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VOL. V. 




Nichols, Son, and Bentley, Printers, 
Red Lion Passage, Fleei Street, loudon. 




JjENVENUTI (Charles), an Italian Jesuit, physiciao, 
and mathematician of considerable eminence, was born at 
Leghorn, Feb. 8, 1716. He began his noviciate among 
the Jesuits at the age of sixteen, but did not take the four 
vows, according to the statutes of that order, until eighteen 
years afterwards. He had already published a funeral ora- 
tion on Louis Ancajani, bishop of Spolcto, 1743, and a 
species of oratorio, to be set to music, entitled " Cristo 
presentato al tempio,'' but it was neither as an orator or 
poet that he was destined to shine. He became professor 
of philosophy at Fermo, and when father Boscovich was 
obliged to leave Rome to complete the chorographical 
chart of the papal state, which he published some years 
afterwards, Benvenuti succeeded him in the mathemati- 
cal chair of the Roman college, and also resumed his lec- 
tures on philosophy iu the same college. His first scientific 
work v/as an Italian translation of Clairaut's Geometry, 
Rome, 1751, 8vo ; and he afterwards published two works, 
which gained him much reputation : 1. " Synopsis Physicae 
generalis," a thesis maintained by one of his disciples, 
the marquis de Castagnaga, on Benvenuti's principles, 
which were those of sir Isaac Newton, Rome, 1754, 4to. 
2. *' De Lumine dissertatio physica," another thesis main- 
tained by the marquis, ibid. 1754, 4to. By both these he 
contributed to establish the Newtonian system in room of 
those fallacious principles which had so long obtained in 
that college ; but it must not be concealed that a consider- 
able part of this second work on light, belongs to father 
Boscovich, as Benvenuti was taken ill before he had com- 
pleted it, and after it was sent to press. After the expuU 
Vol. V. B 


sion of the Jesuits, there appeared at Rome an attack 
upon them, entitled " Riflessioni sur Gesuitismo," 1772, 
to which Benvenuti replied in a pamphlet, entitled " Irre- 
fiessioni sur Gesuitismo ;" but this answer gave so much 
offence, that he was obliged to leave Rome and retire into 
Poland, where he was kindly received by the king, and 
became a favourite at his court. He died at Warsaw, in 
September, 178y.' 

BENVENUTI (Joseph), an Italian surgeon, or rather 
physician, was born in the territory of Lucca, about the 
year 172S. He received the degree of doctor, began 
practice at Sarzano in 1755, as a member of the faculty; in 
1756 was chosen member of the German imperial society ; 
and in 1758 of the royal society of Gottingen, while he 
wsis practising at the baths of Lucca. In 1753, he hap- 
pened to be at a place in that republic, called Brandeglio, 
where an epidemic fever of a particular kind prevailed, 
which he treated with great success by means of mercury. 
This formed the subject of his treatise, entitled " Disser- 
tatio historico-epistolaris, &c." Lucca, 1754, Svo, ably de- 
fending the preference he found it necessary to give to 
mercury over the bark, and vindicating Dr. Bertini, of 
whom he learned that method, against certain opponents. 
Benvenuti's other works are, 1. " De Lucensium Therma- 
rum sale tractatus," Lucca, 1758, Svo. This he also trans- 
lated into Italian, with a letter on the virtues of these 
waters. 2. " Riflessioni sopra gli effetti del moto a ca- 
vallo," Lucca, 1760, 4to. 3. " Dissertatio physica de 
Lumine," Vienne, 1761, 4to. 4. " De rubiginis frumentum 
corrumpentis causa et medela," Lucca, 1762. 5. " Ob- 
servationum medicarum quae anatomise superstructse sunt, 
coUectio prima," Lucca, 1764, 12mo. He also promoted 
the publication of the first volume of the " Dissertationes 
et Quastiones medicae magis celebres," Lucca, 1757, Svo. 
Our authority does not give the date of his death." 

BENYOWSKY (Count Mauritius Augustus de), an 
adventurer of very dubious, but not uninteresting charac- 
ter, one of the Magnates of the kingdoms of Hungary and 
Poland, was born in the year 1741, at Verbowa, the here- 
ditary lordship of his family, situated in Nittria, in Hun- 
gary. After receiving the education which the court of 
Vienna affords to the youth of illustrious families, at the 

> Bios:. UnivtTselle. — Diet, Hist. « IbiJ. 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 3 

age of fourteen years, he fixed on the profession of arms. 
He was accordingly received into the regiment of Siebens- 
chien, in quality (jf lit-utenant; and j(iining the Imperial 
army, then in tiie field agciinst the king of Friissi;i, was 
present at the battles of Lowusitz, Prague, Schweidnitz, 
and Darmstadt. In 173 8, he quitted the Imperial service 
and hastened into Lithuania, at the instance of his uticle 
the starost of Benyowbky, and succeeded as his heir to the 
possession of iiis estates. The. tran((uillity, however, which 
he now enjoyed was interrupted by intelligence of the sud- 
den death of his father, and that his brothers-in-law had 
taken posaession of his inheritance. These circumstances 
demanding his immediate presence in Hungary, he quitted 
Lithuania witii the sole view of obtaining possession of the 
property of his family ; but his brothers-in-law by force 
opposed his entrance into his own castle. He then re- 
paired to Krussava, a lordship dependant on the castle of 
Verbowa, where, after having caused himself to be ac- 
knowledged by his vassals, and beiiig assured of their 
fidelity, he armed them, and by their assistance gained 
possession of all his effects ; but his brothers, having re- 
presented him at the co-urt of Vienna as a rebel and dis- 
turber of the public peace, the empress queen issued a 
decree in chancery against him, by wi)ich he was denrived 
of his property, and compelled to withdraw into Poland. 
He now determined to travel ; but after takiuo- several 
voyages to Hamburgh, Amsterdam, and Plymouth, with 
intention to apply himself to navigation, he received let- 
ters from the magnates and senators of Poland, which in- 
duced him to repair to Warsaw, where he joined the con- 
federation then forming, and entered into an obligation, 
upon oath, not to acknowledge the king, until the con- 
federation, as the only lawful tribunal of the republic, 
should have declared him lawfully elected ; to oppose the 
Russians by force of arms ; and not to forsake the colours 
of the confederation so long as the Russians should remam 
in Poland. Leaving Warsaw, in the month of December, 
he attempted to make his rights known at the court of 
Vienna; but disappointed in this endeavour, and deprived 
of all hope of justice, he resolved to quit for ever the do- 
minions of the house of Austria. On his return to Poland, 
he was attacked, during his passage through the county of 
Zips, with a violent fever ; and being received into the 
house of Mr, Ilensky, a gentleman of distinction, he paid 


his addresses and was married to one of his three dangh* 
ters, but did not continue long in possession of happiness 
or repose. The confederate states of Poland, a party of 
whom had deckired themselves at Cracow, observins; that 
the count was one of the first who had signed their union 
at Warsaw, wrote to him to join them ; and, compelled by 
the strong tie of the oath he had taken, he departed with- 
out informing his wife, and arrived at Cracow on the very 
day count Panin made the assault. He was received with 
open arms by martial Czarnesky, and immediately ap- 
pointed colonel general, commander of cavalry, and quar- 
ter-master-general. On the 6th of July 1768, he was de- 
tached to Navitaig to conduct a Polish regiment to Cracow, 
and he not only brought the whole regiment, composed of 
six hundred men, through the camp of the enemy before 
the town, but soon afterwards defeated a body of Russians 
at Kremenka; reduced Landscroen, which prince Lubo- 
mirsky, who had joined the confederacy with two thousand 
regular troops, had attempted in vain ; and, by his great 
gallantry and address, contrived the means of introducing 
supplies into Cracow when besieged by the Russians : 
but the count, having lost above sixteen hundred men in 
affording this assistance to the town, was obliged to make 
a precipitate retreat the moment he had effected his pur- 
pose ; and being pursued by the Russian cavalry, com- 
posed of cossacks and hussars, he had the misfortune to 
have his horse killed under him, and fell at last, after re- 
ceiving two wounds, into the hands of the enemy, Apraxin, 
the Russian general, being informed of the successful ma- 
noeuvre of the count, was impressed with a very high opi- 
nion of him, and proposed to him to enter into the Russian 
service; but rejecting the overture with disdain, he was 
only saved from being sent to Kiovia with the other prisoners 
by the interposition of his friends, who paid 962/. sterling 
for his ransom. Thus set at liberty, he considered himself 
as released IVom the parole which he had given to the Rus- 
sians ; and again entering the town of Cracow, he was re- 
ceived with the most perfect satisfaction by the whole con- 
federacy. The town being no longer tenable, it became an 
object of the utmost consequence to secure another place of 
retreat ; and the count, upon his own proposal and request, 
was appointed to seize the castle of Lublau, situated on the 
frontier of Hungary; but after visiting the commanding 
officer of the castle, who was not apprehensive of the least 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 5 

danger, and engaging more than one half of the garrison 
by oath in the interests of the confederation, an inferior 
officer, who was dispatched to assist him, indiscreetly di- 
vulged the design, and the count was seized and carried 
into the fortress of Georoenburtih, and sent from thence 
to general Apraxin. On his way to that general, however, 
he was rescued by a party of confederates, and returned 
to Lublin, a town where the rest of the confederation of 
Cracow had appointed to meet, in order to join those of 
Bar, from which time he performed a variety of gallant 
actions, and underwent great vicissitudes of fortune. On 
the 19th of May, the Russian colonel jndging that the 
count was marching towards Stry, to join the confederate 
parties at Sauok, likewise hastened his march, and arrived 
thither half a day before the count, whose forces were 
vireakened by fatigue and hunger. In this state he was at- 
tacked about noon by colonel Brincken, at the head of four 
thousand men. The count was at first compelled to 
give way ; but, on the arrival of his cannon, he, in his 
turn, forced the colonel to retire, who at last quitted the 
field, and retreated towards Stry. The advantage of the 
victory served only to augment the misery of the count, 
who in this single action had three hundred wounded and 
two hundred and sixty-eight slain, and who had no other 
prospect before him than either to perish by hunger with 
his troops in the forest, or to expose himself to be cut to 
pieces by the enemy. On the morning of the 20th, how- 
ever, by the advice of his officers and troops, he I'esumed 
his march, and arrived about ten o'clock at the village of 
Szuka, where, being obliged to halt for refreshment, he was 
surprised by a party of cossacks, and had only time to quit the 
village and form his troops in order of battle on the plain, 
before he was attacked by the enemy's cavalry, and soon 
after by their infantry, supported by several pieces of can- 
non, which caused the greatest destruction among his 
forces. At length, after bting dangerously wounded, the 
Russians took him prisoner. The count was sent to the 
commander in chief of the Russian armies, then encamped 
at Tampool, who not only forbade the surgeons to dress 
his wounds, but, after reducing him to bread and water, 
loaded him with chains, and transported him to Kiow On 
his arrival at Polenc, his ne<;lected wound liad so far en- 
dangered his life, that his conductor was induced to apply 
to colonel Sirkow, the coiiimunding officer at that place. 

6 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

and he was sent to the hospital, cured of his wounds, and 
afterwards lodged in the umn, with an advance of fifty 
roubles for his subsistence. Upon the arrival, however, 
of i)rigadier Bannia, wlio relieved colonel Sirkow in his 
command, and who had a strong prejudice against the 
count, he was again loaded with chains, and co.'iducted to 
the dungeon with the rest of the prisoners, who were al- 
lowed no other subsistence than bread and water. Upon 
his entrance he recognized several officers and soldiers who 
had served under him ; and their friendship was the only 
consolation he received in his distressed situation. Twenty- 
two days were thus consumed in a subterraneous prison, 
together with eighty of his companions, without light, and 
even without air, except what was admitted through an 
aperture which communicated with the casements. These 
iii)happy wretches were not permitted to go out even on 
their natural occasions, which produced such an infection, 
that thirty-five of them died in eighteen or twenty days ; 
and such were the inhumanity and barbarity of the com- 
mander, that he suffered the dead to remani and putrefy 
among the liviug. On the 16th of July the prison was 
opened, and one hundred- and forty-eight prisoners, who 
had survived out of seven hundred and eighty-two, were 
driven, under every species of cruelty, from Polene to 
Kiow, where the strcngtii of the count's constitution, 
which had hitherto enabled him to resist such an accumula- 
tion of hardshi])s and tatigue, at length gave way, and he was 
attacked with a malignant fever, and delirium. The go- 
vernor, count Voicikow, being informed of his quality, 
ordered that he should be separately lodged in a house, 
and that two roubles a d'y should be paid him for sub- 
sistence ; but when he was in a fair way of recovery, an 
order arrived from Peiersburgh to send all t'ne prisoners to 
Cazan, and this severity bringing on a relapse, the officer 
was obliged to leave the count at Nizym, a town depen- 
dant on the government of Kiow. At this place, a Mr. 
Lewner, a German nvrchant, procured him comfortable 
acconunodation, superintended the restoration of liis health, 
and on his departure made him a present of two hundred 
roubles, which he placed for safety in the hands of the 
officer until his arrival at Cazan, but who had afterwards 
the eflVontery to deny that he had ever received the 
money, accused the count of attempting to raise a revolt 
among the prisoners, and caused him to be loaded with 


chains and committed to the prison of Cazan, from which 
he was delivered at the pressing instances of marsiial Czar- 
nesky Potockzy, and tiie young Palanzky. He was then 
lodged at a private house, and being invited to dine with 
a niiui of quality in the place, he was sohcited, and con- 
sented to join in a confederacy against the government. 
But on the Gth of November 1769, on a quarrel happening' 
between two Russian lords, one of them informed the go- 
vernor that the prisoners, in concert with tlie Tartars, 
meditated a design against his person and the garrison. 
This apostate lord accused the count, in order to save his 
friends and countrymen, and on the 7th, at eleven at night, 
the count not suspecting any such event, heard a knocking 
at his door. He came down, entirel}- undressed, with a 
candle in his hand, to inquire the cause ; and, upon 
opening his door, was surprised to see an officer with 
twenty soldiers, who demanded if the prisoner was at home. 
On his replying m the affirmative, the officer snatched the 
candle out of his hand, and ordering his men to follow 
him, went hastily up to the count's apartment. The count 
immediately took advantage of his mistake, quitted his 
house, and, after apprising some of the confederates that 
their plot was discovered, he made his escape, and arrived 
at Peiersburgh on the 19th of November, whei'e he en- 
gaged with a Dutch captain to take him to Holland. The 
captain, however, instead of taking him on -board the en- 
suing morning, pursuant to his promise, appointed him to 
meet on the bridge over the Neva at midnight, and there 
betrayed him to twenty Russian soldiers collected for the 
purpose, who carried him to count Csecserin, lieutenant- 
general of the police. The count was conveyed to the 
fort of St. Peter and St. Paul, confined in a subterraneous 
dungeon, and after three days fast, presented with a mor- 
sel of bread and a pitcher of water : but, on the 22d of 
November 1769, he at length, in hopes of procuring his 
discharge, was induced to sign a paper promising for ever 
to quit the dominions of her imperial majesty, under pain 
of death. 

The count having signed this engagement, instead of 
being set at liberty, was re-conducted to his prison, and 
there confined till 4th December 1769, when, about two 
hours after midnij^ht, an officer with seven soldiers came 
to him ; and he was thrown upon a sledge to which two 
horses were harnessed, and immediately driven away with 

8 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

the greatest swiftness. The darkness of the night pre- 
vented the count from discerning the objects around him ; 
but on the approach of day-light he perceived that major 
Wynblath, Vassili Panow, HippoUtus Stephanovv, Asaph 
Baturin, Ivan Sopronovv, and several other prisoners, were 
the companions of his misfortunes ; and after suffering 
from the brutahty of their conductor a series of hardships, 
in passing through Tobolzk, the capital of Siberia, the 
city of Tara, the town and river of Tonisky, the villages 
of Jakutzk and Judoma, they embarked in the harbour of 
Ochoczk, on the 2bth October 1770, and arrived at 
Kamschatka on the 3d December following. The ensuing 
day they were conducted before Mr. Nilow, the governor; 
when it was intimated to them that they should be set at 
liberty on the following day, and provided with subsistence 
for three days, after which they must depend upon them- 
selves for their maintenance ; that each person should re- 
ceive from the chancery a musket and a lance, with one 
pound of powder, four pounds of lead, a hatchet, several 
inives and other instruments, and carpenter's tools, with 
which they might build cabins in any situations they chose, 
at the distance of one league from the town ; but that they 
should be bound to pay in furs, during the first year, each 
one hundred roubles, in return for these advantages ; that 
every one must work at the corvee one day in the week 
for the service of government, and not absent themselves 
from their huts for twenty-four hours without the governor's 
permission ; and after some other equally harsh terms, it 
was added, that their lives being granted to them for no 
other purpose than to implore the mercy of God, and the 
I'emission of their sins, they could be employed only in 
the tfieanest works to gain their daily subsistence. Under 
these regulations the exiles settled the places of their ha- 
bitations, built miserable huts to shelter themselves from 
the inclemency of the weather, formed themselves into a 
congress, and after choosing the count de Benyowsky their 
chief or captain, they swore with great solemnity mutual 
friendship and eternal fidelity. Among the number of 
unhappy wretches who had long groaned under the miseries 
of banishment, was a Wr. Crustiew, who had acquired 
considerable ascendancy over his fellow-suilerers ; and to 
obtain the particular confidence and esteem of this man 
was the first object of the count's attention ; in which he 
soon succeeded. The pains and perils incident to the 


situation to which these men were reduced, were borne for 
some time in murmuring sufferance, until the accidental 
iinding an old copy of Anson's Voyage inspired them with an 
idea of making an escape from Kanischatka to the Marian 
islands; and the count, Mr. Panow, Baturin, Stephanow, 
Solmanow, majors Wynblath, Crustiew, and one Wasili, an 
old and faithful servant of the count's, who had followed his 
master into exile, formed a confederacy for this purpose. 
While these transactions were secretly passing, the fame 
of count Benyowsky's rank and abilities reached the ear of 
the governor ; and as he spoke several languages, he was 
after some time admitted familiarly into the house, and at 
length appointed to superintend the education of his son 
and his three daughters. " One day," says the count, 
<* while I was exercising my office of language-master, the 
youngest of the three daughters, whose name was Apha- 
nasia, who was sixteen years of age, proposed many ques- 
tions concerning my thoughts in my present situation, 
which convinced me that her father had given them some 
information concerning my birth and misfortunes. I there- 
fore gave them an account of my adventures, at which 
my scholars appeared to be highly affected, but the 
youngest wept very much. She was a beautiful girl, and 
her sensibility created much emotion in my mind — but, 
alas, I was an exile !" The merits of the count, however, 
soon surmounted the disadvantages of his situation, in the 
generous mind of miss Nilovv, and the increasing intimacy 
and confidence which he daily gained in the family, joined 
to the advantages of a fine person and most insinuating 
address, soon converted the feelings of admiration into 
the flame of love; and on the Uth of January 1771, ma- 
dame Nilow, the mother, consented that her daughter 
should do the honours of an entertainment then in con- 
templation, and be publicly declared his future spouse. 
But the count, though he had cultivated and obtained the 
affections of his fair pupil, had acted more from polic}'- 
than passion, and, intending to use her interest rather as 
a means of effectuating the meditated escape of himself 
a^d his companions, than as any serious object of matri- 
monial union, contrived to suspend the nuptials, by per- 
suading the governor to make an excursion from Kam- 
schatka to the neighbouring islands, with a view or under 
pretence of establishing a new colony. During these trans- 
actions the exiles were secretly at work ; and in order to 

10 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

conceal their design from all suspicion, Mr. Crustiew and 
r*ir, Pai'ow were on the 30tli of March deputed to wait on 
the governor with five and twenty of their associates, to 
request that he would be pleased to receive the title of 
PriOTECTOR of the new colony ; and the embassy was not 
only favourably received, but orders were given to pre- 
pare every thing that might be necessary for the execution 
of the project. At this crisis, however, an accident oc- 
curred which had nearly overturned the success of the 
scheme; and as it tends to discover the disposition of the 
count, we shall relate it in his own words. 

" About ten o'clock this day (1st of April, 1771), I re- 
ceived a message from miss Tsilow, that she would call on 
me in the afternoon, requesting at the same time that I 
would be alone, because she had aflairs of importance to 
communicate. As I supposed the latter part of this lues- 
sage to be mere pleasantry, I was far from expecting any 
extraordinary information ; and my surprise at the event 
was much greater, as I had not the least reason to suppose 
she had made any discovery of m}' interitions. Miss Nilow 
arrived at three in the aiternoon ; her agitation on her first 
appearance convinced me that she was exceedingly afflicted. 
At sight of me she paused a moment, and soon after burst 
into tears, and threw herself into my arms, crying out, 
that she was unfortunate and forsaken. Her sighs and tears 
were so extreme, that it was more than a quarter of an 
hour before I could obtain a connected sentence. I was 
extremely affected at her situation, and used every expe- 
dient to calm her mind, but this was extremely difficult, 
because I was entirely ignorant of the reason of her afflic- 
tion. As soon as siie became a little composed, she begged 
me to shut the duor, that no one might interrupt us, I 
came back, and on my knees intreated her to explain the 
cause of her present situation, which she did to the follow- 
ing effect : 

" She informed me that her maid had discovered to her, 
that a certain person named Ivan Kudrin, one of my asso- 
ciates, liad proposed to her to share his fortune, and that 
this indiscreet person had assured the girl, that he was 
about to quit Kamschatka with me, to make a voyage to 
Europe, where he hojied to i)lace her in an agreeable situ- 
ation. The maid had first related the circumstance to her 
mistress; but as she could never believe me capable of 
such base and trcaclicrous behaviour to her, she was dcsi- 

B E N Y O W S K Y. U 

rous of hearing the account herself, and had, for that pur- 
pose, persuaded the maid to appoint a meeting with Kudrin, 
in order to question him more amply, whiie she herself 
might hear the wliole, by being concealed behind a cur- 
tain. In this manner, sne said, she became convinced of 
her unhappinessand my treachery, and that she wouhi have 
spared me the confusion of iiearing this, if, from a convic- 
tion that she could not live after such an affront, she had 
not been desirous of bidding; me a last farewell. 

*' On finishing tiiese words she fainted, and tliough I was 
exceetiingly alarmed and distressed on the occasion, yet I 
did not fail to arrange a })lan in my mind, during the inter- 
val of her insensibility, When this amiable young lady- 
recovered, she asked if she might give credit to what she 
had heard. I then threw myself at her feet, and entreated 
her to hear me cahnlv, and judge whether I was to blame 
or not. She promised she would, and I addressed iier ia 
the f«)ilowmg terms : 

" Yon may recollect, ray dear friend, the account I 
gave } uu of niv birtli, aiid the raik I held in Europe ; I re- 
membt r the tt ars y'>u shed on that occasion. Tne misfor- 
tune of being exiled to Kamschatka would long since have 
compeiled me to deliver myself from tyraimy by death, if 
your acquaintance and att?.chment had not preserved me. 
I have lived for jou, and if you could read my heart, I am 
sure I should have your pity; for ti;e possession of your 
person is become as i>rcessary to my existence as liberty it- 
self. The liberty 1 speak of is not that which your worthy- 
father has given me, but implies tlie possession of my estate 
and rank. I liaxe hoped for the jiossession of your person, 
with a view of rendering you happy in the participation of 
my fortune and dignity. These views cannot be accom- 
plished at Kamschatka. Wiiat rank caii I bestow on my 
love but that of an exile ? The favours of your worthy fa- 
ther may be of the shortest duration. His successor may 
soon recal his ordinances, and plunge me again ii'.to tiiat 
state of suffering and contempt, from which I was delivered 
for a short moment. Represent to yourself;, my dearest 
friend, the affliction and despair that would overwhelm my 
soul, when 1 beheld you a sharer in my pain and disgrace; 
for you well know that all the Russians esteem the exiles as 
dishonoured persons. You have forced me to this declara- 
tion of my intentions, in which I have been guided by the 
attachment and sincerity of my heart. I deferred the com- 

12 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

munication to you, but I swear that such was my resolu- 
tion." — " Why then," interrupted she, " did you conceal 
your intention from me, who am ready to follow you to the 

farthest limits of the universe r" This assurance encourafjed 

• - • 
me to proceed, and engage this charming young lady in my 

interests. I told her, therefore, that I was prevented only 

by the fear lest she should refuse my proposals on account 

of her attachment to her parents ; but that, as I now had 

nothing to fear in that respect, I could inform her, that my 

intention heing to leave Kamschatka, I had determined to 

carry her off; and in order to convince her, I was ready to 

call Mr. Crustiew, who would confirm the truth. On this 

assurance she embraced me, and entreated me to forgive 

her want of confidence, at the same time that she declared 

her readiness to accompany me. 

*' This decree of confidential intercourse beins: esta- 
blished, I persuaded her to dismiss every fear from her 
mind. Many were the trials I made of her resolution, and 
the event convinced me that she was perfectly determined 
to follow my fortunes. The secret being thus secure, by 
her promise to keep it inviolably, I had no other uneasiness 
remainino; but what arose from the communication havino: 
been made to her servant. I mentioned my fears to miss 
Nilow, who removed them, by assuring me that her servant 
was too much attached to her to betray her secret, and had, 
besides, an affection for Kudrin, so that she could answer 
for her discretion. Thus agreeably ended our conversa- 
tion, though the commencement was rather tra<Tical, and I 
received the vows of attachment and fidelity from an artless 
and innocent mind." 

On the 23d of April 1771, however, " Miss Aphanasia," 
says the count, " came to me incognito. She informed me 
that her mother was in tears, and her father talked with her 
in a manner which gave reason to fear that he suspected 
our plot. Slie conjured me to be careful, and not to come 
to the fort if sent for. She expressed her fears that it 
w-ould not be in her power to come to me again, hut pro- 
mised she would in that case send her servant ; and she 
entreated me at all events, if I should be compelled to use 
force atrainst the o-overnment, I would be careful of the life 
of her father, and not endanger my own. I tenderly em- 
braced this charming young lady, and thanked her for the 
interest she took in my preservation ; and as it appeared 
important that her absence should not be discovered, I 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 13 

begged her to return and recommend the issue of our in- 
tentions to good fortune. Before her departure I reminded 
her to look minutely after her father, and to send me a red 
ribband in case government should determine to arrest or 
attack me ; and, in the second place, that at the moment 
of an alarm, she would open the shutter of her wmdow 
which looked to the garden, and cause a sledt^e to be laid 
over the ditch on that side. She promised to comply with 
my instructions, and confirmed her promises with vows and 

The apprehensions of this faithful girl for the safet}'^ of 
the man she loved, were far from being without foundation ; 
and on the 26th of April she sent the count two red rib- 
bands, to signify the double danger to which she perceived 
he was exposed. The count, however, coolly prepared to 
brave the impending storm, and gave orders to the leaders 
of his associates, amounting in all to fifty-nine persons, to 
place themselves at the head of their divisions, and station 
themselves round his house, in readiness to act in the 
night, in case an attack should be made by the cossacks 
of the town, and soldiers of the garrison, who, it was ru- 
moured, were busied in preparing their arms. At five 
o'clock in the evening, a corporal, with four grenadiers, 
stopped at the count's door, demanding admittance in the 
name of the empress, and ordered him to follow the guard 
to the fort. The count, however, proposed, from a window, 
to the corporal, that he should enter alone and drink a glass 
of wine; but, on his being admitted, the door was instantly 
shut upon him, and four pistols clapped to his breast, by 
the terror of which he was made to disclose every thing 
that was transacting at the fort, and at length obliged to 
call the four grenadiers separately into the house, under 
pretence of driuking, when they were all five bound toge- 
ther, and deposited safely in the cellar. 

This measure was, of course, the signal of resistance, 
and the count marshalling his associates, who had secretly 
furnished themselves with arms and ammunition by the 
treachery of the store- keepers, issued forth from the house 
to oppose, with greater advantage, another detachment who 
had been sent to arrest him. After levelling several sol- 
diers to the ground, the count, by the mismanagement of 
their commander, seized their cannon, turned them with 
success against the fort itself, and, entering by means of the 
drawbridge, dispatched the twelve remaining guards who 

14 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

were then within it. *' Madame Nilow and her children,'* 
sa3'S the count, " at sight of me implored lay jirotection 
to save their father and husband. I immediately hastened 
to his apartment, and begged him to go to his children's 
room to preserve his life, but he answered that he v/oidd 
first take mine, and instantly fired a pistol, which wounded 
me. I was desirous nevertlieless of prfcserviiig him, and 
continued to represent that all resistance would be useless, 
for which reason I entreated him to retire. His wife and 
children threw themselves on their knees, but n:)tiiing would 
avail ; he Hew upon me, seized me by the ttiroat, and left 
me no other alternative than either to give up n)y own life, 
or run my sword through his body. At this period the 
petard, by which my associates attempted to make a breach, 
exploded, and bur»t ttie out^r gate. The second was open, 
and I saw Mr. Panow enter at the head of a party. He en- 
treated the orovernor to let me "o, but not beine able to 
prevail on him, he set me at liberty by splitting his skull." 
The count by this event became complete master of the 
fort, and by the cannon and ammunition which he found on 
the rampart, was enabled, with tiie ready and active assist- 
ance of his now increased associates, to repel the attack 
which was made upon him by the cossacks ; but flight, 
not resistance, was the ultimate object of this bold com- 
mander; and in order to obtain this opportunity, he dis- 
patched a drum and a woman as a sign of parley to the 
cossacks, who had quitted the town and retired to the 
heights, with a resolution to invest the fort and starve the 
insurgents, informing them of his resolution to send a de- 
tachment of associates into the town to drive all the women 
and children into the church, and there to burn them all to 
death, unless they laid down their arms. While this em- 
bassy was sent, preparation was made for carrying the 
threat it contained into immediate execution ; but bv sub- 
mitting to the proposal, the execution of this horrid mea- 
sure was rendered unnecessary, and the count not only 
received into the fort fifty-two of the principal inhabitants of 
the town, as hostages for the fidelity of the rest, but procured 
the archbishop to preach a sermon in the church in favour of 
the revolution. The count uas now complete governor of 
Kainschatka; and having time, without danger, to prepare 
every thing necessary for the intended departure, he amused 
himself with ransacking the archives of the town, where he 
found several manuscripts of voyages made to the eastward 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 15 

of Kamschatka. The count also formed a chart, with de- 
tails, respecting Siberia and the sea-coast of Kamschatka, 
and a description of the KurcUes and Aleuthes islands. 
This chart has not survived the fate of its composer. 

The conspirators, previous to their hostilities against the 
governor, had prudently secured a corvette of the name of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, which then rode at anchor in the 
port of Bolsha, and their subsequent success afforded them 
the means ot" providing her with such stores as were neces- 
sary for the intended voyage. On the 1 1th of May 1771, 
the count, as commander in chief, attended by Mr. Crustiew 
as second, by sixteen of his fellow-captives as quarter- 
guards, and by fifty-seven foremast men, together with 
twelve passengers and nine women, among whom was the 
lovely Aphanasia, disguised in sailor's apparel, went on 
board this vessel; and on the next day weighed anchor, 
and sailed out of the harbour on a southern course, intend- 
ing to continue their voyage to China. On the 20th of 
May, they anchored their vessel in a bay on the coast of 
Beering's island, where they found the celebrated captain 
Ochotyn and his followers, who had also escaped from exile 
in Siberia, and were wandering in search of that settlement 
which, from their restless dispositions, they were doomed 
never to hud. 

The count, however, was not to be detained by the blan- 
dishments of friendship ; he departed from this island, and 
arrived, after experiencing many hardships and dangers at 
sea, at the harbour of Usilpatchar in Japan on the 2d of 
August; from whence, not meeting with a very friendly 
reception, he again immediately set sail, and arrived on 
iSunday the 28th of August at the island of Formosa. The 
inhabitants of Formosa at first appeared inclined to treat 
him with respect and civility, particularly don Hieronymo 
Pacheco, formerly captain at the port of Cavith at Manilla, 
who had fled from that employment to the island of For- 
mosa, in consequence of his having in a moment of rage 
massacred his wife and a Dominican wliom he had found in 
her company ; but these professions were soon found to be 
deceitful ; for on sending his men on shore to fetch water, 
they were attacked by a party of twenty Indians, many of 
them dangerously wounded, and Mr. Panow, the count's 
most faithful friend, killed. Don Hieronymo, however, 
contrived to exculpate himself from any concern in this 
treachcrv, and to advise the count to seek revenue bv a 

16 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

conquest of the island ; but he contented himself with pro« 
Yoking the natives to a second attack, and repulsing them 
with considerable slaughter. His men, however, insisted 
on going in quest of the Indians, in order to make thena 
feel tlieir further vengeance. 1"he remonstrances of the 
count were to no effect ; and at length, complying with 
their desires, he requested don Hieronymo to guide them 
towards the principal residence of the nation who had given 
him so bad a reception, where, after a short and unequal 
conflict, lie killed eleven hundred and fifty-six, took six 
hundred and forty-three prisoners, who had prostrated them- 
selves on the ground to beg for mercy from their assailants, 
and set fire to their town. The prince of the country, not- 
withstanding this massacre of his subjects, was introduced 
to the count by his Spanish friend, and a cordiality at 
length took place between them to such a degree, that the 
count entered into a formal treaty for returning and settling 
at Formosa ; but his secret motives for makincr this enoanre- 
nient appear to have been, the execution of a project he 
had silently conceived of establishing a colony on the 

On Monday the 12th of September, the count and his 
associates sailed from Formosa ; on the Thursday follow- 
ing the coast of China appeared in sight; and two days 
afterwards his vessel was piloted into the port of Macao. 
At this place he was treated with great respect by the go- 
vernor and the principal men of the town ; and on the 3d 
of October 1771, captain Gore, then in the service of the 
English East- India company, made an offer of services to 
him on the part of the directors, and a free passage to 
Europe, provided he would bind himself to entrust his 
manuscripts to the company, engage to enter into their 
service, and make no communication of the discoveries he 
had made. But having accepted proposals from the French 
directors, the offers of captain Gore were rejected, and the 
count soon afterwards returned from Macao to Europe on 
board a French ship. 

He arrived on the Sth of August 1772, in Champagne, 
where the duke d'Aiguillon, the ininister of France, then 
was ; " and he received me," says the count, " with cor- 
diality and distinction, and proposed to me to enter the 
service of his master, with the offer of a regiment of in- 
fantry ; which I accepted, on condition that his majesty 
would be pleased to employ me in forming establishments 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 17 

beyoiul the Cape." In consequence of this condition, the 
duke his patron proposed to him IVom his majesty to form 
an estabhshment on the island of Madagascar, upon the 
same footing as he had proposed upon the island of For- 
mosa, the whole scheme of which is published in his me- 
moirs of his own life, and discovers vast knowledge of the 
interests of commerce, and a deep insight into the cha- 
racters of men. 

To a romantic mind and adventurous spirit such as the 
count possessed, a proposal like the present was irre- 
sistible ; and after receiving the most positive assurances 
from the French ministry, that he should constantly receive 
from them the regular supplies necessary to promote the 
success of his undertaking, he set sail on the 22d of March, 
1773, from Port L'Orient for Madagascar, under the treache- 
rous auspices of recommendatory letters to Mr. De Ternay, 
governor of the isle of France, where he landed with a 
company of between four and five hundred men on the 
22d of September following. Instead, however, of receiv- 
ing the promised assistance at this place, the governor en- 
deavoured by every means in his power to thwart the suc- 
cess of his enterprise ; and no other step remained for him 
to take, than that of hastening for Madagascar. He ac- 
cordingly set sail in the Des Torges, a vessel badly pro- 
vided with those stores that were most likely to be of use, 
and came to an anchor at Madagascar on the 14th of Fe- 
bruary 1774. The opposition which he met from the se- 
veral nations placed him in a dangerous situation ; but he 
at length, with great difficulty, formed an establishment 
on Foul Point, entered into a commercial intercourse, and 
formed treaties of friendship and alliance with the greater 
part of the inhabitants of this extensive island. But whether 
the count, whose commission only extended to open a 
friendly intercourse with the natives, was abandoned by 
the minister from the cruelty of neglect, whilst he was iu 
the regular execution of the commands of his sovereign, 
or because his exorbitant spirit and ambition began to soar 
to more than an ordinary pitch of power and greatness, the 
following curious and extraordinary narrative of his sub- 
sequent conduct will manifestly shew. 

The island of Madagascar, as is well known, is of vast 
extent, and is inhabited by a great variety of different na- 
tions. Among these is the nation of Sambarines, formerly 
governed by a chief of the name and titles of Rohandrian 

Vol. V. C 

IS B E N Y O W S K Y. 

Ampansacabe Ramini Larizon ; whose only child, a lovely 
daughter, had, it seems, been taken prisoner, and sold as 
a captive ; and from this circumstance, upon the death of 
Ramini, his family was supposed to be extinct. " On the 
2d of February," says the count, " INI. Corbi, one of my 
most confidential otHcers, with the interpreter, informed 
me, that the old negress Susanna, whom 1 had brought 
from the isle of France, and who in her early youth had 
been sold to the French, and had lived upwards of fifty 
years at the isle of France, had reported, that her com- 
panion, the daughter of Ramini, having likewise been made 
a prisoner, was sold to foreigners, and that she had cer- 
tain marks that I was her son. This officer likewise re- 
presented to me, that in consequence of her report the 
Sambarine nation had held several cabars to declare me 
the heir of Ramini, and consequently proprietor of the 
province of Manahar, and successor to the title of Ampan- 
sacabe, or supreme chief of the nation. This information 
appeared to me of the greatest consequence, and I deter- 
mined to take the advantage of it, to conduct that brave 
and generous nation to a civilized state. But as I had no 
person to whom I could entrust the secret of my mind, I 
lamented how blind the minister of Versailles was to the 
true interests of France. On the same day I interrogated 
Susanna on the report she had spread concerning my birth. 
The good old woman threw herself at my knees, and ex- 
cused herself by confessing that she had acted entirely 
upon a conviction of the truth. For she said that she had 
known my mother, whose physiognomy resembled mine, 
and that she had herself been inspired in a dream by the- 
Zahanhar to publish the secret. Her manner of speaking 
convinced me that she really believed what she said. I 
therefore embraced her, and told her that I had reasons 
for keeping the secret respecting my birth ; but that ne- 
vertheless if she had any confidential iViends she might ac- 
quaint them with it. At these words she arose, kissed my 
hands, and declared that the Sambarine nation was in- 
formed of the circumstances, and that the Rohandriau 
RatTangour waited only fur a favourable moment to ac- 
knowledge the blood of Ramini.'" 

The fallacy to which the old woman thus gave evidence, 
feeble as the texture of it may appear to penetrating minds, 
was managed by the count with sucli profound dexterity 
and address, that he was declared the heir of Ramini, iii-. 

B E N Y O W S K Y^. 19 

vested with the sovereignty of the nation, received ambas- 
sadors and lormed alliances in the capacity of a king with 
other tribes, made war and peace, led his armies in person 
into the field, and received submission from liis vanquished 
enemies, la tliis situation it is not wonderful tl;dt he 
should forget the allegiance he was under to the king of 
France ; and, representing to his subjects the difficulties 
he had experienced from the neglect of the minister, and 
the probable advantages that might I'esult by forming a 
new and national compact either with that or some other 
powerful kiuiidom in FAirope, he persuaded them to per- 
mit him to return to Europe for tliat purpose; and " on 
the 11th of October, 1776," says the count, " I took my 
leave to go on board : and at this single moment of my life 
I experienced what a heart is capable of suffering, when 
torn from a beloved and affectionate society to which it is 

This account concludes his narrative; but amono- the 
memoirs and papers which till the remaining part of the 
volume, it appears, that on his arrival in Europe his pro- 
posals to the court of France were rejected ; that he made 
subsequent offers of his service to the emperor of Germany, 
which met with no better success; and that on the 25th of 
December, 1783, he offered, in the character of sovereign 
of the island of Madagascar, terms for an offensive and de- 
fensive alliance with the king of Great Britain : but this 
proposal was also declined. I'he ardour of the count, how- 
ever, was not abPtted by these disappointments ; he pre- 
tended to look with contempt on kings who could be so 
blind to the intex'ests and advantages of their people ; and, 
sending for his family from Hungary, he sailed from Lon- 
don with some of his associates for Maryland, on the 1 l-tli 
of 7\.pril, 17S4, with a cargo of the value of near 4,000/. 
sterling, consisting, it seems, of articles intended for the 
Madagascar trade. A respectable commercial house in Bal- 
timore was induced to join in his scheme, and supplied 
him with a ship of 450 tons, whose lading was estimated 
at more than 1,000/. in which he sailed from that place on 
the 25th of Oct. 1784, and landed at Antangara on the 
island of Madagascar, on the 7th of July 1785, trom whence 
he departed to Angouci, and commenced hostilities against 
the Frencli by seizing their storehouse. Here he busied 
himself in erect^ing a town after the manner of the country, 
and from hence he sent a detachment of one hundred men 

c 2 

20 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

to take possession of the French factory at Foul Point ; but 
they were prevented from carrying their purpose into exe- 
cution by the sight of a frigate which was at anchor off the 
Point. In consequence of these movements, the governor 
of the isle of France sent a ship with sixty regulars on 
board, who landed and attacked the count on the morning 
of the 23d of May 1786. He had constructed a small re- 
doubt defended by two cannon, in which himself, with two 
Europeans and thirty natives, waited the approach of the 
enemy. The blacks fled at the first fire, and Benyowsky, 
havino; received a ball in his right breast, fell behind the 
parapet; whence he was dragged by the hair, and expired 
a few minutes afterwards. 

Such is the abridgment of the history of this singular 
adventurer, taken from his Memoirs published in 1790, 
2 vols. 4to, and inserted in the preceding edition of this 
Dictionary. We have reduced the narrative in some parts, 
but are yet doubtful whether accounts of this kind strictly 
belong to our plan, and still more, whether the space al- 
lotted to this is not disproportionate. The story, however, 
is interesting, and although the evidence is chiefly that of 
the adventurer himself, the two volumes of his memoirs 
may hereafter be found useful as far as they describe the 
hitherto almost unknown island of Madagascar. Of his 
character, it is not easy to form a decided opinion. Even 
from his own account, he appears to have been unsteady, 
ambitious, and cruel in his expedients, but how far his na- 
tural disposition may have been altered by his sufl"erings, 
and the love of life and liberty may have predominated 
over that of truth and humanity, from what some are pleased 
to call a fatal necessity, we shall not presume to deter- 

mine. * 

BENZEL DE STERNAU (Anselm Francis de), a 
privy counsellor of the electorate of Mentz, was born Aug. 
28, 1738, and arrived at the dignity of counsellor when 
only nineteen years of age. The emperor invited him to 
Vienna, but he refused this honourable offer, and remained 
at Mentz, where bavins- attained the rank of chancellor of 
state, he applied his attention to the reformation of the 
schools, and the regulation and diminution of the convents. 
He was one of the chief promoters of the union of the Ger- 
man bishops against the court of Rome. The death of the 

1 Memoirs as above. 

B E N Z E L. 21 

elector Emmeiick Joseph, in 1774, interrupted his pur- 
suits ; but he was soon recalled, and in 1782, appointed to 
the guardianship of the universities of the electorate, and 
distinguished himself by many humane and enlightened 
reguhitions. He died May 7, 1784. We have only from 
his pen, the plan of a '* New organization of the Univer- 
sity of Mentz," 1784, 8vo. ' 

BENZELIUS (Eric), archbishop of Upsal, was born in 
Sweden in 1642, at a village called Benzeby, whence he 
took his name. His parents were of mean condition, but 
an uncle enabled him to pursue his studies at Upsal, where 
he was appointed tutor to the children 'of the count de la 
Gardie, grand chancellor of the kingdom. He afterwards 
travelled in Germany, France, and England, and on his 
return to his country, was appointed professor of history 
and morals. Having also made great progress in theolo- 
gical studies, he was created doctor of that faculty and 
appointed professor. In 1677 he was promoted to the 
bishopric of Strengnes, and in 1700, to the archbishopric 
of Upsal, which he held until his death, Feb. 17, 1709. He 
was twice married, and by his first wife had thirteen chil- 
dren, of whom three of the sons became archbishops of 
Upsal. Benzelius instructed Charles XH. in theological 
studies, and that prince preserved always a high esteem for 
him. The archbishop wrote an " Abridgment of Eccle- 
siastical History," several dissertations on subjects of theo- 
logy and ecclesiastical history, and a Latin translation, with 
notes, of many of the homilies of St. Chrysostom, which he 
made from manuscripts in the Bodleian library. He had 
also the superintendance of the edition of the Bible, in the 
Swedish language, which Charles XH. ordered to be pub- 
lished in 1703, with engravings, and which still bears the 
name of that monarch. Very few alterations, however, 
were introduced in this edition, as the divines of the time 
could not agree on certain disputed passages, and an entire 
new translation was reserved for the reign of Gustavus III.* 

BENZELIUS (Eric), archbishop of Upsal, and one of 
the sons of the preceding, was born at Upsal in 1675. 
When he had finished his studies, his father sent him on 
his travels to the principal countries of Europe, and on his 
return, he was made librarian to the university of Upsal. 
He was afterwards for many years, and with great reputa- 

> Biog. Universelle. s Bio^. Univcrselle. — Moreii. 


tion, professor of divinit}*, and became successively bishop 
of Gotcenburgh and Linkseping, and archbishop of Upsal, 
where he died in 174 J. He was not only an able theo- 
logian, but versed in languages, history, and antiquities, 
and ii) all his writings displays erudition and critical acumen. 
He published, 1. " Monumenta histcrica vetera Ecclesi® 
Sueco-Gothicce," Upsal, 1704, 4to. 2. " Johannis Vas- 
tovii Vitis x\qiv.lonia, sive Vitae Sanctorum regni Sueco- 
Guthici," ibid. 1708, 4to. 3. " Dissertatio de Alexandria 
yEgypti," ibid. 17 11, 8vo. 4. " Laudatio funebris Michael. 
Enemanni," Upsal, 1715, 4to. 5. *' Dissertatio de re lit- 
teraria Judaeorum," ibid. 1716, 4to. 6. " Acta Litteraria 
Suecia?, ab 1720 usque ad 1733," ibid. 3 vols. 4to. 7. " Pe- 
ricuium Runicum, sue de origine et antiquitate Runarum," 
ibid. 1724, 8vo. 8. " Oratio funebris in memoriam Lau- 
rentii Mohni, theologi Upsaliensis," ibid. 4to, These 
learned and ingenious works procured him very great re- 
putation, and the correspondence of the most eminent men 
of learning in every part of Europe. In 1720, when li- 
brarian to the university, he associated with some of the 
professors in founding the academy of sciences of Upsal, 
which was soon after established by government, and is the 
oldest institution of that kind in the north; and when the 
academy of Stockholm was founded in 1739, Benzelius was 
admitted one of its first members. ' 

BENZELIUS (Henry), archbishop of Upsal, and bro- 
ther to the preceding, was born at Strengnes in 1689, and 
studied at Upsal. During his subsequent travels he hap- 
pened to arrive at Bender, where Charles XII. was. This 
prince, who had more taste for the pursuit of scientific 
liuowledge than is generally supposed, was desirous at this 
time to send some men of learning to the East, and Ben- 
zelius was one whom he applied to, and who accordingly 
began his travels in 17 14, visiting Syria, Palestine, and 
Egypt, and returning to Sweden through Italy, German}-, 
and Holland. The journal of this tour is preserved in ma- 
nuscript at Upsal ; but a considerable part of Benzelius's 
observations were printed in a Latin collection, under the 
title of " Syntagma dissertationum in Academia Lundensi 
habitarum," Leipsic, 1745, 4io. Benzelius, after his return 
to Sweden, was made professor of theology, bishop of Lun- 
den, and archbishop of Upsal, where he died in 1758. He 

* Biog. Uiiiverselle. — Saxii Oiiomasticon. 

B E N Z E L I U S. 23 

"uas succeeded in the archbishopric by his brother Jacob, 
who wrote in Latin, an abridgment of theology, and a 
description of Palestine, and some other works. — H. Jas- 
per Benzelius, of the same learned family, who died 
about the end of the last century, bishop of Strengnes, 
had studied under Mosheim, and published in 1744 at 
Helmstadt, a Latin life or dissertation on John Dury, who 
in the seventeenth century, travelled over a considerable 
part of Europe, in hopes of reconciling the Lutherans and 

BENZONI (Jerom), a Milanese, was born about 1519. 
His father, who was not rich, having suffered by the war, 
sent him on his travels, to seek his fortune in Italy, France, 
Spain, and Germany. He did not find what he sought, 
but became so captivated with the accounts recently re- 
ceived from the new world, that he determined to go there. 
Accordingly m 1541, he went to Spain, and embarked for 
America, where he remained fourteen years. In 1556, he 
returned to his country, rich only in the observations he 
had made, and which he communicated to the public, in a 
*' History of the New World," in Italian, Venice, 1565, 
4to, reprinted 1572, 8vo, and afterwards translated into 
Latin, French, German, and Flemish. ^ 

BEOLCO (Angelo), surnamed Ruzzante, was born at 
Padua, about 1502, and died in 1542. He applied him- 
self early in life to study the manners, gesture, and lan- 
guage of villagers, and copied every particular that sa- 
voured of simplicity, drollery, and the grotesque. He was 
the Vade of the Italians, His rustic farces, though written 
in a low and vulgar style, are yet pleasing to people of edu- 
cation, by the correctness with which the countrymen are 
represented, and by the witticisms with which they are sea- 
soned. He preferred being the first in this species of com- 
position, to being the second in a more elevated line. His 
principal pieces are, la Vaccaria, I'Anconitana, la Mos- 
chetta, la Fiorina, la Piovana, &c. These were printed 
with other poems of the same kind in 15S4 in 12mo, under 
this title, "Tutte !e opere del famosissimo Ruzzante," and 
have often been republished. ^ 

BERARDIER df. Bataut (Francis Joseph), a doctor 
of the Sorbonne, formerly professor of eloquence, and 

' Biog. Universelle. 2 ii,ij. 

3 Ibid. — Moreri. — Freheri Theatiiim. — Baillet Jugemens des Savsns. 


afterwards grand master of the college of Louis-le-Grand, 
was born at Paris in 1720. He was deputy from the clergy 
of Paris, in the constituent assembly, and died at Paris in 
1794. He had acquired great reputation in the university, 
and was not less respected in the above assembly, where he 
signed the famous protest of Sept. 12, 1791. Camille- 
Desmoulins, who had been his pupil, celebrated him in his 
verses entitled " Mes adieux an college ;" and from a sin- 
gular caprice, this revolutionist chose to receive the nup- 
tial benediction from Berardier, although one of the non- 
juring priests, and of totally opposite principles. St. Just 
and Robespierre were the witnesses on this occasion ; and 
such was the regard Camille-Desmoulins had for him, that 
he protected him from the massacres of the 2d of Septem- 
ber 1792. Berardier wrote, 1. " Precis de THistoire uni- 
verselle," a very excellent introduction to the study of his- 
tory, which has gone through several editions. 2. " Essai 
sur le recit," 1776, 12mo, also very successful, but not 
written with so much perspicuity. 3. " Anti-Lucrece en 
vers Fran^ais," 1786, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. " Principes de la 
foi sur le gouvernment de I'Eglise, en opposition a la con- 
stitution civile du clerge, ou refutation de Topinion de M. 
Camus," 8vo. Of this fourteen editions were printed with- 
in six months, and it has likewise been published under the 
title of " Vrais Principes de la Constitution du Clerge." * 

BERAUD (Laurence), a French mathematician and as- 
tronomer, was born at Lyons, March 5, 1703, entered 
among the Jesuits, and became professor of humanity at 
Vienne and at Avignon, and of mathematics and philo- 
sophy at Aix. In 1740 he was invited to Lyons and ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics, director of the observa- 
tory, and keeper of the medals ; and the same year he be- 
came astronomer to the academy, the memoirs of which are 
enriched by a great many of his observations, particularly 
that on the passage of Mercury on the Sun, May 6, 1753, 
during which he saw and demonstrated the luminous ring 
round that planet, which had escaped the notice of all the 
astronomers for ten years before. In all his results, he 
entirely agreed with Lalande, who had made the same ob- 
servations at Paris, and with the celebrated Cassini. All 
his observations, indeed, are creditable to his talents, and 
accord with those of the most eminent astronomers. 

1 Biog. Universelle. 

B E R A U D. 25 

Among his other papers, inserted in the memoirs of the 
academy, we find several on vegetation, on the evapora- 
tion of liquids, and the ascent of vapours, on light, a phy- 
sical theory on the rotation of the earth and the inclination 
of its axis, &.c. In meteorology, he published observa- 
tions on the tubes of thermometers, wiih an improvement 
in the construction of them, which was the subject of three 
memoirs read in the academy of Lyons in 1747. He has 
also endeavoured to account for metals reduced to calcina- 
tion weischins: heavier than in their former state, and main- 
tains, against Boyle, that fire is incapable of giving this 
additional weight, and likewise refutes the opinion of those 
who attribute it to air, or to substances in the air which the 
action of fire unites to the metal in fusion. This memoir 
was honoured with the prize by the academy of Bourdeaux 
in 1747, and contained many opinions which it would have 
been difficult to contradict before the experiments of 
Priestley, Lavoisier, and Morveau. In 1748, he received 
the same honour, from that academy, for a paper in which 
he maintained the connexion between magnetism and elec- 
tricity, assigning the same cause to both. In 1760, he re- 
ceived a third prize from the same academy, for a disser- 
tation on the influences of the moon on vegetation and ani- 
mal ceconomy. Beraud was also a corresponding member 
of the academy of sciences in Paris, and several of his 
papers are contained in their memoirs, and in those of the 
academy of Lyons. He wrote several learned dissertations 
on subjects of antiquity. On the dissolution of the society 
of Jesuits, he left his country for some time, as he could 
not conscientiously take the oaths prescribed, and on his 
return, notwithstanding many pressing offers to be restored 
to the academy, he preferred a private life, never having- 
recovered the shock which the abolition of his order had 
occasioned. In this retirement he died June 26, 1777. 
His learnins: and virtues were univei-sally admired ; he was 
of a communicative disposition, and equal and candid tem- 
per, both in his writings and private life. INIontucIa, La- 
lande, and Bossu, were his pupils ; and father Lefevre of 
the Oratory, his successor in the observatory of Lyons, 
pronounced his eloge in that academy, which was printed 
at Lyons, 1780, 12mo. The Diet. Hist, ascribed to Be- 
raud, a small volume, " La Physique des corps animus," 
1755, 12mo.' 

J Biog. Universelle. — Diet. Hist, 


BERAULD, or BERAULT (Nicholas), was born at Or- 
leans in 1475, and died in 1550. According to the cus- 
tom of that age, he Latinized his name into Beraldus 
AuRELius, and it is under that name that his friend Nico- 
las Bourbon celebrates him in one of his Latin poems. 
Berauld, according to Morcri, was preceptor to cardinal 
Coligni, his brother the admiral, and to Chatillon. Eras- 
mus, in many parts of his works, acknowledges the kind 
hospitality of Berauid, when, in 1500, he was travelling 
by tile way of Orleans into Italy, and highly praises the 
elegance of his style. In 1522, Erasmus dedicated t^^ him 
his work " De conscribendis epistolis." Berauld pub- 
lished various works in Latin, of which the principal are, 
1. " O ratio de pace restituta et de foedere sancito apud 
Cameracum," Paris, 1528, 8vo. 2. " Metaphrasis in ceco- 
nomicon Aristotelis," Paris, 4to, without date. In 1516, 
he edited the works of William bishop of Paris, in folio, 
and the same year an edition of Pliny's natural history, 
with numerous corrections, yet Hardouin has not men- 
tioned Berauld among the editors of Pliny. He also sup- 
plied notes to the Rusticus of Politian, and published a 
*' Greek and Latin Dictionary," that of Crafton, with ad- 
ditions, a preface, and notes. 3. " Syderalis Abyssus," 
Paris, 1514. 4. " Dialogus quo rationes explicantur qui- 
bus dicendi ex tempore facultas parari potest, &c." Lyons, 
1534. 5. " De jurisprudentia vetere ac novitia oratio," 
Lyons, 1533. 6. *' Enarratio in psalmos LXXI. et 
CXXX." Paris, 1529, 4to. Btrauld was greatly respect- 
ed by Stephen Poucher, bishop of Paris, and afterwards 
archbishop of Sens, a celebrated patron of learning and 
learned men.- — Berauld's son, Francis, born at Orleans, 
embraced the principles of Calvin ; he was esteemed a very 
learned man and a good Greek and Latin poet. He was 
particularly eminent for his knowledge of Greek, which he 
taught at Montbelliard, Lausanne, Geneva, Montargis, of 
which last college he was principal in 1571, and at Ro- 
chelle. Henry Stephens employed him to translate part 
of Appian, and preferred his translation to that of Ccelius 
Secundus Curio. * 

BEHAULT-BERCASTEL (Anthony Henry), born 
about the commencement of the last century, in the coun- 
try of Messin in France, was first a Jesuit, then curate of 

* Gen, Diet. — Moreri. — Bio?. Universelle. 

B E R A U L T. 27 

Ormevllle in the diocese of Rouen, and lastly canon of 
Noyoii. He died during the revolution. He commenced 
his literary career iii 17 54, with a small poem on the Ca- 
nary-bird, " Le Serin des Canaries," whicli was followed 
by the translation of Quivedo, and a collection of Idyls. 
He pnblished afterwards in 2 vols. i2mo, a poem on the 
Promised Land, wdiich had little success, and was justly 
censured for containing an absurd mixture of sacred and 
profane history, lie tiien attempted a work more suitable 
to his profession, had he executed it well, an " Ecclesias- 
tical History," 24 vols. 12mo, 177 8 and following j'ears. 
This had some success, and a second edition was very re- 
cently (IBI 1) published at Toulouse, but it is so far infe- 
rior to Fleuri, that it is somewhat surprising the French 
public should have endured it. He left an abridgment of 
it in manuscript, in 5 vols. 8vo. He was also employed 
on the " Journal Etranger." * 

BERAULT (Michael), pastor and professor of theology 
at Montauban, about the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, was chosen to en^ter into conference with cardinal 
du Perron at Mantes, in 1593; and in 1598, wrote against 
him " Brieve et claire defense de la vocation des ministres 
de I'Evangile," Svo. The lively interest he took in the 
affairs of the duke of Rohan, during the civil wars of France, 
induced him to publish several writings, particularly one, 
in which he maintained that the clergy were bound to take 
up arms and shed blood, for which he was censured by the 
synod. Another BERAULT (Claudl.) succeeded D'Her- 
belot, as professor of the Syriac in the royal college of 
Paris, but is best known by his etlition of " Statius,"1685, 
2 vols. 4to, which, owing to most of the copies having 
been burnt by a fire in the printing-office, is the most 
scarce and dear of all the Delpbin quartos. This author 
died in 1705. — BERAULT (JosIAS), an advocate of the 
parliament of Rouen under Henry HL was born in 1563, 
and died about 1610. He published a " Commentaire sur 
la Coutume de Normandie," 1650 and 1660, fol. The 
booksellers of Rouen, in 1626, republished this with the 
commentaries of Godefroi and Aviron, 2 vols. fol. which 
were again reprinted in 1684 and 1776.* 

BERCHEM (Nicolas), an emment artist, was born at 
Haerlem, in 1624, and was taught the first principles of 

' Biog. Universelle. ' Biog. Universelle. — Moreri. 

28 B E R C H E M. 

painting by his father, Peter Van Haerlem, an artist oi 
very mean abihties, whose subjects were fish, confec- 
tionary, vases of silver, and other objects of still life; but 
he afterwards had the good fortune to have some of the 
best masters of that time for his instructors, and succes- 
sively was the disciple of Grebber, Vangoyen, Mojaart, 
Jan Wils, and Weeninx. He had an easy expeditious 
manner of painting, and an inexpressible variety and beauty 
in the choice of sites for his landscapes, executing them 
with a surprising degree of neatness and truth. He pos- 
sessed a clearness and strength of judgment, and a won- 
derful power and ease in expressing his ideas ; and al- 
though his subjects were of the lower kind, yet bis choice 
of nature was judicious, and he gave to every subject as 
much of beauty and elegance as it would admit. The 
leafing of his trees is exquisitely and freely touched j his 
skies are clear ; and his clouds float lightly, as if supported 
by air. The distinguishing characters of the pictures of 
Berchem, are the breadth and just distribution of the lights ; 
the grandeur of his masses of light and shadow; the na- 
tural ease and simplicity in the attitudes of his figures, ex- 
pressing their several characters ; the just degradation of 
his distances ; the brilliancy and harmony, as well as the 
transparency, of his colouring; the correctness and true 
perspective of his design ; and the elegance of his compo- 
sition : and, where any of those marks are wanting, no 
authority ought to be sufficient to ascribe any picture to 
him. He painted every part of bis subjects so extremely 
well, as to render it difficult to determine in which he ex- 
celled most; his trees, buildings, waters, rocks, hills, cat- 
tle, and figures, being all equally admirable. 

One of the most capital pictures of this master was 
painted for the principal magistrate of Dort, in whose fa- 
mily it is still preserved ; being a prospect of a moun- 
tainous country, enriched with a great variety of sheep, 
oxen, goats, and figures, excellently penciled, and most 
beautifully coloured. While he was employed in painting 
that picture, the same burgomaster bespoke also a land- 
scape from John Both, and agreed to pay eight hundred 
guilders for each picture ; but to excite an emulation, he 
promised a considerable premium for the performance 
which should be adjudged the best. When the pictures 
were finished, and placed near each other for a critical 
examination, there appeared such an equality of merit in 

B E R C H E M. 29 

each, that he generously presented both artists with an 
equal sum above the price which he had stipulated. Ber- 
chem was singularly curious, in purchasing the finest prints 
and designs of the Italian masters, as a means of improving 
his own taste ; and after his death, that collection of draw- 
ings and prints sold for a very large sum. There was such 
a demand for his works, that he was generally paid before- 
hand ; and although he was so indefatigable, that very 
often he would not move from his easel, in the summer 
months, from four in the morning till day-light failed, (by 
which close application, he finished a great number of 
pictures,) yet, at this day, they are rarely to be purchased, 
and always are sold at an extraordinary high price. 

It is recorded of him, that his wife, the daughter of Jan 
Wils, one of his masters, through her avarice, allowed 
him no rest, and industrious as he was, she usually placed 
herself under his painting-room, and when she heard him 
neither sing nor stir, she struck upon the ceiling to rouse 
him. She insisted upon having all the money he earned 
by his labour, so that he was obliged to borrow from his 
scholars when he wanted money to buy prints, of which, 
as already noticed, he contrived to form an excellent col- 
lection. He passed part of his life in the castle of Ben- 
theim, the situation of which furnished him with the views 
and animals which compose his pictures, but he died at 
Harlaem, in 1683. There are many prints engraven by, 
and after him ; the former amounting to forty-eight, and 
the latter to one hundred and thirty three. ' 

BERCHET (Peter), a French artist, who practised in 
England, was born in France, in 1659, and at the age of 
fifteen was placed under the care of La Fosse, with whom 
his improvement was so considerable, that in three years 
he was qualified to be emplo3'ed in one of the royal palaces. 
Jn 1681 he went to England, where he worked under Ram- 
bour, a French painter of architecture ; and afterwards he 
was engaged in different works for several of the English 
nobility. The ceiling in the chapel of Trinity college, in 
Oxford, was painted by this master ; he also painted the 
staircase at the duke of Schomberg's in London, and the 
summer-house at Ranelagh. His drawings in the academy 
were much approved j but towards the latter part of his 

* Pilkington and Strutt. — Lives of Painters omitted by De Piles, 8vo, p. P4.— 

30 B E R C H E T. 

life, he only painted small pieces in the historical style, for 
which the subjects were taken from fabulous history; and 
his last ritrfonnance was a Bacchanalian, to which he af- 
fixed his name the very day before he died, in 1720. * 

BERCHORIUS (Peter), whose name we find disguised 
under Bercheure, Berchoire, Bercorius, Beucheuius, 
&c. was born in the besrinniny; of the fourteenth centnrv, 
at St. Pierre- dn-Ciiemin, near Maillc zais, in Poitou. He 
ent red the order of the Benedictines, and became cele- 
brated for his learning, and attached himself to cardinal 
Duprat, archbishop of Aix, whose advice was very useful 
to liim in his writings. Among his other accomplishments, 
he is said to have been so well acquainted with his Bible, 
as to be able to quote texts and authorities on all subjects 
without any assi^itancc but from memory. He died at Paris 
in 1362, prior of the monastery of St. Eloy, since occu- 
pied by the Barnabites, which has induced some biogra- 
phers to think him a member of that order, but the Bar- 
nabites were not an order until a century after this period. 
Berchorius wrote several works which are lost : those which 
remain are in 3 vols. fol. under the title of " Reductorium, 
Repertorium, et Dictionarium morale utriusqueTestamen- 
ti, Strasburgh, 1474; Nuremberg, 1499; and Cologne, 
1631 — 1692. " Whoever," says Warton, in his "His- 
tory of Poetry," shall have the patience to turn over a few 
pages of this immense treasure of multifarious erudition, 
will be convinced beyond a doubt, from a general coinci- 
dence of the plan, manner, method, and execution, that 
the author of these volumes, and of the " Gesta Romano- 
rum," must be one and the same. The " Reductorium" 
contains all the stories and incidents in the Bible, reduced 
into allegories. The " Repertorium" is a dictionary of 
things, persons, and places ; all which are supposed to be 
mystical, and which are th.erefore explained in their moral- 
or practical sense. The " Dictionarium Morale" is in two 
parts, and seems principalh* designed to be a moral re- 
pertory for students in theology." Mr. Warton successfully 
pursues this argument in his " Dissertation on tlie Gesta 
Romanorum," to which we refer the reader. He mentions 
also tiiat Berchorius was author of a comment on a prosody 
called " Doctrinale metricum," which was used as a school- 
bogk in France, till Despauter's manual on that subject 

» Lord Orfo.d's ^Vorl^s, vol. HI.— Pilkinston.— SiUult. 


appeared. Some biographers mention his " Tropologia," 
his " Cosmograpliia," and his " Breviarium ;" but the 
** Tropologia" is nothing more than his " Reductorium" 
on the Bible, and probably the " Breviarium" is the same. 
The " Cosmographia" seems to be the fourteenth book of 
his *' Repertorium Morale." He is said by his biographers 
to have written other smaller pieces, which thej:- have not 
named nor described. Among these, Mr, Warton thinks 
his " Gesta" is comprehended : which we may conceive to 
have been thus undistinguished, either as having been 
neglected or proscribed by graver writers, or rather as 
having been probably disclaimed by its author, who saw it 
at length in the light of a juvenile performance, abounding 
in fantastic and unedifying narrations, which he judged 
unsuitable to his character, studies, and station. Besides 
the works above-mentioned, Berchorius translated Livy, 
by order of king John, of which there was a beautiful MS. 
in the library of the oratory of Troyes, and other copies, 
not less beautiful, are in the imperial library at Paris. 
This translation was published in 151 h — 1515, at Paris, 
3 vols. fol. ' 

BERCKRINGER (Daniel), who was born, according 
to Vossius, in the Palatinate, studied at Groningen. He 
became tutor to the children of the king ot" Bohemia, and 
was by the queen's interest appointed professor of philoso- 
phy at Utrecht, 1640, and eight years afterwards professor 
of eloquence. He succeeded also in poetry, but his style 
has been objected to as containing many new-coined words 
and affected phrases. He died Jidy 24, 1667, leaving se- 
veral vvork^, of which the principal were, 1. " Exercita- 
tiones ethicre, ceconomicae, politicse," Utrecht, 1664. 2. 
" Dissertatio de Cometis, utrum sint signa, an causae, an 
utrumque, an neutrum," Utrecht, 1565, 12mo. He wrote 
also against Hobbes, " Examen elementorum philosophico- 
runi de bono cive," which remains in manuscript.^ 

BEREGANI (Nicholas, Count), an Italian author of 
the seventeenth century, was born at Vincenza, Feb, 21, 
1627. When only nineteen years old, he was honoured 
by the king of France, Louis III. with the ribbon of St. 
Michael and the title of chevalier. In 1649, his family 
^vere promoted to the rank of nobility at Venice. In that; 

' Biog. Universclle. — Warton's Hist, vol. III. — Dupin. — Moreri. 
3 Mureri.— Uios- UHiverselle. 


republic he distinguished himself at the bar, especially 
when he returned to Venice, which he had been obliged 
to leave for a time in consequence of some indiscretion. 
At his leisure hours he cultivated polite literature, and par- 
ticularly poetry and history. His poems are not without 
ease and elegance, although in other respects they partake 
largely of the vicious and affected style of his age. He 
died at Venice, Dec. 17, 1713, and preserved to the last 
his love of study. Besides five dramatic pieces, all set to 
music, he wrote 1. " Istoria delle guerre d'Europa delle 
comparsa delle arini Ottomane nell' Ungheria I'anno 1683,'* 
Venice, 2 vols. 4to. These two parts were to have been 
followed hy four others, two of which were put to press in 
1700, but it does not appear that they were ever published. 
2. "Composizioni poeticheconsistenti inrimesacre,eroiche, 
morali ed amorose," Venice, 1702, 12mo. 3. " Opere de 
Claudio Claudiano tradotte ed arrichite di erudite annota- 
zioni," Venice, 1716, 2 vols. 8vo. This translation is in 
high esteem, and the notes, although not so erudite as the 
title expresses, are yet useful. ' 

BERENGARIUS, or BERENGER (James), a physi- 
cian and anatomist of the sixteenth centurv, was a native 
of Carpi in Modena, whence some biographers have called 
him by the name of Carpi us, or Carpeinsis. He took his 
doctor's degree at Bologna, and first taught anatomy and 
surgery at Pavia. He afterwards returned to Bologna in 

1520, and taught the same studies. He was there, how- 
ever, accused of having intended to dissect two Spaniards 
who had the venereal disorder, and had applied to him for 
advice, which, it was said, he meant to perform while 
they were alive, partly out of his hatred to that nation, 
and partly for his own instruction. Whatever may be in 
this report, it is certain that he was obliged to leave Bo- 
logna, and retire to Eerrara, where he died in 1550. By 
liis indefatigable attention to the appearances of disease, 
and especially by his frequent dissections, which in his 
lime, were quite sufficient, without any other demerit, to 
raise popular prejudices against him, he was enabled to 
advance the knowledge of anatomy by many important dis- 
coveries. His works were, 1. " Commentaria, cum am- 
plissimis additionibus, super anatomia Mundini," Bologna, 

1521, 1552, 4to, and translated into English by Jackson, 

* Biog. Uaiverselle. 

B E R E N G A R I U S. 33 

London, 1664. 2. " Isagogie breves in anatomiam corporis 
huniaiii, cum aliquot figuris anatoniicis," Bologna, 1522, 
4to, and often reprinted. 3. " De Cranii fractura, tracta- 
tus," Bologna, 1518, 4to, also often reprinted. He was 
one of the first who employed mercury in the cure of the 
venereal disease.' 

BEllENGARIUS, or BERENGER, the celebrated arch- 
deacon of Angers, was born at Tours in the beginning of 
the eleventh century, of an opulent family, and became 
the disciple of the famous Fulbert of Chartres, under whom 
he made rapid progress in grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, and 
what were then called the liberal arts. On his return to his 
country in 1030, he vvas appointed scholastic, or master 
of the school of St. Martin. His reputation soon reaching 
foreign parts, the number of his scholars greatly increased, 
and many of them were afterwards advanced to high rank 
in the church ; nor did he quit his school when made arch- 
deacon of Angers in 1039, The opinions, which have 
given him a nan)e in ecclesiastical history, were said to 
have been tirst occasioned by a pique. In a dispute with 
Lanfranc, archbisliop of Canterburj-, on a very trivial ques- 
tion, he happened to be defeated, and what was worse, 
his scholars began to go over to that rival, Berengarius, 
on this, took Erigena for his model, and attacked the mys- 
tery of the eucharist, as the popish writers term it, but in 
plain language, the doctrine of transnbstantiation. Bruno, 
!)isho]) of Angers, Hugh, of Langres, and Adelman, of 
Brescia, in vain endeavoured to cure him of his heresy, 
and his writings, which were taken to Rome, were con- 
demned in two councils held by pope Leo IX. in 1050, and 
himself excommunicated. He then went to the abbey of 
Preaux in Normandy, hoping to be protected by duke 
William, surnamed the Bastard, but that young prince 
summonsed a meeting of the ablest bishops and divines, 
who aijain condemned Berenoarius, and the council of 
Paris, in Oct. 1050, deprived him of all his benefices. 
This loss he is said to have felt more severely than their 
spiritual inflictions, and it disposed him to retract his sen- 
•timents in the council of Tours, in 1055, in consequence 
of which he was received into church-communion. In 1059 
he was cited to the council at Rome, by pope Nicholas II. 
and having been confuted by Abbo and Lanfranc, he ab- 

' Bio^. Unircrselle. — Ha'ler Bib!. Anat. 

Vol. V. D 


jured his errors, burnt his books, yet had no sooner 
reached France, than he protested against his recantation, 
as extorted by fear, and returned to his studies witli the 
same spirit of inquiry. At length, however, Gregory VII 
having called a new council at Rome in 1078, Berenget 
more seriously abjured his opinions, returned to France, 
and passed the remaining years of his life in privacy and 
penance. He died Jan. 6, 1088, aged ninety. There 
liave been many disputes betwixt protestant and popish 
autiiors, as to the reality or sincerity of his final recanta- 
tion. His sentiments, however, did not perish on his re- 
cantation, or his death, and he may be considered as hav- 
ing contributed to that great reformation in the church 
\vhich afterwards was carried into lasting effect by his suc- 
cessors. The greater part of his works are lost, but some 
are preserved among the works of Lanfranc, in the collec- 
tions of d'Acheri and Martenne; and, in 1770, Lessing dis- 
covered and published his answer to Lanfranc, " De cor- 
pore et sanguine Jesu Christi." ^ 

BERENGER DE LA TOUR, a French poet of the 
sixteenth century, was born at Albenas or Aubenas in the 
Vivarais. From the preface to one of his works it appears 
that he studied law, and that his family had intended him 
for some post in the magistracy, but that he had found 
leisure to cultivate his ])oetical talents, in which he was not 
i.msuccessful. His verses are easy and natural. The great- 
er part were addressed to the poets of his time, many of 
whose names are not much known now, or to persons of 
distinction. We learn from one of his pieces that he lived 
under Francis I. from another, under Henry II. and it is 
supposed that he died about 1559. His published works 
are, 1. " Le yiecle d'or," and other poems, Lyons, 1551, 
8vo. 2. " Choreide," or, *' Louange du Bal aux Dames," 
ihid. 1556, Svo. 3. " L'Amie des Amies," an imitation of 
Ariosto, in four books, ibid. 1558, Svo. 4. " L'Amie rus- 
tique," and other poems, ibid. 1558, Svo. This last, a 
work of great rarity, is printed with a species of contrac- 
tions and abbreviations which render the perusal of it very 
difficult. ' 

BERENGER (.John Peter), a French miscellaneous 
writer, was born at Geneva in 1740, and in early life quit- 
ted the mechanical employment to which he had been des- 

^ Dupin. — Moslicim.— Biog. Universelle.— Moreri. — Saxii Oiioinasticon. 
^ Jiiog. Universelle. 


tlnecl by his parents, for those studies to which he was in- 
vited by the political troubles of his country. As by birth 
he was classed among those who are at Geneva called na- 
tives, but who do not acquire the rank of citizens, because 
born of foreign parents, his first efi'ort was to establish, in 
some of his writings, the necessity of equal political rights. 
This dispute being referred to arms, Berenger, after his 
party was defeated, was banished, along with many others, 
by a decree of the sovereign power, February 10, 1770. 
On this he retired to Lausanne, and employed his time 
in various literary undertakings, until his return to Geneva, 
where he died in June, 1807. He published, 1. An edi- 
tion of the works of Abauzit. 2. " Histoire de Geneve, 
depuis son origine jusqu'a nos jours," 1772 — 75, 6 vols. 
12mo. In this, the more distant ages are given in a sum- 
mary manner, having been sufficiently detailed by Spon, 
but much light is thrown upon the political history of the 
last century, which he brings down to 1761, and to which 
sir F. D'Yvernois' work, " Tableau historiquede revolutions 
de Geneve," may be considered as a sequel. 3. " Geo- 
graphic de Busching abregee, &c." Busching's work is 
here abridged in some parts and enlarged in others, Lau- 
sanne, 1776 — 79, 12 vols. 8vo. 4. "Collection de tous 
les voyages faits autour de monde," 1788 — 90, 9 vols. Svo, 
reprinted in 1795. 5. " Amants Republicains, ou Lettres 
de Nicias et Cynire," 1782, 2 vols. 8vo, a political romance 
relating to the troubles of Geneva. 6. " Cours de geogra- 
phic historique, ancienne et moderne de feu Ostervald," 
1803 and 1805, 2 vols. 12mo. 7. An edition of the " Dic- 
tionnaire geograpiiique" of Vosgien (Ladvocat), 1805, Svo. 
8. Translations from the Enghsh of " Laura and Augus- 
tus," and of " Cook's Voyages." 9. " J. J. Rousseau justi- 
iie envers sa patrie ;" and some lesser pieces mentioned in 
Ersch's " France Li tteraire." M. Bourrit attributes to him 
a translation of Howard's history of Prisonsj but this, it is 
thought, was executed by mademoiselle Keralio. * 

BERENGER (Richard), esq. many years gentleman of 
the horse to his majesty, a man of considerable literary ta- 
lents, and for his personal accomplishments called, by Dr. 
Johnson, " the standard of true elegance," published, in 
1771, " The History and Art of Horsemanship," 2 vols. 
4to, illustrated with plates. The history, which occupies 

* liiog. Uoiverselle, 
D 2 


the first volume, displays much research and acquaintance 
with the classics and with other writers of remote antiquity. 
Previously to this, Mr. Berenger contributed three excel- 
lent papers, No. 79, 156, and 202, to the " World," a"hd 
in Dodsley's collection are a few of his poems, written with 
ease and elegance. He died in his sixty-second year, 
Sept. 9, 1782.1 

BERENICIUS, a man utterly unknown, who appeared 
in Holland in 1670, was thought to be a Jesuit, or a rene- 
gade from some other religious fraternity. He got his bread 
by sweeping chimnies and grinding knives, and died at 
length in a bog, suffocated in a fit of drunkenness. His 
talents, if the historians that mention him are to be credit- 
ed, were extraordinary. He versified with so much ease, 
that he could recite extempore, and in tolerably good 
poetry, whatever was said to him in prose. He has been 
known to translate the Flemish gazettes from that language 
into Greek or Latin verse with the utmost facility. The 
dead languages, the living languages, Greek, Latin, French, 
and Italian, were as familiar to him as his mother tongue. 
He could repeat by heart Horace, Virgil, Homer, Aristo- 
phanes, and several pieces of Cicero and of the Plinies ; 
and, after reciting long passages from them, point out the 
book and the chapter from whence they were taken. It is 
supposed that the *' Georgarchontomachia sive expugnatee 
Messopolis" is by him. '^ 


BERG (John Peter), a learned divine, was born at 
Bremen, September 3, 1737, and died at Duisbourg, March 
3, 1800. He was distinguished as a theologian and philo- 
sopher, and a man of very extensive learning. He was 
eminently skilled in the Oriental languages, particularly 
the Arabic, and for many years acquired much fame by his 
lectures on the holy scriptures, in the university of Duis- 
bourg. He published, 1. " Specimen animadversionum 
philologicarum ad selecta Veteris Testament! loca," Ley- 
den, J 761, 8vo. 2. " Symbolae litterariee Duisburgenses 
ad incrementum scientiarum a variis amicis amice collatae, 
ex Haganis factai Duisburgenses," vol. I. 1783; vol. II. 
1784 — 6. If this be the same work with his " Museum 
Duisburgense," it is a sequel to the " Musieum Haganum," 

I British Essayists, Preface to the World. — Thrale's Anecdotes, and Boswell'* 
life of Johnson, 
* Moreri. 

BERG. 37 

by the learned professor Barkey, minister of the German 
church at the Hague.* 

BERGALLI (Charles), an Italian monk of the order 
of the minorite conventuals, was bora at Palermo, and in 
1650, when he officiated during Lent at Bologna, acquired 
high reputation as a preacher. He was professor of philo- 
sophy and divinity in the convents of his order, provincial 
in Sicily, and superintendant of the great convent of Pa- 
lermo, where he died, November 17, 1679. He published 
a philosophical work, or at least a work on philosophy, en- 
titled " De objecto philosophiae," Pei'ug. 1649, 4to ; and 
it is said that he wrote an Italian epic poem called " Davi- 
diade," a collection entitled " Poesis miscellanea," and 
an elementary work on medicine, " Tyrocinium medicse 
facultatis;" but these have not been printed.^ 

BERGALLI (Louisa), an Italian poetess, was born 
April 15, 1703, and appeared from her infancy capable of 
making a figure in the literary world. Her father, although 
of a genteel family of Piedmont, was ruined liy various mis- 
fortunes, and at length setup a shoemaker's sliop in Venice, 
where he acquired some property. His daughter Louisa, 
one of a numerous family, discovered first a ta^te for em- 
broider}^, then for drawing and painting, in v/hich she was 
instructed by the celebrated female artist Rosalba Carriera; 
nor did she make less progress in literature, philosophy, 
and lan'jruao-es. She learned French of her father, and 
Latin under an excellent master, and in the course of this 
study she translated some of the comedies of Terence. 
Having conceived a particular taste for dramatic poetry, 
she received some instructions from Apostolo Zeno. As 
soon as her talents were known, places both lucrative and 
honourable were offered to her at Rome, Poland, Spain, and 
Milan, but she would not quit Venice, her native country, and 
continued her studies until the age of thirty-five, when she 
married count Gaspard Gozzi, a noble Venetian, known in 
the literary world for his Italian dramas and other works. 
She lived with him very happily, and bore five children, 
whom she educated with great care. The tin:ie of her 
death is not mentioned. Her principal works are, 1. " A- 
gide re di Sparta," a musical drama, Venice, 1725, 12mo. 
,2. "LaTeba," a tragedy, ibid. 1728, Svo. 3. " L'Ele- 
jiia," musical drama, ibid. 1730, 12mo. 4. " Le Avven- 

1 Bios:. Universelle. — Month. Rev. vol. LXXI. p. 4$7. 
9 Moi:eri.-^-Biog. Universelle. 

38 B E R G A L L I. 

ture del poeta," comedy, ibid. 1730, 8vo. 5, " Elettra,'* 
tragedy, ib d. 1743, 12mo. 6. *' La Bradamante," musi' 
cal drama, ibid. 1747, 12mo. 7. " Le Commedie di Te- 
renzio tradotto in versi sciolti," ibid. 1733, Svo. S. Trans- 
lations fiom Racine and other dramatic poets of France. 
9. " Compcnimenti poetici delle piu illustri rimatrici d'og- 
ni S2Colo," ibid. 1726, l2mo. Man}^ of her sonnets and 
lesser pieces appeared from time to time in various collec- 
tion?. ' 


BERGANTINI (John Peter), an Italian author of the 
last Century, was born at Venice, October 4, 1685. He 
s'udied for eight years in the Jesuits' college of Bologna, 
and on his return to his own country, after a course of civil 
Eld canon law, ^vas created doctor in 1706. He began 
then to pr-ctise at the bar, where he had considerable suc- 
cess, uiit 1 he arrived at the twenty fourth year of his age, 
when he suddenly changed his profession, and entered the 
order of the Theatins, January 12, 1711. He was some 
3'ears aftt r called to Rome, by the general of the order, and 
appointed their secretary; and such was his reputation 
among them, that he obtained a dispensation, never before 
granted by that society, to confess vvoo)en, six years before 
the time prescribed by their laws. He afterwards devoted 
much of his time to preaching, through the principal cities 
of Italv. On his return to Venice in 1726, he determined 
to settle there, dividing his time between the duties of his 
■profession, and the study of the best ancient authors, and 
those of his own country. His first publications were ha- 
rangues, panegyrics, and funeral orations, few of which 
survived him, but the following works were thought entitled 
to more durable fame: 1. A translation of Thuanus " De 
re Accipitraria," and of Bargeo's " Ixeuticon," under the 
title of " II Falconiere di Jacopo Aug. Thuano, &c. with 
the Latin text and learned notes, Venice, 1735, 4to. 
2. A translation of Vaniere's " Prtcdium rusticum/' en- 
titled " Delia Possessione di Campagna," Venice, 1748, 
8vo, unluck ly taken from the edition of 1706, the transla- 
tor n ;t being acquainted with that of 1730. He translated 
also cardinal de Poligiac's " Anti-Lucretius," Verona, 
1752, 8vo, and published an improvement of the de la 
Crucica dictionary, under the title " Delia volgare elocu-!- 

* Biog. Univereelle. 


zione, illustrata, ampliata e facilitata, vol. I. contenente 
A. B." Venice, 1740, folio. The bookseller being unsuc- 
cessful in the sale, this volume only appeared, but the 
author, in 1753, published a prospectus in which he pro- 
fessed to have re-modelled the work, and reduced it from 
twelve volumes to six. This, however, still remains in ma- 
nuscript, with many other works from his pen. Our autho- 
rity does not mention his death. * 

BERGELLANUS (John Arnold), the author of a poem 
in praise of printing, written in Latin hexameters and pen- 
tameters, has escaped the researches of biographers as to 
much personal history. It is, however, conjectured, that 
his proper name was Arnold or Arnoldi, and that he was 
called Bergellanus from his country. It is supposed also 
that he came to Mentz, and was employed there, either 
as a workman, or as a corrector of the press. John Conrad 
Zeltner, who is of this last opinion, has accordingly as- 
signed him a short article in his Latin history of the cor- 
rectors pf the press, p. 79, 80, where he calls him John 
Anthony, instead of John Arnold. Struvius (Introd. in 
not. rei litteravia?, p. 892) considers Bergellanus as the 
first historian of printing, but in this he is mistaken. Men- 
tel, in his " Pareenesis de vera origine Typographise, p. 52, 
says that Bergellanus's poem was printed in 1510, which 
could not be the case, as mention is made in it of Charles 
V. who was not emperor until 1519. Walkius, who wrote 
in 1608, asserts that Bergellanus wrote or published his 
poem eighty years before, which brings us to 1528, but in 
tact it was not written or published until 15 40 and 1541, as 
appears clearly by the author's dedication to cardinal Al- 
bert, archbishop of Mentz and marquis of Brandebourg. 
There have been six editions of it, separate or joined to 
other works on the subject. The two last are by Prosper 
Marchan4 in his History of Printing, Hague, 1740, 4to, 
and by Wollius in his " Monumenta typographica." - 

BERGEN (Charles Augustus de), a German anato- 
mist and botanist, was born August 1 1, 1704, at Francfort 
on the Oder. His father, John George Bergen, was pro- 
fessor of anatomy and botany in that university. After his 
early studies, his father gave him some instructions in the 
principles of medicine, and then sent him to Leyden, 
where he studied under Boerhaave and Aibinus. He also 

' Biog. Universelle, ' Moreii. 


went to Paris for farther improvement in anatomy. The 
reputation of Saltzman and Nicolai next induced him to 
pass some time at Strasburgh, and after visiting other cele- 
brated universities in Germany, he returned to Francfort, 
and took his doctor's degree in 1731. The following year 
he was appointed professor-extraordinary, and, in 1738, 
succeeded, on the death of his father, to the chair of ana- 
tomy and botany. In 1744 he became professor of thera- 
peutics and pathology, in room of Goelicke, which he re- 
tained with high credit until his death, October 7, 1760, on 
which occasion his life, in the form of an eloge, was pub- 
lished in the Leipsic Medical Commentaries, vol. IX. 

Bergen is the author of a great many works on botany, 
and various branches of natural history. In 1742 he pulD- 
lished a dissertation to prove the superiority of the system 
of Linnaeus to that of Tournefort, but afterwards he 
changed his opinion, and his " Francfort Flora," published 
in 1750, is arranged on the Tournefortian system, although 
with improvements. This Flora was originally only a new 
edition of the " Vade Mecum" of Johrenius, one of his 
predecessors in the botanical chair, but unquestionably his 
additions were then new and important. He also proposed 
a new classification of shells, published observations on the 
anatomy of frogs, and several dissertations or memoirs on 
various plants and animals. His academical dissertations 
on anatomy were published by Haller, who particularly 
praises those on the intercostal nerve and on the cellular 
membrane. His works not included in that collection are, 

1. " Icon nova ventriculorum cerebri," F'rancfort, 1734. 

2. " Programma de pia tnatre," Nuremberg, 1736, 4to. 

3. " Programma de nervis quibusdam cranii ad novem pa- 
ria hactenv.s non relatis," Francfort, 1738. 4. " Methodus 
cranii ossa dissuendi, et machinae hunc in finem constructte, 
delineatio," 1741, 4to. 5. *' Pentas obervationum anato- 
mico-physiologicarum," 1743, 4to. 6. " Elementa physi- 
ologic," Geneva, 1741), 8vo, after the manner of Boer- 
haave's Institutes, 7. " Anatomes experimentalis, pars 
prima et secunda," Francfort, 1755, 1758, 8vo, 8. Seve- 
ral dissertations and theses, in the medical journals. 9. 
*' Programma," already mentioned, on the conii)arative 
merits of the Liinipcan and Tournefortian systems, Franc- 
fort, 1742, 4to ; Leipsic, 1742, 4to. 10. " Dissertatio de 
Aloide," Francfort, 17 53, 4to, with a supplement in the 
Jv'ova Act. Acad. Nat. Curiosor. vol.11. 11. " Catalogus 


stirpium quas hortus acaciiemite Viadrinae (Erancfort) com- 
plectitur," 1744, 8vo. 12. " Flora Francofurtana," ibid. 
1750, 8vo. 13. " Classes conchyliorum," Nuremberg, 
1760, 4to. Adanson consecrated a genus to tlie memory 
of Bergen under the name of Bergena, but it was not 
adopted by LinUcEUs. ' 

BERGEll (John Henry de), a learned lawyer, was born 
at Gera, Jan. 27, 1657, and studied at Halle, Leipsic, and 
Jena. He afterwards was appointed professor of law at 
Witteniberg, an i counsellor at Dresden. In 1713, 
Charles VI. invited him to Vienna in quality of aulic 
counsellor of the empire, and he died there November 
35, 1732. Of his numerous works, which have been often 
reprinted, the following are the principal: 1. *' Electa 
processus executivi, processorii, provocatorii et inatri- 
monialis," Leipsic, 1705, 4to. 2. " Electa disceptationuni 
forensium," the best edition of which is that of Th, 
Hayme, 1738, 3 vols. 4to. 3. "Electa jurisprudentife 
criminalis," Leipsic, 1706, 4to. 4. " Responsa ex omni 
jnre," 1708, folio. 5. " CEconomia juris," 1731, folio. 
Berger left three sons, Christopher Henry, Frederic Louis, 
and John Augustus, who all followed the profession of the 
law with distinguished merit. ^ 

BERGER (John William), brother to the preceding, 
was professor of eloquence at Wittemberg, aulic counsellor 
to the elector of Saxony, Augustus II. king of Poland, and 
died in 1751. He wrote several interesting dissertations, 
mostly on points of ancient history and literature, among 
which are, 1. " Dissert. Sex de Libanio," Wittemberg, 
1696, 1698, 4to. 2. " De antiqna poetarum sapientia," 
1699, 4to. 3. " De Virgilio oratore," 1705, 4to. 4. "Dis- 
sert, tres de Lino," 1707, 4to. 5 " Disciplina Longini 
selecta," 1712, 4to. 6. " De Mysteriis Cereris et Bacchi,'* 
1723, 4to. 7. " De Trajano non Optimo," 1725, 4to. 
8. " De Stephanophoris veterum," 1725, 4to, &c. Saxi- 
us, who has given a much fuller list of his dissertations, 
praises him as a man of most extensive learning, and who 
had scarcely his equal in Germany. Yet from one of his 
works we should be inclined to doubt his taste. Among 
those enumerated by Saxius is one, " De naturali pulchri- 
tudine orationis," 1719, in which he attempts to prove 
that Caesar's Commentaries (the pure, simple, and elegant 
style of which is more remote from the sublime than that 

» Biog. Universelle. 5 Merer j.—Bicg. Univcrselle.—Saxii Onoma«t. 

42 B E R G E R. 

of any of the classical authors) contain the most complete 
exemplification of all Longinus's rules relating- to subhme 
writing. After his death was published " Conspectus Bib- 
liothecae Bergerianae ;" also " Libri Miinuscripti et im- 
pressi, collati cum Manuscriptis ex Bibliotheca Jo. Gul. de 
Bergcr," 1752, 8vo. Another brother, John Godfrey de 
Berger, was an eminent physician, and published, 1. *' Phy- 
siologica medica," Wittemberg, 1701, and often reprinted. 
2. " De Thermis Carolinis commentatio," ibid. 1709, 4to. 
He died October 3, 1736.' 

BERGER (Theodoke), professor of law and history at 
Cobourg, was born at Unterlautern in 16S3, studied at 
Halle, and accompanied several young gentlemen on their 
travels. He died November 20, 1773. His " Universal 
History," published, in German, at Cobourg, folio, is highly 
esteemed by his countrymen, and passed through five edi- 
tions. It has since been continued by professor Wolfgang 
Jseger, 1781, folio. - 

BERGERAC (Savinien Cyrano de), was born about 
1620, in the castle of Bergerac in Perigord, and was at 
first very indifferently educated by a poor country priest. 
He afterwards came to Paris, and gave himself up to every 
kind of dissipation. He then entered as a cadet in the 
regiment of guards, and endeavoured to acquire repu- 
tation on the score of bravery, by acting as second in 
many duels, besides those in which he was a principal, 
scarce a day passing in which he had not some affair of this 
kind on his hands. Whoever observed his nose with any 
attention, which was a very remarkable one, was sure to be 
involved in a quarrel vvitii him. The courage he shewed 
upon these occasions, and some desperate actions in which 
he distinguished himself when in the army, procured him 
the name of the Intrepid, which he I'etained to the end of 
his life. He was shot through the body at the siege of 
Mouzon, and run through the neck at the siege of Arras, in 
1640 ; and the hardships he suffered at these two sieges, the 
little hopes he had of preferment, and perhaps his attach- 
ment to letters, made him renownce war, and apply himself 
altogether to certain literary pursuits. Amidst all his foU 
lies lie had never neglected literature, but often withdrew 
himself, during the bustle and dissipation of a soldier's life, 
to read and to write. He composed many works, in which 
/^e shewed some genius and extravagance of imaginatioi*. 

' Bioj^. I'liivcrs'-lle.— Blair's Lectures. — Saxii Onomasticon. 
2 Bio°;. Univetselle, 

B E R G E R A C. 43 

Marshal. Gassion, who loved men of wit and courage, be- 
cause he had both himself, would have Bergerac with him ; 
but he, being passionately fond of liberty, looked upon this 
advantage as a constraint that would never agree with him, 
and therefore refused it. At length, however, in compli- 
ance with his friends, who pressed him to procure a patron 
at court, he overcame his scruples, and placed himself with 
the duke of Arpajon in 1653. To this nobleman he dedi- 
cated his works the same 3'ear, for he had published none 
before, consisting of some letters written in his youth, with 
a tragedy on the death of Agrippina, widow of Germanicus. 
He afterwards printed a comedy called " The Pedant,'* 
but his other works were not printed till after his death. 
His " Comic history of the states and empires of the 
Moon" was printed in 1656. His " Comic history of the 
states and empires of the Sun," several letters and dia- 
logues, and a fragment of physics, were all collected and 
published afterwards in a volume. These comic histories 
and fragments shew that he was well acquainted with the 
Caitesian philosophy. He died in 1655, aged only thirtv- 
five years, his death being occasioned by a blow upon his 
head which he unluckily received from the fall of a piece 
of wood a few months before. 

The earl of Orrery, in his *' Remarks on the life and 
writings of Swjft," has taken occasion to speak of him in 
the following manner : " Cyrano de Bergerac is a French 
author of a singular character, who had a very peculiar turn 
of wit and humour, m many respects resembling that of 
Swift. He wanted the advantages of learning and a regu- 
lar education; his imag[ination was less 2:uarded and cor- 
rect, but more agreeably extravagant. He has introduced 
into ids philosoptiical romance the system of des Cartes, 
which was then mucli admired, intermixed with several fine 
strokes of just satire on the wild and immechanical inqui- 
ries of the philosophers and astronomers of that age; and 
in many parts he has evidently directed the plan which the 
dean of St. Patrick's has pursued." This opinion was first 
quoted in the Monthly Review (vol. X), when Derrick 
translated and published Bergerac's " Voyage to the 
Moon," 1753, 12mo. But Swift is not the only person in- 
debted to Bergerac. His countrymen allow that Moliere, 
in several of his characters, Fontenelle, in his *' Plurality 
of Worlds," and Voltaire, in his " Micromegas," have taken 
many hints and sketches from this eccentric writer. There 


have been various editions of his works at Paris, Amster- 
dam, Trevoux, &c. : the last was printed at Paris, 1741, 3 
vols. 12mo. ' 

BERGHEM (Nicolas.) See BERCHEM. 

BERGIER (Nicolas), an eminent French antiquary, 
was born at Rheims, March 1, 1567, and not 1557, as as- 
serted by Bayle, Moreri, and Niceron. After finishing his 
studies at the university of that city, he became preceptor 
to the children of count de St. Souplet, who always testi- 
fied his respect for him on account of the pains he bestowed 
on their education. He then was admitted an advocate, 
and appointed law-professor and syndic of the city, a place 
which he filled during many of the elections. His talents 
and virtues were so highly estimated b}'' his fellow-citizens, 
that as a mark of their confiJence they employed him on 
their affairs at Paris. During his visits to that metropolis, 
he commenced a friendship with Dupuy and Peiresc, and 
formed an acquaintance with the president de Bellievre, 
who obtained for him the place of historiographer by bre- 
vet, with a pension of two hundred crowns. He was on a 
visit at the country-house of this celebrated magistrate, 
when he was attacked by a fever, which terminated fatally, 
August 18, 1623, in his fifty -seventh year. The president 
honoured him with an affectionate epitaph, which is printed 
in his two principal works. He is particularly known in the 
literary world by his " Histoire des grands chemins de 
I'empire Romain," a work in which he was assisted by his 
friend Peiresc, who furnished him with many necessary 
documents. It was first printed in 4to, 1622, and in the 
course of a century became very scarce. In 1712 the first 
book of it was translated into English, and published at Lon- 
don, in 8vo, entitled " The general history of the Highways 
in all parts of the world, particularly in Great Britain." In 
1728, John Leonard, bookseller and printer at Brussels, 
published a new edition of the original, 2 vols, 4to, from a 
copy corrected by the author ; and one yet more improved 
was printed at the same place, in 1736, 2 vols. 4to. They 
are both scarce, but the first is reckoned the best printed. 
It has also heen translated into Latin by Henninius, pro- 
fessor in the university of Duisbourg, with learned notes, 
and the remarks of the abbe Du Bos, for Grasvius's antiqui- 
ties, vol. X. ; but Bayle is mistaken in supposing that this 

' Bios. Univrr?tl!e,— Diet. Hist.— Moreri, et L'Avocat in Cyrano. 

B E R G I E R. 45 

work was translated into Latin and Italian by Benedict 
Bacchini, who, however, made some progress himself in a 
work " De viis antiquorum llomanorum in Italia," and 
doubtless would have availed himself of Bergier's labours. 
Besides this history of the Roman roads, Bergier had be- 
gun a history of Rheims, the manuscript of which the pre- 
sident de Bellievre wished Andre Duschesne to complete, 
but some obstruction arising on the part of the chapter of 
Rheims, who refused Duschesne access to their archives, 
he declined proceeding with the undertaking. The son of 
the author, however, John Bergier, unwilling that the whole 
should be lost, published the two books left complete by his 
father, with a sketch of the other fourteen of which it was to 
consist. This was entitled "Dessein de I'Histoire de Reims," 
ibid. 1C35, 4tu. Bergier was also author of 1. " Le point 
du Jour, ou Trait6 du Commencement des Jours et de I'en- 
droit ou il est etabli sur la terre," Rheims, 1629, l2mo. 
The first, a Paris edition, 1617, was entitled " Archeme- 
ron." His object is to attain some general rule for avoid- 
ing the disputes respecting the celebration of the Catholic 
festivals. 2. " Le Bouquet royal," Paris, 1610, 8vo; 
Rheims, 1637, 4to, enlarged, an account of the devises 
and inscriptions which graced the entrance of Louis XIII. 
into Rheims. 3. *' Police generale de la France," 1617. 
4. Various Latin and French poems inserted in the collec- 
tions, but we cannot pronounce him very successful as a 
j)oet. ' 

BERGIER (Nicolas Sylvester), a French writer of 
considerable note, was born at Darnay in Lorraine, Decem- 
ber 31,1718. In the career of promotion he was first cu- 
rate of Flangebouche, a small village in Franche-Comtu, 
then professor of theology, principal of the college of Be- 
sangon, a canon of the church of Paris, and confessor to 
the kiuii's aunts. Throughout life he was one of the most 
streimous opponents of the modern philosophers of France. 
He acquired an early name by some essays on various lite- 
rary subjects, to which the prizes were adjudged at Besan- 
gon ; and his reputation was considerably heightened by his 
very ingenious and plausible work, entitled " Elements 
primitifs des Langues, &c." Paris, 1764, 12ma. Soon af- 
ter he published another, which was favourably received by 
the learned world, *' Origine des Dieux du Paganisme et 

* Biog. Universelle.— Gen. Diet. — Niceion, vol. VL — Moreri. — Memoirs of 
Litwalure, vols. IV. aud VII. 

46 B E R G I E R. 

les sens des Fables decouvert, par une explication suivie 
des Poesies d'Hesiode," Paris, 1767, 2 vols. 12mo. When 
about the same time he found religion attacked in every 
quarter by a combination of men of talents in France, he 
determined to endeavour to counteract their schemes. 
With this view he wrote " La Certitude des Preuves du 
Christianisme," 1768, 12mo, particularly directed against 
the " Examen critique des Apologistes de la religion Chre- 
tienne," improperly attributed to Freret; and it was allowed 
to iiave been written with much sense, precision, and mo- 
deration. This work, which occasioned more friends and 
more enemies to Bergier than any other, passed through 
three editions in the same year, besides being translated 
into Italian and Spanish. Voltaire, to whom the popularity 
of any writings of this tendency must have been peculiarly 
unpleasant, affected to answer it in his " Conseils raison- 
ables," written with his usual art, but more remarkable for 
w^it than argument. Bergier answered the " Conseils,'* 
the only instance in which he noticed any of his adversaries 
in public. He had another more contemptible antagonist, 
the noted Anacharsis Cloots, who published what he, and 
perhaps no man else, would have called " Certitude des 
Preuves du Pvlahometisme." About this time the clergy of 
France, sensible of Bergier's services, gave him a pension 
of two thousand llvres, and offered him some valuable be- 
nefices, but he would only accept of a canonry in Notre 
Dame, and it was even against his inclination that he was 
afterwards appointed confessor to the mesdames, the last 
king's aunts. Free from ambition, modest and simple in 
dress and manners, he was desirous only of a retired life, 
and at Paris he lived as he had done in the country, in the 
midst of his books. This study produced, successively, 
1. " Le Deisme refute par lui-meme," Paris, 1765, 1766, 
1768, 2 vols. 12mo, an examination of the religious prin- 
ciple of Rousseau, 2. " Apologie de la Religion Chre- 
tienne contre I'auteur du Christianisme devoile," (the baron 
Hoibach) Paris, 1769, 2 vols, 12mo, 3. *' Examen du 
Materialisme, ou refutation du systcme de la Nature," Pa- 
ris, 1771, 2 vols, 12mo, 4, " Traite historique et dttgma- 
tique de la vraie Religion, &c," Paris, 1780, 12 vols. 12mo. 
This is, in some respect, a collection of the sentiments of 
the ablest writers against infidelity. 5, " Discours sur le 
IMariage des Protestants," 1787, 8vo. 6, "Observations 
sur le Divorce," ibid. 171'0, 8vo. lie also compiled a the- 


ologlcal dictionary, which makes a part of the " Encyclo- 
pedie metliodique," 3 vols. 4to. The abbe Barruel says, 
that wlien this work was first undertaken, some deference 
was still paid to religion, and Bergier thought it incumbent 
on him to yield to the pressing solicitations of his friends, 
lest the part treating of religion should fall into the hands 
of its enemies, but in this they were deceived. Bergier, 
indeed, performed his task as might have been expected ; 
but in other parts of the work the compilers exceeded their 
predecessors in licentious sentiments, and at the same time 
availed themselves of the name of Bergier as a cloak. M. 
Barbier attributes to our author the sketch of Metaphysics 
inserted in the " Cours d' etude de I'usaofe de I'Ecole niili- 
taire." In all his works there is a logical arrangement and 
precision, and the only objection tlie French critics have is 
to his style, which is sometimes rather diffuse. He died at 
Paris, April 9, 1790. He was a member of the academy of 
Besan^on, and an associate of that of inscriptions and belles- 
lettres. • 

BERGIUS (John Henry Louis), a German writer, was 
born at Laaspa in 1718, and died in 1781. He published, 
1. " Cameralisten Bibliothek," a complete catalogue of all 
books, pamphlets, &,c. on the subjects of political econom}', 
police, finances, &c. Nuremberg, 1765, 8vo. 2. " A Ma- 
gazine of Police and Administration, in alphabetical order," 
Francfort, 1767, 1773, 8 vols. 4to. 3. " New Magazine of 
Police, &.C." Leipsic, 1775 — 80, 6 vols. 4to. 4. "A col- 
lection of the principal German laws, relative to police and 
administration," Francfort, 4 vols. 1780 — 81. This last 
was continued by professor Beckmann of Gottingen.- 

BERGIUS (Peter Jonas), a physician and professor of 
natural history at Stockholm, and a member of the aca- 
demy of sciences of that city, died in 1791. He wrote many 
works of considerable reputation. Having received from 
Grubb, the director of the Swedish India company, an her- 
bal of plants collected at the Cape of Good Hope, he drew 
up a description of them, under the title of " Descriptio- 
nes plantarum ex Capite Bona) Spei," Stockholm, 17 67, 
8vo, but generally quoted by the shorter title of " Flora 
Capensis." Bergius discovered several plants in that co- 
lony, which had escaped the knowledge of preceding bota- 

^ Riog. Unlverselle. — Darruel's Memoirs of Jacobinism, vol. I. p. 67. 
^ Biojj. Universeile. 

4« B E R G 1 U S. 

nists, and established several genera, one of which he de- 
dicated to Grubb, but this title was not generally adojjted. 
He ;dso published various memoirs on plants in the trans- 
actions of the societies of which he was a member, and, 
without ever travelling out of Sweden, found means to ac- 
quire a very accurate knowledge of the most rare exotics, 
and in compliment to his skill Linnasus consecrated to him 
a new genus by the name of Bergia. He wrote a vegetable 
" Materia medica," under the title of " Materia medica e 
regno vegetabili, sistens simplicia officinalia pariter atque 
culinaria," Stockholm, 1778, 8vo; 1 782, 2 vols. 8vo ; and- 
in the Swedish, a treatise on fruit trees, 1780, and a histo- 
rical work on the city of Stockholm in the tifteenth and 
sixteenth century. ' 

BERGIUS (Bengts or Benedict), brother of the pre- 
ceding, a commissary of the bank of Stockholm, and a 
member of the academy, was born in 172 5, and died in 
1784. Being equally attached to the study of natural his- 
tory, the brothers kept between them a very large gai'den, 
in which they cultivated rare plants, and which they be- 
queathed to the academy of Stockholm, with funds for a 
professorship of agriculture and gardening. The present 
professor is the celebrated Olaus Swartz. Benedict Ber- 
gius wrote various papers inserted among those of the aca- 
demy, on the colour and change of colour of animals, on 
certain plants, the history of tishes, &c. and after his death 
appeared an ingenious treatise of his, in Swedish, on 
" Nicety in diet among all people," which was translated 
into German, and published by Keinold Forster and Spren- 
gel at Halle, 1792. ^ 

BERGLER (Stephen), was born at Hermanstadt, the 
capital of Trans}' Ivania, about 1680, and leaving his coun- 
try in pursuit of employment, eiigaged with Fritsch, the 
opulent and spirited bookseller of Leipsic, as corrector of 
the press, but his turbulent and unsocial character having 
occasioned a dispute between him and Fritsch, he went to 
Amsterdam, where his intimate knowledge of Greek recom- 
mended him to the superlntendance of Wctstein's edition 
of Homer, 1702, 2 vols. 12nio, and the magnificent edition 
of the Onomasticon of Pollux, 2 vols. fol. J 706. Bergler 
afterwards went to Hamburgh, where he assisted Fabricius 
in his Bibl. Grceca, and his edition of Sextus Empiricus, 

* Bioj. UuivcrlcUe. ' IbiU. 

B E R G L E R. 4'9 

Leipsic, 1718, folio. Returning then to Leipsic, he trans- 
cribed an ancient scholiast on Homer, published a new edi- 
tion of Alciphron, with excellent notes, 1715, 8vo, and 
made some progress in an edition of Herodotus, in a new 
translation of Herodian, more literal than that of Politian, 
and in an edition of Aristophanes, which was published by 
the younger Burmann in 1760, 2 vols. 4to. Amidst all 
these employments, he contributed several excellent papers 
to the Leipsic " Acta Eruditorum." It is to him likewise 
that we owe the Latin translation of the four books of Ge- 
nesius on the Byzantine history, which is inserted in vol. 
XXUL of that collection, published at Venice in 1733, but 
is not in the fine Louvre edition. For Fritsch, to whom he 
seems to have been reconciled, he translated a Greek work 
of Alexander Maurocordato, hospodar of Walachia, which 
was published, with the original text, under the title " Li- 
ber de officiis," Leipsic, 1722, 4to, and London, 1724, 
12mo. For this he was so liberally rewarded by John Ni- 
colas, prince of Walachia, and son to the author, that he 
determined to quit Leipsic, and attach himself to his patron. 
He went accordingly to Walachia, where the prince had a 
capital library of manuscripts, collected at a vast expence. 
Bergler found there the introduction and first three chap- 
ters of Eusebius's " Evangelical Demonstration," hitherto 
undiscovered, and sent a copy of them to Fabricius, by 
whom they were printed in his " Delectus argumentorum,'* 
Hamburgh, 1725, 4to. On the death of the prince, how- 
ever, Bergler being without support, went to Constanti- 
nople, where he died in 1746, after having, it is said, era- 
braced Mahometanism. He was a most accomplished scho- 
lar in Greek and Latin, and an accurate editor ; but his 
unsteady turn and unsocial disposition procured him many 
enemies, and even among his friends he was rather tole- 
rated than admired. * 

BERGMAN (Sir Torbern), a celebrated chemist and 
natural philosopher, was born March 20, 1735, at Catha- 
rineberg in Westgothland. His father was receiver-gene- 
ral of the finances, and had destined him to the same em- 
ployment ; but nature had designed him for the sciences, 
to which he had an irresistible inclination from his earliest 
years. His first studies were confined to mathematics and 
physics, and all efforts that were made to divert him from 

> Biog, UniverBelle. — SaxU Onomasticon, 

Vol. V. E 

50 B E R G M A N. 

science having pioved ineffectual, he was sent to Upsal 
with permission to follow the bent of his inclination. Lin- 
naeus at that time filled the whole kingdom with his fame. 
Instigated by his example, the Swedish youth flocked 
around him; and accomplished disciples leaving his school, 
carried the name and the system of their master to the most 
<iistant parts of the globe. Bergman, struck with the 
splendour of this renown, attached himself to the man whose 
merit had procured it, and by whom he was very soon dis- 
tinguished. He applied himself at first to the study of in- 
sects, and made several ingenious researches into their 
history; among others into that of the genus of tenthredoy 
so often and so cruelly preyed on by the larvae of the ich- 
neumons, that nestle in their bowels and devour them. He 
discovered that the leech is oviparous, and that the coccus 
aquaticus is the egg of this animal, from whence issue ten 
^or twelve young. Linnaus, who had at first denied this 
fact, was struck with astonishment when he saw it proved. 
" Vidi et obstupui!" were the words he pronounced, and 
which he wrote at the foot of the memoir when he gave it 
his sanction. Mr. Bergman soon distinsruishcd himself as 
an astronomer, naturalist, and geometrician; but these are 
not the titles by which he acquired his fame. The chair of 
chemistry and mineralogy, which had been filled by the 
celebrated Wallerius, becoming vacant by his resignation, 
JMr. Bergman was among the number of the competitors ; 
and without having before this period discovered any parti- 
cular attention to chemistry, he published a memoir on the 
preparation of alum, that astonished his friends as well as 
his adversaries; but, it was warnjly attacked in the periodi- 
cal publications, and Wallerius himself criticised it without 
reserve. The dispute, we may suppose, was deemed of 
high importance, since the prince Gustavus, afterwards 
king of Sweden, and then chancellor of tlie universiiy, 
took cognizance of the affair, and after having consulted 
two persons, the most able to give him advice, and whose 
testimony went in favour of Bergman, he addressed a me- 
morial, written with his own hand, in answer to all the ob- 
jections urged against the candidate, to the consistory of 
the university and to the senate, who elected himagree.ibly 
to his highness's wishes. 

Bergman had now to satisfy the hopes that were conceived 
of him ; to justify the opinion of those who recon)mended 
him; to fill the place of Wallerius ; and to put cn\y tu 


silence; nor was he unsuccessful in any of these attempts. 
He did not follow the common track in tlie study of che- 
mistry. As he had received the lessons of no master, he 
was tainted with the prejudices of no school. Accustomed 
to precision, and having no time to lose, he applied himself 
to experiments without paying any attention to theories; 
he repeated those often which he considered as the most 
important and instructive, and reduced them to method, an 
improvement till then unknown. He first introduced into 
chemistry the process by analysis, which ought to be ap- 
]ilied to every science ; for there should be but one me- 
thod of teaching and learning, as there is but one of judging 
well. These views have been laid down by Mr. Bergman 
in an excellent discourse, which contains, if we may use the 
fihrase, his profession of faith in what relates to the science. 
It is here that he displays himself without disguise to hiii 
reader, and here it is of importance to study him with at- 
tention. The productions of volcanoes had never been 
analysed when Messrs. Ferbcr and Troil brought a rich 
collection of them into Sweden, at the sight of which 
Mr. Bergman conceived the design of investigating their 
nature. He examined first of all the matters least altered 
by the fire, and the forms of which were still to be dis- 
cerned ; he followed them in their changes progressively; 
he determined, he imitated their more complicated ap- 
pearances ; he knew the effects which would result from 
the mixture and decomposition of the saline substances 
which are found abundantly in these productions. He dis- 
covered such as were formed in the humid way ; and then 
in his laiioratory he observed the process of nature ; that 
combat of flames and explosions ; that chaos in whicii the 
elements seem to clash and to confound one another, un- 
veiled themselves to his eyes. He saw the fire of volca- 
noes kindled in the midst of pyritical combinations, and 
gea-salt decomposed by clays ; he saw fixed air disen- 
gaged from calcined calcareous stones, spreading upon 
the snrface of the earth, and filling caverns in which flame 
and animal life are equally extinguished ; he saw the sul- 
phureous acid thrown out in waves, convert itself into the 
I'itriolic by mere contact with the air ; and distillinct 
through the rocks, from the alum veins of the solfatara. 
He saw the bitumens as they melted; the inflammable and 
sulphureous airs exhaling ; and the waters become mineral 
and impregnated with the fire and vapours of those stu- 

E 2 


pendous furnaces, preparing for the beings that move and 
dispute on the crust of the abyss, a remedy for pain and 
a balsam for disease. 

The continual application bestowed by Mr. Bergman on 
his studies having affected his health, he was advised to 
interrupt them if he wished to prolong his life : but he 
found happiness only in study, and would not forfeit his 
title to reputation by a few years more of inactivity and 
languor. By this enthusiasm, however, he exhausted his 
strength, and died Jn\y 8, 1784. The university of Upsal 
paid the most distinguished honours to his memory ; and 
the academy of Stockholm consecrated to him a medal to 
perpetuate the regret of all the learned in Europe for his 
loss. His principal publications were: 1. "A physical 
description of the Earth," 1770 — 74, 2 vols. 8vo, a much 
admired work, and translated into the Danish, German, 
and Italian languages. 2. Various " Eloges" of the mem- 
bers of the academy of Stockholm. 3. An edition of 
Scheffer's " Physics." 4. Many papers in the Transac- 
tions of the Academies of Stockholm, Berlin, Montpellier, 
and the Royal Society, London. These smaller pieces form 
6 vols. 8vo, under the title *' Opuscula physica et che- 
mica," 1779 — 90, a part of which was translated under the 
title of " Physical and Chemical essays," and published 
by Dr. Edmund CuUen, London, 1786, 2 vols.' 
BERIGARD or BEAUREGARD (Claude Guiller- 
MET, SiGNOR DE), was born at Moulins in 1578, and taught 
philosophy with reputation at Pisa and at Padua, where 
he died of an umbilical hernia, in 1663. We Live by 
him, 1. " Circulus Pisanus," printed in 1641, at Florence, 
4to. This book treats of the ancient philosophy, and that of 
Aristotle. 2. " Dubitationes in dialogum Galilari pro terrae 
immobilitate," 1632, 4to, under the fictitious name of 
GalilcEUs Lynceus; a work which brought upon him the 
charge of pyrrhonism and materialism, not without foun- 
dation. He has been reproached with acknowledging no 
other moving principle of the world than primitive matter. 
Whatever he professed, his works are now in little repute, 
yet Chaufepie has bestowed a copious article on him.* 

BERING (Virus), a Latin poet, born in Denmark in 
1617, whose taste for letters does not appear to have im- 

1 Eloges (l.ips Academiciens, Berlin, r2mo, vol. IV. 36. — Biog. Uniyertelle. 
- Chaufepie. — Moreii, — Ucn Diet. — Saxii Onoinaslicon. 


peeled his fortune, was a member of the royal council of 
finances, and historiographer to his majesty. It was to 
justify his promotion to this last office, that he pubHshed 
** Floras Danicus, sive Danicarum rerum a primordio regni 
ad tempora usque ('liristiani I. Oldenburgici Breviarium." 
This work was printed in fol. 1698, at Odensee, the ca- 
pital of Funen, at the private press oi Thomas Kingorius, 
bishop of that island, who spared no expence to make an 
elegant book. The bookseller, however, to whom the 
sale was consigned, eager to get rid of the unsold copies, 
printed a new title with the date of 1700, and when that 
did not quite answer his expectations, he printed another 
with the date of 1709, and notwithstanding this obvious 
trick, there are connoisseurs who think the pretended edi- 
tion of 1709 preferable to that of 1698. In 1716, how- 
ever, a second edition was published in 8vo, at Tirnaro, 
under the direction of the Jesuits of that place. Bering's 
poetry, printed separately, was collected in the 2d vol. of 
*' Delicias quorundam Danorum," Leyden, 1693, 12mo. 
The smaller pieces, lyrics, sonnets, &c. are the best • he 
had not genius for the more serious efforts of the muse. 
He died in 1675. * 

BERKELEY (George), an eminent and learned pre* 
late, was born in Ireland, at Kilcrin, near Thomastown, 
the 12th of March 1684. He was the son of William 
Berkeley of Thomastown, in the county of Kilkenny ; 
whose father, the family having suffered for their loyalty 
to Charles I. went over to Ireland after the restoration, and 
there obtained the coUectorship of Belfast. George had 
the first part of his education at Kilkenny school, under 
Dr. Hinton ; was admitted pensioner of Trinity college, 
Dublin, at the age of fifteen, under Dr. Hall; and chosen 
fellow of that college June the 9th, 1707, after a very 
strict examination, which he went through with great 

The first public proof he gave of his literary abilities 
was his " Arithmetica absque Algebra aut Euclide demon- 
strata ;" which, from the preface, he appears to have 
written before he was twenty years old, though he did not 
publish it till 1707. It is dedicated to Mr. Palliser, son 
to the archbishop of Cashel ; and is followed by a mathe- 
matical miscellany, containing observations and theorems 

* Biog. Univ. — Baillet Jugemens des Savans, — Moreri.— 'Saxii Onomast, 


inscribed to his pupil Mr. Samuel Molineux, whose fa- 
ther was the friend and correspondent of Locke. This 
little piece is so far curious, as it shews his early and strong 
passion for the mathematics, his admiration of those great 
names in philosophy, Locke and Newton, some of whose 
positions he afterwards ventured to call in question, and 
the commencement of his application to those more subtile 
metaphysical studies, to which his genius was peculiarly- 

In 1709, came forth the " Theory of Vision," which, 
of all his works, seems to do the greatest honour to his 
sagacity j being, as Dr. Reid observes, the first attempt 
that ever was made to distinguish the immediate and natu- 
ral objects of sight, from the conclusions we have been 
accustomed from infancy to draw from them. The boun- 
dary is here traced out between the ideas of sight and 
touch ; and it is shewn, that, though habit has so connected 
these two classes of ideas in our minds, that they are not 
without a strong effort to be separated from each other, 
yet originally they have no such connection ; insomuch, 
that a person born blind, and suddenly made to see, would 
at first be utterly imable to tell how any object that affected 
his sight would affect his touch ; and particularly would 
not from sight receive any idea of distance, outness, or 
external space, but would imagine all objects to be in his 
eye, or rather in his mind. This was surprisingly con- 
firmed in the case of a young man born blind, and couched 
at fourteen years of age by Mr. Cheselden, in 1728. " A 
vindication of the Theory of Vision" was published by him 
in 1733. 

In 1710 appeared " The Principles of human know- 
ledge;" and, in 1713, " Dialogues between Hylas and 
Philonous :" but to them the same praise has not been 
given, and to this day their real tendency is a disputed 
point. The object of both pieces is to prove that the com- 
monly received notion of the existence of matter is false ; 
that sensible material objects, as they are called, are not 
external to the mind, but exist in it, and are nothing more 
than impressions made upon it by the immediate act of 
God, according to certain rules termed laws of nature, 
from which, in the ordinary course of his government, he 
never deviates ; and that the steady adherence of the Su- 
preme Spirit to these rules is what constitutes the reality 
of things to his creatures. These works arc declared to 


tiavc been written in opposition to sceptics and atheists ; 
and the author's inquiry is into the cliief cause of error 
and difficulty in the sciences, with the grounds of scep- 
ticism, atheism, and irreUgion ; which cause and grounds 
are Ibund to be the doctrines of the existence of matter. 
He seems persuaded that men never could have been de- 
luded into a false opinion of the existence of matter, if 
they had not fancied themselves invested with a power of 
abstracting substance from the qualities under which it is 
perceived ; and hence, as the general foundation of his 
argument, he is led to combat and explode a doctrine 
maintained by Locke and others, of there being a power 
in the mind of abstracting general ideas. Mr. Hume says, 
that these works '* form the best lessons of scepticism, 
which are to be found either among tlie ancient or modern 
philosophers, Bayle not excepted." Dr. Beattie also con- 
siders them as having a sceptical tendency. He adds, that 
if Berkeley's argument be conclusive, it proves that to be 
false which every man must necessarily believe, every mo- 
ment of his life, to be true, and that to be true which no 
man since the foundation of the world was ever capable of 
believing for a single moment. Berkeley's doctrine attacks 
the most incontestable dictates of common sense, and pre- 
tends to demonstrate that the clearest principles of human 
conviction, and those which have determined the judgment 
of men in all ages, and by which the judgment of all rea- 
sonable men must be determined, are certainly fallacious. 
It may just be observed, that Berkeley had not reached 
his 27th year when he published this singular system. The 
author of his life in the Biog. Brit, asserts that " the airy 
visions of romances, to the readinor of which he was much 
addicted, disgust at the books of metaphysics then received 
in the university, and that inquisitive attention to the 
operations of the mind which about this time was excited 
by the writings of Locke and Malebranche, probably gave 
birth to his disbelief of the existence of matter," What- 
ever influence the other causes here assigned might have 
had, we have the authority of his relict, Mrs. Berkeley, 
that he had a very great dislike to romances, and indeed 
it would be difficult to discover in any of these volumes 
of absurd fiction the grounds of such a work as Berkeley's, 
In 17 12 he published three sermons in favour of passive 
obedience and non-resistance, which underwent at least 
three editions, and afterwards had nearly done him some 

56 BE R K EL E Y. 

injury in his fortune. They caused him to be represented 
as a Jacobite, and stood in his way with the house of Ha- 
nover, till Mr. MoHneux, above-mentioned, took off the 
impression, and first made him known to queen Carohne, 
whose secretary, when princess, Mr. Mohneux had been. 
Acuteness of parts and beauty of imagination were so con- 
spicuous in his writings, that his reputation was now es- 
tablished, and his company courted even where his opinions 
did not find admission. Men of opposite parties concurred 
in recommending him ; sir Richard Steele, for instance, 
and Dr. Swift. For the former he wrote several papers in 
the Guardian, and at his house became acquainted with 
Pope, with whom he afterwards lived in friendship. It is 
said he had a guinea and a dinner with Steele for every 
paper he wrote in the Guardian. Swift recommended him 
to the celebrated earl of Peterborough, who being appointed 
ambassador to the king of Sicily and the Italian states, 
took Berkeley with him as chaplain and secretary in No- 
vember 1713. He returned to England with this noble- 
man in August 1714, and towards the close of the year 
had a fever, which gave occasion to Dr. Arbuthnot to in- 
dulge a little pleasantry on Berkeley's system. *' Poor 
philosopher Berkeley," says he to his friend Swift, '* has 
now the idea of health, which was very hard to produce in 
him 3 for he had an idea of a strange fever on him so strong, 
that it was very hard to destroy it by introducing a con- 
trary one." 

His hopes of preferment expiring with the fall of queen 
Anne's ministry, he some time after embraced an offer 
made him by Dr. St. George Ashe, bishop of Clogher, of 
accompanying his son in a tour through Europe. When he 
arrived at Paris, having more leisure than when he first 
passed through that city, Mr. Berkeley took care to pay 
his respects to his rival in metaphysical sagacity, the illus- 
trious Pere Malebranche. He found this ingenious father 
in his cell, cooking in a small pipkin a medicine for a 
disorder with which he was then troubled, an inflammation 
on the lungs. The conversation naiurally turned on our 
author's system, of which the other had received some 
knowledge from a translation just published. But the 
issue of this debate proved tragical to poor Malebranche. 
In the heat of disputation he raised his voice so high, and 
gave way so freely to the natural impetuosity of a man of 
parts and a Frenchman, that he brought on himself a 


violent increase of his disorder, which carried iiim ofF a 
few days after. In this excursion Mr. Berkeley employed 
four years ; and, besides those places which fall witliin 
the grand torn-, visited some that are less frequented. He 
travelled over Apulia (from which he wrote an account of 
the tarantula to Dr. Freind), Calabria, and the whole 
island of Sicily. This last country engaged his attention 
so strongly, that he had with great industry collected very 
considerable materials for a natural history of it, but un- 
fortunately lost them in the passage to Naples. What in- 
jury the literary world has sustained by this mischance, 
may be collected from the specimen of his talents for ob- 
servation and description, in a letter to Mr. Pope concern- 
ing the island of Inai'ime (now Ischia) dated October 22, 
1717 ; and in another from the same city to Dr. Arbuthnot, 
giving an account of an ei'uption of Vesuvius. On his 
way homeward, he drew up at Lyons a curious tract " De 
Motu," which was inserted in the memoirs of the royal 
academy of sciences at Paris, who had proposed the sub- 
ject. He arrived at London in 1721 ; and, being much 
affected with the miseries of the nation, occasioned by the 
South Sea scheme in 1720, published the same year " An 
essay towards preventing the ruin of Great Britain j" re- 
printed in his miscellaneous tracts. 

His way was open now into the very first company. Mr- 
Pope introduced him to lord Burlington, and lord Bur- 
lington recommended him to the duke of Grafton ; who, 
being lord-lieutenant of L'eland, took him over as one of 
his chaplains in 1721, and November this year he is said 
to have accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor in 
divinity; but a writer in the Gent. Mag. 177G asserts that 
he never went to Ireland as chaplain to any lieutenant, and 
that he was created D. D. by his college in 1717, when he 
was in Italy. The year following he had a ver^'^ vinex- 
pected increase of fortune from Mrs. Vanhomrigh, the 
celebrated Vanessa, to whom he had been introduced by 
Swift : this lady had intended Swift for her heir, but, per- 
ceiving herself to be slighted by him, she left near 8000/. 
between her two executors, of whom Berkeley was one. 
In his life in the Biog. Brit, it is said that Swift had often 
taken him to dine at this lady's house, but Mrs. Berkeley, 
his widow, asserts that he never dined there but once, and 
that by chance. Dr. Berkeley, as executor, destroyed as 
much of Vanessa's correspondence as he could find. Mr. 


Marshal, the other executor, published the '* Cadenus and 
Vanessa," which, according to Dr. Delany, proved fatal 
to Stella. May 18, 1724, he was promoted to the deanery 
of Derry, worth 1100/. per annum^ and resigned his fel- 

•In 1725 he published, and it has since been re-printed 
in his miscellaneous tracts, " A proposal for converting 
the savage Americans to Christianity, by a college to be 
erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles 
of Bermuda :" a scheme which had employed his thoughts 
for three or four years past; and for which he was disposed 
to make many personal sacrifices. As what he deemed 
necessary steps he offered to resign all his preferment, and 
to dedicate the remainder of his life to instructing the 
American youth, on a stipend of lOO/. yearly; he pre- 
vailed with three junior fellows of Trinity college, Dublin, 
to give up all their prospects at home, and to exchange 
their fellowships for a settlement in the Atlantic ocean at 
40/. a year ; he procured his plan to be laid before George I. 
who commanded sir Robert Walpole to lay it before the com- 
mons ; and further granted him a charter for erecting a col- 
lege in Bermuda, to consist of a president and nine fellows, 
who were obliged to maintain and educate Indian scholars 
atlO/. a year each ; he obtained a grant from the commons of 
a sum, to be determined by the king; and accordingly 20,000/. 
was promised by the minister, for the purchase of lands, 
and erecting the college. Trusting to these promising ap- 
pearances, he married the daughter of John Forster, esq. 
speaker of the Irish house of commons, the 1st of August 
1728; and actually set sail in September following for 
Rhode Island, which lay nearest to Bermuda, taking with . 
him his wife, a single lady, and two gentlemen of fortune. 
Yet the scheme entirely failed, and Berkeley was obliged 
to return, after residing near two years at Newport. The 
reason given is, that the minister never heartily embraced 
the project, and the money vtas turned into another chan- 
nel. During his residence in America, when he was not 
cnjployed as an itinerant preacher, which business could 
not be discharged in the winter, he preached every Sun- 
day at Newport, where was the nearest episcopal church, 
and to that church he gave an organ. M hen the season 
and his health permitted, he visited the continent, not only 
in its outward skirts, but penetrated far into its recesses. 
The same generous desire of advancing the best interests 


of mankind wliicli induced him to ct;)SS the Atlantic, uni- 
formly actuated him whilst America was the scene of his 
ministrv. The missionaries from the English society, who 
resided within about a hundred miles of Rhode Island, 
agreed among themselves to hold a sort of synod at Dr, 
Berkeley's house there, twice in a year, in order to enjoy 
the advantajies of his advice and exhortations. Four of 
these meetings were accordingly held. One of the prin- 
cipal points which the doctor then pressed upon his fellow- 
labourers, was the absolute necessity of conciliating, by 
all innocent means, the affection of their hearers, and also 
oH their dissenting neighbours. His own example, indeed, 
very eminently enforced his precepts upon this head ; for 
it is scarcely possible to conceive a conduct more uni- 
formly kind, tender, beneficent, and liberal than his was. 
He seemed to have only one wish in his heart, which was 
to alleviate misery, and to diffuse happiness. Finding, at 
length, that the fear of offending the dissenters at home, 
and of inclining the colonies to assert independency, had 
determined the minister to make any use, rather than the 
best use, of the money destined for, and promised to St. 
Paul's college, the dean of Derry took a reluctant leave of 
a country, where the name of Berkeley was long and justly 
revered more than that of any European whatever. At his 
departure, he gave a farm of a hundred acres, which lay 
round his house, and his house itself, as a benefaction to 
Yale and Harvard colleges : and the value of that land, 
then not insignificant because cultivated, became after- 
wards very considerable. He gave, of his own property-, 
to one of tiiese colleges, and to several missionaries, books 
to the amount of five hundred pounds. To the other col- 
lege he made a large donation of books purchased by 
others, and trusted to his disposal. 

In 1732, he published "The Minute Philosopher," in 
2 vols. 8vo. This masterly work is written in a series of 
dialogues on the model of Plato, a philosopher of whom 
he is said to have been very fond ; and in it he pursues the 
freethinker through the various characters of atheist, li- 
bertine, enthusiast, scorner, critic, metaphysician, fatalist, 
and sceptic. 

We have already related by what means, and upon what 
occasion. Dr. Berkeley had first the honour of being known 
to queen Caroline. This princess delighted much in at- 
tending to philosophical conversations between learned 


and ingenious men ; for which purpose she had, when 
princess of Wales, appointed a particular day in the week, 
when the most eminent for literary abilities at that time in 
England were invited to attend her royal highness in the 
evening : a practice which she continued after her acces- 
sion to the throne. Of this company were doctors Clarke, 
Hoadly, Berkeley, and Sherlock. Clarke and Berkeley- 
were generally considered as principals in the debates that 
arose upon those occasions; and Hoadly adhered to the 
former, as Sherlock did to the latter. Hoadly was no friend 
to our author : he affected to consider his philosophy and 
his Bermuda project as the reveries of a visionary. Sherlock 
(who was afterwards bishop of London) on the other hand 
warmly espoused his cause; and particularly, when the 
*' Minute Philosopher" came out, he carried a copy of it 
to the queen, and left it to her majesty to determine, whe- 
ther such a work could be the production of a disordered 
understanding. After dean Berkeley's return from Rhode 
Island, the queen often commanded his attendance to dis- 
course with hmi on what he had observed worthy of notice 
in America. His agreeable and instructive conversation 
engaged that discerning princess so much in his favour, 
that the rich deanery of Down in Ireland falUng vacant, 
he was at her desire named to it, and the king's letter 
actually came over for his appointment. But his friend 
lord Burlington having neglected to notify the royal inten- 
tions in proper time to the duke of Dorset, then lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, his excellency was so offended at 
this disposal of the richest deanery in Ireland, without his 
concurrence, that it was thought proper not to press the 
matter any farther. Her majesty upon this declared, that 
since they would not suffer Dr. Berkeley to be a dean in 
Ireland, he should be a bishop : and accordingly, in 1733, 
the bishopric of Cloyne becoming vacant, he was by let- 
ters patent, dated March 17, promoted to that see, and 
was consecrated at St. Paul's church in Dublin, on the 
19th of May following, byTheophilus archbishop of Cashel, 
assisted by the bishops of Raphoe and Killaloe. His lord- 
ship repaired immediately to his manse-house at Cloyne, 
where he constantly resided (except one winter that he 
attended the business of parliament in Dublin) and applied 
himself with vigour to the faithful discharge of all episco- 
pal duties. He revived in his diocese the useful office of 


rural dean, which had gone into disuse ; visited frequently 
parochially ; and confirmed in several parts of his see. 

Ahout this time he engaged in a controversy with the 
matliematicians, which made a good deal of noise in the 
literary world ; and the occasion of it is said to have been 
this : Mr. Addison had, many years before this, given him 
an account of their common friend Dr. Garili's behaviour 
in his last illness, which was equally unpleasing to both 
these advocates of revealed religion. For, when Addison 
went to see the doctor, and began to discourse with him 
seriously about another world, " Surely, Addison," replied 
he, *' I have good reason not to believe those trifles, since 
my friend Dr. Halley, who has dealt so much in demon- 
stration, has assured me, that the doctrines of Christianity 
are incomprehensible, and the religion itself an imposture." 
The bishop, therefore, addressed to him, as to an infidel 
mathematician, a discourse called the " Analyst ;" with a 
view to show that mysteries in faith were unjustly objected 
to by mathematicians, who admitted much greater mys- 
teries, and even falsehoods in science, of which he en- 
deavoured to prove, that the doctrine of fluxions furnished 
a clear example. This attack gave occasion to a smart 
controversy upon the subject effluxions; the principal an- 
swers to the " Analyst" were written by a person under 
the name of Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, generally sup- 
posed to be Dr. Jurin, who published a piece entitled 
" Geometry no friend to Infidelity," 1734. To this the 
bishop replied in " A Defence of Freethinking in Mathe- 
matics," 1735; which drew a second answer the same year 
from Philalethes, styled " The minute Mathematician, or 
the Freethinker no just thinker :" and here the con- 
troversy ended, and whatever fault mathematicians may 
find in this hostile attempt of our bishop, it must be ac- 
knowledged they have reaped no inconsiderable advantage 
from it, inasmuch as it gave rise to the Treatise of Fluxions 
by Maclaurin, in which the whole doctrine is delivered 
with more precision and fulness than ever was done before, 
or probably than ever would have been done, if no attack 
had been made upon it. 

But the bishop, ever active and attentive to the public 
good, was continually sending forth something or other : 
in 1735, the "Querist;" in 1736, " A Discourse address- 
ed to Magistrates," occasioned by the enormous licence 


and irreligion of the times ; and many other things after- 
wards of a smaller kind. In 1 744 came forth his celebrated 
and curious book, entitled, " Siris ; a chain of philosophi- 
cal reflections and inquiries concerning the virtues of Tar 
^V'ater :" a medicine which had been useful to himself in a 
case of nervous colic. This work, he has been heard to 
declare, cost him more time and pains than any other he 
had ever been engaged in. It underwent a seconxl impres- 
sion, with additions and emendations, in 1747 ; and was 
followed by " Farther thoughts on Tar Water," in 1752. 
In Juh', the same year, he removed with his lady and fa- 
mily to Oxford, partly to superintend the education of his 
SOI), the subject of the following article, but chiefly to 
indulge the passion for learned retirement, which had ever 
strongly possessed him, and was one of his motives to form 
the Bermuda project. But as none could be more sensible 
than his lordship of the impropriety of a bishop's non- 
residence, he previously endeavoured to exchange his high 
preferment for some canonry or headship at Oxford. Fail- 
ing of success in this, he actually wrote over to the secre- 
tary of state, to request that he might have permission to 
resign his bishopric, worth at that time at least 1400A per 
aJinum. So uncommon a petition excited his majesty's 
curiosity to inquire who was the extraordinary man that 
preferred it: being told that it was his old acquaintance 
Dr. Berkeley, he declared that he should die a bishop in 
spile of himself, but gave him full liberty to reside where 
he pleased. The bishop's last act before he left Cloyne 
was to sign a lease of the demesne lands in that neighbour- 
hood, to be renewed yearly at the rent of 200/. which sum 
he directed to be distributed every year, until his return, 
among poor house-keepers of Cloyne, Youghal, and Ag- 
hadda. The author of his life in the Biog. Brit, magnifies his 
love for the beauties of Cloyne, but the fact was, that he 
iiad never any idea of Cloyne as a beautiful situation, and 
we are happy to draw from the same authority which cor- 
rects this error, some additional particulars of his disin- 
terested s})irit. He declared to Mrs. Berkeley, soon after 
he was advanced to the prelacy, that his resolution was 
never to change his see ; because, as he afterwards con- 
fessed to the archbishop of Tuam, and the late earl of 
Shannon, he had very early in life got the world uuder 
his feet, and he hoped to trample on it to his latest mo- 
ment. These two warm friend* had been pressiug him to 



think of a translation : but he did not love episcopal trans- 
lations. He tliought that they were sometimes really hurt- 
ful to indivi(hials, and that tliey often gave, though un- 
justly, a handle to suspect of mean views, an order to 
which that holy and humble man was himself an honour, 
and to which it ma\' be said, without adulation, that he 
would have been an honour in any age of the church. 
Humble and unasjnring as was the bishop of Cloyne, the 
earl of Chesterfield sought him out ; and when, as a tribute 
to exalted merit, tliat nobleman offered to him tl e see of 
Clogher, where he was told he might immediately receive 
fines to the amount of ten thousatui pounds, he consulted 
Mrs. Berkeley, as having a family, and, with her full ap- 
probation, not only declined the bishopric of Clogher, but 
the offer which accompanied that proposal, of any other 
translation which miijht become feasible durinij lord Ches- 
terfield's administration. The primacy was vacated before 
the expiration of that period. On that occasion, the bishop 
said to Mrs. Berkeley, " I desire to add one more to the 
iist of churchmen, who are evidently dead to ambition and 
avarice." Just before his embarkation for America, queen 
Caroline endeavoured to stagger his resolution, by the of- 
fer of an English mitre; but, in reply, he assured her 
majesty, that he chose rather to be president of St. Paul's 
college, than primate of all England. 

At Oxford he lived highly respected, and collected and 
printed the same year all his smaller pieces in 8vo ; but he 
did not live long ; for, on Sunday evening, Jan. 14, 1753, 
as he was in the midst of his familv, listeninsj to the lesson 
in the burial service which his lady was reading to him, h<^ 
was seized with what was called a palsy in the heart, and 
instantly expired. The accident was so sudden, that his 
body was cold, and his joints stiff, before it was discovered : 
as he lay upoH a couch, and seemed to be asleep, till hi* 
daughter, on presenting him with a dish of tea, first pcr- 
perceived his insensibility. His remains were interred at 
Christ church, Oxford, and there is an elegant marble 
monument over him, with an inscription by Dr. Markham, 
then master of Westminster school and late archbishop of 

As to his person, he was handsome, with a countenance 
full of meaning and kindness, remarkable for great strength 
of limbs ; and, till his sedentary life impaired it, of a very 
robust constitution. He was, however, often troubled with 

G4. B E R K E L E Y. 

the hypochondria, and latterly with a nervous colic, from 
which he was greatly relieved by the virtues of his favourite 
tar-water, which he brought into extensive use. It was 
at one time a fashion to drink this medicine, to which 
more virtues were attached than the good bishop had ever 
thouglit of. When at Cloyne, he spent the morning, 
and often a great part of the day, in study ; and Plato, 
from whom many of his notions were borrowed, was his 
favourite author. The excellence of his moral character is 
conspicuous in his writings : he was certainly a very amia- 
ble as well as a very great man, Atterbury once declared 
that he did not think so much understanding, so much 
knowledge, so much innocence, and so much humility, had 
been the portion of any but angels, until he saw Mr. 

Dr. Berkeley has not been very fortunate in his bio- 
graphers. An account of him was drawn up by his brother, 
the Rev. Dr. Robert Berkeley, vicar-general of Cloyne, 
who died in 1787. This was first inserted in the Bios:. 
Britannica, and many mistakes pointed out, and additions 
made to it in a subsequent volume of that work. Pre- 
viously to this, in 1776, an " Account of his Life" was pub- 
lished in a thin octavo volume, at London, which probably 
was drawn up from family information. Of this a second 
edition was published in 1784, professedly " with improve- 
ments," but the errors both of the first edition and of the 
Biog. Brit, which had then appeared, are retained. In 
1784 a new edition of the bishop's entire works was pub- 
lished at Dublin and London, 2 vols. 4to, with the octavo 
life prefixed. The third vol. of the Biog. Brit, contains 
some important information from the bishop's widow (who 
died 1786) and which we have endeavoured to incorporate. 
It remains only to be noticed that the romance called the 
" Adventures of Signer Gaudentio di Lucca," often attri- 
buted to our author, was certainly not his production. ' 

BERKELEY (George, LL. D. prebendary of Canter- 
bury,) second son of the preceding, by Anne, eldest 
daughter of the right hon. John Forster, a privy-counsellor 
and speaker of the Irish house of commons, by Anne, 
daughter to the right hon. John Monck, brother i;o the 
duke of Albemarle, was born on the 28th of September 

» Biog. Brit.— Life, 8vo. 1784. — Gent. Mag. See Index.— Reid, Beattie, and 
Mr. l)ng;ild Stewart in his late Essays (1810) have treated of Dr. Berkeley's 
Metaphysics. — British Essayists, Preface to the Guardian. 

B E R K E LEY. 6 


1733, old style, in Grosvenor-street, Grosvenor-square. In 
his infancy he was removed with the family to Ireland, 
where he was instructed in the classics by his father only, 
the bishop taking that part of the education of his sons on 
himself. Instructed in every elegant and useful accom- 
plishment, Mr. Berkeley was, at the age of nineteen, sent 
over to Oxford ; his father leaving it to his own choice to 
enter a gentleman commoner, either at Christ church or 
St. John's college. But bishop Conybeare, then dean of 
Christ church, on his arrival offering him a studentship in 
that society, he accepted it, finding many of the students to 
be gentlemen of the first character for learning and rank in 
the kingdom. His first tutor was the late learned archbishop 
of York, Dr. Markham ; on whose removal to Westminster- 
school, he put himself under the tuition of Dr. Smallvvell, 
afterwards bishop of Oxford. Having taken the degree of 
B. A. he served the office of collector in the university, and 
as he was allowed by his contemporaries to be an excellent 
Latin scholar, his collector's speech was universally ad- 
mired and applauded. In 1758 he took a small livinofrom 
his society, the vicarage of EastGarston, Berks, from which 
he was removed, in 1759, by archbishop Seeker, his sole 
patron, to the vicarage of Bray, Berks ; of which he was 
only the fifth vicar since the reformation. In 1759, also, 
he took the degree of M. A. — The kindness of archbishop 
Seeker (who testified the highest respect for bishop Berke- 
ley's memory by his attention to his deserving son) did not 
rest here ; he gave him also the chancellorship of Breck- 
nock, the rectory of Acton, Middlesex, and the sixth pre- 
bendal stall in the church of Canterbury. In 1768 he had 
taken the degree of LL. D. for which he went out grand 
compounder, and soon afterwards resigned the rectory of 
Acton. Some time after he had obtained the chancellor- 
ship of Brecknock, he put himself to very considerable ex- 
pence in order to render permanent two ten pounds per 
annum, issuing out of the estate, to two poor Welch cura- 
cies. The vicarage of Bray he exchanged for that of 
Cookham near Maidenhead, and had afterwards from the 
church of Canterbury the vicarage of East-Peckham, Kent, 
which he relinquished on obtaining the rectory of St. Cle- 
ment's Danes ; which with the vicarage of Tyshurst, Sus- 
sex (to which he was presented by the church of Canter- 
bury in 1792, when he vacated. Cookham), and with the 
chancellorship of Brecknock, he held till his death. His 
Vol, V. F 


illness had been long and painful, but borne with exem- 
plary resignation ; and his death was so cahn and easy that 
no pang was observed, no groan was heard, by his attending 
wife and relations. He died Jan. 6, 1795, and was in- 
terred in his father's vault in Christ churcli, Oxford. Not 
long before his death, he expressed his warmest gratitude 
to Mrs. Berkeley, of whose affection he was truly sensible, 
and of whom he took a most tender farewell. Dr. Berke- 
ley's qualifications and attainments were such as occasioned 
his death to be lamented by many. He was the charitable 
divine, the affectionate and active friend, the elegant scho- 
lar, the accomplished gentleman. He possessed an exqui- 
site sensibility. To alleviate the sufferings of the sick and 
needy, and to patronize the friendless, were employments 
in which his heart and his hand ever co-operated. In the 
pulpit his manner was animated, and his matter forcible. 
His conversation always enlivened the social meetings 
where he was present ; for he was equalled by few in affa- 
bility of temper and address, in the happy recital of agree- 
able anecdote, in the ingenious discussion of literary sub- 
jects, or in the brilliant display of a lively imagination. 

Dr. Berkeley published two or three single sermons ; one 
of which, preached on the anniversary of king Charles's 
martyrdom, 1785, entitled "The danger of violent inno- 
vations in the state, how specious soever the pretence, 
exemplified from the reigns of the two first Stuarts," has 
gone through six editions, the last in 1794 ; one on Good 
Friday 1787 ; one at Cookham on the king's accession, 
1789. His Sermon on the consecration of bishop Home 
was not published until after his death. In 1799, his 
widow published a volume of his Sermons with a biogra- 
phical preface. He married, in 1761, Eliza, eldest daugh- 
ter and coheiress of the rev. Henry Finsham, M. A. by 
Eliza, youngest daughter and one of the coheiresses of the 
truly pious and learned Francis Cherry, esq. of Shottes- 
brook-house in the county of Berks, by whom he had four 
children, now no more. The late bishop Home, we may 
add, was one of Dr. Berkeley's earliest and most intimate 
friends, the loss of whom he severely felt, and of whom he 
was used to speak with the sincerest respect and the most 
affectionate regard. 

This memoir, we have some reason to think, was drawn 
up for the preceding edition of this work, by his widow, a 
lady who claims some notice on her own account. She died 


at Kensington, Nov. 4, 1800, leaving a character ratlier 
difficult to appreciate. In 1797, she published the "Poems" 
ol" lier son George Monck Berkeley, esq. in a magnificent 
quarto vohime, with a very long, rambling preface of anec- 
dotes and remarks, amidst which she exliibits many traits 
of her own character. She was unquestionably a lady of 
considerable talents, but her fanc)' was exuberant, and hex* 
petty resentments were magnified into an importance visi- 
ble perhaps only to herself. She had accumulated a stock 
of various knowledge, understood French perfectly and 
spoke it fluentlj', Slie likewise read Spanish and Hebrew, 
and always took her Spanish Prayer-book with her to 
church. This was but one of her peculiarities. In con- 
versation, as in writing, she was extremely entertaining, 
except to those who wished also to entertain ; and her sto- 
ries and anecdotes, althouech s[iven in correct and fluent 
language, lost much of their effect, sometimes from length, 
and sometimes from repetition. She had, however, a warm 
friendly heart, amidst all her oddities ; and her very nu- 
merous contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine con- 
tain no small portion of entertainment and information. 
Her son, the above-mentioned George Monck Berkeley, 
published in 1789, an amusing voluuie of anecdote and 
biography, under the title of " Literary Kelics." ' 

BERKELEY (George Earl of) descended in a direct 
line from Robert Fitzharding, who was of the royal house 
of Denmark. He with his nephew, Charles Berkeley, had 
the principal management of the duke of York's family, 
and was one of the privy council in the reign of Charles 11, 
James II. and William III. At the restoration he mani- 
fested great loyalty for Charles 11. and was advanced to the 
dignity of viscount Dursley and earl of Berkeley in 1679. 
One of his most munificent acts was his bestowing on the 
public library of Sion college, a valuable collection of 
books formed by sir Robert Coke. He died Oct. 14, 1G98, 
aged seventy-one, and was buried at Cranford in Middle- 
sex. Lord Orford attributes to him, on good authority, 
a curious and scarce work of the religious cast, entitled 
'* Historical applications and occasional meditations upon 
several subjects. Written by a person of honour," 1670, 
l2mo. In this book are several striking instances of the 
testimony which some men of eminence have borne to the 

' Dr. Berkeley's Sermons.— Gent. Mag. 1793, ISOO, and 1 733, p. JS5, 

F -2 


importance of religious life, and the consolation to be re- 
ceived from it, especially at the approach of death. Fen- 
ton, in his observations on a short poem, prefixed to this 
work by Waller, says that his lordship was a person of 
strict virtue and piety, but of such undistinguishing affa- 
bility to men of all ranks and parties, that Wycherley has 
been supposed to have drawn his character of " Lord Plau- 
sible," in the Plain Dealer, from him ; a circumstance that 
cannot detract much from his lordship's reputation, for 
Wycherley was a poor judge of men of '* strict virtue and 
piety." Besides the above work, of which a third edition 
appeared in 1680, lord Berkeley published, the same year, 
*' A speech to the Levant Company at their annual elec- 
tion, Feb. 9, 1680."^ 

BERKELEY (Sir Robert), one of the justices of the 
king's bench in the time of Charles L was born in 1584, 
the second son of Rowland Berkeley, esq. of Spetchly in 
Worcestershire, where his descendants yet live ; and was 
by the female line, descended from Thomas Mowbray, 
duke of Norfolk, who flourished in the reigns of Henry IV. 
and V. In the. 12 James I. he served the office of high 
sheriff for the county of Worcester ; in the 3d Charles I. 
was made king's serjeant, and in the 8lh of the same reign, 
was made a justice of the court of king's bench. While 
in this office, he, with eleven of his brethren, gave his 
opinion in favour of ship-money; and if we may judge 
from the tenor of his conduct in private life, as well as 
upon the bench, from honest motives ; but as he had been 
active on other occasions in what he seems to have thought 
his duty, and was a man of fortune, he was singled out by- 
parliament as a proper object of their vengeance. He was 
accordingly impeached of high treason, and adjudged to 
pay a fine of 20,000/. to be deprived of his office of judge, 
and rendered incapable of holding any place, or receiving 
any honour in the state or commonwealth : he was also to 
be imprisoned in the Tower during the pleasure of the 
house of lords. Having made some "satisfaction" for his 
fine to the parliament, he was by their authority, dis- 
charged from the whole, and set at liberty, after he had 
been upwards of seven mouths in the Tower. But he af- 
terwards suffered greatly by the plunderings and exactions 

• Park's edit, of the Royal and Noble Authors.— Collins's Peerage.— •Granger, 
vol. III. 6 -b . 


of the rebels, and a little before the battle of Worcester, 
the Presbyterians, though engaged in the king's service, 
retained their ancient animosity against him, and burnt his 
house at Spetchly to the ground. He afterwards convert-, 
ed the stables into a dwelHng-house, and lived with con- 
tent, and even dignitj', upon the wreck of his fortune. He 
was a true son of the church of England, and suffered more 
from the seduction of his only son Thomas to the church of 
Home, at Brussels, than from all the calamities of the civil 
war. He died Aug. 5, 1656,* 

BERKELEY (Sir William), a native of London, was 
the youngest sou of sir Maurice Berkeley, and brother of 
John lord Berkeley of Stratton. He was elected proba- 
tioner fellow of Merton college, Oxford, in 1625, and four 
years after was admitted M. A. In 1630, he set out on his 
travels, where he seems to have acquired that knowledge 
which fitted him for public business, and on his return, be- 
came gentleman of the privy-chamber to Charles L In 
1646, he went on some commission to Virginia, of which 
province he had afterwards the government. He invited 
many of the royalists to retire thither as a place of security, 
and hinted in a letter to king Cliarles I. that it would not 
be an unfit place as a retreat for his majesty ; depending, 
perhaps, more upon the improbability of its being attacked, 
than on its means of defence. Virginia, however, was not 
long a place of safety ; the parliament sent some ships with 
a small force, who took possession of the province without 
difficulty, and removed sir William Berkeley from the go- 
vernment, but suft'ered him to remain unmolested upon his 
private estate. In 1660, on the death of colonel Matthews, 
in consideration of his services, particularly in defending 
the English from being killed by the natives, and in de- 
stroying great numbers of the Indians without losing three of 
his own men, he was again made governor, and continued in 
that office until 167 6, when he returned to England, after 
an absence of thu-ty years. He died the following year, 
and was buried July 13, in the parish church of Twicken- 
ham. His writings are, " The Lost Lady," a tragi-comedy, 
Lond. 1639, fol. and, as tne editor of the Biog. Dram. 
thinks, another play called " Cornelia," 1662, not printed, 
but ascribed to a "sir William Bartley." He wrote also a 

• Granger's Biog. and I.cttprs by Malcolm, p. 217, 253—261, — Peck's De. 
Siderata, vol, II,— Lloyd's Memoirs, fol. p. 94, 95. 


'' Description of Virginia," fol. In Francis Moryson's edi- 
tion of " The Laws of Virginia," Lond. 1662, fol. tiie pre- 
face informs us that sir William was the author of the best 
of them. * 

BERKENHOUT (Dr. John), an English miscellaneous 
writer, was born, about 1730, at Leeds in Yorkshire, and 
educated at the grammar-school in that town. His father, 
who was a merchant, and a native of Holland, intended him 
for trade ; and with that view sent him at an early age to 
Germany, in order to learn foreign languages. After con- 
tinuing a few years in that country, he made the tour of 
Europe in company with one or more English noblemen. 
On their return to Germany they visited Berlin, where 
Mr. Berkenhout met with a near relation of his father's, 
the baron de Bielfeldt, a nobleman then in high estimation 
with the late king of Prussia ; distinguished as one of the 
founders of the royal academy of sciences at Berlin, and 
universally known as a politician and a man of letters. 
With this relation our young traveller fixed his abode for 
some time; and, regardless of his original destination, be- 
came a cadet in a Prussian recriment of foot. He soon ob- 
tained an ensign's commission ; and, in the space of a few 
years, was advanced to the rank of captain. He quitted 
the Prussian service on the declaration of war between 
Enoland and France in 1756, and was honoured with the 
command of a company in the service of his native coun- 
try. When peace was concluded in 1760, he went to 
Edinburgh, and commenced student of physic. During 
his residence at that university he compiled his " Clavis 
Anglica Linguoe Botanicae ;" a book of singular utility to 
all students of botany, and at that time the only botanical 
lexicon in our language, and particularly expletive of the 
Linnroan system. It was not, however, published until 

Having continued some years at Edinburgh, Mr. Ber- 
kenhout went to the university of Leyden, where he took 
the degree of doctor of physic, in 1765, as we learn from his 
^' Dissertatio medica inauguralis de Podascra," dedicated to 
his relation baron de Bielfeldt. Returning to England, 
Dr. Berkenhout settled at Isleworth in Middlesex, and in 
1766, published his ''Pharmacopoeia Medici," I2mo, the 
third edition of which was printed in 1782. In 1761), he 

' Atb. Ox. II. 586.— Biog. Dram.— Lysons's Enrirons, toI. III. 


publishet^ " Ontlines of the Natural History of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, vol. I.j vol. II. appeared in 1770, and vol. 
III. in 1771. The encouragement this work met with af- 
forded at least a proof that something of the kind was 
wanted. The three volun)es were reprinted together in 
1773, and in 1788 were again published in 2 vols. Svo, 
under the title of " Synopsis of the Natural History of 
Cireat Britain, &.c." In 1771, he published " Dr. Cado- 
gan's dissertation on the Gout, examined and refuted ;'* 
and in 1777, *' Biographia Literaria, or a Biograpliical 
History of Literature; containing the lives of English, 
Scotch, and Irish authors, from the dawn of letters in these 
kingdoms to the present lime, chronologically and clas- 
sically arranged," 4to, vol. 1. the only volume which ap- 
peared. The lives are very short, and the author frequently 
introduces sentiments hostile to relisrious establishments 
and doctrines, which could not be very acceptable to Eng- 
lish readers. The dates and facts, however, are given 
with great accuracy, and in many of the lives he profited 
by the assistance of George Steevens, esq. the celebrated 
commentator on Shakspeare. This was followed by " A 
treatise on Hysterical Diseases, translated from the French." 
In 1778, he was sent by government with certain com- 
missioners to treat with America, but neither the commis- 
sioners nor their secretary were suffered by the congress 
to proceed further than New- York. Dr. Berkenhout, how- 
ever, found means to penetrate as far as Philadelphia, 
where the congress was then assembled. He appears to 
have remained in that city for some time without molesta- 
tion ; but at last on suspicion that he was sent by lord 
North for the purpose of tampering with some of their 
leading members, he was seized and committed to prison. 
How long he remained a state prisoner, or by what means 
he obtained his liberty, we are not informed ; but we find 
from the public prints, that he rejoined the commissioners 
at New York, and returned with them to England. — For 
this temporary sacrifice of the emoluments of his profes- 
sion, and in consideration of political services, he obtained 
a pension. In 1780, he published his " Lucubrations on 
Wa3's and Means, inscribed to lord North," proposing cer- 
tain taxes, some of which were adopted by that minister, 
and some afterwards by Mr. Pitt. Dr. Berkenhout's friends 
at that time appear to have taken some pains to point him 
out as an inventor of taxes. His next work was "An essay 

72 B E R K E N H O U T. 

on the Bite of a Mad Dog, in which the claim to infalli- 
bility of the principal preservative remedies against the 
Hydrophobia is examined." In the year following Dr. 
Berkenhout published his " Symptomatology ;" a book 
which is too universally known to require any recommenda- 
tion. In 1788, appeared "First lines of the theory and 
practice of Philosophical Chemistry," dedicated to Mr. 
Eden, afterwards lord Auckland, whom the doctor accom- 
panied to America. Of this book it is sufficient to say, 
that it exhibits a satisfactory display of the present state 
of chemistry. His last publication was " Letters on Edu- 
cation, to his son at Oxford," 1791, 2 vols. 12mo ; but in 
1779, he published a continuation of Dr. Campbell's 
** Lives of the Admirals," 4 vols. Bvo ; and once printed 
*' Proposals for a history of Middlesex, including London," 
4 vols. fol. which, as the design dropt, were never circu- 
lated. There is also reason to suppose him the author of 
certain humorous publications, in prose and verse, to which 
he did not think fit to prefix his name, and of a translation 
from the Swedish language, of the celebrated count Tes- 
sin's letters to the late king of Sweden. It is dedicated to 
the prince of Wales, his present majesty of Great Britain ; 
and was, we believe, Mr. Berkenhout's first publication. 
He died the 3d of April 1791, aged 60. 

When we reflect on the variety of books that bear his 
name, we cannot but be surprised at the extent and va- 
riety of the knowledge they contain. He was originally 
intended for a merchant; thence his knowledge of the 
principles of commerce. He was some years in one of the 
best disciplined armies in Europe ; thence his knowledge 
of the art of war. His translation of count Tessin's Letters 
ghew him to be well acquainted with the Swedish language, 
and that he is a good poet. His Pharmacopoeia Medici, 
&c. demonstrate his skill in his profession. His Outlines 
of Natural History, and his Botanical Lexicon, prove his 
knowledge in every branch of natural history. His First 
Jines of Philosophical Chemistry have convinced the world 
of his intimate acquaintance with that science. His essay 
on Ways and Means proves him well acquainted with the 
system of taxation. All his writings prove him to have 
been a classical scholar, and it is known that the Italian, 
French, German, and Dutch languages were familiar to 
him. He was moreover a painter ; and played well, it is 
said, on^v^arious musical instruments. To these acquits- 


ments may be added, a considerable degree of mathe- 
matical knowledge, which he attained in the course of his 
military studies. An individual so universally informed as 
Dr. Berkenhout, is an extraordinary appearance iu the re- 
public of letters. — In this character, which, we believe, 
' was published in his life-time, there is the evident hand of 
a friend. Dr. Berkenhout, however, may be allowed to 
have been an infrenious and well-informed man, but as an 
author he ranks among the useful, rather than the original ; 
and the comparisons of his friends between him and the 
*' admirable Chnchton" are, to say the least, highly inju- 

BERNARD (St.) one of the most, if not the most dis- 
tinguished character of the twelfth century, was born at 
Fountaine, a village of Burgundy, in 1091, and was the 
son of Tecelinus, a military nobleman, renowned for what 
was then deemed piety. His mother, Aleth, who has the 
same character, had seven children by her husband, of 
whom Bernard was the third. From his infancy he was 
devoted to religion and study, and made a rapid progress 
in the learning of the times. He took an early resolution 
to retire from the world, and engaged all his bro.thers, and 
several of his friends in the same monastic views with him- 
self. The most ricjid rules were most agreeable to his in- 
clination, and hence he became a Cistertian, the strictest 
of the orders in France, The Cistertians were at that time 
but few in number, men being discouraged from uniting 
with them on account of their excessive austerities. Ber- 
nard, however, by his superior genius, his eminent piety, and 
his ardent zeal, gave to this order a lustre and a celebrit}', 
which their institution by no means deserved. At the age 
of twenty-three, with more than thirty companions, he 
entered into the monastery. Other houses of the order 
arose soon after, and he himself was appointed abbot of 
Clairval. To those noviciates who desired admission, he 
used to say, "If ye hasten to those things which are with- 
in, dismiss your bodies, which ye brought from the world ; 
let the spirits alone enter ; the flesh profiteth nothing." 
Yet Bernard gradually learned to correct the harshness 
and asperity of his sentiments, and while he preached 
mortification to his disciples, led them on with more mild- 

' Corrected from the very erroneous account in the last edition of this Dic- 
tionary.— European Magazine, 1788. — 'Gent, Mag. vol. LXI. 


ness and clemency than he exercised towards himself. For 
some time he injured his own health exceedingly by aus- 
terities, and, as he afterwards confessed, threw a stumbling 
block in the way of the weak, by exacting of them a de- 
gree of perfection, which he himself had not attained. Af- 
ter he had recovered from these excesses, he began to 
exert himself by travelling and preaching from place to 
place, and such were his powers of eloquence, or the cha- 
racter in wiiich he was viewed, that he soon acquired an 
astonishing prevalence, and his word became a law to 
princes and nobles. His eloquence, gi'eat as it was, was 
aided in the opinion of his hearers by his sincerity and 
humility, and there can be no doubt that his reputation for 
those qualities was justly founded. He constantly refused 
the highest ecclesiastical dignities, among which the 
bishoprics of Genoa, Milan, and Kheims, may be instanced, 
although his qualifications were indisputable. Such was 
his influence, that during a schism which happened in the 
church of Rome, his authority determined both Louis VI. 
king of France and Henry I, king of England, to support 
the claims of Innocent II., one instance, among many, to 
prove the ascendancy he had acquired. Yet although no 
potentate, civil or ecclesiastical, possessed such real 
power as he did, in the Christian world, and though he 
stood the highest in the judgment of all men, he remained 
in his own estimation the lowest, and referred all he did 
to divine grace. 

His power, however, was not always emplojed to the 
best purposes. The crusade of Louis VII. was supported 
by Bernard's eloquence, who unhappily prevailed to draw 
numbers to join that monarch in his absurd expedition^ 
which was, in its consequences, pregnant with misery and 
ruin. In his dispute with the celebrated Abelard, he ap- 
pears more in character. At a council called at Soissons 
in 1121, Abelard was] charged with tritheism, and with 
having asserted, that God the father was alone Almighty, 
He was ordered to burn his books, and to recite the sym- 
bol of Athanasius, with all which he complied, and was set 
at liberty : but it was long after this before Bernard took 
any particular notice of Abelard, having cither heard little 
of the controversy, or not being called upon to deliver his 
sentiments. Abelard, however, notwithstanding his re- 
tractations, persevered in teaching his heresies, and it be- 
came, at length, impossible for his errors to escape the 


observation of the abbot of Clairval. Having studied the 
snbject, his first stejD was to admonish Abelard in a private 
conference, but finthng that tlrat had no effect, he opposed 
him in some of his writings, on which Abelard challenged 
him to dispnte the matter at a solciJin assembly vvliich was 
to be hekl at tlie city of Sens in 1140. Bernard was at 
first unwilhng to subinit these important doctrines to a de- 
cision which was rather that of personal talent, than of de- 
liberative wisdom, and would have decHned appearing, had 
not his friends represented that his absence might injure 
the cause. He accordingly met his antagonist, and began 
to open the case, when Abelard very unexpectedly put an 
end to the matter by appealing to the pope. Bernard, who 
afterwards wrote to tlie same pope an account of Abelard's 
conduct, very justly blames him for appealing from judges 
whom he had himself chosen. Notwithstanding this ap- 
peal, however, Abelard's sentiments were condemned, and 
the pope ordered his books to be burned, and himself con- 
fined in some monastery; and that of Cluni being chosen, 
he remained in it until his death about two years after. 

The next opponent of consequence with whom St. Ber- 
nard had to contend, was Gilbert de Porrce, bishop of Poic- 
tiers. The errors attributed to Gilbert, arose from cer- 
tain metaphysical subtleties, which induced him to deny 
the incarnation of the divine nature ; but these refined no- 
tions being above the comprehension of St. Bernard, he 
opposed them with great vehemence in the council of Pa- 
ris, 1147, and in that of Rheims, 1148: but in this latter 
council Gilbert, in order to put an end to the dispute, of- 
fered to submit his opinions to the judgment of the assem- 
bly, and of the Roman pontiff, by whom they were con- 
demned. Towards the end of his days, Bernard was cho- 
sen to be mediator between the people of Mentz and some 
neighbouring princes, whom he reconciled with his usual 
skill. On his return, he fell sick of a weakness in his sto- 
mach, and died Aug. 20, 1153, leaving nearly one hun- 
dred and sixty monasteries of his order, founded by his 

Bernard has had the fate of most of the eminent charac- 
ters during the early ages of the church, to be excessively 
applauded by one party, and as much and as unjustly de- 
preciated by the other. Of his austerities and his mira- 
cles, little notice need be now taken. The former he was 
himself willing to allow were unjustifiable, and ihe latter 


are probably the forgeries of a period later than his own. 
In his conduct as well as his writings we see many intole- 
rant prejudices and much superstition ; a strong predilec- 
tion for the Roman hierarchy, and particularly for the mo- 
nastic character. On the other hand, although his learn- 
ing was but moderate, he could have been no ordinary man 
who attained such influence, not only over public opinion, 
but over men of the highest rank and power; and he has 
been praised by the protestant writers for deviating in many 
respects from the dogmas of the popish religion, and main- 
taining some of those essential doctrines which afterwards 
occasioned a separation between the two churches. He 
denied transubstantiation, allowed of only two sacraments, 
and placed salvation on the imputation of Christ's righ^. 
teousness, denying all works of supererogation, &.c. As to 
his talents, one of his modern biographers allows that hia 
style was lively and florid, his thoughts noble and inge- 
nious, his imagination brilliant, and fertile in allegories. 
He is full of sensibility and tenderness, first gains the mind 
by a delicate and insinuating manner, then touches the 
heart with force and vehemence. The Holy Scripture was 
so familiar to this writer, that he adopts its words and ex- 
pressions in almost every period and every phrase. St. 
Bernard's sermons are considered as master-pieces of sen- 
timent and force. Henry de Valois preferred them to all 
those of the ancients, whether Greek or Latin. It appeaft 
that he preached in French ; that monks v/ho were not 
learned assisted at his conferences, and that Latin was then 
not understood by the people. His Sermons are to be 
seen in old French at the library of the fathers Fuillautines, 
rue St. Honore at Paris, in a MS. which is very near St. 
Bernard's time; and the council of Tours, held in the year 
813, ordered the bishops when they delivered the homi- 
lies of the fathers, to translate them from Latin into La7i- 
gue romance, that the people might understand them. 
7'his proves that it was the custom to preach in French 
long before the time of St. Bernard. The best edition of 
the works of St. Bernard, who is regarded as the last of 
the fathers, is that of Mabillon, 2 vols. 1690, fol. the first 
of which contains such pieces as are undoubtedly Bernard's,- 
Those in the second volume are not of equal authorit3\ 
Besides the lives prefixed to this edition by various writers, 
there are three separate lives, one by Lemaistre, Paris, 
1^49, 8vo; another by Villefore, 1704, 4to ; and a third 


by Clemencet, 1773, 4to, which is usually considered as 
the thirteenth volume of the literary history of France. ' 

BERNARD of MENTHON, a monk in the tenth cen- 
tury, who was born in the year 923, in the neighbourhood 
of Annecy, of one of the most illustrious houses of Savoy, 
rendered himself not more celebrated in the annals of reli- 
gioh than of benevolence, by two hospitable establishments 
which he formed, and where, for nine hundred years, tra- 
vellers have found relief from the dangers of passing the 
Alps in the severe part of the season. Bernard, in- 
fluenced by pious motives and a love of study, refused in 
his early years a proposal of marriage to which his parents 
attached great importance, and embraced the ecclesiastical 
life. He afterwards was promoted to be archdeacon of 
Aoste, which includes the places of official and grand-vicar, 
and consequently gave him considei'able weight in the go- 
vernment of the diocese. This he employed in the lauda- 
ble purposes of converting the wretched inhabitants of the 
neighbouring mountains, who were idolaters, and made 
very great progress in ameliorating their manners, as well 
as religious opinions. Affected at the same time with the 
dangers and hardships sustained by the French and Ger- 
man pilgrims in travelling to Rome, he resolved to build 
on the summit of the Alps two hospitia, or hotels, for their 
reception, one on mount Joux {vions Jovis, so called from 
a temple of Jupiter erected there), and the other, the co- 
lonnade of Jove, so called from a colonnade or series of 
upright stones placed on the snow to point out a safe track. 
These places of reception were afterwards called, and are 
still known by the names of the Great and Little St. Ber- 
nard. The care of them the founder entrusted to re'jjular 
canons of the order of St. Augustin, who have continued 
without interruption to our days, each succession of monks 
during this long period, zealously performing the duties of 
hospitality according to the benevolent intentions of St. 
Bernard. The situation is the most inhospitable by nature 
that can be conceived ; even in spring, the cold is extreme; 
and the whole is covered with snow or ice, whose appear- 
ances are varied only by storms and clouds. Their prin- 
cipal monastery on Great St. Bernard, is probably the 
highest habitation in Europe, being two thousand five hun- 

1 Dupin. — Mosheim. — Milner's Church History. — Moreri. — Saxii Onomast, 
.— Cave.— Freyiaer's Adparatus Littcrarius.— Fabric. Bibl. IMtJ. et liitim. Latin. 
—Butler's Lives of the Saints, &e. 


dred toises above the sea. Morning and evening their 
dogs, trained for the purpose, trace out the weary and 
perishing traveller, and by their means, many lives are 
saved, the utmost care being taken to recover them, even 
when recovery seems most improbable. After thus esta- 
blishing these hospitia, Bernard returned to his itinerant 
labours among the neighbouring countries until his death. 
May 28, 1008. The Bollandists have published, with notes, 
two authentic lives of St. Bernard de Menthon, one written 
by Richard, his successor in the archdeaconry of Aoste, by 
which it appears that he was neither a Cistertian, nor of 
the regular canons, as some writers have asserted. The 
two hospitals possessed considerable property in Savoy, of 
which they were deprived afterwards, but the establish- 
ment still subsists, and the kind and charitable duties of it 
have lately been performed by secular priests. * 

BERNARD (Andrew), successively poet laureate of 
Henry VII. and VIII. kings of England, was a native of 
Tholouse, and an Augustine monk. By an instrument in 
Rymer's Fcedera, Vol. XII. p. 317, pro Poeta laurtato, 
dated 1486, the king grants to Andrew Bernard, poet(e lau- 
reato, which, as Mr. Warton remarks, we may construe 
either " the laureated poet," or " a poet laureat," a sa- 
lary of ten marks, until he can obtain some equivalent ap- 
pointment. He is also supposed to have been the royal 
historiographer, and preceptor in grammar to prince Ar- 
thur. All the pieces now to be found, which he wrote in 
the character -yf poet laureat, are in Latin. Among them 
are, an " Address to Henry VIII. for the most auspicious 
beginning of the tenth year of his reign," with "An epi- 
thalamium on the Marriage of Francis the dauphin of 
France with the king's daughter." These were formerly 
in the possession of Mr. Thomas Martin of Palgrave, the 
antiquary; " A New Year's gift for 151 3," in the library 
of New college, Oxford ; and " Verses wishing pros- 
perity to his Majesty's thirteenth year," in the British mu- 
seum. He has also left some Latin hymns, a Latin life of 
St. Andrew, and many Latin prose pieces, which he wrote 
as historiographer to both monarchs, particularly a "Chro- 
nicle of the life and achievements of Henry VII. to the 
taking of Perkin Warbeck," and other historical commen- 
taries on the reign of that king, which are all in the Cot- 

l Bio?. Unirersellc. — Diet. Hist, 


tonian library. He was living in 1522, but is not men- 
tioned by Bale, Pits, or Tanner. ' 

BERNARD (Catharine), of tbe academy of the Ricov- 
rati of Padua, was born at Rouen, and died at Paris in 
1712. She acquired some poetical fame, her works being 
several times crowned by the French academy, and that of 
the Jeux floraux. Two of her tragedies were represented 
at the French theatre, " Laodamia," in 1689, and "Bru- 
tus" in 1690. It is thought she composed these pieces 
conjointly with Fontenelle and the two Corneille's, who 
were her relations. She wrote also some other poems with 
ease and delicacy. Some distinction is set upon her po- 
etical petition, which has some wit, to Louis XIV. to ask 
for the 200 crowns, the annual gratification given her by 
that prince ; it is inserted in the " Recueil de vers choisis 
du pere Bovdiours.'* She discontinued writing for the 
theatre at the instance of madame de Pont-Chartrain, who 
gave her a pension. She even suppressed several little 
pieces, which might have given a bad impression of her 
manners and religion. Three romances are likewise as- 
cribed to her: '' The count d'Amboise," in 12mo ; " The 
miseries of Love;" and " Ines of Cordova," 12mo. Some 
of the journalists have attributed to mademoiselle Bernard 
the account of the isle of Borneo, and others to Fontenelle. 
" It may be doubted," says the abbe Trublet, " whether 
it be hers ; and it is to be wished that it is not." It is an 
allegorical account of the religious disputes of that period. 
Beauchamps says she wrote the tragedy of "Bradamante," 
represented in 1695, which is certainly the same with that in 
the works of Thomas Corneille. Her Eloge is in the " His- 
toire du Theatre Fran9ois." * 

BERNARD (Charles), king's counsellor, and histo- 
riographer of France, was born at Paris Dec. 25, 1571, 
and died in 1640. The chief part of his labours were di- 
rected to the history of France ; on which he wrote, l."La 
Conjunction des mers," on the junction of the ocean with 
the Mediterranean by the Burgundy canal, 1613, 4to. 2. 
" Discours sur I'etat des Finances," Paris, 1614, 4to. 3. 
•* Histoire des guerres de Louis XIII. contre les religion- 
naires rebelles," ibid. 1633, fol. Of this only about three 
dozen copies were printed, but the whole was afterwards 

» Warton's Hist, of Poetry, vol. II. p. 132.— Malone's Life of Drvden, vol. I. 
p. 82. 

2 Diet, Hist. — Biog. Uuiverselle. — Moreri. 


inserted in his history of Louis XIII. 4. " Carte genealo- 
gique cle la royale maison de Bourbon, avec des Kloges 
.des princes, &c." ibid. 1634, foL and 1G46, under the title 
of " Genealogie de la maison de Bourbon." 5. " Histoire 
de Louis XIII. jusqu'a la guerre declaree contre les Es- 
paghols, avec un Discours sur la vie de rauteur," ibid. 
1646, fol. This account of the life of the author was writ- 
ten by Charles Sorel, his nephew, who also continued the 
work down to 1643. The abbe de Gendre says that Ber- 
nard is deficient both in style and taste, dealing too much 
in trifles and digressions, and too prolix in his descrip- 
tions ot" works of architecture, as well as in common-place 
reflections. He allows, however, that he gives a good ac- 
count of military aff'airs, and developes with great skill the 
intrigues of the court, with which he had a good opportu- 
nity of being acquainted. * 

BERNARD (Claude), called Father Bernard, or the 
Poor Priest, was born December 26, 158S, at Dijon, sou 
of Stephen Bernard, lieut.-gen. of Chalons-sur-Saone. He 
had a lively imagination and wit, which, joined to a jovial 
temper, made him a welcome guest in all gay companies. 
Going to Paris with M. de Bellegarde, governor of Dijon, 
he gave himself up to public amusements, and all the va- 
nities of the age, making it his business to act comedies for 
the diversion of such persons of quality as he was ac- 
quainted with ; but at length he grew disgusted with the 
world, and devoted himself wholly to relieving and com- 
forting the poor. He assisted them by his charities and 
exhortations to the end of his days, with incredible fervour, 
stooping and humbling himself to do the meanest oihces 
for them. Father Bernard having persisted in refusing all 
the benefices offered him by the court, cardinal Richelieu 
told him one day, that he absolutely insisted on his asking 
him for something, and left him alone to consider of it. 
When the cardinal returned half an hour after, Bernard 
said, *' Monseigneur, after much study, I have at last 
found out a favour to ask of you ; When I attend any suf- 
ferers to the gibbet to assist them in their last moments, 
we are carried in a cart with so bad a bottom, that we are 
every moment in danger of falling to the ground. Be 
pleased, therefore, Monseigneur, to order that some bet- 
ter boards may be put to the cart." Cardinal Richelieu 

' Biog. Universelle. — Le Long's Bibl. Hist, de la France. 

B E R N A 11 D, 81 

Jaughed heartily at this request, and gave orders directly 
that the cart should be thoroughly repaired. Father Ber- 
nard was ever ready to assist the unhappy by his good of- 
fices, lor which purpose he one day presented a jjetition to 
a nobleman in place, who being of" a very hasty temper, 
flew into a violent passion, and said a thousand injurious 
ihings of the person for whom the priest interested himself, 
but Bernard still persisted in his request ; at wliich the no- 
bleman was at last so irritated, that iie gave him a box on 
Jthe Crir. Bernard immediately fell at his feet, and, pre- 
isenting the other ear, said, " Give me a good blow on 
this also, my lord, and grant my petition," The noble- 
man was so affected by this apparent humility as to grant 
Bernard's request. He died March 23, 1641. "^The French 
clergy had such a veneration for him as often to solicit that 
he might be enrolled in the calendar of saints. In 1638 
he founded the school of the Thirty-three, so called from 
Jthe number of years our Saviour passed on earth, and a 
very excellent seminary. Immediately after his death ap- 
peared " Le Testament du reverend pere Bernard, et ses 
pensees pieuses," Paris, 1641, 8vo, and " Le Kccit des 
choses arrivees a la mort du rev. pere Bernard," same year. 
The abbe Papillon also quotes a work entitled *' Entretiens 
'pendant sa derniere inaladie." His life was written by se- 
veral authors, by Legauffre, Giry, de la Serre, Gerson, 
and Lempereur the Jesuit. This last, which was published 
at Paris, 1708, 12mo, is too full of visions, revelations, and 
miracles, to afford any just idea of Bernard. ^ 

BERNARJ3 (Edward), a learned critic and astronomer, 
■was born at Perry St. Paul, conmionly called Pauler's Perry, 
.near Towcester in Northamptonshire, the 2d of May 1 638. 
He received some part of his education at Northampton ; 
but his father dying when he was very young, his mother 
sent him to an uncle in London, who entered him atMer- 
chant-taylors-school, in 1648 : here he continued tillJune 
1655, when he was elected scholar of St. John's college in 
Oxford, of which also he became afterwards fellow. Du- 
.ring his stay at school, he had accumulated an uncommon 
fund of classical learning, so that when he went to the uni- 
versity, he was a great master of the Greek and Latin 
-tongues, and not unacquainted with the Hebrew. He had 
,also previously acquired a good Latin style, could compose 

* Lavocat.— Biog. Univ.— -Marchaod, 

Vol. V, G 


verses well, and often used to divert himself with writing 
epigrams, but he quitted these juvenile employments when 
at the university, and applied himself to history, philology, 
and philosophy, and made himself master of the Hebrew, 
Syriac, Arabic, and Coptic. He applied himself next to 
the mathematics, under the famous Dr. J. Wallis. He 
took the degree of B. A. Feb. the 12th, 1659 ; that of mas- 
ter, April 16, 1662 ; and that of B. D. June 9, 1668. De- 
cember following he went to Leyden, to consult several 
Oriental manuscripts left to that university by Joseph Sca- 
liger and Levinus Warner, and especially the 5th, 6ih, and 
7th books of Apollonius Pergaeus's conic sections; the 
Greek text of which is lost, but which are preserved in the 
Arabic version of that author. This version had been 
brought from the East by James Golius, and was in the 
possession of his executor, who, pleased that Mr. Bernard's 
chief design in cominsr to Holland was to examine this ma- 
nuscript, allowed him the free use of it. He accordingly 
transcribed these three books, with the diagrams, intend- 
ing to publish them at Oxford, with a Latin version, and 
proper commentaries ; but was prevented from completing 
this design. Abraham Echellensis had published a Latin 
translation of these books in 1661, and Christianus Ravius 
gave another in 1669 : but Dr. Smith remarks, that these 
two authors, though well skilled in the Arabic language, 
were entirely ignorant of the mathematics, which m.ade it 
regretted that Golius died while he was preparing that 
work for the press ; and that Mr. Bernard, who understood 
both the language and the subject, and was furnished with 
all the proper helps for such a design, was ai)andoned by 
his friends, though they had before urged him to under- 
take it. It was, however, at last pubhslied by Dr. Halley 
in 1710. '" 

At his return to Oxford, he examined "and collated the 
most valuable manuscripts in the Bodleian Hbrary ; which 
induced those who published ancient authors, to apply to 
him for observations or emendations, which he readily im- 
parted, and by this means became engaged in a very ex- 
tensive correspondence with the learned in most countries. 
In 1669, the celebrated Christopher Wren, Savihan pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Oxford, having been appointed sur- 
veyor-general of his majesty's works, and being much de- 
tained at London by this employment, obtained leave to 
name a deputy at Oxford, and pitched upon Mr. Bernard, 


which obhged tlie latter to confine his application more 
particularly to the study of astronomy. In 1672, the mas- 
ter and fellows of his college presented him to the rectory 
of Cheame in Surrey ; and February following, Dr. Peter 
Mews, the master, being advanced to the bishopric of Bath 
and Wells, appointed Mr. Bernard one of his chaplaifis. 
But the following year he quitted all views of preferment, 
by accepting the Savilian professorsliip of astronomy, va- 
cant by the resignation of sir Christopher Wren ; for, by 
the statutes of the founder, sir Henry Savile, the profes- 
sors are not allowed to hold any other office either eccle- 
siastical or civil. 

About this time a scheme was set on foot at Oxford, of 
collecting and publishing the ancient mathematicians. Mr. 
Bernard, who had first formed the project, collected ail 
the books published on that subject since the invention of 
printing, and all the MSS. he could discover in the Bod- 
leian and SaviUan libraries, which he arranged in order of 
time, and according to the matter they contained. Of this 
he drew up a synopsis or view, which he presented to 
bishop Fell, a great encourager of the undertaking. This 
was published by his biographer, Dr. Thomas Smith, at 
-the end of his life. As a specimen, Mr. Bernard published 
also a few sheets of Euclid, in folio, containing the Greek 
text, and a Latin version, with Proclus's commentary in 
Greek and Latin, and learned scholia and corollaries. He 
undertook also an edition of the " Parva syntaxis Alexan- 
drina ;" in which, besides Euclid, are contained the small 
treatises of Theodosius, Autolycus, Menelaus, Aristarchus, 
and Hipsicles : but it was never published. In 1676, he 
was sent to France by Charles II. to be tutor to the dukes 
of Grafton and Northumberland, natural sons of the kino-, 
by the duchess of Cleveland, with whom they then lived 
at Paris J but the plainness and simplicity of his manners 
not suiting the gaiety of the duchess's family, he continued 
with them only one year, when he returned to Oxford : 
Having reaped however the advantage, during his stay at 
Paris, of becoming acquainted with most of the learned 
men in that city, particularly Justel, Huet, Mabillon, 
Quesnel, Dacier, Renaudot, and others. 

Upon his return to the university, he applied himself to 
his former studies ; and though, in conformity to the obli- 
gation of his professorship, he devoted the greatest part of 
his time to mathematics, yet his inclination was now more 

' G 2 


to history, chronology, and antiquities. He undertook &. 
new edition of Josephus, but it was never completed. The 
history of this undertaking is somewhat curious. Several 
years before, bishop Fell had resolved, with our author's 
assistance, to print at the theatre at Oxford a new edition 
of Josephus, more correct than any of the former. But, 
either for want of proper means to complete that work, or 
in expectation of one promised by the learned vXndrew Bo- 
siiis, this design was laid aside. Upon the death of Bosius, 
it was resumed again ; and Mr. Bernard collected all the 
manuscripts he could procure out of the libraries of Great 
Britain, both of the Greek text and Epiphaiiius's Latin 
translation, and purchased Bosius's valuable papers of his 
executors at a great price. Then he published a specimen 
of his edition of Josephus, and wrote great numbers of 
letters to his learned friends in France, Holland, Germany, 
and other countries, to desire their assistance in that work. 
He laboured in it a good while with the utmost vigour and 
resolution, though his constitution was much broken by in- 
tense application. But this noble undertaking was left un- 
finished, for these two reasons. First, many persons com- 
plained of Epiphanius's translation, because it was defec- 
tive, and not answerable to the original in many places, and 
required a new version, or at least to have that of Gelenius 
revised and corrected. Secondly, objections were made to 
the heap of various readings that were to be introduced 
in this edition, and with the length of the commentaries, 
in which whole dissertations were inserted without any ap- 
parent necessity, that ought to have been placed at the 
end of the work, or printed by themselves. These things 
occasioning a contest between Mr. Bernard and the cura- 
tors of the Oxford press, the printing of it was interrupted : 
and at last the purpose of having it done at the expence of 
the university, was defeated by the death of bishop Fell. 
However, about six or seven years after, Mr. Bernard was 
prevailed upon by three booksellers of Oxford to resume 
the work, and to publish it in a less form upon the model 
of his specimen ; but they not being able to bear the ex- 
pence of it, on account of the war, after a few sheets were 
printed off, desisted from their undertaking. These re- 
peated discouragements hindered the learned author from 
proceeding further than the four first books, and part of 
the fifth, of the Jewish Antiquities ; and the first book, 
and part of the second, of the Destruction of Jerusalem; 

B F: R N A R D. 85 

which were printed at the Theatre at Oxford in 1686 and 
1687, and published in 1700, fol. In the notes, the learn- 
ed author shews liiniself an universal scholar and discern- 
ing critic ; and a[)pears to have been master of most of the 
Oriental learning and languages. These notes have been 
incorporated into Havercamp's edition. 

In I68:'>, he went again to Leyden, to be present at the 
sale of Nicholas Heinsius's library; where he purchased, 
at a great price, several of the classical authors, that had 
been either collated with manuscripts, or illustrated with 
the original notes of Joseph Scaliger, Bonaventure Vul- 
canius, the two Heinsiuses, and other celebrated critics. 
Here he renewed his acquaintance with several persons of 
eminent learning, particularly Graivius, Spanheim, Tri- 
glandius, Gronovius, Perizonius, Ryckius, Gallaeus, Rulae- 
us, and especially Nicholas Witsen, biirgomaster of Am- 
sterdam, v»'ho presented him with a Coptic dictionary, 
brought from Egypt by Theodore Petraeus of Holsatia; 
and afterwards transmitted to him in 1686, the Coptic and 
Ethiopic types made of iron, for the use of the printing- 
press at Oxford. With such civilities he was so much 
pleased, and especially with the opportunities he had of 
making improvements in Oriental learning, that he would 
have settled at Leyden, if he could have been chosen pro- 
fessor of the Oriental languages in that university, but not 
being able to compass this, he returned to Oxford. He 
began now to be tired of astronom}', and his health de- 
clining, he was desirous to resign ; but no other preferment 
oflering, he was obliged to hold his professorship some 
years longer than he intended; in 1684 he took his de- 
gree of D. D. and in 1691, being presented to the rectory 
of Brightwell in Berkshire, he quitted his professorship, 
and was succeeded by David Gregory, professor of mathe- 
matics at Edinburgh. In 16^2, he was employed in draw- 
ing up a catalogue of the manuscripts in Great Britain and 
Ireland, which was published at Oxford 1697, foi. Dr. 
Bernard's share in this undertaking was the drawing up a 
most useful and complete alphabetical Index ; to which he 
prefixed this title, " Librorum manuscriptorum Magnse 
Britannise et Hibernise, atque externarum aliquot Biblio- 
thecarum Index secundum alphabetum Edwardus Ber- 
nardus construxit Oxonii." In this Index he mentions a 
great number of valuable Greek manuscripts, which are to 
be found in several foreign libraries, as well as our own. 


Towards the latter end of his life, he was much afflicted 
with the stone, yet, notwithstanding this and other infir- 
mities, he took a third voyage to Holland, to attend the 
sale of Golius's matmscripts. After six or seven weeks ab- 
sence, he returned to London, and from thence to Oxford. 
There he fell into a languishing consumption, which put 
an end to his life, Jan. 12, 1696, before he was quite 
fifty-nine years of age. Four days after, he was interred 
in St. John's chapel, where a monument of white marble 
was soon erected for him by his widow, to whom he had 
been married only three years. In the middle of it there 
is the form of an Heart carved, circumscribed svith these 
words, according to his own direction a little before he 
died, HABEMUS COR BERNARDI: and underneath 
E. B. S. T. P. Obiit Jan. 12, 1696. The same is also re- 
peated on a small square marble, under which he was 
buried. As to this learned man's character. Dr. Smith, 
who knew him well, gives him a very great one. " He 
was (says he) of a iniid disposition, averse to wrangling 
and disputes; and if by chance or otherwise he happened 
to be present where contests ran high, he would deliver 
his opinion with great candour and modesty, and in few 
words, but entirely to the purpose. He was a candid 
judge of other men's performances ; not too censorious 
even on trifling books, if they contained nothing contrary 
to good manners, virtue, or religion ; and to those which 
displayed wit, learning, or good sense, none gave more 
ready and more ample praise. Though he was a true son 
of the Church of England, yet he judged favourably and 
charitably of dissenters of all denominations. His piety 
and prudence never suffered him to be hurried away by an 
immoderate zeal, in declaiming against the errors of others. 
His piety was sincere and unaffected, and his devotions 
both in public and private Aery regular and exemplary. 
Of his great and extensive learning, the works he pub- 
lished, and the manuscripts he has left, are a sufficient evi- 
dence." This character is supported by the concurring 
evidence of all his learned contemporaries. The works 
he published were : 1. " Tables of the longitudes and lati- 
tudes of the fixed Stars." 2. " The Obliquity of the Eclip- 
tic from the observations of the ancients, in Latin.'* 
3. " A Latin letter to Mr. John Flamsteed, containing ob- 
servations on the Eclipse of the Sun, July 2, 1684, at 
Oxford." All these are in the Philosophical Transactions. 


4. " A treatise of the ancient Weights and Measures," 
printed first at the end of Dr. Edward Pocock's Commen- 
tary on Hosea, Oxford, 1685, fol.; and afterwards reprinted 
in Latin, with very great additions and alterations, under 
this title, " De mensuris & ponderibus antiquis, libri tres," 
Oxon. 1688, 8vo. 5. " Private Devotions, with a brief 
explication of the Ten Commandments," Oxford, 1689, 
12mo. 6. *' Orbis eruditi Literatura a charactere Sama- 
ritico deducta ;" printed at Oxford from a copper-plate, 
on one side of a broad sheet of paper: containing at one 
view, the different forms of letters used by the Phoenicians, 
Samaritans, Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Persians, Brachmans, 
and other Indian philosophers, Malabarians, Greeks, 
Cophts, Russians, Sclavonians, Ethiopians, Francs, Saxons, 
Goths, &c. all collected from ancient inscriptions, coins, 
and manuscripts : together with the abbreviations used by 
the Greeks, physicians, mathematicians, and chymists. 
7. " Etymologicum Britannicum, or derivations of the 
British and English woi'ds from the Russian, Sclavonian, 
Persian, and Armenian languages ; printed at the end of 
Dr. Hickes's Grammatica Anglo-Saxonica & Moeso-Got- 
thiea," Oxon. 1689, 4to. 8. He edited Mr. William 
Guise's " Misuse pars prima, ordinis primi Zeraim tituli 
septem," Oxon. 1690, 4to. 9. " Chronologise Samaritanae 
Synopsis," in two tables ; the first containing the most 
famous cpochas, and remarkable events, from the begin- 
r>ing of the world ; the second a catalogue of the Samari- 
tan High Priests from Aaron, published in the " Acta Eru- 
diiorum Lipsiensia," April 1691, p. 167, &c. He also 
was author of the following: 10. " Notae in fragmentum 
Seguierianum Stephani Byzantini ;" in the library of mon- 
sieur Seguier, chancellor of France : part of wnich, relating 
to Dodone, were published by Gronovius, at the end of 
his " Exercitationes de Dodone," Leyden, 1681. 11. "Ad- 
notationes in Epistolam S. Barnabae," published in bishop 
Fell's edition of that author, Oxon. 1685, 8vo. 12. "Short 
notes, in Greek and Latin, upon Cotelerius's edition of 
the Apostolical Fathers, printed in the Amsterdam edition 
of them. 13. *' Veterum testnnonia de Versione LXXII 
interpretum," printed at the end of Aristete Historia LXXII 
interpretum, published by Dr. Henry Aldrich, Oxon. 
1692, 8vo. 14. He translated into Latin, the letters of 
the Samaritans, which Dr. R. Huntington procured them' 
tp write to their brethren, the Jews in England, in 1673, 


while be was at Sichem. Dr. Smith having obtained a 
copy of this translation, gave it to the learned Job Ludol- 
fus, when he was in B'.ngland, who published it in the col- 
lection of Samaritan Epistles, written to himself and other 
learned men. Besides these works, he also assisted several 
learned men in their editions of books, and collated manu- 
scripts for them ; and left behind him \n manuscript many- 
books of his own composition, with very large collections ^ 
which, together with the books enriched in the marofiri 
with the notes of the most learned men, and collected by 
him in France and Holland, were purchased by the cura- 
tors of the Bodleian libra»-y, for the sum of two hundred 
pounds. They likewise bought a considerable number of 
curious and valuable books out of his library, which were 
wanting in the Bodleian, for which they paid one hundred 
and forty pounds. The rest of his books were sold by 
auction, all men of letters striving to purchase those which 
had any observations of Dr. Bernard's own hand. * 

BERNARD (Sir Francis), bart. descended from an an- 
cient and respectable family originally of Yorkshire, was 
educated at Westminster school, where in 1725, he was 
elected into the college; and in 1729, became a student 
of Christ Church, Oxford, and took his master's degree in 
1736. From Oxford he removed to the Middle 'iemple, 
of which society he was afterwards a bencher. He prac- 
tised at the bar some years; and, going the jSIidland cir- 
cuit, was elected steward of the city of Lincoln, and also 
officiated as recorder at Boston in that circuit. In Febru- 
ary, 1758, he was appointed governor of New Jersey ; and 
in January, 1760, governor of Massachusetts Bay. Of this 
last province he continued governor ten years, receiving, 
during that time, the repeated and uniform appiobation of 
the crown, amid many successive changes of the ministry 
at home; and likewise preserving the confidence and good 
opinion of all ranks in the province, until the differences 
arising between the two countries, and the opposition 
given to the orders sent from Great Britain, made it a 
part of his official duty to take decisive measures for sup^ 
porting the authority of government ; which, although ge- 
nerally approved in this country, could not fail, on the 
spot, to weaken and gradually undermine the degree of 
popidarity he before enjoyed. His conduct, however, in 

» Riog. Brit, from his Life by Dr. Thomas Smith, published with bishop 
Huntington's Letters, 8vo. 1704. 

B E R N A 11 D. »9 

that trying and difficult situation gave such entire satisfac- 
tion to his majesty, that lie was advanced while abroad, 
and without any solicitation, to the dignity of a haronet, 
in 1769, and was denonjinated of Nettleham, the present 
fainilv' estate near Lincoln. 

The favourable sentiments which the province enter- 
tained for sir Francis before the controversy took place be- 
tween Great Britain and the colojiies, are showa by the 
expressions of acknowjedgeuient and affection in their se- 
veral addresses to hiiu up to that period, and the constant 
approbation with which he was honoured by his majesty, 
appears from the dispatches of the different secretaries of 
state laid before the House of Commons, and printed by 
their order. His " Case before the Privy Council," printed 
in 1770; and his ''Select Letters," in 1774; explain in a 
very satisfactory manner his conduct during the progress 
of the American revolution. After the war commenced, 
sir Francis returned to England, and resided mostly at 
Nether Wichendon, or Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire. 
He died June 16, 17 79, leaving a numerous family, of 
whom his third son, sir Thomas, the present baronet, chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Dniham, is well known as a scholar 
and philanthropist. In 1752, sir Francis, who cultivated 
a highly classical taste, published " Antonii Alsopi Odaruni 
libri duo," 4to. (See Alsoj'), dedicated in an elegant copy 
of verses to Thomas duke of Newcastle. ^ 

BERNARD (Dr. Francis), was chief physician to king 
James II. He was a man of learning, and what is now termed 
an able bibliographer. His private collection of books, 
which were scarce and curious, sold for upwards of 1 600/. 
in 16y8; a large sum at that time, when the passion for 
rare books was much more moderate than now. He died 
Feb. 9, 1697, aged 69 years. Mr. Charles Bernard, bro- 
ther to Francis, and surgeon to the princess Anne, daugh- 
ter of king James, had also a curious library, tvhich was 
sold by auction in 1711. The " Spaccio della Bestia tri- 
omfante," by Jordano Bruno, an Italian atheist, which is 
said in number 389 of the Spectator to have sold for 30L 
was in this sale. Mr. Ames informs us that this book was 
printed in England by Thomas Vautrollier in 1584. An 
English edition of it was printed in 1713.* 

* Nichols's Literary Anecdotes. — Bctham's Baronetage. 
' Ibid.— Dibdin's Bibliomania. — Granger. 


BERNARD (James), professor of philosophy and ma- 
thematics, and minister of the Walloon churcli at Leyden, 
was born Sept. 1, 1658, at Nions in Dauphine. He re- 
ceived the rudiments of his education in a protestant aca- 
demy, at Die in Dauphin^, and went afterwards to Geneva, 
where he studied philosophy, and acquired a critical know- 
ledge of the Hebrew language under the professor Michael 
Turretin. He returned to France in 1679, and was chosen 
minister of Venterol, a village in Dauphine. Some time 
after he was removed to the church of Vinsobres in the 
same province ; but the persecutions raised against the 
protestants in France having obliged him to leave his na- 
tive country, he retired to Geneva in 1683, and as he did 
not think himself sufficiently secure there, he went to 
Lausanne, where he remained until the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. He then proceeded to Holland, where 
he was appointed one of the pensionary ministers of Ganda, 
and taught philosophy : but having married after he came 
to Holland, and the city of Ganda not being very popu- 
lous, he had not a sufficient number of scholars to main- 
tain his family; and therefore obtained leave to reside at 
the Hague, but went to Ganda to preach in his turn, 
which was about four times a year. About the same time 
Le Clerc, who was his relation, procured him a small sup- 
ply from the town of Tergow, as preacher ; and at the 
Hague he farther improved his circumstances by teaching 
philosophy, belles-lettres, and mathematics. Before he 
went to live at the Hague, he had published a kind of po- 
litical state of Europe, entitled " Histoire abregee de 
FEurope," &c. The work was begun in July 1686, and 
continued monthly till December 1688; making five vo- 
lumes in 12mo. In 1692, he began his " Lettres Histo- 
riques," containing an account of the most important 
transactions in Europe, with reflections, which was also 
published monthly, till i69.'>: it was afterwards continued 
by other hands, and contains a great many volumes. Mr. 
Le Clerc having left oflT his " Bibliotheque universelle," 
in 1691, Mr. Bernard wrote the greatest part of the 20th 
volume, and by himself carried on the five following, to 
the year 1693 ; but as the French critics think, not with 
equal ability and spirit. In 1699, he collected and pub- 
lished " Actes et negotiations de la Paix de Ryswic," four 
vols. l2mo: a new edition of this collection was published 
in 1707, five vols. 12mo. He did not put his name to any 


of these woiks, nor to the general collection of the treaties 
of peace, which he published in 1700; and which consists 
of the treaties, contracts, acts of guaranty, &.c. betwixt 
the powers of Europe, four vols. fol. The first contains 
the preface, and the treaties made since the year 336 to 
1500. The second consists of Mr. Amelot de la Houssay's 
liistorical and political reflections, and the treaties from 
1500 to IGOO. The third includes the treaties from 1601 
to 1661 ; and the fourth, those from 1661 to 1700, with a 
general alphabetical index to the whole. He prefixed his 
name, however, to his continuation of Bayle's " Nouvelles 
de la Kepublique des Lettres," which was begun in 1698, 
and continued till December 1710. This undertaking en- 
gaged him in some disputes, particularly with one Mr. de 
Vallone, a monk, who having embraced the reformed re- 
ligion, wrote some metaphysical books concerning pre- 
destination. Mr. Bernard having given an account of one 
of these books, the author was so displeased with it, that 
he printed a libel against Mr. Bernard, and gave it about 
privately amongst his friends. He was also engaged in a 
long dispute with Mr. Bayle upon the two followmg ques- 
tions : 1. Whether the g-eneral ajrreement of all nations in 
favour of a deity, be a good proof of the existence of a 
deity ? 2. Whether atheism be worse than idolatry? 

Mr. Bernard having acquired great reputation by his 
works, as well as by his sermons at Ganda and the Hague, 
the congregation of the Walloon chtirch at Leyden were 
desirous to have him for one of their ministers : but they 
could not accomplish their desire whilst king William lived, 
who refused twice to confirm the election of Mr. Bernard, 
as being a republican in his principles, and having deli- 
vered his sentiments too freelv in a sermon before this 
prince : yet these appear to have been the same sentiments 
which justified the revolution to which that sovereign ow-ed 
the crown of these kingdoms. After king William's death, 
however, he was unanimously chosen in 1705; and about 
the same time appointed professor of philosophy and ma- 
thematics at Leyden ; the university presenting him with 
the degrees of doctor of philosophy, and master of arts. 
In 17 16, he published "A Supplement to Moreri's dic- 
tionary," in two vols, folio. The same year he resumed 
his " Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres," and con- 
tinued it till his death, which happened the 27th of April 
J718, in the 60th year of his age. 

93 B E R N A R D. 

Mr. Bernard was well skilled in polite literature, and a 
perfect master of the Hebrew tpngue. He studied the 
scriptures with great attention ; and though he was not 
reckoned of the first class of mathematicians, yet he could 
explain the principles of that science in a very clear and 
able manner. As to philosophy, he had applied himself 
to that of Des Cartes; yet alter he came into Holland, 
having, learned the English tongue, he used to read the 
best books from England, and had acquired some taste for 
the Newtonian philosophy. Besides the works above men- 
tioned, he published, J. " Le Theatre des etats du due de 
Savoie, traduit du Latin de Bleau," Hague, 1700, 2 vols. 
foL a beautiful book, with elegant engravings. 2. " Traite 
de la repentance tardive," Amst. 1712, 12mo. 3. " De 
I'excellence de la religion Chretienne," ibid. 1714, 2 vols. 
8vo ; a translation of which was published by his grandson, 
Mr. Bernard, of Doncaster, Loud. 1793, 8vo, with the 
lii'e of the author, and notes. ' 

BERNAJiD (John Stephen), a learned Dutch physi- 
cian, was born in 1718, at Berlin, where his father, Ga- 
briel Bernard, was a minister of the reformed church. His 
son came to Holland to study physic and determined to re- 
main there. Having an extraordinary fondness for the 
study of Greek, in which he had made great progress, he 
wished to render tiiis knowledge subservient to his profes- 
sion, and with that view projected a new edition of the 
lesser Greek physicians, whose works were become very 
scarce and dear. He began first at Leydeu, in 1743, with 
Demetrius Pepagomenus on the gout ; and next year pub- 
lished an introduction to anatomy by an anonymous author, 
and a nomenclature of the parts of the human body by 
Hypatius, both in one volume. In 1745, he published 
Palladius on fevers, and an inedited Chemical glossary, 
with some extracts, likewise inedited from the different 
poetical chemists. The same year appeared his edition of 
Psellus on the virtues of stones. lu 1749, he published 
Synesius on fevers, hitherto inedited, and wrote, in the 
ninth volume of Dorville's " Miscellanese Observationes 
Novae," an account of the variations of a manuscript 
copy of the lexicons or glossaries of Erotian, and Galen. 
Jn 1754, when Neaulme, the Dutch bookseller, designed 

1 Gen. Diet, from Le Clerc in Nouvelles de la Rep. des Lettrcs, 1613, May 
and June. — Diet. Hist. — Moreri. — Biog. UuiTersclle, — Life prefixed to his " Ex« 
celience of the Christian Religion." 


a new edition of Longus's romance, Bernard read the 
proofs, and introduced some important corrections of the 
text. As he did not put his name to this edition, Messrs. 
Boden, Dutens, and Villoison, who were also editors of 
Longus after him, knew no other way of referring to him 
than as the " Paris editor," being deceived hy Neauhne's 
dating tlie work from Paris, instead of Amsterdam, where it 
was printed. In 1757, he superintended an edition of 
Thomas Magister, but his professional engagements not al- 
lowing him sufficient leisure, the })reface was written by 
Oudendorp. From this time, Bernard liaving ceased to 
write, and having retired to Arnheim, was completely for- 
got until, says the editor of the Biog. Universelle, his death 
was announced by Saxius in 1790; but this seems a mis- 
take. Saxius gives an account of Inm, as of some other 
living -authors, but leaves his death blank. Bernard, how- 
ever, to contradict such a rumour, or, as his biographer ex- 
presses hitnself, in order to " show some signs of life," 
published a Greek fragment on the dropsy. It was his pur- 
pose next to publish Theophilus Nonnus, " De curalione 
itiorbornm." This work, on which he had bestowed the 
labour of many years, and which is one of his best editions, 
was published at Gotha in 1794, a year after his death. A 
short time before this event, he sent to the society of arts 
and sciences at Utrecht, remarks on some Greek authors, 
which appeared in the first volume of the " Acta Litiera- 
ria" of that society. In 1795, Dr. Gruner published vari- 
ous letters and pieces of criticism, which Bernard, who was 
his intimate friend, had sent to him, under the title of 
*' Bernardi Reliquise medico-criticse." Several very learn- 
ed and curious letters from Bernard were also published in 
Reiske's Memoirs, Leipsic, 1783.' 

BERNARD (John Frederic), an industrious and learn- 
ed bookseller of Amsterdam, distinguished himself about 
the beginiiing of the last century, both as author and edi- 
tor of various works of considerable importance. He wrote 
rather learnedly than elegantly, yet with so much impar- 
tiality and candour, that he had many readers. The fol- 
lowing list has been given of the principal works of which 
he was editor : 1. " Recueil de voyages au Nord, conte- 
nant divers memoires tres-utiles au commerce et a la navi- 
gation," Amst. 1715 — 38, 10 vols. 12mo. To these he 

* Bigg. UnirerseUe.— *Saxii Onojuasticon 

94 , B E R N A R D. 

wrote the preliminary dissertation, the two dissertations ou 
the means of useful travel, and the account of Great Tar- 
tary. 2. "• Memoires du comte de Brienne, ministre d'etat 
sous Louis XI V\ avec des notes," ibid. 1719, 3 vols. 12mo. 
3. *'Picart's Religious Ceremonies," ibid. 1723 — 43, 9 vols, 
fol. 4. " Superstitions anciennes et modernes," 1733 — 36, 

2 vols. fol. The second Amsterdam edition of these two 
works was printed in 1739 — 43, 1 1 vols, folio ; and in 1741 
the abbes Banier and le Mascrif-r published another Edi- 
tion at Pans, 7 vols, folio, with Picart's designs, but the 
articles ditierently arranged; and M. PouceUn gave after- 
wards an abridgment, with the same cuts, Paris, 4 vols. fol. 
Lastly, M. Prudhomme undertook a new edition of the 
Dutch copy, with many additions respecting the history of 
religion from tiie commencement of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and additional plates to those of Picart, comprised 
in 13 folio volumes, besides an additional volume of new 
matter. 5. " Dialogues critiques et philosophiques, par 
D. Charte-Livry (J.F.Bernard)," ibid. 1730, 12mo. 6. 
" Reflections morales, satyriques et comiques," Liege, 
1733, 12 mo. This work has been attributed to D. Durand, 
but he absolutely denied it, and Desfontaines assures us that 
it was written by Bernard. 7. " Histoire critique des 
Journaux, par Camusat," Amst. 1734, 2 vols. 12mo. 8. 
*' Dissertations melees sur divers sujets importans et cu- 
rieux," Amst. 1740, 2 vols. 12mo. Of these two last Ber- 
nard is only the editor. 9. An edition of Rabelais, 1741, 

3 vols. 4to, with Picart's cuts, a well-known and most beau- 
tiful book. Bernard, who flourished as a bookseller of 
great eminence from the year 1711, died at Amsterdam in 

BERNARD (Nicholas), a learned English divine of 
the seventeenth century, was educated in the university of 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. and was in- 
corporated to the same degree at Oxford, July 15, 1628. 
He was probably created D. D. of the university of Dublin, 
but this has not been exactly ascertained. He was or- 
dained by primate Usher, in 1626, in St. Peter's church, 
Drogheda, while he was only B. A. and made liis chaplain, 
and soon after, by his interest, was promoted to the dean- 
ery of Ardagh. His Grace having daily opportunities of 
taking notice of the learning and judgment of Mr. Bernard, 

1 Bioj» UniverseUe. 


employe J him in making collections for some works he was 
then meditating, particularly for the antiquities of the Bri- 
tish churches; which did not appear till 1639. The pri- 
mate always expressed great friendship and esteem for him; 
and upon taking his leave of him at Drogheda in 1640, 
gave him " A serious preparative against the heavy sor- 
rows and miseries that he should feel before he saw him 
again, and spoke of them with that confidence, as if they 
had been within his view." This serious discourse proved 
in the event to be a prophecy, as will be noticed in the 
life of that prelate. The year following. Dr. Bernard pub- 
lished a book and a sermon which gave oft'ence. These 
were entitled, I. " The penitent death of a woful Sinner; 
or, the penitent death of John Atherton, late bishop ofWa- 
terford in Ireland, who was executed at Dublin the fifth of 
December, 1640; with some annotations on several pas- 
sages," London, 1641, 4to ; 1642, 8vo. 2. " A sermon 
preached at the burial of John Atherton, the next night 
after his execution, in St. John's church, Dublin," Lond. 
1641, 4to ; 1642, 8vo. Dr. Bernard had the best opportu- 
nity in the world of knowing the truth of the fact for which 
bishop Atherton suffered, having attended him in his exem- 
plary preparation for death, and in his last moments, and 
he gives us his behaviour and confession fairly and honestly. 
The cause of oft'ence seems, upon the whole, to have been 
an opinion that this disgraceful affair had better be buried 
in oblivion. Archbishop Usher, however, who saw Dr. 
Bernard's crood intentions, did not withdraw from him his 
favour or countenance. The same year was published a 
pamphlet of his writing, upon the siege of Drogheda, of 
which he was an eye-witness. In the summer of 1 642, hav- 
ing lost most of his substance, he returned safe to England 
to attend on the lord primate, and carried with him Usher's 
valuable library, which was afterwards removed to Ireland, 
and is now in Trinity-college, Dublin. Upon his arrival in 
England, he was presented, by the earl of Bridgwater, to 
the rich rectory of Whitchurch in Shropshire, and after the 
declension of the royal cause, was made chaplain to the 
Protector, one of his almoners,, and preacher to the society 
of Gray's inn. Being thus comfortably settled, in 1642 he- 
found leisure, from his pastoral charge, to publish " The 
whole proceedings of the siege of Drogheda," London and 
Dublin, 1642, 4to ; and Dublin, 17 36; and " A Dialogue 
between Paul and Agrippa," London, 1642, 4to. After 

se :bernard, 

the restoration of kino: Charles II. in 1660, bavin": no con-* 
.fidence in tJie settlement of the state of Ireland, tie declined 
returning and taking possession of his deanery, and conti- 
nued at Whitchurch to his tleaih, which happened in win- 
ter, 1661. His other works were, 1. '* A farewell sermon 
jof comfort and concord, preached at Drogheda," 1 65 1, 8vo. 
.2. " The life and death of Dr. James Usher, late archbishop 
-of Armagh, primate and metropolitan of all Ireland, in a 
sermon preached at his funeral in the abbey of Westmin- 
ster, on the 17th of April, 1656," London, 1656, 12mQ, 
afterwards enlarged. 3, " The judgment of the late arch- 
bishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland ; concerning first, 
the extent of Christ's death and satisfaction : secondly, of 
the Sabbath, and observation of the Lord's day," &c. London, 
1657, 8vo. This treatise was answered by Dr. Peter Hey- 
lyn, in a book entitleil " Respondet Petrus ; or, the answer 
of Peter Heylyn, D. D. to so much of Dr. Bernard's book 
■entitled ' The judgment of the late primate of Ireland,' &c. 
as he is made a party by the said lord primate in the point 
of the Sabbath," London, 1658, 4to. He also published 
several letters which passed between him and Dr. Heylyn, 
— and published and enlarged several posthumous works of 
Dr. Usher; as, " His judgment on Babylon being the pre- 
sent see of Rome, Rev. xviii. 4, with a sermon of bishop 
Bedell's upon the same words," London, 1659. — " Devo- 
tions of the ancient church, in seven pious prayers," &c. 
London, 1660, 8vo. — " Clavi trabales, or nails fastened by- 
some great masters of assemblies, confirming tiie king's 
supremacy, the subject's duty, and church government by 
bishops ; being a collection of some pieces written on 
these subjects by archbishop Usher, Mr. Hooker, bishop 
Andrews, and Dr. Hadrian Saravia; with a preface by the 
bishop of Lincoln," London, 1661, 4to. ' 

BERNARD (Peter Joseph), a French poet, was the 
son of a sculptor at Grenoble in Dauphine, and born in 
(1710. Being sent to the college of Jesuits at Lyons, lie 
made rapid progress under able masters, whoM'ere desirous 
of attaching him to their body ; but the young scholar, too 
fond of liberty and pleasure, would not consent to that 
confinement. Being drawn to Paris by the wish to make a 
figure in the poetical world, he was obliged to employ him- 
self for two years as clerk to a notary. The light pieces of 

» Bioj. Britannica.— Wood's Fasti, vol. I.— Lloyd's Memoirs, fol.lOJ. 


poetry he sent abroad at inter\als, of which the best are the 
epistle to Claudine, and the song of the Rose, procured 
him a patron in the marquis de Pezay, who took him with 
him to the campaign of Italy, Bernard was at the battles 
of Parma and Guastalla ; and behaved with considerable 
bravery. Being presented to the marechal de Coigni, who 
commanded there, he was lucky enough to please him by 
his wit and agreeable manners. The marechal took him 
to be his secretary, admitted him to his intimacy, and 
some time afterwards procured him the place of secretary- 
general of the dragoons. From gratitude he attached him- 
self constantly to this Maecenas, till 1756, when he was 
deprived of him by death. He was in great request in all 
the select companies of the court and of Paris; whom he 
delighted by the brilliant wit, and warmth of his verses 
and airs, of which some are worthy of Anacreon. In 
1771 the sudden loss of his memory put an end to his 
happiness, and he fell into a state of mental imbecillity. 
In this condition he went to a revival of his opera of Castor, 
and was incessantly asking, " Is the king come ? Is the 
king pleased with it ? Is madame de Pompadour pleased 
with it ?" thinking he was all the while at Versailles ; and 
rioting in the delirium of a courtly poet. He died in this 
unhappy state, Nov. 1, 1775. Besides his lighter pieces 
of poetry, which got him the appellation of le gentil Bernard, 
several operas added much to his reputation. In 1803 an 
edition of his works was published in 2 vols. 8vo, and 4 vols. 
ISmo, comprehending several pieces not before published ; 
but upon the whole, according to the opinion of his coun- 
trymen, his talents were not of the first order, and his 
popularity appears to have been owing more to his grati- 
fying the passions than the taste of his companions and 
readers. ' 

BERNARD (Richard), an English divine of the seven- 
teenth century, and rector of Batecombe in Somersetshire, 
was author of " Thesaurus Biblicus," a laborious work for- 
merly much used by way of concordance. He was also 
author of an " Abstract and Epitome of the Bible." In 
1627 he published " A guide to grand jurymen with re- 
spect to Witches," the country where he lived being, if we 
may believe Glanville, formerly much infested with them. 
He died in 1641, and was succeeded by the famous non- 

1 Diet. Hist. — Biog. Universelle. 

Vol. V. H 


conformist Richard Allein, of whom there is an account in 
vol. I. p. 479, of this work, Mr. Bernard, of whom we have 
no farther biographical memoirs, was also the author otan al- 
legorical work, entitled " The Isle of Man, or legal proceed- 
ing in Man-shire against sin ;" the tenth edition of which was 
published in 1635. This work has been lately reprinted, i'ronx 
a conjecture that Bun} an might have taken from it the plan 
of his " Pilgrim's Pi'ogress." The two authors agree, how- 
ever, in our opinion, only in the personification of graces 
and sins, or virtues and vices, which is of l)igher origin 
than either ; and, if the comparative merits of the two 
works be examined, no reader can hesitate a moment in 
giving the preference to Eunyan. ' 

BERNARD (Richard), another author of whom we 
know only that he lived at Epvvorth in Lincolnshire, in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, is chiefly noticeable as having 
given the first entire translation of Terence's comedies, 
published in 1598, 4to, and often reprinted between that 
year and 1641. ^ 

BERNARD (Samufl), an opulent financier of France, 
was the son of Samuel Bernard, an engraver (mentioned 
by Strutt), who died in 1687. He was born in 1651, but 
how educated, or by what means he raised his fortune, we 
are not told. Under the ministry of Chamillard he became 
A farmer general, and accumulated a cajjital of thirty -three 
millions, of v/hich he made a very liberal use, but seems 
to have been proudly aware of the superiority of lender 
over borrower. When Louis XIV. wanted supplies, Ber- 
nard granted them, but always in consequence of his ma- 
jesty's applying to him in person. Louis XV. when in 
need of similar help, sent certain persons to Bernard, vvhose 
answer was, that " those who wanted his assistance might 
at least take the trouble to apply themselves." He was 
accordingly presented to the king, who said many flat- 
tering things to him, and ordered the courtiers to pay him 
every mark of respect. Bernard was now called the saviour 
of the state ; all the courtiers entertained him in succes- 
sion ; he dined with the marsluil Noailles, and supped 
with the duchess ofTallard, and played ar)d lost what they 
pleased. They sneered at his manners, which were ci- 
tizen-like, and he lent the millions which they demanded. 
Bernard, however, v/as of a benevolent turn ; the poor of, 

* La«t edition of this Diet. — Granger. 2 Jacob's Lives. — B log. Dram. 


the military order were particularly the subjects of his 
bounty, and, frequently as they might apply, they never 
were refused. On his death it was found that he had lent 
ten millions, of which he never received a in re- 
turn. In his speculations he was both bold and successful. 
One cUiy he had asked a person of distinction to dine with 
him, and had promised to treat him with some excellent 
mountain, not knowing at that time that his stock was ex- 
hausted. After dinner his servant announced this lament- 
able deficiency, and Bernard, not a little hurt at the un- 
seasonable discovery, immediately dispatched one of his 
clerks to Holland, with instructions to purchase every 
drop of mountain in the port of Amsterdam, by which he 
afterwards gained an immense sum. Of his family, so 
little was known, that he was supposed to be of Jewish 
descent, but without any reason. He used to say, that if 
they would make him a chevalier, his name would no longer 
hurt their delicate feelings, and accordingly, he received 
letters of nobility. He then purchased several estates 
with titles, and among others, those of the counts of Cou- 
bert ; and during the last years of his life, he was generally 
called the chevalier Bernard. One of his sons, president 
of one of the chambers of inquiry in parliament, bore the 
name of Rieux ; another was called the count de Coubert, 
and his grandson, Anne-Gabriel-Henry Bernard, assumed 
the title of marquis de Boulainvilliers. He married his 
daughter to Mole, first president, and thus became grand- 
father to the duchess de Cosse-Brissac ; and his family, 
by these revolutions, became allied to the great names of 
Biron, Duroure, and Boulainvilliers, Bernard was the 
friend of the keeper of the seals, Chauvelin, and remained 
faithful to him when disg-aceil. It is said that he was, or 
in his old age became superstitious, and fancied his life 
connected with that of a black fowl, of whirh he took oreat 
care, convinced that its death would be the prelude to his 
own. He lived, however, to the advanced age oi eighty- 
eight, dying in 17 39. Another accoutit informs us, that 
the greater part of his thirty-three millions was dissipated 
within ten years after his death, and that one of hiS sons, 
who was president of the parliament or Paris, died a b nk- 
rupt. Such vicissitudes are too common in all ages to 
excite much surprize. ' 

« Biof. Universelle, — Diet. Hist. 
H 2 

100 BERNARD!. 

so called from Castel Bolognese in the Romania, where he 
was born in 1495, distinguished himself for his admirable 
skill in engraving on precious stones. After having resided 
for several years with Alphonso duke of Ferrara, where his 
works excited universal admiration, he went to Rome, and 
attached himself to the cardinal Hyppolito de Medicis, 
whose friendship he preferred to the brilliant offers made 
by Charles V. who was very desirous of his residing in 
Spain. At Rome, Bernard executed some medals in ho- 
nour of Clement VII. of such exquisite beauty, as to meet 
with the applause even of his rivals. Among the chefs- 
d'oeuvre which he left, are two engravings on crystal, 
which have been particularly noticed by connoisseurs. The 
subjects are the " Fall of Phaeton," and " Tityus with 
the vulture," from designs by Michael Angelo, both which 
were thought to approach to the perfection of the ancients. 
Enriched by the patronage of cardinal de Medicis, and 
esteemed by all who knew him, he passed his latter days in 
a charming retreat, at Faenza, which he had enriched 
with a fine collection of pictures, and where he died in 

BERNARDI (John), usually called major Bernardi, an 
adventurer of whom there is a very prolix, but not very 
interesting account in the Biographia Britannica, was born 
at Evesham, in 1657, and was descended from an honour- 
able family which had flourished at Lucca in Ital} , from 
the year 1097. His grandfather Philip, g. count of the 
Roman empire, lived in England as resident from Genoa 
twenty-eight years, and married a native of ihis country. 
His father Francis succeeded to this office ; but, taking 
disgust at some measures adopted by the senate of Genoa, 
resigned, and retiring to Evesham, amused himself with 
gardening, on which he spent a considerable sum of 
money, and set a good example in that science to the 
town. John, his son, the subject of this article, of a spirited 
and restless temper, having received some harsh usage 
from his father, at the age of thirteen ran away to avoid 
his severity, and perhaps without any determmate pur- 
pose. He retained, notwithstanding, several friends, and 
IV as for some time supported by them, but their friendship 
appears to have gone little farther; for soon after he en- 

» Bio£. Univ.— Diet. Hist. 

B E R N A R D I. 101 

listed us a common soldier in the service of the prince of 
Orange. In this station he showed uncommon talents and 
bravery, and in a short time ohtained a captain's commis- 
sion in the service of the States. In April 1677, he mar- 
ried a Dntch lady of good family, with whom he enjoyed 
much conjugal happiness for eleven years. The English 
regiments in the Dutch service being recalled by James II. 
very few of them, but among those few was Bernardi, 
would obey the summons, and of course, he could not 
sign the association, into which the prince of Orange 
wished the regiments to enter. He thus lost his favour, 
and having no other alternative, and probably wishing 
for no other, he followed the abdicated James II. into 
Ireland ; who, soon after, sent him on some commission 
into Scotland, from whence, as the ruin of his master now 
'became inevitable, he once more retired to Holland. 
Venturing, however, to appear in London in 1695, he was 
committed to Newgate March 25, 1696, on suspicion of 
being an abettor of the plot to assassinate king William, 
and although sufficient evidence could not be brought to 
prove the fact, he was sentenced and continued in prison 
by the express decree of six successive parliaments, with 
five other persons, where he remained for more than forty 
years. As this was a circumstance wholly without a pre- 
cedent, it has been supposed that there must have been 
something in his character particularly dangerous, to in- 
duce four sovereigns and six parliaments to protract his 
confinement, without either legally condemning or par- 
doning him. 

In his confinement he had the courage to venture on a 
second marriage, which proved a very fortunate event to 
him, as he thus not only enjoyed the soothing converse of 
a true friend, but was even supported during his whole 
imprison n)ent by the care and industry of hi,s wife. Ten 
children were the produce of this marriage, the inheritors 
of misery and confinement. In the mean time he is said 
to iiave borne his imprisonment with such resignation and 
evenness of temper, as to have excited much respect and 
love in the few who enjoyed his acquaintance. In the ear- 
lier part of life he had received several dangerous wounds, 
which now breaking out afresh, and giving him great tor- 
ment, atforded a fresh trial of his equanimity and firmness. 
At length he died Sept. 20, 1736, leaving his wife and 
numerous family probably in a destitute state ; but what 

102 B E R N A R D I. 

became of them afterwards is not known. Bernardi was a 
little, brisk, and active man, of a very clieerful disposition, 
and, as may appear even Irom tins siiort narrative, of great 
ypourage and constancy of mind * 

BEtiNARDINE, an ecclesiastic and saint, was born at 
Massa, in Tuscany, Sept. 8, 1380. Having lost his mo- 
ther at three years of age, and his father at seven, his re- 
lations in 1392 sent for him to Sienna, where he learned 
grammar under Onuphrius, and philosophy under Johrj 
Spoletanus. In 1396 he entered himself among the con- 
fraternity of the disciplinaries in the hospital de la Scala in 
that city : and in 1400, when the plague ravaged all Italy, 
he attended upon the sick in that hospital with the utmost 
diligence and humanity. In 1404 he entered into a mo- 
nastery of the Franciscan order, neaV Sienna, and, having 
been ordained priest, became an eminent preacher. He' 
was afterwards sent to Jerusalem, as commissary of the 
holy land ; and upon his return to Italy, visited several 
cities, where he preached with great applause. His ene- 
mies accused him to pope Martin V. ot having advanced 
in his sermons erroneous propositions ; upon wliich he was 
ordered to Rome, where he vindicated himself, and was 
allowed to continue his preaching. The cities of Ferrara, 
Sienna, and Urbino, desired pope Eugenius IV, to ap- 
point him their bishop ; but Bernardine refused to accept 
of this honour. He repaired and founded above 300 monas- 
teries in that country. He died at Aquila in Abruzzo, 
May 20, 1444, and was canonised in 1450, by pope Ni- 

His works were first published by Peter Rodolphus, 
bishop of Sinigaglia, 159 1, Venice, 4 vols. 4to, and father 
de Lahaye published a new edition at Paris, 1636, 5 vols, 
fol. which Las been followed by one of the same number 
of volumes, at Venice, 1745. The edition of 1591 is 
thus analyzed : Volume 1. contains his *' Qnadragesimale 
de Religione Christiana ," including sixty-one Lent ser- 
mons. The second contains " Quadragesimale de Evan- 
gelio aeterno," or a course of Lent sermons upon the ever- 
lasting gospel. The third contains two " Adventualia,'* 
one conceruMig the life of Christ, according to Mr, Whar- 
ton, in his appendix to Dr. Cave's Historia Literaria, or 
concerning the Beatitudes, according to Du Pin ; the 

* Bjog. Brit, from a Lif» published by himself. — Tindal's Hist, of Evesham. 

B E R N A R D I N E. 103 

other concerning Inspirations. The same volume likewise 
includes two " Quadragesimalia," one concerning the Spi- 
ritual Combat, and the other entitled the Seraphim, or of 
Love ; several sermons upon the four last things, and others 
entitled Extraordinary, to the number of tvveniy-five ; 
*' A treatise upon Confession ;" the *' Mirror of Sinners;'* 
a discourse upon the precepts of the rule of the Minorite 
friars, or a " Tract concerning the Precepts of a Reli- 
gious ;" a letter to the monks of his order in Italy, con- 
cerning several regulations; ** Holy Breathings to God, 
for every day ;" a dialogue concerning Obedience. Father 
de la Haye is not of opinion the two Quadragesimalia in 
this volume are the genuine productions of our author, be- 
cause they are written in a different style, and with less 
elevation and learning than the other works of St, Ber- 
nardine. The last volume contains his sermons upon se- 
veral other Sundays of the year, and the festivals of our 
Saviour and the Saints, with a " Commentary upon the 
Apocalypse." We have not now extant his treatise of the 
" Concei>tion of the blessed Virgin," mentioned by Tri- 
themius and other authors. The sermons of St. Bernardine 
are not written in a very pure style ; but they contain a 
great deal of solid morality, and he does not fall so fre- 
quently into false conceits and puerilities, as the other 
preachers of that age. ' 

BERNARDONI (Peter Antony), an Italian poet, was 
born at Vignola, in the duchy of Modena, June 30, 1672. 
His early studies afforded great promise of talents, and at 
the age of nineteen he was adniitted into the academy of 
the Arcadians. He resided a considerable time at Bo- 
logna, where he established a colony of Arcadians, and for 
this reason in the title of some of tiis works he is styled a 
Bolognese, although certainly not a native of that city. In 
1 70 1 he was appointed imperial poet at the court of Vienna, 
which he would fain have given up in favour of Apostolo 
Zeno, but the latter declined it, and Bernardoni accordingly 
filled the office under the two eniperors Leopold and Jo- 
seph I. He died at Bologna, Jan. 1 y, 17 14. He pub- 
lished two collections of poetry: 1. " I Fiori, primizie 
poetiche, divise in rime amorose, sacre, morali, e funebri," 
Bologna, 1694, 12mo; and " Rime varie," Vienna, 1705, 
4to. 2. Several tragedies and musical dramas, oratorios, 

' Gen. Diet. — Moreri. — Biog. Universcllc— Dupin. — Care. 

104 B E R N A R D O N L 

&c. all which were collected in the edition of his works 
published at Bologna, 1706 — 7, 3 vols. 8vo. ' 

BERNAZZANO, a Milanese painter, flourished about 
the year 1536, His Christian name is not known. Or- 
landi speaks of him by the name only of Bernazzano of 
Milan. His friend Caesar de Sesta, the scliolar of Leonard 
da Vinci, being a good painter of figures, but deficient in 
landscape, a branch in wliich Bernazzano excelled, they 
agreed to a partnership in their works. Among their 
numerous.paintings is a " baptism of our Saviour," in which 
Bernazzano painted some fruit so naturally that birds came 
and peclied at it. Such anecdotes are not uncommon in 
the history of painting, but generally to be received with 
caution, Lomazzo in his Trattato dell' arte deliapittura," Mi- 
lan, 1584, 4to, doesnotgivethedateofBernazzano's death. ^ 

BERNEGGEa (Matthias), who was born Feb. 8, 1582, 
at Hallstadt, in Austria, became rector of the college, 
and professor of history at Strasburgh, where he died 
Feb. 3, 1640. He was esteemed one of the best critics of 
his time, and had particularly studied the works of Thu- 
cydides, Tacitus, Suetonius, and Sallust. Niceron (vol. 
XXVH) has a large catalogue of his writings, of which 
the principal are: 1. " Hypobolimsea D. Mariae Deiparis 
Camera, sen Idolum Lauretanvmi, &c. dejectum," Stras- 
burgh, 161 'J, 4to. 2. " De jure eligendi reges et prin- 
cipes," ibid. 1627, ^to. He edited an edition of Tacitus, 
1638, 4to, a.nd one of Pliny the younger, with a selection 
of notes, 1635, 4to. He likewise translated Galileo from 
the Latin. Bernegger corresponded with Kepler and Gro- 
tius, and their letters were published under the titles 
*' EpistolaG mutuoe H. Grotii et Matt. Berneggeri," Stras- 
burgh, 1667, 12mo; and " Epistolae Joannis Kepleri, &c.'* 
ibid, 1 672, 12mo. Freinshem was his nephew. His " Ob- 
servationes miscellanei" on history, &lc. were published by 
his son in 1669, 8vo.^ 

BERNERS (Juliana), on account of her being one of 
the earliest female writers in England, is entitled to some 
notice in this work, although the most painful research 
has discovered very little of her personal history. She 
is frequently called Juliana Barnes, but Berners was her 
more proper name. She was an Essex lady, and, accord- 

' Biog. Universelle. — Qiiadrio's Hist. Poet. vol. Iff. 
3 Biog. Univ. — Moieri. — Pilkington. 

3 Biog. Univ. — Freheii Theatrum. — Baillet Jugemens de Savans. — Saxis 

B E R N E R S. 105 

ing to Mr. Ballard, was probably born at Roding in that 
county, about the beginning of tbe tit'teenth century ; being 
the daughter of sir James Berncrs ot Berners Roding, and 
sister of Ricliard lord Berners. If, liowever, as is gene- 
rally agreed, sir James Berners was her father, her birth 
could have been very little after l'i88 ; for in that year sir 
James Berners was beheaded, as an enemy to the }3nblic, 
together with other favourites r.jid corrupt n)inisters of 
kincr Richard the second. The education of Juliana seems 
to have been the very best which that age could a(ford, 
and her attainments were such, that she is celebrated by 
various authors for her uncommon learning and her other 
accomplishments, which rendered her every way capable 
and deserving of the office she bore ; which was tliat of 
prioress of Sopewell nunnery. Tiiis was a cell to, and 
very near St. Alban's, and a good part of the shell of it is 
still standing. Here she lived in high esteem, and flou- 
rished, according to Bale, Tanner, and Ballard, about 
the year 1460; but if what we have said concerning her 
birth be the true account, she must have flourished some- 
what earlier. She was a very beautiful lady, of great 
spirit, and loved masculine exercises, such as hawking^ 
hunting, &c. With these sports she used to recreate her- 
self, and so thoroughly was she skilled in them, that she 
wrote treatises of hawking, hunting, and heraldry, "from 
an abbess disposed to turn author," says Mr. Warton, "we 
might more reasonably have expected a manual of medita- 
tions for the closet, or select rules for making salves, or 
distilling strong waters. But the diversions of the field 
were not thought inconsistent with the character of a re- 
ligious lady of tliis eminent rank, who resembled an abbot 
in respect of exercising an extensive manerial jurisdiction, 
and who hawked and hunted in common with other ladies 
of distinction." So well esteemed were Juliana Berners's 
treatises, and indeed so popular were the subjects on which 
they were written, that they were published in the very 
infancy of the art of printing. Tiie first edition is said to 
have been printed at St. Alban's, in 1481. It was cer- 
tainly printed at the same place in 1486, in a small folio ; 
and again, at Westminster, by W. de Worde, in 1496, in 
4to. Among Cryne's books in the Bodleian library, there 
is a black letter copy of this work, " imprynted at London 
in Paul's Churchyarde by me Hary Tab." It was again 
printed, with wooden cuts, by William Copland, without 

106 B E R N E R S. 

date, and entitled, " The boke of Hawkyng, Hunting, and 
I ishing, with all the properties and medecynes that are 
necessary to be kept." Here the tract on Armory is 
omitteil, which seems to have been first inserted that the 
work might contain a complete course of education for a 
gentleman. The same title is in W. Powel's edition, 1 550. 
The last impression of it was in 4to, at London, in 1595, 
under the following title, "The gentleman's academic: 
or tl)e book of St. Albans ; containing three most exact and 
excellent books; the first of Hawking, the second of all the 
proper terms of Hunting, and the last of Armory; all com- 
piled by Juliana Barn^, in the year from the incarnation of 
Christ, I486. And now reduced into better method bv 
G. M." This editor is certainly mistaken in saying that 
the whole work was comjjosed in 1486. Juliana Berners 
could scarcely have been living at that time ; and even if 
she was not then dead, the book must have been written 
by her in a more early period of life. It is said, indeed, 
in the C\)l()phon at the end of the St. Alban's edition, 
** And here now endith the Boke of blasyng of armys, 
translatyt and compylyt togedyr at Saynt Albons the 
yere from ihyncarnacyon of our Lorde Jhesu Crist 
MCCCCLXXXVl." But all we can justly infer from 
hence is, that that part of the work which relates to he- 
raldry was not drawn up by Juliana Berners. It is ob- 
servable, that though the whole treatise is usually ascribed 
to her, her name is only subjoined to the book on hawking 
an i hunting ; and that what relates to the biasing of arms 
contains no more than abstracts from a performance of 
Nicholas Upton, written about 1441. It is highly pro- 
bable, therefore, that this latter part, if it was compiled 
so late 'as in 1486, was added by another hand ; and, in- 
deed, if Juliana Berners was the daughter of sir James 
Berners, there can be no doubt about the matter. That 
part of our abbess's work which relates to hunting, is 
written in rhyme. It is spoken in her own person ; in 
which, being otherwise a woman of authority, she assumes 
tile title of Dame. Mr. Warton suspects the whole to be 
& translation from the French or Latin. The barbarism of 
the times strongly appears in the indelicate expressions 
which Juliana Berners often, and which are equally 
incompatible with her sex and profession. 'J'he book on 
annory begins with th(! following curious piece of sacred 
Jicraidry : " Of the offspring of tiie gcntihnan Jafeth, come 

B E R N E R S. 107 

Habraham, Moyses, Aron, and the profettys ; and also 
the kyng of tlie nglit I) ne of Mary, of whom that gen- 
tilman Jhesus ua^ home, very God and mai) : after liis 
nianhode ^ynm* of the land ofJude and of dues, gentilnian 
by his niodre Mary, prince of cote armure, &c." The 
most diligent inquirers have not been able to determine 
the exact period of Juliana Berners's decease ; but iVom 
what is mentioned above, it is prohal)le that she died 
sooner tnan has conunonly been imai^ined. 

The public have been recently gratified with a fac-simile 
reprint of Juliana Berners's curious w^ork, as printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde, preceded by a biographical and biblio- 
graphical dissertation, so copious and correct, as to ren- 
der ali sul)sequent attempts Mipertlnous. Joseph Haslewood, 
esq. the editor, has left no sources unexplored, and no 
means untried, by which light might be thrown upon the 
work or its supposed authoress, he is of opinion that the 
only parts of the work vvhicli can safely be attributed to her 
pen, are: 1. A small portion of the treatise on Havi'king. 
2. The treatise upon Hunting. 3. A short list of the beasts 
of chase: and, 4. Another short one of beasts and fowls. 
This tac-simile edition, of which one hundred and fifty 
copies only were printed, is executed with uncommon ac- 
curacy and fideliiy, and does high credit to the taste, mi- 
nute attention, and perseverance (for all are necessary in 
an attempt of this kind) displayed by the printer, Mr. Jo- 
seph Harding. At the late sale of the library of the duke 
of Roxburgh, an imperfect copy of Wynkyn de Worde's 
edition was sold for 147/.' 

BERN! (FuANCis), called by some writers Berna or 
Beknia, was one of the most celebrated Italian poets of 
the sixteenth century. He was born about the conclusion 
of the fifteenth, at Lamporecchio, in that part of Tuscany 
called Val-di-Nievole, of a noble but impoverished family 
ofl:<lorence. In his nineteenth year he went to Koine, to 
his relation cardinal Bibiena, who accordnig to his own ac- 
count, did him neither good nor harm. He was then obliged 
to take the office of secretary to Giberti, bishop of Verona, 
who was datary to pope Leo X. On this he assumed the 
ecclesiastical habit, m hopes of sharing some of that pre- 
late's patronage, but the mean and dull employment of his 

' Biog. Brit. — Mr. Haslewood's reprint. — Dibdin's Antiquities, voK II. — 
Ellis s ."peciuieas, vol. J. — Ballard's Mtmoirs.— Warion's Hi«t. of Poetry, toI. 
II. p. 111. 

108 BERN]. 

office of secretaiy, and for which he was ill paid, was verj 
unsuitable to his disposition. There was at Rome what he 
liked better, a society or academy of young ecclesiastics as 
gay as himself, and lovers of wit and poetry like himself, 
who, no doubt in order to point out their taste for wine, 
and their thoughtless habits, were called rignajuoli) vine- 
dressers. To this belonged Mauro, Casa, Firenzuola, Ca- 
pilupi, and many others. In their meetings they laughed 
at every thing, and made verses and witticisms on the most 
grave and soleinn subjects. The compositions Berni con- 
tributed on these occasions, were so superior to the others, 
that verses composed in the same style began to be called 
*' La poesia Bernesca." 

Berni was at Rome in 1527, when it was plundered by 
the army of the constable of Bourbon, and lost all he pos- 
sessed. He then travelled with his patron Giberti to Ve- 
rona, Venice, and Padua, but being tired of the service, 
and having no longer any hopes of adding to a canonry in 
the church of Florence, which he had possessed some years, 
he retired to that city with a view to a life of independence 
and moderation. Here an acquaintance which he unhap- 
pily formed with two great men proved fatal to him, Alex- 
ander de Medici, duke of Florence, and the young cardinal 
Hippolito de Medici, each of whom is supposed to have 
contended with the other, which should first destroy his 
rival by poison. One of them is said to have been desirous 
of employing Berni in this detestable project, and he hav- 
ing refused his assistance, fell a victim to the revenge of 
his patron, by a death of similar treachery. The cardinal 
certainly died in J 535, and, according to all historians, by 
poison. The death of Berni is fixed on July 26, 1536, 
trom which long interval it has been thought improbable 
that the duke Alexander would have caused him to be poi- 
soned, for not having concurred in the destruction of a 
rival who had been dead probably a year ; but there is 
nothing in the character of Alexander to make us think he 
would scruple at this additional crime, and that for a very 
good reason, to get rid of one who was privy to his design 
upon the cardinal. 

Berni's character was in all respects a singular one, but 
in few deserving imitation. His morals as well as his writ- 
ings were of the licentious cast, and as to his manners, in- 
dolence seemed to predominate. He had no pleasure in 
music, dancing, gaming, or hunting: his sole delight was 

B E R N I. 109 

in having nothing to do, and stretching himself at full length 
on his hed. His chief exercise was to eat a little, and then 
compose himself to sleep, and after sleep to eat again. 
He observed neither days nor almanacks; and his servants 
were ordered to bring him no ncwi whether good or bad. 
That he was not, however, so entirely devoted to indolence, 
as we might, from the character which he has chosen to 
give of himself, be induced to believe, sufficiently appears 
from his numerous writings, and particularly froui his hav- 
ing reformed and new-modelled the extensive poem of 
*' Orlando Innamorato" of the count Bojarcio. This work 
he is said to have undertaken in competition with the 
" Orlando Furioso" of Ariosto, which has given occasion 
to accuse Berni of presumption and of ignorance; but 
Berni was too well acquainted with the nature of his own 
talents, calculated only for the burlesque and ridiculous, 
to suppose that he could rival Arinsto. He has, however, 
both in this and in other parts of his writings, shewn that 
he could occasionally elevate his style; and tue introductory 
verses to each canto of the Orlando Innamorato, which are 
generally his own composition, are not the least admired 
nor the least valuable parts of the work. That the altera- 
tions of Berni raised the poem of Bojardo into more gene- 
ral notice, may be conjectured from the various editions 
of the reformed work, which issued from the press soon 
after its first appearance, and which are yet sought after 
with avidity. Some of these editions are, that of Venice, 
1541, 4to; of Milan, 1542, 8vo ; and Venice, with addi- 
tions, 1545, 4to; which last is in great request. There 
are two very correct modern editions ; that of Naples, but 
dated Florence, 1725, and that by Molini, Paris, 1768, 
4 vols. 12mo, Berni's other works are, 1. " Rime bur- 
lesche," often reprinted with those of Casa, Mauro, Molza, 
and other poets of the same class. The first edition is that 
of Venice, 1538, 8vo. Another valuable edition is that of 
Grazzini, called Lasca, in 2 vols. Florence, 1548, and 15 55, 
8vo. This last volume is the most rare, being printed only 
once, and the other twice. 2. *' La Catrina, atto scenico 
rusticale," Florence, 1567, 8vo, written in the common 
dialect of the peasantry of Tuscany, like the " Nencia" of 
Barberino, the " Cecco" of Varlongo, &c. It was after- 
wards printed in a collection of comedies of the sixteenth 
century, Naples, 1731, 8vo. 3. *' Carmina," or Latin 
poems, to be found in the " Carmina quinque Etruscoruin 

no B E R N I. 

poetarum," Florence, 1562, 8vo, and in the *' Carmina 
illusirium poitarum Italorum," ibid, 1719, 8vo. ' 

BEHNI (Count Francjs), a law- er, philosoplier, orator, 
and poet, of Ferrara, was burn in 1610. Atier having- pur- 
sued his studies witli greai success, and taken his law de- 
grees, in the univerbity of his narivtr city, he was chosen 
professor of the belles lestres, tlien first strraary, and in 
that quality was sent to compliment poi)e Innocent X. on 
his election to the papal chair. He lived in consi:lerable 
favour with that pope, as well as witn Alexander Vll. and 
Clement IX. his successors, and ths dukes of Mantua, 
Charles I. and II. who conferred upon hini the title of 
Count. His poetical talents were principally devoted to 
the drama ; and one of his plays " Gli Sforzi del Desiderio," 
represented at Ferrara in 1632, was so successful, that the 
archduke Ferdinand Charles, struck with its popularity, 
no sooner returned home than he sent for the author and 
some architects from Ferrara, to build two theatres for si- 
milar representatious. Berni was married seven times, 
and had, as might be expected, a numerous family, of 
whom nine sons and daughters survived him. He died 
Oct. 13, 1673. Eleven of his dramas, formerly published 
separately, were printed in one volume, at Ferrara, 1666, 
12mo. He published also a miscellany of discourses, pro- 
blems, &c. entitled " Accademia," Ferrara, 2 vols. 4to, 
without date, and reprinted in 1658. Many of his lyric 
poems are in the collections. * 

BERNIER (Francis) was distinguished in the brilliant 
age of Louis XIV. as a philosopher and traveller, and his 
merit, in both respects, was c .hanced by his personal ac- 
complishments, which procured him a degree of celebrity 
when living, that has not yet perished. His treatises on 
philosophy, it is true, are no longer read, for which the 
progress of science since the seventeenth century may ac- 
count, but his voyages and travels are still in high estima- 
tion. They made the world acquainted with countries 
which no European had before visited, and none have 
since described so well, and threw light on the revolutions 
of India at a very interesting period, the time of Aureng- 
Zeb. George Forster places Bernier in the first class of 
Indian historians, praises his simple and engaging style, 

' P.iog. Univer8t'lle.--Roscoe's Leo.— Baillet Jugemens des Savaas.— .MorerL 
• Biog. Universelle. 

B E R N I E R. Ill 

his judgment and his accuracy; and the letter in which 
Forster bestows this encomium was written from Ciche- 
mire, which Bernier has so well described. Bernier lived 
in intimacy witb the most illustrious characters of his time, 
and was particularly intimate with the celebrated Ninon 
de Lenclos, madame de la Sabliere, Chapelle, whose eloge 
he wrote, and St. Evremont, who represents him as deserv- 
ing, by his fine fii^^ire, manners and conversation, the title 
of the Genteel Philosopher. He assisted Boileau in fabri- 
cating a burlesque decree in favour of Aristotle, which the 
president Lamoignon had almost signed, when he saw 
through the joke, and candidly confessed that it had pre- 
vented him from signine: a decree that would have been 
fully as ridiculous. 

Bernier was born at Angers, but in what year is not 
known. He first studied medicine, and took a doctor's 
degree at Montpellier, and then began to indulge his taste 
for travelling. In 1654, he went to Syria, and thence to 
Egypt. After remaining more than a year at Grand Cairo, 
he was attacked by the plague, but embarked some time 
after at Suez, for India, where he resided twelve years, 
eight of them as physician to the emperor Aureng Zeb. 
The favourite minister of that prince, the emir Danich- 
mend, a friend of science and literature, patronized him, 
and took him to Cachemire. On his return Bernier pub- 
lished his voyages and philosophical works. In 1685 he 
visited England, and died at Paris, Sept. 22, 1688. Hi* 
works are, 1, " Histoire de la derniere revolution des etats 
du Grand-Mogul, &c." 4 vols. 1670, 1671, 12mo. This 
work procured him the name of the Mogul. It has been 
often reprinted under the title of " Voyages de Francois 
Bernier, &c." and translated into English, 1671, 1675, 
Svo. 2. " Abregc de la philosophie de Gassendi," Lyons, 
1678, 8 vols. 12mo, and 1684, 7 vols. His own philoso- 
phy inclines to the Epicurean. 3. '* Memoire sur le quie- 
tisme des Indes ;" " Extraits de diverses pieces envoy6es 
pour etrennes par M. Bernier a Madame de la Sabliere,'* 
and " Eloge de M. Chapelle," inserted in the Journal de 
Siivans, 1688. 4. "Trait6du libre etdu volontaire," Amst. 
1685, 12mo, and some other papers in the literary Jour-r 


' Eiog. Universelle. — Gen, Diet, — Moreri. 

112 B E R N I E R. 

BERNIER (John), a physician, born in 1622, at Blois, 
where he practised tor twenty-eight years, and afterwards 
at Paris, had tiie title of Physician to Madame. He wrote, 
1. " A history of Blois," Puris, 1682, 4to, vt ry inaccurate 
in the opinion of Liron. 2. " Medical Essays," 1689, 4to. 
3. " Anti-Menagiana," 16yj, 12mo. 4. *' Critique on the 
Works of Rabelais," Paris, 1697, i2mo, full of verbosity 
and false wit. His rank of physician to Madame did not 
rescue him from poverty, and his disappointments gave 
him a strong tincture of chagrin and melancholy, which is 
manifest in all liis writings. His erudition was extremely 
superficial, but he talkc^d incessantly. Menage used to 
say that he ought to talk well, for he did nothing else; but, 
added he, Bernier is vir Itvis aruiatiute. He died May 18, 
1698. » 

BERNIER (Nicholas), an eminent musician and com- 
poser, was born at Mante on the .Seine, in 1664. By his 
merit in his profession he attained to be conductor of the 
music in the chapel of St. Stephen, and afterwards in that 
of the king. The regent duke of Orleans admired his 
works, and patronized their author. This prince having 
given him a motet of his own composition to examine, and 
being impatient for his observations thereon, went to the 
house of Bernier, and entering his study, found the abb6 
de la Croix there criticising his piece, while the musician 
himself was in another room carousing and singing with a 
company of his friends. The duke broke in upon and in- 
terrupted their mirth, with a reprimand of Bernier for his 
inattention to the task assigned him. This musician died 
at Paris in 1734. His five books of Cantatas and Songrs 
tor one and two voices, the words of which were written 
b}^ Rousseau and Fuselier, have procured him great reputa- 
tion. There are besides, of his composition, " Les Nuits 
de Sceaux," and many motets, which are still much ap- 
proved of.' 

BERNINI (John Laurence), called the Cavalier Ber- 
NiN, and by some styled the modern Michael Angelo, be- 
cause he united the knowledge and practice of painting, 
statuary, and architecture, owes his extensive reputation 
principally to his excellence in the latter branch. His 

* Biog. Univeiselle. — Morcri. — Diet. Hist, 
2 |]ii»g. Univeiselle.— Diet. Hist. 


father Peter Bernini, left Tuscany when young, and went 
to Home to stmly painting and sculpinre. Having acquired 
cotisitlenihle skill in l)oth, he removed to Naples, and prac- 
tised with great success. Therein 15.98, his son, the sub- 
ject of this memoir, was horn, and from his earliest years 
discovered a surprising capacity for the fine arts, having at 
the age of eight executed a head in marble, which was 
considered as a prodigy. His fatlicr, desirous of culti- 
vating so promising a genius, brought him to Rome, and 
imparted to him a taste for the great masters, which he 
never altogether lost, although in the sequel he did not 
follow their track. The pope expressed a desire to see 
this extraordinary child who had astonished the artists, and 
when introduced, asked him if he knew how to sketch a 
head, — " \Vhose head r" said Bernini. — " You know then 
how to draw any ; let it be that of St. Paul," replied the 
pope. The boy performed the task before him in about 
half an hour, and the pope, enchanted vvitii the specimen, 
recommended him warmly to cardinal Barberini, that cele- 
brated patron of the arts. " Direct Ins studies," added his 
holiness, " and he vviil become the Michael Angelo of the 
age." About the same time, happening to be in St. Pe- 
ter's church, with AnnibaL Carrache, and some other cele- 
brated artists, Carrache, looking to the cupola, said it would 
be very desirable to find a man of genius great enough to 
form and erect two objects in the middle, and at the end 
of that temple, which should correspond to its dimensions." 
The young Bernini instantly exclaimed with enthusiasm, 
** Would I were that man," little thinking that one day he 
was to fulfil Carrache's wish. 

One of Bernini's first works was a portrait in marble of 
the prelate Montajo, a likeness so striking, that it was 
said to be Montajo petrified. He afterwards made busts 
of the pope, some of the cardinals, anJ some large figures 
after nature; a St. Laurence, a groupe of ^neas and An- 
chises, and David about to sling the stone at Goliath, of 
which our ^reat artist sir Joshua Reynolds observes, that 
Bernini has given a very mean expression to David, repre- 
senting him as biting his under lip, which is far from being 
a general expression, and still farther from being digni- 
fied ; but Bernini, who was as yet young, might have seea 
it in one or two instances, and mistook accident for gene- 
rality. He was but in his eighteenth year when he exe- 
cuted his Apollo and Daphne, a work, from which, as sir 

Vol. V. I 

114- BERNINI. 

Joshua remarks, the world justly expected he would rival 
the best productions of ancient Greece, but this was not 
ultimately the case. We are told, however, that wiieu, 
about the close of his life, he surveyed this groupe, he 
allowed that since that time he had made very little pro- 
gress. In trutli his style was now more pure, and had less 
of manner in it than afterwards. 

His success in the mean time was great, and Gregory 
XV. who succeeded Paul V. being equally struck with his 
merit, created him a knight ; but it was left for cardinal 
Barberini, when he came to the pontificate, to complete 
Bernini's good fortune. Immediately after that event he 
said to Bernini, *' If you are happy to see me pope, I am 
more proud yet that you live under my pontificate," and 
from tliat time began to employ him in designs for embel- 
lishing Rome, and gave him a pension of three hundred 
crowns per month. Without altogether quitting statuary, 
therefore, Bernini now employed his talents on architec- 
ture, and recollecting Carrache's wish, he designed the 
canopy for the principal altar, called the confessional of 
St. Peter, supported by four wreathed columns, enriched 
with figures and ornaments of exquisite taste. When this 
magnificent work was completed, in about nine years, the 
pope rewarded him with six thousand crowns, besides in- 
creasing his pensions, and extending his liberality to Ber- 
nini's brothers. Another work of his was the fountain of 
Barcaccia, which has been praised more than it merits, at 
least it is inferior to that of the Barberini palace. 

It would be perhaps tedious to enumerate all the produc- 
tions of Bernini's genius at this time, but the following are 
the principal : the Barberini palace ; the campanile of St. 
Peter ; the model of the tomb of the countess Matilda, 
which was executed by his pupils ; and that of his bene- 
factor pope Urban VIII. When his reputation reached 
England, Charles I. was desirous of having a bust of him- 
self by an artist of such eminence, and sent him three por- 
traits by Vandyke of different positions. By this means 
Bernini was enabled to make an excellent likeness, with 
which the king was so pleased that he took from his finger 
a diamond ring valued at six thousand crowns, and sent it 
to Bernini to adorn the hand that could perform such won- 
ders. About the same time an Englishman came to Italy, 
and had his bust executed by our artist, for which he also 
paid six thousand crowns. The bust of Charles I, was ori- 


ginally placed in Greenwich hospital, but is now m West- 
minster hall, in a circular recess over the stairs, leading to 
the chancellor's chamber, between the court of chancery 
and that of the king's bench, yet it is doubted whether this 
be really Bernini's celebrated bust, or only one taken from 
it. Vertue was of opinion that the bust now existino- was 
of an earlier date, and that Bernini's was destroyed during 
the civil war. 

In 1644, cardinal Mazarin, who had known Bernini at 
Rome, endeavoured, but in vain, to induce him to visit 
Prance, and offered him, on the part of Louis XIV. places 
to the value of 12,000 crowns. Yet he was not happy at 
home. When Urban VIII. his steady patron, died, and 
Innocent X. succeeded, envy at his superior talents and 
high favour with the pontiff, began to appear. The 
campanile which he had constructed for St. Peter's, over 
the portico, which it appeared was not on a secure founda- 
tion, threatened to fall, and immediately it was indus- 
triously reported that the weight of the campanile ^vould 
endanger the portico, and perhaps even the dome itself. 
Although all this was exaggerated, it became necessary to re- 
move the campanile, and the enemies of Bernini triumphed, 
while the pope, prejudiced against him, deprived him of one 
part of his labours, and allowed the rest to be suspended. 
In the mean time he executed for the church of St. Mary 
the fine groupe of St. Theresa and the angel, one of his 
most admired works ; and became at length a favourite 
with the pope by a stratagem of his holiness's nephew. 
The pope, having an intention of building a new fountain 
in the piazza Navona, consulted all the artists of Rome, 
with the exception of Bernini, whom he affected to forget ; 
but his nephew prince Ludovisi having procured a model 
from our artist, contrived to shew it to the pope, who was 
so much struck with it, as to receive Bernini into favour, 
and appoint him to the work, which he executed with his 
usual taste. About the same time he built the palace of 
Monte Citorio. 

Alexander VII. who succeeded pope Innocent X. an4 
who had a high respect for Bernini, and was an encourager 
of the arts, requested him to make a design for the further 
decoration of St. Peter's, which j)roduced the celebrated 
circular colonnade, so appropriate to the building as to 
seem part of the scheme of the original architect. He 
was not, however, so successful in the composition of the 

1 2 


pulpit of St. Peter's, supported by colossal figures repre- 
senting the four doctors of the church, which, although 
altered from his first model, has neither tlie freedom nor 
spirit of his other works ; among which may now be enu- 
merated the Odechalchi palace, the rotunda of St. Kiccio, 
and the noviciate of the Jesuits at Monte Cavallo. 

Although he had refused to come to France, Louis XIV. 
was still desirous to avail himself of his talents, as well as 
to pay him a compliment, by consulting him on the resto- 
ration of the Louvre. His minister, Colbert, accordingly 
sent him the plans of that palace, and requested him to put 
upon paper " some of those adcnirable thoughts which were 
so familiar to him." Bernini immediately made a sketch 
for the new building, which afforded so much satisfaction 
to the king, that he wrote to inform him of the very great 
desire he ha J to see, and become acquainted, with so 
illustrious a character, provided this did not interfere 
with his engagements to the pope, or his personal con- 
venience. Such condescension our artist could no longer 
resist; and although now in his sixty-eighth year, departed 
from Rome, in 1665, with one of his sons, two of his 
pupils, and a numerous suiie. No artist ever travelled 
with so much pomp or pleasure. All the princes through 
whose dominions he passed loaded him with presents. In 
France he was received and complimented by the magis- 
trates at the gates of each city, and that even at Lyons, 
where it was customary to restrict such a compliment to 
princes of the blood only. As he approached Paris, the 
king's maitre d^ hotel was sent to meet him, with instruc- 
tions to do the honours of receiving him and conducting 
him every where. This gentleman, M. de Chautelon, was 
so sensible of the importance ot his commission, that he 
wrote a journal of all his proceedings while in company 
with Bernini, a curious work still preserved in manuscript. 
On his arrival, our artist was conducted to a hotel prepared 
for him, and where Colbert visited him as representative 
of the king, to whom he was afterwards introduced at St. 
Germains, received with great honour, had a long conver- 
sation with the king, and, as well as his son, was admitted 
to the minister's table. 

Bernini now began his operations on the Louvre, but he 
did not see, as has been reported, Perrault's celebrated 
colonnade, the design of which was not presented to the 
kinjj until after his departure, nor was it finished until five 


years after, so tliat the surprize with which it is said to 
iiave struck him, and the hberal praise he bestowed upon 
it, to which Voltaire has given currency in his poems, are 
founded on a mistake. During Bernini's five months resi- 
dence at Paris, he laiJ the foundation, from his own de- 
sign, of the colonnade of the Louvre, which was to join it 
to the Tuileries by a gallery ; but as this could have been 
executed only by destroying all that had been already built, 
Perrault's plan was afterwards adopted. In the mean time, 
he made a bust of Louis XIV. who frequently sat to him, 
and took pleasure in his conversation, which sometimes 
appears to have been rather familiar. One day after his 
majesty had sat a whole hour, the artist, delighted with so 
great an honour, exclaimed " A miracle ! a great monarch, 
young, and a Frenchman, has sat quiet for an hour !" 
Another time, wishing to see more of the king's forehead, 
he put back the curls of hair which covered the place, and 
said, " Your majesty can shew your face to all the world;" 
and the courtiers, always intent upon some frivolous com- 
pliment, made a fashion of this disposition of the hair, 
which they called " la coeffure a la Bernin''' 

Bernini, however, was not wholly reconciled to his er- 
rand here. The great work for which he came was not 
carried on after his designs, and he is said to have met 
with some disgust, which inclined him to return to Rome. 
Accordingly, on pretence that the pope requn-ed his pre- 
sence, he took leave of the king, who made him a 
present of ten thousand crowns, and settled a pension on 
him of two thousand, and another of four hundred on his 
son. The expenses of his return were also defrayed by his 
majesty, who, with a view to immortalize the v.sit, caused 
a medal to be struck, with a portrait of the artist, and on 
the reverse the muses of his art, with this inscription, 
" Singulan's in singulis^ in omnibus unicus.''^ Before his 
departure, Bernini engaged to make an equestrian statue 
of Louis XIV. in marble, and of colossal proportion, which 
he finished in four years ; but whether from its having no 
resemblance of the king, or from some fault found with 
the composition, it was, soon after its arrival, changed into 
Curtius leaping into the gulph, and is now in tne gar- 
dens at Versailles. 

On his return to Rome, he was received with the great- 
est demonstrations of joy, and the pope appointed his son 
canon of St. Maria Maggiore, and gave him several bene- 


fices. Cardinal Rospigliosi having beconr.e pope by the 
title of Clement IX. Bernini was admitted into his favour, 
and employed in several works, particnlarly the embeUish- 
ment of the bridge of St. Angelo, and when he had at- 
tained his seventieth year, he executed one of his master- 
pieces, the tomb of Alexander VII. At the age of eight}^, 
he made a beautiful demi-figure in bas-relief, for Christina 
queen of Sweden, of our Saviour. Being even after this 
engaged on some architectural works, particularly the re- 
pairs of the old palace of the chancery, he applied himself 
with so much zeal and ardour, as to injure his health. He 
became restless and weak, and at length totally exhausted, 
dying Nov. 28, 1680, in the eighty-second year of his 
age. He was interred in the church of St. Maria Maggiore, 
with great pomp. By his will, he left to the pope a large 
painting of our Saviour, executed by himself when he 
practised that art formerly ; and to the queen of Sweden, 
the piece of sculpture we have just mentioned, which her 
majesty had refused before, thinking she could not afford 
to pay for it. He left to his children a statue of Truth, 
and a fortune of 400,000 Roman crowns. 

Bernini was of an ordinary person and dark complexion- 
his face indicated genius ; his look was lively and sprio-htK-, 
but strongly expressive, when in anger. Although of a 
fiery temperament, he could not bear the rays of the sun 
without being incommoded. His health was very delicate 
until he arrived at his fortieth year, but after that it ap- 
peared confirmed, and he bore the greatest fatigues of 
body and mind, without being visited by any illness, dur- 
ing the whole of his long life. In his diet he was tem- 
perate, except in the article of fruit. He spoke guardedly 
of the works of other artists, and with great modesty of his 
own. Of the antique statues he gave the preference to the 
Laocoon, and to tlie Torso ; and used thus to class the 
great painters, Raphael, Corregio, Titian, Annibal Car- 
rache, &c. 

As an artist, although he must ever stand high, yet his 
reputation did not increase with his years. He was of 
opinion that in order to be distinguished, the artist must 
place himself above all rules, and strike out a new path for 
himself, and this he certainly did in some degree, but his 
success was neither uniform nor permanent. But his own 
confessions, when at the close of life he reviewed his 
works, are sufficient to silence all criticism. He then dis- 


covered that in endeavouring to remove from his mind the 
restraint of rules, and all imitation of the antique and of 
nature, he fell into a manner; that he mistook facility of 
execution for the inspiration of genius, and that in endea- 
vouring to heighten the expression of tiie graceful, he be- 
came affected, and encumbered beauty with a superfluity 
of ornament. In the mean time, however, the vast influ- 
ence of his name produced many imitators, and his merit, 
great as it may still be seen in his existing works, was ra- 
ther unfavourable to the advancement of the arts. The 
memoirs of Charles Perrault, published in 1759, contain 
many curious particulars of Bernini. ' 

BE11NI8 (Francis Joachim de Pierres), count of 
Lyons, and a cardinal and statesman of France, was born 
at Marcel de I'Ardeche, May 22, 1715, of a noble and 
ancient family, but not very rich ; which circumstance 
induced his friends to bring him up to the church, as the 
most likely profession in which he might rise. In this they 
were not disappointed, as he gradually attained the highest 
ecclesiastical dignities. When young he was placed at 
the seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris, and after remaining 
there some years, he appeared in the world with every 
personal accomplishment that could introduce him into 
notice ; but his morals appear to have been for some time 
an obstruction to promotion. The cardinal de Fleury, 
then prime-minister, who had the patronage of all favours, 
and who had promised him his countenance, thinking him 
of a spirit too worldly for the church, sent for him and 
gave him a lecture on his dissipated conduct, concluding 
with these words : " You can have no expectations of pro- 
motion, while I live," to which the young abbe Bernis, 
making a profound bow, replied, " Sir, I can wait !'* 
Some think this bon mot, which became very current, was 
not original ; but it is certain that Bernis remained for a 
long while in a state not far removed from poverty, and 
yet contrived, by means of strict parsimony, to make a 
decent figure at the houses to which he was invited. 
Being a writer' of verses, and consequently a dealer in 
compliments, he was always acceptable, and at length by 
madame Pompadour's interest, was introduced to Louis XV. 
The good effects of this, at first, were only an apartment 

J Bi«s. Universelle. — Diet. Hist. — Moreri. — Reynolds's Works, vol. I. p. 87 ; 
II. p. 27.— Pennant's Hist, of Loudon. — Dodd's Cliuich History, vol. 111. p. 38, 
-~Walpoie's Painters. 

120 B E R N I S. 

in the Tuilcrics, to "hith his patroness added the furniture, 
and a pension of fifteen hundred livres ; yet it soon led to 
greater matters. Havin.; been appointed ambassadtjr to 
Venice, he was remarked to have acquired the good opinion 
and confidence of a state rather difficult to please in ap- 
pointments of this description, and of this thej'^ gave him a 
strong proof, in a contest they had with pope Benedict XIV. 
who appointed Bernis as his negociator. On this occasion 
the state of Venice approved the choice, the consequence 
of vvliich was, that Bernis effected a reconciliation to the 
entire satisfaction of both parties. On his return, he be- 
came a great favourite at court, acquired considerable in- 
fluence, and at length, being admitted into the council, 
was appointed foreign minister. But in this situation he 
was either unskilful or unfortunate; the disasters of the 
seven years war, 'and the peace of 1763, were laid to his 
charge ; but according to Duclos, he was less to blame than 
his colleagues, and it is certain that in some instances he 
has been unjustly censured. It was said, in particular, 
that he argued for a declaration of war against Prussia, be- 
cause Frederick the Great had ridiculed his poetry in the 
following line, 

^' Evitez de Bernis la sterile abondance j" 

but the fact was, that Bernis always contended, in council, 
for an alliance with Prussia, and that in opposition to the 
well-known sentiments of Louis XV. and madame Pompa- 
dour. The misfortunes of his country, however, induced 
him to resign : his resignation was accepted, and himself 
exiled ; a proof, perhaps, that his advice had been in op- 
position to the court. Be this as it ma^-, he bore his dis- 
grace with firmness, and when the period of his exile was 
over in 1764, he (being already a cardinal) was promoted 
by the king to the archbishopric of Albj^, and five years 
after sent to Rome as ambassador. A considerable time 
after this, he was appointed protector of the churches of 
France, and fixed his residence at Rome, where he re- 
mained almost the whole of his life. Two opportunities 
occurred in which he demonstrated his talents for neo-ocia- 
tion, the conclaves of 1769 and 1774. He had a hand, 
likewise, in the name of his court, but against his own 
opinion, in the dissolution of the Jesuits. During his re- 
sidence at Rome, his house was the general rendezvous of 
strangers of distinction, and many English travellers bear 

B E R NM S. 121 

testimony to the elegant manners imd hospitality of the 
cardinal de Bernis. In 1791, tlie aunts ot" Louis XVI. 
driven by the revolution from iheir family and country, 
took up their abode with him during their stay at Rome, 
but that same revolution robbed him of iiis possessions and 
his promotions, as lie refused to take the oaths then re- 
quired. In this distress, the court of Spain, at the solici- 
tation of the chevalier d'Azara, settled a pension on him, 
which he enjoyed but three years, dying at Rome Nov. 2, 
1794, in the eightieth year of his age. 

As a poet, the cardinal was very early noticed, and his 
poems were so highly esteemed as to procure his being ad- 
mitted into the French academy long before he had risen 
in the world. They have not, however, preserved their 
reputation, and no person perhaps could judge more 
severely of them than the cardinal himself, of whose 
talents they certainly were not worthy, nor did he like to 
hear them mentioned. After his death a poem of his 
composition was published, " Religion vengee," which was 
at least more becoming his rank than his juvenile eftusions. 
It contains some spirited passages and excellent sentiments, 
but has too much of the coldness and philosoph}- of age. 
His early poems were censured for being overloaded with 
gorgeous figures and flowers. Voltaire used to call him 
Babet-la-Bouqiietiere, the name of a fat nosegay woman, 
who used to ply at the door of the Opera. In other re- 
spects, Voltaire had a high opinion of Bernis's talents, as 
appears from their correspondence (published in 1799, 8vo.) 
in which Bernis appears to great advantage, and very su- 
perior to the flippant freedoms of his correspondent's style. 
In 1790, a volume of Bernis' letters to M. Paris du Verney, 
was published at Paris ; but these are not very interesting, 
unless as exhibitin<T some agreeable features in his charac- 
ter. Tlie cardinal's works, in prose and verse, have been 
often printed, and form 2 vols. 8vo. or l8mo. His poem 
on Religion was magnificently printed by Bodoni m fol. 
and 4to. and Didot pnnted a beautiful edition of his com- 
plete works in 1797, 8vo. ' 

BERNOULLI, the name of a family which has 
produced a succession of learned men, eminent in the 
study of mathematics. Eight of its members, within the 
space of a century, have been particularly distinguished 

' Bioif. UnivericUe. 


in this science. The ^ernouilli's were originally of Ant- 
werp, but were obliged to leave their country for the sake 
of religion, during the persecution raised by the duke of 
Alva. They then came to Francfort, and from that to 
Basil, where some of them arrived at the chief offices of 
the republic. The first who occurs in biographical collec- 
tions is, 

BERNOULLI (James), who was born at Basil, Dec. 27, 
1634. After he had studied polite literature, he learned 
the old philosophy of the schools ; and, having taken his 
degrees in the university of Basil, applied himself to di- 
vinity, not so much from inclination, as complaisance to 
his father. He gave very early proofs of his genius for 
mathematics, and soon became a geometrician, without any 
assistance from masters, and at first almost without books : 
for he was not allowed to have any books of this kind ; and 
if one fell by chance into his hands, he was obliged to con- 
ceal It, that he might not incur the displeasure of his fa- 
ther, who designed him for other studies. This severity 
made him choose for his device. Phaeton driving the cha- 
riot of the sun, with these words, " Invito patre sidera 
verso," " I traverse the stars against my father's inclina- 
tion :" it had a particular reference to astronomy, the part 
of mathematics to which he at first applied himself. But 
these precautions did not avail, for he pursued his fa- 
vourite study with great application. In 1676 he began 
his travels. When he was at Geneva, he fell upon a me- 
thod to teach a young girl to write, though she had lost 
her sight when she was but two months old. At Bour- 
deaux he composed universal gnomonic tables, but they 
were never published. He returned from France to his 
own country in 1G80. About this time there appeared a 
comet, the return of which he foretold, and wrote a small 
treatise upon it, which he afterwards translated into Latin. 
He went soon after to Holland, where he applied himself 
to the new philosophy, and particularly to that part of the 
mathematics which consists in resolving problems and de- 
monstrations. After having visited Flanders and Brabant, 
he went to Calais, and passed over to England. At Lon- 
don he contracted an acquaintance with all the most emi- 
nent men in the several sciences : and bad the honour of 
being frequently present at the philosophical societies held 
at the house of Mr. Boyle. He returned to his native 
country in 1682; and exhibited at Basil a course of e.xpe- 


fiments in natural philosoph}' and mechanics, which con- 
sisted of a variety of new discoveries. The same year he 
published his " Essay on a new system of Comets ;" and 
the year following-, his *' Dissertation on the weig'ht of the 
Air." About tliis time Leibnitz liaving- pubhshed, in tlie 
Acta Eruditorum at Leipsic, some essays on ids new " Cal- 
culus Differentialis," but concealing the art and method 
of it, Mr. Bernoulli and his brother Jolin discovered, by 
the little which they saw, the beauty and extent of it : this 
induced them to endeavour to unravel the secret; which 
they did with such success, that Leibnitz declared that the 
invention belonged to them as much as to himself. 

In 1687, James Bernoulli succeeded to the professorship 
of mathematics at Basil : a trust which he discharged with 
great applause ; and his reputation drew a great number 
of foreigners from all parts to attend his lectures. In 1699 
he was admitted a foreign member of the Academy of 
Sciences of Paris; and in 1701 the same honour was con- 
ferred upon him by the Academy of Berlin : in both of 
which he published several ingenious compositions, about 
the years 1702, 3, and 4. He wrote also several pieces ia 
the " Acta Eruditorum" of l^eipsic, and in the " Journal 
des Scavans." His intense application to study brought 
upon him the gout, and by degrees a slow fever, which 
put a period to his life the IGth of August 1705, in the 
5Istyear of his age. — Archimedes having found out the 
proportion of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder, 
ordered them to be engraven on his monument: in imita- 
tion of him, Bernoulli appointed that a logarithmic spiral 
curve should be inscribed on his tomb, with these words, 
" Eadem mutata resurgo ;" in allusion to the hopes of the 
resurrection, which are in some measure represented by 
the properties of that curve, which he had the honour of 

James Bernoulli had an excellerit genius for invention 
and elegant simplicity, as well as a close application. He 
was eminently skilled in all the branches of the mathema- 
tics, and contributed much to the promoting the new ana- 
lysis, infinite series, &c. He carried to a great height 
the theory of the quadrature of the parabola ; the geometry 
of curve lines, of spirals, of cycloids and epicycloids, His 
works, that had been published, were collected, and printed 
in 2 volumes 4to, at Geneva in 1744-. At the time of his 
death he was occupied on a great work entitled " De Arte 


Conjectandi," which was pubhshed in 4to, in 1713. It 
contains one of the best and most elegant introductions to 
Infinite Series, &c. T: is posthumous work is omitted in 
the collection of his works above mentioned, as is a letter 
of his printed for the first time by M. Bossut in the " Jour- 
nal de Physique," Sept. 1792,' 

BERNOULLI (John), the brother of the preceding, 
and a celebrated mathematician, was born at Basil the 7th 
of August 1667. His father intended him for trade; but 
his own inclination was at first for the belles-lettres, which 
however, like his brother, he left for mathematics. He 
laboured with his brother to discover the method used by 
Leibnitz, in his essays on the Differential Calculus, and 
gave the first principles of the Integral Calculus. Our 
author, with messieurs Huygens and Leibnitz, was the first 
who gave the solution of the problem proposed by James 
Bernoulli, concerning the catenary, or curve formed by a 
chain suspended by its two extremities. 

John Bernoulli had the degree of doctor of physic at 
Basil, and two years afterward was named professor of 
mathematics in the university of Groningen. It was here 
that he discovered the mercurial phosphorus or luminous 
barometer ; and where he resolved the problem proposed 
by his brother concerning Isoperimetricals. On the death 
of his brother James, the professoi* at Basil, our author re- 
turned to his native country, against the pressing invita- 
tions of the magistrates of Utrecht to come to that city, 
and of the university of Groningen, who wished to retain 
him. The academic senate of Basil soon appointed him to 
succeed his brother, without assembling competitors, and 
contrary to the established practice : an appointment which 
he held during his whole life. 

In 1714 was publisiied his treatise on " the management 
of Ships;" and in 1730, his memoir on "the elliptical 
figure of the Planets" gained- the prize of the academy of 
sciences. The same academy also divided the prize, for 
their question concerning the inclination of the planetary 
orbits, between our author and his son Daniel. John Ber- 
noulli was a member of most of the academies of Europe, 
and received as a foreign associate of that of Paris in 1699. 
After a long life spent in constant study and improvement 
of all the brances of the mathematics, he died full of 

1 '5en. Diet.— Moreri.— Biog. Univ.— Sa.xii Onomasticon.— Hutton's Math, 


honours the first of January 1748, in the 81st year of his 
age. Of five sons which he had, three pursued the same 
sciences with himself. One of tl)ese died before him ; the 
two others, Nicolas and Daniel, he lived to soe become 
eminent and much respected in the; same sciences. The 
writings of this great man were dispersed through the pe- 
riodical memoirs of several academies, as well as in many 
separate treatises. And the whole of them were carefully 
collected and published at Lausanne and Geneva, 1742, 
in 4 vols. 4to; but this is still not quite perfect without his 
correspondence with Leibnitz, published under the title, 
" Gul. Leibnitii et Johan. Eernouillii commercium philoso- 
phicum et mathematicum," Lausanne & Geneva, 1745, 
2 vols. 4to. ' 

BERNOULLI (Daniel), a celebrated physician and 
philosopher, and son of John Bernoulli last mentioned, was 
born at Groningen Feb. the 9th, 1 iVO, where his father 
was then professor of mathematics. He was mtended by 
his father for trade, but his genius led him to other pursuits. 
He passed some time in Italy; and at twenty-four years of 
age he declined the honour oftered him of becoming pre- 
sident of an academy intended to have been established at 
Genoa. He spent several years with great credit at Pe- 
tersburgh ; and in 173:3 returned to Basil, where his father 
was then professor of mathematics ; and here our author 
successively filled the chair of physic, of natural and of 
speculative philosophy. In his work " Exercitationes Ma- 
thematicEe," 1724, he took the only title he then had, viz. 
** Son of John Bernoulli," and never would suffer any other 
to be added to it. This work was published in Italy, while 
he was there on his travels ; and it classed him in the rank 
of inventors. In his work, " Hydrodynamica," published 
in 4to at Strasbourg, in 1738, to the same title was also 
added that of Med. Prof. Basil. 

Daniel Bernoulli wrote a multitude of other pieces, which 
have been published in the Mem. Acad, of Sciences at 
Paris, and in those of other academies. He gained and 
divided ten prizes from the academy of sciences, which 
were contended for by the most illustrious mathematicians 
in Europe. The only person who has had similar success 
of the same kind, is Euler, his countryman, disciple, rival, 

1 Cen. Diet. — Moreri. — Biog. Univ. — Saxii Onoinasticon. — Mutton's Math. 


and friend. His first prize he gained at twenty-four years 
of age. In 1734 be divided one with his father; which 
hurt the family union ; for the father considered the con- 
test itself as a want of respect; and the son did not suf- 
ficiently conceal that he thought (v\hat was really thp 
case) his own piece better than his father's. And besides, 
he declared for Newton, against whom his father had con- 
tended all his life. In 1740 our author divided the prize, 
*' On the Tides of the Sea," with Kuler and Maclaurin. 
The academ}' at the same time crowned a fourth piece, 
whose chief merit was that of being Cartesian ; but this was 
the last public act of adoration paid b} the academy to the 
authority of the author of the Vortices, wtiich it had 
obeyed too long. In 171-8 Daniel Bernoulli succeeded his 
father John in the academy of sciences, who had succeeded 
liis brother James ; this place, since its first erection in 
1699, having never been without a Bernoulli to fill it. 

Our author was extremely respected at Basil ; and to 
bow to Daniel Bernoulli, when they met him in the streets, 
was one of the first lessons which every father gave every 
child. He was a man of great simplicity and modesty of 
manners. He used to tell two little adventures, which he 
said had given him more pleasure, than all the other ho- 
nours he had received. Travellinsj with a learned strau'j-er, 
who, being pleased with his conversation, asked his name; 
" I am Daniel Bernoulli," answered he with great mo- 
desty ; " And I," said the stranger (who thought he meant 
to laugh at him), " am Isaac Newton." Another time 
having to dinner with him the celebrated Koenig the ma- 
thematician, who boasted, with some degree of self-com- 
placency, of a difficult problem he had resolved with much 
trouble, Bernoulli went on doing the honours of his table, 
and when they went to drink coffee he presented Koenio- 
with a solution of the problem mt)re elegant than his own. 
After a long, usefid, and honourable life, Daniel Bernoulli 
died the 17th of March 1782, in the eighty-third year of 
his age. ' 

BKUNOULLI (John), the grandson of the preceding 
John, was born at Basil Nov. 4, 1744, and died at Berlin 
July 13, J 807. He studied at Basil and Neufchatel, at- 
taching himself chiefly to philosophy, mathematics, and 

1 Gen. Diet. — Moreri. — Biog. Univ, — Saxii Onomabticon, — Hutton's Math. 



astronomy. At the age of nineteen, he was invited to the 
place of astronomer in the academy of Berhn, and some 
years after, having obtained permission to travel, he vi- 
sited Germany, England, and France, and in his subse- 
quent travels, Italy, Russia, Poland, &c. From the year 
1779, he resided at Berlin, where he was appointed head 
of the mathematical class of the academy. He was also a 
member of the academies of Petersburgh and Stockholm, 
and of the royal society of London. Like all the other 
branches of his family, he was a laborious writer. The 
following are the principal productions of his pen, 1. " Re- 
cueil pour les Astronomes," 1772 — 76, 3 vols. 8vo. 2. 
" Lettres sur ditFerents sujets, ecrites pendant le cours 
d'un voyage par I'Allemagne, la Suisse, la France meri- 
dionale, et ritalie,inl774 andr775," 3 vols. 8vo. 1777 — 79. 
3. " Description d'un Voyage en Prusse, en Russie, et eu 
Pologne, en 1777 et 1778," first published in German, 
1779, 6 vols, but afterwards in French, Warsaw, 1782. 4. 
*' Lettres Astronomiques," 1781, according to our autho- 
rity; but he published a work under this title about 1772, 
after he had made a literary excursion in 1768 to England, 
France, and Germany, containing his observations on the 
actual state of practical astronomy at Gottingen, Cassel, 
and other parts of Germany, and at Greenwich, Oxford, 
Cambridge, London, and Paris, 5. " A collection of voy- 
ages," in German, 16 vols. 1781 — 1785. 6. " The Ar- 
chives, or records of History and Geography," in German, 
8 vols. 1783 — 1788. 7. *' De la reforme politique des 
Juifs," translated from the German of Dohm, 1782, 12mo. 
8. " Elemens d'Algebre d'Euler," from the German, Ly- 
ons, 1785, 2 vols. 8vo. 9. " Nouvelles litteraires de divers 
pais," Berlin, 1776 — 79, 8vo, He edited also, in con- 
junction with professor Hindenburg, for three years, the 
" Mathematical Magazine," and wrote many papers in the 
Memoirs of the Berlin Academy, and the Astronomical 
Ephemerides, published in Berlin. ' 

BERNSTOliF (John Hartwig Ernest, Count), minis- 
ter of state in Denmark, was born at Hanover, May 13, 1712. 
Some relations he happened to have in Denmark invited 
him thither, where his talents were soon noticed, and em- 
ployed by the government. After having been ambassa- 
dor in several courts, he was placed by Frederick V. at 

* Bjog. Univeiselle. 

128 B E R N S T O R F. 

the head of foreign affairs. During the seven years war 
(1755 — 62) he preserved a system of strict neutrality, which 
proved eminently serviceable to the commerce and inter- 
nal prosperity of Denmark. In 1761, when the emperor 
of Russia, Peter III. threatened Denmark with war, and 
marciied his troops towards Holstein, Bernstorf exerted 
the utmost vigour in contriving means for the defence of 
the country, and the sudden death of Peter having averted 
this storm, he employed his skill in bringing about an al- 
liance between the courts of Copenhagen and St. Peters- 
burgh. In 1767 he succeeded in concluding a provisional 
treaty, by which the dukedom of Holstein, which Paul, 
the grand duke of Russia, inherited by the death of Peter 
III. was exchanged for Oldenburgh, which belonged to 
the king of Denmark. This finally took place in 1773, 
and procured an important addition to the Danish terri- 
tories. Soon after Bernstorf put a stop to the long contest 
that had been maintained respecting the house of Holstein 
having a right of sovereignty over Hamburgh, and that city 
was declared independent on condition of not claimino- re- 
payment of the money the city had advanced to the king of 
Denmark and the dukes of Holstein. These measures con- 
tributed highly to the reputation of count Bernstorf as a 
politician, but perhaps he derived as much credit from his 
conduct in other respects. He had acquired a large estate 
in the neighbourhood of Copenhagen, the peasants on 
which, as was the case in Denmark at that time, were 
slaves, and transferred like other property, Bernstorf, 
however, not only gave them their liberty, but granted 
them long leases, and encouraged them to cultivate the 
land, and feel that they had an interest in it. His tenants, 
soon sensible of the humanity and wisdom of his conduct, 
agi'eed to express their gratitude by erecting an obelisk 
in honour of him on the side of the great road leadino- to 
Copenhagen. Bernstorf was likewise a liberal patron of 
manufactures, commerce, and the fine arts. It was he 
who induced Frederick V. to give a pension for life to the 
poet Klopstock. On the death of that monarch, Bernstorf 
was continued in the ministry for the first years of the 
new reign, until 1770, when Struenzee being placed at 
the head of the council, Bernstorf was allowed to resign 
with a pension. He then retired to Hamburgh, but after 
the catastrophe of Struenzee, he was recalled, and was 
about to set out for Copenhagen when he died of an apo- 

B E R N S T O R F. 129 

plexy, Feb. 19, 1772. The political measures of this states- 
man belong to history, but his private character has been, 
the theme of universal applause. Learned, social, affable, 
generous, and high spirited, he preserved the affections 
of all who knew him, and throughout his whole administra- 
tion had the singular good fortune to enjoy at the same 
time courtly favour and popular esteem. His nephew, 
count Andrew Peter Bernstorf, who was born in 1735, and 
eventually succeeded him as foreign minister for Denmark, 
displayed equal zeal and knowledge in promoting the true 
interests of his country, which yet repeats his name with 
fervour and enthusiasm. It was particularly his object to 
preserve the neutrality of Denmark, after the French re- 
volution had provoked a combination of most of the powers 
of Europe ; and as long as neutral rights were at all re- 
spected, he succeeded in this wise measure. His state 
papers on the " principles of the court of Denmark con- 
cerning neutrality," in 1780, and his " Declaration to the 
courts of Vienna and Berlin," in 1792, were much ad- 
mired. In private hfe he followed the steps of his uncle, 
by a liberal patronage of arts, commerce, and manufactures, 
and like him was as popular in the country as in the court. 
He died Jan. 21, 1797.* 

BEROALD, or BEROALDE (Matthew), was born at 
St. Denis near Paris, and was educated at the coUeoe of 
the cardinal Lemoine, where he made great proficiency in 
the learned languages, and became an able theologian, 
mathematician, philosopher, and historian. In 1550 he was 
at Agen as preceptor to Hector Fregosa, afterwards bishop 
of that city, and here he was converted to the Protestant 
reliirion alontr with Scali^er and other learned men. When 
he arrived at Paris in 1558, he was chosen preceptor to 
Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne : but the persecution arising, 
he was arrested at Constance and condemned to be burnt, 
a fate from which he was preserved by the kindness of an 
officer who favoured his escape. He then went to Orleans, 
Rochelle, and Sancerre, and distinguished himself by his 
courage during the siege of this latter place by the marshal 
de Lachatre. In 157'1' we find him at Geneva, officiating 
as minister and professor of philosophy. His death is 
supposed to have taken place in 1576. He wrote a curious 
book entitled " Chronicon, sacraj Scripturse auctoritate 

* Biog, Universel'.e, ice. 

Vol. V. K 

130 B E R O A L D. 

constitutiim," Geneva, 1575, fol. In this he maintains that 
all chronological authorities must be sought in the holy 
scriptures Vossius and Scahger speak highly of his ta- 
lents. Draudius, in his " Bibliotheca Classica," mentions 
another work in which he was concerned, " G. Mercatoris 
et Matthei Beroaldi chronologia, ab initio mundi ex eclip- 
sis et observationibus astronomicis demonstrata," Basil, 
1577, Cologne, 1568, fol. We have some tloubts whether 
this is not the same as the work mentioned above. * 

BEROALDE de Verville (Francis), son to the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris, April 28, 1558, and educated 
in the principles of the reformed religion, but after his 
father's death, returned to those of the church of Rome, 
and became an ecclesiastic, having in 1593 obtained a 
canonry of St. Gatien of Tours. From his youth he ap- 
plied with, enthusiasm to scientific pursuits, and was 
scarcely twenty years old when he published in Latin and 
French, Besson's " Theatre of mathematical and mechani- 
cal instruments," with explanations. At that time, if he 
'may be credited, he had made many discoveries in mathe- 
matics, was an expert watchmaker and goldsmith, and his 
knowledge of the classics would have recommended him to 
the place of tutor to the son of a person of rank : but he 
was extremely vain, and perpetually flattering himself that 
he possessed invaluable secrets, and had discovered the 
philosopher's stone, perpetual motion, and the quadrature 
of the circle. His works certainly show that he had accu- 
mulated a considerable stock of various knowledge, but he 
was very deficient in judgment. His style is diffuse, and 
so perplexed even in his poems, that his works have had 
but few readers, and are in request only by the collectors 
of curiosities. The greater part of these were collected 
and published under the title of "Apprehensions spiri- 
tuelKs," Paris, 1583, 12mo: among them is a poem in 
imitation of sir Thomas More's Utopia. His translation 
of Columna's Hypnerotomachia is only that of John Mar-- 
tin altered and disfigured. Niceron has given a list of his 
other works (vol. XXXIV.) among which are, 1. *' Histoire 
veritable, ou Le Voyage des Princes fortunes," Paris, 1610, 
8vo. 2, " Le Cabinet de Minerve, &c."Rouen, 1601, 12mo. 
3. " Moyen de parvenir," printed under the title of " 8al- 
migondis," and that of " Coup-cu de la Melancholic," a 

' Gen. Diet. — Biog. Univ.— Moreri. 

B E n O A L D E. 131 

collection of licentious tales, in much request with a cer- 
tain description of collectors. Beroalde's death is conjec- 
tured to have happened in 1G12.' 

BEllOALDO (Philip), the elder, one of the most emi- 
nent scholars of the til'teenth century, descended from an 
ancient and nohle family of Bologna, was born there, 
Dec. 7, 1453, Having lost his father in his infanc}-, he 
was brought up by his mother with the greatest care, able 
masters hcing provide'! for his education, whose pains he 
rewarded by an uncommon proficiency, aided by an asto- 
nisliing memorj'. Besides the lessons which ihey gave him, 
he studied so hard by himself, that at the age of eighteen, 
he fell into a very dangerous disorder, from which he reco- 
vered with much dithculty. When it was discovered that 
he could learn nothing more from his tutors, it was thought 
that the best way to increase his knowledge was to emjjloy 
him in teaching others. When only nineteen, therefore, 
lie opened a school first at Bologna, and afterwards at 
Parma and Milan. After continuing this for some time, 
the high reputation of the university of Paris made him 
very anxious to visit that city, which accordingly he ac- 
complished, and gave public lectures for some months 
to a very large auditory, some say, of six hundred scholars. 
Every thing in science then was done by lecturing, and 
Beroaldo, no doubt gratified by the applause he had met 
with, would have remained lon<ier at Paris had he not been 
recalled to his own country, his return to which created a 
sort of public rejoicing. His first honour was to be ap^ 
pointed professor of belles-lettres in the university of Bo- 
logna, which he retained all his life, and although he would 
have been content with this, as the summit of his literary 
ambition, yet this promotion was followed by civic honours. 
In 1489 he was named one of the ancients of Bologna, 
and some years after made one of a deputation from the 
city, with Galeas Bentivoglio, to ])ope Alexander VI. He 
was also for several years, secretary of tlie republic. 

Amidst so much study and so many employments, Be- 
roaldo had his relaxations, which do not add so much to 
his reputation. He was fond of the pleasures of the table, 
and passionately addicted to plaj', to which he sacrificed 
all he was worth. He was an ardent votary of the fair sex; 
and thought no pains nor expence too great for accomplish- 

» Gen. Di<^t. — Biog. Univ. — Moreri. 
K 2 

132 B E R O A L D O. 

in^ his wishes. He dreaded wedlock, both on his own aC" 
count and that of his mother, whom he ahvays tenderly- 
loved. But at length he found a lady to his mind, and all 
those different passions that had agitated the youth of Be- 
roaldo were appeased the moment he was married. The 
mild and engaging manners of his bride inspired him with 
prudence and oeconomy. Beroaldo was from that time 
quite another man. Regular, gentle, polite, beneficent, 
envious of no one, doing no one wrong, and speaking 
no evil, giving merit its due, unambitious of honours, and 
content with humbly accepting such as were offered him. 
He had scarcely an enemy, except George Merula, whose 
jealousy was roused by Beroaldo's admiration of Politian, 
whom himself once admired, and afterwards took every 
ojvportunit}' to traduce as a scholar. Beroaldo's weak state 
of health brought on premature old age, and he died of a 
fever, which was considered as too slight for advice, July 
7,1505. His funeral was uncommonly pompous; the body, 
robed in silk and crowned with laurel, was followed by all 
persons of literary or civic distinction at Bologna. 

Ben^aldo's chief merit was his publication of good edi- 
tions of the ancient Roman authors, with learned commen- 
taries. His own style, however, some critics think, is af- 
fected, and more like that of his favourite Apuleius than 
that of Cicero, and his judgment is rather inferior to his 
learning. Among his publications we may enumerate, 
(referring to Niceron, vol. XXV. for the whole), 1. " Caii 
Plinii historia naturalis," Parma, 1476, Trevisa, 1479, and 
Paris, 1516, all in fol. He was not more than nineteen 
when he wrote the notes to this edition of Pliny, whom he 
afterwards took up and meant to have given more ample 
illustrations, but the copy on which he had written his notes 
being stolen at Bologna, he expressed at his dying hour 
his regret for the Inss. 2. " Annotationes in commentarios 
Servii Virgilianos," Bologna, 1482, 4to. 3. " Propertii 
opera cum commentariis," Bologna, 1487, Venice, 1493, 
Paris, 1604, all in fol. 4. "Annotationes in varios au- 
thorcs antiques," Bologna, 1488, Venice, 1489, Brescia, 
1496, fol. 5. " Orationes," Paris, 1490, Lyons, 1490 
and 1492, Bologna, 1491, &c. 6. A second collection, 
entitled " Orationes, preiationes, praelectiones, &c." Pa- 
ris, 1505, 1507 (or 1508), 1509, 1515, 4to. There are 
in this collection some small pieces of other authors, but 
near thirty by Beroaldo, both in prose and verse. Besides 

B E II O A L D O. 133 

these, our authority states, tliat there have been six more 
editions, and yet it is ranked among- the rare books. 7. 
" Dcclamatio ebriosi, scortatoris, et aleaioris," Bologna, 
1499, Paris, 1505, 4to, &c. According- to the title of a 
French translation, for we have not seen this work, it is a 
debate between a drunkard, gallant, and gamester, which 
of them, as the worst character, ought to be disinherited 
by his father. The French have two translations of it, 
one a sort of paraphrase, Paris, 15 56, 12mo, the other 
versified by Gilbert Damalis, Lyons, 1558, 8vo. Besides 
these, Beroaldo edited Suetonius, Apuleius, Aulus Gel- 
lius, Lucan, and some other classics, with notes. — He had 
a son, ViNCENi', who is ranked among the Bologncse wri- 
ters, only for having given an explanation of all the words 
employed by Bolognetti in his poem " II Constante." — 
Bolognetti was his uterine brother, and he wrote these 
explanations from the poem when in manuscript, and when 
it consisted of twenty cantos, but as it consisted of sixteen 
when published in 1566, his friend Maltacheti, to whom 
he bequeathed his explanation, published only what re- 
lated to these sixteen, under the title of " Dichiarazione 
di tutte le voci proprie del Constante, &c." Bologna, J 570, 
4to. * 

BEROALDO (Philip) the younger, a noble Bolognese, 
was born at Bologna, Oct. 1, 1472. He was the nephew 
and pupil of the elder Beroaldo, the subject of the pre- 
ceding- article, under whose instructions he made such 
early proficiency in the Greek and Latin languages, that 
in 1496, when he was only twenty-four years of age, he 
was appointed public professor of polite literature at Bo- 
logna. Havino- afterwards chosen the citv of Rome as his 
residence, he there attracted the notice of Leo X. then 
cardinal de Medici, who received him into his service, as 
his private secretary ; and when Leo arrived at the ponti- 
ficate, Beroaldo was nominated president of the Romaa 
academy, but probably relinquished this office on being 
appointed librarian of the Vatican. Bembo, Bibiena, 
Molza, Flaminio, and other learned men of the time, were 
his particular friends at Rome. He appeared also among 
the admirers of the celebrated Roman courtesan Imperiali, 
and is said to have been jealous of the superior pretensions 

^ Bio?. Universelle. — M n-firi. — Greswell's Politiaii. — Baillet JnsTPmens dts 
favaus. — Fj-eytjg's AUparalus Lillerarius. — Blount's CuHSuia. — Saxi; Oiiuiwast, 

134 B E 11 O A L D O. 

of Sadoleti (afterwards cardinal) to her favour. The 
warmth of his tempeiature, indeed, sufficiently appears in 
some of his poems, but such was the taste of that age, and 
particularly of the licentious court of Leo X. His death, 
whicii happened ii) 1518, is said to have been occasioned 
by some vexations which he experienced from that pontiff, 
as librarian, but this seems doubtful. 

Ke was equally learned with the elder Beroaldo, and 
wrote wMth more taste, particularly in poetr}-, but he 
was less laborious, his only productions being-, 1. " Tacitl 
Annalium libri quinque priores," Rome, 1515, Lyons, 1542, 
Paris, 1608, all in foi. This edition is dedicated to Leo X. 
at whose request it was undertaken, and who gave five hun- 
dred sequins for the manuscript, from which it was copied, 
to Angelo Arcomboldo, who brought it from the abbey of 
Corvey in Westphalia. Leo was likewise so pleased with 
what Beroaldo had done, that he denounced the sentence 
of excommunication, with the penalty of two hundred 
ducats, and forfeiture of the books, against any persons who 
should reprint the book within ten years without the ex- 
press consent of the editor. The other books of Tacitus, 
formerly published, are added to the editions above speci- 
fied. 2. " Odarum libri tres, et epigrammatum liber 
unus," Rome, 1530, 4to. These were received with such 
applause, particularly by the French nation, that he has 
had no less than six translators in that country, among 
whom is the celebrated Clement Marot, A part of them 
were incorporated in the " Delitiae poet. Italorum" of 
Toscano. ' 

BEROLDINGEN (Francis de), an eminent mineralo- 
gist, was born at St. Gall, Oct. 11, 1740, and died March 
8, 1798. He was a canon of Hildesheim and Osnaburgh, 
a member of several literarv societies, and had travelled 
into various countries, to investiijate the nature of the 


soil, the structure of mountains, and their mineral produc- 
tions. By this means he accumulated a great stock of in- 
formation which has given a value to his works, notwith- 
standing his inclination to hypotheses, and the indulgence 
6f certain prejudices. All his works are in German. Their 
subjects arc, 1. " Observations, doubts, and questions on 
Mineralogy, &c." 2 vols. 1778 — 1793, Svo. 2. "Ob- 
servations made during a tour to the quicksilver mines of 

^ Bioi. Universelie. — Roscoe's Leo.— Moreri.— Saxii Onomasticon. 

B E R O L D I N G E N. 135 

the Palatinate, ^cc." Berlin, 1788, 8vo. 3. "The Vol- 
canos of ancient and modern times considered piiysically 
and mineralogically," Manheim, 1791, 8vo. 4. "Anew 
theory on the Basaltes," printed in Crell's supplement to 
the annals of Chemistry, 5. " A description of die foun- 
tain of Drihonrg," Hildesheim, 1782, Svo. * 

BEROSUS, priest of the temple of Belus at Babylon, in 
the time of Ptolemy Philadelplnis. He wrote the history 
of ChaUlea, which is frequently quoted by the ancients, 
and of wiiich some curious fragments are preserved to us 
by Josephus ; but he attributed an ideal antiquity to his 
countr}^, and mingled iiis accounts with astrology. His 
predictions, according to Pliny, induced the Athenians to 
place a statue of him in their gynmasium with a gilded 
tongue. Five books of antiquities were printed under the 
name of Berosus, Antwerp, 1545, Svo, by Annius Viteibo, 
but they were soon discovered to be forgeries. " 

BERQUIN (Arnaud), a miscellaneous French writer, 
whose principal works are well-known in this country, 
was born at Bourdeaux, about 1749, and made his first 
appearance in the literary world in 1774, as the author of 
some Idyls, admired for their delicacy and sensibility. 
The same year he versified the " Pygmalion" of Rousseau ; 
and after publishing in 1775, Svo, " Tableaux Anglais," 
a translation of several English essays, he wrote some ro- 
mances, of which his " Genevieve de Brabant" was reckon- 
ed the best. He afterwards applied himself to the com- 
position of books for children, particularly his "Ami des 
Enfans," which has been translated into English, his " Lec- 
tures pour les Enfans, &,c." and published translations of 
" Sandford and Merton," and some other Englisn books 
calculated for the same purpose. All these are included 
in the edition of his works published by M. Renouard, Pa- 
ris, 1803, 20 vols. 1 8mo, except his "Tableaux Anglais." 
The " Ami des Enfans," the most celebrated and popu- 
lar of all his works, was honoured with the prize given by 
the Frencli academy for the most useful book that ap-« 
peared in 1784. He was for sonie time editor of the Mo- 
nitcur ; and, in conjunction with Messrs. Ginguene and 
Grouvelle, conducted the " Feuille villageoise." In 

• Biog, Univorselle. 

• Moreri. — Biog. L'niversellc. — Dupirt.— Saxii Onomaslicoa. 

136 B E R Q U I N. 

1791, he was proposed as a candidate for tutor to the 
Dauphin, but died the same year at Paris, Dec. 21. ' 

BERQUIN (Lewis de), a gentleman of Artois, and a 
man of great learning, was burnt for being a Protestant, 
at Paris, 1529. He was lord of a village, whence he took 
his name, and for some time made a considerable figure at 
the court of France, where he was honoured with the title 
of king's counsellor. Erasmus says, that his great crime 
was openly professing to hate the monks ; and hence arose 
his warm contest with William Quernus, one of the most 
violent inquisitors of his time. A charge of heresy was 
contrived against him, the articles of his accusation being 
extracted from a book which he had published, and he was 
committed to prison, but when the affair came to a trial, 
he was acquitted by the judges. His accusers pretended 
that he would not have escaped, had not the king inter- 
posed his authority ; but Berquin himself ascribed it en- 
tirely to the justice of his cause, and went on with equal 
courage in avowing his sentiments. Some time after, Noel 
Beda and his emissaries made extracts from some of his 
books, and having accused him of pernicious errors, he 
was again sent to prison, and the cause being tried, sen- 
tence was passed against him; viz. that his books be com- 
mitted to the flames, that he retract his errors, and make 
a proper submission, and if he refuse to comply, that he 
be burnt. Being a man of an undaunted inflexible spirit, 
he would submit to nothing; and in all probability would 
at this time have suffered death, had not some of the judges, 
who perceived the violence of his accusers, procured the 
affair to be again heard and examined. It is thought this 
was owing to the intercession of madame the regent. In the 
mean time Francis I. returning from Spain, and finding the 
danger his counsellor was in from Beda and his faction, wrote 
to the parliament, telling them to be cautious how they 
proceeded, for that he himself would take cogniz^mcje of 
the affair. Soon after Berquin was set at liberty, which 
gave him such courage, that he turned accuser against his 
accusers, and prosecuted them for irreligion, though, if he 
had taken the advice of Erasmus, he would have esteemed 
it a sufficient triumph that he had got free from the per- 
secution of such people. He was sent a third time to pri- 

» Biog. Univcrselle. — Diet. Hist. 

B E R Q U I N. 137 

son, and condemned to a public recantation and perpetual 
imprisonment. Refusing to acquiesce in this judgment, 
lie was condemned as an obstinate heretic, strangled on the 
Greve, and afterwards burnt. He suffered death with 
great constancy and resolution, April 17, 1529, being then 
about 40 years of age. The monk, who accompanied him 
on the scaffold, declared, that he hud observed in him 
signs of abjuration : which Erasmus however believes to be 
a falsehood. " It is always," says he, " their custom in 
like cases. These pious frauds serve to keep up tlieir 
credit as the avengers of religion, and to justify to the 
deluded people those who have accused and condemned 
the burnt heretic." Among his works are, 1. " Le vrai 
moyen de bien et cathohquement se confesser," a transla- 
tion from the Latin of Erasmus, Lyons, 1542, 16nio. 2. 
*' Le Chevalier Chretien," 1542, another translation from 
Erasmus. Of his other writings, we have some account in 
the following extract from Chevillier's History of Printing. 
*' In 1523, May 23, the parliament ordered the books of 
Lewis de Berquin to be seized, and communicated to the 
faculty of divinity, for their opinion. The book '' De ab- 
roganda Missa" was found upon him, witii some others of 
Luther's and Melancthon's books ; and seven or ei^rht 
treatises of which he was the author, some under these 
titles : '• Speculum Theologastrorum ;" " De usu & officio 
MissDC, &c." " Rationes Lutheri quibus omnes Christianos 
esse Sacerdotes rnolitur suadere," " Le D'ebat de Piete & 
Superstition." There were found also some books which 
he had translated into French, as " Reasons why Luthec 
has caused the Decretals and all the books of the Canon 
Law to be burnt ;" " The Roman Triad," and others. The 
faculty, after having examined these books, judged that 
they contained expressly the heresies and blasphemies of 
Luther. Their opinion is dated Friday, July 26, 1523, and 
addressed to the court of parliament. After having given 
their censure upon each book in particular, they conclude 
that they ought all to be cast into the tire ; that Berquin 
having made himself the defender of the Lutheran here- 
sies, he ought to be obliged to a public abjuration, and to 
be forbidden to compose any book for the future, or ta 
jnake any translation prejudicial to the faith." ' 

! Gen, Diet. — Foppen Bibl. Bcl^ica. — Moreri. 

13$ B E R R E T I N I. 

BERRETINI (Pietro) DA CORTONA, an eminent 
artist, was born at Cortona, in 1596, and according to 
some writers, was a disciple of Andrea Commodi, though 
others affirm that he was the disci{3le of Baccio Ciarpi ; and 
Argenville says, he was successively the disciple of both. 
He went young to Rome, and applied himself diligently to 
study the antiques, the works of Raphael, Buonaroti, and 
Polidoro ; by which he so improved his taste and his hand, 
that he distinguished himself in a degree superior to any 
of the artists of his time. And it seemed astonishing that 
two such noble designs as were the Rape of the Sabines, 
and the Battle of Alexander, which he painted in the Pa- 
lazzo Sacchetti, could be the product of so young an 
artist, when it was observed, that for invention, disposi- 
tion, elevation of thought, and an excellent tone of colour, 
they were equal to the performances of the best masters. 
He worked with remarkable ease and freedom ; his figures 
are admirably grouped ; his distribution is elegant; and the 
Chiaroscuro is judiciously observed. Nothing can be more 
grand than his ornaments ; and where landscape is intro- 
duced, it is designed in a superior taste ; and through his 
whole compositions there appears an uncommon grace. 
But De Piles observes, that it was not such a grace as was 
the portion of Raphael and Correggio ; but a general grace, 
consisting rather in a habit of making the airs of his heads 
always agreeable, than in a choice of expressions suitable 
to each subject. By the best judges it seems to be agreed, 
that although this master was frequently incorrect ; though 
not always judicious in his expressions ; though irregular 
in his draperies, and apt to design his figures too short 
and too heavy ; yet, by the magnificence of his composi- 
tion, the delicate airs of his faces, the grandeur of his de- 
corations, and the astonishing suavity and gracefulness of 
the whole together, he must be allowed to have been the 
mo-t agreeable mannerist that an}- age hath produced. He 
had an eye for colour; but his colouring in fresco is far 
superior to what he performed in oil ; nor do his easel pic- 
tures appear as finished as might be expected from so great 
a master, when compared what what he painted in a larger 
size. Some of the most capital works of Pietro, in fresco, 
are in the Barberini palace at Rome, and the Palazzo Pitti 
at Florence. Of bis oil-pictures, perhaps none excels the 
altar-piece of Ananias healing St. Paul, in the church of 

B E R R E T I N I. 139 

tlie Concezione at Rome. A^lexandcr VII. created him 
knight of tlie golden spur. Tiie grand duke Ferdinand II. 
also conferred on him several marks of his esteem. That 
prince one day admiring the figure of a child weeping, 
which he had just painted, he only gave it one touch of 
the pencil, and it appeared laughing ; then, with ant)ther 
touch, he put it in its former state : "Prince," said Bjrre- 
tini, " you see how easily children laugh and cry." He 
was so laborious, that the gout, with which he was tor- 
mented, did nnt prevent him from working; but his seden- 
tary life, in conjunction with his extreme application, 
auamcnted that cruel disease, of which he died in 1GG9.' 

BERRIMAN (William), a pious and learned English 
divine, was born in London, September 24, 16 88. His 
father, John Berriman, was an apothecary in Bishopsgate- 
street ; and his grandfather, the reverend Mr. Berriman, 
was rector of Beanigiun, in the county of Surrey. His 
grammatical education he received partly at Banbury, in 
Oxfordshire, and partly at Merchant-taylors' school, Lon- 
don. At seventeen years of age he was entered a com- 
moner at Oriel college, in (Xxford, where he prosecuted 
his studies with grv-at assitiuity and success, acquiring a 
critical slcill in the Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic, and 
Syriac. In the interpretation of the Scriptures, he did not 
attend to that momentary light which fancy and imagina- 
tion seemed to flash upon them, but endeavoured to explain 
them by the rules of grammar, criticism, logic, and ihe 
analogy of faith. The articles of doctrine and di-cipiine 
which he ilvew from the sacred wri,tings, he traced through 
the primitive church, and confirmed by the evidence of 
the fathers, and the decisions of the more generally re- 
ceived councils. On the 2d of June, 1711, Mr. Berriman 
was admitted to the degree of master of arts. After he 
left the university, he o'Hciated, for some time, as curate 
and lecturer of Allhallows in Thames-street, and lecturer 
of St. Michael's, Queeidiithe. The first occasion of his 
appearing in print arose from the Trinitarian controversy. 
He published, in 1719, *' A seasonable review of Mr. Whis- 
ton's account of Primitive Doxologies," which was followed, 
in the same year, by " A second review." These pieces 
recommended him so eflectuaily to the notice of Dr. Ro- 
binson, bishop of London, that in 1720, he was appointed 

* Piikington. — D'Argenville, &c. 

140 B E R R I M A N. 

his lordship's domestic chaplain ; and so well satisfied was 
that prelate with Mr. Berrinian's integrity, abihties, and 
appUcation, that he consulted and entrusted him in most 
of his spiritual and secular concerns. As a further proof 
of his approbation, the bishop collated him, in April 1722, 
to the living of St. Andrevv-Undershaft. On the 25th of 
June, in the same year, he accumulated, at Oxford, the 
degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity. In 1723, Dr. 
Berriman lost his patron, the bishop of London, who, in 
testimony of his regard to his chaplain, bequeathed him 
the iitth part of his large and valuable library. In conse- 
quence of the evidence our learned divine had already 
given of his zeal and ability in defending the commonly- 
received doctrine of the Trinity, he was appointed to preach 
lady Mover's lectm-e, in 1723 and 1724. The eight ser- 
mons he had delivered on the occasion, were published in 
1725, under the title of "An historical account of the 
Trinitarian Controvery." This work, in the opinion of 
Dr. Godolphin, provost of Eton college, merited a much 
greater reward than lady Moyer's donation. Accordingly, 
lie soon found an opportunity of conferring such a reward 
upon Dr. Berriman, by inviting him, without solicitation, 
to accept of a fellowship in his college. Our author was 
elected fellow in 1727, and from that time he chiefly re- 
sided at Eton in the Summer, and at his parsonage-house 
in the Winter. His election into the college at Eton was a 
benefit and ornament to that society. He was a faithful 
steward in their secular affairs, was strictly observant of 
their local statutes, and was a benefactor to the college, in 
his will. While the doctor's learned productions obtained 
for him the esteem and friendship of several able and va- 
luable men, and, among the rest, of Dr. W^aterland, it is 
not, at the same time, surprising, that they should excite 
antagonists. One of these, who then appeared without a 
name, and who at first treated our author with decency 
and respect, was Dr. Conyers Middleton ; but afterwards, 
when Dr. Middleton published his Introductory Discourse 
to the Inquiry into the miraculous powers of the Christian 
church, and the Inquiry itself, he chose to speak of 
Dr. Berriman with no small degree of severity and con- 
tempt. In answer to the attacks made upon him, our di- 
vine printed in 1731, "A defence of some passages in 
the Historical Account." In 1733, came out his " Brief 
remarks on Mr. Chandler's introduction to the history of 

B E R R I M A N. 141 

the Inquisition," which was followed by " A review of the 
Remarks. His next publication was his course of sermons 
at Mr. Boyle's lecture, preached in 1730, 1731, and 1732, 
and published in 2 vols. 1733, Svo. The author, in this 
work, states the evidence of our relii:;jion from the Old 
Testament; vindicates the Christian interpretation of the 
ancient prophecies ; and points out the historical chain, 
and connection of these prophecies. In the preface, he 
asserts the authority of Moses, as an inspired historian and 
law-giver, against his old antagonist Dr. Middleton ; who, 
in a letter to Dr. Waterland, had disputed the literal ac- 
count of the fall, and had expressed himself with his usual 
sceDticism concernins: the divine orio-in of the Mosaic in- 
stitution, as well as the divine inspiration of its founder. 
Besides the writinccs we have mentioned, Dr. Berrimaa 
printed a number of occasional sermons, and, among the 
rest, one on the Sunday before his induction to his living 
of St. Andrew Undershaft, and another on Family Religion. 
He departed this life at his house in London, on the 5tli 
of Februar}-, 1749-50, in the G2d year of his age. His 
funeral sermon was preached by the rev. Glocester Ridley, 
LL. B. containing many of the particulars here noticed. 
Such was Dr. Berriman's integrity, that no ill usage could 
provoke him, no friendship seduce him, no ambition tempt 
him, no interest buy him, to do a wrong, or violate his con- 
science. When a certain right reverend prelate, unso- 
licited, and in pure respect to his distinguished merit, 
offered him a valuable prebend in his cathedral church of 
Lincoln, the doctor gratefully acknowledged the generosity 
of the offer, but conscientiously declined it, as he was 
bound from accepting of it by the statutes of his college. 
The greatest difficulty of obtaining a dispensation was from 
himself. In the year of his decease, forty of his sermons 
were published, in two volumes, Svo, by his brother, John 
Berriman, M. A. rector of St. Alban's, Wood-street, under 
the title of " Christian doctrines and duties explained and 
recommended." In 1763, nineteen sermons appeared in 
one volume, under the same title. With respect to Dr. 
Berriman's practical discourses, it is allowed that they are 
grave, weighty, and useful ; and well fitted to promote 
pious and virtuous dispositions, but belong to a class which 
have never been eminently popular. 

The Rev. John Beuriman, above-mentioned, was born in 
1689, and educated at St. Edmund hall, Oxford, and 

142 • B E R R I M A N. 

after taking orders, was for many years curate of St. Swithin, 
and lecturer of St. Mary Aldermanbury, but in 1744 was 
presented to the rectory of St. Aiban's, which he retained 
until his death, Dec. 8, 176 8, being then the oldest incum- 
bent in London. He published a sermon on the 30th of 
January, 1721 ; and in 1741, " Eight Sermons at lady 
Moyer's lecture," entirely of the critical kind, and giving 
an account of above a hundred Greek MSS. of St. Paul's 
Epistles, many of them not before collated.' 

BEIIRUGUETE (Alonzo), an eminent Spanish pain- 
ter, sculptor, and architect, was born at Parades de Nava, 
near Valladohd. He went when young into Italy, studied 
under Michael Anffelo, and became the friend and inti- 
mate of Andrea del Sarto, Baccio, BandincUi, and other 
celebrated artists. After having finished his education, he 
returned to Spain, and afforded eminent proofs of his ta- 
lents in the Prado of Madrid, and the Alhambra of Gre- 
nada. The emperor Charles V. who admired his extensive 
and various talents, bestowed on him the order of knight- 
hood, and appointed him gentleman of his ciiamber. After 
estabHshing a high reputation and a great fortune, Ber- 
ruguete died at Madrid in 1545, advanced in years. In 
the cathedral of Toledo, is one of his finest sculptures, the 
Transfiguration, and some other beautiful carvings in the 
choir, one side of which was thus decorated by him, the 
other by Philip de Borgona. His style possessed much of 
the sublime manner of his great master, and he was justly 
admired by his countrymen, as being the first who intro- 
duced the true principles of the line arts into Spain. " 

BERRUYER (Joseph Isaac), a celebrated Erench wri- 
ter, of the order of Jesus, was born at Rouen in Nor- 
mandy, Nov. 7, 1681. He was designed for the pulpit, 
but the weakness of his frame not allowing him to declaim, 
he gave himself up to the quiet but severe studies of the 
closet, and produced some critical works of importance, 
which his countrymen in their spirit of intolerance thought 
fit to suppress: and the reading of his " Histoire du peu- 
ple de Dieu" was forbid by the archbishop of Paris, which 
the Sorbonne were six years reviewing. The first parr of 
this work made its appearance in 8 vols. 4to, with a sup- 
plement, 1728, reprinted in 1733, 8 vols. 4to, and 10 vols. 

* Biog. Brit. — Nichols's Literary Anecdotes. — Ilurwood's Ahimni Etonenscs. 
—Dr. Ridley's Fun. Sermon. — Uiu^^ripbical Dictionary, 'id fdit. 1784. 
» Bios. Uaiverselle. — Cumberland's Anecdotes of Spanish painters, vol. I. 22. 

B E R R U Y E R. 143 

12mo ; this ends with the times of the Messiah : the second 
part came out in 1753 in 4 vols. 4to, and 8 vols. 12mo; 
and the third part in 2 vols. 4to, or 5 vols, in 12mo, con- 
taining a literal paraphrase of the epistles, was printed in 
1758, notwithstanding it was. censured and condemned by 
the pope and clergy as containing abominable errors. 
Abominable absurdities it certainly contained, the history 
of the Jews being detailed with all the atiectation of senti- 
mental romance. The author died at Paris, Feb. 18, 

BERRY (Sir John), a naval commane^er, a native of 
Devonshire, where he was born in 1635, became success- 
ful against the Buccaneers who infested the Atlantic ocean, 
and distinijuished himself at the famous battle of South- 
wold-bay, for which he was knighted. In 1682, he com- 
manded the Gloucester frigate, on board of which the 
duke of York embarked for Scotland ; but by the careless- 
ness of the pilot, the vessel was lost at the mouth of the 
Humber. In the midst of this confusion, sir John retained 
that presence of mind for which he was always remarkable, 
and by that means preserved the duke and as many of his 
retiime as the long-boat would carry. Soon after he was 
promoted to a flag, and commanded as vice-admiral under 
lord Dartmouth, at the demolition of Tangier, and on his re- 
turn was made a commissioner of the navy ; which post he 
enjoyed till his death. He was in great favour with king 
James II. who made choice of him to command under lord 
Dartmouth, when the prince of Orange landed in Eng- 
land ; and when his lordship left the fleet, the whole com- 
mand devolved on sir John Berry, who held it till the ships 
were laid up. After the revolution sir John continued in 
his posts, and was frequently consulted by king William, 
who entertained a high opinion of his abilities in military 
affairs; but he was poisoned in the beginning of February, 
1691, on board one of his majesty's ships at Portsmouth, 
where he was paying her otf, in the 56th year of his age. 
The cause of this catastrophe was never discovered, and it 
was probably accidental. His body brought to Lon- 
don and interred at Stepney, and a line monument after- 
wards erected to his memory. ^ 

BERRY (VV^illiam), an ingenious Scotch artist, was one 
of those who owe more to nature than to instruction : of 

* Biog-. Universelle. — Diet. Hist. 2 Prince's Worthies of Devon, 

144. B E R R Y. 

his parentage we have no account, but he appears to have 
been born about 1730, and at the usual time bound appren- 
tice to Mr. Proctor, a seal engraver in Edinburgh. How 
]ono- he remained witli him is uncertain, but for some years 
after he began business for himself, he pursued the same 
branch with his teacher. At this time, however, his designs 
were so elegant, and his mode of cutting so clean and sharp, 
as soon to make him be taken notice of as a superior artist. 
At length by constantly studying and admiring the style 
of the antique entaglios, he resolved to attempt something 
of that sort himself; and the subject he chose was a head 
of sir Isaac Newton, which he executed in a style of such 
superior excellence, as astonished all who had an oppor- 
tunity of observing it. But as he was a man of the most 
unaffected modesty, and as this head was given to a friend 
in a retired situation in life, it was known only to a few in 
the private circle of his acquaintance ; and for many years 
was scarcely ever seen by any one who could justly appre- 
ciate its merit. Owing to these circumstances, Mr. Berry 
was permitted to waste his time, during the best part of his 
life, in cutting heraldic seals, for which he found a much 
greater demand than for fine heads, at such a price as 
could indemnify him for the time that was necessarily spent 
in bringing works of such superior excellence to perfection. 
He often told the writer of this account, that though some 
gentlemen pressed him very much to make fine heads for 
them, yet he always found that, when he gave in his bill 
for an article of that kind, though he had charged perhaps 
not more than half the money that he could have earned in 
the same time at his ordinary work, they always seemed 
to think the price too high, which made him exceedingly 
averse to emploj'ment of that sort. 

The impulse of genius, however, got so far the better of 
prudential considerations, that he executed, during the 
course of his life, ton or twelve heads, any one of which 
would have been sufficient to insure him immortal fame 
among judges of excellence in this department. Among 
these were the heads of Tiiomson the poet, Mary queen of 
Scots, Oliver Cromwell, Julius Cfcsar, a young Hercufes, 
and Mr. Hamilton of Bangour, the poet. Of these only 
two copies were from the antique, and they were executed 
iu the finest stvle of those celebrated entaglios. The 
young Hercules in particular, which, if we mistake not, 
belongs to the earl of Findlater, possessed that unatTected 

BERRY. 145 

pluin simplicity, and hatural concurrence in the same ex- 
pression of youthful innocence through all the features, 
conjoined with strength and dignity, which is, perhaps, the 
most difficult of all expressions to be hit otf by the most 
faithfid imitator of nature. 

Mr. Berry possessed that very nice perceptive faculty, 
which constitutes the essence of genius in the fine arts, in 
such a high degree, as to prove even a bar to his attaining 
that superior excellence in this department, which nature 
had evidently qualified him for. Even in his best per- 
formance he thought he perceived defects, which no one 
else remarked, and which the circumstances above alluded 
to prevented him from correcting. While others admired 
with unbounded applause, he looked upon his own per- 
formances with a kind of vexation, at finding the execu- 
tion not to h'dve attained the high perfection he conceived 
to be attainable. And not being able to aftbrd the time to 
perfect himself in that nice department of his art, he be- 
came extren)ely averse to attempt it. Yet, in spite of this 
aversion, the few pieces above named, and some others, 
were extorted from him by degrees, and they came gra- 
dually to be known : and wherever they were known, they 
were admired, as superior to every thing produced in 
modern times, unless it was by Piccler of Rome, who in 
the same art, but with much greater practice in it, had 
justly attained a high degree of celebrity. Between the 
excellence of these two artists, connoisseurs differed in 
opinion ; some being inclined to give the palm to Berry^ 
while others preferred Piccler. The works of these two 
artists were well known to each other ; and each declared, 
with that manly ingenuousness, which superior genius alone 
can confer on the liuman mind, that the other was greatly 
his superior. 

Mr. Berry possessed not merely the art of imitating 
busts, or figures set before him, in which he could observe 
and copy the prominence or the depression of the parts, 
but he possessed a faculty which presupposes a much nicer 
discrimination ; that of being able to execute a figure in 
relievo, with perfect justness, in all its parts, which waa 
copied from a drawing or a painting upon a flat surface. 
This was fairly put to the test in the head he executed of 
Hamilton of Bangour, a person he never saw: it was not only 
one of the most perfect hkenesses that could be wished for, 
although he had only an imperfect sketch to copy, but there 

Vol. V. L 

146 BERRY 

was a correctness in the outline, and a truth and delicacjr 
in the expression of the features, highly emulous of the 
best antiques, which were indeed the models on which he 
formed his taste. 

Besides the heads above named, he also executed some 
full length figures both of men and other animals, in a 
style of superior elegance. But tnat attention to the in- 
terests of a numerous family, which a man of sound prin-. 
ciples, as Mr Berry was, could never allow him to lose 
sight of, made him forego these anmsing exertions, for the 
more lucrative, though less pleasing employment, of cut- 
ting heraluic seals, which ma}' be said to have been his 
constant employment from morning to night, for forty 
years together, with an assiduity that has few examples in 
modern times. In this department, he was without dispute 
the first artist of his time ; but even here, that modesty 
which was so peculiarly his own, and that invariable desire 
to give full perfection to every thing he put out of his 
hands, prevented him from drawing such emoluments from 
his labours as toey deserved. Of this the following anec- 
dote will serve as an illustration, and as an additional testi- 
mony of his very great skill. A certain noble duke, when 
he succeeded to his estate, was desirous of having a seal 
cut with his arms, he. properly blazoned upon it. But as 
there were no less than thirty-two compartments in the 
shield, which was of necessity confined to a very small 
space, so as to leave room for the supporters, and other 
ornaments, within the compass of a seal of an ordinary size, 
he found it a matter of great difficulty to get it executed. 
Though a native of Scotland himself, the duke never ex- 
pected to find a man of the first-rate eminence in Edin- 
burgh ; but applied to the most eminent seal -en gravers in 
London and Paris, all of whom declined it as a thing be- 
yond their power. At this time Berry, of whom he had 
scarcely heard, was mentioned to him in such a manner 
that he went to him, accompanied by a friend, and found 
him, as usual, sitting at his wheel. Without introducing 
the duke, the gentleman showed Berry an impression of a 
seal that the duchess dowager had got cut a good many 
years before by a Jew in London, who was dead before the 
duke thought of his seal, and which had been shewn to the 
others as a pattern, asking him if he would cut a seal the 
same with that. After exanuning it a little, Mr. Berry 
answered readily that he would. The duke, pleased and 

B E II II Y. 147 

astotiishecl at the same time, cried out, " Will you, in- 
deed !" Mr. Berry, who thought this implied some sort of 
doubt of his abilities, was a little piqued at it; and turning 
round to the duke, whom he had never seen before, nor 
knew ; *' Yes (said he,) sir ; if 1 do not make a better seal 
than this, I shall take no payment lor it." The duke, 
highly pleased, left the pattern with Mr. Berry, and went 
away. The pattern seal contained, indeed, the various 
devices on the thirty-two compartments, distinctly enough 
to be seen, but none of the colours were expressed. Mr. 
Berry, in a proper time, finished the seal ; on which the 
figures were not only done with superior elegance, but the 
colours on every part so distinctly marked, that a painter 
could delineate the whole, or a herald blazon it, with the 
most perfect accuracy. For this extraordinary exertion of 
talents, Jie charged no more than thirty-two guineas, though 
the pattern seal had cost seventy-five. Thus it was, that, 
notwithstanding he possessed talents of the most superior 
kind, and assiduity almost unequalled, observing at all 
times a strict economy in his family, Mr. Berry died at 
last, in circumstances that were not affluent, on the 3d of 
June, 1783, in the 53d year of his age, leaving a numerous 
family of children. Besides his eminence as an artist, he 
was distinguished by the integrity of his moral character, 
and the strict principles of honour which on all occasions 
intiuenced his conduct. ^- 

BERRYAT (John), physician in ordinary to the king, 
and intendant of the mineral waters of France, a corre- 
spondent of the academy of sciences, and member of that of 
Auxerre, who died in 1754, is chieHy known as the projec- 
tor of the " Collection Academique," containing extracts 
of the most important articles in the memoirs of various 
learned societies. He published the first two volumes at 
Dijon, 1754, 4to. The plan was good, but he gave the 
articles so much at length, that an abridgment would be 
necessary to render it useful. It was continued by Messrs. 
Guenau de Montbeillard, Buftbn, Daubenton, Larcher, <kc. 
and forms 33 vols. 4to, with the tables of the abb^ Rozier. 
Berryat also published " Observations physiques et medi- 
cinales sur les eaux minerales d'Epoigny," in the neigh- 
bourhood of Auxerre, and printed at Auxerre, 1752,12mo.* 

* I>r. James Anderson's Bee, or Literary Intelligencer, for March. 17PS, 
' Biof. Univ. — Diet. Hist. 

I, 2 

148 B E R S M A N N. 

BERSMANN (Gregory), a native of Germany, was 
born March 1 Ij 1538, at Annaberg, a little town of Misnia, 
near the river Schop, on the side of Bohemia. He was 
educated with care, and made great progress in the sciences. 
He was particularly fond of the study of medicine, physics, 
the belles-lettres, and the learned languages. He excelled 
in Latin and Greek, and took delight in travelling over 
France and Italy for forming acquaintance with those who 
were in most reputation among the literati. On his return, 
he was successively professor of poetry and Greek at Wit- 
temberg and Leipsic, but being unwilling to sign the for- 
mulary of concord, he was dismissed in 1580, and went 
into the territories of the prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, where he 
died the 5th of October 1611, in the seventy-third year of 
his age. Bersmann put into verse the Psalms of David, and 
published editions of Virgil, 1581, Ovid, 1582, 7Esop,1590, 
and of Horace, Lucan, Cicero, and other authors of an- 
tiquity. He was not less fertile in body than in mind ; 
having fourteen sons and six daughters by his marriage 
with a daughter of Peter Hellebron. Freyer, however, 
says that he had only four sons. ^ 

BERTAUT (John), first chaplain to queen Catherine 
de Medicis, secretary of the cabinet and reader to Henry 
in. counsellor of state, abbot of Aulnai, and lastly bishop 
of Seez, was born at Caen in the year 1522, and died the 
8th of June 161 1, aged fifty-nine. He was the contem- 
porary and friend of Ronsard and Desportes, and was 
thought superior to either. Some of his stanzas are writ- 
ten with ease and elegance ; and have not been excelled 
by the best poets of our own times. He has left poems 
sacred and profane, canticles, songs, sonnets, and psalms. 
They are interspei'sed with several happy thoughts, but 
turned in points, a taste which he caught from Seneca. 
He seems to have conducted himself with great propriety 
after his being advanced to the prelacy, and the bishop 
blushed at the gaiety of the courtier, but he had too 
much fondness for his early productions to consign them 
to oblivion, and he published them with his ])ious pieces, 
" the bane and antidote." He left also a translation of 
some books of St. Ambrose, several controversial tracts, 
imperfect; sermons for the principal festivals of the church, 

' Biog. Uaiv. — Diet. Hist. — Freyeri Theatrum. — Melchior Adam in vitis 
Philos.— Saxti Onomast. 

B E R T A U T. 149 

and a funeral discourse on Henry IV. to whose conversion 
he had greatly contributed. He was uncle to madame de 
Motteville, first woman of the bedchamber to Anne of 
Austria, and who published the memoirs of that princess. 
His '* Oeuvres poetiques" were printed at Paris, 1602, 8vo, 
and with additions in 1605 ; but the Paris editions of 1620 
and 1623, 8vo, are the most complete. ' 

BERTEL, or BERTELS (John), in Latin Bertelius, 
was born at Louvain, and, in 1576, embraced the monastic 
life, in the monastery of St. Benedict, of whicii he was 
abb6 for nineteen years. He then removed to the abbey 
of Echternach, but was taken prisoner by the Dutch in 
1596, and was not released without paying a very large 
sum. He died at Echternach, June 19, 1607. He pub- 
lished, 1. " In regidam D. Benedicti, dialogi viginti sex : 
cataloficus ct series abbatum Externacensium" (of Echter- 
nach) Cologne, 1581, Svo. 2. " Historia Luxemburgensis, 
sen Commentarius quo ducum Luxemburgensium ortus, 
progressus ac res gestae accurate describuntur," Cologne, 
1605, 4to. At the end of this is a dissertation on the gods 
and sacrifices of the ancient inhabitants of Luxemburgh. 
The " Respublica Luxemburgica," one of Bleau's little 
"Republics," 1635, 24mo, was merely an extract from 
Bertel's history. ^ 

BERTHAULD (Peter), a French historian, was born 
at Sens in 1600, and entered early into the congregation 
of the oratory, where he taught rhetoric at Marseilles, after 
that colleo;e had been founded in 1625. In 1659, he be- 
came titular of the archdeaconry of Dunois in the church 
of Chartres, and next year he obtained a canonry, and in 
1666 was promoted to the deanery of the same church. 
His " Florus Gallicus," and " Florus Franciscus," which 
were long popular works, and esteemed the best abridg- 
ments of French history, are praised by Le Long for their 
style ; but the work from which he derived most reputation 
was his learned dissertation " De Ara," Nantes, 1633. He 
had some talent also for Latin poetry, and published oc- 
casional pieces of that kind, as his encomium on the city of 
Troyes, where he was educated, 1631, Svo, and the de- 
liverance of Casal, " Casallum bis liberatum." Cardinal 
Richelieu, who valued him, would have promoted him to 

* Moreri. — Baillet Jugemens de Savans. — Biog. Univ. — Diet. Hist, 
9 Biog. Univ.— Foppen Bibl. Belg. 

150 B E R T H A U L D. 

a bishopric, but he was dissuaded by father Sancy de Har- 
lay, who, among all Berthauhi's powers, did not discover 
that of governing a diocese. He died Oct. li), 1681.' 

BERTH EAU (Charles), a learned French protestant 
divine, long resident in London, was born in 1 660 at Mont- 
pelier : he studied philosophy and divinity, partly in France 
and partly in Holland, and was admitted a minister in the 
synod lield at Vigan in 1681, and was next year chosen 
pastor to the church ol" Montpelier ; but he did not make 
any long stay in that city, for he was soon after promoted 
to be one of the ministers of the church of Paris. On the 
revocation of the edict of Nantz, Mr, Bertheau found him^ 
self obliged to quit his native country. He accordingly 
came to England in 1685, and the following j'ear was 
chosen one of the ministei-s of the Walloon church in 
Threadneedle street, London, where he discharged the 
duties of the pastoral office for about forty-four years, in 
such a manner as procured him very general applause. He 
died 25th Dec. 17 32, in the seventy-third year of his age. 
He possessed considerable abilities, was distinguished for 
his good sense and sound judgment, and for a retentive 
memory. He was . a very eloquent preacher, and has left 
behind him two volumes of sermons printed in French, the 
first in 1712, the second in 1730, with a new edition of 
the first. One of these sermons is on a singular subject, 
which, probably, would not have occurred to him so readily 
in any city as in London, " On inquiring after news in a 
Christian manner," from Acts xvii. 21.' 

BERTHET (John), a learned Jesuit, was born at Ta- 
rascon in Provence, Feb. 24, 1622. Possessed of a remark- 
able memory, he made great proficiency in ancient and 
TTKjdern lani^uages, and acquired much fame as a teacher 
of humanif}', philosophy, and divinity in the various col- 
leges of his order. He also engaged in public disputations 
at Lyons, with the clergy of Geneva and Grenoble, but 
was dismissed from the Jesuits by order of Louis XIV. for 
having had the weakness or curiosity to consult a pro- 
phetess who made a noise among the credulous at Paris. 
He then entered among the Benedictines, and died at their 
college at Oulx, in 1692. He published, I. " Traite de 
la presence reelle." 2. *' Traite historique de la charge de 
grand aumonier de France," a very curious work. 3. " Traite 

' Biog. Univ. — Morsri. — Saxii Onomast. * Biog. BriL 

B E R T H E T. 151 

sur la chapelle cics dues de Bourgogne." He wrote also 
several other pieces on the Tuetouic order, the abbey of 
Cluiii, the rights of the king to Avignon and Venaissin, the 
East Indies, the Italian language, and chronology ; some 
of which stiil remain in manuscript; and various Latin, 
French, Italian, and Provencal pieces of poetry. His cor- 
respondence With men of learning both in France and fo- 
reign countries was very extensive. ' 

BERTHIER (William Francis), a French writer of 
considerable note, was born at Issoudun en Berri April 7, 
1704, and entered among the Jesuits in 1722. He was 
professor of humanity at Blois, of philosophy at Rennes 
and Rouen, and of divmity at Paris. I'he talents he dis- 
plaj-ed in these offices made him be chosen in 1742 to 
succeed f;ither Brumoy, m the continuation of his " His- 
tory of the Gallican Church." This he executed with 
general approbation. In 1745 his superiors employed him 
on the Journal de Trevoux, which he conducted for seven- 
teen years, to the satisfaction of the learned and the pub- 
lic in general. This employment, says the abbe de Fon- 
tenay, procured him a high reputation, by the care and 
accuracy evident in the analysis of the works that came 
before him, andbs the style of a masterly, impartial, and 
intrepid critic. But this exact impartiality was dis[)leasing 
to several writers, and especially to Voltaire. Wnen that 
poet published, without his name, his panegyric on Louis 
XV. pere Berthier saw it in no other light than us the at- 
tempt of a young man who was hunting after antitheses, 
though not destitute of ingenuit3\ So humiliating a cri- 
tique was sensibly felt by Voltaire, who made no hesita- 
tion to declare himself the author of the work so severely 
handled. His mortification was increased when pere Ber- 
thier iiaving given an account of a publication, wherein the 
poet was characterised under the title of " the worthy rival 
of Homer anci Sophocles," the journalist put coldly in a 
note, " We are not acquainted with him." But what 
raised the anger of Voltaire to its utmost pitch, was a very 
just censure of several reprehensible passages in his essay- 
on general history. The irritated poet declared openly in 
1759 against the Jesuit in a sort of diatribe, wnich he 
placed after his ode on the death of the margravine of Ba- 
reith. The Jesuit repelled his shafts with a liberal and 

' Biog. Univ.— Di<:t. Hist. 

152 B E R T H I E R. 

manly spirit in the Journal de Trevoux. Upon this the 
poet, instead of a serious answer, brought out in 1760 a 
piece of liuinour, entitled " An account of the sickness, 
confession, and death of the Jesuit Berthier." The learned 
Jesuit did not think proper to make an}? reply to an adver- 
sary who substituted ridicule for argument, and continued 
the Journal de Trevoux till the dissolution of the society 
in France. He then quitted his literary occupations for 
retirement. At the close of 1762 the dauphin appointed 
him keeper of the royal library, and adjunct in the educa- 
tion of Louis XVL and of monsieur. But eighteen months 
afterwards, when certain events occasioned the dismission 
of all ex-jesuits from the court, he settled at Ossenbourg, 
from which the empress queen invited him to Vienna ; and 
-he was also offered the place of librarian at Milan, but he 
refused all ; and after residing here for ten years, obtained 
permission to go to Bourges, where he had a brother and 
a nephew in the church. Here he died of a fall, Dec. 15, 
17S2, just after being informed that the French clergy 
had decreed him a pension of a thousand livres. The 
chapter of the metropolitan church gave him distinguished 
honours at his interment; a testimony due to a man of 
such eminent piety, extensive erudition, and excellent 

During his residence at Ossenbourg and at Bourges, he 
composed his " Commentaire sur les Psaumes et sur Isaie,'* 
15 vols. 12mo. He published also his " Oeuvres spiritu- 
elles," 5 vols. i2mo, the best edition of which is that of 
Paris, 1811; " Refutation du Contrat Social," 1789, I2mo. 
An '' Examination of the fourth article of the Declaration 
of the Clergy of France in 1682," lately printed at Liege, 
1801, and Paris 1809, has been very unjustly and unfairly 
attributed to him. * 


BERTHOLON (de St. Lazare), a French philosopher, 
a native qf Lyons, who died in 1799, was first distinguished 
at Montpelier, as professor of natural philosophy, an of^ 
fice established by the states of Languedoc, and after- 
wards as professor of history at Lyons. He was a man of 
mild manner, communicative and accommodating, and of 
great industry. He was the friend of Dr. Franklin, and 
according to his plan, was employed to erect a great nuni-» 

* Bioff. Uaiverselle. — Diet. Hist. 


ber of conductors, to preserve buildings from lightning, 
in Paris and at Lyons. Few writers on subjects of natural 
philosophy, &c. have been so successful, scarce a year 
passing without two or three prizes being adjudged to him 
by the academy, for the best dissertation on the subject 
proposed. The month of August, in which the prize-s are 
usually distributed, he used familiarly to call his harvest. 
His principal works are, 1. " Moyen de determiner le 
moment ou le vin en fermentation a acquis toute sa force," 
1781, 4to, a prize essay at Moiitpelier. 2. " De I'elec- 
tricit^ du corps humain en etat de sante et de maladie,'* 
1781, 8vo, a prize dissertation at Lyons. '6. " De I'elec- 
tricite des vegetaux," Paris, 1783, 8vo. which the Monthly 
Reviewer terms " a new conquest added to the empire 
which electricity is assuming over the natural world." 

4. " Preuves de I'efficacite des paratonneres," 1783, 4to. 

5. '' Des avantages que la physique et les arts peuvent 
retirer des aerostats," 1784, 8vo. 6. " Memoires sur les 
moyens qui ont fait prosperer les manufactures de Lyon," 
&e. 1782, 8vo. 7. " De I'electricite des meteores," 1787. 
8. "Theorie des incendies, &c." 1787, 4to. 9. " De 
I'eau la plus propre a la vegetation," 1786, 4to. Ber- 
tholon was also for some years editor of the Journal of na- 
tural history, begun in 1787, and of the " Journal des 
sciences utiles," begun in 1791. ' 

BERTHOUD (Ferdinand), an eminent French marine 
clock-maker, a member of the institute, of the royal so- 
ciety of London, and of the legion of honour, was born 
March 19, 1727, at Plancemont in Neufchatel. His fa- 
ther, who was an architect and justiciary, had destined him 
for the church ; but the youth having had an opportunity, 
when only sixteen years of age, to examine the mechanism 
of a clock, became so fond of that study as to attend to 
nothing else. His father tnen very wisely encouraged an 
enthusiasm so promising, and after having employed an 
able workman to instruct his son in the elements of clock- 
making, consented that he should go to Paris to perfect 
his knowledge of the art. He accordingly came to Paris in 
1745, and there constructed his first specimens of marine 
clocks, which soon were universally approved and adopted. 
Berthoud and Peter Leroi were rival makers of these ion- 

' Piog. Uiiiverselle. — Diet. Hist, neither of which have given us his Christian 
name. In his works he is called the abbe Bertholoii de St. Lazare, which we 
have adopted.— Monthly Review, vol. LXIV. and LXX. 

15* B E R T H O U D. 

gitudinal clocks, and came very near each other, although 
by dirterent methods, in the construction of them ; but 
Berthoud's superior experience made tlie preference be 
given to, his workmanship. They had both deposited the 
description of their clocks with the secretary of the acade- 
my of sciences, sealed up, more than ten years before 
Harrison's clocks were proved. Bertlioud went twice to 
London, when the inquiries were making concerning Har- 
rison's invention, but returned each time without being 
able to satisfy his cariosity; and therefore, his biographer 
adds, owes nothing to the English artist. Berthoud's 
works, which are numerous, all relate to the principles of 
his art. 1. "Essay sur THorlogerie," 1763, 2 vols. 4to. 
reprinted 1786. 2. " Eclaircissements sur i'invention des 
nouvelles machines proposees pour la determination des 
longitudes en mer, par la mesure du tempe," Paris, 1773, 
4to. 3. " Traite des horologes marines," 1773, 4to. Of 
this the reader will hnd a very ample criticism and analysis 
in vols. L. and LI. of the Monthly Review, and an exa- 
mination of Berthoud's pretensions to superiority, com- 
pared with the prior attempts of Hooke and Harrison. 
4. " De la mesure du temps," a supplement to the preced- 
ing, 1787, 4to. 3. " Les longitudes par la mesure du temps," 
1775, 4to. 6. " La mesure du temps appliquee a la navi- 
gation," 1782, 4to, 7. " Histoire de la mesure du temps 
par les horologes," 1 802, 2 vols. 4to. 8. " L' Art de conduire 
et de regler fts pendules et les montres." This, although 
mentioned last, was his first publication in 1760, and has 
often been reprinted. He wrote also some articles on his 
particular branch in the French Encyclopedia. Berthoud, 
by means of a regular and temperate system, preserved 
his faculties to the last. He died of a dropsy in the chest, 
June 20, 1807, at his house at Groslay, in the canton of 
Montmorency. His nephew, Louis, his scholar and the 
heir of his talents, carries on the business of marine-clock 
making with equal success, and is said to have brought these 
machines to a superior degree of exactness. ' 

BERTI (Alexander Pompey), a learned Italian, was 
born at Lucca, Dec. 23, 1686. He entered when sixteen 
into the congregation, called the Mother of God at Naples, 
and pr )secuted his studies with success and perseverance. 
On his return to Lucca he acquired great reputation as a 
general scholar and preacher, and in 1717, taught rheto- 

> Biog. UniverselU.— Diet. Hist. — Monthly Review, ubi supra. 

B E R T I. 155 

ric at Naples. The marqins de Vasto having appointed 
him to be his librarian, he increased tlie collection witii u 
number of curious books, of which he hail an accurate 
knowledge, and also greatly enlarged the library of liis 
convent. He introduced among his brethren a taste for 
polite literature, and formed a colony of Arcadians. In 
1739, lie settled finally at Rome, where he was appointed 
successively vice-rector, assistant-general, and historian of 
his order. He was one of the most distinguished members 
of the society of the Arcadians at Rome, and of many 
other societies. He died at Rome, of an apoplexy, March 
23, 1752. Mazzuchelli has given a catalogue of twenty- 
four works published by him, and of twenty-one that re- 
main in manuscript. Among these we may notice, 1. " La 
Caduta de' decemviri del la Romana republica per la fun- 
zione della serenissima republica di Lucca," Lucca, 1717. 
2. " Canzone per le vittorie contro il Turco del principe 
Engenio," ibid, without date, 4to. 3. The lives of seve- 
ral of the Arcadians, printed in the prose memoirs of that 
academy, under his academic name of Nicasio Poriniano. 
4. Translations into the Italian of several French authors ; 
and poetical pieces in various collections. 5. We owe 
to him chiefly an important bibliographical work, " Cata- 
logo della iibreria Capponi, con annota'^ioni in diversi 
luoghi," Rome, 1747, Ito. It is the more necessary to 
notice this work, because the editor Giorgi, who has 
given very litile of his own, does not once mention Berti's 
name. Among his unpublished works is one of the bio- 
graphical kind, " Memorie degli scrittori Lucchesi," a 
collection of the lives of the writers of Lucca. It being 
well known, as early as 1716, that this was ready for the 
press, Mazzuchelli, who had waited very patiently for 
what was likely to be of so much service to himself, at 
length, in 1739, took the liberty to inquire of Berti the 
cause of a delay so unusual. Berti answered that the diffi- 
culties he had met with had obliged him to re-write his 
work, and dispose it in a new order ; that the names were 
ranged according to the families ; the most ancient families 
had been replaced by new ones in the various offices of 
dignity in that little republic, and the new heads and all 
their relations were not very fond of being reminded that 
their ancestors were physicians, men of learning, and 
" people of that sort." ' 

^ Eioif. Universelle,— Mazzuchelli,— Saxii Onomasticon, 

156 B E R T I. 

BERTI (John Lawrence), a famous Augustine monk, 
born May 28, 1696, at Serravezza, a small village in Tus- 
can}', was called to Rome by his superiors, and obtained 
the title of assistant-general of Italy, and the place ot pre- 
fect of the papal library. His great proficiency in theolo- 
gical studies procured him these distinctions, and appeared 
to advantage in his grand work, " De disciplinis theologi- 
cis," printed at Rome in 8 vols. 4to. He here adopts the 
sentiments of Si. Augustine in their utmost rigour, after 
the example of Belleili his brother-monk. The archbishop 
of Vienna [Saleon], or raiher the Jesuits who managed 
him, pubhshed under his name in 1744, two pieces against 
the two August ne theologues, inveighing against them as 
being too severely Augustine. The first is entitled, 
" Baianismus redivivus in scriptis pp. BellelU et Berti," in 
4to. The second bore this title ; " Jansenismus redivivus 
in scriptis pp. Belleili et Berti," in 4to. At the same time 
father Berti was accused to pope Benedict XIV. as a disci- 
ple of Baius and of Jansenius. The prudent pontiff, with- 
out returning any answer to the accusers, advised Berti to 
defend himself; which he accordingly did in a work of 
two vols. 4to, 1749. In this apology, rather long, though 
learned and lively, he laid down the difference there is 
between Jansenism and Augustinianism. After this piece 
Berti brought out several others, the principal of which is 
an ecclesiastical history in Latin, in 7 vols. 4to : it made 
however but little way out of Italy, by reason of the dry- 
ness of the historian, and of his prejudices in favour of 
exploded tenets. He speaks of the pope, both in his the- 
ology and in his history, as the absolute monarch of king- 
doms and empires, and that all other princes are but his 
lieutenants; Berti wrote also dissertations, dialogues, pa- 
negyrics, academical discourses, and some Italian poems, 
which are by no means his best productions. An edition 
in folio of all his works has been printed at Venice. He 
died at the age of 70, May 26, J 766, at Pisa, whither he 
had been called by Francis I. grand duke of Tuscany. ' 

BERTIE (Robert), earl of Lindsey, and lord high 
chamberlain of England in the reign of Charles I. was the 
eldest son of Peregrine lord Willoughby, of Eresby, by 
Mary, daughter to John Vere earl of Oxford, and grand- 
son of Richard Bertie, esq. by Catherine, duchess of Suf- 

1 BJog. Universelle.— Mazzuchelli, vol. II.— Fabroni Vit« Italorum, vol. H. 
p. 43. — Diet. Hist. 

BERTIE. 157 

folk. He was born in 1582, and in 1601, upon the death 
of his father, succeeded to his title and estate. In the first 
year of the reign of James I. he made his claim to the 
earldom of Oxford, and to the titles of lord Bulbech, 
Sandlord, and Badlesmere, and to the oflice of lord high 
chamberlain of England, as son and heir to Mary, the sole 
heir female of that great family ; and, after a ccMisiderable 
dispute, had judgment given in his favour for the office of 
lord high chamberlain, and the same year took his seat in 
the house of lords above all the barons. On the 22d of 
November, 1626, he was advanced to the dignity of earl 
of Lindsey ; and four years after made knight of the gar- 
ter ; and the next year constable of England for the trial 
of the lord Ilea and David Ramsey in the court military. 
In 1635 he was constituted lord high admiral of England ; 
and a fleet of forty ships of war was sent out under him. 
In 1639, upon the Scots taking arms, he was made gover- 
nor of Berwick. The year following he was appointed 
lord high constable of England at the trial of the earl of 
Strafford. In 1642, he was constituted general of the 
king's forces ; and on the 23d of October the same year 
received his death's wound in his majesty's service at the 
battle of Edgehill in the county of Warwick. 

The fortune, which he inherited from his ancestors, was 
a very considerable one ; and though he did not ma;:age it 
with such care, as if he desired much to improve it, yet 
he left it in a very fair condition. He was a man of great 
honour, and spent his youth and the vigour of his age in 
military actions and commands abroad. And thor'gh he 
indulged himself in great liberties, yet he still preserved 
a very great interest in his country ; as appears by the 
supplies, which he and his son brought to the king's army, 
the companies of his own regiment of foot being com- 
manded by the principal knights and gentlemen of Lin- 
colnshire, who engaged themselves in the service princi- 
pally out of their personal affection to him. He was of a 
very generous nature, and punctual in what he undertook, 
and in exacting what was due to him ; which made him 
bear the restriction so heavily, which was put upon iiim by 
the commission granted to prince Rupert, who was gene- 
ral of the horse, in which commission there was a clause 
exempting him from receiving orders from any but the 
king himself; and by the king's preferring the prince's 
opinion in aJl matters relating to the war before his. Nor 


did he conceal his resentment ; for the day before the bat- 
tle, he said to some friends, with whom he had used free- 
dom, that he did not look upon himself as general ; and 
therefore he was resolved, when the clay of battle should 
come, that he would be at the head of his reuiinent as a 
private colonel, where he would die. He was carried out 
of the field to the next village ; and if he could then have 
procured surgeons, it was thought liis wound would not 
have proved mortal. As soon as the other army was com- 
posed by the coming on of the night, the earl of Essex 
about midnight sent sir William Balfour, and some other 
officers, to see him, and designed himself to visit him. 
They found him upon a little straw in a poor house, where 
they had laid liim in his blood, which had run from him in 
great abundance. He said, lie was sorry to see so many 
gentlemen, some whereof were his old friends, engaged in 
so foul a rebellion ; wishing them to tell the earl of Essex, 
that he ought to throw himself at the king's feet to beg his 
pardon ; which if he i!^\A not speedily do, his memory 
would be odious to the nation. He continued his discourse 
with such vehemence, that the officers by degrees with- 
drew themselves, and jirevented the visit, which the earl 
of Essex intended him, who only sent him the best sur- 
geons ; but in the very opening of his wounds he died, 
before t!ie morning, by the loss of blood. He had very 
many friends, and very few enemies, and died generally 
lamented. His body was interred at Edenham in Lincoln- 

He married Elizabeth, only child of Edward, the first 
lord Mountagu of Boughton in Northamptonshire, and had 
issue by her nine sons and five daughters, and was suc- 
ceeded in his titles and estate by his eldest, Mountagu, who 
at the battle of Edge-hill, where he commanded the royal 
regiment of guards, seeing his father wounded and taken 
prison, was moved with such filial piety, tliat he volun- 
tarily yielded himself to a commander of horse of the 
enemy, in order to attend upon him. He afterwards ad- 
hered firmly to his majesty in all his distresses, and upon 
the restoration of king Charles U. was made knight of the 
garter. ' 

scendant of the preceding, was born in 1740, and sue- 

• Bircli'K Lives. — Bing. Brit, 

BERTIE. 159 

ceeded his father William, the third earl, in 1760, His 
lordship was educated at Geneva, where he probably im- 
bibed some of the democratic prmcipies of the philoso- 
phists in that republic. He generally opposed the mea- 
sures of aLlministration with declamatory veliemence, and 
his frequent speeches in the house of peers were singularly 
eccentric, but added little weight or dignity to the cause 
he supported. The editor, however, of Mr. NV'ilkcs's 
speeches (in all probability Mr. Wilkes himself) charac- 
terises this noble earl " as one of tiie most sieady and in- 
trepid assertors of liberty in this age. No gentleman was 
ever more formed to please and captivate in private liie, 
or has been more deservedly, more generally, esteemed 
and beloved. He possesses true honour in the highest de- 
arree, has efenerous sentiments of friendship, and to supe- 
rior manly sense joins the most easy wit, with a gaiety oi 
temper which diMuses universal chearfulness : it is impos- 
sible not to be charmed with the happy prodigality of na- 
ture in his favour; but every consideration yields with him 
to a warm attachment to tlie laws and constitution of Eng- 
land." Much of this character may be just, yet his lord- 
ship was less respected as a public character or partizan than 
he himself thought he deserved. He had, in particular, a 
very high opinion of his speeches, and that the public 
might not lose the benefit of them, he sent copies to the 
different newspapers with a handsome fee, which ensured 
that prominence in the debate which might not otherwise 
have been assigned to them. This custom was no doubt 
gratifying to himself and his friends, but it proved on one 
occasion peculiarly unfortunate. Having made a violent 
attack on the character of an attorney belonging to the 
court of king's bench, and sent the speech containing it, 
as usual, to the papers, he was prosecuted and sent to 
prison for some months, as the publisher of a libel. 

In 1777, he published a pamphlet which excited much 
attention, entitled, " Thoughts on the letter of Edmund 
Burke, esq. to the sheriffs of Bristol, on the affairs of 
America," Oxford, 8vo. This went through six editions, 
from that time to 1780. An anonymous reply was pub- 
lished, much admired for its force of irony ; and major 
Cartwright addressed a letter to the earl, discussing a po- 
sition relative to a fundamental right of the constitution, 
1778 : this induced his lordship to add a dedication to his 
sixth edition, " To the collective body of the people of 

160 B E R T I E. 

England." He is also the reputed author of " A Letter 
to lady Loughborough, in consequence of her presentation 
of the colours to the Bloomsbury and Inns of Court Asso- 
ciation ; with a public letter to the university of Oxford," 
1798 ; a rhapsodical epistle, which the influence of his 
lordship's name operating on curiosity, carried through 
eight or nine editions. His lordship died in 1799. * 

BERTIER (Joseph Stephen), of the oratory, was born 
at Aix in Provence, in 1710, and died Nov. 15, 1783. 
He i» known by two works which at the time made some 
noise among the naturalists ; one is entitled, " Physique 
des cometes," 1760, I2nio; the other, "Physique des 
corps animes," 1755, 12ino. The author had cultivated 
the sciences with success ; and in person had a striking re- 
semblance to pere Malebranche. His character appears 
to have been very excellent. Of all the men of learning 
in Paris, he was the most obliging, and strangers were al- 
ways desirous of a recommendation to Bertier, as a sure 
means of beinu" introduced to the most celebrated charac- 
ters, and to every object of curiosity. In philosophy he 
was a Cartesian long after that system had been given up. 
Louis XV. called him, on this account, le pere aux tour- 
billons. He was the author of some other works besides 
those above mentioned, bat they are not in much repute.' 

BERTIN (Anthony), a modern French poet of the 
Ovidian cast, was born in the isle of Bourbon, Oct. 10, 
1752, and died at St. Domingo June 1790. He was 
brought to France for education at the age of nine? and 
after studying for some time in the college of Plessis, en- 
tered the military service, and became a captain of horse 
and a chevalier of St. Louis. In his twentieth year he dis- 
tinguished himself as a poet, although his effusions were 
circulated principall}' among his friends; but in 1732, 
when he published four books of elegies under the title of 
*' Amours," a very honourable rank appears to have been 
assigned to him among the minor poets of France. He 
was intimately connected with chevalier de Parny, another 
poet of the amatory class, and who was termed the French 
Tibullus, and they lived together in the utmost amity, al- 
though rivals in the public favour. About the end of the 
year 1789, Bertin went to St. Domingo to marry a young 

' Gent. Mag. 1798, ]709. — Park's Royal and Noble Authors, 
5 Biog. Uuiverscilc. — Diet. Hist. 

B E R T I N. 161 

treole, with whom he had formed an acquaintance in Paris, 
but on the day of marriage he was seized with a violent 
fever, of which he died in a few days. His works were 
collected and pubhshed at Paris in 1785, 2 vols. l8mo. 
and reprinted in 1802 and 1806. ' 

BERTIN (ExupEiiius Joseph), an eminent French ana- 
tomist, was born at Tremblay in Britanny, Sept. 21, 1712. 
At the age of three he was left an orphan, yet learned 
Latin almost without a master, and was sent at'terwanls to 
Kennes to complete his education. He then went to Paris, 
and studied medicine with such success, that, in 1737, he 
took his doctor's degree at Rheinis, and in 1741 was ad- 
mitted a regent member of the faculty of Paris. About the 
end of that year he accepted the place of physician to the 
prince of Moldavia, but after two years returned to France. 
The academy of sciences which had in his absence chosen 
him a corresponding member, now, in 1744, admitted him 
to the honour of being an associate without the intermedi- 
ate rank of adjunct. The fatigues, however, which he had 
encountered in Moldavia, and his assiduous applieation to 
anatomical studies, had at this time impaired his health, 
and, joined to a nervous temperament, threw him into a 
state of mental debility which interrupted his studies for 
three years. He was afterwards recommended to travel, 
and it was not until the year 1750 that he recovered his 
health and spirits, and was enabled to resume his studies 
at Gahard, a retired spot near Rennes. Tliere also he em- 
ployed some part of his time in the education of his children, 
and his reputation brought him extensive practice. On 
Feb. 21, 1781, he was seized with a complaint in his 
breast, which carried him off in four days. Before and 
after his long illness, he had furnished several valuable 
papers to the memoirs of the academy of sciences, parti- 
cularly three on the circulation in the foetus. His princi- 
pal publications were, l."Traite d'Osteologie," 1754, 
4 vols. 12mo, a very popular work at that time, and still 
deserving of perusal. It was intended as the first part of a 

general course of anatomy. 2. " Lettre au D sur le 

nouveau systeme de la Voix," Hague, 1745, 8vo, This 
being answered by Ferrein, or his pupil Montagnat, our 
author, without putting his name to it, defended his doc- 
trine in " Lettres sur le nouveau systeme de la Voix, et 
sur les arteres lymphatiques," 1748. 3. " Consultation sur 

J Biog. Uniyerselle, — Diet. Hisk 

Vol. V. xM 

162 B E R T I N. 

la legitimite des naissances tardives," 1764 and 1765, 8vo. 
His chief argument here seems to be the simple position 
that if there are early births, there may also be late births. 
4. " Memoire sur les consequences relatives a la prati- 
que, deduites de la structure des os parietaux," inserted in 
the Journal de Medicine, 1756. He left in manuscript 
Memoirs on Moldavia, which his son Rene Joseph, an 
eminent physician of Paris, intends to publish. ' 

BERTIN (Nicholas), painter, and disciple of Jouvenet 
and de Boullogne the elder, was born at Paris in 1664. 
His father was a sculptor. The academy of painting de- 
creed him the first prize at the age of eighteen, and admitted 
him afterwards of their number. During his stay at Rome 
he completed his studies. At his return to France he was 
appointed director of the Roman school ; but an affair of 
gallantry, which rendered it unsafe for him to return to 
Home, prevented him from accepting that place. Louis 
XIV. and the electors of Mentz and of Bavaria employed 
him successively in various works. The last was desirous 
of attaching him to himself by handsome pensions ; but 
Bertin would never consent to quit his country. He died 
at Paris in 1736. His manner was vigorous and graceful; 
but his excellence lay chiefly in small pictures. At Paris 
there are several works of his in the church of St. Luke, 
the abbey of St. Germain des pres, and in the halls of the 
academy. ^ 

BERTINI (Anthony Francis), an Italian physician, 
and a man of learning and skill, yet perhaps less known 
for these qualities, than for his literary disputes, was born at 
Castel Fiorentino Dec. 28, 1658. After studying at 
Sienna and Pisa a complete course, not oidy of medicine, 
but mathematics, astronomy, belles-lettres, &c. he was, 
in 1678, created doctor in philosophy and medicine, and 
then settled at Florence, where after very successful prac- 
tice for many years, he died Dec. 10, 1726. His first 
publication was entitled " La Medicina difesa contra la 
calunnie degli nomini volgari e dalle opposizioni de' dotti, 
divisa in due dialoghi," Lucca, 1699, 4to. and ibid. 1709. 
In the second of these dialogues he pays high compliments 
to three physicians belonging to the court of Tuscany, but 
oniits Moneglia, the fourth, which brought on a contro- 
versy between Bertini and him ; and some time afterwards 

* Biog. Univ. — Eloges by Condorcet, vol. II. p. 283. 
' D'AigeuviUe, — Pilkiugton. — Biog. Universelle, 

B E R T I N I. 163 

he was involved in two other disputes with his brethren, by 
which neither party gained mucli credit. His son Joseph 
Maria Xavier, who died in 1756, was also a physician, and 
of far more celebrity as a practitioner ; but he published 
only a discourse pronounced in 1744, on the medical use 
of mercury in general, which at that time excited the at- 
tention of the learned in no small desrree. It was entitled 
*' Deir uso esterno e interno del Mercurio, discorso, &c.'* 

BERTIUS (Peter), cosmographer and historiographer 
to Louis XIII. of France, and regius professor of mathe- 
matics, was born at Beveren in Flanders, on the confines 
of the dioceses of Bruges and Ypres, Nov. 14, 1565. He 
was brought into England when but three months old, by 
his parents, who dreaded the persecution of the protestants 
which then prevailed in the Netherlands. He received the 
rudiments of his education in the suburbs of London, under 
Christian Rychius, and his learned daughter-in-law, Petro- 
nia Lansberg. He afterwards completed his education at 
Leyden, whither his father, then become protestant mini- 
ster at Rotterdam, removed him in his twelfth year. In 
15S2, when only seventeen years of age, he began the 
employment of teaching, which he carried on at Dunkirk, 
Ostend, Middleburgh, Goes, and Strasburgh ; but a de- 
sire for increasintj his own stock of learninor induced him 
to travel into Germany with Lipsius, and the same object 
led him afterwards into Bohemia, Silesia, Poland, Russia, 
and Prussia. On his return to Leyden he was appointed 
to a professor's chair, and to the care of the library, of 
which, after arranging it properly, he published a cata- 
logue. In 1606, he was appointed regent of the college, 
but afterwards, having taken part with the disciples of Ar- 
minius, and published several works against those of Go- 
marus, he was dismissed from all his employments, and 
deprived of every means of subsistence, with a numerous 
family. In March 1620, he presented a petition to the 
states of Holland for a pension, which was refused. Two 
years before, Louis XIII. had honoured him with the title 
of his cosmographer, and now constrained by poverty and 
the distress of his family, he went to France and embraced 
the popish religion, a change which gave great uneasiness 
to the protestants. Some time after he was appointed 
professor of rhetoric in the college of Boncourt, then histo- 
riographer to the king, and lastly assistant to the regius 

M 2 

16^4 B E 11 T I U S. 

professor of mathematics. He died Oct. 3, 1629. Avery 
fine engraving of liim occurs at the back of the dedication 
to Louis XIII. of his " Theatrum Geographise veteris,'* 
but (the collectors will be glad to hear) only in some copies 
of that work, which are supposed to have been presents 
from the author. 

Bertius was the author of a great many works, which 
may be divided into two classes, theological and geogra- 
phical; the former, which were the cause of all his mis- 
fortunes, are now forgotten, but the latter are still read 
or consulted. The most in demand is his " Theatrum 
Geographigp veterum," 2 vols. fol. 1618 and 1619, yet this 
collection, of which Bertius was only the editor, and not 
a very careful editor, seems to have enjoyed more repu- 
tation than it deserves. The first volume is entirely com- 
posed of Ptolomey's Geography, in Greek and Latin, re- 
printed from an edition published about fourteen years 
before by Montanus, and commonly called Mercator's edi- 
tion, and Bertius has only added some various readings 
from a manuscript in the Palatine library, with which Syl- 
burgius had furnished him ; but on the other hand, he has 
neglected to correct a great many errors in Montanus's 
edition. The second volume contains Antoninus's Itinerary, 
and the works of other geographers, without a single note 
from his own pen. His other geographical works are, 1. 
** Commentariorum rerum Germanicarum libri ires," Am- 
sterdam, 1616, 4to, and 1635, 12mo. 2. " Notitia cho- 
rographica episcopatuum Gallice," Paris, 1625, fol. 3. 
" Breviarium orbis terrarum," Leipsic, 1662, 12mo, This 
is added at the end of Cluverius's Introduction to univer- 
sal Geography, Amst. 1676, 4to. 4. " Imperinm Caroli 
M. et vicintp- regiones, Paris, fol. a map, which has been 
since added to Hondius's Atlas. 5. " Variae orbis universas 
et ejus partium tabula;, &c." oblong 4to. 6. " De agge- 
ribus et pontibus hactenus ad mare extructis digestum 
novum," Paris, 1629. Bertius was also editor of " lilus- 
trium et claroruni virorum epislolae selectiores," Lcyden, 
J617, 8vo, and wrote prefaces to various editions of books.' 

BEKTOLI (John Dominick), an Italian antiqii.iry of 
the last century, was born of a nuble family, at Mereto in 
the Frioul, March 13, 1676, and after studying at Venice, 

> VAog. Univ. — Chaufepie Die*. Hist. — Moreii, — Meuisii Athenje Batavse. — 
Foppen Hibl. Belg. — B:iillet Jugeiiiens des Savans. — Frehcii Theatrum. — Saxii 
Oiioaiast.~^Buimann'8 Sylloge Epist. vol. I. p. J73. 

B E R T O L I. 165 

was ordained a priest in 1700. The same year he became 
canon-coadjutor of the patriarchal church ofAquileia, and 
soon after titular. He had already acquired a decided taste 
for the study of antiquities, and was in a country abound- 
ing with objects to gratify it, most of which, liowever, had 
been greatly neglected, and even destroyed by the ignorant 
inhabitants, who converted every remains of antiquity in 
stone to the common purposes of building. To prevent 
this for the future, Bertoli formed a society of men of 
learning and similar taste, who began with purchasing 
every valuable relic they could find, and placed the col- 
lection in the portico of the canons' house, where it soon 
became an object of curiosity, not only to travellers, but 
to the Aquileians themselves. At the same time he copied, 
or caused to be copied, all the monuments in the town, and 
in the whole province, and entered into an extensive cor- 
respondence with many eminent characters, particularly 
Fontanini, to whom he liberally communicated his disco- 
veries, in hopes they might be useful to that learned pre- 
late; but he having deceased in 1736, Bertoli resolved to 
take upon himself what he had expected from him, and 
was encouraged in this design by Muratori and Apostolo 
Zeno. Accordingly he began to publish a series of me- 
moirs and dissertations on subjects of antiquity, which he 
wrote at his native place, Mereto, where he resided for 
such periods as his official duties at Aqnileia permitted. 
In 1747 he was elected a member of the Columbarian so- 
ciety of Florence, and next year of that of Cortona, and 
died a few years afterwards, but the date is not ascertained 
in either of our authorities. His ])rincipal publication is 
entitled " Le Antichita di Aquileja profane e sacre," Ve- 
nice 1739, fol. He had made preparations for a second 
and third volume, but did not live to complete them. Se- 
veral of his letters and dissertations relative to this work, 
and to various subjects of antiquity, are printed in Calo- 
gera's valuable collection, vols. XXVI. XXXIII. XLIII. 
XLVII. XLVIII. &c. ; otliers are inserted in the Memoirs of 
the Columbarian Society of Florence, and in similar col- 
lections. * 

BERTON (William), an eminent divine of the four- 
teenth century, and doctor in that faculty, flourished about 
the year 1381, in the reign of Richard II. and was some 

* Biog. Univ. — Saxii Onomasticon. 

i66 B E R T O N. 

time chancellor of the university of Oxford. He is chiefly 
remarkable for his opposition to the doctrines of Wickliff : 
for, by virtue of his office, as governor of the university, 
he appointed twelve censors, six of the order of mendi- 
cants, and six seculars, consisting of divines and lawyers, 
to examine WickliflP's opinions ; who accordingly declared 
him an heretic. He wrote likewise several pieces upon the 
subject of Wickliff's pretended heresy ; particularly " De- 
terminations against Wickliff; a treatise concerning his just 
condemnation ;" and another " against the Articles ex- 
tracted from his writings." Bale and Pits give him very 
different characters, according to their principles. ' 

BERTOUX (William), a French Jesuit, was born Nov. 
14, 1723. On the suppression of his order he retired to 
Senlis, where he had a canonry given him, and where he 
died, but when is not mentioned. He wrote the following 
books which were much esteemed in France, but would 
not suffer his name to appear to any of them : 1. " Histoire 
poetique tiree des poetes Frangais, Paris, 1767, 12mo, and 
a fourth edition, 1786. 2. " Anecdotes Frangaises depuis 
retal)lissement de la monarchic jusqu'au regue de Louis 
XV." ibid. 1767, 8vo. 3, " Anecdotes Espagnoles et Por- 
tugaises," Paris, 1773, 2 vols, 8vo. '^ 


BERTRAM (Cornelius Bonaventure), minister, and 
professor of Hebrew at Geneva, at Frankenthal, and at Lau- 
sanne, was born at Thouars in Poitou, in 1531, of a re- 
putable family, allied to the house of la Trimouille, and 
escaped the massacre of St. Bartholomew by -flying to Cahors 
and afterwards to Geneva. He died at Lausanne in 1594. 
He gave to the world, 1. " A dissertation on the Republic 
of the Hebrews," Geneva, 1 580 ; again at Leyden in 1641, 
8vo, written with precision and method. 2. " A revision 
of the French Bible of Geneva, according to the Hebrew 
text," Geneva, 1588. He corrected that version (by Cal- 
vin and Olivetan) in a great number of places; but in 
others he has too closely followed the authority of the Rab- 
bins, and not sufficiently that of the old interpreters. It 
is the Bible still in use among the Calvinists. 3. A new 
edition of the " Thesaurus linguae sancta;" of Pagninus. 
4. " A parallel of the Hebrew Tongue with the Arabic." 

» Biog. Brit. — Bale. — Pits. — Wood's Annals of Oxford. 
« JBJog. Univ.— Diet, ilist. 


S. " Lucubrationes Frankendalenses," 1685, or explana- 
tions on difficult passages of the New Testament, so called 
because written at Frankentlial. ' 

BERTRAM (Philip-Ernest), professor of law at Halle, 
was born at Zerbst, in 1726, and studied at Halle and 
Jena. In 1746 he was governor of the pages at Weinnar ; 
iu 1753, private secretary, and then secretary of state, 
which he resigned in 1761, in order to retire to Halle, 
where he became professor of law, and died Oct, 13, 1777. 
He was a man of high reputation for learning, especially 
in history and feudal law. His principal works, which are 
all in German, are, 1. " An Essay on the History of Learn- 
ing," Gotha, 1764, 4to. 2, " History of the house and 
principality of Anhalt," continued by M. J. C, Krause, 
part I. 17 80, 8vo. 3. " Ferreras' History of Spain", con- 
tinued down to his own time, vols, 11, 12, and 13, 1762 — 
1772, 4to,' 

BERTRAND (Elias), an ingenious Swiss writer, long 
known by his labours in various branches of philosophy 
and literature, and especially in natural history and poli- 
tical and rural economy, was born at Orbe in Swisserland, 
in 1712. In 1739 he was pastor of that village, and in 
1744 preacher at Bern, whence he was called by the late 
king of Poland, to preside at a board of commerce, agri- 
culture, and useful arts, the operations of which (and, if 
we are not mistaken, its very existence) were suppressed 
by the subsequent troubles of that unhappy country. He 
was also a member of the academies of Stockholm, Ber- 
lin, Florence, Lyons, &c. His principal works are, 1. "Ser- 
mons prononc^s a Berne a I'occasion de la decouverte 
d'une Conspiration contre I'etat," 1749, 8vo. Two of 
these are by Bertrand, the third by J. J. Altmann. 2. " Me- 
moires sur la Structure interieure de la Terre," 1752, 8vo. 
3, " Essais sur les usages des montagnes, avec un lettre 
sur la Nil," 1754, 4to ; a work which Denina styles ex- 
cellent. His object is to prove that divine wisdom is 
strongly manifested in the creation of mountains ; and that 
they are not, as many authors have asserted, imperfections 
of the terrestrial globe, much less the effects of a ruined 
world. This he proves with considerable skill, but in some 
respects is rather fanciful. 4, " Memoires pour servir a 

• Biog. Univ. — Diet. Hist. — Moreri. — Baillet Jugemens des Savans.— Saxii 
Onomast. 2 Bjog. UniYerseUe. 

163 B E R T R A N D. 

s'instruire des tremblements de terre de la Suisse, princi- 
palement pour I'annee 1755, avec quatre Sermons pro- 
iioncees a cette occasion," 1756, 8vo. 5. The same " Me- 
moires," published separately, 17 57, 8vo, and much en- 
larged, a work embracing all that was known before on the 
subject, and enriched with many candid and able illustra- 
tions by the author. 6. " Le Philanthrope," 1758, 2 vols. 
I2n\0j 7. *' Recherches sur les langues anciennes et mo- 
dernes de la Suisse, et principalement du pa^-s de Vaud," 
1758, 8vo. 8. A translation of Derham's Astro- theology ; 
and of BuUinger's Confession of Faith, both in 1760. 9. 
'* Museum," 1763. 10. " Dictionuaire Universe! des Fos- 
siles propres, et des Fossils accidentels," 1763, 2 vols. 8vo. 
1 1. '^ Recueil de divers traites sur I'histoire naturelle de la 
Terre etdes Fossiles," 1766, 4to. 12. " Morale de I'Evan- 
gile," 1775, 7 vols. 8vo. 13. " Le Thevenon, ou les Jour- 
nees de la Montagne, 1777, 12mo, 17S0, 2 vols. 8vo. 14. 
*' Essai philosophique et moral sur le Plaisir," 1778, 12mo, 
an excellent work, vi'hich, from the account given of it in 
the Monthly Review, seems highly deserving of a transla- 
tion. 15. " Le solitaire du Mont-Jure, recreations d'un 
philosophe," 1782, 12mo. The time of this writer's death 
is not ascertained, but he was considerably advanced in 
years at the period of this last publication. ^ 

BERTRAND (John Baptist), a French physician, 
and member of the academy of Marseilles, was born at 
Martigue m Provence, July 12, 1670. He was at first 
intended for the church, and went through a theological 
course, but his inclination leading him to medicine, he 
studied the same at Montpellier. After having practised 
for some time in his native country, he removed with his 
family to Marseilles. His three colleagues at the Hotel- 
Dieu of that city having withdrawn their services during 
the contagious fever of 1 709, he remained alone to pre- 
scribe for the poor sufferers, and escaped without an attack, 
which probably encomaged him to show the same zeal 
during the plague in 1720. On this occasion, however, 
he saw almost his whole family fall a sacrifice to their hu- 
mane care of the sick, and was himself attacked with the 
disorder, but at length recovered, and the government, in 
consideration of his services, granted him a pension, which 
he enjoyed until his death, Sept. 10, 17 52. He was a 

5 Biog. Univ.— Month. Rsv. vol. LVHI. 

B E R T R A N D. 169 

man of amiable temper, disinterested, kind and ingenuous. 
He wrote, 1. " Relation historique de la Peste de Mar- 
seille," Lyons, 1721, 12mo. 2. " Lettres sur le mouve- 
ment des Muscles et sur les Esprits Aniinaux." 3, " Re- 
flexions sur le systeme de la Trituration," published in tlie 
Journal de Trevoux. 4. " Dissertation sur Pair maritime," 
Marseilles, 4to, &c. * 

BERTRANDI (John Ambrose Maria), an eminent ana- 
tomist and surgeon, was born at Turin, Oct. 18, 1723. His 
father, who was only a poor phlebotomist and barber, con- 
trived to give him an education, and intended to bring him 
up to the church, which was thought most likely to afford 
him a maintenance, but one of their friends Sebastian 
Klingher, then professor of surgery, induced him to study 
that branch, in which he soon evinced great talents. He 
was only twenty-two when he read a dissertation on Oph- 
thalmography, on which Haller and Portal bestowed the 
highest praise. The celebrated Bianchi connected him- 
self with him, but after a few years their friendship was 
interrupted by the literary disputes which took place be- 
tween Bianchi and Morgagni, and Bertrandi preferring 
what he thought truth to a friendship which was of great 
importance to him, was obliged to leave Bianchi. In 17i7 
he was elected an associate of the college of surgery, and 
the same year published his *' Dissertation on the Liver,'* 
which, Haller says, contains many useful observations. In 
1752, the king, Charles Emmanuel, offered to bear his ex- 
penses to Paris and London. He accordingly went to Paris, 
where he increased his knowledge and practice of the art 
of surgery, and in consequence of his two paj^ers read in 
the academy, " De Hydrocele," and " De hepatis absces- 
sibus qui vulneribus capitis superveniunt," was admitted 
as a foreign member. In 1754 he went to London, and 
lodged for a year with sir William Bromfield, our late 
eminent surgeon, during which time, as at Paris, he stu- 
died hospital practice, and cultivated the acquaintance of 
men of science. On his return to Turin, the king founded 
for his sake a new professorship of practical surgery and 
anatomy, and at Bertrandi's request, built a handsome 
amphitheatre in the hospital of St. John. He was after- 
wards appointed first surgeon to the king, and professor 
of chemistry in the university. Surgery now, which had 

' Bioj. UniverssUe. 

170 B E R T R A N D I. 

been practised in Piedmont only by regimental surgeons, 
began to wear a new face ; and a literary society, which 
was afterwards completely established under the title of 
the " Royal Academy of Sciences," began now to hold its 
meetings, and Bertrandi contributed some valuable paper* 
to the first volume of their Memoirs. His principal [mbli- 
cation was his " Trattato delle operazioni di Chirurgia,'* 
Nice, 1763, 2 vols. 8vo, which was afterwards translated 
into French and German. He was employed on a treatise 
on anatomy and a comparative history of ancient and mo- 
dern surgery, when death deprived science and humanity 
of his valuable labours, in 1765, in his forty-second year. 
His works already published, and his posthumous works, 
edited by Penchienati and Brugnone form 13 vols. 8vo. ' 

BERULLE (Peter), an eminent cardinal, was born in 
1575, at the chateau de Serilli, near Troyesin Champagne, 
of a noble family, and having embraced the ecclesiastical 
state, distinguished himself early in life by his piety and 
his learning. He got great reputation in the famous con- 
ference of Fontainbleau, where du Perron contended with 
du Plessis-Mornay, called the pope of the Huguenots. He 
was sent by Henry IV. to whom he was chaplain, into 
Spain, for the purpose of bringing some Carmelites to 
Paris, and it was by his means that this order flourished so 
much in France. Some time afterwards he founded the 
Congregation of the Oratory of France, of which he was the 
first general. This new institution was approved by a bull 
of pope Paul V. in 1613, and has always been reckoned by 
the catholics a great service done to the church. In that 
gregation, according to the expression of Bossuet, the 
members obey without dependance, and govern without 
commanding ; their whole time is divided between study 
and prayer. Their piety is liberal and enlightened, their 
Itnowledge useful, and almost always modest. Urban VHI, 
rewarded the merit of Berulle by a cardinal's hat. Henry 
IV, and Louis XIII. vainly strove to make him accept of 
considerable bishoprics ; on Louis's telHng him that he 
should employ the solicitation of a more powerful advocate 
than himself (meaning the pope) to prevail upon him to 
accept the bishopric of Leon, he said, " that if his majes- 
ty continued to press him, he should be obliged to quit 
his kingdom." Tliis cardinal came over with Henrietta 

J Biog. UaiverscUe. 

B E R U L L E. 171 

IVIarIa, queen of Charles I. to England, as her confessor, 
to the court of which he endeared himself by the sanctity 
of his morale, and the extreme propriety of his behaviour, 
although his errand had afterwards its weight in encreasing 
the fatal unpopularity of the royal family. He died sud- 
denly, Oct. 2, 1629, aged fifty-five, while he was cele- 
brating the sacrament, and had just repeated the words, 
" hanc igitur oblationem," which gave occasion to the fol- 
lowing distich : 

" Coepta sub extremis nequeo dum sacra sacerdos 
Perficere, at saltern victima perfkiam." 

" In vain the reverend pontiff tries 
To terminate the sacrifice ; 
Himself within the holy walls 
The heaven-devoted victim falls." 

St. Francis de Sales, Caesar de Bus, cardinal Bentivog- 
lio, &c. were among his friends and the admirers of his 
virtues. An edition of his controversial and spiritual works, 
published in 1644, 2 vols, folio, was reprinted in 1647, 
1 vol. folio, by father Bourgoing, third general of the ora- 
tory. His life was written in French, by the abbe Cerisi, 
Paris, 1646, 4to, and in Latin by Doni d'Attichi, after- 
wards bishop of Autun, 1649, 8vo, and lastly by Carrac- 
cioli, Paris, 1764, 12mo. ' 

BERYLLUS, bishop of Bostra in Arabia, flourished 
about the year 230. After he had for a long time govern- 
ed his see with great prudence and fidelity, he fell into 
several new and uncommon opinions, asserting that Christ 
before his incarnation had no proper subsistence, nor any 
divinity, but that of the Father residing in him. The 
bishops being assembled in order to dissuade him from this 
error, and having had several conferences with him upon 
that subject, Origen was desired to engage in the dispute, 
which he did with such success, that Beryllus immediately 
retracted his opinion. He wrote several treatises and 
epistles, particularly to Origen, in which he returned him 
thanks for the pains which he had taken in recovering him 
from his errors. Eusebius tells us, that he left behind him 
several monuments of an elegant genius ; by v/hicli Henry 
Valesius in his notes upon that passage supposes that he 
means the hymns and poems which Beryllus probably wrote. 

' Biog. Uiiiverselle. — Dupin. — Moieri. — 'Perault's " Hommes Illustres." — 
Sew. Diet. — Seward's Aaecdotes, 

172 B E R Y L L U S. 

There was extant in St. Jerom's time, the dialogue between 
Origen and our bishop, in which the hitler was convinced 
of his erroneous notions ; and this seems to be the same 
work whicli is mentioned by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical 
History, where he tells us, that there were extant at that 
time the acts of Beryllus and the synod assembled upon 
his account, in which were inserted the questions of Origen 
urged against him, and the whole series of the confereiice 
between them. ^ 

BESIERS (Michael), a canon of St. Sepulchre's at 
Caen, and a member of the academies of Caen and Cher- 
burgh, was born at St. Malo, and died at Caen, Dec. 1782, 
He published, 1. " Chronologie historique des baillis et 
cles gouverneurs de Caen," 1769, 12mo. 2. " Histoire 
sommaire de la ville de Bayeux," 1773, 12mo. 3. " Me- 
moires historiques sur I'origine et le fondateur de la colle- 
giale'du St. Sepulcre a Caen, avec le catalogue de ses 
doyens." 4. Various dissertations in the literary Journals, 
in D'Expilly's " Dictionnaire de France," and in that of 
the nobility, &,c. ^ 

BESLER (Basil), a botanist, who was born in 1561, at 
Nuremberg, where he carried on the business of an apothe- 
cary, and died there in 1629, is entitled to notice chiefly 
for having published the most beautiful botanical work that 
had then appeared, the celebrated " Hortus Eystettensis," 
Nuremberg, 1613, folio. It contains a description and 
plates of the greater part of the plants which the bishop of 
Aichstsedt, John Conrad de Gemmingen, a liberal patron 
of the arts, had cultivated in his gardens and orchards on 
mount St. Willibald, on the top of which is his episcopal 
seat. This work, executed with uncommon magnificence, 
at the expence of the bishop, made a new aera in the his- 
tory both of botany and engraving. It is illustrated by three 
hundred and sixty-five plates of the atlas folio size, descrip- 
tive of one thousand and eighty-six plants, the first, after 
the " Phytobasanos" of Columna, that were engraved on 
copper, all botanical engravings being formerly on wood. 
They are in general well designed, but do not point out 
the parts of fructification, and are classed only according 
to the seasons. Basil Besler had the care of this work, and 
although he was deficient in literature, and was not even 

1 Gen. Diet — Cave. — Lai dner's Works. — Dupin,— Morert. 

2 Biog. Uaiverselle. ^ 

B E S L E R. 175 

at^quainteJ with Latin, yet his zeal and love of tlie science 
enabled him to perform his task with considerable skill. 
Jerome Besler, his brother, a man of more learning, sup- 
plied the synonymy of the plants, and part of the descrip- 
tions, and Louis Jungermann, professor at Giessen, was 
the author of the text. A second edition a])peared at Nu- 
remberg in 1640, at the expence of Marquard IL bishop 
of Aiclistiedt, in large folio, but is inferior to the first. 
Basil Besler also collected a museum of many of the curio- 
sities of the three kingdoms of nature, which he had en- 
graven at his own expence, and published under the title 
of" Fasciculus rariorum et aspectu digniorum, varii gene- 
ris quae collegit et suis impensis ccri ad vivum incidi cura- 
vit liasilius Besler," Nuremberg, 1616 — 1622, In ho- 
nour of Besler, Plumier named a genus of plants Besleria.' 

BESLER (Michael Robert), a physician at Nurem- 
berg, the son of Jerome and nephew of Basil, who was 
born in 1601, and died in 16G1, wrote, 1. " Gazophyla- 
cium rerum naturalium," Nuremberg, 1642, with thirty- 
fjur plates; Leipsic, 1733, fol. with thirty-five plates, 
forming a continuation of his uncle Besler's work. In 1716, 
J. Henry Lochner repaired the plates, and with some ad- 
ditions to the text, published them under the title of " Ra- 
riora mus-jei Besleriani," Nuremberg, 1716, fol. 2. " Ad- 
mirandae fabrica; hum.anas mulieris partium, &c. delineatio," 
Nuremberg, 1640, folio, the figures as large as life, and 
on copper-plate. 3. " Observatio anatomico-medica, &,c.'* 
an account of a monstrous birth, Nuremberg, 1642, 4to. 
4. ** Mantissa ad viretum stirpium Eystettense-Besle- 
rianum," ibid. 1646 and 1648, fol. forming a supplement 
to the " Hortus Eystettensis." ^ 

BESLY (John), king's advocate at Fontenaye-le-Comte, 
and an able French antiquary, was born at Coulon^es-les- 
Royaux in Poitou, in 1572, and died in 1644. In 1614, 
he distinguished himself in the assembly of the states by 
opposing the receiving of the council of Trent, but he was 
better known by his assiduous attention to the antiquities 
of France ; and his works published after his death by his 
son and Peter Dupuis his friend, justly entitle him to be 
considered as an accurate and judicious historian. These 
are, 1. " Histoire des comtes de Poitou et dues de Gui- 

' Biog. Universelle. — Saxii Onomasticon. 

9 Ibid.— Waller's Bibl. Botan.— Frtheii Tbeatruna. 

174 B E S L Y. 

enne," Paris, 164-7, fol. This was the result of forty years 
research, and the extraordinary light he has been able to 
throw upon circumstances before in comparative obscurity, 
may form a sufficient apology for some few mistakes. 
2. " Des eveques de Poitiers, avec lespreuves," 16't7, 4to. 
This is a collection of useful documents, but without any 
arrangement, and evidently left unfinished by the author. 
He wrote also some pieces of less note, such as a " Com- 
juentaire sur RonsarJ," something of which kind was at- 
tempted by many of his contemporaries.* 

BESOIGNE (Jerome), a doctor of the Sorbonne, was 
born at Paris in 16S6, of an old family of booksellers, and 
after prosecuting his studies witli great success, became 
professor of philosophy in the college of Plessis, and as- 
sistant to the principal. His particular talent for the reli- 
gious instruction of his pupils occasioned his being fre- 
quently invited to other colleges of the capital for his ad- 
vice and assistance ; but his opposition to the famous bull 
Unigenitus, gave so much offence to the higher powers 
that he was expelled the college of Plessis, deprived of the 
privileges of his doctorate, and at last banished the king- 
dom. This sentence, however, being taken off after a 
year, he returned to his friends, and employed himself in 
writing the following works, 1. " Concorde des livres de 
la Sagesse, on Morale du St. Esprit," 1737, 1746, 12mo. 
2. " Concorde des Epitres canoniques, ou Morale des 
Apotres," 1747, 12mo. 3. " Principes de la perfection 
Chretienne et religieuse," 1748, 12mo, often reprinted. 
4. " Histoire de Tabbaye de Port-royal," 1756, 8 vols. 
12mo. 5. "Reflexions theologiques sur le premier vol. 
des lettres de I'abbe de Villefroi a ses eleves, &c." 1759, 
respecting a controversy with Villefroi and his disciples 
on the conduct of God towards his church. 6. " Principes 
de la Penitence et de la Justice," 1762, 12mo. Besoigne 
has the character of a pious man and an able divine, but it 
is objected that some of his works of the practical kind are 
rather deficient in that unction, as the French term it, which 
gives success and popularity to works of that description. 
Besoigne died of a nervous disorder, the nature of which 
his physicians could not discover, Jan. 25, 1763.* 

BESOLD, or BESOLDUS (Christopher), an eminent 
lawyer, and law-professor at Ingolstadt, was born atTubin- 

* Biog. Univ. — Mareri. — Niceron, vol. XLI. 
2 Bioi;. Univ.— Diet. Hist. 

B E S O L D. 175 

gen In 1577, and was professor of law in 1635, when he 
turned Roman catholic, and left his place to become coun- 
sellor at the court of Austria, whence he went to Ingolstadt, 
and died there Sept. 15, 1638. At this juncture the pope 
was about to have offered him a professor's chair at Bo- 
logna, with a pension of four thousand ducats. He was 
the author of a great many works on subjects of law and 
history, all which shew that he had accumulated a greater 
stock of learning than he had time or judgment to me- 
thodize. 1. " Synopsis rerum ab orbe condito gestarum, 
usque ad Ferdinandi imperium," Franeker, 1698, 8vo. 
1, " Synopsis doctrinae poiiticoe." 3. *' Historia imperii 
Constantinopolitani et Turcici." 4. " Series et succincta 
narratio rerum a regibus Hierosolymarum, Neapoleos et 
Sicilige gestaram." 5. " Dissertationes philologicse," 1642, 
4to. One of these, on the history of printing, may be 
seen^in Wolf's " Monumenta typographica." 6. *' Pro- 
dromus vindiciarum ecclesiast. Wirtenbergicarnm," 1636, 
4to. 7. " Documenta rediviva monasteriorum Wirtemb.'* 
Tubing. 1636, 4to. These two works, although surrepti- 
tiously printed at Vienna in 1723 and 1726, fol. are un- 
commonly rare, as they were suppressed along with the 
followincr articles. 8. " Virscinum sacrarum monumenta. 
&c." 9. " Documenta concernentia ecclesiam collegia- 
tarn Stuttoardiensem." 10. " Documenta ecclesiaj Back- 
henang." These last iive, which the Germans enumerate 
among their rarest bibliographical curiosities, are all in 4to, 
and prmted at Tubingen, 1636. Saxius mentions a work 
omitted in the above list, and probably Besold's first pro- 
duction, *' Discussiones quaestionum aliquot de usuris et 
annuls reditibus," Tubing. 1598, 4to. * 

BESPLAS (Joseph Mary Anne Gros de), doctor of 
the Sorbonne, chaplain to monsieur, and abbot of I'Epau, 
was born at Castelnaudax'i in Languedoc, Oct. 13, 1734, 
and died at Paris, Aug. 26, 1783. He at first connected 
himself with the community of St. Sulpice, and discharged 
with not less fortitude than charity, the painful office of 
accompanying antl exhorting the criminals sentenced to 
die. Afterwards, devoting his talents to the pulpit, he 
preached with applause at Versailles and at Paris, though 
the rapidity of his utterance diminished somewhat of the 
effect of his discourses. His sermon on the last supper 

! Biog, Univer. — Saxii Onomast. — Moreri. — Nrcertn, vol. XXXIV. 

176 B E S P L A S. 

presented a piece of eloquence so affecting on the sad con* 
dition of the prisoners in the several gaols, that the imme- 
diate regulation of them, as to accommodations and health, 
with the establishment of the Hotel de Force, were among 
the happy effects of it. The abbe de Besplas was service- 
able to liumanity, not only by his discourses, but by his 
works. We have by him a treatise, " Of the causes of 
public happiness," 1769 and 1778, 2 vols. 12mo, replete 
with excellent suggestions, political and moral, enriched 
■with great and noble ideas, to which nothing is wanting 
but a more methodical arrangement and a style less 
pompous. The same censure might be passed upon 
his " Essay on the eloquence of the pulpit," a production 
of his youth, of which the second edition of 177« was care- 
fully retouched. The abbe de Besplas was benehcent as 
much from inclination as from principle ; he had the art of 
•uniting vivacity with gentleness, of pleasing without afford- 
ing room for scandal, of being instructive without pedantry, 
and tolerant without indifference ; in his whole figure and 
deportment was seen that serenity, that gentle gaiety, which 
ever accompanies a contented mind.* 

BESSARION (John), one of the revivers of literature 
in the fifteenth century, was born, not at Constantinople, 
as some writers assert, but at Trebisond, in 1389, a date 
which is ascertained by his epitaph written by himself, but 
as all the copies of this epitaph do not agree, Bandini, 
one of his biographers, gives 1395, as the time of his birth. 
He entered into the order of St. Basil, and passed twenty- 
one years in a monastery of Peloponnesus, employed in 
the study of divinity and polite literature. The philosopher 
Gemistus Pletho was one of his masters. In 1438, when 
the emperor John Paleologus formed the design of going 
to the council of Ferrara, to re-unite the Greek with the 
Latin church, he drew Bessarion from his retirement, 
made him bishop of Nice, and engaged him to accompany 
him into Italy with Pletho, Marcus Eugenius, archbishop 
of Ephesus, the patriarch of Constantinople, and several 
other Greeks eminent for talents or rank. In the sittings 
of this council, the archbishop of Ephesus distinguished 
himself by his powers of reasoning, and Bessarion by the 
charms of his eloquence, but unfortunately from being 
rivals in talents, they soon became enemies. Eugenius 

> Diet. PLst. — Bioff. Universelle. — Moath. Rev, vol. XL. 

B E S S A R I O N. 177 

vras not favourable to the scheme of uniting the Greek and. 
Latin churches; and Bessarion, alter having been of a (O'l- 
trary opinion, declared for the Latins, which was the side 
the emperor took. Tlie union was accordingly announced, 
and in December 1439, pope Eugenius IV. to reward the 
zeal of Bessarion, created him a cardinal priest. 

Being now, in consequence of his new dignity, fixed in 
Italy, a step which was at the same time rendered necessary 
by the commotions in Grtece, where he was very unpopu- 
lar, and the union universally rejected, Bessarion returned 
to the studious and simple life he had led in his convent in 
the Peloponnesus. His house became the resort of the 
learned, and when he appeared abroad, his train was com- 
posed of such men as Argyropiilus, Philelphus, Valla, 
Theodore Gaza, George of Trebisonde, and Calderino. 
He obtained the confidence and friendship of several 
popes. Nicholas V. appointed him archbishop of Siponto, 
and cardinal-bishop; and Pins II. in 1463, conferred upon 
him the title of Patriarch of Constantinople. On the death 
of Nicholas V. the college of cardinals would have elected 
him his successor, but this purpose was defeated by the 
intrigues of cardinal Alain. Some years after, Bessarion 
was likely to have succeeded Paul IL but to accomplish 
this, it was necessary to secure the vote of the cardinal 
Orsini by an act of injustice, which he refused. Orsini, 
however, tendered his vote on the same terms to the car- 
dinal de Rovcre, who had none of Bessarion's scruples, and 
was elected. Paul Jovius tells a foolish story of Bessa- 
rion's having lost this election, by the blundering reply of 
his servant ; and Gibbon, credulous enough when the 
object of belief is worth nothing, has repeated it after him, 
nor knowing that our countryman Hody had amply re- 
futed it. 

Bessarion was employed on four embassies of a delicate 
and difficult kind. Three of them he conducted with suc- 
cess, but the fourth was less fortunate. BeiuG: sent into 
France by Sixtus IV. to reconcile Louis XI. with the duke 
of Burgundy, and obtain assistance against the Turks, he 
not only failed in these undertakings, but it is said that the 
king, in full court, oflfered him the grossest personal in- 
dignities. Bessarion on this set out on his way to Rome, 
and died at Ravenna, Nov. 1^, 1472, of chagrin, accord- 
ing to some authors, but more probably from age and 
infirmity, being now eighty-three years old, or at least, 

Vol.' V. N 

178 B E S S A R I O K. 

according to Bandini's calculation, seventy-seven. His body 
tvas brought to Rome, and the pope attended the funeral, 
an honour never bestowed before on any cardinal. He 
w^as celebrated in Latin by Platina, and in Greek by Mi- 
chael Apostolius. Of Platina's eloge there have been 
many editions, but that of Apostolius was not published 
until 1793, by M. Fulleborn. Bessarion bequeathed his 
library to the senate of Venice. It was particularly rich in 
manuscripts, which he collected at a great ex pence from 
all parts of Greece. Tomasini drew up a catalogue of the 

Bessarion's writings are numerous. Almost all those on 
theological subjects remain in manuscript, except some 
that are inserted in the acts of the council of Florence, in 
vol. XHI. of Labbe's collection, and in vol. IX. of Har- 
douin's. Compltte catalogues of his jjhilosophical treatises, 
discourses, and letters, may be consulted iuFabricius's Bibl. 
Grffic. and in Hody. His most celebrated works were his 
Latin translations of Xenophon's Memorabilia, and Aris- 
totle's Metaph3'sics, and his treatise " Contra calumnia- 
torem Platonis." That calumniator was George of Trebi- 
sond, and Bessarion composed the work during the heat 
of the violent contest supported about the middle of the 
fifteenth century', between the followers of Plato and those 
of Aristotle, of whicii Boivin wrote the history in the se- 
cond volume of the Academy of Belles Lettres. Gemistus 
Pietho, an enthusiastic admirer of Plato, wrote a small tract 
in which he attacked the Peripatetic philosophy with viru- 
lent invective. Three learned Greeks of the age, Genna- 
dius, George of Trebisond, and Theodore Gaza, had taken 
up their pens in vindicaticni of Aristotle. Bessarion en- 
deavoured to reconcile the parties by shewing that Plato 
and Aristotle were not so far removed from each other in 
opinion as was usually thought ; and having a great respect 
for these two sages, he relDuked, in strong terms, the in- 
considerate zeal of young Aposto'.ius, who, without under- 
standing the question, had written a violent and unreason- 
able declamation against Aristotle. George, however, far 
from following the example of this moderation, published, 
in Latin, under the title of " Comparatio Platonis et Aris- 
totclis," a long dissertation, in which he endeavoured to 
demonstrate the vast superiority of Aristotle, and inveighed, 
with great violence, against Plato and his followers. Bes- 
sarion tiien wrote the treatise above-mentioned against thi« 

B E S S A R I O N. 179 

calumniator of Plato, in which he endeavours to prove that 
the doctrine of Plato is confornK>ble to that of the Scrip- 
tures, and that his morals were as pure and irreproachable 
as his doctrine. Having thus defended Plato, he attacks 
George of Ti'ebisond, proving that he had mistaken the 
sense of a great many passages, and that he had no right 
to give his opinion of a philosopher whose works he did not 
understand. Of this book there have been three ediiions, 
all of which are scarce ; the first was printed at Rome in 
1469, and the others at Venice by Aldus, 1503 and 1516.' 
BESSEL (Godfrey de), a learned abbe of the convent 
of Benedictines of Gottwich, in Austria, was born Sept. 
5, 1672, atBuchheim in the electorate of Mentz. Lothaire- 
Francis, archbishop of Mentz, of the family of the counts 
of Schoenborn, emplo3^ed him in divers embassies at Rome, 
Vienna, and Wolfenbuttel, and admitted him of his privy 
council. In 1714 he was chosen abbe of Gottwich, and in 
1720, the emperor Charles VI. sent him to Kem{)ten to 
accommodate some differences which had arisen there, 
liis, convent having been destroyed by fire in 17 18, he 
succeeded in saving the librarj', and afterwards having re- 
built the convent with <jreat maf]jni(icence, he enriched the 
library with a great many manuscripts and rare books, 
being an ardent lover of literature and learned men, and 
himself very learned in history and diplomacy. The " Chro- 
nicon Gottvvicense, pars prima et secunda," Tegernsce, 

1732, fol. has been often attributed to him, but there is 
reason to think that Francis Joseph de Hahn, afterwards 
bishop of Bamberg, was the real author. Bessel speaks of 
him in the preface as his coadjutor. It contains a great 
number of diplomas granted by the emperors from Conrad 
I. to Frederick II, whose seals and arms are very accurately 
engraved, and throws so much light on the public law of 
Germany, that many writers have not scrupled to equal it 
to father Mabillon's work " De re diplomatica " Bessel 
also published St. Augustine's letters to Optatus, *' De 
poenis parvulorum qui sine baptismate decedunt," Vienna, 

1733. He died Jan. 20, 1749.** 

BESTON, or BESODUNUS (John), a learned English 
divine of the fifteenth century, was prior of the monastery 
of Carmelite friars at Lynn in Norfolk, and distinguished 

* Biog. Univ. — Moreri. — Dupin. — But above all, HoJius de Grsecis iUustii- 
kus. — Saxii Oiiomaiticou, ' Biog. Univ. 

N 2 

180 B E S T O N. 

for the works which he published, and the great character 
which he raised by his merit. It seems probable from 
Leiand's account of him, that he studied first at Cambridge, 
and afterwards at Paris, as he had the honour of receiving 
the degree of doctor of divinity in both those universities. 
The same author tells us, that he was extremely well 
skilled in natural philosophy, and a considerable divine ; 
and Bale adds, that he was a very fluent and eleyrant 
preacher in his own language, and an acute disputant in 
the schools. Pits likewise observes, that he had a very 
happy genius, and a solid judgment, and was eminent for 
his piety and knowledge both in divine and human learn- 
ing; that he was highly applauded for his subtilty in dis- 
putation, and his eloquence in the pulpit ; and that Alan 
de Lynn affirmed of him, that he used in his sermons to 
open and explain the four-fold sense of the Scriptures with 
the utmost perspicuity. Thomas VValdensis, in his Epistles 
quoted by Bale and Pits, tells us, that he was sent in the 
year 1424 to the council held at Sienna in Italy, under 
Pope Martin V. where he distinguished himself to great 
advajitage. He died at Lynn in the year 1428 under the 
reign of king Henry VI. His works are, 1. *' Compen- 
dium Theologiae Moralis." 2. " Ordinaria; Quaestiones." 
3. " Super Universalibus Holcothi." 4. *' Sermones in Evan- 
gelia." 5. *' Sermones in Epistolas." 6. " Lecturae sacrae 
Scripturae." 7. *' Rudimenta Logices." 8. " De Virtutibus 
et Vitiis oppositis." 9. " Kpistolarum ad diversos Libri duo."* 
;^E^HAM (Edward, B. D.) an English divine, received 
his education at Eton, of which seminary he was a distin- 
guished ornament ; was elected from thence to King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1728, of which he became a fellow 
in 1731; was some time bursar, and by the provost and 
ffilows, when senior fellow, was presented to the living of 
Greenford in Middlesex. He was also one of the White- 
hall preachers. In 1771 the provost and fellows of Eton 
elected him to a vacant fellowship in that society. So un- 
exceptionable was his life, that he may truly be said to 
have made no enemy in the progress of it. His fortune 
was not large, yet his liberality kept more than equal pace 
with it, and pointed out objects to which it was impossible 
for his nature to resist lending: his assistance. In his life- 
time he gave 2000/. for the better maintaining the botani- 

* Gen. Diet, from Leland, Bale and Pits. — Tanncf. 

B E T H A M. 181 

cal garden at Cambridge, thereby encouraging a study 
which did pecuHar honour to his taste, and materially he- 
netited mankind. So humane was his disposition, tliat in 
175iO he founded and endowed a charity school in his own 
parish ; and this most nobly in his life-time, when avarice 
might have forbid it, or the fear of want might have ex- 
cepted against it. Having previously built a school-liouse, 
he gave, by a deed in chancery, the sum of 1 600/. baiik- 
stock, of which he appropriated 30/. a-year U» a master 
and mistress to instruct thirty boys and girls; thirty shil- 
lings for coals for ttje school ; and the remaiiKU-rof the in- 
terest, except 10/. to clothe such aged lucn and women as 
should frequently attend tlie sacrament, is aj)propriated to 
clothe the children, buy b(joks, -and keep the school in 
repair. As in his life he indicated the most extensive libe- 
rality, so at his death he exhibited a lasting record of his 
gratitud'e. Impressed with the highest sense of the muni- 
ficence of the royal founder of Eton, within whose walls 
he had imbibed the first seeds of education, he by his will 
directed a statue of marble, in honour of Henry VI. to be 
erected at the expence of 700/. And, in order infallibly 
to carry his purpose into execution, he contracted a few 
months before his death with Mr. Bacon. This statue was 
accordingly executed by that excellent artist, and is in 
the chapel, with the Inscription " Posuit Edvardus Be- 
tham, collegii hujusce socius." The fouiuler holds a mo- 
del of E^ton college in his hand. Mr. Betham also gave a 
bust of the king to the college library, and placed some 
ancient painted glass in the chancel windows of his church 
at Greenford. He died in 1783. • 


BETl'ERTON (Thomas), a celebrated English actor, 
was born in Tothill-street, VVestnunster, 1635; and, after 
having left school, is said to have been put apprentice to 
a bookseller. The particulars, however, relating to the 
early part of his life, are not ascertained. It is generally 
thought that he made his first appearance on the stage in 
1656, at the opera-house in Charier-house-yard, under 
the direction of sir William Davenant, and continued to 
perform here till the restoration, when king Charles granj:ed 
patents to two compatues, the one called the king's com- 
pany, and the other the duke's. Tiie former acted at the 
theatre royal in Drury-lane, and the latter at the theatre 

> Gent. Mag. 1783. — Lysons's Environs, — HarwooJ's Alumni Etonenses, 

182 B E T T E R T O N. 

in Lincoln's-Inn-fields. Betterton went over to Paris, at the 
command of king Charles II. to take a view of the French 
see :ery, and at his return made such improvements as 
adde J greatly to the lustre of the English stage. For several 
years bt«th companies acted with the highest applause, and 
the taste for dramatic entertainments was never strono-er 
than vvuilst these two companies played *. The two com- 
panies were however at length united; though the time of 
this union is not precisely known, Gildon placing it in 
1682, and Cibber in 1684. But however this may be, it 
was in tiiis united company that Mr. Betterton first shone 
forth with the greatest degree of lustre ; for, having sur- 
vived the famous actors upon whose model he had formed 
himself, he was now at liberty to display his genius in its 
full extent. His merit as an actor cannot now be very ac- 
curately displayed, and much of the following passage 
from Cibber's Apology, seems to be mere stage-cant and 
declamation. Cibber says, *' Betterton was an actor, 
as Snakspeare was an author, both without competitors, 
formed for the mutual assistance and illustration of each 
other's genius! How Shakspeare wrote, all men who 
have a taste for nature may read and know ; hut with what 
higher rapture would he still be read, could they conceive 
how Betterton played him ! Then might they know the 
one was born alone to speak what the other only knew to 
write ! Pity it is that the momentary beauties, flowing 
from an harmonious elocution, cannot, like those of poe- 
try, be their own record! — that the animated graces of 
the player can live no longer than the instant breath and 
motion that present them, or at best can but faintly glim- 
mer through the memory or imperfect attestation of a few 
surviving spectators! Could how Betterton spoke be as 
easily known as what he spoke, then might you see the 
muse of Shakspeare in her triumph, with all her beauties 
in her best array, rising into real life, and charming her 

* Mr. Cibber says, that plays huv- the capital plays therefore of Shak- 
ing been so long prohibited, people speare, Fletcher, and Joii>-on, were di- 
came to them wiih greater eagerness, vided betwixt them, by the approba- 
like folki after a long fast to a great tionof the court, and their own choice i 
feast ; and that women being now so that when Hart was famous for 
brought upon the stage was a great Othello, Betterton had no less a repu- 
advanuge ; fir on all former stages, tation for Hamlet. By this means the 
female characters were performed by town was supplied with greater variety 
boys, or young men of the most cfTe- of plays than coidd possibly have been 
minate aspect He tikes notice also shewn, had both companies been em- 
of a rule which wad established, that ployed at the same time upon the same 
no play which was acted at one house play. Cibber's Apology for his life, 
nbould be attempted at the other, All p. 74, 75, 5ic. 


beholders. But alas ! since all this is so far out of the 
reach of description, how shall I shew you Betterton ?• 
Should I therefore tell you that all the Otliellos, Hamlets, 
Hotspurs, Macbeths, and Brutuses, you have seen since 
his time, have fallen short of him, this still would give you 
no idea of his particular excellence. Let us see then what 
a particular comparison may do, whether tliat may yet 
draw him nearer to you .? You have seen a Hamlet per- 
haps, who, on the first appearance of his father's spirit, 
has thrown himself into all the straining vociferation requi- 
site to express rage and fury ; and the house has thundered 
with applause, tiiough the misguided actor was all the 
wjiile (as Shakspeare terms it) tearing a passion into rags. 
I am the more bold to offer you this particular instance, 
because the late Mr. Addison, while I sat by him lo see 
this scene acted, made the same observation ; asking me, 
with some surprise, if I thought Hamlet siiould be in so 
violent a passion with the ghost, which, though it might 
have astonished, had not provoked him ? For you may 
observe, that in this beautiful speech, the passion never 
rises beyond an almost breathless astonishmnt, or an im- 
patience, limited by a filial reverence, to inquire into the 
suspected wrongs that may have raised i;im from his peaceful 
tomb ; and a desire to know what a spirit so seemingly^ 
distrest might wish or enjom a sorrowful son t(j execute 
towards his future quiet in the grave. Tliis was the light 
into which Betterton threw this scene ; wliicii he opened with 
a pause of mute aiiiazemcnt 1 Then rising slowly lo a 
solemn, treu^bling voice, he made the ghosc equally ter- 
rible to the spectator as to himself. And in the descrip- 
tive part of the natural emotions wliich the ghastly- 
vision gave him, the boldness ofhis expostulation was still 
governed by decency ; manly, but net braving; his voice 
never rising into that seeming outrage, or w.ld deliance, 
of what he naturally revered. But, alas ! to preserve this 
medium between mouthing, and meaning too little, to 
keep the attention more pleasingly awake by a tempered 
spirit, than by mere veiiemence (jf voice, is, of all the 
master-strokes of an actor, tiie most difHcuh to reach. In 
this none have equalled Betterton. He that leels not liim- 
self the passion he would raise, will talk to a sieeping au- 
dience. But this was never tiie fault of Betteuon A far- 
ther excellence in him vvas, tliat he could vary ois spir.t to 
the diiYerent characters he acted. Tliose wild impatient 

184 B E T T E R T O N. 

starts, that fierce and flashing fire which he threw into 
Hotspur, never came from the unruffled temper of his 
Bruius (for I have more than once seen a Brutus as warm 
as Hotspur) : when the Betterton Brutus was provoked in 
his dispute with Gassius, his spirits flew out of iiis eyes ; his 
steady looks alone supplied that terror which he disdained 
an intemperance in his voice should rise to. Thus, with a 
settled dignity of cont^r.mpt, like an un'needing rock, he 
repelled upon himself the foam of Cassius ; not but in some 
part of tills scene, where he reproaches Cassius, his tem- 
per is not under this suppression, but opeiis into that 
warmth which becomes a man of \ irlue ; yet this is that 
hasty spark of anger, which Brutus hiiDseif endeavours to 
excuse. But with whatever stiength of nature we see the 
poet shew at once the philosopher and the iiero, yet the 
image of the actor's excellence will be still imperfect to 
you, unless language could put colovus in our words to 
paint the voice with. The most that a Vandyck can ar- 
rive at is, to make his portraits of great persons seem to 
think ; a Shakspeare goes farther yet, and tells you what 
his pictures thought; a Betterton steps beyond them both, 
and calls them from the grave to breathe, and be tliem- 
selves agdin in feature, speech, and motion, at once uiutt-d ; 
and gratifies at once your eye, your ear, your understand- 
ing. From these various excellencies, Betterton had so 
full a possession of the esteem and regard of his auditors, 
that, upon his entrance into every scene, he seemed to 
seize upon the eyes and ears of the giddy and inadvertent. 
To have talked or looked another way, would have been 
thought insensibility or ignorance. In all his soliloquies of 
moment, the strongest intelligence of attitude and aspect 
drew you into such an impatient gaze and eager expecta- 
tion, that yon almost imbibed the sentiment with your eye, 
before the ear could reach it." 

Endowed witti such excellences, it is no wonder that 
Betterton attracted the notice of his sovereign, the pro- 
tection of the nobility, and the general respect of all ranks 
of people. The patentees, however, as there was now only 
one tneatre, began to consider it as an instrument of accu- 
mulating wealth to themselves by the labours of others; 
and this had such an influence on their conduct, that the 
actors had many hardships imposed upon them, and were 
oppressed in the most tyrannical manner. Betterton en- 
deavoured to convince the managers of the injustice and 

B E T T E R T O N. 185 

absurdity of such a behaviour ; which language not pleas- 
in"- them, they began to give away some of his capital 
parts to young actors, supposing this would abate his in- 
fluence. This pohcy hurt the patentees, and proved of 
service to Betterton ; for the public resented having plays 
ill acted, when they knew they might be acted better. 
The best players attaclied themselves wholly to Betterton, 
urtiintr him to turn his thouohts on some method of pro- 
curing himself and them justice. Having a general ac- 
quaintance with people of fashion, he represented the af- 
fair ill such a manner, that at length, by the intercession 
of the earl of Dorset, he procured a patent for building a 
new playhouse in Lincoln's-inn-fields, which he did by 
subscription. The new theatre was opened in 1695. Mr. 
Congreve accepted a share with this company, and the 
first piay they acted was his comedy of Love for Love. 
The king honoured it with his presence ; when Betterton 
spoke a prologue, and Mrs. Bracegirdle an epilogue on the 
occasion. But notwithstanding all the advantages this 
company enjoyed, and the favourable reception they at 
first met with, they were unable to keep up their run of 
success, above two or three seasons. Vanbrugh and Gib- 
ber, who wrote for the other house, were expeditious in 
their productions ; and the frequency of new pieces gave 
such a turn in their favour, that Betterton's company, with 
all their merit, must have been undone, had not the 
*' Mournin<r Bride" and the " Wav of the World" come 
to their relief, and saved them at the last extremity. In 
a few years, however, it appearing that they could not 
maintain their independence without some new support 
from their friends, the patrons of Betterton opened a sub- 
scription for building a theatre in the Haymarket, which 
was finished in 1706. Betterton however beinsf now srrown 
old, and his health being much impaired by constant ap- 
plication, declined the management of this house, resign- 
ing it entirely to sir John Vanbrugh and Mr. Congreve; 
but from the decay of Betterton, many of the old players 
d}ing, and other accidents, are-union of the companies 
seemed necessary, and accordingly took place soon after. 

When Betterton had reached sevent}', his infirmities 
increased to a great degree, and his fits of the gout were 
extremely severe. His circumstances also grew daily worse 
and worse, yet he kept up a remarkable spirit and serenity 
of mind j and acted when his health would permit. The 

186 B E T T E R T O N. 

public, remembering the pleasure he had given them, 
would not allow so deserving a man, after fifty years ser- 
vice, to withdraw without some marks of their bounty. In 
the spring of 1709, a benefit, which was then a very un- 
common favour, was granted to him, and the play of 
** Love for Love" was acted for this purpose. He himself 
performed Valentine ; Mrs. Bracegirdle and Mrs. Barry, 
though they had quitted the stage, appeared on this occa- 
sion •, the former in the character of Angelica, and Mrs, 
Barry in that of Frail. After the play was over, these two 
actresses appeared leading on Betterton ; and Mrs. Barry 
spoke an epilogue, written by Mr. Rowe. 

Betterton got by this benefit 500/. and a promise was 
given him, that the favour should be annually repeated as 
long as he lived. Sept. 20, in the succeeding winter, he 
performed the part of Hamlet with great vivacity. This 
activity of his kept off the gout longer than usual, but the 
fit returned upon him in the Spring with greater violence, 
and it was the more unlucky, as this «as the time of his 
benefit. The play he fixed upon was, the " Maid's Tra- 
gedy," in which he acted the part of Melanthns ; and no- 
tice was given thereof by his friend sir Richard Steele in 
the Taller; but the fit intervening, that he might not dis- 
appoint the town, he was obliged to submit to external 
applications, to reduce the swelling of his feet, which 
enabled him to appear on the stage, though he was obliged 
to use a slipper. " He was observed that day to have a 
more than an ordinary spirit, and met with suitable ap- 
plause ; but the unhappy consequence of tampering with 
his distemper was, that it flew into his head, and killed 
him." He died April 28, 1710, and was interred in West- 
minster-abbey. Sir Richard Steele attended the cere- 
mony, and two days after published a paper in the Tatler 
to his memory*. Mr. Booth, who knew him only in his 

* " Having; received notice," says most charminc: poets I Iiad ever read. 

•>ie a\uhor of lliis paper, " that tlie fa- Sucli an acti)r as Mr. Relterton ought 

IDOHS Mr. Betterton was to be interred to be recorded with the Siinu' respect 

this evening in the cloisters, near West- as Roscius ainon;i:st the Romans. 'I'he 

ininsler-abl)ey, I was resolved to walk greatest orator has liioiight lit to quote 

thither, and see the last office doiK- to liis jac^inen:, and celebrate bis life. 

a man whom 1 had always very much Roseius w;is the example to all that 

udinii'cd, and from whose action 1 bad would form themselves into a proper 

received more impressions of what is and wirinmg behaviour, flis action 

great and noble in iiiimaii nature, than was s-o well adapted lo the sentiment* 

IVom the arguments of the most solid he expressed, ihat the youth of Home 

|.hilosop!iLTs, or the descriptions of tlie thought they wanted only to be vir« 

B E T T E R T O N. 187 

decline, used to say, that he never saw him off or on the 
stage, without learning something from him ; and fre- 
quently observetl, that Bettercon was no actor, that he put 
on his part Witli his clothes, and was the very man he un- 
dertook to be till the play was over, and nothing more. So 
exact was he in following nature, that the look of surprise 
he assumed in the character of Hamlet, astonished Booth 
(when he first personated the ghost) to such a degree, that 
he was Uiiable to proceed in his part for some moments. 
Tiie following dramatic works were published bj' Mr. Bet- 
terton, I. " The Woman made a justice," a comedy. 2. 
" The Unjust judge, or, Appius and Virginia," a tragedy, 
written originally by I\Ir. John Webster, an old poet, who 
flourished in the reign of James I. It was only altered by 
Mr. Better.on. 3. " The Am rous widow, or the wanton 
wife," a play written on the plan of Moliere's George 
Dandin. ' 

BE fTI (Zachary), an elegant Italian poet of the last 
ceuLury, was born at Verona, July 16, 1732, and began 
his studies at the Jesuits' college at Brescia, but was ob- 
liged, by bad health, to return home to complete them. 
The work on which his reputation chiefly rests is his poein 
on the silk- worm, " Del baco da seta, canti IV. con an- 
notazioni," Verona, 1756, 4to, in which he contrives to 

tiious, to he as graceful in their ap- act it, observes, there could not be a 
pcaraiicf ,is Roscius. I have hardly a word added; thai longer speeches had 
notion, that any ptrtbrmance of aiiti- been unnatural, nay impossible, in 
<)uity could surpass Uie action of Mr. Othello's circumstances. The charm- 
Betterton, in any of the occasions in ing passiige in the same tragedy, 'vhere 
which he has apucired on our stage. he tells the manner of winning the 
The wonderful agony which he ap- affecticn of his mistress, was urged 
peared in, when he examined the cir- with so moving and graceful an ener- 
cumstances of the handkerchief in gy, 'hat while I walked in the cloisters, 
Othello; the mixinre of love that 1 thought of him with the same con- 
intruded upon his mind upon the in- cern as if I waited for the remains of a 
nocent answers Desdemona makes, be- person who had in real life done all 
trayed in his gestures such a variety that I had seen him represent. The 
and vicissitude of passions, as would gloom of the place, and faint lights 
admonish a man to be afraid of his before the ceremony appeared, con- 
own heart, and perft-cily convince tributed to the melancholy disposition 
him, that it is to stab it to admit that I was in ; and 1 began to oc extremely' 
worst of daggers, jeamnsy. Whoever afflicted that liruius anil Cassius had 
reads in his closet this aduiiratjle any dilTrMence; that Hotspur's gal- 
scene, wdl find that he cannot, unless lantry was so unfortunate; and that 
he has as warm an imagination as the mirth and good nuinour of Falstaff 
Shakspeare himself, find any hut dry, could not exempt him from the grave." 
incoherent, and broken sentences : Tatler, No. li">7. 
but a reader that has seen Better'on 

* Abridged in the last edition of this Dictionary from the Biog. Brit. — Biog. 
Dratnatica. — Cibber's Lives. — Life of Betterton, 1710, 8vo. 

188 B E T T I. 

be original on a subject that had been amply treated ia 
the sixteenth century, in the " La Sereide" of Tesauro. 
He dedicated this poem to the marquis Spolverini, the 
author of a didactic poem on the cuhivation of rice, " La 
coltivazione del Riso." His poetical efforts were all direct- 
ed to the object of his more serious labours, agriculture. 
His bust is in the hall of the academy of agriculture at Ve- 
rona, of which he was the founder, and among other aca- 
demies, he was a member of the Georgophiles of Florence. 
He wrote another poem, " Le Cascine," with notes, but 
it does not appear to have been printed. He died at Ve- 
rona in 1788. 1 

BETTINELLI (Saverio, or Xavier), one of the most 
eminent Italian scholars of the last century, was born at 
Mantua, July 18, 1718. After having studied among the 
Jesuits in his own country and at Bologna, he entered that 
society as a noviciate in 1736. He then commenced a 
new course of studies, including the belles lettres, from 
1739 to 1744, at Brescia, where cardinal Quirini, count 
Mazzuchelli, count Duranti, and other learned men, form- 
ed an illustrious academ}', and there he became first no- 
ticed by some poetical compositions for scholastic exer- 
cises. When sent to Bologna to pursue his theological 
course, he continued to court his muse, and wrote for the 
theatre of the college, his tragedy of " Jonathas." The 
number of literary characters in this city surpassed that 
whicii he had found at Brescia. The Institute recently 
founded by count Marsigli, the Clementine academy of 
design, the school of the astronomical poet Mant'redi, and 
the growing reputation of his learned and ingenious pujiils 
Zanotti, Algarotti, &c. contributed to fix the attention of 
the literary world on Bologna. In this society Bettinelli 
completed his education, and attained the age of thirty. 
In 1748, he went to Venice to teach riietoric, and was fre- 
quently employed in a similar manner in other places. His 
superiors intended him for a display ot his oratorical 
talents, but the weakness of his lungs obliged him to de- 
cline this. In 1751, he was appointed director of the col- 
lege of nobles at Parma, and reindined here sujjerintend- 
ing their poetical and historical studies for eight years, 
occasionally visiting the principal cities ot Italy, on busi- 
ness, or for health. In 1735, ne travelled through part of 

* Biog. Universclle. 

B E T T I N E L L I. 189 

Germany, to Strasburgh and Nancy, and returned throufrh 
Germany to Italy, bringinjr with hiin two young princes, 
the sons or nephews ot the prince of Holienlohe, who had 
intrusted him with their education. The following year 
he took a trip to France with the eldest of these princes, 
and resided at Paris, in the college of Louis-le-Grand. It 
was during this trip that he wrote the celebrated letters of 
Virgil which were printed at Venice with those of Frugoni 
and Algarotti. The opinions, and we may add, the Hterary 
heresies, very ingeniously urged in these letters against 
the reputation of the two great luminaries of Itahan poetry, 
and especially against Dante, created him many enemies, 
and what gave him most uneasiness, involved him with 
Algarotti. (See Algarotti). From Paris he made seve- 
ral excursions into Normandy, Lorraine, &c. and paid a 
visit to Voltaire. From Geneva he went to Marseilles, &c. 
and arrived at Parma in 1759. The same year he went to 
Verona, where he resided until 1767, and resumed his 
offices of preaching and education. 'He was afterwards 
for some years at Modena, and when the order of the Jesuits 
was suppressed, he was appointed professor of rhetoric. 
On his return to his own country, he applied to his literary 
pursuits with fresh ardour, and published many works, and 
having regretted that he had published so much without 
writing any thing to please the fair sex, doubtless owing 
to his ecclesiastical character, he afterwards endeavoured 
to make up for this in some respect by publishing his cor- 
respondence between two ladies, his letters to Lesbia, and 
lastly, his twenty-four dialogues on love. These he pub- 
lished in 1796, when the war raged in all parts of Italy, 
and when the siege of Mantua by the French obliged him 
to leave it. He then removed to Verona, but in 1797, 
after the surrender of Mantua, he returned again, and 
although now almost in his eightieth year, resumed his 
literary labours with his accustomed spirit. In 1799, he 
began a new edition of his works, which was completed at 
Venice in 1801, in 24 vols. 12mo. He still preserved his 
usual gaiety and health at the age of ninety, until Sept. 13, 
180S, when he died after fifteen days illness, with the 
firmness, says his biographer, of a philosopher and a Chris- 

His principal works, according to his own arrangement 
in the edition above mentioned are, 1, " Ragiona.menti 
iilosofici, con annotazioni," a work both religious, moral, 

190 B E T T I N E L L 1. 

and philosophical. 2. *' Dell' entusiasmo delle belle arti," 
the professed design of which was to maintain and revive 
the studies of imagination ; but Bettinelli was not himself 
a decided enthusiast, and instead of the fire of ima<rina- 
tion, we have here mu. h of the coldness of method. 3. 
Eight " Dialoghi d'amue," in which he expatiates on the 
inHuences which imagination, vanity, friendship, marriage, 
honour, ambition, science, &c. produce on that passion. 
In this work is an eloge on Petrarch, one of his most happy 
compositions. 4. " Ilisorgimento negli studi, nelle arti e 
ne' costumi dopo il mille." This in Italy is considered as 
a superficial view of the revival of arts and sciences after 
the tenth century, and as interfering with Tiraboschi, who 
was then employed on the same subject, but to those who 
may think Tiraboschi's work, what it certainly is, insuffer- 
ably tedious, this will afford much useful information in a 
shorter compass. The dissertation on Italian poetry is 
particularly valuable. 5. " Delle lettere e delle arti Man- 
tovane; lettere ed .arti Modenesi," an excellent work as 
far as regards the literary history of Mantua, which was 
now, if we mistake not, written for the first time. 6. " Let- 
tere dieci di Virgilio agli Arcadi." Of these letters we 
have already spoken, and his attack on Dante and Pe- 
trarch, although not altogether without such a foundation as 
strict and cold criticism may lay, will not soon be forgiven 
in Italy. 7. " Letters on the Fine Arts from a lady to her 
friend, &,c." 8. His " Poetry," containinp- seven small 
poems, or " poemetti," six epistles in familiar verse, son- 
nets, &c. In all these he is ratlier an elegant, easy, and 
ingenious poet, than a great one. His " Raccolte" is a 
spirited satire on the insipid collections of verses so com- 
mon in Italy. 9. " Tragedies," entitled Xerxes, Jonathan, 
Demetrius, Poliorcetes, and Rome saved, with some French 
letters, and an Italian dissertation on Italian tragedy. The 
" Rome saved" is a translation from Voltaire, indifferently 
performed. He also wrote three other tragedies, but in- 
ferior to the former, in which there is an evident attempt 
at the manner of Racine. 10. " Lettere a Lesbia Cidonia 
sopra gli epigrammi," consisting of tv\enty-five letters, with 
epigranis, madrigals, and other small pieces, some trans- 
lated and some original. II. An " Essay on Eloquence," 
with other essays, letters, miscellanies," &c. As a poet, 
critic, metaphysician, and historian, Bettinelli's merit is 
esteemed by his countrymen as of the first rate ; and with 

B E T T I N E L L I. 191 

respect to the art of composition, they account him one of 
the purest and most elegant writers of the last century, 
one of the few who laboured to preserve the genuine Ita- 
lian idiom from any foreign mixture. ' 

BETTINI (Mario), a learned Italian Jesuit, was born 
at Bologna, Feb. 6, 1582. He entered the order in 1595, 
and was afterwards moral, mathematical, and philosophical 
professor in the college of Parma, lie died at Bologna, 
Nov. 7, 1637. To the study of the more abstruse sciences, 
he united a taste for the belles iettres, and especially La- 
tin poetry. He has left, 1. " Rubenus hilarotragoedia sa- 
tyra pastoralis," Parma, 1614, 4to. This singular com- 
position, we are informed, was often reprinted in Italy, 
translated into several languages, and illustrated by the 
comments of Denis Ronsfert. 2. " Clodoveus, sive Lo- 
dovicus, tragicum silviludium," Parma, 1622, 16mo. 3. 
" Lycieum morale, politicum, et poeticum," Venice, 1626, 
4to, a work divided into two parts, the first of which is in 
prose, and the second in verse, entitled " Urbanitates 
poeticae," a collection of lyric poetry, which was reprinted 
the same year, under the title " Eutrapeiiarum, seu Ur- 
bauitatum Libri IV." Venice, 1626, 4to. It was again re- 
printed with the addition of the above two dramas, with 
the title of " Florilegium variorum poematum et drama- 
turn pastoralium Libri IV." Lyons, 1633, 12mo, the ninth 
edition. There is a copy in the British museum, probably 
of the eighth edition, dated 1632, 8vo. 4. " Apiaria uni- 
versfj) philosophiae, mathematicac, &c." Bologna, 1641 — 
16 56, 3 vols. fol. At the end is an explanation of Euclid, 
" Euclides explicatus," which was printed separately, Bo- 
logna, 1642, and 1645, fol. 5. " ^rarium philosophiae ma- 
thematicir," ibid. 1648, 8vo. 6. " Ilecreationum Mathe- 
maticarum ApiariaXlI. novissima," ibid. 1660, folio, which 
is a reprint of the third volume of the " Apiaria." - 

BETTS (John), an eminent physician in the seventeenth 
century, was son ol' Mr. Edward Betts by his uife Dorothy, 
diughter of Mr. John Venables, of Rapley in Hampshire. 
He was born at Winchester, educated there in grammar 
learning, afterwards elected a sciiolar of Corpus Christi 
college in Oxford, in February 16 12, and took the degree 
of bachelor of arts, February 9, 1646. Being ejected by 

• r»iog. Universelle. — Atlif nenm, vol. V. p. 3.30. 

* Bio;j. Uuivtfsellc. — .VIoreii. 

193 B E T T S. 

the visitors appointed by the parliament in 1648, he ap- 
lied himself to the study of physic, and commenced doc- 
tor in that faculty, April 11, 1654, having accumulated 
the degrees. He practised with great success at London, 
but chiefly among the Roman catholics, being himself of 
that persuasion. He was afterwards appohited physician 
in ordinary to king Charles 11. The time of his death is 
not certainly known. Dr. Belts wrote two physical trea- 
tises, the first, *' De ortu et natura Sanguinis," Lond. 1669, 
8vo. Afterwards there was added to it, " Medicinas cum 
Philosophia naturali consensus," Lond. 1662, 8vo. Dr. 
George Thomson, a physician, animadverted upon our 
author's treatise " De ortu et natura Sangninis," in his 
*' True way of preserving the Blood in its integrity." Dr. 
Belt's second piece is entitled " yVnatomia Thomas Parri 
annum centesimum quinquagesimum secundum et novem 
menses agentis, cum clarissimi viri Gulielmi Harva^i alio- 
rumque adstantium medicorum regiorum observationibus." 
This Thomas Parr, of \vlx)se anatoiny. Dr. Betts, or rather, 
according to Anthony Wood, Dr. Harvey drew up an ac- 
count, is well known to have been one of the most remark- 
able instances of longevity which this country has afforded. 
He was the son of John Parr of Winnington, in the parish 
of Alberbury, in Shropshire, and was bora in 1483, in the 
reign of king Edward the Fourth. He seems to have been 
of very different stamina from the rest of mankind, and 
Dr. Fuller tells us that he was thus characterised by an eye- 

"■ From head to heel, his body had all over, 
A quick-set, tluck-set, nat'ral haiiy cover." 

At an hundred and twenty (or, more probably, an hundred 
and two), he married Catherine Milton, who had a child 
by him ; and after that tiera of his life he was employed in 
threshing, and other husbandry work. When he was above 
an hundred and fifty-two years of age, he was brought up 
to London, by Thomas, earl of Arundel, and carried to 
court. The king said to him, " You have lived longer 
than other men, what have you done more than other 
men r" He replied, " I did penance when I was an hun- 
dred years old." He slept away most of his time while he 
lived in London, which was only two months. He died 
in the Strand, on the 15th of November, 1635, and was 
buried in Westminster-abbey. His death is thought to 
have been accelerated by the change of his place and mode 

B E T T S. 195 

of livln"-, and by the troublesome concourse of visitors and 
spectators. There is said to be a portrait of him in Bel- 
voir castle, and another in Ashmole's museum. The most 
valuable was in the collection of the duchess of Portland. 
The fullest account of him extant, is in his " Life," by- 
Taylor, in the Harleian Miscellany. * 

BETULEIUS (SiXTUS, or Xystus), whose name in 
German was Birck, is in Latin Betula, and hence Betu- 
leius, was born at Memmingen, in Suabia, Feb. 2, 1500, 
and studied at Basil, chiefly philosophy and the belles let- 
tres, both which he afterwards taught with distinguished 
reputation. He was principal of the college of Augsburgh, 
over which he presided for sixteen years, and where he 
died June 19, 1554. His principal works are, 1. " Notes on 
Lactantius," printed with the works of that father, at Basil, 
1563, fol. 2. " Commentary" on Cicero de natura Deo- 
rum, ibid. 1550, Svo, preferable to that of Peter Marso, 
and reprinted in Lescalopier's " Humanitas Theologica,'* 
Paris, 1660, fol. 3. Three dramatic pieces, Susannah, 
Judith, and Joseph, which were highly esteemed in that 
age. The}^ are inserted in the " Dramata sacra," Basil, 
1547, 2 vols. Svo. 4. " Novi Testamenti Concordantia 
Graeca," Basil, 1546, noticed by Freytag as a book of 
great rarity. Freytag also informs us that Betuleius's first 
employment, after finishing his studies, was that of a cor- 
rector of the press to the printers Cratander, Frobenius, 
and Bebelius. 5. *' Oracula Sybillina Or. cum castiga- 
tionibus," Basil, 1545, Svo, " 

BETUSSI (Joseph), an Italian scholar of considera])le 
celebrity, was born about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, at Bassano. In his early years he shewed a taste 
"for polite literature, and published some poems that were 
read as very extraordinary productions, but unfortunately 
he took for his guide the famous, or rather infamous, Peter 
Aretin, both in his studies and his morals. Under such 
an instructor, we are not to wonder that his irregularities 
obstructed his advancement in life. For some time he 
earned a subsistence at Venice in the printing-office of 
Giolito, and afterwards wandered over Italy and even 
France, in quest of better employment, which his miscon- 
duct always prevented. At length be was recommended. 

' Biog. Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Dndd's Ch. Hl?t. vol. III. 
' Biog. L'niverselle. — .Moieri, in iiirQl;. — Freytag Ailparatus Litter. I. and 
HI. — Saxii Onomaslicon. 

Vol. V. O 

194 B E T U S S T. 

as secretary to a person of rank, and is said to have gone 
to Spain in 1562, in this character, but on his return to 
Italy, he resumed his irregularities, and lived as usual on 
precarious supplies. The time of his death is not ascer- 
tained, but according to a letter of Goselini, a contemporary 
writer, he was livinfi in 1565. His works are, 1. " Dia- 
logo amoroso e rime di Giuseppe Betussi e d'aitri autori," 
Venice, 1545, 8vo. This dialogue is in prose and verse ; 
and the speakers are Pigna, Sansovino, and Baffa, a poetess 
of his time'. 2. "II Raverta, dialogo, &c." Venice, 1544, 
1545, &c. 8vo. 3. Italian translations of Boccaccio's 
three Latin works, *' De casibus Virorum et Foeminarum il- 
lustrium ;" — " i>e claris Mulieribus j" — and " De Genea- 
logia deorum ;" the first, Venice, 1545, 8vo; the second, 
with the addition of illustrious ladies from the time of Boc- 
caccio to his own, ibid. 1547, Svc; and the third, same 
year, 4to. Of this last there have been at least thirteen 
editions, and many of the others. 4. " An Italian trans- 
lation of the " Seventh book of the Eneid," Venice, 1546, 
iJvo, which afterwards made part of an entire translation 
.of that poem by different hands. 5. *• La Leonora, Ra- 
gionamento sopra la vera bellezza," Lucca, 1557, 8vo, 
noticed by Mazzuchelli and Fontanini among the rarest 
books. 6. " Ragionamento sopra il Catajo, luogo del sig- 
ner Pio Enea Obizzi," Padua, 1573, 4to, Ferrara, 1669, 
with additions. If this description of a magnificent villa 
was published by Betussi himself, it proves that he was 
alive much later than we have before conjectured. 7. 
*' LTmmagine del tempio di Dorina Giovanna d'Aragona, 
•dialogo," Venice, 1557, 8?o. 8. "Letters" and "Poems" 
in various collections.* 

BEVER (Thomas), LL, D. an eminent scholar and civi- 
lian, was born at Mortimer in Berkshire in 1725, and edu- 
cated at All Souls' college, Oxfoi'd, where he took the de-» 
gree of bachelor of law, July 3, 1753, and that of doctor, 
April 5, 1758, and was also a fellow of his college. In 
1762, with the permission of the vice-chancellor, and with 
the approbation of the regius professor of civil law, whose 
ill state of health had at that time deprived the university 
of the fruits of his abilities, he gave a course of lectures 
in the same school where Blackstone had delivered his 
celebrated commentaries, and sometimes, when the class 
of pupils was small, at his own chambers in All Souls' col- 

^ Biog. Univei-sullw 

B E V E R. 195 

lege. In 176G, he published "A discourse on the study 
of" Jurisprudence and the Civil haw, being an introduction 
to (the above) course of lectures," 4to, but we presume 
had not sufficient encouragement to publish the whole. 
He was admitted into Doctors' Conamons, Nov. 21, 1758, 
and was afterwards jn-onioted to be judge of the Cinque 
Ports, and chancellor of Lincoln and Bangor. In 1781, 
he published " The history of the Legal Polity of the 
Roman state ; and of the rise, progi-ess, and extent of the 
Roman Laws," Lond. 4to, a work in which he has made 
deep researches into the constitution of the Roman state, 
and display's an extensive fund of learning, connected with 
the investigation of the civil law. It is much to be lament- 
ed that he did not live to complete liis plan : but bv his 
will he expressly forbade any part of his MSS. to be print- 
ed, as not being in a fit state for the public eye. Dr. Coote 
says he committed the sequel of this work to the flames ia 
his last illness. He adds that " he was a better scholar 
than writer, and a better writer than pleader." His pri- 
vate character is represented as truly amiable. As a rela- 
tion he was aftectionate and attentive ; and as a friend ac- 
tive and disinterested. His patronage of unprotected ge- 
nius was a constant mark of the benevolence of his heart. 
The late Mr. Hindle, and other adepts in music, of which 
Dr. Bever was a devoted amateur, attracted his esteem. 
Sherwin, the celebrated engraver, owed also the greatest 
obligations to him ; his grateful sense of which he testified 
by his valuable present of an unique painting (the only one 
Sherwin ever executed), of Leonidas taking leave of his 
wife and infant son, now or lately in possession of Sam. 
Bever, esq. of Mortimer in Berkshire, the doctor's 
5'ounger brother. Dr. Bever died at his house in Doctors* 
Commons, Nov. 8, 1791, of an asthma, which probably 
would not then have been fatal, if he had suffered himself 
to be removed from London to a less turbid air, but in 
what concerned his health, he was reluctant to take advice. 
He was interred in Mortimer church, Berkshire, and a 
mural monument erected, in the chancel, to his memory.* 
BEVERIDGE (William), a learned divine in the se- 
venteenth century, and bishop of St. Asaph, was born at 
Barrow in Leicestershire (where his grandfather, father, 
and brother, were vicars) in 1G3G-7. On the 24th of May, 

» Coote's Catalogue of Civilians.— Gent. Mag. vol. LXL and LXVIII. &c. 

O 3 

196 '^ E V E II I D G E. 

1653, he was admitted of St. John's college, Cambridge, 
and took his des-rees of bacbehjr of arts in 165G, mas- 
ter of arts in 1660, and of doctor of divinity in 1679. 
At his coming to the university, he closely applied him- 
self to the study of the learned languages ; and, by 
his great diligence and application, soon became so well 
skilled, particularly in all Oriental learning, that when 
he was not above eighteen years of age, he wrote a 
treatise of the excellency and use of the Oriental tongues, 
especially the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and 
Samaritan, with a Syriac Grammar, in three books; which 
he published when he was about twenty years of age. 
He also distinguished himself, at the same time, by his 
early piety and seriousness of mind, and b}' his exem- 
plary sobriety and integrity of life, all which procured 
him great esteem and veneration. January 3, 1660-1, 
he was ordained deacon in the church of St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate, by Robert, bishop of Lincoln ; and priest, in 
the same place, the 31st of that month. About this time. 
Dr. Sheldon, bishop of London, collated him to the vicar- 
age of Ealing in Middlesex. On the 22d of November, 
1672, he was chosen, by the lord-mayor and aldermen of 
London, rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, and then 
he resigned the vicarage of Ealing. He now applied him- 
self, vvith the utmost labour and zeal, to the discharge of 
his ministry, and so instructive was he in his discourses 
from the pulpit, so warm and affectionate in his private 
exhortations, so regular and uniform in the public wor- 
ship of the church, and in every part of his pastoral func- 
tion, and so remarkably were his labours crowned with 
success, that as he himself was justly styled '* the great 
reviver and i-estorer of primitive piety," so his parish was 
deservedly proposed, as the best model and pattern, for 
the rest of its neighbours to copy after. His singular me- 
rit having recommended him to the favour of his diocesan, 
bishop Henchman, he was collated by him, on the 22d of 
December, 1674, to the prebend of Chiswick, in the ca- 
thedral of St. Paul's, London ; and, by liis successor bi- 
shop Compton, he was also, on the 3d of November, 1681, 
collated to the archdeaconry of Colchester. In this dignity 
he behaved, as he had done before in every station of life, 
in a most regular, watchful, and exemplary manner : and 
not satisfied with the false, or at least imperfect, reports 
given in by church-wardens at visitations, he visited everj 

B £ V E R I D G E. 197 

parish within his archdeaconry iu person. Novemher the 
5th, 1G84, he was installed prebendary of Canterhury, and 
became also chajdain to king William and queen Mary. 
In 16L>1, he was offered, but refused the see of Bath and 
Wells, then vacant by the deprivation of Ur. Thomas Kenn, 
for not taking tlic oaths to king William and queen Mary. 
But though he refused that see, because, probably, being 
a man of a tender conscience, he would not eat Dr. Kenn's 
bread, according to the language of those limes, he after- 
wards accepted of that of St. Asaph, vacant by the trans- 
lation of Dr. George Hooper to Bath and Wells, and was 
consecrated July 16, 1704. Being placed in this eminent 
station, his care and diligence increased in proportion as 
his power in the church was enlarged ; and now when his 
authority was extended to larger districts, he still pursued 
the same pious and laborious methods of advancing the 
honour and interest of religion, by watching over both 
clergy and laity, and giving them all necessary direction 
and assistance, for the effectual performance of their re- 
spective duties. Accordingly, he was no sooner advanced 
to the episcopal chair, but in a pathetic letter to the clergy 
of his diocese, he recommended to them the " duty of 
catechising and instructing the people committed to their 
charge, in the principles of the Christian religion ; to the 
end they might know what they were to believe and do 
in order to salvation ;" and told them, " he thought it ne- 
cessary to begin with that, without which, whatever else 
he or they should do, would turn to little or no account, 
us to the main end of the ministry." And to enable them 
to do this the more effectually, he sent them a plain and 
easy " Exposition upon the Church Catechism." This 
good man did not enjoy his episcopal dignity above three 
years seven months and twenty days ; for he died at his 
lodgings in the cloisters in Westminster-ahbey, March 
5, 1707-8, in the seventy-first year of his age, and was 
buried in St. Paul's cathedraL He left the greatest part of 
his estate to the societies for propagating the gospel, and 
promoting Christian knowledge, lo the curacy of Mount- 
Sorrel in particular, and vicarage of Barrow in the count}*- 
of Leicester, in a thankful remembrance of God's mercies 
vouchsafed to him thereabouts, he bequeathed twenty 
pounds a year forever, on condition that prayers be read 
morning and evening every day, according to the Liturgy 
of the ciiurch of England, in the chapel, and parish churca 

195 B E V E R I D G E. 

aforesaid ; vyitli the sum of forty shillings yearly, to be di- 
vided equally upon Christmas-eve, among eight poor house- 
keepers of Barrow, as the minister and churchwardens 
should agree, regard being had especially to those who 
had been most constantly at jjrayers, and at tlie sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, the foregoing year. And if it slioulcl 
so happen, that tlie Common- Prayer could not be read in 
the church or chapel aforesiiid, his will then was, that what 
should have been given in either place for that, be in each 
place allowed to one chosen hy the vicar of Barrow to teach 
school, and instruct the youth in the principles of the 
Christian religion, according to the doctrine of the church 
of England, His works were many, and full of great va- 
riety of learning. Those published by himself were as 
follows : 1. " De Linguaruni Orientalium, prissertim He- 
braiccc, Chaldaica?, Syriaca?, Arabicae, et Samaritanfc, prac- 
stantia. et usu," . &c. mentioned above. Lond. 1658, 8vo. 
2. " Inititutionum Chronologicarum libri duo, una cum to- 
tidem Arithmetices Chronoiocnca; libellis," Lond. 1669, 
4to. 3. " Xvvo^iKov, sive Pandec'tee Canonum SS. Aposto- 
iorum, et Conciiiorum ab Ecclesia Groeca receptorum ; 
necnon Canonicarum SS. Patrum Epistolarum ; una cum 
Scholiis antiquorum singulis eorum annexis, et scriptis 
aliis hue spectantibus ; quorum pluriniae Bibliothecse Bod- 
leianre aliarumque MSS. Codicibus nunc primum edita : 
reliqua cum iisdem MSS. summa fide et diligentia collata," 
Oxonii, 1(372, 2 vols. fol. 4. "Codex Canonum Ecclesiae 
Primitivec vindicatus et illustratus," Lond. 1679, 4to. 5. 
** The Church Catechism explained, for the use of the 
diocese of St. Asaph," Lond. 1704, 4to, reprinted several 
times since. Next follow bishop Beveridge's works, pub- 
lished after his decease by his executor Mr. Timothy Gre- 
gory : 1. " Private Thoughts upon Religion, digested into 
twelve articles, with practical resolutions formed there- 
upon." Written in his younger years (when he was about 
twenty-three years old), for the settling of his principles 
and conduct of life, Lond. 1709. 2. " Private Thouc^hts 
upon a Christian Life ; or, necessary directions for its be- 
ginning and progress upon earth, in order to its final per- 
fccticMi in the Beatific Vision," part II. Lond. 1709. 3. 
*' The great necessity and advantage of Public Prayer and 
frequent Communion. Designed to revive primitive piety;, 
with meditations, ejaculations, and prayers, before, at, 
and after the sacrament," Lond. 1710. These have been 

B E V E R I D G E. 199 

reprinted several times in 8vo and 12mo. 4. *' One hun- 
dred and fifty Sermons and Discourses on several sub- 
jects," Lond. 1708, c^c, in 12 vols. 3vo, reprinted at Lon- 
don, I 7 ID, in 2 vols. fol. 5. " Thesaurus Theologicus ; 
or, a complete system ol' Divinity, summed up in brief 
notes upon select places ol' the Old and New Testament; 
wherein the sacred text is reduced under proper heads; 
explained and illustrated with the opinions and authorities 
of the ancient ladiers, councils, &.c." Lond. 1711, 4 vols. 
8vo. 6. " A defence of the book of Psalms, collected 
into English metre by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, 
and others ; with critical Observations on the New Version, 
compared with the Old," Lond. 1710, 8vo. In this book 
he gives the old version the preference to the new. 7. 
«' Exposition of the XXXIX Articles," Lond. 17 10, 1716, fol. 
Bishop Beveridge's character is in genera! represented 
in a most advantageous light. He was a person of the 
strictest integrity, of true and sincere piety, of exem- 
plary charity, and of great zeal for religion, and so 
highly esteemed, that when he was dying, one of the 
chief of his order deservedly said of him, " There goes 
one of the greatest and of the best men that ever England 
bred." He is also celebrated as a man of extensive and 
almost universal learning ; furnished, to a very eminent 
degree, with all useful knowledge ; and much to be ad- 
mired for his readiness in the scriptures, which he had 
thoroughly studied, so that he was able to produce suitable 
passages from them on all occasions, and happy in explain- 
inf them to others, Mr. Nelson savs, that he cannot for- 
bear acknowledging the favourable dispensation of Provi- 
dence to the j)resent age, in blessing it with so many of 
those pious discourses, which our truly primitive prelate, 
delivered from the puljnt; and that he the rather takes 
the liberty to call it a favourable dispensation of Provi- 
dence, because the bishop gave no orders himself that 
they should be printed, but humbly neglected them, as 
not being composed for the press. But that this circum- 
stance is so far from abatingi- the worth of the sermons.' 
or diminishino- the character of the author, that it raises 
the excellency of both, because it shews at once the 
true nature of a popular discourse ; which is to improve 
the generality of hearers, and for that purpose to speak, 
t^o them in a plain and intelligible style. 

20d B E V E R I D G E. 

Dr. Henry Feiton says, that our learned and venerabl* 
bishop delivered himself with those ornaments alone, 
which his subject suggested to him, and wrote in that 
plainness and solemnity of style, that gravity and sim- 
plicity, which gave authority to the sacred truths he taught, 
and unanswerable evidence to the doctrines he defended. 
That there is something so great, primitive, and apostoli- 
cal, in his writings, that it creates an awe and veneration 
in our mind ; that the importance of his subjects is above 
the decoration of words ; and wl)at is great and majestic in 
itself looketh most like itself, the less it is adorned. The 
author of one of the Guardians, having made an extract 
out of one of the bishop's sermons, tells us, tliat it may 
for acuteness of judgment, ornament of speed), and true 
sublime, compare with any of the choicest writings of the 
ancients, who lived nearest to the apostles' times. But 
the author of a pamphlet published in 171 1, entitled " A 
short view of Dr. Beveridge's Writings,'' passes a very dif- 
ferent judgment upon bishop Beveridge's works, in order 
to stop, as he says, the mischief they are doing, and that 
which the publication of his Articles may do. — With regard 
to the bishop's language, he observes, that he delights in 
jingle and quibbling; affects a tune and rhyme in all he 
says, and rests arguments upon nothing but words and 
sounds, &c. &c. — But perhaps this animadverter vvill by 
some be ranked among the persons, of whom Dr. Lupton 
gives the follovvinof character : " Those who are censorious 
enough to reflect with severity upon the pious strains, 
which are to be found in bishop Beveridge, ikc. may possibly 
be good judges of an ode or essay, but do not seem to 
criticise justly upon sermons, or express a just value for 
spiritual things." After all, whatever faults may be found 
in bishop Beveridge's posthumous works, must be charged 
to the injudiciousness of his executor. He must himself 
have been an extraordinary man who, with all the faults 
pointed out by the author of " The short view," could 
Jaave conciliated the good opinion and favour of men of all 
principles, and the most eminent patrons of the church ; 
and the estimation in which his works continue to be held 
to this da}', prove how little he was injured by the captious 
quibblings of a writer who was determined to hud fault 
^yith that, into the spirit of which he could not enter. Tho 
life of bishop Beveridge, prefixed to the folio edition of 

B E V E R I D G E. 201 

his works, was written by Mr. Kimber, a dissenting mini- 
ster of the Baptist persuasion, in London. ' 

BEVERLAND (Adrian), born at Middleburn;h in Zea- 
land, in 1653 or 1651, was a man of genins, but prosti- 
tnted his talents by employing them in the composition. 
of loose and impious pieces. He took the degree of 
doctor of law, and became an advocate ; but his passion 
for polite literature diverted him from any pursuits in that 
way. He was a passionate admirer of Ovid, CatuHus, Pe- 
tronius, and appears to have derived from them that cor- 
ruption of morals which, more or less, appeared in the 
whole of his life and writings. Mr. Wood tells us, that 
Beveriand was at the university of Oxford in 167 J. In 
167.S, lie published his treatise on original sin. It is en- 
titled " Feccatum originaie h^t ibx^h sic nuncupatuni 
piiiiologice.problematicos elucubratum a Themidis alumno. 
Vera redit facies, dissimulata perit. Eleuilieropoli. Extra 
plateam obscuraiti, privilegio authoris, absque ubi et 
quando." At the end of the book are the-e words : *' In 
horto Hesperidum typis Adami Evixi Terrte fiiii, I67S." 
His design in this ])icce is to shew, that Adam's sin con- 
sisted entirely in the commerce with his wife, and that 
original sin is nothing else but the inclination of the sexes 
to each other. For this he was summoned before the uni- 
versity of Leyden, sent to prison, and his name struck out 
of the lisv of students ; but he was disci>ar.',ed after he had 
paid a fine, and taken an oath that he would never write 
again upon such subjects. He then vemo\ed to Utrecht, 
where he led a most dissolute lite, and boasted every 
where of his book, which had been burnt at Leyden. His 
behaviour at length obligeil the magistrates to send him 
notice privately, that they expected he should immediately 
leave the city. He wrote a severe satire against the ma- 
gistrates and ministers of Leydtn, under the title of 
" Vox clamantis in deserto," which was dispersed in ma- 
nuscript: but finding after this, that it would not be safe 
for him to remain in Holland, he went over to England, 
where Dr. Isaac Vossius procured him a pension. His in- 
come was inconsiderable, yet he spent the greatest part of 
it in purchasing scarce books, in.iecent prints, pictures, 
medals, and strange shells. He seems afierwurds to Have 
repented of his irregular life : and as an atonement, he is 

1 Bio"-. Eiit. — Gen. Diet, in wliioh is a larger account of his works — zrnl 
Kichols's Leic. vol. HI. wheyc is aa ample account of Llie Qmis^ Bcvcridglunu,. 

202 B E V E R L A N D. 

said to have published his treatise " De Fornicatione ca- 
venda," in 1698. He tells us, in an advertisement pre- 
fixed to this book, that it was the result of his repentance ; 
and speaks of his loose pieces in the following terms : " I 
condemn the warmth of my imprudent youth ; I detest my 
loose style and my libertine sentiments. I thank God, 
who has removed from my eyes the veil which blinded my 
sight in a miserable manner, and who would not suffer me 
any longer to seek out weak arguments to defend this 
crime. He has likewise inspired me with such a resolu- 
tion, that I have burnt all that I have written upon this 
subject, and sent to the rector magniticus of the university 
of Leyden, the books * De Prostibulis Veterum.' I de- 
sire all persons who have procured any manuscript of my 
writing either privately, or in any other method, to return 
it to me, that I may burn it myself. And if any person 
should refuse this, I wish him all the misfortunes which 
use to happen to one who violates his trust." Yet, not- 
withstanding these expressions, his sincerity has been sus- 
pected ; and it has been alleged, that he wrote this last 
piece with no other view than to raise the curiosity of 
mankind, to inquire after the former. After Vossius's 
death, he fell into extreme poverty, and incurred univer- 
sal hatred from the many violent satires which he had writ- 
ten against different persons. Besides this misfortune, his 
reason began to be affected; and in the year 1712, he 
wandered from one part of England to another, imagining 
that two hundred men had confedei'ated together to assas- 
sinate him. It is probable that he died soon after; for we 
hear no more of him from that time. In 1746, twelve 
Latin letters of Beverland were published, addressed to 
sonie learned men of his time ; but our authority does not 
state whei'e this publication made its appearance. While 
in England, he must at one time have been in some repu- 
tation, as sir Godfrey Kneller made a tine portrait of him, 
dated 1689, which is now in the picture gallery, Oxiord. ^ 
BEVERLY (John of), in Latin Beverlacius, arch- 
bishop of York in the eigiith century, was born of a noble 
family among the English Saxons, at Harpham, a small 
town in Northuniberiand. He was (irst a monk, and after- 
wards abbot of the monastery of St. Hilda. He was in- 
jitructed in the learned languages by Theodore, archbishop. 

1 Gen. Diet. — Eiof. Univ. — Diet. Hist, — Morcvi.— Si.\ii Onomast. — Granger. 


of Canterbury, and was justly esteemed one of the best 
scholars of his lime. Alfred of Beverly, who wrote his 
life, pretends that he studied at Oxford, and took there 
the degree of master of arts ; but bishop Godwin assures 
us this cannot be true, because such distinction of degrees 
was not then known at Oxford, nor any where else. Our 
abbot's merit recommended him to tiie favour of vVlfred, 
king of Northumberland, who, in the year C85, advanced 
him to the see of Hagustald, or Hexham, and, upon the 
death of archbishop Bosa in 687, translated him to that of 
York. This prelate was tutor to the famous Bede, and 
lived in the strictest friendship with Acca, and other Anglo- 
Saxon doctors, several of whom he put upon writing com- 
ments on the scriptures. He likewise founded, in 704, a 
college at Beverly for secular priests. After he had go- 
verned the see of York thirty-four years, being tired with 
the tumults and confusions of the church, he divested him- 
self of the episcopal character, and retired to Beverly ; 
and four years after died May 7, 721. The day of his 
death was appointed a festival by a synod held at London 
in 1416. Bede, and other monkish writers, ascribe seve- 
ral miracles to him. Between three and four hun^lred years 
after his death, his body was taken up by AitVic, arch- 
bishop of York, and placed in a shrine richly adorned with 
silver, gold, and precious stones. Bromton relates, that 
William the conqueror, when he ravaged Northumberland 
with a numerous army, spared Beverly alone, out of a re- 
ligious veneration for St. John of that place. This prelate 
wrote some pieces, 1. " Pro Luca exponendo ;" an essay 
towards an exposition of St. Luke, addressed to Bede. 
2. '' HomiliEO in Evangelia." 3, Epistolae ad Hildam Ab- 
batissam." 4. " Epistoloe ad Herebaldum, Andenum, et 
Bertinum," — Pits mentions another John of Beverly, so 
called from the place of his nativity, who was a Carmelite 
monk in the fourteenth century, and a very learned man, 
and doctor and professor of divinity at Oxford. He flou- 
rished about IS'.'O, in the reign of Richard IL and wrote, 
1. " Questiones in magistrum sententiarum ;" in four 
books, 2. " Disputationes ordinaries ;" in one book. ' 

BEVEllINl (Bartholomew), a learned Italian of the 
seventeenth century, was born at Lucca, May 5, 162V. 
In classical learning he made such progress, that, when 

1 Biog, Brit.— Bale— Fits. — Tanscr. 

204. B E V E II I N I. 

only fifteen, lie wrote notes and comments on the princi- 
pal poets of the Augustan age, which drew the notice and 
approbation of the learned. In his sixteenth year, lie 
went to Rome and entered the congregation of the regular 
clerks, called the congregation of the " Mother of God.'* 
After completing his theological studies, he taught divinity 
for four years, at the end of which he was invited to Lucca 
to be professor of rhetoric. From the salary of this place 
he was enabled to maintain his aged father and family, and 
would not afterwards accept of any promotion from his con- 
gregation, that his studies might not be interrupted by 
atlairs of business. He corresponded with many illustrious 
personages of his time, and among others with Christina, 
queen of Sweden, who often requested of him copies of 
Lis sermons and poems. Tlie facility with which he wrote 
appears by his translation of the Eneid, which he says, iu 
tiie preface, he completed in thirteen months. He died 
of a malignant fever, Oct. 24, 1686. He left a great 
many works, of which his biographer, Fabroni, has given a 
minute catalogue. The principal are : 1. " SiEculum ni- 
veum ; Roma virginea ; et Dies niveus," three small 
Latin collections on the same subject, " De nivibus Ex- 
quilinis, sive de sacris nivibus," Rome, 1650, 1651, and 
1652, 4to, each containing two discourses or harangues, 
and a Latin and Italian idyl. 2. "Rime," Lucca, 1654, 
12mo, reprinted at Rome 1G66, with additions, and de- 
dicated to queen Christina. 3. " Discorsi sacri," Lucca, 
3 658, 12ino, Venice, 1682. 4. " Carminum Lib. VII." 
ibid. 1674, 12mo. 5. " Eneide di Virgilio, trasportata in 
ottavo rima," ibid, 1680, 12mo. This much esteemed 
translation has been often reprinted. The last edition is 
that of Rome, 1700, 4to. 6. " Prediche, discorsi, e le- 
zioni," a posthumous work, Vienna, 1692, 4to. 7. "Syn- 
tagma de ponderibus et mensuris," another posthumous 
work, Lucca, 1711, 8vo, a very learned performance, 
often reprinted, and added to all collections on the sub- 
ject. Among his unpublished works is a historical account 
of Lucca, which it is rather surprizing, should have been 
so lonu; left in that slate : it is entitled " Annalium ab 
orif'ine Lucensis urbis Lib. XV." Fabroni, who hiahiv 
praises these annals, seems at a loss to account for tlieir 
not having been pubhshed, but informs us that Bevenni 
had his enemies as well as his admirers. ' 

• Diyj. Uiiivcrsellc. — Fabroni Vitac Ilalorum, vol. XIX. — MazzuchelU, 

B E V E R W I C K. 20J 

BEVEUWICK (John de), In Latin Beverovicius, was 
born at Dort, Sept. 17, 1594, of a noble family. He 
was brought up from his infancy uiuier the eyes of Gerard 
John Vossius, and visited several universities for acquiring 
knowJedge in the art of medicine, and took his doctor's 
degree at Padua. He practised in the place of his na- 
tivit}-, where he likewise filled several civic posts with dis- 
tinction. He died Jan. 19, 1647, aged 51 ; and though 
his course was not remarkably long, yet Daniel Heinsius, 
in the epitaph he made on him, calls him " Vitre artifex, 
mortis fugator." His principal works are: 1. " De ter- 
mino vita}, fatali an molDili ?" Rotterdam, 1644, 8vo ; and 
LcN-den, 1651, 4to. This Ijook made some noise at the 
time, and professes to discuss the question. Whether the 
term of life of every individual be fixed and immutable ; 
or, whether it may be changed. 2. " De excellentia 
sexCis Fosminei," Dordrecht, 1639, 8vo. 3. " Decalculo/' 
Leyden, 163S — 41, 8vo. 4. " Introductio ad Medicinani 
indigenam," Leyden, 16G3, 12mo. This book, says Vig- 
neul Marville, is a very small volume, but extremely well 
filled. Beverovicius proves in it, to every man's satisfac- 
tion, that, without having recourse to remedies iVoin fo- 
reign countries, Holland should be contented with her own 
in the practice of medicine. His entire works were printed 
in Flemish, at Amsterdam, 1655, 4to.' 

BEVIN (Elway), a musician eminently skilled in the 
knowledge of practical composition, flourished towards the 
end of queen Elizabeth's reign. He was of Welch extrac- 
tion, and had been educated under Tallis, upon whose 
recommendation it was that in 1589 he was sworn in gen- 
tleman extraordinary of the chapel ; from whence he was 
expelled in 1637, it being discovered that he adhered to 
the Romish comnumion. He was also organist of Bristol 
cathedral, but forfeited that employment at the same time 
with his place in the chapel. Child, afterwards doctor, 
was his scholar. He has composed sundry services, and 
a few anthems. Before Bevin's time the precepts for the 
composition of (canons was known to few. Tallis, Bird, 
Waterhouse, and Farmer, were eminently skilled in this 
most abstruse part of musical practice. Every canon, as 
given to the public, was a kind of enigma. Compositions 

» Rloo:. Univ.— TIaller Bibl. Mod.— Mangct Bibl. script. Mp<3.— ^Mareri.— 
Foppcn Bib!. Belg. — Saxii Oiiomast. 

,206 B E V I N. 

of this kind were sometimes exliibited in the form of a 
c:ross, sometimes in that of a circle ; there is now extant 
one resembling a horizontal sun-dial, and the resolution, 
(as it was called) of a canon, which was the resolving it 
into its elements, and reducing it into score, was deemed 
a work of almost as great difficulty as the original compo- 
sition. But Bevin, with a view to the improvement of 
students, generously communicated the result of many 
years study and experience in a treatise which is highly 
commended by all who have taken occasion to speak of it. 
This book was published in 1G31, 4to, and dedicated to 
Goodman bishop of Gloucester, with the following title : 
" A briefe and short instruction of the Art of Musickc, to 
teach how to make discaut of all proportions that are in 
use ; very necessary for all such as are desirous to attain 
to knowledge in the art ; and may, by practice, if they 
sing, soone be able to compose three, four, and five parts, 
and also to compose all sorts of canons that are usuall, by 
these directions of two or three parts in one upon the plain 
song." The rules contained in this book for composition 
in general are very brief; but for the composition of ca- 
nons there are in ic a great variety of examples of almost 
all the possible forms in which it is capable of being con- 
structed, even to the extent of sixty parts. * 


BEUGHEM (Cornelius de), whose name often occurs 
in works of Bibliography, but who has not laid bibliogra- 
phers under many obligations, was a bookseller at Em- 
merich, about the end of the seventeenth century. His 
design in his compilations was evidently to serve the cause 
of literature, but although all his plans were good, they were 
imperfectly executed, and have proved perplexing and 
useless. His principal publications in this department 
were: 1. " Bibliographia juridica et politica," Amsterdam, 
16^:0, 12mo. 2. " Bibliotbeca medica et physica," 1691, 
I2mo, enlarged in 1696. 3. " Gallia cniica ct experi- 
mentalis ab anno 1665 usque ad 1681," Amst. 1683, 12rao. 
This is a useful index to the articles in the " Journal d^s 
Savans." 4. " Bibliographia mathematica et artificiosa,'* 
1685, improved and enlarged, 1688, 12mo. 5. " Bibliogra- 
phia historica, chronologica, et geographica," 1685, 12mo, 
and continued in four parts until 1710. 6. " Bibliographia 

i Hawkins's Hist, uf Music. 

B E U G H E M. 207 

cvuditorum critico-curiosa, seu apparatus ad historiam 
literariam," Amst. 168y — 1701, 5 vols. i2iiio, a sort of 
general index to all tlie literary journals, but containlnjr 
too many alphabets to be easily consulted. It extends 
from 1665 to 1700. 7. " Incunabula typographiae, sive 
Catalogus libroruin proximis ab invcntione typographiie 
annis ad annum 1500, editorum," Amst, 1688, 12;no, 
jejune, says our English bibliographer, and erroneous. In- 
deed each of these undertakings, to be completely useful, 
would have required more years than Beughem bestowed 
upon the whole. ' 

BEULANIUS, a divine and historian in the seventh 
century, was a Briton by birth, uho taught the celebrated 
Nennius, afterwards abbot of the monastery of Bangor ; 
and applied himself from his earliest ^^outh to the study 
of learning, which he joined to the greatest purity of 
morals. Bale tells us, that he was master of a very exten- 
sive knowledge of things, and a great fluency of style, 
and was actuated by a warm zeal for the propagation of 
truth. He had a son, the subject of the following article ; 
which is a proof, as the historian above-mentioned ob- 
serves, that the priests in Britain were not at that time 
prohibited to marry ; though Pits is of opinion that our 
author was not ordained when his son was born. He was 
extremely industrious in examining into the antiquities of 
nations, and tracing out the families of the English Saxons 
after they had entered Britain ; and from these collection^ 
he is said to have written a work " Be Genealogiis Gen- 
tium." He dourished in the year GOO. Bishop Nicolson. 
in his " English Historical Library" calls him Benlanius, 
and confounds him with his son.* 

BEULANIUS (Samuel), a learned divine and historian 
of the seventh century, was son of the preceding, and 
born in Northumberland, but educated almost from his 
infancy in the isle of Wight. He was a man of a very hu- 
mane and mild disposition, a good historian, and well 
skilled in geometry. He gave an accurate description of 
the isle of Wight from his own observations, as well a.^ 
from the accounts of Ptolemy and Pliny. Upon his return 
to his own country he studied under Elbode, a bishop 
eminent for his uncommon sanctity and learning, by whose 

1 Biog. Univ. — Moieri. — Baillet Jugemens .dc Savans. — Saxii Onomast.— 
Dibdiu's Bibliomania. 
* Tanner.— Leland.— Bale— Pits.— •Gen. Diet. 

20S B E U L A N I U S. 

instructions he made great progress both in profane and. 
sacretl hterature. At Jast he applied himself to the studv 
of the history of his nation, which he examined with th& 
utmost accuracy, and wrote in Latin " Ainiotations upon 
Nennius," an " History of the actions of king Arthur in 
Scotland," and an " Historical Itinerary." Leland is of 
opinion that he was a monk, since all the learning which 
was then extant, was aniong those of that profession. He 
flourished in the year 640, according to Bale; or 6.50, ac- 
cording to Pits. He had a very intimate friendship with 
the famous Nennius, abbot of Banoor. * 

BEUMLER (Mark), a learned minister of the reformed 
church, was born in 155.5, at Volketswyl, a village in the 
canton of Zurich, and died of the plague at Zurich, in 
1611, He studied at Geneva and Heidelberg, and after 
having exercised the ministerial functions in Germany for 
some years, returned to Zurich in 1594, where he was ap- 
pohited professor of theology. He published many theo- 
logical, philological, and philosophical works, which are 
now forgot, but some of them were highly esteemed in his 
day, particularly his " Grammar," Zurich, 1593, and his 
*' Rhetoric," ibid. 1629, which were often reprinted. He 
also translated and wrote notes on some of Cicero's, De- 
mosthenes, and Plutarch's works, and was the author of 
a " Catechism" which was long the only one used at Zu- 
rich. He was accounted one of the ablest defenders of 
Zuinglius and Calvin. The style of his polemical works 
partook of that quaintness which prevailed in controversial 
writing for more than a century after his time. The title 
of one of his pamphlets will exemplify this, and amuse our 
Latin readers : " Falco emissus ad capiendum, depluman- 
dum et dilacerandum audaciorem ilium cuculum ubiquita- 
rium, qui nuper ex Jac. Andreae, mali corvi, male ovo, 
ab Holderosimplicissima currucaexclusus, eta demoniaco 
Bavio P'escenio varii coloris plumis instructus, impetum in 
philomelas innocentes facere ceperat," Neustadt, 1585, 
410. ^ 

BEUTHER (Michael), a learned German writer, was 
born at Carlostadt, Oct. 18, 1522, and studied at Marpurg, 
and afterwards at Wittendjerg, where, being introduced 
by Melancthon, to Luther, the latter received him into his 
house, and both superintended his studies. In 1542, when 

1 Tanwer.— Leland.— J5ale.— Pits.— Gen. Diet. 2 Eio-. Universellc. 

B E U T H E K. 209 

the contest took place between John Frederic, the eiec- 
tor, and prince Maurice, he served under the former, but 
tlie war being over,> he returned to Wiitemberg, In 1546 
he was appointed professor of history-, poetry, and mathe- 
matics at Grieswald ; and in 1549 he visited Paris, aud 
some other celebrated academies, studied civil law, and 
published his " Epheraeris Historita," Paris, 1550. In 
15 52 he had a considerable hand in the treaty of Passaw, 
by which the exercise of the Protestant religion through- 
out Germany was secured. In 1553 we find him at Padua, 
where, by Melai"K;tbon's advice, he studied medicine, and 
became acquainted with the celebrated Fallopius ; he next 
visited Rome, and some of the Italian schools, and at 
Ferrara was created LL. D. About the year 1555 he ap- 
pears to have excited some enemies, on account of his re- 
ligious principles; but in 1559, the elector Palatine, Otto 
Henry, appointed him his ecclesiastical counsellor and 
librarian. On the death, however, of this patron, he re- 
moved to Oppenheim, and took his final leave of public 
affairs. In 1563 he visited the principal cities and acade- 
mies of Saxony, for the purpose of inquiring into their 
origin, history, and antiquities, and two years after was 
appointed historical professor at Strasburgh. He died of 
a decline, Oct. 27, 1587. He was accounted a man of 
great learning in divinity, law, and physic, and eminently 
skilled in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, 
and English. He published several works, among which 
are: 1. ** Animadversiones historicae et chronographicoe.'* 
2. *' Opus fastoruni antiquitatis Romanae," Spire, 1600, 
4to. 3. " Fasti Hebraeorum, Atheniensium, et Romano- 
rum." 4. " Animadversiones in Taciti Germaniam." 
5. " Commentarii in Livium, Sallustium, Velleium Pater- 
culum, &c." ' 

BEXON (Gabriel-Leopold-Charles-Ame'), a French 
miscellaneous writer, was born at Remiremont, in the 
month of March 1748, and died at Paris, Feb. 15, 1784. 
He was first canon, and afterwards grand-chanter of St. 
Chapelle, at Paris. "• From his infancy he had a turn for 
the study of natural history, and assisted Buffon in the 
latter volumes of his great work on that subject. He pub- 
lished ; 1. " Systeme de la Fermentation," 1773, 8vo. 

' Fieheri Theatruna.— Bioj. Univ. — Morert. — MelcUiop Adam in Viti» Phi- 

Vol. V. P 

310 BEX ON. 

2. " Catechisme d'Agriculture, ou Bibliotheque dos gens< 
de la campagne," 1773, 12mo. 3. *' Oraison funebre 
d'Anne Charlotte de Lorraine, abbesse de Heiniremont,'* 
1773, 4to. 4. " Histoire de Lorraine," i 777, 8vo, a work 
to which he is said to have been indebted for his ecclesias- 
tical promotions. One volume only appeared, giving au 
account of the earliest state of Lorraine, its antiquitiefj, 
&c. with its literary history, and the lives of the eminent 
men that add a lustre to its annals. He wrote also, " Ob- 
servation particuliere sur le Myriade," and " Materiaux 
pour I'histoire naturelle des Salines de Lorraine," both 
which were printed in Neufchateau's *' Conservateur," 
vol. IL In the same collection are twenty-five letters 
from Buffon to the abbe Bexon. It remains to be noticed, 
that as he called himself in his first publication Scipio 
Bexon, by way of concealment, some biographers have 
supposed that to be his real name. ' 

BEYER, or BEIER (Augustus), a German Protestant 
minister, was born May 21, 1707, and died in 1741. He 
is principally known by the following bibliographical pub- 
lications : 1. " Epistola de Bibliothecis Dresdensibus, turn 
pubiicis turn privatis," Dresden, 1731, 4to. 2. " Ber- 
nard! Monetae (La Monnoye) epistola hactenus ineditaj ad 
Michaelem Maittarium," Dresden and Leipsic, 1732, Svo. 
This he discovered in the Schoemberg museum. 3. " Me- 
morijE historico-criticae librorum rariorum," ibid. 17 34, Svo. 
4. " Arcana sacra bibliothecarum Dresdensium," Dresden, 
1738, Svo, to which he published two appendices in 17 3S 
and 1740, Svo. ^ 

BEYER (George), another bibliographer, and a law- 
yer, was born at Leipsic in 1665, and died in 1714. He 
was the first, according to Camus, who gave a course of 
lectures on legal bibliography, at Wittemberg, in 169S. 
This produced, 1. " Notitite auctorum juridlcorum et juris 
arti inservientium, tria specimina," Leipsic, 1698 — 1705, 
8vo. Of this a new and enlarged edition was published in 
1726, Svo, and Jenichen added a continuation in 1738. 
Four other improved editions, one by Homujelms, in 1749, 
two in 1750, and a fourth by Frank, in 1758, all in Svo, 
shew the value in which this work was held. 2. *' De- 
clinatio juris divini naturalis et positivi universalis," Wit- 
temberg, 1712, 4to; Leipsic, 1716, 1726, 4to. '^ 

• Riog. Universellc. — Biog. Diet. — Month. Rev. Tol. LVI. 

2 Bio£. Universelle. — Saxii Onoinasticon. •> Ibiti, 

B E Y E R L I N C K. 211 

BEYERLINCK (Laurence), a voluminous author, was 
born April 1578, at Antwerp, of a family originally of 
Bergeu-op-Zooni, and had his education among the Je- 
suits. He went afterwards to study philosophy at Louvain, 
and had scarcely assumed the ecclesiastic dress in order to 
pursue his divinity course in that university, when he was 
appointed professor of poetry and rhetoric in the college 
of Vaulx. He had, some time after, a living near Lou- 
vain, and taught philosophy in a house of regular canons 
in the same neighbourhood. In 1605 he was called to 
Antwerp, where he had the charge of the school, and some 
jpromotion in the church. He died there June 7, 1627. 
Foppen has given a long list of his works, the principal of 
which seem to be : 1, " Apophthegmata Christianorum,'* 
Antwerp, 1608, 8vo. 2. " Bibiia sacra variarum trans- 
lationum," Antwerp, 1616, 3 vols. fol. 3. " Promptua- 
arium morale super evangelia communia, et particularia 
quEedam festorum totius anni," 1613, 8vo, and often re- 
printed. 4. " Magnum Theatrum vitaj humanee." Re- 
ferring our readers to Freytag for a more minute account 
of this vast compilation, it may be sufficient to add, that 
Conrad Lycosthenes left the materials for it, and Tlieodore 
Swinger or Zwinger having put them in order with some 
additions with which his course of reading had furnished 
him, published three editions of them ; the first in 1 vol. 
fol. 1565, the second in 3 vols. fol. 1571, and the third in 
4 vols. fol. all at Basil, 1586. James Swinger went on 
improving and adding to this work, which was at last taken 
up by Beyerlinck, whose edition appeared after his death, 
Cologne, 1631, enlarged to 8 vols, folio; and it was re- 
printed in the same form at Lyons, 1678, and at Venice, 
1707. It is a mass of theology, history, politics, philo- 
sophy, &c. in alphabetical order, containing all the know- 
ledge of the times upon the various subjects, and we may 
add, all the ignorance and superstitions. ' 

BEYMA (Julius), an eminent lawyer, was born at 
Dockum in Holland, in 1546, or according to Foppen, 
in 1539. After havino- studied law, and taken a licentiate's 
degree at Orleans, he practised at Leuwarden, in Fries- 
land, until, being suspected of Lutheranism, he was obliged 
to retire into Germanv, where he taufjht law at Wittem- 
berg, for ten years. The times becoming more favour- 

» Biog. Univ. — Foppen Bill. Bele. — Freytag Adparatus Litter — .Moreri » 

212 B E Y M A. 

able, he returned to his own country, and obtained the 
law chair in the university of Leyden. Alter liavino- 
taught here with great success for fitteen years, he was, 
in 1596, invited to Franeker, in the same office, but after 
a year, he quitted the business of public instruction, being 
appointed a counsellor at the court of Friesland. He died 
in 1598, leaving a daughter, and two sons, who were both 
educated in their father's profession. He wrote several 
dissertations on subjects of law, which were published in 
I vol. 4to, at Louvain, 1645. In 1598, the year of his death, 
a collection of theses maintained by Beyma and his friend 
SchotanuSj appeared under the title " Disputationes j uridicce, 
sociata cum collega H. Schotano opera, editse," Franeker. * 

BEYS (Charles), a French poet, was born at Paris in 
1610, and at the age of fourteen had written a number of 
poetical pieces, both in French and Latin, which were 
extravagantly praised by Scarron and CoUetet, but are 
now in request only by the collectors of curiosities. He 
applied himself very little to study, passing the principal 
part of his time in the pleasures of convivial society, which, 
however, did not hinder him from meddling with public 
affairs, for which he was thrown into the Bastille, as the 
author of the " Miliade," a satire against cardinal Riche- 
lieu. Having proved his innocence, he was set at liberty, 
and resumed his loose life, which impaired his health, and 
deprived him of sight, in which condition he died Sept. 26, 
1659. He wrote some dramas, and his poetical works 
were printed at Paris, 1631, 8vo. ^ 

BEYS (Giles), a celebrated printer of the sixteenth 
century, who was the first after those who printed the 
works of Ramus, that made a distinction in his printing 
between the consonants j and v, and the vowels i and u. 
Ramus was the inventor of this distinction, and employed 
it in his Latin grammar of 1557, but we do not find it 
in any of his works printed after that time. Beys adopted 
it first in Claude Mignaut's Latin connnentary on Horace. 
He died at Paris April 19, 1593. He married a daughter 
of the celebrated Plantin of Antwerp, by whom he had a 
son, who was probably the poet above-mentioned, as th^ 
following burlesqne epitaph was written on him : 
" Ci git Beys, qui savoit k merveille 
Fairc des vers, et vuider la bouteille.''^ 

' Biog. Un'iTerselle. — Freheri Tlieatrum.— Alma et Illustris Acad Leiilensis, 
p. 67. 2 >ioreri, — Uiog. Umver^eile. 3 lL»icJ. 

B E Z A. 21S 

BEZA (Theodore), one of the chief promoters of the 
Reformation, was born at Vezelai, a small town of Niver- 
nais, in France, Jisne 24, 1519. His father was Peter 
Beza, or de Bcze, baihff of the town, and his mother 
Mary de BoiirJelot. He passed his first years at Paris, 
with his uncle Nicholas, a counsellor of parliament, who 
sent him to Orleans, ai the age of six, for education. 
His master, Melcliior Wolmar, a man of greater learning, 
and particularly eminent as a Greek scholar, and one of 
the first who introduce.! the principles of the reformation 
into France, having an invitation to become professor at 
Bourges, Beza accompanied hmi, and remained with him 
until 1535. Although at this period only sixteen, he had 
made very unconniion progress in learning and in the an- 
cient languages, and having returned to Orleans to study 
law, he took his licentiate's degree in 1539. These four 
last years, however, he applied less to serious studies than 
to polite literature, and especially Latin poetry ; and it 
was in this interval that he wrote those pieces which were 
afterwards published under the title of " Poemata Juve- 
nilia," and afforded the enemies of the reformation a bet- 
ter handle than could have been wished to reproach his 
early morals. 

On his return to Paris he was presented to the priory of 
Longjumeau, and another benefice; and one of his uncles, 
who possessed a rich abbey, had an intention to resign in 
his favour. Beza thus enjoying an ample revenue, with 
the prospect of an easy increase, joined too freely in the 
amusements and dissipations of youth, notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of his parents and friends : and although 
in the actual possession of benefices, had not yet taken 
orders, nor for some years did he associate with persons 
of the reformed religion, although he could not forget the 
progress that it had made in his mind when under the 
tuition of Wolmar. Here he contracted an attachment to 
a young woman, who, some say, was of a noble family, 
others, of inferior birth, to whom hfe secretly promised 
marriage, but was prevented from accomplishing this, 
through fear of losing his promotions. At length, how- 
ever, in 1348, when recovering from a severe illness," he 
resigned his priory, and went to Geneva, and married the 
lady to whom he had now been engaged about four years. 
At the same time he abjured popery, and after a short stay 

214 B E Z A. 

at Geneva, went to Tubingen, to his old master, Wolmar, 
for whom he .nlways had the sincerest esteem. 

The following jear he was appointed Greek professor at 
Lausanne, where he remained for ten years, and published 
several works which extended his reputation. His P>ench 
tragedy of *' Abraham's Sacrifice," was translated into 
Latin, and became very popular. In 1556, he published 
his translation of the New Testament, of which a number 
of editions afterwards appeared, with alterations and cor- 
rections ; but, of all his works, while he was at Lausanne, 
that which was accounted the most remarkable, was his 
apology for, or defence of the burning of Servetus for he- 
resy, in answer to a work apparently on the other side of 
the question by Sebastian Castalio, who took the liberty to 
doubt whether it was just or useful to put heretics to death. 
Beza's answer was entitled " De hajreticis a civili magis- 
tratu puuiendis," and as at that time the principles of the 
reformation were legal heresies, we cannot be surprised 
that the enemies of the reformation should wish to turn 
Beza's arguments p,gainst him. 

In 1558, Beza endeavoured to induce some of the Ger- 
man princes to intercede with the king of France for to- 
leration of the Protestants, who were then very cruelly- 
persecuted in that kingdom. Next year he left Lausanne 
to settle at Geneva, where he was admitted a citizen, at 
the request of Calvin. In Geneva at this time, much 
pains were taken to promote learning, and diffuse a taste 
for the sciences, and an academy being about to be formed, 
Calvin refused the title of rector, offered to himself, and 
recommended it to be given to Beza, who was also to 
teach divinity. About the same time, the persons of rank 
in France who had embraced the reformed religion, per- 
ceiving that they would need the support of a crowned 
head, cast their eyes on Beza, as the proper person to con- 
vert the king of Navarre, and confer with him on other 
matters of consequence respecting the reformation. In 
this Beza had complete success, and the reformed religion 
was publicly preached at Nerac, the residence of the 
king and queen of Navarre. A church was built, and in the 
course of the following year, 1560, such was the zeal of 
the queen of Navarre, that she ordered all the churches 
and monasteries of Nerac to be destroyed. 

B E Z A. 216 

Beza remained at Nerac until the beginning of 1561, 
when the king signified his pleasure that he should attend 
at the conference of Poissi, to which the senate readily 
consented. At this conference, appointed for reconciling 
the disputes between the Popish and Protestant divines, 
the princes, cardinals, and many of the nobility attended, 
and tije king presided. It was opened Sept. 9, 1561, by 
the chancellor De T Hospital, who declared that the king's 
intention in assembling them was to discover, from their 
seiitiuients, a remedy for the disorders which religious dis- 
putes had occasioned in his kingdom ; that they should 
therefore endeavour to correct such things as required it, 
and not separate until they had put an end to all differ- 
ences by a sincere reconciliation. In his speech he also 
honoured this conference with the name of the National 
Council, and compared it to the provincial synods of Or- 
leans, Aries, and Aix, which the emperor Charlemagne 
had caused to be held. The conference lasted two months, 
and many points were eagerly debated. The Protestant 
clergy, and particularly Beza, spoke with great freedom. 
Beza, to much learning, added a facility of expression which 
gave him much advantage ; he had also from his earliest 
years a ready wit, which in those years he had employed 
on subjects perhaps not unsuitable to it, and could not 
afterwards restrain in controversy on more serious points, 
nor could he repress the zeal and fervour of his mind when 
be had to contend for the reformed religion. In this 
conference some strong expressions he used respecting 
the eucharist, and against transubstantiation, occasioned 
an unusual clamour, and a cry of blasphemy! from the 
adherents to that opinion. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to 
add, that the purposes of all these debates were not ac- 

Beza did not return to Geneva when the conference 
ended : being a Frenchman, queen Catherine de Medicis 
would have him stay in his own country, where he preached 
frequently before the kiiig of Navarre, and the prince of 
Conde, in Paris. The king of Navarre, though of the re- 
ligion of the Protestants, declared himself against them, 
in order to preserve the title of viceroy ; but the prince of 
Conde, the illustrious family of Coligny, and others, more 
zealous for the reformation, began to excite the Pro- 
testants to arm in their defence. Opposed to this party, 
was a league formed by the pope, the emperor, tiie king 

516 B E Z A. 

of Spain, and the catholic Swiss cantons. This soon 
brought on the civil war, in the course of which Beza at- 
tended the prince of Conde, and was at the battle of Dreux, 
in 1562, in which the generals of both armies were taken 
prisoners ; and during the imprisonment of the prince of 
Conde, Beza remained with admiral Coligny, and did not 
return to Geneva, until after the peace of 1563, when he 
resumed his place in the academy or college which Calvin 
had founded. That celebrated reformer died in the follow- 
ing year, and Beza succeeded him in all his offices, and 
was now considered as the ostensible head and main sup- 
port of the reformed party both in France and Geneva. In 
1570 he returned again to France to be present at the sjnod 
of Rochelle. The queen of Navarre and the admiral 
Coligny had requested the council of Geneva to permit 
him to take this journey, and when he arrived at Rochelle 
he was unanimously chosen president of the synod, which 
was a kind of general assembly of deputies from all the re- 
formed churches in France. He was afterwards frequently 
interrupted in his academical business at Geneva, particu- 
larly in 1574, when sent on an important negociation to 
Germany, and he frequently assisted at conferences on re- 
ligious points both in Germany and Svvisserland. 

In 1583 his wife died, and although now seventy years 
old, he married, a few months after, a young woman whom 
he called his Shunamite. His health and spirits wei'e won- 
derfully preserved for many years after this, nor did he 
discontinue his lectures until 1600. He lived five years 
after this, considerabl}' weakened by age and infirmities, 
retaining the memory of things long past, but almost totally 
deprived of that faculty in continuing a conversation. At 
intervals, however, he evinced his steady adherence to the 
religion to which he said he had been early called, lamented 
the years he had passed in folly and dissipation, and gave 
many suitable and affecting exhortations to his friends. 
He died Oct. 13, 1605, in the eighty-seventh year of his 

Theodore Beza's character has been variously repre- 
sented, as might be expected from the age in which he 
lived, and the conduct which he pursued. His talents, his 
eminence, his important services in the cause of the re- 
formation, must make his memory as dear to Protestants, as 
it was obnoxious to their enemies. In what follows, how- 
ever, of his character, we shall chiefly follow an authority 

B E Z A. 217 

that will not be suspected of religious partiality at least. 
Beza's reputation lias been often attacked, and it is scarcely 
possible that it could have been ot'uerwise. He had b«t 
just embraced the reformed religion, wiien he took, a part 
in every dispute and every controversy. He wrote inces- 
santly against the Roman catholics, against the Lutherans, 
and against all who were unfriendly to the character or 
opinions of his fiiend Calvin, and although such a duputant 
would be in any age exposed to frequent attacks, in his 
time religious controversies were carried on with peculiar 
harshness and strong resentments. Beza's first writings, 
his poems, gave occasion for just reproacii, and although be 
had long repented, and confessed his ern)r in this respect, 
his enemies took the most etVectual method to harass his 
mind, and injure his character, by frequently reprinting 
thes-e poems. Tliis measure, however, so unfair, and dis- 
creditable to his opponents, migtit have lost its efi\'ct, if 
he had not in some of his controversial pieces, employed 
his wit with too much freedom and extravagance. We 
cannot wonder, therefore, that such raillery should produce 
a corresponding sense of irritation in those who hated his 
principles, and felt the weight of his talents. It would be 
unnecessary to repeat all the calumnies, some of the most 
gross kind, which have been gravely advanced against him, 
because they now seem to be given up by the general con- 
sent of all modern writers ; but we may advert to one accu- 
sation still maintained by men of considerable note. Pol- 
trot, who assassinated the duke of Guise, that merciless 
persecutor of the protestants, declared in his first examina- 
tion that he was set on by Beza, and although this appeared 
at the time wholly groundless, and Poltrot retracted what 
he had said, and persisted to his last moments, to excul- 
pate our reformer, yet Bossuet, while he does not accuse 
Beza of having directly encouraged the assassin, still en- 
deavours to impute his crime to Beza's preaching, and de- 
duces Beza's consent, from the joy he and his party ex- 
pressed on hearing of the death of their implacable enemy, 
a consequence which it is surely unfair to draw iVoni such 
premises. He has also been accused of having, on many 
occasions, excited the French protestants to take up arms, 
and to have thus had a considerable hand in the civil wars 
of France. But, although the oppressions suffered by the 
French protestants, then a very numerous body, had un- 
questionably excited his zeal in promoting resistance, the 

'2l\ B E Z A. 

history of the times shew that these civil wars were not oc- 
casioned by this course only, far less by any desire the 
reformed had to propagate their principles by force. The 
ablest writers are agreed that in those days there was more 
of discontent than protestantism in the case; " plus de mal- 
contentement que de Huguenoterie." It would be unjust, 
therefore, to consider Beza, and the other preachers of the 
reformation, as the sole cause of these commotions. It is 
much more probable that they were occasioned in a great 
measure by the rival contests of the Guises and the princes 
of the blood. Without, therefore, exculpating Beza from 
having that share in the civil wars which did not very well 
become a preacher of the gospel of peace, it may be safely 
affirmed that he was not one of the chief causes. The 
same assassin Poltrot, who accused Beza, accused also the 
admiral Coligny, whose character never was stained with a 
blemish, unless in the bigoted mind of Bossuet, who yet 
cannot bring a single circumstance in proof; and as far as 
regards Beza, we may add that the accusation never ob- 
tained any belief among his contemporaries. 

Beza's zeal was much tempered in his latter days ; and 
when, during an interview with Henry IV. in 1599, in a 
village of Savoy near Geneva, that prince asked him what 
he could do for him, Beza expressed no wish but to see 
peace restored in France. His last will bears the same 
sentiments, with much expression of regret for his early 
errors. — Beza was an elegant writer, and a man of crreat 
learnmg. His long life, and the enthusiasm with which he 
inspired his followers, made him be called the Phenix of 
his age. As a divine, controversialist, and on many occa- 
sions, as a negociator, he displayed great abilities, and a 
faithful adherence to liis principles. His numerous writ- 
ings are now perhaps but little consulted, and his transla- 
tion of the Psalms into French verse, which was begun by 
Marot, are no longer in use in the reformed churches ; but 
as a promoter of literature, he still deserves high praise, 
on account of the great diligence and success with which 
he superintended the college of Geneva for forty years of 
his life. When on one occasion the misfortunes of the 
times rendered it necessary to dismiss two of the professors, 
for whose maintenance there were no longer any funds, 
Beza, then at the age of seventy, su[)plied both their 
places, and gave lectures for more than two years. He was 
in fact the founder of that college which for the last two 

B E Z A. 219 

centuries has produced so many eminent men ; he pre- 
scribed its statutes, and left his successors an exam;}le wiiich 
may be said to have descended to our own times. Bayle's 
account of Beza, in his usual rambling style, is principally 
taken from the Latin life published in 16G6 by Antonius 
Fayus, or La Faye. Noel Taillepied, Bolstc, and a doc- 
tor of the Sorbonne, named Lainge, or Laingeus, have 
also written lives of this reformer. Other authorities will 
be subjoined in the note. 

Some notice yet remains to be taken of Beza's principal 
works, and their different editions: I. "Poemata juvenilia,'* 
Paris, by Conrad Badius, 1548, 8vo, but we question whe- 
ther this was the first edition, it is thought that a 1 '2mo 
edition, without a date, " Ad insigne capitis mortui," was 
long prior to this, and we suspect the only edition wliich 
Beza printed. Those of 1569, 1576, and 1594, the two 
former in 8vo, and the latter in 4to, contain only a part of 
these poems, the offensive ones being omitted. In 1599, 
an edition was printed at Geneva, 16mo, with his trans- 
lation of the Song of Solomon. They were also reprinted 
with the poems of Muret and Jean Second, Paris, by Bar- 
bou, 1757, 12mo, and under the title of " Amoenitates 
Poeticie," &c. 1779, 12mo. 2. " Tragedie Fran9aise du 
Sacrifice d'Abraham," Lausanne, 1550, Svo, Paris, 1553, 
and Middleburgh, 1701, Svo, and often shice ; yet it gives 
no very favourable idea of Beza's talent for French poetry. 
3. " Confessio Chnstianae fidei, cum Papisticis haeresi- 
bus, ex typ. L BoniE fidei," 1560, Svo. 4. " De heereti- 
cis a civili magistratu puniendis ; sub Oliva Rob. Stephani,'* 
1554. This is the ori<;inal edition, but Colladon's French 
translation, Geneva, i560, Svo, is, for whatever reason, in 
more request. 5. "Comediedu Papemalade, parThrasibule 
Phenice," Geneva, 1561, Svo, 1584, 16mo. 6. ''Traduc- 
tion en vers Fran^ais des Pseaumes omis par Marot," 
Lyons, 1563, 4to, often reprinted with those of Marot, for 
the use of the Protestant churches. 7. " Histoire de la 
Mappemonde papistique, par Fragidelphe Escorche- 
Messes,'* Luce-Nouvelle (Geneva), 1567, 4to. 8. " Le 
Reveilmatin des Francois et de leurs voisin, par Eusebe 
Philadelphe," Edinburgh, 1574, Svo. 9. " De peste 
quaestiones duae explicatie ; una, sitne contagiosa ? altera, 
an et quatenus sit Christianis per secessionem vitanda ?'* 
Geneva, 1579, Svo; Leyden, 1636, 12mo. This is one 
of the scarcest of Beza's works. 10. " Histoire ecclesias- 

220 B E Z A. 

tiqae ties Fglises refonnees an royaume de France, depuis 
Van 1521 jiisqu'en 1563," Antwerp (Geneva), 1580, 3 vols. 
Svo. II. " Icones Virorum Illustrium," 1580, 4to, trans- 
lated into French, by Simon Goulet, nnder the title of 
" Vrais Pourtraits, &c." Geneva, 1531, 4to. 12. " Trac- 
tatio de Repudiis et Divortiis ; accedit tractatus de Poly-i 
ganiia," Geneva, 1590, Svo. 13, " Epistola magistri Pas- 
savantii ad Petrum Lysetum," a satire on the latter. 14. 
His translation of the New Testament, with the original 
texts and notes, often reprinted. The best edition is that 
of Cambridge, 1642, fol. a work still in much estimation. 
He had also a share in tiie Geneva translation of the Bible, 
15SS, fol. Several of his controversial and practical tracts 
*^ere translated ijito English, and printed here in the time 
of queen Elizabeth, of which the titles may be found iu 
Ames. Among the Greek MSS. of the university of Cam- 
bridge, is one of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, 
presented by Beza, which is supposed to be of the third of 
fourth century at least, if not more ancient. In 17 87, the uni- 
versity appointed the rev. Dr. Kipling, deputy regius pro- 
fessor of divinity, to superintend the publication of a fac 
simile of this valuable manuscript, which accordingly ap- 
peared in 1793, 2 vols. fol. a splendid and accurate work. 
The Latin epistle which Beza sent with this manuscript, 
and which is prefixed to it in his own hand-writing, may 
be seen in the note *.* 

* " rnc'ytae modrsqne omnibus ce- vero mil!i melias, quam ros ipsi, quse 
lebralissim^K Acadeniia; Cantabrigiensi sit huic exemplar! fides habenda, SPsli- 
Gratiaen et Pacem a Deo Patre ac niarent, hac de re tamen vos admo- 
lioiiiino iiostro Jesu Christo. neiidos duxi, tantam a me in Lucae 

" (ajuatuor Evangcliorum et Actorvim pracsertini Evangelic repertam esse 

Aposiolioorum <ira?co-Latinum exem- inter hiinc codicera et caeteros qnan- 

plur ex S. Ircntei cccnobio Lugdnnensi tiimvis diserepantiam, ut ritandai quo- 

^t»te aliquot annos uaclus, muiilitm rundam ofiV-nsioiii asservandum potius 

quidem iilud, et neq»ie satis emendate qiiam piiblicandum exislimem. Jn has 

ab initio ubieiue descriptum, neque ita tamen non senteiitiarum sed vocum 

ulopoiiuit habilnm, sicut ex paginis diversitate niliil prol'ecto comperi unde 

qiiibusdam diverso charactere inserUs, suspicari potneriin, a veteribus illi* 

et indocli cujiispiam Grseci Calogeri h.Tieticis fuist<e depravatum. Imo 

barbaris adscriptis alictibi notis appa- multamihi videordeprehendisse magna 

re*, veslrae potissimum Academiae, ut observatione digna, Qiiacdam etiam 

inter vera Christianas vetustissimae, sic a recepta Scriptura discrepantia, 

plnrimisque hominibus celeberrimse, ut tamen cum veternm quorundam et 

dioandum existimavi, reverendi Domini Grxcorum ot I.atlnorum Patrum Scrip.* 

et Pa;res, in cujus sacrario tanluni tis consenliant; non pauca denique, 

hoe vencrandae, nisi forte fallor, vetus- quibus vc-tusta Latina cditio corrobo- 

tatis monimentiim collocetur. Etsi ratur : qux omnia pro ingenii mei 

• Lives mentioned in the text. — Biog. Uuiversclic, an article of great candour 
and accuracy. — Oen. Diet. — Moreri. — Two letters on bis poems, Gent, Maj. 
vol. LXVII.-r-Saxii Onomasticon. 

B E Z O U T. 221 

BEZOUT (Stf.piien), a celebrated French mathema- 
tician, member of the academies of sciences and the ma- 
rine, and examiner of the guards of lUe marine and of the 
scholars of artillery, was born at Nemours the 3 1st of iVlarcli 
1730. In tlie course of his studies he met with some books 
of geometry, which gave him a taste for that science ; and 
the P^looes of Fontenelle, which shewed lum tlie honours 
attendant on talents and the love of the sciences. His 
father in vain opposed the strong attachment of young Be- 
zout to the mathematical sciences. April S, i7«8, he was 
named adjoint-mechanician in the French academy of sci- 
ences, having before that sent them two ingenious mc- 
pioirs on the integral calculus, and given other proofs of 
his proficiency in tlie sciences. In 1763, he was named 
to the new office of examiner to the marine, and appointed 
to compose a course of mathematics for their use ; and in 
1768, on the death of W. Camus, he succeeded as exa- 
miner of the artillery scholars. 

Bezout fixed his attention more particularly to the reso- 
lution of algebraic equations; and he first found out the 
soluiion of a particular class of equations of all degrees. 
This method, different from all former ones, was general 
for the cubic and biquadratic equations, and just became 
particular only at those of the 5th degree. Upon this work 
of findmg the roots of equations, our author laboured from 
1762 till 1779, when he published it. He composed two 
courses of mathematics ; the one for the marine, the other 
for the artillery. The foundation of these two works was 
the same; the applications only being different, according 
to the two different objects : these courses have every 
where been held in tjreat estimation. In his office of ex- 
aminer he discharged the duties with great attention, care, 
and tenderness ; a trait of his justice and zeal is remarkable 
in the following instance : Durinor an examination which 
he held at Toulon, he was told that two of the pupds could 

modulo inter se cotnparata, et cum turn, Eqni bonique consitlatis. D. 

Syra et Aral)ica c-.litione coliata, in Jesus Seivator noster, et universe 

majores meas annotaiiones a me nn- vobis oiTinil)i!s, et privatim singulis, 

pet emendalas, tt brevi, Deo favente, totique adeo Chiistianlssimae Anglo- 

prodituras congessi. Sed acre, res hjEC rum genti, magis ac magis pro boniT 

tota vestii, sici.'.i par eft, judicii esto. tate singula sua benedicat. 

'i'anmm a vobis peto, reverendi Do- " Genevae viii. Itlus Dec'ris anno 

mini et Patres, ut hoc qualecunque Domini cid,id,lxxxi. 

suuiinae in ve«tram amphtudinem ob- " Vestrae totins inclytae Acadcmi» 

servauiise mc£e veiuti inommenuim, digiiitoti addietissimus 

ab bomiue v«itrt studiosRiimo profec- " Theod«bvs Beza." 

222 B E 2 O U T. 

not be present, being confined by the small-pox : he him- 
self had never had that disease, and he was greatly afraid 
of it ; hut us he knew that if he did not see these two young 
men, it would much imjiede their improvement, he ven- 
tured therefore to their bed-sides, to examine them, and 
was happy to find them so deserving of the hazard he put 
himseli into for their benefit, 

Mr. Bezout lived thus several years beloved of his family 
and friends, and respected by all, enjoying the fruits and 
the credit of^is labours. But the troubleand fatigues of 
his offices, with some personal chagrins, had reduced his 
strength and constitution ; he was attacked by a malignant 
fever, of which he died .Sept. 27, 1783, in the 34th year 
of his age, regretted by his family, his friends, the young 
students, and by all his acquaintance in general. The 
hooks published by him were, 1. " Course of Mathematics 
for the use of the Marine, with a treatise on Navigation," 
Paris, 17G4, 6 vols. Svo, reprinted 1781 — 2. 2. " Course 
of Mathematics for the Corps of Artillery," 1770 — 1772, 
4 vols. Svo. 3. " General Theory of Algebraic Equations," 
J 779, 4to. His papers printed in the volumes of the Me- 
moirs of the academy of sciences are, 1. On Curves whose 
rectification depends on a given quantity, in the vol. for 
1758. 2. On several classes of Equations that admit 
of an algebraic solution, 1762. 3. First vol. of a course of 
Mathematics, 17G4. 4. On certain Equations, &c. 1764. 
.5. General resolution of all Equations, 1765. 6. Second 
vol. of a course of Mathematics, 1765. 7. Third vol. of 
the same, 1766. 8. Fourth vol. of the same, 1767. 9. 
Iiitegration of Differentials, &c. vol. 3, Sav. Etr. 10. Ex- 
periments on Cold, 1777." 

BIACCA (Francis Maria), an Italian scholar of the last 
century, was born at Parma, March 12, 1673. Aftertak- 
ing ecclesiastical orders, he was engaged in 1702 by the 
illustrious house of Sanvitali, both as domestic chaplain 
and tutor to the two young sons of that family, and at his 
leisure hours cultivated the study of history, chronology, 
and antiquities. One of his works was written while in 
this family, a very elaborate treatise, " Trattinemento 
Istorico e Chronologico," &c. Naples, 2 vols. 4to, in which 
he endeavours to prove that Josephiis's history is neither 
false nor contrar}'^ to scripture, positions which had been 

* Hiitton's Math. Diet.— Elogc by Condorcot. — Bioj. Universelle. 

B 1 A C C A. 223 

tlenied in a treatise written on the subject by father Cucsar 
Caliiio, a Jesuit. When lie had completed this work, tiie 
elder of his pupils, who by the death of his father had suc- 
ceeded to the estate, and was very much attached to the 
Jesuits, informed Biacca that the publication of it would 
not be agreeable to him. On tliis Biacca entrusted his 
manuscript to the celebrated Argolati, at Milan, and either 
with, or without his consent, it was printed at Naples in 
1728. This provoked Sanvitali to forget his own and his 
father's attachment to Biacca, who had resided twenty-six 
years in the fainiiy, and he ordered him to leave his house. 
Biacca, however, was received with respect into many other 
families, who each pressed him to take up his abode with 
them. After having lived at Milan for some years, he 
died at Parma, Sept. 15, 1733. Being a member of the 
Arcadians, he, according to their custom, assumed the 
name of Parmindo Ibichense, which we find prefixed to 
several of his works. Besides his defence of Josephus, he 
wrote, 1. " Ortographia Manuale, o sia arte facile di cor- 
rettainento Scrivere e Parlare," Parma, 1714, 12nio. 2. 
"Notizie storiche di liinuccio cardinal Pallavicino, di Pom- 
peo Sacco Parmigiano, di Cornclio Magni, e del conte 
NiccoloCicognari Parmigiano," printed in voh. I. and II. of 
the " Notizie istoriche degli Arcadi morti," Home, 1720, 
8vo. 3. " Le Selve de Stazio, tradotte in verso sciolto.'" 
He translated also Catullus, and both make part of the col- 
lection of Italian translations of the ancient Latin authors, 
printed at Milan. In the poetical collections, there are 
many small pieces by Biacca. * 

BIANCHI (Anthony), a native of Venice, deserves 
some notice in a work of this description, on account of 
his poems, which were the production of nature, without 
any aid from instruction or cultivation. He lived about 
the middle of the last century, and was a gondolier or 
waterman's boy when he wrote, 1. " II Davide, re d'Israele, 
poema-eroico-sagro, di Antonio Bianchi, servitor di gondola 
Veneziano, canto XII." Venice, 1751, fol. and reprinted 
the same year with an oratorio entitled *' Elia sur Car- 
melo," ibid. 8vo. In this, although we do not find a strict 
attention to the laws of the epic, nor the most perfect 
purity of language, yet there are many truly poetical, 

* Biog. Univ. — Diet, Hist. — Saxii Onomast. wber^ some ethsrs of his weriss 
are mention«d. 

224 B I A N C H r. 

nervous, and highh' anin-.ated passages. Tlie same may 
be said of his, 2. " II Tempio ovvero il Salomone, canti 
X." Venice, 17 53, 4to, with ijisiorical and theological 
notes, which are believed to be from the same pen. In 
his first poem, he promised two others, one a heroi-co- 
mic, under the title of " Cuccagna distrutta," the other 
" La Formica cbntro il Leone," b\^\. it docs not appear 
that either was published. He grve, however, a speci- 
men of his critical talents, in a volume entitled " Osserva- 
zioni contro-critiche di Antonio Bianchi, sopra un trattato 
delia commedia Iiaiiana, &c. Venice, 1752, 8vo. Joseph 
Antony Custantini, the author of this treatise on Italian 
comedy, wrote an answer, and asserted that the " Obser- 
vations" were not written by liianchi, and that the poem of 
David was not his. Bianchi, however, in the preface to 
his second poem, ** Tlie Temple of Solomon," offered 
every kind of proof that he was the author of both. We 
have no farther account of this extraordi^iary young man, 
although it is probable from the merit and character of his 
poems, that he found patrons who procured him leisure 
and competence. ' 

BIANCHI (Francis FerTxARi), called IlFrari, apainter 
and sculptor of Modena, has the reputation of having been 
the master of Corregio, but never arrived at the fame of 
his pupil. There is one of his pictures in the church of 
St. Francis in Modena, by whicu it appears that he pos- 
sessed a certain degree of mellowness, though his line is 
too dry, and the eyes of his figures want the roundness of 
nature, like those of Cimabue. Hediedin 1510, two years 
before the merit of Corregio began to be acknowledged. ' 

BIANCHI (John), an Italian naturalist, more generally 
known by the name of Janus Plancus, under which he 
published several works, was born Jan. 3, 1693, at Rimini, 
where he died Dec. 3, 1775. In 1717 he went to Bologna, 
and studied botany, natural history, mathematics, and 
natural philosophy. Having taken the degree of doctor in 
medicine in 1719, he returned to his country, but after- 
wards resided for some time at Bologna and Padua before 
he settled and began practice at Rimini. Here also he 
improved his acquaintance with botany, and in his different 
tours accumulated a very fine collection of specimens of 
natural history. In 1741, he was appointed professor of 

* Bioj. Uaivarselle, • Ibid.— Pilkington. 

B I A N C H I. 225 


anatomy in the university of Sienna, but his attachment to 
his favourite studies induceu him lo return to Rimini, where 
he endeavoured to revive die acadt>my of the Lincei, the 
members of wliich assembled at his liouse. He hud for- 
merly, when otdy twenty-two years of age, acted as their 
secretary, and gave a history of them in Ins edition of the 
Pliytobusanos. In hi-mour of his merits and services, the 
society caused a medal to be strucic, with his portrait on 
one side, and on the other a lynx, with the words " I-yn- 
ceis restituiis." Bianchi was frequently involved in contro- 
versies respecting both himself and his works, the prin- 
cipal of which are, I. *' Lettere intorno alia cataratta,'* 
Kimini, 1720, 4to. 2. " Epistola anatomica ad Josephum 
Puteum Bononiensem," Bologna, 1726, 4to. 3. " Osser- 
vazioni intorno una sezione anatomica," Rimini, 1731, 4to. 
4. *' Storia della vita di Catterina Vizzani, trovata puscella 
uella sezione del suocadavero," Venice, 1744, 8vo, trans- 
lated into English, London, 1751, 8vo. o. " Dissertazione 
de' vesicatori," Venice, 1746, 8vo, in which he blames 
the use of blisters, 6. " De monstris et rebus moni,trosis," 
ibid. 1749, 4to. 7. " Storia medica d'un apostema nel iobo 
destro del cercbello, »kc." Rimini, 1751, 8vo, a very sin- 
gular case, with the appearance on dissection, and a plate. 

8. " Discorso s;;prail vitto Pitagorico," Venice, 1752, 8vo. 

9. " Trattato de' bagni de Piza, &c." Florence, 1757, 8vo. 

10. " Lettere sopra una gigante," Rimini, 1757, 8vo. II. 
" Fabii Columnar Phytobasanos, accedit vita Fabii et Lyn- 
ceorum notitia, cum annotationibus," Florence, 1744, 4to, 
with plates, notes, and additions. 12. " De conchis minus 
notis liber," Venice, 1739, 4to. with five plates, which 
were increased to nineteen in a subsequent edition, finely 
engraved. Besides these he wrote several essays in the 
Acts of the Academy of Sienna, the Memoirs of the Insti- 
tute of Bologna, and the Florence Literary Journal, and 
left several works in manuscript.' 

BIANCHI (John Antony), called by Fabroni Blan- 
CHli;s, a religious of the order of the Minorites, was born 
Oct. 2, 1686. For some years he taught philosophy and 
theology, and was afterwards provincial of his order in the 
lloman province, visitor of that of Bologna, one of tlie 
counsellors of the inquisition at Rome, and an examiner of 
the lloman clergy. He died Jan. 18, 1758. Amidst all 

• Biog. Univgrgellc— Mazzuchelli.— Saxii Onomast. in Btantus, 

Vol. V. Q. 

226 B I A N C H I. 

these graver employments, he found leisure to indulge his 
taste for the belles lettres, and especially dramatic poetry, 
which procured him admission into the academy of the 
Arcadians. His works were published under his assumed 
name of Farnabio Gioachino Annutini, a childish anagram 
of Fra Giovanni Antonio Bianchi. They are, principally, 
1. " Tragedie sacre e morali," four in number, one upon 
the history of sir Thomas More, and all in prose, Bologna, 
1725, 8vo. 2. Other tragedies ; " La Dina," " II Deme- 
trio," &c. published separately from 1734 to 1738. 3. 
*' De' vizj e dei difteti del moderno teatro, e del modo di 
corregerli e d'emendarli, ragionamenti vi," Rome, 17.53. 
In this, which he published under his academic name, Lau- 
riso Tragiense, he defends the opuiion of Maffei against 
that of Concina, who had published a dissertation " De 
spectaculis theatralibus," in which he maintained that dra- 
matic exhibitions were unfriendly to religion and morals, 
an opinion which has not been confined, as usually said, 
to the puritans or methodists of England. 4. " Delia po- 
teste e polizia della Chiesa, trattati due contro le nuove 
opinion! di Pietro Giannone," Rome, 1745 — 1751, 5 vols. 
4to, a voluminous work in vindication of the temporal 
power of the pope, which had been attacked by Giannone 
in his History of Naples, and by Bo'ssuet, whose principles 
Giannone adopted. He wrote some tragedies and come- 
dies, which do not appear to have been printed, and left 
many other works in manuscript, which Fabroni has enu- 

BIANCHI (John Baptist) a celebrated Italian ana- 
tomist, was born at Turin, Sept, 12, 1681, and at the age 
of seventeen was honoured with a doctor's degree. He 
was a long time professor of anatomy at Turin, where the 
king of Sardinia, in 1715, caused a very commodious am- 
phitheatre to be built for his lectures. In 1718 he also 
taught pharmacy, chemistry, and the practice of physic. 
He was offered a professor's chair in the univcrsit}- of Bo- 
logna, but refused it from- an attachment to his native 
place, Turin. He died much esteemed, Jan. 20, 1761. 
He wrote a great many wofks ; among whicli were, 1. 
''Ductus lacrymalis, &c. anatome," Turin, 1715, 4to, 
Leyden, 1723. 2. *' De lactcorum vasorum positionibus 
et fabrica," Turin, 1743, 4to. 3. *' Storia del mostro di 

* Fabroni Vitae Italoiuni, vol. XI. — V/iog. Universelle. 

fe 1 A N C H I. 227 

due corpi," Turin, 171-9, 8vo. 4. " Lettera sulT insensi- 
bilita," Turin, 1755, 8vo, in which he attacks Haller's 
hotions on sensibility. But Bianchi's most celebrated 
works are, 5. His " Historia liopatica, sen de Hepatis 
structura, usibus et morbis," Turin, 1710, 4to. 1716, and 
again at Geneva, 1725, 2 vols. 4to. with plates, and six 
anatomical essays. 6. " De natural! in huinano corpore, 
vitiosa, morbosaque generatione historia," ibid. 1761, 8vo. 
Manget has some dissertations by Bianchi in his Thcatrum 
Anatomicum, and the collection of hity-four plates, con- 
taining two hundred and seventy anatomical subjects, pub- 
lished at Turin in 1757, was the work of Bianchi. He 
was unquestionably a man of learning and skill in his pro- 
fession ; but'Morgagni, in his Adversariaj has pointed out 
many of his mistakes, and those which occur in his history 
of the liver, have been severely animadverted on by that 
able anatomist in his " Epistolae Anatomicse duje/' printed 
ill 1727, but without his consent, by the friend to w'bora 
they were written. In this work Bianchi is charged with 
bad Latin, want of judgment, care, memory, and honour. 
These charges, however severe as they seem, were not 
thought to affect the general merit of Bianchi's great 
work. ' 

BIANCHI {Ma[{K A>:thony), an Italian lawyer, was 
born at Padua in 1498, and while eminent at the bar, and 
in consultation, was not less distinguished for learning 
and probity. In 1525 he was appointed, for the third time, 
professor of imperial law in the university of Padua ; in 
1532, a second time, professor of the decretals; and lastly 
in 1544 chief professor of criminal law, a situation which 
he retained until his death, Oct. 8, 1548. Among his 
works, Vi'hich are all on professional subjects, and written 
in Latin, are his, 1. " Tractatus de indiciis homicidii ex 
proposito commissi, &c." Venice, 1545, fol. 1549, 8vo. 
2. " Practica criminalis aurea," with " Cautelse singulares 
ad reorum defensam," ibid. 1547, 8vo. 3. " Tractatus de 
compromissis faciendis inter conjunctos, et de exceptioni- 
bus impedieniibus litis ingressum," Venice, 1547, 8vo. ^ 

BIANCHI (Vendramino), a nobleman of Padua, was 
secretary of the senate of Venice at the commencement of 
the last century. After having been appointed resident from 
his republic at Milan, on the death of Charles II. king of 

1 Maiiget Bibl. Med.— TJioj. Univ. — Memoirs of Litoratwie, vol. X.— Eepiib-. 
lie of Letters, vol, I. ~ Bioj, Universelle, 

Q, 2 

228 B I A N C H I. 

Spain, he was sent into Swisserland in 1705, to treat of an 
alliance between the cant.ns of Zurich and Berne, whicli 
was accomplished by his means Jan. 12, i706. Next 
month he went into the Grisons, and there concluded a 
treaty of alliance Dec. 17. On his return to Venice, the 
senate sent him as ambassador to England, where he re- 
sided about twenty months, to the satisfaction of both na- 
tions. After that he accompanied the procurator Carlo 
Rusini, as secretary, at the congress for concluding the 
treaty of Passarowitz. This and his negociation in Swisser- 
land produced, 1. " Kelazione del paese de' Svisseri e loro 
alleati, d'Arniinio Dannebuchi (the anagram of Vendra- 
inino Bianchi), Venice, 1708, 8vo. This was translated 
into French and English, and often reprinted. 2. " Isto- 
rica relazione della pace di Passarowitz," Padua, 1718 
and 1719, 4to. ' 

BIANCHINI (Bartholomew), an Italian author of the 
end of tiie fifteenth century, was a native of Bvjlogna, 
where he was much esteemed for his learnins; and moral 
character. His master Philip Beroaldo, in his commen- 
tary on Apuleius, speaks highl}- of him as a young man of 
many accomplishments, and distinguished for his taste in 
painting, and the knowledge of ancient medals. The time 
of his death is not known, but is supposed to have taken 
place before 1528. He published a life of Urceus Codrus, 
prefixed to that author's works in various editions, and 
among others that of Basil, 1 540, •^to ; and a life of Philip 
Berualdo, printed with his commentary on Suetonius, Ve- 
nice, 1510, fol. and in other editions of the same. * 

BIANCHINI (Fkancis), a very learned Italian astrono- 
mer and philosopher, was born at Verona, Dec. 13, 1662. 
After being instructed in the elements of education in his 
own country, he removed to Bologna, where he went 
through a course of rhetoric and three years of philosophy, 
in the Jesuits' college. He afterwards studied mathematics 
and design, and made a great progress in both. In 1680 
he removed to Padua, where he studied divinity, and was 
admitted to the degree of doctor. His master in mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy was the learned Montanari, 
who became much attached to him, and bequeathed to 
him his collection of mathematical instruments. At Padua 
Bianchini learned also anatomy, and, with rather more plea- 
aure, botany. His inclination being for the church, he 

» Biof. Universellc. » lUid. 

B I A N C H I N I. 229 

went next to Rome, where he was kindly received by car- 
dinal Peter Ottoboni, who knew his family, and appointed 
him his librarian. Here, as was usual for persons with his 
views, he went through a course of law, but without U>sing 
sight of his favourite studies, experimental philosophy, 
mathematics, and astronomy. He was admitted a member 
of the physico-mathematical academy, estahlished by 
Ciampini, and read rF,any learned papers at their sittings. 

In 1686 he returned to his own country, and was very 
active in re-founding the academy of the Aleto[)hili, or lovers 
of truth, recommending to them more attention to mathe- 
matical studies, and to assist them, he presented the society 
with the instruments which Montanari had bequeathed to 
him ; but this academy entirely depended on his presence, 
and on his return to Rome tvvo years after, gradually dis- 
solved. Settled after this at Rome, he became connected with 
the most eminent men of his time, and enriched his stores of 
knowledge, by an acquaintance with Greek, Hebrew, and 
French. Antiquities likewise became one of his favourite 
pursuits. He often passed whole days among the sj>iendid 
ruins of Rome, assisted at every research, and digging 
among them, visited all the museums, and made elegant 
and correct drawings of all the monuments of antiquity. 
On the death of Innocent XI. cardinal Ottoboni, his pro- 
tector, being chosen pope by the name of Alexander VIII. 
continued to interest himself in the fortune of Bianchini, 
gave him a canonry in the church of St Mary Rotunda, 
appointed him guardian and librarian to cardinal Peter 
Ottoboni his nephew, gave him two pensions, and wuuld 
have promoted him yet farther, if he had lived, and if 
Bianchini would have taken orders ; but he had not made 
up his mind to take deacon's orders until i69i', and never 
would proceed farther. On the death of Alexander VIII. 
in 169 i, the cardinal, his nephew, continued hi> kindness, 
and besides bestowing a canonry on him in tUe clinrch of 
St. Lawrence in Damaso, invited liim to reside in ius pa- 
lace. Clement XI. wlio was elected pope in 1700, be- 
stowed on him, the year following, the title of chumber- 
lain of honour, authorized him to wear that dress ot a pre- 
late called the manttUone^ and assigned him apartments in 
the palace of Monte- Cavallo. 

In 1702, the pope appomted him, with the title of his- 
toriographer, to accompany cardinal Barberini the legate 
a latere to Naples, when the king of Spain, Pniiip V. 
came to take possession of that kingdom. Bianchini pro- 

230 B T A N C H I N L 

iited by this opportunity to visit mount Vesuvius, and 
ascended to the summit of the crater. On his return to 
Home, in 1703, the senate of Rome conferred upon him, 
his family, and descendants, the rank of the Roman nobi- 
lity and the patrician order. At the same time the pope 
chose him secretary of the committee for the reformation 
of the calendar. In order to regulate with precision the 
course of the year, it was necessarji to establish and fix 
with the greatest accuracy the equmoxial points. Bian- 
chini being employed to trace a meridian line, and to con- 
struct a gnomon on one of the churches, performed this 
with great success, with the assistance of the learned Phi- 
lip Maraldi. The pope commemorated the construction of 
the ornomon bv a medal, and Bianchini wrote a treatise or^ 
both, " De Nummis et Gnomone Ciementino." 

Having, in 1 703, been j^ppointed president of antiqui- 
ties, he exhibited to the pope, a plan for forming a col- 
lection of sacred antiques, or an ecclesiastical museum, 
intended to furnish materials for ecclesiastical history; but 
as this would have been attended with very great expence, 
and the papal treasury was at this time very low, the 
scheme v/as abandoned. The pope, however, to console 
Bianchini, who had it very much at heart, gave him a 
canonry in the church of St. Mary Maggiore, and, in 1712, 
sent him to Paris with a cardinal's hat for Armand de 
Rohan-Soubise, who was promoted to that dignity. The 
object was trilling-, but the journey was in)portant, as 
serving to introduce Bianchini to the literati of France, 
who received him with the utmost respect. At Paris he 
was constant in his attendance at the sittings of the acade- 
my of sciences, who had many years before elected him 
an honorary member, and he presented them with a very 
ingenious improvement in the construction of the larger 
telescopes, to prevent those of uncommon length from 
bending in the middle, an inconvenience which had been 
thought without remedy. Reaumur wrote a description of 
this, "which is inserted in the memoirs of the academy for 
1713. Before returning to Rome, Bianchini took a trip to 
Lorraine, Holland, and Flanders, and thence into England, 
visiting and examining every museum and place where ob- 
jects of curiosity were to be seen, and was every where 
received with the respect due to his talents. During his 
residence at Oxford, it is said that the university defrayed 
the exj_;euces of his lodging ; such is his biographer's ac- 

B I A N C H I N I. 23i 

count, by which is probably meant that he was invited to 
lodge in one of the colleges. 

On his return to Rome in the month of June, 1713, he 
resumed liis astronomical and antiquarian pursuits. When 
in France he conceived the idea of tracing a meridian hne 
through Italy, from sea to sea, in imitation of that of Cas- 
sini through the middle of France. He accordiagly began 
his operations, and pursued the object at his Csvu expence, 
for eight years, but other plans and employments occur- 
ring, he never completed the design. 1 lie papal favours, 
however, were still conferred, on him, purely as a man of 
science. Innocent XIII. the succcaaor of Clement XI. ap- 
pointed him referendary of tne pontidcal signatures, and 
domestic prehte, and in the couacd lield at Rome in 1725, 
he filled tiie office of first historiographer. Next year, his 
love for antiquities was highly gratified, although at the 
same time checked by an acci-ient vvhicii had serious con- 
sequences. Tiiei'e was discovered near Rome on the Ap- 
pian way, a magnificent marble subtei'raneous buildnig of 
three large halls, whose walls consisted of a great number 
of little cells like those of our modern pidgeon-houses. 
Most of these cells contained, each, four cinerary urns, 
accompanied with inscriptions of the name and office of the 
person whose ashes tliey contained, who were all slaves or 
freed-men and women of the household of Augustus, espe- 
cially that of Livia. There were also in this place some 
exquisite specimens of mosaic ornaments. Bianchini's joy 
on this discovery may be easily appreciated by genuine 
antiquaries ; but one unfortunate day, while he was exa- 
mining one of the chambers or halls, and preparing to 
make a drawing, the ground on which he stood gave way, 
and although his fall was broken by some earth which had 
been dug, one of his thighs received such a serious injury, 
that he was lame for the remainder of his life ; and al- 
though he found some relief at the baths of Vignona near 
Sienna, where he went the following year, his health was 
never completely re-established. 

This accident, however, did not interrupt his literary 
pursuits. He travelled to Florence, to Parma, and to Co- 
jorno, where, in the ducal palace, he traced a meridian, 
which does not now exist ; and on his return to RoDie re- 
sumed his astronomical labours, particularly his observa- 
tions on the planet Venus, whom he had been stuvlying 
for a great many years. He set out by endeavouring to 

232 B I A N C H I N I. 

ascertain her parallax by the ingenious method invented 
by Cassini for the parallax of Mars. This mettiod consists 
in comparing the motion of the planet, whose parallax is 
wanted, with some fixed stars very near it, and that for 
some considerable space of time, but a fair opportunity of 
doing it seldom happens. It was, however, signor Bian- 
chini's <>ood fortune to meet with one in the befjinnino- of 
July, 1716, when Venus and Regulus came to the meri- 
dian so nearly together, that he could discover them both 
in the same field of his refracting telescope. In observing 
the spots of Venus, he employed the instrument before 
mentioned, which he prtsented to the academy of Paris. 
His observations, however, on this planet, although very 
interesting to the astronomers of his age, have not been 
conhrujed by the more recent observations of Herschel 
and others, with instruments of much greater power than he 
possessed. What he published on this subject, in 1728, 
was an)ong the last of his efforts for the promotion of 
science, as he now contracted a dropsical complaint of 
which he died March 2, 1729, He left his property to 
his nephew Joseph Bianchini, the subject of our next ar- 
ticle, and thegreater part of his books and ecclesiastical 
antiquities to the library of the chapter of Verona. Great 
honours were paid to his memory by a monument in the 
cathedral of Verona, voted by the cit}', and other public 
marks of esteem. He was a man of extensive knowledsre, 
particularly in natural philosophy, mathematics, botany, 
agriculture, history, and antiquities. He also cultivated 
polite literature, oratory, and poetry. His manners, easy, 
elegant, and accommodating, were rather those of the 
world than of the schools, and he appears to have been, 
beloved, or respected, wherever he went. 

His works were numerous ; the following list of the 
principal is arranged, rather according to the connexion 
of the subjects, than the chronological order, which in 
general it is convenient to preserve. 1. Three memoirs 
in the " Acta eruditorum," of Leipsic, for 1685 and 1686, 
on a comet observed at Rome in 1684; on Cassini's me- 
thod of ubserving the parallaxes and distances of the 
planets, and on a total eclipse of the moon at Rome, Dec. 
10, 1685. 2. A memoir on the comet seen at Rome in 
April 1702, with other astronomical observations inserted 
in the " Memoirs of the academy of Paris," 1702, U06, 
and 1708. All the preceding, if we mistake not, are in 

B I A N C H I N I. 233 

Latin. ?>. " Relaziune della linea meridiana orizzontale e 
(Jella ellissi polare labhricata in Roma I'anno 1702," witliout 
his name in the Journal " de' Letterati d' Italia," vol. IV, 
4. " Epistola de eclipsi solis die Maii, 1724," Rome, 
1724. 5. " Hesperi et Phosphori nova phenomena, sive 
observationes circa planetam Veneris," Rome, 1728, fol. 
6. " Fr. Bianchini astronomicoe et geographicse observa- 
tiones selectic ex ejus autographis, &.c. cura et studio Eu- 
stachii Manfredi,"* Verona, 1737, fol. 7. " Ue emble- 
mate, nomine atque institnto Alethophilorum, dissertatio 
publice habita in corundem academia," Verona, 1687. 
8. " Istoria imiversale prorata con monumenti e Hgurata 
con simboli degii antichi," Rome, 1697, 4to. This curi- 
ous volume, the plates of which were engraven by himself, 
and from his own designs, was to have been followed by- 
several others, completing the series of ancient histoiy, but 
this proceeds no tarther than the ruin of the Assyrian em- 
pire. He will perhaps be tliought to deal in paradox, in 
asserting here tliat the Iliad is no more than a real history 
under the form of an allegory, each of Homer's heroes or 
deities being a country or a king. 9. " De Kalendario et 
Cyclo Cyesaris ac de Paschali canone S. Hippolyti martyris, 
dissertationes ducc," Rome, 1703, 1704, fol. This also' 
contains an account of the gnomon he constructed, and 
the pope's medal struck on that occasion. 10. Two papers 
explanatory of ancient sculptures, inserted in the " Me- 
morie concernenti la citta d'Urbino," Rome, 1724, fol. 
11. " Camera et iscrizioni sepolcraii, &c " the history of 
the discoveries he made in the sepulchral building before 
mentioned, Rome, 1727, fol. 12. " Del palazzo de' Ce- 
sari, opera posiuma," Verona, 1738, published by his 
ncpiiew who had accompanied it witli a Latin translation. 
13. " Dissertatio posthuma de tribus generibus instru- 
mentorum musicai veterum organicie," Rome, 1742, 
4to. 14. An edition of Anastasius Bibliothecarius' history 
of the Popes, Rome, 1718, 1723, and 1728, 3 vols. fol. 
The fourth was added by his nephew. 15. " Opuscula 
varia," Rome, l754, 2 vols. 4to. To these may be added 
his Italian ^^oems in the collection ot those of the " Aca- 
demic! concorf'd," of Ravenna, publisiied at Bologna, i6S7, 
12mo. and many scient'tic letters, di.sertations, &c, in the 
Paris " History of the Academy of the Sciences," for the 
years 1704, 1706—8, 1713, and 1718. * 

' Biog., IJniverselle. — Eloge by Fontenelle.-^Chaufepie.— Fabroni VitK Ita- 
Ifirum, vol. VI. — Saxii Onomasticon. 

234. B I A N C H 1 N I. 

BIANCHINI (Joseph), nephew of the preceding, priest 
of the oratory of St. Philip de Neri, was also a learned 
antiquary. He was born at Verona Sept. J), 1704, the 
son of John Baptist, brother to Francis Bianchini, and was 
educated under the eye of his uncle in the college of Mon- 
teliascone. Before 1725, he was promoted to a canonry 
in the cathedral, and a prebendal stall in St. Luke, and 
was soon after appointed librarian to the chapter : but in 
1732 he resigned that and his benefices, and entered into 
the congregiition of the oratory at Rome, where he di- 
vided his lime between the pious duties of that order, and 
his literary researches, particularly in what related to his- 
tory and ecclesiastical antiquities. His first publication 
was, 1. The fourth and concluding volume of his uncle's 
edition of Anastasius Bibliothecurius, Rome, 1735, fol. 
2, " Viudiciae canonicarum Scripturarum vulgatae Latinae 
editionis," Rome, 1740, fol. Tiiis volume, the only one 
published, was to have been followed by six others, the 
plan of which is sketched in the preface, which, with the 
preliminary dissertations, contains the history of all the 
different books of the bible, the manuscript copies in vari- 
ous libraries, the translations, &c. 3. " Lvangeliarum 
quadrupiex Latinae versionis antiquoe, seu veteris Itaiicae, 
nunc primum in lucem editum ex codd. MSS. aureis, ar- 
genteis, &c. aliisque plusquam milknariae antiquitatis," 
Rome, 1749, fol. This may be considered as a part of 
the preceding. 4. " Demonstratio historian eccdesiasticae 
quadripartitae monumentis ad fidem temporu'U et gesio- 
rum," ibid, 1752, fol. A second volume was afterwards 
published of this elegant collection of fragments of anti- 
quity, inscriptions, medals, vases, &c. found in the dif- 
ferent churches, cemeteries, and museums of Rome, or 
elsewhere, beautifully engraven, and accompanied with ex- 
planations and chronological tables. It extends, however, 
no fartlier than the first two centuries of the Christian aera. 
5. " Delle porte e mura di Roma, con illustrazioni," ibid. 
1747, 4to. 6. " Parere sopra la cagionedelia morte della 
sig. contcssa Cornelia Zangari, esposto in una lettera," 
Verona, 1731, and an improved edition, Rome, 1743, 8vo. 
This curious dissertation relates to a lady of rank who was 
found in her room reduced to ashes, except her head, legs, 
and one of her fingers. As this could not be ascribed to 
external fire, the room being no wise damaged, it excited 
much attention, and gave rise to a variety of opinions. 

B I A N C H I N I. 235 

Bianchini maintains in tliis tract^ that it was the effect of 
an internal and spontaneous fire occasioned by the exces- 
sive use of camphorated brandy, to which the lady had 
been much addicted. TLe time of Bianciiini's death is not 
mentioned. ' 

BIANCHINI (John Fortunatus), an Italian philoso- 
pher and physician of considerable reputation in the last 
century, was born, in 1720, at Cliieti in the kini^rdom of 
Naples, where he studied, took his degrees, and for some 
years practised physic. He then went to Venice, but his 
growing reputation procured i}im the place of first physi- 
cian at Udina, where he resided from 1759 to 1777, and 
was then appointed first professor of the practice of physic 
in the university of Padua, and was admitted a member of 
the academy, as he had been C)f that of Udina. He was 
likewise one of the pensionaries of the academy of Padua, 
but did not enjoy these situations long, dying Sept. 2, 
1779. He wrote many treatises on prole.ssional subjects, 
electricity, the force of imagination in pregnant women, 
putrid fevers, worms, &c. a list of which may be seen in 
our authority. ^ 

BIANCHINI (JosFPH Maria), an Italian scholar of the 
last century, was born at Praio in Tuscany, Nov. 18, 1685, 
He had but just finisiied his education at Florence, when 
he was admitted a member of the academy of the Apatisti, 
and two jears after, of that of Florence, nor was he more 
than twenty when he became known to and associated with 
the principal literati of that city. He went afterwards to 
Pisa, and studied philosophy and mathematics under Alex- 
ander Marchetti, the translator of Lucretius, and there he 
received the deG:ree of doctor of laws, and the order of 
priesthood. There also the bishop of Prato appointed 
him to give public lectures on the works of the fathers, in 
the course of which he became particularly attached to 
those of St. Bernard ; and the bishop of Pistoia gave him 
the living of St. Peter at Ajolo, where he made himself 
very popular. Such also was his literary fame, that besides 
the academies we have mentioned, he was admitted a 
member of the Infecundi of Prato, the Innominati of Bra 
in Piedmont, of the Rinvigoriti of Foligno, the Arcadians 
of Home, the Columbarian society, and the della Crusca. 
His life was exemplary, his character loyal and ingenuous, 

> Biog. Universelle. — Saxius in Blanchinus. ^ uiog. Uuiverselle. 

236 B 1 A N C H I N I. 

although somewhat reserved. He loved retirement, yet 
was of a placid humour, and enjoyed eti'usioiis of wit; but 
in his latter years he fell into a. state of melancholy, ag- 
gravated by bodily disorder, which terminated in his death 
Feb. 17, 1749. His two most considerable works, were, 
1. " De' gran duchi di Toscana della real casa de' Medici," 
Venice, 1741, fol. an account of the ancient sovereigns 
of Florence, as patrons of literature and the arts, but con- 
taining little new matter. 2. " Delia satira Itaiiana, trat- 
tato," Massa, 1714, 4to. Florence, 1729, 4to ; a critical 
work higlily esteemed in Italy. To the second edition the 
author has annexed an Italian dissertation, on the hypo- 
crisy of men of letters, in which he exposes what would be 
called in this country the arts of puffing, which his bio' 
graptier remarks, have made very great progress since his 
tmie. 3. " La Cantica de Cantici di Salomone tradotta 
in versi Toscani con annotazioni," Venice, 1735. Various 
other small pieces of criticism, bibliography, &c. from his 
pen are inserted in the academical collections, parti- 
cularly " Prose Florentine," Venice, 1754, 4to. * 

BIyVNCOLINI (John Baptist Joseph), was born at 
Verona, March 10, 1697, of an eminent mercantile family, 
and as after completing his education he shewed no incli- 
nation for the church, his father brought him up to trade, 
which he carried on during the whole of his long life. In 
his youth he was particularly attached to music, played 
on several instruments, and even attempted composition, 
but neither tliis taste, nor his mercantile pursuits, inter- 
rupted his fondness for the study of the history and anti- 
quities of his own country, which in the course of a few 
years beheld one of its merchants placed in the rank of men 
of letters and historians. His works entirely relate to the 
history of Verona, and although he appears rather as editor 
than author, yet his countrymen felt no small obligation to 
him for the care and expense which he bestowed in im- 
proving their ancient annalists. His first labour was a new 
edition and supplement, in 2 vols. 4to, 1745 and 1747, of 
Zagata's "Chronicle of the City of Verona," enriched with 
additions of great interest by Biancolini, particularly a plan 
of the ancient theatre of Verona, which the learned Maffei 
had thought it impossible to trace. 2. " Notizie storiche 
dellechiese di Verona," four books, 1749 — 1752, 4to, af- 

' Biog. Univcrselle. 

B I A N C O L I N I. 237 

terwards reprinted and enlarged to fi vols. 4to. 3. " Dei 
vescovi e governatori di Verona dissertazloni due," Ve- 
rona, 1757, 4to. He also contributed to the Italian trans- 
lation of" tiie Greek historians, " Collana degli storici 
Greci," (begun in 1733 at Verona by the bookseller Ra- 
manzini) not only by literary, but pecuniary assistance of 
the most liberal kind. He died upwards of eighty-two 
years old, in 1780. * 

BIANCONI (John Lewis), a celebrated Italian philo- 
sopher and pliysician, was born at Bologna, Sept. 30, 1717. 
Alter having studied physic witli great diiii^ence and suc- 
cess, lie was in his nineteenth year appointed medical as- 
sistant in one of the hospitals, and after lour years, was, 
in 1742, admitted to the degree of doctor. In 1743 and 
1744 he published a valuable translation into Italian of 
'VV'insIovv's Anatomy, 6 vols. 8vo. In the last mentioned 
year, his reputation induced the landgrave of Hesse- Darm- 
stadt, prince and bishop of Augsburgh, to give him an in- 
vitation to reside with him, which Bianconi accepted, and 
remained there for six years. During this time he pub- 
lished " Due lettere di Fisica," &c. Venice, 1746, 4to, 
addressed to the celebrated marquis MaiYei, and wrote in 
French an " Essay on Electricity," addressed to another 
learned friend, count Algarotti. He also began, in French, 
*' Journal des nouveaut6s litteraires d'ltalie," printed 
at Leipsic, but with Amsterdam on the title, 1748, 1749, 
8vo, wiiich he continued to the end of a third volume. 
In 1750, he went to the court of Dresden, with a strong 
recommendation from pope Benedict XIV. to Augustus 
III. king of Poland, who received him into his confi- 
dence, and appointed him his aulic counsellor, and in 
17bO sent him to France on a political affair of consi- 
derable delicacy, which he transacted wich skill and satis- 
faction to his employer. In 1764, his majesty appointed 
iiim his resident minister at the court of, where he 
felt his literary taste revive with its usual keenness, and 
was a contributor to various literary Journals. That of the 
*' Effemeridi letterarie di Roma" owed its rise principally 
to him, and for sometime, its f.ime to his contributions. It 
was in this he wrote his eloges on Lupacchini, Piianesi, 
and Mengs, which last was published separately, with ad- 
ditions, in 1780. In his twelve Italian letters on the his- 
tory of Cornelius Celsus, printed at Rome in 1779, he 

* Bio?. Universelle. 

238 B I A N C O N J. 

restores that celebrated physician to the age of Au<rustuir/ 
contrary to the common opinion, antl to tliat of Tirasboschi 
(to whom they were addressed), who places him in what is 
called the silver age. He was projecting a magnificent 
edition of Celsus, a life of Petrarch, and some other lite- 
rary undertakings, when he died suddenly at Perugia, Jan. 
I, 178 [, universally regretted. He left ready for the 
press, a work in Italian and French, on the circus of Cara- 
caHa, which was magnificently printed at Rome in 1790, 
with nineteen beautiful engrravino-s. ' 

BIAS, called one of the wise men of Greece, w^as born 
at Priene, a small town of Caria, about 570 B. C. He 
was in great repute in Greece, under the reigns of Ha- 
lyattes and Croesus, kings of Lydia. Though born to great 
riches, he lived without splendour, expending his fortune 
in relieving the needy, and although esteemed the most 
eloquent orator of his time, he desired to reap no other 
advantage from this talent, than that of glory to his coun- 
try. In his pleadings he shewed such discrimination, as 
never to undertake any cause which he did not think just. 
It was usual to say of a good cause that it was one which Bias 
would have undertaken, yet we are not told by what means 
he knew that a cause was good before it was tried. On 
one occasion, certain pirates brought several young women 
to sell as slaves at Priene. Bias purchased them, and 
maintained them, until he had an opportunity to return 
them to their friends. This generous action could not fail 
to increase his popularity, and made him be styled " the 
prince of the wise men." 

When Halyattes laid siege to Priene, Bias, who was 
then chief magistrate, made a vigorous resistance for a long 
time, and when, owing to a scarcity of provisions, the city 
was in danger of being surrendered, Bias caused two beau- 
tiful mules to be fattened, and to be driven towards the 
enemy's camp, as if they had escaped from the inhabitants 
of Priene. Haiyattes, seeing these animals in so good 
plight, was afraid the town was in no danger of starving-, 
but, in order to be certain, contrived to send a spy into the 
city. Bias, suspecting his design, caused great heaps of 
sand to be covered with wheat, and the messenger havirfg 
reported this abundance, Halyattes made an alliance with 
the inhabitants of Priene, and left them in peace. 

Bias is said to have composed above two thousand verses, 

* Biog. UniverscIIe. — Saxii Oatmast. 

BIAS. 239 

containing prudential maxims, many of which may be found 
in Stanley, and other writers on tlie lives of the philosophers. 
The following have been selected by Brucker : " It is a 
proof of a weak and disordered mind to desire impossi- 
bilities. The greatest infelicity is, not to be able to endure 
misfortunes patiently. Great minds alone can support a 
sudden reverse of fortune. The most pleasant state is, to 
be always gaining. Be not unmindful of the miseries of 
others. If you are handsome, do handsome things ; if de- 
formed, supply the defects of nature by your virtues. Be 
slow in undertaking, but resolute in executing. Praise 
not a worthless man for the sake of his wealth. Whatever 
good you do, ascribe it to the gods. Lay in wisdom as the 
store for your journey from youth to old age, for it is the 
most certain possession. Many men are dishonest ; there- 
fore love your friend with caution, for he may hereafter 
become your enemy." This last, however, would have 
better become a Rochefoucault, or a Chesterfield. Bias 
happened to be at Priene, when it was taken and sacked, 
and when asked, why he did not, like the rest, think of 
saving something, answered, " So I do, for I carry my all 
with me." The action by which his days were terminated 
was no less illustrious than those of his former life. He 
caused himself to be carried into the senate, where he zea- 
lously defended the interest of one of his friends, but being 
now very old, it fatigued him much. He leaned his head 
on the breast of one of his daughter's sons, who had ac- 
companied him. When the orator, who pleaded for his 
opponent, had finished his discourse, the judges pro- 
nounced in favour of Bias, who immediately expired in the 
arms of his grandson. ' 

BIBBIENA, Cardinal. See DOVIZI. 

BIBBIENA (Ferdinand Galli), painter and architect, 
was born at Boulogne in 1657. He studied the elements 
of his art under Cignani, a distinguished artist, and 
when this master produced his disciple to the world, his 
talents for architecture, for theatrical decorations, and for 
perspective, obtained him a good reception. The duke of 
Parma and the emperor gave him the title of their first 
painter, and loaded him with favours. Several magnificent 
edifices were raised after his plans. His pieces of perspec- 

t Stanley's History of Philosophy. — Brucker, — ^Fenelon, translated by Cor- 

240 B I B B I E N A. 

live are fall of taste, but there have not been wantiiTfj som^ 
critics wiio have censured him for having a pencil more 
famustic than natural and just. He died blind in 1743, 
leaving two books of architecture ; and sons worthy of their 
father. It is probable that to one of them (J. Galli Bib- 
biena) the public is indebted for the " History of the 
amours of Valeria and the noble Venetian Barbari2;o," 
translated into French, Lausanne and Geneva, 1751. He 
had also a brother, an architectural painter of considerable 
lame. * 

BIBLIANDER (Theodore), an eminent Protestant 
divine, whose real name was Buchnian, which he changed 
into Bibliander, according to a custom very prevalent in 
his time, was born in 1600, or rather 1504, according to 
D. Clement and Saxius, at Bischotfzel near St. Gall, and 
in 1532, succeeded Zwinglius in the divinity- chair at 
Zurick. This he filled a considerable time, until having 
adopted some opinions on the subject of predestination, 
which were hostile to those irencrallv received in the re- 
formed church, he was gently dismissed by being declared 
emeritus, and his place sup[)lied by Peter Martyr. He 
died of the plague at Zurich in 1564. He was a man of 
great reputation for learning, especially in the oriental 
languages. He wrote, 1. " Apologia })ro edit. Alcorani, 
edita a J. Fabricio, cum testainento iMohamedis," Rostock, 
1638, 4to. 2. " Machumetis Saracenorum principis, ejus- 
que successorum vitic, doctrina, ac ij)se Alcoran," &c. 
Basil, 1543, fol. This work is divided into three parts ; 
the first contains a Latin translation of the Alcoran ; the 
second, many pieces in refutation of the doctrines and er- 
rors of the Alcoran ; and the third, some parts of the works 
of Paul Jovius, and others, on the history and manners of 
the Turks. The whole was reprinted at Basil in 1550, but 
with considerable alterations in the second part, and the 
addition of some articles to the third. 3. " Quomodo opor- 
teat legere sacras scripturas, praescriptiones Apostolorum, 
Prophetarum, &c." ibid. 1550, 8vo. 4. " Amplior con- 
sideratio decreti synodalis Trident, de authent. doct. eccl. 
Dei, &c." 1551, 8vo. 5. " Sermo divin. majest. voce 
pronimciatus, seu Comment, in Decalog. tt Sermon. Dom, 
in monte Sinai," Basil, 1552, fol, 6. " Concilium sacro- 
sanctum eccl. cathol. in quo demonstratur quomodo possit 

' Biog. Unjverselle. 

E I B L I A N D E R. 241 

pereunti populo Christiano succurri," 1552, 8vo. 7. " Vi- 
ta B. Marci evangelistae," Bale, 1552. 8. " De ratione 
temp. Christ. &c. liber," ibid. 1551, 8vo. 9. " Temporuin 
a contlito niundo usque ad ultim. i[)sius a;tat. supputatio," 
ibid. 1558, fol. 10. " Evangelica historia," ibid. 1551. 

11. " De fatis monarchiae Romance, somnium, vaticiniura 
Esdrac," &c. ibid. 1553, 4to, a collection of remarks on 
prophecies applicable to the apostacy of the Romish church. 

12. " De summa Triuitaie ct fide catholica, &.c." ibid. 
1555, 4to, 13. " De Mysteriis salutiferoe passionis et 
mortis Jesu Messiae, libri tres," ibid. 155 5. 14. *' De 
ratione communi omnium linguarum et litterarum commen- 
tarius," Zurich, 1548, 4to, a curious work, in which he en- 
deavours to prove an analogy between all languages, and 
all the letters of those languages. These last five works 
are extremely rare. Bibliander also, assisted by Conrad 
Pelican and Chulin, completed and superintended the edi- 
tion of the Bible by Leo de Juda, and translated a consi- 
derable part of it. Many of his manuscripts are preserved 
in the library of Zurich, and a full account of tliem has 
been given by Teissier in his additions to Thuanus's account 
of eminent men, vol. II. ' 

BICHAT (Maria-Francis-Xavier), a very celebrated 
French physician, and whose labours have greatly promoted 
the study of physiology, was born Nov. 1 1, 1771, at Thoi- 
rette. His father was also a physician, and had pro- 
bably initiated him in medical knowledge, which he studied 
at Lyons, where Petit, then surgeon of the Hotel- Dieu in 
that city, under whom he was taught anatomy and surgery, 
had such an opinion of his talents, that he made him his 
assistant, although then only in his twentieth year. When 
Lyons was besieged in 1793, he made his escape, and ar- 
rived at Paris about the end of that year. There, without 
any recommendations from friends, he resumed his studies 
and became one of the pupils of the celebrated Dussault, 
who discoverinsT his uncommon talents, invited him to his 
house, treated him as his son, and found in him a most 
able assistant. Of this generous protector, however, he 
was deprived by death in 1795, and became in his turn the 
support of Dussault's widow and children. He first com- 
pleted the fourth volume of Dussault's " Journal de Chi- 

1 Biog. Univ. — Gen. Dict.—Moreii.— Melchior Adam in vitis Theologorum. 
— Saxii Onomasticon. 

Vol. V. R 

242 B I C H A T. 

rurgie." In 1797 he published his " CEuvres chirurgicales," 
2 vols. 8vo. In the same year he began to give lectures 
on anatomy and operative surgery, to which, in 1798, he 
added a course of physiology, vhich produced his " Traite 
des Membranes," 1800, Svo, and " Kecherches physiolo- 
giques sur la vie et sur la mort," 1800, 8vo, in both which 
he advances some of those original opinions which attracted 
the attention of the faculty both at home and abroad, and 
paved the way for the higher fame he acquired by his 
*' Anatomic generate appliquee a la physiologic et a la 
medicine," Paris, 1801, 4 vols. Svo, one of the ablest works 
on the subject which France has produced. The year pre- 
ceding, although oidy twenty-eight years old, he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Hotel Dieu, and had begun a ne\r 
treatise on descriptive anatomy, when the world was de- 
prived of his labours, by a premature death, the conse- 
quence of a putrid fever, July 22, 1802. He was deeply 
regretted for his talents and virtues. * 

BIDDLE (John), a noted Socinian writer, was born in 
1615, at Wotton-under-Edge, in Gloucestershire. He was 
educated at the free-school in that town ; and, being a pro- 
mising youth, was noticed by George lord Berkele}^, who 
made him an allowance of 10/. a year. ^Vllile at this 
-school, he translated Virgil's eclogues, and the two first 
satires of Juvenal, into English verse, both which were 
printed at London in 1634, in 8vo. In 1634 he was sent 
to Oxford, and entered at Magdalen-hall. June 23, 1683, 
he took the degree of bachelor of arts, and soon after was 
invited to be master of the school of his native place, but 
declined it. May 20, 1691, he took his degree of master 
of arts ; and the magistrates of Gloucester having chosen 
him master of the free-school of St. Mary de Crypt in that 
city, he went and settled there, and was much esteemed for 
his diligence. Falling, however, into some opinions con- 
cerning the Trinity, different from those commonly re- 
ceived, and having expressed his thoughts with too much 
freedom, he was accused of heresy : and being summoned 
before the magistrates, he exhibited in writing a confes- 
sion, which not being thought satisfactory, he was obliged 
to make another more explicit than the former. When he 
had fully considered this doctrine, he comprised it in twelve 
arguments drawn, as he pretended, from the Scripture j 

» B\og. Universelle.— Diet. Hist. 

B I D D L E. 243 

wherein tlie commonly-received opinion, touching ihe deity 
of the Holy S[)irit, is attempted to be refuted *. An ac- 
quaintance who had a copy of them, having shewed them 
to the magistrates of Gloucester, and to liie parliament 
couiniittee then residing there, he was committed, Dec. 2, 
1645, to the common gaol, till the parliament should take 
cognizance of the matter. However, an eminent person 
in Gloucester procured his enlargement, by giving security 
for his appearance when the parliament should send for 
him. June 1646, archbishop Usher, passing through 
Gloucester in his way to London, had a conference with 
our author, and endeavoured, but in vain, to convince him 
of his errors. Six months after he had been set at liberty 
he was summoned to appear at Westminster, and the par- 
hament appointed a committee to examine him ; before 
whom he freely confessed, that he did not acknowledge the 
commonly-received notion of the divinity of the Holy 
Ghost, but, however, was ready to hear what could be 
opposed to him, and, if he could not make out his opinion 
to be true, honestly to own his error. But being wearied 
with tedious and expensive delays, he wrote a letter to sir 
Henr}' Vane, a member of the committee, requesting him 
either to procure his discharge, or to make a report of his 
case to the house of commons. The result of this was, his 
being committed to the custody of one of their officers, 
which restraint continued the live years following. He 
was at length referred to the assembly of divines then 
sitting at Westminster, before whom he often appeared, 
and, gave them in writing his twelve arguments, which 
were published the same year. Upon their publication, he 
was summoned to appear at the bar of the house of com- 
mons ; where being asked, " Whether he owned this trea- 
tise, and the opinions therein ?" he answered in the affirma- 
tive. Upon which he was committed to prison, and the 
house ordered, Sept. 6, 1747, that the book should be 
called in and burnt by the hangman, and the author be 
examined by the committee of plundered ministers. But 
Mr. Biddle drew a greater storm upon himself by two tracts 
he published in 164S, " A confession of faith touching the 

* These twelve arguments, &c. were were answered by Matthew Poole, 

first published in 1647, and reprinted M. A. 'lie learned editor of Synopsis 

in 1633, and lastly in 1691, 4to, i« a Criticoruni in his Plea for the Uod- 

collection of Sociniau tracts, entitled head of the Holy Gh«st, &c. and by 

" The faitU of one God, &c," They others at home and abroad. 

R 2 

244 B I D D L E. 

Holy Trinity according to the Scripture ;" and " The tes- 
timonies of IrenaBus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Novatianus, 
Theophilus, Origen, also of Arnobius, Lactantius, Euse- 
bius, Hilary, and Brigbtman, concerning that one God, 
and the persons of the Holy Trinity, together with obser- 
vations on the same." As soon as they were pubUshed, 
the assembly of divines solicited the parliament, and pro- 
cured an ordinance, inflicting death upon those that held 
opinions contrary to the received doctrine about the Tri- 
nity, and severe penalties upon those who differed in lesser 
matters. Biddle, however, escaped by a dissension in the 
parliament, part of which was joined by the army ; many 
of whom, both officers and soldiers, being liable to the 
severities of the ordinance above-mentioned, it therefore 
from that time lay unregarded for several years. Biddle 
had now more liberty allowed him by his keepers ; who 
suffered him, upon security given, to go into Staffordshire, 
where he lived some time with a justice of peace, who en- 
tertained him with great hospitality, and at his death left 
him a legacy. Serjeant John Bradshaw, president of the 
council of state, having got intelligence of this indulgence 
granted him, caused him to be recalled, and more strictly 
confined. In this confinement he spent his whole sub- 
stance, and was reduced to great indigence, till he was 
employed by Roger Daniel of London, to correct an im- 
pression of the Septuagint Bible, which that printer was 
about to publish : and this gained him for some time a 
comfortable subsistence. 

In 1654 the parliament published a general act of ob- 
livion, when Biddle was restored to his liberty. This he 
improved among those friends he had gained in London, 
in meeting together every Sunday for expounding the 
Scripture, and discoursing thereupon ; by which means 
his opinions concerning the unity of God, Christ his only 
son, and his holy spirit, were so propagated, that the 
presbyterian ministers became highly offended. The same 
year he published his " Twofold scripture catechism," 
which was ably answered by Dr. Owen in his " Vindicise 
FA-angelica;," Oxford, 1655; but a copy coming into the 
hands of some of the members of Cromwell's parliament, 
meeting Sept. 3, 1654, a complaint was made against it 
in the house of commons. Upon this, the author being 
brought to the bar, and asked " Whether he wrote that 
book!" answered by asking, " Whether it seemed reason- 

B T D D L E. 245 

able, that one brought before a judgment seat as a crimi- 
nal, should accuse himself?" After some debates and 
resolutions, he was, Dec. 13, committed close prisoner 
to the Gatehouse. A bill likewise was ordered to be 
brought in for punishing him ; but, after about six months 
imprisonment, he obtained his liberty at the court of king's 
bench, by due course of law. About a year after, another 
no less formidable danger overtook him, by his engaging 
in a dispute with one Griffin, an anabaptist teacher. Many 
of Griffin's congregation having embraced Biddle's opinions 
concerning the Trinity, he thought, the best way to stop 
the spreading of such errors would be openly to confute 
his tenets. For this purpose he challenges Biddle to a 
public disputation at his meeting in the Stone chapel in 
St. Paul's cathedral, on this question, " Whether Jesus 
Christ be the most high, or almighty God ?" Biddle 
would have declined the dispute, but was obliged to ac- 
cept of it; and the two antagonists having met amidst a 
numerous audience, Griffin repeats the question, asking 
" if any man there did deny that Christ was God most 
high?" to which Biddle resolutely answered, " I do deny 
it :" and by this open profession gave his adversaries the 
opportunity of a positive and clear accusation, which they 
soon laid hold of. But Griffin being baffled, the dispu- 
tation was deferred till another day, when Biddle was to 
take his turn of proving the negative of the question. 
Meanwhile, Griffin and his party, not thinking themselves 
a match for our author, accused him of fresh blasphemies, 
and procured an order from the protector to ai>iirehend 
him, July the 3d (being the day before the intended se- 
cond disputation), and to commit him to the Compter. 
He was afterwards sent to Newgate, and ordered to be 
tried for his life the next sessions, on the ordinance against 
blasphemy. However, the protector not chusing to have 
liim either condemned or absolved, took him out of tne 
hands of the law, and detained him in prison; till at length, 
being wearied with receiving petitions for and against him, 
he banished him to St. INIary's castle, in the isle of Scilly, 
where he wassentOct. 1655. During thisexile, heem|do\ed 
himself in studying several intricate matters, particularly 
the Revelation of St. John, and after his return to Lon- 
don, published an essay towards explaining it. In 1658, 
the protector, through the intercession ol many friends, 
sufTered a writ of habeas corpus to be granted out of the 

246 B I D D L E. 

king's bench, whereby the prisoner was brought back, and, 
nothing being laid to his cliarge, was set at Uberty. Upon 
his return to London, he became pastor of an independent 
meeting; but did not continue long in town; for, Crom- 
well dying Sept. 3, 1658, his son Richard called a par- 
liament, consisting chiefly of presbytcrians, whom, of all 
men, Biddle most dreaded : he therefore retired privately 
into the country. This parliament being soon dissolved, 
he returned to his former employment till the restoration 
of king Charles the Second, when the liberty of dissenters 
was taken away, and their meetings punished as seditious. 
Biddle then restrained himself from public to more private 
assemblies, but, June 1, 1662, he was seized in his 
lodging, where he and some few of his f»*iends had met for 
divine worship, and was, with them, carried before a juss- 
tice of peace, who committed them all to prison, where they 
lay till the recorder took security for their answering to the 
charge brought aoainst them at the next session. But the 
court not being then able to find a statute whereon to form 
any criminal indictment, they were referred to the session 
following, and proceeded against at common law; each 
of the hearers was fined 20/. ; Biddle, 100/., and to lie in 
prison till paid. By his confinement, however, he con- 
tracted a disease which put an eiid to his life, Sept. 22, 
1662, in the 47th year of his age. He was buried in the 
cemetery near Old Bethlem, in Mooriields; and a monu- 
ment was erected over his grave, with an inscription. 
His life was published in Latin at London, 1682, by Mr. 
Farrington, of thp Inner Temple, who gives him a high 
character for piety and morals, and by the Rev. Joshua 
Toulmin, in 1789, 8vo, who styles him the Father of the 
English Unitarians.* 

BIDERMANN (John Theophilus, or Gottlieb), a 
very learned and voluminous German writer, was born 
at Naumberg, April 5, 1705, and studied at Wittemberg, 
where he was admitted to his master's degree in 1717, and 
soon after made librarian to the city. In 1732 he returned 
to Naumberg, and was appointed co-rector of the public 
school, in which office he continued for nine years, and 
in 1741, on the death of John George Scutz, was pro- 
moted to be rector. In 1747, the place of rector of the 
school of Friedburg: becominfj vacant, he was invited to 

I Biog. Brit, and Lives above-mentioned. — Ath. Ox. vol. IL 

B I D E R M A N N. 247 

fill it, and accordingly, witli the consent of his patrons at 
Nauuiberg, he removed tliiiher, and added greatly to the 
reputation ot the school. He died there in 1772, leaving 
a vast number of works in Latin and German, published 
during his literary career, some of which involved him in 
controversies with his contemporaries, carried on in the 
German journals with a considerable degree of animosity. 
Harles enumerates above an hundred and fifty articles of 
his publication, separately, or in the literary journals, on 
subjects of sacred criticism, philology, the arts, poetical 
criticism, and some works of whim and imagination ; the 
following selection will probably afford a sufficient speci- 
men : 1. " De insolentia titulorum librariorum," Naumberg, 
J 743. 2. " Dereligioneeruditorum," ibid. 1744. 3. " Me- 
teiemata philologica," ibid, 1746, with a continuation, 
1748 — 50. 4. " Cur homines montani male audiant?" ibid. 

1748. 5. " De Latinitate maccaronica," ibid. 6. " De Isop- 
sephis," ibid. 7. " Fabulosa de septem dormientibus histo- 
ria," ibid. 1752. 8. "DearteObliviscendi,"ibid. 1752. 9."De 
primis rei metalliccc inventoribus," ibid. 1763. 10. " De 
antiquitate sodiiiarum metallicarum," ibid. 1764. 11." Acta 
scholastica," 1741, &c. 8 vols, a collection of programmas 
and academical dissertations, continued afterwards under 
the title of " Nova acta scholastica." 12. " Selecta scho- 
lastica," 1744 — 46, 2 vols. 13. " Otia litteraria," Frei- 
burgh, 1751. In a dissertation which he published in 

1749, " De vita rausica ad Plauti Mostellarium," act III. 
sc. 2. V. 40, he has collected all that the ancients and 
moderns have advanced against music and musicians ; but, 
as this was founded on nnstaking the sense of Plautus, it 
ocsasioned a long literary contest, in which Bidermann 
did not appear to the best advantage. Harles, indeed, al- 
lows ihat his judgment did not always keep pace with his 
learning. ' 

BIDLOO (Godfrey), a famous anatomical writer, was 
born at Amsterdam March 12, 1649. After he had passed 
through his academical studies, he applied himself to 
physic and anatomy, and took his degree of M.D. He 
soon acquired considerable practice; m 1688 was made 
professor of anatomy at the Hague, which he quitted in 
1694 for the professorship of anatomy and chirurgery at 
Leyden ; and afterwards William 111. of England appointed 

} Biog. Univ. — Harles de Vitis Philolojoruai, vol, H. — Saxii Oaomasticoa. 

24S B I D L O O. 

him his physician, which he accepted on condition of 
holding iiis professorship. The king died in 1702, and 
Bidloo returned to his former employments, in which he 
had been interrupted by liis constant attendance upon that 
prince. He died at Leyden, April 1713, being 64 years 
of age. His chief work was his " Anatomia huniani cor- 
poris," in 105 plates drawn by Lairesse, Amst, 1685, fol. 
very beautiful, but not entirely correct, a circumstance 
which being pointed out by the celebrated Ruysch, drew 
from Bidloo a reply not very temperate, entitled " Vin- 
diciae quorundamDelineationum Anatomicarum contra inep- 
tasAnimadversionesF. Ruyschii, &c." 1697,4to. Bidloo also 
published : 1. " A letter to Anthony Leeuwenhoek concern- 
ins: the animals which are sometimes found in the liver of 
sheep or some other animals." This was published in Low 
Dutch, Delft, 169S, 4to. 2. " Gulielmus Cowper criminis 
Literarii citatus coram tribunal! nobiliss. ampliss. Societatis 
Britanno-Regiae," Leyden, 1700, 4to, pagg. i4. This piece 
contains a very severe accusation against j\Ir. Cowper, a 
surgeon of London, and fellow of the ro3-al society. Dr. 
Bidloo being informed that Mr. Cowper was engaged in 
translating his anatomy into English, had a conversation 
with him while he was at London, and offered him that in 
case he had such a design, he would communicate several 
additions and remarks, which he had made since the pub- 
lication of that work. Mr. Cowper assured him, that he 
had no intention of that kind, as he did not understand 
Latin sufficientlv to execute such a task. In the mean 
while he procured three hundred copies of the cuts of 
Dr. Bidloo's book to be bought for him in Holland, upon 
which he caused the references to be written very artfully, 
in order to change, and add to, and frequently to spoil 
the doctor's explication of the cuts. He had, likewise, 
an Englibh title-page pasted upon the Latin one, in which, 
instead of the real author's name his own was inserted, 
and he placed his own picture in the room of Dr. Bid- 
loo's. And although he occasionally mentioned our 
author in the preface, and added a few cuts at the end, 
1 idloo affirms, that the preface was inserted afterwards, 
when Mr. Cowper found that this piece of plagiarisrai 
wouKl be resented. He observes, also, that the figures 
in the appendix were not drawn from the life, since 
there was no proportion observed in them, as is evident to 
those who understand the first principles of anatomy. Mr. 

B I D L O O. 249 

Covvpcr wrote an answer to tliis piece, wherein lie charged 
Dr. Bidloo likewise with plagiarism, and several mistakes, 
which he had conmiitted; and this afTair gave occasion to 
his publishing afterwards his great work upon the muscles. 
3. *' Exercitationum Anatomico-Chirurgicarum Decades 
duae," Leyden, 1708, 4to. 4. He published likewise a small 
piece upon the disease of which king ^V'illiam 111. of Eng- 
land died. 5. " Leiters of the Apostles who were rnar- 
t3"red," Amsterdam, 1698, 4to, in Low Dutch verse, of 
which, as well as of Latin, he was very fond, and was 
thought to have succeeded. He supposes in this book, 
that the apostles wrote these letters before they sufiered 
martyrdom, and addressed them to their disciples, in order 
to inform them of their last desires, and to instruct them in 
what manner they ought to act after themselves were re- 
moved from this world. There was published at Leyden, 
1719, a miscellaneous collection of our author's poems in 
Low Dutch. His brother, Lambert Bidloo, an apothecary 
at Amsterdam, was the author of some Dutch poetry, and 
of a work " De re herbaria," printed at the end of the 
*' Catalogue of the Garden of Amsterdam," by Commelin, 
Leyden, 1709, 12mo. Lambert's son, Nicholas, became 
first physician to the Czar Peter I., and inspector of the 
hospital of St. Petersburgh. ' 

BIE (Adrian de), an ingenious artist, was born at 
Liere, in Brabant, in 1594, and at first learned the ru- 
diments of the art from Wouter Abts, afterwards became 
the disciple of Rodolph Schoof, a painter of considerable 
reputation at that time at Paris, and when he had prac- 
tised under that master for a sufficient time to form his 
hand, he sought to obtain still greater improvement by 
travelling to Rome ; and there he spent six years in study- 
ing the works of the best masters, devoting his whole time 
to his profession. His industry was then rewarded with 
proportionable success ; for he found encouragement 
among the most honourable persons at Rome, and in every 
part of Italy. His penciling was so exceedingly neat, and 
his touch and colouring so very delicate, that he was fre- 
quently employed to paint on jasper, agate, porphyry, 
and other precious materials. His master-piece is St. Eloi, 
in the principal church at Liere. The time of his death is 
not known ; his son, Cornelius de Bie, wrote the lives of 

* Gen. Diet. — Moreri. — Haller, Bibl. Auatom. — Biog. Universelle. 

250 B I E. 

the painters, &c. under the title *' Guide Cabinet, &c.'* 
in Flemish verse, with their portraits. 

Another DE BIE (Jacob or James), who was born at 
Antwerp, in 13bl, was ar. eminent engraver of antiquities, 
coins, &c. and published, 1. " Imperatorum Roman. Nu- 
mismata," from Julius Caesar to Heraclius, Ant. 1615, 
4to. 2. " Numismata Grseci*," ibid. fol. 3. " La France 
Metallique, &c." Paris, 1636; also the portraits for Me- 
zeray's history, and other works of a similar kind. His 
style resembles that of the Collaerts, and he drew cor- 
rectly, and executed his plates entirely with the graver, 
in a neat clear determined manner, and upon the whole, 
his prints may rank with those of the best early Flemish 
masters. ' 

BIEL (Gabriel), one of the ablest scholastic divines of 
his time, was born at Spire, and preached with great re- 
putation at Mehtz, until Eberhard, duke of Wittemberg, 
having founded the university of Tubingen, invited him thi- 
ther in 14-77, to fill the theological chair. Towards the end 
of his days he retired to a convent of regular canons, where 
he died very old, in 14 95. His principal writings were : 
1. " Collectorium super libros sententiarum G. Occami," 
Tubingen, 1501, fol. 2. *' Lectura super canoneni 
Missse," Rutlingen, 1 i88, fol. ; and 3. " Sacri canonis 
MissjE, &c. expositio," Tubingen, 1499, fol., and thrice 
reprinted. He is also said to have written " De moneta- 
rum potestate simul et utilitate," Nuremberg, 1542, Co- 
logn, 1574, and Lyons, 1605.^ 

BIEL (John Christian), a Lutheran divine of the last 
century, was born at Brunswick, in 16S7, and died in 
1745, He was the author of a great many theological dis- 
sertations inserted in Ugolin's " Thesaur. antiquitat. sacr." 
and of a valuable work published after his death by E. H. 
Mutzenbecher, under the title of " Novus Thesaurus Phi- 
lologicus, sive Lexicon in LXX. et alios interpretes et 
scriptoresapocryphosVeteris Testamenti," Hague, 1779 — 
80, 3 vols. 8vo, to which Schleussner added the supplements.* 

BIELFELD (James Fredekick Baron de), was born 
at Hamburgh March 31, 1717. Jn a journey which he 
made to Brunswick, he became acquainted with Frede- 

1 Descbanips. — Pilkirigton. — Strutt. — Biosj. Univ. — Foppen, Bibl. Belg, — 
Saxii Onomasticon in Bianns. 

- Diipin. — Moreii. — Freheii Theatnim. — Sa.\ii Onomast. 
' Cioi;. Univeisellc— Saxii Onomasticon. 

B I E L F E L D. 251 

rick II. then prince royal, who, on coming to the throne, 
took him into his service, and sent him, as secretary of 
legation, with count tie 'i'rnchses, Prussian ambassador to 
the court of St. James's, but discovering that the baron's 
talents were not calculated for diplomatic affairs, he, in 
1745, appointed him preceptor to prince Augustus Fer- 
dinand his brother; after that, in 1747, curator of the 
universities, and in 1748 he created liim a liaron, with 
the rank of privy-counsellor. The last years of his life he 
spent in study and retirement at Treban, in the country 
of Altenburgh, where he died April 5, 1770. He wrote 

1. *' Institutions politiques," 1759 — 60, 3 vols. 4to ; 1762, 
4 vols. 12mo, the only work from his pen that retained its 
reputation on tiie continent. Even the empress Cathe- 
rine II. of Russia, condescended to write notes on it. 

2. " Progres des Allemands dans les belles-lettres," 1753 
and 1768, 8vo. 3. *' Amusemens dramatiques," Leyden, 
17 68, 2 vols. 12m(), of no great merit. 4. " Lettres fa- 
iniheres," 1763, anl "Erudition universelle," 1768, 4 vols, 
both translated into English by Dr. Hooper. The baron 
also conducted for about three years a periodical publica- 
tion called " The Hermit," and is by some tiie veptited 
author of the " Memoirs of the duchess of Hanover, sjiouse 
to George I." which is more generally attributed t;) baron 
Polnitz. ' 

BIENNE (John), in Latin Benenatus, was a book- 
seller and printer at Paris, in the sixteenth century, and 
celebrated for the beauty and correctness of his editions. 
He became a printer in 1566, and niarried in that year the 
widow of ivJorel, likewise a Greek and Latin printer, of 
distinguished reputaiion. Bienne by this alli.iue be- 
coming possessed of Morel's printing-house, completed 
the works which his predecessor had begun, particularly 
the Greek Demosthenes of 1570, fol. , and published also 
various very excellent editions, particularly '^ Lucretius," 
by Lambin, 1570, 4to ; " Synesii Hymni," 1570, 8vo ; 
and " Theodoretus de providentia," Gr. and Lat. 1569, 
8vo. He died Feb. 15, 1588. It is said he left a daughter 
so accomplished in Greek and Hebrew, as to be able to 
conduct the printing of works in these languages.^ 

* Biog'. Universelle. — Saxii Onomasticou. 

2 Moreri.— Maiitaire Annal. — Biog. Universelle. 

552 B I E R K A N D E R. 

EIERKANDER (Claude), an able naturalist, and a 
clergyman at Gresbach in Westgothland, was born in 1735, 
and died in 1795. He publisbed in tbe Memoirs of the 
Academy of Stockholm, of which he was a member, a 
great number of papers on insects, whicli he had made his 
particular study, and on the transpiration of plants, the 
burning of vegetables, the effect of cold on vegetables, 
&c. all in the Swedish language. ^ 

BIGLAND (Ralph), garter principal king at arms, was 
born in 1711, the son of Richard Bigland, of Kendal, in 
Westmoreland, the descendant of a family originally 
seated at Bigland, Lancashire. The subject of this brief 
notice, after going through all the offices in the College of 
Arms, and executing also the office of registrar, to which 
he was appointed in 1763, became the head of it in 1780, 
but enjoyed his elevation a very short time, dying in 
James-street, Bedford-row, March 27, 1784. lie was 
buried with his parents at Stepney. He was deservedly 
esteemed and regretted, as a man of much skill in heraldry 
and other branches of antiquities. The great collections 
he had made for a history of Gloucestershire were intended 
to have been arranged and given by him to the public, 
and have since been partly published by his son Richard 
Bigland, of Frocester, esq. under the title of " Historical, 
monumental, and genealogical collections, relative to the 
county of Gloucester," &c. fol. 1792, to which a second 
volume will probably be added by Mr. Nichols.* 

BIGNE (Gace de la), and not de la Vigne, as he is 
generally called by writers who have occasion to name him 
[for it is thus he gives his own name in his " Roman des 
Oiseaux"], was born of a noble family of the diocese of 
Bayeux, about 1428. He was chaplain to king John, and 
followed that prince into England after the battle of Poic- 
tiers. Being at Rochefort in 1459, he began a poem on 
the chace, entitled " Le Roman des Oiseaux," which he 
finished on his return to France. This he did at the com- 
mand of the king for the instruction of his son Philip duke 
of Burgundy. 7'he abb6 Goujet attributes this poem to 
Gaston de Foix, from its being printed at the end of the 
" Miroir de la Chasse" by that j)rince, but greatly dif- 
ferent from the manuscripts. Gaston's work printed by 

' Biog. Universelle. « Noble's Coll. of Arms. 

B I G N E. 253 

Treppevel at Paris, fol. without a date, and again in 1520, 
i-onsists of two parts, the first Gaston's, and the second 
by Eigne. Eigne is supposed, from some passages in his 
work, to have been alive in 1475. The personages in this 
poem, or romance, are allegorical, and dispute which 
species of the chace has the pre-eminence, appealing to 
the king, wlio, after having advised with his counsellors, 
wisdou), reason, and truth, (not very usually called in) 
sends away the disputants perfectly satisfied. The style is 
easy, and the author's quaintness will be agreeable to the 
lovers of early poetry. ' 

EIGNE (Marguerin de la), a priest, of the same 
family with the preceding, doctor of the Sorbonne, and 
dean of the church of Mans, was born in 1546 at Bernieres- 
le-Patr}', and studied at the college of Caen. He pub- 
lished in 1575 a " Eibliotheca patrum," 8 vols, folio, which 
he re-published in 1 589, 9 vols, being the first that under-- 
took a work of that kind. The most copious ecliiion we have 
of it is in 27 vols, folio, Lyons, 1677. There is also one in 
16 vols, folio, of 1644, which is much esteemed, as con- 
taining the lesser Greek fathers. Another was published 
at Cologne in 1694, and Pere Philip de St. Jacques 
o-ave an abridoment of it in 1719, 2 vols. fol. To the 
Biblioth. pp. are generally added, " Index locorum scrip- 
turae sacrse," Genoa, 1707, fol., and the " Apparatus of 
Nourri," Paris, 110'6, and 1715, 2 vols, fol, 8uch is the 
conipletest edition. La Eigne distinguished himself also 
by his harangues and his sermons. He gave a collection 
of synodal statutes in 1578, Svo. and an edition of Isidore 
of Seville, in 1580, fol. He was a very studious man ; 
and, having got into some disputes that were referred to 
the magistrates of Eayeux, he rather chose to give up his 
benefices than his literary pursuits. He retired to Paris, 
where it is supposed he died, about 1590.^ 

BIGNICOURT (Simon de), a counsellor of the pre- 
sidial of Rheims, was born there in 1709, and died at 
Paris in 1775. He was well versed in ancient and modern 
literature. We have by him, 1. " A collection of Latin 
and French poems," 1767, 12mo; which are short, and 
in an easy and natural style. His epigrams are very much 
in the manner of the chevalier de Cailli ; and he has one 

* Biog. Universelle. 

• Diet, Hist. — Biog. Univ.— CUaufepie. — Saxii Onomast. 

254 B I G N I C O U R T. 

singularity in all his poetical productions, that he has not 
one piece, eitlier in Latin or French, that exceeds twenty 
lines. Some ot" his country men have compared them to 
those of Catullus, and several writers in the journals have 
extolled them as productions of extraordinary merit. But 
M. Bignicourt is best known for his 2. " Pensees et reflec- 
tions philosophiques," 1755, i2mo. This work, which 
was afterwards published under the title of " L'honmie du 
Monde & L'homme de Lettres," has, however, its admirers 
and its censurers, with respect to the method of writing set 
phrases, and giving them as thoughts and maxims. * 

BIGNON (Jeuome), a French writer, was born at Paris 
Aug. 24, 1.589. His father took the care of his education 
upon himself, and taught him the languages, philosophy, 
mathematics, civil law, and divinity. Jerome acquired so 
much knowledge in a very short time, that at ten years 
of age he published his description of the Holy Land, 
entitled " Chirographic, ou Description de la Terre- 
Sainte," Paris, IGOO, 12mo; and three years after, two 
other works, which gained him great reputation in France. 
The first was, " Discours de la ville de Home, principales 
antiquitez & singularitez d'icelle," 1604-, 8vo ; the other 
work is '' Traite sommaire de I'election des papes," 1605, 
8vo, in which piece he gives an account of the different 
manner ofelectingthe popes formerly. Henry IV, appointed 
him page of honour to the dauphin, afterwards Lewis XHL 
He wrote also a treatise on the precedency of the kings of 
France, entitled " De Texcellence des rois & du royaume 
de France, traitant de lapreseance & des prerogatives des rois 
des France par dessus tous les autres, & de causes d'icelles." 
This book was written in order to confute what Diego 
Valdes, counsellor of the royal chamber of Granada, had 
published in favour of the precedency of the kings of Spain, 
under the title of " De dignitate regum Hispanioe," Gra- 
nada, 1602, fol. This he dedicated to the king, who or- 
dered him to continue his researches upon the subject; 
but the death of this prince interrupted his design, and 
made him leave the court ; whither he was soon recalled 
at the solicitation of Mr. le Fevre, preceptor to Lewis 
XHL and continued there till the death of his friend. In 
1613 he published an edition of the Formulae of MarcuU 
phus ; and the ye;ir following took a journey to Italy, 
where he received many marks of esteem from Paul V,. 

' Diet. Hist,— Biog. Universelle. 

B I G N O N. 2^5 

Father Paul likewise being pleased with his conversation, 
detained him some time at Venice. 

Uj)on his return from his trawls, he applied himself to 
the practice of the bar with great success. His fatiier pro- 
cured for him the post of advocate general in the grand 
council ; which office lie discharged with such reputation, 
that the kincr nominated him some time after counsellor of 
state, and at last advocate general in the parliament. In 
1641 he resolved to confine himself entirely to his business 
in the council of state, and therefore resigned his place of 
advocate-general to Pdr. Briquet his son-in-law. The year 
following he was appointed the king's librarian. His son- 
in-la.v dying in 1645, he was obiiged to resume his post 
of advocate-general, in order to preserve it for his son. 
He had also a considerable share in the ordinance of the 
year 1639; and he discharged with great integrity va- 
rious commissions with which he was intrusted at different 
times. Queen Anne of Austria, during her regency, sent 
for him to council upon the niOi.t important occasions. He 
adjusted the differences between Mr. d'Avaux and Mr, 
Servien, plenipotentiaries at Munster; and he had a share, 
with M. de Brienne and d' Emery, in making the treaty of 
alliance with the states of Holland in 164y. He was ap- 
pointed, in 16.51, to regulate the great affair of the suc- 
cession of Mantua; and in 1654, to conclude the treaty 
with the Hans Towns, Mr. Bignon died, aged 66, on the 
7th of April, 1656, of an asthma, with which he was 
seized the autumn before. In 1757, the abbe Perau pub- 
lished Bignon's life, two parts, 12mo. — His grandson, 
John Paul Bignon, was librarian to the king, a man of great 
erudition, and a writer of great powers of invention, if he 
could compose, as we are told he did, four panegyrics on 
St, Louis, all different, two ol" which were pronounced the 
same day, one at the French academy, and the other at 
the academy of inscriptions. He wrote also " Vie de 
Francois Levesque," 1684, 12mo; and " Les Avencures 
d'Abdalla, fils d'Hahif." 1713, 2 vols. 12mo, often re- 
printed. He had also a hand in the medallic history of the 
reign of Louis XIV. and the Journal des Savans. He 
warmly patronized Tournefort, who named a plant after 
him Bignonia. He died May 11, 1743.' 

* Gen. Diet. — Mor«ri. — Dupin. — Peiraull's Ilommos Ilhistres. — Baillet Juje- 
mens, & Les Enfans Celebres. — Saxii Ouuiuust, — Biu^- tJuir, 

256 BIGOT. 

BIGOT (Emeric, or Emery), an eminent patron of li- 
terature, was born at Rouen in 1626, of an ancient family, 
and having no inclination to rise in the offices of maois- 
tracy, as many of his ancestors had done, nor to enter 
into the church, he determined to devote his time and 
fortune to the study and advancement of polite literature. 
His father, dean of the court of aids in Normandy, left 
hini a library of six thousand volumes, including upwards 
of five hundred manuscripts, to which he made so many 
additions, that at his deatli it was valued at forty thousand 
franks ; and that it might not be scattered, he entailed it 
on his family, with handsome funds for the support and 
enlargement of it. It was, however, sold in July 1706, 
and the catalogue, which was printed, is in considerable 
request among bibliographers. During his life-time this 
library was the resort of a number of men of letters, who 
held frequent meetings here, in which Bigot presided. 
His travels in Holland, England, Germany, and Italy, pro- 
cured him the acquaintance and correspondence of most of 
the literati of Europe, who frequently consulted him, and 
paid great regard to his o[unions. His sole passion was to 
contribute by his wealth and studies to the perfection and 
illustration of the best Greek and Latin authors, and he 
employed these advantages with the utmost liberality and 
modesty. Having discovered in the library at Florence, 
the Greek text of the " Life of St. Chrysostom by Palla- 
dius, he published it at Paris in 1680, 4to, with some 
other ancient Greek remains, hitherto in maimscript, the 
whole accompanied with a Latin translation by Ambrose of 
Camaldoli. To this he added St. Chrysostom's epistle to 
Cesarius, but it being discovered that this was an attack 
on the doctrine of transubstantiation, the licensers refused 
its being published, and caused the leaves on which it was 
printed to be cut out. A copy of these leaves, however, 
having fallen into the hands of Mr. (afterwards archbishop) 
Wake, was published by him in his " Defence of the Ex- 
position of the Doctrine of the Church of England against 
the exceptions of M. de Meaux, &c." Loud. 1686, 4to. 
In this Wake has given a curious account not only of the 
suppression of this letter, but of the controversy to which 
it gave rise in archbishop Cranmer's time. Du Pin says, 
that after Bigot's death, some of his literary correspondence 
was published ; but this appears a mistake, if we except a 
letter of his written, in 1672, to the bishop of Trulle 

BIGOT. 257 

against the abbe de St. Cyran's book " Le Cas Koyal," and 
printed at Basil in 16LtO. Menage and Heinsius were 
amono- his most intimate friends, and such was his general 
knowledge and communicative disposition, that lie was 
consulted by every one fond of literary history and anec- 
dote. He died Oct. 18, 1689.' 

BILFINGER (George Bernard), an eminent German 
philosopher and statesman, was born at Camstadt in VVir- 
tenibcrg, Jan. 23, 1693; his father was a Lutheran mini- 
ster, by a singular hereditary constitution in this family, 
Biltiiigt-r was born with twelve fingers and eleven toes, 
which, in his case, is said to have been remedied by am- 
putation when he was an infant. From his earliest years, 
he showed an uncommon capacity for study, joined to a 
retired and thinking turn of mind. Happening, when 
studying at Tubingen, to learn mathematics in the works 
of Wolf, he imbibed likewise a taste for the sceptical phi- 
losophy of that writer, and for the system of Leibnitz, 
which for a time took oft" his attention from his other stu- 
dies. When entered on his theological course, he found 
himself disposed to connect it with his new ideas on philo- 
sophy, and with that view wrote a treatise, " De Deo, 
aniina, et mundo," which procured him considerable fame, 
and was the cause of his being chosen preacher at the 
castle of Tubingen, and repeater in the school of divinity. 
But fancying Tubingen a theatre too contracted, he ob- 
tained of one of his friends a supply of money, in 1719, 
which enabled him to go to Halle to study more particu- 
larly under Wolf himself. This, however, did not pro- 
duce all the good consequences expected. When after 
two years he returned to Tubingen, the Wolfian philoso- 
phy was no longer in favour, his .patrons were cold, his 
lessons deserted, himself unable to propagate his new doc- 
trines, and his promotion in the church was likely to suffer. 
In this unpleasant state he remained about four years, 
when, by Wolf's recommendation, he received an invita- 
tion from Peter I. to accept the professorship of logic and 
metaphysics in the new academy at St. Petersburgh, Thi- 
ther accordingly he went in 1725, and was received with 
great respect, and the academical memoirs which he had 
occasion to publish increased his reputation in no small 
degree. The academy of sciences of Paris having about 

' Gf^n. Diet. — Mor«ri. — Baillet Jugemeiis des Savans,— Bioj. Uuiverselle.— • 
Saxi-i OnoinasticoM. 

Vol,. V. S 

258 B I L F I N G E R. 

that time proposed for solution the famous problem, oh 
the cause of gravity, Bilfinger carried off the prize, which 
was one thousand crowns. This made his name be known 
in every part of Europe, and the duke Charles of Wirt em- 
berg having been reminded that he was one of his subjects, 
immediately recalled him home. The court of Rusiiia, 
after in vain endeavouring to retain him, granted him a 
pension of four hundred florins, and two thousand as the 
reward of a discovery he had made in the art of fortifica- 
tion. He quitted Petersburgh accordingly in 173 1, and 
being re-established at Tubingen, revived the reputation 
of that school not only by his lectures, but by many salu- 
tary changes introduced in the theological class, which he 
effected without introducing any new opinions. His 
■greatest reputation, however, rests on his improvements 
in natural philosophy and mathematics, and his talents 
as an engineer seem to have recommended him to the 
promotion which the duke Charles Alexander conferred 
upon him. He had held many conversations with Bilfinger 
on the subject of fortifications, and wished to attach him 
to government by appointing him a privy-councillor in 
1735, with unlimited credit. For some time he refused a 
situation whith he thought himself not qualified to fill, but 
when he accepted it, his first care was to acquire the know- 
ledge necessary for a member of administration, endea- 
vouring to procui'e the most correct information respecting 
the political relations, constitution, and true interests of 
the country. By these means, he was enabled very es- 
sentially to promote the commerce and agriculture of his 
country, and in other respects to improve her natural re- 
sources, as well as her political connections, and he is 
, still remembered as one of the ablest statesmen of Ger- 
many. The system of fortification which he invented is 
yet known by his name, and is now the chief means of 
preserving it, as he died unmarried, at Stuttgard, Feb. 18, 
1750. He is said to have been warm in his friendships, 
but somewhat irascible ; his whole time during his latter 
years was occupied in his official engagements, except an 
hour in the evening, when he received visits, and his only 
enjoyment, when he could find leisure, was in the cuhiva- 
tion of his garden. To his parents he was particularly af- 
fectionate, and gratefully rewarded all those who had 
assisted him in his dependent state. His princi])al works 
are: 1. " Disputatio de harmonia prsestabilita," Tubin- 

B I L F I N G E R. 259 

guen, 1721, 4to. 2, " De harmonia animi et corporis 
humani maxime prsestabilita commentatio hypothetica,'* 
Francfort, 1723, 8vo. This was inserted among the pro- 
hibited books by the court of Rome in 1734. 3. " De 
origine et permissione Mali, &c." ibid, 1724, 8vo. 4. " Spe- 
cimen doctrinal veterum Sinarum moralis et politicse,'* 
ibid. 1724, 8vo. 5. " Dissertatio historico-catoptrica de 
speculo Archimedis," Tubingen, 1725, 4to. 6. " Dilu- 
cidationes philosophicae de Deo, anima, &c." before 
mentioned, ibid. 1725, 4to. - 7. " Bilfingeri et Hohnanni 
epistolae de harmonia prajstabilita," 1728, 4to. 8. " Dis- 
putatio de natura et legibus studii in theologica Thetici,'* 
ibid. 1731, 4to. 9. " Disputatio de cultu Dei rationali,'* 
ibidv 1731, 10. " Notaj breves in Spinosae methodum 
explicandi scriptnras," ibid. 1732, 4to. 11. " De myste- 
riis Christianae fidei generatim spectatis sermo," ibid. 1732, 
4to. 12. "La Citadelle coupee," Leipsic, 1756, 4to, 
13. " Elementa physices," Leipsic, 1742, 8vo; besides 
many papers in the memoirs of tlie Petersburgh academy, 
of which, as well as of that of Berlin, he was a member. ' 

BILGUER (John Ulric de), a surgeon, born at Coire 
in Swisserland, in 1720, studied at Strasburgh and Paris, 
and afterwards served in the Prussian army, and became 
surgeon-general. He received a doctor's degree at Halle 
in 1761, and was admitted a member of various learned 
societies ; and to these honours the emperor of Germany 
added titles of nobility, of which, however, Bilguer never 
made any use. His fame abroad, as well as in this coun- 
try, principally rests on his famous inaugural thesis, en- 
titled, " Dissertatio inauguralis medico-chirurgica de mem- 
brorumAmputatione rarissime administranda aut quasi abro- 
ganda," Berlin, 176l,4to. This Tissot translated into French, 
and enriched it with notes, under the title " Dissertation sur 
rinutilit6 de l' Amputation," Paris, 1764, 12mo; from the 
Latin it was translated into English, 1761, The author's ob- 
ject is to prove how very seldom amputation can be necessary, 
particularly in thecaseof gun-shot wounds received in battle. 
The first able answer to tliis mistaken effort of humanity was 
by M. Martiniere, principal surgeon to the French king ; our 
eminent surgeon Pott has likewise shewn its danger ; but 
in 1780 Bilguer's doctrine found a supporter in Dr. Kirk- 
land of Edinburgh, in his " Thoughts on Amputation." 

I Biog. UniverseJle. 
6 2 

260 B I L G U E R. 

Bilguer published also, in German, " Instructions for the 
practice of Surgery in army-hospitals," Leipsic, 1763; 
*' Advice to Hypocliondriacs," &c. He died in 1796.' 

BILLAUT (Adam), known under the name of Maitre 
Adam, a joiner at Nevers, about the close of the reign of 
Louis XIII. and the beginning of that of Louis XIV. was 
called by the poets of his time Le Virgile au rabot. He 
made verses amidst his tools and his bottles. Cardinal 
Kichelieu and the duke of Orleans settled pensions on him, 
and Corneille was among his panegyrists. His " Chevilles," 
1644, 4to; his " Villebrequin," 1663; his "Rabot," in 
12mo, &c. had a great run. Among a considerable num- 
ber of dull frivolities we meet with some happy lines. He 
died in 1662 at Nevers, which he never could be brought 
to quit for a lodging at Versailles. He had a just notion of 
greatness, and was capable of feeling and inspiring the 
charms of friendship. An epicurean without liliertinism, 
and a stoic without supersition, he so associated these two 
sects as to Have it said, that if Epicurus and Zeno had 
lived in his time, he would have brought them to drink 
together. He stuck to his mediocrity in order to preserve 
his happiness. The poets his contemporaries were his 
friends, and not envious of his fame. Mainard says, that 
the muses ought never to be seated but on tabourets made 
by the hand cf this poetical joiner. St. Amand proved that 
he understood the art of poetry as well as that of making- 
boxes. Tiie duke de St. Aignan tells him, in some very 
agreeable lines, that, by his verses and his name, he is the 
first of men. Such praises were probably offered in ridi- 
cule; but Billaut knevf how to make the most of his friends, 
and is said to have tried the sincerity of their friendship 
with very little ceremony. A new edition of his works was 
published in 1806, 12mo, Paris, and the year before a 
comedy was acted on the Paris stage, with some success, 
called " Chevilles de Maitre Adam." Two poetical trades- 
men, in his time, endeavoured to rival him, but without 
success, Raguenean, a pastry-cook, and Reault, a lock- 
smith. P^ach addressed a sonnet to him ; that of the pastry- 
t;ook concludes with a point quite in character : 

" Tu souffi'iras pourtant que je me flatte un peu : 
Avecque plus de bruit tu travailles sans doute, 
Mais pour nioi je travaille avecque plus de/ew." ' 

» TSlos. Universelle.— Month. Ee.v. vols. XKXI. XXXVIII. and LXIL 
» (jcB. Diet. — Did. lljst. — Morerj.— IJiog. L'uiv, 

B I L L B E R G. 261 

BILLBERG (John), a Swedish astronomer, was bom 
about the niidclle of the seventeenth century. He became 
professor of mathematics at Upsal in 1679, but his zeal for 
the Cartesiun system made him be considered as a dan- 
gerous innovator, and he might have been a serious sufferer 
from the prejudices raised against him, if he had not met 
with a kind protector in Charles XI. This prince having 
travelled to Torneo, was so struck with the phenomena of 
the sun at the spring solstice, that he sent Billberg and 
Spola to make observations on it, in the frontiers of Lap- 
land, and their observations were confirmed by those of the 
French mathematicians sent thither by Louis XV. Under 
king Charles's protection, Billberg received considerable 
promotion, and having studied divinity, was at last made 
bishop of Strengnes. He died in 1717, leaving, I. " Trac- 
tatus de Cometis," Stockholm, 1682. 2. " Elementa Geo- 
inetrices," Upsal, 1687. 3. " Tractatus de refractione so- 
ils inoccidui," Stockholm, 1696. 4. " Tractatus de refor- 
matione Calendarii Juliani et Gregoriani," Stockholm, 1699, 
and many other philosophical and theological dissertations.* 

BILLI, or BILLY (James de), was born at Guise in 
Picardy, of which place his father was governor, in 1533, 
and died at Paris at the house of Genebrard his friend, 
the 25th of December 1581. He presided over the abbey 
of St. Michel en I'Lerm, which John his brother had ceded 
to him in order to become a Carthusian monk. There are 
of his several pieces both in verse and prose ; and especially 
translations of the Greek fathers into Latin. The most 
esteemed of them are, those of St. Gregory of Nazianzen, 
of St. Isidore of Pelusium, and of St. John Damascenus. 
Few of the learned have been more masters of the Greek 
tongue. He distinguished himself in other departments of 
literature. He composed several pieces of French poetry, 
1576, in Svo, and published learned " Observationes sa- 
crae," 1585, in folio. His life was written in Latin by 
Chatard, Paris, 1582, in 4to. It is also found at the end 
of ^the works of St. Gregory Nazianzenus, of the edition 
of 1583.2 

BILLI (Jacques de), a Jesuit, who was born at Com- 
piegne in 1602, and died at Dijon in 1679, aged seventy- 
seven ; published a great number of mathematical works,' 

1 Bios:. Universelle. 

* Woreri. — Diipiu.— Gen. Diet. — Ficheri Thcatrum. — - Rioj. Uaivei-rene. •— 
Saxii Uiioinaikt. 

262 B I L L I. 

of which the *' Opus astronomicon," Paris, 1661, in 4to, 
is the most known. ' 

BILLINGSLEY (Sir Henry), an excellent mathema- 
tician, and lord-mayor of London in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, was son to Roger Billingsley of Canterbury. He 
spent near three years in his studies at the,university of Ox- 
ford, during which time he contracted an acquaintance with 
an eminent mathematician, whose name was Whitehead, and 
who had been an Augustin friar at Oxford, but Billingsley 
being removed from the university, and bound apprentice 
to an haberdasher in London, he afterwards raised himself 
so considerable a fortune by trade, that he was successively 
chosen sheriff, alderman, one of the commissioners of the 
customs for the port of London, and at last lord mayor of 
that city in 1597, and received the honour of knighihood. 
He made a great progress in the mathematics, by the as- 
sistance of his friend Mr. Whitehead, who being left desti- 
tute upon the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of 
king Henry VIH. was received by Mr. Billingsley into his 
family, and maintained by him in his old age in his house 
at London ; and when he died, he gave our author all the 
mathematical observations, which he had made and col- 
lected, with his notes upon Euclid's Elements, which he 
had drawn up and digested with prodigious pains. He was 
oneof the original society of antiquaries. Sir Henry Billings- 
ley died very much advanced in years, Nov. 22, 1606, and 
was interred in the church of St. Catherine Coleman, Lon- 
don. He translated the Elements of Euclid into English, 
to which he added a great number of explanations, ex- 
amples, scholia, annotations, and inventions, collected from 
the best mathematicians both of the former times, and 
those in which he lived, published under the title of " The 
Elements of Geometry of the most antient philosopher 
Euclid of Megara, faithfully translated into the English 
tongue. Whereunto are added certain scholia, annota- 
tions," &c, London, 1570, fol. Dr. John Dee prefixed to 
this work a long preface, full of variety of learning relating 
to the mathematics.' 

BILSON {Thomas), a learned writer, and bishop, in 
the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was born in the city of Winchester, being the son 
of Harman Bilson, the same probably who was fellow of 

> Moreri. « Wood's AthenaE, vol. I. — Gen. Diet.— Archsologia, vol, I. XX, 

B I L S O N. 263 

Merton-college in 1536, and derived his descent by his 
grandmother, or great-grandmother, from the duke of Ba- 
varia. He was educated in Winchester school ; and in 
1565 admitted perpetual fellow of New-college, after he 
had served two years of probation. October 10, 1566, he 
took his degree of bachelor, and April 25, 1570, that of 
master of arts ; that of bachelor of divinity, June 24, 1579; 
and the degree of doctor of divinity on the 24th of Ja- 
nuary 1580. In his younger years, he was a great lover 
of, and extremely studious in, poetry, philosophy, and 
physic. But when he entered into holy orders, and ap- 
plied himself to the study of divinity, which his genius 
chiefly led him to, he became a most solid and constant 
preacher, and one of the most accomplished scholars of 
his time. The first preferment he had was that of master 
of Winchester-school; he was then made prebendary of 
Winchester, and afterwards warden of the college there. 
To this college he did a very important service, about the 
year 1584, by preserving the revenues of it when they were 
in danger of being swallowed up by a notorious forger}', of 
which, however, we have only an obscure account. In 
1585, he published his book of " The true difference 
betweene Christian Subjection and unchristian Rebellion," 
and dedicated it to queen Elizabeth ; a work, which, al- 
though it might answer her immediate purpose, was of 
fatal tendency to Charles I. few books being more fre- 
quently quoted by the mal-contents to justify their resist- 
ance to that prince. In 1593, he published a very able 
defence of episcopacy, entitled, " The perpetuall Govern- 
ment of Christes Church : wherein are handled, the fa- 
therly superioritie which God first established in the pa- 
triarkes for the guiding of his Church, and after continued 
in the tribe of Levi and the Prophetes : and lastlie con- 
firmed in the New Testament to the apostles and their 
successors : as also the points in question at this day, 
touching the Jewish Synedrion : the true kingdome of 
Christ : the Apostles' commission : the laie presbyterie : 
the distinction of bishops from presbyters, and their suc- 
cession from the apostles times and hands: the calling and 
moderating of provinciall synods by primates and metro- 
politanes : the allotting of dioceses, and the popular elect- 
ing of such as mustfeede and watch the flock : and divers 
Qther points concerning the pastoral regiment of the house 
of God," On the 20tb of April, 15U6, he was elected, 

264 B I L S O N. 

confirmed June the 1 1th, and the 13th of the same month 
consecrated bishop of Worcester ; and translated in May 
following to the bishopric of Winchester, and made a 
privy- counsellor. In 1599, he published "The effect of 
certaine Sermons touching the full Redemption of Mankind 
by the death and bloud of Christ Jesus ; wherein, besides 
the merite of Christ's suffering, the manner of his offer- 
ing, the power of his death, the comfort of his crosse, the 
glorie of his resurrection, are handled, what paines Christ 
suffered in his soule on the crosse : together with the 
place and purpose of his descent to hel after death ;" &.c. 
Lond. 4to. These sermons being preached at Paul's Cross 
in Lent 1597, by the encouragement of archbishop Whit- 
gift, greatly alarmed most of the Puritans, because they 
contradicted some of their tenets, but they are not now 
thought consonant to the articles of the church of Eng- 
land. The Puritans, however, uniting their forces, and 
making their observations, sent them to Plenry Jacob, a 
learned puritan, who published them under his own name. 
The queen being at Farnham-castle, and, to use the bi- 
shop's words, " taking knowledge of the things questioned 
between him and his opponents, directly commanded him 
neither to desert the doctrine, nor to let the calling which 
he bore in the church of God, to be trampled under foot 
by such unquiet refusers of trueth and authoritie." Upon 
this royal command, he wrote a learned treatise, chiefly 
delivered in sermons, which was published in 1604, under 
the title of " The survey, of Christ's sufferings for Man's 
Redemption : and of his descent to hades or hel for our 
deliverance," Lond. fol. He also preached the sermon at 
Westminster before king James L and his queen, at their 
coronation on St. James's day, July 28, 1603, from Rom, 
xiii. 1. London, 1603, 8vo. In January 1603-4, he was 
one of the speakers and managers at the Hampton-Court 
conference, in wljich he spoke much, and, according to 
Mr. Fuller, most learnedly, and, in general, was one of 
the chief maintainers and supports of the church of Eno-, 
land. The care of revising, and putting the last hand to, 
the new translation of the English Bible in king James Ist's 
reign, was committed to our author, and to Dr. Miles 
Smith, afterwards bishop of Gloucester. His last public 
act, recorded in history, was the being one of the dele- 
gates that pronounced and signed the sentence of divorce 
between Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, and the lady 

B 1 L S O N. 265 

Frances Howard, in the year lol3: and Lis son being 
knighted soon after upon tiiis very account, as was ima- 
gined, the world was so malicious as to give liim the title 
of sir Nullity Bilson. This learned bishop, after having 
gone through many employments, departed this life on 
the 18th of June, 1616, and was buried in Westminster- 
abbey, near the entrance into St. Edmund's chapel, on the 
south side of the monument of king Richard II. His cha- 
racter is represented to the utmost advantage by several 
persons. Sir Anthony Weldon calls him " an excellent ci- 
vilian, and a very great scholler :" Fuller, " a deep and 
profound scholar, excellently well read in the fathers ;'* 
Bishop Godwin, " a very grave man ; and how great a di- 
vine (adds he), if any one knows not, let him consult his 
learned writings:" Sir John Harrington, " I find but foure 
lines (in bishop Godwin's book) concerning him ; and if I 
should give him his due, in proportion to the rest, I should 
spend foure leaves. Not that 1 need make him better 
known, being one of the most eminent of his ranck, and a 
man that carried prelature in his ver^- aspect. His rising 
was meerly by his learning, as true prelates should rise. 
Sint non modo labe mali sed siispicione caroites, not onely 
free from the spot, but fi-oni the speech of corruption.'* 
He wrote in a more elegant style, and in fuller and better- 
turned periods, than was usual in the times wherein he lived. 
It is related of our prelate, that once, when he was preach- 
ing a sermon at St. Paul's Cross, a sudden panic, occa- 
sioned by the folly or caprice of one of the audience, 
seized the multitude there assembled, who thought that 
the church was falling on their heads. The good bishop, 
who sympathized with the people more from pity than 
from fear, after a sufficient pause, reassumed and went 
through his sermon with great composure. * 

BINGHAM (Joseph), the writer of several tracts on 
theological subjects, and author of that laborious perform- 
ance, " Origines ecclesiastica-, or the Antiquities of the 
Christian church," was the son of Mr. Francis Bingham, a 
respectable inhabitant of Wakefield in Yorkshire, where 
our author was born in September, 1668, He learned the 
first rudiments of grammar at a school in the same town, 
and on the 26th of May 1684, was admitted a member of 

I Gen. Diet.— Eio^. Bill.— Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Hanington's Brief View <-> "', 


University college in Oxford. There he applied with per- 
severing industry to those studies which are generally con- 
sidered as most laborious. Though he by no means neg- 
lected the writers of Greece or Rome, yet he employed 
most of his time in studying the writings of the fathers. 
How earnestly he devoted himself to these abstruse in- 
quiries, he had an early opportunity of giving an honour- 
able testimony, which will presently be mentioned more 
at large. He took the degree of B. A. in 1688, and on the 
1st of July 1689 was elected fellow of the above-men- 
tioned college. His election to this fellowship was attended 
with some flattering: marks of honour and distinction*. On 
the 23d of June, 1691, he was created M. A. about four 
years after which a circumstance occurred which eventually 
occasioned him to leave the university. Being called on 
to preach before that learned body, he would not let slip 
the opportunity it gave him of evincing publicly his inti- 
mate acquaintance with the opinions and doctrines of the 
fathers, and at the same time of displaying the zeal with 
wiiich he was resolved to defend their tenets concerning 
the Trinity, in opposition to the attacks of men in much 
more conspicuous stations than himself. Having heard 
what he conceived to be a very erroneous statement of 
that subject delivered by a leading man from the pulpit 
at St. Mary's, he thought it his duty on this occasion to 
point out to his hearers what the fathers had asserted to be 
the ecclesiastical notion of the tenn person. In pursuance 
of this determination he delivered a very long discourse oa 
the 28th of October, 1695, from the famous words of the 
apostle, •' There are three that bear record in heaven, 
&c." This sermon, though containing nothing more than 
an elaborate defence of the term person, in opposition to 
the explanation which he had lately heard, drew a heavy 
censure on the preacher from the ruling members of the 
iniiversity, charging him with having asserted doctrines 
false, impious, and heretical, contrary to those of the ca- 

* In that situation he paid particu- tutor happening to die when he was no 

lar attention to the instruction of a more than two years standing in the 

young man whom he had brought from university, Mr. Bingham took his 

Wakefield, aud introduced at Univer- young friend and townsman under his 

sity college ; and who, soon after Mr. wing; aud to his having giveii some 

Bingham's election to a fellowship, gencjal directions to his studies, simi- 

was, by his means, elected scholar of lar to his own, it is reasonable to sup- 

the same college. This was Mr. John pose (hat we owe that excellent booki 

-Potter, who afterwards became arch- •' Potter on Cliurch-government." 
bishop of Canterbury, Mr. Totter's 


tholic church. This censure was followed by other charges 
in tlie public prints, viz. those of Arianism, Tritlieism, and 
the heresy of Valentinus Gentilis. These matters ran so 
higl), that he fbuncl himself under the necessity of resign- 
ing his fellowship, and of withdrawing from the univer- 
sity ; the former of which took place on the 23d of No- 
vember 169 5. How wholly unmerited these accusations 
vrere, not only appears from the sermon itself, now in the 
possession of the writer of this article, but also from the 
whole tenor of his life and writings, constantly shewing 
himself in both a zealous defender of what is called the 
orthodox notion of the Trinity. However, that such a cen- 
sure nas passed, is most certain, as well from domestic tra- 
dition, as from the mention which is repeatedly made of 
it in the manuscript papers of our author; but we are as- 
sured thai no traces thereof are now to be found in the 
books of the university. 

About this time our author was presented, without any 
solicitation on his part, by the famous Dr. Radclitfe, to the 
rectory of Headbouvne- Worthy, a living valued at that 
time at about one hundred pounds a year; situated near 
Winchester. Within a few months after his settling in this 
country, being called on to preach at a visitation held in 
the cathedral of Winchester, on the 12th of May, 1696, 
he seized that opportunit}- of pursuing the subject which 
he had begun at Oxford, and of exculpating himself from 
those charsres which had been broupcht against him. How 
little our divine had deserved those imputations in the opi- 
nion of his brethren, before whom he preached, may in 
some degree be judged from his having been, at no greater 
distance of time than the 16th of September, 1697, again 
appointed to preach before them on a similar occasion. 
He then brought to a conclusion what he wished farther to 
say on that subject, his manner of treating which had ex- 
posed him to the censure of the university : and having 
done so, he prepared to commit his three sermons to the 
press. Why this intention was not fullilled cannot be ga- 
thered from any of his papers, thougli there exists among 
them a long preface to the sermon preached at Oxford, 
explaining and justifying his motives for having preached 
and published it ; and a second preface annexed to the 
first of those preached at Winton, in which he dedicates 
the two visitation sermons to the clergy of the deanery be- 
fore whom they were delivered j wherein he tells them, 


that he has been induced to do so not only from the sub- 
ject contained in them being such as was their immediate 
concern, but also that he might have nn opportunity of 
mviu!'- a more full account of the motives and circum- 
stances which had occasioned him to write or to publish 

The preface gives a very long and learned account of 
what Mr. Bingham had in his sermons asserted concerning 
the opinions of the fathers. To follow or repeat his ob- 
servations on this subject would lead us into matter too 
prolix for an article of biography. 

About six or seven years after onr author had taken up 
his residence at Worthy, he married Dorothea, one of the 
daughters of the rev. Richard Pococke, at that time rector 
of Colmer in Hampshire. By this lady, before he had 
any other preferment than the small living above-men- 
tioned, he became the father of ten children ; yet neither 
did he suffer the rapid increase of his family, nor the con- 
sequent narrowiiess of his finances, to depress his spirits, 
or impede the progress of his studies. On the contrary, 
he appears to have applied to his literary pursuits with a 
closer and more persevering industry; and by those means, 
in the course of what cannot be considered as a long life, 
he was enabled to complete in this country retirement, 
besides several other single volumes, a most learned and 
laborious work, closely printed in ten volumes in octavo, 
tinder the title of " Origines Ecclesiasticae, or the Anti- 
quities of the Christian Church," the first volume of which 
he published in 1708. He committed the last volume to 
the press in 1722. Of the various difliculties with which 
our author had to contend in the prosecution of his labours, 
he frequently speaks in such pointed terms as cannot but 
excite both our sympathy and regret. He tells us that he 
had to struggle with an infirm and sickly constitution, and 
constantly laboured under the greatest disadvantages, for 
want of man}^ necessary books, which he had no oppor- 
tunity to see, and no ability to purchase. At the same 
time he does not omit to express his gratitude to Provi- 
dence, which had so placed him, that he could have re- 
course to a very excellent library, that of the cathedral 
church or' Wincliester, left by bishop Morley ; though even 
that was deficient in many works to which he had occasion 
to relVir ; and yet when we turn to the Index auctornu) at 
the end of his work, we shall perhaps be astonished at the 

B I N G H A M. 269 

Tast number of books which he a})pears to have consulted. 
But to such straits was he driveii tor want of books, that 
he frequently procured imperfect copies at a cheap rate, 
and then employed a part of that time, of which so small 
a portion was allotted him, and which therefore could so 
ill be spared, in the tedious task of transcribino- the defi- 
cient pages ; instances of which are stiil in being, and 
serve as memorials of his indefatigable industry on all oc- 

In 1712, sir Jonathan Trelavvny, at that time bishop of 
Winchester, was pleased to collate our learned divine to 
the rectory of Havant, near Foitsmouth, as a reward for 
his diligence ; which preferment, together with the sums 
he was daily receiving from the sale of his works, seemed 
i n some measure to have removed the narrowness of his 
circumstances, and to promise a comfortable maintenance 
for his numerous family; but this pleasing prospect shortly 
disappeared : he lost almost or quite the whole of his 
hardly earned gains in 1720, by the bursting of the well- 
known South Sea bubble. Yet such was the tranquillity 
of his disposition, that he continued his studies without 
intermission almost to the very end of his life ; for though 
but a few months elapsed between the publication of the 
last volume of Origines and his death, yet that short time 
was employed in preparing materials for other laborious 
works, and in making preparations for a new edition of 
Origines. With this view he inserted many manuscript 
observations, in a set of the Antiquities which he preserved 
for his own use, and which are now in the possession of 
the furnisher of this article. But from this and all other 
employments he was prevented by death. His constitu- 
tion, which was by nature extremely weak and" delicate, 
could not be otherwise than much impaired by so unre- 
mitted a course of laborious studies, in a life whollv se- 
dentary and recluse, which brought on at an early period 
all the symptoms and infirmities of a very advanced age. 
The approach of his dissolution being clearly visible both 
to himself and friends, it was settled between the then 
bishop of Winchester, Dr. Trimnell, and himself, that he 
should resign Havant to enable his lordship to appoint 
some friend of the family to hold it, till his eldest son, then 
about 20 years of age, could be collated to it. As this 
however was not earned into execution, it is probable that 
his death came on more hastily tluu bean expected. 


and prevented Dr. Trimnell from giving him what he fully 
intended, the first vacant prebend in Winchester. 

After a life thus spent in iaoorious pursuits, Mr. Bing- 
ham died on the 17tn of August, 1723, it may truly be 
said of old age, though he was then only in his 35th year. 
His body was buried in the church-yard of Headbourne 
Worthy ; but, as he frequently expressed a dislike to mo- 
numents and pompous inscriptions, nothing of that sort 
was erected to his memory. 

At the time of his decease only six of his ten children, 
two sons and four daughters, were living ; these, with their 
widowed mother, were left in very contracted circum- 
stances. Mrs, Bingham was therefore induced to sell the 
copy-right of her late husband's writings to the booksellers, 
who immediately republished the whole of his works in two 
volumes in folio, without making any alterations whatso- 
ever; and though the eldest son undertook the office of 
correcting the press, he did not insert any of the manu- 
script aJditions which his father had prepared ; as he was 
then so very young, that he probably had not had an op- 
portunity of examining his father's books and papers suf- 
ficiently to discover that any such preparations for a new 
edition had been made. Of the four daughters, one mar- 
ried a gentleman of Hampshire ; the other three died sin- 
gle. The second son will be mentioned in the succeeding 
article. The widow died in a very advanced age, in bishop 
Warner's college for clergymen's widows, at Bromley, in 
Kent, in 1755. 

Of such importance have the works of this eminent wri- 
ter been esteemed in foreign countries, that they have all, 
been correctly t:anskted into Latin by Grichow, a divine 
of Halle in Germany, 11 vols. 4to, 1724 — 38, and were 
reprinted in 1751 — 61. But he did not live to receive 
this flattering mark of approbation, for he died in 1723. 
Here it may not be amiss to observe how frequently it oc- 
curs that the merits of an eminent ancestor derive honour 
and emohmient on their posterity. It is presumed that 
the character of the person whose life we have been writ- 
ing, was the means of procuring the living of Havant for 
his eldest son, and the late learned and excellent bishop 
of London, Dr. Lowth, expressly assigns that reason for 
bestowing a comfortable living on his grandson. " I vene- 
rate (says he in a letter which conveyed the presentation) 
the memory of your excellent grandfather, my father's par- 

B I N G H A M. 271 

ticular and most intimate friend. He was not rewarded 
as he ought to have been ; I therefore give you this hving 
as a small recompense for his great and inestimable merits.'* 
We shall conclude this article by giving the general cha- 
racter of this divine : As a writer his learning was extensive 
and acute ; his style zealous and persuasive, and his ap- 
plication uncommonly persevering. His temper, on all 
common and indifferent occasions, was mild and benevo- 
lent; and to these he united great zeal in the cause in 
which he was engaged. Though his passions were so 
wholly subject to the guidance of religion and virtue, that 
no worldly losses were sufficient to discompose him, yet 
whenever he believed the important interests of the church 
to be in danger, he was always eager to step forth in its 

Besides what are mentioned above, Mr. Bingham wrote, 

1. " The French church's apology for the church of Eng- 
land ; or the objections of dissenters against the articles, 
homilies, liturgy, and canons of the English church, con- 
sidered, and answered upon the principles of the reformed 
church of France. A work chiefly extracted out of the 
authentic acts and decrees of the French national synods, 
and the most approved writers of that church," 1706, 8vo. 

2. " Scholastical history of the practice of the church in 
reference to the administration of Baptism by Laymen, part 
J." 1712, 8vo. 3. "A scholastical history of Lay-baptism, 
part n. with some considerations on Dr. Brett's answer to 
the first part," 8vo. To which is prefixed, The state of 
the present controversy ; and at the end is an Appendix, 
containing some remarks on the author of the second part 
of Lay-baptism invalid. 4. " A discourse concerning the 
Mercy of God to Penitent Sinners : intended for the use of 
persons troubled in mind ; being a sermon on Psalm ciii. 
13." Printed singly at first, and reprinted among the 
rest of his works, in 2 vols, folio, 1725,* 

BINGHAM (JosiiPH), the second son of the eminent 
writer before mentioned, was the last of his numerous 
family, and consequently extremely young at the time of 
bis father's death. Though he died in very early life, yet 

* Blog. Brit, a very meagre article. — Nichols's Bow3'er, vol. I. .ind from ma- 
terials commimicated by the rev. Richard Bingham, B. A. minister of Gosport 
chapel, Hants, and late fellow of New coliesje, Oxford, great grandson of 
this learned writer. 

272 B I N G H A M. 

during the short period of his existence, he pursued his 
studies with such uuremiLting perseverance, and gave such 
early proofs of genius and sound understanding, and so 
strongly evinced iiis determination to tread in the foot- 
steps of his father, as fully entitle him to a few lines from 
the pen of the biographer. This young man received his 
education on the foundation at the Charter-house, from 
whence he was at the usual tige removed to Corpus college 
in Oxford. In the university he was a most exemplary and 
persevering student, and was preparing to give public 
proofs of his diligence, having actually printed every part, 
except the title-page and preface, of a very valuable edi- 
tion of the Theban story, which was completed and pub- 
lished after his death by a gentleman, into whose hands his 
papeVs had fallen, as a security for a sum of money which 
had been borrowed to facilitate the publication. Whilst 
he was thus usefully employed, and just as he was on the 
point of being ordained, with every prospect of promotion 
from the patronage of archbishop Potter, he was suddenly 
brought to his grave, at the immature age of 22, by an ill- 
ness wholly occasioned by too sedentary a life, and too 
close an application to his studies. He lies buried in the 
cloisters of Corpus college, without either monument, in- 
scription, or stone erected to his memory, though it might' 
most truly be said of him, that he fell a martyr to applica- 
tion, industry, and learning.' 

BINGHAM (George), the sixth son of Richard Bing- 
ham, esq. and Philadelphia, daughter and heir of John Po- 
tinger, esq. by Philadelphia, daughter of sir John Erule, 
hart, chancellor of the exchequer, was born, in 1715, at 
Melcomb Bingham, in the county of Dorset, where that 
antient and respected family have resided for many cen- 

Patronized by Mr. Potinger, his grandfather, who very 
early discovei'ed his promising talents and amiable disposi- 
tion, he was at 1 2 years of age sent to the king's college 
at Westminster; and by his unremitting industry so im- 
proved his abilities, that he was elected, before he had 
reached his 17th year, student of Christ-church in Oxford. 
Being here valued on account of his literary attainments, 
and justly beloved for the urbanit}^ of his manners, he was, 
within four years from his matriculation, elected fellow of 

i From the same infoi matiou. 


All Souls' college, where he hnd an opportunity of culti- 
vating a sincere and unalterable friendship with many gen- 
tlenjcn of the most distinguished reputation ; and it has 
been justly remarked to his honour and credit, that he never 
made an acquaintance by whom he was not highly respect- 
ed, or formed an intimacy that was not permanent. The 
late excellent judge, sir William Blackstone, who was his 
friend and contem[)orary, and whom he not a little assisted 
in his " Stemniata Chicheliana," well knew his worth, and 
kept up a correspondence with him, with a sincerity and 
fervour unaltered and undiminished, to the last hour of his 
life. In 1745-6, when party ran high, and the Pretender 
had made incursions into England, he served the office of 
proctor in the university, and conducted himself in those 
troublesome times with a proper spirit and resolution, as 
became an upright magistrate and a good man. Being a 
few years after, on the death of the rev. Christopher Pitt, 
the excellent translator of Virgil's iEneid, presented by 
George Pitt, esq. (the late lord Rivers) to the rectory of 
Pimpern, Dorset, he married a lady to whom he had been 
some time engaged, by whom he had three children, a 
daughter and two sons ; but his wife, whom he doated on 
with the tenderest affection, was, after the death of her 
youngest child, seized with an illness which terminated in 
a drops}', and brought her to the grave in the 36th year of 
her age. She was buried, in 1756, in the chancel of the 
parish-church of Pimpern. 

Being now a widower, he divided his time between 
theological studies and the education of his children ; but 
having been presented by sir Gerard Napier to the living 
of More Critchil, he changed his residence from Pimpern 
to his new preferment, that he might by absence alleviate 
the severe stroke he had sustained, and might enjoy the 
acquaintance and friendship of his hospitable and worthy 
patron. His patron did not long survive, nor was he al- 
lotted to continue long in his new-chosen habitation ; for 
being seized with a violent ague and fever, from which he 
with the greatest difficulty recovered by the skill of his 
physician and strength of his constitution, he was obliged 
again to return to the rectory at Pimpern. 

His two sons were now entered on the foundation, at the 
college near Winchester, and had both of them made such 
rapid progress in their education, that they gave him every 
possible satisfaction. The eldest was the senior scholar 

Vol. V. T 


at 16 years of age, and was certain of succeeding at the 
iiext election to that goal of Wiccamical Iwpe, a fellowship 
of New college, in Oxford ; when, a few days prior to that 
aera, as he was bathing in the navigable river Itchin, in a 
place well known to every Winchester boy by the name of 
The Pot, he was seized with a cramp within two yards of 
the shore, in the presence of more than 1 00 expert swim- 
mers, and his unfortunate younger brother, who was close 
to him at the moment, and sunk beneath the water never 
to appear again. His lifeless body was not found till half 
an hour had expired. All arts to re-animate him were tried 
in vain ; and he was buried a few days after in the cloisters 
of Winchester college, amidst the tears of his afflicted com- 

Mr. Bingham was inconsolable at this event ; and his 
most intimate friends observed, that it cast a gloom over 
his countenance during the remainder of his long life ; but 
so silent is real sorrow, that he was never heard to men- 
tion his loss, nor was any account of it found among his 
papers, except an insertion in a Family Bible. 

When the author of the Antiquities of the County of 
Dorset first offered his labours to the public, Mr. Bingham, 
who was not ignorant how much care and study had been 
bestowed in collecting those valuable materials, gave him 
every assistance in his power. By examining with inde- 
fatigable attention the numerous Roman tumuli and cause- 
ways that abound in that country, and by a knowledge of 
many circumstances that had escaped the observation 
of others, he enriched the collection with a treasure of 
many curious accounts, and made no small addition to the 
numerous list of subscribers, by soliciting his friends in 
behalf of Mr. Hutchins. The author expressed his ac- 
Jcnowledgments in many private letters; but Mr. Bingham 
would never permit him to make known from what hand he 
received his communications, nor is the name of G. B. once 
mentioned in the work, except after the marvellous ac- 
count of Sadler's prophecy, attested by Cuthbert Bound ; 
at the end of the first volume it is added, " this narrative 
was communicated by the rev. G. Bingham, of Piuipern." 
The original paper, signed by C Bound, which has been 
long preserved in the family, is now in the possession of 
the rev. P. Bingham, as are also many observations, cor- 
rections, et adilitamenta, never yet published. 

Mr. Bingham died at Pimpern, beloved and regretted, 


Oct. 11, 1800, aged eighty-five, and was buried in the 
chancel oC I^imperii church, where on a marble monument 
is engraved a classical and characteristic epitaph by his 
son, the rev. Peregrine Bingham, rector of Radclive, Bucks. 

As an author, Mr. Bingham acquired a considerable 
share of fame in his life-time by iiis " Vindication of the^ 
Doctrine and Liturgy of the Church of England," occa- 
sioned by Mr. "^rheophilus Lindsey's Apology for quitting 
his living, 1774, Svo ; and his essay on the " Millenium," 
entitled " Ta xiMa ilv ;" " Dissertationes Apocalypticee ;'* 
" Paul at Athens," an essay ; a " Commentary on .Solo- 
mon's Song," and some sermons, all which were published 
by his son above-mentioned in 2 vols. 1804, Svo, with Me- 
moirs of the author, in which it is said, that Mr. Bingham 
united the profoundest erudition with the most consum- 
mate piety, and had a perfect knowledge of the Hebrew 
tongue, an intimate acquaintance with tlie earliest fathers 
of the church, and an accurate skill in classic literature, 
and in history ancient and modern, sacred and profane. 
His opinions, however, on some points, differed much 
from those of his brethren ; particularly in contendino- 
that Mahomet and his religion are the sole objects of the 
prophecies of Daniel and St. John, which so many able di- 
vines have uniformly applied to papal Rome. Upon this 
account, when the Warburtonian lecture was offered him 
in 1 78 1 , he declined preaching it, because the object of the 
founder was to prove the truth of Christianity from the 
completion of the prophecies which relate to the Christian 
church, especially the apostacy of papal Rome. Mr. Bing- 
ham conceived that the church of Rome is a part, though a 
corrupt part, of the Christian church, and which, agreeing 
with us in fundamentals, may be still capable of reforma- 
tion. In his sentiments on the Millenium, he restricts that 
state to the enjoyment of uninterrupted peace by the 
church for a determined time, and therefore neither ad- 
mits that the Millenium is already past, which Hammond 
and a few more thought, nor that it will be, what the ma- 
jority of writers have described, the literal reigning of 
the saints on earth, with Christ, for a thousand years. * 

BINI (Severin), in Latin Binius, was born at Randel- 
raidt, in the country of Juliers, and became canon and 
professor of divinity at Cologn, where he died in 1641. 

» Life prefixed to his Works.— Gent. Mag. 1803, 1804. 

T 2 

276 BIN I. 

He is known, and not much to his credit, as the editor of 
a " Collection of the Councils," Cologne, 1606, 4 vols. fol. 
1618, 9 vols, and Pans, 1636, 10 vols, with notes from 
Baronius, Bellarniin, Suarez, &.c. but he has taken so 
niany Uberties in capriciously altering these councils in 
many parts, that it becomes necessary to caution the reader 
against the purchase of his work. Usher calls him " Con- 
taminator Conciliorum." ' 

BINNING (Hugh), a Scotch divine, was born in the 
shire of Air, 1627, and educated in the university of Glas- 
gow, where he took his degrees, and in his nineteenth 
year was appointed regent and professor of moral philoso- 
phy, and was among the first in Scotland that began to 
reform philosophy from the barbarous terms and jargon of 
the school-men. As a preacher his talents were extremely 
popular, and after he had preached some time as a proba- 
tioner, he was elected minister of Govan, near Glasgow. 
In his ministerial conduct and character few excelled him, 
and the sweetness of his temper was such, that all seemed 
to know his worth but himself. At last his incessant la- 
bours brought on a consumption, which put a period to 
his life at Govan, 1654, aged 29. He once had an inter- 
view with Cromwell when the latter was in Scotland, and 
had appointed a meeting of the presb3terians and inde- 
pendents to dispute before him. Mr. Binning was present 
on this occasion, and managed the cause of presbyterianism 
with so much skill as to puzzle Cromwell's independent 
ministers. After the dispute, Oliver asked the name of 
that ** learned and bold young man," and being told his 
name was Hugh Binning, he said, with a wretched play 
on words, " He hath boimd well indeed, but," clapping his 
hand on his sword, " this will loose all again." His tracts, 
sermons, and commentaries on the epistle to the Romans, 
were published separately ; but they have been since col- 
lected into one volume, 4to, and printed at Edinburgh, 
1735. '^ 

BJOERNSTAIIL (James Jonas), a Swedish traveller 
of considerable note, was born in the province of Suder- 
mania, in 1731. After completing his studies at Upsal, he 
was engaged as tutor in the family of baron de Rudbeck, 
with whose son he travelled in England, France, Italy, 

' Bio^. Universelle. — Moreri. — Foppen llibl. Belg. who hasi the impudence 
K) cM IJshfT " pseudo-archiepiscopus." 
3 Biog. Scoticana. 

B J O E R N S T A H L. 277 

Germany, &c. During his residence at Paris, he applied 
himself eagerly to the study of the oriental languages, for 
whicli he had always had a strong predilection. On his 
return, Gustavus III. employed him on a voyage to Greece, 
Syria, ;ind i^gypt, and at the same time appointed him titu- 
lar proit ssor of the university of Lunden. He departed 
accordingly in 1776 for Constantinople, where he remained 
some time to acquire the Turkish language ; and was af- 
ter\\ards pursuing his journey, when he was seized with 
the plague, and died at Salonichi, or Salonica, July 12, 
1779. His letters, containing an account of his travels, 
were published iu Swedish at Stockholm, 1778, 3 vols. 8vo. 
They contain many curious particulars respecting medals, 
manuscripts, scarce books, and some interesting anecdotes 
of Voltaire, whom he visited, yet he is accused of inac- 
curacy in many points ; but it ought to be added, that 
these letters were not intended for publication. * 


BION, a Greek philosopher, who flourished 300 B. C. 
was born at Borysthenes, a Greek town on tlie borders of 
the river of that name, now the Dneiper. Of his family, 
he is said to have given the following account to king An- 
tigonus, who had heard something of his mean birth, and 
thinking to embarrass him, demanded his name, his coun- 
try, his origin, &c. Bion, without being in the least dis- 
concerted, answered, *' My father was a freed-man, whose 
employment was to sell salt-fish. He had been a Scythian, 
born on the banks of the Borysthenes. He got acquainted 
with my mother in a place of bad fame, and there the 
couple celebrated their hopeful marriage. My father af- 
terwards committed some crime, with the precise nature of 
which I am unacquainted ; and for this, he, his wife, and 
his children, were exposed to sale. I was then a sprightly 
boy. An orator purchased me: and on his death, be- 
queathed to me all his effects. I instantly tore his will, 
threw it into the fire, and went to Athens, where I applied 
to the study of philosophy." In this city he first attached 
himself to Crates, and became a cynic, and then embraced 
the opinions of Theodorus, the atheist, and Theophrastus, 
and at last became a philosopher in his own way, without 
belonging to any sect. The name of philosopher, how- 
ever, seems ill applied to him. He uttered, indeed, some 

' Biog, Univers«lle,— -Saxii Onomasticon, 

278 B I O N. - 

wise and moral sayings, but his general conduct was that 
of extreme profligacy. He died at Chalcis, and during his 
last illness, is said to have repented of his libertinism, for 
which he endeavoured to atone by superstitious obser- 
vances. He wrote copiously on the subject of morals, and 
Stobeus has preserved a few fragments. ' 

BIONDI (John Francis), was born in Liesena, an 
island in Dalmatia, in the Gulf of Venice, in 1572, and 
was introduced by the celebrated sir Henry Wotton, the 
ambassador there, to the notice of king James I. He was 
by that prince sent with a secret commission to the duke of 
Savoy, and was afterwards made a gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, and received the honour of knighthood. His 
elegant *' History of the Civil Wars betwixt the houses of 
York and Lancaster," which was written in Italian, and 
translated into English by Henry Carey, earl of Mon- 
mouth, gained him great reputation. It should be ob- 
served that, like other foreign writers of our English story, 
he has strangely disfigured the proper names. His history 
was first printed at Venice, 1637, 3 vols. 4to, and at Bo-. 
logna in 1647. Tiie English translation appeared in 1641. 
The subsequent troubles in England prevented him from 
continuing it as he intended. He also wrote some Italian 
romances. He married a sister of sir Theodore Mayerne, 
and went from England to the canton of Berne, where he 
died in 1644.^ 


BIRAGO (Francis), an Italian author of great autho- 
rity in the science of which he may be said to have been 
professor, that which the Italians call Scienza cavalleresca, 
which embraces all questions relative to nobility, the pro- 
fession of arms, the ancient customs of chivalry, and the 
laws of honour. He was born in 1562, of a noble Milanese 
family, and lived and wrote as late as the year 1637, but 
beyond thai his history cannot be traced. Being the eld- 
est of six brothers, he assumed, in his writings, the title 
of signor Metono and Siciano, two fiefs belonging to his 
family in the territory of Pavia. From Crescenzi, a con- 
temporary, and author of a " treatise on the nobility of 
Italy," we learn that Birago was arbitrator of all chivalrous 
disputes in Lombardy : and that in ail parts of Italy he 

^ Stanley. — Gen. Diet. — Moreri. — Fenclon's Lives by Cormack. — Brurker. 
9 GrangLf. — And Granger's Letters, |>. 41. — Biog. Univ. — Walpole's Royal 
and Noble Authors^ in ait, Henry earl of Muxunoutb, 

B I R A G O. 279 

was consulted as an oracle, and his opinions were decisive, 
being considered as a gentleman vviio united honourable 
spirit with high biood. He wrote several works on the 
subject, enumerated by Ginguene, the principal of wliich 
were collected and published in one vol. 4to, under the 
title " Opere cavalleresche distinte in quattro libri, cioe 
in discorsi ; cousigli, libro I e II ; e decisioni," Bologna, 
1686. • 

BIIIAGUE (Clement), an engraver on precious stones, 
was born at Milan, but exercised his art princijially in 
Spain about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was 
the first who discovered a method of engraving on the 
diamond, which before was thought impenetrable by the 
graver. The first work he executed of this kind was a 
portrait of don Carlos the unfortunate son of Philip II. 
He also engraved, on diamond, the arms of Spain as a seal 
for that prince. ^ 

BIIIAGUE (Flaminio de), one of the king of France's 
gentlemen of the household, distinguished himself for his 
taste for French poetry, although an Italian by birth. He 
took Ronsard for his model, and copied at least his faults. 
His " Premieres oeuvres poetiques" were printed at Paris, 
in 1581 and 1585, I'imo, dedicated to his uncle Rene de 
Birague, cardinal and chancellor of France. They consist 
of a number of sonnets, and other minor pieces, addressed 
to a young lady, named Maria, for whom he professed a 
passion, but he regrets the time he has lost in that fruit- 
less pursuit. He wrote also, according to general opinion, 
a satire entitled, *' L'Enfer de la mere Cardine, traitant 
de I'horrible bataille qui fut aux enters, aux noces du por- 
tier Cerberus et de Cardine," Paris, 1583, Svo, and 1597, 
both editions very rare. In 1793, however, the elder Di- 
dot thought it worth while to print an elegant edition in 
Svo, of only one hundred copies, eight of which are on 


BIRCH (Thomas), a late valuable historical and bio- 
graphical writer, was born in the parish of St. John's 
Clerkenwell, on the 23d of November, 1705. His parents 
were both of them quakers, and his father, Joseph Birch, 
was a coffee-mill maker by trade. Mr. Joseph Birch en- 
deavoured to bring up his son Thomas to his own business; 
but so ardent was the youth's passion for reading, that he 

» Biog. Unirerselle, * Ibid. ' Ibid. 

280 BIRCH, 

solicited his father to be indulged in his inclination, pro- 
mising, in that case, to provide for himself. The first 
school he went to was at Hemel-hempsted in Hertfordshire, 
kept by John Owen, a rigid quaker, for whom Mr. Birch 
afterwards officiated, some little while, as an usher, but at 
present he made very little progress. The next school iit 
which he received his education was taught by one Welby, 
who lived near Turnbull-street, Clerkenwell, a man who 
never had above eight or ten scholars at a time, whom he 
professed to instruct in the Latin tongue in the short space 
of a year and a half, and had great success with Mr. Birch, 
who afterwards lived with him as an usher ; as he also after- 
wards was to Mr. Besse, the famous quaker in George's 
court near St. John's lane, who published the posthumous 
works of Claridge. It is farther said, that he went to 
Ireland with dean Smedley ; but in what year he passed 
over to that country, and how long he resided with the 
dean, cannot now be ascertained. In his renjovals as an 
usher, he always took care to get into a still better school, 
and where he might have the greatest opportunity of stu- 
dying the most valuable books, in which he was indefati- 
gable, and stole many hours from sleep to increase his 
stock of knowledge. By this unremitting diligence, though 
he had not the happiness of an university education, he 
soon became qualified to take holy orders in the church of 
England ; and as his early connections were of a different 
kind, his being ordained was a matter of no small surprise 
to his old acquaintance. In 172S, he married the daughter 
of one Mr. Cox, a clergyman to whom he was afterwards 
curate; and in this union he was singularly happy : but 
his felicity was of a short duration, Mrs. Birch dying in 
less than twelve months after their marriage. The dis- 
order which carried her off was a consumption accelerated 
by childbearing, and almost in the very article of her 
death she wrote to her husband the followino- letter: 

** This day I return you, my dearest life, my sincere, 
hearty thanks for every favour bestowed on your most faith- 
ful and obedient wife, 

" July 31, 1729. Hannah Birch." 

How much Mr. Birch was affected by this calamity ap- 
pears from some verses written by him, August 3d, 1729, 
on his wife's coffin, and inserted in Mrs. Kowe's Miscel- 
laneous Works. That Mrs. Birch was a woman of very 
amiable accomplishments, is not only evident from the 

BIRCH. 281 

verses now mentioned, but from two Latin epitaphs drawn 
up for her ; one by her husband, and the other by Dr. Dale, 
which last was translated into English by Mr. James Ralph. 
In both these epitaphs, she is celebrated as having pos- 
sessed an uncommon share of knowledge and taste, and 
many virtues. After this melancholy event, he was or- 
dained deacon by the bishop of Salisbury, Dr. Hoadly, 
Jan, 17, 1730, and priest by the same prelate, Dec. 21,1731, 
and at the same time was presented to the rectory of Sid- 
dington St. Mary, and the vicarage of Siddington St. Peter, 
in Gloucestershire. He had been recommended, bv a 
common friend, to the friendship and favour of the late 
lord hiiih chancellor Hardwicke, then attornev-creneral : 
to whom, and to the late earl of Hardwicke, he was in- 
debted for all his preferments. The chancellor gave him 
the living of Ulting in the county of Essex, to which ho 
was instituted by Dr. Gibson, bishop of London, on the 
20th of May, and he took possession of it on the day fol- 
lowing. In 1734, he was appointed one of the domestic 
chaplains to William earl of Kilmarnock, the unfortunate 
nobleman who was afterwards beheaded, on the ISth of 
August, 1746, for having been engaged in the rebellion of 
1745. The earl of Kilmarnock was, we believe, in more 
early life, understood to be a whig; and under no other 
character could Mr. Birch have been introduced to his 
lordship's notice. On the 20th of February, 1734-5, Mr. 
Birch had the honour of being chosen a member of the 
royal society, sir Hans Sloane taking a leading part in the 
election. The same honour was done him on the 1 Ith of 
December 1735, by the society of antiquaries ; of which 
he afterwards became director. A few weeks before he 
was chosen into the latter, the Marischal college ofAberdeen 
had conferred on him, by diploma, the degree of master 
of arts. In the Spring of 1743, by the favour of his noble 
patron before mentioned, he received a more substantial 
benefit ; being presented by the crown to the rectory of 
Landewy Welfrey in the county of Pembroke. To this 
benefice, which was a sinecure, he was instituted on the 
7th of May, by Dr. Edward WiUes, bishop of St. David's. 
On the 24th of February, 1743-4, he was presented to the 
rectories of St. Michael, Wood- street, and St. Mary, Stain- 
ing, united. His next preferment was likewise in the city 
of London ; being to the united rectories of St. Margaret 
Pattens, and jgt. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, to which he 

282 BIRCH. 

was presented in the beginning of February, 1745-6. In 
January, 1752, he was elected one of the secretaries of the 
royal society, in the room of Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, de- 
ceased. In January 1753, the Marischal college of Aber- 
deen created him doctor of divinity ; and in that year, the 
same honour was conferred on him by that excellent pre- 
late, Dr. I'homas Herring, archbishop of Canterbury. Our 
author was also a trustee of the British Museum. The last 
preferment given to Dr. Birch, was the rectory of Depden 
in Essex ; for which he was indebted to the late earl of 
Hardwicke. Depden itself, indeed, was in the patronage 
of Mr. Chiswell, and in the possession of the rev. Dr. Cock. 
But the benefice in lord Hardwicke's gift, being at too great 
a distance from town, to be legally held by Dr. Birch, he ob- 
tained an exchan";e with Dr. Cock. Dr. Birch was instituted 
to Depden by the late eminent bishop Sherlock, on the 25th 
of February 1761 ; and he continued possessed of this pre- 
ferment, together with the united rectories of St. Margaret 
Pattens, and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, till his decease. 
In 1765, he resigned his office of secretary to the royal 
society, and was succeeded by Dr. Maty. Dr. Birch's 
health declinino- about this time, he was ordered to ride for 
the recovery of it; but being a bad horseman, and going 
out, contrary to advice, on a frosty day, he was unfortu- 
nately thrown from his horse, on the road betwixt London 
and Hampstead, and killed on the spot. Dr. WilHam Wat- 
son, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, as soon as he heard of the 
accident of the fall, hastened to the relief of his friend, but 
in vain. It is not known whether Dr. Birch's fall might 
not have been occasioned by an apoplexy. This melan- 
choly event happened on the 9th of January 1766, in the 
6 I St year of his age, to the great regret of the doctor's 
numerous literary friends. Some days after his death, he 
was buried in the chancel of his own church of St. Mar- 
garet Pattens. Dr. Birch had, in his life-time, been very 
generous to his relations; and none that were near to him 
being living at his decease, he bequeathed his library of 
books and manuscripts, many of which are valuable, to 
the British Museum. He, likewise, left the remainder of 
his fortune, which amounted to not much more than five 
hundred pounds, to be laid out in government securities, 
for the purpose of applying the interest to increase the 
stipend of the three assistant librarians. Thus manifesting 
at his death, as he had done during his whole life, his re- 

BIRCH. 283 

spect for literature, and his desire to promote useful know- 

Having related the more personal and private circum- 
stances of Dr. Birch's history, we proceed to his various 
puhlications. The first great work lie engaged in, was 
" The General Dictionary, historical and critical ;" wherein 
a new translation of that of the celebrated Mr. Bayie was 
included ; and which was interspersed with several thou- 
sand lives never before published. It was on the 29th of 
April, 1734, that Dr. Birch, in conjunction with the rev, 
Mr. John Peter Bernard, and Mr. John Lockman, agreed 
with the booksellers to carry on this important undertak- 
ing; and Mr. George Sale was employed to draw up the 
articles relating to oriental history. The whole design 
was completed in ten volumes, folio ; the first of which 
appeared in 1734, and the last in 1741. It is universally 
allowed, that this work contains a very extensive and use- 
ful body of biographical knowledge. We are not told 
what were the particular articles written by Dr. Birch ; 
but there is no doubt of his having executed a great part 
of the dictionary: neither is it, we suppose, any dispa- 
ragement to his coadjutors, to say, that he was superior 
to them in abilities and reputation, with the exception of 
Mr. George Sale, who was, without controversy, eminently 
qualified for the department he had undertaken, llie 
next great design in which Dr. Birch engaged, was the 
publication of " Thurloe's State Papers." This collection, 
which comprised seven volumes in folio, came out in 1742. 
It is dedicated to the late lord chancellor Hardwicke, and 
there is prefixed to it a life of Thurloe ; but whether it 
was written or not by our author, does not appear. The 
same life had been separately published not long before. 
The letters and papers in this collection throw the greatest 
light on the period to which they relate, and are accom- 
panied with proper references, and a complete index to 
each volume, yet was a work by which the proprietors 
were great losers. In 1744, Dr. Birch published, in octavo, 
a " Life of the honourable Robert Boyle, esq ;" which 
hath since been prefixed to the quarto edition of the works 
of that philosopher. In the same year, our author began 
his assistance to Houbraken and Vertue, in their design of 
publishing, in folio, the " Heads of illustrious persons of 
Great Britain," engraved by those two artists, but chiefly 
by Mr, Houbraken, To each head was annexed, by Dr. 

2S4 B I R C H. 

Birch, the life and character of the person represented. 
The first vohime of this work, whicli came out in numbers 
was completed in 1747, and the second in 1752. Our 
author's concern in this undertaking did not hinder his 
prosecuting, at the same time, other historical disquisi- 
tions : for, i'.i 1747, appeared, in octavo, "His inquiry 
into the share which king Charles the First had in the 
transactions of the earl of Glamorgan." A second edition 
of the Inquiry was published in 1756, and it was a work 
that excited no small degree of attention. In 1751, Dr. 
Birch was editor of the " Miscellaneous works of sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh ;" to which was prefixed the life of that un- 
fortunate and injured man. Previously to this. Dr. Birch 
published "An historical view of the negociations between 
the courts of England, France, and Brussels, from 1592 
to 1617 ; extracted chiefly from the MS State Papers of 
sir Thomas Edmondes, knight, embassador in France, and 
at Brussels, and treasurer of the household to the kings 
James I. and Charles I. and of Anthony Bacon, esq. bro- 
ther to the lord chancellor Bacon. To which is added, a 
relation of the state of France, with the character of Henry 
IV. and the principal persons of that court, drawn up by 
sir George Carew, upon his return from liis embassy there 
in 1609, and addressed to king James I. never before 
printed." This work, which consists of one volume, in 
octavo, appeared in 1749; and, in an introductory discourse 
to the honourable Philip Yorke, esq. (the late earl of 
Hardwicke), Dr. Birch makes some reflections on the uti- 
lity of deducing history from its only true and unerring 
sources, the original letters and papers of those eminent 
men, who were the principal actors in the administration 
of aiTairs ; after which he gives some account of the lives 
of sir Thomas Edmondes, sir George Carew, and Mr. An- 
thony Bacon. The " Historical View" is undoubtedly a 
valuable performance, and hath brought to light a variety 
of particulars relative to the subjects and the period treated 
of, which before were either not at all, or not so fully 
known. In 1751, was published by our author, an edition, 
in two volumes, 8vo, of the " Theological, moral, dra- 
matic, and poetical works of Mrs. Catherine Cockburn ;" 
with an account of her life. In the next year came out 
his " Life of the most reverend Dr. John Tillotson, lord 
archbishop of Canterbury. Compiled chiefly from his 
original papers and letters." A second edition, corrected 

BIRCH. 285 

and enlarged, appeared in 1753. This work, which was 
dedicated to archbishop Herring, is one of the most pleas- 
ing and popular of Dr. Birch's performances; and he has 
done great justice to Dr. Tillotson's memory, character, 
and virtues. Our biographer hath hkewise intermixed 
with his narrative of the good prelate's transactions, short 
accounts of the persons occasionally mentioned ; a method 
which he has pursued in some of his other publications. 
In 1753, lie revised the quarto edition, in two volumes, of 
Milton's prose works, and added a new life of that great 
poet and writer. Dr. Birch gave to the world, in the fol- 
lowing year, his " Memoirs of the reign of queen Eliza- 
beth, from the year 1581, till her death. In wiiich the 
secret intrigues of her court, and the conduct of her fa- 
vourite, Robert earl of Essex, both at home and abroad, 
are particularly illustrated. From the original papers of 
his intimate friend, Anthony Bacon, esq. and other manu- 
scripts never before published." These memoirs, which 
are inscribed to the earl of Hardwicke, give a minute ac- 
count of the letters and materials from which they are 
taken : and the whole work undoubtedly forms a very va- 
luable collection ; in vvliich our author has shewn himself 
(as in his other writings) to be a faithfnl and accurate com- 
piler ; and in which, besides a full display of the temper 
and actions of the earl of Essex, much light is thrown on 
the characters of the Cecils, Bacons, and many eminent 
persons of that period. The book is now becoming scarce, 
and, as it may not speedily be republished, is rising in its 
value. This is the case, likewise, with regard to the edi- 
tion of sir Walter Raleigh's miscellaneous works. Dr. 
Birch's next publication was " The history of the Royal 
Society of London, for improving of natural knowledge, 
from its first rise. In which the most considerable of those 
papers, communicated to the society, which have hitherto 
not been published, are inserted in their proper order, as 
a supplement to the Philosophical Transactions." The 
two first volumes of this performance, which was dedicated 
to his late majesty, appeared in 1756, and the two other 
volumes in 1757. The history is carried on to the end of 
the year 1687 ; and if the work had been continued, and 
had been conducted vvitli the same extent and minuteness, 
it would have been a very voluminous undertaking. But, 
though it may, perhaps, be justly blamed in this respect, 
it certainly contains many curious and entertaining anec- 


dotes concerning the manner of the society's proceeding-j 
at their first establishment. It is enriched, likewise, with 
a number of personal circumstances relative to the mem- 
bers, and with biographical accounts of such of the more 
considerable of them as died in the course of each year. 
In 1760, came out, in one volume, 8vo, our author's " Life 
of Henry prince of Wales, eldest son of king James I. 
Compiled chiefly from his own papers, and other manu- 
scripts, never before puhlished." It is dedicated to his 
present majesty, then prince of Wales. Some have ob- 
jected to this work, that it abounds too much with tritling 
details, and that Dr. Birch has not given sufficient scope 
to such reflections and disquisitions as arose from his sub- 
ject. It must, nevertheless, be acknowledged, that it af- 
fords a more exact and copious account than had hitherto 
appeared of a prince whose memory has always been re- 
markably popular ; and that various facts, respecting se- 
veral other eminent characters, are occasionally intro- 
duced. Another of his publications was, "Letters, speeches, 
charges, advices, &c. of francis Bacon, lord viscount St. 
Alban, lord chancellor of England." This collection, 
which is comprised in one volume, Svo, and is dedicated 
to the honourable Charles Yorke, esq. appeared in 1763. 
It is taken from some papers which had been originally in 
the possession of Dr. Kawley, lord Bacon's chaplain, whose 
executor, Mr. John Rawley, having put them into the 
hands of Dr. Tenison, they were, at length, deposited in 
the manuscript library at Lambeth. Dr. Birch, speaking 
of these papers of lord Bacon, says, that it can scarcely 
be imagined, but that the bringing to light, from obscurity 
and oblivion, the remains of so eminent a person, will be 
thought an acquisition not inferior to the discovery (if the 
ruins of Herculaneum should afford such a treasure) of a 
new set of the epistles of Cicero, whom our immortal 
countryilian most remarkably resembled as an orator, a 
philosopher, a writer, a lawyer, and a statesman. Though 
this, perhaps, is speaking too highly of a collection, which 
contains many things in it seemingly not very material, it 
must, at the same time, be allowed, that nothing can be 
totally uninteresting which relates to so illustrious a man, 
or tends, in any degree, to give a farther insight into his 
character. To this catalogue we have still to add " Pro- 
fes.sor Greaves's miscellaneous works," 1737, in two vols. 
Svo. Dr. Cudworth's " Intellectual System," (improved 

BIRCH. 287 

from the Latin edition of Mosheim ;) his discoVirsc on the 
true notion of the Lord's Supper, and two sermons, with 
an account of his life and writings, 1743, in two vols. 4to. 
An edition of Spenser's " Fairy Queen," 1751, in three 
vols. 4to, witli prints from designs by Kent. " Letters 
between col. Robert Hammond, governor of the Isle of 
Wight, and the committee of lords and commons at Derby- 
house, general Fairfax, lieut.-general Cromwell, commis- 
sary general Ireton, &c. relating to king Charles I. while 
he was contined in Carisbrooke-castle in that island. Now- 
first published. To which is prefixed a letter from John 
Ashburnham, esq. to a friend, concerning his' deportment 
towards the king, in his attendance on his majesty af 
Hampton-court, and in the Isle of Wight," 1764, 8vo. 
Dr. Birch's last essay, " The life of Dr. Ward," which 
was finished but a week before his death, was published 
by Dr. Maty, in 1766. 

Mr. Ayscough has extracted, from a small pocket-book 
belonging to Dr. Birch, the following memoranda of some 
pieces written by him, of which he was not before known 
to be the author. 1726, "A Latin translation of Hughes's 
Ode to the Creator." 1727, " Verses on the General 
history of Printing ;" published in the General history of 
Printing. Collections for Smedley's View. 172S, "Abe- 
lard to Philotas." 1732, Began the General History. 1739, 
*' Account of Alga," published in the Works of the Learned 
for July. " Account of Milton," published in the Works 
of the Learned. 1741, Wrote the letter of Cleander to 
Smerdis, in the Athenian Letters. 1742, ^Vrote an ac- 
count ot Orr's sermon, in the Works of the Learned. 1 743, 
Wrote the preface to Boyle's works. 1760, By a letter 
from Dr. Stonhonse, it appears that Dr. Birch was the 
author of the Life of the rev. Mr. James Hervey, which is 
prefixed to that gentleman's writings. He was employed, 
likewise, in correcting a great number of publications, 
and among the rest Murden's State Papers. At the time 
of the doctor's death, he had prepared for the press a col- 
lection of letters, to which he had given the title of " His- 
torical Letters, written in the reigns of James I. and 
Charles I. containing a detail of the public transactions 
and events in Great Britain during that period ; with a va- 
riety of particulars not mentioned by our historians. Now 
first published from the originals in the British Museum, 
Paper-office, and private collections." These are all the 
separate publicatioas, or intended works, of Dr. Birch that 

288 B 1 R C H. 

have come to our knowledge, excepting a Sermon on the 
proof of the wisdom and goodness of God, from the frame 
and constitution of man, preached before the college of 
Physicians, in 1749, in consequence of lady Sadlier's will : 
to which we may add, that he revised new editions of Ba- 
con's, Boyle's, and Tillotson's works. The lives of Boyle 
and Tillotson, though printed by themselves, were drawn 
up partly with a view to their being prefixed to these great 
n)en's writings. It would swell this article too much, were 
we to enter into a detail of our author's communications to 
the royal society, and of the papers transmitted by him to 
that illustrious body. Whoever looks into his history of 
the early proceedings of the society, will have no doubt of 
the assiduity and diligence with which he discharged his 
peculiar duty as secretary. But there is nothing which 
sets Dr. Birch's industry in a more striking light than the 
vast number of transcripts which he made with his own 
hands. Among these, not to tuention many other instan- 
ces, there are no less than sixteen volumes in quarto, of 
Anthony Bacon's papers, transcribed from the Lambeth 
library and other collections ; and eight more volumes 
of the same size, relative to history and literature. Our 
author's correspondence, by letters, was, likewise, very 
laro-e and extensive ; of which numerous proofs occur in 
the British Museum. What enabled Dr. Birch to go 
through such a variety of undertakings, was his being a 
very early riser. By this method, he had executed the 
business of the morning before numbers of people had be- 
gun it : and, indeed, it is the peculiar advantage of rising 
betimes, that it is not in the power of any interruptions, 
avocations, or engagements whatever, to deprive a man of 
the hours which have already been well employed, or to 
rob him of the consolation of reflecting, that he hath not 
spent the day in vain. With all this closeness of applica- 
tion, Dr. Birch was not a solitary recluse. He was of a cheer- 
ful and social temper, and entered much into conversation 
with the world. He was personally connected with most of 
the literary men of his time, and with some of them he main- 
tained an intimate friendship, such as sir Hans Sloane, Dr. 
Mead, Dr. Salter, Mr. Jortin, and Dr. Maty ; Daniel Wray, 
esq. Dr. Morton, Dr. Ducarel, Dr. WiUiam W^atson, &c. &c, 
W^ith regard to the great, though perhaps he stood well with 
many of them, his chief connection was with the earls of 
Hardwicke, and with the rest of the branches of that noble 

BIRCH. 239 

and respectable family. No one was more ready than Dr. 
Birch to assist his fellow-creatures, or entered more ardently 
into useful and laudable undertakings. He was particularly 
active in the Society for promoting literature by the printing 
of books, to which we are indebted for the publication of 
Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, and some few 
other valuable works. In short, Dr. Birch was entitled to 
that highest praise, of being a good man, as well as a man of 
knowledge and learning. His sentiments with respect to 
subjects of divinity resembled those of bishop Hoadlv. 

We have seen that it has been objected to Dr. Birch, 
that he was sometimes too minute in his publications, and 
that he did not always exercise, with due severity, the 
power of selection. The charge must be confessed not to 
be totally groundless. But it may be alleged in our au- 
thor's favour, that a man who has a deep and extensive ac- 
quintance with a subject, often sees a connection and im- 
portance in some smaller circumstances, which may not 
immediately be discerned by others ; and, on that account, 
may have reasons for inserting them, that will escape the 
notice of superficial minds. The same circumstance is no- 
ticed in the following character of Dr. Birch by one of our 
predecessors in this Dictionary, Dr. Heathcote, who knew 
Dr. Birch well, and consorted with him, for the last thir- 
teen years of his life. Dr. Heathcote " believes him to 
have been an honest, humane, and generous man ; warm 
and zealous in his attachments to persons and principle, 
but of universal benevolence, and ever ready to promote 
the happiness of all men. He was cheerful, lively, and 
spirited, in the highest degree; and, notwithstanding the 
labours and drudgery he went through in his historical pur- 
suits, no man mixed more in company ; but he was a very 
early riser, and thus had done the business of a morning be- 
fore others had begun it. He was not a man of learning-, 
properly so called ; he understood the Latin and French 
languages, not critically, but very well ; of the Greek he 
knew very little. He was, however, a man of great general 
knowledge, and excelled particularly in modern history. 
As a collector and compiler, he was in the main judicious 
in the choice of his materials ; but was sometimes too 
minute in uninteresting details, and did not always exer- 
cise, with due severity, the power of selection. He had 
a favourite position, that we could not be possessed of too 
many facts ; and he never departed from it, though it wai 
Vol. V. U 

290 BIRCH. 

often urged to him, that facts, which admitof no reason- 
ing, and tend to no edification, which can only serve to 
encumber, and, as it were, smother useful uiteUigence, 
had better be consigned to oblivion, than recorded. And 
indeed, in this very way of biographical compilation, we 
have always been of opinion, that, if it were less fashion- 
able to relate particulars of every man, which are common 
to almost all men, we should be eq^.aily knowin:^, and our 
libraries would be by far less crowded. In his manners, 
Dr. Birch was simple and unaftected ; very communicative, 
and forward to assist in any useful undertaking; and of a 
spirit perfectly disinterested, and (as his friends used to 
tell him) too inattentive to nis own emolument."' 

BIRCHINGTON (8TEPHF,N),or Bryckinton, orBRicK- 
INGTON, SO called from Birchington, in the isle of Thanet, 
where he was born, was a Benedictine monk, belonging 
to the church of Canterbur}-, into which order he entered 
about the year 1382. He wrote a history of the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury to the year 1368, which forms the 
first article in the first volume of Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
who copied it from the MS. in the Lambeth library. 
Other historical MSS. in the same library are attributed to 
him, but remain unpublished. He is supposed to have 
died in 1407. " 

BIRCKBEK (Simon), an Enghsh divine of the seven- 
teenth century, was born in 1584, and in 1600 became a 
student in Queen's college, Oxford, where he took his 
master's degree, and obtained a fellowship. In 1607 ne 
went into holy orders, and acquired much reputation for 
his preaching, and among the learned, for his acquaint- 
ance with the fathers and schoolmen. In 1616 he was ad- 
mitted to the reading of the sentences, and the year fol- 
lowing became vicar of the church of Gilling, and the. 
chapel of Forcet, near Richmond, in Yorkshire, where he 
increased his popularity by his punctual discharge of the 
pastoral office, and by his exemplary life. During the 
usurpation he was not ejected from this living, and died 
Sept. 1656. His principal work, which was highly valued 
by Selden and other learned men, is entitled " The Pro- 
testant's evidence, shewing that for 1500 years next after 

' Biog. Brit, and collections prefixed to tlie subsequent volumes. — Nichols's 

2 Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. I. Ttsif. p. xix. — Tanner. — Fabricii liihi. 
Lat. Mtd, 

b I 11 C K B E K. 291 

Christ, divers guides of God's church have in sundry 
points ot reli "ion tcuiglit: as tlie ciiurcli (jf Knglaiid now 
doth," Lotulon, 1634, 4to, a id in 1657, fohj, mucn en- 
larged. iSome tiislones of the church, particularly tliat of 
IMiioer, seem to be written on tliis plan. * 

BIRD (William), an eminent musician and composer, 
was one Oi the cliildrcn of the cliapel in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. and, as asserted hy Wood in tlie Ashmolean 
IVIS. was hred up under Tallis. it appears, that in 1575 
TalHs and Bird were both gentlemen and also organists of 
the royal chajiel ; but the time of their appointment to 
tiiis latter othcc cannot now be ascertained witli any exact- 
ness. The compositions of Bird are many and various ; 
those of liis younger years were niostly for the service of 
the churcii. He composed a work entitled " Sacrarum 
Cantionum, quinque vocum, printed in 1589 ; among 
which is that noble composition " Civitas sancti tui," which 
for many years past has been sung in the church as an 
anthem, to the words "Bow tnine ear, O Lord!" He was 
also the autlior of a work entitled " Gradualia, ac Can- 
tiones sacrae, quinis, quaternis, trinisque vocibus concia- 
natie, lib. jjrimus." Of this there are two editions, the 
hitter piibhshed in 1610. Although it appears by these 
works, that Bird was in the strictest sense a church 
musician, he occasionally gave to the world compositions 
of a secular kind ; and he seems to be the first among 
English njusicians that ever made an essay in the compo- 
sition of that elegant species of vocal harmony, the ma- 
drigal ; tlie " La Vcrginella" of Anosto, wliich he set in 
tliat form for five voices, being the most ancient musical 
c*nnposition of the kind to be met with in the works of 
English authors. Of his compositions for private enter- 
tainment, thoie are extant, " Songs of sundr\' natures, 
some of gravitie, and others of myrth, fit for all companies 
and voyces, printed in 1589;' and two other collections 
of the same kind, the last of them printed in 1611. But 
the most permanent memorials of Bird's excellences are 
his motets and anthems; to which may be added a fine 
service in the key of D with the minor third, the first 
composition in Dr. Boyce's Cathedral Pvlusic, vol. HL 
and that well-known canon of his, " Non nobis, Doinine." 
Besides his salaries and other emoluments of his profession, 

' Wood's Ath. vol. II, 
U 2 

2r92 B I R D. 

it is to be supposed that Bird derived fiome advantasres 
from ihf pattiii granted by queen Elizabeth to and 
him, for the sole printing of music and music-paper; Dr. 
Ward sptaks of a book which iie had seen with the letters 
T. E. for Thomas East, Est, or Este, who printed music 
undir that patent. TaUis dying in 1585, the patent, by 
the terms of it, survived to Bird, who, no doubt for a va- 
luable consideration, permitted East to exercise the right 
of printing under the protection of it ; and he in the title- 
page of most of his publications styles himself the " as- 
signee of William Bird." Bird died in 1623. ' 

BIRINGUCCIO (Vanucci), an Italian mathematician, 
was born at Sienna about the end of the fifteenth century, 
and died about the middle of the sixteenth. Alter having 
served in the wars under the dukes of Parma and Ferrara, 
and the republic of Venice, he employed himself in stu- 
dying the art of fusing and casting metal for cannon, and 
improving the quality of gunpowder. He was the first of 
his nation who wrote upon these subjects. The work in 
which he laid down his experience and practice, was en- 
titled " Pirotecnia, nella quale si tratta non sole della di- 
versita delle minere, ma anco di quanto si ricerca alia 
pratica di esse, e che s'appartienne all'arte della fusione 
o getto de' metalli," Venice, 1540, 4to, often reprinted 
and translated. ^ 

BIRINUS (St.) a priest of Rome, who in the year 634 
obtained leave of pope Honorius to preach the gospel to 
the idolaters in Britain, at which the pope was so much 
pleased, that he caused him to be ordained bishop. This 
missionary landing in the kingdom of the West Saxons, 
with many others baptised king Cynegilsus, who began to 
reign in the year 611, and filled the throne thirty-one 
years. St. Birinus fixed his see at Dercis, now Dorches- 
ter, in Oxfordshire, in the windows of which beautiful 
church are still some remains of painting relative to the 
history of his mission. He built and consecrated many^ 
churches, and had great success in converting the natives, 
until his death, about the year 650. November 29 is his 
day in the calendar. He was first buried at Dorchester, 
but his remains were afterwards translated to Winchester.' 

' Hawkins's Hist, of Music. — Burncy's Ditto. 

- Rio)». Universf'lli'. 

3 Tannrr. — Butler's Lives of the Saints.— Neve's Fasti Angl. p. 157, "283. 


litical aiiinor in the seventeeiitii century, was the son of 
Richard birkenheatl, of Northwych, in the county of 
Ciu'shire, an honest saddler, who, if some authors may de- 
serve creii it, kept also a little ale-house. Our author was 
bor:i a'oout It>l5, and having received some tincture of 
leariiinjj in the comuion (rraniinar-schoois, came to Ox- 
■ford, and was entered in 1632, a servitor of Oriel college, 
under the tuition of the learned Dr. Humphrey Lloyd, af- 
terwards hishop of Bangor. Dr. Lloyd recommended him 
to Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, as his amanuensis, 
and in that ca[)acity he discovered such talents, that the 
archbishop, by his diploma, created him A. M. in 1639, 
and the year follo*'iing, by letter commendatory from the 
same great prelate, he was chosen probationary fellow of 
Ah-souls college. This preferment brought him to reside 
constantly in Oxford, and on king Charles I. making that 
city his head-quarters during the civil war, our author was 
employed to write a kind of journal in support of the royal 
cause, by which he gained great reputation ; and his ma- 
jesty recommended him to be chosen reader in moral phi- 
losophy, whicii employment he enjoyed, though with very 
small profit, till 1648, when he was expelled by the par- 
liament visitors. He retired afterwards to London, where 
adhering steadily to his principles, lie acquired, among 
those of his own sentiments, the title of " The Loyal 
Poet," and suffered, from such as had then the power in 
their aands, several imprisonments, which served only to 
sharpen his wit, without abating his courage. He pub- 
lished, while he thus lived in obscurity, and, as Wood says, 
by his wits, some very tart performances, which were then 
very highly relished, and are still admired by the curious. 
These were, like his former productions, levelled against 
the republican leaders, and were written with the same 
vindictive poignancy that was then fashionable. Upon the 
restoration of king Charles II. he was created April 6, 
1661, on the king's letters sent for that purpose, D. C. L. 
by the university of Oxford ; and in that quality was one 
of the eminent civilians consulted by the convocation on 
the question " Whether bishops ought to be present in 
capital cases?" and with the rest, Feb. 2, 1661-2, gave 
it under his hand, they ou^ht and might. He was, about 
the same time, elected a burgess, to serve in parliament 
for Wilton, in the county of Wilts, and continuing his 

j29i B I R K E N H E A D. 

services to his master, was by him promoted, on the fir^t 
vacancy, to some oilice at court, vvhich he quitted after- 
wards, and became masier in the Faculty oflSce. He was 
knighted November 14, 1662, aid upon sir Kichard Fan- 
shav.'s o;oiii«; with a public character to the court of Ma- > 
drid, sir John Bivkenliead succeeded him as master ot re- 
qnests. fie was also elected a memi);.r of the royal so-r 
ciety, an honour at that time conferred on none who were 
not weil kn >wn m the repubhc of letters, as men capable 
of promoting ttie truly noble designs of that learned body. 
He lived afterwards in credit ana esteem with men of wit 
and it^aininor, and rectived various favours from the court, 
in consideration of the past, and to instigate him to other 
services ; which, however, drew npo.i hi*n some very se- 
vere attacks from those v»ho opposed the court. Anlliony 
Wood lias preserved 3ome of tiieir coarsest imputations, 
for what reason is not very obvious, as W ood is in general 
very partial to the loyalist writers. He died in Westr 
minster, December 4, 1679, and was interred at St. Mar- 
tin's in the Fields, leaving to his executors, sir Richard 
Mason, and sir Muddiford Bamston, a large and curious 
collection of pamphlets on all subjects. 

Sir John's newspaper which he wrote at Oxford, was 
entitled " Mercurius Aulicus, communicating the intelli- 
gence and affairs of the court to the rest of the kingdom.'* 
It was printed weekly in one slu-et, and sometimes more, 
in 4io ; and was chiefly calculated to raise the reputation 
of the king's friends and commanders, and ridicule those 
who sided -ith the parliament. They came out regularly 
from the beginning of 1642, to the latter end of 1645, 
and afterwards, occasionally. When Birkenhead was 
otherwise engaged, Dr. Peter HeyU n suppi;ed his place, 
but was not thougiit so capable of ttiat species of writing, 
as he did not excol in pojjular wit, which is necessary to 
render such kind of pieces acceptable to the public. The 
parliament thought fit to oppose this court-iournal by ano- 
ther on their side of the question, under the t lie of " Mer- 
curius Britannicus," written by Marchmont Nedham, to 
whom the royalists gave the name of " foul-mouthed 
Nedham ;■' who, tiutiing himselt somewhat unequal to the 
Oxford writer, thought fit to ascribe the " j\k^rcurius Au- 
licus" to several persons, that hi* deficuMicy might do the 
less prejudice to his party. Jacob blunderingly calls the 
" Mercurius Aulicus," a poem. Sir John's other satirical 


works were : 1. " The Assembly-man," written in 1647, 
but printed, as Wood tells us, 1662-3. 2. "News from 
Pembroke and Montgomery ; or, Oxford Manchestere.l," 
&c. 1648. 3. " St. Paul's church-yard ; libri tht^oiogici, 
politici, historici, nundiuis Piiuli'-is (una cum templo) pro- 
stant venales, &c." printed in three slieets, 1649, 4to. 
These sheets were published separately, as if they had 
been parts of one general catalogue, /.n account of them 
is in the Cens. Lit. vol. IV. 4. " The four-legged Quaker, 
a ballad, to the tune of the dog and elder's maid," 5. " A 
new ballad of a famous GermiMi prmce, without date," &c. 

Our author has also se verses and translations ex- 
tant, set to music by Mr. Henry Lawes ; as particularly 
Anacreon's ode, called the Lute, translated from the 
Greek, and to be sung by a bass alone ; and an Anniver- 
sary on the nuptials of John earl of Bridgwater, 22d .July, 
1652. He wrote,, a poem on his staying in Lon- 
don after the Act of Banishment for cavaliers ; and another 
called the Jolt, made upon Cromwell the protector's being 
thrown out of his coach-box in Hyde-Park. He published 
Mr. Robert Waring's " Effigies Amoris, sive quid sit 
Amor efflagitanti responsum," London, 1649, 12mo, from 
the original, at the author's desire, who was willing to be 
concealed. The third edition was published after the 
restoration, by William Griffith, of Oxford, with an 
epistle before it, written by him to sir John Birkenhead ; 
wherein he sives the character of that gentleman, as well 
as of the author. This was the same piece afterwards 
translated into English by the famous Mr. Norris of Be- 
merton, and published under the title of " The Picture of 
Love unveiled." We meet also with several copies of 
verses written by this gentleman, and preHxed to the works 
of the most eminent wits and greatest poets of his time ; 
but satire was his principal excellence, and in genuine 
powers of ridicule he had no superior, at a time when 
those powers were called forth, and well rewarded by both 
parties. * 

BHIKHEAD (Henry), a modern Latin poet, was born 
m 1617, near St. Paul's cathedral, in London, and after 
having been educated untier the famous Farnaby, was en- 
tered a commoner at Trinity college, Oxford, in 1633 ; 

• Biog. Brit.— Gibber's Lives.— Ath Ox. vol. II. — Censura Literaria, toI. IV. 
— Wood's Annals. 

296 B I R K H E A D. 

admitted scholar there, May 28, 1635, and soon after was 
seduced to become a member of the college of Jesuits, at 
St. Omer's. He soon, however, returned to the cliU'-cli 
of England, and by the patronage of archbishop Laud, 
was elected fellow of All Souls, in 1638, being then ba- 
chelor of arts, and esteemed a good philolo;^ist. He pro- 
ceeded in that faculty, was made senior of the act cele- 
brated in 1641, and entered on the law faculty. He kept 
his fellowship during the usurpation, but resigned it after 
the restoration, when he became registrar of the dioc se 
of Norwich. This too he resigned in 1684, and resided 
first in the Middle Temple, and then in other places, in 
a retired condition for manv years. The time of his death 
is not mentioned ; but in the title of Trapp's " Lectures 
on Poetry," Henr}' Birkhead, LL. D. some time fellow of 
Ail Souls college, is styled " Founder of the poetical lec- 
tures," the date of which foundation is 1707. He wrote : 
1. " Poemata in Elegiaca, lambica, Polymetra, &c. mem- 
branatim quadripartita," 1656, 8vo. 2. " Otium Lite- 
rarium, sive miscellanea quaedam Poemata," 16 "6, Svo. 
He also published in 4to, with a preface, some of the phi- 
lological works of his intimate friend Henry Jacob, who 
had the honour of teaching^ Selden the Hebrew Ian juasfe ; 
and he wrote several Latin elegies on the loyalists who 
suffered in the cause of Charles 1. which are scattered in 
various printed books, and many of them subscribed H. G.' 
BL^CIONI (Anthony Maria), a celeb-ated Italian 
scholar of the last century, was born at Florence, Aug. 14, 
1674. After finishing his studies, he taught a school, 
which produced Bottari, the prelate, and some other 
eminent men. The grand duke Cosmo III. having given 
him some benefices, he took priest's orders, and the de- 
gree of doctor in the university of Florence, and spent se- 
veral years in preaching, particularly in the cathedral 
church of St. Laurence. The chapter, in 1713, appointed 
him keeper of the Mediceo-Laurentian library, and to this 
office he was re-elected in 1725, 1729, and 1739, but he 
coukl not, with all his endeavours, prevail on the chapter to 
grant it him for life. While here, however, he beg n a 
new course of studies, learned Greek, Hebrew, and other 
oriental languages, and applied himself particularlv to the 
Tuscan : here also he found a very useful patron in Nicolas 

« Atb. Ox. vol. II.— .Biog. Biit. vol. VII. p. 174, 

B I S C I O N I. 297 

Panciatichi, a very opulent Florentine noblenian, who re- 
ceived him into his house, where he remained eleven years, 
and made him his children's tutor, his librarian, secretary, 
archivist, &c. and amply rewarded him for his services in 
all these departments. He was also appointed apostolic 
prothonotarv, synodal examiner at Florence and Fiesola, 
and reviser of cases of conscience in these dioceses. At 
length, in 17 + 1, the errand duke of his own accord made 
him royal librarian of the Laurentian library, and in 1745, 
gave him a canonry of St. Laurence. In his place as 
librarian, he was of essential service to men of letters, and 
was engaged in many literary undertakings which were 
interrupted by his death, May 4, 17 56. He left a very 
capital collection of rare editions and manuscripts, which 
the grand duke purchased and divided between the Lau- 
rentian and Magliabechian libraries. Biscioni during his 
life-time was a man of great reputation, and many writ'^M's 
have spoken higlily in his praise. He published very little 
that could be called original, his writings consisting prin- 
cipally of the notes, conunentaries, prefaces, letters, and 
dissertations, with which he enriched the works of (thers : 
such as the preface and notes to his edition of the " Prose 
di Dinte Alighieri e di Gio. Boccaccio," Florence, 17 13 
— 172S, 4to ; his notes on '* Menzini's Satires;" his pre- 
face and notes on the " Riposo" of Raphael Borghini, 
Florence, 17.10, 4to, &c. &c. The only work he published 
no«^ of this description, was a vindication of the fi'st edit'on 
of the '* Canti Carnascialeschi," against a reprint of that 
work by the abbe Bracci, entitled " Parere sopra la secon- 
da edizione de' Canti Carnascialeschi e in difesa della 
prima edizione," &c. Florence, 17 50, '^\o. He had begun 
the catalocue of the Mediceo-Laurentian library, of which 
the first volume, cont;dning the oriental manuscripts, was 
magnificently printed at Florence, 1752, folio, and the rest 
continued by the canon Giulanelli, many years after, who 
addi'd the Greek MSS. Biscioni len many notes, cr'tical 
remarks, &c. on books, a history of the Panciatichi family, 
and of his own family, an.l some satires on those who had 
so long prevented him from being oerpetual keeper of the 
Laurentian library, an injury he seems never to have for- 
gotten. * 

1 Bioj. Unirerselle. — Mazzuchelli. 

298 B I S C O E. 

BISCOE (Richard), an English divine, probably the 
son or grandson of the rev. John Biscoe of New Inn hall, 
Oxford, a nonconformist, was himself educated at a dis- 
senting academy kept by Dr. Benion at Shrewsbury, and 
was ordained a dissenting minister, Dec. 19, 1716. In 
1726, he conformed and received deacon's and priest's 
orders in the church of England, and in 1727 was prt-ented 
to the living of 8t. Martin Outwich, in the city of London, 
which he retained until his death, July 174S, He held 
also a prebend of St. Paul's, and was one of his majesty's 
chaplains in ordinary. He is now chiefly known for a 
learned and elaborate work, entitled *' The History of .he 
Acts of the Holy Apostles confirmed from other authors ; 
and considered as fuU evidence of the truth of Christianity, 
with a prefatory discourse upon the nature of that evi- 
dence ;" being the substance of his sermons preached at 
Boyle's lecture, iu 173(^, 1737, 1738, and published in 
2 vols. 1742, 8vo. Dr. Doddridge frequently relers to it, 
as a work of g»"eat utility, and as shewing " in the most con- 
vincing manner, how incontestably the Acts of the Apos- 
tles demonstrates the truth of Christianity." ' 

BISHOP (Samuel), late head-master of Merchant 
Taylors' school, and a poet of considerable merit, was 
descended from a respectable famiK", originally of Wor- 
cestershire, and was born in St. John's street, London, his 
father's residence, Sept. 21, O. S. 1731. He was tender 
and delicate in his constitution, yet gave early indications 
of uncommon capacity and application, as appears from 
his having been called, when only nine years old, to con- 
strue the Greek Testament for a lad of fourteen, the son 
of an opulent neighbour. With this promising stock of 
knowledge, he was sent to Merchant Taylors' school, June 
1743, when between elev-^n and twelve years of age, and 
soon evinced a superiority over his fellows which attracted 
the notice and approbation of his masters. He read with 
avidity, and composed with success. His first essays, how- 
ever imperfect, shewed great natural abilities, and an ori- 
ginal vein of wit. History and poetry first divided his at- 
tention, but the list predominated. He not only acquired 
that knowledge of the Latin and Greek classics, which is 
usually obtained in a public seminary, but also became 

* Wood's Alh. vol. II.— Protestant Dissenters' Magazine, vol. VI. p. 


BISHOP. 299 

intimately acquainted with the best authors in our own 
huK'uu'e: and some of his writings prove that lie had 
perused Milton, Dryden, Pope, and Swift, at an early age, 
with much diserimination and critical judgment. In June 
17.eO, he was elected to St. John's college, Oxford, and 
admitted a scholar of that society, on ihe 2 5ih of the same 
month. During his residence here, he not only corrected 
his taste by reading with judgment, hut also improved his 
powers by habitual practice in composition. Besides se- 
veral poetical pieces, witli which he supplied his friends, 
he wrote a great number of college exercises, hymns, para- 
phrases of scripture, translations from the ancients, and 
imitations of the moderns. 

In June 1753, he was admitted fellow of St. John's, and 
in April 17 54, he took the d'-gree of B. A. and about the 
same tmie was ordained to holy orders. He was tiien set- 
tled in the curacy of Headley in Surrey, whitiier he had 
removed on account of a declining state of health, but 
change of air soon restored him, and he continued to di- 
vide his time hetween Headley and the university, till 1758, 
when he took the degree of M. A. He then (quitted Head- 
ley, and came to reside entirely in London, on being 
elected under-master of Merchant Taylors' school, July 
26. He was appointed also curate of St. Mary Abchurch, 
and some time afterwards lecturer of St. Christopher-le- 
Stocks, a church since taken down for the enlargement of 
the Bank. In 17G2, he published " An Ode to the earl 
of Lmcoln on the duke of Newcastle's Retirement," without 
his name. In 1763 ind 1764, he wrote several essays and 
poems, printed in the Public Ledger, and saon after a 
volume of Latin poems, partly translated, and partly ori- 
ginal, under the title of " i'erite poeticae," This was pub- 
lished by suoscr.ption, beyond which the sale was not con- 
siderable. He also appears to have tried his talents for 
dramatic com])osition, but not meeting witii sufficient en- 
couragement, iie verv wisely relinquished a pursuit that 
could have added little dignity to the character of a clergy- 
man and a public teacher. From this period he devoted 
his talents to the amusemeniof a few friends, arid the labo- 
rious ducies of his profession, which he continued to dis- 
charge with the utmost fidelity, during the prime of his 

Li January 1783, he was elected head-muster of Mer- 
chant Taylors, the duties of which important station en- 

300 B I S H O P. 

tirely occupied his attention, and in 1789, the company of 
Merchant '1 aylors presented him to the hviug ^f St Martin 
Outwich, as a reward for his long and faiintui t^ervices. 
Dr. Warren, hisljop of iiangor, a tew years beiore had ob- 
tained lor iiim, troin the eari of Aylesford, tUe rectory of 
Ditton in Kent. Jbut tie did not long enjoy tiiesc prefer- 
ments ; bodily infirniities grew fast upon him, and repeated 
iits of the gout undermined his constuution. In the be- 
ginning of 1795, he was alarmed by an oppression on his 
breath, which proved to be occasioned by wat«;r on me 
chest, and terminated in his death, Nov. 17, 1795. He 
left a widow, whose virtues he has ahectionateiy com- 
memorated in many of his poems, and one dangiiter. The 
year following lus death, his "Poetical Works" were pub- 
lisiied by subscription, in 2 vols. 4to, witli Memoirs of the 
Life of tne Author, by the rev. Thomas Clare, M. A. now 
vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet-street, from which the present 
sketch is taken ; and in 17y«, the same editor published a 
volume of Mr. Bishop's " Sermons, chiefly upon practical 
subjects." Tne poems entitle Mr, Bisiiop to a very dis- 
tinguished rank among minor poets, and among those who 
write with ease and elegance on familiar subjects ; but we 
doubt whether his talents could have reached the higher 
species of the art. He is sometinses nervous, sometimes 
pathetic, but never sublime ; yet his vein of humour was 
well calculated for the familiar verses, epigrams, ik.c. which 
are so plentiful in these volumes. His style is always pure, 
and his imagination uncommonly fertile in those lesser 
poems which require a variety of the grave, gay, the witty 
and the instructive. ' 

BISHOP (William), vicar apostolical in England, and 
the first popish bishop that was sent thither after the refor- 
ms tion, was born in 1553, at Brayles in Warwickshire. 
He studied in the university of Oxford ; Wood thinks, 
either in Gloucester-hall (now Worcester college), or in 
Lincoln colle<i,e, the heads of both which were secret fa- 
vourers of popery : from Oxford he went to Kheims and 
Rome, and having been sent back to England, as a mis- 
sionary, he was arrested at Dover, and confined in prison 
in London until the end of the year 1584. Being then re- 
leased, he went to Paris, took his degree of licentiate, and 

' Life prrfixed to his Poems, 1796, 4to. There has since appeared an 8vo 
edition, or selection. 

BISHOP. 301 

came again to Enorland in 1 591. In two years he returned 
to Paris, completed his degree of doctor, and soon after 
his arrival in Enghmd, a dispute arising among the popish 
clergy here, he was sent to Rome with another missionary 
to appeal to the pope. In 1612 we find him again in Eng- 
land, and in confinement, on account of the oath of alle- 
giance, to which, however, he was not so averse as many 
of his brethren. He had, in fact, written against the bull 
of pope Pius V. to prove thi't the catholics were bound to 
be faithful to their sovereigns, and in 1602 he had signed 
a declaration of the same principle, without any equivoca- 
cation or mental reservation, which gave great offence to 
the Jesuits. Out of respect, however, to the authority of 
the pope, who had proscribed that oath, he refused to take 
it, and was committed to prison. On his release he went 
to Paris, and wrote some tracts against those eminent pro- 
testant divines, Perkins and Abbot. Since the death of 
Watson, bishop of Lincoln, the last of the popish bishops 
who outlived the reformation, it had often been intended 
to re-establish the episcopal government in England ; and 
the marriage of the prince Charles, afterwards Charles I. 
with the Infanta of Spain, seemed to offer a fair opportu- 
nity for carrying this scheme into execution, the hopes of 
the catholics being considerably raised by that match. Ac- 
cordingly, Dr. Bishop was consecrated at Paris, in 1623, 
by the title of bishop of Chalcedon, and being sent to Eng- 
land, began his career by forming a chapter, appointing 
grand vicars, archdeacons, and rural deans, &c. but did 
not enjoy his promotion long, as he died April 16, 1624. 
His party speak liberally of his zeal, virtues, and learning, 
and he undoubtedly was the more useful to their cause in 
England, as he contrived to exercise his functions with- 
out giving much offence to government. Dodd and Wood 
have given a list of his controversial writings, which are 
now in little request, but it must not be forgot that he was 
the publisher of Pits's very useful work, " De illustribus 
Anglite Scriptoribus," 1623, to which he wrote a very 
learned preface. ^ 

BISSAT, BISSET, or BTSSART (Patrick), professor 
of canon law in the university of Bononia in Italy, in the 
sixteenth century, was descended from the earls of Fife 

» Wood's Ath. vol. I. — Dodd's Ch. Hist. vol. II.— Fuller's Worthies.— Bioff. 

302 B I S S A T. 

in Scotland, and born in that county in the reign of James 
V. He was educated at St. Andrew's, from whence lie re- 
moved to Paris, and, having spent some time in that uni- 
versity, proceeded to Bononia, where he commenced doc- 
tor of laws, and was afterwards apj)oinied professor of ca- 
non law. He continued in that office several years with 
great reputation, and died in lo6f}. He is said to have 
been not only a learned civilian, but an excellent poet, 
orator, and philosopher. He wrote " P. Bissarti opera 
omnia : viz. poeuiata, orationes, lectiones feriales, &,c." 
Venice, 1565, 4to. ' 

BISSE (Thomas), an English divine, was educated at 
Corpus Christi college, Oxford, where lie proceeded M.A. 
in 169% B. D. in 170S, and D D. in 1712. In 17 15 he 
was chosen preacher at the ilolls, and in 1716, on the de- 
privation of John Harvey, A.M. a nonjuror, he was pre- 
sented to the chancellorship of Hereford, by his brother 
Dr. Philip Bisse, bishop of that diocese. He was also a 
prebendary of Hereford, and rector of Crudley and Wes- 
ton. He died April 22, 17;>1. He was a frequent and 
eloquent preacher, and published several of his occasional 
sermons. Those of most permanent reputation are, 1 . " The 
Beaury of Holiness in the Common Prayer, as set forth in 
four Sermons preached at the Rolls chapel," 1716, and 
often reprinted. 2. " Decency and order in public wor- 
ship, three Sermons," 1723. 3. " A course of Sermons 
on the Lord's Prayer," 1710, 8vo, Some " Latin Poems'* 
were published by him in 1716, which we have not seen.* 

BLS8ET (Charlls), an ingenious physician, was born 
at Gleiialbert, near Dunkeld in Perthshire, Scotland, in 
1717. After acourse of medical studies at Edinburgh, he 
was ap})ointed ill 1740, second surgeon to the military hos- 
pital in Jamaica, and spent several years in the West India 
islands, and in admiral Vernon's fieer, where he acquired 
a knowled<;e of the diseases of the torrid zone. Haviuji 
ill 1745, contracted a bad state of health at New Green- 
wich 111 Jamaica, he was under the necessity of resigning 
his place of second surgeon to the hospital, and returning, 
to England. In May 1746, he purchased an ensigncy in 
the forty-second regiment, commanded by lord John Mur- 
ray ; and by this transition, his attention being turned from 

' Mackenzie's Lives, vol. HI. — 'riiiiiicr, who, on the authority of Dempster, 
iniki's hin fl iiirish in 1)01 ; but see Bitcrrns in 'I'aniur. 
- Nictiols's Bowjtr. 

B I S S E T. 303 

medical pursuits to military affairs, fortification became his 
favourite stud}'. After a fruitless descent on the coast of 
Brittany in France in .September 1716, and passing a win- 
ter at Limerick in Ireland, they were, in the beginning of 
the next cawMpaign, brought nito action at Sandberg, near 
Hulst in Dutch Flanders, where one Dutch regiment and 
two English sudered very much. Here, having drawn a 
sketch of the enemy's approaches, with the environs, and 
some tune after, a pretty correct one of Bergen-op-Zoom, 
with the permanent lines, the environs, and the enemy's 
first parallel, which were presented by lord John Murray 
to his royal highness the late duke of Cumberland, his 
highness ordered Mr. Bisset to attend the siege of that 
fortress, and give due attention daily to the progress of 
the attack, and to the defence, in order to take accurate 
journals of them. These journals, illustrated with plans, 
were delivered daily to lord Jolin Murray, who forwarded 
them to the duke, by whose application to the duke of 
Montague, then master of the ordnance, Mr. Bisset re- 
ceived a warrant as engineer extraordinary in the brigade 
of engineers which was established to serve in the Low 
Countries during the war ; and he was also promoted to a 
lieutenancy in the army. The brigade of engineers being 
re-formed at the end of the war, and he being at the same 
time put upon the half-pay list as lieutenant, he continued 
to employ great part of his time in the study of fortifica- 
tion : and in 1751, after visiting France, published his 
work *' On the Theory and Construction of Fortifications," 
8vo, and some time after, being unemployed, he resumed 
the medical profession to which he had been originally 
destined, and retired to the village of Skelton, in Cieve- 
land, Yorkshire, where, or in the vicinity, he ever after 

In 1755, when a French war was impending, he pub- 
lished a " Treatise on the Scurvy, with remarks on the cure 
of scorbutic ulcers," 8vo, and in 1762, an " Essay on the 
Medical Con.stitution of Great Britain." In 1765 the uni- 
versity of St Andrew's conferred upon him the degree of 
M. D. In 1766, he published a volume of "Medical Es- 
says and Observations," Newcastle, 8vo, containing va- 
rious papers on the climate and diseases ot" the West In- 
dies. A few years before his death, he deposited in the 
library of the infirmary at Leeds, a manuscript volume of 
700 pages of medical observations ; and presented a trea- 

304 B I S S E T. 

tise on fortification to his royal highness th^ prince of 
Wales. He published also a small tract on the naval art 
of war, which, with some political papers and MSS. in the 
possession of his widow, form the whole of his works pub- 
lished and unpublished. He died at Knayton, near Thirsk, 
in May 1791, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. ' 

BITAUBE' (Paul Jeremiah), a French poet and miscel- 
laneous writer, was born at Konigsberg, Nov. 24, 1732, of 
a family of French refugees, of the protestant religion. 
After completing his education, he became a clergyman of 
that communion, and appears to have formed his taste for 
oratory and poetry from a frequent perusal of the Bible, 
the style of the historical part of which he much admired. 
He was a no less warm admirer of Homer. Although a 
Prussian by birth, he was a Frenchman at heart, and having 
accustomed himself to the language of his family, he felt a 
strong desire to reside in what he considered as properly 
his native country, conceiving at the same time that the 
best way to procure his naturalization would be through 
the medium of literary merit. As early as 1762, he pub- 
lished at Berlin a translation of the Iliad, which he called a 
free translation, and was in fact an abridgment ; and this 
served to introduce him to D'Alembert, who recommended 
him so strongly to the king, Frederick II. that he was ad- 
mitted into the Berlin academy, received a pension, and 
afterwards visited France in order to complete his transla- 
tion of Homer. A first edition had been printed in 1764, 
2 vols. 8vo, but the most complete did not appear until 
1780, and was followed by the Odyssey in 1785. Such 
was the reputation of both among his countrymen, that 
the academy of inscriptions admitted his name on their list 
of foreign members. Modern French critics, however, 
have distinguished more correctly between the beauties 
and defects of this translation. They allow him to have 
been more successful in his " Joseph," a poem published 
first in 1767, and with additions in 1786, and now become 
almost a classic in France. It was translated into English 
m 1783, 2 vols. 12mo, but is certainly not likely to become 
a classic in this country, or where a taste prevails for sim- 
plicity and elegance. His "Joseph" was followed by " Les 
Bataves," a poem of which some detached parts had ap- 
peared in 1773, under the title of " Guillaume de Nassau,'* 

* Gent, Mag. vol. LXI. pp. 588, 9G5. 

B I T A U B E. 30 


Amsterdam. This was reprinted in 1775, and again in 
1796. During: the war in 1793, as he attached himself to 
the French interest, he was struck ofF the hst of the aca- 
demy of Berlin, and liis pension withdrawn; but on the 
peace of Bale, his honours and his pension were restored. 
If his sovereign punished him thus for acting the French- 
man, he was not more fortunate with his new friends, who 
imprisoned him because he was a Prussian. On the 
estabiislnnent of the institute, however, Bitaub^ was chosen 
of the class of literature and the fine arts ; but gave a very 
bad specimen of his taste in translating the " Herman and 
Dorothea" of Goethe, and comparing that author with 
Homer, whose works, from this opinion, we should sup- 
pose he had studied to very little purpose. Some time 
before his death, which happened Nov. 22, 1808, he was 
admitted a member of the legion of honour. His other 
works were : 1. " Examen de la Confession de Foi du Vi- 
caire Savoyard," 1763, a very liberal expostulation with 
Rousseau on account of liis scepticism. 2. " De i'influ- 
ence des Belles-lettres sur la Philosophic," Berlin, 1767, 
8vo; and 3. " Eloge de Corneille," 1769, 8vo : none of 
which are in the collection of his works published at Paris 

in 1804, 9 vols. 8vo. Bitaube cannot be ranked anions 

. . . . ^ 

writers eminent for genius, nor is his taste, even in the 

opinion of his countrymen, of the purest standard ; but his 
works procured him a considerable name, and many of 
the papers he wrote in the memgirs of the Paris academy 
discover extensive reading and critical talents. His pri- 
vate character appears to have been irreproachable, and 
liis amiable manners and temper procured him many friends 
during the revolutionary successions. ' 

BITO, a Greek mathematician, whose country is un- 
known, wrote a treatise on warlike machines, which he 
dedicated to Attains, king of Pcrgamus, about the year 
239 B.C. It is printed in Gr. and Lat. in the " Mathe- 
matici Veteres," Paris, 1693, fol.^ 

BLACK (Joseph), one of the most eminent chemical 
philosophers of the last century, was born in France, on 
the banks of the Garonne, in 1723. His father, Mr. John 
Black, was a native of Belfast, in Ireland, but of a Scotch 
family, which had been some time settled there. Mr. 
Black resided most commonly at Bourdeaux, v/here he 

* BJog. Universelle. 9 Vossius de Scicnt. Math.— Fair. Bibl. Gx9tf, 

Vol. V. X 

306 ' B L A C K. 

carried on the wine trade. He married a daughter of Mr- 
Robert Gordon of the famih' of Halhead, in Aberdeenshire, 
who was also engaged in the same trade at Bourdeaux. 
Mr. Black was a gentleman of the most amiable manners, 
candid and liberal in his sentiments, and of no common 
information, Ke enjoyed the particular intimacy and 
friendship of the celebrated president Montesquieu, who 
most likely acquired his knowledge of the constitution of 
Britain, for which he was known to have a strong partiality, 
from the inforniation cominunicated by Mr. Black. Long 
before Mr, Black retired from business, his son Joseph 
was sent to Belfast, that he might have the education of a 
British subject. He was then twelve years of age, and six 
years after, in the year 1746, he was sent to continue his 
education in the university of Glasgow. Being required 
by his father to make choice of a profession, he preferred 
that of medicine, as most suited to the general bent of 
his studies- 
It was fortunately at this time that Dr. Cullen had just 
entered upon his great career, was become conscious of 
his strength, and saw the great unoccupied field of philo- 
sophical chemistry open before him. He quickly suc- 
ceeded in taking chemistry out of the hands of mere artists, 
and exhibited it as a liberal science. His pupils became 
zealous chemists, as well as refined physiologists. Young 
Black was particularly delighted with the science, and his 
great bias to the study was soon perceived by Dr. Cullen, 
who delighted to encourasre and assist the efforts of his 
students. He soon attached Mr, Black to himself so 
closely, that the latter was considered as his assistant in 
all his operations, and his experiments were frequently- 
referred to as good authority. Our young philosopher 
had laid down a very comprehensive plan of study, as ap~ 
pears from his note-books, which are still preserved. In 
these he wrote down every thing that occurred to him, and 
they exhibit the first germs and progress of his ideas, till 
the completion of those great discoveries which produced 
50 complete a revolution in chemical science. 

In 1750, he went to Edinburgh to finish his medical 
studies, and while in that city lie lived with his cousin- 
german, Mr. Russel, professor of natural philosophy in 
that university. At this time the medical professors en- 
tertained different opinions concerning the action of lithon- 
triptic medicine, particularly lime-water, and the students 

BLACK. 307 

as usual entered eagerly into the controversy. It seems 
to have been this circumstance that led Mr. Black to in- 
vesti'^ate the cause of causticity, a property in which all 
the lithontnptics then in vogue agreed. At hrst he sus- 
pected that hme, during the burning of it, imbibes some- 
thing from the fire, vvhicli it afterwards communicates to 
alkalies : this he attempted to separate and collect, but 
obtained nothing. This led him to the real cause, which 
he detected about the year 1752, and published soon 
after, in Ins inaugural dissertation on magnesia. Lime- 
stone he found a compound of lime and fixed air. Heat 
separates the air and leaves the lime. The common alka- 
lies of commerce, are compounds of the pure alkaline 
substance and fixed air. Lime abstracts the fixed air from 
these bodies ; hence their causticity. This important dis- 
covery was detailed at full length in the above dissertation 
on magnesia and quick lime, published 1755. 

At this time Dr. CuUen was removed to Edinburgh, and 
there being a vacancy in the chemical chair at Glasgow, 
it was immediately agreed that it could not be bestowed 
with greater propriety than upon the author of so im- 
portant a discovery. Accordingly, Dr. Black was ap- 
pointed professor of anatomy, and lecturer on chemistry in 
the university of Glasgow, in 1756, but not conceiving 
himself so well qnahfied for filling the anatomical chair, 
he obtained the concurrence of the university to exchange 
tasks with the professor of medicine. While in Glasgow, 
therefore, his chief business was delivering lectures on 
the institutes of medicine. His reputation as a professor 
increased every year, and he became a favourite practi- 
tioner in that large and active city. Indeed, the sweet- 
ness of his temper could not fail to make him a welcome 
visitor in every family. His countenance was no less en- 
gaoinor than his manner was attractive. The ladies re- 
garded themselves as -honoured by his attentions, particu- 
larly as they were exclusively bestowed on those who 
evinced a superiority of mental accomplishments or pro- 
priety of demeanour, and of grace and elegance of manner. 
This situation, and the anxious care which he took of his 
patients, may in sorne measure account for the little pro- 
gress made by Dr. Black in that fine career of experi- 
mental investigation which he had so auspiciously opened. 
Yet his inactivity must be lamented as highly injurious to 

X 2 

308 BLACK. 

science; it displayed an indolence or carelessness of re- 
putation not altogether to be juslitied. 

But perhaps the other regions of chemistry held out 
temptations too captivating not to engage his attention. 
It was between the years 1759 and 1763, that he brought 
to maturity his speculations concerning heat, which had 
occupied his attention at intervals, from the very first dawn 
of his philosophical investigations. His discoveries in this 
department of science were by far the most important of 
all that he made, and perhaps indeed th© most valuable 
which appeared during the busy period of the eighteenth 
century. To enter fully into the nature of his investiga- 
tions would be improper in this [)lace ; but the sum of 
them all was usually expressed by him in the following 

1. When a solid body is converted into a fluid, there 
enters into it, and unites with it, a quantity of heat, the 
presence of which is not indicated by the thermometer, 
and this combination is the cause of the fluidity which the 
body assumes. On the other hand, when a fluid body is 
converted into a solid, a quantity of heat separates from 
it, the presence of which was not formerly indicated by 
the thermometer. And this separation is the cause of the 
solid form which the fluid assumes. 

2. When a liquid body is raised to the boiling tempe- 
rature by the continued and copious application of heat, 
its particles suddenly attract to themselves a great quantity 
of heat, and by this combination their mutual relation is so 
changed, that they no longer attract each other, but are 
converted into an elastic fluid-like air. On the other hand, 
when these elastic fluids, either by condensation, or by 
the application of cold bodies, are reconverted into liquids, 
they give out a vast quantity of heat, the presence of which 
was not formerly indicated by the thermometer. 

Thus water when converted into ice gives out 140* of 
heat, and ice when converted into water absorbs 1 40* of 
heat, and water when converted into steam absorbs about 
1000" of heat without becoming sensibly hotter than 212°. 
Philosophers had been long accustomed to consider the 
thermometer as the surest method of detecting heat in 
bodies, yet this instrument gives no indication of the 140' 
of heat which enter into air when it is converted into 
water, nor of the 1000° which combine with water when it 

BLACK. 809 

is converted into steam. Dr. Black, therefore, said that 
the heat is concealed (latet) in the water and steam, and 
he briefly expressed this fact by calling the heat in that 
case latent heat. 

Dr. Black having established this discovery by simple 
and decisive experiments, drew up an account of the whole 
investigation, and read it to a literary society which met 
every Friday in the faculty-room of the college, con- 
sisting of the members of the university, and several gen- 
tlemen of the city, who had a relish for philosoj)hy and 
literature. This was done April 23, 1762, as appears by 
the registers. This doctrine was immediately applied by 
its autnor to the explanation of a vast number of natural 
phcenomena, and in his experimental investigations he was 
greatly assisted by his two celebrated pupils Mr. Watt and 
Dr. Irvine. 

As Dr. Black never published an account of his doctrine 
of latent heat, though he detailed it every year subsequent 
to 17o2 in his lectures, which were frequented by men of 
science from all parts of Europe, it became known only 
through that channel, aud this gave an opportunity to 
others to pilfer it from him piece-meal. Dr. Crawford's 
ideas respecting the capacity of bodies for heat, were 
originally derived from Dr. Black, who first pointed out 
the method of investigating^ tiiat subject. 

The investigations of Lavoisier and Laplace concerning 
heat, published many years after, were obviously borrowed 
from Dr. Black, and indeed consisted in the repetition of 
the very experiments which he had suggested. Yet these 
philosophers never mention Dr. Black at all : every thing 
in their dissertation assumes the air of originality ; and, 
indeed, they appear to have been at great pains to prevent 
the opinions and discoveries of Dr. Black from being 
known among their countrymen. But perhaps the most 
extraordinary procedure was that of Mr. Dclac ; this phi- 
losopher had expressed his admiration of Dr. Black's theory 
of latent heat, and had offered to become his editor. Dr. 
Black, after much entreaty, at last consented, and the 
proper information was communicated to Mr. Deluc. At 
last the " Id^es sur la Meteorologie" of that philosopher 
appeared in 1788. But what was the astonishment of Dr. 
Black and his friends, when they found the doctrine 
claimed by Deluc as his own, and an expression of satis- 

310 BLACK. 

faction at the knowledge which he had acquired of Dr. - 
Black's coincidence with him in opinion ! 

Dr. Black continued in the university of Glasgow from 
1756 to 1766, much respected as an eminent professor, 
much employed as an able and most attentive physician, 
and much beloved as an amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man, and happy in the enjoyment of a small but select 
society of friends. Often, however, says Dr. Robison, 
have 1 seen how oppressive his medical duties were on his ' 
spirits, when he saw that all his efforts did not alleviate 
the sufferings of the distressed. When his dear friend 
Dr. Dick, professor of natural philosophy, was carried off. 
Dr. Black's distress indeed was exceedingly great, parti- 
cularly as he thought that another mode of treatment might 
have been more successful. 

In 1766 Dr. Cullen was appointed professor of medicine 
in the university of Edinburgh, and thus a vacancy was 
made in the chemical chair of that university. Dr. Black 
was with universal consent appointed his successor. In this 
new scene his talents w'ere more conspicuous, and more 
extensively useful. He saw this, and while he could not 
hut be highly gratified by the great concourse of pupils 
which the high reputation of the medical school of Edin- 
hurgh brought to his lectures, his mind was forcibly im- 
pressed by the importance of his duties as a teacher. 
This had an effect which, perhaps, was on the whole ra- 
ther unfortunate. He directed his whole attention to his 
lectures, and his object was to make them so plain that 
they should be adapted to the capacity of the most illite- 
rate of his hearers. The improvement of the science 
seems to have been laid aside by him altogether. Never 
did any man succeed more completely. His pupils were 
not only instructed, but delighted. Many became his 
pupils merely in order to be pleased. This contributed 
greatly to extend the knowledge of chemistry. It became 
in Edinburgh a fashionable part of the accomplishment of 
a. gentleman. 
'-Perhaps, also, the delicacy of his constitution precluded 
him from exertion; the slightest cold, the most trifling 
approach to repletion, immediately affected his breast, 
occasioned feverishness, and, if continued for two or three 
days, brought on a spitting of blood. Nothing restored 
hiia but' relaxation of thought and gentle exercise. . The 

BLACK. 311 

sedentary life to whicli study confined him was manifestly 
hurtfid, and lie never alloued liimseli to indulge in any 
intense thinking withont tinding these complaints sensibly 

So completely trammeled was he in this respect, that, 
althoiiiih liis friends saw others disini>enuous enou<i,h to 
avail tiicniselves of the novelties annoimced by Dr. Black 
in his lectnres, and therefore repeatedly urged him to 
publish an account of what he had done ; this remained 
unaccomplished to the last. Dr. Black often began the 
task, but was so nice in his notions of the manner in which 
it should be executed, that the pains he took in forming a 
plan of the work, never failed to affect his health, and 
oblige him to desist, indeed, he peculiarly disliked ap- 
pearing as an author. His inaugni'al dissertation was the 
work of duty. His " Experiments on JMagnesia, Quick- 
lime, and other alkaline substances," was necessary to put 
what he had indicated in his inaugural dissertations on a 
proper foundation. His " Observations on the more ready 
Freezing of water that has been boiled," published in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 1774, was also called for; 
and his " Analysis of the Waters of some boiling Springs 
in Iceland," made at the request of his friend T. I. Stan- 
ley, esq. was read to tlie royal society of Edinburgh, and 
published by the council. And these are the only works 
of his which appeared in print before the publication of his 
lectures after his death, by professor Robison, in 1803, 
2 vols. 4to. 

The aspect of Dr. Black was comely and interesting. 
His countenance exhibited that pleasing expression of in- 
ward satisfaction, which, by giving ease to the beholder, 
never fails to please. His manner was unaffected and 
graceful. He was aflable, and readily entered into con- 
versation, whether serious or trivial. He was a stranger 
to none of the elegant accoinplishments of life. He had 
a fine musical ear, with a voice which would obey it in 
the most perfect manner ; for he sung and performed on 
the tiute with great taste and feeUng, and could sing a 
plain air at sight, which many instrumental performers 
cannot do. \Vithout having studied drawing, he had ac- 
quired a considerable power of expressing with his jiencil, 
and seemed in this respect to have the talents of a history 
painter. Figure,, indeed, of every kind, attracted. hi;? at- 
tention. Even a retort, or a crucible, v. as to his eye an 


example of beauty or deformity. He had tlie strongest 
claim to the appellation of a man of propriety and correct- 
ness. Every thing was done in its proper season, and he 
ever seemed to have leisure in store. He loved society, 
and felt himself beloved in it; never did he lose a single 
friend, except by the strolic of death. His only appre- 
hension was that of a long continued sick bed ; less, per- 
haps, from any selfish feeling, than from the consideration 
of the trouble and distress which it would occasion to at- 
tending friends: and never was this generous wish more 
completely gratified. On the 26th Nov. 1799, and in the 
seventy-first year of his age, he expired without any con- 
vulsions, shock, or stupor, to announce or retard the ap- 
proach of death. Being at table with his usual fare, son^.e 
bread, a few prunes, and a measured quantity of milk di- 
luted with water, and having the cup in his hand, when 
the last stroke of the pulse was to be given, he set it down 
On his knees, which were joined together, and kept it 
steady with his hand, in the manner of a person perfectly 
at ease ; and in this attitude expired, without spilling a 
drop, and without a writhe in his countenance, as if an 
experiment had been required to shew to his friends the 
facility with which he departed. His servant opened the 
door to tell him that some one had left his name ; but 
getting no answer, stepped about half-way towards him, 
and seeing him in that easy posture, supporting his bason 
of milk with one hand, he thought that he had dropt asleep, 
which sometimes happened after his meals. He went 
back and shut the door; but before he went down stairs, 
some anxiety, which he could not account for, made him 
return again, and look at his master. Even then he was 
satisfied after coming pretty near him, and turned to go 
away ; but returning again, and coming up close to him, 
he found him without life. 

To this sketch, abridged from professor Robison's life 
for the Literary Journal, we have only to add, that Four- 
croy, the eminent French chemist, used to call Dr. Black, 
the illustrious Nestor of the chemical revolution, and 
indeed, in every part of Europe, where chemistry has 
been studied, Dr. Black was named with peculiar vene- 
ration. ' 

* Life ubj supra. — See also Bibliotheque Britannique, vol. XXVIIJ, 

B L A C K A L L. 313 

BLACKALL (Offspring, D. D.), an eminent English 
divine, was born in London, 1654, and educated at Ca- 
therine-hall, Cambridge. In 16yO, he was inducted into 
the living of South Okenden, Essex, and four years after- 
wards to the rectory of St. Mary Alderniary, London ; and 
was successively chosen lecturer of St. Olave's, and of St. 
Dunstan's in the West. He was likewise appointed chap- 
lain to king William. He preached before the house of 
commons Jan. 30, 1699, and in his sermon animadverted 
on Mr. Toland for his asserting in his life of Mil con, that 
Charles 1. was not the author of " Icon Basilike," and for 
some insinuations against the authenticity of the holy 
scriptures ; which drew him into a controversy with 
that author. In 1700, he preached a course of sermons at 
Boyle's lecture, in the cathedral church of St. Paul, which 
were afterwards published. In 1707, he was consecrated 
to the bishopric of Exeter. Burnet, having mentioned 
him and sir William Dawes as raised to bishoprics, tells 
lis, '' laai these divines were in themselves men of value 
and worth ; but their notions were all on the other side. 
They had submitted to the government; but they, at least 
Blackali, seemed to condemn the revolution, and all that 
had been done pursuant to it." And it is asserted in an 
anonymous pamphlet, published in 1705, that he had re- 
fused for two vears to take the oath of allegiance to kins: 
William. But what contributed most to his fame in his 
life- time was a controversy he had with Mr. (afterwards 
bishop) Hoadly, which was occasioned by his sermon upon 
Rom. xiii. 3, 4, entitled, " The Divine Institution of 
Magistrac}", and the gracious design of its institution," 
preached before the queen at St. James's on Tuesday, 
Mcirch 8, 1708, bemg the anniversary of her majesty's 
happy accession to the throne, and published by her ma- 
jesty's special command. The next year, 1709, Mr. 
Hoadly animadverted upon the bishop's sermon, in a piece, 
entitled " Some Considerations humbly offered to the right 
reverend the lord bishop of Exeter, occasioned by his lord- 
ship's sermon before her majesty, March 8, 1708." Upon 
this the bishop published "An Answer to Mr. Hoadly's Let- 
ter," dated from Bath, May the 10th, 1709. Mr. Hoadly en- 
deavoured to vindicate himself, in "An humble Reply to the 
right reverend the lord bishop of Exeter's answer; in which 
the Considerations offered to his lordship are vindicated, 
and an apology is added for defending the foundation of 

314^ B L A C K A L L. 

the present government," London, 1709, in Svo. In this 
controversy, bishop Blackall defends the High-church, 
Tory, principles (as they usually are called), of the divine 
institution of magistricy, and unlimited passive obedience 
and non-resistance; wtiich Mr. Hoadly opposes. There 
were several pamphlets written on the side of the bishop 
against Mr. Hoadly ; particularly one, entitled, " The best 
Answer that ever was made, and to which no answer will 
be made ;" supposed to be written by Mr. Lesley, a non- 
juring clergyman, and which Mr. Hoadly animadverts upon 
in the postscript to his humble reply. The wits in the 
Tatler engaged in this controversy on the side of Hoadly, 
and with an illiberality not usual in the writers of that paper. 
He died at Exeter, Nov. 29, 1716, and was interred in 
the cathedral there. Arcbbp. Dawes, who had a long and 
intimate friendship with him, declares, that in his whole 
conversation he never met with a more perfect pattern of a 
true Christian life, in all its parts, than in him : so much 
primitive simplicity and integrity ; such constant even- 
ness of mind, and uniform conduct of behaviour ; such un- 
affected and yet most ardent piety towards God ; such or- 
thodox and steadfast faith in Christ ; such disinterested and 
fervent charity to all mankind ; sbch profound modesty, 
humility, and sobriety ; such an equal mixture of meekness 
and courage, of cheerfulness and sravity ; such an exact 
discharge of all relative duties ; and in one word, such an' 
indifferency to this lower world and the things of it ; and 
such an entire affection and joyous hope and expectation 
of things abov'e. He says also, that his " manner of 
preaching was so excellent, easy, clear, judicious, sub- 
stantial, pious, affecting, and upon all accounts truly use- 
ful and edifying, that he universally acquired the reputa- 
tion of being one of the best preachers of his time." Fel- 
ton, in his Classics, commends him as an excellent writer. 
M. de la Roche, in his memoirs of literature, tells us, that 
our prelate was one of those English divines, who, when 
they undertake to treat a subject, dive into the bottom of 
it, and exhaust the matter. His works were published by 
archbishop Dawes, in 2 vols. fol. 1723, consisting of Prac- 
tical discourses on our Saviour's Sermon on the mount, and 
on the Lord's Prayer, together with his sermons preached 
at Boyle's lecture, with several others upon particular oc- 
casions. ' 

1 Gen. Diet.— "niog. Br;t.— Taller, Svo edition with notes," vol. I. p. C??. 
4G1, 470, 519— j'2-i. 

B L A C K B O U R NE. 315 

BLACKBOURNE (John), a learned English divine of 
the last century, was born in 16S3, and educated at Trinity 
college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. 
Whether he had any promotion in the church is not cer- 
tain ; but soon after the revolution, he refused to take the 
oaths, and consequently excluded himself from advancing 
in the church. Ffom that time he lived a ver.y exemplary 
and studious life, endeavouring to be useful to mankind, 
both as a scholar and divine. To preserve his independ- 
ence, he became corrector of the press to Bowycr, the 
celebrated printer, and was one of the most accurate of 
his profession. The edition of lord Bacon's works in 1740 
was superintended by him ; and he was also editor of the 
castrations of Holinshed's Chronicle, and of Bale's 
" Chronycle concernynge syr Johan Oldecastell." A 
handsome compliment is paid him in Maittaire's Lives of the 
Paris printers, 1717; and again in his "Miscellanea ali- 
quot Scriptorum carmina," 1722. For some years before 
his death, he was a nonjuring bishop, but lived retired in 
Little Britain among his old books. ^Vhat his hopes were 
of a second revolution will appear from the answer he gave 
a gentleman who asked him if he was in his diocese .? 
" Dear friend, we leave the sees open, that the gentle- 
men who now unjustly possess them, upon the restoration, 
may, if they please, return to their duty and be continued. 
We content ourselves with full episcopal power as sutfra- 
gans." Mr. Blackbourne died Nov. 17, 1741, and his li- 
brary was sold by auction in February 1742. He was 
buried in Islington church-yard, with an epitaph, which 
may be seen in our authority. ' 

BLACKBURN (William), an eminent surveyor and 
architect, was born in the borough of Southwark, on the 
20th of December, 1750. His father was a respectable 
tradesman in St. John's parish, and his mother was a native 
of Spain. The whole of his grammatical education was 
derived from a common seminary in the neighbourhood ; 
and at a proper age he was placed tinder a surveyor of no 
eminence, but from whom he derived very few advantages 
in the knowledge of his profession. However, from the 
natural bent of an ardent mind, he sought the acqu ;int- 
ance of men of genius, several of whom belonged to the 
Royal Academy. Into that academy he was admitted as a 

* Nichols's Bowycr. 


student; and in 1773 he was presented with the medal for 
the best drawing of the inside of St. Stephen's church in 
Walbrook. This prize he bore away from many competi- 
tors ; and, at the deUvery of it, received a high compli- 
ment to his abihties from the late sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
president. About the same time he entered into business 
for himself in Southvvark, and carried it on for some 
years with increasing success among his private connec- 
tions, when an event occurred which brouorht him into 
public notice and reputation. An act of parliament had 
passed in 1779, declaring, that " if any offenders con- 
victed of crimes for which transportation had been usually 
inflicted, were ordered to solitary imprisonment, accom- 
panied by well regulated labour and religious instruction, 
it might be the means, under providence, not only of de- 
terring otiiers from the commission of the like crimes, but 
also of ref)rming the individuals, and enuring them to the 
habits of industry." By this act his majesty was authorised 
to appoint three persons to be supervisors of the buildings 
to be erected ; and the supervisors were to fix upon any 
common, heath, or waste, or any other piece of ground, 
in Middlesex, Essex, Kent, or Surrey, on which should 
be erected two plain strong edifices, to be called " Peni- 
tentiary Houses ;" one for the confinement and employ- 
ment of six hundred males, the other of three hundred fe- 
males. In the same year in which the act was passed, 
three supervisors were appointed to carry it into execution. 
These were John Howard, esq. George Whatley, esq. and 
Dr. John Fothergill. This commission however was dis- 
solved, first by the death of Dr. Fothergill, and soon after 
that event by the resignation of Mr. Howard, who found it 
not in his power to coalesce with his remaining colleague. 
Another set of supervisors was therefore appointed in 1781, 
being sir Gilbert Elliot, hart, sir Charles Bunbury, bart. 
and Thomas Bovvdicr, esq. One of the principal objects 
with these gentlemen was to provide that they shouhl be 
constructed in the manner most conducive to the ends of 
solitary confinement, useful labour, and moral reformation. 
Accordingly, the supervisors proposed premiums for the 
best plans that should be produced of the penitentiary 
houses intended to be erected. The highest premium was 
a hundred guineas, which was unanimously assigned to Mr. 
Blackburn, in the month of March 1782. This preference, 
as a pecuniary consideration, was a matter of little conse- 


quence. The grand advantage that was to be expected 
from it, with regard to Mr. Blackburn, was, that he should 
be employed as the architect and surveyor of the buildings 
proposed. And in fact he was appointed by the super- 
visors to that office ; and the plan of a penitentiary house 
for male offenders was accordingly arranged by him, and 
proper draughts were made for the use of the workmen; 
and a great part of the work was actually contracted for by 
different persons. Yet the designs of government were 
not carried into execution ; the circumstances of the times 
having diverted the attention of public men from this im- 
portant object : nor has it ever since been resumed. Ne- 
vertheless, though Mr. Blackburn might in this respect be 
disappointed of his just expectations, he did not lose his 
reward, nor was the nation deprived of the benefit arising 
from his ingenuity. A spirit of erecting prisons in con- 
formity to his plans was immediately excited ; and many 
county gaols, and other structures of the same nature, 
were built under his inspection. Besides the completion 
of several prisons, Mr. Blackburn was engaged in other 
designs of a similar nature, when he was arrested by the 
hand of death, in the fortieth year of his age. He de- 
parted this life on the 28th day of October, 1790, at Pres- 
ton in Lancashire, being on a journey to Scotland, whither 
he was going at the instance of his grace the duke of Buc- 
cleugh, and the lord provost of Glasgow, with a view to 
the erection of a new gaol in that city. From Preston his 
remains were removed to London, and interred in the 
burying-ground of Bunhill-fields. 

A few weeks before his decease, he had been applied to 
respecting a penitentiary house for Ireland. At a former 
period, in 1787, he went over to that country upon an ap- 
plication from Limerick ; in consequence of which he 
drew the plan ot" a new gaol for that city. He also sug- 
gested many improvements which might be made in the 
gaol of Newgate in the city of Dublin, and which were 
accordingly adopted. 

It was not to the erection of prisons only that Mr. Black- 
burn's talents were confined. Three elegant designs were 
drawn by him for a new church at Hackney, one of which 
was intended to have been carried into execuiiun ; but 
after his decease the scheme was laid aside, on account of 
the expence which the completion of it would occasion. 
^e was employed, likewise, in preparing various designs 


for houses, villas^ &.c. In many of his drawings great 
taste is displayed, as well as a thorough knowledge of his 
favourite science of architecture. It was in contempla- 
tion, some time after his death, to engrave and publish 
his principal drawings; but the intention of doino it is 
dropped, at least for the present. 

Being a dissenter of the presbyterian denomination, he 
was in the habits of intimacy with the principal persons of 
that persuasion both in town and country ; without how- 
ever confining his regard and affection to any particular 
sect. But what confers peculiar honour on Mr. Black- 
burn's memory is, that he enjoyed the intimate friendship 
and entire esteem of the excellent Mr. Howard ; that he 
concurred with him in his ideas, and eminently promoted 
his benevolent designs. Mr. Blackburn frequently corre- 
sponded with Mr. Howard, when that gentleman was en- 
gaged, either at home or abroad, in his journeys and voy- 
ages of humanity. Of Mr. Blackburn Mr. Howard used to 
say, that he was the onl}- man he ever met with, who was 
capable of delineating to his mind, upon paper, his ideas 
of what a prison ought to be. 

The person of Mr. Blackburn was of the middle stature ; 
and from his early youth he was so very corpulent, that his 
friends were filled with apprehensions, too unhappily ve- 
rified, that his life would not be a lonp- one. Till he 
became twenty-five years of age, he drank nothing but 
water. But at that time, in consequence of a severe fit of 
sickness, he was advised by the late Dr. John Fothergill to 
change his beverage for malt liquor, and occasioaally to 
take a glass of wine. The affliction of another severe ill- 
ness, later in life, was sustained by him with eminent and 
exemplary resignation and fortitude. Previously to his 
last journey he was considerably better, and entertained 
hopes that travelling might contribute to the restoration of 
his former health : but it was ordered otherwise by the su- 
preme Disposer of events. By a sudden stroke he was for 
ever taken from his beloved wife and children ; who, with 
a number of select friends, were left to lament a loss, 
which they must feel so long as they remain in this world. 
The character of Mr. Blackburn was, in every view of it, 
amiable and respectable. In discharging the duties and 
relations of life, he was uniform and consistent. He was 
very cheerful in his temper, and affable and engaging in 
his behaviour. Being endued with a great flow of spirits, 

f B L A C K B D R N. 319 

and much vivacity of mintl, his conversation was at once 
agreeable and instructive. In Fel)ruary, 17H3, Mr. Black- 
burn married Lydia, the daughter of Mr. Joshua Hohson, 
an eminent builder in his neiglibourhood ; an amiable wo- 
man, vvitli whom he lived in the most perfect harmony, 
and by whom he left four children. * 

BLACKBURNE (Francis), tiie celebrated author of 
the " Confessional," was born at Richmond in Yorkshire, 
June 9, 1705. At the age of seventeen he was admitted 
pensioner of Catherine-liall, Cambridge, vvliere his pecu- 
liar notions on civil and religious liberty rendered him ob- 
noxious to his superiors, and occasioned the loss of a fel- 
lowship for which he was a candidate. In 1739, he was 
ordained by Dr. Gooch, bishop of Norwich, at Ely chapel, 
Holborn, and in a short time afterwards was inducted into 
the rectory of Richmond in Yorkshire, where he resided 
constantly for forty years, during which he composed all 
the pieces contained in the late edition of his works, be- 
sides a multitude of smaller ones. His first appearance as 
an author was on the following occasion. In 1749, the 
rev. John Jones, vicar of Alconbury, near Huntingdon, 
published his " Free and candid disquisitions relating to 
the Church of England," containing many observations on 
the supposed defects and improprieties in the liturgical 
forms of faith and worshij) of the established church. As 
Mr. Blackburne corresponded with this gentleman, who 
had submitted the work to his perusal in manuscript, and 
as there were many of his opinions in which Mr. Eiackburne 
coincided, it was not unnatural to suppose that he had a 
hand in the publication. Tiiis, however, Mr. Blackburne 
solemnly denied, and his biographer has assigned the pro- 
bable reason. " The truth," says he, " is, Mr. Black- 
burne, whatever desire he might have to forward the work 
of ecclesiastical reformation, could not possibly conform 
his style to the milky phraseology of the ' Disquisitions,' 
nor could he be content to have his sentiments moilitied 
by the gentle qualifications of Mr. Jones's lenient pen. He 
was rather (perhaps too much) inclined to look upon those 
who had in their hands the means and the powerof reforming 
the errors, defects, and abuses, in the government, forms 
of worship, faith and discipline, of the established church, 
as guilty of a criminal negligence, from which they should 

* Comnmnirated for the last edition of this Dictionarv- — Oent. Maj, vol. LV. 
5W, XLIX, 367.— Aikin's Life of Howard, p. 105, l',;9. 

320 B L A C K B U R N E. 

have been roused by sharp and spirited expostulations. lie 
thought it became disquisitors, with a cause in hand of 
such high importance to the influence of vital Christianitv, 
rather to have boldly forced the utmost resentment of the 
class of men to which they addressed their work, than, by 
meanly truckling to their arrogance, to derive upon them- 
selves their ridicule and contempt, which all the world 
saw was the case of these gentle snggesters, and all the 
return they had for the civility of their application." Ani- 
mated by this spirit, which we are far from thinking can- 
did or expedient, Mr. Blackburne published *' An Apo- 
logy," for the " Free and candid disquisitions," to which, 
whatever might be its superior boldness to the *' milky 
phraseology" of Mr. Jones, he yet did not venture to put 
his name ; nor, although he was suspected to be the author, 
did he meet with any of that " arrogance," which is attri- 
buted to those who declined adopting Mr. Jones's scheme 
of church-reformation. On the contrary, in July, 1750, 
he was collated to the archdeaconry of Cleveland, and in 
August following to the prebend of Bilton, by Dr. Mat- 
thew Hutton, archbishop of York, to whom he had been 
for some years titular chaplain ; and when his friends inti- 
mated their suspicions that he would write no more " Apo- 
logies" for such books as " Free and candid Diquisi- 
tions," he answered, " with a cool indifference," that he 
had made no bargain with the archbishop for his liberty. 
His next publication, accordingly, was an attack on Dr. 
Butler bishop of Durham's charge to his clergy in 1751, 
which, in Mr. Blackburne's opinion, contained some doc- 
trines diametrically opposite to the principles on which the 
protestant reformation was founded. This appeared in 
1752, under the title of " A Serious Enquiry into the use 
and importance of external religion, &c." but was not 
generally known to be his, until Mr. Baron, an enthusiast 
in controversies, republished it with Mr. Blackburne's 
name, in his collection, entitled " The Pillars of Priest- 
craft and Orthodoxy shaken." 

His next publications were on the subjects of the new 
style — Archdeacon Sharpe's charges — the Jew naturaliza- 
tion-bill — a letter to archbishop Herring, on church refor- 
mation — none of which require much notice. When in 
1755, Dr. Law's notion appeared concerning the soul and 
the state of death, or what was called *' the soul-sleeping 
system," Mr. Blackburne adopted, and defended it in a tract 

B L A C K B U R N E. 321 

entitled " No proof in the Scriptures of an intermediate 
state of liiippiness or misery, between death and tiie resur- 
rection," and he urged the same opinion in a subsequent 
tract ; but as the Confessional is the publication on which 
his fame principally rests, the history of it is more interest- 
ing than any detail of his minor tracts. On Commence- 
ment Sunday 1757, Dr. Powell, an eminent tutor of St. 
John's college, Cambridge, published a sermon on sub- 
scription to the Liturgy and XXXIX articles, in which he 
maintained that a latitude was allowed to subscribers, evea 
so far as to admit of the assent and consent of different 
persons to different and even opposite opinions, according 
to their different interpretations of the propositions to be 
subscribed. 13r. Powell's casuistry on the subject appeared 
to Mr. Blackburne so detestable, and so subversive of the 
principles of good faith among men, that he determined to 
expose and refute it to the best of his power, and accord- 
ingly published " Remarks on the rev. Dr. Powell's Ser- 
mon in defence of Subscriptions, &c." 1758. His senti- 
ments on the subject of subscriptions are thus explained, 
in that part of his life which was written by himself. 
" When he took possession of the living of Richmond, he 
had been engaged in a way of life that did not give him 
lime or opportunity to reflect upon subjects of that nature 
with precision ; and though, upon taking his first prefer- 
ment, he determined conscientiously to perform the duties 
of it, yet he was by no means aware of the difficulties that 
afterwards embarrassed him in qualifying himself for hold- 
ino- it. He, therefore, then subscribed as directed by law, 
without scruple, and without apprehending the obligation 
he laid himself under, according to the form, of giving his 
assent and consent to the whole system of the church. 
When the same form was to be subscribed to qualify him 
to hold the archdeaconry and prebend, he consulted some 
of his friends, and particularly Dr. Law (afterwards bishop 
of Carlisle), who gave him his opinion at large, containing 
such reasons, as had occurred to himself on the several oc- 
casions he had to undergo that discipline. He was like- 
wise referred to Dr. Clarke's Introduction to his Scripture 
Doctrine of the Trinity : and lastly, to the sixth article of 
the church of England ; all which appeared plausible 
enough to satisfy him, for that time, that with these salvos 
and modifications, he mightsafely subscribe to the prescribed 
forms, — Some time afterwards, however, upon u prospect 
Vol. V. Y 

S22 B L A C K B U R N E. 

of farther advancement to a considerable preferment, he 
took occasion to re-consider these arguments, and thought 
they fell short of giving that satisfaction which an honest 
man would wish to have, when he pledges his good faith 
to society in so solemn a form as that prescribed by the 
36th canon, enjoining subscription to the articles and li- 
turtjical forms of the church of Enoland. 

" In this situation of mind, he set himself to examine 
into the rise and progress of this requisition in protestant 
churches, and into the arguments brought in defence, or 
rather in excuse of it ; the result of which was the compi- 
lation since known by the name of the ' Confessional, or 
a fidl and free enquiry into the right, iitilit}", and success 
of establishing Confessions of Faith and Doctrine in Protes- 
tant churches.' This work lay by him in manuscript for 
some years. He had communicated his plan to Dr. Ed- 
mund Law, who encouraged him greatly in the progress 
of it, and appears by many letters in the course of their 
correspondence to have been extremely impatient to have 
it published. The fair copy, however, was never seen by 
any of the author's acquaintance, one confidential friend 
excepted, who spoke of its existence and contents to the 
late patriotic Thomas Hollis, esq. to whom the author at 
ttiis time was not personally known, Mr. Hollis mentioned 
this manuscript to Mr. Andrew Millar, the bookseller, who 
in 1763, intending a summer excursion to visit his friends 
in Scotland, was desired by Mr. Hollis to call upon Mr. 
Blackburne at Richmond, where, after some conversation, 
the manuscript was consigned to Mr. Millar's care for pub- 
lication, and accordingly came out in the spring of 1766. 
The only condition made with Mr. Millar was, that the 
author's name should be concealed." 

Such is the author's account of the origin of this cele- 
brated work, which soon gave rise to a controversy of 
considerable length. We follow him with more reluctance 
in his account of its reception, in which he states that 
grievous offence was taken at it by that part of the clergy 
** who affect to call themselves orthodox ;" and archbishop 
Seeker is stated to have thrown off his mask of moderation 
at once. More calm reasoners, however, at this later pe- 
riod may be of opinion, that many of the opponents of the 
Confessional stood in no need of affectation to indicate the 
class to which they belonged ; and that the archbishop, as 
well as many of his brethren, might think themselves amply 

B L A C K B U R N E. 323 

justified ill considering tiie Confessional, as having a ten- 
dency to render the principles of the church of England a 
series of private opinions ending in no general system, and 
affording encouragement to perpetual tluctuation and in- 
decision, under pretence of regard for conscience. Nor, 
as the press was to be the medium of this controversy, can 
we, upon any principles of candour, conceive, why arch- 
bishop St'cker, or any of his brethren, should be censured 
for encouraging the best writers they could find. 

This controversy lasted from 17(j6, the period of pub- 
lishing the first edition of the Confessional, to 1773, when 
it was in part revived, or rather continued (for it had never 
been entirely dropt), in consequence of an application 
made to parliament for relief in the matter of subscription. 
During this time, between seventy and eighty pamphlets 
were published by the contending parties, of which not 
above ten or twelve appeared with the authors' names. 
Some of these are supposed to have been furnished by Mr. 
Blackbiu-ne. One singular effect followed the first publi- 
cation of the Confessional. It was supposed that the au- 
thor of such a work could not possibly remain in the church 
after having made so many objections to her constitution ; 
and accordingly a congregation of dissenters in London 
sent a deputation to him, to know whether he was inclined 
to accept the situation of their pastor. But whatever ob- 
jections the learned archdeacon had to certain points of 
discipline and doctrine peculiar to the church of England, 
which he wished to be reformed ; he never Conceived that 
the best way to bring about such a reformation was to leave 
her entirely in the hands of those who were adverse to it; 
and therefore, althougb he abstained from any open oppo- 
sition to the principles and conduct of Mr. Lindsey and 
Dr. Disney (both his relations and friends), he does not 
appear to have approved either. His own words, however, 
will best illustrate his sentiments on this delicate subject. 

" Mr. Blackburne had his objections to the liturgy and 
articles of the church of England, as well as Mr. Lindsey, 
and in some instances to the same passages, but differed 
widely from him on some particular points, which, he 
thought, as stated by Mr. Lindsey and his friends, could 
receive no countenance from scripture, unless by a licen- 
tiousness of interpretation that could not be justified. But 
Dr. Priestley and some of his friends having carried the 
obligation to secede from the church of England farther 

Y 2 

324 B L A C K B U R N E. 

than Mr. Blackburne thought was either sufficiently can- 
did, charitable, or modest, and had thereby given coun- 
tenance to the reproach, thrown upon many moderate and 
worthy men, by hot and violent conformists, for continu- 
ing to minister in the church, while they disapproved many 
things in her doctrine and discipline, he thought it ex- 
pedient, in justice to himself and others of the same sen- 
timents, to give some check to the crude censures that 
had been passed upon them. And, accordingly, intending 
to publish ' Four Discourses' dehvered to the clergy of 
the archdeaconry of Cleveland, in the years 1767, 1769, 
1771, and 1773, he took that opportunity to explain him- 
self on this subject in a preface, as well on behalf of the 
seceders, as of those whose Christian principles admitted 
of their remaininw in the church without offering; violence 
to their consciences." — Of Dr, Priestley's conduct he 
speaks yet more decidedly in a letter dated Jan. 4, 1770, 
to a dissenting minister, — " 1 cannot think the dissenters 
will be universallif pleased with Dr. Priestley's account of 
their principles, not to mention that some degree of mercy 
seemed to be due to us, who have shown our benevolence 
to all protestant dissenters, and have occasionally asserted 
their rights of conscience with the utmost freedom. But 
no, it seems nothino- will do but absolute mifrration from 
our present stations, in agreement with our supposed con- 
victions ; though, perhaps, it might puzzle Dr. Priestley 
to find us another church, in which all of us would be at 
our ease, &c." On the secession of Dr. Disney from the 
church, a circumstance which appears to have given him 
great uneasiness, he went so far as to draw up a {laper un- 
der the title " An Answer to the Question, Why are you 
not a Socinian ?" but this, although now added to his 
works, was not published in his life-time, from motives of 
delicacy. He had been suspected, from his relationship 
and intimacy with Mr. Lindsey and Dr. Disney, of holding 
the same sentiments with them, and his object in the above 
paper was to vindicate his character in that respect. Still, 
as it did not appear in his life-time, it could not answer 
that purpose, and although we are now told that some time 
before his death, he explicitly asserted to his relation, the 
Rev. Mr. Comber, his belief in the divinity of Christ, the 
susjiicions of the public liad undoubtedly some foundation 
in the silence which in all his writings he preserved re- 
specting a point of so much importance. 

B L A C K B U R N E. 325 

When considerably advanced in years, he formed the 
Uesisfti of vvritino; the Ufe of Luther ; and had made some 
coJlections for the purpose, but was diverted from it by 
being engaged to draw up a work of far less general in- 
terest, the INlemoirs of Mr. Thomas Hollis. In 1787, he 
])erformed liis thirty-eighth visitation in Cleveland, after 
vrhich he was taken ill at the house of his friend the Rev. 
WilMam Con)ber, but reached home a few weeks before 
his death, which took place Aug. 7, 1787, in his eighty- 
tliird year. Mr. Blackburne left a widow (who died Aug. 
20, 179y), and four children, Jane, married to the Rev. 
Dr. Disney ; the Rev. Francis Blackburne, vicar of Brig- 
nal, near Greta- bridge, Yorkshire ; Sarah, married to the 
Rev. John Hall, vicar of Chew Magna, and rector of Dun- 
dry in Somersetshire ; and William Blackburne, M. D. of 
Cavendish square, London. 

In 1804, his son, the Rev, F. Blackburne, published in 
7 vols. Svo, his " Works, Theological and Miscellaneous, 
including some pieces not before printed," with some ac- 
count ot the life and writings of the author, by himself, and 
completed by his son. At the conclusion of this interest- 
ing memoir, we find a character of Mr. Blackburne drawn 
up with candour and affection. From this we shall extract 
a few passages, but without deciding whether in every 
respect the same conclusions can be drawn from an atten- 
tive consideration of his labours and opinions. It is certain 
that some of his admirers have wished him possessed of 
more steadiness and consistency than his works show. 

*' Without ever taking an active part in the disputes 
which in his time agitated, and are still agitating, the church 
of England, on the article of predestination, it is certain 
that Mr. Blackburne wa?, in the general sentiments of his 
creed, what he more than once declared himself to be, a 
moderate Calvinist ; and his writings place it beyond a 
doubt, that he believed himself so much more a Protestant 
for being so. His Calvinism, however, was of the largest 
and most Jiberal cast. This will be easily understood from 
what he thought of the great work of David Hartley on 
Man — ' a book,' writes Mr. Blackburne to a friend, in 
1750, ' to which, if I am not exceedingly mistaken, Chris- 
tianity is, or will be, more beholden than to all the books 
besides of the two last centuries. But he has joined ne- 
cessity and religion together. — What of that ? Ask the 
church of England in her articles.' 

326 B L A C K B U R N E. 

** While eiiffasred in the controversial field, and main- 
taining what he believed to be the cause of truth and li- 
berty, Mr. Blackburne, like his admired Luther, pursued 
his adversary often with vehemence, and sometimes with 
asperity of attack : and when either rank or eminence in 
the object of his animadversions was likely to lend a sanc- 
tion to prejudice and superstition, or to give an imposing 
air to the encroachments of human authoiity in matters of 
religion, no writer evermore intrepidly encountered odium, 
by exposing error and bigotry if it were even found, where 
many good and gentle natures will hardly allow it to be 
looked for, under the lawn and the mitre. Yet, doubtless, 
in the execution of so critical an office, the most acute and 
honest judgaient might at times fail in discernment, or 
carry severity too far. To say, therefore, that Mr. Black- 
burne never passed an unjust censure, or harboured an 
unworthy dislike, as a polemic, would be to snppose that 
he was perfect in the most difficult of all tasks — the task of 
inquiring into the justness of argument, the integrity of 
motives, and the rectitude of conduct of other men like 

" Of all this, in his last years, especially when he had 
retired from the business of controversy, and looked back 
on the scene which he had quitted for ever, Mr. Black- 
burne was duly sensible ; and one day, a few weeks before 
his death, conversing with a lady then resident at Rich- 
mond, one of the most amiable and excellent of her sex, 
he acknowledged, with great earnestness, that some things 
which he had written and published in the course of his 
life he was afraid might have been too warmly or too 
hastily advanced. Yet no scholar, perhaps, was ever more 
industrious and indefatigable in the investigation both of 
facts and of arguments, or less precipitate in delivering 
his researches to the public, than archdeacon Blackburne. 

<' Nor did mere difference of opinion, even on points of 
the big lest political and religious consequence, or on spe- 
culative topics, where years of study had endeared con- 
viction to him, operate as a bar to his approbation of the 
merits of his opponent ; and he readily acknowledged, and 
admired, literary talent and scriptural knowledge, or clear 
and able entbrcements of the truths and obligations ot re- 
ligion, as well as personal virtue and eminent piety, in 
those from whom otherwise he differed widely, and whom, 
'pvith no little eagerness, he had sometimes opposed. 

B L A C K B U II N E. 327 

*' Mr. Blackburne's cordial and eloquetit compliment to 
tlie memory ot" Jortiii, to whom, besides some specific dis- 
agreements, he was nearly as dissimilar in general cha- 
racters as Luther to Erasmus, has been more than once re- 
jjeated. His amanuensis testifies the genuine satisfaction 
which the reading of Dr. Johnson's Prayers and Medita- 
tions appeared to afford his venerable frie\id ; and he well 
remembers with what delight; Mr. Blackburne listened to 
the sermons of bishop Sherlock, which he had doubtless 
often himself perused before; and with what frankness of 
heart he wished that it had been in his power to be equally 
useful as a preacher of the doctrines of Christianity. 

*' Amidst the calls of his public station, and the labours 
of private study, during the most active stages of his life, 
Mr. Blackburne had been always constant in the regular 
performance of family devotion and of solitary prayer. The 
contemplation too of some passage in the Old or New Tes- 
tament, with the comments of the best early or later critics, 
was not forgotten in the habitual arrant^ement of his fore- 
noon. In his latter days, these exercises and meditations, 
and a course of reading congenial to them, suited parti- 
cularly well with the sober and serious cast of a mind like 
his, and with afflictions fast weaning to a better world. 
Towards the close of his life, retaining strong faculties of 
memory and intellect, his powers of cheerful and instruc- 
tive conversation were little diminished by age ; or what 
they had lost, if any thing they had lost, in vigour, was 
abundantly compensated in that soft mellowness of temper, 
which, like the mild setting sun of an autumnal evening, 
gilds the declining day of a wise and virtuous old man. 

" Such was Francis Blackburne ; a believer of Chris- 
tianity, from the deepest conviction of its truth ; a Pro- 
testant on the genuine principles of the reformation from 
popery; a streimous adversary of supei'stition and intole- 
rance, and of every corruption of the simplicity or the 
spirit of the gospel ; a zealous promoter of civil liberty ; a 
close and perspicuous reasoner ; a keen and energetic 
writer; an attentive, benevolent, and venerable archdea- 
cons an elegant and persuasive preacher; a faithful pas- 
tor and exemplary guide; of unblemished purity of life; 
of simple dignity of liianners ; a sincere and cordial friend ; 
an affectionate husband, and an indulgent father : in short, 
a just, humane, pious, temperate, and independent man." ^ 

1 Life, as above. — Nichols's Bowyer. — A complete list of the pamphleU on 
the Cunfessioival Controversy, in Gent. Maj. vols. XLl. and XLH. 


BLACKBURNE (John), esq. of Orford, near Warring- 
ton in Lancashire, deserves some notice in a work of this 
descri"ption, as a promoter of science. This gentleman 
died in 17 86, at the advanced age of ninety-six, the re- 
ward of a very regnlar and temperate life, and a mind un- 
disturbed by any violent emotions. His health and tran- 
quillity were also not a little promoted by the turn he took 
in early life to the cultivation of plants. He was supposed 
to be the second gentleman in England who cultivated the 
pine-apple, and his garden always continued one of the 
chief objects of botanical curiosity for its products both 
foreign and domestic, in the north of Eugland. Of this a 
catalogue was printed by his gardener, Mr. Neal, in 1779. 
He retained his faculties in very considerable perfection 
till within two or three years before his death. He was 
exemplary in the discharge of religious duties, and in 
charity to the poor. His daughter Anna, who died, ad- 
vanced in years, in 1794, was also attachetl to scientific 
pursuits, particularly natural history, of which she formed 
a very extensive museum at her seat at Fairfield near W^ar- 
rington. She was equally fond of botany, and was the 
friend and constant correspondent of Linnaeus and many 
other celebrated botanists on the continent and at home. 
A plant which she discovered, Linnaeus named in honour 
of her, Blackburniana. She bequeathed her museum to 
her nephew John Blackburne, esq. M. P. for Lancashire.' 

BLACKLOCK (Thomas), a very extraordinary poet, 
was born in 1721, at Annan in the county of Dumfries, in 
Scotland. His parents were natives of Cumberland, of the 
lower order, but industrious and well-informed. Before 
he was six months old he lost his sight by the small-pox, 
and therefore, as to all purposes of memory or imagination, 
may be said never to have eiijo3-ed that blessing. His 
father and friends endeavoured to lessen the calamity by 
reading to him those books which might convey the in- 
struction suitable to infancy, and as he advanced, they 
proceeded to others which he appeared to relish and re- 
member, particularly the works of Spenser, Milton, Prior, 
Pope, and Addison. And such was the kindness which 
his helpless situation and gentle tcmj)er excited, that he 
was seldom without some companion who carried on this 
singular course of education, until he had even acquired 
some knowledge of the Latin tongue. It is probable that 

» Gent. Mag. vol. LVII. and LXIV. 

B L A C K L O C K. 329 

he reincmberetl much of all that was read to him, but his 
mind began very early to make a choice. He first disco- 
vered a predilection for English ])oetry, and then, at the 
ajre of twelve, endeavoured to imitate it in various at- 
tempts, one of which is preserved in his works, but rather 
with a view to mark the commencement than the perfec- 
tion of liis talent. 

In this manner his life appears to have passed for the first 
nineteen years, at the end of which he had the misfortune 
to lose his father, who was killed by the accidental fall of 
a malt-kiln. For about a year after this, he continued to 
live at home, and began to be noticed as a young man of 
genius and acquirements, such as were not to be expected 
in one in his situation. His poems, which had increased 
in number as he grew up, were now handed about in ma- 
nuscript, with confidence that they were worthy of the 
attention of the discerning, and some of them having been 
shewn to Dr. Stevenson, an eminent physician of Edin- 
burgh, he formed the benevolent design of removing the 
author to that city, where his genius might be improved 
by a regular education. He came accordingly to Edinburgh 
in the year 1741, and continued his studies in the univer- 
sity, under his kind patron, till the year 1745. In 174fi a 
volume of his poems, in octavo, was published, but with 
what effect we are not told. The rebellion, however, 
which then raged in Scotland, disturbed arts and learning, 
and our author returned to Dumfries, where he found an 
asylum in the house of Mr. M'Murdo, who had married 
his sister, and who, by con)pany and conversation, en- 
deavoured to amuse his solitude, and keep up his stock of 
learnincr. At the close of the rebellion he returned to 
Edinburgh, and pursued his studies for six years longer. 

He now obtained the acquaintance of Hume, the cele- 
brated historian, who interested himself with great zeal in 
his behalf, and among other services, promoted the pub- 
lication of the quarto edition of his poems in 1756; but 
previousl}' to this a second edition of the octavo had been 
pubUshed at Edinburgh in 17 54. In this last mentioned 
year he became known to the Rev. Joseph Spence, poetry 
professor of Oxford, who introduced him to the English 
public by *' An Account of the Life, Character, and Poems 
of Mr. Blacklock, student of philosophy in the university 
of Edinburgh," In this pamphlet Mr. Spence detailed the 
extraordinary circumstances of his education and genms 

330 B L A C K L O C K. 

with equal taste and humanity, and a subscription was im- 
mediately opened at Dodsley's shop for a quarto edition, 
to be published at a guinea the large, and half a guinea 
the small paper. 

Having completed his education at the university, he 
began a course of study, with a view to give lectures on 
oratory to young gentlemen intended for the bar or the 
pulpit, but by Hume's advice he desisted from a project 
which the latter thought unlikely to succeed, and deter- 
mined to study divinity, which promised to gratify and 
enlarge the pious feelings and sentiments that had grown 
tip w;th him. Accordingly, after the usual probationary 
course, he was licensed a preacher of the gospel, agree- 
ably to the rules of the church of Scotland, in 1759. In 
this character he attained considerable reputation, and 
was fond of composing sermons, of which he has left some 
volumes in manuscript, and a treatise of morals, both of 
which his friends once intended for the press. Two occa- 
sional sermons are said to have been published in his life- 
time, but probably never reached this country, as no no- 
tice of them occurs in our literary journals. 

His occupations and disposition at this period of his life 
are thus related by the rev. Mr. Jameson, of Newcastle, 
who knew him intimatel3\ 

" His manner of life (says that gentleman) was so uni- 
form, that the history of it during one day, or one week, is 
the history of it during the seven years that our personal 
intercourse lasted. Reading, music, walking, conversing, 
and disputing on various topics, in theology, ethics, &c. 
employed almost every hour of our time. It was pleasant 
to hear him engaged in a dispute, for no man could keep his 
temper better than he always did on such occasions. I have 
known him frequently very warmly engaged for hours to- 
gether, but never could observe one angry word to fall 
from him. Whatever his antagonist might say, he always 
kept his temper. * Semper paratus et refellere sine perti-* 
nacia, et refelli sine iracundia.' He was, however, ex- 
tremely sensible to what he thought ill usage, and equally 
so whether it regarded himself or his friends. But his re- 
sentment was always confined to a few satirical verses, 
which were generally burnt soon after," 

" The late Mr Spence (the editor of the quarto edition 
of his poems) frequently urged him to write a tragedy ; and 
assured him that he had interest enough with Mr. Garricly 

B L A C K L O C K. 331 

to get it acted. Various subjects were proposed to him, 
several of which he approved of, yet he never could be 
prevailed on to begin any thing of that kind*. It may 
seem remarkable, but as far as I know, it was invariably 
the case, tliat he never could tiiink or write on any subject 
proposed to him by another. 

*' I have frequently admired with what readiness and 
rapidity he could sometimes make verses. I have known 
him dictate from tliirty to foriy verses, and by no means 
bad ones, as fast as I could write them ; but the moment 
he was at a loss for a rhyme or a verse to his liking, he 
stopt altogether, and could very seldom be induced to 
finish what he had begun with so much ardour." 

To this his elegant biographer adds : " All those 
who ever acted as his amanuenses, agree in this rapidity 
and ardour of composition which Mr. Jameson ascribes to 
him in the account I have copied above. He never could 
dictate till he stood up ; and as his blindness made walking 
about without assistance inconvenient or dangerous to him, 
he fell insensibly into a vibratory sort of motion of his body, 
which increased as he warmed with his subject, and was 
pleased with the conceptions of his mind. This motion at 
last became habitual to him, and though he could some- 
times restrain it when on ceremony, or in any public ap- 
pearance, such as preaching, he felt a certain uneasiness 
from the effort, and always returned to it when he could 
indulge it without impropriety." 

In 1762, he married miss Sarah Johnston, daughter of 
Mr. Joseph Johnston, surgeon in Dumfries, a connexion 
which formed the great solace of his future life. About 
the same time he was ordained minister of the town and 
parish of Kircudbright, in consequence of a presentation 
from the crown, obtained for him by the earl of Selkirk ; 
but the parishioners having objected to the appointment, 
after a legal dispute of nearly two years, his friends advised 
him to resign his right, and accept of a moderate annuity 
in its stead. If their principal objection was to his want 
of sight, it was certainly not unreasonable. He would pro- 
bably in the course of a few years have found it very in- 

* Mr. Jameson was probably igno- cannot recollect. The manuscript was 

rant of the circumstance of liis wnting, pui twto the liands of the late Mr. 

at a subsequeat period, a tragedy ; Croi>bie, then an eminent advocate at 

but upon what subject, liis relation, the l)iir of Scotland, but has never suice 

from whom I received the intelligence, been recovered. Mackenziei 

332 B L A C K L O C K. 

convenient, if not painful, to execute all the duties of thf! 
pastoral office. With the slender provision allowed by this 
parish, he returned to Edinburgh in 1764, and adopted the 
plan of receiving a limited number of 3'onng gentlemen 
into his house, not only as boarders, but as pupils whose 
studies he might occasionally assist. And this plan suc- 
ceeded so well that he continued it till 1787, when a^e 
and infirmity obliged him to retire from active life. In 
1767, the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by the 
iniiversity and Marischal college of Aberdeen, donbtless 
at the suggestion of his friend and correspondent, Dr. 
Beattie, to whom he had in the preceding year sent a pre- 
sent of his works, accompanied by some verses. Dr. 
Beattie returned a poetical epistle, which is now prefixed 
to Blackluck's j^oeuis, and ever after maintained a corre- 
spondence with hiui, and consulted him upon all his sub- 
sequent works, particularly his celebrated " Essay on 

In the same year, he published " Paraclesis ; or conso- 
lations deduced from natural and revealed Relia-ion : in 
two dissertations ; the first, supposed to have been com- 
posed by Cicero ; now residered into English : the last 
originally written by Dr. Blacklock,"' The plan of the 
original dissertation is to prove the superiority of the con- 
solations to be derived from the Christian revelation ; hut 
it is painful to find by his preface that his motive for v/ri- 
ting it, was " to alleviate the pressure of repeated disaj;- 
ponitments ; to sooth his anguish for the loss of departed 
Iriends, to elude the rage of implacable and unprovoked 
enemies; in a word, to support his own mind, which, for a 
number of years, besides its literary difficulties, and its 
natural disadvantages, had maintained an incessant conflict 
with fortune." Of what nature his disappointments were,^ 
or who could be implacable enemies to such a man, we are 
not told. His biographer, indeed, informs us that he " had 
from nature a constitution delicate and nervous, and his 
mind, as is almost always the case, was in a great degree 
subject to the indisposition of his body. He frequently 
complained of a lowness and depression of spirits, which 
neither the attentions of his friends, nor the unceasintr care 
of a most ailectionate wife, were able entirely to remove." 
Let us hope, therefore, for the honour of mankind, that 
his complaints were those, not of a man who had enemies^ 
but of one who was sensible that, with strong powers of 

B L A C K L O C K. 3153 

mind, and well-founded consolations, lie was yet excluded 
iVom munv ot the rational deli<ylits of wiiicli lie heard others 
speak, and of which, if he formed any idea, it was pro- 
bably disproportionate and distressing-. 

In 1768 he published a translation, from the French of 
the rev. James Armand, minister of the Walloon church in 
Hanau, of two discourses on the spirit and evidences of 
Christianity, with a long dedication from his own pen, cal- 
culated for the perusal of the clergy of the church of Scot- 
land, In this, as in all his prose writings, his style is ele- 
gant, nervous, and animated, and his sentiments such as 
indicate the purest zeal for the interests of religion. His 
last publication, in 1774, was " The Graham, an heroic- 
ballad ; in four cantos," intended to promote harmony be- 
tween the inhabitants of Scotland and England. As a 
poem, however, it added little to his reputation, and has 
been excluded from the collection of his works formed by^ 
Mr. Mackenzie, and adopted in the late edition of tlie 
English poets. 

In 17yi he was seized with a feverish disorder, which 
at first seemed of a slight, and never rose to a very violent 
kind ; but his weak frame was unable to support it, and ho 
died after about a week's illness, July 7, 17D1, in the 
seventieth year of his age. A monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory, with an elegant Latin inscription 
from the pen of Dr. Beattie, 

Such are the few events of Dr. Blacklock's life. His 
character, and the character of his writings, are more inte- 
resting, and will probably ever continue to be the subject 
of contemplation with ail who study the human mind, or 
revere the dispensations of Providence. His perseverance 
in acquiring so extensive a fund of learning, amidst those 
privations which seem to barr all access to improvement, 
is an extraordinary feature in his charg^cter, and notwith- 
standing the kind zeal of the friends who endeavoured to 
make up for his want of sight by reading to him, many of 
his attainments must ever remain inexplicable. 

With respect to his personal character, his biograj)her, 
and indeed all who knew him, have expatiated on the 
gentleness of his mannei's, the benignity of his disposition, 
and that warm interest in the happiness of others which 
led him so constantly to promote it in the young people 
who were committed to his charge. In their society he 
appeared entirely to forget the loss of sight, and the me- 


4 B L V C K L O C K. 

lancholy which, at other times, it might produce. " He 
entered," says his biographer, " with the cheerful playful- 
ness of a young man, into all the sprightly narrative, 
the sportive fancy, the humorous jest that rose around him. 
It was a sight highly gratifying to philanthropy, to see how 
much a mind endowed with knowledge, kindled by "enius 

11 iii'ii •]• o' J try 7 

and above all, lighted up with lunocence and piety, like 
Blacklock's, could overcome the weight or its own calamity, 
and enjoy the content, the happiness, and the gaiety of 
others. Several of those inmates of Dr. Blacklock';, house 
retained, in future life, all the warmth of that impression 
which his friendship at this early period hud made upon 
them ; and in various quarters of the world he had friends 
and correspondents from whom no length of time or dis- 
tance of place had ever estranged him. 

" Music, which to the feeling and the pensive, in what- 
ever situation, is a source of extreme delight, but which to 
the blind must be creative, as it were, of idea and of sen- 
timent, he enjoyed highly, and was himself a tolerable per- 
former on several instruments, particularly on the flute. 
He generally carried in his pocket a small flageolet *, on 
which he placed his favourite tunes ; and was not displeased 
when asked in company to play or to sing them ; a natural 
feeling for a blind man," who thus adds a scene to the 
drama of his society." 

With regard to his poetry, there seems no occasion to 
involve ourselves in the perplexities which Mr. Spence first 
created, and then injudiciously as well as ineff'ectually en- 
deavoured to explain. The character of his poetry is that 
of sentiment and reason ; his versification is in general ele- 
gant and harmonious, and his thoughts sometimes flow 
with an ardent rapidity that betokens real genius. But it 
is impossible to ascribe powers of description to one who 
had seen nothing tjj describe ; nor of invention to one who 
had no materials upon which he could operate. Where 
we find any passages that approach to the description of 
visible objects, we must surely attribute them to memory. 
As he had the best English poets frequently read to him, 
he attained a free command of the language of poetry, 

* " His first idea of learning to play & drecim, in which he Ui ought he met 

on this instrument he used to ascribe with a sjiepherd's boy on the side of a 

to a circumstance ratlier uncommon, pastoral iiill, who brought liie most 

but whicii, to a mind like his, suscep- exquisite music from that little instru- 

tibie at the same time and creative, ment." ^lACSENZifi. 
might aaturally enougli aiise, namely, 

B L A C K L O C K. 335 

both in simple and compound words, and we know that 
all poets consider those as common propcri}'. It is not, 
therefore, wonderful, that he speaks so often of mountains, 
valleys, rivers, nor that he appropriates to visible objects their 
peculiar characteristics, all which he must have heard re- 
peated until they became fixed in his memory ; bit as no 
man pursues long what aft'ords little more than the exer- 
cise of conjecture, we are still perplexed to discover what 
pleasure Mr. BlacklocU could take, first in a species of 
reading which could give him no ideas, and then in a 
species of writing in which he could copy only the ex- 
pressions of others. He has himself written a very long 
article on blindness in the Encyclopedia Biitannica, but 
it affords no light to the present suiiject, containing chiefly 
reflections on the disadvantaiies of blindness, and the best 
means of alleviating them. His poems, however, espe- 
cially where attempts are made at description, indicate 
powers which seem to have wanted the aid of sight only to 
bring them into the highest rank. We know that poetical 
genius is almost wholly independent of learning, and seems 
often planted in a soil where nothing else will flourish ; 
but Blacklock's is altogether an extraordinary case : we 
have not even terms by which we can intelligibly dis- 
cuss his merits, and we may conclude with Denina in his 
Discorso dellii Literatura^ that Blacklock will appear to 
posterity a fable, as to us he is a prodigy. It will be 
thought a fiction, a paradox, that a man blind from his 
infancy, besides having made himself so much a master 
of various foreign languages, should be a great poet in 
his own ; and without having hardly evqr seen the light, 
should be so remarkably happy in description. ' 

BLACKMORE (Sir Richard), physician to king Wil- 
liam HI. and queen Anne, and a very voluminous writer, 
was son of Mr. Robert Blackmore, an attorney at law. He 
received the first part of his education at a country school, 
from whence he was removed to Westminster in the thirteenth 
year of age. He was afterwards sent to St. Edmund's- 
hall, in the university of Oxford, where he continued 
thirteen years. He is sai<l to have been engaged for some 
time in the profession of a school-master ; but it is pro- 
bable he did not long continue in that situation ; and, says 
Dr. Johnson, to have been once a schoolmaster, is the 

' English Poets, edit. 1310, vol, XVIII, 

3;J6 B L A C K M O R E. 

only vf proach which all the perspicacity of malice, animated 
by wit, has ever fixed upon his private life. It appears 
tliat he travelled afterwards into Italy, and took the de- 
gree of doctor in physic, at the university of Padua. He 
also visited France, Germany, and the Low Countries, 
and having- spent ahout a year and a half abroad, he re- 
turned again to England. On his arrival in London, he 
engaged in the practice of physic there, and was chosen 
fellow of the royal college of physicians. He early dis- 
covered his attachment to the principles of the revolution ; 
and this circumstance, together with the eminence which 
he had attained in his profession, recommended him to 
the notice and favour of king William. Accordingly, in 
1697, he was appointed one of his majesty's physicians in 
ordinary ; he had also a gold medal and chain bestowed 
on him by that prince, and received from him the ho> 
nour of knighthood. Upon the king's death, he was one 
of the physicians who gave their oj)inions at the opening 
of his majesty's body. When queen Anne ascended the 
throne, he was appointed one of her physicians, and con- 
tinued in that station for some time. Sir Richard Black- 
more was the author of a variety of pieces both in prose 
and verse ; and the generality of his productions had 
many admirers in his own time ; for the third edition 
of his " Prince Arthur, an heroic poem in ten books,'* 
was published in 1696, fol. The following year he also 
published in folio '* King Arthur, an heroic poem, in twelve 
books." In 1700 he published in folio, in verse, " A Pa- 
raphrase on the book of Job ; as likewise on the songs of 
Moses, Deborah, David ; on four select Psalms ; some 
chapters of Isaiah ; and the third chapter of Habbakuk." 
He appears to have been naturally of a very serious turn, 
and therefore took great offence at the licentious and im- 
moral tendency of many of the productions of his contem- 
porary authors. To pass a censure upon these was the 
design of his poem, entitled " A Satire upon Wit," or 
rather the abuse of it, which was first published in 1700. 
But this piece was attacked and ridiculed by many dif- 
ferent writers, and there seemed to be a kind of confe- 
deracy of the wits against him. How much, however, 
they felt his reproof, appears from the following circum- 
stance. In Tom Brown's works are upwards of twenty 
different satirical pieces in verse against Blackmore, said 
to be written by colonel Codrington, sir Charles Sedley, 


colonel Blount, sir Samuel Garth, sir Richard Steele, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. William Burnaby, the earl of Anglesea, the 
countess of Sandwich, Mr. Manning, Mr. Miidmay, Dr. 
Drake, colonel Johnson, Mr. Richard Norton, &c. and 
most of these pieces are particularly levelled at our au- 
thor's *' Satire upon Wit." One topic of abuse against 
Blackmore was, that he lived in Cheapside. He was 
sometimes called the " Cheapside Knight," and the " City 
Bard;" and Garth's verses, in the collection just cited, 
are addressed " to the merry Poetaster at SadJei's Hall in 
Cheapside." In Gibber's lives we are also told, that *' sir 
Richard had, by the freedom of his censures on the liber- 
tine writers of his age, incurred the heavy displeasure of 
Dryden, who takes ail opportunities to ridicule him, and 
somewhere says, that he wrote to the rumbling of his 
chariot-wheels. And as if to be at enmity with Blackmore 
had been hereditary to our greatest poets, we find Mr. 
Pope taking up the quarrel where Di'yden left it, and per- 
secuting this worthy man with yet a severer degree of 
satire. Blackmore had been informed by Curl, that Mr. 
Pope was the author of a Travestie on the first Psalm, 
which he takes occasion to reprehend in his ' Essay on Po- 
lite Learning,' vol. IL p. 270. He ever considered it as 
the disgrace of genius, that it should be employed to bur- 
lesque any of the sacred compositions, which, as they 
speak the language of inspiration, tend to awaken the soul 
to virtue, and inspire it with a sublime devotion." 

On the 16th of November 1713, he began a paper, 
printed three times a week, called the " Lay Monk.'* 
Only forty numbers of it were published, which, in 1714, 
were collected into a volume, under the title of the " Lay 
Monastery." The Friday's papers in this collection were 
written by Hughes, and the rest by sir Richard. In a let- 
ter to Mr. Hughes, he declared that he was not deter- 
mined to the undertaking by a desire of fame or profit, 
but from a regard to the public good. In 1716, he pub- 
lished in 2 vols. 8vo, " Essays upon several subjects," and 
in 1718, " A collection of poems," in 1 vol. 8vo. But the 
work which procured him the greatest reputation, was his 
*' Creation, a philosophical poem, demonstrating the Ex- 
istence and Providence of a God, in seven books." This 
passed through several editions, and was greatly applauded 
by Mr. Addison. Mr. Locke also formed a very favour- 
able opinion of sir Richard Blackmore ; although perhaps he 

Vol. V. Z 


estimated his poetical talents too highly. In 1721, our author 
published in 12mo, " A new version of the Psalms of 
David, fitted to the tunes iised in churches." This was 
recommended by public authority, as proper to be used in 
the churches and chapels of England, but it does not ap- 
pear to have been generally adopted. Towards the close 
of his life, his practice as a physician is said to have de- 
clined ; which might probably arise from the numerous 
attempts which were made to lessen his reputation. He 
died on the 8th of October, 1729, in an advanced age; 
and manifested in his last illness the same fervent piety, 
which had distinguished him in his life. He was certainly 
a man of considerable learning and abilities, and a most 
zealous advocate for the interests of reliscion and virtue. 
He wrote, indeed, too much, and was deficient in point 
of taste ; nor did he take sufficient time to polish his com- 
positions. But he was far from being destitute of genius; 
and it is sufficiently manifestj that it was not his dullness, 
which excited so much animosity against him. Hardly any 
author has ever been more satirized than sir Richard Black- 
more, and yet, so far as we can judge from his writings, 
there have been few, perhaps none, who have had better 
intentions. He had very just ideas of the true ends of 
writing ; and it would have been happy for the world, if 
such ideas had been adopted by, and really influenced, 
authors of more brilliant genius. And though his historical 
and epic poems exposed him to some degree of ridicule, 
yet he was far from being a proper object of the extreme 
contempt with which he was treated. The merit of his 
poem on Creation, and the excellency of his life, might 
have procured him better usage. And whatever were 
the defects of his compositions, he was justly entitled to 
commendation for the morality of their tendency. He 
who labours to reform mankind is more deservinq- of our 
esteem, than he who would corrupt them, whatever may 
be the powers of genius possessed by the latter, or what- 
ever reputation his wit may have procured him. The 
fashion of the times, or the mutual jealousies and animosi- 
ties of contemporary wits and authors, often occasion great 
injustice to be done to worthy men and useful writers. 
But time will, generally, in a great degree, remove such 
prejudices ; and those who form an impartial estimate of 
the character and various productions of Blackmore, will 
acknowledge, that as a writer, with all his faults, he had 

B L A C K M O R E. 3:i9 

Considerable merit 5 that as a man, be was justly entitled 
to great applause. For, numerous as bis enemies and op- 
ponents were, they seem to have been incapable of fixing 
the least imputation upon bis cliaracter ; and those who 
personally knew him spoke highly of bis virtues. We 
think it an act of justice to endeavour to remove from a 
worthy man some part of that load of obloquy with which 
his memory has been overwhelmed. To this character, 
from the Biog. Britannica, we may add, that Dr. Johnson 
has increased the ifumber of those liberal-minded men 
who have endeavoured to rescue sir Richard Blackmore's 
name from the contempt widi which it has been treated, 
and to do justice to his abilities as well as «Siis virtues. 
To his " Creation" the doctor has given high praise, 
and has drawn the character of it with singular precision 
and elegance. From the inaccuracy with which Black- 
more in his poems has pronounced the ancient names 
of nations or places, Dr. Johnson has inferred, that the 
thirteen years he spent at the university, seem to have 
passed with very little attention to the business of the 
place. A strong testimony, however, to his diligence 
whilst at Edmund-hall, has lately been produced in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, from Turner's *' Book of Provi- 
dence." " Dr. Richard Blackmore," says Turner, *' my 
contemporary and colleague (fellow collegian) at Oxon, 
now livmg, and one of the college in London, was, in his 
first years, one of the most eager and diligent students I 
ever knew; sitting up at his book till twelve, one, two, 
and sometimes three o'clock in the morning, and then 
lying down only u))on his chairs till prayei-time, till his 
health broke, and he was constrained by necessity to re- 
tire into the country, to repair himself by physic." 

Besides the works mentioned in this account of his life, 
sir Richard wrote : 1 . " Eliza, a poem in ten books," 
1705, folio. 2. "The Redeemer, a poem in six books," 

1721, 8vo. 3. "King Alfred, in twelve books," 1723, 
8vo. 4. " History of the Conspiracy against king Wil- 
liam the Third," 1723, 3vo. 5. " A discourse on the 
Plague, with a preparatory account of malignant fevers, 
in two parts ; containing an explication of the nature of 
those diseases, and the methods of cure," 1720, 8vo. 
6. " A treatise on the Small-pox, in two parts ; and a 
dissertation upon the modern practice of Inoculation," 

1722, 8vo. 7. ** A treatise on Consumptions and other 
distempers belonging to the breast and lungs," 1724, 8vo, 

z 2 

540 B L A C K M O E E. 

8. " A treatise on the Spleen and Vapours, or hypochon- 
driacal and hysterical affections ; with three discourses on 
the nature and cure of the Cl)olic, Melancholy, and Palsy," 
1725, 8vo. 9. " A critical dissertation upon the Spleen, '' 
1725. 10. " Discourses on the Gout, Rheumatism, and 
the King's Evil," 1726, 8vo. II. " Dissertations on a 
Dropsy, a Tympany, the Jaundice, the Stone, and the 
Diabetes," 1727, 8vo. 12. " Just prejudices against the 
Arian hypothesis," 1725, 8vo. 13. " Modern Arians un- 
masked," 1721, Bvo. 14. *' Natural Theology, or moral 
Duties considered apart from positive : with some ob- 
servations on the desirableness and necessity of a super- 
natural revelation," 1728, Svo. 15. " The accomplished 
Preacher; or, an essay upon divine eloquence," 1731, 
Svo. This last piece was published after the author's 
death, in pursuance of his express order, b}' the rev. Mr. 
John White, of Nayland, in Essex ; who attended sir 
Richard during his last illness, and bore testimony to the 
elevated piety with which he prepared for his approaching 
dissolution. * 

BLACKSTONE (Sir William), knight, and LL. D. 
an illustrious English law3-er, was born July 10, 1723, in 
Cheapside, in the parish of St. Michael-le-Querne, at 
the house of his father, Mr. Charles Blackstone, a silk- 
man, and citizen and bowyer of London, who was the 
third son of Mr. John Blackstone, an eminent apothecary, 
in Newgate-street, descended from a family of that name 
in the west of England, at or near Salisbury. His mother 
was Mary, eldest daughter of Loveiace Bigg, esq. of Chil- 
ton Foliot, in Wiltshire. He was the youngest of four 
children, of whom, John died an infant, Charles, the 
eldest, and Henry, the third, were educated at Winches- 
ter-school, under the care of their uncle Dr. Bigg, warden 
of that society, and were afterwards both fellows of New 
college, Oxford. Charles becam.e a fellow of Winchester, 
and rector of Wimering, in Hampshire-, and Henry, after 
having practised physic for some years, went into holy 
orders, and died in 1773, rector of Adderbury, in Oxford- 
shire, a living in the gift of New-college. Their father 
died some months before the birth of the subject of this 
article, and their mother died before he was twelve years 

* Biog. Brit. — Cibber's Lives. — Johnson's Lives. — Bowles's edit, of Pope's 
Works.— Dr. Johnson's Works.— Gent. Mag. vol. LVII. p. 749.— Malone's 
Drydeu, vol. IV. p. 647. 


From his birth, the care both of his education and for- 
tune was kindly undertaken by his maternal uncle, Mr. 
Tliomas Bigg, an eminent surgeon in London, and after- 
wards, on tiie death of his eldest brothers, owner of the 
Chilton estate, wliich, if we mistake not, is still enjoyed 
by that family. The afiectionate care of this uncle, in 
giving all his nephews a liberal education, supplied the 
great loss they had so early sustained, and compensated, 
in a great degree, for their want of more ample fortunes, 
and it was always remembered by them with the sincerest 
gratitude. In 1730, being about seven years of age, he 
was put to school at the Charter-house, and in 1733 was, 
by the nomination of sir Robert Walpole, on the recom- 
mendation of Charles Wither, of Hall, in Hampshire, esq. 
his cousin b}' the mother's side, admitted upon the foun- 

In this excellent seminary he applied himself to every 
branch of youthful education, with the same assiduity which 
accompanied his studies through life. His talents and in- 
dustry rendered him the favourite of his masters, who en- 
couraged and assisted him with the utmost attention ; so 
that at the age of fifteen he was at the head of the school, 
and, although so young, was thought well qualified to be 
removed to the university ; and he was accordingly en- 
tered a commoner at Pembroke college, Oxford, ISov. 30, 
1738, and was the next day matriculated. At this time 
he was elected to one of the Charter-house exhibitions, by 
the governors of that foundation, to commence from the 
Michaelmas preceding, but was permitted to continue a 
scholar there till after the 12th of December, beinor the 
anniversary commemoration of the founder, to give him 
an opportunity of speaking the customary oration, which 
he had prepared, and which did him much credit. About 
this time, also, he obtained Mr. Benson's gold prize medal 
of Milton, for verses on that poet. Thus, before he 
quitted school, his genius received public marks of ap- 
probation and reward ; and so well pleased was the society 
of Pembroke college with their young pupil, that, in the 
February following, they unaniniousl)' elected him to one 
of lady Holford's exhibitions for Ciiarter-house scholars in 
that house. 

Here he prosecuted his studies with unremitting ardour, 
and, although the classics, and pariicularly the Greek and 
Koman poets, were his favourites, they did not entirely 

342 B L A C K S T O N E. 

engross bis attention ; logic, mathematics, and the other 
sciences were not neglected. From the first of these, 
(studied rationally, abstracted from the jargon of theschools), 
he laid the foundation of that close method of reasoning 
for which he was so remarkable ; and from the mathe- 
matics, he not only reaped the benefit of using his mind 
to a close investigation of every subject that occurred to 
him, till he arrived at the degree of demonstration which 
the nature of it would admit, Ijut converted that dry study, 
as it is usually thought, into an amusement, by pursuing 
the branch of it which relates to architecture. This sci- 
ence he was peculiarly fond of, and made himself so far 
master of it, that at the early age of twenty, he compiled 
a treatise entitled " Elements of Architecture," intended 
for his own use only, and not for publication, but esteemed 
by those judges who have perused it, in no respect un- 
worthy of his maturer judgment, and more exercised pen. 

Having determined on his future plan of life, and made 
choice of the law for his profession, he was entered in the 
Middle Temple, Nov, 20, 1741, and found it necessary to 
quit the more amusing pursuits of his youth for the se- 
verer studies to which he had dedicated himself, and be- 
took himself seriously to reading law. His sensations on 
this occasion are admirably expressed in some verses since 
published in Dodsley's poems, vol. IV. entitled " The 
Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse," in which the struggle of 
his mind is expressed so strongly, so naturally, with such 
elegance of language, and harmony of versification, as 
must convince every reader, that his passion for the muses 
was too deeply rooted to be laid aside without much reluc- 
tance ; and that if he had pursued that flowery path, he 
would not, perhaps, have proved inferior to the best of 
our modern poets. Several little fugitive pieces, besides 
this, have at times been communicated by him to his 
friends, and he left (but not witii a view to publication) a 
small collection of juvenile pieces, both originals and 
translations, which do him no discredit, inscribed with this 
line, from Horace, 

" Nee lubisse pudet, sed non incidere hidum." 

Some notes on Shakspeare, which just before his death 
he communicated to Mr. Malone, and which were inserted 
by him in his supplement to Johnson and Steevens's edition 
of that author, shew how well he uniierstood the meaning, 
as well as the beauties, of that, his favourite among the 

B L A C K S T O N E. 343 

English poets; and we may mention likewise his elegant 
and acute defence of Addison, inserted in the life of that 
autlior, in the second edition of the Biographia Britannica. 

Im Noveuiber 1743, he was elected into the society of 
All Souls college, and in the November following, bespoke 
the annual speech in commemoration of archbishop Chi- 
chele, the founder, and the other benefactors to that 
house of learning, and was admitted actual fellow. From 
this period he divided his time between the university and 
the Temple, where he took chambers in order to attend the 
courts : in the former he pursued his academical studies, 
and, on the 12th of June 1745, commenced B. C. L. ; in 
the latter he applied himself closely to his profession, 
both in the hall, and in his private studies, and on the 
28th of November 1746, was called to the bar. 

The first years of a counsel's attendance on the courts 
afford little matter proper to be inserted in a narrative of 
this kind ; and he, in particular, not being happy in a 
graceful delivery, or a flow of elocution, (both of which 
he much wanted), nor having any powerful friends or con- 
nexions to recommend him, made his way very slowly, and 
acquired little notice and little practice ; yet he then began 
to lay in that store of knowledge in the law which he has 
since communicated to the world, and contracted an ac- 
quaintance with several of the most eminent men in that 
profession, who saw through the then intervening cloud, 
those talents which afterwards wejre exerted with so much 

At Oxford his active mind had more room to display 
itself; and being elected into the office of Bursar, soon 
after he had taken his decree, and finding the muniments 
of the college in a confused, irregular state, he undertook 
and completed a thorough search, and a new arrangement, 
from whence that society reaped great advantage. He 
found also, in the execution of this office, the method of 
keeping accounts in use among the older colleges, though 
very exact, yet rather tedious and perplexed ; he drew 
up, therefore, a dissertation on the subject, in which he 
entered into the whole theory, and elucidated every intri- 
cacy that might occur. A copy of this tract is still pre- 
served, for the benefit of his successors in the Bursarship. 
But it was not merely the estates, muniments, and accounts 
of the college, about which he was usefully employed 
during his residence in that society. The Codringtou 

344. B L A C K S T O N E. 

library had for many years remained an unfinished building. 
He hastened the completion of it, rectified several mis- 
takes in the architecture, and formed a new arrangement 
of the books under their respective classes. 

The late duke of Wharton, who had engaged himself 
by bond to defray the expence of building the apartments 
between the library and common room, being obliged soon 
after to leave his country, and dying in very distressed 
circumstances, the discharge of this obligation was long 
despaired of. It happened, however, in a course of years, 
that his grace's executors were enabled to pay his debts ; 
when, by the care and activity of Mr. Blackstone, the 
building was completed, the college thereby enabled to 
make its demand, and the whole benefaction recovered. 
In May 1749, as a small reward for hi:j services, and to 
give him further opportunities of advancing the interests 
of the college, he was appointed steward of their manors ; 
and in the same year, on the resignation of his uncle Sey-^ 
mour Richmond, esq. he was elected recorder of the 
borough of Wailingford, in Berkshire, and received the 
king's approbation on the 30th of May. 

The 26th of April, 1750, he commenced doctor of civil 
law, and thereby became a member of the convocation ; 
which enabled him to extend his views beyond the narrow 
circle of his own society', to the general benefit of the uni- 
versity at large. In this year he pubhshed " An essay on 
Collateral Consanguinity," relative to the claim made by 
such as could by a pedigree prove themselves of kin to the 
founder of All-Souls college, of being elected preferably 
to all others into that society. Those claims became now 
so numerous, that the college, with reason, complained of 
being frequently precluded from making choice of the 
most ingenious and deserving candidates. In this treatise, 
which was his first publication, he endeavoured to prove, 
that as the kindred to the founder, a Popish ecclesiastic, 
could be oidy collateral, the length of time elapsed since 
his death must, according to the rules both of the civil and 
canon law, have extinguished consanguinity ; or that the 
whole race of mankind were equally foiuiders' kinsmen. 
This work, although it did not answer the end proposed, 
or convince the then visitor, yet did the author great cre- 
dit ; and shewed that he had read much, and well digested 
what he had read. And most probably, the arguments 
contained in it had some weight with his Grace the late 

B L A C K S T O N E. 345 

archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cornwallis, when about 
forty years ago, on application to him, as visitor of the 
college, he formed a new regulation, which gives general 
satisfaction, by limiting the number of Foumlcr's kin ; by 
which the inconvenience complained of was in a great 
measure removed, without annihilating a claim founded on 
the express words of the college statutes. In forming this 
new regulation, his Grace made choice of Mr. liiackstone 
as his common- law assessor, together with Dr. Hay the 

After havino- attended the courts in Westminster-hall 
for seven years, and finding the profits of his profession, 
very inadequate to the expence, in the summer of 1753, 
he determined to retire to his fellowship and an academical 
life, still continuing the practice of his profession, as a 
provincial counsel. He had previously planned, what he 
now began to execute, his *' Lectures on the Laws of 
England," a work which has so justly signalized his name. 
In the ensuino- Michaelmas term he entered on his new 
province of reading these lectures ; which, even at their 
commencement, such were the expectations formed from 
the acknowledged abilities of the lecturer, were attended 
by a very crowded class of young men of the first families, 
characters, and hopes. In July, 1755, he was appointed 
one of the delegates of the Clarendon press. On his 
entering on this office, he discovered many abuses which 
required correction ; and much mismanagement which de- 
manded new and effectual reoulations. In order to obtain 
a thorough insight into the nature of both, he made him- 
self master of the mechanical part of printing ; and to pro- 
mote and complete a reform, he printed a letter on the 
subject, addressed to Dr. Randolph, then vice-chancellor. 
This and his other endeavours produced the desired effect; 
and he had the pleasure of seeing, witliin the course of a 
year, the reform he had proposed, carried into execution. 
About a year before this, he published " An Analysis of 
the Laws of England," as a guide to those gentlemen who 
attended his lectures, on their first introduction to that 
study: in wtiich he reduced that intricate science to a 
clear method, intelligible to the youngest student. 

In 1757, on tht death of Dr. Coxed, w^irden of Win- 
chester, he was elected by the surviving visitors ot IMichel's 
new foundation in Queen's college into that body. This 
new situation afforded tresh matter for his active genius ; 

346 B L A C K S T O N E. 

and it was chiefly by his means that this donation, which 
had been for some years contested, became a very valu- 
able acquisition to the college, as well as an ornament to 
the university, b^^ completing that handsome pile of build- 
ing towards the High-street, which for many years had 
been little better than a confused heap of ruins. The en- 
grafting a new set of fellows and scholars into an old esta- 
blished society could not be an easy task, and in the pre- 
sent instance was become more difficult, from the many 
imsuccessful attempts that had been made, all of which 
had only terminated in disputes between the members of 
the old and the visitors of the new foundation ; yet under 
these circumstances Dr. Blackstone was not disheartened, 
but formed and pursued a plan, calculated to improve Mr. 
Michel's original donation, without departing from his in- 
tention ; and had the pleasure to see it completed, en- 
tirely to the satisfaction of the members of the old founda- 
tion, and confirmed, together with a body of statutes he 
drew for the purpose, b}- act of parliament, in 17G9. 

Being engaged as counsel in the great contest for 
knights of the shire for the county of Oxford in 1754, he 
very accurately considered a question then much agitated, 
whether copyholders of a certain nature had a right to vote 
in county elections? He afterwards reduced his thoughts 
on that subject into a small treatise ; and was prevailed on 
by sir Charles Mordaunt, and other members of parliament, 
who had brought in a bill to decide that controverted point, 
to publish it in March 1751-5, under the title of " Con- 
siderations on Copyholders." And the bill soon after re- 
ceived the sanction of the legislature, and passed into a 

Mr. Viner having by his will left not only the copy-right 
of his abridgement, but other property to a considerable 
amount, to the university of Oxford, to found a professor- 
sliip, fellowships, and scholarships of common law, he was 
on the 20th of October, 1758, unanimously elected Vinerian 
professor; and on the 25th of the same month read his 
first introductory lecture ; one of the most elegant and ad- 
mired compositions which any age or country ever pro- 
duced : this he published at the request of the vice-chan- 
cellor and heads of houses, and afterwards prefixed to the 
first volume of his Commentaries. His lectures had now 
gained such universal applause, that he was requested by a 
noble personage, who superintended the education of our 


present sovereign, then prince of Wales, to read them to 
his royal highness; but as he was at that time engaged to 
a numerous class of pupils in the university, he thought 
he could not, consistently with that engagement, comply 
with this request, and therefore declined it. But he trans- 
mitted copies of many of them for the perusal of his 
royal highness ; who, far from being offended at an excuse 
grounded on so honourable a motive, was pleased to order 
a handsome gratuity to be presented to him. 

In 17j9 he published two small pieces merely relative to 
the university ; the one entitled, *' Reflections on the 
opinions of Messrs. Pratt, Morton, and Wilbraham, relat- 
ing to lord Litchfield's Disqualification," who was then a 
candidate for the chancellorship : the other, " A Case for 
the opinion of counsel on the right of the University to 
make New Statutes." 

Having now established a reputation by his lectures, 
which he justly thought might entitle him to some particu- 
lar notice at the bar, in June 1759, he bought chambers 
in the Temple, resigned the office of assessor of the vice- 
chancellor's court, which he had held about six years, and 
soon after the stewardship of All-Souls college; and in 
Michaelmas term, 1759, resumed his attendance at West- 
minster, still continuing to pass some part of the year at 
Oxford, and to read his lectures there, at such times as 
did not interfere with the London terms. The year before 
this he declined the honour of the coif, which he was 
pressed to accept of by lord chief justice Willes and Mr. 
justice (afterwards earl) Bathurst. 

In November 1759, he published a new edition of the 
Great Charter, and Charter of the Forest; which added 
much to his former reputation, not only as a great lawyer, 
but as an accurate antiquary, and an able historian. It 
must also be added, that the external beauties in the print- 
ing, the types, &c. reflected no small honour on him, as 
the principal reformer of the Clarendon press, from whence 
no work had ever before issued, equal in those particulars 
to this. This publication drew him into a short contro- 
versy with the late Dr. Lyttelton, then dean of Exeter, 
and afterwards bishop of Carlisle. The dean, to assist Mr. 
Blackstone in his publication, had favoured him with the 
collation of a very curious ancient roll, containing both the 
Great Charter, and that of the Forest, of the 9th of Henry 
lil. which he and many of his friends judged to be an ori- 

34S B L A C K S T O N E. 

ginal. The editor of the Charters, however, thought other- 
wise, and excused himself (in a note in his introduction) 
for having made no use of its various readings, " as the 
plan of his edition was confined to charters which had 
passed the great seal, or else to authentic entries and enrol- 
ments of record, under neither of which classes the roll in 
question could be ranked." The dean, upon this, con- 
cerned for the credit of his roll, presented to the Society 
of Antiquaries a vmdication of its authenticity, dated June 
the 8th, 1761 ; and Mr, Blackstone delivered in an answer 
to the same learned body, dated May the 28th, 1762, al- 
leging, as an excuse for the trouble he gave them, 
*' that he should think himself wanting in that respect 
which he owed to the society, and Dr. Lyttelton, if he did 
not either own and correct his mistakes, in the octavo edi- 
tion then preparing for the press, or submit to the society's 
judgment the reasons at large upon which his suspicions 
were founded." These reasons, we may suppose, were 
convincing, for here the dispute ended * 

About the same time he also published a small treatise 
on the Law of Descents in Fee Simple. 

A dissolution of parliament having taken place, he was 
in March 1761, returned burgess for flindon, in Wiltshire, 
and on the 6th of May following had a patent of precedence 
granted him to rank as king's counsel, having a few months 
before declined the office of chief justice of the court of 
common pleas in Ireland. 

Finding himself not deceived in his expectations in re- 
spect to an increase of business in his profession, he now 
determined to settle in life, and on the 5th of May, 1761, 
he married Sarah the eldest surviving daughter of the late 
James Chtherow, of Boston-house, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, esq. with whom he passed near nineteen years in 
the enjoyment of the purest domestic and conjugal felicity, 
for which no man was better calculated, and which, housed 
often to declare, was the ha])piest part of his life : by her 

* It may hn here mentioned, that, as England on it, was one of those which 

an ttn'i(iiiary, and a member of this so- all persons having the exercise of ec- 

ciety, into which he was admitted Fe- clesiasticat jnrisdiction were obliged by 

bruary the 5th, 1761, he wrote "A the sratute of tiie Islof Ed. VI. ch. -2, 

Letter to the hon. Daines Barringfon, to make use ef. Tiiis letter is printed 

describing an antique Seal, with some in the third volume of the Arohrsolo- 

obseivaLions on its original, and the gia j but his discussion of the merits, 

two successive controversies which (he of the Lyttelton roll, though contain- 

disuse of it afterwards occasioned." inj much goorl criticism, has HOI yet 

This seal, having the royal arms of been made public. 

B L A C K S T O N E. 349 

he had nine children, the eldest and youngest of whom died 
jnfunts : seven survived him ; viz. Henry, James*, William, 
Charles, 8arah, Mar}', and Philippa ; the eldest not much 
above the age of IG at his death. 

His marriage having vacated his fellowship at All-Souls, 
he was, on the 28th of July 1761, appointed by the earl of 
Westmoreland, at that time chancellor of Oxford, principal 
of New-inn hall. This was an agreeable residence during 
the time his lectures required him to be in Oxford, and 
was attended with this additional pleasing circumstance, 
that it save him rank, as the head of an house in the uni- 
versity, and enabled him, by that means, to contmue to 
promote whatever occurred to him, that might be useful 
and beneficial to that learned body. An attempt being 
made about this time to restrain the power given him, as 
professor, by the Vinerian statutes, to nominate a deputy 
to read the solemn lectures, he published a state of the case 
for the perusal of the members of convocation ; upon which 
it was dropped. 

In the following year, 1762, he collected and republished 
several of his pieces, under the title of " Law Tracts," in 
2 vols. 8vo. In 1763, on the establishment of the queen's 
family, Mr. Blackstone was a})pointed solicitor general to 
her majesty, and was chosen about the same time a bencher 
of the Middle Temple. 

Many imperfect and incorrect copies of his lectures hav- 
ing by this time got abi-oad, and a pirated edition of them 
being either published, or preparing for publication in Ire- 
land, he found himself under the necessity of printing a 
correct edition himself; and in November, 1765, published 
the first volume, under the title of " Commentaries on the 
Laws of England," and in the course of the four succeeding 
years the other three volumes, which completed a work 
that will transmit his name to posterity among the first class 
of English authors, and will be universally read and ad- 
mired, as long as the laws, the constitution, and the lan- 
guage of this country remain. Two circumstances re- 
specting this great v/ork, omitted by his biographer, we 
are enabled to add from unquestionable authority. So 
anxious was he that this work should appear with every 
possible advantage, that he printed three copies of the first 

* Now principal of Xew Inn hall, assessor to the vice-chancellor, antl 
ieputy Sttward. 

350 B L A G K S T O N E. 

\'olume, which he sent to three learned friends, for ihe'it 
opinion. — The other circumstance does honour to his 
liberahty. Alter reserving the copy-right in his own hands 
for some years, he disjjosed of it to Messrs. Strahan and 
Cadell for a considerable sum, but as, immediately after 
concluding the bargain, the decision passed the house of 
lords, which depreciated literary property, he offered 
Messrs. Strahan and Cadell, to cancel the agreement, and 
substitute another, by which he thought they would be 
less injured. These gentlemen, however, met his proposi- 
tion with a corresponding liberality, and the original bar- 
gain stood; and every reader will be glad to hear that they 
were no losers, the work soon becoming, and yet remain- 
ing, in every sense, an English classic. 

In 17 66, he resigned the Vinerian professorship, and 
the principality of New-inn hall; finding he could not 
discharge the personal duties of the former, consistently 
with his professional attendance in London, or the delicacy 
ot his feelings as an honest man. Thus was he detached 
from Oxford, to the inexpressible loss of that university, 
and the great regret of all those who viished well to the 
establishment of the study of the law therein. When he 
first turned his views towards the Vinerian professorship, 
he had formed a design of settling in Oxford for life ; he 
had flattered himself, that by annexing the office of pro- 
fessor to the principality of one of the halls (and perhaps 
converting it into a college), and placing Mr. Viner's fellows 
and scholars under their professor, a society might be estab- 
lished for students of the common law, similar to that of 
Trinity hall in Cambridge for civilians. Mr. Viner's will 
verj^ much favoured this plan. He leaves to the university 
*' all his personal estate, books, &,c. for the constituting, 
establishing, and endowing one or more fellowship or fel- 
lowships, and scholarship or scholarships, in any college 
or hall in the said university, as to the convocation shall be 
thought most proper for students of the common law." But 
notwithstanding this plain direction to establish them in 
some college or hall, the clause from the delegates which 
ratified this designation, had the fate to be rejected by a 
negative in convocation. 

In the new parliament chosen in 1768 he was returned 
burgess for Westbury in Wiltshire. In the course of this 
parliament, the question, " Whether a member expelled 
was; or was not, eligible in the same parliament," was fre- 

B L A C K S T O N E. 351 

quently agitated in the house with much warmth ; and 
what fell from him in a debate being deemed by some per- 
sons contradictory to what he had advanced on tiie same 
subject in his Commentaries, he was attacked with nmch 
asperity, in a pami)hlet supposed to be written by a baro- 
net, a member of that house. To this charge he gave an 
early reply in print. In the same year, Dr. Priestley ani- 
madverted on some positions in the same work, relative to 
offences against the doctrine of the established church, to 
which he published an answer. 

Mr. Blackstone's reputation as a great and able lawyer 
was now so thoroughly established, that had he been pos- 
sessed of a constitution equal to the fatigues attending the 
most extensive business of the profession, he might pro- 
bably have obtained its most lucrative emoluments and 
highest offices. The offer of the solicitor generalship, on 
the resignation of Mr. Dunning, in Jan. 1770, opened the 
most flattering prospects to his view. But tlie attendance 
on its complicated duties at the bar, and in the house of 
commons, induced him to refuse it. But though he de- 
clined this path, which so certainly, with abilities like Mr. 
Blackstone's, leads to the highest dignities in the law, yet 
he readily accepted the office of judge of the common 
pleas, when offered to him on the resignation of Mr. Justice 
Clive; to which he was appointed on the 9th of February 
1770. Previous however to the passing his patent, Mr. 
Justice Yates expressed an earnest wish to remove from the 
king's bench to the court of common pleas. To this wish 
Mr. Blackstone, from motives of personal esteem, consent- 
ed : but on his death, which happened between the en- 
suing Easter and Trinity terms, Mr. Blackstone was ap- 
pointed to his original destination in the common pleas; 
and on his promotion to the bench, he resigned the re- 
cordership of Wallingford. 

He seemed now arrived at the point he always wished 
for, and might justly be said to enjoy " otium cnm digni- 
tate." Freed from the attendance at the bar, and what he 
had still a greater aversion to, in the senate, *' where (to 
use his own expression) amid the rage of contending par- 
ties, a man of moderation must expect to meet with no 
quarter from any side," although he diligently and con- 
scientiously attended the duties of the high office he was 
now placed in, yet the leisure afforded by the legal vaca- 
tions he dedicated to the private duties of life, which, as 

352 B L A C K S T O N E, 

the father of a numerous family, he now found himself 
called upon to exercise, or to literary retirement, and the 
society of his friends, at his villa, called Priory-place, in 
Wallingford : which he purchased soon after his marriage, 
though he had for some years before occasionally resided 
at it. His connection with this town, both from his office 
of recorder, and his more or less frequent residence there, 
from about 1750, led him to form and promote every plan 
which could contribute to its l^cnefit or improvement. To 
his activity it stands indebted for two new turnpike roads 
through the town ; the one opening a communication, by 
means of a new bridge over the Thames at Shillingford, 
between Oxford and Readiusr ; the other to Wantasre 
through the vaie of Berkshire. He was indeed always a 
great promoter of the improvement of public roads : the 
new western road over Botley Causeway was projected, 
and the plan of it entirely conducted by him. He was the 
more earnest in this design, not merely as a work of gene- 
ral utility and ornament, but as a solid improvement to the 
estate of a nobleman, in settling whose affairs he had been 
most laboriously and beneficially employed. To his archi- 
tectural talents, also, his liberal disposition, his judicious 
zeal, and his numerous friends, Wallingford owes the re- 
building that handsome fabric, St. Peter's church. These 
were his employments in retirement; in London his 
active mind was never idle, and when not occupied in the 
duties of his station, he was ever engaged in some scheme 
of public utility. The last of this kind in which he was 
concerned, v^^as the act of parliament for providing de- 
tached houses of hard labour for convicts, as a substitute 
for transportation. Of this scheme we have just given 
some account in the life of Blackburn the architect. It has 
been put in practice in several counties, but the question 
as to the beneficial effects of solitary confinement, although 
frequently agitated, has not been so completely decided 
as to obviate many objections which have been lately of- 

It ought not to be omitted, that the last augmentation of 
the judges' salaries, calculated to make up the deficiencies 
occasioned by the heavy taxes they are subject to, and 
thereby render them more independent, was obtained in a 
great measta-e by his industry and attention. 

In iliis useful and agreeable manner he passed the last 
ten years of his life ; but not without many interruptions 

B L A C K S T O N E. 353 

by illness. His constitution, hurt by the studious midnight 
labours of his younger da3^s, and an unhappy aversion he 
always had to exercise, grew daily worse ; not only the 
gout, with which he was frequently, though not very se- 
verely, visited from 17 59, but a nervous disorder also, that 
frequently brought on a giddiness or vertigo, added to a 
corpulency of body, rendered him still more unactive than 
he used to be, and contributed to the breaking up of his 
constitution at an early period of life. About Christmas 
1779 he was seized with a violent shortness of breath, which 
the faculty apprehended was occasioned by a dropsical 
habit, and water on the chest. By the application of pro- 
per remedies that effect of his disorder was soon removed, 
but the cause was not eradicated ; for on his coming up to 
town to attend Hilary term, he was seized with afresh at- 
tack, chiefly in his head, which brought on a drowsiness 
and stupor, and baffled all the art of medicine ; the disorder 
increasing so rapidly, that he became at last for some days 
almost totally insensible, and expired on the 14th of Feb. 
1780, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 

A tew weeks before he died, he was applied to by the 
trustees for executinor the will of the late sir Georo-e Down- 
ing, hart, who had bequeathed a large estate for the en- 
dowing a new college in Cambridge, to give his assistance 
in forming a proper plan for this society, and framing a 
body of statutes for its regulation. This was a task to which 
his abilities were peculiarly adapted ; and it may be diffi- 
cult to determine, whether the application reflected more 
honour on the trustees, or on him. He had mentioned to 
some of his most intimate friends, his undertaking this bu- 
siness with great pleasure, and seemed to promise himself 
much satisfaction in the amusement it would afford him : 
but, alas ! his disorder was then coming on with such hasty 
strides, that before any thing could be done in it, death- 
put an end to this and all his labours, and left the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, as well as that of Oxford, to lament the 
loss of Mr. Justice Blackstone. He was buried, by his own 
direction, in a vault he had built for his family, in his pa- 
rish church of St. Peter's in Wallingford. His neijrhbour 
and friend Dr. Barrington, bishop of Landaft, now of Dur- 
ham, at his own particular request, performed the funeral 
service, as a public testimony of his personal regard and 
highest esteem. 

In his pubhc line of life he approved himself an able,' 

Vol. V. A A 

554 B L A C K S T O N E. 

upright, impartial judge; perfectly acquainted with the 
laws of the country, and making them the invariable rule 
of his conduct. As a senator, he was averse to party vio- 
lence, and moderate in his sentiments. Not only in parlia- 
ment, but at all times, and on all occasions, he was a firm 
supporter of the true principles of our happy constitution 
in church and state ; on the real merits of which few men 
were so well qualified to decide. He was ever an active 
and judicious promoter of whatever he thought useful or 
advantageous to the public in general, or to any particular 
society or neighbourhood he was connected with ; and hav- 
ing not only a sound judgment, but the clearest ideas, and 
the most analytical head that any man, perhaps, was ever 
blessed with; these qualifications, joined to an unremitting 
perseverance in pursuing whatever he thought right, ena- 
bled him to carry many beneficial plans into execution, 
which probably would have failed, if they had been at- 
tempted by other men. 

He was a believer in the great truths of Christianity, 
from a thorough investigation of its evidence : attached to 
the church of Enijland from conviction of its excellence, 
liis principles were those of its genuine members, enlarged 
and tolerant. His religion was pure and unaffected, and 
his attendance on its public duties regular, and those da- 
ties always performed with seriousness and devotion. 

His professional abilities need not be dwelt upon. They 
will be universally acknowledged and admired, as long as 
his works shall be read, or, in other words, as long as the 
municipal laws of this country shall remain an object of 
study and practice : and though his works will only hold 
forth to future generations his knowledge of the law, and 
his talents as a writer, there was hardly any branch of lite- 
rature he was unacquainted with. He ever employed much 
time in reading, and whatever he had read and once di- 
gested, he never forgot. He was an excellent manager 
of his time ; and although so much of it was spent in an 
application to books, and the employment of his pen, yet 
this was done without the parade or ostentation of being a 
hard student. It was observed of him, during his residence 
at college, that his studies never appeared to break in upon 
the common business of life, or the innocent amusements 
of society ; for the latter of which few men were better 
calculated, being possessed of the happy faculty of making 
his own company agreeable and instructive, whilst he en- 

B L A C K S T O N E. 355 

joyed, vvitliout reserve, the society of others. Melancthon 
himself could not have been more rigid in observing the 
hour and minute of an appointment. During the years in 
which he I'ead his lectures at Oxford, it could not be re- 
membered that he had ever kept his audience waiting for 
him, even for a few minutes. As he valued his own time, 
he was extremely careful not to be instrumental in squan- 
dering or trifling away tliat of others, who, he hoped, might 
have as much regard for theirs, as he had for his. Indeed, 
punctuality was in his opinion so much a virtue, that he 
could not bring himself to think favourably of any who 
were notoriously defective in it. 

The virtues of his private character, less conspicuous ia 
their nature, and consequently less generally known, en- 
deared him to those he was more intimately connected 
with, and who saw him in the more retired scenes of life. 
He was, notvvithstanding his contracted brow (owing in a 
great measure to his being very near-sighted), a cheerful, 
agreeable, and facetious companion. He was a faithful 
friend, an affectionate husband and parent, and a charitable 
benefactor to the poor •, possessed of generosity, without 
affectation, bounded by prudence and ceconomy. The 
constant accurate knowledsre he had of his income and ex- 
pences (the consequence of uncommon regularity in his 
accounts) enabled him to avoid the opposite extremes of 
meanness and profusion. , 

Being himself strict in the exercise of every public and 
private duty, he expected the same attention to both in 
others : and, when disappointed in his expectations, was 
apt to animadvert with some degree of severity on those 
who, in his estimate of duty, seemed to deserve it. This 
rigid sense of obligation, added to a certain irritability of 
temper, derived from nature, and increased in his latter 
years by a strong nervous affection, together with his coun- 
tenance and figure, conveyed an idea of sternness, which 
occasioned the unmerited imputation, among those who 
did not know him, of ill-nature : but he had a heart as be- 
nevolent and as feeling as man ever possessed. A natural 
reserve and diffidence which accompanied him from his 
earliest youth, and which he could never shake off, ap- 
peared to a casual observer, though it was only appearance, 
like pride; especially after he became a judge, when he 
thought it his duty to keep strictly up to forms (which, as 
he was wont to observe, are now too much laid aside), and 

A A 2 

556 B L A C K S T O N E. 

not to lessen the respect due to the dignity and gravity of 
his office, by any outward levity of behaviour. 

For this excellent memoir of Judge Blackstone, we are 
indebted to the Preface prefixed to his " Reports," 1780, 
2 vols, folio, written by James Clitherow, esq. his brother- 
in-law. For its length no apology can be necessary, for 
Blackstone may justly be ranked among the illustrious 
characters of the eighteenth century, and as possessing a 
claim to permanent reputation which it will not be easy to 
lessen. — It was not long after his death, before the sons of 
Oxford paid the honours due to the memory of so eminent . 
a scholar and benefactor. In 1781, a portrait was pre- 
sented to the picture-gallery, by R. Woodeson, D. C. L. 
professor; T. Milles, B. C. L. ; T. Plumer, A. M. ; and H. 
Addington, A. M. (now lord Sidmouth), scholars upon Vi- 
ner's foundation: and in 178 1, by the liberality of Dr'. 
Buckler, and a few other members of All Souls, a beauti- 
ful statue, by Bacon, was erected in the hall of that col- 
lege, and may be considered as one of its most striking 
ornaments. His arms are likewise in one of the north 
windows of the elegant chapel of All Souls. ' 

BLACKWALL (Anthony), a native of Derbyshire, 
born in 1674, was admitted sizer in Emanuel college, 
Cambridge, Sept. 13, 1690; proceeded B. A. in 16i)4, and 
went out M. A. 1698. He was appointed head master of 
the free-school at Derby, and lecturer of All-hallows there, 
where in 1706 he distinguished himself in the literary 
world by " Theognidis Megarensis sententiae morales, no- 
va Latina versione, notis et emendationibus, explanatae et 
exornatse : una cum variis lectionibus, &c." Svo. Whilst 
at Derby he also published "An Introduction to the Clas- 
sics ; containing a short discourse on their excellences, and 
directions how to study them to advantage : with an essay 
on the nature and use of those emphatical and beautiful 
figures which give strength and ornament to writing," 17 IS, 
12mo; in which he displayed the beauties of those ad- 
mirable writers of antiquity, in a very instructive, concise, 
and clear manner. In 1722 he was appointed head master 
of the free-school at Market-Bosvvorth in Leicestershire ; 
and in 1725 appeared, in quarto, his greatest and most 
celebrated work, " The Sacred Classics defended and iU 

' From Memoirs as above. — In 1782, a strange, rambling Life of Sir W. 
Jtlackstone, appeared in an Svo volume, rejnarkaUk only for captious remarks. 

B L A C K W ALL. 357 

Instrated." A second volume (completed but a few weeks 
l)efore his death) was published in 1731, under the title of 
" The Sacred Classics defended and illustrated. The se- 
cond and last volume." 'I'o this volume was prefixed a 
portrait of the author by Vertne, from an original painting. 
Both volumes were reprinted in 4to, Lipsioe, 1736. In 
many respects this is a work of great merit. It displays a 
fund of genuiue learning, and contains a number of useful 
and important observations. In a great variety of instances 
it is shewn, that several of the words and phrases in the 
New Testament which have been condemned as barbarous, 
are to be found in Greek writers of the best reputation. 
But it is the opinion of some judicious critics, that he has 
not succeeded in proving the general purity and elegance 
of language in which the evangelists and apostles wrote. 
Among these Dr. Campbell appears to be Mr. Blackwall's 
most formidable adversary', in his " Four Gospels trans- 
lated from the Greek," 4to edit. vol. I. p. 13 — 17. 

Mr. Blackwall, in his seminaries at Derby and Boswortb, 
had the felicity of bringing up a number of excellent 
scholars besides Mr. Dawes. Among these was sir Henry 
Atkins, hart, who, being patron of the church of Clapham 
in Surrey, as a mark of his gratitude and esteem, presented 
our author, on the 12th of October, 1726, to that rectory, 
which was then supposed to be worth three hundred pounds 
a year. The grammar which Mr. Blackwall made use of, 
for the purpose of initiating the young people under his 
care into the knowledge of the Latin tongue, was of his 
own composition ; and it was considered as so well adapted 
to that end, that he was prevailed upon to publish it in 
1728. Such, however, was his modesty, that it would not 
permit him to fix his name to it, because he would not be 
thought to prescribe to other instructors of youth. The 
title of it is, " A New Latin Grammar; being a short, 
clear, and easy introduction of young scholars to the know- 
lego of the Latin tongue ; containing an exact account of 
the two first parts of grammar." It is probable, that Mr. 
Blackwall's situation at Clapham did not altogether suit his 
disposition; for, early in 1729, he resigned the rectory 
of that place, and retired to Market- Bosworth, where his 
abilities and convivial tijrn of mind rendered him generally 
respected. At the school-house of this town he died, on 
the 8th of April, 1730. He left behind him two chddren^ 
'A son and a duu^) hter. The son was an attorney at Stoke- 

358 B L A C K W A L L. 

Golding, in the neighbourhood ofBosworth, where he died 
July 5, 1763; and the daughter was married to a Mr. 
Pickering. ' 

BLACKWELL (Elizabeth), an ingenious lady, to whom 
physic was indebted for the most complete set of figures of 
the medicinal plants, was the daughter of a merchant of 
Aberdeen, and born, probably about the beginning of the 
last century. Her husband, Dr. Alexander Blackwell (bro- 
ther of Dr. Thomas, the subject of our next article) re- 
ceived an university education, and was early distinguished 
for his classical knowledge. By some he is said only to 
have assumed the title of doctor after his successful at- 
tendance on the king of Sweden, but the other report is 
more probable, that when he had regularly studied medi- 
cine, he took his degree at Leyden under Boerhaave. 
Having failed in his attempt to introduce himself into 
practice, first in Scotland, and afterwards in London, he 
became corrector of the press for Mr. Wilkins, a printer. 
Alter some years spent in this employment, he set up as a 
printer himself, and carried on several large works, till 1734, 
when he became bankrupt. To relieve his distresses, Mrs. 
Blackwell, having a genius for drawing and painting, ex- 
erted all her talents : and, understanding that an herbal 
of medicinal plants was greatly wanted, she exhibited to 
'sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Mead, and other physicians, some 
specimens of her art in painting plants, who approved so 
highly of them as to encourage her to prosecute a work, 
by the profits of which she is said to have procured her 
husband's liberty, after a confinement of two years. 

Mr. Rand, an eminent apothecary, was at that time 
demonstrator to the company of apothecaries, in the gar- 
den at Chelsea, and by his advice she took up her resi- 
dence opposite the physic garden, in order to facilitate her 
design, by receiving the plants as fresh as possible. He 
not only promoted her work with the public, but, together 
with Mr. Philip Miller, alForded her all possible direction 
and assistance in the execution of it. After she had com- 
pleted the drawings, she engraved them on copper, and 
coloured the prints with her own hands. During her 
abode at Chelsea, she was frequently visited by per- 
sons of quality, and many scientific peoi)le who ad- 
mired her performances, and patronized her luidertak- 

* Biog. Brit. vol. V. p. 17—19, note on Dawes. — Nichols's Bowyer, vol. I. 

B L A C K W E L L. 3^9 

ing. On publishing the first volume in 17 37, she obtained 
a recommendation from Dr. Mead, Dr. Shorard, Mr. Rand, 
and others, to be prefixed to it. And being allowed to 
present, in person, a copy to the college ot" physicians, 
that body made her a present, and gave her a public testi- 
monial ol their approbation ; with leave to prefix it to her 
book. The second volume was finished in 1739, and the 
whole published under the title, *' A curious Herbal, cour 
taining 500 cuts of the most useful plants which are now 
used in the practice of physic, engraved on folio copper- 
plates, after drawings taken from the life. By Elizabeth 
Blackwell. To which is added, a short description of the 
plants, and their common uses in physic," 2 vols. fol. 

The drawing's are in oeneral faithful, and if there is 
wanting that accuracy which modern improvements have 
rendered necessary, in delineating the more minute parts, 
yet, upon the whole, the figures are sufficiently distinctive 
of the subject. Each plate is accompanied with an en- 
graved page, containing the Latin and English officinal 
names, followed by a short description of the plant, and a 
summary of its qualities and uses. After these occurs the 
name in various other languages. These illustrations were 
the share her husband took in the work. 

This ill-fated man, after his failure in physic and in 
printing, became an unsuccessful candidate for the place 
of secretary to the society for the encouragement of learning. 
He was then made superintendant of the works belonging 
to the duke of Chandos at Cannons, and experienced those 
disappointments incident to projectors. He also formed 
schemes in agriculture, and wrote a treatise on the subject, 
which, we are told, was the cause of his being engaged in 
Sweden. In that kingdom he drained marshes, practised 
physic, and was even employed in that capacity for the 
king. At length he was involved in some state cabals, or, 
as some accounts inform us, in a plot with count Tessin, 
and was put to the torture, which not producing a confes- 
sion, he was beheaded, Aug. 9, 1747. The British ambas- 
sador was recalled from Sweden in the same year, among 
other reasons, for the imputations thrown on his Britannic 
majesty in the trial of Dr. Blackwell. Soon after this 
event, appeared " A genuine copy of a Letter from a mer- 
chant in Stockholm, to his correspondent in London, con- 
taining an impartial account of Dr, Alexander Blackwell, 
his plot, trial, character, and behaviour, both under ex- 

360 B L A C K W E L L. 

amination and at. the place of execution, together with a 
copy of a paper delivered to a friend upon the scaffold," 
in which he denied the crime imputed to him. — When 
Mrs, Blackwell died does not appear. An improved edi- 
tion of her Herbal was published by Trew, the text in 
Latin and German, Nuremberg, 1750 — 1760, fol. and at 
Leipsic was published in 17y4, 8vo, " Nomenclator Lin- 
naianus inBlackvellianum Herbarium per C. G. Groening," 
a proof of the estimation in which this work is still held on 
the continent. * 

BLACKWELL (Thomas), an ingenious and very learned 
writer of the last century, was born August 4, 1701, in the 
city of Aberdeen. His father, the rev. JVlr. Thomas Black- 
well, was minister of Paisley in Renfrewshire, from whence 
he was removed in 1700 to be one of the ministers of 
Aberdeen. He was afterwards elected professor of divinity 
in the Marischal college of that city, and in 1717 was pre- 
sented by his majesty to be principal of the college, in 
both which offices he continued until his death in 1728. 
His mother's name was Johnston, of a good family near 
Glasgow, and sister to Dr. Johnston, who was many years 
professor of medicine in the university of Glasgow. Our 
author received his grammatical education at the grammar- 
school of Aberdeen, studied Greek and philosophy in the 
Marischal college there, and took the degree of master of 
arts in 1718; which, as he was at that time only seven- 
teen years of age, must be regarded as a considerable tes- 
timony of his early proficiency in literature. A farther 
proof of it was his being presented, on the 28th of No- 
vember 1723, by his majesty king George the First, to 
the professorship of Greek, in the college in which he had 
been educated. He was admitted into this office on the 
13th of December in the same year; and after that con- 
tinued to teach the Greek language with great applause. 
His knowledge of tl^at language was accurate and exten- 
sive, and his manner of communicating it perspicuous and 
engaging. He had a dignity of address which commanded 
the attention of the students, a steadiness in exacting the 
prescribed exercises which enforced application, and an 
enthusiasm for the beauties of the ancients, and utility of 
classical learning, which excited an ardour of study, and 

1 Nichols's Bowyer.— Pulfeney's Hist, and Biog. Sketches.— Cent. Mag. vol. 
XV H. wh<ie is an account of Mr. Blackwell somewhat different fvoin the above, 
Mr. Blackwell'b faajily were not very ilesirous ot presfcrving liis meiiioiy. 

B L A C K W E L L. 361 

contributed much to diffuse a spirit for Grecian erudition 
far superior to what had taken place before he was called 
to the professorship. Together with his lessons in the 
Greek tongue, he gave, likewise, lessons on some of the 
Latin classics, chietiy with a view to infuse a relish for 
their beauties. To his zeal and diligence in discharging 
the duties of his station, it is probable that the world was, 
in part, indebted for such men as Campbell, Gerard, Reid, 
Beattie, Duncan, and the Fordyces, who have appeared 
•with so much eminence in the republic of letters. When 
the celebrated Dr. Berkeley was engaged in the scheme 
of establishing an American university in the Summer 
Islands, Mr. Blackwell was in treaty with him for going 
out as one of his young professors; but the negociation 
did not take effect. In 17 .iS was published at London, in 
octavo, without the name of the bookseller, and without 
his own name, our author's *' Enquiry into the Life and 
Writings of Homer;" a work, the great ingenuity and 
learning of which will be acknowledged by all who have 
perused it. It was embellished with plates, designed by 
Gravelot, and executed by different engravers. This we 
apprehend to be the most esteemed, and it is, in our 
opinion, the most valuable, of Mr. Black well's perform- 
ances. The second edition appeared in 1736; and, not 
long after, he published " Proofs of the Enquiry into Ho- 
mer's Life and Writings, translated into English : being a 
key to the Enquiry ; with a curious frontispiece." This 
was a translation of the numerous Greek, Latin, Spanish, 
Italian and French notes which had been subjoined to the 
original work. In 1748, came out, in London, " Letters 
concerning Mythology," in a large octavo, but without 
the bookseller (Andrew Millar's) name. On the 7th of 
October, in the same year, our author was appointed by 
his late majesty, George II. to be principal of the Ma- 
rischal college in Aberdeen, and was admitted to the of- 
fice on the 9th of November following. He continued, 
also, professor of Greek till his death. He is the only 
layman ever appointed principal of that college, since the 
patronage came to the crown, by the forfeiture of the 
Marischal family in 1716; all the other principals having 
been ministers of the established church of Scotland. 
When Robert and Andrew Foulis, printers at Glasgow, in- 
tended to publish an edition of Plato, Mr. Blackwell pro- 
posed to furnish them with several critical notes for it, to- 

362 B L A C K W E L L. 

gether with an account of Plato's Life and Philosophy . 
but the printers not acceding to the terms which he de- 
manded for this assistance, he promised, by a Latin ad- 
vertisement in 1751, himself to give an edition of Plato. 
His design, however, was not carried into execution ; nor 
did it appear, from any thing found among his papers af- 
ter his death, that he had made any considerable progress 
in the undertaking. On the 3d of March, 1752, he took 
the degree of doctor of Laws. In the following year, ap- 
peared the first volume of his " Memoirs of the Court of 
Augustus," in 4to. The second volume came out in 1755 ; 
and the third, which was posthumous, and left incomplete 
by the author, was prepared for the press by John Mills, 
esq. and published in 1764. At the same time, was pub- 
lished the third edition of the two former volumes. This 
is a proof of the good reception the work met with from 
the public, though it must be acknowledged that the pa- 
rade with which it was written, and the peculiarity of the 
language, exposed it to some severity of censure, parti- 
cularly to a most acute, and in some respects humourous, 
criticism by Dr. Johnson, written for the Literary Maga- 
zine, and now inserted in Jolmson's works. It cannot be 
denied that there is a considerable deG[ree of affectation in 
Dr. Black well's style and manner of composition : and, 
unhai)pily, this affectation increased in him as he advanced 
in years. His " Enquiry into the Life of Homer" was not 
free from it : it was still more discernible in his " Letters 
concerning Mythology ;" and was most of all apparent in 
his " Memoirs of the Court of Augustus." We perceive 
in his various productions a mixture of pedantry' : but it is 
not the sober dull pedantry of the merely recluse scholar. 
In Dr. Blackwell it assumes a higher form. Together with 
the display of his erudition, he is ambitious of talking like 
a man who is not a little acquainted with the world. He 
is often speaking of life and action, of men and man- 
ners ; and aims at writing with the freedom and politeness 
of one who has been much conversant with the public. But 
in this he is unsuccessful : for though he was not destitute 
of genius or fancy, and had a high relish for the beauties 
of the ancient authors, he never attained that simplicity of 
taste, which leads to true ease and elegance in com- 
position. It is probable, also, that, like many others at 
that time, he might be seduced by an injudicious imitatioQ 

B L A C K W E L L. S63 

of lord Shaftesbury ; a writer, whose faults have been 
found more easily attainable than his excellences. 

Soon after Dr. Blackwell became principal of his college 
he married Barbara Black, the d-iughter of a merchant of 
Aberdeen, by whom he had no children, and who survived 
him so late as 1793. Several years before his death, his 
health began to decline; so that he was obliged to employ 
an assistant for teaching: his Greek class. His disorder was 
of the consumptive kind, and it was thought to be increased 
by the excess of abstemiousness which he imposed on him- 
self; and, in which, notwithstanding all the remonstrances 
of his physicians, he obstinately persisted, from an opinion 
of his own knowledge of his constitution, and of what he 

O ... 

found by experience to suit it best. His disease increas- 
ing, he was advised to travel ; and accordingly, in Febru- 
ary 1757, he set out from Aberdeen, but was able to go 
no farther than Edinburgh, in which city he died, on the 
8th of March following, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 
Dr. Blackwell enjoyed an equable How of temper, in which 
his intimate friends scarcely ever observed any variation. 
This he maintained during his whole illness. The day be- 
fore he set out from Aberdeen, he desired to meet with all 
the professors of the college, and spent two hours with 
them with his usual vivacity. In Edinburgh he was visited, 
at his own desire, by Dr. Wallace, one of the ministers of 
that city, whose ingenuity and learning are well known. 
Dr. Blackwell, on the very day in which he died, wrote 
letters to several of his friends, and took leave of them with 
the greatest cheerfulness. In the April following our au- 
thor's decease, it being Dr. Gerard's business, as (at that 
time) professor of moral philosophy and logic in the Ma- 
rischal college, to preside at conferring the degree of 
master of arts on those whose standing entitled them to it, 
the doctor took that occasion to pronounce publicly, on 
the late principal, such an encomium as his literature de- 
served. It was a fault in Dr. Blackwell, that he too much 
assumed the appearance of universal knowledge; the con- 
sequence of which was that he sometimes laid himself open, 
by entering on subjects of philosophy and mathematics, 
without a sufficient acquaintance with them. With all the 
ancient, and with most of the modern languages, he was 
really acquainted ; and his reading, in the departments of 
history and the belles lettres, was very extensive. He had 

S64 B L A C K W E L L. 

a ready and lively manner of introducing his knowledge of 
this kind, which made his conversation both instructive 
and entertaining; and it was rendered still more so by be- 
ing accompanied with great good humour, and an entire 
command of his passions, even when he was provoked. 
Tiiough he had something of the stiffness of the recluse, 
he joined with it much of the confidence and good breed- 
ing that are found in men who converse much in the world. 
His life was private and studious : he did not wholly de- 
cline mixed companies, though it was but seldom that he 
came into them ; and at home he chose only the conver- 
sation of the learned, or that of persons of superior rank or 
fortune. At London he was known to several men of emi- 
nence. The late duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Henry Pel- 
ham, were his patrons, and procured for him the office of 
principal of the Marischal college. It is confidently said 
that they had intended him an establishment at Cambridge, 
and that the professorship of modern history was fixed upon 
for him, if he had not died a short time before it became 
vacant. A man of Dr. Blackwell's abilities and reputation 
could not fail of having some valuable literary connexions 
and correspondents ; among whom he had the honour of 
numbering the late celebrated Dr. Mead, and the no less 
celebrated Dr. Warburton, bishop of Gloucester. It is 
said that Mr. Blackwell, soon after the publication of his 
Enquiry, being at Cambridge, paid a visit to Dr. Bentley, 
and the discourse turning upon the book, the doctor, being 
asked his opinion of it, answered, '* That when he had 
gone through half of it, he had forgotten the beginning; 
and that, when he had finished the reading of it, he had 
forgotten the whole." Whatever truth is in this story, it 
is certain, at least, that a similar obiection had been started 
by others, if not by Dr. Bentley. 

In the first volume of the Archaeologia is a letter, written 
in 1748, by Dr. Blackwell, to Mr. Ames, containing an ex- 
planation of a Greek inscri[)tion, on a white marble, found 
in tlie isle of Tasso, near the coast of llomania, by captain 
Joseph HmU'S, in 1728. As Dr. Blackwell was singular in 
his style and sentiments, he likewise imbibed some reli- 
gious opinions, little known at that time in the bosom of 
the Calvinistic church of Scotland, He was so much a So- 
cinian, ttiat he never read the first chapter of St. John in 
his class, but aKvays began with the second. This on one 
occasion gave rise to a foolish report respecting his know* 

B L A C K W E L L, 565 

ledge of Greek, which we shall have occasion to notice in 
the life of Dr. Gregory Sharpe. — His widow, who, as already 
noticed, died in 1793, bequeathed lier estates partly to 
found a chemical professorship in the college over which 
her husband had so long presided, and partly for a pre- 
mium for an English essays and for the auguientation of 
the professors' salaries.* 

BLACKWELL (George), a learned English writer of 
the church of Rome, in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was born in the county of Middlesex, and ad- 
mitted a scholar of Trinity college in Oxford at seven- 
teen years of age. May 27, 1562, probationer in 1565, 
being then bachelor of arts, perpetual fellow the year fol- 
lowing, and master of arts in 1567. But being more in- 
clined to the Roman catholic than the Protestant religion, 
he left his fellowship, and retired to Gloucester hall, where 
he continued for some time, and was highly esteemed bv 
Edmund Rainolds and Thomas Allen, two learned seniors 
of that hall. He afterwards went beyond sea, and spent 
some time in one of the English seminaries newly erected 
to receive the exiled English catholics ; and was at last in 
1598, with the permission of pope Clement VIII. consti- 
tuted by Henry cardinal Cajetan, protector of the English 
nation at Rome, and superior of the English clergy, with 
the authority and name of Archpriest of England, and was 
appointed by that pope notary of the apostolic see. This 
affair being resented by the English catholic clergy, espe- 
cially as they imagined that our author was absolutely un- 
der the influence of Henry Garnet, provincial of the Jesuits 
of England, it occasioned a warm contest between them in 
"England. The Jesuits wrote and spoke against the secular 
priests in so virulent a manner, as to detract very rnuch 
from Blackwell's authority ; who upon this degraded them 
of their faculties, so that when they afterwards appealed 
to the pope, he caused them to be declaimed in a book 
schismatics and heretics. They vindicated themselves 
from this charge, and procured the censure of the univer- 
sity of Paris in their favour ; which was answered by our 
author. He also declared his abhorrence of the Powder 
Plot in 1605, and wrote two letters to dissuade the Roman 
catholics from all violent practices against the king and 

' Uiog. Brit, from materials communicated by the late Dr. Gerard.— Sea his 
proposals tor Plato, Gent. Mag. vol, XXI. p. 3S3, 

366 B L A C K W E L L. 

government. Ke held the office of archpriest till 1607, 
when he was succeeded by George Birket. The reason of 
this change was, because our author having been seized at 
London June 24 the same year, he was committed to pri- 
son, and consequently deprived of the liberty required to 
act in his office. He was released soon after upon his 
taking; the oath of allej^iance. An account of this affair 
was published at London, 1607, in 4to, entitled "The 
examination of George Blackwell, upon occasion of his 
answering a letter sent by cardinal Bellarmine, who blamed 
him for taking the oath of allegiance." He died suddenly 
January 12, 1612-3, and was buried, as Mr. Wood sup- 
poses, in some church in London. He was esteemed by 
those of his own persuasion, and by others likewise, a man 
of great learning and piety, and a good preacher. 

He was the author of " A letter to cardinal Cajetane in 
commendation of the English Jesuits," written in 1596. 
*' Answers upon sundry examinations whilst he was a pri- 
soner," London, 1607, 4to. " Approbation of the Oath 
of Allegiance; letters to the Romish priests touching the 
lawfulness of taking the Oath of Allegiance," and another 
to the same purpose, all of which were printed with the 
*' Answers upon sundry examinations," &c. " EpistoJge 
ad Anglos Pontificios," London, 1609, 4to. " Epistolas 
ad Robertum cardinalem Bellarminum." See the third 
volume of the Collections of Melchior Goldast, Francfort, 
1613, fol. " Answer to the Censure of Paris in suspending 
the secular priests obedience to his authority," dated May 
the 29th, 1600. This was replied to by John Dorel, or 
Darrel, dean of Agen the same year. " A treatise against 
lying and fraudulent dissimulations," in manuscript, among 
those given to the Bodleian library by archbishop Laud. 
At the end of it is the approbation of the book written by 
Blackwell, and recommended by him as fit for the press ; 
so that no other name being put to it, it has been ascribed 
to him ; whereas it is more justly supposed to have been 
written bj' Francis Tresham, esq. an English Catholic* 

BLACKWOOD (Adam), professor of civil law at Poic- 
tiers, was born at Dumfennling, in Scotland, in 1539, 
descended of an ancient family. He was left an orphan in 
the tenth year of his age, aud was sent by his uncle, the 
bishop of Orkney, to the university of Paris. On his 

1 "Wood's Ath. vol. I.— -Gen. Diet.— Collier's Chmch Hist. 


uncle's death, by which he seems to have lost the means of 
being able to remain at Paris, he returned to Scotland, 
but finding no encouragement there, he went again to 
Paris, where, by the liberality of Mary, queen of Scot- 
land, he was enabled to pursue his studies in philosophy, 
mathematics, and the oriental languages. He then went 
to the university of Tholouse, where he studied civil law 
for two years ; and having obtained the patronage of Bea- 
ton, archbisliop of Glasgow, he was chosen by the parlia- 
ment of Poictiers one of their counsellors, and afterwards 
professor of civil law. He died in 1623, and was interred 
at Poictiers in St. Porcharius church, near his brother 
George. As a writer, he was chiefly known for his vindi^ 
cation of his royal mistress, when put to death by queen 
Elizabeth, written with all that bitterness of resentment 
which is natural for a man of spirit to feel, who, by an act 
of flagrant injustice, was deprived of his mistress and his 
sovereign, his friend and his benefactress. He addresses 
himself, in a vehement strain of passion, to all the princes 
of Europe, to avenge her death ; declaring, that they are 
unworthy of royalty, if they are not roused on so interest- 
ing and pressing an occasion. He laboured hard to prove 
that Henry VHI.'s marriage with Anne Bolen was incestu- 
ous ; a calumny too gross to merit a formal refutation. 
This work was entitled " Martyre de Maria Stuart Reyne 
d'Escosse," Antwerp, 1588, 8vo. His other works were, 
1. " Adversus G. Buchanan! Dialogum de Jure Regni apud 
Scotos, pro regibus apologia," Pict. 1580, 8vo. 2. " De 
Vinculo Religioniset Imperii," Paris, 1575, 8vo. 3. '^Sanc- 
tarum precationum prtEmia," a manual of devotions, 
Pict. 1598, 8vo. 4. " Varii generis poemata," ibid. 1609, 
8vo. 5. " Jacobi I. Magnae Britanniae inauguratio," Paris, 
1606, 4to. These and some other pieces by him, were 
collected and published, with a life, by Gabriel Naudeus, 
1644, 4to. * 

BLACKWOOD (Henry), another brother of the pre- 
ceding, was born probably about 1526, at Dumfermhng 
in Fifeshire, and educated at St. Andrew's. He was also 
sent by his uncle, the bishop of Orkney, to Paris, where 
in 1551, he taught philosophy. He afterwards applied 
himself to the study of physic, became a member of the 
college of physicians, and was finally honoured with the 

' Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, Tol. III.— Moreri.— Niceron.— Nicolson's Scot- 
tish Library. — Granger. 


dignity of dean of the faculty, a place of considerable im- 
portance in the college of Paris. Hcvwas also appointed 
physician to the duke de Longueville, with a salary of 200 
pistoles. During the plague at Paris, he had the resolute 
humanity to continue in that city, much to his own honour, 
and the consolation of the people. He is supposed to have 
died in 1613, or 1614. He wrote several medical and phi- 
losophical treatises, of which we only know of two that 
were printed : ]. " Hippocraiis quicdam cum MSS. col- 
iata," Paris, 1625, and 2. " Questio Medica, an visceri- 
bus nutritiis aestuantibus aquarum metallicarum potus salu- 
bris ?" ibid. 4to. He had a son of both his names, like- 
wise a physician of eminence, of whom Moreri gives a 
short account. ^ 

BLADEN (Martin), of Albro'-hatch, in the county of 
Essex, was early in life an officer in the army, bearing the' 
commission of lieutenant-colonel in queen Anne's reio-n, 
under the great duke of Marlborough. In 1714, he was 
nnade comptroller of the Mint, and in 1717, one of the 
lords commissioners of trade and plantations. In the same 
year he was appointed envoy extraordinary to the court of 
Spain, but declined it, and retained the office he held 
until his death, Feb. 14, 1746. He sat in the fifth, sixth, 
and seventh parliaments of Great Britain for Stockbridge, 
in the eighth for Maiden, and in the ninth for Portsmouth. 
Coxeter hints that he was secretary of state for Ireland, 
but this is doubtful. He wrote two very indifferent drama- 
tic pieces, " Orpheus and Euridice," and " Solon j" which 
were printed in 1705, 4to, without his consent. He is 
best known, however, by his translation of Caesar's Com- 
mentaries, which he dedicated to the duke of Marlborough. 
This book was in some estimation formerly, and Mr. Bow- 
yer appears to have assisted in correcting it. He was 
buried in Stepney church, with a very handsome inscrip- 
tion to his memory. Pope introduces him in the Dunciad 
as a gamester, for what reason cannot now be ascertained. 
He was uncle to Collins the celebrated poet, to whom he 
left an estate, which poor Collins did not get possession 
of till his faculties were deranged, and he could not en- 
joy it.' 

BLAEU (William), an eminent printer, and publisher 
of geographical maps and charts, was born at Amsterdam 

* Maokcnzi*?, vol. III. — Moreri. 

a Nichols's Bowyer. — Ljsons's Eaviions, vol. 111.— Warton's Pope's "Work*. 

B L A E U. 36& 

in 1571, and died there in 1638. He was the scholar and 
friend of Tycho-Brahe, and applied himself, besides his 
particular art, to the study of geography and astronomy. 
When he had formed the design of his celebrated "Atlas," 
he gave liberal prices to the most experienced geographers 
and draughtsmen for original maps, which he procured to 
be engraved with great care, and all the elegance which 
the state of the arts in his time could admit. Eager, how- 
ever, as he was to render this work perfect, as he was 
obliged to trust to the incomplete and dubious relations of 
travellers, the work is now valued chiefly as a beautiful 
specimen of engraving, and bears a considerable price, 
especially when coloured. It was entitled the " Grand 
Atlas geographique," or "Theatrum Mundi ;" and includ- 
ing the celestial and hydrograpliical maps, forms 14 vols, 
fol. 16G3 — 67, very little of it having been published in his 
]ife-time, but the whole completed by his sons. He pub- 
lished also, " Instruction astronomique de I'usage des 
globes et sphere celestes et terrestres," Amst. 1642, 4to ; 
1669, 4to. There was a neatness in all his publications of 
this description, which has been rarely imitated. An acci- 
dental fire which destroyed the greater part of the first 
edition of the atlas and of his other works, rendered them 
for some time in ereat demand. His *' Theatrum urbium 
et munimentorum," was another collection of views and 
maps in much esteem. These and other designs were pur- 
sued and completed by his sons John and Cornelius, and, 
the latter dying young, chiefly by John, who was also the 
printer of a great many classics, which yield in beauty 
only to the Elzevirs. Among the geographical works of 
John Blaeu, are, 1. " Novum ac magnum theatrum civi- 
tatum totius Belgiai," 1649, 2 vols. fol. 2. " Civitates et 
admirandae ItalicE," 1663, 2 vols. fol. reprinted with a 
French text, Amst. 1704, 4 vols. fol. and Hague, 1724. 
3. *' Theatrum Sabaudiai et Pedemontii," 1682, 2 vols, 
fol. translated and published under the title " Theatre de 
Piemont e de la Savoie," by James Bernard, Hague, 1735, 
2 vols. fol. Vossius and Grotius speak in high terms of the 
talents and industry of John and Cornelius Blaeu. It may 
be noticed that John Blaeu sometimes concealed himself 
under a fictitious name. His edition of " Erythrcei Pina- 
cotheca," a work to which we have sometimes referred, 
was pulalishcd with Cologne in the title page, inst^d of 
Vol. V. B B 

$10 B L A E U. 

Amsterdam, and Jodocus Kalcovius, instead of John Bla- 
vius, or Blaeu. ^ 

BLAGRAVE (John), an eminent mathematician, who 
flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries, was the son of 
John Blagrave, of Buhnarsh, esq. and was born at Read- 
ing, but in what year is not known. He acquired the ru- 
diments of his education at Reading, whence he removed 
to St. John's college, Oxford, but aoon quitted the uni- 
versity, and retired to Southcote Lodge at Reading, where 
he devoted his time to study and contemplation. His 
genius seemed to be turned most to mathematics ; and that 
he might study this science without interruption, he de- 
voted liimself to a retired life. He employed himself 
chiefly in compihng such works as might render specula- 
tive mathematics accurate, and the practical parts easy. 
He afccordingly fniished some learned and useful works, in 
all which he proposed to render those sciences more uni- 
versall}' understood. He endeavoured to shew the useful- 
ness of such studies, that they were not mere amusements 
for scholars and speculative persons, but of general advan- 
tage, and absolutely indispensable in many of the neces- 
■ saries and conveniences of life : with this view he published 
the four following works: 1, "A Mathematical .Jewel, 
shewing the making and most excellent use of an instru- 
ment so called : the use of which jewel is so abundant, that 
it leadeth the direct path- way through the whole art of 
astronomy, cosmography, geography," &c. 1582, folio. 
2. " Of the making and use of the Familiar Staff, so called : 
for that it may be made useful and familiarly to walk with, 
as for that it performeth the geometrical mensuration of all 
altitudes," 1590, 4to. 3. " Astrolabium uranicum gene- 
Tale ; a necessary and pleasant solace and recreation for 
navigators in their long journeying; containing the use of 
an instrument, or astrolabe," &,c. 1596, 4to. 4. "The 
art of Dialling, in two parts." 1609, 4to. 

Blagrave was a man of great beneficence in private life. 
As he was born in the town of Reading, and had spent 
most of his time there, lie was therefore desirous of leaving 
in that place some monuments of his beneficent disposi- 
tion ; and such too as might have reference to each of the 
three parishes of Reading. He accordingly bequeathed a 
legacy for this purpose, of wliich we have an account by 

* li\<»«. Uaiverselle.— Moreri. Baillel Jujeineas dcs Savans. 

B L A G R A V E. 371 

Aslimole, in the following woids : " You are to note, that 
he cloth devise that each church-wiirden should scud ou 
Good-Frid<iy one virtuous maid that has lived five years 
with her muster: all three maids apj)ear at the town-hall 
before the mayor and aldenuen, and cast dice. She that 
throws most has 10/. put in a purse, and she is to be at- 
tended with the other two that loat the throw. The next 
year come again the two maids, and one more added to 
them. He orders in his will that each maid should have 
three throws before she loses it ; and if she has no luck in 
the three years, he orders that still new faces may come 
and be presented. On the same Good-Friday he gives 
eighty widows money to attend, and orders 10^. for a good 
sermon, and so he wishes well to all his countrymen. It 
is lucky money, for I never heard but the maid that had 
the 10/. suddenly had a good husband." Blagrave died at 
his own house near Reading, August 9, 16 11, and lies 
interred near his mother in the church of St. Lawrence ; 
with a fine monument to his memory, and an inscription ; 
the following account of which is given by Mr. Ashmole, 
and remains still nearly correct. On the north against the 
wall is a noble monument, representing a man under an 
arch to the middle, holding one hand on a globe, the other 
on a quadrant. He is habited in a short cloak, a cassock, 
and a ruff, surrounded with books on each side of him. 
On one side is tl:e figure of a woman to the breasts, naked, 
holding an instrument in her hand, as offering it to him, 
and under her feet the word CUBUS. On the other side 
is another woman, somewhat naked, though with a scarf 
thrown closely round her, and offering in like manner; 
under her feet, TETPAEAPON. On the top are two women 
leaning on their arms, inscribed OKTAEAPON, AHAEKA- 
EAPON. In the middle, a person armed, cap-a-pee, but 
now almost defaced, entitled EIK02EAP0N. And under 
the first figure mentioned, an inscription, in an oval ; 
celebrating his virtues in homely rhimes. * 

BLAGRAVE (Joseph), probably a relation of the pre- 
ceding, was born in the parish of St. Giles, Reading, ia 
1610, and was a great enthusiast in astrological studies. 
He published " An introduction to Astrology," 1682, 8vo, 
to which is prefixed an engraving of him mentioned by 

1 Eiog. Brit. — Contes's Hist, of Readinsy, where are many particular.-; of B!a- 
grave's charities. — Ath. Ox, vol. I. — Martin's Lives of the Philosopliers,— 
Strutt's Diet, of Enjjravers. 

E B 2 

$73 B L A G R A V E. 

Granger. He was the author of a large supplement to 
Culpepper's Herbal; to wtiicli is added " An accoiuit of 
all the Drugs that were sold in the druggists and apothe- 
caries shops, with their dangers and connexions." 'ro this 
book is subjoined " A new tract of Chirurgery," 8vo. He 
was also author of " The Astrological practise of Physick, 
discovering the true method of curing all kinds of diseases, 
by such herbs and plants as grow in our nation," 8vo. 
In the Biographia Britannica, is an account of a manu- 
script which had been seen by Dr. Campbell, the author 
of that article, and had been bought at the sale of the li- 
brary of an eminent physician near Covent-garden. In 
the first leaf it was said to be wTitten by Mr. J. Blagrave, 
and was dedicated to Mr. B. (Backhouse) of Swallowfield. 
It appeared, from some mention of the royal society, and 
its members, to have been written in 1669, or 1670. The 
title was, " A remonstrance in favour of Ancient Learning 
against the proud pretensions of the moderns, more es- 
pecially in respect to the doctrine of the Stars." From 
the distribution of the several heads, and the extracts from 
them, it seems to be the work of an ingenious writer; one 
far superior to Joseph Blagrave in style and composition ; 
and might, possibly, as Mr. Coates conjectures, be an un- 
published work of Mr. John Blagrave, the mathematician, 
by whose will he inherited an estate in Swallowfield, yet 
we know not how to reconcile this with the dates respect- 
ing the royal society, which certainly did not exist in the 
mathematician's time. This Joseph Blagrave died in 

BLAIR (Hugh), D. D. an eminent divine of the church 
of Scotland, was born at Edinburgh, April 7, 17 IS. His 
father, John Blair, a respectable merchant in that city, 
was a descendant of the ancient family of Blair, in Ayr- 
shire, and grandson of the famous Mr. Robert Blair, mi- 
nister of St. Andrew's, chaplain to Charles L and oiie of 
the most zealous and distinguished clergymen of the pe- 
riod in which he lived. Of the two sons who survived him, 
David, the eldest, was a clergyman of eminence in Edin- 
burgh, and father to Mr. Robert Blair, minister of Athel- 
stanford, the author of the well-known poem entitled 
*' The Grave." From his yonn|.;rst son, Hugh, who en- 
gaged in business as a n^erchant, and had tiie honour to 

* Biog. Biit. art. John Blagrave. — Cotitcs's Hist, of Reading, p. iZi. 

BLAIR. 373 

fill a high station in the magistracy of Edinburgh, the ob- 
ject of the present memoir descended. 

Dr. Blair was educated for the church, and while he 
prosecuted his studies at the college of Edinburgh with 
great success and approbation, a circumstance occurred 
which determined the bent of his genius towards polite 
literature. An essay " On the beautiful," written by him 
when a student of logic, in the usual course of academical 
exercises, had the good fortune to attract the notice of 
professor Stevenson, and with circumstances honourable 
to tiie author, was appointed to be read in public,, at the 
conclusion of the session, a mark of distinction which made 
a deep impression on his mind. 

At this time, Dr. Blair commenced a method of study 
which contributed much to the accuracy and extent of his 
knowledge, and which he continued to practise occasion- 
ally, even after his reputation was fully established. It 
consisted in making abstracts of the most important works 
which he read, and in digesting them according to the 
train of his own thoughts. History, in particular, he re- 
solved to study in this manner ; and, in concert with some 
of his youthful associates, he constructed a very*compre- 
hensive scheme of chronological tables, for receiving into 
its proper place every important fact that should occuir. 
The scheme devised by this young student for his OA'n 
private use, was afterwards improved, tilled up, and given 
to the public by his learned friend Dr. John Blair, |)re- 
bendary of Westminster, in his valuable work "The Chro- 
nology and History of the World." 

In 1739 Dr. Blair took his degree of A.M. and in 1741 
was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Edni burgh, 
and his tirst living was the parish ofCoiessie, in Eile ; but 
in 1743 he was recalled to his native city, as secund mi- 
nister of the Canongate church, in whicli he continued 
eleven years. In 17 54 he was translated from tlie Canon- 
gate to lady Tester's, one of tlie city churches, and in 
1758 he was promoted to the high churcli of Edntburgh, 
the most important ecclesiastical charge in that ! ingdom. 

Hitherto his attention seems to have been dtvotiHl almost 
exclusively to the attainment of proiessiotial excel letice, 
and to the regular discharge of his parochial dunes. No 
production of his pen had yet been given to the world 
by himself, except two occasional sernjons, some trans- 
lations in verse of passages of Scripture for the psaimodj^ 

374 B L A I II. 

of the church, and a few articles in the Edinburgh Re- 
view, a publication begun in 1755, and conducted for a 
short time by souie of the ablest men in that kingdom. 
But, standing as he now did, at the head of Ids profes- 
sion, and released by the labour of former years from what 
his biographer, rather incautiously, calls the diudgeiy of 
weekly preparation for the pulpit, he began to think se- 
riously on a plan for teaching to others that art which had 
contributed so much to the establishment of his own fame. 
"V^ith this view he communicated to his friends a scheme 
of lectures on composition ; and having obtained the ap- 
probation of the university, he began to read them in the 
college on the 11th of December, 1759. Before this, he 
had received the degree of D.D. from the university of 
St. Andcevv's, a literary honour which at that time was very 
rare in Scotland. His first course of lectures were so 
much approved, that the patrons of the universit}^, con- 
vinced, that they would form a valuable addition to the 
system of education, agreed in the following summer to 
institute a rhetorical class under his direction, as a perma- 
nent part of their academical establishment ; and on the 
7th of April, 1762, his majesty was graciously pleased 
*' To erect and endow a professorship of rhetoric and belles 
lettres in the university of Edinbui'gh, and to appoint Dr. 
Blair, in consideration of his approved qualifications, re- 
o-ius profes:,or thereof, with a salary of 70/." These lec- 
tures he })ublished in 17 83, when he retired from the 
labours of the office ; and the general voice of the public 
has pronounced them to be a most judicious, elegant, and 
comprehensive system of rules for forming the style, and 
cultivating the tti.ste of youth. 

About this time he was employed in " rescuing from 
oblivion the poems of Ossian." The controversy re- 
specting the authenticity of these poems is well known. 
The biographer of Dr. Blair asserts that it was by the so- 
licitation of Dr. Blair and Mr, John Home (the author of 
Douglas), that Mr. Macjiherson was induced to publish his 
<« Fragments of Ancient Poetry," and that their patronage 
was of essential service in procuring the subscription which 
enabled him to undertake his tour through the Highlands 
for collecting the materials of Fingal, and of those other 
productions which bear the name of Ossian. To these, 
in 1763, Dr. Blair prefixed a *' Dissertation" of the cri- 
tical kind, which procured him much reputation, what- 

BLAIR. 375 

ever may he thought of the subject. The great objects of 
his literary ambition being now attained, his talents were 
for many years consecrated solely to the important and 
peculiar employments of his station. But his chief 
fame was yet to rest upon the pnbUcation of his sermons, 
and the fate of them furnishes a singular instance of the 
vicissitudes of literary history. His biographer, however, 
relates this without any of the circumstances that are 
most interesting. He contents himself with saying that 
*' It was not till the year 1777 that he could be induced to 
favour the world with a volume of the sermons which had 
so long furnished instruction and delight to his own con- 
gregation. But this volume being well received, the pub- 
lic approbation encouraged him to proceed ; three other 
volumes followed at dilierent intervals; and all of them 
experienced a degree of success of which few publications 
can boast. They circulated rapidly and widely wherever 
the English tongue extends ; they were soon translated 
into almost all the languages of Europe; and his present 
majesty, with that wise attention to the interests of religion 
and literature which distinguishes his reign, was graciously 
pleased to judge them worthy of a public reward. By a 
royal mandate to the exchequer in Scotland, dated July 
2-5th, 1780, a pension of 200/. a year was conferred on 
their author, which continued unaltered till his death." 

Mr. Boswell, in his " Life of Dr. Johnson," informs us 
that Dr. Blair transmitted the manuscript of his first vo- 
lume of sermons to Mr. Strahan, the king's printer, who, 
after keeping it for some time, wrote a letter to him, dis- 
couraging the publication. Such at first was the unpro- 
pitious state of one of the most successful theological books 
that has ever appeared. Mr. Strahan, however, had sent 
one of the sermons to Dr. Johnson, for his opinion ; and 
after his unfavourable letter to Dr. Blair had been sent off, 
he received from Johnson on Christmas-eve, 1776, a note 
in which was the following paragraph : " I have read over 
Dr. Blair's first sermon with more than approbation; to 
say it IS good, is to say too little." Mr. Strahan had very 
soon after this time, a conversation with Dr. Johnson con- 
cerning them ; and then he very candidly wrote again to 
Dr. Blair, enclosing Johnson's note, and agreeing to pur- 
chase the volume, for which he and Mr. Cadell gave one 
hundred pounds. The sale was so rapid and extensive, 
and the approbation of the public so high, that, to their 

376 BLAIR. 

honour be it recorded, the proprietors made Dr. Blair a 
present, first of one sum, and afterwards of another, of 
fifty pounds ; thus voluntarily doubling the stipulated 
price ; and when he prepared another volume, they gave 
him at once three hundred pounds ; and, we believe, for 
the others he had six hundred pounds each. A fifth vo- 
lume was prepared by him for the press, and published 
after his death, 1801, to which is added a " Short account 
of his Life" by James Finlayson, D. D. of which we have 
availed ourselves in the preceding account. The sermons 
contained in this last volume were composed at very dif- 
ferent periods of his life, but were all written out anew 
in his own hand, and in many parts re-composed, during 
the course of the summer ] 800, after he had completed 
his eighty-second year. 

In April 1748 he married his cousin, Katherine Ban- 
natine, daughter of the rev. James Bannatine, one of 
the ministers of Edinburgh. By her he had a son, who 
died in infancy, and a daughter, who lived to her twenty- 
first year. Mrs. Blair died a few years before her husband, 
after she had shared with the tenderest affection in all his 
fortunes, and contributed near half a century to his hap- 
piness and comfort. 

Dr. Blair had been naturally of a feeble constitution of 
body, but, as he grew up, it acquired greater firmness and 
vigour. Though liable to occasional attacks from some of 
the sharpest and most painful diseases that afflict the hu- 
man frame, he enjoyed a general stale of good health ; 
and, through habitual cheerfulness, temperance, and care, 
survived the usual term of human life. For some years 
lie felt himself unequal to the fatigue of instructing his 
very large congregations from the pulpit ; and under the 
impression which this feeling produced, he was heard at 
times to say, " that he was left almost the last of his con- 
temporaries." Yet he continued to the end in the regular 
discharge of all his other official duties, and particularly 
in giving advice to the afllicted, who, from didt-rent quar- 
ters of the kingdom, solicited his correspondence. His 
last summer was devoted to the preparation of the fifth 
volume of his sermons ; and, in the course of it, he ex- 
hibited a vigour of understanding, and capacity of exer- 
tion, equal to that of his best days. He began the winter 
pleased with himself, on account of the conipletion of this 
work ; and his friends were flattered with the hope that he 

BLAIR. 377 

might live to enjoy the accession of emolument and fame 
which he expected it would bring. But the seeds of a 
mortal disease were lurking unperceived within him. On 
the 24th of December 1800, he complained of a pain in 
his bowels, which, during that and the following day, gave 
him but little uireasiness ; and he received as usual the 
visits of his friends. On the afternoon of the 26th, the 
symptoms became violent and alarming ; he felt that he 
was approaching the end of his appointed course ; and, 
retaining to the last moment the full possession of his 
mental faculties, he expired on the morning of the 27th, 
universally lamented through the city which he had so long 
instructed and adorned. 

Although the popularity of Dr. Blair's " Sermons" ex- 
ceeds all that we read of in the history of literature, yet it 
does not appear to us to be of that species arising from 
judgment as well as taste, which leads to permanent re- 
putation. They happened to hit the taste of the age, to 
whom compositions so highly polished, were somewhat 
new ; and they were introduced by that fashionable pa- 
tronage which common readers find irresistible. Tiiey 
differ from all other compositions under the same title, 
in being e({ually adapted to readers of every class ; and 
they were recommended to the perusal of the young of 
every religious persuasion, as containing nothing that could 
interfere with their opinions. Their character is that of 
moral discourses, but as such they never could have at- 
tained their popularity without that high polish of style 
which was the author's peculiar object. Under this are 
concealed all the defects which attach to them as ser- 
mons, a name which they can never deserve when com- 
pared with the works of the most eminent English and 
Scotch divines. It may be doubted, therefore, whether 
his " Lectures" will not prolong his fame to a much later 
period. Although he possessed a sound judgment rather 
than a vigorous mind, and had more taste than genius, 
yet, perhaps, on the former account his lectures may al- 
ways be recommended as an useful introduction to polite 
literature. " They contain," says an excellent critic, 
*' an accurate analysis of the principles of literary compo- 
sition, in all the various species of writing; a happy illus- 
tration of those principles by the most beautiful and appo- 
site examples, drawn from the best authors both ancient 
and modern j and an admirable digest of the rides of elo- 

378 B L A I R. 

cution, as applicable to the oratory of the pulpit, the bar, 
and the popular assembly. They do not aim at the cha- 
racter of a work purely original ; for this, as the author 
justly considered, wouid have been to circumscribe their 
utility ; neither in point of style are they polished with 
the same degree of care that the author has bestowed on 
some of his other works, as for example, his " Sermons." 
Yet, so useful is the object of these lectures, so compre- 
hensive their plan, and such the excellence of the matter 
they contain, that, if not the most splendid, they will, 
perhaps, prove the most durable monument of their author's 
reputation." * 

- BLAIR (James,- M A.) was born and bred in Scotland, 
and ordained and benel^ced in the episcopal church there ; 
but meeting with some discouragements under an unsettled 
state of aliVtirs, and having a prospect of discharo-ing his 
ministerial function n^nre usefully elsewhere, he qiutted 
his preferments, and came into England near the end of 
Charles the Second's reign. It was not loner before he 
was taken notice of by Coiivpton, bishop of London, who 
prevailed with him to go as missionary to Virginia, about 
1685 ; where, by exeuiplary conduct, and unwearied la- 
bours in the work of the ministry, he did good service to 
religion, and gained to himself a good report amongst all: 
so that bishop Compton being well apprised of his worth, 
made choice oi isim, about 1689, as his commissary for 
Virginia, the highest office in the church there; which, 
however, did not take him off from his pastoral care, but 
only rendered him the more shining example of it to the 
rest of the clergy. 

While his thoughts were intent upon doing good in his 
office, he observed with concern that the waat of schools, 
and proper seminaries for religion and learning, so im- 
peded all attempts for the propagation of the gospel, that 
little could be hoped for, without first removing that ob- 
stacle. He therefore formed a vast design of erecting; and 
endowing a college in Virginia, at Williamsburgh, the 
capital of that country, for professors and students in 
academical learning : in order to which, he had himself 
set on foot a voluntary subscription, amounting to a great 
sum ; and, not content with that, came over into England 
m 1693, to solicit the alYair at court. Queen Mary was 

1 Life as above. — ^Tytler's Life of lord Kaimes, — Boswell's Life of Johnsoo. 

B L A I Tl. 379 

so well pleased with the noble desii^n, that she espoused it 
with a particular zeal ; and king William also vcrv readily 
concurred with her in it. Accordingly a patent passed for 
erecting and endowing a college, by the name of the Wil- 
liam and Mary college; and Mr. Blair, who had the principal 
hand in laying, soliciting, and concerting the design, was ap- 
pointed president of the college. He was besides rector of 
Wiliiamsburgh in Virginia, and president of the council in 
that colony. He continued president of tiie college near fifty, 
and a minister of the gospel above sixty years. He was a 
faithful labourer in God's vineyard, an ornament to his 
profession, and his several offices; and in a good old age 
went to enjoy the high prize of his calling, in the 3'ear 1743. 
His works are : " Our Saviour's divine sermon on the 
mount, explained ; and the practice of it recommended 
in divers sermons and discourses," Lond, 1742, 4 vols. 8vo. 
The executors of Dr. Bray (to whom the author had pre- 
viously transferred his copy-right) afterwards published a 
new impression, revised and corrected. Dr. Waterland, 
who wrote a preface to the new edition, calls these ser- 
mons a " valuable treasure of sound divinity and practical 
Christianity." * 

BLAHl (John), a monk of the order of St. Benedict, 
was born in the county of Fife, in Scotland, in the reign 
of king Alexander HI. and educated with the celebrated 
sir Wdliam Wallace, at the school of Dundee. He theu 
went over to France, where he studied for some time in 
the university of Paris, and became a monk of the order 
of St. Benedict. On his return to Scotland, he found his 
country in great confusion, owing to the death of Alex- 
ander HI. without issue, and the contescs of various com- 
petitors for the throne. At first, therefore, he retired to 
the house of the Benedictines at Dumfermline; but wheu 
sir William Wallace was made governor or viceroy of the 
kingdom in J 294, Blair became his chaplain, and being 
by this means an eye-witness of most of his actions, he 
composed the history of his life in Latin verse. Of this a 
fragment only is left, which was copied by sir James Bal- 
four out of the Cottonian library, and published in 1705, 
by sir Robert Sibbald, the celebrated botanist. It ap- 
pears to have been written in 1327 ; and what remains is 
translated in Hume's " History of the Douglasses." Blair, 

' From the last etlition of this Diet. 1784. — Buruet'ii Own Times. — Humplire j's 
Hist. Account, p. 9. 10, 

380 BLAIR. 

the exact period of whose death is uncertain, is sometimes 
called Johi), and sometimes Arnold, which latter name he 
is said to have adopted when he retired into his monastery, 
and which is also used by sir Robert Sibhald in his «' Re- 
lationes qusedam Arnoldi Blair monachi de Dumfermelem 
et Capeilani D. Willehni Wallas Militis. Cum Comment.'* 
Edinb. 1705, 8vo.' 

BLAIR (John), was educated at Edinburgh, and was, 
as already noticed, related to Dr. Hugh Blair. He came 
to London in company with Andrew Henderson, a volnmi- 
iious writer, who, in his title-pages styled himself A. M. 
and for some years kept a bookseller's shop in Westmin- 
ster-hall. Henderson's first employment was that of an 
usher at a school in Hedge-lane, in which he was suc- 
ceeded by his friend Blair, who, in 1734, obliged the 
world with a valuable publication under the title of " The 
chronology and history of the world, from the creation to 
the year of Christ 1753. Illustrated in fifty-six tables ; of 
which four are introductory, and contain the centuries 
prior to the first olympiad ; and each of the remaining 
fifty-two contain in one expanded view fifty years, or half 
a century. By the rev. John Blair, LL.D." This vo- 
lume, which IS dedicated to lord chancellor Hardwicke, 
was published by subscription, on account of the great 
expence of the plates, for which the author apologized in 
his preface, where he acknowledged great obligations to 
the earl of Bath, and announced some chronological dis- 
sertations, in which he proposed to illustrate the disputed 
points, to explain the prevailing systems of chronology, 
and to establish the authorities upon which some of the 
particular aeras depend. In Dr. Hugh Blair's life, it has 
been noticed that this work was partly projected by him. 
In January 1755, Dr. John Blair was elected F. R. S. and 
in 1761, F. A. S. In 1756 he published a second edition 
of his Chronological Tables. In Sept. 1757, he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the princess dowager of Wales, and 
mathematical tutor to the duke of York; and, on Dr. 
Townshend's promotion to the dcanry of Norwich, the ser- 
vices of Dr. Blair were rewarded, March 10, 1761, with 
a prebendal stall at Westminster. The vicarage of Hinck- 
ley happening to fall vacant six days after, by the death 
of Dr. Morres, Dr. Blair was presented to it by the dean 

* Mackenzie's Scots Wiiters, vol. I. 

BLAIR. 381 

and chapter of Westminster ; and in August that year he 
obtained a dispensation to hold with it the rectory of Bur- 
ton Coggles, in Lincolnshire. In September 1763, he 
uttended his royal pupil the duke of York in a tour to the 
continent; had the satisfaction of visitino- Lisbon, Gibral- 
tar, Minorca, most of the principal cities in Italy, and 
several parts of France ; and returned with the duke in 
August 1764. In 1768 he published an improved edition 
of his Chrouoloirical Tables, which he dedicated to the 
princess of Wales, who had expressed her early appro- 
bation of the former edition. To the edition were an- 
nexed fourteen maps of ancient and modern geography, 
for illustrating the tables of chronology and history. To 
whicii is i)rehxed a dissertation on the progress of geo« 
graphy. In March 177 1 he was presented by the dean 
and chapter of Westminster to the \icarage of St. Bride's, 
in the city of London ; which made it necessary for him 
to resign Hinckley, where he had never resided for any 
length of time. On the death of Mr. Sims, in April 1776, 
he resigned St. Bride's, and was presented to the rectory 
of St. John the Evangelist in Westminster ; and in .June 
that year obtained a dispensation to hold the rectory of St. 
John with that of Horton, near Colebrooke, Bucks. His 
brother, captain Blair *, falling gloriously in the service 
of his country in the memorable sea-fight of April 12, 17 82, 
the shock accelerated the doctor's death. He had at the 
same time the influenza in a severe degree, which put a 
period to his life June 24, 1782. His library was sold by 
auction December 11 — 13, 1781 ; and a course of his 
*' Lectures on the canons of the Old Testament," has since 
appeared. ' 

BLAIR (Patrick), an ingenious Scotch botanist, was 
a practitioner of physic and surgery at Dundee, where he 
made himself first known as an anatomist, by the dissec- 
tion of an elephant, which died near that place, in 170G. 
He was a nonjuror, and for his attachment to the exiled 
family of Stuart, was imprisoned, in the rebellion in 1715, 
as a susf)ected person. He afterwards removed to London, 

* This able officer, for bis gallant distinguishinghitnseif under sir George 

conduct in the Dolphin frigate in the Rodney, he fell in the bed of honour, 

engagement with the Duich on the and iei-ame one of three heroes, to 

Dogger Bank, August 5, 1781, was whom their country, by its representa- 

promoted to tlie command of the An- tives, voted a monument, 
eon, a new ship of 64 guns. By bravely 

» Nicbol*'* Hist, of Hinckley. 

382 . B L A I K. 

where he recommended himself to the royal society hy 
some discourses on the sexes of flowers. His stay in Lon- 
don was not long, and after leaving it, he settled at Boston, 
in Lincolnshire, where Dr. Pulteney conjectures that he 
practised physic during the remainder of his life. The 
time of his decease is not known, but it is supposed to 
have taken place soon after the publication of the seventh 
Decad of his " Pharmaco-Botanoiogia," in 1728. Dr. 
Blair's first publication was entitled " Miscellaneous ob- 
servations in Physic, Anatomy, Surgery, and Botanies,'* 
1718, 8vo. In the botanical part of this work he in- 
sinuates some doubts relating to the method suggested by 
Petiver, and others, of deducing the qualities of vege- 
tables from the agreement in natural characters, and in- 
stances the Cynoglossum, as tending to prove the fallacy 
of this rule. But the work by which he rendered the 
greatest service to botany, originated with his " Discourse 
on the Sexes of Plants," read before the royal society, 
and afterwards greatly amplified, and published at the re- 
quest of several members of that bod}-, under the title of 
*' Botanic Essays," 1720, Svo, in which he strengthened 
the arguments in proof of the sexes of plants, by sound 
reasoning, and some new experiments. He published 
also, " Pharmaco-botanologia, or an alphabetical and 
classical dissertation on all the British indigenous and 
garden plants of the new dispensatory," Lond. 1723 — 28, 
4to, but this work extends only to the letter H. Dr. 
Blair wrote some papers in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, particularly his anatomy and osteology of the ele- 
phant, &c, * 

BLAIR (Robert), a Scotch divine and poet, was the 
eldest son of the rev. David Blair, one of the ministers 
of Edinburgh, and chaplain to the king. His grandfather 
was the rev. Robert Blair, sometime minister of the gospel 
at Bangor, in Ireland, and afterward at St. Andrew's, in 
Scotland. Of this gentleman, some " Memoirs," partly 
taken from his manuscript diaries, were published at Edin- 
burgh, in 1754. He was celebrated for his piety, and by 
those of his persuasion, for his inflexible adherence to 
presbyterianism, in opposition to the endeavours made in 
his time to establish episcopacy in Scotland. It is recorded 
also that lie wrote some poems. His grandson, the object 

' Piiltency's Sketches, vol. 11. 

BLAIR. 38 


of tlie present article, was born in the year 1699, and 
after the usual preparatory studies, was ordained minister 
of Athelstaueford, in the county of East Lothian, where 
he resided until his death, Feb. 4, 1747. The late right 
hon. Robert Blair, president of the court of session in 
Scotland, who died in 1811, was one of his sons, and the 
late celebrated Dr. Hugh Blair, professor of rhetoric and 
belles-lettres, was his cousin. 

Such are the onlypaiticulars handed down to us respecting 
the writer of " the Grave." It is but lately that the poem 
was honoured with much attention, and appears to have 
made its way very slowly into general notice. The pious 
and congenial Hervey was among the first who praised it. 
Mr. Pinkerton in his " Letters of Literature," published 
under the name of Heron, endeavoured to raise it far above 
the level of common productions, and it has of late years 
been freqiiently reprinted ; but it may be questioned whe- 
ther it will bear a critical examination. It has no regular 
plan, nor are the reflections on mortality embellished by 
any superior graces. It is perhaps a stronger objection 
that they are interrupted by strokes of feeble satire at the 
expence of physicians and undertakers. His expressions 
are often mean, and his epithets ill- chosen and degrading, 
"supernumerary horror;" *' new-made widow;" "sooty 
blackbird;" "strong-lunged cherub;" " lame kindness," 
&c. &c. " solder of society ;" " by stronger arm bela- 
boured ;" " great gluts of people," &.c. are vulgarisms which 
cannot be pardoned in so short a production. 

" The Grave" is said to have been first printed at Edin- 
burgh in 1747, but this is a mistake. It was printed in 
1743 at London, for M. Cooper. The author had pre- 
viously submitted it to Dr. Watts, who informed him that 
two booksellers had declined the risk of publication. He 
had likewise corresponded with Dr. Doddridge on the sub- 
ject, and in a letter to that divine, says, that " in order to 
make it more generally liked, he was obliged sometimes to 
go cross to his own inclination, well knowing that what- 
ever poem is written upon a serious argument, must upon 
that very account lie under peculiar disadvantages ; a;id 
therefore proper arts must be used to make such a piece go 
down with a licentious age which cares for none of those 
things." In what respect he crossed his inclination, and 
by what arts he endeavoured to make his poem more ac- 
ceptable to a licentious age, we know not. In defence of 

334 B L A I 11. 

the present age, it may be said with justice that the poem 
owes its popularity to its subject, and that notwithstanding 
its defects, it will probably be a lasting favourite with per- 
sons of a serious turn. ' 

BLAKE (John Bhadley), a gentleman who was cut off 
early in life, but whose progress and improvements in na- 
tural knowledge were so great, that the editors of the se- 
cond edition of the Biographia Britannica have thought him 
entitled to an honourable place hi their work, was the son 
of John Blake, esq. and born in London, Nov. 4, 174-5 ; 
educated at Westminster school ; afterwards instructed in 
mathematics, chemistry, and drawing : but botany was his 
favourite object, in which he made a great progress. With 
these advantages he set out in life, and in 17G6 was sent as 
one of the East India company's supercargoes at Canton 
in China : where he was no sooner fixed, than he resolved 
to employ every moment of his time, which could be spared 
from the duties of his station, to the advancement of na- 
tural science for the benefit of his countrymen. His plan 
was, to procure the seeds of all the vegetables found in 
China, which are used in medicine, manufactures, and 
food ; and to send into Europe not only such seeds, but the 
plants by which they were produced, that they might be 
propagated either in Great Britain and Ireland, or in those 
colonies of America, the soil and climate of which might 
suit them best. But it was not to botanic subjects alone, 
that Mr. Blake's genius was confined : he had begun to 
collect fossils and ores ; and he now attended as much to 
mineralogy, as he had done to botany. 

It would exceed the limits of our plan, to relate particu- 
larly what he did in both, but he is supposed to have sacri- 
ficed his life to the closeness and ardour of his pursuits. 
By denying himself the needful recreations, and by sitting 
too intensely to his drawing and studies, he brought on a 
gravelly complaint ; and this increasing to the stone, and 
being accompanied with a fever, carried him off at Canton 
Nov. 16, 1773, in his 29th year. The friends of natural 
knowledge in England were preparing to have him enrolled 
among the members of the royal society, when the news of 
his death arrived ; when sir John Pringle, the president, 
took an opportunity of making his eloge, and lamented the 
loss of him very pathetically, as a public misfortune. ' 

» English Poete, edit, 1810, 21 vols.— Letters to and from Dr. Doddridg*, 
l'9Q, 11.233. * Bios- Bn'- 

BLAKE. 385 

• BLAKE (Robert), a celebrated English admiral, was 
born August 1599, at Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, where 
he was educated at the grammar-school. He went from 
thence to Oxtord, and was entered at St. Alban's hall, but 
removed to Wadham college, and in 1617 took the degree 
of B. A. In 1623 he wrote a copy of verses on the death 
of Camden, and soon after left the university. He was 
tinctured pretty early with republican principles ; and dis- 
liking that severit}' with which Laud, then bishop of Bath 
and \\ ells, pressed uniformity in his diocese, he began to 
fall into the puritanical opinions. The natural bluntness 
and sincerity of his disposition led him to speak freely upon 
all occasions, insomuch that, his sentiments being gene- 
rally known, the puritan party got him elected member 
for Bridgewater in 1640. When the civil war broke out, 
he declared for the parliament. In 1643 he was at Bristol, 
under the command of col. Fiennes, wlio intrusted him with 
a little fort on the line ; and, when prince Rupert attacked 
Bristol, and the governor had agreed to surrender it upon 
articles, Blake nevertheless for some time held out his fort, 
and killed several of the king's forces : which exasperated 
prince Rupert to such a degree, that he talked of hanging 
him, had not some friends interposed, and excused him on 
account of his want of experience in war. He served af- 
terwards in Somersetshire, under the command of Popham, 
governor of Lyme; and, being much beloved in those 
parts, he had such good intelligence there, that in con- 
junction with sir Robert Pye, he surprised Taunton for 
the parliament. In 1644 he was appointed governor of 
this place, which was of the utmost importance, being 
the only garrison the parliament had in the west. The 
works about it were not strong, nor was the garrison nu- 
merous ; 3'et, by his strict discipline, and kind behaviour 
to the townsmen, he found means to keep the place, thouo-h 
not properly furnished with supplies, and sometimes be- 
sieged, and even blocked up by the king's forces. At 
length Goring made a breach, and actually took part of the 
town ; while Blake still held out the other part and the 
castle, till relief came. For this service the parliament 
ordered the garrison a bounty of 2000/. and the governor a 
present of 500/. When the parliament had voted that no 
farther addresses should be made to the king, Blake joined 
in an address from the borough of Taunton, expressing 
their gratefulness for this step taken by the house of com- 
Vol. V. C c 

336 B L A K E. 

mons. However, when the king came to be tried, Blalce 
disapproved of that measure, as illegal ; and was fre- 
quently heard to say, he would as freely venture his life to 
save the king's, as ever he did to serve the parliament. But 
this is thought to have been chieHy owing to the humanity 
of his temper; since after the death of the king he entered 
into all the measures of the republican party, and, next to 
Cromwell, was the ablest officer the parhament had. 

February 12, 16 49, he was appointed to command the 
fleet, in conjunction with col. Deane and coL Popham, and 
soon after was ordered to sail, with a squadron of men of 
war, in pnrsuit of prince Rupert. Blake came before Kin- 
sale in June 1649, where prince Rupert lay in harbour. 
He kept him in the harbour till the beginning of October ; 
when the prince, despairing of relief by sea, and Cromwell 
being ready to take the town by land, provisions of all sorts 
falling short, he resolved to force his way through Blake's 
squadron, which he effected with the loss of three of his 
ships. The prince's fleet steered their course to Lisbon, 
where they were protected by the king of Portugal. Blake 
sent to the kiuff for leave to enter, and coming near with 
his ships, the castle shot at him; upon which he dropped 
anchor, and sent a boat to know the reason of this hostility. 
The captain of the castle answered, he had no orders from 
the king to let his ships pass : however, the king com- 
manded one of the lords of the court to wait upon Blake, 
and to desire him not to come in except the weather proved 
bad, lest some quarrel should happen between him and 
prince Rupert ; the king sent him, at the same time, a 
hu-ge present of fresh provisions. The weather proving bad, 
Blake sailed up the river into the bay of Wyers, but two 
miles from the place where prince Rupert's ships lay; and 
thence he sent capt. Moulton, to inform the king of the 
falsities in the ))rince's declaration. The king, however, 
still refusing to allow the admiral to attack prince Rupert, 
Blake took five of the Brazil fleet richly laden, and at the 
same time sent notice to him, that unless he ordered the 
prince's ships out from his river, he would seize the rest 
of the Portuguese fleet from America. Sept. 1650 the 
prince endeavoured to get out of the harbour, but was soon 
driven in agaui by Blake, who sent to England nine Portu- 
guese ships bound for Brazil. October following, he and 
Popham met with a fleet of 23 sail from Brazil for Lisbon, 
of whom they sunk the admiral, took the vice-admiral, and 

BLAKE. 387 

11 other ships, having 10,000 chests of sugar onboard. 
In his return home, he met with two ships in searcli of 
the prince, whom he followed up the Streights; when he 
took a French man of war, the captain of wiiich had com- 
mitted hostilities. He sent this prize, reported to be 
worth a million, into Calais, and followed the prince to 
the port of Carthagena, where he lay with the remainder 
of his fleet. As soon as Blake came to anchor before the 
fort, he sent a messenger to the Spanish governor, inform- 
ing liim, that an enemy to the state of F.ngland was in his 
port, that the parliament had commanded him to pursue 
him, and the king of Spain being in amity with the parlia- 
ment, he desired leave to take all advantages against their 
enemy. The governor replied, he could not take notice 
of the difference of any nations or persons amongst them- 
selves, only such as were declared enemies to the king his 
master ; that they came in thither for safety, therefore he 
could not refuse them protection, and that he would do 
the like for the admiral. Blake still pressed the governor 
to permit him to attack the prince, and the Spaniard put 
him off till he could have orders from Madrid. While the 
admiral was cruizing in the Mediteranean, prince Rupert 
got out of Carthagena, and sailed to Malaga. Blake, hav- 
ing notice of his destroying many English ships, followed 
him ; and attacking him in the port, burnt and destroyed 
his whole fleet, two ships only excepted ; this was in Janu- 
ary 165 J. In February, Blake took a French man of war 
of 40 guns, and sent it, with other prizes, to England, 
Soon after he came with his squadron to Plymouth, when 
he received the thanks of the parliament, and was made 
warden of the cinque ports. March following, an act 
passed, whereby colonel Blake, colonel Popham, and colo- 
nel Deane, or any two of them, were appointed admirals 
and generals of the fleet, for the year ensuing. The next 
service he was put upon, was the reducing the isles of 
Scilly, which were held for the king. He sailed in May, 
with a body of 800 land troops on board. Sir John Gren- 
viile, who commanded in those parts for the king, after 
some small resistance, submitted. He sailed next for 
Guernsey, which was held for th'- king, by sir George 
Carteret. He arrived there in October, and landing: what 
forces he had the very next day, he did every thing in his 
power in order to make a speedy conquest of the island, 
which was not completed that year. In the beginning of 

c c 2 


the next, however, the governor, finding all hopes of 
relief vain, thought proper to make the best terms he could. 
For tiiis service Blake had thanks from the parliament, 
and was elected one of the council of state. March 25, 
1652, he was appointed sole^ admiral for nine months, on 
tl)e |>rospect of a Dutch war. The states sent Van Trump 
w til forty-five sail of men of war into the Downs, to in- 
sult the English ; Blake, hovvever, though he had but 
twenty-three siiips, and could expect no succour but from 
major Bourne, who commanded eight more, yet, being 
attacked by Van Trump, fought him bravely, and forced 
him to retreat. This was on the 19th of May, 1652. 
After this engagement the states seemed inclined to peace ; 
but the commonwealth of England demanded such terms 
as could not be complied with, and therefore both sides 
prepared to carry on the war with greater vigour. Blake 
now harassed the enemy by taking their merchant ships, 
in which he had great success. On the 10th of June, a 
detachment from his fleet fell upon twenty-six sail of 
Dutch merchantmen, and took them every one ; and by 
the end of June he had sent into port forty prizes. On 
the 2d of July he sailed, with a strong squadron, north- 
wards. In his course he took a Dutch man of war ; and 
about the latter end of the month, he fell on twelve men 
of war, convoy to their herring busses, took the whole 
convoy, lUO of their busses, and dispersed the rest. 
August 12, he returned into the Downs, with six of the 
Dutch men of war, and 900 prisoners. Thence he stood 
over to the coast of Holland, and on Sept. 28th, having 
discovered the Dutch about noon, though he had only 
three of his own squadron with him, vice-admiral Penn 
with his squadron at some distance, and the rest a league 
or two astern, he bore in among the Dutch fleet, being 
bravely seconded by Penn and Bourne; when three of the 
enemy's ships were wholly disabled at the first brunt, and 
anotiier as she was towing olf. The rear-admiral was 
taken by captain Miidmay ; and had not night intervened, 
it was thought not a single ship of the Dutch fleet would 
have escaped. On the 29th, about day-break, the English, 
espied the Dutch fleet N.E. two leagues off"; the admiral 
bore up to them, but the enemy having the wind of him, 
he could not reach them ; however, he commanded his 
light frigates to ply as near as they could, and keep firing 
wlnle the rest bore up after them j upon which the Dutchi 

BLAKE. 385 

hoisted their sails, and run for it. The English being in 
want of provisions, returned to the Downs. Blake having 
been obliged to make large detachments from his fleet, 
Van Trump, who had again the command of the Dutch 
navy, con.-,isu[ig of eighty men of war, resolved to take 
this opportunity of attacking him in the Downs, knowing 
he had not above half his number of ships. He accordingly 
sailed away to the back of the Goodwin. Blake havmg 
intelli<Tence of this, called a council of war, wherein it 
was resolved to fight, though at so great a disadvantage. 
The engagement began November 29, about two in the 
mOrning, and lasted till near six in tbe evening. Blake 
was aboard the Triumph ; this ship, the Victory, and the 
Vanguard, suffered most, having been engaged at one 
time with twenty of the enemy's best ships. The admiral 
finding his ships much disabled, and that the Dutch had 
the advantage of the wind, drew off his fleet in the niaht 
into the Thames, having lost the Garland and Bonaven- 
ture, which were taken by the Dutch ; a small frigate was 
also burnt, and three sunk ; and his remaining ships much 
shattered and disabled : Van Trump, however, bought this 
victory dear, one of his flag-ships being blown up, all tue 
men drowned, and his own ship and De Ruyter's both 
unfit for service till they were repaired. This success in- 
vigorated the spirits of the Dutch exceedingly ; Van 
Trump sailed through the channel with a broom at his 
main-Lop-mast, to signify that he had swept the seas of 
English ships. In the mean time, Blake having repaired 
his fleet, and Monk and Deane being now joined in com- 
mission with him, sailed Feb. 8, 1653, from Queensbo- 
rough, with sixty men of war, which were soon after 
joined with twenty more from Portsmouth. On the 18th 
they discovered Van Trump with seventy men of war, and 
300 merchant ships under his convoy. Blake, with twelve 
ships, came up with and engaged the Dutch fleet, and, 
though grievously wounded m the thigh, continued the 
fight till night, when the Dutch, who had six men of war 
sunk and taken, retired. After having put ashore his 
wounded men at Portsmouth, he followed the enemy, 
whom he came up with next day, when the fight was re- 
newed, to the loss of the Dutcti, who continued retreating 
towards Bouloo;ne. All the nitrht followintr Blake con- 
tinued the pursuit, and, in the morning of the 20th, the 
two fleets fought again till four in the afternoon, when tha 

390 BLAKE. 

wind blowing favourably for the Dutch, they secured 
themselves on the flats of Dunkirk and Calais. In these 
three engagements the Dutch lost eleven men of war, 
thirty merchant ships, and had fifteen hundred men slain. 
The English lost only one ship, but not fewer men than 
the enemy. In April Cromwell turned out the parliament, 
and shortly after assumed the supreme power. Tlie states 
hoped great advantages from this, but were disappointed ; 
Blake said on this occasion to his officers, " It is not for 
us to mind state affairs, but to keep foreigners from fooling 
us." Towards the end of the month Blake and his col- 
leagues, with a fleet of an hundred sail, stood over to the 
Dutch coast, and forced their fleet to take shelter in the 
Texel, where, for some time, they were kept by Monk and 
Deane, while Blake sailed Northward; at last Van Trump 
got out, and drew together a fleet of an hundred and 
twenty men of war. June 3d, Deane and Monk engaged 
him off the North Foreland. On the 4th Blake came to 
their assistance with eighteen fresh ships, by which means 
a complete victory was gained ; and if the Dutch had not 
again saved themselves on Calais sands, their whole fleet 
had been sunk or taken. Cromwell having called the par- 
liament, styled the Little Parliament, Blake, Oct. 10, took 
his seat in the house, where he received their solemn 
thanks for his many and faithful services. The protector 
afterwards called a new parliament, consisting of four 
hundred, where Blake sat also, being the representative 
for his native town of Bridgewater, Dec. 6th he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty. Nov. 
1654, Cromwell sent him with a strong fleet into the Me- 
diterranean, with instructions to support the honour of 
the English flag, and to procure satisfaction for any in- 
juries that might have been done to our merchants. In 
December Blake came into the road of Cadiz, where he 
was treated with great respect ; a Dutch admiral would 
not hoist his flag while he was there. The Algerines 
were so much afraid of him, that they stopped their 
Sallee rovers, obliged them to deliver up what English 
prisoners they had on board, and sent them to Blake, in 
order to procure his favour. Nevertheless, he came be- 
fore Algiers on the 10th of March, when he sent an of- 
ficer on shore to the dey to tell him he had orders to 
demand satisfaction for the piracies committed on the 
English, and to insist on the release of all such English 
captives as were then in the place. To this the dey made 

BLAKE. 391 

answer, tliat the captures beloiif^ing to particular men he 
could not restore ; but, if" Mr. blake pleased, he rniolic re- 
deem wtiat EiigUsh captives were there at a reasonable 
price; and, if he thought proj^er, the Algcriiics would 
conclude a peace with him, and tor the tuture uifer no 
acts oniosiility to the English. This answer was accom- 
panied with a present of fresh provisions, blake sailed to 
Tunis on the same errand. The dey of Tuuis sent him 
a haughty answer. " Here," said he, *' are our castles 
of Goletta and Porto Ferino, do your worst ! do you think 
we fear your fieetr" On the hearmg this, Biake, as his 
custom was when in a passion, began to curl nis whiskers ; 
and, after a short consultation with his officers, bore into 
the bay of Porto Ferino with his great ships ; when, 
coming vvithiii musket-shot of the castle, he hred on it so 
briskly, that in two hours it was rendered defenceless, and 
the guns on the works along the shore were dismounted, 
though sixty of them played at a time upon the English. 
He found nine ships in the road, and ordered every cap- 
tain, even of his own ship, to man his long boat with 
choice men, and these to enter the harbour and fire tlie 
Tuniseens, whde he and his fleet covered them from the 
castle, by placing continually on it with their cannon. The 
seamen in their boats boldly assaulted the pirati's, and 
burnt all their ships, with the loss of twenty -five men 
killed, and forty-eight wounded. This daring action 
spread the terror of his name throughout Africa and Asia, 
which had for a long time before been formidable in Eu- 
rope. He also struck such terror into the piratical state 
of Tripoly, that he made them glad to strike up a peace 
with England. These and other exploits raised the glory 
of the English name so high, that most of the princes and 
states in Italy thought fit to pay their compliments to the 
protector, particularly the grand duke of Tuscany, and 
the republic of Venice, who sent magnificent embassies 
for that purpose. The war in the mean time was grown 
pretty hot with Spain ; and Blake used his utmost efforts 
to ruin their maritime force in Europe, as Penn had done 
in the West Indies. But finding himself now in a de- 
clining state of health, and fearing the ill consequences 
which might ensue in case he should die without any col- 
league to take charge of the fleet, he wrote letters into 
England, desiring some proper person to be named in 
commission with him j upon which general Montague wa& 

392 BLAKE. 

sent joint-admiral, with a strong squadron to assist him. 
Soon after his arrival in the Mediterranean, the two ad- 
mirals sailed with their whole fleet to block up a Spanish 
squadron in the bay of Cadiz. At length, in September, 
being in great want of water, Blake and Montague stood 
away for the coast of Portugal, leaving captain Stayner 
with seven ships to look after the enemy. Soon after they 
were gone, the Spanish plate fleet appeared, but were in- 
tercepted by Stayner, who took the vice-admiral and 
another galleon, which were afterwards burnt by accident, 
the rear-admiral, with two millions of plate on board, and 
another ship riclily laden. These prizes, together with 
all the prisoners, were sent into England under general 
Montague, and Blake alone remained in the Mediterra- 
nean ; till, being informed that another plate fleet had 
put into Santa Cruz, in the island of Teneriffe, he sailed 
thither in April 1657, with a fleet of twenty-five men of 
war. On the 20th he came into the road of Santa Cruz ; 
and though the Spanish governor had timely notice, was a 
man of courage and conduct, and had disposed all things 
in the most proper manner, so that he looked upon an at- 
tack as what no wise admiral would think practicable ; yet 
Blake having summoned him, and received a short answer, 
was determined to force the place, and to burn the fleet 
therein ; and he performed it in such a manner as appears 
next to incredible. It is allowed to be one of the most 
remarkable actions that ever happened at sea. As soon as 
the news arrived of this extraordinary action, the protector 
sent to acquaint his second parliament, then sitting, there- 
with ; upon which they ordered a public thanksgiving, and 
directed a diamond ring worth 500/. to be sent to Blake ; 
and the thanks of the house was ordered to all the officers 
and seamen, and to be given them by their admiral. Upon 
his return to the Mediterranean he cruised some time be- 
fore Cadiz ; but finding himself declining fast, resolved 
to return home. He accordingly sailed for England, but 
lived not to see again his native land ; for he died as the 
ileet was entering Plymouth, the 17th of August 1657, 
aged 58. His body was conveyed to Westminster abbey, 
and interred with great pomp in Henry the Seventh's 
chapel ; but removed from thence in 1661, and re-interred 
in St. Margaret's church-yard*. 

* Clarendon having mentioned all his first going aboard the fleet, con- 
Blake's ejuployineuts to the time of eludes thus : " He iheu 'jetuok hiuf* 


He was a man of a low stature ; but of a quick, lively 
eye, and of a good soldier-like countenance. He was in 
his person brave beyond example, yet cool in action, and 
slievved a great deal of military conduct in the disposition 
of those desperate attacks wliich men of a cooler compo- 
sition have judged rather fortunate than expedient. He 
certainly loved his country with extraordinary ardour, 
and, as he never meddled with intrigues of state, so what- 
ever government he served, he was solicitous to do his 
duty. He was upright to a supreme degree, for, not- 
withstanding the vast sums which passed through his hands, 
he scarcely left five hundred pounds behind him of his 
own acquiring. In line, he was altogether disinterested 
and unambitious, exposing himself on all occasions for 
the bgnetit of the public and the glory of the nation, and 
not with any view to his own private profit or fame. In 
respect to his personal character, he was pious without af- 
fectation, strictly just, and liberal to the utmost extent of 
his fortune. His officers he treated with the familiarity 
of friends, and to his sailors he v/as truly a parent. The 
state buried him as it was fit : at the public expence a 
grave was given him, but no tomb ; and though he still 
wants an epitaph, writers of all parties have shewn an 
eagerness to do his memory justice. We find it very posi- 
tively asserted, that captain Benjamin Blake, brother to 
the general, suffered so man}' hardships for being a dis- 
senter, in the latter end of the reign of king Charles II. 
that he found himself under the necessity of selling his 
patrimony, and transporting himself and his family to 
Carolina. Another author (though some indeed tliink it 
is the same) relates this story of Mr. Humphry Blake, the 

self wholly to the sea, and quickly very formiclable, and were discovered 

made himself signal there. He was by him to make a noise only, and to 

the first man that declined the old track, fright those who could be rarely hurt 

and made it manifest that thw science by them. He was the first that infused 

might be attained in less time than that proportion of courage into the 

was imagined, and despised those rules seamen, by making them see by ex- 

whicli had been long in practice, to perience what mighty things they 

keep his ship and his men out of could do if they were resolved, and 

danger ; which had beeu held in former taught them to fight in fire as well as 

times a point of great ability and cir- upon water ; and though he has beea 

cumspection, as if the principal art very well imitated and followed, he 

requisite in a captain of a ship had was the first who gave the example of 

been to be sure to come safe home that kind of naval courage, and bold 

again. He was the first man who and resolute achievements." iiist. 

brought the ships to coniemn ca ties on vol. III. p. 392. 
6hore, which had been thought ever 

394 BLAKE. 

general's brother, and tells us, that the family estate was 
worth two hundred pounds a year, which he was ohli'>-ed 
to dispose of, to pay the fines laid upon him for his non- 
conformity. It is however strange, that every one of the 
generaPs nephews and nieces, by his sister Susannah, who 
married a gentleman at Minehead, in Somersetshire, should 
be totally unacquainted with this transaction, and that 
none of the family should be able to give any account of 
that matter; and therefore it seems to be justly doubted 
whether there be any truth in the story, or whether it is 
only grounded on there being a considerable family of his 
name settled in that province, one of whom, when it was 
in private hands, was a lord proprietor. 

In a life of him, written by Dr. Johnson, in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, vol. X. there is a circumstance recorded 
that we have not found elsewhere, nor do we know the 
authority on which it is grounded. It is said, that while 
.Blake was cruising in the Mediterranean, in Fel)ruary 
1650-51, he met with a French ship of considerable force, 
and commanded the captain to come on board, there 
being then no war declared between the two nations. The 
captain, when he came, was asked whether " he was will- 
ling to lay down his sword and yield." This he gallantly 
refused, though in his enemy's power. Blake, scorning to 
take the advantage of an artifice, and detesting the ap- 
pearance of treachery, told him, ^' That he was at liberty 
to go back to his ship, and defend it as long as he could." 
1'he captain willingly accepted the offer, and after a fight 
of two hours, confessed himself conquered, kissed his sword, 
and surrendered it. 

In the same author there are some remarks concerninjr 
Blake's conduct, in tlie battle which he fouoht with the 
Dutch, on the 29th of November, 1652, that appear wor- 
thy of attention. " There are," says he, " sometimes obser- 
vations and enquiries, which all historians seem to decline 
by agreement, of which this action may atlbrd us an ex- 
ample. Nothing appears at the first view more to demand 
our curiosity, or aObid matter for examination, than this 
wild encounter of twenty-two ships, with a force, accord- 
ing to their accounts who favour the Dutch, three times 
superior. Nothing can justify a commander in fighting 
under such disadvantages, but the impossibility of retreat- 
ing. But what hindered Blake from retiring as well before 
the fight as after it r To say he was ignorant of the strength 

BLAKE. 395 

of the Dutch fleet, is to impute to him a very criminal de- 
o-ree ot" ne<>-ligence ; and at least it must be contessi-d, 
that, from the time he saw them, he could not but know 
that they were too powerful to be opposed by him, and 
even then there was time for retreat. 'J o urge the ardour 
of his sailors, is to divest him of the authority of a comman- 
der, and to charge him with th>- most repioacht'ul weakness 
that can enter into the character of a general. To men- 
tion the impetuosity of his own courage, is to make the 
blame of his temerity equal to the praise of his valour; 
which seems, indeed, to be the most gentle censure that 
the truth ol history will allow. We must then admit, amidst 
our eulogies ami applauses, that the great, the wise, and 
the valiant Blake, was once betrayed to an inconside- 
rate and desperate enterpnze, by tiie resistless ardour of 
his own spirit, and a noble jealousy of the honour of his 
country." Tuis quotation we reta n for the purpose of 
adding, that if the author had lived in the times ot a St. 
Vincent and a Nelson, he would have probably viewed 
Blake's temeray in a different light. 

Blake's behaviour to his brother Benjamin has been de- 
servedly celebrated as one of the noblest instances of 
justice to his country, and, at the same time, of tender- 
ness to a friend and relation, that can be met with in an- 
cient or modern history. When that brother betrayed 
cowardice in the hrst trial, he immediately broke and sent 
him home, as unworthy of the nation's pay. Yet the want 
of military virtue did not lessen the ties of fraternal affec- 
tion, and he left his brother to enjoy that estate which he 
might be qualihed to adorn in private life. 

Mr. Hume's character of our great admiral is drawn up 
with that historian's usual elegance and spirit. " Never man, 
so zealous for a faction, was so much respected and esteemed 
even by the opposite factions. He was, by principle, an 
inflexible republican ; and the late usurpations, amidst all 
the trust and caresses which he received from the ruling 
powers, were thought to be very little grateful to him. * It 
is still our duty,' he said to the seamen, * to fight for our 
country, into whatever hands the government may fall.' 
Disinterested, generous, liberal ; ambitious only of true 
glory, dreadful only to his avowed enemies ;, he forms one 
of the most perfect characters of that age, and the least 
stained with those errors and violences, which were then 
so predominant. The protector ordered him a pompous 

396 BLAKE. 

funeral at the public charge : but the tears of his country- 
men were the most honourable panegyric on his memory." * 

BLAKE (Thomas), an English puritan divine, was born 
in Staffordshire in 1597, and in 1616 was entered of Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he took his degrees, and went 
into the church. In 1648 he sided with the ruling party, 
subscribed the covenant, and became pastor of St. Alc- 
mond's in Shrewsbury, and afterwards of Tarn worth in 
Staft'ordshire, where he was also one of the committee for 
the ejection of those who were accounted " ignorant and 
scandalous ministers and schoolmasters." He died in 
June, 1657, and was buried in Tamworth church, after a 
funeral sermon preached by the famous Mr. Anthony Eur- 
gess, of Sutton Colfield. 

He wrote, besides some controversial tracts on Infant 
Baptism, 1. " Vindiciae Foederis, a treatise of the covenant 
of God with mankind, &c." Lond. 1653, 4to. 2. "The 
Covenant sealed," ibid. 4to, 1655 ; and several single ser- 
mons, and meditations entitled " Living Truths in dying 
times," 1665, 12mo. Burgess's Funeral Sermon for hira 
was printed, Lond. 1658, 4to, but became so scarce, that 
Wood informs us he could never see a copy, otherwise he 
Mould have enlarged his account from it. There is but 
little in it, however, of personal character. The funeral 
oration printed along with it, and spoken by one Shaw, a 
schoolmaster, is a curious specimen of pedantic imagery.* 


BLANCARD, or BLANCKAERT (Nicholas), a clas- 
sical editor, was born at Leyden, of a noble family, Dec. 
11, 1625, and was educated under Boxhorn and Golius. 
He had scarcely arrived at his twentieth year, when he 
was invited to become professor of history at Steinfurth. 
This he resigned in 165u for the chair of history and an- 
tiquities at Middleburgh, but this school falling into decay, 
Blancard removed to Heeren-veen in Fristland, where he 
practised physic. In November 1669, he was appointed 
Greek professor at Franeker. At these different places he 
published, 1. an edition of " Quintus Curtius," with notes, 
Leyden, 1649, 8vo. 2. " Florus," with his own added to 

1 Biog. Brit. — Gen. Diet. — Johnson's Works. — The first regular life of Blake 
appeared in Lives Foreip;!! and Kn^'lish, vol. II. 1704, Svo. 

2 Ex. gr. " Jifing i,en!.ible of my stupelaoiion, I desire, out of a pious policy, 
to supply my drynesse, by takins; your (ears, and putting them into my pump, 
so hoping to revive mine own, which yet I judije arc rather drowned than^ 
dryed up !"— Ath.Ox. vol. IJ, 

B L A N C A R D. 397 

the Variorum j" ibid. 1650, 8vo; Frandcer, 1G90, 4to, 3. 
'* Arrian's Alexander," not in much estimation, Amster- 
dam, 1G68, 8vo. 4. " Arriani Tactica, Periplus, de Ve~ 
natione ; Epicteti Enchiridion," &c. Amst. 1683, 8vo. 
5. " Harpocrationis Lexicon," Leyden, 1683, 4to. 6. 
"PhiHppi CypriiChronicon ecclesiye Gra'ciae," Franc. 1679, 
4to, the first edition, which Biancard copied from a ma- 
nuscript brought from Constantinople, and translated it 
into Latin. 7. " Thomse Maijistri dictionum Atticaruni 
eclogae," Fran. 1690, 8vo, reprinted 1698, with notes by 
Lambert Bos. In the tine echtion of Thomas pubhshed by 
Bernard in 1757, this text of Biancard is adopted as well 
as Bos's notes. In Burmann's *' Sylloge," are three let- 
ters of Blancard's, He had begun to prepare an edition of 
Thucydides, but owing to his age and infirmities was 
obliged, about the year 1690, to give up his literary la- 
bours. He died May 15, 1703.^ 

BLANCARD (Stephen), son to the preceding, was an 
eminent physician at Franeker, and one of the most vo- 
luminous compilers of his time. He published large works 
on every branch of medicine and surgery, taken from all 
preceding and even contemporary authors, without either 
judgment or honesty; for wliile he took every thing good 
and bad which he could find, he in general published all 
as his own. His " Anatomia practica rationalis," 1688, 
would have been a useful work, had it not partaken too 
much of indiscriminate borrowing : but, perhaps, that for 
which he is best known is his " Lexicon medicuin Gryeco- 
Latinum," which has gone through a great many editions, 
some of which have been improved by