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t^A^ A/e^ R K ' S 




McntBn'K 4E(mrid C^nnl Stetorp. 







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This Tolniue completes the translation of the General UiBtory of the 
Christian Religion and Church, as far as the work had been published 
when its lamented author was called away from the scene of his earthly 
W>oniB. A sixth volume, as he himself intimates in the Preface to 
bis Tenth Part, was to have brought the history of the church down to 
the times of the Reformation, What pn^rcss had been made by the 
author in preparing this interesting portion of his work for the press, 
I do not certainly know, though I feel strongly confident it must have 
been such that the last labours of the eminent historian will not long 
be withheld from the public In a letter to the publishers of my 
translation, dated April 9. 1848, Dr Neander writes that he was then 
occupied with this sixth voltune ; and it is well known, that one of the 
last acts of his life was to dictate a sentence of it to his amanuensis. 
As he bad therefore been employed upon it for as long a time, to say 
the least, as had ever intervened between the dates of his earlier vo- 
lumes, it is not nnreasonable to conjecture that the volume was left by 
him in a sufficient state of forwardness to admit of being finished 
without much labour. That it may be so finished, and the whole work 
thus brought down t« the epoch to which the author in his later 
volumes was evidently looking forward as a resting-place, must appear 
highly desirable to every one who is capable of appreciating the minute 
and comprehensive learning, the scmpulotis fidelity, the unexampled 
candour and simplicity of spirit, the unobtrusive but pervading glow 
of Christian piety, which have thus far so eminently characterized 
every portion of this great work. 

If such a volume should soon be given to the world, the publisher 
of the present translation will doubtless take measures to have it con- 
verted into English, and added as a necessary complement to their 
edition of Neander's Church History. 

<, Jnfjai. I(tal. 

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( 'i ) 





Ever aJDce I had the happineu to be thrown by official relatione, when you 
were still bere imoDggt na, into closer contact with you, and through vour eza- 

minations over the department of practical theology, as well as by corial inter- 
course, to become more accnrately acquainted with your peculiar spirit, your 
way of iuterpreting the signs of these dmes, labouring with the birth-throes of a 
new age of the world, and your judgment aa to wtiat the church in these timeB 
needs before all things else, I felt myself related to you, not by the common tie 
of Christian fellowghip alone, but also by a special sympatiiy of spirit. And when 
you left ns, called by the LoM to act in another great sphere for the advancfflnent 
of his kingdom, your dear image still remained deeply engraven on my heart. In 
your beantifal pastoral letters, 1 recc^uEed again the same doctrines of Christian 
wisdom, drawn from the study of the Divine Word and of history, to which I had 
olten heard you bear testimony before ; and when I had the pleasure of once more 
seeing yon tace to face, it served to revive the ancient fellowship. Often has the 

servants of the church to that wliich is only to he learned in the school of life, in 
History, I dedicate a part of the present worli, devoted to the history of the 
kingdom of Qod. Ana I feel myself constrained to dedicate to the bishop of the 
dear Pummrraaian church, that volume of my work in particular which de- 
Hcribes the active operations of its original founder. That kindred spirit, even in 
its errors, you will greet with your wonted benevolence. 

May the Lord long preserve you by his grace for his church on earth, and 
bless your work. 

These times, torn by the most direct contrarieties, vacillating between licen- 
tjousnesa and servility, between the bold denial of Clod and the deification of the 
letter, needs such men, who recognise the neccsaai7 unity and the necessary 
manifoldneSH, and who understand how to guide free minds with love and wisdom, 
being tlieniselves the disciples of eternal love and wisdom. May all learn from 
you not to hunt after new things wliich are not also old, nor to cling to old things 
iriuch vrillnoC become new ; Imt, as you advise in your first pastoral letter, to 
form themselves into snch ecribes as know how to bring out of their good trea- 
Kurcs things both old and new, just as the tnith which they serve is an old truth 
and at the same time always new. 

With ray whole heart, yours, 


Beblin, MahcuS 1811 

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( "i ) 



_ .d th&t he hu enabled me to ... _. 

in disakupae tli« dnties of a difflcolt calliiig. 

I moM oe^ the learaed reader wonld have the goodnem to nupeod Us Jads- 
ment reapectmg the arnuigeiitent and diitribntion of the matter tUl the whole 

shall be completed. Notwitiistandiug that H. H , in his recenaion of the 

two praoeding volnmes, in the litecary Imtm of the DarmBtadt Church Gazette, 
has oqireMed himself so stronglv, I have atill thonght proper, in this volome 
alao, to inoorponte the bistort of Honachism with that of the choroh conititn- 

timi. No aoB, doabtleM, except H. H , will believe me to be so childish or 

•o atand aa to ha'W done this merely because it is customary to speak alM of a 
conititDtion of Monachiam. The reasons vrhioh have induced me to adopt the 
^an 1 have chosen, will readily present themselres to the attentive reader ; 
thoogh I am &oe to confess that another arranKeaont is posiible, and that the 
reference to the Cbri»tiaa life is made prominent by me in the second section also, 
as it belonKS indeed to the special point of view from which 1 write my Church 
HiMot^. lehoold have many things to answer to the above-mentioned reviewer, 
U the judgment of a reviewer wore really anything more than the judgment of 
any outer reader or non-reader. That the remark concerning Claudiua of Turin, 
was neither onimpurtant nor superflaous, every one may esaSy convince himself, 
who ti^es the leant interest in a thoroush soientidc underatauding of the history 
of doctrioM. As to my theoloncal position, I demand for that the condescending 
tolerance of no man ; bat shall know very well how to defend it on eciantifio 

I most direct the attention of the readers of my Church History, to the Atlas 
of Eoclesiastical History, soon to be given to the world by Candidate Wiltscb, of 
Wittenberg, which will prove a welcome present to every friend of the history of 
the cfaorah. 

Bkkuk, Hahcb S. 1841. 

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( viii ) 


I rejoice tiut I am bero aUe at length to preaent t» the pabUc the fhiits of my 
GivouTite stadias for tatay yosni,— «n eihibitioD of the Chrutiui life, of the de- 
velopment of the theologj and of the historj of the sects dminK the floaiiihing 
times of the Middle Ages. Would that the mnny new facts which ever otid anon 
haye prMcmtad themselTes aa the result of my mqniiies, maj' serve, as some of 
my earlier laboors have done, to call forth aew inveHdgHtionH, which mteht tend 
to promote the cause of Bcience by confirming that which I have advanced, filling 
ap what 1 have left defective, or stating the other side of facts where I have 
stated bat one side, 1 reg^t that mr attention was drawn too late to Dr Giese- 
ler's Programme on tho gnrnmaa of luuner, and that I received it too late to be 
able to avail myself of it in treating the history of tho sects. I regret it the 
more, as I am aware bow mnch the laboors of this distinguished inquirer have 
aided me in other investigations where otu' studies have happened to be directed 

BubJHCtB. It IS ■ great pity that, by this custom of academical pro- 
many an important scientific essay, which published by itself or inserted 
msi might noon be generally (Onpcraed abroad, is to many entirely 
least escapes their notice at the nuticular moment when uiey coulo 

in some joumsi might noon be generally lOnpersed abroad, is to many entirely 
lost, or at least escapes their notice at the nuticular moment when uiey coulo 
have derived the most benefit from it. The latest volume of Ritter on Christian 

Philosophy, is a work also to which I could not of coarse have any regard. Also 
the Essay of Dr Planck, in the Stndicn und Kritiken, J. 1844, 4teB Heft, on a 
tract cited in my work, the Contra quatuor Galliae Labyiinthoe of Walter of 
Maoretania, is a production to which 1 must refer my readers, aa having appeared 
too late for my purpose. 

1 have to lament, that of the ten volumes of the works of Baymnnd Lull, there 
are two which I have not been able to consult, as they are nowhere to be met 
with. If it be the fact that those two misning volumes cannot bo restored, it is 
certainly desirable that some individual would do himself the honour of completing 
the edition from the manuscripts in the Royal Library of Munich. 

I have not compared my earlier laboun on the subject of Abelard, with this 
new representation of the man. By those writings of his which Dr Rbdnwald" 
and Cooain have first presented to the world, an impulse has been given to many 
a now inquiry and new mode of apprehending the character of that celebrated 

lu conlinoation of the present work there will follow, if God permit, an acconnt 
of the times down to the period of the Reformation, in one volume. 

I heartily thank Professor Schijnemann, for the extraordinary kindness with 
whicli, as Superintendent of the Dacal Library at Wolfenbiittel, he has oommu- 
nicatod its trea^mres for my use, without which it would have been out of my 
power to complete many an investigation of wMch the results are to he found in 
this volume. And in conclusion, 1 thank my dear young friend H. Bdssel, not 
only for the care he has bestowed on the correction of the press, but also for the 
pains and Bkill with which he has drawn up the Table of Contents and the Re- 

Bkblot, Dec, 3. 1844. 

' Tbs ArtklMriia not h*n]y 

■appoTt of sU Iclndt Id thA very EmporCani uikd«rtakfiig« tn bohjil' of I1l«t.iLii] 
uf lheooll«teiwrlilngso( ViOmllii.Ai ■ 

Bialiamenof Oermaavi tbeAotaof the oouncll of Bade, after tbe plu 
onmnnofF '■ ' ' ' *■ ■ ■" '- 

_. ... jtniiUied o(lh«™nno 

Hflb>r1eo<Bcole«lait^, a work whteh miut pi 

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It tam ■iBHTB. 

a. 1073 T( 


[First Division.] 

section first. 

kxten810n and liuits of the curistran chukcm. 

1. Amtitg Ihi BtaHua. 

Ouo'a jonmaf tbrongh Poland; hii reoepllan bj the dukM of Foluid anl 

Tba flcM btptiud convent in Pommennli. Pagan feitivil u Prrilz ; prcpxn- 

torj iutniction and baptram of Mren thoiitand ; firawclJ exhoiUlioni 

FaTonnbls diBpoaitions of WwtialiT and hit wire. Suoomrol opcnLions and 

OUOfUMIIib timid aompanlons, in Iht fnt citj at Jidin. Fni; of tlis pagana ; 

■eent Chriitiana than. Cidiena agne to fallow Lbe siample ofSuuiii 

ArriTal at SttUin. Retigioaa condition or the pagan inlubilanu. Embait; to 

Poland. Otto'a influenoe; n^ld bj a Chriatian familj 

Bolralav'a ieUir. Otlo'a malhod In dratnjing tb« moaomanla of idalalr;. 

Daalb of a hulbcn prieal 

Olio in Carl, Lrbbebu. JWiitaaninMd and deitinad for a biaboprio. 8uo- 
cni in ClonMla (Colt dot), Kaugaid, Colberg, and Belgradt 

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H» inaaen 

iM upon WarliBli* in Cmmin. Speco 


f9^Sn>,iin1Volg<.u. Co™ of 

veou there till Chrislitnity 

1 diteoursa at tiit dediguion of ■ 

Bolealav'i mililar; eipeditiao nnounosd. Ouo'a inWrrilw wilh iVan»l(T. 
Otto'iationgdeaire toTiiit RUgtn. AtlcmpM ot Ltliio to rUit that iaUod 
dafcaWd. Olio's trealment of hia tSeigj 

Slcuin, a lown pinlj pagan, partlr Chriatiaa. Wititack'a coamaiun. Hia 
anpport of Olto. OUo'a calameM amidat the infariaud patan*. Adoptiou of 
Chriatianilj reaolied upon in an asMmbly of the people. Ouo's tnatment 
of children. Dangtn to irhleh he eipoaeJ bimielf , 

Suceesanil openUiona in Ju/in. Olto'a return to BambeiKj he oontiuiMa to ba 
iDtereated in beiulf of tha Pommenniuia. Oenuan elergj and eolonlata in 

BUgen conqoend by ihe Danea. Planting of the Chrialian diateta there bj 

Vinlm't earlier life. HIa lealnua and painful laboun, in conDcctioD oiUi 
Dittmar, among the Slavet. Rellgioiia aoeietiea and miaalonar; aohoola 

Lif/laiuL Fluting of the Chilatlui cbnith there. Misaionarj operationa of 
Hcinbard (Scat cbureh in Yikdll). Crnaadea of Thaodonc and Barthold 
againit the Lieflandere. Jlbtrt of Appeldem. Biga made ■ biahopric. 
Bntbran of the Sword. Kathland, aamgillan, Oorland, nhriaiianized 

Bpiritaal drama*. Thaological IwtureB of AaJrtw of Land. Sigfrid in Holm. 
Frederia of Celle martjred in Friedland. Jobn Strick'a behaTionr duriDg an 
attack IVom lb* Letti. Impreaaion prudnced bj a apiritnaJ aong. CanTerU 
to Chrialiaoity come to a eonaoioaaneaa of their equal righta and dignity a* 
men. Change in the charaoter of the lava. Exhonationa of WilUani of 

Pnusia. Hiaaionary labaun of Adalbert of Prague, and Bruno Boniface, till 
Ibeir martyrdom. Oottftied of Luelna, and monk Philip. CAritfion'a la. 
boDl*, auatainad by Innoocnl the Third (thrau|[h hia lellen and biieb). 
Completion of the work by the German knights and brethren of the Sword. 
Fonr biaboprie* 

Finland converud to Christianity _ 

Tartarg. Aetfnly of the NtilorimH in spreading Cbrialianily. Legend of 
the Christian kingdom in Strait, under Ihe priest kings John. Ilislorioal 
basil of tills story 

MungoU. Empire of DscUngisbhau. Beligloua condition of the Mocgols. 
UaBucoeaaAil emhaasias of Innoeenl the FuniUi 

Inflnanee of the Craaadea' EDbaaay of Lnnli ih« Ninifa. Slstemeott of 
William of Rabraqola. His eonTerHtioni and parlieipation in the religioD* 
conference betwixt the difiarent panin 

The Hongol empire in Penis _ 

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iDtij lotiill; of John ds MoqM Cupioo in P«nlj, India, Cbiu. Hi> 
uninCuiitula(Pekin). The Nutoriui piinoe Ororge ba- 

Bonw* Cubolie; imsUod or Neawiiuiiim iftcr his douta 

2. Among the UolunHMJatii in Africa, 
RdUioD of Ihc HoLunmeduit Co Chriatianitj during lb* CnuiBdea. Francii 
of Awisiin Egjpl. DitTerent tccoanis of bim. Report of Jacob of Yilrj_ 
ScianM ■> aa ioiLramcDt for the apnad of'CluutianilT. Rajpmmil LtUFi 
aarlitr life. Hii coDrenion, ud liia plan of labour. Hia An geneialli 
oppoMd [D Lwo pardea. Brlation of faiih lo knottledgf. Linguislio mii- 
■ionarf lohoola at Majorca. Lull's TOjage to Tanis and its result. His 
Tabula genarslisand N«ceaaariademanslratia. His labours in Europe, and 
•eeondjoume; to Nwrtb Africa (Bugia). His banisbnunt; slupwreck near 
Pisa. His laboora as a uaeber In Paris ; bli threefold plan. Dim a martjr 
in Bngia ,» 

3. Rtlation oftht CArifMon Chnrtk to the Jtwt. 
Tbs monk Hermiiin OD the ireatmisnt of the Jews. Pslae r^Mrta eonoernjng 

Ibem ; Amatieal bafaiTianr uwsids llwni. Bemsni oT Clainaox defends 

lliem,and pots down Bodolf. FeUt of Clan; hostile to the Jews 

Tba [rapes their proleotora. Innocent the Second and tbe Third. Bricta of 

Oregoij the Ninth and of Innocent the Fouith ■ 

Poinu of diapule with the Cbrietiana. Oljjeotione ataled bj a Jew, and their 

rsfutalion bj Oielebarl „ 

Doobta and conflicts of the convert Hermann 


1, Pafac)ajidlh»Poptt,\Vi—Xb. 
Comi|ition of Ilia ehurcb, and reformalorjr reaction ; Hildebrand't idea of the 

church aa daaigned lo gotem tbe world —..^ 

HiaeoaiMof deTelopment as conditioned bjr the timaa in «bi«h be lived. 

Oregorj iheBcTenUi (1073); complainla in the flrat jesn of hi) nign 

Principles of bis oonduct; Old Testaneul position on which he alood. Piedi- 
leelion for judgments of Ood. Vensration of Harf. Papal and rojal antho- 
ritj. Monanhieal constitution of lb* chnroh. Oregorj snd the laws. Hia 
legates. Annual sjnods. Care for particular nations. Oisgorj's incorrupt- 
ible Integri I j. Penecnlionofwibilmftnbiddcn. Gregory's viawaof penance, 

of nwuuhism, SMMieisB. His liWalitj 

DilTerent eqsotations from Oregorj'e govemnent. Tbe aloi; ooneefniog 
Henry Ihe Fonrtb. Proleele against hie tleetion. Lcttoa mkeive for a 
reformatory Faat-ajDod (1074.) Oppoeitionto tbe joifi^ ceUiary. Oregory'e 
Brmicea to his principtes m the case of llie oppoeitlon altCajenoe, etc Hie 
niion with the iai^ and monks. His opponanle. Leltn to Cunibett of 

Turin. 8ep«ratial bantioal movenunte. Complaints against Oregorj 

Xap iacesfittire forbidden. OTegorr'spTOoeedlngs towards Philip the Fint and 

Hcmj riolalH the psace. 

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Ongorj it impMohed bj Hugo Bluicns. Oregnir dapoKil M tba counDil of 
Worms (1076.) Uenrj's IMter to Kame. Gregorj's impritonmml bfCin- 
tini, and libotUioD. Bui pronaaased on HoDtj. Imptefaion produoed 
on different paniM. Oiagarj't jiutificatioD of himself, lefiUed bj Wilnm. 

HeuiT's jaurue; to Bame (1076—77.) Gregory's jounie; M Oennsn)' pre 
veotol. Ul> relalioQS widi MHtbilds. Tbo penilanU u CimoasL The host 
oaed an mn ordsaL The jndgnMDt to be formed respecting aregory's neon. 
eUiation wilb Henry , , 

Hsnry TJolates the peace. Budolpb of Susbis eleoted (1077.) Oregory's am- 
biguous mods of proceeding. New bin pronoDnceit on Hency (1080.) 
Gregory depossd snd ClemenI Cbs Third elected. Ueuiy in Italy prepand 
for peaee. Gregory's firmness; his death (108D); hie Dictalei 

Continnanee of the eoDloet alter Gregory. Victor tlie Third. Uriun the Se- 
cond, f bilip tbs First's controversies oonoeming his marrisge. Firm and 
bold stand of Yves of Cbarlres, and bis fate. Ban pronounced on Pbilip — 

Oooasion ct ibe Crvtadei. Feter the Hermit. Eedeslasticsl sssemblias at 
Plasenia and Clermont , , 

Speech of Urban the Second. Enlboriaam called forlb. Different motives of 
the cTosaden. Spiritual orders of knights. Pious frauds, logellier wilb 
examples of (iilb , 

Pspal Bulhorily inatesaed by the craaadsa. Change eflteted in Urban'a situation 
dll his death. Death of the anti-pcpe Clement the Tbhrd 

Continued contests of Hent) the Fifth. Robert of FIsnden adrred up by 
Paichalia ths Second. Bold letter of the clergy of Liege (by Sigiben of 
Oemblonrs) to Psscbalis ■ 

Oispntes with Henry the Fitth about Inveatfture. Compact at Sulri, *.d. 1110. 
New oompaat i.D. 1112. Beproachea brought against Pascbsli* the Second. 
QotifrBid of VendSme representatiie of the sterner party. Milder judgment 
of Hildeben of Mans and Yru of Cbartres. John of Lyona. The tract of 
PlacidDsofNoDautula. Psschalis bsfure theLsteran council. New disputes 
about invaatiture , 

Gelsaius tbs Second, and the imperisl pope Gregory the Eighth. Attempt to 
restore peaee by the monk Hugo. Nentral stand taken by Gottfried of Yen- 
ddtne. Concoidat of Worma belwean Calixtns tbe Second and Heni} the 
Fifth, a.Jft. 1122 

Tbe anti-popes, Innooeut the Second and Anaclete the Second. Innocent, 
in France, supported byBemsid; healing of a schism in tbe oburch by the 
latter; hia conduct towards William of Aqnilania. Innocent tiiumpbant in 

e of the disputes 

Arnold of Brescia j faia education, particularly nndcrlhe influence of Abelard ; 
his asceticism, and fierce iuvectiTca againat the clergy. His lib in exile 

Arnold's principles in Borne. Hia return under Celestin the Second. Lucius 
the Second. Anti papal letter of the Bomans <o Conrad the TbinI 

Eugene the Third. Bematd'a letter to him. Engens in France supported by 
Bernard. Qreal aucceaa atuuding hia preaching of the crusades. Hia mode- 
rated enthusiaam. The awakening oslled forth. Twofold influence of Ber- 
nard Opiniona respecting the issue of tbe second crusaile 

Eogsne's return to Bome. Bernsrd'a four bookiiDeConaideratione, addressed 

Continuation of Itie qriarrels utidfr Adrian ilic Fourth. Letter of the Roman 

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DOblciloFndtric tlisFinL Fdlof AraoM's putr- Arnoltl'i death eiouMd 
\ij th* Romtn conn , > 

Anwld'B idcM eonliiiDfl to woik. Couaiol of tb* Bobenfunftiis with the bier- 
■fchj. Fint expcditioD oT Praderi* the FintigilaU Rome. Adriio'i leMn 
to Frcdnic mpeeliDg the tmn bentfieiirm. Step taken b; Frederic od the 
other tide. BMoneillilion of the two paitiea in 1198. New diDtenltiea. 
CorrespoDdence between the putie*. AdriBii dies 11B9 

Aleiender the Third, and Oie imperial pope Vielor the Fourth. The oonoeO of 
Pari* in Ikronr of the liitlar in 1I60l Viotor's aneoesMTi. Praderio tbe 
Fint'a leeonciliatioD with Aleiauder, 1177. The Lateran ooanoil in 1179 

detenninea the order of papal eleotiona — , , _ — 

Tbomaa Becket made Atehbiahop of Cantetbuir IISS; bii diflbtidtiea with 
Benr; tbe Beeond ; bit lepentance at baring dgned the actidee M Clarm- 
Jom; hie qnanel and reeonoDiation with Honrj the Seeondi bis aaaaari- 
natjon. lm|veaaion praduoed b; what blppened at his tomb. HeDi7*B 

9 HoheDataahns. Henry tbe 3i«h,and 

Oovnomant of iDDOoeilt the Third an epoch in the hiriorj of the p^oj, 1I9S 
— 1216l Motitea to bi> great aotiTilj. BaeeeslAil eontest with John of 
Rttcland, UOB— la. Voieea againat bim__ 

Inaoeent iDfnosrorOtho tbePaurtb; oppoaed to tbe pntj olPh^; aftu- 
WBida in Unonr of Prtitric On RntmA 

Bonoriat the lliird. Orrgory the NtBlk. Frederie'a eniaida. Compact with 
Otegox;, and Iho iasae of a tiew ban. Fiederte'a eiraalar-lrttn. Gregnij'a 
Bcenaationa. Fredeiic'a ideaa of teSmn, or rathar hie aoeptietl bent of mind. 
Contest tin the death of Gregory, 1S41 

CdestiD the Fonrth. Frederio the Second'a conteata, till bis death, with Inno- 
cent the Ponith. Uia oiienlai-letter alter the ban passed npon him alLjons 

Bobert Qroadiead^ dlaeonrae before tbe papal soort at Ljons. His labonre in 
England, and hia nnebeeked boldness towards Ttf«» 

Legend eonosTDing the death of Insooent tbe Fonrth i Alexander ibc Fonrth ; 
OregDTj tbe Tenth. Want of leal for the emsades at Ljons, in 1374. Abbot 
Joaehim oppoaed to them. A^umenta against tbe omaadea oonhsled bj 

Hnmben de Romania , 

His Tiew of the emsadea, 

Deteiminations witb regard to papal elections bj John the Twentj-Fint re- 
TOkad. CeleatiD the Fifth, as pope. Hia abdioation , , , 

Sc*alt of tbe biitoir of tbe p^iac j ander Qregorj the Seientb. Unsoeceaafnl 
effofts sgainst tbe nisebi««anB papal alMolatism(intertiew of John of Sal^ 
b»7 with Adtiait the Fourth.) BriberjatlbeBomaneonit. EugenetlnThitd 

3. DiMnet Bnuiehit qflhe Papal aomrmvient <tftht OlMrck, 260— Z7& 

Poaonal labours of the popea. Diffivent modes of eondnet pttnnsd b; their 
legatee. The Rosun cuia, as tbe hi^wat trlbonaL Capriidoaa appeala to 
Rone limited by Tnnooent the fhini 

BrlatiTe dependenoe of the biabopa. The form of oatb taken bj ibadk Infln. 
enee of tbe pi^es in appointntents to beneSeea. Ol>iii[dBinta abont exemption 
from tbe aalboiiij of the bishops. Pisgmstio aanotion of Loaia tbs Ninth 

CoHeotionsorccelesiaatieBllawa. Studjoftbseitillawat BologBa. Tbe De- 

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8. OOter ParU iif Die ChMrth Ci 

C'onsequtnoe* of Uw Hildpbniaiitui cpoob of nfonB. lu iti^Lt monl infla- 
enec QpoD Iha clergj. Abumin eoolniwttoal prrtenwDtocombaladmTUD 

RrfiirnuliauartbeekjTn'' Norben'i eoagnfalion. Oerlioh'iClcriaircgiiUrW. 
DiO^OM unaDgac iLe lecultr olerg;. TbeliUer M iimohen of niwiiUDog 

Fuleo of NeuilLj ; hii sdueaUoD, vid influcDCS u > pnoober oriepcDUno* ; Lii 
inflneoce u^n Lbs «l«rg7i hia preaohing of lbs criuulw, Palsr d« Butik, 
I preiehw of npanunee ia oppoailioo lo Iba ijiWm of the obuTeli_____ 

ArebdcRoont. Offleiilf* in tli< mora lancni sat in the more nalricUd wnu. 
Tba biibop*. Valaible liboiin of P«t«r of Mooiliar. Oariiab oppowd to 
(L( usulu awonl Id the hanla of bubop* uiil pope*. TJluUr bithopa..,.- 

I. PropMic WamiHStagaiiutUu Secularisation Iif lh*Cluinh,^B-3\2 

PoMeaaioD of Propotj injuTiooi to ibe oburcb. Pro^eiic elemeDi in tbc df- 
lelopmcnt of tbe cbaroh ,. ,. 

Bildefttrd. Oml nTrnii» with whirb (ha «*■ ngwded. Her admoailiuui 
■od eannult ; Let ioTtoliTM agunal tlie atergr, and her propbeeiea 

Abbot Joachim. Ilia utiTa labonn; hii ideia; hia geniiine wriLingH, and tbe 
apurioiu ana* iitributed lo bin. Hia uiTectiTeaagBiDattheoomiptooun of 
Rome ; igunH PaauhaUa tbt Seooud, and bia auceBaora. Woildlj gnoda and 
aacuUr aupporta iajoriooa to the ohurch. Inwvd CbriatiaDitj j Qod, aDd 
the apoalolic cburcii. The aDtiohriBt (PBtaraaea). tha deatiaed iualmmwl 
of puniabmeiit. Tba Hobanauubii*. Tbe thrae period* of raTFlatioa, and 
the three apoattea rapreecDtiDg them. Joaobim'a tieir of hiatorinal Cliria- 
tluiitj. Fonn and ewenoa of fihri«ii«»itj , 

0. Sutorya/Mamaehi»m,3}i-3a3. 

Moaaobiem, aod the tendunc j of the lime*. Ploa* molhera, and oibw IdHd- 
enoe* which aerrad to promol« it. Worldly temper in tbe mmuteriea 
broDght about eepeoially b; the oUuM, Sllularj eniitpl« of anefa men as 
Ebrard and aimoa. Uolirea of thoaewbo ambraeni manaehiam. Faidoned 
orimintla gained, and oilier moral inllaeBee* of the monbe 

Aaaelm on DiDnaeblim and the wotMlj Ufb. Ear); *owa renounced. Varioua 
inflaeDoeef llientanka. Theireaimnn* on repentance. Briifjona abem- 
liona and eonfliele. Admonillant of Amiem and Baniaid 

Ym of Chaitrea, Bajmand Lnll, and Peter of Clnny on the eramlle lil^ 
Preaobenof reticnttnoe. WoHdl; and hypocritical monka,. 

Sorterl founder of the Prtrm»ulTateruiant. Hie miractea. Ednaation and la- 
bour* of Robert of Aibriaael. Tbe Panperea Cbriali, and Iha nuna at Fons 
Ebraldi. Robcrt'a inreotiTH againct (he clergy. OpinLona reapeotjng him 

CJuBwnjuuinj. Piedeoeaaon of MaurUiiu. Hia axbortationa egalnal extn- 
Taganleaaeitioiam. Hte letter* 

Bobert, foonder of tbe Qateroiana. Ui* aneenaon. Bemanl led lo mona- 
cbiam. Hia rigid aaoecticiui. Hia inSaentia] labour* in CddnKuis. Hie 
relation lo the pope*. Hi* miraelae, judged bj bimaeif and otben. Hie ei- 
hDrUttOD to the TaKfiart. HI* Iheotogy of the heart. On Ioto, amd ita 
■erertl aMKBa. ConaMst refatenee lo Claiat. DiStenU poaitions in ChriH- 
tianitT. The apirii of calnmaj and self4nowledge 

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cnpitiaDs. miit atrict 

SoaiBIJM fbniwd lo Uka obugs of Ihe l«|)roiiii, and ollifr tick peraoiiB. Aboie 
ofChrbtiui cbuitj. OrderoftbB IVniCananJ 

Law agiiuM new DouidMliaaa. Mtsdicant monjb, ia tbeir ralilion lo tba 
oborch. Didiciu ukd Dominiok in coDtut with itae henties or South 
France. Ordatof the Dominican* eonSncad 

CoUTcnior of Fnnda. Uii rellgioiu beiit. Idea of the eTangeltoil paiertj ; 
hie reteption with the pope and oardinali; hla moitiflraliaiii; Bayiiiga oon- 
eernlDg aMelielnn, prajer. preiehiDg. Hfatioel, hubuoub element Id bla 
ebaneter. Hia lojt at nature. Maika of the waunda. MlinorUtt. Older 
of Clara. Tertiaria 

Labortaaa and inflaential acUvii; of Uie mendicaota, Tbeir relation ta the 
n tb> foath, on the learned, 

Influence of the mandiwnt frian in llie UniTcreltj of Paris. Checked bf In- 
nucent the Fourth (biadealh): favoured li; Aleiander (he Fourtli; attacked 
b; Willian] of 8t Amour, who compluni of tbeir inflaence on Louie tlie 
Nintb. Papellarda and Befnina . 

Dabnca of Ibe mendicant monka b; Bontrentiua and Tbomaa. Fate of Wil- 
liam of Bl AnoDr. Bonaientaran aeennorof bla order. The itiioler and 
laier Franciioana. Joaehim'a ideaa aa embraced b; thia order 

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Albbadt, in the preceding period, ve took notice of the re- 
peated bnt oasaccesafiil attempts to convert the Slaronian tribes 
living within and on the borders of Germany. Snch nndertakings, 
which, withont respecting the peculiarities of national character, 
aimed to force upon the necks of these tribes the yoke of a 
foreign domination, along with that of the hierarchy, wonld ae- 
cessarily prore either a total failure or barren of all salutary in- 
flnences. The people would stmggle, of coarse, against what was 
thus imposed on them. Of this sort were the nndertakings of 
the dnkes of Poland to bring the sPommeranians, a nation dwell- 
ing on their borders, under their dominion and into subjection to 
the Christian cbnrch. The Poles themselves, as we observed in 
the preceding period, bad been but imperfectly converted ; and 
the conseqnences of this still continued to be observable in the 
religions condition of that people ; — it was the last quarter, 
therefore, from which to expect any right measures to proceed 
for effecting the conversion of a p^an nation. Back-Pommerania 
having been already, a hundred years before, reduced to a condi- 
tion of dependence on the Poles, Boleslav the Third (Krzivonsti) 
VOL. vir. A 

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duke of Poland, in the year 1121, succeeded in compelling West 
Poinmerania also, and its regent, dnke Wartislav, to acknowledge 
his sapremacy. Eight thousand Pommeranians were remored by 
him to a district bordering immediately on his own dominions, in 
order that they might there learn to forget their ancient cnstoms, 
their lore of freedom, and their old religion, and be induced at 
length to embrace Christianity. But the Polish bishops were 
neither inclined nor fitted to operate as missionarieB in Pommer- 
ania. It was much easier, in this period, to find among the 
monks men who shrunk IVom no difScnlties or dangers, but were 
prepared to consecrate themselves, with cheerful alacrity, to any 
enterprise undertaken in the serTice of the church and for the 
good of mankind. The zeal of these good men, however, was 
not always accompanied with correct views or sound discretion. 
Often too contracted in their notions to be able to enter into the 
views and feelings of rude tribes with cnstoms differing widely 
from their own, they were least of all fitted to introduce Chris- 
tianity for the first time among a people like the Pommeranians, 
— a merry, well-conditioned, life-enjoying race, abundantly fur- 
nished by nature with every means of comfortable subsistence, so 
that a poor man or a beggar was not to be seen amongst them. 
Having had no experience of those feelings which gave birth to 
monacliism, they conld not understand that peculiar mode of life. 
The monks, in their squalid raiment, appeared to them a mean, 
despicable set of men, roring abost in search of a livelihood. 
Poverty was here regarded as altogether unworthy of the priest- 
hood ; for the people were accustomed to see their own priests 
appear in wealth and splendour. Hence the monks were spumed 
with scorn and contempt. Such especially was the treatment ex- 
perienced by a missionary who came to these parts from the dis- 
tant country of Spain — the bishop Bernard.^ Being a native of 

1 Ttiia fact is not BUted, it i« tnie, hi the moal traitvonhj iceount we ban of tliia 
miMloii, wliich ie conlniued in iLe work of >n unknonD oontemponrj writer of tbe life 
of biabop Otto of BuBbng.jiubMBlied b; Canisius id bii LcatiDaea AutiqutB, t. Hi., p. 
2, but it ia rrportHl by the Bambergian abbol Andreaa, wlio wrote id the iraODd balf of 
llie filVenih ceniitrj. Tb« lalter, boweter, in giTiBt; thia acconol apprala ID ibe leati- 
moiiy of Ulric. a prieat in immriliale BtteDdance on biahop Otto bimaelf. And wbat we 
have aaid wilb regard to tbe miaaionarj pfforls of tba noiika generally ii GOafirmed at 
leaet by iha more certain anlbarity of Ibe auanymoua writer jnat raeDtioned. Bpeaking 
ofbiabop Oltn, he aays; " Quia Irrram PoDimeranorani apulrnlHin Indittrat el egenoa 
aiT« mepdicus penilua non habere, sed cehemenler iBperntri, ei jamdadnm quoadam 

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Spain, he vas noGtted already, by national temperament, to act 
as a missionary among these people of the north, whose very 
language it most have been difficult for him to understand. Ori- 
ginally an anchoret, he had lired a strictly ascetic lire, when at 
the instance of pope Paschalis the Second, he took upon himself 
a bishopric made racant by the removal of its former occnpant.i 
But finding it impossible to gain the lore of his community, a 
portion of whom still continued to adhere to his predecessor, he 
abandoned the post for the purpose of avoiding disputes, to which 
his fondness for peace and quiet was most strongly repugnant, 
choosing rather to avail himself of hia episcopal dignity to go 
and found a new church among the Pommeranians. Accom- 
panied by his chaplain, he repaired to that country ; hut with a 
bent of mind so strongly given to asceticism, he wanted the neces- 
sary prudence for such an undertaking. He went about bare- 
foot, clad in the garments he was used to wear as an ancho- 
ret. He imagined that, in order to do the work of a mis- 
sionary in the sense of Christ, and according to the example 
of the apostles, he must strictly follow the directions which 
Christ gave to them, Matth. x. 9, 10, without considering that 
Christ gave his directions in this particular fbrm, with refer- 
ence to a particular and transient period of time and a pe- 
culiar condition of things, entirely diA'crent from the circum- 
stances of his own field of labour ; and so, for the reasons we have 
alluded to, he very soon began to be regarded by the Pommer- 
anians with contempt. They refVained, however, from doing him 
the least injury ; till, prompted by a fanatical longing after mar- 
tyrdom, be destroyed a sacred image in Jnlin, a town situated on 
the island of WoUin, — a deed which, as it neither contributed to 
remove idolatry from the hearts of men, n<ir to implant the true 
faith in its stead, could only serve, without answering a single 
good purpose, to irritate the minds of the people. The Pom- 
meranians would no longer sufier him, it is true, to remain 
amongst them ; hut whether it was that they were a people less 

KTTH Dei praedicBtoret rganoa propter iDopUm conKinaiue, qnui non pru aaltita ho- 
ninuni, iied pro lui aPcenilale r«l«i«nda, oScIo iuiiawrent pnedicindl" 

I It wm at iheUmeof thsBfliism which gtew out of the qiiarrel belwiit tlia smperor 
Hcngy the Fourth aud pope Oregor; tba Seienth, in vhish dlspnin IhiB depoacd bishop 
m*f prrbapa have taken an acliTe part aa ao opponent of tbe papal sj atam. 

A 2 

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iiddicted to rclifiouB faoaticiBin than other p&gan nations within 
OQT knowledge, and Bernard's appearance served rather to more 
their pit; than to excite their hatred and stir them np to perse- 
cation ; or whether it was that they dreaded the Tengeance of 
duke Boleslar ; the fact was, they still abstained from all Tiolence 
to his person, hat contented tfaemselTes with patting him on board 
a ship and sending him oat of their country. 

Thns, by his own impradent condact, bishop Bernard defeated 
the object of his enterprise ; still, however, he contributed in- 
directly to the founding of a permanent mission in this country ; 
and the experience which he had gone through would, moreorer, 
serve as a profitable lesson to the man who might come after 
htm. He betook himself to Bamberg, where the severe austerity 
of his life, as well as hi^ accurate knowledge of the ecclesiastical 
reckoning of time, would doubtless gire him a high place in the 
estimation of the clergy. And here he found in bishop Otto a 
man that took a deep interest in pious enterprises, and oae also 
peculiarly well fitted, and prepared by many of the prerions cir- 
cumstauces of his life, for just such a mission. 

Otto was descended iVom a noble, bat as it would seem not 
wealthy Snabian family. He received a learned education, 
according to the fashion of those times ; but, being a younger 
son, be could not obtain the requisite means for prosecuting his 
scientific studies to the extent he desired, and especially for visit- 
ing the then flourishing University of Paris ; but was obliged to 
expend all his energies, in the early part of his life, in guning a 
livelihood. As Poland, at this time, stood greatly in need of an 
educated clergy, and he hoped that be should be able to turn his 
knowledge to the best account in a country that still remained so 
far behind others in. Christian culture, he directed his steps to 
that quarter with the intention of setting up a school there. In 
this employment, he soon rose to consideration and influence ; 
and the more readily, inasmuch as there were very few at that 
time in Poland, who were capable of teaching all the branches 
reckoned in this period as belonging to a scholastic education. 
Children vere put under hia care from many distinguished families, 
and in this way he came into contact with the principal men of 
the land. His knowledge and his gifts were frequently called 
into requisition by them for various other purposes. Thus he 

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became known to tbe doke Wladistav Hermann, who invited him 
to his «onrt, and made him his chaplain.' When that dnke, after 
having lost his first wife, Judith, began to think of contracting a 
second marriage, his attention was directed by means of Otto, to 
Sophia, sister of the emperor Henry the Fourth ; and Otto was 
one of the commissioners sent, in the year 1088, to the em- 
peror's conrt, to demand the hand of the princess. The mission 
was snccessfiil, and tbe marriage took place. Otto was one of the 
persoM wbo accompanied the princess to Poland ; and he thns 
rose to higher consideration at tbe Polish conrt. He was fre- 
qnently sent on embassies to Germany, and in tkis way be bo- 
came better known to the emperor, Henry the Fourth. That 
monarch finally drew him to bis own court, where he made him 
one of bis chaplains, and employed bim as his secretary. Otto 
got into great favour with tbe emperor.^ He appointed him bis 
chancellor, and when the bishopric of Bamberg, in tbe year 
1102, felt racant, placed him over that diocese. Now it would 
be very natural to expect that a favourite of tbe emperor Henry 
the Fourth, who bad obtained through bis inSnence an importaat 
bishopric, would therefore be inclined, in tbe contests between 
that monarch and pope Gregory the Seventh, to espouse the in- 
terests of the imperial party. But Otto was a man too strict 
and conscientious in bis religion to allow himself to be governed 
in ecclesiastical matters by such considerations. Like the ma- 
jority of the more seriously disposed clergy, he was inclined to 

1 WBfoUair bne tbemon trBilwonlijBrcoDDIorikeuianjniaiiBeoDtenipodrf. Tbe 
cue is ■tUeddiO'tnntlj bj tbe ibbol Andreu. According lo ibe laUet, Otio made bis 
fint Tiiit to Poluid in compiu; witbthe tisleior the emperor Htorjr Ibe Funnh . He 
ailla bet Juditb, 4Dd uji ibxt Quo wm bri chApliin, After her deilb, according ID tbe 
Hme wrilw, OUo wta Mken into the Hciice or > eertun ibbeas, il Regeaabnrg, where 
the emperor brume belter acqiiaiDti'd witbbim and look bim iato bis emplojiUBiit. But 
Andnu himielfcaDilnBa the aUtemeul of the faots bj the aDonjmatii writer, when. 
after ipaaking of Otto'a appoinlmeiit to be court cbapUin, he addi : " Nobile* ijaique M 
polenMa Dliua tairts eenaiim ei fiJiua auoa sd emdieoditm offtfrebaat." AMordtDglj, 
the (ccOtiDt (iieD I; this urtiier also preanppoeea that Otto hid beep maatei of a sebool 
in Polud; aud bowberaoie to be so ia best explnined bj tlio aUlfmoDt of the mitler 
in tbe ananjmoiia writer, onl}' the iiier anlhor haa rUlen iota a wrontr ariaogemeDt of 

1 Bacaitee, te the story went, he was careful lo have the pealier alwajB leadj for tbe 
rmperor, who was a ([real admirer ol the Psalms; beciose be bad an eiiraurdiDu; bdliij 
tit rvpeating psalna from memoi? ; and, moru than all. because he once presented Il>e 
ernpenir with bis own caai off pxalier, having Rrat ciased it to be rep*ir*<l ami ent on 
Bith • ,ery RorgeouB liiuiling. 

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favour the principles of the Gregorian church govemmeDt. His 
love of peace and his prudeat management enabled him, however, 
fur a while, to preserve a good nnderstanding with both the em- 
peror and the pope ; though at a later period, he allowed himself 
to become so entangled in the hierarchical interest as to be be- 
trayed into ingratitude and dislojaltf towards bis prince and old 

As a bishop. Otto was distinguished for the zeal and interest 
which he took in promoting the religions instruction of the 
people in their own spoken language, and for his gilt of clear and 
intelligible preaching.' He was accustomed to moderate, with 
the severity of a monk, his bodily wants ; and by this course, as 
well as by his fVugality generally, was able to save so much the 
more out of the ample revenues of his bishopric for carrying for- 
ward the great enterprises which he undertook in the service of 
the church and of religion. He loved to take IVoni himself to 
give to the poor ; and all the presents he received from princes 
and noblemen, far and near, he devoted to the same object. 
Once, during the season of Lent, when fish were very dear, a 
large one, of great price, was placed on the table before him. 
Taming to bis steward, said he, " God forbid that I, the poor 
nnworthy Otto, should alone swallow, to-day, snch a sum of 
money. Take this costly fish to my Christ, who should be dearer 
to nre than I am to myself Take it away to him, wherever thoa 
canst find one lying on the stck-bed. For me, a healthy man, 
my bread is enough." A valuable fnr was once sent to him as a 
present, with a request that he would wear it in remembrance of 
the giver. " Yes," said he, alluding to the well-known words of 
our Lord, " I will preserve the precious gift so carefully, that 
neither moths shall corrupt nor thieves break in and steal it," — 
HO saying, he gave the fnr to a poor lame man, then snfieringalso 
under various other troubles.'' He distinguished himself by the 
active solicitude, shrinking from no sacrifice, with which he ex- 

1 See futfaeron.—uDderlhe history of tlis cliurcliconatitutiDii. 

3 TbeauoajiiDoDa biagmpbcrBajs: "Hale nh ooiQibiu aui temporie pontiBcibuK to 
docendO {wpulum iintarKli lermoue priucipatos miuime aegabulur ; quia diMitus «t 
uUunlt polltDS eloquio. yan el TrequauLia ia diceudo faciliii em, quid loco, quid tempori, 
quid persoiiis compvWtrt observant." 

a Sec Lcvt. Autiq I. c. fol. 90. 

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erted himself to relieve the sufferings of the needy and distressed, 
daring a great famine, which swept off large nitmhers of the peo- 
ple. He kept by him an exact list of all the sick in the city 
where he liyed, accompanied with a record of their several com- 
plaints, and of the other circnmstances of their condition, so as 
to be able to provide enitably for the wants and necessities of 
each individual.' He caused many churches, and other edifices, 
to be constmcted for the embellishment, or the greater secnrity, 
of his diocese. He especially took pleasnre in fonnding new 
monasteries, for io common with many of the more seriously dis- 
posed in his times, he cherished a strong predilection for the 
monastic life.^ Governed by the mistaken notion, so common 
among his contemporaries, that a peculiar sanctity attached itself 
to the monastic profession, he expressed a wish, when attacked 
hy an illness that threatened to prove fatal, to die in the monk- 
ish habit ; and, on his recovery, intended actually to fulfil the 
monkish tow which he had already made in his heart. It was 
only through the infinence of his friends, who represented to him 
the great importance of his continuing to labour for the good of 
the church, that he was deterred f^om executing this purpose, 

Sneh was the man, whom bishop Semard, on his return from 
Fommerania, sought to inflame with a desire of prosecuting the 
tnission which he himself had nosacoessfully begun ; and he drew 
arguments from his own experience to convince him that he 
might confidently hope, if he appeared among the Fommeranians 
with pomp and splendour, and employed his ample means in the 
serrice of the mission, to see his labours crowned very soon with 
tiie happiest results. Otto's pious zeal could easily be enkindled 
in favour of such an object. At this juncture, moreover, came a 
letter from duke Boleslav of Foland, inviting him in the most 
argent terms to engage in the enterprise ; whether it was that 
the dnke had been informed how Otto had been led, through 
Bernard's influence, to entertain the idea of such a mission among 
the Fommeranians, and now wrote him in hopes of bringing him 

I The anknoRn writtr aaf>; " Htbebu cognitoe tt ex nomiuibuB propriiB doIiiob 
omiMS ptnljLicoi. Iuigaiilu>, cmcetuMM. biik lepnNWt ilt oivilue sua, modum. tenipun, 
ft qu*nliE«t<>in lunguorii eorum prr se iiiMHiigiiDi eangrumiui' fnilisidiB amtiibua |iro- 
tidvbu »t per procurMores." 

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8 otto's departure. 

to a decisioD,— or that this prince, & bod of Wladislav by his 
first marrif^e, remembering the impression that Otto had made 
on him when he knev him at the conit of hia lather, felt satisfied 
that he was the rery man to be employed among snch a people. 
The duke earnestly besonght him to come to Fommerania ; he 
reminded him of their former connection whilst he himself was 
yet a yonth, at the court of his father.' Re complained that, 
with all the pains he had taken, for three years, he had been 
wiable to find a person suited for this work among his own bishops 
and clergy.* He promised that he would defVay all the expenses 
of the undertaking, proTide him with an escort, with interpreters, 
and assistant priests, and whatever else might he necessary for 
the accomplishment of the object. 

Haying obtained the blessing of pope Honorius the Second on 
this work. Otto began his jonrney on the 24th of April, 1124. 
Fondly attached as he was to monkish ways, the experience of 
hia predecessor in this missionary Geld taught him to avoid every 
appearance of that sort, and rather to present himself in the fnll 
Bplendonr of his episcopal dignity. He not only provided himself 
in the most ample manner with everything that was required for 
bis own support and that of his attendants tn Fommerania, but 
also took with him costly raiment and other articles to be used 
as presents to the chiefs of the people ; likewise, all the neces- 
sary church utensils by which he could make it visibly manifest 
to the Fommeranians that he did not visit tkem from interested 
motives, but was ready to devote his own property to the object 
of imparting to them a blessing which he regarded as tho very 

Travelling through a part of Bohemia and Silesia, he made a 
vJBit to duke Boleslav in Poland. In the city of Gnesen, he met 
with a kind and honourable reception from that prince. The 
duke gave him a great number of waggons for conveying the 
means of subsistence which he took along with him, as well as 
the rest of the baggage ; a sum of money of the currency of the 
country to defray a part of the expenses ; people who spoke 

1 " Quia in diebuiJoTeDlutiB (nke apnd pttrnu menm dfeeDliieiina l« boiuwliile con- 

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Oerman and Slaric to act as his servants ; three of his own 
chaplains to assist him in his labours ; and, finally, in the capa- 
city of a protector, the commandant Panlitzky (Panlicins), a man 
ardently deroted to the cause. This commandant, or colonel, 
knew how to deal with the rude people ; and be was instructed 
to employ the authority of the dake for the purpose of disposing 
the Pommeranians to a readier reception of Christianity. Having 
trareraed the vast forest which at that time separated Folaad 
from Fommerania, they came to the hanks of the river Netzei 
which divided the two districts.' Here duke Wartislar, who bad 
been apprized of their arrival, came to meet them with a train of 
fire hundred armed men. The duke pitched his camp on the 
farther side of the river, and then with a few attendants crossed 
over to the bishop. The latter first had a private interview with 
the doke and the Polish colonel. As Otto did not possess a ready 
command of the Slavic language, though he had learned it in his 
youth, the colonel served as his interpreter. They conferred 
with each other ahont the coarse to be observed in the conduct of 
the mission. Meantime, the ecclesiastics remained alone with the 
PiHnmeranian soldiers ; and probably their courage was hardly 
equal to the undertaking before them. The way through the 
dismal forest had already somewhat intimidated them ; added to 
which was now the unusual sight of these rude soldiers, clad and 
equipped after the manner of their country, with whom they were 
left alone, in a wild uninhabited region, amid the frightful gloom 
of approaching night. The alarm which they betrayed, provoked 
the Fommeranians, who, though they had been baptized, were 
perhaps Christians bat in name, to work still farther on their 
fears. Pretending to be pagans, they pointed their swords at 
them, threatened to stab them, to flay them alive, to bury them 
to their shoulders in the earth, and then deprive them of their 
tonsure. But they were soon relieved f^om their great terror by 
the re-appearance of their bishop in company with the duke, 
whom, by timely presents, he had wrought to a still more friendly 
disposition. The example of the duke, who accosted the ecclesi- 
astics in a GonrteouB and friendly manner, was followed by hia 

1 Acooldiog to Ihr ■Utcmcnl at AndKU, Ihr frontier nsilr nbece thry piil up wo 

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attendftDts. They now confessed that they were Christians, and 
that by their threats they had only intended to pat the courage 
of the ecclesiastics to the test. The duke left behind him ser- 
vants aod guides ; he gave the missionaries full liberty to teach 
and baptize throughout bis whole territory, and he commanded 
that they should be erery where received Id an hospitable manner. 

On the next morning they crossed the borders and directed 
their steps to the town of Pyritz. They passed through a district 
which had sufiered greatly io the war with Poland, and was but 
just recorering from the terrors of it. The much-troubled people 
were the more inclined therefore to yield in all things to the 
authority of the bishop, who was enabled in passing to administer 
baptism to thirty in this sparsely-peopled region. 

It was eleven of the clock at nightwhen they arrived at Pyritz. 
They found the whole town awake ; for it was a great pagan fes- 
tival, celebrated with feasting, drinking, song and revelry ; and 
four thousand men from the whole surrounding country were 
assembled here on this occasion. Under these circumstances, the 
bishop did not think it proper to enter the town. They pitched 
their tents at some distance without the walls, and avoided every- 
thing that might attract the attention of the intoxicated and 
excited multitude. They kept as quiet as possible, not venturing 
even to kindle a fire. On the next morning Panlitzky, with the 
other envoys of the two dukes, entered the town, and called a 
meeting of the most influential citizens. The authority of th« 
two dukes was here employed to induce the people to compliance. 
They were reminded of the promise which under compulsion they 
had before given to the Polish duke, that they would become 
Christians. Xo delay was allowed for a more full deliberation 
on the subject ; as they were informed that the bishop, who had 
forsaken all in order to come and help them, and in the most dis- 
interested manner devoted himself to their service, was near at 
band. So they yielded ; for they supposed theit gods had shown 
themselves unable to help them. When the bishop, with all his 
wagons and bis numerous train, now entered into the town, terror 
in the first place seized upon all ; for they thought it some new 
hostile attack. But having convinced themselves of the peaceful 
intentions of the strangers, they received them with more confi- 
dence. Seven days were spent by the bishop in giving instruc- 

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PARTINQ discourse, first church in K.AMMIN. II 

tion ; three days were appointed for spiritual and bodily prepara- 
ti<m to receive the ordioaDce of baptism. They held a fast and 
bathed themaelvea, that they might with cleanliness and decency 
sobmit to the holy trausactioa. Large vessels filled with water 
were sunk in the ground and snrronnded with curtains. Behind 
these baptism was admini8t«red, in the form cnstomary at that 
period, by immersion. During their twenty days' residence in 
this town, eeren thousand were baptized ; and the persons bap- 
tized were instmcted on the matters contained in the confession 
of faith and respecting the most important acts of worship. Be- 
6m taking his leave of them the bishop, with the aid of an 
interpreter, addressed a discourse to the newly baptized ftom an 
eleTat«d spot. He reminded them of the vow of fidelity which 
they had made to Ood at baptism ; he warned them against relaps- 
ing into idolatry ; he explained to them that the Christian life is 
a continual warfare, and then expounded to them the doctrine of 
the seven sacraments, since by these were designated the gifts of 
the Holy Ghost which were the appointed means of upholding and 
strengthening the ftuthfbl in this warfare. When he spoke of 
the sacrament of marriage, he explained that those who had 
hitherto possessed several wires, ought firom that lime to retain 
bnt one as the lawful wife. He testified his abhorrence of the 
unnatoral custom which prevailed among the women of destroy- 
ing at their birth children of the female sex, when their num- 
ber appeared too large. As it is evident, however, from the 
whole history of the afiiur, that the reception of Christianity 
was in this case brought about chiefly through the fear of 
the dttke of Poland,— a vast number had submitted to bap- 
tism within a very short time, a time altogether insufficient 
to afford opportnuity for communicating the needful instruc- 
tion to such a multitude, — bo it was impossible that what was 
here done should as yet be attended with any deep-workiug or 
permanent effects. 

From this place they proceeded to the town of Kammin. Here 
resided that wife of duke Wartislar whom he distinguished above 
all the rest, and whom he regarded as his legitimate consort. 
She was more devoted to Christianity than she veutured to con- 
fess in the midst of a pagan population. Encouraged by what 
she had heard about the labours of Otto in Pyritz, she declared 

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herself already, before his arriTal, more openly and decidedly a 
friend of Christianity. The bishop, therefore, fonnd the popular 
mind in a favonrable state of preparation ; many were aoxionsly 
awaitioj; the arrival of the eccleeiastics, from whom they desired 
to receive baptism. During the forty days which they spent in 
this place, their strength was hardly sufficient to administer bap- 
tism to as many as demanded it. Meantime, dnke Wartislar 
also arrived at Eammin. He expressed great love for the bishop, 
and greater zeal in f&Yom of Christianity than he had done be- 
fore. In obedience to the Christian law of marriage, he took an 
oath, before the bishop and the assembled people, to remain true 
to his lawfnl wife alone, and to dismiss fonr and twenty others 
whom he had kept as concubinea. This act of the prince had a 
salntary influence on the rest of the people, who followed his ex- 
ample. Here Otto founded the first chnrch for the .Fommer- 
anians, over which he appointed one of his clergy as priest, and 
left him behind for the instruction of the people. A remarkable 
concnrrence of circumstances on one occasion produced a great 
impression both on the p^ans and the new converts. A woman 
of property, zealonsly devoted to the old pagan religion, stood 
forth as a violent opponent of the Christians. She held that the 
prosperity of the country and its people furnished evidence 
enough of the power of their ancient deities. On Sunday, when 
all rested from their labours and repaired to chnrch, this woman 
required her people, in defiance of the strange god, to work at ga- 
thering in the harvest ; and to set the example, went herself into 
the field and grasped the sickle ; but, at the first stroke, she 
wounded herself with the instrument. This occurrence was 
looked upon as a manifest judgment of God, — evidence of the 
power of the God of the Christians. 

After having resided here in this manner forty days, the bishop 
determined to push his missionary journey still onwards ; and two 
citizens of Fyritz, Domislav, father and son, accompanied them 
as guides. They directed their steps to one of the prindpal 
places of the conntry, the island of Wollin ; but here, on account 
of the warlike, spiteAil character of the inhabitants, a people 
strongly attached to their ancient customs, they had reason to 
expect more determined opposition. The two guides, as they ap- 
proached the city of Jiilin, were struck with fear ; and the eocle- 

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ASYLUM IS J'JI.iy. lo 

siastics, as we have seeD, vere far from being stont-hearted'men. 
Bat bishop Otto himeelf, amidst snch companionB, could not catch 
the contagion of fear. There was nothing to disturb him in the 
threateoing prospect of death. Inclined 4o err at the opposite 
extreme, earnestly longing to give op hie life in his Saviour's 
cause, he held danger too much in contempt. It required more 
self-denial, — more self-control on his part, not to throw himself 
into the midst of the pagan popniace, bat to try to arert, by viae 
and pmdent measnres, the threatening storm. What Otto had 
done in FyritE, must have been already known in the city ; and 
the zealous devotees to the old Slavic religion conld, therefore, 
only look upon him as an enemy of their gods. From the fury 
of the p^&n populace, the rude masses of a seafaring people, the 
worst was to be apprehended. The guides advised that they 
should remain awhile concealed on the banks of the river, and 
endeavour to enter the town nnperceired by night. In this town, 
as in the other cities, there was a castle belonging to the duke, 
attached to which was a strongly-built inclosure, serving as a 
place of refuge for snch as might repair to it. To this place it 
was proposed that they should remove, with all their goods. 
Tbns would they be protected gainst the first attacks of the in- 
furiate multitude ; and, waiting in their place of security until the 
fhry of the people had time to cool, might then come to terms 
with them. The plan seemed a wise one, and was adopted. But 
perhaps the peculiar character of the people had not been suffi- 
ciently weighed. This plan of stealthily creeping in by night, 
which betrayed timidity and a want of confidence, might easily 
lead to serious mischiefs. Whereas, had they come forward 
openly, they might reckon on the eflect which the bishop, appear- 
ing in all the pomp of his office, would be likely to produce, on 
the respect of the people for the authority of the Polish duke, and 
oo the gradually-increasing inflnence of a secret Christian party : 
for there was always to be found in this important seaport and 
commercial mart, a respectable number of Christian merchants 
Irom abroad ; by intercourse with whom, as well as with such 
Christian nations as they risited for the purpose of trade, some 
few had already, as it seems, been gained over to Christianity. 

On the following moming, as soon as they were observed by 
the people, stormy movements began. Even the asylum was not 

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respected. A furions Attack of the populace compelled them to 
abandon it. The Polish colonel addressed the people, bat hia 
words had no effect on the excited mnltitnde. SuTTonndedby his 
trembling companions. Otto, nndannted, cheerfnl, and ready for 
martyrdom, walked throngh tn angry erowd, that threatened 
death to him in particular ; and he received aereral blows. 
Knocked down in the press, amid the jostling on all sides, he fell 
into the mire. Panlitzky, a man of conrage and gfreat physical 
strength, covered him with his own body, and, warding off the 
blows aimed at his life, helped him to regain his feet. Thus they 
finally made ont to escape nnh&nned from the city ; bat, instead 
of immediately abandoning this part of the country, they waited 
five days longer for the people to come to their senses. The 
secret Christians in the mean time paid a visit to the bishop. 
The more respectable citicens also waited on him to apologise for 
what had happened, which they said they conid not hinder ; 
lajing all the blame on the populace. Otto required them to 
become Christians. Taking advantage of these events to work 
upon their fears, he threatened them with the vengeance of the 
Polish dnke, whose anger they had good reason to dread, after 
having offered such an insult to his messengers. He informed 
them that the only step by which they could hope to pacify the 
dnke, and to ward off the danger which threatened them, was to 
embrace Christianity. After consulting together, they finally 
declared that they most be governed by the coarse taken by 
their capital town, Stettin ; and to this place they advised the 
bishop to repair first. This advice he followed. 

At Stettin, the reception he met with was at first unfavour- 
able. When he proposed to the chief men of the city that they 
should pat away their old religion and adopt Christianity, they 
repelled the proposition very decidedly. The life and manners of 
the nations that professed Christianity had brought it here, as 
often happens, into discredit. The Pommeranians were now at 
precisely that point of cultnre which the apoatte Paul, in the 
seventh of the Epistle to the Bomans, describes as a life vithoat 
the law. Possessing the simplicity, openness, and innocence 
of primitive manners, and enjoying a degree of temporal pros* 
perity which was the natural result of a favonrable climate,' soil, 
Th« unknown inthoT of the Life o( Ulto, ofler mentioning the plrot; of ginie. 

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and location, they were as yet ignorant of the conflicts between 
law and Inst, and of the strifes of contrary interests, and hence 
exempt from the evils that grow ont of ttiem, as well as nncon- 
scions of many wants diflftcnit to be satisfied, bnt rery sure to be 
called forth in a people making the transition from a state of 
nature to civilization. Fraud and theft were crimes unknown 
among them ; nothing was kept nnder lock and key. The hos- 
pitality which nsnally distingnishes a people at this stage of cul- 
ture, existed among them to an eminent degree. Erery head of 
a ramily had a room especially consecrated to the reception of 
guests, in which was kept a table constantly spread for their en- 
tertainment. Thus the evils were here absent, by which man is 
made conscious of the sin Inrking in his nature, and thereby 
brought to feel his need of redemption. If physical well-being 
were man's highest end, they had the best reason for rejecting 
that which would tear them away from this happy state of na- 
ture. Now, when from this point of view they compared their 
own condition with that of the Christian nations of Germany, and 
made up their judgment tVom the facts which were first presented 
to them, as they could see nothing to enry in the condition of the 
latter, so they saw nothing in the religion to which they attri- 
buted this condition that oonld recommend it to their acceptance . 
Amongst the Christians — said the more respectable citizens of 
Stettin — are to be found thieves and pirates. Some people hare 
to lose their feet, others their eyes ; erery species of crime and 
of pnnishment abounds amongst them; Christian abhors Chris- 
tian : far fbwm na be such religion. Still, Otto with his com- 
panions tarried more than two months in Stettin, patiently ex- 
pecting some change in their determination. As this, however, 
did not take place, it was concluded to send a message to duke 
Boleslar of Poland, with a detailed report of the ill success at- 
tending the mission. The citizens of Stettin, when they heard of 
this, were inarmed. They now declared that it was their inten- 
tion to send with these delegates an embassy of their own to 

r (oa, ul rurtoram Ft fruuduiii pfnitiis ioexpcni, 
.. Nmh ifTsm ifl ol«im ibi non liilrrunt, »fil ipsi 

>t (cKaii cpJKopi irrau lidernnl. 

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Poland, and, in case they conid obtain a solid and permanent 
peace, together with a diminntion of tribute, they vere villing on 
Bach conditions to embrace Christianity. 

In the mean time, bishop Otto was not idle. On the market- 
days, vhich occurred twice a week, when nombers of country 
people came into the town, he appeared in public, dreaaed in his 
episcopal robes, with the crosier borne before him, and harangued 
the assembled multitude on the doctrines of the Christian faith. 
The pomp in which he appeared, and curiosity to hear what he 
had to say, drew many around him ; but the faith gained no ad- 
mittance. He strove first of all, by his own example, the example 
of a life actuated by the spirit of Christian love, to do away the 
impression which the citizens of Stettin had received of the Chris- 
tian faith Horn looking at the life of the great mass of Christians ; 
to make it by this means practically evident to them, that there 
was a still higher principle of life than any which man knows while 
living in a state of nature, however felicitous in other respects. 
With his own money he redeemed many captives, and, having 
provided them with clothes and the means of subsistence, sent 
them home to their friends. One event, however, contributed in 
an especial manner to make the pious, benevolent life of the 
bishop generally known, and to attract towards him the minds of 
the youth. 

Many secret Christians were living even in this part of Fom- 
merania, and among the number of these was a woman belonging 
to one of the first families in Stettin. Having been carried away 
captive in her youth from a Christian land, she had married a 
man of wealth and consideration, by whom she had two sons. 
Although remaining true to her faith, yet she did not venture, in 
the midst of a pagan people, to appear openly as a Christian. 
None the less sincere on that account was her joy, when bishop 
Otto came to the city where she lived : these feelings, however, 
she dared not express aloud ; nor to go over to him before the 
face of the world. Perhaps it was not without the exertion of 
some influence on her part, that her two sons were led to pay 
frequent visits to the clergy, and to make inquiries of them re- 
specting the Christian faith. The bishop did not fail to make 
the most of this opportunity, by instructing them step by step in 
all the leading doctrines of Christianity. He found the young 

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mea bad snsceptible minds. They declared tfaeniBelves convinced, 
and leqneeted that they might be prepared for baptism. This 
was done ; and the bishop agreed upon a day vith them, when 
they shoold retarn and receive baptism. Thej were baptized 
with all the accustomed ceremonial of the church, without any 
knowledge of the transaction on the part of their parents. After 
this, they remained eight days in the bishop's boose, in order to 
observe, with dne solemnity, their octave as neophytes. Their 
mother, in the mean while, got notice of what had been done be- 
fore the whole time of the octave had expired. Full of joy, she 
Bent a measa^ to the bishop, requesting to see her sons- He 
received her, seated in the open air, on a bank of turf, surrounded 
by his clergy, the young men at his feet, clothed in their white 
robes. The latter, on beholding their mother at a distance, started 
up, and bowing to the bishop, as if to ask his permission, hastened 
to meet her. At the sight of her sons in their white robes of 
baptism, the mother, who had kept her Christianity concealed for 
so many years, overcome by her feelings, sunk weeping to the 
gronnd. The bishop and his clergy harried to her in alarm, — 
raising the woman from the earth, they strove to quiet her mind, 
supposing she had fainted from the violence of her grief But as 
soon as she could command herself, and find language to express 
her feelings, they were undeceived " I praise thee,"— were her 
first words,—" Lord Jescs Christ, thou source of all hope and of 
all consolation, that I behold my sons initiated into thy sacra- 
ments, enlightened by the faith in thy divine truth." Then 
kissing and embracing her sons, she added : " For thou knovest, 
my Lord Jesus Christ, that for many years I have not ceased, in 
the secret recesses of my heart, to recommend these youths to thy 
compassion, beseeching thee to do in them, that which thou now 
hast done." Next, taming to the bishop, she thus addressed 
him : " Blessed be the day of your coming to this city ; for, if 
yon will but persevere, a great church shall here be gathered to 
the Lord. Do not allow yoarselves to grow impatient by any 
delay. Behold ! I, myself, who stand here before you, do, by the 
aid of Almighty God, encoaraged by yonr presence, reverend 
father, but also throwing myself on the help of these my children, 
confess that I am a Christian, a truth which till now I dared not 
openly acknowledge." She then proceeded to relate her whole 

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sloiy. The bishop thanked God for the vonderfnl leadings of 
his grace ; he assured the voman of his hearty sympathy, said 
many things to strengthen and enconrage ber in the faith, and 
presented her with a costly robe of fur. At the expiration of 
the eight days, vhen the newly-baptized laid aside their white 
rohes, he made them a valuable present of fine raiment, and, hav- 
ing given them the Holy Supper, dismissed them to go home. 

This remarkable occurrence was immediately attended with 
many important consequences. That Christian woman, who had 
hitherto kept her religion a secret, now that she had taken the 
first step and gathered courage, freely and openly avowed her 
faith, and became herself a preacher of the gospel. Through her 
influence, her domestics, also her neighbours and friends, and ber 
entire family, were indnced to receive baptism. The two young 
men became preachers to the yonth. First, they spoke of the 
bishop's disinterested love, ever active in promoting the good of ' 
mankind ; then of the new, comforting, bliss-conferring truths 
which they had beard from bis lips. The yonth fiocked to the 
bishop ; many were instructed and baptized by him. The young 
became teachers of the old ; and numbers every day presented 
themselves openly for baptism. But when the father of the two 
young men who were first baptized came to be informed that his 
whole family had become Christians, he was exceedingly troubled 
and indignant at hearing it. The prudent wife, finding that he 
was returning home in this state of feeling, dispatched some of 
his kinsmen and friends to meet him with comforting and sooth- 
ing words, while she herself prayed incessantly for his conversion. 
And when he got home, and saw so many of his fellow-citizens 
and neighbonrs already living as Christians, bis opposition 
gradually gave way, till finally he consented to be baptized 

When thus, by influences pnrely spiritual, the way had been 
prepared for the triumph of Christianity and the downfall of 
paganism in Stettin, the messengers sent to the Polish duke 
came back, announcing that they had accomplished the object of 
their mission. The duke, in the very beginning of his letter, pro- 
claimed himself an enemy to all pagans ; at the same time he 
assured them that, if they would abide faithfully by their promise, 
and embrace Christianity, they might look for peace and amity 

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on a solid foundation ; otherwise, tliey must expect to see their 
territoiT laid vaste by fire and sword, and to experience his eter- 
nal enmity. He first reproached them for the rude behavionr 
irhich they had shown at the pieachin^ of the gospel ; bat de- 
clared that, notwithstanding all this, yielding to the earnest 
desires of the ambassador, and especially of bishop Otto, he was 
determined to forgive them, and to grant them peace on more 
faTonrable terms than erer, prorided that henceforth they would 
faithfally obserre the conditions they had themselves proposed, 
and show docility to their religions teachers. The favonrable im- 
pression produced by this reply was improved to the ntmost by 
th« bishop. He proposed at once to the assembled people that, 
inasmuch as the worship of the tine God was incapable of being 
nnited with the worship of idols, in order to prepare a dwelling 
henceforth for the living God, all the monaments of idolatry 
should be destroyed. Bat as they still cinng to their belief 
in the reality and power of these gods, and dreaded their ven- 
geance, he with his clergy proposed to go forward and set them 
the example. Signing themselves with the cross, the tme preser- 
Tatire from all evil, and armed with hatchets and pickaxes, they 
Tonld proceed to demolish all those monnments of idolatry ; and 
if they remained nnharmed, it should be a token to all, that they 
had nothing to fear Irom the gods, bat might safely follow the 
example he had given them. 

This was done. The firdt monument destroyed was a temple 
dedicated to the Slavic god Triglav, containing an image of that 
divinity, and decorated on its inner walls with various works of 
■culpture and paintings in oil. In this temple were many pre- 
cious articles ; for the tenth part of all the spoils obtained in 
war was consecrated to this deity, and deposited here. Abun- 
dance of costly offerings were here to be found ; goblets of horn 
ornamented with precious stones, golden bowls, knives, and 
poniards of beautiful workmanship. All these articles it was pro- 
posed to give to the bishop; but he declined receiving them.^ 
" God forbid," said he, " that we should think of enriching our- 
selves out of what belongs to you. Such things as these, and 
still more beautiful, we have already at home." Then, after 
having sprinkled them with holy water and signed them uith the 
cross, he catised them to be distributed among the people. With 


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20 otto's prdoent accommodation. 

tilis proof of a disinterested love, that avoided the very appear- 
auce of BelfishneBS, bishop Otto manifested also a singnlar liber- 
ality of Christian spirit, in refasing to give np to destniction that 
which, innocent in itself, might be devoted to better uses for the 
benefit of mankind. The only gift he consented to receive vas 
the im^e of TriglaT ; of which, causing the rest of the body to 
be destroyed, he preserved the triple head as a trophy of the nc- 
tory obtained over idolatry. This he afterwards sent to Bome, 
in evidence of what he had done as a missionary of the Roman 
chnrch, for the destmction of paganism. Three other buildings 
were next demolished, temples' erected to idols where the people 
were accostomed to meet for their sports and caronsals, as well 
as for deliberation on more serions matters. In destroying or 
removing the monnments of the old idolatry, and everything con- 
nected with it, Otto did not, with heedless fhnaticism, treat all 
eases alike, bnt was governed in his mode of procedare by a pru- 
dent regard to circumstances. It was an important point to dis- 
tinguish between those objects which, by constantly famishing 
some point of attachment for the old pagan bent, would serve to 
keep it alive, and others where nothing of this kind was to be 
feared. In the ricinity of each of those buildings dedicated to 
the gods was to be found one of those ancient oaks, regarded 
everywhere in Germany with religions veneration, and beside it 
a fountain. The citizens besought the bishop that these oaks 
might be spared. They promised to withhold from them all as- 
sociations of a religious character. They simply wished to e^joy 
the pleasant shade and other amenities of these chosen spots ; 
which indeed was no sin, and he complied with their request. 
Among other objects, however, there was a horse considered sa- 
cred, which in times of war was employed for purposes of divina- 
tion.' In demanding the removal of all such objects. Otto was 
inexorably severe ; he wonld not allow one of them to remain ; 
since he was aware of the influence which these superstitions 

1 CoaBJDB. 

S Nioe JBTelins, each *n ell long, were plased in a row. The horse wu then led orer 
tliem, lod it he pmed vithout touching one of them, tbia wu oonsidered t bvoanbU 
omen, ttorat were beld Bacced mlao unongit tlw iQEiest Oenuni, especiall; Ibr the 
puipoce of prophaoj. Vid. TMit.aeTmui>a. x.; Orimm'* Daatiche Hjthologie, ■.878, 
u. d. f. 

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were sttll wont to exert even long after the destruction of pa- 
guiism. He inBisted, therefore, that the sacred horse should be 
aent into another country and sold. Notwithstanding these de- 
cided measures for the extirpation of pafanism, not a man had 
the boldness to stand forth in its defence, except the priest whose 
business it was to tend and manage the sacred horse. Bat the 
sudden death of this man, who had stood up alone for the honour 
or the gods, was fayonrably coDStraed as a divine judgment. 
After the temples had been destroyed, the people were admitted 
to baptism ; and the same order was observed here as at Fyritz, 
numhetB presenttng themselves at a time, and receiving the ordi- 
nanoe, after a discourse had been preached to them on the doc- 
trines of faith. Having tarried here fire months in the whole, 
Otto departed ^m Stettin, leaving behind him a church with a 

From Stettin, he visited a few of the places belonging to the 
territory of that city.^ He then went by water, down the Oder, 
and across the Baltic sea, to Jnlin. The inhabitants of this town 
having agreed with the bishop, that they would follow the ex- 
ample of the capital city, had already sent persons to Stettin, for 
the purpose of obtuning exact information respecting the manner 
in which the g<ispel was there received. The news they obtained 
could not fail to make the most favourable impression ; and Otto 
was received in Jnlin with demonstrations of joy and respect. 
The activity of the clergy daring the two months which they spent 
in this place, scarcely sufficed to baptize all who offered them- 
selves. After the Christian church had thus been planted in the 
two chief cities of Fommerania, the question arose where should 
the first bishopric be founded. Otto and duke Wartislav agreed 
that JuliD was the most suitable place to be made the first seat 
«f a bishopric in Fcimmerania ; partly, because this city was so 
situated as to form a convenient central point, and partly because 
the mde people here, inclined by nature to be refractory and in- 
Bolent, and peculiarly exposed to the infection of paganism, espe> 
cially needed the constant presence and oversight of a bishop.* 

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Two clmrches were here begun. From this place Otto went to a 
city called Clonoda, or Clodona,' where, taking adyantage of the 
abnndance of wood, he erected a chnrch ;t next, he proceeded to 
a city which had saffered extremely by the rarages attending the 
war with Poland ;^ and from thence to Colberg. Many of the in- 
habitants of this place were now absent on voyages of traffic to 
the coasts of the Baltic sea ; and those that remuned at home 
were nn willing to make a decision till a general assembly 
conid he holden of all the people : the bishop, however, finally 
sncceeded in inducing them to receive baptism. The city of 
Belgrade was the extreme point of his missionary tonr ; it be- 
came necessary for him to reserve the extending of the mis- 
sion to the remaining parts of Fommerartia for a fhtnre day, 
as the affairs of his own diocese now called him home. But 
first, be felt bonnd to make a visitation-tonr to the commn- 
nities already founded by him, and bestow confirmation on those 
who had before been baptized. Many whom he had not met 
with on his first visit, being then absent on voyages of trade, 
now presented themselves for baptism. The chnrches, whose 
fbnndations he bad laid during his first residence in these 
districts, had in the meantime been completed, and he was enabled 
to consecrate them. The Christian Fommeranians now besought 
him, the beloved fonuder of their churches, to remain with them 
himself and be their bishop ; bat he could not consent. Having 
spent a year lacking five weeks in Fommerania, he hastened 
back, that he might be with his fiock at the celebration of Palm- 
Snnday. He directed his conrse once more through Poland, where 
he met duke Boleslar, and reported to him the successful issue of 
his enterprise. As Otto could not hold the first bishopric him- 
self, Boleslav nominated to this post Adalbert, oue of his chap- 
lains, who, by his direction, had accompanied bishop Otto as an 
assistant. Otto himself \eH several priests in Pommerania to 
prosecute the work which had been commenced : but they were 
too few in number to complete the establishment of the Christian 
church ; nor was it likely that any of them would possess the 

1 Aecordiagto Euin^euer't ialerpretitiaD, OoHitom. 

3 " Quia locus nemonxiM cnt et iioueaiiB et li^i ad aediScindam sappetrbanl." 

t KuingluMr itukas [t probabls, from ll» nuna and situatiou, tbat lbi> pU« iru 

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ardonr and courage of their leader. As the time he was able to 
pass in the sereral places vaa comparatively so short ; as he was 
obliged to employ an interpreter in his intercourse with the 
people ; as political motives had co-operated, at least in the case 
of many, to procare their conTerston, do it may readily be con- 
eeired that this conversion of great masses was very far from 
being a permanent and thorongh work. 

The Christian worship of God baring now been introdnced into 
one half of Pommerania, whilst paganism reigaed in the other, 
the necessary result was that a striking contrast presented itself 
between the two portions ; and the example of ancient customs, of 
the popular festivals of paganism, its amusements and its carousals, 
among the pagans might easily entice- back the others again into 
their former habits. They would yearn after their old uncon- 
strained, national mode of life. The restrictions under which 
Christianity and the church, with its laws concerning fastings, 
laid their untutored nature, might be felt by them as an intoler- 
able yoke, which they longed to exchange for the enjoyment of 
their ancient freedom ; and thus it might happen that, in the 
districts where Otto had laid the fonndation of the Christian 
chnrch, the pagan party would again lift np its head, and pagan- 
ism begin once more to extend its empire. Such fiuctnations in 
the conflict between Christianity and paganism — as. in the early 
history of Christianity, which, having made rapid progress at 
first, immediately enoountered a strong reaction of paganism — are 
often found recurring in the history of mission's. We may men- 
tion, as an example furnished by the modern history of missions, 
the mission among the Society Islands of Australasia, 

Gladly vonld Otto hare gone earlier to the help of the new 
chnrch in its distress ; but rarioos public misfortunes, and the 
political affairs in which he became involved as an estate of the 
German empire, prevented him for ftill three years from fulfilling 
bis wish. It was not till the spring of the year 1128, that be 
could visit the field in person. But to avoid laying any further 
burden on the dukes of Poland and Bohemia, he now chose another 
route, which had been made practicable by the subjugation of the 
Slavic populations in those districts. He directed his jonmey 
through Saxony, Priegnitz, and the territories which wero reckoned 
as belonging to Leuticia, to the adjacent parts of Pommerania- 

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He determined also, in this second mission, to defray all his 
personal expenses and those of his attendants out of his oirn 
purse, and to take with him a large nnmber of valaable presents. 
To this end he purchased, in Halle, a quantity of grain and other 
merchandise, intended for presents, all of vhich he placed on 
board to be conTeyed by the Saale to the Ethe and Harel, after 
which the lading was conveyed onward by fifty waggons. He 
arrived first at a part of Pommerania where the gospel had not 
yet been preached, and entering the city of Demmin, found but 
one old acquaintance, in the person of the governor. Here, on 
the next day, he met bis old friend, dnke Wartislav. The duke 
was on hie retmn, laden with spoils, from a successful war with the 
neighbouring Leuticians. Many sights were here presented to the 
eyes of Otto, which could not fail to make a rery painful impres- 
sion on his benevolent heart. The army of the duke had brought 
away a number of captives ; these were to be divided in common 
with the rest of the booty. Among them were to be found many 
persons of weak and delicate constitutions. Hnsbands were to 
be separated from their wives, wives from their husbands, parents 
from their sons. The bishop interceded with the duke in their 
behalf, and persuaded him to liberate the weakest, and not to 
separate near kinsmen and relatives fVom each other. But, not 
satisfied with this, he paid from his own flinds the ransom-money 
for many who were still pagans. These he instructed in Chris- 
tianity, baptized, and then sent' back to their homes. Otto and 
the dnke showed* every kindness to each other, and exchanged 
presents. They agreed that, on Whitsuntide, now close at hand, 
a diet should be held at Usedom, with a view to induce the 
several states to consent to, and take an active part in, the estab- 
lishment of the Christian church. In the letter-missive, it was 
expressly announced that the errand of bishop Otto was to 
preach the Christian religion, and that this was the subject to be 
brought before the diet. Otto next laded a vessel on the river 
I'eene with all his goods, which thus after three days arrived at 
Usedom. He himself, however, with a few attendants, proceeded 
leisurely along the banks of the Feene to that city, taking advan- 
tage of this jaunt to prepare the way wherever he went for the 
preaching of the gospel. 

In Usedom he found there were already some scattered seeds 

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of Cbristiftnitf, conveyed there hy the priests be h^d left be- 
hind btm. Still more wu done by himself. At this place the 
deputies of the slates, in obedience to the summons of the 
doie, now came together, composed partly of such as had always 
remained pagans, and partly of those who had been previonaly 
oonrerted, but dnring Otto'e absence had relapsed into pagan- 
ism. The duke presented to them the bishop — a man whose 
whole appearance commanded respect. In an impressiTe dis- 
conrse, in which he inrited them to set their people the ex- 
ample of embracing the worship of the true God, he bade them 
remark that the excuse they had always offered would no longer 
RTail them, namely, that the preachers of this religion were a 
needy, contemptible set of men, in whom no confidence could be 
placed, and who pursued this business merely to get a living. 
Here they beheld one of the highest dignitaries of the German 
empire, who at home possessed everything in abundance — gold, 
fiilrer, precious stones ; a man on whom no one could fix a 
suspicion that he sought anything for himself ; who, on the con- 
trary, had relinquished a life of honour and of ease, and applied 
bis own property to the object of communicating to them that 
treasure which he pnied as the highest good. These words had 
their effect ; and the whole assembly declared themselves ready 
to pursue anycoOrse which the bishop might propose to them. 
The latter now began ; and, taking occasion from the festival of 
Whitsuntide, spoke of the grace and goodness of God, of the for- 
giveness of sin, and of the communication of the Holy Ghost and 
his gift«. His words made a profound impression ; the apostates 
professed repentance, and the bishop reconciled them with the 
church. Those who had always been pagans suffered themselves 
to be instructed in Christianity, and submitted to baptism. A 
decree of the diet permitted the free preaching of the gospel in 
all places. Otto was occupied here a whole week. He then con- 
cluded to extend his labours still farther, and. asked the adrice 
of the duke. The latter declared that, by virtue of the decree of 
the diet, the whole country stood open to him. The bishop now 
commenced sending bis clergy, two by two, into all the towns 
and riUages, intending to follow them himself. 

Bntalthongh the decree of the diet possessed the validity of a 
lav, yet such was not the character and spirit of the people that 

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obedieDc« shoald aecessarily follov in all cases. There were im- 
portant old cities vbo maintaiDed a certain independence ; and 
in many districts the ancient popular religion had a powerfal 
party in its faronr, who were dissatisfied with this decree. 
Among these cities was the town of Wolgast, a place to which 
bishop Otto bad determined to go first. A priest lived here, 
who for a year bad made it his business to resist the spread of 
Christianity, to excite against it the hatred of the people, and to 
enkindle their zeal for the hononr of their ancient deities ; 
thODgh he had been nnable as yet to procnre the passage of a 
public decree in reference to these matters. Bnt now, when the 
diet had parsed a decre6 so faronrable for the diffusion of Chris- 
tianity, this priest thought himself bound to make a final effort 
to carry ont by fraud and cunning what he could not accomplish 
by persuasion. ^Repairing by night, in his sacerdotal robes, to a 
neighbouring forest, he concealed himself on a hill, in the midst 
of a thicket of brush-wood. Early the next morning, a peasant 
passing along the road on his way to the city, heard a voice call 
ont to him from the dark forest, and bid him atop and listen. 
Already terrified at the voice, he was still more amazed at be- 
holding a figure clothed in white. The priest, following np the 
impression, represented himself as the highest of the national 
gods, who bad chosen here to make his appearance. He signified 
his anger at the reception which the worship of the strange God 
had met with in the country, and bade the man say to the inha- 
bitants of the city, that the man must not be allowed tolive-who 
should attempt to introduce among them the worship of tliat 
strange God. When the credulous peasant came to tell his 
story in the city, the priest who had played this trick first put 
on the air of a sceptic, with a view to draw out the peasant into 
a new and more detailed account of what be had seen and heard, 
so as to avail himself of the fresh impression of the story. Such 
was the effect prodnced by it on the popular mind, that the citi- 
zens passed a decree ordaining that if the bishop or any of his 
associates entered the city, they should instantly be pot to death, 
and that any citizen who harboured them in his house should suf- 
fer the like punishment. 

These events had transpired, and such was the tone of the 
popular feeling when the two missionaries sent before him by the 

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bishop, Ulric and Albin — the latter of whom, possessing a ready 
knowledge of the Slavic language, was commonly employed by 
him as an interpreter — arrired at Wolgast, without dreaming of 
the danger to which they exposed themselves. Conformably to 
the Fommer&nian manners, they met with an hospitable reception 
from the wife of the burgomaster, a woman who, though not a Chris- 
tian, was distinguished for a reverence quite free from fanaticism 
towards the unknown Ood, as well as for her active philanthropy. 
But when, after being entertained by the woman, they proceeded 
to explain who they were, and the object of their visit, she was 
struck with consternation, and informed them of the danger to 
which they were exposed. Still, she was determined to observe 
faithfiilly the laws of hospitality. She pointed the strangers to a 
place of concealment in an upper part of her house, and caused 
their baggage to be quickly conveyed to a place of safety, beyond 
the walls of the city. It is tme, the arrival of the strangers 
whom abe entertained soon awakened suspicion among the excited 
multitude ; but as the practice of hospitality to strangers was so 
common a thing in Fommerania, she found no difficulty tn evading 
the questions of the curious, declaring that strangers were indeed 
entertained by her, as oftentimes before, but that after taking 
their repast they had left her ; and as the persons who inquired 
saw no signs of their being still in the house, they gave up their 

The account of these movements had already reached TTsedom ; 
and the duke, therefore, thought it advisable to accompany the 
bishop to Wolgast with a large band of followers, among whom 
were some of the members of the diet, and several armed soldiers. 
Three days had been spent by the two ecclesiastics in their place 
of concealment, when by the arrival of so powerful a protector 
they felt themselves perfectly safe, and at liberty to emerge from 
their retreat. The bishop, thus sustained, was enabled to com- 
mence the preaching of the gospel. Bnt when the authority of 
the duke had restored quiet in the city, and the pagan party was 
forced to keep still, a feeling of security took possession of some 
of the ecclesiastics. They ridiculed the two priests when they 
spoke of their narrow escape. They separated from the bishop 
and the rest of the company, despising prudence as no better 
than cowardice. Mingling fearlessly among the people, they 

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attempted to slip into the' temple. By this act, however, the 
fbry or the pagans was stirred np afresh ; especially as the ans* 
picioc got abroad, that they were seeking an opportonity to set fire 
to the temple. Troops of armed people began to assemble. The 
priest TJlric, perceiring these signs of an impending tamnlt, said : 
" I shall not consent to tempt my God so often," and returning 
back to the bishop, ho was followed by all the others except one 
ecclesiastic, named Encodric, who had advanced too far, and al- 
ready had his hand on the door of the temple. The pagans now 
rushed apon him in a body, intendiog to make him the victim of 
their common vengeance against the whole party. Seeing no 
other place of refnge, nrged by the fear of immediate death, be 
penetrated into the inmost parts of the temple ; and this des- 
perate movement is said to have saved him. Sospended in this 
temple was a shield, wroagbt with great art and embossed with 
gold, dedicated to Gerovit, the god of war, which was regarded 
as inviolably sacred, and supposed to render the person of him 
who bore it also inviolable. As the ecclesiastic, flying for his 
life, ran round the temple looking for a weapon of defence or a 
place of concealment, he descried this shield, and seizing it, 
sprang int« the midst of the forious crowd. Everybody now fled 
before him. Not a man dared lay hands on him ; and thus, 
running for his life, he got safely back to his companions. The 
bishop took occasion from this incident to eshort his cleigy to 
greater caution. He continued his labours in this place, until 
the people had demolished all their temples, and the foundation 
was laid of a church, over which he set one of his clergy as the 

Without being accompanied by the duke, who probably had 
hastened to his assistance solely on account of the occurrences at 
Wolgast, Otto proceeded to Giitzkow. It agreed alike with his 
temperament and his principles to accomplish the whole work 
before him by no other power than that of love, which wins the 
heart. He nerer made any use of his political connections except 
for the purpose of securing himself in the first place against the 
fury of the pi^ans. It was certainly most gratifying to him, 
whenever he found he could dispense with the arm of secnlar 
power. Having left the duke free to attend to his own affairs, 
he felt more at liberty to decline the proposition of his old Iriend, 

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tlie Margrare Albert of Biiren, afterwards founder of Mark Bran- 
denburg, who, on being informed of the popolar mOTements at 
Wolgast, offered hy his envoys, that met the bishop at Gtttzkow, 
to assist him against the obstinate pagans. In Giitzkow, Otto 
voald have fonnd easier access to the hearts of the people, had 
he consented to spare a new and magnificent temple, which, con- 
sidered as a work of art, was reckoned a great ornament to the 
city. U&gnlficent presents were offered to him, if he would 
yield. Finally, he was entreated to convert this temple into a 
Christian church, as had been done aforetime ; but the bishop, 
who, not without reason, feared the conseqaences which would 
result from any mixture of Christianity with paganism, believed 
it inexpedient, indulgent as he was in other respects, to give way 
in this instance ;^ and by a comparison drawn from the parables 
of oor Lord, he endeavoared to make the people understand, that 
be conld not, in consistency with their own good, comply with 
their wishes. " Would yon think," said he to the petitioners, 
" of sowing grain among thorns and thistles ? No, you would 
first pluck up the weeds, that the seed of the wheat might have 
room to grow. So I must first remove from the midst of yon 
everything that belongs to the seed of idolatry, those thorns to 
my preaching, in order that the good seed of the gospel may 
bring forth fruit in your hearts to the everlasting life." And by 
such representations, daily repeated, he finally overcame the re- 
sistance of these people, so that with their own hands they de- 
stroyed the temple and its idols. But on the other hand, to 
indemnify the people for the loss of their magnificent building, 
he zealously pushed forward the erection of & stately charch ; 
and as soon as the sanctnary with the altar was finished, seized 
upon this occasion, since he conld not remain among them till 
the entire structure was finished, of appointing. a splendid festival 
for its dedication ; one which should outshine all their previous 
pagan celebrations, and be a true national festival. When nobles 
and commoners were all assembled at this celebration, and the 
whole ceremonial of the church, customary on such occasions, 
had been solemnly observed, he proceeded to explain to the as- 
sembled multitude the symbolical meaning of these observances, 

1 8m toI. t., p. IB. 

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and, directing their attention from the outvar^ signs to the inner 
substance, iramed them against the delusire supposition that the 
requisitions of Christianity could be satisfactorily met by mere 
outward forms. He laboured to make it plain to them, that the 
highest meaning of the consecration of a church had reference to 
the consecration of God'a temple in the sonl of every belieyer, 
since Christ dwells by faith in the hearts of the faithful. And 
after having thus interpreted the several observances, he turned 
to one of the duke's rass&ls, Mizlav, the governor of this district, 
who had been a member of the assembly of the states lately 
holden at TJsedom, had then been baptized by him, and, as the 
sequel shows, made an honest profession of Christianity. For 
the purpose of bringing out in him the truth which each man 
was to apply to himself, said he, " Thou art the fruehonae of 
God, my beloved son. Thou sbalt, this day, be consecrated and 
dedicated ; consecrated to God, thy Almighty Creator ; so that, 
separated from every foreign master, thou mayest be exclusively 
his dwelling and his possession. Therefore, my beloved son, do not 
hinder this consecration. For little avails it to have outwardly 
consecrated the house thou seest before thee, if a like consecration 
be not made in thy own soul also." The bishop here paused ; 
or perhaps Mizlav interrupted him. At any rate, Mizlav, who 
felt these words, of which he well understood the import, enter . 
like a goad into his soul, demanded — What then was required on 
his part in order to such a consecration of God's temple within 
him ? The bishop, plainly perceiving by this question that the 
man's heart was touched by the Spirit of God, and resolved to 
profit by so favourable an indication, and to follow up the lead- 
ings of the divine prompter, replied :* " In part thou hast begun 
already, my son, to be a house of God. See that thou art wholly 
so. For thou hast already exchanged idolatry for faith by at- 
taining to the grace of baptism. It remains that thou shouldst 
adorn faith by works of piety." And he required in particular, 
that he should renounce and abandon all deeds of violence, all 
rapacity, oppression, fVaud, and shedding of blood. He exhorted 

I Id thr M8S. 1. o. iii., o. S, f. 70, Canig. I«ct. ■ntiq. ed. BBunage, jii. 2, ibete it to Ix 
round In tliiB plnce a nligUt deDciencj wliicb leaves ibe meaning uucerwin. 

3 This is whaLthebiogrBph*rdDub[lese Intended to denote b; tlie vorda, "Inlelli- 

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him to adopt the words of oni Lord as his rule, neveT to do unto 
others otherwise than he would be dooe by. And that he might 
earrr out this role into immediate practice, he called npon him 
to set at liberty those persons whom he had confined for debt, 
and who were now pining in prison ; or at least snch of them as 
were of the same household of faith. To this Mizlav replied : 
" What yon require of me is extremely hard ; for many of those 
persons are owing me large sums of money," Upon this, the 
bishop reminded him of the petition in the Lord's prayer, " For- 
gire us onr debts as we forgive onr debtors." Only then would 
he be certain of receiving the forgiveness of his sins from the 
Lord, when he felt ready, in the name of the Lord, to release all 
his debtors. " Well, then," said Uizlar, deeply sighing, " I do 
here, in the name of the Lord Jesus, give them all their liberty ; 
that so, according to your words, my sins may be forgiven, and 
the consecration of which you spoke may be perfected in me this 
day " This act of Mizlav spread joy all around, and an addi- 
tional interest was thus given to the festival. There was one 
prisoner, however, of whom Uizlav had said nothing. A noble- 
man of Denmark, owing hitn five Imndred pounds of gold, had 
given his son as a security; and this young man, bound in fet- 
ters, lay pining in a subterranean cell. A mere accident led to 
the discovery of him, — the only individual who had not been set 
free. One of the vessels needed for the consecration of the 
church was missing ; and the ecclesiastics, while searching for it 
in one corner and another, at length came npon the cell where 
this youth lay confined. Ho implored them to help him. But as 
Hizlav had already done so much, the bishop felt unwilling to 
demand of him this final sacrifice. Still, it distressed faim to 
think that so joyful a festival should be saddened by the sufier- 
ings of one unfortunate being. He first resorted to prayer, and 
fervently besought the Almighty that, to crown the joy of this 
blessed festival, he would have compassion on the case of this 
only unhappy individual. Then setting before his clergy how he 
had already obtained so many self-denying acta from Mizlav that 
he did not feel at liberty to press him any farther, he proposed 
that they should speak to him : and after assuring him that the 
bishop knew how to appreciate the sacrifices he had already 
made, introduce the subject with all possible gentleness. This was 

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doDe : and finally HizlaT declared that he was ready to ofi'er this 
lost and most difficult sacrifice. " Nay," sud he to the bishop, 
" I am ready, if required, to give up my |>ersoD, and all that t 
call mine, for the D&me of my Lord Jesus Christ" The example 
of the principal man of the district had its effect on many others, 
who strove, according to their means, to evince in like manner 
the genuineness of the change they had experienced. 

Sabsequent to these events, bishop Otto endeared himself to 
the Fommeranians, by his exertions to save them from a great 
public calamity ; for it was by his intervention that a military 
expedition, threatened by dnke Boleslav of Poland, who had be- 
come irritated by the apostasy of a part of the Fommeranians 
from Christianity, and by their neglect to fulfil certain articles of 
an old treaty, was prevented. Soon aft«r, he had a conference 
with duke Wartislav at Usedom ; probably for the purpose of re- 
porting his transactions with the dnke of Poland, and also of ad- 
vising with him about the policy of extending the missionary ope- 
rations and establishing some new stations. In regard to this 
matter, however, animated as he certainly was by an ardent zeal 
for the cause of Christ, he still failed to act with apostolic pru- 
dence. For notwithstanding that the work in Fommerania went 
on at present so prosperously, and everything depended on taking 
advantage of favourable circnmatances ; and notwithstanding so 
much still remained for him to do here, he thought of abandoning 
the field before he had folly taken possession of it, or provided 
for its permanent occupation, to go in qnest of another which 
promised leas success, and which might easily prove the means of 
bringing all his earthly labours to a sudden termination. His 
eye had fixed itself eagerly on the island of Rugen, about a day's 
journey distant ; and an earnest longing beset him to appear 
amongst the inhabitants of that island, a small warlike tribe 
zealously devoted to heathenism, and preach to them the gospel. 
The spread of Christianity among their neighbours the Fommer- 
anians, had roused the animosity of the pagan people on the 
island of Biigen to amore extravagant pitch; and they threatened 
death to the bishop if he ventured to approach them. Otto was 
not to be deterred, however, by snch threats, from attempting the 
expedition ; on the contrary, his zeal was inflamed to exhibit the 
power of faith in overcoming such difficulties, and even to ofi*er 

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otto's TBEATHBST of Hia CLBROT. 3S 

an* his life for the gospel. In vain did the dake, and bis ovn 
friends, declare UiemselTes opposed to the scheme ; aBenring him 
that he wonld, b; attempting it, sacrifice his life for nothing, — a 
life he iras honnd to preserve for labonrs that promised more snc- 
eess. Otto gaTe way, in this instance, to the impnlse of his 
feelings instead of listening to the voice of reason. Bnt in his 
own opinion, he reasoned more correctly than his friends, whom 
be rebaked for their want of faith. " It is a much greater thing," 
said he, " to preach by actions than by words. And suppose we 
were all to gire np onr lives for the l^ith ; yet eren onr death 
would not be useless. By so dying we shonld set our seal to the 
faith which we preach, and that faith wonld spread with the 
greater power." While his friends strore to prevent Otto from 
crossing over to Riigen, he himself was occupied in devising some 
way of getting to the island unobserved. It was necessary, there- 
fore, to watch him closely. But whilst the rest of the clei^y 
blamed the rash zeal of their bishop, the priest TTlric felt himself 
impelled to realize the darling thought of his superior. Having 
first begged and received his blessing on the undertaking, Ulric 
went on board a ferry-boat, taking with him such articles as were 
necessary for the celebration of the mass. Bat wind and weather 
were obstinately against him ; three several tjmes he was 
beaten back by the storm ; but no sooner did it remit its vio- 
lence than he again attempted to get over to the island. Thus 
he struggled with the winds and waves for seven days ; many 
times hovering between life and death. But the weather con- 
stantly proving unfavourable, and Ulric's boat getting to be leaky, 
the bishop at length began to regard these unpropitions events as 
indications of the divine will, and forbade bis beloved priest from 
making any fnrther attempts. The dangers he had run now he- 
same the subject of remark. Said one, " Suppose Ulric had 
perished, who wonld have been to blame for it V Here the 
priest Adalbert spoke out, plainly criminating the bishop him- 
self. " Would not the blame," said he, " jnstly fall on him who 
exposed him to such dangers 1" — showing not only his own inde- 
pendent spirit, but also the gentleness of the bishop which would 
allow one of his clergy to speak so frankly about him in his own 
presence. Otto, instead of taking the remark unkindly, endea- 
voured to refbte the implied charge by arguing that he had done 
VOL. Til. c 

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34- otto's treatuent of his clbrot. 

rightly, thi>iig:li od encb gronnds as h« wonid oot bare offered ex- 
cept under the infinence of his present feelings. Said he, " If 
Christ sent the apostles as sheep among volrea, was Christ to bo 
blamed if the wolres devonred the sheep 1" 

That he might, in the shortest time, extend ont his labours in 
all directions, so as to fill np and complete the vhole vork be^n 
during his first residence in Fommerania, Otto determined to alter 
his plan ; and, instead of keeping all his clergy about him, as at 
first, and labouring in common with them fivm a single point, to 
divide the field between them and himself by sending them to 
different stations. Some he sent to Demmin ; he himself went 
to Stettin, to combat the paganism which had again lifted up its 
head there. Bnt bis clergy neither entered heartily into his plan 
nor partook of his courageous faith. They trembled at the fury 
of the pagan people in that place, and were not willing to ex- 
pose their lives. The bishop, however, since be could not over- 
come their opposition by expostulation, resolved to proceed on 
the journey alone. Having spent a day in solitude and prayer, 
to prepare himself for the vndertaking, he stole away in the 
evening, as soon as it grew dark, taking with him his mass-book 
and the sacramental cup. The clergy knew nothing about it, 
till they sent to call him to matins (the matuUna.) Finding that 
be was gone, they were struck with shame, and began to grow 
alarmed for their beloved spiritual father. They hurried away 
after him, and compelled him to return back. On the next 
morning, they set ont in company with him, and crossed over by 
ship to Stettin. 

In Stettin, Otto's earlier labours had proved by ne means firnit- 
less. This appeared evident from the events which followed. A 
reaction of those Christian convictions which bad already boon 
deeply implanted in the minds of many, led, under a variety of 
peculiar circumstances and favourable coincidences, to a new 
triumph of Christianity over paganism. Christianity, as it seems, 
had gained entrance especially among the higher and more culti- 
vated class of the people,^ and in their ease, paganism found, at 
its revival, bnt little matter to work upon. The priests, however, 
who had submitted to baptism were still pagans at heart, and they 

: clua n-cqaanllf tlludcd Id 

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loflt toomncTi by the change of religion to get easily over the pain 
and rexation which that losa oocasioned. They readily foand 
moans of operating on the rode masses of the people, in whom, 
dnriog BO short a period, Christianity had not yet strnck its roots 
deep. A famine, extending to men and cattle, accompanied with 
nnnsnal mortality, was interpreted by them as a sign of the anger 
of the deities, — a thing easily made evident to the people. They 
managed, snch was their inflnence, to carry the matter so far, that 
a mob assembled to destroy a Cliristian chnrch. Tot there were 
some who bad felt the power of Christianity, though they had 
not entirety loosened their hold of paganism. In this class there 
was a strnggle between the old and the new, or a commingling of 

Before the time of Otto's second Tisit to Stettin, there was re- 
siding in that town a person of some note, who, alter haring ex- 
perienced varions remarkable providences in the conrse of his life, 
stood forth as a sealons witness for Christianity, thus preparing 
the way by his inflnence for a better state of things. Witstack 
was one of tJiose belonging to the more consequential class of 
eitiaens, who had been converted and baptized by Otto ; and a1- 
thongh Christianity was by no means apprehended by him accord- 
ing to its pnre spirit, yet he had within him the germ of a strong 
and vigorons faith. The image of bishop Otto, the man whom 
he had seen labouring with snch self-denying love, soch unshaken 
e(«fidence in God, this image seems especially to have become 
deeply stamped on his mind. Since hie conversion, he had nci- 
formly refused to take part in any warlike undertaking, except 
agavaat pagaxu. Fighting against these was one way, as he 
thought, by which he conid show his teal for Christianity. He 
joined a piratical expedition, probably against the Rugians; ex- 
periencing a defeat, he with others was taken captive and thrown 
in chains. Daring his confinement, he resorted for consolation 
and support to prayer. Once, after long-continued, earnest 
prayer, fUUng asleep, he dreamed that bishop Otto appeared to 
him and promised that he should be assisted ; 'soon alter which, 
by a remarkable turn of providence, he found means of escaping 
from bis confinement.' Hastening to the seashore, he found a 

1 Tbe iccoast t>f the onknown writer, whom wb fallow bfre ilao, i> wrUunlj deaerr- 
iagoTertdit io iu mtin poinu. Wt and,fbT thamoat put,in it UiU gnphied modeof 


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boat, leaping on which he comnutted himself to the waTes, and 
faronred by the wind, in a short time got safely back to Stettin. 
He looked upon his deliverance as a miracle. It seemed to him 
a direct testimony to Otto's holiness, — a proof that Christianity 
was the cause of God. He regarded it as a divine call, inntiog 
him to appear as a witness among his conntrymen, for the B«ing 
who had miracnlonsly saved him, and to labour for the extension 
of his worship among them.' Afler his retnm, he cansed the 
boat to be hnng ap at the city gates, as a lasting memorial of bis 
deliverance and testimony in favonr of the Being to whom he 
owed it. With great zeal, he bore witness among his country- 
men, of the God whom bishop Otto had tangbt him to pray to, 
and whose almighty power had been so clearly exhibited in his 
own case ; he announced to the fallen the divine judgments which 
would surely overtake tbem, unless tiiey repented and returned 
back to the faith. 

Still another fkct, which was likewise regarded as a miracle, 
had made a favourable impression. In a popular tnmnlt, got up 
for the purpose of destroying the chnrch which had been erected 
in that town, it so happened that one of the persons actively en- 
g^ed in the affair, when aboat to strike a blow with his hammer, 
was seized with a sndden palsy ; his hand stiffening, let the ham- 
mer drop, and be himself fell from the ladder. It seems that he 
was one of the relapsed Christians. Perhaps a reaction of the 
faith, not yet by any means wholly extingaished in his soul, once 
more came over him ; hence an inward struggle, a sudden access 
of fear, which palsied his arm as he was about to join with the 
rest in destroying a temple consecrated to the God of the Chris- 

dneriptEoD, nbieh hnpcaks tn ej(-witn(n,— > limplieilj qaite remota from Ibe n*gg«- 
ntJTc gtjlii or Andreu,~few mineuloui itoriM, uid Ihne, for (be moat pari, ofancfa a 
cbmracirr, thai the facM at bottom mij beeaaity aepanled from the mod* orappnhendfnf 
and npm«DtiDg them aa mtraclee, or that Ihej mtj be eaaUj ntdnced to a nattual eon- 
□ectioD of eieDta of (ha higher aoit. Bat, in Ihie cmp, the report refen back to the aa^n^ 
ofWilalaok. In Ibis nport, drawn np from reeollaetion long after the eTenu.eTrrT- 
thing, inthe livelj reeliDg of gratitude to Uod, might reeeira acoloDringof (be wonderAtl. 
Bat we are bj no mens autborised to meiBare all ntraordinarT pajchologieal phaim* 
menabji the Btaadard ofordiDarr eiperience, and the objeelire (act aa it actaallj occanml 
eierlira at bottom of the repreaenCatlon . 

I The hiatorian aireadj mentioned raeotda the followiag word* of Witstark to the 
bishop, in reference to tbe boat which waa the meanaof Lia ulTation: "Haec cimba 
teethnoninm aanstitatia toae, firmamentam fldei meae, argnmentum tegationia meae ail 
popnlum iatam." 

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otto's conduct tN STETTIN. ASSISTED BY WITSTACI. 37 

tians. Pa^nism, it is trae, still mainlaiBed a place in bis soni ; 
he could not wholly renounce the worship of the ancient gods ; 
bnt still, the God of the Christians, whose temple was being de- 
stroyed, appeared to him as one afunst whom no human power 
coold prerail ; as was manifest in his own case. He therefore 
ftdrised that, in order to preserve friendship with all the gods, 
they should erect by the sideofthiaehnrch an altar to the national 
dirioities. Non, even this was something gtuned ; it was a point 
in advance, that the God of the Christians should be recognized 
by pagans themselTes as a mighty being beside the ancient gods. 
Thus, after such preparatory events, Otto's arrival at Stettin 
fell at the right moment to bring the contest between Christi* 
anity and paganism, aroused by the influence of Witstack, to a 
more open outbreak and final decision. However great his danger 
might seem, when men contemplated from without the rage of the 
pagan mass of the population, yet i^ would appear by no means 
so great to him who could more closely examine, on the very 
scene of events, the circumstances of the case ; for although the 
pagan party, which was made ap, for the most part, of people of 
the lower class, were loud in their vociferations and violent fB 
their gestures, yet the Christian party, with whom the better 
class of citizens seem to have tacitly arranged themselves, was 
really the most powerful ; nor were they destitute of the means 
of restoring quiet, provided only the first gnst of anger, in which 
there was more noise than efficiency, was suffered to pass by. 
Besides, the pagan party Had no leader combining superior in- 
telligence with hot-headed zeal ; and the large number of those 
who, though they now took the side of the zealots for the restora- 
tion of paganism, had yet received some impression from Christi- 
anity, might, under a slight turn of circumstances, be easily led 
to take another step towards the Christian faith. But to bishop 
Otto this favourable preparation of the popular mind was wholly 
unknown. He was expecting the worst from the tumnltnons 
frenzy of the Pagans ; and placing no reliance whatever on hnman 
means, or any concnrtence of natural causes ; trusting in God 
alone, and resigned to his will, he went boldly forward to meet 
the threatening danger, prepared with a cheerful heart to die tbe 
death of a martyr. He at first foond a place of refuge, for him- 
self and bis companions, in a church that stood before the city- 

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As soon as this became known in the town, & b&nd of armed men, 
led on by priests, collected around this spot, threatening destmc- 
tion to the chnrch, and death to those that occupied it. Had the 
bishop given way to fear, or betrayed the least alarm, the rnrions 
mob would, perhaps, have proceeded to fdlKI their threats. Bat 
the courage and presence of mind displayed by the bishop, put a 
damper oo the fury of the threatening mob. Having commended 
himself and his Menda to God in prayer, he walked forth, dressed in 
his episcopal robes, and snrroanded by bis clei^y, bearing before 
him the cross and relics, and chanting psalms and hymns. The 
calmness with which this was done, the awe-inspiring character 
of the whole proceeding, confonnded the mnltitnde. All remuned 
quiet and silent. The more pmdent, or the mora favonrably dis- 
posed to Christianity, took advantage of this to put down the 
excitement. The priests were told that they should defend their 
canse, not with violence, but with arguments; and one after 
another the crowd dispersed. This occurred on Friday, and the 
Saturday following was spent by Otto in preparing himself, by 
prayer and fasting, for the approaching crisis. 

In the mean time, Witstack, stimulated by the bishop's arrival, 
went forth among the people testifying, with more boldness than 
ever, in favour of Christianity and against p^;anism. He brought 
his friends and kinsmen to the bishop ; he exhorted him not to 
give out in the contest, promised him victory, and advised with 
him as to the steps which should next be taken. On Sunday, 
after performing mass. Otto suffered himself to be led by Witstack 
to the market-place. Mounting the steps, from whence the 
herald and magistrates were accustomed to address the people, 
after Witstack by signs and words had enjoined silence. Otto 
begnn to speak, and the major part listened silently and with at- 
tention to what he said, as it was translated by the interpreter, 
already mentioned, into the language of the country. But now 
a tall, well-habited priest, of great bodily strength, pressing for- 
ward, drowned the words of both with his shouts, at the same 
time endeavouring to stir up the anger of the pagans gainst the 
enemy of their gods. He called en them to seize upon this op- 
portunity of avenging their deities. Lances were poised ; but still 
no one dared attempt any injury to the bishop. Well might the 
confident faith and the courage that flowed fkrom it, the perfect 

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compoBore manifeBted by the bishop amid this tumultuoos scene, 
the imposing and dignified graritj of his whole demeanour, make a 
great impression on the mnltitude, particnlarty on those who had 
prerionsly been in any way affected by the inflnence of Christi- 
anity, and had not as yet snceeeded in wholly obliterating the 
impresnon. Such a fact, in which we must certainly recognize 
Uie power of the godlike, might in snch a period soon come to he 
ooneeired and represented more nnder the colour of the tniracu- 
Ions, and this representation would contnbute again to promote 
the belief in men's minds of the dirine power of Christianity. 
Otto immediately took adraotage of the farourahle impression 
thns produced. Proceeding with the crowd of belieTers that now 
surrounded him, to the church by which the pagan altar had 
recently been erected, he consecrated it anew, and caused the 
iqinries it had received to he repaired at bis own expense. 

On the next day the people assembled to decide what coarse 
onght to be taken with regard to the matter of religion. They 
vemained together from early in the morning until midnight In- 
dividuals appeared who represented all that had occurred on the 
day before as miraculous, hearing testimony with enthusiasm to 
the active, self-sacrificing love of the bishop ; foremost among 
these was that zealous Christian and admirer of Otto, Witstack. 
A decree was passed accordingly, that Christianity should be in- 
trodnced, and everything that pertained to idolatry destroyed. 
Witstack hastened the same night to inform the bishop of all that 
had transpired. The latter rose early the next morning to ren- 
der tbaaks to God, at the celebration of the mass. After this be 
called a meeting of the citizens, where he spoke to them words 
of encouragement, which were received in the manner to he ex- 
pected after snch a decree of the popular assembly. Many who 
had apostatised requested to be received back into the community 
<^the faitiifhl. 

The winning kindness of Otto's manner, as well as his readi- 
ness to take advantage of the most trifiing circumstances which 
coold be turned to acconnt in his labours, is illustrated by the 
following incident. One day, on bis way to church, he saw a 
troop of boys in the street at play, — kindly saluting them in the 
language of the country, he retorted their jokes, and having 
signed the cross over them, and given them his blessing, left 

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40 otto's imprudent zeal and damqeb. 

them. After he had proceeded sloDg a few steps, looking behind, 
he obserTed that the children, attracted by the strange act, fol- 
lowed after him. He stopped ; and, calling the little ones 
around him, iaqnired who of them had been baptized 1 These he 
exhorted to remain stedfast to their baptismal tow, and to avoid 
the society of the unbaptized. They took him at his word, and 
eren in the midst of their play listened attentirely to bis dis- 
conrse.' Still, the zeal of bishop Otto was not alway accompanied 
with befitting prudence; hence he often exposed himself to great 
peril. While bnsied in destroying all the pagan temples and 
monuments of superstition, resolred to let nothing remain which 
was in anywise adapted so to impress the senses as to. promote 
idolatry, he came across a magnificent nut-tree, whose refteshing 
shade was enjoyed by many, and which the people of the neigh- 
bourhood earnestly besought him to spare. But, as it was conse- 
crated to a deity, the bishop was too fearful of the dangerous 
sensuons impression to yield to their wishes. Most indignant 
of all was the owner of the estate on which the tree stood. After 
be bad stormed about in a phrenz; of passion, his anger seemed 
at length to have upent itself. Suddenly, howerer, raising bis 
axe behind the back of the bishop, he would have dealt him a 
fatal blow, bad not the latter, at the same moment, inclined him- 
self a little on the other side. All now fell upon the man, andit 
was the bishop who rescued him out of their hands. Again, dur- 
ing bis passage f^om Stettin, he was threatened by an attack of 
the pagan party, which, as it diminished in numbers, grew more 
Tiolent in rancour ; but he fortunately escaped. Accompanied 
by his clei^y, and a number of the more respectable citizens of 
Stettin, he proceeded to Julia, where also, after such an example 
had been set them by the capital, be laboured with good success. 
Gladly, and without shrinking from a martyr's death, he would 
bare extended his labours also to the island of Riigen, bad he not 
been obliged, in the year 1128, by his engagements as a member 
of the imperial diet, to return to Germany ; so, after paying an- 

1 Tba unknown biognpbet introdocts tbti 
UKmUr *bii>b decided Uie queatlon with ttgai 

PommnuiiL But il is pUin, from tbc conneelion of his own account, that it occarred 
■omctimt tftsrwBidi. From ibis accoanl, it ippiuv also (o hire been lij no mauu tit* 
f*cl,— M might be inrened from wbM he m;s respecting tbe effect and conMqaeuees of 
Otto'i diMoniu, htld after tbt aboTe Mwmblf,— tbu all direetlr HabmJHtd to baptian. 

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otto's imprudent zeal and danger. 41 

other risit to the nev commuaities, h« shaped his conrse home- 
ward. But, even amidst the manifold cares of his civil aod spi- 
ritnal relations, he did not lose sight of the Fommeranians. On 
learning that certain Pommeranian Christians had heen conreyed 
into captirity among pagan hordes, he determined to procnre 
their release. He ordered a large quantity of Talnahle cloth to he 
pnrcbased in Halle, and sending the whole to Fommerania, where 
these goods stood in high demand, appropriated a part as pre- 
sents to the nobles, with a riew to secnre their kind feelings to- 
ward the infant chnrch ; and ordered the remainder to he sold 
and Gonrerted into ransom money for those captires. 

Bnt in pushing forward with so mnch zeal and resolution the 
mission among the Fommeranians, Otto neglected one thing, which 
was of the utmost consequence in order to a settled enduring 
foundation of Christian culture among the people ; and this was, 
to make provision for the imparting of Christian instruction in 
the language of the country. There was a want of German 
clergy, well skilled in the Slavic language, there was a vant of 
institutions for the purpose of giving the native inhabitants an 
education suited to the spiritual calling. No doubt both these, 
owing to the short time employed in the convergion of the people, 
were wants the supply of which would be attended with great 
difficulties. But the consequence of it was, that ecclesiastics had 
to be c^ed out of Germany, who always remained, in national 
pecnliarities, language, and customs, too foreign JVom these 
Wends, and had but little true love for them. What contributed 
to the same evil was, that German colonists, in ever-increasing 
numbers, were called in to replenish the territories which had 
been laid waste and the cities which had been desolated by the 
preceding wars. These foreigners met the Wends with a sort of 
contempt. A feud sprung up between the new and the old in- 
habitants of the land, and the latter were induced to withdraw 
themselves into the back parts of the country.* The same injus- 
tice was here done to the aboriginals by the new race of foreigners 
who settled down in the knd as has often been done over again in 
later times and in other quarters of the world. 

Christianity had not as yet found admittance into the island of 
Rogen, bnt its inhabitants still maint^ned their freedom, and 
1 XbOBua Kantiow'i Ohronicla of FoimiMraTiii, pabliihcd by W. BOIuDcr, p. 36. 

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held foBt to their ancient sacred cuatomi. Thus the bond of 
anion was severed between these isUnders and the Christian Pom- 
meranians. It was not nntil after repeated battles, that Walde- 
mar king of Denmark at last sncceeded, in the year 1168, to 
snbjng&te the island ; and then the destmclion of paganism and 
the foonding of the Christian chnrch first became practicable. 
The inspiring sonl of this enterprise was bishop Absalom, of 
Boeskilde, a man who conceived it possible to nnite in himself 
the statesman, the warrior, and the bishop ;'- and who was tliere- 
fore the least fitted of all men to bring about the conversion of a 
people in the proper sense. Throngh bis mediation, a compact 
was formed with the inhabitants of the capital town Arcona, 
which compact laid the foundation for the snbjectioB of the entire 
island. They obliged themselrea by this agreement to renounce 
paganism, and to introdnce among them Christianity, according to 
the vs^es of the Danish chnrch. The landed estates of the 
temples were to devolve on the clergy. When the monstrous idol 
of Svantovit was to be removed flrom the city, not a single native- 
bom individual dared lay hands on it, so dreaded by all was the 
vengeance of the deity. But when the idol had been dragged off 
to the camp of the Danes, without any of the anticipated dread- 
ful consequences, some complained of the wrong done to their god ; 
while others considered the ancient faith as already overturned by 
this experiment, and now ridiculed the monster they had before 
adored. Still more must this impression have been strengthened 
in their minds, when they saw the idol hewn in pieces, and the 
ftagments of wood used in the camp for cooking provisions. The 
clergy living in the service of the nobles were sent into the town 
to instrnct and baptiie the people according to the notions of 
that period ; but among such a clergy, who at the same time 
served as secretaries to the nobles, it is hardly to be snpposed 
that much Christian knowledge was to be found. The great 
temple was burnt, and the foundations laid for a Christian church. 

I Hii udonl Mend uid) eulogist, llu hmoaa Dinish tiiUuriaa Saxo-Oruumsticua, 
Provoel of RoMkilde, wlia. ou Lis reoumnKiidMiiHi, uoderioak hia itoik of Liatory, calla 
him "militlaa at nllgionia aociau fiilgare couapicaua ;" thb biatoriiD tod sacleai- 
Hiie SitdiDg wKhlni oftaain in an^ ■ oonbination. War wiib piguw fi>r tha 
good of the eliuicli, aenned to him not ■ whit foieign to tha chanotet oT * biahop. 
" Neqac enim miniu aaUDrnm aitinBl enltui, publioa rtligiouia hoatsa npallare, qiiam 
ae Tacan.' Lib. lir. p. UO, ed KloU. 

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The BUDfl couree was pnrsned in other p&rta of the island. The 
work vos prosecntfld hy priestB, whom bishop Absalom sent over 
from Denniftrk, after the recall of thoee eccleuwtics, who were 
onlj intended to supply the immediate want. He prorided the 
means for their enhaistence, so that they might not be felt as a 
harden on the people. Many iDcidents ocenrred here also by 
which people were led to Ascribe the core of vsrions diseases to 
the prayers of the priests. Bat the historian of this period, 
though he reports them as miracles, does not profess to consider 
them as proving the holiness of these ecclesiastics, bnt only as 
works of dirine grace to facilitate the conTersion of that people.' 
We noticed, in the preceding period, the founding of a great 
Christian empire of the Wends by Gottscbalk. This empire 
perished, howeTer, with its founder, when he was assassinated ; 
and paganism had rerired again under Cruko, a prince very hos- 
tilely disposed towards Christianity. Yet Qottschalk's eon, 
Henry, who had taken refuge in Denmark, succeeded, with the 
help of Christian princes, in putting down the opposition of the 
pagMi Wends, and by his means, in 1105, the WendiBh kingdom 
was restored. He endearoured also to re-establish Christianity. 
But when he died, in the year 1126, his two sons, Canute and 
Zwestipolk, fell into a quarrel with each other, which could not 
fail tooperate disastrously on the interests of the Wendisb people, 
both in a political and in an ecclesiastical point of riew. With 
these two sons, the family of Gottschalk became extinct ; and the 
people, who along with their liberties defended also their ancient 
sacred customs, saw themselves abandoned without mercy to the 
power of the Christian princes of Germany. It was not till after 
the ma^ave Albert ih« Bear, and Duke Henry the Lion, had 
wholly subdued the Wends, that the Christian church could estab- 
lish itself in this part of Germany on a solid foundation, and that 
the bi^opries prerionsly founded could be restored. But the 
war-wasted districts were peopled by foreign Christian colonists 
iirom other quarters of Germany ; and what the spirit of Chris- 
tianity required, namely, that the naUonal indiridnality should 
be preserred inritJate, and ennobled by true religion, should be 
unfolded to a higher order of perfection, was left unaccomplished, 
(■prclui, quHQ Mc«idotDm unctjiui din- 

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44 VICBLIN's life, till U£ BtCAMB A MI8810NART. 

It wonld be remote from the present design, to give an Mconnt 
of wars, which contd b« of no real service in extending the king- 
dom of Christ among these tribes. 

We pass on to mention one indiridaal, who, in the midst of 
disorder and destrnction, endearoured, with self-denying lore, to 
labour for the saiing good of the nations. This was Vieelin. 
Sprung from a family of the middle class at Qnemheim, a village 
on the banks of the Weser, and early deprived of his parents, he 
found pity with a woman of noble birth, who took him to her 
castle, Everstein, where she suffered him to want for nothing. 
A question put to bim by the envious priest of the village, with a 
view to embarrass and shame him, brought him to the consciouB- 
ness and coufession of his ignorance. But this incident, which he 
himself regarded as a gracious act of Divine Frovidence.i turned 
out to him a salutary incentive, and gave a new direction to his 
life. Filled with shame, he immediately left the castle, and be- 
taking himself to the then flourishing school atFaderbom, applied 
himself to study with so mack diligence and application, that 
Hartmann, the master of that school, had little else to do than to 
check and moderate his zeal. In a short time, he made such pro- 
gress in the acquisition of knowledge that his master made him 
an assistant iu the school. Somewhat later, he was called him- 
self to take the superintendence of a school in Bremen. After 
presiding over this institution for a few years with great zeal, 
his earnest longing after a more complete education impelled him 
to visit that far-famed seat of science, then filled with lovers of 
learning ftma all parts of Europe, the Parisian University. Here, 
it was not the predominant dialectic tendency, for which the Uni- 
versity of Paris was especially famous, but the simple biblical 
tendency, by which he felt himself to be most strongly attracted. 
After having spent three years at this University (ad: 1125), 
he thought he might venture on a step from which distrust in his 
youth, still exposed to temptations, had hitherto deterred him, 
and to receive the priestly consecration. Presently lie was 
seized also with a desire to convey the blessings of the gospel to 
those parts where it was most greatly needed. The report of 

I Hslmold, whoH nport nt hen folluv, Mji of bint, i. 149 : " AadiTi aum Mcps- 
namBra diMnMm, qui* ad Tarbam iUiaa McerdoLii napticrit com miaerunniliB dinna.' 

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irbat the Wendish king Heniy was doing for tbe establishment 
of the Christian charch among his people, drev him to that qnar- 
ter. Arebbishop Adalbert of Bremen gave him a commission to 
preach the gospel to the Slaronians. Tvo other ecclesiastics, 
Rndolph, a priest from Hildesheim, and Lndolf, a canonical from 
Terden, joined him as fellov-Ubonrera in the sacred enterprise. 
King Henry, to whom they offered their serrices, received them 
readily, shoving them great respect, and assigning to them a 
chnrch in Lnbec, vhere he himself nsnally resided, as the seat of 
their labonrs. Before they conld commence them, however, tbe 
king died ; and the ensuing wars between his sons rendered it im- 
possible for them to effect anything in that district. Yicelin now re- 
tnmed back to arebbiBhop Adalbert of Bremen, whom he attended 
on his tonr of visitation in a diocese, the borders of which 
were inhabited by Slavic tribes. It so happened that, id the 
year 1126, when Yicelin was accompanying the archbishop on 
sncb a tonr of visitation, the inhabitants of the border town 
Faldera,* applied to the latter for a priest to reside amongst 
them. A convenient centre was here presented to Yicelin for 
his labonrs among the Slavonians, and be gladly accepted 
the call. He found here a poor, nncnltivated country, rendered 
desolate by many wars, nambers who were Christians only in 
name, manifold remains of idolatry, groves and fountains conse- 
crated to the deities. He preached with energy and effect ; the 
truths, which were as yet wholly new to the rude multitude, fonnd 
ready entrance into their minds. He destroyed the remaining 
objects of idolatrous worship, travelled abont in the northern dis- 
tricts of tbe £Ibe, and made it the aim of his preaching not to con- 
vert the people into nominal Christians merely, bnt to lead them 
to repentance and to a genuine Christian temper of mind. His 
pioos, indefatigable activity stimnlated others to imitate his ex- 
ample. A free society was instituted of unmarried laymen and 
ecclesiastics, who, under his guidance, entered into a mntnal 
agreement to devote themselves to a life of prayer, charity, and 
self-mortification ; to visit the sick, to relieve the necessities of 
the poor, to labonr for their own salvation, and that of others, 
and especially to pray and labour for tbe conversion of the Sla- 

lAs it «» nimMl bj tbe Weada; olherwiie WippeDdorf; tX > Ulrr pciiod Htn- 

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46 VICELIN'S labours AMOKG the 8LAT0N1AKB. 

Tonians. A spiritual society of this sort being one of the mtnta 
of the time, belonging to that peculiar spirit of fVateraizatioa, 
with which the awakening religions life readily nnited itaelf, gave 
birth to many others, like those religions associations called the 
apostolical. When the emperor Lothaire the Second, in the year 
1134, visited the proTince of Holstein, Vicelin fonnd that he took 
a warm interest in his plan for the establishment of the Christian 
church among the Slavonians. By Vicelin's adviee, the emperor 
hnilt a fortress at Segeberg to protect the country against the 
Slavonians ; a proceeding which, it mnst be allowed, was hardly 
calculated to make a favourable impression on that people ; for 
the Slaves looked upon it as a new mode of infringing upon their 
liberties. Here it was now proposed to erect a new church, which 
was to he committed to the care of Vicelin. To him the emperor 
entrusted also the care of the chnrch in Lnbec ; and consequently, 
the entire direction of the mission among the Slavoniaus was 
placed in his hands. At Segeberg and Lnbec, he conld now pro- 
ceed to establish a seminary for missionaries among that people ; 
bnt by the political quarrels and disturbances, which followed the 
death of Lothaire, in 1137, his labours here were again interrupted. 
Those districts once more fell a prey to the fury of the Slavonians ; 
the Christian foundations were destroyed, the clergy obliged to flee, 
and the labours of Vicelin were again confined to Faldera alone. 
But even this spot was not long spared from the ravages of the Sla- 
vonians. Vicelin took occasion, from these calamities, to direct the 
attention of men from perishable things to eternal, teaching them 
to find in the gospel the true source of trust- and consolation in 
God. After having passed several years under these distressing 
circumstances, his outward situation was again changed for the 
better by the establishment of the authority of duke Adolph of 
Holst«in in these districts, after the subjugation of the Slaves. 
This new sovereign carried out the plans already contemplated 
by the emperor Lothaire, in favour of Vicelin, not only restoring 
the chnrch at Segeberg, but also giving back the landed estates 
which had been presented to it by the emperor. But to avoid 
the bustle and confnaion of the fortress, Vicelin removed the 
monastery to the neighbouring city of Hogelsdorf, a place more 
favourably situated to secure the quiet necessary for the spiritual 
life. When, at a later period, the war broke out afresh with the 

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ticblin's farther labodrs. priest dittuar. 47 

SlaTonisDS, and in conBeqnenee of it & famine arose in thoBe du- 
trictB, Vicelin, by his exhortations and example, stirred np the 
■pint of benerolence. Large bodies of poor people dail;^ pre- 
sented themselves before the gates of the monastery at Hogels- 
dorf. Presiding ovei the monastery was a scholar of Vieelin's, 
the priest Dittmar, a man of eimiUr spirit, who had relinqnished 
a eanonioate at Bremen, for the purpose of joining the pions 
society. Dittmar exhausted all his resources in endeavonring to 
alleriate the prerailing distress. Meanwhile, these Slavic tribes 
were completely sabdned by dnke Henry the Lion ; and arch- 
bishop Hartwig of Bremen, having it now in his power to restore 
the rained bishoprics, consecrated Vicelin, in the year 1148, as 
bishop of Oldenbnrg. Bat the man who, daring this long aeries 
of years, had freely laboured, according to his own principles, 
serring only the pure interests of Christianity, instead of finding 
himself now, in his old age, enabled to act more independently in 
this higher dignity, saw himself cramped and confined in varions 
way* by a foreign spirit, and by other interests.' As the dnke 
had already been vexed, because the archbishop had renewed 
those bishopries without his advice and concnrrence, and nomi- 
nated Vicelin bishop of a city in his own territory, so he thought 
he might at least demand that the latter should receive IVom him 
the investiture. Vicelin, who by virtue of the genuine Christian 
spirit which aetnated him, rose superior to the interests of the 
hierarchy and of the episcopal prerogative, wonld gladly have 
yielded the point at once, in order to preserve a good under- 
standing with the duke, and to avoid being disturbed in his 
spiiitnal labours ; but the archbishop of Bremen and his clergy 
positively forbade it ; since they looked upon it as a pitiable dis- 
grace to the church that tiie bishop should receive the investi- 
tnre firom any other hands than those of the emperor.* He was 
now exposed, therefore, to suffer many vexations and embarrass- 
ments ftvm the dnke. He could not get hold of the revennes 
which belonged to him. Meanwhile, he did what he could, and 

1 Hii friend Hglinald »ji ; " Vidern rlrnni iptca mtgai nomiDii, pounMrnn liber- 
Hlii M eompotrai (uimel fntt acMptam epiacDiMila Donwn, natai intUKUtnin rlnonlii 
qnibaMiam e( HipliMtii amuiam." 

iHcliDolduTS otlhattUtgfBtea ; "Nam ctipii ' 
utBii, bonori lao ticH in heto derogari pnMbant, a 
mBnguKima Hdinm cDrabaDt." 

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in particaUr took great paios to perform the tours of visitation 
in his diocese. He laboured earnestly in preaching the ^spel to 
the Slaronians, but he met with bnt little success among them. 
Finding himself so much embarrassed in the discharge of his 
official duties by his misunderstanding with the duke, he finally 
resolved to sacrifice the respect due to his ecclesiastical superiors 
to the higher interest of the welfare of souls. Therefore, he said 
to the duke, " For the sake of him who humbled Himself on onr 
account, I am ready to do homage to each one of your vassals, to 
say nothing of yourself, a prince exalted to so high a station by 
the Lord." By this concession, he involved himself in unpleasant 
relations with his archbishop. At last, he had the misfortune to 
lose the faithful friend, who laboured on in the same spirit with 
himself, the priest Dittmar. During the last two years and a 
half of his life, he saw himself completely shut oat from all offi- 
cial labours ; for he was so severely afiected by repeated shocks 
of apoplesy, that he could neither move nor even controul his 
organs of speech. All that remained in his power was to exert 
himself for the edification of others by the tranquillity and pa- 
tience which he manifested under the severest sufferings. Like 
the apostle John, and Gregory of Utrecht,, he had to be borne 
to the church on the shoulders of his disciples. He died on the 
13th of December, 1154. 

The Christian church was again planted during this period 
among the Slavic populations in the countries on the coasts of 
the Baltic sea. This work we will now contemplate more in de- 
tail. The attempts made by the Danish kings to convert men 
by force, had, in this region also, only served to diffuse more 
widely the hatred against Christianity and the Christians. It 
was by means of commerce that more peaceful relations came 
finally to be established between the Liefiandera and Christian 
nations. This was an important preparation for the work of 
missions, by which more could be effected for the introdnction of 
Christianity and the well-being of the nations, than by any of the 
attempts to combine the chivalric spirit with Christian zeal. In 
the year 1168, merchants of Bremen began to form commercial 
connections with the Lieflanders and the bordering tribes. Their 
ships often visited the Diina, where they established settlements 

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for trade. The priest Ueinbard, IVom the already-mentioned 
monastery of Legeherg, in Holstein, a venerable old man, waB 
mored by a pions xeal, eTen in his old age, to embark in one of 
the enterpriaeB of tbese merchants, with the view to convey the 
message of salvatioD to the pagan people. Id the year 1186 he 
arriTed on the spot. He got permission from the Bassiao prince 
WUdimir, of Plozk, (o preach the gospel to the Lieflanders ; and 
&t Yxkull, beyond Biga, where the merchants had already bnilt 
a fortress for the security of trade, he founded the first church. 
A number of the first men of the nation consented to receire 
baptism from him. On a certain occasion, when the Lieflanders 
were attacked by pagao tribes from Lithuania, Meinhard directed 
the measnreB for defence, and under bis guidance the iuTaders 
were repelled. By this transaction he von their confidence still 
more. He taught them, moreover, how to guard i^^ainst such 
attacks for the future, instructing them in the art of fortification, 
of which they were entirely ignorant. On their promising to 
submit to baptism, he sent to Gothland for workmen and build- 
ing materials, and erected two fortresses at Txkiill and Holm, 
for the protection of the people. Bat more than once he was 
compelled, by bitter experience, to find that those who had suf- 
fered themselves to be baptized only to obtain his assistance in 
their bodily necessities, when they had aecared their object, re- 
lapsed iato paganism, and sought to wash away their baptism in 
the waters of tbe Dttna. Meinhard, in the mean while, was on 
a journey to Bremen, where he went to make a report of the 
success he had met with to his archbishop and to the pope. 
Archbishop Hartwig of Bremen ordained him bishop over the 
new church ; but very much still needed to be done before he 
could discharge the fhnctions of the episcopal ofQce. After his 
return, he found bow grossly he had been deceived by those Lief- 
bnders who had needed his assistance in tempera) things. 

To aid in sustaining this work, Theodoric, a Cistercian monk, 
had come upon the ground and settled down at Threida (Tho- 
reida.) Bnb-the pagans took a dislike to him ; for the superior 
condition of his fields had aroused their jealousy. Already, they 
thought of sacrificing him to their deities. Whilst they were 
deliberating on the matter, he called upon God in prayer. The 
omen which, according to Slavic custom, they took from the 

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steppings of a horae vhich they kept for diTination,' tamed oat 
faronrably for bim, and his life was spared. At another time, 
he waa broaght into ^reat peril hy an eclipse of the snn, the 
people attrihnting this terror-spreading phenomenon to his ma- 
gical arts. The rude pagans were easy to believe that one so 
snperior to tbemaelres in knowledge and cultnre was able to do 
anything ; so a wounded man once applied to him to be healed, 
promising that, if he obtained relief, he wonld be baptized. 
Theodoric had no knowledge of medicine ; but trusting in God, 
whose assistance he invoked, he composed a mixture of crushed 
herbs, and as the remedy was followed by a cure, the patient, one 
of the principal men of the nation, submitted to baptism. This 
example had its effect upon others. But it was with manifold 
vexations, anxieties, and dangers, that Meinhard bad to strn^Ie 
to the last. Sometimes the Lieflanders, when they had an object 
to gain by it, or when they felt alVaid that an armed force might 
be coming to his assistance, were ready to promise anything ; 
and when he was on the point of leaving them, strove to retain 
him in their conntry; at other times, they only mocked him. 
Already, he had applied to the pope to assist him io this enter- 
prise, and the latter had promised to do so, when, in the year 
1196, he died alone at Yxkiill, bnt not till he had obtuned a 
promise from the Lieflanders that they wonld consent to receive 
another bishop. Berthold, abbot of the Cistercian monastery at 
Locknm, was appointed his successor, and consecrated as a bishop 
over the new church. It was his intention at first not to resort 
to the sword, but to gain over the minds of the Lieflanders by 
the power of the troth and of love ; he only failed to persevere 
in this good resolution. He came to Liefland without an armed 
force, called together, near the chnrch at Txkiill, the better dis- 
posed amongst the Christians and pagans, supplied them bounti- 
fully with food and drink, distribnted presents among them, and 
then said that, called by themselves, he came there to supply the 
place of their departed bishop. At first they received him in a 
friendly manner ; bat soon he had to hear of plots among the 
pagans, who were resolved to put him to death. The consequence 
of this was an armed crusade, at the head of which the new bishop 

1 9ee MU, f. 19. 

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Tfiturned back to Lieflaod. He himself, it is true, fell in battle, 
but the »nnj was Tictonons. The Lieflanders sned for peace ; 
they declared themselrea willing to receive clergymen, and a 
hundred and fifty of the people already consented to receiTO bap- 
tism. The army of cmsaders was thus induced to leare the 
coantry ; bat nothing better was to be expected than that the 
Lieflanders, when no longer restrained by fear, wonld soon return 
to their old practices. Scarcely had the army of the Germans 
left their shores than they again renounced Christianity ; two 
hondred Christians were pnt to death ; the cleigy barely made 
out to sare themselres by flight, and the Christian merchants 
themsalres conld only porchase security for their Urea by pre- 
sents to the principal men. The canonical priest, Albert von 
Apeldem of Bremen, was appointed bishop of the new cbnrch, 
and a fresh army accompanied him, in the year 1199, to Licfland. 
After the snccessAil termiDation of the new campaign, in order to 
fix a stable seat for the Christian church on a spot more secure 
and better sitnated for intercourse with the Christian world, the 
town of Eiga was bailt, in the year 1200, and the bishopric of 
Yxkiill translated to this place. Bat it was necessary that an 
amed force should be kept always at hand here, not only to 
maintain possession of the place, and to secure the Christian 
foundations, in a constant struggle with the pagan iDbabitant^ of 
the country ; but also to ward oS the destructive inroads of 
other pagan tribes in the neighbourhood, and to resist the Bus- 
sian princes on the border, who were impatient of any foreign 
dominion in these parts. To this end, a standing order of 
spiritual knights, formed in accordance with the spirit of these 
times, by a union of knighthood with the clerical vocation, the 
ordo fratrtan mititice ChrUti, was instituted, which chose the 
Virgin Uary, to whom the new bishopric had been dedicated, as 
its patroness. 

Not till after a war of twenty years was tranquillity secured. 
From this point, the church was planted in Esthland and Sem- 
gallen ; and at length Curland also, in the year 1230, submitted 
to her sway ; not compelled by outward force, but yet driven by 

It would be foreign from oar purpose to enter (arthei into the 
history of these warlike enterprises. We will simply notice in 


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these tnoretneots, so ftlien from ChristiaDity, sneh particnlars iis 
present to oar obserration the least trace of the Christian spirit. 
In the midst of these wars, men did not entirely neglect to em- 
ploy the method of persnasion, and to diffuse Christian know- 
ledge, though they did not adopt the most suitable means for this 
purpose. Among these means, belonged the spiritual plays 
which came into vogue in this period, and were designed to re- 
present historical scenes from the Old and New Testaments. 
Thus during an interim of peace, in the year 1204, the opportu- 
nity was taken adrantage of to exhibit, in the recently huilt city 
of Riga, a prophetical play, designed to combine entertainment 
and instmction for the new Christians and the pagans, and to fix 
by BenenODS impressions the sacred stories and doctrines more 
deeply on their minds.' By means of interpreters, the subjects 
of these dramatical representations were more clearly explained 
to them. When Gideon's troop attacked the Philistines, great 
terror fell on the pagan spectators, as they supposed it applied to 
, themselves. They betook themselres to flight, and it was only 
after much persuasion that their confidence conld be restored.^ 
When again, after a bloody war and deliverance from great dan- 
gers, a time of peace once more returned, archbishop Andreas of 
Lund, who came in company with the allied Danes, assembled, in 
the winter of 1205, all the clergy in Riga, and during the whole 
season, gave them theological discourses on the Psalter.* Uany 
amongst the clergy, for which order men were fond of selecting 
monks, devoted themselves in good earnest to the work of pro- 
moting the salvation of the Lieflanders. One of these was monk 
Sigfrid, who presided as priest and pastor over the church at 
Holm, and by his life of piety and devotion left a deep impres- 
sion on the minds of the people. At his death in the year 1202, 

1 Tbui K man, irtio wu in put in «;(>-intIieM of thi>M Kieuta, the priMt Uelnricb 
der Lrltr, in (lit Chronicon Liionicum f. 84, pablishfd b; Qniber, Ufs : " Ut Bdfi 
ChriBlUnie nidimenla gentiliU* Bde ellnm discerot ocdImc." 

> Tlw pri«l Hcinticb expivewa moniUiitb lluit heiMmi liinseirto Iw aaiueioiu oT, 
wh«n he con<iden ihis dnmilical eihibilian u ■rorcloken of llie odwDitiea of the fol - 
lowing fern ■■ " la endem lado eninl belie, utpote Dmid. Qideanii, Hnvilie. Ent et 
doeirias vcierit et doti teeUiaienti, qaia niniiniin per belle plurimi, fnae wqiiiiDtur. 
couvenende eral genlillUa, e( per doclrioKm Teterii el noTl [eilaiiieDti erml inauaende, 
qniliter ad Tfrnn peciBcuDi et ad Tiiam perreniat sm pi tern am." 

1 The wardi at Ibt abnie mentioned prieit : " Kt legendo ia Ptalteiio totem tiiemem 
in diTina eonleiop!atioDe dedDcanlur." L. c, I. 43. 

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the new conrerts zealoosly went to work and made him a beanti- 
fnl'coffin, in which they bore him, weeping, to the place of 

Over the chnrch connected with the recently bnilt fortress, 
Friedland, was placed a priest of the CisterciaR order, Frederic of 
Celle. On Palm-Sunda; of the year 1213 he had celebrated mass 
with great devotion and then preached with mach fervour on the 
passion of Christ, closing his discourse with toaching words of ex- 
hortation addressed to the new Christians. After having here 
celebrated also the Easter festival, he was intending to cross over 
with bis assistants and a few of his new Christians to Biga. But 
on the passage they were surprised by a vessel fully manned with 
ferocioDB pagans from the island of Correiar (Ozilia), a hannt of 
pirates, which had.oSered the stoutest and longest resistance to 
the introduction of Christianity. Under the cruel tortures, with 
which the exasperated pagans songht to put him to a lingering 
death, he lifted his eyes to heaven, and with his disciples thanked 
God that he had counted him worthy of martyrdom.' In the 
year 1206, the Letti made a desolating irruption into Liefland, 
and a village near Threida was suddenly attacked by them, 
whilst the community were assembled in the church. When this 
became known, the Lieflanders, in great consternation, rushed 
from the church ; some succeeded in finding places of concealment 
in the neighbonring forest ; others, who hurried to their dwellings, 
were taken captive on the way, and some of them put to death. 
But the priest, John Strick, supported by another priest and by 
his servants, would not be disturbed in his devotions at the cele- 
bration of the mass ; but, consecrating himself to God as an offer- 
ing, committed his life into the hands of his Master, resigned to 
suffer whatever he should appoint. And after they had finished 
the mass, placing the several articles which belonged to the cele- 
bration of the office, in a heap together at one corner of the sa- 
cristy, they concealed themselves in the same spot. Three several 
times the troops of the Letti broke into the sanctuary, but, seeing 
the altar stripped of its furniture, they gave up the hope of find- 
ing the plunder they were in search of, that which was concealed 
escaping their notice. When all had gone off, the priebts 

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thaDked God for their deliTerance ; in the erening, the; forsook 
the church And fled into the forest, where, for three days, they 
subsisted on the bread they took with them. On the fourth day 
they arrired at Biga.' 

In a fight between the conrerted Lett! and the pagans of Eath- 
land, which took place in the year 1207, a Lettian priest mounted 
a redoubt, and sang a sacred hymn to the praise of God, accom- 
panying liis Toice with an instrnment. The rude pagans, on 
hearing the soft melody of the song and its accompaniment, a 
thing altogether new to them, for a time left off fighting, and de- 
manded what the occasion was for such expressions of joy. " We 
rejoice," said the Letti, " and we praise God, because but a short 
time ago we received baptism, and now see that God defends 


Amongst these people, the influence of Christianity was mani- 
fest again in the fact that it brought them to a conscious sense 
of the equal dignity of all men, doing away amongst them the 
arbitrary and false distinction of higher and lower races. The 
Letti had, in fact, been hitherto regarded and treated as an in- 
ferior race of men ; bnt tbrongh Christianity they attained to the 
consciousness of possessing equal worth and equal rights with all ; 
the priests, therefore, to whom they were indebted for so great an 
impTorement of their condition, were recciTed by them with joy.* 
The only law that had hitherto been in force among tlie Lief- 
Unders was club-law. By means of Christianity, they were first 
made conscions of the need of a settled system of justice. The 
inhabitants of Tbreida made a petition to their priest Hildebrand, 
that the ciril as well as the ecclesiastical law might be introduced 
amongst them, and that their disputes might be settled by it.^ 

At the close of the war in 1221 pope Honorius the Third, in 

3 The words of the prlMt Hdnrich; "EntDlenim Lettbi ante Qdem ii 
miles «t decpccLJ, et didIui iiyarits BDSlJiieiit«s * LiTonibna el Eatonibas, uade ipai 
mngii guidebinl de hIvgdId itcerdolum, eo quod pau, biptumnm eodtm jure et eadem 
peae omaei gsademnt ~ L. c. f. 96l 

4 L. c. f. 46. The pried Heinrich ibjps, thtt tlie Lieflandere wen at flnt itrj well 
aaliafled with their jgdgts, or so-called adiocates ; nniDelj, to loDg as pioua men, who 
were goierned anlf bj Chrialian motiiea, adaunillered this efflc*. BdI il tamed out 
olherwiie, when larnteii, who aonghl onl; bow thp^ might enrich theniBelies, ubleined 

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compliance with the request of the bishop of Biga, sent William, 
bishop of Modena, the papal chancellor, as a legate to Lieflaod. 
This prelate spared no pains in dispensing amongst the ancient in- 
habitants of the country and their conquerors, such exhortations as 
their respective circumstances reqnired. The Germans he exhorted 
to mildness in their beharionr to the new coDverts ; cliarg:ing them 
to lay on their shonlders no intolerable bnrdens, bnt only the 
light and easy yoke, and toinstrnet them constantly in the sacred 
trathfl.* He cautioned those who bore the sword against being 
too bard on the Esthlanders, in the collection of tythes and im- 
posts, lest they should be driYen to relapse into idolatry ' These 
exhortations to a mild, indulgent treatment of the natives, be 
repeated, on Tarioos occasions, amongst the different classes. 

With the establishment of the Christian chnrcb in these lands, 
was closely connected its establishment also amongst another 
Slavic people, the Pmssians ; for that same order of spiritual 
knights, which had been founded for the purpose of giving sta- 
bility to the Christian fonndations in Liefland, formed a nnion 
with another order for the accomplishment of this work. We 
most now revert to many things strictly belonging to the preced- 
ing period, bat which, for the sake of preserving the connection 
of events, we reserved to the present occasion. 

Adalbert of Prague,* the archbishop who had to endnre so 
many hard conflicts with the rudeness of bis people, betook him- 
self, after he had abandoned hie bishopric for the third time, to 
BolesUr the First, duke of Poland, expecting to find amongst 
tiki pagans in this quarter a field of activity suited to the glowing 
ardour of his leal. He finally determined to go amongst the 
Pmauans. The duke gave him a vessel, and thirty soldiers to 
protect him. Thus attended, he soiled to Dantzic,* as this was 
the ftontier^place between Prussia and Poland. Here be first 
made his appearance as a preacher of the gospel, and be suc- 
ceeded in baptizing numbers. Then sailing from this place, and 
landing on the opposite coast, he sent back the ship and her 

1 "Ne Teutonioi graTmuni* alifuodj again imporubllt nraphftornni hnnwrie impo. 
ih-rent, led jngnm Damioi lave M sqns, ndciqae seapai doccrcnt Menus* ot*." 
» L. 0, f 173. 
I 8m toI. Ti., p. 70. 

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crev. He desired to commit himself, as & meeseager of peace, 
wholly to God's protection. He did not choose to appear stand- 
ing under the protection of any human power, but would aroid 
everything which might awaken sospicion amongst the pa|^ns. 
The only persons he kept with him were the priest Benedict and 
kis own pnpil Gaadentins. It was an open beach where they 
were set down ; and taking a, small boat, they rowed to an island 
formed at the month of the rirer Pregel.^ Bnt the owners of the 
land approached with cndgels to drive them away, and one dealt 
him so severe a blow with an oar, that the paaiter from which be 
was singing dropped from his hand, and he fell to the ground. 
As soon as he had recovered himself he said, " I thank thee. 
Lord, for the privilege thoa bast bestowed on me of suffering even 
a blow for my emcified Saviour." On Saturday they rowed to 
the other shore of the Fregel, on the coast of Samland. The lord 
of the domain, whom they happened to meet, conducted them to 
his village. A large body of people collected together. When 
Adalbert had given an account of himself, of the country he came 
from, and of his errand, the people told him they wanted to hear 
nothing about a foreign law, and threatened them all with death 
unless they sailed off the same night. Compelled to leave these 
coasts, they turned back again, tarrying five days in a village 
where they brought up. Here, on the night of Thursday, the 
brother Gandentius had a dream, which next morning he related 
to the bishop. He saw standing in the middle of the altar a gol- 
den chalice half filled with wine. He asked permission to drink 
from it, bnt the servant of the altar forbade him. Neither he nor 
any other person could be allowed to drink from it, said he. It was 
reserved i^ainst the morrow for the bishop, to give htm spiritual 
strength. " May the Lord's blessing," said Adalbert, on hearing 
this, " bring to pass what this rision promises ; but we should 
place no confidence in a deceitfal dream." At the break of day 
they proceeded on their journey, cheerily making their way 
through the pathless woods, shortening the distance with spiritual 

1 Aa m>r bs guthered bata tbe warda of Iba ancieDt accouDt at Lis lift. Hena. April 
t iii. a. li. M. 189: " Intrant parTun InraUm, quae eairo aoiDe eircnnJBCui farmam 
circDli tdenDtibna monatrU." Bee Vnigt'i ramarks, mpeotiug lltrse ipmiSed muks id 
relation la Ihe geognphleal Bituaiion of placei, in his Qeichichle tod Preunen Bd. L, 

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soD^. Abont noon they came to some open fields. Here 
Gandentios celebrated the msas: Adalbert received the cup, 
then took some refreshment, and after tbey bad proceeded a few 
steps fkrtber tbe three seated themselves npon the grass. Wearied 
Tith travel, they all fell into a profoand sleep, vhicb lasted till 
they were awakened by the noise of a tnmnltaons band of pagans, 
who seized and bonnd them in chains. Said Adalbert to his 
companions, *' be not troubled, my brethren, we know, indeed, for 
whose name we snfier. What is there more glorious than to give 
up life for onr precious Jesns." Upon this Siggo, a priest, plnnged 
a lance through his body ; the others then rented their rage upon 
him. Adalbert, streaming with blood, kept his head erect, and 
his eyes fixed on heaven. This happened on the 23d of April 

The second person who attempted to convert the Fmssians 
was Bmno, Bomamed Bonifacins.' He was descended from a 
family of note in Qaerfart, and became conrt- chaplain of the 
emperor Otto the Third, who valued him highly on account of his 
spiritual attaiamente. This monarch took him along with him 
in a journey to Borne, where perhaps it was the sight of a pictnre 
of Boniface, the apostle to tbe Germans, which led him to resolve 
on withdrawing from court, becoming a monk, and conveying the 
mess^e of salvation to the heathen nations. Carrying this re- 
solution into effect, he became a monk of the order of St Bene- 
dict. He procured from Sylvester the Second fall powers to 
eag^^ in a mission to the heathen. This pope conferred on 
him, for the same end, episcopal ordination, and the pall of an 
archbishop. With eighteen companions he repaired, in 1007, 
to Pmssia ; bnt all perished by martyrdom on the 14th of Fe- 
bruary, 1008. 

From this time two centuries elapsed, dnring which, so fiir as 
we know, nothing farther waa done for the conversion of the 

I W« ewtunl; canuot doqbt ibat tti* irireaiiraUDtiil and limple ntmllve etine ^m 
llw Booth of on< of Adilben's companiona, who prDbabl} were redeein«l frem Ihtir 
aaptiTilf among tbe Prassiui* bj dok« BoImIit ; for Ibe antbor of Ibe accond account 
of Adalban'* lift ataua, tbat tb« Prnuiaas prea«rv«d hi* bodj with a new araltarwarda 
dbpoaing of il (bra large lanaom to dnke BalnlaT. 

* Tbianunanr was Ibe ocoaiion of amialake.twadillVKutperaoii* hating been mads 
oal of IbcK two Damn, and a miaaionarj BonUace van inventad, wbo ia lo be wholl; 
iirirkcn oat at tha liat of biaiorlcal penun*. 

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58 christian's success m phussia. 

PniBBisDB. It vaa not ontil 1207, that any new attempt was 
made for this pntpose. At that time GottlHed, a Polish abbot, 
from the monastery of Lnkina, sailed dovn the Weichsel, in com- 
pany with Philip, a monk ; and they succeeded in gaining the 
confidence of the heads of the people. Two of these, Fhalet and 
his brother Sodrach, embraced Christianity and received baptism. 
At this point the work was internipted, indeed, by the assassina- 
tion of monk Philip ; hot some years later another man appeared, 
who was far better calculated for snch an enterprise, and who 
began his work with more promising results. Cbrittian, a natave 
of Freienwalde, in Fommerania, went forth at that time from the 
monastery of OHts, near Dantzic, where, perhaps, the reports he 
heard concerning the Pmssians and the first attempts which were 
made to conrert them, had served to call forth in him the desire 
of conveying to them the message of salvation. With several 
other monks, among whom one in particular is mentioned, named 
Fbilip, he repaired, after having first obtained ample anthoiity 
for this work from pope Innocent the Third,' to the adjacent 
province of Prussia. The happy results of his labours in Prussia 
induced him, perhaps in accordance with some agreement between 
him and the pope, in the years 1209 and 1210, to make a jour- 
ney to Rome. Innocent the Third espoused this cause with 
that active zeal and prudent forethought, embracing the interests 
of the whole chnrch, for which he was distingnished. He com- 
mitted to the archbishop of Gnesen, the pastoral care over this 
mission and the new converts, till their number should be such 
as to require the labours of a special bishop of their own. In 
his letter addressed to this archbishop,' he says, " Through the 
grace of him who calls into being that which is not, and who out 
of stones raises up sons to Abraham, a few of the nobles and 
some others in that region have received baptism ; and would 
that they might daily make progress in the knowledge of the 

1 Aapope iDDDcrdl lbs Tblrd, in bis letter lo tlie ■rcbbisbop i]raDe*en,app. I. liiU 
ep. 126, g*;s, exprenlj, coDeeming Clitiiliui and Iiib companioni : " Ad fttaa Pnuaiae 
de DOBtTB liceaCim icceaBcrunt;" and in Ibe letter to Ibe Ciateroiin abbots, 1. it., ep. 
llT; X Oiiiaie noBtn licenlit ineepmint umiDare in panibus Pruwiie Tecbum Dei," 
it is tnipoasible to doabi, dut the nianlu U the Ter; beginning, eilhar orallj or bj 
letter, reported tbeir project to llie pope, and neoeired horn him uople powers for «deh id 
ealerpriK. From tbii pirticnlir point of time i( ww ilto tbefiiM in irbioh reioit wm 
b«d in such an enlerpriae to tbe head of the rburch. 

3 L.c.l.iiii.,ep. 138. 

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trne fkith." Christian and his companions returned and prose- 
cited their labours with good snccess. But from one quarter 
where they had every reason to expect conntenance and support, 
they experienced hindrances of all sorts in the prosecution of 
their work. The Cistercian abbots grew jealous of the inde- 
pendent activity of these men ; they put them in the same class 
with those T^abond monks, who had broken loose from all db- 
cipline and order. They refused to acknowledge them as brethren 
of their order, and denied them those kindly offices which in all 
other cases the members of the order were vent to show to each 
other. Therefore the pope issued in behalf of this mission, in 
the year 1213, s letter addressed to the abbots of the Cistercian 
chapter.^ With the cautions wisdom manifested by this pope on 
other occasions, he intended, on the one hand, to restrain those 
monks who merely wished to throw off the forma of legitimate 
dependence, from roving about, uncalled, as missionaries ; and, 
on the other, to provide that the preaching of the gospel should 
not be hindered under the pretext of checking such disorders. 
To secure these ends, the whole matter was placed under the 
general oversight of the archbishop of Gnesen. He was to apply 
the right mies for the trying of the spirits, and to furnish those, 
whom he foond qualified to preach and infiueaced by the spirit 
of lore, with testimonials of good standing and letters of recom- 
mendation. The pope commanded the Cistercian abbots to for- 
bear from hindering in their work such peraoDS as were thns 
accredited. Furthermore, the pope had heard complaints, that 
Uie dnkes of Fommerania and of Poland, turned the introduction 
of Christianity into a means of oppressing the Prussians ; that 
they laid on the Christians heavier hardens than tbey bad pre- 
vionsly borne ; which, as had often been shown in the case of the 
Slavic tribes, might end in making Christianity hateful to the 
people, whose burdens it only served to increase, and to bring 
abont the ruin of the whole miBsion.* He therefore sent to these 

1 U<s.l. iT,cp.UT. 

S " Qaidun iMlnini,' laja tbe pope, 
■tICDdflDIca, Ft qaureoKa, qnu suft Bur 
qao( ■ gMUUibaa pn Prnniim coDSlii 
Malim oncriba* toe Mirilibaa ■ggravBDl et 
Idnions oaDdjtiani* rSoiBnl qn«s eawDt, dnm 


' to a» 

™, 1. 1 

IV., ep. 148—" mininiR 

DOD <,uas 


i. qnu 

n Dito intelligant all 

U novM 

et Teni*n 

tn >d 

I, dnm .«: 


wiTiiDtiB ptiilinae pcrmau- 

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princes a letter, coached in firm and decided language, setting 
before them the nnchristian character of snch proceedings. " Al- 
though, in the vords of the apostle, withont faith it is im- 
possible to please Qod, still, faith alone is not snfiicient for this 
porpose ; but lore is, in &n especial manner, also necessary. As 
the apostle says : though one may hare faith so ae to he able to 
remove mountains, and though one may speak with the tongues 
of angels and of men, and thongh one gire his whole substance 
to feed the poor, and have not charity, it profiteth htm nothing. 
Now, if according to the taw of Christ, this love is to be extended 
even to onr enemies, how mnch more is it incumbent on all to 
practice it towards the newly converted, inasmuch as they, if 
hardly dealt with, may easily be led into apostacy." " We there- 
fore beseech and exhort yon,'' continues the pope, " for the sake 
of him who came to save the lost, and to give his life a ran- 
som for many, do not oppress the sons of this new plantation, bnt 
treat them with the more gentleness, as they are liable to be 
misled, and to relapse into paganism ; since the old bottles can 
scarcely hold the new wine." We find ttota this letter, that In- 
nocent had empowered the archbishop of Gnesen to pronounce 
the bann on the oppressors of the new converts in Frossia, if they 
would not listen to reason. 

So the monk Christian succeeded in overcoming these diffi- 
culties, and his work for the first time went prosperously onward. 
Two princes whom he had converted made over to him their ter- 
ritory, as a possession for the new church. He travelled with 
them to Rome ; tliey were there baptized, and Christian was now 
consecrated to the office of bishop. But after his return, a stormy 
insurrection arose on the part of hie pagan people, provoked per- 
haps, in part, by the conduct of the above-mentioned Christian 
princes. Then similar enterprises followed to those which had 
taken place in Liefland. The order of German knights, founded 
during the crusades in the twelfth century, joined themselves for 
the purpose of engaging in them with the order of the Brethren 
of the Sword ; and it was not till after a long series of years, in 
the year 1283, that the work was completed; four bishoprics 
having been previously, in the year 1 243, founded for the Prus- 
sians:— Eulm, Fomesanien, Ermeland, and Sameland. 

Neariy ailer the same manner was the church planted amongst 

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the Fians. King Eric, of Swedeu, whose zeal for the chnrch 
cansed him to be reaentted as a saint, nndertook for this purpose 
— iDasmnch as the Finns coald not be induced to submit in a 
peaceable manner — a crusade, in which he was accompanied by 
bishop Heinricb, of Upsala. A characteristic trait, indicating 
the point of religiotis derelopment at which he stood, and the 
strong inclination of his times to cling to external things, is re- 
lated of him. Kneeling down to thank God, after haring won a 
battle, he was observed to be profusely weeping : and being asked 
the reason, confessed that it was for pity and commiseration at 
the fete of 80 many who had fallen in the fight without being 
baptized, and were consequently lost, when they might have been 
saved by the holy sacrament.* 

Let US now throw a glance at the spread of Christianity in 
Asia. It lay in the power of the Neatoriana to do the most for 
this object ; for their communities were widely scattered over 
eastern Asia ; they were more fkvonred by the Mohammedan 
princes than any of the other Christian sects ;* and were the most 
familiarly acquainted with the languages and customs of the Asi- 
atic nations. Till within the ninth century, the Nestorian church* 
still maintained fionrishing schools fbr the education of their 
clei^y ; but after that time these schools seem to have declined. 
What we learn concerning the Nestorian ecclesiastics who roved 
abont Asia, proves, that they were often greatly wanting in theo- 
]<^cal culture. Christian knowledge, and sedateness of Christian 
character. It is tme, they were animated by a zeal for making 
proselytes ; but they were also too often satisfied if people did 
bnt profess Christianity outwardly, and observe a certain set of 
ChrisUan or ecclesiastical usages. We should be the more can- 
tioos, therefore, in receiving those reports which Nestorians, in- 
clined to speak extravagantly concerning the merits of their sect, 
and habituated to the language of Oriental exaggeration, have 
made respecting their labours for the conversion of pagan tribes. 
They spread themselves over those districts of Asia, in which a 
certain inclination to the mixing together of different religions 

1 8m tbe TiMi, Erid. Heiii, Haj. d. 18. c. i. 

t See, CD this poiDt, tha «xtneU A-om Oriental lourcet in AHemanl BibliotliPoi 
orienlalli, u iii., 1. 9S, tie. 
Sea Tol. iil. p. 300. 

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always existed. A way was easily fonnd of introdncing maoy 
things from Christianity into this medley ; and the Nestorians 
might represent this as conversion to Christianity. 

Thns, for example, we find, sometime after the twelfth cen- 
tnry, a legend current in the Western chnrch, respecting a pover- 
fal Christian empire in Asia, whose Christian kings, it was said, 
were at the same time priests, and bore the name of John. By 
the concurrent testimony of all the accounts from Oriental sonrcesi 
and Western travellers of the thirteenth centary, it is evident 
beyond a donbt, that the kingdom of Kera'it in Tartary, lying 
north of Sina (China), whose residential capital was the city of 
Caracomm, was here meant. It may be more doubtful, what 
opinion should be formed respecting the Christianity of this 
people and of its princes, respecting the union of the sacerdotal 
and kingly offices in the persons of the latter, and respecting the 
name of John. 

The Nestorian metropolitan Ebedjesu, bishop of Mani in 
Ghorasan, in Persia, relates, in a letter to his patriarch Maris,* 
that a king of Kerait, in the beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury, had been converted to Christianity by means of Chris^ 
tian merchants, certainly Nestorians.* The prince, it is said, 
thereupon sent a request to the metropolitan, that he would 
either come to htm personally,* or else send a priest to bap- 
tize him. The patriarch, to whom Ebedjesu reported this, 
is said to have empowered him to send to that country two 
priests, together with deacons and ecclesiastical vessels. Two 
hundred thousand people of this nation are said to have em- 
braced Christianity ; the priest above mentioned, and his des- 
cendants, were known henceforth in the East by the name 
of the priest-kings, John, (Frester John.)' Yarions exagge- 
rated stories concerning the power of these princes, and the 
extent of their empire, were spread abroad by monks in the 
West. Envoys from them appeared in Rome, sent for the 

1 See pilracta in ABumaui, 1. e. 1. 186. Sanouig SeeUsn'B Oeechkbta der Oatmen- 
goleo, trKDBlBted rroin Ihe Mongol language by Sobmidt, p. S7. Pewnburg, 1829. 

3 See AnBemani'a Bibliatb«k, ]. e. p. 461- 

g TbiB is ascribed to Ihe apparition it n aainl, who pointed ont thd Tigbt pub to tbe 
priDCB, wheo he had loat hia ira; in s cbose; vhelher tbe tnidi it, tliat lame kiuiI 
occnrreDce lies M tbe bolum or tbe stoi;, or that tbii ecconDt is a mere imiutkiD of 
otliPtaiiiiilvoDe>,w thai refpecting tbe eonienioDof the Iberiula, mo rot. lii.p.US. 

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purpose of establishing connections betveen these pretended 
great monarchs and the West, through the mediation of the 
pope. Not only hare we every reason to donbt the tinth of 
these reports, bat it is also qnite questionable whether the persoDS 
vho represented themBelres as envoys, vere really anthorized to 
appear in that character ; whether, in fact, the whole is not to be 
regarded as a work of fraud ; especially since we knov, that 
when the cmaades had laid open a nore free commDaication be- 
twizt the £ast and the West, the crednlity of the West was oflen 
imposed upon by snch fraudulent pretensions. Still, we should 
not be anthorized on these grounds to call in question the exist- 
ence of such a line of sacerdotal kings passing under the common 
name of John. It is possible, that Nestorians baptized the 
king, and then gave him priestly consecration ; and that at bap- 
tism he received the name John, — particularly because this was 
the name of the Nestorian patriarch at that time. Both name 
and office may then hare passed down to his snccessors. Occa- 
sion may have been given for associating the sacerdotal and kingly 
offices together in one man by ideas and tendencies already exist- 
ing in those districts at an earlier period ; ideas and tendencies 
which afterwards reappeared among tlus people, under another 
form, in Lamusm. In recent times, however, a more careful 
examination into the history and the relations of the Chinese 
empire has led to a different interpretation of this story.' The 
kings of Eerait were vassds of the vast Chinese empire ; and as 
snch they bore, in addition to their proper names, the character 
and title of " Vam," or " Vang." Now this latter title, joined 
with the Tartaric "Ehan," gave origin to the name "Yam-Khan," 
or " Ung-Kban." It is supposed then that the legend respect- 
ing these kings who all called tbemselres John, proceeded from a 
misconception, or mntilation, of that twofold title ; while the 
legend respecting their uniting the offices of priest and king may 
bare originated in a transfer of religious notions, already current 

1 SohloMei'i Weltgenbiebtt, iii, ii., 1, ■. 869. Bitter's Gcographis, iU iU Bd. 1, ■. 
SS7. Schmidt, in ■ note contaiaed in the iboie-mviitiaiKd Oeuliichte der Oatmon. 
golen. B. 3S3. Gieseler, who adopta Lhia vien, has endraioured Id make ihli deiivatian 
piobibJe, bj Bappoaiafc [hat iha NealarUni confaoDded lb« foreign Tanatian wardnwith 
ollien of like aound in thn Semlllc dialects, Jochinaii and Choben ; aae Stndien n. 
Kritikeil.1837, 2h.a.8S4, 

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unong these nations at an earlier period into a Christian form. 
Thna we might be led to regard the whole story concerning the 
conversion of the princes of Kera'it and their snhjects, as a legend 
which originated in misconception and ex^geration, vithont the 
least fonndation of historical tmth. Bnt as the report in the 
above-men tioned letter of the Nestorian metropolitan, respect- 
ing the conrersion of that Tartarian prince, is confirmed in all 
essential points by the narratires of Western missionaries and 
traTellers belonging to the thirteenth century, who had, some of 
them, long resided in those districts, and were not accustomed to 
exaggerate ; so we regard the statement that princes of Kerait 
were conrerted by Nestorians to Christianity, that is, led to the 
outward profession of it, and to the adoption of Christian usages, 
and that such a Christianity was transmitted in their families, — 
as a &ct sufficiently well established, however uncertain may be 
the rest of the story. 

At all events, an end was put to the empire of these so-called 
sacerdotal kings, probably under the fourth of the dynasty, by 
the great revolution in 1202, which, somewhat later, shook not 
only Asia but Europe. The head of one of the subordinate 
tribes under this empire, khan Temudschin, revolted. The king 
of Kerait lost, in the struggle which ensued, his kingdom and his 
life, and Temudschin became, under the name of Dschingiskhan, 
founder of the great Mongolian empire. It is said, however, that 
he married the daughter of the sltun priesb-king ; and that Bab- 
banta,* a Nestorian monk, rose to great authority and infinence ; 
but we ought not to attribute too much importance to statements 
like these. The religions interest, as a general thing, was 
amongst the Mongols an altogether subordinate concern ; their 
only article of faith was the recognition of one Almighty God, 
the Creator of the world, and of the great khan, his son, whom he 
set over all the kingdoms of the world, and whom all must obey. 
This one fundamental article left room, indeed, for a great deal 
besides, which might be taken fVom other quarters, and incorpo- 
rated with it. The religion of these tribes was a rude monotheism, 
which took but a slight hold on the religions interest ; the belief 

1 OeiUlnlf Dol aproiwr nune, bat RmiiEtun! of two lid«e of bonoar from diffrj«nt 
laugDigF*, III. : lbs S;riBD Sibbu), *nd tbe Tnrklah Aua, TMber. See Abel-RcmiwM 
Id Ibe Mcmolres de 1' Aculaniia do loieripliant, t. ti., id. I8S2, p. 113. 

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in ODG God who was Iield off at au immeDse distance, — a belief 
affording bat little to occupy the thoaghts or feelings of the 
homan mind ; and into the void thereby left for the religions 
natore, an entrance was left open for all manner of superstition. 
The religions need would necessarily strive to fill np the chasm 
between tliat sublime and distant Deity, floating before the mind 
in dim presentiment, and the life of man in all its contraction and 
feebleness ; and it was precisely here that all forms of supersti- 
tion were enabled to find a foothold. Idols and amulets, fabri- 
cated by their own hands, laid stronger hold on the affections and 
the imaginations of the people, than that ri^ue belief in one God, 
the creator of thenniverse. In this manner, it wus possible that, 
under the above-mentioned single article of faith, different reli- 
gions,' that is, their fonns and usages, with which a superstitious 
sort of coqaetry was practised, might subsist side by side. Indeed, 
a frequent change of religions usages was particularly agreeable to 
the taste of these tribes or-men ; and thus it happened that Chris- 
tian, Mohammedan, and Buddhist rites and naages were after- 
wards admitted amongst them and tolerated together. Nesto- 
rian priests long wiuidered about among these nations ; and these 
people required nothing more than such an adoption of Christian 
forms, which they represented as an embracing of Christianity. 
At the same time, the Uongoli&n princes, induced by motives of 
political interest, and seeking to form alliances with Christian 
nations against the Mohammedans, — often represented themselres 
as more inclined to Christianity than they really were ; or else 
with a view to flatter the Christian princes of the East, who in a 
certain sense did them homage, accommodated themselves, in the 
expression of their religious opinions, to the views of those whom 
they addressed. 

Under Oktaikhan, the successor of Dschingiskhan, the armies 
of the Mongols threatened to deluge Europe, throngh Russia, 
Pol&nd, Bohemia, and Silesia ; while the Christian nations were 
prevented from adopting common measures of defence, by the 
quarrels between the pope and the emperor Frederic the Second. 
This led pope Innocent the Fourth to send two embassies to the 

1 Tbc J. dfl Plino CaipiDi.abonlj tobc ucntioDed, mika oaneemiufi the UoogaU 
tbi comet noMA : " Qultdt oulLa Dei nullem legem obwnuit, Deminnm tdbno, qnod 
uil«lkiiniB*,eotij^nintMMin fldam id let(em ne|ir«." 


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Mongols, one to charge tbem, in his name, to deaist from tbeir 
warlike expeditions against tlie Christian nations, and the other 
to make an attempt to convert them to Christianity. Both were 
ill-jadged ; for of what arail was sach aa injunction, backed np bj 
nothing else ; what signified the word of a pope amongst Mon- 
gols ? And as to the other object, of gaining them orer to ChriS' 
tianity, a single embassy could do nothing towards its accom- 
plishment ; while the instmments chosen by the pope for this 
basiness, possessed neither the character nor the information ne- 
cessary for performing the task imposed on them. In the year 
1245, fonr Dominicans are said to bare visited the commander- 
in-chief of the Mongols in Persia, and three Franciscans to have 
repaired to the great khan himself The former,' at whose head 
stood the monk Ascelin, were altogether nnfitted for the bnsiness 
they undertook, being utterly ignorant both of the manners and 
of the language of these nations, as well as utterly destitute of 
the versatility of mind necessary for acquiring such knowledge. 
Offence was taken, in the first place, because they had not, ac- 
cording to the Oriental custom, brought presents with them. 
Then, to obtain an audience from the commander-in-chief, it was 
made a condition that they should pay obeisance to him by three 
several prostrations. The scruple which they raised, that this 
would be a mark of idolatrous homage, was removed, it is true, 
by Guiacard of Cremona, a monk familiar with the manners of the 
East, whom they met with at Tifiis ; and who explained to them 
that nothing of this kind was associated with the act in the cna- 
toms of these nations. Bnt when he informed them, at the same 
time, that it would be a markN^f homage paid by the pope and 
the Church of Rome to the great khan ; they declared themselves 
resolved to die rather than subject the Church of Rome and Chris- 
tendom to such a disgrace in the sight of the nations of the East. 
The Tartars looked upon it as exceedingly strange, that, adoring 
as they did the sign of the cross in wood and stone, they could 
pay no such mark of respect to the great commander, whom the 
khan would nothesitate to honour as he did himself. They looked 
upon this reAisal as a serious insult to the dignity of the khan, in 
his representative ; and it was only by a fortunate turn of circum- 

D or St Quintiii. wl faiUi i» 



stances that the monks escaped hein^ pat to death. Fioalij, 
they were required to go and meet the great khan himself, to 
place in his hands the pope's letter, conrince themselves, by their 
own obserration, of his anlimited power and matchless glory, and 
draw np a report of the same to the pope. To this, Ascelin re- 
plied that, as his lord the pope knew nothing about the name of 
the khan, and had not commanded him to inqnire after that per- 
flonage, but to accost the first army of the Tartars whom he 
shoold meet, so he was not bonnd, and neither was he inclined, 
to make a journey to the khan. This style of expressing himself 
with regard to the relation of the pope to the Tartarian monarch, 
proToked alVesh the displcasnre of the Tartars, " Has the pope, 
then," said they, " snbdned as many kingdoms and vast empires 
as the great khan, the son of God I Has the name of the pope 
spread aa widely as that of the great khan, who is feared from the 
East to the West V Upon this, Ascelin explained to them, that 
the pope, as the successor of St Peter, to whom Christ had in- 
tmsted the government of the entire chnrch, possessed the highest 
anthority among men. Bat of sach an authority the Tartars 
eonld form no conception ; and in rain did Ascelin resort to rsr 
rions illnstrations and examples for the purpose of making the 
thing plain to them.' 

The letter of the pope was then translated first into Persian, 
thence into the Tartariui langnage, and placed before the com- 
mander-in-chief And the monks, after being detained for several 
months, finally obtained permission to go home ; and at the same 
time a brief, haughty reply to the pope's letter, was placed in 
their hands. It ran thns : " Whereas, it is God's immutable de- 
cree, that all who come personally to show their submission to the 
great khan, whom God has made lord over the whole world, 
shonid remain on their own soil and territory, but the rest be 
destroyed ; therefore, let the pope take care to inform himself of 
this, if he wishes to retain his country." The Franciscans, with 
whom went Johannes de Piano Carpini, an Italian,' directed their 
course to Tartary, and the great khan, through Bnssia ; and their 

1 AueliDO mallil modii et exemplie eijilanaale, illi Lanquani brntalei bomJDes nal- 
IitcDiu JDtelligcre voluerant plenuie. 

I Extitcu from bi> report ia ViaceDtlui At Beiuvaii, lib. SI. Tlie lune vru OrM 
publiahed complete b; D'Atcuc. Puis, 1838. 


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jonrney, lying through desolate regions and steppes, whicb they 
had to traverse on horseback, often at the greatest speed and 
withoat baiting, was one attended vith the severest deprivations 
and hardships. These monks seemed to be better qnalified for 
their business than the first : Johannes de Piano Carpini, in par- 
ticular, by his extensive earlier travels, by the important offices 
which he had filled in his order, and the snperior tact he had 
thereby acquired, seemed mnch better prepared for it. Less stifi" 
in their prejudices, they could more easily enter into foreign cus- 
toms and modes of thinking ; and hence shoved themselves quite 
ready to make presents, after the Oriental fashion, of the few 
articles they brought with them ; nor did they hesitate to go 
throQgh the ceremony of thrice bowing the knee, as a customary 
mark of respect to those in power. When they arrived at the 
khan's court, Oktaikhau bad died, and they were present at the 
coronation of his successor, Gaink. They also found here Nesto- 
rian priests, who were maintained by the khan, and who per- 
formed their worship before bis tents. But assuredly it was an 
exaggeration, intended or unintended, on the part of the Chris- 
tians in immediate attendance on the kkan, when they told the 
tnonka that he himself would Boon embrace Christianity.' Be- 
sides giving them a letter to the pope, he proposed to send back 
with them envoys of his own ; a proposal which, for various pm- 
dential reasons, they thought proper to decline. In other respects 
this embassy proved as fruitless as the former. 

The cruaades, in various ways, brought the Christians of the 
West into contact with the Mongols.* The leaders of the Mon- 
gols were sometimes induced by motives of policy to court the 
alliance of the western princes against their common enemy, the 
Mohammedans ; or they ambitiously afiected the distinction of 
being acknowledged, even by those princes, as their liege lords 

1 Tlie wards of J. de Piano Cupioi, in the CDmpIeU edillon of hia report, mentioned 
in Ihe previous note, Siii.p.3T0: " Dicebaul eliun nobis Chriatiaai, qui ennt do 
fimilii.ejnsi^quad omdebiut Grmiter, qaod del>el fieri Cbristiinus elds hoc bibentsig- 
nam apertum. quoniun ipse liiict cldicos elirislianos st du e is eipenus, CbrisliaQonim 
etiaiD oHpellam ■emper.babet anle mnjus tentorium ejus, et cantint pnblice «l ipcne, el 
palMiiil ad barai eeciindam oiorrni Qraecariioi. nt alii Clirietiani, quanUcunqne ait ibi 
niDltlludo TatarocDm vel etism bomiQum iltorani, quod nan raciant alii duces." 

1 Sea tlie Esaa; of Abel-Remusit : " BipporU dea priacescbiilisDaaTacle gnind em- 
pire dee (HoDgals," in the Uemaiiea de I'Acad^mie dea Inaeriptiona, L vi, p. SB6, 

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and masters. There were, howerer, roving abont in the East, 
many deceivers, who represented themselves as envoys from the 
Mongols, as well as from others ; and, in their names, expressed 
opinions, and made treaties, anch as had never been dreamed of 
by those miers. At the same time, however, the Mongol princes 
themselves, donbtless, contrived that many things should be said 
in their name, which they afterwards refused to acknowledge as 
having ever proceeded from them. Thus that pions king, Lonis 
the Ninth of France, while residing, in the time of his crasade, 
on the isle of Cyprus, heard many exaggerated stories abont the 
inclination of the Mongolian princes to favoar Christianity, which 
indnced him to send them ambassadors with presents. 

Among these ambassadors, the most distingoished was the 
Franciscan William de Rnbrnqnis, who undertook a jonrney of 
this sort in the year V253. He visited the Mongol general and 
prince Sartach, his father Batn, and the great khan of the Mon- 
gols himself, the Mangu-khan. He penetrated as far as Caraco- 
mm, the renowed capital of this empire, the ancient residential 
fity of the above-mentioned priest-kings. From his report of 
this jonrney, we discover that he was a man less prone to credu- 
lity than other monks of his time, more inclined, and better qna- 
lified, to examine into facts ; and it is through him we receive 
the first certain and accurate information respecting the religions 
condition of these nations, and respecting their relation to Chris- 
tianity. Id piety and Christian knowledge he was far superior 
to the Oriental monks and ecclesiastics, who wandered abont 
among these tribes; and his piety, his intrepidity, and his in- 
sight into the essence of Christianity, as viewed from the position 
held by his own church, fitted him beyond others to act as a 
missionary among these nations. When he came into those dis- 
tricts, where the kingdom of Prestet John once had its seat, he 
perceived how exaggerated had been the accounts given of that 
kingdom by the Nestorians.' He says that, with the exception 

1 Re uj« of Pnaler John, ODl uf whom be mtkei ■ Nratotim frittt, wbo bid nitei 
himself to be king : " Les NfElariena diaBieat de Ini ebotea roerveillrDMS.TDBia beaucoup 
plaa jn'il n'j aiiiit en effel, car c'est la eaalume dea Neaieriens da sea paja li, de fure 
an grand bruit de pen de ehoae, aiosi qu'ils ant fait courir patlout \e brail, que Sarlncli 
riiit chrelien, ■□»> bien que Mtngii-Chim el Kan-Obam, & caoae aeulemenl.qu'ilafont 
piuB dlioDDear uix cUretiena,qu'& inns In lutrea, laulefbia ileal irie-ceriain, qn'ila i<e 
•ODl pae f' i^tiena.' See hia nfon ■n Ibe eolleolion of Bergtroa, I, i., t. It. 

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of a few Neatorians there was nobody trho knew anythiag abont 
Frester John. He found the Neatorians widely diepersed in 
these re^ons, and filling important posts in the Tarta^an eonrt.* 
Bat of the Nestorian clergy he gives a rery sad account. " They 
are," he observea, " thoroughly ignorant ; and though they repeat 
the liturgical forms, and possess the sacred books in the Syriae 
language, they understand nothing abont them. They sing like 
illiterate monks, that have no understanding of Latin. Hence 
they are all corrapt in their morals, and wicked in their lives ; 
great usurers, and dmnken sots. Some of them who live among 
the Tartars keep, like the latter, several wires."' It was quite 
enongh for such people if they could make their mecbanical 
prayers and ceremonies pass cnrient at the Tartarian court, so 
as to procure for themselves presents, the means of living, and 
influence. The khan Mangu was accustomed to avail himself of 
the opportunity furnished by the Christian, Uohammedan, and 
pagan festivals, to give entertatuments. On these occasions the 
Nestorian priests first presented themselves in their clerical 
robes ; offered up prayers for the khan, and prononnced a bless- 
ing over his cops : next, the Mohammedan priests did the same ; 
last of all came the pagans,* by which, perhaps, we are to under- 
stand the Buddhist priests ; for there are many indications that 
Buddhism had already spread into these regions ; a thing, indeed, 
which might have taken place even at amnch earlier period, through 
missions and pilgrimages of the Buddhists, who were quite zealous 
in'apreading the doctrines of their religion.* At this court he 
met with a poor weaver from Armenia, who called himself a monk,» 
and pretended before the people that he came from Palestine, in 
obedience to a apecial divine revelation.* By his sanctimonious 

1 L. c. p 31,80,67. 

a L. B.C. 28, p. 60. 

B Robraquia vrites, c. 36, p. 78 ; " Tact ks ana, que les aalies Boivent B> conr. 
oomme lea monchea A, miel Taut lea fleurs, car il doaae & long at chacun Ini d^aira (oulaa 
aaites de biani at de proiperilei, crofRnl 6tia da aea ploa particulien amia." 

* Kuhniqaia aaji, 0. 28. p. 60: '' Lea prECrra Idol&tiea dace piya l&portfDtde gnnda 
cbipeani on floqaelacbana jaxiiM ct iJ j o ectre edi anaai, aioai que j'ai oni diic, e<r- 
Mina liennilca au auacboriM, qaj Tivaiit dun lea forSls el lea monU{ii(s, Dieiiaiil aoe 
Tie trti-Burpreniata et auBl^." Id wbiob oharaclers we euinol Ml to lacogniaa a 
Buddbiat element. 

5 L. e. e. »e. 

« I., c. c. m, f. 133. 



kin, his qoackery, aud boasted wonder-working mediciaes, thia 
person had contrived to acquire considerable influence and pro- 
perty at the court of the khan, especially among the women.^ In 
the city of Caracorum, he saw twelve idol-temples belonging to 
different nations, two mosqaes for Mohammedans, and one church. 
In this Mongol capital he distributed the sacrament of the Snp- 
per, on £aster-I>ay, to a large number of Christians who had 
met together here from Tarious countries, and were eager to ei^oy 
that means of grace, of which they had long been deprived. To 
more than sixty persons, moreover, he administered baptism.^ 
After having resided for some time at the court, he requested of 
the great khan a decisive answer to the question, whether he 
might be permitted to remain in the country as a missionary, or 
whether he mnst return home. In consequence of this, on the 
Sunday before Whitsuntide of the year 1253, he was, in the 
name of the khan, closely questioned respecting the object for 
which he had come, by certain officers of the khan's court, among 
whom were to be found a few Saracens. After he had explained 
the reasons which had led him to extend his journey so far, he 
declared that the only object he had in view nas to preach the 
word of God to the Mongols, if they were willing to hear it. He 
was asked wliat word of Qod he proposed to preach to them ; for 
they supposed that by the word of God he meant certain predic- 
tions of good fortune, somewhat of the same sort with those with 
which muiy of the wandering ecclesiastics and priests were ac- 
customed to flatter them. But he told them, " The word of God 
is this, Luke xii. 48, ' Unto whomsoever God has given much, 
of him shall much be required ; and unto whomsoever God has 
iotnuted less, of him less shall he required ; and he to whom 
most is intmsted, is also loved most.' Now, on the khau God 
had bestowed the most ample abundance of good things ; for, of 
all that greatness and might of which he was possessed, he was 
indebted for nothing to idols ; but for all to God, the creator of 
hearen and earth, who has all the kingdoms of the world in his 
hands ; and on account of men's sins, suffers them to pass over 
from one nation to another. Therefore, if the khan loved God, 
nothing would be wanting to him. But, if he conducted other- 

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wise, he might he sure that God would call him to & strict ac- 
count for everything, even to the last penny." Here, one of the 
Saracena asked, " Whether there vas a man in the world who 
did not love God V " He who lores God," replied Bnbmquis, 
" keeps his commandments ; and he who does not keep his com- 
mandments, does not love him." Upon this they asked him, 
" Whether he had ever heen in heaven, bo as to know what God's 
commandments are V " No," said he, " but God has communi- 
cated them from heaven to men, who sought after that which is 
good ; and be himself came down fVom heaven, for the purpose of 
teaching them to all men. In the s&cred Scriptures, we have all 
his worrfs ; and we find out by men's works whether they observe 
them or not." Upon this, they put him the ensnaring question, 
" Whether he thought that Mangukhan kept God's command- 
ments, or not %" But he adroitly evaded the dilemma, contriving, 
while he said nothing but the truth, to avoid uttering a word 
which conid he interpreted to the khan's disadvantage. " He 
wished," he said, " to lay before the khan himself, if he pleased, 
all the commandments of God ; and then he could judge for him- 
self whether he kept them or not." The next day the khan 
declared that, whereas there were scattered among his subjects 
— Christians, Mohammedans, and worshippers of idols, and each 
party held their own law to be the beat ; tbGrefore, it was his 
pleasure that the advocates of the three religions should appear 
before him, and each hand in a written account of his law ; so 
that, by comparing them together, it might be determined which 
was the best. " I thanked God," says Jluhruquis,' " that it had 
pleased him to touch the khan's heart, and bring him to this 
good decision. And, since it is written that a servant of the 
Lord should he no brawler ; but gentle, showing meekness to all 
men, and apt to teach ; therefore, I replied, that I was ready to 
give an account of my Christian faith to any man who required 
it of me." In the religions conference which followed, Bubrnqnis 
showed immediately his great superiority to the Nestorians. 
The Nestorians proposed that they should commence the dispu- 
tation with the Mohammedans. But Rubrnqnis thought it would 
be much better to begin with the idolaters; inasmuch as the 

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ChristisnB agreed witb the HohammedaDB in the faith in one 
God, and could therefore, on this point, make common can&e 
vith them against the idolaters. Furthermore, it was the in- 
tention of the Nestorians to prove the doctrine of one God, 
against the idolaters, from Holy Writ. Bnt Bubrnqnis explained 
to them the impossibility of effecting anything in that way ; for 
their opponents wonld deny the anthority of the Scriptures ; and 
vonld oppose to their testimony other authorities. As they had 
shown themselTes so inexpert in these preliminary matters, it 
was agreed that he should speak first, and in case he were foiled 
in the argument, they should follow him up and endeavour 
to better )t. On holy ere before Whitsuntide the disputation 
was held. The khan had previously cansed it to be announced, 
that, on penally of death to the transgressor, neither party should 
dare to injure the other, or to excite disturbances. Three secre- 
taries of the khan, a Christian, a Mohammedan, and an idolater, 
were to preside as umpires over the di^bate. 

Rnbruquis endeaToared to prove, in opposition to the idolaters, 
the necessity of recognizing one Almighty God, the creator of all 
things. They, on the other hand, being addicted to a certain 
dualism, wished to have the difficulty solved, how evil could 
possibly proceed from this one God. Rnbruqnis, however, re- 
fused to be drawn into that question ; " for," said he, " before 
men can enter into any discnssion respecting the origin of evil, 
it would be necessary first to settle the question, What is evil 1" 
Thus he compelled them to return to the main point. As to the 
Uohammedans, they evaded the discussion, declaring that they 
held the lav of the Christians, and all that the gospel teaches, 
to be true ; and as they acknowledged also one God, whom, in 
all their prayers, they besought to give them grace to die like 
the Christians, so they were not inclined to enter into any dis- 
pute with them. Perhaps the Mohammedans merely wished that 
it should not appear before the idolaters, as if there were any dis- 
pute between the worshippers of one God ; and hence chose on 
the present occasion to lay stress on that alone which they held 
in common with the Christians. Ferha])s Rubniqais put more 
into their reply than it really contained. 

He had already heard that the khan had determined to dismiss 
him, and in a second audience, on the festival of Whitsuntide, the 

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decision vas aoDonnced to him : " We, Mongols," said the kban 
to him at this interriew. " beliere there is bat one God, by whom 
we live and die, and to whom onr hearts are wholly directed," 
" God gire you grace to do so," said Bnbrnqnis, " for, withont his 
grace, it cannot be done." When, by means of his interpreter, 
the khan gathered the sense of these words, as well as the former 
eonld express it, said he, " As God has giren many fingers to 
the hand, so he has appointed different ways of salvation for man. 
To the Christians he has given the Holy Scriptnres, bnt they do 
not strictly observe what is prescribed therein ; nor can they find 
it written there that one class shonid censnre others." He asked 
Bnbrnqnis whether he fonnd that in the Scriptures. He said, 
" No," and then added, " bnt I also told you, from the first, that 
I wonld enter into controversy with no man." The khan then 
proceeded : " I say, God gave yon the Holy Scriptnres, whoso 
commandments yon do not keep. But to ns be has given onr 
soothsayers :' we do whatsoever they prescribe to ns, and live in 
peace with one another." The khan was careful to avoid enter- 
ing into any farther conversation with Babraqnis, as the latter 
wished, on religion ; bnt simply made known to him his command, 
tliat he should now leave the country, for the purpose of convey- 
ing his answer to the letter of king Louis the Ninth. Bnbrnqnis 
declared his readiness to obey ; bnt at the same time begged 
that he might be permitted, after having delivered the letters, to 
return ; especially, as in the city of Bolak, there were many of bis 
subjects and servants, who spoke the French language, and who 
were in want of priests to preach to them, and also to impart to 
them and to their children the sacraments according to the 
principles of their religion ; and he wonld be glad to settle among 
them. The khan, avoiding a direct reply to this request, pro- 
posed a qnery. He asked Bnbrnqnis if ho felt certain then, that 
his king intended to send him back again. To this Bubrnqnis 
replied, that he did not know what the king's will might be ; bnt 
he had perfect liberty from him to go wherever he thought it 
necessary to preach the word of God ; and it seemed to bim there 
was an urgent need of his labours in these countries. The khan 



1 bim, bovever, withont a definite answer to his reqneat ; 
and silence bere vas tantamount to a refusal. Rnbinqnis con- 
diid«s his account of this final interjiew with the remark, " I 
tbonght that, had my God bestowed on me the gift to work sncb 
niraeles as H(»es did, I might perhaps bare conTerted the great 

By these Uongols, two great empires were founded, where their 
goTemment most have had an important influence on the sitna- 
tion of the Christian chnrcli. One was the empire founded by the 
khan's brother, Eulagu, after the year 1258, in Persia ; the other, 
the principal Mongol empire in China. Within the fonner, in- 
deed, was the original seat of the Neetorian Church, where it had 
already been faronred by the Mohammedans. The new conqueror 
was induced by his wife, a Xeatorian Christian, to favonr Chris- 
tiaoity still more. Besides, there were matrimonial alliances of 
the BDCceeding princes with the families of the Byzantine em- 
perors, and political interests which broaght them into relation 
with the European princes ; and they were son^etimea led thereby 
to npreseot themselres as still more inclined to Christianity than 
was really the case. The popes, down to the close of the present 
period, arailed themselree of the opportunity furnished by these 
relations, to send monks as missionaries to Persia. But the 
fltroDT thus shown to Christianity excited a jealonsy so mnch the 
more riolent on the part of the Mohammedan class of the people ; 
and a contest arose between them and the Christian party which 
terminated in a complete victory on the side of the former, and 
riolent persecutions of Christianity. 

As it regards the principal empire of the Mongols in China, it 
is to be remarked that the religion of this people here obtained 
for the first time a determinate shaping, in the form of Lamaism, 
the creation of a hierarchy which sprang out of Buddhism. The 
Mongols could not withstand the influence of the elements of cul- 
ture already existing in that country. Koblaikhan, the founder 
of this empire, distinguished himself above the earlier Mongol 
princes as a fHiend of education. In religion, he seems to bare 
fallen in with a certain eclectic tendency. He had a respect for 
all religions institutions, and especially for Christianity ; though 
he was very far from being himself a Christian. 

His court was risited by two merchants belonging to the Vene- 

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tian family of the Poli. They vere favonrebly receired, and re- 
sided with him for some time. He finally sent them back to 
Europe, in company vith a man of his own court, with a commis- 
sion to procure for him, from the pope, a hundred learned men, 
who should be well instructed in Christianity ; but their return 
from Home was delayed by the two years' vacancy which befell 
the papal chair in 1272. Gregory the Tenth having been elected 
pope in 1274, sent them back to China, with two learned Domi- 
nicans ; and one of the two Venetians took with him his son 
Marcus, then fifteen years old. The young man made himself 
accurately acquainted with the languages and customs of those 
nations ; he gained the particalar faronr of Koblaikhan, was em- 
ployed by him on varions occasions, and after his return, in 1295,* 
comprised his acccnnt of these regions, from which we obtain onr 
best knowledge respecting the state of Christianity in the same. 
A person who professed to be a Christian (probably after the 
Nestorian fashion) had rebelled against Koblaikhan. He mounted 
the cross on his banner, and moreover employed several Christians 
in his service. The Jews and Saracens in the army of Koblaikhan 
took occasion IVom this, after that rebel had been conqoered, to 
attack Chrislianity : " Here," said they, '' is seen the weakness 
of Christ. He could not procure his friends the victory." But 
Koblaikhan, when the Christians complained to him of these 
reflections, took their part. " It is true," said he, " the rebel 
did look for aid to the Christian's God ; but He, being a good 
and righteous God, wonld not uphold wickedness ;" and he for- 
bade, for the futnre, all such calumnious remarks on the God of 
the Christians, and on the cross.' 

At the close of the thirteenth century, and in the beginning of 
the fonrteenth, a man laboured in these districts in whom we 
recognize the pattern of a true missionary — the Franciscan, John 
de Monte Corvino. He seems to have appeared first in Persia, in 
the city of Taoris (Tabris.) From Persia he travelled, in the 
year 1291, to India,' where he remained thirteen months. He 
was accompanied by the Dominican Nicholas de Ptstorio, who 

1 IV n^ioniboB oriental ibn«,liliri iii. 
! See Mirca Polo. lib. ii , c. 6 

• Ragionn lunl rnirljirrimte, pirnu aromillbui tt Itpidibba pirttosia, sei de (ruc- 
libiB nostril param babent. 

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died there. In different districts, he sncceeded in baptizing a 
hundred persons ; and in the second letter vhich he wrote to 
Europe, he declared it as his belief, that " great resalts might be 
expected to follow the preaching of the gospel in those regions, 
if BobstaDlial men of the order of the Dominicans or Franciscans 
wonld come there." From India he travelled to China, and at 
length settled down in the capital and residence of the great khan, 
the city of Cambaln (Fekin.) In two letters written in the years 
1305 and 1306, he drew up, for the members of hia order, a brief 
report of his adventures and labours.' During eleven years he 
had laboured entirely alone, when he was joined, in the year 1803, 
by Arnold, a Franciscan from Cologne. In addition to other ob- 
stacles he had to encoanter much opposition from the Nestorians, 
who wonid not suffer any man to move a step if he refused to join 
tbeir party. They invented many false charges against him, 
which were often the means of bringing him into great peril. 
He was frequently obliged to defend himself before the courts, 
till at length, by one confession, his innocence was clearly proved ; 
and the khan (Koblai'a successor, Timur-khan), provoked at his 
false accusers, punished them with baniafament. He fonnd that 
it was not in his power, indeed, to convert . the Chinese emperor, 
to whom he brought a letter from the pope ; but still that poten- 
tate treated him with favour, and did the Christians many acts of 

This distinguished man, displaying the wisdom of a gennine 
missionary, spared no pains in giving the people the word of God 
in their own language, and in encouraging the education of the 
children, as well as training np missionaries from among the 
people themselves. He translated the New Testament and the 
Psalms into the Tartar language, had these translations copied 
in the most beautiful style, and made nse of them in preaching.^ 
He purchased, one at a time, a hundred and fifty hoys, under the 
ages of seven and eleven, who were as yet utterly ignorant of any 
religion ; baptized them ; gave them a Christian edncation, and 

1 First publiahed in Wadding'i Aniulli, t. vl. ; tUtn ia Hiwheim'i hiilorii mbIm. 
t Qui umvn niraiB iaTTtenloi tat idolUrli, sed malM bcDpfloii pneaut Chrittiuili. 
) Quie tte'i Bcribi la pnlBlicrrimi liMre ootoid, st Kribo tt logo el prudico in paUDli 

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taaght them Lfttin, Greek, and psalmody. Already daring the 
first years of his residence in Cambala, he waa enabled to bnild 
a chorch, in which, with the assistance of those boys who had 
been trained np by himself, he recited the litnrgy, bo that be 
could tmly say, " I hold divine service with a troop of babes and 
snckliogs."' In this charch he set up sis pictnres, representing 
stories from'the Old and New Testaments, together with explana- 
tory remarks in the Latan, Persian, and Tartar langnages, for 
the instmction of the nnedncated people.^ It gave him great 
satisfaction when he found it in his power to erect a second 
church in the vicinity of the emperor's palace. A rich and pions 
Christian merchant, whose acquaintance be had formed in Persia, 
Peter de Lacalongo, purchased a piece of property on this site, 
and made him a, present of it. This chnrcli, which he built in 
the year 1305, stood so near the waits of the palace,* that the 
emperor in his private cabinet could hear the church psalmody ;* 
and the emperor took great delight in the singing of children. 
Monte Corvino now divided the boys between the two churchea. 
He had, during his residence in this place, baptized from fire 
to six thousand ; and he believed that, had it not been for the 
many plots laid against him by the Nestorians, he would bare 
succeeded in baptizing above thirty thousand. In the first years 
of his residence in that place, he met with a certain prince, Oeo^e, 
a descendant of the priest-kings. This person was persuaded by 
him to pass over from the Nestorian to the Catholic Church. He 
conferred on him the inferior ecclesiastical consecration ; after 
which, the prince assisted him, dressed in his royal robes, in per- 
forming divine worship. This prince had induced a large portion 
of kis people to embrace the faith of the Catholic Church, had 
bnilt a magnificent chorch, and caused it to be called after a Bo- 
man name. It had also been his intention to translate the whole 

1 Cum conrentu infintiDm cl iMtenlinm divinum offlciun bcio. PnicticB bad (a 
■npiilj tlie place of a breviar; proviiled with nc 
Dotatam officium nun babeniDa. 

mini Cbamis. 

* In camera bua poteat aadire taeev nosUe 
diiDlgMum eat inter gcDlea at pro magna erit, 

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Roman liturgy into the Ungnage of his people, and introduce it 
into his charch ; bat he died in the year 1299, too early to accom- 
plish his deBign. He left behind him a son, Etiil lying in the 
cndle. This son vas baptized by Monte Corvino, vho, as his 
god-father, called him after his own name, John. 

Bat the Nestorians now sncceeded in once more obtaining the 
mastery in this country ; and all that bad been done by Monte 
Corrino in the interest of the Catholic Church, fell to the ground. 
" Being alone," he wrote, " and not permitted to leaTo the em- 
peror, it was out of my power to risit churches situated at a dis- 
tance of twenty-days journey ; nevertheless, if a few good helpers 
and fellow- labourers should come, I hope in God, that all onr 
hopes will be made good, for I still retain the pririlegium given 
me by the deceased king Geoi^e." For two years he had access 
to the emperor's court, and as papal legate, was more honoured 
by him tkan any other ecclesiastic.! He was convinced, that 
with two or three more assistants to stand by him, he might have 
Boeceeded in baptizing the emperor himself. In his two letters 
he urgently be^ed for such assistants, but they should be bre- 
thren, who would seek to stand forth as examples, and not to 
make broad their phylacteries. Matthew xxiii. 5. "I am already 
become old," says he, in one of those letters, " but I have grown 
grey by labours and hardships, rather than by the number of my 
years, for I have lived but fifty-eight years." The pope made 
this excellent man archbishop of Cambalu, and sent seven other 
Franciscans to assist him in his labours. 

The crusades promoted intercourse between the £ast and the 
West, but the connection thus brought about between the Mo- 
hammedan and Christian races was not of such a kind as to pre- 
pare the way for the exertion of any religions influence on the 
foimer : althoagh that which Mohammedanism had already bor- 
rowed from Judaism and Christianity, as well as the intrinsic 
contradictions contained within itself, might hare furnished the 
means and occasions for such an influence. Moreover the vicions 
livea of a large portion of those who were led to the East by the 
crusades, were but poorly calculated to produce on Mohamme- 

et viim ontiiuriaiii inlrBiidi et wdtiidi sicul l^gatiu 

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dans a favoarable impression of the religion which these men 
profeseed. But it is apparent from indiridnal examples, how 
much might have been effected here by the gospel if it had been 
preached vith Christian enthusiasm, and illustrated by holy liring. 
When a Christian army, in the year 1219, vas besieging th« 
city of Damietta (not far from the present DamJettay in Egypt, 
Francis of Assisii stood forth in that army as a preacher of re- 
pentance, and from thence he was impelled, by bis borning zealt 
to go over to the Mohammedftn army, which bad arrived for the 
relief of the city. He was dragged as a captive before Malek al 
Kamel, the sultan of Egypt. The snltan, however, received him 
with respect, allowed him to preach several successive days be- 
fore himself and his officers, and heard him with great attention. 
He then sent him back, in the most honourable manner, to the 
camp of the Franks, saying to him, as he took leave, " Fray for 
me, that God may enlighten me, and enable me to hold firmly to 
that religion which is most pleasing to him." This story we 
have from an eye-witness, Jacob de Vitry,' bishop of Acco 
(Ftolemais, St Jean d'Acre), in Palestine, afterwards cardinal, 
who was then present in the army there assembled.' In a letter 

* Bee liii Hislorii occideuulii, c. 33. Bonavenlun, in hia Lira of St Fnooia, nUte* 
tfaal in Ike tLirtfCDlli je«r aftri Lia coiiTCraioii, nlikb aould ooiiicide terj nearly wilh 
Ihe Lime menlioned id tha leii, Francis weni (o Sfrii, Tot ibr purpne or viaiiia)( tbe 
aulum of Balijloa, not rearing tbe diuger, allhoDgli at that time Ibe price of ■ gold 
Byiagtloe wiaactapou ttie head ottnry CbriMian. Wlieo bawnsled berore ibeaultui, 
be a)iake villi such power, ibu tbe eullaa was carried eamp^rielT awaj bj him, beard 
him with the greativtpleuiire, *Dd requeitcd bim 10 remain longer with bim. Tbere- 
dpon, FraDois laid to him, that if be and bia people would embraoa Cliriatiuiit;, be 
would gladly coDsent, ftom love of tlie Saviour bia Maater, to remain with bim. But if 
he rould not coneent lo ibia, tben be might order a lorgf fire to ha kindled; into tbia 
be (Francia) vonld enter, aloug wiib [be Mohammedan prieaia ; and ao it would be da- 
tennined bj a judgment of Ood on vtbich aide the true bith waa to be found. Tbe 
aullan objected that none of Ait prieala would be read; for that. Whereupon Francia 
declared, if ibe euUan would promiae bim thai be with hia people would embrace Chria- 
liiuitf in eaae be abould come forth unbanned from tbe flames, he would enter tbe Bre 
■lone ; tbougb, abould he be devoured b] tbem, it muat be ascribed lo bia eina ; but if 
the power of Ood delivered bim, ibea Ibey mnal neognise Christ m thev God and Sa- 
Tionr. Tbe an! tan declared be coald Dot veb I are to acoeptaucb a proposal for fear of au 
uproar amongst the people. He oBered Fnnda, however, manir preaenia, and up<>Dh<a 
declioing to recaive them, requested him to distribute thetn, for tbe aalvalion of tbe 
donor's Boul, amongst the ChriaUsD poor tad the obnrohea ; but he refnaed lo take them 
even for tbia parpoae. BometbiDg aim'ilar is related alao b; (he disciple of Franoia, 

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written immediately after the capture of Damietta, in vhich he 
drew np for the regular canonicalB of Liege, to which order he 
onm belonged, a report of that important event, he gives at the 
same time this account of the labonrs of Francis.' He also atatea, 
as an eye-witness, that the Mohammedans gladly listened to mis- 
nonariee of the Franciscan order, when they spoke of the Chris- 
tian faith, as long as they refVained fVom reviling Hohammed as 
a false prophet. Bnt no sooner did they fall into snch abuse 
than they exposed themselreB to be severely treated, and even to 
lose their lives, and were driven away.* Had they, then, united 
to their glowing zeal, a prudent spirit ; had they been able to ab- 
stain a while longer from rash polemical disputes ; their preaching 
wonld perhaps have been followed with happier results. 

Among the rare phenomena in the history of missions, may be 
reckoned the combination of a scientific spirit with earnest zeal 
for the eaose of Christ ; the appropriation of science as a means 
for promoting the spread of the gospel, as an instmment for at- 
tacking, on its own chosen grounds, some other form of culture 
standing in hostility to Christianity. The example of the great 
Alexandrian church-teachers, who had in this way done so mnch 

Tbotmu it CcUno, id his Life of St Franoi*, s. 67. AoM Stnskir. Hem. Oelob. I. li., 
C6Bft It B binllj MbadDDbWd,tbM(be9uiieoTBnlu Lera illuded to whiebJarob da 
Vitrj nlaWB, tbr aoeas ooly being iranarcrrcd (ram Egjpl to Sjria, aod io place or Ihe 
aallan of Egjpt the aalUn of Bibjloa inlnidiKad, bj nhioh donblless in meant tbe aalttn 
of Daouaasa. Hairk al Hoaddbem laa, a fierce aneiaj of the Ohrlatiaiu ; wbiob anbtti- 
latioB aTperxins migbc lb< mora eaailf ocoar, becaasa thai sultan also had been to 
Egypt. Tb< more simple and eiset aocoDDt of the e;e-wllneiis ie certainly [be moat 
Inut worthy. Tbe two otbsrB, •othnaiastic admirers of St Fnmcis. foiloned mora eiag 
grralol and iaaBCDraie legends. The appeal to arudgmenlafOoil is UD'loiibledly in the 
•pint of Frsacia. and tlia snllaD miiflii perbaps lure retnrned snch an ansffer to it. At 
■n etvDls, tha agraamem or the Ibrea accounts ia tlia eaaeDtial i>oint. voacbcs Tot tlie 
nth of Iba (het lying at bottom. 

' Epislola Jaoobi Aooooeasia epiaeopi misaa ad religioioa, familiarea et notos anoa in 
LothatiDgii eibtenm, de oaptione Damialae, Hers heat last says of Francis ; "Cnm 
Teniawt ti CTerdlnm Dostrom, zelo flilei acceosuB, ad exi-rcitum bostiam noauornni ire 
noo timnit ai oum maltis diebus Saraoenis vtirbum Domini praedicaaael. el enin pamm 
profefiiaae', tune Saldsnus Rex Aegypti ab eo in secreto peliit, nC pro se Domino auppli- 
eani, qflanteuaa irligioni. quae msgis Deo plsceret, dliioitna inspiralna adbaererat." 
TU. GasU Dei per Fiancoa, ed. Bongara. L ii., 1. 1149. 

* Tbe Koidaof Vitrj In tbe lliBt.oexident. 1. c : '' SaracenI aatem omnesfiratrea 
n de Cbriati flde at eTsDgeliea doctrina prsedicaiitet libanter andiunt, 
0, tamquam luoiidaci et pcrSdo, praedieationc sus manireata contra- 
eoa impie leiberantes, at nisi Dens mirabillter prolegaret paene 


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for the OTertbrow of that Hellenic cnltnie which Airnished a prop 
for pa^nism, was forgotten or remMned unnoticed. Nor was 
there any call for this method among rode tribes, where it conid 
find no application. Bnt there conId he no question abont the 
advantage of employing it for th« promotion of missions in thoae 
parts where Christianity, in order to find entrance into the minds 
of a people, mnst first enter into the contest with some existing 
cnltnre closely inworen with a hostile syatem of religion. We 
close this history of missions with an acconnt of the labour of an 
extraordinary indiridnnl who, by employing a method of this 
kind, takes a prominent and pecnliar place among the miBsionaries 
of this period, and constitntes an epoch in the history of missions 
generally, — a man distingntahed for combining, thongh he may 
not hare conciliated into hannoniona union, moral and intellec- 
tual traits rery difierent in their kind, and seldom meeting toge- 
ther in the same person ; we mean Raymond Lull, who was bora 
in the island of Majorca, in 1236. 

Until the age of thirty, be bad liTed wholly to the world. A 
stranger to all higher aspirations, he resided at the court of the 
king of the Balearian islands, where ho occupied the post of se- 
neschal. £ren after his marriage, he continned to pursue plea- 
sures not altogether consistent with conjugal fidelity ; and the 
theme of his poetical compositions was sensual lore. But that 
feeling of Christian piety which, as it moved his age and the 
people among whom he lived, had been instilled also hy education 
into bis early aficctions, and that not without success, brought on 
a reaction against the hitherto-gOTcming principle of his life. 
One night, whilst sitting by his bed, occupied in composing a 
lore-sonnet, the image of Christ on the cross all at once pre- 
sented itself before his eyes. It made so powerful an impression 
on him, that he could write no farther. At another time, when 
he attempted to resnme his pen, the same image reappeared, and 
he was obliged to desist, as before.^ Day and night this image 

I We henfolloit ibe IrestiM r?1iliugta ■ portion of Iho lifeof Rijmond Lall, nbich 
iFMCompo»d, Willie Lull vu itill living, bj t nuD who, M ilsecnii,waB wcunUely 
icqnaiDted villi bia Babj»it,~perhips Ifaa compuiloii of bia miaaionu? janraefg ; — 
published in the Act» Banetonini.tii th« Slat orjone; H«i». Jul). I. v. f. 661. More 
rcflptit teeoanls (sea Wadding's Anuales Fnnciseen. t. i<>. an. 1S75, | 4) attu.'that an 
unrortunite lore affair with a Indj irbo was mairiad, and aoffariog under a onetroBS 
afiection, Tos Ibe Bral occaaion of tha cbange inluaraligionsf'elingii. Aa, howerer, ilie 

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floated before bis fancy ; nor conld he find any means of resisting 
tbe impression it made on him. Finally, be looked npon these 
risions as sent for the pnrpose of warning him to retire from the 
world, and to consecrate faimBelf wholly to the eerrice'of Christ. 
Bat now tbe qaestion occurred to him, " How can I possibly 
make the change from the impure life T hare led, to so holy a 
calling V This thought kept him awake whole nights. At last, 
said he to himself, " Christ is so gentle, so patient, so compaa- 
sionate ; — he invites all sinners to himself; therefore he will not 
reject me, notwithstanding all my sins." Thus he became con- 
Tinced it was God's wiU, that he should forsake the world and 
consecrate himself, with his whole heart, to the service of Christ. 
When this new life, this life animated by tbe love of God and the 
SaTionr, began to dawn within him, from that moment be was 
conscioos, for the first time, of a new elevation imparted to his 
whole being. The latent powers of this extraordinary mind, now 
first stirred in its depths, powers which had hitherto lain dor- 
mant, began to discover themselves. The man of warm and ex 
citable feelings, of quick and lively imagination, could now find 
pleasure in the dry forms of logic ; bat we most allow that this 
fertile imagination coold bring so mnch the more meaning into 
those empty logical forms. And all, in his case, proceeded from 
that one religions idea, which from this time forward actuated 
his whole life, gave direction to all bis plans, and by which the 
most heterogeneous aims and endeavonrs were vnited together. 

Being now resolved to consecrate himself entirely to the ser- 
vice of the Lord, he nest pondered upon the best method of 
carrying this resolution into effect ; and he came to a settled con- 
viction that to the Lord Christ no work of hie could be more 
acceptable than that of devoting himself to the preaching of the 
gospel ; in doing which his thonghts were directed particularly to 
the Saracens, whom the crusaders had attempted in vain to eub- 
dne by the sword. Bnt now a great difficulty arose : how could 
he, an ignorant layman, be fit for such a work ? While perplexed 
in laboniing to resolve this difficulty, the thongbt suddenly oc- 
curred to him, that he might write a book serving to demonstrate 

mwottbj Durretiv 

eaflhsDRkDOwp vril 

. DOlbiDg ( 

Id, nod we do nol 

Ifcnoir from »h<l tear 

M tliii accoDDl WM dtrittd. 


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tlie trntb of Christianity in opposition to all tbe errors of the in- 
fidels ; and with this thonght, was afterwards connected the idea 
of a nniversal system of science. The whole snggeation rose up 
with such strength in his soni that he felt constrained to re- 
cognize it as a dirine call. Kevertheless, he reasoned with him- 
self, even supposing he were able to write anch a book, of what 
use would it be to the Saracens, who nnderstood nothing bnt 
Arabic f Thus the project began already to unfold itself in his 
mind, of applying to the pope and to the monarchs of Christen- 
dom, calling npon them to establish in certain monasteries fonn- 
dations for studying and acquiring the Arabic tongue, as well as 
other langnages, spoken amongst infidel nations. From such 
establishments missionaries might go forth to all regions. Thns he 
came npon the idea of founding linguistic schools for missionary 
purposes. The day after these thoughts occurred to him, and took 
so deep hold of his mind, he repaired to a neighbouring chnrch, 
where with warm tears he besought the Lord, that he, who by 
bis own Spirit had inspired these three thoughts within him, 
would now lead him on to the execution of the contemplated work 
in defence of Christianity, to the establishing of those schools for 
missions and the study of the languages, and finally to the entire 
dedication of his life to the cause of the Lord. This took place 
in the beginning of the month of July ; but it was not all at once 
that this new and higher direction of life could gain the absolute 
ascendancy in his soul. Old habits were still too strong ; and so 
it happened that, during tbe space of three months, Raymond 
Lull ceased to occnpy himself any longer with these thoughts 
npon which he had so eageriy seized at first. Then came the 
fonrth of October, dedicated to the memory of St Francis ; and in 
the Franciscan church at Majorca, he heard a bishop preach on 
St Francis's renunciation of the world. By this sermon his holy 
resolutions were again called to mind. He resoWed to follow at 
once the example of St Francis. Selling his property, of which 
he rettuned only as mnch as sufficed for the support of his wife 
and children, he gaye himself up wholly to the Lord Christ, and 
left his home with the intention of never returning back to it. 
Bis next step was to make pilgrimages to sereral churches then 
standing in high consideration, for the purpose of imploring God's 
blessing, and tbe intercession of the saints, that he might bs 

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enabled ^to carry out the three thonghts which had been sog- 
gwted to liim in so remarkable a manner. 

H« now proposed going to Paris, for the pnrpose of qualifying 
himself by aVourse of scientific stodies for the accomplishment of 
his plans ; bnt throngh the inflnence of his kinsmen and friends, 
particnlarlj of that famous canonist, the Dominican Baymnnd de 
Pennaforte, he was dissuaded from this project. Remaining 
tberefore in^Majorca, he there began his studies, having first ex- 
changed the rich attire belonging to his former station in life, for 
a coarser dress. Purchasing a Saracen slaye, ho made him his 
instmetor in Arabic ; and we cannot bat admire the energy and 
resolntion of the man, who, after having spent so many years of 
his life in society and pursuits of so entirely different a nature, 
and certainly never applied the powers of his mind to severe 
thonght, could throw himself, at so late a period, into the midst 
of the driest dialectical studies, and even take delight in them. 

At first, Baymnnd Lull diligently employed himself in tracing 
the leading ontlines of a universal formal science. This was bis 
Are major, or generalis, designed as the preparatory work to a 
strictly scientific demonstration of all the truths of Christianity. 
We perceive in it, how the religions, and especially the apologe- 
tical, interest gave direction to all bis thonghts, and how closely 
he kept his eye fixed on this ons object, even when moving in the 
driest tracts of formalism. He was for founding a science, by 
means of which Christianity might be demonstrated with strict 
necessity, so that every reasonable mind would be forced to admit 
its truth. Perhaps he might be flattering himself that a certain 
means would thus be secured for converting all unbelievers, par- 
ticularly those whom he chiefly had in view, the Mohammedans, 
who were wrapped up in the prejudices of their Arabian philo- 
Mpby. " If he bnt succeeded," he thought, " in refbting all their 
objections to Christianity, then, since they would not be able to 
refute the arguments which he could bring in defence of Chris- 
tian truth, their learned men and sages mustof necessity embrace 

1 In tb> Introdnctio to Ibe Decisairii demoiutntia arUcDlorna Adsi, he hj«: "Ba- 
gu Sajmandoi i»l>gioMM rt ■tciilum aapieatcs, at vidfant, ai nliotira, quu ipM fuit 
nntra Suvcrnn aiiprolMDilo fldem CitliolicBm bibfntt veriutfm, qui* >i forte tliqniB 
•ultnet niioDM. qnnir per Sinccnoi oonln fldern Cilbolicun opponuntur, cum Minen 
ipdnlions, qOM fliint pro mdein, solvere DOD TilereDt.ranillcili Svtueni Tilda literati 
fl upieDtn M faeeretil CriatianDa." 

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Ther« vere two parties, against whom, fVom the ranlage- 
gronnd of his mach-promising science, he zealously contended : 
on the one aide, against those who looked upon sneh a science as 
derogatory to fidth, which by the very act of renouncing every 
att«mpt to comprehend, preserved its self-denying character and 
had its merit ;^ on the other, against those who, perverted by the 
inflaence of a sceptically inclined Arabian philosophy, took ad- 
vantage of the snpposed opposition between philosophical and 
theological trnth, and while they hypocritically pretended that rea- 
son was led captive to obedience of the futh, propagated their 
dogmas, which were opposed to Christianity and to the doctrine 
of the chnrch, as philosophical truth. He maintained against 
Bnch, that although faith proceeded first from a practical root, 
firom the bent of will towards the things of God, and although 
what was thus appropriated became a source of uouriBhment and 
strength to the heart," yet having this faith. Christians were 
then required to soar by means of it to a loftier position, so as to 
attain a knowledge of the solid groundwork, the necessary tmtha 
upon which faith reposes ; so that what had been, at first, only a 
source of nourishment to the heart, would then prove a source of 
nourishment also to the intellect.^ The intellect would always 
be accompanied in its investigations by faith ; strengthened by 
that, and emboldened to attempt higher flights, it would conti- 
nually mount upward, while faith would keep equal step, and ever 
make increase with the advance of knowledge/ It is remarkable 
that two men of so different a stamp, and both so original, Abe- 
lard," the man of sober understanding in the twelfth century, and 
Raymond Lull, who combined logical acumen with a profound 
mysticism and the warm glow of reli^ous sentiment, in the thir- 

I Bieunt, quod Bdes non babM merilam, ci^us hamuiintia pntcbet «xperimeDlam el 
id» dicDDt, quod POD est bonom, prabara Bd«D> ul uon Bmitutur moitum. AsBersntn 
uiMm isl> el dogmuizuiles, quanquua mtgnoa ae repnteut, et quod pejua eal tb aliia 
repnUDCar aateadunt w minifeBtiwinM ignoniaus. 

3 Ips* fidcB, qoM TolnnUUi Brmitn' eiun oredealiDm irat pabulum et fameatdm. 

1 Fidct fundunonu, qoibus inaitilDr. neceoaariu scilicel ndoDeB.niiaiitrtlric iiaden), 
ut sint earnni pibuJutn intellecins. 

t Ipti fide* ititutlectum id ae ipia fuadnns eumque inTesligaudo aantinDe ooDcomi- 
tana «t ooDfonaiu aaprm iDtslleclua viree Ft poKnCiam excandeacic, quia falignri Dcscieiis 
Mmp«r nilitnr JDlfoaiua et »Uiusad credendnm, propter quod Bdei in allins erigilur pi 
BWritun eredentium aiuplialur. 

a See reganling liitn on n fuluro page. 

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teeDtb centDry, shoold io like manner defend the position of 
science over against that of faith standing alone. In Lull, hov- 
erer, it was the enthnsiastic hope of finding a method of argu- 
mentation suited to convince all anbelievera of the truth of 
Christianity, vhich constitnted the moring spring of his philoso- 
phical inqniries. 

As he believed it was by a divine suggestion, he was first im- 
pelled to search after a method capable of guiding all to a con- 
Tiction of the truth of Christianity ; bo it was in the solemn hour 
of derotion that the light first burst in apon him, and disclosed 
the way in which he might conduct his search with snecess. He 
had retired, for eight days, to a mountain, in order that he might 
^ere devote himself without disturbance to prayer and ffledita- 
tioD, While be was in this solitnde, the idea of the above- 
mentioned Ars generalis burst all at once in a clear light upon 
his sonl. Leaving the mountain, he repaired to another spot, 
and drew out a sketch of the work according to that idea, which 
he looked upon as a divine revelation. After this, he returned 
to the moantaia ; and on the spot where. the light first broke in 
apon his mind, settled himself down as an anchorite, spending 
above four months there, praying to God night and day, that he 
wonld employ him, together with the Ars generalis which had 
there been revealed to him, for his own glory and for the ad- 
rancement of his kingdom. He published bis discovery at Mont- 
pelier and at Paris ; he delivered lectures on the Ars generalis ; 
he translated the work himself into Arabic. His labours in this 
way extended through a period of nine years. Next, in the 
year 1275, he prevailed on Jacob, king of the islands Majorca 
and Minorca, to found on the former of these islands a monastery 
for the express purpose of constantly supporting in it thirteen 
Franciscan monks, who were to be instructed in the Arabic 
language, with a view to labour as missionaries amongst the 
Saracens. In 1286, he went to Rome for the purpose of per- 
snading pope Honorius the Fourth to approve his plan of esta- 
blishing sncb missionary schools in the monasteries everywhere ; 
but when he arrived, that pope was no longer living, and the 
papal chair was vacant. A second visit to Rome on the same 
errand was attended with no better success. 

Finding that he could not establish, as he wished, a plan of 

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united effort for the promotion of this hoi; enterpme, he now 
felt constrained to embark in it by himself, and proceed wholly 
alone, as a misaioDary among the infidels. For this purpose he 
repaired, in the year 1287, to Genoa, and engaged hie passage 
in a ship bound to North Africa. As a great deal had already 
been heard about the remarkable change which Raymund Lull 
had experienced, about his ardent zeal to effect the conreTsion 
of the infidels, and about the new method of conTeraion which, in 
his own opinion, promised such magnificent results ; so his pro- 
ject, when it became known in Genoa, excited great expectations. 
The ship in which Baymund was to embark, lay ready for the 
Toyage, and bis books had been conveyed on board, when his 
glowing imagination pictured before him, in such lively and 
terrible colours, the fate which awaited him among the Moham- 
medans, whether it was to be death by torture or life-long im- 
prisonment, that he could not sammoa courage enough to go on 
board. But no sooner had this passed over, than he was viaUed 
with remorseful pangs of conscience, to tbink that he should 
prove recreant lo the holy purpose with which Gfod had inspired 
him, and occasion such scandal to believers in Genoa ; and a 
severe fit of fever was the consequence of these inward conSicts. 
While in this state of bodily and mental enfferiog, he happened 
to hear of a ship lying in port, which was on the point of starting 
on a voyage to Tunis ; and though in a condition seemingly 
nearer to death than to life, he caused himself to be conveyed on 
board with his books. His friends, however, believing he could 
not possibly stand out the voyage in such a condition, and full 
of anxiety, insisted on his being brought back. But he grew no 
better, for the cause of his illness was mental. Sometime altei^ 
wards, hearing of another ship hound to Tunis, nothing could 
hinder him now from taking measures to be conveyed on board ; 
and no sooner had the ship got to sea, than he felt himself re- 
lieved of the heavy burden which oppressed bis conscience ; the 
peace he fonnerly enjoyed once more returned ;' for he found 
himself in his proper element. He was engaged in fulfilling the 
duty, which he recognized as obligatory on him by the divine 

1 TbH aDknown luthor of his Lite finely mnirka : " Sospiiaum coQMiealiie, qntm 
■ub Ddbilatiane aupridicui ae crfdident ■mliiMe. aubiw laelua iu Domino SiDCti 
Epilliua illDtlrUioDe miwriconli recaperirli uoa eum sui corjiorjs liDEaidi smpiMM." 

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calling. With the health of his sonl, that of the body was fioon 
restored ; and to the astonishnient of all his fellov>passeDgerH, 
he feit himself, after a few days, as well as he had ever been in 
any former part of his life. 

Raymnnd arrived at Tunis, near the close of the year 1391, 
or the beginuing of the year 1292, and immediately inviting 
together the learned scholars among the Mohammedans, ex- 
plained to them how he had come for the pnrpose of institnting 
a comparison between Christianity, of which he possessed an 
aecntate knowledge, as well as of all the argnments employed to 
defend it, and Mohammedanism ; and if he found the reasons to 
be stronger on the side of the doctrines of Mohammed, he was 
ready to embrace them. The learned Mohammedans now came 
around him in constantly increasing numbers, hoping that they 
should he able to convert him to Mohammedanism. After he 
bad endeaTonred to refute the argnments which they brooght 
forward in defence of their religion, said he to them, " Every 
vise man mnst acknowledge that to be the tme religion which 
ascribes to God the greatest perfection, which gives the most 
befitting conception of each single divine attribute, and which 
most ftilly demonstrates the equality and harmony subsisting 
among them all." He then sought to prove that without the 
doctrine of the trinity, and of the incarnation of the Son of God, 
men cannot understand the perfection of God, and the harmony 
between his attributes.^ Thus he would prove to them that 
Christianity is the only religion conformable to reason. 

One of the learned Saracens, more fanatically disposed than 
the rest, directed the attention of the king to the danger threat- 
ened to the Mohammedan faith, by Baymnnd's zeal for making 
converts ; and proposed that he should be punished with death. 
Baymnnd was thrown into prison ; and already it was determined 
that he should be put to death, when one of their learned men, 
possessed of fewer prejudices, and more wisdom than the others, 
interceded in his behalf. Be spoke of the respect due to the in- 
tellectnal ability of the stranger, and remarked ; that " as they 
vonid praise the seal of a Mohammedan, who should go among 
the Christians for the purpose of converting them to the true 

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faith ; bo they conld not but honour in a Christian, the same 
zeal for the spread of that religion, which appeared to him to be 
the trne one." These ro presentations had their effect so far as 
to save Raymnnd's life ; and be was only condemned to banish- 
ment JVom the country. On leaving the prison, he was obliged to 
endure m^y insults from the fanatical populace. He was then 
placed on board the same Genoese vessel in which he had arrived, 
and which was now about to depart; and at the same lime he 
was informed, that if he ever let bimeelf be seen again in the 
territory of Tunis, he should be stoned to death. As he hoped, 
however, by persevering efforts to succeed in couTertiug many 
of the learned Saracens with whom he had disputed; he could 
not prevail upon himself, with the earnest desire he felt for their 
salvation, to abandon this hope soon. Life was not too 
dear to him to be sacrificed for such an object. Letting the ves- 
sel on board which he had been placed sail off without him, be 
transferred himself to another, from which he sought a chance of 
getting into Tunis again unobserved. While remaining in this 
dangerous concealment, in the harbour of Tunis, he enjoyed suffi- 
cient composure to labour on a work connected with his system 
of the Universal Science.' Having tarried here three months 
without effecting his main object, he finally sailed off with the 
vessel, and proceeded t-o Naples. Here he loitered several years, 
delivering lectures on his new system ; till the fome of the pious 
anchorite, who had lately become pope, under the name of Coe- 
leatin the Fifth, inspired in him the hope of being able at length 
to carry into effect the plan for promoting missionary enterprises, 
OB which his heart had so long been set. Bnt Coelestin's reign 
was too short to permit this ; and his successor, Boniface the 
Eighth, possessed but little susceptibility to religions ideas and 

During his residence at that time in Rome, in the year 1296, 
he composed the work preriously mentioned, on page 85, in which 
he sought to show, how all the truths of the Christian faith could 
be proved by incontestable arguments. In the concluding sen- 
tences of this work he expresses that enthusiastic zeal for the 

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spread of the Christian faith, which had moved him to compose 
it. " Let Christiana," says he, " coDsnmed with a baroing love 
for the cause of &ith, but consider that since nothing has power 
to withstand the truth, which by the strength of argnmenU is 
mighty over all things, they can, with God's help^and by his 
might, bring back the infidels to the way of faith ; so that the 
precious name of onr Lord Jesna, which is in most regions of the 
world still onknown to the m^ority of men, may be proclaimed 
md adored ; and this way of converting infidels is easier than 
all others. For, to the infidels, it seems a difficult and danger- 
008 thing, to abandon their own belief, for the Bake of another ; 
bat it will be impossible for them not to abandon the faith which 
is proved to them to be &lse and self-contradictory, for the sake 
of that which is true and necessary." And he concludes with 
these words of exhortation : " With bowed knee and in all 
humility, we pray that all may be induced to adopt this method ; 
since of all methods for the conversion of infidels, and the re- 
covery of the promised land, this is the easiest and the one most 
in accordance with Christian charity. As the weapons of the 
Spirit are far mighter than carnal weapons, so is this method of 
conversion far mightier than all others." It was on the holy eve 
before the festival of John the Baptist, that he wrote the above ; 
and hence he added : " As my book was finished on the vigils of 
John the Baptist, who was the herald of the light, and with his 
finger pointed to him who is the true light : so may it please oar 
Lord Jesus Christ to kindle a new light of the world, which may 
gnide unbelievers to their conversion ; that they with us may go 
forth to meet the Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be honour and 
praise, world without end." 

Being repulsed at Rome, he endeavoured, for a series of years, 
to labour wherever an opportunity offered itself. He sought by 
aigaments to convince the Saracens and Jews on the island of 
Miyorca. He went to the isle of Cyprus, and ttom thence to 
Armenia, exerting himself to bring back the different schismatic 
parties of the Oriental church to orthodoxy. All this he under- 
took by himself, attended only by a single companion, without 
ever being able to obtain the wished for support from the more 
powerfal and inflaential men of the church. In the intervals, he 

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deliTOTedJ lectures on his system in Italian and French n 
ties, and composed many nev treatises.' 

Between the years 1306 and 1307, he made another journey to 
North Africa, where he lisited the city of Bngia, which was then 
the seat of the Mohammedan empire. He stood forth pnblicly 
and proclaimed in the Arabic language, " that Christianity is 
the only tme religion ; the doctrine of Mohammed, on the con- 
trary, false : and this, he was ready to prore to every one." A 
vast conconrse of people collected around him, and be addressed 
the multitude in an exhortatory discourse. Already many were 
about to lay hands on him, iatending to stone him to death; 
when the mnfli, who heard of it, caused bim to be torn away from 
the multitude, and brought into his presence. The mufti asked 
him, how he conid act so madly, as to stand forth pnblicly in op- 
position to the doctrines of Mohammed ; whether be was not 
aware that, by the laws of the land, he deserved the punishineut 
of death ? Baymnnd replied : " A true servant of GhrtBt, who has 
experienced the truth of the Catholic faith, ought not to be ap- 
palled by the fear of death, when he may lead souls to salvation." 
The mufti, who was a man well versed in the Arabian philosophy, 
then challenged him to produce bis proofs of Christianity as op- 
posed to Mohammedanism. Then Baymund sought to convince 
him that without the doctrine of the trinity, the self-sufficiency, 
the goodness and love of God, could not be rightly understood ; 
that if that doctrine be excluded, the Divine perfections must be 
made to depend on that creation which had a beginning in time. 
The goodness of God cannot be conceived as inactive, said he — 
but if you do not adopt the doctrine of the trinity, you most say, 
that till the beginning of the creation God's goodness was inactive, 
and consequently was not so perfect.' To the essence of the 
highest good, belongs self-communication ; but this can be under- 
stood as a perfect and eternal act, only in the doctrine of the 
trinity. Upon this, he was thrown into a narrow dungeon ; the 
intercession of merchants from Genoa and Spain procured for 

I It is to b« ragrclwd ibal only a imill portiun of hii wuriti liu eter hetn pnblbbed 
■iid il is difficult u> obuia mucb or irbat n publiabed. 

S To dici*, qaod Dtiu en prifecM boDUn nb lemno tl In Belcrnnni, ergo hod indigit 
mcDiliem ft fnm* bonum ciln k. 

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him, it ia trne, Borne alleTi&tion of his condition ; jet he remained 
a dose prisoner for half a year. Ueanwhile, many attempte were 
made to convert him to iloBlemism. The highest hononrs and 
freat riches were promised him, on condition that he Tonid 
change his religion ; but, to all these adrancee, he replied, " And 

I promise you, if yon will forsake this false religion, and believe 
in Jeans Christ, the greatest riches and everlasting life." It was 
finally agreed, at the proposal of Baymnnd, that a book should 
be written on both sides, in proof of the religion which each party 
professed, when it would appear evident, from the argnmente 
adduced, which had gained the victory. While Baymnnd was 
bnsily employed in composing such a work, a command was issued 
by the king, that he should be pnt on board a ship and sent ont 
of the country.' 

The ship in which he sailed was cast away, in a violent storm, 
on the coast not far from Pisa. Part of those on board perished 
in the waves : Baymnnd, with his companion, was saved. He 
was received at Pisa with great hononrs, and after having passed 
through so many hardships, he still continued, although far ad- 
vanced in years, to prosecute his literary labours with unremitted 
seal. At the age of sixty, he toiled on with the enthusiasm of 
youth to secure the one object which, ever sinue his conversion, 
had formed the central aim of his whole life. He says of him- 

1 We hnethtn Rajmaud bimulf a brief nolice of iIwm OMnmnsM io iba libfr, qDi 
at dapoUlio Riymunii CLrialiani et Hamar Baraccoi; at itie end of which bonk it ia 
Mated that U wai Aniabed at Piia, in tbe monastaiy or Si DominUk, in April, ^ i>. 1308. 

II aai tba Saiacan Hamai. who, witb leTsral otbait, Tiailfd him in the dungfon at 
Bagia, and diapulid with him eouecruing Ihe advantsgea at Chiiatianitj aud Mabom- 
Bcdaaiam. Ha uya. near tbe cloae or tbit work, " FnitquBTn Hotnar SaraeeDoa rpe»- 
anai, Bajmnndna Cbriatiaiiu* poaait in Arabico praedictaa raliono. el hela libro, miei 
eyiaeapo Bngiae((hEp('noD at the bead of tbe Unhammrdan cnltna) nigando, nt an i 
aqtientea Ttdtrent hunc libmm. et ai mpandcrent. Snd poat paueoa din epiKopna 
praMxpii, qnod praedictaa CbriatiaDUl aJiEcretor t Irrra Bugia (t in contindtili SBraneni 
■tbaniDt ipanm in qnandam navam, lendrnlem Oennam, quae naiie ciitn magna fortuna 
lenil anii portum Piaanum at prop* ipaum per deoem nilliaria fait IhKla et Chriatiaoaa 
tIi qaaai nadna e*a*it el amiail omnea aana lihroa et ana booa et Uls exiaiena Piaia 
mordaiaa fait praf dicianim ralionnm, quaa babnit cum aiipradicto Saiaeeno at ei illia 
ooaipoaail bnnc librnm." He aent ihia book lo tbe popa and ihc cardinals, Uiat tbaj 
■iffat Itam what amoinenla ths Mobammedana employed to dm awaj ChTiatiana (torn 
iLalr failb. Ha lamenta to aaj, (hat Ljr ineb arguDieiita, and by the promiat of richr* 
and women, the; win man; to their rrliginn. "Et qaia CluiMiaiii Don earant nee volunt 
aaiilinn dar« Saraoeola, qni ae heinal Cbriatianoa, inde eat qnod ai nnqa Saraceniia flt 
Cfariatianaa, deoem Cbriatlani et plnrea flant Baraornietde boo hobenaa elperimentnm 
In regno AegTF'i' ^ V* diciur, quod tenia para militiaa Soldani fiiertt Cbrialiana." 

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94 raymund's threefold plan. 

self: " I had a wife and children ; I was tolerably rich ; I led a 
secular life. All these tilings I cbeerfally resigned for the sake 
of promoting the common good, and diffusing abroad the holy 
faith. I learned Arabic ; I have aereral times gone abroad to 
preach the gospel to the Saracens. I have, for tlie sake of the 
faith, been ca^t into prison and scourged. I hare laboured forty - 
fire years to gain over the shepherds of the chnrch and the princea 
of Europe to the comnjon good of Christendom. Now I am old 
and poor ; but still I am intent on the same object. I will per- 
severe in it till death, if the Lord himself permits it." He sought 
to found, in Pisa and Genoa, a new order of spiritual knights, 
who should be ready at a moment's waroing to go to war with the 
Saracens and for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. He suc- 
ceeded in exciting an interest in favonr of bis plan, and in obtain- 
ing letters to pope Clement the Fifth, in which this matter was 
recommended to the head of the church. Pious women and 
noblemen in Genoa oSered to contribute the sum of thirty thoa- 
sand guilders for this object. He proceeded with these letters 
to visit pope Clement the Fifth at Avignon ; but his plan met 
with no encoar^ement from that pontiff. He next appeared as 
a teacher at Paris, and attacked with great zeal the principles of 
the philosophy of Averroes, and the doctrine it taught respect- 
ing the opposition between theological and philosophical truth.' 
Meanwhile, the time baring arrived for the assembling of the 
general council of Vienne, a. d, 1311, he hoped there to find a 
favourable opportunity for carrying into effect the plan, which for 
so long a time had occupied his thoughts. He was intent on 
accomplishing three objects ; first, the institution of those linguis- 
tic missionary schools, of which we have spoken on a former page; 
secondly, the nnioh of the several orders of spiritual knights in a 
single one, which should not rest till the promised land was re- 
covered; thirdly, a speedy adoption of successful measures for 
checking the progress of the principles of Averroes. To secure this 
latter object, men of smtable intellectual qualifications should be 
invited to combat those principles, and he himself composed a 
new work for this purpose. The first, he actually obtained fVom 

t Hi9 LameDloIta bcu eipoBtuUtio pLiloiophiie B. doodecim principik pUIkwopbiu, 
dcdiciled la [he king of Fraac«, wbioh hecampoMd it Puis, in 131D, a direcuJ Bgainiit 
ifae Aierroisls. 

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the pope. An ordiaance was passed, for the establishment of ' 
professorships of the Oriental langii^ea ; advising that, in order 
to promote the conrersion of the Jews and the Saracens, pro- 
fessional chairs shonld be established for the Arabic, Cbaldee, 
nnd Hebrew langoages, in all cities where the papal court 
resided, and also at the universities of Paris, Oxford, and 
Salamanca. He now could not bear the thought of spending 
the close of bis life at ease in his native land, to which he had 
returned for the last time. He desired nothing more than to 
offer up his life in the promulgation of the faith. Having spoken, 
in one of his works, of natural death, which he ascribed to the 
diminution of animal warmth, says he, " Thy servant would 
choose, if it please thee, not to die such a death ; he would pre- 
fer that his life shonld end in the glow of love, as thon didst, in 
love, offer np thy life for us."' " Thy servant," says he, " is 
ready to offer np himself, and to pour oat his blood for thee. 
May it please thee, therefore, ere he comes to die, bo to unite him 
to thyself that he by meditation and love may never be separated 
from thee." On the 14th of August, X314, he crossed over once 
more to Africa. Proceeding to Bngia, he laboured there, at first 
secretly, in the small circle of those whom, during his last visit to 
that place, he had won over to Christianity. He sought to eon- 
iirm their faith, and to advance them still farther in Christian 
knowledge. In this way he might, no doubt, have continued to 
labour quietly for some time, but he could not resist the longing 
after martyrdom. He stood forth publicly, and declared that he 
was the same person whom they had once banished from the 
conntry ; and exhorted the people, threatening them with divine 
judgments if they refused, to abjure Mohammedanism. He was 
fallen upon by the Saracens with the utmost fury. After having 
been severely handled, he was dragged out of the city, and, by 
the orders <^ the king, stoned to death. Merchants from Majorca 
obtained permission to extricate the body of their countryman 
from the heaps of stones under which it lay buried, and they con- 

I The words or Bajmniid, In hii work de CanlemplBtloDe, c. exm. Diatinct 27, f. !W : 
" Homiim inoriEiiLei pne Hiicetute imrluntm per defeotuin cslarto Dttunllia et per 
ncenum frigoria el ideo tans lervn* rl (ddb sabdiMB, >i tibi plarerel, nan velleL mori 
t»li moTtt, imo wH'l mori prae Rmoria trdorr, qnli (n voluiBli morl IBli mone." 

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veyed it bock by ship to their natire land. The 30th of Jane, 
1315, was the day of his martyrdom.' 

We most now cast a glance at the relation of the dispersed 
Jews to the Christian church. 

As it regards the Jevs, who were scattered in great nnmbers 
in the West, it is to he remarked that the fVeqnent oppressions, 
injuries, and persecutions which they had to suffer from the fana- 
ticism and cnpidity of so-called Christians, were not well calcu- 
lated to open their minds to the preaching of the gospel ; though, 
through fear, and to escape the saffenngs or the death with 
which they were threatened, they might he induced to submit to 
the form of baptism, and to put on the profession of Christianity * 
Hermann, a monk of the twelfth century, fVom the monastery of 
Eappenberg, in Westphalia, who himself had been co&Terted from 
Judaism to Christianity, speaking in the history which he has 
given of his own eonrersion, of the praiseworthy conduct of an 
ecclesiastic, from whom, when a Jew, he had met with kindly 
treatment, goes on to say : " Let those who read my account 
imitate this illnstrions example of lore ; and instead of despising 
and abhorring the Jews, as some are wont to do, let them, like 
genuine Christians, that is, followers of him who prayed for those 
that crucified him, go forth and meet them with brotherly love. 
For since, as our Saviour says, ' salvation cometh of the Jews,' 
(John ir. 22), and as the apostle Pant testifies, 'through their 
fall salyation is come unto the Gentiles,' (Romans xi. 11), it is a 
worthy return and well-pleasing to God, when Christians labour, 
so far as it lies in their power, for the salvation of those ftam 
whom they hare received the author of their salvation, Jesns 
Christ. And if they are bound to extend their love even to 
those from whom they suffer wrong, how much more bound are 

1 We ciDDOt in this p1>c» go back to Ibe rfpoiti of DontemponriM, bat in ihr Uwr 
■ccauDtB ire to be round diffrreTioeB. Accordiog to one of tbem be met his dcuh in 
Tunii ; accordlDg u> inothn, be Bnt went to TaDiB,uidineTwinla proceeded to Bogia. 
If we mij believe one iccoiinl. the merchtDts, after having nncoTtred bim from iba 
heap araiDnea.faand ■ ipork of lift bliII remaining; they succeedrd in fanning this 
■InmberiiTgapBrb to iba pointofreanluiatiou, bnt hediedou boud ahip, wbeninsigbt 
of hli Dttivt land. 

1 In tbe lint crnasdt, llie Jewa in Bonen wen, withonl diatiDotion of aei or age, 
barred np in ■ cbnreh, and all who refoud to receive b^tidD nnrdered. 8m Gnibert, 
Norigenlfna, de viu aaa, I. ii. c. i. 

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they to show it to those through whom the greatest of all bless- 
ings has been derired to them ^ Let them, therefore, so far as 
thej can, cherish their Idto for this people, helping them in their 
distresses, and setting them an example of all well-doing, so as to 
win b; their example those whom they cannot persuade by their 
words : for example is really more effectual than words in pro- 
ducing cooTJction. Let them, also, send up fervent prayers to 
the Father of mercies, if peradrentnre God may one day give 
that people repentance to the acknowledging of the truth, 2 Ti- 
mothy ii. 25." By means of the only business allowed to them 
in their state of oppression, traffic aud usury, they acquired great 
wealth ; thereby, sometimes, attaining to great influence, even 
with mouarchs ; bat this wealtb also excited the cupidity of the 
great, and exposed them to be still more hated and persecuted. 
The fanaticism awakened by the crusades was often directed 
against the Jews, as the domestic enemies of the Cross ; and 
hnndreds, nay thousands, fell victims to such animosity. Ru- 
mours became current against the Jews, of the same description 
as bare prevailed at all times against religions sects persecuted 
by popular hatred ; as, for example, against the first Christians, 
who were charged with such crimes as flattered the credulous 
fanaticism of the populace. It was said that they stole Christian 
children for their passover festiral, and, after having cmcifled 
them with all imaginable tortures, used their entrails for magical 
pnrposes.' If a boy, especially near the time of the feast of Pass- 
over, was missed by his friends, or if the corpse of a boy, con- 
ceroing whose death nothing certain was known, happened to be 
found, suspicion lighted at once upon the Jews of the district 
where the accident had occurred. Men conld easily discover 
what they were intent on finding — marks of the tortures which 
had been inflicted on the sufferers. It might doubtless happen, 
too, that enemies of the Jews, or those who gloated on their 

1 The Jew iDtrodused In Abalud'i dialogae concerning Iba inpRme good, inter phi- 
kmiphiim, JnduBm et Cbrialianum, obecrvei, in drawing « livelj pictare of lb« vreUbed 
■ilmaiion of Uic Jein ; " Uade nobii pnwcipuc supereiLlnDruin. alilianigeniiroenennlet, 
hitte miaemn ntatentimDi Tiiam, qaod dm qnidem muime ipeia cfflcit invidioaoa, qui 
a* in boe plnrimiim arbiuantur gravatos." Bee tbia tract, pnblisbed bj Prof. Bbein- 

* In Iba luatorioal work of Halthen, of Paria, arc to ba found maoj atoriea niiting 
laptntcmJoMOf lb* Jen, vlueh bad been proiuked bj the aircnlalion afaoch fable*. 

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wealth, would disfignra the discoTeied bodies, in order to lend 
the more pknaibility to the accoMtionB bronght agaioBt Jews. 
Hence a boy so foand might sometimes be honoured by the people 
as a martyr, and become the hero of a wonderfnl story.' The 
most extravagant of such tales might find credence in the exist- 
ing tone of public sentiment, and seem to be confirmed by an 
investigation began with prejudice, and condncted in a tnmnltnary 
manner. If, at the commencement of sneh movementa, wealthy 
Jews betook themseheB to flight, when they foresaw, as they 
mnst have foreseen, the disastroaa issae to themselves, this passed 
for evidence of their gailt and of the truth of the rnmonrs.' If 
twenty-five knights affirmed, on their oatli, that the arrested Jews 
were gnilty of the abominable crime, this sofficed to set the mat- 
ter beyond all donbt, and to anthorife the sentence of death.g 
Whoever interceded in behalf of the unfortunate victims, exposed 
himself by so doing to the popular hatred, which looked npon all 
such pity as suspicious. Thus, in the year 1256, piona Francis- 
cans in England, who were not to be deterred by the force of the 
prevailing delusion, ventured to take the part of certain Jews, 
accused of some snch abominable crime, that were languishing in 
prison ; and they succeeded ia procuring their release, and saving 
their lives. But now these monks, who had acted in the spirit 
of Christian benevolence, were accused of having allowed them- 
selves to be bribed by money.* Thus they lost the good opinion 
of the lower class of people, who ever after refused to give them 

These pious monks, and also the most influential men of the 
church, protested against suck nnchristian fanaticism. When the 
abbot Bernard of Clairvauz was ronsing up the spirit of the 

I SeeMuih. arpuiMtlbeTetrl241. Ed. Laadon, 16H6,f.Be7. Is Ihf cuahna Id 
queitiou, mea were fara«d to allow, that flva woanda soulii iu nowiaa ba mada oat Id the 
CI irpu d i»CD rered. 

3 8sa I. 

* SertlieaceoutilgiTCDbjtbeibnTr-ailedbiUonau.attbt r««rise6 f. 79!. 

a The aboTsbialoiUn, Mallbaw of Paris, ollieniiaK a TiolRDt Gnemj of (be meiidieant 
monba, aa ja, howavtr, oflhia aocaaalion ;" Ul perbibel mnndni, si mando in Mli caso 
credendam pit." He bimaflf onlj Bnda fault wilh the inteipoBiLian of ihoae Pranciacana, 
ainoeUia bia oiiinioD that Ilioa« Java had deaerTcd death. Bnt hahonoun inthc Fnn- 
ciaoana tlwii compuaion, and iheit cliaritabla hope that Ibau Jem might adll an 
orolhar be eonverled. 
> i.D. 1266, r. 792. 

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Bstions to embark in the second crnsade, and ieened for this pnr- 
poee, in the ye&r 1146, his letter to the Germans (East-Franks), 
ke ftt the same time warned them afainst the inflnence of those 
enthosiaats. who called themselves messengers of the Lord, and 
strove to inflame the fanaticism of the people. He called npon 
the Germans to foUoT the direction of the apostle Paol, and not 
believe every spirit. He declumed against the false zeal, vith- 
ont knowledge, which impelled them to murder the Jews, a 
people who ought not even to be banished from the coantry. He 
acknowledges their leal for the cause of God, bnt requires that it 
should ever be accompanied with correct knowledge.^ " The 
Jews," says be, " are scattered among all nations as living me- 
morials of Christ's passion, and of the divine judgment. Bnt 
there is a promise of their fntore anirersal restoration, Rom. xi. 
26. Even where no Jews are to be foand, nsurions Christians, 
if such mendeserve to be called Christians, and not rather baptized 
Jews, are a worse kind of Jews. How could the promise concern* 
ing the tatan conversion of the Jews ever be fulfilled, if they were 
otterly exterminated?" The same reasons, we most allow, ought 
to have persuaded men rather to send missionaries to the Moham- 
medan nations than to attack them with the sword. And, per- 
haps, it may have occurred to Bernard himself that this principle 
might be applied to the very crusade which he preached. To 
guard against any sneh application, he adds, " If the same thing 
could be expected also of other infidels, we ought certainly 
to bear with them, rather than to persecute them with the sword. 
Bat as they were the first to begin the work of violence, so it be- 
ciHnes those who, not without cause, have taken op the sword, to 
repel force with force. Bnt at the same time it befits Christian 
piety, while it strikes down the proud, to spare the humble (de- 
belUre snperbos, parcere victis.)" Such representations were 
especially needed in this excitable period ; but these words writ- 
ten in the I<atin language conld never reach the overheated po- 
pular mind. In these times there had started up, in the districts 
on the Bhine, a ferocioos enthusiast, the monk Badnlf (Badolph), 
who, representing himself as a called prophet of the Lord, 

1 Ep.3a3. Andiiinii* •> g>nd*miu,Dt iniobii rorrsu ulniDei, MdopOItatomniDO 
ilUe son dct ii i. 


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preached, along vitli the Cross, death to the Jews. Thonsatids 
ftom Cologne, Mentz, Worms, Speiers, Strasbnrg, who had col- 
lected together for the crosades, tamed their swords, in the first 
place, against the defencelesfi Jews, and a great deal of blood was 
shed.^ Radolph would not be held back from obeyiog his ima- 
gined divine call b^ any authority of his ecclesiastical enperior.* 
The archbishop Henry of Hentz, who conld do nothing himself 
to connteiact the inflttence of the enthnsiast, applied for help to 
the French abbot, whose wonderful power OTer the minds of men 
was not unknown to him. Bernard, in his answer,* took very 
decided gronndR against that monk. He found fault with his 
conduct in three respects ; that he had taken it upon him to 
preach without being called, that he set at naught the authority 
of tho bishops, and that he justified murder. This h« called a 
doctrine of derils. " Does not the church," said he, " obtain a 
richer rictory orer the Jews, by daily bringing them orer from 
their errors and converting them, than if by the sword she de- 
stroyed them all at a blow V He appeals to the prayer of the 
nnirersal church for the conversion of the Jews, with which such 
proceedings stood directly at variance. But it was not till Ber- 
nard went himself to Germany, and used his personal infinence, 
which was irresistible, that he conld succeed in quelling the spirit 
of fanaticism. The people attached themselves to that enthusiast 
with so blind a devotion, that nothing but the veneration in which 
Bernard was held coald restrain them from disturbances, when 
that leader was taken away from them. At Mentz, Bernard 
had a meeting with the monk Budolph, and produced such 
an efiect on hinf — which was indeed a marvel — by his expostula- 
tions, that the man acknowledged he had done wrong, and pro- 
mised for the lutnre to confine himself obediently to his convent. 
The celebrated abbot Peter of Cluny, who was distinguished for 

1 The lulTeringii of tbe Jen* bare be«n depicted, >(ler the Kcccmiit or a Umnan Jaw, 
whn, bfiog tben ■ lad oflhiitHii, wu ■ witotM artbis bloodj muucra of bia couDtij. 
iii«D and hllawbelierera, in > Jcwith cbraoiolc. in th« Hebrew luigdKge, bj JeboMba* 
Ben Meir, of Ibe Nileantb century.. Bee Wilken'i Qeacbiebte der Krentiilg*, driller 
Theil, erale Abtheil, Beilage i. In ihii aHsonnt, too, Bemud is bonanrtbly mentioned 
«s deliTerer of the Jewi, without whcwe ioteqioiition not one io theae dialricta would 
ban eaoaped j and he aija In hiapniae, " ha took no rUKom-moDC; from tbeJewai for 
be nremhia heart apokegood eoneeraing larael." 

S See Oltfl Friaing. hii(. Frederic the Piial, L ii., c. 37. 


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a mildness of disposition springing ont of the spirit of Christian 
lore, eren beyond Bernard himself— who showed so liberal and 
BO kindly a spirit in judging the different spiritual tendencies 
among Christians, — even he can only look apon the Jews as a 
race descended from the murderers of Christ, and filled with 
hatred to him. " If the Saracens, who in respect to the faith in 
Christ hare so much in common with ns, are still to be abomi- 
nated," he writes in his letter to king Louis the Seventh of 
France,* " how much more should we detest the Jews, who blas- 
pheme and ridicule Christ, and the whole Christian faith." It is 
true, he declares himself opposed to the practice of massacring 
the Jews ; " we should let them lire like the tHtricide Cain, to 
their greater shame and torment," says he ; hut he calls upon the 
king to deprive them of their wealth, which they had acquired 
unrighteously and at the expense of Christians,^ and to devote 
the money justly extorted from them to the serTice of the holy 
cause which they hated. 

In particular, it was a ruling principle with the popea, utter tiit 
example of their predecessor, Gregory the Great,^ to protect the 
Jews in the rights which had been conceded to them. When the 
banished popes of the twelfth century returned to Borne, the 
Jews in their holiday garments went forth with the rest in pro- 
cession, to meet them, hearing before them the thora; and 
Innocent the Second, on an occasion of this sort, prayed for 
them, that God would remove the veil from their hearts. Pope 
Innocent the Third, in the year ] 199, published an ordinance, 
taking the Jews under his own protection against oppressions. 
" Much as the unbelief of the Jews is to he censured," he wrote, 
" yet, inasmnch as the Christian faith is really confirmed by them, 
they must snfier no hard oppression from the faithful." He ap- 
peals here to the example of his predecessors, which he followed : 
" No one should compel them by force to submit to baptism ; but 
in ease a Jew makes it known, that of his own free choice he haa 
become a Christian, then no hindrances whatsoever shall be 

* Nan tnim de liDiplioi kgrinaltun, non ir Ugili militim, non Je qaolibct 
ili aOdii boma *iu fragibn*. cellirit vino, manupi* nitDimis, ircu luro i 
iBoluit, qnuitum da bit, qiiic Cbriadcolis doloH Bubirahunl, dc bit qt 
ribni ampU, fill pnlio m oTiaaiinM cuniptnD;. 

* Sm ToL T., p. la 

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throvn in his way to prerent him from receiring haptism ; for he 
who comes to the ordinance of Christian baptism throngb con- 
straint, cannot be a tme heliever. No one shonld molest them 
in the possession of their property, or in the obserrance of their 
customs. In the celebration of their festirab, they should not be 
disturbed by tnmaltnary proceedings."' This pope was at much 
pains to provide for the muntenanoe of Jews who embraced 
Christianity, and who by bo doing lost the means of living which 
they before enjoyed.^ It might donbtless happen, howerer, that the 
pope, when applied to for relief by converted Jews from distant 
parts, would sometimes be deceived by false reports, stories of 
miracles by which these persons pretended to have been con- 
verted. Still, he did not lend implicit confidence to such reports, 
but caused more exact inquiries to be made respectiag their 
truth in the conntries where such events were said to have oc- 

When the Jews in France, in the year 1236, saw themselves 
abandoned to the ferocions cruelty of the crusaders, they, too, 
applied for help to the pope, then Gregory the Ninth. He in 
consequence sent a letter to France, expressing in the most em- 
phatic language his indignation at such barbarity. " The cru- 
saders, instead of arming themselves, body and soul, for a war 
which was to be carried on in the name of the Lord, instead of 
manifesting in their behaviour so much the more fear of Ood and 
love to God, as they were to fight in the cause of the Lord, had 
executed godless connsela against the Jews. Bnt, in so doing, 
they had not considered that Christians must derive the evidences 
of their faith from the archives of the Jews, and that the Lord 
would not reject his people for ever, bnt a remnant of them should 
be saved. Not considering this, they had acted as if they meant 

fidclra incdi* deprimanlnr, cum plenqoe faomm pro indigsniia nFcnnuiarum nrnoi posl 
raceptum bRptiunnin in conruaionem nan modicun IndnDinttit. iuutplerumiue hoieiiM 
Ulonim ■Tarilio, qui cum ip*i abiuideDl, Cbrislum piapenin reapieeredrdigninlnr, retro 
cogantai sbiK. 
> Like that eitraTagaol tile ota Jev, irfao foDod io ■ cheslof gold, in wfaieb ■ alolen 
had bf FO drpositsd, the gold piccn ooiiTCtted into holj nabn. The 
TcUd the bishop in Ihs flact vbne this Jew lived, at tha amt time liiat he r«- 
ind his bmil; to hia oara, to maka a full and canmi eiamiiialioD *ith 
regard to tlis troth of ihat Bloi7,ind relnni him a Ikithhil rapoit. lnnoB«Dl.J.lTi .ep.M. 

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to exterminate them from the earth, and with unheard of croelty 
had bwtchered two thousand and 6Te hundred persons of all ages 
and sexes. And in extenuation of this atrocious crime, they 
ai&rmed they had done so, and threatened to do worse, because 
the Jews would not he baptized. " The; did not consider," 
writes the pope, " that while Christ excludes no nation and no 
race fnm the salvation which be came to bring to all mankind ; 
■till, as everything depends on the inward operation of divine 
grace, as the Lord has mercy on whom he will have mercy, no 
man should be forced to receive baptism ; for as man fell by his 
own tna will, yielding to the temptation to sin, so with his 
own free will he must follow the call of divine grace, in order to 
be recovered fVom his fall."' Pope Innocent the Fourth, to whom 
the Jews of Germany complained, on account of the oppressions 
and persecutions which they had to suffer from secular arid spiri- 
tual lords, issued a brief, in the year 1248, for their protection. 
In this brief he declared the story about the Christian hoy 
murdered for the celebration of the Jewish passover, a pure fiction, 
invented solely for the purpose of biding cupidity and cruelty, 
and of getting Jews condemned withont the formality of a trial. 
Wherever a dead body happened to be found it was maliciously 
Bade nse of as a means of criminating the Jews.) 

Again, the Jews would unavoidably be shocked and repelled 
by those peculiarities in the shaping of the church at this time, 
which, ihoDgh grounded in an original Christian feeling, yet in 
their extravagance bordered upon the pagan, as, for example, the 
worship of saints and images. Pions ecclesiastics and monks 
were always ready to enter into controversial discussions with 
Jews, in the hope of convincing them by arguments ; although 
laymen, in the zeal for their religions creed, were dissatisfied 
with a mode of procedure which allowed the Jews so peacefully 
to state all their objections to the Christian faith, and required 

■ Sse lUjnaiai AoDtiles ad A. lS3e, ^ IS. 

* Seifptnri ditinn intrr alia irindiu Irgit dietDle : Don ooeidefi. ac probibcnU illni 
in •ollenniuitr paiicfaiiJi qnieguim monicinnm coDliDgere, fid» imponunl iradim, giiod 
IB ipia sollenniuita w eorde purri eommiiDicant iiitarfeelJ, citdeudo id i]iaam l«gem 
VrucipoN, FuiD ait t'gl Bontrariam manifeste, ao eii maliLioMobjiciDnthomidscadavei 
aond.d rontigerit UBud (lirnbi reperiri. Bl jwt line al uliaqnampluriou flgmctita 

jnatJtiui omnibna mis, rtc. fta^naldi Annalca nd A. 12lS, ^ 81. 

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others so patiently to listen to them.- Tliey, on the contrery, 
were for deciding the matter at once, and punishing the unbelief 
of the Jews with the sword.' In ench disputes the Jews levelled 
their objections not only agaiost the fundamental position of the 
Christian system in itself considered, which to the fleshly Jewish 
mode of thought clinging to the letter of the Old Testament, and 
to sensnal expectations, most at all times be alike oSensire ; but 
also against those excrescent growths so foreign to primitire 
Christianity. And although Christian theologians, in the confi- 
dence and in the light of Christian faith, conld say many excel- 
lent things about the relation of the Old and New Testaments, 
and of their difierent comparatiTe positions, still they were no 
match for the Jews in the interpretation of the Old Testament ; 
and their arbitrary allegorizing explicatioas coold not remove any 
of the difScnlties by which the Jews were stumbled in comparing 
the Old Testament with the New, nor lead them away from the 
letter to the spirit. A narrow slavery to the letter, and an arbi- 
trary spiritual tzation, here stood confronted.^ Wo hear a Jew, 
for example, appealing to the eternal validity of the law. " A 
curse is pronounced upon every man that observes not the whole 
law," says he ; " what right or authority have you Christians to 
make here an arbitrary distinction, to explain that some things 
are to be observed, while others ate done away with 1 How is 

I JaiDvllle DimtH. id the Mcinolrfi of LoD<t the Nintli :— Once a gntt oontrovir- 
sial diMnaaion sunsd up id ths mDDwCeryotClunj.batweeutbeecclnrutiuaiid Jawa, 
wben an old koigbt rou apaud demandad thai tiie iiiciatdialiagaiah«d among tbe ecole- 
siiatica and the moat learned among (tie Jena ahoald eoma forward. Tlien be uked 
tbe Jew, whether he believed tbu Christ waa born oflbe virgin T When ihe Jew replied 
in llie nagalira, Enid the knight lo him, you bebiTt, then, >er; fOallablj and premmpla- 
oualjr. in daring locome into a house conKcialed to Mary— tbe eonwDC He dealt die 
Jew BO violent a blox, that he aouk to ibe ground, and the real Qed lor their livra. Tlia 
abbot or Cluof now aaid to tbe kni^bt: "Voua avet fait folia, de ce que toub aveiainal 
frappe," Tbe knighi, however, would not acknowledge thia, bat rejoined : " Vooa avei 
fait encore plus grande folie, d'avoir ainal aaaembl^ lea JuJIk et aouBert tellea diaputa- 
tlouB d'erreura ;" for many good Cbristiana bad (hereby been milled into inUJelity, So 
tliouglit, too, king LoDis the Ninth of France. None tot learned theologiana ahonld 
dispute with the Jewe ; nor ibonld the tait; ever lialen to aucb blaapliamiea, but pnniah 
thsm at oDoe wiili Ilie aword. " Que DUl, el n'est grand cleio at IhealogieD parfiut, do 
doit dispuler aux JnifS. Uaia doit lliomme lay. quant il oy meadire la foi chrfitiennB, 
iitfndie la cboae dod pal aenlemenl des parolta, maia ii bonoe ^p£a tranchaiite et en 
fr^per lea meadiaaDB it Invera da corps, [ant qu'elle y pourra entrer," 

3 In the Diapalatio Judaeieum Cbriatianode fldeChrieliana by tbe abbot Oialebut 
(Gilben) of Wcatmineter, in the beginning of tbi twelfth century, which ia fonnded on 
a diapute actually held with a Jaw,— in Auselml Cant. opp. ti. Gerberon, t 5IS. 



this to be reconciled with the immDtability of God's word V He 
finds ID the Old Testament the prediction of a Uessiab, bnt 
nothins concerning a Godman. The doctrine coDceming snch a 
being appeared to him ft disparagement of God's glory. The 
promises relating to the times of the Messiah seem to him not yet 
(nlfilled. " If it be tnie that the Messiah is already come, how- 
are we to reconcile it with the fact that nowhere, except amon^ 
the poor people of the Jews, is it said. ' Gome let us go up to the 
faonse of the God of Jacob ? Some of yon say, let ns go to the 
house of Peter; others, let ns go to the house of Martin. Where is 
it that swords are turned into pruning-hooks ? Smiths enough can 
hardly be found to convert steel into weapons of war. One na- 
tion oppresses, cuts in pieces another ; and every boy is trained 
up (o the use of weapons." The Christian theologian, abbot 
Gislebert, replies to the last objection : " Neither to Peter nor 
Paul do we build a house ; bnt in honour and in memory of Peter 
or Paul we baild a house to God. Nor can any bishop, in dedi- 
cating & church, say, 'To thee, Peter or Paul, we dedicate this 
house or this altar;' but only, ' to thee, God, we dedicate this 
house or this altar for the glory of God.' " Next, he insists on 
it that those promises concerning the times of the Messiah have 
been spiritnally fulfilled. " The law pronounces sentence of con- 
demnation on erery man who kills, or rather, as Christ has added, 
on every man who is angry with his brother. He, then, who is 
transported with the passions of anger and hatred, cannot law- 
fully use the sword and lance. Far easier is it to tnm the sword 
into a ploughshare, the spear into a pruning-hook, than to tnm 
from a proud man into an humble one, from a freeman to a ser- 
vant ; to give np wife, children, house and court, arms, all earthly 
goods, and very self. This, however, is ft thing that you may 
often see done ; for many, who once lived in the world, proud and 
mighty men, constantly bnckled for war, greedy after other men's 
possessions, have for God's sake renounced all worldly glory, go 
in voluntary poverty on pilgrimages to different holy places, seek 
the intercession of the saints, or immure themselves in a convent. 
And, in snch a community of the servants of God, is fulfilled that 
which God promised by the prophets concerning the peaceful liv< 
iDg together of the lion and the lamb, etc. ; for, to the shepherd 

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of sach a flock, obedience is alike paid by high aod low, by the 
mighty and the powerful, the §trong and the weak." 

Ad example, showing bow the power of Christianity was still 
present, even amid the foreign mbbi^h with wliich it was encam- 
bered, and could make itself be felt in the minds of the Jews, is 
seen in the remarkable case of Hermann, tifterwards a Premoa- 
stratensian monk, whose conTersion, which he has given an ac- 
count of himself,' was brought about by a singular train of pro- 
vidential occurrences. 

He vaa bom at Cologne, and strictly educated as a Jew. 
When a yoang man he made a jonrney to Mentz, on commercial 
business. It happened at the same time that Egbert, bishop of 
Miinster,' who had himself at some earlier period been dean «f 
the cathedral at Cologne, was there with the emperor's court- 
camp. Being in want of money, the bishop negotiated a loan 
with this Jew, But the latter took no security from kim, which 
was quite contrary to the practice of his people, who were accns- 
tomed to require a pledge to the amount of doable the sum lent. 
When he returned home, his friends reproached him for Buch 
folly, and urged him to seek another interview with the bishop. 
Fearing, however, the influence of the ChristianB on the yonng 
man, they commi»ioned an old Jew, Bamch, to act as his over- 
seer. Thus he travelled back to Miinster ; and here, as the bishop 
could not immediately refund the money, he was obliged to tarry 
five months. The yonng man, having no particular business on 
his hands, could not resist the curiosity he felt to visit the 
churches, which he had hitherto detested as temples of idols. He 
here heard the bishop preach. Many things in the discourse at- 
tracted him, and he repeated bis visits. Thus he received his 
first Christian impressions. Christians, observing how atten- 
tively he listened, asked him, how he liked what he heard ; he 
replied, " Many things pleased him, others not." They spoke 
to him kindly : " Our Jesus," said they, " is full of compassion, 
and, as be himself declares, ' No man that cometh onto him shall 
be cast out.' " They held up to him the example of the apostle 
Paul, who from a violent persecutor of Christianity became a 

'■ Pnfiio Gdci. 

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sealoBB preacher of it. Bat the Jev saw pictnres of Christ in the 
ehnrches, aad as this appeared to him like idolatrj, he was filled 
with abhorrence. Thus different impressions straggled together 
in bis son). It so happened, that the niUTersally revered abbot 
Rnpert of Deatz (Rnpertas Tnitiensis, the author of a tract 
against the Jews) came to Miinster, and to him Hermann Ten- 
lured to disclose his doubts. The abbot received him in a friendly 
■DADner, and sought to convince him, that the Christians were 
very far from paying an idolatrous worship to images. " Images," 
said he, " are designed solely to supply the place of Scripture for 
the rude people." 

The bishop employed as the steward of his house a pious ecole- 
stastic named Richmar, a man of strictly ascetic habits, who by 
his kindly manners had won his way to the young man's heart. 
Once the bishop sent a choice dish IVom his own table to this 
ehurchman ; but he immediately gave it to the young Hermann 
who eat by his side, while he himself took nothing but bread and 
water. This made a great impression on the youth. As this 
pious man, in many conrersations with Hermann, had sought in 
rain to conrinoe him of the truth of Christianity, he finally con- 
eeired the hope that by the evidence of some miracle, a judg- 
ment of God, the ordeal of the red -hot iron,' he might be able to 
conquer the nnbelief of the aign-seeking Jew. Bnt the bishop, 
his superior in Christian knowledge and wisdom, would allow of 
no aach experiment. Said he to his steward, " Tme, thy zeal is 
praiseworthy, but it is not accompanied with knowledge. We 
should not presume to tempt God in this way ; but we Bhonid 
pray to bim, that he, who wills that all men ahoold be saved and 
come to the knowledge of the truth, would be pleased, in his own 
time and way, by his grace, to break the fetters of nnbelief in 
which this young man is bound captive, and set him (Vee. But 
it was not proper to require God to work a miracle for this pur- 
pose, nor even to be particularly anxious that he would ; since it 
was perfectly easy for the Almighty even without a miracle, by 
the secret operation of his grace, to convert whomsoever he 
pleased ; and since, too, the outward miracle would be unavail- 
ing, unless he wrought after an invisible manner by his grace in 

I Sec yS. v., p. 167. , 

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108 Hermann's stritings after chsistian faith. 

the heart of the man. Many had been conrerted without 
miracles ; mnltitndes had remained nnbelieTers eren after miracles 
had been wrought before their eyes. The foith iodnced by 
miracles had little or no merit in the sig^ht of God ; bnt the faith 
which came fhim a simple pious sense had the greatest," which 
he sought to prove by examples from gospel history and IVoiu the 
words of Christ himself. 

When Hermann afterwards had an opportunity of risiting the 
newly fonnded Premonstratensian convent at Kappenberg in 
Westphalia, and here saw men of the highest and lowest ranks 
nnite together in practising the same self-denials, it appeared to 
him a very strange sight ; as yet he knew not what to make of 
it. Thns he was tossed one way and another by his feelings, till 
his mind became completely unsettled. He prayed to Qod, with 
warm tears, that if the Christian faith came from him, he wonld 
either by inward inspiration, or by vision, or — which then ap~ 
peared to him the most effective means — by some risible mira- 
culous sign, coDviuce him of it. He who was said to have led a 
Paul, even when he proudly resisted, to the faith, would as- 
suredly, if this were tme, hear him, so humble a supplicant I 

After his return home he spent three days, strictly fasting, in 
prayer to the Almighty, and waiting in expectation of a vision 
for the clearing up of his doubts ; when, exhausted by fksting 
and by his inward conflicta, he retired to rest ; bnt the vision 
which he sought, was not vouchsafed to him. He applied to 
book-learned churchmen, and disputed with them ; yet to all the 
argnmenta which they could bring, his doubts were invincible ; 
although many of the remarks which fell from them left a sting 
behind in bis heart. 

Meanwhile the Jews had long eyed him with suspicion ; and 
they employed every means to deter him from embracing Christi- 
anity. They prevailed upon him to many ; and by the wedding- 
feast and the dissipations connected with his new relation, he 
was, in fact, diverted for a while from the subject which had so 
long occupied and tormented him. Bnt after passing three 
months in a state of dreamy torpor, his old inward conflicts re- 
turned again. He once more sought the society of Christian 
theologians, with whom he had many disputes. Once, after he 
had long contended with one of these theologians in an assembly 

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heruann's baptism and ordination. 109 

ofclergTinei), said one of the DDmber to the- theologian who had 
■ought in Tain to convinee him : " Why spend 7oar strength to 
00 purpose ? Surely jroa know that, as the apostle Paul declares, 
eren to this day, when to the Jews Uoses is read, a covering 
bangs before their hearts." This remark again mads a deep im- 
presnon on Hermann's mind. " Is my heart," thought he, 
" really prerented hy snch a corering from penetrating to the 
spirit of the Old Testament V Again, therefore, he bad reconrse 
to prayer, and with many tears besonght the Almighty that, if 
this were so, he wonid himself remore the corering fVom his heart, 
that he might with open eyes behold the clear light of truth. 
And recollecting what Christians had said to him abont the 
power of intercessions, he commended himself to the prayers of 
two nnna who stood in high veneration among all the Christians 
in Cologne. They promised him, that they would not cease pray- 
ing until the comfort of divine grace should be given to him. 
Becoming soon afterwards more clear in his views and feelings, 
he believed himself to be especially indebted for this change to 
the intercessions of these two pions nuns.' He continued dili- 
gently to attend on the preached word, pntting aside everything 
else, and making the search after truth the great object of his 
life. Hia inqairies and prayers conducted him at length to a 
settled conriction. He submitted to baptism, entered the mo- 
nastery of Eappenberg, which on his first visit had made so 
nnga)ar an impression on his mind, where he studied the Latin 
language, and was consecrated a priest 

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C no ) 



I. Popes and Papacy. 

We commence this period in the history of the papacy, with a 
crisis of world-historical interest. The ^at question was now 
up, to be answered by the course of erents : Whether the system 
of the church theocracy, the spiritual universal monarchy, should 
come off Tictorions in the contest with a rude secular power, or 
should be laid prostrate under its feet. The key to the right 
understanding of this new epoch is furnished ns by the epoch with 
which the preceding period closed. One continuous thread of 
historical evolution ; a closely connected series of c&nses and 
effects proceeds onward from the last times of the preceding 
period into the beginning of the present. The corruption of the 
church, threatening its ntter secularization, had now reached its 
highest pitch ; and that very circumstance had called forth a re- 
formatory reaction on the part of the church. Such a reaction 
conld, however, under the existing conditions, only proceed fiom 
the side of this church theocracy ; since those who were most 
zealous against the abuses that had crept in, were goTemed by 
this spiritual tendency. The man of this party, he who was in 
fact the guiding and animating soul of the reformatory reaction 
in the last times of the preceding period, was that Hildehrand, 
who now, as pope Gregory the Seventh, had become in name, as 
he had long been secretly in fact, the ruling head of the Western 
church. As this world-historical personage was, from the first, 
the object of extravagant veneration with some, and of equally 
extravagant hatred with others, so the same contrariety of 
opinion with regard to him continued to prevail in the succeed* 
ing centuries. 

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Gregory was certainly inspired vith some higher motire than 
wlfish ftmbition, a selfish love of domination. One predominating 
idea inspired him ; and to this he sacrificed all other interests, 
the idea of the independence of the ehnrch, and of the control to 
be exercised by her over all other human relations, the iflea of a 
religions, moral dominion over the world, to he administered by 
the papacy. This was not, indeed, the purely Christian idea of 
dominion over the world, hnt a recasting of it nnder an Old Tes- 
tament form altogether foreign to Christianity ; and that, too, 
not without some mixtore of the idea of Rome's ancient imperial 
sovereignty.' This idea, however, was no invention of Gregory's; 
but having spmng, as we have shown, ont of the course of de- 
velopment which the ehnrch had taken, it had acquired, by the 
reaction in favonr of reform since the time of Leo the Ninth, a 
new force over the minds of the better- disposed. There were 
men, extremely prejudiced, it is true, yet animated by a warm 
seal for the welfare of the ehnrch and against the deep-rooted 
abuses of the tjmes, who expected, fVom this imperial sovereignty 
of the church, wielded by the popes, the correction of all evils. 
To them the church appeared as the representative of the divine 
jurisdiction, by which all social relations were to be regnlated, 
all abases to be removed. The church must by her equitable 
dedsiona prevent wars ; or, if she could not effect this, bestow 
commnnion and absolution on the party in the right, while she 
excluded the one in the wrong from the fellowship of the ehnrch, 
and refnsed it the privilege of ecclesiastical burial to tlie dead.' 

1 Compan the poem bj AIphiDDS, qnotsd In vol. Ti , U Ifaa clue of tbe leeoDd B«c- 

1 Tbit idea ii nnfoMfd bj thit rigid etmoT at Ifae o1«rgj. ■ eaiKemponrr of Bernini 
orchimnx.Uw liBserely piou* pioToal Oerboh (Oeroch) of Belcbernbergiu Bimria, 
pankalu4]r jn bu camm' nuu7 on tbe Uth Pealm, or bit met Do eomiitD Mclwiu 
M*lD,iibne be WW Uotpt agiieM tbe tbrn eonapt oondition ol the clinrch, whicb 
■boDid be TMtond end improTed sveonilDg to ttaia itandard,— publisbed hj Balux in tbo 
S(th fotoBU of bis MiKellenei. Tb* Hme trtet ofOeroeh i' lo be tbund ibbreTialed 
i* bi« coDBkrnurj on tbe Puime ;— in imponuji work on sccoant of thr information 
ilflTea na of tbe oondilion oflbecburcb in IheH timn.—pnbliBbed b; Pfz in the Tbe- 
Hunu UMcdotonun noTiuirone, t. t. He looks uponituielnniie aDdaDbeard of Ibing. 
that botta lb* ooDteuding pirliei in a wit ahonld reoeive the eomraanioa ; aben in truth 
JMtio* eooM onl; be on one aide, and tbe tribnoil of the cbutch tberefore conld decide 
In bTiHir of but one pirtj. In omul miliiaiu lel cmam guerra et diacordU tel pan 
almajaata et altera Injaeti, Tel nlreque inienitur injnata, cujns teireritalem palefacere 
II dootrina. aina onjne eenenni unlla bella lanl moTenda. Bie ergo 
I pan jaatataBerdatalibai labia anmaoda el eliui eonunuBione do 

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112 hildebrand's early training. 

The monk Hildebrand had certainly been Beized vith this idea, 
and actire in endeavouring to realize it, before he coald have 
entertained any thought or being eler&ted himself to the papal 
throne. Edncated as a monk at Rome, it vaa natural that, in a 
man of hie serious disposition, and situated as he was, the idea 
of such a jorisdiction to be exercised by the church, should be 
awakened in the fnllest force-i Well might his disgnst at the 
prevailing cormpUon in Borne and Italy have mored Kildebrand 
the monk to retreat with his friend, the deposed pope Gregory 
the Sixth, to the conntries beyond the Alps ; and well might he 
again, in the hope of being able, hy virtue of his connection with 
the popes, to counteract this corruption, have resolved to return 
back to Bome ; as he says, in a remarkable letter to his fHend, 
the abbot Hago of Clnny :* " Were it not that I hoped to attain 
to a yet better life, and to serve the cause of the church, nothing 
would induce me to stay here in Bome, where, not by my own 
choice, as God is my witness, I have already been compelled to 
lire through a period of twenty years." " God," he remarks, 
" had brought him back to Bome against his will, and bound him 
there with his own fetters.", In passing judgment on this great 
man, we should not try him by the standard of a pure evangelical 

minici ooiporii Rnte bellnin el id bellniii roborutdi Ml, quia pioi* isle cor hominU ddd- 
flrmU, qnindo pro dafaDiiaUBJaatitiait Tgl eeolniu aliquii kd pngnun >■ prupant, col 
ftn iDiqnt rraiatam tt paclo jiuUe puis icqul«»r« nolrnj anuliaDiUiuadt et 
rtiun ucgiU aibi aepultun chri>ti*n> hnmilUnda «L Bal hoir i* it at prcHDt, 
when— onfl prinoa or odb people waging an BDJiiil war igainat anotbct— tba Lord'a 
body ii giien [o both parties w^ihout examination oT tba roarita or tba caaaf 
Tanqnua diviBai >lt Chriitui <t poaait e*M Id (am contrariia partibaa. How 
caailf, he eiclaima, by tba uniud agreement of the blabopa in one judgment, oontd ■ 
(he madneae or iboae prinoei and knigbts who make ooDhiaion in the Roman empire, 
and spread denalatioD throagh the chsrch, be enrbed and reatrained T If be itaen, who 
baa been placnd orer the whole in order to preseire nnitfand toatrengtbeD hia brethren, 
Luke xxii, 3£. ahouLd in ererj juat jadgiTient anticipate the biahope hj a cironlar lett^ 
addressed to tliem—wbat tnonarob woald dare to act himself op in opposition to anoh a 
deciaionT Cam alt Telal alter Jeiemiaa, conatitatua cou aolom aupcr aceleaiaa, aed 
eliUD aaper regna, ut eTellet et deatraat, aediflcet etplantel. Bee 1. Pea. f. 11B3. 

1 Where he apeaka of hia obligationa lotbe apoatle Peirr, in a letter to king William 
of England, I. vii., ep. 23. Quia 8. Pelnii a pnero me in doniD aua dalciter nulriertl. 

1 L. b, 1. il., ep. 49. Oregarrhimeelf aaja to the Bomana: " Vos acitia quod, ad «a- 
croa ordinea nan libenUr uoeaai, aed tnagU InvUu* eum Domino Leone Papa ad na. 
tram epecialem cccleaiam redii, in qaa atcaniine Tobia aerviTi." Eecard aoriptoiee ler. 
Oerm. ep. 160. 

( Si non aperarem «d melinem ntam et utiliMMm aanotaa eeelaaiae ranire, nollo 
mado Bomao, in qua eoaetai, Deo teate,jam iiiitinCiaiiniaiDhabitaTiiremaDerem — and 
afterwarda— eum, qui meaaia allitaflt Tineulia et Roman ioTltam redniit. 

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hildebrand's barlt training. 113 

knovlfldgeto vbieh he could not possibly have attained by bis 
course of training. Seized and carried away by tJie aboTe-men- 
tioned dominant idea, be interpreted by that the testimonies of 
the Bible irad of history, aod these TOnId all seem to confirm the 
same. Bat he who surrenders himself so entirely to one idea, 
seen in one aspect, as to let it svallov np all other hnman in- 
terests, and all the feelings, tmplauted in man's nature, most be- 
c<»ie a shire to it. He who allovs the zeal for such an idea to 
nsnrp the place of a zeal for truth and justice, will soon have 
formed vithin himself a partieular coneeienee also which may 
sanction many things, tending to the advantage of Me party 
bent, that a true conscience and the divine lav would condemn. 
He who believes himself the vicegerent of the divine will in the 
government of mankind, will easily be misled, to set up Au own 
will in place of the divine, and then think himself entitled to take 
many liberties for the realization of that divine will. With his 
fiuiatical self-devotion to this one tendency, this energetic man 
united a calculating prudence not always coupled with truth ; as 
we have had occasion to see already in bis treatment of that up- 
right follower of the interests of truth alone, Berengarins. 

It is certain that Hildebrand's power in Bome had become so 
great, he had so considerable a party in hia favour, that no in- 
teigues were needed on bis part to secure for him the papal dignity, 
an eminence which he might have reached sooner, perhaps if he 
had desired it ; for, as it was justly remarked of him in his own 
time, "after having prepared everything to suit his wishes, he 
stepped into the papal chair the moment he was ready. "^ The 
less to be credited, therefore, are the accusations which his op- 
ponents, even in published writings, had the boldness to bring 

1 Prrpmtia siaeDtenlu, qnw tolait, Cdbadrun quuido lolult ucendil. 80 B|i«*h 
Oicfory's opponenU in tbe noCieeBbte tract of DieWrio, biabop of TerdnD.i.D. lORO, in 
Uartcne Bt Duraod tliegpDr. nov. iDeiidaloniin, t v. 1. 21T. Olted id tha aamc plaoe ire 
oppoaile Tiewa reapenting Qregory'i picrioui eondocl ind Lib eleotian to ths pBpaoj. 
One pvtjaaya orbim; Decedantibiu patribas locpc tltclum il accitum, tenifri guuUm 
lUHiiu, ■liqaindo eliam corporiB tagi dignituis locDm dfclinasae ; at length ha ncog- 
nized is the DaiTenB] Toiee, the will al Cod. Olhera, Qregory'a ferociooa enemiea. aay 
DMDT Ibinga hudi; eanaiBLeat with one anolber, and eien •elf-ooDtntdietorT, teapeollDg 
(be maoner in whieb he attainad to tlie papal tbrone. Tlie Irnth paiiilpa ia eontained 
ID tiwir Bin^e Rmarlc, " qnando tbIuK ;" bat tbi* siroaiDBtBoce i> eaailj to he ac- 
aonQtad tot by hb )a«TioDB Mtivilj, and makea aJl the otbec eipluiatioua ot hia papal 
eleeiion Buperflnona. 


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against bitn.' 8tjll, some occasion was given for these sccoBations, 
hj the mode in which Gregory's election was conducted. 

The death of pope Alexander was not followed by the distar- 
bances so common on such occasions among the Boman people, 
who were accustomed to manifest very soon their predilection for 
this or tliat cardinal whom they chose to hare pope. The college 
of cardinals, therefore, supposed they had no interruption to fear 
in their preparatory proceedings to the choice of a new pope, 
and they ordered that, before they met to make arrangements for 
the new election, prayers for illumination and gnidance shonld be 
addressed to the Almighty in connection with processions and 
fasting dnring three days.* Tet at the hnrial of Alexander, the 
people loudly demanded that Hildehrand should be made pope.* 
Although the legal form, therefore, was a/lertoards obserred, and 
a protocol adopted, certifying to Hildebrand's election, yet it is 
manifest that the choice had already been made. Gregory de- 
clares, in the letters issued soon afler bis election, and later, that 
he had been elevated to the papal dignity against his will, and 
not without strenuous opposition on his part. Still, the sincerity 
of snch professions is always more or less liable to suspicion. 
Eren though it was Gregory's determination, after he had thus 
far ruled by means of others, now to take the goTemment of the 
church into hta own hands ; yet we may at all events believe 
that he must have foreseen the difficult contests into which he 
would be thrown ; and that, undertaking to exercise such a trust, 
would turn out to him no idle affair ; and amid the multiplied 
troubles and vexations of his later reign, he might well sigh after 
the tranquil aeclusion of the monastic life. In a letter to Duke 

I Cinliml Brnoo, in bii iiiTwstJTe igiintt Qregorr, uja, tfaitwhsu pope Alfunder, 
aubmitenbilijuso Hildebnndi.died onesTening, Hildabruid km placed b; hii pirtisans 
at onoe, and nltbonl lUe conoairence of tlie elergj and the eomaiDnitj, Upon (he papal 
throne, becauM it wxa feucd that, if tbcni uta an; delajr. eome olber penon minld be 
sleeled ; not one of tba cardinila Bobacribed to it. (Atl wbicb, bowaver, ia nfUled bj 
tbe publiabed proloDol oertirjing bia eleetlon.) To the ibbol of Uonta Catsino, whb 
anived afler tbeeleotioD was orer, Oregorj is laid to bava remifked: " Frater, niminn 
ttudaali." to nhich the abbot replied: Et lu. HiMebraode, nimiuni feellnaati, qui noD> 
dam aepullo domino too papa, aedem apoaUiIioam conln cananea nauipiali. 

1 Aa Ongorr bimaelf dedarea in tba lettera in wbiah he nude known bii election. 

* He bimaelf saya: Babilo ortna eat magnui tnoalltia populi at fremitol, at in 
me qoaai Teaani ioaaimenint, oil dioendi, nil aoninlendi fkcidutia ant apatii tclin- 

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qbegory's complaints. 115 

GottfHed, who had congTatolated him on his election,! ^^ ^o™' 
plains of the secret cares and anxieties vhich oppressed him. 
" 14'early the whole world is lying in such wickedness, that all, and 
the bishops in particnlar, seem emnlons to destroy rather than to 
defend or to adorn the chnrch. StriTing only after gun and 
honour, they stand opposed to ererything which serres to promote 
religion and the cause of God." In the second year of his reign, 
he presented a picture of his troubles and conflicta, in a letter, 
to bis intimate friend, the abbot Hugo of Cluny.' "Oflen have I 
prayed God, either to release me from the present life, or through 
me to benefit onr common mother; yet he has not delivered me 
from my great sufferings ; nor has my life, as I wished, profited 
the mother with whom he has connected me." He then describes 
the lamentable condition of the chnrch : " The Oriental chnrch, 
&llen from the faith, and attacked from without, by the infidels. 
Casting your eye orer the West, South, or North, you find scarcely 
anywhere bishops who hare obtained their ofilce regularly, or 
whose life and conTersation correspond to its requirements, and 
who are actuated in the discharge of their dntiea by the lore of 
Christ and not by worldly ambition ;' nowhere, princes who pre- 
fer God's honour to their own, and justice before gain." " The 
men among whom he lired," he said, "Romans, Longobards, 
Normans, were, as he often told them, worse than Jews and 
p^ans." " And when I look at myself," he adds, " I find my- 
self oppressed by snch a burden of sin, that no other hope of sal- 
vation ia left me, but in the mercy of Christ alone." And, 
indeed, it is a true picture, which Gregory here draws of his 

Before we follow out the acts of Gregory in detail, let us cast a 
glance at the principles of his conduct generally, as they are 
exhibited to us in bia letters. Those persons assuredly mistake 
him, who are willing to recognize nothing else, as hia govern- 
ing principle, than prudence. Thongh it is, indeed, true, that 
prudence formed one of his most diatingnishingcharacteristics; 
yet, beliering as he did, that he acted in riitne of a trust 

* Lik ii. «p. 49. 

1 Viil^aln tfittafM Intraitact Tila,qai ChriMiuiQm popnlnn Chriill uuort m 
son Mealtrj UDbitiona rcgiot. 


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committed to him by Qoi, — it was a Ugher coafiJeBce, which 
aastained and kept him erect throogh all his conflicts. It was 
in perfect conBistency with tfaose views, which he had derived 
ttma the Scriptnrea of the Old Testament, respecting the theo- 
cracy, that he should bo readily allow himself to be gnided 
by supernatural sign B, and judgments of Ood. He placed great 
reliance on his intimate connections with St Peter and the 
Virgin Mary.' Among his confidential agents he had a monk, 
who boasted of a pecnliar intimacy with the Virgin Hary; and 
to this person he applied, in all donbtftil cases, bidding him 
seek, with prayer and fasting, for some special roTelation by 
rieion, respecting the matter in qnestion.' To his ftiend, the 
Hargrarine Mathilda, who honoured and lored him as a spiritnal 
father, he earnestly recommended,' aa a means of defence against 
the princes of the world, that she shonld frequently partake of 
the Holy Snpper, and commit herself to the spectid protection of 
the Virgin Mary. The pecnliar bent of his own devotion, here 
expresses itself : "I, myself," he writes, "have expressly com- 
mended thee to her, and will not cease commending thee to her, 
till we shall behold her, as we long to do. %e, whom heavea 
and earth cease not to praise, though they cannot do it as she 
deseiTes. Bnt of this b« firmly persuaded, that, as she is ex- 
alted, good, and holy above every mother, so too, and in the sune 
proportion, is she more graeions and gentle towards converted 
sinful men and women. Put away, then, the disposition to sin, 
pour out thy tears before her, prostrating thyself before her with 

1 Bj Ibis !)ope, aBpecIol office of deration, ftddneied to ihe Virgin Mtrj, w» intro- 
dnetd into the monaslrriea. See Ibe >boTe.m«Dlionedworliof OenxA, ontlie PhIdu, I. 
o. ful. TM: '' Rt in eoenobiis canticum dotudi celebntur. com h tempont Gregoriieepd 
cnraos beUae MBriae rrejui-iilatur,'' Alan, in the above-ci led letter of Dieierie of Tardsn, 
menlion ia made of divine Tiaiona whieh were Rtlribnled to Gregorji and il ia atid of 
him, " Joila quod boni et fide digui boDiinea atleatantar, enn non parram ia oonlla 
Dei [oniiliaritalia graliam aaseculnm esae." 

I A nrilcT of Ibis lime, tbe abbot Hajmo, relates Id bis tits of William, abbot of 
Hinoban, tbat Oregorj, being aacertaia wbicU of two eaodiilatea propoaed to bim 
■hoald be aelecled for a biahopris, directed ■ monk lo praj tbal it migbt be rcTealed to 
liim, bj tbe mediation of 4lie Virgin Mar;, wliicb wonld be tbe best choice. Sm bU 
Life, § 22, in Malnllon's Acta Sanct O. B. t. Ti„ p. tl., t. 732. Aa this anecdole wholly 
agrees vilh what we quoted, toI. ti., p. 331, ftam the month of Beicogar, we are the Ima 
warranted to entertain snj doubt respecdng Ihia cbaraolerialic trait in Ihe life of Ore- 
gor;. Conpare atao vol. ii., p. 153. 

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BB hnmble nod contrite heut ; and I promiae it with certainty, 
tkoa shalt find, by ezperienee, how much more full of love and 
kindness she will be to thee than thine own mother according to 
^e fleah."i 

Gregory decidedly avows the principle, that God had conferred 
OQ Peter and hie snccessorB, not only the gnidanoe of the whole 
church in respect to spiritnal affairs, bnt also a moral enperin- 
tendence over all nations. To the spiritual, he maintains, every- 
thing else should be subordinated. All worldly interests are 
vastly inferior to the spiritual. How, then, should not the juri- 
dical authority of the pope extend over them h We find Ore- 
gory entertaining an idea, which is expressed also in other writ- 
ings of this party, according to which, the priestly authority 
would appear to be the only one truly ordained of God, — the 
anthority, by which everything was finally to b« brought back 
into the right train ; for the authority of princes grew originallj 
<mt of sinful self-will, the primitive equality of mankind having 
been broken np by the violence of those who, by rapine, murder, 
and every other species of atrocity, elevated themselves above 
their e<^nala ;' — a view which might be couGrmed, in the minds 
of some, on contemplating the then rude conditiiHi of civil society. 
Yet, in other places, when not pushed by opposition to this ex- 
treme, he recognizes the kingly authority as also ordained of 
God ; only maintaining, that it should confine itself within its 
•WD proper limits, remaining subordinate to the papal power, 

1 Cid U priDtipiliMr cammiii el oomoiitto el uunqnun lommilUn, quoiuqae UUun 
Tidauuna, ut cnpimas, omiltam, quid libi dicatn, qaun coelum et terra liadire, lioet UE 
mnetur Dcquraat, non eeaiaiiC ? Hoc UmBB procnl dubio teiieaB, quia quanto ildor et 

et peccBtHcn. Pone iUqne flnem in ToloDtate pccoaadi el proalnts coram ilU ei corde 
soDDrito el huQiiliato liurimaB eSiiade. Invsnies illun, indultilaoler promitto, prompti- 
onm earuali niBtre ao mitiorem io lui dil«etiane. 

1 Lib.l., ep. 63. Petrua tpoBtoliia, qaem Dominna Jeau* Chriatua rex gloiiae piin- 
dpem asper regDB mniKli coDatilnil. Lib. lii., ep. 6, roncarniag Ptler: Cui omnea 
priDcipatna et pobtauiea orbii tamram autiJicieDa (Dena) jua ligandi slque soiieDdi in 
Boalo et Id Mm tndidit Id ■ Utter lo Ring William of EngUod, in vbich the papa 
certainly vaa inclined to lover ratber tltaD to elevate bia tone : Vi cun at diapcaialioiM 
^loatolloaa dlgoitatia poat Dean gubrrnelur regla. 

■ Iq the ramoaa letter tu Iriabop HeimaDD of Mentz, 1. Tiii.,ep. 21: Quiaaeaeialregea 
el dncea ab iii babaiaae prlnciplom, qui i^eum ignorantea, auperbia, rapinia, perfldia, 
bomiddiia, poatreno uniTenia paene aceleribua, mundi prmoipe diabola nidelieat tgi- 
iai]te,anprr parea,aeil<cet bominta, dominari caeca cupiditate et intolenbUt praeaunt' 

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wfaioh IB BOT«reign OTer all. He sa7B that the two antfaoritJes 
gtand related to each other, as Bnn and moon, and compareB them 
with the two eyen of the body.' 

We see by single ezamplee, how welcome it wonld haT« been 
to the pope, if all monarchs had been dispoBed to receire their 
kingdoms as feofe of the apoatle Peter. ThnB he would hare con- 
Teited the Boverei^nty of Peter into an altogether secular empire ; 
and he looked upon it as an insult to that Bovereignty, that a 
king of Hungary, who ought to have regarded himself as a king 
dependent on St Peter, should place himself in a relation of de- 
pendence on the German empire. He considered it deserving of 
reproach, that he should be willing to undergo the shame of mak- 
ing himself a dependent regvlut on German kings, rather than to 
enjoy the honour of being dependent alone on the first of the 
apostles.' And to this he referred the promise of Christ regard- 
ing the Rock, against which the powers of hell should never pre- 
vail ; that whoever wonld wrest his kingdom out of this relation 
of dependence to the church of Rome, mast experience, by the 
loss of his inherited kingdom, the punishment dne to his sacri- 
lege, in his own person. So Spain was held to have been from 
the earliest times a feof of the Romish church.^ From the 
Bomish church, it was maintained, indeed, thaX all other spiritual 
authority was derived, and all ecclesiastical authorities should 
appear as organs of the pope ; yet among these authorities there 
should subsist a regular subordination ; and all, throngh a certain 
series of gradations, return back to the one common head.* Gre- 

1 Lib. ■« ep. 19. Nam licul duobus oculis liunsnum eortias wmtioreli lamine regitur, 
lU bii dmbufl dignitatibiis in pun religione concorduitibua corpus ecclesiae tpirituali, 
Inniine rrgi el illuminari probatiir. Lib. lil., (p-2G, WkJQg WilUam of EngUnd ; Sicut 
■d mundi pulcbrilodiDem ocalis cu-nriB diienis trmporibni repruteDUndim Bolem rt 
lunun oniDibua aliit eminsntiora disposait Jumimrii, lio ne creiluri, quim ani banig- 
Dita* ad iiuiglnen] Buam in boe mundo crcaveral, in errorem rt niDTtircn Iraberrlnr 
periciila, proTidit in apoeUlica et rtgia dignitale, per diirnia ngcretur officia. Qua 
umcn nnjoriWtiaalminoriuiisdislamiareliBin sic ae imiveCChrialiaiia, at cura et dia- 
penaalionc apoaiolicae dlgDUalia post Deam gubernetur regia. 

1 Lib. ii. ep- 70, to king Seuta of Hungary ; Ubi ooatrmpto Dahili dominio Petri 
■paatDloTom prinpipia, rei aiibdidil se Tentouico regi, el regnli nomen abdnait. «t ita ai 
qnid in obtinendo regno jnria priiia hBbuii,e<i aeaaciiiega DaurpMione privavit Pelrua 
na ftln dicitnr, quae portaa inferj cao^'ingit atquv adamai'tiiii] rigore deilmil et 

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gory professed, it is trae, in continning the contest begun by the 
popes at the close of the preceding period, that he acted as 
defender of the ancient ecclesiaEtical lavs; yet, at the same 
time, also, he expressly declared, that it stood in his power 
to enact new lavs against new abuses, which, wlien enacted, 
imposed an obligation of uniTersal obedience.' As he frequently 
made use of the Scriptures of the Old Testament, which, by 
reason of his peculiar mode of apprehending the theocracy, would 
be particnlarly acceptable to him, so his farourite motto, when- 
erer be spoke of maintaining, in spite of all opposition, the 
validity of the cbnrch-lawa, and of punishing abuses, was, " Cursed 
be he thai keepeth back his sword IVom blood," Jeremiah xlriii. 

As the organs by which to extend and maintain his orersight 
orer all the churches, and to exercise everywhere his juridical an- 
thority, he determined to make use of the institution of legates, 
which had been made a vital part of the papacy during the epoch 
of reform, in the times of Henry the Third. Since he conld not 
be io all places at once, these legates were to act as his repre- 
sentatiTes and ricegerents, in upbuilding and destroying among 
the distant nations ; and the bishops were to pay the same obe- 
dience to such legates as to the pope himself, and to stand by 
them in all cases ; and he had the presumption to apply to this 
relation the words of our Lord to his apostles, declaring, that in 
them he himself was honoured or despised.' At the same time, 

1 Lib. u.,ep. 67. Huie aiucue Roman ae rcctraiic icnipeT Jicuil acDiperqae lieebit, 
conin notiler iDereaMnlM excMBUs nova qnoijue decrita aique rcmcdii pmcarare, quae 
ntjonia at anctoritatiB tdita judicio oaWi bDmimim ail tta ut iiriu iwfiilm. And 
ep. 66: Hon Doatra decreu, quanqaam liccntcr ei opua taa«t posanmua, Tdbia pro- 

* Lib. L ap. IS : In eo loco positi anmua, at Telimiu nolimni omQibtis gentibaa, 

Hg< : maledictOB bomo, qui probibct RlailiDni snum a BangDine, wbioh be ciplajna 
t^oa: *ertnnnpnediciUoDia ■ ramalium increpatione. 

* Ub. T., ep. 3, ngudiDg anch ■ UgUe, wbnm he eent to Conica : Ut ft, qaae ad 
mdiiMm aacrae TeJi|[iDniB pertinrot, rite eieqiKDe joiU prophelae dictum eiellat et 
dtMniat. aediSeet etplantet. Wbeo, inBobemia, the aotboritj of these legalra vaa dia- 
pated aa aaiDnoTMioii, aragor; pcomptlr gave tbFiD bia aopport. He tboa vrilea on 
lhl« aubjeet 10 tbe Botaemian biabopa, 1. i..eii.l7: Q uldam TeBtioram boc qnaai notam 
aliqnid exiatimantes et noD coDaidenntra setitcDliam Domiaidiceiitia: "qui roa reuipiC 
ne rreipil, et qui >oa apernit, me ajiernit.'' Legatoa nostroa conlnnpiDi habant as 
pcoinde dnm nallam debilem reverentiam eibibenl, non eoa, aed ipiam vnitalia bcd* 
tantljun apernont. 

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howcTCT, he did not allow these legates to act according to their 
own pleasare, bnt exercised a strict control over all their proceed- 
ings. He censured them in right good earnest, if they fuled to 
make an exact report of erery matter to himself. He was a 
despot, determined to rule everywhere himself.' The gold which 
legates sent him, expecting by this means to pacify him, conid 
not moTe him to release them from obligation to give in an exact 
accoant of all their transactions. To a certain legate, who contem- 
plated something of this sort, he writes : " The fact that he had 
not personally brought in a report of all his proceedings admitted 
of no excnse, unless he was hindered by sickness, or had no possi- 
ble means of returning," He reminded him of the fact, that he 
must hare long since found out, how small store he (the pope) set 
by money, separate from the recognition of his authority.* Fur- 
thermore, the annual synods, during the flMts preceding Easter, 
which were attended by bishops from all parts of the Western 
church,* were to serve as a means of making the pope acquainted 
with the condition of all the churches, and of helping him to 
maintain an oversight of their affairs. It is plain from many ex- 
amples, how important he considered it to keep himself informed 
of the peculiarities, the particular condition and wants, even of 
the most distant nations, in order to meet their sereral necessi- 
ties. Thns, for instance, he wrote to the king of Sweden, re- 
questing him to send a bishop, or spme ecclesiastic of suitable 
qualifications, to Rome, who cooM exactly inform him respecting 
the character of the country and the manners of the people, and 
who, after being fnlty instructed, could more safely convey back 
the papal ordinances to his native land.' To king Olov, of Nor- 
way, he wrote,* " that it wonid give him great pleasure, were it in 
his power, to send him qualified ecclesiastics for the instruction of 
his people; but as the remoteness of the country, and especially 

1 TliDB he took to Uik ■ legate vliom lie hid esnt to Spun, and who h*Jil a coancil 
th«re, becaase he bad nol either in person, or b; oue of hia auoelalea, made nport 
to (he pope (1. i., ep. 16} : Quat«nua penpectia omnibni oouflnnuida oonfinnanmoa et 
ai qaa maianda liderentur, discret* ntione mDlaremiu, 

1 Nam pecuniw line honore quanti pietii babeam, ta ipm optinr dndam potoiitj per- 
peoden. i., ep.L 
,* Twoat leasl from eaeb blab oprie sboald uke p*rl therein. Lib. tIL, >p. 1- 

* Lib. Tiii, ep. 1. Qoi et teme leslru babllndiDta gcntiaqne noree Dobii easgerets 
et apoetoliea mandila de CDDCtiB pleniler inatnictna kd voa crrtiua qnntrafttra. 

G Ub. Tt., ep. 13. 

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the want of a knowledge of the spoken language, rendered it ex- 
tremely difficnlt to do this, he therefore reqneeted him, as he had 
already done the king of Denmark, to send a few yonng p«ople 
of the higher class to Rome, for the purpose of being aecnrately 
instracted there, nnder the protection of the apostles Peter and 
Pan), in the laws of God, so that they might convey back to their 
people the ordinances of the apostolical chair, and teach all they 
had learned to their countrymen, in their own language." On 
many occaaions he showed how little he was to be influenced in 
the transaction of business by money. A certain count of Angers, 
maintained an unlawful connection with a woman, and had for 
this reason been excommunicated by his bishop, whom he there- 
fore persecuted ; at the same time, however, he sent presents to 
the pope, hoping doubtless that by this course he should be able 
to conciliate his favour. The pope sent them all back ; and 
wrote to the count that, until he had put away his sin, the head 
of the church could receive no presents from him, though he would 
not cease praying God to have mercy npon him.' The pions 
qneen, Matilda of England, wrote to him, that anything of hers 
which he might wish, she was ready to give him. The pope an- 
swered her ■? " What gold, what jewels, what precious objects of 
this world ought I to prefer to have from thee, rather than a 
chaste life, beneficence to the poor, love to God and to thy neigh- 
bour V In a letter to the king of Denmark, the pope, with other 
exhortations, urgently called npon him to pat a stop to that 
abuse, in his country, by which, daring bad seasons and droughts, 
innocent women were persecuted as witches who had brought 
about these calamities.* We have seen bow a pope, by whom 
the papal authority was greatly increased, was the first to declare 
himself opposed to the employment of torture.' We see in the 
present case how the individual, by whose means the papal, 

1 Lib.ii. 

en.2i. Mtiner.tni 

1 ideo iwipieiidi Don 

eat arbitrali •amiis, quia 


,„p™b««r, quamdiu 

■ p«ccMa itto immuDem 


r,ddid'rii f, 

1 Lib. ,ii 


S Lib. yi 

i. ep. 21. In muliei 

IS ob eaQdem idbbui 


lidqusm impietatiB ficleadi vobls fu cbbs nalile pular*. sed potiua 


diTiDM nlU 

oni* MDUDtiam dig 


ftrdlier^rtendo Iram Domini 

mnlto rnhgis provDCii 

1 NloholutLeFiHt,lDbUte 

iLt« 10 Lbe Bulg«rl.n 

princM; tee toI. tl. p. 03. 

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122 OREQORt'S views of penance and H0NA8TICISU. 

monarchy was advanced to a atill greater heif ht than erer^ declared 
himself opposed to a saperstition, to which, in later times, by the 
trials for witchcraft, thousands must fall Tictima !' Id taking 
the preparatory steps for a synod of reform, to be held nnder the 
presidency of bis legate in England, against certain aboses which 
had crept in, he called npon the bishops todirect their attention 
and care particularly against the abnses of penance, and false 
confidence in priestly ahaolntion : " For if one who bad been 
guilty of murder, perjury, adultery, or any of the like crimes, 
persisted in snch sins, or made trafQc of them, which could hardly 
be done without sin, or bore weapons except for the protection 
of hia nghta, or of his lord or friend, or of the poor, or for the 
defence of the chnrch ; or if one in so doing remained in posses- 
sion of another's property, or harboured hatred of his neighbour ; 
the penitence of snch a person ahoiild in nowise he considered as 
real and sincere. That was to be called a repentance without 
fruits, where one persisted in the same sin, or in a similar and 
worse one, or a triflingly less one. True repentence consisted 
in one's so turning back as to feel himself obliged to the faithful 
observance of hia baptiamal tow. Any other was sheer hypo- 
crisy ; and on none but him who did penance in the former of 
these ways, could he, by virtue of his apostolical authority, bestow 

Highly, again, as Gregory prized monaaticism, and the ascetical 
renunciation of the world ; yet his predilection for this mode of 
life never moved Mm, in the case of snch aa could be more useful 
in the discharge of their functions in the position where God had 
placed them, and whose placea could not easily be supplied, to 
approve the choice of this mode of life. The standard of love, he 
designated as the standard by which everything relating to this 
matter should be estimated. Accordingly, he wrote to the Mar- 
gravine Beatrice and her daughter Mathilda:^ " From love to 
God to show love to our neighbour ; to aid the unfortunate and 
the oppressed ; this I conaider more than prayer, fasting, vigils, 

' We Hud aho in Germaoy, eren U this tnlj period, the begiiiDingi of the umemu- 
ctiief. In the jrir 1071, nl Cologne, « womtn nrliom propie (Dapected u be k irilrh, wu 
precipiiMed from llir cil; wall, and kilJed. See Lambert of AKbaiTaiiburg, U Ibie year; 
ed. Kraase, p. 136. 

3 Lib. lii., ep. 10. 

» Lib.i..ep.eO. • 

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and other good works, be they erer so many; for trae lore is 
more than the other virtaes." " For," he adds, " if this mother 
of all the Tirtnes, which moved God to come down Irom heareD to 
earth to bear oar softots, vere Dot my teacher ; and if there were 
any one, vho would come forward in yonr place to help the op- 
pressed churches, and serre the church nnirersal ; then wonld I 
exhort yoQ to forsake the world with all its cares." In the same 
temper, he rebnked abbot Hugo of Glnny' for receiving a pione 
prince to his order of monks. " Why do yon not bethink your- 
self," he wrote, "of the great peril in which the chnrch now stands^ 
Where are they who, from love to God, are bold enough to stand 
firm against the impions, and to give np their lives for truth and 
justice ^ Behold ! even such as seem to fear or to lore God, flee 
from the battle of Christ, neglect the salvation of their brethren, 
and, loving themselves only, seek repose." A hundred thousand 
Christians are robbed of their protection. Here and there, no 
doubt. God-fearing monks and priests are to be found; butagood 
prince is scarcely to be found anywhere. He admonishes him, 
therefore, to be more prudent for the future, and to esteem the 
love of God and of one's neighbour above all other virtues. The 
superior liberality of his views is shown by Gregory,' in the 
judgment he passed on the controversy between the Greeks and 
Latins, concerning the use of leavened or nnleavened bread in the 
Lord's supper.^ True, it is his will, that the Latins should hold 
bat to their usage : yet he condemns not the Greeks, but applies 
in this case the words of Paol, "To the pare all things are pure."i 
As Gregory had already, when a cardinal, made himself well 
known by principles so sharply defined, and so energetically 
carried out," so the commencement of his papal administration 
1 Lib. Ti.. ep. 7. 

> We will, b; way o( addition, slate tlii« fact alao : The abbot Uufla of CIqdt had 
Inqnired or ilie pope Eoncerning Benogir. The amirer could doI pnbapa be to eaeily 
and bricSj given, aa il would b«vc been in case be eoold tutve decliieil him at oacc a 
&]k teacher : " De Berenguio," he wrote in irpl; to abbot Hngo. " uDde nobia 
•cripaiuia, quid oobia Tideitor. lel quid dispoauerlnias, fratrea, qaos tibi rrmittimua oum 
praedicto cardinall noelro, □untiabnot.'' Epp. Cregor. ]. v., ep. 21. 

> SceTol..Ti.,2ee— 320. 

* Ipaoram fvnncDMMm nee vilDp«rainn> iiec reprohamos, sequentea apoalalam dicen- 
Itm mundis exe amnio munda. Lib. vii. ep. 1. 

* His name, Oregar; VII., while it eontaini an eipieaeioQ of Ilia enduring friendahip, 
jmptiea aleo ■ protealallon against the interTereDce of tlie emperor in Ihe'effairs of tiie 

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vonld make a ret; diffsreat impresBion according to the relation 
in which the tvo opposite parties stood to each other. One of 
these parties expected fVom him the long-desired reformation of 
the church ; the other dreaded the seTere judge and punisher of 
the abuses vhich had crept in ; bishops and monarchs might 
veil tremble.^ If the nnmerons party of bishops, vho vere in- 
terested in the maintaining of old abuses, had had time for 
that purpose, donbtless thejr would haTe opposed the flection 
of Hildebrand at every step, aach reactions having already pro- 
ceeded from that party at the end of the preceding period.' 

1 Hon be ippeired to (he pioui men or bis times, evsn Ba«b «s did not belong to 
tb< icalow of tLe papal parlj, we ma; an from tbe jadgmoDt tbit Odericns Titalie of 
tbe DionEBLerr ot St Erreul, in NonDanil j, paues upon liim ; be sif s ot bim, ed. Dd 
ChesDe,r. est): A puero moaacLua omnlque nUaiift sspieDtlsa etreligioni admodma 
eHidail aaiiduumque ceiuioea contra pecotlam vieroait. Limben of Aiobtfiknbarg, 
mention 9 him while he woa yet a eanHnal ; Ahba* de ssncta PsdIo, Titeteloqaentiaet 
aacromm litfraiiim emdltione valde admirandua; (R>d page 89, in toM scelesia onml 
•iitntam genere caleberrimum. 

a Woithjof notice i« the accanntof Lambert of AachaKnburg,p.SS. Gregory hai log 
become welt known on Rcconnt of hie ardent zael forthe Raaae of Ood (leio Dei fenentis- 
■imu>), the French bisbope were filled with great aniivCj, ne Tir vehementiB ingenit el 
acria erga Denm Bdei, disliictiuB eo* pro ncgligenllii aaia quandoqae diacnteret, and 
the; had therefors been veiy importunate with king Henr; the Fonrth, that be sbonld 
declaie the diction wbicb had taken place wilhoat his cuncarrenca to be nnll and Toid ; 
, (br, anleea ha anticipated the attack of the pope, the latter woald come down upon no 
one with more seTeritr than himself. Henry, therefore, immediately nnlcaaatEberbard 
M Rome, with inatrnciiona to bring the Roman noblea to aooouDt for hating, in eon- 
traricty to ancient nsage. aet up a pope witbont the concarrencs of the king; and, 
in caae it happened that Oregory would not gire the proper latlsKution, to insist upon 
bis abdication. The pupe recelred him kindly, and called God to witoes^ tiiat this 
dignity was forced upon him by the Homanaj at the same time, boweier, bit ordination 
was pnl Dfftill he should ieara of the coDCurrence of the king and of the Gorman princes . 
With this eiplanalinn the king was Ballaand, and ao Ongory's coiu*cntian look place. 
Ware we wan-anted to give any credit lo thiB account, then Qiegoiy'a adroitnea* in 
suiting his conduct to the circnmBtancea would have descended in tbis case to actual 
dishonesty: the end must haie been thought by bim to sanctify the meaDa; for as- 
suredly, according lo Hildebnnd'a principles, the lalidity of a fifil sleetion oould not 
he dependent an any aach cireuoiBUncee. Ceflain it is Ihal hs was ftom th« first ds- 
temiiiied to dJBjiuLe auch apoaition moat decidedly. He must have yielded only Iter Uie 
moment, because be did not t>elieie himself as yet siroDg enoDgh ID maintain his ground 
in a quarrel with the imperial party, or wished at least to guard against a dangcrona 
Bobiam We must admit it to b« not at all improbable (list anch attempts might ba made 
on Henry the Fourth by the anii Hildebrandiin parlj. But it is hardly possible to be. 
lii've that Gregory, after having under the preceding raign so deoidedly repelled any such 
cDncesaian, should haie yielded BO much asia here Blated; fur the oonseqnenoes which 
might be drawn from hisconduot in Buch a «Be, ccnld be plainly foraasen. UoreoTcr.tbe 
■ilcnce obssrved in the arilingsof the opposit* party, whioh would not bsrabiledlo pro- 
duce this fact against Gregory, if there had been any truth in it, besii leatimouy agtdist ihe 

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Gre^ry falfilled these expeetations. He couToked a synod to 
meet at Rome on the first fast-week of the year, whose bnsinesB 
it should be to Tindicate the freedom of the chnrch, to promote 
the interests of religion, and to prevent an irremediable eormp- 
tien which was coming: i^pon the church. In the letters missire 
for this conncil,' he depicts in g^laring colours, but in a way cer- 
tainly not differing fVom the truth, the then cornipt condition of 
the church : that the princes, serving only their own selfish in- 
terests, setting all reverence aside, oppressed the church as a poor 
miserable handmaidett, and sacrificed her to ihe indulgence of 
their own desires. Bnt the priests had entirely forgotten the 
obligations under which they were laid, by their holy vocation, 
to Ch>d, and to the sheep intmsted to their care ; by their spiri- 
tual dignities they only sought to attain to honour in the world ; 
and the property, which was designed to subserve the benefit of 
many, was squandered away by tkeut on idle state and in snper- 
Snous expenditures. And as the communities thus suffered under 
«i entire want of instmction and guidance in righteonsness ; as, 
instead thereof, they eonld only learn from the example of those 
set over them what was contrary to Christianity, so they too gave 
themselves up to all wickedness ; and not only the practical liv- 
ing out, bnt wellnigh all knowledge even of the doctrines of faith . 
was wanting. 

At this fast-synod, in the year 1074, the principles were car- 
ried oat, by which it had been already attempted, under the 
rei^ne of the recent popes, to improve the condition of the church, 
which had sunk so low. The repeated papal ordinances would 
8^1 seem, however, to have accomplished nothing ; in many 
countries they seem to have been as good as not known, as ap- 
pears evident ftom the reception which the newly-inculcated laws 
met with. Gregory not only repeated at this synod the ordi- 
Banees against simony in the bestowment of benefices, and against 
matrimonial connections of the clergy, which he plainly desig- 

eradibflit; oftbr M017. BlabopHeoij of Bp«ier, wbo, inbia rprooloaa letter igtinat Qra- 
gnj tbt Scvenlh (io Eceud. ■criplores rti, Girm. t. ii. f. 762), nould lomiely b>T« 
omlltod 10 nuke 11*8 of Ibis along wilb bit alher ebargeo against bim, brings it agiioat 
bhD limply ibal whsn a cardinal ho bad bound bimself bj oatb to Ibc emperor Hanry the 
Tbiid nflTerlo aeoepl Iha papal dignilj, during bia own or bia aoD'a lifeiinie, witboul 
Uieonaanl, nortoanS^ ibat anj otbei pcnon abould bHome pope wltboDt tba aama. 
I Lib. i. ap. 43. 

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nates as " fornicatioD ;" he declared not only that those ecclesiae- 
tics who had obtained their o£Bces in the way jnat mentioned, and 
thoBe who lived in .snch nnlawrd comections, were incapable 
henceforth of administering the functions of their office ;' bnt he 
also addressed himself anew to the laity with a view to stir them 
up against the clergy who vonld not obey. " If, however, they 
resolve to persist in their sins," says he of those clergy, " then 
let no one of you allow himself to hear mass from them ; for 
their blessing will be converted into a cnrse, their prayer into 
sin, as the prophet speaks : ' I will caree yonr blessings,' " Mai. 
ii. 12.' It was the pope's design, as he himself even avowed, to 
compel those ecclesiastics who would not obey from a sense of 
dnty, to do so by exposing them to the detestation of the people,* 
Gregory, however, did not rest satisfied with merely having these 
lave published at the Roman synod ; he also transmitted them 
to those bishops who bad not been present at the synod, making 
it at the same time imperative on them to see that they were pnt 
in force ; and the legated, whom he sent forth in all directions, 
served as his agents to promnlgate them everywhere, and to take 
care that they sUonld be obeyed. 

Bat the most violent commotions broke oat in France and 
Germany, on the pnblication of the law against the marriage of 
the clergy. In this instance was displayed the resistance of the 
German spirit, some symptoms of which had already been mani- 
fested at the time of the planting of the German chnrch by Boni- 
face, against this attempt to cnrtail man of his humanity. It was 
as if an entirely new and unheard of law was promulgated ; and 
the German spirit was prepared even now to feel the contradic- 
' tion between this law and original Christianity, to contrast the 
declarations of Christ and the apostles with the arbitrary will of 
the pope. Such remonstrances as the following were uttered 
against the pope in Germany :' " Forgetting the word of the 

1 Bi qai aunt pmbrteri >e1diiiconi*elsDbdiicoDi,quiin<inn>iDS ItomiBUioDisjtetuit. 
interdicimuB ils » parte Dei omnipotcutii et 8. Petri anctsriUM «clMi*« inlraiuun, 
usqae dum poeniteiDl ei emendent. 

3 Tb is ordinance is cited in tbia form bj aerooli afRcichenberg.iti Fa.i., Fei.1. c 
l,T.r.l97. Hatiel CoDCil, XI. r. 4». 

■ ABhebimfteiraayB, in bis Ictterlo biabop OUo ofConatauee: Dtqui pro aiDora Dai 
et otBfiii dignitusDon oonigantor, vtjncondla seenii et olyufguione popall rrnpiaeuit. 

* Lambert of Ascbsffanborg, wbo did not himself belong lo tbia iDt J-Uildebnuidi«n 

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Lord (Uatt. xix. 11), as well as that of the apostle Fanl (1 Cor. 
Tii. 9), he wonU force men, by tyrannical eompalsion, to lire as 
the angels ; and by seeking to suppress the rery dictates of na- 
ture, he was throwing open a wide door for all impnrity of man- 
ners. Unless he withdrew these decrees they would prefer rather 
to renounce the priesthood than their marriage-covenant ; and 
then he, for whom men were not good enough, might look about 
for angels to preside over the churches," 

The archbishop Sigfrid of Mentz wished to prepare his clergy 
by one step at a time. He allowed them half a year for consi- 
deration, exhorting them, however, to undertake voluntarily that 
which they must otherwise do by constraint, and imploring them 
not to put him and the pope under the necessity of resorting to 
severer measures agunst them., This indulgence, however, did 
not help the matter, for when the archbishop, at a synod held in 
Erfurt, in the month of October, required of the clergy that they 
should either separate from their wives, or resign their places, he 
met with the most violent resistance. In vain he declared to 
them that be did not act according to his own inclination, but 
was obliged to yield to the antliority of the pope. They threat- 
ened him with deposition and death, if he persisted in carrying 
this measnre throngh. He saw himself forced to let the matter 
rest for the present, and promised that he would make a report 
to the' pope and try what could he done. Accordingly, he wrote 
to the pope, excusing himself on the ground of the impossibility, 
nnder the unfavourable circumstances, of showing obedience, as 
he wished, in all that the pope required. In this letter be says, 
*' In regard to the chastity of the clergy and the crime of heresy, 
as well as everything else which yon propose to me, I shall ever, 
so far as God gives me the ability, obey him and yon. It would, 
however, correspond to apostolical gentleness, and fatherly love, 
so to modify yonr ecclesiastical ordinances, as that some regard 
might be had to the circumstances of the time and to that which 
is practicable in individual cases ; so that, while there shall be 
no lack of strict discipline towards transgressors, there shall 

partj, lDhi*HI(laf7ofaenMnr (« the jMrtOT4), nprrHm hinnlf id Ihe follawing 
■Iroog Ungiugr : Advcrantboo dccretuDi |)roliDU> Trhemrnler infremull toU (kolio deri- 
sonun boDlDcm plui* buraiioDm et Teuoi dngmuii raw dimjuiu. 
Sm Luobeit, p. lift 

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128 TUB pope's answbk. 

neither Iw any wuit of & chaiiUble compuaion tovnrds those 
who are sick and need a physician ; aad that the meaanre of 
jastice may not exceed the limits of apostolical pmdence and 
paternal lore."' fint no excuses were aratUng with the pt^. 
In an answer to two letters,^ he replied to him' that, " no doabt, 
accoidiog to man's judgment, he had adduced weighty grounds 
of excuse ; but nothing of all this could excuse him, howerer, 
before the Dirine tribunal, for neglecting that which was re- 
quisite for the salration of the souls committed to his care, — no 
loss of goods, no hatred of the wicked, no vratli of the powerfid, 
no peril even of his lift ; for, to be ready to make all these 
sacrifices, was the very thing that distinguished the shepherd 
flrom the hireling." " It is a fact that must tedonnd greatly to 
our diame," said the pope, in concloaion, " that the warriors trf* 
this world take their posts every day in the line of battle for 
their earthly sovereigns, and scarcely feel a fear of exposing their 
lives to hazard ; and should not we, who are called priests of the 
Lord, fight for our king, who created all things from nothing, 
who cheerfully lud down his life for os, and who promises ujb 
eternal felicity V And he persisted in requiring that the laws 
whicb had been passed respecting simony and the marriage of 
the clergy should at any rate be carried into efiiect, rejecting 
every modification on these points.* A second synod was held 
at Erfurt, at which a papal legate was present to enforce obedi- 
ence. But he too came near losing his life in the tumult which 
ensned, and could accomplish nothing. The archbishop con- 
tented himself with ordering that in future none but unmarried 
persons should be elected to spiritual offices, and that at ordina- 

1 Erit witem apoUolicte nuninftuiliDis e( ptteiiiie dileotioiiii, lic 4d fratrM mandita 
diiigBie ecckiiistica, ut et temporam opportUDitates et Hiu^'omm poiBlbiliUlem dig- 
nemini ingpicnv, al et deiiaDtibiis et diacolU tdhibnlor diiciplini, qnie debetni, et 
isfinnia fit opus h*brnIibDS mrdico oompuaio caritatis noD DrBctur: aiFpeqae exami- 
TiUit negatiorani ciiuis adliibcatur judioii cenann, ul apoalolloae diacn lioniBet paUmu 
pielBiia modnm noD eicedu juBlitiae mensurB. Maaai Cancil. xx., f. l3l. 

3 In Lbe greond, be had eicaicd himself on Ihe gronnd Ihal, uadei the tiisdiig dr 
CDDuwnueB, and oa acsounl of eijH diapaUa and diUurbaDRca, he eould not hold the 
requirttd counoil of rerarm. 

* Hoc aulem Inu fralernllall IiijiiDgimdi, qualenns de aimoaiaca hatreai ae fomiea- 
tiane clericorum, sicut ab apostolica B«de accepiiti, amdiuae pcrqiiiras ft qoidqnid re- 
trDsctDm Inieucrie, legslitec paniai et ftinditns resenes : ac ne qnidquid nlwHus Sat, 
pgnltus interdicsa. 

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tion erer; candidate sIiodM obligate bimself to obaeire the law 
of celibacy. 

The pope, vho vas aoon informed of everything tfaat trans* 
pired, by the mnltitndes vho came ftom different regions to Bome,i 
learned that Gebhard, archbishop of Salzburg, althongh he had 
himself been present at the synod, yet let his clergy go on in the 
old way. For this, the pope addressed him a letter of sharp 
remonstrance.' In like manner he testified his displeasure to 
bishop Otto of CostnitE, abont whom be had heard similar reports. 
" How sbonld an ecclesiastic, living in concabioage," he aslcs, 
" be competent to administer the sacraments, when, in fact, snch 
a person is not eren worthy of receiring them ; when the most 
hnmble layman, living in snch unlawful connection, would cer- 
tainly be excluded from the chnrch-comnmnion V" He constantly 
asBomed that marriage contracted by a clergyman, in defiance of 
the ecclesiastical laws, was nothing better than concnbinage. 

Gregory reckoned npon being upheld by the people ; and he 
might, without advancing another step, simply leave his ordi- 
nances to operate among the people ; here he would hare fonnd 
the most powerful support. As it had happened already, at the 
close of the preceding period,* the cause of the papacy against a 
corrupted clei^y had now become the cause of the people. Gre- 
gory had, in fact, already appealed to the people, when he called 
on them not to accept the sacerdotal acts from ecclesiastics living 
in nnlswfiil connections ; while he at the same time exhibited 
their character in so hateftal a light. He moreover made a direct 
ea\l upon powerful laymen for their active cooperation in en- 
forcing the obedience which should be rendered to those laws. 
Thus he wrote to those princes, on whose submission and in- 
terest, in behalf of the cause of piety, he thought he might 
safely rely.' He exhorted them, in the most argent manner, to 

I Lib. ill *P- 1' Al> >!>•>■ mnodi finibu> etiun gesM noiitn ad fidar 
•indcDt uiiiDe Um mnliem qnun viri td com (S. Petinm) venire, 

t Ol oleriem, qui tuipiter cooTerwDtiir, paalondi Tigore cocrceta. Lib. i 

* Nob *i Tel eitremuin Uicnm pellicatni adbHeientem &)iquiudo cognoiei 
velnt pneoiBDm * damlnico eorpore membram, donee poeniUM, ooQdjgae ■ 
■lUuia irceiDna, quomodo ergo lacninieDtaTnni distributor lel minister eeclesiiis debet 
ON, qni nolla latione deb«[«>t putimpsT Eceud, scriplorcB rei. QenuTiicu. ii,, 

» S(«val.Ti.,p. m. 

9 Lib. ii., ep. 43. 

VOL. VII. 1 

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refuse acceptiDg any priestly performauce at the hands of clergy 
who had obtained their places by simony, or who lired in un- 
chastity.' They were requested to publish these laws erery- 
vfaere ; and, if it should be neceesary, binder even by force such 
ecclesiastics from administering: the sacrameats.^ They were not 
to be pnt at fanlt, if the bishops neglected their duty and kept 
silent, or even spoke against them.. If it should be objected to 
them, that this did not belong to their calling, still, they should 
not desist from labouring for their own and the people's salva- 
tion ; they should, on the contrary, appeal to the pope, who had 
laid upon them this charge . He himself says : " Since, by so 
many ordinances, from the time of Leo the Ninth, nothing baa 
been effected," it is far better to strike out a new path, than to 
let the laws sleep, and the souls of men perish also."* He had 
allied himself with the pious laity against the corrupted clergy ; 
he expresses bis joy that he had done so ; and thanks Ood, that 
men and women of the lay order, notwithstanding the bad ex- 
ample of the clergy, were ready to give themseWes up to the 
interests of piety. He calls upon such not to suffer themselves 
to be alarmed by the cry of the latter, who thought themselTes 
entitled to despise such laymen, as ignorant persons.' 

1 Toa offlciDin >oriiin, qaoB lal aimoiuice promotos at anliD*t« bdi in crimine tbr 
uiulionis jaeenlei cngaaTeritii, nullHUniui reoipiuis. 

1 £i biec eadem idstricLi per obrdienliam tarn in odHi ngia qusm per *]l> luca e( 
ooDTrntni ngoi notiflcuit** tc perauwienlea, quintnm pounii, uIm luroMDCtia 
deKnira mjateriia, etiim vi, ai oportucriv prahibcalJa. 

> QDidqaid rpiscopi deliinc loqaatitar *M tkntiM. 

i Si qui Ratcm coutn tos quas) istiid officii vesLri non chc, Bliqiiid garrire incipiint, 
hoc illie reapondete : ut TeMrani ct papnli silulem nan impedienles, de iiOnDCM robi^ 
obediuDtia ad dot nabiaeaai diapDUturi leniuit. 

s CoDcerning ihosa laws : Qu» ciiin aancla eL apoatolica matar eceleaia jam ■ tain- 
pore b. LeoDia papaa aaepe in conciliia tuoi per legatoa turn per epistolaa ia ae «t oom- 
miaaaa aibi plehea, utpotr ab anliqaioribua d«gl«cu,ranaTanat0baaTTarec(iaiiiionuari[, 
TOgaTent el accppta per Petnim aoatoritalt jutaerit, adbnc jiiobedienlaB. aicepiia per- 
paucia, tun eiecrandam cuUBDeLudiDem Dnlla Btudaerunt prahibitioiie decidecfl, nulla 

t Hnlto enim meliaa nobis videlnr. Juatitiam Dei Tal navia reaediflcare con^iia, 
qnam animaa bominum una cum Irgibua depeiice oegleetii. 

1 Lib, ii., ep. 11. Quapiapier quidquiJ illi contra voa into coQln jnatiliain garriant 
et pro derendanda neqaitia suo Tobia, qui illiteiali eatia, objiciant, tob id parilate e( 
Gonatantia Adei vealrae pennanenlea, qaae do epiacopia et aacerdotiboa Bimoniteia am 
io rornieatione jacienlibua ab apoalolica Bede accepiBlia, flrmiter oivdite ei Icnata. In 
alelUT which ia addreaaed u the biabop and the commuDitira at the lauie tima, becalla 
upon both to labour together (or the aame object. Lib. il,, ep. Gs. 

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Again, Gregory found a peenliar kind of support in those 
monks, nho trarelled abont as preachers of repentance, had the 
greatest influence among the people, and sided with the popes in 
combating the prerailing cormptlon of manners, and the Ticioos 
clei^y. There were some among these, inflamed by the ardonr 
of genuine piety ; but there were others inspired only by fanati- 
cism or ambition.' Hence, the monks drew upon themselves, as 
a class, the hatred of the anti-Hildebrandian party. They were 
represented by the men who stood at the head of that party, as 
pharisees, promoters of spiritual darkness, and zealots for human 
ordinances.* In the anti-Hildehrandian party we must distin- 
goish two classes : those who, contending only for their own 
personal advantage and the maintenance of old abuses, were 
farthest removed from the interest of culture ; and those who 

I When the dnrtei ot thai Roman coniHiil icete milt kDOwn at a Bjnod held in 
Pari*, DeaH; all the biahopa, abbou, aDd cl«rg]i piotMled agaibit Ihem, deoltriDg, 
inpoMabilia MM pneeciiu ideoqae irralioitabilia. Walwr, abbot of the manaeterj af 
8l Uartin, near Fontiaara (Fotnaiae), th* flene anlaganiu ot aimoDf, who harlrulj 
told [he truth to king Philip the Pint, naa the oulj one wboitood up rortheae lairB,on 
the prineiple of the reipect which in every caaa via due to iDperioia. Oburohnien and 
people or the coon attaiked him on all aidei; but be «■> not to be rnoTod bj anj antha- 
Tilj nor hj any threata. See ilia Life, vritten bj one of bia diaciplea ; c. ii., } 10. t, i., 
Heni. April, f. 7(10. Even down id the early pan of the twelfth cealaij. In the time of 
pops Paatiialie the Second, tbe papal lam of celibacy were ao little obanved in Nur- 
tnaltdy, that prieata celebrai«d tbeir wedding! openly, paaaed theii litiuga to thehr ioii* 
by iuhcritBDce.or gare them la a dowry to tbeir dangbl«ra, if the; had no other propeitj. 
Tbeir wiiea, berorc they married, took an oatb before their pareatt, Ibat tbey would 
DPTcr foraake (heir huBbanda. When, however, ibe monk Bemanl (abbot of Tin in the 
dioeeae of Chanrea), ilineralsd at that time in Normandy aa i prewber of rrpentuioe, 
being a nan of true piety, who had great influence an the people, b* aiood forth in 
oppoaition to inch eecleeiMtioo, and abarply rebuked them in hie diaoonraet. Some 
gave heed to hia eihortationa, but the greater number conlioned to puTBua tbeir old 
eaoraa of life. The wive* of the prieata with tbeir whole retinue, and the clergy them. 
•alvea, peneeuted Uim. Tbey tried to bring it abonl that be ahonld be forbidden to 
pmuh. Bf the Life of tl.ia nun, at April 14, c. ii., i 01, t. li., f. 231. 

^ The fierce opponent of the Hildebrandiin parly, end lealona champion for the 
eaiue of tbe emperor Uenry the Fourtli, biahop Waltrun of Naumbarg, attacked the 
MOnka aa phariaeaa (Olacunintei), who zeaiouslj contended for bnmaa Inditionf, 
pnvonted inttntction in their manaalerica, and eongbt to keep the yonlh, from tbe 
Sdt, in ignorance and stupidity. Hirandum eat ralile, quod nolnnt allqui, praeoipue 
sotem monaehi, quae praeclara anut diacere, qui ne paen» quidem val adoleaeenleB 
penniiCant in monasleriie halwn attidinm Bplutaria Bcientlae, nt Boilicel rude ingeninm 
nntriaiur aillqaia ("aemoniorum, quae aunt eonauetudinea hnmanamm Iraditianum, ut 
egoamodi epurcitiia aaauefaoti non poaaint gnatare, quom Buavia eat Dominua, qai dicil 
in enkSgelia dc talibuf : cae tobii aeribae et phariaaei hy)>oeritBe, TOa enim non intraliB, 
DBO ainitia introeunlra insue. Apolog. lib, ii., p. 170, in Ooldail. ApoL pro. Henrieo 
Quarfai. Hanoriae, Ull. 


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stroTe for the cause of a well-grounded conTiction, — representa- 
tives of a fireer spirit,* vhich they had contracted from the study 
of the Bible, and of the older church-teachers, and which woald 
incite them to posh their studies still farther in the same direc- 
tion. To snch, the monks contending for the Hildebrandian 
system might well appear to be no better than Obscurantists. 

Thns Gregory must unite himself with the monks against the 
bishops as well as gainst the princes. We see how he takes 
the part of the former against that fVee-minded bishop, Cnnibert 
of Tnrin ;* and it may be a qnestion on which side the right was 
in this dispute ; whether the quarrel was not connected with the 
universal contest about principles which agitated these times. 
Remarkable is the langnage which Gregory, in a threatening 
tone, addresses to this bishop, that " the earlier popes had made 
pious monasteries free from all relations of dependence on the 
bishops, and bishoprics firee from the orersight of the metropoli- 
tans, in order to protect them against the enmity of their supe- 
riors, so that they might erer stand free, and immediately con- 
nected, as more illustrious members, with the head, the apostolical 
8ee.° Here we discern that tendency. of papal absolutism, which 
was seeking to dissolve the existing legitimate gradation of the 
church organism, and to procure organs everywhere which should 
be immediately dependent on and serviceable to itself. It was 
made, therefore, a special matter of reproach against Gregory the 
Seventh by the defenders of the opposite system — that he paid no 
regard whatever to the specific rights of any ecclesiastical autho- 

1 Oerhoh of Rcloberebcrg compliini of lbs wreeting of th* Scriptam whiah tba 
dcfander of limouj aod of NicoUitiam (m the defence of the muriags of priaici ma 
Unned) T^iorted toi tpii BimoDiui et NicoUiue obliDneniDt diTiciu oorponlna et 
■piritDBle*, nsm ponident eccleaiai el loiunl tcriptiini et ideo dt ipU $criptiiru et 
Hoci lalaMenli idUndenint trcdm ad M delorqneuda et BeetiQdo lenenm eorum jniU 
eTTarem annm. It ii eTident, (heD, Ibat the odacaled men of tlie inti-HildebrvidisD 
party took pallia (o gludf tLe Bible; and wbat Oerkah calla wreating of the Bcripniiea, 
waa aometimn llie rigtit jacsrpretation aftlie Bible. 

> See TDl. ti., p. 160. 

t Lib. ii. ep. 69. Perpetna libertate dapantea apoBtolieae sedi lelnl prindptlU otpiti 
aao membra adhaenre Bameniiit. 

4 Sea tbfl letter of tbebiahop of Spaiera^inatOregor;: SnblMa qnantnm Id le fiiil, 
omni potaaiate epiacopia, quae eia diiinitna pergnliamSpirituaainelicDllataeaeadiDDa' 
oitHTtdnm nemo jam alioni epiaeopQa aut preabjtereat, niei qui hoc Indignisatma aaHO- 
uliaae ■ tutn tuo emendicBTit. See Eccanl, I. c ii, f. 762. 

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Bnt the passions of the people having once been excited gainst 
the clergy, there arose to a still greater extent than we ohseire 
on the like occauon in any former period, separatist moTements, 
and the passions of the people went beyond the limits fixed by 
the popes. Laymen stood forth, who, while they declared the 
sacraments administered by the cormpted clergy to be withont 
validity, took the liberty themselves to baptize. We may well 
believe, too, the remark of a historian of this period,' hostilely 
disposed to this pope, that, in a state of the nations which still 
continued to be so rude, the fanaticism excited by the pope 
against the married clergy, manifested itself in the wildest out- 
breaks, and even led to a profanation of the sacraments. Here- 
tical tendencies might easily spring np out of this insurrection 
against the cormpted clergy and this separatism, or find in thetn 
s point of attachment. It was an eas^ thing for all who under- 
stood bow to take advantage of the excited feelings of the people, 
to use them for their own ends, and as a means to obtain fol- 
lowers. Certain it is, that the heretical sects, which in the 
twelfth centnry spread with so mnch power, especially in Italy, 
were by this ferment not a little promoted,^ as the sectarian 
name of the Fatarenesi itself indicates. The demagogical ten- 
dency was especially objected to the pope by his adversaries ; 
and it was said that he made use of the popular fury as a means 
of procuring obedience to his laws,, How easily the people, in a 

1 See ths rcmuka ar8ig«b«n at Oemblonn, cited below. 

t Tliis maj ba gathvred etea trom llie remirktble accounl of lbs Ljiiioriia SU^bert 
of Qembloan. Conlineatiun piDCii leucniibus, aliquibus earn modo csubh ^ uBeslus &s 
jictujtiie BimuliDtibtu, multis incontiiientiuii peijuro (giDoe tbr; ;ul themselvea under 
in obligeliou at tbeir ordiuilion tu ohBerre tLe lana of celibBcj, nudjei wen uol enabled 
to keep il),<niiDaUiitibu« ad boo hac oppcirluniuie laicia iugurgeiiUbuB contra lacro* 
ordinea, el le *b onini eccleaiaelica subjeclioue eiculientibuB, Uici sacra myaleria lenie- 
nuit et de bi* diapatant, inrautes baptizant, sordida bumore aurium pro aarro oleo et 
ebriamale otentea, io eilremo vilae liaticnin domiuicumet uailaluni cccleaiae abaequium 
•rpnilurae a pnab^uria coujugatli acctpere pacvipendantidecimaapreabyleria deputalaa 
iKni oremanl, et ut in una caelera prrpendaB, laid e<ir|jua Lomini a preabjteria conjaga- 
tia oonarcratDiii, aaepe pediboa conculcaTcruDt rl aangulDem Domini voluularie vffude- 
ranl, etmnlta aliaconlrajua et tat inracleaiageataaant, et bae occanioDe muUipsiado- 
nutfitlri einrgentea in eoclesia,pni/<uiii iwvUalihua plebiia ab evchtiaitka ditdplina 
laxTliinl. Although this ucaDDl,aa proceed lag from an opponent of the Hildebiaodian 
partj, migfat excite suapioiOD, jet certain]; in all eaaential points it ia iti conformitf with 
the troth. 

aSeaiol. f1.F.16i. 

1 Id ILn lettri of Theodoric of Vcrduii : Lrgem de clericorum iiicoiitiDentia per lai- 

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time of barbarism, might pass over from a anperstitions venera- 
tion of the clergy to a fanatical detestation of them, may be seen 
fVom the example in Denmark, which perhaps was connected 
with these moTements excited hy the pope himself. The people, 
on occasions of public calamity, a bad atmo^jphere, droughts, fai- 
lure of crops, were wont to complain of the clergy, and to rage 
against them ; hence, the pope himself yi&a under the necessity 
of exhorting them to show a becoming rererence to the priests.' 

All this DOW furnished grounds for rarions complaints against 
the pope. Even those who approved the lawe reBpeoting celibacy, 
in themselves considered, still could not approve the means which 
he employed to enforce obedience to them ; and they thought he 
ought to have been content to establish these laws on a firm 
foundation for the future, and to enforce obedience to them in all 
following time. But they found fanlt with him, because he 
showed no indulgence to those clergymen who were already bound 
by the ties of wedlock, because he was for having everything done 
at once, and paid no regard to the weakness of mankind ; be- 
cause he did not copy the example of Christ, in bearing with the 
infirmities of his disciples ; because he was for pouring the new 
vine into old bottles, and stirring np the people so cruelly against 
the clergy. By all the laws in the world, said they, that cannot 
possibly be brought about by force which grace alone can effect 
by working IVom within. Hence every good man should be more 
ready to pray for the weak than to involve them in snch perse- 

oonm inoDiai oobibenda, Irgpoi iid scandilnm in scclciia mittendam UrtaiD Toinvnle 
prolMim. MaitnDe H DcraDd, Ihee. nov. *n«dotor. t. L, f, 21S. And Htury, bishop 
of Spcier, wji, in the leiler aboTe cil«l: Omiiii Tcnim eccleeiutiearum admiDistratio 

1 Hill nij of doing Ibia diBCovera in > ctianialeriBtic manner the more Jewiali lliui 
Chriitian poaition au ithicb iie atuod. Qaod qnun grive prccstum sil, ei eo liquido 
potMtiB adTerure. qnod Jndwi* eliun Mceidotibni ipie aalvaLor noater lepra purguos 
einmiltendo bonorem eibibaeril culeriiqaeMmndum esse quae illi diiisient, prtraepii, 
qnujD profeclo Teilrt qualeacunqee hRbeantBr, camen iliia tongn aint meliorea. Lib. 
vii. rp. SI. 

' Tbe woniaof pTi»lAlbDin. in bis aecond Irifrigainat priest Bcrnold of Canaunre: 
Nonne atiim ipae aammns ponlifei, qui coeloa peDelraiit, Don amnM boo Teibam eas- 
titatie oapere, nrque elfam uotam Diiiatam in Teleres uterea fUodi conienire, insaper 
Todea discipuloa, quamdia com itlia sponaua eat, Don jejunara profltetuT, inBiniiuiibaR 
noali '^ miaecioorditsc oompati non dedignalur. Aa Cbrbt, tbe great pbjsicia'.i, receiTed 
pnblicana and sinnen aniong bis tabia companiona. Bntone will ttj: Tea, after liter 

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Furthermore, the manner in which CFregory had expressed him- 
self repecting; the sacramental acts performed by unworthy eccle- 
siafitics, gare occasion to the chaise, that he made the validity 
and force of the sacraments depend on the subjective chaTact«r of 
the priest : which stood at variance with the doctrine concerning 
the objectiye validity of the sacraments recognized ever since the 
controversies between Cyprian and the Chnrch of Borne.* 

Although those first ordinances of the pope had already ex- 
cited BO riolent a ferment, he yet, unmoved by that circumstance, 
proceeded to take another step. In order to cut off entirely the 
fonntain-head of simony, and to deprive the secular power of all 
influence in the appointments to spiritual offices,* the riffht of in* 
vettiture, by virtue of which the laity might always exercise a 
certain influence of this sort, was to be wholly denied them. At 
a second fast synod of reform, held at Rome the year 1075, he 
issued the ordinance : " If any person ia future accepts a bishopric 
or an abbacy from the hands of a layman, such person shall not be 
regarded as a bishop or ao abbot, nor shall he enter achureh, till 
he has given up the place thus illegally obtained. The same 
thing should hold good also of the lower chnrch offices. And 
every individual, be he emperor or king, who bestows investitare 

miDifnnd npcDUDce. Well, but vbo hrongbL ibem m rrpenLiniw * AranrrdlT, Cbriet 
alou*. Profecu Bliiu bomlnit, qui de coelo deiceudil, Zicbaeo iiui oc>'u1ta in>plratiuu« 
■dKtntiaufm arboTuperauuit. Sic eiiam dudc, nisi iWe omnia Irahini ad it occullo 
mae graliat mtlu not mitcrot Ira/iat, profvl dvbin niiiri Papat MiBioriUs luillit. Ag- 
num cam Inpo tcbcI oonStctnr deiten tic^lil. Proiade quetnque piorum migis deacrrt 
pro iDBrniia omv, quuD \u iilif mdis dishui lot perteculnrvm super eos jugum ducere. 
Ed.O(tld*Bt.l.e.|>*g 42. 

1 Bee WilLnm of Naunibarg. I. iii. c. K Qerbob of Reiclienberg tikfs gnnl pHii.s 
to defend the pop* itgiiiut tbe ■rcnMiion of Ibow whoeaid; " Nan potest poUui verbam 
Dei, Dou poltet impediri gnlii Dil, quiu buos efftctn* operi^iiir, etiun per miniitroH, 
JiuUe tnditori aimiln. He gnnta ibia to be true in rererenfe to lUoar vIjdbc vicM are 
not jrrt op«DlT known ; buc the oiie ia difTereat, he mtiolaini, afl^r such wor;hl«>s 
clrrgTawn bare been depoKd > j lilt pope ; juit u Jadaa, afUr be bud become iiposed, 
and had left tbe nnka of tbs diaoiplea, no longer took part wllb then) in anj nligioua 
art. Sval.c. pag.154, acq. We aee from wbit he bhtb, bow much tiilk lliere wu at 
tbat tima on tbis Bubjeet on botb aides. In a mncb more able manner ihan aerlioli, 
Anaelm of Caaierbnrj defeudB at one and tbs same time, Ibe objecIiTe Tslidily of tbe 
aaenowniB and tbe |iap«] law, tbe Beose of wbii:li waa not, quo qnlB ca, qnaa Iraotani, 
conteninenda,a»d traclaniloaeiecrandoeexiBliniel, ut qoi Deiet AnKelorampraeaeniiam 
non reremiUir, vel liominura deleatitione r^ulai, farri eontHminarP deaielant. Lib. i. 

i Bee roL vi., p. 118. 

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in conuecUon with snch an office, should b« exelnded l^om 
chnrch-commnnion."' Gregory and his party maintained that on 
this point also they only restored to the ancient ecclesiastical 
lava the aathority which belonged to them ; that being reduced 
to practice, which these laws hod determined with regard to the 
freedom of church elections. He was praised as the restorer of 
free church elections ; and men were indebted to him for the les- 
cae of the church from utter ruin, which venality, and hence bad 
appointments to all offices, from the highest to the lowest, must 
have for their consequence.* By the other party, however, it was 
made out, in defence of the rights of monarchs, that if the bishops 
and abbots were willing to receive trom them civil immunities 
and possessions, they must also bind themselves to the fulfilment 
of the duties therewith connected. This was the beginning of 
a long -continued contest between the papacy and the secular 

The above-mentioned decrees the pope now sought to carry 
into execution against princes and prelates. He threatened the 
young Philip the First, of France, with excommunication, the in- 
terdict, and deposition, if he refused to reform. In a tetter to 
the French bishops," he describes the sad condition of France, 
where no rights, human or divine, were respected, where rapine 
and adultery reigned with impnnity.* He made it a matter of 
severest rdproach to the bishops, that they did not restrain the 

1 See Ehia decree in the waii vLicb lliu leilaiu deTendet of Qngory'i aaorK, Aa- 
■Blm, biabop of Luce^ wiole igeioit bie advenuy Guibrrl. T. iii, p. L lib. ii., f. 383. 
Cuiie. leet. >Dtiq, ed Beaiuge. 

D Oerbob of Beieberibeig.vbo wrole after tbe middle of tbe iweirih eentnrj, reekona 
Ihe realomian of ftee ecclralutic&l elactioni among tbe worke of die Hoi; Spitil in 
bla times. Hue aant pJR da spiriiu piet*tit proTFUieDtta apecucola, cujne openlioni 
el boo aaaignunnB, quod in diebue lati* magna cat libenu cinoDicineleclianibaar^a- 
oopamm, abbatum. pneptnitonim, et aliarom Nclraiaalicumn penonarnm prDTchanda- 
nim In djgniuiibua, qou per multoa ajjnoa plane t. Wmporibui Ottouii primi, impero- 
loria naque >d imperatorem Ueurioam qoanam, Tcndera aolebant ipai regea rrl impera- 
torea regnante obiqaa almonia, dnm per --imaniaDoa eplacopos in cathedra peaiilentia* 
poailoi mortifera ilia ptatia dilaM eat uiqiK ad infimoa plebanos ec e«pellanoi, pri qaoi 
lalda moltiplicWo* (>ee vol. iii„p, 109 and 112), icdtiia paent lola/ovlabattir, aaqut 
ad Orsgariom aeptlmnm, qoi ae oppoaait nnunun pio domo larael reiumndo in rccleaia 
oaDonisaa elecliDnea juta priatinaa eanonum aanotionea. Id Fa. mil. I. e. I. Ttl3. 

S Lib. ii, cp. S. 

1 Qnod nmquani (erraram cat, civea, propinqui, fValrea etiam alii alioa propter enpi- 
ditalem oapiuni « omnia boua eorum ab illia extorquentea, viiam in axliemi miaeria 
Bniic (kciuni. 

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king ftom sncli acts. They had not a shadow of excnae to plead. 
Tbej were mneh mistaken, if they sapposed, that they acted 
agMnst the oath of fidelity which they had taken, when they 
preTented him fh)m sinning ; for it was a far greatei act of 
fidelity to rescne another against his own will from making ship- 
wreck of his soul, than by an injurious acquiescence to allow him 
to perish in the rortez of his guilt. Thq plea of fear could not 
excuse them in the leaat; for if they were united in each other 
in defending justice and right, they wonld hare such power, that, 
without any danger whatsoever, they might draw him from all his 
accustomed Tices, and at the same time deliver their own souls ; 
although, to say truth, not even the fear of death should hinder 
them from discharging the duties of their priestly vocation. If 
the king would not listen to their representations, they should then 
renonnce all fellowship with him, and impose the interdict on all 
France. And at the same time, Gregory declared, " Let every 
man know that, should the king even then show no signs of re- 
pentance, he wonld, with God's help, take every measure within 
his reach to wrest the kingdom of France from his hands."^ 

Hermann, bishop of Bamberg, a man who lacked every other 
qualification as well as the knowledge required by his o£Sce),^ 
fbnnerly vice-dominos at Hentz, had in the year 1065, with a 
large sum of money, procured for himself the episcopal dignity in 
Bamberg/ In vain did this man try to deceive the pope by pra> 
fesaions of repentance. In vain did his friend, archbishop Sig- 
frid of Hentz, go in person to Bome, and use all his iaSaeoce to 
soften the feelings of the pope towards bim. lie had to be con- 
tent that no worse punishment befell himself; that he was not 
himself put out of his office, because he bad ordained that bishop. 
The pope commanded him to withdraw himself from all fellow- 
ship with the bishop of Bamberg, to publish the papal sentence 
of excommunication gainst him in all Germany, and to see to it, 

I Nalli alam >at dubinm mu TOlnmui, qnin modii omaibua ngaum Fninciac de 
•ijaa oocnpuion*. ailjuTaiiM Dao, tcnumui niptre. 

' A Tsnwrkablc iUoitmion otb'a ignonnsB u a caae eiWd bj Lambert of Aaotuffao- 
hm^.kji. 107S,p. lU. WbcD UweltnuDlBaoibtrg, Ukingidiuitaga of iba autharii) 
af Iba ffl legate, naa in naiaMDea agaisal (Uhi biahup, ■ fouof alcTiTman aUiod 
(bitta uti dadared, that, if tha bialiop abomd himatif abl* lo uuuUM, wvnl (or word, 
■ aingl* mac Arum ilw Paaliar, ibtj naald ackanvledga bim aa biakopoD ibeapoL 

1 Be* Umbait, I. c p. U. 

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that another shonld be elected as soon as possible. No other 
hope now remaining to bishop Henoann, he proceeded himself, 
with advocates to defend his c&nse, to Rome, intending to effect 
his object by intrigue and bribery. Bnt he dared not appear 
personally before the pope.' He endearonred to carry on his 
cause in Rome simply by his money and his Uvyers. Bnt he 
foond himself disappointed in his expectations. Grregory was io- 
accessible to such influences. And it is a proof of the power 
which he exercised over all that were about him, that even at the 
Roman court, arts of bribery, which at other times had been so 
common and so snccessfnl here, could now effect nothing., No 
other way, therefore, remained for him, hat unconditional sub- 
mission to the irrevocable judgment of the pope. He obtained 
only the assurance of the papal absolution, on promising that, 
after his return, he wonld retire to a monastery, for the purpose 
of there doing penance. But when be came back, the manner in 
which he had been treated by the pope excited great indignation 
in the knights who espoused his cause. They called it an itn- 
heard-of thing, that the pope, without any regular trial, should 
presume to depose a high spiritual dignitary of the empire. The 
bishop now threw himself upon these kuigbts, who were his only 
reliance, and treated the papal excommnnication as null. Yet 
all others avoided intercourse with him as an excommunicated 
person. None would receive from him any sacerdotal act, and he 
cotild only decide on questions of secular property. The pope 
pronounced on him the anathema ; and as he finally succeeded in 
having another bishop appointed, Hermann was obliged to yield. 
The deposed bishop, driven by necessity, retired to the monastery 
of Schwartzach in the territory of Wiirzbnrg, and then went with 
the abbot of this convent to Rome. Nov for the first time the 

1 Prom Lunbrrt'l wonla, I. c. p. 1S8, ire sliould iofer. it is Une, that be hiniHir liad 
came to Rome. Bm it is diidenl, from ■ letter of Pope Gregor;, tb» hedid not rxrcute 
tbia nsolntioD. In the letter to kitif; Hearj, lib. iii., ep. 3: 8iinoiii>cua itle Heri- 
minDUi dictu* episcopus boo ftnno id aj-iioJum Bomwo voiitiu vsaira eonlemBit; aed 
cum propiuB Romim acceHiuet, in iilDtre aiibeulil. 

> Lambert of AscbRffenburs uy> rightl;: Sed Roman! poacittciioonstaaliaetiiiTlcIiii 
idvenut avruitiam aaimni omnii Rxoludebal argiim«iita hnmanM fuJliciie, wbicb ia 
oasBrmtd bj Grfgorj'a wa; of expTrwing bimitirod (be iiibjeci: Pr*eiDiti«i» nnnUas 
auoa ODin copioaia munoribua ooto aibj utifloio Ipnocentiun noatiam el-confttUnim nin- 
trnram iptegritatem pnniooe pactmise aiteiilare atqae, »i fieri poaaet, corrumpcre moli- 
:ua cat.. Quad ubi pravter apem evcDil, etc. 

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henry's reconciliation with the pope. 139 

pope bestoired npon him absolation, and gate him permission to 
perform sacerdotal functions, vith the understood condition, how- 
eTer, that he was ever to remain excluded from the episcopal 

King Henry, who most faronred the abuses attacked by the 
pope by an administration wholly surrendered to arbitrary will, 
was induced on account of his then political situation to yield 
compliance. Through the mediation of his pious mother Agnes, 
a reconciliation took place between him and the pope ; he dis- 
missed the ministers, on whom, because tbey encouraged simony, 
excommunication had been pronounced, and expressed a willing- 
ness to obey the pope in all things, so that the latter signified his 
entire satisfaction with him, and the best hopes for the future. 
Already Qregory was employed, during this momentary interral 
of peace, in sketching the outlines of a great plan, for the execu- 
tion of which he inrited the co-operation of king Henry. The 
idea of a cmsade, first broached by Silvester the Second, was now 
taken up again by him. We have observed how Gregory la- 
mented OTer the separation of the Western from the Eastern 
church, and the sad condition of Oriental Christendom, overrun 
by the Saracens. He had been invited from the East to procure 
the assistance of the West in behalf of the oppressed Christian 
brethren of the East. The hope was opened out to him, of 
liberating the holy places from the yoke of the infidels, of once 
more uniting together the East and the West in one community 
of faith and church-fellowship, and of thus extending his spiritual 
prerogative over the former as well as the latter. Fifty thousand 
men were already prepared to march under his priestly direction 
to the East.] " Since our fathers," he wrote, " have, for the con- 
firmation of the Catholic faith, often trod those countries, so will 
we, sustained by the prayers of all Christians, if under the lead- 
ing of Christ the way shall be opened to us, — for it is not in man 
that walketh to direct his steps, bat the ordering of our ways is 
of the Lord, — for the sake of the same faith and for the defence 
of Christians go thither also." And in commnnicating this pur- 
pose to king Henry, he asked his counsels and support ; he wonid 

1 Lib. ij. tp. 11. Jib nlm qninqoiglnU millii ad hoc it prafpanol, ui ei inc poi- 
mot in eipHlilioDD pro docc kc panlifiee hibtre, BrmtU mauu contn inimlcoa Dri 
Tolnnt iDsargcn, at ntque *d aqmlabnim Domini ipio ilDceDt« penenire. 

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daring his abeence commeDd the Roman chnrch to his protectioD. 
Bat sooo Gregory became inrotred in Tiolent diapates, which no 
toager permitted him to think of executing so vast a plan. 

The young king Henry, following his own inclinations, would 
be more ready to agree with the opponents of the Hildebrandian 
system, than with its adherents ; for Gregory's Bererity coold not 
possibly he agreeable to him ; and men were not wanting who 
wished to make ose of him as a bulwark against the rigid, in- 
flexible po|>e, and these invited him to assert against the latter 
his sorereign power. His uncertain political situation had pro- 
eared admission for the remonstrances of his mother and other 
mediators. Bat after he had conquered Saxony, these restraiuls 
Tanished away. The pope heard, that the emperor continued, in 
an arbitrary manner, to fill vacant bishoprics in Italy and Grer- 
many ; and that he had again drawn around him the excommuni- 
cated ministers. After Gregory fonnd that be had been deceived 
by many of Henry's specious words, he wrote him in the year 
1076, as the last trial of kindness, a threatening letter, coached 
in language of paternal severity, bnt at the same time tempered 
with gentleness. The spirit in which he wrote was expressed 
already in the superscription :* " Gregory to king Henry, health 
and apostolical blessing ; that is, in case he obeys the apostolical 
see, as becomes a Christian prince." With such a proviso — the 
letter began — bad be bestowed on him the apostolical blessing, 
because the report was abroad, that he knowingly held fellowship 
with persons excommunicated. If this were the case, he himself 
mnst perceive, thai he conid not otherwise expect to share the 
divine and apostolical blessing, than that he separated himself 
irom the excommunicated, inciting them to repentance, and ren- 
dered himself worthy of absolution by afibrdiug the satisfaction 
that was due. If, therefore, he felt himself to be guilty in this 
matter, he should qnickly apply for advice to some pious biabop, 
confess his fault to him ; and the bishop, with the concurrence of 
the pope, could impose a suitable penance, and bestow absolution 
on him.' He next complains of the contradiction between his 

enLia congmun libl pro h4e culpa iiijDn|[«DB poeuiuntiam le ah- 
UBenag modum (iDfiiitcnliac lua« pel (pistolam inim irncitct 

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fair proressions and his actions. In reference to the law against 
inTestitnre, concerning which the pope had been informed that 
the king had many difBcnIties/ he declared, it is true, once more, 
that he had merely restored the old ecclesiastical laws to their 
rights ; yet he professed himself ready to enter into negotiations 
on that snbject, through pious men, with the king, and* to miti- 
gate so for the sererity of the lav in compliance with their ad- 
rice, as conid be done consistently with the glory of Ood and the 
spiritual safety of the king. 

The pope had said nothing in this letter which, according to his 
mode of looking at things, could offend the king's dignity. He 
looked npon it as a principle uniTersally valid, that high and low 
should in like manner be subject to his spiritual jnriadiction. He 
eonld not foresee that Henry, after baring bo shortly before, at 
least in his professions, acknowledged so entire a submission to 
the papal see, would receive such a letter, in which he himself 
held ont his hand for peace, with sneh violent indignation.* Bnt 

1 Dwretam, fuod quidun dioanC imparUbila poodna gt immenaui gnvihidinaiD. 

* Acoording to the •econntof Ihe Oennui hlalorian, Lwnbert of ABchiffenburg. tliere 
«M, to b« inn, lODiBthiuB elw ar**pMlilabirmiitiir, whloh n «up«rBled tbe feeltnga 
at die king towirdB the pope, and which had in aonie aenat eompelled him, onlna ha waa 
willing ID b« compleUlj huDiblnl berore the pope, to BolicipaU the blow which ha was 
10 netite tnm Rome. The pope had aenl an embaa^y lo him, throagh which ba cited 
him lo appear before the Banwii ajrnod of Lent, od the Hoadij of the aaoood weak of 
Lent, D,x. iOT6, where he wa) id clear Jiimaelf of the cbargea which had been brought 
RKiinBl him. with iha threat lliat, if he did not comply, the bumoald be prononnoed do 
him llwuiDa daj. The aboTc-mantiaaed letttiT of th# pope, honever. oonlradlcta the 
tnppoaitjoii i>f inf aooh embaaay. Some importuil occnireDO* mnal hire iBterrened, 
which led the pope to deviate lo for from the paternal tone which he had ripreMed in 
Una letter. Tile thing, after all, remaina qaile impn'babla. We maj perhipa eoDaider 
Ibe embaarj mentioned bj thia hiatorian aa the aams with that whieh waa the bearer ot 
Iba aboTe-mantionad letter; and In thii aaae, wa moat explain the eontanuot themea- 
aage drliteRd h; Ihia embaMf in aeeoidanea with (he letter llatlf. From the letter, it 
fultowa. In be tare, thai If Henrr did not act In the wa; required of him bj the pope, ha 
bad to expect exoommanleation ; and from thia, Ibe alorj pat niatad maj haie grown. 
Were the atatrmeut, aa wa And it given bj thia historian, the correct one, the defeuden 
of OregiDiT eoald never have appealed Co the fact, that Henrf had attacked the pope 
wllhoot anj prevlooi provDeallon, and that thia flrai violent atep via the aonrae of all 
the eoauing evil. Thiii, the language of Oebhard, blahop ofBaliburg, to Hermann, 
biahop of Men, ie: "The adbervnia of Uenrj eonld not excuaa tliemulvea on Iba 
ground, that thej at fInC had ontj adopted meainraa of defence agalnat the pope." Nam 
apoitolicae animadveraionla, qua aelDJarialoa eaoaaatnr, ipei pottua caoaa eitltennt. rt 
nude ae aoeenaoa eoDqueruatnr, hoe ipsi pollna insandrruDt ideoque jqjuriaa non tan 
lelnlemnl qnam Inlalemnt. Cam enim primnm ad initlandam hano rem WormulM 
eonflailaaenl, ubi omnia, qnam patimnr, calamitai eiordium eilnuit, nnllam adbno Do- 

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143 HBNRT's breach with QBBaOBT. 

as appears evident trom the letter of tite pope addressed to (he 
Germans tbemselres,' he aftervards sent to him three men, na- 
tires of countries subject to the emperor, who were directed pri- 
vately to reprove him for his trans^ssions, exhort him to re- 
pentance, and represent to him, that if he did not reform, and 
ahoQ all intercourse with the excommnnicated, he might expect 
exGommnnication ; and that then, as a thing which, according to 
the Hildebrandian notions of ecclesiastical law, followed neces- 
sarily upon excommunication, he wonld no longer be competent 
to administer the goTernment. Henry, in his existing state of 
mind, was little capable of endnring snch a mode of treatment as 
this. He dismissed the envoys in an insulting manner ; and an 
accidental circnmstance contribated perhaps to induce him to 
ventnre on a step, which was by no means jostified ia the tbea 
existingformsoflaw,bat by which he hoped he might be able to rid 
himself at once of so annoying an overseer. A certain carding, 
Hugo Blancua, whom pope Alexander the Second, and indeed 
Gregory himself; had employed on embassies, but who, for reasons 
unknown, had become the pope's most bitter enemy, and whom 
Hildebrand had deposed,' came to the emperor and handed 0T4r 
to him a violent complunt against the pope. The king now 
issued letters missive for an assembly of his spiritual and secular 
dignitaries, to be held at Worms on the Sunday of Septuageaima, 
A.D. 1076. These letters invited them to come to the rescne not 
merely of his own insulted dignity, but also of the interests of 
all the bishops, the interests of the whole oppressed church. In 
this writing he even accuses the pope, probably on the ground 

minDB PKpa (iccmmaDicRtioiiIi vel >i»tbemMi> Knunlkm deillnaiii, ted ipsi, primi- 
tiu disco [dianim, ipso ignarunu ei nihil minui puUDW, praeUllonl ■■■£ auperba et 
npeallua (emetiuw ibrcnualinteruul. GebLird tbea Bveka to fntr iLIi b<r the chn- 
nologf or «venu. Wben Hcnr; celebraMd tba reacli*] af St Andrew Id Bunberg, 
■liurllj before ChrUliDH, tbere wu lUll ao good an DadenWudiDg brtween tbe emperor 
Kiid tbe pop«, ilml Uie fonner acud rntireljr according to tlie determlnMlaua of Uje iMter 
in displacing Iba bisJiop of Bamberg Quid ergo tarn cila inienidere polnil, nt iUe, qui 
In proximo ante DiliTlUKm Dotaiul Unue in eocleela magnlSeentlae hilt, ut ad ddUub 
lllioe digmtuluai mataljonee Herent, Idem paaciu [k>81 uativilatem dlebua ineoDTenliB, 
isiadltus loUns oliam ignaruB dissenaioaii proaciiberctnr? Ed. Tengnagel, pp. 2B-S9. 

■ Praewrca mlaimus ad eum uaa rellgjoeaa viroa, inos oUqae fldeles, per quoa earn 
seereto moanimaa, at poenitantiam agerec da aula acrleribua. 

^ Lamben aaja; Quem ante paucoa dl«a propler inepUun et moreaiDconditoi papa da 

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of the aboTe-mentioned tnmonr, of having obtained possession of 
the papal dignity in an nnlawfnl manner.' He reqoiies of the 
bishops, that they should stand by him in a distress, which 
was not his alone, bnt the common distress of all the bishops, 
and of the whole oppressed church. It was the common interest 
of the empire and of the priesthood ; for the pope had, notwith- 
standing Christ's direction that the two swords, the spiritnal 
and the secalar, the two powers,' shoald be separated from each 
other, songht to nsnrp both for himself. He meant to let no man 
be a priest, who did not sae for it at his own footstool ; and be- 
eaase the king regarded his royal power as receired solely from 
God, and not tiam the pope, he had threatened to deprive him of 
his goTemment and of his sonl's salvation. 

The council, which met on the Sunday of Septnagesima, Ja- 
nnary 24, 1076, on the ground of the charges brought against the 
pope by the cardinal Hugo Blancos, pronounced sentence of de- 
position upon Gregory ; and, which shows to what extent these 
bishops and abbots were willing to be employed as the blind tools 
of power, and how mnch they needed a severe regent at the head 
of the chnrch, notwithstanding the irregular procedure of this 
assembly, notwithstanding the scruples which, according to the 
ecclesiastical views of that period, must have arisen against it in 
the minds of the clergy, not a man amongst them all uttered a 
word against it. Two only, Adalbero bishop of Wiirzburg, and 
Hermann bishop of Metz, protested against the irregularity of 
this proceeding. They objected to it, in tfae first place, on the 
general principle, that no bishop, without a previous regular 
trial, without the proper accusers and witnesses, and withoat proof 
of tfae charges brought against him, conld be deposed ; and least 
of all conld this be done in the case of the pope, against whom no 
bishop or archbishop conld appear as an accuser. 

It was considered a duty of loyalty to the king, to acquiesce in 
this decision. In order to bind the members of the assembly, 
Henry caused a written oath to be taken by each, that he would 

1 iDTUorii Tiolfntii. 

I ConeeraiUK the spiritual (vord, it iiMid that, h; mMna of it, men Ten lo be com. 
pcUcdtoob«;r Ibrkiag n«it lo Ood. Tbe pope, UiergraR, ouglit lo nniU with tbe king: 
in pnniihing tbow wbo ilJtob«j«l tba luier. VidcliwtaaceidoLdigladio ad obedirnttam 
irfiM poat Dumintuii boniinn ooDtliingendiM. 

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no longer recognize Gregorj as pope. This jodgmest having 
been passed, Uearf annonnced it to tlie pope in a letter, ad- 
dressed as follows : " Henry, king by the grace of God and not 
by the will of man, to Hildebrand, no longer apostolinal, bnt & 
false monk ;" and the letter concluded with the words- — " this 
sentence of condemnation baring been pronounced npon yon by 
OS and all oar bishops, descend from the apostolical chair yon 
have nsarped; let another mount the chair of Peter, who will not 
cloak deeds of riolence nnder religion, bnt set forth the sound 
doctrines of St Peter. I, Henry, and all oar bishops, bid you 
come down, come down." Moreover, in this Iett«r, it was alleged 
against the pope that be had attacked the divine right by which 
kings are appointed, and that he songht to degrade all prelates 
to the position of his servants, and ttirred up the people againtt 
the clergy} At the same time, Henry addressed a letter to the 
cardinals and to the Roman people, calling upon them to acquiesce 
in this sentence, and to sustain the election of a new pope. An 
ecclesiastic of Parma, by the name of Boland,* was selecfed to 
convey these letters to Rome, and to announce to the pope the 
judgment passed npon him. 

Shortly before this storm came upon the pope, he had been 
delivered from a great danger, which gave him another oppor- 
tunity of showing his unconquerable fortitude. It was an aiter- 
efiect of that wild, lawless condition which had prevailed at Rome 
in the eleventh century (and to which an end was put by the popes 
who rnled in the spirit of Hildebrand), that Cintins, a Roman 
nobleman of licentious morals, one who indulged himself in the 
most extravagant actions and patronized the lowest crimes, was 
pennitt«d to occupy a strong citadel built in the heart of the city, 
thus exercising a lordship of the very worst character. As Gregory 
would not tolerate such a person, and his Srm will threatened to 
ruin this man's power, the latter determined to get rid of him by 
a conspiracy which he formed with Gregory's numerous enemies. 
The vigils in tbe night before Christmas, a.d. 1076, was the 

' lUetoria eccleBiw <icul sarTOB ipb pedibDi tula calculi, id qnonuo BODCnlcatioDe 
tibi tkToiem tb otf vnlgi Bomparuti. Liiois minisuriDm aapiir ikcerdolM afurpasti, gt 
ipai daponuil rel onntemDUit, qooa ipii * niiaa Dai 
fdium doc«ndi accepennl. 

1 Bf others otlled Ebcibard. 

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qreqort's calmness. 145 

time selected for the deed. At the pnblic serrice, Gregory was 
f&llen npon aod harried aw&y, wounded, to a t«wer in Gintioa 
cutle. He remained calm and firm in the midst of all these in> 
salts and in the face of danger ; not a word of complaint or of 
supplication fell from his lips. There was displayed on this 
occasion, too, a beantifnl proof of the enthusiastic regard which 
Gregory had inspired towards himself in the more serioos minds. 
A man and a woman, both of high rank, insisted on attending 
the pope in his confinement ; the man endeavoured to keep him 
warm with fhrs during the cold winter night ; the woman bound 
np his wonnd. When, however, the next morning Gregory's 
absence was observed, the most violent commotions broke oat 
among the people. The citadel of Cintios was stormed ; he saw 
himself compelled to give the pope his freedom, and it was by 
means of the latter alone that his life was saved from the fury of 
the people. 

As Gregory was about to open the Lentrsynod, in the year 
1076, the above-mentioned Roland appeared, and in the name of 
king Henry and the synod of Worms, annonaced the judgment 
which had there been passed. There arose a common feeling of 
bitter indignation, to which he would have fallen a victim, had 
not Gr^ory intorpoaed and saved him.' The pope calmly heard 
all: without betraying the least agitation, he held a discourse, in 
which he distinctly set forth that men ought not to be surprised 
at these contests foretold by Christ ; he declared himself resolved 
to suffer anything for the cause of God, and exhorted the cardi- 
nals to do the same. Then he pronounced, in the name of the 
apostle, the ban on king Henry : declared him (which was the 
natural consequence of this act, according to his theory of eccle- 
siastical law,) incompetent to reign any longer, and forbade his 
subjects to obey him for the future. Be pronounced, also, sen- 
tence of excommunication on the bishops from whom everything 

' Vlt <luBbtl«Mb>n the wards of in ej(-wi(DCM In th* chrotiidB orBernoM of Con- 
>UDc* : Quid ibi lumnlnii et coDelunilioniB et in legttoi illot nan ordinuw incDni, 
onn txenierit, Hovrrial iUi, qui pneslo tuerant. Hoc anum lit Qottrnm inde dixisac, 
lominnio apwlolioain son sins ani ipainaooTporis inigDO litis perieolo, ftutnfunmriz- 
ev* BoDiuianuii nuuibos MmitiToi tripuiaw. MooampnU raa AlifmaDnicia illns- 
mntia ed B. Blaa. a 1793, L ii. f. SO. Tbat YlotenI «Dnn]r of U)» pope, Uja prinena 
Ana* CoDuimi. Bqjnatljacca 
IB a ahamtfkil and ahoaln nan 

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had proceeded in that assembly at Worms. He annonnced the 
Eame punishment as awaiting the archbishop Sigfiid of Mentz, 
William of Utrecht, and Bnpert of Bamberg, nnlees they should 
come to Borne and justify their conduct. 

This sentence pronoanced by the pope was the signal for a vio- 
lent and long-contioned contest between the two parties, who 
fonght each other both with the sword and with argoments. The 
men who were zealons for the canse of Henry, insisted on the ea- 
credness of the oath, whose binding force no anthority coaid 
destroy. They called it, therefore, an act of consummate wicked- 
ness, that a pope, setting himself abore all laws hnman and 
dirine, should hare presumed to discharge subjects from their 
sworn obligations towards their princes. They also considered the 
power of princes as one founded in a dirine order, and subsisting 
independently by itself; they appealed to the duties, inculcated 
in the New Testament, of obedience to those in authority, and 
wonld concede to no power on earth the right of annulling this 
obligation. They appealed to the fact, that the apostles had 
shown obedience even to pagan magistrates, and recommended 
such obedience ; that the more ancient bishops and popes had 
never entertuned a thonght of deposing eren idolatrous and he- 
retical princes.* The fnlmination of the papal ban, it was said, 
does not carry with it so mnch danger as it does fright. Human 
affaire would be in truly a sad condition, if the wrath of God fol- 
lowed every ebullition of human passion.* An unjust ban fell 

1 So Hald the acholutlc writitr Guenrich, ttanding' at Ibis point of Tiew, in tlm nime 
of bishop Th«odario or Verdua, wheii dime dispoin bid almdj iMted foi Bona tiOM. 
Mtrtf n? el Uurand theaiams noioB Bnecdolorum, t i, Non eat novam, bominw M- 
culirfn BeculirilFT lapere e( agere, noiiim eel autem e\ onmibiu ntro SHuIn intudi- 
tnm, pDntifiEeB ngat gentinin t«m fSeils Telle dividere. Kothcti nguminleripumnDdi 
ioilia repFrtiim uleo poetra iMbilitiim repentini fiotiaiie elidrn, Cbrielos Dei, fuoliM 
libuerit plebejos eorte eicuti viDicoa muiBre, regno pBtmm Buorum deeedere jasBos, 
nisi ronfeedm loquieTsriDl, URlhemati daniDarg. Tbe (uibor of IbiB letter appealB to 
tbe precepls of (be apoBlle Pknl coocerning dulieB to migislnles: Pom de ordiDKtia ■ 
Dao potaBtatiboB omm etodio BOBoipieudia, omoi amon diligeiidi*, omni hoaora rave. 
reodiB, amni palientia lolerindiB tenta ubiqae aapienlEa diepalat. Coaearaing the in< 
diBBolable obligBlioD of no aailj, il is here aaid : Sanelun el omDibiu retro Mcalis apud 
amDium genlium nitinneB iniiulatuii juriBJurnndi religionaiD faoillima, inquunl, do> 
mini papae rcBcindit sbBolnlio, et quod tantom eat, ul iUud oBmiB 00DtniTer«aa Bnnn 
apoatolua nominBret, Hebr. vi. 16, modo onioB cannlae per qnemlibet bigalilaram por> 
reotae latitalma InlViDgeTe Juberetur lectione, 

3 In llie letter alreadfoited; Hoo tonltninm non tantum porMndit periculum, quaQ- 

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back npon the dead of its antliDr. The other party agreed, it is 
true, vith all that vas said with regard to the Banctity of an oath ; 
bat they maintained that an oath taken in reference to anything 
at rariance with the divine law, conld have no binding force. No 
oath girea to the prince, therefore, could obligate sabjeots to obey 
him in setting himself np agtunst the one to whom is committed, 
by God, the gnidance of entire Christendom.* If he who has 
been expelled from the fellowship of the church became, by that 
rery eircnmatance, incapable of administering any civil office, and 
if any man who continued to have fellowship with him, thereby 
proenred bis own expnlsion from the ohnrch-commnnity ; if the 
pope, as the director of entire Christendom, might call to account 
all the mlers of the earth in case they abased their anthority, 
might bring them to pnnishment, and depose them flrom office,* 
then it followed, as a matter of course, that to the king, on whom 
the pope had passed snch a judgment, lawful obedience could no 
longer be rendered. The oath, moreover, by which the bishops 
bound themselTes, before their consecration, to obey the pope, 
was contrary to the oath of homage given to the prince.* And 
when some appealed to the inTiolable divine right of kings, the 
other party maintained, on the other hand, that it was necessary 
to distinguish between the rightful authority of princes and the 

lani ialfodit Inrurn. Ualc proAMo nbui honuiii ooD((i1Uiinn»t,ii*dquileseuiique 
•nimi CDSclUUi molui diiios wqnrnlDr damDiIia, ticQt illi uninici^uBqar IncanJia 
dielan T«nfl,qui oionia di«pen»«t, in mcnsim, ct ponJere el nntnero. 

1 TbDi uvbbiahnp Oefahurd or Salibnni, in hn lettei written to bishop nermann of 
1|M«, in dcrrnca of tba cintr of Qntarj tb* Seitnth. It is b*n objected to the oppo. 
•ile putj, ilul tlir; brongbt forward inob remark* a> the fallowing : Ad petcaliendam 
■impliciorem fratrnni ioflnnim consciFntiBBi, qualenoe eis inb ipeeie pietati* laqoeam 
injieiant et qnaai Tera diando filtant, diligentias intem intuentiboa ad noatrae rontra- 
vmian eaaun nihil pertinere tidantnr. Nam qaia aanae menlia peijnrinm grave 
pM«alam nae dnhiteiT But from thi«, be aaja. it doM not follow, ui qaicquid qniaqno 

1 Thoaloo wrjteaOerliobafRelchmbeig: Ordoclerieilia cqjaa DimiTnmeatoflloiDm, 
DOB aolnm pIrbfjM, avd Mlam rtgtt inerepiTe aiqoe ngibsa aliis desotndentibDa, alios 
ocdinars. L. e. in Fa. xiii., f. 63& 

* CradimDB enim, memoriw Ulornm noD Moidim, quod in aacro itta epiaeopomm et 
^ri tonienlD ad pronwnndam promotionem nam btalo Petro suiaqne ncariia et sno- 
MMoribna fldem el SBbjeetlonem s« serratonia protniseioDl. Qoomodo erfD boo plurls 
(MiBU, quod in enbieolo sire in aala regis inlrr Palatinos strepitos eonspiraTennt, 
(Mn iltod, qood conm aaoro ilttri aaneliaqae aanstoram rrliqaiia anb teatlmonia 
Cbriati et Meltaiie profcan aontl 

K 2 

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148 greoory'b reply. 

abuse of arbitrary will, between kings and tjrants. Princes de- 
prired themselres of their own anthority by abusing it.' 

No impression could be made on pope Gregory by tbe donbts 
expressed respecting the lawfulness of his conduct by Hermann, 
bishop of Metz.^ In the light of the principles which he main- 
tuned, it appeared to him a thing absolutely settled, that the 
pope might excommnnicale a king, like any other mortal ; and 
any donbt expressed on this point he conld only look apon as a 
mark of incredible fatuity.' He appealed to the example of pope 
Zacharias, who pronounced sentence of deposition npon the last 
of the MeroTingians, and absolved the Franks from their oath of 
allegiance to him ; to the example of bishop Ambrose of Milan, 
who in fact excommunicated an emperor.* He asked whether 
Christ, when he committed to Peter the feeding of his sheep, the 
power to bind and to loose, made any exception in favour of 
princes. If kings could not be excommunicated by the ehurcb, 
it would follow that neither could they receive absolution from 
the church. But to this, bishop Waltram of Naumburg, not 
without reason, replied, that Ambrose had, it is true, once 
excluded the emperor Theodosins fVom the communion of the 
church, which was attended with the most salutary consequences 
both to that emperor and to the common weal ; but he had not 
the remotest intention or wish to disturb thereby the relation 
subsisting between the emperor and his subjects. He bad ren- 
dered to God the things that are God's, and to Csesar the things 
that were Casar's. Eren towards Valentinan the Second and 
his mother Justina, Ambrose had nerer, in all the disputes with 
them, taken any such liberties.' His reasoning is not so strong 

ii lenelur, 

non eria. 

I Sea QregOTT'i ItUen, I. it. cp. 3. 

* Licet pro trngm htaiuta ntc etimi ill reipoodeM drbetmiu. 

4 ficB vol. iii., p. 341. 

s Sm Wkltnas N*umbaTf(eiii. de aniute eoelsf. et impurii, 1. L, p. 6Q. Sfd ipas 
quoqaa ■Hnoto* Ambrosius ecclemim dor djiiail, tti ei, qnw Cawuii iudI, Omiri 
et qaie Dei, Deo reddendaesaedocait, qaiTheodoaiuiD cflgleaiulioooBrouitdiMiplina, 
etc. Ecae illi exoommuniotia quun utilis erat cocleaEie pwiWr atqne ipai itnpentori 
TbeodoBio, quie nnne prodtndi schiamMie penitur eienplo, qao wptwiltar principea, 
vel militei raipablicae >b impenloriB sai oonaoitio limnl el obuqaio '. 

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with regard to the other example, of pope Zachariaa. He Bays, 
the pope did not by any means depose Ghilderic, nor absolve his 
subjects Jrom their oath of allegiance to him ; for Childeric 
merely bore the name of king, vithont possessing the kingly 
power. Of the latter, therefore, he did not need to be de- 

Yet the ban prononneed by the pope produced a great effect 
in Germany, which was increased by the prevailing dissatisfaction 
with Henry's government. The bishop Udo of Triers, after his 
retnm from Kome, avoided all interconrse with the spiritnal and 
secniar connsellors of the emperor, who had been excommnnicated 
by the pope. He declared that, by holding fellowship with the 
excommnnicated king, one became involved in the same condi- 
tion ; that only at his special request, permission had been 
granted him by the pope, of conversing with the king ; yet even 
to him the communion of prayer and of the Lord's table, with 
that monarch, had been forbidden. By the example and the 
representations of TTdo, many were indnced to draw sway from 
the king. But the men of the other party sought, by the argu- 
ments above-mentioned, to confirm the king in his resistance to 
the pope ; they maintained that an arbitrary, unjust ban, ought 
not to be feared ; that, in such a case, religion was only em- 
ployed as a pretext to cover private passions, and private ends. 
They called upon him to use the sword, which God had intrusted 
to him as the legitimate sovereign for the punishment of evil 
doers, against the enemies of the empire. Such language found 
a ready ear on the part of the king. He was inclined already 
to bid defiance to the papal ban, and to threaten with his kingly 
authority those who sided with the pope's party. But as the 
number of those who went over to that party was constantly 
increasing, and he wanted power to carry his threats into exe- 
cution, he suddenly adopted quite another tone. He sought to 
bend the minds of his opponents by negotiations ; but this also 
proved fruitless ; and they were already on the point of proceed- 
ing to the extremest measures. 

1 Lib. i., p. IT. QuanduqaidcD ilk HiUericbai nihil omnino ngiae paMuiii Tri 
digniud* hibniMO dcKribuar, lUqnc idea camprahitur, quod iiou DiDiil doniDa* ali- 
qgotiuB iiTi nctor, qnaniam rei « rcgenda dicilor. 

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In the year 1076, the Snabian and Saxon priDces assembled 
at Tribor. Before this assembly appeared, as papal legates, the 
patriarch Sighard of Aqnileia, and the bishop Altmann of Fas- 
sau, a mat) eminently distinguished for his strict piety. And 
here ire may notice hov large a party stood np for the pope from 
among those who felt a serions regard for religion. Several lay- 
men, who had renonnced important stations and great wealth for 
the purpose of devoting themselres to a strictly ascetic life, now 
appeared publicly as advocates of the papal principles. These 
refused to hold communion with any one who maintained familiar 
intercourse with king Henry after his excommunication, till each 
had personally obtained absolution from bishop Altmann, the 
prelate empowered by the pope to bestow it. After a delibera- 
tion of seven days, it was resolved to proceed to the election of 
a new king. Henry, after a variety of fruitless negotiations with 
the opposite party, among whom partly the political, partly the 
religions interest predominated, determined to give way. An 
agreement was entered into, to the effect that the pope should 
be invited to visit Augsburg on the festival of the purification of 
Mary ; there, in a numerous assembly of the princes, all accusa- 
tions against the king should be presented, and then, after the 
pope had heard what both parties had to say, the decision should 
be left with him. If the king, by any fault of his own, remuned 
excommunicated a year, he should be considered for ever incap- 
able of holding the government. In the meantime, he should 
abstain from all intercourse with the excommunicated, and live 
in Speier, as a private man. Henry the Fourth agreed to all 
the conditions proposed to him, severe as they were ; and as 
everything was now depending on his being absolved from the 
papal ban, in order that he might be able to negotiate on equal 
footing with the princes, so he determined to pay a visit to the 
pope himself in Italy, before the latter could come to Germany. 
He was willing to risk everything to obtain abscdntion. 

A few days previous to Christmas, in the unusually cold winter 
of 1076-77, he crossed the Alps with his wife and little son, 
attended only by one individual, of no rank. Ueantime, the 
ambassadors of the German princes had come to the pope, and, 
in compliance with their invitation, the latter set out on his 

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journey, expecting to resell Angsbnrg »t the appointed time, oa 
the 2d of Febniary, 1077 ;* although his friends advieed him not 
to nndertake this jonmej, probably becanse they feared the 
power of Gregory's enemies in Italy. It had been agreed upon, 
that, at a puticnlar point of time, delegates fVom the princes 
shonld meet him on the borders of Italy for the purpose of escort- 
ing him to Augsba rg. Twenty days before the time appointed, 
the pope set out on his joorney. Meanwhile came also the mes- 
sengers of king Henry, through whom the latter promised bim 
every satisfaction and amendment, and urgently begged for abso- 
lution. Gregory, bowerer, wonid not meddle with the matter, 
he only loaded him with severe reproaches for bis transgres- 

If, riewing the matter in the light of the pope's rigidly con- 
sistent system, we might perhaps approve of Gregory's conduct 
towards the insolent Henry, yet wo cannot foil to miss in his con- 
duct towards the ?mmbled man, that spirit of love which proceeds 
from a pure gospel ; we perceive in it nothing but the stiff firm- 
ness of a self will, which, spnrning all human feelings, goes straight 
onward to the mark on which it has once fixed. 

The protoised escort Irom Germany found it impossible, on 
account of the many difficulties they met with, to make their 
appearance at the time appointed; and Gregory's journey to 
Germany was hindered by various circumstances. Ueanwhile 
Henry arrived in Italy, and the reception he there met with stood 
in melancholy contrast with bis actual situation. A large party 
exulted at his appearance : the numerous oppcments of Gregory, 
among the bishops and nobles, hoped to gain in the king a head 
to their party ; and they were ready to do anything in his ser- 
rjce. Gregory, being fully aware of the fickle-mi ndedness of the 
young king, felt uncertain whether such a reception would not 
produce a change in hie disposition, and his mode of procedure. 
In this uncertainty with regard to hia own situation, he betook 

1 It 1* eridaot ham tbe woidi of Qregary bimKir in bis lellcr to tbe Oenning, 
Huw II., f. 38S, tbat Ihii iru the reaion of Lis underukiDg tliejooniiij to Lombirdj. 
TlieucoantgiTeQbj Domniio in hit life or Matbilds, at ibe bcgipDingaribeHcond 
b«ali, ia hln iLetefare; nuneif, thU Gregory ovne to Lombardj bi ihe reqocalor the 
latter, trtio stood forth as mediator belweco tbe king and the pope. 

1 Ungoi7 himwlr sajs : Acriltrearndf saiaeicesBibDspproniDet.quiinUrcurrebaot, 

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himself for a while to th« castle of his enthnsiafiticsUy deroted 
fri«Qd, the powerful Mar^nrine Uathilda of Tuscany., 

Bnt Henry, for the present, had no other object in riew than 
to get himself absolved from the ban. Before him, went the ex- 
commnnicated bishops and nobles of Germany, in the habit of 
penitents, barefoot and in wooUeD garments, to beg absolntion 
from the pope. The latter Ustened, it is trae, to their petition ; 
bnt he required of them each proofs of their repentance, as wonld 
be calcnlated to leave a right lasting impression on men so in- 
nred to luxury. Each of the bishops was obliged to remain from 
mom to evening shut np in a solitary cell, in his penitential 
raiment, partaking only of the most meagre diet. Then he allowed 
them to come before htm and gave them absolntion, after mildly 
reproving them for their transgressions, and exhorting them to 
gnard against snch condnct for the fntnre. When they took their 
leave of him he strictly charged them to abstain from all fellow- 
ship with king Henry, till he had become reconciled with the 

1 Tbe eonnrctioD otthe pupa with thli lidf ns cerUialj of tbe purest ohtnoler { uid 
■o it ippein in liis Dorretpondence villi li«r. Tbe cnliiDsitalio deioteduMs of Ihs noN 
Mriel BDd piom penocs of the age teetifles in favour at aregory. The aeeuMtionB of 
his iDoal TJoltnt «u«iaiM, wlio brought so many ibaurd chargre (gtinit Lim, Mnainlf 
oinnot bs regardMl u cruUnonhj eiilenee. Il wia natoral, tbu Itaey ihonld avail 
Ifaemselvea of this eonDeclJon ^tOngoTj, for Ibe porpos* of throviog ■aapicioD on lbs 
llianelar of thia aeverv eensor of Ihe monta of the clergj vilb ngard to tbia ver; point, 
and thenby to place liie nal for tbe lawe of the celibacy of priesla in in SDftvaarabla 
point of ligbt. That Beree oppoarnt of (he HiMebrandian parlr, bilbop WiUnin of 
Naamburg, inlimalH thia anapioioD againet tlie pope, boweier, in lueh a wajr, that It ia 
•aij to see bow little reaaon hehimaelfhad for regarding it as well grounded. Apolog. 
1. ii , 0. 36. Mathilda ilia post oeLavnm qaoqne anniiB, quo deTuuctas est Bildebnnd 
fklDiliaru ejua, dafendit promptiaBime contra aedam apoatolictun (Quiberl'a paHj) et 
oontra imperatorem partem ipaloa, qai propter n-eqaena ODm ea et familiare cDlloqiiium 
generiviL plurimia acaevaa luBpicionia icandalum. Henr;, biahop of Speier, expreasea 
himself in stronger lerios in hia invective againat Ore j[Dr7,Eceard, t.ii., in the oolleation 
of letters of the Cod. Bamberg, ep. 163: Qui etiim quaai foetors qnodam giaviasimi 
■CaDdnii tnlam eccleainm repleali de conrictu et eolmbiUtioDe alienee mulieriB famili- 
ariori, qoara neeeaee ait. In qua recerecundia nostra loagiB qoam causa laborat, quum 
hare generalia querela anieniqqe peiaonnerit. omnia judieia, omnia decreia per feminas 
inaede aposlollca Balitarj,denique per feminas lotnm orbem erdesiae administrari, The 
impartial Lambert of AacliaSeDbarg remarks concerning the relation of Mathilda to the 
pope 1 Tanquam patri Tsl domino lednlum exhibebal oiBcium. U e then refera to tbe 
misinterpretatious put on this relation, which proceeded from (he trends of Henry, and 
particularly from tbe opponents or the Isws of celibaej among the clergy, and eaja of 
theae : Sed apud omnes saunm aliquid sapienles Ince clarins conalabat, falsa esse, qoa 
dicebautar. Nam el papa tam eiimie lamqae apo»ioliee vilam Insiitnebat. nt nee m<~ 
ninam sinistri rumoriB maeulam conveiaationia ejna siiblimatas adtuitleral vt ilia in 
la obaequentinm freqiientia, obscoennm aliqaid perpetrana 

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ehnrcli ; only for the pnrpoae of exhorting him to repentance thej 
might he allowed to conrerse with him. 

But Gregory proceeded more harshly with the young king him- 
self. First, be repelled the nrgeot entreaties of that prince, and 
the intercessions of Mathilda, of the abbot Hngo of Clnny who 
was the king's god-father, and of many others, who implored his 
compassion on the yonng monarch. He says himself, in his letter 
to the Germans : " All were snrprised at his nnnsnal severity, and 
many imagined they perceired in it a tyrannical cmelty.*" He 
persisted in requiring that everything shoald be referred over to 
the trial which was to be instituted at the appointed convention 
in Germany. At length, he yielded to the entreaties and inter- 
ceseions poured in npon him, bat required of king Henry still 
severer proofs of his repentance than he had demanded fVom those 
bishops. The king, after haring laid aside all the insignia of his 
imperial rank, and clothed himself in the garb of a penitent, was 
admitted into the sacred enclosnre of the castle of Canossa, where 
he wuted fasting, during three days, in the rough winter at the 
commencement of the year 1077, till at length, on the fourth day, 
the pope admitted him to his presence. He gave him absolution 
under the condition that he should appear before the proposed 
general assembly in Germany, where the pope would listen to the 
accusations of his adversaries, and to what he had to say in 
defence of himself, and give his decision accordingly. Till then, 
he should utterly renounce the government, and, if he ob- 
tained it again, hind himself to support the pope in every- 
thing requisite for the maintenance of the ecclesiastical laws. 
If he failed to observe this condition, he should again fall under 
the ban.* And the abbot Hugo of Cliiny, and several per- 
sons present, of the spiritual and secular orders, pledged them- 
selves that the king wonld fulfil the conditions of the compact. 
The pope then celebrated the mass in the ^presence of the king 

graciMlem, ui qunai tyranricsp feriutie cnideliiBlcm esae clamarent. 

* In bU li-ller to the Gerniana, Gregory appeals also to the fact tbal ererylbiDg b«b 
II ill aodeoided ; that lie was bnaud hj no obligslioD !□ Ihe king; adbuc totiua negotii 
c*au inspFiltB *»'. Fciatis nos non aliter regi obligaloa rsnt, nisi quod pgro BtnnoDe 
(icDl nobji tool m fa diiimns, qnibna earn ad sdiiiFin et hoiiorein .uiin aut mm 
juilitia «nt eum ■Dlwricordia sine Doatrae aal illioa aaiDiae pFiiealo adjaTare poatimus. 

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154 oREGoar aECEivBS tub host. 

And of a Dnmerons multitDde. When he had consecrated the 
host, he observed, while taking a portion of it, that he had been 
accDsed by his enemies in Gormany of many offences. True, he 
could bring forward many witnesses of his innocence. Bnt he 
chose rather to appeal to the testimony of God than to that of 
man ; and for the purpose of refuting, in the shortest way, all 
those charges, he here called on God himself to witsess bis in- 
nocence, while he now took, in aTcrring it, the body of the Lord- 
Let Almighty Qod now declare him free, if he was innocent, or 
canse the partaking of the body of Christ to prove his immediate 
destroction, if he was guilty. Gregory regarded this, like his 
contemporaries, as a jodgment of God ; and such an appeal to 
the divine decision by a miracle was in perfect harmony with his 
whole mode of thinking. With the greatest composure he par- 
took of the holy sapper, which to him — since, according to his 
own religions conviction, this was really subjecting himself to a 
judgment of God — would iiave been impossible, if in his con- 
science he had felt that he was guilty. In very deed, therefore, 
it was the testimony of a tranquil conscience, and on the assem- 
bled multitude (to whom this appeared as such a triumph of in- 
nocence as if the voice of God had spoken directly from heaven) 
it must have made a most powerful impression. With a loud 
shout of approbation it was accepted by the whole assembly; 
and praise to the God who had so glorified innocence, rung out 
f^om every month. When the eUonts of the multitude had some- 
what abated, the pope turned with the remainder of the host to 
(he young king, and invited him to attest his innocence of all the 
charges brought against him from Germany, by doing the same. 
Then there would be no oecaMon for the trial which it had bees 
proposed to bold in Germany ; for all human judicatories were 
liable to error j and then he himself would, from that moment> 
stand forth as Henry's defender. But Henry was neither suffi- 
ciently sure of his own innocence nor sufficiently hardened agunst 
religious impressions, to subject himself, uncertain of the result, 
to such an ordeal. He turned p^le at the proposal, whispered 
with his attendants, sought evasions, and finally requested the 
pope to leave everything to be decided by the trial to be had in 
Germany. He pledged himself, by oath, to refer the settlement 
of the disputes in Germany to the pope's decision, and to insure 

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UENBY'q PK0MISE8. 155 

his B^ety, BO far KB it depended on himself, in Ub joamey to Ger- 
many. At the close of tbe eeivice, Gregory invited him to a re- 
past, conversed vith him in a friendly manner, and then dismissed 
him irith serious admonitions. 

The question here arises, whether the pope was perfectly sin- 
cere in effecting this reconciliation vith king Henry ? Tbe 
enemies of Gregory charge him' with having persecated him 
from the beginning, on a calenlated plan of bringing about bis 
ntter ruin, and of nsing everything as a means to accomplish this 
end. If Henry obeyed, and refteined enUrely from exercising hiB 
kingly authority till that assembly conld meet in Germany, then 
he would, by that very act, render himself contemptible ; while 
the power of the anti-emperor, about whose election men were 
already busying themselves, would become more and more con- 
firmed. Or if he did not fulfil the condition, an opportunity would 
be given the pope to accuse him of violating the agreement, and 
again to pronounce the ban upon him. In what light would 
Gregory, with this fine-spnn plan of revenge, requiring him lo 
turn the most sacred acts into a means of deception, have to be 
regarded ? If after having granted king Henry absolution, he 
had still been able to say to the enemies of that monarch, who 
were dissatisfied with this step, as he is represented to have said 
in a letter, that " they should give themselves no trouble about 
what he had done ; he was only going to send them back Henry, 
loaded with deeper guilty"' what diabolical malice and hypocrisy ! 
Well might Waltiam of Nanmburg say, " he dismiesed him in 
peace ; bnt peace such as Judas pretended, not such as Christ 
bestowed.'" With perfect justice might he exclaim, in view of 
such an act of duplicity ; " This is not acting like a successor of 
Peter; this is not feeding Christ's sheep, to send one away loaded 
with still heavier guilt, and one too who repented of his fault. 
This was not acting like a priest of our Lord, who himself says 
in the gospel, that in heaven there is more joy over one sinner 

1 So blahop WaltnM af HaamtiDTg, in hi* Work De uiiiMM cmImim ct impnrii, I. i. 

* He ailn (aUioiti, qaooiam eulpi^ilianm sum nddo lohw. 

■ ConcnuiQg Hear;: Dimunni «*t In pwe, qualrm nHlioM pacsm JnduiimnlnTil; 
Don qnilrm ClirUtDi TdlquJt. 

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that repeoteth, thaa orer ninetj and nine jnat men that need no 
repentance, "i 

Bnt we are listening to tbe words of a passionate antagonist. 
The language of party-passion, on either side, is to be heard with 
distrust. Who could penetrate into Gregory's heart, so as to be 
sore of the disposition in which he acted t The reasoning from 
an actual result to a deliberate purpose is always most unsafe. 
Eren though Gregory had said what is laid to his charge, or 
something like it, still, a great deal depends ou tbe question, in 
what connection he said it, and whether with some condition or 
in an unconditioned manner. The dignity and self-respect which 
Gregory ever exhibits in his public communications, render it ex- 
tremely unlikely, that he would suffer himself to be hurried by 
passion to utter words so much in contradiction with those 
qualities. In granting king Henry absolution, Gregory assuredly 
said nothing to him which could have been designed to deceive 
bim. He gave him plainly enough to nuderstand, that all was 
depending on his future bebariour. He even persisted in de- 
claring that the whole matter was reserred for the trial which 
was to take place under his presidency in Germany ; earlier than 
this, nothing was to be determined in relation to the settlement 
of the gOTemment.' By hi» own judicial decision, ererything 
should be set to rights in Germany ; and only in case he sub- 
mitted wholly to this, conld Henry calculate on a lasting peace 
with the pope. As to the fact, therefore, the remarks of Wal- 
tram with regard to the precarious position of the emperor, how- 
ever he might act, were correct ; though it cannot be said of the 
pope that, from the first, he only became reconciled to Henry in 
appearance, and had nothing else in view than his utter destruc- 
tion. He acted thus, impelled by that reckless and persevering 

> HiB wordi : Certe culpabillaram faiieic ■liqnem, prafCipue oulnni re^n, qunu 
prucipll Pelrni ipoatoliiB lioDoriflcuf, hoc non rat avca Oirlati pseFers, Culpibllia- 
Tem,inqu>ni, taoere, pnseipue earn, quim poeaitcaL cuLpablkin eiielcie, Loo non nt- 
Mcardotrm Domini ease, cum ipar >d eiuigetia Dominu* dicac, gaadtum Seri in cmIo 
super uno peccitore poeniteDliam afcnta, qnam taper nonagiiiu novem juatia, qui nun 
indigent poenitentia. 

^ Aa he sajii in hia letter, in wliich be reported (o tlie Oennans bis traniacliaiis with 
llenrj, Bp. Iv. Vi. Ita adliuc totius iiegolii cauas suapcnsa est, Ul el adventns noater et 
eoiisilionlin vealroram unanimitas permaiime neceaaaria ease Tideaiiiur. Comp. ll.e 
Tcmarka tlreniljr qnolfd, p. ItiS, id lire note. 

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henry's breach with GREGORY. RDDOLPH OF aUABIA. 157 

resolation with which he followed ont false priaciples. He sacri- 
ficed to hie coDsistency the trne intereeta of the misled king and 
the well-being of the German people. It rnnat be owned, bow- 
erer, that it was Henry who, harried on by the force of circam- 
stances, pnt broke the terms of the treaty. 

When he retnrned back to his friends, and with th^ repaired 
to the states of Lombardy, he found the tone of feeling there very 
mnch altered. Men were highly indignant at the manner in 
which he had been made to hnmble himself before the detested 
Gregory. They were npon the point of renouncing him ; they 
were for nominating his son emperor, and with the latter march- 
ing straight to Eome. As then Henry hod so many enemies in 
Germany, as he conid not place any great reliance on the pope, and 
as he here fonnd a considerable party, who were willing to do 
anything for him if he would place himself in their hands, he now 
went orer wholly to this side. He allied himself once more with 
Gregory's enemies, acted once more as monarch, and resumed 
once more the councillors whom the pope had excommunicated. 
As the earlier-appointed assembly in Germany coald not be 
holden, the states, dissatisfied with king Henry, appointed another 
assembly, to meet in the beginning of March 1077, and invited 
the pope to be present for the purpose of restoring order and 
tranquillity to Germany. But this also was pTe*ented by Gre- 
gory's detention in Italy. Gregory sent to Germany two legates, 
who reported to the assembly what causes had hindered him from 
coming to Germany, and left it to them to provide, as they 
deemed best, for the necessities of the empire. At this assembly 
Rudolph dnke of Snabia was elected king in Henry's place. 
Although the pope was doubtless already resolved to renew the 
ban against Henry, if the latter did not alter his conduct, yet he 
still passed no definitive sentence. He declared himself, at first, 
neutral between the two parties, and named both the princes 
kings in his letter, and reserved it to himself, when he should 
visit Germany, to decide which party had the right. Meanwhile, 
in Germany, mnch blood was shed on both sides. The two par- 
ties persecuted each other with unrelenting ferocity. State and 
church were rent in pieces by these quarrels, while Gregory quietly 
looked on, and by his ambignons declarations and acts kept up 

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the contest. He expressed his pain' at seeing bo many thousand 
Christians fall rictims to temporal and eternal death through the 
pride of one man ; at seeing the Christian religion and the Roman 
chnrch thereby prostrated to the ground. He did not declare, 
howerer, whom he meant by this indiridoal. He only called upon 
the Germans to renounce obedience to the prond man, vho hin- 
dered him from coming to Germany ; on the other hand to obey 
him who showed himself devoted to the apostolical see. The 
partisans of Bndolph fiercely reproached him with hindering, by 
this ambignone condnct, the decision of a quarrel, into which 
they at least had suffered themselves to be drawn in obedience to 
the papal see, when on the other hand, by a distinct declaration, 
he eonid bring the matter to an end. Bnt Gregory was not 
moved by this language to depart flrom his plan. He exhorted 
the Germans to fidelity, and testified his firmness by declaring 
himself resolved to abide unswervingly by the principles on which 
he had always acted, without regarding the voice of the multi- 
tude, by which king Henry was defended and he himself accused 
of harshness towards that prince.i When, however, in the year 
1080, the weapons of Rudolph met with continual success, the 
pope finally, at a Roman synod, passed the definitive sentence. 
He pronounced anew the ban on king Henry, because by his 
means the assembly in Germany had been prevented tram meet- 
ing, and he recognized Rudolph as emperor, sending him a crown, 
inscribed with a motto in correspondence with the principles of 
his consistent theocratical system, claiming to himself, as Peter's 
snccessor, fall power and authority to decide the contest concem- 
the election of an emperor in Germany.^ But at the same time 
he gave him also to understand, that he should not yield an iota 
of the law agtunst investiture. 

1 Ep. 119. iaOod. B«banbcrg, EecuJ. t.H,f.l9l. 

3 Huiii Cansil.Tii.3. QuotquoL Luini (unt. omaei ciusim Ueoriei praeUr kdmo. 
daia paucai liadint oo difeoduut et pcmlmiie darilite ac impieUtii oirca cun nM 


1 InuripCinn : " Pctn dedit Petro, Pcmis diidemi Hadolpho." Piink, in hii hialoTT 

of lh< papanf (ii>, 1. p. 198) tiiji, oartiiatr witb injustioe : " The pops, in thi* iDtcrip- 
lion, probabl;did nntbRie btiirgo much in his thonghu. u *■■ ittribnltd to bim in the 
i«8ue." Wb«l we h»Te n'li sboTe tonwrning the prineiplfB of IhtB pope, ■■ thej taa 
made known to ui in his letten, u well w wbu we know conoernlnd the ijilriB of the 
entire part;, prom, bejond qaeBtion, Ihit Orrgorj h*d utnlllj in hi* mind all iliat 
these words lilfnllj oanlain. 

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It was now, howeTer, for the first time, that Gregory's finn- 
ness vas really to be put to the test ; for as, id this same year, 
duke Rudolph lost hie life in a battle on the Elater, althongh 
again Tictorions, bo Henry saw himself no longer prevented from 
directing his oourse again to Italy. After sentence of deposition 
had already been paased, at a previous conncil of Mentz, by a 
small number of bishops of Henry's party, on Gregory the Se- 
Tenth, the same thing was repeated by a more nnmerons assem- 
bly, held at Brixen, of those dissatisfied vith the HildebTan- 
dian principle of goTemment from Italy and Germany. Charac- 
teristic of the spirit of this assembly, are some of the charges 
brought against Gregory ; that he boasted of being fitvoured with 
divine revelations, of possessing the gift of prophecy, that he was 
given to the interpretation of dreams, that he was a disciple of 
Berengar.' One of Gregory's opponents, Gnibert, archbishop of 
Bavenna, was chosen pope, under the name of Clement the Third. 
But this arbitrary proceeding appeared too much like a political 
movement to have the least influence on men's religious con- 
victions. The free-minded bishop Dieteric of Verdun, rendered 
famoos by his fidelity to king Henry, had been induced to take 
a part in these proceedings of the above-mentioned assembly at 
Mentz ; bat he soon repented of it, his conscience reproaching 
him for this step. He suddenly and in a secret manner forsook 
the assembly, and felt impelled to seek absolution from Gregory 
the Seventh, whom he recognised as the lawful pope.^ 

King Henry himself felt a want of confidence in his cause. He 
gladly ofiered his hand for peace, and declared himself ready, be- 
fore penetrating farther with bis army into Italy, to enter into 
negotiations for that purpose with the pope. But the latter 
showed no disposition to yield anything, though his friends re- 
presented to him that all would go over to the side of the king 
io Italy, and that no help was to be ejcpected from Germany. 

1 CiUiDlinni iiqac ipostolicam Bdtm de oorpore el UDguine in qnualioatiD poncn- 
Wm, baenliei Brrengacii inliquum diacipulaiD, diiinitlooum et mmnlornDi cultonin. 
* Ha itnlM about hi« panUipaLian in tlie aboic-menuooed couvenllon: il njljplioilcr 

a, abTcnnnliiTi tcdeDli in tcda apoawlica, «l boc *: 


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' He replied that for himself it was not so rery great a thing to be 
left destitnte of all help from men.i He exhorted the Germans 
not to be in haste abont the election of a new emperor after the 
death of Rndolph. He prescribed to the new king, without tak- 
ing an; notice of his own perilons sitnation, in an imperatiTe 
tone, a form of oath drawn np in accordance with his theocratic 
system, whereby the king was to promise that he wonld faithfolly 
obserre, as became a gennine Christian, all that the pope should 
command in the name of trne obedience,^ and consecrate himself, 
as soon as he should have an opportunity of meeting him in per- 
son, a milea sanoU Petri et illiia. 

It is deserring of notice that the pope, who had shown so 
mnch strictness in his judicial sentences against married priests, 
now yielded on this point, for the moment, to the force of ctr- 
eametances ; that because Henry's party gained an advantage 
trooi the prevailing dissatisfaction with the laws respecting celi- 
bacy, and because the deficiency of ecclesiastics who wonld have 
been competent, according to the rigid construction of those 
earlier laws respecting celibacy, to administer the sacraments, 
was too great, he deemed it best to recommend to his legates the 
exercise of indulgence in this matter till more quiet times.' 

The same inflexibility which Gregory opposed to king Henry 
when that monarch was pressing towards Borne, he still main- 
tained, when besieged during two years in Kome itself. No force 
could more him to enter into negotiations with the king, with 
whom, if he had been willing to crown him emperor, he might 
have concluded an advantageous peace. He despised the threats 
of the Bomans. He chose rather, as he declared, to die as a 
martyr, than to swerve in the least from the strict line of jus- 

At length, in the year 1084, the Bomans, tired of the siege, 

I Quod (iDtiliuin) si nobis, qui iiiiu* superbiun pwri pnidimna, deflciil, nou adm 
grive videtat. Mipsi Concil. ix. 3. 

'' Qnodcunlae mrhi ipae pap* prnseeperit, sub bia Tiditlicec Terbis, per venin obadlen- 
liaiD, SdeliUr, sicnl oportet Cbriatiacum, obsrrvabo. 

9 Lib. li. ep. 8. Quod vero de saceidolLboa Interrogiitij, pluel nobi), ul in prmcn- 
Ilinim turn piopter populorum torbilianeB, turn etiam propter boDOnun inopiim, scilicM 
quia pauciaaimi aunt, qui Bdrlibus offldi rcligioois peiaolTant, pro Ump«« rigareni c«- 
noni Dm lecopeniido debaatia auffsic. 

t Lib. ix. (p. IL 

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and diacootentfid with the defiance of the pope, opened their 
gates to king Henry, and received him with demonstrations of 
joy, which he announced to his friends in Germany as a trinmph 
bestowed by Godhimself^' Gregory-was obliged to retreat into 
the castle of St Angelo (domnm Crescentii.) The emperor gave 
orders for conroking a nnmerous pablic assembly, in which the 
sentence of deposition on Gregory and the election of Clement 
were confinned.' At the Easter festival the new pope Clement 
consecrated Henry emperor, and the latter soon departed flrom 
Borne. By the Norman dake, Robert Guiscard, Gregory was at 
length liberated from bis confinement, and repaired to Cremona, 
where he soon after died, on the 26th of May. 1085. His last 
words are sapposed to Aimish evidence of bis own conviction of 
the goodness of his canse ; they were as follows : " I have loved 
righteonsneas and hated iniquity, therefore I die in exile."* 
These words harmonize at least with the conviction which Gre- 
gory in his letters, to the last moment of his life, expresses in 
, the strongest language ; and it will be mnch sooner believed 
that he sealed the consistency of his life with sucA words than 
that he testified on bis deathbed, as another acconnt reports,* 
hie repentance at the controversy which he had excited, and re- 
called the sentence he had pronounced on his adversaries. At 
all events, ve recognize in these two opposite acconnts the mode 
of thinking which prevailed in the two hostile parties. 

Under the name of this pope ve have a nnmber of brief 
maxims relating to the laws and government of the chorcb, 

I Thu lb« enpcror write* rrom Rodm lo Diateije, biibop of Vcrdon : Inomiibil* *1- 
i»\xa, f uod rerinimDm ptobatur, quod ftotDm nt in Roma, ul iu dium, cam daoca 
liominibn in nobi* npenuui r>( DomiDoa. qaod anlecBuoiv* noitil li hoiuent eum 
4r«tiD mlllibiK, miraeolum Mtet omnibai. 

1 Tba tmpenir wiitea, in tli< aboTe-ciWd IctUr, ilket hi* departure ftom Borne: {Ro- 
m«Di)auio[na liiamplio «t flde ptoKquuli aoDt tanLnm ut in Domino fldooialiUt 
dicamna, quia tota Roma in mano noatra eat, excepio illo caatello, in quo ooncluaaa eat 
Hildcbnod, ecilierl id domo Cnwenlii. Quem Hildebnadnm Icgali omnium eatdina- 
lialD (uliicb cenminlf ia eiigglnlcd) ao loliui popnll Romani jod.oio «ciaa abjeetom 
•t deelam papam amtram Cl«ra>nlcm in aeda apwlolica anblimattim omnium Romauo- 
nun acclamalione, noaqaa a papa Clcmanta oidinalam at oonaenaa omninn Ramanv 
torn coDwcmam in die ■. Paiebae in imperaloram tolim popoli Romani. Oaata Tta- 
Tiraram ed. WjIunbacL ei Muellir. Vol. i. p. lU, 1S3& 

* Dlleii joatitiBm at odi iniquitaum, proptana morioi in eiiUo. 

* Bj Sigabeii of Oambloun ad h. a. 


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called his dictates (dtctatns.) AlthoDgh these maxims did not 
by any means proceed from himself, still, they contain the prin- 
ciples which he soaght to realize in his government of the charch, 
the principles of papal absolutism — signalizing that new epoch 
in the history of the papacy which is to he attributed to him oa 
the author, whereby ererything was made to depend or the de- 
cision of the pope, and the jnrisdiction oTer emperors and kings, 
as orer all the presiding officers of the church, was placed in his 
hands. Most of these maxims may be confirmed by passages 
from his letters. 

A contest like that between the emperor Henry and Gregory 
the Serenth, conld not be broi^ht to a termination by the death 
of the latter ; for although the quarrel had at length become a 
personal one, still there erer lay at bottom withal, a conflict of 
opposite party tendencies and interests. Gregory was the hero 
and the saint of the party zealous for the system of the church 
theocracy. His death in misfortune appeared to that party a 
martyrdom for the holy cause.' He had, moreorer, for his snc- 
cessors, men whom he himself would hare selected as like-minded 
with himself, and as persons of ability. After the first of these, 
Victor the Third (Gregory's enthusiastic admirer the abbot De- 
siderius of Monte Cassino), hod died, a.d. 1087, Otto, bishop of 
Oslia, was chosen pope under the name of Urban the Second. 

Though Urban was obliged to yield to the imperial party, which 
made their own pope, Clement, sorereign in Bome ; still, events 
by which public opinion was gradually gained orer to his side, 
were in his faronr, so that, even when banished from the seat of 
the papacy, he was still enabled to exercise the most powerful 
influence. He could resume the position of a judge over princes ; 
and the cause in which he did so, was one where the pope could 
not foil to appear as the upholder of the authority of the divine 
law, and of the sacredness of the marriage covenant ; and the 
light in which he here exhibited himself, was necessarily reflected, 
greatly to his own advantage, on the whole relation in which he 
stood to his age. Philip, king of France, a prince accustomed to 
give free indulgence to his passions, in the year 10^2, repudiated 

1 Thoi tbs abbot and mdind OoUIHed of VenJdme, id apcakiDg at the oppouiion la 

UyinreitllarPiiaraofOirgor; tbeS«Teiitb: Qui pro deftDaionc bifjui fid«i monuua 
CM in aiilio. Ep. T. 

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his l&wftil wife. Bertha, with th« lateDtioD of tnarrfiDg aDOtber, 
Berthrade, who had left her lawful hnaband, the count of Anjou. 
He fonnd bishops cowardly and mean enongh to serve as the in- 
stmnaents of his will. Bat the truly pious hishop Tves of Ghar- 
tres, a prelate dietingnished for tbe eonscientions administratiou 
of his pastoral office, accostomed boldly to speak the truth to 
princes and popes, and zealous in contending for the purity of 
morals as well as the sacred tenure of the marriage corenant,' was 
of another mind. When iuTited to attend the king's wedding, 
he declared he could not consent to do so, until, by a general as- 
sembly of the French church, the lawfulness of his separation 
fVom his first wife, and of the new marriage, had undergone a fair 
investigation. " Whereas, I am formally summoned to Paris with 
your wife, concerning whom I know not whether she may be your 
wife,"^ he wrote to the king, " therefore be assured, that for con- 
science' sake, which I must preserve pure in the sight of Crod, and 
for the sake of my good name, which the priest of Christ is bound 
to preserve towards those who are withool, I would rather be 
sunk with a mill-atone in the depths of the sea, than Ut be the 
means of giving offence to the sonls of the weak. Nor does this 
stand in the least contradiction with the fidelity which I have 
roved to yon ; but I believe I shall best maintain that fidelity by 
speaking to you as I do ; since I am convinced that for yon to do 
as yon propose, will bring great injury upon (our soul, and great 
peril to yonr crown." Neither by threats and violence, nor by 
promises, could the pious man be turned in the least from the 
coarse which he considered right. He vehemently reproached 
those bishops who neglected their duty. The king's anger gainst 
him had for its consequence, that, by one of the nobles, his pro- 
perty was confiscated, and he himselfpnt under confinement. The 
first men of the city of Ghartres now combined to procure the re- 
lease of their bishop by force ; but he remonstrated in the strongest 
language against snch a proceeding.^ " By laying honses in 
ashes, and plundering the poor," he wrote to them, " ye cannot 
propitiate God's favour, but will only provoke his vengeance ; and 
without his favour neither can ye nor any man deliver me. I 

1 Sre (. g. bto letun, *d. P«tii, ISIO, rp. 0. 

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would not, therefore, that on my accooDt ye ehonld nuke the cry 
of the poor and the complaint of widows go ap to God's ear. For 
neither is it befitting: t^hat I, who did not attain to the bishopric 
by warlike weapons, should recover it again by snch means, which 
wonld not be the act of a shepherd, bnt of a robber. If the arm 
of the Lord has stricken me, and is still stretched ont orer me, 
then let me alone to bear my sorrow and the anger of the Lord, 
till he vindicates my caose ; and wish not to augment my misery 
by making others wretched. For I am determined not only to 
suffer incarceration or the deprivation of my ecclesiastical rank, 
bnt even to die, rather than that on my account one drop of blood 
should be spilt." He called upon laity and clergy, instead of at* 
tempting to effect his liberation by such means, simply to pray 
for him ; for prayer had procured the delireranee of Peter, Acts 
xii. The king caused bishop Yves to be informed that he would 
forbear doing him a great harm, and on the other hand bestow 
on him great favours, if, by his intercession, he wonld obtMu leare 
for him to retain Bertbrade a short time longer ; bnt Tves re- 
pelled the proposition with horror, saying, that neither bribes nor 
deception could blot out any man's sin, while he resolved to per- 
sist in iL' Be who resolved to persist in sin, could not redeem 
himself from its guilt by alms or gifts.* There was no help for 
the king, except by abstainiog iVom his sin, and submitting 
himself by repentance to the yoke of Christ ; for Ood did not re- 
quire men's poeseasions but themselves as an offering in order to 
their salvation.* While Yves rejected all forcible, he employed 
every lawful means which the existing constitution of tiie 
church put into his hands, to procure victory to the side of the 
righteous cause. He applied to pope Urban the Second, and 
was strongly supported by him. This pontiff addressed a 
severe letter of reproof to the French bishops who bad suf- 
fered themselves to be used as mere instrnments of the king's 
pleasure, and threatened the king with the ban, if be did not 
separate from Bertbrade. He demanded, nnder the same threat, 

1 Ep. iT. 

1 He wrlm lo the Mirabil oT tbe roT*] oourt (Oapihr) ; Ex auctoTiUie didn* hoe 
ciriMti tnae reaoriba, qui* Dull* redemptlone teI sommuutlone quia peiieuam sanm 
poleril abolete. quundin Tult in eo penuDcrr. Nemo in peecuo lao perdonn Tolcna 
peooatam >aaiD potoril aJiqui eloemoerna lal oblilioue rrdimero. 

t Cms Dtat nou noMn, led noi ad (alDttm Doatnuo requint. 

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the Hbention of Tves. This demand was complied with ; 
bnt the might of papal authority still coald not do the vork 
thoroHghly. A council, which assembled at Rheims in 1094, 
once more allowed itself to be determiDed by its dependence on 
the king, and cited bishop Tves, who was animated by a different 
spirit, before its tribonal, to answer to the charge of high trea- 
son and of violating his oath of allegiance to the king. Ttes 
protested against the competency of this tribanal, and appealed 
to the pope ; and in a letter relating to this matter,) he said, 
" The charge of high treason fell with more justice npon those 
who by their treacherous compliance had done the king most 
harm, who had shtuak from applying sharper remedies for heal- 
ing the wound, when milder ones were unaTailing."' " If you 
had, with me, held fast to this principle," he writes to them, 
" you would hare already restored our patient to health. Con- 
aider whether, so long as yon neglect to do this, yon evince that 
perfect fidelity to the king which you are bound to show ; whe- 
ther yoa rightly dischai^e the duty of yonr calling. Let the 
king, then," concluded this pious man, in a tmly apostolical 
spirit, " do towards me what, under God's permission, he may 
please and be able to do. Let him shut me up, or shat me out, 
and deprire me of the protection of the law. By the inspiration 
and under the guidance of the grace of God, have I resolved to 
suffer for the. law of my God ; and no consideration shall itidnoe 
me to participate in the gnilt of those, in whose punishment I 
wonld not share also." In the very same year the pope's threat 
was ezecnled on the king. At a council in Antnn, a.d. 1094, 
the archbishop Hugo of Lyons, as papal legate, actually pro- 
nounced the ban on the king, and not till the latter submitted 
and made professions of amendment' did the pope remove the 

1 Ep.3B. 

3 Quod, ul pica TcMn dic*m. recllus id ea> relarquui poMiC, i)ai iuIdus fboKDtu 
incurabiJr, woquMD pii meilioii CHUirriii compel en tibua diuimuliot urprr cd m«dioinili 
ti>Ro pneciden. 

I TvM WBrned ihe pope (ep. 4fl) nui to Int Llmmlf be imeini by the fiivojrs of the 
king, ind indured lo grunt him ibBaluiiun. It wis iiuended to alum l]ie popr bj Ilie 
thmt. that ths king, if Ln nere not pronounced fVee horn the ban, would go ovrr to llie 
pope of the imperial put;. Tt» wrote bin: WhM hope of ■mning wilb impuiiitj will 
be given benafler to innBgreHora, if (orgiTenew i> grtDted lo tbe impenitent, is ■ 
point aa whiab I neni not d«Uiin joui wiedom, linrF il ii «K|icrial1y yoiir busin«'a nut 
to protect aJDiim but id punish ibem. 

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ban, which, however, on finding that be bad been deceived, he 
pronounced anew, at the conncil of Clermont. 

Meantime, there had been developing itself, among the West- 
ern nations, a great movement, which beyond every other conld 
not fail so to operate as to Increase the antbority of the pope exalt his dignity ; for he was called to place himself at the 
head of a vast undertaking which grew out of and was conse- 
crated to the religions interest, which was seized with mighty 
enthusiasm by the nations, and for which vast forces were leagued 
together. This was an event upon which Urban conld not have 
made any previous calcnlation,— ^a long-prepared event, and hast- 
ened to its crisis by a circumstance in itself insignificant. Al- 
ready had Silvester the Second,' and Gregory the Seventh,* 
broached the idea of an expedition of Western Christendom for 
the liberation of their fellow-believers in the East, and for the 
recovery of the holy places : but the minds of men were not as 
yet quite ripe for such a thought. There wu need, in the first 
place, of a gradual preparation. Pope Victor the Third issued, 
in the year 1086, an invitation for a crusade to be undertaken 
under the banner of St Peter, against the Saracens in North 
Africa, and promised to all who should take part in it a plenary 
indulgence. After this, came pilgrims from the East, with most 
distressing accounts of the insults and ill-treatment which Chris- 
tians had to suffer from the rude Mobammeda&s, and of the 
manifold profanations of the holy places. Among these pilgrims, 
one deserves particularly to be mentioned, the hermit Peter of 
Amiens (Ambianensis.) This individual believed himself di- 
vinely called, by visions in which Christ appeared to him, to 
invoke the assistance of Western Christians in recovering the 
holy places and the original seats of Christianity ; and he brought 
with him a letter of complaint, calling for help, written by the 
patriarch of Jerusalem. He first sought an iuterriew with pope 
Urban ; and that pope was himself deeply afiected, as well by 
the personal narrative of the monk, as by the letter of which he 
was the bearer. He commissioned monk Peter to travel through 
the countries, and, testifying before high and low to the scenes 
be had witnessed, call upon them to go to the rescue of the East, 

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now gro&Bing under bo heary a yoke, and of the Holy Sepulclire. 
Peter the Hennit was a person of small stature and nn^inly 
shape ; bat the fire of his eloqaence, the strong faith and the 
enthnsiasm which famished him with a copious flow of language, 
made a greater impression in propprtion to the weakness of the 
instrnment. It is to be remarked as a peculiar trait in the life 
of these times, that men of mean outward appearance, and with 
bodily frames worn down by depriration, were enabled by a fiery 
energy of disconrse to produce the greatest effects. In a monkish 
cowl, and a woollen gown or cloak over it, this Peter itinerated 
the countries, barefoot, and riding on a mule. Immense crowds 
of people gathered ronnd him ; he was loaded with presents ; and 
lioin these lie bountifully distribnted to the poor. His words 
were received as the utterances of an oracle ; and he made many 
a good use of the high influence he enjoyed. By his exhortations, 
be wrought a change of character in abandoned women, for whom 
he procured husbands, and then bestowed on tliem a dowry. He 
reconciled contending parties to one another. He was venerated 
as a saint ; men were eager to obtain from him something in 
the shape of a relic ; were it but a hair from his mule. A con- 
temporary and eye-witness, who relates this, the abbot Guibert 
of Kogent sons Coucy (Guibertus Novigentensis),' says, that 
he does not remember having ever witnessed the like venera- 
tion paid to any mau. But he looks upon it as the effect which 
the charm of novelty exercises on the minds of the mnltitude.^ 
Thns, by the labours of this individual, were the minds of men 
already prepared, when Urban, in the year 1095, held the chnrch 
assembly at Placenza, at which he first brought this matter 
forward. The assembly was so numerous that no chnrch could 
contain it, and they were obliged to hold their sessions in the open 
air." At Clermont, in Auvergne, an assembly of men, of both the 

1 Id bia IliBtorii UierosolTmitann apud BuiigAis OtaU Dei pet Fnacos, f. 48'j. 

i QDod DOa noa ad veritatem, aed vulgo ref^rimuB amanti DOTiUUm. 

^ Btmold of CoRstanitr, who relMcs lliit in bi> 
(xamplea Ihat Ihii was notbing anbecoming : Hoc Mmen nou absqn 
ouetorlutc, nun primui Isgiataiar Mosea populnm Dei in campeBL 
«pti* DeojubcQle inatituit, e( ipse DommnB nan in domibuB, aeil 
pcalrihaa diaciputoa auoaeiaagelicii initilDti* iDrormiiTit. Hiwuii 
extra eeckaiam utia probabiliitr, necraaitate qoidnn cogCDte, i^ 

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spiritnat and secnUr order, wm afterwardB bolden, which was 
composed of still greater nambers, becanse it was known before- 
hand that tbia matter, which took aacb hold on the nniTersal in- 
terest and sympathy, was to be the snbject of discussion. The 
pope, in a fiery disconrse, described the importanee of the city of 
Jerusalem in its bearing on the Christian faith, the insnlts and 
abose which the residents of the place and the Christians sojoam- 
ing there as pilgrims were obliged to suffer. Next, he inrited 
the assembly to be lealous for the law and glory of God, and 
impelled by the lore of Christ to grasp the sword, and tnm the 
weapons which they had hitherto borne against Christians, and 
which they had stained with Christian blood, against the enemies 
of the Chiis,tian faith. The time was now come when, by parti- 
cipating in this holy work, they might atone for so many sins, 
robbery, and mnrder, and obtain forgiveness of all.' He announced 
the fiillest indulgence to all who, in the temper of true repentance 
and derotion, would take part in this expedition. He promised 
forgireness of sin and eternal salraUop to all who shonld die in 
Palestine in true penitence, and he took all participators in this 
expedition nnder his own papal protection. This discourse of the 
pope produced a great eS'eet on the already excited minds of men ; 
and after the example of Ademar, bishop of Pny, to whom the 
pope gare the guidance of the whole, many, on the spot, marked 
their right shoulder with the sign of the cross, as the symbol of 
the holy expedition, indicating their readiness to take upon them 
the cross of Christ, and follow him. 

From this council, and flrom the impresuon which the itinerant 
monk Peter made on the multitude, proceeded an unintermptedly 
progressive enthusiasm of the nations. It was like a voice of God 
to a generation given up to unrestrained passion and wild desires, 
amidst the mutual fends and violent deeds of princes and knights, 
amidst the corruption which was only increased by that quarrel 
between pope and eraperor — a mighty religious shock — a new di- 
rection given to the imagination and to the feelings of men. So this 
fire poured out upon the nations, with which was mingled some 
portion at least of a holier flame, became one which, as it tended 

I I[ it ft ml] knowD fact tlini > 

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to counteract the hitherto prerailing nideness of the fleshly sense, 
was considered, even by the pions and intelligent men of this age, 
a refining fire.' It needed no exhortations firom the clergy ; men 
mutnally etimulated one another ; there was a mntaal emalation. 
People of every class, of all ages, from nations the most diverse, 
hastened to the appointed spot. Everything required for the 
journey was quickly collected together; thongh owing to bad 
seasons prorisions had become dear, yet of a sndden there was a 
fall in the market, because all vied with each other in coutiibat- 
ing as they were able to promote the holy enterprise, as they also 
recognized in the abundance of the following year a special provi- 
dence of God for the promotion of the crusade.^ Thos the extraor- 
dinary movement of mind produced by the preaching of the crusade, 
owing to which that which seemed impossible was made possiblei 
appeared to contemporaries as a work of God not to be mistaken.* 
Tet Uie nnprejndiced, even amongst them, were obliged to confess, 
that it was by no means the pure enthusiasm for a work undertaken 
in the interest of Ciiristian faith, which hurried all to take part in 
it, bnt that a great variety of motives mixed in with this. Some 
had been awakened by this call, out of a life stained with vices, 
to repentance, and songbt by joining the crusade to obtain the 
forgiveness of their sins. While many, at other times, were led 
by a sudden awakening to repentance from a life of crime to 
embrace monasticism, there was now opened to them, in this 
enterprise, a more convenient way, and one more flattering to 
their inclinations. They might continue their accostomed mode 

i So Mjs Ouiben of Novlgeuto, 1. i.. iuii. : Quoniu 
•a« tt habepdi cunciarum pFrvasit cordti libido, iarli 
■111. ul onla equcsiri* rl vulgus ubi^rraiiB, qui telusta 

n omaium ■nimi. pU dwinil i 
mil noslro l«nipore proelia sane 

> Fulcber of CL>^^<;^ on Ills .v^ar nliicb followed i>[ 

l«riia. quiu^ Dimii eranl, diluen 
lonlbacDUDcilofCleniiout: Q 

■nno pn et mgena abuDdiDU* IrumcDli rl vim per cuncUk lerraruiD clioiata tiubenvit, 
diapoDHDle Bvo, ue pauis iaopiu in via defioereDt, qui cum cruciliua suit jiiilB ejuiulrm 
pn<-c«pU eum spqai elegenuiL Id Rongare, 1, c, f.SIH. 

g Tbe men hLo looked opon iliia great movement ot tUe nations aa a work of OoJ, 
Btili do not fail to mirk the diBiurbiug elemauta uf vauii]r, self dccrpiion, or iiuentional 
fraud. Tliug tbe (bbai BaMer.c, ahrrwiidii bitibup uf l>ol^ al^er Laving ciied examplea 

Bungan Oeata Dei pi-r FraucnA, I. i., S. VS. 

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of life as koights, and still obtain indulgence or the forgiTenesa 
of sin. Others meditated eseaping in this way the civil pnnish- 
ments which threatened them, or delivering themselves fh>m the 
oppressive harden of debt. Others were harried along by the 
force of example and of the fashion.i 

If the religions awakening prodnced by the preaching of the 
craaades took such a tnm with many as that, to speak in the 
language of these times, they preferred the pilgrimage to the 
heavenly Jemsalem, throngb the contemplative life of menasti- 
ctem, to the pilgrimage to the earthly Jerasalem, the spiritual 
contest beneath the banner of the cross, to the bodily ; others, 
on the contrary, rejoiced at the opportunity thus afforded them 
of forsaking, to follow a holy vocation, the quiet and solitude of 
monasticism, which had become irksome to them ; and even 
monks believed themselves warranted to break away firom their 
confinement and grasp the sword ;' till at length, from a neces- 
sity grounded in the life of the times, a blending together of 
monasticism and knighthood afterwards shaped itself into the 
spiritual order of knights. Under this prevailing tone of excited 
feeling, men were easily disposed to fancy they saw miracles, and 
stories of miracolons works, wrought for the furtherance of the 
holy object, easily found credence, and were made the most of 
to promote the same, on the principle of the so-called pious 
IVand. Men and women stood forth from among the people, and 
pretended that a cross had been miraculously stamped on their 
bodies.' Many branded this sign upon their persons with a hot 

> William of Tjm aafg, in Bungare, f. Sll ; Nso Moieo apud amaea in eaus* eiu 
DomJiiDe, »ei quidim, ae imlccn di'serarrnl, quidani nr dnUee liaberFnlar, qnidam *n1« 
leviMtto nausa aut at crediuiria snoa, quibua mnlloniin debiloram poudere UDrbanlar 
otiligati, dHinantra vludennt. aliia ae ailjungptwiit. 

* Brrnoldor Conatnnce ailrlhuiea to tins cnnse ihe miafonuiiea of» boitj oftlieBrel 
eraaadeiB : Nop ural autem rainim, quQ'i propoailom i[« ad Hifroaolyiiiani explfrr non 
pniuarunt, quia Don tali Luoiililale el itrvolioiu-, ut iIcIktpiiI, illud iter tvlortt ainl. 
Nam *l plurca apoautiia inromilaiu sno LnliQEruDi, qui abjccto religioiiis tiabita, cum 
illia ptililare propoautTunl. L. o. p 171. —And an^tli'T conifinp'irarf, Balddrie. alaua. 
in bia Himoria Hieroaalymiiana : Unlli rremitae rt reclimi Pt niouachi. domlciliia auia 
non aalia aapienter rrliclia, ira viam penv»ruiil, quidam autfm oratiania gratia ab ab - 
balibua auia accepu iicdiilia prorFrii aunt, plures nulcin fagitttda ae BBbduicnint. Boii- 
gara Geela Dei p«r Frnncos, I. i. 1. 69 

B In the appendii lo BildeKc's Ulirouiclr, ed, Le Olay, p, 9T!I; Partrnlaet aigna in 
eoelaif lidere mutii ^isacrpbaut. 

4 Uulli dp gtnt« plebrja crurem ai^H itiiiniiug iiintiaDi jaclnuilu OBtcntabaoI, quod rt 

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iron, whether from zeal for the holy cause, or purely ont of ranit;., 
In the beginning of these moTements, &n abbot was liring iu 
France who fonnd himself nnahle, for want of means, to join the 
expedition. To obtain these, instead of mounting the cross in 
the Dsnal manner, he made one, by some artificial process or other, 
on his forehead, and then proclaimed among the people, that this 
mark came from an angel who had appeared to him in a vision. 
This story was easily believed by the people.' Many rich pre- 
sents were bestowed on him ; he was enabled to accomplish his 
pnrpose, and afterwards became archbishop of Csesarea in Pales- 
ttne. In the latter part of bis life he confessed the fraad, which 
was forgiven him on acconnt of his pious motives, though doubt- 
less there were some few who disapproved of this dishonesty.* 
It is no matter of wonder that many who, in consequence of a 
momentary paroxysm of contntiou, engaged in this expedition, 
hoping to find in it the forgiveness of their sins, should suffer 
themselves to be so far misled by their false confidence as to let 
down the watch over themselves, and thus to be drawn into rari- 
ona excesses, for which the expedition and the climate furnished 
but too strong temptations.* But there were also to be found 
examples of genuine Christian faith : captives who gave up their 
lives rather than deny their faith. A knight who had been dis- 
tinguished from his youth for a life of piety, strict morality, and 
active benevolence, was taken prisoner by the Saracens, and his 
life spared on condition of adjuring the faith. He begged that he 
might be allowed time for reflection till the next Friday. When 
Friday came, he declared, that far from him was the desire of 
gaining a few days' respite for his earthly life ; he had only 
wished to give it up on that day when his Saviour had ofi'e'red 
Ilia for the salvation of all.' 

idem qukcdfra «i malieroulis pncmmMniiil, hoc enim falsnindeiiretiensnmmloiDtiino. 
Baldric, bittar Hieros.l.e. 

I Tbe Btlderic, jusl before racnlioiied, nliu rpl«l« liiia, saja: Vrl peine jau Inn liae 
lel ban*s suae lalDntalia oalenlalianr, 

3 IpdOoiUet noTirum nram eapidam Talgoa, say> Gaibert. 1. c.f MIT. 

* Onib«n eaJlB it an tRmalilia Dei, aed non aecubdiiDi acieiiiiam. 

t Bemold tnjt, in tlie p1u<' htToie cited : Htd et innumrrBbilitB (emlnna Mcum lia- 
bere noD limueriiai, qnin naturalem babitnm in Tirilem nvrarie mnlaverunr. ciini qni- 
boa fornioati aunt, hi quo Denm mirabitiler, aicul laraeliiicua papiilaa quDndam, oflrn- 

a Sw Guibert, I. c. f. 008.' 

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The spirit which gare birth to these popular expeditioDS in th« 
name of the Christian bith, was no other than that which had 
stamped itself in the system of the papal theocracy ; and hence 
the enthosiaem attending the former vonld necessarily give a 
stronger impolse to this apiritnal tendency ; and the light in 
which Uihan appeared as the leader of a popular enterprise 
generally regarded as the work of God, conld have no other effect 
than to establish his papal authority. What was it in the power 
of Gnibert to do, who, supported by the forces of the emperor, 
rnled in Rome, in opposition to such a moral force of public yenii- 
nient as Urban had on his side 1 It was not till near the close 
of the year 1093, that the Utter returned to Rome. The papal 
palace (the Lateran) and the castle of St Augelo, were still in the 
bands of the other party ; and Urban was obliged to take shel- 
ter in the castle of Frangipani, a Roman devoted to his service. 
His party did not venture as yet to come forth opeuly in Rome, 
and* his friends from a distance visited him clandestinely. The 
abbot GottfHed of Veudome, a man ardently devoted to Hilde- 
brandian principles, who had just entered upon his office, found 
the pope in circumstances of great distress and overwhelmed with 
debt. The governor of the Lateran palace, who served the party 
of Gnibert, offered, it is true, for a stipulated sum of money, to 
give up the palace ; but Urban, with his cardinals and bishops. 
was unable to raise the amount. The zealous Gottfried of Ven- 
dome staked all his possessions to procure the sum required, and 
thos Urban was finally enabled to take possession of the palace 
which had so long been in the hands of the other party.' 

1 Tbi( abbot nuLicen hia aervieen in ihe ciiisp. in i liUei la the laocMSor of th(* 
pope, i 8, QuH-si itier Nicodemoa in domuni giraedicli Juanola (Frlcupaoii) nocu *eoi: 
abi euDi ftxiu amniboB lemporalibua buuia nndatum el alicno atra nimjs apprvwam 
inieui. Ibi pet qaadrageainiain manai vum illo, ejua oners, qaiDtum poloi, cuilUia 
haoiarJB aapporMti. Quiadeeim lero diebui aulc Pasoba Ferrachina, qoem LaUrui- 
* «Daia Filatii eimioilpm Quibertua frcernt, prr iDlernuDclos lociitoa eel eum bomiuo 
Papa, qiiaerenB nb en pecnuiiir. el ipse reddertt illi turrliu el douium illam. Cuda 
Doiniiiua Pipa cum Bpiacopia el Cardinalibus. qui secum ernni, localua, ab ipaia pe- 
BDUiaoi quarsivlt. aed modicum quid apad ipaoi, qaouiam peraeonijona rt paapetlaic 
aimal premfbaittnr, ipienin poiuji, Qarm tgo qaam non aolum iriatem, leram atiam 
pne Diitia angBatia lacriroaalem couBpi'itiBBeoi, coepl et ipse Here tt flpna aceeMJ ad 

Ripeodi, et bIc Lueraneuae babniinDa >l iiilraiimiia palalium. Ubi ego primua oaosln- 
tua aum Domini Papar |>e<lein, in srdr iid»licel apoalolic^ubi looge ania cBiboliFca 

,». ..<..« p.,.. * 

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Haring accomplished snch great things during his absence from 
the city. Urban, in the year 1096,' marched in a sort of trinmph 
to Italy and Rome, escorted by troops of emaaders, fiill of enthu> 
siasm for their canse, who had him pronounce a blessing on their 
nndertaking. Thos he obtained the victory oT«r the party of Gai- 
bert, tbongh tn Rome it sUU continned to maintun its anthoriiy.* 
And the pope, before so poor, now possessed wealth enough to 
wrest from the party of Oaibert their last prop in Rome, the 
castle of St Angelo. He died in possession of the nncontested 
supremacy, in the year 1039, after he had pronounced in a conncil 
the ban on his adversaries. In the following year, died Clement, 
and it deserres to be noticed tliat his adherents resorted to the 
common expedient of miracnloos stories, hoping by their means 
to uphold his anthority, and to procure a saint for the party of 
Henry.! Henry the Fourth, gradually sobered by his misfortunes, 
persevered nntil his death in maintaining the quarrel with the 
pope, and the latter might naturally enough be disposed to sanc- 
tion any means to bring about his destruction, — eren encourage 
the rebellion of the sons against their father,* provoke the shed- 
ding of blood, and palliate assassination.' The popes, who were 

1 Id LoDgabudiim gummasaotrimDpbQ et gtari*np«i9«it.Mja Bernold. 

1 Otto of Fteiiingan, in bii Work at OniTeml Hiitoi;, I. vilL, «. fi. ujt : Aaiilia 
eonim, jnoi id HttmaoljiDiuiuuin iwr ucendent, Onibertani ab urbo cioepto extra 
CreKentii qeeit. Fulelier of Chinm, who wu bimmlf among Iheu crnaulcra, who 
tLm euoa to Bom*. rriUM hoit tbej ware djaiarbsd in tbeir d^iotioiial eiertiaca in Ida 
cbnrsb of Si Peter, b; tbe tiolent acta of Quibnt'a paitiaaitai and il majeaail; be con 
eeiied. that retaliation ironid be provokinj on the other aide, and blood; aoencH enane, in 
whinb the emsaden must have conquered, being the ■D^Ooi'i'y' ^'^ ^"^ Pnleher'a ez- 
(reaaiona itie not W be interred IbatOnibeit^s partj waa d«lror«d or driTen awaj bj 
tbe awofd of the cnaadrn,*bDt rather the ooDtnrTi for he atji: Balis proiade dolninoa, 
cum lantern nequitlam ibi Seri Tidimna, aad nil aliud Jatxn potHJniu, nisi qaod a Do- 
nino Tiodiotam inde Deri opfav^ntu. 

<* 8e« a rvport of thla lort. Cod. Bamb. in Eeoard. acripu rer. Qmn. il.. o. 173, 1. 194. 

* TboK wbo were blinded bj the hierarebioal spirit looked npon (ha rebellion of the 
aona against tbeir rather aa a paniahmeat brongfat on him for haiing rebelled against 
hia tpiritual fiKfaar. 

t HaD did not nntare, it ia Ime, to prDnaance hee from all blame thoaa who were 
BOTed bj tbeii (iuialioisni to abed tbe blood of petaana eiaommanlealed. Thej were to 
submit to a efaoroh penanoe; still, bowsier, their orima waa not looked tipon aa proparlji 
murder. Itiaaingnlar to obeerrs tb* self-eontradietory manner in which pope Urban 
tbe Swond eipre aa ea btmaelf on a nue of this sort, vben calling npon bishop Gotu 
Med af Lucoa, to require of the aaaasalna of (he cxcommunieated. according to the 
caalom of the Bomlsh sharob, aoltable sadefaotiun. Nan tnim eos bomicidas aThitramor, 
IS islo oslbolicac matria ardeotee eorum quoalibet traci- 

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really to oppose the fanaticism of the crusaders, vhen it would 
Tent itself on the defenceless Jews, with admonitions in a ge- 
nuinely Christian spirit, felt do scrnplea, when Minded themselves 
by a fanatical party-interest, in employing the same instrnment 
against the enemies of their papal anthority, who appeared to 
them as rebels against tbe chnrch, and enemies of God. When 
the emperor Henry, forsaken on all other sides, still had faithfnl 
adherents in the dioceses of Liege and Cambray, pope Paschalis 
the Second tnmed against them the zeal of count Robert of 
Flanders, who, in the year 1 099, retnmed from the first crnsade, in 
which he had acted a prominent part. He exhorted him to per- 
secnte Henry, that head of the heretics, and all his friends, to the 
utmost extent of his power. He did not shrink from so abusing 
the name of God, aa to write to him, that he eonid not offer to 
God a more acceptable sacrifice, than that of carrying war against 
him, who bad rebelled against God, and sought to rob the church 
of its soTereignty. " By such battles," said he, in laying down 
to Robert and his knights the mode of obtaining forgiveness of 
sin, " they should obtain a place in the heavenly Jerusalem.' 
But while even bishops of true piety, as Bishop Otto of Bamberg 
the apostle of the Pommeranians, through their entanglement in 
afalse system, so disregarded all other human feelings and duties, 
could let themselves be so far misled, as to deny their obligations 
of fidelity and gratitude to the emperor Henry, and to sanction 
wickedness ; still, the Christian sense of truth asserted its rights 
in opposition to the clamours of fanaticism and party-passion. 
This was seen in the vote of the church of Liege,' whose organ 
was the free-minded, erudite monk Sigebert ofOeSiblours, who in 
his Chronicle, where be refotes the letter addressed by pope 
Gregory the Seventh to Hermann bishop of Uet2, stood forth aa 
a bold and energetic opponent of the Hildebrandian system.' 

duM coDtigprit. Yetiin order lo pregerrs tb« puritj of abnrab diioipliiie, ■ soitabla 
peDaDOBBhaalilbe preBcribvd for them : qo* diiinie ■impllsiuLu oodIo^ mdnnnBicoa'D' 
plaeer* tiient, ri /orlt quid dujilicilalit pro luunana/rtigilitaleiim>itiitfiagUi*eon- 
traxeTunt. Manai Conatl. Xt., t. 713. 

1 Sea the epblolk Laadieniiuoi advcraua Pateb. in Hanlsin. Cono. t. vi., p. ii., t 

t Sae oonoammg tbia penno, tbe CoDimentalio receotly eampoud bj a promiaiD*; 
joung taiatorian, Ur HirHh. Sigebcrl daaignalsa himiettu tb* autbor of lliitTemarii< 
■b!a letler near th« eloaa of bis tnat, De acriptoribni eeolaaiaalicU, wbere ha apeakl of 
bioiwlf. aae BiblLotbau eavleaiaatica ed. Fabrii;. f. 114. 

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The clergy of Liege objected to the pope, th&t he had exchanged 
the spiritual for the secular sword. " If onr respect for the apos- 
tolical dignity may allow us to say it," they wrote to him, " we 
would say, the pope was asleep, and his connBellors were asleep, 
when they saffered the publication of such a mandate for the de- 
Tastation of the commnnities of God. We pray him to consider 
whether he leads a beloved son in the right way, when he pro- 
mises him an entrance into the heavenly Jemsalem by attaeking 
and desolating the church of Ood. Whence this new example, 
thai he who is called to be a messenger of peace shoald by his 
own month, and anoiher^s hand, declare war against the chorch I 
The laws of the chnrch allow eren clergymen to take np arms in 
defence of the city and chnrch agunst barbarians and Ood's 
enemies. Bnt nowhere do we read, that, by any ecclesiastical 
authority, war has been proclaimed against the chnrch. Jesns, 
the apostles, and the apostolical men proclaim peace. They pn- 
nished the erring with all patience and admonition. The dis- 
obedient, Panl bids ns to punish severely. And how this shonid 
be done, Christ tells ns, 'Let him be to thee as an heathen man 
and a publican ;' and this is a worse evil than if he should be 
struck by the sword, consumed by the flames, or thrown before 
wild beasts. He is thus more severely punished when be is left 
unpunished. Who now, would superadd to God's pnnishment, that 
of man. Bnt why should these clergymen be excommunicated X 
Is it, perhaps, because they are devoted U> their bishop, and 
the latter to the party of his lord the emperor ^ This is the 
very beginning of all evil, that Satan should have succeeded to 
sow discord between the church and the empire." They would 
not presume to antedate the Lord's judgment, by which the good 
fruit and the tares were finally to be separated fVom each other. 
How much of the good fruit might he pluck away who could cull ' 
out the tares before the harvest 1 A gentle hint to the p^ope not 
to condemn prematurely. " And who can rightly censure the 
bishop that holds sacred the oath of allegiance he has sworn to 
his sovereign % How 'grievous a sin peijnry is, those very per- 
sons know who have brought about the recent breach betwixt 
the empire and the church ; since they promise by their new 
maxims dispenaation firom the guilt of perjury to those who have 
violated the oath of fidelity to their sovereign." They object to 

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the pope, the nnapostolic harshnesa with which he treated them.i 
They Diainlaitied, iDdeed, that princes might be respectfully ad- 
monished and corrected, but that they conld not be deposed by 
the popes.* They donbted, in fact, the right of the popes to 
prononDce the ban on princes. The jurisdiction over them, the 
King of kings, who appointed them his ricegerents on earth, had 
reserred in his own hands ; a position inconsistent, to be sure, 
with the position maintained by the spirit of this age, and one 
by which the theociatical jurisdiction of the church, restricted by 
arbitrary limitations, woold hare wholly lost its importance; so 
that, in the end, it conld only hare reached the weak, while the 
powerfol, the very ones on whom it might prove most salutary, 
would hare remained wholly untouched. They defend, against the 
principles established by the popes of these times, the old eccle- 
siastical law, and the authority of bishops, archbishops, and pro- 
vincial synods ; they maintain that only on graver matters (gra- 
viora negotia) a report was to be made out to Borne. But they 
declared strongly against the papal legates a latere, who did no- 
thing bnt travel op and down to enrich themselves ; from which 
no amendment of life proceeded, but assassination and spoliation 
of the church.^ They maintained, therefore, that they did not 
deserve the reproaches of the pope, since they had only acted ac- 
cording to their duty. They took no part in politics. They 

iDL, PetniB iipoiloluB 
delinqaentCB ail ; Filioli quoa iurum pBrtnrio in Domiao. Ho* igitur UundU Doml- 

1 Concerning the papal bRn agaioBt priDccs : Malediclum axcommuDicalionis. quod 
ex noTElla Iraditione Uildebiandua, Odardoa (Orbaniu Secnndna) ct iaW Wrtiui indii- 
crelt prutulfmnt, omnino tbjidmaB tt printet aaDotos p*tm usque niiDO TCDcniDur el 
tenemus, qui dioUDU Spiriln sanclii, non iniml motu in mqoribus et ntJDoribae poKs- 
UtiboB grmilei delinqueotibus quaedam disaimalaTeraat,quaedBni coTrexenint, qoaediim 

tolpraTenut Si quia deoiqiierespectu aaocti Spiritna ti-Iu> et Doramteiila- 

mentnniEeataqDe TesoWerit. patenter injeoiel, quod lat miDime ant difficile powunt 
regnaaut imperalona eiCDmmuiiirari Pl adhuc sob jndice lis eat. Admaneri quidem 
poaaunt, incnpari. argui a timoratia, et discralis lirla, quia quoa CliriBtua in tenia rei 
ngum Tieeana canBtitoil, damnandoa el Balvandos annjudicia rcliqnit. 

* lltoB Tcro legalas a laure Bamani apitecpi exruntea H additanda manapii diiour 
leulea, omnlna refutamua, sicut lemporibu* Zosimi, Cceleaiiiii, Baniracii concilia 
Africans probavrunt. Etenim ut a fhiclibn* corum cognoa cimuB eoi, Don morniD cor- 
rfolio, noD vine enundatio, aed ioda bominuDi caedca ti eeelesiarum Dei proTcniiint 

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never attended the assemblies of the prineea, but left the deci- 
Bion of political qoestions to their soperiors. to whose prorince it 
belonged. The reproach fell with more justice on popes who 
were actuated by mere worldly pride. That from the time of 
pope Silvester to Hildebrand false popes had been jndged by 
emperors, the imperial anthority was of greater force than the 
papal ban.' Our Lord says : If I have spoken evil, shew it me. 
Panl boldly withstood Peter. " Wherefore, then, should the Ro> 
man bishops not be reproved for manifest error \ He who is not 
willing to be set right is a false bishop."^ They wonld not enter 
at present into tny defence of their sovereign. " Bnt even were 
he snch as the pope represents, still wonld we let him rule over 
ns, since we should regard it as a judgment of God hang over as 
on account of oar sins. Still, we ehoold not be anthorized to lift 
np the sword against him ; bnt prayer wonld be our only reftage. 
Why do the popes hand down to each other as an inheritance the 
war against king Henry, whom they persecute with unjust excom- 
monicatioDB, when they are bound to obey him as their rightful 
sovereign ? To be sure, he who is excommunicated by the judg- 
ment of the Holy Ohost, is to be repelled from the house of God. 
But who would say that when one has been excommnnicated with 
injustice, in respect to his cause or in respect to hia person, that 
snch an one has been excommunicated by the judgment of the Holy 
Ghost 1 Gregory the Seventh expressed the principle and applied 
it in practice, that the bishop of Rome can absolve one nnjnstly 
excommunicated by another. And if the bishop of Borne can do 
this, why shonld not God be able to absolve one anjnstly excom- 
mnnicated by the pope ? For to no one can any real injury be 
done by another, if he has not first injured himself." Finally, 
they speak with the greatest abhorrence of the fact, that the 
pope had promised the count forgiveness of sidb on snch condi- 
tion& " What new anthority is this, by which impnnity for sins 

I PotiDi dqwiitD iiririta pnetaaipliQDi* cum suit conilliariii aollfTter racolligat, 
qaomada > beau SilTmn Bsqiie >d HUdcbriDdDm udim Bomiiiani nliciDmrinl, at qdot 
etquiLU imndiu n illitu ■rdii imbiLioDc perpetrati aipt etquomodo pcrngra *l in- 
fentom dafloiu cint, «l pieiiLlii-ps|«r dunniii n abdicaii aint et ibi ptoa nlait Tictna 
iiiiptiialii, qaam eicommDniBatio Hildcbnndi, Udaidi, Paxihoiii. 

T Ergo remou BomaDie aoibitioDia lyjbo, car de graribun et manilMlia noa repre- 
twodaatiir n oonvfantDr Ramini epiaoopi T Qui raprcbcudi el conigi nan valt, paeudo 


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cominitted, and freedom for Bnch u are to be committed liere- 
after, ie promised to the goilt; without confesaioa and penance \ 
How wide hast thou thus thrown open the doors for all iniquity ?> 
Thee, mother, may God deliver from all iniqiiity. Hay Jesus 
be thy door, and open to thee that door. No one enters unless 
he opens. Thee, and those who are set over thee, may God de- 
liver from such as betray the people." (Uicah i ) 

Urban'e ancceefior, Paschalis the Second, also followed, it is 
true, the Bildebrandian system, like his predecessors ; but he 
wanted Gregory's spirit, firmness, and energy.' He reaped the 
reward of his own iniquity in countenancing the inconsiderate 
rebellion of Henry the Fifth gainst his father ; for that prince 
showed himself obedient to the pope, only so long as he stood in 
need of him for the attainment of his ends. But no sooner was 
he in possession of the power than he revived the old quarrel 
respecting the investiture, and, after threatening at a distance, 
in the year 1110 entered Italy with an army. At Sntri a treaty 
was concluded between the pope and the emperor, by which 
treaty the contest which had continued so long was finally to be 
settled. The imperial party had, in fact, in this contest always 
insisted on the principle that to Ceesar must be rendered the 
things of Ceesar, as well as to God the things that are God's ; 
that if the bishops would retain the possessions and privileges 
they had received fVom the empire, they should fulfil the obliga- 
tions due to the empire for them. If they refused coming to any 
such understanding, they should restore back what they had re- 
ceived from the empire, and be content with that which the 
church originally possessed. It might with justice be said that 
the church, by usurping a province not her own, but belonging 
to the secular power, made herself dependent on that power; that 
the bishops and abbots had been misled thereby to lose sight of 
their spiritual duties in attending to secular business. The pope, 
in his letter to the emperor Henry the FiAh, might not without 

1 Udde ago bate nova ucloritu, per quun n 
fertnr pnMcriMTum peceitoram impnnitu el tut 
malilJK pPT hoe patefocisti hominibu ? 

t OoibeTl af Novigantiun rcpretanti bim aa bring ■ weak am 
maa In Ibi third book of bi* autoblogfr^bj. He aaja of hint: 
competem officio, litrralgs. Deiiuana, l.iii.,c. iv. 

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reaaon complain of it as an evil, that the servants of the altar 
had become serrants of the curia ; that they had receiTed from 
the princes mints, caatlee, and cities ; whereby they were obliged 
to appear at coort, to take part in wars and in many other af- 
fairs incompatible with their rocation.' Accordingly, those pos- 
sessions and pririleges which, under Charlemagne, Louis the 
Pious, and the Othos, had been bestowed on churches, should 
now be restored back to the empire, in order that the bishops 
might with less distraction attend to the spiritual welfore of 
their communities.' Upon this coadition, Heur? the Fifth might 
be willing^ to renounce the right of ioTestitnre ; and Paschalis, 
when he had done so, could bestow on him the coronation in 
Rome. A treaty of this sort was concluded at Sutri. But at 
that time things spiritual and secular in Germany had become so 
jumbUd together that a sudden separation of this sort could not 
be carried into effect ; and men were not wanting who called it 
sacrilege to think of depriving the church of that which belonged 
to her by long years of possession.* The emperor may perhaps 
already have foreseen* that the German bishops would not be in- 
clined to let secular matters alone ; and may have drawn up hie 
plui with reference to the expected issue. But Pascbalis shows 
himself in all these transactiona a weak man, governed by the 

22. inTMUiregripariibi; 

la epiicopi Te! 

1 abbiUB Bdeo rnria aecnluibas oHJn 

Dl comiULum tuidne frequp 

nure, «t milk 

iim eierneK cogantur, qaie nimirnn 

im iIuHb minislri curiss fat 

ilyjlalea. duCHlus. mirol.ionUui, mo 

netM, tnires Ft cn«i«r&Bd legnl BervillDm peitlnentla tregibns BCf^eperunt. UBdertiim 
a« MclMiu Inclerll, nt tltcli epiicopi ddIIo moda conmcruioDem uciperant, niai p«T 
raBDaal ngiim inicgtlranuir. Also Geriiab of Iteleberaberg rvmuks in oppoBltion lo 
[liU nixing logvtber or spirilQil uid secular concgrns: Ducilas, comiULuB, Ulonla, 
moDtu pertiiieDt id aeculnm. See hi* work, De ■edifloio Del, e. x. la Fei lliMiuni* 
■DMdM t ii. p. ii., f. 981. 

I Opditet eniio eplieopoi coria aBecnlBribni eipediloi ourain ■uonim tgtn populoruoi 
Dtc eocleBiia sals abeiae diutina. 

■ When Oerhoh apoke in oppoaitiao to tliat miiing logslliei of apirlluaB and aecular 
conurns bj tbe Oennau prelates, be was In fear Uial ha ahould giis offeoee to Ihosa 
wbo said : Tales lenuil ecoleaiia ilonala qnacDnque oceaaiooe ab lllia anrerenlea sacrile- 
ginm commlttere, quonlam «aol«ia rem aamal acceptam «t diutinapotaesalonsnuuiclpa- 
Uun noD potest amittere. In iLe vurk already cited, De aediBcio Dei. L. o. 

• Gerbob of fieicbersberg, in hie book De alaln scclealae, c. iii., Qretsar opp. (. ti., t. 
251, aaja of Uie emperor : Ha*c asne promHlens gciebat, non RODaensum iri ab epiacopis 
praeoipue Oermaiiiaa Ft UalliM atque SaioalaF, aed per promisaa apecieoi quaodam 
pietatis babenlia ad peraeplioneni imperialia coraniu pel beaedictiDDem fiomimi pontl- 
Soia impoDendaa nllcbatur. 


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inflnencea of passing events and the force of circamBtances ; and 
in the present case he acted irithont any cidcnlation either of the 
consequences or the practicability of the treaty. Accordingly, 
when the emperor and the pope came t(%etiier at Rome, A..D. 
1111, and the treaty was made known to the German prelates, 
they declined giving np the regalia. The emperor now, on his 
part, woald not consent to renounce the investiture, which he 
had promised to do only onder this condition, and yet he de- 
manded of the pope, since he had performed his part of the 
treaty, the imperial coronation. As the pope declined, and re- 
liised to recall the old veto against the investiture, he with hia 
cardinals were arrested and imprisoned ; and for the purpose of 
obtaining his liberty again, he concluded in the year 1112 a 
treaty with the emperor, by virtue of which he conceded to him 
the right of bestowing by staff and ring the investiture on bishops 
and abbots elected freely and without simony.' Had the pope 
held out firmly in the contest with the emperor, he might have 
reckoned upon the force of public opinion, which most have pro> 
tested strongly against such violence done to the person of the 
head of the church. It is evident from the expression of Hilde* 
bert of Mans, who was by no means a zealot, how enormous a 
crime this appeared.* He would have been venerated as a 
martyr. Bnt the man who had hitherto so zealonsly served the 
cause of the papacy, for that very reason lost so much the more 
by yielding. Great must have been the impression made upon his 
age when it was found that the pope, (Vom motives of fear, proved 
unfaithAil to the system which he had before so earnestly de- 
fended, and for which Gregory the Seventh had perseveringly 
fought, at the cost of everything, till his death. The name of 
Paschalis, as the man who had cowardly betrayed the liberties of 
the church, and made her dependent on the emperors, was 

I Ut ngai toi epiBcapii Tfl •bbuibtu liberc prueWr Tiolantiun Tel ■imonlun el«cti* 
inieilitnrsni Tirgas eluiDulicoDferai, poal iDieaiitianaiD i«ro cinonice GonMcradoncm 
■coipiiDt ab episcopo. ad qarm perliuiierit. 

1 Stt bi( 1. ii. tf. '-il. Tlie >-unc wiiier objcew to Henry h!i double crime ■gtinathia 
red and ■guiust hta ■piritual father. Quia enim poleat pneler earn inveniri. qui patiea 
■001. apfriLualem pu-iUrel cainiilem gubdola ceperil factioue) Ute eat. qui praewplia 
Damiiiieis in ulraque tabula coDlnHlioit. Nam, ul de hia, quae aotu priora aunt, phua 
dlcam. patrtm carnia auac non bonoraiit, aed capIiviTit prlna et deiDcepa eipnlit ftio- 
dulentir at Lu Deom poatmodnm at ejaa eedeaiam inaarTexit el de Sede Petri *ioariiim 
HBque ID Tiuoiila pfrtnrbaTit. 

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Fault pound with paschalis for yieldino. 181 

handed down from one generation to another through the tweldh 
centary. Thus, for example, in the prophecies of the abhot 
Joachim of Calabria, towards the close of this century, where he 
describes the gloving cormption of the chnrch, Paschalis holds a 
prominent place in the pictured The abbot Gottfried of Ten- 
dome loaded him with the severest reproaches,* and expressed a 
determination to renounce obedience to him, if he remained 
faithful to that treaty. He held up before him the example of 
the old martyrs, as well as that of the two apostles who laid the 
foundations of the Roman chnrch. If the successor of such men, 
sitting on their seat, by acting contrary to their example, has 
robbed himself of their glorious lot, then, said he in his letter to 
the pope, he ought himself to annni what he has done, and, as a 
second Peter, expiate the fault by tears of repentance. If throi^h 
weakness of the flesh he had fVom the fear of death wavered for 
a moment, the spirit should keep itself pnre by reforming the 
works of the flesh ; nor should he himself wish to excuse by 
pleading the latter, which at any rat« must die, an act which he 
might hare aToided, and eo gained a glorious immortality. Nor 
could he excuse himself by pleading anxiety for the lires of his 
sons the cardinals ; for he ought to hare been much more con- 
cerned for the ererlasting than for the temporal welfare of his 
sons; and instead of eking oat a brief life to them, by exposing 
the church to ruin and their souls to injury, be should by his own 
example hare fired them on to meet a glorious martyrdom ; for 
the object, as it seemed to him, was worthy of such a sacrifice. 
The lay-inreetitnre, whereby the power was conceded to laymen 
of GouTeying a spiritual possession, appeared to him as a denial 
of the faith and of the freedom of the church, — as a reritable 

I Although he cdls bim Pascbuina tht Third, aod tajM minT Ibingn which da not 
4gne with id e»ci knowledge of history, jtl we cau cODceivs of no otlifr Pucbalit 
that Pin ba mnut. In tbe Commentirj on the prophet Jeremith, we read ; Libertaa 
eeclniaa ancillanda eat vt atatuenda aub tribnlD a papa Paschaiio lertifi. Nod rat 
plangendna, quia ptai captivna a duc« Naroiannico (wbioh title bare is Dot correct), 
ponaie debuit animam pro juatitia ecctealae el noii iafringere lihertalem ejaa et tradere 
■errltuti. de qua collam non exctitirt f^ic dp lei. See tbe edition of Cologne, 1S77. p. 
312; and in aootlier place; The aerritiide of tbe popes bf gun in {wpe Paschal ia, qiiem 
duiNornianiiicaacaepitfllcoDtrBlibenalein eceleaiaa prifilegia fecit el indiilsii inviiii«, 
qaae ponaa libi-nuua fregit. P. 269. 

» Kp. 7. 

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heresy. H« begged the pope not to add to his f&ult by trjing 
to ezcHM it, bat rather to amend it. He did Dot hesitate to tell 
him that, although even a viciona pope mast be tolerated, yet 
the cane stood quite otherwise wiUi an heretical one. Against 
SQch a pope, any man, who did but remain tme to the (aitb him- 
self, might stand forth as an accnser.' 

There vere, among the adherents of the charch theocratical 
system, two parties ; one rigid and stjff, the other milder. The 
former, of which ve may consider the abbot Gottfried of Ven- 
dome, in his then position, a representative, declared witfaoat 
reserve, that muntaining the right of lay-investitnre was a 
heresy, because thereby the right was attribnted to laymen of 
conveying a spiritual possession ; and according to the judgment 
of this party, the pope, if he did not revoke that which he had 
done throagh weakness, made himself liable to condemnation, 
and men were authorized and bound to renounce obedience to 
him as a promoter of heresy. Others jndged the condnct and 
the person of the pope more mildly, though they considered the 
lay-inTestitnre as unjustifiable. To this party belonged two 
other distinguished men of the French chnrch, Hildebert, bishop 
of Mans, and Yres, bishop of Chartres. The former was not only 
ready to excuse the pope's condnct, but even represented it as 
exemplary. " The pope," says he, " has ventured his life for 
the chnrch, and yielded only for a moment to put a atop to the 
efiusion of blood, and to desolation. Another cannot so transport 
himself into the critical and periloos situation of the head of the 
church as to be entitled to jndge him. It behooves not the 
man living in comfortable ease to accuse the bleeding warrior of 
fear.* The pope," he thought, " was obliged to accommodate 
himself to circumstances. The oftentimes misinterpreted and 
misapplied example of the apostle Paul was employed, to the 
great wrong of trath, in palliation of crooked coarses. Where 
we cannot know the heart, we ought to presume the best, mo- 

1 'Whtn. In iDDtlier lBg«l tStir, be inviwd b<s UEtitmcp, be irrou to him (ep. 6) ; 
Nou vol nhra modnin lillciat, ai qaa Fuit siniBtra operatio, non ppnurliei aculiim meulis 
vcslrnr regis eiaoCiD. aed quaQto fortius poteslis. jura jasLiiiae in rebus nliia teneuis 
nunc ei deliberatione, at quod regi fecit lestra liumanitoa, TeciBSe creditur |in> TJla flti- 

t Ep. SS. Ualibutua iingiigiitis cmsulum miliWDi formidinia dan acriiHal. 

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tires ; and no man shonld s«t himself op as jndge over the pope, 
who as nniTersal bishop is empowered to alter and rescind all 

Yves of Chsrtres declared himself, it is tme, in faroar of the 
principles promnljj^ated by Gregory the Seventh, and Urban the 
Second, against lay- investiture, bnt he also excnsed tbe forced 
compliance of Paschalis. Hia advice was, that confidential, af- 
fectionate, letters shonld be addressed to tbe pope, exhorting 
him to condemn himself or to retract what had been done.' If 
he did 80, men wonld thank God, and the whole cbnreh rejoice 
over the recovery of their head.' Bat if the pope proved in- 
enrable, still, it did not belong to others to pass judgment on 
him. The archbishop John of Lyons, having called together a 
conncil at which the subject of lay-investitare as an affair con- 
cerning tbe faith, and the treaty between the pope and the em- 
peror, were to be bronght into discussion, ¥res wrote to this 
archbishop a letter,' warning him against taking any irrevocable 
steps in this matter, and recommending moderation. He songht 
to excuse the pope, who had yielded only to force and for the 
purpose of avoiding a greater evil, by holding up the examples 
of Uoaes and of Panl, showing how the latter had allowed Timothy 
to be circnmctsed, in order by this accommodation to gain the 
Jews. " Ood has pemtitted the greatest and holiest men, when 
they have given way to a necessity which seemed to exculpate 
them, 01 have descended to a prudent accommodation, to fall into 
such weaknesses, in order that they might thereby be led to a 
knowledge of their own hearts, learn to ascribe their weaknesses 
to themselves, and to feel their indebtedness to the grace of God 
for all the good that is in thetn." He refused to assist in any 
conncil met to deliberate on this affair, since it was ont of the 
power of any to jndge the party against whom they wonld have 

I QnMcnnqDi iwMimu* quo animo fliDt, iiilerpnumor io HMJiDi. Uniienalii 
epiKO|na oniaiam habrt legfn el jon moindera. 

i Ep 243. Quia rm nda p*trU d>b«na> poUiu nitre qoun Dudtrr. hmiliirtbus at 
eiriulem redolentibnt litarii (dma^itodat nibi ridetar, ut >e jiidicel ml ntclum siinm 

> Omais (crlesiti quite gnTilcr linguel, dum ctfal ejii* libant uou dcbitiulun 

t TUcn Ken MT«ral rmincnl Frencb bnbopi, in vhote nrivne thin wu nrilten. 

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to proceed : for the pope was amenable to the jnd^ent of no 
man. Althongh he declared himself opposed to lay-inreBtitnre, 
still, he voald not concede to those who droT« the matter to an 
extreme, and drew rash conclusions, that the muntaining of lay> 
inTestitnre was a heresy, a sin against the Holy Ohost. " For 
heresy," he thonght, " had reference to the faith, and faith had 
its seat within ; bnt inTestitnre was an external thing.' What- 
ever is fonnded on eternal Jaw. conld indeed never be altered ; bnt 
in that which proceeded from no snch law, bnt was ordered and 
arranged with reference to certain necessities of the times, for the 
hononr and advantage of the church, something donbtleos might 
be remitted for the moment, ont of regard to changing circnni- 
stances* But if a layman claimed the power of bestowing, with 
the inrestitnre, a Bftcrament, or a rem eacramenli, snch a person 
would be a heretic, not on account of the investitore in itself, bnt 
on account of the nsnrpation connected with it. The lay-inves- 
titore, as the wresting to one's self of a right belonging to another, 
onght assuredly, for the sake of the hononr and freedom of the 
church, to be wholly abolished, if it coold be done without dis- 
turbing the peace ; but where this conld not be done without dan- 
ger of a schism, it must be suffered to remain for a while under a 
discreet protest." The archbishop John of Lyons, howerer, in 
his reply, expressed his regret to find that the pope would not 
allow the weak spots which he had exposed to be covered.* To 
the remarks of Tt6B with regard to the mitigation of the judg- 
ment concerning lay-investiture, he replied : " It is true, faith and 
heresies hare their seat in the heart ; but as the beliering man is 
known by his works, so also is the heretic by hie. Although the 
outward act, as snch, is not heretical ; still, it may be of snch a 
kind that something heretical lies at the bottom of it. If, there- 
fore, the outward act of investiture by laymen is in itself nothing 
heretical, still, the maintaining and defending it proceeds from 
heretical principles." 

■uDt. H<1 pro bonnule et miliute ec- 
ioiie Ml teippui r^Diillanlur pro qua 
tfriniiio, »^ liDdabilis et ulubciriina 

> TolunMtA nmin conugi pMcrelur. 

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Hvacrriag of notice ia the book which, amid these morements, 
the prior Placidos of Nonantnla wrote in defence of the honoar of 
the church,' as it is especially calcol&ted to convey a knowledge 
of the relation in which the different parties stood to each other. 
This book is directed partly ag^ainst those who defended the lay- 
investittire with a riew to the interests of the state ; partly against 
those who, flrom the pogition of papal abtolutwm, maintained 
that no one conid set himself np as judge over the decision of the 
pope. The former were led by the reaction against the theocracy, 
which sabordinated everything secniar to itself, to give promi- 
nence to the pnrely spiritual idea of the church. " The chorch," 
said they, " is a thing purely spiritual ; hence of earthly matters 
nothing belongs to it bat the place in which the faithfnl are as- 
sembled, and which is denominated a church.' The servants of 
the church can, according to her laws, lay claim to no earthly pos- 
session ; nothing ia due (o them but the tythes, firstlings, and 
oblations of the altar. Whatsoever more they desire to have, 
they can only receive from the monarch. The church and its pre- 
cincts consecrated to God belong, it is allowed, to none but God 
and his priests ; but what the church now glorified throughout the 
whole world possesses, — cities, castles, public mints, etc.,a all this 
belongs to the emperor, and this the shepherds of the chuTch 
cannot possess, unless it be constantly bestowed on them, over 
and over again, by the emperor. How should not the churches 
be subject, on account of their earthly possessions, to him to 
whom the whole land is subject t' If, in order to the choice of a 

1 LilKr ilr Uonore esole«i>e. Pel tbn<iDrii-i ■'leo.totorum notiaalmun, I il.,p.ii., 
r 75. 

f Eoclnii iprituilii m el Uto iiibtl n lerrrniinim nrum pntingl, nisi Idsu* innlum, 
^nl conaoelo nooiiDn tccleain dioiinr. 

» Dncntiis. mirchiir, comiiilui, »dioeiti«e, moneUe puhlicae, riviutpa et cwlrs. 

* A compuriMD of nur cilationa from (hii book *itb wbai Orrhoh or R-iehenbtrf;. in 
bii work, Df lUln erclfalM. gub Hrniifla Qmrto >t QuiDlo iirprntoribiu et Oregorin 
Srpio, uniiuulliaque constqnentibua lioniaDis Panliflcibno. pnblislird bj lb* Jeenil 
OrpU' r (t Ti., opp.), puts in the mnulb of ibp derenden af the eiuui aT Kenrr (qni pro 
pirte ennl regji ijebanlLferTM iltn toiiliow tbilfram tbeta communioalians ot Pluci. 
dui we mi)' leiirn whu were the prinoipln iii«inuun«d by ■ whole pirtj ; »nd we mee of 
bow mueh importance tbL§ dispale iboat prineiples wac. According to the qoDUlioD of 
Oprhoh, the imperi*] f»nj iiid : " If the biahopi wiihed to reniain heid< of (he empire, 
tben Ibej iniiil eonteiit Lo be invMled, like ill others, by the emperor, with the ooDcur- 
r«ns(' of ibe oilior iDcmbcn of tbe imperiiil diet." Nod iiB| 
in piincipeiD. niil itb Ip^o imperalore pi consilio nliomm principnm ■ 

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shepherd, the agreement of the whole community is required, how 
tnneh more must this be the case in regard to emperors or 
princes \" This party, in order to defend lay-investiture, ap- 
pealed to the fact, that eren the emperor was the Lord's anointed, 
by virtue of the anointing with holy oil which was bestowed on 
him. To these arguments Flacidus replied : " To be sure, the 
chnrch is a spiritual society, the community of believers, which has 
been adorned with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. But she should 
also be hononred by her consecrated earthly gifts ; and what has 
once been giren to her, cannot again be wrested from her without 
sacrilege. Just so the worship of God, though it has its seat in 
the heart, — yet must appear outwardly, and present itself in a 
risible manner ; and visible temples mnst be erected to his ho- 
nour. According to the promises of the prophets, the ouce per- 
secuted ehnreh should at length be outwardly glorified. As the 
soul cannot, in this present life, subsist without the body, so 
neither can the spiritnal subsist without the corporeal, and the 
latter is sanctified through its connection with the former." Many 
whom Plactdna calls " simplices," said, " If things go on in this 
way, the church will in the end absorb all earthly interests into 
itself. " He replies, by quoting the words of Christ, " All men 
cannot receive this saying (?.e. few are so far advanced in the 
spiritual direction as to perceive how everything earthly should, 
in fact, be consecrated to the church) ; for when would all give 
their possessions to the church, if now they seek, to deprive her 
even of that which has been her property for ages ? The plenty 
which is now in the hands of the chnrch, belongs to her no less 
than the little did which she once possessed. Both belong to her 
for the same reason, becanse it is property consecrated to Ood. 
The same Being who once formed her by want, has now enriched 
and glorified her. What would be said of the man, who should 
maintain, that the emperor has no right indeed to a house that 
belongs to one of his subjects ; yet the possessions of the house 
belong to the emperor, in the sense that no one has a right to 
dispose of them, unless he receive it from the emperor ? Princes 
should by no means be excluded from participating in the elec- 
tion of bishops ; but they should do so as members of the com- 
munity ; as sons, not as lords, of the church. They should not 
by their own authority give shepherds to the church, whether by 

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inrestitnre, or by aDj otiitT exerciM of their Borereignty ; bat 
bishops should be s-ppointed by the common choice of the clergy 
and the concnrrenGe of the commnnities, of the high and the low, 
among whom princes also belong. The emperor is anointed, not 
that he may mle the church, but that he may faithlblly govern 
the empire." 

He next proceeds to combat those who argned that the pope 
conid not take back bis oath to the emperor, by which he con- 
ceded to him the right of investitare ; those who held that no 
man conld exalt himself over the pope, the snpreme lawgiver of 
the chnrch ; that the laws enacted by him, although new, still 
carried with them the obligation of obedience. He says, on the 
other hand, pope Pascbalis, with the cardinals, had been induced 
by compassion to grant the emperor Henry the Fifth, a privilege 
incompatible with the grace of the Holy Spirit and with the ec- 
cleeiastical laws. The pope waa not bonnd to abide by this com- 
pact ; bnt was bonnd to correct the mistake with all zeal ; 
following the example of the apostle Peter, who, after having denied 
the Lord throngh fear, sought to make np the injury by greater 
love. An oath, whereby one promises to do a wicked thing, can- 
not be binding. On the contrary, the promiser should repent for 
having taken the name of the Lord in vain, by promising to do 
what he ought not to do either with or without an oath. It must 
be admitted, that the pope may enact new laws, bat only respect- 
ing matters on which the holy fathers have determined nothing, 
and especially on which nothing baa been settled in the sacred 
Scriptures. But wherever oar Lord, or his apostles, and the holy 
fathers succeeding them, had manifestly determined anything, 
there the pope can give no new law, bnt is bound rather to defend 
that which has been once settled, until he dies. Accordingly, 
this Placidos calls upon every man to follow the example of all 
who hare fought for the kingdom of God, from the apostles to 
Gregory the Seventh, and Urban the Second,* and to give np 
everything, even life itself, for the cause of righteousness. 

I Cononn in; Gregory tb« ScTcnth. !■<*«;■; Pro honort siiicUe egelHiw dimleiDB, 
mnlua >l vvila WmpcaWtrt (UUinall. Md flMti bod polnii. quia fnodaiiu erM «upnt 
BrniUD petnuD. CoDCtniiDg Uiban Ihe Seoood, wbo it Bnt could Bad notpot in ilie 
citj of BoDK irhflra be Bonld ramun : Qui lumn noD Beuit, wd pillrnicr ftrrna 
CliiiatD pm H obtintnle. omDi* bMKtkonin Tia dninicu rt ipH mdciu pceltniac 
rnldiiD* ipud BcatDin Prinin in ma Md* bnto Anp quIcTii. 

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It appears endeat from these signs of the times, that if Pas- 
chalis had been disposed to abide faithfally by the treaty which 
had been conclnded, still, he conld not hare carried it oat in op- 
position to the superior power of the Hildebrandian party in the 
chnrch. A new schism in the church would in all probability 
have been the consequence of snob an attempt.' If the most zeal- 
ous defenders of the chnrch theocratical system had hitherto been 
zealous also for papal absolutism, they might now take another 
turn, and be led by zeal for their principles to stand up against 
the person of the pope ; so that from a party, of which under 
other circumstances such a thing was least to be expected, might 
proceed a freer reaction against the arbitrary will of the indivi- 
dual, who stood at the bead of the church government. 

But not only was Pascfaalis too weak to undertake to maintain, 
against the force of such a spirit, the step he had taken, he was 
also, at heart, too much affected by the same spirit himself, to 
form any such resolution. Without doubt, he had ouly been in- 
duced to gire way by a momentary impulse of fear and weakness ; 
and he soon began to reproach himself for what he had done ; 
as in fact he expressed his regret at the transaction in his letters 
to foreign bishops. He was desirous of retiring to private life ; 
and of leaving it to the chnrch to judge respecting what had been 
done. He deserted the papal palace and retired to an island in 
the Tiber, and could only be persuaded to return by the en- 
treaties of the cardinals and of the Roman people.* It might be 

1 Oerhoh of Reinhenberg relM«a . IhU near) j o/J the Freoch biifaopn (*liieh doubtleu 
is fxagg<r[iu4) bad formed tha rrnolatian logrtlier, to eiaommudieue (be popo bimsrlf, 
ifbowanid not nnoke what br bid conceded (o Ibe empFrorHrnr; ibe Filih. DniTOisi 
paeot Franciae «piKopi conailinm ioieniit, i|natenni eicoDiDiDnicareDl Purtialam, 
tinqDBm ecelesia* hortem pl desiructorem, nlai priiilegiuin idrm ipae, qui dedit, damna- 
visiwt. Sne tba above-oiliid Iraol, De atalii ecclpaiae. sbap. xiii., id Greuer app.Utme 
Ti.f, 257. 

J Tvnof Chirtrasanp (fp.233 md S3G) of ibe pope: Poalquam evnalt pniealum, 
Birut ipse qnibiudam DoSLrum icnpsiL, quod jnuoral, TDsail- quod pralitbaeral, prohl- 
bit;t, quimvii qnibuBdain Defanills quacdam nefaoda acripta penniavrit, 

) So HildebfTl, at lf*st, rrjitea, in th« abore cited leiler, falloviDg arnmanr; I(e- 
nnaciana domo. patriae, rebua. officio, morliflcindua In came, PouliaDam inauUm, 
cnniniigraTJi. Populi vncibua, H eanlinalium lacriniiB i»Toea(uB iu eathedrani. Tbia 
ia uonAnned bj ibe aeeount of ■ miatwonb]' bistorian aiDoag bia coDlemponiriea, the 
abbot Softer of Ht Dpuia, in bis account of Uie Uh of tbe Frencb kin;; Louie the Sixth. 
ViM Lndoiiei Oroaai, when ha <>;• of tbr pope: Ad emnam aolitmliDJa coDftagil 
monunque ihidem perpMuam fceiaeet, ai uuivenalia ecelesia e( RaDianonini Tioleutia 
canciuni iion redii^iiaapt. 8rp liu Ciirane acriplorea rer, Fraiic. I. ir., f. £91. 

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easier for the pope to reconcile to his eonacience the non obser- 
Tance of bis oath, than the surrendering of any right helonging to 
the chnrch. In the year 1112, he declared, before a conncil as- 
sembled in the Lateran, that be bad been forced to make that 
treaty in order to save the cardinals and the city of Rome ; abid- 
ing by his oath, he would himself personally nndertake nothing 
against the emperor Henry ; but it was beyond his pqwer t« sur- 
render any of the liberties and rights of the chnrch. He left it 
to the assembly to examine the treaty ; and that body nnani- 
monaly declared that it was contrary to the laws of the church 
and to divine right, and therefore null. The pope wished, by an 
ambiguous mode of procedure, to save his conscience and bis honour 
at the same time ; and while he forbore personally and directly to 
pronounce the ban on Henry the Fifth, still permitted this to be 
done by bis legates. Thus the contest respecting inrestiture 
broke out anew ; and with it was again connected, we must admit, 
the corrupt exercise of an arbitrary will in the filling up of spiri- 
tual ofBces by the court.* The emperor had it in his power to 
expel the popes from Rome, and to set up gainst Faechalis's 
succeBsor, Gelasius the Second, another, chosen by bis own party, 
the archbishop Bardinus of Braga, Gregory the Eighth. 

The mischieTons consequences of this schism in the churches, 
in which both parties combated each other with ferocious ani- 
mosity, could not fail to call forth the more strongly, in all who 
had at heart the welfare of Gbristendom, the wish for a restoration 
of the peace of the church ; these, accordingly, set themselves to 
derising means for bringing about a reconciliation of conflicting 
interests and principles. Between the stiff Hildebrandian party, 
and those who defended lay-investiture, there gradually rose up 
a third intermediate party. These controversies led to some im- 
portant consequences. Various more profound investigations 
were thereby occasioned, into the relation of the church to the 
state, of ecclesiastical matters to political, of spiritual matters to 
secular. Men of sobriety and moderation stood forth, who endea- 

1 In the lift of tbe Brshbiehap Cnnrnd die Fint. or Balibarg, it is rAlaWil, bow pioD* 
ladie*, at the emperor's oouK, bad tlie greM«a( influeDM in Uie dialribution of enolesi- 
■•ticai prefermend. 8m Pez tbeatur. anecdoL dot. C ii., p. iii., f. EMj— mil OeiiHih 
laja in tbe above cited tract, De aialu eccieniKe. c. ixii.: Spretia eler.iionibiia is apuri 
eum dignior caetrrii apiscopataa honore liabitns ail, qui ei Tel familiarior exiitluei Ttl 
ploB obaequti lul peoaniae obuliacet. 

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Toured to soften the extravagant excesses of the Hildebrandi&n 
zealots, in their faQatlcal deprecation of the civil power, and vho, 
instead of continnally harping against laj-investitnre, eonght to 
bring ahont an anderstandtng on the question, as to vhat was 
essential and vhat unessential in the points of dispute ; — as to 
vhat should be held fast in order to secure the freedom of the 
church, and what might be conceded to the state in order to the 
conservation of its rights. We have already noticed, on & former 
page, the milder views on this subject expressed by a Hildebert 
of Mans, and Tves of Chartres. 

By occasion of the disputes between the Xorman princes of 
England and the archbishops of Canterbury, the monk Hugo, be- 
longing to the monastery of Flenry, wrote his work for the recon- 
ciliation of church and state, of the royalty and the priesthood.' 
He combated the Gregorian position, that monarchy was not, like 
the priesthood, founded on a divine order, but that the former 
sprang from man's will, and human pride ; and in opposition to 
those who maintained this, he held up the apostle Paul's declara- 
tion concerning the divine institution of magistrates.* He affirmed, 
that the relations among men were, from the first, fonnded upon 
such a subordination. He attacked the exaggerations on both 
sides, and in opposition to them, held fast to the principle, that 
to God must he rendered that which is God's, and to Cesar, that 
which is Gsesar's. The king should lay no restraint on the elec- 
tion of a bishop by the clergy and the community, to be held ac- 
cording to the ecclesiastical laws ; and should give bis concur- 
rence to the choice when made. To the person elected, the king 
ought not to give the investiture with stafi* and ring, which as 
symbols of spiritual things belong to the archhbhop ; but should 
bestow the feoffment with secular appurtenances, and accordingly 
select for this some other symbol.' The cardinal abbot Gottfried 

1 Oe regiitpateMaMet ■scerdoUli digniliUi Id Btlnz HiwtUut. 1. <*. 

3 ScJo quDsdim uostria IFmparibiu, qui regn lulHiniiiit, bod ■ Deo, led >b his Laba- 
iaae priDcipium, qui Deum igDorantei suprrbia, npiaii, bomiridiia et poatniDO paenc 
ui^ivenii aceleribaB id mnDdi principio diabolo agiuute aupra parea hominM dominari 
co»ca cnpidiuu affecuieronl. Qaorum unlcntii quam bii fHioU liquet apoatolico 
docamenlo : Nan eat polealaa niaj a Deo, Sus. 

■ Lib. i., c T. Poat eleetiousm auleoi nan anolam aot bacalum a minn regia, aed 
inTaatitaranlrarDra aacalarium elaitu* antitlo debet auicipere at in aula oidiiiibiu par 
tnulum aat baeolnm inlmanim enram ib arabiepiscopo auo. 

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of Vendonae, as we have seen abore, had' declared himself so 
fitroDgly against the conceasions of pope Paschalie in the dispute 
concerning the investiture, as to pronounce the maintaining of 
the inrestitnre bj laymen a heresy. Bot he extricated himself 
from these wearisome and rninons controrersies, and, by certain 
notional distinctions, foaud a way of reconciling the antagonism 
betveen the chorch asd the secular power.^ He distinguished 
between that inveBtiture which makes the bishop a bishop, and 
that which has reference to his temporal support ;' between that 
which pertains to human and that which pertains to diviae right. 
The church held her possessions by hnman right, the right which 
defines generally the mine and thine. Divine right we have in 
the Holy Scriptures (the ecclesiastical laws being reckoned 
thereto) : hmnan right, in the laws of princes. Property, which 
belongs to human right, God has given to the church tkrongh the 
emperors and kings of the world. He protested against that 
stem hierarchical bent, which would not allow princes to possess 
what was their own. " If thou aayest," he remarks to the bishopi 
" what have I to do with the king ; then call not the possessions 
thine ; for thou liast renounced the only right by which thou 
ccmet call them thine."'' While now, in accordance with this 
distinction, he still declared the investiture by staff and ring, 
practised by laymen and referring to spiritual matters, & heresy, 
he still found nothing offensive in the fact that kings, alter the 
completion of a free canonical election, and after the episcopal 
consecration, should, by the royal investiture, convey over the 
secular possessions and their own protection along with them,* 
and by what sign this might be done, was, he declared, a matter 
of indifference to the Catholic faith. ° Christ intended that the 

I Opiuc. iii., to Pope Caliitus, tad bis traciitua it ordiDiclons eiiiaooporum stda 
JDvmlilun Ln'Icanim, adi'iesard to Cudinil Peter LeaniB. 

1 Alis est invfgiitun, quu eplaooputa pprQcit, alia rero, qnas epiicopnm pueit. 

>t Si Tern diieris : QDid mibi et rigi, noli jam iietie posseuiones tnu. quia ad ipsa 
jura, qnibiu poBBiMBioaei pogsidenlar. renuntiaill. Unde quitque possidM, qnod po>- 
aidelF Nonns jur« hnmasor Nam Jura dJTJno Domiai esl terra et planitDdo ejus. 
FaupeRB et divitei Dfna de ano Into fScit, et divitee et piuperes una terra aupportat. 

* PoDBuDt ilaqae Bine offeniiane nget post eleotionem oanonicam el libentm conse- 
crntlonem per Investiturum regalam in eooleaiaaticiB poBBegBlunibns ooaceesioiiFiii, 
auitllnin elderenaioniiia epiacopo dare. 

5 Quod qoolibet aigno faotum aiCttarit, regi Tel pouUBel aau aatbolieta fldei non 

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Bpiritnal and the secular sword should serve for the defence of the 
charch. Bat if one of the two beats back the other, this happens 
contrary to his will. Thus arise bitter feelings and sehisms, thus 
arises cormptioD of the body and of the sool. And when empire 
and priesthood contend one against the other, both are in danger- 
The church ought to assert her freedom, but she ought abo to 
guard against disorganizing excesses.) He calls it a work of 
Satan, when, under the show of right, men cause the destmclton 
of an indiridnal, who might hare been won by indulgence/ 

The way baring been prepared by investigations of this sort, a 
treaty was brought about, after repeated negotiatjons, in the year 
1122, between pope Calixtns the Second and the emperor Henry 
the Fifth, which, concluded at Worms, afterwards confirmed at 
the Lateran Council in 1123, was designated by the title of the 
Concordat of Worms. The pope conceded to the emperor the 
right to bestow on bishops and abbots, chosen in bis presence, 
without riolence or simony, the investiture with regalia per 

When by this concordat, the reconciliation between church and 
state, after a conflict ruinous to both, which had lasted for more 
than forty years, was finally efiected, it was received with uni- 
versal joy, even by those who in other respects were devoted to 
the Hildebrandian principles.} There were, it is true, some stiff 
zealots who were not satisfied even with this treaty ; who saw a hu- 
miliation of the priesthoodinthereqnirement that a bishop should 
do homage to a layman.* Moreover, the Hildebrandian system 

I Bibrat molfsia >utm libetuiem, tei ■iuiimo|M're caTCat, ne dom nimis emumcrll 
clieiU saagnlDCDi at dom nibigitiam de TUa conatui endcra, vis ipaam hasgalnr. 

1 Tuna anim ■ »Un« quia oirasmvenltur, qaando sub apecie JDBtidae illom pet 
nlmiun tiutilitDi periiw conlingit, qui patuit libeiari per liidulgeaiiuii, 

3 Among wbom belonga the ao oftf n meuliODed Gerocb, or Oerliob, of Rfliehenberg. 
H« wu Cananiona at Aagaberg, and maalrr of tbe C&tliedral acbiM]. Being ■ lealon* 
■dbeient odke papal parlj, ha hll into a qnacret vlth hli biabop, Hermann of Augiberg, 
■bo defended Ibe imperial IntereM. He waa oblig«I to remoTS from tbis eilj, and to 
ntire inlo a monaalery. Be l«MiSea Ma joy otct (ha Conoordal of Wonna. wbarebj it 
was made posaible for bim to Income reoonciled with Ui« bishop. He aaf* : Ceaaanu 
ilia comoialione, in qua nnneral DomlnuB, Teiiit aihilua aarae lenia, in quo eral Da- 
minus, faciena ntraque nnum, coacordia reparata inter aacerdotlum et iniperiiun. la 
Pa. 13S. Ti. c. r. 2030. 

i A.a Ihe uohbiahop Coiirad, of Siliburg, aaya: itia nefaaand iDi(ataaoril«gli,manus 
diriamatia nnciione oonaecratas EangolneU muiibii* aobjiol et homagU axbibliiane- 
paliai. SeehialifelnPeiihMMnii. L.a.f. 338. 

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had for its rery object to effect the complete aubjectioD of the 
state DndeT the theocratical power represented by the clmrch : in 
this effort of the church, and the natnral connteraction of the 
state, asserting its independence, was contained the germ of di- 
Tisions continaally breaking out afresh. 

The history of the papacy in the next following times, leads ns to 
take notice of a quarrel connected with the election of a pope 
which was attended with conseqaences more lasting and more 
important than nsual ; — differing fh>m all erents of this kind 
heretofore related, tn that the schism in this case did not proceed 
irom the influence of opposite church-political parties, nor were 
opposite principles of chnrch goremment maintained by the two 
competitors for the papal dignity. A schism of this sort might 
have serred, by the nucertainty touching the question as to who 
was pope, to unsettle all faith in the papacy itself. Yet the most 
inflnential voices decided too quickly in faronr of one of the two 
popes, to permit of any snch result ; and by the way in which the 
greatest men of the chnrch laboured for the cause of this pope, 
the papacy could only receire an accession of glory. It was 
in the year 1130, that by a considerable party the Roman 
cardinal Gregory was chosen pope, who assumed the name of 
Innocent the Second. Bat the cardinal Peter Leonis had also a 
large unmber of adherents. The latter was grandson of a very 
rich Jewish banker, who had embraced Christianity ; and his 
ancestors, dnring the contests of the popes with the emperors, 
had been enabled to perform important services for the former by 
means of their great wealth, with which they supported them 
through their difficulties. By his money, he had himself also at 
that time acquired great influence in Borne. He called himself, as 
pope, Anaclete the Second. Innocent was compelled to yield to 
his power in Rome ; nor was there any safety for him, eren in Italy ; 
for Anaclete possessed a powerMI ally in Roger, king of Sicily. 
He took refuge in France ; and in that country he acquired 
greater power than he could have acquired in Borne ; for the two 
heads of monasticism, who had the greatest influence on the public 
sentiment among the nations, the abbot Peter of Cluny, and the 
abbot Bernard of Clairvanx, espoused his interests with great zeal. 
More than all, he was assisted by the moral power of the abbot 
Bernard. This man stood then in the highest authority with the 
VOL. VII. .s 

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FreDoh cboTcb. In all great ecclesiastical and political affairs his 
Toice was listened to ; and it went for mach with the most consi- 
derable nen of chnrch and state. In a body enfeebled by the 
ascetical efforts of his earlier yonth, the force of bis superior in- 
tellect triumphing over the frailty of its phjrsicnl organ, was but 
the more sure to accomplish whuteTcr be undertook. The energy 
of religions enthasiasm, contrasted with the pale, meagre, atte- 
nuated body, made so much the greater impression ; and people 
of all ranks, high and low, were hurried along by it in despite of 
themselTes.' Whatever oaase he laid hold of, he esponsed with 
bis whole soni, and spared no efforts in carrying it. Fondly as 
he was attached to the quiet life of contemplation, he itinerated 
abont, notwithstanding, amidst the tnmnlte of the nations, ap- 
peared before synods and in the assemblies of the nobles, and ex- 
pended his fiery eloqaeace ia support of the cause, which he found 
to be righteous. This energetic man now became a hearty cham- 
pion for the eanse of Innocent ; for him he set e?eryth)ng in mo- 
tion, in and without France. 

After Louis the Sixth, king of France, and the French chnrch, 
had already been induced through the influence of Bernard to 
recognise Innocent as pope, the bishop Gerhard of Angonleme, 
who stood up as legate for the cause of Anaclete, prolonged the 
contention, and by his means one of the mighty nobles, count 
William of Aquitune, was gained over to the same. The latter 
sought by forcible measures to make the party dominant in 
whose favour he had declared, and persecuted all its opponents. 
He expelled the adherents of Innocent among the bishops from 
their offices. A characteristic illustration of the power which 
the abbot Bernard could exercise over the minds of men, as well 
as of the religious spirit of his times, is presented in the mode by 
which he finally succeeded in putting an end to the sehism that 
had now lasted five years. Already had he brought the count to 
acknowledge that Innocent was pope ; and that nobleman was 

1 How Berntrd •ppearad and vbiteffvct b* pTDdacad u in orator u gnphleill j d*»- 
cribed bj *n ry « wilDeia, ths abbot Wibiild of ^tntslo : Vir ilk bonu longa mnii 
squnlore eLJejnmia Be pillore conrntaii et in qunadun spirita*Ji> fbraiae tenuiUMm 
redulu*. prius peranadrt tIbub quani aadiuti. Optima oi a D«o aoni-eMa «t natara, 
erudiiia ■nmiiia,ex?re ilium Ingeni, proDontlalio iperta geMua corporit ad onmai dinndi 
modnai accammodalua. Set liis ep. IIT. Martine et Durnnd cullfciia ■mpliulina I. ii , 

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now on); resisting the demand that the bishops shonld be re- 
stored to their pUees. After Bernard, in an interview with the 
connt at Parthenej, had tried in rain every method to bring 
about the object last mentioned, he repaired to the ehnrch to 
hold mnas, and the connt remained standing by the door. Then 
Benian), filled with the conBeiouaness of the greatest of all mi- 
racles, which he as an instmment of God's grace was privileged 
by bis priestly office to perform, elevated in the feeling of the 
godlike above all earthly considerations,' holding in his hand the 
plate with the host — in which he saw under the fignre of the 
bread only the veiled body of the Lord — with flashing eye, not 
beseeching, but commanding, stepped before the connt, and said 
to him : " We have entreated thee, and then hast spumed ns ; 
the muted band of God's servants have besought thee, and thou 
hast spomed them. Behold, here comes the Head and Lord of 
the ehnrch which tlion persecutest. Here is thy judge, at whose 
name every knee shall bow. Wilt thou spurn him as thon hast 
done his servants 1" All that looked on were seized with a 
thoddering awe, and bowing their beads in prayer, waited in 
expectation of an immediate judgment fVom heaven. All wept. 
The connt himself could not withstand the impression. Trem- 
bling, and u if deprived of speech, he fell to the earth. Be was 
lifted up by his attendants, and again fell, foaming at the mouth, 
to the ground. Bernard himself now approached him, reached 
out his hand for him to rise, and bid the humbled man submit to 
pope Innocent, and become reconciled with the deposed bishops. 
The oonnc dared not contradict. He embraced the bishop of 
Poitiers, who was presented to him, one of those to whom he 
had before been most inimical ; and Bernard, upon this, con- 
versed with him familiarly, exhorting Mm, as a father, never 
again so disturb the peace of the ehnrch, and thns this schism 
was ended. 

Twice was Bernard called to Italy. Here also he exerted a 
great and powerful inflnenoe on the minds of the nations ; a 
great deal was said of his miracles. He reduced under the pope 
the restless Lombard cities, and helped on the triumph of Iino- 

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cent, at a synod in Piaa, in 1134. In the year 1136 the latter 
was enabled to mareh trinmptiantl; to Borne with the emperor 
Lothaire the Second. Bernard also came there, and songht to 
destroy the remains of the scbiBin, of which king Boger, in par- 
ticular, Btill continned to be the support ; bat he did not as yet 
SQcceed. After Anaclete's death, in the year 1138, his party 
chose, it is true, a saccessor ; but yet it was not with any riew 
of defending longer his claims to the papal throne, but only in 
order to secure a treaty on more adrantageons terms with the 
other party ; and, in the year 1139, Innocent was at liberty to 
hold a Lateran council for the purpose of sealing the peace of the 

Yet precisely at this time a furious storm broke out, by which 
the last years of the rule of Innocent, and the reigns of the next 
succeeding popes, were disquieted ; events which were important 
on account of their immediate consequences, and as symptoms of 
a more deep-grounded reaction against the dominant church-sys- 
tem, for which the way was now preparing. 

In order to find the origin of these commotions, we must glance 
back and trace the consequences of earlier erents. We saw how 
the popes, ever since the time of Leo the Ninth, had placed them- 
selves at the head of a movement of reform, in opposition to the 
corruption of the clergy ; how, by this movement, individual ec- 
clesiastics and monks of more serious minds had been incited to 
stand forth as castigatory preachers against the secularized clergy.' 
Not only such preachers, bat the popes themselves, as for ex- 
ample pope Gregory the Seventh, had also stirred np the people 
against the corrupt clergy.* Thus there rose up fVom amongst 

1 Otiach, Orrboh ofRciclipnbrrg, in hbbook: Da somipto ecoWiic *l«tii, in Bk- 
Im. MIkgIUd t. T. p. 20C, wbne be plxcee lh( cooflicu wbieli thraemen bad to nutain 
on ■ panllel with the B«rlier onei of llie nwljni wiiL ptgin l7nnl», r«ii«rks ; Notis- 
simv diFbiiB iBlis viii religioai coiiln ■imontacos, conducticioB (the ittDenntclng; bind 
lo perform raecbiDiiiallj tbe priestly fanctions. who vera niij to striks b bBrgiin witli 
any bod}) iniifstuoBOB, dissulntOB *ut. quod pejas Ml, irraguliriur DODgregatoa cleriooi 
proelinni grande lempure Orrgorii Bepli, bBbuerunt rt adbuc bubent. 

I Jnaddiliau lo tbe citiUons made befaK, wetnaj notice vbat tbe abbot Gnibcrt, Id 
bia life written bj bimBelf, Klatca conceraing tbs nffeeta at tbe Hildebrandiaa laws of 
oelibacj : EraC ea letnpealale nova Baper nianttts preebyleria apoetolioae sedia ioiMtio, 
Dndfl at Tulgi clerieoa zelantii tanta adTerana eoa rable* leatuabat, ut i 
priTUi bcDefida lel abaliiicri aacerdotio infrato apiritD oonclamannl. 

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the laity seven censors of the coixopt clergy. DonbtlesB many, 
who had ever contemplated the tires of these men with indigna- 
tion and ahhoirence, rejoiced at noT having it in their power, 
under the papal anthority, of giring rent to their long-repressed 
anger; and eren those, who themselves led an immoral lire, made 
a merit of standing forth against the anchaste ecclesiastics, and 
driring them off from their henefices ' From this insarrection 
of the luty against the secularized clergy proceeded also separa- 
tist morements. which did not restrict themselres to the limits 
set Dp by the popes. In addition to this, came now the im- 
portant and lasting controversies concerning the investiture, by 
means of which more liberal investigations had been called forth 
respecting the boundaries between ehnrch and state, and their 
respective rights. Pope Paschalis the Second had in fact himself 
publicly avowed, that the regalia were to the church a foreign 
possession, whereby its officers were drawn aside from their ap- 
propriate spiritual duties, and betrayed into a dependence on 
* the secular power. And there existed, as we have already re- 
marked, an entire parly who held this opinion ; who demanded 
that the bishops and abbots, in order to be excused from taking 
the oath of allegiance to the princes, should surrender back to 
them the regalia, restoring to Ctesar the things that are Gtesar's; 
in accordance with that precept of the apostle Panl, which required 
the clergy not to meddle with secular business. In opposition to 
the practice of mixing up together thiugs spiritual and secular, 
and in justification of the oath of allegiance sworn by the bishops 
to the emperors, propositions like the following were already ad- 
vanced: If the clergy would be entirely independent of the secu- 
lar power, let them, like the clergy of the primitive church, be con- 
tent with the tythes and the &ee gifts of the communities.' 

1 SontttaiDK or the uhm kind it Milled by Gnibm (,1. c.) conMrDiCig a Doblemui 
of UudiMriot, vbo gaiB Limxir np lo ill mumer ol liul: Tanlt in olernm super 
fnrttto canoDe (ibg law ooDcemiDg edibao;} bubibalur insUDlia, u >i tam ain- 
goUriaail delnlaiioniin uliam puluKi pndicjlia. 

t Qnfaob, in hi* book, De Mala eedeaiaa, publiahed by Qnuer (we iboip p. 170) 
nji aipnaalj : Qui pro parte rrgii erant lofflnre ^cbant ecslgaiaiticia d«brn derima* 
CL oblations librraa id m nallo rcgali tbI imperiali atniLio obnoxiaa.— Satia, inqalt, 
appam, aartidoua rejiibui ae per bominia obligantta D«i pro lui offloii gnila auffl- 
denier plaieR uon puaia. Unde, nt eipiaceanl, ouiae proliaTemnt, miljliamet cieirra, 
pro quibn* hominia regibna dtbentor, regno libera nlinquaDt at Ipai vareot oniiiDiii- 
bu* oiibosqae Chriati paaoandia iIlvigilEn^ ad quid inatltnti aunt. Qrvtaer, opp. t, li., 

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It was a fonng clergyman of BreBcia, by the name of Arnold, 
who gare the first impnUe to this new reaction against the secn- 
UnEation of the chnrch, and against tlie power of the pope in 
temporal things. From what we have said concerning the con- 
flict of spiritnal tendencies in this age, and particnlarly concern- 
ing the canses and consequences of the controTersieB about in- 
restitnre, it is easy to explain how a young man of a seriona and 
ardent temperament, bronght np in the midst of anch erentB and 
circumstances, might be carried away by this tendency ; nor 
should we need to trace the matter to any other origin. But 
the account of a contemporary, which lets ns into the knowledge 
of another eircumstance that had an important inflnence on the 
derelopment of Arnold's mind, is by no means improbable.] 
When the great teacher Abelard assembled around him, in a 
lonely region near Troyes, the youth that poured in upon him 
fWim all quarters, and by his lectures fired them with his own en- 
thusiasm, Arnold, who in his early youth had been a reader in 
the church at Brescia, was one of the many that did not shrink * 
fW>m the meagre fare and rarions deprivations necessary to be 
nndergone in order to enjoy the prifilege of listening to the voice 
of that great master.' The speculative vein in Ahelard's style 
and teachings did not, it is true, fall in with the peculiar bent of 
Arnold's mind ; and perhaps even an Abelard would have found 
it impossible to produce any essential change in a native tendency 
which, as in the case of Arnold, was so much more practical than 
speculative. But Ahelard possessed a versatility of intellect, 
which enabled him to arouse minds of very Afferent stmctnre on 
different aides. From anch of his writings as have been pre- 
served to ua, we may gather that, among other qualities, an im- 
portant practical element entered also into his discourses ; that 

f. 2SS. Here we have Ibe priociplM *rt foitli by Arnald.u Ihnr oMDrill j tbfei them. 

■elvnoul of tbe nrBction, pinljof lli« ilUe latertrit, pertly of tbe purer CUiiliui spirit, 
■galntt tbe leculBriiBtioD of tbe clergy, anii not u Ihey nere flnt euogiiurd by 

I Otlo of Freisingen, In thf 2d bonk of bia Higtor; of Fredarhs dw Fini, e. ix.; Ps- 
triim Abaelardum olim pnecepioreni biibiicrU. 

* Id h»nnonT with ihis is sh't Ottntlitr Lignrinui, in hi» poem an tbe deed* of 
Frederic tbe Fint, ujt eDLcernipg Amald: Tenui nutrivit GiJlii eumpta edoeaitqae 
din. Theie words, it i> trne, migbt, in eoneequeoce of tbe reUliou of ib)a liialorian to 
Otto of Freiaingen. appeu to be ■ mere repetition of tbe report giren bj ilie letier; but 
t1«pbraie, "teDuinDtririt suDiplu," nnj doobtlesa point lo sdiik other anurte; ibejr 
■grre vcrj nell witb the time at hii connection with Abelard. 

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Arnold's i.eadioo idea. 19!l 

he spoke sharply gainst the worldly temper io eccleBJastics and 
monka, and contrasted their condition as it actually vas with 
what it ought to be. It was the religions, ethieal element in 
Abeiard's discourses, which left the deepest impression on the 
warm and earnest heart of the yonng maji,' and, inflamed with 
a holy ardour, he returned home to his native city. 

It was observed that he had undergone a change, a thing not 
nncommon among the young secular clergy, who, awakened by 
some remarkable providence to a more serious religious turn of 
mind, altered their dress and their entire mode of life, appeared 
as regular canonicals, or monks, and now stood forth the bold and 
open Ghastiaers of worldly ecclesiastics.' The inspiring idea of 
his morements was that of a holy and pure church, a renovation 
of the spiritual order, after the pattern of the apostolic church. 
His life corresponded with his doctrine. Zealously opposing the 
corruption of the worldly-minded clergy and monks, and requir- 

1 Tbis oonnticLioa bstneen Ahelard and Arnold bat tipcn doubled <u these modern 
time*. We allow, an aniltoritT «o imporUnl as U»t at the abbot Bernard of Clalrvanx, 
•eema lobeagaiiut Ibe coireotnesaafltau aocoonti for tliis abbol ripreaaea binieir w 
if be had Bral made hu tppearauce id a «aj altogetber isdepriidcnt of A belaid ; and bad 
Du( till laUT, wlien banhbed Irani llalj be cimi' Id France, paponaed Ibe cauae at thai 
niD. 6re Bfroard. in hn ISStli laUer to pope Intiooant, ( 3 : 8itdavi( apia, 
n Francia, api da Italiaet teoemnt in unom adverenB Dominum j and ep. 
19S : Eiaecralus a Peiro apoaloio adhaearral Pttro Abnelarda, We mast suppose, IhvD, 
tbat Otto ot Frciaingen had been led. bj irbat be bad beard concernini; Ibe Uler can- 
B^lioB baloeen Arnold and Abelard, into Ibe nisuike of re^rseenting lbs romer as ■ 
popU oF Ihe latter. Upon tbia brpotbesis, we must suppoae that AmnlH had been led, 
onlj at aome later period, b; the commaD inlerBSt or opposition lo the dominanl churcli- lake sidaa with AbeUrd, The teiiiaiony, however, of Otto of FreMngea, who 
bad bimaeir puiueH bia aludiea In France, ia of inporlancr; and wa are bj no means 
warraDledlo oconsa bim or an inuihroiiiBm. in bis aecuuntora fact not in iUelf impro- 
bable. The less iDwsrd relaiionabip ttjere appears at first glsnei^ lo bare been belween 
■he teachings of AlHlsrd and those of Aniold, Ibe less reason have we to call in doubt 
an aecoanl whioh repreaenU Arnold sa bniluji br-en a pupil of Abelsrd. The narratiia 
of Oiinlhar, mentioneil in the preTioun nole, which enters into paiticulsn. igrees witb 
tbeabOTB. Howeasllf might it have escaped tbu notice of Bernard, bow.'ier, wbowonld 
ban ukoD bnt lilda intenal in Ibe eariiar lih of Arnold, tbai, of Ibe great crowd of 
jonngman wbo flocked lo bear Abelard, Arnold was one? 

* The proToal Oerhob of Roicbersberg. would be inclined, with the viewa b« ontar- 
MiDed. tojndiie more nildl; oooceming tbe man wbo agreed wilb him in bia attadu on 
ihe seonlariied clergy, bnl did not reatrsin bimsolf witiiin tbe anme Umila. Ha sajs 
of bia teacliiag : Qaie elsi zelo forte bono, sed minori aoieiilla prolaw eat. Whidi 
worth UreUer eiies, in a fragment from Ihe tint book of tlie work Writlen by lierhoh : 
De inieatigatione Anttchrjsli, in ihe pralegomenn in bis edition if the Bi'ripiorei conirs 
secum Waldensiom, in his opp. t xii., r. 12. 

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ing that clergymen and monks sbonld follow the steps of the 
apostles in evangelical porerty and chastity, he set the example 
himself, by his dress, his entire mode of living, and the ascetical 
severity vith which he treated his own person, — a fact which even 
his roost violent adversaries coald not bnt acknowledge.' He 
required that the bishops and abbots, in conformity with the 
teachings of Holy Scriptnre, should wholly renonnce their worldly 
possessions and privileges, as well as all secular business, and 
give all these things hack to the princes. The clergy shonld be 
content with whatever the love of the commnnities might bestow 
on them for their support, — the oblations, the firstlings, and 
tythes. Tlie incontinent clergy, living in Innary and debauchery, 
were no longer, he declared, true ecclesiastics — they were unfit to 
discharge the priestly functions ; in maintaining which position, 
he might perhaps expect to attach to his side the Hildebrandian 
zealots. The corrupt bishops and priesta were no longer bifihops 
and priests — the secularized chnrch was no longer the house of 
God.i It does not appear, that his opposition to the corrupt 
church had ever led him to advance any such remarks as conld be 
interpreted into heresy ; for, had he done so, men would, from 
the first, have proceeded against him more sharply, and his oppo- , 
neuts. who spared no pains in hunting up everything which could 
serve to place him in an unfavourable light, would certainly never 
have allowed such heretical statements of Arnold to pass unno- 
ticed.* Bnt we must allow that the way iu which Arnold stood 
forth against the corruptions of the church, and especially his in- 
clination to make the objective in the instituted order, and in the 
transactions of the charch, depend on the subjective character of 
the men, might ensily lead to still greater aberrations. 

Arnold's discourses were directly calculated by their tendency 
to find ready entrance into the minds of the laity, before whose 

1 Berniri sivB of him, ep. 19G, Homont neqne mandaeiiia oeqas bibeni, qai ntinam 
lim atant ftiitl Juetrlnae, qacm districWe mt Tilu. 

1 Oerliob of It«lchen<b«rg oitei ham him, in tba *ork mculiODed id the pnseding 
note, in iMertian like Ibe tollowing ; Dl doniDS Dei rtliler onliiiiu domns Dei nan tit 
vel [inraain eorum ood aiot epncopl, qnfmiulDioduin qiiidim noatro Lrmpon Arnoldu 
■Innmiiliim tatat ttt, plebf a ■ UliDm oplenoparuni obudienlia dfbonitnt. 

> Oiilj Olto or Fnisingen, Kitir liHiUh' noliced that in vbich all wcr« if reed, adda, 
Prarter h^ee ie nvnmnito nlurit. bnptiamapiTiuloniin noniinr dicitur aeDiiHe. Bat 
thi« aceounl li too tagiii' la be tttelj relied oii. 

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Arnold's banishment. 201 

eyes the worldly lives of the ecclesiastics and monks ver« con- 
stantly present,' and to create a faction in deadly faostiiity to the 
clergy. Superadded to this was the inflammable matter already 
prepared by the collision of the spirit of political IVeedom with the 
power of the higher clergy. 

Thns Arnold's addresses produced in the minds of the Italian 
people, qnite snsceptible to such excitements, a prodigions effect, 
which threatened to spread more widely ; and pope Innocent felt 
himself called upon to take preTentive measares against it. At 
the already mentioned Lateran council in the year 1139, he de- 
clared against Arnold's proceedings, and commanded him to qnit 
Italy-:-the scene of the disturbances thns far— altogether ; and 
not to retom agun without express permission from the pope. 
Arnold, moreover, is said to have bonnd himself by an oath to 
obey this injunction ; which probably was expressed in such terms 
as to leave him free to interpret it as referring exclnsively to the 
person of pope Innocent.' If the oath was not so expressed, he 
might afterwards have been accused of violating that oath. It 
is to be regretted that the form in which the sentence was pro- 
nounced against Arnold has not come down to ns ; but item 
its very character it is evident that he could not have been 
convicted of any false doctrine ; since otherwise the pope would 
certiunly not have treated him so mildly — would not have been 
contented with merely banishing him from Italy, since teachers 
of folse doctrine wonid be dangerons to the church everywhere. 
Bernard, moreover, in his letter directed against Arnold, states 
that he was accused before the pope of being the author of 
a very bad schism. Arnold now betook himself to France ; 
and here he became entangled in the quarrels with his old 
teacher Abelard, to whom he was indebted for the first im- 
pnlse of his mind towards this more serious and free bent 
of the religions spirit. Expelled fWtm France, he directed his 
steps to Switierland, and sojourned in Zurich. The abbot Ber- 
nard thought it necessary to caution the bishop of Constance 

1 QiiDlhn LignrioTii m^ of Arnold : 

Vanque mnlU qqldem. ntai Lampora nutn fidft]«A 
Retpnennt monUm, fAlilB ndinixti monfilat. 
' Beraird'i wotdi, ap. 190 : Acoaunu ipud Don 
Ditali wlo pulan* ml, eliam rt ibjurue eoEnpulstiB ra 

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against him. But th« mftn who had been condemned bj the 
pope fonnd protection there from the papal legate, cardinal 
Gnido ; who, indeed, made him a member of his household and 
companion of hie table. The abbot Bernard seTcrely cenenred 
that prelate, on the ground that Arnold's connection with bim 
would contribnte, without fail, to give importance and inflnence 
to that dangerous man. This deserves to be noticed on two 
accounts ; for it makes it evident what power be could exercise 
over men's minds, and that no false doctrines could be charged 
to his account. 

But independent of Arnold's personal presence, the impulse 
which he had given continued to operate in Italy ; and the effects 
of it extended even to Borne. Bj the papal condemnation, pub- 
lie attention was only more strongly drawn to the subject. The 
Romans certainly felt no great sympathy for the religious element 
in that serious spirit of reform which animated Arnold. But the 
political movements, which had sprung out of his reforming ten- 
dency, foand a point of attachment in their love of liberty, and 
their dreams of the ancient dominion of Borne over the world. 
The idea of emancipating themselves ftom the yoke of the pope, 
and of reestablishing the old republic, flattered their Homan 
pride. Espousing the principles of Arnold, they required that 
the pope, as spiritual bead of the church, should confine himself 
to the administration of spiritual affairs ; and they committed to 
a senate, whom they established on the capitol,* the supreme 
direction of civil affairs. Innocent could do nothing to stem snch 
a violent current ; and he died in the midst of these disturbances, 
in the year 1 143. The mild cardinal G-uido, the fHend of Abelard 
and Arnold, became his successor, and called himself, when pope, 
Celestin the Second. By his gentleness, quiet was restored for 
a short time. Perhaps it was the news of the elevation of this 
friendly man to the papal throne that encouraged Arnold himself 
to come to Rome.' But Gelestm died after six months, and 

I Gerhob of Reiohenbfrg Mja: Aedea CapiloliDa olim diruU cl nanii nMdifloaU 
contra 4oinnin Dei. Bee his CommeiiWry in P«. liii.. *d. Pei. L. c. f. Ufa 

t Olto or Freidngen eipreim faimaelf, iodeei), aa if Arnold liad fintcome lo Rome In 
tbe lima of Engenina ; but bare be if budJj exact in bx clironolag;. He onljr gMbera 
Ibis front tbe dlalurbtneea whiob broke out in Boma in Uie time of Eugenina; and 
tlie letlera of tbe Romane to th« pope, nbioh in truth maj bare been nrrlten alnadj in 
ll)e llmf of Innocent, he places too liie. The cliBiurbanws in Home may Ihemaelvta 

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Lucins the Second was bis successor. Under his reign, tbe Ro- 
mans renewed the former agitations with more Tiolence ; they 
utterly renounced obedience to the pope, whom they recognized 
only in his priestly obaracter, and the restored Roman republic 
sought to strike a league in opposition to the pope and to papacy 
with tbe new emperor, Conrad the Third. In the name of the 
" Senate and Boman people," a pompons letter was addressed 
to Conrad. The emperor was inrited to eome to Rome, that 
from thence, like Jnstinian and Constantine in former days, he 
might gire laws to the world. Caesar ehonld have the things that 
are Cesar's ; the priest the things that are the priest's, as Christ 
ordained when Peter paid the tribute-money.' Long did the 
tendency awakened by Arnold's principles continue to agitato 
Rome. In tbe letters written amidst these commotions, by indi- 
ridnal noblemen of Borne to the emperor, we perceire a singular 
mixing together of the Amoldian spirit with the dreams of 
Roman r&nity, — a radical tendency to the separation of secular 
from spiritual things, which, if it had been capable enough in 
itself, and if it could hare found more points of attachment in 
the age, would have brought destruction on the old theocratioal 
system of the church. They said that tbe pope could claim no 
political Borereignty in Rome ; be could not ^Ten be consecrated 
without tbe consent of tbe emperor ; a rule which had in fact 
been obserred till the time of Gregory the Serentb. Uen com- 
plained of tbe worldliness of the clergy, of their bad lires, of the 
contradiction between their conduct and the teachings of Scrip- 
ture. The popes were accused as the instigators of the wars. 
" The popes," it was said, " should no longer unite the cup of 
(he encharist with the sword ; it was their roeation to preach, 
and to confirm what they preached by good works.' How could 
those who eagerly grasped at all the wealth of this world, and 
corrupted tbe true riches of the church, the doctrine of salration 
obtained by Christ, by their false doctrines and theit laxoriouB 

fumiah svidence at *d eiirlier vtsil of Arnold, tlioiigb we cannat ittribule STerjlhiDg 
whioh [hs Romaiu UDdsrtook, afttr tlie impulse had been giioQ Ui tbem b; Arnold, id 
bis mode of UunkiDg. 

I OmtIi ■ooliiiU Citmt, 4iue lust >iu pnanl, 
ri ChriMnaJoBlt Fetn H]T«nt« tribulum. 
t Ste Mutepe el Diinud Callvelio amp] isaima, t. ii., ••p. 213. r. flB». Nan eia licri 

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liTiofT. receive that void of oar Lord— Blesaed are the poor in 
spirit, when they were poor themeelrea neither in hct nor in 
disposition." Even the donative of Constantine to the Soman 
bisliop SilTester, was declared to be a pitiable fiction. This lie 
had been so clearly exposed, that it was obvions to the rery day- 
labourers and to women ; and that these conid pnt to silence the 
most learned men, if they ventured to defend the genuineness of 
this donative ; so that the pope, with his cardinals, no longer 
dared to appear in public.^ Bat Arnold was perhaps the only 
individnal in whose case snch a tendency was deeply rooted in 
religions conviction ; with many it was bn( a transitory intoxi- 
cation, in which their political interests had become merged for 
the moment. 

The pope Lncins the Second was killed as early as 1145, in the 
attack on the capitol. A scholar of the great abbot Bernard, the 
abbot Peter Bernard of Pisa, now mounted the papal chair, under 
the name of Eugene the Third. As Eugene honoured and loved 
the abbot Bernard as his spiritual father and old preceptor, so the 
latter took advantage of his relation to the pope, to speak the 
truth to him with a plainness which no other man wonld easily 
have ventured to use. In congratulating him upon his elevation 
to the papal dignity, he took occasion to exhort him to do away 
the many abuses which had become so widely spread in the church 
by worldly influences. " Who will give me the satisfaction," said 
he in his letter,' '* of beholding the church of Ood, before I die> 
in a condition like that in which it was in ancient days, when the 
apostles threw out their nets, not for silver and gold, but for 
souls. How fervently I wish thou mightest inherit the word of 
that apostle whose episcopal seat thou hast acquired, of him who 
sud, ' Thy gold perish with thee,' Acts viii. 20. that all the 
enemies of Zion might tremble before this dreadftil word, and 
shrink back abashed ! This, thy mother indeed expects and re- 
quires of thee. For this, long and sigh the sons of thy mother, 
small and great, that every plant which our Father in heaven has 

1 Hsnduimn nro illud e^ fiibnlt baenliu, in qu> nfntar Consluitiiinm SilTsstra 
inpniklia aimoniuie cop<>«Mi»r, io urbt iM dcleoM rat. at edun mgretDifii et malice- 
cuUe qnoolibct etiam ilaolltBimoB tupM liee eanclodint rt dictoa (poalolicDB cum cai* 
Cdrdinillbiu in civiMU pru pudore (ptUKic non ludtuit. Ep. 3s4, f. U3. L. e. 
- Kp. 238. 

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not planted, may be rooted up by thy bande." He then allnded 
to the sodden deaths of the last predeceBSors of the pope, exhort- 
ing him to homility, and reminding him of his responsibility. 
" In all thy works," be wrote, "remember that thon art a man ; 
and let the fear of him who taketh away the breath of ralers, b« 
erer before thine eyes." Eagene was soon forced to yield, it is 
tme, to the superior force of the insurrectionary spirit in Borne, 
and in 1146 to take refine in France : bnt, like TTrban and In- 
nocent, he too, firom this country, attained to the highest triumph 
of the papal power. Like Inuocent, he found there, in the abbot 
Bernard of Clairraux, a mightier instrument for operating on the 
minds of the age, than he could hare found in any other country ; 
and like Urban, when banished firom the ancient seat of the 
papacy, he was enabled to place himself at the head of a crus&de 
proclaimed in his name, and undertaken with great enthusiasm ; 
an enterprise fi-om which a new impression of saeredneas would be 
reflected back upon his own person. The news of the success 
which had attended the arms of the Saracens in Syria, the defeat 
of the Christians, the conquest of the ancient Cbnstian territory 
of Edessa,' the danger which threatened the new Christian king- 
dom of Jemsalem, and the holy city, had spread alarm among the 
Western nations, and the pope considered himself bonnd to summon 
the ChristianB of the West to the assistance of their hard-pressed 
brethren in the l^ith, and to the recovery of the holy places. By a 
letter directed to the abbot Bernard, he commissioned him to ex- 
hort the Western Christians in his name, that, for penance and for- 
gireness of sins, they should march to the East, to deliver their 
brethren or to give up tlieir lives for them.' Enthusiastic for the 
cause himself. Bernard communicated, through the power of the 
living word and by letters, his enthusiasm to the nations. He 
represented the new crusade as a means fnrnished by God to 
the multitudes sunk in sin, of calling them to repentance, and 
of paving the way, by devout participation in a pions work, for 
the forgiTeness of their stus. Thus, in his letter to the clergy 

I Ocrtwh of Jtricbrnbrrg aTiUi In the jBU 1146; A. lUO, * Pigtnia oi^ cJTiMtt 
EdMu plonliu St DlDlilua malm ludiliu rat rt eiuidiia* ioaxodia. In Pa. iiiii^ 
cd, Pn. L t, I. TM. 

1 In BfTDod'alibotlilii dneriplr, Ou abbot Ooltfritd;— the tUid lib in tba aJilian 
of Uabiikm, u ii.,o. it.. L liSO. It ia hm laid, Uiat ba wm to pmant tba nutter bo- 
fan ibf prtnrra and nmtiona u tbe RomuiM eodaalaa lingua. 

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and people in East Frankland (Gennany),* he exhorts them 
eagerly to lay hold on this opportunity ; he declares that the 
Almighty condescended to invite mnrderere, robbers, adolterers, 
perjurers, and those sunk in other crimes, into his service as well 
as the righteons. He calls upon them to make an end of waging 
war with one another, and to seek an object for their warlike 
prowess in this holy contest. " Hero, brave warrior," he ex- 
claims, " thon hast a field where thon mayst fight withont 
danger, where victory is glory, and death is gain. Take the 
sign of the cross, and thou shalt obtain the forgiveness of all 
the sins which thou hast never confessed with a contrite heart." 
By Bernard's fiery diseootsea, men of all ranks were carried 
away.^ In France and Germany ho travelled about, conqner- 
ing by an effort his great bodily infirmities, and the living words 
from his lips produced even mightier efiects than his letters.* A 
peculiar charm, and a peculiar power of moving men's minds, must 
have existed in the tones of his vwce ; to this most be added the 
awe-inspiring efiect of his whole appearance, the way in which 
his whole being, and the motions of his bodily firame, joined in 
testifying of that which seized and inspired him. Thus it admits 
of being explained how, in Germanj;, even those who understood 
but little or in fitct nothing of what he sud, could be so moved 
as to shed tears, and smite their breasts ; could, by his own 
speeches in a foreign language, be more strongly afiected and agi- 
tated than by the immediate interpretation of his words by an* 
other.* From all quarters, sick persons were conveyed to him, 
by the iViends who sought from him a cure ; and the power of his 
faith, the confidence he inspired in the nAndsof men, might some- 

1 Ep. 363. 

'i Gerhulinr RFicli«inbarg»riiea, ■yeatarier tills: CerUUlm rurrilurul bellum UDC- 
turn sum jubllintlbua tabj* gi^nteia, Papa Edgnnio Tenia, »l rju* Naotiis, quoram 
pneoipuiu ml Abbw ClKnTKlIensiB, qoornm pudisuionibM oantDDaDtibiis ot mtni- 
cuiU nunnWJit pariter comscBUtlbaa \emt moUu fkalui est niagaua. In Pa. ixiii,. 
ed. Pa. L. c. f. 7»'2 

» How grenl wM [he force of hit eloquenrc. aaya Ibe abbot Godfricd, I. c. e. i»., f, 
1119; Noaae powranl allqait«Diia, qui Ipaiiit b'gerint acripta, etii longe minua abcia, 
qui *eiba tgna taepiua itiiluniiit. Siquidcm iiSan (rat gratia in lablla rjaa ft igDiCDm 
cluqBJDm ejna laheoMnter, ut nan poaaet na ipaiga quldem etilus. licM ejcimiaa, totam 
illiun dulflfdiDf m, tatnm minere rrrrarem. 

* VprbDrnm ajua magia aentire tirtnleiu, aava Ihp biograplier named In tbe pracnling 

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Bernard's enthusiasm and prudence. 207 

times produce remarkable effects.* With this enthasiasm, how- 
erer, Bernard onited a degree of pradeoce and a discernment of 
chancier sach as few of that age poBBessed, and such qoatities 
were reqoired to counteract the multiform excitements of the 
wild spirit of fanaticism, which mixed in with this great ferment 
of minds. Thus, he warned the Germans not to suffer themselTes 
to be misled so far as to follow certain independent enthusiasts, 
ignorant of war, who were bent on moving forward the bodies of 
the cmaaders prematurel j. He held up as a warning the example 
of Peter the Hermit, and declared himself very decidedly opposed 
to the proposition of an abbot who was disposed to march with a 
number of monks to Jernsalem ; " for," said he, " fighting war- 
riors are more needed there than singing monks."^ At an ao- 
sembl; held at Chartres, it was proposed that he himself should 
take the lead of the expedition ; but be rejected the proposition 
at once, declaring that it was beyond his power, and contrary to 
his calling." Haring, perhaps, reason to fear that the pope might 
be harried on, by the shouts of the many, to lay upon him some 
charge to which he did not feel himself called, he besooght the 
pope that be wonld not make him a yictim to men's arbitrary will, 
but that he wonld inqnire, as it was his duty to do, how God had 
determined to dispose of him.* We have already narrated, on a 
former pi^e, how Bernard succeeded in assna^ng the popular fury 
against the Jews. 

With the preaching of this second emsade, as with the invita- 
tion to the first, was connected an extraordinary awakening. 
Many, who had hitherto given themselves up to their unrestrained 
passions and desires, and become strangers to all higher feelings, 
were seized with compunction. Bernard's call to repentance pe- 
netrated many a heart ; people who had lived in all manner of 
crime, were seen following this voice, and flocking together in 
troops to receive the badge of the cross. Bishop Otto of Freisin- 
gen, the historian, who himself («ok the cross at that time, ex- 

1 Ep.SS6. tc pop* EogvDe ih* Tbiiri; Quia mud «go, at dbpDEUin o 
al •fndiu' uiti huria umUornip T Aut quid urn irmutuoi t piattnitian difk, etiuu a 
tin* (Ofpelrniit. etiunai peritia Duu dKaiei. 

t Ne n* bumanla TolanUtlbni cipvoalla, tal, xicul aiDgularilar tobla incumbit, divj 

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presses it as his opinion, "that erery man, of sonnd understand- 
ing, would be forced to acknowledge so sudden and nncommon a 
change conid have been prodaced in no other way than by the 
right hand of the Lord."i The proTost Gerhob of Beichersberg, 
who wrote in the midst of these movements, was persuaded that 
he saw here a work of the Holy Spirit, designed to counteract the 
vices and corruptions which had got the npper hand in the church.* 
Many who had been awakened to repentaoce, confessed what they 
had taken from others by robbery or fraud, and hastened, before 
they went to the holy war, to seek reconciliation with their ene- 
mies.* The Christian enthusiasm of the German people found 
utterance in songs in the German tongue ; and even now the pe- 
culiar adaptation of this language to sacred poetry began to be 
remarked. Indecent songs could no longer venture to appear 

While some were awakened by Bernard's preaching from a life 
of crime to repentance, and by taking part in the holy war strove 
to obtain the remission of their sins ; others, again, who though 
hitherto borne along in the onrrent of ordinary worldly pursuits, 
yet had not given themselves up to vice, were filled by Bernard's 
words with loathing of the worldly life, inSamed with a vehement 
longing after a higher stage of Christtan perfection, aJler a life 
of entire consecration to God. They longed rather to enter 
upon the pilgrimage to the heavenly, than to an earthly Jerusa- 
lem ; they resolved to become monks, and would fain hare the 
man of God himself, whose words bad made so deep an imprea- 
sion on their hearts, as their guide in the spiritual life, and com- 

1 De gratis Friderici i., c. 

d'xler* eioelii pervcnim nan cognoBceret. 

' HiB remu-kible wonis are: Post Latw iDiiIeucnU multimodi impicUU ic mnlti- 
plicBiis in eccleBla vel mimdo rorntDnloribus, raptoribiiB, bomicidlB, peijaria, inseDdiariii 
lion Hilum in siecula, ted eliun iu dome Dei, qniDi fecerant Bpfluueuii lilrounm, Bgn 
(celeBii (p«raonlfic*tion of the chunb) «ipecUTi Dominum et iDtendil mibi (I euulk 
TilprecH mtu, qui* ecce dum burBiiribimui,coDlran(quitia(etinipieUM»inuiifi»nim 
■pirituB piatilis opuainecclniaDei videoms. In Ps. ixxii, L. c t 792. 

^ MulU ex iia primitua iblau uu Trandata natitunat et, quod majui rat, eifm|ila 
Cliriati Bnia ininloia oacalnoi paoii oflivanl injuriaa igiioaeunt. L. e. 

* Qerhoira notioeablc woida ; In on Cbriato mililatitinm LaicoTum Jan* Dd crebre*- 
lii, qaik uon CBt in loto rrgna ChristiBou, qui lorpe* cantilenBa eautare in publico an 
deal. t«l tola Iut* jubilat in Cbriati laudibus, sliam per cantilsnaa linguae vulgaria, 
n>H]L>aie iu Tcntonida, quorum lingua magia apta esl eoDcinnia CKUtiria. L. <■. 794 

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mit themseWes to his directioDs, in the monastery of GlairTaux. 
Bnt here Bernard shoved his prudence and knowledge of man- 
kind. He did not allow all to become monka who wished to do 
BO. Many he rejected, becaose be perceived they were not fitted 
for the quiet of the contempUtire life, bat needed to be disci- 
plined by the conflicts and cares of a life of action.' 

But we here hare occasion to repeat the same remark which 
we made in speaking of the first cnisade.) As contemporaries 
themselves acknowledge, these first impressions in the case of 
many who went t« the cms&des, were of no permanent duration, 
and their old nature broke forth again the more strongly under 
the manifold temptations to which they were exposed, in pro- ' 
portion to the facility with which, through the confidence they 
repoeed in a plenary indulgence, without really laying to heart the 
condition upon which it was bestowed, they could flatter themselves 
with security in their sins. Qerhoh of Reichersberg, in describing 
the blessed effectsof that awakening which accompanied the preach- 
ing of the crusader, yet says, " We doubt not that, amongst so 
vast a multitude some became, in the true sense, and in all sin- 
cerity, soldiers of Christ. Some, howerer, were led to embark 
in the enterprise by various other occasions, conceroiDg whom it 
does not belong to ua to judge, but only to Him who alone knows 
the hearts of those who marched to the contest either in the ri^ht 
or not in the right spirit. Yet this we do confidently affirm, that 
to this crusade many were called, but few were chosen."' And 
it was said that many returned from this expedition, not better 

1 The monk Ceuriai, oFtliemDDUterjof Hcuierbub, neir Cologue, ia Ihe begin- 
ning oftbe IbirlMnlfa cenlnry, nlRtn Ihikin bi< dialogues, ahleh, (midst mncb tlial ia 
taboloa*, eODUins ■ rich (lore of facta reluing lo ibe liiKtorr of Christian lib in thin 
period, L c <i., for iaiUnE*, coucvruing llio effects of \be prescliing of ihe omsMiva in 
Liege. Wlien Bernard preaebed a rrasading aennon it Costniiz, liia woidt made such 
■n imprasaion on Henrj, « »erj weaitbj and powerful knight, tlie owner of af swal 
OBiIIra, thalh* wished to broome a monk, and be was eneanngrd in tbia b; Bernard. 
Ue at onOB became the latter'a oompanion, and, as he ondersluod both [ha FreOL-li and 
the Oeimui languafi«, •ted aa bia interpreter. But when one of Ihe soldieninthe 
atrriDe of Ibe said knigbt prapnstd also to become a monk, Drmaid declined to reeeiie 
him. and eiboned bim raUier to lake pan in the crusade, L. a. 

1 See abate, f. IW. 

I Et fuidem noii dnbitamus in t^nla mulliltidine quosdam Tere ac ainoere Cbriaio 
miiilare, quMdam Tero per oecaaiones Tarias, qaoa dijiidicare non est aoatrum. sed jp- 
sius, qoi solos novilcorda faomianm sive reelosive non recta mil.untiuni. Hoc tamen 
eoostanter afflnnamua, qood molli ad banc milltiam losati, pauoi lero eierli sunt. I., e. 
t. 7B3. 

VOL. VI L u 

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bat vorse tbaa they went.^ Therefore the monk Ceaarins of 
Heisterbach, who st&tes this, adds : " All depends od bearing 
the yoke of Christ not one year or two years, bat daily, — ifa man 
is really intent on doing: <t in troth, and in that sense in which 
our Lord requires it to be done, and as it most be done, io order 
to follow him." 

When it turned oat, however, that the erent did not answer 
the expectations excited by Bernard's enthusiastic confidence, 
but the crusade came to that unfortanate issue which was brought 
about especially by the treachery of the princes and nobles of the 
Christian kingdom in Syria, this was a source of great chagrin to 
Bernard, who had been so active in setting it in motion, and 
who had inspired such confident hopes by his promises. He ap- 
peared DOW in the light of a bad prophet, and he was reproached 
by many with baring incited men to engage in an enterprise 
which had coat so much blood to no purpose.' Bat Bemud's 
friends alleged in his defence, that he had not excited such a 
popular movement single-handed, but as the organ of the pope, in 
whose name he acted ; and they appealed to the facts by which his 
preaching of the cross was proved to be a work of God, — to the 
wonders which attended it._ Or they ascribed the failnre of the 
undertaking to the had conduct of the crusaders themselves, to 
the unchristian mode of life which many of them led, as one of 
these Iriends maintained, in a consoling letter to Bernard him- 
self,* adding, " Qod, however, has turned it into good. Kumbers 
who, if they had returned home, would have continued to live a 
life of crime, disciplined and purified by many sufferings, have 
passed into the life eternal." Bo^ Bernard himself could not be 
staggered in his faith by this event. In writing to pope Kagene 
on this subject,* he refers to the iucomprehensibleness of the 

1 Haiti poll peregrinatioDei deteriores BaDtet priBtiDts vitUi tmpliiu w inioIvDot. 
CeiiT. HcUtcrb. L c. >i. 

i Qonfti«l, in bis life of Bemud, mjb (c it.]: Nee UrtDdam, quod <i praedioalione 
itlneni HiernBDljiDiCaQi grave cotitn tarn qnoruDdtm bominuin vel BimplieiUfl lel m*- 
ligniua •aindalimi lamBit, rum (ritcior sequeretur eff«tui, 

■ ETidenMT enim verbuin lioo praedicatit, Domino coopennte M Mnaonem oouSr- 
manta atquentjbiu sigDia; ac aaji tbe biograpber mfntioDed ia tbe pracading dou. 

4 See tf. 886. The abbol. who iru tbe writer of thia letter, nialaa ttui manf who 
had retunwd ^m Palealinn iiated, quod lidieaeiil multoa ibi oiariaDtaa, qui Ubenler §• 
mori dicebant Deque Tel1« reveni, oe ampliua to pecealji reciderenL 

t Cauaiderab I. ii., in Ibe beginniag. 

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EUQENR's return to ROME. 211 

divine ways and jndgments ; to the example of Moses, who, al- 
though his work carried on its face incontestible evidence of being 
a work of God, yet was not permitted himself to conduct the 
Jews into the promised land. As this was owing to the fanit of 
the Jews themselves, so too the crnsaders had none to blame bat 
themselves for the failnre of the diviae work.' " But," says he, 
" it will be said, perhaps. How do we know that this word came 
iVom the Lord ? What miracle dost thon work, that we should 
believe thee t To this question I need not give an answer ; it 
is a point on wliich my modesty asks to be excnaed from speak- 
ing." " Do yon answer," says he to the pope, " for me and for 
yourself, according to that which yoa have seen and heard. "^ So 
firmly was Bernard convinced that Ood had sustained his labonra 
by miracles. 

Engene was at length enabled, in the year 1149, after having 
for a long time excited against himself the indignation of the 
cardinals by his dependence on the French abbot, with the as- 
sistance of Roger, king of the Sicilies, to retnm to Borne ; where, 
however, he still had to maintain the straggle with the party of 
Arnold. The provost Gerhoh finds something to complain of, in 
the fact that the chnrch of St Peter wore so warlike an aspect 
that men beheld the tomb of the apostle surrounded with bastions 
and the implements of war I> 

As Bernard was no longer sufficiently near the pope to exert 
on him the same immediate personal influence as in times past, 
he addressed to him a voice of admonition and warning, sach as 
the mighty of the earth seldom enjoy the privilege of hearing. 
With the frankness of a love which, as he himself expresses it, 
knew not the master, but recognized the son, even under the 
pontifical robes,* he set before him, in his four books* " On Medi- 

I- Quod si illi (Judaei) eecidenml et perierant propter itiiqniuieta aaun, minunnr 
iato* ead«m ItdeuUa euiem pasaoa ? 
1 Rapond* Id pro me et pro te ipso, Keundam ei quae tndiati at vidiali, 

* Nan imiDerito dalemus, quod adbuo ip doiDo b. Petii deaalalioiiiB ■bominalioDem 
■Ur« videmus, positi* etiam propugnaculia et ilili bellorum inslrumetilia in allitiidine 
BUictuirii aupra corpus b. Petri. Quod licet non audaamus judioue Dialum ease tameii 
•ine dnbio jndioamiu eaae ■ malo. eorum videlicet, qui suae nbellionia malitia cogant 
ieriutia. In Pa. Ixit.,/. 1J8I. 

* Hiawordg in tbt prologue to tbewDil^ : Deeonaideratione: AmoTDomiimniDescil 
•gnoBOil Blinm et in infulia. 

* Olthe Aftb, we ahall baxe oeeaaian to apeak bercafler. 

o 2 

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212 Bernard's vibws of thr pope's situation. 

tation" (De Consideratione), which he sent to him singly at dif- 
ferent times, the duties of his oflice, and the faults against which, 
in arder to fnlfil these duties, he needed especially to gnard. 
Bernard was penetrated with a conviction that to the pope, as 
St Peter's snccessor, was committed by God a sovereign power of 
chnreh government over all, and responsible to no other tribunal ; 
that to this chnreh theocracy, gnided by the pope, the adminis- 
tration even of the secular power, thongh independent within its 
own peculiar sphere, should be subjected, for the service of the 
kingdom of God. Bat he also perceived, with the deepest pain, 
how very far the papacy was from corresponding to this its idea 
and destination ; what prodigions corruption had sprung and 
continued to spring from the abuse of papal authority; he per- 
ceived already, with prophetic eye, that this very abuse of arbi- 
trary will must eventually bring about the destruction of this 
power. He desired that the pope should disentangle himself 
from the secular part of his office and reduce that office within 
the purely spiritual domain, and that above all he should learn to 
govern and restrict himself. " From neither poison nor sword," 
wrote he to him, " do I so much dread danger to thee, as from 
the love of rule."' He reminded him of the shameful, spirit- 
depressing slavery, which he endured from all quarters nnder the 
show of role, — he most be servant not of an individual, but of all. 
Nor conld he rightly appeal to that saying of the apostle Paul, 
that he made himself the servant of all men, while the ambitious, 
the seekers of gain, the practisers of simony, the incontinent, 
and such like monsters, from the whole world, fiocked to the 
pope, seeking to acquire or to preserve, by his apostolical autho- 
rity, the places of honour in the chnreh. That apostle, to whom 
to live was Christ, and to die was gain, made himself a servant 
to men, in order that he might win more souls to Christ, not in 
order to increase the emoluments of cupidity. Much rather 
should he ponder that saying of the same apostle : Ye are bought 
with a price, be not the servants of men. " What is more a 
servitude, what is more unworthy a pope, than that thon shonldst 
bnsy thyself almost every hour with snch things and for the ad- 
vantage of snch men 1 Finally, when is there time for prayer. 

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bebkard's admonitions to euqene the third. 213 

to iDstrnct tli« congregation, to edify the church, to meditate on 
the dirine law ? And fet ve must admit the laws do daily make 
themselves to be heard in the papal palace ; but what laws \ the 
laws of Justinian, not those of the Lord." Gladly would he in- 
vite him, according to 2 Tim. ii. 4, to put far from him all these 
secular affairs, SO alien (tt>m his spiritual office, but he is very 
sensible that the times were not capable of receiving such truths. 
" Belieyest thou that these times would bear it, if thou shonldst 
repel those people who are contending about an earthly inherit- 
ance, and seek a decision from thee, with the words of thy Mas- 
ter, Man, who has made me a judge over you ? How instantly 
would they accuse thee of dishononring thy primacy, and surren- 
dering somewhat of the apostolical dignity. And yet it is my 
opinion, that those who so speak cannot mention the place where 
any one of the apostles ever held a trial, decided disputes about 
boundaries, or portioned oat lands. I read, indeed, that the 
apostles stood before judgment-seats, but not that they sat upon 
them." This, he said, was not belittling the papal dignity or 
authority ; on the contrary, he held it to be so exalted as to be 
able to dispense with managing such worldly affairs. " Your au- 
thority has reference to sins, not to earthly possessions. On ac- 
count of the former, not the latter, have you receired the keys of 
the kingdom of heaven, with power to exclude men from it on 
account of their sins, not on account of their possessions. These 
earthly things have also their judges, the kings and princes of 
the world. Why intrude into another's province ?"' He laments 
that the pope's appearance, mode of living, and occupations, so 
little comported with the office of spiritual shepherd. He laments 
the arrogance and superior airs affected by his attendants.* He 
labours to impress him, above all, with the duty of exercising his 
spiritual office as amongst that intractable, corrupt people, the 
Romans, who stood in especial need of it ; at least to make the 
experiment, whether something could not be done for their con- 
version, and these wolves turned into lambs. " Here," said he, 
" / do not spare thee, in order that God may spare thee. Deny 

1 [1«b»ntliM« inflm« ct wnens judire nuos.rogcH et piiucipes Iprrai.'. Quid Hni'i 
DlieiiosinTadhra? Quid faliTiii vralrim in Blicniuu nieueni cxleiiditis ? 

S lu ompe bunill« proliro duciiiirinxr PnlMiiiaa, ui taciliDS igiii e:<S'', qimm qui up- 

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tliat thon art the paetor, the shepherd, of this people, or prove 
thyself to be ench. Thoa wilt not deny it, lest he whose episco- 
pal seat thon possessest deny thee as his heir. It is that Peter, 
of whom it is not known that he was erer loaded with preciona 
stones or silks, conveyed abont covered with gold on a whit« 
horse, snrronndeil hy soldiers and bustling servants. In these 
things thon hast not followed Peter, bnt Constantine." He ad- 
vises him, if he mnst endnre such marks of honour for a short 
time, yet to put in no claim to them, bnt rather seek to (blGI the 
duties belonging to hie vocation. " Though thon walkest abroad 
clad in pniple and gold, yet as thon art heir of the shepherd, 
shrink not fVom the shepherd's toils and cares ; thon hast no rea- 
son to be ashamed of the gospel." Not the earthly sword, but 
the sword of the word, should be nsed by him against the unruly 
Romans. " Why dost thon again nnaheath the sword, which the 
Lord has bid thee put up in its sheath. True, it is evident from 
this command, that it is thy sword stilt ; but one which is to be 
drawn at thy bidding only, not by thy hand. Else, when Peter 
said. Here are two swords, onr Lord would not have answered. It 
is enough : hut there are too many ; therefore both swords, the 
spiritual and the temporal, are to serve the church ; but the first 
is for the church ; the second also, from the church ; the first is 
wielded by the hand of the priest ; the second, in the hand of the 
soldier, at the beck of the pope, by the command of the emperor." 
It was then Bernard's idea that, although the pope bnsies him- 
self directly only with spiritual matters, yet he should exercise 
a sort of superintendence also over the administration of the se- 
cular authority. 

Bnt while he recognizes the church government of the pope as 
one to which all others, without exception, are subjected, he ad- 
vises that he should restrict himself; that he should respect the 
other authorities existing in the church, and not usurp the whole 
to himself. He presents before him the great evil which must 
necessarily result from multiplied and arbitrary exemptions ; the 
murmurings and complaints of the churches, which sighed over 
their mutilations ; hence so much squandering of church property, 
destruction of church order, and so many schisms. If his autho 
rity was the highest ordained of God, yet he should not for that 
reason supi>ose it the only one ordained of God. The text, Rom. 

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bbrnard's four books, de coksidbratione. 215 

xiii. t, whicb vas often misinterpreted and abased by tlie de- 
fenders of absolute arbitrary will, Bernard turns against them. 
" Thoo^h the passage, ' WhosoeTer resisteth the power, resisteth 
the ordinance of God,' serves thy purpose especially, yet it does 
not serve it esclnsively. The same apostle says ; ' Let every sonl 
be enbject onto the higher powers ;' he speaks not of one, bnt of 
several. It is not thy authority alone, therefore, that is tVom 
the IfOrd, but this is tme also of the intermediate, of the lower 
powers. And, since what God has pnt together, man shonid not 
pnt asunder ; so neither should man level down what God has put 
in a relation of snpra-ordination and subordination. Thon pro- 
ducest a monster, if thon disseverest the finger from the hand 
and makest it hang direct); from the head. So is it too, if thon 
arraugest the members in the body of Christ in a different order 
ftom that in which he himself has placed them." He refits to 
the order institnted by Christ himself, 1 Cor. xii. 28, Eph. iv. 16. 
He refers to the system of appeals, so ruinoas to the condition of 
the church, as an example suited to show the direct tendency of 
the abuse of the papal authority to bring it into contempt, and 
also that the pope would take the best and surest means of meet- 
ing the latter evil by checking the former.' He wants the pope, 
by pointing him to God's judgments in history : " Once make the 
trial of uniting both together ; try to he ruler and at the same 
time successor of the c^oatle, or to be the apostle's successor 
and at the sametinte ruler. You must tetgo of one or the other. 
If you attempt to secure both at once, you will lose both. He 
commends to his consideration the threatening language of the 
prophet, Hosea viii. 4.* 

Bat to the close of hie life, in the year 1153, pope Eugene had 
to contend with the turbulent spirit of the Bomans and the in- 

1 Lib. iii., c. ii., [ 13. Vidrrn to, quid libi Trlit.qtiod lelua rnler usidnc pwac tin- 
dioU iltum {contrmptum). iiUm (usurpHtiouem) diuimulru. Via pFrfeclioa coeroerp 
eiiDUiD|i(ani 7 Cuim in ipso uiero peuimM niauis praerocari gvimcn Dfqunni, quod iu 
Bet, «i DmrpUio digni ■nimtJvenioiic mnlcMtur. ToUe nsuriiBtinnroi, el conlemploa 
•xCDMtianrDi Don litbat. 

^ Lib. ii., c. vi., {11. 1 ergo lu et litii DeuT|>ue aude int domiiuina apostoiUum auc 
apoMolioiu damintlum. Plane ib alWrulro pruliibfria. Si utrumijae aimul haliert rolr*. 
prrdn BinUDquf. Alioqnm Doa te eie«plum iilnrum namrro piiii b, d<> quibna qiieriiur 
Deiu. Ok* liii. 4. 

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fluencee of the prinoiples dissemiDSted by Arnold ; and this con- 
test was pToloDged into the reign of his second sncceeaor, Adrian 
the Fourth. Among the people and amoDg the nobles, a con- 
siderable party had arisen, vho woald concede to the pope no 
kind of Becular dominion. And there seems to have been a shade 
of difference among the members of this party. A mob of the 
people' is said to hare gone to such an extreme of arrogance aa 
to propose the choosing of a new emperor from amongst the Bo- 
mans themsehes, the restoration of a Roman empire independent 
of the pope. The other party, to which belonged the nobles, 
were for placing the emperor Frederic the First at the head of 
the Roman republic, and uniting themselves with him in a com- 
mon interest against the pope. They inrited him° to receive 
the imperial crown, in the ancient manner, from the "Senate 
and Roman people," and not from the heretical and recreant 
clergy, and the false monks, who acted in contradiction to their 
calling, exercising lordship despite of the evangelical and aposto- 
lical doctrine ; and in contempt of all laws, divine and human, 
brought the church of God and the kingdom of the world into 
confusion. Those who pretend that they are the representatives 
of Peter, it was said in a letter addressed in the spirit of this 
party to the emperor Frederic the First, " act in contradiction to 
the doctrines which that apostle teaches in his epistles. How 
can they say with the apostle Peter, ' Lo, we have left all and 
followed thee,' and ' Silver and gold have I none V How can our 
Lord say to such, ' Ye are the light of the world,' ' the salt of 
the earth V Much rather is to be applied to them what oar 
Lord says of the salt that has lost its savour. Eager after 
earthly riches, they spoil the true riches, from which the salva- 
vation of the world has proceeded. How can the saying be ap- 
plied to them, ' Blessed are the poor in spirit ;' for they are nei- 
ther poor in spirit nor in fact V 
Pope Adrian the Fourth was first enabled, under more favonr- 

1 Ruiticftim quudun turh> abeqiie Dobiliiim «t niiijoniai icieiiti*, at pope Engeniqi 
himMir writKB. Manane et Dunind, coltectio unpliuiini, t. ii., t, f S4. 

i Sea die lelUT, irritUD in the Duii«ortbis|wn7Uid txprHBiDgiu vima, bjawrMJD 
Wrzal, to Ilia emprror Fraderic lU« First, in tbr ja*r 11S2, iti ibe oollcotion maDlianed 
In Ihe nole preceding, I. ii , f, 554. 

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OERHOH ON Arnold's death. 217 

able circumstances, and assisted by the emperor Frederic the 
First,! to deprive the Arnold party of its leader, and then to 
suppress it eatirely. It so happened that, in the first year of 
Adrian's reign, 1155, a cardinal, on his way to Tisit the pope, 
was attacked and vonoded by followers of Arnold. This in- 
dnced the pope to put all Rome under the interdict, with a view 
to force the expulsion of Arnold and his party. This means did 
not fail of its effect. The people, who could not bear the suspen- 
sion of divine worship, now themselves compelled the nobles to 
bring about the ejection of Arnold and bis friends. Arnold, on 
leaving Rome, found protection from Italian nobles. By the 
order, however, of the emperor Frederic, who had come into 
Italy, he was torn from his protectors, and surrendered up to the 
papal authority. The prefect of Rome then took possession of 
his person, and caused him to be hung. His body was burned, 
and its ashes thrown into the Tiber, lest his bones might be pre- 
served as the relics of a martyr by the Romans, who were enthu- 
siastically devoted to him.. Worthy men, who were in other re- 
spects zealous defenders of the church orthodoxy and of the hier- 
archy, as, for example, Gerhoh of Reichersberg, expressed their 
disapprobation, first, that Arnold should be punished with death 
on account of the errors which he disseminated ; secondly, that 
the sentence of death should proceed from a epiritwU tribunal, 
or that such a tribunal should at least have subjected itself to 
that bad appearance. But on the part of the Roman court it was 
alleged, in defence of this proceeding, that " it was done without 
the knowledge and contrary to the will of the Roman curia." 
" The prefect of Rome bad forcibly removed Arnold from the 
prison where he was kept, and his servants had pat him to death, in 
revenge for the injuries tbey had suffered from Arnold's parly. 
Arnold, therefore, was executed, not on account of his doctrines, 
but in consequence of tumults excited by himself" It may he a 

1 Pope EngeoA bod lakfu (dTanuge of the *bDve menlioned pluii of nne poniuii of 
Arnold'a put} w Kpreeent dial pvtj lo the eiDperoi u dMrimcDlsl ev«n to tbe iitipe- 
riil inlentts. Tba words o( Eogens, id the lettrt *1re>idy DMtitioDEd in ■ preceding - 
DOU, (ddresBod to the ompsror's ravoj. the tbbol Wibeld, are : Quod quia coDira eoro- 
Dam regni et cariMimi Alii noaln, Friderici RomaDoriiin rrgiH, boDoreiu aurmari: prae- 
sniDUDt, eidsDi lolamui pet le ucrclius nnmiari. 

t Seo Acu Vuieana, in£*runiaa, en nil), ad. a. 1165, No. i. M iv,, and Oitn of rrei^^iii. 
gen d* gealii, f. i,, I, ii., c. xi. 

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question whether this was aaid with sincerity, or whether, ac- 
cording to the proverb, a confession of guilt is not implied in the 
excuse. But Gerhoh was of the opinion, that in this case they 
should at least have done as David did in the case of Abner's 
death (2 Sam. iii.), and, by allowing Arnold to be buried, and bis 
death to be mourned over, instead of cansiDg his body to be 
burned, and the remains thrown into the Tiber, washed their 
hands of the whole transaction.^ 

But the idea for which Arnold had contended, and for which he 
died, continued to work in rariouB forms even after his death, — 
the idea of a purification of the church from the foreign worldly 
elements with which it had become vitiated, of its restoration to 
its original spiritnal character. Even the person who bad given 
over Arnold to the power of his enemies, must afterwards attach 
himself — though induced by motives of a different kind, by the 
interest of politics — to a tendency of this sort. With this em- 
peror begins a new epoch in the history of the papacy — the hun- 
dred years controversy of the popes with the emperors of the 
Hohenstaufen family. It was not, as formerly, the contest of the 
pope with princes who stood singly opposed to him, and acted 
rather by momentary interests than according to a fixed plan ; 
but a contest, which was peraeveringly maintained by three 
princes, following one after the other in immediate succession, 
with all the power, energy, and craft of a consistent plan,— 
which, alter every momentary pause occasioned by particolar cir- 
cumstances, was resumed with the same vigour as before. Here 

1 Qerhoh's noticeable wohIf coocerning Ariiuld: Qnem tbo Yf!lfm pro t*1i doctriDa 

vel aillem Uliler occiaQin. ul BaniBDB rcdesia sod ciicia ejus necis quBradone carerel. 

eora'D cnilodis, in qaa Icnebilar, ereplun ao pro spmiiJi cioBi occisui lb njas serri* 
eat ; muimBiD Biquidem clBdem ex oicasioDe ejiiBdein doctiinae (in whicb, tben>rore, it 
keems la be implied ibal Arnold's principles 1ia<l aul; given aocasion to ibe tumult, not 
ibat be bintwir bud created JIJ. idrm praeftctus a Romania oiribus perpenua niertt; 
qnue non aaltem ah oceiai cremttionA ac aabmeraione ejua oooiaorm metuerunt ? Qna- 
leona a dumo laserdatali aangoiiiis qnaeatio remola nwt, aicul Oand quondam honH- 
toa Abner eieqniaa proiidit aique anw ip«aa flevit, ut aangninem fnadnlenter bBubudi 
a domo ac Uirono buo lemoiereL Sed de bis ipai viderinl. Nibil euim inper bia nastra 
iotereat. oiai cupere malri nostrae. sanctae Romanae ecclesiaa id quad bouuni juatumct 
lioiiealniu est. It was important lor bin to make ibis declaration : ne tideatnr neei 
njus perpeiam aclaa aiBsnaum prubere. See Grelser's We^e, t. xii., in tUr prolego- 
mena to the writings againal [be Waldenaea,r. 12. 

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it was to be decided whether the papacy could be OTertnrned by 
sny force from without, or must ooly come forth triumphant out 
of such a conflict. 

When Frederic came into Italy for the first time, and Rome 
was already filled with alarm, the issue showed that these fears 
were ^onndless. The emperor sought to maintain a good un- 
derstanding with the pope, — whether it was that he had it in riew 
to establisb his power on a firm footing in Italy, before he em- 
barked in this dangerous contest, or that he was disposed to try 
whether he might not obtain - the pope's co-operation in accom- 
plishing his objects.' If the latter was his plan, he roust at least 
have soon convinced himself, that this thing was impossible. 
The ohurchly theocratical system could tolerate no power beside 
itself; but it required of every other, unconditional subjection. 
Its unyielding pretensions Frederic soon came to find out, in dis- 
puting the question whether he was bound to bold the stirrup 
for the pope,* and in beholding those pictures and inscriptions in 

1 Tbe reiiiu'k(d>lB worda al John af Sdiabury, nbo to be aura wm 'erj liaBtilslf dis- 
poaed lowirrlB tbe imperii] inMreBl, are (ep. 59}; Scio quid TmioaJoua moliatar. Eram 
eoim Itontae prneaidanM b. Eugrnio, quando prima legujoue mkaa in reijiii (ui initio, 
tanti aoai impadentiam. lumor lolaUrahilis, lingua Incaala delexit. Promltwbat enitii, 
•a miua arbia rsromiaturam imptiium, urbi aubjlciendun orbem, Bvenlaque facili omnia 
auhaciDmiD, ai ei ad hoc aolius Rumani poatiflcia Tavor adi'Bse:. Id anlm agebat, iii iti 
qoemcunqne demulatia inimiciliie mUerialem gladium imperiuor, in eundem Romanaa 
poudfci (pirilualem gladlum «iererel, TbeivfoK llie idea of a univenal politicoapi- 

' Tbe fabalana aioty wsa handed round tbat the empenir Cooalantina bad dona thia 
■ct of bomage to papa Silieati^r. and good uae waa Diailc vt it in an uDcriticai age. W« 
taka thia horn Oerbab'a words, in iiia Sf ntngma da atatu ecoleaiae, c. xxiv., Qrelaer, t. 
TJ. fol, 268: Cui ad bonoria CDmnlum et ipav CoDalaiitinnt teoeaa rreaam per oiTiul«m 
awaiDiia officium nhibgii. In anotber place, Gerboh eitola Ibla triuinpli of tlie bier- 
antbj in tbe (oIIowimji noticeable wnrda ; Etfgiiia idnlotaU-is, ecbiamitieia aiqna indiaoi- 
plinitia uaque ad sui fuatua dafeDlum cunatis unplius gloriflcanda et caroDanJa vrat 
BBCFidotalia dignitaa, ita utalraioria qnoqae ofBcium pontlfici Romano ■ ngibua et im. 
peratoribna eibibendnm sjt. In bim we have a atrikitigl; uharacteristio repivsentalive 
of tbe apirii of tbia parry, wben inloiieaied bj hia entbuaiasm for llje uniieraallf tri- 
nmpbant prieatbood, bt seea in ibv fniure a goal Ui be reacbed, wbere amall prineea of 
inferior nams sLouId anae in place of the imperial digniij; princrs. wbooonld undertake 
nothing in opposition to the ahureli. Haec nlmirum speotacala (safe be after the pas- 
sage just cited), nunc regibna partim ablatls, panim diminiito eoram n^itno hamilitatis, 
et eiaitato sacerdotio delactani speclalgn'm beneiolnm, torqapnt invidnm, qui ul am. 
pliuB emcietut et piua oeulus magi< jneundetur, elc, laccedet in eaecnlari digoitale 
minoris Dominis poteetas dimiuutia re^nls ma^^nia in Irirarcbiaa nut minorea etinm 
panjeulas, ne premprs lali-ant eccleaiu el eccleaiBalicas persona!!. In Ps. Iiiv., I. e. f. 

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the papal palaces, which tepreseoted the pope as liege-lord of the 

The resolotion vas now matared in the emperor's mind, that 
he woald take advantage of the first opportunity to resist these 
papal pretensions. Sach an opportunity was soon ntrnished, per- 
haps undesignedly, by the pope himself. A bishop of Lund, in 
Sweden, when returning from a pilgrimage to Rome, was robbed 
and taken captive by certain Grerman knights. The pope com- 
plained to tbe emperor in a letter, of tlie year 1157, that be bad 
let this offence go unpunished, and had not taken the side of the 
bishop. He reminded him of the gratitude which he owed to 
the papal chair, of the services which that chair had rendered 
him during his stay at Kome, and mentioned, among other parti- 
culars, the beslowment of the imperial crown, as if this de- 
pended on the pope's determination.! Still, he added, the pope 
would not h&Te regretted it, had he received, if that were possi- 
ble, still greater benefits from him.' When this was read before 
the emperor, in the diet held at &esang;on, it produced a strong 
and universal movement of snrprise. Not without reason might 
offence be taken at the language in which the pope spoke of the 
bestowment of the imperial crown ; and — by putting this in con- 
junction with what was said about benefits, the emperor recollect- 
ing all the while those pictures and inscriptions which he had 
seen at Rome,* — the worst construction which could be put on 
the word, " benejicium" according to the use of language in 
that period, as designating a feoffage, was put upon the pope's 
language, though the connection was decidedly against any such 
construction. The papal legates, who had brought the letter, 

1 To paiuLintB, wbieh ajmbolicallf repreaanted iLc principltB of ihe papal ajalem, 
Jalin orSalisbury [tlEO alludes, in tlir letter nlread; rercrred lo; 9ic ad gloriam patrum 
wate LalaraneDBi ptlalio, ubi lioc inviatbilibns pictaiis et laici Icgunt, ad gloriam pa- 
tram aRbtanulici, quoa eaecularis potmlaa iatrusil, dantur pontilloibua pro acabello. 

([iiiilUer imperialia inai^jne corona* libeHtisBime ponfercna, ' 

* Si m^iini bcDeflcia enoslleDlia tna d« manu ooaira auerepisaet. si flflri pnasri. 

* Tbe pictuT* ol ibt^ emperor LolUalrx ihe Uecjitd, on vLom Cbe pope beaiova tha im- 
perial Brown, wilb tbp iDacriptioii: — 

Rei vault anta (oral, Junuu prim urbii bonoiw 

According to tha icmnnt nf ibe hiatorian Badwio (i. 10). the pope Lad promiard, iu 
r«j>ly to tliv Irieadlf remoiMlraiicea or the emperor, Iliat tliia pirlure ahould bo removed. 

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were little fitted by their temper to quiet the excited feelings of 
the aesembly. One of them, C&rdin&l Koland of Siena, chancel- 
lor of the chnrch of Rome, on offence being taken at those vords 
of the papal letter, had the boldness to ask, " From whom then 
did the emperor obtain the government, if not from the pope V 
These words produced sach an ontbnrst of anger, that a terrible 
vengeance wonld have lighted on the head of the speaker, if he 
had not been protected by the emperor. The legates were dis- 
missed with disgrace ; they were commanded to retnm imme- 
diately to Rome, and to risit no bishop or abbot by the way. lest, 
in travelling abont.the empire, they might find opportunity of 
creating disturbances, or of exacting contributions.' For the 
same reason, the emperor laid a restriction apon that constant 
and lively intercourse which had been hitherto kept up between 
' Germany and Rome, by means of pilgrimages and appeals. He 
endeavoured to provide that his conduct towards the pope should 
everywhere be seen in a favourable point of light. He therefore 
caused to be published thronghout the whole empire, a document 
setting forth what had been done, and the reasons which made 
it necessary to take snch a course. In this paper be styled 
himself, in opposition to the papal pretensions, " the Lord's 
anointed," who had obtained the government from that Almighty 
power from which proceeds all authority in heaven and on earth. 
" Since our government," he declared, " proceeds, through the 
choice of the princes, from God alone ; since our Lord, at his 
passion, committed the government of the world to two swords, 
and since the apostle Peter gave to the world this precept, ' Fear 
God, and honour the king,' it is evident, that whoever says, ' we 
received the imperial crown as a beneficiwn from the pope,' con- 
tradicts the divine order and the doctrine of Peter, and makes 
himself guilty of a lie." The pope, first in a letter issued to the 

1 Tin wort* in tlieeni|wror'> Ulier. in irbi«h lit doUoct lhi«. audexpliuD* bii motiiea r 
PorToqui«nniH»|i«ri«lii*r»™n'»P"''""'"P*'*'' •un' « KhedolM eigilliUa Rd arbi- 
trlam eorum iJt.ue «cribeiid«« (nrnmslj. blink if«T« lo whieh Uie pope'a acal htd bc»n 
■fflied, .liicli lh»j i-tf* to B)l np KCording to tittUDiaUinoe. ; .0 gre.l wu tbc power 
inlruif d .0 ih,^). q»'bu. »i™t hMlBBu. ooti.H.tudmi. »rt.m fuit, per .iEgalu wcKi- 
■iu Tmwnici rfgui coocepiuin iniquimis ante Tiraa rrapereere, alUria denoilire, »»«• 
(liimuB Uri Affotuie, oires cicoriire uit«banlur. A dr-sf ripiior of the enolions nmde 
br U>e;p*pd Itguea, which we awurf dly cannot wgard u fiaggerawd, judging from • 
eompariaoQ witb othiir uicoDnu of tlioe limis. 

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German bisbops, complatned bitterly of this procednre on tlie 
part of the emperor, and called npos them to me the inflnence 
they had with him, to bring him to his senses. Bnt the bishops 
were here of one and the same mind with the emperor. They 
banded over this letter to him, and he commnnicated to them the 
draft of a reply which he intended for the pope. In this, be de- 
clared that he was ready to pay all doe respect to the head of 
the chnrch; bnt he was also resolred to maintain the indepen- 
dence of his imperial throne. " It was by no means," he said, 
" his design to hinder those who wished, from making the pil- 
grimage to Bome, or from risiting that city for any other good 
reasons ; bnt he only intended to resist those abuses of which he 
could justly say, that all the churches of his empire were bur- 
dened with them, and all the discipline of the monasteries des- 
troyed by them."* " In the head city of the world," he writes, 
" God exalted the church by means of the empire ; in the head 
city of the world, the chnrch now seeks, not through God, as we 
think, to destroy the empire. She began with pictures ; from 
pictures she proceeded to writings ; these writings would procure 
for themselTes the authority of law. Sooner will we lay down 
our crown, than suffer it, together with ourselves, to be so de- 
graded. The pictures must be destroyed ; the writings must be 
revoked, so that the monuments of the controversy between the 
empire and the priesthood may not last forever."' The bishops, 
in transmitting this declaration of the emperor to the pope, 
assured him that those words of his own letter had excited the 
greatest displeasure amongst all the German princes, as well as 
in the emperor ; that they themselves could not defend those 
words, because of their ambiguity. They represented to him the 
great danger which might grow ont of this dispute, and besought 
him earnestly, that he would seek to pacify the emperor by a con- 
ciliatory letter. 

As the emperor now marched into Italy with an army, fear 
added weight, in the pope's mind, to the representations of the 
bishops. He sent a second legation to the emperor, for which he 

1 Illii ■bosioniliiu, qniboi amnca eccleoiu legni noalri DravsMs et alMnuue nmt et 
oniDii p*en« clinstrales dieoipliDac smortuH el eepnitae, obTiue inleDdimm. 
3 PicUirM dfleantur, acriplurar : 

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selected two cardinals who were free from that hierarchical oh- 
stiaacy, and adroit men of the Torld. These envoys handed 
OTer to tlie emperor another letter, which hy a milder explana- 
tion of those words which had given offence, was designed to 
pacify him. Against the conatmction which the emperor had 
put on the word benefidam, he conld easily defend himself, hy an 
appeal to etymology, to the common Latin u8ue loguendi, and at 
the same time to the Bihle.' In respect also to the other diffi- 
cnlty, he maintained that his langnage had been misconstmed, 
bnt without entering into more distinct explanations. 

Thns, for the present, the good onderstanding between the 
emperor and the pope was again restored ; still, howoTcr, in a 
case where interests and principles were so directly opposed, this 
could not last long ; and the sojonm of the emperor Jn It^y, in 
the year 1158, where with good saccess he was seeking to estab- 
lish his power on a firm foundation, could not f^l to produce many 
a collision between the two. The pope could not pardon it in the 
emperor, that he insisted on his right of sovereignty over the city 
of Rome, caused the bishops to take the oath of allegiance, placed 
a limit on appeals to Rome, and sought to check the influence of 
the papal legates in Germany. In tliis uneasy state of feeling, 
he wrote to the emperor a short letter, complaining of hia want of 
respect to the apostle Peter and to the church of Rome. What 
arrogance was it, that in hia letter to the pope, he should place 
his own name before that of the pope. How grossly he violated 
the fidelity vowed to St Peter, when he required of those who are 
all gods and sons of the Highest, the oath of allegiance, and took 
their holy hands into his. He reproached him with having shut 
oat the churches and states of hia empire from the papal legates. 
He exhorted him to repentance. In the reply to this letter a 
mode of thinking expressed itself, which required the separation 
of spiritual things from secular, in the case of the church of Rome 
as well OB of other churches. The very superscription itself 
plainly indicated the emperor's views, in the wish there expressed, 
that he might remain futfafnl and true to all that Jesus had taught 

1 Ho* Donwn «i bono et beta eu •ditam M dicitnr bsncfloium apod Doa noD fendun. 
■ed botran fHrinin. 

I Per hoe tociUialam (ibc offeniivc word ''coiiluliinui)," Dlbil aliud iDt«llnima>, 
aUi qood tapcHui diclam «I impoiBimoa. 

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by word and deed. He denied that the popes held worldly pos- 
seBsioDS by divine right ; they were indebted for all they possessed 
to the donations of monarchs, as Silvester first had received ali 
he possessed trom the emperor Constantine. It was by ancient 
right that, in his letters to the pope, he placed his own name 
first ; and the pope was free to do the same thing in writing to 
the emperor. He acknowledged the higher consecrated character 
of the bishops ; bat it seemed to him not in the least incompa- 
tible with this, that he shonld require them to take the oath of 
allegiance ; and he appeals to the pattern of Christ : " Whereas 
your Master and mine, who needed not that anything shonld be 
given him hya king who was a man, bnt bestows every good npon 
all, paid for himself and Peter the tribnte-money to Csesar, and 
also set the example of so acting, when he said, ' Learn of me, 
for I am meek and lowly of heart,' so yon therefore shonld leave 
to as the regalia, — or, if yon expect to derive advantage from it, 
yon shonld ' render to God the things that are God's, and to 
Geesar the things that are Ciesat'a.' " The churches and conn- 
tries he had shat oat from the cardinals, becanse they did not 
come to preach, to make and to establish peace, bnt to plnnder, 
and to gratify their insatiable cnpidity. Should such men come, 
however, as the good of the church required that bishops shonld 
be, he woald not delay providing them with everything needful. 
The emperor asked the pope to consider how incongruous it was 
with the humility and meekness of which, as Chrbt's vicegerent, 
he should set the example, for him to excite disputes about such 
things ; and in what an unfavourable light he mnst place himself 
thereby before the eyes of the world ! After long-continued ne- 
gotiations, the dispute between the pope and the emperor was as 
far from being settled as ever. Already was Adrian on the 
point of proceeding to more violent measures against that mo- 
narch, when, precisely at this critical moment, in the year 1159, 
he died. 

The death of Adrian at this point of time was necessarily fol- 
lowed by a lichism in the choice of a pope ; for there were, as 
usual, two parties among the cardinals ; one, who were deter- 
mined to maintain, at all hazards, the pretensions of the hierar- 
chical system ; and to employ for this purpose the strongest and 
most violent measures ; the other, who were inclined to more mo- 

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derate proceedings. Tlie former, at whose head stood the de- 
ceased pope himself, were for aniting themselres with the eoe- 
mies of the emperor in Italy and Sicily, aod pronouncing the han 
npon him ; the other, to which those cardinals helonged who 
already under the preceding reign had pushed forward the nego- 
tiations with the emperor, wished for a peaceable termination of 
the difficulties. The first party chose as pope the cardinal Ro- 
land, of Siena, and he assumed the name of Alexander the Third ; 
the second party chose the cardinal Octavian, who gave himself 
the name of Victor the Fourth. The eisperor could not doubt 
for a moment which of these two parties was the most faronrahly 
disposed to his own interest ; as the two popes themselves 
plainly expressed their different principles by the different tone 
in which they addressed him. But he was very far from being 
disposed to intermeddle with the inner affairs of the church ; he 
only meant to take advantage of this strife, so as to be able, after 
the example of the Othos, and of Henry the Third, to bit upon 
the legitimate measures for the removal of the present schism, 
and the establishment of a nniversally-recognized pope. He an- 
nounced a church assembly to meet iu the year 1160 at Favia, 
before which the two competitors should appear, in order that 
their respective claims to the papal dignity might then be scruti- 
nised. But Alexander, without regard to any further scrutiny, 
considered himself as the only regular pope, and declared it to be 
an unheard-of pretension, that a layman should presume to set 
himself up as a judge over such an affair. He looked upon the 
council at Pavia as an altogether disorderly assembly. Victor, 
on the other hand, recognized this tribunal. When the council 
had assembled, the emperor declared he had now done all that 
belonged to Ms vocation ; nothing else remained for him than to 
await the decision of Ood, through those whom he had appointed 
the judges in this matter ; whereupon he withdrew from the 
transactions. The council recognized Victor as the regular pope, 
and Frederic sought to promote his authority by every means of 
power and of influence within his command. But although 
Alexander was compelled to yield to the authority of the emperor, 
and in the year 1162 to seek a refuge in France, yet he continu- 
ally gained more and more on his side the public opinion in the 
cliurch; the heads of the clerical and of the munn.stic orders 

VOL. VII. e 

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stood ap for him, or demanded & trae general council, aa a)on« 
competent to decide this controversy.' All who were devoted to 
the chnrch theocratical system, saw in Alexander the champion of 
a holy canse ; and in Victor, a tool of the imperial power.* Alex- 
ander too, like his predecessors, was greatly indebted to the influ- 
ence of the monks.n 

Still less authority than Victor's was enjoyed by bis saccessors 
nominated by the imperial party, Paachalis the Third (1164), and 
Calixtus the Third (1168.) The tyranny which the emperor 
exercised in Italy, the struggle of the Longobard states for their 
freedom, procured allies for the pope, with whom he conld con- 
stantly fortiiy himself more strongly against the emperor ; and 
after the nnfortnnale campaign in Italy, in 1176, Frederic was 
indnced to conclude at Venice a peace with the pope, upon con- 
ditions prescribed by the latter. This victory was interpreted by 
the adherents of the church theocratical system as a judgment of 
God in favour of the papacy.* The seal was set to this victory 

I So the piovmi Orrhob, wlio calli tha luembljr at Patii cnlj' ■ curia Fapieaaia, in 
P.. cixiiii., f, 1042. 

1 So Thorn** Bcfk«t. irobbishop of CanlertiDi^, or Jobn of Siliaborr, in Lit nine, 
(■p. <8, Id U» Iciur of J. of iiiilisbury), in i lelUr in king Uenrj ihr Second, of Bng- 
liDd, wbom tb» emperor wu iKekiDg to g*ia over lo Victor : Abiil, ut io tinto periculo 
eodnioe pro amart al hanoia hominli fioiitia, niti quod erederetia Domiuo pluituruto , 
nao decei miJHlatem tealnm, al placet, Dt in loliaaelaaia rvfni iratri aopen>onatit lio- 
minfm, qui aiae rltetiona, at publica diPilor, aine firalia Domini p«r ravoretn nnina im- 
peratoria lantum hoaon:iD ausua rat orcuparf. Nun tnta frre pcdraia finniaiia in [larte 
Aleiandri nl. Incr«dibile auiem eft, qood para ilia poa>il obtinprt, praeralfie per ho- 
niiieiD, aui jiialilin deeat, cai Dominua adreraatnr. He tbtn eilra tbo example of Ih* 
pope*, aiuce Ihe lime of Criwn the Saeond, who began in weakopaa, and alter baiins 
bfan acknonlodged in France, iriumpbed over ibeir opponnnla. John of SalLiboij de- 
olarea (erj alrunglj bia oppoaition to the Council of P«Tia r Univemlem ecoleaiam qnia 
ponieulariaeiTlraiBeaiibjeeiljadlcio? Qais Ttulonicoa CDnatiiiil jndiop* nalianum 7 
Quia hinc brolia, imprlaoaia boninibua aaclorilaCFin conlulll. nt pro aibilrio pringipem 
atBloant auprr capita fliiorum bominum ? 

I In tbalifeoTbiabop Anlbflm,b<r Bellay, in the Aetl* SaDotar, Jan. t. t , o. iii.,r. 
232, it ia itated tbat qaum uniieiaa paane ancepa eccleaia vaeillaiei, ilie Canbuaian 
order, at flnt.oseil their influvnra in favour of Alexander; Praecndentibaa iuqae Car- 
lusienaibna etCielercienaibiie Alexander papa ecoleaiaruiD in pirtibaa Oillit*. Briun> 
niae alqoe Hiapaoiae eito mfrnit obediaDtiam habere. 

* Tbua vrota Jobn of Saliabnrj, wbo from thia reanlt enleitained the bo)i« tbat ibe 
conteat for tba jntereit of Ihe elinrcb in England wonid have a l>ke iaaue (ep. SS4) : 
Mnm qaae capill acbiamatia coufarebant membra cointerennt eoqne sueciao eorpua 
lolDm neoeaae eal interiiv. Vidimus. Yidimua homincm, qni conaneTerat caae aimti 
leo in domo sna, dnmetlieoa eierttna tt opprimena anbjecUia aibi, latebraa quaerera n 
lanio Hrrore concsU, nl vix (nlaa taael in angnloaia abdilia ania. Illnni, illiim iiapra- 
Unem, qui totioa orbia terror fucrat, ulinan vidlaaetia ab lialia fngieatem enm ignomioia 

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by the Lateran conncil, which Alexander, m oniTersally acknow- 
led^d pope, held in the year 1179, and hy which an ordinance 
was passed in relation to papal elections, in order to prevent 
umilar schisms to those which had recently occurred. It was 
thereby determined,' that the individaal chosen by the votes of 
two-thirds of the oardinalB should be lawfa] pope ; and in cas* 
the person chosen by the minority, consisting of the other third, 
shonld set himself np as pope in opposition, he and his adherents 
shonld be liable to excommnntcation. 

Still stronger did the power of the papacy exhibit itself in another 
contest, between the secular power and the church, which arose 
in another quarter, namely, England. Thomas Becket had come 
as archdeacon to the court of king Henry the Second of England, 
and, getting more and more into the conGdesce of that monarch, 
was finally appointed chancellor, in which post his word became 
law. Without doubt, the king supposed that he should most 
certainly promote bis own interest, if, aruling himself of the 
vacancy of the archbishopric of Canterbury, in the year 1162, he 
proceeded to make his favourite, the man hitherto so devoted to 
him, primate of the English ehnrch, while at the same time he 
allowed him to continue in the same relations to himself, as his 
chancellor. But he found himself altogether deceived in his ex- 
pectations ; for Thomas Becket from that moment changed en- 
tirely the whole mode of his life,* and with still greater zeal 
served the interest of the hierarchy, than he had before served 
the interests of the kiag. It was to him an affair of conscience, 
not to surrender a tittle of anything pertaining to the cause of 
the church, and to the dignity of the priesthood, contemplated 
from the hierarchical point of view which was common at that 

■vmpilaniB. at bi> ciuletim procuret lut rninwn, qui cilholioaniin liboribui inaalMlHiiit 
ei ■ooccMiboi et fbrora (jua. Ergo eanMptam Undeia E«i silsre quit patent f I|Mi 
rDlm Mt, qui ftcii minbilia magna wrini. 

1 Can. U 

2 Slill, owing to bis aacetio zeal, be ooold not be IndtMud to mike any aaob allera- 
tioDi in biadiei as were too mucli at vaiiauce wiib bia pnviuDa babila: aad wb«n odcp, 
at the common table of tba clergj, a pbeaionl naa placed before bim, aaid be to one of 
his oompaDiona at lb« table, wbo took offence at it : Truly, my bnilbar, if I do not 
mistake, tliaa eatrol Ibjr beans nitb more relish, iban I do tbe pbeaaant Kt before me." 
See bis life bf Heribert of Boseham (ed. sop.), with tlie lelleia of Tbomas, in lbs eol- 
leetioD of the four lives, p. 36, 

P 2 

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time.' When he reaigned his post ae chancellor, king Henry 
regarded it aa aa indication of his change of views on political 
and ecclesiastical interests, and was hy this circumstance first 
prejudiced against him ; and his previons inclination in his fa- 
Tonr moat have gone on continually changing into greater aver- 
sion, when he saw in the man in whom he had hoped to find a 
grateful and zealous servant, his most resolnte adversary. One 
t&ct which proves what an injury great external privileges were 
to the tme interestfl of the spiritual order is this ; there were to 
be found amongst the clergy of England, men who, by the com- 
mission of the worst crimes, had fallen under the jurisdiction of 
the civil trihnnals. The king demanded that snch persons, after 
having been divested in tbe ueual form of their spiritnal charac- 
ter, should be given over to the common tribunals, and suffer the 
punishment appointed by tbe laws. He alleged iii support of 
this, that the loss of the clerical dignity was to snch people no 
punishment at all ; that the more they dishonoured by their 
crimes the clerical profession, the severer ought to be their pun- 
ishment. By being snfiered to go nnpnnished, such crimes spread 
with fearful rapidity.^ Yet the archbishop, carried away by his 
hierarchical delusion, thought himself bound to insist that, even 
in these unworthy subjects, the clerical character and the juris- 
diction of the cbnrcli should be respected. In the year 1164, the 
king caused sixteen resolutions to be laid before an assembly 
composed of spiritual and lay orders, at Clarendon, which related 
to the securing of the civil power against the encroachments of 

1 TheUaliop's ledoni friend, JobDorSilieburT.rlpreHM LimMlf lomevbU diHMio- 
fi«d wiLh hit tDtigh aud atrra proceedings al ihr outiwt : N'oiit eanjiuni ititprctor, el 
Terborum Jadn et operuni, quod uepitis et isperlas, qaim aliquia motUliam corri- 
pufTim >rehi»piBcapi]in de liis, in quibus ab iDiiio domiDam regtm sL auoa lelu qaodun 
incouaaBlina risaa cat ad amaritudinem provocaaae, enm pro loco et lempore ev panonii 
malufiierint diapeDaanda. Bj Ilia opponenta he was aeous^d ot CDTatanaiKiaB and 
oepotiam, iii procuring pnfemiaiila for hia reUtina. The laUer, orliini; not witboal 
good grounds, aa maj be gatbered from the «n; in wLieb liia lealoua friend Peter de 
Blaia defends bim (in ep. 38.) 

> Wbieb ibf king sajra; Per biOuamodi caBtigatione* lalinm clnieonim imo nrins 
coronatoruin darmonum flagilii non repriml. Bed potins In dire regnum delerina fieri' 
Ad noerndani fore prompijorea, iiiai poat poenim epiritualem coiporali pornae aubdan- 
tur. E( poenam parum cnrare de ordinis amiasione, qui ordinia contemplalione a tam 
enorinibui manua conlinera non verentur et tanio deteriorea ease i D sce1c-rr,quatilaaunt 
caeteris ordinia privilrgio digniores. HeriUert. p 33. 

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becsbt's toub. 229 

the hierarcliy. They were adopted, under oath, by all ; and 
even Thomas Becket yielded to the prerailing spirit. Bnt soon 
his hierarchical conscience loaded him with the severest reproaches. 
He put on the dress of a penitent ; he proposed to resign his 
archbishopric, of which he had shown Himself so nnvorthy ; to 
withdraw into solitude and do penance, both on account of the 
transgressions of his earlier life at conrt, and on account of this 
last infidelity to the interests of the chnrch. He drew np a re- 
port to the pope of what had transpired, and left the whole to 
be disposed of by his decision. The pope confirmed him in his 
resistance to those sixteen articles, and absolved him from the 
obligation of his nnlawfally given oath ; bnt encouraged him to 
Gontinne the administration of the archbishopric for the good of 
the chnrch. This was the signal for a fierce and wearisome con- 
test between the archbishop and the king. Becket soaght a 
refiige in France, where he spent nearly seven years in exile. 
From both sides, delegates were sent to the pope ; Becket visited 
him in person. Bnt the affair lingered along, since the king and 
his money had their inSuence also at the papal coart ;' since, on 
the one hand, there was an unwillingness to make a victim of the 
bishop, who stood op so firmly and staked his all for the interest of 
the hierarchy ; bnt on the other hand, too, there was great reason 
to fear lest, in the contest then going on with the emperor Frederic, 
the latter, and his pope, should procure an important ally in the 
king of England, if he should he driven to an extreme. At 
length, however, a treaty of peace seemed to have been brought 
about; and Becket, in 1170, returned back to England. Bnt the 
reconciliation was bnt transitory ; and as the archbishop pursued 
the same principles with inflexible consistency, the quarrel could 
not fail to break out anew. Becket was received by one party 
with enthusiastic admiration, by the other with abhorrence ; since 
they looked upon him as nothing better than a traitor to his king 
and country. Four knights considered some remark which 
escaped the king in a moment of violent anger, as an invitation 
to revenge him on the archbishop, and the latter was murdered 

1 HeLiwbit (Komftnus poDtilex). qaod si itn amD[iio rei paterelar repuUim, niRjus in 
rctlrgla seliiBina faiwret, qaod tt ipsi, qui inisai fu«niDt el pniMerliin liiici miunbimtur. 
Id raraurnniie king naa a majority of the ranlinala, quibua iil pri iicipilitis ti mugnali' 
bits pUcrnnt, atudere men est, aliis vcro rcnilenlibnEt. Mrribcri. f, 7(>. 

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by them in the chnrch. Tet, under these circumstanceB, his death 
coald Qot bat serve directlv to procure the moat brilliaat victory 
for th« canse for which he contended. He appeared to the people 
aa a martyr for the cause of God ; as a eaint : crowds flocked to 
pray before bis tomb ; and soon divers stories got abroad abont 
the wonderfal cures performed there. Men of all ranks bore tes- 
timony to their truth. John of Salisbury, a man of spirit and 
intelligence, but we must add, too, the archbishop's enthusiastic 
fHend as well as fellow-sufierer, hariog serred him in the capacity 
of archdeacon and secretary, eren he speaks of them with asto- 
nishment as an eye-witness; so that striking appearances, pro- 
duced either by the ecstatic flights of a strong faith or by an ex- 
cited fancy, must certainly have occurred there.' It was in rain 
that Becket's opponents sought to suppress this enthusiasm by 
outward force ; it only burst forth with the more riolenee.* In 
these facts, men saw a teettmony fVom God mightier than the de* 
cisions of the pope. Instead of Becket's needing any testimoDy 
from the pope, tbonght his party, these miracles wronght at his 
tomb were much rather a testimony for the cause of pope Alex- 
ander himself against his adversaries ; for Becket had in truth 
been a zealous adherent of the latter. He must have been a 
Bchismatic, if it were not right to consider this person the lawfol 
pope ; and a schismatic, Ood would not honour by miracles.' King 

1 MulM et mtgiia ninculi Bunt. euurrMini coDfluentibuB pratluJt.utTideaDt in sllii 
et seatiuit Id k poMntiun (t clsDWDtiam ejus, qui Mmper in lanetis Bdb minbilb (( 
gloTioau* ast. Mam et in loco panioDwcjus et ubi •nit majus aiMn pernocUTil bu- 
manJiu cl nbi Mndem aepullus tn, pardjUci curantur. coeci lidenl. punli audiunt, lo> 
quuntar mud. cluudi imbulant, eiailuni febricitaM^*, anrpti a daemopio liberantum a 
Tariie morbia Btnanlnr aegroli, blaapbemi a dacmonio ampli coDluDduntDr.— Quae pro- 
facto nulla ralione acribare praraamBisacm. ntai me auper his Sdn oculala eartiaainitim 
raddidiaset. Fp. SS6. 

3 Jolin of Saliahnrj aaya; InhibDemtit nomine publicaa poteataiia, ne mfracDla,qnae 
BffbjDtf qnJBquam pablicarff praeaaoierpt. CaMerum fhtatra qnla olinubilare dHidarati 
quod Dana clariflcan diapanil. Ea enim amptlna pnrcrebuere miracula, qao videbantur 
impiia atudioeius accultanda. 

1 Jobn of fialiabur;, ep. 987. DubiMtur a piurimis, an pan domini papae. In qna 
atamuB, de juwilii nileretnr. Bed cam a crimiue aeblamalia glorioan* mart jr abroi tit, 
qui ai fautor eaaet aebiBmatia Dequaqnam tantia miraculli cornicarat. He tbinka be 
abould bale been verj mooli aurpriacd that the pope did not at onoe pronaunoe Tbomaa 
Becket a aaint, onlaaa he bad remembered wtiit naa done In tbe Roman acnate on the 
report at Pilato, ne deila* Cbriati, eujua Done a erat Judaeia et gen^bus praedicaa<lnm. 
URnnan polaatBle TidaralUT obnoiia et emeDdieatan dicennl iiifldelaB.~8ie erge natn 
diTiDo a'bilror eveuiaae, at manjri* bqju gloria oac decrrte pontifloia ntc edivto prin- 
ri]>i> atlallalt^, aed Chriato praecipni aaelore Intaleacal. 

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Henry was deeply affected when he heard of fiecket's death. Ue 
did peoftDce, because bis words, though without intention on his 
part, had given occasion for snch a deed. Ue made every effort 
to justify himself before the pope and procure his absolution. 
He acquiesced in all the conditions prescribed, and yielded more 
than Thomas Becket had ever been able to gain during his life- 
time. The king himself made a pilgrimage to his tomb, and there 
submitted to exercises of penance. 

TbroDgh the yielding of the emperor Frederic, to which he had 
been mored by the force of circamstances and by considerations 
of prudence, nothing in the relation of the two parties, — of which 
one defended a papal absolutism, requiring entire i>nbjection of 
the states and churches ; the other, the rights of independent 
state authority, — nothing of all this had been changed. The 
principles which bad come under discussion in the controYersies 
about investiture, which had been placed in a still clearer light 
and more widely diffused throngli the inSnence of Arnold of 
Brescia, and to the promotion of which the study of the Roman 
law begun with so much zeal, at the university of Bologna, had 
cotttribnted,— these principles we find expressed in the acts and 
public declarations of the Hohenstaufen emperors. Gottfried of 
Yiterbo, who was secretary and chaplain to the emperors Ckinrad 
the Third, Frederic the First, and Henry the Sixth, and had oppor- 
tunities enough to hear what was said at the imperial court, — this 
writer, in speaking of the controversy between the imperial and 
the papal parties, in his Chronicle, or Pantheon,* quotes these de- 
clarations from the lips of the former. The emperor Constantine, 
to whose donation to the Boman bishop Silvester, men were in 
the habit of appealing, had by no means conceded to the popes an 
authority of lordship in Italy ; but chosen them, as priests of the 
Sjpreme God, for his spiritual fathers, and sought blessing and 
intercession at their hands. Had he actually conceded to the 
pope a right of sovereignty over Italy, he could not have left the 
Western empire, of which Italy was a part, to one of his sons ; 
and so, too, Rome went along with the Western empire to the 
succeeding emperors. As he affirms, men appealed to the words 
of Christ : " Render to Ciesar the things that are Cesar's, and to 
God the things that are God's ;" to the fact that Christ paid the 

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tribute-money for himself and for Peter ; to the declaration of St 
PanI concerning the respect dae to those in aathority ; and yet, 
they added, this declaration had immediate reference to a N^ero. 
We here listen to well-known voices, which we already heard 
speaking in the controversies which preceded, and which ore 
again re-echoed in the letters of Frederic the Second. 

Not had the emperor Frederic the First, by any means given 
up the plan which he had hitherto followed in the contest with 
the pope, but was making new preparations to prosecnte it. He 
had been at work to establish anew his authority in Italy. He 
songht, by uniting the kingdom of the Sicilies with the imperial 
crown, to oppose a twofold power against the popes, in their 
own vicinity. This was accomplished by his son Henry the 
Sixth, who was animated by the same spirit with his father. The 
most difficult and unequal contest seemed to stand before the 
papal power ; on one side, the emperor Henry the Sixth, in the 
vigour of manhood, and at the summit of his power ; on the other< 
the feeble old man Celestin the Third, now past his eightieth 
year. But, by circumstances not entering into the calculations 
or human wisdom, in which oftentimes the sudden .turn of im- 
portant events compels us to recognize the guidance of an invisi- 
ble hand, a change was suddenly brought about of an altogether 
opposite kind. The emperor Henry died in the year 1197 : in 
the following year, died the pope ; and his successor was the 
cardinal Lothario, of Anagni, one of the most distinguvhed men 
who who were ever invested with the papal dignity, and now not 
over forty years old.' Innocent the Third nnited in himself the 
three parts which Alexander the Third had required as necessary 
to the right administration of the papal office ; zeal in preaching, 
ability in church-governance, and skill in the management of 
penance.^ He was, so far as the power of a correct judgment 
was possible at Ais own point of view, well acqnaint«d with the 
relations and wants of the chnrch in his time, and had been edu- 

i When aoDM p«rton liid fiui to Alciandcr iIm Thin) : DDmiap boDDS papa e>, 
qnidquid; hcU p«p»tc csi; he replieit : Si scirem bim i (n) viar * bien predicir e 
pi^nitensv dnnar, in sernie borne pii|ni. Scr ['tin Canlnria Tprbam tbbrtTinlDm p*g. 

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cnted according to the system of theology tanght in the oniTersi- 
ties of that period, fdr he had studied at the aoirersity of Paris, 
a fact of which he speaks with particular pleasure and gratitude. i 
He was entirely filled with the idea of the papal monarchy over 
the world, and contrived to make use of the conjunction of many 
favourable circnoistances with skill and energy for the realization 
of that idea. His activity extended o?er a field of enormous ex- 
tent,' — it reached to every quarter of the world. His watchful 
eye observed everytliing that transpired in churches and states. 
By his legates, he would make his presence everywhere felt, and 
enforce obedience.^ Over bishops and monarcha, in afiairs eccle- 
siastical and political, which latter he believed he could bring 
before his tribunal, in ao far as they should be decided on reli- 
gious or moral principles, he asserted his supreme juridical autho- 
rity with energy and firmness.^ His numerous letters, the records 
of his active guidance of the church, certainly evince that he was 
animated, not solely by a zeal for the maintenance of the papal 
authority and dominion, but also by a seal for the true well-being 
of the church. - But devoted to that system of a spiritual mon- 
archy over the world, in which secular and spiritual matters were 
already so confounded together, as a system founded in divine 
right ; and feeling himself bound to defend this system as well 
against reactions proceeding from a good, as those proceeding 

1 Id ■ 1«tt« to tlie king of Fnoce; Tibj *t nguo lao >p»[i)iter dot ftlemat tsDcri, 
In qno DOa racotiDiDg in gnidiis lileraruni ■«talein lnni«gisac minonm *c diTino ant- 
D«v qa*DU«iiiiquf »cieDliH donnm uIpploB, twDeflcioram impenwin mnliipliccm bqi- 
crpi.K. 8n epp. lib. i., ep. ITI. 

* III ■ latwr >□ vliiob, imprefeod wiib a hdm of tbe difflcnltiti ind the reiponsible- 
nna of bis affine. be implorea bo inUiraat ia Ibe prajitn at Lbe abbou at llie CliureiaD 
cbipUtr, he noliecs the muj kindi of bndntea deToliing on blm, fat doabtlcw wittaont 
naming them all, as roilDwi : Nunc uobigua qu«e«[ianuin elncidini ct certo inambiiufa 
uaaR ruponto, oddc diffleilea nodoa cauairuni jnaLae difflniUoniB nnmadimolTeni, nunc 
m*li;{Duruin iDCDnii* nrraeniDi, nunc humilibDS oljpcan ipaBlolicat; prutectionia In* 
dulgen*. Lib. i., ep. 368. 

' HiswardB: If the omniprMent God still makea angela bia miniatera, bow abonid 
(lie pop«, wbo U ■ limited nun, ba able to eitand bia actmt; to all oountiiea Id an} 
oilier wa; Iban bj legilra f 8i ergo noa, qiioa bamina conditio aimul in diTeiwa lo. 
cia coiporalitereMr nan patiinr, bajuamodi naturae defectum per angeloa noalroa ndi- 
nitre neqaiverimua, quomadajndiciuinet jualitiam et alia, qoae ad aummi ponliDcii of 
fiiium pertineni, in gcntibua longe pnitia raciemiiB 7 Lib. ivi., ep. i'2. 

* Bp.lib. i.Fp..')21. D'ciainnon theriglilDr propertfinalolcfUMd. Mb. l.ep.249 
that hia Icftnie should fuier ihe kiugs orrnriufial and Casiiiti', hy ban and inienlicl, to re- 
main fnilhrul to tbe league the; bad avniu In rarh nlbi-r. 

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from ft bftd spirit, he vas betrayed by hU bad cause ioto the use 
of bad means. 

A proor of this is the history ofhis controvereieB with England. 
King John, with whom he there hod to contend, was a man 
utterly destitute of moral worth, accastomed to follow all his lusts 
and passions without restraint, and to yield himself to every 
caprice. Fear alone could restrain him. Even to the religious 
impressions, which had so much power in his times, his inherent 
sensual barbarity was unsusceptible. He wavered betwixt a 
brnlal infidelity and a servile superstition. A dispute concerning 
the filling up of a vacancy left by the archbishop of Canterbury, 
gave the pope opportunity to guide the choice after his own will, 
and he fixed upon an Englishman, cardinal Stephen Langton, to 
occupy this post. The king thought he might complain that his 
. wishes had not been duly consulted in this affair, and perhaps 
too he was averse to the man, who may have been one of the 
worthier sort. At first, he repelled with blind defiance all the 
representations and threats of the pope. The interdict; under 
which England was laid in 1208, could not break down his stub- 
born self-will, great as was the terror which elsewhere such a 
measure at that time spread all around ; for the entire people, 
innocent and guilty, must suffer, because the king would not obey 
the pontiff; all must be deprived of the blessing of the church. 
Of the sacraments, none but extreme unction, the baptiam of 
children, and confession were permitted. The bodies of the dead 
were borne forth and buried without prayer or the attendance of 

There was one individual, however, who encouraged the king 
to despise the interdict which filled so many minds with uneasi- 
ness. The man who possessed this influence with the king, a 
theologian named Alexander, had not adopted this policy through 
any interest for the truth, but solely induced by the most sordid 
motives of gain. He courted the king's favour to promote his 
own advantage, acting as the tool of his despotism in the contest 
with papal absolutism. "This calamity," said he to the poor, 
miserable monarch, " had not come upon England by the king's 
fault, but on account of the vices of his subjects." The king 
himself was the scourge of the Lord, and ordained of Ood to rule 
the people with a rod of iron. As often happens, the same was 

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said here to Dphold the interest of political despotism, as had 
beeD said by others to defend the interests of truth and piety ; 
that orer the possessions of princes and potentates, and orer 
civil gOTemments, the pope had no jnriadiction whatever ; for to 
the first of the apostles, to Feter, was committed by onr Lord, 
only a purely spiritnal authority, This worthless individnal was 
overloaded by the king with benefices ; but be afterwards expe- 
rienced the just reward of his baseness ; for the very king whom 
he had served afterwards gave him np to the pope ; and, stripped 
of all his prebends, he saw himself reduced to the condition of a 

The oiroomstance which at last, after a resistance of five years, 
bowed the stubborn will of the king to submission, was not the 
might of the spiritual weapons of the pope, but fear of a foreign 
power which the pope managed to raise up against him, under 
the form'of a crusade. King Philip Augustus, of France, wel- 
comed the opportunity which gave him a chance in executing on 
king John the papal sentence of deposition, of making himself 
master of the English crown. As the latter had the more occa- 
sion to drea^l such a war, becanse he had exasperated his sub- 
jects and excited discontent amongst his nobles ; so, in the year 
1213, he humbled his tone from that of insolent defiance to an 
equally slavish submission. He acknowledged the pope as his 
liege lord, received the crown from his hands, swore subjection to 
him like a vassal, and bound himself to assist in a crusade which 
Innocent was then labouring with great zeal to set on foot. The 
pope now became bis protector, and adopted him at a penitent 
prodigal. When the nobles of England, dissatisfied with the 
self-degradatinn of their king, and with bis many arbitrary acts, 
sought to revive the old liberties of the realm, and to oppose a 
firm check to despotism, it was the pope who now turned his 
spiritual anus to fight the battles of such a king. But if the 
popes, when they appeared as defenders of justice and of sacred 
institutions and customs, as protectors of oppressed innocence, 
could not fail thereby to present the pontifical dignity in a more 
advantageons light to the nations, a proceeding of this sort, 
where it was so plainly evinced tbat they were ready to sacrifice 

1 Sre MiIEbcw of Ptaii, al lli« jenr 1J09, f. IftJ. 

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everything else to their personal aggrandizement, could only pro- 
dnce an impression injarions to their repotation on the public 
conscience. In England it was already murmured : " Thou who, 
as holy father, as the pattern of piety and the protector of jiis- 
tice and truth, onghtest to let thy light shine before the whole 
world, dost thon enter into concord with such a wretch — praise 
and protect snch a monster 1 Bat thon defendest the tyrant, 
who cringes before thee, that thon mayest draw everything into 
the whirlpool of Roman cupidity ; yet such a motive directly 
charges tbee as guilty before God.'i The city of London des- 
pised tbe ban and the interdict, whereby the pope sought to 
compel obedience to the king. The papal bull was declared 
null, for such things did not depend on the pope's decision, since 
the authority bestowed on the apostle Peter by our Lord related 
solely to the church. " Why does the insatiable avarice of Rome," 
it was said, " stretch itself out to us ? What concern have the 
apostolical bishops with our domestic quarrels ! They want to 
be successors of Constantine, not of Peter. If they do not fol- 
low Peter in his works, they cannot partake of his authority ; 
for God treats men according to their true deserts. Shamefnl ! 
to see these miserable usurers and promoters of simony aiming 
already, by means of their ban, to rule over the whole world. 
How very different fi-om Peter, the men who claim to possess his 
authority !"' And, in despite of tbe interdict, public worship 
still continued to be kept up in London. 

The present relations of the papal dominion to the German 
empire were also favourable to it. The young prince Frederic 
the Second, a child only a few years old, left behind him by the 
emperor Henry the Sixth, had been recommended by his mother 
Constantia, on her deathbed, to the guardianship of the pope. 

I Tlie ftee-«pirlted Ea((tlsb liiitaritm, Mnttliew of P(ri>, quom ni-tt word* (f. 221 ) 
rrom ills lips of ihe English baroui II ceruinlj sppnra, compiring it witb oUicr «i- 
preasioui of bia, thU br cumot (erioaslj mein what be btmself «■;< (gkinat this ; Et 
■ic baronra licriniuittB et limeatintn rrgcm et pipsni moleiliKerunt, impnotntea JDvi- 
piabililFr. cum acriplum (it; principi nan mBlcdieet, et piciatem el reierentiim tiana- 
gredlenlDr, oum Ulualrem Jouiuem regem Au^iiaeservam aaaerneniiil, cum Deo aerrire 
nguare ait. 

1 MmiIicw of Piria, wbo oiling aucb ToiceB, adds tn be aun. wbat hardly ooald bo tiia 
hniical opinion: Sic igiliir blaapbemiDlea, pooenlea oa in coaluin ad inlerdioli vel (i- 
commtinkalionia sen le mi am nullum penilu!! baben too reaperliirD, per lolam cirilaltm 
ce1ebratuD( divjna ^igna, piilenntcs et lodbui altilDnia modulnnlea. 

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Frederic, it is Irue, was already elected king or Some, but there 
appealed to be do possibility or making his claims valid. His 
nncle, Philip, duke of So&bia, and the dake Otho, of Saxony, 
were contending with one another for the imperial dignity, and 
this ftirnislied the pope with another welcome opportnnity of 
placing the papal power high aboTe every other fiabsisting 
among men ; to appropriate to himself the supreme direction of 
all human affairs, the right of deciding as to the disposition of 
the contested imperial crown. Innocent, to prepare the way for 
the decision of this dispute, drew np a writing,i in which, mak- 
ing nse of various passages of Scripture, particularly from the 
Old Testament, he brings together, in the usual Bcbolaetic form 
of that time, the arguments for and against the choice of all 
three — Frederic, Philip, and Otho. Against Philip he objected, 
that he was descended of a race hostile to the church ; that the 
sins of the fathers would be visited upon the children to the third 
and fourth generations, if they followed their fathers' example. 
In favour of Otho it was alleged, on the other band, that he 
had sprung from a race constantly devoted to the church ; 
and the pope concluded, after examining all the arguments on 
both sides, that, if the German princes, when he had waited a 
snfficient length of time, could not unite in the choice of any 
one, be should give his voice for Otho. When, in pursuance of 
this resolution, he, in the year 1201, caused duke Otho to be re- 
cognized by his legates as king of Home, and pronounced ex- 
commnnication on all his opponents, he met with determined re- 
sistance from Philip's party, which constituted the m^ority. A 
portion of it, including several bishops, issued a letter to the 
pope,' in which they very strongly expressed their surprise at the 
conduct of hia legate. " Where had it ever occurred in the case 
of any of his predecessors, that they so interfered in the election 
of an emperor as to represent themselves either as electors, or as 
umpires over the election ? Originally, no papal election could be 
valid without the concurrence of the emperor ; but the magna- 
nimity of the emperors had led them to renounce this right. If, 
now, the simplicity of laymen had given up, from a feeling of 
reverence to the church, a right previously exercised by them, 

1 Bt^^Urei. BilDZ. i., f. GOT. 

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how fihould the aacredness of the papacy preaume to usurp to 
itself a right which it nerer poBseseed?" Innocent replied to 
this protestation, in a letter to the dake of Zahringen : " Fir 
was it from him," he wrote, " to take away from the princes tb« 
right of election, which belonged to them b j ancient coatom, es- 
pecially since it was by the apostolical see itself, which had ttans- 
ferred this right from the Qreeks to the Germans, that the same 
had been giren them. Bat the princes should also understand 
that to the pope belonged the right of trying the person elected 
king and of promoting him to the empire, since it is the pope 
who has to anoint, to consecrate, and to crown him. Suppose 
then, even by an unanimons vote of the princes, the choice should 
&II on an excommunicated person, on a tyrant, on a madman, or 
on a heretic or heathen, — is the pope to be forced to anoint, con- 
secrate, and crown such a person 1" After the assassination of 
duke Philip, in the year 1208, no power remained to oppose king 
Otho ; and he continued to maintain a good understanding with 
the pope, till he obtained from hint the imperial crown. But as 
he defended, against him, the rights of the empire, so he soon 
fell into a qnairel with him ; which was finally carried to such a 
length that the pope pronounced the ban npon him. And now 
his choice fell on the prince whom he had at first endeavoured to 
place at the farthest distance from the imperial throne, the young 
prince Frederic the Second. It was not till the pope had exantioed 
the choice of the princes at the Lateran council, in 1215, that he 
ratified it. 

The emperor Frederic might well adopt, fVom the first, the 
spirit which animated his ancestry in their contest with the 
popes ; nor were the teachings of his own experience, fh>m his 
earliest childhood,> calculated lo inspire him with much Iotc for 
them. Still, his natural prudence forbade him, in the outset, to 
let his designs be known publicly. As the getting up of a new 
crusade was a TaTonrite thought of Innocent's successor, Honorius 
the Third, which lay nearer to his heart than the interest of the 
pnpal hierarchy, so Frederic conid take advantage of this humour 
of the pope, and, by falling in with it, carry out many objects of 

I Frederic eamp)iin>, 1. 1, ep. 30. da Vine!*, of Die bwl ireMmeui lie had tirttij re- 
ceived from pope InnoctDt lUe Tbini, to wlioie gutrdiinihip be bad been CDnimitted b} 
hli dfing motbiT. 

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his own, vliich ander other circamstances would DOt have been 
possible. He amnseii the pope, however, by putting off, from 
one time to another, the fafilment of his promise to undertake a 
crusade. When the last t«rm had arrived, in which Frederic had 
boond himself, under penalty of the ban, actually to engage in 
his crusade, Honorias died. This was in the year 1327. His 
successor, Gregory the Ninth, though now serenty-seven years 
old, was still full of eneiyy, and as the papal hierarchy was with 
him a more important object than the cause of the crusades, the 
emperor found it more difficult to satisfy him. Frederic seemed 
disposed really to ftilfil the promise given two years before. A 
great army assembled near Brindisi. for the purpose of passing 
by sea to the East. The emperor had already embarked ; when 
compelled, as he said, by illness, he turned hack, and the whole 
expedition was broken up. The pope looked upon this as a mere 
pretext ; and at the annual Roman Synod of Easter, he pro- 
nounced the ban on the emperor, and absolved his subjects from 
their oath of allegiance. In a letter to the king of England,' 
the emperoi complained of the wrong done him by the pope ; he 
solemnly avowed his innocence, and declared it to be his deter- 
mination to fulfil his vow as soon as it was possible. He sought 
to show, that cupidity and ambition lay at the bottom of all the 
machinations of the Roman court.* " The primitive church, 
founded in poverty and simplicity, had been fruitful of holy men ; 
but through superabundance of earthly goods she bad become 
cormpted." He drew a picture of the extortions, which, to the 
great injury of Christendom, proceeded from Rome; he pointed 
to the history of England in the times of Innocent the Third, as 
a warning against papal ambition, which sought to make all em- 
pires dependent on itself ; and he called npon the princes to take 
a lesson (Vom his own example, and, according to the ancient pro- 
verb, " Look out for themselves, when their neighbour's house 
was on 6re."* 

Still the emperor, doubtless, understood that he should always 
hare the public voice against him, till he had refuted, by his own 

1 Hanlww or Piria. >t tbs jmt 1«SS, to\. 293. 

I Curia Rommnm omninm nulorum mlix ci arigo. nan milernM, Md win) iierorna 
noTniHiln, tx eogoili* tniclibai laia gertum facieoa irgunwDtam. 
> la (be wonli of Virgfl : Todc la> m tmitnr, puiet qiiam proiimui inlet. 

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action, the reproachful charges of the pope.' In the year 1228, 
he nndertook an expedition to Palestine. This, however, woald, 
in the eyes of the pope, only make the matter worse ; for it 
appeared an unheard-of contempt of the authority of the chnrch, 
that Frederic shonld venture so to despise the ban prononnced on 
him as to pnt himself at the head of so holy an enterprise. He 
issued the command to Palestine, that no one should obey the 
emperor, since he was an excommunicated person. Be sought t« 
Btir np enemies against btm on all sides, and his states were 
threatened. The emperor managed to render all these attempts 
abortive. He hit upon the expedient of issning his orders to the 
army, not in bis own name, but in the name of God and of Christen- 
dom. Through favourable political circumstances he succeeded in 
concluding a peace of ten years with the Sultan of Egypt ; where- 
by, to be sure, the wishes of those who felt a deeper interest than 
the emperor for the cause of Christianity in the East, were by 
no means satisfied. At the holy sepulchre, be placed upon his 
bead thecrown of tlie kingdom of Jerusalem, and in his letters 
written to Europe, boasted, with a tone of triumph, of the great 
things he had been able to accomplish in so short a time. '* The 
finger of God," he declared, " was manifestly in it." Then, in the 
year 1229, be hastened back to Europe, to the relief of Iiis hardly- 
pressed states. Here he found very many enemies to contend 
with ; and the pope endeavoured to get up a general crusade 
gainst him. The emperor easily got the' victory ; yet he under- 
stood too well the spirit of his age, to be disposed to push things 
to an extreme. He concluded, in 1230, a treaty with the pope, 
which was to the latter's advantage. He promised to obey the 
commands of the chnrch, on all the points with reference to which 
he had been excommunicated. Yet, as both remained tme to 
their principles, this peace could not be of very long duration ; 
and though they were apparently united, yet in secret they worked 
in opposition to each other. When Frederic songht to subject 
the cities of Lombardj, to extend and confiria his power in Italy, 

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bnt refosed to accept the offered mediation of the pope, which 
would go tgiiaai his interests, the latter bec&me still more alien- 
ated Irom him. He united himself with the liberty-loving cities 
of Iiombardy, which the emperor had exasperated hy his despotic 
conduct ; and, in the year 1239, he pronounced the ban on him 
anew, because he had stripped the church of many of her posses- 
sions, and becanse of the oppressire measures with which he had 
burdened her. At the same time he threw in an accusation, 
which, in this age, must have made a greater impression than all 
the rest, that, " on account of his words and deeds, which were 
known through the whole world, he was strongly suspected of 
not thinking rightly about the Catholic faith." The emperor 
thereupon issued a circular letter to the Christian princes and 
cardinals, in which he was careful to distinguish the pope from the 
Roman church and the papal see. While he testified his reverence 
for the apostdicalsee,he declared Gregory only to he unworthy of his 
office. He could not rect^ize as his judge a man who, from the first, 
had shown himself to be his bitterest enemy. The moving spring of 
his actions was Dothing bnt a selfishness, which could not forgive 
the emperor for being unwilling to leave in his (the pope's) hands 
the management of Italian affairs. He appealed to the decision 
of a general council. To wipe away the impression which this 
declaration might create, the pope now came forth more openly 
with the charge, which before he had bnt hinted at. He issued 
a ball, in which he portrayed the emperor in the blackest colours 
OB an infidel. He accused him of having asserted that the whole 
woiid hod been deceived by three impostors, — Ifosee, Jesus, and 
Mohammed ; that men should believe nothing but that which could 
be made out on rational grounds, and explained from the forces 
of nature. It was impossible to believe that God was born of a 

The question here arises, whether these complaints against the 
religions opinions of the emperor Frederic rest on any basis of 
truth. Assuredly, the testimony of the pope against him cannot 
be received as trustworthy. Respecting a prince, who contended 
M powerfully against the hierarchy, and thus became involved in 
contentions with the monks, who served as its instruments; a 
prince who rose above many of the prejudices of bis times, and 
who lived on very free terms with the Saracens, it was easy to 

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242 frbdebic'b idbas of reform. 

set afloat disrepntable stories of this sort. A pope ao passitm- 
atoly prejodiced against the emperor was, donbUese, inclined to 
beliere ererytbing bad of bim ; and as tbe emperor called him the 
prot«ctor of the heretics in Milan, so he would be glad of ao op- 
portnnity to retort the accnsation more severely in another form. 
Even the historian Mattbev of Paris notices the contradictions in 
which men iorolved tbemeelves by these charges againat the em- 
peror. Sometimes he was accosed of having declared all the 
three fonnders of religion to be impoeters ; sometimes of having 
placed Uohammed above Christ. We might conceive that Fre- 
deric was led by his contest with the hierarchy, and by the clearer 
discernment of his less prejudiced nnderstanding, to detect the 
falsifications of original Christianity, and the corruption of the 
chorch which sprung iVom tbe mixing np of spiritual and secular 
things. Jndging from the public imperial declarations com- 
piled by the chancellor Peter de Vineis, it might appear, we ad- 
mit, that Frederic the Second aimed at a purification of the 
church on this particular side ; as, in a circular letter to the 
princes, appealing to the testimony of his conscience and to 
God, he declares : " It had ever been his purpose to bring back 
all the clergy, and especially the higher order, to the stand- 
ard of the apostolical church, when they led an apostolical life, 
and imitated the humility of our Lord. For snch clergymen are 
used to behold the vision of angels, to shine by miracles, to heal 
the sick, to raise the dead, and to subject princes to themselves, 
not by arms, but by the power of a holy life." " But the clergy 
at present," he then adds, " devoted to the world and to drunken- 
ness, are lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God. In their 
case, religion is choked by the superfluity of riches. To deprive 
them of those hurtful riches, with which they are damnably bur- 
dened, is a work of charity. He would invite a)i the princes to 
cooperate with him in this work, in order that the clergy, re- 
lieved of all their superfluities, may serve God, contented with a 
little' The emperor here expresses a conviction, which we find 
expressed in many a reaction of the Christian spirit against the 
secularization of the church, since the time of Arnold of Brescia ; 
in the prophecies of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; in the 

I Ep.2. 

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songs of the Oerman nation&l poets, and in the phenoiuenti «f 
the history of sects. Bat the public declarations of a monarch 
can hardly be taken as trnstworthy sources from which to form a 
jnd^ent of his reli^oue opinions ; and th« rest of the emperor's 
conduct by no means evinces that he vas goremed by any anch 
plan of impoTerishing the clergy. He appears in his laws to 
have been a riolent perncutor of the sects to the adrantege of 
the hierarchy, althongh in many of them he most have observed 
a like religions interest directed against the secnlariiation of the 

As to the remarks ascribed to Frederic the Second, by which 
fa« is alleged to have placed the Jewish, Christian, and Hobam- 
medan religions on one and the same level, such remarks' may, 
perhaps, have only been a current form among Iht people for 
expressing a naturalistic mode of thinking. But although ex- 
pressions, — actually made by no one, — but which had become 
stamped as the current phrase, to denote a deistic, natnraliBtie 
mode of thinking, may hare been wrongfully attributed to the 
emperor Frederic, — yet it may be true, after all, that, ftom other 
indications, men hod reason to eonclade that he was really given 
to such a mode of thinking. Several other remarks, said to have 
been uttered by him, and supposed to indicate a decided infi- 
delity, were circulated abont ; ae, for example, that once, on 
seeing the host carried by, he observed, " How long shall this 
imposture go on V* It is remarkable that, among the Moham- 
medans, the emperor left the impression, during his stay in the 
East, that he was anything but a believing Christian.' It may 

1 Sm Auibcr on. in the biilorj ot tba tehaUitio ihcologj. 

I Sm Muthpv of Pirii, at the jati 1439. f. US ; uid Kimetbiiig more dcfinlle b} tbe 
coulemponr; Albcric, u Leibnitz (Aoccu. llut. t. LL, 568) relaLi-a. Tlie uoperar'a 
miida, •( tbs pjx wu being nanird b; u ■ sick penon. wen : " Hea me : quamdiu 
aonbii mfh iaU?" 

t Abulfeda nprui. Itom titr nauLta of k Hobimincdui Mhoiw, Gemel ed-dio, nbo 
Mood bigb Id tbe ntimulon of Frcderie'i umi, an ■coount ot Frrderic'e inclinatian in 
ftTODT of Ibc foUowrn of Iilam, nhich draeenddd from him to bia nna ; wilb wbicb, 
(o bo •■re. die Mae atorj ia joined, ttul, fbr Ibis raaaon. Frederic km excominDuicated 
kj Ui« pope, torn. T., pp. 1-10-^ When tbe worda of (be Koran agiinii ChriatiaDltjr 
were pnKlaimed thna the ninant of Omar'a noaqua in JenualBm, the oadi, with whom 
tb* ciipnoTrMtded, «*> greUI; mnojed. He eontriTed to bate il alopped, lest tlie 
emperor might be oDfended. Tbe latlar, aorpiiaad at no loDger bearing tbe aoeastomrd 
err from llw miaant, laltcd the oadi the reaaon otii; and tba cadi explained tbe whole 
naner. "Ton Iwra dan* wroot." mU ilw emperor.— " irti; aboold jon, on m; ac- 

a 2 

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be easily explained how, — by hia passionate contests with the 
popes, from whom he liad experienced, erer eince his earliest 
childhood, in the name of religion and the chnrch, so mach evil ; 
by his oppositioD to the acknowledged corrnptioD of the chnrch ; 
bj the incongruities between the reigning church doctrine and 
his clear nnderstanding, Frederic might be impelled to reject the 
whole at once, destitute as he was of the religiooa sense which 
would have enabled him to separate and distinguish the original 
faith and the foreign elements with which it had become encom- 
bered. The influence of the learned Mohammedans, with whom 
he was on terms of intimacy, might also ha*e contributed to 
promote such a tendency in him. We cannot be surprised that 
Frederic's one-sided intellectual training, in which sincerity and 
warmth of religious feeling had no part, should bare led Attn to 
an infidelity, which was called forth, in occasional paroxysms, at 
least, by mere brutal rudeness, in the case of king John of Eng- 
land. We might indeed say, with the historian Uatthew of 
Paris, that the religions opinions of this emperor, concerning 
which we can judge but from what others report, are certunly 
known only to the Omniscient :^ but if we compare all the ac- 
counts diffused among Christians and Mohammedans, we mnst 
still be inclined to consider him as haring been, to say the least, 
a denier of revealed religion. The circumstance that the pope 
did not make any further use of these criminations, by no means 
makes it clear that they were all a fabrication ; for naturally, it 
would hare been found difficult, if not impossible, to establish 
these charges on such grounds of evidence as were required, in 
order to bring a process against bim. 

A conflict arose between Gregory the Ninth and the emperor 
Frederic, for life or for death ; the old Gregory brought secular 
and spiritual weapons to bear against the emperor ; he allied 
himself with the cities of Lombardy, which were battling for 
their freedom, and from all quarters sought to collect money to 

oonnl, be wiiiliDg to youi dulj, to yonr !■«, lo joat religion r Se* tbs book ot 
fieinaulJ, aJreidj rBrerred lo, p. iSi. Ad afflciil, UUctnd lo tbe mosque of Omar, vlw 
eonduclcd him ibout, relal«d thu tbe empeioi'i coDTeiMtioD ihowed loffloienll; UiU 
he belieied nalhiDg abanc Chriiiiuiit;; when he (poke of it, it wu odJj lo ridionle it. 
L. c. p. 131. 

I Uauhetr of Pari* mjb, concerning Frederic'i tecatm on the point of b» orUw 
J017: 8i pecc«biul,iel non.Eovii ipse, qui nihil ignoMtt, L.c.r.aST. 

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Frederic's contest with qreoory the ninth. 245 

defray the expenses of the war, whence rarions complaints about 
the corraptioD of the Roman court, and many a Iree speech in 
opposition to it, wonid naturally be provoked.' The emperor 
cleared himself publicly from the aspersions thrown upon him by 
the pope, by a fUl profession of orthodoxy ; he contrired to pre- 
vent the iutrodnction, into bia states, of papal bulls, which were 
adverse to his interests ; and carried his point, in forbidding the 
pope's interdict to be observed. Even at Pisa, mass was cele- 
brated in his presence. The monks and clergy, who consented 
to be used as the pope's instruments, and refused to hold public 
worship, were removed from his states. His weapons also were 
snccessfnl. In the year 1239, his troops stood victorious before 
the gtitfis of Rome. The pope meanwhile sent letters missive 
for a general council, to meet in 1241, and proposed to the em- 
peror a suspension of arms, in order that the meeting might be 
held. Frederic, it is tme, was inclined to peace ; but he well 
understood the hostile intentions of the pope, who only wanted to 
use the council as an instrument against him ; and be would not 
be hindered by it in prosecuting liis designs against the Lom- 
bardian states. He therefore accepted the proposal of a cessation 
of hostilities, but on the condition that the Lombardian states, 
the allies of the pope, should have no share in it, and that no coun- 
cil should be assembled. The pope would not listen to this ; nor 
yet would he suffer himself to be prevented from holding a coun- 
cil. He contrived so to arrange it, that a Genoese fleet shonld be 
at hand for the protection of the prelates who might attend the 
conndl. In vain were all the warnings given out by the emperor. 
The Genoese fleet, however, was beaten by that of the emperor, 
and many prelates fell into his hands as prisoners. Yet the pope, 
advanced as he was in years, did not suffer himself to be moved 
by this untoward event. He required of the emperor, to the last, 
unqualified submission. Frederic now saw his predictions veri- 
fied, and he took no pains to conceal his joy at having penetrated 
into the pope's designs. He also shut his eyes to all forbearance 
towards the pope. In his proclamations, he dwelt on the con- 

1 Hallhev of Pun aijs : Adea invxluit Soaiinae ecclesiae insatisbiliB eupiilJMs 
eontajtirat Tm uetuqae, quod depoaito rubon vetm meretrii TulgxriB el BfTronii omni. 
bus venalis et txpMit*, nsuram pro pano, aimonimn pro nulla irtcauTfnlenti repuloTit. 
L.O. f. *B3. 

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trast b«twfleD snch a pope and the apostle Peter, of irboin be pre- 
tended to be the TJcegerent. " When the pope ia in drink," said 
he, " he fancies himself able to control the emperor and all the 
kingdoms of the world."^ The aged pope died, vhile thns hardly 
pressed, in the year 1241. 

After the sndden demise of Gelestin the Fonrth, irho was 
chosen next, followed a two years' vacancy of the papal chair ; 
and the cardinals, by the tardiness of the election, which many 
ascribed t^ their worldly views, to the ambition and the thirst for 
power of individnals, drew npod themselres violent reproaches.* 
Compelled by the emperor to hasten the election, they finally 
made choioe of cardinal Sinihald of Anagni, Innocent the Fonrth. 
The new government opened with peacefhl prospects ; for a treaty 
was set on foot between the emperor and the pope, and such an 
one as would redound to the advantage of the latter. Bat when 
the two principal parties came to meet for the pnrpose of ratifying 
it, they showed a mntnal distmst in each other's proceedings, and 
the affair was spnn out in length. Meantime, Innocent, who had 
no intention to deal honestly with the emperor, escaped by flight 
ftvm a situation in which, besieged by the weapons of Frederic, 
he could not act freely. According to a preconcerted plan, he 
was conveyed by a Genoese fleet to Lyons. There be placed the 
emperor once more under the ban. Next, he sent letters missive 
for a general council to meet at Lyons in the year 1245, where, 
also, Frederic was cited to appear and defend himself.* The pope 

1 Ep. 1. Tu 4d boo TiT[i ut aonccdu, in ci^ui luii si sojpliii uirais Hrlptnm sat: 
bibo, bibii, Cnjiu verbi pncuritum >ia tkvqaenler. In menu tepetu «t pott cibuH, 
quod quui nplui ueque ut lartiam coelam, Hebrtice bi Otaece loqueris et Litine. 

3 So (be rmpemr wrilM to Ibam (ap. U) : ScdcDtcs ul oolubri Don qoas aunnmaant, 
HpitU: ard quae aula oculoa aiM anot, munduu, non apiritualU intaintibaa proridotis. 
Silit enim qaailibel praeaulanim el pipmlem eanrit apicem. And in a leUer of the king 
at Fnuce (ep. 3S) : Eccc nobilia nrba Bomana line ea|rite liiit, quae rapot Mt sliiraD. 
Qnare f Carta propter diacordiam Romauorani ; a«d quid eoa ad diaoordiam praTooaritf 
Auri oupiditaa et ambitio dignitatam. He reproaebee them on account of itaeir ffir of 
tbe emperar. 

S A mnaiiable aign of tbe freer public ■entiiiieiit, on whieb alreadf tbe word of popea, 
ao manifeatl} gaTeined by void); pmlona «ltd noridly inlereau, do longer bad its for 
merpover.U tbe aneedote told bjHauhew of Paria: A prieat in Paris waa obliged, in 
oonformitj with a commuid addieaaed to all, la piiMiah the ban wbieb bad been pro- 
nonnctd againal Frederia. To doing Ibis, be deolared Ibat be bad Teeeired it in charge 
tu announce the ban with tapara burning aud tbe ringing of the bella. Ha knew of Ihe 
Tiolenl eontenlion, and tbe ineatingaisbabli hatred between them both ; but aa to tbe 
gauaa of it be kiimi nothing. He wia aware, loo, ihst one of the Iwo wu lo blame aud 

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presented before this conncil mtatj and rioient charges against 
the emperor ; and among these vere charges of heresy, and of 
snspicions eonneotion with the Saraceos. The imperial statesman, 
Thaddens de Snessa, vho attended the council as Frederic's en- 
voy, the only indiridual who stood forth in his defence, replied to 
these charges with a satirical allnsion to the Roman conrt. One 
thing, at least, spoke in the emperor's faronr, said he ; in Au 
states, he tolerated no usurer.' He at the same time declared, 
however, that to the most serions charge, that of heresy, the em- 
peror himself alone mnst answer in person ; and he therefore so- 
licited a longer delay for him. With difficulty, the pope was pre- 
vailed npon to grant a respite of two weeks. But Frederic 
declined appearing before a council, got up by a pope in open 
hostility to him, as a thing beneath his own dignity and that of 
the empire. The pope now proceeded in the most solemn man- 
ner to pronounce the ban and the sentence of deposition on the 
emperor. Thaddeus himself was struck with awe and dismay ; on 
the emperor alone it failed of making the least impression. On 
hearing of what had been done, he sent for the imperial crown, 
and placing it on his head, said : " I still possess this crown ; and 
without a bloody struggle I shall not let it be plucked away from 
me by the attack of any pope or conncil." He drew up a circular 
letter, addressed to all the princes, in which he expressed himself 
in much too strong and jVee a manner' for the spirit of the Umes, 
against the proceedings of the pope.* " Would that we had 
learned a lesson," said he, " fh>m the example of the monarchs 
before as, instead of finding ourselves compelled to serve, by what 
we mnst suffer, as examples for those who come after ns I The 
sons of our own subjects forget the condition of their fathers, and 

WTODged the atber ; bat wbieb one il wt>. lie did not know. Bui b« pronoaDGed Ibe bin 
OD that one, whixnr il wan, vbo wronged the other, (Dd be proDonnSBd Ihiwe free wbo 
(uObtcd the wrong which wu m> injnrioni to entire Obriaiendom. 8m Mutb. of Parte, 
f. 37S. 

1 Malthew of Piria, t. B8S. 

1 Hutheir of Puti uji.eDDoaniingtbaimpeiiionwhiehtbw letter made; Friderieas 
Ubmal«mao nobiliutcm eoelealK, qoun ipe* DaDqiiun*uilt,Kdina;iiideiuiWDeMorM 
qui Dulo gralo aDO iUbiliemnt, (oto oonusioe itudnit uiDQlin pl de hieieei )Kr id ip> 
■urn M reddena inapectiun, meiilo omnem, tarm haelenua in amni popnlo ignienlnni 
bmae propriae prudeBtiaa et •■pimlia* babait, impudenur et isprndenter euliniit 
uque ddeviL 

> Ep.S. 

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honour neither king nor emperor the moment they are consecrated 
as apostolical Tathers. What have not all the princes to fear 
from this prince of the priests, if one of them takes snch liberties 
with the emperor! The princes have none to blame hut them- 
selves ; they have hronght the mischief on their own heads by 
their submissive obedience to these pretended saints, whose am- 
bition is lar^e enongh to swallow up the whole world." " 0, 
if yoar simple credulity wonld only beware of this leaven of the 
scribes and pharisees, which, according to the words of onr Sa- 
vionr, is hypocrisy, how many scandals of that Roman conrt yon 
wonld leant to execrate, which are so infamons that decency for- 
bids na to name tbem."^ The numberless sources of revenue, by 
which they wonld enrich themselves at the expense of many an 
impoverished state, made them crazy, as the princes themselves 
must be well aware. He called npon them to unite with him 
in wresting Irom the clergy this abundance of earthly goods, 
which was only a source of corruption to them and to the church. 

The fierce contest began anew ; and in vain did the emperor 
at length, moved by an unfortunate turn of civil affairs, offer his 
hand for peace. Innocent continued implacably to carry on the 
war till the death of the emperor in 1250 ; and the popes never 
ceased to persecute the descendants of the house of Hohenstaufen. 
Thus the papal power came forth rictorious, as to outward suc- 
cess, from these last violent contests ; but this very rictory was 
destined to prove its ruin. The power which conid not be over- 
thrown by outward force, must, as Bernard had foretold, prepare 
the way for its own destruction, by being abused. This very 
age furnished an example to show how a man, with no other 
weapons than those of piety and truth, might venture with im- 
punity to resist the abuse of that power which could humble 
mighty monarchs 

This man was Robert Grossbead (Capito), bishop of Lincoln ; 
a man who held also an important place among the learned theo- 
logians of bis age. He was induced, by reason of a dispute with 
the worldly-minded canonicals of his cathedral, to make a journey 
to the Soman court, and thus he had an opportunity of learning,' 

et pliiriraeoruDi fennentn, quod eat 

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by personal observation, the whole extent of the corrapUon which 
prerailed at, and proceeded from, that court. In the year 1250, 
he delivered before the papal coart, at Lyons, a Btrikingly bold 
discourse, in which he portrayed at large the lUnlts of the church, 
and pointed out how far they were chargeable to the Roman 
court.^ "The had shepherds," he says here, " are the canse of 
the infidelity, schisms, false dtutrines, and bad conduct through- 
out the whole world.' As the great work of Christ, for which he 
came into the world, was the salvation of souls, and the great work 
of Satan is their destruction ; so the shepherds, who as shepherds 
take the place of Jesne Christ, if they preach not the word of Ood, 
— even though they should not lead vicious lives, — are anti- 
christ, and Satan, clothing himself as an angel of light." He 
then goes on to describe the additional evil of a bad life in the 
clergy. " And the guilt of the whole," says he, " lies at the 
door of the Roman court, not simply because it does not root out 
this evil, — when it alone is both able and hound to do so, — hut 
still more, because itself, by its dispensations, provisions, and col- 
lations appoints such shef^erds ; and thus, in order to provide 
tor the temporal life of an individual, expose to eternal death 
thousands of souls, for the salvation of every one of whom Christ 
died. To be sure, the pope, being the vicegerentof Christ, must 
be obeyed. But when a pope allows himself to be moved by mo- 
tives of consanguinity, or any other secular interest, to do any- 
thing contrary to the precepts and will of Christ, then he who 
obeys him, manifestly separates himself from Christ and his body, 
the church, and from him who fills the apostolical, chair, as the 
representative of Christ. But, whenever a univereal obedience 
is paid him in eueh things, then comes the true and complete 
apottacy — the lime of antiChrist," He unconsciously predicts 
the Reformation, when he says : " God forbid, that this chair 
ahmild at some future day, when true Christians refuse to obey 
it in tuch things, attempt to compel obedience, and thus become 
the cause of apostacy, and of an open schism."* In opposition 

I Tliu diwoiim, witb othsr writinia of Bobert, is U ba IbuDd in Lh* Appf ndii to tha 
Fucieului remin aiptiUnduuia tUgicndiramque, bj Ortuinus Qratini, ed. Btowd, in 
the App. roL^L 

> litli pulurea cauaa iDfldelititii, aohiaoiatia, bierelicas pravilatii et litinsae coii- 
Ycmtionia pei orbam tmiitnam. 

I Abaltei quod ciiaUDtlbiii aJiqiiibu* aliqaando vtncili-r Chrialo nigniiia iion lo. 
leoliboa qovoanqua modo volunlati rjua itoiitiiiiia Luc bCdcB«t ioo pciu aidtUK ■ ptU' 

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350 grosshead's firmness ik the contest with roue. 

to the pope's practiee of carrying on var vith worldly weapons, be 
says : " Those who are anxious for the safety of this chair, are 
mnch aflraid that the threatening words of oar Lord will be 
fulfilled on it, ' He who takes the sword, shall perish with the 
sword.' " 

This bishop, after his retam to England, committed the whole 
charge of managing the external afiairs of his ofQce to the hands 
of another person, reserring to himBelf the purely atiiritnal dnties, 
which he could thns discharge to mnch greater advantage. He 
entered heartily into the business of risiting the difiereut parts 
of hia diocese, and laid himself out especially to preach the gospel 
everywhere. Preaching, he looked upon, in general, as one of 
the most important parts of his pastoral ofiSce, and took every 
pains to stir ap the zeal of hia clergy in it. Xo consideration 
wonid prevail upon him to induct clergymen, whom he did not 
think qnalified for the performance of this dnty. An attempt was 
made from Kome, to compel this excellent man to confer a bene- 
fice within his foundation on a mere boy, — one of those papal 
farourites, who, besides being destitute of every spiiitttal qualifi- 
cation, could speak nothing but Italian. Bat he was steadfast 
in refusing to obey a mandalum apoatolieum of this sort, de- 
claring, " he was ready to pay filial obedience to the apostolical 
mandates, as also, he contended against everything which was at 
variance with the apostolical mandates ; to both, he was obligated 
by the divine law ; for an apostolical mandate was only one which 
agreed with the doctrine of the apostles and of oar Lord Jesus 
Christ, whose place was especially filled by the pope in the 
church; for Christ himself says, 'whosoever is not with me ia 
against me.' But the above docnment stood in no sort of con* 
formity with the holiness of the apostolical chair ; for by such 
papal ordinances, which, by the phrase 'non obstante,' super- 
seded all existing rules, the most shameless effrontery in lying and 
deeeiring was encouraged, to the great injury of the Christian life 
and of social order, and all mutual confidence destroyed. Then 
again, after the sin of Satan and of anti-Christ, there was none 
more abominable than that of plunging souls to deatmction by an 
unfkithful discharge of the pastoral office. The apostolical chair, on 

t diweHionii >iil MhiiDiati* 

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OROSSHBAD's firmness in THB contest with ROME. 251 

which was conferred by onr Lord all power for bnildiDg np, not for 
polling down, neither ought, therefore, nor conld possibly ordun 
anything, which woold lead to snch a un ; and no man, who was 
truly obedient to that sacred chair, and had not cnt himself off from 
the body of Jesns Christ, conld obey sach commands ; bnt, even 
though they should proceed from the highest class of angels, 
must resist them with all hie might." He repeated it at the 
close of his letter : " The fulness of power means solely the power 
of doing ererything for the edification of the church ; by no 
means that which tends to her destruction. Those papal prori- 
sioDS tended not to edification, but most evidently to destruction. 
The apostolical chair could not therefore approve of such prori- 
•ions ; for flesh and blood, which cannot be partakers of the 
kingdom of God, bare rerealed this ; not the Father of Jesus 
Christ, which is in hearen.'" Amidst positions and maxime of 
church doctrine, the principle forces its way through, in this wit- 
ness of the truth, that faith clings only to Christ, and must 
examine and prove everything by its relation to him, to his spirit 
and laws. Zealous as the bishop was in defence of the papal 
authority, he himself maintaining in the contest with the king of 
England, that the pope must be supported with money during his 
exile in France, still, his whole mode of action proceeds from the 
principle, as its starting-point, that men are bound V> obey the 
pope only so far as they actually recognize in him the oigao of 
Christ ; BO far as his commands harmoniie with Christ's doc- 

The pope, who was accnstomedfto triumph over the mightiest 
princes, vas greatly exasperated at this boldness of an English 
bishop, and would hare gladly made him feel at once the abso- 
luteness of his papal power. But some cardinals kept him back ; 
for their bad consciences made them dread the force of the public 
discontent, provoked by so many abuses proceeding IVom and 
promoted by the Boman conrt, and the voice of truth, supported 
by the personal authority of the worthy bishop. They held that 
it would be better to keep still, and so prevent the sensation 
which the afiair might create.* 

1 8«e M*tUM> of Pari*, I. 670. 

I D(wrTiDBorDoUMiatli«pra*enliiiMatarkrillorth> BomUh obnrah, in ba broDght 
■bout bj thii corcupUon ptoce*ding from Rome, whicli eipwwtt iiaelf Id Iha mj in 

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A legend recorded by IfattheT of Paris, in his historical work, 
deserves to be noticed as characteristic of the times, and shoving 
the inflnence vhich the corrnption of the Boman court had on 
the public judgment. The pope is said to hare intended to 
avenge himself on the pious and fl-ee-spirited bishop after his 
death, which shortly occurred, by causing his bones to be disin- 
terred ; bnt one night the bishop appeared to him, and, fixing on 
him a stem and threatening look, struck htm upon the side with 
his crosier. This made so profound an impression on the pope, 
that, from that day onward, pursued by one dirine jo^ment after 
another, he had not a moment's repose.^ So in the descriptions 
generally, which the English historian, Matthew of Paris, gives of 
the later popes of this century, and in the legends recorded by 
him of their reappearance aiter death, we see what an unfavour- 
able inflaence the abuse of the papal power must hare had on the 
tone of public feeling ; and the indignation of the German people 
against the popes already expressed itself strongly in the songs 
and ballads of the thirteenth oentnry.t 

When pope Alexander the Fourth commenced his administra- 
tion with requesting that all Christians would pray for him, it 
was hoped that this pontiff would distinguish himself advan* 
tageooaly from his predecessors. Bnt his subsequent conduct, 
the course he pursued in exacting contributions from the churches, 
contradicted these hopes, and his earlier professions appeared to 
be mere hypocrisy and a mask to cover a worldly spirit. s 

The factions among the worldly-minded cardinals made it pos- 
sible to keep the papal chair vacant during a space of three years 
from the year 1269. At length, in 1271, they agreed in the 

which Mutlhew of Puii Kcounu for Uis conccra eipreued bj muij (ludlDali : Miilne 
propL«r hoc, quia acilur, quud quaitdoquv JiBcmsio est ventura- 

1 Muihev of FailB, f. 7G0 : Et qui vi^uni Dolucnil Budiis oDiripientem, ■emu'nt mor> 
tnum impingeoMm. Nee unquam poBtea ipw papi unnm bonum diEm vrl iiroBpemin 
conliDiinit luque id dmIfid id Doolem u<que nl diem, aed iniomnem t«] nDleaum. 

1 Btt puM(«Df this sort Bollected in Siftudlin'a Arcblvfiirallauadneae Kinhsngei- 
cbicbM.W. 3tc>SLiS49. 

3 HaUb«ir uf Pari*. (. 796 : Hypoeruin npuUnt el BUcularititiB pallialioiiem qum- 
plurimi. Spas pTMConeept* da Miic^Ute papae prorana crauuit euufflita. In «i- 
cuac of tbe pope ha Hya >rterwirds, thai mmj thlnga vara done In bia name, and bj 
deeriiing bim, of which ba naa enliraly iDBOcent ; Vemnumen nioltoruni anrUn]* 
TfracitrriDatUlalum pat, quodde bulla deceplo papa frana eommittitur multifomii* ; bnl 
baadds immediately that the pope eould not be eiruaed on tbia groand: Sedban: ratjs. 

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choice of an ecclesiastic fVom Liege, then absent at Ftolemaie on 
a cnisade under prince Edward of England, He took the name 
of Gregory the Tenth. 

This pope had Steady bound himself to the cause of the cru- 
sades, vhile in the East. He therefore felt called npon to make 
the preparation of another a special object of attention ; and this 
was one of the objects for which he called together the general 
conncil at Lyons, in the year 1274, the most important trans- 
action of his administration. But, in this century, the public 
sentiment had already undergone a great change on the subject 
of crusades; after so many unsuccessful efforts, the zeal once so 
easily enlisted in these nndertakings had abated. The popes 
of this century, when they raised their Toice and fired the people 
to embark in such wars, could no longer rely on the universal 
confidence, which met their predecessors half-way in the twelfth 
century. The exactions which they were in the habit of making, 
under pretext of the crusades, had greatly iiy'ured those in 
the public opinion.' The repeated failures of the crnsades led 
manj to doubt the goodness of the cause ; and the faith of 
those who were accustomed to make np their judgments accord- 
ing to the dictates of a sensuous religion, received a violent 
shock from the unfortunate issne of the cause which they had 
regarded as a divine one, from the victory of Hohammedan 
arms over the banner of the cross.' Others, who had attuned 
to a higher position of Christian faith and knowledge, were either 
led by the issne of the crusades, or else availed themselves of it, 
to express the conviction openly, that men must attack unbe- 
lievers with other weapons than these, and employ the forces oC 
Christendom for other objects than these. 

As early as the close of the twelfth century the abbot Joachim, 
of Calabria, a man earnestly desirous for a better state of the 
chnreb, had spoken with remarkable freedom against the zeal for 

I Mtuitew at Paiia •>}■ nprtHlj, ituit tba BxaeLlau of Ongorj th* Ninlb did 
pmuuitiit iigoij to the e*aM at llie eruudei in Engluid. Qaod Bdalinm cjroa iwgo- 
tiam crnds Upnil, Imo potiu* earilM i«hriguil genertlli. Unde ncgaiiam tnru 
wnolM iiiu>4a4m hiii lapcr hoc ■wcapit ineremeDtam. A( tlia jm 1331, f. 840. 

> M«h!kw of Puii nntarlu, >t the rear 12J0, f. 67!: CoFptrant malli.qnas flnui 
IdM Dou ToboniTeTM, dmpvntioiie oontabneera. Et fldea hpii ! btu '. nultoniin cofpit 
T>ciUMc,diceDtiain*d iaviwM: Oiqaiddnclifnit noaCbriBtua, prainoctrai hicienu* 
milliATiaiu J 

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the erusadee. " How mtmj are there at the preoent time," said 
he,i " soliciting the pope that he wooM cause the badge of the 
cross to be marked on the Bhouldere of Christians, and really 
intending, ander the pretext of going to the resoae of a desolate 
and rejected Jemsolem, to draw gain and temporal adrantage to 
them^lves ont of piety. They consider not how bad it is for 
men to oppose the divine coansels ; as when the restoration of 
the walls of Jericho was forbidden with a cnrse ; I Kings xri. 34 ; 
Joshna vi. 26." He represents, therefore, the restoratiou of 
Jernsalem as & project opposed to the declarations of Christ con- 
cerning the (lestraotion of that city. He then adds : " Let the 
popes see to it, and monm over their own Jerusalem, that is, the 
universal chorch, not bnilt by the hands of men, which Ood has 
redeemed with his own blood ; and not over the &llen Jerusalem. 
But if the nations fight for the gtorions sepnlchre of our Lord, 
let them anderetand that it is not this which the Lord will raise 
to heaven, but rather the holy souls in whom the Lord, daily 
buried, by the mystery of piety, reposes and dwells, till he shall 
exalt them to the kingdom of his everlasting glory."' And in 
another place he complains of the popes that, by their means, 
the nations and resources of Christendom are exhansted among 
barbarous tribes, whither they are sent under the specious pre- 
texts of salvation and the cross." 

The objections urged against the cmsades by a party who 
were opposed to them at the time of the council of Lyons, are 
known fi^>m the manner in which Humbert de Bomanis, general 
of the Dominican order, whom the pope had ooramissioned to 
draw up a schedule of the matters to be handled at that council, 
sought to refbte them.* They were such as foUows : That it was 

I Commentar. in JeremiBm, p. 281. 

I Tideam iiaDinii pootifloei ot doletuCde ■□■ HienuaJem. id eat, eodeili gcimali 
DOB miDu ImcUl, qUBm Dsub icdemii Hii^iiie iiiD, et Dan de ill*, quae cecidil deiisuuit- 
que nlleriuB illius miiroa erigere. quae juoliiiie moile fidelium ruii. Ac >i pro tepolcro 
gloriMO de gentiboi conUndltar, uon eat ipBuni dDHuniia Inuulatarua in ooaltuD ; wd 
palius aanctai anlmu, in quibo* domiiiiu qaotidle per pletatie m}at«rium lepelitar, 
quigaoit at menet, donee eaa tnueferat et resurgaul in regno elaritui* aeteruae. 

t Bamtni pontifioet dlasipant eepem imperii, imininuendie populie obriatieuie et viri- 
buB at mittendii ad barbina naciones aub ipeoie aaluti* el eroeia. P. 2S2. 

* Hamb«rtua de Rtananii de hie quae tnetaada Tidebantor in Coneilio generali. The 
firat pact, vbicb canaisla of twenlj seTen ebaptera, de negotio ecoteaiar eonlra Saraceno*. 
Ivitraola in Manai, t. nri., 1. 109. More fnll, in tbe Brat part of Uie OpuMuloo tripar- 

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contrary to the examples of Christ and the apostles to uphold re< 
li^ott with the sword, and to shed the blood of unbelieTers. It 
was tempting Ood ; because the Saracens were in all respects, in 
nnmbere, in knowledge of the conntry, in being accostomed to the 
climate, in means of subsistence, superior to the Christians. 
ThoDgh ChriBtians might be allowed to fight in self-defence, yet 
it did not follow from this that they might attack the infidels in 
their own countries. It was no more right to persecute those 
Saracens, than it was to persecute the Jews, the idolaters, the 
sabjngated Saracens in Enrope. These wars brought neither 
spiritual nor temporal advantage. The Saracens were proroked 
by them to blaspheme the Christian faith, instead of being con- 
Terted to that faith ; but all of them that fell in battle sank to 
perdition. Nor was any temporal advantage gained from them ; 
for it was impossible to retain possession of the conquered terri- 
tories. The unhappy reverses which had been experienced 
proved that these undertakings were not in accordance with the 
divine will. Particularly deserring of notice is what Humbert 
says in refntatiou of the first of these reasons, " That which woa 
right and proper at the time of the first plauting of the church 
is one thing ; that which is required in order to preserve the 
church is another. To preserve the church, to defend it against 
those who would utterly destroy it, the sword is required. The 
condition of the first Christian communities, when as yet they had 
no power, but could only propagate themselves by humility, is 
quite different fVom the present condition of things, when the 
Christian people are become mighty, and not without good rea- 
son bear the sword. In earlier times the church was defended by 
the gin of miracles ; at present, when miracles fail, she must 
have recourse to arms. What is said against the employment of 
weapons has reference not to the ootward act but to the temp^ 
with which they should be used.'" While in former times the 
crusades had been extolled as a means whereby the vicious who 
embarked In them might obtain the pardon of their sins, Hom- 
bert, on the other hand, represented it as a main cause of the 

titum, pabHibed h; Broim, in the AppPDdii to tlie Fuciculiu rerum expelendinim rt 
fngicniluani, f, ISfi, nqq. 

^ Ad praepftnliancn) animi, nnu ul exrcDllDDeni glndii. 

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Want of snccess, that precisel j this class of persons hft<l been em- 
ployed ; and he proposed that a competent number of piona war^ 
riors should be constantly maintained in the East as a bnlwark 
against the Saracens.' 

We have already, on a former page,^ described the glowing seal 
of that extraordinary man, Raymund Lnll, for the conversion of 
the infidels and the extension of the Christian chnrch. The aim 
of his first efforts was to faring it about, that missions and arms 
should be conjoined for the accomplishment of these objects. In 
a work which he composed at Fisa, soon after his return in April, 
A.D. 1308, from Xorth Africa,* he recommended three things ; 
first, that fonr or fire monasteries should be founded, in which 
learned and pious monks and secular clergymen might study the 
languages of the infidels, and thus prepare themselves for 
preaching the gospel in the whole world. Secondly, that out of 
all the orders of spiritual knights, a single one should he formed 
for fighting against the Saracens. But this order of knights 
should not embark at once, as had been done before, in distant 
enterprises, but should first attack the empire of the Saracens in 
Granada, and take possession of their treasures ; next, proceed to 
North Africa, and, last of all, buckle on their armoni for the 
conquest of the Holy Land. Thirdly, the teaths from all th« 
churches should be applied to this object until the holy sepulchre 
should be recovered. In another work,* he introduces two eeele- 
siaetics disputing on the question, whether it were better that 
some mighty prince should be commissioned to bring about the 
conrersion of the heathen by force, or whether men should labour 
for the spread of the faith, by means of persuasion, and by ofier- 
ing np their lives, according to^e example of Christ and of the 
martyrs. £ven at this period, he declared in favour of the latter 
plan ; and to the close of his life he felt more and more convinced 
that this was the only Christian mode of procedure, the only one 

I Ad quod eligerenlni non bomioidte uil penimi sical h*ct«naa, nd bominte * pn- 
c»ia ilmtiDttntes, qiiii neacit juBtitii Dei pBlrocinui criminDsis, f. 119. 

^ See int?, pp. 82—96. I could oat tlieo at yet iTail myseir of Iht gntl collecWd 
edition of Ihe narks of Raymund Lull, wbicb appeared at Mayenee. Afwr die printing 
ofthia aectioD was flnisbad, I firal bad the good fortunp.durirg n reaidenoe in Mnnlch, 
orb«ing able loitudy tbia work also, among lb« numeroua and rare trenaurea of the 
Itoya] library in that eily. 

g DiapatBlia Raymuudi Cbriatiani el Hantar Blraceni. 

* liiber BuperPaalmiim "quicoDque vulu" 

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which any Christian conld expect would be crowned with a bless- 
ing;. In hJB great work, on the Contemplation of God/ where he 
makes all the ranks and callings of Christendom pass in review, 
and seeks to point ont the defects in each/ he lomaiks in the 
section concerning knights :* " I see man; knights going to the 
H0I7 Land, in the expectation of conqaenng it by force of arms; 
bat instead of accomplishing their object, they are in the end all 
swept off themselTes." " Therefore," says he, addressing Christ, 
" it is my belief that the conqaeat of the Holy Land shonld be 
attempted in no other way than as thon and thy apostles nndeT> 
took to accomplish it, — by lore, by prayer, by tears, and the 
offering up of onr own lives. As it seemsAhat the possession of 
the holy sepulchre and of the Holy Land can be better secnred by 
the force of preaching than the force of arms, therefore let the 
monks march forth, as holy knights, glittering with the sign of 
the cross, replenished with the grace of the Holy Spirit, and pro- 
claim to the inSdele the truth of thy passion ; let them Irom love 
to thee exhanst the whole fountain of their eyes, and ponr ont alt 
the blood of their bodies, as thon hast done from love to them I 
Many are the knights and noble princes that have gone to the 
promised land with a riew to conquer it ; but if this mode bad 
been pleasing to thee, Lord, they would assuredly have wrested 
it from the Saracens who possess it against onr will. Thus is it 
made manifest to the pions monks, that thon art daily waiting for 
them, expecting them to do, from lore to thee, what thou hast 
done from love to them. And they may be certain that, if Irom 
lore to thee, they expose themselres to martyrdom, thon wilt hear 
their prayers in respect to all that which they desire to see ac- 

1 T. ii,opp. mL Mogant. 1722, M. 

» To flDi>b which work, llid be Oiighl ttaen go to meel m«Hjrdom, wm bii mod ar- 
dent wuh J u ht nmnki, c. eini., f. 301 r ■ As » hungr; mm mik™ dnpiub, and 
UkM Iwgn Bond*, on *e«aiint of his gnat Longer, lo tlir Miroit tMliagnit desire u 
die, that be id*} glorifj thee. He hnniee d*j and night to complete ibis work, in order 
that, after it iaSDiahed, bemaj giie up hie blood ind liii tfira (sbe shed rbrtber, in the 
HoIt Land wbm tboD didal poor oat tiij praoioss Mood ind tbf oompiniaDale teara. 
O Lard, mj help, till (hie work it oompleud. tb; aeniot oinnol go to the iuid ot Uw 
Banceni, to glorliy Ihf gloriona name, Kir I am lo occupied with Ltab work, which I 
QBdtnakabr thine honour, that I aaa Uiinkof nothing elaa. ForlbUivtaon,! beMecb 
■baa for that giaoa that thou wouldat atasd bj ne, lliat I maj toon fioiah it and apeedUj 
dapart 10 die the death of a otartjr out or loia to thee, it it aball pkaaa (baa lo ooint me 

1 Cbap. nii, t. iK. 


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complished in this world for tbe promotion of thy glory." And, 
in another passage of this work,' he seeks to show, first, that the 
schism of souls, the religions strife, between Saracens and Chris- 
tians, was the cause of the outward war, and of the many erils 
therewith connected ;'- that by this war, Ch^stians were hindered 
from preaching the truth to the Saracens, whereby they might, 
perhaps, succeed to conrince them, and then, through the spi- 
ritnal communion of one faith, bring them back to outward peace 
also. He then concludes with the following prayer : " Lord of 
heaven. Father of all times, when thon didst send thy Son to take 
npoa him human nature, he and his apostles lived in outward 
peace with Jews, Fbansees, and other men ; for never, by outward 
violence, did they capture or slay any of the unbelievers or of 
those who persecuted them. Of this outward peace they availed 
themselves to bring the erring to the knowledge of the truth, and 
to a communion of spirit with themselves. And so, after thy ex- 
ample, should Christians conduct towards the Saracens. But 
since that ardour of devotion which glowed in apostles and holy 
men of old no longer inspires us, love and devotion through almost 
the whole world have grown cold. Therefore do Christians ex- 
pend their efforts far more in the outward than in the spiritual 

At the above-mentioned council of Lyons, Gregory again in- 
troduced a new regulation with regard to papal elections, designed 
to prevent snch delay as that which had preceded his own ap- 
pointment. The cardinals should at least be compelled by hun- 
ger to agree in a choice. Each having his own particular cell, 
should remain there without liberty of leaving it until they were 
prepared to proceed to the election. After three days the quan- 
tity of food and drink should be diminished, and if at theexpira^ 
tion of eight days they had not yet agreed in their choice of a 
pope, they should be allowed nothing but bread, wine, and water. 
This ordinance, after great resistance on the part of the cardinals, 
was adopted ; and as it was exceedingly annoying to them, they 

I T. ix. 1. iii. DisllDcL 29, e. ccit., f. eiS. 

a Qnii Cbristtmi al SBractui pngimnt ialcl]«ctn>Iilcr in boo, quod diacoTdent et oon- 
trarisntnr in fid«, proptcraa pugn«Dl uiiBnalilcc et ratiaae hDJiH pugtine molti ynliisraii. 
tnr ctcaptiTantarelmoriuDlnr eCdntruBnUr, pprqauB dntrucliODem devwUnlnr et 
destraantnr mnlti principitiu et mnlun dltilise et malMe tone ft impedianMr molM 
bona, quae Qereut, si noa tatel talis pugna. 

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nftde tbe greater despatch, snch persona being selected as were 
not expected to live long, and in whose choice it was the most 
easy to unite. In the single year 1276, three popes followed in 
quick snceeseion one after the other. The third of these, John 
the Tventy-First, was, by the inflaeace of the cardinals, induced 
to suspend an arrangement of the conclave which they felt to be so 
inconvenient. The consequence was that, in the year 1292, the 
election of a pope was delayed by parties among the cardinals 
two years and a quarter. At length, compelled by the influence 
of Charles the Second, king of Naples, and to get rid of a dis- 
graceful dependence od him, in which they found themselves 
placed, they resolved to choose somebody, and, as they could 
agree on no one else, their choice fell on a man, who under any 
other circumstances they wonld hardly have thought of, and who 
formed a direct contrast to his predecessor. This was Peter of 
Harone, a pious anchoret, who lived not far from Sulmone, in 
the Neapolitan territory, — an old man, who IVom hia twentieth 
year had led a solitary life, devoted to prayer and Tflligioos con- 
templation,' and had composed a few small tracts on asceticat 
subjects, and on ecclesiastical law.* Against his wishes, be was 
obliged to exchange the tranqniUity of the contemplative life for 
a sphere of action of the most enormous extent and fall of unrest. 
He called himself Celestin the Fifth. Even when pope, he still 
wore his monkish dress under the papal insignia. His appear- 
ance and deportment, farming so striking a contrast with that of 
the other popes of this time, procured for him the more respect 
and veneration. Seated upon an ass, which the kings of Sicily 
and Hungary led by the bridle, he made bis entry into the city 
of Aqnila. Thousands flocked about him, not as they did around 
other new popes, to obtain rich benefices, but to receive hia 
blessing. The shouts of the mnltitades. who gathered from city 
and country, compelled him to show himself frequently at the 
window and bestow his blessing.* Bat when Celestin, the feeble 

I B* himMlf trrole ui leoount d( hb f ODtL, hii inward oonfliru anil Tiaions, in llw 
commeDMiDeDt of bit ipirituil Mr«tr; Sw Act* Sanclvr. HiJ. l. iv., f. 422. 

t TbeM writiii^.Hlileb an' of no particular importarnr. ire pablishrd in the Bibl. 
pair. Lngdnnan*. I. XKi. 

* Baoadiet Cretan relatn tbia in bia life of Celeatio: Taulaa fuit ooDcaraoa ad 
Ipaam de rillia at ciairia, quod atDper tral Tidrrc, quia magia Tcniabwil *d anam ob- 
tiiwndan baoadictionmB. qawn pro praabandaa aeqniaitione, undaoportrbiit ram aarpiua 

R 2 

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old mail, came to be placed in circamstances so little conformabla 
to hiB habits and temperament ; vfaen be was set down in the 
midst of a Tast circle of business with which he was entirely nn- 
acqnainted ; he soon brought affairs into the most rexations per- 
plexity. Always following the direction of the papal officials, hs 
sabscribed and affixed the papal seal to rolls of paiohraent, negli- 
gently read or even not written on, which conid be filled up at 
pleasure ; be made himself dependent on king Charles the Second, 
who persuaded him to fix bis seat in his own residential city. 
The cardinds grew tired of him ; it was easy for them to excit« 
scruples of conscience in his mind ; and, besides, he longed to be 
restored to his former i}uiet. Gladly would be have resigned his 
seat. But on the principles of the charch constitution and of the 
ecclesiastical laws as then understood, it was very difficult to see 
how the pope, who was invested with the highest dignity on 
earth, could be divested of his office, or could voluntarily resign 
it. Tet cardinal Benedict Cajetan, than whom no one could be 
more unlike this pope in temper and disposition, and who himself 
aspired to the papal dignity, strengthened him in his inclination ; 
BO, after having published, by the advice of the latter, an ordi- 
nance, porportiug that it was allowable for a pope to abdicate 
his office, he laid down his own in the year 1294, and returned 
to his former mode of life. 

It will be erident from this history of the papacy that, from 
the time of Gregory the Seventh, it had come into a new relation 
with the rest of the church. Not only was it assumed, as it had 
been already in the Psendo-Isidorian decretals, that the fonn of 
the goremment of the church is morutrckical ; but the govern- 
ment became an wnlimited monarchy ; — the triumph of papal 
absolutism was complete. All other ecclesiastical authority was 
but the pope's organ, was valid only to the extent he might 
choose. No longer tied by the old ecclesiastical laws, he could 
render them powerless by dispensations, explanations, and laws 
newly enacted. There were, indeed, distinguished men, and 
zealous for the well-being of the church, who — much as they were 
devoted in other respects to the interest of the papacy, or rather 
because they were so — often took pains to remind the popes, that 

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tbey miut fix limits to their own anthority, which had not been 
limited Trom witboat, by reason of the end for which sncb antho- 
rity had been conferred. Tbns, for example, bishop Tres of 
Cbartres, declared, " That the Roman church bad received no 
anthority from Ood for injustice, — no authority to take away 
from any man his guilt, but only to bind what ongbt to be boand, 
and to loose what ongbt to be loosed. "i The abbot Gottfried of 
Vendome, ^o, against whom Yves had cited this principle, be- 
cause in a particular case he wonid acknowledge dependence only 
on the Roman chtrcli, admitted the same as an nndeniable 
tmth.' " One thing only," he said, " might be disputed, namely, 
whether, in the particular case in qaestion, the pope had made 
such arbitrary use of his anthority." The abbot Peter of Cluny 
reminded pope Innocent the Sec«nd,^ that if he ruled over all, it 
sbonid be bis glory to be ruled himself only by reason.* We 
have already quoted the sayings of abbot Bernard of Clairvaux 
on this subject, namely, that popes were created not to dissolve 
the ecclesiastical laws, bat to see that they^were executed. John 
of Salisbury, that zealous champion of the hierarchy, wrote thus 
to pope Alexander the Third, in the name of the archbishop of 
Canterbnry:a " Undoubtedly, to the pope, all things are allow- 
able ; that is, all things that belong by divine right to ecclesi- 
astical authority. He is free to make new laws and to do away 
the old ones. Only it is not in his power to change anything 
which, by the word of God, has etern^ validity. I might venture 
to assert that not even Peter himself can absolve any one from 
his guilt who perseveres in sin or in the will to sin ; that even 
be has received no such key as gives him power to open the door 
of the kingdom of heaven for an impenitent person." 

Still, in such voices, it was but a force of moral sentiment that 
opposed itself to the arbitrary will of the pope. There was no 

I Nallam injimtam patesUlem, fidem TioUndt Tidelicct debila ana caique non nd- 
dandii Md tsDlnm, quM sunt ligdnd* li^ndi «l quae bqui ftolvrnda aalTeudl. Bee 

t Qui* mim inUDua oreden vel oaglure audpil, boDDiD Deum iliqaid unquim in- 
juaw dadiase mt «jiia BancUin accleaiam qaicqnun ab eo injuate aoiicpiBse. T,pp. 1. ii., 
e|i 11. 

* Ep. ji., SS. 

* Cain jure inij«8t«» upoawlioB omnlboa dominplur, mil iniitnm ralioDi antijiet glc 

* Ep. 193. 

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higher aathority, which the popes were obliged to respect, which 
presented to them checks from withont, and conld hare jurisdic- 
tion over them. The general councils, which constituted the 
highest tribunal and the highest legislative authority in the an- 
cient church, had themselres become converted into blind tools 
of the popes. Such aathority in the hands of a single man, 
standing at the head of the whole Western church, might un- 
doubtedly, in the then rude condition of the nations, be produc- 
tive of much good, as a check on the trifling caprices of secular 
rulers, and as a terror to the vast multitude of negligent bishops ; 
but even in the best use of that authority, the free original de- 
velopment conld not fail to suffer a check. Xhia check, tn the 
best tue of the papal power, would of neceauty become the 
stronger, inasmuch as, in ssch a case, the reaction favourable to 
the upward struggle of freedom would be leas powerfully called 
forth. Naturally, however, such power in the hands of an indi- 
vidnal was liable to manifold abuses. In order that the papacy 
might ever subserve the end for which it was designed, an har- 
monious combination of the highest mental and moral powers, 
purity of heart united with great intellectual superiority, was ab- 
solutely required ; and such a combination could not oilen occur. 
Add to this that, already in the twelfth century, a too-powerful 
secular tendency had grown up within the pale of the papacy, 
which threatened to swallow up the spiritual interest. Already 
must the provost Gerhoh of Reichersberg complain that the ec- 
cleeia Somana had become a ctiria Bomana,^ and we have 
already heard the complaints of the abbot Bernard on the secu- 
larization of the papacy. Every corrupt practice which waa ac- 
customed to prevail in courts reigned at the Boman court ;' and 

I The provost Qerboh of Beicheraberg had, u he aifB.liiid at the h« otpopeEngeDe 
tlie Tbird, Lis BuBj on tb* Counuioa between Bibjlon and Jeruailem, from which 
^ts« afterwirdi hit work bo oIUd cited : " De eonupto ecoleaiae ■tun," or " expoaitio 
Id Pa. liiv." in Balm, Miacellan. l. t. H*c iatentione, ut oiiria illi Bemetipum atun- 
derelBCBCque parileret efclesiom totan, qaun regere debet, aconfiisiDneBabjloDioadis- 
tincUoi exbibera aatagerat Bine macula et nigt ntque rnun vtt hoc ipam carm macula 
vidiliiT, quml Bwie dicUur curia Romana, quae antebao dicebaliu eecletia Boiliatla,e. 

3 John or Baliabory. who atood on lenna of intimae; with pope Adrian the Fonith, 
reluea ■ nmarkabls convereation which he once bad wtib ibat pope. The pondff in- 
quired ot bim Teapecting the gtutitl (one of feeling towards the BomMi obaRh, and 
lowarda biniBcir; aod he (ranklv Blated (o bim (Uc conplainu conoemiuj 

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if the Hildebiandian tendency of refonn had aimed to bring back 
the church to its purely spiritoal character, to deliver it from the 
yoke of secularization, yet this secularization sprung up again in 
another form, from the mixing np together of court and church in 
Bome. The compUints about the eorraptibility of the Roman 
court, of the ofBcials by whom the judgment of the popes was in- 
fluenced or determined — -these complaints, which we hare already 
noticed as existing in the preceding periods, only went on multi- 
plying with the increased influence of the papacy. It must hare 
appeared strange that ou the very spot where simony, as prac- 
tised by the princes and bishops, was so rigoronsly combated, 
the same thing, though under more specious names, should pre- 
' Tail to no less an extent. When the odious charge was issued 
from Bome against bishop Yves of Chartres, that simony reigned 
openly in his church, he replied : " He had not as yet been able 
to do anything towards suppressing the ancient custom by which 
the candidates for a canonry must pay something to the deans 
and the cantor ; for men appealed to the example of the Bomish 

that )iro(t«ed«d ttota tbe Bliurch of Rome. Sicut enim d<<:«bilur a multia Romaoa eccle- 
■it, quia malcr amDiaiii eccleBlarum »t. te noa Uuu mutrom exhibet aliis, quom noier- 

nDm, quie dtgita bod conlingunt. Coaculiunt (cclesiu, Utea eioliinl, culHduDt cletum 
M popalum, laboHbuB et miseriis afflictoruiD uequaquam ion 
tantur apolib «t quwBluin omnem repuMut ] 
eras ■liquid sine pralia obliaebis. Ngcent i 
luno fniatt pulinlur. Bum nocert! di'sisiuDl aiceplis p»uci8, qui iiomen et ofllciuui 
poitorii implenl. Tbe pO]>i< cmlml; liBtvn«d to all be bod lo bbj, iiid thanked bim for 
Ilia haakucH ; and aflcT baving conceded some tilings snil Justified otiiera, coDcluded 
wilb an apologj like tbe rolloviiig: All tbe meoibFra of lbs bod; complaiaed of tbaato 
maob, that vLllst tbey were all obliged to labour for tiisi, tijc stomacb was idle, and did 
i,otbing bat conauine wbat wai furnished to it b; tbe labour of all tbe other memban. 
Tbej declared it Iha eneni} of alt, aud detrrDiined to puniab it, to rest from tbeir laboon 
andstane it out.. Thus patsed several days, till all the membon had become quite faint, 
and ware no longer able to perform their oppropriatB fnuclioDa. Tliej were now ondtr 
the neeessilj' of boldiuganotber eonaultutioD ; tbtj tonnd out tbat in oonKqnenoe of 
withholding everftbiiig from the stomaeli, that ortjaa bad been unable to supply tbem 
any longer with wbat was reqaitiln u> give tbem strength and tigour. Tliey found 
UiemselTes compelled, Iberefore, lo reatore back to it all the; badwitbbeld, and doh 
(he membera were alroug and Tigoroua again, and peace was restoied lo the whole. 80 
it was with thou who ruled in tbe church or in the alau. Although Ibey nqulred mueb, 
yel it was not for their own adiautage, but for the good of Ibe whole. If tbej were not 
rieb and miibty ibemaelTM, they could not help Ibe meinben. Noli ergo Deque noa- 
trum neque aaecularinm prineipun duritiam metiri.aed omnium utilitaMm altende. See 
Job. Bareabnieoali Poliuralieus aix! de nugis curiolium Ft veatigiia philosapbamm, L 

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«linrch iUelf, where the euhiculani uid mmiatri aaeri palatU 
demanded no small snin of money for the conseeration of bishops 
and abbots, nnder the specions names of an oblatio or a benedie- 
tio."' Not the stroke of a i>en, not a sheet of paper was to be bad 
for nothing. He knew not how to answer those who bronght 
this matter against him, except in the words of Christ : " All 
whatsoerer they bid you obserre, that observe and do ; bnt do 
not ye after their works." Matt, xziii. 3. Disputes about elec- 
tion in chnrches and cenrents, carried up to Borne for decision, 
were welcomed there by those whose only object was money, be- 
caose the contending parties must resort to gold in order to effect 
their object.^ The officers of the papal conrt were bribed by 
presents or promises, and then sought to mislead the judgment 
of tbe pope. This was the ordinary way of gaining a badcanse.i 
Snrroanded by snch a swarm of cormpt courtiers, it was not 
enough, therefore, that the indiridnal who stood at the head 
should be rigidly incorruptible and disinterested. Eugene the 
Third is extolled as a model in thisrespect,4 Bnt he should 
also possess the power of control over the corrupt creatures around 

1 Qdmi obltlioDia vrl b«nadiotioDta nomiDC ptUiantur, £p. 133_ 
t Wo preBcnl ■ few mmples. Nskt the cloir of C)i« tnelftb cemar;, Ptler de Blois 
CoDipli^iii of tbe ficl [hu ■ homo iflilentns tt liicnii, sed in cm^DdiB hoaoribns cirenm. 
ipaetns, wu endsKvoDrlng bjr meiiu of hU gold lo eaMblitb in Bame hit illegal olainu 
w BD ibliot'* plue in Canierhurj. He wia there nceired in > f^icndl; miDner bj dioae, 
qoi aiealeeitia gntiai icccpcant bominum mnnen, qaun meriu peraoiunim. Spera- 
b«it rnim, quod promatio ejaa eaael riiae loatfria et m^iori* emolnmrptj occuio. Hi* 
put; exerted themselrea lo the utmoit to ranke IbemlelTet Mendi of ths numnKii of 
unrigbtrousnees at tbe BomiiD court, snd Uierebj to Dallil^ (be ju*l obirgee broagtat 
■giiait tbie man (opinionis et infamiw vnineribna Tiunm et oleom infandere ) Ex- 
biustis iMque Flandriie mercatoribna in argenlo, ■ Rominie tftndem iuflDitem mnltita- 
dinem ear), mutaaTit. Ep. IBB. Tbe abbot Qnibeit, of Norigentuai, eaye in bie aato- 
biognpbj, in ths beginning of the twelfth eenlniy, I, lii. c. It., (■ i9S, ronoerning Ibe 
palatiola Pap»: Qoibae morie rat, at audita auri nomine maneaF>e*nL A biiliop wbo 
wee enapeeled, on good leaaoni, of haTing Dommitted ■ murdrr tot the aaka ofrs- 
Tenge, found means to clear himaetf. adulatione donornm, at the Bomau court, under 
pope Paiobalia the Second. 
B £p. ST. Orbiabop Yres oFCbartrea, John ofSalieburr writn (ep. 223): Romanoa 

apnd FOB, quaiitucn quiaque nummorum babel in area, tanlum habet ^ Bdci, et plerum- 
qne obliquata mentc Itgnm etciDonum. qui munere potior eBt,potenlioresl Jan. 

( A prior, whose caae he bad not ;el examined, ouee preeaad him to accept from him 
a mark or gold, a> a textimon; of regard; bnt he declined, aajing, " Thou hut not as 
TatBtepped Into the honae, and alraad; wouldal thou bribe the maateiT' Job. Saresb. 

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hint, and vudom to detect the frandnleDt acta by wbicli trntb 
vu kept back from him. Bernard had good reason, therefore, 
for remarking to this yery Engene :' " Of what avail is the good 
disposition of the indiyidual, when still the bad disposition of 
otheis predominates I" 

We shall now proceed to consider the sereral branches of the 
papal authority, as they vere separately exercised by them- 


Important effects undoubtedly resulted from the fact that the 
popes Tisited particular countries in person, and spent some time 
in them.i We have seen how the events which compelled them 
to take refuge in France, operated in giving a new spring to 
their authority. Still, the cases vere quite rare in which they 
could obtain, by their personal presence, a knowledge of the con- 
dition of particular nations and churches, counteract abuses which 
had crept in, and lend force to their laws. There was need of a 
permanent and general order of men, to serve as a substitute for 
the immediate personal presence of the pope. To this end served 
the cardinals, or other persons from the clergy, clothed with 
plenary powers, who, under the name of legates, were sent to all 
quarters of the world. To be sure, a legate whose knowledge of 
the country was only such aa could be derived from a transient 
residence in it, and from superficial observation, might easily be 
deceived by appearances. For which reason, Tves of Chartres 
wished that the popes would, as was sometimes done indeed, ap- 
point as their legates the bishops in the countries themselves, 
who would be accurately acquainted with the region and its rela- 
tions." Against this well-meant proposal, however, it might be 

1 Sm on ■ Torjon ftgt, 204. 

3 Tkils (ubjnt, Un influuice whiab prooMded Itoid tb« joncDeTinp of lb* popt* in 
tit* Middle i.gtt, duMtrml etruiolj u> be mon acciintelT iPTcailguvd in b hlUr 
Uoaagnthj Ihaa Johum Ton UUIIer'i Euay, tdd deo Kciun in Pilfnlc. 

* Cum •Dim t iaur* mtro miuitii ad do* oanliailM iMtrus, qnik in Ukiuita apod 
aoaiDDt, noDlaDtom son poMantmniidi eanre, led oro cunnda prtxpieere ; hrncn, 
Di ilicai mnulplna Icgitionem xdiiaposlolicar injungatia, qui ct •icmiua Bubrepenlii 
nalacognncattt e> *>1 p«MT«l per n' ' 
pracTileU. Ep. 100. 

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objected, that naUre legates were more exposed than foreign ones 
to the infloence of impnre motires and considerations, — which 
diSicnltf might be illustrated by examples. 

Much eonld be effected in these times by a legate, who, as 
Bernard required, should interest himself for the people and the 
poor in their spiritnal and bodily necessities, steadfastly oppose 
himself to the arbitrary will of the mighty, and eyerywhere pro- 
mote the supremacy of order and of law.i Bernard cites examples 
of such legates, who avoided the very appearance of self-interest. 
A certain cardinal, Sf artin, returned back from a distant country 
to Italy BO poor that, in Florence, he found himself without money 
or means to continue his journey except on foot ; whereupon, the 
bishop of Florence made him a present of a horse. He next met 
with this bishop in Pisa, where the papal court then resided ; 
and here being told that the bishop had a process going on and 
was depending upon his vote, he gave the horse back to him on 
the spot. Bishop Qottfried of Ghartres refused to accept from a 
priest the present of a costly fish, except on condition that he 
might be allowed to pay the price of it. But Bernard, in relat- 
ing these facts, could not help exclaiming, " Does it not seem 
like a story of some other world, that a legate should return with 
his purse empty of gold, from the very land of gold?" He had 
himself to complain of a legate, who, in Germany and France, 
left everywhere behind him the marks of his wickedness,* every- 
where sought to place beautiful boys in high oGBces in the church, 
and everywhere made such exactions, that many preferred pur- 
chating areUaae fromhim, that lie might not near them. Bishop 
Tves of Chartres invites pope Urban the Second to send on a 
legate, because there was special need of a person clothed with 
such authority, when arbitrary will everywhere ruled supreme, 
when there was nothing which any man might not dare to do, and 
dare with impanity; but at the same time, he asked for a legate 
of good name and reputation, who would seek not his own, but 
the things of Jesus Christ." The same bishop wrote to a legate 

1 Qai TDlgus noa spermtnt, tsl docimt, diviln non pnlpeDt, ind lerreant, fflinia 
principam ddd paresDC, aed conttrnDaDt, gloriaDlas, non quad aurloaa aan prptioas 
quaaque in l«min aUulerint, ard quad ruliquariDt pacam rcgnii, la;;eni bnrbaris, quiecpm 
moDHBicriia, eccleaiia ordioem. clericia diaoipliDam. De coaaidNU. 1. ir. o. ii. 

9 Viiopoitolicua tirplevit omoja uoD eiangrlia, aed aacrUagio. Ep. SSO. 

' Ep.L!. 

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a be&ntiAil letter,] TeproTing him for his inconsistency in ze&lonslf 
contending against lay-investiture , vhile he did not give himself 
the least concern with many openly prerailing rices. " He 
Tished," he said, " with many picas men, that the servants of 
the Romish church would, like experienced physicians, seek flret 
to heal the greater disorders, and not giro occasion for their 
banterers to say that they strained at gnats and swallowed 

Under this head hetongs, again, the anthority exercised by the 
Boman curia, as the highest tribunal ; a tribonal to which appeal 
could be made from the whole of Western Christendom, in all 
matters that stood in any relation whatsoerer to the chnrcb. 
Salutary as this branch of the papal anthority, rightly nsed, might 
have proved, it would in the same proportion turn out hurtful, 
when every appeal was received without discriminatioD at Bome ; 
and corruption by bribes, partiality, zeal, — not for justice and 
law, — but only for ambitious projects and the dignity of the church 
of Borne, prevailed there ; when, as men were forced to complain 
was really the case, he who appealed to the ecclesiastical laws 
instead of leaving everything to depend solely on the plenary 
power of the pope, was already pat down as an enemy of that 
chnrch.* In this way, appeals would necessarily result in effects 
directly contrary to the end for which they were instituted. They 
no longer served the purpose of procnring protection for the weak 
and oppressed against the will of the mighty, but much more of 
secnriug for arbitrary power a convenient handle by which to 
thwart the execution of the laws and defeat the ends of justice. 
Every sentence, however just and lawful, could, by an arbitrary 
appeal on the part of him whose selfish interests it opposed, or 
whose sole object it was to revenge himself on an enemy, be either 
reversed, or at least seriously retarded in its execntion. As early 
as the year 1129, Hildebert, bishop of Mans, fonHd cause- for de- 
claring, in a free-spirited letter to pope Honorins the Second, 
that all chnrch discipline would come to an end, all vices must 


t Ym of CbtitrM, «p. 67, F«ttr of Blols, ep. 168 : L«gea et Mnouu et quicqnid da 
•■era «1oquia Bd Doltne pulis BMertioaem polerunua iodDcen, fuDOIUD) et uciilegum 
rrpuutMgt uoiqae hoiics Bomuiae eccletiu pablite judicabant. JJen wrre not (o cilc 
aof eutaaca, or Itgea, but odI; (papaU [rivilegia. 

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get the upper hand, if, as th« ca«e had hitherto been, ererj >[>• 
peal should without distinction be admitted at Rome ; he calls 
upon him to proTide, that appeals without goftd reasons assigned, 
and that aimed only to procure a delay of justice, should be wholly 
rejected^ Bernard adrised pope Eugene the Third not to listen 
to every man's story, but sometimes to strike in with the rod.^ 
Men came at length to perceive, therefore, in Rome itself, the ne- 
cessity of setting limits to arbitrary appeals. The eminent wis- 
dom of Innocent the Third as a ruler, was shown in tliia matter 
as well as in others ; while at the same time, however, his ordi- 
nances testify of the enormous abuses which were practised in the 
matter of appeals.' He directed, at the fourth Laterau council, 
A.D. 1215, that bishops should not be hindered, by any appeal, 
from pnuiahing the transgressions of their subjects, and from the 
reformation of their dioceses, unless they had violated the leg^ 

As by the Hildebrandian system, the whole government of the 
church was placed in the hands of the pope, and the bishops were 
to exercise some part of it only as his instruments ; so it was but 
aconsistent application of the principles contained in that system, 
when bishops, by the act of their institntiou, by the predicates 
they bestowed on themaelves, came to be placed more and more 
in a relation of dependence on these unlimited rulers of the church. 
Had it not been for the reaction of the old ecclesiastical laws, 
which were still valid in church practice, the consequences flow- 
ing out of that system would have been realized much earlier 
than they were. That no choice of a bishop could be valid 
without the pope's confirmation was, properly, but a necessary 
deduction from that system ; still, however, it came to be so con- 
sidered only by slow degrees. Disputes on the choice of bishops 
liimished occasion, for the most part, for the practice of the indi- 

1 Uunloriu sppcOiiliDneg et gaperfluu omoiDo ■ vealn elongendia nae Budiend*. 

i KoD annpa pnebcre BuRin, quae andiil, aed atlqaando >t flagfrllum quad tn'iM. 

* E. g, epp. it. 13. BtiitigniUte jaris plarimi bodie abatsnlFB in sni vrroris defen- 
aianem tMomant, quod in snTUuiDiim fusml revetslioncm invfnlnm, el Dt Biioniin 
■apariornm correciiaiieiii eludaut, eiae causa frequpntpr ad aposwiicim sedem «pp*llanl. 

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vidnaU elected going themselres to Borne to Becore the conflrma- 
tion of their election ; And thna this papal confirmation came 
more and more into use in the course of the thirteenth centnrf. 
The formulary which designated hishops as appointed by the 
grace of God, was increased by adding, " and by the grace of the 
apostolical chair." At length, they were bonnd by oath to snch 
obedience to the popes as vassals paid to their liege lords. This 
oath was similar to. the one which Boniface first took to the pope.' 
From the time of Gregory the Seventh, the Italian metropolitans 
immediately snbordinate to the Ghnrch of Borne, placed them- 
selres under snch an oath ; next, H was required of all metropoli- 
tans that received the pall from Bome ; finally, of al) bishops 
whatsoever. They bound themselves thereby to appear at every 
synod when cited by the popes ; to keep secret whatever might 
be commnnicated to them either orally or in wnting, by the 
popes ; to treat the Boman legates with hononr and respect ; to 
provide them with everything they needed, and in all cases of 
necessity to stand by the popes with force of arms. 

The popes, who at first contended against arbitrary appoint- 
ments to church offices by princes, afterwards became chargeable 
themselves with the same arbitrary mode of procedure, to the 
great injury of the churches. It was first in the twelfth century, 
that they recommended by way of petition, to vacant benefices, 
individuals who had done eminent service for the Bomish church. 
(Their recomtuendations still appear, under the modest name of 
precet; hence the persons recommended are called preeiitae.) 
But in the beginning of the thirteenth century these precis were 
changed into mandata ; and finally, the popes of this century 
took the liberty to supersede all other rights (by the formnla 
" non obetante,') and to promote their favourites to vacant bene- 
fices in whatsoever country they might be found ; insisting, with 
a threat of the ban, that their commands shonM be obeyed, as we 
have seen in the case of Bohert, bishop of Lincoln. Thus could the 
most unfit and the moat unworthy men he promoted to such oflices ; 
boys under age, or at least snch as were entirely ignorant of the 
language and manners of the people, where their field of action 
was assigned ; men, who carried with them, wherever they went. 

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all the Roman corrnption of morals ; or vbo if they preferred to 
enjoy, as absentees, the reTenaes of the beneSces, hired under- 
lings, who performed the spiritnal functions in an altogether me- 
chanical manner. The best ose vhich the popes made of this 
authority vas, when they provided in this way, for men who 
bad done good service in the cnltiration of letters, an appoint- 
ment firee from cares, which they could not otherwise have ob- 

We bare seen already in the preceding period, how the papal 
power was advanced by the selfish interests of subordinate eccle- 
siastical authorities, who sought to make themselves independent 
of their immediate superiors. But when the popes, instead of 
keeping every other authority confined within its appropriate 
limits, and placing themselves in opposition to all arbitrary pro- 
cedures, now sought to grasp all other power for themselves ; 
when, to secure this end, they eagerly complied with the demands 
of those who wished to be freed from the troublesome oversight of 
their immediate superiors, the inevitable resnlt was the destruc- 
tion of all ecclesiastical order, and the promotion of ali licentious- 
ness. Thus abbots procured for themselves the insignia of the 
episcopal office, — sandals, mitre, and crosier ; and privileges of 
exemption in respect to the diocesan authority of the bishops. 
Thus was taken away fVom the bishops the means of watching over 
all that transpired in their dioceses ; and of punishing everything 
bad in them. We have seen on a former page.i how Bernard 
warned the pope against this arbitrary extension of his authority ; 
and many other infiuential voices were heard in like manner to pro- 
test against these exemption -privileges. Thus f res, bishop of 
Chartres,' complains to pope Urban the Second, of a monastery 
which sought to free itself by soch an exemption from the dio- 
cesan oversight of the bishop of Paris, in order that it might anfier 
no disturbance in its licentious doings.' Richard, archbishop of 

1 See ftg» SOI. 

J Ep. 66. 

a LMiaiKtaa'a abbu el ni<iQ>chi ejas, qua ncBcio qua nova ItberUte bum exanaoa 
tneutar, aiaobjeDtionein Pariiienai eccleaiae dcbitam et Luleniu eibibjiam eonin ca- 
nanicam inuitutianem dt ceirioe aaa excatera molinntur. Hae auLem penonae biyut 
modi aont, quibus magii neocanaria eat sabjeelio qnam libertaa, qui liberUW In occi^ 
aianvm caruis abDlanlnr, quibua ai decern millia paedagogoram In Cbriata ad euilodiam 
dapuMTenlDr, vii umen ato regvlarts conlineptiae legibua ligarentiir. 

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Canterbury, in a letter filled with similar complaints, addressed to 
pope Alexander the Third,' qnotes the language of one of these 
abbots who was striving to throw off the regular dependence on 
bis bishop. He said : " The abbots, who do not annihilate the 
authority of the bishops, are poor creatnres ; for, by the annaal 
payment at Home of an onnce of gold, they might obt«n exemp- 
tion." " The abbots," says that archbishop, " exalt themselres 
above their primates and bishops ; and not a man of them is 
willing to pay due regard to his snperior. Thns abbots and monks 
would abandon themselves to all their lasts, with none to remind 
them of their daty, and every species of disorder would spread 
through the monasteries.' If a speedy remedy were not applied 
to this evil, it was to be feared, that as the abbots were exempted 
from the oversight of the bishops, so the bishops would be ex- 
empted from that of the archbishops, and the deans and arch- 
deacons ftom that of their snperiora." " To express our own 
opinion freely," says he, " it does little honour to the pope's jus- 
tice, for him to confer a benefit on one person at the cost of ano- 
ther; to take what is mine, and render himself chargeable with 
doing, in ecclesiastical afi&irs, that which no secular power would 
take the liberty of doing in secular affairs." He reminds him, as 
Bernard had reminded pope Eugene,' of the precept of the apostle 
Paul (Rom. xiit. 1), that every man should be subject to the 
powers that be. " In the human body, one member does not de- 
oline serving another. Among the angels, one desired exemption 
from the divine authority ; and, from an angel, he became a 
devil." He acknowledges, that such exemptions had been origi- 
nally granted to the monasteries to secure quiet for them, to 
protect them against the tyranny of bishops ; but the matter had 
now taken an opposite tarn. Many were at the present time brought 
to ruin by these extraordinary liberties. To be sure, one who so 
firmly resisted the arbitrary proceedings of Rome, would neces- 
sarily draw upon himself the charge of presumption, for daring to 

■ Ep. SB. Among the Uuen of Peter of Bloia. 

1 Abbues exlcrias carem cernis id dolderiii agDDt, non CDrantes, dnmmodo ItiDl* 
enhiboDtur, H flat pax in diebos, eorum cluuatralea rero tanquun ac«]<hall otia Tseint 
et Tuiilaqnto, nee enim preeaidem h*b«ii>, qn< era ad fhigcm vitae melioriB Inclinrl. 
Quodai lumultuasas eorum oonteatiODO audirelu, daiiBlrum non mnllam diflbm pal*- 

■ S«e ibote, page 201. 

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attack the sacred aathority of the pope.' Peter of Bloie congra- 
tulates his brother, an abbot, who had received fVom the pope 
those badges of the episcopal dignity, together vith the exemp- 
tion, on the promotion he had obtained ; but at the sametime ex- 
presses his dissatisfaction that be should eoDsent to wear the 
signs of a dignity which belonged only to the bishop, and which, 
on another ftinctionary, saTonred of ranity and arrogance.' He 
tells him that disobedience to hie iawrul superior was not to be 
ezcnsed, even by the papal priTiteginm ; for a pririlege bestowed 
by a man could avail nothing against the dirine order.' That 
pions theologian of Paris, who was so zealous in opposing the 
abuses of the chnrch, near the close of the twelfth century, 
Peter Cantor, expresses a fear that such partial exemptions and 
partitions, would pave the way for the nnirersa] downfall of the 
spiritnal empire of Rome, which was to take place in the last 
times.* It is singular, however, at the same time, to observe 
bow this man, otherwise so liberal- minded, — in intimating, that 
by such a mode of procedure the whole ancient constitution of the 
chnrch was overthrown, and everything made solely and directly 
dependent on the supreme anthority of the pope, — yet, at the 
same time, feels constrajned to defend himself against the charge 
of violating the papal majesty ; declaring that, beyond a doubt, 
no person was competent to judge over the pope, and that the 
apostolical chair, which could not err, may perhaps have acted in 
such things by a particular illnmination. We might be almost 
tempted to regard such declarations as irony, if the whole tone of 
the work, and of the passage in question, did not contradict such 
a supposition.* 

1 De fialo BDinmi pontiflcia dispulBBse el BaoriltgiBm cominiBisM dicemur; leromta- 
mi'D noil eat vqaa diapuutlo, ubl sustinenti reapondere iion Ucf^t 

1 Inaignii fipiwapalu Fminentiac in ablmt* n»c ipprobo neo *a«pto. Mitn (Dim et 
aunoliu Bique laQdalis in ilio qnam Id episoopo qDudim Haperbs «luio eal el pne- 
samptuoaa OBleuUlio librnatl". F.p. 90. 

1 Nee bItndittDr sib) aliquis, quod jjrr prlvitepum RoDiinM eceltsile ab inobedivDlia 
eicDBFlur. Si enini praecipit Deus H alind iodulgel el pnecipil bomo, abcdieudum eat 
Deo pottoi qoain liomiDi. 

< Venudmn rat. ne hae Memplionea et diiiiianea partienUrea iiiii(in*alem bciaat 
diriaionnB a BomaDO regno (piriliiali, qaaa fasla «at jam as parta a Homaao i^no 
mitariBli. SThoiB. Ji.S. See Pttri CaDloria verbnm abbreiiatam. Uonliboi, ISSS, 
p. 114. 

^ 3ed dioelut inibi. Pa. Iliii. Oa lunm ponii in ooalum, Beapondeo : non. Hoc au- 
tem non aaaerendo, aed opponeodo induco, Non enim lioet mibi dione domino p«pK : 

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Id France, some afler-effects of that spirit of chorch freedom, 
Thich we obserred there in the eariier ceoturie^ still manifested 
themselTes in the way in which the chnrch of this country sought 
to preaerre itself hy the so-called pragmatic sanction, enacted 
by king Louis the Ninth, in the year 1268, against several of 
the oppressive and restrictive measures which have jnst been 

The change which had taken place in the sapreme government 
of the church, necessarily brought along with it a change also in 
many things connected with legislation, in all parts of the chnrch ; 
and hence, the old collections of ecclesiastical laws no longer met 
the existing want^. Ever since, the pseudo-Isidorian decretals 
began to be received as valid, men would already come to be 
sensible of this. The collision between the old and the new 
church legislation wonld occasion considerable embarrassment. 
Since the establishment of the validity of those decretals, several 
new collections of ecclesiastical laws had, it is true, been formed ; 
•s, for example, that of Regino, abbot of Friim, in the tenth, and 
that of Burkhard, bishop of Worms, and that of Yves, bishop of 
Cbartres, in the eleventh century ; but still, these collections did 
not prove adequate to do away that contrariety. Add to this, 
that the new papal chnrch system needed some counterpoise 
j^ainst a tendency which threatened to become dangerous to it. 
In the twelfth century, great enthusiasm was excited for the 
renewed study of the Boman law, by the fomous Irnerine(Cluame- 
rins), at the university of Bologna ; and this study led to investi- 
gations and doctrines which were quite unfavonrable to the inte- 
rests of the papacy. Even Imerins stood forth as an ally of the 
imperial power, in the contest with the papacyj and it was, in 
l^ct, the famous teachers of law at that university, who were em- 
ployed by the emperor Frederic the First, to investigate and de- 
fend his rights at the diet of Boncola. The more eager. there- 
Car lU hois ? SMrilrgiam culm tat, open eya rrdargiiece ct Titnpmre. Verurrtanifn 
horuiD lolalionrm teI qui rattune lii obvietar, son Tidfo. Siia aDlnn, quii ancloriiiite 
MDoDi* letaria Tfl noti non fit bqjnnnDdi dJTiiio «t aiemptio in ecilnit *eil gpeciali 
anctoriute sedis ipoMoliou, qaun nan {wtitcir Domian* «nn. FoTM taim inslinclu 
etruniliu'i cooailio Spiriiui stncCi l«geqa« priTBtBdDaUbDaheit,tiealSimp«i>D8CcuDt 
bottibai occidil, aed tie ■nbtati aunt ronanlM at proconaulea ie mtdio, nl pauoa tcI 
nulla inpenDt H omnia Cnaat sic, qai omnia aiont omnibaa impenc 

I Landolph. Junior, biot. Hcdiolan. a. trx. Unnwri aoriptor. rer. Italicar. 1. 1., I. 


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fore, would be the hierarchic^ party to oppose that hostile 
tendency, by setting np another, in defence of their own intereste 
and principles, Uiroagh the study of ecclesiastical law, fVom an 
opposite point of view. Thus it came about that — at the famoos 
eeat itself of the atndy of the Roman law — at Bologna, about the - 
year 1151, a Benedictine, or according to another accouot, a Ca- 
maldulensian monk, Qratian, arranged a new collection of eccle- 
siastical laws, better suited to the wants of the chnreh, and to the 
scientific taste of these times. As the title itself indicates, 
" Concordia ducordantUun canoTOtm," old and new ecclesiastical 
laws were here bronght together, their differences discussed, and 
their reconciliation attempted, — a method similar to that em- 
ployed by Peter Lombard in handling the doctrines of faith. This 
logical arrangement and method of reconciliation, supplied a wel- 
come nutriment to the prevailing scientific spirit. From that time 
the study also of canon law was pnrsned with great zeal, and the 
two parties called the Legists and the Decretists arose, — Gratian's 
collections of laws being denominated simply the " Decreium 
Gratiani." The zeal with which the study of civil and ecclesi- 
astical law was pursued had, however, this injurious efiect, that 
the clergy were thereby drawn away from the study of the Bible, 
and from the higher, directly theological, interest, and their whole 
life devoted solely to these pursuits.^ 

But still, the contrariety between the old and the new eccle- 
siastical laws could not be got rid of by this attempt at reconci- 
liation. Many doubts and difficuUies arose from tlus cause ; and 
the popes were applied to for a decision of the contested ques- 
tions which resulted therefrom. In the laws enacted by them, 
the ecclesiastical law received great additions ; as, for example, 
in the decisions of Innocent the Third, in particular, which formed 
a rich storehouse for that code. But a twofold injury resulted. 
An intermediate authority was wanting, to introduce the new 
papal laws at once into the practice of the church ; and, in the 
twelfth century, many bulls were interpolated, under the name of 
the popes, to subserve particular interests. People returning from 
a pilgrimage to Rome, brought with them interpolated bulls, and 

1 Pelrr Cidiot enuplain* in hii Tcibum abbKTiilam, c It : Omiui* utlbns libenli- 

bu> CMleatibaaqne dMoipUnls omne' rndiunm legunl et foreiuia quBarant, Bl gtnium al 
lucrum mejidicsnt. Compue, In the leucnof PeUf de Bloi^epiiilca 7S kdJ 1«). 

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put them in circalation.' la the time of Innocent the Third, ft 
forger of this sort had the boldness to appear in Sweden, in the 
character of a papal legate.^ There were ecclesiastics who had 
acqoired a pecaJi&r knack in imitating papal bnlU, and pnshed a 
lacratiTe business in that line.* Thus many bad things conld ba 
done in the name of the popes, for which they were not in the 
least responsible, — an eril of which Innocent the Third felt it ne- 
eesaary to complain.* In England, near the close of the twelfth 
eentnrr, the ban vas for this reason pablicly prononnced on falsi- 
fiers of the bnlls.^ In order to suppress these pemiciona acts of 
imposture. Innocent the Third enacted laws, whereby' snch im- 
postors were condemned to serere pnnishments, and the marks 
of distinctioQ between gennine and nngennine bulls accurately 
defined.* Hence, the still greater need of a new and duly ac- 
credited collection for ecclesiastical law, in which the genuine 
laws might be found brought together. After many previous 
attempts to supply this want, pope Gregory the Ninth, in the 
year 1234, cansed snch a digest to be formed by the general of 
the Dominicans, Raymund a Penneforte.^ 

1 lDnaceDiibeTbiid,spp.I. ii.,ep.29. 
1 L. c. I. yi^ tp. 10. 

* Jacob of Vilrj (see iDte, ptfs 80), qudm unoDg tbc b4d maolu iDd clergr, wbo 
(o«k all •otu of libcnj to gratify thsir cnpidilj, thaw qai Mniiornin erimen peuimoia 
inoimntes. filaii lilerii (t bnllil fnrLiTU in pentiliDaem ntl nou vireutur. HUC ooci- 
denul, c nJx. 

* IddoccdIIII. (I. Lcp. 23S) uji: Dnnoepc muidua M inUitatiDim iDterdnm Ini- 
^Du 1 wdB ipMloUca tiDUure multl tif udb( e( miraiUBT et in bocci eidpcm impoainl, 
in quo •inoeritu ejiu oulpu proraus igDura per ianoceutiuD eicuauur. 

. > LttUnotPttrrit Blali,«p. 63. It ia bcra aiud, in id orijinucg inu^ bjBichud, 
■rchbiibop of Cinteibur]' : Quonlam in bia partibu* pabliea hluriorum psalia obrepsit, 
qai bnltia adDlWiiniaet lilcria aalnmnia* inoDoentibin moiEBt el glatnm juue powi- 
dcnlium anbTUtera nolitiiituc. And eg. 68 i FalMrioram prtealigiDU maiilit iu in 
epixoaponiDi Mmuuueliun ae inniTil, ut hlaiua iu amDinm fen monaaleriorun) eicmp- 
tloDe pnavdeaL In Un Uam ot Jobn of Saliaburj, ep. S3 : Hi^ga aigilU camptio 
suiienalia tcdeaiia pvriculum ett, earn ad uoiua aignaCDli nolun aolvi tt oUadi 
poaaiut qaominllbct on poDiificum et culpa quaalibet impnuiu perlranseal et Inno- 
erulia condFmnatnr. Unde in eoa, qai boo aucnUra pnwaomunl, luiniadTertaDdum 
«al aicDt in boslea poblicoa at totiua ecdtaine, quantam in ipai> esl, anbvereom. On 
the Enfflo pnnuad wilb tlina forgeriaa, •«, rnriberon, Uia leUerufStepban ofToDrnar, 

ii pope ilrcad; rafemd lo, 

a i 

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It vas by the degeneracy of the clergy and the confusion ex- 
isting in all part« of the chnrch-constitntion, that the refarmiDg 
tendencies of the Hildebrandian epoch bad been called forth. A 
part of the abases which had crept in, those which the rode 
arbitrary proceedings of monarchs had introduced, were Tery 
thoroughly counteracted by the triomph of the Hildebraodian 
system ; a great zeal for the reformation of the clergy and of the 
church life, after the pattern of the primitive apostolical ohnrch, 
as it presented itself to the imaginaticHi of the men of this period, 
commenced from this epoch. A bond of union was here pre- 
sented between tU the opponenta of the reigning corruption, all 
men in all the churches who were zealous for a strict severity of 
morals among the clergy, and the worthy celebration of the offices 
of worship. The provost Gerhoh of Reichersberg representA, as 
a work of the same spirit, the enthusiasm tor the crusades; the 
leal of monasticism now carried to an unusual height, and for tfae 
renovated canonical mode of living together ; the multitudes who 
contended with secular, and the other mnltilndcs who contended 
with spiritual weapons for the same holy object.i From this 
epoch began a tierce struggle between the smaller number of the 
more strict ecclesiastics who were disposed to favouT reform, and 
the great majority who followed only their pleasures. 

But the measures applied by Gregory the Seventh and his 
successors, were by no means calculated to produce a lasting 
effect on the Tast multitude who were not themselves affected by 
this spirit of reform. By laws of celibacy, chastity and purity of 
manners could not be forced on the clergy : men contented them- 
selves with a seeming obedience, and those to whom a regular 
marriage was not allowed, abandoned themselves, in private, to 
excesses so much the worse, — sought in gorgeous apparel, out- 

1 He Mr>: Est gnmde ■peoUaiilnm, videre bine milites in cunpo pagnanlc* due* 
Joint, bine veto bsalam Augaitinam qaui *1lerDm Aron (tipatum Lavjija et Mnetam 
Btimlicluiii qaisi Hnr, Eiod. xilL 12. itipitum raligioiii Diaoubis oraDtra; — ud 
igtiD : Uioc poiC longua simaDiaii hiemem Teniili luniULe spinuu iFflOKUil vjoca 
Dominic*, CDnBtiCDDnlur DOC nobiR et lesodochia et nova ciebreuuiU Itudtim MDtim. 
Id Pa.ixxii.Pei tbeaauniB anecdotor. noTiuimas, t. t., f. 7M. 

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ward splendour,^ rereliy, aod noisy amnsemeDts, an iodenini- 
fication for the enjoyments of domestic life, which were forbidden 
them. The dissolation of the canonical life continoally went on 
increasing. The prebends were by many considered aa only a 
means of good liring, and they either did not concern themselves 
at all about the ecclesiaaticol functions incumbent on them, or 
performed them in a mechanical way, without derotion or dignity, 
or else got them performed by hireling' job-working eubstitutes* 
Those who would not follow the example of the rest, who exhi- 
bited in their whole manner of life a seriousness corresponding to 
their Tocation, who dared to converse aboot spiritaal things, wer^ 
decried by the latter as singnlar fellows and pietists ;* or, if they 
▼entnred to stand forth as censors, exposed themselres to hatred 
and persecution ; for men dreaded a spirit of reform supported 
by popes and monarchs which might bring down a severe chas- 
tisement on the heads of the corrupt clergy. " Behold," said the 
others, " how this man depaxta tVom onr customs ; he wants to 
convert us into monks. We must at once take onr stand against 
him. If we do not, it will go with us as it has done with others 
before us. The pope and the king will unite against us, they 
will deprive us of our livings, and other fashions will be intro- 
dneed here. We shall become a laughing-stock to all the 

When the popes had succeeded in banishing the direct and 

1 Id oppoailion to tbcie, >ge, e. g. the abbot Bernard of CburrHi, ep. 2, { 11 : Coo- 
cedituT Libi, ut >i b«Qe de»niii, de iltario viiaa, non aatem, ut de •Itaiio luXDrisriB, ul 
de alurio snperbiu, ut iode coDipara tibi thtna aarea, lellBS depictai, calouia deorgen. 
lata, varia griseaqua pellic«a a nollo et maDibui omata parpureo divenificata. 

> We bave an example inacburoh otUubtiiD In Iha twellUieennirj, in tb* accannl of 
UiH life of bishop U bald, written by hb ineenaor Tebald : Nulla tone lemporii oriinia 
oliaervantia, nulla pronaa nligionia ODlebalor memoria. Hercede annuaarat sondDrtui, 
quicampanaa palaarel ia hnra olBoiarnm et qnia cluricammnnuaquiaqaain dumo propria 
epulabatur et dortnieba^ tou ten obacrrantia eoeleaiaBtioi culUu cattodiebatnr in palan 
nolanim. Sea Acta Sanctor. Mena. Uq. t. iii., t 631. 

1 Clerici condDotores aod oondnctitli, aa Ocrhob lajs in bil Dialog, de diArratia 
olsrici aarcnlarii M If gularia. Pm tbea. aneod. noriaa. t. ii.,f.4B2. 

* Si non facia, inod caeteti, de aingnlaritate uotabor. Bcrnaid-ep. 3,^ II. 

* Bee life of lb« abbot William Roakild, who belonged la the lime* of pope Innocent 
tbe Tbiid, in tbe Actia SancUr. U. April, L i., I. 636 ; and what Jagob of Vltrr aajg of 
ttaoBS ooTTOpt MOleaiaatiea: Hi aotem, qui intei eoa >iri jnatl H timorati snpar abflmi- 
nationibni eorum Ingent et eontriatantnr, ab Ita iiridentur. Hypoorilaa et aapefttiljoaoa 
dionnt, repalantea pro magna edmina, quod diTinae aeriplnrae ■erbam vel ipeuoi Dei 
Doman inter eoe aiul annt uoDioare. Hiit. oooidentaL e. izx. 

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arbitrary jnflneDce of the priDces on ecclesiastical appointments, 
another not less pernicious node of arbitrary proceeding often 
took the place of that vhieh had been suppressed. The bishops 
and chapters of the cathedral often suffered tbemselyes to be de- 
termined by family interests and worldly considerations more thaa 
by any concern for the good of the chuuh. The older ecclesiasti- 
cal laws respecting the canonical age were neglected, and boys 
nnder age promoted to the first offices of the church^ Canonical 
priests made it a mle amongst themselves, that none bat persons 
of noble birth shoald join their class,' and so the ostentatiooB 
display and Inxnnoos modes of liring practised in the higher ranks, 
were introdnced amongst the clergy. Nepotism, and the spirit 
of gain, led to the aecamnlation of several benefices often involr- 
ing the duties of incompatible callings on obs person. Bespect- 
ing the so-called plurality of benefices, and the non-reudeace of 
clergymen near the chnrch with which their official dnties wer« 
connected, varions complaints were offered. Feter Cantor, in the 
work wherein he combats the ecclesiastical abnses of his times,* 
resents it that, in a respectable church, the five offices of greatest 
income had been given to absentees.' The popes Alexander the 
Third and Innocent the Third, passed laws at the Lateran gene> 
ral conncils, in the years 1179 and 1215, for the suppression of 
the above-mentioned abnses ; bat, by all the outward measures 
that were applied, little conld be effected, so long as the sources 
of the evil were still left behind ; and the bad example which the 
arbitrary proceedings of succeeding popes presented, wonM only 
contribute to promote snch abuses. Bishops, who had the good 

> TtwuofdioTBrrDiidliibi* tnM,I>« olBdo epiBcopornm, c. lii.: Scbalirw pnari 
(t ImpatMnaadoleaccDlcaobunentiiis digniuun pramoTeDtiir id enolniMtien dip 
nilaWaet <l< anb {null tnnihnintur id prinoipaDdum pretbjterii, laMlorei iotniaii 
qpod firgn eTuerint qnun qnod merueriDI priodpitiun. Tli< compliiati tn Ptta d« 
Blri*,ep>60: Episcaporum neqnitit, qui aim pannliim promotioBMn mnL^dFo linga. 
Uriler occopMi, ul nihil tlind efficient lat lomDietit, tlqne indigntiui Msbalarimm t*1 
in medio liiiUtioM Dan releicni. PurpnnU ioceodit pmotela pontiBenBi etelaUde 
pttrinoDio craciflii in mpCTbia et in ibBiioDc id omnes vitie M*ctrivi( illecebnu ■• 

1 B«e e. g. Tie^ leltrai, ep. ISS. 

> Tb« Verbom AbbreTiiium, tlrmdjr wTsnl timet nfemd to. 

4 Fro qalbua (ndilibns) pereepti* in ea nee par Tinrium dm per ■liam MTTitur. 
Nod dleo, uuu raiiunu, dod Icgilar tuMm, Md b«o etiun coniiliii cjaa hiibu'iiu, 
qalpF* nolla pnMnttDm q«iB(ll# wtD«l in •ano pneirDi in n iBTtiDitBr- I. c. «. 

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of tbeir eommnnities at heart, as, for example, Robert Grosshead, 
ve hear complaiDJng bitterly on this sabject.* 

Id the contest with the great masa of the secularised clergy 
stood forth, in the twelfth century, men who sought to bring back 
the old canonical life to a still greater degree of strictness, to re- 
form the clerical body stiJI more according to the pattern of the 
monastic life. Snch a man was Norbert, the founder of a new 
and peculiar congregation, which became a place of refuge for 
many who were dissatisfied with the then existing condition of 
the clergy. Of him we shall have to speak more at lai^e in the 
history of monastieism. But there were also Other men of the 
more rigid tendency, who professed no wish of founding a new 
institution, but only desired to bring back the clergy to a mode 
of life and of association corresponding to their original destina- 
tion. Among these the individnal of whom we hare so often 
spoken as an enthusiastic champion of the Hildebrandian system, 
the proTost Gerhoh of Beichereberg, deserres particularly to be 
mentioned. The greatest part of his life was spent ia struggling 
for the reformation of the clenta ;' and the storms which agitated 
that body proceeded from this rery cause ; he is in this respect to- 
be compared with Katherius.^ The apostolical community of 
goods, as men conceiTcd it, was to him the type of the nnion which 
ought to exist amongst the clergy. The rule ascribed to Angns- 
tin, he represented as the law for the community of the clergy ; 
they should own no sort of properity ; strangers to all luxury and 
splendour, they should be contented with the simple necessaries 
of life. It was what Arnold of Brescia wanted to bring about, 
only in a more liberal spirit. To the clerical rule drawn np at 

1 Bee his latter to hU irchdeMoll, «p. 107, in Brown, id wliich he cdli apon him to 
eMrobe UTn'tlT tovardB the cltrg; vbo neglecMd llrair duty, and oompltiiia or their 
incoDliiviltliTH, tbeir voriitlj punniti, lud thnrlriSing imiueiiiFDte: £i nlstu fida 
digDO aadiTJaiua, qnod plnrinii aMetdoM ■rebidiiiMnata* ireitrl bona canoDicu lot nau 
dkuDt Mil oorrapte dieuot, el Id qnod dieunt bidb omni dsTolioD* eat devotibnif aigno, 
Imo migia cam eiidetiti oalrnaiane animl indeTotl dicnnt DM borun ohaemnt in 
diwDdo, que oommodior lit parochitnli ed aDdlendiim dirina led qnaa eorom ptna 
coBaoutt UbidlncMae deaidiae. Hibent iniaper •ii» toaulae, qaod elai noa et noslro* 
bleat aDm inqaieitionai iDpcrqunnodi fieri feoimna, hii perqaoa Bunt liiiiDiaitiDBea 

> He bae himaelf related the hiatory ot his conleati with bishopa, aanonioala, and 
pd]Maa,inbiBComnMDUrj en the Pialnu. See P«i thee, ineed. iioTiaa. t. * . 2030, 

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Aix-Ia-Cbapelle,i Gerhob referred back, as a lu nie, ori^Datii^ 
in the court of a prince, not in the chsrch.' Considered from this 
point of Tiev, those eccleaiaatics alone, who subjected themulres 
to this stricter rule, were recognized as genaine c&nonicala, as 
clerici regvlaret ; all the rest were placed in the class of irregt*- 
lares sMealarea, secular clergjmeii. Bnt among the latter, too, 
there was a great dirersitf as to their habits of liring. This, 
even the zealous adrocate of the stricter role, the proTost Qerhoh, 
little as he was inolined to allow them dne justice, was forced to 
acknowledge.* There were amongst the secular clergy men of 
spiiitoal feelings ; and a distinction is to be made between thoee 
whom the love of freedom, and those whom an inclinatioo to 
licentiousness led to choose this mode of life ; of which latter 
Jacob of Vitry says, that they were very properly called canornot 
Baeculares, becanse they belonged entirely to the aaecalum, to 
the world, but that they were incorrectly styled canoni<^, for they 
led a life altogether without rule or law.* 

It so happened in tke twelftli and thirteenth centuries, that, 
from tke body of these secular clergymen, came iodiridnals 
awakened to repentance by peculiar impressions upon their 
minds ; filled with abhorrence of the worldly pnrsuits of the 
clergy, they turned all at once to an entirely different mode of 
life. The duties of the spiritual calling, their guilt in baring 
hitherto so neglected them, pressed with tbeir whole weight np<Hi 
their consciences. They felt constrained to exert themselres the 
more earnestly to make good their own deficiencies, and to exhort 
clergy and laity to repentance and to a serious Christian deport- 
ment. They travelled round as preachers of repentance ; by their 
words of exhortation, coming warm fVom the heart, many were 
moTed, awakened to remorse for tbeir sins and to resolutions of 
amendment ; though the powerful impressions of the moment did 

1 VoLti.,p. 19*. 

1 Illun clericornm Tegalm, ooo in ecoI««i«,i«d in inli^ngli dieuum. Id Pi. i»u. 

B He M J) : Non eoe omnM dunn«nin>, onm ei ipaii agiiMeiniiii illqaot, lIcM pan- 
co!, fsge iU diMJpliuatM, at lioet halxant propriR, quui non hibsiilea, b^winl et et 
>iDd»nliDncUiii<]>monimdiiciplint. TaPi.IiTiL, l.o.f. 135a 

* From (bit better oltu ha diMingniaba Ihaaa i Holti auleoi temparjbaa lalla rep«~ 
riuDtur cuODid Tcro nomina aucolarea, quonm ngula nt, iiregalariuc Titan, c- 

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not always endure. A circle of young men vas formed around 
them, and they became the objects of enthnBiastic Teneration ; 
b; which, howerer, such of them as lacked firmness of Christian 
character might easily be intoxicated, and quitting the paths of 
humility and discretion, be led into dangerous self-delusions ; so 
that what had begun in a holy enthusiasm might gradually be- 
come ritiated by the intrusion of impure motives. 

Near the close of the twelfth century, a great stir was produced 
in France by a person named Fnlco. He was one of the ordinary, 
igaorant, worldly-minded ecclesiastics, the priest and parson of a 
country town not far from Paris. Afterwards be experienced a 
change, of the nature we haTo described ; and as he hud before 
neglected bis flock, and injured them by bis bad example, so now 
he sought to build them up, by his teaching and example. But 
he soon became painfully sensible of his want of that knowledge 
which he had taken no pains to acquire, but which was now in- 
dispensable to him in order to instruct his community. In order 
to supply as far as possible this deficiency, be went on week-days 
to Paris, and attended the lectures of Peter Cantor, a theologian 
distinguished for his peculiar scriptural bent and his tendency to 
practical reform ; and of the knowledge here acquired he availed 
himself, by elaborating it into sermons, which he preached on 
Sundays to bis flock. These sermons were not so much distin- 
guished for profoundness of thoi^;ht, as for their adaptation to the 
common understanding and to the occasions of practical life. He 
was a man of the people, and the way in which he spoke made 
what he said still more impressire than it would otherwise have 
been. Hence, when others delirered his copied discourses OTer 
again, tbey failed of producing the same effects.' At first, neigh- 
bouring clergymen inrited him to preach before their congrega- 
tions. Next, he was called to Paris, and he preached not only in 
churches, but also in the public places. Professors, students, 
people of all ranks and classes, flocked to hear him. In a coarse 
cowl, girt about with a thong of leather, be itinerated as a 
preacher of repentance through France, and fearlessly denounced 
the reigning vices of learned and unlearned, high and low. His 
words often wrought such deep compunction, that people scourged 

1 3m die woida of Jaoob of Vilry: Qaic Umrn nan hsiipiebuil in ilUriiu ore neo 
Untun froctlBcfbaDt »b dils prMdinU. Biac wddenuL f. 287. 

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tbemselTes, threv themselres on the gronnd before bim, confessed 
their bjdb before all, and declared themselres ready to do anythinir 
he might direct in order to reform their lires, and to redress the 
wrongs vhieh they bad done. Usnrers restored back the interest 
they bad taken ; those who, in times of scarcity, had stored np 
large quantities of grain to sell again at a greatly adranced price, 
threw open their granaries. In sach times be fVequently ex- 
claimed : " Oire food to him who is perisbii^ with bnnger, or 
else tboa perisbest thyself." He announced to the eom-dealeis 
that before the coming harrest tbey wonld be forced to sell cheap 
their stored-vp grain ; and cheap it soon became in consequence 
of bis own annnnciation. Unltitndes of abandoned women, who 
lired on the wages of sin, were conrerted by him. For some he 
obtained hnsbands ; for others he founded a nnnnery. He ex- 
posed the impnre morals of the clergy; and the latter, seeing the 
finger of every man pointed agunst them, were obliged to sepa- 
rate Arom their concnbines. A curse, that fell (Vom his lips, spread 
alarm like a thunderbolt. People whom he so addressed were seen 
to fall like epileptics, foaming at the month and distorted with 
coninlsions. S.ach appearances promoted the faith in the super- 
natural power of bis words. Sick persons wero brought to him 
iVom all quarters, who expected to be healed by his touch, by his 
blessing ; and wonderful stories were told of the miracles thus 
wrought.' Men were so eager to obtain a fragment of his cloth- 
ing, in order to preserve it as a miracle-working relic, that the 
very garments he wore on hia person were often rent in pieces by 
the multitude. It required strong qualities of mind for a man not 
to be hnrried by snch extravagant veneration paid to himself, 
into self-forgetfulness and spiritual pride. Pressed by the multi- 
tude, in danger of being crushed, Fulco would swing his staff 
with snch violence around him as to wonnd many within its 
sweep. But the wounded never uttered a mnrmnring word ; they 
kissed the blood as it streamed forth under the blow, as if they 
had been healed by the rongh touch of the h<4y man. A person 
having once rent a fragment from his garment, eai^ he to the 
multitude : " Tear not my apparel which has not been blessed," 

1 DnarriDg of natioe tn Hit words ot itroh at Vilrj: Taoli infinnonini fi eontm 
qui MM affenlMiit, ml fides et dnotio, quod ddd lolam ttni Vti DMiitia, trdfimm 
ipiTilui ttfidtl Hon kuiidiiif ji ntagxituiint plum unurenliir. 

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and signing ihe cross, he prononnced a blessing on the raiment 
of the indiridnal vho had torn the (Vagment h-om his ova, and 
this was nov immediately divided np into small pieces, which 
were looked upon as relics. At length he stood forth as a preacher 
of the crusades. A great deal of money was sent to him, which 
he divided amongst the crusaders ; yet the Tast collections which 
he made injured his reputation.^ 

The personal influence of this man, who stood prominent nei- 
ther by his talents nor his ofScial station, gare birth to a new 
life of the clergy, a greater teal in discharging the dsties of the 
predicatorial office and of the cnre of Bonis, both in France and in 
England. Yonng men, who, in the stndy of a dialectic theology at 
the Unirersity of Paris, had forgotten the obligation to care for the 
saWation of sonls, were touched by the discourses of this nnleamed 
itinerant, and trained by his instmmentality into zealons preachers. 
He formed, and left behind him, a peculiar school ; he sent his 
disciples over to England, and his example had a stimnlating 
effect even on such as had never come into personal contact with 
him. " Many," says Jacob of Vitry,* " inflamed witli the fire of 
love, and incited by his example, began to teach and to preach, 
and to lead not a few to repentance, and to snatch the souls of 
unners from destruction." 

One man of learning, in particular, belonging to the Unirersity 
of Paris, the magister Peter de Busia (or de fiossiaco), attached 
himself, as a preacher of repentance, to Fulco, and produced great 
effects. But his preaching procured for him rich presents and great 
narks of honour ; he proved unfaithful to his missionary calling by 
accepting a place as canonical priest and chancellor of the church 
at Chartres. Snch a change in this man made an nnfavourable 
impression on those who were accustomed to reverence in Fnlco's 
disciples only preachers glowing with lore for the salvation of the 
sonls of their brethren. An historian of these times remarks, in 
speaking of the great activity of the above-mentioned preacher, 
* "He who would know in what temper each man preached, mast 

1 jRcobni dc Vitriaca hiat. occideoUL e. Ti., cU.j where w* flod tliealorj related fa 
fUlL Bigord de gesiis PLilipni Angusii, u the jeullOe, and lbs ToUoving. UhiIww 
or Pirii, je*t im, r. IM. 

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look to the end ; for the end most clearly reveals the disposition 
of the man."' 

These preachers of repentance and reform, who came forth from 
the rery hody of the clergy, might be led on by their pious ze^ 
to examine into the gronnds and canees of the corruption which 
they attacked, and to inqnire more profoundly into the goepel 
truth which was opposed to it. In this way a class of men might 
be raised np who wonid attack the reigning church system, as we 
shall see in the fourth section, relating to the history of sects. 

We most here repeat what we have already said in an earlier 
period, cooceming the exactions and tyranny of the archdeacons,^ 
who endeavoured to build np an authority independent of the 
bishops;' although there were those, too, who distinguished 
themseWes by self-denying love in a devoted and assiduous dis- 
cbarge of the dnties of their calling, by unwearied zeal and disin- 
terestedness in making their tours of visitation amongst the 
communities intrusted to their care; men who expended their 
regular incomes in works of beneficence, and who remained poor 
in very profitable offices ; men who, stafi* in hand, travelled over 
their dioceses on foot, preaching the word in every place.* To 
oppose, however, the arbitrary proceedings of those archdeacons 
who abused their authority, the bishops, in the coarse of the 
twelfth century, employed other proxies in the administration of 
their jurisdictions, under the name of qfidalet. This title was 
applied at first in a more general sense, to denote those who, 
under varions relations, served as deputies and agents of the 
bi&hops, and had to manage** various .kinds of bosiness in their 
names.) Somewhat later, those who served as deputies of the 

1 Vol. T. p. 142. 

1 £■ g. John of Baliabnrf, ep. 60, coDceraEog the rabiei archdiuMinorum: Aliomm 
(riMilU ID Mrdm gaadiuni cedil, In quoruni manibtu in[qalutei nml, st ainktn eornm 
■HI nplew »t miiD«rlbu sat InlifaL Hue onim hominain monitn deitm ddd ha. 
beDL SicDi enim qoidun iu Tinulii ciccdtio unbideilrl suut, >io iiti imbilaeti confiii- 
cuDMT $b *vmrilitet npiaa. 

4 Al i« niated ofaa ucbdMCOl], H«irilia>, Id tbe dioecM of Tropes, ncirthe begiiu 
ning at the thirtsenth ccDtniy, b; Thomu CinlipnteBU, in bu Sonum UmTendt, 


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bishops in the citre of sodIb,' and in the proper spiritnal jaiisdic- 
tion — sach officers as Innocent the Third, at the fourth Lateran 
council, in 1216, ordered to be appointed for the beneSt of the 
larger dioceses neglected by the vorldJy-minded bishops^ — were 
distinguished under the name of vicarii, from the ojiciales, so 
called in the narrower sense, to whom was intrusted a coercive 
joriadiction. But though a check was thus placed on the arbi- 
trary authority which the archdeacons had arrogated to themselres, 
and the authority of the bishops preserred gainst encroachments, 
yet the communities gained nothing thereby. In place of the 
exactions, which the archdeacons had taken the liberty to make 
on their own score, came others of a different sort, which were 
practised by the officials, as the organs of the bishops, for the 
enriching of themselres ; so that Peter of Blois, in the last times 
of the twelfth century, could call these officials by no better 
name than bishops' bloodsuckers ;* and Peter Cantor complains 
that the bishops gave themselres but little concent about the 
men to whom they committed the care of souls, but looked more 
sharply after those officials in the more limited sense of the word, 
by whom their coffers were filled. From this, it was quite CTident 
how little they lored the souls of men, and their Sariour and upper 
Shepherd ; how much, on the other hand, they lored money.* 

wcightj, 0. iiiT. He dUtlogaiah«i ui> gtnsra offlDiiliaai : 1, eoaresior, cai epiwapai 
TiotB BQU Id spiriltulibai, ia anlicnilla ooaftuianibiualciiraiidU ■Bim^nBcoinmiUit ; 
3, qnuator piUtJi aoi, deeinuB, irchipreabjlerel hnjiisaiadi, qui Inciemralb etftofae- 
tibas cnaBirnm el negotionim epiMopipeifuet nsAu inrigUant; 8, pnepoaitus rnnilli 
piimiu, Ua deaigiiaMs u qamtoi uid prttepoiitna, tncb u bad to aiimlnitter tlie 
eoerciTe juriadiction of the biabop, ind nho were ifLerwards dUlnd ufficiaiet in the 
•trioter Hpnae of Ibe word. 

1 ThMe wbom Peter CiDlor deaigDatn iritb the title of ai^feMores. 

> PneeiptniDa tarn in eel];cdndibaa, quam In aliia ronTeDtnaiibus ecclfslia viroe ido' 
neea ordiniri, quos epiacopL poaaini ciia4jutorea et eooperatorea habere, Don •olam io 
prardi ratio D is offlcio, T«ram eliam in andiendii confenaJDnibus et poenitsnliia iqjnn- 
gendia ae caeteria, quae ad salatem pertinent animaram, c. i. 

1 Tota offlolalts inlantio eat, nt ad op'ua epiaeopi auaa jurbdiDtloni commisaas miaer- 
Timla ovea qptsi Tka illius londeat, emDngat, ezcoriet. lati auDt apiaoopuruin saoguia- 
ngie. Ep. 20. 

* I will, for the benefit of the learned reader, place hers the entiie paisage whicb ia 
■0 important a aonmeror th? history of (lieae relatione: Praepoaitue ronJia priiDDa, licet 
Deo dignior, epiacopo tanen eat vUlor. Cam iito ei eat rams aermo, rara eonanllaliD 
anper rrddanda rationa liilicaiioDia euae, super renimine animsmm, in quo patet, qoan- 
tom amabot eas el redemptorsm el aDininuni psslorem eanim. Cam lortora aalem et 
- praepoaito fteqaeaa e) eat aermo, raliooioalio el oonnltaUo. Id qno palel, quaalnts 

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He prononnces it an abominable thing that the places of anch 
officials sbonld be fanned ont bj the bishops for a stipnlated sum 
ofmoneif; for these people practised eiery species of extortion 
in order to indemnify themselTea for the Bums the; had ad- 

The bishops, with the great povers bestowed on them, night 
be instmments of mnch good, or they might occasion a great 
deal of mischief. We find examples of both kinds ; for along 
with the great majority of bad bishops, there was a choice set of 
very good ones, men profonndly penetrated with the spirit of 
genuine piety, and ready to ofier themselves up in every way for 
the good of their commnniUes. Among the qnalities belonging 
to the exemplary discharge of the bishop's calling, were reckoned 
Eeal in preaching, in caring for sonls, and in making church- 
visitations ; impartiality ; the union of severity and gentleness 
in the trials conducted by bim ; inflexibility to the threats of 
power in administering punishment to the bad ;' activity in pro- 
viding for the poor and sick ; burial of the poor ; restoration of 
peace among contending parties. Peter, bishop of Uoustier ea 
Tarantaise, in Savoy, who administeredthjs office fVom the year 
1142 to 1175, performed all these duties with great diligence in 
a poor and monntainous diocese. He sought to bring it abont 
that each church of his diocese might possess a silver cup for the 
eommnnion. Where other means failed, he got an egg to be of- 
fered weekly from each house ; these egga he caused to be col- 
lected together and sold, till finally the necessary sum was ob- 

dUeierit pecuDiam. Sri it, quod detMtnbilius fit, prinum mittit ad offlcii hUvimu- 
tionem alne nagDi fld«1itati* ejni cunuTtatione pr»b*biU| iint BumnenlojurUjomidi 
it fldelitsM el HTTiud* in regimine (Dimanim iDterposito. 8««unduin lulumet IsrtiDm 
diBcatit iiaqii« ad ungneiq, li l*a* DoTcrJut buisu padpcrum amuD|«rg et cam leportuo 
Incro ad Dominoa sooa ledire, qniboa tiilflaiii pecuniae aine jarameuto iowrpa^ito nan 
eommluit, Horam anUm dnornm, acilicelquaealoria et praepoalti, lioUntiOT ral quu!a< 
lor. PraepoailDB enim aaeplna poena cert* etdeBoita ream pouit. Qoaaator Tcro Inocrln 
at ToluDtaria, pro modica cntpa mulmaDi poenam infligeaa. 

' Quod mirabilius eat et execrabiliDB, illia qiueaturaiD, torturam at eiactioDem et 
pnelainram rendit, ad preliuni cenum committit. Qui iie damuum et detrimeDlum pru- 
ptiae pacUDJae laoumnt. per omiia uefiu c^iactiotinm, calumiiiariim, rapiaarum laiant 
reli* aua in eaptnram peeaniaram praedones effecti poiEua guam ufficialen. 

3 Accord<Dglj, it vaa aaid of aucb «n one ; Nihil ea in re nee minia principam nee 
trraDDorum aaeTiti* ■beterrilaa. See. r^.. the liTe of William arclibiebop of Boargn 
in tbe beginning at tba tli§iteentb ceutniy, Iti tbe jUUa Sancl. Meiu. Jauuar. 1. 1., e. U. 

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tained for pnrclusing & cnp for the chaTch where this t&s done. 
Od his toon of riaitaUoD he took but few eompanions with him, 
and those only, sttch as, like himself, vonld seek to be as little 
bnrdensome as possible to the commnnities. He begged those 
who enteitained him and his companions to give all which they 
left QQtonched to his brethreo the poor. Hia honee always re- 
sembled a poorhonee — as his biographer relates— especially dnr- 
ing the three nonths before har?est, when, amongst those barren 
rocks, the means of snbsistence were most difficnlt to h€ obtained 
A multitude flocked in daily, whom he sapplied with bread and 
herbs, and every year he made a grand and general lore-feast. 
He took pains to search out those who were too infirm to labour, 
those who were suffering under iocnrable disorders throughout 
his whole diocese — or to cause them to be sought out by others 
whom he could trust — and proTided them with food and raiment. 
Those who had no dwellings, no relatives to care for them, betook 
care to place under the guardianship of faithful and pions per- 
sons, with whom they found everything necessary for their com- 
fort. When, in rough winter weather, poor people met him on 
the mountains, destitute of suitable clothing to protect them from 
the cold, he shared with them, in case of necessity, the raiment 
he wore on his own body. In those Alpine regionb, where there 
were no houses to receive wandering travellers, as, for example, 
on Mount St Bernard, on the Jura, and on a third mountain un- 
named, he caused such shelters to be erected at his own expense, 
and took care that every pains should be taken to make them 
solid and durable. Wherever it was neceasaty to preach before 
the better edncated, he turned the duty on others ; but he made 
it a special object of attention himself to preach intelligibly to 
the common people. He was wont to apply to himself the words 
of the apostle Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 19, " I had rather speak five words 
with my uttderstanding, that I might teach others also, than ten 
thousand words in an unknown tongue." Being a tealons ad- 
herent of Alexander the Third, he had to oppose the emperor 
Frederic the First, in the contested papal election ; yet this mo- 
narch, who looked with contempt on the clergy that were sur- 
rounded with worldly pomp and splendour, felt constrained to 
fiononr and spare a gpiritual shepherd like him.* 

1 AciM. Sanoior. Heni. M«j. Lll., f. 32(. 

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We hare alreftdy, on serer&l occuions, rem&iked of the Oer- 
msn bishops that by their political posilioD, as important mem- 
bers of the empire, they became entangled in a great deal of 
hoaJQesB foreign to their spiritual office as shepherds, so as to bo 
drawn off by secular affairs from the proper duties of tbeir call- 
ing.* Gerhoh of Beichersberg looked apon it as a grave Tiola- 
tion of tiie ecclesiastical laws, that bishops should plan cam- 
paigns — deliberate vith monarchB on worldly affairs ; especially, 
that they Bhould assist at capital trials. He called it a wretched 
hypocrisy in these bishops when, in order to show an apparent 
respect for the ecclesiastical lavs, they absented themselves a 
short time before the close of those bloody trials, after erery ar- 
rangement had already been made for the sentence which was 
to be passed. " They do like the Jews," says he, " who de- 
clared before Pilate, ' It is not lawfid for ns to put any man to 
death,' " Johnxviii. 31, — meaning that the Roman soldiers should 
crucify Christ.' According to hit riew of the church theocracy, 
the church should exercise only a moral orersigbt over secular 
affairs, contend only with the sword of the Spirit ; and she 
would be irreflistible, as be supposed, if she made use of this 
weapon alone. She enfeebled herself and her autbority, when 
she laid aside the spiritual aword f<» tho secular. Nor did he 
even spare the popes, whose example might be appealed to in 
jnstification of the bishops. Happening to meet pope Engene 
the Third, who had returned for the last time to Rome, at Vi- 
terbo — when that pope complained to him of the unfavourable 
treaty of peace, which after a large expenditure of money he had 
been obliged to conclude with the Romans,* — he remarked to him, 
that " even sncb a peace was better than the war carried on by 
him ; for," said he, " when the pope prepares to make war with 
the aid of hireling soldiers, I seem to see Peter before me, draw- 
ing his sword from its sheath. But when he conies off the worst 

t The wards of aPiriiiin ecdetiuUD: "Isan belicTemlmoatHnittalng; butlon 
hardlj IwllcTt tbM a Qemiui blihop irill be uTod." The tenon stMed i(, tbal Genoan 
bubops, Ktmosl witfaoutexcflplion, bear tbeaesiilu-iloag with tbe gpirituil avord; bold 
blo^idf coDrta; wage war, aud feel more aolicltude about the pa;r of thfir troops tban the 
■alTationoraoala. Bee Caeaar. HeUlerbac. Dial.diatmot, ii., o. UTi. BIbl. Cialere. t. 

3 De aediflcio. o. nir. Pel. t. ii^ p. ji., t, 3as. 

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in sneb a contest, I think I bear the voice of Christ, sajring to 
Peter, ' Put up thy sword in its sheath.' '" 

As UioM German bishops mnst have felt tbenuelvea burdened 
by the duties of tbeir double sphere of action, as their dioceses 
were of vast extent, and as secular business ofleo occupied more 
of their time and thoughts than spiritual, so they would natnr^ly 
welcome any opportunity that might offer itself of procuring socb 
assistants as had received episcopal ordination, and were there- 
fore in a condition to act as their substitutes in the performance 
of episcopal functions. This opportunity was presented to them 
by a peculiar train of events in the thirteenth centnry. When 
the snccessful issue of the first crusades, and the conquest of Con- 
stantinople, had extended the empire of the Western church in 
the East, the popes proceeded to erect bishoprics in those coun- 
tries. But with the loss of those possessions, the bishoprics also 
had to be abandoned. Tet the popes would not relinquish their 
claims to them ; but atill continued to appoint and consecrate bi- 
shops for those lost ehnrcbes ; though in reality they were bishops 
only in name (epUcopi m partibnt infidelium). Now, in these 
titular bishops, the German prelates found the very kind of help 
which they wanted. These ecclesiastics were sent to them as 
eoadjutora, suffragan bishops {suffra^an&i) ; and as pious men 
were frequently appointed to those places from the Dominican 
and Franciscan orders, so the arrangement operated advanta- 
geously for the cause of religious instruction and the care of souls 
in those Carman dioceses. 


The chnrch having arrived at the summit of power, the convic- 
tion continually gained force on the minds of men, that the super- 
fluity of earthly goodn would work ruin to the church itself; that 
through this secularizing spirit she was becoming estranged from 
her true calling. The complunts of the Hobenstaafen emperors. 

1 Sec Gerbob'B lelUr to pope Aluaoder the Third, pobtiibcd bj Fez Thes. ii 
iviM, L T., f. MO. 


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&nd of an entire part; which attached itself to them ;i the voices 
of the German national bards,! and of the prophets that rose np 
to oppose the cormption of the chnrch, as well as of the sects that 
contended agunst her ; all were agreed in attributing her dege- 
neracy to the riches that had been lafished on hei. A certun 
Eacalty of prophecy seems implanted in the spirit of hunuuiity ; 
the longing heart goes forth to meet beforehand great and new 
creations, which it needs in order to tiie attainment of its objects ; 
nndefined presentiments hasten to anticipate the mighty fiitnre. 
Especially does the kingdom of God, in the conrse of its deve- 
lopment from beginning to end, form a connected whole, and it 
strires towards its completion according to snre and certain laws. 
The germ of the unknown fatnre is already contained in the past. 
The spirit of the kingdom of God begets, therefore, in those who 
are filled with it, a prophetic consciousness, — presentiments in 
reference to the grand whole of the evolution, which are different 
fnm the prediction of individual events, not necessarily connected 
with that whole. Although the appearance of Christ, as the great 
turning-point in man's history, would above all be necessarily 
preceded by prophecy and anticipation, yet, to the still further 
evolution of the kingdom of God, even after it has left its first 
envelopment, and come forth to the open light, belongs also a 
prophetic element ; as many an important epoch and turning-point 
still remuna to be unfolded in its history, till it arrives at the 
ultimate goal. Out of the conscioosness of the cormption of the 
church sprang the presentiment of a future regeneration, for which 
the way must be prepared by some violent process of purification. 
To longing hearts, a contemplation of the corruption of the secu- 
larized church served as a sort of foil, enabling them to picture 

1 The GoUfiriad of Viterbo meationed on pitge 231, ipeakin; of CaniUntioe'i doni- 
tion to SiWesler, mjs : Ego tutem, ut de stnau meo loquiu*, utrum Deo magia plaoeu 
gloria atenlutio eoolsaiae, quM boa lemporc est, lut hnmiliutio, fut« piimiuu tat- 
nil,eoQfilearineignorara. FideturTnulliiquiJemprimtitUltttatuiianclior.iMUfiUcior. 
Ha doM not venCnra to decide od ibe point, aioci Cliriat proniiBed tbs cbureh ftredoni 
tVom eiTor. Ciatcn Boper hia qnwtionibDe, majoribua noetrii aolTenda relinquimaa. 
PantheoD, p. xvi.. In Hniatori acript, rerani Ittlicar. f. 361. 

' B.g. In WdWr tod der Togelveida, Ibe legend af the Ihreefold voe, wbicb tlis 
■ngeli had announced at the doDation mida by Canatantin* to Siltwter; "Once, 
Cbtialianll; waa beanliAil ; ■ poiaon baa aow Mian on it; ita bonej baa been turned 
to gall; great aoirow Kill eom« fton tbi* apon llie norld." Edition of Laebmann, 

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forth, by the rale of contruies, the image of the hetter fatare. 
Accordingly, we may recognize in phenomena of this kind, be- 
longing to the twelfth and ihirteenth centuries, foretokens,— 
premonitions, of the Reformation; and perhaps, also, of epochs of 
deTetopment lying still more remote. Not the Christian spirit 
alone, howerer, bnt the antichristian also, has its dinnation. We 
see already bndding forth, in antagonism with the false objectirity 
and externalizatioD of the chnrch, the tendency to a ftJse inward- 
ness and snbjectirity ; a tendency which aimed at, and predicted, 
the disBolntion of ererything positive in religion, and, conse- 
qnently, the dissolution of Christianity itself; premonitions of a 
spiritnal bent, which, after mining for centuries in the heart of 
Enropean cirilization, was destined finally to burst through all 
the established boundaries of its social order. 

As representatiTes of the first-described direction of the pro- 
phetical spirit, we may mention the abbess Hildegard and the 
abbot Joachim. The predictions of the latter, howerer, were af- 
terwards taken up by the second of the above-mentioned direc- 
tions, and interpreted in accordance with its own sense. We 
will now proceed to take a nearer view of these two important 

Hildegard, who was bom in 1098 and died in 1197,* founded, 
and presided as abbess over, the Rnpert convent near Bingen. 
Her visions, which were held to be supernatural, — the revelations 
which she claimed herself to have received tiom Heaven, — her 
plain, frank, and moving exhortations, made her an object of 
great veneration. Bspecially after the abbot Bernard of Clair- 
raux, — while Bojoaming in Germany on the business of preaching 
the emsade, — and pope Eugene the Third, had both recognized 
the divinity of her mission, did she attain the highest summit of 
hor reputation. Persons of all ranks applied to her for advice, 
for the disclosing of lutnre events, for the decision of disputed 
questions, for hor intercessions, and her spiritnal consolations. 
Amongst those who consulted her were to be reckoned abbots 
and bishops, popes, kings, and emperors. If many complained 
of the obscurity of her sayings,' others might snppose they fonnd 

1 Tin nollMtioni «n Ok bitWij of tlwir lim, in the Aetis Sineturum, ITtL Sept. 
* Thus wa hear at an abbot Bertiioldi LIsal oonaoUtioiiibui Terbanim TMtnjniin 
facta* BDm nepe laetior, obaenritatihas tamen cornni ea quod Don plena inlellMtoi 


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a deeper viBdom in the darkness of the response. Parents long' 
ing to obtain children had reconrse to the intercessions of Hilde- 
gard ; and to snch applications she replied : " This depends on 
the power and will of God, who alone knows to whom he grants 
children, and from whom he takes them away ; for his judgment 
is not according to man's liking, bat according to his own vis- 
dom. Because you hsTe besonght me, I will beseech God for 
you ; but let him do what, according to his grace and mercy, he 
has determined to do."' Uany of her exhortations and responses 
betoken, on the whole, a ChriBtian wisdom snperior to the preju- 
dices of her times. Pointing to the inward temper alone, as the 
important thing in Christian life, she declared herself opposed to 
all over-estimation of outward works, and all excessive asceticism. 
To an abbess she wrote, cautioning ber against such delusion : 
" I have often observed that, when a man mortifies his body by 
extreme abstinence, a sort of disgust steals over him, and from 
this disgnst he is more apt to plunge into vice than if he had 
allowed due nourishment to his body."* In the name of God, 
she gave to another this response : " What I have given man to 
eat, I do not take from him ; but food that excites disgust I 
know not, for vanity goes with it. Believe not that by immo- 
derate abstinence any soul cui fly to me ; bnt avoiding all ex- 
tremes, let the man devote himself to me, and T will receive 
him."' To another mach respected nun of this period, Elizabeth 
of SchSnan, who also supposed herself favoured vrith heavenly 
visions, she gave the following exhortation : " Let those who 
would do the work of God, be ever mindful that they are earthen 
vessels, that they are men. Let them ever keep before their 
eyes what they now are, and what they shall be ; and let them 
commit heavenly things to him who is in heaven, for they are 
themselves at a far distance firom their home, and know not the 
things of heaven."' To an abbess, who begged an explanation 

mto puercDt, (iwt» nm trisiior. Hiiieiic «t Dannd Coltootia impliaunw, t. ii^ t 

1 Mutciw H Dunnd Cotlwilig unpl. t, u , t. 1039. Ep. II. 

1 SMpa Tld«o, qautda bomo p«r DimraUlem abniDeutlu oarpaa aaum affii^l, quad 
tMdiDin in iUo lorgit, el umUo Titla u ImplioM, plug qaun si illud joatc pMoeret. L. 

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of some anxiety by which abe wse tronbled, ahe replied : " Then 
ahonldst hold fut to the aacred Scr^tttres, in vbich we come to 
the knowledge of God by faith. Wo should not tempt God, bat 
rererentisUy adore him. Oftentimes, man impatiently desires 
fVom God a solution of some difficulty which it is not granted him 
to onderatand, and ia thereby misled to forsake God's aeivice. 
Give thyself no concern about thoaghts rising «p ioToluntarily ia 
thy soul. Satan often shoots sach arrows into man's heart, in 
order to create distmst of God. This should serve as an exercise 
for self-denial ; ererything depends on not giving way to such 
thoughts. Blessed is the man who by ao doing livea, though 
constantly girt around, as it were, by the pains of death."' To 
an abbot, harassed by many inward conflicts, who applied to her 
for comfort and for her intercessions, she replied : " There is in 
thee a breath of God, to which God has communicated an endless 
life, and to which he has given the wings of reason. Bise, there- 
fore, with them, through faith and pious aapiratioos, to God. 
Enow him, as thy God, who knew thee first, and from whom thy 
being proceeds ; therefore, beseech him that, by the breath of his 
Spirit, be would teach thee what ia good, and deliver thee from 
evil. Truat in him, that thou mayeat not be ashamed to appear 
before him with all thy works ; and pray to him, aa a son does 
to a Ihther, when punished by him because he has erred, that he 
would remember his own child in thee."> In the time of the 
whiam between pope Alexander the Third and Victor the 
Fourth, a certain abbot applied among others to Hildegard, to 
inform him what he ought to do, ao long as it remained doubt- 
ful which was to be considered the true pope }* She advised 
him to Bay in his heart to God, " Lord, thou, who knowest 
all things, in my superiors I will obey tbee, so long as they 
oblige me to do nothing contrary to the Catholic futh." He 

1 Bsitol boow, ^ai ei Dec ficere Tull, Dec «ji coDMDtit, wd licut cum puaione mor. 
(Is ip en lirit. Minene et Dunod Collcclio wnpL t. ii, f. 107S. 

1 Hirtenaet Dnnnd Coll«stio unpl. I. ii., f. 1003. 

* The abbot, ipMkiDgar the pgruiolaiuGDiiMqMiuiei of ■ tohkiaafibia >on,i>bicb 
titrj mui would uk* adiuiuge of ■> ■ ptcuit far diiabedifncr, btd Mid : QDoaiun 
Melnia, ad quod c^nt aaun n«piciU,Ter«oiMr ignaru.quiRqai«qu( Tiguiiodeei- 
(oi^nm aanwiia raligioDem boau coatenationia abboml, bi qnl spirita D«i agDDtDr, 
DOB DlDinia toUiciianlnr, qni Bnia conm in Toluutate Df! rnit iehnu L. c, t lOflO. 

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294 hildeoabd's bold lanquage to the clebqt. 

Bbonid place his hope ia God alone, wbo would never forsake 
his cbureh.i To an abbess, vbo applied to her for comfort, 
and for her intercessions, she jrrote : " Abide in commnnion 
with Chriet ; seek all good in Jam ; to him rereal thy works, 
and he will bestow on thee salvation ; for withont him salva- 
tion is Bonght in vain irom man ; for grace and salvation are 
attained, not tbroagh any man, bnt through 6od." She boldly 
stood forth against the arbitrary will of an ambitions clergy. 
In the cemetery of her convent one was buried, who, it was 
said, bad been excommunicated ; bat those who performed the 
obsequies maintained that he had obtained absolution. The 
spiritnal anthorities of Mayence caused the body to be dug np, 
and laid the convent under an interdict, because ecclesiastical 
burial had been granted to an excommunicated person. Hilde- 
gard thereupon issued a letter, addressed to the clergy of May- 
ence,' in which she represented to them how grierously they had 
sinned by such an arbitrary proceeding, " All prelates vei« 
bound to avoid taking a step, except after the most careful exa- 
mination of reasons, which would prevent any community, by 
their sentence, from singing God's praise or administering and 
receiving the sacraments. They should be very certain that they 
were moved to such a step only by zeal for God's justice, and not 
by anger or revenge." She assured them that she had heard a 
divine voice, saying : " Who created heaven ? God. Who opens 
heaven to his foithlU 1 God. Who is like nnto him t No 
man ." 

The clergy generally she severely rebuked on account of their 
corrnpt morals ; their ambition and thirst for lucre ; their nn- 
holy traffic with sacred things ; their occupations, which were so 
utterly inconsistent with the spiritual calling— such as bearing 
arms, singing ludicrous songs.* She reproaches them for neglect- 
iug, in their devotion to worldly pursuits, the peculiar duties of 
their calling — the instruction of the people in God's law, offering 

1 Tn ergo ape ma aA uddih Deam Wnde, quia ipH fcoIhuib ■aim non dFreliuqnM. 
3 Murteu* et Dunmd CollMtio (oipl. t. ii., f. lOBS. 
> Hildtgird, epistolM, p, 121. 

1 L. 0. p. 160. lo the t>\tTg-j in Cologne : Inurdam mililM, inlerdum keni, iDletdom 
ludifiMntes ctnlorM ciittilii; MdperfabulnMaOeik letlra niituu in Mitau tlitnando 

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the idle excose that it cost t«o mach Uboar.j They rendered 
themselres chargeable, b; this neglect and by their bad example, 
with the goilt of raining the laity, who lired according' to their 
Insta ; before whom they onght rather to shine as pillars of tight. 
She announced to the clergy a diTine judgment, which wonld de- 
prive them of the riches that served to corrupt them ; a judgment 
from which the clergy was to come forth tried and refined. The 
then spreading sects of the Catharists and the Apostolici,i ap- 
peared to her the antetype of a party which wonld be used by 
the Almighty as an instrument of this judgment for the purifica- 
tion of the church.' " A troop led astray, and commissioned by 
Satan, shall come, with pale countenances and all appearance of 
sanctity ; and they shall combine with the mightier princes of 
the world. In mean apparel shall they go ; fnll of meekness and 
of composnre of mind shall they appear ; by stimvlating the 
strictest abstinence and chastity, shall they draw after them a 
nnmeronjB train of followers ; and to the princes shall they say 
conceruing you. Why tolerate these people among you, who pol- 
lute the whole earth with their sins f They live in drunkenness 
and revelling, and, unless yon drive them forth, the whole church 
will go to destruction. These people shall be the rod which Qod 
will make use of to chastise yon, and they shall continue to per- 
secute you until you are purified firom your sins. When this is 
done, then shall the princes discover the hypocritical character of 
these persecutors of the clergy, and fall upon tbem. Then shall 
the morning dawn of righteonaness arise, and the clergy, purified 
by affliction, shine as the finest gold.* 

The predictions of Eildegard were widely difi'used and much 
read ; and they gave matter for reflection on the natnre of that 
process of purification which awaited a corrupted church. New 
prophetic visions were called forth by them. 

Far more graphically depicted did the image of the future pre- 
sent itself in the soul of the abbot Joachim, who, at first, presided 

1 Neo*abdiloidoalrinimiTabisqDi(rmi>«nii[HiU(,diceiiU«; amnu *Ub«nra dob 

> Of wlioiii w« ihall Bp«*k id lbs foartli seotion. 

> Pet quendam enwitem populam, pejorem erranti populo, qui dudc nl, taper voc 
prwuiottotc* ruioa otdct, qui ubique vi» ptrneqnetui et qni optn mtn Qon odabil 
Md n denudabit. L. c. p. ISO. 

4 Hildcgud, epistolie, p. 16S. 

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oTer the monastery at Gorace (Caratinm) in Calabria, at length 
founded the monastery of Floris, and a peculiar congregation of 
monks, and died between the years 1201 and 1202. He was re- 
rerenced in his time as a prophet, and stood in high considera- 
tion with popes and princes.' He was an enthnsiasiie friend of 
monasticism and of the contemplative life, &om which he looked 
for the regeneration of the eecnlarized chnrch. He opposed the 
mystical to the scholastico-dialectic theology. As the reigning 
cormption seemed to him to spring fVom secnlarization and the 
fondness for dry and meagre conceptions of the understanding, so 
he expected firom religions societies who should renonnce all 
earthly goods, and lire only in pions contemplation, a new and 
more glorious epoch of the church in the latter days. We must 
transport onrselres back to the times in which he lived. It was 
near the close of the twelfth century ; the papacy had been seen ' 
to come forth victoriously out of the contest with the emperor 
Frederic the First ; but new and violent storms might still be 
expected to burst fVom the side of that powerful house. The 
Calabrian regarded Germany with detestation ; and he was in- 
clined to look upon the imperial power of Germany as the one to 
be employed in executing judgment on a corrupted church ; bnt 
neither could he forgive it in the popes that they had taken re- 
ftige in France. Grief over the corruptioo of the church, longing 
desire for better times, profound Christian feeling, a meditative 
mind, and a glowing imagination, such are the peculiar charac- 
teristics of his spirit and of his writings. His ideas were presented 
for the most part in the form of comments and meditations on 
tbe New Testament ; bnt the language of the Bible famished 
him only with such hints as might turn up for the matter which 
he laid into them by his allegorizing mode of interpretation ; al- 
though the types which he supposed he found presented in the 
Scriptures, reacted in giving shape to his intuitions. As hia 
writings and ideas found great acceptance in this age among 
those who were dissatisfied with the present, and who were 
longing after a different condition of the church ; and the Fran- 
ciscans, who might easily fancy they discovered, even in that 

1 6m Uie records aDil ooUdAiaiu od the hialaiy of hi* life ia tbe Aclia StDo'tor, SStb 
or M>j. CoiDp. Dr Engnlbirdta Eswj, on the Abbot Joicbim lod tb« ErcrluUsc 

Qospel, p. 3S. In Ills KIrcbPDgncbichtlichcD Abhudlongen. 

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which is certainly genaioe, in Jo&cbim's writings, a prophecy re- 
ferring to their order, so a strong temptation arose to the forging 
of works under bts name, or the interpolating those which really 
proceeded from him. The loose connection of the matter in his 
works, made it easy to insert passages from other hands ; and 
this character of the style renders a critical sifting of them dif- 

1 Tbe three wortsraftmd to bj hinuelf la the prolo([De to his Commenttr; on lbs 
ApOFiljpae, Dimeljr: TItit Commeotuy, tbe Coneordiie Veteri* 4C Nori Testamenli, 
■ad the Pgalterium deoem Cbordaruni, *re certaiDlj genuioe. In refereDoe, bovever, 
to the ConunenliTj on Jeremiih Bnii lailtb, mj awn opinioD iranld be confimutary of 
the siupiciaiiB eipreued b; EagelbirJl. These books are uot cited in the liat giren bj 
Jeichim himeelf, allbougb the ComnieDUrf od Jenmish purporM lo bsie beea wriHi'ii 
in tbs jesr 1197, and tbe Commeniary on tbe Apocalypae, to wliich tlie aboTe-tneDtioned 
^ologQc belong), was sompoaed Id the jcar 1200. UoreoTer, in the pieface to his 
Fsaltarinm decern Chordarum, ho mentlans odI]> thoae three «ork9 as belonging la one 
nbole. Tbe prediction of tiro new ordera of mooks, who sbould appear for the gloriS- 
cMion of the chnioh la tUe lost times, and whish were lapposed to be rulflllel in the 
Dominioan aod Fruuitcan cmlere, eeruiol; does not narrant ub Io paterlain the 
saspioioD, at once, that they irere or later origin ; for the sontAmplativs lift of loanasti- 
cUm wae aaauredlj regarded by tbe abbot Joacbim aa tbe highest of all ; and arenaialion 
of tbsl mode of life conld not but appear lo him as one of the essential marks of the 
glory ortlielaat age of the chnrab. But then again, the idea of a double order of monks 
preatDled itself lo biro of its own Bocoril.— of an order, wbose Uboora in the waj of 
preaehing was to bring about the last general converaion of the nationa; an order wbieh 
should repreaentthe higheat Jobannaan stage of tbe eontemplative life. Thna, no donbt, 
it may be explained tliat, even nitbont being a prophet, be might hit on the thongfat of 
sketching forth a picture of two such ordera ; since we 6nd lomcthiDg like tbie in the 
writings which undoabtedly belong lo biu. Bnt atil], many descTiptioDs of tbe Fran- 
cIviHtns are too striking not to eioile the suspicion that they have been foisted in by 
aoma FraDcisean ; as, for eiarople, Commentsr in Jerem., p.8I, tbe jiraerJifatorei and 
tbe ordo minonen ; and the way in wbicb ibe author expresses himself in thia place, 
makes it oprtainly more probable that the title minorei, already eiialing, led hitn to the 
explications which there ocear, than that he had been led by those eiplicationa so to 
designats this order ol coalemplativea. Next occur, particularly in tbe CommentarT on they do not in Joachim's nndonbtadly gennine works, certain propbecips, 
wbioh aesm to bare ariaea pott /actum, Page serenlh containa the remarkable pea- 
sage coDcemiug Amalria or Bene, itcrelsiion ix. S, [bus interpreted: Sire Almericua 
■ive sliquia olina in Liguria doctor msgnns rneril, gai deleierit profundum soientise 
saecularis, com ngio ilia adeo infecerit errorihoa circnrnpasitas regionea, ut de bnjuB- 
modi locnatia et lamiia ipsa mater ecclesia labcaeat. Page 38, Col. ii., the predictions 
eouceming the power of the Uongoli ; bow tbe Tartan would turn tbeir arma againet 
tbe Mohammedans. To be anre, the apniiaog chancier of aneh aingls pasaagea ia no 
eridenoeorthe BpuiiousnosB of the entire work, in which, moreover, the current ideas 
of Joachim mayeasily be discerned: and in tbe Commentary on Jeremiah, we alao find 
many single pasaageB wbicb da not faiour the bypotbrsia of its having bseo oompoacd 
at aoma later period. Would a Franciacan, inataad of referriug all to the two mandi. 
cant orders, baie aa eipnaaed bimaeir aa on page 8C : In teitio Teni atalu relorqnendum 
eat lotoio ad Cisteroiencea et alioa ftituroa isligloeoB, qui post antisbristi rninam multi- 

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Let na now consider, more in detui, what is expressed in these 
remarkable writings concerning the present and the fntnre. 
. In his commentary on the prophet Jeremiah,> Joachim com- 
pluna of the exactions of the Boman chnrch : *' The whole world 
is polluted with this evil. There is no city nor village where the 
chnrch does not pnsh her benefices, collect her rerennes. Erery- 
where she will hare prebends, endless incomes, God, how long 
dost thott delay to avenge the blood of the innocent, which cries 
to thee from beneath the altar of the Capitol !"* He calls the 
chnrch of Rome* the bonee of the courtezan, where all practise 
simony, all are stained and polluted ; where the door is thrown 
open to every one who knocks. He speaks against the legates, 
who travel about the provinces, impudently preach, acquire bene- 
fices and prebends, snatch to themselves the dignity of the pre- 
lates. He complains of the deification of the Roman church : 
" Some have so exalted the chnrch in Rome," says he,* ." that a 
man was held up as a heretic, who did not visit the threshold of 
Peter. Their guilty mistake lay in this, that they bid men visit 
the holy material temple, when the truth is, that in every place 
every Christian is a temple of God, if he leads a good life."* He 
speaks against indulgences dispensed fi-om Rome : " Uany place 
so mnch confidence in the absolntion of the church, as never once 
to think that they need to leave off sinning ; but sink deeper 
and deeper in all manner of wickedness." He is full Oi seal 
against the proud and fleshly-living cardinals and prelates.* He 

pjioaadi aDiil ? Pigu ISL, tlia anowMor of CelnUD i> oaiD|«nd wilb Herod the Qim, 
and I pciMcuiioD of the ipiriimUit imeiligtntia, procesding from him, ia predictol. 
DMignH Herodci ■ooimum ponlifiDem poil CoeleatiDUD (blumm, qnicunque ait ilia 
liiaeuT to Me how Joachim, writing near the «Ddot (he raigD of Celoatin, might hare 
been led hr bia iTpical eiposltioui, flighu of imaginitioD, ud bia tone of abtnolK, H 
predietausfa thing! orCalestfn'a Bonceuor; bat it ia difflenll to balie>e,that ■ nun ba- 
longing la one of the two moDkish aiders, aftenrerds Innocent Iba Third, waald be aa 

1 Page 61. 

t A plaj on wimiIb t Deoa, qnauaqaaDOD vindicai nnijuinam iumioentomaab allari 
elunBDlinm Bomanl Capitnli, immo Oaptolij T 

* PagelOa 

B Quia inniabant ad (emplum a«notDm miteriale BrguuDtar, quia In loos omsi qui- 
libel obriBtiaoua templam Dei eat, dnnunodo bonia Ikoiat riaa luaa. 

> pTaelatoa el cardinalea aaperba oarDalitarqaa Tiientei. Comnunt. in Jerem. p. 


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predicts a divine jodgment on the Roman cnrio, became litigiona 
processes and exactions were worse in that conrt than in all other 
jodicatories/ He annonnces that Christ ia abont to ^rasp the 
scoorge, and drive sellers and buyers ont of the temple. He does 
not stop with accusations against the church of Borne, bnt attacks 
alBO the prerailing corruption in all other parts of the chnrch." 
" The church of Peter," says he, " the chorch of Christ, vhicb 
was once full, is now empty ; for, althoogh she now seems full 
of people, yet they are not her people, bat strangers. They are 
not her sons, the citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem, but the 
BODS of Babylon. What profits the name of Christ, where the 
power is wanting ? The church is, as it were, widowed : there 
are bnt few or no bishops, who, to save the flocks, expose them- 
selves a prey to the wolves. Every man seeks his own, and not 
the things of Jesus Christ."^ " Where," says he,* " is there 
more contention, more ftaud, more vice and ambition than among 
the clergy of onr Lord 1 Therefore must judgment begin flrom 
the house of the Lord, and the fire go forth from his sane- 
tuary, to consume it, in order that the others may perceive 
what will be done with them, when he spares not even his 
sinning children." Of the Aomish church, to which he frequently 
applies the name Babylon, he says, " She should not plume her- 
self upon her &ith, when she denies the Lord by her works."* He 
is fond of marking the course of history ; particularly the history 
of the papacy. He describes pope Leo the Ninth as the repre- 
sentative of a reforming tendency in the church. Fope Faschalis 
the Second he represents as the traitor of the church, who had 
reduced her to servitude.* He accuses the popes of conniving at 

1 TmiFOTii'il pipnle jiratdiriuin cnncUti mriu [n cilaninioiit lidbnB n qnuatlba* 
eiui^nendii. Comment, in Eaaiun, p. 30. 

I Db oonooniia aavi et Tsleria mumenli, p. 54, tluirefora Id > wriung aDdonbtedlf 

a L. 0. p 53. 

t Id Jeram. p. 6B. 

t Utambutereot in noviltt* ipirita* in ewne viTeDle*. 

* See abon, f.8,L Compue alio tba commenUrj on Ihe apoeiljpu, p. 7 ; Id Iud- 
porr eeeleaiae qninlo ■( mixime a diebnt Benrioi priml hnpenteriB Alain umoinm 
nundani priodpei, qui ehristiaol diosntur, qal primo lidebantir leDenii cleram, 
deleria* praa genlibui qaaaaieniDi libcnatem eocledae et, quautam ad ecw ptrtiiict 
abanliaM noMiuiMr. It ienotioeabU UuX Hfiut tbeFifthurefemd toaaprimui and 
ao ha U alwajs datignatsd in Lhe eommsutarf an Jenmiah ; u Henrj llie SiiUi ia tbue 
called HCDDda*. 


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wickedness in order to gain temporal adrsntagea ^m princes, 
and of baring made themaelres slaves to princes, beoanse tbef 
wished to mie by secnlar power. " Alter tbe popes began to 
contend with worldly princes, and to be intent on reigning orer 
them hj worldly pride, they bare been obliged ever since the time 
of pope Faschalis to faU beneath them. Their snceessors, down 
to the present time, have sacrified the liberties of the church to 
tbe German monarcbs ; and, for tbe sake of temporal tbiaga, have 
tolerated oiany an offence in the church of God. Because they 
perceived that tbe temporal things after which they Insted be- 
longed to tbe Roman empire, they were willing rather to do 
homage for a while to eecolar princes, than to go against the 
stream."' " Although," says he,* " the secnlar princes bare 
wrested many things by violence from the chnrch, as for example 
the Kingdom of tbe Sicilies ; and, although they hinder the 
freedom of the chnrch, yet even the popes themselves have 
wrested many things from the princes, which they never should 
have longed after nor taken. And aa every man seeks bis own, 
force is met by force ; tbe chnrch attacks the atate, the greedy 
prelates receive not tbe word of Christ, " Bender unto Csesar 
the things that are Gsesar's ;" thus tbe old bottles will bwtt, 
and the pope will not only long after temporal things, aa belong- 
ing to bim, bnt also after apiritnal tbinga, which do not belong to 
him (the aenae is, he will arrogate to himself all spiritual authority, 
even that which doea not belong to him.) Thna will it come to 
paaa, that he will seat himself in the temple of Ood, and, as a 
god, exalt himself above all that is called Gnd, that is, above the 
authority of all prelates."' In the commentary on Isaiah, he 
remarks : " When the chair of Peter drew tbe temporal sword in 
compliance with a forbidden ambition, and his sons, like cattle 
for the slaughter, exposed tbemBelres to donbtfiil chances, be con- 
sidered not what tbe Scriptures say, ' He that takes the sword 
shall perish by the sword.'* It is tbe incredulity of human weak- 

1 In Jcfieni., p. S«0. 

* Id Jcrem., p. 8I(K 

* Nan Untamiua Bominni prusMexig*lqaMil«Bponli*(it*biHiMdoDbtlaMRal: 
ismportliaqaui ana), led tiinn spiriliulii, qau Hon lat. L. a. p. 310. 

* UV\ pro lemnis Mnbiliaoibiu tibi piohibitia umponlem gladinm aianiit, •( Btloa 
■DOS enotibuB itnbiis, vdul otm occlslonig nponit, non rcToltsn* intaia quod Mripwn 
pruloqnilDT, p. 7. 

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nes8," saye be,' " which leads the popes to plate more confidence 
in men than in God ; and hence it happens by a just judgment, 
that deatrnction comes fVom the rery quarter where they looked 
for help. Snrely, when we tnrn onr eye to the root of this evil, 
it most be plain to as that the chnich, founded upon the lowly 
Christ, ooght to keep far from pride ; and she has reason to fear, 
that if she strifes after earthly riches, these will finally be driren 
away like chaff before the wind. The church oaght, in these 
times, when she is oppressed by those of her own household, to 
place her confidence, not in worldly goods, but in the power of 
God. If beliering princes have ofiered some gifts to the poor 
Christ, still, the spiritnal order, waxen fat with abundance, must 
not give themsehes up to pride, bnt rather distribute their super* 
fluons wealth to the poor, aai not to the giants, who hare helped 
to build the tower of Babel (the high prelates, by whom the 
secularization of the church is promoted). Gold was brought to 
Christ, that he might hare the means of fleeing to Egypt ; myrrh 
was offered him, as if in allusion to hia death ; incense, that he 
might praise God, not that he might rise up against Herod, or 
fall as a burden upon Pharaoh ; not that he might give himself 
np to sensual delights, or reward benefits receired with ingrati- 
tude. The vicegerents of Christ, in these latter times, care nothing 
for the incense ; they seek only the gold ; in order that, with 
great Babylon, they may mingle the golden goblets, and pollute 
their followers with their own uncleanliness." " Because the 
cardinals, priests, and different orders of the clergy, who at pre- 
sent are rery seldom followers of the lowly Christ, use the goods 
of the churches in the serrice of their lusts ; therefore the princes 
of the world, who behold the disgrace of the sanctuary, stretch 
out their hands to the property of the church, believing that 
by so dbing they render » serrice to the Most High."* *' The 
ehnreb," says he,' " can and could retire into solitude, lead a 
spiritual life, abide in communion with Christ, her bridegroom ; 
and through her love to him she would become mistress of the 
world, and perhaps no longer be subject to pay qaitrent. But, 
alas I in loving the friendship of secular princes, and grasping 
without shame after earthly incomes, she is humiliated, in the 

n Jtnm., p. 370. t !□ Kbiiud, p. 28. 1 In Jereto., p. E6. 

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same proportion aa she lowered herself down to snch familiarity 
and Goncnpiacence." As Joachim belteved the popes were paving 
the way for the overthrow of their own power, by seeking to hold it 
np with worldly props, instead of confiding solely on the power 
of God, so he looked upon it as one evidence of the weakness they 
had hronght upon themselres, that they must in the twelfth cen- 
tury so often seek a refuge in France. He warns them " to see 
to it, lest that French power might prove to them a broken reed." 
Joachim was foil of zeal for the essential matter of an inward, 
living Christianity ; and hence he decried that confideoee in ex- 
ternals, which tended to render men secure in their sins, and to 
draw them away from tme penitence. " Many of the liuty," says 
he,^ " expect to be saved by the offerings of the priests and the 
prayers of the regular clergy, even while they give themselves up 
to sin. But in vain look the; to such gods for help. Their in- 
cense is an abomination to God.'" " That which is represented 
outwardly in the sacraments," says he, " can be of no saring be- 
nefit whatever to a man if in his daily actions he does not strive 
to live conformably to what is thus outwardly represented." " For 
why wast thou baptized unto Christ, if thou wilt not be pure t 
Why art tbon buried in baptism, if thou wilt continue to live in 
sin ? Why dost thou partake of the body of Christ, that was 
offered for thee, if thou are not willing to die for Christ, if it be 
necessary H The sacraments, then, do nothing for those that 
abuse them ; they benefit those only who so lire as the sacra- 
ments signify."^ Against sanctimonious monks he says :* " They 
pass current for living men with those who are carnal and car- 
nally minded, those who look merely on the outside, the viuble 
appearance, and cannot see the idols within. Thns, they allow 
themselves to be deceived, praise and extol these miserable crea- 

1 L. 0. p. vu. 

* KaUndam ttt, quod Idci qnidtm pntuit se santri lictimii Moerdatum et ontioni- 
bm regulirium, cam ipsi thkIs oomniiMint. Bed fVoatn lalei dii soi i4i<">i't null 
ineeDBun iboniinBlia eat milii, holmmutoiiiUl nibilomiiiai npiob* eaae dcmomtnat. 

* In Apoeiljpa. p. 91. 

< LieM bue anmli in sacranentD fidslibas du« ilnt, nan potnt tuacn tenera 0I>, 
niai id eiplere uodeit moiibua, quod iiurainBDli limniludo donet sue UDindDni. Noa 
igitut ucnmenu eonrnunt iliquid abuuntibai eU, ted bis, qui iu tirnnt, quomodo 
•kcramcDM ligniSont. 

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tnres, in wbom there is nothing to pruge, and bope for the for- 
gireness of th«ir Bins throngh the merits of those Those sonis at 
the end of the present life sink to perdiUon." Concerning fleshly 
representations of the dirine Being, he says : " A God like this 
is not the God of belierers, bnt of nnbelievers, an idolatrona 
image of the hnman mind and not God."' The jealonsies sub- 
sisting between the difierent ranks in the church, and the dif- 
ferent orders of monks, seemed to him most directly at rariance 
with that pattern of the apostolic chnreh which was constantly 
present to his mind. " In those times," says he, "there were 
manifold forms of life corresponding to different gradations of the 
development of the Christian life ; but all were nnited together 
in the organism of the body of Christ, as harmonizing parts of 
one whole."* 

Joachim agreed with Hildegard in annonncing a terrible jttdg- 
ment that was coming upon the corrupted chnreh, fVom which, 
however, she was to emerge purified and refined. It was also a 
ohsractenstic point in the prophetical picture which floatc'S before 
his imagination, that the secular power was to combine with 
the heretical sects in combating the chnreh. As in Italy and 
Sicily, the name " Fatarenes"> was a popular and current name 
applied to sects, so the Patarenes, according to him, were to be 
the instmment for the execution of the divine judgment, — fore- 
rnnners of the antichrist, from whom the latter himself was to 
proceed ; — a king, and probably, in cot^nnction with him, a false 
pope also. A pope, springing up from among the Patarenes, and 
armed with a seeming power of working miracles, would le^ue 
himself with the antichrist of the secular power in the attack on 
the church, and stir up the latter against the faithfiil, as Simon 
Hagus is said to have incited Nero to the persecution of the 
ChriBtian?.! He was inclined to represent the antichrist as an in- 

1 Dnm, qui Ulii lit, non tat Dam fldeliniD, »ti infldaliam, idolnm animinun el Don 
Dau. P. 101, iu Ok TncMliu de oonoordia nteiii et noti mumtnti. 

1 Qoan Tno loDga lit omnu modarna rcligio a fonni accti^ae primltiTu, to ipao |p- 
telHgi poHal, qnod iUa apoMolo* at t*>DgaIi>U*, doolorea at Tirginei, el ittanlaa *itain 
coDtinciitnB at oonjagitQa Trlnil nnos corlai mali Puiiiei diTui* Mmen nllalii msD- 
aloniin aonJQgatat in anum al eoBjoDstia manbronim apaaietwa effldtbat ax omnibaB 
BnaM CMpoi. Nam iDlcin alibi ooqiaa at uambra, tingnla pro acipaU, dod pro iliia 
■■Bl aoUiciU. If. c. p. 71. 

* Sm abena, p. 133, and tb« pnugaa tbara cilad. 

t In Janok pl 113. Tba aaota ftlaoram chTutianomni at tiBerelkonim, 411 Drum aapat 

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camatioo of Satan, throngh whom th« great enemy of all good wonld 
seek to accomplish a^nst the chnrch what he had hitherto at- 
tempted is rain. All the previous machinations of Satan against 
the church vere bnt a preparation for this final attack, in which 
all preceding wickedness was to be concentrated ; in which Satan, 
foreseeing the last judgment near at hand, wonld expend his 
rage in a last desperate cfiort.' 

The house of Hohenetanfen hold a prominent place in his de- 
scription of the judgment that was to come upon the eecnlariiEed 
chnrch. In the details, ve meet with a great deal which is Tague 
and self-contradictory ; moreover, it admits of a question whether 
his predictions at this point may not have been interpolated so as 
to agree with the issue of erents.' When, in the year 1197,* at 
the particular invitation of the emperor Henry the Sixth, he 
wrote his commentary on the prophet Jeremiah, he expresses 
himself in one place' as uncertain whether or not another emperor 
would yet intervene between him and his heirs.* Such an inter- 
rening emperor did in fact come in, after the death of Henry, in 
the same year. He foretold, though without intimating that the 
event was so near at hand, that Frederic the Second wonld re- 
main under the tutelage of his mother Gonstantia, and that — if 
the Boman see did not care to preserve for him the empire vhieh 
another" would make himself master of— he would stand forth as 
ruler and pour out upoo the church a mortal poison'. Some- 

t fulloB uitiehritto Kipobliue i 
• of the church, the anUobriuaa, 

1 F.tieiHDdum, quod in primis tnnporibni piodiilDB eel dUbolw jn nambrii laiB, 
ID cUremla reio Umparibaa proeliKhilur id illo, qui erltosput el primUB amnium r»- 
grobomm, in qno et hibilabit ipeclaiiue ao ai in lue pmprio per BeipBUin,Dt malaiDi 
juod pridcepB daemannm nequirit eiplere, ipee quiu mignus et polens npieit in fbrore 
'ortiladiDii snu. In (he eoncordik ISO. 2. 

' Id the eoiDiiientarj on leiiab, p. 4, U eiled » Ttueinium Silvatri de Fredetieo 8e 
it ^(W poateria: Eril in UsiiUis apooiM agni, quam pnaioles dilaniint ot 

* h.v. p.8S. Ueaafalo him: Et jngnm pitria tui riz ponlifieea potnerant ponai* 
et miniaiudigltaa luua lombU nt grotgior p*trta tui. 

i Utnun inter Henrioani bnno et huredem alina auigat, illi Tjdcbaiit, qui ii 
L. 0. p. 66. 

8 Otho tbe Fonrlb. 

^ L. 0. p. S9S. Sab nomine Tiduae tan^t oonaaiteni tnam Coratantiun, eojns [ 
ua filial eriL Polo qnoque, ai fiomina Mde* poit la i* minu ulomniatorit f 

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times the year 1200, BometimeG 1260, is mentioned as one vhich 
vonld constitnte an epoch in hietory. 

Joachim, as we hare said, vas an opponent of the preTailing 
dialectio tendency in theology. Hence the latter days of the 
chuTch, when it ahonid haie come forth glorified oat of the refin- 
ing process, appeared to him as a time of all-satisfying contem- 
plation, talcing the place of that learning which dwells on the 
letter and finite conceptions of the nnderstanding, when the in- 
spiration of love, that meditation on divine things which can 
solre all problems, would follow an imperfect, fragmentary, con- 
ceptnal knowledge. Connected with this is a division of the dif- 
ferent periods of revelation and of history, which fh>m this time 
onward recnrs repeatedly nnder varions phases, — a division con- 
formable to the doctrine of the trinity. Althongh, by virtue of 
their essential nnity, all the three persons eret work together, 
and somewhat belonging properly to each person is to be fonnd 
in every period, yet, at the same time, in relation to the distinc- 
tion of persons, the predominant activity of some one amongst the 
three is to be distinguished according to the measnres of three 
principal periods. The times of the Old Testament belon^espe- 
cially to God the Father ; in it, God revealed himself as the Al- 
mighty, by signs and wonders ; next, followed the times of the Kew 
Testament, in which God, as the Word, revealed himself in his 
wisdom, where the striving after a comprehensible knowledge of 
mysteries predominates ; the last times belong to the Eoly Spirit, 
when the fire of lore in contemplation will predominate.' As the 
letter of the Old Testament anawers to God the Father, the letter 
of the New Testament more especially to the Son, so the spiritnal 
nnderstanding, which proceeds Irom both, answers to the Holy 

■ocMaoTi* ngnum libtrua ne^eierit, Teraa lioe pnpillos motitoB m ngnlnm inper 
ram monilia leneni diffdadeu He aajalbU, under liim, the futigiDm imperiale woold 
decline, pTotendetar viu «j(u, qa*si Tita regis ia 60 iDiiii. He annoDDees, in the jeu 
1197, the penMtDlJDn proceeding from the HohenBtinTen haoia (gtiuit the Homiiti 
church, in M annos deleiiores prioribaa. L, c. p. 331. 

I The word* JD John i. IT, aecoiding to the Talgaie : "Paler meu9 uifue modo ope- 
nlur, et ego operor," be eiplains ai follows: "Till nan Che Father has worked; from 
beocefbrthl work" When uansed of Tritheism OD Ibis aaeoant, he letalisled bjao- 
enaing his opponent* of SabcUiuiism : Mod stlsndeDtes, qund aieut veie io peisoDi* 
proprietas eat et Id esaentia unitaa, ita qoaedsm sint, quae propter proprietstsm peison- 
■rum ptaprie sdsoribantar piDi. quaedam. quae pniprie adscribantiu filia, qnaedsm quae 
propria spirilDiaanoto.etqaaspropternnituem essenliae ipaametoommanilerrehraDtur 
•d omne*. TniroduBt. in Apoealjpa, p. 13. 

VOL. vri. U 

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Spirit I As all Uiinp were created by the Father throngh the 
Son ; BO in the H0I7 Spirit, as love, ftU were to find their comple- 
tion.* To the working of the Father, — power, Pear, f»ith, more 
especially correspond ; to the working of the Son, — hoBilitj, trath, 
and wisdom ; to the working of the Holy Spirit, — loTe. joy, and 
freedom/ In connection with this must be considered the way in 
which he contemplates the three apostles — Peter, Faol, and John 
— as represflntatires of the three periods in the process of the do- 
Telopment of the church, John represents the contemplatire 
bent, and as he- labenred where Fetor and Paiil had already laid 
the foundation, and survived the other apostles, so the Johanne&n 
contemplative period would be the last times of the chnrch, cor- 
responding to the ^e of the Holy Spirit As the Father re- 
vealed himself in the Old Testament, and the Son, after the 
completion of the Old, introdac«d the New ; so this relation cor- 
responds to that of Paul to Peter ; since Paul did not labour an 
the fonndatioD which Peter had laid, bnt opened for himself an 
independent field of action ; and as then the completion was given 
to the whole by John, so in the last Jobannean period, that which 
the S»n began will be carried to ita completion by the Holy 
Spirit.* Then will the promise of the Lord be Ailfilled ; that hft 
had yet many things to say which his disdples could not then 
bear; that this Spirit should guide into all truth. In the words 
spoken by Christ to John (John xzi. 23), " If I will that he tarry 
till I come, what is that to thee ?" he fiiidB an intimation of the 
fact that the Johannean period would be the Ust." He says of 

; el per Slinm oi 

Jtetu. In AposiljiM. p. St. 

1 MoDDnlIa tpMiillln* itbibiiuntar pitri. afimU potcntii, ilnior el fldes, nonDQlla Blia, 
ut humiliui, Tcrltu rt BipleDilSiDannulU ■pirltiii MDSta, ut cahuu, g*udinm et liber- 
us. L. c. p. 48. 

* Elillad diligsDLer obMrvi, quod quando Itiler Pstnim el JoKDncm iaterpamtur 
I'aulaa, iDOe Petnu dcaignu ptiMnsm purit. Paului fllli, Joannes ipiritua aancli, et 
quia PidIdb nan anperaediBeaTit a prineipio in bis, qnae Pstrns (iindaTit, flindaTit *a- 
lem tpa«per*e («lsupenudlBeaTit]oinDsa).uni;eDltuin Dsi patris In boc Ipso designlt, 
qai oanaiLnunMo veleri teatamanto, qnod apeeialJaa peitinebal ad palrem, ineboarit tests- 
manlDn noTam, qaod apeciilias pectinet ad ssf paam, anperrsDlet aalem spirital suietua, 
oonanoimatDnD, qoae inofaaita sant (t fnadala a Alio. 

> Sl^lfieatsleotoatcrtilBtaiaa. In ApocalTps- p. 8«. 

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Jobn, " What he himself had drank out of the heart of Christ, 
that he has ^ven the ohoMD to drink ; the liring water, vbich he 
had drank from the fonntain of life ; for the liring vater is the 
Holy Scriptures, in their spiritual sense, which was not writtea 
with ink, pen, and paper, bnt by the power of the Holy Ghost, ia 
the book of man's heart."' John is the representatire of the 
Gontemplatire, as Peter, of the practical tendency ; the latter pre~ 
flgares the clerical, the former the monastic, order. When Peter 
(John zxi. 21) sapposes that John also was to be a martyr, by 
this is signified the jealousy of the practical class towards the 
contemplatire : they reproach the latter with leading so easy and 
quiet a life, and taking no share in their toils : they do not con- 
sider that it costs qnite as much self-denial to homaa natnre, pa- 
tiently to wait the revelation of God, and to gi?e one's self up 
entirely to the contemplation of divine things, as to pursue bodily 
laboni ; to sit in one spot, as to be driven abont in a mnltiplicity 
of employments. As after the martyrdom of Peter, Jolui alone 
remained, so when the order of the clergy shall have perished 
in martyrdom, following Christ, in the last conflict with antichrist, 
the order of the eontempUtiTe, gennine monks shall alone remain, 
and the entire snscession of St Peter pass over into that.' The 
order of genuine contemplatives and epiritales, prefigured by 
Jesus himself, might perhaps — he supposes, in his Commentary 
on the Apocalypse — be already existing in the germ ; bnt as yet 
it could not be observed, because the beginnings of a new crea- 
tion are ever wont to be obscure and contemptible* The abbot 
Joachim was filled with that same idea, — an idea called forth 
by the ant^onism to the secularization of the church, — which 
had seized many serious minds of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, and which gave birth to the first societies of the Wal- 
denses as well as of the Franciscans. Accordingly, he moat be 
a prophet for all appearances of a kindred character. 

1 Id Apoctljps. p. a 

* Relinqaiuir pan ills elecurnni, qaw dcaigniU Ht in Jo>dd«, ad qnam oportcl 
tmnlre loUm Prtrl ■DeoeuiDiiim, defloiente putt ilU laboriMt, qsK detigntu «*( in 
Patro, dmU nbiqat irenqaiUilale amatoribna Chriati. In tempore ninnpe ilia arit Domi. 
□n uniict QOiMD f)u Dnnm. L. o. p. 77. 

Qui videliwi ordo pne muliia aliii. qui pnecHienint aom. unabilia at prteotanw 
infra limitam qaidam eecDDdi au(u* iaiLiaudni tat, ai tameo, luqne idhnc bod «t( in 
aliquibo* inltiandua, quod tanuta miiii adlioc Don coatti, quia initia tanftr obteura tt 
ronlemplibilia lunt. Id Apooalyp*. p. 83, o. S. 


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Eacb of the three great apoertles had his peculiar gift of grace, 
conformable to the peculiar position which he took in the process 
of the derelopment of the church. And, as this process waa 
thereby prefigured, so each period in the history of the church 
has its peculiar gift of grace, belonging to this pecntiar posiUoD. 
We ahonld not expect to find ererything, therefore, in every age. 
Peter represents the power of faith which works miracles ; Paul, 
knowledge ; and John, contemplation.' 

In these last times was to he concentrated efery divine element 
ftom the earlier periods. The planting and sowing of many years 
would be collected together at one point, — a period, though short 
in compass, yet greatest in intrinsic importance in reference to 
the faloess of grace there accnmnlated.* In the first period, the 
fathers laid themselves ont in annonncing God's great work of 
the creation ; in the second, it was the efiort of the Son to lay 
the fonndation of hidden wisdom. When man, by means of the 
two Testaments, had now come to know bow Qod had finished 
all things in wisdom, what atill remains (for the third age) except 
to prMse God, whose works are so great. The Father comes, as 
it were, when JVom the thirtga that are made we come to the 
knowledge of the Maker, when in the contemplation of bis al- 
mighty power we are filled with reverence ; the Son comes to ns, 
when we explore into the depths of doctrine in the disconrsea of 
him who is the Father's wisdom. The Holy Ghost comes and 
reposes in onr hearts, when we taste the sweetness of his love, so 
that we break forth into songs of praise to God rather than keep 
silence.* Then will ensne the time of an Easter jnbilee, in which 
all mysteries will be laid open, the earth will be Ml of the know- 
ledge of the Lord, and it will be scarcely possible any longer to 

1 T.ui Fetro, apoitalonim prima, dau «l prmeroguiva fidei ad tudeoit slgiii in typo 
eorutD, qni dui aunt in fiindunentii ecelcaiM, uon ideo UunoD parvi pendeiuU ettelavis 
■deDtiae, qnie data rat Paulo, ipaalolorDm noTiuimo, band dubium (jam in (jpo eoram, 
qui dmdi crant in Bne ad gupernediacaadam ecsloaiam. Noiit nampa ille, <|Di pro UiU'. 
poramf*arielHt« dona datribatada partiMr, qnid illi* alqae illia tipediat, iU at pro 
tenipare aiiatinandum ait, quid cni praefenlor. et iUad pro tampon magia eonim quod 
mile ei'DDD qaod eublimiaa judicandam. L. o. {l SS. 

1 Etai tpMiniD illiut Mmporia breTc erit, graliaram tamen copioalaa caeteria, nt mol- 
torum annoTnm aegetea oaugrcganlur in uno. In Apocalfpa. p, Bt. 

1 Spiritua lanctua ad ooida noalra Tenire at lequicaocre dieilur, emu dnloedo amoiia 
tjua qnun anavia ail dagtiitamaa, ita nt piallen magis libeat, qaam a Dei laade tacere. 

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find ft man, vho will dare denj that Christ is tb« Son of God.' 
The Spirit will stand forth fVee ftvin the veil of the letter. It is 
the gospel of the Spirit, the everlasting gospel ; for the gospel of 
the letter is bat temporary." 

It was this doctrine of the abbot Joachim which was afterwards 
apprehended and applied in so many different ways ; which in 
&ct, at a later period, came to be so interpreted, by a one-sided 
rational isti CO -pantheistic party, as to make Christianity itself, 
which was considered bat .a transient form of religions develop- 
ment, cease, and give place to a higher position, a purely inward 
religion of the Spirit, eonsisting of some intnitioa of God that no 
longer needed an intermediate organ. Joachim was very far 
tnm holding Christianity in itself to be a transient form of the 
manifestation of religion. The knowledge, transcending all doabt, 
of JesuB as the Son of God, he considered indeed, as we hare 
seen, as something distinguishing those last times of the Holy 
Spirit ; he tanght expressly* that two Testaments only were to 
be received ; for the last revelation of the Holy Spirit was in fact 
to serve no other purpose than to make men conscious of the 
hidden spiritnal meaning of both Testaments, and to let the 
spirit anfold itself ont of the covering of the letter. Yet at the 
same time we must admit that the ideal, pantheistic interpre- 
tation above mentioned, found a point to fix upon in several of 
Joachim's expressions ; for instance, when he described the hu- 
mility of self-debasement in the form of a servant as the pecu- 
liarity of the Son, the abiding in his spiritnal exaltation, the 
purely spiritual revelation, as the peculiarity of the Holy Spirit, 
and hence assigned the advanced position of perfect freedom to 
the agency of the Holy Spirit ;* when he represented that posi- ■ 
tion as a subordinate one, to which the divine must be bronght 

I L. 0. p. 9. 

1 ETaDgelinm UKniDiD, quod esl in spirita, quonioiD uliqoe eruigelium, qaod cut id 
liter*, temponlfl eat, dod anemum. In Apoeilypa. p. 96. 

t Haec cat einsi, pro qa> uon Uia leiUmeDla, aed duo ens acribniitur, quDrDin «i>n- 
cmdia mauel iategra. L. c. p. 13. 

t Hia worda : Et quia aquM naCnni graria eat nt bnmilia petit, igaia pro leiiuM aaa 
■d iDperion ncuirit. quid eel, qood frequeDlJDa fllioa aaatmilaiiir aquae, apiritua >8to 
ai quia, quod Don ftoit spiritua aanetua, Bliua ■emetipaum ex- 
atein aanctus, de qtin dicilur: ubi apiritua, 
buiuiliMiu eat, sed in m^eatals glorue auat, 

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310 Joachim's apparent idbalish. 

nigh, by the rerelation of God to Bense in tb« incanutioD of 
the Sod, and bjr the tnatrnmentalities oomtponding tbereto ; 
and, on the other hand, that of the ipirilalet, vho needed no 
Bach sensible medium, as the highest. " Say not, I ha*e do 
teacher to explain to me in detail what I read. Where the 
Spirit is the teacher, a little apark increases to an immea* 
snrable flame, and because the Word became flesh and dwelt 
amongst ns, and he who by reason of the simplicity of hia es- 
sence was inrisible, dignified man's nature bj appearing visibly 
in it, so he would be preached by risible men under the reil 
of the Word, tbat they who were nnable by contemplation to 
penetrate into the mysteries of the divine essence, might throi^h 
Tiuble emblems soar upward to the exalted. But with spi- 
ritnal men it is not so : bat the purer their hearts are, tha 
more do they by God's invisible operationa, wbioh are nearer 
to them, stretch the rision of Iheir spiritual eyes to the Creator 
of all.'" But such language merely exprwses, thongh in an ori- 
ginal and forcible manner, the chosen position of myttieism, 
which gives speciiU prominence to the work ot the Holy Spirit ia 
men's hearts ; and such passages can by no means furnish any 
foundation for the charge, that he would speak disparagingly of 
historical Christianity. Yet we must allow that at the bottom 
of the whole mode of intuition set forth in his works lies the 
thought, that the entire revelation of the Old and New Testa- 
ments contains, indeed, immutable Uatb, and that Christianity 
is in itself a complete and immutable thing ; but yet, at the same 
time, this does not hold good of the difierent forms of its mani- 
festation. The overthrow of the particular ecclesiastical form 
then existing, and a new, more complete development of Gfaria- 
tianity in the consdonsness of mankind, in which the inner re- 
velation of the Holy Spirit will take the place of outward autho- 
rity, is predicted by him. This is in fact already implied in what 
he says, in his own way, concerning the transition of the Petrine 
position into that of John, the dissolution of the clerical gover- 

1 Qui erai iiiTiifUlii pro rau Bimpliclule nalnnr, per homuu Meamplionoii sob. 
lUniiH Tieibilii tni dignatDs eat, valnit per liiibiJtv bumiim fori* njauria panonBri 
at hi qui (tcUM diTiniUds pcnetnre con lamp) indo dud potPiiinl, riilbilibni Biiiubliniia 
npeimlur eiemplii. Nan sic iDlrm ipiTiUlcB, hod (ic, wd qua ilioniiB ooida mnti. 
diorH nnL. eo par intiribilia Dsi open, qnu Btbi Tioiolor* mot, in ipaina, qoi ercMor 
esl nmiiiam, tpiriulium artilorum acieni inuUFclnditn flgunl. In Apool^p*. p. IB. 

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Dance of tlie cbnrcfa and its rehabilitation in the commnnity of 
the cootemplatiTe life. Dosbtless he snppoaes, as the pecaliarity 
of those last times, a direct and nnmediated reference of the re- 
ligions eonacioDsness of all men, to Grod manifested in Christ, so 
that there wonld be no more need of an order of teachers.^ Then 
theprophecy of Jeremiah, that God himself woold be the teacher of 
men, and wonld vrite his law in the hearts of all, would meet 
with its follilment ; bnt as all earthly gteatoess must come to 
shame, when the enblimity of things hearenly revealed itself, so 
it was only by hambling himself that man conid become capable 
of beholding snch dirine glory.' 

Especially deserving of notioe are the following words in the 
book written by abbot Joachim, on " The Harmony between the 
Old and New Testaments," (Concordiae Veteris ac Nori Testi- 
menti ;) in which, speaking of Uie relation of changeable fbrms 
to the nnchangeable essence in the revelatioB of dirine things, 
he tbns expresses liimself.* " The Holy Spirit is the fira which 
eonsvmes all this Why 1 Because there is nothing darable on 
earth*; for so long as we see throngh a glass darkly, it is neces- 
sary for us to cling to those symbols, and so long are we un- 
able t« come to the knowledge of that troth whidi is represented 
in symbols. But when the Spirit of tmth shall come and teach 
us all tmth, what further need shall we then hare of symbols 1* 
For as with the communion of the body of Christ the partaking 
of the paschal lamb was done away, so when the Holy Ghost 
diall rereal himself in his glory, the obserration of symbols will 
cease ; men will no longer follow figures bat the truth — which is 
the simplest, and which is symbolized by fire~as the Lord says, 
' God is a spirit, and they that worship him must worship him 
in spirit and in troth.' Dust and water, such is the historical 

1 Quui per alios pucunlur ovee, cum lut docrudw Bubditorum eocletUi pulora JD 
liopuliB eliguulur, cum «utem vcriutcm viangelicMn clariflcM per BpiritDin <DUin ai 
omnpleiiduii propbeliim JFrem. lui. 33, 34; quui jam dod per rIIob DomiDua. B«d 
ipM per HmelipBum nqniret oves suu, aicut liiilat puLor grsgtm (quid in die, qaando 

3 Bt qain mirabilis eit Deus in uncliB buib ct loDge miritbiJIor in m^jvBUIe bub, 
neceue nl, ul icmettpinrD dejiclit, qui tiderc unlam ftloriim cxlBllmMur dignns, quia 
iiiminim temna altHndo conrundlliir, onm c«l>iluilo cntlpBtinm apmtnr. In Apoenljpa. • 

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letter of the two TestameDtB— wbich letter was gifen by the 
Holy Spirit for the pnrpose of poioting thereby to something else, 
rather than for the sake of the literal historical sense itself; that 
is, that thereby the spiritual nnderstanding, which is the dirine 
fire, by rirtne of which the spiritnal man judges all men and is 
jadged by none, might be presented to ns ; for neither the par- 
taking of bread and meat, nor the drinking of wine and water, 
nor the anointing with oil, is anything eternal, bnt that is eternal 
which is signified by these acts. If, then, the things themselreB 
and their nse are perishable, but that which is represented by 
them, the thing which endnres for evermore ; then, with good 
right, is the former consumed by the fire, while the fire itself 
liree alone, without depending on anything sensible, in the 
hearts of the faithful, and abides for erer. And, although there 
are many visible things, which will eternally remain, as they are 
revealed^to ns in the letter of the two Testaments, yet they will 
not remain for ever in the same form, bnt rather in the form ap- 
pointed for the ftiture. For amongst the rest, that which accord- 
ing to the Catholic faith shall remain for ever, the body of Chriat 
— which shall ever remain aa it is taken up into unity with his 
person — is to ns especially an object of veneration. And yet 
our Lord himself declared the spirit maketh alive, the flesh pro- 
fiteth nothing. Hence the apostle Paul also says, The letter 
killeth, bnt the spirit maketh alive. Bnt if, in reference to the 
body of Christ himself, the letter is consumed by the spirit, how 
much more will this be the ease with other things. Far be it 
from US, then, to say that the things themselves will be consumed 
as to their whole essence ; bnt we say that they themselves, that 
is, their^symbols, most pass over to represent something spiritnal, 
in order that we may elevate ourselves, through the scripture of 
visible things, as through a glass, to the intuition of invisible 
things." . 


■ The reaction of this prophetic spirit against the secnlarisation 
of the chnrch proceeded from monasticiem, as did many an ap- 
pearance of the same kiud down to the time of Luther ; nor was 

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this AD accidental thing, but connected with the eesential charac- 
t«r of raonasticism itself; for we may regard it generally as a 
reaction, though one-sided, of the Christian spirit, against the 
seoolarization of the chnreh and the Christian life. It is tnie> 
monasticism was itself seized, and borne along, by the cnrrent of 
secnlarication ; bat even then, it ever gare birth to new reactions 
of reform against the encroaching tide of cormption. This form 
of the manifestation of Christian life and of Christian society be- 
longs among the most significant and the most infloential facts of 
these periods, in which the Yery good and the very bad are fonnd 
BO often meeting together. 

Monasticism stood forth i^ainst the wild life of the knights, and 
the cormption of a degenerate clergy ; and many were impelled 
to fly for refnge from the latter to the former. The Hildebran- 
dian epoch of reform, near the close of the elerenUi centary, was 
accompanied with the ontponring of a spirit of compnnction and 
repentance on the Western nations. It was the same spirit, 
which in different directions, promoted the cmaades, monasticism, 
and the spread of sects that contended against the hierarchy. 
By the political stonna which broke up the interior oiganization 
of the nations, by the roinons contests of this age between chnreh 
and state, many were impelled to seek in the monasteries a qaiet 
retreat for the cnltivation of the Christian life. Thus it hap* 
pened in Germany, amidst the ferooiooe contests between the 
party of Henry the Fourth and that of Gregory the Seventh. An 
extraordinary mnltitnde of men, of the first rank, retired from 
the world ; and the three monasteries, in which the greater num- 
ber congregated, St Blasen in the Black Forest, Hirsan, and the 
convent of St Salvator in Sohaffhansen, had not room enough to 
eontun them all, so that it was necessary to make great addi- 
tions to the old structores. Men of the first rank were here to 
be seen among the monks, selecting firon preference and engag- 
ing with delight in the most menial employments, and serring as 
cooks, bakers, or shepherds.' The impulse to community, — the 

1 Btnhold. Coiuliiit. OliroDicon, U lb« j«r 1D83, in MoDDmanU rea Alemannoram 
illiutiuitii, t, ii., p. ISO. QaaDio nobitiorM *niiL in (kduIq, uijm m mntemtibiiiari- 
buB officii* uccnpvi ileBidennl, di qui qaondBm enul comiwa T«l mucbioaei in urculo 
naDC io ooquinaiel piitrino fntribna Hnire lel poicoa loiiim in wmpo jjaaoen pro 
lummii drliftiiieoDifuiani. 

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ch&rutflristt« of energetie, cnatiTe times, belongs unong tlie 
pecnliar featnres of this time, and sach commanities euiljf«iDed 
themselT«B aronad any nua that showed an eothnsiasm for reli- 
gion, that Bpoke -and acted in the power of faith, and in lore ; 
and then took the form of monasti«iem. 

But the caasea differed widely in their nature, which led men 
to choose this mode of life ; and for this very reason tlie direc- 
tions of life in monastieism wonld also be ^S«rent. OAeotimes 
the deep piety of mothers, patterns of Christian rirtne In the 
family circle, stood ont in striking contrast with the mere worldly 
pnrsnita of their husbands in the knightly order, or io the life ti 
eonrt. When snch mothers looked forward to the birth of their 
first child, or when they had mnch to suffer and great peril was 
before them, they wonld vow before the altar, to deTOt« the child, 
in case it should be a male, wholly to the service of God ; that 
is, to destine him for the spiritnal or the monastic order, — as we 
see in the examples of the mother of the abbot Goibert of Nogent 
sons Coney, near the beginning of the twelfth eentnry,' and of the 
mother of the abbot Bernard of Clairvaox. The boys were trained 
np nnder the infinence of these sincerely |Hons mothers, in the so- 
eiety of devout clergymen and monks; the lore for a life consecrate 
to God was instilled into their youthful minds ; and althongh they 
might afterwards, in the age of yonth, be drawn aside by a dif- 
ferent sort of society, by the wild spirit of the times, or by Ute 
prevailing enthusiasm for the new paths stmck out in science, — 
from the inclination excited in them in the years of childhood, — 
still, the deep impression would subsequently be revived again 
with new force, and so, under peculiar circumstances, recalling the 
feelings and pttrpoBes of former days, the resolution of devoting 
themselves wholly to monastieism wonld ripen to maturity in 
them. Thus were formed the great men of the monastic life. 
But it so happened too, that children, — either on ooeasions like 
those just mentioned, or else to lighten the expense of a nnme- 
rons family, were delivered over to convents as obiati ; and by 
such persons, who had not chosen this mode of life of their own 

1 Svc hi* Life. c. ill. Wben dcith ihruUBtd ber aod liar childnii, iniini c* iiBoeMi- 
' \a\r cniuiliom M ■>) dominiSM malrii &IUf 
iirgo BFOper fulara prpennt, hi^iiimodi t 

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impnlfle, or from their own disgust vith a world lying in wicked- 
neu, it WM followed, only beeanse it &Tonred idleness and easy 
liring. The abbot Gnibert compluns that, towards the close of 
the elflTenth century, worldly living had, throngh the mnltitnde 
of snob oblati, got the upper hand in the monasteries, whose 
poeseasions were wastefiiily squandered by these monks.^ When 
persMiB who had lired Irom their childhood in absolute depen- 
dence and complete retirement from the worid, were sent away 
by their abbole on foreign bnsiness, they were the more inclined 
to abuse a liberty which they now enjoyed fbr the first time.' It 
was a matter of general remark, that youig men who tamed monks 
oat of penitence for their sins, became afterwards the most distin- 
gnisbed for seal in their profession ; while others, who had not 
been impelled to the choice of this life by any such powerfol in- 
ward impulse, and any such deep-felt need, either failed altogether 
of possessing the right seal, or else lost what they once had.' 
Men of the first rank, struck, by the force of momentary impres- 
sions, or by sndden rererses of fortune, reminded of the aneertain 
nature of earthly goods, the nearness of death, the vanity of all 
worldly glory, retired to solitude as anchorets, or entered a mo* 
naatflry ; and a single example of this sort would be followed by 
multitudes. This eSect was prodnced by the example of a certain 
eonnt Ebrard (Ererard) of Bretuel, in Picardy, near the end of 
the elerenth centttry. He was a young man of noble parentage, 
and possessed of an ample fortune, who, stmck with a sense of 
the emptiness of all his ideasures, and seized with the craving 
alter some higher good, forsook all, and joined himself with a 
r of others, who travelled about as itinemat charcoal- 

ilaiamm nubennU copii, pirviii tnol contenM cnuieiitibuB, Id quibua prriiauci raperiri 
potmni, qai peeeili fiMlilio suealDm tmpaiBwiil. atd lb iQi* potinimooi detimblDtar 
eeelMiat', qai is eM«m pinntum Jciatian* eantndili, »b iDitunU nnlrMlMTitiir WMte. 

Hticia ocduione rmili dilaptdve pMraiM. 

1 TbftwMdiarCiHiriu of RaMcriwob, LiMiDt i. e. iv.; Rnraai cna, quod pnrri 
'I JBrami ad imlinen renwatM. qosraiii aonHwntim poTxlDa pcocali dod gnviit, 
rvanlc* ajut, tri in onliRg Irftda at mlnna bma TiTanl ttl ib nidipr prunua nte- 

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bnraers, thm earning their dftily bread. "In this porerty," 
says the irriteT of the nuratife, " be beliered that he first fonnd 
the true riches." Somewhat later, he retired with his companions 
to a convent, having become sensible of the dangers which beset 
the Christian life, in the anchorite condition ;> one of his contem- 
poraries, Simon, also descended from a very rich and poverfol 
family, was so stmck at beholding his father's corpse — a man 
who bat jnst before held a high place in the world — as to con- 
ceive a disgnst of all earthly glory. He at once left his family, 
and became a monk in some foreign country, WJien he retnmed 
afterwards to his native district, Ms appearance and words made 
BO strong an impression on men and women, that nnmbers fol- 
lowed his example. The Cistercian monk, CaesariuB of Heister- 
bach, in the first half of the thirteenth centary, sets forth, in a way 
that deserves to be noticed, the difierent caoses which led people to 
embrace the monastic life. What he felt constrained, in the case 
of some, to attribute to an awakening by divine grace, he fonnd 
reason, in the case of others, to ascribe to the instigation of an 
evil spirit ; while in still others, he traced it to fickleness of tem- 
per ; as, for example, in the case of those who, following the im- 
pulse of a momentary and transient interest, mistook their own 
nature, and neglected to consider whether it was the fear of hell 
or the longing after a heavenly home that operated upon their 
feeling. Covntless nnmbers were driven to this step by circum- 
stances of distress ; sickness, poverty, imprisonment, shame, 
remorse following the commisaon of crime, and the present fear 
of death.' When attacked by fatal diseases many put themselves 
under a vow that, in case they recovered, they would become 
monks ; or they enshrouded themselves at once in monkish robes, 
persuaded that by so doing they would be more likely to obtain sal- 
vation. And such persons, if they recovered, actually became 
. monks.* Those whohad been driven to this step bythe fear of death, 

1 How the monutio lib wM iolroducFd b; bim from FnnoB, and bnnigfai idIo a 
Dimrighlng aula tD tbttt diatrieta, ia nlited bf tbeabbolOnibcrt, Vila, o. ii.: Cum ad 
aoa (the monki) pcedi Tizulloi aooednat, ulsioltandii plarimorum memca amcniL 

t Dlalinct. L, e. t.- CaMariua of UciMariucli eitci indiiidnal eiamples to abow bo* ■ 
canDniciiabesanaaBionk.bniaiucliebBd pU;«d atnjhbcIallMa.i.S, c xii Ajoung 
uau beloli(ing 10 a wealth} funi); tboiightot turning monk, witboal tbe knowMga • f 
Ilia puenta. braanae ba had gaoliled away a laiga ■am of moDe) ; but ba gaia op tha 
DOtiun nbcD a friend oama forward and paid up bin debta, c. UTiii. 

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did not always, howcTer, remain true to a porpose thns conceired ; 
and there vera complaints, that in changing their garb the; had 
not altered their manners.* It happened not nnfreqnently that 
criminala, on whom sentence of death had heen passed, were, 
through the influence of venerated abbots who condescended to 
intercede for them, first pardoned, and then committed to the 
care of their deliverers, with a Tiew to try what could be done for 
them under the discipline of the monastery ; and as in these 
times, many were hnrried into crimes by the impulses of a sen- 
snous and passionate nature, which had never felt the wholesome 
restraints of edncation and religions instruction, it was possible 
that such, by judicious teaching, by the force of religious impres- 
sions, and the severe discipline to which they were subjected in 
a cloister, under the direction of some wise abbot, might be really 
reformed — as examples, in fact, show that they sometimes were.* 
When Bernard of Clairranx was once going to pay a visit to his 
friend, the pious connt Theobald of Champagne, he was mft by 
a crowd of men conducting to the place of execution a robber who, 
after committing many crimes, had been condemned to the gal- 
lows. He begged it as a favour of the count that the criminal 
might be given up to him. He took the man along with him to 
Clairvanx, and there succeeded in transforming him into a pious 
man. This reformed criminal died in peace, after baring spent 
thirty years in the cloister as a monk.* Thus the monasteries 
proved in some instances to be houses of correction for abandoned 
criminals ; and the spirit of Chnetian charity, which proceeded 
from pious monks, first strove to abolish the punishment of death. 
Another monk, Bernard, founder of the congregation of the monks 
of Tiron, in the diocese of Cbartres, a,d. 1113, had settled him- 
self down near the close of the eleventh century as a hermit, on 

InUto: Habitom, dod mans niiUTJt. 

t Ad aiMDpleofthiiMwt li lUtcd brCuMriM, a. col, of ■ pradatorj kiu|ht, who, 
■fler bRTJDg bnn ooDdemDed to death, ind rcpriaTCdal tfa* reqneit of tlH ibbot Daniel ol 
Bebthim, via permitted to eater tlie Ciattrcian order to do penune for bli bIdi; and 
be add*: Frequenter bnio eimilii udiTi.wilketaibomineaBafitia*! pi«iDi*(rimiiiibu> 
*irila eappliaiie depnuti, beDeQdo ordini) aint liberatl, 

t ViUe I. Tii, c. XT , ed. MaUllon.t. i).. f. 1301. 

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318 ■'yoNASTicrsM in relation to 

the ial&nd of CanBenm (Chaiusej), between the iaUnd of Jersey 
and St Halo. It bo happeoed while he was there, Uiat pirates 
landed on the beach with a merchant Teasel whioh the; had 
captured. Bernard labonred e&rnefttljr, bnt in vain, for the 
coDTersion of these barbariaus ; in vain did ha striTe to move 
their pity for the crew, whom they had taken and bound in 
chains; bnt when they left the shore, he sUll did not cease 
praying both for pirates uid prisoners. Soon after, there came 
np a great storm ; the pirates saw nothing before them bnt 
shipwreck and death. Struck with alarm and remorse of con- 
science, they set free the captives, mutually confessed to each 
other their sins ; and rowed, if they should be sared, to amend 
their lives, and go on pilgrimages to T&rions shrines. But one 
of them, on whose heart the words of Bernard bad made an 
indelible impreaeion, reminded the others of this holy man : 
" They sbonld only row," said he to them, " that if the Lord 
wonl4 conduct them to the good hermit, they would implicitly 
follow bis directions, and by his mediation they might be sared 
fVom death." All united in taking the tow. Four of the ships 
were fonndered ; the fifth got safely to the island. The pirates, 
awakened to repentance, fell down before monk Bernard, and 
besought him to listen to the confession of their sins, and to im- 
pose on them snch penance as he thought St. Some he bade per- 
form their row of a pilgrimage ; others continued to remain under 
bis spiritual direction on the island. 

In the beginning of the twelfth centnry, when the enthusiasm 
for the new dialectic inquiries in France had seised hold on nom- 
bers,— and among the rest, of such as merely followed the current 
without any call or talent for snch studies ; many of these soon 
became disgusted with the idle pursuit, and by this very disgnst 
were led to take a serious spiritufl direction in monasticism.' 
How monasticism was regarded, in its relation to the worldly life, 
we find expressed in the following remarks of Anselm of Canter- 
bury, where he is exhorting one of bis friends to become a monk :* 

1 9«e tfa«*<:eoiiittoftl]elifearBenMii]orTinia,b]' ooe of his wbolan, o jt.Hcdi. 
April, t. ii. f. 229. 

J DepnbrndeuMi in so et iliii prudicn 
talqm est clinpcr omnii Tinius. MeUlo/ 

1 Lib. ii., cp- 29. 

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" Whatever glory of this vorld it may be which ihonwoaMst 
flBpire after, yet remeniber its end, and the fWit, at the end : and 
then consider, on the other hand, what the expectations of those 
are, who despise all the glory of this world. Dost ihoa say, it is 
not monks only who are saved ? I admit it. Bnt who attains to 
salvation in the most certain, who in the most noble, way ; the 
man who seeks to love Ood alone, or he who seeks to nnite the 
lore of Ood with the love of the world ^ Bnt perhaps it will be 
said, even in monasticism there is danger ! 0, why does not he 
who says this, consider what he says ? Is it rational, when danger 
is on every side, to choose to remain where it is greatest 1 And 
if h« Who seeks to lore God alone perseveres to the end, his sal- 
vation is secure. Bat if he who is determined to love the world, 
does not alter his plan of living before the end, there remains for 
him either no salvation at all, or else a donblAil or a lees one." 
Yet here, it is all along presnpposed that an objective contrariety 
exists between the inclination to the world and the iaclination to 
Gh>d ; and not that all activity in relation to the world should be 
taken np and absorbed in the inclination to God, and animated 
by that tendency. Men compared monasticism with baptism, as 
a pnrificatioii from sin, a rennnciation of the world and regenera- 
tion to a new and higher life. It was a prevailing opinion that, 
by entering upon the monastic life, one was released from the 
obligation to make a pilgrimage, to go on a crusade, or to per- 
form any other vow, — an opinion, grounded at bottom on the 
Christian view, that the ruling bent of the heart, submission to 
God's will, was more than external and isolated acts. " Whoever 
vows, when living in the world, to make a pilgrimage to Jerusa- 
lem, or to Rome, and after this becomes a monk," says Anselm 
of Oanterbnry,' " has performed all his vows at once ; for single 
vows, signil^ only a partial submission to God, with respect to a 
single matter ; but monasticism embraces the whole. After a man 
has thus embraced the whole, be will not restrict himself again 
to individual parts.'" An Englishman, who hod set ont on a 

I Ijb.lii.,cp,lie. 

1 Qui TOTenitit w Itaro* Bomun nt HieroulMn id mmuId, •! >d oidiiwni oaMnim 
vaneriDt, omnia lol* mi aomplercrant. Qnlppe qai m Id faneta Dei per *oU tndi> 
derant, powqaim m Deo tMoi Indldraiut, totmn in partem poalmodnm Don bibent 
redigoe. CoDip. Llii., ep.SS. 

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pilgrimage to Jemaaleiu. came to Claiiranx; and, attracted bj 
the spiritnal society which he there met with, turned monk, and 
gare vp hie pilgrimage. The abbot jojBtified this step, in opposi- 
tion to his bishop, declaring that to '^persevere in a l>ent of the 
heart towards the heavenly Jerusalem was more than to take 
one hasty and transient glance of the earthly Jemsalem."^ The 
abbot Peter of Clnny wrote to a knight who had promised to be- 
come a monk in Clnny, bnt afterwards determined to go on a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem : " It is greater to serre the true God in 
hnmility and porerty, than to travel in a showy and laxnrions 
manner to Jerosalem. If there is something good in risiting 
Jemaalem, where the feet of onr Lord hare trod, still, it la a far 
better thing to strive after that faeaven where we shall see the 
Lord himself, fiice to foce." 

The inflnence of monasticism was rarions and widely extended . 
Venerated monks were called upon to give their advice with re- 
gard to the most weighty affairs. Persons of the highest standing, 
both of the secular and spiritual orders, noblemen and princes, 
got themselves enrolled as members of monasteries and mtrnkiBh 
orders, for the pnrpose of sharing in the pririleges of prayer and 
good works (fratrea adacripti or eorucripti) ; by which means 
these societies were brought into varions inflnential connections. 
Any reclose, who had become known for bis pious and strict mode 
of life, was soon looked up to by men of all ranks, from far and 
near, and was enabled by his counsels and exhortations to mak« 
himself widely useful. Such a recluae was Aybert in Hennegaa 
who lived near the beginning of the twelfth century. So great 
was tlie nnmber of people continually fiocking to him for the pnr- 
pose of confessing their sins, that he had scarcely a moment's rest. 
He gave them spiritnal counsel ; bnt not till after they had pro- 
mised to lay their confession before their ordinary ecclesiastical 
superiors. Only if they declared themselves resolved not to open 
their breasts to any other confessor, he yielded to their impor- 
tunity, lest they might be driven to despair. At length, he re- 
ceived orders from the pope to hear the confessions of all, and 
prescribe to them the appropriate penance. Whoever could get 
near enough to his person tried to tear off a piece of his dress 

1 Ep. 61. 1 Lib. il. ep. IB. 

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and bear it avajr as a relic, vhilst he, resisting, exclaimed : " I 
am a poor sioner, and by no meana what yon think me to be."i 
Honks trarelled about as preachers of repentance, and often col- 
lected gmtt crowds around them, who, awakened to repentance 
by their impressive words and their sererely strict mode of living, 
confessed their sins to them, and avowed their readiness to do 
anything: they might prescribe for the reformation of their lives. 
They stood to the people in place of .the worldly-minded clergy, 
who neglected their dnties. They restored peace between con- 
tending parties, reconciled enemies, and mode collections for the 
poor. The monasteries were seats for the promotion of varions 
trades, arts, and sciences. The gains accming from the nnion of 
the labours of many were often employed for alleviating the dis- 
tresses of many. In great famines, thousands obtained from mo- 
nasteries of note the means of support, and were rescued from 
threatening starvation.' 

Those, however, who took refuge in the monastery, or even in 
the retreat of the anchoret, fVom the temptations of the outward 
world, were still threatened by dangerous temptations of another 
kind, when, impelled by the first glow of their zeal, they engaged 
in extravi^ant self-mortifications. Changes in the tone of feeling 
would still occur even after some considerable time had been spent 
in this mode of life. Too deeply absorbed in their subjective 
feelings, they would waste themselves away in reflecting on these 
changeable moods. They felt dearth, emptiness, in their inward 
being; they failed of experiencing delight, animation in prayer. 
Evil thoughts gained the advantage in proportion as they allowed 
themselves to be troubled with them, instead of forgetting them- 
selves in some nobler employment which would tax all the ener- 
gies of the soul. Thus such men, becoming their own tormentors, 
fell into despur, and, unless better directed by prudent and expe- 
rienced abbots, might even be tempted to commit suicide. Or 
moments of uncommon religious enthusiasm and fervour would be 
followed by a reaction of the natural man, hankering after the 
things of sense, or of the understanding, limited to the conscions- 

i Acli Suclonm U. AptU. U J., f 67S. 

* In tbc jMr 1117, KbenihtnwuagrAaifa 
DonHler; of HeulcrtMch, ntu Cotogoe, diili 
1I«M, brrba. mil bre*d wen diiuibuwd unoDg 

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nes8 of this vorld ; and hence arose moods of scepticism and un- 
belief.' There was mnch need, therefore, in the men who pre- 
sided OTer these commanities, of a peculiar lore and Visdom, in 
order to exert a salutary control over these monks, to man«g;e 
them according to their different temperaments and states of feel- 
ing, and to protect then from the dangers to which they were 
exposed. But when so qualified, these superiors, in exercising 
such a watch over the wellkre of souls, might ohtain a rich har- 
vest of Christian experience. They would have first to become 
acquainted, by their own interior religions experience, with the 
truths which they afterwards used for the benefit of others. Such 
wisdom derived from experience we discern in an Anselm of Can- 
terbury. To certain persons who bad requested of him a direc- 
tory to the spiritual life, he thus writes :* " On^one point, namely, 

1 We will illaitrala tbia bj a few arauDplaa reliMd bj Cwurios, Id hia DidogiiM, A 
<roaDg ftmde, beloD^ng lo a waalibf and tepuMble fuailj, bad becoma • r»c1iue Biin> 
Craiy lo ths ttiabn Driiir frirndi. Bnt shp bid baap dtoeiTed wi(b ngud to banrif; 
■bg AfU into a aula of graai daiimaiaii, and donbud of nnTtliiiig wbieb b* fort tiadbtCD 
oarUiit to ber. Wben Ilia abbot to wboK cara hei ■piriiiul concern* bad bpcD jnurusltd 
bf the blabop, (iailed liar, anil aiked bar bow aha did T Sb« anawared, " Not well ;" awl 
wbFD ba iiii)iiii«d ofhrr tba raaaon, aba uid, " Bba did not koow licraelf, why aba wai 
abut op tbrM." Wben ba toM bar that it waa fbi tbeaika of Qod and ofUiakiDfdoa at 
baann, *be rapliad: " Wbo knowi wbatliar tbara ia a Ood, wfaetbrr Iben an angda, 
wbnb« tbera are immortal aouls, and i kingdom of baaiao? Wbo baaaaan tbam; wbo 
baa some from tba other aide and (old na abonl ibrm T" In rain ware aO ibr conTrraa- 
lions of tba abbot; aba only b«gg«d tfaat aba might be releaard, lince abe could endun 
no longer this lira of a rcoluse. But tlia abbot eiboned her lo remain faithful lo brr 
purpoae, and at leaat wait aeven it,yn longer, at tba and of wliieh period ba wonld liiit 
bar again. Ceruinlj, a lerj haiardoaa step to be taken with a person in ber wndhien, 
wbicb might eaaii; have beea followed with Ibe moat melancbolj conaeqaeoeea, aa >p- 
pean CTidanl ftom other a»mpl». Bal, in tbia inatanae, tba affect was hiouraUe ; and 
wben the abbot, who in tba mean time had canaad manj pratan to ba oflkrad in bar be- 
bsir, again viaiiad her at the time appointed, be found the tone uf ber ftelinga antiielj 
rbangrd. An eitraoidiuarj eleration had fallowed that Kason of depreaaion. In ■ <i- 
alon, which aha aaw while in a atate ofreligiDua excitement, all herdonbti bad raniabed 
Bwaj.— Anotbar aged nun, who had pravioaal; been dietlnguiahed for bar pion* walk 
and eoDTBrulion. doubled orerei^thing ahe bad belieted from tba lima of ber childhood. 
Sbe would not be apoken lo; she maintained that ebe could not beliaTe,Bince abe be- 
longed among tba reprobates. She eonld not be induced to take part in Ibe holy commu- 
nion. The prior waa indiscreet enough to aay, for Ihe puipoaeofetciting ber ftars.tbal 
if she did not dniathom her unbelief, ba would afkar bn death cauaa ber to be buried 
in the Belda. To eacape tbia lot, abe threw herself inio Ibe Moselle, bat waa taken oal 
before aha perislied. — Another penon..who had tntm his jouth up led an UDbtaimable 
Iift,fen into abaolnta despair, utteilj doublinic that his eina were torgtren, ainceha could 
not fnj aa be bad been wont lo do : ba Bnallj threw hilM^f inU a pond and «a* 
drowned. L. e. f. 94, eto., 100. 
3 liL 133. 

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bow you may be able to get rid of an enl will, or eril thoDghts, 
take from me this little piece of advice. Do not contend with 
the evil thongbts or inclinations of the will, but get yourselves 
rigbl earnestly engaged with a good thonght or purpose, till those 
evil thoughts vanish ; for, never will a thought or volition be ba- 
nished out of the heart, unless it be by one of an opposite cha- 
racter.* Uanage yourselves, therefore, with reference to ttnpTo> 
Stable thoughts, so as to turn your minds with all yosr power of 
control over them to the good, so as not to pay the least atten- 
tion to the others. But if you would pray, or occupy yourselves 
with a pious meditation, and then such thoughts become trouble- 
some to yon, still, by no means desist IVom your pious occupation, 
but vanquish them in the way described, by contempt. And, as 
long as yon can thus despise them, let them not trouble you, lest 
by occKNon of this anxiety they come up again, and torment yon 
anew. For such is the nature of the human soul, that it more 
often recalls what has given it joy or pain, thau what it judges 
to be unworthy of its attention.' Nor should yon fear that such 
motions or thoughts will be imputed to you as sins, provided your 
will does not go with them ; for there is no condemnation in them 
to those who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh 
but after the Spirit." Against a mistake of this sort Bernard 
also strove to put his monks on the guard. " I exhort you, 
my friends," says he to them,* " to exalt yourselves some- 
times above an anxious remembrance of your past conduct to a 
contemplation of the divine goodness, that you who are abashed 
by the contemplation of yourselves may breathe again by looking 
away to God. True, pain about sin is necessary ; but it should 
not be a pain that lasts for ever. Let it be interrupted by the 
more joyful remembrance of divine grace, that the heart may not 
become hardened by grief or wither in despair. The grace of 
God abounds over every sin. Hence the righteous man is not a 
self-accuser to the end, but only at the beginning, of prayer ; 

' Kanqnun enim eipellitsr ie cords, Dili alit co^utJODC «t alia lolunuis, qiiH illii 


1 SimlliUr h debet liabtn penona in unoto propoaiu Bladiaia, In qaolibel mntu in- 
dwnnla in corporB v>l aaiiiu, Hiouli ssl HtiiDuliii c vdib aut iiae, aiit lUTidias ant inaoia 
gloria. Tanc cuim facilllmB axlingaunlDr. cam atillm veils •cnlirr. aut da illii cogitar*, 
ant aliqnid illorum tuMiona Taun dadigntmur, 

■ Smii. anSolomDDiSoDg.ii., t IJSe, 




bnt he ends with ascribing pmse to Ood." Accordingly, b« 
exhorted his monks, from bis own experience, not to suffer them- 
selves to be kept from prayer by any momentary feeling of spi- 
ritual barrenness. " Often we come to the altar with lokewarm, 
barren hearts, and address onrselres to prayer. Bnt if we per- 
severe, grace is suddenly poured in upon us, the heart becomes 
full, and a current of devotioaal feelings Hows through the aoal.*" 
So he warns beginners especially against the excesses of asceti- 
cism. " It is," says he t« them, " your self-will, which teaches 
you not to spare nature, not to listen to reason, not to follow the 
counsel or example of yonr superiors. Yon had a good spirit ; 
but yon do not ttse it rightly. I fear that yon have received 
another instead, which, under Uie appearance of the good, will 
deceive yon ; and that you, who began in the Spirit, will end in 
the flesh. Know yon not that a messenger of Satan often clothes 
himself as an angel of light! Ood is wisdom; and he requires 
a love which, instead of snrrendering itself merely to pleasant 
feelings, unites itself also with wisdom. Hence the apostle, 
Rom. xii. 1, speaks of a serrioe of God which is reasonable. 
If yon neglect knowledge, the spirit of error will very easily 
lead yonr zeal into wrong directions ; and the cunning enemy 
has no snrer means of banishing love from the heart, than when 
he can get men to walk in it improridently and not according to 

Those dangers of the interior life wonid especially beset the 
anchorets, who were left to their own feelings, who could lind 
neither eonnsel nor encouragement in society, and could not be 
led back from their wanderings to the right path by the guidance 
of an experienced mind. . Hence it was thought necessary to 
warn men of the dangers to which this kind of life was pecu- 
liarly exposed. Thns Yves, bishop of Chartree," took ground 
against those who, puffed up by the leaven of the Pharisees, 
boasted of their spare diet and bodily mortifications, whereaa, 
according to the declarations of the apostle, 1 Timoth. iv. 8, 
bodily exercise profiteth little ; and the kingdom of God, Bom. 
xiv. 17, consisteth not in meat and drink, bnt in righteousness, 
peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. The solitude of groves and 

t 111 Cintka cantlcnniin, s. x., ^7. 1 L. r. ». »., i 7. 9 8p. ISfi. 

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of mountains cannot make a man blessed, nirless he brings with 
him that Bolitnde of the soal, that sabbath of the heart, that 
eleration of the spirit, without which idleness and storms of dan- 
gerous temptation attend every solitude ; and the soul never 
finds rest, unless Ood hash to silence these storms of temptation. 
" But if yon have his graee with you," he writes, " be assured of 
blessedness in whatever place you may be ; in whatever order, in 
whatever garb, you may serve 6od."' A certain monk proposed 
to exchange the life of the convent for that of solitude ; bnt he 
warned him not to do so.^ He bid him remember that Christ 
left tlie wilderness to engage in public labours. Hence be de- 
clared the life of the anchorite inferior to that of the monastery ; 
because in the former the man is abandoned to hie self-will and 
his own troublesome tbonghts, which distnrb the quiet of the 
soul. This he bad learned from the experience of many, who 
had before led a blameless life, bnt, after becoming anchorets, 
fell into lamentable aberrations. That warm and hearty devotee 
to the work of missions, Kaymnnd Lull, complains of it as a 
great evil, that pious monks retired into solitudes, instead of 
giving up their lives for their brethren, and in preaching the 
gospel among the infidels. " I behold the monks," says he, 
" dwelling in the country and in deserts, in order to avoid the 
occasions of sin amongst us ; I see them ploughing and cultivat- 
ing the soil, in order to provide tbe means of support for them- 
selves, and to supply the necessities of the poor- Bnt, far as I 
can stretch my eyes and look, I can see scarcely an individual 
who, firom love to thee, goes forward to meet the death of the 
martyr, as thou didst IVom love to ns." He longs for the time, 
which he describes as a glorious day, when pious monks, skilled 
in tbe languages of foreign nations, shall follow the example of 
the apostles, and, betaking themselves amongst the infidels, 
stand ready to lay down their lives in preaching the faith. Thus 
would the holy zeal of the apostles return.* The abbot Peter of 

1 L.C. 

t O gJorioH Damiaa, qoindo crit illi b^nedicU Dia, in qak Tidtuu, quod laDCti m- 
ligini Vfllint le adeo liudue, quod eani id (ems txttna *d dindun Uudnm it lui bidcu 
(rinitate et de tai ■uuti aniUW el da tat b«Drdict> inciuniuioDe et de laa graii pas- 
■ioDif Ilia dies ema din glorioM, si dies, in qoireditetdsTotio. qoun aanod spMloli 
babalnuit in moriendo pro bdo Domino Jian Chiisln. In the mignua liber conlampla. 
tianii In Dtom, opp. t. a,, t. 2t9. 

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CIddj, writes to a recloM,' that " his ootward separatioii fttna 
the world would ayail bim nothing, if he was destitnte of the 
only firm bulwark against besetting bids within the soul itself. 
This bnlw&rk is the Saviour. By union with bim, aad by fol- 
lowing him in his aafferinga, be would be safe against the attacks 
of all enemies, or able to repel them. Without this protection, 
it was not of the least use for one to shut htnuolf np in solitude, 
mortify the body, or trarel to foreign lands ; but he would only 
expose himself thereby to more grieTons temptations. Erery 
mode of life, that of laymen, of clergymen, of monks, and par- 
ticularly that of anchorets and recluses, has its peculiar temp- 
tations. First of all, the temptations of pride and of vanity. 
The anchoret takes delight in picturing to his &ncy what he is 
by this mode of life more than others. The solitary, uniform 
life, in inactire repose, be cannot bear ; and yet he is ashamed 
to abandon a mode of Hring which be has once chosen.* The 
repressed impulses seek room for play, therefore, in some artifi- 
cial manner. Thousands flock to consult bim as an oracle, and to 
ask bis adrice about ererything. They make confession of their 
sins to him, and implore bis spiritual counsel. They invite him 
to aid them by his intercessions in a great variety of matters, 
and offer him presents. Thus both his ambition and his avarice 
are gratified. While be exhorts people to give to the poor, he 
may amass great treasures for himself." After the manner here 
described, persons who had begun as strict anchorets, might 
soon, through the excessive veneration which was shewn them, 
and the numerous presents which they received, be turned away 
from the course vbtch they had chosen. Many monkish iustitu- 
tions, governed by the strictest rale, degenerated in this way. 
Impostors, too, would sometimes take advantage of the popular 
credulity, contrive to render themselves famous as strict ancho* 
rets, and thus make themselves rich.* The monks, who roved 

I Pne Usdio dormiUndo, Iptini miaimbilia UHii non in Deo, aed in mundo, noD in 
W, »d eiln K quwiil remediam. Nam qnii lemf 1 iMUmpLDin propoiilDni nremiUm 
demere pudat, qolerilur occwto fraqaiotii dieoi colloquii, at qui mulu it w Mceiu 
^ tonnenu puilur. alioniiD laltem ooDfabulatiunibiii nieveluc. 

* Tbu> it it related in tlw life of tfae abbot Stepben, nf Obaiie. in tLs protiooe of Li- 
inouBin, ia Ibe fint balC o( the Iwelflh iwnlurj, tbat a prnon bad lettled down there u 
an anchonl, and biiiBt bimwir «d OTHlory. He giadJy ncriied wbUKvu the peop)« 

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ftbont as preachers of repentance, might produce great effects 
amongst the nnedacated and neglected people. Bat vben power- 
Ail com pn actions, shoving themselres outwardly by sensible signs, 
resulted from these impressions, and an excitement of this kind, 
accompanied with strong sensaoas elements, seized irresistibly 
on the multitude, it required consummate wisdom to give the 
right direction to snch a moTement of the affections, so that no* 
thing impure might intermingle, so that the sensuons element 
might not prerail over the spiritual, and gire birth to a fanati- 
cism which would eren run into immorality, as it was said to have 
done in the case of a certain Robert of Arbrissel.' Amongst the 
vast multitude of monks, there were many who embraced this 
mode of life only for the purpose of obtaining consideration and 
an easy liriog, while they spent their time in idleness ; and if, 
on the one hand, there were pions monks who exerted a powerful 
and wholesome influence on the religious feelings and the religious 
education of mnltitndes, so there proceeded, on the other band, 
from the ranks of the nnedncated or hypocritical monks, actire 
disseminators of every kind of superstition. Abelard was one 
who stood forth as a stem reprover of this class of monks. Be 
describes how those who had retired from the world became cor- 
rupted by the reneration in which they were held, fell hack again 
into the world, pud conrt to the rich, and, instead of speaking 
to their consciences, lulled them to security in their sins by 
teaching them to depend on their intercessions.* Be applies to 
such the words in Ezek. xiii. 18 : " Woe to you that sew pillows 
to all armholes, and make kerchiefs upon the heads of young and 
old, to catch souls 1" " What other meaning has this than that 
we pacify the consciences of worldly people by oar sweet words, 

broagbtbiiD, ukd wbU b* conid make no use DrhimwirbeaODTertpdinLonaiM;. Oao« 
beappoinud « da; on wbiefa ttacj' wen tonMrablillMKl^tthcrtobearkiiiua. Huij 
came in tbe morniog. but found bim no loogn Ibere. He bad abscomled vitta all be 
poBHBMd. Hene* tbere vu a wuil of confidenoe In that disniot, lavards all wbo 
repretenled IbamMlvea u lUDhareU. See I. i., c. iv., in Biluz. Miaaellan. I, >v., p. 18. 

1 See fartber onward. 

3 Sint, qui longa eremi casTeraatione el abetinentia lanlam rallgionia nomen adepli 
sunt, ut a poLentioribuB aeeculi Tel iieenlaribus viris sub lliqua pietatis occuione ue- 
pins inTiteotnr et eio diabolico crtbro more palew nniilaii, de erema renioTelntiir in 
■aecHla. Qui mullis adulilionuiD ravorihiiB dona diviluis Teoanlfa ItiiB auam, quam 
illoruni jUEUlint an i mas. 

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instead of improring their lives by our honest reproofB 1"> In like 
manDer Hildebert, of Hana, boldly nnmaaked. the hypocritical 
monks. " Let his pale, haggard conntenance," says ho, " ezf:it« 
reverence ; let him stand forth in coarse and aqoalid raiment, the 
stem censor of manners ; yet for all this he is far astray from 
the path that leads to life."* Baymnnd Lnll, in one of his books, 
vhere he relates the vanderings of a friend of that tme wisdom 
irhich bei^ns in the lore of God (philoaophia amoriB), describes, 
how, in his search after this true love, he comes to a monastery 
that stood in the highest reputation for piety. Rejoiced at bo- 
holding so many united together in offering praise to God, he 
thinks he has at last found the dwelling of tme love. Soon, 
however, he observes a monk with a patched cowl ; but he was a 
hypocrite ; for thongh he fasted, preached, laboured, and prayed 
abundantly, yet be did it only for the sake of being regarded as 
a saint by the others. Beside him stood another, who fasted 
and prayed still more. He did so, however, because he supposed 
that God wonld certainly make him so holy that he might be able 
to work miracles, and ao be venerated as a saint after bis death.* 
Here the joy of the lover of tme wisdom vanished ; for he could 
not help seeing how much he was dishononred by such conduct, 
who alone should command the love of all. Even that enthusi- 
astic friend of the contemplative life of the monk, abbot Joachim, 
declared that while a monk who stands firm under temptations 
attains to the highest degree of the spiritual life, so one that 
yields to them becomes the worst of men. " Let a monk once 
become wicked," said he, " and there is not a more covetous and 
ambitious creature than he is."' 

1 Quid eat lulem pnliilloa cabilis fel cerriedii MpitibuB ■a|ipoatre, Dili ueanlaridm 
bomlnam vituu blandis >ennoDLbu(i dtnuulcere, qaun nas m>gu upsrii incrtincioDibuB 
oporMbat ootngert. Quorum doD* quoin ■lutalrrimus, eoa Dtlqn* de luflivgio noMim- 
rum aralionum ooDfldenIM, in mis iniqniUlibM relinqujiniu aecoriorM. De Jaano« 
baplitu Mrmo, atqi. Abariardi, p. 951. 

> Ut in eo idoretur oaseas ei riuiguig tdUub, ut sermo oenaoriua ei ait tl onltna in- 
cultiar, nin viun est, qa*e dncit ad vitEm. £p. II. 

1 Id Iub Srbar jbikwopbiu amoria, opp, t. n., f. A6. 

< Hoc faciebat idea, quia babebal opiDianein, quod Dciun ipanm deberet ttetn taiu 
atnctDm, quod ettam pouet boere miraeula, et cum eaaet mortuaa, quod de ipso Blngulia 
annie fleret ■oltenne faatu.n. 

t N'eo pntea ambitionemanacbnm non eaae tenlaadum, quia mortnui eet mundo, 
quia nibil, ai malna eat, ambltlDaiaa monacbo, Dibll an 
di* letcria el nori [eaUmenli, c. IL, p. 109. 

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kokbbrt's conversiok. S29 

Cafttiug a glance at the Tarious mODastic eocieties, which fiprang 
np within this period, we notice, in the first place, those which 
derived their origin from efforts of reform amongst the clergy ; 
and which may, therefore, be regarded as a medium of transition 
from the clems to the body of monks. Among these belongs the 
order of Fraemonstrants, whose fonnder, Norhert, was bom in 
the city of Xant«s, in the dukedom of Cleves, between a.d, 1080- 
1086. Descended from a family of note, he lived at first after 
the manner of the ordinary secular clergy, sometimes at the 
court of the archbishop Frederic the First, of Cologne, some- 
times at that of the emperor Henry the Fifth. But in the year 
1114, being caught by a storm, while riding out for his pleasure, 
a flash of lightning struck near him and prostrated him to the 
earth. On recoTcriDg his breath and coming to his senses, he 
felt admonished by the thought of the sndden death from which 
he had been saved as by a miracle, and resolved to begin a more 
serious course of life. From this incident he was led to compare 
the history of his own conversion with that of the apostle Paul, 
and to represent it as partaking of the miracalone. He laid aside 
his snmptnons apparel for a humbler dress, and after a season of 
earnest spiritual preparation, entered the order of priests. In 
Oermaoy and in France he itinerated as a preacher of repentance, 
and by his admonitions and reproofs restored peace between con- 
tending parties. 'He rebuked the worldly-minded clergy, and the 
degenerate canonical priests. By this course, however, be made 
himself many enemies, and was accused of preaching where he 
had no call to preach. He found a protector in pope Gelasius 
the Second, who gave him full power to preach wherever he chose. 
He was everywhere received with great respect. Whenever he 
entered the vicinity of villages or castles, and the herdsmen saw 
him, they left their cottages and ran to annoonce his arrival. As 
he proceeded onward the hells rang; young and old, men and 
women, hastened to church, where, after performing mass, he 
spoke the word of exhortation to the assembled people. After 
sermon he conversed with iodiridnals on the concerns of the soul. 
Towards evening he was conducted to his lodgings, all were 
emnlons of the honour and blessing of entertaining him as a 
guest. He did not take np his residence, as was customary with 
itinerant ecclesiastics and monks, in the chnrch, or in a monastery. 

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but in the midst of th« town, or in the castle, There he conid 
speak to all and bestov on sach as needed, the beneSt of bis 
Bpiritnal adriee. Thus he made himself greatly beloved among 
the people. In the year 1119, he visited pope Caliztns the Se- 
cond, in Kheims, vhere that pope had assembled a council. This 
pope confirmed the fnll powers bestowed on him bj his prede- 
cessor, and recommended him to the protection of the bishop of 
Laon. The latter wished to employ him as an instrnment for 
bringing back his canonical priests to a life corresponding to their 
mle. Bnt meeting here with too violent an opposition, Norbert 
withdrew ftom the field ; as the bishop, however, wished to re- 
tain him in his diocese, Herbert chose a desert region in it, the 
wild Yalley of Fremonstre (Praemomtratum Pratvm motutra- 
tum) in the forest of Coney, as a snitahle spot for a retreat. Sncb 
was the first foundation of a new spiritnal society, which, attach- 
ing itself to the so-called mle of Angnstin, aimed to nnite preach- 
ing and the cnre of sonis with the monastic life. From this spot 
he travelled in every direction to preach — ^to France, to Flandersi 
and to Germany, at the invitation of ecclesiastics, commniuties, 
and noblemen. The pions connt Theobald of Champagne pro- 
posed uniting himself, and all he possessed, with the new spiri- 
tnal foandation. Bnt Norbert dissnaded him from his purpose 
by showing him how much good of which he might be the instm- 
ment as a prince, wonld thus be prevented. " Far be it from 
tne," said he to the count, " to harbour a wish of distorbing the 
work which Ood is doing through you." When, finally, he be- 
came archbishop of Magdeburg (1126), he Boi^ht, but not without 
violent opposition, to introduce his order there. He died a.d. 

Norbert was one of the niunber also, about whom marvellous 
stories were circnlated. But if the veneration of the mnltitnde, 
and the enthusiasm of some of his disciples, attributed miracles 
to him, yet, the more critically examining, and we must add, 
inimically disposed Abelard, accuses him of ambitiously seeking 
'after this repntation, of obtaining it by deceptive arts ; and when 
his promises were not fulfilled, of ascribing the failure to the un- 
belief of others.' 

I TbnB, MbcnolbenilaldarNorbert, thai, DDl long b»bnbii(leaUi,b« called tliidcad 
la Ijfr, Ab«]ud ridiculed hia tain auempta to rain the dmd. Ad majora Ula Teuian al 

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We shoold here mention ^so, &s belongiDg to th« same age, 
Robert of Arbrisael. He had been carried his youth, by 
both tendencies of the enthnsiasm of his times, the scientific and 
the religions. After baring pnrsned his studies with great Eeal 
at Paris, he gained considerable celebrity by his attainments in 
science, and also by his strictly ascetic and pions life. The bishop 
of Bennes, who was possessed of a zeal for reform — induced by 
the high repntation of the yonng man, drew him to his chnrch, 
where be laboured four years as priest. He attached himself to 
the Hildebrandian morement for the reformation of the church, 
and was zealons in opposing the eormption of morals in the clergy, 
and in upholding the severity of the laws of celibacy, and against 
simony. He was a forcible preacher, and bis disconrses produced 
many of those efiects, which we hare already noticed as attending 
the influential preachers of these times. After the death of his 
bishop, he betook himself to the solitary life. His reputation 
attracted to him numbers of both sexes, who wished to train 
themselres under his direction in the way of spiritual living. 
Pope Urban the Second conferred on him the dignity of apostolic 
preacher, by virtue of which he might travel aboot everywhere 
and call sinners to repentance, and restore peace between eon- 
tending parties. He exercised an astonishing power over men 
and women. Vicious persons were so influenced by it, as to 
make fbll confession of their sins to him, and promise amend- 
ment. Others, who had led an upright life in' the world, were 
persuaded wholly to forsake it. Such, for example, was the 
effect produced by the society of this man on the mother of the 
famous abbot Peter of CInny, who entert«ned him for a while in 
her boose. She secretly vowed that she would become a nnnj and 
resolved to execute her vow as soon as her husband died, or 

■ummiilli miracolR it naaxitUDilii qaoqnB martnii ininitcr WnUU. Quod qiddmn 
DDper pruBUDxiue NortxTtnm tl ooapoiloluDi <juB Fuailum min^ rnimiu et rUimns. 
Qui din pariUT in onUioDS ccnm impalo proiliali ct ds au* prmeaamlioiie frualnii, com 
> propoilUi oonfasi dlsidenut, objurguv popalnm, impadenlercwiwnial, quod dfTOtloal 
BUM (t coniunti fldii fidtlita* totnm obaiBMnt Bfrnio it Jaanns bipliu*, p. 967. It 
is vontaj of nola tbat tba PraenonMniDat, who wmK Norbnt'* lilt, mika do meDLloD 
of UibaTingnUcdtLe dead, and tltal in his prologn< be dcBParea: Hauj tbinga mwt 
b* puandoTcr OD accoont of (he infldcliv CI impii, qui qntdqaid lagant gl audiunt.quad 
ah eorum atudiia et eODT««ationlbua all alienum, falBiini enntliiiuiin el eDiiHcliim nac 
jadianre noD mrtBaDl. ea dunlaiat breTiter atlingeni, quas omDibDi bow laDl naqna 
ipai olla improbitatc aodeaut difflleri. Acta SaucMr. Men*. Jao. u L, f. 610. 

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-woDld permit her to Ao so., It vas said of his sennons, that 
every indiTidaal who heard them, felt the words to be aimed at 
himseir aa much as ir they were addressed to him personally and 
with design.* There was formed ander his direction a religions 
society composed of persons of both sexes, and of ecclesiastics 
and laymen, whom be denominated the Pauperea Christi. His 
admirers were disposed to regard the moral effects that resolted 
from his labours as something beyond miracles ; and it deserres 
notice that, althoagh he produced such powerfnl impressions by 
hie preaching, yet during his lifetime not a single miracle was 
ascribed to him, — the reason of which may doubtless be found in 
the peculiar spirit of his labours ; for on this point the enthn- 
siastic admirer who wrote his life, says, that miracles wronght 
within men's souls are more than those performed on their 
bodies.* The enduring monument of his activity was the order of 
nuns at Fonterraud (Fons Ebraldi), a convent not far from the 
town of G&ndes in Poiton. It is impossible to mistake the marks 
which show that this man was actuated by a glowing leal for the 
salvation of souls ; though we mnst confess that, as in the case of 
many powerful preachers of times so given to the eccentric, his 
seal may not have been accompanied with a spirit of prudence, 
nor exempt from fanatical excesses ; and some of the bad effects 
which attached themselves to the great results of his labours, may 
doubtless have proceeded from these causes. His enthusiastic 
admirers will not allow ns, it is true, to perceive any mixture of 
lights and shades in the picture they have drawn of him ; but the 
way in which the abbot Gottfried of Vendome, and bishop Hil- 
debert of Mans, or Marbod of Bennes, describe his labours, con- 

1 V/otia aribeablMt Peter of CIdd;, concniiag Ills amthar: FiimaM illi EUibcrto 
de Bruwilo id u Tcnieutl rl sccuid sliqmmdiu nionnti impulaa rialaiito ubU knlnil 
M in nmuKchun i^orute vim rrdderet, a[ eo ditaneia ttI coocedanu itatiai ad fanu-m 
EbrBDdi.ii viveMt, demignrel, Kpp. I, ii.,ep. 17. 

a Bishop Baldric, in llie aocoiinl of big lifa, u Ibe 16ib of FsbniirT, o. iT.. s SS : 
Tuium pnedloilionii gntinm ei Dominui doniTeral, ut cam commDaem Mnnocina- 
tioDdin popnlo fimnt, nnusquiaqac quod Bibi sonvenirbu. uxipereL 

■ This ii BVidrnt, ftom Ihe beintiful woria in tbc aceouDI of fail llfo, c. iv., ^ 28: Ego 
■udenter dico, Robartim in nineiilla ropiosam, Bupti daemoupi imparioaom, super 
priacfpot glarioiDm. Quia enim DOMci tcmporis tot Itn^idos coniTii, tot laproMM 
mundaTll, lot mortuM (nsoitiTit ? Qai de Urr* eat, dB terra loqniiur et miracDU in 
curporlboa wliniratar. Qui tuem spiritnilii e<t,l*n;nidoae( leprmo*, monaoi qooqae 
pouTalaitae triuiur, qnando qnilibet aDimabui l*Dguidii et leproeieioHiluidis ooiMDlit 
n medetnr. 

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robbrt's character as judged bt his OFPONBKTS. 333 

tain feataree too characteristic to leave it possible Tor ns to con- 
ceive that they should have been pnre inventions, and they more- 
over agree with other kiodred examples of these times.i If the 
sqnalid raiment in which he travelled abont as a preacher of re- 
pentance, contribated to procure for him the reverence of the 
mnUitnde, — and he is said to have given it himself as a reason 
for wearing them, that they drew more veneration (him the sim- 
ple ; yet there were others who blamed him for attempting to dia- 
tingaifih himself in this way, and complained that he did not dress 
according to his statioo, as a canonical ecclesiastic and priest. 
They styled it only a species of vanity, and assured him that, to 
reasonable people, he mast appear like a craiji man.' By cen- 
soring the worldly-minded clergy in which he followed altogether 
the spirit of the Hildebrandian party, he drew after him the mul- 
titude, who delighted in such things. On the other hand, it is 
Bsid in the letter above noticed, " of whtt nse is it to censure the 
absent ? So far (htm being of any nse, it mnst aeero to his ig- 
norant hearers, as if he gave them liberty thereby to ain, — hold- 
ing np to them, as he does, the example of their superiors, who^e 
authority they might plead. By such censures the absent wonld 
rather be excited to indignation than persuaded to amendment. 
Of some advantage, however, it was perhaps, to himself, to make 
every other order of the chnrch contemptible in the eyes of the 
mnliitndS, so that he and his followers might stand alone in their 
esteem. Such cunning, however, savours of the old man ; it is 
something diabolical. It accords not with his calling, with his 

1 Enn if (be penoni neotioDnl vers not the anthon of tbne lelMn, if one or tbe 
otber of tbam mi vritun bj ffoscelin, ■ truth af tliis kind maj hao bean Ijing at 
bottOTn. This Roacelin, when a c^anODleal pTi«*l, via an Bdieiairj of Robert of Arbria. 
ael.irhoaeanuddraiTonaoftniiiiromiiDg the rrgnlar olergy into monka. Abelard sa^a 
Of biai(ep.Sl): His BODtraegregiun ilium pneoonam Chriall BoVrtum da Arbmaallo 
CDntuiDaeein anaua eat epiatulam oonfingerr. 

I £p, Mutod. amoDg the letiera of H ildebert, f. IIOA; De pannoai habilaa inaalnntia 
plarfmi l« leda^aendnm pntant. qnoaian nee eanonioae profraaiaul, aub qoa nilitan 
eorpisti, nee aDeenJotali ordini. in qaem pramatm ea, contenire lidalui. Eat enim ' 
aingnlia qnibuaqne profesaionibas siTe ordioibna apta qnaedam rt DOngrna dialinclio 
Labendi, qnae ai permnLetur, pubUoam offendit judioiun. Videamoa ergo, ne isia, per 
qnae ■dmiradonem panre rolDmua, rldiopla at odioM aint, TLiat be aent abonl in a 
cowl full of holea. baivraat, and with a lone beard, aa a novel aiglil for all, nl ad ornit 

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334 robbrt's charactf-r as judged by uis opponents. 

itinerant wanderings, with the eqnalid dress he wears. The con- 
gregations leave their priests, whom the; are tangbt to look npon u 
worthless ; they despise their intercessions, and will no longer sub- 
mit to chnrch penance (torn them ; will no longer pay then tithes 
and firstlings. Tohim and his followers they flock in crowds; and 
to him and his, pay the honour which they owe to their own 
priests. Yet these poor people are not influenced by the lore of 
religion, but manifestly by that lore of norelty, which is ever a 
ruling passion with the multitude ;' for nobody can perceire any 
amendment in their lires." It was now objected to him generally, 
that he placed too much reliance on momentary feelings of com- 
punction, and made no farther inquiry into the temper of those on 
whom his discourses had prwlnced an effect. He vafl accused <rf 
saying, that he was satisfied coald he prevent a man from sinning, 
even for a single night. He was accused of accepting at once 
every man, who, after solhe such superficial impression, expressed 
a wish to retire firom the world. Hence, people of this class fell 
afterwards into a worse state than ever. He was accused of a 
pharasaical zeal to make proselytes. " So great is the niunber 
of bis disciples," said these adversaries, " that they may be seen 
with their long beards and their black dresses, ranning in troops 
through the provinces ; wearing shoes in the conntry, going bare> 
foot in the towns and villages. And if these people are asked, 
why they do so, the only reply they have to make is, ' They are 
the people of the Master.' " Especially was he censored for his 
manner of operating npOD the female sex ; for his too free inter- 
course with them, and for his renovation of the dangerous fanati- 
oism of the aubintroductae,3 He is said to have allowed himself 
to be influenced in his'conduct towards the female sex too much 
by whim and caprice; to some, being too lenient ; to others, too 
severe ; imposing on them too harsh modes of penance. Gottfried 
of Vendome, — who intimates, however, that this charge against 
Robert of Arbrissel came by no means from credible sonrces,^ 
— represents to him how tenderly the weaker sex should be dealt 

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with ; how easily many might by hie mode of treatment be redaced 
to despair.' 

We noticed, at the close of the preceding period, the origin of 
the order of CInny ; and we hare described the high consideration 
it attained through the merits of the men who stood at its head. 
In the beginning of this period, the friend of Gregory the Seventh, 
abhot Hngo, joined himself to it ; but so mnch the more mis- 
chierons in its inflnence on the order tras the bad administration 
of his Boccessor, Pontine, who was finally obliged, in the year 
1132, to resign his post. Soon afterwards the place was filled 
by one who is to be numbered among the most distingnshed men 
of the cborch in bis times, the abbot Peter Ifanritios, to whom 
even his contemporaries gave the title of Venerable. By him, 
the order was once more raised to distinction. He was descended 
from a family of consideration in Anrergne, and is to be reckoned 
among the many great men of the chnrch on whose development 
the inflnence of Christian training, by pions mothers, had a last- 
ing efiect. The character of his mother, who later in life became 
a nun, was delineated by his own pen with filial affection, soon 
after her death.^ Under him the order took a difierent direction 
f^om that in which it had originated. As this man, distinguished 
for his amiable and gentle spirit, strongly sympathized with 
ererytbing purely human, so, under his guidance, the monastery, 
before consecrated alone to rigid asceticism, became a seat also 
of the arts and sciences.' A Christian delicacy of feeling, far 
removed from the stemnens and excess which we elsewhere find 
in moaasticism, forms a characteristic trait in the character of 
this individual. To a prior, who was not disposed to relax in 
the least from the zeal of an over-rigid asceticism, he wrote : 
" God accepts no sacrifices which are offered to him contrary to 
his own appointed order." He held op to him the example of 
Christ : " The devil invited Christ to cast himself down f^m the 
pinnacle of the temple ; but he who came to give his life for the 

1 Fragilis ntmaUum et Jelicitna uiua femiaeti 
dalaedine potina quam nimim unriuu regalar, i 
bntnr, ti qoi earn trgm deb«t, aic > mtank oirenDi'iiDiUaT. 

S Lib. ii ep. 17. 

Lib. iiL ep, 7, He prBim t, mook wbo diligiDllj deToted liiowelf U 
■todiea : HoDiehain longe mfllai CluDi*ci, qoani f osmlibeL philoHpfaoin ii 
philofophtnlem stnpao. 

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E&lration of the world, refnaed to end it by & suicidal act, — thereby 
setting an example, which admonishes us that we are not to push 
the mortification of the body to self-deBtmction.' So Paul alao 
(1 Timothy r. 23), following the'example of Christ, exhorts his 
disciple, that he should provide for his body with moderation, not 
that he should destroy it." He blames him for not heeding the 
afiectionate remonstrances of the pioos brethren amongst his in- 
feriors. " When a man pays no regard to those who speak sacb 
words of lore, he despises the lore itself which prompted such 
words. And he who despises lore, can have none himself. Bnt 
of what aratl is all the fasting in the world, and all mortifications 
of the flesh, to him who has no lore? (1 Cor. xiii.) Abstain, 
then, from flesh and from fish ; push thy abstinence as far as thou 
wilt ; torture thy body, allow no sleep to thine eyes ; spend the 
night in rigils, the day in toils ; still, whether willing or nnwill- 
ing, thou most hear the apostle : ' Eren if thou girest thy body 
to be burned, it profits thee nothing.' " Far remored from this 
monkish estrangement from humanity, he was aware that the sup- 
pression of man's natural feelings stood at variance with the 
essence of Christianity ; on which point he thus expresses him- 
self in a beautifVil letter to his brother, on the occasion of their 
mother's death : " The feelings of nature, sanctified by Chris- 
tianity, should be allowed their rights in the free shedding of 
tears. Paul (1 Thess. ir. 13), does not object to sorrow generally, 
bnt only to the sorrow of unbelief, the sorrow which contends 
against Christian hope."' To a monk, who thought himself bound 
to keep away from his native country, lest he should be attracted 
by some earthly tie, he wrote :" "If pious men must abhor their 
country, Job would not have remained in his; the deront Uagiana 
would not hare returned to theirs ; our Lord himself would not 
hare rendered his own illustrious by his miracles. The pious, 
then, are not obliged to By from their oonntry, bnt only from its 
customs, if they are bad. Xeither ought the good man to fly from 
his relations and friends, from fear of the contamination of vicked- 

1 Ol docint, Dlililer quidem canifm erne mnrtiBcuidun, aed non mart hoaiiciilanim 
crndeliln perimendam. 

i N'on nosier Uiis dolor, qarm gencmt nan fidtd def«tiu, aed nulla leg* proKibitua 
mnlDBc grnnaniut[aaS»ctas. Ndq notter lalia Aetna, qnam fandimns, non Intnroram 

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ness ; nUier, he should eadeaTonr to win tbem to salratioD hj 
wholesome admonitions ; he shoold not be afVsid of their earthly 
afieetiona, bnt rather seek to commnnicate to them his own 
heavenly affeetioos. I myself," said he, " wonld gladly retire into 
solitude ; bnt, if it is not granted me, or until it is granted me, 
let us follow the example of him who, amidst the crowd, in royal 
banquets, aai surrounded by gilded walls, could say, he dwelt in 
solitnde (Fs. U. 8, according to the Vulgate.) And such a soli- 
tude we can construct in the recesses of the heart, where alone 
the true solitude is found by true despisers of the world, — 
where no stranger finds admittance ; where, without bodily utter- 
ance, is heard in gentle murmurs the roice of our diseoursing 
Master. In this solitude, let us, my dearest son, so long as we 
are in the body, and dwell as strangers on the earth, — even in 
the midst of tumults, — take refuge ; and what we would seek in 
distant countries, find in onrselres ; for the kingdom of God is 
indeed in us." His letters eridence the intimate communion of 
spirit which he cherished with those of kindred disposition 
amongst the monks. Thus he writes to one of them : " When I 
would search with thee into the mysteries of the Holy Scriptures, 
tbon didst always come and join me with the greatest delight. 
When I would couTerse with thee on matters of worldly science, 
though still under the guidance of diTine grace, I found in thee a 
ready mind and an acute discernment. 0, how often, with the 
doors shut, — and him alone for our witness who is nerer absent 
where thought and discourse dwell on him, has awfiil converse 
been held by us, on the blindness and hardness of man's heart ; 
on the varioos entanglements of sin, on the manifold snares of 
wicked spirits, on the abyss of the dirine jadgments ; how have 
we, with fear and trembling, adored him in his counsels respect- 
ing the children of men, — when we considered, that he has mercy 
on whom he will have mercy, and hardens whom he will ; and 
that no man knows, whether he deserves love or hatred ; on the 
uncertainty of our calling ;' when we meditated on the economy 
of salvation, by the incarnation and sufferings of the Son of God ; 
on the dreadfU day of the last judgment !'" With great bold- 
ness, he told even the popes their faults. Thus he wrote to 

1 We percaln bera tbe influence ct ibt AggnatiaiaD docuine. 
t Lib. Ji., ep. 23. 

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Eageti« the Third :i " Though yon hare been set by Qoi orer 
the nations, in order to root out and to palt dovn, to bnild and 
to plant (Jerem. i. 10) ; still, becanse yon are neither God, nor 
the prophet to Thom this was said, yon may be deceived, be- 
trayed, by those who seek only their own. For this reason, a 
faithAil son, wbo would pni yon on yonr g^ard against snch dan- 
gers, is bonnd to make known to yon what has been made known 
to him, and what yon perhaps may still remain ignorant of." 

When the Clnniacensian order had thns departed from its an- 
cient austerity, and when milder principles prevailed in the 
Benedictine monasticism generally, there sprang ap, ont of a 
certain tendency to reform, an enterprise by which the strictness 
of the older models was to be again revoked to life. Robert, 
who came from a noble family in Champagne, had, in his child- 
hood, been presented by his parents as an oblatue to a monastery. 
Bat as monasticism nowbere came np to his high reqaisitions, he 
joined himself to a society of anchorites, who led a strict life in 
the forest of Uoslesme. The high consideration which this 
society attained to by its strict mode of living, procured for it 
unsought rich gifts ; and the increase of earthly goods was fol- 
lowed as usual by relaxation. Hence Bobert, together with 
twenty of the most zealous of these recluses, was induced to 
separate from the rest. With his companions he retired to a 
- lonely district, called Giteaux (Cietercimn), in the bishopric of 
Chalons, not far from Dijon. Here was formed, sometime after 
the year 1098, a society of monks, over which Bobert presided. 
But he could not carry his work here to its full completion ; for 
the monks of Moslesme contrived to obtain an order fVom pope 
Urban the Second, by virtue of which the abbot Bobert was 
obliged to retnm, and asgnme the direction of that monastery. 
He left; his disciple Alberic at the head of the new establishment. 
Pope Paschalis the Second, confirmed the rule of the new monas- 
tic order, which had been drawn up after the Benedictine rale, 
but with greater severity. The new monasteries presented a 
picturje of the extremest poverty, and in this respect stood in 
striking contrast with the monasteries of Clnny, which in some 
coses were diatinguish«d for the embellishments of art. The de- 

1 ]jb \i., tf. 13. 

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fenders of the hitherto current form of the Benedictine monasti- 
cism objected, however, to the abhot Robert that he clung 
tenacioDsl; to the letter of the Benedictine mle as the Jevs to 
the letter of the law ;* and they niMntwned, in opposition to 
him, that the Btrictness of ancient monaaticism had been properly 
modified, with a dne reference to the difference of climate.' Under 
the third abbot of Citeanz, Stephen Harding, this new order of 
monha had bat few membere left, its excessire sererity having 
frightened nnmbers away. It was first by means of an ex- 
traordinary man, who belonged amongst the most inflaential of 
his times, that this order attained to higher consideration, and 
became more widely spread. This was the abbot Bernard of 
Clairranx, whose spirit, life, and labonrs, we mnst here consider 
more in detail, 

Bemu^ was bom in the year 1091, at Fontaines, in Bur- 
gundy, not far fVom Dijon. His &ther was a respectable knight ; 
and on his education, as in so many other cases, a pious mother, 
Aleth, exerted the greatest iuflnence. All her seven children, 
six sons and a daughter, she bronght, as soon as they saw the 
light, to the altar, and consecrated to God. The third of these 
sons, Bernard, already exhibited while a child s predominant 
religions bent, which, under the influence of such a mother, de- 
veloped itself at a very early period.' After the death of his 
mother, the young man fell into a kind of society by which he 
was drawn away from that earlier bent. Yet this had been too 
deeply ingrained into his disposition not to put forth in the end 
a mightier reaction against all the impressions made on him at 
a later period, and he determined to break loose from all worldly 
ties and become a monk. His brothers, not pleased with this 

I See ihe words of (he worthy Engluh Bon 

i., f 713, wbcra, >F«ikiDg of tboM vbo rrlirFd with Rabert U 
Qui WDCIi deorennuit regaUm Benedict, lioal Jndaei legem Moiii id litertm unare 

1 Olderic. Viul. hist, ooolea. I. liii., f. TIS. 

1 SnfferiDg when t, Ud aadcr geTere hcadichea, i womin ume to Iiim, ind promiacd 
to CDTC bjiD bj iociDtMioDB lod unDlrtij bnl h« rcpellsd her propoail villi grot iodig- 
Dation. Onco, on RbrlBUnw-eie, bo wu tt cbureb, and hinng wiited longer than 
■*aal for Ibe oolrmeTicemeDt of terrini, fell ule«p, and hid a Tjiion or Christ, who ip- 
peand to him ■■ a child. See the aeconnt of Bernard'* life bj odc of bil diicipln, tbe 
abbot William, in Uiblilon, 1. i., t. a., ^ I. 

V 2 

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340 Bernard's earlier life. 

design, tried to dissoade him from it, and to connteract ihe Ioto 
of monaaticiBm by anotber of the nobler tendencies of these timoB, 
the enthnsiasm for acience, which now began to manifest itaelf, 
especially in France. This attempt was not altogether nnsac- 
ceasfiil ; bnt the memory of his mother reTired in him the impre»- 
siens of his childhood ; be often saw ia fancy her image before 
him, and heard her admonishing Toice. Once, when on bis way 
to pay a visit to his brother, who was a knight, and then engaged 
in beleagnering a castle, — he was so orerwhelmed with these re- 
collections as to feel constrained to enter a chnrch, on the road, 
where, with a flood of tears, be poured out his heart before God, 
and, solemnly consecrating himself to his serrice, resolred to 
execnte the above-mentioned plan of life. And it is character- 
istic of the man. that he chose at once as his ideal the strictest 
monosticism of this period, by which so many others were fright- 
ened away Irom it. By the invincible fervour of his zeal, which 
expressed itself in the force of his language and in his whole de- 
meanour, several of bis relatives and fHends, and all his brothers 
except the youngest, who was still a child,' were immediately car- 
ried away, and induced to join him in his resolution. In the year 
1113, he entered, with thirty companions, into the monastery of 

He was a monk with his whole soul. In bodily labours as well 
as in spiritual exercises, he sought to come fully up to the ideal 
of the monastic life. He himself was compelled afterwards to la- 
ment that, in the first years of his life as a monk, be had so en- 
feebled his body by excessive asceticism, as to find himself after- 
wards disqualified &am completely fulfilling the duties of his 
station.^ But his wide and diversified labours show to what ex- 
tent the energy of a mind actuated by a sense of the highest 
interests could find ways of making even so f^ail a vessel service- 

1 TbarallDvingiBcidcnlillDMntMoMohumoleristisfMlare In the lifeof this period. 
Theeldnt oflhrat brotbcn, Oaida, lisppaniag loKcUiejrDUQgBat, NinTd,i>ltTiilgwiA 
□iberbofi in lh« ■Ireec, called out to him, and itid: "You arc now avnH or tU out pro- 
partj." To wliiBh the Ud replied, "Wbit! you Ikts heiTca, and Itheeirthf That b 
no equitable dimion." 

3 In the areoant of bii life alreadj ciwd («. vul § 41), it i> laid of Lim : Non mo- 
fuiHUlaTuiqao hodieM accunrn, Morilegii irgueil* aemetipeaDi, qnod umtio Dei et 
frilTDni alietalariloaTpuiMiain, damindiiareloferTonimbeellleiUlidreddidnUlicpMne 

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able, and of orercoming the obstacles of a aicklj constitation.i 
And, in these times, his rery looks, which bore the maiks of this 
rigid self-discipline, only created for hin the greater respect. 
The fiery energy, with which he spoke and acted, contrasted with 
the weakness of his bodily frame, only produced so mnch the 
mightier effects.^ 

In the three years during which he remained at Citeanz, he 
gwned in this way so high a repntation, that at the eariy age of 
fire and twenty he was placed himself at the head of a monastery. 
In a desert and wild ralley enclosed by monotains, lying within 
the bishopric of Langrea, which, io earlier times, haring been a 
nest of robben, was called the Valley of Wormwood (Vallia ab- 
nntliialU), and forwards, when cleared of tbem, Clear Valley 
(Clara valUa), it was proposed to fonnd a new monastery of Cis- 
tercians;. and this, from its location, reeeired the name of Clara- 
vallis, or Clairvanx. Bernard was made abbot of it in the year 
1115, and this monastery became thenceforth the seat of his mnl- 
ti&rions labours, which extended abroad from this p<»nt through 
the whole of Europe. From that time, men of all ranks and sta- 
tions, knights and scholars, were attracted to the Cistercian order. 
The strictness which had hitherto kept back bo many, now acted 
as a charm on others. Monasteries aOer the pattern of Olair- 
ranz sprang np in the deserts, whose very names were intended 
to denote what the interior life could gain in them.* Within 

t When, durisg tlie Mbjnn mndtrpop* Innooral tbe Tliird, be wx under the necw' 
ulj of joumajing Io lUlj : InsUniiuimi pailuUlione Impenloriii ■{xxtolicoqaa mui- 
dalo DM Don Kclnia* k princlpam precibns Seii do'enies ac nolnnlM. debile* Uque 
inHiBl. H, ut nniiB hteor, piTNlu mintii ptllidcm ciicanftnolta in*glD«D. ■nhimii)' 
in ApolJn. Ep.lU,^4. 

1 III tbe Bnt uwoaDt of bU life, I. a. : Qnii noeln uuw, qnaiitamTii robuiti coi 
poria ct ueonlM iilettidinn MnU aliquando fteit. qu*nu late furil et hcit noribnodni 
at hngnMiis al boDoraa Dei « iodcim Mclasiaa nUlilataD ? And trom innncdiue ob- 
•arraUon, bb biograpbtr eonld aa J : Vlrtoa Del veheBHUitiua in inflnniuua ejaa irfnl- 
gena exmuo ua^ac bodie dignioTMn quaadam apud hominea ei afficlE rcvercnljam et in 
reiennlia aaotonUleD et in auetoriutr obedientiim. 

* Onlariein VHalia, Ibe Mend at Ibg old n»n, a^ : Haiti noUloi Ubietaa el profandi 
■opbiiiaa ad illoe pro DOTiUle aingaliritatie ooDearreranl ei iiiaiiul«in dialriclionrni 
nliro CDmpleianm iu via rrcu laeli Cbrialo b^mnat laelifiat modalati faeranl. In 
dnertii ilque silTetCribua Idcib monialeTia proprio libore condidenint et iten illia no- 
mine eoienli proThione impoiueniDt, nl eat Domna Dei, ClarairelliB, Bonaa nona. et 
cleeoKitfDB el alia plan bt4)ainiodi, qnibnt audiloree eolo noceinia neotaie iDTiteniar 
(rMinantar expeeiri, qeanla >ii ibi brelitDdo, qiee ten epeeieli d'^iioMtet toclbalo- 
Hiu. eeelta 1. viii , f. 71L 

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tbirty-seTen years, the number of conventB aaboidinatfl to the 
abbot of Giteaoz was increased to sixty-seren. 

Under Bernard's direction, the abore-named monasUiry, sita- 
ated in an nncnltivated re^on, earned so mnch by the hard labour 
of the monks, that during a serere &mine in Burgundy, when 
crowds offiimishiag poor poured in firom all quarters to the gat«s 
of the conrent, two thousand selected from the multitude, and 
marked by a peculiar badge attached to their persons, were sup- 
plied for seTeral months with all they needed for their snstenaneo, 
while others at the same time received indiscriminate alms.' The 
monastery of Clairranx became the model of monasticism ; and 
colonies from it, to found other establishments after the same 
pattero, were demanded from all quarters ; so that the abbot Ber- 
nard sometimes found himself unable to comply with all the in- 
vitations that were sent to bim. To all parts of France, Italy, 
Spain, Switzerland, Germany, England, Ireland, Denmark, and 
Sweden, monks must be sent from Clairranx for the purpose of 
founding new monasteries or of reforming old ones ;' and thus 
Bernard, at his death, in 1153, left behind him one hundred and 
sixty monasteries, which had been formed under his influence. 
Hence he had connections and correspondents with all these 
countries ; and the establishments which had thus arisen ever 
regarded him aa their father and teacher. Hence his letters and 
his influence wonid be widely diffused through all these lands. 
He was the counsellor of noblemen, bishops, princes, and popes. 
As we hare seen, he was often summoned to their assistance, to 
settle disputes, to quiet disturbances ; insomuch that he was con- 
strained to lament over the little opportunity that was left him, 
in the multiplicity of external businese, to lead the kind of life 
which became a monk. The general enthusiasm demanded him 
for bishop in many of the more important cities — snoh as Lan- 
gres, Chalona sur Uame, Rkeims, Genoa, and Milan ; but he de- 
clined every such inritation.* Before princes and nobles he stood 
np as an advocate for the unfortunate, and for the victims of in- 

1 See tlie Hcconnl of Ihe lift of John Eremite (he Seaond, S, in his wctks,cd. Mibil- 
lon, f. 1387, 
> S«e th* (Mond KConnt of biBlih b> BerDHli), iv.Se, nnd Ibi Ifainl, tii. 33. 
* Amici, qui me quotldle de cUuBtro til eiritate* pertnliorp maliunlur. Ep. 21. 

t See Ihe Brcand icrount o! his lira bj Bernnlil, it, 36, 

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joatice; be stimnlated those who attached themselves to hia 
person, to ben«Tolent enterprises, and directed them in such 
undertakings by his connsel. Amongst the latter belonged par- 
ticularly the connt Theobald of Champagne. Ue directed that 
nobleman in establishing a fund for the anpport of poor people, 
the interest of which sboold go on continoallj increasing, and 
thus secure a permanent and accnmnlating capital for relieving 
the wants of the needy.^ Althongh a religions interest, based on 
his view of the chnrch theocracy, as we have unfolded it on a for- 
mer page, induced him to enter the lists in defence of the papal 
authority ; and, although he was a zealous instrument in pro- 
moting the higher objects of the popes ; yet he was no advocate 
of a blind obedience to them, and boldly exposed to them the 
wicked acts perpetrated in their name, so that his interference in 
public affairs was sometimes extremely irksome to the more im- 
portant personages near the papal court. Strongly as he recom- 
mended in general, as a monk, obedience to snperiors, yet he 
also declared himself opposed to too broad an interpretation of 
this daty. " Were a blind and implicit obedience, submitted to 
withont examination, to become the general rule," says he, " the 
words we hear read at church : ' Prove all things, hold fast 
that which is good,' would be without meaning. We shonld have 
to expunge from the gospel the words : ' be wise as serpents,' and 
retain only, ' be harmless as doves.' True, I do not sny that 
the commands of superiors ought to be examined by subordinates 
where nothing is commanded which is contrary to the divine law ; 
but I affirm that wiedom is also necessary to detect whatever 
may be commanded contrary to those laws ; and freedom to re- 
gard evei7 sach command with contempt.' Say, suppose one 
shonld place a sword in your hand, and bid you point it against 
liis own throat, wonid you obey him \ Or, if he bid you plunge 
into the flames or into the flood % Would you not be yourself a 
partaker of the crime, were it in your power to prevent another 
from so doing and yon failed to exert it!'"' This principle he 

t t.. 0. liii. 93. EleemiMTaM f Mguiuir disponcTP, nt (amper nrnclifluDln r«divi> 
vm f t ninuDrntibHB Monsionlbas ncvwwiiipcrnlixlDasjnu partarireut. 

* Hk dies, ■ laUliiu nundua prupocilorani »tae dijudiondii nbl niliil jiib«ri df]>[V- 
bsniitui divini* canlnrium iiiuituiia, ird ucccwtaiiun uMni cl prudenliaiD, qua tAirx- 
UUT. >i quid •dTcnalnr bL libntuwrn, f ni a iugcnue contrmuBliir. 

■ Ep. 7, ^ 12. 

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applies, in the letter where it is ezpreued, to the relation of men 
to th^ pope ; and he sets the command of Christ, the high prieat 
of all, over gainst snoh a supposed command of the pope. His 
own conduct was erer in accordance with this principle. Hb 
shrank not from writing to Innocent the Second, that the popes 
themBelves had eontribnted most to injnre their own anthority 
by abusing it.^ It was the unanimous roice of all who presided 
orer the commnnitieB with a sincere regard for their well-beingT 
that justice in the church was falling to decay ; the power of the 
keys reduced to nothing ; the episcopal authority losing all re- 
spect : — since no bishop was allowed to punish wickedness in his 
own diocese, and this, owing to the action of the pope and the 
Roman court ; for, men said, whaterer good thing the bishop 
may devise, it is sure to be frustrated there ; whaterer eril they 
have rightly removed, is snre to be again introduced. All the 
vicious, the quarrelsome who have been expelled by them fVom 
the communities, from the body of the clergy, or of the monks, 
ran up to Bome and boast of the protection which they there 

We have already spoken of the great power exercised by Ber- 
nard over the minds of men, when, in the name of pope Eugene, 
he preached up the crosade in France and Germany. Thongh at 
that time many deceptions, whether intentional or undesigned, 
were mixed in,* under the name of miTacnloue cores, yet we can- 
not suppose the former in the case of snch a man as Bernard ; 
and unintentional deception would not sufSce to explain the ge- 
neral belief of Bernard's miraculous powers, nor the several 
stories so circumstantially narrated.* Whether it was that the 

1 QuidtobisTiTMidinii 

litis r Qoid robnr THtniE 

ndeprimliis: Ep. 

178. ■ 

1 Quiqne flogllliMi «t c< 

intentioa! de papula, BiTi 


Dutrriia pnliKli 

ciinunt sd vo«, radcuntrs 

jaotanl et gMtiuot, le obli 

iaulue MIom, qaos m*gU nlMm 

sensissB debaennt 

1 Abelird. who «ilb cri 

tioil undenUndiDg ran 

liand into the Ulfi 

oorei JD hit tiDi«a, tptilu < 

tmiu Ullnm. qal D 

urn febrieiUiiln 

ouraDt, lel benediclioneB lel onUoneii rulant. Hoi 


cnntio nqnitur, atoctimi 

eio mlDidK. inldeli 

tati coram (U., 

of Ihoaa an whom ihe core lutd brcD parfarmed} vgi despcralioDi idaaribUDr. Dti Jotnua 
baptiata, op[i. p. 967. 

* Conecining ■ boj born blind, to vhomhe realored sigbl, in the diatriel or LiPgv, wt 
find the following accoaDt bj the mank OolUVied, of Ciairraux, in I. it,, tL St. Tnna- 

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conGdent fatth excited by the strong impression wbicb this ex- 
traordinary man ereryvhere mada produced bo great effects, and 
the religions ensceptibility of the times, in which the element of 
a critical nnderstanding was bo repressed by that of immediate 
religions feeling, came to his assistance ; or whether he possessed 
some natural magnetic power of healing (a supposition which I 
see no reasons for adopting) ; the fact was, Bernard himself 
arowed the conviction, that God did perform miracles by him ; 
as, for example, in that letter to pope Eugene the Second, already 
qaoted, where he refers to what he had accomplished in rousing 
np Europe to engaj^e in the cmsade.* So, after fighting down 
the heretics in the south of France, he appeals, in a letter to the 
citizens of Tonlonse, to the fact,' that he had revealed among 
them the trath, not merely by word, but also by power.* As soli- 
tary workings of that higher power of life which Christ introduced 
into human natare, these facts might perhaps be properly regarded, 
wherever they appeared in connection with a genuinely Christian 
temper, actuated by the spirit of love. Evidence for this reason 
in favour of the entire troth of the doctrines promnlgated, they 
at the same time certainly were not ; for that higher power of 
life, whose fonntain-head is anion with Christ, does not necessarily 

potted It tbe flm rtj of lig^t, to bim before niioll j antnown, tfap bo; er1«d onl, " I see 
di;r, I *ef evpr^body, I aet people wilb bair,' end, eUppinghi* hinda for jo;, be M- 
cUimed, " M; God, now I abill no more duh mr feet egtuDBt the ttonea '." In CHmbrey 
bf cured ■ deaf and dumb boj ; end, lu eoon u be could epeak, Ibe mnltilDde eel liim 
on ■ wooden bench, that hi rnighc ealute tbe people wilb hie new gifl of epeeeh, and hii 
Snt worda were receired with ■ ehout of joy. Tbie rnauk rflalns still eaotber cue of 

facta sunt comitatu. doD Bcribimua.quu noB obliTisci ipaa, gaam vidimoa magnilodo 
laetitiie aon prrmittlL) At Charlerie, ■ ooanlrr town not fir from tbe dtj of ProTiug, 
I boy tan jean old. who hid been for a year ao lane in all his limba aa to be anable to 
>ao*e I aingle member, not eveii hjs head, waa preeented to bim i> he pM*«d iloug ihe 
elreel. by tbe lid'e parente aod other relalioni. Beraird touched him, and aigited the 
oroee otct bim ; when, at bii biddJD^ be roee up and walked. The lid wai now uu- 
wilUuglo leiTe hia benelbotor wbo bid giren him tbe ain of hie Umba, till Bernard 
obliged him to do lo. Hia younger bother embraced him ai if he hid bean reatored 
from the dead, and many were moved to lain. Fonr yein ifterwirdi hia mother bronght 
him igaiD lo Bemird, la be beppened to be paaaing throagh the town i seoond time ; 
ind riM bade ber aon klea hia ISeet, aaying to bim. " Tbl< ie llie mm who reatored lifii to 
you ind yoii to wie." 

1 Page 306. 

3 Ep. U2. 

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exclade errors ; aod, moreover, the supposed miracles may have 
belonged to the Old Testameot position of tliis period. 

Still there were, eren then, persous who, in the conflict with 
the prevailing; spiritnal tendencies of their times, doabted or de- 
nied the truth of those miracnlons stories ; persons, to be sure, 
who cannot be regarded as nnprejadiced witnesses, — who were not 
at all less biassed than bis enthnsiastic admirers, though on a 
different side, — the representatives of that critical bent of the 
understanding which was most directly opposed to the spirit of 
Bernard, — Abelard and his disciples. These seem not to have 
acknowledged Bernard's miraenloos gills. Abelard, it is true, in 
a passage already quoted,' does not speak of hie miracles, pre- 
cisely after the same manner in which he does of the miracles of 
others, which he directly pronoances a delnsion ; nor does he 
mention him by name. Bat proceeding as he does on the general 
assumption that miracles were no longer wrought in his age, he 
sceme to make no exception of the case of Bernard ; — and the 
way in which Abelard's talented but haughty disciple, Berengar, 
expresses himself, would lead us to infer irom the whole tone of 
his remarks, though he nowhere disputes the truth of those mira- 
culous stories, yet his own incredulity with regard to them.^ 

He himself, for that matter, was far from over-estimating the 
value of such miraculous gifts, which he describes as something 
rare in this time and difScnlt of attainment. He advises that 
men should rather bend all their efforts in striving after those 
Ckriatian mrtuea without which the chorch cannot exist, and, 
above all, charity, than to be very anxious after theee things, — 
which' served only as an ornament to the church, — which were 
not necessary to salvation, and which were attended with many 

1 PsgtOU. 

t H« ujB, m«D<foatlj with unum, Jundniluni wndilDdinia U»a odortm al« fti 
orbem fami dupcnit. prKuiDfurit meriu, mirualB deolunBrit. Fi^lieU jaotabumu 
irwlHiii <aecuU lam wnisoi nderia nnosMU niura mandamqac jam daUtDm perdi- 
tioni tuis Duriiii (ulnutfn putibamiu. Spenbuaaa in lingiue UM wbitrio eoeli lium 
•erieni, iib«rtauintcrnie, fruMuuin InnadietioDcm. Slediu viitMi, 
LB tuB rugire dafmoncB «ulaintremDB ct beatulM dm Untolo gtoriut- 

9 IsliiiimDdi ligita hi opn> laqueBrJum ad dMotem Domua Dei (quae mugiM n 
apliornMui,quBin nccessaiii fore aalnli), quoniam iellusmodi ligna conaUL et labo. 
rioae quacrl el diOicile imeniri el jrericuluse elnborari (nam cl ran ca prmertim his 
tempOTibu* tiMTH noitra ptoduccrc reperilur). Scnoo xlvi., io Cantin caolicor. 1 8. 

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Connected with Bernaid's participation in the cnuadeB, vas 
the part he took also in an nndertaking designed for the promo- 
tion of the same object, the order of Knight Templart. This 
order of spiritoal knights had heen already founded nine years, 
bat consisted only of eighteen membera; when, thtongh Bernard's 
co-operation, it received a newly modified rale, at the conncil of 
Troyes, in II 27, and Bernard's participation in it gave the whole 
affair a new impnlse. In compliance with the wish of its first 
master, Hngo de Paganis, he wrote a discoarse of exhortation and 
encoaragement for the use of the members : " Exhortatio ad milites 
templi." He extols this order as a combination of monasticism 
and knighthood, contrasting it with the common knighthood, 
which was only subservient to wicked ends, and inspired by sin- 
ful desires and passions. He describes the design of it as being 
to give the military order and the knighthood a serions Christian 
direction, and to convert war into something which Ood might 
approve. *' Even infidels," says he, " shonld not be pat to 
death, if in any other way they could be prevented from perse- 
cuting and oppressing Christians ;"' and, as in favour of the cru- 
sades generally, so also in favour of this order of knights devoted 
to the same object, he make it a prominent argument, that Chris* 
tendam would thereby be relieved from a multitude of mischievous 
men, that these men would be called to repentance and rendered 
serviceable to the chntch.* 

What preeminently distinguished this great man was, that to a 
bent of mind profoundly contemplative, a rich inward experience, 
be united snch a many-sided activity directed on the outward world. 
As in his own case religions knowledge proceeded from interior 
experience, so he endeavonred to gnide his disciples and contem- 
poraries to this fountain-head of the knowledge of dirine things, 
as opposed to a predominantly scientific direction of the Chris- 
tian mind.' Monasticism was so highly valued by him, because he 

I Non qoidem nl pigani nfcindi ohuI, i( lao modo ditcr pcuent ■ nimia istMla. 
tiooe *ea o[qiTHBioD< Hileliuro cabib«ri. ii. 1. 

1 Quadqne remltnT jacanJiiu eC igilur DomiDDdius, piueoi (dmodum Id tmla mulii- 
tudine bomiDum illo couBiir* vidrar, niii ntique (celeniWi tl impioa, iftatm «t ucrj- 
\tgo», tramiciilu, ptiiartw et ululteroa. Sic Chr^B(u>, aic Dovlt ulciwu in botlcm tain, 
ul DOD Mlnm d« ipaiB. led pri ipsoa quoquc n^queniei ioIhL Unio nloriosiof, qitinto H 
poteDlius (liompliin, | 10. 

1 Which we sLiill dtieribe mote piattlt in Il)c Toarth Me4ion. 

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eonaidered it a school of this theologj of the heut. Thos he 
wrote to a aeholuUc theologian, whom he iiiTited to become a, 
monk.' " ThoD,who bnsiest thyself with the study of the prophets, 
nnderstandest thon what then readest 1 If thou dost understand 
it, then thon knowest that the sense of the prophets is Christ. 
And, if thon wonldst hare him, know that thon wilt succeed far 
better by following htm, than by reading. Why seekest thon in 
the word that Word, which stands already before thine eyes as the 
Word become flesh 1 He who has ears to hear, let him. hear him 
crying in the temple : ' If any man thirst, let him come onto me 
and drink ;' and, ' Come unto me, all ye that are weary and 
heary laden, and I will giro yon rest.' 0, if yon had bat a taste 
of the rich marrow of the grain with which the hearenly Jemsa- 
lem is satisfied, how gladly wonldat thon leave those Jewish 
scribes to nibble their crusts of bread." Then, he adds, *' Be- 
Uere one who has experience, thon wilt find more in the forests 
than in books. Woods and stones will teach thee what thon 
canst not learn from the masters.'" It was one of Bernard's in- 
spiring thonghts, that the right knowledge of dirine things was 
only snch a knowledge as proceeds from the interior life, from the 
impress of the divine npon the disposition. Planting himself 
npoo the words, " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wis- 
dom," he says : " Knowledge makes men learned, the disposition 
makes them wise."* The snn does nor warm all npon whom it 
thmea. So wisdom does not inflame all whom she teaches what 
to do, with the dettre to do it. It is one thing to know abont 
many treasnres ; another to possess them ; and it is not the 
knowledge, bnt the possession, that makes one rich. So it is one 
thing to know God, and another to fear him. And it is not the 
mere knowledge, bat the fear of 6od, which moves the heart, 
makes one wise. " Enowle^e is to him bat a preparation for 
true wisdom. It leads to the latter only when that which is 
known is taken n'p into the heart, and the heart is moved by it. 
" Tet pride," he imagines, " is very apt to proceed from mere 
knowledge where the fear of God does not present a connter- 
I Ep.ioe. 

3 Eiprrto unit, aliqnid unpliua inteniea in Bi)vis, qtiim in libris. I^gni el lapidn 
iloCFbuiit. quod ■ DiBgfiBlriB audire noD poaeit. 
^ I nmroctio doclos rcddit, iffeclio sapieDtm. 9. ixiii., in Canttca MMieor., 1 ll. 

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Bat it vas especially the principle of a love exalted abore fear 
and the desire of reward, which he was accostomed to regard, 
and to recommend to his monks as the sonl of Christian perfec- 
tion. Hence pre-eminently aboro erery other pioos man of his 
times, he was called the man of loTe;' thongb, in a practical 
new, Peter of Clnny might nndonbtedl; claim this title in prefer- 
ence to all others. When be was ealled to Italy, in the contest 
for the canse of the pope, and was compelled to travel far, and 
undergo much fatigae, be wrote to his monks,' that amid all bis 
toils, he fonnd the greatest consolation in reflecting that he 
labonred and suffered in his canse, for whom all things lire. " I 
mnst, whether willing or unwilling, lire for him, who has acquired 
a property in my life, by'giring np his own for me." To have 
their lives also consecrated solely to bim, was his exhortation to 
his monks.' " To whom," be wrote, " am I more bound to live, 
than I am to him whose death is the canse of my living. To 
whom con I devote my life with greater advantage than to him 
who promises me the life eternal ? To whom, with greater ne- 
eessity, than to bim who threatens the everlasting fire t Bnt I 
serve him with freedom, since lore brings freedom.* To this, 
dear brethren, I invite yon ; serve in that love which eosteth out 
fear, feels no toils, thinks of no merit, asks no reward, and yet 
carries with it a mightier constraint than all things else. No 
terror so spurs one on, no reward so strongly attracts, no demand 
of a due ao pressingly urges. This love binds yon inseparably 
with me, this love makes me ever present with yon, eapecially in 
ihe hcntrt when I pray" Touching the essence of disinterested 
love, Bernard says :* " Not wiihoiU reward is God loved, though 
be should be loved without respect to a reward. True lore pos- 
sesses enough in it«elf; it has a reward; bnt it is nothing other 
than the very object that is loved." He distinguishes, however, 
four stages in the progiessire development of love. The lowest 
stage is where the man. is drawn away fnm selfish interests, by 
means of self-love, to tbe love of God. Sufferings are ordained, 

1 Aeti Banalor. H. Jnn. 1. 1. f. S26. 

t Ep. 143. 

* Sad MTtfo Toluuurip, quia luriUB HbfrlMfm danit 

• Da djliitendo Dm, a. tu. 

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to tlie end that man ma; be awakened to the conseionsness of 
dependence on God, and, by the seeking aft«r help in diatrese, be 
led away to God. Bnt mast not his heart be harder than iron or 
stone, who, afler having often turned to God in distress and fonnd 
help ftvDi'him, does not become so softened that he mnst begin to 
lore him for his own sakel Thns he attains to the eecondstage, 
where God is loTed no longer merely as a helper in distrosa, bnt 
on aceonnt of the experience which has been had of the blessed 
effects of commnnion with himself. As those Samaritans said to 
the woman, who had informed them of the coming of the Lord : 
" Now, we believe ; not beeanse of thy saying, for we have heard 
him onrselres, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Sa- 
viour of the world ;" so we, too, may rightly say to the flesh : 
" Now, we love God, not on account of thy distress, bnt becaose 
we ourselves have experienced and know that the Lord is gra- 
cious. Thns, by degrees, we attain to the third stage, which is 
to love God, not only on account of the way in which he has 
manifested himself to onraelves, bnt for bis own sake ; to lore 
him, as we are loved ; we, too, seeking not our own, but the 
things of Jeans Christ, as he sought our good, or rather us, and 
not hia own. From this is developed, finally, the fourth and 
highest degree of lore, where self-love passes wholly up into the 
love of Ood, and the man loves even himself only for God's 
sake." Bernard finds this stage of love described in Fs. Ixxiii. 
26 : " Hy flesh and my heart faileth ; but God is the strength 
of my heart and my portion for ever," " Blessed and holy," 
says he, " would I call him, to whom it is granted in tbia mor- 
tal life rarely, occasionally, or even bnt once, and that only 
for a moment, to experience something of this kind ; for so 
to lose thyself, thine /, so to renounce thyself, this is heavenly 
converse, and not feeling, after the ordinary manner of man. 
As the glory of God is the end of all creation, so the point to- 
wards vhich all progress in religion strives, is to do all things 
only for God's sake. This ground-tone of the soul is, properly 
speaking, transformation into the itnage of God. Bat here below 
man can sustain himself bnt for a few moments in these heights.'' 
" I know not," says Bernard, " whether by any mortal this fourth 
attainment has been completely realized in the present life. Let 
them maintain that it has who bare experienced it : to me it 

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seems impossible. Without donbt, howerer, it is then to be 
realized when the good and faithful servant shall enter into the 
joy of bis Lord." 

It is ereryvhere apparent that the reference to Christ consti- 
tuted with him the son) of the Chiistian life. " Thus," he says,! 
" Dry is all nutriment of the sool, if it be not anointed with this 
oil. When thon writest, nothing tonches me, if I cannot read 
Jesus there. When thon conTersest with me 'on religions snb- 
jects, nothing tonches me, unless Jesos chimes in. But he is 
also the only tme remedy. Is any one among yon troubled ^ 
Let Jesua enter into his heart ; and lo 1 at the rising light of his 
name, every cloud is dispersed and serenity returns. Here is a 
man fall of despondency, running to entangle himself in the snares 
of death. Let him but call on the name of life, and will he not 
at once recorer the breath of life 1 Where did erer hardness of 
heart, indolence, or ill-will abide the presence of this holy name ? 
In whom does not the fountMn of tears b^n at once to flow more 
copiously when Jesus is named ? In what man, that trembled 
at danger, does not the invocation of his name of power at once 
infuse confidence t In what man, that wavered in doubt, does 
not the light of certainty beam forth at the invoking his glorious 
name t In whom, that grew faint-hearted in misfortune, was 
there ever lack of fortitude, when that name whispered, I am with 
thee 1 Certainly, these are hot diseases of the soul ; but this is 
the remedy. If, for example, I name Jesns as man', I present to 
myself the meek and lowly of heart ; the man radiant with all 
virtue and holiness ; the same who is also Almighty God ; who 
can heal me by his example, and strengthen me by his grace. 
Of all this, the name of Jesns at once reminds me. From the 
man, I take my example ; from him who is mighty, my help ; and 
of both I compound a remedy for my case such as no physician 
could provide for me." 

But as the discrimination of the different stages of religions 
progress, suggested by his own rich spiritual experience, and by 
observation derived IVom watching over the soals of others, dis- 
tinguished Bernard, bo he went on to mark difl«rences of degree 
in the love to Christ, as he had done before in the love to God. 

S. If, in 0*ntl<n otnticor. ^ 6. 

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At one sta^, be placed the lore possessed by such as are still 
governed by tbe outward senses, — lore excited by sensible ira- 
pressioDS ; at another, the lore of those who are capable of rising 
abore tbe appearance in the flesh fo the divine in itself, and lire 
in that. " Remark," says he,' " that tkU loro of the heart is 
still, in some measnre, a fleshly one, when it is moved chiefly by 
a regard to Christ manifest in the flesh, to vhat he did and com- 
manded in the flesh. He who is full of this love is easily bowed 
dovn with contrition at the mention of Christ. When he prays, 
the holy image of the Ood-man stands before him, — bora, teaching, 
dying, rising again, or ascending np to hearen ; and whataoerer of 
this sort may present itself to his sod mnst either enkindle the 
sonl to the love of the virtnes, or expel the vices of the fleah, and 
qnell its impnises. I think this especially to bare been the rea- 
son why the invisible God was pleased to manifest himself in the 
flesh, and to hold interconrse with man as a man ; it vas, that he 
might first draw all the inclinations of the carnal men, who can 
lore only carnal things, to the sonl-saring lore of his own flesh, 
and thne to elerata tbem by degrees to a spiritnal love. At this 
stage, were still to be found those who said, ' Lo, we hare left 
'all and followed thee,' Lnke xviii. 28. Assuredly, it was love of 
his bodily presence alone which had induced tbem to leave all ; 
and hence they coold not patiently hear the annonncement of his 
approaching sufferings which were to bring salvation. Bat Christ 
pointed them* to a higher st^e of love when be said, 'It is tbe 
spirit that qniekeneth ; the flesh proflteth nothing.' To this 
higher stage Ae doubtless had already atttuned, who sud, ' Though 
we hare known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know 
we him no more.' " Bernard marks the difference between a 
Christian who is easily touched by the remembrance of Christ's 
anfferingB — and, by the blessed experience of these pions feelings, 
is incited to aspire afler all goodness — and the Christian who, 
more and more pnrifled and ennobled by such feelings, has finally 
attained to a steadfast leal for righteousness and truth, — who, 
becoming a stranger to all vainglory, abhors calumny, knows no- 
thing about enry, despises all human glory, avoids as it were in- 
stinctively all sin, and embraces everything good. 

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True hamilitf in jK^Sing of one'sself, be decl&red to be more 
than prolonged listings, late vigiU, and an; bodily exercise, — ' 
the trne godliness vhicb is profitable onto all things, 1 Tim. ir- 
8.' As it turned out vith many who embraced the monastic 
life, that their corrupt inclinations hrohe oat with the more force 
in proportion to the narrower room left for the iudalgence of them, 
so Bernard fonild it necessary to rebnke the odions practice of 
slandering the character of others nnder some hypocritical form 
of piety. In what he says, be discoTsrs his profound knowledge 
of mankind : '* First, we hear, as the premonitory sign, a deep 
sigh ; then, with a certain dignity, with a certain hesitation, 
with a sorrowfnl look, with a lamenting tone — behold ! the oalnmny 
is uttered ; and the word spoken gains the more power of be- 
getting conviction, because the hearers believe it has been nttered 
unwillingly, and more out of pity and sympathy than out of 
malice. ' It gives me great pain,' says one, ' for I love the man, 
sincerely, and never conld core him of this fault.' Says another, 
*I knew that of him very well ; yet by me it was never divulged 
to any one ; bat now it has been told bf somebody else, I cannot 
deny its troth ; with pun I say it, the fact is really so.' And he 
adds, ' a great pity, for in most other respects he is without a 
fault; but on this point, to confess the truth, he is altogether in- 
ezcnaable.' "* "The first thing for every man," says Bernard, 
" is self-knowledge ; the first, because every man is his own 
neighbour ; the moat profitable, because such knowledge does 
not puff up, bnt hnmbles, and prepares the way for edification, — 
for the spiritual building cannot stand firm nnless it rests on the 
solid fbuttdation of humility. Bnt nothing is better calcnlatedto 
lead the soul to humility than a knowledge of itself as it is."> 
" If a soul," says he in another place,* " has once learned and ob- 
tained from the Lord, the power of turning inward upon itself, of 
panting in its inmost depths after God's presence, of continually 
seeking the light of his countenance, — I know not whether such 

I Ep.112. 

t xiiT., ID Ctntia euiliear, ^ 4. It i> tlic rame (Ling: n wm objMttd b; Benogti, 
AMwil'i dbeiptr, la the CuUmiiini: Quid [rodeil, tnlna nin iu enraum el in 
miBO tMben oor AegjptioDi ? Quid pnidttt, Atgjfti rUM tiltr 
treotioDibni ooDorrpara 7 0pp. Ab«l«rd. p. 328, 

I S. Ill* L, in Cantiea siuUcor. !) 6. 

» L. c- 8. »«»., i I. 


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B sonl wonid consider tb« snfiering of hell itself, for & Beuon, ss a 
' gre&ter jtonishtnent th&n, — After hanag onee tasted the bliss of 
this spiritual direction, to ht tamed back again to the allnre- 
menta, — say rather, to the hardships, of the flesh." 

As the Cistircian order gave a new impolse to strict monasti- 
cism, so it rapidly extended itself, — thns exciting the jealousy of 
the older monkish societies, orer which it threatened to eler&te 
itself.* Hard feelings grew op, especially between the old order 
of the Claniacensians and the new one of the Gstercians. The 
Cistercians were distingnished already, by their whit« cowts, from 
the OlaDiacensianB, who still retained' their black ones. The 
Cistercians stood pre-eminent for the severity of their asceticism, 
— while it was andonbtedly the case that into the Claniacensian 
order there had been introduced, under the former administration, 
a sort of Inxnry which was Tery much disapproved of by the abbot 
Peter himself, and which he held it necessary to keep in cheek.* 
The two heads of these monkish orders, Bernard of Clurranz 
and the abbot Peter, were strangers to those little jealonsies of 
the monks, which kept them in a state of mutual hostility. The 
complaints of the Cluniacensian abbot William, led Bernard 
to compose a trac t on the relation in which these two orders of 
monks stood to each other. He laid it down, in the first place, 
that the nnity of the church must present itself under mani- 
fold forms of life and of institutions. But, through lore, every- 
thing becomes, in a sense, common to all ; each appropriating all 
to himself that proceeds from the same spirit. < As to outward 
labours, he belonged, it is true, to but one order ; but by 1ot« he 
felt united to all. Nay, by lore, one possesses more than he 
does that performs the very work, if it be not done in the spirit 
of lore. Then he severely censures the Cistercian monks who 
set up themselTes as judges over another man's serrants ; who dis- 

1 Thai Bijt Orderiaaa Viulis, r. Til r NoT«e iDitUallonia umnlatom dwfvni inDt 
in Aoquiunia, Britumii, OwconiB, et Hibernia. Miili bonis hypooriue pnxwdant, 
ondidM *cn Tuiis indumealis unietl bomiiiBi illudnDt el popatis Ingeo spectaoului 
enciDnt. Vfru Dei cnlwribna schematc, udq Tirtulc, kulmilari pleriqac g«atiiidl 
nifna multitudine inwentibiu hitidiam ingctiiiil elprobuoi rMDobiUa, qaintamad 
bllicMhominumobniluBdapicabiliorM bcionL 

■ The Apologia ad anilelmnmAbbMcm. 

1 The plonilis anilu end un* plunliM* or the eeoleiia mililini. 

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cerned the mote in another's eye, but sav not the beam in their 
oTn eyes ; who, in th« matter of external obBerrances, accoeed 
others of rioUtinj^ the Benedictine rnle, while they did not hesi- 
tate to riolate that mie themselves, in reg;ard to the more essen- 
tial matters belong;ing to the spiritual life ; for the kingdom of 
Ood is one within ns ; consisting, not in meat and drink, but in 
righteoasness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost, — not in word 
bat in power. Why should they concern themselves so mnch 
about the external matter of the monkish dress; why neglect the 
weightier matter, — the soul's interior dress, piety and humility 1 
Those outward obserrances ought not by any means, indeed, to 
be lightly esteemed ; to him they appeared to be the necessary 
means of training for the spiritual life. Tet the mere form, 
without the animating spirit just spoken of, was unmeaning.* 
Next, he censures the misgrowths of monastic life, to be found in 
many branches of the Gluniacenaians that had degenerated into 
luory ; the pomp and state affected by many abbots ; the splen- 
dour and excessively gorgeons art in the churches, chapels, and 
monasteries ; the pictures, which fastened the eyes of the wor^ 
shippers, calling forth the admiration of art and repressing the 
feelings of devotion.' He sees something Jewish in this, — some- 
thing derogatory, therefore, to the peculiar essence of that purely 
spiritual worship of God which Christianity brings with it.* He 
looks upon it as a masterly device of cupidity ; for by the 
admiration of pictures, in the loftier style of art, and in great 
variety, men were very easily drawn to make donations. Men 
flock in crowds to kiss the decorated images of saints, and 
tiiey are enchained by their admiration of the beantifnl, more 
than by a reverence for the saints.* The bishops were obliged 
to let themselves down to the different degrees of culture among 
the men whom they had to deal with ; to them, therefore, he 
conceded the right of employing such sensuous means, to ex- 
cite the devotion of the sensuous multitude. But it was other- 

1 NeqDf bwe dieo. ^ni* bttt a^ileriora nsgligcBt* lunt, mim potiiu ipiriDnlis, 
qoanqauu melion, niit |>n iiu (Ut Tix lul nslUtenns Ttl kcqnimnlDT Tel abtioFUilur 
■iout ■oripCum at, non prim f aod apiriluilf, wd quod animde, deinda quod ipjritadc. 

1 Que dum onniiiuD in «e ninrqntDt uUpwlum, impfdiuni M (ffMtam. 

* Hibi qBadmniodo npranenuiit ■iitiqaam ntun JudiMoniiD. 

4 OtMnditor pulobenim* (onii Hnod <el iinclw alicujaa el eo cndKor uuctior, qgo 
iiittaur *d dODMidniD el nikgis mirau 


D,i„Mb, Google 


vise with the monks, who, dead to the sensible world, ought no 
longer to need such outward means of excitement, bat should 
Btrire rather to reach the ideal of the purely spiritaal worship of 
God. Thus Bernard reeogaiies in the rest of the church a still 
predominating element of Jewish sensnalism ; and he represents 
monasticiam as destined to prove the chief means of emancipating 
the Christian life from this contamination, and of presenting 
Christianity in its pure spirituality. The abbot of Cluny also 
holds to the position, that the church cannot esist without the 
unity of the Spirit in the maoifoldDess of customs and regula- 
tions ; and that love should reconcile all differences, — lore, 
without which all mortification of the flesh is a thing of naught.' 
Among the societies of anchorets, the order of Carthusians de- 
aerres particularly to he noticed. Its founder was Bruno, a pious 
ecclesiastic of Cologne,! distinguished as a scholar ; afterwards, 
master of the cathedral school at Rheims. Orer this church pre- 
sided at that time one of those woildly-miuded men, who rained 
the spiritual office only as a means of gain, and of gratifying their 
lore of pomp and luxnry. This was the archbishop Manasseh, a 
man whose character is aptly set forth by one of his own remarks : 
" The archbishopric of Bheims would be a fine thing, were it not 
necessary to hold mass in order to enjoy its rerenues."* It was 
the impression which this profanation of holy things, and a mode 
of life so utterly at variance with the spiritual calling, made on 
the more serious minds, that induced Bruno, along with several 
others like-minded, to seek after a strictly ascetic life in solitude. 
In the wild valley of Chartreux (Cartusium), not far from Gre- 
nohle, he settled himself down, about the year 1084, with twelve 
companiona* They built a monastery, indeed, in which they 
held their meetings ; but instead of taking up their residence in 
it, they lived in separate cells by the side of it, where each indi- 
vidnal spent the whole day by himself, in silence, occupied with 
devotional exercises, spiritual studies, or corporeal labour. They 
despised all pomp and ornaments, even in what belonged to the 

1 h. 17. Ti. 3. 

i DoTD in tbe jeu luM. 

1 BoDQ* eaut REmcDsii (nliiepiaeopatiia, si nonninw inde cuilari oportent. Gui- 
brrt. Nocig. de liU bd*. I. Uo. li. 

t Ws fallow hers lh« credible nunuJTts of (be ooaleoipararT Oaibeit, wilhoot piTtDg 
tuj reganl to legends orinncb laier origin, 

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service of the church. They rernsed to accept of gold or silver ; 
only the comtttunion-cnp might be of siWer. The abbot Gnibert 
of Nogent sons Goacy, gives a remarkable example, showing hov 
tenaciously they clung to these principles. A pions connt, at- 
tracted by the fame of their strict mode of life, once paid them a 
visit, and earnestly exhorted them to abide faithfully by their 
principles. He warned them of the degeneracy vhich usually 
followed the first strict life of the mooks, when the fame of their 
strictness had brought them into the possession of property. The 
impression left on him, however, by observing their singular mode 
of life, induced him afterwards to expose them to a temptation 
quite inconsistent with his own exhortations. He sent them a 
costly vase and caps of silver. The monks immediately sent 
them back, declaring that " they wanted gold and- silver neither 
to give away, nor to decorate their church ; to what use could 
they put it, then V The count, upon this, sent them bales of 
parchment, which they needed much ; for as other occupations did 
not comport with their quiet, solitary mode of life, they preferred 
to employ their leisure hours in transcribing books ; and they 
made themselves useful by mnltiplying copies of the Bible, and 
old theological works. The greatest treasure which they pos- 
sessed was their library ; and the Carthusians distinguished 
themselves above all the other monastic orders in that they con- 
tinued to maintain analtered their strict mode of living and their 
contemplative habits, when their order came to be more generally 
respected, and their monasteries more splendidly endowed.' 

I Tbf (pertiipa Germaii) monk Ni|<e1luB Witcker, nlia, in • aatirieal work dincud 
fi|{BiiiBt (be rollieB of (11 c1ii<>ePi4 in bis times, anil vntitlerl Brunellus, or Sprculum 8lul- 
torain,— n work coinpowit in the beginning of the thirU'enth centnrj, Rnd wbich did not 
apire even the moDki,— ciddoI reproaoh tbe CanbuBiaoB, u be does tbe olhen, with 
bypoeriey uiiJ rfffminac)'. Spsukingof h visit whiclibepra[H)a«daiiikingto tbeir order, 

Qi •olm hababo 

HotplllB advaotu gaudeat mutantqiia dlaatam. 
Ditnt qiMd kubont hUarl peoton, vow, Dkanu. 

:h pa«a*g>, bet idn being found in Ibe complete editioDS of tbii poem, iagirinl^aleo' 
e KulrtclH bf Martciie anil Durand: Ampliasinia colkclio, I. t i. f. 7. 

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There was another order of anchorets, who came from the E«at, 
aad obtained from their original seat the name of CarmeUlea. 
Monnt Garmel, in Palestine, had from the earliest times been an 
object of pMoliar Teneration and worship on aecoiint of its con- 
nection with the prophets Elijah and Elisba (1 Kings xriii. 19 ; 
2 Kinga ii. 26, ir. 25). The cave where, according to tradition, 
the prophet Elijah bad lired, was visited by manj, and anchorets 
settled down npon spots in the vicinity. When, in the year 1185, 
the Greek monk and priest Johannes Phocas visited these r«- 
giosa,' he found there the mins of an old and extensive monas- 
tery ; and be reports that, a short time before, an old monk and 
I»iest flrom Calabria, had, in conseqaence of a vision of the pro- 
phet Elijah, chosen this spot, erected npon it a tower and a sraall 
church, which be occupied with about tea companions. This per- 
son from Calabria is supposed to have been a certain Berthold.* 
From these small beginnings rose up the order of the Carmelites, 
who, near the commencement of the thirt«enth century, obtained 
a rnle from the Latin patriarch, Albert of Jemsalem. This rale 
transplanted to the West, would necessarily be subjected to many 

The Christian love which led men to undergo every self-deny- 
ing sacrifice with cheerfulness and joy, and which overcame every 
feeling of disgust, gave birth to many societies of monks, having 
it for their object to provide physical and spiritual relief for the 
unfortunate, and those who were cost off by all the world. Among 
the dreadful plagues of the Middle Ages belonged especially the 
sacred fire, or St Anthony's fire.^a disorder which, after inflict- 
ing the most painful sufi'eringa, carried off multitudes, or else left 
them to wear out the remainder of their days with a body ren- 
dered helpless by distortion or incurable lameness ;* another was 
leprosy. The first-mentioned fearful disorder raged especially in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries.* During the time when this 

1 Aah«stBlM inhisreporl concerning (he half places, pabllabed bj Leo AUitiui, in 
tI.eOalleelion orSfmniMM. 
i See lliB ucoiiDtB eolleeled in tbe Actii Sinctorum, m die Bih April. 

iaenbiliori liMe reuir>nwr, malti i»rniTum eang'astionc 

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plague waa uukiDg its most sztenaiTO ravages, Gaston, descended 
fVom a family oT consideration amongst the French nobilitj, in 
gratitude for his own recovery and that of his pon, which he at- 
tributed to tha mediation of St Anthony, founded and consecrated 
to that saint a society, of which the express object was to furnish 
nurses for persons sick with that disorder. Societies were 
formed of laymen and ecclesiastics, who following the so-called 
rule of Augustin, under the direction of a superior CmagiaterJ, 
spent their time in taking care of the sick in hospitals ; and still 
other societies of men, who devoted themselYos more especially to 
taking care of the leprons, and founded large establishments for 
the express purpose of receiring and nursing them. The eccle- 
siastics in such societies attended to the religions wants of pa- 
tients ; preached to them, gave them tlie benefit of their pastoral 
care, and the sacraments. The laymen undertook to do every- 
thing necessary for their bodily relief and comfort ; also, to pro- 
vide for the decent burial of the dead, according to the usual 
forms. The Dominican Humbert de Romanis, who lived near 
the close of the thirteenth century, remarks, with regard to the 
care of the leprous, that, " owing to the danger of infection, the 
impatience and the ingratitude of the victims of this disease, it 
was one of the most forbidding labvurs to wait upon them. 
Amongst thousands but very few were to be found who could be 
induced to live with them ; for with many, nature herself revolts 
at it. And had there not been some who, for God's sake, fought 
down the repugnance of nature, they would have been left abso- 
lutely deprived of all human asalHtanee.'" Jacob of Vitry* says, 
concerning the persons who devoted their lives to this arduous 
work of Christian charity : " For Christ's sake they bring them- 
selves to endure, amidst filth and disgusting scents — by driving 
themselves up to it — such intolerable hardships that it would 
seem ae if no sort of penitential exercise which man imposes on 
himself deserved a moment to be compared with this holy martyr- 
dom — holy and precious in the sight of God."* Female societies, 
having the same object in view, were also formed. 

I See Ibt CollecUomi, a ihe Utli Januarj, iu the Acl 

;i8 SiDelornm. 

> See tbe work of HumbertiM de Roiaania ie eruditi 

1,0. Ili. 


pair. Lodg. t. mv„ 1. 176. 

» See concerning l.iin, p. SO. 

« 8MHiu,oeoid«i.t>J, p.338. 

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Bat that which began in the spirit of a Christian charity that 
shrunk from no sacrifice, was, like so man; other noble nnder- 
takinga, imitated and abased in the thirteenth centnry by a 
worldly spirit that masked itself under the seemly guise of re- 
ligion. Jacob of Vitry was forced to make the bitter complaint 
that many who pretended to deTOte their lives to this nursing of 
the sick, only nsed it as a cover nnder which to exact, by various 
and deceptive tricks from the abased sympathies of Christians, 
large sums of money, of which bnt a trifling portion was expended 
on the objects for which it had been beatowed.i Pope Innocent 
the Second passed an ordinance against such fraadalent collectors 
of alms for Spitals.' 

Among the foundations for benevolent pnrpoaes is to be 
reckoned the order of Trmitariana. John of Hatha, a Parisian 
theologian, but a native of Provence, and Felix de Yalois, after 
living for some time as anchorets at Certroy, in the province of 
Meanx, joined together and founded a society of monks, the prin- 
cipal object of which was to procure the redemption of Christians 
who had fallen captive to the infidels.^ In the year 1198, they 
submitted their plan to pope Innocent the Third, who ratified it. 
The society subsisting nnder one superior (generalis minieterj 
was to be consecrated to the Trinity {Fratrea domut tanctae 
irmiiatwj, and a third part of their revenues was to be appro- 
priated to the redemption of Christians held in bondage amongst 
infidels on account of their faith.* 

Down to the thirtoenth century the diSerent orders of monks 
had multiplied to such an extent that pope Innocent thi Third 
was indneed, at the Lateran council in 1215, to enact a law 
to the following effect : " Whereas the excessive diversity of 
these institutions begets confosion, no new foundations of this 
sort must be formed for the future ; but whoever wishes to be- 
come a monk must attach himself to some one of the already 
existing rules."* And yet it was but shortly after this time that 

1 Ge«»pp.lib. i., ep.460. 

3 Tbfl accounts oallccHd id Du Boulay, birt. uniien, Paris, t. il., f. S2l. 
* Ad Tedempllonein eaptivonun, qui sum mcnrcerati pru flde Chiisti n pagtnis. Epp. 
Lib. i.,ep.481. 
9 In the tltjrteenlh '-ftD'on of IIip rourtli Lucrin councilor Uic jcu 1315: Kv nimi* 

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the two monastic orders were conetitnted which exetciaed by far 
the most powerful and moat widely diffosed iuflnence ; to wit, the 
two mendicant orders of the Dominicans and the FnutciGcans. 
Id these two foundations, especially in the latter, we may observe 
the renascent power of that idea of following Christ and the 
apostles in evangelical porerty, and the absolute renunciation of 
■II earthly goods, which from the times of the twelfth century we 
saw coming up under various shapes, in the doctrine of Arnold of 
Brescia, in the prophecies of the abbot Joachim. It coold easily 
come about, indeed, that from this idea a tendency might spring 
np hostile to the dominant church ; but it might also give rise to 
such spiritual societies as would devote themselves to the service 
of the church. For, according to the idea of the Catholic church, 
at its present stage, points of view and modes of life, in the 
greatest variety, and even opposed to one another, might subsist 
together, one supplying the other's defects, 'and the church unite 
all these antagonisms together in a higher unity ; they would be- 
come heretical only then when one of these tendencies came to 
exclude aJI the others, and to set np itself as the only right one. 
Thus, after the same manner as the married life, the family, sub- 
sisted side by side with the unmarried life as a higher stage of 
Christian perfection, those religious societies that renounced all 
worldly possessions and property, might be tolerated and favoured 
beside tiie splendour of the papacy and of the hierarchy. The 
founder of the order of Dominicans was bom in the year 1170, at 
Calarngna, a village in the diocese of Osma in Castile. Even 
while a yoong man, pursuing his studies at the Spanish uni- 
versity in Palenza, he was distinguished for his self-sacrific- 
ing Christian love. In a time of great famine he sold his 
books and furniture, in order to provide himself with the means 
of mitigating the sufferings of the poor, and by his example 
he excited many to do the same. Didacus, bishop of Osma, 
was a man of severe character, and ardently devoted to the 
good of the chnrch. He sought to bring back his canonical 
clergy to the strictness of the ancient rule, and similarity of dis- 
position united him with Daminlck, whom he received into this 

nligtoDDDk diieniUii (traTi'm in ecclaiia Dei'coutiuiaiiein inducal, Brmiler praLibemng. 
m quill da owtno noTam religionrm ioreniM, B«d quicunqia' volurrii (d religioacm 
Boiifnti, Dtun dc approbaiij ■nnmfti. 



body. A joiumey which he made with him, in the serrice of his 
king, to the sonth of France, gare both an opportnnitf of ob- 
serving the great duiger which there threatened the chnrch from 
those heretical sects which were spreading with gr^at rapidity, 
and they were exited by what they saw to direct all their at- 
tention and their energies to this one point. In the year 1208, 
they came for the second time into these regions, alter pope 
Innocent the Third had despatched twelve Cistorcian abbots, 
nnder the direction of the papal legate, to pnt down the sects. 
A conncil was held at Uontpellier, to deliberate on this matter, 
and bishop Didacos was inrited to assist at it. When the latt«r 
observed the great state affected by the papal legate and others 
who had been sent on this errand, he told them they conld hardly 
succeed, in this way, to oppose any effectual cheek to the heretics. 
They wonld come off still more triumphantly in their attacks on 
the chnrch, and point to all this pomp as evidence of the truth 
of what they had said about the wwldly lives of the dergy ; they 
wonld compare their own strict and abstemious mode of living, 
in ntter poverty, as the true followers of Christ and the apostles, 
with the splendour and Inxnry that snrronnded those who stood 
up for the interests of tbe dominant church, and thus gain the 
popular feeling over to their side. He invited them to take the 
opposite course, to renounce all state, and by a strict and needy 
life, place themselves on an equality with the persons extolled in 
those sects ; thus would they accomplish more by their living, 
than they conld do by their words. His advice was adopted ; 
and everything that conld be spared sent away. Bishop Didacus 
was intrusted with the direction of tbe whole movement, and, 
travelling on foot, in voluntary poverty, they went from |4ace to 
place, preaching and disputing with tbe sects. After having 
labonred in this way for three years, this bishop set out on his 
nturo to Spain. It was his intention to recommend to the pope 
the appointment of a certain number of men who should laboor 
for the conversion of the sects ; but his death, which took place 
on his journey homeward, in the year 1206 or 1207,* prevented 

1 Tbe death of biibop Didscua, locarding to tbe Lift of DomiDicui, b; bia dtaeiple 
Jordinni, the ucond genend of this otdrr (ihe ■ulhoriljr wbiob «e ben follow), took 
plue trn jem htlnr* llie LMerin eonocil andei IniMMeDI tbe Third, ^ 30, Ifeua. 
August, t. i<> r. IMO. A icmpore obitua cpieroiii Oxomeniis usque (d Lateruenee «od- 

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bim firom carryiog his pUn into execntioD ; and it remuned for 
Dominick, to whom no doobt the experience vliich he gained in 
these tonrs had fioggested the idea of hie order, to realize the 
project which had been conceived b; his bishop. The latter, on 
leaving the sooth of France, had placed him at the bead of the 
whole apiritnal nodertaking. After the death of the bishop, 
however, he retained bat few of bia companions. When armed 
troops were called in to follow np the work of preachiDg and dis- 
puting, and, in the year 1209, tite horrible cmaade against the 
Albigenses was commenced, Dominick still went on with his 
labooTS, and tJLe cmelties resorted to for the extirpation of heresy 
were approved and promoted by him, — a bad precedent, fore- 
tokening already the History of an order which in after times was 
to exercise such cruel despotism nnder the name of chanty. He 
found a few still remaining here tike-minded with himself, who 
joined with him in forming a society consecrated to the defence 
of the church. Several pious men in Toulouse entered heart and 
hand into his scheme, and placed their property in his bands, to 
parchase books for tbe society, and provide them with what they 
needed. Fnloo himself, the bishop of Tonlouse, favonred the 
nndertaking, and, in the year 1215, went in company with Do- 
minick to Borne, for the purpose of obtaining the sanction of 
pope Innocent tbe Third, to a spiritual society devoted to tbe 
office of preaching. True, the canon enacted this very year by 
the Lateran council, forbidding the institution of any new order 
of monks,' stood in the way of a compliance with this demand ; 
but, at tbe same council,' it had also been expressed as an nrgent 
need of the church, that the bishops shonld procure able men to 
assist them in the ofBce of preaching, and in their pastoral la- 
bours. Now, tbe supply of this want — a want so sensibly feit 
on account of the great number of ignorant and worldly-minded 
clergymen — was the very purpose and aim of tbe scheme sub- 
mitted by Dominick to the pope. Innocent, therefore, accepted 

dlium umi flnnrc hme daocm. If we Ukt thi* atricUj, il mould be in tlie jtu ISOC ; 
bnl UitiiBppoaLlioii ii attended wilL other chronologicBl difflcoltle*; tod ihf feme ilill 
nsdm the ealcalnllan ineuct. It i* Tnj difficult to fli ben tbe exact detennmation 
of lime. Bee ihe ebroiiDlogiail inqiiirita io the pnlimiDuj nmerke la tbe Life of 
Dominien*, it Ibe W> August. 

I 9«e abovB, p 360. 

1 See aloTC, f. 2S8. 

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the proposition, making only one condition, that Dominick shoald 
attach himself to some one of the orders of monks already exist- 
ing. Dominick selected the so-called rnle of Aagnstin, with a 
few modifications aiming at greater strictnesB. The order was 
to accept of no property that needed to be managed, bnt only 
the incomes from the same ; lest it might be direrted by the 
cares of secular bnainess from its spiritual vocation. Pope fio- 
norine the Third confirmed the establishment of the order in 1316; 
and it was styled, in accordance wilh the object to which it was 
especially consecrated, Ordo predicatorum. In the first chapter 
of its articles, it was settled that it should hold neither property 
in fnnds nor income.* It is evident f^om many examples,' that 
great efforts were made to enlarge and extend the society by 
energetic preachers amongst its earliest members. Many yonng 
men at the nniversities and in other cities were carried away by 
the feirent appeals of the preaching friars, and finally devoted 
themselves to this foundation. 

The founder of the second order, Francis, was horn at As^si, 
in the year 1182. His father, called Peter of Bernardone^ 
was a merchant of some consideration in the above-mentioned 
city. Devoted to mercantile pursuits, Francis lived at first 
after the ordinary manner of the world ; though even at this 
time he was remarkable for his susceptibility to religions im> 
pressions, and for his benevolent disposition. A severe fit of 
sickness which befel him when he was about the age of twenty- 
fovr, is said to have left on him a decided impression, which 
eventuated in an entirely now turn of life. It would be a mat- 
ter of some importance could we be more exactly informed with 
regard to the nature of his disease, and the way in which it 
aflected his physical and mental constitution. Perhaps it might 
assist us to a more satisfactory explanation of the eccentric 
vein in his life, that singular mixture of religious enthusiasm 
with a fanaticism bordenng on insanity ; but we are here left 
wholly in the dark. After his health was restored, he felt more 
and more drawn away from earthly things, and impelled by an 
indescribable craving after a divine life. He thought himself 
admonished by Christ in dreams and visions ; and in accordance 

t Which »ie died in llic Ufe ol Doniiiicu!', nlrrndt mrniiDiiFil, r. I-. nnil It. 

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with his habitat that time, of referring ererjtbing to sense, he 
was iaclined to interpret his visions after a sensaons manner, 
until he was afterwards taught to understand them spiritually. 
On one occasion he beheld in a Tision, or dream, a vast palace 
fall of weapons, each baring on it a sign of the cross ; and in- 
qniring to whom they all belonged, he was answered : " To thee 
and thy soldiers." Taking this literally, he was already prepar- 
ing to go and offer his services to a certain noble count, with the 
expectation of rising to the highest honours in the profession of 
arms, when another vision held him back. Once, after long 
roaming about and meditating in the fields, he stepped into an 
old church falling to ruins, for the purpose of prayer. He pros- 
trated himself in deep devotion before a crucifix, and, as he looked 
up to it with eyes full of tears, he thought he heard thrice com- 
- ing from it the following words addressed to himself: "Go, 
re-bnild my bouse, which, as then seest, is falling to rnins." 
These words he understood at first as referring to the restoration 
of the mined bailding where he was ; and he set about procuring 
money to repair it : though loBg afterwards they were interpreted 
b^ himself and his followers as referring to the spiritual renova- 
tion of the churcb.i The change which he had experienced, and 
the extravagant austerities to which he subjected himself, caused 
him at first to be ridiculed as a madman ; but as he could not be 
induced to swerve from bis purpose or alter bid mode of life by 
any ridicule or any insult, as in truth there was something in him 
too exalted for ridicule, and capable of attracting more profound 
and earnest minds, so it was certain that he must come off vic- 
torious in the end. It was an age in which the exaggerated and