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Full text of "General George Hanger, to all sportsmen, farmers, and gamekeepers : Above thirty years' practice in horses and dogs; to feed and cure them of all common disorders and to save a dog which has been poisoned"

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^bster Fari I' ' 

ills Uihv. 

nnary Medicine ; 
/ Medicine at 


3 9090 013 414 145 

Sms?"; '^M'©m(S® mjgssisiEm.. 


TO ALL ^ / 


Above Thirty Years' Practice in Horses and Dogs ; to 
feed and cure them of all common Disorders and to 
save a Dog which has been poisoned. 

Eflfectually to catch all Vermin. 



071 Fowlmg'Pieces, Rifles, and Muskets, To 
prevent Partridges being taken at Night hf 
. Drag-nets, To breed and feed Pheasants,^ and 
prevent them being destroyed by Night-shooters 
and Poachers, To catch flocks of Wood-pigeons 
and all Jfaterfowl. To shoot Wild-fowl, Pewits, 
Golden Plover, Wild Geese, and Bustards, by 
night. To approach Red Deer, within thirty 
or forty yards. Of Race Horses. Cure for 
Cattle swelled from eating Clover. Several valua- 
able Family Receipts, ^c. 





Price Fifteen Shillings. 


/ ■ 






I HAVE frequently read dedi- 
cations of books, to persons of distinction, 
attributing almost every virtue, in nature, 
to them ; and, after the most diligent search 
to discover where those virtues existed, I 
could find them no where but in the dedi- 
*cation. Indeed, many such persons, in 
my opinion, greatly resemble large china 
jars, in old family houses, which have out- 
wardly a noble and handsome appearance, 
but, when you look into them, you will find 
nothing but dust and cobwebs. 



I shall attribute three merits to yon, 
which the whole world are acquainted 
with ; passing over those others, which have 
so firmly attached so many friends to you. 
First, sir, your conduct in the Senate of the 
Nation, for so many years, hat incontestably 
proved you to be a true patriot, zealously 
attached to the liberties and interests of 
your fellow-subjects. Secondly, sir, you 
have been a most laudable agriculturist, 
expending tens of thousands of pounds, 
experimentally, for the universal benefit of 
mankind. Thirdly, sir, you are a good 
sportsman, and a liberal one. 

I do not attribute this Ust quality to you 
for that unbounded kindness you have 
favored me with, by permitting me to 
shoot over three whole parishes, all j^our 
own lands; but from your well-known libe- 
rality to many others. There is, in truth, 


a very great difference in the conduct of 
landholders ; for there are many who would 
as soon lend their wives for a day, as their 
manors. Your kindness, sir, and that of 
several others in Norfolk and Suffolk, places 
me beyond the disagreeable predicament of 
receiving a refusal on application to them. 

That you may live many years to con- 
tinue that liberal and sumptuous hospi- 
tality, which have so much distinguished 
Holkham Hall, since it has been your 
country residence, and that you may enjoy 
every happiness in this world, is the sincere 
wish of 

Sir, your most respectful. 

Most devoted. 
And grateful humble servant, 

George Hanger. 

April 4, 1814 




i SHALL begin by making known the most 
useful medicine for horses that I am ac- 
quainted with. I have constantly used it 
for above thirty years, and, may in truth 
say, I have given it one hundred times. I 
shall relate how I first proved its surprising 
efficacy. Above thirty years ago, when I wonderful ef- 
was confederate on the turf with my friend ^nji sulphur 

J balls, given tf 

Mr. Robert Pigott, when his celebrated *^°''''' 
horse Shark was at his best, — Mr. Pigott 
trusting the whole conduct of his stables to 
me, I came, some days before the Meetings, 
to try his horses and my own, and to see 


his horse Shark take his last sweat, before 
he ran with Lord Abingdon's Leviathan, 
for a very large sum of money we both 
had depending on that race. 

Shark went through his sweat, at the 
dawn of day, very well, and to my perfect 
satisfaction ; after which he was taken home, 
fed, and locked up, till twelve o'clock at 
noon. At twelve o'clock, when the trainer, 
Thomas Price, and myself came into his 
stable, we found all his legs swelled, his 
hind legs very much indeed, quite up to 
the hocks, and his fore legs considerably. 
I was much alarmed, and told Tom Price to 
keep the door locked, that none of the boys 
might see the condition he was in, and that 
I would send a servant to Mr. Pigott, to 
inform him, that he might get his money 

Price said, " Sir, you are alarmed at that 
which is of no consequence whatever. 
Horses' legs, after sweating, frequently jfly, 
and, I assure you, I have had many horses 
more swelled than Shark is. Provided his 
legs are not fine by to-morrow night, I will 
suffer death : and, to prove to you my sin- 


cerity, I will, if you will allow me, stand 
every shilling you have on the race ; and I 
know you have a very large sum depend- 
ing. I will give him something which, by 
to-morrow night, shall make his legs as fine 
as they were yesterday." " You shall give 
him nothing/' said I, " unless you tell me 
what the medicine is composed of." " It 
is the most simple and innocent of medi- 
cines, sir : I will write it down for you, and 
you shall go yourself to the apothecary's 
and have it made up, and see it dven to 

^ ^ Receipt for the 

him yourself. It is this : one pound of phuJbSfs."''^" 


(flower of brimstone,) MIXED UP into a 
MASS WITH MOLASSES. " For Shark, I had 
it made up with honey, being so valuable a 
horse ; but I never have given it to any 
other horse, except made up with molasses ; 
and I look both on the honey and molasses, 
as only vehicles to give the nitre and sul- 
phur. Before one o'clock at noon, I gave 
Shark a ball of it, as large as a good-sized 
hen's egg ; at night, another ; the next 
morning, another; and, in the evening, 


^ ' about fi ve o'clock, another. At night, when 
we shut the stable up, we could scarcely 
perceive that his legs were at all swelled ; 
and, at day-break the next morning, his 
legs were as fine as they ever had been. 
He had txvo balls given him the first two 
days, but only one every day after, until the 
day he started for the match, which was 
seven days after he had taken his sweat. 
His exercise was stopped only two days, 
during which time he was only walked, 
which, I am convinced, benefited him, for 
nunning hc was a dcHcate horse. All running: horses, 

horses and CJ 

be^pJJgeT'^ ..and hunters, must be well purged ; if they 
are not, they will never stand their work, 
without flying to pieces, as the grooms vul- 
garly call it. 
purg^nfirJft It is not ncccssary to purge draft- horses, 
hors«s. or hackneys. I have not physicked one 

for above thirty years. You need only 
give them one ball, as big as a hen's e^^, 
every day, until they have taken the whole 
mass which I have prescribed. Give 
this in the spring ; and, provided you find 
their legs swell again, from work, or that 


they look unkind in their coats, give it 
them again, — for you need never stop their 

Farmers, who are fond of having: their Noxious dmgs 

^ given to far- 

cart-horses look w^ell in their coats, when ITo^rsesto S^ 
they go to market, are in the habit of look fmc.' 
giving antimony and other noxious drugs 
to their horses ; this medicine will answer 
every purpose, and is most innocent and 
simple, and very efficacious. 

Ignorant John Groom, and the farrier, SXines'dt' 

T, . ,1 1 , , trimental to a 

equally is^norant, whenever a horse looks horse's consti^ 

. , tution. 

unkind in his coat, and most particularly 
when his legs in the least swell, give him, 
for two or three successive days, a strong 
diuretic ball ; which makes the horse stale 
profusely, weakens him, and is detrimental 
to his constitution. Diuretic balls are com- 
posed of rosin, juniper-berries, and other 
violent, strong diuretics, violent in their 
operations, and noxious to the animal. The 
medicine I recommend is perfectly inno- 
cent, and so mild and gentle in its opera- 
tion, that it acts insensibly on him, and is 
not to be perceived, but by the cure. 


of thelfficTcy '^^^ ^^^^^ horse, after Shark, I gave this 
sui^X^rb^ans?"^ mcdicine to, was a most valuable brown 
horse, a hunter, presented to me by my 
worthy and old friend. Lord Egmont. The 
man who sold him to my friend, had de- 
ceived him, by telling him, that the horse 
had been properly physicked before the 
season. I had not rode him much above 
a fortnight, ere he flew all to pieces. 

My groom came in one morning, and 
desired I would look at my horse. I found 
his coat extremely rough, staring, and 
unkind to the feel, and his legs very much 
swelled. I gave him, the first day, two 
balls; the second day, two balls; and 
every day after only one ball, until he had 
taken the whole mass. I hunted him on 
the fifth day, his legs being nearly as fine 
as they had been, and his coat every day 
looking better and kinder to the feel. Since 
that time I have given it to some hundreds 
of horses. 

I gave this receipt to a horse dealer in 
London, an old acquaintance of mine, who 
was accustomed, whenever he had pur- 


chased a lot of horses in the country, when 
any of them flew at the heels, their legs 
swelled, or looked unkind in their coats, to 
put them under a regular course of physic; 
by which method he lost the sale of his horses 
for six weeks. He has assured me that, 
ever since I gave him my receipt, his 
horses have, in ten days, befen fit to shew 
to any gentleman, 

I do not assert that this medicine will P® ^f^ase m 


cure a confirmed grease in horses' heels, 
but it will cure an incipient disorder. Be 
sure never to apply any grease or ointment 
to the horses' heels, nothing but a turnip 
poultice. If the grease be obstinate, 
nothing but mercury will cure him, thus 
administered : Give the horse two drachms J^^^^^i^g^L 


must be repeated three times, stopping one 
or two days between each dose ; after which 
give him the nitre and sulphur balls. This 
process will cleanse him thoroughly. 

When horses come in from hunting and ufoTof di^o- 

P , . vering Worm» 

perfectly empty in the stomach, when you injHorses.mis- 

*■ J I J 'J taken often for 

give them a double feed of corn, before *^^ ^"p^*' 


they have eaten one half, you sometimes 
will observe them leave off feeding for a 
time, turn their heads back and look iat 
their flanks ; sometimes they will even lie 
down for a minute or two, then get up, 
and finish their corn. Wise John Groom 
says directly, to a master as wise as himself, 
" Sir, your honour's horse has got the gripes ; 
I will give him a comfortable drink, which 
will soon relieve him/' John Groom might 
just as well rub the horse's, or his own 
backside with a brick-bat. This proceeds 
from the horse having worms. The worms, 
as hungry as the horse, begin to feed and, 
by moving about in the body of the horse, 
make the horse, for a time, sick. 

'iiiecure. Two drachms of calomel, given over- 

night, tying his head up to the rack, so 
that he cannot eat any thing, and half a 
dose of the common aloetic physic the 
next moning, three times repeated, will kill 
the worms, and bring them from the horse. 

Peculiar case J ^^^.q kucw a marc which took three 

of a Mare. 

doses, and they had no effect on her ; but a 
fourth dose brought very great quantities 
from her ; her coat began to look fine, and 


her corn did her good, which it did not 
before she was perfectly freed from them. 

Courteous Reader., (as the man who makes 
Moore's Almanack, ever addresses his cus- 
tomers,) be pleased to observe, that 1 posi- 
tively decline even entering into any 
difficult and intricate disorders which horses 
may have. I presume only to point out 
the methods which should be practised with 
all horses afflicted with simple and common 
complaints, which are so easily known and 
distinguished by any man, who has the 
least knowledge of horses. Provided your 
horse be afflicted by a greater malady than 
common, send for a Veterinary Surgeon. 
That description of men have arrived at 
great perfection, and there is scarcely a 
large town in England, where there is not 
one to be found of some proficiency. Pro- 
vided you doctor your horse, when you 
know not what his disorder is, it is three 
to one but you kill him. 

If your horse be attacked with a putrid 
fever, (which is easily ktiown from a com- 
mon inflammatory fever, proceeding from a 
Jiorse having caught a violent cold, and 


all perspiration checked, by having been put 
into a cold damp stable, and not well 
rubbed down, and well clothed, ever 
having been used to a warm stable and 
good attendance ; or from standing in a 
great perspiration, hung to some ale-house 
by a master, by far more brute than the 
animal,) send for a veterinary surgeon. 
Yet, in complicated complaints, more 
commonly known by the name of chroni- 
cal diseases, I am of opinion, that nature 
acts infinitely beneficent, kind, and great, 
in our favour. That the doctor may assist 
nature, I allow ; but his skill cannot take 
the lead of her : and I am persuaded that, 
provided your apothecary and surgeon be 
a man of good sense, and of considerable 
practice in his profession, when he finds 
that all the medicines he has given you 
have been of no avail, and desires that you 
will call in a physician, it is only for this 
fcTotheca?' ^^^^son, — that, provided three people die in 
the year, attended by an apothecary only, 
it makes a greater noise in the parish than 
when three thousand die under the care of 
physicians ; for scarcely does any one die 


(excepting they drop down suddenly in a 
fit) without having this satisfaction and 
consolation left to their friends, that they 
died, or were killed, secundum ariem. 

Now I will frankly ask any physician, ^p^Jf^'g^Jg^^ 
whether he has not many advantages when veter^arV^'*" 

, , . . I'll • Surgeon can- 

he attends his patient, which the veterinary not have. 
surgeon cannot have ? When I send for a 
veterinary surgeon to attend my horse, he 
goes into the stable ;— he certainly can feel 
the horse's pulse; so can the physician, fee! 
his patient's pulse ; but the physician has a 
hundred advantages to make himself 
acquainted with his patient's disorder, 
which the veterinary surgeon cannot have; 
for the veterinary surgeon's patient cannot 
speak, and tell him where the complaint 
lies, or in what part of his body he feels 
pain, or whether he be cold, hot, or thirsty, . 
or in great pain in any particular part of 
his body or limbs. This the veterinary 
surgeon has to find out. — Now I will state 
the following to the candid reader. Were 
I extremely ill indeed, and were to send 
for a physician,-— when he is attending me, 
he first asks me how I feel, where the pain 


lies, whether it be in my foot, backside, ot 
head, or in any other part of the body. 
Instead of answering him, were I to say, 

' *' Sir, I sent for you to tell me how, and 

where, I was affected ; and not to inform 
you where the pain and disorder lies, toge- 
ther with all its symptoms, — that is your 
business to find out;" I will candidly ask 
the reader whether he would not hastily 
quit my bed-side, get into his carriage, 
drive away, and tell the whole town that I , 
was mad ? But yet what I have stated is a 
fact. — The only advantage the veterinary 
surgeon can have is, that his patient cannot 
be affected with such chronic disorders, 
from the simple and innocent nature of the 
horse's aliment, as man, from gluttony, 
drunkenness, and debauchery, is afflicted 

Nature and a with. lu short, I am of opiuiou, provided 

good constitu- 
tion nine times the disorder be not very easily known, 

:a ten perform J J 

the cure. ^^^ distinguished, both the horse and the 
man have but very little hopes from the 
veterinary surgeon's, or the physician's 
assistance. Nature, and a good constitution, 
nine times in ten, perform the cure, both in 
man, and horse. 


I shall now speak concerning inflamma- Sr/pevS"*' 
tory fevers. They are not difficult to cure. 
First, the horse's pulse should be felt, to 
ascertain the height of the fever; a horse's Horse's p^u.. 
pulse is to be felt by applying the palm of 
your hand, pressing hard, just behind the ,ji r^f^i^*- ^^ 
elbow of the left fore -leg. A horse's pulse, ^.^ ,^ /^i. 

in good health, should beat about forty or ^y^'^^^ - ^' 

forty-two pulsations in one minute. I have 
known a horse's pulse to beat above 80 ; „ 

1 ' How to treat 

but then the fever was very violent, and the inflammarorr 
horse must be plentifully bled; and he must 
be bled again the second day, provided the 
fever is not abated. To this one horse I 
now speak of, I gave four ounces of 
MITRE EVERY DAY ; but, in general, three 
ounces is sufficient, unless the fever be very 
high. As the horse will not eat corn, in 
which the nitre may be given, you must 
make the nitre into a ball, and give it him ; 
and be sure to drench him plentifully with 
water- gruel. 

When a horse is much reduced by ill- ingtoHorses^^ 

"^ after an III- 

ness, but has recovered his appetite, the "^'*' 
best thing to nourish him, I know, is malt. 


Danger of 


Put the malt into a stable-bucket, and just 
cover it over with boilins: water ; throw a 
cloth over the pail, and let it steam for 
about half an hour. A person I knew 
well, who used to prepare the physic for 
Jivrngye'rctt- his horses himself, put a certain quantity 

ryto Horses. n i • . V^. " 

of calomel to a certam quantity of aloes 
and other ingredients, into an earthen pot, 
and boiled them together. From not 
stirring the ingredients constantly, until 
they were quite cold and stiff, the calomel 
all settled at the bottom of the pot. The 
first year he physicked his race-horses, they 
did well ; but the second year, coming to 
the bottom of the pot for the pliysic, he 
killed two or three of his young racing 
colts, and materially injured some of the 
aged horses, 
Mercur>A7i?h To obvlatc this danger, when it be judged 
necessary to give a horse calomel, let two 
DRACHMS be given over night, and the 
aloetic purge the next morning. To a 
young colt, of two or three years old, you 
must not give above htAf the quantity of 



For the gripes or cholic in horses, the Sj^J^VSIri' 
very best thing you can give them is a *"" ^"^^^ 


When I kept a stable of horses, I never 
was without three or four bottles in the 
stable. It is an expensive medicine, I ac- 
knowledge ; but what of that ? — purging 
must be promoted, not checked. We all 
know that Daffy's Elixir is made of a 
decoction of sena and warm spices. The 
sena purges gently, and the warm spices 
comfort and warm the horse's* stomach. 
You will find a horse sometimes shew that 
he is in considerable pain, endeavouring 
frequently to stale and cannot. This is fom^iumes* 
frequently taken for the gripes ; but it is not Gripes.""^* *, 
the gripes : it proceeds from costiveness in 
the horse, and the dung-bag being so full 
as to press hard on the bladder, which pre- 
vents the horse from staling. Let a boy, 
with a small hand, well oiled, rake him : 
the hoa^se will stale directly. 

For bots, which often lie in the horse's ^J , 

' the Anus; how 

anus, A DECOCTION of SHAG TOBACCO with '° ''"' """" 

- c 2 

How to treat 


linseed oil will destroy them. The de- 
coction must be thrown up by means of a 
syringe, and the horse's tail held fast down 
with a cloth on the fundament, for ten 
minutes, to prevent the decoction from 
being discharged. 

dryThard!and To casc pain in a horse's foot, or to make 
a dry, hard, brittle, or contracted foot sup- 
ple and expand, I know nothing equal to 
boiled linseed, applied warm to the foot. 

t'ie FeT^''" When the foot be wounded by picking up 
a nail, cut by glass, or by some other acci- 
dent, in which case gravel may have got 
into the foot, it will be necessary to apply a 
common poultice with Venice turpentine, 
to draw the gravel out. 

Horse's'^hoofs, Ncvcr ou any account grease a horse's hoof, 

but dab them i*iii • ti r^ i j^i 

with Cham- which all-Wise J ohn (jrrooms do, as they say, 


to supple it and keep it from cracking ; 
grease has a contrary effect. Take your 
horses out from the clean straw and dab 
their hoofs well, morning and evening, with 
stale chamberlie. 
fffSt's^of Take a dry hoof of a horse, cut it in half, 

and Grease on stccp ouc half for scvcral days in a pot of 
chamberlie, and the other in a pot of 


grease; take them out, wash them both 
clean, and lay them aside. In a short time 
you will find the one steeped in chamberlie 
tough, genial, and pliant, the other steeped 
in grease will be hard and brittle : this has 
been tried. You may anoint the coronet 
of the foot with a little fresh grease, but no 
other part of the foot. 

Provided a splint lies on the bone of the leg, Zv^f^'tr!U 
so as not to impede the action of the sinew, 
I recommend, by all means, to let it alone 
and do nothing to it ; but, if it lies near 
the sinew, it must be taken away. The 
best method I am acquainted with, is to 
rub it with a round stick, till it feels some- 
what soft, then prick it in many places Avith 
a bodkin or packing-needle, moderately 
hot ; be sure to make two or three holes 
quite at the bottom. A gentle blister will 
then reduce it. 

With spavins and ring-bones I will have an/Rfng- 
nothing to do. Send for a skilful veteri- 
nary surgeon. It requires skill and prac- 
tice to operate on the vein in blood-spavins, 
and I believe bone-spavins generally in- 
curable ; at least the horse will not hav^ 



Of Corns. 

Of Running 

the free use again of his joint ; and ring- 
bones are very bad maladies. 

Corns should be clean cut out, and a 
wide wash extended from the shoe, in the 
form of three thirds of a circle, and about 
two inches broad, over the part where the 
corn was, to guard it from sharp stones, 
gravel, &c. I do not approve of a bar 
shoe, it confines the dirt in the foot too 

It is dangerous to attempt to dry up run- 
ning thrushes, unless the horse be put un- 
der a course of strong physic ; for, if, by 
sharp washes alone, you attempt to dry 
them up, the disorder frequently flies to the 
eyes, when, for a time, you nearly blind 
.the horse. I look on running thrushes as 
a discharge of nature, much the same as 
sweaty feet in man : dry them up, and I 
imagine the disease will fly to some other 
part of his body. I am certain it always 
will in a horse. The only safe method of 
How to treat treating them is, to wash them CON- 

Thrushts. ^ 


would also particularly recommend giving 



provided the thrushes run abundantly, and 
smell very foetid. 

A horse cannot easily be lamed in the pf Lameness 

J in the shonl- 

shoulder, except from a fall, a blow, or how\o"dfstin.^ 

.. . . lit guish it from 

irom runnm2' aramst some haid substance. Lameness 

^ ^ ^ below. 

But wise John Groom, and the farrier, pro- 
vided they know not where the lameness 
really lies, swear the horse is lame in the f^''^e?a'ui? 
shoulder ; whereas the lameness is in their 
heads, and not in the horse's shoulder. 

I will give you an infallible method to 
know whether a horse be lame or not, in 
the shoulder. When you trot the horse, 
if he be lame in the shoulder, the muscles 
are affected, so as to prevent his extending 
that leg, or stepping out so far with it, as 
he will with the other leg ; he will step 
considerably shorter with that leg. When 
the lameness lies below, he will extend the 
lame leg as far as the other ; but, when he 
puts the foot to the ground, will shew lame- 
ness. If the cause of lameness be not very 
visible to the eye, you may rest assured it 
lies in the foot or fetlock joint : in this case 
send for a veterinary surgeon ; for, to cure 
it, great skill and practice is necessary, ajid 



a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of 
the foot, and fetlock joint. I have known 
several horses totally spoiled by lameness 
in the feet, and never fit for any other use 
but to draw a carl or waggon, where they 
never are forced beyond a walk. 
c>f Gun-shot The best method of treatino^ srun-shot 

wounds m no 

wounds in horses, is, to inject spirit of wine ; 
if that cannot be procured, use brandy, 
which will do extremely well ; if that be 
not at hand, use rum. It is wonderful 
how speedily horses recover from gun-shot 
wounds, provided they are not shot in the 
bowels or other dangerous parts of the 
body. Yet I once had a horse shot directly 
through the centre of the body, about five 
inches above the bottom of his belly, and 
he was very well in a short time : and an- 
other horse of mine (it v/as singular) had 
a ball absolutely flattened on the bone of 
the hind-leg, just above the fetlock, which 
I cut out in the afternoon with a common 
pen-knife ; the side of the ball next the 
bone was quite flat, and as broad as a shil- 
ling : it lamed him for some time. — I 
saw a horse belonging to a captain in ou^^ 


regiment, in a very few months shot once 
through the neck, and the second time 
through both buttocks. In about five 
weeks after each wound, his master rode 
him ; so very quick does the flesh of horses 

Ointments should seldom be used to any ?ive\"to"be 
lacerated part, and never to gun-shot xvounds ; shot wounds^ 

and very 

but when absolutely necessary. The fol- 'f^tr wounds. 
lowing is the best, as there is very little 

grease m it. 

The only 

Take, of linimentum ahc.ei (arcnajs ointment m 

to be used- 

liniment), one ounce; oil of turpen- 
tine, two" drachms ; VERDIGREASE, A 

DARKISH GREEN COLOUR. Thisis an excellent wonderful 

use of the 

healins: ointment ; but simple oil of tur- ^-^p'^ ^^''^f 

<~> ' Turpentine. 


I have not made any observations rela- Horsesiiishod 
live to the shoeing of horses for several 
years at Newmarket : formerly they were 
scandalously ill shod. It is to be hoped 
that since skilful veterinary surgeons have 
resided there, the method of shoeing has 
been altered. I have seen many horses* 
feet so narrowed at the heels bv bad shoe- 

How to widen 
a Horse's Foot 


ing, that the points of the fore shoes have 
nearly touched at the heel. I am certain 
this has been the cause of laming numbers, 
and would have lamed many more v^ere it 
not from the fme soft turf they are ex- 
ercised on. 

I have frequently bought strong boney 
horses, v/ith feet infinitely contracted. In 
four or five times shoeing I have widened 
their feet above one inch, and, in time, 
brought them to have a good foot, broad 
and open at the heel. To accomphsh this, 
the shoe must be made quite straight, from 
the centre, to the heel, not in the smallest 
degree turned in at the points ; pare the 
contracted points away, and let the point 
of the heels rest on the shoe. The heel, 
thus rested on the shoe, will naturally ex- 
pand. Some people may say this method 
of shoeing may make the horse cut: I deny 
it ; the horse never cuts with the heels of 
his shoes ^ naj^, even in the speedy ^cut, he 
strikes his leg with the centre of the shoe. 
When a Run- Wlicu a runuino^ horse is badly let down, 

ning Horse or O J , ' 

badiy^^eT '' ^s it is tcmied, in the back sinews, the best 

down in the . . i r r 

sinews of the wav IS to tum him to the stud : tor 1 am 

fore leg- *^ 


certain he will never stand a severe race ; 
and whatever you do to him, if you hunt 
him, he is ever liable to break down in deep 
ground. However, in case you are deter- 
mined to try him, the leg must be reduced 
first as much as it is possible, and then he 
must be blistered and fired ; but above all, 
he must have long rest given him, and 
the whole ivinter's run, in a very dry padock, 
wherein there is no marshy nor wet ground. 
The winter's fi^ost and cold air, in a dry 
padock, will, I believe, perform the greater 
part of the cure, together with long rest. 

I own the following is a fancy of my in'^'nlver"'^ 
own, and that I never have tried it ; but in 
my poor opinion I think it stands to reason. 
On the former lame leg, the shoe should 
be made full half an inch thicker at the 
heel than the shoe on the other foot, to give 
the injured sinew some additional relief 
Indeed, I once had a capital cantering 
hackney fired on both fore-legs. I always 
shod him at the heel of both feet, much 
thicker than any other horse ; but then I 
never cantered him at above the rate of pe^^eat per- 

fectioii m the 

ten miles in the hour. He went so com- Hol^es^^ 
pletely on his haunches, that but litile 


strain laid on his fore-legs. This is the 
great perfection in all horses' actions. 
All of them go from their hinder parts, but 
very few go completely on their hinder parts; 
no hunter can go through deep ground 
unless he does ; and no horse, which goes 
differently, can be used on the road with 
safety to your neck. 

hLscs^'"^ I once knew a most valuable horse 

killed by nicking his tail ; it mortified. The 
surest method is to give him a dose of 
physic the morning before the operation 
is performed, and at least one dose more 
the third da)^ 

Of sore barks J^ thc British Lcdou Cavalry, in Ame- 

in a Regiment ~ J ' 

«t Cavalry, ^.j^^^ ^^,^ j^^^l ^^ ^^^^ backs ; for a blanket, six 
or eight times doubled, was always laid on 
the horse's back, under the saddle. All our 
cavalry, on service, should have a blanket, 
eight times doubled, under the saddle. It is 
of great utility ; for, with care, you never 
will have a horse with a sore back ; and, 
at night, the man may draw it from under 
the saddle, and cover himself with it ; thus 
he will have two blankets to cover himself 
But road-horses, and waggon-horses too, 
frequently have sore backs, 


The best method of curing sore backs, baX^""''"" 
and I have frequently experienced the 
efficacy of it, is to dissolve half an 


WATER, and dab the inj ured parts with it four 
or five times a day. — The best captain of 
cavahy, I know, is not he who only fights 
his troop well in action ; but he who has 
his horses in the best condition, and has the 
fewest sore backs in his troop. What a 
laudable example tlie German hussars, and 
other cavalry, shew us, in the care of their 
horses. The attention they pay to their 
horses is wonderfullv meritorious. 

1 never allow a horse of mine, which is no Horse out 

in all weathers, 

out in all weather, and frequently stands stm in^lfj"° 

^ , . , , f, . streets, should 

tor hours in the street, and verv oiten in be curried or 

^ brushed. 

rain, to be curried, or brushed : currying 
and brushing thins their coats, and makes 
them more liable to catch cold. Nor do I 
ever allow them to be covered in the stable 
with a cloth. Thej^ are rubbed well with 
a whisp of straw, and then with a coarse 
hair-cloth ; this makes the blood circulate, 
and it is fully sufficient. I am thoroughly 
persuaded, no cavalry horse, on service, at 



No Horse 
should stand 
on litter in 
the day-time. 

the picket cord, should ever be curried or 
brushed: indeed a couple of curry-combs 
may be kept in each troop, in case a horse 
may have some hard dirt caked on, which 
cannot otherwise be rubbed off. 

I never allow a horse to stand on litter in 
the day-time in the stable. I speak not of 
running-horses or hunters. Provided the 
straw be not perfectly dry and clean, it 
perishes the feet. Look to horses which 
stand upon half-perished litter, as one half 
of them do at the livery-stables ; you will 
find their feet full of dirty half-perished 
litter. This materially injures the feet. 

For the present, I have nearly done with 
the treatment of horses ; but will give you 
i^tion^l'r^^^ one receipt more, which, of all the medicines 
aliTsprahls^^V in the \vorld, is the most efficacious. It is 
as beneficial to man and woman, as it is 
both to horses and dogs. You should 
never be without a bottle of it in the house. 
It is infallible in its cure of all bruises, 
blows, and gentle strains, which horses and 
dogs receive in the field. I do not mean 
to say that it will cure a horse, which is 
absolutely let down in the sinews; but, in 


every other respect, it is a sovereign remedy. 
I have had, in the course of time, four or 
five servants who have shpped down stairs, 
and have terribly bruised their legs, and 
sprained their ancles, I have also given it 
to numbers who have received injuries in 
their limbs from falls, blows, or bruises, and 
I never have known it to fail. It was given 
to me by an old huntsman, thirty years ago. 
It may even be used when the skin is 
broken or rubbed off; not absolutely on 
the wound itself, because it will occasion 
great* pain ; but it may be rubbed in 
well all round the wound. Take, of 


It must be w^ell rubbed in with the hand, 
for full a quarter of an hour, every time it 
is used ; which must be four times each 
day. You will be astonished at its efticacy 
when you try it. 


w to'kifow a I will now inform you how for certain 
goodlyTfrom vou mav know whether a horse has a strong 

a weak one. i Ti i 

and good eye, or a weak eye, and hkely to 
go bUnd. People in general turn a horse's 
head to a bright hght to examine his eyes. 
You can know very little, by this method, 
what sort of an eye the horse has, unless 
it be a very defective one. You must ex- 
amine the eye first, when the horse stands 
w ith his head to the manger. Look care- 
fully at the pupil of the eye in a horse ; it 
is of an oblong form : carry the size of the 
pupil in your mind, then turn the horse 
about, bring him to a bright light, and if) 
in the bright light, the pupil of the eye 
contracts, and appears much smaller than 
it was in the darker light, then you may 
be sure the horse has a strong, good eye ; 
but, provided the pupil remains nearly of 
the same size as it appeared in the darker 
light, the horse has a weak eye ; therefore 
have nothing to do with him. There are- 
contracting and dilating muscles in the 
eye, which will plainly shew you, provided 
you follow my instructions, in what state 


the eye is, whether it be a strong or a 
weak one. 

Many horses are attacked in their eyes 
when coming five years old. This is vul- 
garly called moon - blindness. It is a 
periodical blindness, which comes and goes, 
sometimes three or four times ; but, if it 
ever comes above once, I imagine his eyes 
to be in great danger. 

I have often read, in farriers' works, and i^^i^n^X'rs^e^; 
in those of veterinary surgeons, of worms ^^°°'^*^' 
in a horse's stomach : for my OAvn part, I 
cannot credit it ; for the peristaltic motion 
of the stomach is so powerful and the 
heat so great, when the horse is alive, 
that 1 am of opinion that worms may as 
well live between two mill-stones, when at 
work, or in a hot baker's oven, as in a 
horse's stomach : and this I have a right to 
say, that, w hen the motion of the stomach 
ceases, which it does with the life of the 
animal, in half a minute, worms may 
move from their former quarters into the 
stomach, particularly if the stomach be 
replete with food. Certain we are, that no 
person has ever seen the stomach of a horse 



when alive ; therefore I am justified hi 
saying, that I imagine it must be con- 
jecture, and that I give a good reason for 
my opinion : however, I will not assert, 
or be positive in an opinion which may 
be contrary to that of more experienced 
Wounds in Wouuds iu the skin of horses will q^e- 

the skin of ^ 

hGrses. nerally be cured by lint dipped in Friar's 
Balsam. I have already mentioned the 
great benefit of nitre in inflammatory fevers. 
Osmer relates a story of a horse, which he 
asserts to be a fact : — that a horse, with the 
nitad staggers on him, broke out of the 
stable at a powder-mill, and got to a cistern 
of water in which a large quantity of salt- 
petre had been dissolved. He drank plen- 
tifully of it, after which he became imme- 
diately well, without any thing else being 
given him. He mentions this, to shew the 
good effect of nitre in fevers. 
If Daffy s I have already mentioned, that A bottle 

explnsive^ive OF Daffy's Elixir is thc best medicine I 

Phi Ionium Ro- 

oiaaum. ^vcr tried for a horse taken with the 
cholic, or gripes, from drinking cold water, 
kc. &c. But, as Daffy's Elixir is expensive;, 


you may give him one ounce of phi- 
LONIUM ROMANUM : repeat the dose in one 
hour, if the horse be not relieved. You 
must be particularly careful to distinguish, 

r -1 . A. c \^ ^' ' Two sorts of 

lor there are two sorts ot cnolic or gripes ; choiic an* 

f^ ^ .. . Gripes: ho%v- 

the one proceeds from the horse bemsr to distingruish 

* O them, and to 

chilled by cold water, &c. ; the other pro- '^'^'''^• 
ceeds from costiveness and inflammation of 
the bowels. In the latter disorder you must 
be guided by feeling the horse's pulse, to 
ascertain whether it be attended with any 
degree of fever. I have told you already 
how to feel a horse^s pulse, and how often, 
in a minute, a horse's pulse, free from fever, 
should beat. — In this latter disorder th& 
dung must be constantly raked away, as 
it falls into the rectum. Give the horse 
sweet oil inwardly, to relax the intestines, 
and to supple the hard excrement, which, 
from dryness, may be lodged in the gut, 
which is frequently the cause of this complaint. 
Give him, every four hours, one ounce of 
the common purging salts. In this case 
nitre is not to be given, as it acts mortally 
as a diuretic. If the horse be in considera- 
ble pain, he should be bled, and, if the pain 
D 2 


be very violent, bleeding should be re- 
peated, because there will be inflammation. 

Horr^s^''^ ^^' ^ ^^^^^ §i^^ ^^^ particular receipt how to 
prepare physic for a horse, as the purging 
balls, sold by most chemists, are nearly 
composed of the same ingredients, and I 
have found them to operate very well. 

Remarks con- J g}-^r^ii touch but slis-hllv on the method tram- o ^ 

Slwmarket.^^ of training horses at Nev/market; for, if I 
were to enter into particulars, I might- 
write a whole volume on the absurdities I 
have seen practised there. All horses, ge- 
nerally speaking, are treated alike, unless 
they fortunately fall into the hands of some 
trainer (the number of which are but few), 
who acts according to reason and common 
sejise, and whose brains does not lie in his 
guts, (pardon me this vulgar expression,) 
and his guts in his head — for they are 
fond of good living. 

There is a certain cant term, and method 
of speaking, aniongst these most ignorant 
felfows, which I ever despised, when I was 
on the turf; and I equally despise it now. 
When a gentleman has matched his 
horse at the Jockey Club, he tells his 


trainer what he has done, and asks his 
opinion on the match ; the trainer replies, 
" I think your hononr has got to wind- 
ward of the flats,'' or some such vulgar 
and low-bred ignorant expression ; — al- 
though this fellow knows that your horse is 
so bad a racer, . that, provided he be 
matched (giving weight) against a com- 
mon post-horse, he will be troubled to beat 
him. — His interest is not whether you 
lose, or win, your match ; his interest is, 
to encourage you to continue on the turf, 
and to persuade you, that your horses are 
much better than they really are ; for, if 
he were honest enough to tell you, that, out 
of ten horses you had, in your stable, you 
had Imt one horse which could be called a 
racer, — then every man, who was not 
bigoted to his own obstinate follj^ and igno- 
rance, w^ould send every horse in his stables 
to the Junniiier, excepting that- one horse, ' 
to be sold for w hat they would be knoiked 
dozen at, — But this does not suit or agree 
with the trainer's interest. He lives by the 
sieve, and by the sieve only, together with the 
money you pay for the boys board and lodgings 


who exercises your horse ; and by this, and 
hy this only, they accumulate, in time, good 

It is by the sieve, and by the sieve ma- 
terially, they make their fortunes. Every 
time they shake the sieve, to feed your 
horses, it is to their profit. Generally 
speaking, they give one horse as much 
^mSZTli exercise as the other, whether, from his 
Horses. naturc, he carries more or less flesh. Can 
any thing be so absurd, tig to see all the 
young colts, coming three years old, brush- 
ing along, as it is termed, after the aged 
horses, many of them carrying heavier 
lads, than the aged horses ? I am certain, 
that most of the delicate horses, v^hich, by 
nature, do not carry so much flesh as' 
others, are overtrained and considerably 
weakened by being immoderately sweated. 
Every horse should be sweated according 
to his constitution, and the quantity of 
flesli he makes. I am certain, that nine 
in ten would run better, provided they 
went gently for the last three or four 

Horses, of gross habits of body, must 


not be stopped in their exercise; if they 
are, they will grow pursive, 

I do not believe there ever was a better 
horse than Mr. Robert Pigott's Shark, ex- 
cepting Eclipse, which was a very uncom- 
mon horse. — I will tell you what Shark 
could do, by which you may give a tolera- 
bly good guess whether you have nearly 
the best horse of his year. Run five or six liovrtojudg* 

; whether or not 

of your young colts together, one mile: JJ^f^y^J^cX 
if they all come in well together, you may ^^^^^^^^^^ 
be sure that not one of them is worthy to 
be kept in training, excepting you have 
one amongst them, which is an uncom- 
monly large sized colt, large limbed and 
loose made. It is possible that, when he 
comes to his strength, and fills up, he may 
turn out a good horse. If you have one 
colt, which, in the trial, ruus clear away 
from all the rest, you may expect that he 
will turn out a good runner. Take him, 
about a fortnight after, run him with two of 
the others which were the two first of tlflse 
beaten ; for you must not run him with the 
worst or last of the lot. Let him give them 
both twenty-one pounds. If fete does not beat 


them cleverly, you have no right to expect 
that he is the best, or nearly the best horse 
of his year. I will inform you of a won- 
derful trial, when Shark was coming six 

A remarkable ^^^^^ ^jj jj^ ^,^^ ^^^^ ^^^ jqj^^,^ j^ j 

borrowed a mare, a good runner, of Mr. 
Vernon. I think her name was Atalanta, 
but I cannot mention her name for certain. 
^ I gave Mr. Vernon fifty guineas for the 
hire of her ; but, then, I agreed to have 
her for a fortnight before the race, in our 
stables, that he should not run her to 
death, by which I might have been de- 
ceived in the trial. I promised him to run 
her only once, from the Ditch in, and, on 
the third day, again one mile only, and then 
to return her. John Oakley rode Shark, 
and Anthony Wheatley rode the trial mare. 
Shark gave all the other horses, except the 
mare, twenty-one pounds. There were 
three others ; my horse St. George, Salo- 
pian, and Jack of Hicton, The mare car- 
rie^l four pounds more than them ; conse- 
quently Shark gave her only seventeen 
pounds. • As the mare and the rest of the 
tiorses were coming down that small decli-: 


vity just past the Furzes on the town side, 
Shark had beaten them full three hundred 
yards ; so much so, that I rode up to Oak- 
ley and told him to pull Shark up, and go 
in, in the centre of the groupe. St. George 
and the mare had a very severe race : he 
just won it ; the other two were beaten 
three or four lengths. 

St. George had been turned out in a 
padock, at mj^ own house, in Berkshire, for 
ten months, and well fed with corn the 
whole time. He was wonderfully im- 
proved ; for, before I turned him out, I ran 
him with Salopian, across the Flat, and 
Salopian beat him shamefully. 

Remember, every horse, including the 
mare, was of the same age, — six years 
old. Twentv-one pounds is the test of ^fae test ot 

1 speed m 

speed ; and this your colt must be able to ^^^''' 
give to one which is a tolerable good run- 
ner, and not to one which cannot run at 
all, or yor. have not the best, or nearly the 
best colt of the year. — So much for racing. 

We will now proceed to speak concern- 
ijig the stud aad the breeding of colts. A 

Of the Stud, 
and breedinjj- 
of Horses. 


sportsman has a mare (for argument's sake, 
we will say) which is a sister to King He- 
rod, and a horse which is brother to Eclipse. 
They neither of them have any good shape, 
make, nor symmetry, and run so very bad 
that he is obliged to turn them out of 
training ; but, as they are brother and sis- 
ter to two such famous racers, he puts the 
horse and the mare together, and, being 
both of such excellent blood, he expects to 
have them produce a colt, which will run 
well. Can any thing be so absurd ? Be 
assured, there is nothing more certain than 
that shape, make, and symmetry xvill beget 
shape, make, and symmetry ; and that twQ 
very bad racers, without any good shape, 
make, or symmetry, can never produce a 
good racer. 

There is one method by which j^ou may 
perhaps have a good colt, by a very mean, 
bad-shaped mare, with this one proviso, 
that she be roomy in the flanks, and has a 
large bag, sufficiently so to contain a good- 
sized colt. Send her to the best racer of 
his time, and you may have a good colt ; 
but not by a horse which never in his life 


could run one yard. Our best stallions, I 
arn certain, cover too many mares in one 
season ; and this is the reason why they 
get so few good colts. Look to a real Arabian 

Asses and 

Arabian ass, such as the many sons of ^"^Jjg^g 
princes rode on, who cam^ to visit King 
Solomon ; — and view one of our English 
donkeys. The Arabian asses have great 
speed, with beautiful symmetry and shape. 
Our English donkeys have no shape nor 
make to be compared to them. Do you 
think it is not the same with race-horses ? 

Let us return. Sot a short time, to the 
diseases of horses. Osmer informs us how 
to make a medicine nearly analagous to 
Doctor James's Pov/der : thus it is : — Take 


One or two ounces may be given once or 
twice a day. I confess I never have tried 
this medicine ; but it is composed of two 
excellent medicines, and, provided it be 
analagous to Doctor James's Powder, it must 
be a valuable medicine. He savs it is ?7iost 


efficacious in the distemper in horses, and 
also in horned cattle. 

Of Bullocks k 

Cow "being' Speaking of horned cattle, which, in clo- . 

hove or sprung . , , , tit 

from eating yer or Hch pasturc, are what, 1 believe, 
farmers term it, hove or sprung ; that is to 
say, the beast, from overcharging its sto- 
mach, is much swelled, and will die, if not 
relieved ; the excrement must be con- 
stantly raked from the straight gut, and 
ONE OUNCE OF SALTPETRE given every two 
hours, till the beast has taken three ounces : 
after this you may give him some purging 
salts : indeed, if the salts be given in about 
two hours after he be first afflicted, it will 
be more efficacious. Osmer also assures 
us, that the nitre and antimony, deflagrated, 
is a very potent remedy in the farcy, in cuta- 
neous diseases, local swellings, in all in- 
flammatory disorders, and in fevers of every 
kind. I think this medicine is worthy of 
being tried, for Osm^r w^as not a common 
farrier, but a regular bred surgeon, . 

For a horse's back, which is crushed 
with the saddle, common camphorated spi- 
rits of w^ne will be found sufficient ; but, 
should his back be much ^welled, particu-. 


larly if the bruise be near the withers, the 
following will be found more efficacious : — 


AauA-FORTis, TWENTY DROPS. Remember 
that warm cloths must be bound on the 
parts ; if not, the medicine will not have so 
desirable an eftect, as warmth is ever}' thing 
to assist in the cure of such swellings. 
Liat or tow must be dipped in this liquid 
and laid on the part, after first rubbing 
some of it well on the part, and dabbing 
it wTth the mixture^. Use this, twice a 
dav. If matter should form under the skin, 
when you find it fluctuate under the fin- 
ger, it must be let out. This liquid will 
generally perform the cure without any 
digestive ointment whatever. 

I shall now leave the subject of horses, ^^'^ 

J ' Dog 

for a time, and will treat on the maladies 
and management of dogs, in which I have 
had very great practice. I have ever, 
throughout life, fed mv own dogs, after 



thev came home from the day's S|X)rt. If 

Feed your ^ '^ ' 

Doge yourself. J j^^cl twenty servants, one should prepare 
the food for them ; but I would not so 
much as allow him to be present when 
they are fed. The advantages you acquire 
are very great, by doing this yourself: — 
first, you make the dog attached to you, 
and only to you ; for which reason he will 
hunt the better for you, and infallibly be 
more obedient. If your servant feeds him, 
the dog is always looking after him, and 
cares not one curse for you. What a 
pretty situation you are in, with an igno- 
rant groom, who knows not, in the smallest 
degree, how to hunt or treat a dog in the 
field : — by heavens ! you had as well stay 
at home, either for the pleasure or the sport 
you will have ! It is different with gentle- 
men of fortune, who can afford to keep a 
regular game-keeper and dog-breaker, who 
knows well his business. Then the master 
has nothing more to do than to go up and 
shoot, when his dogs stand : every thing 
else is the keeper's business. This is going 
into the field in grand style, as it may be 
truly said ; but a wandering, poor vagabond 


like myself, mounted on a mule, with a 
boy, hired for the time, riding behmd me, 
cannot enjoy such luxuries. 

I will tell you a story relative to one of 
the best pointers I ever had in my life, and 
one of the most speedy ; for I declare I have 
seen him frequently turn a hare two or 
three times, considerably above half grown^ 
before she could get out of the field. I 
know this is very irregular sporting ; but I 
am, as in most other things, a very irregular 
sportsman, of which you shall hear further 
in due time ; and why I teach all my dogs 
to run hares. Even when put into my 
hands, so perfectly well broke, that they 
will not look at a hare, which gets up 
before them, I confess it mortifies me much ; 
and their regularity, to me, is very un- 
pleasant for a time ; but I soon prevail on 
them te forego those great regularities ; then 
they become amiable, please me much, 
and are thoroughly useful to my method of 

I was sitting, some years ago, in the 
coffee-room at Newmarket ; this was in the 
Spring Meeting; and my worthy old 


acquaintance, Charles Wyndham, came and 
sate down by me. After some racing con- 
versation, he said to me, " George, I will 
give yon one of the very best pointers in Eng- 
land." After thanking him kindly, I said, 
'' My dear Charles, yoli will not, I trust, take 
it ill of me if I ask you one question?" " Cer- 
tainly not," he rephed. — " How can you, 
who are fond of shooting yourself, give me 
a most excellent pointer?" — '' Why. I will 
give you my reason. My groom feeds all 
my dogs, and, having other business to per- 
form, he cannot always attend me shooting; 
and this dog, when he has hunted a short 
time, if I speak even a little harshly to 
him, runs away home, and I know I shall 
one day or other shoot him. It is a pity 
so good a dog should come to any harm, 
and, as I know you always feed your own 
dogs, he will be attached to you, and be a 
most useful animal." — He was kind enough 
to send him shortly to my house in London. 
I always make my dogs 7717/ companwTis, in 
the shooting season ; taking them into the 
^, ,, room where 1 sit, after I am returned from 

Wavmlh no- ' 

gen&uo"an the field ; letting them bask themselves by 



the fire, which coitiforts them, and does 
them h great deal of good, especially when> 
after rain, the turnips are very wet. This 
method, I am certain, prevents many from 
having the rheumatism* 

Would you like, when yon return from 
shooting, to he put into a parlour,, as they 
call it, at an ale-house, in which there has 
not been a fire lighted for a week ? — I 
always request the favour that I may be 
permitted to have a small round table, near 
the fire, in the kitchen. There I sit and 
roast myself till I am nearly hot through $ 
and I am certain that method has pre- 
served me from disorders and maladies ; 
particularly from the rheumatism, for I 
never experienced the smallest attack from 
it in my life, which is a very singular thing 
for an officer to assert, who has, for many 
years, slept under the canopy of heaven, 
(generally speaking,) and nothing above 
him but the skies. 

Now, on service, I attribute the blessinet' The sotdier'* 

^ health preser- 

of good health, in America I speak of, to the ^e^'^yfi"- 
abundant quantity of wood, particularly to 
the southward, in those unhealthy climates, 



where the person who owns the timber is 
infinitely obhged to you for cutting it 
down ; for you clear his land by so doing, 
and do him a service. Our fires in Ame- 
rica were so large, that you could not ap- 
proach them within two or three yards. 
Our soldiers ever laid themselves down to 
rest with their feet to the fire, for two good 
reasons : first, a man, lying lengthwise be- 
fore the fire, takes up too much room ; 
secondly, if the feet be kept warm by the 
fire, the whole body is warm. I declare I 
have frequently seen soldiers get up and. 
retire from the fire, their feet and leg§ 
being too warm. 
AH nature re- AH auimals are fond of warmth. Do 

quires warmth 

you not see, in the cold weather, that the 
cattle shelter themselves under a thick 
northern hedge, to enjoy the southern sun- 
beams ? All nature requires warmth, and, 
to all nature, it is genial and beneficial. 

Lord Thanet, the father of my worthy 
and kind friend, the present Lord, Avas a 
great fox-hunter. He had a kennel so 
constituted, on purpose for his hounds, with 
a large circular place in the centre railed 


in, which contained a very large coal fire ; 
the kennel-man always, at night, replenish* 
ing the fire. Round this the hounds laid 
and basked themselves, after the day's 
chase ; by which, I trust it will be allowed, 
they were materially benefited. In short, 
all nature requires warmth. 

Naw this pointer, Mr. Wyndham gave 
me, I took great care of; for he was one 
of the handsomest dogs, as well as one of the 
best, I ever had. This dog was very large 
boned and lofty. I judged, from such a 
shape, that he should have a good quantity 
of flesh put on him ; but I never was more 
out in my judgment — for he never could 
hunt unless you could lay one of your 
fingers between his ribs. I took him down 
to my old friend's, Mr. Brand, the father of 
the present, in Hertfordshire, where I gene- 
rally used to shoot the first week in 
September, and thence proceed to Suffolk 
and Norfolk. The first day he scarcely 
hunted at all, and never faster than a 
gentle canter. 

A man who broke dogs for Mr. Brand, 
met me, and told me that he was a won- 

E 2 


derfully fine dog, but not worth a guinea. 
I replied, I was certain Mr. Wyndham 
would not deceive me. In short, I took 
him out every day, and gave him nothing 
but some broth at night, and a lump of 
bread as big as my hand, for five days. 
He increased in his hunting every day, and 
the sixth day, he set a hunting like the 
very devil, and continued it the whole 
season ; and I declare I never had a faster 
or a stouter. I mention this only to shew 
how necessary it is to observe, by the 
bone and make of dogs, which one should 
carry flesh, and which should not ; yet, 
generally speaking, they are all fed alike, 
and, for certain, if they are fed by an igno- 
rant servant lad. 

Did you ever see a man, a pugilist, with 
a belly, fleshy, and bubbies as large as a 
w^oman, who could ever fight? — That 
great overgrown beast O'Brien, the giant, 
who was shewn for inonej% for some j-ears, 
would have been beaten on a stage in a 
very few minutes by many lads, not weigh- 
ing eleven stone, who drive the jack-asses 
to fetch garden-stuff* from Covent- Garden 


market. Wind is strength, and strengtK is 
wind ; without it, no exercise can be well 
performed. It is the same in a man, in a 
horse, and in a dog ; therefore, look to this - *• 
particularly ; for, provided your dog be not 
in good wind, he cannot hunt. Delicate 
small-boned dogs cannot be fed too much ; 
but the best method is not to have any 
thing to do with them ; for I never saw one 
in my life, which would hunt three days 
without tiring, and I would not give one 
tarthing for a dog, which will not hunt 
every daj^ throughout the season. I cannot 
afford to keep many dogs ; therefore, the 
few I have, must work well. 

You shall now know my reason why I ofshooting 

^ -^ . haves. 

teach all my dogs to run hares. I will not 
defend the practice, for I well know it is 
very unsportsman-like, and contrary to all 
rule and order. I scarcely know the time 
when I have missed a hare, I mean when 
she gets up before me in a field, or out of 
a hedge ; not when they are bobbing about 
in a cover ; then it is very difficult to shoot 
them, and a man must shoot very quick 
indeed, a perfection which I never attained, 


I always take a long aim. In three days 
and three hours (for it began to rain on the 
fourth day, very heavy, by tv/elve o'clock,) 
my partner and 1 shot eighty-six hares. I 
shot above fifty of them, and we neither of 
us missed one shot. 

Shooting with . t i 1 i. '^1 

large siiot. As 1 always shoot with uncommon 

large shot, Number 2, patent, from the 
first of September, to the last day of Janu- 
ary, I frequently mortally wound hares at 
a great distance. Knowing, when I hold 
them well, that I must have wounded them, 
I always follow them with my dogs, and 
many dozens have I recovered above a 
quarter of a mile distant, v. hich otherwise 
would have crept into a ditch and died. I 

Effect of large golemuly dcclarc I have shot numbers of 
hares above seventy yards, when they ran 
across me, so as to shoot them in the fore- 
quarters ; so that they never have run five 
yards : and once I saw a man, with a gun 
of mine, shoot a hare one or two yards 
above eighty, and she never ran above one 
hundred and fifty yards. These distances 
were measured, not computed, 

I once shot a partridge flying directly 


from me seventy-four yards. I cut his 
foot off, to know him from the rest. In 
the evening I had him picked : I found 
that three shot had entered behind, under 
the tail ; two had passed through him and 
came out at the breast, the third remained 
in the body. I have frequently shot phea- 
sants through and through the body at 
very long distances. 

It is the custom of most sportsmen, in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, to shoot all the year 
with Number 5; nay, some even shoot 
with Number 6. I have seen them hit 
many pheasants, which must have died 
afterwards, and were lost to them : — this is 
destroying game to no purpose. An old hare, 
at seventy yards, will laugh at you, if you 
shoot with Number 5. 

It is much the fashion to have doffs of Dogs bro* 

'-' ken to drop 

broken to lie down when the gun goes off. JoeToff^ ^"^^ 
I do not approve of it : I am certain it 
checks their hunting. Is it not sufficient 
for the dogs to come in and lie down whilst 
you charge ? 

Now to the diseases of do^fs. — I aim TheDistempe^ 

^ in Dogs. 

acquainted but with two, which are most 


fatal to them, namely, the distemper, and a 
violent bilious fever, which they are very 
subject to, from hunting in hot weather ; 
particularly if they have not been tho- 
roughly pm^ged before the season. I never 
^ as yet have found any medicine which can 

be relied on as a cure for the distemper in 
dogs, I have given Doctor James's pow- 
ders, and many other medicines. Some 
have died, some have lived. The most 
efficacious I know of, is one which I have 
frequently tried for above eighteen years, 
and never gave any other. It is not always 
to be relied on ; but it is by far more cer- 
tain than any other. I cured two dogs last 
year, 1813, whicii were both very bad, so 
piuch so, that I despaired of their lives. 
The raedicine is as follows : Turbith 


cine for the >^ • t 

0istemi>erm BALL^ WITH ANY SYRUP. (jlVe OUC doSC 
Dogs. '' 

every day, for three or four days in succes- 
sion. This is the quantity for a full-grown 
pointer : give a young puppy, three or four 
months old, five grains \ one of seven 
months old, seven or eight grains, 

I have observed that dogs, in the dis-^ 


temper, absolutely die for want of nourish- 
ment; for, if very bad, they refuse all food. 
I am convinced that I have saved the lives 
of several, by drenching them, three or four 
times a day, vv ith strong beef or horse broth, ' 

with a little meal in it; making it a thin 

I have found the turbith mineral, in the 
distemper, by many degrees the most effi- 
cacious ; and I can with truth say, it does 
not often fail, when given in the early stage 
of the disorder. Although this medicine is 
not a certain cure in the distemper, yet, in a 
violent and fatal disorder, which dogs are 
very subject to, I never kneivit fail, if given 
when the dog was first taken ill. 

The disorder I shall next speak of, is a ^'j^j;;^'^^!^^ 
violent bilious fever, which kills a dog in verysubllaYo! 
three days, provided he be not relieved. 
The symptoms are as follow: first, he feeds 
very sparingly ; shortly after that, he loses 
that fine, florid, flesh colour, in his mouth 
and gums, which begin to assume a pale 
cast ; in a very few hours after, he will turn 
as yellow as a guinea in the mouth and eyes. 


Th6 moment he looks dull and heavy, re- 
fuses his food, and begins to look pale in the 
mouth, before he turns, in any considerable 
degree, yellow, you must give him the me- 
dicine, or I will not be answerable for his 
cure. The quantity is twelve grains of 


ANY SYRUP, the same as in the distemper. 
Give this three or four days following: on 
the fourth day, he will either be totally out 
of danger or dead. You must by no means 
bleed him in this disorder ; if j^ou do, you 
will kill him. In a very fev/ years, I have 
had six or seven dogs taken with this dis- 
order; and, upon my word, I never lost 
but one, and that by my own negligence ; 
which I will prove to you. 

An old gamekeeper and huntsman, who 
was my servant, said to me, just as I was at 
breakfast : '' One of your dogs, sir, did not 
feed last night well ; you observed that, and 
told me to look to the dog, and examine 
him the very first thing in the morning. I 
let him, sir, out of the stable, to run about; 
but I observed him to be rather dull, and 


not in such good spirits or so gay as the 
others. I wish, sir, you would come and 
look at him." 

I went directly, and examined him ; 
looked into his mouth, and examined his 
eyes. I did not observe that he was even 
faint-coloured in the mouth ; but I left him 
at home that day, intending to return about 
five o'clock ; desiring the ostler to feed and 
take care of him. I went that day above 
twelve miles distant, and, finding a great 
deal of game, I stopped at a village conti- 
guous, sported there the next morning, and 
shot my v/ay home to where I had left my 
dog. On my arrival, I found him very bad 
indeed : he was as yellow as a guinea in his 
mouth, and lay stretched out and extended 
on his side. I gave him the above medi- 
cine, but he died the next evening. Had I 
returned home the first evening, I should 
have saved my dog : the most early atten- 
tion and relief is necessary in this disorder, 
as well as in most others. 

I vfill now inform you how I have, for of th« Mange 

in dogs ; how 

above twenty years, treated dogs which ^est to cure it. 
have had the mange. About that time I 


was very much employed in the recruiting 
service, and could not give up much time to 
my dogs; so I sent for an old man, who 
made a good livelihood by curing dogs. 
My dog had the mange ; not very bad, but 
something much worse with it; he had eight 
or ten large blotches on his body, as big as 
large hazle-nuts. The old man took a 
bottle out of his pocket, and first dabbed 
the blotches with a bit of tow, each two or 
three times. He then stopped about five 
minutes, for that to dry in and penetrate ; 
after which he took a pot of ointment, and 
rubbed the dog in well, for at least ten mi- 
nutes, under the fore legs, and on the belly, 
but particularly on the back bone. He then 
desired me not to wash the dog, or let him 
go into the water; tellings me, that he 
would call in about five daj^s. When he 
called, the dog was apparently well ; so 
much so, that he said he did not think it 
necessary to rub the dog again: however, I 
made him dab the blotches again, and rub 
once more in. — When he called to be paid, 
I told him that, upon my honour, if he 
>fould discover how the h(|ui(i and oint- 


ment were made, I would give him two 
guineas, and never discover it till after his 
death. He consented. The Hquid is thus 
made: — Half an ounce of quicksilver 




YOU USE IT, f or there will be a sediment at 
the bottom. The ointment is thus made: — - 
Take half an ounce of quicksilver ; put 
it into a bottle, with half an ounce 
of oil of turpentine ; let it stand for 
eight hours, shaking the bottle fre- 
quently : the n take four ounces of 
hog's-lard, and, by degrees, mix both 
together, a little of each at a time, 
till the whole be incorporated . — he 
told me, that he always carried two pots of 
ointment with him, one stronger than the 
Other, in case of a dog being very bad with 
the mange. The strongest ointment was 
made with ojili/ three ounces of hog's-lard, 
but with the same quantity of the quick- 
silver and turpentine. 


S^ofp?y"ic?an. Thcrc wRs 9. fcUow in this town (I forget 
his name) who was called the Queen's Dog 
Physician. From his attending her ma- 
* jesty*s dogs, he went to all the women of 
fashion, to doctor their dogs also. He ne- 
ver would undertake them, unless he was 
permitted to take them home with him for 
ten days. There was seldom any thing 
more the matter with them than a gross 
habit of body ; fat to a degree, from the 
scandalous method they are fed, giving 
them every day more good meat than 
would supply two poor children. When 
Quiets Dog he got Chloe home, he physicked her, and 
treats my Mvc hcr nothino^ but dry bread for some 

lady'slap-dog. "^ *- j 

time. She would not eat, the first three or 
four days, of such insipid food, and, the first 
day, howled most bitterly ; however, he soon 
cured her of that, by giving her four or five 
sound floggings, to prevent her annoying 
his neighbours. I think it scandalous to 
give dogs what a human being would be 
grateful to receive : however, this must be 
passed over in oblivion, provided a gentle- 
man be making love to the lady, for then 


it is necessary to make a considerable deal 
of love to the lap-dog also. In about ten 
days the Queen's dog physician brings my 
lady her dog home, as tine as a star, sleek 
in his coat, and in tolerable good condition, 
for he has fed it tolerably well for the last 
four or five days. Her ladyship is charmed 
with the looks of her dog ; he is as merry 
as a grig; jumps, frisks,, and plays about; 
when, before, he could hardly walk down 
stairs to dinner. She pays him very hand- 
somely ; he goes away contented, laughing 
in his sleeve at her ladyship. 

I have mentioned all the fatal and bad concemms 

Mad Dogs. 

maladies to which a dog is subjected, ex- 
cepting madness. Fortunately, no dog of 
mine ever went mad, or was bitten by a 
mad dog ; therefore, on that subject, I can 
give no just opinion : but, provided I had 
a dog, ever so valuable, bitten very deep, 
particularly if near to the head, I would 
destroy him. If he were bitten but slight- 
ly, I would cut the bitten part out, and 
burn the wound well with a hot iron ; then 
pour some liquid caustic on the wound, and 
rub in, two or three times every day, some. 


very strong mercurial ointment ; and, for 
certain, I would give him tivelve grains of 
Turbith viineraL Osmer asserts positively 
that he has given it to many dogs, badly 
bitten, and never knew it fail ; and several 
others assert the same. I would rub strong 
mercurial ointment into the wound every 
day, for at least one month ; and give him, 
every week, for a month, two doses of the 
Turbith mineral. Provided a dog went 
mad in my kennel, I would discharge the 
person w ho looks after them ; for no dog 
goes mad without first rejecting his food. 
The moment a dog refuses his food, or 
feeds very sparingly, he should be taken, 
from the others, and chained up in some 
safe place. 

hl^tlixllt''' I s^^^^l "O'*^ proceed, and speak concern- 
ing dogs* feet, — the most essential point 
about the animal ; for, without a good, 
firm foot, he can never hunt long. I 
never look at a dog which has a thin, flat, 
wide, and spread foot ; they are not worth 

It has been a constant custom with me 
to wash my pointers' feet with strong salt 



and water after the day's sport. I have 
found my error, and am convinced that it 
is a wrong practice. I never altered my 
method until three years ago. A game- 
keeper in Suffolk, seeing that a boy was 
washing my dogs* feet with strong salt and 
water, (his name was Cooper,) said to me : 
" Sir, I think you do wrong to wash your 
dogs' feet in salt and water, at this early 
part of the shooting season, (it was the first 
week in September,) at this time, sir, when 
the ground is uncommonly dry, and as hard 
as a rock. If you will feel their feet, you 
will find there is a considerable degree of 
feverish heat in the dogs' feet, from hav- 
ing hunted all daj^ on hard and dry ground. 
A dog, sir, in such weatl^ter, should have his 
feet suppled and comforted. As long as 
the ground is dry and hard, I always wash 
my dog's feet with warm soap and water, 
and clean them well, particularly between 
the toes, and balls of the feet ; this com- 
forts his feet, allays the heat, and promotes 
the circulation in the feet. In the more 
advanced period of the season, when the 
ground is very wet, then salt and water 



may l)e proper." I approved much of the 
reasons he gave ; it shewed the sense of his 
practice, and the folly of mine : since that 
period I have taken his advice. 


for wounds m 

Dogs' Feet. ^^^ ^^ OTHER ACCIDENTS, FrIAR'S BAL- 

EXCELLENT. You may generally hunt 
the dog the next day, with a piece of 
strong wash-leather, four double, tied round 
the foot ; and when their feet are chafed or 
galled, or the skin is absolutely worn off. 
Friar's balsam is the only thing I ever 
have used for many and many years. 
S^thelifside^of Dogs are sometimes afflicted with a dis- 
Dogs ars. q^.^j^^^ callcd thc caukcr, in the inside of the 
ear, and some distance in it also. In this 
disorder I have never had much practice, 
for I do not recollect that I ever had above 
jfour or five dogs so disordered. I have 
found the following method beneficial. 
Lay the dog down on his side, with that 
ear, in which the disorder lies, uppermost : 
put a lump of soft soap, as big as a walnut, 
into the ear ; pour one table -spoonful of 
brandy on it ; hold the ear close, and rub it 


well, until the soap comes to a lather ; 
then pour another table-spoonful, and so 
continue to do, until you have used three 
or four table-spoons full, constantly rubbing 
the ear till the soap and brandy be well 
mixed. Use this method three or four 
days following. This disorder is known 
by the dog shaking his head perpetually, 
and by his smacking his ears against his 
head and neck ; a nasty, stinking humour 
is also discharged from the ear. 

There is another sort of canker, which SfouSdfoT 

generally lies at the tip, or bottom side of thecure/^ 
the ear. This is very visible to the eye, 
and dogs are very subject to it. I will 
state to you a method of treating this 
disorder, invented and practised by that 
celebrated physician Doctor James, the in- 
ventor of the fever powders, who paid 
much attention to the disorders of dogs. I 
am certain I have used it to fifty dogs, and 
7icve7' knew it fail. 

Take equal parts of red precipi- 
tate AND hog's - LARD, WELL MIXE D 
TOGETHER. Brush both sides of the do^'s 
ear where the disorder lies, with a soft 

F 2 



I tooth-brush, having some of this ointment 

laid on it. Be sure never to brush against 
the hair, but always the wa}^ the hair lies. 
About four dressings, once every day, is 
generally sufficient. 

Provided you do not choose to rub your 
dog in with the quick-silver ointment, and 
dab him with the quicksilver dissolved in oil 
of turpentine, when he has got the mange ; (in 
the former pages of this book, I have told you 
how to make them ;) the following is the 
Another re- bcst thiu^' I kuow, after the mercurial oint- 

ceipt to cure <-' 

ge^Mange in j^^j^^ . ^^^^ bcfore 1 was acquaiutcd with 
that, I always used it, and found it answer 
well ; but then it must be used at least 
three times, which causes much trouble. 
It is made after the following method. 
Take half a pint of train-oil, half 


^> *^^ POUND OF SULPHUR VIVUM, (the black 
''^^'^'^^'^'^'^coloured sulphur, and not the flower of 
ii,//^/^a^*^^brimstone,) and one ounce of roach 

*" ' alum, very finely powdered; mix them 

all VfELL together. It Certainly is not 
prudent to use a strong mercurial oint- 


ment and wash, in very cold weather, nor 
unless your dog lies warm and dry. I 
know not what might be the consequence 
of such imprudence; but surely, with proper 
care, the dog can receive no injury. 

The most cursed and tormenting malady a 
dog can have, is to be badly troubled with 
worms. Give him the best of food, it does 
him but little good ; he alwaj^s looks 
unkindly in his coat, and will not carry 
flesh. I have generally been very suc- 
cessful in destroying the worms in dogs, 
BY THE USE OF CALOMEL ; nor have I used 
any thin^ else for years : the quantity worms in 

^ ^ ' ^ ' Dogs. 



This year, 1813, I had a dog so troubled 
with them for above ten months, so very bad, 
that I could not destroy them. I tried 
many things: f{V^t, four closes of calomel, ten 
grains in each dose ; then I gave him 
saviti; then bear's-foot; after that, poivdered 
glass, four doses, as much in each dose as 
would lie on a shilling, heaped up. Then 
a medical gentleman of my acquaintance 
told me that I did not give him enough 

How to cure 
the Worms in 


calomel ; but that first I should boil a pint 
of milk, cool it, and sweeten it well with 
brown sugar ; give this first to the dog, that 
the worms might feed well on it, and in 
about twenty minutes afterwards, give him 
twenty grains {one scruple) of calomel. This 
I gave him three times ; it brought a n^m- 
ber of worms from him : but, in about five 
or six days, he had nearly as many as 
before ; then I knew not what step to take 
with him. One day, by chance, I met 
with a very old acquaintance of mine, a 
tradesman, and happened to mention to 
him how teiTibly troubled the dog was 
with worms. He said : " It is very 
singular, sir, having known me for so many 
years, that you should not be aware that I 
have cured some hundreds of the human 
race, and my medicine is equally efficacious 
to the brute creation. This medicine is 
nothing but THE leaves of the walnut 
TREE. In summer, when the leaves are 
green, they must be dried and baked in a 
plate before the fire, then rubbed to a fine 
powder with the hands. In winter, when 
dry, you must buy them at the medical 


herb-shop, Covent-Garden. I gave my 


UP; first boiling half a pint of milk, letting 
it cool, and putting the powdered leaves 
into it : the dog will take it well ; but he 
will not take it in grease, for the leaves 
have a very strong taste, and smell. By 
the bye, I caution all sportsmen never to Never give 

•^ ^ milk which has 

give dogs milk, which has not been boiled, ed^toTo-^.'^" 
for it will purge them as much as a dose of 
physic. I gave my dog, eight days fol- 
lowing, one dose ; after which, for above two 
months, he never voided one single worm. 

There is a peculiar excellence in these 
leaves ; they never, in the least, purged my 
dog : his body was in the same state, as if 
I never had given him any thing. This is 
a vast benefit ; for, as it does not purge the 
dog, it may be given him even when he 
hunts. I am told by medical men, who 
have studied botany, that walnut leaves are 
a positive poison to worms, btit by no 
means detrimental to man or beast. 

You may observe, in the autumn, when 
the caterpillars and grubs eat the leaves of 
trees, and destroy the garden-stuff, you will 


never see the leaves of walnut-trees eaten by 
them : no caterpillar nor grub will approach 
a walnut-tree. Besides, I will give you another 
proof of their abhorrence of walnut leaves: 
in summer, when the ground is so dry that 
you cannot dig for worms to go fishing 
with, fill a pail, about one-third full, of wal- 
nut-tree leaves, and pour a large kettle of 
boiling water on them ; cover the pail over 
with a thick cloth, and let them stand till 
cold; then, go to a bowling-green, where 
you observe many worm-casts ; spread the 
water over the grass, and the worms will 
immediately come up above the ground. — 
This I have tried. 

Within these two days I have observed 
two worms come from my dog : provided 
he voids more*, I shall give him about four 
doses more ; the result of which you shall be 
acquainted with, before I finish this book. 

f It is full three months since this, and the finishing 
of this book, and I have not found above four or five 
come from him, — and I watch him constantly, for I 
value the dog's health ; and never above one at a time : 
however, I shall give him three or four doses more, 
p the medicine never purged him in the least degreCo 


I will now describe this worm: it is about 
half an inch long, quite white, flat, and 
about as broad as a narrow piece of tape. 
I am thoroughly persuaded, though my dog 
may breed them again and again, that I 
can destroy them. 

Respecting feeding dogs : all sportsmen Respecting the 
know, that dogs must have flesh about half ^°ss- 
boiled, the broth of which should be well 
thickened, by boiling it with oatmeal, or 
barley-meal : oatmeal is certainly the best, 
but it is not (generally speaking) to be had, 
in travelling about. I find, provided I can, 
about twice a week, give my dogs a good 
meal of horse-flesh, half boiled, that house- 
hold bread*, with only skimmed milk, boiled, 
will do very well for them on the other 

Respecting purging dogs : the common of pmging 


no animal is more bilious than a dog; and 
uloetic physic, in that respect, is the best. 

* What is more nourishing than bread? is it not 
justly called the staff of life? 


Three drachms is a proper dose for a full- 
grown pointer ; but, as a dog will sometimes 
throw it up, instead of giving him three 
drachms at one dose every other day, until 
you have given three doses, I advise you to 
give him only one drachm every day, for 
nine days following: this will cleanse him 
well. However, I generally have given 
my dogs one drachm and a half of ju- 


BUCKTHORN ; three doses, stopping one day 
between each dose ; and I find this cleanses 
them very well. 

When a dog looks unkindly in his coat, 
glass. though he has been physicked, give him 


as will lie heaped up on a shilling to each 
dose. This will make his coat very fine, 
and he will look well in his skin ; besides, 
it is a very great cleanser. The powdered 
glass must not be made of the green glass 
bottles, but from broken decanters and wine* 
glasses, powdered and ground in an iron 
mortar, then sifted through a fine muslin 

Of powdered 


We will now proceed to the destruction no-vtodestroy 

* all Vermin. 

of all vermin on a manor. T::ere is no 
animal more easily caught than the large 
forked-tail kite ; nor is there any animal ^^ ^""^ ^^'^^■ 
more destructive to game, and especially to 
partridges. Suppose that they only destroy 
one partridge in a week^\"\\eve is a direct loss 
of twenty-six pair of birds for the next breed- 
ing season. 

Vermin destroy more game in the year 
than is ever shot on the manor. Recollect, 
that there are numbers of their enemies 
at work by night, as well as by day, and, 
provided the vermin be not destroyed, a 
manor cannot be well stocked with game. 
It is full as necessary to employ a vermin- Necessity of 

. . T rv^ 1 r» 1 employing a 

catcher, (but it is very ditncuit to imd one vermin-catch- 
who is skilful,) as it is to keep gamekeepers, 
to preserve your game from poachers. The 
following methods, receipts, and lures, I 
assure you I have acquired the knowledge 
of, at a very considerable expense, in a course 
of above thirty years, from the most expe- 

* But, suppose they destroy one every day, the 
damage is incalculable. - 


rienced vermin-catchers; and, you may rely 
on it, you will find them succeed to your 
best wishes and satisfaction. 

First, to the broad-tail kite : this bird 
is easily caught. I must first observe, that 
a vermin-catcher should be provided with 
one dozen, or a dozen and half, of iron 
traps: the common warren-rabbit trap is 
the best; it should be about eight inches 
square (not round), a square trap will catch 
with much greater certainty than a round 
Howtodestroy ouc. For thc kite, set the trap against a 
Kftes. bush which extends a little, so that you may 

place the end of it against the bush, and 
that the trap may be somewhat flanked on 
each side by the bush, that he must walk 
on to it. Bury the trap well, and fasten a 
piece of bullock's lights to the bridge of it; 
then strew about two handfuls of feathers 
round and over the trap : the feathers will 
lure him down from a great height, he sup- 
posing some bird lies killed there. All 
hawks are to be caught in the same way. 

Magpies and jays destroy many partridge 
and phe^isant nests, by sucking the eggs. 
The best method of destroying them, is to 


set a trap in the woods. You observe them, 
frequently, before the leaves are on the 
trees : lay a hen's egg on the bridge of the 
trap. These are both very cunning birds, 
therefore the trap must be well covered. 
A magpie is a most destructive animal, for 
he will kill young pheasants, partridges, and 
all sorts of young poultry; and, I have 
been informed, they will pick the eyes 
out of lambs not long dropped, and kill 

Polecats, weazles, and stoats, are thus to 
be destroyed : set a trap where you observe 
them run; let it be well covered with earth; 
take a small bird, sparrow, linnet, &c. Sec. 

TURE OF MUSK; stick a pointed stick into 
the bird's throat, and suspend him directly 
over the bridge of the trap, about five or 
six inches high. The tincture of musk will 
lure all these vermin at a considerable 

There is an animal which, in Norfolk 
and Suffolk, is called a lobster ; I know not 
whj^ for he certainly is of the same species 
as the weazle and stoat, but much larger : 


no vermin which run are so fatally destruc- 
tive to all game as these animals ; they will 
absolutely hunt a hare down which is above 
half grown. A gamekeeper assured me, that> 
about three years ago, he saw one which 
was hunting a young hare, as regularly as 
a hound would do. The animal got away 
from him in a hedge. About two hours 
after, returning that way, in the next field, 
a turnip field, he observed a hare, above 
half grown, cross the path, and this devil of 
an animal following, and hunting it by the 
foot, a very few yards behind. He had a 
good dog for vermin with him, and killed it. 
This most destructive animal may be de- 
stroyed in the same manner as the polecat, 
stoat, and weazle. 

The surest method to destroy all vermin, 
and with the least trouble and labour to 
yourself, is to poison them. This may be 
done without incurring the danger of poison- 
ing dogs, or any other animal, excepting a 
cat; and if every cat which strays into the 
fields were destroyed, it would be a great be- 
nefit to a manor. I shall speak of pussy 
shortl y. There is not a more destructive devil 


to all sorts of game than a cat, which deserts 
the farm-yard, and lives in the fields and 
woods. There they breed, and produce a 
race of real wild animals, in that case more 
destructive than any other vermin. To 
poison the above-named vermin, you need 
only prepare small birds, as I have directed, 
so as to draw the vermin to the bait from a 
distance off. Cut the breast of the bird 
open on both sides/ and rub in five grains, 
not more, of arsenic*. Stick the bird about 
six inches fi'om the ground, on a stick, in 
the paths where you observe the vermin 
run. Dogs wont eat the small bird, nor 
indeed any bird, especially when it be 
anointed with so strong a perfume. When 
you observe a bird taken away, you may 
be sure you have destroyed some one of 
those animals so destructive to game. 

* If you give any considerable quantity of arsenic, 
it will make the animal sick, and he will! throw it up; 
five grains, or as much as will lie on the point of a 
sharp penknife, is enough ; that will stay with him, 
and kill him. 


The large brown owl is a very destruc- 
tive animal to game ; there are very few 
of them, excepting in woody, mountainous 
countries. The best method of destroying 
them is to look for their nests in the spring, 
and destroy both young and old. I am of 
opinion, that the grey owl, which lives in 
the barns, Uves chiefly on mice, and is not 
destructive to game. 

A cat which quits the stables and farm-yard 

is a most destructive animal to game. There 

is a large wood in Dorsetshire, of several 

hundred acres, and not a village within three 

miles of it, except one, about a quarter 
cat^destvoy ^j' g^ j^^jj^ f^^^^ j^ . ^j-^^ i^j,^ ^f |.j^g mauor 

lets the cottagers their houses scarcely at 
any rent, with this stipulation, that they 
do not keep a cat. The gamekeeper as- 
sured me, that, in one year, he destroyed, 
young and old, above three hundred, A cat 
is very easily caught : bait the bridge of the 
trap with a piece of red herring; strew a 
little valerian powder on the trap : a cat, 
when it smells the valerian, will lie down, 
and roll on the trap. You may draw all the 
cats in a street together with valerian pow- 


der. A cat will travel miles. Cats, bred 
wild in the woods, are most destructive ani- 
mals to game. 

Rats, which live in the fields, will destroy 
game : I have known a whole brood of 
young geese destroyed by rats ; and a wa- 
terman up the river assured me, that the 
rats destroyed five young swans, just hatch- 
ed in the nest, by boring a hole, at the bot- 
tom, into the nest. 

Carrion-crows are very destructive to 
game : you may kill them, by taking a leg 
of horse-flesh, scoring it with a knife, and 
rubbing arsenic into the flesh. It must 
then be fastened on the top of a corn-rick, 
which stands in the open fields, and not 
near to any house. Kites and magpies will 
also feed on the horse-flesh. 

It is well known, that foxes destroy much 
game; not when the game is grown up, 
and can fly, but by catching hen-pheasants 
and partridges when they sit on their eggs. 
If you doubt this, dig out a litter of young 
foxes, and you will find, in the hole, the 
legs of many pheasants, . partridges, and 
voung hares. I v/ould net, on any ac- 


count, destroy a fox where hounds are kept ; 
/ thi?ik it a dishonmrable and ungentlemanlike 
act; but I would desire the master of the 
hounds to draw my covers frequently in 
the spring of the year, and I would dig in 
all the earths, and if a fox draws the holes 
open, which they will do, provided they are 
fond of and attached to the spot, then you 
should funk the earths with brimstone and 
assa-foetida, or push a dead cat (stinking) 
as far as you can into the hole, or any thing 
else which is filthy ; for a fox is a clean 
animal, and will go somewhere else to 

The best method to preserve your game 
from foxes, is to encourage a great quantity 
of rabbits in your woods ; where they have 
plenty of rabbits, they will not destroy 
much game. 
Jitch^r's's«. ^ovi shall now be informed how to catch 
km^iTRars every rat on your premises, without using 

without poison. . " 1 • 1 • .11 1 .. 

poison, which is not only dangerous, but 
has proved very expensive to many; for 
when the rats eat the poison, they grow sick 
and faint, and creep under the floors, and 
behind the wainscots of the bouse ; there 


they die, and stink the house, so that you 
cannot live in it, until you have removed 
the floors and wainscots. This, I trust, 
will prevent every prudent person from at- 
tempting to destroy rats by poison : you 
shall be instructed how to destroy them all, 
without incurring the risk of any expense 
in your house. I mu^t inform you how I 
acquired this valuable secret. 

When I was aid-de-camp to my most 
worthy patron, protector, and friend, Sir 
Henry Chnton, then commander in chief 
at New York, one day, at dinner, he told 
Col. Phillips, that the rats were so nume- 
rous in his quarters, that he had been forced 
to have the bottom of the doors lined with 
tin, for that they had very nearly eaten 
through the door where he kept his papers ; 
and he asked Col. Phillips, if he knew of 
any person who could destroy them. Col. 
Phillips, who was a loyal American in our 
service, replied, that, some years before the 
American war commenced, a rat-catcher, 
who had been transported from England, 
came and lived as gardener with him, at his 
estate at Phillipsbourg, about twenty odd 
G 2 


miles I'roiii New York, and a very good 
gardener and servant he was. Col. Phillips> 
was requested to inquire, whether this man 
was to be found within our lines. In a few 
days he was found, and sent to head-quar- 
ters'*. I attended him, to see that he per- 
formed his duty: seven wooden fall-traps 
were made ; such traps as are used to 
catch vermin alive. These traps are called 
hutch-traps, fall-traps, and box-traps : they 
(jfTheTraps! should bc madc two feet eight inches long, 
and of a proportionate height and breadth, 
with a door at each end, and a bridge in the 
middle with a trigger to it, which, when the 
trap is set for catching, holds both the doors 
up, by keeping the handles of the doors 
close down to the top, by a string, v/hich is 
fastened to the opposite side, and which is 
fixed, by a flat piece of wood, to a notch iu 
the trigger, when the trap is set for catch- 
ing. These traps are to be set in the main 
runs, in which the rats constantly travel from 

* 1 his rat-catcher's name was Maddison, which is 
also the name of the present president of the United 


(T/ue room, or out-house, to the others; first 
preparing them after the following method: 
Purchase half a pint of oil of anniseed. 

Medicines and 


used to catch 



This will cost about ten shillings. Dab the 
traps on each side withi7i well, with the oil 
of carraway and oil of anniseed, and with 
the tip of J our finger, dipped in the oil of 
rhodium, in four or five places ; it is enough, 
as the oil of rhodium has a powerful smell. 
The food with which the traps are to be 
baited must be thus prepared : Grate A very 


You should taste the bread, and be guided 
hj your taste, not to make the bread taste 


too strong of the oil of carraways. It is a 
mistaken notion, patting oil of anniseed into 
the food : it will make the food too strong, 
and they will not feed freely. Oil of carra- 
. ways, and oil of carraways only, must be 
mixed in the food. The doors of the traps 
must be fastened firmly up, so that they 
cannot fall down; then, for the two or three 
first days, lay a table-spoonful, spread 
about, very near each door of the traps, 
and, by degrees, put the food further into 
the trap. After a few days, you must lay 
a table-spoonful ON the bridge of the 
TRAP ONLY. After this method you are 


will take eight or ten days. When you are 
sure that they run and feed freely, after the 

When to be;?in i • • . i • . 

catching the liousc IS quict, and every one is gone to 
bed, you may tile the traps up, and begin 
to catch, reserving one spare trap near you, 
to put down in the place of any one you 
may take up v/ith rats in it. You must 
leave all the doors open, sit doAvn very 



quietly, and listen. The doors of the traps, 
when they fall down, make a considerable 
noise, which you will distinctly hear. When 
you hear one trap strike, you must be pre- 
pared with a large canvas bag, with a large 
mouth to it, so as to admit one end of a trap 
into it : hold the bag vmder the trap, whilst 
another person tilts the trap, with the lower 
door open, perpendicularly, and shoots the 
rats into the bag; shaking the trap well, 
and striking the sides of it with your hand. 
Open the upper door by degrees; look 
well, with a light, into the trap, to see that 
every rat be shaken into the bag; then ga- 
ther vour hands round the mouth of the 
bag, swing it, and strike it very hard against 
the wall or the floor, so as effectually to 
kill every rat in it. In this you must be 
very particular, for in it lies the whole 
strength of the art. If you let even so little 
as one single rat, either out of a trap or the 
bag, you will not catch one more rat 
that night ; and you must fasten the traps 
Ikmly up, and begin to feed them again, 
which will take four or five days at least. 
I forgot to* mention that, when you hear 


the doors of one of the traps fall down, 
when you take it up you must carry another 
trap with you, and lay it down exactly in 
the same place, putting a little of the food 
on the bridge. The hrst night the man 
and myself, for I sat up the whole night, 
caught very near three hundred. On the 
following nights he caught a great many 
more, and continued until he had totally 
freed the house of them, and, I make no 
doubt, many of the adjoining houses also. 

A few days before this man began to 
prepare to catch, 1 said to him, " Mr. Mad- 
DISON, if you will honestly impart to me this 
secret, I will give you two guineas." I 
judged it prudent at the same time to give 
him a gentle hint, that, if he deceived me, 
the strong hand of power was with me, and 
I should recommend him to the care of the 
provost marshal at the jail for one month. 
The man very honestly replied, " Sir, take 
these three bottles of oils, and I will tell you 
also how to make the food. I will not, for 
four or five days, come near the house ; you 
shall anoint the traps yourself, and feed 
them also." I did as he had instructed me. 


for five days : in the afternoon he called 
and asked for me ; we examined the traps, 
and he then determined to begin catching 
that night, without his doing any thing pre- 
viously himself to the traps. This con- 
vinced me of his honesty, and that he had 
imparted the real process to me.^ 

* Col. Hanger has invented a trap, of an entirely 
novel construction, which may be set perpetually, and 
emptied only once a day, and the rats killed, as aireadj/ 
dfrected. It will hold above fifty rats before it requires 
to be emptied. Made on a larger construction, this 
trap may be set in the woods, effectually to catch all 
running vermin; but it must be baited in a different 
manner than for rats, in the manner previously specified 
in this book, with a stTfall bird hung directly over the 
centre of the two falling bridges, with his wings dipped 
in TINCTURE OF MUSK, and the sides of the trap 
sprinkled with tincture of musk, to draw and allure all 
running vermin, which tincture of musk will do at a 
great distance. On applying to Mr. Stockdale, pub- 
lisher of this book, information will be given where 
this trap can be seen, and of the man who, under Col. 
Hanger's direction, is permitted to make them. 

I am informed that Government (how true I cannot 
say) have given a person two thousand pounds, for a 
method to catch rats on board of our ships of war. 
Had they only waited until this book was published, 


In breeding pheasants to turn out, the 

Kow to breed, 

S^I'is'Slors of P^<^P^^' proportion is five hens to one cock ; 

^onngPhea- ^^^^ morc, if you expect the hens to lay well. 
Provided you take the eggs av/ay as they 
are laid, leaving only one or two in the 
nest, each heuTpheasant, generally speak- 
ing, will lay twenty-five eggs. Common 
pease and small beans are excellent food to 
make them lay, giving them novv^ and then 
a handful of hemp-seed; and, if they are 
not in an extensive place, in a menagerie, 
with a grass yard to it, you must also give 
them some sort of greens. When the young- 
pheasants are hatched, the best food for 
them is certainly the eggs of the large horse* 
ant; but these are not easily to be ob- 
tained ; for these large ants scarcely ever 
breed but in very extensive woods. I will 
inform you of a substitute, (known but to 
very few) which is much better food and 
more nourishing than ants' eggs : take dead 

they might, for twelve shillings, have known how to 
catch EVEUY RAT ill tJiC Tiavy. If this could be brought 
to bear in the Briti.^h Senate, at the cost o\' only twelve 
shillings, what reward might I not look for! ! 


rabbits, cats, dogs, or any dead animals, and 
stick them on sticks, near to the coops 
where the young pheasants are kept, until 
they are full of maggots. Shake the sticks 
two or three times a day: this food will 
make them thrive wonderfully. At first 
they should be fed with oatmeal, and even, 
for the first two or three daj^s, with barley- 
meal ; but you may very soon give them 
barley with the barley-meal. For the three 
or four first days, you should chop up some 
onions, both the white roots and green tops : 
this will warm their stomachs. When you 
observe young pheasants look unkindly and 
not well, their feathers standing up and 
ragged, toast some bread, and steep it in 
stale chamberlie; feed them with it until 
they look better ; at least twice a day : this 
will cleanse them, and make their feathers 
look well, and lie smooth. — When you turn 
them, when nearly full grown, into the woods, 
be sure you do it at night; never by day, for 
they may fly away above half a mile. Keep 
them also very hungry the evening before 
you turn them out, that they may take to 
feedins: Avell the next morning; after which 


they will lie quiet, and not be inclined to 

It is sorely as necessary to know how to 
preserve them from all sorts of poachers, as 
to breed them. I believe that desperate 
gang of night-shooters, who several years 
past so infested Norfolk, and absolutely, for 
a time, defied even an armed force opposed 
to them, is totally broken up. Several 
of them, I am told, have been transported, 
and some hanged; for when game grows 
scarce, and, in the breeding time, when they 
cannot sell the game, it not being fit to eat, 
being idle fellows, and averse to labour, 
they must then turn their abilities to some- 
thing else, such as sheep and horse stealing; 
and, from one thing to another, they im- 
prove so much, as even often to take to 
house-breaking. In this occupation they 
are sure to be found out, as dispose of the 
goods they must; this, to a certaint}^, either 
hangs or transports them in due time. 
<>t taking There is a very destructive method of 

night'andby taking plicasauts by night, which is by 
means of a brimstone rag, lighted, and held 
.under the pheasants, when on the trees at 


raost ; and this is done without making any 
noise. To prevent this, nothing is so easy 
as to keep a man on purpose, when the 
leaves are off the trees, to go, just after 
dark, into the woods and brush them off 
the trees with a long pole. But there are 
other methods of catching pheasants ; such 
as fastening a horse-bean, or an acorn, of 
which they are very fond, on a fish-hook 
tied to a bush, in the paths at the extremity 
of the woods where the pheasants run out 
to feed : but this method may very easily 
be found out, provided your gamekeepers 
are diligent, for the pheasant cannot be 
caught but by daylight. Small iron rat- 
traps, with any corn, pease., or beans laid 
on the bridge of the traps, will for certain 
catch them : but this may also be observed ; 
for they cajonot be caught but in daylight, 
though the hooks and traps may be set at 

The best method of all, had I a manor, how inMiibiy 

to preserve a 

and my house lay close to my preserve cover at ni-ht. 
cover, which I would adopt, is to plant a 
six-pounder cannon on a platform at the 
top of the house, thus loaded : Boy a 


bushel of marbles, such as the boys play 
with at taw ; put a double handful into the 
cannon ; and have clay balls, just the size 
of the caliber of the gun, made and baked 
at the brick-kilns, first boring three or four 
holes with an iron, nearly as big as your 
little finger, through and through them. 
This ball, when fired from a cannon, will 
make a most terrible whizzing noise, and, 
together with the marbles buzzing about a 
fellow's ears, would make him think that 
the very devil was in the wood. I would 
also build my gamekeeper a house on one 
flank on the opposite side of the wood, with 
no door nor window below. The lower 
rooms might be easily lighted from above ; 
and the door ten feet from the ground. 
He might draw the ladder up at night. In 
this castle he could stand a siege, for it 
AYOuld be impossible to set fire to the house. 
And a round tower of about thirty feet, like 
the martello towers, only in miniature, with 
a six-pounder mounted at the top of it, 
with a door going out from the corner of 
his bed-room up to the platform on which 
the cannon is planted, shoidd be also built. 


Thus either the gamekeeper, or 1, should, 
from our positions, always have a flanking 
fire on the enemy. I am of opinion, if) 
about two or three times a week, my game- 
keeper and self were to fire about three or 
four rounds each, into the wood, that the 
very devil himself would not go into it, 
when he once kneAv that such manoeuvres 
therein were frequently practised ; that is 
to say, after it was dark. I do not think, 
if I may judge by my own feeling, that it 
would either be pleasant or prudent. My 
motive for firing the cannon with a baked 
clay-ball, is, that an iron ball would damage 
the timber ; so w^ould iron grape-shot ; but 
marbles will not. 

A most intimate and old friend of mine, 
and an old soldier, had a wood fuU of 
game, close to his house, wdthin, at least, 
one hundred and fifty yards. He had a 
large balcony up one pair of stairs, which 
overlooked this wood. One night he heard 
some shots fired in his wood. He and his 
servant got directly up, and planted them- 
selves out, on the balcony. He always 
kept a soljjier's musquet for himself, and 


one for his man, with sixty rounds of ball- 
cartridges to each, — they fired each of 
them about twenty rounds at the very spots 
where they heard the guns go off, he hol- 
lowing out each time, after he had fired : 
" For God's sake take care of my spring- 
guns/' Those gentlemen night-sportsmen 
never came into his wood again. 

Partridges may very easily be preserved 
from poachers taking them at night with 
nets. It is a custom, generally speaking, 
Avhen gentlemen take pains to preserve 
their game, to lay thorn bushes in the 
stubbles. I hold this custom to be of very 
little utility ; for the two men who carry 
the net, only halt a moment, when a third, 
who follows the net, lifts it up, over ^ the 
thorn bush, and then they "draw on ; and 
they can always seethe bush, unless the night 
be intensely dark ; and even then, if careful, 
they can instantly feel that the net touches, 
when they have but to halt and let the man 
How ro pre- behind free it. There is a much better 

vent Par- 

Sai^'atlilht method ; which is, to stick stakes, about as 
by drag-nets, j^-^^ ^^ ^^^^^^, thumb, thrcc fcct six inches 

long, with one end well fastened, into the 


ground. These stakes they cannot see, 
unless of a moonhght night. But there is 
another method, preferable to all the 
rest, which I never as yet have heard to 
have been practised, and it is infallible : — 
Keep a boy mounted on a jack-ass ; let 
him have two long-legged spring spaniels 
(not the small cocking spaniel) under his 
care, and feed them himself, that the dogs 
may know him well, and follow kindly. 
Let him go out, not before it is quite dark, 
and hunt all the stubbles, and particularly 
the standing clover, for the breadth of half 
a mile all round your house. This will not 
take him much above three hours ; he has 
only to lie in bed two hours longer in the 
morning. When a covey of birds is 
sprung at night, they separate, and go 
various ways, and by far the greater part 
get to some hedge, if there be any, and the 
country be not quite open ; for if it be ever 
so dark, they can distinguish the hedge; 
by the darkness of its appearance : besides, 
as they fly very low, provided the hedge be 
of any moderate height, they are sure to 
see it. There they are perfectly safe ; and 


\{j2 colonel hanger to 

also in the middle of a field, for no two 
birds will light together. Follow this 
method, and no netter, by night, can ever 
catch a covey ; he may chance to catch a 
single bird. Besides, when birds lie singly 
by themselves, having been once disturbed, 
they are constantly on the watch ; and, on 
hearing a foot-step, but certainly on 
hearing a horse's tread, they will run, for 
certain, if not rise again. This being done, 
your keepers may go to bed, by which 
they will be more able to get up, and be 
out before the day dawns, at which time 
the greatest mischief is done. Had I a 
manor of my own, I would go out with a 
setting dog, one month before the season, 
and catch all the birds at the extremity of 
the manor, where, from its distance, the 
keepers could not so well look after them, and 
turn the young birds into the field next to 
my residence. Be sure to leave the old 
cock and hen on the spot where you caught 
them, for they will entice the young ones to 
ramble. Thus vou will have bv far the 
greater number of birds directly under your 
eve, close to home. I also vrould never 


shoot till the fifteenth of September ; for I 
am certain that more birds are destroyed 
in the first fifteen days, than in the whole 
season besides. 

It is absurd to permit any farmer to set 
rabbit-traps to destroy them. If it be ne- 
cessary to destroy them, dig all the earths 
in, excepting one large main spout. After 
dark, when the rabbits are out feeding, go 
quietly to the spout, and stuff a piece of an 
old sack or carpet into the spout, about 
three feet within it ; then go drive them 
with a dog, and you will catch six or seven 
in every main spout. Thus, by digging 
them in, you will soon destroy them. 

A rabbit-trap will catch a hare ; and no J^J^^^^^p'^^^f^r 
man shall tell me, that, when a man Soy^Haretr' 

Pheasant?, and 

observes a hare-rack, he will not set Partridges. 
the trap in it. Besides, partridges and 
pheasants are constantly caught, running 
along these paths, in the traps. Look only 
to the warreners, what a number of hares 
they destroy in their rabbit-traps ! 

You cannot have any plenty of hares, AWarrenon 

•^ ^ *^ your Manor 

provided there be a warren close to your Game.''^''^ ^^ 

H 2 


manor. They catch, also, a great number 
of partridges and pheasants. A gamekeeper, 
this season, assured me, that, one day, he 
shot four brace of partridges, and two brace 
of pheasants : three of the partridges had 
but one leg, and one brace of the pheasants 
only one leg. On manors, where gentle- 
men wish to preserve the game, all the 
warrens should be ploughed up, and farm- 
houses built on them. This method will 
bring in more rent, unless the soil be more 
sterile than it generally is. Do I not re- 
member the time when all the way from 
Newmarket to Swaffham, was one con- 
tinued rabbit-warren ? Where now is finer 
land to be found ? 
fhS^e"^ I am astonished that sportsmen do not 

uedsey^''^ order furze seed to be sown in every hedge 
on their manor. There is no greater pre- 
servative, in respect of cover, for all sorts of 
game ; and surely it would considerablj- 
strengthen the farmer*s fence, and assist in 
keeping the cold winds for his cattle. 
There is no cover so good as a furze cover, 
for all game, particularly pheasants ; for 


night shooters, or those who stifle them 
at roost with brimstone, cannot, by such 
means, destroy them in a furze cover. 

Wood-pidffeons are very easily cauo^ht how to catch 

^ ^ J J o Wood-Pigeons, 

in hard weather, particularly when snow 
is on the ground. You have but to sweep 
the snow on one side, for about a dozen 
yards long, and about three feet broad. 
Lay about twenty small eel-hooks, fastened 
by a peg into the ground, with a small 
bean on each : be sure you put the point 
of the hook only, through the top of the 
bean, and the barb standing quite out, on 
the side ; otherwise, if the hook be totally 
buried in the bean, when the bird struggles, 
he will pull the hook out of his throat. 

I think, as good a way as any, is to 
punc h two or three holes in horse-beans, 
with an iron bodkin, and then boil them in 
some common ^in : many will be so drunk 
that they cannot fly up ; others will perch 
on the adjacent trees ; watch _ them, and 
you will see them tumble down> 

If you have a large pond, or lake, fre- ^^iVfowf^^ 
quented by wild-fowl ; in the shallow wa- 
ter, about one foot deep, where you observe 



them feed, lay a few rabbit-traps, with a 
few beans on the bridge of the trap, under 
the water. This is a sure method of catch- 
ing them. Where the water is about two 
feet deep, put a stick in, about one foot 
above the water ; cut a sht at the top of 
the stick ; tie a strong piece of packthread 
round a brick-bat, or to a large stone ; let 
the string, after having tied it round the 
stone, be about a foot longer ; to the other 
end fasten a small eel-hook, baited with a 
piece of bullock's lights, sheep's paunch, or 
a horse-bean ; then, about three or four 
inches from the brick-bat; fasten a stick, 
nearly as big as your little finger, and about 
four inches long, tying the stnng, with a 
single knot, exactly to. the centre of the 
stick ; then place that part of the string, 
which is between the brick-bat and the 
short stick, into the notch at the top of the 
long stick, which is stuck into the bottom 
of the pond. The short stick will prevent the 
weight of the brick-bat from drawing the 
string through the notch, and the hook will 
hang a few inches from the water, and the 
brick-bat hang fast by the notch in the top 


of. the stick. When the water-fowl takes 
the baited hook, he pulls the stiek and 
brick-bat down, and the brick-bat pulls him 
Hnder water and drowns him. 

I will now, for the benefit of sportsmen j^roIchtheRed 
in the Highlands of Scotland, instruct them Sfgiiandsof 

. Scotland, with- 

how to approach the red deer within thirty in so or 40 

-* ^ ^ yards. 

yards. The red deer are so very wild and 
shy, that, I am told, it is m.ost difficult to 
get within shot of them. This difficulty I 
will completely do away. My plan is no- 
thing, more or less, than what, in both 
North and South Carolina, is so well known, 
and called fire-hunting ry night. I feel by m^sS!^'''° 
a very considerable degree of pleasure in 
reflecting, that I shall be the means of pro- 
curing much diversion and satisfaction to * 
Highland sportsmen, by teaching them, 
whenever they choose it, how to approach, 
v/ithin a short distance, the wildest and 
shyest red deer. I v/ill describe the Avhole 
particulars. I was an eye-witness to this 
amusement, when I first went about thirtv 
nriiles up the country, just after the siege of 
Charlestown, with my old, intimate, and 


worthy friend. Colonel Simcoe, then com- 
manding the Queen's Rangers, afterwards 
General Simcoe, now dead and lost to his 
country — I say, lost to his country, for he 
undoubtedly was one of the very best offi- 
cers in our service. 

Two American Back-woodsmen went 
with me ; all three of us on horseback : 
they go on horseback, for fear, lest, creep- 
ing along by the edge of the swamps, they 
might tread on a rattle-snake, of which 
there are plenty near to the swamps. The 
rattle-snake, when he hears the stamp of a 
horse's foot, flies away ; for divine nature 
has so ordained it, that this deadly animal 
avoids you as much as you wish to avoid it; 
and no person is bitten by a rattle-snake, 
excepting he come on it when it lies, 
coiled up, asleep, and basking in the sun. 

The Back-woodsman takes a large fry- 
ing-pan, with a very long iron handle to it; 
puts about half a dozen middling-sized 
pieces into it, of the pine-tree, (the knots of 
the pine,) which are full of turpentine: 
these, when lighted in the frying-pan, give 
£^ very strong and great light. The pine- 


treeknots were stuck into an iron stanchion, 
on their tables, in their houses, to light the 
house by night ; for they had at that time 
no candles, and they give a very great 
light. He, after lighting this wood in the 
frying-pan, puts the pan over his left shoul- 
der, and carries the light behind his head : 
he then mounts his horse; first putting 
strong, thick sacks over the rump of the 
horse, to prevent any fire falling down and 
burning the animal ; and takes a soldier's 
musket, loaded with buck-shot, in his right 
hand. The other man follows, about se- 
venty or one hundred yards behind, with a 
bag of turpentine knots, to replenish the 
fire in the frying-pan when necessary. I 
went on horseback, close behind the man 
with the gun. In following, you must be 
very particular. The frying-pan must be 
held directly straight over your left shoul- 
der, never turning the handle one inch, 
even to the right or left. When you look 
before you, you must not move your head, 
but turn your whole body on the saddle to 
the right and left, holding the frying-pan 


firm mid straight, by fixing your elbow 
firm to your body. 

So far off even as two hundred yards, 
you will see the deers' eyes appearing just 
like two balls of fire. Remember, for cer- 
tain, that you go directly up the wind, else 
the deer will smell you, and you never will 
get near to one. The deer, astonished and 
surprised at so strange a sight, stands stock- 
still, terrified, and gazing at this very bright 
light, and permits you to approach liim very 
near. We had not been long out, walking 
our horses very gently, by the side of a 
swamp, where the deer at night feed ; but 
we found one. Before we came within one 
hundred j^ards of him, he ran away. To 
the best of my recollection, one of our 
horses snorted. We had not gone a quar- 
ter of a mile further, ere we found another: 
the Back-woodsman did not go directly up 
to him, but took his way about thirty yards 
on one side of the deer. The animal, I am 
certain, let him come within less than forty 
yards of him : he then pulled up his horse, 
which was going only at a very slow walk. 


laid his arm over the handle of the frying- 
pan, supported his musket with his left 
hand, fired, and shot the deer. The deer 
was standing rather sideways to him, with 
his head turned round to the light; so that 
he shot him in the fore-quarters, just behind 
the fore-elbow. The animal did not run 
five yards. We threw him over his horse, 
and returned home. 

There was, when I was in the Carolinas, 
a positive act of the assembly, imposing a 
fine on any person who should fire-hunt by 
night ; for some persons, not approaching 
near enough to distinguish plainly that it 
was a deer, and no other animal, have shot 
young colts, oxen, and heifers ; for the eyes 
of these young animals, at night, by this 
light, will appear just the same as the eyes 
of the deer : therefore you must be careful, 
and see distinctly what animal it is, or you 
may shoot young cattle. 

As no pine barren knots are to be pro- 
cured in this country, I will find you a sub- 
stitute, and a much better thing, than the 
frying-pan and wood fire ; for the wood 
fire can only be used in a very still night, 


when there is no wind. This is, one of 
uses of the thoselaFffe lanterns, which hansf over the 

Lantern, with o ' o 

hind^thtlamp' front doors of some hotels, and over the 
doors of gentlemen's halls, which cast so 
strong and bright a light quite over the 
street, on the opposite side. The glass 
lamp which holds the oil must have three 
tubes to it, with a wick of cotton in each 
tube. These three cotton wicks, lighte.d, 
will give a very great light. At the back 
of the lantern, and behind the lamp, a con- 
cave piece of very high polished tin or steel, 
full ten inches in diameter, and quite round, 
must be fixed. This will collect the rays 
of light, and reflect them to a very great 
distance, powerfully. I think those reflect- 
ing mirrors, at the back of these lanterns, 
are better, which are made with small pieces 
of broken looking-glass, as they are more 
easily kept clean. Before the lamp, in the 
front, a large magnifying glass, eight or ten 
inches in diameter, should be fixed, instead 
of a common piece of glass : this will throw 
the light much stronger, and at a greater 
distance. At the bottom of the lantern a 
gTooye must be made, to receive a stick, 


quite flat, and about iive or six inches 
square, so that the lantern may rest flat on 
it, and be fastened with a screw. The 
handle of the stick must be five feet long, 
about three inches broad, and quite flat, so 
that it may lie easily on the shoulder. 
— Now I have completely equipped you, 
you have only to enter on your sport. 

I will point out to vou another method Howto shoot 

^ '^ Wild-Fowl and 

how you may amuse yourself with this Ian- le'Pherrby^'"^ 
tern: hang the lantern, by abroad leathern "'^^^' 
belt, over a man s neck, and strap it round 
his body, to keep it steady. Let the man 
carry a very large, deep-sounding bell, such 
as is hung round the necks of cows, in 
each hand, and keep incessantly ringing 
them : this will prevent the noise of your feet 
disturbing the animals you are searching 
after. Proceed to the springs, and other 
places which are not frozen up in hard wea- 
ther: there, at night, i/ou ivill be sure to find 
both ivild-foivl aud snipes. Walk behind 
the man carrying^ the lantern, with a double oftheBeii 

'J ^ and Buffet, a 

gun ; one barrel loaded with duck-shot, the ^^'^gf^ent. 
other with snipe-shot. This amusement 
was called, one hundred vears ago, the 


bell and buffet; and my father told me, 
when he was a young man, it was much 

I have been informed that rabbits, at 
night, will not run out from this bright 
light; and that, with a couple of dogs, you 
may catch several ; but I never tried it. 

I have no reason to doubt, that a hare, 
by this light, will let you approach him : 
when a deer will, I see no reason that a 
hare will not. But j^ou must be sure to 
go up the wind ; and I am of opinion that, 
to approach a hare at feed, by night, you 
should not use the bells. 

Of shooHnc: • -i i 

Pewits,piovers rrovidcd 7/ou mark down a lars^e flock of 

and Bustards, ^ o ^ ^ 

by night. pewits, plovers, or wild geese, just at dark, going 
to roost, or golden plover, I should imagine, 
by these means, you may get within shot of 
them. And why may not this method be 
TRIED ON BUSTARDS when you see theni. 
settling for the night, to roost ? If a wild 
deer, w^hich is one of the shyest and most 

generauy!™^^' timid of auimals, will let you approach him 
by night, w^ill not every other animal let 
you approach him ? I judge this to be a 
very fair question, and I presume that it is 


founded on reason. I have also every 
reason to expect that, in hard frost, when 
the great rivers and lakes are frozen up, 
and no waters but the small, sharp, run- 
ning brooks are open, provided you walk 
by the side, throwing this bright, strong 
light on the w^iev, that all sorts of wild-fowl 
will let you come xvithin gun-shot of them. 

The small rivulets, which are not frozen 
up, are full of wild-fowl by night : they 
have no other place to feed in. In soft 
spongy places, where springs are, near to 
woods, where you know woodcocks feed at , , 

^ Woodcocks. 

night, what reason have you to imagine 
that, by means of this bright light, you may 
not approach them ? The light, to a cer- 
tainty, will shew them to you ; for, at that 
time, feeding, they will be walking about. 
In short, I am firmly of opinion, that, by 
this method, you may shoot every species 
of animals by night. Surely, the roebuck, 
in Scotland, may, by this method, be ap- 
proached ;— but be sure ever to observe 
the wind. 


bar?e'irstocks Now, with Tcspect to fowling - pieces, 
lu^!^^"^^' rifles, muskets, &c. &c. — Several gun-ma- 
kers in this town have arrived at such per- 
fection in making fowling-pieces, that it 
is necessary only to make this one obser- 
vation on barrels. He who can bore a 
a barrel nearest to a perfect cylinder, pro- 
vided the iron be soft, mild, and expansive, 
will make a perfect barrel, which will 
shoot strong and w^ell. Respecting the 
breech-plugs, several of which bear the 
pfu^J^'Tna of po^^^P^^*^^ name of patent plugs, I believe 
other Plugs, j^riany of them are very good; but I can 
assure the reader, that a plug, made in the 
following simple method, will make a gun 
shoot as strong as any one of those pom- 
pous patent plugs, which you are assured 
will work wonders, but will not do more 
than the simple plug. I shall here describe 
it, and this plug any blacksmith can make : 
take a cherry, the size of the caliber of 
the barrel, work it round into the breech- 
pin, until you have formed a cup, about 
the size of the cup of an oak acorn, rather, 
if any thing, deeper, say one eighth of an 
inch deeper ; then bore a hole directly in the 


centre of it, behind, not deep,, and not bigget 
than a middle-sized straw. This hole must 
communicate with the touch-hole, which 
must be countersunk on the inside. The 
breech-plilgs, to every gun I have, are thus 
made, excepting one, and that bears the 
name of Joseph Mantons patent ; but it is 
not one whit the better for that t it is a 
very excellent gun, for certain ; and I am 
as certain that my old friend Joseph can 
make as good a gun, as any man existing ; 
and certain I am, that there are others who 
can make as good a gun as he : I do not 
mean to say there are many. 

When I speak respecting the shooting of 
barrels, I desire it may be distinctly under- 
stood, that I speak of such as are exactly of 
the same weight; for if one barrel weighs 
only tlij^ee pounds and a half] and another 
four pounds and a half, the latter will carry 
a larger charge, shoot stronger, and, having 
more resistance from its superior weight, 
will not strike the shoulder more than the 
lighter barrel with a smaller charge. Now 
gun-makers will do me a very great favour, 
and I shall be infinitely obliged to them, 



if they wifl not give me a direct, barefaced 
and impudent assertion ; but give me a 
positive proof, accompanying their assertion, 
to the following question, which I shall 
put to them. I think, for certain, I may 
be in no fear, when I say I will give my- 
self up to be crucified, with my head 
downwards (poor fellow) as St. Peter was, 
provided they give me a positive proof in 
solving my question. The question :— An 
experienced gun-maker shall bore twenty 
barrels, all of the same weight, length, and 
caliber, and the iron exactly the same qua- 
lity, paying equal attention to each barrel ; 
why shall one barrel, amongst the tioeniy, 
when they come to be shot at a mark, be 
found to carry the shot much closer than 
all the others ? This does not often hap- 
pen ; indeed, hardly ever. One instance 
of this I saw in a gun of Joseph Manton's, 
which gun he sold to Lord Camelford : 
this gun carried the shot so uncommonly 
close, to what all others did, that it really 
astonished me. Now, pray, Messrs. Gun- 
makers, solve me this question ? I believe 
this will give you as much trouble as it has 


given the mathematicians to square the 

Respecting locks. Every year some Respectin| 
new trick is held out to induce us to be- 
lieve that they make the guns shoot quicker. 
A simple, plain lock, well made, with main- 
spring and hammer-spring, acting with a 
due and proper resistance to each other, 
will go off quick enough for my use. I 
have none of their new tricks and vagaries 
to my locks, and I find them act quick and 
well. One gun-maker bores a hole in the 
lock here, another there, in another part : 
both assure you that, from this, the gun 
will be fired quicker, and that it is a won- 
derful improvement ; for which they charge 
you from three to five guineas extra. The 
only wonderful improvement I know, that 
they possess, is improving the price. 

I can affirm, that as good a double gun 
can be made in London for about thirty- 
four or thirty-six guineas, as a sportsman 
can wish to shoot with : notv/ithstanding 
this, many gentlemen give fifty to sixty-five 
guineas for a double gun, v/hich will not 
shoot better, nor kill one inch further than 

I 2 


the one which cost only thirty-four guineas, 
I am equally certain, that several gentle- 
men give a preference to the one gun Avhich 
cost sixty-five, because it cost sixty-five 
guineas, when they absolutely have another 
which shoots full as well and as strong, 
which cost them full tAventy-five guineas 
less money. 
K^f^^""^^'""' Now to the elevation-ribs, so much in 
fashion : they undoubtedly elevate the gun, 
by which you throw the centre of the shot 
to a greater distance : but if a sportsman 
will have his gun stocked very straight, 
when first made, this will have the same 
effect as the elevation-rib, and he will save 
three or four guineas expense. 
S'Jt":ciuith My old friend, Mr. Brand, gave me a 
*odred7''°^^'^ most excellent double gun, made by Joseph 
Manton. It was so very crooked stocked, 
that 1 constantl)?- shot under the birds ; 
broke their legs often, and feathered them 
under the belly ; so much so, that I was 
forced to lay it by.* I took it to Joseph 

* 1 do positively assert, and without fear oF contra- 
dictioii; tliat 110 man can shoot well with a gun which 


Manton, and directed him to glue on a very 
thick piece of leather, at the extremity of 
the stock, whereon the barrels rested. I 
also had a wooden check let into the but, 
to prevent my getting my eye down in a 
line with the barrels. When it Avas done, 
looking at it, he said : '' This gun is so 
m.uch elevated, sir, that you surely, at short 
distances, must shoot over the birds,'' He 
did not recollect that, elevated as it was, 
the lower part of the circle of the shot 
would take the bird, and, at sliort dista?ices, 
shoot strong enough to kill. When his 
elevation-sights first were produced, he was 
candid enough then to own to me, that my 
method of stocking my gun had just the 
same effect as his elevation-sight, (or rib, I 
believe it is called.) 

is crooked stocked ; he must shoot under the birds. I 
knew a person once, indeed, who shot extremely weU 
with a gun stocked so crooked, that I could not shoot 
with it ; but then he held his head up as directly straight 
as a soldier under arms on the parade: the very position 
he held his head in, gave the rnnzzle of the gun aa 



and Rifle 

I have now finished respecting fowKng- 
pieces, and will treat concerning rifles, and 
ofRme-Guns particularly rifle shooting. I never in my 
life saw better rifles (or men who shot bet- 
ter) than those made in America : they are 
chiefly made in Lancaster, and two or 
three neighbouring towns in that vicinity, 
in Pensylvania. The barrels weigh about six 
pounds two or three ounces, and carry a ball 
no larger than thirty-six to the pound ; at 
least I never saw one of a larger caliber, 
and I have seen many hundreds and hun- 
dreds. I am not going to relate any thing 
respecting the American war ; but to men- 
tion one instance, as a proof of most excel- 
lent skill of an American rifleman. If any 
man shew me an instance of better shoot- 
ing, I will stand corrected. 

Colonel, now General Tarleton, and my- 
self, were standing a kw yards out of a 
wood, observing the situation of a part of 
the enemy which we intended to attack. 
There wa$ a rivulet in the enemy's front, 
and a mill on it, to which we stood directly 
with our horses' heads fronting, observing 
their motioxis. It was an absolute plain 

Of an Ame- 
rican Rifle- 
man's shoot- 


field between us and the mill ; not so much 
as a single bush on it. Our orderly-bugle 
stood behind us, about three yards, but with 
his horse's side to our horses' tails. A rifle- 
man passed over the mill-dam, evidently 
observing two officers, and laid himself 
down on his belly ; for, in such positions, 
they always lie, to take a good shot at a 
long distance. He took a deliberate and 
cool shot at my friend, at me, and the 
bugle-horn man.* Now, observe how w ell 
this fellow shot. It was in the month of 
August, and not a breath of wind was 
stirring. Colonel Tarleton's hoyse and mine, 
I am certain, were not anything like two feet 
apart ; for we were in close consultation, 
how we should attack with our troops, 
which laid '300 yards in the wood, and 
could not be perceived by the enemy. A 
rifle-ball passed between him and me : 
looking directly to the mill, I evidently 

* I have passed several times over this ground, and 
ever observed it with the greatest attention ; and I can 
positively assert that the distance he fired from, at us^ 
was full four hundred yards. 


observed the flash of the poAvder. I directly 
said to my friend, ^^ I think we had better 
move, or we shall have two or three of 
these gentlemen, shortly, amusing them- 
selves at our expence.'* The words were 
hardly out of my mouth, when the bugle- 
horn man, behind us, and directly central, 
jumped off his horse, and said, " Sir, my horse 
is shot." The horse staggered, fell down, 
and died. He was shot directly behind the 
fore-leg, near to the heart, at least where 
the great blood-vessels lie, which lead to 
the heart. He took the saddle and bridle 
off, werit into the wood, and got another 
horse. We had a number of spare horses, 
led by negro lads. 

Now, speaking of this rifleman's shooting, 
nothing could be better ; but, from the 
climate, he had much in his favour. First, 
at that time of the year, there was not one 
breath of wind : secondly, the atmosphere 
is so much clearer than ours, that he can 
^pfwli'er^the^ takc a more perfect aim. I will next tell 
Riflemen^use you liow thcy judgc what quautity of pow- 
der is necessary for their rifles, on active 
service : for shooting deer, &c. in peacabje 

on active ser- 


times, they ne^er put in more powder than 
is contained in a woman's thimble. They 
take the horn of a deer, make several trials 
with a ball, always on the powder, and 
when, by each time increasing the quantity 
of powder, they find the rifle rather throws 
back, that is to say, has a recoiling 
motion, they draw off a small quantity of 
the powder, cut the horn off, and use it for 
actual service before an enemy. From 
the weight of the barrels of their rifles being 
somewhat more, by a few ounces, than si.v 
pounds, and the balls so small as thirty-six to 
the pound, they w^ill carry more than Jialf 
the weight of the ball in pow^der. 

I had a most excellent American rifle, 
which carried full one half of the weight of 
the ball of our best powder, without 
recoiling in the least. I must inform you tll'sftheir^ 

, , 1 • • n 1 • 1 Barrels have, 

also that their ritles are made with one f^dofwhat 

length the 

whole spiral turn in the barrels, which are, ^^'^'^^^^ ^"^^^ 
as I mentioned before, three feet three 
inches long. To strengthen and prove my 
opinion, that it is necessary, on active service, 
to use a much greater quantity of pow^der 


than is used at present, I wili state to you 
tvhat I have tried some hundreds of times. 
Practice is every thijig : I detest theory ; it 
has led hundreds into errors. 
Howmanv After repeated trials with various rifle 

pounds a Kiile l 

4'i^hland"^'^ barrels of different weight, and different 
balls to the caliber, / have fixed on one, the barrel of 

pound, for 

active service, -^yhicli weiglis six pouuds four or five ounces, 
and it carries thirty balls to the pound. This 
I have repeatedly fired, at long distances, 
with one lialf of the weight of the ball in poiv- 
der, and it recoils not in the least; the 
length of it is two feet seven inches, and 
the txvist ^)o\it \hvQQ quarters of a turn. I 
would rather * it were three feet three 
inches long, and that the barrel weighed a 
very few ounces more than six pounds, — 
three or four ounces is enough, — and that it 
carried thirty balls to the pound ; as the 
one I already have spoken of does ; and 
the very fh'st time I can afford it, I will 

*. My reason for wishing it were three feet three 
inches long, is, that the greater the distance is between 
the sights, the more accurate your aim will be. 


have such an one made, and the twist of 
the rifle shall be exactly one whole turn. 

Now, gentlemen rifle-shooters, I will ^tmctfvf me- 

. I 7 77 7 7 • thod of loading- 

teach you a most aeadly ana destructive me- iiifle-guns,m* 

^ ^ ^ service. 

thod of using the rifle, in face of an enemy. 
It is my own idea; at least, I never heard 
that any one has ever practised it, and I 
have know^n it and practised it several 
years ago. A rifleman on service should 
have a small leathern bag fixed to his belt, 
with about thirty balls, tied up in greased 
patches. When he comes within one hun- 
dred and fifty yards of an enemy, in bat- 
talion, which at times they may approach 
so near to the foe, when posted in a wood, 
and flanked, both on their right and left, 
by strong battalions; then they should load 
two balls more on the one already in the 
rifle : but then the rifle-guns must be made 
as heavy in the barrel as my gun above spoken 
of; for the present guns are so much lighter^ 
that, provided you put sufficient powder to 
carry three balls to a certain distance, to do 
execution, what, with the increase of pow- 
der, and the resistance of the three balls, 
it w ould nearly knock a man down. 


I wish that some of you gentlemen rifle- 
men, who can well afford it, would have a 
few rifles made according as I h^ve di- 
rected ; and then fasten up a coarse piece 
of canvas, six feet high and twelve j^ards 
long. Place then twelve of your best shots 
facing the canvas, at one hundred and fifty 
yards, firing three balls every shot ; then in- 
spect the cloth, and judge by it, provided 
j^ou had been placed against a solid batta- 
lion of the enemy, what havock you must 
have made amongst them. 
%\Tiatdestruc- J j^y\\\ relate to you a real fact, which 

tion Riflemen *' 

aren'emy's" took placc in thc scvcu years* war, the very 
beginning of it, near to Minden ; that Min- 
den which lies between Gottingen and 
Hesse Cassel, not the Minden where the 
celebrated battle was gained by the allies, 
under Duke Ferdinand: General Oberg 
commanded the Germans; I forget the 
name of the French general. 

General Oberg's position was taken just 
after ascending the hill from Minden, on 
the road to Hesse Cassel. The Hessian and 
Hanoverian jagers were placed in a very 
thick wood, full of large timber trees, in the 


centre of the right wing. The French 
were obhged to form one regiment, in their 
line, directly facing this wood, where the 
jagers were stationed. The jagers made 
such havoc amongst this French regiment, 
that the colours were at last forced to be 
held by Serjeants, and even by corporals. 
There were but very few of their officers 
who were not killed or wounded. The ja- 
gers were not above two hundred yards 
from them, and w ere flanked, both on their 
right and left, by strong battalions of the 
line. The French were at last compelled 
to bring up six pieces of cannon, loaded with 
grape, to clear the wood of the jagers. I 
had a man in my company, in the Hessian 
jagers, in America, w4io was the son of a 
jager, supposed to be one of the very best 
shots amongst those engaged at Mioden. 
His comrades had such an opinion of his 
shooting, that six or seven men handed their 
rifles to him, as he stood behind a large 
tree, continually keeping them loaded for 
him to fire, so that he could fire several 
shots in one minute. When the cannon 
were brought up, his comrades desired him 
to come awav; but he said he would stay, 


and have one shot more: a grape-shot 
struck him, and killed him. 

The French were so incensed that day, 
against the jagers, that a few of them 
which they took, wounded, in the retreat, 
for the German forces were beaten, they 
buried up to theh* chins in the ground, and 
left them to die. 

In the French armies, in those days, the 
bugle-horn was called " la rmisique funeste \' 
for they, in those days, had no riflemen in 
their armies ; but they have had plenty, of 
latter days. They have now a great num- 
ber of tirailleurs, but not many riflemen, for 
jagers are very scarce to be got; and to 
make a common soldier an expert rifleman, 
it requires much time. 

Having related how severely this French 
regiment suffered, opposed to the German 
jagers, 1 am of opinion, that if every jager 
there had had a rifle, the barrel of which 
weighed somewhat above six pounds, and 
carried not above thirty bails to the pound, 
that, at the distance they were from them, 
they would have done double execution, by 
firing three balls every shot. But say only 
that they had put in ttoo balls; two balls, at 


two hundred yards, will act with tolerable 
precision. Make a trial of it. 

I shall now pass over rifle-shooting ; but B^^if'^aiSd* 
not without some remarks on a most ifige- If^^'conltdSl 
7iious hook, lately published, entitled Scloppe- Nature and 
tar la; or. Consider atioJis on the Nature and ^"°^- 
Use of Rijlcd'barrel Guns : by a Corporal 
of Riflemen, The perusal of this book has 
given me much pleasure, and great satis- 
faction, where the author states practical 
facts ; for it proves to me to what perfec- 
tion the art of making rifled guns is arrived, 
and w ith what unerring skill a skilful marks- 
man shoots. I meun by this to refer to 
the copper-plates ; first, at page 86, where 
there is very good shooting proved; but 
when I advance to page 119, I am asto- 
nished at the excellence of the workman 
who made the gun, and at the superior 
skill of the rifleman. In the lower target, 
page 119, I fmd, at the distance of two 
hundred and fifty yards, that eight shots in 
twelve are concentrated in the small space 
often inches; to which I beg leave to add 
two more, for they absolutely touch the 
edsfe of the ten-inch circle. This is shoot- 


ing with such a degree of precision as I 
never saw, and I believe will be found very 
difficult to exceed. 

It is not my intention to examine this 
ingenious book, page by page, which does 
the author so much credit; for there are 
many passages in it which plainly evince 
great ability, learning, and study : but, when 
he boldly, theoretically, and theoreticallt/ only, 
without giving any practial proof, overturns 
(as he imagines) at once the principle and 
means by which a rifle has so great a supe- 
riority over a smooth, bored gun ; namely, 
from vv^hat principle a ball, fired from a rifle- 
gun, receives a rotatory or whirling motion, 
round its own axis; and gives us an asser- 
tion of his own, theoretically founded, and not 
practically ; it becomes me, as a duty, to give 
a practical proof, to confute his theoretical asse?^- 
tion, I will quote the author*s own words, 
page 63. '' Thus, then, it will seem cer- 
tain, that so long as the ball has any pro- 
gressive motion at all, it cannot fail to com- 
press the air before it, and the air so com- 
pressed tviU act constantly as a power, to turn 
the ball round and round. Wc think, there- 


fore, we may safely say, that so long as the 
ball has progressive, it cannot fail to have 
lateral motion also ; and that the latter will 
ever be dependent on the former, because 
the ratios are of necessity equal. We then 
consider the spiral grooves of the barrel as of no 
further utility, xvith rrspect to the generating of 
the rotatory 7notion, than as an easy and expe- 
ditious way of giving the ball the requisite inden- 
tationSf in order that the impulse of the powder, 
and the re-action of the elastic medium, air, 
Tnay together produce and continue, through 
the means of those grooves, the zvhirling motion." 
Now let us see whether the author's 
theoretical proposition^ will stand the test of a 
practical proof This any gentleman m^ay ^^p^^^^^^^^ 
be convinced of, by trying the following 
experiment with his rifle : load the rifle, as 
customary, with powder first; then put a 
ball on the mouth of the rifle with a greased 
patch, so that the ball may go down tole- 
rably tight, and fit well in the grooves, as a 
ball should do in a rifle~gun. Do not push 
the ball in above one inch ; and, instead of 
holding the gun fast, either with one hand 
and ramming down the ball with the other, 



or holding your rifle fast between your leg^ 
and thighs, place the wpper part of the heel- 
plate on the butt, on a polished, smooth 
board, quite at the extremity of the butt, 
where it is somewh'ftt round ; then raise the 
lower part of the butt about half an inch 
from the board; then place both your hands 
to the ramrod, ram the ball down, and, as 
your gun is rifled either a quarter-turn, half 
a turn, three-quarters turn, or a whole turn, 
you will observe your gun turn round on 
the upper end of the butt, placed on the 
smooth board. If this is n6t received as a 
convincing practical proof, that the ball, 
w^hen it is shot out, does receive a rotatory, 
or whirling motion, round its own axis, by 
means of the spiral grooves in the rifle, I 
shall be greatly surprised ; for it appears to 
me as evident, as that the sun shines at 
noon-day. Yet the author of the Scloppe- 
taria asserts, that the spiral grooves of the bar- 
rel are of no utility y tcitli respect to generating 
the rotatory motion of the ball. Now, pro- 
vided the ingenious author (for he certainly 
shews much ingenuity in his theoretical ar- 
guments) w\\\ have a ball cast, and such a 


bullet-mold can be made, so that six or 
seven excrescences, or ribs, project from 
the sides of the ball ; then put this ball, 
with a greasy patch, into a smooth-bored 
gun, of a perfect caliber; the author will 
be entitled to shoot as true, with this smooth- 
bored gun, as he can with a rifle-gun, pro- 
vided, as the author asserts, that the ball 
takes a spiral rotatory motion round its 
axis, by the action of the air on the excrescences 
of the ball, and not from the grooves in the 

One observation more. It is respecting 
balls cast for rifle-guns. The author says, 
you should always put that part of the ball, 
where is the neck, which is formed by the 
mold and cut off, uppermost, I widely dif- 
fer with him: the reverse, or smoothest 
part of the ball, should be placed upper- 
most ; for, when no inequality in the ball is 
opposed to the air, in the flight of the ball 
through the air, the ball is less liable to de- 
viate from its direction. 

I shall now have done with rifle-shooting, 
and with any further observations on this 
gentleman's work; candidly acknowledg- 

K 2 

How to place 
the Ball, 


ing, that it is a most ingenious production : 
at the same time declaring that, in those 
parts where he works up your expectation, 
expecting that you \viil be acquainted with 
some very great improvement, his whole 
propositions and assertions are founded on 
nothing but theoretical argumerits, 
^InchS'^^' There are gun-makers in London, who 
makers. tell you, that they have a rifle-bench^ in 
which they rifle their guns, w hich has cost 
them above two hundred pounds. More 
fools they ! for I will procure them as many 
as they choose to have, from Germany, for 
a few pounds. This wonderful machine 
they will, on no consideration, shew^ yc>u. I 
cannot help laughing in their faces, after 
having seen so many guns rifled in Ger- 
many : and I wdll tell tliem something 
more. Several years ago, when I was last in 
Germany (I imagine every thing must 
now be much dearer) I could purchase a 
capital, good rifle for three guineas; and 
have reason to think, that, at this time, they 
would not charge above five guineas : and 
this rifle shall shoot, in every respect, both 
at long and short distances, as well as one 


which these most ingenious artists, with 
their ivonder-worldng, two-hundred-guinea 
rifle-bench, will charge you thirty guineas for, 
I will also assure them, that, a few years 
ago, I had a shot-gun, w^hich was made for 
a German jager, v/ hich cost only three guineas ; 
and I never, in my life, shot out of a better 
gun. To be sure, I must allow that the 
lock w^as very indifferent, and the stock not 
elegantly finished; but the lock never, 
missed fire, and the barrel shot very well 
indeed ; and, what is more strange, the bar- 
rel was what is vulgarly called strait 
rifled, which requires additional labour and 

I have already observed, what folly it is Foiiy to g:ive 

^ ^ ^ suchhigh 

to give from fifty to sixty-five guineas for ^l^^l ^°^j^^^ 

a gun, when Baker of Whitechapel, and b^gtven'!"^'^ 

Fisher, of Greek Street, Soho, will make 

you as good a double gun as can be shot 

out of, for about thirty-six guineas. It is 

no more than due justice to relate a truth : 

Fisher, of Greek Street, a very few years 

ago, put a single barrel into an old German 

stock, with a German lock already to it. 

The barrel weighs three or four ounces 


above four pounds. He only charged me 
six guineas for the barrel. I lent it about 
three seasons past to a man, who, I think, 
was one of the best shots which ever took 
a gun to his shoulder. I seldom have 
shot with this gun myself, for I ever shoot 
with a double gun. He killed several 
gaiar Jong birds at wonderfully lona^ distances ; but he 

phot at a Hare. '^ ^ _ ^ 

made one of the most surprising long shots 
at a hare that ever I saw, I am certain I 
could not be mistaken in the distance, for 
the hare was running along a foot-path 
close to the hedge, in which path I was 
walking at a distance behind ; and, less than 
one yard after he shot at her, she turned 
into a gap in the hedge : she did not run 
much above a hundred yards before the 
dogs caught her. I went up to the spot 
where he shot at her, and measured it, to 
the place where he stood, and he measured 
it from the spot he had fired from, and we 
made it about tivo yards above fourscore. 
Now this hare was not strufck with one 
chance shot in the brain or heart, but she 
had three or four shot in the fore-part of 
her body, just behind the fore-leg. It 


must be remarked that he shot with very 
large shot. No. 2, patent. I always shoot 
with No. 2, from the first day to the last of 
the season. 

Before I have quite done with guns, I 
do most earnestly intreat such persons, into 
whose hands, perchance, this production on 
guns may fall, — if they have any influence 
with the persons in public employ, — to 
use their utmost influence with them, posi- 
tively to command that no rifle, in future, 
shall be made for our troops, the barrel of 
which does not weigh full six younds, and 
no ball larger than thirty to the pound. I 
will suffer death if I deceive them. I 
will explain further: the barrels of the Jl^^^^^^f^'g^^f 
rifle-guns,, used by our regiments on ser- RiL^s'^^orser- 

. ^ 1 r 11 vice, and what 

Vice, weigh only tour pounds, and carry ^^^Y^^^wkh^ 
a ball twenty to the pound. If you put half S^the'ku!*^ 
the weight of the ball in powder, which 
weighs twenty in the pound, into a barrel 
weighing only four pounds, it will very 
near knock the man down who fires the 
rifle. And to make a rifle which carries 
twenty balls to the pound, — to give the 
barrel an additional weight, so as to give it 


a proper resistance when it is fired with 
half the weight of the ball in powder, so 
that it may not, in the slightest degree, 
affect the shoulder of the man who fires it ; 
that gun will be too heavy for a man to 
carry on a long day's march. My rifle-gun 
barrel, above six pounds, ball thirty to the pound, 
complete for a ynan to carry on service, tveighs 
only ten pounds Jive ounces. This is nothing 
like so heavy as a soldier's musket. 

It may be said that, for service, a ball 
weighing twenty to the pound, is better 
than one of thirty to the pound. It may 
be so : I will not argue that point. But 
this I presume to say; whether you be 
wounded by a rifle shot, either two, three, 
four, or five hundred yards distant, the ball 
weighing twenty, or thirty, to the pound, 
it is immaterial ; either of them will kill 
you, or send you to the hospital, and that 
is sufficient ; for you are either totally put 
hors de combat, or for a time only.* 

* It is but due justice to Mr. Baker, gun-maker, 
Whitechapel, who made the rifles for the 95th regi- 
ment, to state thrtt he worked to order, being directed 


Now, gentlemen, I speak to you who 
belong to the different rifle corps in this 
metropolis. You will, I believe, acknow- otPowderuGw 

* ^ used, 

ledge, that some of you load your rifles 
with one fourth of the weight of the ball in 

to make those rifles to carry balls which weighed tzoenty 
to the pound. It was his wish lo make the barrels 
heavier ; but, had he made the barrels proportionably 
heavy to the size of the ball of twenty to the pound, 
the gun would have been too heav}^ for the man to 
carry : for, to load that gun, carrying twenty balls to 
the pound, with half the weight of the ball in powder, 
the barrel should weigh nine pounds at least, if not nine 
pounds and a half, so that, when fired, it should not 
affect the man's shoulder. The gun then would have 
weighed, together, about fourteen pounds, — an immense 
heavy weight ; — whereas the barrel of my gun, weighing 
six pounds three ounces, and the whole gun, complete 
for service, weighs only ten pounds five ounces, carries 
a ball of thirty to the pound, and half the weight of 
that ball in powder, and goes off without any recoil 
whatever. Now the barrel of the gun used by the 95 th 
regiment, weighs only four pounds, and carries a ball 
twenty to the pound, and not more than 07ie third of 
the weight of that ball in powder, (I doubt, if so much. ) 
The difficulty of making a common soldier judge at 
what distance an enemy is, on service, is amply ex- 
plained in the treatise entitled a plan, published at the 
end of this book, to which the reader is particularly/ 


powder, and some with one third of the 
weight; seldom, if I be not erroneously- 
informed, do you load wdth more powder 
than one third. Now, gentlemen, I will 
ask 3^ou a plain, candid, and simple ques- 
tion, not founded on theory, but on practice ; 
for theory I abhor ; it has led thousands into 
ofthe force of error *. — Will not my hfle, loaded with one 

Powder ou a 

Kifle Ball. \,^^\f j-}-^^ wcight of the ball in powder, throw 
a ball to a much greater distance, before 
the force ofthe powder shall begin to lose, 
in the smallest degree, its impulse on the 
ball, than your rifle will, loaded with only- 
one third of the weight of the ball in pow- 
der? — I trust this point will not be disputed. 
Now it will be said that the largest ball, 
of twenty to the pound, being one third 
heavier and considerably larger, will, by 
its superior weight and size, operate more- 
forcibly on the air, in its passage through 
it, (so Robins tells us,) — pardon me, gen- 
tlemen, if I do not speak technical!)^, — than 
a smaller ball will. To which I reply, that 
w^hat the smaller ball loses by its want of 
weight, is most astonishingly compensated 
for, by the triple velocity given to it, from 


the great increase of the powder. Now we 
will suppose, gentlemen, that your rifle 
barrel shall weigh only four pounds, and 
shall carry a ball twenty to the pound : 
put you half the weight of the ball in 
powder, in your rifle, and your rifle, when 
fired, shall knock you backwards, — where- 
as, w^hen my rifle is loaded with half the 
weight of the ball in powder, and fired^ my 
rifle shall go off, as all rifles should, plea- 
santly and without the smallest recoil. — 
Gentlemen, I can assure you, on my word, ^can^RiSt 
that the American riflemen have but one Riflemen.'' 
siglu behind to their guns : I mean, by this, 
that they have no rising-sight, by which to 
give their guns a greater degree of eleva- 
tion ; and that one sight is not above two 
sixteenths of an inch in height above the 
barrel. I do believe, that, if he shot at a 
man standing still, at four hundred yards^ 
by only aiming at the man's head, that he 
would drop the ball into his breast, not lower^ 
or go so near to him as to alarm him devil- 
ishly. — Pray, what does this precision in 
shooting at so great a distance, without 
using a more elevated sight, proceed from ? 


Why, undoubtedly from the great force of 
powder, operating on the ball, to a very 
considerably greater distance before it loses 
its operative force on the ball, than guns 
loaded with much less powder will operate. 

SafKrflema'i> I havc oftcu Rskcd American riflemen, 
what was the most they thought they could 
do with their rifle ? They have replied, 
that they thought they were generally sure 
of splitting a man's head at two hundred 
yards, for so they termed their hitting the 
head. I have also asked several whether 
they could hit a man at four hundred 
yards, — they have replied certainly, or 
ishoot very near him, by only aiming at 
the top of his head, — Remember, gentle- 
men, they have but one sight, and I have 
told you the height of that sight from the 

The necessity barrel. Now, o^eiitlemen, does not this 

of increasing- <-' 

TheRifll^bar- prove to you how absolutely necessary it is 
for you to increase the weight of j^our 
rifled barrels, so that you may very consi- 
derably increase the powder, for long dis- 
tances : for what is rifle shooting, at short 
distances ? Nothing, llijle shooting begins 
to excel at the distance where tH musket 



leaves off, and shoots with no certainty what- 
ever. I would not give one farthing for a 
rifle, which would not throw a ball, to a 
certainty, into the space of about three or 
four file of men, at four hundred yards, 
provided the wind was not strong ; and then 
riflemen know how to regulate their aim. 

I have told you the proportionate weight 
of the barrel and the ball : I assure you, 
you w^ill find it just as I have stated ; and 
I have the greatest expectation that some 
of you will adopt the principle. I would 
not lead you into error and expense, by 
theoretical ideas : w hat I have stated, / have 
tried, hundreds and hundreds of times, I al- 
wavs try my rifle-guns directly down the How to \rv 

. " * " Rifle-Guns. 

Wind : bat this cannot be done near Lon- 
don ; it must be done on the sea-coast, on 
the sands : there you have scope, and an 
advantage on the sands, I mean when the 
tide is going out, w^here the sands are wet. 
At whatever distances you fire, if you will 
fix the low er side of your target on the moist 
sands, you must see whether you shoot on one 
side or not ; and, at long distances, whe- 
ther your ball falls short of the target, and 


how far short ; for the ball must make a 
very visible mark on the moist sands. I al- 
ways lay two thick horse-cloths down, and lie 
down on my belly on them to shoot, placing 
a log of wood before me to lay my gun 
over. This method is a great assistance to 
you, for you evidently must see the direc- 
tions the balls have taken, which have 
missed the target : on any other ground 
you cannot have this accurate advantage : 
lying flat down is also the surest position 
vou can fire from. 
Of strait I should bc extremclv happy if it were 

Gunpowder, *^ i i J 

Ihots!^ ^*^ in my power to instruct the Bunhill-Row 
and Spital-Fields Cockney-sportsmen, and 
other bad shots, how to improve in their 
shooting ; but, after much reflection and 
study, I find it totally out of my power. 
However, I am labouring for their advan- 
tage, and with no small doubt of making 
my fortune also, should I succeed : it is by 
the invention of strait powder. But, 
hitherto, I have failed of finding an effec- 
tual composition to mix with gunpowder, 
to make it shoot strait; and have been 
equally as unsuccessful as the chemists have 


been in their endeavours, to find out the 
philosopher s stone, who hav^e wanted no- 
thing to complete their long-wished-for ob- 
ject but a perfect powder of projection. 
However, Uke them, I do not despair ; but 
shall labour on with assiduity, to find out 
some composition, for the benefit of all bad 
shots, which will make powder sJioot strait. 

The breed of doofs which I prefer, be- of the best 

^ . ^ breed of Dogs 

yond all others, are those which are bred Glme^"^^'"^ 
between a setter and a pointer; but not 
bred from those setters which have no na- 
tural point in them ; for I have no idea of 
shooting to a dog which does not stop at 
birds the very first day he is taken into the 
field. I have not had a setter, which was 
broke by force, for above twenty years ; nor 
ever will have one. Leave them at home 
only one week ; for the next two days you 
must turn to dog-breaking, and not to 
shooting. I prefer those between a poin- 
ter and a setter, which take after the setter ; 
for, generally speaking, they have better 


feet, which is a great point in a dog : for 
certain, they have more hair on their feet, 
which is a great preservative to the foot, if 
it be kept clean. I never kept a cocking 
spaniel in my life : I always shoot to poin- 
ters, even in the strongest covers, with bells 
round their necks. I know, for certain, you 
will not find so much game ; but then what 
you find, you are sure to shoot at. Here is 
the great benefit of shooting to pointers : 
you may shoot every day, in a wood, and 
not drive the rame away. But if you turn 

Questing Spa- o J J 

cocking spaniels into a wood, \^hich quest, 
when they come on the foot of a pheasant, 
in a very few days you will drive every 
The utility of pheasaiit out of the wood. A Newfound- 

a Newfound- 
land Dog. lajid dog^ tutored to keep behind you in the 

fields, and not to go above a dozen or 
twenty yards from you in a wood, is of 
wonderful utility, in retrieving and bring- 
ing wounded game. I have had several 
that were uncommonly useful. 

iiiefs drive all 
the Game 


I hope it will be satisfactory to you to fj^^Xfe-' 

1 ' n ^ 1 , n arms m per- 

be intormed, how to preserve your iire-arms feet order, for 

two or three 

ybr two or tJiree years loaded, and that they years. 
shall go off more lively, and with less dan- 
ger of hanging fire, than when fresh loaded. 
The method is very simple ; of course, so 
much the better. About once every month, 
or five weeks, lay your pistols — and, parti- 
cularly, ever on the morning before you 
travel — on the brass stand, on which toast 
and muffins are placed before the fire, with 
the butts and locks towards the fire, until 
they are quite Jiot through ; so hot, that you 
cannot hold your finger on the butt of the 
barrels and pans; then prick the touch-hole 
well, quite into the body of the powder. 
Thus the powder will be dried as perfectly 
as when it first was taken warm out of the 
drying- room, at the powder-mills; and will 
go off more sure, than powder which has 
lain in your horn for some time. 

There is no better defence for a house, 
than a double-gun, nor against robbers on 
the road; but be sure never to load it with 
a ball, but with Nos. 2 or 3, patent shot. If 




Never load a 
Gun, for the 
defence of 
your house, 
with Ball. 

a thief be forcing even your bed-room door^ 
shot will shoot through any common bed- 
room door, which is not made of three-inch 
oak, or mahogany. If you hear them in 
the house, throw up the Avindow, and cry 
out, Fire ! every body then will come to 
your assistance; but if you cry out. Thieves ! 
the devil of one will move, and, for certain, 
no watchman. 

I am told, by the officers in Bow- street, 
that the very first thing a thief does, when 
he breaks into a house, is to open both the 
front and back doors, so that, in case he be 
chsturbed, he may have a fair start. If you 
see him, from your window, brushing out, 
and your gun be loaded with a ball, j^ou 
most likely will miss him when you fire ; 
but, with shot, you are sure to stick as 
many into him, as v/ill employ a surgeon, 
for two. hours, to pick them out of his body. 
I always keep a duck-gun, loaded wdth two 
ounces and a half of No. 2, patent shot, by 
my bedside : this will pepper any one, even 
at one hundred yards distance. 

A gun may be kept in perfect order, by 


heating the barrels quite through, the same 
as I have directed for pistols*. Be sure 
your fire-arms are perfectly clean, when 
you load them ; for I have known arms to 
come home with much filth in the touch- 
holes, after having been cleaned at the 
gun-makers ; so much so, as to dirty three 
or four feathers passed into them. 

After the various remedies I have given> 
for the cure of disorders in the brute crea- 
tion, when I possess a receipt how to com- 
pose a most valuable tonic tincture, so bene- J^'^^'^ Tincturt 

A ' for weak, deli- 

ficial to the health and comfort of the most ^-t^wome«. 
lovely part of the creation, I should be 
justly condemned, in my neglect of the 
fair sex, were I not to make it known to 
them. To all delicate women, subject to 
fainting-fits, hysterics, lowness of spirits, 
and all nervous disorders whatever, the fol- 

* At this moment of time, I have a large musket, 
loaded with No. 2, standing by my bedside, which ha» 
been loaded considerably abote two i/ears, 



lowing tonic tincture, taken as prescribed, 
will be found a most valuable and effica- 
cious remedy; and a great comforter to 
all women far advanced in the decline of 
life :— 

Fiat thictura ance. quantum suff. 
Libram ter die surnat, 
Pmts and pounds are the same in che- 
mistry. The bottle to be put by the bed- 
side, at night, and to be taken whenever 
the cough is troublesome. 

You need not send to the apothecary's 
for this valuable tonic tincture : the doctor 
at the BOOZING ken can supply j^ou with it 
more genuine. There is still a better me- 
dicine, made of the same ingredients, for 
those who can afford it ; for it is conside- 
rably dearer : — 


Fiat tinctura Collegii Londincjisis, 

Appellatus Sen EX Thomas. 

This medicine, being infinitely more 

powerful than the foregoing prescription* 

only half the quantity, as above prescribed,. 

must be taken. To save ladies the trouble 


of applying, either to their man-midwife, 
or their bodi/ parso?2, or priest, to interpret 
the above Latin prescription, as it stands 
sanctioned by the London College of Physi- 
cians, in the Pharmacopia Collegii Londi- 
jzaisis — 

Send to the slum cove at the boozing-ken, 
to give you a sufficient quantity of OLD 
TOM. I have frequently witnessed its sur- 
prising effects on women of all ages, from 
fifteen to fourscore, and upwards : it should 
always be taken instead of tea, both morn- 
ing and evening ; for tea, to delicate, hys- 
terical, and nervous women, is hurtful. 
Those who are unacquainted with the won- 
derful, salubrious effect of this tonic medi- 
cine, when they have once tried it, will 
ever after bless and praise my kindness, 
for having imparted this valuable recipe to 

Oentlemen sportsmen ! I have led you 
into the field, and now I will regale you in 
it: let some one come to you, at a particu- 

154 Colonel hanger to 

lar appointed place, about two o'clock at 
noon, with a few bottles of mild ale, bread, 
and sufficient of the following meat, for 
yourself and friend. It is thus prepared: 
A Field Regale j'ake d fiut Touiid of bccf, four ounces of salt- 

for Sportsmen. •-' j j ^ j j 

petre, three-quarters of an ounce of all-spice ; 
rub it well on the beef, and let it stand tiventy- 
four hours; the?! rub in as much common salt 
as will salt it. Lay it by twelve days, turnmg 
it every day; then put it into a pan, such as 
large pies are baked in, with three or four 
pounds of beef-suet, some under, some over. 
Cover it with a thick crust, and bake it for six 
hours. It will keep for two months, — It is 
called sportsmen's beef; and most excel- 
lent it is. 

I shall now make you acquainted with 
a few receipts, useful for every family to be 
' acquainted with; and begin with one which 
J"/jhJs^^^^^J^ I never knew fail: I have given it to 
many : it is a remedy for the scurvy. 1 will 
inform j^ou how I first was acquainted with 
its efficacy: About eighteen years ago I 


was going to dine with an old acquaintance, 
a hearty and hospitable Norfolk farmer, 
with another farmer in company, who was 
shooting with me. The farmer complained 
that he was much troubled with the scurv}^ 
The old farmer said, *'I will cure you to a 
certainty,'' and thus proceeded. 

" A few years ago, I was so terribly 
afflicted with scurvy, that my whole body 
nearly was one eruption. I had tried the 
Lynn, Norwich, and Bury physicians, and 
had even gone to London for advice, but 
they none of them could cure me. Sitting 
at my door, an old gipsey woman, hearing 
me complain, told me she would cure me ; 
for that she had cured hundreds. I told 
her, I would try her medicine, if she would 
tell me of what it was made, and that I 
would feed her, and give her a warm birth 
and clean straw in my stable, and five gui- 
neas, provided she performed a cure. The 
bargain was made, I took her medicine, 
and in about three weeks every scale I had 
on my body fell off. I was perfectly 
cured, and never have had it again to any 
extent ; for, when I see the smallest erup- 


tion on my skin, I take the medicine, for 
five or six days." — It is thus composed : 
Take two parts of flower of brim- 

MORNING, the first thing you do, when you 
get up, before your breakfast: — milk is only 
the vehicle to take it in ; you may take it 
in any thing else. The farmer with me 
took it ; he had scales on his arms^ breast, 
and thighs ; he was cured in three weeks, 
In the course of eighteen years, I have 
given it to many, and never knew it fail. 
It is not above three months ago, when, 
sitting in a public-house, a gentleman came 
in, and said, *' Colonel Hanger, I am infi- 
nitely obliged to you, fpr having cured me 
completely of the scurvy." 

warmMiik A ladv of uw acQuaiutance was so ex-- 

from the Cow, c/ j i 

consei -e of trcmelv unwcll, that I was of opinion she 

Roses, ^r. Rum 

fy''nu?4'iout ^^'^ gc>ing into a decline. She took the 

& an excellent /»n • /» . , -. -, iii 

thing to beta- loiloT* lup^ tor SIX wccks, and her health was 

ken by anyone ^ 

Sriniot perfectly re-established : — Half a pint of 




VERY BEST RUM. Take it the first thing in 
the morning. There are many old persons 
whose appetites are quite gone, who, to my 
knowledge, are kept alive for a time, by 
drinking half a pint of milk, with a small 
quantity of rum in it, three or four times 
a day ; but not with any conserve of roses. 
Remember that old persons, who wish to 
try this, must first boil the milk, and let it 
get tolerably cool; for all milk, when it 
has once got cold, if not boiled, will 

The following gargle for sore throats, I dficST^ 
have seen often tried with surprising effect : sore'^Throat. 
Take a large handful of red sage, (not 
the common garden sage,) boil it in one 


WITH HONEY. You maj^, if you please, add 
two small wine-glasses of port wine. A 
person of my acquaintance, had a fever and 
most violent sore throat, so bad that he 
could scarcely swallow spoon-meat : the 


apothecary had prescribed a gargle for four 
days, which had done no good : — he used 
the above, and in twelve hours, was cured, 
I have tried this often, 

pS'o'f™sa^fnJ I will instruct you how to make one 
ejght-pence. pint of salinc draughts, for about six or eight 
pence, which quantity, from the apothe- 
cary*&, will cost nine shillings ; six draughts, 
at eighteen-pence each. — Take two scru- 

UP w^iTH BOILING w^ATER : — take a small 
wine-glass at a time. 

wonaerfui^ef- About cight ycars ago, I was as violently 

Sren^^hening ^fflicted as any person ever was, who reco- 

an*d Bowels, vcrcd. My stomach, after it, for some time, 

was so weak, that I could not keep the 

victuals on it, long enough to nourish me. 



without taking half a grain of opiunfi, be- 
fore breakfast, and one grain before dinner. 
I asked two physicians, whether it would ^ 

be detrimental to me, to continue taking the 
opium ; they both said, that, in time, my 
stomach would be stronger, and that I should 
leave off taking the opium by degrees. 
A few days after, my old friend Captain John 
WilHam Lloyd called on me, and told me 
that he would put my stomach to rights ; — 
that numbers of people, in the same wa\^ as 
me, had been cured. It was, to take one 


I had not taken it above three weeks be- 
fore my stomach was perfectly well. When- 
ever I find my stomach the least lax, I 
always take it for a few days, and it has an 
astonishing effect on me. 

I have already mentioned that the lotion . 
for bruises, blows, sprains, and all outward InmesfB^iows, 
injuries, received by horses, is as beneficial outward inju- 

•^ ^ *^ vies to the Hu- 

to the human race, as it is tof the brute ^^^^^ S'S'the 
creation, I repeat it again, for I have 

Brute Creation 


experienced its powerful effects, a great" 
number of times, and I recommend every 
family, in case of accidents, to keep a bottle 
of it in their house; it is by far the most 
sovereign medicine I ever used. 


The great be- I HAVE knowH horscs, in trifling lame- 

«efit of loose . i i c* i c i * 

stabies. nesses, receive much beneiit irom bemg 

turned into a loose stable ; and all valuable 
horses should be kept in loose stables. I 

Of cracking am ccrtaltt, if you crack the oats for horses, 

OatsforHorses . , . i r j\ i J.^ i. 

m a machme made tor taat purpose, that 
three feeds will do a horse nearly as much good as 

* In Qiedical books we read, that, from experiments 
tried, the gastric juices do not operate on any sort of 
grain, when swallowed whole into the stomach, so as to 
procure the digestion of the grain : but only when it 
be chewed or broken : so that all grain swallowed whole 
passes through the animal undigested, and of course 


A horse has a very sweet tooth, — when Brown sugar, 

. mixed in Wa- 

he be unwell and wont drink, 7nix molasses ter, win make 

a sick Horse 

or coarse brozvn sugar in the water : he will ^""^ ^^^^^y- 
then drink freely. 

The best stopping I know to make horses' pi^n\\o'supp?e 

hard Feet, and 

feet grow, or to supple hard leet, which ^ake them 
are subject to crack, is linseed boiled, and, 
when moderately cool, applied to the feet. 

I have been informed by an agriculturist oSHStt!' 
who has written on agriculture, and the 
feeding of cattle, that the following cheap 
food will do for all horses, which work in 
the stages, and draft-horses; — not for mail- 
coach horses, nor post-chaise horses ; they 
must be full fed with oats. — Half a peck 

does him no benefit. This plainly proves how great an 
advantage you gain by cracking the oats: — how 
wonderful it is, also, that the gastric juices operate 
only on dead flesh, both in the human body, and in the 
body of carnivorous animals. If it operated on living 
flesh, it would destroy the intestines. Jn various 
works of divine nature, how evidently do we see the 
hand-workmanship, and wisdom of an omnipotent, all 
wise, incomprehensible Deity! — 

** Whatever is^ is right" ^ 




rheyno"wrie?^ Ill my youtliful days, farmers' daughters 
put their re|,d cloaks on, and the milking- 
pails on their shoulders, went out before 
dawn of day into the field, to milk the 
COWS, and before they had gone a hundred 
yards, generally split a cow - turd with 
their feet, — but now, if one of them look 
even out at the door, the servant cries out, 
*' Miss, pray do not go out, you will wet 
your feet, and catch cold." Formerly, 
when the lasses came home from milking, 
they had a rasher of bacon, broiled on the 
coals, for breakfast, and a pint of mild ale, — • 
washed their face at the pump, and rubbed 


it well, to make the blood circulate, with a 
coarse towel ; — now, viiss must wash her 
face, or rather not wash it at all, with cream, 
or some other cursed nastiness; and breakfast 
on the finest tea and sugar, and a delicate, 
small, thin piece of buttered toast ; and not 
eat heartily, for fear of growing too gross, 
and spoiling her complection. Formerly 
the lasses, in fine weather, used to dance on 
the green, with the lads ; but now miss is 
taught to dance, and to sing, and play on 
the piano-forte : then she must attend all 
the county balls : — the captain gets ac- 
quainted with her; mamma remarks, what 
an attentive, polite, and elegant man, the 

captain is. The captain dances with miss, she dances 

with the Cap- 
frequently, and at last, when the regiment t^^uni^ bIus 

marches, the captain dances off with her, 

and she is never heard of in the county 


In former days, farmers' daughters went 

in a cart to market, to sell butter, eggs, 

poultry, young pigs, &c. : now they are 

driving all over the county in elegant taxed- 

carts; visiting, romping, and rioting all 



Custom IS 
every thing. 

Difference in 
the bringing 
up of Little 
Miss & Little 

over the land.* You mav^ as well, now-a- 
days, ask a farmer s daughter to milk the 
bull, as to milk a cow. Then, to imitate 
women of fashion, at the balls, they dress 
half naked ; neck and arms quite bare> and 
the gown cut down so low in the back, 
that you absolutely may see their rumps. 
I remember, many years ago, if a person 
had walked down St. James's Street, with 
an umbrella, and strings in his shoes, it 
would have occasioned much censure ; but 
now all the priests and footmen wear and 
carry both. 

Custom is prevalent, and custom estab- 
lishes every thinir ; for the same nurse who 
looks after little miss, and little master, 
tells little miss, provided she shews only 
one inch of her ancle — *' O fie, miss, for 
shame, you shew your ancle ; that is very 
indelicate ;" and, with the next breath, she 

* In all these rom pings and riotings, provided they 
-do not get hove, or sprung, as cattle do which swell in 
the bod}^ from eating clover, it is all very well ; that 
is a very troublesome disorder, and is seldom got rid 
of under nine months. 


tells little master to take up his coats and 
piss like a man. — So it is, custom governs 
and sanctions every thing ; or how could 
the most delicate and decent women per- 
mit a man-midwife, six feet high and two 
feet broad, over the loins, to attend them 
during their pregnancy ; taking liberties, 
onl]^ professionally, to know whether the 
child lies right. Sec, and, after that, to de- 
liver them ? 

I have often thought that we men have thegvest loss 

^ Mankind sus- 

lost a very great benefit and pleasure from bdn^'^'i^^^le- 
women not having studied physic, so as to dLl^^^^'" 
\.?i^^ owt \h.€\x diplomas as physicians; for, 
when I was a young man, I must confess 
that it v/ould have been extremely satisfac- 
tory to me, when the complaint was so 
desperate, as to render it necessary to call 
in two female physicians, in order that they 
might attend diligently to my disorder, to 
request them both to pass the night with 
me, and partake of my bed ; and then, in 
the morning, for their kind attention to my 
disorder, dismiss them with a liberal fee *. 

'"^ To be sure; there are some dkorders in man which 



I think it would not be a bad speculation, 
to plant a great many acres with fig-trees ; 
for, if the Avomen go on progressively, as 
they have for many years, the good old 
custom of our grandmother Eve will be 
adopted, and nothing but a fig-leaf be 

Try No. 2, pa- Gcntlemcn-sportsmen, I can have no 

teat Shot, in- * ^ 

stead of No. 5 persoual nor self-interested view, in request- 
ing you, for two .or three days, to slioot 
with No. 2, patent, — you, who at present 
shoot with No. 5, and 6 : don't begin to 
try it till October, when the birds are 
strong, and rise at a much greater distance. 
I give you my word, from convincing prac- 
tice, that two shots of No. 2 will kill a 
bird at above seventy yards ; when seven 

might put a lady to the blush to examine, at first; but 
if they would but consider what great liberties the fair 
sex allow men-midvvives to take with them, without 
ever blushing, I am of opinion that, with a little time 
and practice, they might handle any part of a man 
with the same indifference as they would handle a 
cucumber or a carrot. 


of No. 5 or 6 will only maim the bird, but 
wound him so, that, although he will fly 
away, and you never get him, he undoubt- 
edly may die. At least, gentlemen, I think 
it is fairly worthy of giving it a trial : but 
let me ask you a question ! Do you ever 
expect to kill an old hare with No, 5 or 0, 
at seventy yards ? Upon my word, she 
will canter on and laugh at you. I assure 
you, on my word, / have killed some dozens 
above seventy yards ivith No, 2. Now pray 
observe of what infinite advantage it will 
be to your manor, provided you order your 
gamekeeper, after the first month of Sep- 
tember, ever to shoot with No. 2 ; morning 
and evening, late and early, when vermin 
ever rove, if he falls in with a kite, hawk, 
carrion-crow, magpie, or any four-legged 
vermin, he is ever prepared to destroy 
them *. 

* I beg leave to call your attention to two facts 
which are stated in the foregoing pages : the first is, 
my having killed a partridge above seventy yards^ put 
three shots into him, two of which went in behind, 
passed through his body, and went out at his breast. 
The second is, a man, shooting with me, having killed 

M 2 


I shall end with giving you a certain 
ointment, with which j^ou may rub a pair of 
boots, and walk four or five hours in water^ 
snipe-shooting, and never be wet. Take 


melt the three first in an earthen-pot, and 
then add the turpentine. Lay it on when 
the leather is dry, and warmed before the 
fire. This ointment must be well rubbed in 
before the fire y and when the leather is tole- 
rably dry. 

a hare, putting three or four shot into her at above 
tightly yards. Can you do the same with No. 5, or 
No. 6 ? I answer, No ; you cannot ; it is not possible. 
Upon my word, I should not imagine that I should be 
in any degree of danger of receiving material injury, 
were I to allow any person to fire at my hinder parts, 
at four-score 3'ards, with No. 6, provided I had a good 
pair of buckskin breeches, and particularly had I a 
great-coat on, — not of any peculiar thick cloth, but 
superfine only. I do not believe that any shot would 
penetrate that coat strong enough, even to give me 
pain. So firm is my preference of No. 2, to No. 5 or 
6, that I think the point cannot be contested. — Look 
to pheasant-shooting ; the bird has a small body, 
but the plumage is very thick. 


Manv years ao'o, I used to be satisfied 
provided my gun, at forty measured yards, 
with equal measure of powder and shot, 
would shoot through a quire of foolscap 
writing-paper. Recollect that there are 
four-and-twenty sheets in the quire; but, 
as it is always sold doubled, so it must be 
fired at, and will present to you forty- 
«ight half-sheets : and, in these days, even 
though I have guns, which will shoot 
stronger, yet a man may be satisfied with 
one which will perform as I have stated, 
for it must be deemed a good gun. Re- 
member the shot must be No, 3, patent, — 
neither larger nor smaller. 

Provided any gentleman, whom I am 
acquainted with, when he meets me, will 
ask me, I will instruct him how he can 
entice hares, which pass over his grounds, 
to stop aiid remain on them ; and how to 
entice them, by food in winter, and espe- 
cially how to make them frequent any 
one pailicular wood or plantation on his 
grounds. But any gentleman who may 


live near to where I may have a sporting 
cottage, cannot in reason expect me to im- 
part this valuable method to him. 


Howtoicnow I have omitted informinsr you of what 

the age or a o J 

^e^fix^'yeirs^ wiU bc vcry useful, and is not so generally 
known as it ought to be, for I have known 
several gamekeepers and huntsmen not the 
least acquainted wdth it : it' is to know the 
age of a dog until he be sLv years old ; after 
which period you cannot ascertain his age, 
A dog has a ver}^ Adsible mark in his teeth, 
as well as a horse, which mark does not 
disappear totally until he be very near, or 
full, six years old Look to the four front 
teeth, both in the upper and lower jaw, but 
particularly to the teeth in the upper jaw; 
for, in those four front teeth, the mark re- 
mains longest : at twelve months old, you 
will observe every one of the four front 
teeth, both in the upper and under jaw, 
jagged and uneven, nearly in the form of 
a flower de luce, but not quite so pointed, at 
the edges of the jags, as a flower de luce is. 
As the dog advances in age, these marks 


will wear away, gradually decrease, and 
grow smoother and less jagged every year. 
Between three and four years old, th^se 
marks will be full half worn down ; and 
when you observe all the four front teeth, 
both in the upper and lower jaw, quite worn 
smooth and even, and not in the least 
jagged, then you may conclude that the 
dog is nearly, if not full six years old. When 
those marks are quite worn flat and even, 
and those teeth quite level and even, you 
can no longer judge the age of a dog. I 
have seen many huntsmen and game- 
keepers ignorantly look at the side and eye 
teeth of a dog ; they might as well look 
under his tail ; for I have seen many dogs, 
not two years old, which have had the can- 
ker in the mouth, with hardly one sound 
tooth in their heads. 


sportsmen's DOGS. 

I cannot Gonclude this publication 
without expressing my abhorrence of a most 
cruel, unjustifiable, and ungentlemanhke 
practice, which I have too often observed 
in travelling the king's high roads in 
Suffolk and Norfolk ; — • namely, thus 
written up on boards : Poison for dogs 
IS laid in this PLANTATION. Before I 
proceed further on this subject, I recom- 
mend to those persons who call th^nlselves 
gentlemen, v/ho sanction such an outra- 
geous and unjustifiable act, to consult their 
own personal feelings, and study that golden 
rule, which tl^e good Roman Emperor 
Alexander, the son of Mammia, had 
engraved on the avenues leading to his 
palace, and in all the public courts of jus- 
tice : Alteri ne feceris ouid tibi 
fieri non vis ; and that divine, moral. 



and ethical command tons in Scripture : Do 


person be possessed of a park, free warren, 
or plantation, paled in, I believe the law 
of the land gives him great power and 
command, more than it can do, or does in 
other places ; but, sanctioned as he may be 
by law, I will ask him hy the law of honor, 
whether he be justified in doing an injury 
to a neighbour, who has no intent of design 
to molest him, or interfere with his private 
concerns ? 

For instance, 1 will first state the case in 
the strongest light, then in a most unjustifi- 
able one : — A qualified man has a manor 
of his own, or has permission, from the 
owner of the land, to sport on his lands, 
which is equally as good. These lands run 
up close to the park, free w^arren, or planta- 
tion, of another person : a hare gets up ; a 
valuable pointer follows that hare, jumps 
the paling, and, in half an hour after his 
return, lies down and dies, poisoned, at his 
master^s feet. Now I will state the case in 
quite a different point of view: — A quahfied 
man, in the evening, is returning to the 


place whence he came, after having sported 
on a manor, on which he has leave from 
the landholder to sport, 'and on the king's 
public highway he is travelling, on each 
side of which runs a plantation, bounded 
but by a very slight hedge, and frequently 
not by any hedge at all. A hare, disturbed, 
perchance, crosses the road ; a valuable 
dog runs into the plantation, after the 
hare, and, in less than half an hour, lies 
down and dies, poisoned, at his master's feet. 
I ask, in honor, can any law sanction so 
base an outrage, committed on an unoffen- 
ding man, who is not sporting, nor has 
even attempted to hunt a dog the whole 
daj^ on that man's land ; but is travelling 
home, on the king's high pubhc road? 
Remember this shall happen in open day- 
light, I trust in my God I never shall fmd 
myself in so disagreeable a predicament, — 
but, should I unfortunately be so situated, / 
solemnly declare^ I would resent it in the 
same manner as I w^ould a personal injury 
done to me, or the gross insult of a man 
spitting in my face. There is some reason 
to be given for laying poison by night in 


woods, to destroy poachers' dogs, who 
come, by night, to drive with their dogs 
to their nets and snares ; but then, I am 
firmly of opinion, that the man w^ho lays it, 
and does not take it up at dawn of day, 
long before sun-rise, richly deserves to have 
the portion forced down his own throat. 
However, so far I am resolved as to make 
myself thoroughly acquainted wnth the 
legality or illegality of this outrageous 
practice, by consulting an eminent law^yer, 
w^ho has written on, and made the game- 
laws his particular study : then I shall find 
myself more at home on this subject ; then 
I shall know how to proceed against such 
outrages, sanctioned by persons callirig 
themselves gentlemen. 

In respect of laying poison in a planta- 
tion, or wood, close to, and bordering on, the 
king's highway, either hy day or nighty I am 
firmly of opinion, that every liberal-minded 
man wall agree with me, that it is an unjust- 
ifiable act. By night, even, it cannot, in 
justice and honour, be sanctioned : suppose, 
for instance, a gentleman be travelling after 
.dark, on a high public road, as many do, 


and which I myself have often done, to 
shoot, the next da}^ on a manor Avhere he 
has leave ; and his dog be poisoned ; can any 
man, in honour , justify the act? It is unwar- 
rantable to lay poison, either by day or 
ijight, in a wood or plantation, close to the 
high public road. If poison be laid at ail, 
surely it should never be laid but in woods, 
remote from high public roads. In such 
places, no dogs, but those belonging to 
night poachers, can suffer; but, close to a 
pubhc highw^ay, the dog of an unoffending, 
travelling sportsman, may suffer. Such an 
act, I avow publicly as my opinion, is un- 
just, illiberal, and an outrage on the com- 
munity, which cannot, in honour, he sanc- 
tioned. Such haughty tyrants, I know, 
were it not for our salutary laws which pro- 
tect us, would ride, rough-shod, over that 
part of the creation, who, unfortunately, 
were so situated, as to be at their mercy. 
However, let such men, possessed of every 
thing in life to make it valuable to them, 
recollect, that many have lost their lives 
by a far less injury done to a fellow- 


Now, allowing the great difference iu 
value, between the life of a human being 
and the life of a dog, I will draw a parallel : 
A man lives near to a country school ; he 
has his garden robbed of fruit : boys, not re- 
flecting thatthereis a very severe punishment 
for such an offence, will take fruit. Should 
the owner of a garden, when the fruit is 
ripe, gather the greatest part of his fruit, 
and leave only a kw on the walls, inserting 
into every peach or nectarine, poison ; the 
boys come and take this fruit, and are poi- 
soned ; would he not be deemed, by all 
the civilized part of mankind, a monster of 
inhumanity; and would he not be hanged? 
The school-boys have done him an injury, 
and have occasioned him a loss ; but the in- 
offensive dog has not. By my God, I am 
of opinion, that the man who would do the 
one act, would commit the other crime to 
any one, to whom he bore a dislike and 
hatred ; did he not know, that for such a 
deed he would be hanged. In both the 
above cases, baseness, criminality, and in- 
humanity, are evident. It is true that, in 
one case, the law takes greater cognizance 


of the crime, than in the other ; but the 
severer punishment, in the one case, does 
not do away the turpitude in the other : 
yet such persons call themselves gentle- 
men. I am ignorant in what school of li- 
berality, and honour, such principles and 
actions are inculcated. For myself, I 
frankly avow, that I abhor such monsters 
of oppression and injustice, who dare to 
infringe on the social orders of society. 

I am informed, and will make myself 
better acquainted wdth this practice, that, 
by the law of the land, no person whatever 
can lay poison on any ground whatever 
which is not walled in, aye, and that wall 
must be of a certain height also. When I 
have made myself acquainted with the 
statutes on that subject, the public may 
rest assured that I will make them publicly 
known in the newspapers ; and will also 
cause printed bills, inserting the very words 
in the statutes, against such practice, with 
the penalties inflicted by the law, on such 
offenders ; and will cause such printed bills 
to be pasted up in the public markets of 
the great towns in Norfo^ and Suffolk. 


Then sportsmen will be able to punish 
such oftenders, by indicting them, NOT at 

but, by giving them notice to appear 

AT WESTMINSTER: there you will have 
ample justice done you. I am of opinion 
these poisoning gentlemen will be soon tired 
of this practice : they will not only suffer 
in their purses, but will be held up, by the 
publishing of such trials in the newspapers, 
to the contempt and abhorrence of all 

A few words more before I quit this 
subject. I address myself to that respect- 
able body of farmers, whose liberality, hos- 
pitality, and kindness, I have so frequently 
experienced. I have frequently been in- 
vited by them (by the bye, who have had 
long leases of their farms,) to come and 
sport on their grounds, saying : *' Go you 
and shoot on my farm, and on my neigh- 
bour's farm, who dines with us to-day; 
and if any one asks you what right you 
have to shoot there, tell them you have 


leave from Farmer A. and Farmer B. to 
shoot on their farms/' 

I have heard that sportsmen have had 
their dogs shot. There is a very heavy 
penalty for shooting a qualified man*s dog*. 
But I swear, by heaven, that, hovrever 
heavy the penalty may be, that would not 
satisfy me ; for that, I would instantly 
shoot his horse, and stand prepared with 
the other barrel to defend my own person ; 
and I always go prepared with a few bul- 
lets sewed up in greased linen : a ball is 
quickly rammed down ; and a patched, 
greased ball will shoot pretty near as true 
as a rifle, to the distance of seventy or 
eighty yards, if not to one hundred. 

But to return to my friends the farmers. 
A farmer has a valuable mastiff dog, which 
protects his premises by night, and is a safe- 
guard to his person by day: he walks 

* And there is a more heavy action against the 
master of that keeper, provided he sanctions that un- 
warrantable act : this action is called The Statute of 
Powder and Ball at about twelve paces! 


across his fields to see a friend ; the dog 
with him : this dog cannot hunt, nor even 
disturb game ; but a hare, disturbed by 
some other person, runs past him ; — the 
dog will naturally follow the hare to the 
wood : he returns poisoned ! This farmer 
shall have two valuable sheep-dogs, which 
are absolutely necessary to him in his line 
of business ; the same may happen to those 
sheep-dogs. Now, what a time it will take 
to breed up and tutor two such dogs; and 
what a time it must take before this injury 
can be repaired. Is not the mastiff of infi- 
nite value and use, also, to his master? — I 
am sick of writing so much respecting such 
inhuman persecutors and annoy ers of the 
happiness of society : away with such 
wretches ; no more concerning them. 

I shall now proceed in respect to war- 
reners. To these fellows I will shew no 
indulgence, for they deserve none. War- 
reners are the most notorious poachers and 
destroyers of game ; and, from their line 
of business, they have such advantages, and 
are so situated, that it is scarcely possible 
to fmd them out. How^ many hares, par- 


:j8« colonel hanger to 

tridges, and pheasants, have I, in my Hfe- 
time, shot near to warrens, which had lost 
one foot *. 

A warren is a most destructive thing to 
a manor. A gamekeeper, last season, told 
me, having an order to send a basket of 
game to London, he shot four brace of 
partridges, and two brace of pheasants; 
two of the pheasants and three of the par- 
tridges had but one foot. A warrener, who 
follows his business correctly, sets his traps 
at the mouth of the rabbit-holes ; but, 
when they set traps in the paths across the 
warrens, which is called trapping high, it 
can be done for no other purpose than to 
catch hares, going across in those paths. 
I am surprised that gentlemen do not have 
all the rabbit - vans and higlers' carts 
searched ; they carry quantities of game to 
London. The lord-mayor, a very few 
years ago, searched all the poulterers' shops 
in Leadenhall-market, and found cart-loads 
of game. It is true some game comes by 

* I have frequently found hares lying near to war- 
rens, which have had only three legs. 


the coaches, but by far the greater part 

I am informed that warreners are pro^^ 
hibited setting traps between sun-rise and 
sun-set : I shall make myself well ac- 
quainted with this law, and, if there be 
such an one, I will make the first offender 
appear before our sovereign lord the King-, 
at Westminster, to answer for his non-ob- 
servance of such law. When I have leave 
to shoot on a manor, I have a right to 
shoot on the warren also. Is it not scan- 
dalous that I should run the risk of having 
a valuable pointer lamed for ever, by being- 
caught in one of those infernal warrener's 
traps ? 

I have twice in my life found pieces of 
flesh hung upon sticks in warrens : I sus- 
pect the flesh was poisoned : I threw the 
flesh into the first v>^ater I came to : but 
the next I find I will take to a chemist and 
have it analysed ; when I will severely punish 
such infamous offenders. What! am I, a 
qualifled man, having leave to sport on a 
manor, to be subjected to the risk of having 
my dogs poisoned, vv^hen I drive game 

N 2 


on that warren and follow it? If there be 
furze or fern on a warren, birds are sure to 
fly there. 

I now recommend to all sportsmen, who 
shoot near warrens, to carry a box of pills 
with them, each pill containing twenty 
GRAINS OF WHITE VITRIOL : this is the most 
powerful emetic which can be given, and 
will operate in nearly one minute after it be 
taken. Go as fast as you can to the first 
house, should your dog swallow any flesh 
laid on warrens ; give him one of these pills, 
and, if it does not make him sick in three 
minutes, give him another : the moment he 
begins to vomit, drench him well with warm 
water ; by this method you will for certain 
save your dog. 


A Plan for the formation of a Corps, which 
never has been raised as y^t in any Army in 
Europe : in which Corps singly shall be 
comprised all the strength, activity, energy, 
and skill of four Corps, namely, a regular 
Battalion, a Corps of Light-Infantry, a 
Corps of Sharp-shooters, and a Corps of 
Rifle - Marksmen. 

X HE proposed corps must, at the very 
lowest, consist of 2000 men; on account 
of the enemy's regiments and corps being 
so strong in numbers. 

This corps, as it will be proved in the 
sequel, shall, in itself, comprise all the 
solidity, activity and skill, of three dis- 
tinct corps ; namely, the strength, solidity 
and force of fire, of a regular battalion in 
close order ; the activity, energy and 
rapidity in charge, of British light-infantry, 

acting either at open order or double open 
order, as particular cases and situations may 
require ; together with the destructive skill 
of a rifleman acting a la debandade ; nay, 
more, they shall act at such loose order, as 
to imitate the subtle art of the Indian, who 
endeavours always to steal away the life of 
an enemy, without exposing himself to 

Thus the perfection and distinct powers 
of three corps may be united in one, 

I am bold enough to assert that no such 
corps has ever been produced in Europe, and 
trust, that, with truth I may say, I am the 
first officer, who has laid down a method, 
by which a single coi^ps shall perform every 
duty which three species of troops can perform, 
namely, that of regular battalfon soldiers, 
light-infantry, and irregular rifle marks- 

Before I proceed to relate particulars, it 
is absolutely necessary to remark, that 
what I have above stated, cannot be per- 
formed, unless a gun can be produced, 
which can be loaded, by any battalion 
soldier in the line, with cartridges and be 


fired as many times in one minute, as he 
can discharge his common musket ; which 
very same gun can also shoot with the same 
precision as the best rifle-gun at any dis- 
tance. , 

Such a gun I pledge myself to produce ; 
which gun and bayonet together, shall be 
EQUAL in LENGTH to every soldier*s musket 
and bayonet ; shall be loaded and fired 

SOLDIER'S MUSKET; shall weigh lighter* 
than a musket; shall fire, when loaded 
with cartridges, with sufficient precision at 
100 yards to hit the figure of a man, and 
shall fire at three hundred yards with the 
same precision that any rifle will ; and with 
precision at greater distances. 

* This gun will be nearly the same weight as a sol- 
dier's musket. The rifle-guns made for our rifle corps 
are all too light in the barrel. If a sufficient charge 
of powder were put in, so as to throw a ball with any 
certainty five hundred yards into a body of men, they 
would knock the man down who fires them ; and a 
rifleman who cannot throw a ball into a column, at 
that distance, is badly armed to harass an enemy on 
their line of march. 


This corps shall perform all General 
Dundas's eighteen manoeuvres, in solid 
battalion,* shall be trained to every light 
infantry manoeuvre, and, after a certain 
time given to practise them, shall be 
tolerably good marksmen, when used as 
riflemen ; I say, tolerably good riflemen, 
for it is not possible even for anj^ officer, 
w^ho has served in a German jager corps ; 
who has made it his study to enquire into 
and to make himself acquainted, during a 
war of seven years, with the skill and 

* I am of opinion, provided this corps was constantly 
practised to march in line, in close order, both to slow 
and quick time, to form columns, and from columns to 
form the line, that it would be sufficient ; those 
manoeuvres being the most essential to a regular bat- 
talion in the day of battle : at all other times they 
should be drawn up as light infantry, and should 
never be placed in the line of battle in close order, 
excepting when real necessity requires it, from a want 
of a sufficient number of regular battalions; on the 
contrary, they should ever be employed on the flanks of 
the army. The officer commanding such a corps, pro- 
vided he had seen much active service, before the 
enemy, should have great latitude given him, to act 
according to his own judgment, as circumstances might 
point out to hiai in the day of battle. 


judgment of a German jager, and the 
unerring arid surprising skill of the American 
back-woodsman, as I have done; and who, 
from the age of sixteen, has made the use, 
perfection, and construction of the rifle, 
and all other species of arms, both his study 
and pleasure, — to train a common British 
soldier to shoot with the same degree of 
precision as a German jager will do, or an 
American back- woodsman, although he 
may be made a very formidable marksman 
before an enemy. The reason why they 
can never arrive at so high a degree of per- 
fection, I will state ; and, as I shall bring 
forward reasons, founded only in common 
sense, to prove my assertions, I trust they 
must be judged intelligible and Avill be 
plainly understood. 

The following are my reasons : 
A British soldier can 7iever be taught to be 
2i perfect judge of different distances. Place 
an object, in the shape and size of a man, 
at 150 5^ards distant, ask him how far that 
object is from him, one will say 100 j^ards, 
another will say 200 yards. Place the 
same object at 200 yards from him, he, 


most likeh^ will display more ignorance 
respecting v/hat distance the object is from 
him. Place the same object at 300 j^ards, 
you may as well not ask him the distance 
at ail, for that distance is totally beyond his 
scale of judgment. 

Now the German jager, brought up in 
the forests to shoot at every thing, for the 
sake of practice, which presents itself, with 
the rifle, from the age of fifteen, is taught 
all distances by the practice of years; for 
he can never offer himself to serve any 
gentleman as a jager, unless he can produce 
certificates from the masters of the forests, 
that he has served an apprenticeship of 
seven years, and is a perfect shot. Jagers, 
from their natural servitude and great prac- 
tice, are in no want of being taught dis- 
tances ; the knowledge and precision of 
judging different distances comes to them 
naturally from practice, from their early 

The American back-woodsman has a 
much greater field to exercise his talents by 
practice, from living in a country cultivated 
only around his own log-wood hut, for a 


very short extent ; has woods extensive 
and swamps impenetrable to every soul but 
to those, who, by daily practice, are well 
acquainted with its dreary and swampy 
obstacles, which contain various animals, 
such as the wild pig, the wolf, the bear, the 
panther (which the Americans call painter), 
the deer, the fox, both grey and brown, the 
beaver, the racoon and the opossum. 

Not only their own cattle are shot with 
the rifle, but, when they go to the hunting 
grounds to kill the wild cattle for their 
tallow and skins, they use no other gun. 
The wild turkey is shot with a rifle ; nay, 
even birds and squirrels, from the very top 
of the loftiest trees in the woods. No small- 
shot gun, during my residence of seven 
years of the war in America, was ever kept 
in the house of a back- woodsman. You 
will often see a boy, not above ten years of 
age, driving the cattle home, but not 
without a rifle on his shoulder: they never 
stir, out, on any business, nor on a journey, 
without their rifle ; practice, from their 
infancy, teaches them all distances. 

Provided I am able to make any soldier. 


who cannot discriminate between differenl dis- 
taiicesy shoot as well, at all distances, as a 
man who is a perfect judge of distances, I trust 
that I may claim some credit amongst military 

Ijudge it necessary to give a description 
how all rifle-guns are sighted. Rifles, to 
shoot at long distances, have always two 
sights, and generally three ; the first to 
shoot about 120 yards, the second at 200 
yards, and the third at 300, sometimes m.ore 
and sometimes less, according to the dis- 
tances to which the gun, with the different 
sights, was shot in and regulated. It must 
be acknowledged, that it is of but little use 
to give a rifle-gun, with three sights to it, 
to a common soldier, who cannot discrimi- 
nate distances, for he will not know how to 
use them properly, and will generally use 
the wrong sight ; but I pledge myself to 
produce a gun so Gx\uged, and with but one 
sight to it, which, if the man does but aim 
straight, shall, with this single siglit only, 
constantly hit the figure of a man at every 
differ pit distance from 100 to 300 yards, I 
beg I may be understood. I do by no 


means pretend to say that I can make any 
soldier lire, with the same precision at 300 
yards as he can at 100, for that 1 know 
the most expert jager or American woods^ 
man cannot do ; but I will prove that the 
gun can perform what I have stated. Pro- 
vided I prove this, which I bind myself to 
do, it must be allowed that I obviate the 
greatest difficulty and obstacle in teaching 
British soldiers to be marksmen at all dis- 
tances ; for at once I can obviate their want 
of discrimination of distances and totally do 
awa}^ the grand obstacle in teaching British 
soldiers to be formidable marksmen. 

Another very great advantage will, by 
my medod, be gained. It will take only 
one fifth part of the time to make thie soldier 
a good marksman ; for, when he is taught 
to fire well at one hundred yards only, he 
can shoot well at every other distance from 
100 yards as far as 300 ; for it is the gun, 
from its construction and regulation, iviiich 
performs the duty, not the man. 

I judge it necessary to mention minutely 
and explicitly what this gun of mine can 
do. Let the figure of a man, about tv/o 

194 COLONEL hanger's 

feet broad, and five feet ten inches in 
height, be placed before a MOST perfect 
marksman, and direct him to aim at all 
distances from 100 to 300 yards, EauALLY 
ALIKE, ever at the center or bull's eye, 
painted on the figure of the man ; never to 
hold higher nor lower; I engage that this gun 
is capable of striking the figure of a man, 
from the execution and peculiar construc- 
tion of it. When the soldier comes on 
actual service, with my gun, it is a matter 
of total indifference whether the enemy he 
fires at be 100 or 300 yards distant: not 
that I mean to say that even the most 
EXPERT marksman can fire with that exact, 
nice precision at 300 as he can at 100 
yards ; for the human eye, though ever so 
perfect, cannot extend its vision to 300 
yards, with that exact precision which it can 
at 100 yards; but this gun will effectually da 
axvay the ivant of judgment the soldier la- 
bours under, in respect to what distance 
the enemy is from him in action. 

With the rifles at present in use,, you 
must first teach a man to fire at 100 j^ards, 
then at 150, then at 200, then at 250, then 


at 300 yards, which will take up five times 
more time in training the man than *my 
gun and method will, and, after ail, when 
you have taught him to fire tolerably well 
at targets, at all the above distances, your 
labour and time is all lost ; for, though he 
will know which sight of the three he 
should use, at all the above diiferent dis- 
tances, when firing at a target, yet, take 
him into the field, before an enem}^ he will 
be as ignorant as ever respecting what pre- 
cise distance the enemy is from him ; which 
is the grand object to obtain, and most 
particularly in broken ground, or firing 
from one height at an enemy on another 
height, or from a height down to an enemy 
on the plain. With my gun he can fire 
without ever troubling his head what parti- 
cular distance the enemy is from him. The 
reader will pardon my reminding him 
again, for I wish strongly to impress it on 
his mind, that this gun, whenever it shall 
be found necessary for the corps to stand 
in the line, as a solid, regular, well-disci- 
plined battalion in close order, or to act as 
lio'ht-infantrv, can be loaded and fired v/ith 


cartridges as many times in one minute as 
a common musket, and shall shoot, with 
precision sufficient, to hit a target the size 
of a man, every time, at 100 yards. Thus, 
from the perfection and universal use of 
my gun, it must, in candour, be allowed, 
that it is equally adapted to regular batta- 
lion soldiers, to light-infantry men, and to 
the rifle marksmen ; in short it is an univer- 
sal gu7i, equally to be applied and used by 
every man who carries arms in war, from 
the grenadier to the Indian savage. 

One grand preliminary in the formation 
of such corps, is, that it be absolutely and 
indispensably necessary, that one company 
of 150 men be enlisted solely from artifi- 
cers and workmen, namely, carpenters, saw- 
yers, men who earn their daily bread by 
felling trees, clearing and hewing down 
coppices, together with some excellent 
country spadesmen, who are well accus- 
tomed and expert in throwing up ditches 
and mounds, and wattling staked hedges. 
Such a corps as I have above described, 
cannot perform what ought to be, and will 
be in justice required of them, without a 


company of 150 pioneers ; besides, the army 
also may be much benefited at particular 
times by them : yet I propose that this com- 
pany of pioneers shall carry arms as well as 
the other part of the corps ; on this account, — 
that they shall be able to stand sentry and 
do all other duty, except when in the day 
of real action before the enemy, they shall 
onli/ be used as pioneers, I cannot refrain 
from observing how useful such a company 
would be in winter quarters, with working 
parties from the corps ordered every day to 
assist them ; winter cantonments might 
readily be completed without any appli- 
cation to the barrack department, and much 
money be saved to the state. 

To this gun I engage to produce a trig- 
ger, which shall have four times the pur- 
chase and power which triggers now in use 
have, by which a lock, standing very firm 
at full cock, may be pulled off with a slight 
touch, which will be of infmite benefit to a 

The above corps may be raised in about 
one month, and should ever be ready to 


198 COLONEL hanger's 

move at one hour's notice and to go upon 
every expedition and on the most active 

I know full well that there are many 
much more ins'enious in mechanism than 
myself; and, v» hen this plan is made known 
publicly, by trying various experiments, it 
is possible, that they may construct a gun 
to perform equal to my gun ; but, I trust, 
as I am the very first projector of such a 
corps, for certain it is that no such corps 
has ever been formed or even thought of, it 
would be uncandid not to give me credit for 
the projection; and surely it must be allowed, 
that, by permitting any other to put it in 
execution, it would discourage every officer 
from bringing forward any thing beneficial 
and useful to the service. Yet, I confess, I 
am of opinion, that it would puzzle the 
most ingenious artist to construct a gun, 
with one sight ^only, which shall fire with 
precision at all distances, namely, from 100 
yards to 300, which every rifle now in use 
can do ; which gun also, when loaded with 
cartridges, shall strike the figure of a man 


every time at 100 yards, and is capable of 
being fired as many times in one minute as 
a common musket. 

ReJlectio7is on the utility, universality, superi- 
ority, and skill of this Corps, 

Such a corps, most undoubtedly, would 
be always employed at the out-posts before 
an army, in scouring the country before the 
position of the army, as all light troops do. 
Supposing, with this corps, I should fall in 
with some corps belonging to the enemy ; 
such corps must either be a regular regi- 
ment of infantry, or a corps of light troops, 
what is called in Germany or France a fry 
corps, or a corps of riflemen. I will speak 
first respecting meeting a corps of riflemen, 
namely, riflemen only, I would treat them 
the same as my friend Colonel Abercromby, 
afterwards General Sir Robert Abercromby, 
when in America, treated Morgan's rifle- 
men. When Morgan'^ riflemen came 

o 2 


down into Pensylvania from Canada, flushed 
with success gained over Burgoyne's army, 
they marched to attack our hght infantry, 
under Colonel Abercromby ; the moment 
they appeared before him, he ordered his 
troops to charge them with the bayonet ; 
not one man of them, out of four, had time 
to fire, and those who did, had no time 
given them to load again : they did not 
stand three minutes ; the light infantry not 
only dispersed them instantly, but drove 
them for miles over the country. They 
never attacked, or even looked at, our light 
infantry again, without a regular force to 
support them. — Secondly, supposing this 
corps shall fall in with a light corps of 
the enem)^ a jry corps, are not my men 
light infantry, and moreover are they not 
marksmen ? Surely a corps of British in- 
fantry and good marksmen besides, need by 
no means be alarmed at the attack of a 
fry corps. — Thirdly and lastly, provided 
they fall in with a regular regiment, some 
considerable distance from their camp, I 
am of opinion, that a regular regiment in 
such a situation, being so unfortunate as to 


fall in with such a corps, as the one I pro- 
pose, who possess the powers of three distinct 
corps, namely, that of regular battalion sol- 
dierSy of light infantry, and of rifle marksmen, 
can do nothing better for their safetj^ than 
make the best of their way to their army : 
even then, should they adopt this prudent 
measure, I can attack them on their retreat, 
not only in their rear, but on both flanks of 
their line of march ; and, it must be ^ 
allowed, that my loss must be very incon- 
siderable, if any, and that they must suffer 
materially ; for, marching regularly as they 
must do in column, let it be even an open 
column, along a main road, they must 
present numbers in a body to my marks- 
men, dispersed in all directions, and acting 
a la debandade, on both their flanks and on 
their rear. My men being marksmei^, and 
ever instructed to aim wJtere they perceive the 
enemy to stand the thickest in numbers, it is 
most certain that a great number of their 
shots must tell. Provided the country be 
inclosed or broken, so that a charge from a 
large body of cavalry need not be dreaded, 
I will be bound to drive a regular regiment 

204 COLONEL hanger's 

of the enemy within the pickets of their 
army, after having destroyed numbers of 
them ; na)^ even after having harassed 
them for a couple of hours and consi- 
derably diminished their numbers. Should 
I find the least irregularity or confusion 
amongst them, I may consolidate my corps 
by a single sound of the bugle-horn, charge 
them ajid either destroy, or take prisoners, 
by far the greater part of them. 

Should they draw up to fight me in 
regular line, instead of making the best of 
their way to their army, which I imagine 
every officer who knew his dutj^ would do, 
his regiment must ultimately perish. 

I only state the following by way of 
argument, to shew what a great superiority 
my corps must have, from the various and 
distinct powers it possesses over any corps 
whatever they may fall in with. We will 
suppose that this regular regiment shall be 
so imprudent, as to draw up to fight me. 
Before I come within shot of them I divide 
my ten companies, of two hundred each, 
into three distinct bodies ; I leave four in 
the centre to skirmish and amuse the 


enemy., and detach six companies, three to 
the right, and three to the left. In less 
than ten minutes the three companies on 
each side detached, shall not only envelope 
the enemy's right and left flank, but several 
of my men sJiall absolutely be in their rear. 
If the enemy remain in this situation they 
must be irrevocably lost. Provided they 
charge my four companies, drav^^n up as 
light infantry, to oppose them in front, my 
troops retreat, constantly keeping at least 
at 150 yards distant, and firing with good 

The further they charge my centre, the 
further they will be from safety, namely, their 
own camp ; and, by such a manoeuvre, they 
inevitably must bring my six companies on 
their flanks, absolutely in their rear, harassing 
them in proportion as they advance, till ulti- 
mately they will be enveloped on all parts 
around them. But, instead of thus acting, 
should they detach three companies to 
their, right, and three companies to their 
left, to oppose those I have detached to act 
on their flanks ; after having amused them 
for a considerable time by skirmishing and 


destroying many of them ; (for it must be 
allowed that my men, as marksmen, must 
have a wonderful advantage over them in 
skirmishing, armed as they are with a very 
imperfect and indifferent soldier's musket and 
my men armed with a perfect gun, which not 
only at short distances, but at long distances 
shall shoot with precision ;) my corps, 
being trained^ constantly to the following 
practice, atone soundof the bugle-horn can 
at an active run be consolidated on their centrcy 
and charge the remaining four centre com- 
panies of the enemy with the bayonet. It 
cannot be denied but that they must be 
beaten, and forced to fly. I will now not 
briefly explain, but only ask any officer 
what must become of their three companies 
detached to their right, and three to their 
left ? I imagine it will be allowed that 
they must fly also. In short, should a 
regular regiment attempt to engage such a 
corps as I have proposed to form, and not 
retreat as speedily as they possibly could do 
to their camp, they must be ruined. 

I shall now content myself by making a 
few observations on the different and dis- 


tinct qualities, and superior pre-eminence 
which my gun must have over a common 
soldier's musket, and then conclude. 

A soldier's musket, if not exceedingly ill 
bored and very crooked, as many are, will 
strike the figure of a man at 80 yards ; it 
may even at a hundred ; but a soldier 7nust 
be very unfortunate indeed who shall be 
wounded by a common musket at 150 yards, 

and, as to firing at a man at 200 yards with 
a common musket, you may just as well 
fire at the moon and have the same hopes 
of hitting your object. I do maintain, and 
I will prove, whenever called on, that NO 


YARDS, by a common soldier's musket, by 


officer who will give himself the trouble to 
read Robins's Treatise on Gunnery, will 
readily understand the truth of my assertion. 
I could easily explain this point to the 
satisfaction of the reader ; but, in so short 
a treatise as this, the intent of which is 
only to treat of the utility, skill, and per- 
fection of the corps I propose, and not to 

206 COLONEL hanger's 

treat on the general system of projectiles, 
or the deficiency of muskets in present use, 
it would be too prohx and extraneous to my 
present object and views, respecting this 
proposed corps and my universal gun, for so 
Icall it, and such on proof it will be found 
to he.^ 

* At three hundred yards the gun I speak of was 
tried in the following manner. The target was a 
board, two feet broad, and only three feet high. The 
bull's eye in the ceiure. 1 shot dozion zoindy on the 
sands of the sea, at low water, lying down on a liorse- 
cloth on my belly. I had a lump of wood before me, 
on which was placed uiy hat, to rest the gun on. I 
imogine the whole heiglu, to the crown of the hat, 
was about two feet from the ground. This, of course, 
gave to the muzzle of the gun, three or four inches 
depressioJi y so that my gun, at some distance beyond 
the target, must have pointed into the sands. How- 
ever, notwithstanding this, I found that the ball, when 
it passed on one side of the target, never struck the 
bands, under full sixty yards beyond the target. Now, 
provided my gun had been laid in a direct horizontal 
level, to the centre of the bull's eye, or had had the 
ii"!uzzle of it two or three inches elevated, instead of 
being depressed, (I speak to experienced riflemen,) 
would my gun not have been entitled to throw the 
ball CO mider ably further before it struck the sands ? — 
Now, supposing I had shot at a target, at three bun- 


I have many times asked Hie American 
back-woodsmen what was the most their 

rfred yards distant, which had been the heiglit of m 
man, say five feet ten inches high, and, instead of 
aiming at the bull's eye, I had aimed at the top of the 
target, the same as at the top of the head of the figure of 
a man, am T not entitled to sa}', that my ball would either 
have struck the breast of that figure, or have passed by 
on one side of the target, and full as high as the 
breast of a man; and that it would not have struck the 
sands, which lay on a direct level with the bottom of 
the target, until it had reached a distance considerably 
above four hundred yards ? I detest theory, but, 
speaking to experienced riflemen, I do assert, that this 
is not theory, but that it is plain demonstration, founded 
on the truest principles of the knowledge and system 
of projectiles. 

I desire it may be understood, that the gun, the 
various merits of which I have described in tliis short 
treatise, entitled " A Plan for the Jormation of a 
" Corps which never has been raised as yet in any 
*' amiyin Europe^ 3)C. S)C, SscT is not the oommon rifle 
I speak of, which should be used with effect at long 
distances, before an enemy; but a gun, very far supe- 
rior, from its distinct and various qualities as it is 
described to possess. The barrel of that gun, I sawed 
inhalf, and threw the one half over Westminster bridge, 
on one side, and the othsrhalf on the otner. rn^rv-e, 
and in my breast, the construction of ^ucli a gun j^es. 

One word more before parting : n v/e have r.jt a 
rifle on active service, which will shoot with precision 

^08 COLONEL hanger's 

best marksmen could do ; they have con- 
stantly told mc that an expert riflemen. 

knd do great execution, at by far a greater distance 
than where the musket leaves off, what is the use of it? 
In my humble opinion very little. The rifle-guns used 
on service, by the 95th regiment, are well made, 
and will shoot as well as any rifle, the barrel of 
which weighs onl^ four poundsy and carries a 
hall, w^eighing tzs)C7ify to the pound; but, I do assert, 
that they are not properly constructed to be used at 
long distances, on service, with certain effect, and pos- 
sess not that great advantage, namely, of beginning to 
do execution to a certainty, at that distance where the 
musket ceases to have any certain direction or effect. 
By saying that they are not properly constructed to be 
used on act ice service, i mean, that the barrels are too 
light ; they weighing only four pounds, and carry too 
large a ball, (namely, a ball tzcenty to the pound,) in 
proportion to the weight of the barrel. If this be 
doubted, let one of them be produced, and I will pro- 
duce a rifle I have, the barrel of which weighs six 
pounds fozir or five ounces, and carries a. ball weighing 
only thirty to the pound, loaded with one half of the 
weight of the hall in powder ; and this gun shall go ofl' 
pleasantly and without the least recoil. But then I 
will not begin to shoot under 350 yards, and from that 
distance we will extend our practice to 600 yards. 

Reader, do not be surprised at my speaking of QOO 
yards practice, — for I do not mean to say, that I can 
hit a horse or an elephant at that distance ; but I will 
prove to you, that I can throw a ball into a piece of 


provided he can draw good and true sight, 
(they mean, by this expression, when they 
can distinctly see the object aimed at in a 
direct hne with the two sights on the rifle,) 
can hit the head of a man at 200 yards. I 

canvas six feet high by fifteen feet hug; and tliis will 
prove that a ball may be thrown, at that distance, into 
a column oF troops, on their line of march. It is not 
the make, construction, or workmanship of the rifie- 
guns of the 9-5th regiment which I condemn ; it is the 
want of weight in the barrel, and the size of the ball, 
being too large in proportion to the weight of the bar- 
rel, I materially object to. I trust I have given ample 
reason to convince ever}^ experienced rifleman that my 
observations are founded, not on theory, but absolute 
practice ; for what is the use of a rifle which will not 
do execution to a certainty^on a body of men marching 
in column at a very great distance ? 

I once saw about twenty country-men (not more) on 
one side of a small river, unfordable, so pelt a regi- 
ment with their rifles, that it was forced to break out 
of its line of march on a road, and march on its left at 
a much greater distance from the river. 

Speaking of my rifle-gun, I do not presume to say 
that there is any thing wonderful and very superior in 
its construction, for I assure the reader that there are 
several gunmakers in London, who can make one full 
as executive as mine, provided they will only make the 
barrel as heavu and the h^^} of the same sii:e. 


am certain, that, provided an American 
rifleman were to get a perfect aim at 300 
yards at me, standing still, he most 
imdoubtedly would hit me, unless it was a 
very windy da}^ so as to occasion the ball 
to deflect considerably. Now, there are 
many persons, in various volunteer rifle 
companies in London, who can hit a target 
the size of a man much oftener at 200 
yards than they miss it ; and I think it 
very hard if a soldier, with good practice, 
cannot be trained to hit the space of a man 
at 200 yards, much oftener than he misses 
it; and Vvhen he does miss his enemy at that 
distance, the ball shall go so near to him as 
to intimidate him, and for safety-sake make 
him shift his position, well knowing the 
danger he was exposed to ; for a man, shot 
at, and finding how narrowly he escaped, 
is but little inclined to take a second trial. 
I shall conclude with stating, that, ifever^f 
soldier in the British armj^, the grenadier, 
the battalion man, the light-infantry man, 
the rifleman and sharp-shooter, were armed 
with a gun which can shoot as well as the 
gun I can produce, and possessmg such 


universal qualities as I have described, 
namely, being capable of being loaded and 
fired as many times in one minute, when 
loaded with cartridges, as a soldier*s musket 
can ; and may be fired with precision at 
100 yards; v/hich gun also, at every dis- 
tance, fi'om 100 to 300 yards, when used 
by marksmen, shall fire with the same precl- 
sion as the best rifle which can be made, — 
I maintain that every soldier in his Majesty's 
service would be infinitelj^ more formidable 
before an enemv.* 

* Although I have said that everi/ soldier would be 
benefited and more formidable before the enemy, if 
armed with my gun, which I have described to possess 
such eminent and universal qualities, yet I trust every 
officer who peruses these few pages will do me more 
justice than to suspect thai it ever entered into mj 
mind, even for one instant of time, to lay aside the 
musket and to arm the whole British army with 
my gun : yet I must steadily persist in observing, that 
all arms, which hereafter shall be ordered to be made 
for the express and sole use of Ught-infantry or sharp- 
shooters, should be constructed on the principles of my 
gun; for it must appear evident to intelligent minds, 
that, armed with such a gun, the soldier would possess 
a very superior advantage over the enemy to what he 
now does, armed as heii with a comiaou Tower musket, 

€12 COLONEL hanger's 

I shall now leave it to the candour of 
every experienced officer to judge how 
much siipcrio?'^^ the corps I have proposed 
must be, on active service, to any corpSy xvhich 
has as yet been raised. Certainly, hitherto, 
no such corps has ever been produced, nor even 
thought of. 

I shall now make one observation, on 
which I respectfully intreat every officer 
candidly and impartially to reflect. Those 
officers who have served in the American 
war, who have seen the infinite service our 
light troops performed in that country, the 
features of which were so peculiarly adap- 
ted to light troops, are wild after light 
troops, and perhaps do not pay that respect 
to des gros battalions which I do, and may 
wish for too great an increase of light 
troops in our army. There they certainly 
lie under an error; but those officers who 

which is so very imperfect an arm (imperfect I mean 
from its bad construction), as not to put it in the 
power of the best-trained light-infantry man or sharp- 
shooter to fire with the smallest hopes of hitting the 
man he aims at, at a greater distance than 80 or 100 


did not serve in the American war, lie under 
a much greater error in their judgment ; 
for their system extends nearly to the total 
extirpation of light troops in our army. 
The French have much increased the number 
of their light troops, and we ought to increase 
ours ; but that increase of Hght troops should 
not be sharp-shooters and riflemen only ; 
no, they should be trained to be marksmen, 
but should also be as well disciplined 
as any regular battalion of the line ; 
then they may be used in any and every 
vy ay the commanding general shall judge 
proper. Such properties the corps 1 pro- 
pose, can be possessed of Let every 
officer who served in the American vrar 
and all those who never were in America, 
join hand in hand to recommend and 
patronize the formation of a corps which 


relatively to the defence of this country, in 
case of invasion, I with confidence assert, that 
such corps are wanting ; the nature and 



features of our country evidently point out 
their utility and eiRcacy. Look only, for 
instance, to the counties of Essex, Kent 
and Sussex. 

I know full well the powers and superior 
efficacy of des gros battalions ; no man res- 
pects them more than I do, for I am posi- 
tively persuaded no signal victory can be 
gained without them. But let me ask a ques- 
tion candidly : Cannot such a corps, 
constituted, disciplined, and trained accor- 
ding to those rules which I have prescribed, 
be formed at all thnes INTO A GROS BATTA- 

on the day of battle in the line ? I trust it 
will be allowed that they certainly can. To 
this I will presume to add an opinion. 
Trained as marksmen, and armed with a 
gun which possesses such superior and uni- 
versal qualities, it is but just to suppose that 
tliey are entitled to do more execution, as regu- 
lars, in tlie day of battle, than any battalion 
of the line in his Majesty's service, armed 
as they are at present with a common mus- 


ket, most miserably and badly bored, and the 
barrel, generally speaking, crooked both 
inside and out. 

Riflemen, as riflemen only, are a very 
feeble foe and not to be trusted alone any 
distance from camp ; at the out-posts they 
must ever be supported by regulars, or they 
w^ill be constantly beaten in and compelled 
to retire on the main army : but such a 
corps as the one I have, in the foregoing 
pages, described, can go every where alone, 
and are able to meet every species of 
infantry; equal to all, and very superior to 
viany. Nay, even provided they are 
attacked by cavalry, they can defend 
themselves as well as any regiment of the 
line. I have served in a German jdger 
corps, and confess, that, in a dark rainy 
night, we have been very disagreeably 
and, in my opinion, very dangerously situ- 
ated ; nothing but the most vigilant alertness 
preserved us. 

Even when a serjeant from the out- 
pickets reported that the dogs in the 
neighbouring houses barked, every man 
w^as obliged to fall in and form, and lie 



down in the ranks, with his rifle under \\k 
arm ; nay, oftentimes have we been forced 
to be'nnder arms whole nights, permitting 
the men only to sit down in the ranks. 
Riflemen can feel no confidence in them- 
selves on a dark, and more particularly on a 
stormy and rainy night ; nor can they enjoy 
any confidence in their own strength, when 
any distance from camp unsupportfd. 

I shall never forget the night before the 
battle of Monmouth Court-House. It was 
uncommonly dark, with frequent thunder- 
storms and rain. It fell to my lot, that 
night, to have the outermost picket. 
Never could man pass a more anxious time; 
the fires all put out, the enemy *s patroles 
feeling us and firing every half hour and 
oftener at the advanced sentries ; our men 
on sentry firing sometimes at the enemy's 
patroles and sometimes at cattle in the 
woods, as soldiers will do when they hear 
a noise in the bushes, challange, and gain 
no reply ; the night so dark (taking it by 
turns every half hour, with two lieutenants, 
to visit the sentries) as not to be able to 
perceive our own men until we came close 


upon them and in danger of being fired at 
by our own men. Such a night of anxiety 
and danger 1 never vsince passed, and blessed 
my God when the day began to dawn. 

As some of you, gentlemen, to whom I 
send these few pages may have done me the 
honour of reading a pamphlet, published 
for me by Mr. Stockdale, Bookseller, 
Piccadilly, opposite to Burlington House, 
in the beginning of .the year 1804, entitled 
Reflections on ilie menaced Invasion, and the 
Means of protecting the Capital, 8(c, 8(c, 8(c., 
in the latter part of which I make mention 
of hght troops and of a gun which light 
troops should be armed with ; I beg y>ou 
will observe, 'that the gun I therein spoke of 
was only a superior sort of musket to the 
commxon musket now in use and is totally dif^ 
f event and distinct in qucditi/, infinitely inferior 
in excellence and not to be compared to 
the gun I now speak of; for I expressly 
stated that the former gun I made mention 
of would not do any execution further than 
150 or 200 yards at most, and then not 
shoot Vv ith any perfect degree of precision. 
It was only represented as a better sort of 


musket for light troops than the common 
Tower musket in use. 

This Plan has been highly approved by 
several distinguished officers, and particu- 
larly by one general officer, to whose dis- 
tinguished services the country is much 
indebted. Although he has given me 
leave, in the most public manner, to use 
his name, yet from delicacy, respect, and 
friendship, I refrain from taking so great a 
liberty ; trusting that those who may read 
the Plan, will believe my assertion. When 
I asked him his opinion of the Plan, he 
replied, that a corps so disciplined, so trained, 
so manxuvred, and so armed, must have a 
very superior advantage over any other 
corps, not exceeding it in numbers. 

Any gentleman curious in arms, by calling on 
Messrs. Tatham and Egg, Gunmakers, near the Admi- 
ralty, may see a double-barrelled rifle pistol, making for 
Colonel Hanger, on a perfectly jiezo construction. No 
pistol, hitherto, has been made with a lock communi- 
cating with the under barrel, to operate with such 
certain effect. 


In conclusion, I address the following 
to officers who have served in a rifle corps, 
on active service ; particularly to that dis- 
tinguished corps, the Ninety-fifth Regiment, 
and other rifle regiments, as also the com- 
panies of rifle marksmen in London, whose 
precision and execution, at the target, I 
have witnessed with great satisfaction and 

I have already observed that the rifled 
guns, used on service, are not heavy enough 
in the barrel, and carry a ball too large, in 
proportion to the weight of the barrel ; so 
that thej^ cannot be loaded with a sufficient 
quantity of powder to do that execution, at 
great distances, which all rifles, used on 
service, should be able to perform. The 
barrels weigh only four pounds ; the balls 
are twenty to the pound ; and they cannot 
be charged with more powder than one 
third of the weight of the ball, without 
recoiling so much as to make them shoot 
at random and with no precision. 

In the sporting part of this book, I have 


spoken very explicitly on rifle-guns and 
rifle shooting ; so I shall only make men- 
tion concerning the rifle I now have by 
me. The barrel of it weighs six pounds 
five ounces ; it carries a ball thirty to the 
pound, and is loaded exactly with one half 
the weight of the ball in powder, without 
the least recoil. What an advantage this 
gun must have, compared to one weighing 
onli/ four pounds in the barrel, and which 
cannot be loaded with more than one third 
the weight of the ball in powder. I can- 
not refrain from mentioning how much \ 
lament that such a set of gallant soldiers 
are not armed with a weapon more effica- 
cious, and which can do much greater exe- 
cution at very great distances. 

I have, in the former part of this book, 
informed you how the American riflemen 
load their rifles for active service ; they 
must shoot considerablv more than half the 
weight of the ball in powder, as their bar- 
rels weigh full six pounds, and shoot a ball 
weighing 7io more than thirty-siv to the 
pound. Now, gentlemen, rifle marksmen, 
and oflicers serving in rifle corps, I inform 


you, that it is my intent to order a rifle 
immediately to be made, the barrel of 
which shall weigh fidl jiine pounds, and shall 
carry a ball no larger than thirty to the pound. 
It is impossible for me to state what weight 
in powder, in proportion to the ball, such a 
gun will take without recoiling, as the gun 
is not yet made ; but, at a random guess, 
let us suppose it will take three fourths of 
the weight of the ball in powder. Now 
observe what an immense advantage must 
be gained by this great increase of the 
quantity of powder : in short, every thing 
is gained by it; for the ball shot out of 
this gun must be forced to a very consi- 
derable distance further, before the pow- 
der, in any degree, loses its operative force 
on the ball ; and the ball will not incline 
to the centre of gravity, until it has arrived 
at a very considerable distance further than 
a ball, weighing twenty to the pound, fired 
out of a barrel weighing only four pounds, 
and loaded only with one third of the weight 
of the ball in powder. This surely is self-evi- 
dent, and requires no further observation : 
and this gun, weighing nine pounds in the 


barrel, will not be heavier than a soldier's 
musket and bayonet ; and why a rifleman 
should not carry arms as heavy as a battalion 
soldier, I can see no reason, when he shall 
reap so great an advantage by so doing. 

I can speak with no certainty, for the 
experiment remains to be tried ; but I am 
strongly inclined to believe, that this rifle, 
weighing nine pounds in the barrel, will 
shoot with more precision and execution, 
at six hundird yards, than the rifles used at 
present before the enemy, will shoot at 
four hundred. Should the experiment turn 
out equal to my expectations, w^hat an ad- 
vantage will not a corps of riflemen, so 
armed, obtain before an enemy that they 
do not at present possess ! Anyhow, it is 
lamentable to reflect how badly such a 
gallant set of fine fellows are at present 
armed, — for the addition of two pounds, to 
make the barrels six pounds in weight, or 
of five pounds of iron to make the barrels 
weigh nine pounds, is too paltry an expense 
to be considered by any government, con- 
sidering the immense advantage which will 
be acquired, by adding more weight to the 


barrels, so that they may be loaded with a 
much greater quantity of powder, and con- 
sequently do execution at a much greater 
distance. Excepting for the additional 
pounds of iron in the barrels, there will not 
be one farthing more expense in the gun. 

/ boldli/ assert that the barrels of the rifles 
(used at present) on service, are ineffective, 
and a stigma on any government to put 
such useless arms (I speak comparatively ) into 
the hands of such gallant soldiers. The 
rifles, I know, are well made ; I have seen 
and examined them, and I have no doubt 
but that they shoot very well, according to 
their powers ; but the construction of them 
is physically false, and therefore but of little 
use or effect, compared to those rifles which 
I have pointed out, and described, and 
which can be made by every gimmaker 
who understands well his business, just as 
readily and as easily as those rifles which 
have been already made ; therefore it will 
be a gross neglect if such gallant fellows 
are not armed with a more effective instru- 
ment, when there is no mystery, conjura- 
tion, nor any art required, more than is 


already known, to arm them with a perfect 

I conclude this by repeating, that it is 
a disgrace to the country, and an injustice 
to such gallant soldiers, to arm them with 
so useless a rifle, as they are at present armed 
with ; and that, were I honored with the 
command of a large corps of riflemen, I 
would prefer arming them with a common 
musket, and use them as light infantry, being 
certain that I could do more with them, 
(so badly armed for riflemen, as they now 
are,) both to my own credit, to the' satis- 
faction of the soldier, and to the advantage 
of my country. The barrel of the rifle I 
use at present, weighs six pounds four or 
five ounces, the whole gun only ten pounds 
five ounces. If it shall be thought, that a 
barrel, weighing nine pounds, will make the 
gun too heavy, then let the baiTcl weigh 
only eight pounds, the addition of two 
pounds, will be an immense advantage : the 
whole gun then will not weigh so much ^s 
a soldier's musket. But I repeat again, 
that I see no reason why a rifleman should 
not carry arms as heavy as a battalion sol-r 


dier ; and, provided the barrel of the rifle 
shall weigh nine pounds, the Avhole gun will 
not be heavier than a musket. I carrj=^ a 
double gun, all day, when shooting, which 
weighs very near nine pounds, and I find 
no inconvenience fi'om the weight of it. 

I again request those gentlemen, be- 
longing to the rifle companies in London, 
who may have rifles, the barrels of which 
have sufficient substance to withstand the 
weight of the balls without recoiling, to fire 
three. balls at one hundred yards, and two 
balls at tw^o hundred yards, each ball sepa- 
rately rammed down with a greased patch, 
at a large piece of canvas, that they may 
be convinced what wonderful destruction 
two, and three balls, will make in the ranks 
of an enemy. Thus every rifleman should 
act, (at particular times,) before the enemy, 
and especially when the enemy is beaten, 
and retreating, in large solid bodies, without 
order or regularity.* 

* The readei' is requested to observe, that the gun, 
which I describe in the plan, to arii? a corps of sol- 
diers with, is a distinct, particular, and (as I call li) an 

225 COLONEL hanger's PLAN. 

universal gun, as I have described it to be, and it is to 
be considered totally and distinct by itself. The 
reader will be pleased also to observe, that when I 
speak on rifle-guns and rifle-shooting, the rifles I 
there make mention of, jare no more than a common 
rifle, which every skilful gunmaker can make, and that 
I find no objection to those guns, used now on active 
service, but to their want of weight in the barrels; they 
not having resistance enough in weight, to take a suffi- 
cient quantity of powder, in proportion to the weight 
of the ball, so as to do proper execution at very great 
distances. Be pleased also to observe, that the rifle 1 
intend to have made, the barrel of which is to weigh 
nine pounds, will be loaded with as much powder, as it 
can take, without recoiling, by which I expect to gain 
a very great advantage when shooting at very great 
distances, such as at five, arid six hundred yards ; and 
the ball is not to be larger than thirty to the pound. 


VJgurs, Printer, 14, York Street, Covent Garden, London. 


Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 
Cumnnlngs School of Veterinary Medicine at 
Tnftf^ iifiivfirsitv . ,.»,«^