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Full text of "General conchology, or, A description of shells, arranged according to the Linnean system : and illustrated with plates, drawn and coloured from nature"



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Sectional Library 



CONCHOLOGY. 



GENERAL CONCHOLOGY; 



X 



OR, 

A DESCRIPTION 






SHEJLLS, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE LINNEAN SYSTEM, 



AND 



Illustrated with Plates, Drawn and Coloured from Nature, 



BY 



W. WOOD, F.R.S. &L.S, 



VOL. I. K 



LONDON : 




PRINTED FOR JOHN BOOTH, DUKE STREET, 
PORTLAND PLACE, 

By B. Howlett, 10, Frith Street, Soho. 



1815. 







v^wW ■ 






ADVERTISEMENT 



Natural History, such as it is considered by 
systematic authors, consists principally in the know- 
ledge of species. The Botanist becomes acquainted 
with the different plants, and learns to arrange 
them by the particular characters which belong to 
each individual, and by the general relation which 
they bear to each other. The Ornithologist, the 
Entomologist, and the Conchologist, by the same 
means distinguish birds, insects, and shells. To 
make this knowledge attainable, that is, to enable 
the Naturalist from certain particular characters to 
distinguish immediately one subject in nature from 
another, is the only purpose of system. But in 
nature there is something more to be discovered, 
something more to be desired than the knowledge of 
the mere external form of her productions. We 
are taught to believe, that nothing has been formed 
in vain ; it therefore becomes the rational Naturalist, 
not to confine himself to the exterior only, but to 
discover, as far as his ability will permit, the respec- 
tive habits and faculties of the different animals, 
and their degrees of utility, either with reference to 
the general theory of nature, or to those particulars 
in which they may become serviceable to mankind. 
It must be confessed, that the superficial examina- 
tion alone of the works of Nature is delightful, 



ii ADVERTISEMENT. 

but when those works are steadily contemplated, 
there is a feeling superadded which makes the de- 
light more permanent, for all of them mock the 
imitative power of man, and bear evidences of om- 
niscience which no sophistry can shake, no argu- 
ment can overturn. 

Conchology considered in this view, requires no- 
thing more to excite curiosity or command atten- 
tion. Its varied subjects exhibit a richness of co- 
louring and diversity of form, not to be exceeded by 
any other class of natural beings; and its numerous 
productions, when collected with care and arranged 
in order, will afford the possessor a gratifying source 
of instruction and amusement. 

It will be proper, before we proceed ta the im- 
mediate object of the work, to notice that the ar- 
rangement which the author has pursued, in order 
to render it acceptable to the scientific Naturalist, 
is strictly Linnaean. All systems built upon artifi- 
cial principles must be liable to objections, and such 
is the system of Linnaeus. But as, notwithstanding 
the attempts which have been made to form a more 
perfect arrangement, the structure raised by the 
great Swedish Naturalist still remains unshaken, 
we cannot do better than adhere to those rules 
which his authority has sanctioned. 

The plates which accompany this work, will be 
accurately drawn and engraved from specimens 
only, and the possessors of the shells, to whose 
liberality the author has been indebted for their use, 
will be acknowledged at the head of their respective 



ADVERTISEMENT. iii 

specifications : where no such acknowledgment 
appears with the reference to a figure, it may be 
presumed that the subject belongs to the author. 
It is designed, in the course of the publication, to 
describe every species of shell, and to figure all the 
most prominent, as well as those striking varieties 
which are liable to mislead the Naturalist, and 
create confusion by causing an improper multipli- 
cation of species. 

The errors of Gmelin which are numerous, and 
his synonyms which are often wrong, have been 
noticed and corrected. No transcriptions whatever 
have been made upon trust, but all references very 
carefully examined, and many of doubtful autho- 
rity rejected. This part of his plan it would have 
been vain for the author to have attempted without 
particular aid, without a library of reference fully 
adequate to the purpose intended to be fulfilled. 
That such a library exists, and that such aid is 
most liberally afforded to those who desire it, no 
oae need be ignorant who has heard the name of 
Sir Joseph Banks. 

There have not been wanting those who have 
objected against collecting of shells as a trifling and 
useless employment ; but let them recollect that all 
utility is comparative, and that no desire after what 
is curious, unless it be suffered to absorb more im- 
portant considerations, ought to be suppressed. A 
great part of our time is but too apt to be wasted, 
and therefore any pursuit is commendable that fur- 
nishes a rational amusement for that portion of 



iv ADVERTISEMENT. 

life, which might otherwise be lost in idleness. 
Nature teems throughout with interesting objects, 
each of which, when properly considered, may be- 
come the subject of admiration ; and all may feel an 
equal interest in their several occupations, from the 
philosopher who contemplates myriads of animals 
in a drop of water, to him, who disclaiming the 
minuter parts of the creation, spends his nights in 
watching the revolutions of the celestial orbs, or 
penetrating the etherial space to worlds beyond our 
own. 



Titchjield Street, 
April, 1814. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Of the Animals inhabiting Shells. 



The animals inhabiting shells, belong to the Class 
Mollusca, and are divided into two orders; viz. 
those with an appendage, or foot, proper for creep- 
ing, and a distinct head, Gasthopodes ; and those 
which have no foot, or one that is not calculated for 
creeping, and are without a head, AcSphales. The 
animals of both divisions are quite soft, that is, 
without bones or any internal hardness, and form 
a considerable portion of Lamarck's work, entitled 
Animaux sans vertebres. 

The GastSropodes, or those with the climbing or 
creeping foot, are confined to univalve shells ; while 
those without a head, called AcSphales, chiefly in- 
habit the bivalves. As to the animals of multivalve 
shells, some are headless, and others have a peculiar 
organization, (such as the Lepades) which is inde- 
pendent of the rest. 

The head, of such of these animals as have one, 
vol. i. a 



11 INTRODUCTION. 

is nothing but a round and fleshy eminence, placed 
on the anterior and upper part of the body, and ge- 
nerally armed with two, or four, moveable horns, 
or tentacula. These horns differ in their structure. 
In the common snail, there are four, two large and 
two small : they are hollow tubes, with eyes at the 
end, and are capable of being extended, or drawn 
in, at the pleasure of the animal. The Fossar of 
Adanson, Helix ambigua, has but two, which are 
solid, and immoveable, and the eyes are situated at 
the anterior base of each. The position of the eyes 
in the animal is, consequently, subject to variation ; 
we find some that project, others that are sunk; 
some that are large, and others that are small. 

The mouth is very small in the animals of the 
univalve shells ; it is generally a little groove, vary- 
ing in its form and direction. In the snails, it is 
furnished with minute substances, which may be 
called teeth, and which are useful to them in feeding ; 
and, in the animals of the genus Murex, it is a small 
oval hole, from which issues a long retractile trunk, 
terminated by a sucker, armed with short feelers. 
It is with this trunk that they seize and kill such of 
the smaller animals as are destined for their prey. 

The great muscle, or foot, which extends under 
the neck, and part of the breast, of the animals of 
univalve shells, is flat beneath, convex above, and 
every moment changing its shape and direction. It 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

often carries a calcareous, or cartilaginous operculum, 
or lid, of a very variable shape, which seems to close 
the opening of the shell, when the animal retires. 

The mantle is a muscular membrane, generally 
thin, which lines the interior walls of the shell, and 
envelopes the body, except the head and foot. In 
some cases it lines not only the inside, but also the 
outside of the shell, and in many it is prolonged in 
a tubular form, which projects considerably before, 
and assists the animal either in its movements, or in 
fixing to solid bodies. The mantle has one or two 
holes, differently situated, one for the absorption of 
air, the other for the passage of the excrements. 

The Gasteropodes have a brain situated in the upper 
part of the head, from which proceed two cords, 
that unite and form a ganglion above the gullet. 
It is from the brain and this ganglion, that all the 
nerves proceed, which give sensation to the animal, 
and life to all its parts. They have also a heart, 
placed in the upper part of the body, and com- 
posed of a single ventricle. Two vessels communi- 
cate with it, one from the liver and other viscera, 
and the other from what Cuvier calls the lungs. 
The liver is very large, and divided into four lobes, 
three anterior, and the fourth of a spiral shape, 
which entirely fills the posterior part of the shell. 
The organs of nutrition are the stomach and the 
great and small intestine, all of them different parts 



IV . INTRODUCTION. 

of the same canal. After the mouth comes the 
pharynx, which is provided with valves, a singular 
conformation, to prevent the return of the aliment. 
The stomach is placed below the breast, and after 
that the intestine, which lessens as it proceeds, till 
it turns back upon itself, enters between the lobes of 
the liver, and opens, for the passage of the excrement, 
from the cavity of the chest. 

The AcSphales, which are very differently orga- 
nized, may be divided into two sections, each of 
which should be considered separately. 

The first comprehends only the animals that move 
from place to place ; and these, instead of a head, 
have two tubes, or siphons, sometimes united, some- 
times separate, but always susceptible of being 
lengthened, or contracted, at pleasure. The largest 
of these tubes absorbs water and animalcula, and 
is called the mouth ; the other, which rejects water 
and the excrements, cannot be mistaken for the 
anus. Their opening is generally ciliated, or 
fringed. The mantle lines the interior of the shell, 
and envelopes the body more or less, according to 
the species. Between the mantle and the body, we 
find the tracheae, which in these animals answer the 
purpose of lungs, and are the same to them as gills 
are to fishes. They are generally composed of four 
membranous leaves, attached to the body of the 
animal, and formed by a tissue of little longitudinal 



INTRODUCTION. V 

trunks, very closely united by others, which run in 
a transverse direction : these trunks have a hole at 
top, by which the water enters, and their ends are ge- 
nerally fringed. We have a very familiar example 
of these tracheae in the beard of an oyster. 

Beneath the trunks is seen a thick muscle, which 
is capable of being lengthened, and moved on all 
sides, or may be entirely shut within the shell. This 
is called the foot ; but although it, in part, fulfils the 
functions of the same organ, in the animal of uni- 
valve shells, it bears no resemblance, except in being 
flat beneath. It is used bv the animals to make 
a groove, deep enough to sustain its shell, in a ver- 
tical position, when it moves from one place to 
another, or to dig beneath the sand, or mud, when 
it wishes either to avoid the cold, or hide itself 
from its enemies. 

The AcSphales of the second section have no 
siphons ; both their openings are simple holes, con- 
cealed under the doublings of the mouth and the 
tracheae. Part of these animals have an organiza- 
tion similar to those of the preceding section ; but 
some have a foot, while others have none. 

Those without siphons, which have a foot, are 
either like the animals of the first section, that is, can 
form a groove, and move in the sand, or are solely 
designed to spin the thread, or byssus, with which 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

nature has provided them, for the purpose of fixing 
their shells to rocks, or stones. The foot in these 
animals is always smaller, more pointed, and chan- 
nelled by a longitudinal groove, intended to give 
shape to the thread, which first exudes, like gum, 
from the end of it. The Muscle and the Pinna are 
examples of this division. They are capable of loco- 
motion ; but unless torn from their hold, by a supe- 
rior force, they generally remain in the place where 
they first established themselves. 

The AcSphales without siphons, which have no 
foot, are fixed for their lives, by a calcareous ce- 
ment. These, such as oysters, are of the lowest order 
of animated beings ; their organization is extremely 
simple ; they have merely two holes for the mouth, 
&c. four pulmonary leaflets, called the beard, and a 
mantle. 

All the animals of Bivalves are fixed to their 
shells by a muscle, which is attached to the hinge, 
and by one, two, or more, fixed to the interior of 
the valves, in the places which conchologists call 
muscular impressions. These last muscles are prin- 
cipally designed to close the sides of the shell ; that 
they do it effectually, all will acknowledge, who are 
used to the opening of oysters. The force with 
which they close their shells varies, of course, in 
proportion to the strength of their muscles. Poli, 
who tried several experiments on the muscular 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

strength of shell fish, found, by means of a machine 
made for the purpose, that a weight of twenty-five 
pounds would force the valves of an Area barbata, 
while it required fifty-nine pounds to open a Spon- 
dylus. 

Among the animals inhabiting shells, some are 
oviparous, and others viviparous. Of the oviparous, 
some are isolated, and covered with a crust, like the 
eggs of birds, such as the terrestrial snails ; others 
are included in a gelly, which unites them together, 
such as the aquatic snails ; while others, again, 
as the whelks, deposit their eggs in membranous 
bags, of an oval, or spherical shape, generally 
grouped in bunches, like grapes, of a pale straw 
colour, with each a small hole in the side. 

The young of Bivalves are contained between the 
tracheae of the parent, that is to say, the leaves of 
their beard. They are covered with shell, even be- 
fore they leave the body of the mother. The young 
of shells which are designed to move from place to 
place leave their eggs very neatly formed ; but those 
which are to remain fixed during their lives, are at 
first covered with a mucilaginous matter, which 
sticks to whatever it touches, and thus forms the 
first adhesion, which is afterwards strengthened by 
the stony juice, secreted from the body of the animal. 



Vlll INTRODUCTION 



On the Formation of the Shell, in Testaceous Animals. 



If we were to be asked why one slug goes naked, 
while another is provided with a habitation ; why 
two animals of the same manners, the same appe- 
tites, the same internal, and nearly the same exter- 
nal conformation, should be so differently dealt with, 
it would be difficult to find a satisfactory answer. 
The powers of nature are generally sufficient for 
the purposes she intends to fulfil. Now and then 
there appears to be something wanting in her ope- 
rations ; but when we tax her with deficiencies, it is 
still possible that she may be right, and we be 
wrong. In the present instance, there seems to be 
either profusion in one case, or parsimony in the 
other, since the common slug has merely the rudi- 
ments of a shell ; it can lay only the first stone, while 
the garden snail can build a house. 

It is not to our purpose to consider who first dis- 
covered the thin testaceous plate on the back of the 
slug ; it is enough to be assured that it exists, and to 
describe it accordingly. There is an oval, warty 
substance, extending from the neck, partly down 
the back of the slug, called the lesser mantle, or 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

shield ; in the thickness of this mantle there is a 
cavity which contains the shell. The under part of 
the shell is separated from the heart of the animal, 
by a thin membrane ; above, it is covered by the 
skin of the mantle. It lies in its cavity perfectly 
detached, without any organic union, and is a sin- 
gle deposition of carbonate of lime, connected by 
gluten, exactly like any other shell. It is to be 
found in the small slugs, as well as the large ; but in 
the great brown slug, it is half an inch long, and a 
quarter broad. There is no doubt that the calca- 
reous matter is secreted from the lower part of the 
cavity, and that, the operation being continued at 
different times, the shell accumulates as the animal 
advances in growth. The different accessions of 
shell may be distinguished by the striae seen in its 
substance. 

We have here a very simple process, confined to 
the mere secretion of calcareous matter, without any 
mechanical contrivance whatever. It is not so with 
the garden snail; her powers are by no means so 
limited. She can construct a habitation which 
unites two distinguishing properties, strength and 
lightness. It is a well turned arch, that can defend 
her body from all common accidents, and be trans- 
ferred, without inconvenience, wherever she pleases. 
The snail is oviparous, and the young leave the egg 
completely covered with a very thin transparent 

vol. i. h 



X INTRODUCTION. 

shell, of one spire. The animal, shell and all, is 
not at that time larger than a split pea ; therefore 
much remains to be done, before it acquires its full 
growth and solidity. The inhabitants of univalve 
shells, such as the snail, periwinkle, whelk, &c. con- 
stantly enlarge their apartment, by adding fresh 
accessions of materials to the mouth. The whole 
body indeed is covered with pores, through which 
a viscid liquor exudes ; but the part which contri- 
butes principally to the increase of the shell, is a 
fleshy collar above the neck. This in the snail is 
very visible ; and on opening its substance, a glan- 
dular tissue is seen, of a whitish colour, and studded 
with little semi-transparent points. These points 
are noticed by Cuvier, who adds that, upon irritat- 
ing the snail, it will throw out, from all parts of its 
collar, a white liquid, visibly formed of calcareous 
molecules, suspended in a viscous fluid We have 
here pretty evident marks of design ; a storehouse 
for the preparation of materials is placed where a 
storehouse only could have been of use. The rest of the 
body is confined by shell : the animal, if it increases 
at all, must increase by the mouth ; and if unpro- 
vided with the means of enlarging its room by 
the aperture, it would become a long naked snail, 
with merely the shell it was born with on its tail. 
But we have seen what provision nature has made 
in the snail against nakedness. As the body pro- 
trudes, the collar secretes, and lime and glue, which 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

are thrown out in abundance, thicken into a con- 
sistence round the mouth of the shell. Thus, as the 
animal increases in bulk, it continues to produce 
fresh materials, and enlarges its house till it has ac- 
quired its full growth. 

The same process of the animal economy which 
enables the snail to build a house, will also serve to 
keep it in repair. If we break out a piece of the 
shell, without wounding the snail, the skin beneath 
will soon become covered with a viscid exudation, 
which thickens and congeals by degrees. Twenty- 
four hours after the operation, the repair will be 
fairly begun, a thin layer will be visible, and this 
will continue to thicken, till, in ten or twelve days, 
the new piece will be nearly as thick and strong, as 
the rest of the shell. A similar matter is transuded 
also from the collar of the snail, when she wishes to 
close the mouth of her shell against the approach 
of winter. This thin calcareous operculum, or lid, 
is very different from the permanent lids of several 
other shells. It is not fixed to the head of the 
animal, but is perfectly free from any part of the 
body, though strongly adhering to the mouth of the 
shell. It is easy to prove its shelly nature; for, 
when plunged into diluted muriatic acid, its calca- 
reous parts dissolve and leave merely a gelatinous 
tissue behind. 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

Having traced the formation of the shell in a 
land animal, let us now take a subject from the sea, 
and we shall find that the same end is produced, in 
a somewhat different manner. Conchologists are 
indebted to a French naturalist, M. Bruguiere, for 
some curious observations on the formation of the 
shell of the cowry, &c. which the Author begs leave 
to repeat from what he has already published in the 
second Volume of Zoography. The inhabitant of the 
cowry, independent of the organs which are common 
to animals of other univalve shells, has two membra- 
naceous appendages, or wings, placed on the sides of 
the body, with which the creature can completely 
cover itself. These two wings contribute greatly, 
together with the edge of the neck, or collar, of the 
animal, towards the formation of the shell, since 
they furnish the ordinary exterior layers of enamel, 
upon which we may perceive the marks of the la- 
minae, or successive coats, whereof all shells are 
composed. The shape of the exterior layers is 
different from those situated beneath, which may 
be considered as a smooth, shining substance, that 
the animal goes over once, while it is forming its 
shell, in order to give it the necessary solidity. It 
is from the body of the animal, or from the edge of 
its collar, that the inferior part of the shell is 
formed, or rather the testaceous mould. This mould 
is generally thin, and very brittle : it is striated lon- 
gitudinally ; and, as its origin is not different from 



INTRODUCTION. XUl 

that of other shells, it is not surprising that we find 
proofs of the formation of the regular projections, 
which the extremities of the layers leave by the 
side of each other. The colours of the mould are 
different from those of the exterior layers, and it 
frequently shows the transversal bands with which 
it is marked, while the enamel is adorned with 
spots or stains, because some parts of the body are 
supposed to furnish this composition, which is se- 
creted from certain moist glands, of a different kind 
from those of the wings. 

Thus we remark two distinct operations in the 
formation of the cowry. The first is that which 
produces the part of the shell called the mould, and 
is the result of a secretion from the body of the ani- 
mal ; the second, the formation of the shining ena- 
mel. The cowries are thin and transparent, in the 
first stages of their growth, but at length acquire 
solidity, by means of the external layers, which the 
animal applies after the mouth is not only formed, 
but considerably contracted, and furnished with 
the rudiments of teeth. The last coats proceed, 
as we have already observed, from a transudation 
from the wings of the animal, and leave upon the 
convex surface of the shell the marks of the manner 
in which they are formed. This is by a longitudinal 
line, which divides them into two unequal parts. This 
line, made by the junction of the wings of the ani- 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

mal, plainly indicates, by the faintness of the tint, 
that the colouring juice was wanting in that part. 
It is a simple straight line, when the edges of the 
wings are of the same configuration, but passes in 
a sinuous, or waving, direction, as in the Cyprcea 
Mappa, when the same edges are fringed, or irregu- 
larly cut in their contours. 

There is a singular fact, noticed by Bruguiere, re- 
specting the animal inhabitants of these shells. They 
can quit their apartment at pleasure, and construct 
a new one, whenever they find it convenient. This, 
however, is never done but from necessity. During 
the time the animal is completing its shell, it in- 
creases in size, till at length it grows too large for 
its habitation, which, when finished, remains per- 
manent. Thus straightened for room, it is obliged 
to quit its old dwelling, and build a new one of larger 
dimensions, and better proportioned to the in- 
creased size of its body. We are at a loss to say how 
this operation is performed ; but it is probably a 
matter of no great labour, since the body of the 
animal is of a consistence between tendinous and 
mucilaginous, of course not making any great re- 
sistance to its passage through the mouth of the 
shell ; for the foot and the two wings, which com- 
pose by far the largest part of the body, slip out in 
a moment, with the greatest ease. This separation 
of the animal from its shell is not difficult to con- 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

ceive, when we consider how readily the lobster 
quits its crustaceous covering, and the crab gets rid 
of its claw. 

When the cowry has completely abandoned its 
shell, it is quite naked, and exposed to the imme- 
diate influence of the sea. From the irritation occa- 
sioned by the salt water, or from some other cause 
of which we are ignorant, the hinder parts of the 
body again begin to furnish the testaceous matter, 
which is afterwards condensed upon the surface. 
This secretion is continued till, at length, the shell 
appears of the consistence of paper, and the mouth, 
which at this period is very wide, soon afterwards con- 
tracts to its proper shape. The wings of the ani- 
mal, folded upon its convex surface, thicken and 
form the teeth, which are seen on the edge of the 
mouth, and which are deposited with the enamel 
that adorns the external part of the shell. In this 
manner is produced the opaque and highly po- 
lished surface, which is so eminently beautiful in the 
full-grown cowry, and which, by the colour of its 
spots, or stains, contributes greatly towards distin- 
guishing the different species of the genus. 

Bivalve shells, such as Muscles, Oysters, &c, in- 
crease by adding to their whole circumference, or 
rather to all the edge, except the hinge ; and every 
experiment that has been made upon the subject, 



XVI JNTRODUCTION. 

tends to prove that shells increase by a perfect juxta- 
position of calcareous beds, united by a viscous 
cement, and formed successively from the interior 
of the shell, as the animal advances in growth. 
These beds may be made very evident, by heating 
an oyster-shell in the fire, without totally destroying 
its organization. It may then be easily separated 
into the different beds (or leaves) which form its 
substance, and the mechanism of the shell com- 
pletely exposed, 



INTRODUCTION. XVII 



On the Colours of Shells, and the Formation of their 
Streaks and Spots, 



The first thing which presents itself to the Con- 
chologist is the colours of shells, which may justly 
be admired, both for their beauty and variety. 
Nature seems here to have diversified her operations, 
in every way possible ; some are distinctly spotted, 
others streaked; in some the bands are uninter- 
rupted, in others they are broken into parts, so as 
to bear a slight resemblance to the notes of musick. 
Again we meet with shells, where the tints are 
partly distinct, and partly melted together, or 
formed, as it were, into clouds. What is the oc- 
casion of all this diversity, and how is it produced ? 

When a hole is made in a shell, at about midway 
between the summit and the mouth, the new piece 
which the animal supplies is generally of a whitish 
colour, and often very different, in appearance, 
from the rest of the shell ; whence we may conclude 
that it is not made precisely in the same manner. 
To clear up this difficulty, it will be necessary 
to ascertain how this regular variety of colour 
is produced. We shall take, for an example, the 



XV111 INTRODUCTION. 

variegated snail (Helix nemoralis). It is a com- 
mon inhabitant of our woods, and gardens, and may 
therefore be easily brought forward as an evidence 
at any time. The ground of this shell is white, ci- 
tron, or yellow, or of an intermediate colour. It 
is marked with streaks, or bands, which proceed from 
the apex to the mouth of the shell, and are either 
black, brown, or red. They vary in number ; some 
shells have but one, others have four, and some are 
ornamented with five or six bands. 

We have already observed, as a position which 
does not admit of a doubt, that all univalve shells 
enlarge by the mouth, in consequence of a secretion, 
emitted for that purpose, from the collar of the ani- 
mal. Reaumur reckons it sufficient for this collar 
to be composed of glands filtering different hu- 
mours, to form a shell of different colours. If, for 
example, two or three glands secrete a black, or 
brown humour, and these glands, which Reaumur 
calls Jiltres, are parallel to each other, while the 
rest of the collar emits only a uniform citron tint, 
it follows that the ground of the shell should be 
straw colour, with parallel bands of black or brown, 
approaching or receding from each other, in pro- 
portion as the space between the glands is greater 
or less. 

If we could bring no proof of the above con- 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

jecture respecting the variegated snail, (and what 
is said of that will apply to every other) ; if we 
could perceive nothing similar to the filtres men- 
tioned by Reaumur, still the theory would furnish 
so probable an explanation of the variety of co- 
lours in shells, as to leave us well satisfied with the 
conception. But fortunately they discover them- 
selves, and add so strong a degree of evidence to 
Reaumur's reasoning, that the matter is placed 
beyond a doubt. The body of the variegated 
helix, when deprived of its shell, appears of a white 
colour, except the collar and the parts closely con- 
nected with it, where we perceive a yellowish tint, 
and a number of black, or brown streaks, equal to 
the bands on the shell. Here we come imme- 
diately at the secret ; the interior of the collar is 
the laboratory where the colours are prepared ; the 
surface is the palette, from which the painter lays 
them on as his work proceeds. Thus the indivi- 
duals that have one black ray on the shell, have 
but one black spot on the collar ; those which have 
four black bands on the shell, have also four cor- 
responding marks on the collar, and so on with the 
rest. These rays are placed immediately under 
those of the shell ; they begin at about the twelfth 
part of an inch from the extremity of the collar, 
which is, itself, commonly edged with black all 
round, and therefore we for the most part find the 
lip of the shell of that colour. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

With such evidence, there is no room to doubt the 
real existence of the pores mentioned by Reaumur ; 
but, lest it should be supposed that these pores do 
not perform the functions ascribed to them, let us 
see whether an experiment will not confirm the 
reasoning. If a portion of the shell be removed 
opposite the black rays, and the new piece become 
black ; if another portion be removed between the 
rays, and this be renewed of a colour different from 
the bands, it must be allowed that these parts 
perform the office ascribed to them by Reaumur. 
Now this is exactly the fact : the new shell which is 
formed on the collar, opposite the brown, or black 
rays, is itself brown or black ; that which is formed 
between' the rays, is white, or citron; and that 
which is renewed on other parts of the body will be 
white. The same thing happens in all other shells, 
marine, freshwater, or terrestrial, that are remarkable 
for their colours. We have not indeed experiments 
to illustrate every case ; but what has been done is 
fully sufficient to warrant the conjecture, that the 
same phenomenon will be extended to all species of 
shells. 

We are not, however to conclude, from what has 
been said of the formation of the rays, which orna- 
ment certain species, that it is a necessary conse- 
quence that all shells should be streaked ! On the 
contrary, we find the surface of some of an uniform 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

colour, and others marked with numerous spots, often 
of an irregular shape, and separated from each other 
at unequal intervals. This is the case (among other 
examples) with the black tiger cone (Conus mar- 
moreus, Lirm.) In this, as well as in the helix, 
however, the spots are formed by the collar, and 
the black pigment secreted at intervals, so as to form 
irregular stains, instead of uninterrupted bands. 

It must be observed, that the interior layer of the 
shell, or that which covers the body of the animal, 
independent of its collar, ought to be white, since 
the secretion, as we have noticed already, is gene- 
rally colourless. It is sometimes, however, other- 
wise ; the body of the animal will exude a coloured 
liquor, and then the interior of the shell will be 
stained accordingly ; but the tint will be uniform, 
and never varied like the exterior. To make the 
different operations of the animal perfectly apparent, 
let the outer coat of a shell be filed off, and the 
layers beneath, which have been furnished by the 
body, will be uniformly white, or tinted; while the 
exterior, which belongs exclusively to the collar, will 
be variegated. 

It will here be necessary to make some further 
observations on the growth of shells, in order to ac- 
count for the change of colour which we sometimes 
perceive in the bands of univalves. The different 



XX11 INTRODUCTION. 

stages of increase may be pretty readily dis- 
covered in the majority of shells, they being, for 
the most part, marked on their convexity with 
little eminences, parallel to each other, of different 
degrees of strength, giving the surface a fibrous ap- 
pearance. These eminences, which are called strice, 
follow the contour of bivalve shells, and run in a spiral 
direction in the univalves. It Avill be observed, upon 
examining the different species, that they, for the 
most part, have some of these eminences particu- 
larly distinct, and distant from each other. These 
denote the different times when the shell was inter- 
rupted in its growth, and bear some analogy to the 
nodes observable in the shooting of trees. 

Another circumstance, which distinctly marks the 
place where the growth has recommenced, is a 
striking change of colour in the bands which di- 
versify some of the univalve shells. In these parts 
the bands are generally much lighter, and sometimes 
so faint as scarcely to be perceived, till they have 
proceeded further on the spire. This is very evi- 
dent in the exotic snail (Helix pomatia), where a 
strong line of separation may be perceived from 
the umbilicus across the shell. It will not be diffi- 
cult to account for this change, if we consider that, 
during the inactive state of the animal, the co- 
louring matter contained in the collar is exhausted 
on the last formed portion of shell, and that it will 



INTRODUCTION. XX111 

not be again secreted, in sufficient quantity, till after 
the snail has had time to recruit its strength by food. 

What has been said, it is presumed, will be suffi- 
cient to explain the different phenomena, which the 
colours of shells in general present ; but there exist 
some genera, such as Voluta, and Cyprcea, which are 
painted by a process with which Reaumur was un- 
acquainted. Their colours are disposed on two 
parallel surfaces, the exterior of which is produced 
by a particular organization of their animals, and is 
the result of an operation described by M. Bru- 
guiere, and noticed in the preceding section. 

The shell of the cowry receives its colour from the 
pores of the animal at two distinct periods, and by 
different ways. In the first place, that part of the 
shell is formed, which is immediately secreted from 
the collar, or the body, of the animal; this coat is 
of a moderate thickness, much inferior in strength to 
what it acquires in the sequel. In this primary ope- 
ration, there is nothing peculiar from what takes 
place in other shells ; but above this coat, on the 
convexity of the shell, there is formed a second, 
which covers the first entirely with a compact sub- 
stance, in some places very thick, and generally 
stained with different colours. The organs which 
deposit this second bed are two soft membranaceous 
wings, which, issuing from the mouth of the shell, 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

are reflected back on its convexity, and cover it so 
completely, that not an atom of the shell appears. 

These two wings (which are independent of the 
collar of the animal) are covered with glands con- 
taining colouring liquors peculiar to themselves ; 
and it is their upper surface, or that which is laid 
against the convexity of the shell, that alone fur- 
nishes the secretion. Whence it follows, that these 
wings deposit new layers of testaceous matter, 
differently coloured from those beneath, and diver- 
sified with spots, either entire, round, or zigzag. 
Their variety of colour is very great ; they are 
sometimes white on a brown ground, or tawny 
on a yellow ground, or yellowish on a tawny ground. 
Sometimes we meet with lines, instead of spots, 
strait, curved, or reticulated ; of different shades, 
on grounds of various colours ; and occasionally the 
surface is covered with points (or dots), disposed in 
every direction. 

We have observed, while speaking of the varie- 
gated helix, that its shell was subject to remark- 
able varieties of colour, depending on the different 
form and arrangement of the secreting organs. 
The changes which these organs undergo, and every- 
thing that relates to their oeconomy , will apply equally 
to all the marine, fresh water, and land snails, that 
exist in nature. But to the causes already de- 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

tailed, it will be proper to add another, which, 
Bruguiere alledges, has not only a powerful in- 
fluence on the brilliancy of their colours, but on the 
diversity of their tints, and which is wholly inde- 
pendent of the physical structure of the animal. 
This cause, though at first it appears too far removed 
to produce such marked effects, is no other than the 
influence of light, combined, perhaps, with that of 
heat. 

Two individuals, says Bruguiere, of the same 
species, one found either in the northern ocean, or 
the Mediterranean, and the other in the seas of hot 
climates, present different tints, and always a vi- 
vacity of colour, decidedly in favour of the spe- 
cimen from the torrid zone. Their shells, though 
of a similar shape, constantly differ in their colours, 
whence originate all those varieties, which some 
conchologists have considered as distinct species, 
although it is very probable, nay almost certain, 
that these differences depend merely on the action 
of climate, of nourishment, or of particular cir- 
cumstances, not as yet sufficiently understood. 

The difference of temperature, where these in- 
dividuals are supposed to live, would seem at first 
to be the principal cause of their difference of colour, 
if we were not certain that shells naturally coloured, 
either in the seas of the torrid zone, or those of the 
temperate, acquire more or less intensity in their 
vol. i. c 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

tints, and sometimes a different disposition in their 
symmetry, according to the degree of depth at which 
they are situated in the sea. Bruguiere is led to 
believe, that on this circumstance alone depends 
the weakness of the tints with which a shell is 
variegated ; and he even supposes that their total 
privation is owing to the shell inhabiting a depth too 
great for the due admission of light and heat. To 
strengthen his assertion, he observes, that the bi- 
valve shells, which fix themselves to the rocks, such 
as the oysters, and spondyles, have generally their 
upper valve deeply coloured, while the lower valve, 
attached to the rock, is almost always white. The 
oysters and spondyles are not the only shells that 
show a constant difference in the colour of their 
valves ; the same effect happens to all that live 
fixed to any solid body. The pectens also, though 
painted with various colours above, are white 
beneath. The pholades and ship-borers, which 
bury themselves in woods and limestone, are also 
colourless. One position of this theory will not be 
disputed, since there is no doubt that bodies wholly 
deprived of light will be without colour ; but it still 
remains to be proved, whether the tints of shells will 
be much injured by a partial privation. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 



Of the Tubercles, Spines, $c. which are found on 

Shells. 



It is sufficiently evident, that any pliable sub- 
stance will assume the form of the body on which 
it is moulded, and that, consequently, if the animal 
inhabitant of a shell has any muscular inequalities, 
the same will be observable in its exterior con- 
formation. This point being allowed, there is no 
longer any difficulty in accounting for the warts, 
and spiny processes, on the backs of shells, which 
may be considered as so many testaceous incrusta- 
tions, deposited by corresponding fleshy tubercles. 
These excrescences may often be observed in the 
first turn of a spiral shell, and they will be found, 
more or less, in every succeeding spire which the 
animal adds to its habitation. This is particularly 
evident in the Murex Mancinella, which is frequently 
so covered with tubercles, as to be much disfigured 
in its shape. The long spines, which appear on 
some species of the above genus, have the same 
origin as the shapeless knobs just mentioned. They 
have their interior moulds upon which they are 
formed, and are either hollow, partly solid, or per- 
fectly closed, in proportion as the animal excres- 



XXV1I1 INTRODUCTION. 

cence continues in vigour, is partly absorbed, or 
totally wasted. In this case, the hollow part will 
be supplied with testaceous matter, secreted from 
the body of the animal, till it is filled up even with 
the interior surface of the shell. In the Strombus 
genus, where the lip of the shell is often lengthened 
(or divided) into a certain number of channels, 
or fingers, the same thing takes place ; each chan- 
nel is occupied by a corresponding portion of the 
animal, endowed with the same secreting faculty 
as the other parts of the body, and consequently 
capable of adding to its groove, whenever it finds 
occasion. The Strombus Lambis, or spider shell, is 
a remarkable instance of this digitated appearance. 
In the genus Murex, the mouth of the shell is 
lengthened (more or less) into a beak or canal, con- 
taining a cylindrical organ, capable of contraction 
and extension. This, according to some authors, 
is used by the animal as a feeler, and occasionally 
as a cable, to mpor the shell to some solid body. 

The furrows, or ridges, met with in other shells, 
while the whole of their interior surface is polished, 
will be readily explained, when we consider the 
formation of the animal. These furrows occur par- 
ticularly in the bivalve shells, such as the scallops 
(Pecte?i), the cockles (Cardium), &c; and when- 
ever we meet with this peculiar organization, it will 
be found that the animal partakes of the same con- 
formation, the extremity or fleshy contour being 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

channelled, so that the interior of the shell is also 
impressed in the same manner for some distance 
from its edge. When the ridges are once formed 
on the outside, they remain permanent ; the animal 
has no power to alter them. It is not so within, for 
we find that the posterior part is smooth, the fur- 
rows previously formed by the channelled extremity 
being worn away, or filled up by the body of the 
animal. 



Of the Habitation of Shells. 



Shells may be divided, with reference to the 
places they inhabit, into terrestrial, river, and ma- 
rine, that is, into those living on land, in fresh 
water, or in the sea. It is the opinion of Bruguiere, 
that we know less of land than of sea shells. He 
affirms, that the shells of the Mediterranean sea are 
nearly the same, from the Straits of Gibraltar to 
the island of Sicily ; while the land shells of Lan- 
guedoc often differ from those of Provence, of 
Dauphiny, of Piedmont, and of different parts of 
Italy. We find shells in Spain, in Corsica, in 
Sardinia, and in Sicily, which are not to be met 
with elsewhere ; and if (adds Bruguiere) we may 
found our opinion on what has been sent from those 
countries, we may rest assured that the sea produces 
scarcely any thing new, while the unknown land 
shells are still very numerous. This may possibly 
be the case with respect to the Mediterranean ; but 
it will not apply to many other parts of the world, 
as we are daily getting fresh accessions of new ma- 
rine species, and, where they are not discovered, it 
is more for want of diligence in the search, than 
variety in Nature. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

Land shells are to be found in different situations ; 
some prefer dry banks, and exposed heaths, while 
others live in moist places, near running water, in 
thick woods, or in the crevices of old walls. The 
smaller species are frequently found sheltered under 
the moss which grows at the foot of trees, and 
sometimes in the decayed wood. In the spring, 
they often retire from the heat, under great stones. 
In winter they must be looked for in holes of trees, 
in the slits of the bark, or in the fissures of rocks. 
But, in general, the most favourable time for the 
discovery of these animals is the spring ; because, 
in that season, they rouse from the torpidity of 
winter, and go forth with fresh vigour to seek for 
food. 

The fresh- water shells are far less numerous than 
those which inhabit the land. They are found not 
only in rivers, and springs, but also in ponds and 
marshes, and even in muddy ditches. Some bury 
themselves to a certain depth in the sand, or the 
mud; while others live attached to stones at the 
bottom of the stream, except at times, when they 
leave the water to climb up the plants which grow 
upon its banks. The smaller species are the most 
difficult to procure, as, from their diminutive size, 
they readily escape observation. The best time to 
look for fresh- water shells, is from the end of spring 
to the middle of summer. At other seasons, they are 
thrown dead upon the banks, and often mixed with 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION, 

the smaller terrestrial species,which have been carried 
there by the rain waters. This should be particularly 
observed, because conchologists have sometimes, 
from this circumstance, confounded land shells with 
those that belong exclusively to the water. To 
avoid such errors, it will be proper for those who 
are not w r ell acquainted with the subject, to collect 
none but what are alive, either in the water, or on 
the aquatic plants. On the Nymphcea, or water lily, 
the Hippuris, or mare's tail, the Potamogeton, or 
broad-leaved pond weed, the Lemna, or duck weed, 
and the Juncus, or rush, shells may be found in all 
stages of their growth, with their natural colours, 
and in the best state of preservation. Most of the 
species are apparent upon the surface of the plants ; 
but some of the smaller kinds hide themselves 
within the folds of the leaves, and it is not uncom- 
mon to find a pretty little reversed shell, the Bulla 
fontinalis, wrapped in the leaf of the common water 
flag. 

The third division of shells, or those that inhabit 
the sea, are more abundant in their species, and 
generally more brilliant in their colours, than either 
the land, or fresh- water kinds. The beauty of their 
tints, and the elegance and variety of their shape, 
have made them greatly esteemed by collectors ; 
and, as mankind will ever be stimulated to exertion 
by the hopes of gain, sailors, and persons wholly 
unacquainted with conchology, have thought it 



INTRODUCTION. XXX111 

worth their while to bring home what they could 
collect, as an object of traffick. It is principally to 
this cause that we owe the produce of the different 
shores, and receive shells from India, Amboina, 
Ceylon, New Holland, &c. which would never reach 
England, if they were not profitable commodities. 

All marine shells are not confined to the depths of 
the ocean, but, on the contrary, are often led, by an 
instinctive faculty, to fix on rocks, or bury them- 
selves in the sands. These latter may be discovered 
on the smooth flat shores, while the tide is ebbing, by 
little bubbles of air rising from small openings in 
the sand. Each of these places denotes the retreat 
of a marine animal, and frequently of a shell, which 
may readily be dug out with a spade. The species 
of the genus Tellina, Solen, and Mya, conceal them- 
selves in this manner, besides some kinds of the genus 
Buccinum, and many other smooth, univalve shells. 

If the rocks that are washed by the sea are found 
pierced with small holes, regularly wrought, as if 
they had been bored with an instrument, it is a 
proof that they either are, or have been, inhabited 
by Pholades, or by the rugged muscle (Mytilus ru- 
gosus, Linn, j The only way to procure these, is to 
break into their habitations with a hammer ; but, as 
the shells are very brittle, it will be difficult, by 
such means, to obtain them entire. 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Shells that remain fixed by one of their valves, 
such as oysters, or that occasionally attach them- 
selves by their byssus, or threads, such as muscles, 
are often found in the fissures of rocks ; while the 
limpets, the sea ears, the acorn-shells, and some 
other species of univalves, adhere firmly to the 
surface. In warm climates, where the Mangrove, 
and other trees, frequently grow within the influence 
of the tide, it is not uncommon to find their roots 
(and such of their branches as bend into the water) 
loaded with oysters, acorn-shells, and such other 
species as adhere to solid bodies. 

On the coasts where the bottom of the w^ater is 
muddy, shells are indicated, by slimy strings rising 
occasionally to the surface. To procure these shells 
a French author directs us to use a small net with 
fine meshes, mounted on a hoop of iron, and fixed to 
a pole of sufficient length. This is to be plunged to 
the bottom, directly under the place where the 
shell is supposed to lie, and, when drawn up, the 
mud escapes through the meshes, and leaves the shell 
in the net. 

All that has been hitherto said applies only to 
shells that inhabit the banks of the sea, or at least 
a very little distance from its shore. There are many, 
on the contrary, such as the Cones, the Olives, the 
Cowries, the Volutes, and the larger species of 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

Murex and Buccinum, that constantly live at a 
greater depth, and unless thrown by a storm, or 
other accident, upon the coast, are only to be ob- 
tained by dredging. 

There is another way of procuring shells, which, 
from its singularity, will not readily be thought of 
by collectors. It is to examine the stomachs of fish, 
and water fowl ; by which means many perfect, and 
some very rare shells have been found. Fabricius, 
in his History of Greenland, assures us, that he 
adopted this method with success, and that, in fish 
particularly, he met with species that were unknown 
on the northern coasts. It will be proper also to 
examine the bottom of the lead, when within 
soundings at sea, as foreign bodies sometimes adhere 
to it. The sailors know when they- are in the mouth 
of the Channel, by a species of Dentalium, that 
adheres to the lead, in sQunding, for a certain dis- 
tance, and which they call the hake's tooth. 

Those who reside at sea-ports, and are disposed to 
collect shells, should take every opportunity of exa- 
mining the bottoms of ships that arrive from long 
voyages. It is not uncommon to find upon them 
different foreign bodies, and particularly acorn 
shells (Balani). The first specimens of the 
thorny acorn-shell (Lepas spinosas) were found by 
the French, on the keel of a Danish ship that had 
remained some time at St. Helena. 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION.' 

There is something singular in the strict locality 
of shells : one would hardly imagine that particular 
species, capable of locomotion, had distinct places 
of abode, from which they never swerve, unless forced 
by accident. They are also affected by difference of 
temperature. When Pero'n visited New Holland, he 
found, at its southern extremity, the great sea-ear, 
Haliotis gigantea, in full perfection. It is there 
found in large quantities, and is of essential service 
to the inhabitants of Van Dieman's Land, who 
derive from its flesh an abundant and wholesome 
nourishment. Upon moving but a short distance 
towards a warmer latitude, he found the shell de- 
crease in size ; and, in proportion as he proceeded, 
it became less and less, till, at the port of Rio 
Georges, it totally disappeared. This happened to 
other species as well as the sea-ear, whence it 
may be inferred, that the animal inhabitants of 
shells, originally of cold climates, cannot exist in 
the torrid zone. The contrary will also hold with 
respect to those of hot climates, and upon this 
position Peron has the following remarks : 

Of all the countries which we have hitherto seen, 
there is not one to be compared to Timor, for the 
abundance and variety of its shells. The richness 
of its shore, in this particular, is really beyond all 
expression. We have collected from it more than 
twenty thousand shells, among which may be dis- 
tinguished many hundred species ; and yet, of this 



introduction: xxxvn 

prodigious multitude of testaceous productions, there 
is not one like what we found, either in Van Dieman's 
Land, or any of the southern parts of New Holland ; 
it is not till we approach the equatorial regions that 
we find a;ny of the Timorian shells. This singular 
exclusion not only holds good of the species, but 
may also be observed among the genera : that is, 
among those whose numerous species seem to have 
been exclusively attributed to some particular part 
of the globe. Thus, for example, in the equatorial 
countries, a multitude of Cones, Olives, Cowries, &c. 
collect together, which are scarcely known on the 
colder banks of either hemisphere. Thus while 
Timor, and its neighbouring islands, abound in 
beautiful shells, two or three small, obscure species, 
are all that dare to show themselves in the southern 
extremity of New Holland. 



XXXV111 INTRODUCTION 



On collecting, and cleaning Shells. 



It happens very frequently, that persons who 
collect shells for their friends, in foreign countries, 
though they do it with the best intention, yet, for 
want of a sufficient knowledge of the subject, are 
apt to pick up many that are either imperfect, or of 
little or no value, and to pack them so carelessly, 
that, by the time they reach England, very few of 
them remain entire. For the instruction of such as 
may not be conversant in collecting, I would re- 
commend them always, if possible, to procure what 
are termed live shells, that is, with the animal in them ; 
this is only to be done by using a drag net, or after 
violent storms, when live shells are often torn from 
the deep, and thrown upon the sea-shore. When 
they have been exposed for some time on the beach, 
they get injured by friction, and their colours fade 
in the sun. In this state, they are known among 
collectors by the name of dead shells, and are only 
to be taken, when better cannot be procured. 

It is sometimes difficult to detach the animals, 
particularly of Univalves, entirely from their shells. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

This operation must be managed by first plunging 
them into boiling water, and, afterwards, carefully 
picking them out, so as (if possible) not to break the 
spiral part, or leave a portion behind. When this 
cannot be avoided, the shell should be left in cold 
water, till the part decays, when it may be washed 
out. In Bivalves, and other shells, the fish may 
be easily removed with a knife. After which, a string 
should be tied round the valves, across the shell, to 
keep it close till the cartilage at the hinge stiffens. 

As shells are of a calcareous nature, it follows 
that all acids must be more or less injurious, that 
are made use of to clean them. Many shells are 
fished up so clean and perfectly polished by Nature, 
that they require no assistance from art. Others, 
on the contrary, come out of the sea slimy, and 
covered with extraneous substances, such as coral- 
lines, fuci, &c. These must be cleaned with soap 
and water, and a hard tooth-brush, which is best 
adapted of any thing I know for the purpose. The 
extraneous coralline substances that remain on the 
surface of the shell, after it has been cleaned, may 
be removed with muriatic acid, diluted with three 
parts of water, being careful, at the same time, not 
to touch the shell with the acid. 

Many shells have an outer skin, called an epi- 
dermis ; this sometimes adheres very strongly, and, 
although scientific collectors choose to have their 



xl 



INTRODUCTION. 



shells in a natural state, there are others who wish 
to see their beauties revealed. To remove this epi- 
dermis, it should be first soaked for a day or two in 
water, and then rubbed firmly with a hard brush, 
armed with finely powdered pumice-stone. It will 
often be difficult to remove every part of the pel- 
licle ; but, by diligently persevering, it may be done. 

It is not unusual, when the colours of the shells 
are rather dull, to revive them with varnish. This 
may reasonably be allowed, since it only imitates 
their appearance when wet out of the sea. The 
best varnish for the purpose is a simple solution of 
gum Arabic, in water, which can be laid on with a 
camel-hair pencil, and easily washed off again, at 
any time, without injuring the shell. 

Collectors are sometimes imposed upon by a trick, 
which was first practised in Holland, where two or 
more shells are sold as distinct species, which are 
precisely the same, except that one of them has 
had its external coat taken off, by grinding the shell 
on a wheel charged with oil and emery. Many 
shells by this process assume a new appearance. 
The common cowry becomes violet; the nautilus, 
which has broad tawny stripes on its sides, rubs 
down to a fine mother-of-pearl ; and many of the 
limpets become so altered in their colours, that 
they lose all resemblance to the original shell. 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

When shells are to be removed from place to 
place, they must be very carefully packed, or they 
will most certainly be injured in their passage. The 
best direction for this purpose, is to wrap each in a 
piece of silver paper, and lay them in a box, though 
not so close as to touch. Each layer of shells is then 
to be covered, completely, with a layer of bran, 
and this may be repeated till the box is filled. The 
box must then be gently moved backwards and 
forwards, that the bran may settle ; as it is of con- 
sequence to fill it perfectly, before the lid is nailed 
down. It will be scarcely necessary to add, that the 
very heavy shells should be excluded, or that the 
lightest should be placed at top, and thp box always 
kept upright. By these means ; shells may be sent, 
with safety, to any part of the world. 



VOL. I 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 



OF 



WRITERS ON SHELLS 



For an historical account of the under-mentioned Writers, see a 
most excellent Paper in the Seventh Volume of the Linnean Transac- 
tions, by William George Maton, M. D. ; and the Rev. Thomas 
Rackett, M. A. 

Aristotle, Tlspi Zoooov Iropiag ro A. Ks<p. £. 

Pliny, Naturalis Historiae Lib. 9- 

J&lian, Tls^t Zcocov ihornrog. I. ty. 

Vincentius, Speculum Naturale, 1473. fol. 

Albertus Magnus, de Animalibus, &c. 1478. fol. 

Adam Lonicerus, Historiae Naturalis Opus Novum. 1551, fol. et 

torn. 2. 1555. fol. 
Belon, De Aquatilibus. 1553. 8vo. 

Rondeletius, Universa Aquatilium Historia. 1544 — 55. fol. 
Matthiolus, Comment, in sex Lib. Dioscoridis. 1565. fol. 
Gesner, De Piscium et Aquatilium Animantium Historia Lib. 4. 

1558. fol. 
Linocier, Histoire des Poissons. 1584. 12mo. 
Imperato, DelP Historia Naturale Lib. 28. 1599- fol. 
Aldrovandus, De Mollibus Crustaceis, Testaceis, et Zobphytis. 

1606. fol. 
Fabius Columna, Aquatilium et Terrestrium aliquot Animalium, 

&c. 1616. et 1675. 4to. 
Basil Besler, Fasciculus Rariorum, &c. I6l6. fol. 



Xliv A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 

Chicco, Museum Calceolarium. 1622. fol. 

Schonvelde, Ichthyologia, &c. 1624. 

Nierembergius, Historiae Naturae. 1655. fol. 

Michael Rupert Besler, Gazophylacium Rerum Naturalium. 1642. 

fol. 
Wormius, Museum Wormianum. 1655. 
Moscardo, Note del Museo del Conte L. M. 1656. fol. 
Jonston, Historia Naturalis, &c. 1657. fol. De Exanguibus Aqua- 

ticis Lib. 4. 
Power, Experimental Philosophy. 
De Rochfort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles Antilles. 

1665. 4to. 
Adam Olearius, Kunst-Gammer, 1666. et 1674. 4to. 
Du Tertre, Histoire Generaledes Antilles, &c. 1667. 4to. 
Merrett, Pinax Rerum Natur. Britan. 1667- 8vo. 
Charleton, Onomasticon Zoicum. 1668. 4to. 
Steno, De Solido intra Solidum, &c. 1669. 4to. 
Boyle, Philosophical Transactions of the Year 1670. 
Willis, Exercitationes de Anima Brutorum. 1672. 8vo. 
Legati, Museo Cospiano. 1671. fol. 
Sir Robert Moray, Relation concerning Barnacles, Phil. Trans. 

vol. 12. 1678. 
Harderus, Examen Anatomica Cochlea? Terrestris Domiportae. 

1679- 8vo. 
Grew, Musaeum Regalis Societatis. 1681. fol. 
Buonanni, Recreatio Mentis, &c. 1684. 4to. et Museum Kirche- 

rianum. 1709 fol. 
Marsigli, Relazione del Ritrovarnento, &c. 1683. et 1695. 12mo. 
Boccone, Observazioni Naturali. 1684. 12mo. 
De Heide, Acta Eruditorum. 1684. 
Cole, Phil. Trans. Abr. vol. 2. p. 826. 
Lister, Historia Animalium Angliae. 1678. 4to. Appendix. 1681. 

4to.et Hisioria sive Synopsis MethodicaConchyliorum. 1685 — 93. 

fol. 
Fehr, Eph. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1686. 
Norman, Dissert. Acad, de Purpura. Upsal. 1686. 8vo. 
Schelhammer, Eph. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1691. 



OF WRITERS ON SHELLS. 



xlv 



Brachius, Eph. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1690. 

Du Molinet, Le Cabinet de la Bibliotheque de St. Genevieve. 
1 692. fol. 

Banister, Phil. Trans, vol. 1?. 1693. 

Witzen, Phil. Trans, vol. 17. 1693. 

Cunninghame, Phil. Trans. 1699- 

Oliger, Jacohtfus, Musaeum Regium. 1696. fol. 

Sir R. Sibbald, Auctarium Musaei Balfouriani. 1697. 8vo. 

Ericus a Moinichen, A dissertation entitled Concha anatifera vin- 
dicate. 1679- 4to. 

Leeuwenhoek, Philos. Trans, vol. 17. 1694. vol. 19. 1698. and 
vol. 27. 1712. 

Leigh, Natural History of Lancashire, &c. 1700. fol. 

Wallace, Account of the Islands of Orkney, 2d edit. 1700. 8vo. 

Petiver, Gazophylacium Naturae et Artis. 1702. fol. 

Plot, Natural History of Oxfordshire. 1705. fol. 

Rumphius, Amboinsche Rariteitkamer. 1705. fol. 

Poupart, Memoires de FAcademie Royale des Sciences de Paris. 
1706. 

Levin Vincent, Wondertoonel der Nature. 1706. 4to. 

Kamel, Phil. Trans, for the Year 1707* 

Reaumur, Memoires de PAcademie Royale des Sciences de Paris. 
1709—1717. 

Ruysch, Thesaurus Animalium Primus. 1710. 4to. 

Mery, Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 17 10. 

Morton, Natural History of Northamptonshire. 1712. fol. 

Cyprianus, Additions to Franzius's Historia Animalium Sacra. 
1712.4to. 

Gottwald, Plates illustrative of his Museum. 1714. 

Barrelier, Plantae per Galliam, &c. observatae. 1714. fol. 

John Henry Lochner, Rariora Musei Besleriani. 17 16. fol. 

Valentini, Amphitheatrum Zootomicum. 1720. fol. 

Richard Bradley, Philosophical Account of the Works of Na- 
ture. 1721. 4to. 

Langius, Methodus nova et facilis Testacea, &c. 1722. 4to. 

Bruckmann, De Curiosissimis duobus Conchis Marinis. 1722. 
4to. 



xlvi A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 

Frankenau, Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1722. 

Valentyn, Oud en'nieuw Ost-Indien, &c. 1724. 

Shane, Voyage to the West Indies. 1725. fol. 

Kundman, Promptuarium. 

Stalport, Observationes Rariorum Medici, &c. 1727. 8vo. 

John Ernest Hebenstreit, An Academical Dissertation on the Ar- 
rangement of Testacea. 

Dale, History and Antiquities of Harwich, 2d edit. 1732. 4to. 

Breynius, Dissertatio Physica de Polythalamiis. 1732. 4to. 

Vallisneri, Opere Physico-mediche. 

Sellius, Historia Naturalis Teredinis, &c. 1733. 4to. 

Rousset, Observations sur les Vers de Mer, qui percent les Vais- 
seaux. 1733. 8vo. 2d edit. 

Bytemeister, Bibliothecae Appendix, sec. edit. 1735. 4to. 

Deslandes, Recueil de differens Traitez de Physique et d'Hist. Nat. 
torn. 1, 1736. 

Duhamel, Memoires de PAcad6mie Royale des Sciences. 1736. 

Swammerdam, Biblia Naturae. 1737. fol. 

Plancus, De Conchis minus notis. 1739. 4to. 

Gualtieri, Index Testarum Conchyliorum, &c. 1742. fol. 

D'Jrgenville, 1/Histoire Naturelle eclaircie, &c. 1742. 1757. et 
1780. 3 e ediiion, augmentee par Favanne de Montcervelle. 2 
torn. 4to. 

Bartram, Phil. Trans. 1744. 

Needham, Microscopical Discoveries. 1745. 8vo. 

Lessers, Testaceo-Theologia. 1748 et 1756. 8vo. 

Dr. Charles Smith, Histories of Waterford, Cork, and Kerry. 
1745, 50, and 56. 8vo. 

Dr. James Parsons, Phil. Trans, vol. 45. and vol. 55. 

Sir John Hill, History of Animals. 

Mercier Du Paty, Recueil de PAcademie de Rochelle. 1752. 

Klein, Tentamen Methodi Ostracologicae. 1753. 

Jo. Henry Cohausen, Conspectus Sciographicus Testaceorum. 
1754. 8vo. 

Nicholas Geve, Monatliche Belustigungen, &c. 1755. 4to. 

Dr. Whytt, Description of the Ovary of the Brucinum Ampulla- 
turn. Edinb. Phys. and Lit. Essays. 1756. 



OF WRITERS ON SHELLS. xlvii 

Guettard, Mem. sur differentes Parties des Sciences et Arts. 1770. 

Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 1756 et 1760. 
John Frederick Hoffman, Act. Acad. Mogunt. 1757- 1761. 
Count Joseph Ginanni, Opere Postume. 1755. fol. 
Adanson, Histoire Naturelle du Senegal. 1757. 4to. 
Seba, Descriptio Thesauri Rerum Naturalium. 1758. 
Borlace, Natural History of Cornwall. 1758. fol. 
John Ellis, Phil. Trans, for 1758. 

Edzvards, Gleanings of Natural History. 1758 and 1760. 4to. 
Linnceus, System a Naturae, &c. 

Regenfuss, Choix de Coquillages et de Crustacees. 1758. fol. 
Baster, Opuscula Subseciva. 1759 — 1765. 4to. 
Brisson, M6m. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences. 1759. 
Br. Forbes, Phil. Trans. 1759- 
Knorr, Les Delices des Yeux et de PEsprit. 1760 — 1773, 4to. et 

Deliciae Naturae selectae. 1766. fol. 
De Bergen, Classes Conchyliorum. 1760. 4to. 
Schotterbeccius, Acta Helvetica. 1760 et 1762. 
Hofer, Acta Helvetica, vol. 4. 1760. 

Koelreuter, Nov. Comment. Acad. Sc. Imp. Petrop. 176l et 1766. 
Ledermuller, Amusement Microscopique. 1764. 4to. 
Herissaut, Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences. 1 766. 
Davila, Catalogue Systematique et Raisonne. 1767. 8vo. 
Fougeroux, Mem. Etrang. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences. 1768. 

De La Faille, ■ - 1780. 

Geoffroy, Traite Sommaire des Coquilles, &c. 1767. 8vo. 
Duchesne, Recueil des Coquilles Fluviat. et Terrest. &c. 3 planches 

fol. 
Cotte, Journal des Sgavans 1770, et Journal de Physique, torn. 3. 
Wallis, History and Antiquities of Northumberland. 1769. 4to. 
Martini and Chemnitz, Neues Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet 

1769—1788. 
Favert oVHerbigney, Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, qui con- 

cerne les Testacies, ou les Coquillages de Mer, de Terre, et 

d'Eau-douce. 1775. 
Schroter, Einl. in die Conchyl. 1783. 8vo. 



xlvili A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 

Rutty, Essay towards a Natural History of the County of Dub- 
lin. 1772. 8vo. 

Brunnick, Fundamenta Zoologica. 

M'uller, Verniium Terrestrium et Fluviatilium Historia, &c. 1774. 
4to. Prodromus. 1776. 8vo. Zool. Dan. 1779. 8vo. 

Fortis, Viaggio in Dalmazia. 1774. 4to. 

Forskahl, Descriptiones Animalium, &c. 1775. 4to. 

Slabber, Naturk. Verlust. 1788. 4to. 

Gronovius, Zoophylacium Gronovianum. 1781. fol. 

De Joubert, Memoire sur une Coquille de PEspece des Poulettes, 
&c. Mem. Etrang. del' Acad, des Sciences. 1774. 

K'dmmerer, Die Conchyl. in Cab. der Hernn. &c. 1786. 8vo. 

Otho Fabricius, Faun. Groenland. 1780. 8vo. 

Pallas, Miscellanea Zoologica. 1766. 4to. & Spicil. Zool. 
1767—80. 

Dr. Macbride, Phil. Trans, vol. 64. 1774. 

Bonnet, Journal de Physique. 1775. 

Pennant, British Zoology. 1778. 

Scopoli, lntroductio ad Historiam Naturalem. 1777- 8vo. 

Baron Born, Testacea Musei Caesarei, &c. 1780. fol. 

Da Costa, Elements of Conchology, 1776; and British Concho- 
logy, 1778. 

Dicquemare, Journal de Physique, torn. 18. 20. et 28. 

Molini, Saggio sulla Storia Nalurale del Chili. 1782. 8vo. 

Spallanzani, Mem. della Soc. Ital. 1782et 1784. 

Lightfoot, Phil. Trans, vol. 76. 

George Humphreys, Linnaean Transactions, vol. 2. 1794. 4to. 

Martin, Universal Conchologist. 1784 and 1786. fol. 

William Boys fy George Walker, Testacea Minuta Rariora. 
1784. 

Lefebure des Hayes, Journal de Physique, for 1787- 

Retzius, Nova Testaceorum Genera. 1788. 4to. 

Le Gentil, Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. des Sciences, for 1788. 

Cordiner, Remarkable Ruins, &c. 1788 — 1795. 4to. 

Soldani, Testaceographia, &c. 1789 — 1795. 4to. 

Bonvicini, Mem. della Soc. Ital. 1794. 

Mesaize, Magazin Encyclopedique. 1797. 



OF WRITERS ON SHELLS. xlxix 

Bruguiere, Encyclopedic Methodique, Article, Vers. 1789- Journ. 

d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1. 
Dr. Shaw, Naturalist's Miscellany. 
Olivi, Zoologica Adriatica. 1792. 4to. 
Ribaucourt, Journal d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1 . 
Cuvier, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 
Adams, Linnean Transactions, vol. 3. 
MM. Leopold a Fichtel fy J. P. Charles a Moll, Testacea 

Microscopica, &c. 1798. 4to. 
Lamarck, Animaux sans Vert£bres, 1801. Annales du Mus. 

d'Hist. Nat. &c. 
William George Maton, Observations on the Western Counties. 

1797- 8vo. Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. 3. 7. 8. 10. 
Hatchett, Philosophical Transactions. 1799- 
Donovan, Natural History of British Shells. 1799- 8vo. 
William Wood, Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. 6. 

Zoography, or the Beauties of Nature displayed. 1807. 8vo. vol. 2. 
Dufresne, Annales du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. torn. 1. 
Montagu, Testacea Britannica. 1803. 4to. 
Denys de Montfort, Conchyliologie Systematique. 1808. 8vo. 



DICTIONARY OF TERMS 



Adherent. - 
Adherent. - - 

Adherent. * - 
Anterior. - 

Aperture. - 
Apex. - 
Articulation, 



Articulation. 
Articulation. 

AURICULATED. 

Axis. - - - 



The Mollusca adhere to thin shells. 

A shell which attaches itself is adherent. Oysters 

adhere to rocks. 
An operculum is adherent, when fixed to the animal. 
That half in Bivalve shells, which shows the 

cardinal ligament. 
The mouth of a shell. 
The tip, or small end of a shell. 
The insertion of parts of shells into each other. 

The fossil Cornu Amnonis is an instance of a 

series of articulations. 
The tentacula of the animals of Barnacles, have 

articulations. 

The teeth of bivalve shells are frequently articu- 
lated within each other. 
Having ears. The Pectens are auriculated. 
In univalve shells the centre, or pillar, upon which 

the spires turn. 



Base. 

Base. 
Beak. 



B. 

The lower part of a shell, or that which is op- 
posed to the summit, or point of the spire. 

The species of the genus Lepas, fix themselves by 
their base, to rocks and other bodies. 

The elongated base, of certain species of univalve 
shells, is called the beak. The genera Murex 
and Strom bus, afford examples of beaked shells. 



Hi 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



Beak. - - The lengthened extremity of the valves in some 

bivalve shells. Certain Tellens have their anterior 

part prolonged into a beak. 
Bifid. - - Separated down the middle by a slit. The teeth of 

bivalve shells, are often bifid, or double. 
Bivalve. - A shell with two valves, or pieces, connected by a 

hinge. 
Byssus. - - A substance spun by the animals of bivalve shells, 

such as the Muscle, and the Pinna ; by which they 

attach themselves to rocks, and other bodies. In 

the Muscle it is called the beard. 



C. 

Canal. - - The continuation of the mouth, or opening, of a 
shell, into a kind of beak, which becomes tubular, 
and forms a gutter, or groove. The genus Murex 
and Strombus, afford examples of a canal. 

Cardinal. - Conchologists apply this word to the central, or 
principal teeth in the hinges of bivalve shells. 
The Cockle has four teeth; the two nearest the 
centre of the hinge, are the cardinal teeth. The 
Mactra has but one cardinal tooth. 

Cardo. - - See hinge. 

Carina. - - See keel. 

Cartilage. A solid substance harder than flesh, but not so hard 
as horn. 

Chambered. Having divisions across the cavity in the hollow of 
the shell, separating or dividing the same into 
chambers. The Nautilus is a chambered shell. 

Close. - - Shut together, without leaving any opening. It 
applies chiefly to bivalve shells. The valves of the 
Solen are open, those of the Muscle are close. 

Columella. The interior part of the lip, situated in the opening, 
or mouth, very near the axis upon which the spires 
turn in univalve shells. In some shells, as the 
Cones, it is smooth ; in others, as the Volutes, it is 
toothed, or pleated. 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



liii 



Compressed. 

concamerated. 
Contour. - - 



CoRCELET. 



cordiforme. 
Coriaceous. 

Cremated. 
Crest. - - 



Nearly flat. Several of the Tellens are com- 
pressed shells. 

The same as chambered. 

The exterior surface, and round the edge of 
a shell. The Tuns are round in their contour ; 
the Murex is angular. 

The part near the hinge in bivalve shells, to 
which the ligament is attached. It is remark- 
able in the shells of the genus Venus, and 
received one of those names from Linnaeus, 
which disgrace the pages of his Systema 
Natura. 

Heart-shaped. The Cockles and some other 
shells are cordiforme. 

Hard and fibrous ; of a substance between 
horn and skin. 

Having blunt teeth. The margins of many 
bivalve shells are crenated. 

Crested like the comb of a cock. Some oysters 
are crested. 



Decussated. 
Dentated. 

Diaphonous. 
Digitated. 



Diverging. - 
Dorsal. - - 

Ears. - - ~ 



D. 

Striated crossways. 

Toothed. The margin of most Cockles are 
dentated. 

Transparent when held to the light. 

Made in the shape of fingers. The lips of 
some shells of the genus Strombus are digi- 
tated. 

Separating from a point. The teeth in the 
Anomia placenta diverge. 

Belonging to the back. 

E. 

External projections, nearly triangular, which 
are seen at the base of Pectens. 



llV A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 

Edge. - - - See Margin. 

Epidermis. - An outer skin, or membrane, which covers the 
surface of the majority of shells, and is, generally, 
very tenaceous. Some shells, such as the Cow- 
ries, and the Cones, are without an epidermis. 

Equilateral. The valves of bivalve shells are equilateral when 
they precisely resemble each other in size and 
form. 

Eouivalve. - When the two valves are pefectly alike. The 
Muscles and Cockles, are equivalve shells. 

F. 

Fente. - - - The slit, or opening, which appears on the slopes 
of bivalve shells, near the hinge, when the valves 
are closed. 

Fissure. - - A notch, or slit. The slit limpet, Patella Jissura, 
is an example. 

Fosset. - - The cavity containing the ligament. The fossets 
are placed at the hinge in some bivalves. 

Fosset. - - The teeth of the hinge in bivalves, are also re- 

ceived into fossets, or cavities, in the opposite 
valve. 

Furrow. - - A gutter, or groove, which when bivalves are 
closed, runs along parallel to the hinge. 

G. 

Gapers. - - Shells whose valves never shut close. The Solens 

are gapers, at both ends, the Mya gape at one 

end only. 
Gibbous. - - Protuberant. Some species of Murex are gibbous. 
Glabrous. - Smooth, uniformly polished. 
Grained. - - Dotted with small tubercles. 
Groove. - - A hollow prolonged line, placed between two 

ridges. Cockles are grooved. 
Group. - - The union of several shells that adhere together. 

The Oysters, and the Barnacles, form in groups. 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



Jv 



Hinge. 



Hispid, 



Imbricated 



Imperforated. 



Impression. 



Inequilateral. 



Ineouivalve. 



Involute. 



H. 

The part under the summits, by which the sides 
of bivalve and multivalve shells are connected 
together. The hinge in most shells is toothed, 
but in some it is without teeth, as in Oysters 
and Muscles. 

Covered with hairs. The Helix hispida is an 
example. 

I. 

Tiled. Shells are sometimes covered with scales, 
which impend over each other like tiles on a 
house. The ribs of the Cardium Isocardia 
are covered with imbricated scales. The valves 
of the Chiton are imbricated, or laying one 
over the other. 

Which has no hole, that is, is not pierced. The 
Limpets are, for the most part, imperforated. 

A trace, or mark. The muscles with which 
the animals of bivalve shells are provided, 
leave a mark in the interior, which is called 
the muscular impression. Oysters have but 
one muscular impression, the Veneres have two, 
and some shells three muscular impressions. 

Of unequal sides. Inaequilateral valves are 
those whose summits are farther from one end 
of the shell than the other. The Tellens, are 
generally inaequilateral. 

Of unequal valves. Having one valve more 
convex, or of a different form from the other. 
The PectenSy the Oysters, and the Spondyles, 
are inaequivalve. 

Without spires. The Limpets are involute. 



J. 



Juxtaposition. A successive and perpetual adjunction of cal- 



Ivi 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



careous, or horny particles, exuding from the 
mantle, or body, of the Mollusca. It is these 
particles which form the successive layers that 
envelope the animal, and constitute the shell. 

K. 

Keel. - - - A term applied to the back of shells that are 
shaped like a boat. The Chitons are keeled. 
The Paper nautilus is keeled. 

L. 

Labium. - - See Lip. 

Lamina. - - A plate, or layer. An Oyster-shell heated in the 
fire separates into laminae, or plates. 

Lateral. - - Belonging to the side. 

Lenticular. - Of a lens shape. The fossil Numularia are 
lenticular shells. 

Lid. - - - - See Operculum. 

Lip. - - - - The last turn of the spire in Univalves. 

Lip. - - - - The Cowries have two lips, one right, and the 
other left. 

Lip. - - - - In Bivalves. The exterior edge of the valves. 

Ligament. - A horny substance uniting the valves of shells to- 
gether at the hinge. Almost all Bivalves are 
united by ligament. It is interior in Oysters, 
and exterior in Muscles. 

Linear. - - Very narrow. 

Linguiform. - Tongue-shaped. t 

Longitudinal. Lengthwise. The longitudinal measure of a shell 
in Bivalves, is always from the hinge to the 
margin, however narrow the shell may be. In 
Univalves, from the apex to the base. 

M. 

Margin. - . The edge of a shell. Some Bivalve shells have 
their margins plain, some waved, and others cre- 
nated, or dentated, &c. 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



lvii 



Membrane. - A skin, or pellicle, susceptible of being inflated 
like a bladder. The Helix janihina has a mem- 
brane which it inflates like a bunch of grapes, 
or soap bubbles. 

Minute. - - A term applied to shells that require a lens to 
distinguish their several parts. 

Mollusc a. - Animals inhabiting shells, belong to the class 
Mollusca. 

Mouth. - •- The aperture, or opening of a shell. It is gene- 
rally round, or long ; though sometimes trian- 
gular, and even quadrangular. 

Multilocular. Having several divisions, or compartments. All 
chambered shells are multilocular, and abound 
in the minute species. 

Multivalve. - Having more than two valves. The Barnacle 
and the P kolas are multivalve shells. 

Muscle. - - A flexible, fleshy, fibrous organ, by which the 
animals, especially of bivalves, are attached to 
their shells. v, 

O. 

Oblique. - - Diverging from right to left, or from left to right. 
Some shells are obliquely striated. 

Obtuse. - - Blunt pointed. The spire of the Volute is obtuse. 

Operculum. - A solid, horny, or calcareous substance, gene- 
rally round and flat, which fits exactly into the 
mouth of Univalves, and serves the animal as a 
lid, or cover, with which it can shut itself into 
its shell. Multivalves, such as the Lepas, have 
also an operculum. 

Orbicular. - Of a round shape. 



Papyraceous. Thin as paper. The Paper Nautilus, is of this 

description. 
Pedicle. - - A stalk. The Barnacles are raised on pedicles. 
Pelagian. - Inhabiting the deep. 
vol. i. e 



Iviii 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



Perforated. 

Pillar. 

Pisiform. - 
Plain. - - 

Plaited. - 
Plaited. - - 

Posterior. 
Pyriform. - 

Quadrivalve. 



Pierced. The disk of the Haliotis, and the apex 

of the Patella Grceca, are perforated. 
The axis upon which the spires turn in Univalve 

shells. 
Of a pea shape. 
Uniform, flat. The Anomia placenta, is a plain 

shell. 
Many Univalve shells are plaited on the columella, 

or pillar lip, which characterises their genera. 

The Volutes are plaited. 
When the margins of a Bivalve shell deviate 

from a straight line, they sometimes form a plait. 

Thus one of the characters of the genus Tellen, 

is to have the anterior margin plaited. 
That half from the hinge, in Bivalve shells, which 

does not show the cardinal ligament. 
Pear-shaped. The Bulla Jicus is a pyriform shell. 

Q. 

Four-valved. The operculum of the Acorn shell 
is quadrivalve. 



R. 

Reticulated. Like net-work. Many shells have their surfaces 

reticulated. 
Ribs. - - - Protuberant striae on the surface of a shell. The 

Cockles are strongly ribbed. 
Rostrum. - - See Beak. 
Rugose. - - Wrinkled. The surfaces of some shells are 

rough, or wrinkled. The Tellina rugosa, is one 

among many examples. 

S. 

Scabrous. - Rough, rugged. The shells of the genus Chama 

have scabrous valves. 
Serrated. - Toothed like a saw. Many Bivalve shells have 

their margins serrated, such as the Spondyles. 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



lix 



Sinuous. 
Sinus. - 
Siphon. 
Spine. - 

Spire. - 
Spiral. 
Stri^:. - 



Striated, 
Summit. 

Summit. 



Suture. 



Waved, folded, or deeply lobed. The margin of a 
shell is sinuous, when it bends in and out. 

A deep cut. The Murex Babylonius has a sinus in 
the lip. 

A prolonged tube, running sometimes through the 
partitions of chambered shells. 

A lengthened point either straight or curved. The 
Thorny Woodcock, Murex Tribulus, has very long 
spines. 

Each single, or separate turning, or circumvolution 
in a Univalve shell, is called a spire. 

Univalve shells, having one or more spires, are called 
spiral. 

Very fine lines, either flat or raised, which cross the 
surface of shells in different directions. When they 
proceed from hinge to margin, they are called longi- 
tudinal striae, and when in a contrary direction, trans- 
verse striae. Concentric striae are those which form 
the segments of circles. 

Charged with striae. 

The highest part of a shell. In Univalves it is 
the point of the spire. 

The upper part of the valves, in Bivalve shells, is 
called the summit. It is generally curved inwards, 
towards the hinge, which it surmounts. 

A toothed joint. The valves of some of the Acorn 
shells are connected by sutures. 



Teeth. ^ - Angular plaits upon the pillar lip of Volutes, and 

some other shells. 
Teeth. - - Protuberances, and fangs, on the hinges of Bivalve 

shells. 
Tentacula. Delicate, fleshy bodies, with which animals of the 
class Mollusca, are provided; they are capable of 
contraction and extension, and are endued with ex- 
treme sensibility. The horns of the snail are its 
tentacula. 



k 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. 



Testacea. - 



Tiled. - - ■ 
Transverse. ■ 

Tricuspidate. 

Trifid. - - - 
Trilobed. - • 
Tubercle. 



Turba 



Turn, 



All animals of the class Mollusca, which are 
covered with a solid roof of carbonate of lime, 
come under the denomination of Testacea. 

See Imbricated. 

Across. Bands, or stria?, running across a shell, 
are called transverse. 

A shell armed with three short points. The 
Anomia tridentata is an example. 

Slit into three. A trifid tooth. 

Having three lobes. 

A protuberance, or knob, raised on the surface 
of some shells. Several species of the genus 
Murex, are loaded with tubercles. 

All the whirls, or spires, of a Univalve, taken 
collectively, are called the turban. The Helix 
planorbis, has a flat turban ; the Trochus tuber- 
culatus a short turban, and the Trochus Zizi- 
phinus a produced turban. 

The turn of a spire, is a single, but complete 
revolution. In the Nautilus, the last turn of the 
spire envelopes all the others. 



Umbo. 
Umbilicus, 



Undulated. 
Unilocular. 



Univalve. 



Valve. 



U. 

The same as summit. 

A small hole at the bottom of some Univalve 

shells, formed in the thickness of the columella, 

or pillar. 
Waved. 
This term is used for Univalves, that have but one 

chamber. The Paper Nautilus, the Cozvries, 

the Olives, &c. are unilocular shells. 
A division of shells, composed of but one valve, or 

piece. 

V. 
The testaceous covering of the Mollusca. When 

of a single piece, the shell is called Univalve ; 

when of two pieces, Bivalve ; and when formed 

of more parts than two, Multivalve. 



A DICTIONARY OF TERMS. lxi 

Vermiform. Having the shape of worms. The Serpula, are 

vermiform shells. 
Vertex. - The top, or point of a shell. 
Viviparous. Shells which are found equally on land and in water. 

The fresh-water Helices are often seen on the 

plants which border the rivers. 

W. 

Waved. - - Some shells are flexuous, bent in and out, or waved. 
Whirl. = - The same as Spire. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Advertisement 



Page 
i 



No. CHITON. 1 

1 Scaly Chiton 5 

2 Bistriated Chiton 7 

3 Tawny Chiton 

4 Pitchy Chiton 8 

5 Granulated Chiton 9 

6 Prickly Chiton 

7 Banded Chiton 10 

8 Marbled Chiton 

9 Spotted Chiton 11 

10 Coated Chiton 

11 Gigantic Chiton 12 

12 Kidney-Shaped Chiton 13 

13 Chesnut Chiton 

14 Red Chiton 14 

15 Punctured Chiton 

16 Indian Chiton 15 

17 Green Chiton 

18 Striped Chiton 

19 Tufted Chiton 16 

20 Furrowed Chiton 

21 Bicolored Chiton 17 

22 Cherry Chiton 

23 Magellanic Chiton 18 

24 Brown Chiton 

25 Meally Chiton 19 

26 Bug Chiton 

27 Millepede Chiton 

28 Iceland Chiton 20 

29 White Chiton 

30 Bordered Chiton 21 

31 Ash-Coloured Chiton 



No. Page 

32 Smooth Chiton 22 

33 Tuberculated Chiton 

34 Tessellated Chiton 23 

35 Hairy Chiton 

36 Hispid Chiton 24 

37 Sea-Green Chiton 

No. LEPAS. Page 25 

1 Windpipe Shell . 31 

2 Turban Acorn 33 

3 Whale Acorn. 35 

4 Turtle Acorn 37 

5 Bell Acorn 38 

6 Scottish Acorn 40 

7 Wrinkled Acorn 41 

8 Narrow-Mouthed Acorn 

9 Conic Acorn 42 

10 Common Acorn. ........... 43 

11 Smooth Acorn 44 

12 Club-shaped Acorn ........ 45 

13 Punctured Acorn 46 

14 Ribbed Acorn 

15 Sponge Acorn 47 

16 Helmet Acorn 48 

17 Parrot-Beaked Acorn 49 

18 Spiny Acorn , 

19 Flesh-Coloured Acorn 50 

20 Rayed Acorn 

21 Palmated Acorn 51 

22 Rugged Acorn 

23 Ridged Acorn 52 

24 Violet Acorn. 53 

25 Limpet Acorn 54 

26 Hemispherical Acorn 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. Page 

27 Purple-Tipped Acorn 55 

28 Porous Acorn 56 

29 Wart-Shaped Acorn 57 

30 Norwegian Acorn 58 

31 Carious Acorn 

32 Mitre Barnacle 59 

33 Cornucopia Banacle 60 

34 Pen-Knife Barnacle 61 

35 Bladder Barnacle 62 

36 Striated Barnacle 64 

37 Duck Barnacle 65 

38 Downy Barnacle 67 

39 Toothed Barnacle 

40 Furrowed Barnacle 68 

41 Ribbon Barnacle 69 

42 Membranous Barnacle 70 

43 Eared Barnacle 

No. PHOLAS. Page 73 

1 Prickly Piercer 77 

2 Indian Piercer 78 

3 White Piercer 79 

4 Ribbed Piercer 80 

5 Curled Piercer 81 

6 Small Pierce-Stone 82 

7 Striated Piercer 83 

8 Hooked Piercer 84 

9 Hart-Shaped Piercer 85 

10 Chili Piercer 

11 Gaping Piercer 

12 Teredo Piercer 86 

No. MYA. Page 87 

1 Abrupt Gaper 90 

2 Sand Gaper 91 

3 Convex Gaper 92 

4 Sloping Gaper 93 

5 Spoon-Hinge Gaper 94 

6 Duck Gaper 

7 Globular Gaper 95 

8 Arctic Gaper 

9 Toothless Gaper 96 

10 Pitchy Gaper 

1 1 Nicobar Gaper 97 

12 Beaked Gaper 



No. Page 

13 Norway Gaper 98 

14 Membranous Gaper 

15 Deformed Gaper 

16 Double-Toothed Gaper 99 

17 Decussated Gaper 

18 Purple Gaper 100 

19 Rusty Gaper 

20 Glossy Gaper 101 

21 Prismatic Gaper 

22 Substriated Gaper 102 

23 Dubious Gaper 

24 White Norway Gaper 103 

25 Dutch Gaper 

26 Painters Gaper 104 

27 Qval Gaper 105 

28 Thick Gaper 106 

29 Knotted Gaper 

30 Pearl Gaper 107 

31 Wrinkled Gaper 108 

32 Radiated Gaper 109 

33 Rough Gaper 

34 Knobbed Gaper 110 

35 Spurious Gaper ... 

36 Angular Gaper . » 

37 Roundish Gaper Ill 

38 Variable Gaper 

39 Lipped Gaper ^.... 112 

40 Unequal-Valved Gaper .... 113 

41 Great Gaper 114 

No. SOLEN. Page 115 

1 Pod Razor 118 

2 Carmarthenshire Razor .... 119 

3 Sheath Razor 

4 Truncated Solen 121 

5. Slender Razor 

6 Sword Razor 122 

7 Transparent Razor 123 

8 Peascod Razor 124 

9 Kidney Razor 125 

10 Antiquated Razor 

11 Brittle Razor 126 

12 Strigilated Razor 127 

13 Duck-Bill Razor 128 

14 Rayed Razor 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. Page 

15 Guinea Razor 129 

16 Largest Razor 

17 Great Razor 130 

18 Inflected Razor 131 

19 Little Razor 

20 Molini's Razor 132 

21 Green Razor 

22 VioletRazor t..l33 

23 Rose-Coloured Razor 

24 Striated Razor 134 

25 Zig-Zag Razor 

26 Double-Rayed Razor 135 

27 Variable Razor 

28 Sanguine Razor 136 

29 Spotted Razor 137 

30 Spengler's Razor 

31 Amethystine Razor 138 

32 Variegated Razor 139 

S3 Minute Razor 

34 Scale-Like Razor 140 

35 Semi-Oval Razor 141 

No. TELLINA. Page 142 

1 Toothed Tellen 144 

2 Cats-Tongue Tellen 

3 Striped Tellen 145 

4 Freckled Tellen 146 

5 Angular Tellen 

6 Varying Tellen 147 

7 Brittle Tellen 148 

8 Rugged Tellen 

9 Inflated Tellen 149 

10 Pellucid Tellen 

11 Multangular Tellen 150 

12 Paper Tellen 

13 Gibbous Tellen 151 

14 Unequal-Sized Tellen 

15 Knorr's Tellen 

16 Minute Tellen 152 

17 Oblique Tellen 

18 Spotted Tellen 153 

19 River Tellen 

20 Foliaceous Tellen 154 

21 Whitish Tellen 

22 Thin Tellen 155 



No. Page 

23 Semi-Striated Tellen 156 

24 Flat Tellen 157 

25 Sharp-Edged Tellen 

26 Rayed Tellen 158 

27 Red Tellen. 159 

28 Beaked Tellen 

29 Smooth Tellen 160 

30 Three-Banded Tellen 161 

31 Donax Tellen 

32 Truncated Tellen 1 62 

33 Triangular Tellen 

34 Oblong Tellen 163 

35 Spengler's Tellen 

36 Carnation Tellen 164 

37 Blushing Tellen 165 

38 White Tellen 166 

39 Glassy Tellen 

40 Lance-Shaped Tellen 167 

41 Opaline Tellen 

42 Scarlet Tellen 168 

43 Chalky Tellen 

44 Lister's Tellen 169 

45 Narrow Tellen 

46 Madagascar Tellen 

47 Flat Striai ed Tellen 170 

48 Depressed Tellen 171 

49 Purple Tellen 172 

50 Rough Tellen 

51 Subcuneated Tellen 173 

52 Broad Tellen 

53 Jamaica Tellen 

54 Whitish Tellen 174 

55 Reddish Tellen 

56 Banded Tellen 

57 Striated Tellen 175 

58 Rosy Tellen 

59 Adanson's Tellen )76 

60 Reticulated Tellen 

61 Fasciated Tellen 177 

62 Snowy Tellen 

63 Sulcated Tellen 173 

64 Angular Tellen 

65 Laskey's Tellen 179 

66 Pomegranate-Flower Tellen 180 

67 Rasp Tellen 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

8o 

81 
82 
83 
84 
8.5 
86 
87 
83 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 

No. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



10 
11 

12 



Page 

Smooth Tellen 131 

Waved Tellen 182 

Lattice Tellen 

Thread-Girdled Tellen 183 

Rough Tellen 184 

Prickly Tellen 185 

Obsolete Tellen 

Thick Tellen 186 

Milky Tellen 187 

Round Tellen 

Crooked Tellen 188 

Flesh-Coloured Tellen 189 

Polygonal Tellen 190 

Decussated Tellen 

Heart-Shaped Tellen 191 

Double-Spotted Tellen 192 

Solid Tellen 193 

Baltic Tellen 194 

Pea Tellen 

Obliquely Striated Tellen . . 195 

Toothed Tellen 

Digital Tellen 196 

Horn-Coloured Tellen 

Lake Tellen 197 

Spanish Tellen . . 198 

Sinuous Tellen 

French Tellen 199 

Senegal Tellen , 

Maton's Tellen ,..,...,..., ... 
Unequal-Valved Tellen 201 

CARDIUM. Page 203 

Spiny Cockle 207 

Thorny Cockle 208 

Fringed Cockle. 209 

Tuberculated Cockle ...... 210 

Marbled Cockle 211 

Pigmy Cockle 212 

Knotty Cockle 

Red Cockle 213 

Waved Cockle 

Pea Cockle 214 

Lengthened Cockle 

Microscopic Cockle. , 215 



No. Page 

13 Banded Cockle 215 

14 Prickly Cockle 216 

15 Imbricated Cockle 217 

16 Greenish Cockle 218 

17 Mottled Cockle 

18 Toothed Cockle 219 

19 Prominent Cockle 220 

20 Great Cockle 221 

20* Smooth Cockle 222 

21 Citron Cockle 223 

22 Oblong Cockle 

23 Yellow Cockle 224 

24 Banded Cockle 225 

25 Common Cockle 226 

26 Iceland Cockle 227 

27 Greenland Cockle 

28 Equal-Sided Cockle. 228 

29 Pectinated Cockle 229 

30 Eared Cockle 

31 Asiatic Cockle 230 

32 Paper Cockle 

33 Ribbed Cockle 231 

34 Gaping Cockle 232 

35 Solen Cockle 233 

36 Pecten Cockle - 

37 Donax Cockle 234 

38 Furbelowed Cockle 

39 Janus Cockle 235 

40 Rough Cockle 236 

41 Broad Cockle 

42 Flexuous Cockle 237 

43 Decussated Cockle 

44 Rusty Cockle 238 

45 Whitish Cockle 

46 Greenish Cockle ... 

47 Streaked Cockle 239 

48 Rose Cockle 

49 Triangular Cockle 240 

50 Strawberry Cockle 241 

51 White Strawberry Cockle . . 242 

52 Diana Heart Cockle 243 

53 Spiny-Keeled Heart Cockle 244 

54 Smooth-Keeled Heart Cockle 245 



A LIST OF PLATES 



pl. l. Page No. 

1 Chiton squamosus 5 1 

2 fulvus 7 3 

3 piceus 8 4 

4. 5 fasciatus 10 7 

PL. 2. 

1 Chiton tunicatus 11 10 

2. 3 castaneus 13 13 

4. 5 lineatus 15 18 

6 facicularis 16 19 

PL. 3. 

1 Chiton sulcatus 16 20 

2. 3 * castaneus 13 13 

4 marginatus 21 30 

5 cinereus 21 31 

6 Magellanicus 18 23 

PL. 4.* 

1. 2. 3 Lepas TracheaBformis 31 1 

PL. 4. 

Lepas Diadema 33 2 

PL. 5. 

1. 2. 3 Lepas balaenaris 35 3 

4 testudinaria 37 4 

PL. 6. 

1. 2 Lepas tintinnabulum 38 5 

3 Scotica 40 6 

4 rugosa 41 7 

5 angustata 41 8 

PL. 7. 

1 Lepas balanoides 44 11 

2 clavata 45 12 

3 Balanus 43 10 

4.5 spinosa 49 18 

6 minor 50 19 

radiata 50 20 



pl. 8. Page No. 

1.2. 3.4 Lepas crispata 51 22 

5 ...... porcata 52 23 

PL. 9. 

1.2.3 Lepas purpurascens 55 27 

4 porosa 56 28 

5 Verruca 57 29 

PL. 10. 

1 Lepas Mitella 59 32 

2 Pollicipes 60 33 

3 Scalpellum 61 34 

4 fascicularis 62 35 

5 anserifera 64 36 

PL. li. 

Lepas anatifera 65 37 

pl. 12. 

1 Lepas sulcata 68 40 

2. 3 vittata 69 41 

4 aurita 70 43 

PL. 13. 

1. 2. 3 Pholas Dactylus 77 1 

PL. 14. 

1. 2 Pholas orientalis 78 2 

3. 4 Candida 79 3 

pl. 15. 

1. 2 Pholas costata 80 4 

3.4.5 crispata 81 5 

PL. 16. 

1. 2. 3. 4. & 8 Pholas striata 83 7 

5.6.7. falcata 34 8 

pl. 17. 

1.2 Mya truncata 90 l 

3 .... arenaria 91 2 

PL. 18. 

1 Mya convexa 92 3 



6 



A LIST OF PLATES. 



2. 3 Mya declivis 
4.5 Norwegica 

PL. 19. 

1. 2 Mya Batava 

3. 4 .... Pictorum 
5 .... ovata 

PL. 20 & 21. 
Mya crassa 

PL. 22. 
1. 2. 3. 4 Mya nodulosa 
5 .... picea 

pl. 23. 
1. 2. 3 Mya margaritifera 

PL. 24. 
1*2.3 Mya corrugata 
4. 5. 6 .... globosa 
7.8.9 .... praetenius 

pl. 25. 
1 Mya Glyeimeris 

2. 3 .... dubia 

pl. 26. 
1. 2 Solen Siliqua 

3. 4 truncata 

pl. 27. 

1 Solen Vagina 

2 truncata 

3 linearis 

PL. 28. 

1. 2 Solen Ensis 

3 pellucidus 

4. 5 Legnmen 

pl. 29. 

1. 2 Solen Cultellus 

3 antiquatus 

4. 5 fragilis 

pl. 30. 
1 Solen strigilatus 

2.3.4 ..... anatinus 

PL. 31. 
, 1.2 Solen radiatus 
3 maximus 

pl. 32. 
1. 2. Solen inflexus 
3 Diphos 



Page 


No. 


93 


4 


98 


13 


103 


25 


104 


26 


105 


27 


106 


28 


106 


29 


96 


10 


107 


30 


108 


31 


95 


7 


94 


5 


114 


41 


102 


23 


118 


1 


121 


4 


119 


3 


121 


4 


121 


5 


122 


6 


123 


7 


124 


8 


125 


9 


125 


10 


126 


11 


127 


12 


128 


13 


128 


14 


129 


16 


131 


18 


133 


22 



Page 

pl. 33. 

1 Solen biradiata 135 

2.3 vespertinus 135 

4. 5 sanguinolentus 136 

PL. 34. 

1 Solen Amethystus 138 

2. 3. 4 variegatus 139 

5.6 minutus 139 

PL. 35. 

1 Tellina scobinata 180 

2.3 virgata 145 

pl. 36. 

1 Tellina foliacea 154 

2 virgata 145 

3 interrupta 146 

pl. 37 

1 Tellina laevis 181 

2 Spengleri • 163 

3 rostrata 159 

pl. 38. 

1 Tellina Remies 182 

2.3 radiata 158 

pl. 39. 

1 Tellina punicea 170 

2. 3 Madagascariensis 169 

PL. 40. 

1 Tellina crassa 186 

2. 3 Lingua-felis 144 

4. 5 carnaria 189 

PL. 41. 

1 Tellina laevigata 160 

2.3 rugosa 148 

4. 5 obliqua 152 

PL. 42. 

1 Tellina operculata 165 

2.3 reticulata 182 

4. 5 Radula 183 

pl. 43. 

1 Tellina angulata 146 

2.3 decussata 190 

4. 5 cordiformis 191 

pl. 44. 

1 Tellina acuta 157 

2 sanguinea 159 



No. 

26 
27 
28 

31 
32 
33 

67 
3 

20 
3 
4 

68 
35 
23 

69 
26 

47 
46 

75 

2 

79 



17 

37 
70 
71 

5 

81 
82 

25 

27 



A LIST OF PLATES. 



3. 4 Tellina tenuis 

pl. 45. 

1 Tellina Ferroensis 

2 lanceolata 

3 depressa 

4 fabula 

5 donacina 

0.7 bimaculata 

pl. 46. 

1 Tellina nivea 

2 solidula 

3 cornea 

4. 5 limosa 

6 divarieata 

7 dentata 

pl. 47. 
1 Tellina sulcata 
2. 3. 4 inaequivalvis 

5 lacustris 

6 amnica 

7. 8 flexuosa 

pl. 48. 
Cardium aculeatum 

pl. 49. 
1. 2 Cardium echinatum 
3. 4 ciliare 

pl. 50. 
1. 2 Cardium tuberculatum 
3 medium 

PL. 51. 
1 Cardium aculeatum 
2. 3 muricatum 



i*age 


No. 


155 


22 


164 


36 


167 


40 


171 


48 


156 


23 


161 


31 


192 


83 


177 


62 


193 


84 


196 


90 


199 


96 


195 


87 


195 


88 


178 


63 


201 


97 


197 


91 


153 


19 


188 


78 



207 



208 


2 


209 


3 


210 


4 


211 


5 


207 


1 


216 


14 



pl. 52. 
1. 2 Cardium isocardia 
3 maculosum 

pl. 53. 
1. 2 Cardium ringens 
3 magnum 

pl. 54. 
1. 2 Cardium laevigatum 

3 citrinum 

pl. 55. 
1 Cardium oblongum 
2. 3 rusticum 

4 edule 

5 papyraceum 

pl. 56. 

1 Cardium costatum 

2 apertum 

3 soleniforme 

4. 5 fimbriatum 

pl. 57. 
1 Cardium iEolicum 

2. 3 rigidum 

4. 5 latum 

6 roseum 

7. 8 hemicardium 

pl. 58. 
1. 2 Cardium Fragum 
3 ........ Unedo 

4. 5 retusum 

pl. 59. 
1. 2 Cardium Cardissa 
3. 4 human nm 



Page No. 

217 15 

218 17 

219 18 



222 



223 
225 
226 
230 

231 
232 
233 
234 

235 



20 
21 

23 
24 
25 
32 

33 
34 
35 
38 



39 

236 40 

236 41 

239 48 

240 49 

241 50 

242 51 

243 52 

244 53 

245 54 



MULTIVALVE SHELLS 

Genus I. 
CHITON. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Lophyrus. 

Testes plures longitudinaliter digestae, dorso incumbentes. 



Animal a Lophyrus. 

Shells (valves or plates) many, arranged longitudinally, and resting on the 
back. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Poli, in the third plate of his splendid work on the 
shells of the two Sicilies, has given a complete anatomical 
figure of the animal of the Chiton, from which it appears 
not to be a Doris, as supposed by Linnaeus, but suffi- 
ciently distinct to constitute a new genus. The animal 
has an oval body, flat beneath, without eyes or tentacula, 
an oval foot ; a head surmounted by a crest, with a 
wrinkled mouth beneath : the exterior air vessels are 
separate, pinnated, and placed round the body, between 
the mantle (or folding muscle) and the foot. It is 
obvious that it differs from a Doris in the want of ten- 
tacula, (or feelers), and in the presence of a crest, a 
distinction upon which Poli has established his genus, 
and from whence he has derived his greek name *6<pufog. 

Chitons are to Testacea what armadillos are to quad- 
rupeds ; and millepedes to insects; that is, like them 

vol. i. b 



2 

they are capable of contraction and extension ; they can 
stretch at full length, or roll themselves into a ball. The 
scales, or valves, of which they are formed, are from 
six to eight in number, and are so disposed, that they 
move on each other like the joints on the tail of a 
lobster. The valves which are very solid, vary in shape 
and colour according to the species, but the smallest 
is generally before and the largest behind : they are 
connected together by a projecting cartilaginous border 
which surrounds the shell, and which is sometimes 
plain, sometimes spinous, and often covered with minute 
scales. 

The name of petite nacelle, which has been occasionally 
given to this shell, is by no means unapplicable, for 
nothing can convey a better idea of a little boat than 
the interior of a Chiton. In some species the colour 
of this surface is bluish green, in some it is quite white; 
others are stained with violet, or purple, along the 
middle, and some are very prettily variegated. 

Chitons fix themselves to rocks, to ships, and even 
frequently to fish, and to other shells. They are capable 
of locomotion, but seldom appear to use that faculty; 
they seem to be satisfied with their first attachment, and 
never wish to change their place. When forced from 
their hold they roll themselves into a ball, presenting 
nothing to their enemy but an invulnerable shell, and a 
portion of the lateral ligament defended by scales, or 
spines. Bosc observed, on the coast of America, that 
when the Chitons rolled themselves up in consequence 
of being separated by violence from the bodies to which 
they were fixed, it was a considerable time before they 
recovered their natural position; the most expeditious 
required two days to compose themselves, and several, 




3 

which Bosc supposed must have been wounded, re- 
mained a week in a contracted state. 

These shells have been called by different names, 
all however indicative of their form, such as wood-louse, 
sea boat, rattle-snake's tail, lobster's tail, sea bug, and 
sea caterpillar. The French say that the animal may be 
eaten, and we are told that the Iceland fishers swallow 
it raw to quench their thirst, and pretend that it is good 
also against sea sickness. These shells are found, but 
rarely in abundance, on the coasts of North and South 
America, in the Straits of Magellan, on the coast of 
Africa, in the West Indies, in Carolina, on the coasts of 
France, England, &c. 

It must be observed, that the subjects of this genus, 
before the time of Linnaeus, were scattered about in 
authors, without being referred to any particular class ; 
but the systematic plan of the great Swedish naturalist, 
forced him to decide upon their situation, and he 
accordingly gave them a place among the testaceous 
multi valves. How far they are entitled to rank with 
the shells, in preference to the marine insects, will cer- 
tainly admit of dispute, since, unlike all other Testacea, 
their valves are formed of an intermediate substance 
between carbonate of lime and animal gluten. The fol- 
lowing experiments will prove that this assertion is not 
without foundation. 

A Chiton marginaius, weighing two grains, effervesced 
strongly in muriatic acid, and lost seven-eights of its 
weight; the remainder was animal gluten, and retained 
the perfect form of the shell. 

A valve of the Chiton squamosus weighing twenty 
grains, lost in muriatic acid nine-tenths of its weight, 
the animal part which was undissolved, retained (before 
it was dried) the form and colour of the valve, the 



4 

striae also remaining so that the species might be readily 
distinguished. 

A valve of a Chiton from the Red Sea, weighing 
eighteen grains, lost seventeen in the process, but the 
grain that remained, while it was wet, retained all the 
marks of the original shell. In this experiment the 
solution was not attended with so rapid an extrication 
of gas as in the two former. Ten grains of the Bulla 
hydatis, on the contrary, being subjected to the same 
test, left merely a white transparent film. 

This striking difference in the composition of the 
shell of the Chiton from that of other Testacea, added 
to its general appearance, will furnish sufficient grounds 
to dispute its title to its present situation, but the plan 
of this work being strictly to follow the Linnaean ar- 
rangement, the Author has not hesitated to commence 
his specifications with this genus. 

In the twelfth and last edition of the Systema Naturae 
by Linnaeus, we find but nine Chitons enumerated. 
Gmelin, in his enlarged edition, has noticed twenty- 
eight, and the reader will perceive that in the present 
work, the number has been still further increased, by 
the addition of several new species. 



CHITON. 5 

*With Eight Valves. 

SCALY CHITON. 
PL I. fig. 1. Mr. Jennings. 

1. Chiton squamosus. Ch. testa octovalvi semistriata, corpore squamuloso. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3203. 
Shell of eight semistriated valves, margin covered with minute scales. 
Patella oblonga articulata, articulis striatis, extus subfuscis intus e viridi 

cceruleis. Sloane Hist. Jam. t. 2. p. 233. 
Chiton squamosus, color testae atro virescens, cavitatis viridi cueruleus, 

squamularum albus et niger. Born. Mus. Caes. p. 5. t. 1. fig. 1. 2. 
Petiver Gazoph. t.-l. f. 4. Spengler Besch. Berl. Naturf. 1. p. 292. 
t. 7. f. L. M. Ediv. av. t. 286. f. D. Encyclop. Method. Art. Vers. 
pi. 162. f. 5. 6. 

The notice which Sir Hans Sloane has taken of this 
species, in his Natural History of Jamaica, is concise 
and satisfactory. His account is as follows. " This 
which sticks to rocks under the sea water in Jamaica 
after the manner of limpets, is about two inches long, 
one broad, made up of eight pieces, or joints laid over 
one another. Each of the six middlemost joints is stri- 
ated two ways on each side, and smooth in the top or 
middle, of a dark brown colour above, and bluish green 
underneath. The whole margin is made up of a skin 
on which are many round raised points, which are also 
on the first and last joint of the shell. I found it of se- 
veral magnitudes sticking to the rocks under water on 
the north side of the island of Jamaica. — I have had 
joints of it from Nieves." 

It will be proper to observe, in addition to Sir II. 
Sloanes account, that this shell in common with the ma- 
jority of the genus, when seen sideways, exhibits a double 
series of triangles, formed by the middle valves, six of 
these, which may be called marginal triangles, have their 
base in the scaly margin, and their apex on the back of 



O CHITON. 

the shell, they are strongly striated longitudinally, and the 
striae, when particularly examined, appear to be placed in 
a quincunx order. The other six are formed in the inter- 
vals of the marginal triangles, having their base on the 
back of the shell, and are marked with curvilinear striae, 
in a contrary direction. These, which may be called the 
dorsal triangles, are perfectly smooth at the base The 
margin resembles the skin of a snake, being covered with 
minute black and white scales These scales are of the 
same nature as the valves, and effervesce strongly in 
mineral acids. The general colour of the shell is dark 
brown, or olive : the interior always light green. 

Chemnitz, though he has quoted the synonyms of the 
Chiton squamosus, has figured a distinct shell, and 
Gmelin has unhappily jumbled together several species 
under the same title. It seems that all those shells 
with a scaly border, however they might differ in other 
respects, were to be considered as varieties only of the 
same species. This has produced much confusion in 
thegenus, which it will be the object of the following spe- 
cifications to rectify. The shell is an inhabitant of Ame- 
rica. 

The scaly Chiton is well figured by Edwards, but 
erroneously quoted by Linnaeus for Chiton aculeatus. 
Born's figure is good, his description accurate. Speng- 
ler's represention is most excellent, and the figures in 
the French Encyclopedia are very good. Seba's figure, 
quoted by Linnaeus, must be rejected, it is a bad repre- 
sentation of the interior. Gmelin's variety fc is the 
Chiton marginatuSy Oscabrion gallicum of Argenville. 



CHITON. 



BISTRIATED CHITON. 



2. Chiton bistriatus. Ch. testa octovalvi, bistriata, margine squamuloso. 
Shell of eight valves with double striae, margin scaly. 
Chiton squamosus. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 788—791. Chem. Chiton. 
t. 1 fig. 1. 

The two extreme valves are greenish ash colour dotted 
with brown, the middle valves are red brown, with double 
curvilinear striae of equal strength from the dorsal ridge 
to the margin. The marginal triangles are marked with 
dark brown spots on a light bluish-green ground; mar- 
gin scaly, fasciated with bistre. 

This shell is so evidently different from the true 
Chiton squamosus, that the propriety of its separation 
must be obvious. It may be presumed that Chemnitz 
was not in possession of the dark green shell described 
by Born and others. 



TAWNY CHITON. 
P/.1./.2. 

3. Chiton fulvus. Ch. testa octovalvi striata, striis albidis, lineato punc- 

tatis, limbo coriaceo. 
Shell of eight valves, striated, striae in whitish dotted lines, margin 

coriaceous. 
Chiton candidatus Gaditanus. Chem. Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1691. 
Encyclop. Method. Art. Vers. pi. 161. f. 4, 5. 

The middle valves, in this shell, are marked on the 
dorsal triangles with numerous whitish lines occasionally 
running into each other. These striae, when magnified ap- 
pear mouiliform, or like strings of minute white beads : the 
marginal triangles are also striated but not beaded. The 
extreme valves are marked like the middle ones. Ge- 



8 CHITON. 

neral colour fawn or tawny, perfect shells deepest on the 
back, worn shells white at the apex of each valve. 

Gmelin has referred this species to C. aculeatus, to 
which it has no affinity, but he has added a note of 
interrogation. 

The subject represented in the Plate was brought 
from Portugal, but was probably taken in South Ame- 
rica. 



PITCHY CHITON. 
PL 1. /. 3. Dr. Coombe. 

4. Chiton piceus. Ch. testa octovalvi, supra glabra picea, nigro albidoque 

varia. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205. 
Shell of eight valves, upper surface smooth, pitchy, varied with white 

and black. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 807—810. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 6. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 163. f. 3, 4, 5. 

Chemnitz considers this species as a variety of the fol- 
lowing, or granulatus, but its affinity lies in the margin 
only, which in both is coriaceous and spiny : in other 
particulars they differ essentially. The valves of the 
pitchy Chiton are rude and mishapen, with a smooth 
black band running along the back, and separated from 
the marginal division, on each side, by a broad white 
line. Near the margin the valves are dark, scaly, and 
covered with pitchy granulations. The shell within 
is black in the middle, the sides greenish. 

This species inhabits the Red Sea, and American 
ocean. It is said sometimes, though rarely, to be found 
with six or seven valves. 



(CMITOm 



F%.M. 








CHITON. 



GRANULATED CHITON 



5. Qhiton granulatus. Ch. piceus, supra planus, punctis elevatis nume- 

rosis in series digestis, limbo lato, coriaceo, spinoso: areis nigris al~ 

bisque alternis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205. 
Pitchy, above flat, with numerous granulations disposed in regular rows ; 

border broad, coriaceous and spiny, with alternate white and black 

patches. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 806. 

This shell has eight valves ; it inhabits the American 
ocean. 



PRICKLY CHITON. 

6. Chiton aculeatus. Ch. testa octovalvi striata, corpore subaculeato, Linn* 

Syst. Nat. p. 1106. Gmel. 3202. 
Shell of eight striated valves, body somewhat prickly. 
Chiton Nicobaricus aculeatus. Chem. Conch, 10. 1. 173. f. 1692. 
Limax marina. Rumph. Mus. t. 10. f. 4. Barbut. t. 1. f. 2. 
Amcen. Acad. 8. t. 3. f. 1. Encyclop. Method, pi. 163. f. 6. 

An oval shell, rough on the upper part, with narrow 
awl-shaped unequal prickles of a red colour ; the valves 
are all striated transversely; the last valve is the 
smallest: the margin covered with bristles. Inhabits 
Asia, particularly the Red Sea. 

The specimen figured by Chemnitz, appears to be 
coated with a red incrustation, so that the valves cannot 
be seen. It is not uncommon for shells of this genus 
to be disfigured by similar incrustations of different 
colours, but chiefly white. The editors of the French 
Encyclopedia have copied Chemnitz. Gmelin's variety 
0. must be rejected, and also the reference to Edwards, 
who has figured C. squamosus, not C. aculeatus. 



10 CHITON. 

BANDED CHITON. 
PL 1./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings. 

7. Chiton fasciatus. Ch. testa octovalvi scaber, valvis variegatis. 
Shell of eight valves, rough, valves variegated. 

Chiton crassus striatus. Chern. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 801. Chem. Chiton, 
t. 1. f. 3. Chiton scaber variegatis. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 792. 

The middle valves of this shell are elegantly fasciated 
with brown, a light streak runs along the keel, or ridge, 
with a darker line on each side ; the dorsal triangles are 
perfectly smooth, but the marginal triangles, and the 
two extreme valves, are covered with granulated striae, 
and variegated with brown undulations. The margin 
scaly, alternately varied with white and green ; inside a 
glossy verdigrease green. 

This shell varies in colour, being sometimes fasciated 
with light green, and having a black or dark brown 
band on each side the dorsal ridge. Inhabits South 
America. 

The banded Chiton, has been erroneously quoted 
by Gmelin, for a variety of the C. squamosus. It 
resembles the following species in colour, but its rough 
valves will at once distinguish it from the C. marmora- 
tus, which is entirely smooth. 

MARBLED CHITON. 

8. Chiton marmoratus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima albo et nigricante 
varia, valvis mediis intus virentibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205. 

Shell of eight valves, quite smooth, varied with white and black ; middle 
valves greenish within. 

Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 803—805. Chem. Chiton, t. 1. f. 5. Knorr. 
Vergn. 4. t. 17. f. 3, 4. Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 11, 12. 

This shell is subject to vary in the disposition of the 
colours, sometimes it is regularly banded like the 



CHITON. 11 

C.fasciatus, as figured by Chemnitz, and sometimes uni- 
form, or in patches, as in Knorr. The colours are black, 
or greenish, or deep red-brown on a lighter ground. 
The scaly margin is stained with blackish, or deep blue 
and white. Inhabits the American ocean. 

The variety @- of Gmelin, quoted from Schroter, is 
too indistinct to be admitted. 



SPOTTED CHITON. 

9. Chiton maculatus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, intus thalassina, mar- 

gine squamis ex cinereo albis vestita, valvis mediis anterius, nonnullis 

utrinquefusco maculatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205. 
Shell of eight valves, smooth, within sea green, margin covered with 

greenish white scales ; middle valves on the fore part, and some of 

them on both sides spotted with brown. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 802. 

The valves of this species are covered with numerous 
small brown spots, or stains, besides a band of a deeper 
colour, which runs on each side the dorsal ridge. 
Chemnitz figured this shell from a specimen in his own 
collection. It is rare, and its country unknown. 



COATED CHITON. 
PL 2./. 1. Mr. Jennings. 

10. Chiton tunicatus. Ch. testaoctovalvi Icevi, valvis albis, supra membranis 

suborbicularis, limbo coriaceo reflexo. 
Shell of eight valves, smooth, valves white, above the membrane roundish, 

margin coriaceous and turned back. 

This singular shell makes a very different appearance 
from any other species of the genus. The valves, 
instead of being wholly visible, are coated half way 
upwards with a black membrane, which is reflected from 



12 CHITON. 

the coriaceous border, and fixed into a groove cut for 
that purpose round the upper part of each valve. The 
portion that is seen above the membrane, is roundish, 
uneven, and emarginate, of a sordid white, or flesh co- 
lour, and collectively resembling a row of dried beans. 
The remains of a thin cortical substance is to be seen on 
parts of the naked shell, which, independent of the 
coriaceous membrane, once covered the valves. The 
valves within side are quite exposed and perfectly white. 
The shell is an inch and a quarter broad, and when 
extended, four inches long. Mr. Humphrey once had a 
specimen from Copenhagen, but cannot say that it 
inhabits the North Seas. 



GIGANTIC CHITON. 

11. Chiton gigas. Ch. testa octovalvi crassa convexa alba y valva prima cre- 
nata, postrema dentata, mediis emarginatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of eight valves, thick, convex, and white : first valve indented, the 
last toothed, middle valves emarginate. 

Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 819. Chem. Chit. t. 2. f. 10. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 161. f. 3. 

Chiton albus. Barbut. pi. 1. f. 1. 

The Gigantic Chiton exceeds four inches in length, 
and except the following species, is the largest of the 
genus. The valves have a very clumsy appearance, and 
seem to be rudely folded over each other. The margin 
is tumid, coriaceous, and of a black-brown colour. 
This Chiton inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 

Barbut has figured this shell by the name of albm. 
He says that the specimen was brought by Dr. Solander 
from the South Sea ; probably, however, taken at the 
Cape, where it has been ascertained to live. The French 
have copied Chemnitz. 



7L,2.. 









CHITON. 13 



KIDNEY SHAPED CHITON. 

12. Chiton amiculatus. Ch. testa octovalvi reneformi fragilissima, corio 

extus scabro obducta. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 
Shell of eight valves, kidney shaped and very brittle, covered externally 

with a rough coriaceous membrane. 
Pallas, Nov. Act. Petr. 2. p. 241. t. 7. f. 26—30. 

The kidney shaped valves is a striking peculiarity in 
this species, and more characteristic than the external 
covering, since the shape of the shell will remain when 
the membrane is gone. 

Pallas says, that it inhabits the Kurile Islands, and is 
more than six inches long. 



CHESNUT CHITON. 
PL 2. /. 2, 3. Mr. Jennings. 

13. Chiton castaneus. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, supra castanea, intus 

rosea. 
Shell of eight valves, very smooth, chesnut above, rose colour within. 

Shell oval, valves perfectly smooth, except some faint 
indications of striae, running down the dorsal triangles 
towards the margin. Marginal triangles uniformly 
depressed near their insertion in the coriaceous border. 
Colour deep chesnut; where decorticated the shell 
appears white, and the marginal triangles and extreme 
valves, toothed at the base, and striated longitudinally. 
The valves within side the shell are of a fine rose colour, 
edged with white. 

PI 3. f. 2 6f 3 
are the young of the same shell, which from its different 
size and colour, might readily be mistaken for a distinct 
species. At the apex of each valve, where the ridge of 
the shell is decorticated, there appears a small whitish 



14 CHITON. 

spot, like enamel, and on the sides where the yellow 
coat is wanting, the white toothed edges, and striae of 
the marginal triangles may be seen as in the old shell. 
The inside is variegated, but the rose colour predomi- 
nates. 

These interesting specimens are both in the possession 
of Mr. Jennings, who liberally allowed them to be fi- 
gured. Their country is unknown. 

RED CHITON. 

14. Chiton ruber. Ch. testa octovalvi arcuata substriata corpore rubro. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1107. 
Shell of eight valves, slightly striated, striae varied ; body red. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 813. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 3. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 161. f. 6. 

This species is about an inch long, of an oblong form, 
with the back carinated, or keel shaped. It is generally 
of an uniform red colour, but sometimes there is a 
darker streak on the back, and where it becomes marbled 
with red and white, it forms the variety represented by 
Chemnitz, pi. 96. fig. 812. 

It inhabits the North seas, and adheres to limpets. 



PUNCTURED CHITON. 

15. Chiton punctatus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, corpore punctis excavatis. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1107. 
Shell of eight valves, body with hollow dots. 
Chiton corpore punctato, testis octo. Amczn. Acad. 3. p. 256. Seb. Mus. 

3, 1. 1. f. 132. 

This species is given on the authority of Linnaeus, but 
is very indistinct. Two of the four references given by 
Linnaeus have been rejected by Dr. Solander as incor- 
rect. It is said to inhabit Asia, Europe, and America. 



CHITON. 15 



INDIAN CHITON. 

16. Chiton Indus. Ch. testa octovalvi ex cinereo albida, Umbo squamoso, 
valvis mediis subtilissime punctatis Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3205. 

Shell of eight valves, whitish ash colour, margin scaly, middle valves 
very finely punctured. 

Chiton Indicus. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 811. , 

Inhabits the American ocean; is rather more than 
an inch long. 



GREEN CHITON. 

17. Chiton viridis. Ch. testa octovalvi, carinis triangularibus scaber- 
rimis subdenticulatis, limbo squamulis minutissimis obsito seu obtecto. 
Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 373. 

Shell of eight valves, keel triangular, rough, slightly toothed ; margin 
covered with minute scales. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 9. 

This shell is of a grass green colour, with a banded 
margin. This and No. 34, though distinct species, have 
been ranked by Gmelin as varieties of the C. squa- 
mosals. 



STRIPED CHITON. 
PI. 2./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings. 

18. Chiton lineatus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, valvis lincatis, limbo lato 

coriaceo. 
Shell of eight smooth valves, valves streaked, margin broad and coriaceous. 

The ground colour of this elegant shell is bright ches- 
nut, with an interrupted white band running along the 
back ; undulating white lines, edged beneath with black, 
pass diagonally across the marginal triangles, and con- 
centrically on the extreme valves. The white band on 



[6 CHITON. 

the back of the shell, which is occasionally interrupted 
with chesnut, terminates in a white triangular spot on 
the posterior valve. The back is convex, not carinated, 
and is delicately striated in the direction of the margin. 
The inside is whitish. Its country is unknown. 



TUFTED CHITON. 
PL 2. /. 6. Mrs. Mawe. 

19. Chiton facicularis. Ch. testa octovalvi, eorpore ad valvulas utrinquc 
faciculato. Linn, Syst. Nat. p. 1106. Gmelin. p. 3202. 

Shell of eight valves, body with a tuft of hair on each side of the valves. 

Chem. Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1688. Encyclop. Method, t. 163. f. 15. Mont. 
Test. Br. p. 5. Suppl. pi. 27. f. 5. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 21. pi. 1./. 1. 

This shell is slightly keeled. The valves, on the 
upper part are cinereous marked with black ; when 
magnified, they appear like shagreen : a hairy tuft pro- 
ceeds from the lower portion of each valve, which is 
quite smooth, like horn, and of a yellowish colour ; the 
margin is broad and coriaceous. The hairs frequently 
fall off when the shell is dried, andleave the marks only of 
insertion. This species is about an inch long and half 
as broad. Inhabits Barbary and is also found in the 
British seas, but of a smaller size. 



FURROWED CHITON. 
PI. 3./. 1. Mrs. Robinson. 

20. Chiton sulcatus. Ch. testa octovalvi crassa convexa sulcata, limbo lato 

squamuloso. 
Shell of eight valves thick, convex and sulcated, margin broad and scaly. 

A thick shell deeply grooved in every part ; the ex- 
treme valves are furrowed from centre to margin ; and 



JPL,. 






5 

I 




^HBf 



. 



CHITON, 17 

many of the corresponding ridges are also sulcated at 
the end: the middle valves are grooved in the same 
manner, and most of the marginal triangles are formed 
of three deep unequal furrows. The specimen from 
which our figure was taken, has but few scales remaining, 
but the impression of the rest is plainly visible. The 
colour sordid brown, inclining to black on the back 
part of the middle valves ; inside greenish white ; length, 
when extended, four inches ; breadth, an inch and a half. 
This rugged shell is said to inhabit the South seas. 

BICOLORED CHITON. 

21. Chiton bicolor. Ch. testa oetovahi crassa dorsata, extus thalassina, 
intus nivea, margine nigra. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204. 

Shell of eight valves, thick and ridged ; outside sea-green ; inside snow- 
white, edged with black. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 794, 795. 

The middle valves in this shell bend slightly upwards, 
the marginal triangles striated, the anterior valve marked 
with radiate striae. 

We have the authority of Chemnitz only for this 
species, who figured it from a specimen in his own 
cabinet. The uniform sea-green colour is a distinguish- 
ing characteristic. It is about two inches and a quarter 
long; its country unknown. 

CHERRY CHITON. 

22. Chiton cerasinus. Ch. testa oetovahi cerasina Icevi; marginis 
dentibus niveis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204. 

Shell of eight cherry-coloured valves, smooth ; marginal teeth snow- 
white. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 94. f. 796. 

The shell is oval, about an inch and a half long, and 
of a dark cherry colour. Country unknown. 
vol. i. c 



18 CHITON. 

V 

MAGELLANIC CHITON. 
PL 3. /. 6. Dr. Coombe. 

23. Chiton Magellanicus. Ch. testa octovalvi, crassa, ex fusco atra, 
supra convexa : fascia dorsi nigricante media, striis lateralibus Jlavi- 
cantibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204. 

Shell of eight valves, thick, black-brown ; above convex, with a blackish 
band in the middle of the back and lateral yellowish striae. 

Seb. Mus.3. t. 1. f. 14, 15? 

Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 797, 798. Chem. Chiton, pi. 2. f. 7. Encyclop* 
Method, pi. 160. f. 4, 5. 

This species (when full grown) measures nearly two 
inches and a half in length ; the ground colour of the 
shell is darkish brown ; a black list runs along the mid- 
dle of the back, with a yellowish-white lateral band on 
each side ; the margin is broad, coriaceous, of a brown 
colour, and covered with minute whitish spines : inside, 
black in the middle, elsewhere greenish-white. The 
species varies somewhat in colour, and is apt to be much 
encrusted. 

Inhabits the Straits of Magellan. The best repre- 
sentation of the shell is in a separate tract by Chemnitz, 
on Chitons. 

BROWN CHITON. 

24. Chiton fuscus. Ch. testa octovalvi fusca glaberrima, intus margi- 
nisque dentibus nivea, dorsi maculis trigonis nigris: utrinque fasciis 
obscure Jlavicantibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3204. 

Shell of eight valves, very smooth, the inside and marginal teeth snow- 
white ; back with triangular black spots, and faint yellowish bands 
on each side. 

Chiton linter India? orientalis. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 95. f. 799, 800. 
Encyclop. Method, pi. 160. f. 6, 7. 

| This shell, externally, somewhat resembles the ma- 
gellanicus; it is narrower, however, and has many mar- 



CHITON. 19 

ginal teeth, the largest of which are on the two extreme 
valves : the back is also more raised, and is carinated, or 
keel-shaped. We are indebted to Chemnitz for the 
brown Chiton, among many others which he has added 
to the genus. It is a native of the East Indies. 

MEALY CHITON. 

25. Chiton minimus. Ch. testa octovalvi, glabra, nigra, hinc indefari- 
nosa. Linn. Gmel. p. 3205. 

Shell of eight valves, smooth, black, sprinkled with meal in patches. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 814. 

This is a very small shell, about half an inch long, 
and is found in the Norwegian sea. 

BUG CHITON. 

26. Chiton cimex. Ch. testa octovalvi carinata diaphana fasciata ; valva 
utraque extrema tenuissime punctata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. , 

Shell of eight valves, carinated, diaphanous, and banded ; both extreme 

valves finely punctured. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 815. 

A small species, about three quarters of an inch 
long ; of a reddish -brown colour, fasicated longitudinally 
like the marbled Chiton. Inside marked with blackish 
bands on a ground of whitish ash-colour. Found with 
the preceding species. 

MILLEPEDE CHITON. 

27. Chiton asellus. Ch. testa octovalvi nigerrima, supra convexa, dorsi 
macula in singulis valvis jlavicante. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of eight valves, deep black, with a yellowish spot on each of the 

valves. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 816. Encyclop. Method, pi. 161. f. 12. 

The Chiton asellus is rather more than half an inch 



20 CHITON. 

long, it is distinguished by the yellow spot on each valve. 
Inhabits the Northern seas, and adheres to the Mytilus 
modiolus. 



ICELAND CHITON. 

28. Chiton Icelandicus. Ch. testa octovalvi, subcylindrica, tenuissime 
punctata, nigra; limbo cinereo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of eight valves, somewhat cylindrical, very finely punctured, black, 
margin cinereous. 

Schr'dt. Conch. 3. p. 509. No. 19. 

This small shell, which is narrow at each end, pro- 
bably inhabits the North seas, since it adheres to the 
Venus islandica. 



WHITE CHITON. 

29. Chiton albus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi, dorsata, corpore albo, Linn, 

Syst. Nat. p. 1107. Gmel. 3204. 
Shell of eight valves, smooth, slightly ridged ; body white. 
Chiton testa octovalvi Icevi, valvula prima postice emarginata. MutL 

Zool. Dan. Prodr. 3019. Act. Nidros. 2. p. 54. 
Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 817. Chem. Chiton, t. 2. f. 9. Mont. Test, 

Brit. p. 4. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 22. t. 1. f. 4. 

The first valve in this shell is notched on the hinder 
edge. The shell is smooth, of an oval shape, and about 
three-quarters of an inch long. It inhabits the Northern 
ocean. 

It is found, about the size of a grain of wheat, on 
oysters and other shells on the coast of Great Britain. 
Dr. Pulteney mentions it from Poole, and says, that 
besides oyster shells, it is found on the Ulva intestinalis 
and latissima. 



CHITON. 21 

BORDERED CHITON. 
PL 3./. 4. 

30. Chiton marginatus. Ch. testa octovalvi, margine serrato reflexo Icevi. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of eight valves, smooth, with a serrated reflected margin, 
Oscabrion Gallicum, Argenv. Conch, t. 25. f. M. Penn. Br. Zool. ed. 

1812. 4. pi. 39. f. 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 1. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 21. 

t. 1. f. 2. 

This shell is of a reddish-brown colour, and of an 
oblong shape. The valves are carinated and vary in 
colour. It is about the size of a millepede, and is found 
on several of the coasts of Great Britain, attached to 
oyster and other shells. 

The C. septemvalvis described by Mr. Montagu, he 
is now inclined to refer to this shell as an accidental 
variety only, and not a distinct species. 

ASH-COLOURED CHITON. 
PI. 3./. 5. 

31. Chiton cinereus. Ch. testa octovalvi Icevi carinata, corpore rubi- 
cundo, limbo subciliato. Linn. Gmel. ,p. 3204. Fabr. Fn. GrcenL 
p. 423. 

Shell of eight valves, smooth and carinated ; body reddish, margin some- 
what ciliated. 
Testa octovalvi ovata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1107- 
Born. Mus. Caes. t. 1. f. 3. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 96. f. 818. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 161. f. 11. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 3. Linn. Trans. 8. 
p. 22. pi. 1. f. 3. 

The cinereous Chiton is of an oval shape, compressed 
and carinated, and from a quarter to three-quarters of 
an inch long. When the animal is alive the shell is 
reddish, but becomes grey after death. The valves on 
the back project into a beak, and, as the figure expresses, 



22 chiton'; 

are sometimes tipped with white, so as to form a dorsal 
line : the margin is spotted. 

Fabricius found this species among the roots of 
uIvcb on the Norway coast. It occurs, though not com- 
monly, on the British shore, in Devonshire, at Wey- 
mouth, and at Poole, attached to rocks and oysters. 

SMOOTH CHITON. 

32. Chiton lsevis. Ch. testa octovalvi glaberrima, dorso elevate Linn. 
Trans. 8. p. 21. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of eight valves, very smooth, with a raised back. 

Penn. Br. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. pi. 39. f. 3. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 2. 

This Chiton is of a reddish-brown colour, sometimes 
spotted with yellow, and often with a longitudinal line 
down the back : the margin broad and finely reticulated. 
It is the size of a wood-louse, and, according to Pen- 
nant, inhabits the shores of Loch Broom, in West 
Rothshire. Mr. Montagu has found it with the 
C. marginatus, in Salcomb Bay, 

** With Seven Valves. 

TUBERCULATED CHITON, 

33. Chiton tuberculatum. Ch. testa septemvalvi, corpore tuberculato. 
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1106. 

Shell of seven valves, body tuberculated. 

Chiton oscabrion. Mus. Ad. Fr. p. 96. 

Chiton cylindricus. Schroter Conch. 3. p. 394. t. 9. f. 19. 

This species is of an oblong shape, covered with 
tubercles placed in a quincunx order, the sides cinereous 
mixed with white, and marked with brown waved 
bands: on the back, which is greenish, runs a broad 
black band. It inhabits South America. 



CHITON. 23 



TESSELLATED CHITON. 

34. Chiton tessellatus. Ch. testa septemvalvi striata, viridescente, cor- 
pore s qua mo so > dorso strigis albidis et nigricantibus distincto. Chem. 
Conch. 10. t. 173. f. 1690. 

Shell of seven valves, striated, greenish, body scaly, back marked with 
black and white stripes. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 162. f. 10. 

The extreme valves of this species, and the marginal 
triangles of the middle valves, are so striated as exactly 
to resemble mosaic work ; the trivial name of tessellated, 
therefore, suggested by Dr. Leach, is very appropriate. 
The back of the shell is bistre, the tessellated parts ver- 
digrease green, the margin scaly, with green and white 
bands. 



HAIRY CHITON. 

35. Chiton crinitus. Ch. testa septemvalvi, pilis brevibus dense obsita. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 
Shell of seven valves, thickly covered with short hairs. 
Penn. Br. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. p. 142. pi. 39. f. 1. A. 1. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 163. f. 13. 14. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 4. Linn. Trans. 8. 

p. 20, 

We have Pennant's authority only for the existence of 
this species, which is extremely rare. Mr. Boys is 
said to have found it at Sandwich, but from the long 
and close habits of intimacy which the author enjoyed 
with that gentleman, he can safely state that the shell 
was not in his possession. Mr. Pennant says that it 
inhabits the sea, near Aberdeen, and is five-eighths of an 
inch long. The figures in the French Encyclopedia are 
copied from Pennant. 



24 CHITON. 

***Witk Six Valves. 

HISPID CHITON. 

36. Chiton hispidus. Ch. testa sexvalvi striata. Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 

p. 1106. Gmel. 3202. 
Shell of six valves striated. 
Schroter Conch. 3. p. 493. t. 9. f. 8. 

This species is about the size of a filbert, of a blackish 
grey colour, speckled with white, and very finely marked 
with minute granulated striae. 

Inhabits America. 



SEA-GREEN CHITON. 

37. Chiton thalassinus. Ch. sexvalvi glabra ovali thalassina, supra linea 
media dilutiori, limbo tenui hyalino. Linn. Gmel. p. 3206. 

Shell of six valves, smooth, oval, sea green, with a paler yellow line along 
the back ; margin thin and hyaline. 

Schroter Einl. in Conch. 3. p. 509. No. 18. — Litterat. 4. p. 4. 

1. 1. f. 1. 

Described only by Schroter. It is rather convex, and 
about half an inch long : its native country unknown. 



Genus 2. 
LEPAS. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Triton. 

Testa basi affixa multivalvis : valvis inaequalibus erectis, 



Animal a Triton. 

Shell of many valves, fixed at the base: valves unequal and erect. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Some late authors of repute, both abroad and in this 
country, struck with the difference of appearance be- 
tween the conical and compressed shells of this genus, 
have separated the species, and formed them into dis- 
tinct genera. It has been already stated, that it is not 
intended in this work to deviate from the Linnaean order; 
and this determination arises not only from a conviction 
of its superior utility, but also from a desire to oppose, 
in some measure, the great inclination which has appeared 
of late on the Continent to multiply genera ; more it is to 
be feared in some cases to the confusion and prejudice, 
than the elucidation and advancement, of Natural His- 
tory. This, however, is no reason why the opinions of 
other authors should not be regarded; and therefore we 
shall notice how far they are justified in their proceed- 
ing, with respect to the present genus, by considering 
the following grounds of separation as proposed by 
Bruguiere. 



26 LEPAS. 

The compressed shells, or barnacles, are generally 
composed of five valves, not articulated, but merely 
connected together by a membrane which bounds their 
circumference. These valves are supported on a flexible 
pedicle, which the animal can lengthen and contract, or 
move in any direction at pleasure. 

The conical, or acorn shells, on the contrary, are gene- 
rally composed of six valves, which form a kind of 
pyramidal tube, having all its parts strongly articulated, 
or joined to each other by delicate sutures. The base is 
solid and testaceous, by which they firmly fix themselves 
to other bodies, There are four valves on the top of the 
shell which form an operculum, or lid ; these valves 
open or close, according as the animal protrudes its body, 
or shrinks within its shell. These appendages are 
entirely wanting in the compressed shells ; nor have they 
any thing to correspond with them, unless their five 
great valves may be considered as the operculum, and 
the ligament to which they are attached, as the base 
corresponding to that of the acorn shell. 

The essential differences, therefore, of these two divi- 
sions of shells, or genera, as they are constituted by 
Bruguiere, consists, — 

1st. In their support, which is testaceous in the 
conical, and membranous in the compressed 
shells. 
2nd. In the structure of the shell, which is com- 
posed of articulated pieces in one kind, while the 
valves of the other division are connected by 
membrane only. 
3rd. In the operculum, with which the conical shells 
are exclusively provided. 
These reasons, it must be confessed, are strongly in 



LEPAS. 27 

favour of a generic distinction; but, nevertheless, the 
opinion of Dr. Maton, expressed in the eighth vol. of 
the Linnaean Transactions, that the gradation from the 
conic to the compressed species, appears so natural, as 
not to admit of their being separated without violation 
of the general principles of the system, must not be 
disregarded. The Doctor refers to the Lepas mitella, 
as the link which beautifully unites these two divisions, 
and adds that " even if a difference in the contained 
animal should be objected, we cannot agree in that par- 
ticular being made a ground of distinction, since it is not 
the exclusive consideration on which Linnaeus professes 
to found his arrangement." 

The conical shells, or acorns, are found attached to a 
variety of substances. The common species is frequently 
abundant on lobsters, oysters, &c. ; and many kinds arrive 
in England, fixed to the bottom of vessels from foreign 
countries. Different individuals of the same species, 
are subject to vary greatly in their external form. 
This is owing entirely to their manner of growth : the 
eggs are hardly excluded from the animal, before they 
become £xed to some neighbouring body; sometimes 
to the parent shell, or to the support on which that 
rests, or to rocks, &c. When these eggs are deposited 
in groups, the shells, as they increase in size, are con- 
strained for want of room, and they consequently become 
misshapen and irregular, in proportion as this inconve- 
nience prevails. This compression so influences their 
external organization, that the conical tube often loses 
its natural appearance, and assumes angles that would 
not otherwise exist. 

The conical shell, although it appears to consist of 
a single piece, is generally, as has been already observed, 



28 LEPAS. 

composed of six triangular portions, or valves ; these 
are separate at top, but joined at bottom, and have their 
intervals filled with shell of the same nature, but of a 
different texture. The valves are joined by parallel 
laminae, or plates, which project from the edge, and, 
closing over each other, connect these parts together, 
and form as it were a single shell. In very young shells 
the cone appears on all sides smooth and even, but as 
the animal within increases in size, it presses against the 
walls of its habitation, and thus gradually opens the 
sutures and enlarges the cavity. It is this separation 
which gives to the valves their triangular appearance, 
and which may be readily observed in the old shells 
of the common species, so abundant on the backs of 
oysters, &c. According to Bruguiere, the upper part of 
the shell never increases ; it remains always the same 
as when first formed, and the augmentation of the 
diameter of the opening, is the result only of the suc- 
cessive developement of the lateral edges. 

The operculum, or lid, which is seen on the top of 
the cone, is always proportioned to the diameter of the 
opening which it is designed to close. It increases with 
the rest of the shell by a juxtaposition of testaceous 
matter, which takes place on the inferior edges of the 
pieces, or valves, of which it is composed. These 
valves are articulated together by a cruciform suture, 
and fixed against the interior of the shell by a circular 
ligament which admits of sufficient motion for the ani- 
mal to raise the lid and extend its tentacula. These ten- 
tacula, when in the water, are continually moving in a 
spiral direction, so as to bring the food, whatever it may 
consist of, within the vortex produced by their motion. 

The compressed shells, or barnacles, are often found in 



IEPAS. 29 

groups, adhering by their flexible stems, to shipping, or 
floating pieces of wood. They seem to delight in situa- 
tions exposed to the strong motion of the waves, and there- 
fore often place themselves near the rudder of the ship, 
where the agitation of the water is most considerable. 
The singular animal which these shells contain, and 
which differs in nothing essential from that of the conical 
shells, is furnished with a plumose fringe, divided into 
twenty-six filaments, or tentacula, of different lengths : 
the shortest are situated on each side of the mouth, and 
do not appear on the outside of the shell. Each fila- 
ment is articulated throughout its length, and from each 
joint proceeds a bunch of very delicate hairs. These 
tentacula, or feelers, are supported, two by two, on fleshy 
pedicles. The flexible trunk with which this animal is 
provided, is rather longer than the tentacula ; and the 
mouth, which is placed immediately below it, is of an 
oval shape, and closed by a scaly operculum. The 
digestive organs are represented in the Lectures on Com- 
parative Anatomy, by Sir Everard Home, vol. 2. pi. 75. 

We are not acquainted with the nature of the nourish- 
ment by which these animals are sustained ; but it pro- 
bably consists of such minute worms, and sea insects, 
as come within the reach of their feelers, for those parts 
are kept very actively employed while the animal is in 
search of food. 

We have no particular observations on the mode by 
which these flat shells increase in size ; but if we may 
judge from inspection, it appears that their ligaments 
separate, and that the enlargement takes place from the 
curved edge of the valves. New shelly matter may 
there be deposited from time to time, till the animal has 
attained its full growth ; and in this case the extremities 



30 LEPAS. 

of the shell, that is, the summit of the small valves, and 
the lower angle of the large, will be the oldest parts. 
The thin curved valve in front, will at the same time be 
augmented laterally. 

The name of Lepas which Linnaeus has adopted for 
this genus, was given by the ancients to the Patella, or 
limpet. Aristotle, from the resemblance which some of 
them bear to acorns, has very properly called them 
Bccxavoi ; and Athenaeus tells us that, when large, they are 
easily digested, and of an agreeable taste. 

At fidhaVOt C&, El (AEl£oVE$, EVEKKplTOl fCOU EUffTOfAOt. 

Athen. L. 3. c. 11. p. 88. 

JBalani nigri et albi, are mentioned among the dishes 
served up at the famous supper of Lucullus; and the 
Chinese at this day are said to be fond of the Bell acorn, 
Lepas tintinabulum, which, when boiled, is not in taste 
unlike the lobster. 



1*J2J»*AS 



F!L.4\ 






LEPAS. 31 



* With Cylindrical Shells. 

WINDPIPE SHELL. 
PL 4*. fig. 1, 2, 3. Dr. Coombe. 

1. Lepas Tracheaeformis. L. testa tubulosa, striata, utrinque truncata ; 
costis transversis crebris : operculo quadrivalvi. 

Shell tubular, striated, truncated at both ends; closely ribbed trans- 
versely : operculum of four valves. 

Tubicinella. Lamark Ann. du Mus. D'Hist. Nat. 1. p. 461. pi. 30. 
f. 1, 2. 

This singular shell consists of a cylindrical tube 
somewhat bent, and narrowing a little towards the base. 
It is open at bottom, but the top is closed by an oper- 
culum of four smooth valves, surrounded by a fleshy 
collar, which connects it with the shell : both ends are 
orbicular, and the sides are divided into six compart- 
ments, or valves, by as many smooth and narrow bands 
The ribs on the outside of the shell are very strong, and 
have sometimes smaller ones between them. The shell 
is of a cellular substance, regularly striated longitudi- 
nally. It is of a tawny colour, with a white inside. 

We are indebted to Lamark for an account of this 
shell, which he published in the Annales du Museum 
D'Histoire Naturelle, and has described it as a new 
genus, by the name of Tubicinella. That it is clearly a 
multivalve composed of six uniform portions, and not a 
univalve shell, as stated in his generic character, will be 
immediately perceived upon inspection ; we have there- 
fore removed it to its proper situation, and placed it at 
the head of a genus to which it strictly belongs. 

Lamark notices two shells which he thinks may be 
varieties of each other, but is willing at the same time to 
distinguish them specifically, by the names of major 



32 LEPAS. 

and minor. They in fact differ merely in the situation 
of the rings, which in some shells, as fig. 3, are farther 
apart than in others, and the shell is occasionally some- 
what larger. 

These curious productions inhabit the back of the 
South Sea whale, where they bury themselves in the 
skin and fat. Dufresne, in a memoir which is a 
continuation of that of Lamark, observes that the 
animal, independent of its other parts, is furnished 
with a collar lightly striated, which secretes the 
testaceous matter for the formation of the rings. This 
collar, always remains visible between the sides of the 
shell and the operculum, see fig. 1. In proportion as 
new rings are formed, the animal buries its shell 
deeper in the fat of the whale, insomuch that two rings 
are all that are at any time visible above the skin, the 
rest of the shell being firmly secured in its situation by 
the help of its annulated surface. The animal when 
it projects above the operculum shows a fleshy neck, 
through which proceed the' tentacula. This neck is 
seen in fig. 2. These shells are generally about an inch 
long, but as their growth is progressive, depending upon 
their age, they have been found of three times the usual 
length. A group of them is represented at fig. 2, to 
show their natural situation in the whale. 

The fine specimens of this shell, for which the 1 author 
is indebted to Dr. Coombe, were not procured till after 
plate 4 was printed : it has therefore been necessary to 
distinguish this plate by an asterisk, as it must be 
placed, in order, at the head of the genus. 



JLMjPjI, 



PI..4L. 




MW\ 





LEPAS* 33 



** With Conical Shells. 

TURBAN ACORN. 

PL 4. Mrs. Robinson. 

£. Lepas Diadema. L. testa subconica, lobis sex elevatis quadripartite s, 
operculo membrdnaceo bidentato. Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 550. No. 3024. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3208. Fabric. Fr. Groenl. p. 425. 

Shell subconic, with six raised four-parted valves ; operculum membra- 
naceous and bidentate. 

Testa subrotunda, sexlobata, sulcata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1108. 

Balanus, testa subcylindrica, valvulis longitudinaliter sulcatiSi costis 
decussatis, radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. 
torn. 6. p. 171. 

Pediculus ceti. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 7. 

Lister, Conch, t. 445. f. 288. Gualt. Test. 1. 106. f. Q. Wakh. Naturf. 
8. t. 4. f. a. b* c. Born, Mus. C<es. Test. 1. 1. f. 5, 6. Da Costa, Brit. 
Conch, p. 251. t. 17. f. 2. Encycl. Method. pL 165. f. 13, 14. Donov. 
Br. Shells, t. 56. f. 1, 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 13. Linn. Trans. 8. 
p. 27. 

The Lepas Diadema is composed of six valves, which, 
with their intermediate spaces, divide the shell into 
twelve, unequal, triangular compartments. Six of these 
divisions are formed of strong longitudinal ribs, from 
four to six in number, which diverge from the apex 
towards the base of the shell, and are striated trans- 
versely. The other compartments, though they have a 
polished surface, are finely striated. The interior is 
funnel-shaped, being much wider at top than at bot- 
tom; it exhibits six divisions, formed by as many 
bands, which correspond with the external valves. The 
bottom is divided into eighteen striated partitions, which 
project a little within the opening of the shell, and are 
finely toothed, for the purpose of adhering more firmly 
to the back of the whale. These divisions are generally 

vol. I. D 



34 LEPAS. 

filled with the black skin of the animal, as may be seen 
in the lower figure of pi. 4. 

The operculum, as Muller and Fabricius have ob- 
served, is membranous, and terminates in two teeth, or 
small valves. The shell is of a dirty white colour, with 
sometimes a greenish tinge, and the bands within side 
are darker than the rest of the body. Large shells of 
this species are an inch and a half high, and two inches 
wide at the base. They are found in the North seas, 
adhering firmly to the whale, and their general situation 
is in the furrows of the skin above the base of the pec- 
toral fins. It is often found on the shores of Scotland, 
but very rarely in the southern parts of this kingdom. 

The eared barnacles, Lepas aurita, which Ellis has 
figured on the top of this species, have led some authors 
to suppose that the animal resembles a cluster of small 
hooded serpents, issuing from the aperture and openings 
on the ribs of the shell. A little attention to circum- 
stances would have prevented this mistake, since the 
small openings which appear on the upper surface of 
the valves in defective turban shells, have no communi- 
cation with the inner chamber, and are very insufficient 
for the passage of so large a body as Ellis has repre- 
sented. 

Plate 4 represents the perfect shell ; the top figure is a 
side view, the middle shows the interior, and the lower 
figure the base of the shell, or that part which adheres 
to the skin of the whale. Chemnitz has figured the 
perfect shell correctly. Born's figure is also good, but 
Gualtieri has not been so successful. Lister, Klein, 
Da Costa, and Donovan, have figured worn shells, that 
is, with the ends of the valves open at top, and showing 
the three cells within. 



jLMJPJLSl 



FJL..5. 







LEPAS. 35 

Muller's definition of the L. Diadema is perfectly cor- 
rect, except that the word subcylindrica would have 
been more appropriate than subconica. 



WHALE ACORN. 
PL 5./. 1, 2, S. Dr. Coombe. 

3. Lepas balsenaris. L. testa subconica, valvulis sex elevatis, longitudi- 

naliter sulcatis. 
Shell somewhat conic, with six raised valves, grooved longitudinally. 
Wrinkled star cake. Petiv. Amb. Icon. t. 1. f. 11. 
Rumph. Mus. t. 14. f. H. Walch. Naturg. 10. t. 1. f. 11, 12. Chem. 

Conch. 8. t. 99. f. 845, 846. 

Shell of six valves, grooved longitudinally and stria- 
ted transversely : intermediate spaces showing the con- 
necting sutures on one side, and ending in a point at 
the base of the shell. Valves grooved regularly in 
young shells, but often distorted in old ones. Height 
about an inch, aperture at top half an inch, diameter 
across the bottom one inch and three quarters. 

This shell is evidently a distinct species, and not, as 
has been supposed, a variety only of the preceding. It 
has a much smaller opening ; the interior is not funnel- 
shaped ; the valves in full-grown shells, are not so pro- 
minent ; the intermediate spaces are narrower, and the 
six divisions which correspond with them beneath, are 
ramified, as expressed in fig. 3. The specimen of the 
Lepas balcenaris represented by Dufresne, in the first 
vol. of the Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, if 
intended for a young shell, is too convex ; if for an old 
one, too regular. He professes to have acquired his 
knowledge of this species from Hunter's Museum, 
where he says, that many of these shells are sunk in the 



36 X.EPAS. 

fat of the whale, and preserved in spirits. That there 
are twenty-five of the L. Diadema in this situation, is 
certainly true ; but in what part of the Museum he per- 
ceived the L. balcenaris grouped in a similar manner, 
we are at a loss to discover. 

Dufresne's figure has a quadrivalve operculum, sur- 
rounded by a ligament which connects it with the 
shell. If this be correct, (and he tells us he furnished 
the artist with a shell for the purpose,) it will at 
once mark the distinction between this and the pre- 
ceding species, which has an operculum of two small 
valves only, surrounded by membrane. 

The Li. balcenaris buries itself to a certain depth ia 
the skin of the whale, and when the shell is separated 
from the animal, it will be partly covered with a portion 
of the skin, which gives it a black and resinous appear- 
ance. It may, however, be readily cleaned of this mat- 
ter ; but the line of separation always remains visible, 
and may be seen in figure 1 and 2, encircling the shell 
towards the upper part. 

The dissimilarity in appearance between fig. 1 and 2, 
may possibly lead to the supposition that they are 
distinct species, but it is age alone which makes the 
alteration, fig. 2 being a young shell. 



LEPAS. 37 



TURTLE ACORN. 
PL 5./. 4. Mrs. Robinson. 

4. Lepas testudinaria. L. testa plano-convexa, radiis sex excavatis 

striatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3209. 
Shell plano-convex, with six hollow, striated, rays. 
Lepas testudinaria, testa suborbiculari, plano-convexa Icevi, intus lamellis 

serrulatis, areis excavatis transverse sulcatis. Born, Mus. Cues. p. 5. 

— ejusd. Testae. Mus. Cces. p. 10. 
Balanus ovatus, subdepresso conicus, sulcis sextriquetris excavatis, 

superne stellatis. Gron. Zooph. Fasc. 3. p. 257. 
Verruca testudinaria. Rumph. Mus. t. 40. f, K. 
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol 50. t. 34. f. 12. Gault. Test. t. 106. f. M. N. O. 

Knorr. Vergn.3.t. 30. f. 3, 4. Favanne, t. 59. f. A.4. A. 5. Chem. 

Conch. 8. t. 99. f. 847, 848. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 15, 16. 

This shell is of an oval shape, and convex ; the sur- 
face is white, smooth, and composed of six uniform tri- 
angular valves, which are separated from each other by 
as many excavated rays ; these rays are striated trans- 
versely, and sometimes grooved in the same direction. 
The opening in the upper surface of the shell is oval, 
and partly closed by a quadrivalve, convex operculum, 
connected by ligament. The shell beneath, in its recent 
state, according to Plancus, has a coriaceous membrane, 
which supplies the place of the testaceous base, with 
which the conical species are, for the most part, provi- 
ded. This membrane is never preserved in cabinet spe- 
cimens. The opening of the shell beneath is much 
larger than above, and the thick walls are formed of 
numerous vertical laminae, radiating from the centre 
towards the circumference. These laminae are striated 
on both sides, and finely serrated on the edge. The 
specimen figured in pi. 5, is a young shell, and is there- 
fore without those indentations on the edges of the exca- 
vated rays, which occur in those of more advanced age. 



38 LEPAS. 

There is something very singular in the locality of 
particular shells. The L. testudinaria is found only on 
the turtle ; it is not known on the whale, though it is by 
no means confined to particular seas. It is said to be 
common on the backs of turtles in the Mediterranean. 
Petiver mentions it on those of the Isle of Ascension, 
and Rumphius on the turtles of the southern coasts of 
Amboina. The L. diadema, on the contrary, confines 
itself to the whale ; it is never seen in any other situa- 
tion, though it might with equal ease take up its abode 
elsewhere. Again, the L. testudinaria is careful to fix 
itself on the most convex part of the turtle-shell, where 
it can remain in security, beyond the reach of the ani- 
mal's fins. These habits, which are independent of all 
instruction, can be referred only to that instinct which 
pervades every part of animated nature, and which 
seems to be impressed upon the constitution of even the 
most insignificant being. 

BELL ACORN. 
PL 6./. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby. 

5. Lepas tintinnabulum. L. testa conica obtusa ritgosa. Linn. Syst. 

Nat. ed. 12. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3208. 
Shell conic, obtuse, and rugged. 
Balanus, testa purpurascenti gibba, longitudinaliter striata, operculo 

postice rostrato, radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. 

Nat. torn. 6. p. 165. 
Lepas tulipa, testa subcubica Icevi, operculis acutis transversim striatis. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 251. 
Lister, Conch, t. 443. f. 385. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 8, 9. 

D'Argenv. Conch, t. 26. f. A. B. Favanne, t. 59. A. Hutch. Dorset. 

p, 25. t. 1. f. 5. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 828—831. Donov. Br. 

Shells, t. 148. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 10. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 25. 
/3. Tulipa alba. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 832. 

This shell is composed of six unequal valves con- 



LMJPA^. 








LEPAS. 39 

nected together, as usual, by a scaly suture, the edges 
of which appear finely crenated in the interior of the 
shell. The opening is large, and nearly triangular. 
The operculum consists of four valves, two of which 
are very large, and marked with projecting transverse 
stride. A longitudinal furrow divides them from each 
other, and they are terminated by two conical prolonga- 
tions, with sharp points, which form the other valves. 
The exterior of the shell is a cone, divided into six raised 
and six depressed compartments; the raised divisions 
are rough, and striated longitudinally ; the depressed 
divisions are smooth and finely striated transversely. 
The shell is found of various sizes, from half an inch to 
three inches in height, and with a base in proportion ; 
the colour is purple or violet, varied with brown, or 
reddish, as in fig. 2. 

The bell acorn is found in groups on rocks, c-r on 
large shells, where more than fifty have been found 
united in a single cluster. They have been observed in 
the European ocean, on the coast of Denmark, in the 
Indian seas, and on the coasts of Amboina and Jamaica. 
They are often attached in such abundance to the bot- 
toms of vessels from foreign countries, that many hun- 
dreds have been taken from a single ship. 

It is strange, that this Lepas still continues to be 
admitted into the catalogue of British shells, since it is 
evidently an inhabitant of warm climates, and brought 
to us only by accident. It is never found alive upon 
the English coast, and we therefore cannot with pro- 
priety naturalize the species. No one thinks of calling 
a Chinese an Englishman because he often visits oar 
country ; and yet the only difference, in this particular. 



40 LEPAS. 

between the shell and the man, is that one is a passen- 
ger on the outside of the vessel, and the other within. 

The figure given by Chemnitz under the name of 
Tulipa alba, is merely a white variety of this shell. It is 
remarkable for its size, which is very considerable, but 
differs in no other respect. This white variety has been 
dredged up in the neighbourhood of the Feroe Islands, 
at the depth of forty fathoms. The want of colour is 
probably owing to its situation in the deep, for why 
should not the colour of shells, like that of plants, 
depend on the influence of the rays of light? Those 
which are naturally coloured, may lose much of their 
beauty when they grow at too great a depth, and 
become quite white when they are wholly beyond the 
reach of the solar rays. 

The figures of this shell by Gualtieri are very indif- 
ferent. 

Gmelin's L. tulipa, p. 3209, No. 9, and L. cylindrica, 
p. 3213, No. 25, are repetitions of this species. 



SCOTTISH ACORN, 
PL 6. /. 3. Mr. Sowerby. 

G. Lepas Scotica. L. testa sexvalvi, conica; valvulis longitudinaliter 

costatis. 
Shell conic, of six valves; valves ribbed longitudinally. 

This species, which was found in Scotland fixed to the 
Mytilus Modiolus, has six raised unequal, triangular 
valves, ribbed longitudinally, and striated at the base 
transversely. The operculum resembles that of the 
L. Tintinabulum. The shell is of a sordid white colour, 
tending to greenish. 



LEPAS. 41 

WRINKLED ACORN. 
PL 6./. 4. Dr. Coombe. 

7. Lepas rugosa. L. testa subcylindrica, operculis acutissimis. Linn. 
Trans. 8. p. 25. t. 1. f. 5. 

Shell somewhat cylindrical ; operculum very sharp-pointed. 
Lepas borealis. Donov. Br. Shells, 1. 160. 

Balauus rugosus. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 25. t. 2. f. 10. Mont. 
Test. Brit. p. 8. 

This shell has six triangular valves, so far separated 
at top as to leave the aperture almost as wide as the 
base. The aperture is of a rhomboidal shape, with the 
inside margin ridged transversely. The valves within 
are strongly grooved longitudinally. The shell exter- 
nally is nearly smooth, and of a whitish colour lightly 
stained with purple. 

The specimen figured in pi. 6 is foreign ; but it is 
described as a British shell by Mr. Montagu, who 
found it with irregular compartments, wrinkled or stria- 
ted longitudinally. The operculum has four rough 
angulated valves, terminating in four distinct points, 
inclining backwards. 

NARROW-MOUTHED ACORN. 
PI. 6. f. 5. Mrs. Mawe. 

8. Lepas angustata. L. testa elongata leevi sexvalvi, apertura angusta, 
operculo minimo. Linn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3212. 

Shell elongated, smooth, of six valves; the aperture narrow; opercu- 
lum very small. 

Balanus perforatus, B. testa semi-ovata, longitudinaliter striata, violacea, 
apertura coarctata minima, radiis filiformibus. Brug. Encyclop. 
Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 167. 

Lepas ore angustiore, apertura coarctata. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 835. 
Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 12. 

This shell is of a very conical shape, owing to the 



42 LEPAS. 

valves being united at top, and not separated, as usual, 
by a broad triangular compartment. A narrow line is 
all that distinguishes the divisions of the valves. The 
shell is striped with violet, and often tipped with a 
deeper tint of the same colour. The opening is very 
small. The operculum is of four valves striated trans- 
versely ; the two posterior valves are pointed. 

This Lepas is found in very considerable clusters, 
fixed on other shells. It occurs in the Mediterranean, 
on the coast of Barbary, and, according to Bruguiere, 
on the coast of Senegal. 



CONIC ACORN. 

9. Lepas conoides. L. testa conica lam, valvulis acuminatis, apertura 

angustissima. Donov. Br. Shells, pi. 30, f. 3. 
Shell conic, smooth, the valves pointed, aperture very small. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 12. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24. 

The L. conoides, as figured by Donovan, is very like 
the preceding species, but may be distinguished by its 
transverse striae, which are wanting in the L. angustata. 
The shell is of a violet colour, and the valves are but 
slightly separated at top. It is an English species, and 
was discovered by Mr. Bryer, of Weymouth, adhering 
to the L. anatifera. 



LEPAS. 43 

COMMON ACORN. 
PL 7. /. 3. 

10. Lepas Balanus. L. testa conica sulcata, operculis acuminatis. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1107. Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3207. 
Shell conic and grooved : operculum sharp pointed. 
Balanus sulcatus. B. testa conica truncata longitudinaliter sulcata, 

radiis transverse slriatis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. 

p. 163. 
Lister, An. Ang. t. 5. f. 41. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 17. 
. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. t. 40. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 820. 

Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 249. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 30. f. 1. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 6. 

Shell of six valves, rugged at the edges : aperture not 
large in proportion to the shell, which spreads much at 
the base. Valves striated, sometimes sulcated longitu- 
dinally. Operculum of four pointed valves, the two 
smallest projecting beyond the others, which are trans- 
versely striated, and divided by a longitudinal furrow. 
Colour white, or greenish, or cinereous brown. Size 
various, from a pea to a filbert. 

This species is found in clusters adhering to the 
rocks on the coasts of Great Britain. It is common 
also on the Greenland shore, and in the Mediterranean; 
and will probably be met with on the rocky coasts of 
most parts of the world. It has often been confounded 
with the following species, from which however it is 
sufficiently distinct. 

Pennant's fig. 3, of pi. 40. ed. 1812, is a variety only 
of this shell. 



44 LEPAS. 

SMOOTH ACORN. 

PI 7. /. 1. 

11. Lepas balanoides. L. testa conica truncaia Icevi, operculis obtusis, 

Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1108. Linn. Gmel. p. 3207. 
Shell conical, truncated, smooth : operculum obtuse. 
Balanns, testa subcylindrica laevigata; apertura dilatata; radiis in- 

sculptis Icevibus. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 164. 
Lister, Conch, t. 444. f. 287. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 97. f. 826. and 98. 

f. 833. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. t. 40. f. 2. Da Costa, Brit. 

Conch, p. 248. t. 17. f. 7. Donov. Br. Shells, t. 36. f. 2, 3. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 7. Ziww. Trans. 8. p. 24. 

A much smoother shell than the preceding : the com- 
partments divided by a longitudinal furrow; and the 
valves sometimes deeply sulcated at the base : points of 
the valves generally directed one way, and ending in a 
beak. Operculum of four valves, the two upper of 
which are slightly striated, transversely, the others are 
quite smooth. Colour whitish. Size, at the base, from 
one quarter to three quarters of an inch ; height, from a 
quarter to half an inch. 

This is a very common shell on rocky coasts, and is 
found in abundance adhering to almost every fixed 
substance between high and low water mark. It occurs 
generally in clusters, and is frequent on oyster and other 
shells, and on the back of lobsters. It inhabits Europe, 
America, and India ; and, if looked for, will most pro- 
bably be found also on the coast of Africa. 

The shell represented by Chemnitz, in vol. 8. pi. 97. 
f. 824. is a remarkable variety of the L. balanoides, 
The author has a specimen nearly like it, seated on the 
back of the Nerita Catena, but it has not quite so much 
of the tulip shape. 



,7 








LEPAS. '45 



CLUB-SHAPED ACORN. 
PL 7. /. 2. Mr. Sower by. 

12. Lepas clavata. L. testa clavata elongata ; operculis obtusis. 

Shell club-shaped, elongated ; operculum obtuse. 

Lepas elongata. L. testa cylindrica nivea, pellucida seocvalvi suprafissa; 

operculo obtuso sulcata transversim striato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3203. 
Balanus fistulosus. B. testa tubulosa elongata striata, valvulis superne 

dehiscentibus, apertura patula. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. 

torn. 6. p. 166. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. A. t. 40. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. f. 838. 

Schroter der Berl. Naturf. 5. t. 5. f. 2. Journ. 4. t. 2. f. 2. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 7, 8. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 26. 
Balanus clavatus. Ellis, Zooph. p. 198. t. 15. f. 7, 8. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 10. 

A tubular club-shaped shell, from one inch, to two 
and a half, or three inches long. The exterior is striated, 
rough, and sometimes tuberculated. The aperture is 
large, and divided into six parts, by as many unequal 
valves, three of which are wider than the others. The 
operculum is composed of four valves obliquely striated. 
The colour of the shell is white, sometimes greenish. 

This species bears a very strong resemblance to the 
L. balanoides, when that shell happens to be elongated, 
as it is occasionally found. See Donovan, pi. 36. f. 3. 
It is often observed in large clusters so wedged together 
that the summits only of the shells can be distin- 
guished. It inhabits Iceland, and the northern parts of 
Europe ; was brought from Newfoundland by Sir 
Joseph Banks ; and has been taken by dredging in the 
sea at Weymouth, but is by no means a common shell 
on the British coasts. 



46 LEPAS. 



PUNCTURED ACORN. 

13. Lepas punctata. L. testa conica, truncata punctata; operculis 

obtusis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24. 
Shell conical, truncated, and punctured ; operculum obtuse. 
Balanus punctatus. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 25. t. 1. f. 10. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 8. t. 1. f. 5. 

This is described by Mr. Montagu as a distinct 
species, that may be readily known by its dull brown 
colour, by its rugose appearance, and especially by the 
operculum, which is punctured like a thimble. He 
observed it in abundance on the south coast of Devon* 
shire, clustered on the Patella vulgata, and on the rocks 
near high water mark. Dr. Pulteney, who doubts its 
specific distinction, says that it differs from the large 
and most perfect specimens of the common acorn only 
by being punctured like a thimble. 

The L. cornubiensis, of Pennant, is probably this shell. 



RIBBED ACORN. 

14. Lepas costata. L. testa subconica; operculis acutis. Donov. Br. 

Shells, t. 30. f. 2. 
Shell somewhat conic : operculum sharp pointed. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 11. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 24. 

A very pretty species of a white colour, and about 
half an inch in diameter. The valves are indistinct. It 
has elevated ribs diverging regularly from the aperture 
to the base, and was discovered by the late Mr. Adams, 
adhering to some pieces of broken rock on the coast of 
Pembrokeshire. 






LEPAS. 47 



SPONGE ACORN 



15. Lepas spongiosa. L. testa sexvalvi, conica; valvulis acuminatis, 

spinosis. 
Shell of six valves, conic ; valves sharp pointed and spiny. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 2. pi. 17. f. 4, 5, 6. 

We are indebted to Mr. Montagu for the knowledge 
of this curious species of Lepas. It has six wrinkled, 
spiny, sharp-pointed valves, the three anterior of which 
are broader and shorter than the others. The base of 
the shell is flat and concentrically wrinkled. There is 
a singular appendage to this base, which is unknown in 
any other species of the genus. It is a little cup, 
rounded at the bottom, and fixed by a ligament to the 
circumference of the base. This cup is hollow within, 
and, according to Mr. Montagu, exactly resembles the 
Patella antiquata inverted. It is an appendage inde- 
pendent of the rest of the shell, with which it has no 
communication internally. The operculum has four 
valves, the anterior pair rough with decussated striae, 
the posterior pair longer and a little hooked forward. 
The colour is livid-brown with a purple tint towards the 
point of the summit. 

Inhabits a particular species of sponge, in which it 
is found so inclosed that no part of the shell is visible, 
except the points of the operculum. Several of this 
species were found by Mr. Bryer of Weymouth, in 
Portland reach. 



48 LEPAS, 



HELMET ACORN. 

16. Lepas galeata. L. testa galeata apertura laterali. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3209. 
Shell helmet-shaped, with a lateral aperture. 
Balanus, testa obliquata conica, basi subinfundibuliformi superne mar- 

ginata, apertura laterali. Brug. Encyl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6 

p. 170. 
Lepas calceolus. Pal. Zooph. p. 198. Schroter Einl. in die Conch. 3. 

p. 318. N. 7. t. 9. f. 20. a. b. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 7, 8. 

This shell is of a very singular shape. It appears to 
be composed of two oblique cones with their bases 
resting upon each other, but does not bear much resem- 
blance either to a helmet or a slipper. The base by 
which it fixes itself is hollow, and the edges are sharply 
carinated. It has six unequal valves ; the three anterior 
are the largest and situated obliquely, the others are 
perpendicular, and much shorter : the aperture is placed 
behind, and has a striated operculum of four valves. 
The upper part of the shell has a tendency to violet 
colour, the base is cinereous. 

This species seems to attach itself particularly to 
corallines. Pallas found it on the stems of the Gorgo- 
nia verrucosa in the Mediterranean ; Schroter on the 
G. Flabellum, which grows in the Indian seas, and Bru- 
guiere, enveloped in the horny substance of different 
corallines of the same genus, from the Asiatic ocean. 



LEPAS. 49 



PARROT-BEAKED ACORN. 

17. Lepas Psittacus. L. testa posterius adltnca sexvalvi rugosa. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3212. Molin. Hist. Nat. Chil. p. 179. 
Shell of six valves, hooked behind, and wrinkled. 

This is an obscure species, mentioned by Molini, 
and found in clusters on the coast of Chili. It ad- 
heres to rocks. The two larger valves resemble a par- 
rot's bill : the flesh is white, tender, and palatable. 
From the account which Molini gives of this shell, it 
appears to be a variety of the L. Tintinnabulum rather 
than a distinct species. 



SPINY ACORN. 
PI. 7. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

18. Lepas spinosa. L. testa conica, areis duodecim triangularibus : sex 
depressioribus minoribus albidis transversim striatis, sex pvrpureis 
longitudinaliter striatis, spinisque tubuhsis recurvis armatis. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3213. 

Shell conic, with twelve triangular compartments : the six smaller ones 
depressed whitish and transversely striated, the other six purple, 
striated longitudinally, and armed with tubular recurved spines. 

Balanus, testa subcylindrica, valvulis incequalibus quadrifariam spinosis, 
radiis transverse striatis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 
6. p. 167. 

Davila Catal. torn. 1. p. 402. t. 6. f. N. Favanne Conch, t. 59. f. A. 1. 
Schrot. n. Litter at. 1. p. 430. t. 2. f. 10. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 98. 
f. 840. fy t. 99. f. 841. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 9, 10. 

This shell is generally of a reddish or purple colour 
on the outside, and white within; though it varies in 
this respect, being sometimes of a pale grey, and even 
whitish all over. The internal substance of the valves 
is very porous: the operculum consists of four thin 
triangular valves, striated transversely. 

VOL. I. e 



50 LEPAS. 

The large specimen, fig. 4, is an old shell of the same 
species, which has lost its spines, except the rudiments 
of one or two that still remain on its upper surface. 
The two young shells fixed on i(s side were probably 
from eggs ejected by the parent. 

FLESH-COLOURED ACORN. 
PL 7. /. 6. Mrs. Mawe. 

19. Lepas minor. L. testa rubicunda sexvalvi incequivatvi, opercuh 
acuminato. Linn. GmeL p. 3212. 

Shell of six unequal valves, reddish ; operculum sharp- pointed. 
Balonus, testa conica, transverse striata albo punctata, radiis lavibus, 

operculo postice bicorni. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. 

p. 168. 
Lepas tulipa minor, apertura angustiore quam basi. Chem. Conch, 8. 

t. 97. f. 827. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 14. 

A conic shell, with a pointed beak and six smooth 
unequal valves, the two nearest the beak being much 
smaller than the rest. Valves marked longitudi- 
nally with faint reddish lines, and concentrically with 
white. The union of the lines gives the upper part of 
the shell, when magnified, a whitish dotted appearance. 
Some shells are quite white. 

This species inhabits the Indian seas, and is generally 
of a flesh colour inclining to violet. 

RAYED ACORN. 
PI. 7.f. 7. Mr. Sowerby.' 

20. Lepas radiata. L. testa sexvalvi Icevi, exterius violacea longitudi- 
naliter radiata. 

Shell of six valves, smooth, marked with longitudinal violet rays. 

This is a small thick shell, about five-eighths of an 



LEPAS. 51 

inch broad at the base, and a quarter of an inch high. 
The valves are triangular and painted with violet rays, 
which are close together at the apex, but more open at 
the circumference : the intermediate compartments are 
highly polished, and very finely striated transversely. 

Many of these shells were found fixed to the bottom 
of a ship. Their country is unknown. 

PALMATED ACORN. 

21. Lepas palmipes. L. testa erecta conica, valvulis basis palmatis. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3209. Mant. pi. 2. p. 544. 

Shell erect and conic ; valves palmate at the base. 

A white shell, the size of a large pea, smooth, and 
somewhat depressed : the valves are divided from the 
base as far as the middle, into five or six fingered seg- 
ments : the operculum is obtuse and four valved. The 
digitated divisions of the valves are irregular, and not 
unlike the fangs of the molar teeth. 

Inhabits the ocean, but what part is not mentioned. 

RUGGED ACORN. 
PI. 8./. 1, 2, 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby. 

22. Lepas crispata. L. testa ovali truncata conica, areis sex carulescen- 
tibus albo obumbratis, sea aliis elevatis rubellis spinosis perpendicula- 
riter striatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214. 

Shell oval truncated and conic, with six bluish valves shaded with white, 

and six reddish valves spinous and striated perpendicularly. 
Balanus crispatus. B. testa conica truncata, valvulis apicenudis, inferne 

muricato crispatis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. 

p. 166. 
Schroter Einl. in Conch. 3. t. 9. f. 21. Favanne Conch, t. 59. f. A. 9, 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 11. 

This shell, for the knowledge of which we are in- 



52 LEPAS. 

deb ted to a learned German conchologist,M. Schroter, is 
about an inch high, and an inch and a half broad at the 
base. It has six raised and six depressed compart- 
ments ; the former are very rugged, and resemble the 
rough bark of a tree ; they are violet at top and greenish 
towards the base : the latter are of a more uniform 
violet colour, shining, and striated transversely. The 
opening is nearly triangular; and the operculum, 
according to Schroter, is composed of four valves, the 
two anterior of which are striated obliquely. The base 
of the shell is singular ; it is formed of a series of 
striated laminae with serrated edges. These laminae are 
irregular; the outer edge is flexuous, and the general 
appearance of the base is not unlike a Madrepore. 

This shell was found by Mr. Sowerby, fixed to the 
bottom of a vessel in the Thames. It has several small 
specimens of the L. porcata on its sides, which were 
purposely omitted in the plate. Fig. 3. and 4. repre- 
sent the same shell in a young state, in which, without 
particular attention, it may be mistaken for a distinct 
species. Favanne has figured a young shell. The 
French have copied Schroter. 



RIDGED ACORN. 
PL 8. /. 5. Mr. Sowerby. 






23. Lepas porcata. L. testa conica, longitudinaliter porcata, violacea, 

apertura subovata. 
Shell conic, ridged longitudinally, of a violet colour, with a somewhat 

oval mouth. 

This shell has six unequal valves, strongly ridged 
longitudinally. The colour is violet, much deeper in 
the furrows than on the ridges. Ridges, in the spe- 








Kirtiiri* 






LEPAS. 53 

cimen figured, very irregular. Depressed compart- 
ments narrow and smooth. Base testaceous. 

It does not appear that this shell has been hitherto 
described, though it is not a very rare species. The 
Lepas from the East Indies with violet rays, which 
Chemnitz has represented, vol. 8. pi. 99. fig. 842. bears 
a strong resemblance to the L. porcata, but is not the 
same shell. 

Specimens of a regular bell shape and more uni- 
formly ridged, occur in the Museum of the Linnaean 
Society. 



VIOLET ACORN. 

24. Lepas violacea. L. testa crassa, glabra, sexvalvi alba, radiis violaceis. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3213. . 

Shell thick, smooth, of six valves, white with violet rays. 

Balanus radiatus. B. testa conica longitudinaliter sulcata, lineis vio- 
laceis picta, radiis Icevibus. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. 
t. 6. p. 168. 

Lepas Indite Orientalis ex violacea radiata. Chem. Conch, torn. 8. pi. 99. 
f. 842. Encyclop. Method, pi. 164. fig. 15. 

This is described by Chemnitz as a conical shell with 
a large oval base. It has six unequal valves grooved 
longitudinally and rayed with violet in the same direc- 
tion. The intermediate compartments are smooth and 
without striae : the opening is oval, a little compressed 
behind: the operculum is quadrivalve and striated 
transversely : the two posterior valves of the operculum 
are pointed. The shell is of a clear violet colour with 
lines of a deeper tint. It inhabits the Indian ocean. 

Bruguiere considers this as a very rare species, not to 
be found in any collection in Paris, 



54 LEPAS. 



LIMPET ACORN. 

25. Lepas patellaris. L. testa sexvalvi, exterius violaceo albo mista, sub- 

tiliter longitudinaliter striata, intus falcata, valvis margine denticu- 

latis. Linn. Gmtl. p. 3213. 
Shell of six valves; the outside violet mixed with white and finely 

striated lengthways ; inside hooked ; valves toothed at the margin. 
Balanus patelliformis. B. testa depressa, costis quinis radiatis angulata, 

apertura subpentagona. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. 

p. 169. 
Spengl. Schr. Naturf. torn. 1 . pi. 5. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 8. pi. 98. f. 839. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 3. 

This species so strongly resembles the Astrolepas of 
Argenville, Patella saccharina Linn., that it would be 
difficult to distinguish it, but for its central aperture. 

It is a compressed cone with six valves, articulated as 
in the other species, and five prominent angles, forming 
as it were a pentagonal star. The mouth of the shell 
is only the tenth part of an inch wide, though the base 
measures nearly an inch in its greatest diameter. The 
operculum has not been noticed. The shell is of a 
brown colour variegated with whitish streaks. 

The specimen which Spengler obtained, and figured, 
was strongly attached to the branch of a tree from the 
coast of Coromandel. 



HEMISPHERICAL ACORN. 

26. Lepas hemispherica. L. testa convexa, valvulis sex eequalibus, 

trilobis, operculo convexo quadripartito. 
Shell convex with six equal three-lobed valves: operculum convex and 

four-parted. 
Balanus hemisphericus. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. 

p. 170. Ibid. Art. Vers. pi. 165. f. 4, 5, 6. 

This is a small species described by Bruguiere from 



LMJPA.S 



PJL.&, 





<3 






LEPAS. 55 

some specimens attached to a muscle shell, and brought 
from the coast of Africa by Poiret. The largest are 
three lines in diameter at the base, and a line and a half 
high. The shell has six valves, each divided into three 
channels, the deepest in the middle. The valves are 
separated by six rays, as straight as a thread. The 
aperture is oval ; the operculum convex and quadri- 
valve : when magnified the valves appear striated. The 
colour of the shell is white. 

Bruguiere refers to Chemnitz, vol. 8. t. 98. f. 833, for 
his shell, but it bears so slight a resemblance to the 
figure in the Encyclop. Method, that we are not dis- 
posed to consider it as the same. 



PURPLE-TIPPED ACORN. 
PL 9. /. 1, 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe. 

27. Lepas purpurascens. L. testa subconica, purpurea, rugosa, cellulosa ; 
valvulis quatuor: apertura subangulata coarctata. 

Shell subconic, purple, rough and cellular : valves four ; aperture nar- 
row and rather angular. 

The valves of this shell are so firmly united to each 
other, that the line of separation is seldom apparent, 
and the cone in consequence seems uniform. This is 
the case with fig. 3. in which state the shell is usually 
found, and it must be remarked that it appears flat in 
the plate, owing to the position of the eye, which is 
looking down upon the figure in order to see the size 
and shape of the aperture. Figure 1. is an instance 
more rarely met with, where the valves are separated 
and show the four depressed compartments. The con- 
necting sutures appear so strong, that it must require 
great force to disunite them. The shell is tipped with 



56 LEPAS. 

dark purple with a light wash of the same towards the 
base, which is greenish. The walls are very thick and 
perfectly cellular, as represented in fig. 2. It is a 
rugged shell at at all times, but more particularly so 
when the valves are separated. Inhabits the South seas. 



POROUS ACORN. 
PL 9. /. 4. Dr. Coombe. 

28. Lepas porosa. L. testa granulato striata, conica, tubulosa ; operculo 

obtuso. Linn. Gmel. p. 3212. 
Shell with granulate striae, conic, tubular : the lid obtuse. 
Balanus squamosus. B. testa conica, cellulosa, extus squamis oblongis 

adpressis vestita, apertura subrotunda coarctata. Brug. EncycL 

Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 170. 
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. p. 852. pi. 34. f. 1 1. Schroter, Journ. 4. 

pi. 2. f. 6. Favanne, Conch, pi. 59. f. A. 7. Chem. Conch. 8. pi. 98. 

f. 836, 837. Encyclop. Method, pi. 165. f. 9, 10. 

This species forms a regular cone, with the base 
nearly twice the diameter of its height. The surface is 
covered with linear excrescences, which are tubular 
and terminate in openings at the base of the shell. 
Like the preceding species it has four valves, which are 
so closely connected together that no vestige of union 
appears, except on the inside. The aperture is roundish, 
and larger in proportion than in the preceding species. 
The valves are thick and full of cells. The colour is 
whitish or cinereous, and the size from that of the 
figure to more than twice the diameter. 



LEPAS, 57 



WART-SHAPED ACORN. 
PL 9. /. 5. Mr. Gibbs. 

29. Lepas Verruca. L. testa quadrivalvi, depressiuscula, operculis 

indistinctis plicatis^ valvulis intertextis striatis. 
Shell of four valves, somewhat depressed, operculum obscure and 

pleated ; valves interlaced and striated. 
Lepas Verruca. Linn. Gmel. p. 3212. 
Balanus, testa depressa oblique lamelloso-striata, apertura subquadrata, 

operculo bivalvi. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 169. 
Spengl. Schr. Bert. Naturf. 1. pi. 5. f. I, 2, 3, 5. Da Costa, Brit. 

Conch, p. 250. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. 4. pi. 41. Chem. Conch. 

8. pi. 98. f. 834. Eneyclop. Method, pi. 164. f. 16, 17. Donov. 

Brit. Shells, pi. 36. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 12. Linn. Trans. 8. 

p. 26. 

A compressed subcorneal shell, greatly resembling a 
wart, and very unlike every other species of the genus. 
The valves are strongly ribbed and interlace with each 
other ; aperture oblique and closed by an operculum, 
which, according to Bruguiere, is of two valves, but so 
obscure as not to be distinguished except in live shells. 
It is a very small species, being seldom more than a 
quarter of an inch in diameter; was first noticed as 
British, by Pennant; and is found on shells, stones, and 
other substances. It has also been brought from Ice- 
land, and from Cape Horn. 

Bruguiere describes this shell as having three valves 
only, but Mr. George Sowerby has examined the species 
with great attention, and discovered a fourth valve 
which escaped the notice of the French Naturalist. 
These valves are represented in pi. 9, surrounding the 
principal figure. 



58 



LEPAS. 



NORWEGIAN ACORN. 



30. Lepas Stroemia. L. conico-convexa, valvis quatuor serrato-striatis ; 

operculo bivalvi. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214. Muller. Zool. Dan. 3. p. 21. 

t. 94. f. 1. 4. -~ Prodr. No. 3025. 

Shell conico-convex, with four saw-striated valves : operculum of two 

valves. 

This species, which is named by Muller after the 
Rev. Mr. Stroem, inhabits the Norwegian seas. 



CARIOUS ACORN. 

31. Lepas cariosa. L. testa solida, alba, depressa, sulcato cariosa, intus 

incequali Icevi. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214. 
Shell solid, white, depressed, with carious grooves ; within smooth and 

unequal. 
Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop. 2. p. 240. t. 6. f. 24. A. B. 

A rude shell with the appearance of being much 
worn and perforated in several parts. About two 
inches and a quarter in diameter. Inhabits the Kurile 
Islands. Mentioned only by Pallas. 



There is a very small species of Lepas described and 
figured in the new edition of the British Zoology, under 
the name of Lepas convexula. It is found on rocks 
and limpets on the coast of Anglesey, and is little more 
than the twentieth of an inch in diameter. Is it not the 
spawn of a larger shell ? 



LEPAS. 59 



*.** With Compressed Shells. 

MITRE BARNACLE. 

PL 10. /. 1. Mrs. Ma we. 

32. Lepas Mitella. L. testa compresso-erecta difformiter striata. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. ed. p. 1108. Linn. GmeL p. 3210. 
Shell compressed, erect, and irregularly striated. 
Anatifa Mitella. A. testa compressa, vahulis incequalibus numerosis 

striatis intestino squamoso. Brng. Encycl. Method, torn. 6. p. 65. 
Rumph. Mus. pi. 47. f. M. Petiver Gazoph. pi. 6. f. 10. Ellis, Phil. 

Trans, vol. 50. pi. 23. f. 4. Seba. Mus. 2. pi. 61. f. 8. and 3. pi. 16. 

f. 3. Favanne, pi. 59. f. B. 2. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 100. f. 849, 850. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 9. 

The Lepas Mitella has eight principal valves besides 
a wreath of small ones round the base of the shell : 
the central valves are in pairs, corresponding exactly 
with each other, but the end valves are single and 
decidedly carinated. The shell is strongly striated, or 
rather ridged, and where the yellow coat is removed, 
appears of a polished white. It must be remarked 
that the stria in general are curved, but more particu- 
larly so in the two most prominent valves. The inside 
is smooth and of an ivory white. The pedicle, or 
stalk, when it occurs, is ab6ut an inch long, of a grey 
brown colour, and covered with scales like that of the 
following species but of a larger size. 

This shell inhabits the Indian seas, particularly near 
the Island of Amboyna. It is rare to find a good spe- 
cimen in the cabinets of Natural History, and still 
more rare to find it perfect with its pedicle. 

The best figure of this species is by Petiver. 



60 LEPAS. 



CORNUCOPIA BARNACLE. 
PL 10./. 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

33. Lepas Pollicipes. L. testa compresso-erecta, multivalvi lavi ; pedun- 
culo coriaceo, brevi, duro, squamoso insidente. Linn. Gmel. p. 3213. 

Shell compressed, erect, many valved, smooth ; seated on a short, hard, 
scaly, coriaceous foot-stalk. 

Anatifa Pollicipes. A. testa compressa, valvis qvindecim et ultra levibus 
difformibus, intestino granulato squamoso. Brug. Encycl. Meth. 
Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 65. 

Lister, Syn. Conch, t. 439. f. 281. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. p. 850. 
pi. 34. f. 4. Knor. Vergn. torn. 5. pi. 13. f. 7. D Argenville, 
Conch, pi. 30. f. E. ejusd. Zoom. pi. 7. f. 6. Favanne, Conch. 
pi. 57. f. B. 1. item pi 74. f. G. 1. Chemn. Conch. 8. pi. 100. f. 851, 
852. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 10, 11. Mont. Test. Brit. 
Suppl. p. 6. pi. 28. f. 5. 

This shell, like the preceding species, has eight 
principal valves, besides many of a smaller size. Those 
at the base are placed in a very irregular manner, and 
some of them are as small as seed pearls. The four 
large valves, which are smooth and of the colour and 
appearance of horn, turn towards each other like the 
beak of a bird. The shell in all its parts is thick and 
solid; the valves are more or less convex, and connected 
together by a blackish membrane. 

The pedicle, or foot stalk, is thick and short, rarely 
exceeding an inch and a half in length. It is of a 
bluish ash-colour and studded with little points, or 
scales, which give it the appearance of shagrin. 

Groups of these shells, sometimes of more than 
twenty in a cluster, are found in the Mediterranean, 
and on the coast of Spain. They are also so abundant 
on the shores of Brittany, and Normandy, that they are 
sold as an article of food in the neighbouring towns and 
villages, where they are boiled in water and eaten with 



LEPAS. 61 

vinegar. Rondel etius says that they are particularly 
grateful to women, and delicate persons whose excesses 
have injured their appetite. Mulieres et delicatiores 
homines alia fastidientes cibaria hoc eduli genere delec- 
tantur, et qui veneri dediti sunt. 

It is this species which the French call pouce-pied 
from the resemblance it bears to the toe nail. 



PEN-KNIFE BARNACLE. 
PL 10./. 3. Mr. SowERBY. 

34. Lepas Scalpellum. L. testa compressa tredecimvalvi Iteviuscula, 

pedunculo squamoso insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3210. 
Shell compressed, of thirteen valves, smoothish and seated on a scaly 

peduncle. 
Anatifa Scalpellum. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. tom.6. p. 64. 
Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 2. item 2. a. Gualt. Test. pi. 106. 

f. C. D'Argenville, Conch, t. 26. f. G. Favanne Conch, t. 59. C. 6. 

Muller, Vollst. Natur. Syst. t. 6. pi. 10. f. 7. Chemn. Conch. 8. 

p. 338. vignette 17. at p. 294. f. a. A. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. 

f. 7, 8. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 166. Pultn. in Hutch. Dorset, t. 2. 

f. 8. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 18. pi. 1. f. 3. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 27. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. pi. 4. p. 351. 

This species is composed of thirteen unequal and 
irregular valves, six of which are placed on each side, 
and the thirteenth forms the back. The three lower 
valves are smaller than the rest, and the posterior one 
projects a little at bottom into a knob, or beak. The 
dorsal valve curves towards the upper part of the shell, 
and terminates in a point. This curvature gives it the 
pen-knife figure, and probably suggested to Linnaeus 
the trivial name. The valves are connected together by 
a transparent red membrane, which lines their internal 
surface, and appears to be a prolongation of the pedi- 



62 LEPAS. 

cle. The pedicle is very short, of a cylindrical shape, 
and covered with short hairs. 

The L. Scalpellum inhabits the North seas ; Linnaeus 
observed it' on the coast of Sweden, Muller on that of 
Denmark, and it also occurs, though rarely, in the British 
ocean. It is never found thrown on the shore like other 
shells, but is taken in the deep, and always attached to 
some other body. The specimen figured in pi. 10 
adheres to the lobster horn coralline, Sertularia antennina. 
It is not uncommonly attached to different species of 
the genus Gorgonia, and sometimes to Fuci. The 
valves are often encased in extraneous matter, so that 
the divisions are not visible. In this state it is repre- 
sented by D'Argenville, and also by Ellis at fig. 3. 

Gmelin's reference to Lister and Klein for this shell 
is wrong. Lister has figured the i. Pollicipes, and 
Klein, of course, has copied him. 



BLADDER BARNACLE. 
PL 10. /. 4. 

35. Lepas fascicularis. L. testa quinquevalvi Icevi, valvula dorsali basi 

dilatata arigulo acuto prominente. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 30. 
Shell of five valves, smooth ; dorsal valves spread at the base and having 

an acute prominent angle. 
Seb. Mus. vol. 3. t. 16. No. 1. 6. Ellis Zooph. p. 167. pi. 15. f. 6. 

Encyclop. Method, pl.^166. f. 4. Donovan Brit. Shells, pi. 144. 

Mont . Test. Brit. p. 557. item Suppl. p. 5. and p. 163. 

The principal valves of this shell are concentrically 
wrinkled from the exterior angle to the base, and faintly 
radiated with striae from the same point across the 
wrinkles. The dorsal, or ridge valve, is singularly 
dilated at the base, and has a sharp prominent angle, or 



LEPAS. 63 

heel, which terminates the carinated edge of the upper 
part of the valve. The two superior valves end in a 
point above the dorsal valve. The shell is very thin 
and light, of a horn colour, and in appearance resem- 
bling pieces of dried bladder more than any other sub- 
stance. 

Mr. Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the best 
information relative to this species, says that the colour 
of the shell, while containing the animal, is bluish ; that 
these shells were once thrown up in abundance on the 
south coast of Devon, between Milton and Shurlstone ; 
and that they were attached in groups, some to a yellow 
variety of the Fucus vesiculosus, others to a slender- 
leaved Conferva ; one group >to the quill feather of a 
gull, and another to a bit of charcoal. Each was 
fixed to its respective substance by a short pedicle, 
which shrinks so much in drying, that the shell, as 
figured in pi. 10, appears seated on the Fucus without 
any intermediate support. 

This must be considered as a rare species ; for if we 
except a solitary specimen found by the late Mr. Bryer, 
and its accidental occurrence on the coast of Devon, it 
has not been observed for a period of more than forty 
years. The opportunity of collecting them in Devon- 
shire seems to have been of very short duration, since 
Mr. Montagu remarks, that in two or three days after 
their appearance, there was scarcely a vestige of them 
left. 

The specimen figured in pi. 10. was covered with a 
greenish film, 



64 LEPAS. 



STRIATED BARNACLE. 
PL 10. /. 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

36. Lepas anserifera. L. testa compressa quinquevalvi striata, pedunculo 

insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109. Linn. Gmel. p. 3210. 
Shell of five valves, compressed and striated ; seated on a peduncle. 
Anatifa striata. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 64. 
Lister, Conch, t. 440. f. 283. item. Exerc. Anatom. t. 19. f. 4, 5. 

Chemn. Conch. 8. pi. 100. f. 856. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 3. 

Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 166. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 16. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. ed. 1812. vol. 4. p. 151. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 28. 

The surface of this shell is strongly striated, the striae 
extending, in the lower valve, from the anterior angle to 
the edge, where it unites with the upper valve: these 
striae are crossed again so as to give the shell a reti- 
culated appearance. The upper valve is striated in 
the same manner as the lower one, but somewhat 
stronger. The dorsal valve is much compressed and 
has a carinated edge. The shell is of a bluish 
colour, with an orange red pedicle, an inch and a half 
long. 

Inhabits the American ocean. Has been found on 
the coast of Devonshire, by Mr. Montagu, on a piece of 
drifted wood, from half an inch in length to the size of 
the figure. 

Gualtieri has figured a single valve only, the reference 
to him has therefore been omitted. 



J "V, 




LEPAS. 65 



DUCK BARNACLE. 
PI. 11. Mr. SoWERBY. 

37. Lepas anatifera. L. testa subtriangulari, quinquevalvi, Icevi, pedun- 

culo longo insidente. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1109. Linn. 

Gmd. p. 3211. 
Shell subtriangular, of five smooth valves, seated on a long foot stalk. 
Anatifa laevis. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 62. 
Gualt. Test. t. 26. f. E. Seba Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 1, 2. Know. Vergn. 2. 

i. 30. f. 4, 5. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. t. 34. f. 5. 6. Muller, 

Vollst. Natur. Syst. torn. 6. pi. 10. f. 8. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, pi. 

17. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 41. Ckemn. Conch. 

8. pi. 853—855. Encyclop. Method, pi. 166. f. 1. Donovan, Brit. 

Shells, pi. 7. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 15. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 28. 

A bluish white shell with five valves, four of which 
are faintly striated ; the fifth, or dorsal valve, is smooth 
down the middle, and sulcated at the sides. It differs 
principally from the preceding species, or L. qnserifera, 
in the large valves, which are not sharply carinated, as 
in that shell ; in the superior valves, which are trun- 
cated at the apex ; and in the striae, which are much 
fainter in the L. anatifera. These shells are found in 
considerable clusters, from half an inch to an inch and 
three quarters in length, and more than an inch in 
extreme breadth. They are seated on a flexible pedi- 
cle, which is sometimes a foot long. The specimen 
figured in pi. 11. was, among many others, alive in a 
tub of sea water, and had a cluster of young ones 
branching from its side. The drawing was made while 
the animals were extending their plumose tentacula in 
search of food, and while the orange colour of the 
membrane which lines the valves, and which is often 
lost in drying, was in all its beauty. The pedicle was 

VOL. I. F 



66 LEPAS. 

not, as it is generally described, of a saffron colour, but 
brown as in the figure. It was much too long to be 
introduced into an octavo plate, we have therefore re- 
presented only a portion attached to a piece of wood, 
its usual support. This pedicle resembles a small in- 
testine; it is tendinous, cylindrical, and capable of 
great contraction ; while the animal is alive it is filled 
with a glairy mucilage, which exsudes after death, and 
leaves the foot stalk empty and withered. 

This shell is very abundant in many parts of the 
world. Linnaeus noticed it in the North ; Muller on 
the coast of Denmark ; Pennant and others in the 
British seas ; Plancus in the Mediterranean ; and Seba 
and Davila in the Asiatic ocean. It adheres to the 
bottoms of ships, and to floating pieces of wood. 

An idle story was formerly told about the capability 
of this shell to produce the Barnacle Goose, and, like 
other idle stories, was readily believed. Old Gerard, 
with inflexible credulity, declares that the shell con- 
tains a young bird, which " when it is perfectly 
formed, the shell gapeth open, and the first thing that 
appeareth is the lace, or string (the plumose tentacula) ; 
next come the legs of the bird hanging out, and as it 
groweth greater it openeth the shell by degrees, till at 
length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by the bill : 
in short space after it commeth to full maturitie, and 
falleth into the sea, where it gathereth feathers, and 
groweth to a fowle bigger than a mallard and lesser 
than a goose," &c. Gerard prefaces his account with 
" what our eyes have seene, and hands have touched, 
we shall declare ;" and, that the strength of evidence 
may not be wanting, concludes by an invitation to all 



LEPAS. 67 

those who may doubt the truth of his assertion, to re- 
pair unto him, and he will satisfy them by the testimony 
of good witnesses. 

Such was the absurd notion which formerly pre- 
vailed, but which may now be ranked with the sedu- 
cing song of the siren, the prophetic chant of the swan, 
and the irresistible force of the remora. 

DOWNY BARNACLE. 

38. Lepas villosa. L. testa compressa, quinquevalvi Icevi ; pedunculo 
villoso. 

Shell compressed of five smooth valves ; pedicle downy. 
Anatifa villosa. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 62. 

This shell is described by Bruguiere as a distinct 
species, greatly resembling the L. anatifera in the valves, 
but differing specifically in the pedicle. It is a small 
shell, never exceeding five eighths of an inch in length : 
the valves are smooth, but the foot-stalk is covered with 
short flexible hairs, which, while the animal is alive, 
resemble mould, but which fall off with the slightest 
touch when the shell is dried. This species was ob- 
served by Bruguiere on the poop of a ship, in the port 
of Cette, in Languedoc. He remarks that it is solitary, 
never appearing in clusters like the other barnacles. 

TOOTHED BARNACLE. 

39. Lepas dentata. L. testa compressa, quinquevalvi, loevi, valvula dorsali 
carinata, dentata, pedunculo rugoso. 

Shell compressed, of five valves, smooth, dorsal valve keel-shaped and 

toothed, pedicle wrinkled. 
Anatifa dentata. Brug. EncycL Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 63. 
Concha anatifei*a margine muricata. Lister, Conch, t. 439. f. 282. 

Klein, Ostrac. t. 12. num. 91, 92. 

This shell has hitherto been confounded with the 



68 LEPAS. 

i. anatifera, but is now separated by Bruguiere, upon 
a very sufficient foundation. It resembles the duck 
barnacle in every respect, except the dorsal valve; 
which is strongly carinated, and divided throughout its 
length into many very sharp teeth. Lister is the only 
author who has described this species (not to mention 
Klein, whose figure is copied from Lister,) except Bru^ 
guiere, and the specimen which he observed was more 
decidedly toothed, and the teeth were deeper and more 
numerous than in the shell represented by Lister. It 
inhabits the Mediterranean, and is found in groups like 
the common species, but is smaller. 



FURROWED BARNACLE. 
PL 12. /. 1. Mr. SOWERBY. 

40. Lepas sulcata. L. testa subtriangulari t quinquevalvi, sulcata. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 29. 
Shell somewhat triangular, five valved, sulcated. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 17. pi. 1. f. 6. 

We are indebted to Mr. Montagu for this new and 
elegant species of barnacle, which he found adhering to 
the Gorgonia Flabellum on the Dorsetshire coast, near 
Portland Island. The lower valves have from fifteen to 
nineteen ribs diverging from the lower angle to the mar- 
gin, where they are met by seven or eight corresponding 
ribs in the superior valves. It must be noticed that the 
anterior rib of the lower valve is always the strongest. 
The dorsal valve is somewhat keeled, and marked with 
strong longitudinal striae. Pedicle extremely short, and 
seldom to be seen. Colour of the shell faint bistre, 
often sordid white. Length from one tenth to half an 
inch. Breadth of the largest, four tenths of an inch. 



$. 



FLJ2. 







LEPAS. 69 

The author has several of these shells seated on 
pieces of cuttle-bone, with clusters of small ones round 
the bottom of each. A group of them, some of a large 
size, attached to a piece of rotten wood, is in the pos- 
session of Mr. Sowerby, and is the specimen repre- 
sented in the plate. 



RIBBON BARNACLE. 
PL 12. f. 2, 3. 

41. Lepas vittata. L. carnosa, continua, glauca, vittis nigris, superne 
truncata acuminata, testis quinque angustis marginalibus. Solander, 
MS. in Biblioth. Banks. 

Animal fleshy, uniformly green with black stripes, truncated at top, and 
sharp pointed ; shells five, narrow and marginated. 

Seba, Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 5. Poli, Test. t. 6. No. 20 # 22. 

The testaceous part of this singular species consists 
of five narrow valves, the two largest of which are 
placed on the margin of the aperture, and are trian- 
gular ; the dorsal valve is linear and subcarinated ; the 
two superior valves are also linear, reflex, and termi- 
nate in points at the anterior extremity. The membra- 
nous bag which encloses the animal, is of a greenish 
colour, with six black longitudinal stripes, three on each 
side. The pedicle is a continuation of the same, and 
the whole is about two inches long, and five-eighths of 
an inch broad. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Atlantic ocean. Dr. 
Solander observed it on the sides of the Endeavour, as 
he sailed between the Canary Islands and Brasil, and 
Bosc found it on the ship which carried him from 
America to Europe. 



70 LEPAS. 



MEMBRANOUS BARNACLE. 

42. Lepas membranacea. L. carnosa, alba, superne truncata, acuminata, 
testis quinque angustis marginalibus. 

Animal fleshy, white, truncated at top and acuminate ; shells five, nar- 
row and marginated. 

Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 164. 

This species differs from the preceding in the mem- 
brane only, which is quite white, and without any 
stripes. It is less than the other, the largest specimen 
in the possession of the author not exceeding an inch 
and a quarter in length. The principal valves in both 
somewhat resemble the hammer oyster in shape. Mr. 
Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the knowledge 
of this shell, has reason to believe that it was taken on 
the Welch coast. 

The valves, both of this and the preceding species, are 
the rudiments of shells ; the beginning of operations 
which are completed in the L. anatifera. 



EARED BARNACLE. 
PL 12. /. 4. Dr. Leach. 

43. Lepas aurita. L. testa membranacea, ventricosa, tubo insidente, ore 

octovalvi dentato; tubulo gemino aurito. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 

p. 1110. 
Shell membranaceous, ventricose, seated on a tube and eared : mouth 

of eight valves, toothed. 
Lepas nuda carnosa aurita. Ellis, Phil. Trans, vol. 50. pi. 34. f. 1. 
Seba, Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 5. Edw. av. 2. t. 286. f. A. Chem. Conch. 8. 

pi. 100. f. 857, 858. Brug. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 66. 

This species has a membranous, cylindrical stalk, 
dilated at top, and terminating in two tubular appen- 
dages, or ears. The aperture through which the animal 



LEPAS. 71 

protrudes its tentacula, is oval, and has two testaceous 
cruciform valves situated at the inferior extremity. The 
feelers (or tentacula) are singular, the lower portion of 
each terminating in a tendril. The body is of a greenish 
colour. Inhabits the North seas, and has been found 
by Muller on the coast of Norway. 

Two groups of eared barnacles, attached to the L. 
Diadema, are preserved in Hunter's Museum ; from one 
of these Ellis copied his figure. 



Genus 3. 
PHOLAS. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Ascidia. 

Testa bivalvis, divaricata, cum minoribus accessoriis diftbrmibus, ad 

cardinem. 
Cardo recurvatus, cartilagine eonnexus. 



Animal an Ascidia. 

Shell, two-valved, divaricated, with smaller accessory valves of a dif- 
ferent shape at the hinge. 
Hinge folded back, connected by cartilage. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The species of this genus vary in the number of 
their accessory valves, which are in all very fragile, and 
so slightly connected to the shell, that we rarely find 
them quite perfect. The two principal valves are, for 
the most part, open at both ends, and their surface, 
which is generally striated, is in some species as rough 
as a file. The animal inhabiting this genus of shells 
has a very thick membranous mantle, or sheath, open 
at both ends. From the superior opening of this 
mantle proceeds a double neck, or two united siphons, 
one of which is larger than the other. These siphons 
are slightly toothed on their edges, and serve, one for 
the entrance, and the other for the exit of the food. The 
animal has likewise a foot which is short and conic. 

The faculty which these soft animals possess of pene- 
trating hard substances, such as stones and wood, has 



74 PHOLAS. 

long excited the attention of philosophers, though they 
have hitherto been unable to divine the cause. The 
opinion of Reaumur, that they work their way into 
limestone and other hard bodies, by the continual rota- 
tion of their valves acting like a rasp, is not satisfactory, 
since there are some species, and particularly the P. 
Orientalis, which are nearly smooth at the anterior end, 
and consequently unfit for such a purpose. That they 
do not bury themselves while the substance which they 
choose for their habitation is in a soft state, may be in- 
ferred from their penetrating wood, and from the lodge- 
ment which they have made in the pillars of the temple 
of Serapis at Puteoli. Dr. Bohadsch, who noticed 
these pillars, concludes that the Pholades must have 
bored their holes within them after they were erected ; 
for he observes that the workmen would certainly have 
rejected any stones from their building, that had been 
perforated in so many places by these creatures. The 
Pholades must therefore have worked their way into 
them while they were buried by the influx of the sea, 
which immediately succeeded the destruction of the 
city by an earthquake. 

It must be remarked that the animal is enabled to 
enlarge its habitation on the inside, since the cavity is 
always smaller at its entrance than the pholas itself. 
This fact proves also that, when once settled, there is no 
receding, and that the dark chamber which it has cho- 
sen, must serve the animal for a sepulchre, unless it be 
previously dragged from its hole to be used as an article 
of food, or as a bait for other fish. 

On the coasts of Normandy they are eaten in abun- 
dance, well seasoned and cooked with bread crumbs 
and fine herbs. They also pickle them in vinegar, and 



PHOLAS. 75 

reckon them a delicacy. In the neighbourhood of 
Dieppe, a great many women and children, each pro- 
vided with an iron pick, are employed to collect the 
Pholades, either to sell in the market, or to be used as 
bait by the fishermen. 

The pholas is remarkable for its phosphorescent pro- 
perty. This is noticed by Pliny, lib. 9. c. 61. Aris- 
totle and Athenseus have mentioned the pholas, but in 
too slight a manner to be worthy of observation. 

Before we quit the general remarks on multivalve 
shells, it will be proper to observe, that an Italian na- 
turalist, M. Gioeni, has described and figured what he 
conceived to be a new genus in the class of multivalves, 
under the title of Descrizione di una nuova Famiglia e 
di un nuovo Genere di Testacei. Neapoli 1783. It 
would have been well if the author of the above tract 
had confined himself to the description only of the shell; 
but he has indulged in a tale of the habits and manners 
of the animal part of his subject, which is quite ridicu- 
lous. The subject of M. Giceni's paper is the gizzard 
of the Bulla lignaria, which is testaceous, and when 
separated from the body of the animal, may readily be 
mistaken for a shell. So far the description of M. 
Giceni, who probably found the substance on the sea 
shore, is excusable ; but when he gravely relates as a 
fact, what he at the same time knows to be false, it 
becomes the duty of the naturalist to expose his 
error, that subsequent writers may not be misled. 
After describing the three valves with which this 
supposed shell is provided, M. Giceni proceeds to tell us 
that the animal has a long trachea, or trunk, through 
which it respires and receives its food; that it is born 
and lives under the sand; and that when it wishes to rise 



76 PHOLAS. 

to the surface, it opens a passage for itself by means of 
its testaceous shield, which it moves on all sides, and 
by which alone it mounts to the surface of the sand, &c. 

M. Giceni then describes the manner in which the 
animal moves, by pressing the end of his sjiield against 
the sand, and thus obtaining a point of support, while 
he slowly drags the rest of the body after him. But 
this operation is so painful, and is executed so heavily, 
that the animal leaves a trace behind it, from the impres- 
sion of the great valves, in the sand, which resembles in 
miniature the track of carriage wheels ! ! The calcula- 
tion of the time which the animal takes to move along 
the sand, is admirable. M. Giceni reckons it at the 
twelfth part of an inch in eight seconds ! Much more 
of a similar detail equally absurd is entered into by the 
Italian naturalist; but enough has been said to prove the 
falsity of the rest. The circumstantial manner in which 
the whole has been related, however, and the accurate 
figures, (for they are accurate as far as relates to the 
gizzard of the B. lignaria?) with which the account is 
illustrated, has misled Retzius, who, in a tract entitled 
Nova Testaceorum Genera, published in 1788, has de- 
scribed the trivalved gizzard, under the name of Tricla 
Giami ; and Bruguiere has formed a new genus of it, to 
which he has added a long description from Giceni, 
under the word Char, in the Encyclopedie Meihodique. 
It is also figured as a new genus, after Pholas, in pi. 
170. of the same work. 

The gizzard of the JB. lignaria is well described and 
figured by Mr. Humphrey, in the second volume of the 
Linnaean Transactions, page 15. 



FLM. 









PHOLAS. 77 

PRICKLY PIERCER. 
PL 13. /. 1, 2, 3. 

1. Pholas Dactylus. Ph. testa oblonga, hinc reticulato-striata. Linn, 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1110. Linn. Gmel. p. 3214. 
Shell oblong, with reticulate striae. 
Testa lata, ventricosa, plicis transversis striisque longitudinalibus decus- 

sata, postice reticulata. Born, Test. p. 14. t. 1. f. 7. 
List. Anim. Angl. Append, t. 2. f. 3. item Conch, t. 433. f. 267. Petiv. 

Gaz. t. 79. f. 10. Gualt. t. 105. f. D. Seb. Mus. 3. t. 16. f. 6. a— b. 

Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 144. t. 16. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 

1812. vol. 4. pi. 42. f. 1. Murr. Fund. Test. t. 2. f. 3. Chemn. 

Conch. 8. t. 101. f. 859. Dowot?. Brie. SMfc, t. 118. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 20. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 30. 

This is a rough shell, of an oblong shape, and strongly 
striated both ways. The anterior end, which extends 
more or less into a beak, is covered with prickles run- 
ning in lines from the hinge to the margin. These 
prickles gradually decline till they soften into stria?, 
which are lost towards the narrow end of the shelL 
The hinge is reflexed, and forms several cells on the 
back, as in fig. 3. These cells are covered in fig. 1. by 
the two striated supernumerary valves ; another valve is 
seen in the same figure, running towards the end of the 
shell, between the two larger valves. There is a long 
curved, flattish tooth, striated towards the end, on the 
inside of each valve. Colour of the shell white, but 
often stained with ochre. It is brittle, and the lesser 
valves are very deciduous. 

Inhabits different parts of the European seas, and 
shines by night. It is a common species on the coasts 
of France and England. Mr. Montagu found it in 
abundance at Salcomb, on the coast of South Devon, 
where it burrows in the stumps of old trees which for- 



78 PHOLAS. 

merly grew there, but which are now covered with the 
tide except at very low water. The shell varies in size, 
and measures from one inch to six from end to end. 
The specimen figured in the centre of plate 13. is very 
perfect, and measures five inches and a half. It was 
found with several others at the mouth of Kingsbridge 
river, in Devonshire. 

The best figure of the Pholas Dactylus is by Pen- 
nant. Born's figure is very good, and so is Lister's, but 
rather too strongly beaked. Gualtieri has evidently in- 
tended to figure the shell, but his subject must have 
been worn and without teeth. 



INDIAN PIERCER. 
PL 14./. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe. 

2. Pholas orientalis. Ph. testa oblonga, margine recto; altera parte 
glaberrima, altera reticulato-striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3216. 

Shell oblong with a straight margin ; one half quite smooth, the other 
with reticulated striae. 

Pholas India; Orientalis, testa oblonga, fragili, pellucida, supra dimi- 
dium reticufatim seu decussation striata; striis nodulosis prominulis, 
dorso et umbone tribus valvulis succenturiatis supertecto. Chemn. 
Conch. 8. p. 356. t. 101. f. 860. 

List. Conch, t 431. f. 247. Walch. Naturf. 13. p. 86. t. 3. f. 15. En- 
cyclop. Method, pi. 168. f. ]0. 

A very fragile white shell, of a long narrow shape, 
and strongly striated on the anterior half, the other end 
perfectly smooth; the striae terminate abruptly. The 
back of the shell, when perfect, is covered at the hinge 
with a single oblong valve, resembling a patella. There 
is a strong tooth on the inside of each valve. The 
shell gapes much at one end, but is nearly closed at 
the other. 



jPH'BZi^i-® 



FJL.M, 





fits \tf/ 





PHOLAS. 79 

Inhabits the Indian ocean about Siam and Tran- 
quebar. 

The accessory valves so readily fall off, that the shell 
is very rarely found perfect. It is figured entire, how- 
ever, by Chemnitz in a vignette, vol. 8. p. 347. 



WHITE PIERCER. 
PL 14. /. 3, 4. 

3. Pholas Candida. Ph. testa oblonga, undique striis decussatis muri- 

cata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215. 
Shell oblong, and covered with prickly decussated striae. 
List. Anim. AngJ. t. 5. f. 39. Append, t. 2. f. 4 — 6. Conch. 

t. 435. f. 278. Gualt. Test. t. 105. f. E. Chem. Conch. 8. t. 101. 

f. 86 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 42. f. 2. Donov. Brit. 

Shells, pi. 132. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 25. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 31 . 

This is a very brittle shell, decussated in all parts, 
except close to the cartilage on the back. The broad 
end nearly round, and set from the hinge to the 
margin, with several rows of prickles. The striae on 
the other parts of the shell are all prominent, but less 
elevated than those at the broad end; hinge smooth, 
white, and reflex; a single accessory valve of a lancet 
shape on the back, but none on the connecting mem- 
brane below the hinge, as in the P. Dactylus. Inside 
smooth, and glossy white, with a thin curved tooth in 
each valve ; the thick lip above each tooth terminates in 
a horizontal, folded process, curved towards the carti- 
lage. Colour yellowish white. Breadth, or from end 
to end, from one inch to two and a half, or three inches. 

Inhabits the European and American seas. It is not 
an uncommon shell on some parts of the British coast, 
but is not often found perfect. 



80 PHOLAS. 



The figure of this shell by Gualtieri is so indifferent 
as hardly to deserve a place among the synonyms. 



RIBBED PIERCER. 
PL 15. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

4. Pholas costata. Ph. testa ovata, costis elevatis striata. Linn. Syst. 

Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215. 
Shell oval, with raised striated ribs. 
Testa lata, ventricosa, transverse striata, costis longitudinalibus, extimis 

acutis remotioribus. Born, Test. p. 15. 
LM. Conch, t. 434. f. 277. Gualt. Test. 1. 105. f. G. Knorr, Vergn. 2. 

t. 25. f. 4. Chemn. Conch. 8. f. 863. Favanne, pi. 60. c. 1. Ency- 

clop. Method, pi. 169. f. 1, 2. 

This shell is of an oblong oval shape, gaping at both 
ends. It is a strong species, ribbed regularly from one 
end to the other ; the ribs are oblique and somewhat 
spinous, especially at the broad end, where they are 
farther apart, and scalloped at the margin. The hinge 
is reflex, and has an additional fold which is spread 
thinly on the back of the shell ; there is a strong curved 
tooth in each valve ; the slope from the hinge towards 
the tip of the shell is free from ribs. This shell is 
of a cream colour, and measures from three to six 
inches from end to end. 

It inhabits America, and, according to Linnseus, is 
found among rocks in the South of Europe ; but the 
finest specimens are from the East Indies. 



PlIOZ. A $ 



El . 15. 






PHOLAS. 81 

CURLED PIERCER. 
PL 15./. 3, 4, 5. 

5. Pholas crispata. Ph. testa ovali, hinc obtusiore, crispato-striata ; 

cardinis dente curvo. Linn, Syst, Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3216. 
Shell oval, one part more obtuse, with waved striae ; hinge with a curved 

tooth. 
Testa utraque extremitate maxime hians. Sulcus transversus in duas 

partes valvulas dividens ; parte altera valde rugosa, et crispa, in qua ad 

cardinem mar go refiexus. Linn. Faun. Svec. n. 215. 
List. An. Angl. t. 5. f. 38. Append, t. 2. f. 7. Conch. 

t. 436. f. 279. Petiv. Gazoph. t. 79. f. 13. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 

1812. vol. 4. pi. 43. f. 2. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 242. pi. 16. f. 4. 

Chem. Conch. 8. t. 102. f. 872—874. Encyclop. Method, pi. 169. 

f. 5, 6, 7. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 62. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 23. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 32. 

The Ph. crispata is at once distinguished from every 
other species of the genus, by a transverse groove, which 
runs from the hinge to the margin, and divides the shell 
into two nearly equal parts. This groove has a cor- 
responding elevation on the inside of each valve. The 
shell is strong, and very open at both ends ; one part is 
smooth, except some faint transverse striae, but the 
other portion is strongly marked with subspinous undu- 
lations, which terminate rather abruptly before they 
reach the transverse groove. The hinge is smooth 
and reflex, forming a furrow towards the beak of the 
shell. There is a plain curved tooth in each valve. 
The general colour white, or ferruginous. Length from 
one to two inches ; breadth from two to three inches. 
Burrows in clay or lime-stone. Inhabits the Northern 
ocean, and is found not uncommonly on several parts 
of the British coast. 

We are indebted to the accurate Lister for the first 

VOL. I. G 



82 PHOLAS. 

figure of this shell, who has given an excellent repre- 
sentation of the interior, in his Hist. Anim. Angl. 
Gmelin has described the shell again in p. 3228, under 
the name of Solen crispus, with a reference to Lister, 
and the following query, An distincta satis hujus generis 
species? 



SMALL PIERCE-STONE. 

6. Pholas parva. Ph. testa ovali, hinc reticulato-striata, cardinis dente 

ex tuberculo orto. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 33. 
Shell oval with reticulate striae at one end ; hinge with a tooth springing 

from a tubercle. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. pi. 43. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 22. t. 1. 

f. 7, 8. 

This is evidently a distinct species, rescued from a 
state of uncertainty by Mr. Montagu. It has been con- 
founded both with the Ph. Dactylus, and Ph. crispatus, 
but chiefly with the latter; it differs however from both. 
" From the former," says Mr. Montagu, " it may be 
readily known by not having any cells on the reflected 
margin of the hinge ; from the latter in not having the 
longitudinal furrow ; and from both by the knob at the 
base of the tooth." 

The author is in possession of a specimen an inch 
and a half broad, in which the above observations are 
confirmed, with this addition, that the margin near the 
beak, or narrow end, projects at a right angle with the 
shell, and is indented beneath. 

The Pholas parvus, which Donovan has figured in 
pi. 69, is certainly a young shell of the Ph. crispata. 



PHOLAS. 83 



STRIATED PIERCER. 
PL 16. /. 1, 2, 3, 4. 4* 8. Mrs. Ma we. 

7. Pholas striata. Ph. testa oblonga, rotundata, multifariam striata. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1111. Linn. Gmel. p. 3215. 
Shell oblong, rounded, variously striated. 
Rumph. Mus. t. 46. f. H. Petiv. Amboin. t. 19. f. 8. Gault. Test. 

t. 105. f. F. Speng. Besch. Berl. Naturf. 4. t. 5. f. 1—5. Phil. 

Trans, vol. 55. pi. 1. f. 1, 2, 3, 4. Chemn. Conch, t. 102. 867—871. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 170. f. 1, 2, 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 117. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 26. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 32. 

This singular species of Pholas is striated in several 
directions. The striae at the head of the shell, or that 
part which is not buried in the wood, are very distinct ; 
and their roughened waved surface, when perfectly 
clean and magnified, has somewhat the appearance of 
fine turned ivory. The shield which covers the hinge 
is nearly heart-shaped, and beneath it is a narrow plate, 
which connects the valves. They are both seen in 
fig. 1. Fig. 2. represents a shell in the same position, 
but without the shield, to show the two milk-white teeth 
that project from the back of the shell. The sides, 
which are buried in the wood, are extremely thin, and 
striated in two directions. In front there are two shields, 
one on each side of the opening, besides a narrow 
plate down the middle, like that behind. The bottom 
is open, and in full-grown shells rather curved. There 
is a long, slender, curved tooth in each of the principal 
valves. Fig. 4. is a shell in its natural situation, en- 
closed in a piece of mahogany, the cavity of which is 
longer than the shell itself, and therefore could not 
have been made by any rotatory motion of the testa- 
ceous valves, as suggested by Reaumur. The spe- 



84 PHOLAS. 

cimens represented in the wood in fig. 8. are young 
shells of the same species, with the aperture exposed. 

There is no specific difference between the Ph. striata 
and Ph. pusilla. Gualtieri has figured the shell, but 
he has made it too broad. It was this circumstance 
which probably led Linnseus to make the pusilla a dis- 
tinct species, but he was evidently in doubt about the 
matter. Some shells are shorter and broader at bottom 
than others. Such are those figured under the name 
of Ph. striata by Chemnitz, vol. 8. pi. 102. f. 864—866. 

It is not an English species, but brought to us in 
ships from America and India. 



HOOKED PIERCER. 
PI. 16. /. 5, 6, 7. Dr. Coombe. 

8. Pholas falcata. Ph. testa subovata, multifariam striata, apertura pa- 

tentissima, cardinis dentefalcato. 
Shell somewhat oval, variously striated; aperture very large; hinge with a 

hooked tooth. 

This is a new species, distinguished by the singular 
conformation of its tooth, which, after curving from 
under the hinge in the usual manner, returns again so 
as to give it the figure of a pruning-hook. The aper- 
ture of the shell is very large, at the base of which, 
where the valves unite, there is a little projection, or 
nail, which proceeds from the interior of the shell, and 
gives stability to the union. This appendage is com- 
mon to the wood-piercers, and corresponds with the 
external division of the striae. The shell is much 
shorter and wider in proportion than the Ph. striata, 
but is marked externally in the same manner. 



JP'L'/OLAS 










?' 




PHOLAS. 85 



HEART-SHAPED PIERCER. 

9. Pholas cordata. Ph. testa brevi, turgida, posterius striis elevatis 
transversis subtilibus exarata ; hiatu cordato. Linn. Gmel.p. 3216. 

Shell short and turgid, finely marked behind with elevated transverse 
striae ; aperture heart-shaped. 

Schr'dt. Einl. in Conch. 3. p. 544. n. 4. t. 9. f. 22 — 24. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 169. f. 8, 9, 10. 

This species is described by Schroter as very thin 
and brittle ; of a dirty white colour, and smooth on the 
fore part, except a few ridges. The tooth is minute, 
and concealed in the shell. It is about half an inch 
long, and burrows in corallines. 



CHILI PIERCER. 

10. Pholas Chiloensis. Ph. testa oblonga, depressiuscula ; striis longi- 

tudinalibus distantibus. Linn. Gmeh p. 3217. 
Shell oblong, rather depressed, with distant longitudinal striae. 
Molini Hist Nat. Chil. p. 179. 

Described only by Molini. It is five inches long, and 
has minute appendages. Inhabits the rocks on the 
coast of Chili. 



GAPING PIERCER. 

11. Pholas hians. Ph. testa bivalvi, alba, transverse arcuatim striata, 

supra connivente, medio convexa, subtus cuneiformi ; apertura ovali 

patentissima. Linn. Gmel. p. 3217. 
Shell of two valves, white, with transverse arched striae ; above conni- 

vent, in the middle convex, beneath wedge-shaped ; aperture oval and 

very large. 
Chemn. Conch. 10. p. 364. pi. 172. f. 1678— -1681. Spengl. Nov. Act. 

Soc. Dan. 2. f. 8— 11. 

This species is about an inch and a half long ; it ha? 



86 PHOLAS. 

very small teeth, and an aperture which extends two- 
thirds the length of the shell. It inhabits the American 
islands, and burrows in calcareous rocks and corals. 



TEREDO PIERCER. 

12. Pholas Teredula. Ph. testa oblonga, alba; sutura granulata,fusca, 

longitudinali. Linn. Gmel. 3217. 
Shell oblong and white, with a longitudinal brown granulated suture. 
Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop. 2. p. 240. t. 6. f. 26. A. D. 

This shell, according to Pallas, inhabits the Belgic 
shores, and penetrates timber. It is more like a por- 
tion of a Teredo than a Pholas. 

Gmelin's Ph. Campechensis, p. 3215. n. 8. is too ob- 
scure to be admitted as a species. He refers to Lister, 
t. 432. for his authority, but the figure is not sufficiently 
distinct from Ph. Candida, to be considered as specific, 



BIVALVE SHELLS 



Genus 1. 
MYA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Ascidia. 

Testa bivalvis, hians utplurimum altera extremitate. 
Cardo dente, plerisque uno, solido, crasso, patulo, vacuo, (nee inserto 
testa opposite.) 



Animal an Ascidia. 

Shell of two valves ; in several species open at one end. 
Hinge, in general, with a single solid, thick, broad tooth, not inserted 
into the opposite valve. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Bruguiere has separated the Mya Pictorum, M. mar- 
garitifera, and such shells as resemble them, from the 
Linnaean Myce, and has formed of them a new genus, 
under the name of Unto. The difference indeed is 
obvious between the hinges of the shells just mentioned, 
and those of the M. truncata, &c. : we shall therefore 
describe the two kinds under different heads ; namely, 
shells with teeth not inserted into the opposite valve; and 
shells with teeth inserted into the opposite valve. There 
is also a difference in the animal inhabiting the two 
kinds of shells ; the animals of the M. truncata, and 
M. arenaria, bury themselves in the sand, and are, each 
of them, provided with a long flexible double tube* 



88 MYA. 

which they protrude above the surface of the sand, and 
through which they respire and take their food. The 
animal of the M. Pictorum, on the contrary, has no such 
provision ; it has merely a short muscular foot, which it 
protrudes from the hinder part of the shell, arid is the 
organ by which it moves its habitation from one place 
to another. The shell is generally found buried in sand 
or mud ; and the animal, though an inhabitant of the 
water, is capable of existing even when deprived of its 
native element. Bosc observed them alive, in America, 
in hardened mud, which resisted his efforts with a 
spade to dig them out ; it seems they had remained in 
this situation during three or four summer months, 
without any refreshment except a few slight showers. 

One of the species of this genus, the M. margari- 
tifera, has long been celebrated for the pearls which it 
has at different times produced. It is upon record, in 
the second volume of the Philosophical Transactions 
Abridged, that several pearls of great size were procured 
from this shell, in the rivers of the county of Tyrone 
and Donegal, in Ireland. One that weighed thirty-six 
carats was valued at forty pounds, but being foul, lost 
much of its worth. Other single pearls were sold for 
four pounds ten shillings, and ten pounds ; and it is de- 
serving of notice, that the last was sold a second time 
to Lady Glenlealy, who put it into a necklace, and re- 
fused eighty pounds for it from the Duchess of Ormond. 

The pearl is produced by a deposition of testaceous 
matter on the interior coat of the shell ; it is a tubercle 
formed at pleasure by the animal, and is generally 
secreted to repair the damages made by certain worms 
that penetrate the inside of the shell near the edge of 
the valves, and, working themselves a passage between 



MYA. 89 

the laminae that compose the cover, perforate the inter- 
nal silvery coat. The remedy for this evil is imme- 
diately applied ; the animal secretes the material, the 
hole is stopped, and a pearl is formed. Linnaeus, who 
remarked how the animal contrived to put a stop to 
enemies which were living at its expense, proposed to 
imitate the worms, and procure artificial pearls by 
piercing the shells with an instrument. The means 
which he employed were kept a secret by the Swedish 
government. It succeeded to a certain degree ; but the 
number of saleable pearls produced were so inconsi- 
derable, in proportion to the useless tubercles, that the 
expense exceeded the profit, and the scheme was aban- 
doned. 

There is reason to believe that the Chinese have long 
known the secret of producing pearls, by perforating 
the shells. 

Pliny remarks that small red pearls are found in the 
Mediterranean, especially about the Thracian JBos- 
phorus, in certain shells called myce; but he does not 
attempt to define the species. In nostro mari reperiri 
soleba?it 9 crebriiis circa Bosphorum Thracium, rufi ac 
parvi in conchis, quas myas appellant. (Plin. lib. ix. c. 35.) 



90 MYA. 

* With teeth not inserted into the opposite valve. 

ABRUPT GAPER. 
PI. 11. f. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe. 

I. Mya truncata. M. testa ovata, postice truncata; cardinis dente 

antrorsum porrecto, ohtusissimo. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. J 112. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3217. 
Shell oval, truncated behind ; hinge with a very blunt tooth projecting 

forwards. 
List. Conch, t. 428. f. 269. Petiver Gaz. t. 79. f. 12. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 44. Da Cost. Br. Conch, pi. 15. f. 1, 2. 

Chemn. Conch. 6. pi. 1. f. 1, 2. Encyclop. Method, pi. 229. f. 2. a. b. 

Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 92. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 32. Linn. Trans. 6. 

pi. 14. f. 1, 2. and 8. p. 35. 
/3. lis*. Cowc/i. t. 429. f. 270. 

A strong, broad, truncated shell, concentrically 
wrinkled, and covered with a tough ochreous epidermis, 
which extends beyond the open end, and is the sheath 
through which the animal protrudes its tubular neck. 
The valves very concave, and turned a little outwards at 
the gaping end. The tooth broad and erect. Inside 
white, with a strong muscular depression near the supe- 
rior angle at the open end. When the epidermis is 
removed, the shell is generally of a chalky white. 

Inhabits the European seas, and is said by Fabricius 
to be eaten by the inhabitants of Greenland. It is not 
uncommon on the British coasts, and many specimens, 
but chiefly single valves, are thrown upon our shores. 
Mr. Montagu states that he has taken it alive on the 
coast of Devonshire, measuring two inches and a half 
in length, and three inches and a half in breadth. 

Lister's figure in pi. 429. is evidently intended for this 
shell ; but it varies in being less truncated than usual. 
The reference by Linnaeus, to Gualtieri, t. 91. f. D. is 
omitted the figure being very unlike the M. truncata. 



,17. 






MYA. 91 

SAND GAPER. 
PI. 17. /. 3. 

2. My a arenaria. M. testa ovata, postice rotundata ; cardinis dente 
antrorsum porrecto, rotundato, denticuloque laterali. Linn. Syst. Nat. 
ed. 1812. p. 1J12. Linn. Gmel. 1. p. 3218. 

Shell oval, rounded behind ; hinge with a rounded tooth projecting for- 
wards, and a lateral smaller one. 

List. Conch, t. 418. f. 262. & t. 419. f. 263. Baster. Opusc. Subs. t. 7. 
f. I. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. pi. 45. Chem. Conch. 6. 1. 1. 
f. 3, 4. Encyclop. Method, t. 229, f. 1. a. b. Pult. in Hutch. 
Dorset, t. 4. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 85. Mont Test. Brit. 
p. 30. Linn. Trans. 6. 14. f. 3, 4. & 8. p. 35. 

The M. arenaria is a strong oval shell, gaping at 
both ends. The outside, when recent, is covered with 
a yellowish, or reddish brown coat, frequently marked 
with dark patches. It is concentrically striated, and 
has faint indications of longitudinal striae, from hinge to 
margin; but these are not visible in all shells. The 
tooth is thick and spoon-shaped, with a small lateral 
one on the anterior side. The inside white ; the nar- 
row end turns outwards, and has a few hairs attached 
to the epidermis externally. The valves are connected 
together by a strong cartilage, which fills the cavity of 
the tooth. 

Inhabits the European seas, and is found on sandy 
shores, buried to the depth of several inches, with the 
narrow end upwards. The animal, like that of the 
preceding species, has a long double tube, which it 
can extend, or contract, at pleasure. Their situation in 
the sand is known by a small hole on the surface, 
which betrays them to the fishermen, who dig them up 
for sale. They are brought to the London market 



92 MYA. 

about February, and are sold at two shillings a dozen, 
but are not much esteemed. The largest measure 
about five inches in breadth, and two inches and a half 
from hinge to margin. They are eaten in the neigh- 
bourhood of Southampton, where the fishermen call 
them old maids. 



CONVEX GAPER. 
PL 18. /. 1. 

3. Mya convexa. M. testa ovata, convexa, fragili, antice oblique suban- 

gulata ; cardinis dente semiovali. 
Shell oval, convex, brittle ; anterior end obliquely angulated ; tooth in 

the hinge semioval. 
Donovan Brit. Shells, t. 82. (Mya declivis.) 

A very light brittle shell, remarkably convex, and 
strongly angulated at the anterior end : the outside is 
concentrically striated, and covered with an ochreous 
coat, rather rough near the anterior edge ; when de- 
prived of this coat, the shell is perfectly white. Inside 
yellowish white; tooth small, oval, and projecting 
horizontally. 

This species is certainly distinct from the following, 
which is a much stronger and flatter shell. Its remark- 
able convexity has induced the author to give it the 
trivial name of convex gaper. Donovan has evidently- 
figured this shell, under the name of M. declivis. It 
is found on the coast of Devonshire. 



",L.,Ar 






; 




t 



MYA. 93 

SLOPING GAPER. 
PL 18. /: 2, 3. 

4, Mya declivis. M. testa ovata, compressiuscula, antict subtruncata, 

cardinis dente wasso. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 36. 
Shell oval and flattish, somewhat truncated at the anterior end ; hinge 

with a thick tooth. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. 4. p. 160. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 27. t. 4. 

f. 6. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 40. (M. pubescens.) 

That the M. pubescens of Montagu is the M. declivis 
of Pennant, there is but little reason to doubt. The 
full-grown shell, fig. 2. is strong, and covered, exter- 
nally, with a rough epidermis, like shagrin. One valve 
is much deeper, and somewhat larger than the other, 
so that when the shell is closed, the edges of the valves 
are not together. The interior of the shell is white ; 
the muscular depressions near the truncated end are 
strong, but the lower one is not carried so far within 
the shell as in the preceding species. The tooth is 
thick, strong, and divided into two cavities by a sharp 
denticulation. 

Fig. 3. is a young shell of the same species, very thin 
and brittle, of an oval shape, and white colour. It is 
very slightly striated concentrically, and the roughness 
on the outside is not apparent in small specimens. 
Shells of this size are not uncommon on the Devonshire 
coast, but large specimens such as fig. 2. have been 
procured only of late. It is the full-grown shell that 
Pennant mentions as frequent about the Hebrides, the 
fish of which is eaten by the gentry. 



MYA. 

SPOON-HINGE GAPER. 
PL 24./. 7, 8, 9. Mr. Sowerby. 

5. Mya praetenuis. M. testa ovata, planiuscula ; cardinis dente cochlear i- 

formi. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37. 
Shell oval and flattish ; hinge with a spoon-shaped tooth. 
Chama praetenuis. Petiver Gazoph. t. 94. f. 4. 
Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 176. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 28. t. 4. f. 7. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 41. pi. 1. f. 2. 

This delicate species was first noticed by Petiver. 
It is oval, thin, brittle, and flat ; of a whitish colour, 
and gaping behind ; a few scarcely visible concentric 
striae mark the outside of the shell ; the inside is white, 
with a broad, hollow, spoon-shaped tooth in each valve. 
Large specimens are an inch long, and an inch and a 
half broad. 

Dr. Pulteney found this shell on the sands in Poole 
Harbour, and on the north shore near Brownsea Isle. 
He also collected a few valves on the shore between 
Weymouth and Portland. According to Mr. Montagu, 
single valves are not uncommonly dredged in Falmouth 
Harbour, and perfect shells have been taken on the 
south coast of Devon. 



DUCK GAPER. 

6. Mya anatina. M. testa globosa, nivea, pellucida; cardinis dente pri- 
mario prominent e, rotundato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3221. 

Shell globular, very white and pellucid ; primary tooth of the hinge 
prominent and rounded. 

Adanson Seneg. pi. 19. f. 2. (Tugon 9 )Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 3. f. 17, 18. 
Encyclop. Method, pi. 229. f. 3. a. b. 

A thin but firm shell, of a round shape, gaping wide 



MYA. 95 

at one end, but closed at the other. The exterior sur- 
face is striated both longitudinally and transversely, 
which gives it a reticulated appearance ; the mouth is 
round and has a thick lip ; the hinge has a strong 
spoon-shaped tooth ; the shell is of a white colour. 
It is rarely found in Guinea, but frequently on the 
African shore ; abundantly, says Adanson, at the mouth 
of the Niger. 

GLOBULAR GAPER. 
PL 24. /. 4, 5, 6. Mrs. Mawe. 

7. My a globosa. M. testa sub orbicular i, globosa, hians, decussalim 
striata ; cardinis dente cochlear if ormi. 

Shell of a roundish shape, globular, gaping, with decussated striae; 
hinge with a spoon-shaped tooth. 

There is a strong general resemblance between this 
shell and the preceding ; but, upon inspection, the spe- 
cific difference is readily observed, the M. anatina 
being decussated all over, while the M. globosa has 
but little more than half its surface covered with lon- 
gitudinal striae. The thick lip is also wanting, the 
mouth of the M. globosa terminating in a sharp reflex 
margin. The shell has a spoon-shaped tooth; it is 
very thin, and the striae may be plainly seen on the 
inside. 

ARCTIC GAPER. 

8. Mya arctica. M. testa striata ; valvis carinis duabus spinulosis; 
cardine edentulo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3220. Mull. Zool. Dan. Prodr. 
2962. 

Shell striated; valves with two somewhat spinous ridges; hinge toothless. 
Mya testa striata; valvis carinis duabus spinulosis, scepe obsoletis ; car- 
dine obsolete dentato. Fabr. Fn. Groenl. p. 407. N. 408. 

This shell is the size of a bean, about an inch and a 






96 MYA. 

half long, of a pale yellow without, and milk-white 
within; it resembles an Area, and is rather flattish 
before. It is obtuse on the fore part, and rather sharp 
behind. 

Inhabits the North seas, and is found among Algce, 
and other marine substances. 



TOOTHLESS GAPER. 

9. Mya edentula. M. testa striata, ovali, tequivalvi, ample hiante ; car- 

dine edentulo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3220. Pall. Iter 2. p. 700. 
Shell striated, oval, of equal valves, gaping widely ; hinge without teeth. 

This species is about an inch long, thin, white, rather 
worn, with about thirty-three striae on each valve, 
which are farther apart at the shorter end than at 
the other: the hinge has a thickish reflex lip. 



PITCHY GAPER. 
PL 22./. 5. Dr. Coombe. 

10. Mya picea. M. testa crassa, oblonga, utrinque hiante, epidermide 
nigra superinduta ; cardine edentulo. 

Shell thick, oblong, gaping at both ends, and covered with a black epi- 
dermis ; hinge without teeth. 

Mya siliqua. Chemn. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1934. 

A strong oblong shell, decorticated about the hinge, 
and covered with a friable coat as black as pitch, which 
easily separates from the surface of the shell ; inside 
bluish white, the cavity in each valve more or less filled 
with a deposition of extraneous testaceous matter; 
valves united by cartilage, and gaping greatly at both 
ends. 



MYA. 97 

Chemnitz has figured this shell from a specimen in 
Spengler's museum. 

Its country is unknown. 

NICOBAR GAPER. 

11. Mya Nicobarica. M. testa cequivalm, ovato-oblonga, decussation 
striata ; cardinis dente solitario, lato, perpendicular i, cochlear if ormi. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3221. 

Shell of equal valves, snowy, oblong oval, with decussated striae ; hinge 
with a single, broad, perpendicular, and spoon-shaped tooth. 

Mya Candida Indite orientalis, testa oblonga, antice angulata, postice 
rotundata. Chemn. Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 17, 18. 

The valves of this shell are on one side convex, 
broad, and rounded at the margin ; on the other more 
angular, narrow, flat, and gaping. The tooth is large, 
and the shell is about an inch and a quarter long, and 
an inch and three quarters broad. 

It inhabits the Nicobar Islands. 

BEAKED GAPER, 

12. Mya rostrata. M. testa fragilissima, alba, diaphana, membranacea, 
antice rostro cylindrico prcducto, hiante ; postice tumido et rotundato ; 
cardinis dente minuto excavato. 

Shell very fragile, white, diaphanous, and membranous, the fore part 
produced into a cylindrical beak, the hind part round and tumid ; 
hinge with a small excavated tooth. 

Chemn. Conch. 11. p. 189. vignette C. D. 

This shell is figured by Chemnitz, of a pear shape, 
with one end remarkably lengthened, and gaping ; the 
valves are very thin and finely striated concentrically ; 
they close in all parts, except the end of the beak, and 
are delicately white within. 



VOL. I. 



98 MYA 



NORWAY GAPER. 
PL 18. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

13. Mya Norwegica. M. testa ovali, longitudinaliter dense striata, 
alter o fine rotundata, alter o truncata, natibus decorticatis. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3222. 

Shell oval, closely striated longitudinally ; one end rounded, the other 

truncated. 
Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1647, 1648. 

In the shell represented in pi. 18. the coat is wanting, 
and therefore the longitudinal striae are not so visible 
as in the figure by Chemnitz. The inside of the shell 
is pearly, and there is a triangular piece like enamel in 
the cavity of the hinge, which does not appear, like a 
tooth, to be permanent. The shell is near an inch long, 
and an inch and three quarters broad. It inhabits 
Norway. 

MEMBRANOUS GAPER. 

14. Mya merabranacea. M. testa ovata, membranacea, Candida ; margine 
ad proboscidem protracto t reflexo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. Mull.ZooL 
Dan. Prodr. 2964. 

Shell oval membranaceous, and white ; margin, at the beak, prolonged 

and reflex. 
Olaff. Isl. Res. 901. t. 11. f. 10. 

This is an oval shell, about the size of a bean, with a 
plain hinge without any appearance of teeth. It in- 
habits the coast of Iceland. 

DEFORMED GAPER. 

15. Mya distorta. M. testa subovali, valvulis difformibus, tumidio- 
ribus ; cardinis dente crasso. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37. 

Shell suboval, valves tumid and deformed ; hinge with a thick tooth. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 42. t. 1. f. 1. 

A thin, brittle, white shell, with convex valves of a 



MYA- 99 

rugged appearance, and more or less indented at the 
margin. Inside white, with a broad somewhat trian- 
gular tooth in each valve. The shell in some degree 
resembles the 31. prtetenuis, but the margin is waved, 
and the end is not truncated as in that species. It is 
about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch broad. 
Mr. Montagu found it lodged in hard limestone at 
Plymouth, into which it had bored like a Pholas ; and 
which he thinks was probably the occasion of its dis- 
torted growth. 



DOUBLE-TOOTHED GAPER. 

16. Mya bidentata. M. testa subovali, compressa, cardinis dentibus 
antrorsum porrectis, obliquis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 41. 

Shell somewhat oval, teeth at the hinge projecting forwards, oblique. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 44. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812.— 4. p. 166. 

A very small species, an eighth of an inch long, and 
somewhat more in breadth. Of a dirty white colour, 
compressed, and smooth ; two broad diverging teeth in 
one valve, but none in the other. 

This was found by Mr. Montagu, burrowed in old 
thick oyster shells from Salcomb Bay, Devonshire. 

DECUSSATED GAPER. 

17. Mya decussata. M. testa ovata, decussata; margine undata. 
Shell oval, decussated; margin waved. 

Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 20. pi. 28. f. 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 
4. p. 167. 

A white oval shell, with irregular concentric ridges 
decussated by regular longitudinal striae, which form 
tubercles at the anterior end; the margin is waved. 
Inside white, with a broad erect tooth in one valve, and 
a projecting indented plate in the other. 



100 MYA. 

This is a new species, for which, with many more, 
we are indebted to Mr. Montagu, who received it from 
the Frith of Forth. 



PURPLE GAPER. 

18. Mya purpurea. M. testa ovata, transverse rugosa ; cardinis dente 
erecto, solitario. 

Shell oval, transversely wrinkled ; hinge with a single erect tooth. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 21. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 167. 

An oval shell, slightly wrinkled transversely ; of a 
whitish colour, with a purple beak. There is a single 
erect tooth, slightly notched, in each valve. 

This is a minute species, not above the twelfth part 
of an inch long. Discovered amongst corallines on the 
Devonshire coast, by Mr. Montagu. 

RUSTY GAPER. 

19. Mya ferruginosa. M. Testa subovali, obsolete rugosa ; cardinis den- 
tibus duobus porrectis. 

Shell somewhat oval, with obsolete wrinkles ; hinge with two projecting 

teeth. 
Mont . Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 22. t. 26. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 

p. 167. 

The beak of this shell is obtuse, and placed nearest 
to one end ; the colour is white, but the shell is usually 
covered with a rusty coat which is thick and tenacious. 
The inside is white, and the hinge has two projecting 
teeth, separated by a large triangular notch. 

This shell was found on Belton Sand, near Dunbar, 
in Scotland, and is about a quarter of an inch long, 
and nearly twice as broad. 



MY A. 101 



GLOSSY GAPER. 

20. Mya nitens. M. testa ovata, concentrica, striata ; cardine vnidentato. 

Shell oval, striated concentrically ; hinge with a single tooth. 

Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 165. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. p. 168. 

An oval glossy shell, of a pink and white colour, 
regularly striated concentrically. The inside is of the 
same colour as the outside, but not so glossy. The 
single tooth in one valve shuts into a deep cleft in the 
other. Length hardly a quarter of an inch ; breadth 
rather more. 

Mr. Montagu obtained this species from the Scottish 
coast, near Dunbar, but observes that it is extremely 
rare. 



PRISMATIC GAPER. 

21. Mya prismatica. M. testa oblonga, alba, anterius rostrata; car- 

dinis dente subcochleariformi. 
Shell oblong, white, beaked before; hinge with a somewhat spoon-shaped 

tooth. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 23. pi. 26. f. 3. (Ligula prismatica.) 

This is a small white shell, three-eighths of an inch 
long, and twice as broad. It is flat, and thin, and the 
fore part is produced into a small beak ; the outside is 
obsoletely striated concentrically, and the inside is 
smooth and glossy: the hinge, in each valve, has a 
broad horizontal tooth, besides one which is erect ; and 
one of the valves has lateral laminae. 

Mr. Montagu, to whom we are wholly indebted for 
the description of this species, received it from Belton 
Sands, near Dunbar, in Scotland, and from the sands 
between Porto Bello and Musselburg. A single valve 
has also been found on the coast of Devonshire. 



102 MYA. 

It derives its trivial name from its property of re- 
flecting, in particular lights, strong prismatic colours. 

SUBSTRIATED GAPER. 

22. Mya substriata. M. testa subovali, alba, subpellucida> longitudi- 
naliter obsolete striata. 

Shell suboval, white, subpellucid, with obsolete longitudinal striae. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 25. (Ligula substriata.) 

The outside is marked with distant elevated striae ; 
the inside is plain and the margin smooth ; the hinge 
has a slight projection inwards. The shell measures 
one-tenth of an inch in diameter. It was discovered, 
among corallines, by Mr. Montagu, on the coast of 
Devonshire. It is extremely rare. 

DUBIOUS GAPER. 
PL 25./. 2, 3. Dr. Coombe. 

23. Mya dubia. M. testa subovali, hiante; cardinis dente obsoleto. 
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 33. 

Shell gaping and suboval ; hinge with an obsolete tooth. 

Penn. Br. Zool. 1812. vol. 4. p. 165. pi. 47. Da Costa, Brit. Conch. 
p. 234. Chama parva. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 108. Pult. in 
Hutch. Dorset, p. 27. t. 1. f. 1 1. Mont . Test. Brit. p. 28. item Suppl. 
p. 20. M. Pholadia. 

It has been doubted whether this shell does not 
belong to the genus Pholas; but Dr. Maton very pro- 
perly remarks, that, notwithstanding its habits and ap- 
pearance are like those of a Pholas, it wants the essen- 
tial characters of that genus, viz. the accessory valves, 
and therefore must be necessarily placed among the 

The shell is of a light brown colour, thin, brittle, 
opaque, and marked with fine concentric strise ; the 



MYA. 103 

beak is prominent, and placed very near the end of the 
shell ; when the valves are closed, the gape or opening 
appears very large, and shows the hinge with its rudi- 
ments of teeth. 

This species is found, according to Mr. Montagu, on 
the Dorset coast, at Torbay, and at Plymouth, bur- 
rowed in detached pieces of lime-stone ; and its cham- 
ber is often lined with shelly matter, that sometimes 
protrudes, like a tube, a quarter of an inch beyond the 
stone. Mr, Montagu has specimens of this My a, not 
only in lime- stone, but also in fluor, and in granite ! 

WHITE NORWAY GAPER. 

24. Mya nitida. M. testa ovali, alba, Icevi; cardinis utriusque dente 
obtuso. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. 

Shell oval, white and smooth ; hinge with an obtuse tooth in each valve. 
Muller, Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2963. 

Described only by Muller. Inhabits Norway. 
** With teeth inserted into the opposite valve. 

DUTCH GAPER. 
PI. 19. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby. 

25. Mya Batava. M. testa subovali, utraque extremitate rotundata. 
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 37. 

Shell of a suboval shape, rounded at both ends. 

Schr'dt. Flussconch, t. 3. f. 2. 4 & 5. Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 1. f. 6. En- 
cyclop. Method, t. 248. f. 2. Donor. Brit. Shells, t. 174. M. Pic- 
tornm. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 36. 

This shell has been confounded with the true 31. 
Pictorum, but may be distinguished by its shape, which 
is always less pointed at the apex, and generally less 
prominent at the beak, than in the M. Pictorum. It is 



104 MYA. 

an olive green shell inclining to brown, with a pearly 
inside, and a broad crenated tooth in each valve, be- 
sides two lateral laminae, or plates, in one valve, and 
one in the other, which lock together, and form the 
hinge. Both ends of the shell are rounded, and in this 
it principally differs from the following species. 

It is common in Holland, and used by the Dutch 
painters to contain a preparation of gold and silver 
leaf. In England it is considered as a rare shell ; no- 
ticed by Mr. Montagu, in the river Kennet, above the 
town of Newbury in Berkshire, but no where else. 

PAINTERS GAPER. 
PL 19. /. 3, 4. 

26. Mya Pictorum. M. testa ovata, cardinis dente primario crenulato, 

laterali longitudinali, alterius duplicato. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 

p. 1112. Linn. Gmel. p. 3218. 
Shell oval, hinge with a crenated primary tooth ; a long lateral tooth in 

one valve, and two in the other. 
List. Anim. Ang. t. 2. f. 4. Append. 1. 1. f. 4. Conch. 

t. 146. f. 1. 147. f. 3. Petiv. Gaz. t. 93. f. 9. Schroter Flussconch. 

t. 3. f. 3. and t. 4. f. 6. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 46. f. 1. 

Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 228. pi. 15. f. 4. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248. 

f. 4. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 89. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 34. (Mya 

ovalis.) Linn. Trans. 6. pi. 14, f. 7, 8, 9. and 8. p. 38. 

This shell is of an oblong-oval shape, and longer in 
proportion than the 31. Batava. It is covered with a 
green epidermis, striated concentrically, which, in old 
shells, is almost black. In young shells, the epidermis 
is often wrinkled near the hinge, which part in old 
shells is sometimes decorticated. The inside is pearly, 
and the hinge is furnished with teeth of the same form 
as in the M. Batava. The valves shut close in front, 
but are a little open at each end. 



MY A. 105 

This is not an uncommon shell in many parts of 
Europe; but it was first described and figured, as 
English, by Lister, and is a frequent inhabitant of 
the Thames, and other rapid rivers. It is used, like 
the preceding species, to hold colours, and from that 
circumstance, has received the name of Painters Gaper. 

OVAL GAPER. 
PI. 19./. 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

27. Mya ovata. M. testa ovata, antrorsum angustata. Linn. Trans. 8. 

p. 39. 
Shell oval, narrow before. 
List. Anim. Angl. App. f. 6. Donov. Brit. Shells, 1. 101. (M. depressa.) 

and t. 122. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 34. and p. 563. Linn. Trans. 8. 

p. 39. 

This is a thick shell, narrower than the M. JBatava, 
but broader than the M. Pictorum. It is covered with 
a green epidermis, which varies to a dark brown, and 
is striated concentrically; there are, in many speci- 
mens, obsolete rays running from the hinge to the mar- 
gin. The hinge, like that of the two preceding species, 
has a large crenated tooth, besides a long lateral one, 
in one valve, and two lateral teeth in the other. The 
difference between these three species of shells, about 
which there have been so many contradictory opinions, 
can in no way be so clearly established as by figures ; 
we have therefore endeavoured to exhibit good speci- 
mens of each, that their respective peculiarities may be 
' readily distinguished. 

The M. ovata inhabits the fresh waters of different 
parts of Europe, and is found in England, in the rivers 
Froome and Avon, in Somersetshire, and in the New 
River, near London. 



106 MY A. 

THICK GAPEK. 
PL 20 and 21. Mr. Jennings. 

28. Mya crassa. M. testa ovata, antrorsum angustata, vmbonibus decor- 

ticatis. 
Shell oval, narrow before, umbones decorticated. 

A thick shell covered with a rough dark brown 
epidermis, except near the hinge, where it is completely 
decorticated. The shell is truncated towards the car- 
tilage slope, and undulated from the hinge to near the 
margin. The margin is smooth. The inside is pearly, 
and the hinge is furnished with a very strong crenated 
tooth, which fits into a similar depression in the op- 
posite valve ; the lateral teeth are extremely thick and 
rough ; there are two in one valve and one in the other. 
The muscular depressions are deep and crenated. This 
massy shell, figured from a specimen in the splendid 
cabinet of Mr. Jennings, weighs a pound and six 
ounces, and measures three inches and a half in length, 
and six inches in breadth. Its country is unknown. 

KNOTTED GAPER. 
Pl.22./. 1, 2, 3, 4. Mr. Jennings. 

29. Mya nodulosa. M. testa subovali, valvulis nodulosis ; cardinis 

dente crasso, crenulafo. 
Shell somewhat oval, valves knotted; hinge with a thick crenated tooth. 

This species is remarkable for the knots with which 
the outside of each valve is studded. In some places 
these knots are perfectly distinct, but near the margin 
they unite, and form waved ridges. This shell is of a 
bottle-green colour, and more or less decorticated about 
the hinge. The inside is pearly, and the teeth, like 



,M 




MSA. 



22. 




MTA.. 



PZ.22. 











7/»L 






MYA. 107 

those of the preceding species, are rough and clumsy. 
Fig. 3, and 4, are a variety of the shell, somewhat differ- 
ing in shape, but the same in every other respect as the 
larger one ; perhaps the difference is owing merely to 
age. This species is remarkably thick. Its country 
is unknown. 



PEARL GAPER. 
PL 23. /. 1, 2, 3. 

30. Mya margaritifera. M. testa ovata, anterius coarctata; cardinis 

dente primario conico, umbonibus decorticatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 

12. p. 1112. Linn. Gmel. p. 3219. 
Shell oval, compressed on the fore part ; primary tooth of the hinge 

conic, umbones decorticated. 
Mya testa ovali-oblonga, apertura sinuata, natibus decorticatis. Mull. 

Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2961. 
List Anim. Angl. App. t. 1. f. 1. Conch, t. 149. f. 4. Knorr. 

Vergn. 4. pi. 25. f. 2. Schrot. Flussconch. t. 4. f. 1. Born. Test. 

p. 21. Penn. Br. Zool. 1812. pi. 46. f. 2. Da Cost. Brit Conch. 

pi. 15. f. 3. Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 1. f. 5. Envy clop. Method, pi. 249. 

f. 5. Donov. Brit. Shells, t. 73. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 33. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 40. 

The M. margaritifera is a strong oblong-oval shell, 
covered with a thick, black epidermis. It is always 
more or less decorticated about the hinge, and fre- 
quently worm-eaten; the epidermis is concentrically 
striated, and rather overlaps the margin. The inside 
is of a bluish green colour, and pearly lustre; the 
hinge has a prominent tooth in one valve, which locks 
into a corresponding sulcus in the opposite valve; the 
muscular depressions are very strong and rugged, par- 
ticularly the one next the hinge. 

This shell is confined to the rapid rivers of northern 
climates. It is found within the Arctic circle, in Lap- 



108 MYA. 

land, Sweden, Norway, Saxony, and England. Mr. 
Montagu mentions it as common in the rivers of De- 
vonshire which take their rise from the mountains of 
Dartmoor, and adds that it is not uncommon in the 
northern parts and in Wales. 

It is this shell which occasionally produces pearls, 
as has been already observed, in the general observa- 
tions to the genus Mya. The shell represented in the 
upper figure of pi. 23, has been selected for the purpose 
of showing the usual situation of the pearls in these 
shells, though they are sometimes found more towards 
the centre. 



WRINKLED GAPER. 
PL 24. /. 1, 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe. 

31. Mya corrugata. M. testa rhombea, viridi; vmbonibus 7'ugosis. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3221. Mull. Hist. Verm. p. 214. 
Shell rhombic, green ; unibones wrinkled. 
Testa ovali viridescente, umbonibus corrugatis, sive rugosis. Chemn. 

Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 22. a. b. 
Schroter Flussconch. t. 9. f. 3. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248. f. 6. 

This shell is of a grass-green colour, remarkably 
corrugated near the hinge, and radiated down the sides. 
It is thin, pellucid, and whitish, beneath the epidermis ; 
the inside is marked with fine radiated striae ; the teeth 
of the hinge resemble those of the M. Pictorum. It 
inhabits the rivers of Coromandel, and is from three- 
quarters, to an inch and a half broad. 



Mya, 








r 









MYA. 109 



RADIATED GAPER. 

32. Mya radiata. M. testa cequivahi, pellucida, tmuissime transversim 

striata, viridi Jlavicante, livido-radiata ; valvis altero latere latissimis, 

altero angustissimis . Linn. Gmel. p. 3220. 
Shell of equal valves, pellucid, finely striated trausversely, yellowish 

green with livid rays ; valves very broad on one side, and very narrow 

on the other. 
Chemn. Conch. 6. t. 2. f. 7. Encyclop. Method, pi. 248. f. 5. 
/3. Musculus latior subfuscus, cteruleis lineis radiatus. List. Conch. 

t. 152. f. 7. 

This shell has much the habit of the M. JBatava, but 
is broader, thinner, and more fragile. It is of a green 
colour, decorticated about the hinge, and is regularly 
rayed from hinge to margin. The primary tooth of the 
hinge is crenated ; the inside clay coloured. Inhabits 
the rivers of Malabar. 

Lister has figured a brownish shell, with blue radiate 
lines, which appears to be a variety of this species. 

ROUGH GAPER. 

33. Mya rugosa. M. testa ovali, rugosa, extrinsecus virescente, intm 
margaritacea ; cardinis dente primario crenulato, laterali longitudi- 
nals, alterius duplicato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. 

Shell oval, wrinkled, on the outside greenish, within pearly ; primary 
tooth of the hinge crenulated, lateral teeth long, in one valve double. 

Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1649. 

This shell is described only by Chemnitz. It is 
about an inch long, and an inch and three-quarters 
broad. It is prettily wrinkled on the outside, and is 
found in the rivers on the coast of Coromandel. 



110 MYA. 



KNOBBED GAPER. 



34. Mya nodosa. M. testa ovali, tenera, virescente, natibus nodulosis. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. 

Shell oval, thin, greenish ; umbones knobby. 
Chemn. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1650. 

This is a green, fresh-water shell, smooth in every 
part, except near the hinge, where a few knobs, or pro- 
tuberances, appear. Its country is not mentioned. 

SPURIOUS GAPER. 

35. Mya spuria. M. testa rhombea, viridi ; umbonibus glabris. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3222. 

Shell rhombic, green ; umbones smooth. 

Schrot. Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 5. Favanne Conch, t. 62. f. 11. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 249. f. 3. 

This is a green shell, resembling in shape the M. 
corrugata, but is nearly twice as large, and smooth 
about the hinge. We have Schroter's authority for its 
specific distinction. It inhabits the rivers of Tran- 
quebar. 

ANGULAR GAPER. 

36. Mya syrmatophora. M. testa ovata, depressa ; cardinis marginc ad 
dentem primarium mucrone subulato, altero dilatato. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3222. 

Shell oval, depressed ; margin of the hinge with an-awl shaped projec- 
tion near the primary tooth, that of the other valve dilated. 
Gron. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 1. 2. 

This species is about two inches and a quarter long, 
and two inches broad. Gronovius describes it as 
having marginal teeth on each side, with parallel du- 
plicatures. It is nearly of a triangular shape. In- 
habits the rivers of Guinea. 



MYA. Ill 



ROUNDISH GAPER. 

37. Mya suborbicularis. M. testa suborbiculari, valvulce alterius dente 
primario solitario, alterius duplicate, dentibus lateralibus lamellatis. 
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 41. 

Shell roundish, a single primary tooth in one valve, a double one in the 
other, lateral teeth laminated. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 39. item. Suppl. pi. 26. f. 6. 

This is a yellowish-white shell, frequently covered 
with a brown epidermis, and faintly striated trans- 
versely ; the inside glossy white. 

Mr. Montagu, to whom we are indebted for the know- 
ledge of this species, discovered it at Plymouth, in 
hard lime-stone. He adds, that it is sometimes dredged 
up, free of any extraneous substance, in Salcomb Bay, 
Devonshire. It very strongly resembles the Tellina 
cornea, but is not a fresh-water shell. 

VARIABLE GAPER. 

38. Mya variabilis. M. testa subrhombea, gibbosa, umbonibus longitu- 
dinaliter corrugatis, cardinis dentibus duobus, apice diver gentibus, 
foveis linearibus invicem insertis. Linn. Trans. 10. p. 327. t. 24. 
f. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Shell somewhat rhombic, gibbous, umbones longitudinally wrinkled; 
hinge with two teeth diverging at the apex, and inserted into corre- 
sponding linear cavities. 

This is one of the seven new species of Testacea, 
described and figured by Dr. Maton, in the tenth 
volume of the Linnaean Transactions. It is striated 
transversely, and the longitudinal wrinkles disappear 
towards the middle of the shell. The outside is brown; 
the inside pearly, and bluish. The margin is some- 
what angular before, and forms a straight line at the 
hinge. The shell is about an inch long, and rather 



112 MYA. 

less in breadth. Young shells are smaller, of a purple 
colour within, with prominent wrinkles diverging from 
the apex, nearly to the margin. 

Dr. Maton describes this shell as varying so ex- 
tremely in its structure and contour, according to its 
several stages of growth, that if he had not been able 
to compare them in their intermediate ages, he should 
probably have been led to consider them as distinct 
species ; a mistake which has often originated, as the 
Doctor very justly remarks, from the want of similar 
opportunities. 

It is a fresh-water shell, and inhabits the Rio de la 
Plata, in South America. 

LIPPED GAPER. 

39. Mya labiata. M. testa subovali, valvis occlusissimis, alterius mar- 
gine labii instar prominente. Linn. Trans. 10. p. 326. t. 24. f. 1, 2, 3. 
Shell suboval, valves shut close, with one margin projecting like a lip. 

A strong shell, with a green epidermis, transversely 
striated, the fore part is somewhat beaked ; the inside 
is pearly and shining. The hinge has a solid, projecting 
tooth, in one valve, which is rather spoon-shaped, and 
fits into a triangular cavity in the opposite valve ; the 
umbones are very slightly prominent. 

This shell described with the above by Dr. Maton, 
was also received, through the medium of the Right 
Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, from the aestuary of the Rio 
de la Plata. The specimen from which the characters 
were taken, measures about an inch in length, and 
rather more than half an inch in width. Tts most 
striking characteristic is the inequality of its valves, 
part of the margin of one valve, projecting over the 
corresponding part of the other, so as, exactly to re- 



MY A. 113 

semble a lip. In this particular it bears some resem- 
blance to the following species, which derives its trivial 
name from the inequality of its valves. 

UNEQUAL-VALVED GAPER. 

40. Mya inaequivalvis. M. testa subtriangulari ; umbonibus incurvatis, 

gibbis. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 40. t. 1. f. 6. 
Shell somewhat triangular ; umbones convex and curved inwards. 
Walker Test. Minut. Rar. pi. 3. f. 85. Encyclop. Method, pi. 230. f. 4. 

a. b. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 38. item. Suppl. pi. 26. f. 7. 

This is a small species, which seldom equals half an 
inch in breadth. It is thick, rough, of a dirty white 
colour, and has dissimilar valves, the upper one being 
smaller and not so deep as the other. The lower valve 
projects, on the fore part, into a beak, and is strongly 
striated concentrically ; the upper valve is marked also 
in the same manner, and has besides a few distant 
longitudinal striae. It is generally covered with a brown 
epidermis. There is a strong triangular tooth in one 
valve, which fits into a notch in the other. There are no 
lateral teeth. 

Single valves of this shell are common on the Sand- 
wich shore, but perfect shells are seldom obtained 
unless dredged from the deep. Mr. Montagu noticed 
it on the coasts of Cornwall and Devonshire, and pro- 
cured live specimens in Salcomb Bay. 

Bruguiere has placed this shell in a new genus, under 
the name of Corbula. 



vol. I 



114 MYA. 

GREAT GAPER. 
PL 25. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

41. Mya Glycimeris. M. testa utrinque hiante, crassissima, lamellata, 

oblongo-ovata, transverse striato-rugosa ; cardinis dente primario cras- 

sissimo. Linn. Gmel. p. 3222. 
Shell gaping at both ends, very thick, lamellated, of an oblong oval, with 

transverse wrinkled striae; hinge with a very thick primary tooth. 
List. Conch, t. 414. f. 258. Gault. Test, pi 90. f. A. Born. Mus. p. 20. 

pi. 1. f. 8. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 3. f. 25. Donov. Brit. Shells. 1. 142. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 34. Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl.p. 19. 

This is a very large shell, gaping greatly at both ends, 
and often covered, externally, with unequal waved ridges, 
distributed in the form of bands ; it is of a yellowish, 
or reddish fawn colour, on the outside, and whitish with- 
in ; the hinge is strongly united by cartilage, and there 
is a thick tooth in one valve, which fits into a corre- 
sponding cavity in the other. The anterior, or truncated 
end of the specimen figured in pi. 25., is partly decom- 
posed at the edge, where particles of the shell are form- 
ed into small globular bodies, like those calcareous con- 
cretions called Oolites. 

This shell is about five inches long, and ten broad. 
It is found in the Mediterranean, and on the coasts of 
Spain, and the South of France, but never, we believe, 
in England, though Donovan has admitted it among the 
British Testacea. It is considered as an ambiguous 
species, connecting the Mya with the Solenes, it is placed 
therefore at the end of the genus. 

It will be proper to observe in this place, that the 
Mya Perna, of Linnaeus, is a muscle ; and that the Mya 
Vulcella, is an oyster. The Mya oblonga, of Gmelin, is 
the Mactra Mans; the Mya Gaditana, is the Mactra 
Listeri ; and the Mya australis, is also a Mactra. The 
Mya byssifera, is the Mytilus rugosus. 



Ml&£o 



FL.2& 




Genus 2. 
SOLEN. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Ascidia. 

Testa bivalvis, oblonga, utroque latere hians. 

Cardo, Dens subulatus, reflexus, saepe duplex ; non insertus testae op- 
positae. 



Animal an Ascidia. 

Shell bivalve, oblong, open at both ends. 

Hinge with an awl-shaped reflex tooth, often double ; not inserted in the 
opposite valve. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The soft animal contained within the Solen, or Razor- 
shell, has at one extremity, a muscular subcylindrical 
foot, and at the other a short double tube. It lives 
constantly buried in the sand, and never, of its own 
accord, comes entirely upon the surface. It is capable 
of moving only in a perpendicular direction, and the 
form of its shell, which is long and slender, is admi- 
rably calculated for such a purpose. The hole which 
the common species of our coasts make, is two or three 
feet in depth ; the animal descends to the bottom, on 
the ebbing of the tide, and returns towards the surface 
as it flows. Thev may be seen near low water mark, 



116 SOLEN. 

with their bodies protruding from their shells, in search 
of food, but upon the approach of any one to disturb 
them, they immediately shrink back, and sink into the 
sand. They leave, on the top, a small dimple, which 
marks their place, and betrays them to the fishermen. 
A slight pinch of salt, laid upon their holes, is sufficient 
to make them come to the surface ; and this, though 
often repeated, will always succeed. It has been as- 
serted, however, as a remarkable fact, that if the animal 
be once handled, and afterwards suffered to retire, it 
can never be raised again by a similar application. 
They contrive to move in their perpendicular direction 
with great celerity, and this operation is effected by 
means of their foot, which is fleshy, moderately long, 
and nearly round. With this foot, the animal is able to 
bore a hole in the sand, for the passage of its shell; but 
the precise manner in which this is managed, though 
described by some authors, is likely to remain a mys- 
tery, while sand continues opaque, and Solens work in 
the dark. 

These fish are eaten in Italy, in France, and some- 
times in England. The Irish eat them during Lent. 
They are collected in three different ways — by enticing 
them to the surface with salt ; by digging them out of 
the sand with a shovel, or by striking them with a 
bearded dart, while their necks are protruded in search 
of food. 

It may be observed that the ancients, who were not 
backward in discovering what was fit to eat, were fond 
of Solens. Athseneus directs them to be boiled or fried ; 
or, what is still better, to roast them on live coals till 
they gape. 



SOLEN. 117 

Aatf/,@<xvovTai ds sQQoi, nai •TYiyaviaroi 

xgeiTTOVEs 5° slcriv ol /*£Xf> 1 r °v X <XVE ^ V &? avQpdxuv 

QTrrdfjLEVoi. 

Athen. Lib. 3. p. 90. e. 

The same author, in page 86, quotes a commenda- 
tion of Sophron, who not only praises them as great 
delicacies, but says that they are particularly grateful 
to widoius. 



118 SOLEN, 



POD RAZOR. 

PI. 26. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby. 

1. Solen Siliqua. S. testa lineari recta; car dine altero bidentato. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1113. Linn. Gmel. p. 3223. 
Shell linear, straight ; hinge with a double tooth in one valve. 
List. Hist. An. Angl. t. 5. f. 37.— Conch, t. 409. f. 255. Plan, Conch. 

t. 3. f. 2. Gualt. Test. pi. 95. f. c. Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 7. f. 1. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. v. 4. p. 171. pi. 48. f. 1. Da Cost. Brit. Conch. 

p. 253. pi. 17. f. 5. Encyclop. Method, pi. 222. f. 2. b. c. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 46. Linn. Trans, v. 6. pi. 14. f. 10. & v. 8. p. 43. 
/3. List. Conch, t. 413. f. inf. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4. f. 29. 

A pod-shaped shell, covered with an olive-green 
epidermis, and striated transversely ; the striae turn 
across the shell, increasing from the hinge, till they 
reach the extremity, so as to form a triangular figure, 
with a pointed apex ; there is a furrow along the back, 
on each side of the cartilage. The inside is white, 
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; there 
are, besides, two remote central laminae. The shell is 
straight, truncated at one end, and rounded, and turn- 
ing rather outwards at the other. It measures eight 
inches, and sometimes more, from end to end. 

This is a common shell on the different European 
shores, where it is collected for the sake of the fish, as 
has been already observed in the general observations. 

The variety referred to Lister and Chemnitz, is not 
a straight, but a curved shell, and was named, by Dr. 
Solander, Solen incurvatus. 



tiou&m 



i \ 

' 1 

\ ■ 


1 SI 





















; 



^31 



SSSfll 



-^^e 1 - 




f\ iSfc 



SOLEN. 119 



CARMARTHENSHIRE RAZOR. 

2. Solen Novacula. S. testa lineari recta, cardinibus unidentatis. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 44. 
Shell linear, straight ; hinge with a single tooth in each valve. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 47. 

As this is evidently a new shell, and described only 
by Mr. Montagu, it will be but just to mark its specific 
difference in his own words. 

" Solen with a straight sub-cylindric shell, in every 
respect like the Siliqua r except in the hinge, in which it 
is essentially different, being furnished with one strong, 
blunt, curved tooth, in each valve, at one end, destitute 
of lateral laminae : these teeth turn contrary ways, and, 
when closed, clasp or hook into each other. This 
species may possibly have been confounded with the 
foregoing from its external similitude, for we do not find 
it noticed by any conchologist. It is found on the 
sandy shores of Carmarthenshire, near Laugharne, 
together with the Siliqua of a large size. We have 
taken it full an inch long, and eight inches broad ; but 
it is extremely rare." 

SHEATH RAZOR. 
PL 21. f. 1. 

3. Solen Vagina. S. testa lineari recta, extremitate altera marginata, 

cardinibus unidentatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1113. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3223. 
Shell linear, straight, one end margined ; hinge with a single tooth in 

each valve. 
Lister Conch, t. 410. f. 256. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 171. pi. 

49. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4. f. 27 ? Linn. Trans. 6. pi. 14. f. 11. 

Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 28. pi. 4. f. 8. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 110. 

This i& a perfectly straight shell, covered with an 



120 SOLEN. 

orange-yellow epidermis, and often stained, in parts, of 
a dark brown colour, by the mud in which it is found. 
It is marked like the Siliqua, but without a furrow 
running down the back, on each side the cartilage, as 
in that shell. One end has a strong margin. Inside 
white, with a single horizontal tooth in each valve, 
sliding upon one another, when the shell is closed. — 
Full-grown specimens are about five inches from end 
to end. 

This was reckoned a scarce species in England, by 
Mr. Montagu, till some time previous to the appear- 
ance of his supplementary publication on the Natural 
History of British Shells, when he discovered a bed of 
them in a sand-bank, near the salt stone, in the estuary 
of Kingsbridge, Devonshire. Their habitations are 
known by a small hole on the surface, and they bury 
themselves to the depth of two feet, or more, beneath 
the sand. They have never been scarce on the shore 
at Sandwich, where the author has formerly picked up 
a considerable number in a few days. 

This shell is the true Solen Vagina of Linnaeus, who 
has particularly noticed its margined end. His re- 
ferences are, however, to the following shell, which 
cannot be considered as a variety only, since it never 
deviates from its particular characteristic distinction. 






J1»JL..27: 




^ 



'llll^- 






E=^s^a ! ! 



1 



— #i 



SOLEN. 121 



TRUNCATED SOLEN. 

PL 26. /. 3, 4. # PL 27. /. 2. (Var. /3.) Dr. Coombe. 

4. Solen truncata, S. testa lineari recta, extremitate altera truncata, 

cardinibus unidentatis. 
Shell linear, straight, one end truncated ; hinge with a single tooth in 

each valve. 
Gualt. Test. t. 95. f. D. Knorr. Vergn. 1. pi. 28. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 4. 

f. 28. Encyclop. Method, pi. 222. f.l.b. Barbut's Shells, pi. 2. f. 4. 
/3. Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. M. Gualt. Conch, pi. 95. f. E. D'Argen- 

ville Conch, pi. 28. f. 1£. Favanne Conch, pi. 55. f. 2?. 1. 

This shell may be immediately distinguished from the 
preceding species, by its truncated end, which is so per- 
fect, that it appears as if pared down by art, till the 
teeth are seen close to the end of the shell. There is 
not the vestige of a margin, in any of the many spe- 
cimens which the author has had an opportunity to 
examine. The var. /3. is shorter than the other, and 
somewhat tapering towards its rounded end. 

It is found in the American and Indian Seas, and 
measures from three to seven inches, from end to end. 



SLENDER RAZOR. 

PI. 21. f. 3. Linn^an Society's Cabinet. 

5. Solen linearis. S. testa lineari recta, cylindrica, tenuissima ; car dine 

unidentato, extremitate quasi truncata. 
Shell linear, straight, cylindrical, very thin ; hinge with a single tooth in 

each valve, and nearly truncated. 
Chem. Conch. 11. t. 198. f. 1931, 1932. 

This is a very delicate shell, of a fine violet colour. 
The teeth, of which there is one in each valve, slide upon 
each other, when the shell is closed, the same as in the 



122 SOLEN. 

S. Vagina. The specimen figured by Chemnitz, from 
Spengler's Museum, measures two inches ; the subject 
represented in PI. 27. is three inches and a quarter, 
from end to end. 

Inhabits the Indian Seas. 



SWORD RAZOR. 
PL 28. /. 1, 2. 

6. Solen Ensis. S. testa lineari subarcuata ; cardine altero bidentato. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel. p. 3224. 
Shell linear, somewhat curved ; hinge with a double tooth in one valve. 
List. An. Angl. App. pi. 2. f. 9. item Conch, t. 411. f. 257. D'Argen- 

ville Conch, pi. 24. f. 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 48. f. 2. 

Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 237. Chem. Conch. 6. t. 4. f, 30. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 223. f. 2. Schrot. Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 7. Pult. in Hutch. 

Dorset, p. 28. pi. 4. f. 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 50. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 48. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 44. 

The Solen Erisis is a thin, brittle shell, prettily mottled, 
on the outside, with brown and green. It is always 
curved, and most so in young shells. The inside is 
bluish white, and the hinge consists of a single tooth in 
one valve, which is inserted between two others in the 
opposite valve, with a prominent continuation, part of 
the way down the cartilage in both valves. 

This species is found in the Mediterranean, and upon 
the northern coasts. It is not a common species in 
England, but is occasionally found upon our shores, 
and particularly at Sandwich, where many specimens 
have been collected at different times. 



SOErMW. 



L.X%, 



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X 



' 






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m 






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SOLEN. 123 



TRANSPARENT RAZOR. 
PL 28. /. 3. 

7. Solen pellucid us. S. testa lineari subarcuata, dente alterius valvule 

bifido. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 44. 
Shell linear, somewhat arched, with a bifid tooth in one of the valves. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 137. pi. 49. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 11. p. 

205. pi. 198. f. 1940. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 153. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 49. 

We are indebted to Pennant for our knowledge of 
this fragile and transparent shell. He found it at Red 
Wharf, in Anglesey, and describes it as a somewhat 
arched and oval shell, with a hinge consisting of a sharp 
double tooth on one side, receiving a single one from 
the opposite, with a process in each valve, pointing 
towards the cartilage of the hinge. It is a very tender 
shell, covered with a shining epidermis, of a light 
greenish brown colour. It seldom measures more than 
an inch from end to end. 

Mr. Montagu found this shell in Cornwall, and some 
specimens have been obtained, but very rarely from 
Sandwich. The few that occur on the Sandwich shore, 
have been found at low water, in the mud, near the 
mouth of the haven. 



124 SOLEN\ 

PEASCOD RAZOR. 
PI. 28./. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

8. Solen Legumen. S. testa lineari-ovali, recta, cardinibus mediis biden- 

tatis, alterius bifido. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3224. 
Shell linear-oval, straight ; teeth in both valves double ; in one valve 

bifid. 
List. Conch, t. 420. f.264. Gualt. Test. t. 91. f. A. Adans. Seneg. 1. 19. 

f. 3. Born Mus. pi. 2. f. 1, 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. pi. 49. 

f. 3. Da Cost. Brit. Conch, p. 238. Chem. Conch. 6. t. 5. f. 32—34. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 225. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 4. f. 4. 

Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 58. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 50. Linn. Trans, 

8. p. 45. 

This is a delicate white shell, very finely striated 
concentrically, and covered with a yellowish epidermis. 
It is broader at one end than the other, and the 
narrow end is rounded, like the human nail, and in- 
clines a little outwards. The inside is white, and the 
hinge, which is placed towards the middle of the shell, 
consists of two teeth in each valve ; on one side they 
are erect, thin, and pointed, on the other they are thick, 
broad, and diverging. There is a white ridge, running 
from the bifurcation of the teeth, towards the middle of 
the shell, and another, in a contrary direction, from 
the edge of the hinge, towards the narrow end. It is 
found of various sizes, measuring from one inch and a 
half, to four inches, from end to end. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Sea, and Atlantic Ocean. 
In England the species was long considered as very 
rare, but it has been since found, on some shores, 
abundantly. Montagu met with it on the coast of 
Carmarthenshire, nearly an inch from hinge to margin, 



Jl'1.29, 












■J 




SOLEN. 125 

and four inches from end to end. At Tenby, it is one 
of the common species, and is also plentiful in Bidde- 
ford Bay, on the coast of North Devon. 

KIDNEY RAZOR. 
PL 29. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

9. Solen Cultellus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, subarcuata. Linn. Syst. 
Nat. ed. 1.2. p. 1114. Linn. Gmel. p. 3224. 

Shell oblong-oval, somewhat arched. 

Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. F. Petiven Gaz. pi. 17. Gualt. t. 90. f. E. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 36, 37. Encyclop. Method, pi. 223. f. 4. 

The S. Cultellus is finely striated concentrically, and 
covered with a brown epidermis, beneath which the 
shell is of a dirty white, with tawny marks. It is 
spotted within in the same manner, and there are two 
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. It is rounded 
at both ends, and is very brittle. 

This species is found on the sandy shores of Am- 
boyna and Tranquebar. It occurs of different sizes, 
from one to four inches from end to end. 

ANTIQUATED RAZOR. 
PL 29. /. 3. Dr. Coombe. 

10. Solen antiquatus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, utrinque rotundata ; car- 
dine alter o bidentato. 

Shell oblong-oval, rounded at both ends ; hinge with two teeth in one 

valve. 
Adans. Seneg. t. 19. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 174. pi. 49. 

f. 4. Schrot. Flussconch. t. 9. f. 17. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 45. 

Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 114. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 52. Linn.Trans. 

8. p. 46. 

This shell is of a whitish colour, covered with a yel- 
lowish-brown epidermis, and strongly striated concen- 



126 SOLEN. 

trically ; two faint lines, without colour, diverge, in a 
slight degree, from the hinge to the margin. The 
shell gapes considerably at both ends; it is white 
within, and has two erect teeth in one valve, receiving 
one between them from the opposite side. These teeth, 
however, are so deciduous, that we seldom meet with a 
shell quite perfect. It is one inch long, or from hinge 
to margin, and two inches broad. 

This, which is the S. coarctatus of Gmelin, is a rare 
species, and was first figured by Pennant, who found it 
at Weymouth. Mr. Montagu mentions it from Looe in 
Cornwall. 

BRITTLE RAZOR. 
PL 29. /. 4, 5. Dr. Coombe. 

11. Solen fragilis. S. testa ovali-oblonga, tenui, alba, epidermide obscure 
mridescente superinduta, cardine altero bidentato. 

Shell oblong-oval, thin, white, and covered with a dark greenish epider- 
mis ; hinge with two teeth in one valve. 

Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1939. (Solen bidens). Pult. in Hutch. 
Dorset, pi. 4. f. 5. 

A thin, delicate, white shell, covered with a strong 
green epidermis, except about the hinge, which is in 
most specimens quite bare. In the middle it is some- 
what depressed, and is rounded at both ends. The 
principal characteristic is a strong red line, which 
passes from the hinge towards the margin, declining in 
colour as it proceeds. In the specimen under notice, 
faint indications of two other lines, which are perfectly 
white, may be perceived, in one valve, diverging from 
the same point. The inside is white, and the hinge, 
which is placed in the middle of the shell, has two teeth 
on one side,' and one on the other. 






PL.30. 







SOLEN. 127 

This shell is an inhabitant of warm climates. In the 
catalogue of Dr. Pulteney's shells, it is said to have 
been found at Weymouth, in Dorsetshire, and on Stud- 
land beach, in the same county. 

STRIGILATED RAZOR. 
PL 30. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

12. Solen strigilatus. S. testa ovali, oblique striata. Linn. Syst. Nat. 

ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3225. 
Shell oval, obliquely striated. 
Lister. Conch, t. 416. f. 260. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 77. Gualt. Test.pl. 91. 

f. C. Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 5. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 41, 42. 

Encyclop. Method, pi. 224. f. 3. 
/3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 43, 44. item 11. pi. 198. f. 1938. (S. Sanctae 

Marthae.) 

This is a strong ventricose shell, round at one end, 
and somewhat truncated at the other. It is of a 
reddish colour on the outside, with two white rays 
diverging from the umbo to the margin, and numerous 
distinct striae, passing in a curvilinear direction over the 
shell ; a few of these striae cross the others at one end. 
The inside is white, the hinge towards the middle of 
the shell, and the teeth three in number, two in one 
valve, and one in the other. This species is subject to 
vary considerably; some are entirely white, without 
rays, and fewer striae. Others, though coloured, are 
small, and also without rays, but are striated. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the 
Indian Seas. 



128 SOLEN. 



DUCK-BILL RAZOR. 
PL 30. /. 2, 3, 4. Mr. Jennings. 

13. Solen anatinus. S. testa membranacea injlata pilosa, cardinis costa 
falcata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3225. 

Shell membranaceous, inflated and hairy; hinge with a crooked rib. 

Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. 0. Argenville Conch, pi. 22. f. R. Born Test. 
p. 23. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 46 — 48. Encycl. Method, pi. 
228. f. 3. a. b. 

This is a very singular shell, pellucid, white, and 
thin as paper. It is much inflated, and one end resem- 
bles the beak of a duck. The hairiness mentioned by 
Linnseus, may exist in some states of the shell, but it 
has not been visible in any specimens seen by the 
author. There is a spoon-shaped tooth in each valve, 
with a curved rib running towards the interior of the 
shell. A delicate suture is continued a little way from 
the apex of the shell, which often cracks. 

The S. anatinus inhabits the sandy shores of the 
Indian Ocean. 



RAYED RAZOR. 
PL 31. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

14. Solen radiatus. S. testa ovali, recta, leevi; costa transversali adnata, 
depressa. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 114. Linn. Gmel. 3225. 

Shell oval, straight, and smooth, with a transversal depressed rib. 

List. Conch, t. 422. f. 266. Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. E. Gualt.Test. t. 91. 
f. B. Knorr. Vergn. 1. pi. 6. f. 5. BarbuVs Shells, pi. 2. f. 6. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 38 — 40. Encycl. Method, pi. 225. f. 2. 

A thin smooth species, gaping at both ends, and ori- 
ginally covered with a green epidermis, which falls off, 
and leaves a delicate violet shell, finely striated concen- 
trically, and marked with four white rays, diverging 



SOLEN. 129 

from the apex to different parts of the margin. It is 
marked within, the same as on the outside, and has 
two teeth in each valve, with a strong, white, depressed 
rib, running obliquely across the shell. It is some- 
times found with two white rays instead of four. Large 
specimens measure four inches from end to end. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and is found at Amboyna. 

GUINEA RAZOR. 

15. Solen Guineensis. S. testa alba, glabra, subpellucida, ventricosa, 

utrinque hiante. 
Shell white, smooth, subpellucid, ventricose, gaping at both ends. 
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1937. 

This shell is described only by Chemnitz. It is 
strong, smooth, and white, and resembles Adanson's 
Tagal, tab. 19. f. 1., but seems to be a thicker shell, with 
a broad hinge, and a strong rib running across the 
inside. The teeth are not visible in the figure repre- 
sented by Chemnitz. 

Inhabits the coast of Guinea. 



LARGEST RAZOR. 
PL 31./. 3. 

16. Solen maximus. S. testa lineari-ovali, alba, subdiaphana, utrinque 
hiante et rotundata; intus casta trans ver salt a car dine ad marginem 
decurrente. 

Shell linear oval, white, subdiaphanous, gaping, and rounded at both ends ; 
a transversal rib within, running from hinge to margin. 

This is a flat, white shell, covered with a yellowish- 
green epidermis, striated concentrically, and very 
glossy. From the hinge, which has two teeth in one 

VOL. I. K 



130 SOLEN. 

valve, and one in the other, there runs a strong rib, 
which spreads as it proceeds across the shell, and is 
lost near the margin ; the upper part of the muscular 
depression is ridged, from the teeth towards the end of 
the shell. The specimen represented in the plate 
measures two inches from hinge to margin, and nearly 
five inches from end to end. 



GREAT RAZOR. 

17. Solen magnus. S. testa linear i-ovali, recta, arcuato-striata, cardi- 
nibus lateralibus bidentatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. S. maximus. 

Shell linear-oval, straight, with arched striae ; hinges lateral with two 
teeth. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 5. f. 35. S. maximus. 

This shell was considered by Chemnitz as the largest 
of the Solens, and named accordingly ; but the preced- 
ing species being considerably larger, it was thought 
proper to give to that the name of maximus, and to alter 
this to magnus. 

The S. magnus is described as thin, pellucid, and 
white, when stripped of its yellowish epidermis ; it is 
rounded, and gaping at both ends, and the teeth of the 
hinge do not shut into each other. It is an inch and a 
quarter from hinge to margin, and four inches broad. 

Inhabits the shores of Nicobar, and is a very rare 
species. 



S<n>LEN« 



i»L.3l 






SOLEN. 131 



INFLECTED RAZOR. 
PL 32. /. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe. 

18. Solen inflexus. S. testa ovato oblonga, utrinque hiante, margine 
subarcuata ; cardine altero bidentato, costa transversali prominente. 

Shell oblong-oval, gaping at both ends, margin somewhat arched ; hinge 
with two teeth in one valve, transversal rib prominent. 

This species, which does not appear to have been 
hitherto described, is of a whitish colour, finely striated 
concentrically, and, when recent, covered with an 
orange-brown epidermis. The margin is plain and 
inflected, and the valves, when closed, touch only at 
two points, the inflected part, and the hinge. There is 
a very faint depression running obliquely from the apex 
of the shell to the margin, the impression of which is 
visible within. The inside is white ; the hinge has two 
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. The trans- 
versal rib is not flattened, as in some of the preceding 
species, but prominent and well defined. 

The specimen is in the possession of Dr. Coombe, but 
its country is unknown. 



LITTLE RAZOR. 

19. Solen minimus. S. testa linear i-ov alt, recta, cardinibus lateralibus 

bidentatis, alterius bifido. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. 
Shell linear-oval, straight ; hinges lateral, double toothed, one of them 

bifid. 
Chem. Conch, pi. 5. 31. a. b. 

This is a white, diaphanous, fragile shell, covered 
with a yellowish epidermis ; it is rounded and gaping 
at both ends. The inside has two teeth in each valve, 



132 SOLEN. 

and a transversal rib running from the hinge to the 
margin. It is an inch broad, and half as long. 

Inhabits Tranquebar, and is a miniature representa- 
tion of the S. maximus. 



MOLINI S RAZOR. 

20. Solen Macha. S. testa ovali-oblonga, anterius truncata ; cardine 

nltero bidentato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3226. 
Shell oblong-oval, truncated before ; hinge with two teeth in one valve. 
Molini Hist. Nat. Chil. p. 178. 

We have Molini's authority only for this species, 
which he describes as of a brown colour varied with 
blue. It is six or seven inches from end to end, and in- 
habits the shores of Chili, where it buries itself in the 
sand, and contains pearls. 



GREEN RAZOR. 

21. Solen virens. S. testa ovato-oblonga, umbonibus tumidis. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3226. 
Shell oblong-oval, with tumid umbones. 

This is described by Gmelin as a very brittle, dia- 
phanous shell, with unequal valves; it is of a white 
colour with a greenish outside, and resembles in shape 
the My a Pictorum; the tip and base are hardly closed; 
the hinge has two approximate teeth in one valve, but 
none in the other. 

Inhabits Java. 



SOLEN. 133 



VIOLET RAZOR. 
PI. 32. /. 3. Mrs. Mawe. 

22. Solen Diphos. S. testa ovali, recta, Itevi ; umbonibus prominentibus. 

Linn. Syst. Gmel. p. 3226. 
Shell oval, straight, and smooth ; umbones prominent. 
Valent. Mus. 1. 13. f. 5. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 53, 54. Item 11. pi. 

198. f. 1933. (Solen Diphos Chinensis). 

In the recent state, this shell is covered with a green- 
ish epidermis; but, in cabinets, it is generally seen 
without its native covering, and is of a violet colour, 
with numerous rays diverging from the apex to the 
margin; it gapes at both ends, is rounded behind, but 
projecting into a beak before; the inside is wholly 
violet, but on the outside, the violet is mixed with white. 
Two white rays are figured by Chemnitz, crossing the 
shell obliquely from the apex ; but these rays were not 
remarkable in our specimen. The hinge has two teeth 
in one valve, and one in the other. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

The variety described by Chemnitz, under the name 
of Solen Diphos Chinensis, is a rounder shell, with two 
very conspicuous white rays. 



ROSE-COLOURED RAZOR. 

23. Solen roseus. S. testa rosea, aquivalvi; cardinis dente subbifido, 

fovea alterius valvce inserto. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. 
Shell rosy, of equal valves ; hinge with a somewhat bifid tooth, inserted 

into a cavity in the opposite valve. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 55. 

This shell is of an oblong-oval shape, and, beneath its 
greenish epidermis, is of a faint rose colour, both within 



134 SOLEN. 

and on the outside. It resembles a Tellen, but is open 
at both ends. Length an inch and a quarter ; breadth 
two inches and a quarter. 
Inhabits the Red Sea. 



STRIATED RAZOR. 

24. Solen striatus. S. testa cequivahi, transversim striata; cardinis 

dente unico. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. 
Shell of equal valves, transversely striated ; hinge with a single tooth. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 57, 58. 

This shell is of an oval shape, diaphanous, very 
fragile, and finely striated transversely ; it is of a rose 
colour without and within, with white rays diverging 
from the apex to the margin ; both ends are open. 

Inhabits the Nicobar Islands ; is five eighths of an inch 
long, and about an inch broad. 



ZIG-ZAG RAZOR. 

25. Solen castrensis. S. testa <equivalvi,glaberrima t lineis triangularibus 

insignita ; cardine unidentato. 
Shell of equal valves, very smooth, and marked with triangular lines ; 

hinge with a single tooth. 
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 198. f. 1935, 1936. 

A thin, pellucid, white shell, of an oval shape, gaping 
at both ends, and very singularly marked with zig-zag 
lines of a purple colour. The lines appear on the in- 
side, as well as without. The shell is about three quar- 
ters of an inch long, and an inch and a half broad. 

Inhabits the coast of Guinea. 



JPZ.S3. 




' 




y 



SOLEN. 135 



DOUBLE-RAYED RAZOR. 
PL 33, /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

26. Solen biradiata. S. testa ovali, cequivalvi, utrinque hiante ; cardine 

utroque bidentato. 
Shell oval, of equal valves, and gaping at both ends ; hinge with two 

teeth in each valve. 

This species is of a dull purple colour, mixed with 
brown, and has two white rays passing obliquely from 
the apex to the margin. It is, when recent, covered 
with a strong green epidermis, the remains of which 
are seen on the margin of the figure. The inside, in 
young specimens, is nearly white, but, in fall-grown 
shells, excepting the muscular depressions, it is orange- 
coloured. The shell is open at both ends, and has two 
bifid teeth in each valve. 



VARIABLE RAZOR. 
PL 33. /. 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe. 

27. Solen vespertinus. S. testa ovali-oblonga, spadiceo-radiata ; cardinis 

sinistra valvce dente solitario, duplici alterius inserto. Linn. Gmtl. 

p. 3228. 
Shell oblong-oval, with carnation rays; hinge with a single tooth in 

one valve, inserted between two other teeth in the opposite valve. 
Born Mus. Test. pi. 2. f. 6, 7. Penn. Brit. Zool. ed. 1812. v. 4. pi. 50. 

f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 59, 60. Encycl. Method, pi. 228. f. 2. 

Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 29. pi. 5. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 

41. f. 2. Montagu Test. Brit. p. 54. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 47. 

An oblong-oval shell, striated concentrically, rounded 
at one end, and somewhat truncated at the other ; it is 
of a pale straw colour, with carnation rays, diverging 
from the umbo to all parts of the shell ; gapes more 
before than behind. The inside is yellowish white and 



136 SOLEN. 

glossy ; the teeth are erect, two in one valve and one in 
the other. 

This species, which is the Tellina variabilis of some 
authors, is subject to vary in colour, from purple to 
orange, and pale yellow; the rays also differ in 
strength, and number, some shells having the strongest 
rays near the beak, and others being striated on the 
inner margin. They vary in size from an inch to two 
inches, and more, in breadth. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic Ocean ; 
it is also found in England, on the Dorset coast, at 
Poole and Weymouth. Mr. Montagu met with it at 
Falmouth in Cornwall, and, of a small size, at Kings- 
bridge in Devonshire ; live specimens, however, are to 
be taken only by dredging. 

SANGUINE RAZOR. 
PL 33. /. 4, 5. Mrs. Mawe. 

28. Solen sanguinolentus. S, testa ovali, glaberrima ; cardine calloso, 

bidentato. Linn. Gmel. p. 3227. 
Shell oval, very smooth ; hinge callous, with two teeth. 
List. Conch, t. 397. f. 236. Knorr. Vergn. 4. pi. 3. f. 4. Chem. Conch. 

6. pi. 7. f. 56. Encyclop. Method, pi. 227. f. 1. 

A smooth, oval shell, of a red colour, particularly 
about the apex ; it is rounded behind, produced, and 
gaping before ; the inside is red, with a few faint indi- 
cations of rays ; the hinge has a single tooth on one 
side, which shuts between two others in the opposite 
valve. The length, or from hinge to margin, an inch 
and a quarter ; the breadth two inches. 

Inhabits the coast of Jamaica, and some other of the 
West-India Islands. 



SOLEN. 137 



SPOTTED RAZOR. 

29. Solen occidens. S. testa transverse striata, ad nates glabra, albo 
rubelloque radiata, cardine utroque bidentato,foveola intermedia. Linn, 
Gmel. p. 3228. 

Shell transversely striated, smooth at the apex, with rays of a white and 
reddish colour; hinge having two teeth in each valve, with an inter- 
mediate cavity. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 7. f. 61. 

This shell is finely striated transversely, and partially 
spotted with red and white ; it is obliquely rayed from 
the apex to the margin ; one end is rounded, the other 
somewhat truncated ; both ends gape ; the inside is 
white. It is about two inches and a half in length, and 
four inches in breadth. 

Inhabits the Western Ocean. 



spengler's razor. 

30. Solen Spengleri. S. testa natibus bipartitis ; cardinis dente primario 
rotundato, accessoriis longis angustis ; altero curvato. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3228. 

Beaks of the shell two-parted, primary tooth of the hinge rounded, ac- 
cessary ones long and narrow, one of them curved. 

Speng. Catal. Rais. pl.l. f. 8, 9. 

A species described only by Spengler. It is rounded 
at both ends ; is about an inch from hinge to margin, 
and two inches and a half from end to end. 



138 SOLEN. 

AMETHYSTINE RAZOR. 
PL 34./. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

31. Solen Amethystus. S. testa oblongo-ovata, compressa, transversim 

striata, utrinque hiante ; cardine altero bidentato, dentibus lateralibus 

nullis. 
Shell oblong-oval, compressed, transversely striated, and gaping at both 

ends ; hinge with two teeth in one valve ; no lateral teeth. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. pi. 12. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 93. Tellina 

Gari. 

Ail oblong-oval shell, of a dull purple colour, with 
deeper rays of the same ; one end is rounded, the other 
somewhat truncated; both ends gape; it is striated, 
transversely, the striae on the rounded end, distant; 
the middle of the shell is interlined. The striae are 
waved over a faint ridge, which runs obliquely from 
the apex to the margin, on the fore part of the shell. 
Inside purple and white ; hinge with a notched tooth in 
one valve, received between two others in the opposite 
valve ; one of the two teeth is frequently wanting. An 
inch and a quarter long, or from hinge to margin, and 
two inches and a half broad. 

Inhabits India. 

The same reason which placed the Tellina variabilis 
among the Solens, will also authorise the removal of this 
shell to the same genus. Several specimens have been 
examined, and all of them are found to close in the 
middle, but to gape at each end. Chemnitz has re- 
ferred it to the Tellina Gari, but that shell is particu- 
larly distinguished by Linnaeus, as being striated ob- 
liquely, as well as transversely, which is not the case 
with the subject under our present consideration. It 
is well represented by Chemnitz. 



SousWo 



F%..&*. 






% 






SOLEN. 139 



VARIEGATED RAZOR. 
PL 34. /. 2, 3, 4. Mrs. Mawe. 

32. Solen variegatus. S. testa oblongo-ovata, anterius truncata, hiante ; 

cardine altero bidentato. 
Shell oblong-oval, truncated before, and gaping ; hinge with two teeth 

in one valve. 

This elegant little shell is stained with purple and 
orange colour, in a singular manner. The purple 
passes from the umbo more than half way down the 
shell, and then turns forwards to cover the truncated 
end. In the inside, the boundary of this stain is parti- 
cularly apparent. Faint and narrow rays of purple 
pass also from the apex to the margin, on the rounded 
end of the shell, which, except from this interrup- 
tion, is entirely of an orange colour. The hinge has 
two teeth in one valve, and one in the other. The shell 
is thin and pellucid, and gapes at the truncated end. 



MINUTE RAZOR. 
PL 34./. 5, 6. 

33. Solen minutus. S. testa ovali, vahularum angiitis utrisque serratis. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. GmeL p. 3226. 
Shell oval ; angles of the valves serrated. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 6. f. 50, 51. Encyclop. Method, pi. 234. f. a. b. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 53. pi. 1. f. 4. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 47. Penn. 

Br. Zool. 1812. v. 4. p. 175. 

This species is particularly remarkable for two rows 
of spines, which run from the apex to the anterior 
margin of the shell ; the valves are dissimilar, the under 
valve projecting in a slight degree over the other, ex- 
cept at the truncated end. It is a white shell, trans- 



140 SOLEN. 

versely striated, or rather wrinkled, with a single tooth 
in one valve inserted into a corresponding cavity in the 
opposite valve. The specimens found in England are 
not more than a quarter of an inch from hinge to 
margin, and half an inch in breadth ; but they have been 
found of double those dimensions, on some of the Eu- 
ropean shores. 

Mr. Montagu found the S. minutus burrowed in hard 
lime stone, at Plymouth, but it is very rare as a British 
species. It inhabits Norway and Greenland. 



SCALE-LIKE RAZOR. 

34. Solen squaramosus. S. testa suborbiculari ; cardinis dentibus duobus 
bifidis, ab umbone diver gentibus. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 48. 

Shell somewhat orbicular ; hinge with two bifid teeth, diverging from the 
umbo. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 565. Penn. Br. Zool. v. 4. p. 175. 

A very thin, pellucid, white shell, extremely flat, of a 
somewhat circular shape, and in appearance like the 
scale of a fish. The outside is covered with minute 
punctures ; the inside is smooth, white, and glossy. The 
teeth, which are two, are thin and erect. 

Mr. Montagu, who has added this species to the list 
of British Testacea, has found a single valve only, on 
sand in Sal comb Bay, Devonshire. It was three eighths 
of an inch long, and half an inch broad. 



TJEULIMA. 



PZ.ZSo 








m 








^Ujuyi 



SOLEN. 141 



SEMI-OVAL RAZOR. 



35. Solen Pinna. S. testa depresso-subovata ; valvulisad cardinem rcctis. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 48. 
Shell somewhat oval, depressed ; valves, from the hinge, straight. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 566. pi. 15. f. 3. Penn. Br. ZooL 1812. v. 4. p. 175. 

This is a thin, brittle, pellucid, white shell, depressed 
and strongly wrinkled concentrically : one valve is 
rather concave, the other convex ; both valves are con- 
nected by a cartilage, which runs in a straight line from 
the hinge to the extremity of the shell, giving it the ap- 
pearance of an oval, divided in its longer diagonal. The 
inside is white, and has a blunt tooth in each valve, 
standing by the side of each other when the valves are 
closed, but not inserted ; the largest tooth is in the 
concave valve. 

Mr. Montagu, to whom conchology is so much in- 
debted, has also discovered this shell, and given it the tri- 
vial name of Pinna, from the circumstance of the valves 
being connected, along one side of the shell, like the 
species of that genus. It is about the size of half the 
thumb nail, divided lengthwise. It was taken alive, by 
dredging, at Torcross in Devonshire. 

In concluding the descriptive account of the species 
belonging to the genus Solen, it must be noticed that the 
S. crispus of Gmelin, p. 3228. No. 22, is the Pholas cris- 
pata, before described by him in its proper place, p. 3215. 
No. 6, with a reference to Lister, which reference he 
has repeated in the genus Solen. 



Genus 3. 
TELLINA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Tethys. 

Testa bivalvis, anterius hinc ad alterum latus flexa. 

Cardinis dentes (utplurimum) tres; laterales plani alterius testa?. 



Animal a Tethys. 

Shell bivalve, the anterior part curved to one side. 

Hinge usually with three teeth ; lateral teeth, in one of the valves, flat. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The shells of this genus are, with one or two excep- 
tions, of equal valves. That part of the Linnaean de- 
finition, which relates to the anterior part being curved 
to one side, must be taken with some limitation, since, 
in many species of the genus, this flexure is not visible; 
but the striae, where this is wanting, are generally seen 
to diverge on the same part of the shell. Several of the 
species are deficient in lateral teeth. 

There is so little apparent difference between some of 
the Tellens, and shells of other genera, especially those 
of Solen, and Venus, that it is sometimes difficult to de- 
cide to what particular genus they properly belong. This 
similitude was the cause of great confusion among both 
ancient and modern conchologists, till Linnaeus affixed 
his scientific characters to the genus, and determined 
the species. Still, however, in the opinion of the French, 
there is room for improvement, since from the Linnsean 



TELLINA. 143 

Tellens they have formed three new genera, namely, 
Pandora, Capsa, and Lucina. 

The animals inhabiting this genus differ but very 
little from those which occupy the shells of the genus 
Cardium and Venus. They are provided, before, with 
two simple and very long siphons, one of which (the 
largest) serves for the passage of the food, and the other 
for that of the excrements. They have, besides, a lingui- 
form muscle, which projects from the hind part of the 
shell, and serves for a foot. These animals form the 
genus Peroncea of Poli, who has given elaborate ana- 
tomical figures of them, in his splendid work on the 
Testacea of the Two Sicilies. What locomotion they 
possess is effected by opening and shutting the valves, 
at the same time lengthening and contracting their foot, 
by which means they accomplish their purpose, and 
move as far through the mud, or sand, as their limited 
powers of exertion will permit, or their wants require. 



144 TELLINA. 

. * Shells oval and thickish. 

TOOTHED TELLEN. 

1. Tellina gargadia. T. testa subrotunda, compressa, anterius rugosa, 

rima dentata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3228. 
Shell roundish, compressed, and wrinkled on the fore part ; valves 

toothed on the slope. 
Petiv. Gaz. pi. 18. Rumph. Mus. t. 43. f. N. Favanne Catal. No. 1539. 

t. 6. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 63, 64. a. b. 

A small, roundish, white shell, with a slight flexure 
before ; the anterior half transversely wrinkled ; the 
fente is open, and the marginal slope thin, and set with 
about seven erect teeth; the inside is yellowish, and 
the middle tooth of the hinge cleft. Length an inch and 
a quarter ; breadth rather more. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and is a rare shell. 

CATS-TONGUE TELLEN. 
PL 40. /. 2, 3. Mr. Strong. 

2. Tellina Lingua-felis. T. testa subovata, scabra ; squamulislunatis quin- 
cuncialibus. Linn. Syst. Nat, ed. 12. p. 111.6. Linn. Gmel. p. 3229. 

Shell somewhat oval, rough; set with lunate scales disposed in a quin- 
cunx order. 

Petiv. Gaz. t. 17. Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 76. f. B. 
Knorr. Vergn. 2. pi. 2. f. 1. Favanne Conch, pi. 40. Chem. Conch. 
6. pi. 8. f. 65. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 6. Marty n Univ. 
Conch. 4. pi. 138. 

This is a very delicate species, rough, like shagrin, 
on the surface, and rayed, and striped with pink ; the 
scales are erect, and acute, and the fore part of the 



TELLINA. 145 

shell is sloping, and angular; the inside is white, and 
the middle tooth of the hinge is notched ; lateral teeth, 
on both sides, acute, and inserted into the opposite 
margin. Length from one inch to two, breadth rather 
more. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

The figures of this shell by Knorr, and Martyn, are 
very beautifully drawn. 



STRIPED TELLEN. 
PL 35. f. 2, 3. Mrs. A. Schutz. Var. /3, pi. 36. f. 2. Dr. Coombe. 

3. Tellina virgata. T. testa ovali, striis transversis, recurvatis y anterius 
angulata ; dentibus lateralibus, prominulis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 
12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel. p. 3229. 

Shell oval, with transverse recurved striae, angular before ; lateral teeth 
rather prominent. 

Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 86. f. G. Knorr Vergn. 
2. t. 21. f. 4. and 4. pi. 25. f. 1. Argenv. Conch, t. 22. f. G. Fa- 
vanne Conch, t. 49. f. F. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 66 — 72. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 288. f. 2, 3, 4. 

A flattish shell, concentrically striated, and marked 
with red rays on a yellow ground ; the inside yellowish, 
and often rayed like the outside; the hinge has two 
teeth in one valve, and a cleft tooth in the other ; remote 
teeth pointed. This shell is subject to vary consi- 
derably in colour; the variety &. pi. 36. f. 2. is a stri- 
king instance, being rayed with rose colour on a white 
ground. The usual measure is about one inch and 
a half from apex to margin, and two and a half broad. 

Inhabits the Indian and Atlantic Seas, and is not un- 
common. 

The figure in Gualtieri, pi. 89. f. E, referred to by 

VOL. I. L 



146 TELLINA. 

Gmelin as a variety of this species, is too unlike the 
shell to be quoted. 

FRECKLED TELLEN. 

PL 36. /. 3. 

4. Tellina interrupta. T. testa oblonga, crassiuscula, antice angu- 
lata, rostrata, inflexa, dentibus lateralibus prominulis. 

Shell oblong, thickish, angular before, beaked, and turned inwards; 

lateral teeth rather prominent. 
List. Conch, t. 399. f. 238. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 73. Encyclop. 

Method.^. 288. f. 7. 

This shell, which is the T. interrupta of Dr. Solan- 
der, is strongly striated transversely, and covered, ex- 
cept at a few intervals, with interrupted lines of tawny, 
or brown, freckles. The beak is inflected, and wrinkled. 
The inside is glossy and yellow, with a white margin. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Seas. 

It is perfectly distinct from the T. virgata, though 
considered as a variety of that shell by Chemnitz. It 
has not been noticed by Gmelin. 

ANGULAR TELLEN. 

PI. 43. f. 1. LinnjEAN Society's Cabinet. 

5. Tellina angulata. T. testa subovata, striis transversis, recurvatis, an 
terius angulata ; dentibus lateralibus nullis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 
12. p. 1116. Linn. Gmel. p. 3329. 

Shell somewhat oval, angular before, with transverse recurved striae ; no 

lateral teeth. 
List. Conch, t. 406. f. 252. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 75. Encyclop. 

Mdhod. pi. 290. f. 3. Schrot. Conch. 2. p. 643. pi. 7. f. 8. 

This species is distinguished by its abrupt slope on 
the hind part of the shell ; it is of a white colour, round- 
ed before, and faintly striated transversely ; the inside is 



TELLINA. 147 

white, and the lateral teeth are wanting. It inhabits 
the Indian Ocean, and is usually about an inch and a 
half long, and two inches broad. 

The figure in Lister, pi. 388. f. 235., referred to by 
Gmelin, is not this shell ; and figure 74, in pi. 9. of 
Chemnitz, may be considered as a variety of the T. 
angulata, but not so characteristic of the species as 
f. 75. 



VARYING TELLEN. 

6. Tellina Gari. T. testa ovali, striis transversis recurvatis ; dentibus 
lateralibus obsoletis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117- Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3229. 

Shell oval, with transverse recurved striae ; lateral teeth obsolete. 

Rumph. Mus. pi. 45. f. D. Knorr Vergn. 6. t. 12. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 
6. pi. 10. f. 92. Schrot. Conch. 2. p. 644. pi. 7. f. 9. 

j3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 94. 

This species varies in its colours, like the T. virgata, 
and somewhat resembles that shell in shape, but is of a 
smaller size, and narrower. It is a little inflected be- 
fore, and has transverse wrinkles, crossed in the middle 
by perpendicular, or rather oblique, striae. The pre- 
vailing colour is cinereous, with, or without, brown 
rays ; sometimes it is white with blue rays, and some- 
times bluish, spotted with white, and rayed with red ; 
it occurs also of a reddish-white with red rays. The 
variety noticed by Chemnitz, pi. 10. f. 94. is a rough 
shell, with diverging striae : his figure 93., is a Stolen, 
see the Amethystine Razor. 

This shell was first discovered by Rumphius ; it 
inhabits the Indian Ocean, 



148 TELLINA. 



BRITTLE TELLEN. 

7. Tellina fragilis. T. testa ovata, alba, gibba, striis transversis recur- 
vatis ; natibus jlavescentibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3230. 

Shell oval, white, gibbous, with transverse recurved striae; beaks yel- 
lowish. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 84. 

This is a white shell, with decussated striae ; the 
hinge has two teeth in one valve, and a single cleft tooth 
in the other ; both valves are without lateral teeth. It 
is about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch 
broadr 

Inhabits the European Ocean, and Caspian Sea. 

This is a very different shell from the T. fragilis, of 
Pennant, which shell is the Mya praetenuis, of Montagu. 



RUGGED TELLEN. 
PI. 41. /. 2, 3. Linnjean Society's Cabinet. 

8. Tellina rugosa. T. testa ovata, rugis transversis undulatis ; cardi- 

nis dentibus lateralibus duobus, primario in sinistra valva unicojisso, in 

altero duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3230. 
Shell oval, with transverse waved wrinkles; hinge with two lateral 

teeth ; left valve with a single cleft primary tooth, the other valve 

with two. 
Born. Mus. Test. pi. 2. f. 3, 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 8. f. 62. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 270. f. 1. 

A whitish shell, with rugged, waved strise, and angu- 
lated beak ; the inside is white, and there are two teeth 
at the hinge in each valve ; there is a cleft tooth in one 



TELLINA. 149 

valve, and strong lateral teeth in the other. The usual 
length about an inch and a half; breadth two inches. 
Inhabits the Indian and American Seas. 

The specimen figured in pi. 41. is remarkable for its 
waved striae, which are not so conspicuously undulated 
in larger shells. 



INFLATED TELLEN. 

9. Tellina inflata. T. testa rotundata, crassa, tota nivea, gibba ; striis 
longitudinalibus subtilissimis, Linn. Gmel. p. 3230. 

Shell rounded, thick, gibbous, and quite white ; finely striated longitu- 
dinally. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 76. 

This shell is very slightly produced before, but not 
pleated. It has a bifid tooth in one valve, and remote 
lateral teeth ; the longitudinal striae are very fine, and 
best seen with a lens. It is described only by Chem- 
nitz, and its country is not mentioned. 



PELLUCID TELLEN. 

10. Tellina crystallina. T. testa subtriangulari, alba, pellucida, antice 

inftexa> transversim costata. 
Shell subtriangular, white, pellucid, transversely ribbed, and angular 

before. 
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1947, 1948. 

This is a small, white shell, distinctly ribbed, and 
curved, or angular, on the fore part. It is described by 
Chemnitz, from a specimen in Spengler's Cabinet, and 
is about three quarters of an inch long, and an inch 
broad. 



150 TELLINA. 



MULTANGULAR TELLEN. 



11. Tellen multangula. T. testa ovata, subventricosa, inaequivalvi, de- 
cussatim striata, anterius sinuata ; cardinis dente primario in sinistra 
valva solitario Jisso, in altera duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3230. 

Shell oval, of unequal valves, somewhat ventricose, with decussated striae, 
and grooved before ; hinge with a single primary cleft tooth in the 
left valve, and two in the other. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 77. 

This is a rough, inflated shell, of a whitish ash 
colour, thickly striated transversely, and crossed, with 
finer striae, longitudinally ; it is about an inch and three 
quarters long, and two inches and a half broad. 

Inhabits the shores of Tranquebar. 



PAPER TELLEN. 

12. Tellina papyracea. T. testa tenui, ovata, ventricosa, transversim 

striata, anterius plicato-rugosa ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus nullis, 

primariis duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231. 
Shell thin, oval, ventricose, and transversely striated, with pleated 

wrinkles on the fore part; hinge without lateral teeth, but with two 

primary teeth. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 9. f. 78. Encyclop. Method, pi. 290. f. 14. 

A brittle, white shell, rounded at one end, and some- 
what truncated and wrinkled at the other, with a con- 
siderable flexure in the middle; smooth and white 
within. Measures an inch in length, and an inch and a 
half in breadth. 

Inhabits the Coast of Guinea, but is very rare. 



TELLINA. 151 



GIBBOUS TELLEN. 

13. Tellina gibbosa. T. testa subtrigona, ventricosa, subtiliter transver- 
sim striata; cardinis dente later all valido. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231. 

Shell somewhat triangular, ventricose, finely striated transversely; hinge 
with a strong lateral tooth, 

Gualt. Test. pi. 77. f. Q. 

A heart-shaped shell, of a whitish green colour, 
much inflated, and bending inwards on both sides; 
hinge with a single primary tooth. Length three quar- 
ters of an inch, breadth the same. Described only by 
Gualtieri. r 



UNEQUAL-SIDED TELLEN. 

14. Tellina inaequilatera. T. testa tequivalvi, subrotunda, alba, striis 
versus marginem nonnullis transversis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231. 

Shell of equal valves, roundish, white; with a few transverse striae to- 
wards the margin. 

Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. C. 

This is an obscure species, described by Gualtieri, 
but very indifferently defined. 



KNORR'S TELLEN. 

15. Tellina Knorrii. T. testa splendide rubra, margine violacea. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3231. 
Shell bright red, with a violet margin. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 21. f. 5. 

This species, which has been named after its disco- 
verer, is an inch and a quarter long, and two inches 
broad. Its country is not mentioned. 



152 TELLINA. 



MINUTE TELLEN. 

16. Tellina pusilla. T. testa ovata, ventricosa, tenui, transverse striata; 

cardine in altera valva edentulo, in altera dente primario duplici. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3231. 
Shell oval, ventricose, thin, transversely striated ; hinge in one valve 

toothless, in the other a double primary tooth. 
Schr'dt. Flussconch. pi. 4. f. 7. a. b. 

A very small, brittle shell, of a dirty white colour. 
Inhabits the European rivers. 



OBLIQUE TELLEN. 
PL 41. /. 4,5. Linn^an Society's Cabinet. 

17. Tellina obliqua. T. testa ovali, glaberrima, lineis interruptis pur- 
purascentibus insignita; dentibus later alibus prominulis. 

Shell oval, very smooth, and marked with interrupted purple lines; 
lateral teeth rather prominent. 

This species is prettily marked with short, irregular 
purple lines, that appear on the inside, as well as 
without; the hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one 
in the other, besides the remote teeth ; the margin is 
plain. It is an inch long, and an inch and a quarter 
broad. 

It is arranged among the Tellens, in the Linnaean So- 
ciety's collection of Shells, under the name of Obliqua : 
resembles the Venus Meroe, but has not a denticulated 
margin. 



TELLINA. 153 



SPOTTED TELLEN. 

18. Tellina maculata. T. testa subovata, crassiuscula, decussation, striata, 
maculis irregularibus. Adams in Act. Soc. Linn. 3. p. 252. Item 
8. p. 48. 

Shell sub-oval, thickish, with decussated striae, and irregular spots. 

This species, which was found at Tenby, in South 
Wales, by the late Mr. Adams, has been admitted on his 
authority into the excellent descriptive catalogue of 
British Testacea, with which Dr. Maton, and Mr. 
Rackett, have enriched the eighth volume of the Lin- 
naean Transactions. 

RIVER TELLEN. 

PI. 47. /. 6. 

19. Tellina amnica. T. testa oblique subovata, transversim sulcata. 
Maton in Act. Soc. Linn. 3. p. 44. pi. 13. f. 37, 38. (T. rivalis), and 
8. p. 60. 

Shell obliquely sub-oval, transversely grooved. 

Testa subcordiformi, transversim sulcata, umbone obtuso. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3242. Mull. Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2967. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 7. f. C. C. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 134. Donov. Brit. 

Shells, t. 64. f. 2. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 2. a. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 86. Cardium amnicum. 

A convex shell, somewhat heart-shaped, transversely 
grooved, and of a shining horn colour. The inside is 
bluish-white ; the hinge is not in the middle of the 
shell ; there are two teeth in one valve, and one in the 
other, besides the lateral teeth, which are strong and 
conspicuous. Length about a quarter of an inch, 
breadth three eighths of an inch. 

Inhabits the Thames, and other European rivers. 
Was first distinguished as British by Dr. Maton, who 
found it in the River Avon. 



154 TELLINA, 



** Shells oval and compressed. 

FOLIACEOUS TELLEN. 
PI. 36./. 1. Dr. Coombe. 

20. Tellina foliacea. T. testa ovali, pube scabra, rima serrata. Linn. 
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117. Linn. Gmel p. 3232. 

Shell oval, angular compartment rough, fente serrated. 

Rumph. Mus. t. 45. f. K. Argenville Conch, pi. 22. f. E. Favanne 

Conch, pi. 49. f. S. 2. Knorr Vergn. pi. 29. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 10. f. 95. Encyclop. Method, pi. 287. f. 4. 

A very flat shell, of a fine orange colour, delicately, 
but distinctly, striated transversely. One end is round- 
ed, the other truncated and angular, with rough longi- 
tudinal striae ; the upper edge, from the apex, is toothed. 
The hinge has a bifid tooth in one valve, and a plain 
tooth in the other; lateral teeth slight, and near the 
hinge. Length two inches, breadth rather more than 
three. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and was first described by 
Rumphius. 

WHITISH TELLEN. 

21. Tellina albida. T. testa ovali Icevi ; nymphis prominentibus. Linn. 
Mus. Lud. Ulr. 479. No. 23. Linn. Gmel. p. 3231. 

Shell oval and smooth ; nymphae prominent. 

This species, according to Linnaeus, is faintly striated 
transversely. It is the size of an egg, of a reddish white 
on the outside, and quite white within : the hinge has a 
distinct suture on each side, marked with minute trans- 
verse red striae ; in each valve there are three teeth. 

Inhabits the European Ocean. 



TELLINA. 155 



THIN TELLEN. 

PI. 44. /. 3, 4. 

22. Tellina tenuis. T. testa subtriangulari-planimcuia, tenerrima. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52. 
Shell very thin, flat, and subtriangular. 
List. Conch, pi. 405. f. 251. Petiver Gaz. t. 94. f. 5. Da Cost. Brit. 

Conch, p. 210. Chem. Conch, pi. 12. f. 117. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset. 

p. 30. pi. 5. f. 3. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 19. f. 2. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 59. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. 

pi. 51. f. 2. 

A very thin, brittle, depressed shell, finely striated 
transversely, and somewhat angular before. It varies 
greatly in colour, being white, or red, or flesh-coloured, or 
yellow, or variegated with different colours, disposed in 
zones, over the surface of the shell ; the hinge has a single 
bifid tooth in each valve. Length about half an inch, 
breadth three quarters. 

Inhabits the European Seas, and is very common on 
many of the sandy shores of Great Britain. 

This is a distinct species from the T.planata, of Lin- 
naeus, with which it has sometimes been confounded. 
It was discovered by Lister, who has given a very good 
figure of the shell. 



156 TELLINA. 

SEMI-STRIATED TELLEN. 
PL 45. /. 4. 

23. Tellina fabula. T. testa ovata, compressa, inflexa, anterius subros- 

trata ; valva altera lcevi y altera oblique substriata, striis reflexis. Linn, 

Gmel. p. 3239. 
Shell oval, compressed, inflected, a little produced before ; one valve 

smooth, the other with oblique reflected striae. 
Gronov. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 9. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 30. pi. 12. f. 3. 

andf. 3. a. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 97. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 61. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 52. 

A thin, white shell, not in shape unlike the T. tenuis, 
but more produced before. It is distinguished imme- 
diately by its valves, one of which is quite plain, while 
the other is marked obliquely with almost impercep- 
tible striae. Specimens have occurred, though very 
rarely, striated on both sides. The hinge has three 
teeth in one valve, and two in the other. Length half an 
inch, breadth three quarters of an inch. 

Inhabits the European and American Seas, and is 
found on some of the sandy shores of England and 
Wales. Many very fine specimens have been collected 
at Sandwich in Kent, where it was first discovered by 
the late Mr. Boys, mixed with T. tenuis. 



TMLLZWA, 



F'Z. , 44 





,^^ 




TELLINA. 157 



FLAT TELLEN. 

24. Tellina planata. T. testa ovata, compressa, transversim substriata, 

Icevi; marginibus acutis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1117. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3232. 
Shell oval, compressed, transversely substriated, smooth; margins 

acute. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. G. Rugenf. Conch, pi. 3. f. 28. Born Test. pi. 2. 

f.9. 

A very flat shell, pellucid, and of a flesh colour ; 
slightly curved, with very sharp margins. 

This species has been confounded with the T. tenuis ; 
but it is evident, from his references, that Linnaeus meant 
a different shell. Gmelin's T. complanata, p. 3239, is this 
shell. 



SHARP-EDGED TELLEN. 
PL 44. /. 1. 

25. Tellina acuta. T. testa ovata, compressa, longitudinaliter subtilissime 

striata ; marginibus acutis. 
Shell oval, compressed, very finely striated longitudinally; margins 

sharp. 

This is a flat, thin, pellucid shell, of a white colour, 
with a tinge of yellow near the apex, but not perceptibly 
rayed. The surface is marked longitudinally with ex- 
tremely fine striae ; the beak is slightly curved, and the 
angle is determined by a concavity running from the 
apex to the margin, in the upper shell ; the margins are 
very sharp-edged. The hinge has two teeth in one valve, 
and one in the other ; there is but one lateral tooth. 



158 TELLINA. 

The shell is two inches long, and three and a quarter 
broad. 

Inhabits the West Indies. 

This species greatly resembles the T. planata. The 
figure in Gtialtieri, to which Linnaeus has referred, is 
very like our present subject, but it is broader in pro- 
portion to its length, and the margin is somewhat in- 
flected. 



RAYED TELLEN. 
PL 38./. 2, 3. Dr. Coombe. 

26. Tellina radiata. T. testa oblonga, longitudinaliter subtilissime sub- 

striata, nitida, sutura anali canaliculata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 

p. 1117. Linn. Gmel. p. 3232. 
Shell oblong, very finely striated longitudinally, polished ; suture behind 

the beaks channelled. 
List. Conch, t. 393. f. 240. Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. 1. Argenville Conch. 

pi. 22. f. A. Knorr Delic. Nat. pi. B. 3. f. 8. Vergn. 1. pi. 

19. f. 1. and 4. pi. 2. f. 2. 4. Rugenf. Conch. 1. pi. 8. f. 22. Chem. 

Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 102. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 2. 

This is a highly polished, oblong shell, rayed with 
red on a white ground ; it varies in colour, being some- 
times without rays, and sometimes banded with yellow. 
The beak is slightly inflected, and the margin smooth, 
blunt, and somewhat incurved. The inside is white, or 
yellowish, and often stained near the margin, like the 
rays on the outside ; the hinge has two teeth in one 
valve, and one in the other ; the lateral teeth are remote. 
The size of the shell varies from one inch in breadth, 
to more than three. 



TELLINA. 159 

Inhabits the American Seas, and is not uncommon in 
the West Indies. 

The shells quoted by Gmelin, as varieties, must be 
rejected, except Knorr's figure, which is our yellow 
variety, pi. 38. f. 3. 

RED TELLEN. 
PL 44. /. 2. Dr. Coombe. 

27. Tellina sanguinea. T. testa ovato-oblonga, anterius angulata, sub- 
rostrata, transversim striata ; car dims dentibus later alibus acutis. 

Shell oblong-oval, angular and somewhat beaked before, transversely 
striated ; hinge with pointed lateral teeth. 

A thin shell, of a red colour, strongly striated trans- 
versely, and crossed by almost imperceptible longitudinal 
striae ; it is of an oblong oval shape, very slightly in- 
flected at the beak. The inside is reddish- white ; the 
hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; 
the lateral teeth are sharp-pointed. 

This shell is in the cabinet of Dr. Coombe. It is 
allied, in shape, to the T. lanceolata, of Chemnitz. 

BEAKED TELLEN. 
PL 37. f. 3. Dr. Coombe. 

28. Tellina rostrata. T. testa oblonga, antice angulato-rostrata ; an- 
giitis subdentatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. GmeL 
p. 3232. 

Shell oblong, with an angular beak before ; the angles slightly toothed. 

List. Conch, pi. 382. f. 225. Petiver Amboin. pi. 17. f. 20. Rumph. 
Mus. pi. 45. f. L. Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. T. Argenville Conch, pi. 
22. f. O. Favanne Conch, pi. 49, f. B. Knorr Vergn. 4. pi. 2. f. 3. 5. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 105. Encyclop. Method, pi. 289. f. 1. 

A' thin, compressed, oblong shell, with a remarkably 
produced, angular beak ; the upper part is of a polished 



160 TELLINA. 

rose colour, near the margin it is of a dull green ; the 
surface is striated transversely, and the margin is incur- 
vated towards the beak ; the inside is rose-coloured ; 
the teeth, at the hinge, are bifid, and the lateral teeth are 
remote. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

The references of Gmelin to Lister, pi. 395. f. 242. to 
Gualtieri, Test. pi. 86. f. D. to Born Test. pi. 2. f. 12. 
and to Chemnitz, 6. pi. 10. f. 96. must be rejected, as not 
belonging to this species. Figure 104, however, of 
Chemnitz, may be admitted as a variety. 



SMOOTH TELLEN. 
PL 41. /. 1. Linn^ian Society's Cabinet. 

29. Tellina laevigata. T. testa ovata, laevigata , dentibus lateralibus mar- 

ginatis, pube striato-scabra, nymphis in/lexis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 

12. p. 1 1 17. Linn. Gmel. p. 3232. 
Shell oval, smooth; lateral teeth margined, angular division with rough 

striae ; sutures inflected. 
List. Conch, t. 387. f. .234. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 111. Schrot. 

Conch. 2. p. 649. pi. 7. f. 10. 

A thin, smooth, sub-oval shell, marked with almost 
imperceptible transverse and longitudinal striae; on the 
outside, white, or yellowish, with faint red rays : the 
inside pale red, flesh-coloured, or white ; two primary 
teeth in each valve, the lateral teeth near the hinge. 
Length two inches, breadth two inches and a half. 

Inhabits the European and Indian Seas. 

Linnaeus refers to Rumphius, pi. 45. f. 1. for the spe- 
cies, but his figure appears to be a variety of T. lingua- 
felts. Lister discovered the shell. 



TMZEIMA 











TELLINA. 161 



THREE-BANDED TELLEN. 

30. Tellina trifasciata. T. testa ovata, Iceviuscula, sanguineo-triradiata, 
puberugosa. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel. p. 3233. 
Shell oval, rather smooth, with three red rays, angular division rough. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 114. a. b. 

A roundish, or rather sub triangular, shell, truncated 
at one end, finely striated transversely, and marked, dis- 
tinctly, with three red rays, which are deeper, and nar- 
rower, at the apex, than the margin; the inside is white, 
and is also rayed, but not so strongly as without ; the 
lateral teeth are strong. It is about three quarters of 
an inch long, and rather more than an inch broad. 

Is said to inhabit the European Ocean. 

Is not figure 115 of Chemnitz, quoted by Gmelin as a 
variety of this shell, a distinct species ? 

Lister's figure, to which Linnaeus has referred for 
this shell, is the T. Ferroensis ; and Donovan, in pi. 60. 
of his British Shells, has retained the same misnomer, 
for the last-mentioned species. The T. trifasciata is not 
an English shell. 

DONAX TELLEN. 
PL 45. f. 5. Linn^an Society's Cabinet. 

31. Tellina donacina. T. testa ovata, compresso-planiuscula, l&viuscula, 

anterius obtusissima. Linn. Syst. Nat.ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3234. 
Shell oval, rather flat, smoothish, and very blunt before. 
Gualt. pi. 88. f. JV. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, p. 29. pi. 12. f. 3. b. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 58. Item Suppl. pi. 27. f. 3. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 50. 

pl.l. f. 7. 

This is an oval shell, semipellucid, and of a yellowish 
white colour, marked with many red rays, diverging 
vol. 1. M 



162 TELLINA. 

from the apex to the margin. It is shaped like a Donax, 
and is very minutely striated transversely : the hinge is 
placed towards one end, and has two teeth (one of which 
is bifid) in one valve, and a single tooth in the other. It 
is about half an inch long, and an inch broad. 

This species, which was first noticed by Gualtieri, in- 
habits the Mediterranean. It is also a British shell, 
and was found on Sandwich Flats, by Mr. Boys. Dr. 
Pulteney has since met with it at Weymouth, and Mr. 
Montagu on the Cornish and Devonshire Coasts. Is 
not this shell figured by Lister in pi. 385 ? 



TRUNCATED TELLEN. 

32. Tellina truncata. T. testa ovali, compressa, substriata ; parte an- 

tica truncata, suturaque distincta. Linn. Gmel. p. 3234. 
Shell oval, compressed, somewhat striated, truncated before. 

This species is admitted on the authority of Gmelin, 
but from his own confession of the resemblance it bears 
to the T. incarnata, of Linnaeus, there is reason to be- 
lieve that it may prove a variety only of that shell. 

It inhabits Java. 



TRIANGULAR TELLEN. 

33. Tellina trilatera. T. testa plana, anterius truncata, flava, vertice 
albo; cardinis dente primario et laterali solitariis. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3234.* 

Shell flat, yellow, and truncated before ; umbo white ; hinge with a sin- 
gle primary and lateral tooth. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 85. 

A yellowish shell, concentrically striated, except 
about the apex, which is very smooth, and white ; the 






TEZZIMA, 



J»Zu&7a 






TELLINA. 163 

fore part is obtuse, and, towards the inferior margin, 
slightly corrugated. Length an inch and three quar- 
ters, breadth two inches and a quarter. 

Described and figured by Chemnitz, from a specimen 
in Spengler's Museum. 

OBLONG TELLEN. 

34. Tellina oblonga. T. testa oblonga, fragili, Jlavicante ; cardinis 
dente primario, in altera valva, solitario, in altera duplici, Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3234. 

Shell oblong, brittle, yellowish ; hinge with two primary teeth in one 
valve, and one in the other. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 87. 

A very thin, egg-shaped shell, somewhat inflected 
at one end ; the hinge not placed in the middle ; the 
margins plain. Length about three quarters of an inch, 
breadth rather more than an inch. 

Inhabits the European Ocean. Described only by 
Chemnitz. 



SPENGLER'S TELLEN. 
PL 37. /. 2. Dr. Coombe. 

35. Tellina Spengleri. T. testa alba, transversim striata, utrinque bi- 
fariam uncinata ; valva altera extrorsum, altera introrsum arcuatum 
jlexa. Linn. Gmel. p. 3234. 

Shell white, transversely striated, with a row of spines running towards 
each end in both shells ; one valve bending outwards, the other in- 
wards. 

Lister Conch, pi. 398. f. 237. Spengler Besch. BerL Naturf. 1. p. 
387. pi. 9. f. 1. 3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 88—90. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 287. f. 5. a. b. 

A long, narrow, white shell, with a rosy tip, strongly 
striated transversely, and ridged with teeth, or spines, 



164 TELLINA. 

running from the hinge to each end; beak angular, 
inflected, and waved; margins plain and blunt. Inside 
white, with a stain of yellow under the hinge ; two pri- 
mary teeth in one valve, and one in the other, lateral 
teeth remote. Length three quarters of an inch, breadth 
two inches and a half. 

Inhabits the shores of the Nicobar Islands, and is 
found in different parts of the Indian Ocean. 

This shell was first figured by Lister, from a worn 
specimen, without the spines. Chemnitz in fig. 88, has 
represented the shell with great fidelity. 



CARNATION TELLEN. 
PL 45. /. 1. 

36. Tellina Ferroensis. T. testa oblongo-ovata, compressa, albo rubel- 

loque radiata, subtiliter transversim striata ; cardinis dentibus latera- 

libus nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235. 
Shell oblong-oval, compressed, rayed with white and reddish, finely 

striated transversely ; hinge without lateral teeth. 
Lister Anim. Angl. App. t. 1. f. 8. Conch, t. 394. f. 241. 

Petiv. Gaz. t. 94. f. 9. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 50. f. 3. Da 

Costa Brit. Conch, p. 209. t. 14. f. 1. (T. radiata) Born Test. pi. 2. 

f. 5. (T. angulata) Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 91. Donov. Brit. 

Shells, pi. 60. (T. trifasciata) Mont. Test. Brit. p. 55. Linn. Trans. 

8. p. 49. 

An oblong shell, truncated at one end, and rounded at 
the other ; the surface finely striated transversely, and 
marked with red and white rays ; striae waved over the 
ridge which runs from the apex to the angular margin ; 
inside white, or rose-coloured ; hinge with two teeth in 
each valve; lateral teeth wanting. Length from half an 
inch to an inch, breadth from one inch to two. 



TMLLIWJL. 



WL /,. 








J°JL . 42. 








TELLINA. 165 

Inhabits the Northern Ocean, and is found, though 
rather sparingly, on the shores of Great Britain. Single 
valves occur at Sandwich ; at Tenby it is not uncom- 
mon; it has been found at Poole and Weymouth 
in Dorsetshire, at Scarborough in Yorkshire, and on 
several parts of the Coast of South Devonshire. Lister 
discovered the species. 



BLUSHING TELLEN. 
PL 42. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

37. Tellina operculata. T. testa incequivalvi, oblonga, rosea, subtiliter 
decussation striata; valva altera convexa, altera fere plana. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3235. 

Shell of unequal valves, oblong, and rose-coloured, finely decussated ; 
one valve convex, the other almost flat. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 97. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 12. f. 1. 

A pale rose-coloured shell, covered, when recent, with 
a green epidermis, a portion of which often adheres to 
the margin; the surface is very finely striated, both 
transversely and longitudinally ; the beak is produced 
and angular, the valves are dissimilar, one being convex, 
the other nearly flat, and somewhat smaller; the mar- 
gins are flexuous and acute. The inside is rosy, and 
the hinge has two teeth (one of which is notched) in one 
valve, and one in the other ; there are no lateral teeth. 
Length about an inch and a half, breadth three inches. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, but is a rare shell. 



166 TELLINA 



WHITE TELLEN. 

38. Tellina alba. T. testa ovali, incequivalvi, decussatim striata, antice 

inflexa et angulata; cardinis dente primario bifido. 
Shell oval, with unequal valves, decussated, inflected and angular before ; 

primary tooth of the hinge bifid. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 98. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235. No. 32. Far. 0. 

This shell is given by Gmelin as a variety only of 
T. operculata, but it is clearly a distinct species, of a 
different shape and colour. The T. alba, has a very 
slight tinge of yellow ; the striae on the surface are 
strong, and the slope, from fhe hinge to the beak, is 
rather concave, than convex. The hinge has two teeth 
in one valve, and one in the other ; the lateral teeth are 
obsolete. Length an inch and three quarters, breadth 
two inches and three quarters. 

First described and figured by Chemnitz. 



GLASSY TELLEN. 

39. Tellina Hyalina. T. testa ovali oblonga, incequivalvi, plana, pellu- 
cida, glabra, subtilissime decussatim striata, margine acutissimo, car- 
dinis dentibus lateralibus nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3235. 

Shell oblong oval, with unequal valves, flat, pellucid, and smooth, with 
very delicate decussated striae, margin very sharp, hinge without la- 
teral teeth.. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 99. 

A very brittle, pellucid shell, perfectly white, with 
the hinge placed towards one end ; there are two teeth 
in one valve, and one in the other. Length an inch and 
a quarter, breadth two inches and a quarter. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Gmelin refers to Schroter, 
Mini, in Conch. 3. p. 6. No. 14. for a variety of this shell. 



TELLINA. 167 

LANCE-SHAPED TELLEN. 
PL 45./. 2. Dr. Coombe. 

40. Tellina lanceolata. T. testa ovali, tenuissima, pellucida, albida, trans- 
versim striata, anterius acuminata ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus in 
altera valva nullis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236. 

Shell oval, very thin, pellucid, transversely striated, and sharp pointed 

before ; hinge without lateral teeth in one valve. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 103. 

A white shell, sometimes reddish, rounded at one 
end, and lancet-shaped at the other ; slightly inflected 
at the beak. Length three quarters of an inch, breadth 
an inch and a quarter. 

Inhabits India, but is very rare. Described only by 
Chemnitz. 

OPALINE TELLEN. 

41. Tellina opalina. T. testa ovali, pellucida, lucis reflexione et refrac- 
tione variante, costa in utraque valva alba a cardine ad marginem ex- 
terior em procedente. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236. 

Shell oval, pellucid, varying in different positions of light ; a white rib 

in each valve, proceeding from the hinge to the outer margin. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 107. 

A thin, white, diaphanous species, finely striated 
transversely, and reflecting from its surface, different 
colours, like the interior of pearlaceous shells. A white 
rib running from apex to margin, occasions the fore 
part of the shell to be angular, but not inflected; hinge 
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other. Length 
an inch, breadth an inch and a half. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 



168 TELLINA. 

Chemnitz described this shell from a specimen in 
Spengler's Cabinet, and Gmelin has quoted Schroter 
for a variety, under the title of Tellina papyracea alba 
Spengleri. 



SCARLET TELLEN. 

42. Tellina coccinea. T. testa ovali, pellucida, coccinea, subtilitertrans- 

versim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236. 
Shell oval, pellucid, scarlet, finely striated transversely. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 109. 

In this species there is a calosity near the hinge, like 
what we meet with among the Solens ; the inside is 
scarlet and white. Length seven eighths of an inch, 
breadth an inch and a quarter. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. 



CHALKY TELLEN. 

43. Tellina calcarea. T. testa ovali, tenui, alba ; cardinis dente primario 
in altera valvafisso, alt erius fovea inserto, Linn. Gmel. p. 3236. 

Shell oval, thin, white; hinge with the primary tooth, in one valve, 
cleft ; in the other, inserted into a cavity. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f, 136. 

An oval shell, smooth, and very fragile, marked with 
fine transverse striae, angular and inflected before, plain 
and rounded behind. Length three quarters of an inch, 
breadth rather more than an inch. 

Inhabits the sea round Ireland. 



TELLINA. 



LISTER S TELLEN. 



169 



44. Tellina pectinata. T. testa rotundata, plana, tenui, subfusca, longi- 
tudinaliter striata. Linn. Gmel.\>. 3236. 

Shell rounded, flat, thin, brownish, longitudinally striated. 
List. Conch, pi. 300. f. 137. 

This is an obscure species, figured only by Lister, 
who described it as of a yellowish colour, and chan- 
nelled on each side from the beak. Length two inches 
and a quarter, breadth two inches and a half. 

Among Lister's notes, it is mentioned as an East In- 
dian shell. 

NARROW TELLEN. 

45. Tellina angusta. T. testa planiuscula, rubra, albo-radiata, altero 
fine acuminata, altero rotundata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3236. 

Shell flattish, red with white rays, one end pointed, the other rounded. 
List. Conch, pi. 383. f. 226. 

A narrow shell, rather less than half an inch long, 
and an inch broad. 



MADAGASCAR TELLEN. 
PL 39./. 2, 3. Mr. Jennings. 

46. Tellina Madagascariensis. T. testa ovali, altero fine subacuminata. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3237. 
Shell oval, somewhat pointed at one end. 
List . Conch, pi. 386. f. 233. 

A thick, heavy, compressed shell, of a flesh colour, 
with a rosy tip and margin. One end is rounded, the 



170 TELLINA. 

other produced, and inflected ; a ridge in one valve, runs 
from the apex to the anterior margin ; in the other valve 
a sulcus; fine longitudinal striae cover the surface of the 
shell; the margins very obtuse. The inside is a fine rose 
colour; the muscular depressions very strong ; the hinge 
has a single primary tooth in each valve, one of which is 
notched : there is a small approximate lateral tooth in 
one valve, but none in the other. Length two inches 
and a quarter, breadth three inches and three quarters. 

Inhabits Madagascar. 

We are indebted for the knowledge of this species, to 
Dr. Lister, who has given a good figure of the shell, with 
the following note. " This large Tetten is of a corne- 
lian colour, very smooth, and very thick and ponderous, 
in those of this growth and bigness, but the lesser are 
thin and light, and prettily fasciated, at least some of 
them." It is a rare shell. 



FLAT STRIATED TELLEN. 
PL 39. /. 1. Dr. Coombe. 

47. Tellina punicea. T. testa ovali, plana, cequilatera, punicea, densis- 

sime transversim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3239. 
Shell oval, flat, with equal sides, thickly striated transversely, and of a 

light red colour. « 

Bern Test. pi. 2. f. 8. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 5. Donov. 

Brit. Shells, pi. 123. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 57. Linn. Trans. 8. 

p. 51. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. J 79. 

A flat shell, densely striated transversely, and very 
delicately crossed longitudinally, of a light red colour, 
with whitish bands, and a tinge of yellow at the tip; in 
small specimens the red is much deeper, and the longitu- 



TMJLJLIKA, 






TELLINA. 171 

dinal striae invisible; one end of the shell is rounded, 
the other somewhat angular and inflected. The inside 
is very smooth and stained, more or less, of a rose 
colour; the primary teeth of the hinge bifid, the remote 
teeth prominent. Length an inch and a quarter, breadth 
two inches and a quarter. 

Dr. Pulteney first described this as a British shell. It 
has been found between Weymouth and Portland in 
Dorsetshire, by Mr. Bryer. It is called T. lata by Dr. 
Pulteney, and T. incequistriata, by Mr. Donovan. 



DEPRESSED TELLEN. 
PL 45. /. 3. Mr. Sowerby. 

48. Tellina depressa. T. testa incequilatera, depressa, minutissime 

striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238. 
Shell with unequal sides, depressed, and very minutely striated. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 88. f. L. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 10. f. 96. PulL in 

Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 163. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 56. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 51. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. 

p. 179. 

A thin, flat, oval shell, of a light orange, or yellow 
colour ; one end rounded, the other produced, angular, 
and rather inflected; finely striated transversely; um- 
bones acute, margin very sharp. Inside light orange, 
hinge with two teeth in one valve, and three in the 
other ; one tooth remote. Length an inch, breadth an 
inch and a half. Foreign specimens larger, and red 
coloured. 

Inhabits the European seas, and is the T. squalida 
of Dr. Solander. It was first noticed as British by Dr. 
Pulteney, who described it under the name of T. squa- 



172 TELLINA. 

lida, from a few specimens found near Poole, and at 
Weymouth, in Dorsetshire. Mr. Donovan found it, in 
plenty, upon the sands on the south-east side of Tenby, 
Pembrokeshire ; and Mr. Montagu, in Cornwall and De- 
vonshire. 

PURPLE TELLEN. 

49. Tellina purpurascens. T. testa utrinque purpurascente. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3237. 
Shell entirely purple. 
List. Conch, pi. 391. f. 230. 

This shell, which is figured by Lister, is an inch and 
a half long, and two inches broad. Gmelin refers to 
Gualtieri, pi. 77. f. L. and M. for varieties of this species, 
but they are evidently distinct. 



ROUGH TELLEN. 

50. Tellina aspera. T. testa altero fine acuminata, intus lutescente, ex- 
terius radiata, et striis transversis aspera. Linn. Gmel. 

Shell pointed at one end, radiated, and roughly striated transversely ; 
yellowish within. 

This shell is described only by Gmelin, who says that 
it is an inch and three quarters long, and three inches 
broad. Its country is not mentioned. 



TELLINA. 173 



SUBCUNEATED TELLEN. 

51. Tellina triangularis. T. testa subcuneata, albida, transverse striata. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3237. 
Shell somewhat wedge-shaped, whitish, transversely striated. 
List. Conch, p. 401. f. 244. 

This is a thin species, described by Lister, who has 
added a variety, f. 245. of the same plate, which, from 
its shape, has more the appearance of a distinct species. 



BROAD TELLEN. 

52. Tellina lata. T. testa alba ineequilatera, alter o fine subacuminata. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237. 

Shell white with unequal sides, a little pointed at one end. 
List. Conch, pi. 407. f. 253. 

This species is something like the T. depressa ; it is an 
inch and a quarter long, and two inches and three quar- 
ters broad. 

Inhabits the Norwegian Ocean. 

JAMAICA TELLEN. 

53. Tellina Jamaicensis. T. testa crassa, rostro extus purpurascente. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3237. 

Shell thick, beak purplish on the outside. 
List. Conch, pi. 408. f. 254. 

An oval shell, rounded at one end, and rather pro- 
duced at the other, with an incurvated margin. Figured 
only by Lister. 

Inhabits Jamaica. 



174 TELLINA, 



WHITISH TELLEN. 

54. Tellina albicans. T. testa albida, fascia Candida ; intusflava. Linn. 

Gmel. p. 3238. 
Shell whitish, banded; within yellow. 
Gualt. pi. 77. f. H. 

Gualtieri has figured this species, but has not men- 
tioned its country. 



REDDISH TELLEN. 

55. Tellina rufescens. T. testa rufescente luteo maculata, decussatim 

striata. Linn, Gmel. p. 3238. 
Shell reddish spotted with yellow, with decussated striae. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 85. f. C. 

This shell, which is figured only by Gualtieri, is three 
quarters of an inch long, and an inch and a quarter 
broad. 



BANDED TELLEN. 

56. Tellina fasciata. T. testa incequilatera y subtilissime transversim 
striata, candido et subalbido alter natim fasciata. Linn. Gmel. p. 
3238. 

Shell with unequal sides, finely striated transversely, alternately banded 
with bright and dull white. 

Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. B. 

One end of this shell is somewhat pointed. It is 
about an inch long, and an inch and a half broad. Its 
country is not mentioned. 



TELLINA. 175 



STRIATED TELLEN- 

57. Tellina striata. T. testa incequilatera, utrinque rotundata, ex roseo- 

alba, pellncida. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238. 
Shell with unequal sides, rounded at both ends, rosy white, pellucid. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 89. f. C. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 60. 

A smooth shell, minutely striated concentrically, of a 
rosy white on the outside, and within. There are two 
teeth at the hinge, and a strong remote lateral tooth on 
each side, in both valves. Length an inch and a quar- 
ter, breadth two inches. 

Inhabits the European Ocean, and has been found in 
England by Mr. Bryer, between Weymouth and Port- 
land, in Dorsetshire. The reference to Chemnitz, 
adopted by Mr. Montagu, has not been noticed, from a 
firm persuasion that the shell quoted in his Conchology, 
vol. 6. pi. 12. f. 117. is a representation of the T. tenuis. 



ROSY TELLEN. 

58. Tellina rosea. T. testa costis, tenuibus a cardine ad marginem de- 

currentibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3238. 
Shell rosy, with thin ribs running from the hinge to the margin. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 9. f. 3. 

This shell, which is described by Knorr, is an inch 
long, and an inch and a half broad. Its country is un- 
known. 



176 TELLINA 



ADANSON S TELLEN. 

59. Tellina Adansoni. T. testa albida, car dine violaceo. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3239. 
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 9. Poron. 

This shell was discovered by Adanson on the African 
shore, where it occurs abundantly, in the sinuosities of 
the rocks, filled with sand. It is a very small species, 
not being more than the eighth of an inch long. 



RETICULATED TELLEN. 

60. Tellina cancellata. T. testa tenui, sordide alba, sulcis numerosis te- 
nuissimis longitudinalibus rugas transversas decussantibus. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3239. 

Shell thin, dirty white, with numerous fine longitudinal grooves, crossing 
the transverse wrinkles. 

Adams, Seneg. pi. 17. f. 12. Pirel. 

This shell, described by Adanson, is very thin and 
brittle, but not transparent. It is externally marked 
with about a hundred extremely fine grooves, which are 
crossed by many ridges, giving the shell the appear- 
ance of fine net- work. It is an inch broad, and rather 
less in length. 

Inhabits the sandy shores of the island of Goree. 



TEJLL1KA. 



PLoM* 



S^r% 









TELLINA. 177 



FASICATED TELLEN. 

61. Tellina strigosa. T. testa albicante fasciata, glabra, ad marginem 
rugosa ; cardinis dentibus in valva dextra duohus, in sinistra tribus. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3239. 

Shell with whitish bands, smooth, and wrinkled at the margin; hinge 

with two teeth in one valve, and three in the other. 
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 9. 

This shell, externally, bears some resemblance to the 
T. Madagascariensis, but differs essentially in the teeth. 
It is rounded behind, and rather produced and plaited 
before. The colour of the bands which cross the shell, 
in young specimens, is yellow ; in old ones, grey-violet. 
Length about an inch and a half; breadth two inches 
and a half, but subject to considerable variation in size. 

Inhabits the sandy shores of Macao, one of the Mo- 
lucca islands. 

SNOWY TELLEN. 
PL 46. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

62. Tellina nivea. T. testa ovata, compressa, anterius subangulata, car- 
dinis dente primario in altera valva solitario, jisso, duplici alterius 
inserto. 

Shell oval, compressed, somewhat angular before ; hinge with a solitary, 
cleft, primary tooth, in one valve, inserted between two others in the 
opposite valve. 

This is a smooth, delicate shell, perfectly white, and 
of an oval shape, rounded at one end, and rather pro- 
duced, and angular, at the other; besides the primary 
teeth, mentioned in the specification, there is one rather 
remote. Length an inch and an eighth ; breadth an inch 
and five eighths. 

Inhabits the American Ocean. 

VOL. I. N 



178 TELLINA. 

SULCATED TELLEN. 
PL 47. /. 1. Mrs. Mawe. 

63. Tellina sulcata. T. testa subovali, plana, transversim sulcata, an- 
terius angulato-inflexa ; cardinis dentibus primariis duobus bifidis, la- 
teralibus prominulis. 

Shell somewhat oval, flat, transversely sulcated, angular and inflected 
before ; primary teeth two, cleft ; lateral teeth prominent. 

A flat, straw-coloured shell, transversely grooved, 
rounded behind, and produced before into an angular, 
inflected, undulated beak ; margins plain. Inside straw- 
coloured, the same as without ; hinge with two cleft 
teeth in one valve, and one in the other. Length rather 
less than an inch ; breadth about an inch and three- 
eighths. 

This shell resembles the T. crystallina of Chemnitz, 
Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1947, 1948, but differs in the co- 
lour, and shape of the beak. Its country is unknown. 

ANGULAR TELLEN. 

64. Tellina angulosa. T. testa ovali, planiuscula, transversim striata, 
antrorsum inflexo-angulata ; cardinis dente primario bifido ; lateralibus 
remotis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244. 

Shell oval, flattish, transversely striated, the fore part angularly inflected ; 

hinge with a cleft primary tooth ; lateral teeth remote. 
Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1654, 1655. 

This shell inhabits America, and is about an inch 
long, and two inches broad. It resembles the preced- 
ing species in some particulars, but is a different shell. 



TEJLHIWA-. 



]PE,»47> 








6 





TELLINA. 179 



LASKEY S TELLEN. 

65. Tellina Laskeyi. T. testa ovato-oblonga, Icevi ; valvula alterius dente 

primario solitario, alterius duobus approximatis subbifidis, dentibus 

lateralibus nullis. 
Shell oblong-oval, smooth ; in one valve a solitary primary tooth, in the 

other two approximate teeth, a little cleft ; lateral teeth wanting. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 28. pi. 28. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool 1812. 

4. p. 178. 

A purplish-white shell, covered, when recent, with 
an olive-yellow epidermis ; one end rounded, the other 
obtusely pointed, like the Donax Trunculus. The inside 
is clouded with purple, and the margin is channelled, 
from the teeth almost to the end of the longest side. 
Length half an inch ; breadth three quarters. 

Inhabits the Frith of Forth, in Scotland. Discovered 
by Mr. JLaskey, and described and figured by Mr. 
Montagu. 



180 TELLINA 



*** Shells suborbicular. 



POMEGRANATE-FLOWER TELLEN. 

66. Tellina balaustina. T. testa dilatato-orbiculata, laviuscula ; valvula 
altera dentibus lateralibus. Linn: Syst. Nat. ed. 1812. p. 1119. Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3239. 

Shell dilated-orbicular, smoothish, with lateral teeth in one valve. 

A whitish shell, nearly round, but rather broader 
than long, marked with obsolete red rays. It is the 
size of a lupine seed. 

Inhabits the Miditerranean. 

We are not acquainted with this shell, which Linnaeus 
compares to the flower of the pomegranate. 



RASP TELLEN. 

Pl.Sb.f. 1. Mr. Jennings. 

67. Tellina scobinata. T. testa lenticulari, scabra, squamis lunatis, 

quincuncialibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3240. 
Shell lenticular, rough, with lunate scales disposed in a quincunx order. 
List. Conch, pi. 302. f. 143. Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Petiver Amboin. 

pi. 18. f. 7. Gualt. Test. pi. 76. f. E. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 37. f. 3. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 122—124. Encyclop. Method, pi. 291. f. 4. 

a — d. 

A white, or flesh-coloured shell, with a pale yellow 
apex ; angular and slightly inflected on the fore part ? 
and every where covered, except at the apex, with 
rough scales, resembling a baker's rasp. Inside pale 
yellow; hinge with two primary teeth in one valve, 



TELLINA 



181 



and one in the other ; lateral teeth strong and promi- 
nent. Length two inches ; breadth two and a quarter. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

This shell was first described by Lister, who has 
represented the species much better than either Rum- 
phius, or Petiver. 



SMOOTH TELLEN. 
PL 37./. 1. Mr. Jennings. 

68. Tellina laevis. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, albida; cardinis 

dente primariofisso. 
Shell somewhat orbicular, compressed, and whitish ; primary tooth of 

the hinge cleft. 
List. Conch, pi. 266. f. 102. Born Test pi. 2. f. 11. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 12. f. 112. 

This shell has been considered the same as the fol- 
lowing species, or T. Remies of Linnaeus, though they 
differ very essentially. The T. Icevis is rounded at one 
end, and somewhat angular, and inflected, at the other ; 
the surface is smooth, or very finely, and almost imper- 
ceptibly striated transversely. The shell is white both 
within and without, but sometimes tinged with straw 
colour, disposed in bands on the outside, and uniform 
within. The hinge has two teeth in one valve, and one 
in the other ; lateral teeth strong, one near the hinge, 
the other remote. Length of large specimens two in- 
ches and a half; breadth three inches and a quarter. 

Inhabits the West Indies, and was first noticed by 
Lister. 



182 TELLINA. 

WAVED TELLEN. 
PI. 38./. 1. Mr. Jennings. 

69. Tellina Remies. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, rugosa. Linn. 
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3239. 

Shell somewhat orbicular, compressed, and wrinkled. 
Rumph. Mus. pi. 42. f. J. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 113. 

This shell is regularly marked with transverse, waved 
ridges; it is strong, nearly orbicular, and uniformly 
white, unless accidentally stained; the fore part is 
slightly angular and inflected ; the hinge the same as 
in the preceding species. Length about two inches 
and a half; breadth rather more. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Ocean. The Ame- 
rican specimens are said to be sometimes yellowish, and 
less wrinkled. 

Linnaeus has referred, by mistake, to pi. 43 of Rura- 
phius, instead of 42, and Gmelin has repeated the error. 

LATTICE TELLEN. 
PI. 42. /. 2, 3. 

70. Tellina reticulata. T. testa lentiformi, compressa, reticulata. 
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240. 

Shell of a lens-shaped, compressed, and reticulated. 

Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 118. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 292. f. 2. Putt, in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 4. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 66. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 54. pi. 1. f. 9. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. 1812. 4. p. 181. 

A suborbicular and rather compressed shell, of a 
whitish colour; the surface marked with transverse 
ridges, and crossed, in the interstices, with numerous 



TMULIMA, 






TELLINA. 183 

minute longitudinal striae, which require a lens to 
detect them ; the inside is yellow ; the hinge has two 
small primary teeth, with a deep, linear hollow, termi- 
nating at the base of one of the prominent lateral teeth. 
Length an inch and a quarter ; breadth rather more. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and has also been found, 
though rarely, in England. Dr. Pulteney, who first 
described it as British, under the name of T. prqficua, 
met with it on the north shore at Poole, and at Wey- 
mouth, in Dorsetshire. 



THREAD-GIRDLED TELLEN. 

PL 42. /. 4, 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

71. Tellina Radula. T. testa lentiformi, convexa, transversim striata ; 

margine anteriore juxta cardinem rectiuscula. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. 

p. 54. 
Shell of a lens-shaped, convex, transversely striated ; anterior margin 

near the hinge, almost straight. 
Petiver Gaz. pi. 93. f. 18. Favanne Conch, pi. 48. f. 3. Donov. Brit. 

Shells, pi. 130. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 68. pi. 2. f. 1, 2. Penn. Brit. 

ZooL 1812. 4. p. 181. 

A white shell, with a brown epidermis, nearly orbi- 
cular, and covered with close set, rough, concentric 
striae ; there is a small, oblong, heart-shaped depression 
on the anterior margin, close to the beak ; and a slight 
furrow running from the posterior part of the apex, in 
each valve, and meeting at the margin, where it is a 
little inflected. Inside chalky-white; margin whiter 
than the rest, and slightly puckered ; hinge with two 
small primary teeth in each valve ; no lateral teeth. 



184 TELLINA. 

Length about an inch and a quarter; breadth rather 
more. 

Inhabits the European seas, and has been found 
abundantly, by Mr. Montagu, on the coast of Cornwall, 
particularly at Falmouth ; it is also to be met with on 
parts of the coast of SoutfrDevon, and in Carmarthen- 
shire, about Laugharne. 

This shell was first figured by Petiver, under the 
name of " Thread-girdled White Cockle." It is the 
Venus borealis of Donovan. 



ROUGH TELLEN. 

72. Tellina scabra. T. testa subquadrata, alba, tumida, antice inflexa, 
transversim striata, rugosa ; cardinis dente primario unico. 

Shell squarish, white, tumid, inflected before, and transversely striated ; 
hinge with a single primary tooth. 

Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1943, 1944. 

This species resembles the T. Radula in having a 
rough, transversely striated exterior, and a similar fur- 
row behind ; but it differs in having but one primary 
tooth, and in being provided with two strong lateral 
teeth. It is smooth, and white, within. Length about 
an inch and a half; breadth the same. 



TELLINA. 185 



PRICKLY TELLEN. 

73. Tellina muricata. T. testa suborbiculata, compressa, alba, longitu- 
dinaliter dense striata, striis imbricatis, cardinis dentibus primariis 
duobus. 

Shell suborbicular, compressed, closely striated longitudinally, striae 
imbricated ; hinge with two primary teeth. 

Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1945,1946. 

A roundish shell, covered with imbricated, rough 
striae, and strongly serrated from the apex, to the poste- 
rior margin. Inside white, and striated; hinge with 
two primary teeth, and two strong lateral ones, inserted 
into opposite cavities. 



OBSOLETE TELLEN, 

74. Tellina fausta. T. testa suborbiculata, striis transversis minutissimis 

obsoletis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 53. pi. 1. f. 8. 
Shell suborbicular, with minute, obsolete, transverse striae. 
Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 5. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 98. Mont 

Test. Brit. p. 64. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 181. 

A thickish, milk-white shell, somewhat diaphanous, 
smooth, and depressed ; margins rounded on both sides ; 
very smooth and yellowish within ; primary tooth of the 
hinge bifid ; lateral teeth strong, that in the right valve 
more solid and remote than the other. Length an inch 
and a quarter ; breadth an inch and three eighths. 

This is a very rare British shell, dredged up at Wey- 
mouth, under the inspection of the late Duchess Dowa- 
ger of Portland, and first described by Dr. Pulteney. 
It does not appear to be the species figured by Lister, 
Born, and Chemnitz, though all those authors have been 
referred to for this shell. 



186 TELLINA. 

THICK TELLEN. 
PL 40. /. 1. 

75. Tellina crassa. T. testa subrotunda, depressa, sulcis transversalibus 

numerosissimis. Act. Soc. Linn. p. 55. 
Shell roundish, depressed, with numerous transversal furrows. 
List. Conch, pi. 299. f. 136. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 48. f. 28. Da Costa 

Brit. Conch, pi. 13. f. 4. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 4. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 65. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 103. 

A thick, strong, suborbicular shell, of a white colour, 
strongly striated concentrically, and sometimes marked 
with faint, reddish, longitudinal rays : one valve is more 
convex than the other ; both ends are rounded, but one 
end is more extended than the other ; the apex turns 
inwards. The inside is white, or yellowish, or blushing ; 
hinge with two small primary teeth ; one lateral tooth 
in the shallow valve, and two in the deep valve ; the 
strong tooth nearest the hinge. Length an inch and 
three quarters ; breadth two inches and an eighth ; sel- 
dom much larger, but often smaller. 

Inhabits the British shores, but is not common in a 
live state, or with both valves perfect. It is found on 
the Devonshire, and Cornish coasts, at Weymouth, and 
in Wales ; single valves are not uncommon upon the 
Sandwich shore. 

This shell was first figured, very admirably, by Lister, 
who procured his specimen from Guernsey. Gmelin 
has erroneously called it a Venus. See Syst. Nat. 
p. 3288. It is the Pectunculus depressior of Da Costa, 
and the T. rigida of Dr. Pulteney, and Mr. Donovan. 








K*&-<l 





TELLINA. 187 



MILKY TELLEN. 

76. Tellina lactea. T. testa lentiformi, gibba, alba, pellucida, Itevi. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1119. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240. 
Shell lens-shaped, gibbous, white, pellucid, smooth. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 71. f. D. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 125. Pult. in 

Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 9. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 70. pi. 2. f. 4. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 56. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 182. 

A thin, convex, orbicular, white shell, marked with 
obsolete, transverse stria?, and a few antiquated ridges. 
Inside white; hinge furnished with two very small teeth 
in one valve, and one in the other ; a deep furrow runs 
from the apex, by the side of the teeth, in each valve. 
Length about three quarters of an inch ; breadth the 
same. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and is found, though 
not commonly, on several parts of the shores of Great 
Britain. Live shells are very rare in England. 



ROUND TELLEN. 

77. Tellina rotund ata. T. testa subconvexa, orbiculari, valvulis biden- 
tatis, dente altero bifido, altero divergente. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 56. 

Shell orbicular, and somewhat convex ; two teeth in each valve, one 
bifid, the other rather diverging. 

Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 8. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 71. pi. 2. f. 3. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 182. 

A subdiaphanous, white shell, marked with nearly 
obsolete, transverse striae ; the apex is small, and 
turned a little on one side. Inside white and very smooth. 
Length an inch. 

Inhabits the British shores, at Poole in Dorset- 
shire, and on the Western coasts, but is rarely found 



188 TELLINA. 

perfect. It is very like the Venus undata, but has not, like 
that shell, three teeth in one valve. It is the T. undata 
of Dr. Pulteney. 



CROOKED TELLEN. 
PL 47. /. 7, 8. 

78. Tellina flexuosa. T. testa subgloboso-tenerrima, sinu ab umbone ad 

marginem decurrente. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 56. 
A very thin, somewhat globular shell, with a furrow running from the 

umbo to the margin. 
Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 42. f. 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 72. Penn. Brit. 

Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183. 

This is a very small, brittle, snow-white shell, with a 
crooked margin, and a remarkable furrow running 
from behind the apex to the posterior margin of the 
shell, where it forms a flexure. The hinge has an 
obsolete tooth. Length about three eighths of an 
inch. 

Inhabits the south coast of Devonshire, and is found, 
abundantly, in the sand of Falmouth harbour. It has 
also been found at Tenby. This species is the Venus 
sinuosa of Donovan. It was discovered by Mr. Mon- 
tagu. 



TELLIJSTA. 189 

FLESH-COLOURED TELLEN. 
PL 40. /. 4, 5. Dr. Coombe. 

79. Tellina carnaria. T. testa suborbiculata, Icevi, utrinque incarnata, 

oblique striata, striis hinc reflexis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed, 12. p. 1119. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3240. 
Shell somewhat orbicular, smooth, flesh-coloured (or rosy) within and 

without, and marked with oblique, reflected striae. 
List. Conch, pi. 339. f. 176. Born Test. pi. 2. f. 14. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 13. f. 126. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 47. Mont . Test. Brit. p. 73. 

Linn. Trans. 8. p. 57. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183. 

A light rose-coloured, orbicular shell, somewhat 
compressed, and marked with numerous, very fine, re- 
flex striae, running obliquely on the anterior margin, 
and in an undulating manner on the posterior margin ; 
the intermediate striae pass obliquely from the apex to 
the fore part of the shell. Inside smooth and glossy, 
with two teeth in one valve, and one in the other; la- 
teral teeth remote. Length near an inch ; breadth the 
same. 

Inhabits the American Ocean, and has been found in 
England, but not recently. 



190 TEL LIN A, 



POLYGONAL TELLEN. 

80. Tellina polygona. T. testa alba, transversim striata, orbiculari, an- 
trorsum angulata ; cardinis dentibus lateralibus nullis, primario ex- 
porrecto, duplicate, alterius duobus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244. 

Shell white, transversely striated, orbicular, the fore part angular ; hinge 
without lateral teeth ; primary tooth projecting and double ; in one 
valve two teeth. 

Chem. Conch. 10. pi. 170. f. 1650—1653. 

Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 27. pi. 28. f. 4. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. 
p. 185. 

This species, which is not only angular before, but 
in the middle of the shell, is described by Chemnitz, 
under the name of T. Guinaica. Mr. Montagu has 
also referred a small, rare, British shell, taken off Cra- 
mond Island, in the Frith of Forth, to the same species. 

Foreign specimens inhabit the Indian Ocean, and 
are an inch and a half in breadth ; the British shell is 
not more than a third the size. 



DECUSSATED TELLEN. 
PL 43./. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

81. Tellina decussata. T. testa suborbiculata, delicatissime decussatim 
striata; intus alba, cum lituris brunneis, vet purpureis variegata. 

Shell suborbicular, with very delicate decussated striae ; within white, 
variegated with brown, or purple streaks. 

This is a whitish shell, with a faint rosy tip ; it is 
rounded at both ends, but the fore part is produced, 
like the T. crassa; the surface is finely striated trans- 
versely, and crossed by delicate longitudinal striae : 
the inside is white, marked with zig-zag lines of a red 



TELLINA. 191 

brown, purple, or pale rose colour ; the lines do not ex- 
tend, in the specimens we have had an opportunity to 
examine, to the margin of the shell. Length an inch ; 
breadth near an inch and a quarter. 
Its country is not known. 



HEART-SHAPED TELLEN. 

PL 43. /. 4, 5, Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

82. Tellina cordiformis. T. testa suborbiculata, extus albida, intus fla- 

vescente, longitudinaliter densissime, transversim subtilissime striata ; 

cardinis dentibus primariis binis, lateralibus oblongis. 
Shell suborbicular, on the outside whitish, within yellow, densely 

striated longitudinally, and very finely transversely ; hinge with two 

primary teeth, lateral teeth oblong. 
Chem. Conch. 11. pi. 199. f. 1941, 1942. 

This species, which is of a dull, yellowish-white co- 
lour on the outside, and deep yellow within, is ad- 
mirably figured by Chemnitz. It is a strong shell, and 
very convex. Length near an inch and a half; breadth 
rather more. 

It is named T. demissa, in the late Dr. Pulteney's 
Cabinet of Shells, now in the Linnean Society's Mu- 
seum. 



192 TELLINA. 

DOUBLE-SPOTTED TELLEN. 
PL 45. /. 6,7. Mr. Sowerby. 

83. Tellina bimaculata. T. testa triangulo-subrotunda, latiore, Icevi, 
albida ; intus maculis duabus sanguineus oblongis. Linn. Syst. Nat. 
ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3240. 

Shell triangularly rounded, broad, smooth, and whitish, with two oblong 
red spots on the inside. 

Da Costa Brit. Conch, p. 213. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 127. Encyclop. 
Method, pi. 290. f. 9. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 5. f. 7. Donov, 
Brit. Shells, pi. 19. f. 1, 2. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 59. Linn. Trans. 8. 
p. 57. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 183. 

/3. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 132. Encyclop. Method, pi. 290. f. 10. 

This is a whitish, subdiaphanous shell, indistinctly 
striated transversely, and marked within with two ob- 
long red spots, or lines, which are continued more than 
half-way down the shell ; the hinge has a double primary 
tooth in the centre; the lateral teeth are strong and 
remote. Length half an inch ; breadth five eighths of an 
inch. 

Inhabits the European and American seas, and has 
been noticed as English, by Da Costa, from the coasts 
of Hampshire and Lancashire, and by Dr. Pulteney, 
and Mr. Bryer, who found it on the shore, between 
Weymouth and Portland. 

This species is subject to variation; sometimes it is 
uniformly purple, or white, and sometimes rayed with 
several red lines, in which state it is the var. P. of 
Chemnitz. 



TELLTNA. 1Q3 

SOLID TELLEN. 
PL 46. /. 2. 

84. Tellina solidula. T. testa subglobosa, anterius subangulata. Act. 

Soc, Linn. 8. p. 58. 
Shell subglobose, and somewhat angular before. 
Bonan. Recr. 2. f, 44. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 43. Lister Anim. AngL 

pi. 4. f. 25. — - Conch, pi. 405. f. 250. Petiv. Gaz. pi. 94. f. 6. 

Da Cost. Brit. Conch, pi. 12. f. 4. CAem Conch. 6. pi. 12. f. 110. 

Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 8. f. 4. Mow*. Test. Brit. p. 63. Peww. 

Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 184. pi. 52. f. 2. 

A very strong, convex shell, nearly orbicular, but 
projecting into a short, compressed beak, at one end : 
the surface is smooth, and either plain, or variegated 
with concentric bands of red, yellow, or whitish colours. 
The inside, which is smooth, is either red, white, or 
yellow, and generally of a deeper tint than the outside : 
the hinge has two small teeth in each valve. Length 
near an inch ; breadth rather more. 

Inhabits the European ocean, and is common on 
the sandy shores of Great Britain, buried a few inches 
beneath the surface. 

This species was mistaken by Pennant, for the T. 
carnaria of Linnaeus, and Gmelin has referred it to 
the T. incarnata of that celebrated naturalist; but we 
have reason to suppose the T. incarnata of Linnaeus to 
be the same as T. tenuis. 



vol. i. o 



194 TELLINA. 



BALTIC TELLEN. 

85. Tellina Balthica. T. testa subrotunda lavi, extus incarnata. Linn. 

Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241. 
Shell roundish, smooth, and flesh-coloured on the outside. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 128. 

A thin, brittle, pellucid, compressed shell, of a some- 
what triangular shape; white within, and flesh co- 
loured, or rosy, on the outside ; hinge the same as in 
T. carnaria. It is the size of a lupine seed. 

Inhabits the Baltic sea. 



PEA TELLEN. 

86. Tellina pisiformis. T. testa subglobosa, lavi, intus incarnata, ob- 
lique substriata; striis anterius angulo acute reflexis. Linn. Syst. 
Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241. 

Shell subglobular, smooth, within carnation, somewhat striated obliquely, 
stria? reflected into an acute angle on the fore part. 

A white shell, with a purple tip ; the striae are hardly 
visible to the naked eye ; primary tooth of the hinge 
simple, lateral teeth rather prominent. It is the size 
of a pea. 

Inhabits the European ocean, at the mouths of rivers. 



TELLINA. 195 

OBLIQUELY STRIATED TELLEN. 
PI. 46./. 6. Mr. Sowerby. 

87. Tellina divaricata. T. testa subglobosa, alba, bifariam oblique 
striata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241. 

Shell somewhat globular, white, and obliquely striated two ways. 
Bonan. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 104. List. Conch, pi. 301. f. 142. Petiver 

Gaz. pi. 156. f. 26. Favanne Conch, pi. 48, f. E. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 13. f. 129. 

A strong shell, rather globular, and generally of a 
whitish colour, rarely blue, or cinereous ; the striae, on 
the surface of the shell, are thin, waved, and diverging 
both ways ; the margin is crenated, and without any 
flexure ; there is a double primary tooth at the hinge, 
but no lateral teeth. Length near an inch; breadth 
rather more. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and American seas. 

TOOTHED TELLEN. 
PI. 46. /. 7. Mrs. M awe. 

88. Tellina dentata. T, testa subglobosa, alba t margine dentata, bifa- 
riam oblique striata. 

Shell somewhat globular, white, margin toothed, obliquely striated two 
ways. 

This shell, though resembling the preceding species 
in several respects, is certainly distinct, and differs in 
the following particulars. The upper part of the mar- 
gin is strongly dentated, particularly the posterior edge ; 
the rest of the circumference is serrated ; the concen- 
tric striae are somewhat raised from the surface of the 



196 TELLINA. 

shell, and, like the margin, have serrated edges ; the 
waved striae, on the surface, are finer, and closer than 
in the T. divaricata. The umbones are prominent, and 
turn inwards. 
This elegant shell is in the cabinet of Mrs. Mawe. 

DIGITAL TELLEN. 

89. Tellina digitaria. T. testa subglobosa, pallida, cincta striis obliquis 
uniformibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. GmeL p. 3241. 

Shell subglobose, pale, and girded with oblique uniform striae. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 2. f. 120, 121. Encyclop. Method, pi. 292. f. 5, 6. 

A small species, smooth on the inside, and varying in 
colour, sometimes being reddish-orange, and some- 
times pointed with waved, red, spots; the striae inclined 
towards the outer margin, like the lines at the ends of 
the fingers, (whence its trivial name) which gives it the 
appearance of being spirally striated. It is about the 
size of a pea. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, x4merican, and (very 
rarely) the Indian seas. 

HORN-COLOURED TELLEN. 

PI. 46. /. 3. 

90. Tellina cornea. T. testa globosa, glabra, colore corneo, sulco trans- 
versalL Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1120. Linn. Gmel. p. 3241. 

Shell globose, smooth, of the colour of horn, and transversely sulcated. 
List. Anim. Angl. pi. 2. f. 31. — — App. pi. 1. f. 5. Conch, 

pi. 159. f. 14. Gualt. Test. pi. 7. f. C. Argenv. Conch, pi. 27. f. 9. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 52. f. 3. Da Costa Brit. Conch, pi. 

13. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 133. a. b. Maton in Act. Soc. 

Linn. 3. pi. 13. f. 39, 40. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 2. Donov. 

Brit. Shells, pi. 95. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 86. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 59. 

A thin, globose, horn-coloured shell, concentrically 



TELLUNTA. 197 

striated, arid covered, when recent, with a thin epider- 
mis ; the inside is smooth, glossy, and of a bluish-white; 
the primary teeth of the hinge are very minute, the 
lateral teeth remote and prominent. It is, commonly, 
about the size of a large pea. 

Inhabits the rivers, ponds, and ditches, of Europe. 
The largest are found in the Thames, and in great 
abundance, especially at the Red-house, opposite the 
end of Mill-bank, where, at low water, any quantity may 
be procured, from half to three quarters of an inch in 
breadth. Mr. Montagu has removed this, and the fol- 
lowing shell, to the genus Cardium. 



LAKE TEJLLEN. 
PL 47./. 5. Mr. Sowerby. 

91. Tellina lacustris. T. testa rhombea, planiuscula, glabra, umbone 

acuto. Linn. Gmel. p. 3242. 
Shell rhombic, flattish, smooth, with an acute umbo. 
Mull. Verm. p. 204. No. 388. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 13. f. 135. 
' Encyclop. Method, pi. 292. f. 3. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 89. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 60. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 184. 

A smooth, thin, pellucid, horn-coloured shell, often 
covered with a dark brown epidermis; it is broader 
than long, and the valves near the margin are depressed ; 
the umbo, or apex, is small, but so remarkably promi- 
nent, as to give the shell a heart-shaped appearance 
when seen sideways ; the hinge has a simple primary 
tooth in one valve, and a cleft tooth in the other, with 
lateral teeth in both valves. It is about the size of a pea. 

Inhabits the lakes and marshes of Europe. It was 
discovered, as a British shell, by Mr. Swainson, and 



198 TELLINA. 

has since been found, abundantly, by Mr. Montagu, in 
a small pond near the village of Wedhampton, in 
Wiltshire. It differs from T. cornea in its subrhom- 
boidal shape, projecting umbones, and compressed 
margin. 



SPANISH TELLEN. 

92. Tellina Iberica. T. testa globosa, lavi, nitida, margine dentata. 

Linn, Gmel. p. 3243. 
Shell globular, smooth and polished, with a toothed margin. 
Bonan. Recr. pi. 2. f. 33. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 32. 

A small, thin shell, of a russet brown colour, some- 
times yellowish-brown mixed with black. It has a pro- 
jecting apex, and is about five eighths of an inch broad. 

Inhabits the shores of Spain. The T. Adriatica of 
Gmelin, for which he has referred to Bonanni, Recreat. 
pi. 2. f. 34. is only the interior view of the same shell. 



SINUOUS TELLEN. 

93. Tellina sinuosa. T. testa subglobosa, tsquivalvi, aquilatera ; striis 

transversis rarioribus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3243. 
Shell subglobular, of equal valves, and equal sides, with a few transverse 

striae. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 77. f. D. E. 

A shell about the size of a marble, of a whitish, or 
reddish colour, and very faintly striated. 
Gualtieri's figure D. resembles the T. lactea. 



TELLINA. 199 



FRENCH TELLEN. 

94. Tellina Gallica. T. testa trigona, pectinata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244. 
A triangular, pectinated shell. 
Argenv. Conch, pi. 27. f. 11. 

A thickish shell, striated, or rather sulcated, longi- 
tudinally ; the hinge has a solitary primary tooth. It is 
about three quarters of an inch broad. 

Inhabits the river Marne, in France. 



SENEGAL TELLEN. 

95. Tellina Senegalensis. T. testa trigono-globosa, crassa, dura, Icevi, 

sulcis transversis exarata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3244. 
Shell of a triangular globose shape, thick, strong, and smooth, with 

transverse grooves. 
Adans. Seneg. pi. 17. f. 14. (Tofar.) 

A white, or flesh-coloured shell, sometimes red, 
rayed with white. 
Inhabits Africa. 



MATON S TELLEN. 

PI. 46. f. 4, 5. Dr. Maton. 

96. Tellina limosa. T. testa aequivalvi, ovata, transversim striata, intus 
purpurea; umbonibus acutiusculis, prominentibus. Maton in Act. 
Soc. Linn. 10. p. 328. pi. 24. f. 8, 9, 10. 
Shell of equal valves, oval, transversely striated, and purple within ; 
urabones sharpish, and prominent. 

This is a smooth, brittle shell, with a green epi- 
dermis ; the margin is entire ; the hinge has two pri- 
mary teeth in one valve, and one in the other; the lateral 



200 TELLINA. 

laminae are crenated. Young shells are paler, thinner, 
and somewhat diaphanous. Length half an inch, 
breadth three quarters. 

Inhahits the South American rivers. 

We are indebted to Dr. Maton for our knowledge 
of this singular shell, and for the use of his speci- 
men, from which our figure has been engraved and co- 
loured. There are three different views of a shell, in 
the Encyclop. Method, pi. 302. f. 2. a. 2. b. and 2. c. 
which resemble this but not sufficiently to pronounce 
them the same. The peculiarity which at once distin- 
guishes this species from others of the genus Tellina, is 
the crenated lateral laminae, which are plainly to be 
seen with the assistance of a lens. The French have 
arranged shells of this description in a new genus, 
under the name of Cyclas. 



TELLINA. 201 



**« Shells Plano-convex- 

UNEQUAL-VALVED TELLEN. 

PL 47. /. 2, 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby. 

97. Tellina inaequivalvis. T. testa oblongo-rostrata, valvula altera plana, 
Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1118. Linn. Gmel. p. 3233. 

Shell oblong, beaked, one valve flat. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 11. f. 106. a. o. c. d. Encyclop. Method, pi. 250. 
(Pandora) Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 41. f. 1. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 75. 
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 50. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 178. 

A smooth, pellucid, milky shell, with one valve flat, 
and the other convex ; one end is rounded, the other 
produced into an obtuse beak ; the dorsal suture is 
straight; there are two teeth at the hinge, but no lateral 
teeth. Length, (of large specimens,) three quarters of 
an inch ; breadth an inch and a half. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Norwegian seas, and 
has been admitted among the British species, by Mr. 
Donovan, on the authority of a specimen from Guernsey. 
Mr. Montagu suggests, in the supplement to his Bri- 
tish Testacea, that his Solen Pinna may be the young 
of this species ; but the figure which that naturalist 
has given, and which is undoubtedly correct, will hardly 
justify the conjecture. The Author has before him a 
young T. inaequivalvis, not more than a quarter of an inch 
long, and five eighths broad, exactly proportioned like 
the largest specimens. 

The French naturalists have constituted of this 
shell a new genus, under the name of Pandora of 
which this, the P. margaritacea, is the only species. 






202 TELLINA. 

The want of similitude between this and other TeUince 
is so obvious, that it will justify the innovation. It 
stands among the Solenes, in the tenth edition of the 
Syst. Nat., whence, in a future edition, Linnaeus re- 
moved it to its present situation. 



Gmelin's T. Bomii, p. 3231. No. 15, is the T. Fer- 
roensis ; his T. complanata, p. 3239. No. 60. is the true 
T. planata, p. 3232. No. 19 ; but his reference to Chem- 
nitz, for that shell, must be rejected. T. vitrea, p. 
3255. No. 34, is a variety of our T. tenuis. T. alata, 
p. 3236. No. 40. is a Mytilus. T. rhomboides, p. 3237. 
No. 50. is the Venus decussata; the specification is 
abridged from Lister's Animalium Anglice, p. 171. who 
says, ad ostium fluminis Tees, ripd Eboracensi, satis fre- 
quenter reperiuntur. Gmelin has omitted the word 
ostium, which is essential. T. vinacea, p. 3238, No. 
51. is a Donax. T. zonata, p. 3238. No. 52. is the T. 
tenuis. T. fluminalis, fluminea, and fluviatilis, p. 3242. 
No. 79, 80, and 81. are placed, with more propriety, by 
Chemnitz, in the genus Venus. T. purpurata, p. 3243. 
No. 86, and T. purpurascens, p. 3237. No. 45, are not 
distinct, species. 



Genus 4. 
CARDIUM. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Animal Tethys. 

Testa bivalvis, subsequilatera, aequivalvis. 

Cardo dentibus mediis binis alternatis ; lateralibus remotis, insertis. 






Animal a Tethys. 

Shell bivalve, nearly equilateral, and of equal valves. Hinge with two 

primary teeth, alternating with the opposite; lateral teeth remote, 

and inserted. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Bruguiere observes, that Langius, who is the first 
Testaceological writer upon whose nomenclature any 
dependance can be placed, has described all the shells 
of this genus, under the collective title of Concha cor- 
diformes. D'Argenville, afterwards, adopted the de- 
nomination of this author, and gave the name of heart 
to every shell bearing any external resemblance to that 
organ. 

But the generic character of Langius is insufficient, 
since it does not apply to every species of the genus ; 
and that of D'Argenville is excessive, since it not only 
includes the Cockles, but also such shells of the genus 
Chama, Area, and even Venus, as have any tendency to 
the shape of a heart. 

This genus, such as Linnaeus has left it in the twelfth 
edition of his Systema Naturae, is founded on the mini- 



204 CARD1UM. 

ber and situation of the teeth of the hinge ; and although 
it includes none but analogous species, yet the number, 
owing to the researches of subsequent authors, and the 
consequent advancement of the study, is augmented to 
more than double the number described by Linnaeus. 
There are, generally, four teeth in each valve, two of 
which are situated close to the apex of the shell, and 
are called by Linnaeus cardinal teeth ; the other two, 
or lateral teeth, are remote, and all four lock into cor- 
responding cavities in the opposite valve. Nearly all 
the species of this genus are longitudinally ribbed. 

It must be observed, that we find in authors, the most 
exact in other respects, a singular abuse of terms in 
their designation of the ribs of cockles. Almost every 
one, not excepting Linnaeus, has called them sulci, 
which signifies grooves, and is in direct contradiction to 
the fact, the ribs being a raised, not a depressed surface. 
Baron Born was the first to rectify this error, who, re- 
gardless of preceding authorities, was determined to 
make the just distinction between ribs and furrows. It 
will be proper to remark that, in the following specifica- 
tions, in conformity with Baron Born's correction, we 
have constantly substituted costa for sulcus, wherever 
Linnaeus has used the latter word improperly. 

The animal inhabiting the Cockle, has two very short 
tubes, which project from the anterior, and upper part 
of the body ; the lower tube is the longest, and is pro- 
vided with a pendent valve, by which it may be closed ; 
both tubes are crowned with about thirty filaments, dis- 
posed in two rows, of which those of the outer row are 
conical, and stronger than the others. There is a fleshy 
limb, shaped like an arm, with an elbow in the middle, 
which proceeds from the body of the animal, and which 



CARDIUM. 205 

can be projected considerably beyond the mouth of the 
shell ; the fore part of this fleshy arm, when extended, 
forms nearly a right angle with the mouth of the *hell, 
and is the organ by means of which the animal executes 
its confined progressive motions. 

Cockles generally bury themselves in the sand, near 
the coasts, except the spiny species, which are capaci- 
tated, by nature, to defend themselves from the attacks 
of other marine animals, without having recourse to the 
same precaution. Those which seek their safety in the 
sand place themselves so, that the two tubes are turned 
towards the surface, for the purpose of a ready commu- 
nication with the water, whence they derive their nourish- 
ment. But it is sometimes necessary for them to change 
their situations, to leave their old apartments, or to bury 
themselves in a new one ; and this is effected, according 
to the observations of M. Reaumur, in the following 
manner : When the animal wishes to sink into the sand, 
it lengthens its fleshy arm, at the same time diminishing 
its extremity, so that it becomes as it were pointed. 
With this it makes a hole, and buries the arm in the sand, 
continuing its mining operations with the pointed end ; 
and by repeatedly lengthening and contracting this 
muscular appendage, it in a short time works the shell 
below the surface. When on the contrary the animal 
would return to the light, it is only necessary to press its 
lengthened arm, with firmness, against the sand, and the 
shell will rise in proportion to the power exerted from 
beneath ; by repeating this motion, the shell will soon 
be disengaged, and the animal will effect its purpose. 
By the same means the animal is enabled to move both 
forwards and backwards, but in a verv limited degree. 



206 CARDIUM. 

Cockles are found in all the known seas, and we 
meet with many species in a fossil state. 

Poli, in his Testacea of the two Sicilies, has consti- 
tuted a new genus of these shells, under the name of 
Cerastes, and has given some very accurate anatomical 
details of the animal, in pi. 26. No. 5, and following. 



€AMJD>IJC r M. 



Jl'll,, .I-::: 




CARDIUM. 207 



SPINY COCKLE. 
PL 48. Mr. Sowerby. PL 51. /. 1. Dr. Coombe. 

1. Cardium aculeatum. C. testa subcordata, costis convexis linea exa- 

ratis, exterius aculeato-ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. 

Linn. GmeL p. 3247. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped; ribs convex, and marked with a line ; spiny 

on the outside. 
Testa subcordata obliquata, costis convexis linea exaratis, spinosis acule- 

atis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. torn. 6. p. 216. 
List. Conch, pi. 321. f. 158. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 96. Mus. 

Kirch, f. 97, 98. Gualt. Test. pi. 72. f. A. Seba Mus. 3. pi. 86. 

f. 4. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 3. f. 1. Argenv. Conch, pi. 23. f. B. 

Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. A. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 50. f. 37. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 155—157. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. 

f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 6. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 77. Linn. 

Trans. 8. p. 62. 
/3. Sowerby , Brit. Miscel. p. 65. pi. 32. 

A strong, convex shell, of a tawny, or yellowish brown 
colour, with transverse bands of a different shade ; the 
ribs are about twenty in number, strong, convex, grooved 
down the middle, and furnished with slit spines on one 
side the shell, and tubercles on the other. The inside 
is whitish, or flesh-coloured, with flat ribs correspond- 
ing with the furrows on the outside ; the hinge has two 
primary teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; the 
lateral teeth are strong, and prominent. It varies in 
size, and the young shells are much thinner, and have 
longer spines. In this state it is the variety £, or Car- 
dium spinosum, of Mr. Sowerby. 

Inhabits the European and Mediteranean seas, and 
was first figured as a British shell by Pennant, who 
savs it is found in Scotland, off the Hebrides and 



208 CARDIUM. 

Orknies. Mr. Montagu has met with it on the coast 
of South Devonshire, particularly on Dawlish Warren, 
and at Tor-cross. 

Fig. 1. pi. 51. is the exotic variety of this species. 
It is of a tawny colour, and more closely set with spines 
and knobbs, than our shell. It inhabits the Indian 
ocean, and is well figured by Chemnitz, vol. 6. pi. 15. 
f. 157. 



THORNY COCKLE. 
PL 49. f. 1, 2. 

2. Cardium echinatum. T. testa subcordata, costis exaratis, linea ci- 

liata, aculeis inflexis plurimis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1 122. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3247. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, ribs lineated down the middle, spines for 

the most part inflected. 
Testa cordato-ovata, subcequilatera, costis confertis, linca exaratis, aculeis 

inflexis numerosis. Brug. Ency. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 217. 
List. An. Aug. pi. 5. f. 33. Conch, pi. 324. f. 161. Bonan. 

Recr. 2. f. 90. Seba Mus. 3. pi. 86. f. 3. Murray in Amozn. Acad. 

pi. 2. f. 19. Muller Zool. Dan. p. 46. pi. 13. f. 12. and pi. 14. f. 

1 — 4. Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 176. pi. 14. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 

6. pi. 15. f. 158. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch. 

Dorset, pi. 6. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 107. f. 1. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 78. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 63. 

A smaller shell than the preceding, of a dull whitish, 
or yellowish-brown colour, with nineteen longitudinal 
ribs, set with white, enameled spines, some erect, and 
others inflected ; intermediate furrows deep, and trans- 
versely striated. The inside white, with flat ribs ; hinge 
with four teeth in each valve, two approximate, and two 
remote; each of the remote, or lateral teeth, in one 
valve, have an interior depression, which receives the 



FZ,„4&. 




i 



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CARDIUM. 



209 



point of the opposite tooth. Length about two inches ; 
breadth about two and a quarter. 

Inhabits the Northern ocean, and is common on most 
of the British shores. Live shells are seldom taken, 
except by dredging. 

The C. echinatum was first noticed by Lister, whose 
figure is very accurate. The Linnaean reference to 
Gualtieri, pi. 72. f. B. is wrong, that shell is a young 
specimen of the C. aculeatum. The C. ciliatum Linn. 
Gmel. p. 3248. No. 10. is the C. echinatum in a young 
state. 



FRINGED COCKLE. 
PL 49. /. 3, 4. Mr. Sowerby. 

3. Cardium ciliare. C. testa subcordata, costis elevatis triquetris, extimis 

aculeato-ciliatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3248. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped ; ribs raised and triangular, with thin spines 

at the end. 
List. Conch, pi. 325. f. 162. Gualt. Test. pi. 72. f. C. Know Vergn. 

6. pi. 5. f. 5. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. pi. 53. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 

6. pi. 17. f. 171, 172. Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 4. Pult. in Hutch. 

Dorset, pi. 4. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 32. f. 2. Mont. Test. 

Brit. p. 79, Linn. Trans. 8. p. 64. 

A very thin, orbicular shell, of a white, or yellowish 
colour, with about nineteen sharp ribs, crowned with 
flat triangular spines ; the furrows are smooth, flat, and 
glossy. Length seven eighths of an inch ; breadth an 
inch. 

Inhabits the European and Mediterranean seas. It is 
rare in England, but has been found on the Dorset coast, 
by Dr. Pulteney, and in Cornwall and Devonshire, by 

vol. i. p 



210 CARDIUM. 

Mr. Montagu. Mr. Donovan mentions it from the 
Orknies. The C. ciliare of Chemnitz, 11. pi. 200. 
f. 1951, does not sufficiently accord with the above, to be 
placed among the synonyms. 



TUBERCULATED COCKLE. 
PI. 50. /. 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby. 

4. Cardium tuberculatum. C. testa subcordata, costis obtusis, nodosis, 

transversim strialis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3248. 
Shell somewhat heart -stiaped, ribs obtuse, knotty, and transversely 

striated. 
List. Conch, pi. 329. f. 166. Gualt. Test. pi. 71. f. M. Seba Mus. 3. 

pi. 86. f. 7. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 173. and pi. 19. f. 191. Pult. 

in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 2. f. 2. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 107. f. 2. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 79. and p. 568. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 64. 

A strong, rust-coloured, banded shell, the size and 
shape of the C. echinatum; the ribs are remote, obtuse, 
and, as well as the furrows, are strongly striated trans- 
versely : the sides, and extremity of the shell, are some- 
what knotty. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and British sea, where it 
was first noticed, on the Dorset coast, by Dr. Pulteney, 
and has been since found at the mouth of the Ex, in 
Devonshire, by Mr. Montagu. It greatly resembles the 
C. echinatum, but is longer in proportion to its breadth, 
and has never been found with spines. 



CARDIUM. 211 

MARBLED COCKLE. 
PL 50./. 3. Mrs.MAWE. 

5. Cardium medium. C. testa subcordata, subangulata, valvis angulatis, 

sulcatis, striatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel. 

p. 3246. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular, the valves angular, grooved, 

and striated. 
Testa subcordata, antice utrinque carinata, costis longitudinalibus con- 

vexis, transversim dupliciter striatis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 

6. p. 213. 
List. Conch, pi. 316. f. 153. Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 94. Mus. Kirch. 

2. f. 91. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. B. Knorr Vergn. 2. pi. 29. f. 5. and 

5. pi. 20. f. 5. Spengler Conch, pi. 1. f. k. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. 

f. 162—164. Encyclop. Method, pi. 96. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, 

pL 32. f. Is Mont. Test. Brit. p. 83. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 61. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 186. 

A strong, heart-shaped shell, waved, and angular, or 
truncated, before; of a whitish colour, marbled or spotted 
with red, and dark brown; sometimes variegated with 
other colours ; the ridges are numerous, and covered with 
very close set, curved striae, which, when magnified, have 
the appearance of cat-gut, and give a roughness to the 
surface of the shell ; inside generally white, but some- 
times of a deep red; hinge with a single, erect, incur- 
vated, primary tooth; lateral teeth strong, and pro- 
minent. About the size of a walnut. 

Inhabits the Indian and American ocean, and also 
the coasts of the Antilles. It is figured in Donovan's 
British Shells, from a specimen found at Hartlepole, 
Durham, by the Rev. T. Rackett. 



212 CARDIUM. 



PIGMY COCKLE. 

6. Cardium exiguum. C. testa subcordata, subangulata, costis recur- 

vato-imbricatis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 61. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular ; ribs recurved and imbricated. 
Testa oblongiuscula, inaqualiter costata, subfusca. Linn. Gmel. p. 3255. 
List. Conch, pi. 317. f. 154. Walker Minut. Rarior. f. 83. Donov. 

Brit. Shells, pi. 32. f. 3. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 2. f.ll. Mont. 

Test. Brit. p. 82. Penn. Brit. ZooL 1812. 4. p. 186. 

A very small shell, about the size of a currant, of a 
white or ochreous colour, with twenty tuberculated ribs, 
and transversely striated furrows ; inside white. 

Inhabits the British shores, and was first found by 
Mr. Boys at Sandwich ; also by Dr. Maton, and Mr. 
Montagu in Falmouth Harbour. 



KNOTTY COCKLE. 

7. Cardium nodosum. C. testa rotundata, compressa; costis 24, tuber- 

culis numerosis, obtusis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 66. 
Shell round, and compressed ; ribs 24, tubercles numerous, blunt. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 81. Penn. Brit. ZooL 1812. 4. p. 189. 

A flat, somewhat orbicular shell, of a reddish white 
colour. The inside is white and glossy, the margin is 
strongly toothed. Diameter of the shell, about three 
quarters of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of Devonshire, and was discovered 
amongst some sand, from Falmouth Harbour, by Mr. 
Montagu. 



CARDIUM. 213 



RED COCKLE. 

8. Cardinal rubrum. C. testa rotundata, convexa; cardinis dentibus pri- 
mariisfere obsoletis, lateralibus manifestis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 66. 

Shell round, convex ; hinge with the primary teeth nearly obsolete, la- 
teral teeth apparent. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 83. Walker Minut. Rarior. n°. 86? Penn. Brit. 
Zool. 1812. 4. p. 189. 

A minute species, about the eighth of an inch broad ; 
smooth, pellucid, of a red colour, and rounded at both 
ends. Inside of a glossy red, with a plain margin. 

Inhabits the British ocean. Was found at Sandwich 
by Mr. Boys, and on £he Devonshire coast, at Fal- 
mouth, and particularly about Kingsbridge, by Mr. 
Montagu. 



WAVED COCKLE. 

9. Cardium arcuatum. C. testa orbicular i y transverse arcuatim striata. 

Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67. 
Shell orbicular, with transverse, arched stria?. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 85. pi. 3. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190. 

A thin, brittle, semi-pellucid shell, of a white colour, 
marked with very fine arched, or waved, transverse 
striae, and a few irregular concentric furrows. Inside 
rather glossy, with a slightly crenated margin ; hinge 
with a single primary tooth in each valve; diameter 
nearly half an inch. 

Inhabits Falmouth Harbour, but is not common. 

This elegant species was discovered by Mr. Montagu, 
and resembles the Tellina divcmcata. 



214 CARDIUM. 



PEA COCKLE. 

10. Cardium discors. C. testa suborbiculari, maxime convexa, valvulis 

oblique striatis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67. 
Shell somewhat orbicular, very convex ; valves obliquely striated. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 84. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190. 

A smooth, white shell, with oblique striae running in 
acute angles, but so delicate as scarcely to be discerned 
by the naked eye ; the hinge has a single primary tooth 
in each valve ; lateral teeth remote. Size of a small pea. 

Mr. Montagu is doubtful if this be an English shell, 
he having found but one dead specimen in the sand of 
Falmouth Harbour. 



LENGTHENED COCKLE. 

11. Cardium elongatum. C. testa angulato-subovali, compressa ; costis 21, 
rotundatis, leviter rugosis. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 67. 

Shell subangular, suboval, and compressed ; ribs 21, rounded, and faintly 
wrinkled. 

Mont. Test. Brit. p. 82. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190. 

A small shell, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
of a yellowish-white, or light red colour, with the poste- 
rior side rather produced, and angular. 

Discovered by Mr. Montagu, in Salcomb Bay, Devon- 
shire. 



CARDIUM. 215 



MICROSCOPIC COCKLE. 

12. Cardium muricatulum. C. testa cordata, opaca, alba t margine mu- 

ricato. Act. Soc. Linn. 8. p. 68. 
Shell heart-shaped, opaque, white ; margin spiny. 
Mont. Test. Brit. p. 85. Walker Test. Minut. Rarior. f. 84. Penn. 

Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. p. 190. 

A minute microscopic species, found in the sea sand 
of the Island of Sheppy, in Kent, where it is not uncom- 
mon. 



BANDED COCKLE. 

13. Cardium fasciatum. C. testa suborbiculari, pellucida ; costis 27, 

[avis, complanatis. 
Shell suborbicular, pellucid ; ribs 27, smooth, and flattened. 
Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 30. pi. 27. f. 6. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1812. 4. 

p. 100. 

This is a small species about three eighths of an inch 
in diameter, slightly tuberculated at the shorter side, of 
a reddish white colour, with a few brown stripes, which 
also appear on the inside of the shell. 

Discovered by Mr. Montagu on the Cornish and 
Devonshire coasts. 



<2l6 CARDIUM. 

PRICKLY COCKLE. 
PL 51./. 2, 3. Mrs. Mawe. 

14. Cardium muricatum. C. testa subcordata, sulcata, lateribus muri- 

cata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. 3250. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, grooved, and prickly at the sides. 
Testa cordato-ovata, subobliqua, cortis 36, lateribus lamelloso muricatis, 

marginibus utrinque sanguieneis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. 

p. 233. 
List. Conch, pi. 322. f. 159. Knorr Vergn. 4. pi. 14. f. 5. Chem. Conch. 

6. pi. 17. f. 177. 
/3. List. Conch, pi. 326. f. 163. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 17. f. 178. 

An oblong shell, of a cinereous, white, or yellowish 
colour, mixed, or spotted with red, the anterior side 
edged with scarlet ; the ribs are thirty-six in number, 
on twelve of which the spines lean towards the posterior 
side of the shell, the rest recline in a contrary direction; 
the margin is denticulated, but the teeth are largest, and 
most open, at the anterior edge. The inside is white, 
with a tinge of scarlet at the anterior edge, and, some- 
times, one or two brown, or orange stains near the 
hinge ; the principal primary tooth pointed, and some- 
what incurvated; the lateral teeth as usual. Length 
about two inches and a quarter ; breadth, two inches. 

This is one of the prettiest shells of the American 
ocean, both on account of the colours with which it is 
variegated, and the regular reclined disposition of the 
spines with which it is covered. It is found on the 
coasts of Jamaica, and St. Domingo. 



Z»L.£1. 




CARDIUM. 217 



IMBRICATED COCKLE. 

PI 52./. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

15. Cardium isocardia. C. testa cordata, costis squamis fornicatis, im- 

bricatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1122. Linn. Gmel.p. 3249. 
Shell heart-shaped, ribs with arched, imbricated, scales. 
Bonan. Recr. 2. f. 95. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 93. List. Conch, pi. 323. 

f. 160. Rumph. Mus. pi. 48. f. 9. Petiver Gaz. pi. 152. f. 7. Rugenf. 

Conch. 1. pi. 5. f. 56. Born Test. p. 39. Vignette. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 17. f. 174—176. Encyclop. Method, pi. 297. f. 4. 

A strong, heart-shaped shell, of a whitish colour, 
spotted, or clouded, with brown; it has about thirty- 
five longitudinal ribs, covered with erect, arched, hollow 
scales, placed one above the other, like the tiles of a 
house ; inside white, purple in the middle ; sometimes 
yellow ; margin strongly denticulated ; hinge with two 
primary teeth in each valve, one of which is very strong, 
erect, conical, and slightly incurvated ; lateral teeth, in 
one valve, deeply excavated, to receive the points of 
their antagonists. 

Inhabits the East Indies, the Persian Gulf, and the 
Red Sea ; also the American ocean, on the coasts of Ja- 
maica, and other West Indian islands. 



218 CARDIUM, 



GREENISH COCKLE. 



16. Cardium glaucum. C. testa cordata, subantiquata, antice glauca, 
costis viginti, postice retrorsum imbricatis, natibus violaceis. Poiret 
Voy. in Barbar. 2. p. 13. Linn, Gmel. p. 3253. Brug. Encyc. Meth. 
Hist. Nat. 6. p. 221. 

Shell heart-shaped, somewhat worn, greenish before ; ribs twenty, with 
imbricated scales turned backwards ; umbones violet. 

This is a small, heart-shaped shell, less than an inch 
in length, with twenty, or twenty-one, convex, longitudi- 
nal ribs ; it is white, except the anterior part, which is 
greenish, and the tips, which are violet ; the inside is 
brown before, and violet at the hinge; the posterior 
edges are white. 

This is a very common species in the Mediterranean, 
particularly on the coasts of Languedoc, where it is so 
common, that Bruguiere is astonished it has escaped 
detection. It agrees with the C. virgineum of Linnaeus, 
in every thing except in the longitudinal ribs, which are 
wanting in the Linnsean shell. Poiret found it on the 
coast of Algiers. 

MOTTLED COCKLE. 
PL 52. /. 3. Mrs. M awe. 

17. Cardium maculosum. C. testa ovata, subcordata> maculis brunneis 
insignita ; costis 48. 

Shell oval, somewhat heart-shaped, and speckled with brown ; ribs 

forty-eight. 
Encyclop. Method, pi. 298. f. 6. 

This shell is of an oval shape, and of a white colour, 
mottled with brown, or tawny ; it has forty-eight deli- 



UdMBIWMo 



FZ,J2. 




CAM]B>IITM» 



J»K.<$3« 





CARDIUM. 219 

cate longitudinal ribs, four or five of which, on the ante- 
rior part of the shell, are finely tuberculated. The in- 
side is white, marked with light purple, under the sum- 
mit : the margin is serrated ; the hinge has four teeth in 
each valve. Length an inch and an eighth ; breadth an 
inch. 

Country unknown. 

From its shape and colour, this shell might be taken 
for the young of the C. magnum; but that it is decidedly 
different from that species, may be inferred from the 
number and appearance of the ribs. It is well figured 
in the Encyclop&die MSthodique; but the specimen in 
that work is larger than ours, being an inch and three 
quarters long, and an inch and a half broad. 



TOOTHED COCKLE. 
PI. 53./. i, 2. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

18. Cardium ringens. C. testa rotunda, ventricosa, alba; marginis den- 

tibus profundis, anterioris roseis. Linn. Gmel, p. 3254. 
Shell round, ventricose, white ; margin deeply toothed, and rosy, on the 

fore part. 
Testa rotundata, longitudinaliter costata, margine antico profunde ser- 

rata, hiante. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 225. 
List. Conch, pi. 330. f. 167. Petiver Mus. p. 36. n°. 836. Knorr 

Vergn. 4. pi. 14. f. 3. Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. F. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 16. f. 170. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 3. 

A strong shell, with the eight anterior ribs deeply cut 
like the teeth of a saw ; the colour is white, except a 
rosy blush on the teeth, and, sometimes, on the apex of 
the shell. The inside is white, with a tint of pale rose 
colour on the anterior margin ; there are four teeth in 
each valve ; two primary teeth, the largest of which is 



220 CARDIUM. 

erect, and somewhat incurvated, and two lateral teeth, 
of which one is more remote than the other. 

Inhabits the coasts of Guinea, according to Petiver, 
and was found by Adanson, near the mouth of the 
Niger. 



PROMINENT COCKLE. 

19. Cardium ventricosum. C. testa subcordata, ventricosa, costis angu- 

latis, postice transversim sulcatis, ano ovato, piano. Brug. Encyc. 

Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 228. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, ventricose, ribs angular, transversely 

grooved behind ; below the beak, oval and plain. 
List. Conch. pJ. 328. f. 165. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 5. Ency clop. Method. 

pi. 299. f. 1. 

This shell is very properly distinguished, by Bru- 
guiere, from the following, with which it has hitherto 
been confounded. It is never so long in proportion 
to its breadth, as the C. magnum, and it grows even to 
a larger size. It has about thirty-three longitudinal 
ribs, the seven anterior of which, are flat and imbricated, 
the twenty-one following are convex, and round, on one 
side, and angular on the other ; the five last, or poste- 
rior ribs, are large, convex, but little raised, and without 
the scaly striae which cross the others. The margin is 
crenated; the shell is of a ferruginous colour spotted with 
brown, and sometimes banded with the same. The in- 
side is reddish at the edges, and near the summit. 

Inhabits, according to Lister, the coast of Campeachy. 
Bruguiere says it is rare in collections, and adds, that he 
owes to Lamarck the opportunity of describing the shell. 



CARDIUM. 221 



GREAT COCKLE. 
PL 53./. 3. Mr. Jennings. 

20. Cardium magnum. C. testa oblonga, costis angulatis, latere serratis. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p. 3250. 
Shell oblong, with angular ribs, serrated on the side. 
Cardium elongatum. C. testa oblonga, subeequilatera, costis 40 longi- 

tudinalibus, utrinque crenato-striatis, posticis striis retrorsum imbri- 

catis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 228. 
List. Conch, pi. 331. f. 168. Seba Mm. 3. pi. 86. f. 2. Born Test. pi. 3. 

f. 6, 7. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 17. f. 179. Encyclop. Method, pi. 297. 

f. 3. Favanne Conch, pi. 52. f. G. Martin Univ. Conch. 2. pi. 80. 

This is an oblong, oval shell, with forty longitudinal 
ribs, according to Bruguiere, but our specimens have 
only thirty-four. It grows to a very large size, some 
having been found six inches long and of other dimen- 
sions in proportion ; the anterior ribs are serrated, the 
middle ones flattish at top, and the posterior ribs im- 
bricated ; the ground colour of the shell is white, with 
spots, or stains, of yellow, orange, brown, or purple. 
The inside is white, with a yellow mark reaching from 
the apex towards the middle of the shell; some are 
quite white within. 

Inhabits the American ocean, and is common on the 
coasts of Jamaica, and other West India islands. 



222 CARDIUM, 



SMOOTH COCKLE. 
PI. 54. /. 1, 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

20. Cardiuin laevigatum. C. testa obovata, striis obsoletis longitudina- 
libus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. 3251. 

Shell obovate, with obsolete longitudinal striae. 

List. Anim. Angl. pi. 5. f. 32. Conch, pi. 332. f. 169. Petiver 

Gaz. pi. 93. f. 10. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 51. f. 40. Da Costa 
Brit. Conch, pi. 13. f. 6. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset, pi. 7. f. 6. Donov. 
Brit. Shells, pi. 54. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 80. Linn. Trans. 8. p. 65. 

/5. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 185, 186. 

A strong, smooth, yellowish-white shell, obsoletely 
ribbed longitudinally, and covered, when recent, with 
a dark green epidermis : the inside is white, with a cre- 
nated margin ; length two inches and a quarter ; breadth 
nearly an inch. Young shells are very smooth, and 
sometimes variegated with rose colour. 

Inhabits the coasts of Great Britain. 

£. Figure 2. pi. 54. is a variety of our C. Icevigatum, 
of a longer shape, ribbed in the same manner, and pret- 
tily mottled with yellow. It inhabits the Indian seas, 
and is figured by Chemnitz. It is distinguished by 
Bruguiere, under the name of C. biradiatum. Our speci- 
men is not rayed within-side. 



CARDIUM. 223 

CITRON COCKLE. 
PL 54. /. 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

21. Cardium ci tritium, C. testa obovata, lavi, striis obsoletis, margine 
interiore serrato. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3251. C. serratum. 

Shell obovate, smooth, with obsolete striae ; margin serrated within. 

Gualt. Test. pi. 82. f. A. Chem. Conch, pi. 18. f. 189. 

A thin, smooth, convex, yellowish shell, with faint 
longitudinal striae, sometimes not to be perceived without 
the help of a lens ; the anterior margin is strongly 
stained of an orange colour. The inside is white and 
orange, and the margin is crenated. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, the Indian ocean, the 
coast of South America, and the shores of the West 
India islands. 

It is constituted a distinct species from the C. Iceviga- 
tum, by Linnaeus, under the name of C. serratum, and 
occurs in Chemnitz, and the Linnaean Society's Cabi- 
net, under the more appropriate title of C citrinum. 

OBLONG COCKLE. 
PI. 55. f. 1. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

22. Cardium oblongum. C. testa jlavicante, oblonga, turgida, costata, 
anterius glabra, cordata, margine crenata. Linn, Gmel. p. 3254. 

Shell yellowish, oblong, turgid, ribbed, smooth before, heart-shaped, 
margin crenated. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 190. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 8. Favanne Conch. 
pi. 53. f. L. 

This shell is described, by Bruguiere, under the name 



224 CARDIUM. 

of C. serratum, together with our British C. lavigatum, 
which he considers as the same species ; that they are 
distinct, however, will be evident on comparison, as the 
C. oblongwm is longer in proportion to its breadth, and 
is more conspicuously ribbed. It has thirty ribs, is of 
a uniform yellowish, or rust colour ; and is about three 
inches long, and nearly two inches and a half broad. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and warmer climates, 
but is never found in the British seas. 



YELLOW COCKLE. 

23. Cardium flavum. C. testa subovata, sulcata, latere anteriore scabro, 
posterior x dentato. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. GmeL 
p. 3251. 

Shell somewhat oval, grooved ; the anterior margin rough, the posterior 
toothed. 

Schrot. Einl. in Conch. 2. pi. 7. f. 11. a. b. 

The C. Jiavum, according to the description of 
Schroter, is of an oblong-oval shape, with twenty-seven 
ribs, five or six of which, on the anterior part of the 
shell, are spinous, and twelve or thirteen, on the poste- 
rior side, are tuberculated ; the intermediate ribs are 
smooth, and rounded. The margin is crenated, and the 
valves close every where, except before, where they are 
a little open. The apex, and anterior part of the shell, 
are white, the rest is of a sulphur yellow colour; the in- 
side is white, except under the apex, which is reddish 
yellow. 

Inhabits the coast of Coromandel, near Tranquebar. 

M . Schroter observes, that the yellow colour of this 
shell is very superficial, since those specimens which 



£AM11MUM» 



FLS4. , 




CARDIUM. 225 

have not been taken at sea, but have been for some 
time lying on the shore, exposed to the sun, are quite 
white. 



BANDED COCKLE. 
PL 55. /. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

24. Cardium rusticum. C. testa antiquata, costis viginti remotis, 
interstitiis rugosis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3252. 

Shell antiquated, with twenty remote ribs, rugged between. 

Rugenf. Conch. 1. pi. 12. f. 77, 78. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 197. 

This is a variegated shell, with light bands on a rich 
brown ground ; the bands are sometimes quite white, 
and sometimes yellowish, brownish, or tending to blue ; 
the ribs are strong, and generally twenty in number, 
never more than twenty-two. It resembles the common 
cockle, but the ribs are more convex and distinct, and 
the grooves are deeper, and rugged. The inside is white, 
with a crenated margin. 

Inhabits the European seas, particularly the Mediter- 
ranean. 



VOL. I. 



226 CARDIUM. 

COMMON COCKLE. 
PI. 55. /. 4. 

25. Cardium edule. C. testa antiquata, costis viginti sex, obsolete re- 
cur vat o-imbricatis. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel. 
p. 3252. 

Shell antiquated ; ribs twenty-six, with obsolete recurved scales. 

List. Anim. Angl. pi. 5. f. 34. Conch, pi. 334. f. 171. Gvalt. Test. 

pi. 71. f. F. Knorr Vergn,6. pi. 8. f. 4. Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. pi. 
50. f. 41. Da Costa Brit. Conch, pi. 11. f. 1. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. 
f.194. Ency clop. Method, pi. 300. f. 5. Pult. in Hutch. Dorset. 
pi. 11. f. 1. Donov. Brit. Shells, pi. 124. Mont. Test. Brit. p. 76. 
Linn. Trans. 8. p. 66. 

This well-known shell is of a yellowish-white colour, 
with from twenty-three to twenty-six flattish ribs; some 
specimens have equal sides, and others are more or 
less elongated at the anterior end. The inside is white, 
and the margin is dentated. It is commonly about the 
size of a walnut ; but Dr. Maton mentions a variety, 
much larger, from the coast of Essex, called the Ross 
cockle. 

This is a very common species on the sandy shores of 
Great Britain and Ireland, where it lies buried a little 
below the surface. Great abundance of the shells are 
collected, and regularly brought to London, from spring 
to autumn, for the sake of the fish, which are regarded 
as a wholesome and agreeable nourishment. Those 
which come from Selsea, near Chichester, in Sussex, 
were considered the best in the kingdom. Prodigious 
quantities of these shell-fish are also consumed in Hol- 
land, where their cheapness recommends them to the 
common people, as a principal article of food during 
winter. 

Donovan has figured a prolonged variety, under the 
name of C. rusticum. See British Shells, pi. 124. f. 2. 



CARDIUM. 227 



ICELAND COCKLE. 

26. Cardium Icelandicum. C. testa sulcata, costis ad triginta sex, tri- 

quetris, Icevibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3252. 
Shell grooved, with about thirty-six smooth, triangular ribs. 
Testa gibba, longitudinaliter sulcata, costis subtriquetris, acutis, ano 

obsolete cordato. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Not. 6. p. 222. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 195, 196. Encyclop. Method, pi. 300. f. 8. 

A strong shell, of a whitish, or yellowish-brown 
colour, with from thirty to thirty-six triangular ribs ; 
the grooves are deep, and ridged transversely, especially 
towards the external edges ; the inside is grooved, with 
a crenated margin. Length two inches ; breadth about 
the same. 

Inhabits the coast of Iceland, and was discovered by 
Chemnitz. 



GREENLAND COCKLE. 

27. Cardium Groenlandicum. C. testa antiquata, glabra, tenui, murina, 
lineis angulatis ferrugineis picta ; mar gine glabra, striis longitudina- 
libus obsoletis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3252. 

Shell antiquated, smooth, thin, and mouse-coloured, with angular fer- 
ruginous lines ; margin smooth, striae longitudinal, and obsolete. 

Testa cordata, Icevi, grisea, decussata, striis lateralibus obsoletis. Brug. 
Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 222. 

Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 19. f. 198. Encyclop. Method, pi. 300. f. 7. 

This species, as Chemnitz observes, has externally 
the appearance of a Venus, and might be taken for a 
shell of that genus, but for the hinge, which has four 
teeth, the same as other cockles ; but the two primary 
teeth are very small. The surface is smooth, and marked 
with very fine, distant, longitudinal striae, diverging 



228 



CARDIUM 



from the apex to the margin ; it is also striated trans- 
versely, except towards the lateral edges. It is exter- 
nally of a mouse grey, with ferruginous zig-zag lines ; 
within, it is flesh-coloured, with a tinge of carnation. 
Length an inch and a half; breadth rather more. 

Inhabits the coast of Greenland. 

Chemnitz appears to be the first describer of this, as 
well as the preceding species. Gmelin might have 
spared his question, an mera edulis varietas? since it 
bears not the slightest resemblance to the common 
cockle. 



EQUAL-SIDED COCKLE. 

28. Cardium regulare. C. testa ovata, tequilatera, costis longitudina- 
libus convexis, notatis lunulis transversis elevatis, antice lamellosis. 
Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 227. 

Shell oval, equilateral, with convex longitudinal ribs, and transverse 
raised rings; the fore part lamellated. 

A white shell, sometimes tinged with yellow round 
the edges, and within near the summit; it has thirty, 
or thirty-one, longitudinal ribs, with many smaller 
ones cutting the others transversely in the middle 
of the valves, and obliquely on the sides. Length two 
inches ; breadth an inch and three quarters. 

Inhabits the coast of the West India Islands. 

This species is described only by Bruguiere, who says 
it is common in the Parisian cabinets. 



CARDIUM. 229 



PECTINATED COCKLE. 

29. Cardium pectinatum. C. testa subcordata, pectinata. Linn. Syst. 

Nat. ed. 12. p. 1124. Linn. Gmel. p. 3253. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, and pectinated. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 75. f. A. Murr. Fund. Testae, pi. 2. f. 18. 

A white shell, with distant striae, rough upwards ; the 
cavity under the beaks yellow ; margins prominent. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean. 



EARED COCKLE. 

30. Cardium Auricula. C. testa cordata, subrhombea, costis utrinque 
viginti quatuor ; sulcis subtilissime crenulatis, natibus distantibus. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3253. Forsk. Faun. Arab. p. 122. No. 52. 

Shell heart-shaped, somewhat rhombic, with twenty-four ribs on each 
side ; the grooves very finely crenated ; beaks distinct. 

Rugenf. Conch. 2. (ined.) pi. 9. 

A white pellucid shell, with a toothed margin. 
Length two inches and a quarter ; breadth one inch and 
three quarters. 

Inhabits the shores of Arabia and Egypt. 



230 CARDIUM, 



ASIATIC COCKLE. 



31. Cardium Lima. C. testce gibbce, costis aculeatis, anterioribus tuber- 

culis membranaceis recurvatis ad latera crenatis, sulcis intermediis 

granulatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3253. 
Shells gibbous ; ribs prickly, those before with recurved membranaceous 

tubercles ; intermediate grooves granulated. 
Cardium Asiaticum. C. testa cordata, costis obsoletis, longitudinalibus, 

punctis serialibus subspinosis, antice lamellosis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. 

Hist. Nat. 6. p. 224. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 15. f. 153, 154. 

A thin, yellowish-white shell, with from thirty to 
forty delicate ribs ; the apex and interior of the dentated 
edges are reddish; it is grooved inside. Length two 
inches ; in the breadth rather less. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean, and is a very rare shell. 



PAPER COCKLE. 

PI. 55. /. 5. Mrs. Mawe. 

32. Cardium papyraceum. C. testa pellucida, cinerea t striis longitudi- 

nalibus tenuibus. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254. 
Shell pellucid, and ash-coloured, with thin longitudinal stria?. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 184. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 2. 

A very thin, brittle shell, of a whitish, or ash colour, 
finely and closely ribbed longitudinally ; the margins of 
the valves are finely toothed ; the summits are some- 
times marked with purple, and the inside spotted with 
the same; the hinge is like the other species of the 
genus. Length an inch and three quarters; breadth 
nearly the same. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean, and is found on the shores 
of New Holland. 



€AM£W, 



- 




CARDIUM. 231 

RIBBED COCKLE. 
PL 56./. 1. Dr. Coombe. 

33. Cardium costatum. C. testa gibba, ezquivahi, costis elevatis, can- 
natis, concaviSy membranaceis. Linn. Syst. Nat.ed. 12. p. 1121. 

Shell gibbous, of equal valves, with high, keeled, concave, membrana- 
ceous ribs. 

List. Conch, pi. 327. f. 164. Rumph. Mus. pi. 48. f. 6. Gualt. Test. 
pi. 72. f. £>. D' Argenville Conch, pi. 26. f. A. Favanne Conch, pi. 
52. f. .S. Adans. Conch, pi. 18. f. 2. Ifworr Fergrc. 1. pi. 28. f. 2. 
C%m. CoracA. 6. pi. 15. f. 151, 152. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 1. 
a—c. 

A large, suborbicular shell, of a milk-white colour, 
except between the middle ribs, where it passes from 
light tawny to chocolate brown ; it is extremely thin, 
brittle, and transparent, when young, but becomes thick, 
strong, and opaque in old age ; there are eighteen very 
large channels, proceeding from the apex to the circum- 
ference of the shell, forming so many high, sharp-edged, 
ribs. The inside is grooved to correspond with the 
ridges on the surface ; the teeth are large and strong ; 
the middle is long and pointed. The largest specimens 
measure four inches in length, and four inches and a 
half in breadth. 

Inhabits the coast of Guinea, and the sandy shores of 
Senegal, but is very rarely to be obtained perfect. M. 
Adanson, who has particularly described this shell, 
says that single valves only are thrown on the shore; 
the animal, living in very deep water, cannot be dredged 
up alive, and therefore very few cabinets possess this 
shell entire, or with similar valves. 



232 CARDIUM. 

GAPING COCKLE. 
PL 56./. 2. Mrs. Mawe. 

44. Cardium apertum. C. testa subcordata, tenuissima, alba, costis ob- 

soletis carinatis. Gronov. Zooph. pi. 18. f. 5. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, with very thin, white ribs, obsoletely cari- 

nated. 
Testa subcordata, tenuissima, alba, antice producta, hiante, costis obsoletis, 

acutis, muticis. Brug. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. 6. pi. 226. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 18. f. 181—183. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 5. 

a. b. 

A very thin, fragile, whitish shell, with numerous 
worn ribs; round at one end, and produced at the 
other, where it gapes considerably ; the margin is den- 
tated. Inside white, stained with purple towards the 
middle, and at the open end of the shell ; hinge with 
four teeth in each valve, two at the beak, as in other 
species, and two lateral, oblong, like those in the genus 
Mactra. Length an inch and a quarter , breadth an 
inch and a half ; but it grows to a larger size. 

Inhabits the seas of Asia and South America ; Gro- 
novius says, the coasts of Jamaica. It is a very rare 
shell, and is referred by Gmelin to C. virgineum of 
Linnaeus ; but that shell is a doubtful species, certainly 
not the C. apertum, but perhaps the C. glaucwm of 
Bruguiere. 



CAMTMUM, 



^051 2 








CARDIUM. 233 

SOLEN COCKLE. 
PI. 56./. 3. Dr. Coombe. 

35. Cardium soleniforme. C. testa transverse ovata, fragili, longitudi- 
naliter striata, utrinque muricata, antice Mans. Brug. Encyc. Meth. 
Hist. Nat. 6. p. 235. 

Shell transversely oval, brittle, longitudinally striated ; both valves 

prickly, gaping before. 
Solen bullatus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1115. Linn. Gmel. p. 3226. 

List. Conch, pi. 342. f. 179. Gualt. pi. 85. f. H. Chem. Conch. 6. 

pi. 6. f. 49, 50. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 6. a. b. 

A thin, oblong-oval shell, rough, with minute spines at 
each end, produced, and gaping before ; the ribs are 
numerous, rather distant on the gaping end, which is 
strongly serrated at the margin ; the colour is white, 
stained, almost entirely, with purple. Inside smooth, 
glossy, and marked with purple and pink ; the hinge has 
three teeth in each valve, one central, and two lateral. 

Inhabits the South American ocean, and the coasts 
of Jamaica, St. Domingo, and Martinique. 

PECTEN COCKLE. 

36. Cardium pecteniforme. C. testa rotundata, complanata, costis tri- 
angulis, lateralibus muricatis. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 10. 

Shell round, flattish ; ribs triangular ; sides spiny. 
Gualt. Conch, pi. 71. f. H. Chem. Conch, pi. 17. f. 180. 

An orbicular shell, white, spotted with blackish 
brown, deeply grooved, and furnished with rough scaly 
longitudinal ribs ; the margin is crenated ; the inside 



234 CARDIUM. 

white, with longitudinal grooves. Length an inch ; 
breadth the same. 

Country unknown. 

First described by Baron Born. 



DONAX COCKLE. 

87. Cardium donaciforme. C. testa subcordata, longitudinaliter sulcata, 

antice truncata, natibus cancellatis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. 

p. 214. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, longitudinally grooved, truncated before; 

beaks channelled. 
Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 165. Encyclojj. Method, pi. 296. f. 2. Schrot. 

Einl. in Conch. 3. pi. 7. f. 14. 

This species has the form of a Donax ; it is broader 
than long, flat before, and nearly of a triangular shape ; 
the longitudinal ribs are flat, and separated by shallow 
grooves, like striae ; the anterior end is heart-shaped; it 
is of a dull white colour, tending to yellow, and marked 
with brown spots, and streaks ; the lateral teeth in one 
valve are sharp-pointed, in the other obtuse. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean. 



FURBELOWED COCKLE. 
PL 56./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings. 

38. Cardium fimbriatum. C. testa subcordata, costis utrinque viginli 

quatuor, mar gine fimbriate . 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped; ribs on both valves, twenty-four; margin 

fringed. 

This new and singular species is about the size of 
the common cockle, with regular longitudinal ribs, ter- 



CARDIUM. 235 

minating, at the margin of the shell, in a wide fringe, or 
furbelow, which is so strongly characteristic, that the 
species can never be mistaken. The other parts of the 
shell are smooth, and, in colour and appearance, much 
like the C. edule. The inside is white, the hinge strong, 
and the lateral teeth prominent. 

Country unknown. 

This curious shell is one, among many rarities, in the 
cabinet of Mr. Jennings. 



JANUS COCKLE. 
PL 57. /. 1. Dr. Coombe. 

39. Cardiura iEolicum. C. testa crassa, striis anterioribus longitudina- 
libns, posterioribus transversis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254. 

Shell thick ; anterior striae longitudinal, posterior transverse. 

Bonan. Recr. f. 91. Mus. Kirch. 2. f. 89. List. Conch, pi. 314. 

f. 150. Knorr Vergn. 5. pi. 26. f. 1, 2. and 27. f. 3. Chem. Conch. 
6. pi. 18. f. 187, 188. Encyclop. Method, pi. 296. f. 4. 

A very convex, irregular shell, somewhat truncated 
before, of a white colour, variegated with brown and 
reddish spots and stains. This shell presents three 
distinct faces ; the anterior, which is the smallest, is 
smooth, protuberant, and shining ; the second extends 
to the middle of the shell, and is striated, or closely 
and finely ribbed longitudinally ; the third, or posterior 
face, occupies the rest of the surface, and is marked 
transversely, and obliquely, with distant raised striae, 
which feel rough, when rubbed downwards from the 
apex. The inside is white in the middle, yellowish 
near the summit, and somewhat flesh-coloured at the 



236 



CARDIUM, 



margin, which is serrated : the hinge resembles the other 
species of this genus. 

Inhabits the Indian seas, and the coasts of China. 



ROUGH COCKLE. 
PL 57./. 2, 3. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

40. Cardium rigidum. C. testa subcordata, anterius subtruncata, costis 
rugosis, prominulis. 

Shell somewhat heart-shaped, rather truncated before ; ribs prominent, 
and wrinkled. 

A small shell, of a whitish colour, with longitudinal 
grooves, and ribs ; the latter covered with a strong, 
thick, wrinkled epidermis, which adheres very firmly to 
the shell, but which, when removed, leaves the ribs 
flattish, and smooth. Inside white; teeth of the hinge 
strong. 

Country unknown. 

BROAD COCKLE. 
PL 57./. 4,5. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

41. Cardium latum. C. testa lata, incequifatera, intus alba ; costis mag- 
nisplanis spinulosis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3254. 

Shell broad, of unequal sides, within white ; the ribs rather flat and spi- 
nous. 

Testa transverse ovata, costis longitudinalibus muricatis, natibus violaceis. 
Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 234. 

Knorr Vergn. 0. pi. 7. f. 6. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 2. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 
19. f. 192, 193. 

A strong shell, of a ferruginous colour, with the shape 
of a Venus, but the characters of a Cardium; it has flat 



/• 




' 



y 








CARDIUM. 237 

longitudinal ribs, separated by narrow grooves ; the mar- 
gin is crenated. The inside is white, and grooved, and 
the lateral teeth of the hinge are strong. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean, and the Nicobar islands. 

The only specimen of this shell in the Linnaean 
collection is a worn single valve. In its live state, it is 
described by Chemnitz as of a white colour, spotted 
and banded with pale yellow, and armed with minute 
points, which seem hollow, and feel rough when the 
finger is passed over the shell. Our shell appears to 
be the same, excepting colour and size, as that of 
Chemnitz ; but Born's specimen differs from both, the 
hinge in his figure being nearer to the middle of the 
shell. 



FLEXUOUS COCKLE. 

42. Cardium flexuosum. C. testa rotundata, fusca ; costis flexuosis, 
sulcis rugosis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3255. 

Shell rounded, brown, ribs flexuous, grooves wrinkled. 
List. Conch, pi. 343. f. 180. 

An obscure species, about an inch and three quarters 
long. 

DECUSSATED COCKLE. 

43. Cardium cancellatum. C. testa subrubra y tenui, rotundata, dccus- 
satim striata. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256. 

Shell reddish, thin, rounded, with decussated striae. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. B. 

A small species described only by Chemnitz. Not 
more than half an inch broad. 



238 CARDIUM. 



RUSTY COCKLE. 

44. Cardium rubiginosum. C. testa rubella, incequilatera ; costis con- 

vexis t transversim striatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256. 
Shell reddish, with unequal sides; ribs convex, transversely striated. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. D. 

A somewhat oval shell, very strongly ribbed, with 
wide grooves between; margin crenated. Length an 
inch ; breadth an inch and a quarter. 

Country unknown. 



WHITISH COCKLE. 

45. Cardium albidum. C. testa incequilatera, costata, subalbida, intus 
purpurea. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256. 

Shell of unequal sides, ribbed, whitish ; inside purple. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. H. 

A very small shell, about a quarter of an inch long, 
with longitudinal ribs, and a serrated margin. Perhaps 
the young of a larger shell. 

GREENISH COCKLE. 

46. Cardium virescens. C. testa incequilatera, oblonga, costis subtilibus, 
supra duplkatis. Linn. Gmel. p. 3256. 

Shell of unequal sides, oblong, with very fine ribs, doubled above. 
Gualt. Test. pi. 84. f. A. 

A thin, brittle, pellucid shell, of a greenish white 
colour, sometimes variegated with rosy spots. Inside 
silvery. Length three quarters of an inch. 



CAItDIUM. c 239 



STREAKED COCKLE. 

47. Cardium lineatum. C. testa cordata, carinata, anterius oblique trun- 
cata, tenui, glaberrima, nivea, aureo striata, margine denticulata. 
Linn. Gmel. p. 3246. 

Shell heart-shaped, keeled; the fore part obliquely truncated, thin, very 
smooth, white, with gilt striae; margin toothed. 

Kdmm. Lab. Rudolst. p. 210. No. 2. pi. 12. f. 4. 

This shell is introduced by Gmelin, on the authority 
of K'ammerer. 



ROSE COCKLE. 
PL 57. f. 6. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

48. Cardium roseum. C. testa cordata, anterius lineis, posterhts striis 
paulo latioribus, conjunctione cordis Jiguram cemulantibus exarata ; 
hinc convexa, illinc concava. Linn. Gmel. p. 3245. 

Shell heart-shaped, with lines on the fore part, and broader striae be- 
hind, forming, by their conjunction, the figure of a heart; one part 
convex, the other concave. 

Argenville Conch, pi. 23. f. D. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14. f. 147. Ency- 
clop. Method, pi. 294. f. 2. a. b. 

This shell resembles the C. Cardissa ; but the margin 
is plain, the valves are more concave, and the shell never 
grows to so large a size. The concavity is streaked and 
stained with rose colour, and the convex part is dotted 
with the same on a white ground. 

Inhabits, according to Chemnitz, the coasts of the 
Nicobar Islands, and the entrance of the Gulf of Ben- 
gal. It is a very rare species. In the Linnean Collection 
it is named, by Dr. Solander, C. impressum. 



240 CARDIUM. 

TRIANGULAR COCKLE. 
PL 57. /. 7, 8. Linnean Society's Cabinet. 

49. Cardium hemicardium. C. testa cordata, subquadrilatera, valvulh 

carinatis, natibus distantibus. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 1121. Linn, 

Gmel. p. 3246. 
Shell heart-shaped, somewhat four-sided, with keeled valves,beaks distant. 
Testa cordata, subtrilatera, antice carinata, sulcis longitudinalibus punc- 

tatis, ano ovato, piano. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 211. 
Humph. Mus. pi. 44. f. H. Petiver Aquat. Amboin. pi. 17. f. 4. Gualt. 

Test. pi. 83. f. c. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 3. f. 2. Chem. Conch, pi. 16. 

f. 159—161. Encyclop. Method, pi. 295, f. 2. b. c. 

This is a triangular, heart-shaped shell, of a whitish 
or yellowish cast on the outside, and white and shining: 
within; there are, in some specimens, near the lateral 
teeth, two brown oblong spots, which, in others, are 
not to be seen. The ribs, which are twenty-three or 
four in number, are rather flat, and smooth; those on 
the posterior part of the shell are tuberculated ; the an- 
terior ribs are plain ; the intermediate grooves are 
wrinkled, and marked with excavated dots. The inside 
is white, and the margin deeply crenated ; the hinge has 
four teeth, which are large and triangular, except the 
middle one, which is but half the size of the others. 

Inhabits the East Indies. Rumphius says the island 
of Amboina. 



CARDIUM. 241 

STRAWBERRY COCKLE. 
PL 58./. 1, 2. Dr. Coombe. 

60. Cardium Fragum. C. testa subcordata, subangulata ; costis notatis 

lunulis elevatis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p. 

3249. 
Shell somewhat heart-shaped, subangular; ribs marked with elevated 

rings. 
List. Conch, pi. 315. f. 152. Petiver Aquat. Ami), pi. 18. f. 21. Rumph. 

Mus. pi. 44. f. G. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. E. Born Test. pi. 3. f. 

3, 4. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 166, 167. Encyclop. Method, pi. 295. 

f. 3. a— e. 

A whitish, or yellowish shell, formed of three un- 
equal planes ; the anterior face is raised in the middle, 
so as to form an obtuse angle ; the two posterior faces 
are round, and their edges describe the segment of a 
circle. It has on each valve, about twenty-three convex, 
longitudinal ribs, eleven of which, on the anterior face, 
are partly covered with little rough scales, the upper 
part of the shell being smooth ; the scales on the pos- 
terior face are farther apart, thicker, and more promi- 
nent, but not so numerous as those before ; the margins 
of the valves are crenated; the anterior margin is deeply 
serrated, and does not shut so close as the rest of the 
shell ; the summits are conic, slightly oblique, and sepa- 
rated from each other by a thread line. The inside is 
white, with a yellow, or orange band, extending from 
the summit to the middle of the cavity; there are five 
teeth in each valve, two at the beak, two lateral, and 
one long and conical, just before the ligament ; all these 
teeth are articulated into corresponding cavities in the 
opposite valve. 

Inhabits the Indian seas, and, according to Linnaeus, 
is sometimes found in the American ocean. 

VOL. I. R 



242 CARDIUM. 

WHITE STRAWBERRY COCKLE. 
PL 58./. 3. Mr. Strong. 

51. Cardium Unedo. C. testa subcordata, costis lunulis coloratis. Linn* 
Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1123. Linn. Gmel. p. 3250. 

Shell somewhat heart-shaped ; ribs with coloured rings. 

Testa subcordata, antice angulata, prominens, costis lunulis elevatis, colo- 
ratis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 214. 

Bonan. Recreat. Class. 3. f. 375. List. Conch, pi. 135. f. 151. Rumph. 
Mus. pi. 44. F. Gualt. Test. pi. 83. f. A. Knorr Vergn. 2. pi. 29. 
f. 2. Rugenf. Conch, pi. 3. f. 25. Da Costa, Elem. of Conch, pi. 6. 
f. 8. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 16. f. 168, 169. Encyclop. Method, pi. 
295. f. 4. 

A white shell, marked with red rings upon the poste- 
rior part, and some of the middle ribs, and shaped like 
the preceding species. It is much larger than the C. 
Fragum, and is without the close imbricated scales pe- 
culiar to that shell ; it has thirty longitudinal ribs, with 
smooth and deep corresponding grooves. In other re- 
spects it agrees entirely with the preceding species. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean, the coast of Amboina, and, 
according to Davila, sometimes that of Jamaica. 



€AMJMI7M, 








CARDIUM. 243 



DIANA HEART COCKLE. 

PL 58./. 4, 5. Mr. Jennings. 

52. Cardinal retusum. C. testa cordata, valvulis striatis, crenulatis, 

subcarinatis ; ano lunato cordiformi intruso. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 

12. p. 1121. Linn. Gmel. p. 3245. 
Shell heart-shaped, valves striated, crenated ? and somewhat keeled ; 

a lunate, heart-shaped hollow behind the beak. 
Testa cordata, umbonibus carinatis, sulcis longitudinalibus punctatis, 

costis granulatis, ano lunari intruso. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 

6. p. 210. 
Rugenf. Conch. 2. pi. 9. f. 20. Born Mus. pi. 3. f. 1, 2. Chem. Conch. 

6. pi. 12.139— 142. Encyclop. Method, pi. 294. f. 3. b—d. 

A white, shining shell, sometimes straw-coloured? 
and occasionally spotted with red. It is marked with 
about twenty-one longitudinal grooves, formed of mi- 
nute sunk points, which give the shell the appearance 
of being striated transversely ; the ribs are smooth and 
convex, the largest behind, and tuberculated. The 
inside is white, and glossy ; the margin is crenated ; 
there are three teeth in one valve, and four in the other; 
the moon-shaped hollow, behind the beaks, is a re- 
markable character in this shell. Large specimens 
measure nearly two inches in length and breadth. 

Inhabits the East Indies, the Persian Gulf, and the 
Red Sea. It is a rare shell, and valuable when marked 
with red spots. 



244 CARDIUM. 

SPINY-KEELED HEART COCKLE. 
PL 59./, 1, 2. Mr. Sowerby. 

53. Cardiutn Cardissa. C testa cor data, vahulis compressis, dentato cari- 

natis, natibus approximates. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 1121. 

Linn. Gmel. p. 3245. 
Shell heart-shaped; valves compressed, toothed on the keel; beaks close 

together. 
Testa cordiformi, utrinque compressa, umbonibus carinatis, natibus in- 

curvis, super impositis. Brug. Encyc. Meth. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 208. 
List. Conch, pi. 318. f. 155. Rumph. Mus. pi. 43. f. E. Gualt. Test. 

pi. 84. f. B. C. D. D'Argenville, pi. 23. f. 1. Favanne Conch. 

pi. 51. f. E. 2. Born. Test. pi. 2. f. 17, 18. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14. 

f. 143, 144. Encyclop. Method, pi. 293. f. 6. a. b. 

This is a completely heart-shaped shell, remarkable 
for its elegant form, and the singular flatness of its 
valves. It is of a whitish colour, sometimes variegated 
with milky spots, and sometimes, though more rarely, 
with pale rose colour. The valves are as thin as paper, 
and edged with a spiny keel ; the anterior face of the 
shell is concave below, and convex above, with a small 
heart-shaped depression, just beneath the summit, con- 
taining the cardinal ligament. There are about thirteen 
longitudinal ribs on the anterior side, with their corre- 
sponding grooves. The posterior face is uniformly 
convex, except close to the margin, where the valves 
insensibly flatten; there are twelve ribs on this side, 
and as many channels, which are flat, finely striated, 
and armed, except the four exterior, with minute points, 
which roughen the shell ; there are four teeth in each 
valve. 

Inhabits the Indian ocean, the coas of Coromandel, 
and the Persian Gulf. 



VAEMLUo 









CARDIUM. 245 

SMOOTH-KEELED HEART COCKLE. 
PL 59. /. 3, 4. Mr. Jennings. 

54. Cardium bumanum. C. testa cordata, valvulis compressis, carinis 

Icevis, umbonibus approximate. 
Shell heart-shaped, valves compressed, keel smooth, beaks close together. 
List. Conch, pi. 219. f. 158. Knorr Vergn. 6. pi. 11. f. 1. Born Test. 

pi. 2. f. 15, 16. Chem. Conch. 6. pi. 14. f. 145, 146. Encyclop. 

Method, pi. 294. f. 1. a. b. 

This shell has been considered by Linnaeus, and some 
subsequent authors, as a variety only of the preceding ; 
but we are disposed to agree with Chemnitz, who has 
distinguished it specifically on account of its margin, 
which is always smooth, and its colour, which generally 
consists of red spots, disposed in a quincunx order, 
upon a white ground. 

Inhabits the same country as the preceding, but is 
more rare. 

The beautiful shell, from which our figure was co- 
loured, formerly belonged to Dr. G. Fordyce, who re- 
fused fifty guineas for it. This shell is now in the pos- 
session of Mr. Jennings, to whose liberality the Author 
is greatly indebted for the use of many rare and valuable 
specimens. 

The C. rnonstrosum of Chemnitz, 6. pi. 14. f. 140, 150. 
bears too strongly the character of an accidental dif- 
formity to be noticed as distinct, till more have been 
found of the same shape. 



Gmelin's variety & of C. medium, p. 3246, must be re- 
rejected ; it is the C. donaciforme, quite a distinct shell. 



246 CARDIUM. 

His varieties of C. aculeatum are not to be trusted ; var. 
£ is our C. ventricosum. C. ciliatum, p. 3248, is the same 
as C. echinatum. C. virgineum is a doubtful species, as 
described by Linnaeus ; and Gmelin has completely con- 
fused it, by referring to the C. apertum of Chemnitz, 6. 
pi. 18. f. 181. for a variety of the shell. C. trilaterum of 
Gmelin, p. 3253, is not specific. His C. triste is omitted, 
as doubtful ; it is not in the last edition of the Systema 
Naturce. C. crassum, p. 3254, is probably a variety of 
C. oblongum. C. maculatum, p. 3255, is our C. ventri- 
cosum. His C.Jluviatile is the C. Icevigatum. C. Ba- 
siliense is doubtful. C. Gaditanum and C Amboinense 
belong to the genus Area. C. squamosum, p. 3256, is a 
young shell of the C. Isocardia. C. fasciatum is a va- 
riety only of C. rusticum. 



END OF THE FIRST VOLUME. 



Books published by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, London, 



GENERAL CONCHOLOGY. 



On the First of June will be published, Price Five Shillings each Number, 

Number 1 and 2, 
Containing Sixteen Pages of Letter-press, and Five Plates, accurately 
Drawn and Coloured from Nature, with Scientific Specifications, preceded 
by Observations on each Genus, of a general Description of Shells, 
arranged according to the Linnaean System, 

By WILLIAM WOOD, F. R. S. and L. S. &c. 
The Work will be continued Monthly. 

A few Copies will be printed of a larger Size, in an extra Manner, upon Whatman's 
super-royal Drawing Paper, for the convenience of Marginal Illustration. Price Seven 
Shillings per Number. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 



Natural History, such as it is considered by systematic authors, consists 
principally in the knowledge of species. The Botanist becomes acquainted with 
the different plants, and learns to arrange them by the particular characters 
which belong to each individual, and by the general relation which they bear to 
each other. The Ornithologist, the Entomologist, and the Conchologist, by the 
same means distinguish birds, insects, and shells. To make this knowledge at- 
tainable, that is, to enable the Naturalist from certain particular characters to 
distinguish immediately one subject in nature from another, is the only purpose 
of system. But in nature there is something more to be discovered, something 
more to be desired, than the knowledge of the mere external form of her pro- 
ductions. We are taught to believe, that nothing has been formed in vain: it 
therefore becomes the rational Naturalist, not to confiue himself to the exterior 
only, but to discover, as far as his ability will permit, the respective habits and 
faculties of the different animals, and their degrees of utility, either with refer- 
ence to the general theory of nature, or to those particulars in which they may 
become serviceable to mankind. It must be confessed, that the superficial exa- 
mination alone of the works of Nature is delightful ; but when those works are 



Books published by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland Place, London. 

steadily contemplated, there is a feeling superadded which makes the delight 
more permanent ; for all of them mock the imitative power of man, and bear 
evidences of omniscience which no sophistry can shake, no argument can over- 
turn. 

Conchology considered in this view, requires nothing more to excite curiosity 
or command attention. Its varied subjects exhibit a richness of colouring and 
diversity of form, not to be exceeded by any other class of natural beings ; and 
its numerous productions, when collected with care and arranged in order, will 
afford the possessor a gratifying source of instruction and amusement. 

It will be proper to notice, that the arrangement which the author has pursued, 
in order to render his work acceptable to the scientific Naturalist, is strictly 
Linnaean. All systems built upon artificial principles must be liable to objec- 
tions, and such is the system of Linnaeus. But as, notwithstanding the attempts 
which have been made to form a more perfect arrangement, the structure raised 
by the great Swedish Naturalist still remains unshaken, we cannot do better than 
adhere to those rules which his authority has sanctioned. 

The plates which accompany this work, will be accurately drawn and engraved 
from specimens only, and the possessors of the shells, to whose liberality the au- 
thor has been indebted for their use, will be acknowledged at the head of their 
respective specifications : where no such acknowledgement appears with the re- 
ference to a figure, it may be presumed that the subject belongs to the author. 
It is designed, in the course of the publication, to describe every species of shell, 
and to figure all the most prominent, as well as those striking varieties which are 
liable to mislead the Naturalist, and create confusion by causing an improper 
multiplication of species. 

There have not been wanting those who have objected against collecting of 
shells, as a trifling and useless employment: but let them recollect that all utility 
is comparative ; and that no desire after what is curious, unless it be suffered to 
absorb more important considerations, ought to be suppressed. A great part of 
our time is but too apt to be wasted, and therefore any pursuit is commendable 
that furnishes a rational amusement for that portion of life, which might otherwise 
be lost in idleness. Nature teems throughout with interesting objects, each of 
which, when properly considered, may become the subject of admiration ; and all 
may feel an equal interest in their several occupations, from the philosopher who 
contemplates myriads of animals in a drop of water, to him, who disclaiming 
the minuter parts of the creation, spends his nights in watching the revolutions 
of the celestial orbs, or penetrating the etherial space to worlds beyond our own. 






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