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ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE LINNEAN SYSTEM,
Illustrated with Plates, Drawn and Coloured from Nature,
W. WOOD, F.R.S. &L.S,
VOL. I. K
PRINTED FOR JOHN BOOTH, DUKE STREET,
By B. Howlett, 10, Frith Street, Soho.
Natural History, such as it is considered by
systematic authors, consists principally in the know-
ledge of species. The Botanist becomes acquainted
with the different plants, and learns to arrange
them by the particular characters which belong to
each individual, and by the general relation which
they bear to each other. The Ornithologist, the
Entomologist, and the Conchologist, by the same
means distinguish birds, insects, and shells. To
make this knowledge attainable, that is, to enable
the Naturalist from certain particular characters to
distinguish immediately one subject in nature from
another, is the only purpose of system. But in
nature there is something more to be discovered,
something more to be desired than the knowledge of
the mere external form of her productions. We
are taught to believe, that nothing has been formed
in vain ; it therefore becomes the rational Naturalist,
not to confine himself to the exterior only, but to
discover, as far as his ability will permit, the respec-
tive habits and faculties of the different animals,
and their degrees of utility, either with reference to
the general theory of nature, or to those particulars
in which they may become serviceable to mankind.
It must be confessed, that the superficial examina-
tion alone of the works of Nature is delightful,
but when those works are steadily contemplated,
there is a feeling superadded which makes the de-
light more permanent, for all of them mock the
imitative power of man, and bear evidences of om-
niscience which no sophistry can shake, no argu-
ment can overturn.
Conchology considered in this view, requires no-
thing more to excite curiosity or command atten-
tion. Its varied subjects exhibit a richness of co-
louring and diversity of form, not to be exceeded by
any other class of natural beings; and its numerous
productions, when collected with care and arranged
in order, will afford the possessor a gratifying source
of instruction and amusement.
It will be proper, before we proceed ta the im-
mediate object of the work, to notice that the ar-
rangement which the author has pursued, in order
to render it acceptable to the scientific Naturalist,
is strictly Linnaean. All systems built upon artifi-
cial principles must be liable to objections, and such
is the system of Linnaeus. But as, notwithstanding
the attempts which have been made to form a more
perfect arrangement, the structure raised by the
great Swedish Naturalist still remains unshaken,
we cannot do better than adhere to those rules
which his authority has sanctioned.
The plates which accompany this work, will be
accurately drawn and engraved from specimens
only, and the possessors of the shells, to whose
liberality the author has been indebted for their use,
will be acknowledged at the head of their respective
specifications : where no such acknowledgment
appears with the reference to a figure, it may be
presumed that the subject belongs to the author.
It is designed, in the course of the publication, to
describe every species of shell, and to figure all the
most prominent, as well as those striking varieties
which are liable to mislead the Naturalist, and
create confusion by causing an improper multipli-
cation of species.
The errors of Gmelin which are numerous, and
his synonyms which are often wrong, have been
noticed and corrected. No transcriptions whatever
have been made upon trust, but all references very
carefully examined, and many of doubtful autho-
rity rejected. This part of his plan it would have
been vain for the author to have attempted without
particular aid, without a library of reference fully
adequate to the purpose intended to be fulfilled.
That such a library exists, and that such aid is
most liberally afforded to those who desire it, no
oae need be ignorant who has heard the name of
Sir Joseph Banks.
There have not been wanting those who have
objected against collecting of shells as a trifling and
useless employment ; but let them recollect that all
utility is comparative, and that no desire after what
is curious, unless it be suffered to absorb more im-
portant considerations, ought to be suppressed. A
great part of our time is but too apt to be wasted,
and therefore any pursuit is commendable that fur-
nishes a rational amusement for that portion of
life, which might otherwise be lost in idleness.
Nature teems throughout with interesting objects,
each of which, when properly considered, may be-
come the subject of admiration ; and all may feel an
equal interest in their several occupations, from the
philosopher who contemplates myriads of animals
in a drop of water, to him, who disclaiming the
minuter parts of the creation, spends his nights in
watching the revolutions of the celestial orbs, or
penetrating the etherial space to worlds beyond our
Of the Animals inhabiting Shells.
The animals inhabiting shells, belong to the Class
Mollusca, and are divided into two orders; viz.
those with an appendage, or foot, proper for creep-
ing, and a distinct head, Gasthopodes ; and those
which have no foot, or one that is not calculated for
creeping, and are without a head, AcSphales. The
animals of both divisions are quite soft, that is,
without bones or any internal hardness, and form
a considerable portion of Lamarck's work, entitled
Animaux sans vertebres.
The GastSropodes, or those with the climbing or
creeping foot, are confined to univalve shells ; while
those without a head, called AcSphales, chiefly in-
habit the bivalves. As to the animals of multivalve
shells, some are headless, and others have a peculiar
organization, (such as the Lepades) which is inde-
pendent of the rest.
The head, of such of these animals as have one,
vol. i. a
is nothing but a round and fleshy eminence, placed
on the anterior and upper part of the body, and ge-
nerally armed with two, or four, moveable horns,
or tentacula. These horns differ in their structure.
In the common snail, there are four, two large and
two small : they are hollow tubes, with eyes at the
end, and are capable of being extended, or drawn
in, at the pleasure of the animal. The Fossar of
Adanson, Helix ambigua, has but two, which are
solid, and immoveable, and the eyes are situated at
the anterior base of each. The position of the eyes
in the animal is, consequently, subject to variation ;
we find some that project, others that are sunk;
some that are large, and others that are small.
The mouth is very small in the animals of the
univalve shells ; it is generally a little groove, vary-
ing in its form and direction. In the snails, it is
furnished with minute substances, which may be
called teeth, and which are useful to them in feeding ;
and, in the animals of the genus Murex, it is a small
oval hole, from which issues a long retractile trunk,
terminated by a sucker, armed with short feelers.
It is with this trunk that they seize and kill such of
the smaller animals as are destined for their prey.
The great muscle, or foot, which extends under
the neck, and part of the breast, of the animals of
univalve shells, is flat beneath, convex above, and
every moment changing its shape and direction. It
often carries a calcareous, or cartilaginous operculum,
or lid, of a very variable shape, which seems to close
the opening of the shell, when the animal retires.
The mantle is a muscular membrane, generally
thin, which lines the interior walls of the shell, and
envelopes the body, except the head and foot. In
some cases it lines not only the inside, but also the
outside of the shell, and in many it is prolonged in
a tubular form, which projects considerably before,
and assists the animal either in its movements, or in
fixing to solid bodies. The mantle has one or two
holes, differently situated, one for the absorption of
air, the other for the passage of the excrements.
The Gasteropodes have a brain situated in the upper
part of the head, from which proceed two cords,
that unite and form a ganglion above the gullet.
It is from the brain and this ganglion, that all the
nerves proceed, which give sensation to the animal,
and life to all its parts. They have also a heart,
placed in the upper part of the body, and com-
posed of a single ventricle. Two vessels communi-
cate with it, one from the liver and other viscera,
and the other from what Cuvier calls the lungs.
The liver is very large, and divided into four lobes,
three anterior, and the fourth of a spiral shape,
which entirely fills the posterior part of the shell.
The organs of nutrition are the stomach and the
great and small intestine, all of them different parts
IV . INTRODUCTION.
of the same canal. After the mouth comes the
pharynx, which is provided with valves, a singular
conformation, to prevent the return of the aliment.
The stomach is placed below the breast, and after
that the intestine, which lessens as it proceeds, till
it turns back upon itself, enters between the lobes of
the liver, and opens, for the passage of the excrement,
from the cavity of the chest.
The AcSphales, which are very differently orga-
nized, may be divided into two sections, each of
which should be considered separately.
The first comprehends only the animals that move
from place to place ; and these, instead of a head,
have two tubes, or siphons, sometimes united, some-
times separate, but always susceptible of being
lengthened, or contracted, at pleasure. The largest
of these tubes absorbs water and animalcula, and
is called the mouth ; the other, which rejects water
and the excrements, cannot be mistaken for the
anus. Their opening is generally ciliated, or
fringed. The mantle lines the interior of the shell,
and envelopes the body more or less, according to
the species. Between the mantle and the body, we
find the tracheae, which in these animals answer the
purpose of lungs, and are the same to them as gills
are to fishes. They are generally composed of four
membranous leaves, attached to the body of the
animal, and formed by a tissue of little longitudinal
trunks, very closely united by others, which run in
a transverse direction : these trunks have a hole at
top, by which the water enters, and their ends are ge-
nerally fringed. We have a very familiar example
of these tracheae in the beard of an oyster.
Beneath the trunks is seen a thick muscle, which
is capable of being lengthened, and moved on all
sides, or may be entirely shut within the shell. This
is called the foot ; but although it, in part, fulfils the
functions of the same organ, in the animal of uni-
valve shells, it bears no resemblance, except in being
flat beneath. It is used bv the animals to make
a groove, deep enough to sustain its shell, in a ver-
tical position, when it moves from one place to
another, or to dig beneath the sand, or mud, when
it wishes either to avoid the cold, or hide itself
from its enemies.
The AcSphales of the second section have no
siphons ; both their openings are simple holes, con-
cealed under the doublings of the mouth and the
tracheae. Part of these animals have an organiza-
tion similar to those of the preceding section ; but
some have a foot, while others have none.
Those without siphons, which have a foot, are
either like the animals of the first section, that is, can
form a groove, and move in the sand, or are solely
designed to spin the thread, or byssus, with which
nature has provided them, for the purpose of fixing
their shells to rocks, or stones. The foot in these
animals is always smaller, more pointed, and chan-
nelled by a longitudinal groove, intended to give
shape to the thread, which first exudes, like gum,
from the end of it. The Muscle and the Pinna are
examples of this division. They are capable of loco-
motion ; but unless torn from their hold, by a supe-
rior force, they generally remain in the place where
they first established themselves.
The AcSphales without siphons, which have no
foot, are fixed for their lives, by a calcareous ce-
ment. These, such as oysters, are of the lowest order
of animated beings ; their organization is extremely
simple ; they have merely two holes for the mouth,
&c. four pulmonary leaflets, called the beard, and a
All the animals of Bivalves are fixed to their
shells by a muscle, which is attached to the hinge,
and by one, two, or more, fixed to the interior of
the valves, in the places which conchologists call
muscular impressions. These last muscles are prin-
cipally designed to close the sides of the shell ; that
they do it effectually, all will acknowledge, who are
used to the opening of oysters. The force with
which they close their shells varies, of course, in
proportion to the strength of their muscles. Poli,
who tried several experiments on the muscular
strength of shell fish, found, by means of a machine
made for the purpose, that a weight of twenty-five
pounds would force the valves of an Area barbata,
while it required fifty-nine pounds to open a Spon-
Among the animals inhabiting shells, some are
oviparous, and others viviparous. Of the oviparous,
some are isolated, and covered with a crust, like the
eggs of birds, such as the terrestrial snails ; others
are included in a gelly, which unites them together,
such as the aquatic snails ; while others, again,
as the whelks, deposit their eggs in membranous
bags, of an oval, or spherical shape, generally
grouped in bunches, like grapes, of a pale straw
colour, with each a small hole in the side.
The young of Bivalves are contained between the
tracheae of the parent, that is to say, the leaves of
their beard. They are covered with shell, even be-
fore they leave the body of the mother. The young
of shells which are designed to move from place to
place leave their eggs very neatly formed ; but those
which are to remain fixed during their lives, are at
first covered with a mucilaginous matter, which
sticks to whatever it touches, and thus forms the
first adhesion, which is afterwards strengthened by
the stony juice, secreted from the body of the animal.
On the Formation of the Shell, in Testaceous Animals.
If we were to be asked why one slug goes naked,
while another is provided with a habitation ; why
two animals of the same manners, the same appe-
tites, the same internal, and nearly the same exter-
nal conformation, should be so differently dealt with,
it would be difficult to find a satisfactory answer.
The powers of nature are generally sufficient for
the purposes she intends to fulfil. Now and then
there appears to be something wanting in her ope-
rations ; but when we tax her with deficiencies, it is
still possible that she may be right, and we be
wrong. In the present instance, there seems to be
either profusion in one case, or parsimony in the
other, since the common slug has merely the rudi-
ments of a shell ; it can lay only the first stone, while
the garden snail can build a house.
It is not to our purpose to consider who first dis-
covered the thin testaceous plate on the back of the
slug ; it is enough to be assured that it exists, and to
describe it accordingly. There is an oval, warty
substance, extending from the neck, partly down
the back of the slug, called the lesser mantle, or
shield ; in the thickness of this mantle there is a
cavity which contains the shell. The under part of
the shell is separated from the heart of the animal,
by a thin membrane ; above, it is covered by the
skin of the mantle. It lies in its cavity perfectly
detached, without any organic union, and is a sin-
gle deposition of carbonate of lime, connected by
gluten, exactly like any other shell. It is to be
found in the small slugs, as well as the large ; but in
the great brown slug, it is half an inch long, and a
quarter broad. There is no doubt that the calca-
reous matter is secreted from the lower part of the
cavity, and that, the operation being continued at
different times, the shell accumulates as the animal
advances in growth. The different accessions of
shell may be distinguished by the striae seen in its
We have here a very simple process, confined to
the mere secretion of calcareous matter, without any
mechanical contrivance whatever. It is not so with
the garden snail; her powers are by no means so
limited. She can construct a habitation which
unites two distinguishing properties, strength and
lightness. It is a well turned arch, that can defend
her body from all common accidents, and be trans-
ferred, without inconvenience, wherever she pleases.
The snail is oviparous, and the young leave the egg
completely covered with a very thin transparent
vol. i. h
shell, of one spire. The animal, shell and all, is
not at that time larger than a split pea ; therefore
much remains to be done, before it acquires its full
growth and solidity. The inhabitants of univalve
shells, such as the snail, periwinkle, whelk, &c. con-
stantly enlarge their apartment, by adding fresh
accessions of materials to the mouth. The whole
body indeed is covered with pores, through which
a viscid liquor exudes ; but the part which contri-
butes principally to the increase of the shell, is a
fleshy collar above the neck. This in the snail is
very visible ; and on opening its substance, a glan-
dular tissue is seen, of a whitish colour, and studded
with little semi-transparent points. These points
are noticed by Cuvier, who adds that, upon irritat-
ing the snail, it will throw out, from all parts of its
collar, a white liquid, visibly formed of calcareous
molecules, suspended in a viscous fluid We have
here pretty evident marks of design ; a storehouse
for the preparation of materials is placed where a
storehouse only could have been of use. The rest of the
body is confined by shell : the animal, if it increases
at all, must increase by the mouth ; and if unpro-
vided with the means of enlarging its room by
the aperture, it would become a long naked snail,
with merely the shell it was born with on its tail.
But we have seen what provision nature has made
in the snail against nakedness. As the body pro-
trudes, the collar secretes, and lime and glue, which
are thrown out in abundance, thicken into a con-
sistence round the mouth of the shell. Thus, as the
animal increases in bulk, it continues to produce
fresh materials, and enlarges its house till it has ac-
quired its full growth.
The same process of the animal economy which
enables the snail to build a house, will also serve to
keep it in repair. If we break out a piece of the
shell, without wounding the snail, the skin beneath
will soon become covered with a viscid exudation,
which thickens and congeals by degrees. Twenty-
four hours after the operation, the repair will be
fairly begun, a thin layer will be visible, and this
will continue to thicken, till, in ten or twelve days,
the new piece will be nearly as thick and strong, as
the rest of the shell. A similar matter is transuded
also from the collar of the snail, when she wishes to
close the mouth of her shell against the approach
of winter. This thin calcareous operculum, or lid,
is very different from the permanent lids of several
other shells. It is not fixed to the head of the
animal, but is perfectly free from any part of the
body, though strongly adhering to the mouth of the
shell. It is easy to prove its shelly nature; for,
when plunged into diluted muriatic acid, its calca-
reous parts dissolve and leave merely a gelatinous
Having traced the formation of the shell in a
land animal, let us now take a subject from the sea,
and we shall find that the same end is produced, in
a somewhat different manner. Conchologists are
indebted to a French naturalist, M. Bruguiere, for
some curious observations on the formation of the
shell of the cowry, &c. which the Author begs leave
to repeat from what he has already published in the
second Volume of Zoography. The inhabitant of the
cowry, independent of the organs which are common
to animals of other univalve shells, has two membra-
naceous appendages, or wings, placed on the sides of
the body, with which the creature can completely
cover itself. These two wings contribute greatly,
together with the edge of the neck, or collar, of the
animal, towards the formation of the shell, since
they furnish the ordinary exterior layers of enamel,
upon which we may perceive the marks of the la-
minae, or successive coats, whereof all shells are
composed. The shape of the exterior layers is
different from those situated beneath, which may
be considered as a smooth, shining substance, that
the animal goes over once, while it is forming its
shell, in order to give it the necessary solidity. It
is from the body of the animal, or from the edge of
its collar, that the inferior part of the shell is
formed, or rather the testaceous mould. This mould
is generally thin, and very brittle : it is striated lon-
gitudinally ; and, as its origin is not different from
that of other shells, it is not surprising that we find
proofs of the formation of the regular projections,
which the extremities of the layers leave by the
side of each other. The colours of the mould are
different from those of the exterior layers, and it
frequently shows the transversal bands with which
it is marked, while the enamel is adorned with
spots or stains, because some parts of the body are
supposed to furnish this composition, which is se-
creted from certain moist glands, of a different kind
from those of the wings.
Thus we remark two distinct operations in the
formation of the cowry. The first is that which
produces the part of the shell called the mould, and
is the result of a secretion from the body of the ani-
mal ; the second, the formation of the shining ena-
mel. The cowries are thin and transparent, in the
first stages of their growth, but at length acquire
solidity, by means of the external layers, which the
animal applies after the mouth is not only formed,
but considerably contracted, and furnished with
the rudiments of teeth. The last coats proceed,
as we have already observed, from a transudation
from the wings of the animal, and leave upon the
convex surface of the shell the marks of the manner
in which they are formed. This is by a longitudinal
line, which divides them into two unequal parts. This
line, made by the junction of the wings of the ani-
mal, plainly indicates, by the faintness of the tint,
that the colouring juice was wanting in that part.
It is a simple straight line, when the edges of the
wings are of the same configuration, but passes in
a sinuous, or waving, direction, as in the Cyprcea
Mappa, when the same edges are fringed, or irregu-
larly cut in their contours.
There is a singular fact, noticed by Bruguiere, re-
specting the animal inhabitants of these shells. They
can quit their apartment at pleasure, and construct
a new one, whenever they find it convenient. This,
however, is never done but from necessity. During
the time the animal is completing its shell, it in-
creases in size, till at length it grows too large for
its habitation, which, when finished, remains per-
manent. Thus straightened for room, it is obliged
to quit its old dwelling, and build a new one of larger
dimensions, and better proportioned to the in-
creased size of its body. We are at a loss to say how
this operation is performed ; but it is probably a
matter of no great labour, since the body of the
animal is of a consistence between tendinous and
mucilaginous, of course not making any great re-
sistance to its passage through the mouth of the
shell ; for the foot and the two wings, which com-
pose by far the largest part of the body, slip out in
a moment, with the greatest ease. This separation
of the animal from its shell is not difficult to con-
ceive, when we consider how readily the lobster
quits its crustaceous covering, and the crab gets rid
of its claw.
When the cowry has completely abandoned its
shell, it is quite naked, and exposed to the imme-
diate influence of the sea. From the irritation occa-
sioned by the salt water, or from some other cause
of which we are ignorant, the hinder parts of the
body again begin to furnish the testaceous matter,
which is afterwards condensed upon the surface.
This secretion is continued till, at length, the shell
appears of the consistence of paper, and the mouth,
which at this period is very wide, soon afterwards con-
tracts to its proper shape. The wings of the ani-
mal, folded upon its convex surface, thicken and
form the teeth, which are seen on the edge of the
mouth, and which are deposited with the enamel
that adorns the external part of the shell. In this
manner is produced the opaque and highly po-
lished surface, which is so eminently beautiful in the
full-grown cowry, and which, by the colour of its
spots, or stains, contributes greatly towards distin-
guishing the different species of the genus.
Bivalve shells, such as Muscles, Oysters, &c, in-
crease by adding to their whole circumference, or
rather to all the edge, except the hinge ; and every
experiment that has been made upon the subject,
tends to prove that shells increase by a perfect juxta-
position of calcareous beds, united by a viscous
cement, and formed successively from the interior
of the shell, as the animal advances in growth.
These beds may be made very evident, by heating
an oyster-shell in the fire, without totally destroying
its organization. It may then be easily separated
into the different beds (or leaves) which form its
substance, and the mechanism of the shell com-
On the Colours of Shells, and the Formation of their
Streaks and Spots,
The first thing which presents itself to the Con-
chologist is the colours of shells, which may justly
be admired, both for their beauty and variety.
Nature seems here to have diversified her operations,
in every way possible ; some are distinctly spotted,
others streaked; in some the bands are uninter-
rupted, in others they are broken into parts, so as
to bear a slight resemblance to the notes of musick.
Again we meet with shells, where the tints are
partly distinct, and partly melted together, or
formed, as it were, into clouds. What is the oc-
casion of all this diversity, and how is it produced ?
When a hole is made in a shell, at about midway
between the summit and the mouth, the new piece
which the animal supplies is generally of a whitish
colour, and often very different, in appearance,
from the rest of the shell ; whence we may conclude
that it is not made precisely in the same manner.
To clear up this difficulty, it will be necessary
to ascertain how this regular variety of colour
is produced. We shall take, for an example, the
variegated snail (Helix nemoralis). It is a com-
mon inhabitant of our woods, and gardens, and may
therefore be easily brought forward as an evidence
at any time. The ground of this shell is white, ci-
tron, or yellow, or of an intermediate colour. It
is marked with streaks, or bands, which proceed from
the apex to the mouth of the shell, and are either
black, brown, or red. They vary in number ; some
shells have but one, others have four, and some are
ornamented with five or six bands.
We have already observed, as a position which
does not admit of a doubt, that all univalve shells
enlarge by the mouth, in consequence of a secretion,
emitted for that purpose, from the collar of the ani-
mal. Reaumur reckons it sufficient for this collar
to be composed of glands filtering different hu-
mours, to form a shell of different colours. If, for
example, two or three glands secrete a black, or
brown humour, and these glands, which Reaumur
calls Jiltres, are parallel to each other, while the
rest of the collar emits only a uniform citron tint,
it follows that the ground of the shell should be
straw colour, with parallel bands of black or brown,
approaching or receding from each other, in pro-
portion as the space between the glands is greater
If we could bring no proof of the above con-
jecture respecting the variegated snail, (and what
is said of that will apply to every other) ; if we
could perceive nothing similar to the filtres men-
tioned by Reaumur, still the theory would furnish
so probable an explanation of the variety of co-
lours in shells, as to leave us well satisfied with the
conception. But fortunately they discover them-
selves, and add so strong a degree of evidence to
Reaumur's reasoning, that the matter is placed
beyond a doubt. The body of the variegated
helix, when deprived of its shell, appears of a white
colour, except the collar and the parts closely con-
nected with it, where we perceive a yellowish tint,
and a number of black, or brown streaks, equal to
the bands on the shell. Here we come imme-
diately at the secret ; the interior of the collar is
the laboratory where the colours are prepared ; the
surface is the palette, from which the painter lays
them on as his work proceeds. Thus the indivi-
duals that have one black ray on the shell, have
but one black spot on the collar ; those which have
four black bands on the shell, have also four cor-
responding marks on the collar, and so on with the
rest. These rays are placed immediately under
those of the shell ; they begin at about the twelfth
part of an inch from the extremity of the collar,
which is, itself, commonly edged with black all
round, and therefore we for the most part find the
lip of the shell of that colour.
With such evidence, there is no room to doubt the
real existence of the pores mentioned by Reaumur ;
but, lest it should be supposed that these pores do
not perform the functions ascribed to them, let us
see whether an experiment will not confirm the
reasoning. If a portion of the shell be removed
opposite the black rays, and the new piece become
black ; if another portion be removed between the
rays, and this be renewed of a colour different from
the bands, it must be allowed that these parts
perform the office ascribed to them by Reaumur.
Now this is exactly the fact : the new shell which is
formed on the collar, opposite the brown, or black
rays, is itself brown or black ; that which is formed
between' the rays, is white, or citron; and that
which is renewed on other parts of the body will be
white. The same thing happens in all other shells,
marine, freshwater, or terrestrial, that are remarkable
for their colours. We have not indeed experiments
to illustrate every case ; but what has been done is
fully sufficient to warrant the conjecture, that the
same phenomenon will be extended to all species of
We are not, however to conclude, from what has
been said of the formation of the rays, which orna-
ment certain species, that it is a necessary conse-
quence that all shells should be streaked ! On the
contrary, we find the surface of some of an uniform
colour, and others marked with numerous spots, often
of an irregular shape, and separated from each other
at unequal intervals. This is the case (among other
examples) with the black tiger cone (Conus mar-
moreus, Lirm.) In this, as well as in the helix,
however, the spots are formed by the collar, and
the black pigment secreted at intervals, so as to form
irregular stains, instead of uninterrupted bands.
It must be observed, that the interior layer of the
shell, or that which covers the body of the animal,
independent of its collar, ought to be white, since
the secretion, as we have noticed already, is gene-
rally colourless. It is sometimes, however, other-
wise ; the body of the animal will exude a coloured
liquor, and then the interior of the shell will be
stained accordingly ; but the tint will be uniform,
and never varied like the exterior. To make the
different operations of the animal perfectly apparent,
let the outer coat of a shell be filed off, and the
layers beneath, which have been furnished by the
body, will be uniformly white, or tinted; while the
exterior, which belongs exclusively to the collar, will
It will here be necessary to make some further
observations on the growth of shells, in order to ac-
count for the change of colour which we sometimes
perceive in the bands of univalves. The different
stages of increase may be pretty readily dis-
covered in the majority of shells, they being, for
the most part, marked on their convexity with
little eminences, parallel to each other, of different
degrees of strength, giving the surface a fibrous ap-
pearance. These eminences, which are called strice,
follow the contour of bivalve shells, and run in a spiral
direction in the univalves. It Avill be observed, upon
examining the different species, that they, for the
most part, have some of these eminences particu-
larly distinct, and distant from each other. These
denote the different times when the shell was inter-
rupted in its growth, and bear some analogy to the
nodes observable in the shooting of trees.
Another circumstance, which distinctly marks the
place where the growth has recommenced, is a
striking change of colour in the bands which di-
versify some of the univalve shells. In these parts
the bands are generally much lighter, and sometimes
so faint as scarcely to be perceived, till they have
proceeded further on the spire. This is very evi-
dent in the exotic snail (Helix pomatia), where a
strong line of separation may be perceived from
the umbilicus across the shell. It will not be diffi-
cult to account for this change, if we consider that,
during the inactive state of the animal, the co-
louring matter contained in the collar is exhausted
on the last formed portion of shell, and that it will
not be again secreted, in sufficient quantity, till after
the snail has had time to recruit its strength by food.
What has been said, it is presumed, will be suffi-
cient to explain the different phenomena, which the
colours of shells in general present ; but there exist
some genera, such as Voluta, and Cyprcea, which are
painted by a process with which Reaumur was un-
acquainted. Their colours are disposed on two
parallel surfaces, the exterior of which is produced
by a particular organization of their animals, and is
the result of an operation described by M. Bru-
guiere, and noticed in the preceding section.
The shell of the cowry receives its colour from the
pores of the animal at two distinct periods, and by
different ways. In the first place, that part of the
shell is formed, which is immediately secreted from
the collar, or the body, of the animal; this coat is
of a moderate thickness, much inferior in strength to
what it acquires in the sequel. In this primary ope-
ration, there is nothing peculiar from what takes
place in other shells ; but above this coat, on the
convexity of the shell, there is formed a second,
which covers the first entirely with a compact sub-
stance, in some places very thick, and generally
stained with different colours. The organs which
deposit this second bed are two soft membranaceous
wings, which, issuing from the mouth of the shell,
are reflected back on its convexity, and cover it so
completely, that not an atom of the shell appears.
These two wings (which are independent of the
collar of the animal) are covered with glands con-
taining colouring liquors peculiar to themselves ;
and it is their upper surface, or that which is laid
against the convexity of the shell, that alone fur-
nishes the secretion. Whence it follows, that these
wings deposit new layers of testaceous matter,
differently coloured from those beneath, and diver-
sified with spots, either entire, round, or zigzag.
Their variety of colour is very great ; they are
sometimes white on a brown ground, or tawny
on a yellow ground, or yellowish on a tawny ground.
Sometimes we meet with lines, instead of spots,
strait, curved, or reticulated ; of different shades,
on grounds of various colours ; and occasionally the
surface is covered with points (or dots), disposed in
We have observed, while speaking of the varie-
gated helix, that its shell was subject to remark-
able varieties of colour, depending on the different
form and arrangement of the secreting organs.
The changes which these organs undergo, and every-
thing that relates to their oeconomy , will apply equally
to all the marine, fresh water, and land snails, that
exist in nature. But to the causes already de-
tailed, it will be proper to add another, which,
Bruguiere alledges, has not only a powerful in-
fluence on the brilliancy of their colours, but on the
diversity of their tints, and which is wholly inde-
pendent of the physical structure of the animal.
This cause, though at first it appears too far removed
to produce such marked effects, is no other than the
influence of light, combined, perhaps, with that of
Two individuals, says Bruguiere, of the same
species, one found either in the northern ocean, or
the Mediterranean, and the other in the seas of hot
climates, present different tints, and always a vi-
vacity of colour, decidedly in favour of the spe-
cimen from the torrid zone. Their shells, though
of a similar shape, constantly differ in their colours,
whence originate all those varieties, which some
conchologists have considered as distinct species,
although it is very probable, nay almost certain,
that these differences depend merely on the action
of climate, of nourishment, or of particular cir-
cumstances, not as yet sufficiently understood.
The difference of temperature, where these in-
dividuals are supposed to live, would seem at first
to be the principal cause of their difference of colour,
if we were not certain that shells naturally coloured,
either in the seas of the torrid zone, or those of the
temperate, acquire more or less intensity in their
vol. i. c
tints, and sometimes a different disposition in their
symmetry, according to the degree of depth at which
they are situated in the sea. Bruguiere is led to
believe, that on this circumstance alone depends
the weakness of the tints with which a shell is
variegated ; and he even supposes that their total
privation is owing to the shell inhabiting a depth too
great for the due admission of light and heat. To
strengthen his assertion, he observes, that the bi-
valve shells, which fix themselves to the rocks, such
as the oysters, and spondyles, have generally their
upper valve deeply coloured, while the lower valve,
attached to the rock, is almost always white. The
oysters and spondyles are not the only shells that
show a constant difference in the colour of their
valves ; the same effect happens to all that live
fixed to any solid body. The pectens also, though
painted with various colours above, are white
beneath. The pholades and ship-borers, which
bury themselves in woods and limestone, are also
colourless. One position of this theory will not be
disputed, since there is no doubt that bodies wholly
deprived of light will be without colour ; but it still
remains to be proved, whether the tints of shells will
be much injured by a partial privation.
Of the Tubercles, Spines, $c. which are found on
It is sufficiently evident, that any pliable sub-
stance will assume the form of the body on which
it is moulded, and that, consequently, if the animal
inhabitant of a shell has any muscular inequalities,
the same will be observable in its exterior con-
formation. This point being allowed, there is no
longer any difficulty in accounting for the warts,
and spiny processes, on the backs of shells, which
may be considered as so many testaceous incrusta-
tions, deposited by corresponding fleshy tubercles.
These excrescences may often be observed in the
first turn of a spiral shell, and they will be found,
more or less, in every succeeding spire which the
animal adds to its habitation. This is particularly
evident in the Murex Mancinella, which is frequently
so covered with tubercles, as to be much disfigured
in its shape. The long spines, which appear on
some species of the above genus, have the same
origin as the shapeless knobs just mentioned. They
have their interior moulds upon which they are
formed, and are either hollow, partly solid, or per-
fectly closed, in proportion as the animal excres-
cence continues in vigour, is partly absorbed, or
totally wasted. In this case, the hollow part will
be supplied with testaceous matter, secreted from
the body of the animal, till it is filled up even with
the interior surface of the shell. In the Strombus
genus, where the lip of the shell is often lengthened
(or divided) into a certain number of channels,
or fingers, the same thing takes place ; each chan-
nel is occupied by a corresponding portion of the
animal, endowed with the same secreting faculty
as the other parts of the body, and consequently
capable of adding to its groove, whenever it finds
occasion. The Strombus Lambis, or spider shell, is
a remarkable instance of this digitated appearance.
In the genus Murex, the mouth of the shell is
lengthened (more or less) into a beak or canal, con-
taining a cylindrical organ, capable of contraction
and extension. This, according to some authors,
is used by the animal as a feeler, and occasionally
as a cable, to mpor the shell to some solid body.
The furrows, or ridges, met with in other shells,
while the whole of their interior surface is polished,
will be readily explained, when we consider the
formation of the animal. These furrows occur par-
ticularly in the bivalve shells, such as the scallops
(Pecte?i), the cockles (Cardium), &c; and when-
ever we meet with this peculiar organization, it will
be found that the animal partakes of the same con-
formation, the extremity or fleshy contour being
channelled, so that the interior of the shell is also
impressed in the same manner for some distance
from its edge. When the ridges are once formed
on the outside, they remain permanent ; the animal
has no power to alter them. It is not so within, for
we find that the posterior part is smooth, the fur-
rows previously formed by the channelled extremity
being worn away, or filled up by the body of the
Of the Habitation of Shells.
Shells may be divided, with reference to the
places they inhabit, into terrestrial, river, and ma-
rine, that is, into those living on land, in fresh
water, or in the sea. It is the opinion of Bruguiere,
that we know less of land than of sea shells. He
affirms, that the shells of the Mediterranean sea are
nearly the same, from the Straits of Gibraltar to
the island of Sicily ; while the land shells of Lan-
guedoc often differ from those of Provence, of
Dauphiny, of Piedmont, and of different parts of
Italy. We find shells in Spain, in Corsica, in
Sardinia, and in Sicily, which are not to be met
with elsewhere ; and if (adds Bruguiere) we may
found our opinion on what has been sent from those
countries, we may rest assured that the sea produces
scarcely any thing new, while the unknown land
shells are still very numerous. This may possibly
be the case with respect to the Mediterranean ; but
it will not apply to many other parts of the world,
as we are daily getting fresh accessions of new ma-
rine species, and, where they are not discovered, it
is more for want of diligence in the search, than
variety in Nature.
Land shells are to be found in different situations ;
some prefer dry banks, and exposed heaths, while
others live in moist places, near running water, in
thick woods, or in the crevices of old walls. The
smaller species are frequently found sheltered under
the moss which grows at the foot of trees, and
sometimes in the decayed wood. In the spring,
they often retire from the heat, under great stones.
In winter they must be looked for in holes of trees,
in the slits of the bark, or in the fissures of rocks.
But, in general, the most favourable time for the
discovery of these animals is the spring ; because,
in that season, they rouse from the torpidity of
winter, and go forth with fresh vigour to seek for
The fresh- water shells are far less numerous than
those which inhabit the land. They are found not
only in rivers, and springs, but also in ponds and
marshes, and even in muddy ditches. Some bury
themselves to a certain depth in the sand, or the
mud; while others live attached to stones at the
bottom of the stream, except at times, when they
leave the water to climb up the plants which grow
upon its banks. The smaller species are the most
difficult to procure, as, from their diminutive size,
they readily escape observation. The best time to
look for fresh- water shells, is from the end of spring
to the middle of summer. At other seasons, they are
thrown dead upon the banks, and often mixed with
the smaller terrestrial species,which have been carried
there by the rain waters. This should be particularly
observed, because conchologists have sometimes,
from this circumstance, confounded land shells with
those that belong exclusively to the water. To
avoid such errors, it will be proper for those who
are not w r ell acquainted with the subject, to collect
none but what are alive, either in the water, or on
the aquatic plants. On the Nymphcea, or water lily,
the Hippuris, or mare's tail, the Potamogeton, or
broad-leaved pond weed, the Lemna, or duck weed,
and the Juncus, or rush, shells may be found in all
stages of their growth, with their natural colours,
and in the best state of preservation. Most of the
species are apparent upon the surface of the plants ;
but some of the smaller kinds hide themselves
within the folds of the leaves, and it is not uncom-
mon to find a pretty little reversed shell, the Bulla
fontinalis, wrapped in the leaf of the common water
The third division of shells, or those that inhabit
the sea, are more abundant in their species, and
generally more brilliant in their colours, than either
the land, or fresh- water kinds. The beauty of their
tints, and the elegance and variety of their shape,
have made them greatly esteemed by collectors ;
and, as mankind will ever be stimulated to exertion
by the hopes of gain, sailors, and persons wholly
unacquainted with conchology, have thought it
worth their while to bring home what they could
collect, as an object of traffick. It is principally to
this cause that we owe the produce of the different
shores, and receive shells from India, Amboina,
Ceylon, New Holland, &c. which would never reach
England, if they were not profitable commodities.
All marine shells are not confined to the depths of
the ocean, but, on the contrary, are often led, by an
instinctive faculty, to fix on rocks, or bury them-
selves in the sands. These latter may be discovered
on the smooth flat shores, while the tide is ebbing, by
little bubbles of air rising from small openings in
the sand. Each of these places denotes the retreat
of a marine animal, and frequently of a shell, which
may readily be dug out with a spade. The species
of the genus Tellina, Solen, and Mya, conceal them-
selves in this manner, besides some kinds of the genus
Buccinum, and many other smooth, univalve shells.
If the rocks that are washed by the sea are found
pierced with small holes, regularly wrought, as if
they had been bored with an instrument, it is a
proof that they either are, or have been, inhabited
by Pholades, or by the rugged muscle (Mytilus ru-
gosus, Linn, j The only way to procure these, is to
break into their habitations with a hammer ; but, as
the shells are very brittle, it will be difficult, by
such means, to obtain them entire.
Shells that remain fixed by one of their valves,
such as oysters, or that occasionally attach them-
selves by their byssus, or threads, such as muscles,
are often found in the fissures of rocks ; while the
limpets, the sea ears, the acorn-shells, and some
other species of univalves, adhere firmly to the
surface. In warm climates, where the Mangrove,
and other trees, frequently grow within the influence
of the tide, it is not uncommon to find their roots
(and such of their branches as bend into the water)
loaded with oysters, acorn-shells, and such other
species as adhere to solid bodies.
On the coasts where the bottom of the w^ater is
muddy, shells are indicated, by slimy strings rising
occasionally to the surface. To procure these shells
a French author directs us to use a small net with
fine meshes, mounted on a hoop of iron, and fixed to
a pole of sufficient length. This is to be plunged to
the bottom, directly under the place where the
shell is supposed to lie, and, when drawn up, the
mud escapes through the meshes, and leaves the shell
in the net.
All that has been hitherto said applies only to
shells that inhabit the banks of the sea, or at least
a very little distance from its shore. There are many,
on the contrary, such as the Cones, the Olives, the
Cowries, the Volutes, and the larger species of
Murex and Buccinum, that constantly live at a
greater depth, and unless thrown by a storm, or
other accident, upon the coast, are only to be ob-
tained by dredging.
There is another way of procuring shells, which,
from its singularity, will not readily be thought of
by collectors. It is to examine the stomachs of fish,
and water fowl ; by which means many perfect, and
some very rare shells have been found. Fabricius,
in his History of Greenland, assures us, that he
adopted this method with success, and that, in fish
particularly, he met with species that were unknown
on the northern coasts. It will be proper also to
examine the bottom of the lead, when within
soundings at sea, as foreign bodies sometimes adhere
to it. The sailors know when they- are in the mouth
of the Channel, by a species of Dentalium, that
adheres to the lead, in sQunding, for a certain dis-
tance, and which they call the hake's tooth.
Those who reside at sea-ports, and are disposed to
collect shells, should take every opportunity of exa-
mining the bottoms of ships that arrive from long
voyages. It is not uncommon to find upon them
different foreign bodies, and particularly acorn
shells (Balani). The first specimens of the
thorny acorn-shell (Lepas spinosas) were found by
the French, on the keel of a Danish ship that had
remained some time at St. Helena.
There is something singular in the strict locality
of shells : one would hardly imagine that particular
species, capable of locomotion, had distinct places
of abode, from which they never swerve, unless forced
by accident. They are also affected by difference of
temperature. When Pero'n visited New Holland, he
found, at its southern extremity, the great sea-ear,
Haliotis gigantea, in full perfection. It is there
found in large quantities, and is of essential service
to the inhabitants of Van Dieman's Land, who
derive from its flesh an abundant and wholesome
nourishment. Upon moving but a short distance
towards a warmer latitude, he found the shell de-
crease in size ; and, in proportion as he proceeded,
it became less and less, till, at the port of Rio
Georges, it totally disappeared. This happened to
other species as well as the sea-ear, whence it
may be inferred, that the animal inhabitants of
shells, originally of cold climates, cannot exist in
the torrid zone. The contrary will also hold with
respect to those of hot climates, and upon this
position Peron has the following remarks :
Of all the countries which we have hitherto seen,
there is not one to be compared to Timor, for the
abundance and variety of its shells. The richness
of its shore, in this particular, is really beyond all
expression. We have collected from it more than
twenty thousand shells, among which may be dis-
tinguished many hundred species ; and yet, of this
prodigious multitude of testaceous productions, there
is not one like what we found, either in Van Dieman's
Land, or any of the southern parts of New Holland ;
it is not till we approach the equatorial regions that
we find a;ny of the Timorian shells. This singular
exclusion not only holds good of the species, but
may also be observed among the genera : that is,
among those whose numerous species seem to have
been exclusively attributed to some particular part
of the globe. Thus, for example, in the equatorial
countries, a multitude of Cones, Olives, Cowries, &c.
collect together, which are scarcely known on the
colder banks of either hemisphere. Thus while
Timor, and its neighbouring islands, abound in
beautiful shells, two or three small, obscure species,
are all that dare to show themselves in the southern
extremity of New Holland.
On collecting, and cleaning Shells.
It happens very frequently, that persons who
collect shells for their friends, in foreign countries,
though they do it with the best intention, yet, for
want of a sufficient knowledge of the subject, are
apt to pick up many that are either imperfect, or of
little or no value, and to pack them so carelessly,
that, by the time they reach England, very few of
them remain entire. For the instruction of such as
may not be conversant in collecting, I would re-
commend them always, if possible, to procure what
are termed live shells, that is, with the animal in them ;
this is only to be done by using a drag net, or after
violent storms, when live shells are often torn from
the deep, and thrown upon the sea-shore. When
they have been exposed for some time on the beach,
they get injured by friction, and their colours fade
in the sun. In this state, they are known among
collectors by the name of dead shells, and are only
to be taken, when better cannot be procured.
It is sometimes difficult to detach the animals,
particularly of Univalves, entirely from their shells.
This operation must be managed by first plunging
them into boiling water, and, afterwards, carefully
picking them out, so as (if possible) not to break the
spiral part, or leave a portion behind. When this
cannot be avoided, the shell should be left in cold
water, till the part decays, when it may be washed
out. In Bivalves, and other shells, the fish may
be easily removed with a knife. After which, a string
should be tied round the valves, across the shell, to
keep it close till the cartilage at the hinge stiffens.
As shells are of a calcareous nature, it follows
that all acids must be more or less injurious, that
are made use of to clean them. Many shells are
fished up so clean and perfectly polished by Nature,
that they require no assistance from art. Others,
on the contrary, come out of the sea slimy, and
covered with extraneous substances, such as coral-
lines, fuci, &c. These must be cleaned with soap
and water, and a hard tooth-brush, which is best
adapted of any thing I know for the purpose. The
extraneous coralline substances that remain on the
surface of the shell, after it has been cleaned, may
be removed with muriatic acid, diluted with three
parts of water, being careful, at the same time, not
to touch the shell with the acid.
Many shells have an outer skin, called an epi-
dermis ; this sometimes adheres very strongly, and,
although scientific collectors choose to have their
shells in a natural state, there are others who wish
to see their beauties revealed. To remove this epi-
dermis, it should be first soaked for a day or two in
water, and then rubbed firmly with a hard brush,
armed with finely powdered pumice-stone. It will
often be difficult to remove every part of the pel-
licle ; but, by diligently persevering, it may be done.
It is not unusual, when the colours of the shells
are rather dull, to revive them with varnish. This
may reasonably be allowed, since it only imitates
their appearance when wet out of the sea. The
best varnish for the purpose is a simple solution of
gum Arabic, in water, which can be laid on with a
camel-hair pencil, and easily washed off again, at
any time, without injuring the shell.
Collectors are sometimes imposed upon by a trick,
which was first practised in Holland, where two or
more shells are sold as distinct species, which are
precisely the same, except that one of them has
had its external coat taken off, by grinding the shell
on a wheel charged with oil and emery. Many
shells by this process assume a new appearance.
The common cowry becomes violet; the nautilus,
which has broad tawny stripes on its sides, rubs
down to a fine mother-of-pearl ; and many of the
limpets become so altered in their colours, that
they lose all resemblance to the original shell.
When shells are to be removed from place to
place, they must be very carefully packed, or they
will most certainly be injured in their passage. The
best direction for this purpose, is to wrap each in a
piece of silver paper, and lay them in a box, though
not so close as to touch. Each layer of shells is then
to be covered, completely, with a layer of bran,
and this may be repeated till the box is filled. The
box must then be gently moved backwards and
forwards, that the bran may settle ; as it is of con-
sequence to fill it perfectly, before the lid is nailed
down. It will be scarcely necessary to add, that the
very heavy shells should be excluded, or that the
lightest should be placed at top, and thp box always
kept upright. By these means ; shells may be sent,
with safety, to any part of the world.
WRITERS ON SHELLS
For an historical account of the under-mentioned Writers, see a
most excellent Paper in the Seventh Volume of the Linnean Transac-
tions, by William George Maton, M. D. ; and the Rev. Thomas
Rackett, M. A.
Aristotle, Tlspi Zoooov Iropiag ro A. Ks<p. £.
Pliny, Naturalis Historiae Lib. 9-
J&lian, Tls^t Zcocov ihornrog. I. ty.
Vincentius, Speculum Naturale, 1473. fol.
Albertus Magnus, de Animalibus, &c. 1478. fol.
Adam Lonicerus, Historiae Naturalis Opus Novum. 1551, fol. et
torn. 2. 1555. fol.
Belon, De Aquatilibus. 1553. 8vo.
Rondeletius, Universa Aquatilium Historia. 1544 — 55. fol.
Matthiolus, Comment, in sex Lib. Dioscoridis. 1565. fol.
Gesner, De Piscium et Aquatilium Animantium Historia Lib. 4.
Linocier, Histoire des Poissons. 1584. 12mo.
Imperato, DelP Historia Naturale Lib. 28. 1599- fol.
Aldrovandus, De Mollibus Crustaceis, Testaceis, et Zobphytis.
Fabius Columna, Aquatilium et Terrestrium aliquot Animalium,
&c. 1616. et 1675. 4to.
Basil Besler, Fasciculus Rariorum, &c. I6l6. fol.
Xliv A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST
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Schonvelde, Ichthyologia, &c. 1624.
Nierembergius, Historiae Naturae. 1655. fol.
Michael Rupert Besler, Gazophylacium Rerum Naturalium. 1642.
Wormius, Museum Wormianum. 1655.
Moscardo, Note del Museo del Conte L. M. 1656. fol.
Jonston, Historia Naturalis, &c. 1657. fol. De Exanguibus Aqua-
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Power, Experimental Philosophy.
De Rochfort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles Antilles.
Adam Olearius, Kunst-Gammer, 1666. et 1674. 4to.
Du Tertre, Histoire Generaledes Antilles, &c. 1667. 4to.
Merrett, Pinax Rerum Natur. Britan. 1667- 8vo.
Charleton, Onomasticon Zoicum. 1668. 4to.
Steno, De Solido intra Solidum, &c. 1669. 4to.
Boyle, Philosophical Transactions of the Year 1670.
Willis, Exercitationes de Anima Brutorum. 1672. 8vo.
Legati, Museo Cospiano. 1671. fol.
Sir Robert Moray, Relation concerning Barnacles, Phil. Trans.
vol. 12. 1678.
Harderus, Examen Anatomica Cochlea? Terrestris Domiportae.
Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis. 1681. fol.
Buonanni, Recreatio Mentis, &c. 1684. 4to. et Museum Kirche-
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Marsigli, Relazione del Ritrovarnento, &c. 1683. et 1695. 12mo.
Boccone, Observazioni Naturali. 1684. 12mo.
De Heide, Acta Eruditorum. 1684.
Cole, Phil. Trans. Abr. vol. 2. p. 826.
Lister, Historia Animalium Angliae. 1678. 4to. Appendix. 1681.
4to.et Hisioria sive Synopsis MethodicaConchyliorum. 1685 — 93.
Fehr, Eph. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1686.
Norman, Dissert. Acad, de Purpura. Upsal. 1686. 8vo.
Schelhammer, Eph. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1691.
OF WRITERS ON SHELLS.
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Du Molinet, Le Cabinet de la Bibliotheque de St. Genevieve.
1 692. fol.
Banister, Phil. Trans, vol. 1?. 1693.
Witzen, Phil. Trans, vol. 17. 1693.
Cunninghame, Phil. Trans. 1699-
Oliger, Jacohtfus, Musaeum Regium. 1696. fol.
Sir R. Sibbald, Auctarium Musaei Balfouriani. 1697. 8vo.
Ericus a Moinichen, A dissertation entitled Concha anatifera vin-
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vol. 27. 1712.
Leigh, Natural History of Lancashire, &c. 1700. fol.
Wallace, Account of the Islands of Orkney, 2d edit. 1700. 8vo.
Petiver, Gazophylacium Naturae et Artis. 1702. fol.
Plot, Natural History of Oxfordshire. 1705. fol.
Rumphius, Amboinsche Rariteitkamer. 1705. fol.
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Levin Vincent, Wondertoonel der Nature. 1706. 4to.
Kamel, Phil. Trans, for the Year 1707*
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Ruysch, Thesaurus Animalium Primus. 1710. 4to.
Mery, Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 17 10.
Morton, Natural History of Northamptonshire. 1712. fol.
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Barrelier, Plantae per Galliam, &c. observatae. 1714. fol.
John Henry Lochner, Rariora Musei Besleriani. 17 16. fol.
Valentini, Amphitheatrum Zootomicum. 1720. fol.
Richard Bradley, Philosophical Account of the Works of Na-
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Langius, Methodus nova et facilis Testacea, &c. 1722. 4to.
Bruckmann, De Curiosissimis duobus Conchis Marinis. 1722.
xlvi A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST
Frankenau, Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1722.
Valentyn, Oud en'nieuw Ost-Indien, &c. 1724.
Shane, Voyage to the West Indies. 1725. fol.
Stalport, Observationes Rariorum Medici, &c. 1727. 8vo.
John Ernest Hebenstreit, An Academical Dissertation on the Ar-
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Dale, History and Antiquities of Harwich, 2d edit. 1732. 4to.
Breynius, Dissertatio Physica de Polythalamiis. 1732. 4to.
Vallisneri, Opere Physico-mediche.
Sellius, Historia Naturalis Teredinis, &c. 1733. 4to.
Rousset, Observations sur les Vers de Mer, qui percent les Vais-
seaux. 1733. 8vo. 2d edit.
Bytemeister, Bibliothecae Appendix, sec. edit. 1735. 4to.
Deslandes, Recueil de differens Traitez de Physique et d'Hist. Nat.
torn. 1, 1736.
Duhamel, Memoires de PAcad6mie Royale des Sciences. 1736.
Swammerdam, Biblia Naturae. 1737. fol.
Plancus, De Conchis minus notis. 1739. 4to.
Gualtieri, Index Testarum Conchyliorum, &c. 1742. fol.
D'Jrgenville, 1/Histoire Naturelle eclaircie, &c. 1742. 1757. et
1780. 3 e ediiion, augmentee par Favanne de Montcervelle. 2
Bartram, Phil. Trans. 1744.
Needham, Microscopical Discoveries. 1745. 8vo.
Lessers, Testaceo-Theologia. 1748 et 1756. 8vo.
Dr. Charles Smith, Histories of Waterford, Cork, and Kerry.
1745, 50, and 56. 8vo.
Dr. James Parsons, Phil. Trans, vol. 45. and vol. 55.
Sir John Hill, History of Animals.
Mercier Du Paty, Recueil de PAcademie de Rochelle. 1752.
Klein, Tentamen Methodi Ostracologicae. 1753.
Jo. Henry Cohausen, Conspectus Sciographicus Testaceorum.
Nicholas Geve, Monatliche Belustigungen, &c. 1755. 4to.
Dr. Whytt, Description of the Ovary of the Brucinum Ampulla-
turn. Edinb. Phys. and Lit. Essays. 1756.
OF WRITERS ON SHELLS. xlvii
Guettard, Mem. sur differentes Parties des Sciences et Arts. 1770.
Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 1756 et 1760.
John Frederick Hoffman, Act. Acad. Mogunt. 1757- 1761.
Count Joseph Ginanni, Opere Postume. 1755. fol.
Adanson, Histoire Naturelle du Senegal. 1757. 4to.
Seba, Descriptio Thesauri Rerum Naturalium. 1758.
Borlace, Natural History of Cornwall. 1758. fol.
John Ellis, Phil. Trans, for 1758.
Edzvards, Gleanings of Natural History. 1758 and 1760. 4to.
Linnceus, System a Naturae, &c.
Regenfuss, Choix de Coquillages et de Crustacees. 1758. fol.
Baster, Opuscula Subseciva. 1759 — 1765. 4to.
Brisson, M6m. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences. 1759.
Br. Forbes, Phil. Trans. 1759-
Knorr, Les Delices des Yeux et de PEsprit. 1760 — 1773, 4to. et
Deliciae Naturae selectae. 1766. fol.
De Bergen, Classes Conchyliorum. 1760. 4to.
Schotterbeccius, Acta Helvetica. 1760 et 1762.
Hofer, Acta Helvetica, vol. 4. 1760.
Koelreuter, Nov. Comment. Acad. Sc. Imp. Petrop. 176l et 1766.
Ledermuller, Amusement Microscopique. 1764. 4to.
Herissaut, Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 1 766.
Davila, Catalogue Systematique et Raisonne. 1767. 8vo.
Fougeroux, Mem. Etrang. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences. 1768.
De La Faille, ■ - 1780.
Geoffroy, Traite Sommaire des Coquilles, &c. 1767. 8vo.
Duchesne, Recueil des Coquilles Fluviat. et Terrest. &c. 3 planches
Cotte, Journal des Sgavans 1770, et Journal de Physique, torn. 3.
Wallis, History and Antiquities of Northumberland. 1769. 4to.
Martini and Chemnitz, Neues Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet
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cerne les Testacies, ou les Coquillages de Mer, de Terre, et
Schroter, Einl. in die Conchyl. 1783. 8vo.
xlvili A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST
Rutty, Essay towards a Natural History of the County of Dub-
lin. 1772. 8vo.
Brunnick, Fundamenta Zoologica.
M'uller, Verniium Terrestrium et Fluviatilium Historia, &c. 1774.
4to. Prodromus. 1776. 8vo. Zool. Dan. 1779. 8vo.
Fortis, Viaggio in Dalmazia. 1774. 4to.
Forskahl, Descriptiones Animalium, &c. 1775. 4to.
Slabber, Naturk. Verlust. 1788. 4to.
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De Joubert, Memoire sur une Coquille de PEspece des Poulettes,
&c. Mem. Etrang. del' Acad, des Sciences. 1774.
K'dmmerer, Die Conchyl. in Cab. der Hernn. &c. 1786. 8vo.
Otho Fabricius, Faun. Groenland. 1780. 8vo.
Pallas, Miscellanea Zoologica. 1766. 4to. & Spicil. Zool.
Dr. Macbride, Phil. Trans, vol. 64. 1774.
Bonnet, Journal de Physique. 1775.
Pennant, British Zoology. 1778.
Scopoli, lntroductio ad Historiam Naturalem. 1777- 8vo.
Baron Born, Testacea Musei Caesarei, &c. 1780. fol.
Da Costa, Elements of Conchology, 1776; and British Concho-
Dicquemare, Journal de Physique, torn. 18. 20. et 28.
Molini, Saggio sulla Storia Nalurale del Chili. 1782. 8vo.
Spallanzani, Mem. della Soc. Ital. 1782et 1784.
Lightfoot, Phil. Trans, vol. 76.
George Humphreys, Linnaean Transactions, vol. 2. 1794. 4to.
Martin, Universal Conchologist. 1784 and 1786. fol.
William Boys fy George Walker, Testacea Minuta Rariora.
Lefebure des Hayes, Journal de Physique, for 1787-
Retzius, Nova Testaceorum Genera. 1788. 4to.
Le Gentil, Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences, for 1788.
Cordiner, Remarkable Ruins, &c. 1788 — 1795. 4to.
Soldani, Testaceographia, &c. 1789 — 1795. 4to.
Bonvicini, Mem. della Soc. Ital. 1794.
Mesaize, Magazin Encyclopedique. 1797.
OF WRITERS ON SHELLS. xlxix
Bruguiere, Encyclopedic Methodique, Article, Vers. 1789- Journ.
d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1.
Dr. Shaw, Naturalist's Miscellany.
Olivi, Zoologica Adriatica. 1792. 4to.
Ribaucourt, Journal d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1 .
Cuvier, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat.
Adams, Linnean Transactions, vol. 3.
MM. Leopold a Fichtel fy J. P. Charles a Moll, Testacea
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d'Hist. Nat. &c.
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1797- 8vo. Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. 3. 7. 8. 10.
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William Wood, Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. 6.
Zoography, or the Beauties of Nature displayed. 1807. 8vo. vol. 2.
Dufresne, Annales du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1.
Montagu, Testacea Britannica. 1803. 4to.
Denys de Montfort, Conchyliologie Systematique. 1808. 8vo.
DICTIONARY OF TERMS
Adherent. - -
Adherent. * -
Axis. - - -
The Mollusca adhere to thin shells.
A shell which attaches itself is adherent. Oysters
adhere to rocks.
An operculum is adherent, when fixed to the animal.
That half in Bivalve shells, which shows the
The mouth of a shell.
The tip, or small end of a shell.
The insertion of parts of shells into each other.
The fossil Cornu Amnonis is an instance of a
series of articulations.
The tentacula of the animals of Barnacles, have
The teeth of bivalve shells are frequently articu-
lated within each other.
Having ears. The Pectens are auriculated.
In univalve shells the centre, or pillar, upon which
the spires turn.
The lower part of a shell, or that which is op-
posed to the summit, or point of the spire.
The species of the genus Lepas, fix themselves by
their base, to rocks and other bodies.
The elongated base, of certain species of univalve
shells, is called the beak. The genera Murex
and Strom bus, afford examples of beaked shells.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Beak. - - The lengthened extremity of the valves in some
bivalve shells. Certain Tellens have their anterior
part prolonged into a beak.
Bifid. - - Separated down the middle by a slit. The teeth of
bivalve shells, are often bifid, or double.
Bivalve. - A shell with two valves, or pieces, connected by a
Byssus. - - A substance spun by the animals of bivalve shells,
such as the Muscle, and the Pinna ; by which they
attach themselves to rocks, and other bodies. In
the Muscle it is called the beard.
Canal. - - The continuation of the mouth, or opening, of a
shell, into a kind of beak, which becomes tubular,
and forms a gutter, or groove. The genus Murex
and Strombus, afford examples of a canal.
Cardinal. - Conchologists apply this word to the central, or
principal teeth in the hinges of bivalve shells.
The Cockle has four teeth; the two nearest the
centre of the hinge, are the cardinal teeth. The
Mactra has but one cardinal tooth.
Cardo. - - See hinge.
Carina. - - See keel.
Cartilage. A solid substance harder than flesh, but not so hard
Chambered. Having divisions across the cavity in the hollow of
the shell, separating or dividing the same into
chambers. The Nautilus is a chambered shell.
Close. - - Shut together, without leaving any opening. It
applies chiefly to bivalve shells. The valves of the
Solen are open, those of the Muscle are close.
Columella. The interior part of the lip, situated in the opening,
or mouth, very near the axis upon which the spires
turn in univalve shells. In some shells, as the
Cones, it is smooth ; in others, as the Volutes, it is
toothed, or pleated.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Contour. - -
Crest. - -
Nearly flat. Several of the Tellens are com-
The same as chambered.
The exterior surface, and round the edge of
a shell. The Tuns are round in their contour ;
the Murex is angular.
The part near the hinge in bivalve shells, to
which the ligament is attached. It is remark-
able in the shells of the genus Venus, and
received one of those names from Linnaeus,
which disgrace the pages of his Systema
Heart-shaped. The Cockles and some other
shells are cordiforme.
Hard and fibrous ; of a substance between
horn and skin.
Having blunt teeth. The margins of many
bivalve shells are crenated.
Crested like the comb of a cock. Some oysters
Dorsal. - -
Ears. - - ~
Toothed. The margin of most Cockles are
Transparent when held to the light.
Made in the shape of fingers. The lips of
some shells of the genus Strombus are digi-
Separating from a point. The teeth in the
Anomia placenta diverge.
Belonging to the back.
External projections, nearly triangular, which
are seen at the base of Pectens.
llV A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Edge. - - - See Margin.
Epidermis. - An outer skin, or membrane, which covers the
surface of the majority of shells, and is, generally,
very tenaceous. Some shells, such as the Cow-
ries, and the Cones, are without an epidermis.
Equilateral. The valves of bivalve shells are equilateral when
they precisely resemble each other in size and
Eouivalve. - When the two valves are pefectly alike. The
Muscles and Cockles, are equivalve shells.
Fente. - - - The slit, or opening, which appears on the slopes
of bivalve shells, near the hinge, when the valves
Fissure. - - A notch, or slit. The slit limpet, Patella Jissura,
is an example.
Fosset. - - The cavity containing the ligament. The fossets
are placed at the hinge in some bivalves.
Fosset. - - The teeth of the hinge in bivalves, are also re-
ceived into fossets, or cavities, in the opposite
Furrow. - - A gutter, or groove, which when bivalves are
closed, runs along parallel to the hinge.
Gapers. - - Shells whose valves never shut close. The Solens
are gapers, at both ends, the Mya gape at one
Gibbous. - - Protuberant. Some species of Murex are gibbous.
Glabrous. - Smooth, uniformly polished.
Grained. - - Dotted with small tubercles.
Groove. - - A hollow prolonged line, placed between two
ridges. Cockles are grooved.
Group. - - The union of several shells that adhere together.
The Oysters, and the Barnacles, form in groups.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
The part under the summits, by which the sides
of bivalve and multivalve shells are connected
together. The hinge in most shells is toothed,
but in some it is without teeth, as in Oysters
Covered with hairs. The Helix hispida is an
Tiled. Shells are sometimes covered with scales,
which impend over each other like tiles on a
house. The ribs of the Cardium Isocardia
are covered with imbricated scales. The valves
of the Chiton are imbricated, or laying one
over the other.
Which has no hole, that is, is not pierced. The
Limpets are, for the most part, imperforated.
A trace, or mark. The muscles with which
the animals of bivalve shells are provided,
leave a mark in the interior, which is called
the muscular impression. Oysters have but
one muscular impression, the Veneres have two,
and some shells three muscular impressions.
Of unequal sides. Inaequilateral valves are
those whose summits are farther from one end
of the shell than the other. The Tellens, are
Of unequal valves. Having one valve more
convex, or of a different form from the other.
The PectenSy the Oysters, and the Spondyles,
Without spires. The Limpets are involute.
Juxtaposition. A successive and perpetual adjunction of cal-
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
careous, or horny particles, exuding from the
mantle, or body, of the Mollusca. It is these
particles which form the successive layers that
envelope the animal, and constitute the shell.
Keel. - - - A term applied to the back of shells that are
shaped like a boat. The Chitons are keeled.
The Paper nautilus is keeled.
Labium. - - See Lip.
Lamina. - - A plate, or layer. An Oyster-shell heated in the
fire separates into laminae, or plates.
Lateral. - - Belonging to the side.
Lenticular. - Of a lens shape. The fossil Numularia are
Lid. - - - - See Operculum.
Lip. - - - - The last turn of the spire in Univalves.
Lip. - - - - The Cowries have two lips, one right, and the
Lip. - - - - In Bivalves. The exterior edge of the valves.
Ligament. - A horny substance uniting the valves of shells to-
gether at the hinge. Almost all Bivalves are
united by ligament. It is interior in Oysters,
and exterior in Muscles.
Linear. - - Very narrow.
Linguiform. - Tongue-shaped. t
Longitudinal. Lengthwise. The longitudinal measure of a shell
in Bivalves, is always from the hinge to the
margin, however narrow the shell may be. In
Univalves, from the apex to the base.
Margin. - . The edge of a shell. Some Bivalve shells have
their margins plain, some waved, and others cre-
nated, or dentated, &c.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Membrane. - A skin, or pellicle, susceptible of being inflated
like a bladder. The Helix janihina has a mem-
brane which it inflates like a bunch of grapes,
or soap bubbles.
Minute. - - A term applied to shells that require a lens to
distinguish their several parts.
Mollusc a. - Animals inhabiting shells, belong to the class
Mouth. - •- The aperture, or opening of a shell. It is gene-
rally round, or long ; though sometimes trian-
gular, and even quadrangular.
Multilocular. Having several divisions, or compartments. All
chambered shells are multilocular, and abound
in the minute species.
Multivalve. - Having more than two valves. The Barnacle
and the P kolas are multivalve shells.
Muscle. - - A flexible, fleshy, fibrous organ, by which the
animals, especially of bivalves, are attached to
their shells. v,
Oblique. - - Diverging from right to left, or from left to right.
Some shells are obliquely striated.
Obtuse. - - Blunt pointed. The spire of the Volute is obtuse.
Operculum. - A solid, horny, or calcareous substance, gene-
rally round and flat, which fits exactly into the
mouth of Univalves, and serves the animal as a
lid, or cover, with which it can shut itself into
its shell. Multivalves, such as the Lepas, have
also an operculum.
Orbicular. - Of a round shape.
Papyraceous. Thin as paper. The Paper Nautilus, is of this
Pedicle. - - A stalk. The Barnacles are raised on pedicles.
Pelagian. - Inhabiting the deep.
vol. i. e
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Plain. - -
Plaited. - -
Pierced. The disk of the Haliotis, and the apex
of the Patella Grceca, are perforated.
The axis upon which the spires turn in Univalve
Of a pea shape.
Uniform, flat. The Anomia placenta, is a plain
Many Univalve shells are plaited on the columella,
or pillar lip, which characterises their genera.
The Volutes are plaited.
When the margins of a Bivalve shell deviate
from a straight line, they sometimes form a plait.
Thus one of the characters of the genus Tellen,
is to have the anterior margin plaited.
That half from the hinge, in Bivalve shells, which
does not show the cardinal ligament.
Pear-shaped. The Bulla Jicus is a pyriform shell.
Four-valved. The operculum of the Acorn shell
Reticulated. Like net-work. Many shells have their surfaces
Ribs. - - - Protuberant striae on the surface of a shell. The
Cockles are strongly ribbed.
Rostrum. - - See Beak.
Rugose. - - Wrinkled. The surfaces of some shells are
rough, or wrinkled. The Tellina rugosa, is one
among many examples.
Scabrous. - Rough, rugged. The shells of the genus Chama
have scabrous valves.
Serrated. - Toothed like a saw. Many Bivalve shells have
their margins serrated, such as the Spondyles.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Waved, folded, or deeply lobed. The margin of a
shell is sinuous, when it bends in and out.
A deep cut. The Murex Babylonius has a sinus in
A prolonged tube, running sometimes through the
partitions of chambered shells.
A lengthened point either straight or curved. The
Thorny Woodcock, Murex Tribulus, has very long
Each single, or separate turning, or circumvolution
in a Univalve shell, is called a spire.
Univalve shells, having one or more spires, are called
Very fine lines, either flat or raised, which cross the
surface of shells in different directions. When they
proceed from hinge to margin, they are called longi-
tudinal striae, and when in a contrary direction, trans-
verse striae. Concentric striae are those which form
the segments of circles.
Charged with striae.
The highest part of a shell. In Univalves it is
the point of the spire.
The upper part of the valves, in Bivalve shells, is
called the summit. It is generally curved inwards,
towards the hinge, which it surmounts.
A toothed joint. The valves of some of the Acorn
shells are connected by sutures.
Teeth. ^ - Angular plaits upon the pillar lip of Volutes, and
some other shells.
Teeth. - - Protuberances, and fangs, on the hinges of Bivalve
Tentacula. Delicate, fleshy bodies, with which animals of the
class Mollusca, are provided; they are capable of
contraction and extension, and are endued with ex-
treme sensibility. The horns of the snail are its
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS.
Tiled. - - ■
Trifid. - - -
Trilobed. - •
All animals of the class Mollusca, which are
covered with a solid roof of carbonate of lime,
come under the denomination of Testacea.
Across. Bands, or stria?, running across a shell,
are called transverse.
A shell armed with three short points. The
Anomia tridentata is an example.
Slit into three. A trifid tooth.
Having three lobes.
A protuberance, or knob, raised on the surface
of some shells. Several species of the genus
Murex, are loaded with tubercles.
All the whirls, or spires, of a Univalve, taken
collectively, are called the turban. The Helix
planorbis, has a flat turban ; the Trochus tuber-
culatus a short turban, and the Trochus Zizi-
phinus a produced turban.
The turn of a spire, is a single, but complete
revolution. In the Nautilus, the last turn of the
spire envelopes all the others.
The same as summit.
A small hole at the bottom of some Univalve
shells, formed in the thickness of the columella,
This term is used for Univalves, that have but one
chamber. The Paper Nautilus, the Cozvries,
the Olives, &c. are unilocular shells.
A division of shells, composed of but one valve, or
The testaceous covering of the Mollusca. When
of a single piece, the shell is called Univalve ;
when of two pieces, Bivalve ; and when formed
of more parts than two, Multivalve.
A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. lxi
Vermiform. Having the shape of worms. The Serpula, are
Vertex. - The top, or point of a shell.
Viviparous. Shells which are found equally on land and in water.
The fresh-water Helices are often seen on the
plants which border the rivers.
Waved. - - Some shells are flexuous, bent in and out, or waved.
Whirl. = - The same as Spire.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
No. CHITON. 1
1 Scaly Chiton 5
2 Bistriated Chiton 7
3 Tawny Chiton
4 Pitchy Chiton 8
5 Granulated Chiton 9
6 Prickly Chiton
7 Banded Chiton 10
8 Marbled Chiton
9 Spotted Chiton 11
10 Coated Chiton
11 Gigantic Chiton 12
12 Kidney-Shaped Chiton 13
13 Chesnut Chiton
14 Red Chiton 14
15 Punctured Chiton
16 Indian Chiton 15
17 Green Chiton
18 Striped Chiton
19 Tufted Chiton 16
20 Furrowed Chiton
21 Bicolored Chiton 17
22 Cherry Chiton
23 Magellanic Chiton 18
24 Brown Chiton
25 Meally Chiton 19
26 Bug Chiton
27 Millepede Chiton
28 Iceland Chiton 20
29 White Chiton
30 Bordered Chiton 21
31 Ash-Coloured Chiton
32 Smooth Chiton 22
33 Tuberculated Chiton
34 Tessellated Chiton 23
35 Hairy Chiton
36 Hispid Chiton 24
37 Sea-Green Chiton
No. LEPAS. Page 25
1 Windpipe Shell . 31
2 Turban Acorn 33
3 Whale Acorn. 35
4 Turtle Acorn 37
5 Bell Acorn 38
6 Scottish Acorn 40
7 Wrinkled Acorn 41
8 Narrow-Mouthed Acorn
9 Conic Acorn 42
10 Common Acorn. ........... 43
11 Smooth Acorn 44
12 Club-shaped Acorn ........ 45
13 Punctured Acorn 46
14 Ribbed Acorn
15 Sponge Acorn 47
16 Helmet Acorn 48
17 Parrot-Beaked Acorn 49
18 Spiny Acorn ,
19 Flesh-Coloured Acorn 50
20 Rayed Acorn
21 Palmated Acorn 51
22 Rugged Acorn
23 Ridged Acorn 52
24 Violet Acorn. 53
25 Limpet Acorn 54
26 Hemispherical Acorn
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
27 Purple-Tipped Acorn 55
28 Porous Acorn 56
29 Wart-Shaped Acorn 57
30 Norwegian Acorn 58
31 Carious Acorn
32 Mitre Barnacle 59
33 Cornucopia Banacle 60
34 Pen-Knife Barnacle 61
35 Bladder Barnacle 62
36 Striated Barnacle 64
37 Duck Barnacle 65
38 Downy Barnacle 67
39 Toothed Barnacle
40 Furrowed Barnacle 68
41 Ribbon Barnacle 69
42 Membranous Barnacle 70
43 Eared Barnacle
No. PHOLAS. Page 73
1 Prickly Piercer 77
2 Indian Piercer 78
3 White Piercer 79
4 Ribbed Piercer 80
5 Curled Piercer 81
6 Small Pierce-Stone 82
7 Striated Piercer 83
8 Hooked Piercer 84
9 Hart-Shaped Piercer 85
10 Chili Piercer
11 Gaping Piercer
12 Teredo Piercer 86
No. MYA. Page 87
1 Abrupt Gaper 90
2 Sand Gaper 91
3 Convex Gaper 92
4 Sloping Gaper 93
5 Spoon-Hinge Gaper 94
6 Duck Gaper
7 Globular Gaper 95
8 Arctic Gaper
9 Toothless Gaper 96
10 Pitchy Gaper
1 1 Nicobar Gaper 97
12 Beaked Gaper
13 Norway Gaper 98
14 Membranous Gaper
15 Deformed Gaper
16 Double-Toothed Gaper 99
17 Decussated Gaper
18 Purple Gaper 100
19 Rusty Gaper
20 Glossy Gaper 101
21 Prismatic Gaper
22 Substriated Gaper 102
23 Dubious Gaper
24 White Norway Gaper 103
25 Dutch Gaper
26 Painters Gaper 104
27 Qval Gaper 105
28 Thick Gaper 106
29 Knotted Gaper
30 Pearl Gaper 107
31 Wrinkled Gaper 108
32 Radiated Gaper 109
33 Rough Gaper
34 Knobbed Gaper 110
35 Spurious Gaper ...
36 Angular Gaper . »
37 Roundish Gaper Ill
38 Variable Gaper
39 Lipped Gaper ^.... 112
40 Unequal-Valved Gaper .... 113
41 Great Gaper 114
No. SOLEN. Page 115
1 Pod Razor 118
2 Carmarthenshire Razor .... 119
3 Sheath Razor
4 Truncated Solen 121
5. Slender Razor
6 Sword Razor 122
7 Transparent Razor 123
8 Peascod Razor 124
9 Kidney Razor 125
10 Antiquated Razor
11 Brittle Razor 126
12 Strigilated Razor 127
13 Duck-Bill Razor 128
14 Rayed Razor
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
15 Guinea Razor 129
16 Largest Razor
17 Great Razor 130
18 Inflected Razor 131
19 Little Razor
20 Molini's Razor 132
21 Green Razor
22 VioletRazor t..l33
23 Rose-Coloured Razor
24 Striated Razor 134
25 Zig-Zag Razor
26 Double-Rayed Razor 135
27 Variable Razor
28 Sanguine Razor 136
29 Spotted Razor 137
30 Spengler's Razor
31 Amethystine Razor 138
32 Variegated Razor 139
S3 Minute Razor
34 Scale-Like Razor 140
35 Semi-Oval Razor 141
No. TELLINA. Page 142
1 Toothed Tellen 144
2 Cats-Tongue Tellen
3 Striped Tellen 145
4 Freckled Tellen 146
5 Angular Tellen
6 Varying Tellen 147
7 Brittle Tellen 148
8 Rugged Tellen
9 Inflated Tellen 149
10 Pellucid Tellen
11 Multangular Tellen 150
12 Paper Tellen
13 Gibbous Tellen 151
14 Unequal-Sized Tellen
15 Knorr's Tellen
16 Minute Tellen 152
17 Oblique Tellen
18 Spotted Tellen 153
19 River Tellen
20 Foliaceous Tellen 154
21 Whitish Tellen
22 Thin Tellen 155
23 Semi-Striated Tellen 156
24 Flat Tellen 157
25 Sharp-Edged Tellen
26 Rayed Tellen 158
27 Red Tellen. 159
28 Beaked Tellen
29 Smooth Tellen 160
30 Three-Banded Tellen 161
31 Donax Tellen
32 Truncated Tellen 1 62
33 Triangular Tellen
34 Oblong Tellen 163
35 Spengler's Tellen
36 Carnation Tellen 164
37 Blushing Tellen 165
38 White Tellen 166
39 Glassy Tellen
40 Lance-Shaped Tellen 167
41 Opaline Tellen
42 Scarlet Tellen 168
43 Chalky Tellen
44 Lister's Tellen 169
45 Narrow Tellen
46 Madagascar Tellen
47 Flat Striai ed Tellen 170
48 Depressed Tellen 171
49 Purple Tellen 172
50 Rough Tellen
51 Subcuneated Tellen 173
52 Broad Tellen
53 Jamaica Tellen
54 Whitish Tellen 174
55 Reddish Tellen
56 Banded Tellen
57 Striated Tellen 175
58 Rosy Tellen
59 Adanson's Tellen )76
60 Reticulated Tellen
61 Fasciated Tellen 177
62 Snowy Tellen
63 Sulcated Tellen 173
64 Angular Tellen
65 Laskey's Tellen 179
66 Pomegranate-Flower Tellen 180
67 Rasp Tellen
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Smooth Tellen 131
Waved Tellen 182
Thread-Girdled Tellen 183
Rough Tellen 184
Prickly Tellen 185
Thick Tellen 186
Milky Tellen 187
Crooked Tellen 188
Flesh-Coloured Tellen 189
Polygonal Tellen 190
Heart-Shaped Tellen 191
Double-Spotted Tellen 192
Solid Tellen 193
Baltic Tellen 194
Obliquely Striated Tellen . . 195
Digital Tellen 196
Lake Tellen 197
Spanish Tellen . . 198
French Tellen 199
Senegal Tellen ,
Maton's Tellen ,..,...,..., ...
Unequal-Valved Tellen 201
CARDIUM. Page 203
Spiny Cockle 207
Thorny Cockle 208
Fringed Cockle. 209
Tuberculated Cockle ...... 210
Marbled Cockle 211
Pigmy Cockle 212
Red Cockle 213
Pea Cockle 214
Microscopic Cockle. , 215
13 Banded Cockle 215
14 Prickly Cockle 216
15 Imbricated Cockle 217
16 Greenish Cockle 218
17 Mottled Cockle
18 Toothed Cockle 219
19 Prominent Cockle 220
20 Great Cockle 221
20* Smooth Cockle 222
21 Citron Cockle 223
22 Oblong Cockle
23 Yellow Cockle 224
24 Banded Cockle 225
25 Common Cockle 226
26 Iceland Cockle 227
27 Greenland Cockle
28 Equal-Sided Cockle. 228
29 Pectinated Cockle 229
30 Eared Cockle
31 Asiatic Cockle 230
32 Paper Cockle
33 Ribbed Cockle 231
34 Gaping Cockle 232
35 Solen Cockle 233
36 Pecten Cockle -
37 Donax Cockle 234
38 Furbelowed Cockle
39 Janus Cockle 235
40 Rough Cockle 236
41 Broad Cockle
42 Flexuous Cockle 237
43 Decussated Cockle
44 Rusty Cockle 238
45 Whitish Cockle
46 Greenish Cockle ...
47 Streaked Cockle 239
48 Rose Cockle
49 Triangular Cockle 240
50 Strawberry Cockle 241
51 White Strawberry Cockle . . 242
52 Diana Heart Cockle 243
53 Spiny-Keeled Heart Cockle 244
54 Smooth-Keeled Heart Cockle 245
A LIST OF PLATES
pl. l. Page No.
1 Chiton squamosus 5 1
2 fulvus 7 3
3 piceus 8 4
4. 5 fasciatus 10 7
1 Chiton tunicatus 11 10
2. 3 castaneus 13 13
4. 5 lineatus 15 18
6 facicularis 16 19
1 Chiton sulcatus 16 20
2. 3 * castaneus 13 13
4 marginatus 21 30
5 cinereus 21 31
6 Magellanicus 18 23
1. 2. 3 Lepas TracheaBformis 31 1
Lepas Diadema 33 2
1. 2. 3 Lepas balaenaris 35 3
4 testudinaria 37 4
1. 2 Lepas tintinnabulum 38 5
3 Scotica 40 6
4 rugosa 41 7
5 angustata 41 8
1 Lepas balanoides 44 11
2 clavata 45 12
3 Balanus 43 10
4.5 spinosa 49 18
6 minor 50 19
radiata 50 20
pl. 8. Page No.
1.2. 3.4 Lepas crispata 51 22
5 ...... porcata 52 23
1.2.3 Lepas purpurascens 55 27
4 porosa 56 28
5 Verruca 57 29
1 Lepas Mitella 59 32
2 Pollicipes 60 33
3 Scalpellum 61 34
4 fascicularis 62 35
5 anserifera 64 36
Lepas anatifera 65 37
1 Lepas sulcata 68 40
2. 3 vittata 69 41
4 aurita 70 43
1. 2. 3 Pholas Dactylus 77 1
1. 2 Pholas orientalis 78 2
3. 4 Candida 79 3
1. 2 Pholas costata 80 4
3.4.5 crispata 81 5
1. 2. 3. 4. & 8 Pholas striata 83 7
5.6.7. falcata 34 8
1.2 Mya truncata 90 l
3 .... arenaria 91 2
1 Mya convexa 92 3
A LIST OF PLATES.
2. 3 Mya declivis
1. 2 Mya Batava
3. 4 .... Pictorum
5 .... ovata
PL. 20 & 21.
1. 2. 3. 4 Mya nodulosa
5 .... picea
1. 2. 3 Mya margaritifera
1*2.3 Mya corrugata
4. 5. 6 .... globosa
7.8.9 .... praetenius
1 Mya Glyeimeris
2. 3 .... dubia
1. 2 Solen Siliqua
3. 4 truncata
1 Solen Vagina
1. 2 Solen Ensis
4. 5 Legnmen
1. 2 Solen Cultellus
4. 5 fragilis
1 Solen strigilatus
2.3.4 ..... anatinus
, 1.2 Solen radiatus
1. 2. Solen inflexus
1 Solen biradiata 135
2.3 vespertinus 135
4. 5 sanguinolentus 136
1 Solen Amethystus 138
2. 3. 4 variegatus 139
5.6 minutus 139
1 Tellina scobinata 180
2.3 virgata 145
1 Tellina foliacea 154
2 virgata 145
3 interrupta 146
1 Tellina laevis 181
2 Spengleri • 163
3 rostrata 159
1 Tellina Remies 182
2.3 radiata 158
1 Tellina punicea 170
2. 3 Madagascariensis 169
1 Tellina crassa 186
2. 3 Lingua-felis 144
4. 5 carnaria 189
1 Tellina laevigata 160
2.3 rugosa 148
4. 5 obliqua 152
1 Tellina operculata 165
2.3 reticulata 182
4. 5 Radula 183
1 Tellina angulata 146
2.3 decussata 190
4. 5 cordiformis 191
1 Tellina acuta 157
2 sanguinea 159
A LIST OF PLATES.
3. 4 Tellina tenuis
1 Tellina Ferroensis
1 Tellina nivea
4. 5 limosa
1 Tellina sulcata
2. 3. 4 inaequivalvis
7. 8 flexuosa
1. 2 Cardium echinatum
3. 4 ciliare
1. 2 Cardium tuberculatum
1 Cardium aculeatum
2. 3 muricatum
1. 2 Cardium isocardia
1. 2 Cardium ringens
1. 2 Cardium laevigatum
1 Cardium oblongum
2. 3 rusticum
1 Cardium costatum
4. 5 fimbriatum
1 Cardium iEolicum
2. 3 rigidum
4. 5 latum
7. 8 hemicardium
1. 2 Cardium Fragum
3 ........ Unedo
4. 5 retusum
1. 2 Cardium Cardissa
3. 4 human nm
Testes plures longitudinaliter digestae, dorso incumbentes.
Animal a Lophyrus.
Shells (valves or plates) many, arranged longitudinally, and resting on the
Poli, in the third plate of his splendid work on the
shells of the two Sicilies, has given a complete anatomical
figure of the animal of the Chiton, from which it appears
not to be a Doris, as supposed by Linnaeus, but suffi-
ciently distinct to constitute a new genus. The animal
has an oval body, flat beneath, without eyes or tentacula,
an oval foot ; a head surmounted by a crest, with a
wrinkled mouth beneath : the exterior air vessels are
separate, pinnated, and placed round the body, between
the mantle (or folding muscle) and the foot. It is
obvious that it differs from a Doris in the want of ten-
tacula, (or feelers), and in the presence of a crest, a
distinction upon which Poli has established his genus,
and from whence he has derived his greek name *6<pufog.
Chitons are to Testacea what armadillos are to quad-
rupeds ; and millepedes to insects; that is, like them
vol. i. b
they are capable of contraction and extension ; they can
stretch at full length, or roll themselves into a ball. The
scales, or valves, of which they are formed, are from
six to eight in number, and are so disposed, that they
move on each other like the joints on the tail of a
lobster. The valves which are very solid, vary in shape
and colour according to the species, but the smallest
is generally before and the largest behind : they are
connected together by a projecting cartilaginous border
which surrounds the shell, and which is sometimes
plain, sometimes spinous, and often covered with minute
The name of petite nacelle, which has been occasionally
given to this shell, is by no means unapplicable, for
nothing can convey a better idea of a little boat than
the interior of a Chiton. In some species the colour
of this surface is bluish green, in some it is quite white;
others are stained with violet, or purple, along the
middle, and some are very prettily variegated.
Chitons fix themselves to rocks, to ships, and even
frequently to fish, and to other shells. They are capable
of locomotion, but seldom appear to use that faculty;
they seem to be satisfied with their first attachment, and
never wish to change their place. When forced from
their hold they roll themselves into a ball, presenting
nothing to their enemy but an invulnerable shell, and a
portion of the lateral ligament defended by scales, or
spines. Bosc observed, on the coast of America, that
when the Chitons rolled themselves up in consequence
of being separated by violence from the bodies to which
they were fixed, it was a considerable time before they
recovered their natural position; the most expeditious
required two days to compose themselves, and several,
which Bosc supposed must have been wounded, re-
mained a week in a contracted state.
These shells have been called by different names,
all however indicative of their form, such as wood-louse,
sea boat, rattle-snake's tail, lobster's tail, sea bug, and
sea caterpillar. The French say that the animal may be
eaten, and we are told that the Iceland fishers swallow
it raw to quench their thirst, and pretend that it is good
also against sea sickness. These shells are found, but
rarely in abundance, on the coasts of North and South
America, in the Straits of Magellan, on the coast of
Africa, in the West Indies, in Carolina, on the coasts of
France, England, &c.
It must be observed, that the subjects of this genus,
before the time of Linnaeus, were scattered about in
authors, without being referred to any particular class ;
but the systematic plan of the great Swedish naturalist,
forced him to decide upon their situation, and he
accordingly gave them a place among the testaceous
multi valves. How far they are entitled to rank with
the shells, in preference to the marine insects, will cer-
tainly admit of dispute, since, unlike all other Testacea,
their valves are formed of an intermediate substance
between carbonate of lime and animal gluten. The fol-
lowing experiments will prove that this assertion is not
A Chiton marginaius, weighing two grains, effervesced
strongly in muriatic acid, and lost seven-eights of its
weight; the remainder was animal gluten, and retained
the perfect form of the shell.
A valve of the Chiton squamosus weighing twenty
grains, lost in muriatic acid nine-tenths of its weight,
the animal part which was undissolved, retained (before
it was dried) the form and colour of the valve, the
striae also remaining so that the species might be readily
A valve of a Chiton from the Red Sea, weighing
eighteen grains, lost seventeen in the process, but the
grain that remained, while it was wet, retained all the
marks of the original shell. In this experiment the
solution was not attended with so rapid an extrication
of gas as in the two former. Ten grains of the Bulla
hydatis, on the contrary, being subjected to the same
test, left merely a white transparent film.
This striking difference in the composition of the
shell of the Chiton from that of other Testacea, added
to its general appearance, will furnish sufficient grounds
to dispute its title to its present situation, but the plan
of this work being strictly to follow the Linnaean ar-
rangement, the Author has not hesitated to commence
his specifications with this genus.
In the twelfth and last edition of the Systema Naturae
by Linnaeus, we find but nine Chitons enumerated.
Gmelin, in his enlarged edition, has noticed twenty-
eight, and the reader will perceive that in the present
work, the number has been still further increased, by
the addition of several new species.
*With Eight Valves.
PL I. fig. 1. Mr. Jennings.
1. Chiton squamosus. Ch. testa octovalvi semistriata, corpore squamuloso.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3203.
Shell of eight semistriated valves, margin covered with minute scales.
Patella oblonga articulata, articulis striatis, extus subfuscis intus e viridi
cceruleis. Sloane Hist. Jam. t. 2. p. 233.
Chiton squamosus, color testae atro virescens, cavitatis viridi cueruleus,
squamularum albus et niger. Born. Mus. Caes. p. 5. t. 1. fig. 1. 2.
Petiver Gazoph. t.-l. f. 4. Spengler Besch. Berl. Naturf. 1. p. 292.
t. 7. f. L. M. Ediv. av. t. 286. f. D. Encyclop. Method. Art. Vers.
pi. 162. f. 5. 6.
The notice which Sir Hans Sloane has taken of this
species, in his Natural History of Jamaica, is concise
and satisfactory. His account is as follows. " This
which sticks to rocks under the sea water in Jamaica
after the manner of limpets, is about two inches long,
one broad, made up of eight pieces, or joints laid over
one another. Each of the six middlemost joints is stri-
ated two ways on each side, and smooth in the top or
middle, of a dark brown colour above, and bluish green
underneath. The whole margin is made up of a skin
on which are many round raised points, which are also
on the first and last joint of the shell. I found it of se-
veral magnitudes sticking to the rocks under water on
the north side of the island of Jamaica. — I have had
joints of it from Nieves."
It will be proper to observe, in addition to Sir II.
Sloanes account, that this shell in common with the ma-
jority of the genus, when seen sideways, exhibits a double
series of triangles, formed by the middle valves, six of
these, which may be called marginal triangles, have their
base in the scaly margin, and their apex on the back of
the shell, they are strongly striated longitudinally, and the
striae, when particularly examined, appear to be placed in
a quincunx order. The other six are formed in the inter-
vals of the marginal triangles, having their base on the
back of the shell, and are marked with curvilinear striae,
in a contrary direction. These, which may be called the
dorsal triangles, are perfectly smooth at the base The
margin resembles the skin of a snake, being covered with
minute black and white scales These scales are of the
same nature as the valves, and effervesce strongly in
mineral acids. The general colour of the shell is dark
brown, or olive : the interior always light green.
Chemnitz, though he has quoted the synonyms of the
Chiton squamosus, has figured a distinct shell, and
Gmelin has unhappily jumbled together several species
under the same title. It seems that all those shells
with a scaly border, however they might differ in other
respects, were to be considered as varieties only of the
same species. This has produced much confusion in
thegenus, which it will be the object of the following spe-
cifications to rectify. The shell is an inhabitant of Ame-
The scaly Chiton is well figured by Edwards, but
erroneously quoted by Linnaeus for Chiton aculeatus.
Born's figure is good, his description accurate. Speng-
ler's represention is most excellent, and the figures in
the French Encyclopedia are very good. Seba's figure,
quoted by Linnaeus, must be rejected, it is a bad repre-
sentation of the interior. Gmelin's variety fc is the
Chiton marginatuSy Oscabrion gallicum of Argenville.
2. Chiton bistriatus. Ch. testa octovalvi, bistriata, margine squamuloso.
Shell of eight valves with double striae, margin scaly.
Chiton squamosus. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 788—791. Chem. Chiton.
t. 1 fig. 1.
The two extreme valves are greenish ash colour dotted
with brown, the middle valves are red brown, with double
curvilinear striae of equal strength from the dorsal ridge
to the margin. The marginal triangles are marked with
dark brown spots on a light bluish-green ground; mar-
gin scaly, fasciated with bistre.
This shell is so evidently different from the true
Chiton squamosus, that the propriety of its separation
must be obvious. It may be presumed that Chemnitz
was not in possession of the dark green shell described
by Born and others.
3. Chiton fulvus. Ch. testa octovalvi striata, striis albidis, lineato punc-
tatis, limbo coriaceo.
Shell of eight valves, striated, striae in whitish dotted lines, margin
Chiton candidatus Gaditanus. Chem. Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1691.
Encyclop. Method. Art. Vers. pi. 161. f. 4, 5.
The middle valves, in this shell, are marked on the
dorsal triangles with numerous whitish lines occasionally
running into each other. These striae, when magnified ap-
pear mouiliform, or like strings of minute white beads : the
marginal triangles are also striated but not beaded. The
extreme valves are marked like the middle ones. Ge-
neral colour fawn or tawny, perfect shells deepest on the
back, worn shells white at the apex of each valve.
Gmelin has referred this species to C. aculeatus, to
which it has no affinity, but he has added a note of
The subject represented in the Plate was brought
from Portugal, but was probably taken in South Ame-
PL 1. /. 3. Dr. Coombe.
4. Chiton piceus. Ch. testa octovalvi, supra glabra picea, nigro albidoque
varia. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205.
Shell of eight valves, upper surface smooth, pitchy, varied with white
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 807—810. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 6. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 163. f. 3, 4, 5.
Chemnitz considers this species as a variety of the fol-
lowing, or granulatus, but its affinity lies in the margin
only, which in both is coriaceous and spiny : in other
particulars they differ essentially. The valves of the
pitchy Chiton are rude and mishapen, with a smooth
black band running along the back, and separated from
the marginal division, on each side, by a broad white
line. Near the margin the valves are dark, scaly, and
covered with pitchy granulations. The shell within
is black in the middle, the sides greenish.
This species inhabits the Red Sea, and American
ocean. It is said sometimes, though rarely, to be found
with six or seven valves.
5. Qhiton granulatus. Ch. piceus, supra planus, punctis elevatis nume-
rosis in series digestis, limbo lato, coriaceo, spinoso: areis nigris al~
bisque alternis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205.
Pitchy, above flat, with numerous granulations disposed in regular rows ;
border broad, coriaceous and spiny, with alternate white and black
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 806.
This shell has eight valves ; it inhabits the American
6. Chiton aculeatus. Ch. testa octovalvi striata, corpore subaculeato, Linn*
Syst. Nat. p. 1106. Gmel. 3202.
Shell of eight striated valves, body somewhat prickly.
Chiton Nicobaricus aculeatus. Chem. Conch, 10. 1. 173. f. 1692.
Limax marina. Rumph. Mus. t. 10. f. 4. Barbut. t. 1. f. 2.
Amcen. Acad. 8. t. 3. f. 1. Encyclop. Method, pi. 163. f. 6.
An oval shell, rough on the upper part, with narrow
awl-shaped unequal prickles of a red colour ; the valves
are all striated transversely; the last valve is the
smallest: the margin covered with bristles. Inhabits
Asia, particularly the Red Sea.
The specimen figured by Chemnitz, appears to be
coated with a red incrustation, so that the valves cannot
be seen. It is not uncommon for shells of this genus
to be disfigured by similar incrustations of different
colours, but chiefly white. The editors of the French
Encyclopedia have copied Chemnitz. Gmelin's variety
0. must be rejected, and also the reference to Edwards,
who has figured C. squamosus, not C. aculeatus.
PL 1./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings.
7. Chiton fasciatus. Ch. testa octovalvi scaber, valvis variegatis.
Shell of eight valves, rough, valves variegated.
Chiton crassus striatus. Chern. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 801. Chem. Chiton,
t. 1. f. 3. Chiton scaber variegatis. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 792.
The middle valves of this shell are elegantly fasciated
with brown, a light streak runs along the keel, or ridge,
with a darker line on each side ; the dorsal triangles are
perfectly smooth, but the marginal triangles, and the
two extreme valves, are covered with granulated striae,
and variegated with brown undulations. The margin
scaly, alternately varied with white and green ; inside a
glossy verdigrease green.
This shell varies in colour, being sometimes fasciated
with light green, and having a black or dark brown
band on each side the dorsal ridge. Inhabits South
The banded Chiton, has been erroneously quoted
by Gmelin, for a variety of the C. squamosus. It
resembles the following species in colour, but its rough
valves will at once distinguish it from the C. marmora-
tus, which is entirely smooth.
8. Chiton marmoratus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima albo et nigricante
varia, valvis mediis intus virentibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205.
Shell of eight valves, quite smooth, varied with white and black ; middle
valves greenish within.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 803—805. Chem. Chiton, t. 1. f. 5. Knorr.
Vergn. 4. t. 17. f. 3, 4. Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 11, 12.
This shell is subject to vary in the disposition of the
colours, sometimes it is regularly banded like the
C.fasciatus, as figured by Chemnitz, and sometimes uni-
form, or in patches, as in Knorr. The colours are black,
or greenish, or deep red-brown on a lighter ground.
The scaly margin is stained with blackish, or deep blue
and white. Inhabits the American ocean.
The variety @- of Gmelin, quoted from Schroter, is
too indistinct to be admitted.
9. Chiton maculatus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, intus thalassina, mar-
gine squamis ex cinereo albis vestita, valvis mediis anterius, nonnullis
utrinquefusco maculatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205.
Shell of eight valves, smooth, within sea green, margin covered with
greenish white scales ; middle valves on the fore part, and some of
them on both sides spotted with brown.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 802.
The valves of this species are covered with numerous
small brown spots, or stains, besides a band of a deeper
colour, which runs on each side the dorsal ridge.
Chemnitz figured this shell from a specimen in his own
collection. It is rare, and its country unknown.
PL 2./. 1. Mr. Jennings.
10. Chiton tunicatus. Ch. testaoctovalvi Icevi, valvis albis, supra membranis
suborbicularis, limbo coriaceo reflexo.
Shell of eight valves, smooth, valves white, above the membrane roundish,
margin coriaceous and turned back.
This singular shell makes a very different appearance
from any other species of the genus. The valves,
instead of being wholly visible, are coated half way
upwards with a black membrane, which is reflected from
the coriaceous border, and fixed into a groove cut for
that purpose round the upper part of each valve. The
portion that is seen above the membrane, is roundish,
uneven, and emarginate, of a sordid white, or flesh co-
lour, and collectively resembling a row of dried beans.
The remains of a thin cortical substance is to be seen on
parts of the naked shell, which, independent of the
coriaceous membrane, once covered the valves. The
valves within side are quite exposed and perfectly white.
The shell is an inch and a quarter broad, and when
extended, four inches long. Mr. Humphrey once had a
specimen from Copenhagen, but cannot say that it
inhabits the North Seas.
11. Chiton gigas. Ch. testa octovalvi crassa convexa alba y valva prima cre-
nata, postrema dentata, mediis emarginatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, thick, convex, and white : first valve indented, the
last toothed, middle valves emarginate.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 819. Chem. Chit. t. 2. f. 10.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 161. f. 3.
Chiton albus. Barbut. pi. 1. f. 1.
The Gigantic Chiton exceeds four inches in length,
and except the following species, is the largest of the
genus. The valves have a very clumsy appearance, and
seem to be rudely folded over each other. The margin
is tumid, coriaceous, and of a black-brown colour.
This Chiton inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Barbut has figured this shell by the name of albm.
He says that the specimen was brought by Dr. Solander
from the South Sea ; probably, however, taken at the
Cape, where it has been ascertained to live. The French
have copied Chemnitz.
KIDNEY SHAPED CHITON.
12. Chiton amiculatus. Ch. testa octovalvi reneformi fragilissima, corio
extus scabro obducta. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, kidney shaped and very brittle, covered externally
with a rough coriaceous membrane.
Pallas, Nov. Act. Petr. 2. p. 241. t. 7. f. 26—30.
The kidney shaped valves is a striking peculiarity in
this species, and more characteristic than the external
covering, since the shape of the shell will remain when
the membrane is gone.
Pallas says, that it inhabits the Kurile Islands, and is
more than six inches long.
PL 2. /. 2, 3. Mr. Jennings.
13. Chiton castaneus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, supra castanea, intus
Shell of eight valves, very smooth, chesnut above, rose colour within.
Shell oval, valves perfectly smooth, except some faint
indications of striae, running down the dorsal triangles
towards the margin. Marginal triangles uniformly
depressed near their insertion in the coriaceous border.
Colour deep chesnut; where decorticated the shell
appears white, and the marginal triangles and extreme
valves, toothed at the base, and striated longitudinally.
The valves within side the shell are of a fine rose colour,
edged with white.
PI 3. f. 2 6f 3
are the young of the same shell, which from its different
size and colour, might readily be mistaken for a distinct
species. At the apex of each valve, where the ridge of
the shell is decorticated, there appears a small whitish
spot, like enamel, and on the sides where the yellow
coat is wanting, the white toothed edges, and striae of
the marginal triangles may be seen as in the old shell.
The inside is variegated, but the rose colour predomi-
These interesting specimens are both in the possession
of Mr. Jennings, who liberally allowed them to be fi-
gured. Their country is unknown.
14. Chiton ruber. Ch. testa octovalvi arcuata substriata corpore rubro.
Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.
Shell of eight valves, slightly striated, striae varied ; body red.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 813. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 3. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 161. f. 6.
This species is about an inch long, of an oblong form,
with the back carinated, or keel shaped. It is generally
of an uniform red colour, but sometimes there is a
darker streak on the back, and where it becomes marbled
with red and white, it forms the variety represented by
Chemnitz, pi. 96. fig. 812.
It inhabits the North seas, and adheres to limpets.
15. Chiton punctatus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, corpore punctis excavatis.
Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.
Shell of eight valves, body with hollow dots.
Chiton corpore punctato, testis octo. Amczn. Acad. 3. p. 256. Seb. Mus.
3, 1. 1. f. 132.
This species is given on the authority of Linnaeus, but
is very indistinct. Two of the four references given by
Linnaeus have been rejected by Dr. Solander as incor-
rect. It is said to inhabit Asia, Europe, and America.
16. Chiton Indus. Ch. testa octovalvi ex cinereo albida, Umbo squamoso,
valvis mediis subtilissime punctatis Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3205.
Shell of eight valves, whitish ash colour, margin scaly, middle valves
very finely punctured.
Chiton Indicus. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 811. ,
Inhabits the American ocean; is rather more than
an inch long.
17. Chiton viridis. Ch. testa octovalvi, carinis triangularibus scaber-
rimis subdenticulatis, limbo squamulis minutissimis obsito seu obtecto.
Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 373.
Shell of eight valves, keel triangular, rough, slightly toothed ; margin
covered with minute scales.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 9.
This shell is of a grass green colour, with a banded
margin. This and No. 34, though distinct species, have
been ranked by Gmelin as varieties of the C. squa-
PI. 2./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings.
18. Chiton lineatus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, valvis lincatis, limbo lato
Shell of eight smooth valves, valves streaked, margin broad and coriaceous.
The ground colour of this elegant shell is bright ches-
nut, with an interrupted white band running along the
back ; undulating white lines, edged beneath with black,
pass diagonally across the marginal triangles, and con-
centrically on the extreme valves. The white band on
the back of the shell, which is occasionally interrupted
with chesnut, terminates in a white triangular spot on
the posterior valve. The back is convex, not carinated,
and is delicately striated in the direction of the margin.
The inside is whitish. Its country is unknown.
PL 2. /. 6. Mrs. Mawe.
19. Chiton facicularis. Ch. testa octovalvi, eorpore ad valvulas utrinquc
faciculato. Linn, Syst. Nat. p. 1106. Gmelin. p. 3202.
Shell of eight valves, body with a tuft of hair on each side of the valves.
Chem. Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1688. Encyclop. Method, t. 163. f. 15. Mont.
Test. Br. p. 5. Suppl. pi. 27. f. 5. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 21. pi. 1./. 1.
This shell is slightly keeled. The valves, on the
upper part are cinereous marked with black ; when
magnified, they appear like shagreen : a hairy tuft pro-
ceeds from the lower portion of each valve, which is
quite smooth, like horn, and of a yellowish colour ; the
margin is broad and coriaceous. The hairs frequently
fall off when the shell is dried, andleave the marks only of
insertion. This species is about an inch long and half
as broad. Inhabits Barbary and is also found in the
British seas, but of a smaller size.
PI. 3./. 1. Mrs. Robinson.
20. Chiton sulcatus. Ch. testa octovalvi crassa convexa sulcata, limbo lato
Shell of eight valves thick, convex and sulcated, margin broad and scaly.
A thick shell deeply grooved in every part ; the ex-
treme valves are furrowed from centre to margin ; and
many of the corresponding ridges are also sulcated at
the end: the middle valves are grooved in the same
manner, and most of the marginal triangles are formed
of three deep unequal furrows. The specimen from
which our figure was taken, has but few scales remaining,
but the impression of the rest is plainly visible. The
colour sordid brown, inclining to black on the back
part of the middle valves ; inside greenish white ; length,
when extended, four inches ; breadth, an inch and a half.
This rugged shell is said to inhabit the South seas.
21. Chiton bicolor. Ch. testa oetovahi crassa dorsata, extus thalassina,
intus nivea, margine nigra. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204.
Shell of eight valves, thick and ridged ; outside sea-green ; inside snow-
white, edged with black.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 794, 795.
The middle valves in this shell bend slightly upwards,
the marginal triangles striated, the anterior valve marked
with radiate striae.
We have the authority of Chemnitz only for this
species, who figured it from a specimen in his own
cabinet. The uniform sea-green colour is a distinguish-
ing characteristic. It is about two inches and a quarter
long; its country unknown.
22. Chiton cerasinus. Ch. testa oetovahi cerasina Icevi; marginis
dentibus niveis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204.
Shell of eight cherry-coloured valves, smooth ; marginal teeth snow-
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 796.
The shell is oval, about an inch and a half long, and
of a dark cherry colour. Country unknown.
vol. i. c
PL 3. /. 6. Dr. Coombe.
23. Chiton Magellanicus. Ch. testa octovalvi, crassa, ex fusco atra,
supra convexa : fascia dorsi nigricante media, striis lateralibus Jlavi-
cantibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204.
Shell of eight valves, thick, black-brown ; above convex, with a blackish
band in the middle of the back and lateral yellowish striae.
Seb. Mus.3. t. 1. f. 14, 15?
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 797, 798. Chem. Chiton, pi. 2. f. 7. Encyclop*
Method, pi. 160. f. 4, 5.
This species (when full grown) measures nearly two
inches and a half in length ; the ground colour of the
shell is darkish brown ; a black list runs along the mid-
dle of the back, with a yellowish-white lateral band on
each side ; the margin is broad, coriaceous, of a brown
colour, and covered with minute whitish spines : inside,
black in the middle, elsewhere greenish-white. The
species varies somewhat in colour, and is apt to be much
Inhabits the Straits of Magellan. The best repre-
sentation of the shell is in a separate tract by Chemnitz,
24. Chiton fuscus. Ch. testa octovalvi fusca glaberrima, intus margi-
nisque dentibus nivea, dorsi maculis trigonis nigris: utrinque fasciis
obscure Jlavicantibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204.
Shell of eight valves, very smooth, the inside and marginal teeth snow-
white ; back with triangular black spots, and faint yellowish bands
on each side.
Chiton linter India? orientalis. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 799, 800.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 160. f. 6, 7.
| This shell, externally, somewhat resembles the ma-
gellanicus; it is narrower, however, and has many mar-
ginal teeth, the largest of which are on the two extreme
valves : the back is also more raised, and is carinated, or
keel-shaped. We are indebted to Chemnitz for the
brown Chiton, among many others which he has added
to the genus. It is a native of the East Indies.
25. Chiton minimus. Ch. testa octovalvi, glabra, nigra, hinc indefari-
nosa. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205.
Shell of eight valves, smooth, black, sprinkled with meal in patches.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 814.
This is a very small shell, about half an inch long,
and is found in the Norwegian sea.
26. Chiton cimex. Ch. testa octovalvi carinata diaphana fasciata ; valva
utraque extrema tenuissime punctata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. ,
Shell of eight valves, carinated, diaphanous, and banded ; both extreme
valves finely punctured.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 815.
A small species, about three quarters of an inch
long ; of a reddish -brown colour, fasicated longitudinally
like the marbled Chiton. Inside marked with blackish
bands on a ground of whitish ash-colour. Found with
the preceding species.
27. Chiton asellus. Ch. testa octovalvi nigerrima, supra convexa, dorsi
macula in singulis valvis jlavicante. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, deep black, with a yellowish spot on each of the
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 816. Encyclop. Method, pi. 161. f. 12.
The Chiton asellus is rather more than half an inch
long, it is distinguished by the yellow spot on each valve.
Inhabits the Northern seas, and adheres to the Mytilus
28. Chiton Icelandicus. Ch. testa octovalvi, subcylindrica, tenuissime
punctata, nigra; limbo cinereo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, somewhat cylindrical, very finely punctured, black,
Schr'dt. Conch. 3. p. 509. No. 19.
This small shell, which is narrow at each end, pro-
bably inhabits the North seas, since it adheres to the
29. Chiton albus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, dorsata, corpore albo, Linn,
Syst. Nat. p. 1107. Gmel. 3204.
Shell of eight valves, smooth, slightly ridged ; body white.
Chiton testa octovalvi Icevi, valvula prima postice emarginata. MutL
Zool. Dan. Prodr. 3019. Act. Nidros. 2. p. 54.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 817. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 9. Mont. Test,
Brit. p. 4. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 22. t. 1. f. 4.
The first valve in this shell is notched on the hinder
edge. The shell is smooth, of an oval shape, and about
three-quarters of an inch long. It inhabits the Northern
It is found, about the size of a grain of wheat, on
oysters and other shells on the coast of Great Britain.
Dr. Pulteney mentions it from Poole, and says, that
besides oyster shells, it is found on the Ulva intestinalis
PL 3./. 4.
30. Chiton marginatus. Ch. testa octovalvi, margine serrato reflexo Icevi.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, smooth, with a serrated reflected margin,
Oscabrion Gallicum, Argenv. Conch, t. 25. f. M. Penn. Br. Zool. ed.
1812. 4. pi. 39. f. 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 1. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 21.
t. 1. f. 2.
This shell is of a reddish-brown colour, and of an
oblong shape. The valves are carinated and vary in
colour. It is about the size of a millepede, and is found
on several of the coasts of Great Britain, attached to
oyster and other shells.
The C. septemvalvis described by Mr. Montagu, he
is now inclined to refer to this shell as an accidental
variety only, and not a distinct species.
PI. 3./. 5.
31. Chiton cinereus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi carinata, corpore rubi-
cundo, limbo subciliato. Linn. Gmel. ,p. 3204. Fabr. Fn. GrcenL
Shell of eight valves, smooth and carinated ; body reddish, margin some-
Testa octovalvi ovata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1107-
Born. Mus. Caes. t. 1. f. 3. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 818. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 161. f. 11. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 3. Linn. Trans. 8.
p. 22. pi. 1. f. 3.
The cinereous Chiton is of an oval shape, compressed
and carinated, and from a quarter to three-quarters of
an inch long. When the animal is alive the shell is
reddish, but becomes grey after death. The valves on
the back project into a beak, and, as the figure expresses,
are sometimes tipped with white, so as to form a dorsal
line : the margin is spotted.
Fabricius found this species among the roots of
uIvcb on the Norway coast. It occurs, though not com-
monly, on the British shore, in Devonshire, at Wey-
mouth, and at Poole, attached to rocks and oysters.
32. Chiton lsevis. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, dorso elevate Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 21. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of eight valves, very smooth, with a raised back.
Penn. Br. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. pi. 39. f. 3. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 2.
This Chiton is of a reddish-brown colour, sometimes
spotted with yellow, and often with a longitudinal line
down the back : the margin broad and finely reticulated.
It is the size of a wood-louse, and, according to Pen-
nant, inhabits the shores of Loch Broom, in West
Rothshire. Mr. Montagu has found it with the
C. marginatus, in Salcomb Bay,
** With Seven Valves.
33. Chiton tuberculatum. Ch. testa septemvalvi, corpore tuberculato.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1106.
Shell of seven valves, body tuberculated.
Chiton oscabrion. Mus. Ad. Fr. p. 96.
Chiton cylindricus. Schroter Conch. 3. p. 394. t. 9. f. 19.
This species is of an oblong shape, covered with
tubercles placed in a quincunx order, the sides cinereous
mixed with white, and marked with brown waved
bands: on the back, which is greenish, runs a broad
black band. It inhabits South America.
34. Chiton tessellatus. Ch. testa septemvalvi striata, viridescente, cor-
pore s qua mo so > dorso strigis albidis et nigricantibus distincto. Chem.
Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1690.
Shell of seven valves, striated, greenish, body scaly, back marked with
black and white stripes.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 10.
The extreme valves of this species, and the marginal
triangles of the middle valves, are so striated as exactly
to resemble mosaic work ; the trivial name of tessellated,
therefore, suggested by Dr. Leach, is very appropriate.
The back of the shell is bistre, the tessellated parts ver-
digrease green, the margin scaly, with green and white
35. Chiton crinitus. Ch. testa septemvalvi, pilis brevibus dense obsita.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of seven valves, thickly covered with short hairs.
Penn. Br. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. p. 142. pi. 39. f. 1. A. 1. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 163. f. 13. 14. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 4. Linn. Trans. 8.
We have Pennant's authority only for the existence of
this species, which is extremely rare. Mr. Boys is
said to have found it at Sandwich, but from the long
and close habits of intimacy which the author enjoyed
with that gentleman, he can safely state that the shell
was not in his possession. Mr. Pennant says that it
inhabits the sea, near Aberdeen, and is five-eighths of an
inch long. The figures in the French Encyclopedia are
copied from Pennant.
***Witk Six Valves.
36. Chiton hispidus. Ch. testa sexvalvi striata. Linn. Syst. Nat. 1.
p. 1106. Gmel. 3202.
Shell of six valves striated.
Schroter Conch. 3. p. 493. t. 9. f. 8.
This species is about the size of a filbert, of a blackish
grey colour, speckled with white, and very finely marked
with minute granulated striae.
37. Chiton thalassinus. Ch. sexvalvi glabra ovali thalassina, supra linea
media dilutiori, limbo tenui hyalino. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206.
Shell of six valves, smooth, oval, sea green, with a paler yellow line along
the back ; margin thin and hyaline.
Schroter Einl. in Conch. 3. p. 509. No. 18. — Litterat. 4. p. 4.
1. 1. f. 1.
Described only by Schroter. It is rather convex, and
about half an inch long : its native country unknown.
Testa basi affixa multivalvis : valvis inaequalibus erectis,
Animal a Triton.
Shell of many valves, fixed at the base: valves unequal and erect.
Some late authors of repute, both abroad and in this
country, struck with the difference of appearance be-
tween the conical and compressed shells of this genus,
have separated the species, and formed them into dis-
tinct genera. It has been already stated, that it is not
intended in this work to deviate from the Linnaean order;
and this determination arises not only from a conviction
of its superior utility, but also from a desire to oppose,
in some measure, the great inclination which has appeared
of late on the Continent to multiply genera ; more it is to
be feared in some cases to the confusion and prejudice,
than the elucidation and advancement, of Natural His-
tory. This, however, is no reason why the opinions of
other authors should not be regarded; and therefore we
shall notice how far they are justified in their proceed-
ing, with respect to the present genus, by considering
the following grounds of separation as proposed by
The compressed shells, or barnacles, are generally
composed of five valves, not articulated, but merely
connected together by a membrane which bounds their
circumference. These valves are supported on a flexible
pedicle, which the animal can lengthen and contract, or
move in any direction at pleasure.
The conical, or acorn shells, on the contrary, are gene-
rally composed of six valves, which form a kind of
pyramidal tube, having all its parts strongly articulated,
or joined to each other by delicate sutures. The base is
solid and testaceous, by which they firmly fix themselves
to other bodies, There are four valves on the top of the
shell which form an operculum, or lid ; these valves
open or close, according as the animal protrudes its body,
or shrinks within its shell. These appendages are
entirely wanting in the compressed shells ; nor have they
any thing to correspond with them, unless their five
great valves may be considered as the operculum, and
the ligament to which they are attached, as the base
corresponding to that of the acorn shell.
The essential differences, therefore, of these two divi-
sions of shells, or genera, as they are constituted by
Bruguiere, consists, —
1st. In their support, which is testaceous in the
conical, and membranous in the compressed
2nd. In the structure of the shell, which is com-
posed of articulated pieces in one kind, while the
valves of the other division are connected by
3rd. In the operculum, with which the conical shells
are exclusively provided.
These reasons, it must be confessed, are strongly in
favour of a generic distinction; but, nevertheless, the
opinion of Dr. Maton, expressed in the eighth vol. of
the Linnaean Transactions, that the gradation from the
conic to the compressed species, appears so natural, as
not to admit of their being separated without violation
of the general principles of the system, must not be
disregarded. The Doctor refers to the Lepas mitella,
as the link which beautifully unites these two divisions,
and adds that " even if a difference in the contained
animal should be objected, we cannot agree in that par-
ticular being made a ground of distinction, since it is not
the exclusive consideration on which Linnaeus professes
to found his arrangement."
The conical shells, or acorns, are found attached to a
variety of substances. The common species is frequently
abundant on lobsters, oysters, &c. ; and many kinds arrive
in England, fixed to the bottom of vessels from foreign
countries. Different individuals of the same species,
are subject to vary greatly in their external form.
This is owing entirely to their manner of growth : the
eggs are hardly excluded from the animal, before they
become £xed to some neighbouring body; sometimes
to the parent shell, or to the support on which that
rests, or to rocks, &c. When these eggs are deposited
in groups, the shells, as they increase in size, are con-
strained for want of room, and they consequently become
misshapen and irregular, in proportion as this inconve-
nience prevails. This compression so influences their
external organization, that the conical tube often loses
its natural appearance, and assumes angles that would
not otherwise exist.
The conical shell, although it appears to consist of
a single piece, is generally, as has been already observed,
composed of six triangular portions, or valves ; these
are separate at top, but joined at bottom, and have their
intervals filled with shell of the same nature, but of a
different texture. The valves are joined by parallel
laminae, or plates, which project from the edge, and,
closing over each other, connect these parts together,
and form as it were a single shell. In very young shells
the cone appears on all sides smooth and even, but as
the animal within increases in size, it presses against the
walls of its habitation, and thus gradually opens the
sutures and enlarges the cavity. It is this separation
which gives to the valves their triangular appearance,
and which may be readily observed in the old shells
of the common species, so abundant on the backs of
oysters, &c. According to Bruguiere, the upper part of
the shell never increases ; it remains always the same
as when first formed, and the augmentation of the
diameter of the opening, is the result only of the suc-
cessive developement of the lateral edges.
The operculum, or lid, which is seen on the top of
the cone, is always proportioned to the diameter of the
opening which it is designed to close. It increases with
the rest of the shell by a juxtaposition of testaceous
matter, which takes place on the inferior edges of the
pieces, or valves, of which it is composed. These
valves are articulated together by a cruciform suture,
and fixed against the interior of the shell by a circular
ligament which admits of sufficient motion for the ani-
mal to raise the lid and extend its tentacula. These ten-
tacula, when in the water, are continually moving in a
spiral direction, so as to bring the food, whatever it may
consist of, within the vortex produced by their motion.
The compressed shells, or barnacles, are often found in
groups, adhering by their flexible stems, to shipping, or
floating pieces of wood. They seem to delight in situa-
tions exposed to the strong motion of the waves, and there-
fore often place themselves near the rudder of the ship,
where the agitation of the water is most considerable.
The singular animal which these shells contain, and
which differs in nothing essential from that of the conical
shells, is furnished with a plumose fringe, divided into
twenty-six filaments, or tentacula, of different lengths :
the shortest are situated on each side of the mouth, and
do not appear on the outside of the shell. Each fila-
ment is articulated throughout its length, and from each
joint proceeds a bunch of very delicate hairs. These
tentacula, or feelers, are supported, two by two, on fleshy
pedicles. The flexible trunk with which this animal is
provided, is rather longer than the tentacula ; and the
mouth, which is placed immediately below it, is of an
oval shape, and closed by a scaly operculum. The
digestive organs are represented in the Lectures on Com-
parative Anatomy, by Sir Everard Home, vol. 2. pi. 75.
We are not acquainted with the nature of the nourish-
ment by which these animals are sustained ; but it pro-
bably consists of such minute worms, and sea insects,
as come within the reach of their feelers, for those parts
are kept very actively employed while the animal is in
search of food.
We have no particular observations on the mode by
which these flat shells increase in size ; but if we may
judge from inspection, it appears that their ligaments
separate, and that the enlargement takes place from the
curved edge of the valves. New shelly matter may
there be deposited from time to time, till the animal has
attained its full growth ; and in this case the extremities
of the shell, that is, the summit of the small valves, and
the lower angle of the large, will be the oldest parts.
The thin curved valve in front, will at the same time be
The name of Lepas which Linnaeus has adopted for
this genus, was given by the ancients to the Patella, or
limpet. Aristotle, from the resemblance which some of
them bear to acorns, has very properly called them
Bccxavoi ; and Athenaeus tells us that, when large, they are
easily digested, and of an agreeable taste.
At fidhaVOt C&, El (AEl£oVE$, EVEKKplTOl fCOU EUffTOfAOt.
Athen. L. 3. c. 11. p. 88.
JBalani nigri et albi, are mentioned among the dishes
served up at the famous supper of Lucullus; and the
Chinese at this day are said to be fond of the Bell acorn,
Lepas tintinabulum, which, when boiled, is not in taste
unlike the lobster.
* With Cylindrical Shells.
PL 4*. fig. 1, 2, 3. Dr. Coombe.
1. Lepas Tracheaeformis. L. testa tubulosa, striata, utrinque truncata ;
costis transversis crebris : operculo quadrivalvi.
Shell tubular, striated, truncated at both ends; closely ribbed trans-
versely : operculum of four valves.
Tubicinella. Lamark Ann. du Mus. D'Hist. Nat. 1. p. 461. pi. 30.
f. 1, 2.
This singular shell consists of a cylindrical tube
somewhat bent, and narrowing a little towards the base.
It is open at bottom, but the top is closed by an oper-
culum of four smooth valves, surrounded by a fleshy
collar, which connects it with the shell : both ends are
orbicular, and the sides are divided into six compart-
ments, or valves, by as many smooth and narrow bands
The ribs on the outside of the shell are very strong, and
have sometimes smaller ones between them. The shell
is of a cellular substance, regularly striated longitudi-
nally. It is of a tawny colour, with a white inside.
We are indebted to Lamark for an account of this
shell, which he published in the Annales du Museum
D'Histoire Naturelle, and has described it as a new
genus, by the name of Tubicinella. That it is clearly a
multivalve composed of six uniform portions, and not a
univalve shell, as stated in his generic character, will be
immediately perceived upon inspection ; we have there-
fore removed it to its proper situation, and placed it at
the head of a genus to which it strictly belongs.
Lamark notices two shells which he thinks may be
varieties of each other, but is willing at the same time to
distinguish them specifically, by the names of major
and minor. They in fact differ merely in the situation
of the rings, which in some shells, as fig. 3, are farther
apart than in others, and the shell is occasionally some-
These curious productions inhabit the back of the
South Sea whale, where they bury themselves in the
skin and fat. Dufresne, in a memoir which is a
continuation of that of Lamark, observes that the
animal, independent of its other parts, is furnished
with a collar lightly striated, which secretes the
testaceous matter for the formation of the rings. This
collar, always remains visible between the sides of the
shell and the operculum, see fig. 1. In proportion as
new rings are formed, the animal buries its shell
deeper in the fat of the whale, insomuch that two rings
are all that are at any time visible above the skin, the
rest of the shell being firmly secured in its situation by
the help of its annulated surface. The animal when
it projects above the operculum shows a fleshy neck,
through which proceed the' tentacula. This neck is
seen in fig. 2. These shells are generally about an inch
long, but as their growth is progressive, depending upon
their age, they have been found of three times the usual
length. A group of them is represented at fig. 2, to
show their natural situation in the whale.
The fine specimens of this shell, for which the 1 author
is indebted to Dr. Coombe, were not procured till after
plate 4 was printed : it has therefore been necessary to
distinguish this plate by an asterisk, as it must be
placed, in order, at the head of the genus.
** With Conical Shells.
PL 4. Mrs. Robinson.
£. Lepas Diadema. L. testa subconica, lobis sex elevatis quadripartite s,
operculo membrdnaceo bidentato. Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 550. No. 3024.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3208. Fabric. Fr. Groenl. p. 425.
Shell subconic, with six raised four-parted valves ; operculum membra-
naceous and bidentate.
Testa subrotunda, sexlobata, sulcata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1108.
Balanus, testa subcylindrica, valvulis longitudinaliter sulcatiSi costis
decussatis, radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat.
torn. 6. p. 171.
Pediculus ceti. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 7.
Lister, Conch, t. 445. f. 288. Gualt. Test. 1. 106. f. Q. Wakh. Naturf.
8. t. 4. f. a. b* c. Born, Mus. C<es. Test. 1. 1. f. 5, 6. Da Costa, Brit.
Conch, p. 251. t. 17. f. 2. Encycl. Method. pL 165. f. 13, 14. Donov.
Br. Shells, t. 56. f. 1, 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 13. Linn. Trans. 8.
The Lepas Diadema is composed of six valves, which,
with their intermediate spaces, divide the shell into
twelve, unequal, triangular compartments. Six of these
divisions are formed of strong longitudinal ribs, from
four to six in number, which diverge from the apex
towards the base of the shell, and are striated trans-
versely. The other compartments, though they have a
polished surface, are finely striated. The interior is
funnel-shaped, being much wider at top than at bot-
tom; it exhibits six divisions, formed by as many
bands, which correspond with the external valves. The
bottom is divided into eighteen striated partitions, which
project a little within the opening of the shell, and are
finely toothed, for the purpose of adhering more firmly
to the back of the whale. These divisions are generally
vol. I. D
filled with the black skin of the animal, as may be seen
in the lower figure of pi. 4.
The operculum, as Muller and Fabricius have ob-
served, is membranous, and terminates in two teeth, or
small valves. The shell is of a dirty white colour, with
sometimes a greenish tinge, and the bands within side
are darker than the rest of the body. Large shells of
this species are an inch and a half high, and two inches
wide at the base. They are found in the North seas,
adhering firmly to the whale, and their general situation
is in the furrows of the skin above the base of the pec-
toral fins. It is often found on the shores of Scotland,
but very rarely in the southern parts of this kingdom.
The eared barnacles, Lepas aurita, which Ellis has
figured on the top of this species, have led some authors
to suppose that the animal resembles a cluster of small
hooded serpents, issuing from the aperture and openings
on the ribs of the shell. A little attention to circum-
stances would have prevented this mistake, since the
small openings which appear on the upper surface of
the valves in defective turban shells, have no communi-
cation with the inner chamber, and are very insufficient
for the passage of so large a body as Ellis has repre-
Plate 4 represents the perfect shell ; the top figure is a
side view, the middle shows the interior, and the lower
figure the base of the shell, or that part which adheres
to the skin of the whale. Chemnitz has figured the
perfect shell correctly. Born's figure is also good, but
Gualtieri has not been so successful. Lister, Klein,
Da Costa, and Donovan, have figured worn shells, that
is, with the ends of the valves open at top, and showing
the three cells within.
Muller's definition of the L. Diadema is perfectly cor-
rect, except that the word subcylindrica would have
been more appropriate than subconica.
PL 5./. 1, 2, S. Dr. Coombe.
3. Lepas balsenaris. L. testa subconica, valvulis sex elevatis, longitudi-
Shell somewhat conic, with six raised valves, grooved longitudinally.
Wrinkled star cake. Petiv. Amb. Icon. t. 1. f. 11.
Rumph. Mus. t. 14. f. H. Walch. Naturg. 10. t. 1. f. 11, 12. Chem.
Conch. 8. t. 99. f. 845, 846.
Shell of six valves, grooved longitudinally and stria-
ted transversely : intermediate spaces showing the con-
necting sutures on one side, and ending in a point at
the base of the shell. Valves grooved regularly in
young shells, but often distorted in old ones. Height
about an inch, aperture at top half an inch, diameter
across the bottom one inch and three quarters.
This shell is evidently a distinct species, and not, as
has been supposed, a variety only of the preceding. It
has a much smaller opening ; the interior is not funnel-
shaped ; the valves in full-grown shells, are not so pro-
minent ; the intermediate spaces are narrower, and the
six divisions which correspond with them beneath, are
ramified, as expressed in fig. 3. The specimen of the
Lepas balcenaris represented by Dufresne, in the first
vol. of the Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, if
intended for a young shell, is too convex ; if for an old
one, too regular. He professes to have acquired his
knowledge of this species from Hunter's Museum,
where he says, that many of these shells are sunk in the
fat of the whale, and preserved in spirits. That there
are twenty-five of the L. Diadema in this situation, is
certainly true ; but in what part of the Museum he per-
ceived the L. balcenaris grouped in a similar manner,
we are at a loss to discover.
Dufresne's figure has a quadrivalve operculum, sur-
rounded by a ligament which connects it with the
shell. If this be correct, (and he tells us he furnished
the artist with a shell for the purpose,) it will at
once mark the distinction between this and the pre-
ceding species, which has an operculum of two small
valves only, surrounded by membrane.
The Li. balcenaris buries itself to a certain depth ia
the skin of the whale, and when the shell is separated
from the animal, it will be partly covered with a portion
of the skin, which gives it a black and resinous appear-
ance. It may, however, be readily cleaned of this mat-
ter ; but the line of separation always remains visible,
and may be seen in figure 1 and 2, encircling the shell
towards the upper part.
The dissimilarity in appearance between fig. 1 and 2,
may possibly lead to the supposition that they are
distinct species, but it is age alone which makes the
alteration, fig. 2 being a young shell.
PL 5./. 4. Mrs. Robinson.
4. Lepas testudinaria. L. testa plano-convexa, radiis sex excavatis
striatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3209.
Shell plano-convex, with six hollow, striated, rays.
Lepas testudinaria, testa suborbiculari, plano-convexa Icevi, intus lamellis
serrulatis, areis excavatis transverse sulcatis. Born, Mus. Cues. p. 5.
— ejusd. Testae. Mus. Cces. p. 10.
Balanus ovatus, subdepresso conicus, sulcis sextriquetris excavatis,
superne stellatis. Gron. Zooph. Fasc. 3. p. 257.
Verruca testudinaria. Rumph. Mus. t. 40. f, K.
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol 50. t. 34. f. 12. Gault. Test. t. 106. f. M. N. O.
Knorr. Vergn.3.t. 30. f. 3, 4. Favanne, t. 59. f. A.4. A. 5. Chem.
Conch. 8. t. 99. f. 847, 848. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 15, 16.
This shell is of an oval shape, and convex ; the sur-
face is white, smooth, and composed of six uniform tri-
angular valves, which are separated from each other by
as many excavated rays ; these rays are striated trans-
versely, and sometimes grooved in the same direction.
The opening in the upper surface of the shell is oval,
and partly closed by a quadrivalve, convex operculum,
connected by ligament. The shell beneath, in its recent
state, according to Plancus, has a coriaceous membrane,
which supplies the place of the testaceous base, with
which the conical species are, for the most part, provi-
ded. This membrane is never preserved in cabinet spe-
cimens. The opening of the shell beneath is much
larger than above, and the thick walls are formed of
numerous vertical laminae, radiating from the centre
towards the circumference. These laminae are striated
on both sides, and finely serrated on the edge. The
specimen figured in pi. 5, is a young shell, and is there-
fore without those indentations on the edges of the exca-
vated rays, which occur in those of more advanced age.
There is something very singular in the locality of
particular shells. The L. testudinaria is found only on
the turtle ; it is not known on the whale, though it is by
no means confined to particular seas. It is said to be
common on the backs of turtles in the Mediterranean.
Petiver mentions it on those of the Isle of Ascension,
and Rumphius on the turtles of the southern coasts of
Amboina. The L. diadema, on the contrary, confines
itself to the whale ; it is never seen in any other situa-
tion, though it might with equal ease take up its abode
elsewhere. Again, the L. testudinaria is careful to fix
itself on the most convex part of the turtle-shell, where
it can remain in security, beyond the reach of the ani-
mal's fins. These habits, which are independent of all
instruction, can be referred only to that instinct which
pervades every part of animated nature, and which
seems to be impressed upon the constitution of even the
most insignificant being.
PL 6./. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby.
5. Lepas tintinnabulum. L. testa conica obtusa ritgosa. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 12. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3208.
Shell conic, obtuse, and rugged.
Balanus, testa purpurascenti gibba, longitudinaliter striata, operculo
postice rostrato, radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist.
Nat. torn. 6. p. 165.
Lepas tulipa, testa subcubica Icevi, operculis acutis transversim striatis.
Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 251.
Lister, Conch, t. 443. f. 385. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 8, 9.
D'Argenv. Conch, t. 26. f. A. B. Favanne, t. 59. A. Hutch. Dorset.
p, 25. t. 1. f. 5. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 828—831. Donov. Br.
Shells, t. 148. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 10. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 25.
/3. Tulipa alba. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 832.
This shell is composed of six unequal valves con-
nected together, as usual, by a scaly suture, the edges
of which appear finely crenated in the interior of the
shell. The opening is large, and nearly triangular.
The operculum consists of four valves, two of which
are very large, and marked with projecting transverse
stride. A longitudinal furrow divides them from each
other, and they are terminated by two conical prolonga-
tions, with sharp points, which form the other valves.
The exterior of the shell is a cone, divided into six raised
and six depressed compartments; the raised divisions
are rough, and striated longitudinally ; the depressed
divisions are smooth and finely striated transversely.
The shell is found of various sizes, from half an inch to
three inches in height, and with a base in proportion ;
the colour is purple or violet, varied with brown, or
reddish, as in fig. 2.
The bell acorn is found in groups on rocks, c-r on
large shells, where more than fifty have been found
united in a single cluster. They have been observed in
the European ocean, on the coast of Denmark, in the
Indian seas, and on the coasts of Amboina and Jamaica.
They are often attached in such abundance to the bot-
toms of vessels from foreign countries, that many hun-
dreds have been taken from a single ship.
It is strange, that this Lepas still continues to be
admitted into the catalogue of British shells, since it is
evidently an inhabitant of warm climates, and brought
to us only by accident. It is never found alive upon
the English coast, and we therefore cannot with pro-
priety naturalize the species. No one thinks of calling
a Chinese an Englishman because he often visits oar
country ; and yet the only difference, in this particular.
between the shell and the man, is that one is a passen-
ger on the outside of the vessel, and the other within.
The figure given by Chemnitz under the name of
Tulipa alba, is merely a white variety of this shell. It is
remarkable for its size, which is very considerable, but
differs in no other respect. This white variety has been
dredged up in the neighbourhood of the Feroe Islands,
at the depth of forty fathoms. The want of colour is
probably owing to its situation in the deep, for why
should not the colour of shells, like that of plants,
depend on the influence of the rays of light? Those
which are naturally coloured, may lose much of their
beauty when they grow at too great a depth, and
become quite white when they are wholly beyond the
reach of the solar rays.
The figures of this shell by Gualtieri are very indif-
Gmelin's L. tulipa, p. 3209, No. 9, and L. cylindrica,
p. 3213, No. 25, are repetitions of this species.
PL 6. /. 3. Mr. Sowerby.
G. Lepas Scotica. L. testa sexvalvi, conica; valvulis longitudinaliter
Shell conic, of six valves; valves ribbed longitudinally.
This species, which was found in Scotland fixed to the
Mytilus Modiolus, has six raised unequal, triangular
valves, ribbed longitudinally, and striated at the base
transversely. The operculum resembles that of the
L. Tintinabulum. The shell is of a sordid white colour,
tending to greenish.
PL 6./. 4. Dr. Coombe.
7. Lepas rugosa. L. testa subcylindrica, operculis acutissimis. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 25. t. 1. f. 5.
Shell somewhat cylindrical ; operculum very sharp-pointed.
Lepas borealis. Donov. Br. Shells, 1. 160.
Balauus rugosus. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 25. t. 2. f. 10. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 8.
This shell has six triangular valves, so far separated
at top as to leave the aperture almost as wide as the
base. The aperture is of a rhomboidal shape, with the
inside margin ridged transversely. The valves within
are strongly grooved longitudinally. The shell exter-
nally is nearly smooth, and of a whitish colour lightly
stained with purple.
The specimen figured in pi. 6 is foreign ; but it is
described as a British shell by Mr. Montagu, who
found it with irregular compartments, wrinkled or stria-
ted longitudinally. The operculum has four rough
angulated valves, terminating in four distinct points,
PI. 6. f. 5. Mrs. Mawe.
8. Lepas angustata. L. testa elongata leevi sexvalvi, apertura angusta,
operculo minimo. Linn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3212.
Shell elongated, smooth, of six valves; the aperture narrow; opercu-
lum very small.
Balanus perforatus, B. testa semi-ovata, longitudinaliter striata, violacea,
apertura coarctata minima, radiis filiformibus. Brug. Encyclop.
Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 167.
Lepas ore angustiore, apertura coarctata. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 835.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 12.
This shell is of a very conical shape, owing to the
valves being united at top, and not separated, as usual,
by a broad triangular compartment. A narrow line is
all that distinguishes the divisions of the valves. The
shell is striped with violet, and often tipped with a
deeper tint of the same colour. The opening is very
small. The operculum is of four valves striated trans-
versely ; the two posterior valves are pointed.
This Lepas is found in very considerable clusters,
fixed on other shells. It occurs in the Mediterranean,
on the coast of Barbary, and, according to Bruguiere,
on the coast of Senegal.
9. Lepas conoides. L. testa conica lam, valvulis acuminatis, apertura
angustissima. Donov. Br. Shells, pi. 30, f. 3.
Shell conic, smooth, the valves pointed, aperture very small.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 12. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24.
The L. conoides, as figured by Donovan, is very like
the preceding species, but may be distinguished by its
transverse striae, which are wanting in the L. angustata.
The shell is of a violet colour, and the valves are but
slightly separated at top. It is an English species, and
was discovered by Mr. Bryer, of Weymouth, adhering
to the L. anatifera.
PL 7. /. 3.
10. Lepas Balanus. L. testa conica sulcata, operculis acuminatis. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1107. Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3207.
Shell conic and grooved : operculum sharp pointed.
Balanus sulcatus. B. testa conica truncata longitudinaliter sulcata,
radiis transverse slriatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6.
Lister, An. Ang. t. 5. f. 41. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 17.
. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. t. 40. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 820.
Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 249. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 30. f. 1.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 6.
Shell of six valves, rugged at the edges : aperture not
large in proportion to the shell, which spreads much at
the base. Valves striated, sometimes sulcated longitu-
dinally. Operculum of four pointed valves, the two
smallest projecting beyond the others, which are trans-
versely striated, and divided by a longitudinal furrow.
Colour white, or greenish, or cinereous brown. Size
various, from a pea to a filbert.
This species is found in clusters adhering to the
rocks on the coasts of Great Britain. It is common
also on the Greenland shore, and in the Mediterranean;
and will probably be met with on the rocky coasts of
most parts of the world. It has often been confounded
with the following species, from which however it is
Pennant's fig. 3, of pi. 40. ed. 1812, is a variety only
of this shell.
PI 7. /. 1.
11. Lepas balanoides. L. testa conica truncaia Icevi, operculis obtusis,
Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3207.
Shell conical, truncated, smooth : operculum obtuse.
Balanns, testa subcylindrica laevigata; apertura dilatata; radiis in-
sculptis Icevibus. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 164.
Lister, Conch, t. 444. f. 287. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 826. and 98.
f. 833. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. t. 40. f. 2. Da Costa, Brit.
Conch, p. 248. t. 17. f. 7. Donov. Br. Shells, t. 36. f. 2, 3. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 7. Ziww. Trans. 8. p. 24.
A much smoother shell than the preceding : the com-
partments divided by a longitudinal furrow; and the
valves sometimes deeply sulcated at the base : points of
the valves generally directed one way, and ending in a
beak. Operculum of four valves, the two upper of
which are slightly striated, transversely, the others are
quite smooth. Colour whitish. Size, at the base, from
one quarter to three quarters of an inch ; height, from a
quarter to half an inch.
This is a very common shell on rocky coasts, and is
found in abundance adhering to almost every fixed
substance between high and low water mark. It occurs
generally in clusters, and is frequent on oyster and other
shells, and on the back of lobsters. It inhabits Europe,
America, and India ; and, if looked for, will most pro-
bably be found also on the coast of Africa.
The shell represented by Chemnitz, in vol. 8. pi. 97.
f. 824. is a remarkable variety of the L. balanoides,
The author has a specimen nearly like it, seated on the
back of the Nerita Catena, but it has not quite so much
of the tulip shape.
PL 7. /. 2. Mr. Sower by.
12. Lepas clavata. L. testa clavata elongata ; operculis obtusis.
Shell club-shaped, elongated ; operculum obtuse.
Lepas elongata. L. testa cylindrica nivea, pellucida seocvalvi suprafissa;
operculo obtuso sulcata transversim striato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3203.
Balanus fistulosus. B. testa tubulosa elongata striata, valvulis superne
dehiscentibus, apertura patula. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat.
torn. 6. p. 166.
Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. A. t. 40. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 838.
Schroter der Berl. Naturf. 5. t. 5. f. 2. Journ. 4. t. 2. f. 2.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 7, 8. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 26.
Balanus clavatus. Ellis, Zooph. p. 198. t. 15. f. 7, 8. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 10.
A tubular club-shaped shell, from one inch, to two
and a half, or three inches long. The exterior is striated,
rough, and sometimes tuberculated. The aperture is
large, and divided into six parts, by as many unequal
valves, three of which are wider than the others. The
operculum is composed of four valves obliquely striated.
The colour of the shell is white, sometimes greenish.
This species bears a very strong resemblance to the
L. balanoides, when that shell happens to be elongated,
as it is occasionally found. See Donovan, pi. 36. f. 3.
It is often observed in large clusters so wedged together
that the summits only of the shells can be distin-
guished. It inhabits Iceland, and the northern parts of
Europe ; was brought from Newfoundland by Sir
Joseph Banks ; and has been taken by dredging in the
sea at Weymouth, but is by no means a common shell
on the British coasts.
13. Lepas punctata. L. testa conica, truncata punctata; operculis
obtusis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24.
Shell conical, truncated, and punctured ; operculum obtuse.
Balanus punctatus. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 25. t. 1. f. 10. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 8. t. 1. f. 5.
This is described by Mr. Montagu as a distinct
species, that may be readily known by its dull brown
colour, by its rugose appearance, and especially by the
operculum, which is punctured like a thimble. He
observed it in abundance on the south coast of Devon*
shire, clustered on the Patella vulgata, and on the rocks
near high water mark. Dr. Pulteney, who doubts its
specific distinction, says that it differs from the large
and most perfect specimens of the common acorn only
by being punctured like a thimble.
The L. cornubiensis, of Pennant, is probably this shell.
14. Lepas costata. L. testa subconica; operculis acutis. Donov. Br.
Shells, t. 30. f. 2.
Shell somewhat conic : operculum sharp pointed.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 11. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24.
A very pretty species of a white colour, and about
half an inch in diameter. The valves are indistinct. It
has elevated ribs diverging regularly from the aperture
to the base, and was discovered by the late Mr. Adams,
adhering to some pieces of broken rock on the coast of
15. Lepas spongiosa. L. testa sexvalvi, conica; valvulis acuminatis,
Shell of six valves, conic ; valves sharp pointed and spiny.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 2. pi. 17. f. 4, 5, 6.
We are indebted to Mr. Montagu for the knowledge
of this curious species of Lepas. It has six wrinkled,
spiny, sharp-pointed valves, the three anterior of which
are broader and shorter than the others. The base of
the shell is flat and concentrically wrinkled. There is
a singular appendage to this base, which is unknown in
any other species of the genus. It is a little cup,
rounded at the bottom, and fixed by a ligament to the
circumference of the base. This cup is hollow within,
and, according to Mr. Montagu, exactly resembles the
Patella antiquata inverted. It is an appendage inde-
pendent of the rest of the shell, with which it has no
communication internally. The operculum has four
valves, the anterior pair rough with decussated striae,
the posterior pair longer and a little hooked forward.
The colour is livid-brown with a purple tint towards the
point of the summit.
Inhabits a particular species of sponge, in which it
is found so inclosed that no part of the shell is visible,
except the points of the operculum. Several of this
species were found by Mr. Bryer of Weymouth, in
16. Lepas galeata. L. testa galeata apertura laterali. Linn. Gmel.
Shell helmet-shaped, with a lateral aperture.
Balanus, testa obliquata conica, basi subinfundibuliformi superne mar-
ginata, apertura laterali. Brug. Encyl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6
Lepas calceolus. Pal. Zooph. p. 198. Schroter Einl. in die Conch. 3.
p. 318. N. 7. t. 9. f. 20. a. b. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 7, 8.
This shell is of a very singular shape. It appears to
be composed of two oblique cones with their bases
resting upon each other, but does not bear much resem-
blance either to a helmet or a slipper. The base by
which it fixes itself is hollow, and the edges are sharply
carinated. It has six unequal valves ; the three anterior
are the largest and situated obliquely, the others are
perpendicular, and much shorter : the aperture is placed
behind, and has a striated operculum of four valves.
The upper part of the shell has a tendency to violet
colour, the base is cinereous.
This species seems to attach itself particularly to
corallines. Pallas found it on the stems of the Gorgo-
nia verrucosa in the Mediterranean ; Schroter on the
G. Flabellum, which grows in the Indian seas, and Bru-
guiere, enveloped in the horny substance of different
corallines of the same genus, from the Asiatic ocean.
17. Lepas Psittacus. L. testa posterius adltnca sexvalvi rugosa. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3212. Molin. Hist. Nat. Chil. p. 179.
Shell of six valves, hooked behind, and wrinkled.
This is an obscure species, mentioned by Molini,
and found in clusters on the coast of Chili. It ad-
heres to rocks. The two larger valves resemble a par-
rot's bill : the flesh is white, tender, and palatable.
From the account which Molini gives of this shell, it
appears to be a variety of the L. Tintinnabulum rather
than a distinct species.
PI. 7. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby.
18. Lepas spinosa. L. testa conica, areis duodecim triangularibus : sex
depressioribus minoribus albidis transversim striatis, sex pvrpureis
longitudinaliter striatis, spinisque tubuhsis recurvis armatis. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3213.
Shell conic, with twelve triangular compartments : the six smaller ones
depressed whitish and transversely striated, the other six purple,
striated longitudinally, and armed with tubular recurved spines.
Balanus, testa subcylindrica, valvulis incequalibus quadrifariam spinosis,
radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn.
6. p. 167.
Davila Catal. torn. 1. p. 402. t. 6. f. N. Favanne Conch, t. 59. f. A. 1.
Schrot. n. Litter at. 1. p. 430. t. 2. f. 10. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98.
f. 840. fy t. 99. f. 841. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 9, 10.
This shell is generally of a reddish or purple colour
on the outside, and white within; though it varies in
this respect, being sometimes of a pale grey, and even
whitish all over. The internal substance of the valves
is very porous: the operculum consists of four thin
triangular valves, striated transversely.
VOL. I. e
The large specimen, fig. 4, is an old shell of the same
species, which has lost its spines, except the rudiments
of one or two that still remain on its upper surface.
The two young shells fixed on i(s side were probably
from eggs ejected by the parent.
PL 7. /. 6. Mrs. Mawe.
19. Lepas minor. L. testa rubicunda sexvalvi incequivatvi, opercuh
acuminato. Linn. GmeL p. 3212.
Shell of six unequal valves, reddish ; operculum sharp- pointed.
Balonus, testa conica, transverse striata albo punctata, radiis lavibus,
operculo postice bicorni. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6.
Lepas tulipa minor, apertura angustiore quam basi. Chem. Conch, 8.
t. 97. f. 827. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 14.
A conic shell, with a pointed beak and six smooth
unequal valves, the two nearest the beak being much
smaller than the rest. Valves marked longitudi-
nally with faint reddish lines, and concentrically with
white. The union of the lines gives the upper part of
the shell, when magnified, a whitish dotted appearance.
Some shells are quite white.
This species inhabits the Indian seas, and is generally
of a flesh colour inclining to violet.
PI. 7.f. 7. Mr. Sowerby.'
20. Lepas radiata. L. testa sexvalvi Icevi, exterius violacea longitudi-
Shell of six valves, smooth, marked with longitudinal violet rays.
This is a small thick shell, about five-eighths of an
inch broad at the base, and a quarter of an inch high.
The valves are triangular and painted with violet rays,
which are close together at the apex, but more open at
the circumference : the intermediate compartments are
highly polished, and very finely striated transversely.
Many of these shells were found fixed to the bottom
of a ship. Their country is unknown.
21. Lepas palmipes. L. testa erecta conica, valvulis basis palmatis.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3209. Mant. pi. 2. p. 544.
Shell erect and conic ; valves palmate at the base.
A white shell, the size of a large pea, smooth, and
somewhat depressed : the valves are divided from the
base as far as the middle, into five or six fingered seg-
ments : the operculum is obtuse and four valved. The
digitated divisions of the valves are irregular, and not
unlike the fangs of the molar teeth.
Inhabits the ocean, but what part is not mentioned.
PI. 8./. 1, 2, 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby.
22. Lepas crispata. L. testa ovali truncata conica, areis sex carulescen-
tibus albo obumbratis, sea aliis elevatis rubellis spinosis perpendicula-
riter striatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214.
Shell oval truncated and conic, with six bluish valves shaded with white,
and six reddish valves spinous and striated perpendicularly.
Balanus crispatus. B. testa conica truncata, valvulis apicenudis, inferne
muricato crispatis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6.
Schroter Einl. in Conch. 3. t. 9. f. 21. Favanne Conch, t. 59. f. A. 9,
Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 11.
This shell, for the knowledge of which we are in-
deb ted to a learned German conchologist,M. Schroter, is
about an inch high, and an inch and a half broad at the
base. It has six raised and six depressed compart-
ments ; the former are very rugged, and resemble the
rough bark of a tree ; they are violet at top and greenish
towards the base : the latter are of a more uniform
violet colour, shining, and striated transversely. The
opening is nearly triangular; and the operculum,
according to Schroter, is composed of four valves, the
two anterior of which are striated obliquely. The base
of the shell is singular ; it is formed of a series of
striated laminae with serrated edges. These laminae are
irregular; the outer edge is flexuous, and the general
appearance of the base is not unlike a Madrepore.
This shell was found by Mr. Sowerby, fixed to the
bottom of a vessel in the Thames. It has several small
specimens of the L. porcata on its sides, which were
purposely omitted in the plate. Fig. 3. and 4. repre-
sent the same shell in a young state, in which, without
particular attention, it may be mistaken for a distinct
species. Favanne has figured a young shell. The
French have copied Schroter.
PL 8. /. 5. Mr. Sowerby.
23. Lepas porcata. L. testa conica, longitudinaliter porcata, violacea,
Shell conic, ridged longitudinally, of a violet colour, with a somewhat
This shell has six unequal valves, strongly ridged
longitudinally. The colour is violet, much deeper in
the furrows than on the ridges. Ridges, in the spe-
cimen figured, very irregular. Depressed compart-
ments narrow and smooth. Base testaceous.
It does not appear that this shell has been hitherto
described, though it is not a very rare species. The
Lepas from the East Indies with violet rays, which
Chemnitz has represented, vol. 8. pi. 99. fig. 842. bears
a strong resemblance to the L. porcata, but is not the
Specimens of a regular bell shape and more uni-
formly ridged, occur in the Museum of the Linnaean
24. Lepas violacea. L. testa crassa, glabra, sexvalvi alba, radiis violaceis.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3213. .
Shell thick, smooth, of six valves, white with violet rays.
Balanus radiatus. B. testa conica longitudinaliter sulcata, lineis vio-
laceis picta, radiis Icevibus. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat.
t. 6. p. 168.
Lepas Indite Orientalis ex violacea radiata. Chem. Conch, torn. 8. pi. 99.
f. 842. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. fig. 15.
This is described by Chemnitz as a conical shell with
a large oval base. It has six unequal valves grooved
longitudinally and rayed with violet in the same direc-
tion. The intermediate compartments are smooth and
without striae : the opening is oval, a little compressed
behind: the operculum is quadrivalve and striated
transversely : the two posterior valves of the operculum
are pointed. The shell is of a clear violet colour with
lines of a deeper tint. It inhabits the Indian ocean.
Bruguiere considers this as a very rare species, not to
be found in any collection in Paris,
25. Lepas patellaris. L. testa sexvalvi, exterius violaceo albo mista, sub-
tiliter longitudinaliter striata, intus falcata, valvis margine denticu-
latis. Linn. Gmtl. p. 3213.
Shell of six valves; the outside violet mixed with white and finely
striated lengthways ; inside hooked ; valves toothed at the margin.
Balanus patelliformis. B. testa depressa, costis quinis radiatis angulata,
apertura subpentagona. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6.
Spengl. Schr. Naturf. torn. 1 . pi. 5. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 8. pi. 98. f. 839.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 3.
This species so strongly resembles the Astrolepas of
Argenville, Patella saccharina Linn., that it would be
difficult to distinguish it, but for its central aperture.
It is a compressed cone with six valves, articulated as
in the other species, and five prominent angles, forming
as it were a pentagonal star. The mouth of the shell
is only the tenth part of an inch wide, though the base
measures nearly an inch in its greatest diameter. The
operculum has not been noticed. The shell is of a
brown colour variegated with whitish streaks.
The specimen which Spengler obtained, and figured,
was strongly attached to the branch of a tree from the
coast of Coromandel.
26. Lepas hemispherica. L. testa convexa, valvulis sex eequalibus,
trilobis, operculo convexo quadripartito.
Shell convex with six equal three-lobed valves: operculum convex and
Balanus hemisphericus. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6.
p. 170. Ibid. Art. Vers. pi. 165. f. 4, 5, 6.
This is a small species described by Bruguiere from
some specimens attached to a muscle shell, and brought
from the coast of Africa by Poiret. The largest are
three lines in diameter at the base, and a line and a half
high. The shell has six valves, each divided into three
channels, the deepest in the middle. The valves are
separated by six rays, as straight as a thread. The
aperture is oval ; the operculum convex and quadri-
valve : when magnified the valves appear striated. The
colour of the shell is white.
Bruguiere refers to Chemnitz, vol. 8. t. 98. f. 833, for
his shell, but it bears so slight a resemblance to the
figure in the Encyclop. Method, that we are not dis-
posed to consider it as the same.
PL 9. /. 1, 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe.
27. Lepas purpurascens. L. testa subconica, purpurea, rugosa, cellulosa ;
valvulis quatuor: apertura subangulata coarctata.
Shell subconic, purple, rough and cellular : valves four ; aperture nar-
row and rather angular.
The valves of this shell are so firmly united to each
other, that the line of separation is seldom apparent,
and the cone in consequence seems uniform. This is
the case with fig. 3. in which state the shell is usually
found, and it must be remarked that it appears flat in
the plate, owing to the position of the eye, which is
looking down upon the figure in order to see the size
and shape of the aperture. Figure 1. is an instance
more rarely met with, where the valves are separated
and show the four depressed compartments. The con-
necting sutures appear so strong, that it must require
great force to disunite them. The shell is tipped with
dark purple with a light wash of the same towards the
base, which is greenish. The walls are very thick and
perfectly cellular, as represented in fig. 2. It is a
rugged shell at at all times, but more particularly so
when the valves are separated. Inhabits the South seas.
PL 9. /. 4. Dr. Coombe.
28. Lepas porosa. L. testa granulato striata, conica, tubulosa ; operculo
obtuso. Linn. Gmel. p. 3212.
Shell with granulate striae, conic, tubular : the lid obtuse.
Balanus squamosus. B. testa conica, cellulosa, extus squamis oblongis
adpressis vestita, apertura subrotunda coarctata. Brug. EncycL
Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 170.
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. p. 852. pi. 34. f. 1 1. Schroter, Journ. 4.
pi. 2. f. 6. Favanne, Conch, pi. 59. f. A. 7. Chem. Conch. 8. pi. 98.
f. 836, 837. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 9, 10.
This species forms a regular cone, with the base
nearly twice the diameter of its height. The surface is
covered with linear excrescences, which are tubular
and terminate in openings at the base of the shell.
Like the preceding species it has four valves, which are
so closely connected together that no vestige of union
appears, except on the inside. The aperture is roundish,
and larger in proportion than in the preceding species.
The valves are thick and full of cells. The colour is
whitish or cinereous, and the size from that of the
figure to more than twice the diameter.
PL 9. /. 5. Mr. Gibbs.
29. Lepas Verruca. L. testa quadrivalvi, depressiuscula, operculis
indistinctis plicatis^ valvulis intertextis striatis.
Shell of four valves, somewhat depressed, operculum obscure and
pleated ; valves interlaced and striated.
Lepas Verruca. Linn. Gmel. p. 3212.
Balanus, testa depressa oblique lamelloso-striata, apertura subquadrata,
operculo bivalvi. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 169.
Spengl. Schr. Bert. Naturf. 1. pi. 5. f. I, 2, 3, 5. Da Costa, Brit.
Conch, p. 250. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. pi. 41. Chem. Conch.
8. pi. 98. f. 834. Eneyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 16, 17. Donov.
Brit. Shells, pi. 36. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 12. Linn. Trans. 8.
A compressed subcorneal shell, greatly resembling a
wart, and very unlike every other species of the genus.
The valves are strongly ribbed and interlace with each
other ; aperture oblique and closed by an operculum,
which, according to Bruguiere, is of two valves, but so
obscure as not to be distinguished except in live shells.
It is a very small species, being seldom more than a
quarter of an inch in diameter; was first noticed as
British, by Pennant; and is found on shells, stones, and
other substances. It has also been brought from Ice-
land, and from Cape Horn.
Bruguiere describes this shell as having three valves
only, but Mr. George Sowerby has examined the species
with great attention, and discovered a fourth valve
which escaped the notice of the French Naturalist.
These valves are represented in pi. 9, surrounding the
30. Lepas Stroemia. L. conico-convexa, valvis quatuor serrato-striatis ;
operculo bivalvi. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214. Muller. Zool. Dan. 3. p. 21.
t. 94. f. 1. 4. -~ Prodr. No. 3025.
Shell conico-convex, with four saw-striated valves : operculum of two
This species, which is named by Muller after the
Rev. Mr. Stroem, inhabits the Norwegian seas.
31. Lepas cariosa. L. testa solida, alba, depressa, sulcato cariosa, intus
incequali Icevi. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214.
Shell solid, white, depressed, with carious grooves ; within smooth and
Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop. 2. p. 240. t. 6. f. 24. A. B.
A rude shell with the appearance of being much
worn and perforated in several parts. About two
inches and a quarter in diameter. Inhabits the Kurile
Islands. Mentioned only by Pallas.
There is a very small species of Lepas described and
figured in the new edition of the British Zoology, under
the name of Lepas convexula. It is found on rocks
and limpets on the coast of Anglesey, and is little more
than the twentieth of an inch in diameter. Is it not the
spawn of a larger shell ?
*.** With Compressed Shells.
PL 10. /. 1. Mrs. Ma we.
32. Lepas Mitella. L. testa compresso-erecta difformiter striata. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. p. 1108. Linn. GmeL p. 3210.
Shell compressed, erect, and irregularly striated.
Anatifa Mitella. A. testa compressa, vahulis incequalibus numerosis
striatis intestino squamoso. Brng. Encycl. Method, torn. 6. p. 65.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 47. f. M. Petiver Gazoph. pi. 6. f. 10. Ellis, Phil.
Trans, vol. 50. pi. 23. f. 4. Seba. Mus. 2. pi. 61. f. 8. and 3. pi. 16.
f. 3. Favanne, pi. 59. f. B. 2. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 100. f. 849, 850.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 9.
The Lepas Mitella has eight principal valves besides
a wreath of small ones round the base of the shell :
the central valves are in pairs, corresponding exactly
with each other, but the end valves are single and
decidedly carinated. The shell is strongly striated, or
rather ridged, and where the yellow coat is removed,
appears of a polished white. It must be remarked
that the stria in general are curved, but more particu-
larly so in the two most prominent valves. The inside
is smooth and of an ivory white. The pedicle, or
stalk, when it occurs, is ab6ut an inch long, of a grey
brown colour, and covered with scales like that of the
following species but of a larger size.
This shell inhabits the Indian seas, particularly near
the Island of Amboyna. It is rare to find a good spe-
cimen in the cabinets of Natural History, and still
more rare to find it perfect with its pedicle.
The best figure of this species is by Petiver.
PL 10./. 2. Mrs. Mawe.
33. Lepas Pollicipes. L. testa compresso-erecta, multivalvi lavi ; pedun-
culo coriaceo, brevi, duro, squamoso insidente. Linn. Gmel. p. 3213.
Shell compressed, erect, many valved, smooth ; seated on a short, hard,
scaly, coriaceous foot-stalk.
Anatifa Pollicipes. A. testa compressa, valvis qvindecim et ultra levibus
difformibus, intestino granulato squamoso. Brug. Encycl. Meth.
Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 65.
Lister, Syn. Conch, t. 439. f. 281. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. p. 850.
pi. 34. f. 4. Knor. Vergn. torn. 5. pi. 13. f. 7. D Argenville,
Conch, pi. 30. f. E. ejusd. Zoom. pi. 7. f. 6. Favanne, Conch.
pi. 57. f. B. 1. item pi 74. f. G. 1. Chemn. Conch. 8. pi. 100. f. 851,
852. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 10, 11. Mont. Test. Brit.
Suppl. p. 6. pi. 28. f. 5.
This shell, like the preceding species, has eight
principal valves, besides many of a smaller size. Those
at the base are placed in a very irregular manner, and
some of them are as small as seed pearls. The four
large valves, which are smooth and of the colour and
appearance of horn, turn towards each other like the
beak of a bird. The shell in all its parts is thick and
solid; the valves are more or less convex, and connected
together by a blackish membrane.
The pedicle, or foot stalk, is thick and short, rarely
exceeding an inch and a half in length. It is of a
bluish ash-colour and studded with little points, or
scales, which give it the appearance of shagrin.
Groups of these shells, sometimes of more than
twenty in a cluster, are found in the Mediterranean,
and on the coast of Spain. They are also so abundant
on the shores of Brittany, and Normandy, that they are
sold as an article of food in the neighbouring towns and
villages, where they are boiled in water and eaten with
vinegar. Rondel etius says that they are particularly
grateful to women, and delicate persons whose excesses
have injured their appetite. Mulieres et delicatiores
homines alia fastidientes cibaria hoc eduli genere delec-
tantur, et qui veneri dediti sunt.
It is this species which the French call pouce-pied
from the resemblance it bears to the toe nail.
PL 10./. 3. Mr. SowERBY.
34. Lepas Scalpellum. L. testa compressa tredecimvalvi Iteviuscula,
pedunculo squamoso insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3210.
Shell compressed, of thirteen valves, smoothish and seated on a scaly
Anatifa Scalpellum. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. tom.6. p. 64.
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 2. item 2. a. Gualt. Test. pi. 106.
f. C. D'Argenville, Conch, t. 26. f. G. Favanne Conch, t. 59. C. 6.
Muller, Vollst. Natur. Syst. t. 6. pi. 10. f. 7. Chemn. Conch. 8.
p. 338. vignette 17. at p. 294. f. a. A. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166.
f. 7, 8. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 166. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, t. 2.
f. 8. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 18. pi. 1. f. 3. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 27.
Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. pi. 4. p. 351.
This species is composed of thirteen unequal and
irregular valves, six of which are placed on each side,
and the thirteenth forms the back. The three lower
valves are smaller than the rest, and the posterior one
projects a little at bottom into a knob, or beak. The
dorsal valve curves towards the upper part of the shell,
and terminates in a point. This curvature gives it the
pen-knife figure, and probably suggested to Linnaeus
the trivial name. The valves are connected together by
a transparent red membrane, which lines their internal
surface, and appears to be a prolongation of the pedi-
cle. The pedicle is very short, of a cylindrical shape,
and covered with short hairs.
The L. Scalpellum inhabits the North seas ; Linnaeus
observed it' on the coast of Sweden, Muller on that of
Denmark, and it also occurs, though rarely, in the British
ocean. It is never found thrown on the shore like other
shells, but is taken in the deep, and always attached to
some other body. The specimen figured in pi. 10
adheres to the lobster horn coralline, Sertularia antennina.
It is not uncommonly attached to different species of
the genus Gorgonia, and sometimes to Fuci. The
valves are often encased in extraneous matter, so that
the divisions are not visible. In this state it is repre-
sented by D'Argenville, and also by Ellis at fig. 3.
Gmelin's reference to Lister and Klein for this shell
is wrong. Lister has figured the i. Pollicipes, and
Klein, of course, has copied him.
PL 10. /. 4.
35. Lepas fascicularis. L. testa quinquevalvi Icevi, valvula dorsali basi
dilatata arigulo acuto prominente. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 30.
Shell of five valves, smooth ; dorsal valves spread at the base and having
an acute prominent angle.
Seb. Mus. vol. 3. t. 16. No. 1. 6. Ellis Zooph. p. 167. pi. 15. f. 6.
Encyclop. Method, pl.^166. f. 4. Donovan Brit. Shells, pi. 144.
Mont . Test. Brit. p. 557. item Suppl. p. 5. and p. 163.
The principal valves of this shell are concentrically
wrinkled from the exterior angle to the base, and faintly
radiated with striae from the same point across the
wrinkles. The dorsal, or ridge valve, is singularly
dilated at the base, and has a sharp prominent angle, or
heel, which terminates the carinated edge of the upper
part of the valve. The two superior valves end in a
point above the dorsal valve. The shell is very thin
and light, of a horn colour, and in appearance resem-
bling pieces of dried bladder more than any other sub-
Mr. Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the best
information relative to this species, says that the colour
of the shell, while containing the animal, is bluish ; that
these shells were once thrown up in abundance on the
south coast of Devon, between Milton and Shurlstone ;
and that they were attached in groups, some to a yellow
variety of the Fucus vesiculosus, others to a slender-
leaved Conferva ; one group >to the quill feather of a
gull, and another to a bit of charcoal. Each was
fixed to its respective substance by a short pedicle,
which shrinks so much in drying, that the shell, as
figured in pi. 10, appears seated on the Fucus without
any intermediate support.
This must be considered as a rare species ; for if we
except a solitary specimen found by the late Mr. Bryer,
and its accidental occurrence on the coast of Devon, it
has not been observed for a period of more than forty
years. The opportunity of collecting them in Devon-
shire seems to have been of very short duration, since
Mr. Montagu remarks, that in two or three days after
their appearance, there was scarcely a vestige of them
The specimen figured in pi. 10. was covered with a
PL 10. /. 5. Mr. Sowerby.
36. Lepas anserifera. L. testa compressa quinquevalvi striata, pedunculo
insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109. Linn. Gmel. p. 3210.
Shell of five valves, compressed and striated ; seated on a peduncle.
Anatifa striata. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 64.
Lister, Conch, t. 440. f. 283. item. Exerc. Anatom. t. 19. f. 4, 5.
Chemn. Conch. 8. pi. 100. f. 856. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 3.
Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 166. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 16. Penn. Brit.
Zool. ed. 1812. vol. 4. p. 151. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 28.
The surface of this shell is strongly striated, the striae
extending, in the lower valve, from the anterior angle to
the edge, where it unites with the upper valve: these
striae are crossed again so as to give the shell a reti-
culated appearance. The upper valve is striated in
the same manner as the lower one, but somewhat
stronger. The dorsal valve is much compressed and
has a carinated edge. The shell is of a bluish
colour, with an orange red pedicle, an inch and a half
Inhabits the American ocean. Has been found on
the coast of Devonshire, by Mr. Montagu, on a piece of
drifted wood, from half an inch in length to the size of
Gualtieri has figured a single valve only, the reference
to him has therefore been omitted.
PI. 11. Mr. SoWERBY.
37. Lepas anatifera. L. testa subtriangulari, quinquevalvi, Icevi, pedun-
culo longo insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109. Linn.
Gmd. p. 3211.
Shell subtriangular, of five smooth valves, seated on a long foot stalk.
Anatifa laevis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 62.
Gualt. Test. t. 26. f. E. Seba Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 1, 2. Know. Vergn. 2.
i. 30. f. 4, 5. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 5. 6. Muller,
Vollst. Natur. Syst. torn. 6. pi. 10. f. 8. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, pi.
17. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 41. Ckemn. Conch.
8. pi. 853—855. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 1. Donovan, Brit.
Shells, pi. 7. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 15. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 28.
A bluish white shell with five valves, four of which
are faintly striated ; the fifth, or dorsal valve, is smooth
down the middle, and sulcated at the sides. It differs
principally from the preceding species, or L. qnserifera,
in the large valves, which are not sharply carinated, as
in that shell ; in the superior valves, which are trun-
cated at the apex ; and in the striae, which are much
fainter in the L. anatifera. These shells are found in
considerable clusters, from half an inch to an inch and
three quarters in length, and more than an inch in
extreme breadth. They are seated on a flexible pedi-
cle, which is sometimes a foot long. The specimen
figured in pi. 11. was, among many others, alive in a
tub of sea water, and had a cluster of young ones
branching from its side. The drawing was made while
the animals were extending their plumose tentacula in
search of food, and while the orange colour of the
membrane which lines the valves, and which is often
lost in drying, was in all its beauty. The pedicle was
VOL. I. F
not, as it is generally described, of a saffron colour, but
brown as in the figure. It was much too long to be
introduced into an octavo plate, we have therefore re-
presented only a portion attached to a piece of wood,
its usual support. This pedicle resembles a small in-
testine; it is tendinous, cylindrical, and capable of
great contraction ; while the animal is alive it is filled
with a glairy mucilage, which exsudes after death, and
leaves the foot stalk empty and withered.
This shell is very abundant in many parts of the
world. Linnaeus noticed it in the North ; Muller on
the coast of Denmark ; Pennant and others in the
British seas ; Plancus in the Mediterranean ; and Seba
and Davila in the Asiatic ocean. It adheres to the
bottoms of ships, and to floating pieces of wood.
An idle story was formerly told about the capability
of this shell to produce the Barnacle Goose, and, like
other idle stories, was readily believed. Old Gerard,
with inflexible credulity, declares that the shell con-
tains a young bird, which " when it is perfectly
formed, the shell gapeth open, and the first thing that
appeareth is the lace, or string (the plumose tentacula) ;
next come the legs of the bird hanging out, and as it
groweth greater it openeth the shell by degrees, till at
length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by the bill :
in short space after it commeth to full maturitie, and
falleth into the sea, where it gathereth feathers, and
groweth to a fowle bigger than a mallard and lesser
than a goose," &c. Gerard prefaces his account with
" what our eyes have seene, and hands have touched,
we shall declare ;" and, that the strength of evidence
may not be wanting, concludes by an invitation to all
those who may doubt the truth of his assertion, to re-
pair unto him, and he will satisfy them by the testimony
of good witnesses.
Such was the absurd notion which formerly pre-
vailed, but which may now be ranked with the sedu-
cing song of the siren, the prophetic chant of the swan,
and the irresistible force of the remora.
38. Lepas villosa. L. testa compressa, quinquevalvi Icevi ; pedunculo
Shell compressed of five smooth valves ; pedicle downy.
Anatifa villosa. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 62.
This shell is described by Bruguiere as a distinct
species, greatly resembling the L. anatifera in the valves,
but differing specifically in the pedicle. It is a small
shell, never exceeding five eighths of an inch in length :
the valves are smooth, but the foot-stalk is covered with
short flexible hairs, which, while the animal is alive,
resemble mould, but which fall off with the slightest
touch when the shell is dried. This species was ob-
served by Bruguiere on the poop of a ship, in the port
of Cette, in Languedoc. He remarks that it is solitary,
never appearing in clusters like the other barnacles.
39. Lepas dentata. L. testa compressa, quinquevalvi, loevi, valvula dorsali
carinata, dentata, pedunculo rugoso.
Shell compressed, of five valves, smooth, dorsal valve keel-shaped and
toothed, pedicle wrinkled.
Anatifa dentata. Brug. EncycL Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 63.
Concha anatifei*a margine muricata. Lister, Conch, t. 439. f. 282.
Klein, Ostrac. t. 12. num. 91, 92.
This shell has hitherto been confounded with the
i. anatifera, but is now separated by Bruguiere, upon
a very sufficient foundation. It resembles the duck
barnacle in every respect, except the dorsal valve;
which is strongly carinated, and divided throughout its
length into many very sharp teeth. Lister is the only
author who has described this species (not to mention
Klein, whose figure is copied from Lister,) except Bru^
guiere, and the specimen which he observed was more
decidedly toothed, and the teeth were deeper and more
numerous than in the shell represented by Lister. It
inhabits the Mediterranean, and is found in groups like
the common species, but is smaller.
PL 12. /. 1. Mr. SOWERBY.
40. Lepas sulcata. L. testa subtriangulari t quinquevalvi, sulcata. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 29.
Shell somewhat triangular, five valved, sulcated.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 17. pi. 1. f. 6.
We are indebted to Mr. Montagu for this new and
elegant species of barnacle, which he found adhering to
the Gorgonia Flabellum on the Dorsetshire coast, near
Portland Island. The lower valves have from fifteen to
nineteen ribs diverging from the lower angle to the mar-
gin, where they are met by seven or eight corresponding
ribs in the superior valves. It must be noticed that the
anterior rib of the lower valve is always the strongest.
The dorsal valve is somewhat keeled, and marked with
strong longitudinal striae. Pedicle extremely short, and
seldom to be seen. Colour of the shell faint bistre,
often sordid white. Length from one tenth to half an
inch. Breadth of the largest, four tenths of an inch.
The author has several of these shells seated on
pieces of cuttle-bone, with clusters of small ones round
the bottom of each. A group of them, some of a large
size, attached to a piece of rotten wood, is in the pos-
session of Mr. Sowerby, and is the specimen repre-
sented in the plate.
PL 12. f. 2, 3.
41. Lepas vittata. L. carnosa, continua, glauca, vittis nigris, superne
truncata acuminata, testis quinque angustis marginalibus. Solander,
MS. in Biblioth. Banks.
Animal fleshy, uniformly green with black stripes, truncated at top, and
sharp pointed ; shells five, narrow and marginated.
Seba, Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 5. Poli, Test. t. 6. No. 20 # 22.
The testaceous part of this singular species consists
of five narrow valves, the two largest of which are
placed on the margin of the aperture, and are trian-
gular ; the dorsal valve is linear and subcarinated ; the
two superior valves are also linear, reflex, and termi-
nate in points at the anterior extremity. The membra-
nous bag which encloses the animal, is of a greenish
colour, with six black longitudinal stripes, three on each
side. The pedicle is a continuation of the same, and
the whole is about two inches long, and five-eighths of
an inch broad.
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Atlantic ocean. Dr.
Solander observed it on the sides of the Endeavour, as
he sailed between the Canary Islands and Brasil, and
Bosc found it on the ship which carried him from
America to Europe.
42. Lepas membranacea. L. carnosa, alba, superne truncata, acuminata,
testis quinque angustis marginalibus.
Animal fleshy, white, truncated at top and acuminate ; shells five, nar-
row and marginated.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 164.
This species differs from the preceding in the mem-
brane only, which is quite white, and without any
stripes. It is less than the other, the largest specimen
in the possession of the author not exceeding an inch
and a quarter in length. The principal valves in both
somewhat resemble the hammer oyster in shape. Mr.
Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the knowledge
of this shell, has reason to believe that it was taken on
the Welch coast.
The valves, both of this and the preceding species, are
the rudiments of shells ; the beginning of operations
which are completed in the L. anatifera.
PL 12. /. 4. Dr. Leach.
43. Lepas aurita. L. testa membranacea, ventricosa, tubo insidente, ore
octovalvi dentato; tubulo gemino aurito. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12.
Shell membranaceous, ventricose, seated on a tube and eared : mouth
of eight valves, toothed.
Lepas nuda carnosa aurita. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. pi. 34. f. 1.
Seba, Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 5. Edw. av. 2. t. 286. f. A. Chem. Conch. 8.
pi. 100. f. 857, 858. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 66.
This species has a membranous, cylindrical stalk,
dilated at top, and terminating in two tubular appen-
dages, or ears. The aperture through which the animal
protrudes its tentacula, is oval, and has two testaceous
cruciform valves situated at the inferior extremity. The
feelers (or tentacula) are singular, the lower portion of
each terminating in a tendril. The body is of a greenish
colour. Inhabits the North seas, and has been found
by Muller on the coast of Norway.
Two groups of eared barnacles, attached to the L.
Diadema, are preserved in Hunter's Museum ; from one
of these Ellis copied his figure.
Testa bivalvis, divaricata, cum minoribus accessoriis diftbrmibus, ad
Cardo recurvatus, cartilagine eonnexus.
Animal an Ascidia.
Shell, two-valved, divaricated, with smaller accessory valves of a dif-
ferent shape at the hinge.
Hinge folded back, connected by cartilage.
The species of this genus vary in the number of
their accessory valves, which are in all very fragile, and
so slightly connected to the shell, that we rarely find
them quite perfect. The two principal valves are, for
the most part, open at both ends, and their surface,
which is generally striated, is in some species as rough
as a file. The animal inhabiting this genus of shells
has a very thick membranous mantle, or sheath, open
at both ends. From the superior opening of this
mantle proceeds a double neck, or two united siphons,
one of which is larger than the other. These siphons
are slightly toothed on their edges, and serve, one for
the entrance, and the other for the exit of the food. The
animal has likewise a foot which is short and conic.
The faculty which these soft animals possess of pene-
trating hard substances, such as stones and wood, has
long excited the attention of philosophers, though they
have hitherto been unable to divine the cause. The
opinion of Reaumur, that they work their way into
limestone and other hard bodies, by the continual rota-
tion of their valves acting like a rasp, is not satisfactory,
since there are some species, and particularly the P.
Orientalis, which are nearly smooth at the anterior end,
and consequently unfit for such a purpose. That they
do not bury themselves while the substance which they
choose for their habitation is in a soft state, may be in-
ferred from their penetrating wood, and from the lodge-
ment which they have made in the pillars of the temple
of Serapis at Puteoli. Dr. Bohadsch, who noticed
these pillars, concludes that the Pholades must have
bored their holes within them after they were erected ;
for he observes that the workmen would certainly have
rejected any stones from their building, that had been
perforated in so many places by these creatures. The
Pholades must therefore have worked their way into
them while they were buried by the influx of the sea,
which immediately succeeded the destruction of the
city by an earthquake.
It must be remarked that the animal is enabled to
enlarge its habitation on the inside, since the cavity is
always smaller at its entrance than the pholas itself.
This fact proves also that, when once settled, there is no
receding, and that the dark chamber which it has cho-
sen, must serve the animal for a sepulchre, unless it be
previously dragged from its hole to be used as an article
of food, or as a bait for other fish.
On the coasts of Normandy they are eaten in abun-
dance, well seasoned and cooked with bread crumbs
and fine herbs. They also pickle them in vinegar, and
reckon them a delicacy. In the neighbourhood of
Dieppe, a great many women and children, each pro-
vided with an iron pick, are employed to collect the
Pholades, either to sell in the market, or to be used as
bait by the fishermen.
The pholas is remarkable for its phosphorescent pro-
perty. This is noticed by Pliny, lib. 9. c. 61. Aris-
totle and Athenseus have mentioned the pholas, but in
too slight a manner to be worthy of observation.
Before we quit the general remarks on multivalve
shells, it will be proper to observe, that an Italian na-
turalist, M. Gioeni, has described and figured what he
conceived to be a new genus in the class of multivalves,
under the title of Descrizione di una nuova Famiglia e
di un nuovo Genere di Testacei. Neapoli 1783. It
would have been well if the author of the above tract
had confined himself to the description only of the shell;
but he has indulged in a tale of the habits and manners
of the animal part of his subject, which is quite ridicu-
lous. The subject of M. Giceni's paper is the gizzard
of the Bulla lignaria, which is testaceous, and when
separated from the body of the animal, may readily be
mistaken for a shell. So far the description of M.
Giceni, who probably found the substance on the sea
shore, is excusable ; but when he gravely relates as a
fact, what he at the same time knows to be false, it
becomes the duty of the naturalist to expose his
error, that subsequent writers may not be misled.
After describing the three valves with which this
supposed shell is provided, M. Giceni proceeds to tell us
that the animal has a long trachea, or trunk, through
which it respires and receives its food; that it is born
and lives under the sand; and that when it wishes to rise
to the surface, it opens a passage for itself by means of
its testaceous shield, which it moves on all sides, and
by which alone it mounts to the surface of the sand, &c.
M. Giceni then describes the manner in which the
animal moves, by pressing the end of his sjiield against
the sand, and thus obtaining a point of support, while
he slowly drags the rest of the body after him. But
this operation is so painful, and is executed so heavily,
that the animal leaves a trace behind it, from the impres-
sion of the great valves, in the sand, which resembles in
miniature the track of carriage wheels ! ! The calcula-
tion of the time which the animal takes to move along
the sand, is admirable. M. Giceni reckons it at the
twelfth part of an inch in eight seconds ! Much more
of a similar detail equally absurd is entered into by the
Italian naturalist; but enough has been said to prove the
falsity of the rest. The circumstantial manner in which
the whole has been related, however, and the accurate
figures, (for they are accurate as far as relates to the
gizzard of the B. lignaria?) with which the account is
illustrated, has misled Retzius, who, in a tract entitled
Nova Testaceorum Genera, published in 1788, has de-
scribed the trivalved gizzard, under the name of Tricla
Giami ; and Bruguiere has formed a new genus of it, to
which he has added a long description from Giceni,
under the word Char, in the Encyclopedie Meihodique.
It is also figured as a new genus, after Pholas, in pi.
170. of the same work.
The gizzard of the JB. lignaria is well described and
figured by Mr. Humphrey, in the second volume of the
Linnaean Transactions, page 15.
PL 13. /. 1, 2, 3.
1. Pholas Dactylus. Ph. testa oblonga, hinc reticulato-striata. Linn,
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1110. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214.
Shell oblong, with reticulate striae.
Testa lata, ventricosa, plicis transversis striisque longitudinalibus decus-
sata, postice reticulata. Born, Test. p. 14. t. 1. f. 7.
List. Anim. Angl. Append, t. 2. f. 3. item Conch, t. 433. f. 267. Petiv.
Gaz. t. 79. f. 10. Gualt. t. 105. f. D. Seb. Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 6. a— b.
Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 144. t. 16. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed.
1812. vol. 4. pi. 42. f. 1. Murr. Fund. Test. t. 2. f. 3. Chemn.
Conch. 8. t. 101. f. 859. Dowot?. Brie. SMfc, t. 118. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 20. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 30.
This is a rough shell, of an oblong shape, and strongly
striated both ways. The anterior end, which extends
more or less into a beak, is covered with prickles run-
ning in lines from the hinge to the margin. These
prickles gradually decline till they soften into stria?,
which are lost towards the narrow end of the shelL
The hinge is reflexed, and forms several cells on the
back, as in fig. 3. These cells are covered in fig. 1. by
the two striated supernumerary valves ; another valve is
seen in the same figure, running towards the end of the
shell, between the two larger valves. There is a long
curved, flattish tooth, striated towards the end, on the
inside of each valve. Colour of the shell white, but
often stained with ochre. It is brittle, and the lesser
valves are very deciduous.
Inhabits different parts of the European seas, and
shines by night. It is a common species on the coasts
of France and England. Mr. Montagu found it in
abundance at Salcomb, on the coast of South Devon,
where it burrows in the stumps of old trees which for-
merly grew there, but which are now covered with the
tide except at very low water. The shell varies in size,
and measures from one inch to six from end to end.
The specimen figured in the centre of plate 13. is very
perfect, and measures five inches and a half. It was
found with several others at the mouth of Kingsbridge
river, in Devonshire.
The best figure of the Pholas Dactylus is by Pen-
nant. Born's figure is very good, and so is Lister's, but
rather too strongly beaked. Gualtieri has evidently in-
tended to figure the shell, but his subject must have
been worn and without teeth.
PL 14./. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe.
2. Pholas orientalis. Ph. testa oblonga, margine recto; altera parte
glaberrima, altera reticulato-striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3216.
Shell oblong with a straight margin ; one half quite smooth, the other
with reticulated striae.
Pholas India; Orientalis, testa oblonga, fragili, pellucida, supra dimi-
dium reticufatim seu decussation striata; striis nodulosis prominulis,
dorso et umbone tribus valvulis succenturiatis supertecto. Chemn.
Conch. 8. p. 356. t. 101. f. 860.
List. Conch, t 431. f. 247. Walch. Naturf. 13. p. 86. t. 3. f. 15. En-
cyclop. Method, pi. 168. f. ]0.
A very fragile white shell, of a long narrow shape,
and strongly striated on the anterior half, the other end
perfectly smooth; the striae terminate abruptly. The
back of the shell, when perfect, is covered at the hinge
with a single oblong valve, resembling a patella. There
is a strong tooth on the inside of each valve. The
shell gapes much at one end, but is nearly closed at
Inhabits the Indian ocean about Siam and Tran-
The accessory valves so readily fall off, that the shell
is very rarely found perfect. It is figured entire, how-
ever, by Chemnitz in a vignette, vol. 8. p. 347.
PL 14. /. 3, 4.
3. Pholas Candida. Ph. testa oblonga, undique striis decussatis muri-
cata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215.
Shell oblong, and covered with prickly decussated striae.
List. Anim. AngJ. t. 5. f. 39. Append, t. 2. f. 4 — 6. Conch.
t. 435. f. 278. Gualt. Test. t. 105. f. E. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 101.
f. 86 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 42. f. 2. Donov. Brit.
Shells, pi. 132. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 25. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 31 .
This is a very brittle shell, decussated in all parts,
except close to the cartilage on the back. The broad
end nearly round, and set from the hinge to the
margin, with several rows of prickles. The striae on
the other parts of the shell are all prominent, but less
elevated than those at the broad end; hinge smooth,
white, and reflex; a single accessory valve of a lancet
shape on the back, but none on the connecting mem-
brane below the hinge, as in the P. Dactylus. Inside
smooth, and glossy white, with a thin curved tooth in
each valve ; the thick lip above each tooth terminates in
a horizontal, folded process, curved towards the carti-
lage. Colour yellowish white. Breadth, or from end
to end, from one inch to two and a half, or three inches.
Inhabits the European and American seas. It is not
an uncommon shell on some parts of the British coast,
but is not often found perfect.
The figure of this shell by Gualtieri is so indifferent
as hardly to deserve a place among the synonyms.
PL 15. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe.
4. Pholas costata. Ph. testa ovata, costis elevatis striata. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215.
Shell oval, with raised striated ribs.
Testa lata, ventricosa, transverse striata, costis longitudinalibus, extimis
acutis remotioribus. Born, Test. p. 15.
LM. Conch, t. 434. f. 277. Gualt. Test. 1. 105. f. G. Knorr, Vergn. 2.
t. 25. f. 4. Chemn. Conch. 8. f. 863. Favanne, pi. 60. c. 1. Ency-
clop. Method, pi. 169. f. 1, 2.
This shell is of an oblong oval shape, gaping at both
ends. It is a strong species, ribbed regularly from one
end to the other ; the ribs are oblique and somewhat
spinous, especially at the broad end, where they are
farther apart, and scalloped at the margin. The hinge
is reflex, and has an additional fold which is spread
thinly on the back of the shell ; there is a strong curved
tooth in each valve ; the slope from the hinge towards
the tip of the shell is free from ribs. This shell is
of a cream colour, and measures from three to six
inches from end to end.
It inhabits America, and, according to Linnseus, is
found among rocks in the South of Europe ; but the
finest specimens are from the East Indies.
PlIOZ. A $
El . 15.
PL 15./. 3, 4, 5.
5. Pholas crispata. Ph. testa ovali, hinc obtusiore, crispato-striata ;
cardinis dente curvo. Linn, Syst, Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3216.
Shell oval, one part more obtuse, with waved striae ; hinge with a curved
Testa utraque extremitate maxime hians. Sulcus transversus in duas
partes valvulas dividens ; parte altera valde rugosa, et crispa, in qua ad
cardinem mar go refiexus. Linn. Faun. Svec. n. 215.
List. An. Angl. t. 5. f. 38. Append, t. 2. f. 7. Conch.
t. 436. f. 279. Petiv. Gazoph. t. 79. f. 13. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed.
1812. vol. 4. pi. 43. f. 2. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 242. pi. 16. f. 4.
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 102. f. 872—874. Encyclop. Method, pi. 169.
f. 5, 6, 7. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 62. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 23.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 32.
The Ph. crispata is at once distinguished from every
other species of the genus, by a transverse groove, which
runs from the hinge to the margin, and divides the shell
into two nearly equal parts. This groove has a cor-
responding elevation on the inside of each valve. The
shell is strong, and very open at both ends ; one part is
smooth, except some faint transverse striae, but the
other portion is strongly marked with subspinous undu-
lations, which terminate rather abruptly before they
reach the transverse groove. The hinge is smooth
and reflex, forming a furrow towards the beak of the
shell. There is a plain curved tooth in each valve.
The general colour white, or ferruginous. Length from
one to two inches ; breadth from two to three inches.
Burrows in clay or lime-stone. Inhabits the Northern
ocean, and is found not uncommonly on several parts
of the British coast.
We are indebted to the accurate Lister for the first
VOL. I. G
figure of this shell, who has given an excellent repre-
sentation of the interior, in his Hist. Anim. Angl.
Gmelin has described the shell again in p. 3228, under
the name of Solen crispus, with a reference to Lister,
and the following query, An distincta satis hujus generis
6. Pholas parva. Ph. testa ovali, hinc reticulato-striata, cardinis dente
ex tuberculo orto. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 33.
Shell oval with reticulate striae at one end ; hinge with a tooth springing
from a tubercle.
Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. pi. 43. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 22. t. 1.
f. 7, 8.
This is evidently a distinct species, rescued from a
state of uncertainty by Mr. Montagu. It has been con-
founded both with the Ph. Dactylus, and Ph. crispatus,
but chiefly with the latter; it differs however from both.
" From the former," says Mr. Montagu, " it may be
readily known by not having any cells on the reflected
margin of the hinge ; from the latter in not having the
longitudinal furrow ; and from both by the knob at the
base of the tooth."
The author is in possession of a specimen an inch
and a half broad, in which the above observations are
confirmed, with this addition, that the margin near the
beak, or narrow end, projects at a right angle with the
shell, and is indented beneath.
The Pholas parvus, which Donovan has figured in
pi. 69, is certainly a young shell of the Ph. crispata.
PL 16. /. 1, 2, 3, 4. 4* 8. Mrs. Ma we.
7. Pholas striata. Ph. testa oblonga, rotundata, multifariam striata.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215.
Shell oblong, rounded, variously striated.
Rumph. Mus. t. 46. f. H. Petiv. Amboin. t. 19. f. 8. Gault. Test.
t. 105. f. F. Speng. Besch. Berl. Naturf. 4. t. 5. f. 1—5. Phil.
Trans, vol. 55. pi. 1. f. 1, 2, 3, 4. Chemn. Conch, t. 102. 867—871.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 170. f. 1, 2, 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 117.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 26. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 32.
This singular species of Pholas is striated in several
directions. The striae at the head of the shell, or that
part which is not buried in the wood, are very distinct ;
and their roughened waved surface, when perfectly
clean and magnified, has somewhat the appearance of
fine turned ivory. The shield which covers the hinge
is nearly heart-shaped, and beneath it is a narrow plate,
which connects the valves. They are both seen in
fig. 1. Fig. 2. represents a shell in the same position,
but without the shield, to show the two milk-white teeth
that project from the back of the shell. The sides,
which are buried in the wood, are extremely thin, and
striated in two directions. In front there are two shields,
one on each side of the opening, besides a narrow
plate down the middle, like that behind. The bottom
is open, and in full-grown shells rather curved. There
is a long, slender, curved tooth in each of the principal
valves. Fig. 4. is a shell in its natural situation, en-
closed in a piece of mahogany, the cavity of which is
longer than the shell itself, and therefore could not
have been made by any rotatory motion of the testa-
ceous valves, as suggested by Reaumur. The spe-
cimens represented in the wood in fig. 8. are young
shells of the same species, with the aperture exposed.
There is no specific difference between the Ph. striata
and Ph. pusilla. Gualtieri has figured the shell, but
he has made it too broad. It was this circumstance
which probably led Linnseus to make the pusilla a dis-
tinct species, but he was evidently in doubt about the
matter. Some shells are shorter and broader at bottom
than others. Such are those figured under the name
of Ph. striata by Chemnitz, vol. 8. pi. 102. f. 864—866.
It is not an English species, but brought to us in
ships from America and India.
PI. 16. /. 5, 6, 7. Dr. Coombe.
8. Pholas falcata. Ph. testa subovata, multifariam striata, apertura pa-
tentissima, cardinis dentefalcato.
Shell somewhat oval, variously striated; aperture very large; hinge with a
This is a new species, distinguished by the singular
conformation of its tooth, which, after curving from
under the hinge in the usual manner, returns again so
as to give it the figure of a pruning-hook. The aper-
ture of the shell is very large, at the base of which,
where the valves unite, there is a little projection, or
nail, which proceeds from the interior of the shell, and
gives stability to the union. This appendage is com-
mon to the wood-piercers, and corresponds with the
external division of the striae. The shell is much
shorter and wider in proportion than the Ph. striata,
but is marked externally in the same manner.
9. Pholas cordata. Ph. testa brevi, turgida, posterius striis elevatis
transversis subtilibus exarata ; hiatu cordato. Linn. Gmel.p. 3216.
Shell short and turgid, finely marked behind with elevated transverse
striae ; aperture heart-shaped.
Schr'dt. Einl. in Conch. 3. p. 544. n. 4. t. 9. f. 22 — 24. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 169. f. 8, 9, 10.
This species is described by Schroter as very thin
and brittle ; of a dirty white colour, and smooth on the
fore part, except a few ridges. The tooth is minute,
and concealed in the shell. It is about half an inch
long, and burrows in corallines.
10. Pholas Chiloensis. Ph. testa oblonga, depressiuscula ; striis longi-
tudinalibus distantibus. Linn. Gmeh p. 3217.
Shell oblong, rather depressed, with distant longitudinal striae.
Molini Hist Nat. Chil. p. 179.
Described only by Molini. It is five inches long, and
has minute appendages. Inhabits the rocks on the
coast of Chili.
11. Pholas hians. Ph. testa bivalvi, alba, transverse arcuatim striata,
supra connivente, medio convexa, subtus cuneiformi ; apertura ovali
patentissima. Linn. Gmel. p. 3217.
Shell of two valves, white, with transverse arched striae ; above conni-
vent, in the middle convex, beneath wedge-shaped ; aperture oval and
Chemn. Conch. 10. p. 364. pi. 172. f. 1678— -1681. Spengl. Nov. Act.
Soc. Dan. 2. f. 8— 11.
This species is about an inch and a half long ; it ha?
very small teeth, and an aperture which extends two-
thirds the length of the shell. It inhabits the American
islands, and burrows in calcareous rocks and corals.
12. Pholas Teredula. Ph. testa oblonga, alba; sutura granulata,fusca,
longitudinali. Linn. Gmel. 3217.
Shell oblong and white, with a longitudinal brown granulated suture.
Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop. 2. p. 240. t. 6. f. 26. A. D.
This shell, according to Pallas, inhabits the Belgic
shores, and penetrates timber. It is more like a por-
tion of a Teredo than a Pholas.
Gmelin's Ph. Campechensis, p. 3215. n. 8. is too ob-
scure to be admitted as a species. He refers to Lister,
t. 432. for his authority, but the figure is not sufficiently
distinct from Ph. Candida, to be considered as specific,
Testa bivalvis, hians utplurimum altera extremitate.
Cardo dente, plerisque uno, solido, crasso, patulo, vacuo, (nee inserto
Animal an Ascidia.
Shell of two valves ; in several species open at one end.
Hinge, in general, with a single solid, thick, broad tooth, not inserted
into the opposite valve.
Bruguiere has separated the Mya Pictorum, M. mar-
garitifera, and such shells as resemble them, from the
Linnaean Myce, and has formed of them a new genus,
under the name of Unto. The difference indeed is
obvious between the hinges of the shells just mentioned,
and those of the M. truncata, &c. : we shall therefore
describe the two kinds under different heads ; namely,
shells with teeth not inserted into the opposite valve; and
shells with teeth inserted into the opposite valve. There
is also a difference in the animal inhabiting the two
kinds of shells ; the animals of the M. truncata, and
M. arenaria, bury themselves in the sand, and are, each
of them, provided with a long flexible double tube*
which they protrude above the surface of the sand, and
through which they respire and take their food. The
animal of the M. Pictorum, on the contrary, has no such
provision ; it has merely a short muscular foot, which it
protrudes from the hinder part of the shell, arid is the
organ by which it moves its habitation from one place
to another. The shell is generally found buried in sand
or mud ; and the animal, though an inhabitant of the
water, is capable of existing even when deprived of its
native element. Bosc observed them alive, in America,
in hardened mud, which resisted his efforts with a
spade to dig them out ; it seems they had remained in
this situation during three or four summer months,
without any refreshment except a few slight showers.
One of the species of this genus, the M. margari-
tifera, has long been celebrated for the pearls which it
has at different times produced. It is upon record, in
the second volume of the Philosophical Transactions
Abridged, that several pearls of great size were procured
from this shell, in the rivers of the county of Tyrone
and Donegal, in Ireland. One that weighed thirty-six
carats was valued at forty pounds, but being foul, lost
much of its worth. Other single pearls were sold for
four pounds ten shillings, and ten pounds ; and it is de-
serving of notice, that the last was sold a second time
to Lady Glenlealy, who put it into a necklace, and re-
fused eighty pounds for it from the Duchess of Ormond.
The pearl is produced by a deposition of testaceous
matter on the interior coat of the shell ; it is a tubercle
formed at pleasure by the animal, and is generally
secreted to repair the damages made by certain worms
that penetrate the inside of the shell near the edge of
the valves, and, working themselves a passage between
the laminae that compose the cover, perforate the inter-
nal silvery coat. The remedy for this evil is imme-
diately applied ; the animal secretes the material, the
hole is stopped, and a pearl is formed. Linnaeus, who
remarked how the animal contrived to put a stop to
enemies which were living at its expense, proposed to
imitate the worms, and procure artificial pearls by
piercing the shells with an instrument. The means
which he employed were kept a secret by the Swedish
government. It succeeded to a certain degree ; but the
number of saleable pearls produced were so inconsi-
derable, in proportion to the useless tubercles, that the
expense exceeded the profit, and the scheme was aban-
There is reason to believe that the Chinese have long
known the secret of producing pearls, by perforating
Pliny remarks that small red pearls are found in the
Mediterranean, especially about the Thracian JBos-
phorus, in certain shells called myce; but he does not
attempt to define the species. In nostro mari reperiri
soleba?it 9 crebriiis circa Bosphorum Thracium, rufi ac
parvi in conchis, quas myas appellant. (Plin. lib. ix. c. 35.)
* With teeth not inserted into the opposite valve.
PI. 11. f. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe.
I. Mya truncata. M. testa ovata, postice truncata; cardinis dente
antrorsum porrecto, ohtusissimo. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. J 112.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3217.
Shell oval, truncated behind ; hinge with a very blunt tooth projecting
List. Conch, t. 428. f. 269. Petiver Gaz. t. 79. f. 12. Penn. Brit.
Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 44. Da Cost. Br. Conch, pi. 15. f. 1, 2.
Chemn. Conch. 6. pi. 1. f. 1, 2. Encyclop. Method, pi. 229. f. 2. a. b.
Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 92. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 32. Linn. Trans. 6.
pi. 14. f. 1, 2. and 8. p. 35.
/3. lis*. Cowc/i. t. 429. f. 270.
A strong, broad, truncated shell, concentrically
wrinkled, and covered with a tough ochreous epidermis,
which extends beyond the open end, and is the sheath
through which the animal protrudes its tubular neck.
The valves very concave, and turned a little outwards at
the gaping end. The tooth broad and erect. Inside
white, with a strong muscular depression near the supe-
rior angle at the open end. When the epidermis is
removed, the shell is generally of a chalky white.
Inhabits the European seas, and is said by Fabricius
to be eaten by the inhabitants of Greenland. It is not
uncommon on the British coasts, and many specimens,
but chiefly single valves, are thrown upon our shores.
Mr. Montagu states that he has taken it alive on the
coast of Devonshire, measuring two inches and a half
in length, and three inches and a half in breadth.
Lister's figure in pi. 429. is evidently intended for this
shell ; but it varies in being less truncated than usual.
The reference by Linnaeus, to Gualtieri, t. 91. f. D. is
omitted the figure being very unlike the M. truncata.
PI. 17. /. 3.
2. My a arenaria. M. testa ovata, postice rotundata ; cardinis dente
antrorsum porrecto, rotundato, denticuloque laterali. Linn. Syst. Nat.
ed. 1812. p. 1J12. Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3218.
Shell oval, rounded behind ; hinge with a rounded tooth projecting for-
wards, and a lateral smaller one.
List. Conch, t. 418. f. 262. & t. 419. f. 263. Baster. Opusc. Subs. t. 7.
f. I. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 45. Chem. Conch. 6. 1. 1.
f. 3, 4. Encyclop. Method, t. 229, f. 1. a. b. Pult. in Hutch.
Dorset, t. 4. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 85. Mont Test. Brit.
p. 30. Linn. Trans. 6. 14. f. 3, 4. & 8. p. 35.
The M. arenaria is a strong oval shell, gaping at
both ends. The outside, when recent, is covered with
a yellowish, or reddish brown coat, frequently marked
with dark patches. It is concentrically striated, and
has faint indications of longitudinal striae, from hinge to
margin; but these are not visible in all shells. The
tooth is thick and spoon-shaped, with a small lateral
one on the anterior side. The inside white ; the nar-
row end turns outwards, and has a few hairs attached
to the epidermis externally. The valves are connected
together by a strong cartilage, which fills the cavity of
Inhabits the European seas, and is found on sandy
shores, buried to the depth of several inches, with the
narrow end upwards. The animal, like that of the
preceding species, has a long double tube, which it
can extend, or contract, at pleasure. Their situation in
the sand is known by a small hole on the surface,
which betrays them to the fishermen, who dig them up
for sale. They are brought to the London market
about February, and are sold at two shillings a dozen,
but are not much esteemed. The largest measure
about five inches in breadth, and two inches and a half
from hinge to margin. They are eaten in the neigh-
bourhood of Southampton, where the fishermen call
them old maids.
PL 18. /. 1.
3. Mya convexa. M. testa ovata, convexa, fragili, antice oblique suban-
gulata ; cardinis dente semiovali.
Shell oval, convex, brittle ; anterior end obliquely angulated ; tooth in
the hinge semioval.
Donovan Brit. Shells, t. 82. (Mya declivis.)
A very light brittle shell, remarkably convex, and
strongly angulated at the anterior end : the outside is
concentrically striated, and covered with an ochreous
coat, rather rough near the anterior edge ; when de-
prived of this coat, the shell is perfectly white. Inside
yellowish white; tooth small, oval, and projecting
This species is certainly distinct from the following,
which is a much stronger and flatter shell. Its remark-
able convexity has induced the author to give it the
trivial name of convex gaper. Donovan has evidently-
figured this shell, under the name of M. declivis. It
is found on the coast of Devonshire.
PL 18. /: 2, 3.
4, Mya declivis. M. testa ovata, compressiuscula, antict subtruncata,
cardinis dente wasso. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 36.
Shell oval and flattish, somewhat truncated at the anterior end ; hinge
with a thick tooth.
Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. 4. p. 160. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 27. t. 4.
f. 6. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 40. (M. pubescens.)
That the M. pubescens of Montagu is the M. declivis
of Pennant, there is but little reason to doubt. The
full-grown shell, fig. 2. is strong, and covered, exter-
nally, with a rough epidermis, like shagrin. One valve
is much deeper, and somewhat larger than the other,
so that when the shell is closed, the edges of the valves
are not together. The interior of the shell is white ;
the muscular depressions near the truncated end are
strong, but the lower one is not carried so far within
the shell as in the preceding species. The tooth is
thick, strong, and divided into two cavities by a sharp
Fig. 3. is a young shell of the same species, very thin
and brittle, of an oval shape, and white colour. It is
very slightly striated concentrically, and the roughness
on the outside is not apparent in small specimens.
Shells of this size are not uncommon on the Devonshire
coast, but large specimens such as fig. 2. have been
procured only of late. It is the full-grown shell that
Pennant mentions as frequent about the Hebrides, the
fish of which is eaten by the gentry.
PL 24./. 7, 8, 9. Mr. Sowerby.
5. Mya praetenuis. M. testa ovata, planiuscula ; cardinis dente cochlear i-
formi. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37.
Shell oval and flattish ; hinge with a spoon-shaped tooth.
Chama praetenuis. Petiver Gazoph. t. 94. f. 4.
Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 176. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 28. t. 4. f. 7.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 41. pi. 1. f. 2.
This delicate species was first noticed by Petiver.
It is oval, thin, brittle, and flat ; of a whitish colour,
and gaping behind ; a few scarcely visible concentric
striae mark the outside of the shell ; the inside is white,
with a broad, hollow, spoon-shaped tooth in each valve.
Large specimens are an inch long, and an inch and a
Dr. Pulteney found this shell on the sands in Poole
Harbour, and on the north shore near Brownsea Isle.
He also collected a few valves on the shore between
Weymouth and Portland. According to Mr. Montagu,
single valves are not uncommonly dredged in Falmouth
Harbour, and perfect shells have been taken on the
south coast of Devon.
6. Mya anatina. M. testa globosa, nivea, pellucida; cardinis dente pri-
mario prominent e, rotundato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3221.
Shell globular, very white and pellucid ; primary tooth of the hinge
prominent and rounded.
Adanson Seneg. pi. 19. f. 2. (Tugon 9 )Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 3. f. 17, 18.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 229. f. 3. a. b.
A thin but firm shell, of a round shape, gaping wide
at one end, but closed at the other. The exterior sur-
face is striated both longitudinally and transversely,
which gives it a reticulated appearance ; the mouth is
round and has a thick lip ; the hinge has a strong
spoon-shaped tooth ; the shell is of a white colour.
It is rarely found in Guinea, but frequently on the
African shore ; abundantly, says Adanson, at the mouth
of the Niger.
PL 24. /. 4, 5, 6. Mrs. Mawe.
7. My a globosa. M. testa sub orbicular i, globosa, hians, decussalim
striata ; cardinis dente cochlear if ormi.
Shell of a roundish shape, globular, gaping, with decussated striae;
hinge with a spoon-shaped tooth.
There is a strong general resemblance between this
shell and the preceding ; but, upon inspection, the spe-
cific difference is readily observed, the M. anatina
being decussated all over, while the M. globosa has
but little more than half its surface covered with lon-
gitudinal striae. The thick lip is also wanting, the
mouth of the M. globosa terminating in a sharp reflex
margin. The shell has a spoon-shaped tooth; it is
very thin, and the striae may be plainly seen on the
8. Mya arctica. M. testa striata ; valvis carinis duabus spinulosis;
cardine edentulo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3220. Mull. Zool. Dan. Prodr.
Shell striated; valves with two somewhat spinous ridges; hinge toothless.
Mya testa striata; valvis carinis duabus spinulosis, scepe obsoletis ; car-
dine obsolete dentato. Fabr. Fn. Groenl. p. 407. N. 408.
This shell is the size of a bean, about an inch and a
half long, of a pale yellow without, and milk-white
within; it resembles an Area, and is rather flattish
before. It is obtuse on the fore part, and rather sharp
Inhabits the North seas, and is found among Algce,
and other marine substances.
9. Mya edentula. M. testa striata, ovali, tequivalvi, ample hiante ; car-
dine edentulo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3220. Pall. Iter 2. p. 700.
Shell striated, oval, of equal valves, gaping widely ; hinge without teeth.
This species is about an inch long, thin, white, rather
worn, with about thirty-three striae on each valve,
which are farther apart at the shorter end than at
the other: the hinge has a thickish reflex lip.
PL 22./. 5. Dr. Coombe.
10. Mya picea. M. testa crassa, oblonga, utrinque hiante, epidermide
nigra superinduta ; cardine edentulo.
Shell thick, oblong, gaping at both ends, and covered with a black epi-
dermis ; hinge without teeth.
Mya siliqua. Chemn. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1934.
A strong oblong shell, decorticated about the hinge,
and covered with a friable coat as black as pitch, which
easily separates from the surface of the shell ; inside
bluish white, the cavity in each valve more or less filled
with a deposition of extraneous testaceous matter;
valves united by cartilage, and gaping greatly at both
Chemnitz has figured this shell from a specimen in
Its country is unknown.
11. Mya Nicobarica. M. testa cequivalm, ovato-oblonga, decussation
striata ; cardinis dente solitario, lato, perpendicular i, cochlear if ormi.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3221.
Shell of equal valves, snowy, oblong oval, with decussated striae ; hinge
with a single, broad, perpendicular, and spoon-shaped tooth.
Mya Candida Indite orientalis, testa oblonga, antice angulata, postice
rotundata. Chemn. Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 17, 18.
The valves of this shell are on one side convex,
broad, and rounded at the margin ; on the other more
angular, narrow, flat, and gaping. The tooth is large,
and the shell is about an inch and a quarter long, and
an inch and three quarters broad.
It inhabits the Nicobar Islands.
12. Mya rostrata. M. testa fragilissima, alba, diaphana, membranacea,
antice rostro cylindrico prcducto, hiante ; postice tumido et rotundato ;
cardinis dente minuto excavato.
Shell very fragile, white, diaphanous, and membranous, the fore part
produced into a cylindrical beak, the hind part round and tumid ;
hinge with a small excavated tooth.
Chemn. Conch. 11. p. 189. vignette C. D.
This shell is figured by Chemnitz, of a pear shape,
with one end remarkably lengthened, and gaping ; the
valves are very thin and finely striated concentrically ;
they close in all parts, except the end of the beak, and
are delicately white within.
PL 18. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby.
13. Mya Norwegica. M. testa ovali, longitudinaliter dense striata,
alter o fine rotundata, alter o truncata, natibus decorticatis. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell oval, closely striated longitudinally ; one end rounded, the other
Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1647, 1648.
In the shell represented in pi. 18. the coat is wanting,
and therefore the longitudinal striae are not so visible
as in the figure by Chemnitz. The inside of the shell
is pearly, and there is a triangular piece like enamel in
the cavity of the hinge, which does not appear, like a
tooth, to be permanent. The shell is near an inch long,
and an inch and three quarters broad. It inhabits
14. Mya merabranacea. M. testa ovata, membranacea, Candida ; margine
ad proboscidem protracto t reflexo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. Mull.ZooL
Dan. Prodr. 2964.
Shell oval membranaceous, and white ; margin, at the beak, prolonged
Olaff. Isl. Res. 901. t. 11. f. 10.
This is an oval shell, about the size of a bean, with a
plain hinge without any appearance of teeth. It in-
habits the coast of Iceland.
15. Mya distorta. M. testa subovali, valvulis difformibus, tumidio-
ribus ; cardinis dente crasso. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37.
Shell suboval, valves tumid and deformed ; hinge with a thick tooth.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 42. t. 1. f. 1.
A thin, brittle, white shell, with convex valves of a
rugged appearance, and more or less indented at the
margin. Inside white, with a broad somewhat trian-
gular tooth in each valve. The shell in some degree
resembles the 31. prtetenuis, but the margin is waved,
and the end is not truncated as in that species. It is
about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch broad.
Mr. Montagu found it lodged in hard limestone at
Plymouth, into which it had bored like a Pholas ; and
which he thinks was probably the occasion of its dis-
16. Mya bidentata. M. testa subovali, compressa, cardinis dentibus
antrorsum porrectis, obliquis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 41.
Shell somewhat oval, teeth at the hinge projecting forwards, oblique.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 44. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812.— 4. p. 166.
A very small species, an eighth of an inch long, and
somewhat more in breadth. Of a dirty white colour,
compressed, and smooth ; two broad diverging teeth in
one valve, but none in the other.
This was found by Mr. Montagu, burrowed in old
thick oyster shells from Salcomb Bay, Devonshire.
17. Mya decussata. M. testa ovata, decussata; margine undata.
Shell oval, decussated; margin waved.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 20. pi. 28. f. 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812.
4. p. 167.
A white oval shell, with irregular concentric ridges
decussated by regular longitudinal striae, which form
tubercles at the anterior end; the margin is waved.
Inside white, with a broad erect tooth in one valve, and
a projecting indented plate in the other.
This is a new species, for which, with many more,
we are indebted to Mr. Montagu, who received it from
the Frith of Forth.
18. Mya purpurea. M. testa ovata, transverse rugosa ; cardinis dente
Shell oval, transversely wrinkled ; hinge with a single erect tooth.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 21. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 167.
An oval shell, slightly wrinkled transversely ; of a
whitish colour, with a purple beak. There is a single
erect tooth, slightly notched, in each valve.
This is a minute species, not above the twelfth part
of an inch long. Discovered amongst corallines on the
Devonshire coast, by Mr. Montagu.
19. Mya ferruginosa. M. Testa subovali, obsolete rugosa ; cardinis den-
tibus duobus porrectis.
Shell somewhat oval, with obsolete wrinkles ; hinge with two projecting
Mont . Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 22. t. 26. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812.
The beak of this shell is obtuse, and placed nearest
to one end ; the colour is white, but the shell is usually
covered with a rusty coat which is thick and tenacious.
The inside is white, and the hinge has two projecting
teeth, separated by a large triangular notch.
This shell was found on Belton Sand, near Dunbar,
in Scotland, and is about a quarter of an inch long,
and nearly twice as broad.
MY A. 101
20. Mya nitens. M. testa ovata, concentrica, striata ; cardine vnidentato.
Shell oval, striated concentrically ; hinge with a single tooth.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 165. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. p. 168.
An oval glossy shell, of a pink and white colour,
regularly striated concentrically. The inside is of the
same colour as the outside, but not so glossy. The
single tooth in one valve shuts into a deep cleft in the
other. Length hardly a quarter of an inch ; breadth
Mr. Montagu obtained this species from the Scottish
coast, near Dunbar, but observes that it is extremely
21. Mya prismatica. M. testa oblonga, alba, anterius rostrata; car-
dinis dente subcochleariformi.
Shell oblong, white, beaked before; hinge with a somewhat spoon-shaped
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 23. pi. 26. f. 3. (Ligula prismatica.)
This is a small white shell, three-eighths of an inch
long, and twice as broad. It is flat, and thin, and the
fore part is produced into a small beak ; the outside is
obsoletely striated concentrically, and the inside is
smooth and glossy: the hinge, in each valve, has a
broad horizontal tooth, besides one which is erect ; and
one of the valves has lateral laminae.
Mr. Montagu, to whom we are wholly indebted for
the description of this species, received it from Belton
Sands, near Dunbar, in Scotland, and from the sands
between Porto Bello and Musselburg. A single valve
has also been found on the coast of Devonshire.
It derives its trivial name from its property of re-
flecting, in particular lights, strong prismatic colours.
22. Mya substriata. M. testa subovali, alba, subpellucida> longitudi-
naliter obsolete striata.
Shell suboval, white, subpellucid, with obsolete longitudinal striae.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 25. (Ligula substriata.)
The outside is marked with distant elevated striae ;
the inside is plain and the margin smooth ; the hinge
has a slight projection inwards. The shell measures
one-tenth of an inch in diameter. It was discovered,
among corallines, by Mr. Montagu, on the coast of
Devonshire. It is extremely rare.
PL 25./. 2, 3. Dr. Coombe.
23. Mya dubia. M. testa subovali, hiante; cardinis dente obsoleto.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 33.
Shell gaping and suboval ; hinge with an obsolete tooth.
Penn. Br. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. p. 165. pi. 47. Da Costa, Brit. Conch.
p. 234. Chama parva. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 108. Pult. in
Hutch. Dorset, p. 27. t. 1. f. 1 1. Mont . Test. Brit. p. 28. item Suppl.
p. 20. M. Pholadia.
It has been doubted whether this shell does not
belong to the genus Pholas; but Dr. Maton very pro-
perly remarks, that, notwithstanding its habits and ap-
pearance are like those of a Pholas, it wants the essen-
tial characters of that genus, viz. the accessory valves,
and therefore must be necessarily placed among the
The shell is of a light brown colour, thin, brittle,
opaque, and marked with fine concentric strise ; the
beak is prominent, and placed very near the end of the
shell ; when the valves are closed, the gape or opening
appears very large, and shows the hinge with its rudi-
ments of teeth.
This species is found, according to Mr. Montagu, on
the Dorset coast, at Torbay, and at Plymouth, bur-
rowed in detached pieces of lime-stone ; and its cham-
ber is often lined with shelly matter, that sometimes
protrudes, like a tube, a quarter of an inch beyond the
stone. Mr, Montagu has specimens of this My a, not
only in lime- stone, but also in fluor, and in granite !
WHITE NORWAY GAPER.
24. Mya nitida. M. testa ovali, alba, Icevi; cardinis utriusque dente
obtuso. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell oval, white and smooth ; hinge with an obtuse tooth in each valve.
Muller, Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2963.
Described only by Muller. Inhabits Norway.
** With teeth inserted into the opposite valve.
PI. 19. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby.
25. Mya Batava. M. testa subovali, utraque extremitate rotundata.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37.
Shell of a suboval shape, rounded at both ends.
Schr'dt. Flussconch, t. 3. f. 2. 4 & 5. Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 1. f. 6. En-
cyclop. Method, t. 248. f. 2. Donor. Brit. Shells, t. 174. M. Pic-
tornm. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 36.
This shell has been confounded with the true 31.
Pictorum, but may be distinguished by its shape, which
is always less pointed at the apex, and generally less
prominent at the beak, than in the M. Pictorum. It is
an olive green shell inclining to brown, with a pearly
inside, and a broad crenated tooth in each valve, be-
sides two lateral laminae, or plates, in one valve, and
one in the other, which lock together, and form the
hinge. Both ends of the shell are rounded, and in this
it principally differs from the following species.
It is common in Holland, and used by the Dutch
painters to contain a preparation of gold and silver
leaf. In England it is considered as a rare shell ; no-
ticed by Mr. Montagu, in the river Kennet, above the
town of Newbury in Berkshire, but no where else.
PL 19. /. 3, 4.
26. Mya Pictorum. M. testa ovata, cardinis dente primario crenulato,
laterali longitudinali, alterius duplicato. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12.
p. 1112. Linn. Gmel. p. 3218.
Shell oval, hinge with a crenated primary tooth ; a long lateral tooth in
one valve, and two in the other.
List. Anim. Ang. t. 2. f. 4. Append. 1. 1. f. 4. Conch.
t. 146. f. 1. 147. f. 3. Petiv. Gaz. t. 93. f. 9. Schroter Flussconch.
t. 3. f. 3. and t. 4. f. 6. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 46. f. 1.
Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 228. pi. 15. f. 4. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248.
f. 4. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 89. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 34. (Mya
ovalis.) Linn. Trans. 6. pi. 14, f. 7, 8, 9. and 8. p. 38.
This shell is of an oblong-oval shape, and longer in
proportion than the 31. Batava. It is covered with a
green epidermis, striated concentrically, which, in old
shells, is almost black. In young shells, the epidermis
is often wrinkled near the hinge, which part in old
shells is sometimes decorticated. The inside is pearly,
and the hinge is furnished with teeth of the same form
as in the M. Batava. The valves shut close in front,
but are a little open at each end.
MY A. 105
This is not an uncommon shell in many parts of
Europe; but it was first described and figured, as
English, by Lister, and is a frequent inhabitant of
the Thames, and other rapid rivers. It is used, like
the preceding species, to hold colours, and from that
circumstance, has received the name of Painters Gaper.
PI. 19./. 5. Mr. Sowerby.
27. Mya ovata. M. testa ovata, antrorsum angustata. Linn. Trans. 8.
Shell oval, narrow before.
List. Anim. Angl. App. f. 6. Donov. Brit. Shells, 1. 101. (M. depressa.)
and t. 122. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 34. and p. 563. Linn. Trans. 8.
This is a thick shell, narrower than the M. JBatava,
but broader than the M. Pictorum. It is covered with
a green epidermis, which varies to a dark brown, and
is striated concentrically; there are, in many speci-
mens, obsolete rays running from the hinge to the mar-
gin. The hinge, like that of the two preceding species,
has a large crenated tooth, besides a long lateral one,
in one valve, and two lateral teeth in the other. The
difference between these three species of shells, about
which there have been so many contradictory opinions,
can in no way be so clearly established as by figures ;
we have therefore endeavoured to exhibit good speci-
mens of each, that their respective peculiarities may be
' readily distinguished.
The M. ovata inhabits the fresh waters of different
parts of Europe, and is found in England, in the rivers
Froome and Avon, in Somersetshire, and in the New
River, near London.
106 MY A.
PL 20 and 21. Mr. Jennings.
28. Mya crassa. M. testa ovata, antrorsum angustata, vmbonibus decor-
Shell oval, narrow before, umbones decorticated.
A thick shell covered with a rough dark brown
epidermis, except near the hinge, where it is completely
decorticated. The shell is truncated towards the car-
tilage slope, and undulated from the hinge to near the
margin. The margin is smooth. The inside is pearly,
and the hinge is furnished with a very strong crenated
tooth, which fits into a similar depression in the op-
posite valve ; the lateral teeth are extremely thick and
rough ; there are two in one valve and one in the other.
The muscular depressions are deep and crenated. This
massy shell, figured from a specimen in the splendid
cabinet of Mr. Jennings, weighs a pound and six
ounces, and measures three inches and a half in length,
and six inches in breadth. Its country is unknown.
Pl.22./. 1, 2, 3, 4. Mr. Jennings.
29. Mya nodulosa. M. testa subovali, valvulis nodulosis ; cardinis
dente crasso, crenulafo.
Shell somewhat oval, valves knotted; hinge with a thick crenated tooth.
This species is remarkable for the knots with which
the outside of each valve is studded. In some places
these knots are perfectly distinct, but near the margin
they unite, and form waved ridges. This shell is of a
bottle-green colour, and more or less decorticated about
the hinge. The inside is pearly, and the teeth, like
those of the preceding species, are rough and clumsy.
Fig. 3, and 4, are a variety of the shell, somewhat differ-
ing in shape, but the same in every other respect as the
larger one ; perhaps the difference is owing merely to
age. This species is remarkably thick. Its country
PL 23. /. 1, 2, 3.
30. Mya margaritifera. M. testa ovata, anterius coarctata; cardinis
dente primario conico, umbonibus decorticatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
12. p. 1112. Linn. Gmel. p. 3219.
Shell oval, compressed on the fore part ; primary tooth of the hinge
conic, umbones decorticated.
Mya testa ovali-oblonga, apertura sinuata, natibus decorticatis. Mull.
Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2961.
List Anim. Angl. App. t. 1. f. 1. Conch, t. 149. f. 4. Knorr.
Vergn. 4. pi. 25. f. 2. Schrot. Flussconch. t. 4. f. 1. Born. Test.
p. 21. Penn. Br. Zool. 1812. pi. 46. f. 2. Da Cost. Brit Conch.
pi. 15. f. 3. Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 1. f. 5. Envy clop. Method, pi. 249.
f. 5. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 73. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 33. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 40.
The M. margaritifera is a strong oblong-oval shell,
covered with a thick, black epidermis. It is always
more or less decorticated about the hinge, and fre-
quently worm-eaten; the epidermis is concentrically
striated, and rather overlaps the margin. The inside
is of a bluish green colour, and pearly lustre; the
hinge has a prominent tooth in one valve, which locks
into a corresponding sulcus in the opposite valve; the
muscular depressions are very strong and rugged, par-
ticularly the one next the hinge.
This shell is confined to the rapid rivers of northern
climates. It is found within the Arctic circle, in Lap-
land, Sweden, Norway, Saxony, and England. Mr.
Montagu mentions it as common in the rivers of De-
vonshire which take their rise from the mountains of
Dartmoor, and adds that it is not uncommon in the
northern parts and in Wales.
It is this shell which occasionally produces pearls,
as has been already observed, in the general observa-
tions to the genus Mya. The shell represented in the
upper figure of pi. 23, has been selected for the purpose
of showing the usual situation of the pearls in these
shells, though they are sometimes found more towards
PL 24. /. 1, 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe.
31. Mya corrugata. M. testa rhombea, viridi; vmbonibus 7'ugosis.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3221. Mull. Hist. Verm. p. 214.
Shell rhombic, green ; unibones wrinkled.
Testa ovali viridescente, umbonibus corrugatis, sive rugosis. Chemn.
Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 22. a. b.
Schroter Flussconch. t. 9. f. 3. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248. f. 6.
This shell is of a grass-green colour, remarkably
corrugated near the hinge, and radiated down the sides.
It is thin, pellucid, and whitish, beneath the epidermis ;
the inside is marked with fine radiated striae ; the teeth
of the hinge resemble those of the M. Pictorum. It
inhabits the rivers of Coromandel, and is from three-
quarters, to an inch and a half broad.
32. Mya radiata. M. testa cequivahi, pellucida, tmuissime transversim
striata, viridi Jlavicante, livido-radiata ; valvis altero latere latissimis,
altero angustissimis . Linn. Gmel. p. 3220.
Shell of equal valves, pellucid, finely striated trausversely, yellowish
green with livid rays ; valves very broad on one side, and very narrow
on the other.
Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 2. f. 7. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248. f. 5.
/3. Musculus latior subfuscus, cteruleis lineis radiatus. List. Conch.
t. 152. f. 7.
This shell has much the habit of the M. JBatava, but
is broader, thinner, and more fragile. It is of a green
colour, decorticated about the hinge, and is regularly
rayed from hinge to margin. The primary tooth of the
hinge is crenated ; the inside clay coloured. Inhabits
the rivers of Malabar.
Lister has figured a brownish shell, with blue radiate
lines, which appears to be a variety of this species.
33. Mya rugosa. M. testa ovali, rugosa, extrinsecus virescente, intm
margaritacea ; cardinis dente primario crenulato, laterali longitudi-
nals, alterius duplicato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell oval, wrinkled, on the outside greenish, within pearly ; primary
tooth of the hinge crenulated, lateral teeth long, in one valve double.
Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1649.
This shell is described only by Chemnitz. It is
about an inch long, and an inch and three-quarters
broad. It is prettily wrinkled on the outside, and is
found in the rivers on the coast of Coromandel.
34. Mya nodosa. M. testa ovali, tenera, virescente, natibus nodulosis.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell oval, thin, greenish ; umbones knobby.
Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1650.
This is a green, fresh-water shell, smooth in every
part, except near the hinge, where a few knobs, or pro-
tuberances, appear. Its country is not mentioned.
35. Mya spuria. M. testa rhombea, viridi ; umbonibus glabris. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell rhombic, green ; umbones smooth.
Schrot. Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 5. Favanne Conch, t. 62. f. 11. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 249. f. 3.
This is a green shell, resembling in shape the M.
corrugata, but is nearly twice as large, and smooth
about the hinge. We have Schroter's authority for its
specific distinction. It inhabits the rivers of Tran-
36. Mya syrmatophora. M. testa ovata, depressa ; cardinis marginc ad
dentem primarium mucrone subulato, altero dilatato. Linn. Gmel.
Shell oval, depressed ; margin of the hinge with an-awl shaped projec-
tion near the primary tooth, that of the other valve dilated.
Gron. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 1. 2.
This species is about two inches and a quarter long,
and two inches broad. Gronovius describes it as
having marginal teeth on each side, with parallel du-
plicatures. It is nearly of a triangular shape. In-
habits the rivers of Guinea.
37. Mya suborbicularis. M. testa suborbiculari, valvulce alterius dente
primario solitario, alterius duplicate, dentibus lateralibus lamellatis.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 41.
Shell roundish, a single primary tooth in one valve, a double one in the
other, lateral teeth laminated.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 39. item. Suppl. pi. 26. f. 6.
This is a yellowish-white shell, frequently covered
with a brown epidermis, and faintly striated trans-
versely ; the inside glossy white.
Mr. Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the know-
ledge of this species, discovered it at Plymouth, in
hard lime-stone. He adds, that it is sometimes dredged
up, free of any extraneous substance, in Salcomb Bay,
Devonshire. It very strongly resembles the Tellina
cornea, but is not a fresh-water shell.
38. Mya variabilis. M. testa subrhombea, gibbosa, umbonibus longitu-
dinaliter corrugatis, cardinis dentibus duobus, apice diver gentibus,
foveis linearibus invicem insertis. Linn. Trans. 10. p. 327. t. 24.
f. 4, 5, 6, 7.
Shell somewhat rhombic, gibbous, umbones longitudinally wrinkled;
hinge with two teeth diverging at the apex, and inserted into corre-
sponding linear cavities.
This is one of the seven new species of Testacea,
described and figured by Dr. Maton, in the tenth
volume of the Linnaean Transactions. It is striated
transversely, and the longitudinal wrinkles disappear
towards the middle of the shell. The outside is brown;
the inside pearly, and bluish. The margin is some-
what angular before, and forms a straight line at the
hinge. The shell is about an inch long, and rather
less in breadth. Young shells are smaller, of a purple
colour within, with prominent wrinkles diverging from
the apex, nearly to the margin.
Dr. Maton describes this shell as varying so ex-
tremely in its structure and contour, according to its
several stages of growth, that if he had not been able
to compare them in their intermediate ages, he should
probably have been led to consider them as distinct
species ; a mistake which has often originated, as the
Doctor very justly remarks, from the want of similar
It is a fresh-water shell, and inhabits the Rio de la
Plata, in South America.
39. Mya labiata. M. testa subovali, valvis occlusissimis, alterius mar-
gine labii instar prominente. Linn. Trans. 10. p. 326. t. 24. f. 1, 2, 3.
Shell suboval, valves shut close, with one margin projecting like a lip.
A strong shell, with a green epidermis, transversely
striated, the fore part is somewhat beaked ; the inside
is pearly and shining. The hinge has a solid, projecting
tooth, in one valve, which is rather spoon-shaped, and
fits into a triangular cavity in the opposite valve ; the
umbones are very slightly prominent.
This shell described with the above by Dr. Maton,
was also received, through the medium of the Right
Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, from the aestuary of the Rio
de la Plata. The specimen from which the characters
were taken, measures about an inch in length, and
rather more than half an inch in width. Tts most
striking characteristic is the inequality of its valves,
part of the margin of one valve, projecting over the
corresponding part of the other, so as, exactly to re-
MY A. 113
semble a lip. In this particular it bears some resem-
blance to the following species, which derives its trivial
name from the inequality of its valves.
40. Mya inaequivalvis. M. testa subtriangulari ; umbonibus incurvatis,
gibbis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 40. t. 1. f. 6.
Shell somewhat triangular ; umbones convex and curved inwards.
Walker Test. Minut. Rar. pi. 3. f. 85. Encyclop. Method, pi. 230. f. 4.
a. b. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 38. item. Suppl. pi. 26. f. 7.
This is a small species, which seldom equals half an
inch in breadth. It is thick, rough, of a dirty white
colour, and has dissimilar valves, the upper one being
smaller and not so deep as the other. The lower valve
projects, on the fore part, into a beak, and is strongly
striated concentrically ; the upper valve is marked also
in the same manner, and has besides a few distant
longitudinal striae. It is generally covered with a brown
epidermis. There is a strong triangular tooth in one
valve, which fits into a notch in the other. There are no
Single valves of this shell are common on the Sand-
wich shore, but perfect shells are seldom obtained
unless dredged from the deep. Mr. Montagu noticed
it on the coasts of Cornwall and Devonshire, and pro-
cured live specimens in Salcomb Bay.
Bruguiere has placed this shell in a new genus, under
the name of Corbula.
PL 25. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
41. Mya Glycimeris. M. testa utrinque hiante, crassissima, lamellata,
oblongo-ovata, transverse striato-rugosa ; cardinis dente primario cras-
sissimo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222.
Shell gaping at both ends, very thick, lamellated, of an oblong oval, with
transverse wrinkled striae; hinge with a very thick primary tooth.
List. Conch, t. 414. f. 258. Gault. Test, pi 90. f. A. Born. Mus. p. 20.
pi. 1. f. 8. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 25. Donov. Brit. Shells. 1. 142.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 34. Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl.p. 19.
This is a very large shell, gaping greatly at both ends,
and often covered, externally, with unequal waved ridges,
distributed in the form of bands ; it is of a yellowish,
or reddish fawn colour, on the outside, and whitish with-
in ; the hinge is strongly united by cartilage, and there
is a thick tooth in one valve, which fits into a corre-
sponding cavity in the other. The anterior, or truncated
end of the specimen figured in pi. 25., is partly decom-
posed at the edge, where particles of the shell are form-
ed into small globular bodies, like those calcareous con-
cretions called Oolites.
This shell is about five inches long, and ten broad.
It is found in the Mediterranean, and on the coasts of
Spain, and the South of France, but never, we believe,
in England, though Donovan has admitted it among the
British Testacea. It is considered as an ambiguous
species, connecting the Mya with the Solenes, it is placed
therefore at the end of the genus.
It will be proper to observe in this place, that the
Mya Perna, of Linnaeus, is a muscle ; and that the Mya
Vulcella, is an oyster. The Mya oblonga, of Gmelin, is
the Mactra Mans; the Mya Gaditana, is the Mactra
Listeri ; and the Mya australis, is also a Mactra. The
Mya byssifera, is the Mytilus rugosus.
Testa bivalvis, oblonga, utroque latere hians.
Cardo, Dens subulatus, reflexus, saepe duplex ; non insertus testae op-
Animal an Ascidia.
Shell bivalve, oblong, open at both ends.
Hinge with an awl-shaped reflex tooth, often double ; not inserted in the
The soft animal contained within the Solen, or Razor-
shell, has at one extremity, a muscular subcylindrical
foot, and at the other a short double tube. It lives
constantly buried in the sand, and never, of its own
accord, comes entirely upon the surface. It is capable
of moving only in a perpendicular direction, and the
form of its shell, which is long and slender, is admi-
rably calculated for such a purpose. The hole which
the common species of our coasts make, is two or three
feet in depth ; the animal descends to the bottom, on
the ebbing of the tide, and returns towards the surface
as it flows. Thev may be seen near low water mark,
with their bodies protruding from their shells, in search
of food, but upon the approach of any one to disturb
them, they immediately shrink back, and sink into the
sand. They leave, on the top, a small dimple, which
marks their place, and betrays them to the fishermen.
A slight pinch of salt, laid upon their holes, is sufficient
to make them come to the surface ; and this, though
often repeated, will always succeed. It has been as-
serted, however, as a remarkable fact, that if the animal
be once handled, and afterwards suffered to retire, it
can never be raised again by a similar application.
They contrive to move in their perpendicular direction
with great celerity, and this operation is effected by
means of their foot, which is fleshy, moderately long,
and nearly round. With this foot, the animal is able to
bore a hole in the sand, for the passage of its shell; but
the precise manner in which this is managed, though
described by some authors, is likely to remain a mys-
tery, while sand continues opaque, and Solens work in
These fish are eaten in Italy, in France, and some-
times in England. The Irish eat them during Lent.
They are collected in three different ways — by enticing
them to the surface with salt ; by digging them out of
the sand with a shovel, or by striking them with a
bearded dart, while their necks are protruded in search
It may be observed that the ancients, who were not
backward in discovering what was fit to eat, were fond
of Solens. Athseneus directs them to be boiled or fried ;
or, what is still better, to roast them on live coals till
Aatf/,@<xvovTai ds sQQoi, nai •TYiyaviaroi
xgeiTTOVEs 5° slcriv ol /*£Xf> 1 r °v X <XVE ^ V &? avQpdxuv
Athen. Lib. 3. p. 90. e.
The same author, in page 86, quotes a commenda-
tion of Sophron, who not only praises them as great
delicacies, but says that they are particularly grateful
PI. 26. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby.
1. Solen Siliqua. S. testa lineari recta; car dine altero bidentato. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1113. Linn. Gmel. p. 3223.
Shell linear, straight ; hinge with a double tooth in one valve.
List. Hist. An. Angl. t. 5. f. 37.— Conch, t. 409. f. 255. Plan, Conch.
t. 3. f. 2. Gualt. Test. pi. 95. f. c. Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 7. f. 1. Penn.
Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. v. 4. p. 171. pi. 48. f. 1. Da Cost. Brit. Conch.
p. 253. pi. 17. f. 5. Encyclop. Method, pi. 222. f. 2. b. c. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 46. Linn. Trans, v. 6. pi. 14. f. 10. & v. 8. p. 43.
/3. List. Conch, t. 413. f. inf. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4. f. 29.
A pod-shaped shell, covered with an olive-green
epidermis, and striated transversely ; the striae turn
across the shell, increasing from the hinge, till they
reach the extremity, so as to form a triangular figure,
with a pointed apex ; there is a furrow along the back,
on each side of the cartilage. The inside is white,
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; there
are, besides, two remote central laminae. The shell is
straight, truncated at one end, and rounded, and turn-
ing rather outwards at the other. It measures eight
inches, and sometimes more, from end to end.
This is a common shell on the different European
shores, where it is collected for the sake of the fish, as
has been already observed in the general observations.
The variety referred to Lister and Chemnitz, is not
a straight, but a curved shell, and was named, by Dr.
Solander, Solen incurvatus.
-^^e 1 -
2. Solen Novacula. S. testa lineari recta, cardinibus unidentatis. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 44.
Shell linear, straight ; hinge with a single tooth in each valve.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 47.
As this is evidently a new shell, and described only
by Mr. Montagu, it will be but just to mark its specific
difference in his own words.
" Solen with a straight sub-cylindric shell, in every
respect like the Siliqua r except in the hinge, in which it
is essentially different, being furnished with one strong,
blunt, curved tooth, in each valve, at one end, destitute
of lateral laminae : these teeth turn contrary ways, and,
when closed, clasp or hook into each other. This
species may possibly have been confounded with the
foregoing from its external similitude, for we do not find
it noticed by any conchologist. It is found on the
sandy shores of Carmarthenshire, near Laugharne,
together with the Siliqua of a large size. We have
taken it full an inch long, and eight inches broad ; but
it is extremely rare."
PL 21. f. 1.
3. Solen Vagina. S. testa lineari recta, extremitate altera marginata,
cardinibus unidentatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1113. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3223.
Shell linear, straight, one end margined ; hinge with a single tooth in
Lister Conch, t. 410. f. 256. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 171. pi.
49. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4. f. 27 ? Linn. Trans. 6. pi. 14. f. 11.
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 28. pi. 4. f. 8. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 110.
This i& a perfectly straight shell, covered with an
orange-yellow epidermis, and often stained, in parts, of
a dark brown colour, by the mud in which it is found.
It is marked like the Siliqua, but without a furrow
running down the back, on each side the cartilage, as
in that shell. One end has a strong margin. Inside
white, with a single horizontal tooth in each valve,
sliding upon one another, when the shell is closed. —
Full-grown specimens are about five inches from end
This was reckoned a scarce species in England, by
Mr. Montagu, till some time previous to the appear-
ance of his supplementary publication on the Natural
History of British Shells, when he discovered a bed of
them in a sand-bank, near the salt stone, in the estuary
of Kingsbridge, Devonshire. Their habitations are
known by a small hole on the surface, and they bury
themselves to the depth of two feet, or more, beneath
the sand. They have never been scarce on the shore
at Sandwich, where the author has formerly picked up
a considerable number in a few days.
This shell is the true Solen Vagina of Linnaeus, who
has particularly noticed its margined end. His re-
ferences are, however, to the following shell, which
cannot be considered as a variety only, since it never
deviates from its particular characteristic distinction.
E=^s^a ! !
PL 26. /. 3, 4. # PL 27. /. 2. (Var. /3.) Dr. Coombe.
4. Solen truncata, S. testa lineari recta, extremitate altera truncata,
Shell linear, straight, one end truncated ; hinge with a single tooth in
Gualt. Test. t. 95. f. D. Knorr. Vergn. 1. pi. 28. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4.
f. 28. Encyclop. Method, pi. 222. f.l.b. Barbut's Shells, pi. 2. f. 4.
/3. Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. M. Gualt. Conch, pi. 95. f. E. D'Argen-
ville Conch, pi. 28. f. 1£. Favanne Conch, pi. 55. f. 2?. 1.
This shell may be immediately distinguished from the
preceding species, by its truncated end, which is so per-
fect, that it appears as if pared down by art, till the
teeth are seen close to the end of the shell. There is
not the vestige of a margin, in any of the many spe-
cimens which the author has had an opportunity to
examine. The var. /3. is shorter than the other, and
somewhat tapering towards its rounded end.
It is found in the American and Indian Seas, and
measures from three to seven inches, from end to end.
PI. 21. f. 3. Linn^an Society's Cabinet.
5. Solen linearis. S. testa lineari recta, cylindrica, tenuissima ; car dine
unidentato, extremitate quasi truncata.
Shell linear, straight, cylindrical, very thin ; hinge with a single tooth in
each valve, and nearly truncated.
Chem. Conch. 11. t. 198. f. 1931, 1932.
This is a very delicate shell, of a fine violet colour.
The teeth, of which there is one in each valve, slide upon
each other, when the shell is closed, the same as in the
S. Vagina. The specimen figured by Chemnitz, from
Spengler's Museum, measures two inches ; the subject
represented in PI. 27. is three inches and a quarter,
from end to end.
Inhabits the Indian Seas.
PL 28. /. 1, 2.
6. Solen Ensis. S. testa lineari subarcuata ; cardine altero bidentato.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel. p. 3224.
Shell linear, somewhat curved ; hinge with a double tooth in one valve.
List. An. Angl. App. pi. 2. f. 9. item Conch, t. 411. f. 257. D'Argen-
ville Conch, pi. 24. f. 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 48. f. 2.
Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 237. Chem. Conch. 6. t. 4. f, 30. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 223. f. 2. Schrot. Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 7. Pult. in Hutch.
Dorset, p. 28. pi. 4. f. 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 50. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 48. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 44.
The Solen Erisis is a thin, brittle shell, prettily mottled,
on the outside, with brown and green. It is always
curved, and most so in young shells. The inside is
bluish white, and the hinge consists of a single tooth in
one valve, which is inserted between two others in the
opposite valve, with a prominent continuation, part of
the way down the cartilage in both valves.
This species is found in the Mediterranean, and upon
the northern coasts. It is not a common species in
England, but is occasionally found upon our shores,
and particularly at Sandwich, where many specimens
have been collected at different times.
PL 28. /. 3.
7. Solen pellucid us. S. testa lineari subarcuata, dente alterius valvule
bifido. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 44.
Shell linear, somewhat arched, with a bifid tooth in one of the valves.
Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 137. pi. 49. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 11. p.
205. pi. 198. f. 1940. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 153. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 49.
We are indebted to Pennant for our knowledge of
this fragile and transparent shell. He found it at Red
Wharf, in Anglesey, and describes it as a somewhat
arched and oval shell, with a hinge consisting of a sharp
double tooth on one side, receiving a single one from
the opposite, with a process in each valve, pointing
towards the cartilage of the hinge. It is a very tender
shell, covered with a shining epidermis, of a light
greenish brown colour. It seldom measures more than
an inch from end to end.
Mr. Montagu found this shell in Cornwall, and some
specimens have been obtained, but very rarely from
Sandwich. The few that occur on the Sandwich shore,
have been found at low water, in the mud, near the
mouth of the haven.
PI. 28./. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby.
8. Solen Legumen. S. testa lineari-ovali, recta, cardinibus mediis biden-
tatis, alterius bifido. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel.
Shell linear-oval, straight ; teeth in both valves double ; in one valve
List. Conch, t. 420. f.264. Gualt. Test. t. 91. f. A. Adans. Seneg. 1. 19.
f. 3. Born Mus. pi. 2. f. 1, 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 49.
f. 3. Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 238. Chem. Conch. 6. t. 5. f. 32—34.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 225. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 4. f. 4.
Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 58. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 50. Linn. Trans,
8. p. 45.
This is a delicate white shell, very finely striated
concentrically, and covered with a yellowish epidermis.
It is broader at one end than the other, and the
narrow end is rounded, like the human nail, and in-
clines a little outwards. The inside is white, and the
hinge, which is placed towards the middle of the shell,
consists of two teeth in each valve ; on one side they
are erect, thin, and pointed, on the other they are thick,
broad, and diverging. There is a white ridge, running
from the bifurcation of the teeth, towards the middle of
the shell, and another, in a contrary direction, from
the edge of the hinge, towards the narrow end. It is
found of various sizes, measuring from one inch and a
half, to four inches, from end to end.
Inhabits the Mediterranean Sea, and Atlantic Ocean.
In England the species was long considered as very
rare, but it has been since found, on some shores,
abundantly. Montagu met with it on the coast of
Carmarthenshire, nearly an inch from hinge to margin,
and four inches from end to end. At Tenby, it is one
of the common species, and is also plentiful in Bidde-
ford Bay, on the coast of North Devon.
PL 29. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe.
9. Solen Cultellus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, subarcuata. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 1.2. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel. p. 3224.
Shell oblong-oval, somewhat arched.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. F. Petiven Gaz. pi. 17. Gualt. t. 90. f. E.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 36, 37. Encyclop. Method, pi. 223. f. 4.
The S. Cultellus is finely striated concentrically, and
covered with a brown epidermis, beneath which the
shell is of a dirty white, with tawny marks. It is
spotted within in the same manner, and there are two
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. It is rounded
at both ends, and is very brittle.
This species is found on the sandy shores of Am-
boyna and Tranquebar. It occurs of different sizes,
from one to four inches from end to end.
PL 29. /. 3. Dr. Coombe.
10. Solen antiquatus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, utrinque rotundata ; car-
dine alter o bidentato.
Shell oblong-oval, rounded at both ends ; hinge with two teeth in one
Adans. Seneg. t. 19. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 174. pi. 49.
f. 4. Schrot. Flussconch. t. 9. f. 17. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 45.
Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 114. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 52. Linn.Trans.
8. p. 46.
This shell is of a whitish colour, covered with a yel-
lowish-brown epidermis, and strongly striated concen-
trically ; two faint lines, without colour, diverge, in a
slight degree, from the hinge to the margin. The
shell gapes considerably at both ends; it is white
within, and has two erect teeth in one valve, receiving
one between them from the opposite side. These teeth,
however, are so deciduous, that we seldom meet with a
shell quite perfect. It is one inch long, or from hinge
to margin, and two inches broad.
This, which is the S. coarctatus of Gmelin, is a rare
species, and was first figured by Pennant, who found it
at Weymouth. Mr. Montagu mentions it from Looe in
PL 29. /. 4, 5. Dr. Coombe.
11. Solen fragilis. S. testa ovali-oblonga, tenui, alba, epidermide obscure
mridescente superinduta, cardine altero bidentato.
Shell oblong-oval, thin, white, and covered with a dark greenish epider-
mis ; hinge with two teeth in one valve.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1939. (Solen bidens). Pult. in Hutch.
Dorset, pi. 4. f. 5.
A thin, delicate, white shell, covered with a strong
green epidermis, except about the hinge, which is in
most specimens quite bare. In the middle it is some-
what depressed, and is rounded at both ends. The
principal characteristic is a strong red line, which
passes from the hinge towards the margin, declining in
colour as it proceeds. In the specimen under notice,
faint indications of two other lines, which are perfectly
white, may be perceived, in one valve, diverging from
the same point. The inside is white, and the hinge,
which is placed in the middle of the shell, has two teeth
on one side,' and one on the other.
This shell is an inhabitant of warm climates. In the
catalogue of Dr. Pulteney's shells, it is said to have
been found at Weymouth, in Dorsetshire, and on Stud-
land beach, in the same county.
PL 30. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
12. Solen strigilatus. S. testa ovali, oblique striata. Linn. Syst. Nat.
ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3225.
Shell oval, obliquely striated.
Lister. Conch, t. 416. f. 260. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 77. Gualt. Test.pl. 91.
f. C. Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 5. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 41, 42.
Encyclop. Method, pi. 224. f. 3.
/3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 43, 44. item 11. pi. 198. f. 1938. (S. Sanctae
This is a strong ventricose shell, round at one end,
and somewhat truncated at the other. It is of a
reddish colour on the outside, with two white rays
diverging from the umbo to the margin, and numerous
distinct striae, passing in a curvilinear direction over the
shell ; a few of these striae cross the others at one end.
The inside is white, the hinge towards the middle of
the shell, and the teeth three in number, two in one
valve, and one in the other. This species is subject to
vary considerably; some are entirely white, without
rays, and fewer striae. Others, though coloured, are
small, and also without rays, but are striated.
Inhabits the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the
PL 30. /. 2, 3, 4. Mr. Jennings.
13. Solen anatinus. S. testa membranacea injlata pilosa, cardinis costa
falcata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3225.
Shell membranaceous, inflated and hairy; hinge with a crooked rib.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. 0. Argenville Conch, pi. 22. f. R. Born Test.
p. 23. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 46 — 48. Encycl. Method, pi.
228. f. 3. a. b.
This is a very singular shell, pellucid, white, and
thin as paper. It is much inflated, and one end resem-
bles the beak of a duck. The hairiness mentioned by
Linnseus, may exist in some states of the shell, but it
has not been visible in any specimens seen by the
author. There is a spoon-shaped tooth in each valve,
with a curved rib running towards the interior of the
shell. A delicate suture is continued a little way from
the apex of the shell, which often cracks.
The S. anatinus inhabits the sandy shores of the
PL 31. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe.
14. Solen radiatus. S. testa ovali, recta, leevi; costa transversali adnata,
depressa. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 114. Linn. Gmel. 3225.
Shell oval, straight, and smooth, with a transversal depressed rib.
List. Conch, t. 422. f. 266. Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. E. Gualt.Test. t. 91.
f. B. Knorr. Vergn. 1. pi. 6. f. 5. BarbuVs Shells, pi. 2. f. 6.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 38 — 40. Encycl. Method, pi. 225. f. 2.
A thin smooth species, gaping at both ends, and ori-
ginally covered with a green epidermis, which falls off,
and leaves a delicate violet shell, finely striated concen-
trically, and marked with four white rays, diverging
from the apex to different parts of the margin. It is
marked within, the same as on the outside, and has
two teeth in each valve, with a strong, white, depressed
rib, running obliquely across the shell. It is some-
times found with two white rays instead of four. Large
specimens measure four inches from end to end.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and is found at Amboyna.
15. Solen Guineensis. S. testa alba, glabra, subpellucida, ventricosa,
Shell white, smooth, subpellucid, ventricose, gaping at both ends.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1937.
This shell is described only by Chemnitz. It is
strong, smooth, and white, and resembles Adanson's
Tagal, tab. 19. f. 1., but seems to be a thicker shell, with
a broad hinge, and a strong rib running across the
inside. The teeth are not visible in the figure repre-
sented by Chemnitz.
Inhabits the coast of Guinea.
PL 31./. 3.
16. Solen maximus. S. testa lineari-ovali, alba, subdiaphana, utrinque
hiante et rotundata; intus casta trans ver salt a car dine ad marginem
Shell linear oval, white, subdiaphanous, gaping, and rounded at both ends ;
a transversal rib within, running from hinge to margin.
This is a flat, white shell, covered with a yellowish-
green epidermis, striated concentrically, and very
glossy. From the hinge, which has two teeth in one
VOL. I. K
valve, and one in the other, there runs a strong rib,
which spreads as it proceeds across the shell, and is
lost near the margin ; the upper part of the muscular
depression is ridged, from the teeth towards the end of
the shell. The specimen represented in the plate
measures two inches from hinge to margin, and nearly
five inches from end to end.
17. Solen magnus. S. testa linear i-ovali, recta, arcuato-striata, cardi-
nibus lateralibus bidentatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. S. maximus.
Shell linear-oval, straight, with arched striae ; hinges lateral with two
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 35. S. maximus.
This shell was considered by Chemnitz as the largest
of the Solens, and named accordingly ; but the preced-
ing species being considerably larger, it was thought
proper to give to that the name of maximus, and to alter
this to magnus.
The S. magnus is described as thin, pellucid, and
white, when stripped of its yellowish epidermis ; it is
rounded, and gaping at both ends, and the teeth of the
hinge do not shut into each other. It is an inch and a
quarter from hinge to margin, and four inches broad.
Inhabits the shores of Nicobar, and is a very rare
PL 32. /. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe.
18. Solen inflexus. S. testa ovato oblonga, utrinque hiante, margine
subarcuata ; cardine altero bidentato, costa transversali prominente.
Shell oblong-oval, gaping at both ends, margin somewhat arched ; hinge
with two teeth in one valve, transversal rib prominent.
This species, which does not appear to have been
hitherto described, is of a whitish colour, finely striated
concentrically, and, when recent, covered with an
orange-brown epidermis. The margin is plain and
inflected, and the valves, when closed, touch only at
two points, the inflected part, and the hinge. There is
a very faint depression running obliquely from the apex
of the shell to the margin, the impression of which is
visible within. The inside is white ; the hinge has two
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. The trans-
versal rib is not flattened, as in some of the preceding
species, but prominent and well defined.
The specimen is in the possession of Dr. Coombe, but
its country is unknown.
19. Solen minimus. S. testa linear i-ov alt, recta, cardinibus lateralibus
bidentatis, alterius bifido. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227.
Shell linear-oval, straight ; hinges lateral, double toothed, one of them
Chem. Conch, pi. 5. 31. a. b.
This is a white, diaphanous, fragile shell, covered
with a yellowish epidermis ; it is rounded and gaping
at both ends. The inside has two teeth in each valve,
and a transversal rib running from the hinge to the
margin. It is an inch broad, and half as long.
Inhabits Tranquebar, and is a miniature representa-
tion of the S. maximus.
MOLINI S RAZOR.
20. Solen Macha. S. testa ovali-oblonga, anterius truncata ; cardine
nltero bidentato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3226.
Shell oblong-oval, truncated before ; hinge with two teeth in one valve.
Molini Hist. Nat. Chil. p. 178.
We have Molini's authority only for this species,
which he describes as of a brown colour varied with
blue. It is six or seven inches from end to end, and in-
habits the shores of Chili, where it buries itself in the
sand, and contains pearls.
21. Solen virens. S. testa ovato-oblonga, umbonibus tumidis. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3226.
Shell oblong-oval, with tumid umbones.
This is described by Gmelin as a very brittle, dia-
phanous shell, with unequal valves; it is of a white
colour with a greenish outside, and resembles in shape
the My a Pictorum; the tip and base are hardly closed;
the hinge has two approximate teeth in one valve, but
none in the other.
PI. 32. /. 3. Mrs. Mawe.
22. Solen Diphos. S. testa ovali, recta, Itevi ; umbonibus prominentibus.
Linn. Syst. Gmel. p. 3226.
Shell oval, straight, and smooth ; umbones prominent.
Valent. Mus. 1. 13. f. 5. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 53, 54. Item 11. pi.
198. f. 1933. (Solen Diphos Chinensis).
In the recent state, this shell is covered with a green-
ish epidermis; but, in cabinets, it is generally seen
without its native covering, and is of a violet colour,
with numerous rays diverging from the apex to the
margin; it gapes at both ends, is rounded behind, but
projecting into a beak before; the inside is wholly
violet, but on the outside, the violet is mixed with white.
Two white rays are figured by Chemnitz, crossing the
shell obliquely from the apex ; but these rays were not
remarkable in our specimen. The hinge has two teeth
in one valve, and one in the other.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean.
The variety described by Chemnitz, under the name
of Solen Diphos Chinensis, is a rounder shell, with two
very conspicuous white rays.
23. Solen roseus. S. testa rosea, aquivalvi; cardinis dente subbifido,
fovea alterius valvce inserto. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227.
Shell rosy, of equal valves ; hinge with a somewhat bifid tooth, inserted
into a cavity in the opposite valve.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 55.
This shell is of an oblong-oval shape, and, beneath its
greenish epidermis, is of a faint rose colour, both within
and on the outside. It resembles a Tellen, but is open
at both ends. Length an inch and a quarter ; breadth
two inches and a quarter.
Inhabits the Red Sea.
24. Solen striatus. S. testa cequivahi, transversim striata; cardinis
dente unico. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227.
Shell of equal valves, transversely striated ; hinge with a single tooth.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 57, 58.
This shell is of an oval shape, diaphanous, very
fragile, and finely striated transversely ; it is of a rose
colour without and within, with white rays diverging
from the apex to the margin ; both ends are open.
Inhabits the Nicobar Islands ; is five eighths of an inch
long, and about an inch broad.
25. Solen castrensis. S. testa <equivalvi,glaberrima t lineis triangularibus
insignita ; cardine unidentato.
Shell of equal valves, very smooth, and marked with triangular lines ;
hinge with a single tooth.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1935, 1936.
A thin, pellucid, white shell, of an oval shape, gaping
at both ends, and very singularly marked with zig-zag
lines of a purple colour. The lines appear on the in-
side, as well as without. The shell is about three quar-
ters of an inch long, and an inch and a half broad.
Inhabits the coast of Guinea.
PL 33, /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
26. Solen biradiata. S. testa ovali, cequivalvi, utrinque hiante ; cardine
Shell oval, of equal valves, and gaping at both ends ; hinge with two
teeth in each valve.
This species is of a dull purple colour, mixed with
brown, and has two white rays passing obliquely from
the apex to the margin. It is, when recent, covered
with a strong green epidermis, the remains of which
are seen on the margin of the figure. The inside, in
young specimens, is nearly white, but, in fall-grown
shells, excepting the muscular depressions, it is orange-
coloured. The shell is open at both ends, and has two
bifid teeth in each valve.
PL 33. /. 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe.
27. Solen vespertinus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, spadiceo-radiata ; cardinis
sinistra valvce dente solitario, duplici alterius inserto. Linn. Gmtl.
Shell oblong-oval, with carnation rays; hinge with a single tooth in
one valve, inserted between two other teeth in the opposite valve.
Born Mus. Test. pi. 2. f. 6, 7. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. v. 4. pi. 50.
f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 59, 60. Encycl. Method, pi. 228. f. 2.
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 29. pi. 5. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi.
41. f. 2. Montagu Test. Brit. p. 54. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 47.
An oblong-oval shell, striated concentrically, rounded
at one end, and somewhat truncated at the other ; it is
of a pale straw colour, with carnation rays, diverging
from the umbo to all parts of the shell ; gapes more
before than behind. The inside is yellowish white and
glossy ; the teeth are erect, two in one valve and one in
This species, which is the Tellina variabilis of some
authors, is subject to vary in colour, from purple to
orange, and pale yellow; the rays also differ in
strength, and number, some shells having the strongest
rays near the beak, and others being striated on the
inner margin. They vary in size from an inch to two
inches, and more, in breadth.
Inhabits the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic Ocean ;
it is also found in England, on the Dorset coast, at
Poole and Weymouth. Mr. Montagu met with it at
Falmouth in Cornwall, and, of a small size, at Kings-
bridge in Devonshire ; live specimens, however, are to
be taken only by dredging.
PL 33. /. 4, 5. Mrs. Mawe.
28. Solen sanguinolentus. S, testa ovali, glaberrima ; cardine calloso,
bidentato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227.
Shell oval, very smooth ; hinge callous, with two teeth.
List. Conch, t. 397. f. 236. Knorr. Vergn. 4. pi. 3. f. 4. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 7. f. 56. Encyclop. Method, pi. 227. f. 1.
A smooth, oval shell, of a red colour, particularly
about the apex ; it is rounded behind, produced, and
gaping before ; the inside is red, with a few faint indi-
cations of rays ; the hinge has a single tooth on one
side, which shuts between two others in the opposite
valve. The length, or from hinge to margin, an inch
and a quarter ; the breadth two inches.
Inhabits the coast of Jamaica, and some other of the
29. Solen occidens. S. testa transverse striata, ad nates glabra, albo
rubelloque radiata, cardine utroque bidentato,foveola intermedia. Linn,
Gmel. p. 3228.
Shell transversely striated, smooth at the apex, with rays of a white and
reddish colour; hinge having two teeth in each valve, with an inter-
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 61.
This shell is finely striated transversely, and partially
spotted with red and white ; it is obliquely rayed from
the apex to the margin ; one end is rounded, the other
somewhat truncated ; both ends gape ; the inside is
white. It is about two inches and a half in length, and
four inches in breadth.
Inhabits the Western Ocean.
30. Solen Spengleri. S. testa natibus bipartitis ; cardinis dente primario
rotundato, accessoriis longis angustis ; altero curvato. Linn. Gmel.
Beaks of the shell two-parted, primary tooth of the hinge rounded, ac-
cessary ones long and narrow, one of them curved.
Speng. Catal. Rais. pl.l. f. 8, 9.
A species described only by Spengler. It is rounded
at both ends ; is about an inch from hinge to margin,
and two inches and a half from end to end.
PL 34./. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
31. Solen Amethystus. S. testa oblongo-ovata, compressa, transversim
striata, utrinque hiante ; cardine altero bidentato, dentibus lateralibus
Shell oblong-oval, compressed, transversely striated, and gaping at both
ends ; hinge with two teeth in one valve ; no lateral teeth.
Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 12. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 93. Tellina
Ail oblong-oval shell, of a dull purple colour, with
deeper rays of the same ; one end is rounded, the other
somewhat truncated; both ends gape; it is striated,
transversely, the striae on the rounded end, distant;
the middle of the shell is interlined. The striae are
waved over a faint ridge, which runs obliquely from
the apex to the margin, on the fore part of the shell.
Inside purple and white ; hinge with a notched tooth in
one valve, received between two others in the opposite
valve ; one of the two teeth is frequently wanting. An
inch and a quarter long, or from hinge to margin, and
two inches and a half broad.
The same reason which placed the Tellina variabilis
among the Solens, will also authorise the removal of this
shell to the same genus. Several specimens have been
examined, and all of them are found to close in the
middle, but to gape at each end. Chemnitz has re-
ferred it to the Tellina Gari, but that shell is particu-
larly distinguished by Linnaeus, as being striated ob-
liquely, as well as transversely, which is not the case
with the subject under our present consideration. It
is well represented by Chemnitz.
PL 34. /. 2, 3, 4. Mrs. Mawe.
32. Solen variegatus. S. testa oblongo-ovata, anterius truncata, hiante ;
cardine altero bidentato.
Shell oblong-oval, truncated before, and gaping ; hinge with two teeth
in one valve.
This elegant little shell is stained with purple and
orange colour, in a singular manner. The purple
passes from the umbo more than half way down the
shell, and then turns forwards to cover the truncated
end. In the inside, the boundary of this stain is parti-
cularly apparent. Faint and narrow rays of purple
pass also from the apex to the margin, on the rounded
end of the shell, which, except from this interrup-
tion, is entirely of an orange colour. The hinge has
two teeth in one valve, and one in the other. The shell
is thin and pellucid, and gapes at the truncated end.
PL 34./. 5, 6.
33. Solen minutus. S. testa ovali, vahularum angiitis utrisque serratis.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. GmeL p. 3226.
Shell oval ; angles of the valves serrated.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 50, 51. Encyclop. Method, pi. 234. f. a. b.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 53. pi. 1. f. 4. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 47. Penn.
Br. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 175.
This species is particularly remarkable for two rows
of spines, which run from the apex to the anterior
margin of the shell ; the valves are dissimilar, the under
valve projecting in a slight degree over the other, ex-
cept at the truncated end. It is a white shell, trans-
versely striated, or rather wrinkled, with a single tooth
in one valve inserted into a corresponding cavity in the
opposite valve. The specimens found in England are
not more than a quarter of an inch from hinge to
margin, and half an inch in breadth ; but they have been
found of double those dimensions, on some of the Eu-
Mr. Montagu found the S. minutus burrowed in hard
lime stone, at Plymouth, but it is very rare as a British
species. It inhabits Norway and Greenland.
34. Solen squaramosus. S. testa suborbiculari ; cardinis dentibus duobus
bifidis, ab umbone diver gentibus. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 48.
Shell somewhat orbicular ; hinge with two bifid teeth, diverging from the
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 565. Penn. Br. Zool. v. 4. p. 175.
A very thin, pellucid, white shell, extremely flat, of a
somewhat circular shape, and in appearance like the
scale of a fish. The outside is covered with minute
punctures ; the inside is smooth, white, and glossy. The
teeth, which are two, are thin and erect.
Mr. Montagu, who has added this species to the list
of British Testacea, has found a single valve only, on
sand in Sal comb Bay, Devonshire. It was three eighths
of an inch long, and half an inch broad.
35. Solen Pinna. S. testa depresso-subovata ; valvulisad cardinem rcctis.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 48.
Shell somewhat oval, depressed ; valves, from the hinge, straight.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 566. pi. 15. f. 3. Penn. Br. ZooL 1812. v. 4. p. 175.
This is a thin, brittle, pellucid, white shell, depressed
and strongly wrinkled concentrically : one valve is
rather concave, the other convex ; both valves are con-
nected by a cartilage, which runs in a straight line from
the hinge to the extremity of the shell, giving it the ap-
pearance of an oval, divided in its longer diagonal. The
inside is white, and has a blunt tooth in each valve,
standing by the side of each other when the valves are
closed, but not inserted ; the largest tooth is in the
Mr. Montagu, to whom conchology is so much in-
debted, has also discovered this shell, and given it the tri-
vial name of Pinna, from the circumstance of the valves
being connected, along one side of the shell, like the
species of that genus. It is about the size of half the
thumb nail, divided lengthwise. It was taken alive, by
dredging, at Torcross in Devonshire.
In concluding the descriptive account of the species
belonging to the genus Solen, it must be noticed that the
S. crispus of Gmelin, p. 3228. No. 22, is the Pholas cris-
pata, before described by him in its proper place, p. 3215.
No. 6, with a reference to Lister, which reference he
has repeated in the genus Solen.
Testa bivalvis, anterius hinc ad alterum latus flexa.
Cardinis dentes (utplurimum) tres; laterales plani alterius testa?.
Animal a Tethys.
Shell bivalve, the anterior part curved to one side.
Hinge usually with three teeth ; lateral teeth, in one of the valves, flat.
The shells of this genus are, with one or two excep-
tions, of equal valves. That part of the Linnaean de-
finition, which relates to the anterior part being curved
to one side, must be taken with some limitation, since,
in many species of the genus, this flexure is not visible;
but the striae, where this is wanting, are generally seen
to diverge on the same part of the shell. Several of the
species are deficient in lateral teeth.
There is so little apparent difference between some of
the Tellens, and shells of other genera, especially those
of Solen, and Venus, that it is sometimes difficult to de-
cide to what particular genus they properly belong. This
similitude was the cause of great confusion among both
ancient and modern conchologists, till Linnaeus affixed
his scientific characters to the genus, and determined
the species. Still, however, in the opinion of the French,
there is room for improvement, since from the Linnsean
Tellens they have formed three new genera, namely,
Pandora, Capsa, and Lucina.
The animals inhabiting this genus differ but very
little from those which occupy the shells of the genus
Cardium and Venus. They are provided, before, with
two simple and very long siphons, one of which (the
largest) serves for the passage of the food, and the other
for that of the excrements. They have, besides, a lingui-
form muscle, which projects from the hind part of the
shell, and serves for a foot. These animals form the
genus Peroncea of Poli, who has given elaborate ana-
tomical figures of them, in his splendid work on the
Testacea of the Two Sicilies. What locomotion they
possess is effected by opening and shutting the valves,
at the same time lengthening and contracting their foot,
by which means they accomplish their purpose, and
move as far through the mud, or sand, as their limited
powers of exertion will permit, or their wants require.
. * Shells oval and thickish.
1. Tellina gargadia. T. testa subrotunda, compressa, anterius rugosa,
rima dentata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel.
Shell roundish, compressed, and wrinkled on the fore part ; valves
toothed on the slope.
Petiv. Gaz. pi. 18. Rumph. Mus. t. 43. f. N. Favanne Catal. No. 1539.
t. 6. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 63, 64. a. b.
A small, roundish, white shell, with a slight flexure
before ; the anterior half transversely wrinkled ; the
fente is open, and the marginal slope thin, and set with
about seven erect teeth; the inside is yellowish, and
the middle tooth of the hinge cleft. Length an inch and
a quarter ; breadth rather more.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and is a rare shell.
PL 40. /. 2, 3. Mr. Strong.
2. Tellina Lingua-felis. T. testa subovata, scabra ; squamulislunatis quin-
cuncialibus. Linn. Syst. Nat, ed. 12. p. 111.6. Linn. Gmel. p. 3229.
Shell somewhat oval, rough; set with lunate scales disposed in a quin-
Petiv. Gaz. t. 17. Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 76. f. B.
Knorr. Vergn. 2. pi. 2. f. 1. Favanne Conch, pi. 40. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 8. f. 65. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 6. Marty n Univ.
Conch. 4. pi. 138.
This is a very delicate species, rough, like shagrin,
on the surface, and rayed, and striped with pink ; the
scales are erect, and acute, and the fore part of the
shell is sloping, and angular; the inside is white, and
the middle tooth of the hinge is notched ; lateral teeth,
on both sides, acute, and inserted into the opposite
margin. Length from one inch to two, breadth rather
Inhabits the Indian Ocean.
The figures of this shell by Knorr, and Martyn, are
very beautifully drawn.
PL 35. f. 2, 3. Mrs. A. Schutz. Var. /3, pi. 36. f. 2. Dr. Coombe.
3. Tellina virgata. T. testa ovali, striis transversis, recurvatis y anterius
angulata ; dentibus lateralibus, prominulis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel. p. 3229.
Shell oval, with transverse recurved striae, angular before ; lateral teeth
Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 86. f. G. Knorr Vergn.
2. t. 21. f. 4. and 4. pi. 25. f. 1. Argenv. Conch, t. 22. f. G. Fa-
vanne Conch, t. 49. f. F. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 66 — 72. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 288. f. 2, 3, 4.
A flattish shell, concentrically striated, and marked
with red rays on a yellow ground ; the inside yellowish,
and often rayed like the outside; the hinge has two
teeth in one valve, and a cleft tooth in the other ; remote
teeth pointed. This shell is subject to vary consi-
derably in colour; the variety &. pi. 36. f. 2. is a stri-
king instance, being rayed with rose colour on a white
ground. The usual measure is about one inch and
a half from apex to margin, and two and a half broad.
Inhabits the Indian and Atlantic Seas, and is not un-
The figure in Gualtieri, pi. 89. f. E, referred to by
VOL. I. L
Gmelin as a variety of this species, is too unlike the
shell to be quoted.
PL 36. /. 3.
4. Tellina interrupta. T. testa oblonga, crassiuscula, antice angu-
lata, rostrata, inflexa, dentibus lateralibus prominulis.
Shell oblong, thickish, angular before, beaked, and turned inwards;
lateral teeth rather prominent.
List. Conch, t. 399. f. 238. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 73. Encyclop.
Method.^. 288. f. 7.
This shell, which is the T. interrupta of Dr. Solan-
der, is strongly striated transversely, and covered, ex-
cept at a few intervals, with interrupted lines of tawny,
or brown, freckles. The beak is inflected, and wrinkled.
The inside is glossy and yellow, with a white margin.
Inhabits the Indian and American Seas.
It is perfectly distinct from the T. virgata, though
considered as a variety of that shell by Chemnitz. It
has not been noticed by Gmelin.
PI. 43. f. 1. LinnjEAN Society's Cabinet.
5. Tellina angulata. T. testa subovata, striis transversis, recurvatis, an
terius angulata ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel. p. 3329.
Shell somewhat oval, angular before, with transverse recurved striae ; no
List. Conch, t. 406. f. 252. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 75. Encyclop.
Mdhod. pi. 290. f. 3. Schrot. Conch. 2. p. 643. pi. 7. f. 8.
This species is distinguished by its abrupt slope on
the hind part of the shell ; it is of a white colour, round-
ed before, and faintly striated transversely ; the inside is
white, and the lateral teeth are wanting. It inhabits
the Indian Ocean, and is usually about an inch and a
half long, and two inches broad.
The figure in Lister, pi. 388. f. 235., referred to by
Gmelin, is not this shell ; and figure 74, in pi. 9. of
Chemnitz, may be considered as a variety of the T.
angulata, but not so characteristic of the species as
6. Tellina Gari. T. testa ovali, striis transversis recurvatis ; dentibus
lateralibus obsoletis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117- Linn. Gmel.
Shell oval, with transverse recurved striae ; lateral teeth obsolete.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. D. Knorr Vergn. 6. t. 12. f. 2. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 10. f. 92. Schrot. Conch. 2. p. 644. pi. 7. f. 9.
j3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 94.
This species varies in its colours, like the T. virgata,
and somewhat resembles that shell in shape, but is of a
smaller size, and narrower. It is a little inflected be-
fore, and has transverse wrinkles, crossed in the middle
by perpendicular, or rather oblique, striae. The pre-
vailing colour is cinereous, with, or without, brown
rays ; sometimes it is white with blue rays, and some-
times bluish, spotted with white, and rayed with red ;
it occurs also of a reddish-white with red rays. The
variety noticed by Chemnitz, pi. 10. f. 94. is a rough
shell, with diverging striae : his figure 93., is a Stolen,
see the Amethystine Razor.
This shell was first discovered by Rumphius ; it
inhabits the Indian Ocean,
7. Tellina fragilis. T. testa ovata, alba, gibba, striis transversis recur-
vatis ; natibus jlavescentibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3230.
Shell oval, white, gibbous, with transverse recurved striae; beaks yel-
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 84.
This is a white shell, with decussated striae ; the
hinge has two teeth in one valve, and a single cleft tooth
in the other ; both valves are without lateral teeth. It
is about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch
Inhabits the European Ocean, and Caspian Sea.
This is a very different shell from the T. fragilis, of
Pennant, which shell is the Mya praetenuis, of Montagu.
PI. 41. /. 2, 3. Linnjean Society's Cabinet.
8. Tellina rugosa. T. testa ovata, rugis transversis undulatis ; cardi-
nis dentibus lateralibus duobus, primario in sinistra valva unicojisso, in
altero duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3230.
Shell oval, with transverse waved wrinkles; hinge with two lateral
teeth ; left valve with a single cleft primary tooth, the other valve
Born. Mus. Test. pi. 2. f. 3, 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 62. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 270. f. 1.
A whitish shell, with rugged, waved strise, and angu-
lated beak ; the inside is white, and there are two teeth
at the hinge in each valve ; there is a cleft tooth in one
valve, and strong lateral teeth in the other. The usual
length about an inch and a half; breadth two inches.
Inhabits the Indian and American Seas.
The specimen figured in pi. 41. is remarkable for its
waved striae, which are not so conspicuously undulated
in larger shells.
9. Tellina inflata. T. testa rotundata, crassa, tota nivea, gibba ; striis
longitudinalibus subtilissimis, Linn. Gmel. p. 3230.
Shell rounded, thick, gibbous, and quite white ; finely striated longitu-
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 76.
This shell is very slightly produced before, but not
pleated. It has a bifid tooth in one valve, and remote
lateral teeth ; the longitudinal striae are very fine, and
best seen with a lens. It is described only by Chem-
nitz, and its country is not mentioned.
10. Tellina crystallina. T. testa subtriangulari, alba, pellucida, antice
inftexa> transversim costata.
Shell subtriangular, white, pellucid, transversely ribbed, and angular
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1947, 1948.
This is a small, white shell, distinctly ribbed, and
curved, or angular, on the fore part. It is described by
Chemnitz, from a specimen in Spengler's Cabinet, and
is about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch
11. Tellen multangula. T. testa ovata, subventricosa, inaequivalvi, de-
cussatim striata, anterius sinuata ; cardinis dente primario in sinistra
valva solitario Jisso, in altera duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3230.
Shell oval, of unequal valves, somewhat ventricose, with decussated striae,
and grooved before ; hinge with a single primary cleft tooth in the
left valve, and two in the other.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 77.
This is a rough, inflated shell, of a whitish ash
colour, thickly striated transversely, and crossed, with
finer striae, longitudinally ; it is about an inch and three
quarters long, and two inches and a half broad.
Inhabits the shores of Tranquebar.
12. Tellina papyracea. T. testa tenui, ovata, ventricosa, transversim
striata, anterius plicato-rugosa ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus nullis,
primariis duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell thin, oval, ventricose, and transversely striated, with pleated
wrinkles on the fore part; hinge without lateral teeth, but with two
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 78. Encyclop. Method, pi. 290. f. 14.
A brittle, white shell, rounded at one end, and some-
what truncated and wrinkled at the other, with a con-
siderable flexure in the middle; smooth and white
within. Measures an inch in length, and an inch and a
half in breadth.
Inhabits the Coast of Guinea, but is very rare.
13. Tellina gibbosa. T. testa subtrigona, ventricosa, subtiliter transver-
sim striata; cardinis dente later all valido. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell somewhat triangular, ventricose, finely striated transversely; hinge
with a strong lateral tooth,
Gualt. Test. pi. 77. f. Q.
A heart-shaped shell, of a whitish green colour,
much inflated, and bending inwards on both sides;
hinge with a single primary tooth. Length three quar-
ters of an inch, breadth the same. Described only by
14. Tellina inaequilatera. T. testa tequivalvi, subrotunda, alba, striis
versus marginem nonnullis transversis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell of equal valves, roundish, white; with a few transverse striae to-
wards the margin.
Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. C.
This is an obscure species, described by Gualtieri,
but very indifferently defined.
15. Tellina Knorrii. T. testa splendide rubra, margine violacea. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell bright red, with a violet margin.
Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 21. f. 5.
This species, which has been named after its disco-
verer, is an inch and a quarter long, and two inches
broad. Its country is not mentioned.
16. Tellina pusilla. T. testa ovata, ventricosa, tenui, transverse striata;
cardine in altera valva edentulo, in altera dente primario duplici.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell oval, ventricose, thin, transversely striated ; hinge in one valve
toothless, in the other a double primary tooth.
Schr'dt. Flussconch. pi. 4. f. 7. a. b.
A very small, brittle shell, of a dirty white colour.
Inhabits the European rivers.
PL 41. /. 4,5. Linn^an Society's Cabinet.
17. Tellina obliqua. T. testa ovali, glaberrima, lineis interruptis pur-
purascentibus insignita; dentibus later alibus prominulis.
Shell oval, very smooth, and marked with interrupted purple lines;
lateral teeth rather prominent.
This species is prettily marked with short, irregular
purple lines, that appear on the inside, as well as
without; the hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one
in the other, besides the remote teeth ; the margin is
plain. It is an inch long, and an inch and a quarter
It is arranged among the Tellens, in the Linnaean So-
ciety's collection of Shells, under the name of Obliqua :
resembles the Venus Meroe, but has not a denticulated
18. Tellina maculata. T. testa subovata, crassiuscula, decussation, striata,
maculis irregularibus. Adams in Act. Soc. Linn. 3. p. 252. Item
8. p. 48.
Shell sub-oval, thickish, with decussated striae, and irregular spots.
This species, which was found at Tenby, in South
Wales, by the late Mr. Adams, has been admitted on his
authority into the excellent descriptive catalogue of
British Testacea, with which Dr. Maton, and Mr.
Rackett, have enriched the eighth volume of the Lin-
PI. 47. /. 6.
19. Tellina amnica. T. testa oblique subovata, transversim sulcata.
Maton in Act. Soc. Linn. 3. p. 44. pi. 13. f. 37, 38. (T. rivalis), and
8. p. 60.
Shell obliquely sub-oval, transversely grooved.
Testa subcordiformi, transversim sulcata, umbone obtuso. Linn. Gmel.
p. 3242. Mull. Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2967.
Gualt. Test. pi. 7. f. C. C. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 134. Donov. Brit.
Shells, t. 64. f. 2. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 2. a. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 86. Cardium amnicum.
A convex shell, somewhat heart-shaped, transversely
grooved, and of a shining horn colour. The inside is
bluish-white ; the hinge is not in the middle of the
shell ; there are two teeth in one valve, and one in the
other, besides the lateral teeth, which are strong and
conspicuous. Length about a quarter of an inch,
breadth three eighths of an inch.
Inhabits the Thames, and other European rivers.
Was first distinguished as British by Dr. Maton, who
found it in the River Avon.
** Shells oval and compressed.
PI. 36./. 1. Dr. Coombe.
20. Tellina foliacea. T. testa ovali, pube scabra, rima serrata. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117. Linn. Gmel p. 3232.
Shell oval, angular compartment rough, fente serrated.
Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. K. Argenville Conch, pi. 22. f. E. Favanne
Conch, pi. 49. f. S. 2. Knorr Vergn. pi. 29. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 10. f. 95. Encyclop. Method, pi. 287. f. 4.
A very flat shell, of a fine orange colour, delicately,
but distinctly, striated transversely. One end is round-
ed, the other truncated and angular, with rough longi-
tudinal striae ; the upper edge, from the apex, is toothed.
The hinge has a bifid tooth in one valve, and a plain
tooth in the other; lateral teeth slight, and near the
hinge. Length two inches, breadth rather more than
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and was first described by
21. Tellina albida. T. testa ovali Icevi ; nymphis prominentibus. Linn.
Mus. Lud. Ulr. 479. No. 23. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231.
Shell oval and smooth ; nymphae prominent.
This species, according to Linnaeus, is faintly striated
transversely. It is the size of an egg, of a reddish white
on the outside, and quite white within : the hinge has a
distinct suture on each side, marked with minute trans-
verse red striae ; in each valve there are three teeth.
Inhabits the European Ocean.
PI. 44. /. 3, 4.
22. Tellina tenuis. T. testa subtriangulari-planimcuia, tenerrima.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52.
Shell very thin, flat, and subtriangular.
List. Conch, pi. 405. f. 251. Petiver Gaz. t. 94. f. 5. Da Cost. Brit.
Conch, p. 210. Chem. Conch, pi. 12. f. 117. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset.
p. 30. pi. 5. f. 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 19. f. 2. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 59. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4.
pi. 51. f. 2.
A very thin, brittle, depressed shell, finely striated
transversely, and somewhat angular before. It varies
greatly in colour, being white, or red, or flesh-coloured, or
yellow, or variegated with different colours, disposed in
zones, over the surface of the shell ; the hinge has a single
bifid tooth in each valve. Length about half an inch,
breadth three quarters.
Inhabits the European Seas, and is very common on
many of the sandy shores of Great Britain.
This is a distinct species from the T.planata, of Lin-
naeus, with which it has sometimes been confounded.
It was discovered by Lister, who has given a very good
figure of the shell.
PL 45. /. 4.
23. Tellina fabula. T. testa ovata, compressa, inflexa, anterius subros-
trata ; valva altera lcevi y altera oblique substriata, striis reflexis. Linn,
Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell oval, compressed, inflected, a little produced before ; one valve
smooth, the other with oblique reflected striae.
Gronov. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 9. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 30. pi. 12. f. 3.
andf. 3. a. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 97. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 61.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52.
A thin, white shell, not in shape unlike the T. tenuis,
but more produced before. It is distinguished imme-
diately by its valves, one of which is quite plain, while
the other is marked obliquely with almost impercep-
tible striae. Specimens have occurred, though very
rarely, striated on both sides. The hinge has three
teeth in one valve, and two in the other. Length half an
inch, breadth three quarters of an inch.
Inhabits the European and American Seas, and is
found on some of the sandy shores of England and
Wales. Many very fine specimens have been collected
at Sandwich in Kent, where it was first discovered by
the late Mr. Boys, mixed with T. tenuis.
F'Z. , 44
24. Tellina planata. T. testa ovata, compressa, transversim substriata,
Icevi; marginibus acutis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3232.
Shell oval, compressed, transversely substriated, smooth; margins
Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. G. Rugenf. Conch, pi. 3. f. 28. Born Test. pi. 2.
A very flat shell, pellucid, and of a flesh colour ;
slightly curved, with very sharp margins.
This species has been confounded with the T. tenuis ;
but it is evident, from his references, that Linnaeus meant
a different shell. Gmelin's T. complanata, p. 3239, is this
PL 44. /. 1.
25. Tellina acuta. T. testa ovata, compressa, longitudinaliter subtilissime
striata ; marginibus acutis.
Shell oval, compressed, very finely striated longitudinally; margins
This is a flat, thin, pellucid shell, of a white colour,
with a tinge of yellow near the apex, but not perceptibly
rayed. The surface is marked longitudinally with ex-
tremely fine striae ; the beak is slightly curved, and the
angle is determined by a concavity running from the
apex to the margin, in the upper shell ; the margins are
very sharp-edged. The hinge has two teeth in one valve,
and one in the other ; there is but one lateral tooth.
The shell is two inches long, and three and a quarter
Inhabits the West Indies.
This species greatly resembles the T. planata. The
figure in Gtialtieri, to which Linnaeus has referred, is
very like our present subject, but it is broader in pro-
portion to its length, and the margin is somewhat in-
PL 38./. 2, 3. Dr. Coombe.
26. Tellina radiata. T. testa oblonga, longitudinaliter subtilissime sub-
striata, nitida, sutura anali canaliculata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12.
p. 1117. Linn. Gmel. p. 3232.
Shell oblong, very finely striated longitudinally, polished ; suture behind
the beaks channelled.
List. Conch, t. 393. f. 240. Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. 1. Argenville Conch.
pi. 22. f. A. Knorr Delic. Nat. pi. B. 3. f. 8. Vergn. 1. pi.
19. f. 1. and 4. pi. 2. f. 2. 4. Rugenf. Conch. 1. pi. 8. f. 22. Chem.
Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 102. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 2.
This is a highly polished, oblong shell, rayed with
red on a white ground ; it varies in colour, being some-
times without rays, and sometimes banded with yellow.
The beak is slightly inflected, and the margin smooth,
blunt, and somewhat incurved. The inside is white, or
yellowish, and often stained near the margin, like the
rays on the outside ; the hinge has two teeth in one
valve, and one in the other ; the lateral teeth are remote.
The size of the shell varies from one inch in breadth,
to more than three.
Inhabits the American Seas, and is not uncommon in
the West Indies.
The shells quoted by Gmelin, as varieties, must be
rejected, except Knorr's figure, which is our yellow
variety, pi. 38. f. 3.
PL 44. /. 2. Dr. Coombe.
27. Tellina sanguinea. T. testa ovato-oblonga, anterius angulata, sub-
rostrata, transversim striata ; car dims dentibus later alibus acutis.
Shell oblong-oval, angular and somewhat beaked before, transversely
striated ; hinge with pointed lateral teeth.
A thin shell, of a red colour, strongly striated trans-
versely, and crossed by almost imperceptible longitudinal
striae ; it is of an oblong oval shape, very slightly in-
flected at the beak. The inside is reddish- white ; the
hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one in the other ;
the lateral teeth are sharp-pointed.
This shell is in the cabinet of Dr. Coombe. It is
allied, in shape, to the T. lanceolata, of Chemnitz.
PL 37. f. 3. Dr. Coombe.
28. Tellina rostrata. T. testa oblonga, antice angulato-rostrata ; an-
giitis subdentatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. GmeL
Shell oblong, with an angular beak before ; the angles slightly toothed.
List. Conch, pi. 382. f. 225. Petiver Amboin. pi. 17. f. 20. Rumph.
Mus. pi. 45. f. L. Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. T. Argenville Conch, pi.
22. f. O. Favanne Conch, pi. 49, f. B. Knorr Vergn. 4. pi. 2. f. 3. 5.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 105. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 1.
A' thin, compressed, oblong shell, with a remarkably
produced, angular beak ; the upper part is of a polished
rose colour, near the margin it is of a dull green ; the
surface is striated transversely, and the margin is incur-
vated towards the beak ; the inside is rose-coloured ;
the teeth, at the hinge, are bifid, and the lateral teeth are
Inhabits the Indian Ocean.
The references of Gmelin to Lister, pi. 395. f. 242. to
Gualtieri, Test. pi. 86. f. D. to Born Test. pi. 2. f. 12.
and to Chemnitz, 6. pi. 10. f. 96. must be rejected, as not
belonging to this species. Figure 104, however, of
Chemnitz, may be admitted as a variety.
PL 41. /. 1. Linn^ian Society's Cabinet.
29. Tellina laevigata. T. testa ovata, laevigata , dentibus lateralibus mar-
ginatis, pube striato-scabra, nymphis in/lexis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
12. p. 1 1 17. Linn. Gmel. p. 3232.
Shell oval, smooth; lateral teeth margined, angular division with rough
striae ; sutures inflected.
List. Conch, t. 387. f. .234. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 111. Schrot.
Conch. 2. p. 649. pi. 7. f. 10.
A thin, smooth, sub-oval shell, marked with almost
imperceptible transverse and longitudinal striae; on the
outside, white, or yellowish, with faint red rays : the
inside pale red, flesh-coloured, or white ; two primary
teeth in each valve, the lateral teeth near the hinge.
Length two inches, breadth two inches and a half.
Inhabits the European and Indian Seas.
Linnaeus refers to Rumphius, pi. 45. f. 1. for the spe-
cies, but his figure appears to be a variety of T. lingua-
felts. Lister discovered the shell.
30. Tellina trifasciata. T. testa ovata, Iceviuscula, sanguineo-triradiata,
puberugosa. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel. p. 3233.
Shell oval, rather smooth, with three red rays, angular division rough.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 114. a. b.
A roundish, or rather sub triangular, shell, truncated
at one end, finely striated transversely, and marked, dis-
tinctly, with three red rays, which are deeper, and nar-
rower, at the apex, than the margin; the inside is white,
and is also rayed, but not so strongly as without ; the
lateral teeth are strong. It is about three quarters of
an inch long, and rather more than an inch broad.
Is said to inhabit the European Ocean.
Is not figure 115 of Chemnitz, quoted by Gmelin as a
variety of this shell, a distinct species ?
Lister's figure, to which Linnaeus has referred for
this shell, is the T. Ferroensis ; and Donovan, in pi. 60.
of his British Shells, has retained the same misnomer,
for the last-mentioned species. The T. trifasciata is not
an English shell.
PL 45. f. 5. Linn^an Society's Cabinet.
31. Tellina donacina. T. testa ovata, compresso-planiuscula, l&viuscula,
anterius obtusissima. Linn. Syst. Nat.ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel.
Shell oval, rather flat, smoothish, and very blunt before.
Gualt. pi. 88. f. JV. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 29. pi. 12. f. 3. b. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 58. Item Suppl. pi. 27. f. 3. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 50.
pl.l. f. 7.
This is an oval shell, semipellucid, and of a yellowish
white colour, marked with many red rays, diverging
vol. 1. M
from the apex to the margin. It is shaped like a Donax,
and is very minutely striated transversely : the hinge is
placed towards one end, and has two teeth (one of which
is bifid) in one valve, and a single tooth in the other. It
is about half an inch long, and an inch broad.
This species, which was first noticed by Gualtieri, in-
habits the Mediterranean. It is also a British shell,
and was found on Sandwich Flats, by Mr. Boys. Dr.
Pulteney has since met with it at Weymouth, and Mr.
Montagu on the Cornish and Devonshire Coasts. Is
not this shell figured by Lister in pi. 385 ?
32. Tellina truncata. T. testa ovali, compressa, substriata ; parte an-
tica truncata, suturaque distincta. Linn. Gmel. p. 3234.
Shell oval, compressed, somewhat striated, truncated before.
This species is admitted on the authority of Gmelin,
but from his own confession of the resemblance it bears
to the T. incarnata, of Linnaeus, there is reason to be-
lieve that it may prove a variety only of that shell.
It inhabits Java.
33. Tellina trilatera. T. testa plana, anterius truncata, flava, vertice
albo; cardinis dente primario et laterali solitariis. Linn. Gmel.
Shell flat, yellow, and truncated before ; umbo white ; hinge with a sin-
gle primary and lateral tooth.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 85.
A yellowish shell, concentrically striated, except
about the apex, which is very smooth, and white ; the
fore part is obtuse, and, towards the inferior margin,
slightly corrugated. Length an inch and three quar-
ters, breadth two inches and a quarter.
Described and figured by Chemnitz, from a specimen
in Spengler's Museum.
34. Tellina oblonga. T. testa oblonga, fragili, Jlavicante ; cardinis
dente primario, in altera valva, solitario, in altera duplici, Linn.
Gmel. p. 3234.
Shell oblong, brittle, yellowish ; hinge with two primary teeth in one
valve, and one in the other.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 87.
A very thin, egg-shaped shell, somewhat inflected
at one end ; the hinge not placed in the middle ; the
margins plain. Length about three quarters of an inch,
breadth rather more than an inch.
Inhabits the European Ocean. Described only by
PL 37. /. 2. Dr. Coombe.
35. Tellina Spengleri. T. testa alba, transversim striata, utrinque bi-
fariam uncinata ; valva altera extrorsum, altera introrsum arcuatum
jlexa. Linn. Gmel. p. 3234.
Shell white, transversely striated, with a row of spines running towards
each end in both shells ; one valve bending outwards, the other in-
Lister Conch, pi. 398. f. 237. Spengler Besch. BerL Naturf. 1. p.
387. pi. 9. f. 1. 3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 88—90. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 287. f. 5. a. b.
A long, narrow, white shell, with a rosy tip, strongly
striated transversely, and ridged with teeth, or spines,
running from the hinge to each end; beak angular,
inflected, and waved; margins plain and blunt. Inside
white, with a stain of yellow under the hinge ; two pri-
mary teeth in one valve, and one in the other, lateral
teeth remote. Length three quarters of an inch, breadth
two inches and a half.
Inhabits the shores of the Nicobar Islands, and is
found in different parts of the Indian Ocean.
This shell was first figured by Lister, from a worn
specimen, without the spines. Chemnitz in fig. 88, has
represented the shell with great fidelity.
PL 45. /. 1.
36. Tellina Ferroensis. T. testa oblongo-ovata, compressa, albo rubel-
loque radiata, subtiliter transversim striata ; cardinis dentibus latera-
libus nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235.
Shell oblong-oval, compressed, rayed with white and reddish, finely
striated transversely ; hinge without lateral teeth.
Lister Anim. Angl. App. t. 1. f. 8. Conch, t. 394. f. 241.
Petiv. Gaz. t. 94. f. 9. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 50. f. 3. Da
Costa Brit. Conch, p. 209. t. 14. f. 1. (T. radiata) Born Test. pi. 2.
f. 5. (T. angulata) Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 91. Donov. Brit.
Shells, pi. 60. (T. trifasciata) Mont. Test. Brit. p. 55. Linn. Trans.
8. p. 49.
An oblong shell, truncated at one end, and rounded at
the other ; the surface finely striated transversely, and
marked with red and white rays ; striae waved over the
ridge which runs from the apex to the angular margin ;
inside white, or rose-coloured ; hinge with two teeth in
each valve; lateral teeth wanting. Length from half an
inch to an inch, breadth from one inch to two.
J°JL . 42.
Inhabits the Northern Ocean, and is found, though
rather sparingly, on the shores of Great Britain. Single
valves occur at Sandwich ; at Tenby it is not uncom-
mon; it has been found at Poole and Weymouth
in Dorsetshire, at Scarborough in Yorkshire, and on
several parts of the Coast of South Devonshire. Lister
discovered the species.
PL 42. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
37. Tellina operculata. T. testa incequivalvi, oblonga, rosea, subtiliter
decussation striata; valva altera convexa, altera fere plana. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3235.
Shell of unequal valves, oblong, and rose-coloured, finely decussated ;
one valve convex, the other almost flat.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 97. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 12. f. 1.
A pale rose-coloured shell, covered, when recent, with
a green epidermis, a portion of which often adheres to
the margin; the surface is very finely striated, both
transversely and longitudinally ; the beak is produced
and angular, the valves are dissimilar, one being convex,
the other nearly flat, and somewhat smaller; the mar-
gins are flexuous and acute. The inside is rosy, and
the hinge has two teeth (one of which is notched) in one
valve, and one in the other ; there are no lateral teeth.
Length about an inch and a half, breadth three inches.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, but is a rare shell.
38. Tellina alba. T. testa ovali, incequivalvi, decussatim striata, antice
inflexa et angulata; cardinis dente primario bifido.
Shell oval, with unequal valves, decussated, inflected and angular before ;
primary tooth of the hinge bifid.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 98. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235. No. 32. Far. 0.
This shell is given by Gmelin as a variety only of
T. operculata, but it is clearly a distinct species, of a
different shape and colour. The T. alba, has a very
slight tinge of yellow ; the striae on the surface are
strong, and the slope, from fhe hinge to the beak, is
rather concave, than convex. The hinge has two teeth
in one valve, and one in the other ; the lateral teeth are
obsolete. Length an inch and three quarters, breadth
two inches and three quarters.
First described and figured by Chemnitz.
39. Tellina Hyalina. T. testa ovali oblonga, incequivalvi, plana, pellu-
cida, glabra, subtilissime decussatim striata, margine acutissimo, car-
dinis dentibus lateralibus nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235.
Shell oblong oval, with unequal valves, flat, pellucid, and smooth, with
very delicate decussated striae, margin very sharp, hinge without la-
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 99.
A very brittle, pellucid shell, perfectly white, with
the hinge placed towards one end ; there are two teeth
in one valve, and one in the other. Length an inch and
a quarter, breadth two inches and a quarter.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Gmelin refers to Schroter,
Mini, in Conch. 3. p. 6. No. 14. for a variety of this shell.
PL 45./. 2. Dr. Coombe.
40. Tellina lanceolata. T. testa ovali, tenuissima, pellucida, albida, trans-
versim striata, anterius acuminata ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus in
altera valva nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236.
Shell oval, very thin, pellucid, transversely striated, and sharp pointed
before ; hinge without lateral teeth in one valve.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 103.
A white shell, sometimes reddish, rounded at one
end, and lancet-shaped at the other ; slightly inflected
at the beak. Length three quarters of an inch, breadth
an inch and a quarter.
Inhabits India, but is very rare. Described only by
41. Tellina opalina. T. testa ovali, pellucida, lucis reflexione et refrac-
tione variante, costa in utraque valva alba a cardine ad marginem ex-
terior em procedente. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236.
Shell oval, pellucid, varying in different positions of light ; a white rib
in each valve, proceeding from the hinge to the outer margin.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 107.
A thin, white, diaphanous species, finely striated
transversely, and reflecting from its surface, different
colours, like the interior of pearlaceous shells. A white
rib running from apex to margin, occasions the fore
part of the shell to be angular, but not inflected; hinge
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other. Length
an inch, breadth an inch and a half.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean.
Chemnitz described this shell from a specimen in
Spengler's Cabinet, and Gmelin has quoted Schroter
for a variety, under the title of Tellina papyracea alba
42. Tellina coccinea. T. testa ovali, pellucida, coccinea, subtilitertrans-
versim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236.
Shell oval, pellucid, scarlet, finely striated transversely.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 109.
In this species there is a calosity near the hinge, like
what we meet with among the Solens ; the inside is
scarlet and white. Length seven eighths of an inch,
breadth an inch and a quarter.
Inhabits the Mediterranean.
43. Tellina calcarea. T. testa ovali, tenui, alba ; cardinis dente primario
in altera valvafisso, alt erius fovea inserto, Linn. Gmel. p. 3236.
Shell oval, thin, white; hinge with the primary tooth, in one valve,
cleft ; in the other, inserted into a cavity.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f, 136.
An oval shell, smooth, and very fragile, marked with
fine transverse striae, angular and inflected before, plain
and rounded behind. Length three quarters of an inch,
breadth rather more than an inch.
Inhabits the sea round Ireland.
LISTER S TELLEN.
44. Tellina pectinata. T. testa rotundata, plana, tenui, subfusca, longi-
tudinaliter striata. Linn. Gmel.\>. 3236.
Shell rounded, flat, thin, brownish, longitudinally striated.
List. Conch, pi. 300. f. 137.
This is an obscure species, figured only by Lister,
who described it as of a yellowish colour, and chan-
nelled on each side from the beak. Length two inches
and a quarter, breadth two inches and a half.
Among Lister's notes, it is mentioned as an East In-
45. Tellina angusta. T. testa planiuscula, rubra, albo-radiata, altero
fine acuminata, altero rotundata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236.
Shell flattish, red with white rays, one end pointed, the other rounded.
List. Conch, pi. 383. f. 226.
A narrow shell, rather less than half an inch long,
and an inch broad.
PL 39./. 2, 3. Mr. Jennings.
46. Tellina Madagascariensis. T. testa ovali, altero fine subacuminata.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237.
Shell oval, somewhat pointed at one end.
List . Conch, pi. 386. f. 233.
A thick, heavy, compressed shell, of a flesh colour,
with a rosy tip and margin. One end is rounded, the
other produced, and inflected ; a ridge in one valve, runs
from the apex to the anterior margin ; in the other valve
a sulcus; fine longitudinal striae cover the surface of the
shell; the margins very obtuse. The inside is a fine rose
colour; the muscular depressions very strong ; the hinge
has a single primary tooth in each valve, one of which is
notched : there is a small approximate lateral tooth in
one valve, but none in the other. Length two inches
and a quarter, breadth three inches and three quarters.
We are indebted for the knowledge of this species, to
Dr. Lister, who has given a good figure of the shell, with
the following note. " This large Tetten is of a corne-
lian colour, very smooth, and very thick and ponderous,
in those of this growth and bigness, but the lesser are
thin and light, and prettily fasciated, at least some of
them." It is a rare shell.
FLAT STRIATED TELLEN.
PL 39. /. 1. Dr. Coombe.
47. Tellina punicea. T. testa ovali, plana, cequilatera, punicea, densis-
sime transversim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell oval, flat, with equal sides, thickly striated transversely, and of a
light red colour. «
Bern Test. pi. 2. f. 8. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 5. Donov.
Brit. Shells, pi. 123. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 57. Linn. Trans. 8.
p. 51. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. J 79.
A flat shell, densely striated transversely, and very
delicately crossed longitudinally, of a light red colour,
with whitish bands, and a tinge of yellow at the tip; in
small specimens the red is much deeper, and the longitu-
dinal striae invisible; one end of the shell is rounded,
the other somewhat angular and inflected. The inside
is very smooth and stained, more or less, of a rose
colour; the primary teeth of the hinge bifid, the remote
teeth prominent. Length an inch and a quarter, breadth
two inches and a quarter.
Dr. Pulteney first described this as a British shell. It
has been found between Weymouth and Portland in
Dorsetshire, by Mr. Bryer. It is called T. lata by Dr.
Pulteney, and T. incequistriata, by Mr. Donovan.
PL 45. /. 3. Mr. Sowerby.
48. Tellina depressa. T. testa incequilatera, depressa, minutissime
striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238.
Shell with unequal sides, depressed, and very minutely striated.
Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. L. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 96. PulL in
Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 163. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 56. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 51. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4.
A thin, flat, oval shell, of a light orange, or yellow
colour ; one end rounded, the other produced, angular,
and rather inflected; finely striated transversely; um-
bones acute, margin very sharp. Inside light orange,
hinge with two teeth in one valve, and three in the
other ; one tooth remote. Length an inch, breadth an
inch and a half. Foreign specimens larger, and red
Inhabits the European seas, and is the T. squalida
of Dr. Solander. It was first noticed as British by Dr.
Pulteney, who described it under the name of T. squa-
lida, from a few specimens found near Poole, and at
Weymouth, in Dorsetshire. Mr. Donovan found it, in
plenty, upon the sands on the south-east side of Tenby,
Pembrokeshire ; and Mr. Montagu, in Cornwall and De-
49. Tellina purpurascens. T. testa utrinque purpurascente. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3237.
Shell entirely purple.
List. Conch, pi. 391. f. 230.
This shell, which is figured by Lister, is an inch and
a half long, and two inches broad. Gmelin refers to
Gualtieri, pi. 77. f. L. and M. for varieties of this species,
but they are evidently distinct.
50. Tellina aspera. T. testa altero fine acuminata, intus lutescente, ex-
terius radiata, et striis transversis aspera. Linn. Gmel.
Shell pointed at one end, radiated, and roughly striated transversely ;
This shell is described only by Gmelin, who says that
it is an inch and three quarters long, and three inches
broad. Its country is not mentioned.
51. Tellina triangularis. T. testa subcuneata, albida, transverse striata.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237.
Shell somewhat wedge-shaped, whitish, transversely striated.
List. Conch, p. 401. f. 244.
This is a thin species, described by Lister, who has
added a variety, f. 245. of the same plate, which, from
its shape, has more the appearance of a distinct species.
52. Tellina lata. T. testa alba ineequilatera, alter o fine subacuminata.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237.
Shell white with unequal sides, a little pointed at one end.
List. Conch, pi. 407. f. 253.
This species is something like the T. depressa ; it is an
inch and a quarter long, and two inches and three quar-
Inhabits the Norwegian Ocean.
53. Tellina Jamaicensis. T. testa crassa, rostro extus purpurascente.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237.
Shell thick, beak purplish on the outside.
List. Conch, pi. 408. f. 254.
An oval shell, rounded at one end, and rather pro-
duced at the other, with an incurvated margin. Figured
only by Lister.
54. Tellina albicans. T. testa albida, fascia Candida ; intusflava. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3238.
Shell whitish, banded; within yellow.
Gualt. pi. 77. f. H.
Gualtieri has figured this species, but has not men-
tioned its country.
55. Tellina rufescens. T. testa rufescente luteo maculata, decussatim
striata. Linn, Gmel. p. 3238.
Shell reddish spotted with yellow, with decussated striae.
Gualt. Test. pi. 85. f. C.
This shell, which is figured only by Gualtieri, is three
quarters of an inch long, and an inch and a quarter
56. Tellina fasciata. T. testa incequilatera y subtilissime transversim
striata, candido et subalbido alter natim fasciata. Linn. Gmel. p.
Shell with unequal sides, finely striated transversely, alternately banded
with bright and dull white.
Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. B.
One end of this shell is somewhat pointed. It is
about an inch long, and an inch and a half broad. Its
country is not mentioned.
57. Tellina striata. T. testa incequilatera, utrinque rotundata, ex roseo-
alba, pellncida. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238.
Shell with unequal sides, rounded at both ends, rosy white, pellucid.
Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. C. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 60.
A smooth shell, minutely striated concentrically, of a
rosy white on the outside, and within. There are two
teeth at the hinge, and a strong remote lateral tooth on
each side, in both valves. Length an inch and a quar-
ter, breadth two inches.
Inhabits the European Ocean, and has been found in
England by Mr. Bryer, between Weymouth and Port-
land, in Dorsetshire. The reference to Chemnitz,
adopted by Mr. Montagu, has not been noticed, from a
firm persuasion that the shell quoted in his Conchology,
vol. 6. pi. 12. f. 117. is a representation of the T. tenuis.
58. Tellina rosea. T. testa costis, tenuibus a cardine ad marginem de-
currentibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238.
Shell rosy, with thin ribs running from the hinge to the margin.
Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 9. f. 3.
This shell, which is described by Knorr, is an inch
long, and an inch and a half broad. Its country is un-
ADANSON S TELLEN.
59. Tellina Adansoni. T. testa albida, car dine violaceo. Linn. Gmel.
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 9. Poron.
This shell was discovered by Adanson on the African
shore, where it occurs abundantly, in the sinuosities of
the rocks, filled with sand. It is a very small species,
not being more than the eighth of an inch long.
60. Tellina cancellata. T. testa tenui, sordide alba, sulcis numerosis te-
nuissimis longitudinalibus rugas transversas decussantibus. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell thin, dirty white, with numerous fine longitudinal grooves, crossing
the transverse wrinkles.
Adams, Seneg. pi. 17. f. 12. Pirel.
This shell, described by Adanson, is very thin and
brittle, but not transparent. It is externally marked
with about a hundred extremely fine grooves, which are
crossed by many ridges, giving the shell the appear-
ance of fine net- work. It is an inch broad, and rather
less in length.
Inhabits the sandy shores of the island of Goree.
61. Tellina strigosa. T. testa albicante fasciata, glabra, ad marginem
rugosa ; cardinis dentibus in valva dextra duohus, in sinistra tribus.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell with whitish bands, smooth, and wrinkled at the margin; hinge
with two teeth in one valve, and three in the other.
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 9.
This shell, externally, bears some resemblance to the
T. Madagascariensis, but differs essentially in the teeth.
It is rounded behind, and rather produced and plaited
before. The colour of the bands which cross the shell,
in young specimens, is yellow ; in old ones, grey-violet.
Length about an inch and a half; breadth two inches
and a half, but subject to considerable variation in size.
Inhabits the sandy shores of Macao, one of the Mo-
PL 46. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
62. Tellina nivea. T. testa ovata, compressa, anterius subangulata, car-
dinis dente primario in altera valva solitario, jisso, duplici alterius
Shell oval, compressed, somewhat angular before ; hinge with a solitary,
cleft, primary tooth, in one valve, inserted between two others in the
This is a smooth, delicate shell, perfectly white, and
of an oval shape, rounded at one end, and rather pro-
duced, and angular, at the other; besides the primary
teeth, mentioned in the specification, there is one rather
remote. Length an inch and an eighth ; breadth an inch
and five eighths.
Inhabits the American Ocean.
VOL. I. N
PL 47. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe.
63. Tellina sulcata. T. testa subovali, plana, transversim sulcata, an-
terius angulato-inflexa ; cardinis dentibus primariis duobus bifidis, la-
Shell somewhat oval, flat, transversely sulcated, angular and inflected
before ; primary teeth two, cleft ; lateral teeth prominent.
A flat, straw-coloured shell, transversely grooved,
rounded behind, and produced before into an angular,
inflected, undulated beak ; margins plain. Inside straw-
coloured, the same as without ; hinge with two cleft
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. Length rather
less than an inch ; breadth about an inch and three-
This shell resembles the T. crystallina of Chemnitz,
Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1947, 1948, but differs in the co-
lour, and shape of the beak. Its country is unknown.
64. Tellina angulosa. T. testa ovali, planiuscula, transversim striata,
antrorsum inflexo-angulata ; cardinis dente primario bifido ; lateralibus
remotis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244.
Shell oval, flattish, transversely striated, the fore part angularly inflected ;
hinge with a cleft primary tooth ; lateral teeth remote.
Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1654, 1655.
This shell inhabits America, and is about an inch
long, and two inches broad. It resembles the preced-
ing species in some particulars, but is a different shell.
LASKEY S TELLEN.
65. Tellina Laskeyi. T. testa ovato-oblonga, Icevi ; valvula alterius dente
primario solitario, alterius duobus approximatis subbifidis, dentibus
Shell oblong-oval, smooth ; in one valve a solitary primary tooth, in the
other two approximate teeth, a little cleft ; lateral teeth wanting.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 28. pi. 28. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool 1812.
4. p. 178.
A purplish-white shell, covered, when recent, with
an olive-yellow epidermis ; one end rounded, the other
obtusely pointed, like the Donax Trunculus. The inside
is clouded with purple, and the margin is channelled,
from the teeth almost to the end of the longest side.
Length half an inch ; breadth three quarters.
Inhabits the Frith of Forth, in Scotland. Discovered
by Mr. JLaskey, and described and figured by Mr.
*** Shells suborbicular.
66. Tellina balaustina. T. testa dilatato-orbiculata, laviuscula ; valvula
altera dentibus lateralibus. Linn: Syst. Nat. ed. 1812. p. 1119. Linn.
Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell dilated-orbicular, smoothish, with lateral teeth in one valve.
A whitish shell, nearly round, but rather broader
than long, marked with obsolete red rays. It is the
size of a lupine seed.
Inhabits the Miditerranean.
We are not acquainted with this shell, which Linnaeus
compares to the flower of the pomegranate.
Pl.Sb.f. 1. Mr. Jennings.
67. Tellina scobinata. T. testa lenticulari, scabra, squamis lunatis,
quincuncialibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel.
Shell lenticular, rough, with lunate scales disposed in a quincunx order.
List. Conch, pi. 302. f. 143. Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Petiver Amboin.
pi. 18. f. 7. Gualt. Test. pi. 76. f. E. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 37. f. 3.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 122—124. Encyclop. Method, pi. 291. f. 4.
a — d.
A white, or flesh-coloured shell, with a pale yellow
apex ; angular and slightly inflected on the fore part ?
and every where covered, except at the apex, with
rough scales, resembling a baker's rasp. Inside pale
yellow; hinge with two primary teeth in one valve,
and one in the other ; lateral teeth strong and promi-
nent. Length two inches ; breadth two and a quarter.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean.
This shell was first described by Lister, who has
represented the species much better than either Rum-
phius, or Petiver.
PL 37./. 1. Mr. Jennings.
68. Tellina laevis. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, albida; cardinis
Shell somewhat orbicular, compressed, and whitish ; primary tooth of
the hinge cleft.
List. Conch, pi. 266. f. 102. Born Test pi. 2. f. 11. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 12. f. 112.
This shell has been considered the same as the fol-
lowing species, or T. Remies of Linnaeus, though they
differ very essentially. The T. Icevis is rounded at one
end, and somewhat angular, and inflected, at the other ;
the surface is smooth, or very finely, and almost imper-
ceptibly striated transversely. The shell is white both
within and without, but sometimes tinged with straw
colour, disposed in bands on the outside, and uniform
within. The hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one
in the other ; lateral teeth strong, one near the hinge,
the other remote. Length of large specimens two in-
ches and a half; breadth three inches and a quarter.
Inhabits the West Indies, and was first noticed by
PI. 38./. 1. Mr. Jennings.
69. Tellina Remies. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, rugosa. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3239.
Shell somewhat orbicular, compressed, and wrinkled.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 42. f. J. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 113.
This shell is regularly marked with transverse, waved
ridges; it is strong, nearly orbicular, and uniformly
white, unless accidentally stained; the fore part is
slightly angular and inflected ; the hinge the same as
in the preceding species. Length about two inches
and a half; breadth rather more.
Inhabits the Indian and American Ocean. The Ame-
rican specimens are said to be sometimes yellowish, and
Linnaeus has referred, by mistake, to pi. 43 of Rura-
phius, instead of 42, and Gmelin has repeated the error.
PI. 42. /. 2, 3.
70. Tellina reticulata. T. testa lentiformi, compressa, reticulata.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240.
Shell of a lens-shaped, compressed, and reticulated.
Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 118. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 292. f. 2. Putt, in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 4. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 66. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 54. pi. 1. f. 9. Penn. Brit.
Zool. 1812. 4. p. 181.
A suborbicular and rather compressed shell, of a
whitish colour; the surface marked with transverse
ridges, and crossed, in the interstices, with numerous
minute longitudinal striae, which require a lens to
detect them ; the inside is yellow ; the hinge has two
small primary teeth, with a deep, linear hollow, termi-
nating at the base of one of the prominent lateral teeth.
Length an inch and a quarter ; breadth rather more.
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and has also been found,
though rarely, in England. Dr. Pulteney, who first
described it as British, under the name of T. prqficua,
met with it on the north shore at Poole, and at Wey-
mouth, in Dorsetshire.
PL 42. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby.
71. Tellina Radula. T. testa lentiformi, convexa, transversim striata ;
margine anteriore juxta cardinem rectiuscula. Act. Soc. Linn. 8.
Shell of a lens-shaped, convex, transversely striated ; anterior margin
near the hinge, almost straight.
Petiver Gaz. pi. 93. f. 18. Favanne Conch, pi. 48. f. 3. Donov. Brit.
Shells, pi. 130. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 68. pi. 2. f. 1, 2. Penn. Brit.
ZooL 1812. 4. p. 181.
A white shell, with a brown epidermis, nearly orbi-
cular, and covered with close set, rough, concentric
striae ; there is a small, oblong, heart-shaped depression
on the anterior margin, close to the beak ; and a slight
furrow running from the posterior part of the apex, in
each valve, and meeting at the margin, where it is a
little inflected. Inside chalky-white; margin whiter
than the rest, and slightly puckered ; hinge with two
small primary teeth in each valve ; no lateral teeth.
Length about an inch and a quarter; breadth rather
Inhabits the European seas, and has been found
abundantly, by Mr. Montagu, on the coast of Cornwall,
particularly at Falmouth ; it is also to be met with on
parts of the coast of SoutfrDevon, and in Carmarthen-
shire, about Laugharne.
This shell was first figured by Petiver, under the
name of " Thread-girdled White Cockle." It is the
Venus borealis of Donovan.
72. Tellina scabra. T. testa subquadrata, alba, tumida, antice inflexa,
transversim striata, rugosa ; cardinis dente primario unico.
Shell squarish, white, tumid, inflected before, and transversely striated ;
hinge with a single primary tooth.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1943, 1944.
This species resembles the T. Radula in having a
rough, transversely striated exterior, and a similar fur-
row behind ; but it differs in having but one primary
tooth, and in being provided with two strong lateral
teeth. It is smooth, and white, within. Length about
an inch and a half; breadth the same.
73. Tellina muricata. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, alba, longitu-
dinaliter dense striata, striis imbricatis, cardinis dentibus primariis
Shell suborbicular, compressed, closely striated longitudinally, striae
imbricated ; hinge with two primary teeth.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1945,1946.
A roundish shell, covered with imbricated, rough
striae, and strongly serrated from the apex, to the poste-
rior margin. Inside white, and striated; hinge with
two primary teeth, and two strong lateral ones, inserted
into opposite cavities.
74. Tellina fausta. T. testa suborbiculata, striis transversis minutissimis
obsoletis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 53. pi. 1. f. 8.
Shell suborbicular, with minute, obsolete, transverse striae.
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 5. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 98. Mont
Test. Brit. p. 64. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 181.
A thickish, milk-white shell, somewhat diaphanous,
smooth, and depressed ; margins rounded on both sides ;
very smooth and yellowish within ; primary tooth of the
hinge bifid ; lateral teeth strong, that in the right valve
more solid and remote than the other. Length an inch
and a quarter ; breadth an inch and three eighths.
This is a very rare British shell, dredged up at Wey-
mouth, under the inspection of the late Duchess Dowa-
ger of Portland, and first described by Dr. Pulteney.
It does not appear to be the species figured by Lister,
Born, and Chemnitz, though all those authors have been
referred to for this shell.
PL 40. /. 1.
75. Tellina crassa. T. testa subrotunda, depressa, sulcis transversalibus
numerosissimis. Act. Soc. Linn. p. 55.
Shell roundish, depressed, with numerous transversal furrows.
List. Conch, pi. 299. f. 136. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 48. f. 28. Da Costa
Brit. Conch, pi. 13. f. 4. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 4. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 65. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 103.
A thick, strong, suborbicular shell, of a white colour,
strongly striated concentrically, and sometimes marked
with faint, reddish, longitudinal rays : one valve is more
convex than the other ; both ends are rounded, but one
end is more extended than the other ; the apex turns
inwards. The inside is white, or yellowish, or blushing ;
hinge with two small primary teeth ; one lateral tooth
in the shallow valve, and two in the deep valve ; the
strong tooth nearest the hinge. Length an inch and
three quarters ; breadth two inches and an eighth ; sel-
dom much larger, but often smaller.
Inhabits the British shores, but is not common in a
live state, or with both valves perfect. It is found on
the Devonshire, and Cornish coasts, at Weymouth, and
in Wales ; single valves are not uncommon upon the
This shell was first figured, very admirably, by Lister,
who procured his specimen from Guernsey. Gmelin
has erroneously called it a Venus. See Syst. Nat.
p. 3288. It is the Pectunculus depressior of Da Costa,
and the T. rigida of Dr. Pulteney, and Mr. Donovan.
76. Tellina lactea. T. testa lentiformi, gibba, alba, pellucida, Itevi.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240.
Shell lens-shaped, gibbous, white, pellucid, smooth.
Gualt. Test. pi. 71. f. D. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 125. Pult. in
Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 9. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 70. pi. 2. f. 4. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 56. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 182.
A thin, convex, orbicular, white shell, marked with
obsolete, transverse stria?, and a few antiquated ridges.
Inside white; hinge furnished with two very small teeth
in one valve, and one in the other ; a deep furrow runs
from the apex, by the side of the teeth, in each valve.
Length about three quarters of an inch ; breadth the
Inhabits the Mediterranean, and is found, though
not commonly, on several parts of the shores of Great
Britain. Live shells are very rare in England.
77. Tellina rotund ata. T. testa subconvexa, orbiculari, valvulis biden-
tatis, dente altero bifido, altero divergente. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 56.
Shell orbicular, and somewhat convex ; two teeth in each valve, one
bifid, the other rather diverging.
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 8. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 71. pi. 2. f. 3.
Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 182.
A subdiaphanous, white shell, marked with nearly
obsolete, transverse striae ; the apex is small, and
turned a little on one side. Inside white and very smooth.
Length an inch.
Inhabits the British shores, at Poole in Dorset-
shire, and on the Western coasts, but is rarely found
perfect. It is very like the Venus undata, but has not, like
that shell, three teeth in one valve. It is the T. undata
of Dr. Pulteney.
PL 47. /. 7, 8.
78. Tellina flexuosa. T. testa subgloboso-tenerrima, sinu ab umbone ad
marginem decurrente. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 56.
A very thin, somewhat globular shell, with a furrow running from the
umbo to the margin.
Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 42. f. 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 72. Penn. Brit.
Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183.
This is a very small, brittle, snow-white shell, with a
crooked margin, and a remarkable furrow running
from behind the apex to the posterior margin of the
shell, where it forms a flexure. The hinge has an
obsolete tooth. Length about three eighths of an
Inhabits the south coast of Devonshire, and is found,
abundantly, in the sand of Falmouth harbour. It has
also been found at Tenby. This species is the Venus
sinuosa of Donovan. It was discovered by Mr. Mon-
PL 40. /. 4, 5. Dr. Coombe.
79. Tellina carnaria. T. testa suborbiculata, Icevi, utrinque incarnata,
oblique striata, striis hinc reflexis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed, 12. p. 1119.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3240.
Shell somewhat orbicular, smooth, flesh-coloured (or rosy) within and
without, and marked with oblique, reflected striae.
List. Conch, pi. 339. f. 176. Born Test. pi. 2. f. 14. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 13. f. 126. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 47. Mont . Test. Brit. p. 73.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 57. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183.
A light rose-coloured, orbicular shell, somewhat
compressed, and marked with numerous, very fine, re-
flex striae, running obliquely on the anterior margin,
and in an undulating manner on the posterior margin ;
the intermediate striae pass obliquely from the apex to
the fore part of the shell. Inside smooth and glossy,
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other; la-
teral teeth remote. Length near an inch ; breadth the
Inhabits the American Ocean, and has been found in
England, but not recently.
190 TEL LIN A,
80. Tellina polygona. T. testa alba, transversim striata, orbiculari, an-
trorsum angulata ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus nullis, primario ex-
porrecto, duplicate, alterius duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244.
Shell white, transversely striated, orbicular, the fore part angular ; hinge
without lateral teeth ; primary tooth projecting and double ; in one
valve two teeth.
Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1650—1653.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 27. pi. 28. f. 4. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4.
This species, which is not only angular before, but
in the middle of the shell, is described by Chemnitz,
under the name of T. Guinaica. Mr. Montagu has
also referred a small, rare, British shell, taken off Cra-
mond Island, in the Frith of Forth, to the same species.
Foreign specimens inhabit the Indian Ocean, and
are an inch and a half in breadth ; the British shell is
not more than a third the size.
PL 43./. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
81. Tellina decussata. T. testa suborbiculata, delicatissime decussatim
striata; intus alba, cum lituris brunneis, vet purpureis variegata.
Shell suborbicular, with very delicate decussated striae ; within white,
variegated with brown, or purple streaks.
This is a whitish shell, with a faint rosy tip ; it is
rounded at both ends, but the fore part is produced,
like the T. crassa; the surface is finely striated trans-
versely, and crossed by delicate longitudinal striae :
the inside is white, marked with zig-zag lines of a red
brown, purple, or pale rose colour ; the lines do not ex-
tend, in the specimens we have had an opportunity to
examine, to the margin of the shell. Length an inch ;
breadth near an inch and a quarter.
Its country is not known.
PL 43. /. 4, 5, Linnean Society's Cabinet.
82. Tellina cordiformis. T. testa suborbiculata, extus albida, intus fla-
vescente, longitudinaliter densissime, transversim subtilissime striata ;
cardinis dentibus primariis binis, lateralibus oblongis.
Shell suborbicular, on the outside whitish, within yellow, densely
striated longitudinally, and very finely transversely ; hinge with two
primary teeth, lateral teeth oblong.
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1941, 1942.
This species, which is of a dull, yellowish-white co-
lour on the outside, and deep yellow within, is ad-
mirably figured by Chemnitz. It is a strong shell, and
very convex. Length near an inch and a half; breadth
It is named T. demissa, in the late Dr. Pulteney's
Cabinet of Shells, now in the Linnean Society's Mu-
PL 45. /. 6,7. Mr. Sowerby.
83. Tellina bimaculata. T. testa triangulo-subrotunda, latiore, Icevi,
albida ; intus maculis duabus sanguineus oblongis. Linn. Syst. Nat.
ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240.
Shell triangularly rounded, broad, smooth, and whitish, with two oblong
red spots on the inside.
Da Costa Brit. Conch, p. 213. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 127. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 290. f. 9. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 7. Donov,
Brit. Shells, pi. 19. f. 1, 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 59. Linn. Trans. 8.
p. 57. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183.
/3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 132. Encyclop. Method, pi. 290. f. 10.
This is a whitish, subdiaphanous shell, indistinctly
striated transversely, and marked within with two ob-
long red spots, or lines, which are continued more than
half-way down the shell ; the hinge has a double primary
tooth in the centre; the lateral teeth are strong and
remote. Length half an inch ; breadth five eighths of an
Inhabits the European and American seas, and has
been noticed as English, by Da Costa, from the coasts
of Hampshire and Lancashire, and by Dr. Pulteney,
and Mr. Bryer, who found it on the shore, between
Weymouth and Portland.
This species is subject to variation; sometimes it is
uniformly purple, or white, and sometimes rayed with
several red lines, in which state it is the var. P. of
PL 46. /. 2.
84. Tellina solidula. T. testa subglobosa, anterius subangulata. Act.
Soc, Linn. 8. p. 58.
Shell subglobose, and somewhat angular before.
Bonan. Recr. 2. f, 44. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 43. Lister Anim. AngL
pi. 4. f. 25. — - Conch, pi. 405. f. 250. Petiv. Gaz. pi. 94. f. 6.
Da Cost. Brit. Conch, pi. 12. f. 4. CAem Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 110.
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 8. f. 4. Mow*. Test. Brit. p. 63. Peww.
Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 184. pi. 52. f. 2.
A very strong, convex shell, nearly orbicular, but
projecting into a short, compressed beak, at one end :
the surface is smooth, and either plain, or variegated
with concentric bands of red, yellow, or whitish colours.
The inside, which is smooth, is either red, white, or
yellow, and generally of a deeper tint than the outside :
the hinge has two small teeth in each valve. Length
near an inch ; breadth rather more.
Inhabits the European ocean, and is common on
the sandy shores of Great Britain, buried a few inches
beneath the surface.
This species was mistaken by Pennant, for the T.
carnaria of Linnaeus, and Gmelin has referred it to
the T. incarnata of that celebrated naturalist; but we
have reason to suppose the T. incarnata of Linnaeus to
be the same as T. tenuis.
vol. i. o
85. Tellina Balthica. T. testa subrotunda lavi, extus incarnata. Linn.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241.
Shell roundish, smooth, and flesh-coloured on the outside.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 128.
A thin, brittle, pellucid, compressed shell, of a some-
what triangular shape; white within, and flesh co-
loured, or rosy, on the outside ; hinge the same as in
T. carnaria. It is the size of a lupine seed.
Inhabits the Baltic sea.
86. Tellina pisiformis. T. testa subglobosa, lavi, intus incarnata, ob-
lique substriata; striis anterius angulo acute reflexis. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241.
Shell subglobular, smooth, within carnation, somewhat striated obliquely,
stria? reflected into an acute angle on the fore part.
A white shell, with a purple tip ; the striae are hardly
visible to the naked eye ; primary tooth of the hinge
simple, lateral teeth rather prominent. It is the size
of a pea.
Inhabits the European ocean, at the mouths of rivers.
OBLIQUELY STRIATED TELLEN.
PI. 46./. 6. Mr. Sowerby.
87. Tellina divaricata. T. testa subglobosa, alba, bifariam oblique
striata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241.
Shell somewhat globular, white, and obliquely striated two ways.
Bonan. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 104. List. Conch, pi. 301. f. 142. Petiver
Gaz. pi. 156. f. 26. Favanne Conch, pi. 48, f. E. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 13. f. 129.
A strong shell, rather globular, and generally of a
whitish colour, rarely blue, or cinereous ; the striae, on
the surface of the shell, are thin, waved, and diverging
both ways ; the margin is crenated, and without any
flexure ; there is a double primary tooth at the hinge,
but no lateral teeth. Length near an inch; breadth
Inhabits the Mediterranean and American seas.
PI. 46. /. 7. Mrs. M awe.
88. Tellina dentata. T, testa subglobosa, alba t margine dentata, bifa-
riam oblique striata.
Shell somewhat globular, white, margin toothed, obliquely striated two
This shell, though resembling the preceding species
in several respects, is certainly distinct, and differs in
the following particulars. The upper part of the mar-
gin is strongly dentated, particularly the posterior edge ;
the rest of the circumference is serrated ; the concen-
tric striae are somewhat raised from the surface of the
shell, and, like the margin, have serrated edges ; the
waved striae, on the surface, are finer, and closer than
in the T. divaricata. The umbones are prominent, and
This elegant shell is in the cabinet of Mrs. Mawe.
89. Tellina digitaria. T. testa subglobosa, pallida, cincta striis obliquis
uniformibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. GmeL p. 3241.
Shell subglobose, pale, and girded with oblique uniform striae.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 2. f. 120, 121. Encyclop. Method, pi. 292. f. 5, 6.
A small species, smooth on the inside, and varying in
colour, sometimes being reddish-orange, and some-
times pointed with waved, red, spots; the striae inclined
towards the outer margin, like the lines at the ends of
the fingers, (whence its trivial name) which gives it the
appearance of being spirally striated. It is about the
size of a pea.
Inhabits the Mediterranean, x4merican, and (very
rarely) the Indian seas.
PI. 46. /. 3.
90. Tellina cornea. T. testa globosa, glabra, colore corneo, sulco trans-
versalL Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241.
Shell globose, smooth, of the colour of horn, and transversely sulcated.
List. Anim. Angl. pi. 2. f. 31. — — App. pi. 1. f. 5. Conch,
pi. 159. f. 14. Gualt. Test. pi. 7. f. C. Argenv. Conch, pi. 27. f. 9.
Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 52. f. 3. Da Costa Brit. Conch, pi.
13. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 133. a. b. Maton in Act. Soc.
Linn. 3. pi. 13. f. 39, 40. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 2. Donov.
Brit. Shells, pi. 95. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 86. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 59.
A thin, globose, horn-coloured shell, concentrically
striated, arid covered, when recent, with a thin epider-
mis ; the inside is smooth, glossy, and of a bluish-white;
the primary teeth of the hinge are very minute, the
lateral teeth remote and prominent. It is, commonly,
about the size of a large pea.
Inhabits the rivers, ponds, and ditches, of Europe.
The largest are found in the Thames, and in great
abundance, especially at the Red-house, opposite the
end of Mill-bank, where, at low water, any quantity may
be procured, from half to three quarters of an inch in
breadth. Mr. Montagu has removed this, and the fol-
lowing shell, to the genus Cardium.
PL 47./. 5. Mr. Sowerby.
91. Tellina lacustris. T. testa rhombea, planiuscula, glabra, umbone
acuto. Linn. Gmel. p. 3242.
Shell rhombic, flattish, smooth, with an acute umbo.
Mull. Verm. p. 204. No. 388. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 135.
' Encyclop. Method, pi. 292. f. 3. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 89. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 60. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 184.
A smooth, thin, pellucid, horn-coloured shell, often
covered with a dark brown epidermis; it is broader
than long, and the valves near the margin are depressed ;
the umbo, or apex, is small, but so remarkably promi-
nent, as to give the shell a heart-shaped appearance
when seen sideways ; the hinge has a simple primary
tooth in one valve, and a cleft tooth in the other, with
lateral teeth in both valves. It is about the size of a pea.
Inhabits the lakes and marshes of Europe. It was
discovered, as a British shell, by Mr. Swainson, and
has since been found, abundantly, by Mr. Montagu, in
a small pond near the village of Wedhampton, in
Wiltshire. It differs from T. cornea in its subrhom-
boidal shape, projecting umbones, and compressed
92. Tellina Iberica. T. testa globosa, lavi, nitida, margine dentata.
Linn, Gmel. p. 3243.
Shell globular, smooth and polished, with a toothed margin.
Bonan. Recr. pi. 2. f. 33. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 32.
A small, thin shell, of a russet brown colour, some-
times yellowish-brown mixed with black. It has a pro-
jecting apex, and is about five eighths of an inch broad.
Inhabits the shores of Spain. The T. Adriatica of
Gmelin, for which he has referred to Bonanni, Recreat.
pi. 2. f. 34. is only the interior view of the same shell.
93. Tellina sinuosa. T. testa subglobosa, tsquivalvi, aquilatera ; striis
transversis rarioribus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3243.
Shell subglobular, of equal valves, and equal sides, with a few transverse
Gualt. Test. pi. 77. f. D. E.
A shell about the size of a marble, of a whitish, or
reddish colour, and very faintly striated.
Gualtieri's figure D. resembles the T. lactea.
94. Tellina Gallica. T. testa trigona, pectinata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244.
A triangular, pectinated shell.
Argenv. Conch, pi. 27. f. 11.
A thickish shell, striated, or rather sulcated, longi-
tudinally ; the hinge has a solitary primary tooth. It is
about three quarters of an inch broad.
Inhabits the river Marne, in France.
95. Tellina Senegalensis. T. testa trigono-globosa, crassa, dura, Icevi,
sulcis transversis exarata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244.
Shell of a triangular globose shape, thick, strong, and smooth, with
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 14. (Tofar.)
A white, or flesh-coloured shell, sometimes red,
rayed with white.
MATON S TELLEN.
PI. 46. f. 4, 5. Dr. Maton.
96. Tellina limosa. T. testa aequivalvi, ovata, transversim striata, intus
purpurea; umbonibus acutiusculis, prominentibus. Maton in Act.
Soc. Linn. 10. p. 328. pi. 24. f. 8, 9, 10.
Shell of equal valves, oval, transversely striated, and purple within ;
urabones sharpish, and prominent.
This is a smooth, brittle shell, with a green epi-
dermis ; the margin is entire ; the hinge has two pri-
mary teeth in one valve, and one in the other; the lateral
laminae are crenated. Young shells are paler, thinner,
and somewhat diaphanous. Length half an inch,
breadth three quarters.
Inhahits the South American rivers.
We are indebted to Dr. Maton for our knowledge
of this singular shell, and for the use of his speci-
men, from which our figure has been engraved and co-
loured. There are three different views of a shell, in
the Encyclop. Method, pi. 302. f. 2. a. 2. b. and 2. c.
which resemble this but not sufficiently to pronounce
them the same. The peculiarity which at once distin-
guishes this species from others of the genus Tellina, is
the crenated lateral laminae, which are plainly to be
seen with the assistance of a lens. The French have
arranged shells of this description in a new genus,
under the name of Cyclas.
**« Shells Plano-convex-
PL 47. /. 2, 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby.
97. Tellina inaequivalvis. T. testa oblongo-rostrata, valvula altera plana,
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel. p. 3233.
Shell oblong, beaked, one valve flat.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 106. a. o. c. d. Encyclop. Method, pi. 250.
(Pandora) Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 41. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 75.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 50. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 178.
A smooth, pellucid, milky shell, with one valve flat,
and the other convex ; one end is rounded, the other
produced into an obtuse beak ; the dorsal suture is
straight; there are two teeth at the hinge, but no lateral
teeth. Length, (of large specimens,) three quarters of
an inch ; breadth an inch and a half.
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Norwegian seas, and
has been admitted among the British species, by Mr.
Donovan, on the authority of a specimen from Guernsey.
Mr. Montagu suggests, in the supplement to his Bri-
tish Testacea, that his Solen Pinna may be the young
of this species ; but the figure which that naturalist
has given, and which is undoubtedly correct, will hardly
justify the conjecture. The Author has before him a
young T. inaequivalvis, not more than a quarter of an inch
long, and five eighths broad, exactly proportioned like
the largest specimens.
The French naturalists have constituted of this
shell a new genus, under the name of Pandora of
which this, the P. margaritacea, is the only species.
The want of similitude between this and other TeUince
is so obvious, that it will justify the innovation. It
stands among the Solenes, in the tenth edition of the
Syst. Nat., whence, in a future edition, Linnaeus re-
moved it to its present situation.
Gmelin's T. Bomii, p. 3231. No. 15, is the T. Fer-
roensis ; his T. complanata, p. 3239. No. 60. is the true
T. planata, p. 3232. No. 19 ; but his reference to Chem-
nitz, for that shell, must be rejected. T. vitrea, p.
3255. No. 34, is a variety of our T. tenuis. T. alata,
p. 3236. No. 40. is a Mytilus. T. rhomboides, p. 3237.
No. 50. is the Venus decussata; the specification is
abridged from Lister's Animalium Anglice, p. 171. who
says, ad ostium fluminis Tees, ripd Eboracensi, satis fre-
quenter reperiuntur. Gmelin has omitted the word
ostium, which is essential. T. vinacea, p. 3238, No.
51. is a Donax. T. zonata, p. 3238. No. 52. is the T.
tenuis. T. fluminalis, fluminea, and fluviatilis, p. 3242.
No. 79, 80, and 81. are placed, with more propriety, by
Chemnitz, in the genus Venus. T. purpurata, p. 3243.
No. 86, and T. purpurascens, p. 3237. No. 45, are not
Testa bivalvis, subsequilatera, aequivalvis.
Cardo dentibus mediis binis alternatis ; lateralibus remotis, insertis.
Animal a Tethys.
Shell bivalve, nearly equilateral, and of equal valves. Hinge with two
primary teeth, alternating with the opposite; lateral teeth remote,
Bruguiere observes, that Langius, who is the first
Testaceological writer upon whose nomenclature any
dependance can be placed, has described all the shells
of this genus, under the collective title of Concha cor-
diformes. D'Argenville, afterwards, adopted the de-
nomination of this author, and gave the name of heart
to every shell bearing any external resemblance to that
But the generic character of Langius is insufficient,
since it does not apply to every species of the genus ;
and that of D'Argenville is excessive, since it not only
includes the Cockles, but also such shells of the genus
Chama, Area, and even Venus, as have any tendency to
the shape of a heart.
This genus, such as Linnaeus has left it in the twelfth
edition of his Systema Naturae, is founded on the mini-
ber and situation of the teeth of the hinge ; and although
it includes none but analogous species, yet the number,
owing to the researches of subsequent authors, and the
consequent advancement of the study, is augmented to
more than double the number described by Linnaeus.
There are, generally, four teeth in each valve, two of
which are situated close to the apex of the shell, and
are called by Linnaeus cardinal teeth ; the other two,
or lateral teeth, are remote, and all four lock into cor-
responding cavities in the opposite valve. Nearly all
the species of this genus are longitudinally ribbed.
It must be observed, that we find in authors, the most
exact in other respects, a singular abuse of terms in
their designation of the ribs of cockles. Almost every
one, not excepting Linnaeus, has called them sulci,
which signifies grooves, and is in direct contradiction to
the fact, the ribs being a raised, not a depressed surface.
Baron Born was the first to rectify this error, who, re-
gardless of preceding authorities, was determined to
make the just distinction between ribs and furrows. It
will be proper to remark that, in the following specifica-
tions, in conformity with Baron Born's correction, we
have constantly substituted costa for sulcus, wherever
Linnaeus has used the latter word improperly.
The animal inhabiting the Cockle, has two very short
tubes, which project from the anterior, and upper part
of the body ; the lower tube is the longest, and is pro-
vided with a pendent valve, by which it may be closed ;
both tubes are crowned with about thirty filaments, dis-
posed in two rows, of which those of the outer row are
conical, and stronger than the others. There is a fleshy
limb, shaped like an arm, with an elbow in the middle,
which proceeds from the body of the animal, and which
can be projected considerably beyond the mouth of the
shell ; the fore part of this fleshy arm, when extended,
forms nearly a right angle with the mouth of the *hell,
and is the organ by means of which the animal executes
its confined progressive motions.
Cockles generally bury themselves in the sand, near
the coasts, except the spiny species, which are capaci-
tated, by nature, to defend themselves from the attacks
of other marine animals, without having recourse to the
same precaution. Those which seek their safety in the
sand place themselves so, that the two tubes are turned
towards the surface, for the purpose of a ready commu-
nication with the water, whence they derive their nourish-
ment. But it is sometimes necessary for them to change
their situations, to leave their old apartments, or to bury
themselves in a new one ; and this is effected, according
to the observations of M. Reaumur, in the following
manner : When the animal wishes to sink into the sand,
it lengthens its fleshy arm, at the same time diminishing
its extremity, so that it becomes as it were pointed.
With this it makes a hole, and buries the arm in the sand,
continuing its mining operations with the pointed end ;
and by repeatedly lengthening and contracting this
muscular appendage, it in a short time works the shell
below the surface. When on the contrary the animal
would return to the light, it is only necessary to press its
lengthened arm, with firmness, against the sand, and the
shell will rise in proportion to the power exerted from
beneath ; by repeating this motion, the shell will soon
be disengaged, and the animal will effect its purpose.
By the same means the animal is enabled to move both
forwards and backwards, but in a verv limited degree.
Cockles are found in all the known seas, and we
meet with many species in a fossil state.
Poli, in his Testacea of the two Sicilies, has consti-
tuted a new genus of these shells, under the name of
Cerastes, and has given some very accurate anatomical
details of the animal, in pi. 26. No. 5, and following.
€AMJD>IJC r M.
PL 48. Mr. Sowerby. PL 51. /. 1. Dr. Coombe.
1. Cardium aculeatum. C. testa subcordata, costis convexis linea exa-
ratis, exterius aculeato-ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122.
Linn. GmeL p. 3247.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped; ribs convex, and marked with a line ; spiny
on the outside.
Testa subcordata obliquata, costis convexis linea exaratis, spinosis acule-
atis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 216.
List. Conch, pi. 321. f. 158. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 96. Mus.
Kirch, f. 97, 98. Gualt. Test. pi. 72. f. A. Seba Mus. 3. pi. 86.
f. 4. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 3. f. 1. Argenv. Conch, pi. 23. f. B.
Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. A. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 50. f. 37.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 155—157. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298.
f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 6. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 77. Linn.
Trans. 8. p. 62.
/3. Sowerby , Brit. Miscel. p. 65. pi. 32.
A strong, convex shell, of a tawny, or yellowish brown
colour, with transverse bands of a different shade ; the
ribs are about twenty in number, strong, convex, grooved
down the middle, and furnished with slit spines on one
side the shell, and tubercles on the other. The inside
is whitish, or flesh-coloured, with flat ribs correspond-
ing with the furrows on the outside ; the hinge has two
primary teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; the
lateral teeth are strong, and prominent. It varies in
size, and the young shells are much thinner, and have
longer spines. In this state it is the variety £, or Car-
dium spinosum, of Mr. Sowerby.
Inhabits the European and Mediteranean seas, and
was first figured as a British shell by Pennant, who
savs it is found in Scotland, off the Hebrides and
Orknies. Mr. Montagu has met with it on the coast
of South Devonshire, particularly on Dawlish Warren,
and at Tor-cross.
Fig. 1. pi. 51. is the exotic variety of this species.
It is of a tawny colour, and more closely set with spines
and knobbs, than our shell. It inhabits the Indian
ocean, and is well figured by Chemnitz, vol. 6. pi. 15.
PL 49. f. 1, 2.
2. Cardium echinatum. T. testa subcordata, costis exaratis, linea ci-
liata, aculeis inflexis plurimis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1 122.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3247.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, ribs lineated down the middle, spines for
the most part inflected.
Testa cordato-ovata, subcequilatera, costis confertis, linca exaratis, aculeis
inflexis numerosis. Brug. Ency. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 217.
List. An. Aug. pi. 5. f. 33. Conch, pi. 324. f. 161. Bonan.
Recr. 2. f. 90. Seba Mus. 3. pi. 86. f. 3. Murray in Amozn. Acad.
pi. 2. f. 19. Muller Zool. Dan. p. 46. pi. 13. f. 12. and pi. 14. f.
1 — 4. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 176. pi. 14. f. 2. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 15. f. 158. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch.
Dorset, pi. 6. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 107. f. 1. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 78. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 63.
A smaller shell than the preceding, of a dull whitish,
or yellowish-brown colour, with nineteen longitudinal
ribs, set with white, enameled spines, some erect, and
others inflected ; intermediate furrows deep, and trans-
versely striated. The inside white, with flat ribs ; hinge
with four teeth in each valve, two approximate, and two
remote; each of the remote, or lateral teeth, in one
valve, have an interior depression, which receives the
point of the opposite tooth. Length about two inches ;
breadth about two and a quarter.
Inhabits the Northern ocean, and is common on most
of the British shores. Live shells are seldom taken,
except by dredging.
The C. echinatum was first noticed by Lister, whose
figure is very accurate. The Linnaean reference to
Gualtieri, pi. 72. f. B. is wrong, that shell is a young
specimen of the C. aculeatum. The C. ciliatum Linn.
Gmel. p. 3248. No. 10. is the C. echinatum in a young
PL 49. /. 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby.
3. Cardium ciliare. C. testa subcordata, costis elevatis triquetris, extimis
aculeato-ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped ; ribs raised and triangular, with thin spines
at the end.
List. Conch, pi. 325. f. 162. Gualt. Test. pi. 72. f. C. Know Vergn.
6. pi. 5. f. 5. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 53. f. 2. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 17. f. 171, 172. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 4. Pult. in Hutch.
Dorset, pi. 4. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 32. f. 2. Mont. Test.
Brit. p. 79, Linn. Trans. 8. p. 64.
A very thin, orbicular shell, of a white, or yellowish
colour, with about nineteen sharp ribs, crowned with
flat triangular spines ; the furrows are smooth, flat, and
glossy. Length seven eighths of an inch ; breadth an
Inhabits the European and Mediterranean seas. It is
rare in England, but has been found on the Dorset coast,
by Dr. Pulteney, and in Cornwall and Devonshire, by
vol. i. p
Mr. Montagu. Mr. Donovan mentions it from the
Orknies. The C. ciliare of Chemnitz, 11. pi. 200.
f. 1951, does not sufficiently accord with the above, to be
placed among the synonyms.
PI. 50. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby.
4. Cardium tuberculatum. C. testa subcordata, costis obtusis, nodosis,
transversim strialis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel.
Shell somewhat heart -stiaped, ribs obtuse, knotty, and transversely
List. Conch, pi. 329. f. 166. Gualt. Test. pi. 71. f. M. Seba Mus. 3.
pi. 86. f. 7. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 173. and pi. 19. f. 191. Pult.
in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 2. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 107. f. 2.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 79. and p. 568. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 64.
A strong, rust-coloured, banded shell, the size and
shape of the C. echinatum; the ribs are remote, obtuse,
and, as well as the furrows, are strongly striated trans-
versely : the sides, and extremity of the shell, are some-
Inhabits the Mediterranean, and British sea, where it
was first noticed, on the Dorset coast, by Dr. Pulteney,
and has been since found at the mouth of the Ex, in
Devonshire, by Mr. Montagu. It greatly resembles the
C. echinatum, but is longer in proportion to its breadth,
and has never been found with spines.
PL 50./. 3. Mrs.MAWE.
5. Cardium medium. C. testa subcordata, subangulata, valvis angulatis,
sulcatis, striatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular, the valves angular, grooved,
Testa subcordata, antice utrinque carinata, costis longitudinalibus con-
vexis, transversim dupliciter striatis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat.
6. p. 213.
List. Conch, pi. 316. f. 153. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 94. Mus. Kirch.
2. f. 91. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. B. Knorr Vergn. 2. pi. 29. f. 5. and
5. pi. 20. f. 5. Spengler Conch, pi. 1. f. k. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16.
f. 162—164. Encyclop. Method, pi. 96. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells,
pL 32. f. Is Mont. Test. Brit. p. 83. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 61. Penn.
Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 186.
A strong, heart-shaped shell, waved, and angular, or
truncated, before; of a whitish colour, marbled or spotted
with red, and dark brown; sometimes variegated with
other colours ; the ridges are numerous, and covered with
very close set, curved striae, which, when magnified, have
the appearance of cat-gut, and give a roughness to the
surface of the shell ; inside generally white, but some-
times of a deep red; hinge with a single, erect, incur-
vated, primary tooth; lateral teeth strong, and pro-
minent. About the size of a walnut.
Inhabits the Indian and American ocean, and also
the coasts of the Antilles. It is figured in Donovan's
British Shells, from a specimen found at Hartlepole,
Durham, by the Rev. T. Rackett.
6. Cardium exiguum. C. testa subcordata, subangulata, costis recur-
vato-imbricatis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 61.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular ; ribs recurved and imbricated.
Testa oblongiuscula, inaqualiter costata, subfusca. Linn. Gmel. p. 3255.
List. Conch, pi. 317. f. 154. Walker Minut. Rarior. f. 83. Donov.
Brit. Shells, pi. 32. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 2. f.ll. Mont.
Test. Brit. p. 82. Penn. Brit. ZooL 1812. 4. p. 186.
A very small shell, about the size of a currant, of a
white or ochreous colour, with twenty tuberculated ribs,
and transversely striated furrows ; inside white.
Inhabits the British shores, and was first found by
Mr. Boys at Sandwich ; also by Dr. Maton, and Mr.
Montagu in Falmouth Harbour.
7. Cardium nodosum. C. testa rotundata, compressa; costis 24, tuber-
culis numerosis, obtusis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 66.
Shell round, and compressed ; ribs 24, tubercles numerous, blunt.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 81. Penn. Brit. ZooL 1812. 4. p. 189.
A flat, somewhat orbicular shell, of a reddish white
colour. The inside is white and glossy, the margin is
strongly toothed. Diameter of the shell, about three
quarters of an inch.
Inhabits the coast of Devonshire, and was discovered
amongst some sand, from Falmouth Harbour, by Mr.
8. Cardinal rubrum. C. testa rotundata, convexa; cardinis dentibus pri-
mariisfere obsoletis, lateralibus manifestis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 66.
Shell round, convex ; hinge with the primary teeth nearly obsolete, la-
teral teeth apparent.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 83. Walker Minut. Rarior. n°. 86? Penn. Brit.
Zool. 1812. 4. p. 189.
A minute species, about the eighth of an inch broad ;
smooth, pellucid, of a red colour, and rounded at both
ends. Inside of a glossy red, with a plain margin.
Inhabits the British ocean. Was found at Sandwich
by Mr. Boys, and on £he Devonshire coast, at Fal-
mouth, and particularly about Kingsbridge, by Mr.
9. Cardium arcuatum. C. testa orbicular i y transverse arcuatim striata.
Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67.
Shell orbicular, with transverse, arched stria?.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 85. pi. 3. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190.
A thin, brittle, semi-pellucid shell, of a white colour,
marked with very fine arched, or waved, transverse
striae, and a few irregular concentric furrows. Inside
rather glossy, with a slightly crenated margin ; hinge
with a single primary tooth in each valve; diameter
nearly half an inch.
Inhabits Falmouth Harbour, but is not common.
This elegant species was discovered by Mr. Montagu,
and resembles the Tellina divcmcata.
10. Cardium discors. C. testa suborbiculari, maxime convexa, valvulis
oblique striatis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67.
Shell somewhat orbicular, very convex ; valves obliquely striated.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 84. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190.
A smooth, white shell, with oblique striae running in
acute angles, but so delicate as scarcely to be discerned
by the naked eye ; the hinge has a single primary tooth
in each valve ; lateral teeth remote. Size of a small pea.
Mr. Montagu is doubtful if this be an English shell,
he having found but one dead specimen in the sand of
11. Cardium elongatum. C. testa angulato-subovali, compressa ; costis 21,
rotundatis, leviter rugosis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67.
Shell subangular, suboval, and compressed ; ribs 21, rounded, and faintly
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 82. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190.
A small shell, about a quarter of an inch in diameter,
of a yellowish-white, or light red colour, with the poste-
rior side rather produced, and angular.
Discovered by Mr. Montagu, in Salcomb Bay, Devon-
12. Cardium muricatulum. C. testa cordata, opaca, alba t margine mu-
ricato. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 68.
Shell heart-shaped, opaque, white ; margin spiny.
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 85. Walker Test. Minut. Rarior. f. 84. Penn.
Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190.
A minute microscopic species, found in the sea sand
of the Island of Sheppy, in Kent, where it is not uncom-
13. Cardium fasciatum. C. testa suborbiculari, pellucida ; costis 27,
Shell suborbicular, pellucid ; ribs 27, smooth, and flattened.
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 30. pi. 27. f. 6. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4.
This is a small species about three eighths of an inch
in diameter, slightly tuberculated at the shorter side, of
a reddish white colour, with a few brown stripes, which
also appear on the inside of the shell.
Discovered by Mr. Montagu on the Cornish and
PL 51./. 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe.
14. Cardium muricatum. C. testa subcordata, sulcata, lateribus muri-
cata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. 3250.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, grooved, and prickly at the sides.
Testa cordato-ovata, subobliqua, cortis 36, lateribus lamelloso muricatis,
marginibus utrinque sanguieneis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6.
List. Conch, pi. 322. f. 159. Knorr Vergn. 4. pi. 14. f. 5. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 17. f. 177.
/3. List. Conch, pi. 326. f. 163. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 17. f. 178.
An oblong shell, of a cinereous, white, or yellowish
colour, mixed, or spotted with red, the anterior side
edged with scarlet ; the ribs are thirty-six in number,
on twelve of which the spines lean towards the posterior
side of the shell, the rest recline in a contrary direction;
the margin is denticulated, but the teeth are largest, and
most open, at the anterior edge. The inside is white,
with a tinge of scarlet at the anterior edge, and, some-
times, one or two brown, or orange stains near the
hinge ; the principal primary tooth pointed, and some-
what incurvated; the lateral teeth as usual. Length
about two inches and a quarter ; breadth, two inches.
This is one of the prettiest shells of the American
ocean, both on account of the colours with which it is
variegated, and the regular reclined disposition of the
spines with which it is covered. It is found on the
coasts of Jamaica, and St. Domingo.
PI 52./. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe.
15. Cardium isocardia. C. testa cordata, costis squamis fornicatis, im-
bricatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel.p. 3249.
Shell heart-shaped, ribs with arched, imbricated, scales.
Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 95. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 93. List. Conch, pi. 323.
f. 160. Rumph. Mus. pi. 48. f. 9. Petiver Gaz. pi. 152. f. 7. Rugenf.
Conch. 1. pi. 5. f. 56. Born Test. p. 39. Vignette. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 17. f. 174—176. Encyclop. Method, pi. 297. f. 4.
A strong, heart-shaped shell, of a whitish colour,
spotted, or clouded, with brown; it has about thirty-
five longitudinal ribs, covered with erect, arched, hollow
scales, placed one above the other, like the tiles of a
house ; inside white, purple in the middle ; sometimes
yellow ; margin strongly denticulated ; hinge with two
primary teeth in each valve, one of which is very strong,
erect, conical, and slightly incurvated ; lateral teeth, in
one valve, deeply excavated, to receive the points of
Inhabits the East Indies, the Persian Gulf, and the
Red Sea ; also the American ocean, on the coasts of Ja-
maica, and other West Indian islands.
16. Cardium glaucum. C. testa cordata, subantiquata, antice glauca,
costis viginti, postice retrorsum imbricatis, natibus violaceis. Poiret
Voy. in Barbar. 2. p. 13. Linn, Gmel. p. 3253. Brug. Encyc. Meth.
Hist. Nat. 6. p. 221.
Shell heart-shaped, somewhat worn, greenish before ; ribs twenty, with
imbricated scales turned backwards ; umbones violet.
This is a small, heart-shaped shell, less than an inch
in length, with twenty, or twenty-one, convex, longitudi-
nal ribs ; it is white, except the anterior part, which is
greenish, and the tips, which are violet ; the inside is
brown before, and violet at the hinge; the posterior
edges are white.
This is a very common species in the Mediterranean,
particularly on the coasts of Languedoc, where it is so
common, that Bruguiere is astonished it has escaped
detection. It agrees with the C. virgineum of Linnaeus,
in every thing except in the longitudinal ribs, which are
wanting in the Linnsean shell. Poiret found it on the
coast of Algiers.
PL 52. /. 3. Mrs. M awe.
17. Cardium maculosum. C. testa ovata, subcordata> maculis brunneis
insignita ; costis 48.
Shell oval, somewhat heart-shaped, and speckled with brown ; ribs
Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 6.
This shell is of an oval shape, and of a white colour,
mottled with brown, or tawny ; it has forty-eight deli-
cate longitudinal ribs, four or five of which, on the ante-
rior part of the shell, are finely tuberculated. The in-
side is white, marked with light purple, under the sum-
mit : the margin is serrated ; the hinge has four teeth in
each valve. Length an inch and an eighth ; breadth an
From its shape and colour, this shell might be taken
for the young of the C. magnum; but that it is decidedly
different from that species, may be inferred from the
number and appearance of the ribs. It is well figured
in the Encyclop&die MSthodique; but the specimen in
that work is larger than ours, being an inch and three
quarters long, and an inch and a half broad.
PI. 53./. i, 2. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
18. Cardium ringens. C. testa rotunda, ventricosa, alba; marginis den-
tibus profundis, anterioris roseis. Linn. Gmel, p. 3254.
Shell round, ventricose, white ; margin deeply toothed, and rosy, on the
Testa rotundata, longitudinaliter costata, margine antico profunde ser-
rata, hiante. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 225.
List. Conch, pi. 330. f. 167. Petiver Mus. p. 36. n°. 836. Knorr
Vergn. 4. pi. 14. f. 3. Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. F. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 16. f. 170. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 3.
A strong shell, with the eight anterior ribs deeply cut
like the teeth of a saw ; the colour is white, except a
rosy blush on the teeth, and, sometimes, on the apex of
the shell. The inside is white, with a tint of pale rose
colour on the anterior margin ; there are four teeth in
each valve ; two primary teeth, the largest of which is
erect, and somewhat incurvated, and two lateral teeth,
of which one is more remote than the other.
Inhabits the coasts of Guinea, according to Petiver,
and was found by Adanson, near the mouth of the
19. Cardium ventricosum. C. testa subcordata, ventricosa, costis angu-
latis, postice transversim sulcatis, ano ovato, piano. Brug. Encyc.
Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 228.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, ventricose, ribs angular, transversely
grooved behind ; below the beak, oval and plain.
List. Conch. pJ. 328. f. 165. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 5. Ency clop. Method.
pi. 299. f. 1.
This shell is very properly distinguished, by Bru-
guiere, from the following, with which it has hitherto
been confounded. It is never so long in proportion
to its breadth, as the C. magnum, and it grows even to
a larger size. It has about thirty-three longitudinal
ribs, the seven anterior of which, are flat and imbricated,
the twenty-one following are convex, and round, on one
side, and angular on the other ; the five last, or poste-
rior ribs, are large, convex, but little raised, and without
the scaly striae which cross the others. The margin is
crenated; the shell is of a ferruginous colour spotted with
brown, and sometimes banded with the same. The in-
side is reddish at the edges, and near the summit.
Inhabits, according to Lister, the coast of Campeachy.
Bruguiere says it is rare in collections, and adds, that he
owes to Lamarck the opportunity of describing the shell.
PL 53./. 3. Mr. Jennings.
20. Cardium magnum. C. testa oblonga, costis angulatis, latere serratis.
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p. 3250.
Shell oblong, with angular ribs, serrated on the side.
Cardium elongatum. C. testa oblonga, subeequilatera, costis 40 longi-
tudinalibus, utrinque crenato-striatis, posticis striis retrorsum imbri-
catis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 228.
List. Conch, pi. 331. f. 168. Seba Mm. 3. pi. 86. f. 2. Born Test. pi. 3.
f. 6, 7. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 17. f. 179. Encyclop. Method, pi. 297.
f. 3. Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. G. Martin Univ. Conch. 2. pi. 80.
This is an oblong, oval shell, with forty longitudinal
ribs, according to Bruguiere, but our specimens have
only thirty-four. It grows to a very large size, some
having been found six inches long and of other dimen-
sions in proportion ; the anterior ribs are serrated, the
middle ones flattish at top, and the posterior ribs im-
bricated ; the ground colour of the shell is white, with
spots, or stains, of yellow, orange, brown, or purple.
The inside is white, with a yellow mark reaching from
the apex towards the middle of the shell; some are
quite white within.
Inhabits the American ocean, and is common on the
coasts of Jamaica, and other West India islands.
PI. 54. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe.
20. Cardiuin laevigatum. C. testa obovata, striis obsoletis longitudina-
libus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. 3251.
Shell obovate, with obsolete longitudinal striae.
List. Anim. Angl. pi. 5. f. 32. Conch, pi. 332. f. 169. Petiver
Gaz. pi. 93. f. 10. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 51. f. 40. Da Costa
Brit. Conch, pi. 13. f. 6. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 6. Donov.
Brit. Shells, pi. 54. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 80. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 65.
/5. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 185, 186.
A strong, smooth, yellowish-white shell, obsoletely
ribbed longitudinally, and covered, when recent, with
a dark green epidermis : the inside is white, with a cre-
nated margin ; length two inches and a quarter ; breadth
nearly an inch. Young shells are very smooth, and
sometimes variegated with rose colour.
Inhabits the coasts of Great Britain.
£. Figure 2. pi. 54. is a variety of our C. Icevigatum,
of a longer shape, ribbed in the same manner, and pret-
tily mottled with yellow. It inhabits the Indian seas,
and is figured by Chemnitz. It is distinguished by
Bruguiere, under the name of C. biradiatum. Our speci-
men is not rayed within-side.
PL 54. /. 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
21. Cardium ci tritium, C. testa obovata, lavi, striis obsoletis, margine
interiore serrato. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel.
p. 3251. C. serratum.
Shell obovate, smooth, with obsolete striae ; margin serrated within.
Gualt. Test. pi. 82. f. A. Chem. Conch, pi. 18. f. 189.
A thin, smooth, convex, yellowish shell, with faint
longitudinal striae, sometimes not to be perceived without
the help of a lens ; the anterior margin is strongly
stained of an orange colour. The inside is white and
orange, and the margin is crenated.
Inhabits the Mediterranean, the Indian ocean, the
coast of South America, and the shores of the West
It is constituted a distinct species from the C. Iceviga-
tum, by Linnaeus, under the name of C. serratum, and
occurs in Chemnitz, and the Linnaean Society's Cabi-
net, under the more appropriate title of C citrinum.
PI. 55. f. 1. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
22. Cardium oblongum. C. testa jlavicante, oblonga, turgida, costata,
anterius glabra, cordata, margine crenata. Linn, Gmel. p. 3254.
Shell yellowish, oblong, turgid, ribbed, smooth before, heart-shaped,
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 190. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 8. Favanne Conch.
pi. 53. f. L.
This shell is described, by Bruguiere, under the name
of C. serratum, together with our British C. lavigatum,
which he considers as the same species ; that they are
distinct, however, will be evident on comparison, as the
C. oblongwm is longer in proportion to its breadth, and
is more conspicuously ribbed. It has thirty ribs, is of
a uniform yellowish, or rust colour ; and is about three
inches long, and nearly two inches and a half broad.
Inhabits the Mediterranean, and warmer climates,
but is never found in the British seas.
23. Cardium flavum. C. testa subovata, sulcata, latere anteriore scabro,
posterior x dentato. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. GmeL
Shell somewhat oval, grooved ; the anterior margin rough, the posterior
Schrot. Einl. in Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 11. a. b.
The C. Jiavum, according to the description of
Schroter, is of an oblong-oval shape, with twenty-seven
ribs, five or six of which, on the anterior part of the
shell, are spinous, and twelve or thirteen, on the poste-
rior side, are tuberculated ; the intermediate ribs are
smooth, and rounded. The margin is crenated, and the
valves close every where, except before, where they are
a little open. The apex, and anterior part of the shell,
are white, the rest is of a sulphur yellow colour; the in-
side is white, except under the apex, which is reddish
Inhabits the coast of Coromandel, near Tranquebar.
M . Schroter observes, that the yellow colour of this
shell is very superficial, since those specimens which
have not been taken at sea, but have been for some
time lying on the shore, exposed to the sun, are quite
PL 55. /. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
24. Cardium rusticum. C. testa antiquata, costis viginti remotis,
interstitiis rugosis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel.
Shell antiquated, with twenty remote ribs, rugged between.
Rugenf. Conch. 1. pi. 12. f. 77, 78. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 197.
This is a variegated shell, with light bands on a rich
brown ground ; the bands are sometimes quite white,
and sometimes yellowish, brownish, or tending to blue ;
the ribs are strong, and generally twenty in number,
never more than twenty-two. It resembles the common
cockle, but the ribs are more convex and distinct, and
the grooves are deeper, and rugged. The inside is white,
with a crenated margin.
Inhabits the European seas, particularly the Mediter-
PI. 55. /. 4.
25. Cardium edule. C. testa antiquata, costis viginti sex, obsolete re-
cur vat o-imbricatis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel.
Shell antiquated ; ribs twenty-six, with obsolete recurved scales.
List. Anim. Angl. pi. 5. f. 34. Conch, pi. 334. f. 171. Gvalt. Test.
pi. 71. f. F. Knorr Vergn,6. pi. 8. f. 4. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi.
50. f. 41. Da Costa Brit. Conch, pi. 11. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19.
f.194. Ency clop. Method, pi. 300. f. 5. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset.
pi. 11. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 124. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 76.
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 66.
This well-known shell is of a yellowish-white colour,
with from twenty-three to twenty-six flattish ribs; some
specimens have equal sides, and others are more or
less elongated at the anterior end. The inside is white,
and the margin is dentated. It is commonly about the
size of a walnut ; but Dr. Maton mentions a variety,
much larger, from the coast of Essex, called the Ross
This is a very common species on the sandy shores of
Great Britain and Ireland, where it lies buried a little
below the surface. Great abundance of the shells are
collected, and regularly brought to London, from spring
to autumn, for the sake of the fish, which are regarded
as a wholesome and agreeable nourishment. Those
which come from Selsea, near Chichester, in Sussex,
were considered the best in the kingdom. Prodigious
quantities of these shell-fish are also consumed in Hol-
land, where their cheapness recommends them to the
common people, as a principal article of food during
Donovan has figured a prolonged variety, under the
name of C. rusticum. See British Shells, pi. 124. f. 2.
26. Cardium Icelandicum. C. testa sulcata, costis ad triginta sex, tri-
quetris, Icevibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3252.
Shell grooved, with about thirty-six smooth, triangular ribs.
Testa gibba, longitudinaliter sulcata, costis subtriquetris, acutis, ano
obsolete cordato. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Not. 6. p. 222.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 195, 196. Encyclop. Method, pi. 300. f. 8.
A strong shell, of a whitish, or yellowish-brown
colour, with from thirty to thirty-six triangular ribs ;
the grooves are deep, and ridged transversely, especially
towards the external edges ; the inside is grooved, with
a crenated margin. Length two inches ; breadth about
Inhabits the coast of Iceland, and was discovered by
27. Cardium Groenlandicum. C. testa antiquata, glabra, tenui, murina,
lineis angulatis ferrugineis picta ; mar gine glabra, striis longitudina-
libus obsoletis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3252.
Shell antiquated, smooth, thin, and mouse-coloured, with angular fer-
ruginous lines ; margin smooth, striae longitudinal, and obsolete.
Testa cordata, Icevi, grisea, decussata, striis lateralibus obsoletis. Brug.
Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 222.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 198. Encyclop. Method, pi. 300. f. 7.
This species, as Chemnitz observes, has externally
the appearance of a Venus, and might be taken for a
shell of that genus, but for the hinge, which has four
teeth, the same as other cockles ; but the two primary
teeth are very small. The surface is smooth, and marked
with very fine, distant, longitudinal striae, diverging
from the apex to the margin ; it is also striated trans-
versely, except towards the lateral edges. It is exter-
nally of a mouse grey, with ferruginous zig-zag lines ;
within, it is flesh-coloured, with a tinge of carnation.
Length an inch and a half; breadth rather more.
Inhabits the coast of Greenland.
Chemnitz appears to be the first describer of this, as
well as the preceding species. Gmelin might have
spared his question, an mera edulis varietas? since it
bears not the slightest resemblance to the common
28. Cardium regulare. C. testa ovata, tequilatera, costis longitudina-
libus convexis, notatis lunulis transversis elevatis, antice lamellosis.
Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 227.
Shell oval, equilateral, with convex longitudinal ribs, and transverse
raised rings; the fore part lamellated.
A white shell, sometimes tinged with yellow round
the edges, and within near the summit; it has thirty,
or thirty-one, longitudinal ribs, with many smaller
ones cutting the others transversely in the middle
of the valves, and obliquely on the sides. Length two
inches ; breadth an inch and three quarters.
Inhabits the coast of the West India Islands.
This species is described only by Bruguiere, who says
it is common in the Parisian cabinets.
29. Cardium pectinatum. C. testa subcordata, pectinata. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel. p. 3253.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, and pectinated.
Gualt. Test. pi. 75. f. A. Murr. Fund. Testae, pi. 2. f. 18.
A white shell, with distant striae, rough upwards ; the
cavity under the beaks yellow ; margins prominent.
Inhabits the Mediterranean.
30. Cardium Auricula. C. testa cordata, subrhombea, costis utrinque
viginti quatuor ; sulcis subtilissime crenulatis, natibus distantibus.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3253. Forsk. Faun. Arab. p. 122. No. 52.
Shell heart-shaped, somewhat rhombic, with twenty-four ribs on each
side ; the grooves very finely crenated ; beaks distinct.
Rugenf. Conch. 2. (ined.) pi. 9.
A white pellucid shell, with a toothed margin.
Length two inches and a quarter ; breadth one inch and
Inhabits the shores of Arabia and Egypt.
31. Cardium Lima. C. testce gibbce, costis aculeatis, anterioribus tuber-
culis membranaceis recurvatis ad latera crenatis, sulcis intermediis
granulatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3253.
Shells gibbous ; ribs prickly, those before with recurved membranaceous
tubercles ; intermediate grooves granulated.
Cardium Asiaticum. C. testa cordata, costis obsoletis, longitudinalibus,
punctis serialibus subspinosis, antice lamellosis. Brug. Encyc. Meth.
Hist. Nat. 6. p. 224.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 153, 154.
A thin, yellowish-white shell, with from thirty to
forty delicate ribs ; the apex and interior of the dentated
edges are reddish; it is grooved inside. Length two
inches ; in the breadth rather less.
Inhabits the Indian ocean, and is a very rare shell.
PI. 55. /. 5. Mrs. Mawe.
32. Cardium papyraceum. C. testa pellucida, cinerea t striis longitudi-
nalibus tenuibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254.
Shell pellucid, and ash-coloured, with thin longitudinal stria?.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 184. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 2.
A very thin, brittle shell, of a whitish, or ash colour,
finely and closely ribbed longitudinally ; the margins of
the valves are finely toothed ; the summits are some-
times marked with purple, and the inside spotted with
the same; the hinge is like the other species of the
genus. Length an inch and three quarters; breadth
nearly the same.
Inhabits the Indian ocean, and is found on the shores
of New Holland.
PL 56./. 1. Dr. Coombe.
33. Cardium costatum. C. testa gibba, ezquivahi, costis elevatis, can-
natis, concaviSy membranaceis. Linn. Syst. Nat.ed. 12. p. 1121.
Shell gibbous, of equal valves, with high, keeled, concave, membrana-
List. Conch, pi. 327. f. 164. Rumph. Mus. pi. 48. f. 6. Gualt. Test.
pi. 72. f. £>. D' Argenville Conch, pi. 26. f. A. Favanne Conch, pi.
52. f. .S. Adans. Conch, pi. 18. f. 2. Ifworr Fergrc. 1. pi. 28. f. 2.
C%m. CoracA. 6. pi. 15. f. 151, 152. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 1.
A large, suborbicular shell, of a milk-white colour,
except between the middle ribs, where it passes from
light tawny to chocolate brown ; it is extremely thin,
brittle, and transparent, when young, but becomes thick,
strong, and opaque in old age ; there are eighteen very
large channels, proceeding from the apex to the circum-
ference of the shell, forming so many high, sharp-edged,
ribs. The inside is grooved to correspond with the
ridges on the surface ; the teeth are large and strong ;
the middle is long and pointed. The largest specimens
measure four inches in length, and four inches and a
half in breadth.
Inhabits the coast of Guinea, and the sandy shores of
Senegal, but is very rarely to be obtained perfect. M.
Adanson, who has particularly described this shell,
says that single valves only are thrown on the shore;
the animal, living in very deep water, cannot be dredged
up alive, and therefore very few cabinets possess this
shell entire, or with similar valves.
PL 56./. 2. Mrs. Mawe.
44. Cardium apertum. C. testa subcordata, tenuissima, alba, costis ob-
soletis carinatis. Gronov. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 5.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, with very thin, white ribs, obsoletely cari-
Testa subcordata, tenuissima, alba, antice producta, hiante, costis obsoletis,
acutis, muticis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. 6. pi. 226.
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 181—183. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 5.
A very thin, fragile, whitish shell, with numerous
worn ribs; round at one end, and produced at the
other, where it gapes considerably ; the margin is den-
tated. Inside white, stained with purple towards the
middle, and at the open end of the shell ; hinge with
four teeth in each valve, two at the beak, as in other
species, and two lateral, oblong, like those in the genus
Mactra. Length an inch and a quarter , breadth an
inch and a half ; but it grows to a larger size.
Inhabits the seas of Asia and South America ; Gro-
novius says, the coasts of Jamaica. It is a very rare
shell, and is referred by Gmelin to C. virgineum of
Linnaeus ; but that shell is a doubtful species, certainly
not the C. apertum, but perhaps the C. glaucwm of
PI. 56./. 3. Dr. Coombe.
35. Cardium soleniforme. C. testa transverse ovata, fragili, longitudi-
naliter striata, utrinque muricata, antice Mans. Brug. Encyc. Meth.
Hist. Nat. 6. p. 235.
Shell transversely oval, brittle, longitudinally striated ; both valves
prickly, gaping before.
Solen bullatus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3226.
List. Conch, pi. 342. f. 179. Gualt. pi. 85. f. H. Chem. Conch. 6.
pi. 6. f. 49, 50. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 6. a. b.
A thin, oblong-oval shell, rough, with minute spines at
each end, produced, and gaping before ; the ribs are
numerous, rather distant on the gaping end, which is
strongly serrated at the margin ; the colour is white,
stained, almost entirely, with purple. Inside smooth,
glossy, and marked with purple and pink ; the hinge has
three teeth in each valve, one central, and two lateral.
Inhabits the South American ocean, and the coasts
of Jamaica, St. Domingo, and Martinique.
36. Cardium pecteniforme. C. testa rotundata, complanata, costis tri-
angulis, lateralibus muricatis. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 10.
Shell round, flattish ; ribs triangular ; sides spiny.
Gualt. Conch, pi. 71. f. H. Chem. Conch, pi. 17. f. 180.
An orbicular shell, white, spotted with blackish
brown, deeply grooved, and furnished with rough scaly
longitudinal ribs ; the margin is crenated ; the inside
white, with longitudinal grooves. Length an inch ;
breadth the same.
First described by Baron Born.
87. Cardium donaciforme. C. testa subcordata, longitudinaliter sulcata,
antice truncata, natibus cancellatis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, longitudinally grooved, truncated before;
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 165. Encyclojj. Method, pi. 296. f. 2. Schrot.
Einl. in Conch. 3. pi. 7. f. 14.
This species has the form of a Donax ; it is broader
than long, flat before, and nearly of a triangular shape ;
the longitudinal ribs are flat, and separated by shallow
grooves, like striae ; the anterior end is heart-shaped; it
is of a dull white colour, tending to yellow, and marked
with brown spots, and streaks ; the lateral teeth in one
valve are sharp-pointed, in the other obtuse.
Inhabits the Indian ocean.
PL 56./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings.
38. Cardium fimbriatum. C. testa subcordata, costis utrinque viginli
quatuor, mar gine fimbriate .
Shell somewhat heart-shaped; ribs on both valves, twenty-four; margin
This new and singular species is about the size of
the common cockle, with regular longitudinal ribs, ter-
minating, at the margin of the shell, in a wide fringe, or
furbelow, which is so strongly characteristic, that the
species can never be mistaken. The other parts of the
shell are smooth, and, in colour and appearance, much
like the C. edule. The inside is white, the hinge strong,
and the lateral teeth prominent.
This curious shell is one, among many rarities, in the
cabinet of Mr. Jennings.
PL 57. /. 1. Dr. Coombe.
39. Cardiura iEolicum. C. testa crassa, striis anterioribus longitudina-
libns, posterioribus transversis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254.
Shell thick ; anterior striae longitudinal, posterior transverse.
Bonan. Recr. f. 91. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 89. List. Conch, pi. 314.
f. 150. Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 26. f. 1, 2. and 27. f. 3. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 18. f. 187, 188. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 4.
A very convex, irregular shell, somewhat truncated
before, of a white colour, variegated with brown and
reddish spots and stains. This shell presents three
distinct faces ; the anterior, which is the smallest, is
smooth, protuberant, and shining ; the second extends
to the middle of the shell, and is striated, or closely
and finely ribbed longitudinally ; the third, or posterior
face, occupies the rest of the surface, and is marked
transversely, and obliquely, with distant raised striae,
which feel rough, when rubbed downwards from the
apex. The inside is white in the middle, yellowish
near the summit, and somewhat flesh-coloured at the
margin, which is serrated : the hinge resembles the other
species of this genus.
Inhabits the Indian seas, and the coasts of China.
PL 57./. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
40. Cardium rigidum. C. testa subcordata, anterius subtruncata, costis
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, rather truncated before ; ribs prominent,
A small shell, of a whitish colour, with longitudinal
grooves, and ribs ; the latter covered with a strong,
thick, wrinkled epidermis, which adheres very firmly to
the shell, but which, when removed, leaves the ribs
flattish, and smooth. Inside white; teeth of the hinge
PL 57./. 4,5. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
41. Cardium latum. C. testa lata, incequifatera, intus alba ; costis mag-
nisplanis spinulosis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254.
Shell broad, of unequal sides, within white ; the ribs rather flat and spi-
Testa transverse ovata, costis longitudinalibus muricatis, natibus violaceis.
Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 234.
Knorr Vergn. 0. pi. 7. f. 6. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi.
19. f. 192, 193.
A strong shell, of a ferruginous colour, with the shape
of a Venus, but the characters of a Cardium; it has flat
longitudinal ribs, separated by narrow grooves ; the mar-
gin is crenated. The inside is white, and grooved, and
the lateral teeth of the hinge are strong.
Inhabits the Indian ocean, and the Nicobar islands.
The only specimen of this shell in the Linnaean
collection is a worn single valve. In its live state, it is
described by Chemnitz as of a white colour, spotted
and banded with pale yellow, and armed with minute
points, which seem hollow, and feel rough when the
finger is passed over the shell. Our shell appears to
be the same, excepting colour and size, as that of
Chemnitz ; but Born's specimen differs from both, the
hinge in his figure being nearer to the middle of the
42. Cardium flexuosum. C. testa rotundata, fusca ; costis flexuosis,
sulcis rugosis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3255.
Shell rounded, brown, ribs flexuous, grooves wrinkled.
List. Conch, pi. 343. f. 180.
An obscure species, about an inch and three quarters
43. Cardium cancellatum. C. testa subrubra y tenui, rotundata, dccus-
satim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256.
Shell reddish, thin, rounded, with decussated striae.
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. B.
A small species described only by Chemnitz. Not
more than half an inch broad.
44. Cardium rubiginosum. C. testa rubella, incequilatera ; costis con-
vexis t transversim striatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256.
Shell reddish, with unequal sides; ribs convex, transversely striated.
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. D.
A somewhat oval shell, very strongly ribbed, with
wide grooves between; margin crenated. Length an
inch ; breadth an inch and a quarter.
45. Cardium albidum. C. testa incequilatera, costata, subalbida, intus
purpurea. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256.
Shell of unequal sides, ribbed, whitish ; inside purple.
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. H.
A very small shell, about a quarter of an inch long,
with longitudinal ribs, and a serrated margin. Perhaps
the young of a larger shell.
46. Cardium virescens. C. testa incequilatera, oblonga, costis subtilibus,
supra duplkatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256.
Shell of unequal sides, oblong, with very fine ribs, doubled above.
Gualt. Test. pi. 84. f. A.
A thin, brittle, pellucid shell, of a greenish white
colour, sometimes variegated with rosy spots. Inside
silvery. Length three quarters of an inch.
CAItDIUM. c 239
47. Cardium lineatum. C. testa cordata, carinata, anterius oblique trun-
cata, tenui, glaberrima, nivea, aureo striata, margine denticulata.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3246.
Shell heart-shaped, keeled; the fore part obliquely truncated, thin, very
smooth, white, with gilt striae; margin toothed.
Kdmm. Lab. Rudolst. p. 210. No. 2. pi. 12. f. 4.
This shell is introduced by Gmelin, on the authority
PL 57. f. 6. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
48. Cardium roseum. C. testa cordata, anterius lineis, posterhts striis
paulo latioribus, conjunctione cordis Jiguram cemulantibus exarata ;
hinc convexa, illinc concava. Linn. Gmel. p. 3245.
Shell heart-shaped, with lines on the fore part, and broader striae be-
hind, forming, by their conjunction, the figure of a heart; one part
convex, the other concave.
Argenville Conch, pi. 23. f. D. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14. f. 147. Ency-
clop. Method, pi. 294. f. 2. a. b.
This shell resembles the C. Cardissa ; but the margin
is plain, the valves are more concave, and the shell never
grows to so large a size. The concavity is streaked and
stained with rose colour, and the convex part is dotted
with the same on a white ground.
Inhabits, according to Chemnitz, the coasts of the
Nicobar Islands, and the entrance of the Gulf of Ben-
gal. It is a very rare species. In the Linnean Collection
it is named, by Dr. Solander, C. impressum.
PL 57. /. 7, 8. Linnean Society's Cabinet.
49. Cardium hemicardium. C. testa cordata, subquadrilatera, valvulh
carinatis, natibus distantibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 1121. Linn,
Gmel. p. 3246.
Shell heart-shaped, somewhat four-sided, with keeled valves,beaks distant.
Testa cordata, subtrilatera, antice carinata, sulcis longitudinalibus punc-
tatis, ano ovato, piano. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 211.
Humph. Mus. pi. 44. f. H. Petiver Aquat. Amboin. pi. 17. f. 4. Gualt.
Test. pi. 83. f. c. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 3. f. 2. Chem. Conch, pi. 16.
f. 159—161. Encyclop. Method, pi. 295, f. 2. b. c.
This is a triangular, heart-shaped shell, of a whitish
or yellowish cast on the outside, and white and shining:
within; there are, in some specimens, near the lateral
teeth, two brown oblong spots, which, in others, are
not to be seen. The ribs, which are twenty-three or
four in number, are rather flat, and smooth; those on
the posterior part of the shell are tuberculated ; the an-
terior ribs are plain ; the intermediate grooves are
wrinkled, and marked with excavated dots. The inside
is white, and the margin deeply crenated ; the hinge has
four teeth, which are large and triangular, except the
middle one, which is but half the size of the others.
Inhabits the East Indies. Rumphius says the island
PL 58./. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe.
60. Cardium Fragum. C. testa subcordata, subangulata ; costis notatis
lunulis elevatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular; ribs marked with elevated
List. Conch, pi. 315. f. 152. Petiver Aquat. Ami), pi. 18. f. 21. Rumph.
Mus. pi. 44. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. E. Born Test. pi. 3. f.
3, 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 166, 167. Encyclop. Method, pi. 295.
f. 3. a— e.
A whitish, or yellowish shell, formed of three un-
equal planes ; the anterior face is raised in the middle,
so as to form an obtuse angle ; the two posterior faces
are round, and their edges describe the segment of a
circle. It has on each valve, about twenty-three convex,
longitudinal ribs, eleven of which, on the anterior face,
are partly covered with little rough scales, the upper
part of the shell being smooth ; the scales on the pos-
terior face are farther apart, thicker, and more promi-
nent, but not so numerous as those before ; the margins
of the valves are crenated; the anterior margin is deeply
serrated, and does not shut so close as the rest of the
shell ; the summits are conic, slightly oblique, and sepa-
rated from each other by a thread line. The inside is
white, with a yellow, or orange band, extending from
the summit to the middle of the cavity; there are five
teeth in each valve, two at the beak, two lateral, and
one long and conical, just before the ligament ; all these
teeth are articulated into corresponding cavities in the
Inhabits the Indian seas, and, according to Linnaeus,
is sometimes found in the American ocean.
VOL. I. R
WHITE STRAWBERRY COCKLE.
PL 58./. 3. Mr. Strong.
51. Cardium Unedo. C. testa subcordata, costis lunulis coloratis. Linn*
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p. 3250.
Shell somewhat heart-shaped ; ribs with coloured rings.
Testa subcordata, antice angulata, prominens, costis lunulis elevatis, colo-
ratis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 214.
Bonan. Recreat. Class. 3. f. 375. List. Conch, pi. 135. f. 151. Rumph.
Mus. pi. 44. F. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. A. Knorr Vergn. 2. pi. 29.
f. 2. Rugenf. Conch, pi. 3. f. 25. Da Costa, Elem. of Conch, pi. 6.
f. 8. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 168, 169. Encyclop. Method, pi.
295. f. 4.
A white shell, marked with red rings upon the poste-
rior part, and some of the middle ribs, and shaped like
the preceding species. It is much larger than the C.
Fragum, and is without the close imbricated scales pe-
culiar to that shell ; it has thirty longitudinal ribs, with
smooth and deep corresponding grooves. In other re-
spects it agrees entirely with the preceding species.
Inhabits the Indian ocean, the coast of Amboina, and,
according to Davila, sometimes that of Jamaica.
DIANA HEART COCKLE.
PL 58./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings.
52. Cardinal retusum. C. testa cordata, valvulis striatis, crenulatis,
subcarinatis ; ano lunato cordiformi intruso. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
12. p. 1121. Linn. Gmel. p. 3245.
Shell heart-shaped, valves striated, crenated ? and somewhat keeled ;
a lunate, heart-shaped hollow behind the beak.
Testa cordata, umbonibus carinatis, sulcis longitudinalibus punctatis,
costis granulatis, ano lunari intruso. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat.
6. p. 210.
Rugenf. Conch. 2. pi. 9. f. 20. Born Mus. pi. 3. f. 1, 2. Chem. Conch.
6. pi. 12.139— 142. Encyclop. Method, pi. 294. f. 3. b—d.
A white, shining shell, sometimes straw-coloured?
and occasionally spotted with red. It is marked with
about twenty-one longitudinal grooves, formed of mi-
nute sunk points, which give the shell the appearance
of being striated transversely ; the ribs are smooth and
convex, the largest behind, and tuberculated. The
inside is white, and glossy ; the margin is crenated ;
there are three teeth in one valve, and four in the other;
the moon-shaped hollow, behind the beaks, is a re-
markable character in this shell. Large specimens
measure nearly two inches in length and breadth.
Inhabits the East Indies, the Persian Gulf, and the
Red Sea. It is a rare shell, and valuable when marked
with red spots.
SPINY-KEELED HEART COCKLE.
PL 59./, 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby.
53. Cardiutn Cardissa. C testa cor data, vahulis compressis, dentato cari-
natis, natibus approximates. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1121.
Linn. Gmel. p. 3245.
Shell heart-shaped; valves compressed, toothed on the keel; beaks close
Testa cordiformi, utrinque compressa, umbonibus carinatis, natibus in-
curvis, super impositis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 208.
List. Conch, pi. 318. f. 155. Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Gualt. Test.
pi. 84. f. B. C. D. D'Argenville, pi. 23. f. 1. Favanne Conch.
pi. 51. f. E. 2. Born. Test. pi. 2. f. 17, 18. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14.
f. 143, 144. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 6. a. b.
This is a completely heart-shaped shell, remarkable
for its elegant form, and the singular flatness of its
valves. It is of a whitish colour, sometimes variegated
with milky spots, and sometimes, though more rarely,
with pale rose colour. The valves are as thin as paper,
and edged with a spiny keel ; the anterior face of the
shell is concave below, and convex above, with a small
heart-shaped depression, just beneath the summit, con-
taining the cardinal ligament. There are about thirteen
longitudinal ribs on the anterior side, with their corre-
sponding grooves. The posterior face is uniformly
convex, except close to the margin, where the valves
insensibly flatten; there are twelve ribs on this side,
and as many channels, which are flat, finely striated,
and armed, except the four exterior, with minute points,
which roughen the shell ; there are four teeth in each
Inhabits the Indian ocean, the coas of Coromandel,
and the Persian Gulf.
SMOOTH-KEELED HEART COCKLE.
PL 59. /. 3, 4. Mr. Jennings.
54. Cardium bumanum. C. testa cordata, valvulis compressis, carinis
Icevis, umbonibus approximate.
Shell heart-shaped, valves compressed, keel smooth, beaks close together.
List. Conch, pi. 219. f. 158. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 11. f. 1. Born Test.
pi. 2. f. 15, 16. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14. f. 145, 146. Encyclop.
Method, pi. 294. f. 1. a. b.
This shell has been considered by Linnaeus, and some
subsequent authors, as a variety only of the preceding ;
but we are disposed to agree with Chemnitz, who has
distinguished it specifically on account of its margin,
which is always smooth, and its colour, which generally
consists of red spots, disposed in a quincunx order,
upon a white ground.
Inhabits the same country as the preceding, but is
The beautiful shell, from which our figure was co-
loured, formerly belonged to Dr. G. Fordyce, who re-
fused fifty guineas for it. This shell is now in the pos-
session of Mr. Jennings, to whose liberality the Author
is greatly indebted for the use of many rare and valuable
The C. rnonstrosum of Chemnitz, 6. pi. 14. f. 140, 150.
bears too strongly the character of an accidental dif-
formity to be noticed as distinct, till more have been
found of the same shape.
Gmelin's variety & of C. medium, p. 3246, must be re-
rejected ; it is the C. donaciforme, quite a distinct shell.
His varieties of C. aculeatum are not to be trusted ; var.
£ is our C. ventricosum. C. ciliatum, p. 3248, is the same
as C. echinatum. C. virgineum is a doubtful species, as
described by Linnaeus ; and Gmelin has completely con-
fused it, by referring to the C. apertum of Chemnitz, 6.
pi. 18. f. 181. for a variety of the shell. C. trilaterum of
Gmelin, p. 3253, is not specific. His C. triste is omitted,
as doubtful ; it is not in the last edition of the Systema
Naturce. C. crassum, p. 3254, is probably a variety of
C. oblongum. C. maculatum, p. 3255, is our C. ventri-
cosum. His C.Jluviatile is the C. Icevigatum. C. Ba-
siliense is doubtful. C. Gaditanum and C Amboinense
belong to the genus Area. C. squamosum, p. 3256, is a
young shell of the C. Isocardia. C. fasciatum is a va-
riety only of C. rusticum.
END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.
Books published by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, London,
On the First of June will be published, Price Five Shillings each Number,
Number 1 and 2,
Containing Sixteen Pages of Letter-press, and Five Plates, accurately
Drawn and Coloured from Nature, with Scientific Specifications, preceded
by Observations on each Genus, of a general Description of Shells,
arranged according to the Linnaean System,
By WILLIAM WOOD, F. R. S. and L. S. &c.
The Work will be continued Monthly.
A few Copies will be printed of a larger Size, in an extra Manner, upon Whatman's
super-royal Drawing Paper, for the convenience of Marginal Illustration. Price Seven
Shillings per Number.
Natural History, such as it is considered by systematic authors, consists
principally in the knowledge of species. The Botanist becomes acquainted with
the different plants, and learns to arrange them by the particular characters
which belong to each individual, and by the general relation which they bear to
each other. The Ornithologist, the Entomologist, and the Conchologist, by the
same means distinguish birds, insects, and shells. To make this knowledge at-
tainable, that is, to enable the Naturalist from certain particular characters to
distinguish immediately one subject in nature from another, is the only purpose
of system. But in nature there is something more to be discovered, something
more to be desired, than the knowledge of the mere external form of her pro-
ductions. We are taught to believe, that nothing has been formed in vain: it
therefore becomes the rational Naturalist, not to confiue himself to the exterior
only, but to discover, as far as his ability will permit, the respective habits and
faculties of the different animals, and their degrees of utility, either with refer-
ence to the general theory of nature, or to those particulars in which they may
become serviceable to mankind. It must be confessed, that the superficial exa-
mination alone of the works of Nature is delightful ; but when those works are
Books published by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, London.
steadily contemplated, there is a feeling superadded which makes the delight
more permanent ; for all of them mock the imitative power of man, and bear
evidences of omniscience which no sophistry can shake, no argument can over-
Conchology considered in this view, requires nothing more to excite curiosity
or command attention. Its varied subjects exhibit a richness of colouring and
diversity of form, not to be exceeded by any other class of natural beings ; and
its numerous productions, when collected with care and arranged in order, will
afford the possessor a gratifying source of instruction and amusement.
It will be proper to notice, that the arrangement which the author has pursued,
in order to render his work acceptable to the scientific Naturalist, is strictly
Linnaean. All systems built upon artificial principles must be liable to objec-
tions, and such is the system of Linnaeus. But as, notwithstanding the attempts
which have been made to form a more perfect arrangement, the structure raised
by the great Swedish Naturalist still remains unshaken, we cannot do better than
adhere to those rules which his authority has sanctioned.
The plates which accompany this work, will be accurately drawn and engraved
from specimens only, and the possessors of the shells, to whose liberality the au-
thor has been indebted for their use, will be acknowledged at the head of their
respective specifications : where no such acknowledgement appears with the re-
ference to a figure, it may be presumed that the subject belongs to the author.
It is designed, in the course of the publication, to describe every species of shell,
and to figure all the most prominent, as well as those striking varieties which are
liable to mislead the Naturalist, and create confusion by causing an improper
multiplication of species.
There have not been wanting those who have objected against collecting of
shells, as a trifling and useless employment: but let them recollect that all utility
is comparative ; and that no desire after what is curious, unless it be suffered to
absorb more important considerations, ought to be suppressed. A great part of
our time is but too apt to be wasted, and therefore any pursuit is commendable
that furnishes a rational amusement for that portion of life, which might otherwise
be lost in idleness. Nature teems throughout with interesting objects, each of
which, when properly considered, may become the subject of admiration ; and all
may feel an equal interest in their several occupations, from the philosopher who
contemplates myriads of animals in a drop of water, to him, who disclaiming
the minuter parts of the creation, spends his nights in watching the revolutions
of the celestial orbs, or penetrating the etherial space to worlds beyond our own.
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