 
due rites of matrimony, or else bis majesty be exposed to 


S*4 HYDE. 

a suspicion of havfcg been married in his own dominions 
by a Romish priest. 8. That, hating endeavoured to 
alienate the hearts of the king's subjects upon the score of 
religion, be endeavoured to make use of all bis scandals 
and jealousies, to raise to himself a popular applause of 
being the zealous upholder of the Protestant'rettgion, &e. 
9. That he further endeavoured to alienate the hearts of 
the king's subjects, by Tenting in his own discourse, arid 
Aose of his emissaries, opprobrious scandals against his 
laajesty's person and course of life ; such as are not fit to 
be mentioned, unless necessity shall require- it. 10. That 
be endeavoured to alienate the aflectious • of the duke of 
York from his majesty, by suggesting to him, that c his 
feajesty intended to legitimate the duhe of Monmouth/ 
11. That he had persuaded the king, against the advice of 
the lord general, to withdraw the English garrisons out of 
Sootland, and demolish all the forts boilt there, at so vast 
i charge to this kingdom ; and all without expecting the 
advice of the parliament of England. * 2. That he endea- 
voured to alienate bis majesty's affections and esteem from 
the present parliament, by telling him, 'that there never 
was so weak and inconsiderable a house of lords, nor never 
so weak and heady a bouse of commons;* and particularly 
that 'it was better to sell Dunkirk than be at their mercy 
for want of money. 9 13. That, contrary to a known law 
made last' session, by which money was given and applied 
for maintaining Dunkirk, he advised and effected the sale 
of the same to the French king. 14. That he had, con- 
trary to law, enriched himself and his treasures by the sale 
of offices. 1 6. That he had converted to his own use vast 
sums of public money, raised in Ireland by way of subsidy, 
private and public benevolences, and otherwise given and 
intended to defray the charge of the government in that 
kingdom. 1 6. That, having arrogated to himself a supreme 
direction of all his majesty's affairs, he had prevailed to 
have bis majesty's customs farmed at a lower rate than 
others offered ; and that by persons with some of whom 
he went a share, and other parts of money resulting 
from his majesty's revenue." 

A charge urged with so much anger and inconsistency as 
this was, it is easy to imagine, could not much affect him ; 
on the contrary we find, that the prosecution ended greatly 
to the honour of the chancellor ; notwithstanding which, 
his enemies advanced very considerably by it in their 

HYDE )*$ 

design, to make him less in favour with hit mttter, less 
respected in parliament, and less bdovfed by the pebpl*. 
The building of a magnificent house, Whtehwas bejgteri in 
the following year, 1664, furnished fresh matter for ob- 
loquy. " The king," says Burnet, « had granted birii * 
large piece of grotond