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Full text of "A general history of birds"

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GENERAL, HISTORY 



OF 



BIRDS. 



BY JOHN LATHAM, M.D. 



F.R.S. A.S. and L.S. 



Acad. C^s. Nat. Curios. Reg. Holm, et Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berolin. ic. &e. 



VOL. IX. 



WINCHESTER: 



PRINTED BY JACOB AND JOHNSON, FOR THE AUTHOR: SOLD IN LONDON BV 

G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER, AVE-M ARIA-LAN E ; JOHN WARREN, BOND-STREET, 
W. WOOD, 428, STRAND ; AND J. MAWMAN, 39, LUDGATE-STREET. 



1824 



613 

| Oil 



vfr 



DIVISION II. WATER BIRDS. 



ORDER VII. WITH CLOVEN FEET. 



GENUS LXXL— SPOONBILL. 

1 White || 2 Luzonian || 3 Roseate || 4 Surinagur || 5 Dwarf 

BlLL long, broad, flat and thin, the end widening into a roundish 
form, not unlike a spoon. 

Nostrils small, placed near the base. 

Tongue sharp-pointed. 

Face naked. 

Feet semipalmated. 

1— WHITE SPOONBILL. 

Platalea leucorodia, Ind. Orn. ii. 667. Lin. i. 231. Mus. Adolph. ii. 26. Faun. suec. 

No. 160. Gm, Lin.- i. 613. Scop. i. No. 115. Brun. No. 46. Midler, No. 170. 

Frisch, t. 200. 201. Sepp, t. 88. 89. .fffem, 126. 1. Id. Ov. 34. t. 18. f. 4. 

Dec. Russ. i. 164. Faun. Helv. Tern. Man. 382. Id. Ed. ii. 596. 
Platea, vel Pelecanus, Aldr. Raii, 102. Will. 212. t. 52. Bris. v. 352. /d. Svo. ii. 

300. Borowsk. iii. 68. t. 45. Gerin. iv. t. 437. Gcsner, Av. pi. p. 603. 
La Spatule, Buf. vii. 448. t. 24. PL enl. 405. Voy. en Barb. i. 277. 
Der Weisse Loffel reilier, Bechst. Deut. iii. p. 2. Id. Ed. ii. p. 4. t. 17. Naturf. 

xiii. s. 201. Schmid, Vog. 116. t. 102. 
Garza, ou Beccarivale, Zinnan. Uov. iii. t. 20. f. 99. 
vol. ix. B 



2 SPOONBILL. 

Spoonbill, or Pelican, Alb. ii. pi. 66. Will. Engl. 288. t. 52. Kolb. Cap. ii. 142. pi. 

7. f. 5. Ray's Trav. p. 38. 
White Spoonbill, Gen. Syn.v. p. 13. Br. Zool. App. pi. 9. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 3. 

pi. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. 441. A. Id. Sup. 66. Beivick, ii. pi. in p. 25. 

LENGTH two feet eight inches ; weight three pounds and a 
quarter. Bill from six to eight inches long, very flat, and broadens 
sat the extremity into the shape of a spoon, in colour not always the 
same; in some black, in others brown, and in a few spotted; from 
the base to two-thirds of the length crossed with several indentations, 
the rising parts of which are darker coloured ; tongue short, and 
heart-shaped ; irides reddish ; lore, round the eyes, and throat bare, 
and black ; the skin of the last very dilatable. The whole plumage 
is white ; the feathers of the head more or less elongated, and in old 
birds so long as to give the appearance of a crest ; in the adult like- 
wise, there is a rufous yellow tinge on the breast, and the bare parts 
round the eyes and throat are yellowish, inclining to red ; the legs 
dusky, or greyish brown ; the toes connected at the base with a mem- 
brane, between the outer and middle one to the second joint, and to 
the inner as far as the first. 

In young birds the shafts of the quills are black, and some of 
the outer ones black at the ends. 

The female chiefly differs, in being smaller than the male. This 
bird is found in various parts of the Old Continent, from the Ferroe 
Isles, near Iceland, to the Cape of Good Hope,* chiefly near the 
sea ; met with on the Coasts of France and once in great numbers; 
at a village called Sevenhuys, not far from Leyden, in Holland, in 
a certain grove ; where they built, and bred yearly, on the tops of 
high trees, in company with Herons, Night Herons, Shags, Corvo- 
rants, &c. and the owner, when the birds were fit, with a hook at 
the end of a long pole, catching the bough with the nest, shook out 
the young, f 

* Common about Sea-Cow River. — Barrow. 

t Willughby. No doubt before the young birds could fly ; the young Rooks, of the 
same age, are eaten in this kingdom. The wood has been long since destroyed. — See also 
Ray's Trav. p. 38. 



SPOONBILL. d 

The eggs are three or four in number, about the size of those of 
a Hen,* white, with a few pale red spots. The Spoonbill is found in 
the temperate parts of Russia, and Siberia, and beyond the Lake 
Baikal : changes its situation at different times of the year, more 
southward in winter. It is also a native of India. In respect to 
England, it is only an occasional visitant; rarely on the coast of 
Norfolk, but in the year 1773, in April, a flock of them was seen 
about Yarmouth, in the marshes :f has appeared, now and then, on 
the coast of Devonshire ; the last instance communicated by Dr. 
Wave!!, who informed me that one was shot near Axminster, in 
December, 1822. And the late Mr. Boys mentioned one having 
been killed some years since, on the Kentish coast, near Sandwich. 
They are said to be very noisy during the breeding time, like the 
Rooks: chiefly frequent the mouths of rivers, rarely being found high 
up the stream. The food is fish, and they are accused of taking it 
by force from other birds, in the manner of the Bald Eagle. Will 
feed also on muscles, and other shell fish, and are mostly found where 
these are in plenty. Said to devour frogs and snakes ; as well as 
grass and weeds, which grow in the water, in defect of other food. 
The flesh is thought to resemble most that of a Goose in flavour, and 
eaten by many ; but the young birds are most esteemed. By some 
authors this bird is called a Pelican. 

Buffon mentions, that the trachea is similar in formation to that 
of the Crane, $ but although it is bent, much in the same manner, it 
does not enter the keel of the sternum as in that bird. § 

A better comparison might be made with that of Demoiselle, or 
Numidian Crane, || which it much resembles; for it has adouble bend 

* In Sepp they are pure white, placed on a layer of dry sedges, and green leaves. 

f One mentioned by Dr. Thomas Brown, the year not said. He was knighted in 1671, 
and died in 1682, and of course must have been between those two dates. 

X La Trachee artere est semblable a celle de la Grue, et fait dans le thorax une double 
inflexion. — Ois. vii. 454. 

§ Lin. Trans, iv. pi. xii. f. 4. || Lin. Trans, iv. pi. x. f. 4. 

B 2 



4 SPOONBILL. 

beyond the middle of its length, and the parts, so curving*, are 
somewhat flattened ; the bent parts are each united to the side con- 
tiguous, and likewise connected in the hollow by a thin membrane. 
My late friend Colonel Montagu informed me, that he has observed 
this structure equally in the female bird. 



2— LUZONIAN SPOONBILL. 

La Spatule blanche de Lugon, Son. Voy. 89. pi. 52. hid. Orn. ii. 668. Gen. Syn. v. 
p. 15. Var. B. 

SIZE of the White. The bill about seven inches long, or more, 
and narrower in proportion, colour rufous grey, with red edges ; the 
plumage entirely white, but the feathers on the head are elongated, 
more loose in their texture, and forming a sort of crest; legs dull, 
pale red. 



A. — La Spatule blanche de Lucon, Son. Voy. 89. pi. 51. bid. Orn. i. 668. Gen. 
Syn. v. p. 15. Var. A. 

In this the bill is reddish brown ; general colour of the plumage 
white; legs yellowish. It differs from the other in having the wings 
varied black and white, hence supposed a young bird. 

Inhabits the Philippine Islands. — I observe one of these, with 
the head finely crested, among the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, 
which was found on the Coromandel Coast. In this the throat 
appeared bare, and of a dusky red. Has been found also at Outle, 
where it is called Dawbul. 



PJL.CXL. 




r t ocirn/e , //fw/f /'/// 



SPOONBILL. 



3 —ROSEATE SPOONBILL — Pl. cxl. 

Platalea Ajaja, Ind. Orn. ii. 668. Lin. i. 231. Gm. Lin. i. 614. Raii, 102. 3. Will. 

213. Klein, 126. 2. Borowsk. Hi. 69. Gerin. iv. t. 438. Nat. Misc. t. 90. 

Bartr. Trav. 291. 
Platea rosea, Bris. v. 356. t. 20. Id. 8vo. ii. 302. 
La Spatule couleur de rose, Buf. vii. 456. P/. enl. 165. Pemet. Voy. i. 184. t. 2. 

f. 3. Hist, de la Louis, ii. 116. 
Bee a cuillier, Perm. Surin. ii. 153. Mem. sur Cay. ii. 257. 
La Spatule, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 345. 

Roseate Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. 16. pl. 73. Will. Engl. 289. Harris's Coll. Voy. i. 
~ 728. Amer. Orn. vii. 123. pl. 63. 1'. 1. 

THIS is a trifle smaller than the first ; length two feet three 
inches. Bill six inches long, in shape like the other, marked all 
round with a farrow parallel to the edge, and of a greyish white, 
somewhat transparent, so as to shew the ramification of the blood 
vessels ; irides red ; the forehead between the bill and eyes, and 
throat, bare and whitish ; plumage of a fine rose-colour, deeper on 
the wings ;* legs grey ; toes as in the first species. 

Inhabits the warmer parts of America; seen as far north as 
Atamaha River, in Georgia : it is, however, according to Mr. Abbot's 
account, very rare in those parts, but now and then to be met with 
in the ponds about Savannah, migrating from West Florida, where 
they are said to be in greater plenty. Prince Maximilian saw thirty 
oftheni sitting together in a marshy spot near St. Salvador, in Brazil, 
but so shy, as not to be approached within gun-shot. f 



A.— Platalea Ajaja, Ind. Orn. ii. 668. /3. Lin.i. 231. 2. (3. Gm. Lin.]. 614. 2. /3. 

Platea coccinea, Bris. v. 359. Id. Svo. ii. 303. 

Mexicana, Tlauhquechul, Raii, 102. 2. & 189. 5. Will. 213. Klein, 126. 3. 

* In Mr. Bullock's Museum is one of a pale rose-colour, the lesser wing coverts fine 
deep rich crimson; upper tail coverts the same; tail plain buff-colour. Another, supposed 
a young bird, wholly pale rose-colour. f Trav. i. p. 93. 



O SPOONBILL. 

Scarlet Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. 16. Sloan. Jam. ii. 316. Bancr. Guian. 170. Will. 
Engl. 289. § II. 

This is like the last, but wholly of a beautiful red colour, with 
a collar of black at the lower part of the neck ; irides red. Male 
and female much alike. 

Said to inhabit Jamaica, Guiana, Mexico, and other hot parts of 
South America, and is probably a bird in the most complete plumage: 
common in Paraguay, and expands from Pampas to Buenos Ayres : 
some Guaranis call it Guirapito, Red Bird ; others Guirati, White 
Bird. Has the manners of the European One. 



4— SURINAGUR SPOONBILL. 

THIS is a large Species. The bill deep blue, the base for one- 
third black, with several dusky spots on the sides, and for some 
distance from the tip ; down the middle for two-thirds from the base 
yellowish, marked with transverse bars of black, the under man- 
dible dusky red ; irides reddish ; forehead and throat dusky black ; 
sides of the head, chin, and neck before to the breast, dusky white ; 
the same to the vent, but over the thighs reddish, with transverse, 
red, curved bars ; and the breast marked with long, narrow, dusky 
streaks ; thighs pale brown, barred with black ; the hind part of 
the neck, the back, rump, and tail, dull rufous red, the end of the 
last black ; wings pale red brown ; the lesser coverts darker ; across 
the middle of the wing a broad, whitish bar, formed by the larger 
coverts; quills black, and when closed, equal the tail in length ; 
legs dusky blue above the knee, and a little below it, the rest of the 
length dull orange red, paler behind ; between the outer and middle 
toes a membrane at the base ; claws black. 

Inhabits India; the specimen from which the above is described 
was brought from the snowy mountains of Surinagur, by the name 
of Dubee. — Sir J. Anstruther. In the drawing, the bird said to be 



SPOONBILL. 7 

in weight equal to a sare* and a quarter, about two pounds and 
and a half; the length four times that of the drawing; and as the 
latter is eighteen inches long, the bird itself would measure six feet. 
It is said also to be found in Hindustan. Should no mistake have 
occurred in respect to the size of the bird, we may fairly rank it as 
distinct, both from the Roseate, and Scarlet Species. 



5 —DWARF SPOONBILL. 

Platalea pygmea, Ind. Orn.W. 669. Lin. i. 231. Mus. Ad. ii. p. 26. Gm. Lin. i. 615. 

Becasseau, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ. 

Dwarf Spoonbill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 17. Bancr. Guian. 171. 

SIZE of a Sparrow. Bill black, longer than the head, and flat 
at the end, not of rounded form, as in the others, but spread out 
almost at right angles, so as to be nearly of a rhomboidal form ; the 
angles and tip of the upper mandible white ; tongue smooth ; the 
body brown above, and white beneath ; the quills have white shafts; 
the tail rounded in shape, short, and brownish white; the feet with 
four toes, and cloven ; claws pointed. Bancroft's description varies 
somewhat. He says, that the bill is flattish, dilated, orbiculated, 
and flat at the point, and that the toes are palmated. 

Inhabits Surinam and Guiana. It is added, in the Jllns. Adol. 
that the head is slightly crested, and the tongue short and obtuse. 
We have never met with this species in any collection, nor seen a 
drawing of it. M. Temminck places it in his Tringa Genus. 

* Saar or Seer. It is probable that this either varies in different parts of India, or is 
not well understood ; as all authors do not agree concerning the weight of it. Some say it 
is six-tenths of a pound ; others near one pound weight ; and lastly, that it equals two 
pounds, and which we believe to be the generally received opinion. 



8 SCREAMER. 



GENUS LXXII— SCREAMER. 

1 Horned || 2 Chaja 

JO ILL bending down at the point. 

Nostrils oval. 

Spurs at the bend of the wing. 

Toes divided to the origin, except a small membrane between 
each at the bottom. 

Palamedea cornuta, Ind. Orn. ii. 669. Lin. i. 232. Gm. Lin. i. 615. Borowsk. iii. 

69. pi. 46. 
Anhima, Bris.v. 518. Id. 8vo. ii. 349. Rati, 96. 7. Will. 276. t. 47. 
Le Kamichy, Buf. vii. 335. pi. 18. PL enl. 451. Schmid, Vog. 129. t. 113. 
Aigle d' Eau cornu, Descr. Surin. ii. 143. 
Camoucle, Mem. sur Cay. ii. 286. pi. 4. 
Homed Screamer, Gen.Syn.x. 18. pi. 74. Nat. Misc. pi. 565. 

SIZE of a Turkey ; length three feet four inches. Bill two 
inches and a quarter long, and black ; the upper mandible a little 
gibbous at the base, the under shutting beneath it, as in the Galli- 
naceous Tribe ; nostrils oval and pervious, near the middle of the 
bill ; from the top of the head, near the forehead, arises a slender 
horn, of more than three inches in length, sharp at the end, pointing- 
forwards, and movable in every direction, being only attached to 
the skin ; irides gold-colour; plumage on the head, neck, and upper 
parts of the body, black, the feathers of the first margined with 
grey, and downy ; some of those round the neck also edged with the 
same ; the under parts of the wings pale rufous, appearing on the 
shoulders and edges of them, when closed ; at the bend of the wing 
two strong, sharp, horny, yellow spurs, one above the other, the 



PL.CXUL 




'//f/y/ff < 'c/rftjrtcr. 



SCREAMER. 9 

uppermost one inch and a half in length ; belly, thighs, and vent, 
white ; tail eight inches and a half long, and black ; legs stout, and 
dusky, the fore claws moderately bent, the hind one nearly straight, 
not unlike that of a Cock, and one inch in length. Both sexes are 
much alike, and both furnished with a horn on the forehead. 

This inhabits certain districts of Cayenne, Guiana, Surinam, and 
other parts of South America, but is by no means a common bird ; 
is found chiefly in the marshes, and wet Savannas, for the most part 
near the sea ; observed to be met with in pairs ; and it is said, that if 
one dies, the other pines to death for the loss; the nest made of mud, 
in the shape of an oven, of a large size, and placed on the ground, 
the eggs two in number, in size equalling those of a Goose. The 
young are brought up in the nest till able to shift for themselves ; 
they breed but once in a year, which is in January or February ; 
though if the first eggs are taken away, they will have a second 
nest in April or May. Young birds are often eaten by the natives, 
but the colour of the flesh is very dark, and that of the old ones 
tough, and ill tasted. Some authors assert, that this bird feeds on 
crabs, also birds, such as Pigeons, and poultry ; and even to attack 
sheep and goats, but this is denied by others, who say, that its chief" 
food is reptiles. In the stomach of one M. Bajon found only grass, 
and seeds of plants, but he adds, that the bird had no gizzard. 

These seem to be the birds mentioned by Ulloa,* called by the 
inhabitants of Quito, Dispertadores, or Awakeners, from their giving 
notice to others of the approach of danger ; for, on hearing the least 
noise, or seeing any one, though at a great distance, they rise from 
the ground, and make a loud chattering like a Magpie, continuing 
the same, and hovering over the object of their alarm, whereby other 
birds, having notice of their danger, have time to escape : the noise 
is said to be loud and terrible,! on which account Mr. Pennant was 
induced to give it the name annexed. 

* Voy. ii. p. 242. Ulloa makes the size that of a Cock. He says, that the head is 
adorned with a tuft of feathers, perhaps he may mean the next species ? 
f Terribili voce clamitans. — Lin. 

VOL. IX, C 



10 SCREAMER. 

Tins bird is not uncommon in Brazil, met with by Prince Maxi- 
milian,* on the Rio Grande de Belmonte. It is shy, but soon betrays 
itself by its loud call, somewhat like that of the Wild Pigeon, but 
stronger, called in these parts Aniuma, or Anhuma, or Brazilian 
Crane. 



2.-CHAJA SCREAMER. 

Le Chaja, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 341. 

THE total length of this bird is thirty-one inches. The bill 
strong, and gallinaceous; base covered with short feathers; colour 
dusky ; nostrils uncovered ; irides rufous brown ; round the eye bare, 
and blood-colour ; at the middle of the hindhead some dishevelled 
feathers, one inch and a half long, falling in a direction between 
the bill and nostrils, forming a sort of fixed diadem : the head and 
neck, for two inches, covered with soft, and cotton-like feathers, of 
a light lead-colour ; below this are two collars, each nine lines 
broad, the upper one bare of feathers, and reddish ; the lower soft, 
black, and cottony; the rest of the neck, back, rump, and under 
parts whitish lead-colour: the tail consists of fourteen feathers, much 
rounded, the outer one being shorter by twelve lines, in colour 
blackish; quills, greater wing coverts, and scapulars the same; 
the other coverts mixed brown and blackish white, or lead-colour, 
beneath white ; bare part of the legs rose-colour ; claws black ; legs 
and shins covered with strong hexagonal scales; the middle and 
outer toe united by a membrane to the first joint ; the bend of the 
wing ends in a pointed spur, and on the outer edge are two others, 
pointed, bony, very strong, and somewhat bent upwards. 

Inhabits Paraguay, and on both banks of the River Plata; 
perches on the tops of high trees ; walks on the ground in a stately 
manner. Said to make a large nest in a bush near the water, or 
among the rushes, and to lay two eggs. It has a strong, sharp, and 

* Travels, V. i. p. 288. 



SCREAMER. 11 

clear cry, day and night ; that of the male like the word Chaja, of 
the female Chajali, repeated alternately ; sometimes seen in pairs, at 
others in flocks; and both male and female are alike; wades in the 
water like the Heron, but does not swim, as it is only for the weeds 
it can collect, for it neither eats fish nor reptiles. It is a tame 
species, and may be domesticated like other poultry. 

M. Sonnini, the commentator on Azara, in a note says, he thinks 
this to be different from the Horned Screamer, especially as it has 
no horn. This seems very probable, especially as it is a much 
smaller bird, the one here described being nine inches shorter ; nor 
does it seem to answer in the colours of the plumage. 



C 2 



12 CARIAMA. 



GENUS LXXII.tt— CARIAMA. 

JjILL as long as the head, bending towards the point. 

Nostrils near the base, surrounded by short feathers. 

Head furnished with a double tuft of feathers. 

Legs long, bare considerably above the knee. 

Toes three before and one behind ; the latter short, and placed 
too high up to be useful in walking. 



BRAZILIAN CARIAMA— Pl. cxlii. 

Palamedea cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 669. Lin. i. 232. Gin. Lin. i. 616. 

Cariama, Bris. v. 516. Id. 8vo. ii. 348. Buf. vii. 325. Raii, 96. 6. Will. 202. 

t. 51. Id. Engl. 276. pl. 51. Marc. Bras. pl. in p. 203. 
Dicholophus, Caziama, Tern. Man. d'Orn. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xcvi. 
Le Saria, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 340. 
Crested Screamer, Gen. Syn. v. p. 20. 2. 

THIS is about the size of the Horned Screamer ; standing erect 
it is twenty-nine or thirty inches in height. The bill formed nearly 
as in the Gallinaceous Tribe, strong, the upper mandible black, the 
under orange, the length from the gape three inches ; irides gold- 
colour; round the eye naked and bluish ; the head large, the crown 
furnished with a large crest, consisting of loose feathers, part of which 
advances over the bill, the other tending backwards ; the colour a 
light nightingale brown ; the rest of the head, and whole of the 
neck the same, but paler, and freckled ; and the wing coverts have 
a ferruginous tinge, growing deeper towards the quills, which are 
deep brown ; breast dirty freckled white ; thighs covered with white 
down, and behind them a border of striped hackles, with a brush of 
yellowish, or brownish white; the feathers similar to those of the 



PL. CXLH. 




nsd 7W2udca#t 



ar-t<t »/<■? 



CARFAMA. 13 

Paradise Bird, but shorter; rump deep brown, patched with white; 
tail nearly black, margins of the feathers white ; legs deep bronze- 
colour; toes webbed at the bottom, nearly as far as the first joint. 

For the above description I am indebted to Mr. Chevalier, jun. 
who took it from a perfect specimen, in the Museum of Mr. Brookes, 
of Blenheim-street, London, and furnished the drawing from the 
same. 

In addition to the above, M. d'Azara observes, that the irides are 
yellow; above the eye a white line ; the wings black, with transverse 
lines of white, and dotted with blackish; all the under parts soft, 
like cotton ; tail eleven inches long, the two middle feathers brown, 
the others with a broad black band in the middle ; the naked part of 
the legs orange, nails black ; three toes before, the middle one two 
inches and a quarter long ; at the back a small one, placed so high 
from the ground, as to be useless, with the heel rounded, like that 
of the Ostrich ; wings without any spurs. Both sexes nearly alike. 

Inhabits Brazil, and is by some kept tame; called by the Por- 
tuguese, Cariaraa; by the Guaransis, Saria: both these refer to its 
sharp cry, which is compared to that of a Turkey, but so loud as to 
be heard a mile oflf: this bird is delicate as food, and the body very 
fleshy; by some thought equal to that of the Pheasant, by which 
name also many have called it. Is found in Paraguay, but is there 
rare, and not seen towards the River Plata, although the cry has 
been probably heard in 31 deg. of latitude. Is said to frequent the 
borders of forests only, and to prefer wet, or watery places, feeding 
on lizards and insects; generally seen in pairs, or in small flocks, aud 
at all times very shy : young birds may be domesticated, and in this 
state will eat meat, but refuse maize, or any kind of grain, Its gait 
is somewhat stately, carrying the tail low, and its neck high : it is 
very scarce in collections, nor have we till now seen even a tolerable 
figure of the bird ; as to that in Willughby, it is merely a copy 
from the one furnished by Marcgrave, and by no means a just 
representation. 



14 JABIRU. 



GENUS LXXIII.— JABIRU. 



1 American 

2 Indian 



3 New-Holland 

4 Tetaar 



5 While-bellied 

6 Senegal 



5 



1 HE bill in this Genus is long and large, both mandibles bendin 
upwards ; the upper somewhat triangular. 

Nostrils small. 

Tongue minute.* 

Toes divided. 



1.- AMERICAN JABIRU— Pl. cxliii. 

Mycteria Americana, Ind. Orn. ii. 670. Lin. i. 232. Gm. Lin. i. 616. Borowsk.m. 80. 

Ciconia Braziliensis, Bins. v. 371. Id. 8vo. ii. 306. 

Jabiru-guacu, Raii, 96. b. Will. 202. t. 47. Id, Engl. p. 276. Buf. vii. 282. pi. 13. 

PL ml. 817, 
Touyouyou, Mem. sur Cay. ii. pi. 3 ? 
Aouarous, Mem. sur Cay. ii. 254? 
El Soldado, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p. 57. lam. 25. 
Le Collier rouge, Voy. d'Azara,iv. No. 343. 
Indian Stork's Head, Grew, Mus. pi. 5. f. 1. the bill. 
American Jabifu, Gen. Syn.v. p. 12. pi. 75. Nat. Misc. pi. 461. 

THIS is a large bird, being, when full grown, six feetf in 
length, from the point of the bill to the end of the tail. The bill is 
black, thirteen inches long,$ and often more, stout, not unlike that 
of a Stork, and bending a little upwards; irides black; the head, 
and about two-thirds of the neck bare, and blackish ; the rest of the 

* According to Marcgrave there is no Tongue in the first Species. 

f Individuals differ. Azara's bird was only fifty-two inches and three quarters long.— - 
Barrere says, it is six feet high as it stands. 

J This varies much: in one at General Davies's the bill was seventeen inches long, but 
the bird to which it belonged measured only five feet, eight inches. 



PL.CXLUJ 




C^ 




■Lrr/rr 



JABIRU. 15 

neck also bare, but of a fine red;. at the hindhead a few greyish 
feathers; general colour of the plumage white ; the tail consisting of 
twelve feathers; legs strong, of a great length, and covered with 
black scales ; wings and tail very little differing in length. 

The female is three or four inches shorter. 

This bird is found in all the savannas of Cayenne, Guiana, and 
other parts of South America, and makes the nest on great trees, 
which grow on the borders; lays two eggs, and brings up the young 
in the nest, till they can descend to the earth ; the food is fish. Young 
birds are at first grey; in the second year change to rose-colour; and 
the third become pure white; are exceedingly voraeious, taking 
great quantities of fish to satisfy them ; in their nature are very wild. 
The flesh of the young bird is good to eat, but that of the old ones 
very hard, rank, and oily. 

Azara says, that it is called by some Aiaiai ; is rare in Paraguay, 
and not seen beyond the third degree of latitude ; met with generally 
in pairs, but never uniting into flocks; perches on trees, roosting 
thereon at night ; appears before the JBaguari, or American Stork, 
and prefers the great lakes to any other situation. He observes, that 
the nest is spacious, made generally on the fork of a decayed tree, 
on the borders, formed of small branches, carefully interwoven ; the 
bird using the same nest for several seasons. The female said to want 
the red collar, but this is not certain, for the male does not get it for 
a great length of time. 

The bird described by Brisson, as Ciconia Guianensis,* does not 
probably belong to this Genus, but rather to that of the Ibis, as the 
bill curves downwards; in that the neck is naked, and black; the 
rest of the plumage white, even the quills and tail. This last bird 
has never come under our view, and we suspect that the American 
and this have been confounded with each other, unless the latter may 
hereafter prove to be no other than the Wood Ibis. 

* Bris. v. p. 373. 



16 JABIRU. 



2— INDIAN JABIRU. 

Mycteiia Asiatica, Ind. Orn. ii. 670. 

Indian Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. 231. View of Hindoostan, ii. 156. 

SIZE large. Bill dusky, almost straight above, near the fore- 
head gibbous, the under mandible swelled beneath ; from the base 
of the bill, passing through and beyond the eye, a black streak ; 
general colour of the plumage white; lower half of the back, prime 
quills, and tail, black; legs pale red. 

Inhabits India : feeds on snails. — Lady Impey. 



3.— NEW-HOLLAND JABIRU. 

Mycteria Australis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxiv. Lin. Trans, v. p. 34. 
New-Holland Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii, 294. pi. 138. Nat. Misc. pi. 601. 

THE length of this species is full six feet. The bill twelve 
inches long ; neck fifteen inches ; thighs ten ; legs almost the length 
of the bill, the upper mandible of which is nearly straight, or very 
little curving upwards, the under the same, but the curvature more 
perceivable, colour black ; the chin, for a little way, is bare of 
feathers, and reddish ; irides yellow ; the head pretty full of feathers, 
and with about half the neck black, with a tinge of green in some 
lights, in others purplish ; the middle of the wing coverts and second 
quills, also the middle of the back, greenish black ; tail the same; 
the rest of the plumage white; the whole of the legs, and bare parts 
above the knee, of a fine red ; the toes furnished at the end with 
pale-coloured claws, shaped not unlike those of the human species. 

Inhabits New-Holland. Native name Barri enna. 

The above description is taken from a specimen in the Leverian 
Museum. Among the drawings of Mr. Lambert is a representation 
of one apparently the same, in which the skin beneath the lower 



JABIRU. 17 

mandible and throat is of a fine crimson, and said to be capable of 
great distension ; head, and half the neck, brownish black, with a 
variable green and copper gloss; between the bill and eye grey; 
the general colour of the plumage of the lower part of the neck, 
the body, and wings, white, except on the shoulders, which appear 
blackish, and tipped with the same copper and green bronze as the 
head and neck; tail black. 

This also inhabits New-Holland, and differs from the other 
probably in sex only. As yet they have been found scarce, as only 
two have been obtained ; but are now and then seen on the muddy 
banks of the Harbour of Port Jackson, searching for fish, when the 
tide is out, and on which, no doubt, they principally live. 



4— TETAAR JABIRU. 

LENGTH five feet. Bill twelve inches long, black ; irides 
yellow ; round the eye a little way bare, but not so at the base of 
the bill ; the head, and whole of the neck, well clothed with feathers, 
and black, with a purplish or greenish tinge in some lights ; lower 
part of the neck, beginning of the back, and all beneath, white ; 
greater wing coverts black ; back, rump, and tail, black ; the wings 
are even with the end of the tail; legs red. 

In some drawings from India I observe the crown of the head to 
be blue; the rest of the head and neck, lower part of the back, tail, 
and greater wing coverts, fine dark green ; but the beginning of the 
back, lesser wing coverts, and all beneath, white. 

These two are no doubt the same, and inhabit India; found in 
the neighbourhood of Futtehguhr, and called Tetaar; builds in the 
forests, on the summits of the most lofty trees, in June, and lays 
two or three eggs. In the drawings abovementioned it is named 
Tintor, or Loho Syren, but more commonly Paunch Caprea; indeed, 

VOL. IX. D 



18 JAEIRU. 

it is by some confounded with the Maleykh, or White-bellied ; 
perhaps it approaches nearer to the one preceding. 

In the Museum of Mr. Bullock was one of the first described ; in 
this I observed, that the bill was black from the base to the middle, 
and from thence to the end red brown ; the fore part of the neck and 
breast ash-colour, but very pale ; belly and thighs quite white ; 
legs red brown. 

5— WHITE-BELLIED JABIRU. 

LENGTH about four feet Bill, from gape to point, eight 
inches ; it is one inch and a half deep at the base, and turns a little 
upwards, colour dusky horn ; irides brown ; between the bill and eye 
a kind of lore, and the eye itself surrounded with a broad, oblong, 
rufous, flesh-coloured, bare space ; the chin and under mandible are 
also bare; general colour of the plumage of the head, neck, and 
breast greenish brown, approaching to black ; but the back inclines 
more to green, and the wing coverts to purple; the rest of the wing 
dull, dusky green; quills black ; tail inclining to purple, and both 
of them equal in length ; the lower part of the breast, belly, thighs, 
and vent white ; legs pale dusky flesh-colour ; the toes are blunt, 
and blackish. 

Inhabits India. — General Hardwicke ; called Maleykh, On this 
the General makes the following note : — This the Denoo Birdcatcher 
distinguishes from the large bird, known by the same name, at Fut- 
tehguhr, and calls it a female ; and adds, that the male is larger, 
and the bill red. 

xlmong the drawings of Mr. Dent is a bird not greatly differing. 
The bill yellowish horn-colour; head and neck dusky blue; back 
waved brown and dusky; wings deep brown; wing coverts paler; 
the under parts, from the breast, brownish white, and the feathers 
longish and loose; legs dusky pale blue. 

We suspect this last to be a bird in immature plumage. 



JAEIRU. 19 



6.— SENEGAL JABIRU. 

Mycteria Senegalensis, Ltd. Orn. Sup. p. Ixiv. 

Senegal Jabiru, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 247. Lin. Trans, v. p. 32. pi. iii. — the head. 

The length of this Species, from the bill to the end of the claws, 
is six feet two inches; the bill itself thirteen inches; neck fifteen; 
body twelve ; the naked part of the thighs four inches, the feathered 
part four; knee joint one inch ; legs thirteen inches and a half; the 
middle toe five inches and a half, the two outer ones four inches and 
a half; all slightly connected at the base; the upper mandible is at 
first very pale for three inches ; the under one the same for about an 
inch and a half; then a bar of black for about three inches, and from 
this to the tip reddish, increasing in depth of colour to the end, where 
it is deep vermilion ; on each side of the base of the upper mandible a 
large, semi-oval, and transparent space, which, at the back part, is 
continued upwards in a curved direction ; across the fore part of the 
eye, over the nostrils, a bare, flattened part, somewhat in the manner 
of the Common Coot, and birds of that Genus ; beneath the base of 
the bill, just at the beginning of the feathery part, are two very small, 
pear-shaped, pendent wattles, adhering by very small necks ; the 
head and neck are black ; scapulars the same, with whitish bases, 
and fifteen inches in length ; the remainder of the bird white ; wings 
and tail both wanting; the legs very long, and the thighs, to a 
distance nearly equal to that of the legs itself, quite bare ; the whole 
leg and thigh black, except round the knee, as well as round each 
joint of the toes, where there is a pale zone ; the whole length of the 
leg and thigh is coated with hexagonal, longitudinal scales. 

This appears to be quite new, approaching somewhat to the New- 
Holland Species, yet differing in several particulars. Is said to inhabit 
Senegal ; described from the Linncean Transactions, in which it is 
mentioned at large by Dr. Shaw, from a skin of one lent to him by 
the Rev. Mr. Rackett, but the wings and tail were both wanting. 

D 2 



^O BOAT-BILL. 

GENUS LXXIV.— BOAT-BILL. 

Cinereous A Var. Spotted || B Var. Brown 

1 HE bill in this Genus is broad, with a keel along the middle of 
the upper part, like a boat reversed. 

Nostrils small, lodged in a furrow. 

Tongue small. 

Toes divided. 

CINEREOUS BOAT-BILL.— Pl. cxliv. 

Cancroma Cochlearia, Ind.Orn.W. 671. Lin. i. 233. Gm.Lin.'x. 617. Barowsk. iii. 

106. Mus. Lev. t. 10. Nat. Misc. pl. 713. 
Cochlearius, Bris. v. 506. Id. 8vo. ii. 344. 
Der Kahnschnabel, Schmid, Vog. p. 117. t. 103. 

Le Savacou, Buf. vii. 443. pl. 23. Pl. enl. 38. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. cii. 
Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. 26. pl. 76. Brown, III. 92. pl. 36. 

SIZE of a Fowl ; length twenty-two inches. Bill four inches 
long, and of a singular form, not unlike a boat with the keel upper- 
most ; or, as some think, like the bowls of two spoons, placed with 
the hollow parts together ; the upper mandible has a prominent 
ridge at the top, and on each side of this a long channel, at the 
bottom of which are the nostrils ; these are oval, and situated ob- 
liquely ; the general colour of the bill is dusky; in some specimens 
dark brown; the parts between the bill and eye bare and dusky; 
under jaw capable of distension ; from the hindhead springs a long 
black crest, the feathers of which are narrow, and end in a point; 
in general the middle ones are six inches in length, the others lessen 
by degrees, the outer ones being not more than one inch ; but in 
some specimens these long crest feathers reach quite to the back ; 
plumage on the forehead white; the rest pale bluish ash-colour. 



PL.cxi.rv; 




(W.,/, r/ . 'A,;///,//. 



BOAT-BILL. 21 

across the lower part of the neck behind is a transverse band of 
brownish black, which passes forwards on each side towards the 
breast, ending- in a point, but does not encompass it; the fore part of 
the neck and under parts bluish white, except the belly and thighs, 
which are rufous; the feathers which hang over the breast are loose, 
as in the Heron ; the tail three inches and a half long, and the wings 
reach nearly to the end of it; the leg measures three inches ; and 
the thigh, from its insertion to the knee, four; the middle toe two 
inches and a half; the bare part above the knee one inch and a half, 
the colour of the bare parts yellowish brown, claws black ; the toes 
connected at the base by a membrane, which, as in the Umbre, is 
deepest in the outer one. 

A. — Cochlearius neevius, B?-is.v. 508. 7d.8vo.ii. 346. Ind. Orn. ii. 671. /3. 
Spotted Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. p. 27. 

This differs in being varied with spots of brown. 

B. — Cancroma cancrophaga, Lin. i. 233. Gm. Lin. i. 618. Boroivsk. iii. 105. t. 56. 

Ind. Orn. ii. p. 671. y. 
Cochlearius fuscus, Bris. v. 509. Id. 8vo. ii. 345. 

Gallinula aquatica, Tamatia, Rait, 116. 12. Will. 238. Id. Engl. 318. pi. 78. 
La Cuilliere brune, Buf. vii. 443. PI. enl. 869. 
Brown Boat-bill, Gen. Syn. v. 28. 

Size of the others. Head and crest the same ; the upper parts, 
instead of ash-colour, are of a pale rufous brown ; tail rufous ash ; 
under parts wholly of a cream-colour ; bill and legs yellow brown. 

I find these birds to vary very much : in the first place, the crests 
are by no means of equal lengths, for the Cinereous One, mentioned 
by Buffbn, had a shorter crest than the Brown Sort, but in those 
which have come under my inspection, it was just the contrary.* The 
bills, too, differ in colour; some are black, others brown, and in one 

* One in Mr. Bullock's Museum had the head perfectly smooth, with no appearance of 
a crest. 



22 BOAT-BILL. 

it appeared to have been yellow. If I may be allowed a conjecture, 
it is, that the cinereous one, first described, is the male, the plain 
brown one the female, and the spotted variety a young male, and 
that probably the crests of both may be equal in the adult. In the 
PL enlum. I observe a patch of grey in the middle of the greater 
wing coverts, which is not in any specimen that I have seen ; the 
figure referred to in Brown, is too short and squat; that in the Hist. 
des Ois. worse, though the bill and crest are well figured; but both 
in the PL enlum. are sutficiently expressed ; and it is to be hoped, 
that our representation may not give an inadequate idea of so 
curious a bird. 

This species, for I include all the above under one, inhabits 
Cayenne, Guiana, and Brazil, chiefly in such parts as are near the 
water ; where it perches on the trees, which hang over the streams ; 
and like the Kingsfisher, drops down on the fishes which swim 
beneath. It has been thought to live on -crabs likewise, whence the 
Linnaean name; but this is not clear, though far from improbable. 
We are certain, however, that fish is the most common, if not the 
only food. 



pl.cxcv: 




S„/Y J '/A,,/',;: 



UMBRE. 23 



GENUS LXXV— UMBRE. 

BlLL strong, thick, compressed, the upper mandible appearing 
to be composed of several pieces. 

Nostrils linear, and placed obliquely. 

Toes divided, with a slight membrane at the base. 



TUFTED UMBRE— Pl. cxlv. 

Scopus Umbretta, Ind.Orn. ii. 672. Gm.Lin.'i. 618. Bris.v. 503. 7rf.8vo.ii. 343. 

Ombrette, Buf. vii. 440. Pl. ml. 796. 

Tufted Umbre, Gen. Syn. v. 30. pl. 77. Brown, III. 90. pl.35. 

SIZE of a Crow ; length twenty inches. Bill three inches and 
a half long, compressed laterally; along each side of the uppe 
mandible is a furrow, running lengthwise, about one-eighth of an 
inch from the ridge, beginning at the base, and finishing about half 
an inch before it comes to the point of the bill, where it is somewhat 
bent downwards : the nostrils are a mere slit at the base, placed at a 
sharp angle with the furrow, and about half an inch in length, the 
under mandible is less deep at the base than the upper, grows smaller 
towards the end, is there a little truncated, and when closed, shuts 
in beneath the upper one ; the colour of both brown ; from the 
hindhead springs a crest of loose feathers, exceedingly full, and four 
inches in length ; this, as well as the whole body, is of an uniform 
brown colour, most like that of the earth called Umber; rather paler 
beneath, and the neck feathers palest down the shafts ; wings and 
tail even, the last crossed with three or four bars of deeper brown, 
and tipped, for about an inch, with the same ; the legs long, and the 
thighs bare for two-thirds of the length ; the colour of both dusky I 
between the toes a membrane, about a quarter of an inch deep 



24 UMBRE. 

between the middle and outer, and somewhat less between it and the 
inner ; claws small, and bent. 

It is probable that the bird figured in the PI. enlum. is a female, 
as there is not the least rudiment of a crest : the tail in this bird is of 
a paler brown, crossed with five narrow, darker brown bars, and 
tipped with the same. That described by Brisson is also without a 
crest; the bird engraved in Brown's work appears a heavy and uncouth 
figure, the legs much too short, and the membranes between the toes 
continued as deep as the webs of a Duck's foot. I once saw a most 
perfect specimen of the male at Sir Jos. Banks's, which came from 
the Cape of Good Hope ; that of BufFon was brought from Senegal ; 
it is, we believe, a scarce bird. In looking over the late Mr. Bruce's 
drawings, I observed this bird, very well expressed, and the name 
given to it was Hermetto ; I think it was met with in the course of 
this Gentleman's journey into Abyssinia, but am not clear in the 
circumstance. 



HERON. 



25 



GENUS LXXVI— HERON. 



* With the Head Crested. 

1 Crowned Heron 

2 Demoiselle 

* * The Head Bald— Cranes. 

3 Siberian 

4 Indian 

A Var. Red-collared 
B Var. 

5 Common 

6 Japan 

7 Black-bellied 

8 Gigantic 

9 Javan 

10 Modun 

11 Hooping 

12 Brown 

A Var. Indian 

13 Australasian 

*** With Naked Orbits- 
Storks. 

14 White Stork 

15 Black 

16 Glossy 

17 American 

18 Violet 
A Var. 
B Var. 
C Var. 

* * * * With the Middle Claw 

Serrated within. 

19 Night Heron 

20 Caledonian Night Heron 

21 Chestnut 

22 Darter 

23 New-Holland N. H. 

VOL. IX. 



24 Cayenne 
A Var. 
B Var. 

25 Yellow-crowned 

26 Jamaica 

27 Gardenian 

28 Obscure 

29 Ferruginous 

30 Little Bittern 
A Var. 

31 DuraliaB. 

32 Rufous 

33 Rayed 

34 Minute 

35 Spotted 

36 Wattled Heron 

37 Common 

38 Ash-coloured 

39 Striated 

40 Lohaujung 

41 Great 

42 Variegated 

43 Rufous 

44 Great Egret 

45 Great White 

46 Lacteous 

47 Putea 

48 Pied-tail 

49 Specious 

50 Little 

51 Little White Heron 
A Var. 

52 Snowy 
A Var. 
B Var. 

53 Black-crested White 

54 Red-crested 

E 



55 Sacred 
A Var. 

56 Gibraltar 

A Var. Caboga 

57 Reddish Egret 

58 Demi Egret 
A Var. 

59 Rusty-crowned Heron 

60 Streaked 

61 Bittern 

62 American B. 

63 Freckled Heron 

64 Lentiginous 

65 White-bellied B. 

66 Yellow B. 

67 Brazilian 

68 Lineated 

69 Tiger 

70 Philippine Heron 

71 Zigzag B. 

72 Green H. 
A Var. 
B Var. 

73 Louisiane 

74 Indian Green 

75 Sguacco 
A Var. 

76 Coromandel 

77 Red-legged 
A Var. 

78 Squaiotta 

79 Castaneous 

80 Swabian B. 

81 Dwarf 

82 Black-backed Sguacco 

83 Cinnamon 

84 Blue 



26 



HERON. 



A Var. 

85 Cinereous 

86 Greater Red 

87 Crested Purple 
SS Purple 

89 African 

90 Malacca 

91 Senegal 

92 Specious 

93 Sumatran 

94 Painted 

95 Agami 



96 Chalybeate 

97 Cocoi 

98 Chinese 

99 Dusky 

100 Dry 

101 Pacific 

102 White-fronted 

103 New Zealand 

104 Ominous 

105 Black-shouldered 

106 Lepid 

107 Clouded 



108 White-throated 

109 Blue-headed 

110 Blue-crowned 

111 Yellow-winged 

112 Black 

113 New Guinea 

1 14 Cracra 

115 Yellow-necked 

116 Scolopaceous 

***** Bill gaping in the 
middle. 

117 Coromandel. 



>IRDS of this Genus have a long, strong, sharp-pointed bill. 
Nostrils linear. 
Tongue pointed. 

Toes connected by a membrane, at least as far as the first joint; 
the middle claw of the true Herons pectinated. 



* THE HEAD CRESTED. 



1. — CROWNED HERON. 

Ardea Pavonina, Ind.Orn.'n. 672. Lin.i. 233. Qm.Lin.'i. 619. Borowsk. iii. 7.3. 

t. 48. Spalowsk. ii. t. 27. 
Grue, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. c. 
Grus Balearica, Raii, 95. Will. 201. t.48. Bris. v. p. 511. t. 41. female. Id. Svo.i. 

346. Klein, 121. III. Gerin. iv. t. 414, Robert, Ic. pi. 12. 
Grus Capensis, Petiv. Gaz. t.26. f. 9. 
L'Oiseau royal, Buf. vii. 317. pi. 16. PI. enl. 265. male. 
Grue tete de negre, Ferm. Surin. ii. 150 ? 
Peacock, Kolb. Cap. ii. 245- pi- 7. f. 4, 
Balearic Crane, Sloan. Jam. 314. Will. Engl. 275. pi. 48. 
Crowned African Crane, Edw. pi. 192. Voy. to Guinea, 250. pi. 11. 
Crowned Heron, Gen. Syn, v. p. 34. Gent. Mag. xx. pi. p. 264. 

SIZE of the Common Heron ; length two feet nine inches. The 
bill two inches and a half long, straight, and of a brownish colour; 



HERON. 27 

irides grey ; the crown of the head covered with soft black feathers, 
like velvet ; on the hind part is a tuft of hair, or rather bristles, 
rising near each other at the base, and spreading out on all sides in 
a globular form ; this is four inches in length, and the colour reddish 
brown ; the sides of the head bare of feathers, being covered only 
by a fleshy membrane, reddish at the lower part, and in shape not 
unlike a kidney ; on each side of the throat a kind of wattle; the 
general colour of the plumage bluish ash ; the feathers on the fore 
part of the neck very long, and hang over the breast ; wing coverts 
white, the greater ones incline to rufous, and those farthest from the 
body to black ; the greater quills and tail black, and the secondaries 
chestnut; legs, and bare part above the joint, dusky. 

The female is black, where the male is blue ash ; and the wattles 
on the throat are wanting ; the long feathers of the breast are also 
less conspicuous.* 

This beautiful bird inhabits Africa, particularly the Coast of 
Guinea ; common about the whole country of Ardra ; a few at, and 
about Acra, and several at Whidah ;t found also at Cape Verd, and 
one or two occasionally seen on the Slave Coast; J supposed to inhabit 
Andalusia, in Spain, but upon the doubtful testimony of some 
sportsmen, whom the birds did not suffer to approach near enough to 
ascertain. |[ 

Why the name of Balearic Crane should have been given to this 
bird is not well accounted for, as it is certainly not met with in the 
Islands so called at this day. From its beauty we often meet with it 
in our Menageries, among other foreign birds, and, with shelter at 
night, will often live for some years : the chief food is said to be 
worms, and such other things as the Heron Tribe usually feeds on ; 

* Whether the male has any singularity in the construction of the windpipe we have not 
been able to investigate ; but are informed by Mr. Thomson, that nothing occurred in a 
female dissected by him, more than in the Common Heron. 

f Bosnian. J Brought into Europe in the 15th century, at the first 

discovery of Africa. || Mr. White. 

E 2 



28 HERON. 

also vegetables of all kinds ; is observed to sleep on one leg, and 
will run very fast; it also flies well, and continues the flight for a 
longtime: the flesh of this bird is said to be tough, and not well 
tasted. Mr. Barrow met with it far inwards from the Cape of Good 
Hope ; for the first time near the Melk River, not far from Candeboo. 



2.— DEMOISELLE HERON. 

Ardea Virgo, Ind. Orn. ii. 673. Lin. i. 234. Gm. Lin. i. 619. Borowsk. iii. 84. 

Gerin. iv. t. 435 ? 436. Robert, Ic. pi. 15. 17. 
Grus Numidica, Bris. v. 38S. Id. 8vo. ii. 311. Klein, 121. VI. 
La Grue de Numidie, ou Demoiselle, Bvf. vii. 313. pi. 15. PI. enl. 241. Dodart. 

Mem, iii. p. 3. pi. 35. — Windpipe. 
Kurki, Forsk. Faun. Arab. p. 9. 4 ? 

Garza de Mallorka, Madamusela, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 19. lam. 9. 
Dancing Bird, Pococke's Travels, ii. 207. 
Demoiselle Heron, or Nuniidian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 35. Id. Sup. ii. 297. Alb. iii. 

pi. 83. Edw. pi. 134. Pit/. Mem. pi. p. 204. Phil. Trans, lvi. 210. pi. 11. p. 

215. — Windpipe. Lin. Trans, iv. 105. pi. x. f. 4. — Windpipe. Wood's Zoogr. i. 

p. 517. pi. 22. 

SIZE of the Crane; length three feet three inches. Bill two 
inches and a half long, straight, greenish at the base, changing to 
yellow, with the tip red; irides crimson; crown of the head ash- 
colour ; the rest of the head, greater part of the neck behind, and all 
forwards to the breast, black ; the feathers of the latter very long, 
some of them at least nine inches, and hang loose over the adjacent 
parts; the lower part of the neck behind, back, and wings, tail, and 
all beneath bluish ash ; behind each eye springs a tuft of long white 
feathers, which decline downwards, and hang in an elegant and 
graceful manner ; the greater quills and tail are black at the ends, 
but from the length of the second quills, which are very long, and 
conceal both, are not observed, while the bird is in a quiescent state; 
the legs are long, and black. The two sexes are much alike. 



HERON. 29 

Inhabits both Africa and Asia. In the first is met with on the Coast 
of Guinea,* but is most plentiful about Bildulgerid,t and Tripoli ; 
from thence along the Coast of the Mediterranean Sea, also pretty 
common in Egypt.J Is found at Aleppo, || and in the southern 
plains about the Black and Caspian Seas, also seen frequently beyond 
the Lake Baikal, about the Rivers Selinga and Argun, but never 
ventures to the northward. It prefers marshes, and the neighbour- 
hood of rivers, as it feeds on fish, like others of the Heron Genus. 
Authors are silent concerning the nidification and manners at large; 
but we know that they are frequently kept in menageries, and bear 
confinement well, insomuch as to breed in that state ; for we are told, 
that six were at one time in a menagerie at Versailles, and that one 
of them, which had been produced there, lived twenty-four years : 
it is endowed with great gentleness of manners, and sometimes puts 
itself into elegant attitudes, at others into strange and uncouth ones, 
especially such as imitate dancing; and Keysler mentions one in the 
Duke's gallery, at Florence, which had been taught to dance to a 
certain tune, when played, or sung to it. § It is called in the east, 
Kurki, or Querkey. 

The circumstance of the singular construction in the trachea, or 
windpipe, has been noticed by authors, but not generally known. 
It does not, as in most birds, go straight into the lungs, but first 
enters a cavity in the keel of the breast bone, for about three inches, 
when it returns, after making a bend forwards, and then passes into 
the chest. 

This is a common species in India, being seen with the Indian 
Crane in vast flocks, on the banks of the Ganges, ^ where it is 
called Curcuma, and Currakeel. 

* Hist., des Ois. f The ancient Numidia. + Hasselq. Voy. p. 287. 

1| Russ. Alep. p. 69. § See Trav. ii. p. 34. Called by Pococke the Dancing Bird. 
See his Travels, ii. 207. % Penn. Hind. ii. 158. 



30 HERON. 



CRANES. THE HEAD BALD. 



3— SIBERIAN CRANE. 

Ardea gigantea, Ind.Orn.W. 674. Gm.Lin.i. 622. Gmel. reise, ii. 1S9. t. 21. 
Grus leucogeranos, Pall. It. ii. 714. 30. t. I. Georg. reise, 171. Dec. russ. ii. 145. 

Ghnel. reise, iv. p. 137. 
Siberian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 37. Arct. Zool.W. 455. C. Id. Sup. 67. 

THIS is a large bird, and four feet and a half high, when erect. 
The bill like that of a Crane, but larger, and red ; the edges of the 
mandibles serrated near the tip; face naked beyond the eyes, rugose, 
red, and sprinkled with numerous, rufous tubercles; irides white ; 
plumage white, except the ten first great quills, with their coverts, 
which are black ; the scapulars are elongated, but shorter than in 
the Crane; tail of twelve feathers, nearly even at the end; legs 
long, and red. 

In old birds, the hind part of the neck is yellowish, but in those 
of the first year, wholly of an oker colour, with the face, bill, and 
legs of a greenish brown. 

Inhabits the vast marshes and lakes in Siberia, especially about 
the Ischim, and along the Rivers Ob and Irtish, and on the borders 
of the Caspian Sea; makes the nest among the reeds, seldom acces- 
sible by man, upon rising, green, grassy tufts, composed of herbs 
and grass heaped up together; the eggs ash-coloured, the size of 
those of a Goose, and spotted with brown ; they are shy birds, always 
on their guard against an enemy, and said to have an advanced 
sentinel, to warn them of an approach, and on the least alarm cry 
aloud, in the manner of the Swan, and fly off directly ; hence it is 



HERON. 31 

difficult to get within gunshot, for as they stand nearly five feet high 
from the ground, they are enabled, to see any one at a great distance. 
The sportsman, therefore, is obliged to use every art to effect his 
purpose; sometimes under cover of a stalking horse, or other object; 
at other times a small dog will divert their attention, which they will 
attack without fear, while his master gets within reach of gunshot : 
in breeding time are more bold, and will defend their young even 
against men, so as to make it dangerous to come near their haunts. 
The male and female said to guard the nest alternately ; the food is 
chiefly small fish, frogs, lizards, &c. The summer residence is in 
the more northern parts, coming there in spring, departing south- 
ward in autumn, probably wintering about the Caspian Sea, and the 
parts beyond ; always flying in pairs. 

A bird similar to this, if not the same, is often seen on Chinese 
hangings ; I have likewise met with it in some private drawings of 
Chinese birds, and is there called Tzew-ting-ha ; the Russians know 
it by the name of Sterchi. 

4.— INDIAN CRANE. 

Ardea Antigone, Lid. Orn. ii. 674. Lin. i. 235. Gm. Lin. i. 622. 
Grus orientalis Indica, Bris. v. 378. Id. 8vo. ii. 308. Klein, 121. V. Gerin. iv. t. 417. 
Indian Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 38. Id. Sup. 232. Id. Sup. ii. 298. Ed%v. pi. 45. Penn. 
Hind. ii. 158. 

THIS is also a large Species, standing five feet high. Bill 
greenish yellow, dusky at the tip, nostrils pervious ; irides bright 
reddish hazel ; crown of the head bare and white ; on each side of 
the head, about the ears, a bare white spot; the rest of the head, and 
a small part of the neck, covered only with a fine red skin ; plumage 
in general ash-colour, paler about the neck ; the quills black ; se- 
condaries and tail ash-colour; those nearest the body pointed at the 
ends, longer than the quills, and hang over them; the legs, and 
bare space above the knees, are red ; claws white ; the middle and 
outer toe connected by a membrane as far as the first joint. 



32 HERON. 

Inhabits the East Indies, also the Mongolian Deserts, from 
whence it migrates into that part of the Russian Dominions, which 
lies beyond the Lake Baikal ; keeping chiefly within the plains 
below the Rivers Onon and Argun, which are the western extremity 
of the Gobean Plain. It is very common in great flocks north of 
Calcutta ; is called in India, Saroos. In some drawings of Sir J. 
Anstruther, the dimensions are set down as follow : from the tip of 
the bill to the top of the skull, eight inches ; from the last to the 
breast, one foot seven inches ; round the neck ten inches ; from the 
breast to the end of the tail, two feet ; from the sole of the foot to the 
top of the skull, four feet seven inches. 

This is also well represented in Lord Mountnorris's drawings, 
where it is called Sawrace ; found in Oude. 



A — Grue a Collier, Buf. vii. 307. PL enl. 865. Ind. Orn. ii. 674. 4. /3. Gen. 
Syn. v. p. 39. 

Length four feet three inches and a half. Bill long, black ; the 
head and half the neck covered only with a reddish white down ; 
round the middle of the neck a collar of red ; the lower part of the 
neck, and the rest of the body bluish ash-colour; on the rump a 
tuft of flowing feathers, which hang over the ends of the wings and 
tail, as in the Common Crane ; tail black ; legs dusky. 

Inhabits the East Indies. 



B. — Indian Crane, Var. B. Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 298. 

This differs from the others, in having the bill and fore part of 
the crown yellowish ; lore, and space round the top of the neck, 
bare, and crimson ; irides pale orange ; chin and throat beset with 
black bristles; general colour of the plumage dull pale blue; quills 
and tail black ; legs and bare part of the thighs black, dotted with 
white. — Inhabits New-Holland. 



HERON, 33 



5.— COMMON CRANE. 

Ardea eras; Ind. Orn. ii. 674. Lin. i. 234. Faun. Suec. No. 161. Gm. Lin. i. 620. 

Scojd. i. No. 122. £r?«n. p. 47. Midler, p. 22. Kramer, p. 345. Frisch, I. 194. 

Erw. v. 374. t. 33. Jd. 8vo. ii. 307. jRai'i, 95. A. 1. ^7/. 200. t. 48. Gerin.W. 

t.415. AVein, 121. I. /</. 0«. 23. p. 17. f. 1. Faun. Arag. 76. Borowsk. iii. 82. 

i-auw. He/ue*. Be.«cA. Berl. Nat.'w. 586. t. 16. Bloch. 
Grus cinerea, Tern. Man. 346. /d. F,d. ii. p. 558. 
LaGrue, Buf. vii. 287. pi. 14. P/. en/, p. 769. Naturf. xiii. s. 202. Schmid, Vog, 

p. 112. t. 98. 
Common Crane, Gen. SyW. v. p. 40. Id. Sup. ii. 298. Br. Zool. ii. App. 629. pi. 6. 

Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 17. pi. 2. Arct. Zool. ii. 453. A. Will. Engl. p. 274. pi. 48. 

Kolb. Cap. ii. 141. Archceol. i. p. 171, ,4/fo'n, ii. pi. 65. Pan. ,4/e/>, 69. PA?7. 

Trans, xxvii. 464? iirf.'lvi! 20S. 215. pi. 11. f. 4. the windpipe. Lin. Trans, iv. 

107. pi. xii. f.4. windpipe. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 29. Lewin, iv. pi. 143. Walcot, ii. 

pi. 124. Orn. jDici. ^ Supp, IVood's Zoogr.'u p. 512. 

THIS is a large bird, at least five feet in length, and weighs ten 
pounds. Bill four inches and a quarter long, and greenish black ; 
the forehead, to the middle of the crown, covered with black down 
or hairs; the hind part bare and red, with a few scattered hairs; on 
the nape, below this, a bare space of two inches, and ash-coloured; 
sides of the head, behind the eyes, and the neck behind, white ; 
between the bill and eyes, beneath them, and fore part of the neck, 
blackish ash-colour; lower part of the neck and the rest of the body- 
fine ash-colour, deepest on the tail coverts ; the greater wing coverts 
blackish ; and those farthest from the body, with the bastard wing 
and quills, black; from the pinion of each wing springs an elegant 
tuft of loose feathers, curled at the ends, which may be erected at 
will, but in a quiescent state hang over, and cover the tail ; legs 
black. Male and female much alike. 

This species seems far spread, being met with in great flocks 
throughout Northern Europe and Asia, in Sweden, Russia in general, 
Siberia, as far as the River Anadyr, migrating even to the Arctic 

VOL. IX. F 



34 HERON. 

Circle. In Kamtscbatka they are only on the Southern Promontory ;* 
are migratory, returning north to breed in the spring, and generally 
choosing the same places occupied by them the season before, f In 
the winter, inhabit the warmer regions, as Egypt, Aleppo,§ India, 
&c. ; likewise met with at the Cape of Good Hope, changing place 
with the season. In their migrations often fly so high as not to be 
visible, their passing only known by the noise they make, being 
louder than any other bird.|| In Spain inhabit the marshes on the 
sides of the Rivers Palmonas and Guadaranque in the summer, 
departing again in winter. In France are seen in spring and autumn, 
but for the most part, are only passengers. Not indigenous to Rome, 
as Horace mentions " Advenam Gruem."** Willughby says, " they 
" come often to us in England ; and in the fenny countries in Lincoln- 
" shire and Cambridgeshire there are great flocks of them," ft though 
at present they are not more known there than in other parts of the 
kingdom : they were used at table here as early as the Norman 
Conquest, J J and at various intervals between that, and the time 
of King Henry VIII.; the citizens of London, presenting hiin, 
among other things, with twelve Cranes. §§ In 1500, three living 
ones were valued at five shillings, |||| and twelve years after, they 
fetched one shilling and four-pence each when dead ;|||||| but at the 

* Arct. Zool. One of the supposed reasons was the want of frogs, toads, and serpents; 
none being found in Kamtschatka, — Hist. Kamtsckatka. They have, however, plenty of 
lizards. f Amaen. ac. iv. 589. 

§ Riiss. Alepp. p. 69. 

|| Supposed to arise from the singular conformation of the windpipe, entering far into 
the bone, which has a great cavity to receive it, and being there thrice reflected, goes out 
again at the same hole, and so turns down to the lungs. — Will. 274. pi. -18. The above 
structure not very unlike that of the Parraqua Pheasant. 

** Epod. ii. 1. 39. — Willughby met with them at Rome, in the winter season. 

■f-f Sometime, of course, prior to 1678, when his book was written. 

XX Dugd. Baron, i. p. 109. §§ Hall. Chron. fol. clxv. 

Illl Gent. Mag. 1768. 259. An Appraismt. Temp. vii. of Thos. Kebell. 
11-11 II Northuntb. Househ. Book.- 



HERON. 35 

great feast of Archbishop Nevill, Edward IV. there were no less 
than 204 Cranes, and 400 Heronshaws, among other things ; serving 
to shew, they were about half as plentiful as the Heron. 

At the present day it is very rarely met with in England ; three 
or four times only have occurred in my memory, viz. — Once shot near 
Cambridge; once on the Kentish coast, communicated by the late 
Mr. Boys; a third near Burham, on the shores of the Med way, in 
January 1794, mentioned to me by Sir Win. Bishop ; and a fourth, 
which has its dependence on more slight authority.* A few years 
since a small flock appeared in harvest, at Tingwall, in Zetland, 
one of which was shot/j* The structure of the windpipe in this bird 
is singularly curious, somewhat in the manner of the Wild Swan, 
but is doubly reflected, as may be seen in the figure referred to in the 
Philosophical Transactions, as also in those of the Linnaean Society. 

We are told, that they make the nest in the marshes, and lay two 
bluish eggs; they feed on reptiles of all kinds, and on green corn, 
of which last they are very fond, and make so great havock, as to 
ruin the farmers, wherever the flocks of them alight. The young 
birds are thought very good food. 

In Lord Mountnorris's drawings one, called Koolung, seems to 
partake of this, and the Japan Crane; general colour of plumage 
ash-colour, not white, but the ends of the feathers which hang over 
the tail, are black a good way up the shafts. 

'-* Orn. Diet. S^lp. These-were observed to feed on corn. 

t In the year 1696, in. the month of May, came into Cardiganshire, two strange birds, 
which, by the description, seemed to be Cranes, Phil. Trans, xxvii. 464. Much information 
may also be gained concerning the Crane, in Archceol. ii. p. 171. In a curious Memoir, by 
the Rev. Mr. Pegge, thought to have been in sufficient plenty in 1605 ; as they are merely 
said to be in season from November to May. See Archceol. xiii. p. 141. &c. It is here 
mentioned in the Northumberland Household Book, p. 534. that the price of one was six- 
teen pence; whereas, a Peacock was at no more than twelve pence. 



F 2 



36 HERON. 



6.— JAPAN CRANE. 

Grus Japonensis, Bris. v. 381. Jd. Svo. ii. 309. Klein, 121. IV. Ind. Orn. ii. 675. 

Spalowsk. iii. t. 26. Johnst. Av. pi. 54. f. 4. 
Japan Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 42. 

SIZE and shape of the Common Crane. Bill and legs dull 
green ; the upper part of the head covered with a red skin, sprinkled 
with a few bristly feathers ; fore part of the neck black ; behind, and 
the rest of the plumage in general, white, except the greater quills, 
which are black ; some of the secondaries pointed at the tips, and so 
long as almost to reach the end of the tail. 

Inhabits Japan. This bird is frequently seen in Chinese paint- 
ings, and paper hangings, as well as on porcelain ; in all these the 
loose feathers, which hang over the tail, are black. It also appears 
to vary in other respects ; for in the fine drawings of Lady Impey, 
both the crown, as well as the neck before, are black ; body and 
wings white ; and the long incurvated feathers on the rump ash- 
coloured, tipped with black. In other drawings, in possession of 
the late Mr. Pigou, the crown is red ; it is named Chuting-nock : 
Chu-ting means a red crown, and Nock the name of the bird. 

In the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, I find a fine Variety. The 
bill dusky flesh-colour; plumage in general a delicate, bluish white; 
between the bill and eye, forehead, as far as the crown, black ; chin 
and fore part of the neck deep slate-colour ; nape the same ; between 
this and the black on the crown, numerous red papillae, the part 
appearing bare; the back and wings have a greater mixture of blue 
in the feathers; tail short, white; the outer ridge of the wing black; 
part of the second quills and tail coverts very long, inclined to pale 
ash, and marked at the ends with black, beginning down the shaft, 
and growing wider to the tips, which are wholly black : these fall 
over the quills and tail in a state of rest, and hide both ; the legs 
stout, and black. 



HERON. 37 

Inhabits India, called Colong; is reputed a Variety of the 
Saroos; in Lord Mountnorris's drawings called Koolung. 

We have formerly been of opinion, that the birds called by Fryer, 
Colum, and Serass, might mean the Whistling and Mute Swans, which 
are well known to differ essentially in the conformation of the Sternum 
and Trachea ; but from later information we are led to believe, that 
they mean no other than Common and Indian Cranes, the latter of 
these being called in India, Sawrace and Serass, and corrupted by 
some into Cyrus;* the former known by the name of Colong and 
Koolung — sliding equally easy into Colum, as Fryer spells it. 



7.— BLACK-BELLIED INDIAN CRANE. 

SIZE large; length uncertain. Bill pale brown ; crown of the 
head, as far as the middle, crimson ; from thence to the nape black, 
and finishing in a point; between the bill and eye bare and crimson, 
passing beneath the eye, and beyond it as a streak ; the rest of the 
head and breast white, marked on the last with large, black spots ; 
belly, thighs, and vent black; back, wings, and tail dusky blue, 
or lead-colour; quills black, and reach to the end of the tail, which 
is to be seen at all times, as there are no scapulars long enough, as 
in others, to obscure it ; legs long, and yellowish ; above the joint, 
for three-fourths of the length, bare ; the rest, next the body, 
feathery, and black ; claws black. 

* The Cyrus seen in very large flights on the sands, in great rivers, and in shallow jeals; 
their scream very shrill and loud, and in a still night may be heard two or three miles off: 
serves for the purpose of falconry, and chased by a Hawk called Behree,* and often a fierce 
battle arises between them, but the Hawk is mostly victorious, by getting above the Cyrus 
while in the air, wben seizing the latter by the head, both fall together to the ground.. . 
Oriental Field Sports, V. ii. p. 68. This Hawk is also sent in pursuit of the Monickjoor.f 
Currakeel,J or any of the larger, aquatic birds. 

• See Vol. i. p. 175, f Violet Heron. J Demoiselle. 



38 HERON. 

Inhabits India; said to frequent the snowy mountains of Surinagur; 
weight one sare and an eighth, or about two pounds and a quarter. 
In the drawing, from which the above is described, it is called in the 
Persian, Saurus, and said to be a Variety of the Saroos. 



8,— GIGANTIC CRANE. -Pl. cxlvi. 

Ardea Argala, Ind. Orn. ii. 676. 

Ardea dubia, Qm. Lin. i. 624. 

Argill, or Hurgill, Ives, Voy. 183, View of Hindoost. ii. 156. 

Boorong Combing, Booring oolor, Marsd. Sumat. p. 98. 

Gigantic Crane, Gen. Syn. v. 45. Id. Sup. 232. pl. 115. 

THIS seems to be the largest of the Heron Tribe, expanding, 
from the tip of one wing to that of the other, fourteen feet ten inches ;* 
from the point of the bill to the claws, seven feet and a half; 
and when standing erect is five feet high. The bill of a vast size, 
sharp-pointed, compressed on the sides, of a yellowish white, or 
horn-colour, and opens very far back into the head; the nostrils a 
slit high up, near the base, at which part it is sixteen inches in 
circumference ; the whole head and neck are naked, the front yellow; 
fore part of the neck the same, but more dull ; the hind part of the 
neck red, with here and there a warty excrescence, mixed with a few 
straggling hairs, curled at the ends; on the lower part of the neck 
before is a conical, large pouch, appearing inflated, like a bladder, 
greatly elongated, hanging over the breast, and sparingly beset with 
short down, with a tuft of long hairs at the bottom ; the upper part 
of the back and shoulders furnished with white, downy feathers; the 
back itself and wing coverts deep bluish ash-colour : second wing 
coverts white on the outer web ; second quills dusky brown; prime 
quills and tail deep blackish lead-colour: the latter ten inches long, 

* One, which was living in a Menagerie in Englaud for some years, had only fourteen feet 
in expanse of wing, but it was supposed not to be a full grown bird. 



PL CXLVI 




^/,<7<i?ifyc ( rane 



HERON. 39 

consisting of twelve feathers, and very little longer than the end of 
the quills, when the bird is at rest; the feathers of the sides, beneath 
the wings, and those of the vent and under tail coverts, are long and 
downy, some of them nearly twelve inches ; these, as well as the 
breast and belly, are dusky white; legs long and black, naked far 
above the knees, and very scaly ; toes webbed at the base, and the 
claws blunt. 

This monster, as Ives not improperly calls it, inhabits Bengal, 
as also Calcutta ; at the last called Hurgill, or Argill ; it stalks 
majestically, and appears at first like a naked Indian. The common 
opinion is, that the souls of the Bramins possess these birds, and they 
are thought invulnerable; for when Mr. Ives missed his shot at several, 
the standers by observed with great satisfaction, that he might shoot 
to eternity, and never succeed. It is found in Sumatra, and the Eastern 
Islands, but no where so common as at Bengal. 

It generally arrives before the rainy season comes on, and is called 
Argala, or Adjutant;* also Bangou Sula, Burong Kambing, and 
Burong Gaja ; likewise, from its immense gape, it has obtained the 
name of Large Throat, and from its swallowing bones, the Bone- 
eater, or Bone-taker : it is a most voracious bird, for on opening one, 
a terapin, or land tortoise, ten inches long, was found in the craw, 
and a large male black cat, entire, in the stomach .f It is allowed 
by all to be a most necessary animal, as it collects vermin from every 
quarter, such as snakes, lizards, frogs, and other noxious reptiles ; 
and its size requiring a large supply, it proves a most useful inha- 
bitant, which the natives every where acknowledge, by holding it in 
great estimation. I find that the downy long feathers of the vent, &c. 
have for some time past been made use of, in the manner of those of 
the Ostrich, in., the head dresses of the ladies, to which purpose they 

* It is thought, when looked on in front, or at a distance, to resemble a man having on 
a white waistcoat and breeches. 

f A description of the solvent glands of this voracious animal, by, Sir Everard Home, 
Bart, in the Philosophical Transactions,, 1813. p. 77.. 



40 HERON. 

seem well adapted, being of the most delicate texture, and floating 
with every breath of wind,* but hitherto have not been in sufficient 
plenty to become common. 

I am obliged to the late Mr. Smealhman for several observations 
made on this bird during his residence at Sierra Leona, in Africa. 
After saying, that an adult will often measure full seven feet ; he 
adds, that the head, covered with white down, thinly dispersed, 
appears not unlike a grey-headed man, and his description corresponds 
with what is before said ; also, that they are met with in companies; 
and when seen at a distance, near the mouths of rivers, coming 
towards an observer, which they often do with their wings extended, 
may well be taken for canoes, upon the surface of a smooth sea ; 
when on the sand banks, for men and women picking up shell-fish, 
or other things on the beach. One of these, a young bird, about 
five feet high, was brought up tame, and presented to the Chief of 
the Bananas, where Mr. Smeathman lived ; and being accustomed to 
be fed in the great hall, soon became familiar, duly attending that 
place at dinner time, placing itself behind its master's chair, fre- 
quently before the guests entered ; the servants were obliged to watch 
narrowly, and to defend the provisions with switches, but, notwith- 
standing, it would frequently snatch something or other, and once 
purloined a whole boiled fowl, which it swallowed in an instant. Its 
courage is not equal to its voracity, for a child, of eight or ten years 
old, soon puts it to flight with a switch, though at first it seems to 
stand on its defence, by threatening with its enormous bill, widely 
extended, and roaring with a loud hoarse voice, like a bear or tiger. 
Is an enemy to small quadrupeds, as well as birds and reptiles, and 
slyly destroys Fowls and Chicken, though it dares not attack a Hen 
with her young openly. Every thing is swallowed whole, and so 
accommodating is its throat, that not only an animal as big as a cat 
is gulped down, but a shin of beef, broken asunder, serves it but for 

* A good idea may be formed of their excessive lightness, from the weight of one, 
which measured eleven inches and three quarters in length, and seven in breadth, and only 
balanced eight grains. 



HERON. 41 

two morsels; known to swallow a leg of mutton of five or six pounds, 
a hare, also a small fox, &c. : after a time the bones are rejected from 
the stomach, which seems to be voluntary, for it has been known, 
that an ounce or more of emetic tartar, given to one of these birds, 
produced no effect.* 

I observe this very singular bird in various drawings done in 
India ; and it appears subject to some Variety from sex or age : in 
one the bill seems rather bent, the eye placed in the base of it, sur- 
rounded with dusky mottlings; head and neck bare, red; pouch as 
usual, with here and there a short bristle ; on the top and back of 
the head and neck sprinkled with hairs, and at intervals a narrow, 
short, black feather : at the beginning of the back a kind of white 
ruff" of down, falling on each side over the edge of the wing ; the 
rest of the plumage black; under parts dusky white; legs long, 
stout, white, marked with numerous dusky spots ; claws black. 

In another, the bill is very pale ; the head and neck wholly 
covered with short down, longer at the back of the neck and nape 
and mixed with black streaks; the pouch before just visible, but 
contracted, and furnished with long, undulated, dusky, downy hairs,' 
a larger downy ruff* of white, and all the under parts white ; the 
rest black. 

This last seems to be a young bird. I remark in one of the 
drawings, that the bill of a full grown bird is said to measure seven- 
teen inches in length, and that it is equally fond of putrid carcases 
as the Vulture, for groups of both mix together over a dead animal, 
never leaving it till they have completely picked the bones.| One 
of the names given to it is Samcool. 

* Oriental Field Sports, i. p. 100. 

f Lord Mountnorris, after mentioning the amazing flocks of Kites and Crows, which 
cover the houses and gardens at Calcutta, and subsist on the remains of the great profusion 
of food there dressed, and which the prejudices of the natives prevent their touching; adds, 
that in the profession of scavengers, the Kites and Crows are assisted during the day by the 
Adjutant Bird, and at night by the Foxes, Jackals, and Hysenas, from the neighbouring 
jungles. — Valent. Travels, i. 510. 

VOL. IX. G 



42 HERON. 

9.-JAVAN CRANE. 

Ciconia Javanica, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188. — Horsfield. 

THIS is a large bird, and when standing upright, measures five 
feet from the head to the ground ; bill eleven inches long ; the body 
is black, with a gloss of olive, beneath whitish; crown bare; neck 
covered only with a kind of down, mixed with a few hairs; a broad 
band of glossy brown passes the wing transversely. 

Inhabits the Island of Java, called there Bangu ; it seems much 
allied to the Gigantic Species. 

10— MODUN CRANE— Pl. cxlvii. 

LENGTH four feet two inches to the end of the tail, which 
measures eleven inches and a half; the toes extend one foot three 
inches and a half beyond the tail, and the wings, when closed, are 
nearly even with it. Bill nine inches long, straight, sharp-pointed, 
and somewhat compressed, of a pale d i rly green, inclining above to 
red; the two mandibles do not shut exactly, but diverge somewhat 
in the centre; nostrils very narrow, almost obliterated ; crown of the 
head nearly a bare bone, covered only by its periosteum, of a dirty 
green colour ; head reddish ; the neck dirty yellow, both covered 

Dr. Buchanan, after describing- the Idol at Juggernaut, worshipped by the Hindoos, 
and the natives, at Tanjore, and which, at certain times, is drawn on wheels, along the 
streets, on an excessively ponderous machine, mentions the frequency of pilgrims and 
religious devotees flinging themselves under it, in order to meet the most welcome and 
happy deatli, by being crushed beneath its wheels. He observes, there are four animals 
which are sometimes seen devouring these human victims — the Dog, Jackal, Vulture, 
and Hurgeela, called also Adjutant, or Gigantic Crane. The dogs and Vultures first 
begin, both feeding on a carcase together, in which they are joined by the Adjutant, so as 
to leave no trace of the human frame but the bones. — Researches in Asia, 1811, p. 134. 



I'L.CXLVU. 




///y///.'V ( } /YT'J?r, 



HERON. 4.3 

with a white down ; on the nape is a crest of loose, blackish feathers, 
which diverge in all directions; the skin on the under part of the 
neck is loose, but has no fleshy bag, or appendix ; the feathers on 
the back and rump black, with a gloss of green, and have obscure j 
palish, transverse bars; those on the under parts and sides are white, 
with some black feathers round the base of the neck ; lesser wing 
coverts like those of the back, the greater with a tinge of brown ; 
under coverts dirty black; quills black, with a green gloss; the tail 
rounded, colour as the quills; under coverts with beautiful, strong, 
white down, almost as long as the tail feathers ; legs and feet obscure 
bluish black, the middle claw not serrated. 

This is the JVIodun Tiky of the Bengalese, and is frequently 
confounded with the Argala, to which it has, in many points, a 
strong resemblance, but it is abundantly distinct, and never frequents 
villages near towns, but lives in the marshes and lakes, where it 
catches fish and crabs. Modun Tiky implies, that the hair of the 
head is beautiful as Cama, the son of Chrisna : Cama is supposed to 
be a Deity of exceeding beauty, and hence every thing of that nature 
is called Modun, which is one of his names. It is, however, from 
irony, that the natives apply the name to this bird, as in fact every 
part of it, especially the head, is remarkably ugly.* 

I see this Species clearly distinguished from the Argala in the 
drawings of Sir John Anstruther, where it is observed, that it is the 
bird from which theCommercolly feathers are got; no doubt meaning 
the under tail coverts, as before mentioned, as both the last birds 
furnish them equally. 

Sir T. Stamford Raffles mentions a small Variety of the Argala, 
with nearly black back and wings, which no doubt is this bird.f 

* Dr. Buchanan. f Lin. Trans, xiii. 325. 



G 2 



44 



HERON. 



11 —HOOPING CRANE. 

Ardea Americana, Ind.Orn.W. 675. Lin. i, 234. Gm.Lin.i. 621. 
Ardea Americana, or Whooping Crane, Amer. Orn. viii. pi, 64. f. 3. 
Grus Americana, Bris. v. 382. Id. Svo. ii. 309. 
Grue blanche d'Amerique, Bvf. vii. 308. PL enl. 889. 
Grus damator, Great Whooping Crane, Bartram, Tr. p. 290. 
Hooping Crane, Gen. Syn, v. 42. Arct. Zool. No. 339. Id. Sup. p. 66. Cates. 
Car. i. pi. 75. Edw. pi. 132. Phil. Trans, lxv. 409. 

LENGTH four feet and a half, and to the end of the claws five 
feet seven inches. Bill six inches long, toothed at the edges, near 
the end, and of a yellow brown colour; the top of the head, and 
under the eyes, covered with a red skin, beset with black hairs, 
which are so thick next the bill, as to appear nearly black, and end 
in a point below the ears; behind the crown, on the nape, a trian- 
gular black mark ; the general colour of the plumage is white, 
except the bend of the wing, which is pale rose-colour ; the nine 
first quills are black; the tenth black and white; the rest white; 
legs and bare part of the thighs black; on the rump the feathers 
are tufted, and hang curving downwards, as in the Common Crane. 

Inhabits various parts of America, breeding in the northern, and 
retiring southward, in autumn ; arrives at Hudson's Bay in May ; 
chiefly met with in unfrequented places, in the neighbourhood of 
lakes, where it breeds : the nest made on the ground, composed of 
grass and feathers; the female lays two white eggs, like those of 
a Swan, and sits twenty days. This bird has a loud, long note, 
which may be heard at a great distance ; the food, chiefly worms 
and insects, which it searches for at the bottoms of ponds. The 
natives call it Wapaw-uchechauk :* how far south it proceeds is not 
certain, but it appears in spring, about the mouths of Savanna, 
Aratamaha, and other rivers of St. Augustine, going north to breed, 



and returning in autumn. 



* Mr. Hutchins. 



HERON. 45 



12— BROWN CRANE. 

Ardea Canadensis, Ltd. Om. ii. 675. Lin. i. 234. Gm. Lin. i, 620. 
Grus freti Hudsonis, Bris. v. 385. Id. 8vo. ii. 310. Gerin. iv. t. 416. 
Grus pratensis, Great Savanna Crane, Bartr. Tr. pp. 144. 199. 291. 218. 
Grus Canadensis, Frankl. Narr. App. p. 685. 
LaGruebrune, BuJ. vii. 310. 
Blue Crane, Phil. Trans. Ixii. p. 409. 

Brown Crane, Gen. Syn. v. p. 43. Id. Sup. ii. 299. Arct. Zool. No. 340. Edic. 
pi. 133. 

SMALLER than the last; length three feet three inches; weight 
seven pounds and a half. Bill nearly four inches, and dusky; the 
tip of the under mandible flesh-colour ; the top of the head covered 
with a red skin, thinly beset with hairs ; cheeks and throat whitish; 
hindhead and neck cinereous ; upper part of the back, scapulars, 
and wing coverts, pale rufous, margined with brown ; the lower and 
rump cinereous; breast, belly, thighs, and sides, ash-colour, changing 
to white at the vent ; greater wing coverts, farthest from the body, 
blackish brown ; those nearest the body grey, forming a band on the 
wing; the greater quills dark brown, with white shafts; the secon- 
daries pale rufous ; some of the last long, and narrow, and reach 
beyond the greater quills; tail deep ash-colour ; legs and bare part 
of the thighs black ; length of the leg seven inches ; of the leg and 
thigh nineteen. Male and female much alike.* 

Inhabits America, migrating from north to south like the Hoop- 
ing Crane : comes into Hudson's Bay in May, and has the same 
manners as the last ; is fond of corn, and sometimes occasions much 
damage, by eating the maize : is called at Severn River the Blue 
Crane; by the natives Samak-uchechauk. The female lays two 

* Dr. Forster mentions one being sent to England, in which the plumage was more 
dull, and the last row of white coverts of the wing wanting ; and this he suspected to be 
the female. The author of the American Ornithology thinks this to be the young of the 
last species. 



46 HERON. 

eggs, of a dusky white, marked with blotches of brown, for one- 
third at the larger end, the smaller rather pointed ; they form the 
nests by collecting together, on an eminence, a heap of dry grass, 
or such like material, nearly as high as the belly is from the ground; 
and when they cover the eggs, for the purpose of hatching them, they 
stand over this eminence, bearing their bodies and wings upon the 
eggs; in this imitating the Flamingo, and, perhaps, many other 
long-legged water birds : the male watchfully traverses, backwards 
and forwards, at a small distance, during the time of the female's 
sitting, but we are not certain whether he takes his turn or not. This 
species frequents the pine woods in Georgia, chiefly near the sides of 
ponds, and is called the Sandhill Crane. 

Mr. Bartram makes the above to be considerably larger than our 
description; his words are, "this bird is about six feet in length, 
" from the toes to the extremity of the beak when extended, and the 
" wings expand eight or nine feet; it is above five feet high when 
" standing erect," &c. : and in another place, talking of their regular 
and elegant evolutions in the air, in flowing language, he adds, that 
" when these birds move their wings in flight, their strokes are slow, 
" moderate, and regular; and even, when at a considerable distance, 
" or high above us, we plainly hear the quill feathers, their shafts 
" and webs upon one another creak as the joints or working of a 
" vessel in a tempestuous sea." The flesh is by some thought tolerably 
good, but is much esteemed when made into soup, and is then 
said to be excellent. 

Mr. Abbot says, they frequent pine woods in pairs, or small com- 
panies, when they fly high ; their note is allowed to be a sign of 
clear and cold weather; their flesh reckoned, by some, good eating. 



HERON. 47 



A.— Grus Mexicana, Jnd. Orn. ii. 676. Bris. v. 380. Id. 8vo. ii. 309. 
Grus Indica, Rati, 95. 2. Will. 201. /fteiw, 121. II. 
Grue brune du Mexique, Buf. vii. 312. 
Indian Crane, Will. Engl. 275. 

This is smaller than ours, and the bill straight, narrow, and longer 
in proportion ; nostrils oblong ; irides yellow ; plumage ash-colour, 
similar to the European Crane, but the greater quills are black ; the 
secondaries are ash-colour, long, and pointed, and reach to the end 
of the quills when the wing is closed ; the tail consists of twelve 
feathers, and ash-colour. According to Willughby, (who seems to 
have seen the bird), the chief difference from the Common Crane is, 
that the top of the head, from the bill to the crown, is bare of 
feathers, only set with hairs, rough skinned, and of a red colour. 

Inhabits Mexico, and there called Toquil-coyotl, and Cocea- 
yauhqui. 



13.— AUSTRALASIAN CRANE. 

THIS is said to be of a large size. Bill long, straight, yellow; 
top of the head bald, and of a yellowish white : between the bill and 
eyes, and all round the rest of the head, to below the nape, tine 
crimson, carunculated, and furnished on the chin and throat with 
long black hairs, thickly set; irides yellow ; plumage in general fine 
pale blue ash-colour, nearly white; greater quills and tail black, the 
last very short ; the legs are long and black, segments everywhere 
white, or otherwise mottled black and white. 

Inhabits New-Holland. — Mr. Francillon. 



48 HERON. 



*** STORKS, WITH NAKED ORBITS. 



14.— WHITE STORK. 

Ardea Ciconia, Ind. Orn. ii. 676. Lin. i. 235. Faun, suec. No. 162. Grin. Lin. \. 622. 

Scop. i. No. 123. Frisch, t. 196. BritM. No. 154. Midler, p. 22. Faun. arag. 

p. 76. fla«, 97. A. 1. Will. 210. t. 52. Schcef. t. 26. Bris. v. 365. t. 32. 

Id. 8vo. ii. 305. jK7em, ^«. 125. /rf. Ou. 34. t. 17. f. 2. Borowsk. iii. 78. 1. 

i*eM». He/w. It. Poseg. p. 25. Gerin.iv. t. 434. Gesra. ^4y. pi. in p. 230. Tern. 

Man. d'Orn. 358. Id. Ed. ii. 561. 
Cicogne blanche, Buf. vii. 253. pi. 12. PL enl. 866. Hist. Prov. i. p. 348. Voy. en 

Barb. 276. Robert, Ic. pi. 7. & 13. Johnst. Av. pi. 50. f. 1. 2. 
Dei- weisse Storch, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 48. Schmid, Vog. p. 116. t. 101. 
White Stork, Gen. Styw. v. 47. Id. Sup. 234. Arct. Zool. ii. 455. C. Hasselq. Voy. 

p. 32. JFi//, Engl. 286. pi. 52. ^/6£», ii. pi. 64. Ives, Voy. pp. 299. 307. 

Fryer, Trav. 251. Russ. Alep. 69. Bewick, ii, p. 32. Lewin, iv. pi. 144. 

Walcot, Birds, ii. pi. 125. On*. Dicf. # Supp. Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 519. pi. 23. 

LENGTH three feet three inches. Bill seven inches and three 
quarters long, and of a fine red colour; the plumage in general 
white, except the orbits of the eyes, which are bare, and blackish ; 
some of the scapulars, the greater wing coverts, and quills, are black ; 
the skin, legs, and bare part of the thighs are red.* There is little 
or no difference in the sexes. 

This familiar species inhabits various parts of the Old Continent, 
but avoiding alike the extremes of heat and cold, being never met 
with between the Tropics, or seen, except very rarely, more north 
than Sweden, or in Russia, beyond the 58th degree : it never fre- 
quents Siberia, though sometimes seen in Bucharia, where it makes 

* The bill and legs are sometimes brown ; such a Variety I once saw in the collection 
of that well-informed Naturalist, the late Marmaduke Tunstall, Esq. to whom I owe many- 
communications in Ornithology. 



HERON. 49 

its nest; tending towards the south in autumn, to pass the winter in 
Egypt.* In Lorraine, Alsace, and particularly in Holland, they 
are every where seen on the tops of houses, and the good-natured 
inhabitants generally provide boxes for them to make their nests 
in ; this they not only do, but are especially careful that the birds 
suffer no injury, resenting it as done to themselves : are singularly 
favoured at the Hague, and Amsterdam, where they are seen stalking 
in the markets, perfectly tame, picking up offal, and garbage, about 
the fish stalls; and have sheltered places appropriated to their use. 
As to England, it must be called a rare bird, as but few instances 
have occurred, of its being found here at large. 

Willughby mentions one being shot in Norfolk ; and Albin a 
second in Middlesex : in 1784, one was found dead on the shore, at 
Sandwich Bay; and in the winter of 1785, another, shot at South- 
fleet, in Kent. In the beginning of the winter 1789, a farmer, of 
Downton, near Salisbury, killed a Stork ; and in May 1800, one 
was shot near Sandwich, by Mr. Boys. We have heard of some 
other instances, but not having put them on paper, can say no 
further. In the colder parts of France, they are in much less plenty 
than towards the south ; frequent in Spain ; and in no place, more 
so than Seville ;f common at Aleppo, and said to have two broods 
in a year — the first towards the north ; the second in the warmer 

* At Alexandria, and other parts of Egypt, as also throughout Turkey, they are in the 
highest degree esteemed ; and if a Christian should kill one, he would run much hazard of 
his life ; and the house on which a nest is placed, is supposed to receive great blessings, &c. 
Hasselq. Voy. p. 32. This was also the sentiment of the Ancients ; as the same punishment, 
was inflicted on any one who killed a Stork, as if he had killed a man ; and the love of these 
birds is said to have arisen, from their having freed Thessaly from serpents. — Pliny N. Hist. 
1. 10. ch. 23. Anach. iii. 316. — I find the Stork among Mr. Bruce's Abyssinian drawings. 

•f They are here very numerous in the winter season ; almost every tower in the city is 
peopled with them, and they return annually to the same nests. They destroy all the vermin 
on the tops of the houses, and pick up a great number of snakes; so that they are welcome 
guests to the inhabitants, and looked upon with particular veneration. — Dillon's Trav. 308. 
Faber but once, and Aldrovandus never, saw them in Italy; yet Virgil speaks of their 
being there as not uncommon : 

' cum vere rubenti, 



Candida venit avis longis invisa Colubris. Georg. lib. II. 320. 

TOL. IX. H 



50 HERON. 

places; and are seen in vast flocks during their migrations. Shaw 
saw three flights of them leaving Egypt, passing over Mount 
Carmel, towards the north east, in the middle of April, each of tliem 
half a mile in breadth, and they were three hours passing over; they 
are also observed always to change their abode in this manner,* and 
to rendezvous in amazing numbers before their departure, when of a 
sudden they take flight with great silence, and are soon out of sight. 
At Bagdad, Mr. Ives observed a nest of these, June 13, on the 
dome of a decayed mosque, and says, that hundreds are to be seen 
on every house, wall, and tree, qnite tame/f At Persepolis, or 
Chilmanor, in Persia, the remains of the pillars serve them to build 
on, every pillar having a nest. J It is said, that they are found in 
Barbary throughout the year, breeding there, and are esteemed by 
the Moors; and a few of them appear in spring and autumn, at 
Gibraltar, on their passage elsewhere into Europe, but do not breed 
there, though now and then one is seen on the Isthmus, on the sand 
hills and plashes, in search of frogs, &c. ; how much farther south 
on the African coast it is met with is not well ascertained, but 
we have authority for saying it is both in India and China, though 
perhaps not in great plenty. And Kaempfer asserts, that the Stork is 
in Japan, and stays in the country all the year;§ but I rather suspect 
that to be the Great White Heron, if not the Japan White Crane, 
which we know is there a native. || 

* In the summer of J765, a cloud of Storks passed over Paris, divided into two troops, 
or bands, the lower within reach of any one, the other much higher, and came from the 
north west : they stopped for some time to rest themselves, about the Observatory, and 
other parts, during- which one was taken alive, and several others killed : it was not known 
from whence they came, and such an event was in France very uncommon. — Guett. Mem. ii. 
p. xviii. The same happened in the month of June, at Bamberg, in Germany. — Gent. Mag. 
Sept. 1811, p. 274. 

f Ives, Voy. pp. 299. 307. % Fryer's Travels, 251. § Kcempf. Japan, p. 129. 

|| Ardea alba et major, the White and Common Heron at Japan. — Tkunb. Travels, iv. 
p. 99. Keempfer talks of two different kinds of Cranes, one the Common, the other as 
white as snow ; and several kinds of them, the chief the White Heron, and the Grey Heron, 
both very common ; and one of a bluish colour, almost as big as a Crane. — Kcempf. Jap. 
p. 129. 



HERON. 51 

The nest of the Stork is large, composed of sticks, and the eggs 
often four, of a dirty yellowish white, the size of those of a Goose, 
but a trifle longer : the young are hatched in a month, and are at 
first brown. Both sexes said to watch them by turns, till of age to 
take care of themselves. The Stork often rests, and sleeps on one 
leg, and makes at intervals a singular, snapping noise with the bill.* 
The food consists of frogs, snakes, and other reptiles ; hence the 
veneration of all sects for this bird, which frees them from these 
pests ; added to the flesh being no temptation as food, for it is 
allowed on all hands to be unsavoury. Dr. Chandler, in his Travels 
in Asia,-\ makes frequent mention of Cranes ; but by his description 
it is evident that they were not Cranes, but Storks. " The Crane, 
*■ he says, is tall like a Heron, but larger; the body white, with 
" black pinions; the head small, and the bill thick; he adds, that 
" they build on walls and houses, and that the Turks hold them in 
"veneration." All this agrees with the Stork only, and not the 
Crane. 

15.— BLACK STORK. 

Ardea nigra, Ind. Orn. ii. 677. Lin. i. 235. Faun. Suec. No. 163. Gm. Lin. i. 623. 

Scop. i. No. 124. Brim. p. 46. Midler, p. 22. Georgi, p. 171. Borowsk. ii. 79. 

Faun. Helv. It. Poseg. 25. Spalotvsk, iii. t. 27. 
Ciconia nigra, Eaii, 97. 2. Will. 211. t. 52. Klein,, 125. II. Id. Ov. 34. t. 18. 1. 

Gerin. iv. t. 433. Tern. Man. d'Orn. 359. Id. Ed\\. p. 561. 
Ciconia fusca, Bris.v. 362. 1. t. 31. 7rf.8vo.ii. 304. 
Cicogne noire, Buf. vii. 271. PI. enl. 399. Dec. russ. ii. 77. 
Der Schwarze Storch, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 56. 
Aghirone nero, Celt. Uc. Sard. 175. 
Black Stork, Gen. Syn. v. 50. Arct. Zool. ii. 456. D. Will. Engl. 286. pi. 52. Jib. 

ii. pi. 82. 

SIZE of a small Turkey ; length two feet nine inches. Bill five 
inches and a half long, of a greenish grey, with a whitish tip ; the 

* In doing this the head is turned backwards, the upper part of the bill placed on the 

rump, and the under, set into the quickest motion, made to act on the other. Ives, Voy. 

3°7- t P- 96. + Archceol. xiii. p. 341. &c. 

H 2 



52 HERON. 

top of the head brown, glossed with violet and green ; throat and 
neck brown, dotted with white, but the lower part of the neck is 
glossed with violet, and dotted with grey brown ; back, wing coverts, 
and scapulars, violet brown, glossed with green; rump pale brown; 
from the breast to the vent white; quills brown, glossed with green 
and violet; those nearest the body narrow, and as long as the greater 
when the wing is closed ; tail rounded in shape ; legs dull red ; the 
claws broad and flat. 

Inhabits many parts of Europe, but is less common than the 
White, and like that, migrates south in autumn, but is much less 
familiar, for it retires to the thick forests and marshes, at a distance 
from habitations, to breed, being a solitary species. It is pretty 
common in Poland, Lithuania, Prussia, aud Switzerland, migrating 
much farther north than the White Sort ; in the more temperate parts 
of Russia and Siberia not uncommon, and plentiful all along the 
Don ; perches on trees, and makes the nest on them in the depths of 
forests. From its being less common, fewer authors have mentioned 
it : it is said, however, to frequent the Caspian Sea, and to be met 
with at Aleppo; like the White Species, it feeds on reptiles and fish, 
and the flesh is said to be no better tasted ; the egg, according to 
Klein, is pale, and smaller than that of the White Stork. 

It has only been met with in England once, that I know of, and 
in the Collection of Colonel Montagu, to whom a specimen was 
brought, having only been wounded in the wing. The Colonel 
informed me, that it lived in perfect amity among his aquatic birds, 
and so tame, as to follow him for food, which it would take out of 
his hands;* it lived on reptiles, and offal of all kinds, but eels were 
the food it seemed most to delight in. 

* See Lin. Trans. Vol. xii. p. 19. This bird had a bill seven inches long, the upper 
mandible rather longer than the under; colour dusky red, with an orange tip ; and the irides 
light hazel : lore and orbits bare, and of a dull red ; the general description much as above 
mentioned : in respect to the changes of plumage, we refer the reader to the memoir itself. 



HERON. 53 



16.- GLOSSY STORK. 

SIZE large, at least equal to the last Species. Bill long, stout, 
crimson, and pointed at the end ; round the eye bare and red ; the 
whole side, beneath the eye, also bare, brownish green, and rounded 
behind, passing quite on the ears, and bounded at the back with red ; 
general colour of the plumage black, with a gloss of green in some 
lights, and of purple in others; the feathers on the fore part of the 
neck long, and hang loosely over it; all the under parts, from the 
breast, thighs, and vent white ; the second wing coverts long, and 
hang over the great quills and tail, so as to hide both ; the legs are 
long, stout, and red ; between the toes a strong membrane. 

Inhabits India. — Sir J. Anstruther. 



17.— AMERICAN STORK. 

Ardea Maguari, Ind. Om.'n. 677. Gm. Lin. i. 623. 

Ciconia Maguari, Tern. Man. d'Orn. 360. Id. Ed. ii. 563. 

Ciconia Americana, Bris. v. 389. Id. 8vo. ii. 305. Klein, 125. III. 

Maguari, Raii, 97. 3. Will. 211. Id. Engl. 287. Buf. vii. 275. 

Le Baguari, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 342. 

American Stork, Gen. Syn. v. 50. 

SIZE of the Common Stork. Bill nine inches long, the base half 
yellowish green, the rest bluish ash-colour; irides silvery; orbits and 
bare skin between the bill and eyes red; plumage in general white; 
the feathers, on the lower part of the neck before, long and loose ; 
tail white, but the feathers above it are black ; the greater scapulars, 
greater wing coverts, and quills black ; those nearest the body as long 
as the quills; the legs and bare part above the joint red; the claws 
broad and flat. 



54 HERON. 

Inhabits the warmer parts of North America, especially Brazil, and 
accounted good food; said to snap with the bill as the Common Stork. 
One of these, alive some time since, at Exeter Change, London, had 
the beginning of the back pale rose-colour. M. Temminck informs 
us, that some of these birds have been killed in France. 

According to Azara, the length is forty-three inches; breadth 
seventy-eight and a half. Bill seven inches and a half; tail nine. 
Inhabits Paraguay, and to the south of the River Plata ; the Spa- 
niards call it Cicogne ; the Guaranis, Baguari and Maguari ; and 
others Tuyuyu-guazu : found in moist places, and there wades in the 
water, but is often seen on dry land, either single, or at most in pairs, 
yet in January unites in flocks of more than fifty, under 25 deg. lat. : 
flies often to a great height, and said to perch on trees ; makes a nest 
towards the end of the year. The young birds are dusky brown, with 
a white belly; and when getting the adult plumage, which it does 
by degrees, appears marbled ; the young, when brought up, become 
very tame and familiar, flying to a distance, and returning to their 
master at meal times. 



18— VIOLET STORK. 

Ardea leucocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 699. Gm. Lin. i. 642. 
Ciconia leucocephala, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188. 
Heron violet, Buf. vii. 370. PI. enl. 206. 
Hunch-back Heron, Penn. Hind.'u. 158. Id. Violet, 157. 
Violet Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 97. Id. Sup. 236. 

THIS is thirty-eight inches in length. Bill dusky brown ; tongue 
extremely small ; irides crimson ; lower part of the neck, the body, 
wings, and tail bluish black, glossed with violet; the rest of the 
head and neck white ; vent and under tail coverts the same ; the legs 
reddish brown. 

Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel, and, with a trifling variety in 
colour, also Java ; called there Sandang-lavve. 



HERON. 55 



A. — Bill dusky purple; head and neck white; top of the head 
black ; body above black, glossed with purple and green ; the tail 
black, the upper coverts mixed with white ; legs as in the other. 

Inhabits India, called Luglug. 



B. — j5i]] dusky, the edges red; irides red; the sides of the head 
bare, marked with grey specks ; crown of the head black ; neck and 
all beneath white ; the rest of the plumage black, with a tinge of 
green on the wings ; thighs covered a very little way with feathers ; 
the bare part and legs red. 

Inhabits India. 



C. — In another drawing I observe one which is similar, having 
the tail white, and the breast black ; but as the specimen is repre- 
sented with the feathers soft and downy, it is probably a young bird. 

The Violet Stork is said to be very common in the East Indies ; 
in some the legs are yellow, and in others red ; is called at Bengal, 
Monickjore ; at Hindustan, Luglug ; is accounted good eating, and 
used for sport in falconry, in the same manner as the Common Heron 
formerly was in this kingdom. Mr. Pennant, from the shoulders 
being much elevated, has given it the name of Hunchback. 

These birds are monogamous ; the male and female remaining 
together at all seasons, at least in the vicinity of Calcutta, feeding on 
worms and fishes. 

The Mahomeddans do not eat this bird, though they do other 
Herons, in respect to a Saint named Monik, the name of a precious 
stone, said to be found in the head of a snake ; and Jur, a pair, 
alluding to their living in pairs. — Dr. 'Buchanan, 



56 HERON. 



**** HERONS.— THE MIDDLE CLAW SERRATED WITHIN, 



19.— NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea Nycticorax, Ind. Orn. ii. G78. Lin. i. 235. Gm. Lin. i. 624. Scop. i. No. 

116. Kramer, 347. Sepp, t. p. 131. Bris. v. 493. t. 39. Id. 8vo. ii. 341. .Ran, 

99. 3. Will. 204. t. 49. .Faun. arag. 76. Borowsk. iii. 74. .Faun. #<?/«. Dec. 

raw. ii. 77. Gerin. iv. t. 422. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 578. Lin. Trans, xiii. 189. 
Ardea varia, Klein, 123. V. 7a". Stem. 29. t. 31. f. 1—4. Id. Ov. 34. t. 18. f. 2. 
Ardea Kwaka, N. C. Petr. xv. 452. t. 14. 

Le Bihoreau, Buf. vii. 435. pi. 12. PI. enl. 758. Pernet. Voy. ii. p. 26. 
Der Nachtreiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 37. t. 111. Id. Ed. ii. V. iv. p. 54. Naturf. 

xiii. 206. Id. xv. 161. 
Nitticorace, Celt. Uc. Sard. 273. 
Night Heron, Night Raven, Gen. Syn. v. 52. Id. Sup. 234. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 23. 

Arct. Zool. ii. No. 356. Will. Engl. 279. pi. 49. Albin, ii. pi. 67. Ray's Trav. 

p. 38. Lewin, pi. 145. Walcot, ii. pi. 126. Orn. Diet. 6f Supp. Amer. Orn. 

vii. 97. pi. 61. f. 2. 3. 

The YOUNG BIRD. 

Ardea grisea, Lin. i. 239. Gm. Lin. i. 625. Bris. v. 412. t. 36. f. 1. Id, 8vo. ii. 317. 

Faun. Helv. Dec. russ. ii. 146. Sepp, t. p. 151. 
Bihoreau, la femelle, PI. enl. 759. 
Der graue Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 38. 
Female Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 53. Lewin, pi. 146. Id. t. xxv. 2.— the egg. 

Beivick, ii. pi. in p. 43. Amer. Orn. vii. pi. 61. f. 3. — young bird. 

THIS elegant species is in length twenty inches; breadth forty. 
Bill stout, three inches and three quarters long, black, with the 
base yellowish ; irides orange ; lore and round the eye green ; crown 
of the head greenish black, reaching a little way on the back of the 
neck, and there ending in a point ; from the hindhead spring three 
very narrow feathers, nearly six inches in length, of a pure white, 



HERON. 57 

with dusky tips; the hind part of the neck and its sides are ash- 
colour; the upper part of the back dull green; the lower, rump, 
wings, and tail, pale ash-colour ; the forehead, and the rest of the 
body, white ; legs yellowish green ; claws dusky. 

The young bird is nearly of the same size. Bill the same ; 
lore white ; length twenty-one inches, breadth thirty-six ; weight 
fourteen ounces twelve drachms. Irides brown ; till the second 
year it has the following plumage : — Crown of the head brown and 
glossy ; the upper parts of the body the same, but inclining to grey ; 
the hind part of the neck palest, the feathers streaked with brown 
down the shafts; the lower part of the back and rump almost grey ; 
over the eye, from the nostrils, a whitish streak, mixed with brown ; 
cheeks mixed white and brown; chin white; fore part of the neck 
grey, with a yellowish streak down the middle of each feather, those 
towards the bottom of the neck longest ; the rest of the under parts 
are grey, growing white on the belly and vent; wings grey brown, 
streaked with yellowish white ; some of the greater coverts tipped 
with white ; quills cinereous grey, the eighteen first with white tips ; 
tail of the same colour, all but the two middle feathers more or less 
white at the ends ; legs grey brown. 

The female, when in complete plumage, scarcely differs from the 
male. This species is common both in Europe and America, and 
we believe, with some exceptions as Varieties, in Africa and Asia 
likewise. The instances of its being found in England are but few, 
not more than two or three having occurred to our knowledge.* Is 
frequent in the southern parts of the Russian dominions, within the 
latitude of 53. Is probably not met with in Sweden, or it would 
have been noticed in the Fauna Suecica. Is found on the River 

* One in the Leverian Museum, shot in the year 1782 ; and another taken in Suffolk, 
at Cockly, about seven or eight miles from the sea coast, which was wounded in the wing, 
and preserved alive in the year 1797; a third shot at Cliefden, in Buckinghamshire ; a fourth 
near Lewes, in Sussex, in 1816. — Communicated by Mr. Pennant. Col. Montagu men- 
tions one shot in the summer of 1791. 

VOL. IX. I 



58 HERON. 

Don, where it builds on trees; also at Astrachan during summer; 
was formerly in plenty at Sevenhuys, about four leagues from 
Leyden, with the Spoon-bills, and other birds, but the wood that 
grew there has been for some time destroyed.* Like many of the 
Geiius it migrates according to the season ; is not uncommon in 
Carniola, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland : is met with in France, 
but by no means common : often shot in Spain, and frequently seen in 
the marshes and rivers about Gibraltar, but is every where more rare 
than the Heron. Is found at Aleppo, and may be seen figured in 
Chinese drawings ;f we have observed it likewise in those from India, 
with very little variation ; and most certainly, is not uncommon in 
the province of Oude, as I find it among the drawings of Lord 
Mountnorris, under the name of Soobuke; called at Bengal, Wak. 
Is found in Java, where it is known by the name of Guvvo. 

This bird inhabits various parts of America, being met with about 
New York and Rhode Island, and probably reaching to Cayenne. 
Mr. Abbot describes it as a native of Georgia, where it frequents the 
ponds in summer, but is not common : he calls the length twelve 
inches only, and the breadth forty ; and though we have every 
reason to think it the same as ours, it is certainly much smaller ;% the 
legs deep yellow ; it is said to make the nest in trees, but sometimes 
builds it among the rocks, and lays three or four bluish white eggs, 
two inches and a quarter long, by one inch and three quarters broad : 
the food consists chiefly of frogs, reptiles, and fish. The flesh, in 
general, is not palatable for food. It is called in America the Qua 
Bird, from the note imitating that word, in a hoarse kind of voice, 

* In the year 1663, vented at 3000 gilders per annum, of Baron Pelemberg, for the sake 
of the birds and grass. — Ray's Travels, p. 38. 

f One of these in the speckled dress, in possession of Sir J. Banks, was brought from 
thence; in this every wing feather was tipped with white, and the spots more distinct than 
in the European one. Pernetty met with it in Falkland Island. See Voy. aux Ma/ouin. 
ii. p. 26. 

X The Night Heron said to build on the high Bignonias, in Brazil. Supposed to be 
the same as the European, but larger. — Maxim. Tr. i. 107. 



HERON. 59 

not ill resembling a person attempting to vomit. The Amer. Orn. 
informs us, that contrary to the generally received opinion, both 
sexes, when adult, are so alike in colour, as not to be distinguished, 
and both are furnished with the slender plumes at the hindhead; and 
that the reputed female is no other than the young bird in its first 
year's dress; but that they gain the full plumage the succeeding 
spring; for on their first arrival in April, no birds are to be seen in 
the speckled plumage ; but soon after they have bred, these become 
more numerous than the others. They migrate early in October. 



20.— CALEDONIAN NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea Caledonica, hid. Orn. ii. 679. Gm. Lin. i. 626. 

Le Tayagu-guira, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 357 ? 

Caledonian Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 55. Cook's Voy. ii. p. 111. pi. 50. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill straight, shaped as the 
Night Heron, and black ; between the bill and eye bare and green ; 
irides yellow ; from the nape spring three long feathers, reaching to 
the back, as in that bird ; crown black ; over the eyes, between that 
and the crest, a streak of white ; general colour of the plumage 
ferruginous, inclining to brown, the neck palest, the feathers of it 
loose before ; breast, belly, and under parts, white ; legs yellow ; 
claws dusky. 

Inhabits New Caledonia, where it is called Collinah ; one similar 
in plumage from New-Holland was in the collection of Mr. Bullock. 

Among Mr. Francillon's collection of New-Holland drawings 
was one, probably the female. Bill dusky, pale rufous beneath ; 
round the eye bare and bluish ; irides yellow ; plumage in general 
rufous brown; crown of the head dark; parts above dusky brown, 
beneath white ; neck streaked with dusky ; back and wing coverts 
mottled, and marked with pale spots, with the addition of a few 

12 



60 HERON. 

rufous ones on the wing coverts; quills rufous, with pale ends, 
reaching to the end of the tail ; legs blackish. This was probably 
a young bird. 

A. — Caledonian Night Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 299. 

This slight Variety has the bill and legs brown ; general colour 
of the plumage chestnut brown, paler on the fore part of the neck J 
belly white; on the breast, and each side of the back, towards the 
tail, the plumage is very soft and downy, appearing of a silky texture, 
and to the touch full as delicate as that of Swan's skin, of which 
powder puffs are made. 

Inhabits New-Holland, and seems not greatly to differ from the 
Caledonian one ; and perhaps it may be doubted, whether this last 
is not a Variety of the Common Night Heron, which has been met 
with in almost every part of the globe yet known, not excepting 
our own kingdom. We suspect this to be the Hog Bird of Azara, 
called by the Guaranis Tayazu guira, and found about Paraguay, in 
South America, in small flocks, in the marshes, and other inundated 
places; for in description it comes so near to the Caledonian, as 
to make one suppose it to be the same ; it is said to take the name 
of Hog Bird, from its making a grunting, somewhat like that 
animal ; and the lower classes think, that if it flies over the houses, it 
presages death. 

21— CHESTNUT HERON. 

Ardea badia, Ind. Orn. ii. 686. Gin. Lin. i. 644. Tern. Man. d'Orre. 376. Id.Ed.W. 

p. 579. 
Cancrofagus castaneus, Bris.v. 468. 7d.8vo.ii. 334. 
Crabier roux, Buf. vii. 390. 

Der Castanien braune Reiher, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 34. 
Chestnut Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 73. 

SIZE of a Crow. Bill four inches long, brown ; irides pale 
yellow; head and body above chestnut; beneath dirty white, with 



HERON. 61 

a streak of pure white down all the fore part of the neck and breast, 
quite to the belly ; wing coverts incline to blue ; quills black ; tail 
chestnut; legs red. 

Inhabits Siberia; builds in high trees, and feeds on fish, insects, 
&c. ; supposed to be a young Night Heron, not in full plumage. 



22.— DARTER HERON. 

LENGTH nineteen inches, of which the neck is seven, and the 
tail three. The bill almost three inches, it is straight, compressed, 
sharp, and carinated ; both above and below yellowish, point black ; 
the gape wide, reaching to the middle of the eye; below the nostrils 
yellowish green, above livid, upper mandible emarginated, and both 
slightly serrated near the point ; nostrils linear, and pervious, placed 
in a slight furrow ; tongue long, black, sharp ; lore and orbits 
naked, greenish; irides yellow, with a brown circle; neck much 
compressed, and the vertebrae and windpipe disposed as in the Purple 
Heron ; the front and crown are brownish ash-colour ; at the nape 
three long, lanceolate, white feathers ; chin and throat dirty white ; 
sides of the neck pale dirty yellow, or drab-colour, mixed with ash 
at the lower part, and some of the feathers are broad ; intermixed 
with these, especially below, are many that are very narrow, and 
paler than the others ; shoulders the same colour as the head ; the 
upper scapulars loose-webbed, and incline to yellow, the under close 
webbed, and white ; between the shoulders arise many broad, loose, 
chestnut feathers, inclining to purple, which cover the whole back, 
and reach to the end of the tail ; all the rest of the plumage is white, 
with a yellowish tinge on the upper wing and tail coverts; the naked 
part of the thighs, the legs, and toes, pale green ; a web between the 
two outer toes as far as the first joint, the middle toe serrated within. 
Inhabits India : it is the Couch of the Bengalese, Crouch of 
the Sanscrit, and is the most common of the small Herons near 



62 HERON. 

Calcutta : it seems to differ considerably from the bird of the same 
name, though its manners are much the same:* it draws its neck in 
between the shoulders, and darts it out to its utmost length on a 
sudden, in the manner of the Bittern. 

In the drawings of Sir J. Anstruther is one, very nearly answer- 
ing to the last described ; head and neck yellowish buff-colour; from 
the nape two long feathers. Bill yellow, half the end black ; bare 
part between the bill and eye green ; all the back chestnut brown ; 
the wings, under parts, and thighs, white ; legs yellow. With this 
is another, streaked and spotted as the reputed female of the Night 
Heron. I make no doubt but the male had lost at least one of the 
usual three elongated nape feathers, but in two others I observe at 
at least six long ones at the nape, in other respects the figures do not 
materially differ. One of these answering to the last description, in 
the drawings of Lord Mountnorris, had six feathers at the nape ; 
the wings and tail even in length ; name, Bugha. 



23.— NEW-HOLLAND NIGHT HERON. 

LENGTH two feet; shape of the Night Heron. Bill like it, and 
black; plumage above brown, thickly marked with dusky streaks, 
and many of the feathers edged with ferruginous ; several of the 
lesser wing coverts pale, or whitish, with dusky black shafts ; quills 
dusky, four of the outer ones white, for one inch and a half from the 
base, and the inner parts of the webs white; tail eight inches long, 
and grey, the middle feathers more or less barred with dusky ; the 
three outer ones white within, but barred and tipped with dusky ; 
tail cuneiform ; legs black ; from knee to toe six inches. 

Inhabits New-Holland : probably a female bird. 

* Dr. Buchanan. 



HERON. 63 



24.— CAYENNE NIGHT HERON. 

Arclea Cayanensis, Ind. Orn. ii. G80. Gm. Lin. i. G2G. 
Le Bihoveau de Cayenne, Bvf. vii. 439. PL enl. 899. 
Cayenne Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 58. 

SIZE of the European Species, but more slender, and the legs 
longer; length twenty inches. Bill black; lore pale green ; crown 
of the head white; a streak of white from the nostrils, passes beneath 
the eye, towards the hindhead ; the rest of the head black, ending 
in a point on the back part of the neck ; from this last springs a 
crest of six long feathers, of unequal lengths, half of them white ; 
the rest black ; the general colour of the rest of the plumage bluish 
ash-colour, darkest on the back and wings, which are marked with 
a blackish streak down the shaft ; quills black : it is high mounted 
on its legs, and the thighs bare for a great length, the colour of 
which, as well as the legs, is yellowish. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 



A. — Size of the Night Heron. Bill the same and black; head 
and neck black ; forehead and crown white ; from the nape three 
long white feathers as in the European Species ; under the ears an 
oval patch of white ; general colour of the plumage pale blue grey ; 
but the feathers on the back and wings are blue black, with silvery 
grey edges; quills and tail blue grey, the last short; legs yellow. 

Inhabits New-Holland. 



B. — Length twenty-two inches. Bill dusky, three inches long, 
with a slight notch near the tip ; crown of the head white, ending in 
several long feathers hanging behind, the rest of the head black ; 
on the cheek an oval large patch of white, finishing at each end in 



64 HERON. 

a point; the rest of the neck, breast, and beneath, pale blue grey, the 
two last paler ; the back and wing coverts have long narrow feathers, 
of a sooty black, with narrow greenish edges, appearing as alternate 
blackish and whitish streaks, but the beginning of the back is plain 
dull ash ; quills and tail pale bluish ash ; legs dull red. 

In the collection of General Davies, and in that of Mr. Bullock 
were specimens of this bird, said to have been brought from New- 
Holland. 



25— YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea violacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 690. Lin. i. 238. Gm. Lin. i. G34. Amer. Ornith. pi. 

65. f. 1. 
Ardea stellaris cristata Americana, Klein, Av. 124. ix. 
Cancrofagus Bahamensis, Bris. v. 481. Id. 8vo. ii. 337. 
Ardea cwruleo-nigra, JRaii, 189. Sloan. Jam. ii. 314. pi. 264. f. 5. 
Ardea violacea, Crested Blue Bittern, Bartr. Trav. 291? 
Le Crabier gris-de-fer, Buf. vii. 399. 
Rother Reyger, Naturf. xiii. 208. 
Grey-crested Gaulding, Broicn, Jam. 478. 
Crested Bittern, Cates. Car. i. pi. 79. 
Yellow-crowned Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 80. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 352. 

LENGTH fifteen inches and a half ; weight half a pound. Bill 
nearly two inches and three quarters long, black ; irides red ; the 
bare skin round them green ; crown of the head yellow,* ending in 
a crest, lengthening into four or five white feathers, the longest nearly 
six inches; the rest of the head blue black ; from the corners of the 
mouth, on each side, a white streak, passing to the hindhead ; back 
streaked black and white ; and from the lower part are long narrow 
feathers, which hangover the tail, as in many of the Genus; under 
parts from chin to vent dusky blue ; quills bluish brown ; tail dull 
blue; legs yellow, claws dusky. 
Male and female much alike. 

* In Amer. Ornith. pure white. 



HERON. 65 

Inhabits Carolina, chiefly in the rainy season ; at the Bahama 
Islands they breed among the rocks, in the bushes on the banks, and 
are called Crab-catchers; in the Bahamas they are in such plenty, 
that a boat may be loaded with the young ones in a few hours ; and 
so far from shy, that they will scarcely get out of the way of those 
who mean to take them : the young are pretty good eating. 

The above seems to be the one called Poor Job, which Mr. Bar- 
tram mentions as arriving in spring, in Carolina, and Florida, from 
the south; and after breeding, and bringing up the young, returning 
from whence it came. 



26.— JAMAICA NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea Jamaicensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 679. Gm. Lin. i. 625. 
Le Heron brun tachete, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 355. 
Jamaica Night Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 54. 

LENGTH one foot eleven inches. Bill four inches long, and 
dusky ; upper mandible bending a trifle downwards at the point, 
the ridge blackish; irides pale straw-colour; before the eye, and 
round it, bare and greenish ; the head somewhat crested ; crown 
dark brown, the feathers streaked with ferruginous; neck the same, 
but the colours more dull and paler ; chin and throat white; neck 
feathers loose ; upper part of the back darkest ; the rest of the back 
and scapulars yellowish brown, some of the last tipped with white ; 
wing coverts like the back, but the lower order of them much paler, 
giving the appearance of a broad bar; all the coverts white down 
the shafts, spreading out to the tip, and forming a longish, trian- 
gular spot ; quills the colour of the lesser coverts ; primaries and 
bastard wing tipped with white; secondaries plain; breast and belly 
white, streaked with obscure pale brown ; vent white ; legs brown. 

I received this bird from Jamaica, under the name of Clucking 
Hen ; said to frequent the woods, contrary to the rest of the Genus, 

VOL. IX. K 



66 HERON. 

which haunt morasses. It is scarce, and very shy : as I learn from 
the friend who sent it to me ; and is larger than the Night Heron, 
but seems to have great affinity with it. It is said to have been met 
with in Paraguay. 



27— GARDENIAN NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea Gardeni, Ind.Orn.W. 685. Gm. Lin.\. 645. Tern. Man. d'Orn. 376. 
Botaurus naevius, Brig. v. 462. Id. 8vo. ii. 332. Frisch, ii. t. 9. 
Butor tachete, ou Pouacre, Buf. vii. 427. PI. enl. 939. 
Der geflechte Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 35. 
Spotted Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 71. 

Gardenian Heron, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 355. Br. Zoo/. Ed. 1812. V. ii. p. 27. pi. 7. 
Lin. Trans, v. p. 276. Om. Diet. Supp. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill strong, dusky ; head, neck, 
breast, and belly, whitish, elegantly streaked downwards with short, 
fine lines of black ; crown and hind part darkest ; upper part of the 
back streaked with white, the lower dusky and plain ; the whole 
wing of the same colour ; lesser coverts marked with small yellowish 
spots ; the greater with a small spot of white on each feather, forming 
two rows across the wings; primaries edged with dull white, the 
ends tipped with the same; tail dusky; legs deep dirty yellow. 

The late Mr. Pennant received a specimen, from which the above 
description was taken, sent by Dr. Garden, of South Carolina, where 
it frequents ponds and rivers, in the interior of the country, remote 
from the sea ; seen also about Savannah, in Georgia, and there 
called Indian Pullet ; frequently found in the rice fields. 

In the collection of Colonel Montagu was a bird, with so many 
characters of the above, as to incline one to think it the same : the 
length twenty-three inches. Bill two inches and a half; crown of 
the head chocolate brown, shaded to a dull yellow at the nape, 
w\iere the feathers are much elongated ; chin and throat nearly 
white ; on each side, behind the ears, a black mark ; the feathers on 
the neck long, with fibrous webs like the Common Bittern ; those in 



HERON. 67 

front pale yellow, with broad streaks of chestnut, usually one web 
of each colour; the feathers of the breast long, and chocolate brown, 
glossed with purple, and margined with yellow ; belly and sides the 
same, but less bright, the brown marks becoming speckled ; vent 
yellowish white; back and scapulars chocolate brown, with paler 
margins, minutely speckled, and glossed with purple; wing coverts 
dull yellow; quills and greater wing coverts dusky lead-colour, 
slightly tipped with brown ; tertials and tail like the back ; toes 
long, the middle claw slightly serrated. 

This was killed in Dorsetshire; another near Cliefden, as men- 
tioned by Mr. Pennant ; a third shot in Oxfordshire, in 1798 ; and a 
fourth shot from the bough of a tree, on which it perched, near St. 
Asaph, in Flintshire, in 1810. 

It also inhabits Germany, according to M. Bechstein, who seems 
to think it allied to the Common Night Heron. 

28— OBSCURE NIGHT HERON. 

Ardea obscura, Ind. Orn. ii. 679. It. Posseg. 24. ii. 
Obscure Heron, Gen. Sy?i. Sup. ii. 300. 

SIZE and habit of the Bittern. Bill rather bent, blackish green; 
on the hindhead a dependent crest of one feather ; forehead, crown, 
and nape, dull chestnut; back and wing coverts the same, with a 
gold green gloss ; neck behind ferruginous chestnut ; before, with 
the breast and belly, chestnut, spotted longitudinally with white and 
ferruginous; quills dull chestnut, tipped with white; tail chestnut; 
legs short, greenish. 

Inhabits Sclavonia, about Possega. We have retained several 

of the above as different in species, though with much uncertainty ; 

especially as the Night Heron is subject to vary much in the various 

stages of life ; and hence, perhaps, may lead into the supposition of 

more than one being distinct, when in reality they are Varieties only 

of the same original. 

K 2 



68 HERON. 



29— FERRUGINOUS HERON. 

Ardea ferruginea, Ind. Orn. ii. 688. Gm. Lin. i. C34. 2V. C. Petr. xv. 457. t. 16. 

Gmel. reise, iii. 253. 
Ferruginous Heron, Gen, Syn. v. 76. 

LENGTH twenty-one inches and a half. Bill greenish flesh- 
colour, with the end brownish ; the upper mandible somewhat bent 
at the tip; lore and over the eyes green; irides saffron-colour; 
feathers of the head, neck, and back, longish, black, and tipped with 
ferruginous; those of the crown somewhat elongated; chin yellowish 
white ; wing coverts black brown, the outer ones tipped with ferru- 
ginous ; those nearest the body varied with rufous white ; quills 
black; rump, breast, and belly, variegated with ferruginous, whitish, 
cinereous, and brown ; thighs with rufous and cinereous white ; the 
wings, when closed, reach a trifle beyond the tail ; legs green. 

This species is found in the summer about the River Don, sup- 
posed to come from the Black Sea, and departs in autumn : feeds on 
fish and insects ; frequently found with Castaneous species. 



30.— LITTLE BITTERN. 

MALE. 

Ardea niinuta, Ind. Orn. ii. 683. Lin. i. 240. 26. (3. Gm. Lin. i. 646. Kramer, 348. 

10. Frisch, t. 206. 207. Sepp, t. p. 57. f. 1. 2. Borowsh. iii. 77. 6. Amer. 

Orn. viii. pi. 65. f. 4 ? Tern. Man. d'Orn. 372. Id. Ed. ii. p. 584. 
Ardeola, Bris. v. 497. t. 40, f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 341. 
Le Heron rouge et noir, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 360. 
Le Blongios, Buf. vii. 795. PI. enl. 323. 
Der Kleine Rohrdommel, Bechst. Dent. iii. s. 39. Id. iv. 71. 
Bo-onk, Long Neck, Shaw's Trav. pi. p. 255. Russ. Alepp. 71. pi. 10. Edw. pi. 

275. Gent. Mag. xix. pi. p. 427. Leivin, iv. pi. 147. 
Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 65. Id. Sup. 235. Br. Zool. App. 663. pi. 8. Id. Ed. 

1812. ii. p. 18. pi. 4. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 359. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 51. Walcot, 

Birds, ii. pi. 128. Donov. pi. 54. Pult. Dors. p. 14. Orn. Diet, fy Supp. 



HERON. 69 



FEMALE. 



Ardea minuta, Lin. i. 240. Faun. Helv. 

Ardeola nsevia, Bris. v. 500. t. 40. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 342. 

Le Blongios tachete, Biif. vii. 395. 

Little Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 66. Edw. pi. 275. 

THE male of this species is scarcely bigger than a Thrush ; 
length fifteen inches. Bill greenish yellow, the upper mandible 
black at the tip, the edges jagged ; the top of the head, the back, 
and tail, dull green ; neck very long ; the fore part of it, breast, and 
thighs, buff-colour; belly and vent white; the hind part of the neck 
bare of feathers, but covered by those growing on the sides of it ; at 
the inner bend of the wing a large chestnut spot ; the lesser wing 
coverts yellowish buff, the greater whitish; the web of that next the 
back half buff, half black; quills black; legs dusky; thighs 
feathered to the knees; middle claw serrated. 

The female is of the same size ; the crown blackish green ; the 
feathers of the upper part of the body brown, margined with pale 
rufous ; beneath the same, but paler, and the feathers more deeply 
margined with rufous; forehead edged with chestnut; the feathers 
on the fore part of the neck long, as in the other; belly white; tail 
blackish green, margined with fulvous at the end ; legs greenish. 

These two birds are by most authors considered as the same 
species, and the last being the female. They have been found 
frequently in Switzerland, also in Arabia, though scarce in other 
parts.* In France they are also rare, only now and then one being 
met with ; are said to be common on the River Coic, near Aleppo; 
and that they are observed frequently to stand with the neck stretched 
straight upwards. According to the Brit. Zool. a male has been 
once shot, perched on one of the trees of the public walks in Shrews- 
bury; a second killed in 1773, near Christchurch, in Hampshire, 

* I have seen it in drawings from India, &c. we are assured that it is found at Bengal, 
View of Hind. ii. 158. 



70 HERON. 

in the Museum of the late Mr. Tunstall; and a third shot near Bath, 
in autumn, 1789, perched on the stump of a tree, on the banks of 
the River Avon;* and another shot near the River Creedey, in 
Devonshire. The nest is placed on the ground, composed of short 
sticks, interspersed with a few leaves of flag ; the eggs four in 
number, and white, about the size of those of a Blackbird, one inch 
and a quarter long. 

Mr. Pennant says, it inhabits from New York to Carolina, ex- 
tending to Jamaica. Mr. Abbot observed a few of them in a 
particular pond, about Savannah, in Georgia, in the summer ; and 
adds, that it breeds there, but is not a common bird. We are inclined 
to think it not far different from Le Heron rouge et noir of Azara, 
above quoted ; of which it is said, that the natives of Paraguay find 
them about the river of that name, and that they are easily taken 
by the hand, not being able to fly. 



31 — DURALTA BITTERN. 

Little Bittern, Gen. Spi. Sup. ii. 301. — parag. 2d. 

LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill pale, two inches long ; round 
the eye bare, and greenish ; irides red ; plumage above pale rufous 
brown ; neck the same, but much paler, the feathers longish, hanging 
loose ; on the lower part of the neck, down the middle, six black 
spots ; chin, belly, vent, and thighs, white ; lesser wing coverts 
ferruginous, marked with many spots of black ; quills dusky, with 
pale edges, and equal to, if not exceeding the tail in length ; legs 
dusky yellow, darker about the knees; toes long, claws crooked, 

pale. 

Inhabits New South Wales; found there in December. Native 
name Duralia; chiefly met with in marshes or moist ground. 

* Other instances are mentioned by Dr. Pultney, viz.— one shot on the Bere River, by 
Harvey Ekins, Esq. ; another killed at Upton ; and a third at Lytchet. 



HERON. 71 



32.— RUFOUS BITTERN. 

Ardea Sologniensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 681. Gm. Lin. i. 637. 

Botaurus rufus, Bris. v. 458. Id. 8vo. ii. 330. 

Ardeae stellaris tertium Genus, Rail, 100. Will. 108. 

Butor roux, Buf. vii. 425. 

Quoimeau, Salern. Orn. 315. 

Aldrov. 3d sort of Speckled Heron, Will. Engl. 283. xiii. 

Rufous Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 60. 

A TRIFLE less than our Bittern. Bill blackish, horn-colour 
beneath; irides yellow; crown of the head black; the rest of the 
head, throat, and neck, ferruginous and white mixed ; greater quills 
blackish, lesser ferruginous ; tail blackish ; legs brown. 

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Bologna, in Italy. Sal erne 
thinks it may be the bird called Quoimeau, about Sologne, in 
France. This seems to be very like the Little Bittern. 



33— RAYED BITTERN. 

Ardea Danubialis, Ind, Orn. ii. 681. Gm. Lin. i. 537. 
Botaurus striatus, Bris. v. 454. Id. 8vo. ii. 329. 
Le Butor brun raye, Buf. vii. 424. 
Der Gestrichelte Reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 34. 
Rayed Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 61. 

SIZE of the last. Bill brown, yellowish beneath ; lore naked, 
yellow ; plumage above, as well as the belly and vent, crossed with 
lines of brown, black, and pale rufous; mixed irregularly, so as at 
a distance to appear wholly brown ; fore part of the neck and breast 
whitish : legs grey. 

Inhabits the Banks of the Danube. Thought by M. Temminck 
to be the Little Bittern in immature plumage. 



72 HERON. 



34— MINUTE HERON. 

Ardea exilis, Ind. Orn. ii. 6S3. Gm. Lin. i. 645. 
Le Heron varie, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 361 ? 
Minute Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 66. 

SIZE of a Thrush in the body ; length eleven inches and a half. 
Bill two inches long, greenish, with a pale point; irides straw- 
colour ; crown of the head dark rufous chestnut ; sides of the neck 
rufous ; the feathers pretty long, and meeting behind, where it is 
nearly bare; chin, and fore part of the neck white, with a series of 
pale, ferruginous feathers on each side of the white, with a blackish 
line down the shaft of each ; on the lower part of the neck the 
feathers are long, and loose, some of them nearly white, and hang 
over the breast, which is brownish black : this colour passing up- 
wards on each side to the back, like a crescent ; but the feathers have 
whitish margins; those of the back rufous chestnut, margined with 
pale yellow ; the first and third order of the wing coverts like the 
back, but plain ; the middle ones ferruginous, with a dusky line 
down the middle of the shaft; quills black ; some of the inner prime 
ones chestnut at the tips; secondaries the same, some few of them 
wholly chestnut; belly, thighs, and vent, white; tail black; legs 
green, bare for three quarters of an inch above the joint. 

Inhabits Jamaica, from whence I received a single specimen : it 
is said to be a rare bird. 

Azara compares his to the Little Bittern, as to size and shape. 
The bill orange, with a dusky base ; irides yellow ; on the crown a 
longitudinal black streak ; parts above more or less rufous, dashed 
down the shafts with black ; neck behind, scapulars, back, and tail 
feathers, darker in the middle, edged with light rufous; wing- 
coverts the same, but the outer are the colour of Spanish snuff; neck 
before marked with obscure streaks, on a pale rufous ground ; breast 



PL.CXLVHI. 





"'//„#/,;/. ty,,;.„. 



HERON. 73 

and sides the same, but on a paler ground ; belly white ; thighs 
covered with feathers above the joint; legs green before, and yellow 
behind. 

This bird was met with in Paraguay. 



35— SPOTTED HERON. 

Ardea maculata, Ind. Orn.Sup. p. lxiv. 
Spotted Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup.'ri. 305. 

THIS appears, at first sight, not unlike the Little Bittern. The 
bill is dusky green ; under mandible yellow at the base; round the 
eye bare, and greenish ash-colour ; irides yellow ; general colour of 
the plumage pale brown above, spotted on the back and wings with 
white; quills pale ferruginous, with paler ends; under parts of the 
body dusky white; legs dusky green. 

Inhabits New South Wales : probably of the female sex. 



36.— WATTLED HERON— Pl. cxlviii. 

Ardea carunculata, Ind. Orn. ii. 691. Gm. Lin. i. 643. 
Wattled Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 82. pl. 78. 

SIZE of a Stork ; length five feet and a half. Bill red, and 
carunculated for one-third next the base ; rest of the length dusky 
black ; round the eye bare and red ; irides pale red ; top of the head 
blue grey; the rest of the head, neck, and breast white, ending on 
the latter in a point ; under the chin are two appendages, nearly four 
inches long, hanging like wattles, but covered with white feathers, 
like the rest of the neck ; back and wings blue grey ; on the back 
some long narrow feathers, as in many other Herons, hanging over 
the tail ; quills black, and about even with the tail ; between the 
shoulders, the breast, belly, and under parts black ; legs dusky 
blue grey. 

VOL. IX. L 



74 HERON. 

Inhabits Africa, but is not a common species. One of them was 
for some time tame in the Company's Gardens, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, from which a drawing was taken, in the collection of Sir 
Joseph Banks ; also, a complete specimen of the bird was in the 
collection of Mr. Bullock. 



37— COMMON HERON. 

MALE. 

Ardea cinerea, Ind. Orn. ii. 691. Tent. Man. d'Orn. 362. Id. Ed. ii. 567. 

Ardea major, Lin. i. 236. Gm. Lin.i. 627. Scop. i. No. 117. Kramer, 346. 4. Frisck, 

t. 199. Rait, 98. A. 1. Will. 203. t. 49. Faun. Helv. Gerin. iv. t. 427. 428. 

Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188. 
Ardea cristata, Bris. v. 396. t. 35. Id. 8vo. ii. 313. Klein, 122. 2. Id. Stem. 28. 

t. 30. Id. Ov. 34. t. 17. f. 3. Molin. Chil. 207. Id. Fr. Ed. 214. 
Alia Ardea, Gesn. Av. p. 195.— the head. 
Le Heron huppe, Buf. vii. 342. PI. enl. 755. 
Der gemeine Reiher, Bechst. Deuts.u. s. 5. & 18. tab. 1. Naturf. xiii. s. 195. Schmid, 

Vog. 114. t. 99. 
Garza cinerizia grossa, Zinnan. Uov. 113. t. 21. f. 101. 
Le Heron couleur de Plomb, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 347. 
Crested Heron, Alb. i. pi. 67. 
Common Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 83. Id. Sup. ii. 303. Br. Zool. ii. No. 173. Id.fol. 

116. pi. A. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 10. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 343. Cheseld. Osteogr. 

Introd. — sceleton. Lewin, iv. pi. 118. Walcot, ii. pi. 129. Pult. Dors. 14. Orn. 

Diet. Sf Supp. 



FEMALE. 

Ardea cinerea, Lin. i. 236. Faun. suec. No. 165. Scop. i. 117. Brun. No. 156. 

Muller, p. 22. Frisch, t. 198. Bris. v. 392. Id. 8vo. ii. 312. Klein, 122. 1. 

Id. Ov. 34. t. 17. f. 3. Borowsk. iii. 75. Faun. Helv. Schaef. El. Orn. t. 21. 
Ardea pulla, sive cinerea, Gesn. Av. t. p. 187. Sepp, iii. t. p. 289. 
Ardea Rhenana, Naturf. xiii. 195. 

Heron, Buf. vii. 342. pi. 19. PI. enl. 787. Descr. Surin. ii. 151. Hist. Prov. i. 346. 
Reiger, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 44. Bechst. Deut. iii. 15. t. 1. 



HERON. 75 

Common Heron, fem. Gen. Syn. v. 83. Br. Zool. ii. 173. pi. 61. Jd.fol. 116. Id. 
Ed. 1812. p. 10. pi. 3. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 343. Bewick, ii. p. 37. Albin, iii. 
pi. 78. Lewin, 148. Id. xxv. No. 1. — the egg. Wood's Zoogr. i. p. 323. pi. 24. 
Graves, Br. Om. 

THE male of this species is three feet three inches in length, 
breadth five feet one inch ; weight three pounds and a half. Bill 
six inches long, dusky, base beneath yellowish ; round the eye 
greenish, and bare ; irides yellow ; forehead and crown white ; sides 
of it over the eye black; all the feathers of the crown long, two in 
particular sometimes exceeding eight inches, and on the whole 
forming a most elegant crest; neck white ; the fore part of it marked 
with a double row of black spots; wing coverts bluish grey ; outer 
edges of the wings white ; bastard wing and greater quills black ; 
middle of the back almost bare, covered by the scapulars, which are 
long, narrow, and loose in texture ; colour grey and white mixed ; 
the feathers on the lower part of the neck before are much the same, 
and hang loosely over the breast ; on each side, under the wing, a 
bed of black feathers ; breast and under parts white ; legs dirty 
green ; inner edge of the middle claw serrated. 

The female much resembles the male, has little or no crest ; head 
grey; feathers of the breast short; and the scapulars of not so 
loose a texture as in the other sex. 

This species is very common in these kingdoms, and except in 
breeding time, is found dispersed throughout the marshy places, and 
edges of streams, in which it may be seen standing motionless for 
hours together, waiting the passing by of a fish ;* at this time the 
head is crouched between the shoulders, and the body frequently 
resting on one leg. It also feeds on frogs, and other reptiles, as well 
as mice; and at times, even on vegetables. In flying, it draws in 

* Are great destroyers of fish. We have seen one of ten inches long, taken out of the 
stomach ; and 17 small carps have been found in another ; and one kept tame has swallowed 
50 small roaches and dace, one day with another. — Dr. Lamb once found six perch, weigh- 
ing one ounce and a half each, in the stomach of a male bird. 

L 2 



76 



HERON. 



the head, between the shoulders, the legs hanging, or straight out 
behind. — In breeding time they unite in large societies, and make the 
nests on the highest trees, composed of twigs, lined with a few 
rushes and wool, sometimes feathers : the eggs are pale greenish blue, 
four or five in number; they sometimes make the nest in high cliffs, 
over the sea.* They may be brought up tame, if taken from the nest, 
but if old birds are caught, they refuse nourishment, and pine away. 
Although this bird, in moderate climates, is a constant inhabitant, 
in the more northern it is only seen in summer ; found in Russia and 
Siberia, but not very far north. Crantz says, it has been seen 
in the south of Greenland, but this must have been a rare instance, 
as we do not find it in Fabricius's List ; yet it certainly inhabits 
Romsdale and Nordmer, in the severe climate of the diocese of Dron- 
theim ; and not only this, but the other wading water birds, for the 
most part, retire more southward to pass the winter. We can trace 
this bird every where in Africa and Asia ; it is found within the Cape 
of Good Hope;f and is also a native of both India J and China, 
which drawings, brought from thence, will amply testify ; found all 
the year at Calcutta and Bengal, at the latter place called Unjan, and 
Angeeu ; builds on large trees, but it differs somewhat from climate, 
as it has no black transverse lines on the scapulars, or any white. In 
the marshes at Calcutta, but never comes to the rivers ; has the name 
from the black streak over the eyes, resembling the mark, that the 
native women make on the eyelids, with a powder called Unjan, or 
Soorma of Hindustan. Is a native also of Java, and there called 
Changa-awu. We find it also in America, being said to come into 
New York in May, and retiring in October ; frequent in Carolina, 
and breeds in flocks as in England. 

* A Description of the manners of the Common Heron may be seen in Gilpin's Remarks 
on Forest Scenery, 2d Vol. 8vo. 1791. Called in Cheshire Yern, or Yarn. — Archcsol. V. 
19. p. 42. 

t This Species and Blue Heron both found in the Velooren valley. — Thunb. Trav. ii. 143. 

£ One of the male among Lord Mountnorris's drawings called Pawbooth, from the 
Province of Oude. 



HERON. 77 

The circumstance of this species living in societies is, we believe, 
general ; and so fond are they of company, as to build as many as 
80 nests on one tree. They generally chusea group of the tallest and 
most stately ones for the purpose, which are termed Heronries ; 
several of which may be seen in England, viz. at Penshurst Place, 
in Kent; at Hutton, the seat of Mr. Bethel, near Beverley, in 
Yorkshire; in Gobay Park, on the road to Penrith, near a rocky 
pass, called Yevv-cragg, on the north side of Ulleswater ; and a 
considerable one at Cressi Hall, six miles from Spalding, in Lin- 
colnshire ; in addition to which, Colonel Montagu mentions one on 
a small Island, in a Lake, in the north of Scotland, whereon was 
only one scrubby oak, which not being sufficient to contain all the 
nests, many were placed on the ground. These Heronries were in 
former days so favoured by law, that the killing one of the birds 
subjected the offender to the forfeiture of twenty shillings, or three 
months imprisonment, or bound by two sureties in twenty pounds 
each.* 

Heron Hawking, too, was a favourite diversion with our ances- 
tors, and no one permitted, without his own ground, to take any 
Herons, unless with hawking, or long bows, on pain of six shillings 
and eight-pence;! ana * f° r taking any young out of the nest, ten 
shillings; J and to take or destroy the eggs, from March 31 to June 
-30, imprisonment for a year, and to forfeit eight-pence for every 
egg.§ We are told that in the northern parts, where Eagles frequent, 
they greatly annoy the Herons, by frightening them from their nests, 
when the Crows take the opportunity of stealing the eggs. || The 
whole of this custom of encouragement of the breed of Herons is 
now subsided, the diversion of hawking being scarcely continued 
any where ; and their flesh, though rated at a price equal to the 

* 1 James, c. 27. s. 2. f 19 Hen. 7. ch. 11. + Id. ib. 

§ 25 Hen. 8. ch. II. || Tour in Scotland, 1772. p. 40. 



78 HERON. 

Peacock* in former times, is no longer valued. — The crests of the 
male bird are used as ornaments, and bear a considerable price, not 
only here, but every where throughout the east. Chardin mentions 
that the Persians catch the Heron, and after depriving it of the long 
feathers, suffer it to depart, f In another place, we are told, that 
these feathers form a part of the Persian crown, or bonnet.^ 

The Common Heron is probably the one mentioned by Azara ; 
but if not, it resembles it very nearly : the South American one is 
six inches longer than ours, and eight inches more in extent of wing, 
thought to be the largest sort found in the BayLagunes of Paraguay, 
where they are chiefly met with, but even there not common ; said 
to make the nest on trees, and to have a cry somewhat like gaaa. 



38— ASH-COLOURED HERON. 

Ardea cana, Ind. Orn. ii. 693. Gm. Lin. i. 643. 

Ash-coloured Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 87. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 353. 

LENGTH two feet one inch. Bill strong, black; cheeks and 
chin whitish ; neck pale, cinereous brown, streaked before with 
white ; back, wings, and tail, cinereous, clouded round each feather 
with dusky ; feathers on the sides of the back long, and broad, 
hanging over the end of the wing; belly white; legs yellowish. 

Inhabits New York ; arrives in May ; breeds, and departs in 
October ; suspected by Mr. Abbot, to be a young bird of the Com- 
mon Species. 

* " At principal Feasts — Item, it is thought in likewyze that Hearonsewys be bought 
" for my Lordes own mees ; so that they be at xiid. a pece." We likewise here see the 
value, by the compariison: — A Goose, selling for 3d. or4d. at most ; Partridges, 2d. a 
piece ; Woodcocks, Id. or l^d. ; Snipes, three for a penny ; also that the Herons, Bytters, 
Pacocks, Fesaunts, and Curlews, were all equal in value. — North. Hous. Book. p. 104. 

f Travels, p. 82. 

J Not only the real feathers of the Heron, but tufts of diamonds, and other precious 
stones, set in the shape of Heron's feathers, adorn the Dhul-bandt of the Persian Monarch, 
and some of these so valuable, as to be worth more than twenty thousand pounds sterling.— 
Coronat. of Solyman, iii. p. 40. 41. 



HERON. 79 



39— STRIATED HERON. 

Ardea striata, Ind. Orn. ii. 691. Lin. i. 638. Gm. Lin. i. 634. Decouv. Rtiss. ii. 140. 
Heron of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. 171. 
Striated Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 82. 

SIZE of the Common Heron. Bill straight, compressed, fur- 
rowed on the sides ; head slightly crested ; crown black ; hind part 
of the neck and back hoary ; fore part of the neck ferruginous ; 
wings brown ; secondaries black at the points. — Described from Dr. 
Bancroft; who adds, that it inhabits Guiana and Surinam. Linnaeus 
observes, that the back in his bird is hoary, and. striated ; and the 
secondaries white on the margins, at the tip. It seems to be the 
same bird mentioned in the Decouv. Russ. ; said to be found at 
Astrachan, in March. 



40 — LOHAUJUNG HERON. 

Ardea Indica, Ind. Orn. ii. 701. 

Lohaujung Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 238. Penn. Hindoost. ii. 157. 

LENGTH three feet. Bill nine inches long, black, straight, 
pointed, lower mandible somewhat convex ; nostrils in a slit near 
the base, where it is a little indented at top ; fore part of the head, 
as far as the throat, and the sides, of a rich green ; crown of the 
head and neck deep brown, with a few great green spots; upper 
part of the back brown, the lower like the neck ; wing coverts 
white ; second quills fine deep green ; breast, belly, and prime quills, 
white ; tail black ; legs long, scaly, reddish ; toes webbed at the 
base ; claws short. 

Inhabits India, where it is common, and called Lohaujung. — 
Among the drawings of Lady Impey is another, which differs in 
having the beginning of the back mottled black and white, and the 



80 HERON. 



white on the other parts not pure ; it varies too, in having the 
whole of the upper part of the back, and under parts pure white. 
Probably this variation of plumage may arise from ditFerence of sex. 



41— GREAT HERON. 

MALE. 

Ardea Herodias, Ind. Orn. ii. 692. Lin. i. 237. Gm. Lin. i. 630. Scop. i. No. 118. 

Amer. Ornith. viii. p. 28. pi. 65. f. 5. 
Ardea Virginiana cristata, Bris. v. 416. Id. 8vo. ii. 318. Klein, 125. 14. 
Le grand Heron d'Amerique, Buf. vii. 385. 
Largest Crested Heron, Cates. Car. App. pi. 10. f. 1. 
Great Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 85. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 341. 



FEMALE. 

Ardea Hudsonias, Ind. Orn. ii. 693. Lin. i. 238. Gm. Lin. i. 632. 

Ardea freti Hudsonis, Bris. v. 407. Id. 8vo. ii. 316. 

Heron de la Baye d'Hudson, Buf. vii. 386. 

Ash-coloured Heron, Edw. pi. 135. 

Red-shouldered Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 86. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 342. 

THIS is a very large Species, from bill to end of the tail four 
feet, and the length more than five to the end of the claws. Bill 
eight inches long, brown, inclining to yellow on the sides ; the head 
is crested, some of the feathers five inches in length ; lore pale yellow; 
neck and breast rufous, spotted before with brown ; the upper parts 
of the body, belly, and tail, brown; quills black; legs brown, 
middle and outer toe connected to the first joint. 

Inhabits Virginia, frequenting the lakes and rivers; lives on 
lizards, frogs, and fish. 

The female is smaller. Bill five inches and a half, black, the 
under mandible orange; crown of the head black, and crested, the 
longest feather only four inches ; lore greenish yellow; sides and 
under part of the head white ; neck feathers long and slender, 



HERON. 81 

marked with dusky bars behind, and before with broad white dashes 
down the middle of each feather ; the back and upper part of the 
body cinereous brown ; wing- coverts palest ; inner edge of the wing 
reddish; breast white, with long spots of black; thighs reddish brown ; 
belly and vent white; legs dusky; middle claw pectinated, hind 
claw very long. 

Inhabits North America, from New York to Hudson's Bay, 
frequenting the inland lakes of the last in summer. Mr. Abbot 
observes, that it frequents the sides of the ponds and rivers of Georgia 
all the year; that it is four feet long to the end of the tail, and rive 
and a quarter to the end of the toes, breadth six feet ; the general 
colour of the plumage brownish ash ; shoulders of the wings pale 
ferruginous; thighs the same, dashed with brown; legs yellowish 
lead-colour. The Great Heron is called in Georgia the Long-Shore 
Man. 

Young birds of the first year have the whole of the upper part of 
the head dark slate; they want the long plumes of the breast and 
back, and have the body, neck, and lesser wing coverts, tinged with 
ferruginous; but when adult, both sexes are much alike; they build 
on the tops of tall cedars, in swamps, ten or fifteen pairs often occu- 
pying a particular spot ; the nest large, made of sticks, and lined 
with twigs, each occupying the top of a single tree; the eggs four 
in number, larger than those of a Hen, plain, light greenish blue : 
the young hatched about the middle of May, and only one brood in 
a season. 

42— VARIEGATED HERON. 

Ardea variegata, Ind. Orn. ii. 692. Scop. i. No. 120. 
Variegated Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304. 

THIS is ferruginous, spotted with brown ; beneath paler; throat 
white; forehead black ; thighs rufous ; legs brown. 

This was in the collection of Count Turrian, supposed by Scopoli 
to be a Variety of the Great Heron ; but the size is not mentioned. 

vol. ix. M 



82 HERON. 



43. -RUFOUS HERON. 

Ardea rufa, Ind. Orn. ii. 692. Gm. Lin. i. G42. Scop. i. No. 119. Kramer, 347. C. 
Der braun rother Reiher, Beclist. Dents, ii. 22. 5. 
Rufous Heron, Gen. Syyi. v. 99. 

SIZE of the Common Heron. Bill seven inches long; from the 
eye to the nape on each side a black streak ; head, neck, belly, 
quills, and tail, black ; breast rufous ; temples and thighs ferru- 
ginous ; lower part of the neck whitish-, with longitudinal brown 
spots; upper part of the neck, back, and wings, cinereous brown ; 
legs brown. 

Inhabits Austria, among others in the marshes, and according to 
M. Bechstein is a young Purple Heron ; but M. Scopoli supposes it 
to belong rather to the Great Heron, which seems more probable. 



44.— GREAT EGRET. 

Ardea Egretta, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 694. Gm. Lin. i. 629. Tern. Man. d'Orn. p. 367. 

Id. Ed. ii. 572. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188. 
Guiratinga, Rait, 101. 17. & 189. 1. Will. 210. Id. Engl. 285. 
Le grand Heron blanc a Manteau, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 348. 
La grande Egrette, Buf. vii. 377. PL enl. 925. Robert, Ic. pi. 16 ? 
Der grosse Silber reiher, Beclist. Deuts. iii. s. 41. tab. 4. 
Great White Heron, Amer. Orn. vii. 106. pi. 61. f. 4. 
Great Egret, Gen. Syn. v. 89. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 346. Bougainv. Voy. p. 67. 

THIS is double the size of the Common Egret, and is three feet 
and a quarter in length ; extent of wing five feet. The bill is more 
than six inches long, dirty yellow, with a dusky tip ; lore green ; 
irides pale yellow ; the whole plumage white; from the back spring 
numerous feathers, which are very long, narrow, silky, with uncon- 
nected webs, hanging over the wings and tail, concealing the latter; 
the feathers of the breast are also long, and hang pendent ; the legs 



HERON. 



83 



black, bare for three-fourths of the length above the knee, the inner 
edge of the middle claw pectinated. Both sexes are alike in plumage, 
but the female is smaller. 

Inhabits Louisiana, and other parts of North America. Found 
from Guiana to New York ; first seen in the United States in Feb- 
ruary ; does not frequent the shores, but the vast marshes, and 
overflowed tracts, making the nest among the islets in the wet 
savannas; not met with on the borders of salt water rivers, near 
the sea, but only near stagnant waters, or rivers, where it can shelter 
itself among the reeds; is very shy, does not collect into flocks ; is 
not uncommon. 

Bougainville met with Egrets in Falkland's Isles, and took them 
for Common Herons; these towards night made a harsh, barking- 
noise, not unlike that of the wolf, which frequents those parts. 
One seen in 28 deg. lat. S. and another to the south of Buenos 
Ayres, but not plentiful. 

One similar, if not the same, frequent in India, measures two feet 
ten inches, of which ten inches are occupied by the head and neck, 
and five by the tail ; and the wings, when closed, reach nearly to the 
end of the latter. The plumage the same in all respects as above, 
and the long silky feathers exceed the tail by two inches. 

This is common about Calcutta, and called by the Mussulmans, 
Torra Bugula : it is the Bok of the Bengalese ; and resembles in 
manners the other Boks. In some drawings I find the name of 
the male Great Egret to be Boghletar ; the bare part of the thighs, 
and a little below the knee, white ; the rest white on the sides, and 
black before and behind. This seems larger than the Egret. 

I observed one of these birds also among the the drawings of 
General Hardwicke, but the bill was wholly black. The Indian 
name given to it was Bogla or Boghee Mullung. In the Island of 
Java, where it is also found, it is called Kumtul. 



M 2 



84 HERON. 

These birds breed in several of the cedar swamps, in the lower part 
of New Jersey ; making their nests in trees, and like Herons, in 
society. The nest composed of small twigs, roughly constructed, 
and the eggs three or four, of a pale blue; their food chiefly frogs, 
lizards, fishes, and insects ; and sometimes mice and moles : if taken 
young they are easily domesticated. 



45.— GREAT WHITE HERON. 

Ardea alba, Ind. Orn. ii. 695. Lin.'i. 239. Faun. suec. No. 166. Gm. Lin.'i. 639. 

Scop. i. No. 126. Kramer, 346. 2. Klein, 122. 2. Gesn. Av. t. p. 189. It. 

Poseg. p. 25. Tern. Man. 367. Id. Ed. ii. 573. 
Ardea Candida, Bris. v. 428. Id. 8vo. ii. 322. Faun. Helvet. 
Ardea alba major, Raii, 99. A. 4. Will. 205. t. 49. Gerin. iv. t. 425. 
Ardea immacnlata, Bartr. Tr. 291. 
Ardea Egrettoides, Gmel. reise, ii. 193. t. 35. 
Le Heron blanc, Buf. vii. 365. PL enl. 886. 
Der grosse weisse Reiher, Bechst. Dents, iii. s. 23. 
Garza bianca, Cett. Uc. Sard. 276. 

Great White Gaulding, Brown, Jam. 478. Sloan. Jam. 314. pi. 266. Raii, 189. 1. 
Great White Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 91. Br. Zool.'n. No. 175. pi. 62. Id.fol. 117. 

Id. Ed. 1S12. ii. p. 19. pi. 5. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 234. Id. Sup. p. 66. Will. 

Engl. 279. pi. 49. Lewin, iv. pi. 150. Om. Diet. $ Supp. 

SIZE of the last. Bill, lore, and irides, the same; the plumage 
also, like that, of a snowy whiteness throughout, but differs in not 
having the fine, long, pendent feathers from the back as in the other. 
Birds of this kind are found more or less in many parts of Europe, 
but not far to the north ; rarely seen in Sweden.* In the Russian 
dominions, about the Caspian and Black Seas, the Lakes of Great 
Tartary, the River Irtish, and sometimes as high as lat. 53. f Said 
to have been seen now and then in England, J but except the single 
instance, of one being shot, some years since, in Cumberland, we 
know not of its being found in this kingdom. It is a species pro- 

* Arct. Zool. t Id. t Willughby. 



HERON. 



85 



bably far spread, as we have seen it in Chinese drawings, and once 
a specimen from India; and, according to an account brought with 
it, said to be known to the Teleuganas by the name of Tillekenga.* 

Is found also in the southern parts of America, going north- 
ward in spring : seen at New York from June to October, also ii> 
Jamaica ;f and was observed by our circumnavigators both at 
New-Zealand J and New-Holland. § 

Authors have, in general, considered this, and the last, as two 
distinct species, but from various observations made by Mr. Wilson, 
he asserts them to be one and the same, at different periods of age, 
having traced them in their progress through the different stages ; 
and that when fully grown, both sexes are not only alike, but the 
train is equally long in both. 



46— LACTEOUS HERON. 

Ardea Galatea, Lid. Orn. ii. 696. Gm. Lin. i. 634. Molin. Chil. 207. Id. Ft. Ed. 214. 
Le Grand Heron blanc, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 350. 
Lacteous Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304. 

LENGTH about three feet. The bill four inches long, and 
yellow ; round the eye bare, greenish yellow ; irides pale ; the head 
somewhat crested ; the plumage as white as milk; the neck two feet 
and a half in length ; legs much the same, and of a beautiful crimson. 

Inhabits Chili, and other parts of South America. M. Azara 
met with two specimens in Paraguay. 



47.— PUTEA HERON. 

LENGTH two feet ten inches ; but to the end of the toes three 
feet; from the end of the bill to the gape four inches; the colour 

* General Davies. f Sloane. J Dusky Bay, Cook's Voyage, i. 177. 

| General Davies received one from this place. 



86 HERON. 

that of saffron, with the point of the upper mandible black; nostrils 
linear, pervious; lore and eyelids yellowish green; irides yellow; 
the plumage entirely white, except a slight tinge of brown on the 
outer edge of the greater wing coverts next the body ; the head 
without any crest, being perfectly smooth ; but on the lower part 
before are some dependent feathers, composed of bristly webs, remote 
from each other; the inferior scapulars of the same texture, the 
superior broad ; and both reach to the root of the tail, which is 
rounded, and five inches long; the legs, feet, and claws, are black, 
the middle and outer toes united at the base by a short web ; claws 
sharp, that of the middle serrated within. 

Inhabits India, and is one of the smaller Herons, included under 
the name Bok of the Bengalese ; called Putea Bugala, by the 
Mussulmans; is every where found near water, about Bengal, and 
multitudes of this kind of bird roost and build in the same tree : it 
agrees with the Great White Heron, except in size; called at 
Sumatra Bangou Puti. 



48— PIED-TAIL HERON. 

THIS species, standing erect, is nearly four feet high ; length 
three feet. Bill orange ; crown black ; plumage in general white ; 
under the pinions bare, and bright red, as in the Flamingo ; quills 
twenty-four in number, the tips glossy black ; the eight middle 
feathers of the tail white, the two outer on each side black ; shape 
of the tail forked ; legs black, outside of the thighs the same, within 
white. 

Inhabits Abyssinia. — Mr. Salt* killed one of these in August, 
on the plain of Sera we. 

* See Voyage to Abyssinia, p. lxiii. note * 



HERON. 87 



49— SPECIOUS EGRET. 

Ardeaaffinis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189. — Horsfield. 

SIZE uncertain. Bill yellow; general colour of the plumage 
white ; the head, crest, fore part of the neck, and feathers of the 
back fulvous chestnut ; the crest is setaceous, and the elongated 
feathers of the back filiform ; legs dusky black. 

Inhabits Java, and called Kuntul-chilik. 



50— LITTLE EGRET. 

Ardea Garzetta, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 694. Lin. i. 937. Gm. Lin. i. 628. Kram. 346. 3. 

Faun. Arag. p. 76. Faun. Helvet. It.Poseg.1b. Gerin. iv. t. 423. Nat urf. xiii. 

s. 208. Tern. Man. 368. Id. Ed. 575. 
Egretta, Bris. v. 431. 7rf.8vo.ii. 322. 
. Garzetta, Rail, 99. 5. Will. 206. Id. Engl. 280. 
Petit Heron blanc a Manteau, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 349. 
L'Aigrette, Bvf. vii. 372. pi. 20. PL enl. 901. Descr. Surin. ii. 251. 
Der Kleine Silber reiher, Bechst. Deutsch. iii, s. 43. 
Criel Heron. Harris's Coll. Voy. ii. p. [468.] 
Little Egret, Gen. Syn. v. p. 90. Br. Zool. A pp. pi. 7. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 21. pi. 6. 

Arct.Zool. ii. No. 347. Bewick, ii. t. p. 45. Lewin, iv. pi. 149. Donov. iv. t. 98. 

Walcot, ii. t. 130. Orn. Diet. Graves's Brit. Orn. 

SIZE of a Fowl ; length near one foot; the weight one pound. 
Bill black; irides pale yellow; hindhead crested, two of the feathers 
five inches long, and very narrow, hanging down behind in an elegant 
manner; lore, and round the eye, bare and green ; the whole plumage 
pure white; on the back a set of loose-webbed feathers, which cover, 
and hang over the rump ; legs greenish black, claws black. 



88 HERON. 

This Species is found in all the moderate and wanner parts of the 
globe, and was once plentiful in this kingdom,* though now so 
scarce as to be recorded as a rare occurrence, one being shot in 
Anglesea,f some years since ; and another near Christchurch, Hants, 
July 3, 1822. 

In many parts of Europe it is not uncommon, as well as in Asia ; 
in Egypt it is called the Ox-keeper, as it frequents plains with the 
oxen, and often perches on their backs to feast on the larvae of the 
Oestrus, which infest them. M. Levaillant met with them inwards 
west from the Cape of Good Hope, as well as the Great one, though 
much less common ; found also in several parts of Africa, and in the 
Isles of Madagascar and Bourbon ; in plenty at Siam, and in most 
of the drawings done in India. 

In America met with at New- York, and Long Island, some of 
the West India Islands, and Cayenne; J associating, for the most part, 
with its congeners in the marshes, and banks of streams, feeding, 
like them, principally on fish. Said to be found in Paraguay, and 
from thence as far as Buenos Ayres. We are informed, that the 
Egret is slate-coloured the first year, the next grey, spotted with 
white, and gains the complete dress on the third, which it retains 
ever after. I received a bird, with the mixed plumage, with other 
drawings, from Mr. Abbot, of Georgia. In this the bill was very 
pale blue, yellowish beneath ; legs pale green. It was called the 
Young of the Blue Heron, but I rather thought it to be that of the 
White, if not the Egret, for there appear two feathers, longer than 
the rest, at the back of the head, and some rudiments of elongated 
scapulars, and breast feathers. 

* In the list of the famous feast of Archbishop Nevill, in the year 14G4, one article 
of 1000 of these birds is noticed. In 1605 it was probably more scarce, as it is mentioned in 
the account of provisions for a nobleman's table, as being in season in April.— Archceol. 
V. xiii. 347, 348. (Mem.) — This bird is not named in the Northumberland Household 
Book, in 1512. f Br. Zool. App. 631. 

X Mem. sur Cayenne, ii. 217. 



HERON. 8.0 



51— LITTLE WHITE HERON. 

Ardea aequinoctialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 696. Lin. i. 240. Gm. Lin. i. 641. 
Ardea alba minor, Little White Heron, Bartr. Tr. 291. 
Ardea Carolinensis Candida, Bris. v. 435. Id. 8vo. ii. 324. Klein, 124. 10. 
Crabier blanc a bee rouge, Buf. vii. 401. 
Heron blanc moyen, Voy. d'Azara, iv. p. 351. 352. 
Red-billed Heron, Arct. Zool. ii. Sup. 66. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 25. 
Little White Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 93. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 345. Cat. Carol, i. pi. 77. 
Lin. Trans, ix. p. 197. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill two inches and three quarters 
long, and red ; lore the same ; irides yellow ; plumage wholly white ; 
the secondaries and prime quills nearly of equal length ; legs and 
bare part above the joint green. 

Inhabits Carolina in the spring, and probably breeds there, not 
seen in winter; common at New York ; and I have received one, 
apparently the same, from Jamaica; but at both these places the bill 
is black, though in my specimen the lore was brownish, or faded 
red. I observed too, in some instances, that the ends of the secon- 
daries were brown. 

In the Museum of the late Colonel Montagu was a specimen 
of a female, which was killed in Devonshire, the latter end of 
October 1805. 



A. — Ardea Mexicana Candida, Bris. v. 437. Id. 8vo. ii. 324. 
Avis Mexicana minima candidissima, Hoitzilaztotl, Raii, 102. 22. 
Heron blanc du Mexique, Buf. vii. 408. 
Little White Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 94. Var. B. 

Size of a Pigeon. Bill and legs purple; lore yellow; plumage 
wholly pure white. 

Inhabits Mexico, where it is called Hoitzilaztotl. 

VOL. IX. N 



90 HERON. 



52. -SNOWY HERON. 

Ardea nivea, Ind. Orn. ii. 696. Gm. Lin. i. 640. N. C. Petr.w. 45S, t. 17. Dec. 
russ.\. 1C4. Tern. Man. 368. Id. Ed. ii. p. 376. 

Ardea Caprea dicta, Gerin. iv. 424. 

Ardea candidissima, Gm. Lin. i. 633. Jacq. Vog. 18. 13. 

Ardea xanthedactylos, Gmel. reise, iii. 253. 

Yellow-slippered Egret, Penn. Hind. ii. 158. 

Snowy Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 92. Amer. Orn. vii. 120. pi. 62. f. 4. 

LENGTH more than two feet. Bill stout, straight, three inches 
and a half long, and black; skin round the eyes yellowish blue; 
plumage in general white ; the head smooth, but on the neck are 
some feathers standing out, and those of the lower part hanging 
over the breast ; back terminated with very long, yellowish white, 
narrow, feathers, very loosely webbed, curling up at the ends, and 
hanging over the tail ; legs black ; toes saffron-colour ; claws black. 

The female is less, and the neck and back feathers shorter. 

This is found about the River Don in the spring, coming from 
the Black* Sea; and returns south in autumn, making the nest on 
the highest trees. We have seen a specimen of this bird brought 
from China, and it is not uncommon in India,| as confirmed by 
drawings from thence, where it is called Gusska.J In some speci- 
mens the lower half of the bill is pale; lore dusky; plumage wholly 
white; legs black, the lower part of them, and the toes greenish 
yellow ; the two feathers at the back part of the head were wanting : 
supposed to be a young bird. 

* Probably from Egypt, Arabia, or Greece. — Dec. mss. i. 164. 
f Lady Impey. — Sir John Anstruther. 

J One of these, among the drawings of General Hardwicke, called Boghee Kirtcheea, 
or Boghee Bontahew. 



HERON. 91 



A. — Snowy Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. No. 236. 

In this the bill is black ; irides the same ; the whole plumage 
white as snow ; hind part of the head and neck, sides of the breast, 
and back, covered with long, narrow, hair-like feathers, flowing 
very beautifully with every puff of wind ; those of the hindhead 
longer than the rest, forming a slight crest; legs black, toes yellow. 

This bird inhabits the neighbourhood of Carthagena, in South 
America, called by the Spaniards, Garca Blanca. The voice is loud 
and disagreeable ; is sometimes eaten by the Indians. One of 
these in the drawings of Mr. Abbot, said to be twenty-three inches 
and a half long, and thirty-six broad. In this the bill is three 
inches long, with an elegant crest; plumage perfectly white; scapu- 
lars herring-boned, and turning up over the tail ; bill slate-colour ; 
base and lore yellow; bare part of the thighs pale blue ; legs black, 
the bend of the joint behind yellow; feet and toes yellow. 

Young birds, of the first season, have neither the long plumes of 
the breast nor back ; but the female differs very little from the male, 
except that the crest, and other ornaments, are not equal in length. 

These birds come into the United States in April, and depart in 
October; found chiefly in the salt marshes, during the summer, and 
feed on the fiddling crabs,* mud-worms, snails, frogs, and lizards. 

One of the breeding places is among the red cedars of Sommer's 
Beach, on the Coast of Cape May, making the nest on the branches; 
some trees containing three, and others four nests, which are formed 
wholly of sticks ; the eggs generally three, pale greenish blue, one 
inch and three quarters long, by one inch and a quarter broad ; and 
very well tasted ; and the young, which are in general fat, are 
esteemed good eating. 

* Cancer vocans.— Lin. 
N 2 



92 HERON. 



B. — Ardea Candida minor, Bris. v. 433. Id. 8vo. ii. 325. Gerin. iv. 426? 

Ardea alba tertia Aldrovandi, Rail, 99. Will. 206. 

Garzette blanche, Buf. vii. 371. Gen. Syn. v. 94. Var. A. 

The third small White Heron of Aldrovandus, Will. Engl. 280. §. vi. 

In this the bill is small, thick, and yellow ; lore and irides the 
same; top of the head and neck nearly of a saffron-colour; breast 
the same, but paler; rest of the plumage white ; legs saffron-colour. 

Found at Bologna, in Italy. From the colour of the legs we 
suspect it to belong to the Snowy Species. 



53— BLACK-CRESTED WHITE HERON. 

Ardea pileata, Ind. Orn. ii. 695. G?n. Lin.u 639. 24. /3. 
Ardea Brasiliensis Candida, Bris. v. 434? Id. Svo. ii. 323? 
Heron blanc a calotte noire, Buf. vii. 380. PI. en/. 907. 
Black-crested white Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 92. 60. A. 

LENGTH two feet. Bill black; plumage wholly white, except 
a patch of black on the crown ; from the hind part of the latter a 
pendent crest, composed of six narrow feathers, of unequal lengths; 
the legs black. 

Inhabits the Rivers of Guiana, and is a rare species ; we have, 
with doubt, admitted Brisson's bird : it is seven inches shorter than 
the White Species, and eleven longer than the Little White Heron ; 
therefore uncertain whether it may be the young of the Greater Egret, 
or a female, for it has no crest, and the bill not saffron-coloured. Said 
to be common in Brazil ; that it has a yellowish white body, and a 
fine blue bill.* We much doubt this bird having relation either to 
the Egret, or Great White Heron, for the proportions of the whole, 
independent of the size, do not tally ; in both these there is a 
correspondent length of legs, and bareness above the knee, but in 
the one last described, the legs are more stout, and shorter; and the 
parts above the joint bare only for half the length. 

* Maxim. Tr. i. p. 139. ,,, 



HERON. 93 



54— RED-CRESTED HERON. 

Ardea erythrocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 088. Molin. Chi/. 207. Id. Fr. Ed. 214. 2. 

Gm. Lin. i. 033. 
Red-crested Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 302. 

SIZE of the Common Heron. General colour of the plumage 
white; from the head springs a long crest of a red colour, reaching 
quite to the back. — Inhabits Chili. 



55— SACRED HERON. 

Ardea sacra, Ind. Orn. ii. 690. Gm. Lin. i. 640. 
Sacred Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 92. 

SIZE of the Little Egret ; length two feet three iuches. Bill 
four inches long, dusky brown ; general colour of the plumage white; 
on the middle of the crown a few obscure dusky streaks, down the 
shafts of some of the feathers ; several of those of the back, wings, 
and tail coverts marked in the same manner; scapulars dashed with 
black ; greater quills more or less dusky at the tips ; the tail feathers 
marked with dusky down the shafts, and at the end, for an inch and 
a half, except the outer one, which is plain ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Otaheite, and the neighbouring Isles, where it is held 
sacred. — From the collection of Sir Joseph Banks. 

A. — Sacred Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 93. Var. A. Ind. Orn. ii. 696. 69. /3. 

This varies but little, The crown plain white ; scapulars, some 
white, some black ; on the neck before loose, long feathers, black and 
white mixed, hanging over the breast; and some others of the same 
loose texture, and mixed colours, falling on the tail ; the wing coverts 
have likewise some black feathers intermixed ; quills plain white ; 
tail the same, except one feather, which is wholly black ; legs black. 



94 HERON. 



56— GIBRALTAR HERON. 

LENGTH to the end of the tail twenty inches, to the middle 
claw twenty-seven inches, breadth three feet ; from the eye to the 
point of the bill two inches and five-eighths. Bill, irides, and lore, 
yellow; the whole plumage snowy white, except in old birds, where 
the crown of the head is pale orange, as in the Soland Pelican ; 
upper mandible brown at the tip, emarginated, and serrated towards 
the end ; legs bare above the knee, for one inch and a half, dirty 
green, the front of the shins and the toes black, the middle claw 
serrated . 

These are often seen at Gibraltar, coming from Barbary, in 
flocks, in autumn ; and remain about the rivers in the neighbourhood 
in winter; are observed to follow the cattle in the pastures of Barbary, 
and perch on their backs, relieving them from the larvae of the 
Oestrus. 

A specimen of this was in the Leverian Museum, sent by the 
late Rev. Mr. White, of Gibraltar. This gentleman mentioned a 
similar one, about the same size and colour, differing only in having 
the back pale ash-colour, and the beak, orbits, legs, and feet, bright 
and beautiful green. One specimen only brought into Gibraltar to 
the market, from Spain. This was probably a young bird. 



A. — Caboga Heron, Penn. Hindoost. ii. 158. 

Length sixteen inches. Bill three inches, pretty stout, and 
yellow ; irides orange ; plumage wholly white : legs black. 
Inhabits Bengal ; called Caboga, ^eems allied to the last. 



HERON. -95 



57— REDDISH EGRET. 

Ardea rufescens, Ind.iOm. ii. 694. Gm. Lin. i. 628. ; 

L' Aigrette rousse, Bvf. vii. 378. PL enl. 902. 

Reddish Egret, Gen. Syn. v. 88. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 348. 



LENGTH two feet. Bill yellowish, with a dusky point ; lore, 
and round the eye green ; the head and neck are covered with long, 
loose feathers, of a rusty rufous colour; the long feathers of the back 
the same; the rest of the body blackish grey ; legs black. 

Inhabits Louisiana. 



58— DEMI-EGRET. 

Ardea leucogaster, lnd. Orn. ii. 694. Gm. Lin. i. 628. 

Ardea Ludoviciana, Louisiane Heron, Amer. Orn. viii. pi. 64. f. 1 ? 

La demi-aigrette, Buf. vii. 378. 

Heron bleuatre & ventre blanc, PL enl. 350. 

Demi-Egret, Gen. Syn. v. p. 88. 

LENGTH scarcely two feet. Bill and lore dusky yellow; the 
head and neck, as far as the breast, and the upper parts, wings, and 
tail, deep blue black; the under parts of the body, under wing 
coverts, and thighs, white; legs yellowish ; from thehindhead spring 
two long feathers, of the same colour as the head ; tail very short, 
blackish ; from the lower part of the back are a few long, narrow 
rufous feathers, which fall over the tail, and obscure it. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 

A. — A Variety of this, in a collection of South American birds, 
was full two feet in length. Bill yellow, tip black; crest long, and 
white ; head and neck inclining to violet; chin and throat mottled 
with rufous white ; the long feathers of the rump grey; legs brown ; 
in other things it answered to the former description. 



96 HERON. 

It is said, in the American Ornithology, to frequent the swampy 
shores of the Mississippi, particularly below New Orleans, where it 
builds on trees, among the inundated woods, and is migratory ; has 
the manners of the Blue Heron, quick in its motions, darting on its 
prey with surprising agility ; feeds on small fish, frogs, lizards, tad- 
poles, and various aquatic insects. 

59— RUSTY-CROWNED HERON. 

Ardea rubiginosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 693. Gm. Lin. i. 632. 
Rusty-crowned Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 87. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 358. 

SIZE of the Bittern. Head smooth, slightly crested ; bill seven 
inches long, slender, yellow ; irides the same ; forehead dusky ; 
throat white ; crest and back part of the neck deep ferruginous ; on 
the fore part four streaks of black ; feathers of the breast long, and 
loose ; a dark line passes from the breast upwards to the back of the 
neck ; back and wing coverts deep ferruginous, marked with a few 
black spots; quills dusky; tail short, lead-coloured; belly and 
breast dirty white, striped with black ; legs dirty yellow. 

Inhabits North America. 



60 —STREAKED HERON. 

Ardea virgata, Ind. Orn. ii. 693. Gm. Lin. i. 643. 
Streaked Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 87. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 354. 

LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill two inches ; crown dusky ; 
cheeks and hind part of the neck rusty and black; chin, throat, and 
neck before, white ; the last streaked with black ; wing coverts 
streaked black and pale buff-colour ; outer edge of the wing white ; 
quills dusky ; legs greenish. 

Another of these, supposed to differ in sex, had a white line on 
each jaw ; scapulars and greater wing coverts dusky, spotted with 
white at the ends. — Inhabits North America. 



HERON. 07 



61— BITTERN. 

Ardea stellaris, Ind. Orn. ii. 680. Lin. i. 239. Faun. Suec. No. 164. G'm. Lin. i. 635. 

SVoj>. i. No. 125. jBrwn. No. 155. Midler, p. 22. Kramer, 347. PmcA, t. 205. 

Georg-i, p. 171. Sqo/>, p. 74. t. 40. 41. Eau, 100. A. 11. Wi//. 207. f. 50. 52. 

/f/ein, 123. /rf. 5<em. 29. t. 32. a. b. Id. Ov. 34. t. 18. f. 3. Faun. Arag. 70. 

Borowsk. iii. 76. 5. Fa«M. Helvet. Gesner, At), pi. in p. 190. Gerin. iv. f. 432. 

Tern. Man. d'Orn. 374. /d, Ed. ii. p. 581. 
Botaurus, Bris. v. 444. t. 37. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 327. 
Le Butor, Buf. vii. 411. pi. 21. P/. en/. 789. /7wf. Prot). i. 349. 
Garza bionda, o di color d'oro, Zinnan. Uov. 112. t. 20. f. 100. 
Garza dorado, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 13. lam. 6. 
Tarabuso, Cett. Uc. Sard. 274. 
Der Rohrdommel, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. 24. Naturf. xiii. p. 208. Schmid, Vog. p. 

105. 1. 100. 
Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. p. 56. Id. Sap. 234. Id. Sup. ii. 300. Br. Zool. ii. No. 174. 

Id. fol. 711. t. A. 1. Id. 1812. ii. p. 14. Will. Engl. 282. ^/6. i. 68. Bewick, 

ii. pi. p. 47. Hayes's Birds, t. 19i Lewin, iv. pi. 146. /d, pi. xxv. No. 2. — egg. 

Walcot, ii. pi. 127. Pule. Dors. p. 14. Graves's Br. Orn. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

THIS is somewhat less than the Heron ; length two feet and a 
half. Bill brown, inclining to green beneath; irides yellow ; the 
head feathers long, and those of the breast loose, and waving ; crown 
of the head black ; the lower jaw on each side dusky; the plumage 
in general beautifully varied, spotted, and barred with black ; the 
ground ferruginous yellow, paler beneath ; legs pale green ; claws 
long and slender, and the inner edge of the middle claw serrated. 

The female is less, darker coloured, and the feathers on the head 
and neck less flowing than in the male. 

The Bittern is a common bird in this kingdom, and we believe in 
most of the temperate parts of the Continent : in some of the colder 
migratory, but with us it remains the whole year ; frequents marshy 
places, and especially where reeds grow, among which it makes the 
nest, in April, chiefly composed of a bed of rushes, &c. : the female 
lays four or five eggs, of a pale greenish ash-colour; the young are 
hatched in twenty-five days. Is an indolent bird, stirring very 

VOL. IX. O 



98 HERON. 

little in the day, and not roused without difficulty ; flies slowly, and 
frequently alights again at no great distance, hence is easily shot. 
In the evening it becomes more alert, and is often seen to soar aloft 
in a spiral manner, till quite out of sight, making at the same time 
a singular noise; it has also another noise, like that of a bellowing 
bull; beginning in February, and ceasing after breeding time; but 
this is made while the bird is on the ground. The bellowing noise 
is supposed to arise from a loose membrane, which can be filled with 
air, and exploded at pleasure, the situation of it is at the divarica- 
tion of the windpipe, is capable of great distention, and is probably 
the cause of this singular phenomenon ; observed we believe in no 
other bird, at least in the same degree.* We have had no opportunity 
ourselves of witnessing this, but are informed by Dr. Lamb, that on 
dissecting a female, he observed, that after the trachea had passed 
into the thorax, to the lower part of the sternum, it was reflected to 
the superior portion of the latter, and then on a second reflection 
divided, and passed into the lungs. If attacked by men, or dogs, 
it defends itself obstinately, drawing in its head between the shoul- 
ders, and in a moment darting it out to its utmost extent, always 
aiming at the eyes; and we have heard of one instance wherein a 
person, in attempting to secure one that he had shot, received so 
severe a blow in the eye from the sharp beak, as to destroy the use 
of it. The food is frogs, mice, and other reptiles, swallowing them 
whole, as well as fish, f and in the stomach of one was also found 
several warty lizards, perfect, besides the remains of several toads, 
or frogs, probably taken out of the mud, in shallow water, in the 

* Willughby talks of this membrane, but not its probable use. The Rev. Mr. Ward, 
in his Natural History of Birds, Vol. iii. 150, mentions this circumstance ; and I have 
been assured, that by filling the trachea with air after death, and exploding it again sud- 
denly, a similar noise will be produced.* 

f I once found two middle sized trouts whole in the stomach of a Bittern ; and on another 
occasion, Dr. Lamb found in the stomach of one an undigested Reed Bunting. 

* Some compare this to the noise of beating on the head of an empty cask. 



HERON. 99 

swamp where it was shot: the lizards were not differing from those 
in our waters in summer, having the fin on the tail. 

In the breeding season Bitterns are, for the most part, found 
only in the wet and reedy marshes, at others, chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood of streams; and certain it is, that a greater proportion is 
met with in cold weather. Mr. Boys informed me, that they are 
never seen about Sandwich, except in the winter, and that in par- 
ticular, in the severe season of January, 1784, great numbers were 
shot thereabouts. Of late years we see both this and the Heron 
exposed for sale in the London markets ; and they have long been 
esteemed for the table in Ireland, and sometimes half a guinea given 
for one of the former. It is called in some parts of England, Butter- 
Bump, and Bumpy, also Miredrum. 

This species is found on the Continent, in various parts of Russia, 
and in Asia ; in Siberia, as far as the River Lena, and continued 
considerably to the north. Inhabits Sweden, but, with all the other 
Herons, disappears at the approach of winter. We trace this bird 
through France, Italy, and Spain, as far as the Coast of Barbary ; 
and small flocks of six or eight appear about Gibraltar, in the 
autumn, on their passage from the opposite shore ; but how far it 
goes to the south on the African coast is not certain. We have seen- 
it represented both in Chinese drawings, and in those from India, 
but certainly is every where less frequent than the Heron, which last 
is very common at Bengal. 

Among the drawings of birds received from New-Holland, in 
the collection of Mr. Francillon, is a dark coloured one, which is so 
like our species, as not to merit description apart. 

The Bittern in Gen. Hardwicke's India drawings, called Ghole. 



O 2 



100 HERON. 



62.— AMERICAN BITTERN. 

Botaurus Freti Hudsonis, Ind. Orn. ii. 680. Bris. v. 449. Id. 8vo. ii. 32S. 
Le Butor de la Baye d'Hudson, Buf. vii. 430. 
Marsh Bittern, or Indian Hen, Bartr. Trav. 291. 

Hudson's Bay Bittern, Edio. pi. 136. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 357. Id. Sup. p. 67. Phil. 
Trans, lxii. p. 410. Gen. Syn. v. 58. 19. A. 

THIS is smaller than the Common Bittern, and two feet three 
inches in length ; it is like it in all respects, but the ground colour 
darker, more inclined to brown, and the bill longer in proportion 
than in our species. 

Inhabits Hudson's Bay, appears at Severn River the latter end 
of May ; lives chiefly among the swamps and willows, where it 
makes the nest, and lays four eggs at a time, of a cinereous green ; 
the nest composed of water plants, placed on some dry spot, among 
the long grass : the young are at first black ; it is called by the 
natives Mokohosue ; is said to be delicate eating ; it for the most 
part retires in October. Is found as far at least as Georgia, where it 
is called the Brown Bittern ; chiefly seen about ponds, in the wet 
savannahs, in the pine woods ; is a shy bird, and not common : the 
young are speckled like a fawn, and are much less shy than the old 
ones. Some esteem this as a Variety of the Common one ; but it 
differs, in not bellowing like the European Species. Mr. Abbot 
observes, that this bird has a thin skin at the inner corner of the 
eyelids, which it can pass over the eye at pleasure, but this we 
believe is not singular; the White Heron, and others possess the same. 

In the American Ornithology it is said to have twelve feathers 
in the tail, and that in the Common Species there are only ten. But 
we believe this is not strictly true, as in both sorts it consists of the 
higher number. 



HERON. 101 



63— FRECKLED HERON. 

Ardea lentiginosa, Freckled Heron, Orn. Diet. Supp. with a figure. Franklin's Narr. 
App .p. 685 ? 

COLONEL MONTAGU mentions a Heron shot in the west of 
England, and in his collection, of which he cannot precisely ascer- 
tain the species. It is twenty-three inches long. Bill two inches 
and three quarters ; in colour more like the Common Bittern than 
any other, but not half the size: the plumage altogether much 
darker, and the markings extremely different ; legs long, slender, 
greenish, middle claw pectinated. It possibly may prove a female, 
or young bird, of one of the two last described ; but this is only 
conjecture : it is more fully described in the Supplement to the 
Ornitho logica I Dictionary . 



64.— LENTIGINOUS HERON. 

Ardea lentiginosa, Compend. Orn. 136. 

Botaurus lentiginosus, Shaw's Zool. 

Ardea minor, American Bittern, Amer. Orn. vii. 35. pi. 65. f. 3. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches. Head small ; crown chocolate- 
brown, shaded to a dull yellow, where the feathers are elongated ; 
throat white, with a row of brown feathers down the middle ; back 
and scapulars chocolate-brown ; legs greenish. 

Shot by Mr. Cunningham, at Middleton, in Dorsetshire, in 
autumn 1804. It seems much allied to the American Species. 



65— WHITE-BELLIED BITTERN. 

LENGTH three feet. Bill three inches, dusky blue, the upper 
ridge inclining to yellow ; lore and bare space round the eye bluish ; 



102 HERON. 

irides yellow; upper parts of the head, neck, and back, variegated 
with yellow, rufous, and brown, in the manner of the Common 
Bittern ; the chin, neck before, and breast, not unlike, but paler ; 
and the whole marked with large, long, sagittal, rufous brown streaks, 
barred on the sides ; the cheeks, beneath the eye, plain, pale dusky 
yellow ; the belly, thighs, and vent, white, marked with long dusky 
streaks, but not barred on the sides ; quills dusky, and reach to the 
end of the tail ; wing coverts mottled as the back, spotted and 
varied with rufous brown ; legs pale blue. 

Inhabits New-Holland, and frequents the marshes there; said to 
be a rare bird. 



66.— YELLOW BITTERN. 

Ardea flava, Ind. Orn. ii. 6S2. Gm. Lin. i. 638. 
Botaurus Brasiliensis, Bris. v. 460. Id. Svo. ii. 331. 
Butor jaune du Bresil, Buf. vii. 429. 
Yellow Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 64. 

LENGTH two feet three inches. Bill four inches and a half 
long, serrated next the point, brown, with a pale green base; irides 
golden yellow; head and hind part of the neck pale yellow, streaked 
with black; back brown, with yellowish streaks; throat white; fore 
part of the neck, breast, and belly, white, waved with brown, the 
last edged with yellow ; quills black and green mixed, the ends 
white; the tail like the quills, but crossed with white lines; legs 
dark grey. 

Inhabits Brazil, and is accounted good eating. 



67.— BRAZILIAN BITTERN. 

Ardea Brasiliensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 681. Lin.'x. 239. Gm. Lin. i. 637. Bris. v. 441. 

Id. Svo. ii. 326. 
Soco, Raii, 100. 14. Will. 209. t. 51. Id. Engl. 284. pi. 51. 
L'Honore de Bois, Buf. vii. 433. 



HERON. 103 

Clucking Hen, Brown, Jam. 478. Damp. Voy. iii. part i. 75 ? 
Brasilian Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 62. Brown, III. 88. pi. 34. Gent. Mag. Vol. 42. 
pi. p. 209. 

THIS is one-fourth less than the Common Heron, and two feet 
and three quarters in length. Bill reddish yellow ; head and upper 
part of the body deep orange red, finely barred with black; chin 
whitish red ; fore part of the neck pale red, with oblong black spots ; 
the feathers long and loose ; belly white, spotted with yellow ; thighs 
barred with dusky; quills black, with white tips; rump and tail 
coverts dashed with white, black, and yellow, narrow lines ; tail 
black, crossed with a few white lines, and tipped with the same ; 
legs dull rust-colour. 

Another of these, probably differing in sex, had the long neck 
feathers white on their lower parts ; the breast and sides white, with 
regular rows of large black spots; middle of the belly white; quills 
as in the other, and besides spotted on the exterior web with white ; 
legs pale brown. 

These inhabit the lakes and rivers in the hot parts of America, 
and several of the West India Islands. They feed on fish, yet are 
reckoned good eating, especially the young birds. The fowlers 
watch in the sedges, and shoot them. 



68— LINEATED BITTERN. 

Ardea lineata, Ind. Orn. ii. 682. Gm. Lin. i. 638. 
L'Onore raye, Buf. vii. 432. PI. enl. 860. 
Le Heron d'un brun bleuatre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 354. 
Lineated Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 64. 

LENGTH two feet and a half. Bill and lore blue, the last bare, 
surrounding the base; upper parts of the head and neck bright 
rufous, crossed with numerous brown lines; down the fore part 
passes a streak of white, beginning at the chin ; this is bounded half 



104 HERON. 

way by dashes of brown, and the lower half mixed with the white ; 
the upper parts crossed with fine waved, rufous, pale yellow, and 
brown lines; the under parts of the body dirty white; quills and 
tail black ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne ; frequents the banks of rivers, and mostly 
found single ; when one of these is shot, it makes great defence, 
darting out the head and neck suddenly, when it can strike the 
enemy with advantage, aiming at the eyes. One of these birds kept 
tame, was found of singular use in destroying rats, watching them 
with all the attention of a domestic cat, and even with better success. 



69.— TIGER BITTERN. 

Ardea tigrina, Ind. Orn. ii. 6S2. Gm. Lin. i. 63S. 

Heron tigre, Ferm. Surin. ii. 151. 

L'Onore, Buf.vn. 431. Pl.enl. 790. 

Tiger Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 63. Nat. Misc. pi. 620. 

LENGTH two feet six inches. Bill greenish ; irides pale yellow ; 
top of the head black ; throat and sides of the neck pale rufous, 
with regular spots of black; neck feathers very long; the rest of 
the plumage deep rufous, marked with black, like the skin of a 
tiger; chin white; the under parts much as the upper, but the 
ground yellowish white ; vent plain white ; tail black, crossed with 
four narrow bars of white; legs green. 

Inhabits Cayenne, Surinam, and other parts of South America. 
It does not seem to be a rare species, as I have met with several. It 
lays seven or eight rounded, whitish eggs, spotted with green, 
making the nest on the ground. It hides itself in the reeds, like our 
European Bittern, and frequents the same kind of places. It is a 
most beautiful species. 



HERON. 10o 



70— PHILIPPINE HERON. 

Ardea Philippensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 686. Gm. Lin. i. 644. 
Cancrofagus Philippensis, Bris. v. 474. t. 37. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 336. 
Crabier des Philippines, PL enl. 898. Bvf. vii. 395. 
Philippine Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 72. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill greenish yellow ; lore green ; 
top of the head and upper part of the neck rufous brown, inclining 
most to brown on the head ; back crossed with rufous and brown 
lines ; wings black, the feathers edged with rufous white ; quills 
and tail black ; fore part of the neck dirty rufous white ; belly, 
thighs, and vent, white ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits the Philippine Isles. 



71.— ZIGZAG BITTERN. 

Ardea undulata, Ind. Orn. ii. 681. Gm. Lin. i. 637. 
Le petit Butor de Cayenne, Bvf. vii. 530. PL enl. 763. 
Zigzag Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 61. 

LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill brown, under mandible pale; 
lore bluish;* the plumage yellowish, or rufous grey, crossed with 
narrow streaks of black brown ; these are pretty regular on the back, 
but elsewhere undulated, and in a zigzag manner ; the top of the 
head black, and the neck feathers so full, as to make it appear 
almost as big as the body ; fore part of the neck palest, the brown 
markings less in number ; the belly and thighs have only a few 
irregular zigzags ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and is a most beautiful bird. M. Temminck 
is of opinion, that this is a young one of the Philippine Species. 

* In the PL enlum. red. 

YOL. IX. P 



106 HERON. 



72— GREEN HERON. 

Ardea virescens, Lid. Orn. ii. 684. Lin. i. 238. Gm. Lin. i. 635. 

Anlea stellaris minima, Klein, 123. 

Cancrofagus viridis, Bris. v. 4S6. t. 37. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 339. 

Le Crabier verd, Bnf. vii. 404. 

Small Bittern, Cates. Car. i. pi. 80. 

Green Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 68. Bart. Trav. p. 291. Amer. Orn. vii. 97. pi. 61. f. I. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill greenish brown ; beneath 
yellowish next the base; between that and the eye bare and yellow; 
irfdes yellow ; crown of the head blackish, gilded green, with a 
gloss of copper in some lights, and the feathers elongated, forming 
a handsome crest ; neck ferruginous bay ; chin and throat white ; 
the rest of the neck before streaked with white ; in the direction of 
the under jaw, beneath it, a ferruginous streak; back, tail, and 
wings, dusky brown, with a tinge of lead-colour ; the lesser wing- 
coverts and prime quills like the back, edged with buff-colour; the 
middle and larger wing coverts glossy dark green, with ferruginous 
edges ; breast and belly dusky ; the feathers on the lower part of the 
neck narrow, and fall over the breast ; those of the back the same, 
covering the rump ; legs greenish. 

The female has the crown dusky, the feathers scarcely elongated ; 
those of the neck pale brown, streaked with white; back and scapu- 
lars brown ; the last marked with white at the end ; all the wing 
coverts have a triangular white spot at the tip ; the last row tipped 
as the others, and margined with the same ; second quills dusky 
green, with pale edges ; the greater brown, glossed with green, and 
tipped with white; the under parts of the body pale ash-colour; 
bill and legs as in the male. 

Inhabits New York, and several parts of North America ; also 
Jamaica, and other West India Islands. I have received birds from 
both, and observe, that the Jamaica one is highest coloured. Sup- 
posed to breed in Carolina, as they are found there only in summer : 



HERON. 107 

they feed on small fish, frogs, and crabs. One of the customs of 
this bird is to sit with the head drawn in between the shoulders, for 
a long time together, on a branch of a tree hanging over the water ; 
from whence, it has the chance of darting on a fish, in the same 
manner as the Belted Kingsfisher ; which, as well as this Heron, is 
called Crab-catcher in Jamaica. 

These frequent the ponds, lakes, &c. about Savanna, in Georgia, 
and build in the bushes in the small Islands therein, making the 
nest of sticks, and lay green eggs like those of the Blue Heron, but 
smaller. Mr. Abbot observes, that the top of the head is blue, and 
all the wing feathers green, margined with pale buff; legs yellow. 



A. — Le Crabier a tete et queue vertes, Buf. vii. 408. PI. enl. 908. Gen. Syn. v. 
p. 69. 30. Var. A. 

SIZE of the last. Bill black ; head crested, gilded darkish 
green; plumage in general pale slate-colour ; fore part of the neck 
white, marked with longitudinal, ferruginous streaks ; chin white ; 
wing coverts blackish green, margined with rufous ; tail short, of 
the same colour as the crest ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne; a Variety of the last, or differing in sex. 



B. — Ardea fusca, Klein, 124. 

Ardea stellaris minor, Rail, 189. 4. Sloan. Jam. 315. pi. 236. f. 2. 

Botaurus Americanus naevius, Bris. v. 464. Id. 8vo. ii. 332. 

L'Etoile, Buf. vii. 428. 

Crab-catcher, Brown, Jam. 478. Bartr. Trav. 291. 

Brown Bittern, Cat. Car. i. pi. 78. Gen. Syn. v. 70. 

Length- twenty inches. Bill greenish black, beneath pale green; 
lore naked, and the same ; irides gold-colour; plumage in general 
brown, paler beneath ; wings spotted with white ; tail bluish ash- 
colour; legs greenish yellow. 

P 2 



108 HERON. 

Inhabits Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of North America : 
is probably a female of the Green Heron, having been sent to me, 
as such from Jamaica, and North America. 

Mr. Abbot observes, that when in adult plumage, there is no 
great difference between the sexes ; that on their arrival in Georgia 
in the spring, the young ones of the second year are only beginning 
to moult, and it is some time after that before they acquire the full 
adult plumage ; but not only the female, but the young males are 
spotted more or less in proportion, as they advance towards maturity. 



C. — Size of the others. Bill brown, with a dusky tip; general 
colour of all the upper parts fine green ; the head furnished with a 
long crest ; wing coverts white, marked with large green spots ; 
beneath from chin to vent rufous white; legs green. 

This was in the museum of the late Sir A. Lever, but from 
whence it came uncertain. 



73 — LOUISIANE HERON. 

Ardea Ludoviciana, Ind. Orn. ii. 690. Gm. Lin. i. 630. 
Crabier roux a tete et queue vertes, Bit/, vii. 407. 
Crabier de la Louisiane, PI. enl. 909. 
Louisiane Heron, Gen. St/n. v. 81. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 350. 

LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill dusky; lore pale yellow; top 
of the head deep green, lengthening into a crest at the nape; the 
rest of the head and neck rufous ; fore part of it white, marked with 
long rufous spots; back cinereous, tinged with purple, and the 
feathers long and narrow ; belly rufous brown ; wing coverts dull 
green, the edges fulvous ; quills blackish, many of them tipped with 
white ; tail blackish green ; legs yellow, claws black. 



HERON. 109 

Inhabits Louisiana. It seems much allied to the Green Heron, 
and may perhaps hereafter prove to be a Variety of that bird. Is a 
summer resident in Georgia, making a nest of sticks in a bush, the 
eggs round, of a pale green. 

74— INDIAN GREEN HERON. 

SIZE small ; length uncertain, not more than fifteen inches. 
Bill large, dusky, the base, lore, and round the eyes, dusky green ; 
top of the head black, the feathers elongated into a crest behind ; in 
the direction of the under jaw a black streak ; the rest of the head 
and neck pale ash, or dusky ; vent the same, the feathers pale and 
pointed ; wing feathers green, with pale edges ; greater quills brown, 
the margins pale; all beneath the body dusky white; legs dusky 
pale yellow. 

The female has the bill and lore the same; neck brown, streaked 
with dusky white ; back brown, the edges of the feathers pale ; 
wings dusky, with pale margins, and a spot of white at the tips of 
the feathers ; greater quills plain, but edged with pale yellow ; legs 
as in the other. 

Inhabits India. — Sir J. Anstruther. It is like the Green Heron, 
but seems to be a distinct species. Is found at Cawnpore, in April 
and May, and breeds there : the eggs pale blue. 



75— SGUACCO HERON. 

Ardea comata, Ind. Orn. ii. 687. Gm. Lin. i. 632. It. Poseg. 24. Gerin. iv. t. 418. 

Pall, reise, ii. 715. 31. 

Cancrofagus luteus, Bris. v. 472. Id. 8vo. ii. 335. 
Sguacco, Rail, 99. Will. 206. Id. Engl. 281. viii. Buf. vii. 391. 

Crabier de Marion, Buf. vii. 393. PL enl. 348. Faun. Helvet. 

Sguacco Heron, Gen. St/n. v. 74. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 26. Lin. Trans, iii. 335. 

Orn. Diet. Supp. 

SIZE of the Blue Heron. Bill livid red, with a brown tip; 
lore greenish ; irides yellow ; crown of the head much crested ; six 



110 HERON. 

of the feathers hanging quite to the back; these are narrow, white, 
margined with black ; neck and breast pale ferruginous; the feathers 
of the first very long and loose ; back ferruginous, inclining to violet, 
the feathers long and narrow, reaching beyond the wings when closed, 
and fall over them ; wings, rump, tail, belly, and vent, white; tail 
pretty long; legs stout, greenish yellow, claw of the middle toe 
serrated. 

This elegant species inhabits the bays of the Caspian Sea, and 
slow streams of the Southern desert ; also about Bologna, in Italy, 
where it is called Sguacco ; is said to be a bold and courageous bird. 
One of these was shot at Boy ton, in Wiltshire, by Mr. Lambert, in 
the year 1778 ; and another taken on the 20th of July, 1822, in a 
fisherman's net, whilst drying, at Ormsby, in Norfolk* 

In the British Museum is one with the crest composed of several 
long feathers, striped dusky and white, and reaching to the middle 
of the neck ; those of the lower part of the back narrow and long s 
reaching beyond the tail ; legs brown. 



-A. — Ardea comatse simillima, It. Poseg. p. 24. Ind. Orn. ii. 687. 39. y. 
Der Sguacco, Reiner, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 46. 
Sguacco Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 302. 

The bill in this is white, tipped with black ; head not crested ; 
forehead and hind part of the neck testaceous white, the feathers 
margined with black ; tail white, the two middle feathers pale tes- 
taceous at the tips ; rump, belly, and sides, white. 

Inhabits Possega, and other parts of Sclavonia, in Hungary ; 
supposed to be a young bird of the Sguacco. 

* This was within fifty yards of the spot where the African Heron, No. 89, formerly in 
the possession of Col. Montagu, and now in the British Museum, was taken a* few. years 
since. — Lin. Trans, xiii. 617. 



HERON. HI 



76— COROMANDEL HERON. 

Crabier de Coromandel, Buf. vii. 393. PL ml. 910. 
Sguacco Heron, Gen.Syn.v. p. 75. 39. A. 

LENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill yellow; between that and 
the eye bare and grey; the head not crested ; plumage in general 
white, with a rufous tinge on the back and wing coverts : hind part 
of the neck inclining to rufous; the long feathers, which hang over 
the breast, the same ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits India, and frequently seen in drawings from thence. 
The male is said to be crested : in one drawing the name given to it 
was Lurkea. In Gen. Harwicke's fine collection it is called Boghee 
Soorkeea, or Gow-Boghla ; in these the bill is yellow, two inches 
and a half long, and a trifle inclining downwards towards the point. 
We can esteem this no otherwise than belonging to the Sguacco, 
either a female, or incomplete in plumage. 



77— RED-LEGGED HERON. 

Ardea Erythropus, Ind. Orn. ii. 686. Gm. Lin. i. 624. 

Cancrofagus rufus, Bris. v. 469. Id. 8vo. ii. 334. 

Ardea haematopus, seu Cirris, Raii, 99. 7. Will. 106. t. 50. 

Le Crabier marron, Buf. vii. 390. 

Red-legged Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 73. Will. Engl. 281. pi. 50. f. 1, 

SIZE of the Green Heron ; neck short. Bill blue green, with 
a black tip ; irides yellow, incireled with red ; head crested, yellow 
and black, the feathers very long, and from the forehead hang 
down all over the upper part of the head and neck; throat, neck, 
and whole body, saffron-colour, inclining to chestnut, palest above ; 
tail very short; legs deep red, like those of a Pigeon ; claws black; 
toes very long, and slightly joined, with a small membrane, at the 
base. — Inhabits Italy, chiefly about Bologna. 



112 



HERON. 



A.— Cancrofagus rufus naevius, Btis. v. 471. Id. 8vo. ii. 335. Gen. St/n. v. 75. 
Aldr. Av. iii. t. p. 399. 

This differs in having the neck spotted with black on the sides; 
otherwise like the last ; the legs yellowish instead of red : probably 
a young bird. 



78 — SQUAIOTTA HERON. 

Ardea Squaiotta, hid. Orn. ii. 686. Gm. Lin.'u G34. Tern. Man. 372. 

Cancrofagus, Bris. v. 466. Id. 8vo. ii. 333. 

Squaiotta, Rail, 99. Will. 207. t. 50. Id. Engl. 281. pi. 50. 

Le Crabier Caiot, Buf. vii. 389. 

Squaiotta Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 72. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill three inches and three quarters, 
yellow, with a black tip ; lore yellow ; on the head a tuft of about 
thirty feathers, the middle ones white, the others black; independent 
of these, the plumage is fine chestnut; scapulars long, narrow, and 
white at the base ; legs green. 

Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Squaiotta. 



79— CASTANEOUS HERON. 

Ardea castanea, Ind. Orn. ii. 687. Gm. Lin. i. 633. Dec. russ. i. 164. N. C. Petr. 

xv. 454. 9. t. 15. Gmelin. Id. reise, iii. 253. Gerin. iv. t. 419? 420 ? 
Ardea ralloides, Scop. i. No. 121. Tern. Man. 370. Id. Ed. ii. 582. 
Der Rallen reiher, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 45. Id. 2d. Ed. iv. 47. 
Castaneous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. p. 75. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill nearly three inches long, 
black, with a livid base; lore green; irides saffron-colour; crest 
Ions', reaching; to the middle of the neck ;• throat white ; sides of 
the head yellowish ; neck the same, inclining to chestnut ; back 



HERON. 1 13 

rufous chestnut, covered with long narrow feathers; breast, belly, 
wings, rump, and tail white., tinged with yellow in some parts ; 
inner webs of some of the quills with a few spots of black, and the 
tips of the tail feathers marked with black ; legs saffron-colour ; 
claws black, much bent, except the hinder one. 

Inhabits Russia, about the Don, coming from the Black Sea and 
Arabia, but not far inland ; builds on trees ; has been thought to be 
a Variety of the Sguacco Heron ; but M. Temminck unites both this 
and the last to that bird as one, and the same species. 



80.--SWABIAN BITTERN. 

Ardea Marsigli, Ind. Orn. ii. 681. Gm, Lin. i. 637. 

Botauvus minor, Bris. v. 452. Id. 8vo. ii. 329. 

Petit ButoT, Bvf. vii. 425. 

Ardea viridi-flavescens, Klein, Av. 124. 

Der Schwabisehe Reiher, Bechst. Dents, iii. s. 33. 

Swabian Bittern, Gen. Si/n. v. 60. 

THIS is much less than the Common Bittern. Irides whitish ; 
bare space between the bill and eye yellow ; head, upper part of the 
neck, breast, belly, sides, rump, and tail coverts, rufous, striated 
with brown ; back much the same, but the striae are broader, and 
more numerous; throat and fore part of the neck white; upper part 
of the thighs brownish white; quills pale brown, crossed with bars 
of deeper brown ; tail whitish ; legs pale yellow. 

Inhabits the Banks of the Danube. 



81— DWARF BITTERN. 

Ardea pumila, Ind. Orn. ii. 683. Gm. Lin. i. 644. iV. C. Petr. xiv. 502. t. 14. f. 1. 
Dwarf Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 77. 

LENGTH nineteen inches and a half. Bill three inches, black, 
with yellow edges ; the lower mandible yellowish white, with a dusky 

VOL. IX. Q 



114 HERON. 

base ; lore and irides yellow ; head feathers, neck behind, and 
sides, white, or rufous white, with dull chestnut margins, and white 
tips ; throat white ; from it a stripe of the same passes down the fore 
part of the neck to the breast, which is yellowish white ; belly the 
same; scapulars, lesser wing - coverts, and back, chestnut; the other 
coverts mixed white and pale yellow ; the two first quills are ash- 
colour on the outer webs, the rest only at the tips, obscurely shaded 
with rufous and white; rump and tail white; legs dusky, claws 
blackish. 

Inhabits the borders of the Caspian Sea. These seem to be 
further Varieties of the Sguacco Heron. M. Temminck says, that 
they are birds in the second year's plumage. 



82— BLACK-BACKED SGUACCO. 

BILL yellow, with a dusky tip ; bare space before the eye 
greenish yellow; head and neck rufous white; the lower part of the 
neck behind, and all before to the breast rufous orange, the feathers 
much elongated on the latter; back between the wings, and rump, 
violet black ; but the wings, all beneath from the breast, and tail, 
are white; legs yellow. 

Another, supposed the female. Bill and legs yellow ; head and 
neck pale, streaked all over with brown ; chin white; the back deep 
ferruginous brown ; wings, under part from the breast, and tail 
white. 

The first of these, with the exception of the black back, has 
much affinity with the Sguacco Heron, the other answers, in most 
respects, to the Senegal Bittern. We have seen these figured in 
the same drawing, leading one to think them merely differing in 
sex ; and the late Mr. Thompson received specimens of both from 
New-Holland. 



HERON. 115 



83.— CINNAMON HERON. 

Ardea cinnamomea, Ind. Orn. ii. 689. Gm. Lin. i. 643. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 191. 320. 
Cinnamon Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 77. Id. Sup. 235. Pen. Hind. ii. 158. 

LENGTH sixteen or eighteen inches. Bill two inches and a 
half long, yellow; general colour of the plumage cinnamon-colour, 
inclining to chestnut, much paler beneath ; chin and vent almost white, 
streaked down the middle of the neck before with brown ; on each 
side of the throat, under the jaw, a small patch of white ; the tail 
bright ferruginous chestnut, deeper than the back ; legs yellow ; the 
wings reach to the end of the tail. 

Inhabits India and China ; also Java, there called Ayam-ayaman ; 
common at Calcutta, there called Lol Bug, and Khyree Bok at 
Bengal ; the last name signifies, that it is a Bok of the colour of 
Terra japonica; is frequently seen with the head crouched between 
the wings. 

One supposed to be the same, in Gen. Hardwicke's drawings, is 
somewhat smaller. Bill yellowish green, above brown; lore and 
irides yellow ; head feathers longish at the nape; plumage cinnamon 
colour, or deep ferruginous; chin under the bill white; the rest of 
the under parts buff, streaked as far as the breast with dusky ; belly, 
vent, and thighs, plain ; legs pale green,, claws brown. 

Inhabits India : name Loll-Boglee. Met with at Cawnpore, in 
October ; another bird, similar in size, and probably the female, has 
the head, and upper parts ferruginous brown, the feathers of the 
back margined with yellow buff; wing coverts the same, with other 
irregular markings ; quills plain ferruginous brown ; chin and throat 
white, the rest of the under parts yellow buff, with long streaks of 
brown ; legs pale green. 

Inhabits India. Met with at Futtehguhr, in October. Found 
also in Java and Sumatra ; at the latter called Burong Kaladi. 

Q 2 



116 HERON. 



84.— BLUE HERON. 

Ardea ca?rulea, hid. Orn. ii. 689. Lin. i. 238. Gm. Lin. i. C31. Bris.v. 484. TcZ. 

Svo. ii. 338. Baii, 189. 3. Sloan. Jam. ii. 315. t. 263. f. 3. 
Ardea purpurea cristata, Bartr. Trav. 291. 
Ardea plumbea, Broivn, Jam. 478. 
Ardea cyanea, Klein, Av. 124. 7. 
Le Crabier. bleu, Buf. vii. 398. 
Blue Heron, Gen. St/n. v. 78. Arct. Zoo/, ii. No. 351. Cates. Car. pi. 76. Amer. 

Orn. vii. 117. pi. 62. f. 3. 

LENGTH nearly eighteen inches, weight fifteen ounces. Bill 
three inches, colour blue, yellowish beneath; irides yellow; round 
the eyes and lore bare, and yellowish ; the head is somewhat crested, 
and the feathers of the breast elongated ; general colour of the 
plumage deep blue, inclining to lead-colour; head and neck change- 
able purple, the back covered with narrow, long, silky feathers, 
hanging nearly four inches beyond the end of the tail ; legs green, 
claw of the middle toe pectinated. 

According to Mr. Abbot the adult male and female are much 
alike ; but the crest of the former, and scapular feathers are both 
longer in the male. One, supposed a female, had the head and neck 
dull purple; chin white, passing in a streak half way down the 
neck before, the lower part mixed white and black in streaks ; head 
very little crested ; back lead-coloured, and the long silky feathers, 
so conspicuous in the male, wholly wanting : this is probably a young 
bird. Adults are sometimes nearly two feet in length. 

Inhabits North America; found in Carolina in spring, and in 
winter is met with at Jamaica, and other West India Islands; comes 
into Georgia the end of March, frequents the ponds throughout the 
summer ; makes the nest in the same manner as the Green Heron ; 
the egg of a fine plain green. We believe that this is the bird called 
in the West Indies the Blue Gaulding. 



HERON. 117 

Mr. Abbot says, it makes the nest of sticks; eggs the size of 
those of a Pullet, blue green : young birds entirely white, and con- 
tinue so nearly the whole summer; after that patched with blue, 
before they acquire their full blue colour, called the Blue Egret. 
I observe among the drawings of this gentleman, another Pied 
Heron,* said to be twenty-one inches long and thirty-four broad, 
with a bill three inches and three quarters long. This is probably 
one of the larger species in imperfect plumage ; the skin said to be 
of a dark or blackish blue colour ; it frequents the ponds in summer ; 
is a shy bird, and not common. 

A. — Ardea ceerulescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 690. 
Le Crabier a Cou brun, Buf. vii. 392. 
Heron bleuatre de Cayenne, PL enl. 349. 
Blue Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 79. 45. A. 

Length nineteen inches. Bill yellow ; lore reddish ; head and 
neck rufous brown ; at the hindhead two long feathers, reaching 
two-thirds down the neck ; the rest of the body, wings, and tail deep 
blue; legs brown. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and is probably the male of the Blue Species, 
in the most complete state of plumage. I rather suppose this, as the 
figure in the PL enlum. and that in the Amer. Orn. greatly coincide, 
except that in the former the lore is red, and not blue. 



85.- CINEREOUS HERON. 

Ardea cyanopus, Ind. Orn. ii. C85. Gm. Lin. i. 644. 
Ardea Americana cinereai Bris. v. 406.; Id. 8v®. ii. 316. 
Le Crabier cendre, Buf. vii. 401. 
Cinereous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 71. 

A TRIFLE bigger than the Gardenian Heron. Bill two inches 
and a half long, blue, with a black tip ; lore blue; head, and all 

* See Little Egret, No. 50. 



118 



HERON. 



above pale ash-colour; wing- coverts mixed with black ; under pa rt 
of the body white; quills part black, part white; legs bluish. 
Inhabits America, and is probably a young Blue Heron. 



86.— GREATER RED HERON. 

Ardea Botaurus, hid. Orn. ii. 698. Gm. Lin. i. 636. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 571. 

Botaurus major, Bris. v. 455. Id. 8vo. ii. 330. N. C. Petr. xv. 482. t. 24 i 

Ardea Stellaris major, seu rubra, Rati, 100. 13. Will. 208. 

Ardea ranivora, Gerin. iv. 430 ? 431. 

Grand Butor, Bitf. vii. 422. Dec. russ, ii. 246. 

Greater Speckled, or Red Heron, Will. Engl. 283. 

Greater Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 58. 

LARGER than the Common Bittern; length three feet nine 
inches. Bill eight inches long, and yellowish ; irides yellow ; lore 
and round the eye bare and yellow ; feathers of the head black, and 
long; the upper part of the neck and body, wings, and tail, cine- 
reous brown ; sides of the neck rufous, marked with a streak of 
black ; throat, and neck before white, dashed with black and rufous 
white streaks ; feathers of the breast long, and pendent ; under parts 
of the body rufous ; scapulars the same, and very narrow ; thighs 
white ; legs brown; claws brown, middle one serrated within. 

Found in the marshes of Italy, and in some parts called Ruffey.* 
Said also to inhabit Astrachan during the summer.-j- 

The Ardea Botaurus of the Petersburg Transactions is probably 
the same ; and if so, it is found at Astrachan, in the marshes, in 
May, migrating from the south. It lays three smooth, plain green 
eggs, the size of those of a Hen. As to the description of the last, 
it varies in few things; the back more inclines to ash-colour; but 
the longitudinal black streaks down the neck are the same in both ; 
the thighs in this are chestnut, in the former white ; the quills and 
tail black, instead of cinereous brown. 

* Aldrov. Av. iii. 408. f Dec. Russ. ii. 146. 



HERON. 110 

Aldrovandus has mentioned this bird, and suspected it to be a 
mixed breed between the Common Heron and Bittern ;* but it 
rather appears to belong to the Purple Heron. 



87.— CRESTED PURPLE HERON. 

Ardea purpurea, Ind. Orn.'u. 697. Lin. i. 236. Gm. Lin.i. G26. Borowsk. iii. 74. 

Faun. Helvet. Bechst. Deutsch. iii. s. IS. taf. II. Tern. Man. d'Orn. 364. Id. 

Ed. ii. 570. Sepp, iv. t. p. 353. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 188. 
Ardea cristata purpurascens, Bris.v. 424. t. 36. f. 2. 7d.8vo.ii. 321. 
Le Heron pourpre huppe, Biif. vii. 369. PL enl. 788. 
Crested purple Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 95. 

LESS than the Common Heron ; length three feet ; the wings 
reach to the end of the tail, but the toes nine inches beyond it. Bill, to 
the gape, six inches, colour brown, yellowish beneath ; irides yellow ; 
top of the head crested, with narrow, pointed, black feathers, some 
of them nearly five inches long ; lore, and round the eyes bare, and 
yellowish ; from the gape to the hindhead a narrow streak of black ; 
chin white ; the neck, for half its length, is rufous, marked with three 
longitudinal black lines; the remainder cinereous olive behind, rufous 
on the sides, and rufous white before, where each feather is dashed 
with black, in shape long and narrow, hanging over the breast ; lowest 
of these white at the ends ; the body above glossy olive ; some of the 
scapulars long and narrow, tipped with rufous, and end in a point; 
all beneath the body bright, purplish chestnut, with a band of black 
from the middle of the breast to the vent ; under tail coverts white, 
mixed with rufous, tipped with black ; thighs rufous ; edge of the 
wing the same ; the wing coverts bright dark olive, part edged with 
rufous ; some of the outer and greater ones dark ash-colour ; quills 
dark ; tail five inches long, cinereous olive ; the legs greenish ; claws 
dusky, the middle one serrated within. 

* Aldrov. An. iii. 408. 



120 HERON. 

Inhabits the southern latitudes; found about the Caspian and 
Black Seas, as also the Lakes of Great Tartary, and the River 
Irtisch, but not farther east in Siberia ; and rarely ventures beyond 
50 degrees north : not unfrequent in India. This is a beautiful bird ; 
the vertebrae of the neck are long and cylindrical ; the trachea, about 
the middle of the neck, passes obliquely to the right side, and from 
thence goes down behind the vertebrae, until it reaches the thorax, 
when it again passes obliquely by the right side, to the lower part of 
the vertebrae. It is the Kyra of the Mussulmans; and Cane of the 
Bengalese and Sanscrit : frequents the jeels near Calcutta, but is not 
very common, and has the usual manners of the Heron ; its Bengalese 
name is generic, and is applied to any water bird with a long neck, 
of which the plumage consists of various dark colours.* Found in 
Java, where it is called Changa-ulu. 



88— PURPLE HERON. 

Ardea purpurata, Ind.Om.W. 698. Gm. Lin. i. 641. Tern. Man. 365. Id. Ed. ii. 571. 
Ardea purpurascens, Bris. v. 420. Id. 8vo. ii. 320. 
Der glattkopfige purpur Reiher, Bechst. Dents, iii. 21. 
Heron pourpre, Buf. vii. 369. 
Purple Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 96. 

SIZE of the Common Heron, but with a longer head and bill, 
the upper mandible yellowish green, the under yellowish ; lore the 
same; crown blackish ash-colour; neck the same, marked behind 
with small blackish lines, the forepart spotted with dull yellow; 
upper part of the body and wings purplish chestnut ; belly, sides, 
and thighs, ash-colour, palest near the vent ; greater wing coverts 
farthest from the body blackish brown ; quills much the same; legs 
brown. 

Inhabits the Banks of the Danube. It probably does not much 
differ from Crested Purple Species. 

* Dr. Buchanan. 



HERON. 121 



89— AFRICAN HERON. 

Ardea Caspica, hid. Orn. ii. 698. Gmel. reise, ii. 195. 1. 14. 
African Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. 237. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 28. 

LENGTH almost three feet. Bill seven inches long, dusky 
yellow, with the end dusky ; head, and great part of the neck pale 
ferruginous; chin and throat white; top of the head black, crested, 
the feathers near three inches long; on the back part of the neck a 
stripe of black, reaching two-thirds of the way down ; on each side, 
from behind the eye, another, continuing to the breast ; on the lower 
part before, the feathers are long, narrow, and loose, as in many 
others of the Genus ; the colour of them, and the lower part of the 
neck deep ash ; breast ferruginous chestnut ; back very deep ash ; 
quills and tail black ; the loose feathers hanging over the rump like 
those of the neck, mixed with ferruginous ; belly pale ferruginous 
ash ; legs dull yellow ; the fore part of them, toes, and claws black. 

Inhabits Africa and Asia ; also has been once killed in Ashdown 
Park, near Lambourn, Berks, belonging to Lord Craven : it is 
probably a young bird of the Crested purple Species. Col. Montagu 
has also received one from Norfolk, killed in the year 1811 or 1812; 
this, however, differs a little in the markings, probably arising from 
age or sex. 



90— MALACCA HERON. 

Ardea Malaccensis, hid. Om. ii. G89. Gm. Lin. i. 643. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189. 
Crabier blanc et brun de Malac, Buf. vii. 394. PI. ent. 911. 
Malacca Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 78. 

LENGTH nineteen inches. Bill dusky, sides near the base 
yellow ; lore and beyond the eye bare and grey ; head and neck 

VOL. IX. R 



122 HERON. 

streaked brown and white ; all the feathers long, narrow, and loose \ 
back brown ; wings, under parts of the body, and tail, white ; legs 
yellow. 

Inhabits Malacca; found also on the Coast of Coromandel. In 
some drawings from the latter the coverts and outer edge of the 
wing are white; back very dark chocolate ; some of the inner coverts 
mixed chocolate and white ; legs dull pale green. It is found also 
in Java, and called Blekko, but the lea;s are lead-colour. 



91.— SENEGAL HERON. 

Ardea Senegalensis, hid. Orn. i. 684. Gin. Lin. i. 645. 
Le petit Butor dii Senegal, Bitf. vii. 426. 
Petit Heron roux du Senegal, PL enl. 315. 
Senegal Bittern, Gen. Syn. v. 67. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill rufous brown, yellow beneath ; 
head above, neck, and back, rufous; fore part of the neck the same, 
though very pale, and each feather marked with a black streak 
down the shaft ; but those which hang loose over the breast are 
plain, and darker than the rest ; down the middle of the wing, from 
the shoulder, reddish ; the rest of the wing, without and within, 
white ; but some of the inner quills are the same colour as the back ; 
the under parts of the body and tail white ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Senegal. One, apparently the same, in Mr. Brogden's 
collection, was eighteen inches in length. The plumage in this 
differed but very little, and the bill and legs were dusky black.— 
This and the last seem to be much allied. 



92 —SPECIOUS HERON. 

Ardea Speciosa, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189. — Horsfield. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill whitish at the base, and black 
at the point ; general colour of the plumage white ; head furnished 



HERON. 123 

with a crest, consisting of four slender, long feathers, two of which 
are longer than the others; back black; the neck above yellowish; 
beneath fulvous; the plumes surrounding the neck are filiform, very 
long, and pendulous; legs flesh-coloured. 

Inhabits Java ; the islanders there call it Blekko-ireng. 



93.-SUMATRAN HERON. 

Ardea melanalopha, Lin. Trans, xiii. 326. — Raffles. 

THIS is about eighteen inches long, with a thicker neck, and 
shorter than in some Herons, and the bill less elongated; plumage 
chestnut, mottled with black ; tail and crest black ; belly variegated 
with white, black, and brown. — Inhabits Sumatra. 



94.— PAINTED HERON. 

Ardea picta, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 326.— Raffles, 

LENGTH sixteen inches, of a dark brown, approaching to 
black; mottled with fawn-colour and white; legs and bill short, 
strong, and greenish. 

Inhabits Sumatra ; called Puchong Udang. 

95— AGAMI HERON. 

Ardea Agami, Ind. Orn. ii. 699. Gm. Lin. i. 629. 
Le Heron Agami, Buf. vii. 382. PL enl. 859. 
Agami Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 97. 

LENGTH thirty one inches. Bill eight or nine inches long, 

dusky; crown blue bjack ; nape light blue ; from this hang six or 

eight long, narrow feathers, the longest reaching almost to the bottom 

of the neck, and several others shorter ; back, wings, and tail deep 

blue ; neck and under parts of the body rufous ; but the lower half 

R 2 



124 HERON. 

of the neck, and the sides of it, are covered with loose blue feathers, 
falling' over the breast; from the lower part of the back arise several 
slender feathers, which hang loose, and reach the end of the tail, and 
sometimes beyond it ; on the sides of the head, and just above the 
eyes white, passing a little way on each side of the neck; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and is a most beautiful species. 

In the female the bill is blackish, the base beneath pale ; head 
not crested ; the crown and hind part of the neck bluish ash-colour; 
chin white; the sides of the neck, as far as the middle, fine rufous; 
down the middle a beautiful white and rufous line, bounded on each 
side with black ; breast covered with long, loose, blackish feathers ; 
those on the back part of the neck black, but streaked down the 
middle of the shaft with white; the upper parts of the body, wings, 
and tail fine green, like that of a Duck's head, and glossy ; under 
parts deep rufous ; quills black ; tail brown. 

One of the last described, in the collection of General Da vies* 
said to be a female, was a most elegant bird. 

Another, in Lord Stanley's collection, has the bill six inches and 
a half long; with blue grey feathers from the nape, but no very long- 
ones ; head and neck answering to the male in PL enlum. ; back and 
wings deep black, with a greenish gloss ; beneath, from the breast* 
very deep and tine ferruginous; under wing coverts the same ; legs 
deep brown ; quills and tail as the back, and equal in length. 



96 —CHALYBEATE HERON. 

Cancrofagus Brasiliensis, Bris. v. 479. Id. 8vo. ii. 337. Ind. Orn. ii. 690. 

Ardeola Brasiliensis, Rail, 101. 18. Will. 210. 

Le Crabier Chalybe, Buf. vii. 404. 

Small Brasilian Heron of Marcgrave, Will. Engl. 285. 

Blue Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 80. C. 

LENGTH sixteen inches. Bill two inches and a half, dusky, 
beneath white ; irides and bare skin round the eyes yellow ; plumage 



HERON. 125 

in general black, with a gloss of polished steel, mixed with a little 
brown on the head, brown and yellowish on the back, and some 
ash-colour on the wing coverts ; under parts of the body white, 
variegated with cinereous and pale yellow ; tail the same, but not 
marked with white ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Brazil. Is a stately species, walking erect, and is called 
by the natives Cocoi. 

97— COCOI HERON. 

Ardea Cocoi, Ind. Orn. ii. 699. Lin. i. 237. Gm. Lin. i. 629. Raii, 100. Will. 

209. t. 51. Id. Engl. 284. § xvi. pi. 51. 
Ardea Cayanensis cristata, Bris. v. 400. Id. 8vo. ii. 314. 
Le Soco, Buf. vii. 379. 
Blue Heron, Albin, iii. pi. 79 ? 
Cocoi Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 98. 

THIS is a large species ; length above three feet. Bill greenish 
yellow; irides gold-colour; top of the head cinereous, the sides 
of the upper part black ; the feathers of the nape cinereous, very 
long, and narrow, forming a handsome crest, and are of different 
sizes, the two longest measuring five inches and a half ; lore cine- 
reous ; cheeks, throat, and neck, white ; the feathers on the fore part 
very long, and hang over the breast ; the rest of the bird fine pale 
ash-colour; on the back the feathers are long, narrow, and hang 
down behind, as in many of the Genus; legs ash-colour. 

Inhabits Brazil and Cayenne, is very fat in the rainy season, at 
which time the flesh is thought to be well relished. 



98— CHINESE HERON. 

Ardea Sinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 700. Gm. Lin. i. 642. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189. 
Chinese Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 99. 

SIZE small. Bill long, pale yellow ; upper part of the plumage 
brown, dashed with paler brown ; under parts the same, but more 
dilute; quills and tail black; legs green. 



126 HERON. 

Inhabits China, and called Soy-ie. The description taken from 
a collection of Chinese drawings. Found in Java, and called there 
Bambangan. 



99.—DUSKY HERON. 

Aadea fusca, Ind. Orn. ii. 700. 

Le Heron brun, Buf. vii. 381. PI. enl. 858. 

Brown Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304. 

THIS is two feet and a half long. Bill brown ; on the head 
a moderate, dusky crest, hanging down behind ; upper parts of the 
neck, body, and wings, dusky brown ; beneath white, marked on 
the breast with longish streaks of brown ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 



100— DRY HERON. 

Ardea Hoactli, Ind.' Orn. ii. 700. Gm. Lin. i. 630. 

Ardea Mexicana cristata, Bris. v. 418. 11. Id. 8vo. ii. 319. 

Hoactli, Eaii, 179. 8. Will. 300. Id. Engl. 388. Buf. vii. 382— male. 

Hoacton, Will. 302. Id. Engl. 391— female. 

Dry Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 100. 

LENGTH two feet three inches. Bill five inches long, and one 
inch thick, black, the sides yellow ; irides yellow ; eyelids red ; 
head crested, and black ; forehead, from eye to eye, white ; lore 
yellowish ; neck above, and body greenish black ; wing coverts 
greenish ash-colour ; under parts of the body white ; quills and tail 
ash-colour ; legs yellow. The female has the upper parts brown, 
mixed with white, varied with brown ; otherwise like the male. 



HERON. 127 

Inhabits the Lake of Mexico, breeding among the reeds, but not 
constant, coming from some other place; is called by the Spaniards, 
Martinete pescador, from its catching fish ; but this name is also 
given to Kingfishers. It has a loud, flat voice, and bites very hard. 



101.— PACIFIC HERON. 

Ardea pacifica, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxv. 
Pacific Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 305. 

SIZE uncertain, but probably not small. Bill moderate in size, 
and dusky horn-colour; the upper mandible rather curved, the lower 
straight ; tongue nearly the length of the bill ; irides pale red ; head 
and neck dull white, marked on the fore part of the latter with 
dusky spots ; behind the eye a dusky mark ; back and wings dusky, 
glossed with green and copper ; breast, belly, sides, and vent, dusky 
white ; margins of the feathers dusky, giving the appearance of 
leaves, lying on each other; legs dusky. 

Inhabits the shores of various parts of New-Holland, and is called 
Bulla-ra-gang ; but is not a common species. 



.102.— WHITE-FRONTED HERON. 

Ardea novae Holiandias, Ind. Orn. ii. 701. 

White-fronted Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 304. Phill. Bot. Bay. pi. p. 163. Penn. 
Outlin. iv. 128. 

LENGTH twenty-eight inches. Bill four inches long and black ; 
base of the under mandible yellowish ; lore and orbits naked, 
greenish ; body above bluish ash-colour ; crown black, and the 
feathers elongated ; forehead, cheeks, chin, fore part of the neck, to 
the middle, white ; quills and tail bluish black ; breast feathers 
elongated, and hang down gracefully; these, with the belly and 



128 HERON. 

thighs, are rufous cinnamon-colour; back covered with long, slender 
feathers, which fall over the tail, and conceal about half its length ; 
legs yellow brown. 

Inhabits New-Holland : the specimen met with at Port Jackson ; 
but having seen others, we suppose to be not uncommon. 



103— NEW-ZEALAND HERON. 

Blue Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 79. 45. B. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill two inches and a half long, 
yellow, lore the same ; irides pale yellow ; head feathers loose, and 
somewhat elongated at the back part ; plumage in general pale blue 
green ; chin and throat white ; legs yellow ; claws black. 

Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound, New-Zealand ; the natives 
call it Matook ; is also found at Otaheite, where it is held in 
veneration.* 



104— OMINOUS HERON. 

LARGER than the Common Heron ; when standing erect, it 
measures from the crown to the toes four feet. Bill as in the 
Common one, yellow; hindhead and crown tufted, with many longish 
feathers, which are capable of being erected forwards, quite over 
the base of the bill ; plumage on the upper parts of the neck, back, 
and rump, pale ash-coloured brown ; wing coverts, and all beneath, 
very pale blue grey, wing coverts darkest; all the fore part of the 
neck dashed with dusky black, short streaks, as in the Common 
Heron ; quills and tail black ; legs long, slender, and yellow ; 
claws black. 

* So far from eating all kinds of birds, the Otaheitans have a kind of superstitious 
regard for Herons, and Kingsfishers, almost like that paid to the Stork, Redbreast, Swal- 
low, and other harmless birds, in England. — Foster's Obs. 207. Parkinson talks of a Grey 
Heron being found at Ethooa, p. 70. 



HERON. 129 

Inhabits India, in the collection of Lady Clive ; called by the 
Missionaries the Ominous Heron, as it is supposed to portend disasters. 
The native Teleuganas call it Pamparai. 



105 .—BLACK-SHOULDERED HERON. 

HEIGHT, when standing, four feet and a half; from the poll to 
the shoulders two feet ; length of wings eighteen inches. Bill eleven 
inches, black; beneath yellow; chin and throat white; head feathers 
elongated at the nape ; the colour of that, the neck, and back, deep 
brown, or sooty; the crown and crested part the darkest; shoulders 
almost black ; sides of the neck and breast dirty brown, with grey, 
longitudinal hatches, but the ground colour of the breast is bluish 
grey, growing paler towards the vent, which is also streaked with 
pale, or whitish ; under part of the tail dun-grey ; lower part of the 
back and rump brown, changing on the latter to the blue grey 
colour of a Pigeon, and each feather margined with black ; legs 
brown ; the thighs bare far above the joint ; from that to the toes 
seven inches; middle toe nearly five inches, hind one two inches and 
a half. — Inhabits New South Wales. 



106.— LEPID HERON. 

Ardea lepida, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 190. — Horsfield. 

LENGTH fifteen inehes; plumage brownish Isabella colour, 
paler on the under parts; crown crested, and black ; quills and tail 
the same ; back of the neck and cheeks rufous chestnut; the feathers 
hanging over the breast full, margined with yellowish. 

Inhabits Java. 

VOL. IX. S 



130 HERON. 

107— CLOUDED HERON. 

Ardea nebulosa, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 190. 

LENGTH fourteen inches. Plumage above clouded with 
ferruginous chestnut, and dusky yellow, banded transversely ; 
beneath pale chestnut, paler on the neck, and marked with longi- 
tudinal streaks of brown ; crown of the head dusky ; quills and 
tail bay. 

Inhabits Java. 



108.— WHITE-THROATED HERON. 

Ardea Javanica, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 190. 32C. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Head crested; plumage blue; the 
crown, wings, and tail, deep olive, with a gilded gloss; quills black 
at the end ; back feathers very long and narrow, variegated with 
grey and gold ; the base of the lower mandible is white, from thence 
to the anterior margin of the eye a spot of black; throat pure white; 
and the fore part of the neck and breast have a cast of dusky white; 
coverts of the wings attenuated to a point, with a narrow white 
border; legs reddish brown. 

Inhabits Java ; known by the name of Upi-upian. — Sir T. S. 
Raffles describes it as fifteen inches long; greenish brown above, 
bluish grey below ; head feathers dark olive-green, and elongated 
into a pendent crest ; neck short ; bill dusky and yellow ; lore green ; 
legs yellowish. 

Inhabits Sumatra, there called Burong Puchong. 



HERON. 131 



109— BLUE-HEADED HERON. 

Ardea cyanocephala, Ind. Orn. ii. 688. Molin. Chil. 208. Id. Fr. Ed. 214. 4. Gm. 

Lin. i. 633. 
La Flute ilu Soleil, Voy. cTAzara, iv. No. 320. 
Blue-headed Heron, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 303. 

BILL black ; round the eye bare, blue ; iricles white ; head and 
back blue; wings lead-colour, edged with white ; belly yellowish 
green, or black and yellow mixed ; back and tail green ; legs yellow ; 
Azara says black. 

Inhabits Chili; called by the Guaranis, Curahi-remimbri, or 
Flute of the Sun, on account of its sweet and melancholy whistle, 
often repeated ; is pretty common, either singly, or in pairs : both 
sexes nearly alike. 

It makes the nest on trees, of sticks, the eggs two in number, 
and blue, dotted with straw-colour ; it also roosts on trees at night, 
but is frequently seen on moist plains, in the day time. 



110— BLUE-CROWNED HERON. 

LENGTH nearly two feet. Bill from the gape four inches and 
a half; round the eyes greenish brown ; gape and eyelids yellow; 
crown deep dusky blue, the feathers at the nape long, and forming 
a crest, beneath which are longer ones, white, and pointed at the 
ends; the rest of the neck as the crown; chin white, continuing 
^down the middle in a streak, and mixed with ferruginous; feathers 
of the breast long, and loose, like the rest, but with a purplish 
tinge, especially behind ; rest of the back and wings deep ash- 
coloured blue ; under wing coverts, belly, thighs, and vent, white, 
but at the bottom of the thighs is a mixture of brownish ; quills as 
the back, and equal the tail in length ; from the lower part of the 

S 2 



132 HERON. 

back spring many narrow, pale, silky, loose-webbed, ferruginous 
feathers, which hang over the tail, and a little beyond it; legs 
yellow brown. 

One supposed to be a female, is twenty-one inches, and the bill 
half an inch shorter; upper mandible brown, the lower yellow; 
round the eye yellow ; head and neck ferruginous, streaked and 
mixed with white before; chin white; back and wings deep blue 
ash, with a mixture of ferruginous on the wing coverts; the rest of 
the wings and tail deep blue ash ; all beneath from the breast to 
vent white ; but the loose feathers hanging over the breast are pale 
ash ; legs brown, middle toe serrated. 

I found specimens of these in the collection of the late Mr. 
Thompson, of Little Saint Martin's Lane, supposed to have been 
brought from New-Holland. 



Ill —YELLOW-WINGED HERON. 

LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill two inches and a half long ; 
top of the under mandible dusky, the rest of the bill pale; round 
the eye bare, and pale; irides red; all the upper parts of the head, 
neck, and back, are dusky black ; the rest of the neck and breast 
yellow dun-colour, with four or five black marks down the middle ; 
chin, belly, thighs, and vent, white; wings dun-yellow, with a rufous 
patch on the lesser coverts, and these marked with black spots as in 
the last; the parts, too, adjoining to the bend of the wing, are spotted ; 
quills black; legs shorter, and stouter than in the last species, dull 
yellow, marked on the shins before with bluish ash. 

Inhabits New-Holland. Native name Go-ning-nah. 



HERON. 133 



112.— BLACK HERON. 

Ardea atra, Ind. Orn. ii. C97. Gm. Lin.\. 641. Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 24. 7. 
Ardea nigra, Bris.v. 439. 7d.8vo.ii. 325. Klein, 123. 3, 
Le Heron noir, Buf. vii. 368. 
Black Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 94. 

SIZE of the Common Heron. Bill black; general colour of 
the plumage the same, glossed with blue on the wings; lore black; 
legs the same ; the middle and outer toe connected at the base by a 
membrane ; second and prime quills nearly of equal lengths. 

Inhabits Silesia. 



113.— NEW-GUINEA HERON. 

Ardea novse Guinea, Ind. Orn. ii. 685. Gm. Lin. i. 644. 
Crabier noir de lanouvelle Guinee, PL enl. 926. Buf. ii. 394. 
New-Guinea Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 71. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill brown ; lore greenish : irides yellow ; 
general colour of, the plumage black ; legs dusky. 

In the PI. enlum. the neck seems slender, and of a great length. 
Inhabits New-Guinea. 



114.— CRACRA HERON. 

Ardea Cracra, Ind. Orn. ii. 699. Gm. Lin. i. 642. 
Cancrofagus Americanus, Buf. v. 477. Id. 8vo. ii. 336. 
Cracra Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 96. Buf. vii. 403. 

SIZE of a large Fowl. Bill black, beneath yellowish brown ; 
irides golden yellow ; round the eye bare, and pale yellow ; crown 
of the head bluish ash-colour; nape and hind part of the neck 



134 HERON. 

brown, mixed with fillimot ; back and rump like the crown, mixed 
with dull green and rufous; the under parts are white, spotted with 
fillimot as far as the breast, from thence to the vent ash-colour; lesser 
wing coverts dull green, with rufous edges; greater and quills black, 
edged with white; tail greenish black; legs yellow ; claws black. 

Inhabits Chili, and other parts of America, on the banks of 
rivers, at a distance from the sea. Is called by some Cra-Cra, from 
the cry, which it makes in flight. The natives call it Jaboutra. It 
is met with also at Martin ico. 



115— YELLOW-NECKED HERON. 

Ardea flavicollis, Ind.Orn. ii. 701. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 189 ? 
Yellow-necked Heron, Gen. Si/n. Siip. 239. View of Hindoost. ii. 158. 

SIZE of the Blue Heron; length two feet or more. Bill three 
inches and a half long, dusky brown ; lore and round the eye red 
brown ; top of the head full of feathers, and crested behind ; that 
and the back part of the neck dark purplish brown ; the sides of the 
head rufous brown ; chin white ; throat and sides of the neck yellow 
clay-colour, but the middle of the throat, and all the rest of the neck 
rufous brown, mixed with streaks of white and deeper brown ; under 
parts, from the breast, rufous brown ; all the upper parts of the body, 
wings, and tail deep purplish brown ; legs brown ; the wings and 
tail are even. 

Inhabits India. — Sir John Anstruther. In the drawings of Mr. 
Middleton I likewise observed this bird, but the parts which are 
purplish brown in the former, were in the latter black. It is met 
with in plenty in the Province of Oude, and in other parts, in low 
watery places, but is not accounted good for food. It is found in 
Java, and called Tomtomman, or Totalan ; but with some Variety, 
the quills and tail being deep blue. One, greatly similar, is also seen 
in New-Holland. 



HERON. 135 



1 1 6— SCOLOPACEOUS HERON. 

Ardea scolopacea, Ind. Orn. ii. 701. Gm. Lin. i. (347. 
Aramus, Courlan, Tern. Man. Anal. p. c. 
Le Gourlan, ou Couvliri, Buf. vii. 442. PL enl. 848. 
Scolopaceous Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 102. 

LENGTH two feet eight inches. Bill four inches long, reddish, 
with the point bluish; it is rather stout at the base, and straight, 
inclining downwards only at the tip ; on the upper mandible is a 
long furrow for two-thirds the length of the bill, in which the 
nostrils are placed, and seem to be a slit only ; round the eye bare 
and pale ; the plumage in general brown, with a reddish copper 
gloss on the quills and tail ; the feathers on the neck are each marked 
with a white streak down the shaft; and the chin nearly white ; the 
thighs naked far above the joint as in the Heron; legs pale blue ; 
claws black, that of the middle toe serrated. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and is a doubtful species, and partaking both 
of the Heron and Curlew, but most inclining to the former. M. 
Temminck forms a Genus of this bird, under the name of Aramus, 
or Courlan. 



***** BILL GAPING IN THE MIDDLE. 



117 — COROMANDEL HERON. 

Ardea Coromandeliana, Ind. Orn. ii. 702. Gm. Lin. i. 646. 
Anastomus, Bec-ouvert, Tern. Man. Anal. p. ci. 
Bec-ouvert des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. pi. in p. 2^19. 
Coromandel Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 102. 

LENGTH two feet eight inches, of which the bill measures six 
inches and a quarter, and the tail more than seven, and the feet 



136 HERON. 

reach six inches beyond the last ; colour of the bill rufous yellow, 
the edges of the upper mandible serrated, and both of thern bending 
from each other from the middle to the end ; at which part it 
resembles a pair of pincers, being broad, and not pointed as in other 
Herons ; general colour of the plumage white, marked on the top of 
the head with numerous black lines ; space between the bill and eye 
and round it, also the throat and chin, bare, and black ; the back for 
two-thirds black ; quills and tail the same ; legs rufous yellow, or 
brown ; toes connected by a membrane as far as the first joint. 

Found on the Coast of Coromandel in September, October, and 
November. 

We have remarked in some drawings, done in India, one with 
a black bill ; between that and the eye bare, as a lore, but not sur- 
rounding the eye; head, neck, breast, and under parts, fine pale 
grey, marked on the two first with numerous whitish spots ; feathers 
of the breast elongated, and hanging loose ; back, wings, and tail, 
black, but the wing coverts are fine pale grey ; bill shaped as in the 
Coromandel Species; legs black. — From the drawings of General 
Hardwicke. 

In another drawing was one with a similar bill, black at the base, 
the rest of the length pale grey ; upper mandible red beneath ; both 
mandibles wrinkled at the base, and the edges of both at the open 
parts somewhat toothed, or serrated ; between the bill and eye a 
naked black lore ; head, neck, beginning of the back, and all the 
wing coverts, pure white ; quills and middle of the back black, the 
former reaching over the tail, and obscuring it; legs pale flesh- 
colour. — Inhabits India ; called Goongoola. — Sir J. Anstruther. 

We have retained the above at the end of the Heron Genus, as 
they seem to have many things in common with it, although in 
others they differ, particularly in the openness of the bill, though 
agreeing with that tribe in the nakedness of the lore, and membrane 
between the toes ; but I do not find notice taken of any serrature on 
the middle claw. 



PL.CXLIX. 






, /••/' 



< / 



ERODY. 137 



GENUS LXXVII— ERODY. 

1 Abyssinian || 2 Pondicherry || 3 Indian 

ILL nearly straight, sharp at the end, the two mandibles not 

closing' the whole of their length. 

Face covered with feathers. 

Legs long; middle toe connected to the inner by a membrane as 
far as the first, and to the outer to the second joint; hind toe long ; 
claws moderate. 



1.— ABYSSINIAN ERODY.— Pl. cxlix. 

Ardea Pondiceviana, Salt's Trav. App.xYix. No. 55. 
Erodia Amphilensis, Salt's Trav. A pp. iv. pi. in p. lxiii. 

SIZE of the Avoset; length, from the point of the bill to the end 
of the tail, fifteen inches, bnt to the end of the toes five more. Bill 
black, stout, two inches and a half long; the two mandibles, in a 
natural state, somewhat receding from each other towards the point; 
the depth, just before the nostrils, rather more than half an inch ; 
nostrils pervious, situated at the lower and fore part of a membrane ; 
head large in proportion, as in some of the Plover Genus, and wholly 
covered with feathers; head, neck, greater part of the wing, down 
the middle, tail, and all beneath white ; upper parts of the body in 
general the same, but the back, as far as the middle, is black, and 
beyond this the feathers are two inches and a half long, and extend 
almost as far as the rump; greater quills black on the outer webs, 
the shafts and inner webs white, but the ends of all are black ; lesser 
quills white; on the outer edge, in the place of the bastard wing, a 

vol. ix. T 



138 ERODY. 

patch of white; at the bend of the wing- a small, short, black spur; 
the hind part of the head has a slight mottling of dusky, and a small 
spot on the fore part of the eye, close to it; legs deep bluish lead- 
colour, very long, from the first joint, next the body, ten inches; 
thighs four inches and a half, shins four inches, middle toe one inch 
and three quarters, outer toe one inch and a quarter, and the hind toe 
five-eighths of an inch, but placed high up; the toes united by a 
membrane for half the length between the outer and middle, and for 
about one-third between the latter and inner one; the claws small, 
blunt, scarcely exceeding the end of the toe to which they belong; 
the wings, when closed, reach almost to the end of the tail. 

Another specimen, probably not an adult bird, or differing in sex, 
was only fourteen inches long. The crown and nape streaked with 
dusky black; back dusky brown, instead of black, and the colour 
of less extent ; the white of the wings not pure, having a tinge of 
brown ; but the mark before the eye, though less conspicuous, is 
visible. 

The above are in the collection of Lord Stanley, brought to 
England by Mr. Salt; they were found at the bottom of the Bay of 
Amphila, in Abyssinia, where they watch the falling of the tides, and 
feed on the marine productions, and are, when alive, very handsome, 
and active birds. 



2.—PONDICHERRY ERODY, 

Ardea Ponticeiiana, hid. Qrn. ii. 702. Gm. Lin. i. 646. 
Le Bec-ouvert, Buf. vii. 409. PL enl. 932. 
Pondicheny Heron, Gen. Syii. v. 101. 

LENGTH fourteen inches and a half. Bill stout, base dusky, the 
rest of the length yellowish, or white; for about one-third from the 
base the edges are in contact, but from thence to the point the 



ERODY. 139 

mandibles recede from each other, to near the point, where they 
again unite; space between the eyes and round the latter quite 
covered with feathers ; general colour of the plumage cinereous grey, 
or bluish white; but the quills are black,* and much exceed the tail 
in length ; legs yellow and tessellated the whole of their length ; 
the same also in respect to the bare part above the joint ; claws 
small, black, and the edge of the middle one sharp, but not 
serrated. 

Inhabits India. Found at Pondicherry, and other parts. We 
have been at a loss concerning this bird ; at first sight supposing it 
to be one and the same with the Abyssinian Species, being as to size 
and distribution of colours greatly similar, but the bill has a much 
greater degree of opening between the two mandibles; and in respect 
to the toes, they are represented in the PI. enlum. as divided to the 
bottom ; the colour, too, of the bill and legs is yellow, and not lead- 
colour as in the Pondicherry Erody. 

M. Temminck considers the Coromandel Heron and the present 
Erody as one species, differing only in sex ; forming of them his 
Genus of Anastomus, or Bec-ouvert. We beg here to observe, 
that all of our Erody Genus have the faces entirely covered with 
feathers; whereas in the Coromandel Heron, that part, as well as the 
chin, is bare. Some doubts have, therefore, arisen with us, as to 
place it should hold in the present work. It may also be noticed, 
that by the scale in the PI. enlum. the Pondicherry Erody is only 
fourteen inches and a half in length, and the Coromandel Heron 
thirty-two inches ; too great a difference to admit of uniting them 
as one, and brings the former nearer to the size of the Erody, and 
which, according to the sentiments of Mr. Salt, we have formed into 
a Genus. 

* The lower part of the back appears black in the PI. enlum. but this is not mentioned 
in Buffon's Text. 

T 2 



140 ERODY 



3.— INDIAN ERODY. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches. Bill five inches and a half, dirty 
flesh-colour, towards the base black; before the eye and chin the 
same, and fully covered with feathers; plumage in general dusky 
white ; lower part of the back, quills, outer edge of the wing, and 
tail, black ; wings and tail even in length ; legs deep crimson, 
tessellated, claws black, with a membrane between the toes for about 
one-third of the length. 

Inhabits India. —Lord Mountnorris. 



IBIS. 



141 



GENUS LXXVIII.— IBIS. 



1 Wood Ibis 

2 Cangui 

3 Scarlet 

4 Cayenne 

5 Mexican 

6 Bare-faced 

7 White-necked 

8 Brown 

9 White 
A Var. 

10 Plumbeous 



11 Grey 

12 Chili 

13 Minute 

14 Crying 

15 Bay 

16 Green 

17 Glossy 

18 Bald 

19 Manilla 

20 Crested 

21 Black-headed 



22 Bare-necked 

23 Dhalac 

24 Ethiopian 

25 White-headed 

26 Pavonine 

27 Egyptian 

28 Theban 

29 Black 

30 Yellow-headed 

31 New-Holland 

32 Black-faced 



BlLL long, thick at the base, incurvated. Nostrils linear. 
The face, and sometimes the whole head, naked. 
Tongue short. 
Toes connected at the base by a membrane. 



1 — WOOD IBIS. 

Tantalus Loculator, Ind. Orn. ii. 702. Lin. i. 240. Gm. Lin. i. 647. Klein, 127. C. 

Borowsk. iii. 71. t. 47. Amer. Orn. viii. p. 39. pi. 66. f. 1. 
Numenius Americanus major, Bris. v. 335. Id. 8vo. ii. 295. 
Numenius niger, Klein, 109. 
Tantale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ciii. 

Couricaca, Buf. v. 276. PL enl. 86S. Damp. Voy. iii. 196. f. 2. 
Wood Pelican, Cat. Car. i. pi. 8!. Bartr. Trav. 291. 
Wood Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 104. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 360. 

SIZE of a Goose; length three feet to the tail, but to the toes 
sixteen inches longer; breadth five feet eight inches. The Bill is 
stout, nine inches long, and bent downwards towards the tip ; the 
colour yellowish brown ; irides pale rufous ; fore part of the head, 
and round the eyes, covered with a blue skin ; from the head to the 



142 ibis. 

middle of the neck the skin is also bare, rough and warty, the 
colour brown or blackish ; beneath the jaw a pouch, holding at least 
half a pint ; the whole plumage white, except the quills and tail, 
which are black ; the bare part of the thighs is four inches. The 
legs above a foot long, the colour of both dusky yellow; between 
the toes a membrane. Both sexes are much alike, but in the female 
the head and chin only are naked. 

Inhabits Carolina, and various parts of South America, frequenting 
the open savannas, which are under water, during the summer, but 
retires from the first in November; they often sit on the tall cypress 
trees in numbers together, resting their ponderous bills on their breast; 
are stupid birds, and easily shot when once met with ; they feed on fish 
and reptiles, but are accounted pretty good eating. Known at Brazil 
by the name of Gnricaca ; by the Portuguese called Masarino : they 
come in small flocks into Georgia, in June, frequenting the ponds,* 
and there called Gannet. 

Two of these were in the Museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever, 
and answered to the above description : the whole plumage white, 
but except the lesser and middle coverts, the whole wing was black ; 
tail black. In the male, the whole of the head and neck was bare 
and rugose ; in the female, only the head and throat were so, the 
rest of the length covered with short, downy, greyish feathers. In 
the Museum of the late Dr. W. Hunter was a fine specimen of the 
male. The bird referred to in Dampier was met with in Shark's Bay, 
New-Holland. 



A.— Curicaca, Rait, 103, 4. Will. 218. t. 54. Id. Engl. 295. pi. 54. 

In this the head and neck are white, variegated with yellow; the 
body black, but the back, head, and belly, have a mixture of ash- 
colour, and in the middle of the wing mixed with grey. This is 
probably a young bird. 

* Seen on the salts about Aletanaha River most part of the year. 



ibis. 143 



Another Variety had the wing coverts white, but in the middle 
a large space of black ; the quills wholly black. 



2— CANGUI IBIS. 

Le Cangui, Voy. d'Axara, iv. No. 344. 

Jabiru, Will. p. 201. Id. Engl. p. 275. pi. 47. f. 1. Rati, Syrt. p. 96. 4. Marcg. 
Bras. 200. pi. in ditto. 

THIS is thirty-three inches long, and sixty-four in extent of wing. 
Bill seven inches and a half, straight for about five inches, the rest 
of the length curving downwards; base black, the end olive, the 
rest of it marbled with these two colours; the wings and tail black, 
the rest of the bird white ; the wings reach to the end of the tail ; 
and when completely at rest, totally hiding it ; legs black. 

This bird inhabits Paraguay, and the borders of the river 
Plate ; some of the Guaranis call it Floxo, or Idle, on account of 
its slow and stately gait; generally found single, or two together; 
though now and then sixty in a flock ; is sufficiently shy, but more 
easily approached than the American Jabiru ; perches now and then 
on trees, but frequents stagnant waters, thrusting the bill at random 
into the mud in search of eels, and other prey. 

Marcgrave's bird, which, we think, may probably be the same, is 
said to be larger than the Swan, and the neck as thick as a man's 
arm ; the bill eleven inches long, two and a half broad, and a little 
bent downwards ; the general colour of the plumage white ; the legs 
very long and scaly. He adds, that the head and neck, for eight 
inches, are bare of feathers, seemingly covered with a black skin ; 
but supposes the feathers might have been plucked off. 

This last, we are told, is found in Brazil, and called by the 
inhabitants Negro. That Azara's bird is a distinct species of Ibis, 
we cannot doubt, but we are less certain of that from Marcgrave 
being the same ; for although, if we abide by his figure, the bill 



144 ibis. 

will give it the character of an Ibis, rather than the Jabiru, which 
on the contrary curves upwards ; yet the bird having the plumage 
wholly white, and a bare neck, independent of the bill, would rank 
it with the Jabiru, with which Brisson* has joined it, along with his 
other synonyms. 



3.-SCARLET IBIS. 

Tantalus ruber, Ind. Om.u. 703. Lin.i. 241. Gni. Lin.\. 651. Scop. i„ No. 130. 

Spalowsck. iii. t. 29. Nat. Misc. pi. 120. Amir. Orn.m. pi. 06. f. 2. 
Numenius Brasiliensis coccineus, Bris. v. 344. t,29. f. 1. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 298. 
Numenius coccineus Sinensis, Gerin. iv. t. 442. 
Guara, Rail, 104. Will. 219. t. 54. Sloan. Jam. 317. Pernet. Voy. i. 183. Harris, 

Coll. Voij. i. 728. Ulloa, Voy.W. 228? 
Der rothe Nimmersatt, Schmid, Vog. p. 120. t. 105. 
Avis Porphyrio, Seba, i. 98. t. 62. f. 3. Klein, 124. 11. 
Ibis, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ciii. 
Le Courlis rouge, Buf. viii. 35. PL enl. 80. 81. 
Chirlito, Ave de Rio, Gabin. de Madrid, i. p. 25. lam. 12. 
Red Curlew, Cat. Car. i. pi. 84. Hist. Guian. 172. 
Scarlet Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 106. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 361. Will. Engl. 296. Ch. V, pi. 

54. f. 6. — Guara. 

THIS beautiful bird is twenty-one inches long, of which the 
bill is six inches and a half, and pale red ; the base of it passes a 
little way back on the forehead; eyes black; sides of the head, quite 
beyond the eyes, bare, and pale red ; the whole plumage glowing- 
scarlet, except four of the outer prime quills, which are of a glossy 
blue black, for two or three inches from their end ; the shafts of the 
quills and tail white; legs pale red. 

The female is much the same, but the colours less lively. 

Inhabits most parts of America, within the tropics ; also pretty 
common in East Florida ; a few seen in the South of Carolina, and 
sometimes in Georgia, but at the last place as a rare bird. In some 
of the West India Islands is in great plenty, especially the Bahamas; 

* Orn. v. p. 371. 



ibis. 145 

it generally frequents the borders of the sea, and sides of the neigh- 
bouring rivers, living on small fry of fish and insects, collected 
when the sea retires from the shore. These birds frequently perch 
on the trees in great numbers, but the female lays her eggs on the 
ground on a bed of leaves, * the eggs of a greenish colour. The 
young, newly hatched, are black, in a little time after grey, but are 
nearly white before they are able to fly ; and from this they change 
to red by degrees, f but are not completely so till the third year; 
and in some, even at that time, many of the neck feathers are mixed 
with brown. These are mostly seen in numbers together, and the 
young and old keep in separate flocks. This bird is frequently 
domesticated in the parts where it naturally inhabits, and is often 
brought to England alive. One in iny collection, had lived very 
cordially among the poultry, but after some time it grew sickly, lost 
all the brilliancy of plumage ; and before it died, faded to a dull 
rose-colour. It is in much esteem in Guiana, &c. for the rich scarlet 
feathers, which the natives form into various ornaments ; it is also by 
some esteemed for food. 



4.— CAYENNE IBIS. 

Tantalus Cayanensis, Jnd. Om. ii. 704. Gm. Lin. i. 652. 
Courlis des Bois de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 42. PL enl. 820. 
Ibis, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ciii. 
Cayenne Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 107. 

LENGTH twenty-two inches ; Bill bent, five inches and a half 
long and dusky ; the base, and round the eye a dusky pale red ; 
plumage in general black, glossed with green in some lights ; quills 
and tail darkest ; legs brownish yellow. 

* Pernetty says, on the house tops, and the holes of walls. — Voy. i. 183. 

•f In the PL enlum. No. 80. is one in this state of plumage. Ulloa met with large flights 
of Curlews within twenty or thirty leagues of Juan Fernandez; these were mostly white, 
except the breast and upper part of the wings, which were rose-coloured. See Voy. ii. 228. 
Most likely they were this species. 

VOL. IX. U 



146 ibis. 

In some birds the crown and nape have the middle of each feather 
dashed with deep black, not glossy; and the legs almost black. At 
first this bird may be taken for the young of the Scarlet Ibis, but 
the legs are only eight inches in length; whereas in the Scarlet one 
they are twelve at least; in this bird too they do not reach to the end 
of the tail, but in the scarlet they extend much beyond it. 

Inhabits Cayenne, but is not numerous; always seen in pairs; 
perches on the decayed trees, which float down with the stream, for 
the sake of fishing, and generally at some distance from the sea; 
called at Cayenne, Flammant des Bois. 



5.— MEXICAN IBIS. 

Tantalus Mexicanus, Ind. Orn. ii. 704. Gm. Lin. i. 652. 
Numenius Mexicanus varius, Bris. v. 335. Id. 8vo. ii. 295. 
Acacolotl, Raii, 104. 5. Will 218. Id. Engl. 296. Buf. viii. 45. 
Mexican Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. p. 108. 

THIS is three feet in length. Bill eight inches long, and bluish ; 
irides red ; between the bill and eyes, and round them, bare, and 
reddish; head and neck covered with dusky, white, and green feathers, 
intermixed with a few yellow ones ; back and rump black, glossed 
with green and purple; breast and belly brown, mixed with a little 
red ; wing coverts green ; quills and tail green, bronzed with copper ; 
legs black. 

Inhabits Mexico; frequenting the lakes, and feeding on fish: 
it breeds there, and is accounted good eating, though of a fishy scent. 



6.— BARE-FACED IBIS. 

Le Curucau rase, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 365. 

LENGTH nineteen inches, breadth twenty-two. Bill forty-five 
lines, olive-colour ; irides brown ; fore part of the head, before the 



IBIS. 



147 



eyes, bare of feathers, passing from one eye to the other, over the 
crown, and of a reddish colour; plumage in general black, with 
a gloss of violet on the body, and of green on the wings and tail ; 
legs covered with scales. 

Inhabits Paraguay ; generally seen single, or in pairs, but now 
and then in a flock of about six : wades in the water, as most others 
of the Genus. It seems in many things to coincide with the Mexican 
Species. Said to be not uncommon in Brazil. 



7.— WHITE-NECKED IBIS. 

Tantalus albicollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 704. Gm. Lin. i. 053. 

Grand Courlis de Ca3'enne, Buf. viii. 47. 

Le Mandurria, ou Curucau, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 362. 

Courly a Col blanc, PI. enl. 976. 

White-necked Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 109. 

BIGGER than a Common Curlew ; length twenty-seven inches. 
Bill black ; head and neck rufous white, the first deeper coloured ; 
between the bill and eye bare ; plumage in general brown, undulated 
with grey, and glossed with green ; greater wing coverts white ; 
legs red. 

Inhabits Cayenne ; common also at Brazil, Paraguay, and quite 
to the River Plata ; called by the Portuguese Massarico ; chiefly 
seen in pairs, sometimes in flocks of fifty; is rarely found in moist 
places, preferring dry spots, and feeding on worms, grasshoppers, 
and other insects ; passes the night on trees, and breeds in those 
parts : the nest is large, composed of sticks, and placed on the trunk 
of a decayed tree : the name of the bird is from its cry, being 
Crucau or Curucau ; fancied to be like the noise of the strokes of a 
caulker's mallet. It is by some taken young, and brought up tame, 
so as to feed quietly among the poultry. 

U 2 



148 ibis. 



8.- BROWN IBIS. 

Tantalus fuscus, hid. Orn. ii. 705. Lin.i. 242. Gm. Lin. i. 651. 

Numenius Brasiliensis f'uscus, Bris.v. 341. Id. Svo. ii. 297. Klein, 109. 4. 

Courly a front rouge, Bvf. viii. 43. 

Spanish Curlew, Bartr. Trav. p. 291.* 

Brown Curlew, Cates. Car. i. pi. 83. 

Brown Ibis, Gen. Si/n. v. 110. Arct. Zoo/, ii. No. 302. 

LENGTH near two feet ; extent of wing three feet three inches. 
Bill six inches long, pale red ; between that and the eye bare, and 
red; irides grey; head, neck, back, wings, and tail cinereous brown, 
the two first palest ; lower part of the back, rump, and under parts, 
from the breast, white ; legs pale red ; claws brown. The male and 
female nearly alike. 

Inhabits the warmer parts of America, Cayenne, Guiana, &c. 
frequently met with in Carolina throughout the summer, going to 
the southward in winter ; it associates with the White, or following 
Species, but is a much scarcer bird. 

One of these, sent from Mr. Abbot, of Savannah, had the bill 
dusky, being only red at the base; head and neck dusky white, 
with numerous streaks of brown, as in our Curlew ; the legs also are 
brown ; but in other points agreeing with the above description, and 
may possibly be a bird having less maturity of plumage. Mr. A. 
observes, that he has seen them sometimes about the ponds in 
Georgia, in the summer, and that they vary in plumage, some being 
darker than others, with the legs nearly white. 



9— WHITE IBIS. 

Tantalus albus, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 705. Lin. i. 242. Gm. Lin. i. 651. Klein, 109. 3. 

Amer. Orn. Vol. viii. p. 43. pi. 66. f. 3. 
Numenius Brasiliensis candidus, Bris. v. 339. Id. Svo. ii. 296. 
Courly blanc du Bresil, Buf. viii. 41. PI. enl. 915. 



ibis. 149 

White Curlew, Cat. Car.], pi. 82. Bartr. Trav. 291. 
White Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 111. Arct.Zool.W. No. 363. 

LENGTH from twenty-two to twenty-five inches; breadth forty. 
Bill six inches and a half long, pale red ; round the eyes and chin 
bare and red; irides grey ; plumage in general white, but the ends 
of the four first quills greenish black ; legs red, thirteen inches long ; 
middle toe three inches. Male and female nearly alike. 

Inhabits the low watery lands in Carolina, in great numbers, 
about the latter end of summer, and feeds on fish and water insects ; 
these birds remain for about six weeks, and then depart, returning 
every autumn ; the fat and flesh said to be as yellow as saffron, but 
though eaten by some, is not much esteemed. Mr. Abbot informs 
us, that they come in flocks to the ponds the beginning of April. 
According to the Arctic Zoology, the White Kind are twenty times 
more numerous than the Brown ; the flesh of the latter also differs, 
being of a dark colour : called by some Spanish Curlew. 

A. — Tantalus Coco, Jacq. Fog. 24. Gm. Lin. i. 652. 
Coco Ibis, Gen. Syn. Sup. 241. 

Size of the other. Bill flesh-colour; bare space on each side of 
the head the same; general colour of the plumage greyish white; 
the three outer quills black at the tips ; legs flesh-colour. 

Inhabits the Caribbee Islands, and called there Pescheur, as it 
feeds on fish, in the wild state ; is now and then kept tame, and will 
then eat flesh, both raw and boiled ; its note imitates the word Ko, 
which the bird frequently repeats, hence the name given to it ; the 
flesh is thought by some to be tolerably well flavoured. 

10— PLUMBEOUS IBIS. 

Le Curucau de couleur de Plomb, Voy. d'Asara, iv. No. 363. 

LENGTH twenty-six inches and a half; extent forty-five. Bill 
bent as usual, space round the eyes and the chin bare, and extends 



150 ibis. 

all round ; irides bright red or orange; eyelids blackish; plumage in 
general lead-colour; outer wing coverts, quills, and tail dusky; 
middle of the wing coverts grey; at the hind head, and nape, the 
feathers are whitish down the middle; legs reddish. 

Inhabits Paraguay, but is very rare ; found also south of the 
River Plata ; generally in pairs, rarely in flocks. Is not observed 
to enter the water, but frequents clayey spots, and will feed on the 
flesh of dead animals. Its cry sharp, uttering the syllable Ta, six 
or eight times following. Said to differ from the White-necked 
Species. 

11— GREY IBIS. 

Tantalus griseus, Ind. Orn. ii. 705. Gm. Lin. i. 653. 
Numenius Americanus minor, Bris. v. 337. Id. Svo. ii. 296. 
Matuiti, Will. 218. Id. Engl. 296. Bit/, viii. 46. 
Grey Ibis, Gen. Si/n. v. 110. 

SIZE of a Fowl. Bill reddish brown; irides rufous; round 
the bill and eyes bare and black ; hind part of the head and neck 
grey; the rest of the plumage whitish ; but the lower part of the 
back, rump, quills, and tail, are greenish black; legs pale red, 
claws black. — Inhabits Brazil. 



12 —CHILI IBIS. 

Tantalus pillus, Ind. Orn. ii. 709. Molin. Chil. 215. Id. Fr. ed. 224. Gm. Lin. i. 652. 

SIZE of a Goose. The neck three feet in length ; bill large, 
acute, convex, four inches long, naked at the base ; throat naked, 
and dilatable into a kind of pouch; plumage in general white, 
variegated with black ; quills and tail black, the latter short, and 
even at the end ; legs and thighs together two feet eight inches long, 
and brown. 



IBIS. 151 

Inhabits the Rivers and Lakes of Chili, chiefly seen on the 
ground, rarely on trees ; lives on reptiles, &c. ; makes the nest 
among the reeds, and lays two bluish white eggs. 



13— MINUTE IBIS. 

Tantalus minutus, Ind. Om. ii. 708. Lin. i. 241. Gnu Lin. i. 650. 
Lesser Ibis, Gen. St/n. v. 117. Edw. pi. 356.- 

SIZE of the Whimbrel, or less. Bill two inches and a half 
long, blue at the base, black at the point; sides between the bill 
and eye, and round them bare ; plumage on the upper parts of the 
body and tail dusky brown; feathers of the breast loose, and longer 
than the rest; rump and under parts white; legs dark lead-colour, 
claws black. 

Inhabits Surinam. BufTon * suspects this bird to be the Whim- 
brel, in imperfect plumage; but it does not seem probable, from the 
bareness about the eyes ; and we do not learn, that our Whimbrel 
has yet been found in America. 



14 —CRYING IBIS. 

Numenius vociferus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p, lxv. 

Tantalus pictus, Ephouskyca, Bart. Trav. 145. 291. Lin. Trans, tm. p. 24. pi. 1. 

Crying Curlew, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. p. 306. 

SIZE of a large Hen. Bill five or six inches long, and arched 
downwards ; the upper mandible rather longer than the under, next 
the head square ; colour dusky green, but yellowish about the base 
and angles ; eye large, placed high in the head, which, on the sides, 
is somewhat bare; plumage in general dark lead-colour, the feathers 
edged, or tipped with white, making the bird appear speckled : 

* Tom. viii. p. 29. 



152 ibis. 

neck long; the tail very short, but cuneiform, dark lead-colour; the 
the two outer feathers perfectly white, which the bird has the faculty 
of flirting' out on either side, as quick as a flash of lightning, on 
being disturbed ; the legs are long, and black. 

This species inhabits the swamps of the Musquito River, and the 
Lakes of Florida, as well as Georgia, and called by the Criks or 
Muscoges, Ephouskyca or Crying Bird, from its uttering an extremely 
harsh shriek when it is disturbed. Mr. Bartram does not mention its 
being bare on any part of the head ; hence, although he calls the 
bird a Tantalus, he seems uncertain where to place it; but we have 
had the opportunity of learning, from a drawing sent from America, 
that it unequivocally belongs to this Genus. In the drawing the 
rump seems paler than the rest, nearly white. 

In the Linnwan Transactions above quoted is a good description 
of the bird, to which is added an accurate engraving, furnished by 
Dr. Barton, of Philadelphia. 



15.— BAY IBIS. 

Tantalus Falcinellus, Ind. Om. ii. 707. Lin. i. 241. Gm. Lin. i. 648. Scop. i. No. 

131. Kram. 350, Boroicsk. iii. 72. Faun. He/vet. 
Ibis sacra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. 3S5. Id. Ed. ii. 600. 
Numenius viridis, Bris. v. 326. Id. 8vo. ii. 293. 
Numenius eastaneus, Bris. v. 329. Id. 8vo. ii. 294. 
Numenius subaquilus, Klein, 110. 8. 

Arcuata minor, &c. Mars. Dan. v. 40. t. 18. Buf. v'ni. 31. (r) 
Falcinellus, Raii, 103. 3. Will. 218. t. 54. Id. Engl. 295. pi. 54. f. 4. 
Der Sichelschnabler, Bechst. Deuts. iii. s. 70. Naturf. xiii. 210 ? 
Le Courlis verd d'ltalie, Buf. viii. p. 29. PI. enl. 819. 
Bay Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 113. Arct. Zoo/, ii. 460 A. Id. Sup. 67. Brit. Misc. t. 18. 

Om. Diet. Supp. 

SIZE of our Curlew; the length one foot nine inches. Bill near 
four inches long, and brown ; from the base, all round the eye, bare, 
and dusky green ; head and neck chestnut, inclining to brown on 



ibis. 153 

the former, where the feathers have pale edges ; the upper parts of 
the body are glossy green, appearing bronzed in different lights ; 
the breast, belly, and under parts brown, glossed with green gold 
on the breast ; quills and tail darker than the back, and with very 
little gloss; legs dusky blue; between the toes a small membrane 
at the base. 

Inhabits Italy, and some parts of Germany ; also very common 
about the Caspian and Black Seas, ascending the rivers to breed ; is 
frequent in flocks about the lakes, but none seen in Siberia : is not 
uncommon on the Danube; and as it inhabits Italy for certain, and 
met with also in India, there is not the least doubt of its being in the 
intermediate parts, though not mentioned by authors.* 

In the drawings of Sir John Anstruther I find it represented in 
several stages of growth ; when most complete, the head, neck, and 
under parts are fine glossy chestnut ; back, wings, and tail, purplish 
black, with a gloss of green ; wings and tail even in length ; the 
rest as above described, except that the bare part round the eye is 
bounded with white. 

In a bird full grown, but not complete in colour, the chestnut is 
less bright, marked about the head and neck with a small portion of 
brown ; belly, thighs, and vent, pale rufous chestnut. 

In a still younger subject the bare space round the eye seems 
downy ; and the whole head and neck covered with short feathers, 
of a purplish red, with numerous dots, or dashes of white; the rest 
of the bird dull, deep, reddish brown ; beneath ash-colour, with a 
gloss of purple and green, on the upper parts; legs dusky black 
brown. — It is known in India, about Hindustan, by the name of 
Kowahrie, or Cowarie ; in some drawings the shoulders are chestnut. 
One of these in the Leverian Museum is said to have been shot in 
Kent.f 

* Sonnini says, they are common on the banks of the Nile; are birds of passage, and 
follow the course of that river, up to the Cataract. The Arabs call it Saheleck. — Trav. 
iii. p. 11. t Lev. Mus. Catal. No. 5757. 

VOL. IX. X 



154 ibis. 



16— GREEN IBIS. 

Tantalus viridis, Ind. Orn. ii. 707. Gm. Lin. i. 648. 

Numenius viridis, JV. C. Petr. xv. 462. t. 19. Gmel. It. i. 167. 

Green Ibis, Gen. Si/n. v. 114. 13. Lin. Trans, ix. p. 198. Orn. Diet. Sup. 

LENGTH nineteen inches and a half. Bill three inches and a 
half long, much bent, smooth, and lead-colour brown, beneath flesh- 
colour; irides pale ; lore rough, and naked ; under the chin the skin 
is dilatable, forming a small pouch ; above the eye behind a white 
spot, tending to the hindhead ; on the crown two or three irregular 
spots of the same ; the head otherwise is blackish, and the feathers 
margined with a paler colour; chin the same, marked with small 
whitish spots; neck greyish black; across the upper part three 
whitish bands, with a fourth beneath, but indistinct ; back and tail 
green gold ; rump, breast, belly, and thighs, blackish brown ; wing 
coverts and quills deep shining green, glossed with blue; legs and 
claws deep black. 

This is found with the former, and has the same habits, except 
that it does not soar so high, but rather skims along the air, some- 
what in the manner of a Swallow : it seems to have great affinity to 
the Bay Ibis : according to M. Temminck it is that bird, under three 
years of age. 



17.— GLOSSY IBIS. 

Tantalus igneus, Ind. Orn. ii. 708. Gm. Lin. i. 649. 

Numenius igneus, N. C. Petr. xv. 460. t. 18. 

Biasilian Curlew, Nat. Misc. t. 705 ? 

Glossy Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 115. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 30. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

LENGTH almost two feet. Bill five inches, smooth, roundish, 
much bent, olive-green; eyelids brown ; irides olive; eyes placed in 
a white space; under the chin a small, dilatable pouch ; head and 



ibis. 155 

neck black, the feathers fringed with white ; the rest of the body 
variegated with blackish, blue, green, and vinaceous, and in general 
very glossy ; hence the bird, in flying, appears gilded, when the sun 
shines upon it; wing coverts next the body reddish and blue mixed, 
the next series black, red, and green ; quills and tail green gold, 
glossed in different lights with red and violet, and equal in length ; 
legs very long, bright green ; claws crooked, black. 

Inhabits Russia, chiefly the shores of the Don, and about the 
Choper ; lives on fish and insects ; flies in flocks, and builds on trees. 

One in the Leverian Museum was shot in Cornwall ; another 
killed near Reading, in Berkshire, by Dr. Lamb, in the spring 1796. 
Authors who have described these birds, and from whom we have 
taken chiefly our account, have chosen to make them distinct, but 
we have much suspicion that the Bay, Green, and Glossy Ibis may 
hereafter only prove to be the same, varying in colour of plumage 
from age, or difference of sex. In the collection of Col. Montagu 
was also one of these, or the Green Ibis, shot in the interior parts 
of Devonshire : this was a male. 

In Mr. Bullock's Museum was one with a mixture of white on 
the fore part of the neck ; on the body here and there a chestnut 
feather, inner part of the wing coverts the same; breast, and the rest 
of the under parts ferruginous chestnut. 



18.— BALD IBIS. 

Tantalus calvus, hid. Orn. ii. 708. Grn. Lin. i. 649. 
Courly a tete nue, Buf. viii. 32. PI. enl. 867. 
Bald Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 116. 16. 

SIZE of the Curlew; length from twenty-six to thirty-one inches. 
Bill nearly six inches Jong, and red ; the head and part of the neck 
bare of feathers, and tuberculated at the back part; the whole 

x 2 



156 ibis. 

crown is red, the rest white ; skin of the throat flaccid, dilatable, 
and bare; irides brown ; the plumage in general black, on the wing 
coverts glossed with green, and the tips with copper ; the tail seven 
inches long, consisting of twelve feathers, and the wings reach to 
the bend of it ; legs pale red. 

The female scarcely differs, except in having the top of the head 
more flat. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa, 
near watery places ; is not difficult to be tamed, as one was kept for 
a time in the Company's Garden, at the Cape; is most plentiful 
about Sea-cow River : it also extends to India. One of these, in 
some drawings from thence, had the bill of a yellowish colour; 
plumage in general black ; on the bend of the wing, at the scapulars, 
white; under belly ash-colour; legs pale red. The name given to it 
was Corcula. 

In some drawings in the collection of Lord Mountnorris, sent 
from Oude, the bill is pale lead-colour; head and throat bare, rugose, 
and black ; but the hind part, from the middle of the crown, velvety 
red, and some white at the middle of the inner ridge of the wing ; 
belly and thighs ash-colour; the legs very rough, pale red, and 
rather short, but this I have observed in every drawing of it. In the 
the above drawings it was named Corankool. 



19.— MANILLA IBIS. 

Tantalus Manillensis, Lid. Orn. ii. 708. Gm. Lin.'i. 649. 
Courly brun de LU9011, Son. Voy. 85. pi. 47. Buf. viii. 31. 
Manilla Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 117. 

SIZE of our Curlew. Bill greenish ; eye encircled with a naked, 
greenish skin ; irides bright red ; plumage in general rufous brown ; 
legs the colour of red lake. 

Inhabits the Island of Luconia. 



IBIS. 



157 



20. -CRESTED IBIS. 

Tantalus cristatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 709. Gm. Lin. i. 650. Nat. Misc. pi. 721. 
Courlis huppe de Madagascar, Buf. viii. 33. PL enl. 841. 
Crested Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 118. 19. 

THIS most beautiful species is twenty inches in length. The bill 
four inches long, moderately bent, and brownish yellow ; sides of 
the head, round the eyes, bare, and pale coloured ; the head, and 
part of the neck black ; at the back part a tuft of very long feathers, 
half white, half black ; the rest of the neck, and body ferruginous ; 
the whole wing dirty white; vent and tail black; the legs are pale 
yellow brown. 

Inhabits Madagascar. 



21.— BLACK-HEADED IBIS. 

Tantalus melanocephalus, Ind. Orn. ii. 709. 
Black-headed Ibis, Gen. Syn. Sup. 240. 

LENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill six inches long, stout, much 
curved, and black ; lore, and round the eye bare and black ; head 
black ; nape, and neck behind marked with small spots of the same ; 
the rest of the plumage white ; the legs black ; between the toes a 
membrane ; hind claw long. 

Inhabits India, called Buttore. In Gen. Hardwicke's drawing 
the ends of the second quills are pale ash ; whole head, and back of 
the neck, to a point, plain dusky black. 



158 ibis. 



22.— BARE-NECKED IBIS. 

LENGTH two feet nine inches. Bill six inches and a half long, 
black, much bent, blunt, compressed, angular, with two furrows, 
which run from the nostrils to the point; tongue very short, and 
sagittal, with the posterior sinus denticulated ; a similar ridge runs 
across the palate ; irides light brown ; head and neck quite naked, 
and black ; at the lower part of the neck, and on the breast, are 
some long recurved feathers, with bristly webs, forming a kind of 
pendulous tuft ; all the feathers are white, and have a fine gloss, 
except a few of the scapulars on each side, which are as long as the 
tail, very broad, loose in texture, and of a fine ash-colour ; the shafts 
of the prime quills have, in some, on the outside, a longitudinal 
black streak ; in others they are entirely white ; the legs, and naked 
part above the joint, dark ash-colour ; the wings as long as the tail ; 
the hind toe is pretty long, and between the three toes before a small 
web ; claws sharp. 

This bird is found in jeels near Calcutta, and lives on fish, frogs, 
&c. : it is the Bogo of the Mussulmans; Castea Chura, or Cuchea 
Chura, of the Bengalese ; this last name signifies the stealer of a 
sickle, from the resemblance which the bill has to that implement of 
agriculture. I observe that the bare part of the thighs, next the 
body, in the drawing, is reddish; and the legs, just above the joining 
on of the toes, have a remarkable bend.* 

One similar, in Sir J. Anstruther's drawings, is called Murwal, 
and another Bouga, and has a purplish tinge on the upper parts of 
the body ; but in neither are there any loose feathers on the breast, 
or ash-coloured, loose ones over the tail ; in other markings they 
correspond with the above described. 

* Dr. Buchanan. 



ibis. 159 

In one among the drawings of General Hardwicke, the bill, half 
way from the base, is pale, mottled with black ; on the breast twenty 
or more narrow long feathers, curving outwards ; legs black. 



23.— DHALAC IBIS. 

LENGTH, from the bill to the end of the claws, two feet and 
a half. Bill, to the eyes, nearly seven inches, with a regular curve 
the whole length ; extent of wing four feet three inches ; general 
colour of the bird black and white ; the bill, and the whole of the 
neck, bare; plumage white, but the quills and secondaries have the 
ends black; and a fringe of black, loose feathers falls over the 
closed wings, which appear to be longer than the tail, and hide it ; 
length of the thigh bone six inches and one-third ; of the legs four 
and a quarter ; and round the body fifteen inches ; legs and thighs 
black. 

Inhabits Massowa, on the Abyssinian Coast ; one is there men- 
tioned as having been killed in June ; and another seen about Dhalac 
in January, where it is called Dhalac, by the natives. 



24.— ETHIOPIAN IBIS. 

Tantalus .SLthiopicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 706. 
Abou Hannes, Bruce' 1 s Trav. App. pi. p. 172. 

Mr. BRUCE describes this as standing nineteen inches high from 
the back to the ground, when erect ; the upper part of the bill 
green, the lower black ; head, and all the back part of the neck, 
brown ; quills for thirteen inches from tail black, the same from the 
extremity of the tail to six inches up the back ; the rest of the 
plumage white ; legs black. 



160 ibis. 

Inhabits Ethiopia, and is called St. John's Bird, as it makes its 
first appearance on that day. So far Mr. Bruce. 

This bird seems to differ from the last in not being bare either on 
the head or neck ; at least we are not led to think so by his figure, 
or description ; for it appears bare only round the eyes. Whether it 
is a young bird of the last, or distinct, we cannot say, further than it 
is similar in plumage. It should appear that Lord Mountnorris 
considers it to be the same, when he says, the Abou Hannes of Bruce 
was seen about Dhalac in January; on the Abyssinian Coast, this 
so called by the natives.* 

We have described the three last as distinct, not without suspicion 
of their being the same species, which is not unlikely, as many birds 
common to India, are likewise found in Abyssinia, and other parts 
of Africa. 



25— WHITE-HEADED IBIS. 

Tantalus leucocephalus, Ind. Orn. ii. 706. Got. Lin. i. 649. Zool. Indie, p. 20. t. 10. 
Tantalus Gangeticus, Gangetic Ibis, Nat. Misc. pi. 293. 
Tantale, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ciii. 

White-headed Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 116. Id. Sup. 240. Ind. Zool. 4to. p. 47. pi. 11. 
Penn. Hind. i. 212. ii. 158. Id. Outlines, Vol. iv. 128. 

THIS is a large bird, equalling the Heron in size; length three 
feet and a half. The bill ten inches and a half long, yellow, thick 
at the base, and moderately curved ; nostrils very narrow, near the 
head ; the fore part of which, quite behind the eyes, covered with a 
bare yellow skin, which seems a continuation of the bill ; irides grey; 
the rest of the head, neck, back, belly, and secondaries, white ; wing 
coverts and quills black; upper tail coverts pink, falling over and 
hiding the tail, which is four inches and a half long, and the coverts 
reaching at least four inches beyond it; legs dull flesh-colour; toes 

* Valent. Trav. ii. 225. This supposed to be the true Ibis of the Egyptians. — Salt. 



IBIS. 161 

united at the base to the first joint. In addition to the rest, the 
figure in the Indian Zoology has a broad band of black across the 
breast, which is said to distinguish the female sex, and in some birds 
I have not only observed a mixture of brown on the wing coverts, 
but the greater part of the belly and upper part of the thighs brown, 
with some mottlings of white. 

I have seen this bird in several collections of drawings from 
India, but in the greatest Variety in those of Sir J. Anstruther. 
It appears from these, that the adult male acquires the full plumage 
in three years. In this all the lesser and outer wing coverts are 
black, beautifully margined with white; the larger coverts wholly 
white, forming a broad, oblique bar on the wing ; quills black ; tail 
black, tipped with white ; the pink coverts hanging over the end of 
it, being of a greater length, and the tips of the quills are full as 
long as the pink coverts. 

In a preserved skin of one of these, I observed the whole of the 
wing coverts black, margined at the ends with white, appearing as 
beautiful undulated bars, and some of the lower scapulars white on 
the outer webs ; the tail four inches in length, the feathers rounded 
at the ends, and the pink coverts reaching four inches beyond it. 
The name given to this is Jungul ; at Hindustan called Kautsurunga : 
in another the wing coverts were black, but the second series 
margined with dull white, and the tertials dusky white ; the tail not 
tipped with white, and the feathers much contaminated with brown 
down the middle and the edges ; legs pale at the back, and the toes 
dark, mixed cinereous brown : this appeared a full grown bird, but 
not quite perfect in plumage, and the bare part of the head neither 
runs so far back, nor is of so deep a colour, or the white any where 
so pure. One of these, appearing to be in its first feathers, was more 
or less brown above, deepest on the wing coverts ; and the long, 
upper tail coverts, not even tinged with red, but brown like the rest ; 
quills and tail black ; under parts of the body white. 

VOL. IX. Y 



162 ibis. 

The bird figured in the Indian Zoology was taken in the Isle 
of Ceylon, and kept tame for some time at Colombo, it made a 
snapping noise with the bill like a Stork, and lost its fine rosy 
feathers in the rainy season. It is very common on the River 
Ganges, and in some parts of India is called the Smaller Adjutant. 
The Indian name Tarai pittah ; by some Jaunghill.* The pink 
feathers of the rump are not unfrequently used as ornaments by the 
ladies, like those of the Ostrich. 

This species is said to be found also in the southern parts of 
North America, and in New-Holland. f 

26.— PAVONINE IBIS. 

Tantalus pavonius, Spalowsck. Vog. iii. t. 28. 

BILL black, stout, much bent, round the eyes bare ; head and 
neck brownish yellow; body white; rump feathers very long, 
hanging over the tail, and of a dusky colour; legs yellow. 

This is all we learn of the above bird, nor does its author even 
say the place from whence it came. This may not improbably be 
a Variety of the White-headed Ibis. 

27 —EGYPTIAN IBIS. 

Tantalus Ibis, Ind. Orn.'u. 700. Lin.'i. 241. Gm. Lin. i. 650. Hasse/q. 248. Id. 

Voy. 198. Scop. i. No. 128. Borowsk. iii. 72. Schmid, Vog. p. 120. t. 104. 

Lin. Trans, xiii. 327. Var. 
Ibis Candida, Bris. v. 349. Id. 8vo. ii. 299. 
L'lbis blanc, Bvf. viii. 14. pi. 1. PL enl. 389. Hist, de V Acad. iii. p. 3. 61. t. 13. 

Savignn. Hist, de l'lbis, pi. 1, 2, 3. 
Emseesy, or Ox Bird, Shaw's Travels, 255. 
Egyptian Ibis, Gen. Si/n. v. 111. 

THIS bird is said to exceed the Stork somewhat in size, and 
from thirty to forty inches in length ; the bill seven inches long, 

* These birds in different stages of growth are called in India .White, and Brown 
Jaunghill. f Pennant, Outlines, iv. 128. 



ibis. 163 

yellow, growing reddish towards the tip; it is slightly curved, and 
ends in a blunt point; the fore part of the head, all round as far as 
the eyes, naked and reddish ; the skin under the throat is also bare, 
and dilatable ; the plumage reddish white, most inclining to red 
on the back, and wings ; quills and tail black ; legs long, and the 
thighs bare for two-thirds of their length ; colour red, the toes united 
as far as the first joint. Hasselquist adds, that the irides are whitish ; 
the end of the bill and legs black. 

It is said to be found in Lower Egypt, in great plenty, in places 
just freed from the inundations of the Nile; lives on frogs and insects; 
seen in gardens, morning and evening, and sometimes in such 
plenty, that the palm trees are wholly covered with them ; when at 
rest they sit quite erect, the tail touching the legs. This author 
believes it to be the Ibis of the Ancients, because it is both common, 
as well as peculiar to Egypt, and that it eats serpents, as well as 
other things ; also, because the urns which contain the remains of 
embalmed birds, found in sepulchres with the mummies, seem to 
contain such as are of this size. 

Shaw mentions a bird of this kind called Emseesy, or Ox Bird, 
and describes it as wholly white, except the bill and legs, which are 
of a fine red ; and adds, that it feeds on the meadows with the cattle; 
but the flesh is unsavoury, and soon corrupts. 

Among the drawings of Mr. Dent I met with a Variety of this 
bird, in it the back part of the bare space of the face is banded with 
yellow ; the wing coverts white as in the others, but the lower order 
beautifully barred with pale blue ; the rest of the wings and tail 
black. 

A Variety is found in Sumatra ; as also one smaller, of a light 
grey colour, with the abdomen and rump white; wings and tail 
black ; called Tantalus cinereus. 



Y 2 



164 ibis. 



28— THEBAN IBIS. 

Egyptian Ibis, Phil. Trans. 1805. p. 264. pi. 8. 

THE measurements of the bird here described by Dr. Pearson, are 
as follow : — Length of the head and bill eight inches; of the neck, 
of which ten vertebras can be traced, six inches and a half; and from 
the termination of the neck to the extremity of the tail twelve inches 
and a half; length of the sternum four inches ; from the end of the 
metatarsal bone to the extremity of the longest toe seven inches; the 
longest toe three inches and a half; width of the body at the shoul- 
ders four inches and a half; circumference at the thickest part 
thirteen inches and a half; weight of the whole sixteen ounces and 
a half troy. This bird was inclosed in a small earthen jar, with a 
cover, used for such purpose, and brought with others from Thebes, 
in Upper Egypt. The subject was inclosed in several layers or 
bandages of cloth about three inches broad, saturated with some 
resinous substance, rendering it very difficult to lay the parts bare 
for inspection, without injury. It was so managed as to take up the 
smallest space. The neck twisted, so as to place the crown of the 
head on the body of the bird, a little to the left of the sternum : the 
curved bill, with its concave part turned upwards, descended between 
the feet, and reached the extremity of the tail ; each foot, with its 
four claws, turned forwards, was bent upwards, and placed on each 
side of the head ; and the wings brought close to the sides of the 
body. All that could be learned was, that the plumage was white, 
the feathers being tipped with dark brown at their extremities; the 
tail could not be uncovered so as to determine the colour of it. The 



ibis. 166 

bird had probably attained the full growth, as the quills were such 
as might be expected to be found in a bird of this size,* especially 
if we allow of the one described by Dr. Forster, in the Phil. Trans. f 
being the same, and which we have no good reason to doubt; 
however, we must own, that great uncertainty has attended our 
researches after what the ancient Egyptians specifically called the 
Ibis, and ft is probable, that even more than one, or two, passed 
under that name. Most authors agree in its having a white plumage, 
with black quills and tail, and that the size is by no means small. 

Pliny} talks of two sorts, the one white, the other black, and that 
both are from thirty to forty inches in length ; and the Abou Hannes 
of Bruce,|[ if the same, is said to stand nineteen inches from the 
back to the ground, when erect : these three, therefore, may be 
included at least under one name, although they may even differ in 
species. But the most convincing evidence has occurred within these 
few years, from M. Cuvier§ having obtained the complete bones of 
of one, from an embalmed subject, ascertaining, that it is of the Ibis 
or Curlew Genus ; added to the detection of the complete bird by 
Dr. Pearson, from two preserved specimens, brought, among other 
mummies, from Thebes.^} The plumage of one was chiefly white, as 
above mentioned ; of the other, from what could be known from the 
decayed state it was in, chiefly brown, in some parts tipped with 
white; neck and tail white. 

* One is said to be deposited in the Ornithological Museum at Paris, which had been 
taken out of its case without injury to any of its feathers. See Ann. Mus. Nat. d'Hist. 
Nat. Tom. i. p. 237. 

f For the year 1767, p. 349. in his account of the Volga. 

% Nat. Hist. lib. x. cap. 30. 

|| This author says, M. Buffon's Ibis is not in Egypt. 

§ See Annates du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. torn. iv. 

% Phil. Trans. 1805. 464. pi. viii. See also A Dissertation on Mummies in general, by 
Dr. Blumenback— Phil. Trans. 1794. p. 177. The bill figured by Mr. Edwards, in his 
PI. 105, seems to correspond, but the sharp points were added by his own conjecture, being- 
broken ofF, as the engraving expresses, in the original subject. 



168 ibis. 

the scapulars seem as it were double, the upper set nearly the same 
as the coverts, having a brown black tinge, and smooth at the ends 
and sides; the others, or longer ones, reaching almost as far as the 
quills, have a browner tinge, and fringed from the quill to the front 
edges; the quills darker than the rest ; tail rounded at the end, and 
the wings, when closed, reach to about the middle of it ; legs dusky 
black, or deep brown ; the bare parts above the knee minutely 
tessellated, and occupying the space of four inches; from the joint 
to the toes three inches and a half; the middle toe about the same 
length, the outer one shorter ; at the base, between that and the 
middle one, a membrane ; the claws of all moderate. 

So for a general description of both sexes, but the male differs 
in several points; chin and throat bare, forming a kind of pouch, 
seen also in others of this Genus; much less conspicuous in the other 
sex : sides of the neck, and from the nape on each side, mixed with 
white ; on the fore part of the neck, under the pouch, a series of 
slender, stiff feathers, or rather wire-like appendages, imitating split 
bamboo, minutely divided, and in colour not unlike it; axillary 
feathers white ; three or four of the inner quills have the outer webs 
very loose, and disjoined ; bare part above the knee deep red : in 
the bill, too, it differs from the other sex, as the sides of it, to one- 
fourth from the base, are transversely, and irregularly indented. 

Inhabits New-Holland. In the collection of Mr. Bullock. — > 
A specimen of the female in that of Mr. H. Brogden. 



32 —BLACK-FACED IBIS.-- Pl. cl. 

Tantalus melanops, Ind. Orn. ii. 704. Gm. Lin. i. 653. 
Black-faced Ibis, Gen. Syn. v. 108. pl. lxxix. 

SIZE not much inferior to the Wood Ibis; length twenty-eight 
inches; breadth forty-nine and a half. Bill six inches long, and 
black ; tongue triangular, ciliated at the back part ; irides reddish ; 



PL...C1L. 




--7*-- 






"MrrcA: /rirrr) , '//'/■> ■ 



ibis. 169 

the whole face, quite beyond the eyes, bare of feathers, black, and 
warty, particularly round the eyelids ; beneath the chin hangs a 
loose, wrinkled, bare skin, forming a pouch ; crown of the head 
deep fulvous yellow, and the feathers at the back part longish ; the 
rest of the neck and breast pale yellow ; back and scapulars cinereous, 
margined with brown ; across the breast a band of the same ; feathers 
of the back brown in the middle; wing coverts bluish ash-colour, 
margined with brown; quills, sides, thighs, vent, and tail, greenish 
black ; the last has twelve feathers, and rounded in shape ; legs 
seven inches long, rough, naked a little way above the knee, and 
red ; claws black. 

This bird was found by the late Dr. J. R. Forster, on New- Year's 
Island, near Staaten Land,* where it builds the nest in inaccessible 
places, in the rocks. — Described from a specimen in the collection 
of Sir Joseph Banks. 

I observed also one in the Museum of Mr. Bullock: in this the 
breast and top of the head are ferruginous ; the neck rufous white. 

* Forster's Voyage, ii. 521. 



VOL. IX. 



170 



CURLEW. 



GENUS LXXIX— CURLEW. 



1 Common 
A Var. 

2 Long-billed 

3 Madagascar 

4 Luzonian 
A Var. . 



5 Otaheite 

6 White-headed 
A Var. 

7 Whimbrel 

8 Hudsonian 

9 Brazilian 



10 Eskimaux 

11 Cape 

12 Pygmy 

13 Chili 

14 Collared 

15 Derhomai 



JjILL long, incurvated. 

Nostrils linear, longitudinal, near the base. 

Tongue short, sharp-pointed. 

Face covered with feathers. 

Toes connected as far as the first joint, in the greater part of the 
Species. 



1.— COMMON CURLEW. 

Numenius Arquata, Ind. Orn. ii. 710. Gerin. iv. t. 440. 

Scolopax Arquata, Lin. i. 242. Faun. suec. No. 168. It. Scan. 333. Gin. Lin. i. 655; 

Brun. p. 22. Kram. 350. 1. Frisch, t. 224. Sepp, t. p. 109. Borowsk. iii. S. 

t. 51. Faun. Helvet. Tern. Man. 383. Id. Ed. 2d. 604. 
Der grosse Brachvogel, Sclimid, Vog. 121. t. 106. 
Numenius, Bris. v. 311. Id. 8vo. ii. 289. Rail, 103. A. 1, Will. 216. t. 54. Klein, 

109. Id. Stem. 24. t. 24. f. 3. Id. Ov. 31. t 11. f. 5. Schcef. El. t. 50. 
Der Krummschnabel, Naturf. xiii. 210. Id. xxv, 23. — Keulhahn. 
Le Courlis, Buf. viii. 19. PI. enl. 818. Voy. en Barb. i. 278. 
Die Doppelschnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 73. t. v. 
Common Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 119. Id. Sup. 242. Br.Zool.n. No. 176. pi. 63. 

Id.fol. 118. Id. 1812. ii. p. 34. pi. 8. Arct. Zool. ii. 462. A. Will. Engl. 294. 

pi. 54. ^4/6. i. pi. 79. Collins's Anat. ii. pi. 21. Cook's last Voyage, i. p. 220. 

Bewiclc, ii. t. p. 54. Leivin, Birds, iv. pi. 153. /rf. pi. xxvi. f. 1. — the egp-. 

Wale. Syn. ii. pi. 133. Pult. Dors. p. 14. Graves, Br. Orn. Shaw's Zool. 

Lect. i. t. 77. Orn. Diet. 3f Siipp. 

THE general length of this bird is two feet; and weight from 
twenty to thirty ounces. The bill from six to seven inches long, 
dusky black, base of the under mandible flesh-colour; irides hazel ; 



CURLEW. 171 

the feathers of the head, neck, and wing coverts, pale brown, dashed 
down the middle with black ; round the eye, on the fore part, white ; 
back white, streaked with black ; breast and belly white, marked 
with narrow, longish lines of black ; quills black, spotted on the 
inner webs with white; tail reddish white, barred with black; legs 
dusky blue. Male and female much alike. 

This is pretty common in England, and in some parts called 
Whaap : is to be met with at all seasons : in the winter in moist, 
arable land, near the sea coast, marshes, and salt water mud, where 
it subsists in the same manner as the Woodcock and Snipe ; repairs 
in summer to mountains and more inland parts, which are least 
frequented, to breed. 

The female lays four eggs, of a pale olive, marbled with brownish 
spots; not in a nest, but among the rushes, or long grass; the young 
use their legs as soon as hatched, but are not able to fly for a con- 
siderable time. The food, while near the sea, consists of worms, 
marine, crustaceous, and other insects ; at other times on slugs and 
worms, which it draws out of the earth, morning and evening, with 
its long bill. Is often found in large flocks, and flies rather swiftly. 
The flesh had formerly the reputation of being well relished, and in 
fact is so, if in line condition ; but has frequently a rank and fishy 
taste, when poor and lean. It is found on the Continent of Europe, 
as high as Lapmark, and Iceland, also on the vast Plains of Russia 
and Siberia, quite to Kamtschatka ; frequent also on the borders of 
the Caspian Sea.* On the other hand it is met with in Italy and 
Greece, and perhaps much farther to the south, as flocks are seen 
passing over the Island of Malta, spring and autumn ; is found on 
all the shores of Spain and Gibraltar, in the autumn and winter, and 
brought into the markets in plenty ; but the flesh is rank and coarse. 
I suspect that is not unknown in Africa : there are few drawings 
either from China or India in which this bird is not represented : in 
some parts of the latter called Gaudah ; by the Mussulmans Goar; 

* Gmel. reise, iv. p. 141. 
Z 2 



172 CURLEW. 

found in the rainy season, about Calcutta ; but is not common. It 
is also said to be met with at Hervey's Island,* in the Southern Ocean. 
A bird of this kind has been brought from New-Holland ; it differs 
in having the bill considerably longer in proportion, and the ground 
colour of the plumage dull ferruginous, instead of brown ; bill 
black; irides yellow ; legs dull blue. Native name Gaar-arr-re-bing. 
One of these in the collection of Mr. Francillon, had the plumage 
considerably darker than in the Common one ; head and neck 
marbled brown and pale rufous; sides of the head, before the eye, 
and chin, pale rufous, or clay-colour, divided by a blackish line ; 
breast, belly, and vent, white ; the plumage in general more mottled, 
and the back and wings barred blackish and pale rufous. 

There are two Varieties at Sumatra, a larger called Terok Indo- 
ayam, or Terok Gaja, and a smaller called Terok Padi.f 



2.— LONG-BILLED CURLEW. 

Numenius magnus vufus, Sea Coast Curlew, Bartr. Trav. 292. Ind. Orn. ii. 710. B> 

Gen. Syn. v. p. 120. Var. 
Scolopax longirostra, Amer. Orn.ix. pi. 64. f. 4. — Long-billed Curlew. 

LENGTH two feet. Bill seven inches, more slender than in the 
European Species, and brown ; the under mandible, from the base 
to half the length, paler; in plumage the bird is mixed and blended, 
somewhat in the manner of the Common One, but with a fine tinge 
of rufous throughout ; chin white ; fore part of the neck and breast 
rufous, the feathers streaked with black down the shafts ; the whole 
of the breast, belly, and vent fine pale rufous, with a rose-coloured 
tinge; the quills black, the first having a white shaft, and the four 
exterior rufous within, barred with black ; the others marked the 
same on both webs ; the under wing coverts fine deep rufous rose- 

* Cook's last Voyage. -f- Lin. Trans, xiii. 13. 



CURLEW. 173 

colour ; the two middle tail feathers rufous brown, barred with black ; 
the others fine rufous, barred in the same manner ; legs dusky. The 
female is a trifle smaller, and the markings less distinct, and bright. 

In the collection of Mr. Francillon, received from Mr. Abbot, 
of Savannah, in Georgia. 

In another place* we described a Curlew from New York, which 
differed from ours, chiefly in having a rufous brown tinge in the 
plumage, and which seemed to approach much nearer the European 
one than that last described, though less by one-third ; but should 
this be admitted as a Variety, as well as some others which have been 
thought so by authors, it would prove that the Curlew, properly so 
called, inhabits, like the Snipe, almost every region of both the Old 
and New Continent. 

The one last mentioned is found from New York to Hudson's Bay; 
seen on the coasts and marshes of the latter the end of May ; makes 
a nest with a few leaves scraped together, and lays three light blue 
eggs, spotted with black ; the young hatched in July ; they then 
retire again to the marshes, and finally leave the coast at the approach 
of winter. 



3.— MADAGASCAR; CURLEW. 

Numenius Madagascariensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 710. Bris. v. 321. t. 28. Id. Svo. ii. 292. 
Scolopax Madagascariensis, Lin. i. 242. Gm. Lin. i. 695. 
Le Courly de Madagascar, PL enl. 198. 
Madagascar Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 121. 

SIZE of our Curlew.f Bill the same, but much less bent, except 
at the tip ; the head, neck, and upper parts more or less brown, the 
feathers margined with grey; upper tail coverts rufous grey; some 
banded transversely with grey, and others parallel to the margins; 
chin, belly, thighs, and vent white ; the breast and sides yellowish, 

* Gen. Syn. v. p. 120. f One sent from Georgia, by Mr. Abbot, was twenty- 

four inches long in all, of which the bill was seven inches. 



174 CURLEW. 



dashed with brown, the last barred with the same ; the three first 
quills plain black ; the fourth spotted on the inner web, and the 
others on both webs ; secondaries much the same, but the ground- 
colour grey; tail grey, barred with brown; legs red brown. 
Inhabits Madagascar, and seems very similar to our Species. 



4— LUZONIAN CURLEW. 

Numenius Luzoniensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 711. 

Scolopax Luzoniensis, Gin. Lin. i. 656. 

Le Courtis tachete de Luzon, Son. Voy. 85. pi. 48. Buf. viii. 32. 

Luzonian Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 122. 

SMALLER than our Species. Top of the head black ; the rest 
of the head, neck, and breast white, marked with narrow, longi- 
tudinal streaks of black ; the belly with transverse, curved bands of 
the same ; wing coverts and back the colour of umber, with from 
two to six white spots on the margin of every feather ; the greater 
quills black ; tail vinaceous grey, crossed with black lines. 

Inhabits the Island of Lnzonia. 



A. — Length twenty-seven inches. The head, neck, and breast 
dusky white, streaked with brown ; breast, belly, and thighs, white ; 
on the back a few spots of white ; the outer quills spotted with the 
same; but the general colour of the upper parts of the body, and 
wings, much like our Curlew ; the tail crossed with four or five dusky 
bars; legs deep blue. 

Inhabits India. — Sir John Anstruther. 



PL.CLI. 




' ///////■ -//.fcu/ect ! urCe/f. 



CURLEW. 175 



5.— OTAHEITE CURLEW. 

Numenius Tahitiensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 711. 
Scolopax Tahitiensis, Gm. Lin. i. 656. 
Otaheite Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 122. 

LENGTH twenty inches. Bill four inches long, moderately 
bent, and brown, base reddish ; head and neck pale reddish white, 
with numerous dusky lines; crown of the head brown ; over the eye 
a pale streak ; back dusky black, waved with pale reddish white ; 
under parts, from the breast, of the last colour, with a few mottlings 
over the thighs ; wing coverts reddish white and dusky mixed ; the 
quills dusky, with pale edges ; tail dirty yellow ; base half marked 
with irregular dusky spots; the rest barred across with the same; 
legs blue grey. 

Inhabits Otaheite, and there called Tevrea. — Sir Jos. Banks. 



6— WHITE-HEADED CURLEW.— Pl. cli. 

Numenius leucocephalus, Ind. Orn. ii. 711. 

Scolopax leucocephala, Gm. Lin. i. 656. 

White-Headed Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 123. pl. 80. Id. Sup. 242. 

SIZE of a Common Curlew. Bill pretty long and red; head, 
and part of the neck white; the rest of the plumage very deep blue, 
except the quills, which are black brown ; legs cinereous grey. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 



A. — Tantalus Hagedash, Ind. Orn. ii. 709. 

Hagedash, or Hadelde, a new species of Tantalus, Sparrm. Voy. i. 281. 

Dr. Sparrman describes this bird, with the bill red above, the 
tip of it, and the under mandible black, length of it five inches; 



176 CURLEW. 

neck and back ash-colour; on the latter a cast of green, and a little 
yellow; wings dark beneath ; above blue, inclining to black ; the 
lesser wing coverts violet; tail cuneiform, twice the length of the 
bill ; body somewhat larger than that of a Hen ; thighs ash-colour; 
the legs, toes, and the membrane between them blackish : in other 
respects it had all the characteristic marks of the Tantalus.* 

Inhabits the parts about the Cape of Good Hope, in considerable 
numbers about Zwart-kops-rivier ; the same called by the Hottentots 
Takai kene ; lives on roots and bulbs, which it digs up with the 
bill : is a shy bird, and roosts on trees at night; is sometimes seen in 
great flocks, flying against the wind, which is said to be a sign of 
rain ; is called by the colonists Hagedash and Hadelde, supposed 
from the note of the bird. 



B. — Haddedas, Barrow's Trav. p. 264. 

Mr. Barrow describes it as having the beak black ; ridge of the 
upper mandible and upper part of the toes red ; the head, neck, and 
abdomen cinereous blue; wings and tail deep violet blue; the back 
feathers green, edged with dusky brown ; shoulders and covering 
feathers of the wings of a metalline lustre, and iridescent. 

Seen about Sea-Cow River, among others, uttering the most 
horrid screams that can be imagined. 



7.— WHIMBREL. 

Numenius Phteopus, Ind. Orn. ii. 711. Tern. Man. 390. Id. Ed. 2d. 605. Klein, 109. 
2. Id. Stem. 24. t. 24. f. 4. 

Scolopax Phaeopus, Lin. i. p. 243. Faun. Suec. No. 169. Gm. Lin. i. 657, Scop. i. 
No. 132. Brun. No. 159. Muller, p. 22. Frisch\ t.225. Kram. p. 350. Georgi, 
171. Boroiosk. iii. 87. Faun. Helv. Sepp, iv. t. p. 305. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 191. 

* Does he mean that the face was naked ? if so, it should certainly be ranked with the 
Tantalus or Ibis ; but this is not mentioned in his description. 



CURLEW. 177 

Numenius minor, Bris. v. 317. t. 27. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 291. Gerin. iv. 441. Bartram's 

Trav. p. 292. 
Arquata minor, Rail, 103. A. 2. 0*i//; 217. 
Der Regenvogel, Bechst. Deutsch.m. s. 80. Naturf.xm. 210. 
Corlieu, ou petit Courlis, £;{/'. viii. 27. PI. enl. 842. 
Whimbrel, Gen. Syn. v. 123. Br. Zoo/, ii. No. 177. pi. G4. Id.fol.U9. Id. 1812. ii. 

p. 36. pi. 9. Tour in Scotl. 4to. p. 130. Id. 8vo. 108. Arct. Zool. ii. 4G2. ff«7/. 

Engl.294. Edw. p. 307. /"/or. Sco<. i. p. 32. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 57. £,e««B,iv. 

pi. 154. /</. pi. xxvi. No. 2. the egg. Wale. ii. pi. 154. Donov. iii. t. 72. Orn. 

.Dicf. (§• S«pp. 

LENGTH seventeen inches; breadth twenty-nine; the weight 
fourteen ounces and a half. Bill three inches long, black ; the base 
beneath pale red; head, neck, and breast pale brown, streaked with 
dusky brown ; chin white ; the sides of the head paler than the rest ; 
between the bill and eye a dusky streak ; all the upper parts of the 
body and wing coverts pale brown, streaked with dusky down the 
shafts ; besides which many have pale spots on the margins ; the 
lower part of the back and rump white ; upper tail coverts white, 
with dusky bars; tail brown, crossed with seven or eight darker 
bars; quills dusky black, with semicircular, dusky white spots on 
the inner webs, the shafts white; belly, thighs, and vent, dusky 
white; legs black. It varies both in respect to the length of the bill, 
as well as the size of the bird ; many specimens measuring no more 
than fifteen inches. Mr. Pennant mentions one sixteen inches long, 
in which the bill was only two inches. 

The Whimbrel has much the manners of the Curlew, but is less 
common in England, and is locomotive, if not migratory ; at least 
it passes from one part of the kingdom to another, according to the 
season. 

In the neighbourhood of Spalding, in Lincolnshire, is seen in 
vast flocks, from April to May, on its passage to the north, where 
it is said to breed ; is also in flocks about the same time on the 
Kentish coast, generally coming about the 15th of April, and staying 
till the first week in May, and then goes off till the winter ; and it 
may be, that the greater part pass elsewhere, yet many remain, as 

VOL. IX. A A 



178 CURLEW. 

I have received a specimen from the late Mr. Boys, shot at Romney, 
in August, where it is called a Jack;* and have been assured, that 
many of them stay on those coasts throughout the summer, and 
breed there. The nidification is much the same as in the Curlew, 
and the egg not greatly differing, but smaller, in length one inch 
and three quarters, the colour olive-brown, with a broad zone of 
clouded deep purple, at some distance from the large end ; and a 
few small spots of the same, here and there interspersed, in other 
places. It is found on various parts of the Continent, and not 
uncommon in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, probably in most 
places where the Curlew is met with ; both of them seen on all the 
shores of Gibraltar, in autumn and winter, being brought to market 
in plenty ; but the Whimbrel in most abundance, being often seen 
in vast flocks, and very tame. Is known in Java, by the name of 
Gajahan. 

8.— HUDSONIAN CURLEW. 

Numenius Hudsonicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 712. 

Eskimaux Curlew, Arct. Zoo/, ii. No. 364. pi. 19. Amer. Orn. vii. p. 22. pi. 56. f. 1. 

Hudsonian Curlew, Gen. Syn. Sup. 243. 

LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill nearly four, colour black; the 
upper mandible hangs over the lower ; head, neck, and breast, 
whitish ; chin and before the eye, plain ; the rest dashed with brown 
streaks, most so on the breast ; top of the head deep chocolate brown, 
divided down the middle by a white line, and the side of it above the 
eye bounded with white ; between the bill and eye brown ; region 
of the ears brownish ; upper part of the body and wings brown, 
mottled with white ; but the back and scapulars are also marked 
with white spots ; those on the rump more numerous, and incline to 
ferruginous ; belly, thighs, and vent, white ; sides crossed with 

* Called Curlewiake (Curlew Jack) and said to be in season in Jan. See Government 
of a Nobleman's House, Archceol. xiii. 341. Is called also Half Curlew, and Curlew Knot. 



CURLEW. 



179 



narrow bars of brown ; quills brown, spotted with dusky white on 
the inner margins, shafts white ; wings and tail even ; the last brown, 
crossed with seven or eight blackish bars, a quarter of an inch broad; 
legs bluish black ; toes divided to their origin. 

Inhabits Hudson's Bay, from whence I received a specimen ; it 
is the Eskimaux Curlew of the Arct. Zoology, but not that of the 
Philosophical Transactions, described by Dr. Forster ; which is the 
next species but one. This I am well assured of, having had both 
of them in my own collection. 

9 —BRAZILIAN WHIMBREL. 

Numenius Guarauna, Ind. Orn. ii. 712. Nat. Misc. pi. 705. 

Scolopax Guarauna, Lin. i. 242. Gm. Lin. i. 654. Raii, 104. 7. Will. 215. t. 53. 

Id. Engl. 292. pi. 53. Buf. viii. 44. 
Numenius major fuscus, Gerin. iv. t 439. 
Numenius Americanus fuscus, Bris. v. 330. Id. 8vo. ii. 294. 
Curucau a Cou varie, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 364. 
Brasilian Whimbrel, Gen. Syn. v. 125. 

SIZE of the Whimbrel ; length twenty-one inches. Bill four, 
brown, with a yellow base; the head and neck brown ; margins of 
the feathers whitish ; back and under parts from the breast chestnut 
brown ; scapulars, rump, upper and under tail coverts, and tail, 
bright brown, glossed with green ; wing coverts the same ; but the 
greater ones, farthest from the body, are brown within ; quills brown ; 
the outer edges glossy green brown ; legs grey brown; claws blackish. 

Inhabits Brazil, Guiana, and other parts of South America. In 
Paraguay the Guaranis call it Caruay ; found there, and at Buenos 
Ayres, in flocks of from twenty to sixty. Said to have been shot in 
Anglesea, in September.* 

* Shaw's Misc.— The late Rev. Hugh Davies, of Aber, once hinted to me, whether the 
Suffolk proverb, mentioned by Mr. Willughby, of 

" A Curlew be she white, be she black" 

" She carries 12 pence at her back" 
could possibly have any reference to this bird, having been occasionally met with in England 
in his time. A A 2 



180 CURLEW. 



10.— ESKIMAUX CURLEW. 

Numenius borealis, Ind. Orn. ii. 712. 

Numenius cinereus, Sea-side lesser Curlew, Bartr. Trav. 292. 

Scolopax borealis, Gm. Lin. i. 654. Phil. Trans, lxii. 431. Faun. Amer. Sept. p. 14. 

Courlis, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. ciii. 

Eskimaux Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 125. Phil. Trans, lxii. 411. 

THIS is a little more than half the size of the Whimbrel ; the 
length thirteen inches ; breadth twenty-one. Bill two inches long, 
bent, remarkably slender, and blackish ; the under mandible rufous 
at the base ; head pale, with longitudinal lines of brown ; forehead 
deep brown, with pale spots; neck, breast, belly, and vent yellowish 
white, the two first dashed with brown slender lines ; the feathered 
part of the thighs yellowish white, spotted with brown ; sides under 
the wings rufous, transversely fasciated with brown ; the back deep 
brown, the feathers margined with greyish white; wings brown; the 
shafts of the prime quills white ; the secondaries and lesser coverts 
margined with grey ; lower coverts ferruginous, banded with brown ; 
rump brown, the feathers edged and spotted with whitish ; tail short, 
brown, crossed with whitish bands; legs bluish black. 

Inhabits the fens of Hudson's Bay; first seen near Albany, the 
beginning of May, going further north, and returning to Albany in 
August; it stays there till September, when it departs for the south : 
lays four eggs, and appears in flocks, young and old together, until 
their departure ; the same also in Nova Scotia, in October and 
November: feeds on the black-berried heath, and has a kind of 
whistling note, which may be heard at some distance. Is also met 
with at Newfoundland, and called there a Curlew; the natives of 
Hudson's Bay call it Wee-kee-ma-nase-su ; it is esteemed for the 
delicacy of its flesh. Extends also to South America; one of them, 
in the British Museum, having been brought from Rio Janeiro. 



CURLEW. 181 



11— CAPE CURLEW. 

Numenius Africanus, Ind. Orn. ii. 712. 

Scolopax Africana, Gm. Lin. i. 055. 

Tringa subarquata, Tern. Man. 393. Id. Ed. ii. 609. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 193. 

Numenius Pygmaeus, Bechst. Deutsch. Ed. 2d. iv. 148. 

Cape Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 126. 

LESS than the Common Snipe. Bill long, and bent, but less 
so than in the Curlew; colour blackish brown; the crown of the 
head, hind part of the neck, and upper parts of the body cinereous; 
the face as far as the eyes, the chin, fore part of the neck, rump, and 
belly white; breast cinereous, spotted with ferruginous; the quills 
brown, with white shafts ; from the first to the fourth plain ; from 
the fifth to the ninth white on the outer margins ; the second coverts 
tipped with white; edge of the wing white and grey mixed; the 
legs are black. 

Inhabits the marshes and other moist grounds of the Cape of 
Good Hope, flying in flocks ; found also in Java, and is there called 
Maya tan. 



12— PYGMY CURLEW. 

Numenius Pygmseus, Ind. Orn. ii. 713. 

Scolopax pygmseus, Gm. Lin. i. 655. Bechst. Nat. Yn. p. 87. 
Tringa platyrhineha, Becasseau platyrhinque, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 616. 
Scolopax subarquata, N. C. Petr. xix. 471. t. 18 ? Gm. Lin. i. 65S. 
Le plus petit des Courlis, Son. Buf. xxii. p. 245. 
Alouette de Mer, PI. enl. 851 ? 

Pygmy Curlew, Gen. Syn. v. 127. Id. Sup. 291. Note o. Gen. of Birds, p. 64. pi. 
155. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 38. Boys's Sandw. ii. pi. 135. Orn. Diet. $ Supp. 

SIZE of a Lark ; length eight inches and a half; breadth fifteen 
and a half; weight nearly two ounces ; bare part above the knee one 
inch ; from thence to the toes two more. Bill one inch and a half, 



182 CURLEW. 

black, moderately bent downwards ; head, back, and wing coverts 
mixed with brown, ferruginous, and white; primaries dusky, edged 
with white; breast, belly, and rump white ; tail dusky, even at the 
end, the exterior feather edged with white; legs black. 

This bird has been shot in Holland; also at Sandwich, in Kent; 
and the late Dr. Leith met with it at Greenwich, in August. 



A. — Length seven inches. Bill one inch and a half long, bent 
downwards, and black; head, neck, and upper parts of the body 
brown; the feathers of the back margined with white; the two first 
much paler, and plain ; over the eye a pale trace ; all the under parts 
of the body dusky white; on the outer edge of the coverts two or 
three white feathers ; wings and tail even ; legs black. 

Inhabits India, called Sourly or Sourbey. — Sir John Anstruther. 
Colonel Montagu, in his Supplement, thinks it rather to belong to 
the Sandpipers; and to say the truth, it appears to hang between 
that and the Curlew, but in the length of bill, as well as the form 
of it, seems rather to incline to the latter. 



13.- CHILI CURLEW. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a half, from the middle 
bent downwards ; half way from the base brown ; the rest dusky 
yellow ; head, neck, breast, and all the upper parts, wings, and tail, 
brown, much paler on the forehead ; on the wings a freckling of 
white, with some whitish spots on the coverts, and a tinge of yellow 
down the middle of the back ; breast, and all beneath, thighs, and 
vent, pure white ; the wings reach to within three quarters of an 
inch of the tail ; legs pale dusky, and bare three quarters of an inch 
above the joint ; toes long ; claws black. 



CURLEW. 183 

Inhabits Chili, where it is called Jack Snipe ; and the habits 
such as are usual with birds of the same Genus. One of these was 
killed on the Plains of Maypii, in August, by General Wavell, 
who presented me with a drawing of the bird. 



14— COLLARED CURLEW. 

Ardea Bononiensis, bid. Orn ii. 678. Gm. Lin. i. 639. 

Ardea nigra torquata, Bris. v. 440. Id. 8vo. ii. 325. 

Ardeae congener, Rail, 102. Will. 207. t. 50. 

Bird a kin to the Heron of Aldrovand, Will. Engl. 282. pi. 50. f. 3. 

Collared Heron, Gen. Syn. v. 52. 

SIZE of a Curlew. Bill short, yellow, marked at the end, and 
the middle with a black spot; plumage black, except a ring of 
white round the neck ; the second quills, nearest the body, almost as 
long as the greater : the tail consists of twelve dusky feathers ; legs 
black ; between the toes a membrane as far as the first joint. 

Inhabits Italy, found about Bologna ; and seems rather a doubtful 
species. In Willughby's plate of this bird, copied from Aldrovandus, 
the bill is curved downwards, more so than in any of the Heron 
Genus, although attached to it by the former describers; from that 
circumstance, therefore, we rather suspect it to belong to that of 
the Curlew. 



15.— DERHOMAI CURLEW. 

LENGTH, from the bill to the point of the tail, two feet ; extent 
of wing two feet ten inches ; from the point of the bill to the eyes 
five inches ; length of the thigh three inches and four-tenths ; leg 
three inches and one-tenth ; middle toe two inches and seven-tenths ; 
outer two inches and two-tenths ; inner two inches ; hind one an inch 
and three-tenths ; circumference of the base of the bill two inches 



184 CURLEW. 

and eight-tenths ; round the body fourteen inches. The bill is gently 
curved, made more like that of the Curlew than any other, pale red ; 
beneath the throat hangs a wattle of the same colour, bare, appearing 
rough, or carunculated ; the feathers of the hindhead elongated, and 
form a crest, which hangs downwards; the general colour of the 
bird, except the dependent wattle, is pale grey, inclining to lead- 
colour, but the wing coverts are margined with white, and the inner 
ones wholly white, forming a large bed on half the wing, next the 
body; quills and tail darker than the rest, and inclining to blue, the 
tail even at the end, and the quills reach almost to the tip; legs 
stout, bare but very little above the joint, pale dull red, the claws 
pale, and crooked. 

Inhabits Abyssinia, met with at Dinar, M umsai, and other places ; 
frequently seen in numbers, in marshy spots, and low grounds ; 
subsisting in great part on worms, and by no means shy, being not 
easily frightened from the places where they are found; though when 
disturbed, have a croaking kind of noise, not unlike that of a 
Raven ; are fond of roosting among the shady branches of trees : 
the flesh is tender, and well tasted. The Abyssinian name is Der- 
homai, or Water Fowl, from Derho, a bird, and Mai, water. 

I am indebted to Mr. Salt for the above information, as well as 
a drawing of the bird.* I found a figure likewise among the 
drawings of the late Mr. Bruce, which did not essentially differ; 
he says, that the irides are pale yellow. 

* See Lord Valentia's Travels, ii. 495. & iii. 205, 



SNIPE. 



185 



GENUS LXXX.-SNIPE. 



1 Woodcock 

2 Little W. 

3 Great Snipe 

4 Savanna W. 

5 Cayenne Snipe 

6 Burka 

7 Common 

A Finmark 

8 Jack 

9 Cape 
A Var. 
B Var. 
C Var. 

10 Black-breasted 

11 Siamese 

12 Chinese 

13 Madras 

14 White Indian 

15 Saturated 

16 Marbled Godwit 

17 Hudsonian 

18 American 
A Var. 

.19 Red 



A Var. 
B Var. 

20 Jadreka 

21 Ferruginous 

22 Common 

23 Meyer's 

24 Red-breasted 

25 Brown 

26 Black 

27 Rhenish 

28 Rufous-breasted 

29 White 

30 Begoudee 

31 Cawnpore 

32 Ash-headed 

33 Javan 

34 Surma 

35 Asiatic 
A Var. 

36 Semipalmated 
A Var. 

37 Nodding 

38 Stone 

39 Cinereous 



40 Redshank 
A Var. 

B Var. 

41 White R. 

42 Gambet 

43 Striated 
A Var. 
B Var. 

44 White-rumped 

45 Yellow-shanked 

46 Stagnatile 

47 Green-shank 

48 Ash-coloured 

49 Gotera 

50 Dusky 
A Var. 

51 Cambridge 

52 Spotted 
A Var. 

53 Courland 

54 Terek 

55 New-Holland 

56 Caurale 



JdILL more than one inch and a half in length, slender; for the 
most part straight, in some turning upwards. 

Nostrils linear, lodged in a furrow. 

Tongue pointed, slender. 

Toes divided, or slightly connected ; back toe small. 



VOL. IX. 



B » 



186 SNIPE. 



1. —WOODCOCK. 

Scolopax Rusticola, Ind. Orn. ii. 713. Lin. i. 243. Fn. suec. No. 170. Gm. Lin. L 

660. Scop. i. No. 134. Brim. No. 164. Midler, p. 23. Frisch, t. 226. 227. 

Id. 230.— White Var. Schcef. el. t. 61. George, 171. Fn. arag. 77. Borowsk. 

iii. 88. JFk tfe/y. Gerin. iv. t. 447. 7W Ma«. 437. Jrf. £d. 2d. 673. 
Scolopax, Bra. v. 292. Id. 8vo. ii. 284. Rail, 104. A. 1. JFiV/. 213. t. 53. A7ei«, 

99. 1. Id. Stem. 20. t. 20. f. 1. a— c. /rf. Ou. 30. t. 11. f. 1. 2. Se/>p, iii. t. 287. 
La Becasse, Buf. vii. 462. pi. 25. P/. enl. 885. Foy. e« BarS. i. 278. 
Wald-Schnepff, Gunt. Nest. u. Ey. t. 18. Bechst. Deut. iii. 90. Id. Ed. 2d. iv. 158. 

Naturf. xiii. 211. Schmid, Vog. p. 122. t. 107. 
Accegia Beccagia, Cett. Uc. Sard. 248. 
Woodcock, Gen. Si/n. v. 129. Br. Zool. ii. No. 178. pi. 65. Id.fol. 119. Id. 1812. 

ii. p. 40. pi. 10. f. 2. Flor. Scut. i. No. 142. Arct. Zool. ii. 470. A. Id. Sup. 

68. WW. Ang-/. 289. pi. 53. Borlas. Corn. 245. pi. 24. f. 12. Alb. i. pi. 70. 

Bradl. Nat. pi. 11. f. 2. Bewick, ii. pi. in p. 60. Lewin, iv. pi. 156. Walcot,iu 

pi. 136. Pult. Dors. 14. Graves, Br. Orn. Orn. Diet. Sup. Sf Ap. 

LENGTH fifteen inches ; weight from twelve to fifteen ounces. 
Bill three inches long-, the upper mandible a trifle exceeding the 
lower ; nostrils at the base ; and from thence is a furrow, the whole 
length of the bill; forehead cinereous; from the bill to the eyes a 
line of black, the eye very large, and dark-coloured ; crown of the 
head, and upper parts of the neck, back, and wing coverts, mixed, 
and barred with ferruginous, black, and grey; the crown darkest; 
under eyelid white ; chin pale ash-colour ; fore part of the neck 
yellowish, with dusky, minute dashes; under parts of the body 
dusky white, barred with numerous dusky lines; quills dusky, 
marked on the outer web with triangular, rufous spots ; the same 
within, close to the shafts; tail rounded, tipped with ash-colour, 
and rufous on the outer web ; legs pale flesh-coloured brown. 

The female may be distinguished by a narrow stripe of white 
along the lower part of the exterior web of the outmost feather of 



SNIPE. 187 

the wing, which part in the male is elegantly, and regularly spotted 
with black and reddish white. In both sexes the exterior quill 
feather is somewhat serrated on the outer edge, but not so manifest 
as in the Owl ; in the bastard wing, too, of each sex, is a small 
pointed, narrow feather, very elastic, and much sought after by 
painters as a pencil. 

These birds inhabit England during the winter, coming in with 
the Redwings ; those which are then with us, supposed to come 
from Sweden, their appearance, and departure from thence coin- 
ciding; seen first the beginning of October, but continue coming 
till December ; do not arrive in flights, but singly, or at most two 
together, and chiefly in the evening, or very misty weather;* in 
general they proceed inland immediately on their arrival ; but should 
the wind be adverse, and the passage of course difficult, they take 
a day's rest on the first land they make, and in this case have been 
met with so fatigued as to be taken with the hand : at first they are 
generally lean, and not well tasted, till they have had time to recruit 
themselves ; they appear commonly on the western coasts of this 
kingdom, and from thence disperse; have been known so plentiful in 
the Islands of Scilly, that twenty-six couples have been shot in one 
day,t and about Penzance, in Cornwall, they are sometimes so tame, 
from fatigue and hunger, as to walk through a house, and many have 
been knocked down with sticks; about the middle of March all 
tend towards the coasts for their departure, but if the wind should 
not be favourable for their flight, multitudes are collected together, 
and the gunner finds plenty of sport; and perhaps, owing to a 

* Several instances have proved that these birds are attracted by a strong light. The 
keeper of a light house in Kent, informed me, that he found one in the gallery, with 
the neck dislocated, having flown in the night against the convex lens of one of the 
burners. A similar occurrence took place at the light house, at Lowth Hill, on the north 
side of Dublin Bay ; but in this instance the bird had flown with such violence, as to 
break its bill, head, breast bone, and both wings. 

f Two gentlemen shot twenty-eight couples at Sandringham, Norfolk, October 1807. 

B b 2 



188 SNIPE. 

similar circumstance, more than a hundred have been conveyed to 
London by one coach from the south of Wales.* 

Woodcocks, for the most part, leave this kingdom in the spring, 
but it is well known that several pairs continue throughout the 
summer. A few have been found to breed in Case Wood, near 
Tunbridge, annually ; a couple were shot in Chellenden Wood, by 
the gamekeeper to Horace Mann, Esq. on the 1st of May, 1769, 
and another brace the day before ; and various similar instances are 
mentioned by authors. A friend of mine found a female sitting on 
her eggs, in a wood near Farningham, Kent, and so tame as to suffer 
his hand to pass over her without rising; and a few years before, in 
the same wood, a pair produced five young, one of which was added 
to my collection. Many similar circumstances are on record, which 
are sufficient to prove that they do not wholly migrate; several 
additional instances of their having been met with in Kent, in the 
summer season, might be added, but I trust the above will suffice. 

They are a stupid species, and often taken in nets, placed in the 
openings, when they come out of the woods, and return to them in 
the evening, which they do in particular paths ; they are also caught 
in springes, placed on the ground, or near it, sometimes by the neck, 
for as these birds will not walk over the least obstacle that projects 
in their way, it is usual to place a range of stones, and in the avenues 
to set the traps, by which means many are often taken. 

They appear in Breadalbane the beginning or middle of Novem- 
ber, but do not reach any of the west coasts of the highlands, till 
the latter end of December, or beginning of January ; continue there 
in plenty till the middle or end of March, and then disappear at 
once ; fly regularly from east to west, first land in Angus, Merns, &c. 
usually the end of October ; but stay a very short time, as the woods 
are scarce ; rarely seen in Caithness ; still fewer in the Orknies, or in 
the more remote Hebrides ; one or two only appearing, as if driven 
by chance ; never known to breed in Scotland.f 

* Orn. Diet. f Tour in Scotland, 1772. p. 24. 



SNIPE. 18.9 

The nest is made on the ground, without any art, of a few dried 
fibres and leaves, generally placed against an old stump, or great 
root of a tree; the eggs four or five in number, rather bigger than 
those of a Pigeon, rufous grey, marked with dusky blotches; the 
young run as soon as hatched, but as they cannot immediately pro- 
vide for themselves, the male and female accompany them for some 
time. 

This species inhabits the whole of the Continent of Europe, as 
well as Africa and Asia ; also France, Italy, Greece, and Barbary ; 
the Gold Coast, and that of Guinea ; likewise India, China, and 
Japan ; in general frequenting the plains in the winter, retiring in 
summer to the summits of the highest mountains to breed. In the 
north, common in Sweden, and Russia throughout, and Kamts- 
chatka, as well as Iceland, It is no where more plentiful than in 
Andalusia and Barbary, all the woods swarming with them in the 
winter months, and probably they do not absolutely forsake them in 
the summer; and indeed it is not unlikely, that the alpine bogs of 
Spain and Barbary may be the nurseries of Woodcocks, &c. in an 
equal degree with those of Norway and Sweden. Will ugh by found 
Woodcocks on the Alps of Switzerland in June and July, and there 
can be no doubt, but those of Andalusia and Grenada afford food 
equally plentiful, and as extensive, and safe a retreat as those of 
Switzerland. Tournefort met with Woodcocks in the Island of 
Crete ; and Sonnini speaks of their coming into Egypt in November. 
They are seen in Chinese drawings, and are without doubt in various 
parts of India. 

Few need be told that its flesh is delicious, and much sought after, 
and that nothing may be lost, the entrails are not drawn out, being 
thought a necessary appendage as sauce to the bird.* We learn from 

* Intestina, etiam, cruda gulosorum deliciae sunt ; quantum est in rebus inane ! — Scop. 
Martial ridicules the folly of the ancients in another way. 

" Rustica sim, an perdix, quid refert, si sapor idem est ?' 

" Carior est perdix, sic sapit ilia magis." Epig, 1. xiii. No. 76. 



190 SNIPE. 

our late friend Colonel Montagu, that this bird has been found, in 
several instances, annually to repair to the same haunts ; and Mr. 
Bewick confirms this, giving an instance of one that was caught 
unhurt, by the gamekeeper of E. M. Pleydell, Esq. in Dorsetshire ; 
when this gentleman bent a bit of thin brass round the leg, and let 
it fly ; in the next year this very bird was shot in the same wood 
with the brass still fastened to the leg. 



A. — Scolopax Candida, Bris. v. 295. A. Id. Svo. ii. 285. Ind. Orn. ii. 724. Gen. 
Syn. v. 131. Gcrin. t. 448. 449? 

The plumage of this Variety is wholly white ; we have also seen 
one entirely of a very pale straw-colour ; another, in which the head 
was pale red, the body white, and the wings brown ; aud again one 
the usual colour, with the wings white : this was shot in the Isle of 
Wight. 



2 —LITTLE WOODCOCK. 

Scolopax minor, Ind. Orn. ii. 714. Gm. Lin. i. 661. 
Scolopax Americana rufa, Great Red Woodcock, Bartr. Tr. 292 ? 
Little Woodcock, Gen. Syn. v. 131. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 365. pi. 19. Amer. Orn. vi. 
pi. 48. 2. 

LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill two inches and a half long, 
and brownish flesh-colour ; forehead cinereous ; hind part black, with 
four transverse yellowish bars; between the bill and eye a dusky line; 
chin white ; from thence all beneath dull yellow, paler on the belly ; 
neck behind black, the feathers edged with yellowish red; back and 
lesser wing coverts the same, the rest of the coverts marked with 
zigzags of black and dull red; primaries dusky; inner coverts rust- 
colour ; tail black. 



SNIPE. 191 

Inhabits America, and appears at New York the end of April 
or beginning of May ; lays from five to eight eggs, in the swampy 
woods, on the ground, or on the stump of a decayed tree ; they are 
one inch and a half long, and one inch in diameter ; clay-colour, 
with spots of brown, and others of pale purple; while the hen is 
sitting, the male is observed, in the evening, to fly up to a great 
height perpendicularly, and to return straight down to the same 
spot ; and from the moment of its descent begins an agreeable kind 
of whistle, continuing till it alights on the ground, repeating this at 
intervals for several times together, and sometimes even after it is 
dark; has been found in Carolina in September:* the flesh thought 
to be as good as that of the European Species. 



3— GREAT SNIPE. 

Scolopax major, Ind, Om. ii. 714. 4. Gm. Lin. i. 66. Temm. Man. p. 438. Id. Ed, 

ii. 675. 
Scolopax Gallina, Sepp, Vog. iii. t. 427. 

media, Frisch, t. 228. Gerin. iv. t. 446. 

atra, Gerin, iv. t 450 ? 

La Becassine, Voy. d'Azara, \v. No. 387.— Premiere espece. 

Mittelschnepfe, Bechst. Deutsch.m. 108. 

Doppelschnepfe, Klein, Ov. t. xi. f. 3. 4. Naturf. xiii. 211. 

Great Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. p. 133. 4. Id. Sup. ii. p. 308. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 63. 

Bewick, ii. p. 67. Lewin, iv. pi. 157. Wale. ii. 1. 137. Pult. Dors. p. 14. Orn. 

Diet. Sf Supp. Rural Sports, t. p. 444. 

WEIGHT eight ounces ; length twelve inches, and to the end 
of the toes sixteen. Bill two inches and three quarters, black, pale 
beneath half way from the base ; top of the head brown, mottled 
with rufous; down the middle a clay-coloured line; the sides of the 
head pale clay-colour, speckled with brown ; through the eye, from 
the bill, a dark brown streak, and a paler one curving round the 

* Generally appears in Pennsylvania early in the spring, when the elm and maple begin 
to flower. — Bartram, Trav. 457. Departs south in autumn. 



192 SNIPE. 

under mandible; the neck, half the back, and scapulars chocolate 
brown, the feathers streaked on the sides with clay-colour, and barred 
with ferruginous; the lower part of the back brown, crossed with 
numerous greyish white lines; tail coverts long, pale rufous clay- 
colour, barred with black brown, and cover the tail for three-fourths 
of its length ; the tail when spread out, is rounded at the end ; the 
eight middle feathers dusky for three-fourths of the length from the 
base, the remainder rufous, with two or three bars of black ; but 
the four interior are deep rufous, and the two on each side much 
paler; the two exterior wholly black and white in alternate bars; 
wing coverts black brown, spotted with rufous white, the rest of the 
wing dusky black ; all but the greater quills tipped with white; 
beneath the wings beautifully barred with white and dusky; the 
breast, belly, and vent, crossed with numerous dusky bars, inclined 
to zigzag on the sides ; legs pale bluish brown, and bare above the 
knee for half an inch. 

The Great Snipe is rarely seen in this kingdom ; six or eight 
times to our knowledge being the utmost that it has been met with :* 
once in Wiltshire, on the Avon ; another in Lancashire, in the 
Leverian Museum ; a third in Kent; and a fourth shot in Suffolk, in 
my own collection. We have an account also of one shot in Norfolk, 
in 1791 ; and a second a few years since ; another near Salisbury, in 
1798 ; and again near Horsham, in Sussex.f 

Inhabits the Arctic Regions of Siberia, and we believe, in small 
numbers, in Germany, throughout ; is ranked among the Prussian 
birds, where it is said to be found with the Woodcock :J the eggs 
ferruginous, with great brown spots, more confluent at the pointed 
end. Mr. Abbot informs me that it inhabits South Carolina, and 
frequents the wet, marshy places, and the sides of the ponds in 
Georgia. 

* It is not improbable, that this bird may be more often met with than is supposed ; as 
from its similitude to the Common Snipe, it may easily pass for a large Vatiety of that bird. 
t Lin. Trans, iv. p. 8. & 21 . J Called Doppel Schnepfe. 



SNIPE. 



193 



We have had reason to suppose that the Savannah Woodcock 
and this bird made but one species, having seen the former more than 
once from South America; and on comparison, they have appeared 
scarcely to differ: we are told, that it inhabits the moist meadows 
of Cayenne, removing in the rainy season to the highest situations 
to breed ; makes the nest on some rising ground, choosing a cavity, 
and lining it with dry leaves ; lays two eggs, and said to have two 
broods in the year, the last in July. It does not frequent the woods 
like the Common Species, but the marshes only, like the Snipe. 
The flesh of this bird is as much valued as that of the Woodcock. 



4.— SAVANNA WOODCOCK. 

Scolopax paludosa, hid. Orn. ii. 714. Gm. Lin. i. 661. 
Becasse des Savannes, Buf. viii. 4S1. PL enl. 895. 
Savanna Woodcock, Gen. Syn. v. 132. 3. 

THIS is said to be one-fourth less than the Common Woodcock, 
but the bill longer in proportion, colour of it brown ; over the eye a 
black stripe; and between the bill and eye another; the upper part 
of the plumage rufous, varied with black, somewhat in the manner 
of our Common Species, but more distinct ; the under parts dusky 
white, and the black marks the same ; but those from the breast to 
the vent, are in transverse blotches, not lines, as in our Woodcock. 
It seems a species between that and the Great Snipe ; but most allied 
to the latter ; legs brown. 

Inhabits the moist savannas of Cayenne ; in the rainy season 
moves into the highest situations to breed ; makes the nest on some 
rising ground, choosing a cavity, and lining it with dry leaves; lays 
two eggs, and has two broods in a year, the latter in July. Is 
said not to fancy the woods, like that of Europe, but the marshes 
only, like the Snipe. The flesh is held in as much esteem as that 
of the European Species. 

VOL. IX. C c 



194 SNIPE. 



5.— CAYENNE SNIPE. 

Scolopax Cayanensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 715. Gm. Lin. i. 661. 
La Becassine, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 388. — Deuxieme espece. 
Cayenne Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 134. 

LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill straight, stout, a trifle bent at 
the end, colour dusky, with a reddish base; plumage on the upper 
parts of the body pale cinereous brown, mottled with pale buff- 
colour; greater wing coverts dirty white; some of the outer ones 
edged with brown ; quills white at the base, the rest of the length 
brown, and some of the inner ones white at the tips; bastard wing 
brown; under wing coverts mottled dusky and white; under parts 
in general white, but the fore part of the neck a little mottled with 
dusky; rump white; tail the same as the back, barred, and tipped 
with dusky; legs brown. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and other warm parts of America. 



6.— BURKA SNIPE. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill two inches long, dusky, with a 
black tip ; plumage in general light greenish ash, the head palest ; 
down the middle of the crown a mottled dark streak ; over the eye 
a broad one of the same, and through the eye one more obscure ; 
back and scapulars black, most of the feathers margined with rufous, 
and more deeply with yellowish white, falling over the wing as in the 
Jack Snipe; the neck and breast marked with black spots; the rest 
of the under parts white ; wing coverts plain ; the rest of the wing 
crossed with lines of black; rump the same; quills dusky; tail 
black, the end, for one-third of an inch, tawny or rufous, the very 
tip white ; legs pale green. 



SNIPE. 195 



Inhabits India. — Sir J. Anstruther. It is there called the Jack- 
Snipe, or Burka ; but it differs much from that bird, as the bill and 
legs are much longer in proportion ; it seems more allied to the Great 
Snipe, of which perhaps it may be a small Variety, and the upper 
tail coverts reach far on the tail as in that species. 



7.— COMMON SNIPE. 

Scolopax Gallinago, hid. Orn. ii. 715. Lin. i. 244. Fn. suec. No. 173. Gm. Lin. i. 

662. Scop. i. No. 138. Brim. No. 160. 161. Id. 162. Var. Muller, p. 33. Kram. 

352. Borowsk. iii. S9. Frisch, t. 229. Georgi, 182. Raii, 105. A. 2. Will. 

214. t. 53. Bris. v. 298. Id. Svo. ii. 285. Fn. arag. p. 77. Fn. Helv. Sepp, 

t. p. 247. Gerin. iv. t. 445. Tern. Man. 429. Id. Ed. 2d. 676. Lin. Trans. 

xiii. p. 191. 
Scolopax media, Klein, 99. 2. Id. Stem. 20. t, 20. f. 2. a— c. 
Becassine, Buf. vii. 483. pi. 26. PI. ml. 883. Get. Uc. Sard. 248. 
Heerschnepfe, Bechst. Dent. iii. s. 110. Naturf. xiii. 212. 
Mooschnepfe, Naturf. xviii. s. 68. II. Schmid, Fog. 122. t. 108. 
Snipe, Gen. Syn.w. 134. Br. Zool. ii. No. 187. pi. 68. Id.fol. 121. Id. 1812. ii. p. 

60. pi. 13. f. 2. Fl. Scot. i. No. 144. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 366. Will. Engl. 290. 

pi. 53. Alb. i. pi. 71. Hist. Selb. 29. Collins' s Anat.W. pi. 24. Bewick, ii. pi. 

in p. 68. Lewin, iv. pi. 158. 7e?. xxvii. 2. — the egg. JFa/c. ii. pi. 138. Pult. 

Dors. p. 14. Orn. Diet. Amer. Orn. vi. pi. 47. f. 1. 

THE weight of this bird is four ounces ; length twelve inches ; 
breadth fifteen. Bill three inches long, dusky, fiat at the end, 
rough, and paler at the base; irides dusky; the head is divided 
lengthwise by two black lines, and three of red ; one of the last 
passing down the middle, and one above each eye ; between the bill 
and eye a dusky line ; chin white ; neck varied brown and red ; the 
scapulars are beautifully marked with black and yellow ; quills 
dusky; the edges of the first, and tips of the secondaries white ; and 
those next the back barred with black and pale red ; breast and 
belly white; tail coverts long, of a reddish brown, and almost cover 
the tail, which consists of fourteen feathers, black on their lower part, 
then crossed with a bar of deep orange ; another narrow one deep 

C c 2 



196 SNIPE. 

black, and the ends white, or pale orange ; vent dull yellow; legs 
pale green ; toes divided to the origin. The difference between the 
sexes not to be distinguished. 

We scarcely know of any bird which is so universally spread as 
this species, being mentioned by most voyagers, as well as brought 
into England from such variety of places. It is known every where 
on the Old Continent, from the Arctic regions of Siberia, to the 
Cape of Good Hope, at which place it is pretty common ; also in the 
Islands of Ceylon and Japan ; India and China ; likewise Sumatra, 
called there Sckadidi; in Java called Aberka, and Burchet. 

It is every where in America, almost without exception,* and 
swarms in South Carolina, f — I have received a specimen from 
Cayenne, and been informed, that it is likewise at Surinam. It has 
also been sent to me from Jamaica ; and said to be extremely common 
in Falkland Islands, even more so than in England.J 

With us, for the most part, it disappears as the spring advances, but 
we have just reason to suppose that the whole do not depart, the nest 
being frequently found in the fens and marshes in various parts of 
the kingdom ;|| it is composed of dried plants and a few feathers; 
the eggs four or five, oblong, dirty olive, marked with dusky spots ; 
when disturbed in the breeding season, soars to a vast height, making 
a singular bleating kind of noise, and in its descent darts down with 
vast rapidity. The male, while his mate is sitting, often poises 
himself on his wings, making sometimes a whistling, at others a 
drumming noise : § the food is worms, and other insects, and small 
snails. Both this, the Jack Snipe, and Woodcock, are dressed 
without taking out the intestines, as the latter are thought to add 
to their delicacy. 

* Mr. Wilson says, that found in America is less, and has sixteen feathers in the tail. 

f Arct. Zool. The plumage in general like our Snipe, but smaller. 

J Penrose. — Falk. Jsl. 36. — Bougain. Voy. Cook's last Voy. i. 151. 

|| In the Fens of Lincolnsh. Wolmar Forest, Bodmyn Downs, &c. Barringt. Misc. 211. , 
It is said to breed in several of the Islets called Aytes, or Eyettes, in the River Thames. 
See also Lin. Trans, iii. p. 31. § Br. Zool. 



SNIPE. 197 



A.— Scolopax gallinaria, Ind. Om. ii. 715. Gm. Lin. i. 662. Midler, No. 183. 
Finmark Snipe, Gen. Sy'ti v. 136. Arct. Zool. ii. 471. D. 

This is very like the last, and the bill tuberculated in the same 
manner, but differs in the head, being entirely grey; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Finmark ; most probably a Variety of our Common 
Snipe. 



8 —JACK SNIPE. 

Scolopax Gallinula, Ind. Orn ii. 715. Lin. i. 244. Gm. Lin. i. 662. Scop. i. No. 

139. Brim. No. 163. Muller, No. 189. Frisch, t. 231. Borowsk. iii. 90. Fn. 

Helo. Sepp, t. 122. Tern. Man. 440. Id. Ed. 2d. 678. 
Gallinago minima, Rail, 105. A. 3. Will. 214. Klein, 100. 4. Jd. Stow. t. 20. f. 4. 

a. b. Gerin. iv. t. 443. 
Gallinago minor, Bris. v. 303, t. 26. f. 2. /</. 8vo. ii. 287. 
La petite Becassine, Buf. vii. 490. PL enl. S84. 
Die Haarschnepfe, Bechst. Dcuts. iii. 120. Naturf. xiii. 213. 
Jack Snipe, Gid, Judcock, Gen. Syn. v. 136. Br. Zool. ii. No. 189. pi. 68. Id.fol. 

121. Id. 1812. ii. 63. pi. 13. f. 1. Flor. Scot. 145. yfm. Zool. ii. No. 367. 

Will. Engl. 291. .4/6. iii. pi. 86. Russ. Alep. p. 65. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 73. 

Lewin, iv. pi. 159. /Fa/e. ii. 139. Pzefr. Dors. p. 14. Ora. Die/. 

THIS is about half the size of the Common Snipe, and weighs 
scarcely two ounces ; length eight inches and a half. Bill one inch 
and a half long, black; crown of the head black, tinged with rust- 
colour ; over each eye a yellow streak; neck varied with white, 
brown, and pale red ; scapulars narrow, long, and brown, margined 
with yellow ; the rump glossy bluish purple ; belly and vent white ; 
greater quills dusky ; tail brown, consisting of twelve pointed brown 
feathers, with tawny edges; legs cinereous green. This species 
frequents the same places in England as the other, and has the same 
manners, but is not near so numerous; is more solitary, and never 
known to be gregarious, nor is it so shy ; for when under any kind 
of shelter, as rushes, or thick grass, it will lie till roused by the tread 



198 SNIPE. 

of the sportsman's foot, and after flying to a small distance, again 
shelters itself. It appears with ns later than the Common Species, 
and not known to remain here during the summer.* 

It inhabits Europe as far north as 80 deg. 27 miri.f In Germany 
far from common ; but said to breed there, as also in some parts of 
France. Is found also in Italy and Spain ; where it is, in some 
seasons, in greater numbers than the Common Species. I cannot for 
certain trace it farther than Aleppo, in Syria; J for although Kolben 
talks of several sorts of Snipes, at the Cape of Good Hope, he has 
by no means ascertained the species. We have, too, seen some 
very similar in Indian drawings, but still appearing indecisive. It 
is certainly in North America ; and according to Fermi n, in Surinam. || 
Is said to lay four or five yellow green eggs, spotted with brown, 
making the nest among the rushes. The flesh is thought to be 
excellent. 



9— CAPE SNIPE — Pl. clii. 

MALE. 

Scolopax Capensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 716. Lin. i. 240. Gm. Lin. i. 666. Lin. Trans. 

xiii. 327. 
Gallinago Capitis Bona? Spei, Bris. App. 141. t. 6. Id. Svo. ii. 28S. 
La Becassine du Cap de B. Esp. Buf. vii. 494. PI. enl. 270. 

* Comes generally the end of November, and departs sometimes as late as the 19th of 
April. — Lin. Trans, i. 123. But Dr. Heysham has found this, as well as the Common 
Snipe, in Cumberland, throughout the year. 

f Phypps mentions a low flat Isle off Waygats, which abounds with a small Snipe, 
similar to the Jack-Snipe in England. See Voy. p. 53. J Russ. Alep. p. 65. 

|| Hist. Surin. ii. 1S9. 190. He talks there of a large and small Snipe ; the first is 
rufous, black and ash-colour, mixed; breast and belly ash-colour ; smaller than the Par- 
tridge; flies slowly, but runs quick. The small one he describes much like ours; and says 
they are seen by thousands on the sea shores ; that it must be a bad marksman that does not 
kill sixty at once, with fine shot ; and that he has killed S5 with a single charge. The flesh 
of both is accounted very delicate ; but the last is so small that a man may safely eat twenty 
at a meal. 



PL.CXJDL 




/Ac .7//// 



SNIPE. 199 

Keuvitt, Sparrm. Voy. cap. i. 153. 
Rhynchaea, Tem. Man. Ed. 2d. Anal. p. civ. 
Cape Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 138. Id. Sup. 244. 

SIZE of our Snipe; length ten inches. Bill one inch and three 
quarters, reddish brown ; crown of the head ash-colour, crossed 
with streaks of black; down the middle a pale band, from the base 
of the bill to the hindhead ; round the eyes white, ending in a streak 
behind ; the under part bounded by a black line ; the rest of the 
head and neck rufous; at the top of the breast a narrow band of 
black; from this all the under parts are dusky white; the upper 
part of the body, wings, and tail, ash-colour, transversely waved 
with black, most regular on the coverts ; each feather of the outer 
ones marked with four or five yellowish bars on the inner web, and 
as many round spots of the same on the outer ; the tail feathers are 
also marked in the same manner ; the four middle ones having the 
bars of the yellowish colour, and the four outer on each side spots, 
as in the quills; the inner edge of the wing, in the course of the 
scapulars, streaked with white; legs dusky. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and called Keuvitt, as it screams 
out in the dusk of the evening, in a kind of disagreeable sound, 
imitating that word.* 



FEMALE. 

Becassine de Madagascar, Buf. vii. 495. PL enl. 922. Ind. Orn. ii. 717. 10. y. 

Gen. Syn. v. p. 139. C. 
Rynchaea orientalis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 193. 

Length ten inches. Bill brownish red, straight, except towards 
the end, where it bends a trifle downwards ; round the eye white, 
passing a little way down on the neck on each side ; above this a 
black streak ; chin white ; the rest of the head and neck rufous ; 

* Sparm. Voy. i. 153. 



200 SNIPE. 

lower part of the neck and back undulated with black and grey ; 
wing coverts finely undulated black and ash-colour ; the second 
tjuills and tail undulated grey and black alternately; the under part 
of the body white; legs the colour of the bill. 

Inhabits Madagascar. This and the last are represented in the 
drawings from India, as male and female, under the name of Pour- 
kar Burka, or Painted Snipe. The male answers in colour to the 
above described ; the female is much the same as in the latter 
description, but the wing coverts are dull green, undulated with 
black lines ; the chin not white ; round the lower part of the neck, 
below the rufous, surrounded with black; legs pale, or dusky white. 

Found in Java, and there called Pengung. 

A.— Cape Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 138. 9. A. pi. SI. Lid. Orn. ii. 716. 10. j3. 

The top of the head, throat, and fore part of the neck, rufous 
chestnut; chin almost white; eye surrounded with black, and placed 
in a long bed of white ; pointing to the hindhead ; the rest of the 
head, neck, and breast, black; back, rump, wing coverts, and second 
quills, dark olive-green, elegantly mottled and barred with dusky; 
scapulars white ; the two middle tail feathers like the back ; the 
others, and greater quills dusky black, marked with large, orange 
spots, five or six on each feather ; belly, thighs, and vent, white; 
bill and legs pale brown. 

The description, and figure of this Variety, taken from a painting 
by the late Mr. Edwards, in my possession 

B. — Rallus Benglialensis, Lin. i. 263. Gm. Lin. i. 715. Klein, 104. 5. lnd. 

Orn ii. 717. 
Totanus Bengalensis, Bris. v. 209. Id. 8vo. ii. 266. 
Le Chevalier vert, Bnf. vii. 520. 
Bengal Water Rail, Alb. iii. pi. 90. Gen. Syn. v. 140. Var. D. 

SIZE of the others ; length eight inches and a half. Bill shorter, 
colour of it, and the irides yellow ; crown of the head white ; round 



SNIPE. 201 

the eyes the same, passing towards the hindhead, and ending in a 
point; sides of the head, throat, and neck deep brown ; upper part 
of the back, the scapulars, and wing coverts green ; lower part of 
the back, and rump, upper tail coverts, and under parts of the body 
white ; prime quills purple, the outer webs marked with five orange 
spots; the secondaries are green, and as long as the greater quills; 
those nearest the body white; tail purple, marked with orange spots; 
legs greenish yellow. 

Inhabits Bengal, chiefly abounding on the flat borders of jeels, 
or among the small islands of their interior ; but as the sport of 
taking them is carried on during the mid-day heats, the sportsman is> 
for the most part, obliged to wade up to the waist in water, whilst 
the upper part of the body is exposed to a burning sun : hence this 
pursuit is most injurious to the constitution, and has been the death 
of hundreds.* 



C— Cape Snipe, Ind. Orn.ii. 717. 10. s. Gen. Syn. Sup. 244. 9. E. 

Bill yellow, swelling at the end of both mandibles, the colour 
yellowish green; crown dusky; eyes large, and black; round each 
a circle of yellow feathers, pointing in a line behind ; cheeks and 
throat white; back slaty blue, spotted with black, and bounded the 
whole length by a yellow line; the scapulars most elegantly marked 
with narrow black lines, on a bluish ground, and the feathers edged 
with semicircular lines of bluish and black; the rest of the wing 
tawny, with black semicircles, pointing reverse to the former; tail 
like the scapulars, but marked with large tawny spots; breast brown 
above, black beneath ; belly, vent, and thighs white ; legs pale ash. 

This last in my Collection ; killed at Tanjore, by Capt. Wood. 

* Oriental Field Sports,], p. 278. 

VOL. IX. D D 



202 SNIPE. 



10. -BLACK-BREASTED SNIPE. 

SIZE of the Cape Snipe. Bill two inches long, brown, and a 
trifle bent at the end ; crown of the head dusky, down the middle 
a pale stripe; sides round the eye pale, nearly white; chin pale, 
mottled ; neck behind pale ferruginous ; breast, sides, and under 
wing coverts, dusky black; belly and sides white, curving under 
the wing on the sides of the breast ; all the wing coverts cinereous 
brown, crossed with numerous, fine, dusky lines; quills black, with 
oval, pale ferruginous, or clay-coloured spots; tail ash-coloured, 
mottled, and crossed with dusky lines, and round clay-coloured spots; 
legs dusky. 

In the collection of Mr. Harrison, without any history annexed : 
it seems somewhat allied to the Cape Species. 



11— SIAMESE SNIPE. 

Becassinette de Siam, Martinet Plates, No. 169. 

THE bill in this bird is pale dusky blue; crown of the head, 
above the eye, dusky white; chin, throat, and neck before, the same; 
at the nostril begins a pale rufous stripe, growing broader, and 
passing under the eye, and from thence continuing to the hindhead, 
and back part of the neck, quite to the back; back dusky white, 
marked with irregular, dusky blotches, with a few other darker spots 
intermixed ; lesser wing coverts much the same ; the greater nearly 
plain ; greater quills black, the series above them white ; all the 
under parts, thighs, and vent, dusky white, mottled with dusky lines; 
upper and under tail coverts white; tail dusky, the feathers with 
pale margins; legs pale yellow. 



SNIPE. 203 

This is said to inhabit Siam ; and has some things in common 
with the Chinese Species; but as it seems to differ in several par- 
ticulars, it may Tor the present be esteemed as distinct. 



12.— CHINESE SNIPE. 

Scolopax Sinensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 717. Nat. Misc. pi. 729. 
La Becassine de la Chine, Buf. vii. 495. PI. enl. 881. 
Rhynchoea, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ. 
Cape Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 139. Var. B. 

SMALLER than the Common Snipe; length ten inches. Kill 
yellow, with a dusky tip ; the top of the head brown, mixed with 
black; down the middle of the crown, and over each eye, a stripe 
of white ; chin white ; the rest of the head and neck mixed grey and 
pale brown ; fore part of the neck streaked perpendicularly ; behind 
it, and all round the bottom, transversely ; upper part of the body 
and wings delicately mixed, and waved with bluish grey, brown, 
pale rufous, and black; breast, belly, and vent white; quills dusky, 
marked with oval, cream-coloured spots ; tail blue-grey and dusky 
mixed, with three or four roundish, cream-coloured spots on each 
feather, surrounded with black ; legs grey. 

Inhabits China, and appears to bear some affinity to the Cape 
Species. 



13— MADRAS SNIPE. 

Scolopax Maderaspatana, Ind. Orn. ii. 717. Gm. Lin. i. 667. 
Gallinago Maderaspatana, Bris. v. 308. Id. 8vo. i. 287. 
La Becassine de Madras, Buf. vii. 496. 
Partridge Snipe, Rait, Syn. 193. 1. 1. f. 2. 
Madras Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 141. 

BILL pale rufous; the plumage on the upper parts mixed with 
fulvous and blackish; down the middle of the crown a blackish 

D d2 



204 SNIPE. 

brown stripe, and on each side of the head, behind the eye, another; 
on the back are two black brown bands; throat and fore part of the 
neck fulvous, marked with blackish spots ; the rest of the under 
parts white, except a black band across the breast; the quills and 
tail variegated with black, fulvous, and grey; the hind toe of equal 
length with the fore ones. 
Inhabits Madras. 



14— WHITE INDIAN SNIPE. 

Scolopax Indica, Ind. Orn. ii. 718. Gm. Lin. i. 667. 
La Becassine blanche des Indes, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. 218. 
White Indian Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 141. 

THIS is less than our Snipe. Bill black ; head white, tinged 
with very pale dirty grey; through the eye a grey streak, reaching 
almost to the hindhead ; a little beneath the eye is another of the 
same colour; throat white ; the neck and breast dirty white, marked 
with spots, and longitudinal streaks of dirty grey ; back, rump, 
wing coverts, secondaries, and tail, dirty grey, crossed with waved 
bands of the colour of umber; the lesser wing coverts almost white 
on the outer web; belly and vent white, sides of the former crossed 
with pale dirty grey bands; legs black. 

Inhabits India. 



15— SATURATED SNIPE. 

Scolopax saturata, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 191. — Horsfield. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill pretty long, and tuberculated at 
the base; plumage above variegated with black, and deep chestnut; 
beneath paler; at the base of the under mandible a small whitish 
spot; the anterior part of the neck transversely banded with black 
and chestnut; the breast and belly sooty black, with irregular dusky 



SNIPE. 205 

bands. — This is said to be one of the rarest of the Javan birds, 
having been only once found near a mountain lake, at an elevation 
of about 7000 feet above the ocean. 



16— MARBLED GODWIT. 

Scolopax marmorata, Ind. Om. ii. 720. 

' Fedoa, Great Marbled Godwit, Amer. Orn. vii. p. 20. pi. 50. f. 4. — female. 

Barge, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ. 

Marbled Godwit, Gen. Syn. Sup. 245. Arct. Zool. Sup. p. 68. 

LENGTH nineteen inches. Bill almost four, colour dull orange, 
towards the end black; all the upper parts of the plumage brown, 
more or less streaked and spotted with rufous white ; between the 
bill and eye, and chin white ; on the back the marks are pale rufous, 
and pretty numerous, arising from each feather having five or six 
bars of that colour on the margin ; wing coverts with less brown, 
appearing at a distance scarcely marked with it; quills rufous cream- 
colour, minutely speckled with brown ; the four first have the outer 
webs and ends dusky black, the shaft of the outer one white ; under 
wing coverts pale rufous ; breast and sides the same, but much paler ; 
barred with dusky, waved, lines, broadest on the sides; middle of 
the belly and thighs plain ; vent nearly white ; tail rufous, crossed 
with six or seven brown bars, on the outer ones quite irregular, the 
two middle palest ; legs black, and bare for one inch and a quarter 
above the joint. The male and female much alike, except that in 
the former the breast is marked with undulating bars of black. 

Inhabits Hudson's Bay; occasionally appearing in other parts in 
the passage, to and from the places where they breed. 



206 SNIPE. 



17— HUDSON I AN GOD WIT. 

Scolopax Hudsonica, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 720. 

Hudsonian Godwit, Gen. Syn. Sup. p. 246. Arct. Zool. Sup. p. 68. 

LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill three inches long, turning 
upwards, the base half pale, the rest black ; top of the head blackish, 
spotted, or streaked dusky white ; sides of the head and neck behind 
much the same; lore dusky; over the eyes a white streak; chin 
nearly white; back and scapulars dusky brown, spotted with rufous 
white ; one spot on each side of the shaft, and in the large feathers 
two; wing coverts brown, with a pale mixture in some of the middle 
ones, and a few white spots ; larger coverts plain ash-colour ; quills 
black, with white shafts ; the base of all from the fourth white, to 
about one-third of the length ; rump and upper tail coverts white ; 
the under parts of the bird, from the throat to the vent, fine rufous 
chestnut, waved across with narrow, dusky lines, each being so 
marked at the tip ; tail feathers white at the base, taking up greater 
space as the feathers are more outward ; the rest of the length dusky 
black ; wings and tail equal in length ; legs long, black. 

I received this, with the Marbled one, from Hudson's Bay, by 
favour of Mr. Hutchins ; but without any history, further than that 
they were equally scarce birds. 

18— AMERICAN GODWIT. 

Scolopax Fedoa, Ind. Orn. ii. 718. Lin. i. 244. Gm. Lin. i. 663. 

Numidia Americana, Greater Godwit, Bartr. Trav. 292. 

Liinosa Americana rufa, Bris.v. 287. 7d.8vo.ii. 282. 

— t-. — Fedoa, Frankl, Narr. A pp. p. 689. 

Barge rouge de la Baie d'Hudson, Buf. vii. 507. 

American Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. 142. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 271. Edw. pi. 142. 

SIZE of our Godwit; length sixteen inches. Bill six inches 
long, yellow, but towards the point black ; eyes placed far back in 



SNIPE. 207 

the head ; over the eye a white line ; from the bill to the eye a dusky 
one ; throat white; the head and neck mottled with dusky and light 
brown ; breast barred with black ; belly brown ; the back and wing 
coverts varied rusty brown and dusky ; the quills ferruginous on the 
outer webs; tail barred light brown and black; legs long, black, 
naked high above the joint; the outer and middle toe united at the 
bottom. — Inhabits Hudson's Bay, and there called a Curlew. 



A. — Length eighteen inches. Bill four inches, the base half 
pale, the rest black ; head and neck streaked dusky and pale ; over 
the eye a pale line ; between the bill and eye dusky ; back and wing 
coverts waved and marbled pale rufous and brown ; all beneath, from 
the breast, fine pale rufous, with a rose-coloured tinge ; under wing 
coverts the same, plain, but darker; the greater quills dusky black 
without, and rufous brown, speckled with black, within ; secondaries 
waved in bars like the back, and nearly as long as the prime quills; 
tail much like the back, but two or three of the outer feathers are 
more rufous, with the addition of some perpendicular streaks on the 
outer webs ; wings and tail equal in length ; the under tail coverts 
crossed with a few dusky lines ; legs black ; the thighs bare high up 
above the joint. 

A specimen sent to Mr. Francillon, from Mr. Abbot : it is found 
in Georgia, frequenting the higher ground of the swamps, and sides 
of thickets, having brooks and intersecting ditches ; but it is less 
common than the Little Woodcock. 



19 —RED GODWIT. 

Scolopax Lapponica, Ind. Orn. ii. 718. Lin. i. 246. Fn. suec. No. 174. Gm. Lin. i. 

667. Brun. No. 165. Muller, No. 186. Phil. Trans. V. lxii. 411. 
Numenius pectore rufo, Great Red-breasted Godwit, Bartr. Tr. 291. 



208 SNIPE. 

Red Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. 142. Br. Zool. ii. No. 181. pi. 67. Id.fol. add. Plates. 
Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 51. pi. 12. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 372. Edw. pi. 138. Bewick, 
ii. pi. p. 80. Lewin, iv. pi. 160. Walcot, ii. pi. 140. Pult. Dors. p. 14. Orn. 
Diet. Lin. Trans, i. p. 128. 

LENGTH thirteen inches ; weight twelve ounces. Bill three 
inches and three quarters long, rather inclining- upwards ; colour 
dusky, next the head yellowish ; head, neck, breast, and upper part 
of the back, ferruginous, streaked with black ; neck plain ; over the 
eyes a paler streak ; lower part of the back and rump rufous white, 
the feathers dusky down the shafts; upper tail coverts barred rufous, 
white, and brown ; lesser wing coverts brown, fringed with white, 
forming a bar on the wing; greater quills black on the outer webs, 
white towards the base within ; secondaries half white half black ; 
the two middle tail feathers dusky black, the others white halfway 
from the base, the rest black; legs black. 

This is rare in England, but a few instances of its being met with 
are on record ; One in Dorsetshire, in the Museum of the late Mr. 
Tunstall ; another in Sussex, mentioned by Mr. Markwick;* a third 
in Cornwall ;t and a fourth shot near Hull. % I learn, too, from 
Dr. Lamb, that one was shot near INewbury, in the year 1810. 
Mr. Pennant once met with it in a poulterer's shop in London. 

On the Continent it appears north, as far as Sweden, and probably 
Lapland ;§ seen about the Caspian Sea in spring, never in Siberia, 
or north of Asia ;|| is more plentiful in America ; found in numbers 
in the fens about Hudson's Bay, where they breed, and retire south- 
ward in autumn ; is called there Pusquatishishue. 

* Lin. Trans, iv. p. 21. A flock appeared some years since on the coasts of Sussex, of 
which ten were killed by two persons, but not seen since that period. 

t Pult. Dors. % Br. Zool. § Linnwus. || Arct. Zool. 



SNIPE. 



209 



A.— Red Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. 143. 13. A. Ind. Orn. ii. 719. (3. 

A trifle bigger than the last. Bill four inches and a half long ; 
plumage on the upper parts of the body plain brown ; head and neck 
cinereous ; chin nearly white ; over the eye a pale streak ; breast 
mottled with red ; from thence to the vent white ; tail as the others ; 
legs dusky. 

A specimen of this was sent from Gibraltar, by the late Rev. J. 
White ; who observes, that they are brought to market with others 
of the Genus, and vary so much in size and colours, as to make it 
difficult to ascertain the species. In some particulars they correspond 
with the Red-breasted, in others with the Common Godwit, and 
having examined both sexes, it seemed to him doubtful whether 
there were actually two distinct species. 



B. — Length thirteen inches. Bill three inches ; plumage mostly 
pale ash-colour ; shafts of the feathers black, with a slight mixture 
of black on some of the feathers of the back ; sides of the head and 
neck before clay-colour, with a streak of the same over the eye ; chin 
and throat nearly plain ; neck and breast inclining to rufous, with 
curved dusky marks; quills and tail dusky black ; base of the latter 
white, the same on some of the edges of the side feathers, but in 
what proportion is uncertain, as the description was taken from a 
drawing, in which the tail was partly hid ; thighs white ; legs dusky. 

Inhabits India, under the name of Churta Guiar. 



20— JADREKA SNIPE. 

Scolopax Limosa, Ind. Orn. ii. 719. Lin. i. 245. Fn. suec. No. 172. Gm. Lin. i. 

666. Fn. Groenl. No. 72. Muller, No. 190. Georgi, 171. Bris. v. 262. Id. 

8vo. ii. 277. Fn. Arag. 77. Fn. Helv. Gerin. iv. t. 462. 
Scolopax Belgica, Gm. Lin. i. 663. 39. Sepp, t. 27. p. 51. Id. p. 53. t. 28. 

VOL. IX. E E 



210 SNIPE. 

Fedoa nostra secunda, Rati, 105. A. 5. Will. 216. 

Limosa melanura, Tern. Man. 429. Id. Ed. ii. 665. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 193. 

Die Pfuhlschnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 116. 

Limosa melanura, Black-tailed Godwit, Frankl. Narr. App. p. 689. 

Der gemeine Pfuhlschnepfe, Naturf. xiii. 114. 

La Barge, Buf. vii. 500. pi. 27. PI. enh 874. 

La grande Barge rousse, Buf. vii. 505. PI. e'nl. 916. 

Lesser Godwit, Br. Zoo/, ii. No. 1S2. Id.fol. 120. 

Jadreka Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 146. Br.Zool. 1812. ii. p. 53. ^-cf. Zoo/, ii. No. 374. 

Olafs. hi. ii. 201. pi. 48. Lewin, iv. pi, 162. Bewick, ii. p. 85. Orn. Diet. 

Sf Supp. pi. in ditto. 

THE length of this species is seventeen inches and a half; 
breadth two feet four inches ; weight eight ounces and three quarters. 
Bill four inches and a quarter long, brownish yellow, nearly straight, 
or in a slight degree inclining upwards, the end for one inch and a 
half dusky black, the upper mandible hanging over the lower; top 
and sides of the head cinereous brown, with darker mottlings ; over 
the eye, and behind it, a pale streak ; chin pale ; neck pale rufous, 
and pale ash-colour; breast ash-colour, the feathers crossed near the 
ends with pale rufous, bounded with black ; from thence the under 
parts are white ; back, wing coverts, and four of the second quills 
next the body, ash-colour; the following one white within, halfway 
from the base ; the three next with the outer webs wholly white ; the 
rest divided half way from the base, white, afterwards blackish ; 
the black occupying most space in those nearest the body ; greater 
quills much the same, and the four outer have the whole of outer 
webs black, the inner white half way from the base; bastard wing 
dusky black ; the secondaries reach to within one inch and a half 
of the end of the quills when the wing is closed ; the back is like the 
wings, and the rump approaches to black ; the upper tail coverts are 
white, but the lower series of them tipped with black ; the tail has 
twelve feathers, the two middle ones black, the others white a consider- 
able way from the base ; the rest of the length black ; the white occu- 
pying most space on the outer ones, and on the exterior reaching almost 
to the tip; the shape of the tail appears, when closed, a little con- 



SNIPE. 211 

cave, but when spread out the feathers seem even ; the legs are long, 
above the joint bare for one inch and three quarters ; length of the 
shins three inches and a half; colour brownish black, the outer and 
middle toes joined at the base by a membrane; the middle claw 
with two or three serratures, not unlike that of the Goatsucker. 
This was a female, having a cluster of eggs, and two larger than 
the rest very conspicuous. 

We are enabled to give the above description from a fine specimen 
killed by Mr. Boys, in April 1817; and have been more minute, as 
we believe it to be a bird not generally met with. 

Inhabits Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. Migrates in flocks in 
the south of Russia; seen about Lake Baikal; is now and then found 
in England. One in the collection of Mr. Folijambe was bought 
in Leadenhall Market, In the collection of Mr. Bullock were two 
others, but whether British specimens was uncertain : it is supposed 
to be the Red Godwit in one of its changes of plumage. Found in 
Java by Dr. Horsfield, and there called Biru-lahut. 



21— FERRUGINOUS GODWIT. 

LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill three inches long, brown ; 
head and neck dusky aud white mixed in streaks ; back brown, 
spotted with buflf white ; the feathers having three spots on each 
web ; lesser wing coverts brown, the greater marked with a few buff 
spots; inner coverts, over the quills, with white ends, but not visible 
when the wing is closed ; quills brown, several of the inner ones 
white at the base, shafts white ; upper tail coverts white; tail black, 
three inches long, the side feathers white at the base, most so on the 
exterior one ; ends fringed with white ; under wing coverts brown 
and white mixed ; the chin and sides of the head are dusky and 
white, mixed in streaks ; the throat and neck before streaked, dusky 
and pale ferruginous ; breast, belly, and vent, deep ferruginous, the 

E e 2 



212 SNIPE. 

feathers more or less margined with dusky, appearing as undulating 
lines; most so on the thighs and vent; legs dusky brown; thighs 
bare one inch above the joint. 

The above, with two others, the one with red on the breast, the 
other grey, were met with in the month of May, near Salisbury. 
Probably allied to the last. 



22— COMMON GODWIT. 

Scolopax iEgocephala, Ind. Om. ii. 719. Lin. i. 246. Gm. Lin. i. 667. 

■ — leucophoea, Ind. Orn. ii. 719. 

Limosa gnsea major, Bris. v. 272. t. 24. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 279. Gerin. iv. t. 461. 

rufa, Bris. v. 281. t. 25. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 281. Tern. Man. 433. Id. Ed. 

ii. 668. 
Limosa rufa major, Bris. v. 2S4. Id. Svo. ii. 282. 
Numenius alba varia, White Godwit, Bartr. Trav. 291. 
iEgocephalus Bellonii, Raii, 105. A. 4. Will. 215. Marsig. Dan. v. 36. pi. 16. 

Klein, 102. 
La Barge rousse, Baf. vii. 504. PI. enl. 900. 

Die Geiskopfschnepfe, Bechst. Dents, iii. s. 132. Id. Ed. ii. V. iv. 234. 
Rothen Geiskopf, Bechst. Deut. iii. 134. 
Barbary Godwit, Shaw's Trav. 225. 
Godwit, Gen. Si/n. v. 145. Id. Sup. 245. Id. Sup. 2d. 309. Alb. ii. pi. 70. Br. 

Zool. ii. No. 179. Id.fol. 120. pi. B. & B. B. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 47. Arct. 

Zoo/, ii. No. 373. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 78. Lewin, iv. 1. 161. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

FEW birds vary in size, or external appearance, more than this, 
which has given occasion to authors to make two or more species, 
when in fact they should form one only. 

The more complete bird will frequently measure fifteen or sixteen 
inches in length, and weigh as far as twelve ounces, when the 
younger ones weigh no more than seven ; with proportional dimen- 
sions: the bill four inches, or even more, base half pale brown, or 
purplish, from thence to the end black ; the under mandible is 
somewhat shorter, and the whole bends a little upwards ; irides 
hazel ; the head, neck, and upper parts, are reddish brown ; the 



SNIPE. 213 

leathers marked down the middle with dusky ; over the eye a whitish 
streak; belly and vent white; the six prime quills black; inner 
edges brown, the shaft of the first brown ; most of the others brown, 
the outer margins pale, and clouded with pale brown, the inner 
whitish, banded with greyish brown ; tail white, the two middle 
feathers barred with brown, the others the same on the outer web, 
but on the inner only towards the tip ; legs dusky. 

In some birds the rump is white, and the chin nearly so ; but 
how far this may be distinctive of age, or a casual circumstance, 
does not seem manifest ; for it is subject to great variety, in size of 
body, length of bill, as well as in plumage. 

One sent to me by Mr. Boys in September 1786, measured 
fourteen inches, to the end of the claws fifteen inches and a half ; 
weight six ounces and three quarters; breadth twenty-five inches. 
Bill two inches and a half long, tongue three-fourths of the length 
of it ; a white spot beneath the eye, joining another above, forming 
a circle round it ; between the bill and eye a dark spot ; head, back, 
and upper parts mottled brown and white ; fore part of the neck and 
breast pale reddish brown ; quills dusky, with white shafts ; outer 
webs dusky, the inner light coloured, and towards the wing first 
mottled with white, then deeply margined with the same ; secondaries 
brown, edged reddish white ; rump white ; tail coverts the same, 
spotted here and there with dusky ; tail barred dusky and white ; 
legs black. 

In a second, the bill was three inches and a half long ; length 
of the bird sixteen inches and one-eighth, and to the end of the 
claws seventeen inches and a quarter; breadth twenty-eight; weight 
twelve ounces ; plumage much as in the other : the rump spotted 
with dusky. 

A third, received with the others, had the bill three inches in 
length ; general length sixteen inches, to the claws seventeen ; 
breadth twenty-seven and a half; weight eight ounces and a quarter. 
All these were shot at one time, out of a large flock, on Sandwich 



214 SNIPE. 

Flats; two of thein were males : in the stomach was gravel, sand, 
fragments of shells, and several of the Area Nucleus entire. 

The Common Godwit inhabits this kingdom, residing here 
throughout the year; sometimes found in the fens with the Ruff, 
and taken promiscuously, by means of a stale bird ; but chiefly met 
with in the winter on our shores; walking on the open sands, like 
the Curlew, and feeds on marine insects :* the flesh is, we believe, 
at present thought very good, but in times past was held in high 
estimation, according toMoflet;t though, as in the RufF, much may 
depend on the state of fatness in which it is found. 

This inhabits also various parts of the Old Continent, perhaps far 
northward, yet we do not find it mentioned by Linnaeus in his Fauna 
Suecica, athough he admits the Red Species. We trace it towards 
the south as far at least as Spain, and Gibraltar; and most certainly 
have seen it represented in various drawings done in India. 

It likewise is fouud in various parts of America ; and is not 
uncommon at Hudson's Bay, and known there by the name of 
Wasawuckapeshew.J In some parts of England it is called Yar- 
whip, and Yarwhelp; in others called Sea- Woodcock. 



23— MEYER'S GODWIT. 

Limosa Meyeri, Tern. Man. d'Orn. 434. Id. Ed. 671. 

LENGTH fifteen inches. Bill four inches, black, with a yel- 
lowish base ; upper parts of the body grey brown, inclining to ash 
on the head, and hind part of the neck ; the fore part of the last, 
and breast ash, crossed with dusky streaks ; the rest of the under 

* Colonel Montagu says, that these birds no longer are taken in the Lincolnshire Fens 
in the breeding season. — Orn. Diet. Supp. 

f He tells us the price, when he says, " A fat Godwit is so fine and light a meat, that 
" Noblemen (yea, and Merchants too, by your leave) stick not to buy them at four nobles 
" a dozen."— Mqffet on Foods, p. 99. J Mr. Hutchins. 



SNIPE. 215 

parts white, but the sides, under the wings, streaked with brown ; 
quills black ; tail banded, dusky and white ; hind toe placed high 
up : the above is the dress of both sexes in the winter. In the summer 
all the parts above are dusky brown, the edges of the feathers yel- 
lowish in spots; beneath pale rufous, marked on the sides of the 
breast; but the middle of the belly is pure white; quills black, 
marked within with white. 

Inhabits the moist banks of rivers, and probably the marshes; in 
respect to Germany, appears to be a bird of passage. Not met with 
in Holland. M. Temminck remarks, that it is probably not distinct, 
but belonging to the last described species. 



24- RED-BREASTED SNIPE. 

Scolopax Noveboracensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 723. Gm. Lin. i. 658. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 

681. Frankl. Narr. App. p. 687. 
Red-breasted Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 153. Arct. Zool. ii. 368. Lin. Trans. V. ix. 198. 

Br. Zool. 1812. V. ii. p. 52. Om. Diet. Sup. pi. in ditto. .Arner. Orn. vii. 45. 

pi. 58. f. 1. 

LARGER than the Common Snipe, length fifteen inches.* 
Bill more than two inches long; head, neck, and scapulars, varied 
with black, ash-colour, and red ; fore part of the neck ferruginous, 
thinly spotted with black ; coverts and secondaries dark cinereous ; 
the last tipped with white ; back and rump white, concealed by the 
scapulars; tail barred dusky and white; legs dark green, middle 
and outer toes connected by a small web. 

Inhabits the coasts of New- York; found also in this kingdom. 
In the spring of 1803, a small flock of them appeared on the coast 
of Devon ; one of them was shot, and added to the collection of Col. 
Montagu : a similar one soon after killed at Weymouth, in company 
with several others; and a third met with at Sandwich, in Kent. 

* Montagu. 



216 SNIPE. 

I observed also one of them in the collection of the late Mr. 
Folijambe. Col. Montagu joins this with the Hudsonian Species, 
but in my opinion, without foundation ; more especially as I had the 
opportunity of fully examining a specimen, in good preservation in 
my own collection, received from Hudson's Bay, and I have not met 
with a second of the kind. 



25— BROWN SNIPE. 

Scolopax grisea, Tnd. Orn. ii. 724. Gm. Lin. i. 658. Tent. Man. Ed. ii. 680. 
Red-breasted Snipe, female, Amer. Orn. vii. p. 46. 
Brown Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 154. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 369. 

SIZE of the Common Snipe; length eleven inches. Bill two 
inches and a half long, brown ; between the base and eye a white 
bar; above the last a white speck ; head, neck, and scapulars, fine 
cinereous brown, here and there marked with black; sides of the 
head and fore part of the neck palest ; wing coverts and prime quills 
dark brown, shaft of the first quill white; secondaries pale brown, 
edged with white ; back white ; rump and tail barred black and 
white ; breast mottled white and brown ; belly white ; legs dark 
brown, hind toe placed high up, and pretty long. 

Found on the coasts of New-York. 



A.— Brown Snipe, Br. Zool. Ed. 1812. p. 65. Orn. Diet. 

This Variety has been met with on the Coast of Devonshire, and 
was in the collection of Col. Montagu : it was a male, and differed in 
but few particulars from the other. The Colonel observes, that the 
bill is not so slender as in the Common Snipe, a little broad and 
compressed near the end; it is dusky, lightest at the base; upper 
mandible serrated within along the middle of the roof; both man- 
dibles punctured, or rough near the tip ; irides dusky : in respect to 



SNIPE. 217 

plumage, it scarcely differs from the other; it is, however, fully 
described in the Ornithological Dictionary , which says, that it is 
rather larger than the Common Snipe, and stands higher on its legs : 
was met with single, and not shy, suffering the person who killed it 
to approach very near. 

This, according to Mr. Wilson, is the female of the Red-breasted, 
or last Species. 



26— BLACK SNIPE. 

Tringa nigra, Ind. Orn. ii. 723. Gm. Lin. i. 659. 
Black Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 15:3. Arct. Zool. ii. 381. 

PLUMAGE most intensely black. Bill and legs red. Observed 
by Steller, in the Islands towards America. 



27— RHENISH SNIPE. 

Tringa atra, Ind. Orn. ii. 238. Naturf. xiii. s. 193. Gm. Lin. i. 673. 
Der Schwarze Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 188* 
Black-headed Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 313. 

THE head and neck in this bird are black; the back and wings 
light brown, intermixed with black ; breast and belly grey ; rump 
grey, streaked or undulated across with white. 

This frequents the banks of the Rhine. 



28— RUFOUS-BREASTED SNIPE. 

LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill three inches long, inclining a 
little upwards, colour pale brown, with a dusky point; upper parts 
of the head, neck, and back dusky black, mixed with irregular 
blotches of rufous, but the sides, and front of the neck, and all 

TOl, IX. F F 



218 SNIPE. 

beneath, are fine rufous; forehead and chin nearly white, marked on 
the former, and about the nostrils, with brown dots ; wing coverts 
brown, margined with dusky white, appearing in streaks; second 
quills much the same; greater quills dusky black, with white shafts, 
the first longest; tail two inches and a half long, even at the end, 
dusky white, crossed with seven or eight brown bars, the end dusky 
white; the wings, when closed, reach about one inch beyond it; 
sides of the breast, just over the beginning of the wing, marked with 
a few brown streaks; lower part of the back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts white, with here and there an irregular spot of brown ; legs 
black ; the outer and middle toe united at the base. 

A specimen of the above is in the collection of Lord Stanley, which 
was met with in England, in the year 1812. On comparing this with 
the PI. enlum, 900 or Barge ronsse, it seems so nearly to correspond 
as to incline one to think it one and the same bird, and the length is 
also the same. Hence we may infer, that as the one quoted in Brisson, 
as well as the Barge rousse of BufTbn, who refers to the above 
plate in the Planches enlum, has the tail barred, and not half 
black half white, the bird last described is either distinct as to 
species, or a peculiar Variety of the Red Godwit. 



29— WHITE GODWIT. 

Recurvirostra alba, Ind. Orn. ii. 787. Gin. Lin. i. G94. 

Scolopax alba, Lin. i. 247. 

Limosa Candida, Bris. v. 290. Id. 8vo. in 283. 

La Barge blanche, Buf. vii. 508. 

White Godwit, Edw. pi. 139. 

White Avoset, Gen. Syn. v. 296. Arct. Zool. ii. 502. 

SIZE of the Red Godwit ; length fourteen inches and a quarter. 
Bill more than three inches in length, turning greatly upwards as in 
the Common Avoset, colour orange ; growing black towards the 
point ; general colour of the plumage white, except the under wing 



SNIPE. 219 

coverts, which are pale brown ; the edge of the wing the whole 
length, the greater quills, and tail, yellowish white ; the wings 
exceed the tail a trifle in length ; the legs are pretty long, deep 
brown ; toes divided, as in the Snipe Genus. Mr. Pennant has 
considered this bird as belonging to the Avoset, and we have formerly 
inclined to his opinion, but from further information, we do not 
hesitate to restore it to the rank it held in Linrxeus ; and although it 
may not prove, according to Mr. Edwards, a distinct species; we 
may hereafter find it to be a Variety of a Godwit merely, but of 
what species, we cannot at present determine. 

Among the drawings of Mr. Dent is a bird with a dusky bill, 
turning up like that of the Avoset, but not finishing in a sharp 
point; plumage above pale blue grey; back and wings darker; 
quills black ; all the under parts white ; between the bill and eye 
a dusky mark, and above it, from the forehead, a whitish one, 
reaching to the eye; on the sides of the head and throat some minute 
dusky specks, and some markings of the same kind above ; legs 
dusky yellow, claws black; the size is not mentioned ; in the draw- 
ing the bird measures only eight inches. 



.30— BHEGOUDEE SNIPE. 

LENGTH eleven or twelve inches. Bill from the base to the 

middle pale red, the end half smaller in proportion, and black ; 

general colour of the plumage above dirty buff, dashed with purplish 

brown on the crown, nape, and neck ; but the back and wings, for 

the most part, purplish brown, margined, or waved with buff; second 

quills barred with purplish black ; lesser wing coverts ash-colour, 

with paler margins ; outer edge of the wing barred ash-colour and 

white; bastard wing and great quills ash-colour, the ends of the 

former white; the two middle tail feathers as the back, the others 

ash-colour; fore part of the head, throat, and sides, dusky white, 

F f 2 



220 SNIPE. 



with numerous dots of dusky ; the rest of the neck before and breast 
buff-white, with dusky crescents, from thence the under parts are 
white; legs pale red, the shins are two inches long, above the joint 
bare for one inch ; the wings rather exceed the tail in length. 
Inhabits India. — Gen. Hardwicke. The name Bhesroudee-burra. 



31— CAWNPORE SNIPE. 

LENGTH seven inches and a half Bill one inch and three 
quarters, dusky ; forehead to the middle of the crown, a streak over 
the eye, and all beneath white; rest of the crown, back of the neck, 
and ears, dusky and white spotted ; back and wings brown, the 
former inclined to ash-colour; quills black; tail white, with four or 
tive dusky bars, and tipped with the same; the quills reach rather 
beyond the tail : the bird stands high on the legs, the shins being 
two inches and a quarter long; the part above the joint, bare for 
one inch. 

Inhabits India. — Found about Cawnpore, in October, and named 
Soormee. — Gen. Hardwicke. 



32— ASH-HEADED SNIPE 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill two inches and a quarter long, 
a trifle bending downwards towards the point; i rides hazel; general 
colour of the plumage deep ash; eyelids surrounded with a rim of 
white, divided by a dusky streak, passing through the eye ; feathers 
of the back spotted, and margined with white ; wing coverts brown, 
edged with dusky white; greater coverts whitish, marked with brown 
spots; second quills dusky, spotted on the edges with white; lower 
part of the back and rump, lower belly and vent white, marked 



SNIPE. 221 

with brown ; tail barred dusky white, and pale ash-colour, rather 
rounded at the end; legs dusky, inclining to rufous at the joints, 
the outer and middle toe joined at the base. 

The female has the head, neck, and under parts, pale or cine- 
reous white, streaked, and blotched with dusky ; from the nostrils 
an irregular, whitish streak, surrounding the eye, and curving 
downwards behind ; back and wing coverts pale ash, with here and 
there a dusky mark ; quills as in the other sex, and the tail exactly 
similar ; legs pale brownish red. 

Inhabits India. — Found at Cawnpore, in May. — Gen. Hardwicke. 



33 — JAVAN SNIPE. 

SIZE of a Thrush, length ten inches. Bill two inches long, 
bending upwards, brown, with a pale base ; plumage above pale 
dun ash-colour, a trifle mottled across the rump ; wing coverts 
deeper; from the chin the under parts are wholly white; the wings 
reach rather beyond the tail, and the scapulars are as long as the 
quills ; legs pale yellow, one inch and a quarter long, bare a quarter 
of an inch above the joint; hind toe placed very high up, so as to 
be scarcely useful, claws black. 

Inhabits Java. Probably the one called in Sumatra Kooning 
Kaki* 

34— SURMA SNIPE 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill two inches and a quarter, pale, 
rather stout, and inclining upwards ; head and neck behind, the 
sides of it, and breast, grey and ash-colour in short streaks ; from 
the forehead to the eyes a pale streak; chin and neck before dusky 
white; breast, belly, thighs, and vent, pure white; feathers of the 

* Lin. Trans, xiii. 327. 



222 snipe. 

back ash-colour, with pale edges ; greater wing coverts, scapulars, 
and part of the second quills, ash-colour, paler on the margins, and 
dotted with black ; quills black ; tail pale ash-colour, the two 
middle feathers darkest ; all of them crossed with eight or nine 
narrow, abrupt, dusky bars; shape of the tail rather rounded at the 
end ; and the quills, when closed, exceed it a trifle in length ; legs 
dull, pale green. 

The female is every where paler in colour; head, neck, and 
beneath, white, streaked on the crown, nape, and behind the neck, 
with pale dusky ; back and wings pale ash, marked as in the other 
sex ; and in both the lesser coverts are darker than the rest of 
the wing. 

Inhabits India ; frequents Cawnpore, in January and September, 
called Burra Soorma ; also Surma and Surba. Found among the 
drawings of Sir J. Anstruther and General Hardwicke. 



35.— ASIATIC SNIPE. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill four inches, pale red, with a 
dusky end ; nostrils a slit a quarter of an inch in length, and the 
same distance from the base ; head, even with the eye, neck behind, 
and all the upper parts, dusky, nearly black ; top of the head, back, 
and wings, darker than the rest; beneath from the chin to the vent, 
and sides of the head beneath the eyes, dusky white ; irides hazel ; 
from the bill to the eye a greyish white streak ; quills black ; tail 
pale dusky, plain, the middle feathers a trifle the shortest ; legs dusky 
brown or black, bare part above the joint very short ; total length 
of both seven inches ; the whole plumage plain, as to the respective 
colours, being neither barred, nor otherwise marked above or beneath. 

Inhabits India, named Chaha-Burrah. — Sir J. Anstruther. 



SNIPE. 223 

A. — Length nineteen inches. Bill as in the other; head, neck, 
and breast, pale ash-colour ; crown of the head mottled with brown ; 
back brown, the ends of the feathers darker; wing coverts brown, 
but the lesser, at the bend of the wing, dusky; second quills pale 
ash, some of them nearly white ; quills dusky black ; under parts 
from the breast white; rump and upper tail coverts white, and 
falling over the base half of the tail, which is dusky black ; legs 
and bare part above the joint, together six inches, the feathered 
part only one inch ; between the outer and middle toe a slight 
membrane. 

Inhabits India. — Found at Cawnpore in October, where it is 
called Kuhg.— Gen. Hardwicke. It resembles the Asiatic Species 
in shape and size, and may probably differ merely in age or sex. 

36.— SEMIPALMATED SNIPE. 

Scolopax semipalmata, Ind. Orn. ii. 722. Gm. Lin. i. 659. 
Totanus semipalraatus, Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. 637. 

Semi palm ated Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 152. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 380. Amer. Orn. vii. p. 27. 
pi. 56. f. 3. 

LENGTH fourteen inches. Bill two inches long, dusky ; head 
and neck streaked black and white; breast white, marked with 
round black spots ; belly and sides white, the last crossed with 
brown bars ; back and wing coverts cinereous, with great sagittal 
spots of black ; primaries dusky, crossed with a white bar; secon- 
daries white; the middle tail feathers cinereous, barred with black, 
outmost white; legs dusky; toes semipalmated. The female is 
somewhat larger than the male, but scarcely differs in plumage. 

Inhabits New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, on 
the shores of which it breeds in great numbers ; its common name 
Willet. It arrives from the south, about the 20th of April, and 
from that time to the end of July, incessant cries of Pill-will-willet 
are heard along the marshes, at the distance of more than half a mile. 
About the 20th of May they begin to lay ; the nest made on the 



224 snipe. 

ground, among the grass of salt marshes, &c. composed of wet 
rushes and coarse grass, forming a slight hollow, or cavity in a 
tussock, and gradually increased during the period of laying and 
sitting, to the height of five or six inches; the eggs usually four, 
very thick at the great end, tapering to a narrower point at the 
other, two inches or more in length, by one inch and a half at their 
greatest breadth, colour dark dingy olive, largely blotched with 
blackish brown, particularly at the great end ; the contents of them 
are excellent : it is observed, that during incubation the bird is in 
an almost upright position, as is the practice of several other species 
which breed in the marshes : the food consists of small shell fish, 
marine worms, and other aquatic insects, They gradually disappear 
in October and November. 

M. Temminck observes, that an individual now and then makes 
its appearance in the north of Europe. 



A. — Length fourteen inches. Bill two inches long, stout, and 
black ; the upper mandible inclining downwards at the tip, the 
under upwards ; from the nostrils to the eye a whitish streak ; 
plnmage above fine, pale greyish ash-colour, a little mottled on 
the lesser wing coverts, and the largest with white margins ; second 
quills white, but seven or eight of the outer mottled at the sides and 
ends; base of the prime ones white half way, the rest to the points 
dusky black, the exterior longest ; rump mottled with whitish ; 
upper tail coverts white ; beneath the body from the breast to vent 
white ; under wing coverts dusky and white mottled, inclining to 
chestnut brown ; tail three inches long, even, the two middle feathers 
like the back, the others whitish half way from the base, mottled 
for one-fourth from the ends with very pale ash, mixed with dusky 
white ; thighs and legs each three inches in length, bare above the 
joint for one inch and a half; colour of the bare parts and shins 
greenish black. 



snipe. 225 

This bird is found about Georgia, in America, from whence it 
was sent by Mr. Abbot, under the name of Brown Sandpiper ; it is 
probably ailied to the Semipalmated, as the membrane between the 
inner and middle toes is one-eighth of an inch deep, and the outer 
full half an inch. One in the collection of Mr. Francillon, named 
Cinereous Sandpiper, has on each side of the toes a kind of rough 
membrane, swelling out between the joints, giving a double breadth 
to the under part of each toe. This may not unlikely be the Semi- 
palmated Snipe in full plumage. I observe, too, in this, that the 
shafts of the quills on the back are darker than the webs; and it is 
well known, that the colour of the plumage of the Semipalmated 
Snipe varies considerably with the season, 



37— NODDING SNIPE. 

Scolopax nutans, Ind. Orn. i. 153. Gm. Lin. i. 659. 
Nodding Snipe, Gen- Syn.x. 153. Arct. Zool.xu No. 370. 

SIZE of the Snipe. Bill slender, long, black ; crown and upper 
part of the back dusky, streaked with red ; cheeks cinereous, streaked 
with black ; neck and breast cinereous, mixed with rust-colour, and 
obscure dark spots ; belly white ; thighs spotted black ; lesser wing 
coverts ash-colour ; the greater dusky, edged with brown ; quills 
dusky, the secondaries edged with white ; lower part of the back 
white, spotted with black; tail barred black and white, tip reddish ; 
legs greenish, the toes bordered by a narrow plain membrane. Found 
in Chateaux Bay, in September, with the last, and like it, is in the 
habit of nodding the head. 



VOL. IX. G G 



226 snipe. 



38.— STONE SNIPE. 

Scolopax melanoleuca, Ind. Orn. ii. 723. Gm. Lin.i. 659. 

Totanus vociferus, Frankl. Narr. App. p. G87. 

Scolopax vociferus, Tell-tale Godvvit, or Snipe, Amer. Orn. vii. 57. pi. 58. f. 5. 

Chevalier, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ. 

Stone Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 152. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 376. 

THIS is fourteen inches and a half long, and twenty-five in 
extent. Bill two inches and a quarter, dark horn-colour, and 
slightly bends upwards ; the head, neck, breast, back, scapulars, 
and greater coverts, spotted black and white; rump and tail barred 
with the same ; primaries dusky ; legs long, and yellow. 

This, Mr Pennant observes, inhabits America, found in autumn, 
feeding on the sands on the lower part of Chateaux Bay, that it 
continually is moving the head, and there called the Stone Curlew. 
The Amer. Orn. informs us, that the Tell-tale seldom flies in large 
flocks, at least during summer; delights in watery bogs, or the like, 
where it may find plenty of food ; occasionally met with inland, 
along the muddy shores, and then, for the most part single. Its note 
is a shrill, loud whistle, which it sets up on the approach of any one, 
operating as a warning to other birds ; and the gunner well knows, 
on the whistle of this, that the alarm is taken by every other bird 
within hearing ; insomuch, as to make it unnecessary for him to 
follow any longer his pursuit. 



39. -CINEREOUS SNIPE. 

Scolopax canescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 721. Gm. Lin. i. 668. 
An Saginalis major, Gerin. iv. t. 445 ? 

Cinereous Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. 145. Br. Zool. ii. No. 180. pi. 66. Id. 1812. ii. p. 
50. pi. 11. Bewick, ii. p. 83. Orn. Diet, fy Supp. 

SIZE of the Greenshank. Bill two inches and a half long, but 
in proportion thicker; head, neck, and back, variegated with ash- 



snipe. 227 

colour and white ; tail slightly barred with cinereous; throat and 
breast white; the last marked with a few ash-coloured spots; legs 
long, slender, ash-coloured. 

One of these was killed near Spalding, in Lincolnshire ; and we 
believe the only specimen seen in this kingdom. Whether it is 
known on the Continent of Europe, seems uncertain, but we have 
seen a similar bird represented in drawings, from India. 



40.— REDSHANK SNIPE. 

Scolopax Calidris, Ind. Orn. ii. 722. Lin. i. 245. Gm. Lin. i. 664. Muller, No. 186. 

Kramer, 353. Frisch, t. 240. Fn. Helv. Sepp, t. p. 257. 
Totanus Calidris, Tern. Man. 417. Id. Ed. 2d. 643. 
Scolopax Totanus, Fn. suee. No. 167. Bris. v. 188. t. 17. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 261. Raii, 

107. A. 1. Will. 221. 
Glareola, Klein, Av. 101. 1. Id. Stem. t. 21. f. II. a. b. 
Tringa Gambetta, Mas, Gerin. iv. t. 463. 464. 

Die rothfussige Schnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 127. Naturf. xiii. s. 213. 
Chevalier aux Pieds rouges, Buf. vii. 513. pi. 28. Voy. en Barb. i. 278. Daud. Orn. i. 

p. 93. pi. 5.— Seeleton. 
La Gambette, PI. enl. 845.— in complete plumage. 
Redshank, or Pool Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 150. Id. Sup. 225. Br. Zool. ii. No. 184. 

pi. 65. Id.fol. 124. Id. 1812. ii. 57. pi. 10. f. 1. Bartr. Trav. 292. Will. 

Engl. 299. Alb. iii. pi. 87. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 91. Lewin, iv. pi. 165. Id. pi. 

xxvii. the egg. Walcot, Syn. ii. pi. 143. Donov; Birds, v. pi. 112. Pult. Dors. 

p. 14. Orn. Diet. 

LENGTH thirteen inches, breadth nineteen and a half; weight 
sometimes five ounces. Bill almost two inches, reddish at the base, 
the rest dusky; irides reddish hazel ; head and hind part of the neck 
dusky ash-colour; back and scapulars glossy, greenish brown; wing 
coverts ash-colour, mixed with dusky and brown, and spotted with 
white; ends of all, but the two inner secondaries, white for an inch 
at the tip; quills dusky; four or five of the inner ones more or less 
tipped with white, the margins dusky ; over the eye a white streak, 
and between the bill and eye a dusky mark ; chin and fore part of 

G g2 



228 snipe. 

the neck marked with short, dusky streaks; under parts from the 
breast, and lower part of the back and rump white, marked with 
minute dusky specks; tail coverts and tail crossed with numerous 
bars of black, twelve or thirteen on each feather; legs orange ; in 
some birds both rump and belly are pure white. 

The Redshank is not uncommon in this kingdom, being fre- 
quently met with on the shores in winter, and many breed in the 
marshes : the eggs generally four, whitish, tinged with olive, and 
marked with irregular black spots, chiefly at the larger end. When 
disturbed, has the actions of a Lapwing, flying round in circles, the 
nest being in the centre, be the circuit larger or smaller; so that an 
attentive observer will often detect it by this circumstance. Is called 
by some the Sandcock. 

It is common also in many parts of Europe, as high as Finmark, 
found also in Siberia. To the south we trace it as far as Gibraltar, 
and Barbary, about which, and in Andalusia, in Spain, it is at all 
seasons, but most numerous in autumn and winter, when it feeds on 
the sand shrimps.* The Rev. Mr. White, who mentioned this, 
observed, that in all which he had seen, the back was pure white, 
unspotted ; belly streaked like the breast; but the wing being dosed, 
the white back is completely covered and hid. 

It inhabits also India, and there called Choopka.f — Few birds 
vary, in respect to the summer and winter dress, more than this. In 
the latter season it is sometimes so lean as to weigh qjjly four ounces, 
and the plumage, although not much differing from the usual colour, 
is paler, and the white spots, generally seen on the upper parts, 
are scarcely visible, except on minute inspection : the wing coverts 
nearly approaching to white ; bill and legs much as usual ; the chin, 
middle of the belly, and back, white, and the tail barred, as in the 
summer dress. In this state of feather it has been taken for the 
Cambridge Godwit, and forwarded to me as such. The young also 
have the markings of the plumage much less defined than the adult. 

* Cancer Pulex. — Lin. f India Drawings. 



snipe. 229 

A.— Chinese Redshank, Gen. Syn. v. 151. 20. A. hid. Orn. ii. 722. 25. /3. 

Bill black, base reddish; iridesblue; head, neck behind, and 
back greyish; chin, throat, breast, and belly white; sides of the 
three first marked with small dusky spots; over the eye a line of 
white; wings dusky, the outer webs of the coverts and secondaries 
barred white and black ; shaft of the outer quill white ; rump and 
tail barred black and white ; legs orange red. 

Inhabits the marshes of China. 

B. — This is a trifle larger. Bill much the same, tip somewhat 
bending; the plumage on the upper parts marbled with brown, ash- 
colour, and dusky ; some of the feathers fringed with white ; wings 
dusky ash ; some of the secondary quills barred with white; the tail 
barred black and white ; legs red. 

Inhabits India. Birds of this description are represented in 
Various drawings from thence, and in one the spots are equally 
distinct and visible as in our Redshank, in its best state of plumage ; 
this is smaller, and called Lalgooreah. Among the drawings of 
General Hardwicke is a female, named Chebka or Chebuka ; this 
wants the white streak over the eye, instead of which, the forehead 
is white; the tail much rounded; quills and tail equal in length. 

Met with at Cawnpore, in October. One of these, killed at the 
bottom of the Bay of Zeyla, on the outside of the Straits of Babel- 
mandel, in Mr. Salt's collection. 

41— WHITE REDSHANK. 

Scolopax Candida, Ind. Orn. ii. 722. Gm. Lin. i. 668. 

^— — — minor albus, Gerin. iv. t. 445. 

Le Chevalier blanc, Buf. vii. 519. 

White Redshank, Gen. Syn. v. 151. Edw. pi. 139. 

SIZE of the Redshank ; length eleven inches. Bill about two, 
orange-colour, with a black tip ; plumage on the upper parts of the 



230 SNIPE. 

head, back, scapulars, lesser wing, and upper tail coverts white, 
with transverse rufous grey streaks ; greater wing coverts dirty white; 
fore part of the head, throat, and to the vent, also the rump, pure 
white ; prime quills grey; secondaries and tail white, spotted trans- 
versely with rufous grey ; legs orange. 

The above, from which Mr. Edwards drew his figure, was brought 
from Hudson's Bay, but as no other specimen has occurred, I suspect 
it not to be a distinct species, probably a Variety of our Redshank. 

M. Azara mentions a White Bird, found in Paraguay, under the 
name of Chorlito aux Pieds rouges,* and is compared to the above 
White Redshank ; but this seems doubtful, as it measures only eight 
inches and a half in length, and the other eleven ; the bill in his, 
too, is only ten and a half lines ; that of the Redshank two inches. 
I suspect, therefore, that his bird may more probably be a Variety 
of a Sandpiper, but of what species is uncertain. 



42.— GAMBET SNIPE. 

Tringa Gambetta, Lid. Orn. ii. 728. Lin. i. 248. Faun. Suec. No. 177. Scop. i. No. 

142. Gm. Lin. i. 671. Gerin. t. 463. 
Calidris Gambetta, Gerin. v. t.465. 
Tringa variegata, Brun. No. 181. Muller, No. 204. 
Totanus ruber, Bris. v. 192. Id. Svo. ii. 262. 
Gambetta, Rail, 107. 2. Will. p. 222. Id. Engl. 300. §. II. Klein, 101. I. (alia). 

Bechst. Deuts. iii. 143. 
Red-legged Horseman, Alb. ii. pi. 68. 
Gambet Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 167. Br. Zool. ii. No. 198. pi. 70. Id. 1812. ii. 82. 

pi. 15. f. 2. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 394. Lewin, v. pi. 168. Bewick, ii. 102. Orn. 

Diet. Sf Supp. 

SIZE of the Greenshank ; length twelve inches. Bill reddish, 
with a black tip ; the irides yellowish green; head, back, and breast, 
cinereous brown, spotted with dull yellow ; belly white ; wing coverts 
and scapulars cinereous, edged with dull yellow ; the prime quills 
yellow ; shaft of the first white ; tail dusky, bordered with yellow ; 
legs yellow. 

* Voy. V.iv. No. 402. 



SNIPE. 231 

Inhabits England, but is not common ; was shot on the Coast of 
Lincolnshire : is rare in France, and other parts of Europe ; found in 
Scandinavia and Iceland, called in the last, Stelkr : has been taken 
in the Frozen Sea, between Asia and America ; most probably allied 
to the Redshank. 



43.— STRIATED SNIPE. 

Tringa striata, Ind. Orn. ii. 733. Lin. i. 248. Gm. Lin. i. 672. Muller, N. 194. 

Fn. Groenl. No. 73. Stroem. Act. Nid, iii. 440. t. 6.* Borowsk. iii. 94. 3. 

Fn. Helv. Sepp, iii. t. p. 259. 
Reginus nonnullorum in Etrnria, Gerin. iv. t. 459 ? Id. 464 ? — Gambetta. 
Totanus striatus, Bris.v. 196. t. 18. f. 1, Id. 8vo. ii. 263. 
Le Chevalier raye, Bvf. vii. 516. PI. enl. 827. 
Striated Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 176. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 383 ? 

SIZE of a Starling ; length ten inches and three quarters, the 
base half of the bill red, the rest black; upper parts of the body 
undulated dusky and cinereous; neck before dusky; breast and 
belly white ; quills black, the secondaries tipped with white, pointed 
at the ends, and nearly as long as the prime quills ; tertials white, 
with a stripe of black; rump white; tail white, barred with dusky 
brown ; the two middle feathers spotted also with grey brown ; legs 
pale red. 

That described in the Arct. Zool. has the tail black, the feathers 
on the side cinereous, edged with white ; and the white rump not 
mentioned ; if, therefore, it is the same with that of Linnaeus, Brisson, 
and the Greenland Fauna, the difference must arise from sex. 

Inhabits the colder parts of Europe ; found in Sweden and 
Norway, also in Russia and Siberia, but less frequent ; met with 
even in Iceland and Greenland : in the last place throughout the 
year ; runs backwards and forwards on the shore, as the waves 
approach or recede, feeding on the insects left on the beach ; often 
skims the surface of the water like the Swallow, catching insects; 



232 snipe. 

rising and falling with the waves, but avoids coming in contact with 
them : in breeding time retires within shore, and lays from four to 
six eggs, a little bigger than those of a Starling, marked with pale, 
obscure spots; twitters like the Swallow: is not a very shy bird; 
often caught in snares, and the flesh is accounted good food ; the 
feathers used for stuffing, with those of other birds. 



A.— Totanus naevius, Bris. v. 200. t. 18. f. 2. Id. Svo.ii. 264. 
Striated Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 176. 21. A. 

Smaller than the last ; the upper parts of the head, neck, and 
back, blackish, margined with rufous grey ; scapulars the same, but 
barred with grey on the sides ; lower part of the back and rump 
white ; fore part, as far as the breast, mixed black and white, 
verging to rufous on the sides ; breast and belly white, marked with 
minute black spots ; lower belly plain white ; wing coverts grey 
brown; some of them crossed at the ends with rufous grey and 
black ; quills dusky, within hoary ; shaft of the first white ; upper 
and under tail coverts, the sides, and tail, barred black and white : 
this seems much allied to the last, though varying somewhat in 
description. Brisson's two figures do not differ sufficiently to form 
distinct species. These seem to be much allied to the Selninger 
Sandpiper. 



B. — One, answering to the general description of the above, 
frequents the ponds of Savannah, in Georgia, in small flocks, in 
March. It is, according to Mr. Abbot, nine inches and a half in 
length. It differs, however, in having the rump and tail black, and 
was sent to him under the name of the Black-rumped Sandpiper. 
We have also seen a similar one brought from the coast of America, 
but the particular part not mentioned. 



snipe. 233 



44— WHITE-RUMPED SNIPE. 

Le Chorlito a Croupion blanc, Voy. d' Azara, iv. No. 394 ? 

LENGTH thirteen inches and a half. Bill two inches and a 
quarter, bending a trifle upwards, but inclining downwards towards 
the point; the under mandible curving a trifle upwards; top of the 
head and upper parts in general, brownish ash, mixed with white 
streaks; back dusky ash, the feathers marked on the margin with 
alternate darker brown and white spots; and here and there a blotch 
of plain dark brown ; sides of the head and under parts in general 
white, thickly spotted and streaked on the fore part of the neck and 
breast with dusky ; sides of the belly transversely marked with the 
same; rump and upper tail coverts white; quills dusky, the shaft 
of the outer one white ; tail rounded, the two middle feathers pale 
ash, with black, and paler markings on the sides ; the rest white, 
thickly barred with dusky ; under wing coverts white, with sagittal 
marks of dark brownish ash-colour ; the under scapulars much the 
same, similar to those of the Green Sandpiper; the quills, when 
closed, nearly as long as the tail ; legs yellowish orange. 

Inhabits Georgia, in America : sent by Mr. Abbot, under the 
name of White-rumped Sandpiper; called by some Will-Willet,* is 
sometimes found in the ponds in small flocks. Azara's bird, above 
quoted, is thought by him to be our Redshank, and it is like it in 
many points, yet we cannot be positive that it is the same. 

* The Semi palmated Snipe is also called Will-Willet. 



TOL. IX. H H 



234 snipe. 



45— YELLOW-SHANKED SNIPE. 

Scolopax flavipes, Ltd. Orn. ii. 723. Gm. Lin. i. 659. 
Totanus flavipes, Frankl. Narr. App. p. G88. 
Le Chorlito brun piquete de blanc, Voy. d'Azara, iv. 396 ? 
Chevalier, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. eiv. 

Yellow-shanked Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 152. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 378. Amer. Orn. vii. 55. 
pi. 58. f. 4. 

LENGTH eleven inches, breadth twenty. Bill slender, black, 
two inches and one-third long, a little bent at the end ; it first turns 
a trifle upwards, and then declines at the point ; head, neck behind, 
back, and greater wing coverts, dirty white, spotted with black ; the 
lesser pale brown ; primaries dusky : breast and fore part of the 
neck spotted black and white ; legs four inches and a half long, very 
deep yellow ; the wings rather longer than the tail. The male and 
female alike in plumage. 

Inhabits North America, appears at New York, in autumn ; 
frequents rice fields, ponds, &c. ; called by Mr. Abbot the Great 
Sandpiper, also Will-willet. It seems to have much affinity with 
the last described. It is a plentiful species, and to be seen in great 
numbers in the markets at Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, 
particularly in autumn ; and is, when fat, in considerable repute for 
the table. 



46. -STAGNATILE SNIPE. 

Scolopax Totanus, Lin. i. 245. 

Albastrella cenerina, Gerin. Orn. v. pi. 458. 

Totanns stagnatilis, Chevalier stagnatile, Tern. Man. d' 'Orn. 418. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 648. 

Bechst. Deuts. iv. p. 261. 
Barge grise, PI. enl. 876. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill weak and slender, dark ash-colour ; 
irides brown ; the face, streak over the eye, throat, middle of the 



snipe. 235 

back, and all the under parts white; nape transversely banded 
brown and white; top of the head, back, scapulars, and greater 
wing coverts, light ash-colour, with whitish edges ; lesser coverts 
dusky ash ; sides of the neck and breast whitish, with small brown 
spots ; tail feathers white, obliquely striped with brown bands, but 
the two outer have each a longitudinal zigzag one; legs olive-green. 
This is the winter plumage ; the summer dress nearly as follows : — 
the throat, breast, and belly, white; between the bill and eye, tem- 
ples, neck before, flanks, sides of the breast, and under tail coverts, 
the same; but each feather marked with a small black spot, on a 
cinereous white ground ; back, scapulars, and greater wing coverts, 
reddish ash, transversely striped with black, broadest near the ends, 
and on the shoulders oblique; the two middle tail feathers ash-colour, 
obliquely striped, and the rest marked on the outer webs with lon- 
gitudinal zigzags ; bill black. 

Inhabits the north of Europe, on the borders of the sea and 
rivers ; migrates along the eastern provinces, as far as the Mediter- 
ranean ; supposed to breed in the northern regions. 



47.— GREENSHANK SNIPE. 

Scolopax Glottis, Lid. Orn. ii. 720. Lin. i. 245. Fn. suec. No. 171. Scop. i. No. 

137. Muller, p. 23. Borowsk. iii. 90. It. Poseg. p. 23 ? Fn. Helv. 
Totanus Glottis, Tern. Man. 426. Id. Ed. 2d. 660. Sepp, iv. t. 319. Lin. Trans. 

xiii. p. 192. 
An Chalidris Species, Gerin. iv. t. 458. 

Limosa grisea, Bris. v. 267. t. 23. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 278. Klein, 102. 12 ? 
Falcinellns, Brun. No. 167 ? 
La Barge aboyeuse, Buf. vii. 501. 

variee, Buf. vii. 503 ? 

grise, Pl.enl. 876. 

Pluvialis major, Raii, 106. A- 8. Id. 190. 6. Will. 220. t. 55. Sloan. Jam. 317. 

9. t. 268. 
Die Regenschnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 130. Naturf. xiii. 213. 
Green-legged Horseman, Albin, ii. pi. 69. 

H h 2 



236 snipe. 

Greater Plover of Aldrovand, Will. Engl. 298. Ch. IV. §. I. 

Greenshank, Gen. Syn. v. 147. Id. Sup. 245. Br. Zool. ii. No. 183. Id./ol. 121. 
pi. C. 7J. 1812. ii. p. 55. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 379. Beicick, ii. pi. p. 86. Lewin, 
iv. pi. 163. Id. pi. xxviii. f. 1. — the egg. Wale. ii. 142. Orn. Diet. 

SIZE of the Redshank; length fourteen inches, breadth twenty- 
four and a half; weight six ounces. Bill two inches and a half 
long, black, and slender; the upper mandible straight, but inclines 
downwards at the tip, the under curves in the same manner upwards ; 
head, hind part of the neck, and back, pale ash-colour, marked 
down the shafts with brown, the last deepest on the back, and oc- 
cupying most of the middle feathers ; over the eye a streak of white; 
scapulars like the back ; lower part of the back, and all the under 
parts from the breast, white ; quills dusky, spotted on the inner 
webs with white, the five outer ones darkest ; tail white, crossed 
with dusky bars ; legs dusky green, pretty long, the outer toe 
united to the middle one as far as the first joint. 

This species is sometimes in tolerable plenty on our coasts, being 
met with in small flocks in the winter season, as well as in the 
marshy lands in the neighbourhood of the sea, when they are found 
in the London markets. In general depart in the spring, but some 
few remain throughout the summer, and breed here. The egg is 
rather less than that of the Redshank, but not unlike it, pale rufous 
brown, covered all over with dusky, purple spots ; most, and largest 
at the greater end, but twice as numerous as in that of the Red- 
shank, for the whole shell is nearly covered : the summer residence 
is for the most part northward, as they inhabit Sweden, and other 
parts; and in plenty in Russia and Siberia; well known in France 
and Italy, extending to Spain and Burbary ; observed in flights, and 
now and then on the shores, about Gibraltar, but is less common 
than many of its congeners ; is found both in India and China. In 
the former known by the name of Chaha. 

Inhabits likewise the Isle of Java, and there called Benongchang. 



snipe. 237 



48 —ASH-COLOURED SNIPE. 

Scolopax incana, Ind. Orn. ii. 724. Gm. Lin. i. 658. 
Ash-coloured Snipe, Gen. Si/n. v. 154. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill black, more than one inch and 
a half long, straight, with the tip a trifle curved ; upper part of the 
head, neck, and body, ash ; between the bill and eye a whitish mark ; 
chin and fore part of the neck white, mottled a little with brown on 
the throat; breast and sides of the body ash-colour; middle of the 
belly white ; legs yellowish green. 

Inhabits the Islands of Eimeo, and Palmerston, in the Southern 
Ocean. — Sir Joseph Banks. 

49.— GOTERA SNIPE. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill nearly two inches, greenish black, 
slender, straight, smooth, with some irregular protuberances about the 
middle, edges of both mandibles very much inflected ; irides dark 
brown ; front to the eyes, the chin, throat, breast, belly, vent, back, 
and rump, white; the head and neck grey, dashed with black, the 
scapulars and tertial quills grey, transversely marked with black ; 
upper wing coverts brown, the under white; greater quills brown, 
the inner webs white; the secondaries margined all round the tip 
with white ; shafts white on the under side ; that of the first quill 
is also white on the outside; tail coverts white, the upper ones barred 
with dusky; the under have a few longitudinal dusky marks; tail 
rounded, consisting of twelve white feathers, the four middle ones 
barred with black, and the four outer on each side dotted irregularly; 
thighs from the middle naked; wings, when closed, reach to within 
half an inch of the end of the tail ; legs olive-colour; the outer and 
middle toe connected as far as the first joint, by a slight web; hind 
toe very small, and raised some distance from the ground. 



238 snipe. 

Inhabits India; is the Coddy Cocha of the Bengalese ; Gotera of 
the Mussulmans ; the name is generical, and implies any bird that 
searches for its food in the mud. — Dr. Buchanan. 



50— DUSKY SNIPE. 

Scolopax fusca, Ind. Orn. ii. 724. Lin. i. 243. Gin. Lin. i. 657. Fn. Hclo. Friscli, 

t. 236. Sepp, m. t. p. 257. Tern. Man. 414. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 642. 
Limosa fusca, Bris, v. 276. t. 33. f. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 280. Gerin. iv. t. 460. 
La Barge biune, Buf. vii. 508. PL enl, 875. 
Dunkelbraunen Schnepfe, Bechst. Dents, iii. 189. 
Dusky Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 155. Arct. Zool. ii. 471. C. Id. Sup. 68. 

LENGTH almost twelve inches. Bill black, more than two 
inches, a little bent downwards at the point, base beneath pale ; 
plumage on the upper part of the body dusky black, the edges of 
the feathers whitish ; crown darkest, and plain ; scapulars, and 
lesser wing coverts, marked with whitish spots on the margins ; lower 
part of the back and rump white ; cheeks, throat, and fore part of 
the neck, deep ash-colour ; from thence to the vent the same, but 
growing lighter, as it approaches the last, and here and there mixed 
and edged with white ; quills brown, palest within, and spotted 
with grey on the outer margin, and some of the secondaries on both 
webs; the two middle tail feathers dusky brown, with transverse 
whitish streaks; the others brown, crossed in the same manner with 
white ; legs brown. — This breeds within the Arctic Circle, and mi- 
grates into Russia and Siberia. 

A. — A bird, appearing to be a Variety of this, inhabits India ; 
the plumage much the same, but the feathers seem more spotted on 
each side of the shafts with white. The bill ash-colour, base of the 
lower mandible red ; legs brown above the knee, the rest of the 
length dull brownish red. 

This is called in India Beach Snipe, or Calla Chaha. — Sir John 
Anstruther. 



snipe. 23.9 



51 —CAMBRIDGE GODWIT. 

Scolopax Cantabrigiensis, Ind. Orn. ft. 271. Gm. Lin. i. GG8. 

Cambridge Godwit, Gen. Syn. v. 146. Br. Zool. ii. No. 185. Id. 1812. ii. p. 58. A. 
Lewin, pi. 162. Bewick, ii. p. 81. Orn. 2)icf. 

LARGER than the Common Redshank. Head and upper 
parts of the neck and back cinereous brown ; lesser wing coverts 
brown, edged with dull white, and barred with black ; primaries 
dusky, whitish on their inner sides ; secondaries barred dusky and 
white; under side of the neck and breast dirty white; belly and 
vent white ; tail barred cinereous and black ; legs orange. 

This was shot near Cambridge, described from the collection of 
the Rev. Mr. Green, but the season of the year in which it was 
taken, not mentioned. Mr. Pennant supposes this to be a Variety 
of the Redshank, if not in imperfect plumage. Colonel Montagu 
rather supposes it to be the Dusky Snipe, as he shot such an one in 
the winter season ; and M. Temminck is of the same opinion. 



52— SPOTTED SNIPE. 

Scolopax Totanus, Lid. Orn. ii. 721. Lin. i. 245. 12 ? Brun. No. 157 ? Fn. arag. 

77. Mnller, 1S7 ? Georgi, 171 ? Fn. Helu. Grnel. Lin. i. 665. Borowsk. iii. 

91. Tern. Man. 413. 
Totanus alter, Raii, 106. Will. 221. Id. Engl. 299. §. II. 
Glaveola, Klein, 102 ? 

Die Strandschnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 125. 
Barker, Albin, ii. pi. 71. 

Spotted Redshank, Br. Zool. ii. No. 186. Id. 1812. ii. p. 59. 
Spotted Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 148. Bewick, ii. pi. in p. 88. Lewin, iv. pi. 162. Om. 

Diet, fy Supp. 

SIZE of theGreenshank. Head pale ash-colour, streaked with 
black ; back dusky, marked with triangular white spots ; wing 
coverts ash-colour, spotted in the same manner; quills dusky; breast, 



240 SNIPE. 

belly, and thighs, white; the first thinly spotted with black; two 
middle tail feathers ash-colour, the rest whitish, barred with black ;* 
legs long, bright red. 

Inhabits various parts of the Continent of Europe, also met with 
in England. We have seen one in the collection of the late Taylor 
White, Esq. Mr. Pennant mentions another in the possession of 
Miss Mey rick, of Beaumaris, killed in Anglesea; and a third in 
that of Colonel Montagu, shot on the coast of Devonshire, in the 
month of August. 



A.— Spotted Woodcock, Phil. Trans, v. 62. 410. 
Die gefleckte Strandschnepfe, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 125. 
Spotted Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 149. A. 

LARGER than the last; length nearly sixteen inches. Bill 
more than two inches long, and brown ; orbits, chin, and throat, 
white ; from the bill to the eye a line of white; cheeks and fore part 
of the neck white, with short, dusky streaks ; crown and upper 
part of the neck brown, streaked with white; wings black, marked 
with elegant, triangular, white spots; breast and belly white; legs 
long, and of a rich yellow, sometimes red. 

Inhabits North America : common at Hudson's Bay ; comes into 
the neighbourhood of Albany Fort, the end of April, or beginning 
of May, and departs the end of September ; frequents the banks of 
rivers, feeding on small fish and worms : on its return southward 
stops at New York for a time, after which it proceeds southward to 
pass the winter. Called by the natives Sa-sa-shew, by the English 
Yellow-legs. This, with several other Snipes and Sandpipers, are 
called there Humilities. 

* In all which have been inspected by Col. Montagu, the two middle tail feathers are 
equally barred with the others ; and he observes, that the two middle and the outmost tail 
feathers are the longest, giving the appearance of a double concave; but this we have ob- 
served in other Sandpipers, though perhaps in a less degree. 



SNIPE. 241 

One sent to me from Hudson's Bay, had less white about the 
head; the spots on the wings very distinct, but the prime quills 
were dusky, without spots. The bill two inches and a quarter long, 
brown, shaped exactly as in the Greenshank; legs yellowish brown. 



53— COURLAND SNIPE. 

Scolopax Curonica, Ind. Orn. ii. 724. Gm. Lin. i. GG9. Schrift. Berl. Nat. vii. 

462. 42. 
Tringa fusca, Lin. i. 252. 

Totanus fuscus, Tern. Man. d'Om. 412. Id Ed. ii. 640. 
Courland Snipe, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 310 

GENERAL colour of the plumage grey, more or less spotted 
above ; from the forehead to the back inclining to blackish ; on the 
latter some spots of white ; wings blackish, the shaft of the first 
prime quill white, the rest spotted on the webs with white ; secon- 
daries the same ; wing coverts grey, with whitish margins ; tail 
blackish, with irregular bands of white ; bill dusky, beneath for 
halfway from the base red ; legs testaceous. 

Inhabits Courland. 



54 —TEREK SNIPE. 

Scolopax Terek, Ind. Orn. ii. 724. 

cinerea, N. C. Petr. xix. 6. t. 19. Gm. Lin. i: 657. 

Barge, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. civ, 
Terek Avoset, Arct. Zoo/, ii. 502. A. 
Terek Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 155. 31. 

LENGTH nine inches. The bill bends upwards from the base, 
and a little downwards from the tip, and is nearly two inches in 
length, colour black; irides brown; plumage on the upper parts 

TOL. IX. I I 



242 snipe. 

wholly cinereous, the middle of each feather brown, which is in 
streaks on the head and neck, oblong on the back, and transverse 
on the rump ; the under parts white ; but the throat and breast are 
streaked with ash-colour; wings ash-colour, crossed with a white 
bar ; quills brown ; the shaft of the first white, the second cinereous; 
secondaries tipped with white ; the two middle tail feathers cine- 
reous, the rest the same, varied with whitish, but not banded ; legs 
reddish brown, toes somewhat pa I mated at the base; claws blackish. 

Male and female alike. 

This inhabits, during the summer, the neighbourhood of the 
Caspian Sea, particularly about the mouth of the River Terek, 
where it breeds; met with in flocks in the marshes, especially on 
the borders of the salt lakes, and feeds on insects. This is not 
perfectly consonant to any Genus ; seems a link between the Snipe 
and Avoset; but the bill turning downwards at the point, seems to 
forbid the placing it with the latter, though the toes, being pal mated 
at the bottom, gives it great affinity. 



55. -NEW-HOLLAND SNIPE. 

Scolopax Australis, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxiv. 
New-Holland Snipe, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 310. 

LENGTH eleven or twelve inches. Bill straight, pale yellow, 
large at the base, the upper mandible a little dilated at the point, 
and twice the length of the head ; irides blue ; plumage above brown, 
mottled somewhat in the manner of the Woodcock ; sides of the 
head and neck dusky white ; back of the neck marked with dusky 
brown streaks, and clouds of the same ; on the sides next to the 
wings a few clouded crescents; legs pale yellow. 

Inhabits New South Wales. 



snipe. 243 



56.— CAURALE SNIPE. 

Ardea Helias, hid. Orn. ii. 725. Gm. Lin. i. 040. Pall. TV. Nord. Bet/tr. ii. 48. t. 3. 

Scolopax Helias, Nat. Misc. pi. 745. 

Caurale, ou petit Paon des roses, Buf. viii. 169. pi. 14. PI. enl. 782. 

Eurypyga, Curale, Tern. Man. Anal. p. cv. 

Caurale Snipe, Gen. Syn. v. 15G. 

THIS beautiful Species is about the size of a Whimbrel, and 
fifteen inches long - . Bill nearly two inches, yellowish green, and 
bends a trifle downwards; the head and sides below the eyes black, 
over the eye a streak of white; the black bounded beneath by white, 
passing from the chin and the throat, to the hindhead; in the middle 
of this white, on each side, in the direction of the jaw, a black, 
narrow line ; neck and breast rufous, crossed with fine black lines ; 
back more inclined to grey, barred with black ; scapulars grey, 
banded with white ; wings cream-colour, mottled with black near 
the shoulder, and beautifully banded with rufous red; in the middle, 
at some distance from the end of the quills, in both places, accom- 
panied with black ; tail grey, mottled and crossed with black, 
interrupted bands ; and near the end a broad black bar, bounded 
above and below with rufous red ; belly, thighs, and vent white, legs 
yellow, and rather short for the size of the bird ; the thighs bare for 
three-fourths of the length. 

Inhabits the interior of Guiana, but is not common ; it frequents 
the sides of rivers, is solitary, and known by a plaintive kind of 
whistle, which the natives imitate, in order to decoy the bird within 
reach; it is called at Guiana, Paon des roses : a specimen, which 
came under my inspection, had a label affixed, with the name of 
Le Paid. It is probable that the male is more bright in colour than 
the female : a fine and brilliant specimen was in the Leverian Mu- 
seum, and we have seen three or four others, in which the colours 
were more dull, and which most likely were females, or young birds. 
M. Temminck considers this as not belonging to the Snipe family ; 
and has therefore formed of it a distinct Genus. 

I i 2 



244 



SANDPIPER. 



GENUS LXXXI- SANDPIPER. 



1 Ruff Sandpiper 

2 Shore 

3 Greenwich 

4 Equestrian 

5 Indian 

6 Black-tail 

7 Black-backed 

8 White-headed 

9 Quebec 

10 Brown-eared 

11 New-Holland 

12 Undulated 

13 Uniform 

14 Grisled 

15 Ash-coloured 

16 Knot 

17 Freckled 

18 Southern 

19 Dusky 

20 Red 

21 Red-breasted 

22 Bartram's 

23 Rufous-spotted 

24 Selninger 

25 Black 

2G Yellow-legged 

27 Grey 
A Var. 
B Var. 

28 Swiss 



29 Lesser Grey 

30 Green 
A Var. 
B Var. 

31 Wood 
A Var. 

32 Lapwing 

33 Greater Lapwing 

34 Red-legged 

35 Crimson-legged 

36 Black-headed 

37 Common 
A Var. 

38 Tobago 

39 Spotted 

40 New York 

41 Streaked 

42 Newfoundland 

43 Boreal 

44 Variegated 

45 Purre 

46 Lesser Purre 

47 Dunlin 

48 Red-necked 

49 Pacific 

50 Temminck's 

51 Little 
A Var. 

52 Semipalmated 

53 Brown 



54 Northern 

55 Fasciated 

56 Siberian 

57 Eastern 

58 White-winged 
A Var. 

B Var. 

59 Acuminated 

60 Slender-billed 

61 Javan 

62 Asiatic 

63 Ceylon 

64 Black-sided 

65 Crescent 

66 White-tailed 

67 Peregrine 

68 Cayenne 

69 Louisiane 
A Var. 

70 Senegal 
A Var. 

71 Bilobate 

72 Goa 

73 Wattled 

74 Turnstone 
A Var. 

B Var. 
C Var. 

75 Indian T. 

76 Marbled T. 



1 HE bill in this Genus is straight, slender, an inch and a half 
long, or under. 

Nostrils small. 

Toes divided, or very slightly connected at the base by a mem- 
brane; hind toe weak. 



SANDPIPER. 24o 



1.— RUFF SANDPIPER. 

Tringa pugnax, Ltd. Orn. ii. 725. Lin. i. 247. Fn. suec. No. 175. Gm. Lin. i. 609. 

Scop. i. No. 140. lirun. No. 168, 169. 181? Kramer, 352. 1, 2. FracA, t. 

232. 235. Georgi, 172. Sepp, t. p. 29. J3m. v. 240. t. 22. f. 1, 2. Id. Svo. ii. 

273. Raii, 107. A. 3. Witf. 224. t. 56. Klein, 102. 10. Id. Stem. t. 21. f. I. 

a. b. Borowsk. iii. 92. t. 52. Fn. Helv. Johnst. Av. pi. 52. f. 1 — 4. Gerin. iv. 

t. 488. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 633. 
Calidris, vulgo Gambetta, coloribus ludens, Gerin. i v. t. 466 ? 468? 
Combattant, ou Paon de Mer, Buf. vii. 521. pi. 29, 30. PL enl. 305, 306. 
Pavoncella, Get. uc. Sard. 253. 

Paxaro Peleador, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p. 15. lam. 43. 

Der Kampfhahn, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 155. Naturf. xiii. 214. Schmid, p. 125. t. 109. 
Ruff and Reeve, Gen. Syn. v. 159. Br. Zool. ii. 192. pi. 09. Id. fol. 123. pi. E. 

Id. 1812. ii. 71. pi. 14. Arct. Zool. ii. 479. A. Will. Engl. 302. pi. 56. Alb. i. 

pi. 72, 73. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 95. Lewin, pi. 166. Id. xxix. f. 1. — the egg. 

Walcot, ii. pi. 144. Don. t. 19. Orn. Diet. 2f Supp. Rural Sports, ii. t. 458. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill more than one inch ; yellowish, 
in some black ; irides hazel ; the face in the adult bird covered with 
numerous, yellow piniples ;* the back of the head, and the neck 
furnished with very long feathers, standing out in a remarkable 
manner, not unlike a ruff; a portion of this set of feathers stands 
up over each eye, imitating- ears; the ruff is of as many colours 
almost as there are birds who wear it, no two being alike ;t in 
general barred with black, though it is sometimes white, or of one 
plain colour; and it may be observed, that of whatever colour the 
ruff may be, the breast is very little different, and the transverse 
markings on the upper parts of the plumage correspond ; the ground 
colour, however, is mostly brown ; the feathers in general barred 
with black, and many marked with concentric circles of black ; 
quills dusky ; lower belly, vent, and upper tail coverts, white, the 

* Only to be observed in the breeding season. f The ruff first appears in the 

male, the beginning of May, and falls off by the end of June. 



246 SANDPIPER. 

last pretty long; the four middle tail feathers barred not unlike the 
back ; the others plain brown ; legs dull yellow, claws black. 

The female, or Reeve, wants the ruff on the neck, and is smaller 
than the male ; general colour brown ; the middle of each feather 
dusky, in some parts almost black, the edges of the feathers very 
pale ; primaries dusky, or black ; secondaries barred rufous brown 
and black; belly, vent, and upper tail coverts, white; tail dusky; 
legs as in the male. 

The male does not gain the ruff till the second season, both sexes 
being at first much alike. In this state it is called a Stag, but 
Mr. Pennant observes, that the cinereous brown wing, which both 
sexes have, distinguishes this species from others very sufficiently ; 
and the colour of the tail feathers being likewise taken into consi- 
deration, no mistake is likely to happen : a want of attention to 
these circumstances, has, in all probability, led authors into the error 
of describing imperfect individuals as different species. 

These birds inhabit the North of Europe in summer, as far as 
Iceland, as well as the northern marshes of Russia and Siberia; 
arrive in England in the spring, chiefly in Lincolnshire,* the Isle 
of Ely, and the East Riding of Yorkshire. The males are in much 
greater number than the females ; hence the continual battles for the 
sake of possession. The male chuses a stand on some dry bank near 
a splash of water, running round a particular spot so often, as to 
make a bare path : when the female appears, all the males contend 
for the prize, and battles ensue, nor will any two males suffer each 
other to infringe on his circle. 

* Particularly in the West Fen ; they visit the Martin Mere, in Lancashire, the latter 
end of March, or beginning of April, but do not continue there above three weeks.— Br. 
Zool. Ruffs are become more scarce, since a large tract of land has been drained, and 
may probably, as agriculture increases, be entirely driven from the Island. — Orn. Diet. 
The whole account of the manner of taking these birds in the said Work, is well worth 
perusing. 



SANDPIPER. 247 

At this period of contention,* the fowlers are enabled to catch 
them by means of nets, in great numbers.f They are decoyed also 
into the nets by means of stale birds ; but in this case fewer are 
taken. Tt is usual to fatten them for the table by bread and milk, 
mixed with hempseed, with sometimes boiled wheat, and frequently 
sugar is added ; by which means in a fortnight's time they will 
become a lump of fat, and will fetch from two shillings to half a 
crown each. 

The Reeve lays four eggs, in a tuft of grass, the beginning of 
May; they are white, marked with large rusty spots; and the young 
are hatched in about a month. It is not known for certain where 
these birds pass the winter ; they are first seen early in spring, and 
disappear the end of September ; yet we suspect that some at least 
remain through the cold season, and may possibly pass unheeded 
among the several others of this Genus, and the more so, as the male is 
only distinguished by his ruff-like feathers during the breeding season, 
losing this appendage in moulting, and does not recover it till the 
return to the fens in spring. According to authors, the same man- 
ners take place in respect to them in France, Holland, Flanders, 
and other parts on the Continent, where they arrive, and disappear 
at the same season as in England. 



2— SHORE SANDPIPER. 

Totanus ciuereus, Bris. v, 203. t. 17. f. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 265. Tern. Man. 410. Id. 

Ed. ii. 634. 
Calidris ferruginea, Gerin. t. 469. 
Chevalier varie, Buf. vii. 517. PL enl. 300. 
Le Chorlito champetre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 397 ? 
Mr. Oldham's White Herou, Alb. iii. pi. 89. 

* When kept tame, if food is set before them, the males will as eagerly fight for that as 
they before did for the possession of a female. 

f By placing a clap-net fourteen yards long, and four broad, over night, forty-four 
have been caught at one pull, the morning following ; and in all six dozen in the course of 
morning. One fowler has caught between forty and fifty dozen in one season.— Br. Zool. 



248 SANDPIPER. 

Shore Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p. 171. Arct. Zool. ii. 481. E. Bewick, ii. p. 99. 
Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

SIZE of the Green Sandpiper; length ten inches and a half. 
Bill sixteen lines long, dusky ; plumage above the same ; the neck 
obliquely striped with white; back and wing coverts with small 
rusty spots; quills plain, the secondaries tipped with white; shaft 
of the first white; breast and belly white; tail barred dusky and 
white, undulated ; legs dusky. 

Inhabits the marshes of Sweden and Denmark, and other parts 
of the Continent, in low and moist situations ; common in Holland ; 
sometimes comes into England in winter. Whether this bird is the 
one quoted above from Azara seems uncertain, but it answers in 
many respects to our description. Some have supposed it to belong 
to the Green Sandpiper; but M. Temminck thinks it to be a Ruff 
in the first year's plumage. 



3— GREENWICH SANDPIPER. 

Tiinga Grenovicensis, Jnd. Orn. ii. 731. 

Greenwich Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 249. Lewin, Birds, v. pi. 180. Wale. Birds, 
ii. pi. 154. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 91. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

SIZE of the Redshank ; weight nearly eight ounces ; length 
twelve inches and a half. Bill one inch and a half long, and black ; 
crown of the head reddish brown, streaked with black ; nape, cheeks, 
and neck, ash-colour, the feathers dusky down the shafts; those of 
the neck and back black, margined with pale ferruginous ; and 
some tipped with the same; chin nearly white; neck before very 
pale ash-colour to the breast, which is dusky white ; belly, sides, 
vent, sides of the upper, and the whole of the under tail coverts, 
white; lesser wing coverts ash-colour; the greater the same, ob- 
scurely margined with pale ferruginous, the greatest tipped with 



SANDPIPER. 249 

white; under coverts white; prime quills dusky, shafts more or less 
white; secondaries and scapulars nearly the colour of the back, and 
both about equal in length ; lower part of the back, rump, and 
middle of the tail coverts, ash-colour ; tail rather rounded at 
the end, brownish ash-colour, a little mottled with brownish near 
the tip, and fringed at the end with pale ferruginous; legs dusky 
olive-green, bare one inch above the knee ; the outer and middle 
toe connected at the base. Such is the description of a bird shot at 
Greenwich, the 5th of August, 1795, by the late Dr. Leith, who 
added it to my collection. According to Colonel Montagu this is 
the Ruff in its winter plumage ; but we somewhat hesitate in this 
supposition, though we cannot, on our own experience, contradict it. 



4.— EQUESTRIAN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa equestris, Ind. Orn. ii. 730. 
Calidris viperino colore, Gerin. iv. t. 468. 
Le Chevalier commun, Buf. vii. 511. PL enl. 844. 

Equestrian Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 311. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 85. Orn. Diet. 
<§- Supp. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill dusky ; body above rufous grey, 
clouded with brown ; sides of the head, fore part of the neck, and 
breast, white, clouded with paler brown ; on the sides of the head 
minute specks of the same ; chin, belly, thighs, vent, and rump, 
white ; the two middle tail feathers rufous brown, with black bands, 
the others plain, pale rufous brown ; legs pale grey; in some speci- 
mens pale orange.* 

Inhabits Europe; sometimes seen in England, but rarely. It is 
considered by Col. Montagu as a Variety of the Ruff. M. Tem- 
minck thinks it is the dress of the male and young bird in autumn. 

* Five of these shot in the spring of 1801, by Mr. Boys, had the legs pale orange. 

VOL. IX. K K 



250 SANDPIPER. 

A. — Length nine inches. Bill dusky; head and neck pale ash- 
colour; the feathers with whitish margins, top of the head spotted 
dusky black ; chin, throat, and all beneath from the breast, white ; 
back and wings ash-colour ; down the shaft of each feather a black 
line, and the margins white; rump black and white mixed; the 
wings rather exceed the tail in length, and hide it; legs pale brown. 

Inhabits India ; called Bagouda.— Sir J. Anstruther. In one 
drawing the feathers are more dusky, and margined for the most 
part with white. This is also called Bagoudee, or the Bastard Snipe. 



5— INDIAN SANDPIPER. 

SIZE of the last. Bill black ; head, neck, and breast, pale dirty 
buff; on the crown a few short, dusky streaks; back and wings 
brown, the feathers margined with buff; quills and tail similar, the 
last rounded at the end, and the quills rather exceed it ; belly, thighs, 
and vent, white ; legs pale brownish green. 

Inhabits India. Found at Cawnpore, in September, known by 
the name of Bagoudee. 

A second of these called Bhegoudee-lal, differed in having the 
greater part of the head, sides, and hind part of the neck, streaked 
with dusky; back and wings ferruginous brown, the margins of the 
feathers pale, and each marked with a kind of dusky crescent near 
the end ; on the second quills appearing as bars ; greater quills plain 
dusky, and as long as the tail, which is ferruginous brown, crossed 
with five or more dusky, interrupted bars, and rounded at the end ; 
beneath to the breast dirty pale buff; on the breast a few transverse, 
darker mottlings, the rest white ; legs rufous orange. 

Found at Lucknow, in India, in March. 



SANDPIPER. 251 

A third named Bbegoudee-Chutke, seems to differ only in age; 
plumage in general brown ; head and neck marked, and freckled 
with dusky ; beneath the body as in the others ; tail brown, the 
ends of the feathers dusky. 

This last also found about Cawnpore. The above seem to differ 
from each other much in the same manner as the Sanderling is known 
to do at different periods of age. Although these birds correspond 
with the last in respect to Indian names, yet they are certainly not 
the Equestrian Sandpipers ; for the term Bagouda, or Bagoudee, 
serves for many Indian Species, in the same manner as Snipe, or 
Sandpiper, is made use of for several European ones. 



6.— BLACK-TAIL SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and a half, yellow, with 
one-third of the end black ; top of the head, neck behind, back, 
and wings, ash-colour; sides of the head and neck, all beneath, from 
the chin to the vent, white ; quills black, or nearly so ; tail black, 
short, and half hid by the upper coverts, which, as well as the rump, 
are white. It has somewhat the air of the Chevalier raye, PI. enl. 
827, or Striated Species, but is not the same, as the latter has a 
much longer tail, which is barred black and white, and spotted every 
where beneath with black ; whereas in the bird here described, the 
under parts are wholly white. 

Inhabits India, called Bagouda, a common name for several 
birds of this Genus, which in the plumage resemble each other; 
and such in general are called by the English, Bastard Snipes. 



K k2 



2^2 SANDPIPER. 



7— BLACK-BACKED SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH about eleven inches. Bill from the gape one inch and 
a half, dusky, bent at the tip, the under mandible yellowish ; top 
of the head, neck, back, and wings, mixed dusky and cream-colour 
in bars and spots, paler on the greater wing coverts, and second 
quills; greater quills dusky black; the outer with a white shaft, 
and eight or nine bars of white on the inner web; the others paler 
within; down the middle of the back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts, black; four middle tail feathers dusky, with seven or eight 
narrow, black bars ; the others buff, with white ends, and three or 
four irregular, narrow, black bars, and one broader near the end ; 
shape at the end much rounded ; beneath the body white, barred on 
the breast and belly with dusky; lower belly and vent plain white; 
legs bare three quarters of an inch above the knee, colour pale 
brown, hind toe three-eights of an inch, and so placed as not to be 
useful in walking. 

Mr. Salt killed this on the Coast of Abyssinia, behind the Village 
of Madir, in the Amphile. The stomach was full of locusts. 



8— WHITE-HEADED SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch and a half long, pale 
red, one-fourth from the tip dusky ; head and sides beneath the eyes 
pale grey, and freckled ; front, chin, whole of the neck, and all 
beneath, dusky white, clouded on the breast with very pale rufous; 
belly and thighs darker, being clouded with pale rufous and grey ; 
back, wings, and tail, marbled with pale ash-colour, pale rufous, 
and black ; wings and tail even at the end ; lesser wing coverts plain 

e ash-colour; legs red. 



SANDPIPER. 253 

Inhabits India, called in the Persic tongue Puny suffard sur, or 
White-headed Purry. — Sir John Anstruther. 



9. -QUEBEC SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Canadensis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. Ixv. 
Quebec Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 313. 

SIZE of the Song Thrush ; length nine inches. Bill nearly one 
inch and a half long, and slender, the base reddish, the rest of its 
length black; plumage in general dusky, plumbeous ash-colour; 
feathers of the back margined with the same, and those of the wing 
coverts and breast with greyish white ; the three first quills dusky, 
with white shafts ; three of the inner just fringed with white at the 
tips ; two or three of the next white, marked with ash-colour on the 
outer web ; then follow two or three almost wholly white; the rest 
plain dusky; the four middle tail feathers dusky, the others pale ash, 
fringed at the edges and tips with white; between the bill and eye, 
and the chin, dusky, mottled white ; fore part of the neck plain ash- 
colour; belly white ; sides of it, close to the wings, marked with a 
few dusky spots; thighs (contrary to the usual manner of the Genus) 
covered with feathers, even below the joint ; legs short, pale yellow. 

Inhabits Quebec, brought from thence by General Davies. 



10.— BROWN-EARED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa aurita, Ind. Orn. ii. p. lxvi. 
Brown-eared Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 314. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill as long as the head, dusky ; 
plumage above rusty ash-colour, crossed with numerous whitish 
lines on the back and wings; the feathers on the outer ridge of the 
wing edged with white ; over the eye a white streak ; under parts of 



254 SANDPIPER. 

the body pale, a little mottled, or streaked ; on the ears a brown 
patch, passing through the eye, but less distinct ; quills and tail 
dusky ; legs dusky white. 

Inhabits New South Wales. Found about the shores and moist 
places, but is not a numerous species. 



11.— NEW-HOLLAND SANDPIPER. 

SIZE of the Redshank. Bill and legs black ; general colour of 
the plumage brown, or mouse-colour, marked with black brown; 
but each feather of the back, rump, and scapulars, has a large spot 
near the end, and fringed with ferruginous ; quills brown, and equal 
the tail in length ; the second quills are ferruginous, barred with 
black, having four or five curved bars on each feather ; shafts of the 
quills white; tail short, the two middle feathers like the second quills, 
the others brown, barred with black; thighs less than one-third 
covered with feathers ; these, the belly, vent, and under tail coverts, 
white; breast marked as the neck, the spots larger as they are lower; 
under wing coverts mixed brown and white. 

Inhabits New-Holland. A specimen of this in the collection of 
Mr. Harrison. 



12.— UNDULATED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa undata, Ind. Orn. ii. 732. Gm. Lin. i. t78. Brun. No. 183. 

sordide flava, &c. Schr. d. Berl. Nat. vii. 463. Besek. Kurl. 65. 129. 

Waved Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 173. Arct. Zool. ii. 481. E. 

GENERAL colour dusky, undulated with luteous and white; 
wing coverts and secondaries tipped with white ; rump white ; tail 
cinereous, and margined with black at the tip ; shaft of the first 
prime quill white. — Inhabits Denmark and Norway. Found also 
in Courland. 



SANDPIPER. 255 



13— UNIFORM SANDPIPER. 

Tringa uniformis, Ind. Om. ii. 732. Gm. Lin. i. 678. 
Uniform Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 173. Arct. ZooL ii. 482. H. 

THIS Species has a short black bill ; plumage in general 
uniform, pale ash-colour. — Inhabits Iceland. 



14,— GRISLED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa grisea, Ind. Om. ii. 733. Gm. Lin. i. 681. Tern. Man. 405. 
Calidris grisea, Bris. v. 233. t. 21. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 272. Fn. Helv. 
Maubeche grise, Buf.vn. 531. PI. ml. 366. 
Grisled Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 175. 

LENGTH nine inches and a quarter. Bill black; plumage 
above grey, the edges of the feathers paler ; but those of the back 
and scapulars plain grey ; of the rump pale grey, with a double 
bro%vn band parallel to the margin, which is white; under parts 
white ; the feathers of the neck, breast, and sides, marked with a 
waved brown band, parallel to the edge ; and those of the belly 
have a longitudinal brown line near the end ; quills brown, with 
paler edges; the shafts of the ten first white; the secondaries grey, 
the five next the body marked with a brown band, parallel to the 
margin ; tail grey, margined with white, and banded in the same 
manner with grey; legs black. 

Inhabits Europe. Found with others on the sea coasts. 



15.— ASH-COLOURED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa cinerea, Ind. Orn; ii. 733. Gm. Lin. i. 673. Brun. No. 179. Muller, No. 

202. Frisch, t. 237. Tern. Man. 405. Id. Ed. 2d. 627. 
An Numenii forte Species, in Etruria Chiurlino, Gerin. iv. t. 456. 
Der aschgraue Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 186. 



256 SANDPIPER. 

Ash-coloured Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 177. Br. Zool. ii. No. 194. Id.fol. 124. pi. 
E. 1. f. 1. Id. 1812. ii. p. 78. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 386. Lewin, v. pi. 171. 
Walcot, ii. pi. 147. Bewick, ii. p. 103. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. Amer. Oin. vii. 
36. pi. 57. f. 2. Lin. Trans, xii. p. 533. 

LENGTH ten inches, breadth twenty; weight five ounces. Bill 
straight, black, swelling a little towards the point; irides dusky; 
head ash-colour, spotted with black ; neck the same, marked with 
dusky streaks; back and wing coverts finely varied with concentric 
semicircles of black, ash-colour, and white ; coverts of the tail barred 
black and white ; tail cinereous, edged with white ; breast and belly 
white ; the first spotted with black ; legs dusky green ; toes bordered 
with a narrow, finely scolloped membrane. 

Found on the shores of Flintshire, in the winter, in large flocks ; 
met with also in Cornwall, and other parts of England : supposed 
to breed in Denmark; rarely seen in England after the end of March, 
or beginning of April,* is subject to much variety in plumage. On 
the Coast of Caermanthenshire known by the name of Howster. It 
is also found in America: breeds at Hudson's Bay, being found there 
throughout the summer, and called Sasque pisqua nishish. Seen 
in great numbers on Seal Islands, near Chateaux Bay.f Only 
observed in the United States in spring and autumn. 



16— KNOT SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Canutus, Lid. Orn. ii. 738. Lin. i. 251. Faun. suec. No. 183. Gm. Lin. i. 

679. Brun. No. 182. Bris. v. 258. Id. 8vo. ii. 276. Raii, 108. A. 5. Will. 

224. t. 56. f. 1. Tern. Man. 405. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 628. 
Le Canut, Buf. viii. 142. 
Der Kanutsvogel, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 183. 
Knot, or Red Sandpiper, Lin. Trans, xii. p. 533. 

* I received one from the late Mr. Boys, shot near Sandwich, March 9, 1785 ; and 
another September, 1792. f Arct. Zool. 



SANDPIPER. 257 

Knot, Gen. Syn. v. 187. Br. Zool. ii. No. 193. Id.fol. 123. pi. C. 2. f. 1. /d. 1812. 
ii. p. 76. Flor. Scot. i. 34. pi. 3. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 384. Will. Engl. 302. pi. 
56. 1. Edw. pi. 276. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 75. Lewin, v. pi. 178. /(/. pi. xxxii. 
1. — the egg. Orn. Diet, if Stipp. 

LENGTH nine inches, weight four ounces. Bill one inch and 
a quarter, dusky ash-colour; irides hazel ; from the bill to the eye a 
dusky line ; over the eye a white one ; top of the head, neck, back, 
and wing-s, ash-colour; lower order of coverts tipped with white, and 
edged a little way up with the same, forming a bar on the wing ; 
greater quills darker, with white shafts ; lower part of the back and 
tail coverts dark ash-colour, mixed with white, forming crescent-like 
spots; tail ash-colour; beneath from chin to vent white, but the 
throat and breast are marked with small dusky spots ; and the sides 
under the wings, belly, thighs, and vent, crossed with dusky lines; 
ridge of the wing white ; legs bluish ash-colour. 

This bird varies. That in the Br. Zool. has the forehead, chin, 
and neck before, cinereous brown ; back and scapulars brown ; the 
feathers margined with ash-colour ; tail ash-colour, the outer feather 
on each side white ; toes divided to the bottom : other trifling Varie- 
ties are now and then observed. 

The Knot frequents the Coasts of Lincolnshire, in great numbers, 
and caught in nets by means of stale birds ; fourteen dozen have 
been thus taken at once ; the season from August to November. 
They in general disappear with the first frosts, yet Edward's bird 
was bought in a London market in the hard frost 1740 ; and it is 
said, that Knots are taken in nets, near Fossdyke, in great numbers 
during winter, but that they disappear in spring.* They are silly 
birds, even to a proverb,t very little deception being necessary . to 

* Tour in Scotl. 1764, 4to. p. 13. f The later commentators of Shakespear, 

have chosen to find out the meaning of this illustrious author, in giving this bird, as the 
emblem of a dupe. In the play of Othello, when speaking of Rodrigo— 

" I have rubbed this young Knot almost to the sense, 
" And he seems angry."— Theob. Edit. ; and in another line— 
VOL. IX. L L 



258 SANDPIPER. 

entrap them into a net, or snare ; are in general found among the 
Ruffs, and with them made fit for the table, with bread and milk, 
hempseed, and sometimes boiled wheat; and when so fattened, are 
preferred by many to the Ruffs themselves : are by some supposed 
to breed with us,* as Mr. Lewin has figured the egg, somewhat 
smaller than that of a Lapwing, one inch and five-eighths long, of a 
reddish flesh-colour, dotted all over with orange red. Are found on the 
Continent, chiefly in the northern parts,f but observed to the south 
as far as Lake Baikal only, and not elsewhere. They are also found 
in North America, having been brought from the province of New 
York : how far this is connected with the Ash-coloured Species 
we are unable to determine ; or whether it may hereafter prove to be 
that bird, in the most perfect state of plumage. This, and the two 
preceding, are probably the Knot in the winter dress. £ 

Mr. Temminck esteems the Knot as the Selnine;er in the first 
year's feathers. 

" If I should expend my time with such a Snipe."* 

In Love's Labour Lost — 

" To see a King transformed to a Knot."-f- 
" To see great Hercules whipping a gigg, 
" And profound Nestor humming a jig," &c. — Stockd. Edit. p. 162. 

* Colonel Montagu thinks, they do not breed here, as none are caught till autumn. — 
Om. Diet. 

f Supposed Denmark; hence called Canute's Bird. Others say, that King Canute 
was fond of them for his table. — Gougk's Camd. Brit. ii. 230. 

t Capt. Sabine thinks that in the winter state it is the Knot ; in the progress to that of 
summer, it becomes first the Grizzled, then the Ash-coloured ; and the old birds in summer 
are the Islandic, Ferruginous and Red Sandpipers; and the young birds the Dusk}', Freck- 
led, Southern, and Aberdeen Sandpipers.— Lin. Trans, xii. p. 533. 

* Act I. Scene last. In the Second Edition, fol. 535. — it is Swayne. 

t Id. p. 134. — a Gnat. Mr. Stevens thinks it to mean a Knot, or True-lover's Knot. 



SANDPIPER. 259 



17.— FRECKLED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa ncevia, Incl. Orn. ii. 732. Gm. Lin. i. G81. 

Calidris nsevia, Bris. v. 229. t. 21. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 271. 

Glareola castanea, Klein, 105. 5. 

Maubeche tachetee, Bvf. vii. 531. PI. enl. 365. 

Freckled Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 174. Arct. Zoo/, ii. 480. B. 

THIS is a trifle less than the Redshank ; length nine inches. 
Bill dusky; upper parts of the body ash-colour, spotted with red and 
black ; the last glossed with violet ; beneath reddish white, varied 
with dusky and chestnut spots; the two middle tail feathers cine- 
reous, edged with white ; the rest the same, but darker ; the outer 
ones marked lengthwise, on the exterior web, with a white line ; 
legs greenish. 

Inhabits France, and the north of Russia and Siberia ; supposed 
to be a Knot in its spring feathers, after the first moult. 



18.— SOUTHERN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa australis, Ind. Orn. ii. 737. Gm. Lin. i. 679. 
Southern Sandpiper, Gen, Syn. v. 187. Id. Sup. 249. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a half, black ; the 

upper part of the neck, back, and wings, are ash-coloured, mottled 

with brown, and with some spots of buflf, more numerous on the 

scapulars ; crown streaked with brown ; throat, neck before, and 

breast, pale rufous ; belly dirty white ; rump white, crossed with 

dusky bars; quills and tail dusky; the latter paler; upper tail 

coverts very long, almost reaching to the end of the tail ; legs black. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 

L l2 



260 SANDPIPER. 

A. — Length twelve inches. Bill one inch and a quarter, black ; 
the mandibles recede from each other somewhat in the middle; top 
of the head black, spotted with pale rufous ; neck behind dusky 
white, marked with dusky streaks down the shafts ; lower part, and 
most of the back, blackish, the latter marked with a pale ferruginous 
spot on each side of the webs ; rump and upper tail coverts cinereous 
white, marked with curved lines of black, more straight on the 
coverts; the forehead, sides, and beneath from chin to the thighs, 
pale ferruginous ; vent and under tail coverts white, with a ferru- 
ginous tinge, and here and there a dusky spot; wing coverts and 
second quills cinereous, streaked down the shafts with black; prime 
quills black, with white shafts; tail of twelve feathers, pale ash- 
colour; legs black. «_ 

I received a specimen of the last described from the late Mr. 
Hutchins, who had it from Hudson's Bay. These are probably 
allied to the Knot. 



19.-DUSKY SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Calidris, Lid. Orn. ii. 732. Lin. i. 252. Gm. Lin.i. 681. Bris. y. 226. t. 

.20. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 270. Fn. Helv. 
La Maubeche, Bvf. vii. 529. pi. 31. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 627. 
Der grune Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 181. 
Dusky Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 174. 18. Lin. Trans, xi. p. 176. 

SIZE of the Redshank ; length nine inches and a quarter. Bill 
one inch and a half long, black, with a pale base ; plumage above 
brownish black, the feathers margined with pale chestnut; rump 
cinereous brown, streaked transversely with black, the margins of 
the feathers white; under parts of the body chestnut; sides streaked 
transversely pale chestnut and white ; tail greyish brown, all except 
the two middle feathers margined with white ; legs brown, outer and 
middle toe united to the first joint. 



SANDPIPER. 261 

Inhabits France and Germany, also Switzerland ; frequents the 
sea shores for the sake of food; the manners otherwise unknown. 
We have seen one corresponding with the above from Gibraltar, 
which differed in having the under parts white. 

Specimens of this bird have been met with in the poulterer's 
shops in London, in the month of May; and Mr. Bullock mentions 
one shot in the Island of Sanda, on the 20th of August, out of a 
small flock, on the edge of the Great Lake Stennis, on the Mainland 
of Orkney. Has been also killed at Hare Island, off Greenland, in 
June, and supposed to be the Knot in one of its changes towards 
the adult. See Lin. Trans, xii. 533. 



20— RED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Islandica, Ind. Orw.ii. 737. Lin. Syst. Add. Gm. Lin. i. 682. Tern. Man. 395. 

ferruginea, Brun. No. 180. Muller, No. 205. 

Die rothbauchige Schnepfe, Bechst. Deut. iii. 84. t. vi. 
Aberdeen Sandpiper, Br.Zool. 1812. p. 89. A ? 

Red Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p. 186. Br. Zool. ii. No. 202. pi. 72. Id. 1812. ii. p. 
89. pi. 17. f. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 393. 

LENGTH from eight to ten inches, size of the Missel Thrush ; 
breadth seventeen inches. Bill one inch and a half long, a little 
bent downwards; the head, neck behind, and beginning of the back, 
dusky, marked with red ; back and shoulders black, mixed with red 
and whitish ; rump dull ash-grey, margins of the feathers paler ; 
tail coverts white in the middle, with black bands ; under parts of 
the body ferruginous, spotted on the sides of the neck with black ; 
the rest beneath clouded with white ; wing coverts dull reddish ash- 
colour, edged with pale grey ; quills blackish, the prime ones with 
white shafts, and the secondaries white at the ends ; the others 
whitish on the inner webs ; tail rounded at the end, ash-grey, with 
the shafts and inner webs whitish, beneath pale grey ; legs longish, 
black. 



262 SANDPIPER. 

The female differs but little : the throat white, and the belly with 
more white than in the male. 

Inhabits Germany, seen in Thuringia, but not in plenty ; in the 
summer frequents the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea ; also the 
River Don, and more so about the mouth of the Choper ; is per- 
petually running up and down on the sandy banks, picking up 
insects, and small worms, on which it feeds: found also in Iceland; 
is an occasional visitor to this kingdom, having appeared in great 
flocks on the Coast of Essex, on the estate of Colonel Schutz. 

The Aberdeen Sandpiper, as mentioned by Mr. Pennant, is 
thought to be a young bird, if not the female; but Col. Montagu 
hints the probability its rather belonging to the Ruff.* It is not 
confined to the European Continent, having been met with in 
America, on the Coasts of Labrador, New York, and Nootka Sound. 



A. — A similar one, among the drawings of Sir John Anstruther, 
corresponds in plumage; some of the second quills are crossed with 
dusky bars ; bill and legs black ; and in the drawing, in which the 
bill is open, the upper mandible seems serrated within. 

This is found on the Coromandel Coast, and called Purry, but 
I observe, too, that others of the Genus are equally so called ; hence 
it is probable, that this is a name in common, and not peculiar to 
any one species. 



21— RED-BREASTED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa rufa, Red-breasted Sandpiper, Amer. Orn. vii. 43. pi. 57. f. 5. 

THIS species is ten inches long. Bill one inch and an half, black; 
chin, eyebrows, and breast, pale brownish orange ; crown, hindhead 

* The Knot is considered by Col. Montagu as the Red Sandpiper, in winter plumage. 



SANDPIPER. 263 

from the upper mandible backwards, and neck dull white, streaked 
with black ; back pale, slaty olive, the feathers tipped with white, 
barred and spotted with black, and pale ferruginous; tail coverts 
white, elegantly barred with black ; wings plain dusky, towards the 
extremity black ; greater coverts tipped with white ; shafts of the 
primaries white; tail pale cinereous olive, finely edged with white ; 
the two middle feathers somewhat the longest ; belly and vent white ; 
on the latter small sagittal spots of black; legs and feet black ; toes 
bordered with a narrow membrane. 

Both sexes are nearly alike, but in some specimens the red on 
the breast is much paler, in others descends as far as the thighs. 

This is, by Mr. Wilson, thought to be a species hitherto unde- 
scribed.* Known on the sea coast by the name of Grey-back ; 
appears on the shores of the Middle States of America, in May, and 
after a few weeks disappears till October. Is a plump, tender, and 
excellent bird for the table ; usually seen in small flocks, and feeds 
on the small bivalve shells, met with on the shore. 



22.— BARTRAM'S SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Bartramia, Bartram's Sandpiper, Amer. Orn. vii. 63. pi. 59. f. 2. 
Totanus Bartramia, Chevalier a longue queue, Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. 660. 

THIS is twelve inches long, and twenty-one in extent. Bill one 
inch and a half long, slightly bent downwards, wrinkled at the 
base, colour yellow, with the top, or ridge of the upper mandible, 
black ; eyes large ; irides dark ; front, stripe over the eye, neck, and 
breast, pale ferruginous, with small black streaks, on the lower part 
of the breast in the shape of arrow heads; crown black; the plumage 
slightly skirted with whitish ; chin, orbits, belly, and vent, white ; 
hindhead and neck above ferruginous, minutely streaked with black ; 
back and scapulars black, the former slightly fringed with ferru- 



* M. Temminck joins it with the last Species. 



264 8ANDPIPER. 

ginous, the latter with white ; tertials black, bordered with white ; 
primaries plain black ; shaft of the exterior quill snowy, its inner 
vane pectinated with white ; secondaries pale brown, spotted on the 
outer vanes with black, and tipped with white ; greater coverts 
dusky, edged pale ferruginous, each broadly bordered with white, 
within this a concentric semicircle of black ; rump and tail coverts 
deep brown black, slightly bordered with white ; tail tapering, pale 
brown orange, spotted with black ; the middle feathers centered 
with dusky ; legs yellow, tinged with green. The male and female 
much alike. 

Inhabits America : first found on the banks of the River Schuyl- 
kill, occasionally seen three or four in company, during August and 
September, running among the grass, feeding on beetles, and other 
winged insects, and are very shy ; but where they breed is not known. 

Mr. Wilson also informs us, that when plump, the bird weighs 
three quarters of a pound ; and that the flesh is superior, in point of 
delicacy, tenderness, and flavour, to any other of the tribe. This 
has been once or twice killed in Germany and Holland.* 



23— RUFOUS-SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH eleven inches and three quarters ; breadth twenty-one 
inches and a half. Bill straight, pale red, the top and tip dusky ; 
plumage on the upper parts and the breast more or less brown, the 
feathers margined with pale rufous, appearing as a yellow rufous 
ground, spotted with brown ; on the crown of the head a narrow 
streak of white down the middle; chin and throat white ; belly from 
the breast, thighs, and vent, the same; quills plain dusky, the 
outmost with a white shaft ; greater wing coverts and quills nearly 
even ; tail ferruginous yellow, barred with dusky ; lower part of 

* M. Temminck. 



SANDPIPER. 265 

the back dusky, but the upper tail coverts have much white in them ; 
legs pale yellow. Mr. Abbot observes, the inner webs of the quills 
are barred with white, the first most ; beneath the wings, on the 
pinions, and next the body beautifully barred with black and white; 
the coverts and quills paler. The female is more yellow brown. 

A small flock of these came to a pond in Burke Country, in 
Georgia, the end of July, skulked among the weeds and grass, 
running like a Partridge; they were remarkably fat. 



24.— SELNINGER SANDPIPER. 

Tringa raaritima, Ind. Orn. ii. 731. Gm. Lin. i. 678. Brun. No. 182. Muller, No. 
206. Leems Lap/. No. 254. Lin. Trans, xii. p. 532. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 619. 
Tringa nigricans, Phayrelarn Sandpiper, Lin. Trans, iv. 40. pi. iv. 
Sea Sandpiper, Lin. Trans, iv. 22. pi. 1. Orn. Did. fy Supp. 
Purple Sandpiper, Wale. ii. pi. 155. Orn. Diet. 

Selninger Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 173. Id. Supp. ii. 312. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 80. 
Aret. Zool. ii. 480. C. 

LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill one inch and a quarter, 
a trifle curved, dull red, but the tip and sides dusky ; irides hazel ; 
head and neck dusky black ; eyelids whitish ; throat white ; back 
and scapulars black, glossed with purple and edged with ash-colour ; 
wing coverts black, tipped with white, the tertials more deep ; quills 
black, with the outer margins white ; three of the secondaries almost 
wholly so; hence arises an oblique white bar, when the wing is 
extended ; shafts white ; breast, and all beneath white, prettily 
spotted with black, except the middle of the belly and vent; rump, 
tail coverts, and four middle tail feathers black, glossed as the back ; 
the rest light cinereous; legs of a dull red. 

The Selninger Sandpiper inhabits Norway and Iceland, also 
Greenland ; living about the sea shores, and has a piping note. I 
conceive this to be no other than the Purple Sandpiper of Mr. 
Walcot, and the Phayrelarn Species of Colonel Montagu ; likewise 

VOL. IX. M M 



266 SANDPIPER. 

the Sea Sandpiper of Mr. Mark wick, in the Lin. Trans, above 
quoted. This is not to be wondered at, as they are said to vary 
much at different periods of age and season, as the Stint and Dunlin. 
Mr. Markwick mentions ten or twelve being met with on the sea 
coast near Bexhill, in December. Two of Walcot's birds were shot 
on the Coast of Devon, in winter. That described by Col. Montagu 
under the name of Phayrelarn Sandpiper, was killed on the Coast 
of Caermarthenshire, in company with Purres; and two others shot 
also there the same winter. M. Temminck thinks the Knot to be 
a young bird of this species. 



25— BLACK SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Lincolniensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 734. 

Black Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 251. Br. Zool. ii. No. 197. Id. 1812. ii. p. 81. 
Orn. Diet. £f Supp. 

SIZE of a Thrush. Bill short, blunt, and dusky ; nostrils black ; 
irides yellow; head small, flattened at top, white, most elegantly 
spotted with grey ; neck, shoulders, and back, mottled in the same 
manner, but darker, and tinged with brown ; in some lights 
appearing black, and glossy; wings long; quills black, crossed 
near the base with a white line; throat, breast, and belly, white, 
with faint brown and black spots, in form longish, irregularly dis- 
persed, becoming larger, and more round on the belly ; tail short, 
entirely white, except the two middle feathers, which are black ; 
legs long, slender, reddish brown. This was shot in Lincolnshire, 
and communicated to Mr. Pennant by Mr. Bolton ; is thought by 
Colonel Montagu to be allied to, and probably the young of, the 
Selninger, or Purple Sandpiper. 



SANDPIPER. 267 

26.— YELLOW-LEGGED SANDPIPER. 

Yellow-legged Sandpiper, Orn. Diet. App. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 70. 

SIZE of the Grey Sandpiper; length eleven inches and a half. 
Bill one inch and a half long, black half way from the end, base 
yellow ; irides light yellow ; head and neck cinereous, streaked with 
dusky ; body above cinereous brown, the middle of each feather 
dusky; beneath the spurious wing a patch of white ; prime quills 
dusky, shaft of the first white ; secondaries white halfway from their 
tips; under parts of the body and the rump white; tail, and its 
upper coverts, cinereous brown ; under coverts speckled with dusky ; 
legs orange yellow. 

This bird was bought in the market at Bath, in winter ; first 
described by Colonel Montagu in his Ornithological Dictionary, 
and appeared to him as a nondescript species. 



27.— GREY SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Squatarola, Ind. Orn. ii. 729. Fn. suec. No. 186. Gm. Lin. i. 682. Scop. i. 

No. 144. Brun. No. 176. Midler, p. 25. Georgi, 172. Fn. arag. 77. Fn.Helv. 
Vanellus griseus, Bris. v. 100. t. 9. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 237. 

Vanellus melanogaster, Tern. Man. 345. Id. Ed. ii. 547. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 186. 
Pluvialis cinerea, Raii, 111. A. 3. Will. 229. t. 37- Klein, 20. 3. Id. Stem. t. 3. 

f. 2. a— c. 
Vanneau Pluvier, Buf. viii. 68. PI. enl. 854. 
Der graue Kiebiss, Beckst. Deuts. iii. 151. Naturf. xiii. 216. 
Grey Plover, Alb. i. pL 76. Will. Engl. 309. pi. 57. Brown, Jam. 478. Frankl. 

Narr. App. p. 684. 
Grey Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 168. Id. Sup. 248. Br. Zool. ii. No. 191. Id.fol. 

122. Id. 1812. ii. p. 69. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 393. Bewick, pi. p. 331. Lewin, v. 

pi. 169. Id. pi. xxx. f. 1.— the egg. Walcot, ii. pi. 146, Pult. Dors. p. 15. 

Orn. Diet. 

THE length of this bird is eleven or twelve inches ; breadth 
twenty-two ; weight nearly seven ounces. Bill one inch and a 

Mm2 



268 SANDPIPER. 

quarter long, blackish ; in the roof of the mouth a double row of 
spinous appendages, pointing inwards, the upper mandible the 
longest ; tongue nearly the length of the bill ; head, back, and 
wing coverts black, edged with greenish ash-colour and some white ; 
cheeks and throat white, marked with oblong dusky spots; belly 
and thighs white ; outer webs of the quills black ; the lower part 
of the inner of the first four white ; under the wings on the sides, 
are eight or ten black feathers, two inches or more in length ; 
these have by insertion the appearance of under scapulars, answering 
to those above, and hang half way over the thighs; rump white; 
tail barred black and white, on the two middle feathers are six or 
seven black bars ; the inner webs of the others barred only at the 
ends, the outermost with only one faint bar near the tip ; legs pale, 
dusky green, hind toe extremely small, and in some specimens 
appearing merely as a claw, without a toe. Both sexes nearly alike. 

The Grey Sandpiper is found on the shores of this kingdom in 
the winter, but does not appear to be a plentiful species; seen now 
and then on the coast of Kent, in small flocks, but rarely beyond 
the middle of March : common in Siberia, appearing in autumn in 
great flocks, coming from the extreme north, where they breed ; 
found in most parts of the Continent of Europe, not uncommon in 
the province of Andalusia, and the neighbourhood of Gibraltar, all 
the winter, but shy, and difficult to be shot; so that few are to be 
obtained, though much valued for delicacy of flavour. 

Inhabits also Barbary, and no doubt the whole African Coast to 
Egypt, where they are seen in flocks. We have observed it repre- 
sented in drawings done in India. 

Inhabits Java ; called by the Javanese Chibugan : it is observed 
that the colours in this are less vivid than in the European Species. 



SANDPIPER. 269 



A.— Tringa varia, hid. Om. ii. 729. Lin. i. 252. Gm. Lin. i. 682. 

Vanellus varius, Bris. v. 100. 1. 10. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 238. 

Der gefleckte Kiebiss, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 153. 

Vanneau varie, PL enl. 923. Gen. Syn. v. 169. 11. A. Br. Zool. 1812. ii. p. 70. A. 

Size of the last. Bill black; head, hind part of the neck, back, 
and scapulars brown, the feathers margined and spotted with white ; 
rump the same, but the spots yellowish ; upper tail coverts white, 
edged with grey and pale yellow; the throat white; fore part of the 
neck grey brown, the feathers margined with white ; from thence to 
the vent pure white ; wing coverts like the back ; bastard wing dusky; 
quills the same ; from the fifth to the ninth edged with white at the 
tip; the others greyish brown, edged with white; the six inner 
spotted with white on the margins ; tail barred brown and white ; 
the outer feather white, except a longitudinal brown streak on the 
outer web ; legs black. 

This, and the Grey Sandpiper, are often seen flying in Carolina, 
in great flocks, chiefly in the vallies near the mountains, but very 
seldom alight. 



B. — General colour above dusky ash, clouded ; sides of the head 
pale; head marked with dusky small spots; beneath dusky white; 
chin and throat marked with dusky crescents, placed in perpendicular 
rows ; sides of the breast, and under the wings marked with large, 
irregular, dusky spots; tail dusky white, crossed with bars of black. 

Inhabits India, by the name of Balleen. — Sir J. Anstruther. 

I observe, in various drawings of Indian birds, some much darker 
in colour, and the bars on the tail more distinct ; but the legs are in 
these yellow. The name given to one was Carrwalla. 



270 SANDPIPER. 



28.— SWISS SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Helvetica, Ltd. Orn. ii. 728. Lin. i. 250. Gm. Lin. i. 676. Phil. Trans. 

lxii. p. 412. Faun. Helv. 
Vanellus Helveticus, Bris. v. 106. t. 10. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 239. 
Charadriushyniomelus, Pall, reise, iii. 699. No. 26. 
Vanneau de Suisse, Buf. viii. 60. PI. enl. 853. 
Swiss Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 167. Id. Sup. 248. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a quarter, black, 
swelling at the point ; forehead and neck white, feathers of the last 
dashed with brown down the shafts ; hind head spotted with black 
and white ; cheeks, fore part of the neck, breast, and belly, black ; 
thighs and vent white ; back and wing coverts the same, spotted 
with black ; prime quills black ; under wing coverts white, but the 
long ones, nearest the body, are dusky black ; tail white, crossed 
with narrow bars of black, fewest in number on the outer feathers ; 
legs black ; hind toe small. That described in the Phil. Trans, had 
a mixture of white, lunated spots, with the black on the under parts, 
which Dr. Forster suspected to be a young bird. 

We received, some years since, from Hudson's Bay, one of these 
birds, supposed a female : it had the upper parts brown, mottled 
with dusky white ; sides of the head and fore part of the neck white, 
sparingly marked with brown spots ; belly white, with longish 
streaks of black ; the ends of the feathers being black for some 
length ; quills, rump, and tail, as in the other ; at the inner angle 
of the wing the same long black feathers, like under scapulars as 
noticed in the Grey Sandpiper ; in short, this reputed female was so 
like the Grey Sandpiper, that the belly excepted, which in the latter 
is not marked with black, one must suppose them to be mere 
Varieties of each other. 

The Swiss Sandpiper is found on the coasts of Connecticut and 
Hudson's Bay, visiting the latter in spring, and feeding on berries, 



SANDPIPER. 271 

insects, arid worms ; common throughout the south of Russia, and 
Siberia. Supposed to breed in the Arctic Flats of the last ; found 
also in France, and Switzerland ; but never many together. Is now 
and then seen in Georgia ; these said to be a trifle larger, being 
thirteen inches long, and twenty-two broad : bill one inch long. 

Mr. Abbot, from whom I received this account, met with three 
of them in company, at one of the ponds, in June, which were all 
he ever heard of in those parts ; they were very shy, and ran quick. 
In the collection of the late Mr. Folijambe, was a male. This and 
five or six others were met with in Lincolnshire, in the month of May. 

From what has been said above concerning the Grey and Swiss 
Sandpipers, we may fairly suppose them to be allied, and that they 
differ only in being more or less in complete plumage of the breast. 
The one mentioned by Forster is certainly immature, and that 
received by myself from Hudson's Bay equally so, and as both these 
were taken in April, they were probably in the state of change 
against the summer. Mr. Abbot's were met with in June, with the 
black breast complete, such as the Swiss is known to be ; hence we 
think it probable that the Grey Sandpiper only gains a mixture of 
black on the under parts the first year, but that the fully adult ones 
have the black breast after April and May, and lose it again after 
the breeding season. 



29.— LESSER GREY SANDPIPER. 

Tringa arenaria, Lin. i. 251. Gm. Lin. i. 680. Gm. reise, iv. p. 140. 
Calidris grisea minor, Bris. v. 236. t. 20. f. 2 ? Id. 8vo. ii. 272 ? 
Tringa arenaria, Small grey Sandpiper, Lin. Trans', iy. p. 25. 

LENGTH, to the end of the tail, seven inches and three quarters; 
to the toes about eight ; breadth fifteen ; weight one ounce and a half. 
Bill black, from tip to gape one inch and one eighth ; face, round 



272 SANDPIPER. 

the bill, nearly white; upper parts of the bird in general brownish 
grey, or ash-colour; wing coverts brown, with pale edges; prime quills 
dusky ; secondaries the same, but the base half whitish, obliquely 
divided ; the third series brown, tipped with white, forming, when 
spread, a white bar across the wing ; tail of twelve feathers, shape 
much rounded, but not doubly concave as in the Purre; two middle 
pointed and dusky ; the others pale ash, with white shafts ; six of 
the middle upper coverts black, the remainder white, and all reach 
full two-thirds on the tail ; the chin, throat, and all beneath white, 
except a tinge of brown on the breast, and here and there a slight 
dusky mark on the upper part of the belly ; legs black, slender, with 
a conspicuous hind toe and claw. 

I received a specimen of the above from Mr. Markwick, killed 
in Kent. The one noticed by him in the Linncean Transactions was 
killed on the sea coast, near Rye, and he adds, that they are seen 
there in flocks during the winter. This ought not to be confounded 
with the Sanderling, as might be conjectured from the similarity of 
plumage, unless we can be certain of this bird so far, as to be 
sometimes totally without a hind toe or claw, and at others possessing 
both. It is true, that the Grey Sandpiper has only a spur in some 
individuals, and the Golden Plover is sometimes seen with a spur; 
but Mr. Markwick, to whom we are indebted for the above, assured 
me, that he has seen several specimens on the coast of Sussex, and 
that it is distinct from the Sanderling. 



A. — Length about eight inches. Bill moderately stout, a very 
trifling swelling at the end, and black ; general colour of the plumage 
above plain ash ; beneath, from the chin to vent, white; breast very 
pale ash-colour, whitish in the middle; through the eye a dusky 
streak, over the eye a white one; wing coverts fringed with white; 
tail plain ash, rounded at the end, the two middle, or longer feathers 



SANDPIPER. 273 

pointed at the tip; upper coverts white, with a brownish bar near the 
ends; legs black, back toe of a moderate size. 

This was shewn to me by Mr. Bullock, who, I believe, had it 
from the Leverian Collection. 

The Tringa Arenaria is mentioned as a bird met with on the 
borders of the Caspian Sea, in the month of December.* 



30.-GREEN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Ochropus, Ind. Om. ii. p. 729. Lin. i. 250. Fn. suec. No. 180. Gm. Lin. i. 

676. Brun. No. 1S3. Mutter, No. 25. Frisch, 237 ? 239. Boroivsk. iii. p. 95. 

Schcef. el. t. 67. Faun. Helvet. 
Tringa Aldrovandi, Raii, 108. A. 7. 8. Will. 222. 223. t. 55. Bris. v. 177. 1. 16. f. 1. 

Id. 8vo. ii. 259. Gerin. iv. t. 457. Collins's Birds, pi. 2. f. 1.2. 
Totanus Ochropus, Tern. Man. 420. 
Glareola, Klein, 101. 4.7. 

Gambettola, Giarola, Pivinello, Zinnan. Uov. 116. t. 22. f. 105. 
II Culbianco, Celt. Uc. Sard. 257. Gerin. v. t. 457. 
Becasseau, ou Cul blanc, Buf. vii. 534. Pl.enl. 843. 

Der punktirte Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deutsch.m. 162. Naturf. xiii. s. 216. 
Die punktirte Schnepfe, Bechst. Deuts.m. 88. Naturf. xxv. s. 7. 
Le Chorlito a tete et Cou noiratres, Foy. d'Azara, iv. No. 406 ? 
Green Sandpiper, Gen. 5yn. v. 170. Jd. &yj. ii. 311. Br. Zool. ii. No. 201. 7d./o/. 

125. t. F. 2. f.3. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 86. pi. 15. f. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 389. 

Bewick, ii. pi. in p. 100. Lewin, v. pi. 170. Pult. Dors. p. 15. Om. Diet. 
Wood Sandpiper, Brown spotted Sandpiper, Lin. Trans, i. 228. t.2. Id. ii. 325. Br. 

Zool. 1S12. ii. p. 88. A. Om. Diet. Sf Siipp. pi. in ditto. 

LENGTH ten inches ; extent of the wings sixteen ; weight three 
ounces and a quarter. Bill one inch and a half long, slender, dusky; 
irides hazel ; head, and neck behind dusky ash-colour ; over the eyes 
a pale streak ; between the bill and eye dusky ; the back and wings 
greenish, glossy brown ; edges of the feathers spotted dirty white ; 
chin white ; fore part of the neck dusky white, marked with dark 
streaks ; from thence to the vent white ; upper and under coverts the 
same; the quills and outer edge of the wing plain dusky brown; 
secondaries nearly as long as the quills ; the under scapulars dusky, 

* Gmel. reise. 

VOL. IX. N N 



274 SANDPIPER. 

barred with white, the bars meeting obliquely on each side of the 
shaft, in the shape of the letter V; tail white, more or less barred 
with dusky; the outer feathers least so ; legs greenish lead-colour, 
slender; the outer and middle toes united at the base. No external 
distinction of sex. 

This is common in many parts of Europe; for the most part a 
solitary species, frequenting fresh waters, and streams ; seen in 
England, from the middle of September* to the end of April, when 
it departs Northward; probably breeds in Russia and Siberia, where 
it is in great plenty ; is found also as far north as Iceland, and to the 
south on the Isthmus of Gibraltar, but at the last place very rare]y 5 f 
and not more than four or five ever seen together. With us are 
generally seen single, except just before they leave us, when they now 
and then appear in pairs; when disturbed, make a shrill, whistling 
note. This bird has a musky kind of smell, not unlike that observed 
in some of the Petrel Genus. 

This species extends to India, where it is called Kireeatee ; said 
there to weigh two ounces and thirteen drachms. 



A.— Length eight inches and a half. Plumage above dusky, 
sparingly marked with small spots of white; but the outward wing 
coverts are plain brown; quills the same, but darker ; the secondaries 
nearly as long as the quills, with pale spots on the edges, and undated, 
or sawed, four or five times on each margin, the ends pointed; the 
subaxillary feathers as in the former; all beneath from chin to vent 
white, but the neck streaked on the sides with dusky ; legs slender, 
black. — A specimen of this brought from Quebec by Gen. Davies. 

B.— Tringa Ochropus, Ind. Om. ii. 730. 12. p. Gen. Syn. v. 171. B. 

Length ten inches. Plumage much as in the others, the forehead 
white; through the eye a dusky streak; sides of the head and all 

* Has sometimes been seen as early as the second of August. — Om. Diet. 
t Rev. Mr. White. 



SANDPIPER. 275 

beneath dirty white; across the breast verging to ash-colour; quills 
and tail dusky ; all but the two middle feathers of the latter barred 
with white on the outer webs. 

Inhabits King George's Sound. — Sir Joseph Banks. This is 
probably the same with one mentioned by Mr. Abbot, found in 
Georgia, and answering in general description, but in that the two 
middle tail feathers are deep brown, spotted white on the outer webs., 
the others crossed with eight bars of dusky black ; is found also at 
Trinidad. One met with at Buenos Ayres the end of November, by 
Azara, was probably the same, but the tail feathers were mutilated. 

31.— WOOD SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Glareola, Lid. Orn. ii. 750. Lin. i. 250. 13. /3. Faun. suec. No. 184. Gm. 

Lin. i. 677. Lin. Trans, i. 128. pi. 2. Id. ii. 323. 
Totanus Glareola, Tern. Man. 422. Id. Ed. 2d. 655. 
Tringa Solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper, Amer. Orn. vii. 53. pi. 58. f. 3 ? 
Wood Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 172. Arct. Zool. ii. p. 482. G. Orn. Diet. !$ Supp. 

pi. in ditto. 

THIS is nine inches long, and twenty-four broad. Bill one 
inch and a half long; between the bill and eye a blackish line ; 
over the eye a white space, under the chin whitish ; top of the head, 
neck, and breast, brownish ash-colour, with darker streaks, espe- 
cially on the breast and cheeks ; back dusky olive-brown, marked 
pretty thickly with small whitish spots ; tail barred black and white, 
the two outmost feathers almost entirely white, and the nearer to the 
outside the white is more in proportion ; quills dark, dusky brown ; 
wing coverts dusky olive-brown, next the back marked with whitish 
spots; legs greenish. 

This was shot at Battle, in Sussex ; by some thought to be a 
Variety of the Green Species. It seems greatly allied, if not the 
same, with the Solitary Sandpiper of the American Ornithology , 
which comes into Pennsylvania, in May, and departs in September. 

N n 2 



276 SANDPIPER. 



A. — Totanns affinis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 191. 

This is ten inches long. Above brown, margins of the feathers 
pale; prime quills deep brown ; the secondaries fasciated with deep 
brown and whitish ; beneath, and the tail white, the latter fasciated 
with brown. 

Inhabits Java, and there called Trinil. Dr. Horsfield observes, 
that this bird is nearly allied to the Wood Species, and differs prin- 
cipally in the marks of the secondary quill feathers, and in the lower 
continuation of the covering of the tibiae, 



32— LAPWING SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Vanellus, Lid. Orn.W. p. 72G. Lin. i. 248. Fn. Suec. No. 176. Gin. Lin. i. 

p. 670. Scop. i. No. 141. Brim. No. 170. Muller, No. 192. Kramer, 353. 2. 

Frisch, t. 213, Olin. t. p. 21. Georgi, p. 172. G'ra. reise, p. 75. 1. 15. Sepp, 

t. p. 05. & 4. 371. Fn. Helv. Bris. v. 94. t. 8. f. 1. Id. Svo. ii. p. 236. Raii, 

110. A. 1. Will. 228. t. 57. Fn.arag. 77. Gerin. iv. t. 479. Boroivsk.Yn. 93. 2. 

Schoef. el. t. 69. Amoen. ac. 580. 590. 
Vanellus cristatus, Tern. Man. 348. Id. Ed. ii. 551. 

Gavia vulgaris, Klein, 19. 1. Id. Stem.'m. t. 3. f. 5. a. b. Id. Ov. 16. t. 6. f. 2. 
Le Vanneau, Buf. viii. 48. pi. 4. PL enl. 242. Hist. Prov. i. 352. Voy. Barb. i. 299. 
Kybiz, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 31. Wirs. Vog. t. 35. Schmid, 109. t. 95. 
Der gemeine Kiebiss, Bechst. Dents, iii. 136. Naturf. xiii. 215. 
Lapwing, Gen.Syn.v. p. 161. Br. Zoo/, ii. No. 190. Id. fol. 122. pi. C* f. 1. /</. 

1812. ii. p. 06. Fl. Scot.l No. 146. Arct. Zool. ii. 480. D. Will. Engl. pi. 57. 

Alb. \. pi. 74. Hayes, pi. 11. Bewick, i. pi. 324. Leivin, v. pi. 167. /d. pl.xxix. 

f. 2. the egg. Walcot, ii. pi. 145. Donow.ii. pi. 25. Pult. Dors. p. 15. Graves, 

Br. Orn. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

LENGTH thirteen inches and a half; weight nearly eight ounces. 
Bill one inch or more, black ; irides hazel ; the crown of the head 
glossy, greenish black ; at the back of it a crest of narrow feathers, 
some nearly four inches long, and turn up at the end ; round the eye 
and sides of the neck white ; beneath it a streak of black ; fore part 



SANDPIPER. 277 

of the neck, as far as the breast, black ; hind part white and brown ; 
back and wings green, the first glossed with purple, the last with 
blue; quills black, the four first with a white spot at the tips; base 
half of the secondaries white; breast and belly wholly white; upper 
tail coverts and vent pale rufous; tail white half way from the base, 
from thence to the end black ; outer feathers almost wholly white ; 
the wings reach nearly to the end of it ; legs brownish red. The 
female is rather smaller, less bright, and the crest shorter. 

This species is pretty common in England, where it remains the 
whole year; known by the name of Pewit and Green Plover; and 
in Scotland, Peeseweep. The female lays four eggs, of a dirty olive, 
spotted with black, and scrapes together a little dry grass for the 
nest;* the time of sitting is three weeks; the young run within two 
or three days after they are hatched, but do not fly till nearly full 
grown. In this state the mother uses great address in decoying the 
curious intruder from the place of the young, or nest, flying over 
the head of any one with great noise, and most clamorous when 
farthest from the place where the young are ; she will also some- 
times feign to be lame, in order to entice any one to follow her out of 
the way. Towards winter both young and old collect in flocks of 
4 or 500, and even more, on our heaths, and are in some places 
taken in nets for the use of the table ;f the eggs are also accounted 
a great delicacy, and sometimes sell dearly. J 

This is common to many parts of Europe, extending to the 
Ferroe Isles, and even to Iceland ;§ frequent in Russia, but becomes 
very rare beyond the Urallian Chain ; a few met with about the 
Rivers Ob, and Angara, and beyond the Lake Baikal ; seen in 

* The eggs are invariably placed in a quadrangular form, the four smaller ends touching 
each other ; and this is common to all the Sandpiper, Plover, and Snipe Genus, the eggs of 
which are four in number. — Orn. Diet. 

f In the Provinces of Brie and Champaign, in France, are sometimes seen in flocks of 
thousands, and decoyed into clap-nets, by the playing of a mirror, with the addition of 
some stuffed birds, with here and there a living one. — Hist, des Ois. 

X Three shillings per dozen not thought a great price. § Brunnich. 



278 SANDPIPER. 

Lombardy, in April, and departs in September, but is found in 
France, as in England, at all seasons : common in Italy and Spain, 
though seldom seen in great numbers on the low lands so long as 
the season is mild, but when a heavy fall of snow overwhelms the 
Grenada and Andalusian Mountains, they resort to the lowlands, in 
amazing flocks ; and sometimes have covered the whole district of 
Gibraltar, and even the town itself: when being distressed for daily 
food, vast flocks of them assemble, and cross the Straits to Barbary, 
returning about the middle of February in the same manner, a very 
few remaining all the while about the grassy parts of the Hill. This 
occurrence however is very rare, and only happens in severe seasons. 
It seems to be common in Egypt, where the Arabs call it Goudguatt;* 
also in Persia,t China, and probably India; but it appears rather 
to affect the moderate climates, and even the more rigorous at certain 
seasons, for though it is observed to pass the winter in Russia, and 
Egypt; cannot bear the vast heats of the summer; and migrates to 
the countries about Woronesch and Astrachan.J The chief food 
of this bird, when at large, is worms, but as it will become pretty 
familiar, it is frequently in gardens, where it may be observed on 
the grass walks ; and obtains the worms, first by turning aside the 
worm cast, and then, treading round the hole in a circular manner, 
and thereby giving motion to the ground, the worm comes out, and 
the bird, seizing it by one end, draws it forth. It will, however, in 
frosty and hard weather be content with bits of pudding, meat, and 
and other scraps, but always preferring worms when to be obtained. 

This bird is not subject to much variety in colour ; the only 
deviation we have noticed, is one with the general plumage white; 
hind part of the neck with some markings of buff"; under tail coverts 
brown buff", also the ends of the tail feathers, and those of the long 
slender ones of the nape ; the bill brown ; legs pale. This was in 
Mr. Bullock's Museum. 

* Sonnin. Trav. ii. 125. Uncertain whether found there the whole year. — Lamark in 
Migr. Av. — AmcBti. Acad. iv. 590. + Hasselq. p. 208. f Arct. Zoo/. 



SANDPIPER. 279 



33 —GREATER LAPWING. 

Tririga Bononiensis, Lid. Om. ii. 726. Gm. Lin. i. 670. 
Vanellus Bononiensis, Bris. v. 110. Id. 8vo. ii. 239. 
Greater Lapwing, Gen. St/n. v. 163. 

THIS is larger than the last. Bill yellowish, with a black tip ; 
head and hind part of the neck chestnut; back, wings, scapulars, 
and rump black ; throat, fore part of the neck, and breast white, 
marked with ferruginous spots ; belly, sides, and thighs white ; the 
quills and tail black ; legs the colour of yellow oker. 

Inhabits Italy, about Bologna, where it is called Ginocchiella. 



34.— RED-LEGGED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa erythropus, Lid. Om. ii. p. 727. Gm. Lin. i. 670. Scop, i. No. 146. 
Der rothbenige Kiebiss, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 154. 
Red-legged Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 163. 

THIS is larger than the first Species. Bill black ; the forehead 
rufous white; upper parts of the body and wings cinereous brown ; 
second quills white ; the first seven prime ones black ; belly soot- 
colour; rump and tail rufous white, the last crossed with a black 
band at the tip; thigns naked for the greater part of their length ; 
legs red. — Inhabits Germany ; probably about Carniola. 



35— CRIMSON-LEGGED SANDPIPER. 

Red-legged Sandpiper, Bewick, ii. pi. p. 113. Om. Diet. Sf Supp. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch and three-eighths long, 
black, towards the base reddish ; crown spotted with dark brown, in 
streaks, edged with pale brown and grey ; between the mouth and 
eye a darkish patch ; chin white ; the brow and cheeks pale brown, 



280 SANDPIPER. 

prettily freckled with small dark spots ; the neck behind mixed pale 
brown, grey, and ash, with a few indistinct dusky spots ; forepart 
and breast white, clouded with dull cinnamon, and irregularly 
marked with black spots, having a purple gloss ; the shoulders and 
scapulars black, edged with pale rust-colour ; tertials nearly as long 
as the quills, with dusky bars ; ridge of the wings brownish ash ; 
wing coverts, back, and rump the same, inclining to olive, the 
feathers deeper dusky brown in the middle ; prime quills deep olive 
brown ; the outer webs of the secondaries lighter, edged, and tipped 
white; the inner mostly white towards the base ; tail coverts glossy 
black, edged with pale rust, and tipped with white, but in some is 
a streak of white from the middle upwards, nearly the whole length ; 
tail lightish brown, but the two middle feathers are barred with 
darker spots; belly and vent white; legs the colour of red sealing- 
wax, claws black. The female is smaller, and the plumage more dingy 
and indistinct. The egg the size of that of the Magpie, greenish 
white, spotted and blotched with brown, of a long shape, pointed 
at the smaller end. 

A pair of these, male and female, were shot in Rippendale Fen, 
in Lincolnshire, in May, 1799 ; said to be a constant inhabitant of 
that part, and the note to be very loud and melodious, being heard 
even when the bird is beyond the reach of sight. This is apparently 
a new species, for although Mr. Bewick has given the synonym of 
Tringa Erythropus, it can scarcely be reconciled to the description 
of that bird. 



36, -BLACK-HEADED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa atra, Lid. Orn. ii. 738. Naturf. xiii. s. 193. — Sanders. 
Black-headed Sandpiper, Gen. Si/n. Sup. ii. 313. 

SIZE uncertain. Head and neck black; back and wings pale 
brown, mixed with black; breast and belly grey ; rump the same, 
undulated with white and black. — Inhabits the Banks of the Rhine. 



SANDPIPER. 



281 



37.— COMMON SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Hypoleucos, Ind. Orn. ii. 734. Lin. i. 250. Fn. Suec. No. 182. Gm. Lin. i. 

G78. Gm. reise, iv. p. 174. Scop. i. No. 143. Brun. No. 174. Mailer, p. 25. 

Sepp, iii. t. p. 291. young bird. Kram. 353. Borowsk. iii. 95. 6. .Fm. He/u. 
Totanus hypoleucos, Tem. Man. 424. id. £rf. ii. p. C57. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 192. 
An Pluvialis Species, Gerin. iv. t. 453. 
Guinetta, J3r«. v. 183. t. 16. f. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 260. 
Tringa minor, Raii, 106. A. 5. Will. 223. t. 55. 
La Guignette, Buf. vii. 540. 
Petite Alouette de Mer, PI. enl. 850. 
Der gemeine Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 168. t. 8. 
Der kleine Sandlaufer, Gunth. Nest. U. Ey. t. 100. lower figure. 
Common Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. p. 178. Br. Zool. ii. No. 204. pi. 71. Id.fol. 125. 

Id. 1812. ii. p. 90. pi. 16. f. 2. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 388. Will. Engl. 301. pi. 55. 

Bewick, ii. pi. p. 104. Lewin, v. pi, 172. Id. pi. xxx. 2. the egg. Walcot, ii. 

pi. 148. Pult. Dors. p. 15. Orn. Diet. 

SIZE of the Purre ; length seven inches and a half; weight two 
ounces. Bill brown ; irides hazel ; plumage on the upper parts very 
glossy ; head brown, streaked with black ; margins of the eyelids, 
all round, dirty white; over the eye a white streak ; neck dull ash- 
colour; back and wings greenish brown, crossed with dusky, narrow 
lines; breast and under parts white ; quills brown ; the first plain, 
on the nine following a white spot on the inner web; tail rounded, 
glossy, greenish brown ; the four middle feathers a little longer than 
the rest ; the ten middle ones greenish grey brown, waved across with 
dusky brown striae ; the two outermost but one white at the ends, 
the exterior white, barred within with brown; legs greenish brown. 

This bird is not uncommon here in the summer, but rarely seen 
late in the autumn : frequents the borders of ponds and rivers, where 
it makes a nest of moss and dry leaves, generally in a hole in a bank ; 
the eggs four or five in number, of a dirty white, marked with dusky 
and cinereous round spots, most at the larger end ;* it has a kind of 
piping note, which it frequently makes, at the same time flirting up 

* The ground colour not unlike that of the Knot. 
VOL. IX. O o 



282 SANDPIPER. 

the tail, which it is continually moving, even when running: they 
are rarely seen except in pairs, but said to breed in great numbers 
on the banks of the lakes in Scotland : it is capable of swimming 
when accident obliges it so to do, and will also dive occasionally, 
especially if shot, and not killed ; uses the stratagem of alternately 
diving and rising again to the surface, like a web-footed bird ; has 
been known also to perch on a dead twig or rail ; called in England 
the Summer Snipe. Is frequently met with in France, coming in 
May, and departing in September: likewise found in the northern 
latitudes of Siberia, as far as Kamtschatka; to the south reaching to 
the Caspian Sea : frequent in the Province of Andalusia, in Spain, 
and one of the most common at Gibraltar, in the autumn and winter, 
on all the shores, feeding on sand shrimps, and other water insects. 
Is an inhabitant of India, as various drawings from thence prove; is 
there called Purra Raguna, in some drawings Douray : is found also 
in America, seen in the Chateaux Bay to the north, but the colour 
of the legs is yellowish, though, in respect to the plumage, much 
the same as in that of Europe ; such an one is in the collection of 
Mr. M'Leay, who received it from Berbice, by the name of Doeria • 
we have also seen a specimen from Cayenne ; in both of these the 
legs were very pale, or straw-colour. 



A. — Size of the Common one. Plumage above fine glossy 
greenish brown, marked on the back and wings with dusky spots, 
bordered below with dusky white, in this differing from the first, 
in which those parts are crossed only with fine dusky lines ; scapu- 
lars as long as the quills, the latter black, and a trifle longer than 
the tail ; all but the two outer feathers of the last plain dusky green, 
the two outer white, crossed with seven or eight dusky bars ; shape 
rounded at the end ; legs pale green. 

Inhabits India, found at Cawnpore, in November; known by 
the name of Sirseea or Sisseea. — General Hardwicke. 



SANDPIPER. 283 

Another, called Tuntunna, was in colour much the same ; but 
the breast had a mixture of dusky, and the feathers of the wings 
with pale margins; tail pale, crossed with six or eight dusky bars 
on each of the feathers; found also at Java, and there called Trinil 
batu, Trinil gung, &c. 



38.— TOBAGO SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, dusky ; 
all the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, dusky greenish ash- 
colour, not unlike the Common Sandpiper ; sides of the head, 
including the eye, and all beneath, pure white; wing coverts marked 
with dusky, curved bars, as in that bird ; quills black, nearly 
equalling the tail in length ; legs pale greenish brown. 

Inhabits Tobago. — In the collection of General Davies. 



39— SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa macularia, lnd. Orn. ii. 734. Lin. i. 249. Gm. Lin. i. 672. 

Totanus macularia, Tern. Man. 423. Id. Ed. 2d. 656. 

Tringa maculata, Spotted Tringa, Bartr. Trav. 292. 

Turdus aquaticus, Bris. v. 255. Id. 8vo. ii. 275. 

La Grive d'Eau, Buf. viii. 140. 

Der gefleckte Kiebiss, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 150. * 

Spotted Tringa, Edw. pi. 277. f. 2. 

Spotted Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 179. Br. Zool. ii. No. 196. Id.fol. 124. Id. 1812. 

ii. p. 79. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 385. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 111. Lewin, v. pi. 173. 

Wale. ii. pi. 149. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. Amer. Orn. vii. 60. pi. 59. f. 1. 

SIZE of a Thrush ; length nearly eight inches. Bill dusky, 

with a reddish base ; over the eye a white streak ; upper parts 

greenish brown ; head marked with small, longish, dusky spots, 

increasing on the neck to the back, where they are much larger ; 

rump plain ; shoulders and wings marked with the same colour, but 

o o2 



284 SANDPIPER. 

the spots are transverse; the under side of the body is white, marked 
with dusky spots; the two middle tail feathers greenish brown, the 
others white, crossed with dusky lines; legs dusky flesh-colour. 

In the female the under parts of the body are not spotted beneath 
as in the male, and the young of both sexes are without spots. 

Inhabits North America, arrives at Hudson's Bay in May, and 
after breeding there, disappears in September ; is known by the 
name of Chechishashish ; is seen also in Pennsylvania. Mr. Abbot 
mentions it as a bird which frequents the ponds and marshy places 
of Georgia, in the summer, but is not common. He observes, that 
it is only six inches in length ; the base of the bill not reddish, but 
yellow ; legs yellow. It has also been met with in England, as that 
which Mr. Edwards describes was shot in Essex.* 



40.— NEW YORK SANDPIPER. 

Tring-a Noveboracensis, Ind, Orn. ii. 735. Gm. Lin. i. 673. 
New York Sandpiper, Gen, Syn. v. 180. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 3S7. 

THE lesser wing coverts in this bird are dusky, edged with 
white ; back dusky, the edges of the feathers cinereous ; secondaries 
the same ; tail coverts barred black and white ; under side of the 
neck and body white ; breast spotted with brown ; sides under the 
wings streaked with the same ; tail cinereous. 

Inhabits North America ; found at New York. 



41 —STREAKED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa virgata, Ind. Orn. ii. 735. Gm. Lin. i. 674. 
Streaked Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. ISO. 

SIZE of the Common Snipe. Bill one inch and a quarter long, 
dusky; head and neck white, with numerous longitudinal, dusky 

* Met with by Col. Montagu, in Devonshire, in the winter 1800. 



SANDPIPER. 285 

streaks ; back dusky, the feathers edged with white ; the scapulars 
dusky, margined and mottled with ferruginous ; lower part of the 
back, wing coverts, and tail dusky ash-colour; quills dusky ; upper 
tail coverts and all beneath white; sides spotted with dusky; legs 
dusky, with a tinge of yellow. — Inhabits Sandwich Sound. 



42.— NEWFOUNDLAND SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Novae Terras, Ind. Orn. ii. 735. Gm. Lin. i. 674. 
Newfoundland Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 181. 

SIZE uncertain. Bill black ; upper parts of the neck and body 
dusky black, the feathers edged with ferruginous ; beneath cinereous 
white ; bastard wing, quills, and tail black ; legs cinereous. 

Inhabits Newfoundland. — Sir Joseph Banks. 



43— BOREAL SANDPIPER. 

Tiinga borealis, Ind. Orn. ii. 735. Gm. Lin. i. 674. 
Boreal Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 181. 

SIZE uncertain. Bill short, stout, a trifle swelling at the point, 
dusky brown, with a black tip ; plumage above cinereous, mottled 
on the sides of the neck with a paler colour, which comes forward 
on the breast ; over the eye a white streak ; chin, under parts of the 
body, and upper tail coverts white ; quills and tail dusky; legs deep 
brown. — Inhabits King George's Sound. 



44.— VARIEGATED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa variegata, Ind. Orn. ii. 735. Gm. Lin. i. 674. 
Variegated Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 181. 

SIZE of the Purre. Bill one inch and a half long, dusky; the 
upper parts of the head, neck, and body variegated with brown, 



286 SANDPIPER. 

black, and rufous; forehead and throat pale; fore part of the neck 
and breast dirty white, longitudinally streaked with black ; across 
the breast a dusky mottled bar ; sides of the body also mottled ; the 
middle of the belly, and thighs white ; tail short, brown, the inner 
coverts white on the inner webs ; legs dusky. 
Inhabits Nootka Sound. 



45— PURRE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Cinclus, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 735. Lin. i. 251. Gm. Lin. i. 680. Georgi, p. 172. 

Borowsk. iii. 96. 8. Fn. Helv. Bris. v. 211. t. 19. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 267. Rati, 

110. A. 13. Id. 190. 11. Gerin. iv. t. 451. Will. p. 226. 
Tringa variabilis, Tern. Man. 395. Id. Ed. ii. 612. Frankl. Narr. App. p. 686. 
L'Alouette de Mer, Buf. vii. 548. PL enl. 851. 
Die Meerlerche, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 173. t. ix, 
Least Snipe, Sloan, Jam. 320. t. 265. 4. Brown, Jam. 477. 
Wagtail, Kolb. Cap. ii. 152 ? 
Sanderling, Albin, ii. pi. 88. 
Purre or Stint, Gen. Syn. v. p. 182. Br. Zool. ii. No. 206. pi. 71. Id. fo I. 126. Id. 

1812. ii. p. 94. pi. 16. f. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 390. Will. Engl. 305. Bewick, ii. 

pi. p. 119, Lewin, v. pi. 174. Id. pi. xxxi. 1. — the egg. WalcoVs Birds, ii. pi. 

150. Donov. Birds, pi. 32. Pult. Dors. p. 15. Ornith. Diet. Amer. Orn. vii. 

39. pi. 57. f. 3. 

LENGTH eight inches or more ; breadth twelve or thirteen ; the 
weight one ounce and three quarters. Bill black ; irides dark ; head 
and hind part of the neck pale ash-colour, streaked with dusky : 
between the bill and eye a white line ; the back, and wing coverts 
brownish ash-colour ; greater coverts dusky, tipped with white ; the 
under parts white, mottled with brown on the fore part of the neck ; 
tail cinereous ; the two middle feathers darkest, the others edged 
with white ; shape at the end, when spread, slightly concave on each 
side, from the outer feather exceeding the adjoining ones in length ; 
the scapulars, or inner secondaries, nearly as long as the quills, the 
shafts of the quills white. 



SANDPIPER. 287 

Whether the female differs from the other sex when adult* is not 
certain ; but we know that they incline more to brown the first year, 
and the feathers have ferruginous edges. We received five such from 
the late Mr. Boys, shot August 10, 1784, which were plainly young 
birds; and these were under eight inches in length ; added to which, 
in three others, sent by the above gentleman in October, the plumage 
was as the first described ; and the bird exceeded eight inches. I 
have had them too, in August, from Romney, and have not a doubt 
of their breeding there. The Purre is found on all our coasts during 
winter, in large flocks, mixed with Sanderlings, no where in greater 
numbers than on the extensive flats of the coasts of Caermarthen- 
shire, but not after April, when the Dunlin is also seen. These are 
collectively called Sanderlings. The Purre is also called Stint, Least 
Snipe, and Ox-bird. It is curious to observe their mode of flight, 
moving in large circles, alternately taking in the water and land ; 
are sometimes shot in great numbers, and thought to be very good 
eating. 

It is common on all the Continent of Europe, and in all the 
latitudes of Russia, and Siberia, probably to the Cape of Good 
Hope, and if we are not mistaken, likewise in India, as we find it 
in drawings from thence. In those of Lord Mountnorris, it is called 
Purrye. Found also in America, at New York, from thence as far 
as Jamaica, and other Islands of the West Indies, as well as at 
Cayenne. 



46.— LESSER PURRE SANDPIPER. 

Cinclus minor, Bris. v. 215. A. Id. 8vo. ii. 268. 

Cinclus tertius Aldrovandi, Rati, 110. 14. Will. 227. §. II. 

The 3d Tringa of Aldrovandus, Will. Engl. 301. 

ACCORDING to Ray, the colour and shape are the same 
as in the Purre, but the tail white, with transverse black lines ; 



288 SANDPIPER. 

it differs in the bill ; for as in the Purre it is of almost an even 
bigness, in this it is thicker, where it is joined to the head, and by 
degrees slenderer to the tip ; the legs are also not the same, as they 
are somewhat longer, and thicker. In size it agrees, and has also 
a common name with it, being called by the fowlers Giaroncello. 

It is described by Mr. White, among his birds of Gibraltar, and 
corresponds except in size, being no more than seven inches and a 
half in length ; head, neck, and back, dark brown olive ; throat 
white ; the front of the neck and breast white, with dark brown 
streaks; belly and sides white ; wing coverts curiously mottled with 
brown ; bastard wing edged with white ; a broad white band across 
the middle of the secondaries, which runs into the quill feathers, 
forming only a spot on their inner webs ; the under wing coverts 
black and white; the two middle tail feathers plain brown, the rest 
tipped with white, and cross-barred with black and white ; the feet 
when extended backward, reach exactly to the tip of the tail. 

This species visits the shores of Gibraltar, and its neighbourhood, 
in small flocks; they fly very swiftly, and yet keep together in a 
compact body, preserving a most exact regularity, and turning 
through all their evolutions by one consent, in the manner of the 
Common Stint, with which they hold a near affinity. 



47.— DUNLIN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Alpina, Lid. Orn. ii. 736. Lin. i. 249. Fn.suec. No. 181. Gm. Lin. i. 676. 

Brim. No. 167 ? 173. Midler, No. 197. Frisch, t. 241. Faun. Groenl. No. 77. 

Fn. Helv. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 534. 
Scolopax pusilla, Gm. Lin. i. 663. 
An Saginalis minor, Gerin. iv. t. 254. 
Tringa variabilis, Tern. Man. 395. Id. Ed. ii. p. 612. 
Cinclus torquatus, Bris. v. 216. 1. 19. f. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 268. 
Gallinago Anglicana, Bris. v. 309. Id. 8vo. ii. 288. 
Le Cincle, Buf. vii. 553. PI. enl. 852. 
La Brunette, Buf. vii. 493. 
Der Alpen Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deutsch.'m. 190. 



SANDPIPER. 289 

Red-backed Sandpiper, Amer. Orn. vii. p. 25. pi. 56. f. 2. 

Dunlin, Gen. Syn. v. 185. Id. Sup. 249. Br. Zool. ii. No. 205. Id.fol. 126. pi. E. 
1. f.2. /</. 1812. ii. p. 92. Raii, 109. A. 12. Will. 226. Id. Engl. 30a. Arct. 
Zool. ii. No. 391. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 117. Lewin, v. pi. 176. /</. xxxi. f. 2. — 
the egg. jLin. Trans, viii. 266. Wale. ii. pi. 151. On». Diet. i§' Supp. 

SIZE of the Jack Snipe; length eight inches or more. Bill 
black, rather swelling out at the end ; the upper parts of the 
plumage ferruginous, marked with large spots of black and a little 
white; wing coverts brownish ash-colour; throat, fore part of the 
neck, and breast, white, streaked with dusky ; belly, thighs, and 
vent, white ; the first more or less marked in the middle with black I 
the two middle tail feathers are brown, marked with rufous ; the 
others very pale brown ; legs black, toes divided to their origin. 

Inhabits the northern parts of England, met with on the York- 
shire coast, and the shores of Flintshire, in May and August ; 
common on the Islands of South Ronaldsha and Sanda, and at Loch 
Strathbeg, near Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire ; breeds with the Lap- 
wing, and Ringed Plover, in Harris, one of the Hebrides; and 
makes the nest of dried tufts of goose rush,* deposited in a slight 
hole in the ground ; the eggs are four, smoaky white, irregularly 
marked with light, and darker brown blotches, more distinct and 
paler at the smaller end : the flesh is esteemed a great delicacy. 

It is also found in Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, the Alps of 
Siberia, and in its migration on the coasts of the Caspian Sea. We have 
also received it from Hudson's Bay, differing very little in external 
appearance, insomuch as to make a separate description unnecessary. 

In the Amer. Orn. it is observed, that in September, many are 
found destitute of the crescent on the belly, and that such are 
probably young birds. Col. Montagu hints the probability of the 
Purre, and Dunlin, being one and the same species, having the 
appearance of the latter for nine months of a year, and with the 
plumage of the Purre in the three dead winter months ; similar to 

* Juncus squarrosus.— Lin. Sp. p. 465. 

VOL. IX. P p 



290 SANDPIPER. 

this was the sentiment of Mr. Boys, and Mr. Temminck is decidedly 
of the same opinion; and certain it is, that none are seen at the time 
of incubation without the black on the belly. To these testimonies 
M. Temminck observes, that the Lesser Purre is no other than a 
young bird : this may be so, but I am scarcely convinced of the 
circumstance, as more than one of my friends are of a different 
opinion. 



48.— RED-NECKED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa ruficollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 736. Gm. Lin. i. 6S0. Pall, reise, iii. 700. 31. 
Red-necked Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 183. 

SIZE of a Purre. Crown and hind part of the neck, striated 
ferruginous and black ; fore part of the neck, as far as the breast, 
striated ferruginous ; the rest not unlike the Purre ; legs black. 

Found with the Alexandrine Plover, about the salt lakes of the 
Province of Dauuria, in the spring ; is gregarious, and often found 
in company with other species. This, too, is probably a Variety of 
the Purre. 



49.— PACIFIC SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill black, somewhat bent at the 
end ; plumage above spotted rufous and black, like the Woodcock ; 
beneath waved with rufous and white ; under tail coverts dotted with 
black ; wings brown ; quills darker brown ; upper tail coverts 
dotted with black ; tail short; the wings reach beyond the end of it. 
Inhabits the western parts of Bass's Strait, New-Holland. — 
General Davies. 



SANDPIPER. 291 



50.— TEMMINCK'S SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Temminckii, Becasseau Temrnia, Tern. Man. 401. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 622. 
— — pusilla, Bechst. Deuts. 2d ed. iv. p. 308. 

LENGTH five inches and a half. Bill shorter than the head, a 
little bent downwards towards the point, and brown; plumage on the 
upper parts of the body light ash-colour, the feathers marked with 
dusky brown down the shafts; neck and breast rufous ash; throat 
and under parts of the body white ; tail a little cuneiform, the four 
middle feathers cinereous brown, the three on each side pure white ; 
leas brown. Male and female much alike. 

The above description is of the bird in full plumage, but it varies 
in its progress thereto, in the manner of most birds of this Genus. 

Inhabits the colder regions ; found at the two seasons of their 
migrating, in different parts of Germany, and most likely also those 
of France ; sometimes seen on the Lake of Geneva ; but not yet met 
with on the coasts of Holland. 



51.— LITTLE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa pusilla, Ind. Orn. ii. 737. Lin. i. 252. Gm. Lin. i. 681. 

Clnclus Dominicensis minor, Bris. v. 222.- t. 25. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 269. 

Tringa minuta, Frankl. Narr. App. p. 686. 

Der kleine Strandlaufer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 178. t. x. Id. Ed. 2d. 623 ? Id. Gem 

Nat. s. 433. 
Tringa minor candicans, in Etruria Gambechio, Gerin. iv. t. 452. 
Little Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v: 184. Br. Zool. ii. No. 207. Id. 1812. ii. p. 95. Gen. 

of Birds, 65. pi. 12. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 357. Lewin, v. pi. 175. Orn. Diet. 

Bewick, ii. pi. p. 122. Amer. Orn. v. p. 32. pi. 37. f. 4. 

SIZE of the Hedge Sparrow ; length six inches and a half; 
breadth thirteen. Bill ten lines long, brown, with a black point, 
the base greenish ; irides grey brown ; the upper parts of the body 

P p2 



292 SANDPIPER. 

ash grey-brown ; the head spotted with rusty yellow ; shoulders and 
wing coverts marked with light ferruginous crescents; above the eye 
a white streak ; the middle upper tail coverts blackish ; the throat is 
whitish ; neck and half the breast reddish ash grey ; belly and vent 
white ; quills blackish, paler within ; the first with a white shaft, 
the second and third with yellowish ends, and the bases white ; 
second quills nearly as long as the prime ones, and sharp at the ends ; 
the greater wing coverts white at the points : the tail consists of 
twelve pointed feathers, cuneiform, the outer white, the next the 
same, but towards the base reddish green ; the four middle ones 
blackish. The female is somewhat larger, and paler above; head 
and neck inclining to ash-grey ; the margins of the back and wing 
feathers yellowish white. The young has the feathers of the upper 
part marked with white crescents, appearing like a young Lark. 

This inhabits Germany ; flies and runs very swiftly, feeding on 
worms and insects; frequents ponds, and shores of rivers; where it 
makes the nest in August; is a very shy bird, and difficult to be 
shot. The flesh is much esteemed. 

This species has been found in England, but very rarely. Mr. 
Pennant mentions one having been shot near Cambridge, in Sep- 
tember ; and we have seen a second in a collection at Chelsea. It is 
said to be met with more plentiful in the northern parts of Europe, 
as far as Iceland apd Greenland. 

It is recorded by Brisson as inhabiting St. Domingo, but with a 
slight difference of plumage, having a rufous tinge beneath, the 
rump a little mottled, and the shafts of the three outer tail feathers 
white : it is no doubt the same with one found in Georgia, having a 
dark brown back, the feathers edged with pale tawny; rump dusky 
brown, the edges paler; upper tail coverts and middle tail feathers 
plain dark brown ; the others fine pale ash-colour. In the female 
the plumage is less bright. It has been met with at Nootka Sound, 
and Capt. Franklin mentions it in his late Arctic Expedition. 



SANDPIPER. 



293 



A. — Size of the former. Bill and legs black ; plumage above 
slightly tinged with rufous; greater wing coverts and second quills 
bordered with paler rufous, the ends white ; greater quills dusky 
black ; all the under parts white. 

Inhabits India, and called Begune. — Sir John Anstruther. A 
similar one in the collection of Gen. Hardwicke, was named Roo- 
junnee : inhabits also Java. 



52 — SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa semipalmata, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Atner. Orn. vii. pi. 63. f. 4. 

LENGTH six inches ; extent of wing twelve. Bill one inch 
long, black, very slightly bent ; crown and body above dusky 
brown, the feathers edged ferruginous, and tipped with white ; tail 
and wings nearly of a length ; sides of the rump white ; rump and 
tail coverts black ; quills dusky black, shafted and banded with 
white, much in the manner of the least Snipe ; over the eye a line 
of white ; lesser coverts tipped with white ; legs blackish ash, the 
latter half webbed. 

In the figure of the bird, the forehead, sides of the head, and all 
beneath, are white. 

This inhabits North America ; is one of the smallest of its race, 
and not to be confounded with the Little Sandpiper; flies in flocks 
with the Purres, and some others. They are numerous along the 
shores of New Jersey, and retire to the south on the approach of 
cold weather. Some of them are smaller, being no more than five 
inches and a half in length. 



294 SANDPIPER. 



53.— BROWN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa fusca, Ind. Orn. ii. 733. 

Brown Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. 250. Br. Zool. ii. 195. Id. 1812. ii. p. 93. Orn. 
Diet. 

SIZE of the Jacksnipe. Bill black ; head, neck behind, and 
back, pale brown, spotted with black ; wing coverts dusky, edged 
with white ; neck before white, streaked with black ; belly white ; 
tail cinereous ; legs black. 

In the collection of the late Mr. Tunstall, bought in the London 
market. We suspect this to be an immature bird of the Little Sand- 
piper; it also imitates the colours of a young Dunlin. 



54.— NORTHERN SANDPIPER. 

RATHER less than the Common Snipe. Bill one inch and a quarter 
long, black, and slender; crown of the head chestnut, streaked with 
dusky black ; neck behind much the same, but paler; feathers of 
the back dusky black, with rufous margins ; wing coverts the same, 
but the margins paler ; quills dusky, the shaft of the first white ; 
second quills shorter than the prime ones, and like the back ; rump 
dusky; chin and belly buff white; fore part and sides of the neck 
the same, inclining to rufous, streaked with dusky ; over the eye, 
from the nostrils, a pale streak ; the two middle tail feathers like 
the back, and longer than the others, which are ash-colour, with 
pale margins ; legs brown, one inch and a half long, and bare above 
the knee for about half an inch. 

Inhabits North America ; brought from Quebec by Gen. Davies. 



SANDPIPER. 295 



55— FASCIATED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa fasciata, Ind. Orn. ii. 738. Gm. Lin. i. 671. F. G. GmeL It. ii. 194. t. 26. 
Fasciated Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 312. 

THIS species has the bill, crown, hindhead, and belly, black ; 
through the eye a streak of the same ; back ash-colour ; the first 
seven quills black; forehead and tail white, the last rounded at the 
end. — Inhabits Astrachan. 



56— SIBERIAN SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Keptuschca, Ind. Orn. ii. 738. Gm. Lin. i. 673. Lep. It. ii. 229. 
Siberian Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 312. 

THIS has the body cinereous; crown of the head black ; belly 
dusky; the last growing rufous towards the bottom. 
Inhabits the marshes of Siberia. 



57.— EASTERN SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill one inch and a half, straight, 
dusky, with a pale base ; crown of the head dusky ash, spotted with 
white ; neck cinereous white, streaked with dusky ; breast, belly, 
thighs, and vent, white ; back, wings, and tail, dusky ash, marked 
with numerous spots of white ; the quills reach to the middle of the 
tail ; legs ash-colour. 

Inhabits India, called Purry Tunnonah. — Sir J. Anstruther. 

Among the drawings of this gentleman, I find others with the 
name of Purry ; and as they are all of the Sandpiper Genus, I 
cannot but assimilate our name of Purre, given to the Stint, as being 
derived both from the same source. 



296 SANDPIPER. 

58.— WHITE-WINGED SANDPIPER.— Pl. cliii. 

Tringa leucoptera, Lid. Orn.W. 731. Gin. Lin. i. 678. 
White-winged. Sandpiper, Gen.Syn.\. 172. pi. 82. 

LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill cinereous ; irides brown ; 
head, to below the eyes, hind part of the neck, and back, brownish 
black ; from the nostrils a dusky white streak, growing broader, 
passing over the eyes, and finishing behind them; chin, throat, rump, 
and breast, ferruginous ; with a dusky tinge on the last ; belly and 
vent paler, or yellowish ; lesser wing coverts white, the rest dusky 
black, edged with ferruginous ; quills black; tail rounded; the four 
middle feathers dusky black, the others barred rufous and black; 
legs greenish ; the quills reach nearly to the end of the tail. 

Inhabits Otaheite ; found near the rivers, and called Torowe : 
met with also at Eimeo, or York Isle, and there called Tete : from 
the drawings of Sir Jos. Banks, with a specimen of the bird. 

A. — In this Variety, the streak over the eye is very pale, nearly 
white ; the lesser wing coverts dusky black ; with an oblique, pale 
streak, passing over them ; the plumage otherwise answering to the 
former. 

B. — A second Variety had the crown of the head dusky, the 
streak over the eye ferruginous, with a tinge of the same throughout 
the plumage ; bill and legs yellowish. 

59.— ACUMINATED SANDPIPER. 

Totanus acuminatus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 192.— Horsfield. 

SIZE uncertain. Plumage brown ; the feathers of the back 
margined with ferruginous, and the wing coverts with grey, beneath 
whitish, inclining to yellow on the breast; tail feathers accuminated. 
Inhabits Java, called there Trinil gung. 



PL CT.TTT 




// ///ft- -//vr/aed *_ va ndfaAer. " 



SANDPIPER. 297 

60.- SLENDER-BILLED SANDPIPER. 

Totanus tenuirostris, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 192. 

SIZE uncertain. Bill slender; plumage above brown, varied 
with ash-colour; quills brown; beneath whitish; chin and breast 
spotted with brown. 

Inhabits Java, by the name of Keeyo. 

61.— JAVAN SANDPIPER. 

Totanus Javanicus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 193. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill whitish at the base ; plumage above 
grey brown ; scapulars and quills deeper in colour ; beneath white ; 
under wing coverts white to beyond the middle, and obliquely trun- 
cated ; legs rather short ; tail feathers all of one colour. 

Inhabits Java, known there by the name of Bedaran or Choweyan. 

62 —ASIATIC SANDPIPER. 

Totanus Damacensis, Lin. Trans, xiii. 192. 

LENGTH six inches and a half. Plumage above pale cinereous 
brown, beneath white ; quills brown, the shafts of the prime ones 
white, of the others brownish. — Inhabits Java. 

63— CEYLON SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill slender, one inch and a quarter, 
upper mandible bent at the tip, colour dusky ; tongue half the 
length of the bill ; plumage in general cinereous brown ; crown, 

VOL. IX. Q Q 



298 SANDPIPER. 

and nape nearly plain, the feathers slightly edged with white; over 
the eye a whitish trace ; back and inner wing coverts spotted with 
white; lesser wing coverts and quills plain brown; the outer one 
longest, and the shaft white ; inner scapulars as long as the quills; 
rump white ; tail short, barred brown and white ; wings and tail 
even ; chin white ; throat and breast mottled, or barred dusky and 
dirty white ; belly and vent white ; under wing coverts mixed pale 
ash brown and white ; legs pale brown. 

Inhabits Ceylon. In the collection of Mr. Comyns. 



64. -BLACK-SIDED SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a quarter, black, 
and a trifling swelling at the point; irides dark ; crown black ; the 
forehead white, passing as a band over the eyes, and surrounding 
the hindhead as a wreath ; between the bill and eye white, dotted 
with black, changing just before the eye to black, and passing 
through it, ends in a tine line behind ; the rest of the head and neck 
pale ash-colour, inclining on the ears to rufous; the back and wings 
deeper, tinged with brown on the wing coverts ; sides of the belly 
covered with black feathers ; the rest of the under parts white ; tail 
white, even at the end, with a bar of black, three quarters of an inch 
wide, very near the tip ; wings and tail equal in length ; legs two 
inches long ; the hind toe small, placed too high up to be of use in 
walking. The female has the crown less dark, the wreath over the 
eye more narrow, and the white less pure; the streak through the 
eye dusky, and less conspicuous ; the parts between the bill and eye, 
and the chin plain white ; breast marbled with reddish brown ; the 
rest as in the other sex. — Inhabits India ; found at Cawnpore in 
January. — General Hardwicke. 



SANDPIPER. 299 



65.— CRESCENT SANDPIPER, 

SIZE small. Bill deep blue black; plumage above ash-colour, 
with marks of black, in the shape of crescents ; beneath paler, as 
far as the throat, and plain ; belly, thighs, and vent white ; second 
quills dusky brown; greater black; tail dusky black; some of the 
outer feathers white, shape rounded ; legs dusky black. 

From the drawings in possession of Mr. Dent, but without any 
history annexed. The bill has the upper mandible curved at the 
point; and the roof of the mouth beset with recurved spinous 
appendages, as in the Grey Sandpiper, but does not seem to belong 
to that Species. 



66,— WHITE-TAILED SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch and a half, green ; irides 
pale green ; the plumage in general above olive brown, inclining to 
ash-colour, marked on the back, inner parts of the wing coverts, and 
outer edges of the second quills with small white spots; the rest of 
the wing coverts, and quills plain, and darker; forehead, sides of the 
head, chin, and neck before whitish, with numerous fine dusky 
streaks; breast ash-colour ; belly, thighs, upper tail coverts, and tail, 
white ; quills as long as the tail ; legs green. 

Inhabits India. — General Hardwicke. 



67.— PEREGRINE SANDPIPER. 

LENGTH nearly eight inches. Bill, to the gape, one inch and 

a quarter, dusky ; all above brownish ash-colour, mottled in bars 

with darker; beneath white, with a cinereous tinge on the chin and 

neck before ; the wing black, down the middle of it a slender white 

Qq 2 



300 SANDPIPER. 

streak, springing from the shoulder; quills black; tail as the back, 
crossed with obscure darker bars, four or five in number ; the outer 
feathers paler than the two middle; the second quills are also marked 
on each side the shaft with a darker colour; legs stout, black ; hind 
toe large. — Inhabits India; from the drawings of Lord Mountnorris; 
named Habee. 



68.— CAYENNE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Cayanensis, Ind. Om. ii. 727. Gm. Lin. i. 706.— Parra. 

Vanneau arme de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 66. PL enl. 836. Ferm. Surin. ii. 193. 

Le Terutero, on Teteu, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 3S7. 

Cayenne Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 164. 

LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill red, three quarters of 
an inch long, with a black tip ; forehead and throat black ; middle 
of the crown ash-colour; hindhead brown, from it spring five or 
six blackish, long feathers, forming a dependant crest as in the 
Lapwing ; neck dusky white ; on the breast a broad black band ; 
belly and vent white; back greenish purple; outer edge of the wing 
for some way white ; near the bend a sharp short spur ; base half of 
the tail white; the rest black, the tip fringed with white; legs 
reddish. — This bird is met with in the marshy savannahs about 
Cayenne and Brazil, and lives on insects. 

The one mentioned by Azara. measured thirteen inches, but this 
may be accounted for, as young ones have been met with, the length 
of which was only six inches and a half. In Azara's bird was a 
black streak on the fore part of the neck, which communicates with 
that on the breast ; in other things not materially different from the 
first description. He adds, that a young one, six inches and a half 
long, had only the rudiment of a crest ; the neck whitish brown 
mixed. It is called at Buenos Ayres, Terutero; in Brazil Quer quer; 
at Paraguay Teteu, from the cry ; said to be common in both places; 
generally seen in pairs, rarely in flocks; feeds chiefly on worms, 



SANDPIPER. 301 

grasshoppers, &c. lays from two to four light olive eggs, marbled 
with black, and deposited on the ground, on a bed of grass, some- 
times on the bare earth : is furious in defence of its progeny ; but 
if taken young, may be brought up, and is often kept tame, living 
in the house, or with the other poultry. The flesh is in repute, being- 
very savoury. 

69 .— LOUISIANE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Ludoviciana, Lid. Orn. ii. 727. Gm. Lin. i. 706. 

Vanellus Ludovicianus armatus, Bris. v. 114. t. 8. f. 2. Id. 8vo.ii. 241. Gerin. iv. 480. 

Vanneau arme de la Louisiane, Buf. viii. 65. PL enl. 835. 

Armed Sandpiper, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 395. 

Louisiane Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 164. 

SIZE of the Lapwing ; length eleven inches ; breadth two feet. 
Bill orange, depressed in the middle ; at the base a naked skin, of 
the same colour, rising on the forehead, taking in the eyes, and 
hanging on each side like a wattle ; crown black ; the rest of the 
upper parts grey brown ; the under yellowish white ; at the bend of 
the wing a sharp spur; quills black, more or less mixed with grey; 
tail yellowish white, tipped with black; legs red, claws black. 

Inhabits Louisiana. 

A. — Parra Dominicana, Lin. i. 259. Gm. Lin. i. 705. 

Vanellus Dominicus armatus, Bris. v. 118. Id. 8vo. ii. 241. Gen. Syn. v. 165. 6. 
Var. A. 

In this the bill and naked skin at the base are yellow ; the head 
and upper parts pale yellow ; the under yellowish white, inclining 
to rose-colour on the inner webs ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits the warmer parts of America, and St. Domingo. These, 
or the last, may probably be the beautiful Lapwings, called at Rio 
Janeiro, Disperteros, or Awakeners, on account of the noise they 
make if disturbed in the night. A flock of them in any plantation 
answers the purpose of an alarm bell against thieves.* 

* Maxim. Trav. 



302 SANDPIPER. 



70.— SENEGAL SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Senegalla, Ind. Orn. ii. 728. 

Parra Senegalla, Lin. i. 259. Gm. Lin. i. 706. 

Vanellus Senegalensis armatus, Bris. v. t. 10. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 240. 

Vanneau arme du Senegal, Buf. viii. 62. PL enl. 362. 

Senegal Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 166. Adans. Seneg. 78. — Uett. 

SIZE of a Lapwing ; length fourteen inches ; to the end of the 
toes sixteen. Bill one inch and a half, yellowish, with a dusky 
point ; at the base, on each side of the forehead, a yellowish skin, 
pointed below, and rounded above, where it is red, or deep orange ; 
the depth is three quarters of an inch, width one quarter, reaching 
to the eye, but not surrounding it ; top of the head dusky ; forehead 
and crown to the middle white ; chin and throat black ; on the 
sides of the neck before streaked brown and white ; head and 
upper part of the neck, body, and lesser wing coverts greyish brown ; 
beneath the same, but paler ; lower belly, under wing, and tail 
coverts, white; greater quills black; outer series of coverts white, 
forming an oblique streak on the wing, at the bend of which is a 
black spur ; tail four inches long, about two inches from the base 
white, then black for two inches, and finally white at the tip ; the 
wings exceed the tail in length ; legs seven inches long, greenish 
black,* bare part above the knee one inch and three quarters, shins 
three inches, middle toe one inch and a quarter, hind toe very minute. 

Inhabits Senegal, and there called Uett Uett, by the French 
Squaller, for on seeing any one it sets up a loud scream, on which 
other birds partake of the alarm, and fly otF; commonly seen in pairs. 
Mr. Salt met with it in Abyssinia, by the stream of the Seremai, in 
the Vale of Logo. Its habits like those of the Common Lapwing; 
seen also in Egypt. 

* In the PI. enlwm. the legs are yellow. 



SANDPIPER. 303 



A. — Size the same as the last. Orbits yellow; irides red ; head 
and neck dove-colour ; back and wings sooty brown ; second quills 
white, forming a band across the wing; quills black, two or three 
of the inner ones have some white on the inner margins ; belly, 
rump, beneath the wing, and vent, white ; tail white, with a black 
band across each feather, but the outer one has only a spot on the 
inner web ; at the bend of the wing a knob, or spur, as in the last ; 
as also the carunculated kind of wattle on each side of the bill at 
the base. 

Inhabits India : called at Hindustan, Chuppoun. 



71.— BILOBATE SANDPIPER. 

Charadrius bilobus, Ind. Orn. ii. 750. Gm. Lin. i. 691. 
Vanellus tricolor, Lin. Trans, viii. 186. 
Pluvier a lambeaux, Buf. viii. 102. PI. enl. 880. 
Wattled Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 216. 

LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill yellow, tip dusky ; 
tongue pointed ; on the forehead a naked yellow skin, covering the 
base of the bill, not reaching the eyes, but hanging on each side in 
a pointed wattle; crown of the head, above the eyes, black; through 
the eye, under the black, a streak of white ; neck and body above 
yellowish grey, deeper on the back ; beneath from the breast white ; 
across the wing coverts an oblique band of white ; quills black ; two 
middle tail feathers like the back, the rest white, with a broad bar 
of black near the end of all, and the tips are white ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits the Coast of Malabar, and approaches near to the 
Senegal Sandpiper, for the chief difference is that of wanting the 
hind toe, and the crown not being black ; but this is not singular, 
as individuals of the Grey Plover, differ in the circumstance of the 



304 SANDPIPER. 

back toe ; which is sometimes deficient.* We have seen the Wattled 
Sandpiper in drawings from India; in some the bill is wholly black; 
tail white, except a black bar near the end. It was called Jurpul- 
lak, or Zerd Pullak ; and one, a trifling Variety, was named Cherd 
Pulluk Teheri. This, or a slight Variety, is found in Java, but 
larger, and called Terek. 

72.— GOA SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Goensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 727. Gm. Lin. i. 706. 
Vanneau arme des Indes, Buf. viii. 64. PI. enl. 807. 
Goa Sandpiper, Gen. Syn. v. 165. 

LENGTH thirteen inches. Bill dusky; head and neck black ; 
before the eye, and round it, carunculated and red ; from the back 
part of the eye a stripe of white, passing down on each side of the 
neck, and communicating with the breast, which, as well as the 
rest of the under parts, is white ; the back, and wing coverts rufous 
brown, the greater white ; quills black ; on the fore part of the wing, 
near the joint, a short, sharp spur; the base of the tail, for one-third, 
is white, the middle black, and the end brown ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits India, found in various parts of the Coromandel Coast, 
and said to be very frequent about Goa ; is known by the name of 
Teteri or Turthury, and in some drawings Loll Teteri ; and again in 
the Province of Oude, Tithary; but these, perhaps, are written 
differently, according to the idea each person forms of the pronun- 
ciation of the words by the natives. 

The egg is one inch and three quarters long, marked much like that 
of the Wattled Plover, dusky white, with numerous, darker marks; 
some of them much larger than in the egg of the last named. This 
seems greatly allied to, and might be placed among the Plovers. 
Some specimens having only a hind claw, without a toe. 

* We have seen the Golden Plover, with a complete back toe, though in general without 
even the rudiment of it. 



SANDPIPER. 



305 



In some drawings in the collection of Gen. Hardwicke I observe 
one of these birds, with a deep red bill, one inch and a half long, 
and the tip black ; irides red ; plumage much as in the above de- 
scription, but the white line, which runs down in the middle of the 
black on each side of the neck, passes round the lower part of it ; 
the hind claw very small, and so placed as to be useless in walking. 

In another drawing, the black reaches as far as the thighs ; the 
wing coverts are not white ; only a white streak parallel to the wing ; 
ends of the tail feathers not brown, but white ; and in one the belly, 
thighs, and vent, were all black. 



73— WATTLED SANDPIPER. 

Tringa lobata, Ind. Orn. Supp. p. lxv. 
Wattled Sandpiper, Gen. Syn, Sup. ii. 313. 

LENGTH nineteen inches. Bill pale ; irides yellow ; crown 
and nape black ; sides of the head, and round the eye, covered with 
a carunculated, yellow membrane, hanging down on each side in a 
pointed wattle; neck and all beneath white; sides of the breast, next 
the wings, black ; back and wings olive-brown, with a tinge of rust- 
colour ; quills and end of the tail black, the extreme tip of the latter 
white; at the bend of the wing a stout, curved, yellow spur; the 
bare part of the legs above the knee, and a small space below it, 
rose-coloured ; the rest black, with rose-coloured segments. 

Inhabits New South Wales, sometimes met with on the flats, 
going to Paramatta, but is not common. It seems to be a link 
between the Louisiane, and Senegal Species, but is clearly distinct 
from either. Native name Kalloo nagh. 

VOL. IX. R R 



306 SANDPIPER. 



74.— TURNSTONE SANDPIPER. 

Tringa Interpres, hid. Orris, ii. 738. Lin. i. 248. Faun. suec. No. 178. Gm. Lin. i. 

671. Brun. No. 175. Muller, No. 193. Faun. Helv. 
Strepsilas collaris, Tern. Man. 349. Id. Ed. ii. 553. Franhl. Narr. App. p. 684. 
Arenaria, Bris. v. 132. Id. 8vo. ii. 246. Klein, Av. 21. 
Morinellus marinus, Rail, 112. A. 5. Will. 231. t. 58. 
Morinella Americana, Dottrel, Bartr. Trav. 292. 
Le Toumepierre, Buf. viii. 130. pi. 10. 

Der Steindreher, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 146. Act. Soc. Hall. i. 111. 
Coulon-chaud, PL enl. 856. 
Hebridal Sandpiper, Br. Zool. ii. No. 100. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. p. 84. A: Flor. Scot. 

No. 152. pi. 3. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 382. 
Turnstone, or Sea Dotterel, Gen. Sj/n.v. 188. Id. Sup. 249. Br. Zool, 1812. ii. p. 83. 

Ediv. pi. 141. Will. Engl. 311. Bewick, i. pi. p. 124. Zewin, v. : pi. 179. #Vc. 

ii. 1. 153. Pult. Dors. p. 15. Orn. Diet. Amer. Orn.vu, 32. pi. 57. f. 1. 

SIZE of a Thrush ; length nine inches : breadth nineteen ; the 
weight from three to four ounces. Bill one inch, black, turning a 
little upwards; irides hazel; the forehead, throat, and belly white; 
the breast black ; round the neck a collar of black ; from thence a 
second bounds the sides of the neck, and passes over the forehead ; 
head, and lower part of the neck behind white, the first streaked 
with dusky lines; back ferruginous, mixed with black; tail coverts 
white, crossed with a black bar ; tail black, tipped with white ; the 
wing coverts cinereous brown, the lower series edged with white ; 
quills black, the ends of the secondaries white ; tertials ferruginous 
and black ; legs rather short, dull orange. 

Both sexes are said to be nearly alike, when in full plumage, but 
in the progress towards the adult state are found to vary considerably. 
In Mr. Edwards's bird, the lower part of the back^ and rump are 
white . Willughby does not mention any white on the forehead or 
chin ; the middle of the back said to be white ; yet in other things 
does not much vary. 



SANDPIPER. 307 

The Turnstone appears in flocks on the western shores of 
England, about Penzance and Cornwall, and Aberdaren, in Meri- 
onethshire, three or four in company ; also on the shores of Norfolk, 
and in Shropshire. I have received several from the coast of Kent, 
but do not find them to be constant visitors; Mr. Boys sent three 
specimens on the 6th of September, 1792, these were males; and a 
female some time before, weighing three ounces and a drachm. One 
received from Sandwich, a male, in May, was nine inches long, 
nineteen broad, and weighed only two ounces seven drachms ; from 
this we might suspect, that they sometimes breed thereabouts. Are 
common in some parts of the Continent of Europe, and are said to 
lay three or four eggs, about the size of those of the Dove, pointed 
at the end, of an ash-grey greenish colour, marked with various 
sized spots of dull brown. The young birds are white beneath, above 
ash grey, striped with blackish, and are hatched the middle of July. 
This species inhabits also America ; appears at Hudson's Bay, in 
May, and departs in September ; the nest on the dry ground ; the 
eggs four, olive-coloured, spotted with black, and are hatched early ; 
the young seen running about the middle of July : called Gega 
wash ue. I received also a male from Mr. Hutchins, by the name 
of Mishee quasha ropa shish. 



H.— Tringa Morinella, Ind. Orn. ii. 739. 45, /3. Lin. i. 249. Gm. Lin. i. 571. 4. (3. 

Fn. Helv. Sepp, iii. t. p. 291. Tern. Man. 351. . 
Arenaria cinerea, Bris. v. 137. t. 11. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 247. 
DieMorinelle, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 149. 
Turnstone, Gen. Syn. v. 190. 37. A. Br. Zool. ii. No. 199. Id.fol. 125. pi. E. 2. 

f. 2. Gates. Gar. i. pi. 72. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 127. 

Tn this, the plumage on the upper parts is greyish brown ; 

edges of the scapulars pale, and two of them white ; forehead, chin, 

and throat, white ; neck and breast before deep brown, varied with 

white on the sides; lower part of the back, rump, belly, thighs, and 

R e 2 



308 SANDPIPER. 

under the tail, white; upper tail coverts part brown, part white; 
quills brown, with white shafts, some of them edged with white, the 
base of all from the fourth white, increasing to the nineteenth, which, 
with the rest, is wholly white; tail half way from the base white, 
the two middle feathers from the middle to the end brown, with 
white tips; the four on each side the same, but the brown less as the 
feathers are more outward, the exterior one wholly white, except a 
brown spot on the inner web ; legs red. 

This is clearly a Variety of the former, and I have observed 
several which have differed considerably from each other. 



B. — Coulon-chaud de Cayenne, PI. enl. 340. Ind. Orn. ii. 739. y. Gen. Syn. v. 190. B. 

Bill as in the others, colour dull yellow, with a black tip; 
plumage above mottled brown and white ; the brown patches largest 
on the back ; the under parts from the breast, lower part of the 
back, and rump, white ; chin and throat white ; on the wings a 
mixture of white ; quills dusky ; tail brown, some of the outer 
feathers white; legs red. — Inhabits Cayenne. 



C. —Coulon-chaud gris de Cayenne, PL enl. 857. Ind. Orn. ii. 739. Gen. Syn. v. 
191. C. 

Bill black ; plumage on the upper parts not unlike the last; 
forehead, chin, and throat, and under part from the breast, white; 
under the eye a dusky streak ; rump white ; quills and tail brown ; 
the latter tipped with white : the wings in PI. enluvn. seem to exceed 
the tail in length, and there is no mixture of white on the coverts ; 
on the lower part of the neck some mottlings of brown ; legs dusky, 
or pale red brown. 

Both the last described from the PI. enlum. and both inhabit 
Cayenne ; whether the base of the tail or the quills are white, can- 
not be ascertained from the drawing. 



SANDPIPER. 30.9 

The Turnstone arrives from the south on the shores of New 
Jersey, in April, and leaves them early in June ; is also seen on its 
return in October, to the south ; is rather a scarce bird, and seldom 
mingles among the large flocks of other Sandpipers, on the Coast 
of Cape May, and Egg Harbour; known by the name of Horse- 
foot Snipe; living during May and June almost wholly on the eggs, 
or spawn of the great king crab,* called there the Horse-foot, which 
breeds there in quantities innumerable ; insomuch, that at some 
periods their dead bodies cover the shore in such heaps, that for ten 
miles one might walk upon them, without touching the ground ; 
and they are taken away in waggons for manure. 

M. Temminck forms a Genus of this, in which the Turnstone is 
the only species. This he names Strepsilas, or Tournpierre. 

75— INDIAN TURNSTONE. 

LENGTH eight inches and a half. Bill one inch, black, from 
the nostrils to the eye, all round the chin, and throat, full black, 
from thence to the lower part of the breast dusky ; sides of the head, 
round the eyes, dusky white, passing on each side round the black 
throat as a crescent, the point dividing the black from the dusky ; 
the white continues a little way down on the side of the neck, when 
it again comes forward on each side obliquely, and divides the dusky 
part, but does not meet before ; the back part of the neck, back, and 
middle of the wing coverts, dusky ; the inner ridge of the wing, all 
the outer coverts, and second quills, ferruginous ; greater quills 
black ; the lowest part of the back and rump, as well as all the under 
parts from the breast, are dusky white ; tail rounded, or slightly 
cuneiform, of a plain ash-colour, the coverts reaching to about the 
middle; the quills extend almost to the end of the tail; legs red. 

Inhabits India, under the name of Tokiater ; is very much allied 
to the Turnstone of Europe. 

* Monoculus Polyphemus of Entomologists. 



310 SANDPIPER. 



76.— MARBLED TURNSTONE. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, dusky ; 
general colour of the plumage rufous and brown mixed, inclining to 
black oil the breast; beginning on each side of the neck, and forming 
a kind of collar ; lower order of wing coverts dusky white, forming 
an oblique bar on the wing ; beneath from the breast, also the rump, 
white ; quills dusky ; tail the same, ends of the feathers buff-colour; 
legs red; wings and tail even in length. 

Inhabits India. — Gen. Hardwicke. Called Battaan ; found at 
Cawnpore, in October. 



PLOVER. 



311 



GENUS LXXXII — PLOVER. 



1 Golden Plover 
A Var. 

B Var. 

2 Alvvargrim 

3 Noisy 
A Var. 

4 Collared 

5 Long-legged 
A Var. 

6 High-legged 

7 Sanderling 
A Var. 

8 Ruddy 

9 Spotted 

10 Chestnut-breasted 

11 Guronian 

12 Ring 
A Var. 
B Var. 

13 Kentish 



A Var. 

14 Wilson's 

15 Black-throated 
10 Alexandrine 

17 Egyptian 

18 Luzonian 

19 New-Holland 

20 Rusty-crowned 

21 Courland 

22 Gregarious 

23 Dotterel 
A Var. 
B Var. 

24 Mongolian 

25 Asiatic 

20 New-Zealand 

27 Dusky 

28 Fulvous 
A Var. 



29 White-bellied 

30 Red-necked 

31 Great-billed 

32 Brown 

33 Grisled 

34 Bridled 

35 Indian 

36 Ticksee 

37 Wreathed 
A Var. 

38 Black-headed 
A Var. 

39 Black-crowned 

40 Green-headed 

41 Spur-winged 
A Var. 

42 Cayenne 

43 Hooded 

44 Dwarf 



JoILL straight, for the most part not longer than the head. 
Nostrils linear. 
Toes three in number, all placed forwards.* 

1— GOLDEN PLOVER. 

Charadrius Pluvialis, Ind. Orn. ii. 740. Lin. i. 254. Fn, suec. No. 190. Gm. Lin. i. 

p. 688. Brun. No. 187. Kramer, 354. 1, Frisch, t. 217. Bris. v. 43. t. 4. f. 1. 

ja.8vo.ri. 222. Fn. arag. p. 78. Boroivsk. iii. 111. 4. Fn.Helv. Sepp,t.l2S. 

129. Tem.MaiuSZo. Id. Ed. ii. p. 535. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 187. 328. Parry's 

Appendix, p. cxcix. 
Gavia viridis, Klein, 19. 2. Id. Stem. iii. t. 3. f. 1. a— c. 



* This is not strictly the case in every instance, for a few individuals are furnished with 
a spur, in the place of a back toe. 



312 PLOVER. 

Pluvialis viridis, Raii, II. A. 2. Id. 190. 9. Will. 229. t. 57. 

Pluvialis aurea minor, Bris. v. 47. 2. JTd. 8vo. ii. 223. Gerin. iv. t. 573 ? 

Le Pluvier dore, Buf. viii. 81. PL enl. 904. Hist. Prov. i. 353. 

Kleiner Braach Vogel, Wirsing, t. 34. 

Der Goldregen Pfeifer, Bechst. Beutsch. iii. p. 206. Naturf. xiii. s. 218. No. 129. 

Schmid, p. 108. t. 94. 
Piviere, Cett. Vc Sard. 257. 
Golden or Green Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 193. Id. Sup. 252. Br. Zool. ii. No. 208. pi. 

72. Id.fol.V2S. Id. 1812. ii. p. 98. pi. 17. f. 2. Fl. Scot. i. No. 156. Russ. 

Alepp. p. 71. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 399. Will. Engl. 308. pi. 57. Sloan. Jam. 318. 

t. 269. 1. Alb. i. pi. 75. Bewick, i. pi. p. 329. Lewin,\. pi. 181. /d. pi. xxxiii. 

1. — the egg. Walcot, ii. pi. 158. Donov. ii. pi. 45. Rural Sports, ii. t. p. 456. 

P«/<. Dors. p. 16. O™. Zh'c/. (5f Supp. Amer. Ornith. vii. 71. pi. 59. FrankL 

Narr. App. p. 683. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch, dusky ; irides hazel; head 
large; plumage dusky, spotted with greenish yellow; sides of the 
head, neck, and sides of the body paler ; round the eye, the chin, 
and middle of the belly dusky white; greater quills dusky; the tail 
barred dusky and yellow; legs black.* 

The male and female are much alike. In young birds the spots 
are not of a full yellow, but incline to grey. 

In some birds the belly is black and white, in others wholly 
black ; this happens only in the adult, and in the breeding season. 
In the beginning of March the belly appears mottled with black, 
and continues to increase till May, when that part is fully so, and 
this in both sexes ; after the time of breeding it again disappears. 

This species inhabits England the whole year, and breeds on 
several of our unfrequented mountains; very common on those of 
the Isle of Man, and the loftier Hebrides ;t also on the Grampian, 
and all the heathy hills of the Islands, and Highlands of Scotland :£ 
the eggs are generally four, of a dull greenish white, marked with 
various sized dusky purple spots, and about the size of those of the 
Lapwing, but more pointed ; the young run after the parents as soon 

* I have seen two specimens, with a claw in the place of a back toe. 
t Br. Zoo). * Flor. Scot.i. 35. 



PLOVER. 313 

as hatched, and are fed with worms, which, indeed, appear to be the 
principal nourishment at all times, with the addition of snails and 
insects, though both gravel and seed have been found in the stomach; 
it has a shrill whistling note, not much unlike that of the Thick- 
kneed Bustard,* sometimes that of the Curlew, and may be enticed 
within gunshot by imitating their voice. 

These birds are often met with in Sweden, Denmark, Lapland, 
Iceland, and other northern parts ; also Germany, France, Italy, and 
Spain ; in the latter called Chorlito Cabacone, from the size of the 
head : are very common in the markets of Andalusia and Gibraltar, 
and much esteemed for food ; are found in Barbary, and other parts 
of Africa ; also at Aleppo :f from thence we may trace them both to 
India J and China ; found in Sumatra, and called Cheruting; have 
also been met with at Batavia,§ Owhyhee,|| and York Island, in the 
South Seas, though of a smaller size.^f 

Is not uncommon in America, on the Coast of Labrador, and at 
Hudson's Bay, where it is called Wupusha pethayish, from thence 
we may trace it to New York, as low as Carolina, shifting from one 
to the other according to the season ; is found also in Georgia. 

A. — Pluvialis Dominicensis aurea, Bris. v. 48. t. 6. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 224. Ind. Orn. ii. 

740. Gen. Syn. v. 194. 1. A. 
Le Mbatuitui a poitrine rayee, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 389. 

Size of the former. The base of the bill and the throat rufous 
white ; back as in the other ; upper tail coverts brown, barred with 
pale yellow : fore part of the neck and breast pale grey, the feathers 
edged with pale yellow; belly, thighs, and sides, white; quills 
brown, with white shafts ; tail brown, the feathers spotted on the 
margins with yellowish white ; legs grey. — Inhabits St. Domingo. 

* Called, in some parts, the Whistling Plover. — Nat. Calend. p. 52. 
f Russ. Alep. J At Cawnpore. § Hawksworth's Voyage, iii. 782. 

|| Ellis's Narr. ii. 95. Also at Tongataboo.— Coo&'s last Voyage. 
^f A drawing of one 11 inches long, from New South Wales ; legs blue.— Francil/on. 
tol. ix. S s 



314 PLOVER. 

In the collection of Gen. Davies was one, from Cayenne, nearly 
twelve inches in length. According to M. Azara, it appears in 
Paraguay in summer, but not very common. 

Inhabits also Java, under the name of Trule. We have also 
seen one, scarcely differing from the common, brought from New- 
Holland. 

B. — LeMbatuitui a poitrine marbree, Voy. d s 'Azara, iv. No. 390. 

This by the name seems to differ in having the breast marbled, 
and is no doubt a further Variety. 



2.— ALWARGRIM PLOVER. 

Charadrius apricarius, Ind. Orn. ii. 742. Lin. i. 254. Fn. suec. No. 189. Gm. Lin. 

i. 687. It. Oeland. 72. Brun. No. 186. Muller, No. 212. Fn. Groenl. No 79. 

Georgi, p. 172. Borowsk. iii. 109. t. 58. Fn. Helv. Spalows. iii. t. 30. Tern. 

Man. p. 326. Id. Ed. u. 536. 
Pluvialis aurea f re t i Hudsonis, Bris. v. 51. 4. Id. 8vo. ii. 224. 
Charadrius maculatus, Great field spotted Plover, Bart)-. Trav. 294. 
Le Pluvier dore a gorge noire, Buf. viii. 85. 
Der Haidenpfeifer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 203. 
Spotted Plover, Edw. pi. 140. Bancr. Guian. 173. 
Black-bellied Plover, Amer. Orn. vii. 41. pi. 57. f. 4? 
Alwargrim Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 198. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 398. Id. Sup. p. 69. 

SIZE of the last. Bill black ; eyes large ; irides brown ; eyelids 
black; plumage above black, spotted with orange; at the base of 
the upper mandible black ; forehead between the eyes white, passing 
over each eye in a line, down the sides of the neck, to the breast, 
uniting to form a band of the same across the latter; fore parts of 
the neck, breast, and belly, black, except where the white band 
crosses ; vent spotted with white ; secondaries, quills, and tail, barred 
brown and black ; legs black. In the male the temples are black, 
in the female dusky, or brown. 



PLOVER. 315 

This inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Sweden, Denmark, 
and the Isle of Oeland,* Iceland, and Greenland ; in the last found, 
though not in plenty, in all the southern lakes, feeding on molluscae, 
and buds of black-berried heath; it arrives in spring; and after 
breeding, retires southward ; is seen also in all the arctic parts of 
Russia, and Siberia ; is well known in America ; at Hudson's Bay is 
called the Hawk's Eye.. It comes to New York in May; breeds 
there, and departs in collected flocks, the end of October. Is pro- 
bably met with in Guiana, where Bancroft saw it in vast numbers, 
near the mouths of rivers. The flesh is accounted delicious. 

It appears in Pennsylvania late in April, and seems particularly 
attached to newly ploughed fields, where it forms a nest of slight 
materials, ill put together ; the female lays four light olive-coloured 
eggs, dashed with black, and has frequently two broods in a season ; 
is very clamorous during breeding time. The young are without the 
black on the breast and belly till the second year; at first these parts 
are white, gradually appearing mottled with black, and finally 
become totally black; which, besides other differences during their 
progress towards perfection, has occasioned these, as well as others 
in the same predicament, to be taken for different species. In some 
parts of America this bird is called Whistling Field Plover, in others 
Black-bellied Killdeer; it seems much allied to the Golden Plover. 



3.— NOISY PLOVER. 

Charadrius vociferus, Ind. Orn. ii. 742. Lin. i. 253. Gm. Lin. i. 685. Bartr. Trav. 

294. Borowsk. iii. 113. 
Pluvialis Virginiana torquata, Bris. v. 68. Id. 8vo. ii. 228. Klein, 21. 
Kildir, Buf. viii. 96. 
Der Schreyer, Naturf. xiii. s. 217. 
Der Schreyende Regenpfeifer, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 220. 

* Called there Alwargrim, said to frequent the barren heaths.— Faun. suec. 

S s2 



316 PLOVER. 

Chattering Plover, Kill-deer, Cates. Car. i, pi. 71. Amer. Orn. vii. 73. pi. 59. f. 6. 
Noisy Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 199. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 400. Frankl. Narr. App. p. 083. 

SIZE of a Snipe ; length nine inches. Bill black ; eyelids red ; 
eyes black ; forehead white ; between the eyes, across the head, a bar 
of black, passing on each side to the hindhead ; the chin and fore 
part of the neck white, encircling the lower part of the neck, and 
accompanied by black all round; on the breast another black bar; 
and except these all the under parts are white ; the hind part of the 
head, neck, body, and wings, are dusky brown ; rump rusty orange; 
the feathers very long ; some of those, which tall over the greater 
quills, fringed with white ; the last black ; a few of the outer ones 
have white shafts; tail like the rump, rounded at the end, near 
which is a bar of black ; the tip white ; legs pale yellow. Male and 
female much alike. 

Inhabits America; is found at New York, Carolina, and Virginia ; 
in the latter remains throughout the year, and is there called Kill- 
deer, from the note resembling that word ; migrates to New York in 
spring, where it breeds, making the nest among the grass, on the 
sides of ponds, and lays three or four brownish white eggs, marked 
with irregular blotches and scratches of blackish purple ; it returns 
south in autumn. Is a very clamorous, restless species, and, like the 
Jay in England, sets up its cry on the approach of any one, to the 
entire disappointment of the sportsman. This species, we are 
inclined to believe, breeds as far south as Georgia, having received 
the eggs from Mr. Abbot, of Savannah. 



A. — Charadrius torquatus, Lin. i. 255. Ind. Orn. ii. 743. 

Pluvialis Boniinieensis torquata, Bris. v. 70. t. 6. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 229. Gerin. iv. 

t. 477. 
Pluvier a Collier de St. Domingue, PL enl. 286. Gen. Syn. v. 206. 6. Var. A. 
Regenpfeifer mit dem Halskragen, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 221. 

In this the bill is blue grey, with a black tip ; forehead white, 
passing through the eyes, and ending at some distance backwards ; 



PLOVER. 317 

behind the white, between the eyes, a black spot ; the rest of the 
head grey brown, the feathers edged with rufous ; chin, throat, and 
neck before, white, passing round the last ; beneath that a black 
collar, broad on the fore part ; rest of the under parts white, except 
a bar of black, mixed with white, on the breast ; back and scapulars 
grey brown, like the head; rump and upper tail coverts rufous; the 
four middle tail feathers brown, with rufous tips ; the others rufous, 
the outmost white ; all but the two middle crossed with a black bar 
near the ends ; some of the wing coverts are edged with rufous, and 
others with white ; the greater quills black on the outer webs, and 
marked with white on the shaft near the end ; legs blue grey. 
Inhabits St. Domingo. 

4.— COLLARED PLOVER. 

Charadrius Jamaicensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 743. Gm. Lin. i. 685. 

Pluvialis Jamaicensis torquata, Bris. v. 75. Id. 8vo. ii. 230. 

Pluvialis ex fusco et albo varia, cauda longiore, Rail, 190. 10. Sloan. Jam. 318. t. 

■265. f. 3. 
Large grey Snipe, Brown, Jam. 477. 
Collared Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 201. 7. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill black ; irides orange ; upper part 
of the head, neck, body, and wings dull brown ; throat, fore part 
of the neck, belly, thighs, and vent white ; at the lower part of the 
neck the white passes round as a collar ; breast spotted black and 
white; quills dull brown ; the tail whitish, varied with rufous and 
blackish ; legs white, the joints dusky ; the claws black. — Inhabits 
Jamaica, found on the banks of rivers : probably allied to the last. 

5— LONG-LEGGED PLOVER. 

Charadrius Himantopus, Ind. Orn. ii. 741. Lin. i. 255. Gm. Lin. i. 690. Scop. i. 
No. 248. Gm. reise, i. 152. t. 52. Id. iv. 148. Borowsk. iii. 113. 7. Fn. Helv. 
Gerin. iv. t. 470. Nat. Misc. pi. 195. Shatv's Zool. Led. i. t. 80. Lin. Trans. 
xiii. p. 194. 



318 PLOVER. 

Charadrius auturanalis, Hasselq. It. 253. 29. Id. Engl. 199. 

Himantopus, Bris. v. 33. 1. t. 3. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 220. Iiaii, 106. 9. Id. 190. 7. 

Id. 193. 1. t. 1. f. 3. Will. 219. t. 54. Klein, p. 22. Id. Stem. p. 3. Tern. 

Man. 338. Id. Ed. ii. 528. 
Recurvirostra Himantopus, Long-legged Avoset, Amer. Om. vii. 48. pi. 58. f. 2 ? 
L'Echasse, Buf. viii. 114. pi. 8. PI. enl. 878. 
Strandreuter, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 201. Schmid, Vog. 127. t. 110. 
Long-legged Plover, Gen.Syn.v. 195. Id. Sup. 252. 5«ii. 5co«. iii. 18. t. 11. 13. 

Br. Zool. ii. No. 209. Id.fol. 128. add. Id. Ed. 1812. ii. 100. Fl. Scot. i. p. 

35. No. 157. pi. 4. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 405. young. White, Selb. pi. p. 258. 

Bewick, ii. pi. p. 4. Lewin, 'iii. pi. 182. Walcot, ii. pi. 159. Donov. iii. pi. 55. 

Orn. .Dz'cf. $• Supp. 

LENGTH from the point of the bill to the end of the tail, from 
thirteen to sixteen inches ; and to the end of the claws eighteen, or 
more ; breadth thirty-one inches. Bill two and a half, slender and 
black, the upper mandible a trifle bent downwards at the point, the 
under somewhat shorter ; irides red; forehead round the eye, and all 
the under parts, white ; crown of the head, the back, and wings, 
glossy black; hind part of the neck spotted with dusky; rump 
white ; tail greyish white, the outer feathers quite white. It has 
the longest legs and thighs of any known bird, in proportion to its 
size, the naked part above the joint measuring three inches and a 
half, and the shin bone four inches and a half; both are of a bright 
red, and the claws black. 

The female has the plumage wholly white, except the wings, 
and the back as far as the rump, which are black. Bill and legs 
as in the male.* 

This species is now and then met with in England. That men- 
tioned in the British Zoology, was killed near Oxford ; and Mr. 
White, of Fleet-street, had a female in his possession, shot with four 
others, out of a flock of six or seven, at Frinsham Pond, between 
Woolmer Forest and Farnham, in Surrey, in April 1779. Sir R. 
Sibbald mentions two being killed near Dumfries, in Scotland ; and 
another in Anglesea, in 1793. Excepting these, and as far as we 

* In the old male the nape, and sometimes the hindhead, are pure white. 



PLOVER. 319 

know, are the only instances of their being found in these kingdoms. 
It is also sufficiently rare on the Continent of Europe, and in many 
parts not known. Belon mentions it as a bird of Italy : Marsigli 
says, it is found on the Danube; and is now and then seen about the 
rivers, in the neighbourhood of Gibraltar, in the spring ; and the 
people of Andalusia say, that it is by no means a rare bird among 
them ; but it certainly is more peculiar to southern Europe. 

Hasselquist mentions it as an autumnal bird of passage in Egypt; 
that it is found in the marshes in October, and supposed to live 
chiefly on flies ; is likewise plentiful about the salt lakes, and often 
on the shores of the Caspian Sea, as well as the rivers which empty 
themselves into it; and the southern Deserts of Independent Tartary; 
is frequent in Java, as well as India and China ; also in Ceylon, 
where it is called Pa-ah-lak-caw-ley ; but in most part of these not 
only the crown but the neck behind is black. In some Indian 
drawings I find the name to be Chaha : one is dusky about the 
head ; another with the whole crown, including the eyes, black, but 
not the forehead. This bird is called at Hindustan Gujpau, or Gudj- 
paoun ;* it is also by some called Craholi : is met with in flocks, 
and often in company with the Tetaree, or Chinese Red Shank. 



A. — Himantopus Mexicanus, Bris. v. 36. Id. 8vo. ii. p. 220. 
Le Mbatuitui a longs jambes, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 393. 
Comaltecatl, Rati, 177. 

This is fifteen inches long to the end of the tail ; but to that of the 
legs twenty-one. Bill four inches ; irides red ; tail three inches and 
a half; top of the head black ; the rest of the plumage white, except 
the wings, which are variegated with black and white; legs reddish. 

Inhabits Mexico in the winter, and as far south as Paraguay, 
there found in small flocks. 

* General Hardwicke. f Mr. Sam. Daniell. 



320 PLOVER. 

The Long-legged Plover is said to arrive on the sea coast of 
New Jersey, about the 25th of April, in small detached flocks of 
twenty or thirty, which sometimes subdivide into lesser parties, but 
rarely in solitary pairs ; as in the breeding season they usually asso- 
ciate in small companies, and frequent shallow ponds, into which 
they can wade by means of their long legs, in all directions, feeding 
on minute shell fish, aquatic insects, and their larvae. About the 
first week in May, they begin to construct their nests, at first com- 
posed of a small quantity of old grass ; as they continue to lay and 
sit, the nest is increased in height, with dry twigs, roots of the salt 
grass, sea-weed, and various other substances, so as to weigh between 
two and three pounds. They lay four dark yellowish clay-coloured 
eggs, thickly blotched with black : they build in society, and the 
nests are often placed within fifteen or twenty yards of each other, 
yet the greatest harmony prevails among the proprietors. 

They are known in America by the name of Stilt, Tilt, or Long- 
shanks, and depart southward in September. 

The American Ornithologist is of opinion, that this bird is a 
true Avoset, contrary to his predecessors in that branch, who have 
ranked it with the Plovers. 



6 —HIGH-LEGGED PLOVER. 

Charadrius grallarius, hid. Orn. Sup. p. lxvi. 
High-legged Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 319. 

LENGTH thirty inches from the bill to the end of the toes. Bill 
straight, black ; irides yellow ; crown of the head, back, and wings, 
blue grey, marked with black streaks, largest on the back and 
crown ; irides yellow ; beneath the eyes, on the ears, a large patch 
of brown ; under parts dusky white, streaked on the neck and breast 
with pale brown ; inner ridge of the wing ferruginous; quills black ; 
legs very long, but little inferior to those of the Long-legged Species, 
colour pale blue. — Inhabits New South Wales. 



PLOVER. 321 



7— SANDERLING PLOVER. 

Charadrius Calidris, Ind. On. ii. 741. Lin. i. 255. Gin. Lin.'i. 689. Georgi, 172. 

Borowsk. iii. 96. 
Arenaria, Rail, 139. A. 11. Will. 225. Borowsk. iii. 96. 7. 
Calidris Arenaria, Tern. Man. 334. /rf. Ed. ii. 524. Parry's App. cxcix. 
Calidris grisea minor, Bris. v. 236. t. 20. f. 2. Id. Svo. ii. 272. 
Sanderling, Gen. Syn. v. 197. Id. Sup. 353. /</. Sttp. ii. 315. Br. Zool. ii. No. 212. 

pi. 73. Id.fol. 129.— addenda. Id. 1812. ii. p. 100. pi. 18. f. 1. Arct. Zool. ii. 

No. 403. Will. Engl. 303. Alb. ii. pi. 74. Buf. vii. 532. Se/J/J, iii. p. 283. 

t. f. 1. Beivick, ii. pi. p. 1. Lewin, v. pi. 183. Id. pi. xxxiii. 2. — the egg. 

Wale. ii. pi. 160. Pult. Dors. p. 16. Orn. Diet. Amer. Orn. vii. 68. pi. 59. f. 4. 

LENGTH eight inches ; breadth thirteen inches ; weight two 
ounces. Bill one inch, black ; fore part of the head, sides under 
the eyes, and beneath from chin to vent, white ; through the eyes a 
greyish streak ; all the upper parts grey, streaked with black; back 
and scapulars brownish grey, the feathers edged with dirty white ; 
wing coverts and quills dusky ; secondaries tipped with white ; 
tail feathers ash-colour, with pale margins ; legs black. The female 
is like the male, but somewhat paler. 

This, like the Purre and some others, varies considerably at 
different periods of age and season ; and is found on several of our 
shores ; but we believe on none more plentiful than those of Kent ; 
we have received them at various times from our late friend Mr. Boys. 
In August they had the upper parts dark ash-colour, the feathers 
deeply edged with ferruginous ; but those received in January were 
plain dove-coloured grey, and these no doubt were adult birds; 
besides these two, several other variations of plumage were observed, 
tending to shew, that they differ considerably. Some of these were 
only seven inches and a quarter long, weighing in proportion : these 
were seen in autumn, chiefly mixed with the flocks of Purres, and 
both called Ox-birds. Found in flocks on the sea coasts of Cornwall, 
and in Lancashire ; observed by Mr. Simmonds, at the Mull of 

VOL. IX. T T 



322 PLOVER. 

Cantire, on the 2d of June;* hence no doubt they must breed 
there, as they certainly do in Kent ; I have received the eggs from 
thence, which are about the size of those of a Blackbird, of a light 
olive, with dusky and brown spots. It is probably met with on 
many parts of the Continent ; said to be frequent about the Lake 
Baikal, extending to India, and has been brought from New South 
Wales, but is there a scarce bird : I have only seen it from thence 
in the adult state, but no doubt is subject to the same variation of 
feather. The English at Port Jackson call it Sea, or Shore Lark, but 
the name given to it by the natives is Waddergal. 



A. — Size of a Snipe. Bill black ; upper parts of the body 
brownish ash-colour, mixed with darker brown, and streaked with 
black ; forehead and under parts cinereous white; lesser and middle 
wing coverts black, fringed with ash, the greater cinereous, with 
whitish edges; quills and tail dusky; legs black. 

Inhabits Newfoundland, where it is gregarious. How far this 
and the Lesser Grey Sandpiper are allied must be left to future 
discovery; for though the plumage is not far different, the former 
has a back toe complete, with a claw attached ; the latter without 
the rudiment of either. Linnaeus has by some means taken one and 
the same bird in Brisson for his Tringa Arenaria and Charadrius 
Calidris ; which the author describes as having only three toes, but 
has, nevertheless, ranked it with his Tringse, all of which have four; 
and remarks, the being without, as a singularity.-]- This matter is 
not easily reconcileable, otherwise than by supposing a variation 
to take place in respect to the complete hind toe ; and although 
we find individuals of the Plover Genus will sometimes possess 
a hind claw, we do not recollect that this variation proceeds farther. 

Among the collection of drawings of Sir J. Anstruther, is a bird 
answering to the description of the Sanderling, but less in size ; it 
was called Chipta. 

* Lin. Trans, viii. 26S. f " Digito postico caret, quod maxime singulave." 



PLOVER. 323 



8.— RUDDY PLOVER. 

Charadrius rubidus, Ind. Om. ii. 740. Gin. Lin. i. G88. Tern. Man. 335. Id. Ed. 

2d. 525. 
Grauwe Plevier, Sepp, iii. pi. 283. f. 2. 
Ruddy Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 195. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 404. Amer. Orn. vii. 120. pi. 

63. f. 3. 

BILL straight, one inch long, black ; head, neck, breast, scapu- 
lars, wing and tail coverts, of a ruddy colour, spotted with black, 
and powdered with while ; in the scapulars and coverts the black 
prevails; the outer webs of the first four quills are brown, the 
inner white, tipped with brown ; the upper parts of the others white; 
the lower brown ; the two middle tail feathers brown, edged with 
rust; the others dirty white ; legs black, toes divided to their origin. 

Inhabits Hudson's Bay, and called Mistchayche kiska weshish. 
The female said to be deep brown above, with rufous markings, 
and more dusky beneath. I do not find the size mentioned, but we 
suspect it may be allied to the Sanderling, which we know differs 
much in plumage at different times of growth, or season. Said 
to breed in considerable numbers on the north Georgian Islands, 
found there by Captain Parry in his Northern Expedition, in the 
years 1819 and 1820. 



9.— SPOTTED SANDERLING. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill one, black ; head pale grey, with 

blackish markings ; neck behind with obsolete dusky streaks ; back 

and scapulars spotted dusky and white, each feather being dusky, 

with two or three white spots on each web ; lesser wing coverts brown, 

the rest mixed cinereous white and brown ; lower order white at the 

ends, forming an oblique stripe across the wing; quills blackish, 

with white shafts ; the four first within nearly white, except at the 

T t2 



324 PLOVER. 

ends, the others white, with the end half dusky ; second quills 
mottled, several of the longest pale ash, with two spots of white on 
each web, near the tip, and reach to within an inch of the greater 
quills; lower part of the back and rump pale ash, and dusky, 
appearing in waves ; tail doubly concave as in the Purre, the two 
middle and the exterior feather on each side being the longest ; the 
two middle are dusky, the others pale ash on the outer web and tips, 
and white on the inner ; both upper and under tail coverts reach far 
on the tail ; legs black ; the quills reach nearly to the end of the tail. 
Found in Georgia in October; called Spotted Sandpiper. — Mr. 
Abbot. 

10— CHESTNUT-BREASTED PLOVER. 

LENGTH seven inches and a half. Bill black ; plumage on the 
upper parts of the body pale brown ; forehead white, behind it 
mixed with black ; from the nostrils a black streak, passing under 
the eye ; under parts from the chin white ; round the throat a bar of 
black, and at the interval of half an inch, a broader bar of deep 
ferruginous chestnut, passing under the wings ; quills deep brown, 
with white shafts; tail rounded, the three outer feathers dusky white; 
legs black. Native place uncertain. 



II— CURONIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius Curonicus, lnd. Om.u. 750. Shrift, d. Berl. Nat. vii. 463. Beseke, Fog. 

Kurl. 66. No. 134. 
Pluvialis torquata minor, Bris.v. 63. t. 5. f. 2. 7rf.8vo.ii. 227. 
Charadrius minor, Petit Pluvier a Collier, Tern. Man. 330. Id. Ed. ii. 543. 
Petit Pluvier a Collier, Buf. viii. 90. pi. 6. PI. eril. 921. 
Curonian Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 318. 

BILL dusky; the head, breast, belly, and vent white; on the 
forehead a black crescent; crown grey; from the bill, through the 
eye, an undulated dusky stripe; on the breast a black band ; back, 



PLOVER. 325 

wings, and tail grey, with pale dull markings; the three first quills 
dusky, shaft of the outer white; the upper tail feathers black at the 
ends; irides yellow ; legs reddish. 

Inhabits Courland, feeding on insects; lays five whitish eggs, 
with some large spots of black, and others less distinct ; has much 
the appearance of the Ringed Plover, but M. Natterer, of Vienna, 
asserts, that the two birds are specifically different, and gives as one 
reason, that the lesser sort breeds on the banks of the Danube, but 
the other is not found in that part of the country in the breeding 
season. 

12 —RINGED PLOVER. 

Charadrius Hiaticula, Ind. Orn. ii. 743. Lin. i. 253. Fn. suec. No. 187. Gtn. Lin. i. 

G83. Gm. reise, iv. 141. Scop. i. No. 147. Brun. No. 184. Muller, No. 209. 

Kram. 354. 4. Frisch, t. 214. Georgi, p. 172. Fn. Groenl. No. 78. Raii, 112. 

A. 6. Id. 190. 13. Will. 230. t. 57. Borowsk. iii. 109. 2. Fn. Helv. Sepp,\n; 

t. p. 260. Lin. Trans, xii. p. 534. Id. xiii. 328. Tern. Man. 329. Id. Ed. ii. 

539. Parry's App. p. cc. Bartr. Trav. p. 294. Gerin. iv. t. 479. 
Gavia littoralis, Klein, 21. 6. Id. Stem. iii. f. 4. a. b. 
Iaticula, Cett. Uc. Sard. 259. 
Pluvier a Collier, PI. enl. 920. 

Strand-pfeifer, Naturf. x\\\. 217. Bechst. Deutsch.iu, 214. t. xi. 
Le Mbatuitui a Collier noir, Voy. d'Azara,\v. No. 392. 
Ringed Plover, Gen. Syn. v. p. 201. Br. Zool. ii. No. 211. Id.fol. 129. t. add. Id. 

1812. ii. p. 105. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 401. Bewick, \. pi. p. 334. Leicin, v. pi. 

184. Id. pi. xxxiv. 1. the egg. Wale. ii. pi. 161. Donov.'i. pi. 18. Pull. Dors. 

p. 16. Lin. Trans. -vU. 281. Orn. Diet. Amer. Orn.v'n. p. 65, pi. 59. f. 3. 

LENGTH from seven to eight inches. Bill orange, the end half 
black ; base of the upper mandible, and through the eyes, to the 
ears, black; forehead white; behind this, from eye to eye, a black 
band ; the rest of the head pale brown ; the chin and throat white, 
passing round the neck in a broad collar ; beneath this, on the lower 
part of the neck, is a second of black, encircling the neck behind, 
growing narrow as it passes backward ; breast and under parts white ; 
back and wing coverts pale brown ; quills dusky, mixed with some 



326 PLOVER. 

white on the inner webs ; the two middle tail feathers greyish brown, 
growing almost black towards the ends ; the three next, on each side, 
the same, with white tips; the last but one white, with a brown 
band ; the outmost white, marked with a spot only ; legs orange- 
colour, claws black. In the male, the white on the forehead takes 
up more space than in the female, with more white in the wings, and 
the plumage inclines more to ash-colour. 

This bird, called by some the Sand Lark, frequents the coasts of 
this kingdom almost without exception, and though it appears to be 
scarce in the winter season, we have reason to believe that it does not 
entirely leave us, but, quitting the open shores, seeks shelter in the 
creeks and inlets: in autumn mixes in small numbers with the Purres, 
Dunlins, and other birds, and sometimes in small flocks; during the 
summer found every where on our shores, and lays four white eggs, 
one inch and a half in length, and weighing three drachms, of a 
pale ash-colour, spotted and blotched with black, least so at the 
small end ; these are laid on the ground, under some shelter, but 
without any nest : the birds run very fast, sometimes taking short 
flights, twittering loud at the same time, then alight, and run again ; 
and if more disturbed, either fly off, or creep into some hole till the 
danger is over : they seem much attached to their young, and on 
any one approaching where they are, the female uses many stratagems 
to decoy the observer from the nest, by drawing off his attention. — 
This species is also found in most parts of the Continent of Europe ; 
we trace them as far north as Greenland, and every part of Russia 
and Siberia; and to the south, Andalusia, in Spain ; we observe it, 
too, in India drawings, by the name of Guddee; found in Sumatra, 
there called Boo ring Boot; also frequents the shores of the Caspian 
Sea, in December and January : is common likewise in most parts of 
America; visits Hudson's Bay the middle of June, and departs in 
September; has the same manners as in England, and is called there 
Kisqua the napi shish. 



PLOVER. 327 



A. — Charadrius griseus, collari abdomineque albis, Faun. arag. 78. 

In this the bill is black ; legs rufous; forehead grey; orbits yel- 
low ; quills brown ; the two middle tail feathers brown, the three 
next on each side the same, with white tips, the two outer ones white, 
with a brown spot. 

Found about Epila, in Aragonia, and is probably a young bird 
of the first season. One brought to me at this period, had the upper 
parts in general brown ; bill black ; forehead white, then dusky ; 
behind the eye a white patch ; round the neck a narrow collar of 
brown, mixed with black ; all the under parts from chin to vent 
white, encircling the neck as a collar; and above this a collar of 
brown ; legs yellowish grey. 



B. — Charadrius Hiaticula, Ind. Orn. ii. 744. 8. y. Gen. Syn. v. 203. Var. A. 
Charadrius Hiaticula, Ringed Plover, Amer. Orn. v. 30. pi. 37. f. 3. Frankl. Narr. 
App. p. 684. 

Size of the others. Bill black ; forehead, and before to the 
breast, white, passing round the lower part of the neck in a collar; 
the rest of the plumage pale dusky ash-colour ; the end half of the 
tail dusky black, the tip fringed with rufous ; legs pale. 

Inhabits Cayenne. I have also seen this pale Variety from 
Owhyhee; and received it likewise from Hudson's Bay: it appears to 
be merely a Variety of the Ringed Plover ; and seems to be as plen- 
tiful on the American Continent as the darker coloured one. Mr. 
Wilson will scarcely admit this to be a Variety; says it has a different 
note, being soft and musical ; that it breeds and forms its nest in the 
sand, and produces two broods in a season ; and although both this 
light-coloured one, and the common, arrive together in April, it is 
only the former which stays to breed, the latter departs elsewhere the 
end of May, proceeding further to the north for that purpose. 



328 PLOVER. 

St 

13.— KENTISH PLOVER. 

Charadrius Cantianus, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxvi. 

Cliaradrius Cantianus, Pluvier a Collier interrompu, Tern. Man. 332. Id. Ed. ii. 544. 

Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 187. 
Kentish Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 316. Lewin, Birds, v. pi. 185. Lin. Trans, vit. 

281. Orn. Diet. Sf Supp. 

SIZE of the Ringed Plover; length six inches and a half; 
breadth fifteen ; weight one ounce and a half. Bill black, three 
quarters of an inch from the gape to the tip, more slender than in 
the Ringed Plover, and less stout at the base; top of the head 
ferruginous brown, bounded on the fore part with black ; forehead 
white, passing over the eye, and a little beyond it; from the bill 
through the eye a black streak, growing broader behind the eye, 
and reaching over the ear; all beneath, from the chin to vent, white, 
passing round the neck as a collar; on each side of the breast next 
to the shoulder of the wing is a black patch ; back and wings pale 
brown ; quills dusky, the shaft of outer one wholly, and the middle 
of next white ; greater wing coverts, for the most part, tipped with 
white; tail rounded in shape, not unlike the quills ; the three outer 
feathers white, except a dusky spot on the inner web of the outmost 
but two; the others have the bases very pale half way, but the two 
middle ones are pale brown ; legs bluish black. 

We have received several specimens, some years since, from Sand- 
wich, near which they were shot, both in April and May. The bill 
and legs were black; in one the nape pale reddish bay, in another 
pale brown, inclining to bay towards the nape ; the three outer tail 
feathers white, the inner of these inclining to dusky on the inner 
web ; the next very pale brown, or brownish white, with a dusky 
tip ; the four. middle brown, with dusky ends, approaching to black ; 
in one specimen the black at the bend of the wing was much larger, 
and tended on each side towards the breast. 



PLOVER. 329 



A. — Length not quite six inches. Bill black; crown, nape, and 
part of the neck behind fine ferruginous; forehead white, bounded 
between that and the ferruginous with a bar of black, which passes 
through the eye and sides of the neck, and finishes in a patch just 
above the wing ; all beneath white ; back and wings pale ash, the 
feathers edged with pale tawny; the quills dusky, with white shafts; 
three outer tail feathers white; the others dusky ; the fourth dusky 
in the middle ; under wing coverts white; wings full as long as the 
tail, or reach a trifle beyond it; legs black. 

Inhabits New-Holland. — In the collection of Lord Stanley. 

We have met with birds in India drawings so very little differing, 
as not to merit description; some were named Sun-ek-ee; others, 
paler in colour, were called Guddee. 



14— WILSON'S PLOVER. 

Charadrius Wilsonii, Wilson's Plover, Atner. Orn. ix. 77. pi. 73. f. 5. 

THIS bird is near eight inches long; and extent of wing fifteen. 
Bill black; forehead white, passing over the eye ; the crown brown; 
next the forehead dusky black ; from the nostrils to the eye, and 
beyond, a streak of black ; sides of the head dirty white ; chin and 
neck white, passing round as a collar ; upper part of the body olive 
drab, tending towards the breast, but as it continues, forms a black 
bar there ; all beneath, from thence, white ; quills black ; legs pale 
or flesh-colour; claws and ends of the toes black. 

The female differs, in having no black on the forehead, lore, or 
breast, those parts being pale olive. 

Inhabits America; shot on the shore of Cape Island, New Jersey, 
on the 13th of May, 1813. Supposed to be a distinct species. 

VOL. IX. TJ u 



330 PLOVER. 



15.— BLACK-THROATED PLOVER. 

LENGTH six inches. The bill black ; forehead buff-colour, 
changing over the eye into a spot of white ; the crown of the head 
black, bounded behind with pale rufous; from the gape to the eye 
a black streak ; all the upper parts of the neck, back, and wings 
pale brown, the margins of the feathers paler ; greater coverts and 
second quills tipped with white ; greater quills dusky, with white 
shafts; tail rounded, the three outer feathers white ; the third marked 
with dusky on the inner web ; beneath, from the chin, white ; above 
the breast a black bar, ending at the wing, where it finishes in a 
rufous spot ; legs slender, pale brown. In the female, the black 
bar is smaller, and not rufous at the wings. 

Native place uncertain. — In the collection of Mr. Bullock. 



16.— ALEXANDRINE PLOVER. 

Chaladrius Alexandrinus, hid. Orn. ii. 744. Lin. i. 253. Gin. Lin. i. CS3. Hasselq. 

if. 255. 30. Id. Engl. 140. Brun.App.77. Midler, No. 210. 
Le Pluvier a Collier, Bris. v. GO. t. 5. f. 1. female? Id. 8vo. ii. 226. 
Alexandrine Plover, Gen. %».v. 203. 9. Id. Sup.il. 315. 

SIZE of a Lark. Bill black, towards the tip gibbous; head and 
back grey; forehead, to the base of the bill, white, continued in a 
line over the eyes ; across the head, from eye to eye, black ; on the 
ear a spot of the same; a ring of white, half an inch broad, round 
the neck, from the chin and throat; on each side of the neck, below 
this white collar, a broad bar of black; the lower part of the neck, 
grey, and continued forwards on each side, but does not quite 
meet before ; breast, belly, and vent white ; the lesser wing coverts 
dusky, tipped with white ; the rest as the back ; great quills dusky 
grey, within whitish ; the two exterior equal, shaft of the first white; 



PLOVER. 331 

the others successively shorter, and the inner ones nearly as long as 
the outer primaries, but like the back as to colour; from the fifth to 
the eighth an oblong white spot on the outer margin ; second quills 
white at the tips ; the four middle tail feathers somewhat the longest, 
dusky brown, tipped with white; the two exterior white; the two 
next adjoining dusky white, with brown ends; legs black. 

The female is much the same, but wants the black band across 
the head, as well as that on the ear ; and in that sex the broad black 
bar on each side of the neck is equally deficient; legs lead-colour. 

We have, hitherto, found much difficulty in ascertaining this 
species, arising, in a great measure, from Hasselquist having fixed it 
as peculiar to Egypt ; whereas, we now find it to inhabit Denmark 
and Norway; and, according to some, likewise Russia and Siberia: 
besides which, it is without doubt the bird known at Gibraltar by 
the name of Andalusian Dotterel. We owe this investigation to our 
late friend, the Rev. Mr. White, who observes, that it is about six 
inches and a half in length, and fourteen broad : that it appears about 
Gibraltar in small flocks of five or six, and very tame; in the middle 
of April the hen birds are full of eggs : in the windy weather they 
quit the open coast, and run among the sheltered hollows, on the 
sands of the Isthmus. It is also remarked, that it much resembles 
the Ring Plover, but differs invariably in the marks above mentioned; 
and that it abounds on the coast of Spain, and breeds there. 



17— EGYPTIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius jEgyptius, Ind. Orn. ii. 744. Lin.'i. 254. Hasselq. It. 256. 31. Id. Engl. 
190. Gm. Lin. i. 684. (3. Gen. Syn. v. 204. 9. A. 

SIZE of a Thrush. Irides black ; from the forehead a line of 

white passes over the eye to the hindhead ; crown, sides of the head, 

and middle of the back black ; on the breast a band of black, 

passing backwards, and ending in a point on the back ; breast, belly, 

u u 2 



332 PLOVER. 

thighs, and vent white ; the sides of the back, and shoulders hoary ; 
quills white, crossed with a band of black in the middle, the end 
also black; tail even, hoary, with a black band near the end, the 
tip white; legs blue, the claws black. — Inhabits Egypt: thought by 
some to be related to the Ringed Species. 



18.— LUZONIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius Philippinus, Ind. Orn. ii. 745. 

Petit Pluvier a Collier de l'lsle de Lugon, Sonn. Voy. 84. t. 46. 

Alexandrine Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 205. 9. Var. C. 

SIZE of the Alexandrine Plover. Bill black; irides yellow; 
on the forehead a spot of white ; from thence, beyond the eye, and 
side, black ; this last bounded by a brown line, passing from behind 
one eye to the other, across the head ; the hindhead and nape, back, 
and wings, umber-brown ; tail black, tipped with white; the throat, 
fore part of the neck, and belly, white, continued on each side below 
the nape, so as nearly to surround the neck ; below this a collar of 
black, passing quite round the neck; legs blackish. 

This is found in the marshy places of the Isle of Lnconia, espe- 
cially such as are enriched by the dung of cattle that feed there, 
which, by fertilizing the spot, perhaps may contribute to increase the 
produce of insects, which are its food. 

19— NEW-HOLLAND RINGED PLOVER. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill red, with a blackish point; irides 
dark ; eyelids red ; forehead, crown, and nape, black ; over the eye 
a streak of white ; from the base of the bill, through the eye, and 
below it, a broad streak of black, passing to the neck behind ; and 
from thence coming forwards on the breast, forming a crescent; chin 
and throat within this white, also below the same, continuing to the 
vent ; the back and wings are pale, marbled brown ; outer edge of 



PLOVER. 333 

the wing- and quills dusky black ; tail dusky, the outer feathers 
varied with black and white ; legs red. 

One specimen had the back much mixed with ferruginous ; and 
the rump wholly so; the crown brown, with only a black streak 
down the middle, which may perhaps constitute difference of sex. 

Inhabits New South Wales; is now and then seen about Port 
Jackson, but not a common bird. — Mr. Francillon. 



20.— RUSTY-CROWNED PLOVER. 

Charadrius Falklandicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 747. 

Rusty-crowned Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 318. Portl. Voy. pi. in p. 36. 

SIZE of the Ringed Plover ; length seven inches and a half. 
Bill three quarters of an inch, or more, black ; forehead, chin, and 
neck before, the breast, and belly white ; across the top of the head 
a bar of black, passing downwards on each side of the neck, irregu- 
larly, to the wings ; and from thence forwards to the breast, forming 
a broad bar thereon ; behind the black bar, on the top of the head, 
is a stripe of ferruginous, encircling all the back part of the head as 
a wreath ; the crown of the head within this, all the upper parts of 
the body, and wings, are cinereous brown; but the greater quills and 
tail are black ; legs black. The female chiefly differs in wanting 
the wreath on the head. 

Inhabits Falkland Island, in the Pacific Ocean. 



21— COURLAND PLOVER. 

Charadrius naevius, Ind. Orn. ii. 750. Gm. Lin. i. 692. Schr. d. Berl. Naturf. vii. 

464. 49. 
Courland Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 319. 

THE bill and legs in this bird are dusky; beneath, from chin 
to vent, white; the whole of the upper parts of the plumage grey, 



334 PLOVER. 

spotted with black and white ; beneath the eyes a dotted black 
stripe, passing- over the ears ; the three outer quills black. 
Inhabits Courland. 



22.— GREGARIOUS PLOVER. 

Charadrius gregarius, hid. Orn. ii. 745. Gm. Lin. i. 684. Pall, reise, i. 45G. 9. 
Gregarious Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 206. 

SIZE of the Lapwing. Bill as in that bird ; crown of the head 
brown, mottled with white ; forehead white, continuing in a streak 
over the eye to the hindhead ; through the eyes a black streak ; body 
ash, somewhat the colour of a turtle ; chin whitish ; on the lower 
part of the breast a large black crescent; behind it dirty rufous; 
the vent white; prime quills black ; secondaries white ; tail even at 
the end, white, crossed with a black band, not conspicuous in the 
side feathers ; legs furnished with an imperfect back toe. 

Inhabits the fields about the Rivers Volga, Jaick, and Samara, 
in flocks, and is pretty plentiful ; but not seen farther north than 
54 degrees. Is called by some the Hen of the Steppes : has somewhat 
the manners of the Lapwing. 



23.— DOTTEREL PLOVER. 

Charadrius Morinellus, hid. Orn. u. p. 746. Lin.'i. 254. Faun. suec. No. 188. Gm. 

Lin. i. 686. Brun. No. 185. Midler, No.211. Bris. v. 54. t. 4. f. 2. 7rf.8vo.ii. 

225. Raii, 111. A. 4. Will. 230. t. 55. 57. Klein, 21. 5. Id. Stem. in. t. 3. f. 

3. a. b. Borowsk.m.llO. Fn.Helv. Gerin. i v. t. 475. female. Tem.Man.327. 

Id. Ed. ii. 538. 
Charadrius Sibiricus, Ind. Orn. ii. 747. Gm. Lin. i. 690. Lepech. It. ii. t. 6. 
Petit Pluvier, ou Guignard, Buf. viii. 87. PI. enl. 832. Robert. Ic. pi. 5. 
Posser resser, Naturf. xiii. 217. 
Der Mornel, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 211. 
Siberian Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 318. 



PLOVER. 335 

Dotterel, Gen. Syn.v. 208. Id.Sup.2hS. Br. Zool. ii. No. 210. pi. 73. Id.fol.120. 
t. D. Id. 1812. ii. 102. pi. 18. f. 2. Arct. Zool. ii. 487. Will. Engl. 309. pi. 
55. 57. Albin, ii. pi. 02. Bewick, i. pi. in p. 332. Lewin, v. pi. 186. /c/. pi. 
xxxiv". 2. the egg. Donov. ii. pi. 42. Walcot, ii. pi. 162. P«/<. Dorset, p. 16. 
Ora. £>*c/. ty Swpp. i?J/m/ Sports, i. t. p. 343. 

LENGTH nine or ten inches ; the weight four ounces or more. 
Bill black; irides hazel ; forehead dusky and grey mixed; crown 
black ; over the eye a white streak, which bends a little downwards, 
and passes to the hindhead; sides of the head and throat white; the 
neck behind, back, and wings greyish brown, the margins of the 
feathers pale ferruginous ; lower part of the back and rump inclining 
to grey ; fore part of the neck cinereous olive, with a little mixture 
of white next the throat ; the lower part bounded with a line of 
black, and another of white beneath ; breast and sides pale dull 
orange ; middle of the belly black ; the lower part and thighs rufous 
white; greater quills brown, outer edge and shaft of the first white; 
tail olive brown, near the end a bar of dusky, tip white, the two 
outer feathers margined with white; legs black. 

The female is a trifle bigger; crown of the head brown, mottled 
with white ; belly black and white mixed ; and the white trace over 
the eyes, as well as the colours in general, more dull. 

The Dotterel is a local bird in respect to England, being in some 
parts sufficiently common, in others not known ; seen in tolerable 
plenty in Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Derbyshire, in April, 
May, and June; met with on the Wiltshire and Berkshire* Downs, 
in April and September, in small flocks of eight or ten ; being on 
their passage to and from the north, where they breed ; the same on 
the sea side at Meales, in Lancashire, the beginning of April, con- 
tinuing there for about three weeks ; from thence to Leyton Haws,t 
where they rest for a fortnight, and at the same time in plenty about 
Holderness, in Yorkshire, and upon the Woulds.J These birds 

* In August are in plenty in Berkshire, particularly on the estate of Mr. Head, of 
Hodcutt. f Br. Zool. + Mr Tunstall. 



336 PLOVER. 

appear towards the end of May, on that district of Aberdeenshire, 
called Braemor, being the most elevated part of the country, where 
they hatch their young, on dry mossy ground, near to, and on 
the very summits of the highest parts; sometimes in the little tufts 
of short heather, or moss, which is to be found in those elevated 
grounds, and in so exposed a situation : they take so little trouble 
to form their nest, that were it not by the eggs, no one could sup- 
pose there was one. The hen sits three weeks, and the young make 
their appearance about the middle of July : they rarely lay above 
three eggs, and generally bring forward as many young; towards 
the end of October they gather into large flocks, and sometimes 
hundreds may be seen together, for a very considerable number breed 
in the district above mentioned : however, their assembling in large 
flocks at the above season is no proof of their leaving the country 
before winter; as Grouse do the same, which are constant inhabitants ; 
and our informant once fell in with a small flock of about a dozen, 
at the foot of the highest mountain of that country, about the end 
of February, or beginning of March, the ground having been for 
many weeks deeply covered with snow. Three of these were shot in 
very good condition, though not so fat as those he used to kill in 
August and September. As to their breeding place it is always at 
an elevation from 1500 to 2000 i'eet above the level of the sea : and 
Dr. Hey sham informed me, that ten or twelve were shot on the top 
of Skiddaw, in Cumberland,* in the month of June. 

They are tame, and silly birds, even to a proverb, and we are 
told that formerly they were taken at night time, by candle light; 
the Fowler knowing where to And them, put himself into various 
gestures imitative of those of the birds, as they frequently have the 
habit of stretching out first one wing and then another, and the 
attention of the birds being taken up thereby, a net was easily drawn 
over them ; though many people have thought, that this mode of 
acting did not conduce to the decoying of the birds into the net, any 

* Skiddaw is 1100 yards perpendicular from the Broadwater with two heads. 



PLOVER. 337 

more than the tinkling of a fire pan in the settling of bees, for the 
purpose of being hived ; and in the present time, the more certain 
method of shooting them with a gun is universally adopted. 

This species is common in the more northern parts of Europe, 
where they no doubt breed ; frequent in Dalecarlia, and the Lapland 
Alps, and according to Linnaeus, they visit Sweden in May; breed, 
for certain, in the northern parts of Russia and Siberia, appearing to 
the southward only in the migrations ; rare in Prussia, and not very 
common in Switzerland, though found there ; nor do authors talk of 
them any where as birds of the warmer regions. 

A. — Charadrius Morinellus, Ind. Orn. ii. 747. 17. B. 
Morinellus Anglicanus, Bris. v. 58. Id. 8vo. ii. 226. 
Der Englische Mornell, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 214. 
Dotterel, Gen.Syn.v. 209. 14. A. All.Yu pi. 63. 

This varies so little from the other, as scarcely to merit notice. 
Irides white; crown varied with white, greyish brown, and pale 
yellow ; fore part of the neck, and the rest of the under parts, pale 
yellow, and white mixed ; the two middle tail feathers brown, the 
others white ; legs greenish. This is probably an immature bird. 

B. — Charadrius Tataricus, hid. Orn. ii. 746. Pall. It. ii. 714. 32.* Gen. Syn. v. 
210. 14. Var. B. 

Size of the Missel Thrush. Crown of the head black, the feathers 
edged with white ; over the eye a white streak, passing to the hind- 
head, where it increases in breadth ; neck behind dark ash-colour ; 
before the same, but paler ; sides of the head and chin white, dotted 
with black ; across the throat a black collar ; breast ferruginous, 
with a band of black ; from thence to the vent white ; wings brown, 
the edges of some of the feathers yellowish : tail much the same, 
with the end black. 

Inhabits the salt lakes of the south Deserts of Tartary, in com- 
pany with the Dotterel, of which it is most likely a Variety. 

VOL. IX. X X 



338 PLOVER. 



24— MONGOLIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius Mongolus, Ind. Orn. ii. 746. Gm. Lin. i. 685. Pall, reise, iii. 700. 29. 
Mongolian Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 207. 

SIZE of the Dotterel. Forehead white; crown black ; from the 
the bill a streak of black, which grows wider, and encircles the 
throat, which is white ; neck ferruginous ; breast the same, but 
paler; belly white; back cinereous brown. 

Inhabits the salt lakes on the confines of the Mongolian Country, 
in tolerable plenty, but is a solitary species : allied to the last. 

25— ASIATIC PLOVER. 

Charadrius Asiaticus, Ind. Orn. ii. 746. Gm. Lin.i. 684. Pall, reise, ii. 715. 32. 

Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 53. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 187. 
Asiatic Plover, Gen, Syn. v. 207. 

A LITTLE larger than the Ringed Plover. Bill the same ; 
crown of the head and upper parts of the bird brown ; forehead, 
sides of the head, a streak over the eyes, and chin, white ; from thence 
to the middle of the neck ferruginous, bounded by a transverse band 
of brown ; the rest of the under parts white ; tail brown, the feathers 
edged with whitish, and tipped with black; legs red. 

Inhabits the salt lakes of the southern Deserts of Tartary, and is 
a rare, and solitary species. M. Temminck thinks this may belong 
to the Dotterel, as a further Variety ; found also in Java. 

26,— NEW-ZEALAND PLOVER.— Pl. cliv. 

Charadrius novas Zealandiae, Ind. Orn. ii. 745. Gm. Lin. i. 684. 
New Zealand Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 206. 10. pl. 83. 

THIS is a trifle bigger than the Ringed Plover ; length eight 
inches. Bill one inch, red, with a black tip ; irides blue grey ; 



PLCLIV 




v_ --'Lw --tCea/anff ' ' /n, 



PLOVER. 339 

eyelids red; the fore part of the head, taking in the eyes, the chin, 
and throat, black, passing backwards in a collar at the hindhead ; 
the back part of it, behind the eye, greenish ash-colour ; these two 
colours divided by white ; the back and wing coverts greenish ash ; 
quills and tail dusky ; the last order of coverts white for some part of 
the length, forming a bar on the wing; body beneath white; legs red. 
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound; called Doodooroa-atto. — Sir 
Joseph Banks. 



27— DUSKY PLOVER. 

Charadrius obscurus, Ind. Urn. ii. 747. Gm. Lin. i. 686. 
Dusky Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 211. 16. 

LARGER than a Snipe. Bill black ; forehead pale reddish 
white; plumage on the upper parts dusky, the edges of the feathers 
pale; chin and fore part of the neck dusky white; the rest of the 
parts beneath dusky yellow oker, with a reddish tinge ; marked on 
the neck with pale and dusky streaks, and mottled transversely on 
the sides with narrow lines; quills dusky ; legs bluish ; claws black. 

Inhabits New Zealand ; found at Dusky Bay : the name Hapo- 
hoera. — Sir Joseph Banks. 



28.— FULVOUS PLOVER. 

Charadrius fulvus, Ind. Urn. ii. 747. Gm. Lin. i. 687. 
Fulvous Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 211. 17. 

LESS than the Lapwing ; length twelve inches and a half. Bill 
dusky ; irides bluish black; plumage above wholly black, with the 
margins of the feathers fulvous yellow ; forehead and throat dusky 
white ; breast fulvous, spotted with black ; the rest beneath dusky 
white, spotted as the breast; wing coverts black, with fulvous spots; 
the lower order brown black, tipped with white ; the quills brownish 

Xx2 



340 PLOVER. 

black, with white shafts; tail the same, crossed with whitish bands; 
legs blue; claws black, and blunt. — Inhabits the shores and marshy 
places of Otaheite. 

Communicated by Dr. J. R. Forster. 



A. — Length eight inches. Bill one inch, dark brown ; nostrils 
pervious; plumage on the upper parts of the body brown, margins 
of the feathers golden yellow ; beneath white, except the breast, 
which is dusky pale brown ; quills brown, the end half of the shafts 
white ; the secondaries as long as the quills, and both of them reach 
to the end of the tail, and hide it; the last is two inches long, brown, 
marked with obscure, pale brown, spots on each side of the webs; the 
legs about two inches long, pale yellow. Native place uncertain. 

This was in the Leverian Museum, and seems to correspond with 
the Fulvous Plover, though less in size. 



29.— WHITE-BELLIED PLOVER. 

Charadrius leucogaster, hid. Orn. ii. 748. Gm. Lin. i. 687. 
White-bellied Plover, Gen. Si/n. v. 212. 18. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill one inch ; the plumage above dirty 
brown; forehead white; above and beneath the eye a streak of the 
same; under parts white; the secondaries and prime quills equal in 
length ; some of the first white halfway from the base, shafts white; 
six of the middle tail feathers brown; the outer of these white just 
at the base and tip; the three exterior ones white; the last but one 
with a brown spot on the inner web, near the end ; the third black 
at the end ; legs pale blue. — Found in the same Collection with the 
last; native place uncertain. 



PLOVER. 341 



30— RED-NECKED PLOVER. 

Charadrius rubricollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 748. Gm. Lin. i. 687. 
Red-necked Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 212. 19. Penn. Outlines, iv. 128. 

SIZE of the Purre. Bill flesh-coloured, with the end black; 
irides orange ; the head and neck black ; on each side of the neck a 
large, square, chestnut spot, about the size of a silver penny, almost 
meeting together behind ; upper parts of the body ash, mixed with 
white about the bastard wing ; breast and under parts white ; quills 
and tail dusky ; legs flesh-colour. 

Found in Adventure Bay, Van Diemen's Land. 

I observe one, answering to this description, among the drawings 
of Mr. Dent, but the spot on the sides of the neck, just below the 
nape, is white, instead of chestnut ; the side tail feathers with a bar 
of black near the end. This may possibly differ from the other in 
sex, if at all allied, which, however, is by no means certain, the 
drawing not being accompanied with any account. 



31. —GREAT-BILLED PLOVER. 

Charadrius magnirostris, Ind. Orn. Sup. p. lxvi. 
Great-billed Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 319. 8. 

SIZE of the Golden Plover. Bill black, stout, and very broad, 
like some of the Tody Genus ; plumage in general above blue grey, 
streaked with black ; beneath pale ash, but marked in the same 
manner; forehead, part of the crown, and ears, minutely spotted; 
quills black ; base of several of the primaries white ; legs dull blue. 

Inhabits New South Wales. Native name Woal-woo-a. 



342 PLOVER. 



32.— BROWN PLOVER. 

Charadrius fuscus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. lxvi. 
Brown Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 320. 10. 

THIS has the habit of the Golden Plover, and is twenty inches 
in length. Bill black ; irides yellow ; plumage above mottled brown; 
beneath brownish white, a little mottled ; tail black, dotted with 
white ; legs lead-colour. — Inhabits New South Wales. 



33 — GRISLED PLOVER. 

Charadrius griseus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. lxvii. 
Grisled Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. 320. 11. 

BILL dusky ; irides hazel ; plumage above grey brown; beneath 
white; crown spotted with black; the wings with white; quills 
black; tail dusky; legs bluish. 

Found with the last ; also one very similar, but the upper parts 
marked with numerous round, curved, yellow spots. 

34— BRIDLED PLOVER. 

Charadrius frsenatus, Ind. Om. Sup. p. lxvii. 
Bridled Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 320. 

LENGTH to end of the tail two feet ; to the end of the toes four 
inches more. The bill is bluish ; plumage above pale cinereous blue, 
dashed with small brown streaks; sides of the neck dusky, forming 
a streak, which begins beneath the eye, and descends on the sides 
of the neck, to the beginning of the back ; under parts of the body 
pale, marked with narrow dusky lines on the breast; belly white; 
quills dusky ; legs yellow. — Found in New South Wales, with the 
two last described. 



PLOVER. 343 

35.— INDIAN PLOVER. 

Charadrius Indicus, Tnd. Orn. ii. 750. 

Pluvialis minima Indica, Bris. Orn. 8vo. ii. 234. 

Indian Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. 254. Pen. Hindoost. ii. 159. 

SIZE of a Lark ; length six inches. Bill blackish ; plumage 
above brown ; beneath dusky white; on the upper part of the breast 
two transverse brown bands ; the prime quills are brown, the second 
dusky ; tail white at the base, the rest brown ; wings and tail even ; 
legs dusky black. — Inhabits India. 

36 — TICKSEE PLOVER. 

LENGTH seven inches. Bill rather stout, dusky, and a little 
swelling over the nostrils ; head, sides even with the under jaw, and 
all the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, pale cinereous brown; 
chin, neck before, and all beneath to the vent, also the rump and 
upper tail coverts, ferruginous ; legs dusky black. 

Inhabits India; called Ticksee. — Sir J. Anstruther. 

37.— WREATHED PLOVER. 

Charadrius coronatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 749. Gm. Lin. i. 691. 

Pluvier couronne du Cap de Bonne Esperance, Buf. viii. 101. PI. enl. 800. 

Wreathed Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 216. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill reddish, dusky towards the point ; 
the head, even with the eye, and chin, black ; round the crown runs 
a list of white, encircling the head like a wreath ; neck behind, and 
the upper parts of the body brown, with a purplish green gloss in 
some lights ; the same is seen on the breast, marked with a few 
black spots; the neck, as far as the breast, grey; belly and greater 
coverts white ; tail white, with a broad bar of black near the end ; 
quills black ; legs rust-colour. — Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 



344 PLOVER. 

A. — Size the same. Bill half black half orange; crown black; 
over the eyes a white streak, passing on each side backwards to the 
hindhead, as a wreath ; and this again bounded by black ; all the 
upper parts pale brown ; fore part of the neck dusky white ; on the 
breast a black bar; chin, belly, and vent, white ; quills dusky black, 
some of the inner ones margined with white ; tail white, crossed 
with a black bar, one inch broad, near the end, which is white ; 
legs long, and red. — Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and called 
the Red-eyed Plover. 

38.— BLACK-HEADED PLOVER. 

Charadrius melanocephalus, Ind. Orn. ii. 750. Gm. Lin. i. 692. 
Le Pluvian du Senegal, Buf. viii. 104. PL enl. 918. 
Black-headed Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 217. 

LENGTH eight inches and a quarter. Bill black ; crown of 
the head and sides, including the eye, black ; from the nostrils a 
white streak passes over the eye to the hindhead ; beneath this, 
behind the neck, and down the middle of the back, glossy black; 
the black feathers take rise at the middle of the back, but the lower 
ones, being two inches long, extend so far bej'ond the rest, as to 
form a pointed shape; the rest of the back, wing coverts, and scapu- 
lars, fine blue grey; at the bend of the wing a small knob; from the 
beginning of the back the black passes forward on the breast as a 
narrow collar; chin white, the rest of the under parts buff-colour, 
deepest on the under tail coverts ; under wing coverts white ; quills 
more or less black at first, then whitish to the end, the tips brown ; 
the outer feather white a very little way from the base; tail blue 
grey : all but the two middle feathers have a narrow black bar near 
the end, where they are, for half an inch, white ; the quills reach 
nearly to the end of the tail ; legs pale blue ; claws black. 

Inhabits Senegal. — In the collection of Lord Stanley. 



PLOVER. 34o 

A. — Bill brown ; head and chin black ; down the middle of the 
crown rufous; over the eye a streak of white, beginning a little 
beyond the bill, and reaching to the hindhead ; the sides under the 
black nearly white : the neck and breast are rufous, the lower part 
of the latter mottled with brown ; back the same, inclining more to 
brown ; wing coverts and second quills dusky brown ; the greater 
black, with a white base, forming a spot on the wing ; thighs mixed 
rufous brown and black ; vent, upper tail coverts, and tail, pale 
ash-colour, crossed with numerous dusky lines ; quills and tail even : 
legs pale reddish brown. 

Inhabits India. — Sir J. Anstruther. It is called Napurka : at the 
bottom of another drawing it is named Chauckur Shakree, or Chauc- 
kur Tuthurry, and Tetaree : said to be found on the Snowy Moun- 
tains of Surinagur, and to weigh two quarters and a half of a sare. 



39.— BLACK-CROWNED PLOVER. 

Charadrius atricapillus, Ind. Orn. ii. 745. Gm. Lin. i. 686. 
Black-crowned Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 210. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 402. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill one inch, red, with a black tip ; the 
forehead black ; crown the same, surrounded with a circle of white; 
throat white; neck and breast very light ash-coloured brown, divided 
from the belly by a dusky, transverse streak ; belly and vent white ; 
upper part of the body, and wings cinereous brown ; the prime quills 
dusky, towards the bottom white ; base of the tail white, towards 
the end black, the tip again white; legs very long, naked one inch 
above the knee, and of a blood red ; toes very short. 

Inhabits the Province of New York, in North America, and has 
much of the habit of the European Dotterel. 

TOL. IX. Y Y 



346 PLOVER. 



40.— GREEN-HEADED PLOVER. 

Charadrius Africanus, lud. Orn. Sup. p. Ixvii. 

A New Species of Plover, Sonnin. Trav. ii. p. 209. 

Green-headed Plover, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 320. 13. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill black; eyes brown; head deep 
green, with a changeable lustre ; a sort of white diadem surrounds 
the head, passing through the eyes ; back and lesser wing coverts 
bright ash-colour; greater wing coverts white; quills white, tipped 
with black, and a black spot about the middle of each, forming a 
stripe across the wing ; throat white ; the under part of the neck and 
body reddish white; on the upper part of the breast a narrow, shining, 
deep green band, passing half round ; tail short, the feathers of 
unequal lengths, colour cinereous grey for two-thirds, and crossed 
with a band of black ; the remainder white ; legs and feet bluish, 
ciaws black. 

Inhabits various parts of Egypt, and, according to M. Sonnini, 
approaches near to Black-headed Plover, and the description may 
justify such sentiments: but on comparison, they appear to differ in 
many particulars. They were seen mostly in pairs, seldom in troops, 
and even then not exceeding seven or eight; feed on aquatic insects: 
never alight on the mod, but frequent the sandy parts only. When 
they take wing, they utter a little sharp cry, repeated several times ; 
are observed to run rather than fly, as they seldom quit the ground : 
are by no means shy, as they suffer themselves to be easily approached. 



41— SPUR-WINGED PLOVER. 

Charadrius spinosus, Lid. Orn. ii. 74S. Lin. i. 256. Gm. Lin,' i. 690. Hasselq. It. 

260. 261. Id. Engl. Ed.200. 33. Boroivsk. iii. 114. 

Pluvialis Senegalensis armata, Bris. v. 86. t. 7. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 233. Gerin. iv. 

t. 478. 



PLOVER. 347 

Le Pluvier a aigrette, Buf. viii. 99. 

Spur-winged Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 213. Russ. Alep. 72. pi. 11. 

SIZE of the Golden Plover; length twelve inches. Bill black; 
i rides red ; crown of the head and throat black, passing a little way 
down the neck before; the hindhead somewhat crested; neck behind, 
upper parts of the body, and scapulars, greyish brown; sides of the 
head and beneath, yellowish white; across the belly a crescent of 
black, the convex part uppermost ; lesser wing coverts black, the 
middle like the back, the greater yellowish white; but some of the 
outer, and the nine first prime quills are black ; the ten adjoining- 
half white half black ; the two next yellowish white, and the four 
nearest the body grey ; on the fore part of the wing, just within the 
bend, a spur, half an inch in length, a little bent, and black ; tail 
yellowish white, the end for one inch and a half, or more, black, 
deepest on the two middle feathers ; wings and tail even ; legs black. 

Inhabits the marshy places of Lower Egypt, in September. It 
has gained the name of Dominican, from the neck being black, with 
white sides, not unaptly resembling the same part of the habit of 
that order of friars.* In some India drawings the hindhead has a 
crest standing out from the nape more than one inch. 

The female has a shorter crest, and less black in the wings. 



A.— Charadrius spinosus, Ind. Orn. ii. 748. 24. /3. Lin.'i. 256. 12. B. 

Plurialis Persica cristata, Bris. v. 84. Id. 8vo. ii. 232. 

Gavia, seu Vanellus Indicus, Klein, Av. 22. 10. 

Pluvier arme du Senegal, PI. enl. 801. 

Pluvier huppe de Perse, Buf. viii. 98. 

Black-breasted Indian Plover, Edio. pi. 47.— male. 

Spur-winged Plover, Edw. pi. 280.— 'female. Gen. Syn. v. 214. A, 

Length eleven inches and a half; weight four ounces. The bill 
black ; top of the head glossy black, a little crested behind ; cheeks, 

* Hasselquist. 
Y y2 



348 PLOVER. 

liindhead, and sides of the neck white ; neck behind, back, scapulars, 
rump, and upper tail coverts chestnut brown ; throat, neck before, 
breast, and upper part of the belly black, with a gloss of violet on 
the former; lower belly and vent white ; wing coverts like the back, 
but those farthest from the body, and the second quills, are brownish 
chestnut, tipped with white; the greater black ; tail four inches long, 
even at the end, white for two-thirds of the length, the rest black ; 
legs deep brown. 

One, supposed to be the female, has the bill and crest the same : 
it differs chiefly in having the whole of the neck white; the black 
on the throat reaching only for an inch down ; breast and upper part 
of the belly black ; outer tail feathers tipped with white : both sexes 
have a spur on the bend of the wing. 

Inhabits Russia ; and frequent near Aleppo, about the River 
Coic.*' The Spur-winged Plovers are very numerous, and exceed- 
ingly noisy; have a hasty, and almost continual, movement of the 
head and neck, drawing them up briskly, and then stretching them 
quickly forward, almost as if they were making hasty and eager bows.f 



B — In this the bill and legs are black; the head, neck behind, 
chin, throat, and sides of the head, taking in the eye, black; back 
and wing coverts pale ash grey; all the under parts white, except 
a pale tinge of slate-colour on the breast, across which is a bar of 
black ; on the bend of the wing a sharp spine ; quills black, the 
end of the tail feathers black, the rest white. 

* In the plate referred to in Dr. Russel, the bird seems to have a minute back toe, or 
at least a spur, though the text mentions only three toes in all. The having a minute spur 
is not uncommon in the Plover Genus ; and I find a specimen in the British Museum fur- 
nished with a small one. f SonninPs Travels, ii. p. 57. 



PLOVER. 349 



42 —CAYENNE PLOVER. 

Cliaradrius Cayanus, hid. Orn. ii. 449. 
Pluvier arme de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 102. PI. enl. 833. 
Le Mbatuitui arme, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 391. 
Spur-winged Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 215. 20. B. 

LENGTH about nine inches. Bill one inch, dusky ; the back 
part of the head and nape are white, mixed in the middle with 
grey ; the fore part and sides black, passing to the nape, and occu- 
pying all the back part of the neck; it then comes forward, sur- 
rounding it as a collar; the chin pure white ; all the under parts 
beyond the collar are also white ; the middle of the back and wings 
are rufous grey ; near the bend of the latter a sharp, bent spur ; 
scapulars and quills black ; upper tail coverts and base half of the 
tail white, the rest black, the white occupying a greater portion of 
each feather, as it is more outward ; the tail is even at the end, and 
the quills reach to the end of it; the legs are long, and yellowish. 

Inhabits Cayenne. One met with in Paraguay, in November. 



43.— HOODED PLOVER. 

Charadrius pileatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 749. Gm. Lin.'i. 691. 
Pluvier coiffe du Senegal, Buf. viii. 100. PL enl. 834. 
Hooded Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 215. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill orange, with a black point ; 
forehead, just over the bill, and the chin, white; on each side of the 
forehead, before the eye, a small lunated caruncle, fixed at the lower 
edge ; the rest of the head and neck generally black, but from the 
eye to the hindhead is a streak of white ; at the nape the feathers 
elongated into a pointed crest, under which it is white ; the black 
continues from the throat, in a streak, as far as the breast, where it 
is somewhat broken ; the upper part of the body, wing coverts, and 



350 PLOVER. 

lesser quills, are light rufous grey ; beneath from the breast, and 
under the wings,' white ; the tail is nearly four inches long ; the base 
for two inches and a half white, the rest black to the end, with the 
tip white; quills black, more or less white half way from the base; 
and a streak of white passes from the bend of the wing obliquely 
across the base of the quills ; legs red ; at the bend of the wing a 
small short knob, not to be called a spur. 

Inhabits Senegal. In the PL enlum. the tail appears to be 
wholly black. A perfect specimen in the collection of Lord Stanley, 
answers to the above description. 



44 —DWARF PLOVER. 

Charadrius Pusillus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 187. — Horsfield. 

SIZE not mentioned ; but from the name, we should conceive it 
to be a small species. Plumage above cinereous brown; beneath 
white; the colour of the upper parts continued as a band on the 
breast; the middle tail feathers cinereous brown, with a band of a 
deeper colour towards the end. 

Inhabits Java. 



pl.ci/v: 








('wan/ -/v'//////v/ ( Vw /'r/c ; ■ 



COURSER. 351 



GENUS LXXXIIL— COURSER. 



1 Cream-coloured Courser 
A Var. 



2 Coromandel 
A Var. 



3 Collared 

4 Double-collared 



i HE bill in this Genus is roundish, bent downwards at the end. 
and sharp ; gape wide. 

Nostrils oval. 

Tongue sharp. 

Legs made for running, with three toes, all placed forwards. 

1— CREAM-COLOURED COURSER— Pl. clv. 

Cursorius Europasus, Ind. Om. ii. 751. 

Gallicus, Cm. Lin. i. 692. 

isabellinus, Tern. Man. 2d. Ed. p. 513. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 187. 

PluvialisMorinellus flavescens, Corrione biondo, Gerin. iv. t. 474. 

Le Coure-vite, Buf. viii. 12S. Pl. enl. 795. 

Cream-coloured Courser, Br. Zool. 1812. ii, p. 108. 

Cream-coloured Plover, Gen. Syn. v. p. 217. 25. Id. Sup. 254. pl. cxvi. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long, in 
shape not unlike that of the Pratincole, but longer, and dusky 
black ; plumage in general cream-colour, or buff, paler beneath ; 
behind the eyes a patch of black ; through them a pale streak, 
passing to the hindhead, and dividing the black ; the nine first 
quills black ; the rest of the wing in general, and coverts, as the 
back ; tail cream colour, the tw 7 o middle feathers plain, the others 
marked with a large black spot near the ends, but occupying the 
inner web only on the outer feather, the ends of all nearly white ; 
legs yellowish white ; segments of the shins very distinct ; claws 
black. This bird was killed in France, and was at that time con- 
sidered singular, as it had never been met with before : it was observed 
to run with great swiftness. 



352 COURSER. 



A. —This Variety has the general markings of the former, but 
the forehead as far as the crown, is darker than the rest ; sides of 
the head, throat, and belly, paler ; behind the eyes an obscure mark; 
tail much as in the former, but the ends very little paler than the 
base, and not white. 

One of this curious, and rare species was shot near St. Albans, 
in East Kent, the seat of William Hammond, Esq. on the 10th of 
November, 1785, who presented it to me, with the following account: 
he first met with it on some light land ; and so little fearful was it, 
that having no gun with him at that time, he sent for one, which 
did not readily go off", having been charged for some time, and in 
consequence he missed his aim : the report frightened the bird away, 
but after making a turn or two, it again settled within one hundred 
yards of him, when he was prepared with a second shot, which 
killed it. He observed it to run with incredible swiftness, considering 
its size, and at intervals to pick something from the ground, and 
was so bold, as to render it difficult to make it rise, in order to take 
a more secure aim on the wing. The note was unlike that of any 
Plover, nor indeed of any known bird. 

We are informed, in the Supplement to the Ornithological Dic- 
tionary, that one of these was shot in North Wales, in the year 
1793, and preserved in the collection of the late Professor Sibthorp, 
at Oxford.* — I met with a specimen of this among the birds of Mr. 
Salt, who obtained it in his last journey into Abyssinia. This was 
shot on a sandy plain near the Tacazza River : the colour of the 
plumage exactly suited to the desert, being as in the Desert Lark, 
so much resembling the soil, as to elude the eye at a moderate dis- 
tance. It is also found in the Island of Java, but the colours less 
vivid, than in the European Specimens. 

* Mr. Atkinson, author of the Compendium of Ornithology, was also in possession of 
one, shot at Netherby, in April 1816. 



COURSER. 



353 



2 — COROM ANDEL COURSER. 

Curaorius Asiaticus, bid. Orn. ii. 751. Gm. Lin. i. 692. 
Courvite de Coromandel, Buf. viii. 129. PL ml. 892. 
Coromandel Plover, Gen. Syn. v. 217. 26. 

RATHER smaller than the former. Bill dusky ; top of the 
head, the fore parts as far as the breast, and beginning of the belly, 
reddish chestnut ; chin white ; behind and above the eye a streak of 
white; through the eye a black one, passing to the hindhead ; the 
white entering a little way into the black at the back part; hind part 
of the neck, back, wings, and tail, brown ; quills black; upper part 
of the belly dusky ; the rest of the under parts, rump, upper tail 
coverts, and tip of the tail, white; legs yellowish white. 

Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel. This is well figured among 
the drawings of Sir John Anstruther. One in General Hardwicke's 
collection of drawings had the Hindustan name of Joogerrera. 



A. — Bill black; forehead and half the crown pale rufous, the 
rest to the nape white ; from the gape to the hindhead, through the 
eye, a black streak, dividing behind the eye into two, passing round 
the nape in the white; upper parts of the body and wings dull 
greenish brown ; beneath pale dusky rufous ; belly and vent much 
paler ; quills and tail plain black ; legs long, yellow, claws black. 

This is called in the Persic tongue Turthury : perhaps this word 
is corresponding with Teetaree, a name which we have observed to 
be given to more than one of the Sandpiper and Plover Genus, 
particularly the Goa Sandpiper. This Variety is figured among the 
drawings of Lord Mountnorris, and differs only in having the tail 
feathers white ; but the two middle appear to be black ; the bill 
seems to be less curved than in the PI. enlum. nor is there any black 
between the thighs ; the quills reach to near the end of the tail, 
which is very short. 

VOL. IX. Z z 



354 



COURSER. 



3.— COLLARED COURSER. 

LENGTH twelve inches and a half. Bill dusky, shaped much 
as in the first species, base half of the lower mandible dull orange ; 
the gape wide, extending as far as the eyes beneath ; forehead to the 
eyes buff-colour, continuing as a streak over the eyes, and beyond ; 
top of the head brown ; back and wing coverts the same, but paler, 
approaching to fawn-colour; quills black, with a glossy violet bronze 
towards the ends ; the base within for some way white, appearing as 
a long patch on the wing; bastard wing large, and black ; the chin 
is nearly white; throat and breast dull buff; across the breast a 
dusky bar; from thence all beneath white; under wing coverts 
whitish buff; the base of the tail for one-third is white, then brown, 
the two outer feathers pale at the tips, and the exterior the same on 
the outer web ; all the others have the tips buff; shape of the tail 
rounded ; legs bare for one inch above the joint; shins two inches 
long, and toes in proportion ; the segments of the shins fourteen or 
fifteen, and very distinct, and the upper part next the joint remark- 
ably broad, with a deep furrow in front for half an inch. 

The above is in the collection of W. Comyns, Esq. but without 
any history attached. It seems to approach in many things to the 
Coromandel Species, but is a larger bird. 



4.-DOUBLE-COLLARED COURSER. 

Cursorius bicinctus, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 515. 

LENGTH ten inches. Bill short, black; top of the head brown, 
varied with rufous ; cheeks, neck, and nape, Isabella-colour, streaked 
longitudinally with brown ; on the lower part of the neck a collar 



COURSER. 355 

of black, and beneath this a second, twice as broad as the first : these 
collars extend upwards to the back ; all the under parts beyond this 
are Isabella-colour; the back, wings, and tail, brown, the feathers 
margined with pale rnfous; second quills dusky black ; legs orange, 
very long, and the inner toe very short. 

One of these was killed by M. Levaillant, in the interior of 
Africa. Observed to frequent barren parts, at a distance from water, 
and to run with an astonishing degree of quickness. 



z z 2 



356 OYSTER-CATCHER. 



GENUS LXXXIV. -OYSTER-CATCHER. 



1 Pied Oyster-catcher 
A Var. 



B Var. 
2 Black 



3 Brown-backed 

4 New-Holland 



JLjILL long, compressed, cuneated at the end. 

Nostrils linear. 

Tongue scarcely one-third of the length of the bill. 

Toes three in number, all placed forwards ; the exterior joined 
to the middle by a strong membrane. 



1.— PIED OYSTER-CATCHER — Pl. clvi. 

Hsematopus ostralegus, Ind. Orn. ii. 752. Lin. i. 257. Faun. suec. No. 192. Gm. 

Lin. i. G94. Brun. No. 189. Midler, No. 215. Sepp, t. p. 51. Raii, 105. A. 7. 

Will. 200. t. 55. Borowsk. iii. 106. t. 57. Fn. Helv. Bartr. Trav. 294. Gerin. 

iv. t. 471. Amer. Orn. viii. pl. 64, f. 2. Tern. Man. 340. Id. Ed. ii. p. 531. 

Robert, pl. 22. 
Scolopax Pica, Scop. i. No. 135. 
Pica marina, N. C. Petr. iv. 425. 

Ostralega, seu Pica marina, Bris. v. 38. t. 3. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 221. Klein, p. 23. 
L'Huitiier, Buf. viii. 119. pl. 9. Pl. enl. 929. 
Die Meerelster, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 226. 
Austermann, Win: Vog. t. 36. 

Austerfischer, Naturf. xiii. 219. Schmid, p. 110. t. 96. 
Pied Oyster-catcher, Gen. Syn. v. 219. pl. 84. Br. Zool. ii. 213. pl.74. Id.fol. 127. 

pl. D. 2. Id. 1812. ii. p. 112. pl. xix. Arct. Zool. ii. p. 406. Will. Engl. 297. 

Alb. i. pl. 78. Cat. Car. i. pl. 85. Hayes, pl. 12. Bew. ii. pl. p. 7. Lewin, v. 

pl. 188. /</. pl. xxxv. 1.— the egg. Wale. ii. pl. 166. Donov. iii. pl. 62. Putt. 

Dors. p. 15. Graves, Orn. Orn. Diet. <y Supp. 

SIZE of a Crow ; length sixteen inches ; weight seventeen 
ounces. Bill above three inches long, straight, compressed on the 
sides, and in old birds blunt at the end ; the colour of it and the 
eyelids orange ; irides glowing crimson ; the head and neck are 



Pi.CX.VI. 




•S/sfd I Uttte ?■-{■«/?•/?/ \ 



OYSTER-CATCHER. 357 

black, except a small spot of white under the eyelid, and a crescent 
of the same across the throat; wing coverts, scapulars, and upper 
part of the back black; the middle coverts tipped with white; the 
greater white ; quills black, more or less marked with white within ; 
lower part of the back, rump, breast, and under parts, white ; tail 
white half way from the base, the end half black ; legs dirty red, 
claws black : in some the end half of the bill is black, and in others 
the white under the eyelid and chin, are both wanting; the chin also 
is sometimes white, mottled with black ; how far these varieties arise 
from age or sex, is not clear, but both sexes have been killed, occa- 
sionally, without any white on the throat. 

This is a common bird in England ; seen in greater numbers on 
the western shores, feeding on shell fish, and in particular oysters* 
and limpets ; insinuating their bills into the first gaping oyster they 
meet with, and scoop out the inhabitant ; the same by the limpets 
whenever they can slide the end of the bill between the edge of the 
shell and the rock they adhere to; and these birds will likewise feed 
on marine insects and worms. In winter the Oyster-catchers are 
seen in considerable flocks, but they do not depart from us : in 
summer are only in pairs, though chiefly near the sea, or salt rivers.f 
The female lays four or five eggs, weighing an ounce and half each, 
on the bare ground, on the shore, above high water mark ; they are 
of a greenish grey, blotched with black : the young hatched in about 
three weeks: when in flocks they are for the most part wild, and 
suspicious ; yet are easily brought up tame, if taken young. I have 
known them to be kept in this state for a long time, frequenting 
ponds and ditches during the day, and attending the Ducks, and 
other poultry, to shelter at night, and not nnfrequently to come by 
themselves to the poultry yard as the evening approached : are called 

* The author of American Ornithology doubts the circumstance, as he did not observe 
these birds to frequent the places where oysters abound : called by some in America, Hagdel. 

f On a particular point of land, on the coast of Lincolnshire, near Skegness, they breed 
ia such abundance, that a bushel of eggs has been taken in one morning.— Orn. Diet. 



358 OYSTER-CATCHER. 

in England by the name of Sea Pie, or Olive. I have observed 
that the Oyster-catcher, when in confinement, has now and then a 
kind of whistle ; but, in a letter from the Rev. J. Roberts, of Saint 
Davids, he says — " Their note is shrill and piercing, like a sweet- 
toned pipe." 

This bird seems to be a general inhabitant, found in most parts 
of the Old Continent, and universally in the neighbourhood of the 
sea ; inhabits also the various parts of America, from New York to 
the Bahama Islands,* as well as Cayenne and Surinam.! Scheuchzer 
mentions it as being in Japan. $ 



2— BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER. 

Haematopus corpore toto nigro, Forst. Voy. i. 453. Park. Voy. 48S. Hawksw. Voy. 

ii. 333. Cook's Last Voyage, i. 151. Id. ii. 378. 
Haematopus niger, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 533. 

THIS is larger than the European Species. Bill, irides, and 
eyelids, red ; plumage in general full black ; legs red. 

Inhabits New-Holland, § Van Diemen's Land, Terra del Fuego, f| 
New Zealand,** and the Island of Curacoa. ft 



3.— BROWN-BACKED OYSTER-CATCHER. 

LENGTH nineteen inches to the end of the tail, and to that 
of the toes twenty-one ; breadth thirty-one. Bill more than three 
inches ; in shape and colour like the others, but more stout ; head 
and neck dull black ; back and wings pale brown ; on the latter a 
patch of white ; prime quills black ; secondaries brown, some of 

* Arct. Zool. Cates. Car. i. 85. Park. Voy. 144. f Descrip. Surin. ii. 167. 

% Hist. Jap. i. 130. § Damp. Voy. iii. pi. in p. 123.— Cook's Last Voy. i. 110. 

|| Forst. Voy. i. 453.— Park. Voy. 488. ** Hawksw. Voy. ii. 333. 
ft Feuille Obs. 1725. p. 289. 



OYSTER-CATCHER. 359 

the outer ones white on the exterior margins, and about one inch 
shorter than the prime ones ; all the under parts from the breast, 
the under wing coverts, upper and under tail coverts, white; some of 
the latter nearly as long as the tail, which is four inches in length ; 
from the base to the middle white, from thence to the end dusky, 
the feathers having more white in them as they are more outward ; 
legs red. 

The above was described to me by Mr. Abbot, of Savannah, in 
Georgia, near which he met with a specimen, and it appeared to 
him as a new species. M. Temminck mentions a bird which we 
take to be this, under the name of Haematopus palliatus.* 



4 —NEW-HOLLAND OYSTER-CATCHER. 

LENGTH thirty-two inches. Bill more than six inches long, 
red, and shaped as in our Species ; nostrils pervious ; irides reddish 
blue; eyelids red; the whole head and neck, as far as the breast, 
the beginning of the back, and the wings, deep dusky brown ; breast, 
belly, thighs, lower part of the back, and rump, white ; tail half 
white half black; legs dusky flesh-colour, in very old birds red; 
the wings reach nearly to the end of the tail ; the lesser wing coverts 
margined with ferruginous, with some mixture of white about the 
middle. 

Inhabits New-Holland : is a solitary bird, being only found in 
pairs at any time; has a simple, plaintive note, which it never varies; 
frequents the sea shores, living on spawn, and young fish, also shell 
fish; from which it becomes generally very fat, though not agreeable 
for food, on account of the oily, or fishy flavour. The flesh and fat 
are both high-coloured, especially the latter. Native name Boo- 
aning; called by the English the Red Bill. In some birds the 
plumage is wholly black, where in others it is dusky brown, with a 
conspicuous white bar across the middle of the wing. 

* See Manuel, 2d. Ed. p. 532. 



360 PRATINCOLE. 



GENUS LXXX— PRATINCOLE. 



1 Austrian Pratincole 


D Var. 


A Var. 


2 Senegal 


B Var. 


3 Spotted 


C Var. 


4 Cinereous 



5 Oriental 

6 Australasian 

7 Cream-coloured 



-DILL short, strong, straight, a little compressed on the sides, the 
upper mandible hooked at the end, gape wide. 

Nostrils near the base, linear, oblique. 

Thighs naked for half the length. 

Wings long. 

Tail, consisting of twelve feathers, forked for the most part. 

Toes long, slender, four in number, three before and one behind; 
those placed forwards connected by , a membrane at the base ; the 
back toe half the length of the fore one. 



1.— AUSTRIAN PRATINCOLE— Pl. clvii. 

Glareola Austriaea, Ind. Orn. ii. 753. Bris.v. 141. t. 12. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 248. Fn. 

Helv. Gerin. v. t. 547. Gm. reise, i. 77. pl. 16. 
Glareola Pratincola, Lin. Trans, xz'ii. 131. t. 12. — male & female. 
Glareola torquata, Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. p. 500. 
Pratincola, Kram. 381. pl. in p. 400. Borowsk. iii. 158. 
Hirundo Pratincola, Lin. i. 345. Gm. Lin. i. 695. Gm. reise, iv. 149. 
Hirundo marina Aldrovandi, Will. 156. § V. 
Hirundo riparia, Mars. Dan. v. 96. t. 46. 
Das Oesterreichische Sandhuhn, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 231. t. 13. Id. Ed. 2d. iv. 461. 

A. B. Schmid, 130. t. 114. 
La Perdrix de Mer, Buf. vii. 544. PI. enl. 882. 
Die Schneppe, Gmel. reise, i. 77. t. 16. 
Sea-Swallow of Aldrovaudus, Will. Engl. 214. § V. 
Austrian Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 222. pl. 85. Lin. Trans, ix. p. 128. Id. xi. p. 177. 

Orn. Diet. pl. in Sup. Shaw's Zool. x. 136. pl. 16. 

SIZE of a Blackbird ; length nine inches. Bill ten lines and 
a half long, base red, the rest black ; plumage on the upper parts 



TL.C1ML. 




-_ '///.//// ,?// r/'/Yf/^/nj/c . 



PRATINCOLE. 361 

grey brown ; chin and throat white, surrounded with a black line, 
which begins at the back part of the eye, and bounds the white all 
round ; the under parts of the body rufous grey, paler towards the 
vent; upper tail coverts the same; quills and tail dusky ; the last 
much forked in shape, the feathers tipped with grey on the inner 
webs, the outer web of the exterior white; legs, and bare space above 
the joint, blood-red, the middle toe remarkably long. 

This bird inhabits Germany, particularly the borders of the 
Rhine, near Strasburgh, living on worms, and aquatic insects; is 
sometimes seen in France, especially about Lorraine, but most 
numerous in the deserts towards the Caspian Sea, frequenting the 
dry plains in great flocks ; likewise common throughout the whole 
deserts of the Independent Tartars, as far as the River Kamysch- 
losska and Irtish, but not farther in Siberia : the plains which it 
affects being there at an end; and in general it is not observed beyond 
53 degrees to the north. 

The late Mr. White informed me, that finding Linnaeus had 
placed this bird with the Swallows, he sent one to him, which was 
shot on the shore of Gibraltar, in May 1770; on the sight of which 
this great naturalist concurred in opinion, that it belonged to the 
Waders, and not to the Passerine Order. Kramer has also properly 
discriminated this bird, and given a good figure of it, though it did 
not appear that Linnaeus availed himself of the above information. 
According to Kramer, the Pratincole is found common on the heathy 
meadows in some parts of Austria, more especially about the Lake 
Czirnichew, and is there called Brachvogel. It is, also, not unfre- 
quent in Spain, and chiefly found either in moist meadows, or 
ploughed lands ; and it appears there first in spring, and stays 
through the summer. Instances of this bird having been met with 
in England are very rare : some years since, the game-keeper of a 
gentleman, in Kent, informed me, of having shot a kind of Swift, 
with a forked tail, and a bent, stout bill ; but as I did not see the 
bird, I could only conjecture that it might possibly have been a 

VOL. IX. A A A 



362 PRATINCOLE. 

Pratincole; but Mr. Bullock mentions, that one was shot in the 
year 1805, about three miles from Liverpool, and that both cater- 
pillars and beetles were found in the stomach.* Mr. Bullock met 
with it again in the Island of Unst, about three miles from the 
extremity of North Britain, f in September. 



A. — Glareola torquata, Ltd. Orn. ii. 753. Id. 8vo. ii. 249. Gm. Lin. i. 696. Klein, 

101. G. 
La Perdrix de Mer a Collier, Buf. vii. 546. 

Le Chorlito a demi-colliers blanc et noiratre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 405 ? 
Das Sandhuhn mit dem Halsbande, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 233. 
Collared Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 223. Var. A. 

This is less than the former. Bill dusky ; plumage above grey 
brown ; on each side of the head a white spot near the eye ; forehead 
black ; throat, and neck before white, surrounded with a brown line 
like a collar; breast and beneath whitish ; quills dusky; tail like 
the back ; legs blackish. 

Inhabits Germany, near streams, and makes the nest on the sandy 
shores : said to lay as far as seven eggs ; and is a noisy, restless bird. 

This Variety, or a bird very nearly similar, is said, by Azara, 
to be in Paraguay : length eight inches and a quarter, breadth 
fourteen. Bill green, with a dusky point: it differs in having a 
whitish streak on the head, which is, at the top, almost black ; sides 
brown, neck the same; above the eye, behind it, another white 
streak, ending at the hindhead; and near the nostrils another; at 
the beginning of the wing a dusky black half collar; some of the 
scapulars are white, the others black ; but the general colour of the 
plumage as in the above. 

* Lin. Trans, ix. p. 19S. Now in the collection of Lord Stanley. f Lin. Trans.xi. 177. 



PRATINCOLE. 363 



B. — Glareola Austriaca, Ind. Orn. ii. 754. 1. y. 

Perdrix de Mer, Son. Voy. p. 216. 

Maldivian Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 224. Var. B. 

This is nine inches in length. Bill black; irides red brown; 
head and upper parts the colour of umber; under wing coverts red 
brown; throat white, surrounded with a black band, and a longi- 
tudinal black line on each feather; quills and tail black; rump, 
belly, and vent, white. 

Inhabits India. The above taken alive at open sea, in the lati- 
tude of the Maldive Islands. This lived a month in confinement, 
being fed with flies, and bread soaked in water. 



C. — Glareola Austriaca, Ind. Orn. ii. 754. 8. 

Coromandel Pratincole, Gen. Sy?i. v. 224. C. Son. Voy. 216. 

Bill and legs black; the head and upper parts paler; throat 
rufous white, with a curved narrow black band as in the others ; 
quills blackish brown ; beneath the wings bright chestnut ; irides 
reddish ; rump and upper tail coverts white, occupying more space 
than in the former bird ; breast rufous white; belly and vent white; 
tail forked, the feathers white half way from the base, the rest of 
the length brown, with a spot of dirty grey at the end. 

Inhabits the Coast of Coromandel. — Lord Stanley. In this the 
middle claw is about one-third of an inch long, not much bent, and 
on the inside thinner, appearing as a horny skin, with several 
indentations. 



D.— Glareola Austriaca, Ind. Orn. ii. 754. s. 

Madras Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 224. 1. D. Son. Voy. p. 216. 

Smaller than the others. Bill and legs black ; irides red brown ; 
crown of the head deep brown ; neck, back, and wing coverts, dirty 

A A A 2 



364 PRATINCOLE. 

rufous grey ; quills brown ; under wing coverts pale red brown ; 
upper tail coverts white, breast and belly pale brown; thighs and 
vent white ; tail feathers brown, all but the two middle ones marked 
with a curved white spot near the ends; the outer one half white 
from the base, and brown the rest of the length ; the wings, when at 
rest, reach beyond the end of the tail. 
Inhabits India. 



2.-SENEGAL PRATINCOLE. 

Glareola Senegalensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 754. Gm. Lin. i. 696. Bris. v. 148. Id. 8vo. 

ii. 250. 
Tringa fusca, Lin. i. 252. Falck, It. iii. 376. s. 26. 
La Perdrix de Mer brune, Buf. vii. 544. 
Senegal Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 225. Shaw's Zool. x. p. 138. 

LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill eleven lines long, brown; 
plumage in general brown ; tail forked ; legs brown. 
Inhabits Senegal. 



3— SPOTTED PRATINCOLE. 

Glareola naevia, Ind. Orn. ii. 754. Gm. Lin. i. 696. Bris. v. 147. Id. 8vo. ii. 250. 

Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 131. t. 12. 
Gallinula Melampus, Raii, 109. cap. x. Will. 225. t. 56. Klein, 101. 9. 
Daa Gefleckte Sandhuhn, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 235. 
Rotknussel, or Giarola ? Will. Engl. 304. ch. x. pi. 56. 2. 
La Giarole, Buf. vii. 545. 
Spotted Pratincole, Gen. Syn. v. 225. Shaw's Zool. x. 139. 

SIZE of the others. Bill black ; head, neck, breast, and upper 
part of the belly, spotted brown and white ; body above brown, but 
the spots less distinct ; lower belly, sides, and vent, rufous white, 
spotted with black ; quills black ; second quills black and ash- 
colour; tail whitish, tipped with black; legs above the joint black. 



PRATINCOLE. 365 

Inhabits Germany. — We are unwilling to pass over the opinions 
of former authors on this subject, and have referred to them accord- 
ingly, not without great suspicion that the whole of the above form 
but one species, differing only in sex, or variation of feathers during 
the progress towards maturity. M. Temminck supposes this last to 
be a young bird, in incomplete feather. ' 



4.— CINEREOUS PRATINCOLE. 

LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill more than half an inch 
long, curved, and black ; between the bill and eye a narrow line of 
black ; irides brown ; eye surrounded with white ; plumage above 
very pale ash-colour, extending over the breast; chin and throat 
whitish, with a few dusky streaks; belly, thighs, and vent, white; 
rump and upper tail coverts the same ; tail one inch and a half or 
more long, and nearly even at the end ; most of the middle feathers 
black, with the ends white ; two or three of the outer ones white for 
the greater part from the base, deepest on the outer ones ; and the 
exterior white on the outer web for the whole length ; legs purplish 
red, bare a quarter of an inch above the knee, the joint of which is 
black, and the toes darker than the rest of the leg ; claws long, 
hooked, and slender ; quills dusky black, and exceed the end of the 
tail by three quarters of an inch. 

Inhabits India, called there Kay-chul ; seen at Cawnpore in 
October. 

5— ORIENTAL PRATINCOLE. 

Glareola Orientalis, Lin. Trans, xiii. 132. pi. 13.— male & female. — Leach. Id. p, 
187.— Horsfield. 

IN this the bill is black ; gape yellow ; plumage above brownish 
ash-colour, beneath white ; throat surrounded with a broken ring of 



366 PRATINCOLE. 

black; tail forked, but less so than in the first species ; colour white, 
the end for one-third black; the outer feather wholly white; legs 
testaceous, or pale yellow brown ; the chin, throat, and belly, iu the 
male, are pale rufous; in the female white : the shoulders of the wings 
in old birds marked with white. 

Inhabits Java, and called Tre ; brought by M. Leschenault. 



6.— AUSTRALASIAN PRATINCOLE. 

Glareola grallaria, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 503. 

Glareola Australis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 132. pi. 14. f. 1. 2. 

IN this the bill is red at the base, and black at the tip; general 
colour of the plumage above, and the breast light rufous ; throat 
and upper tail coverts white ; belly bright chestnut ; quills and 
under wing coverts black ; legs and a great part above the joint 
bare, and reddish yellow; tail nearly even at the end, and the wings 
exceed it in length by three inches. 

Inhabits Australasia. 



7.— CREAM-COLOURED PRATINCOLE. 

Glareola lactea, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 503. 

LENGTH five inches and three quarters. Bill black, margins 
reddish ; plumage above and wings cinereous white ; under parts of 
the body white; quills and under wing coverts black ; tail feathers, 
except the outer one, marked with a black spot ; the tail a trifle 
hollowed out at the end ; legs brown. 

Inhabits Bengal. Called at Cawnpore, Kay-chul. 



RAIL. 



367 



GENUS LXXXVI— RAIL. 



1 Water Rail 
A Var. 

2 New-Holland 

3 Gular 

4 Four-streaked 

5 Virginian 

6 Clapper 

7 Troglodyte 
A Var. 

8 Philippine 
A Var. 

B Var. 



C Var. 

D Var. 

9 Banded 

10 Brown 

11 Red-breasted 

12 Cape 

13 Blue-necked 
A Var. 

14 Dark 

15 Rufous 

16 Rufous-headed 

17 Ceylon 



18 Pacific 

19 Tabuan 
A Var. 

20 Black 

21 Sandwich 

22 Otaheite 

23 Dusky 

24 Long-billed 

25 Barbary 

26 Doubtful 

27 Fasciated 



ijILL slender, a little compressed, and slightly bent. 
Nostrils small, frequently placed in a furrow. 
Tongue rough at the end. 
Body compressed on the sides. 

At the edge of the wing, in several, one or more short spurs. 
Tail short for the most part. 



1— WATER RAIL. 

Rallus aquaticus, Ind. Orn. ii. 755. Lin. i. 262. Fn. suec. No. 195. Gm. Lin. i: 

712. Scop. i. No. 155. Brun. No. 193. Muller, No. 219. Kramer, 349. 2. 

Klein, 103. 2. Id. Stem. 22. t. 23. f. 1. a. b. Fn. arag. 79. Bris. v. 151. 1. 

t. 12. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 251. Raii, 113. A. 2. Id. 190. 12. Borowsk. iii. 102. 

Fn. Helv. Schcef. el. t, 60.— the head. Will. 234. t. 56. Tern. Man. 442. Id. 

Ed. ii. 683. 
Scolopax obscura, S. G. Gmelin. iii. p. 92. t. 17. 
Gallina palustris vulgaris, Gerin: v. t. 481. 

Gallinula aquatica, Act. Nid. ii. 340. f. 12. Mars. Dan. v. 68. t. 32. 
Gallina serica, Raii, 114. 4 ? Will. 235. 

Rale d'Eau, Buf. viii. 154. pi. 13. PI. enl. 749. Robert, pi. 5. 
Die grosse Wasserralle, Naturf. xiii. 221. 135. Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 267. 1. 14. Id. 

Ed. 2d. iv. 464. Schmid, 133. t. 117. 



368 RAIL. 

Velvet Runner, Will. Engl. 313. 

Water Rail, Gen. Syn.v. 227. 1. Br. Zool. ii. No. 214. pi. 75. Id.fol. 130. pi. E. E. 

Id. 1812. ii. 114. pi. 20. f. 1. Sloan. Jam. 321. 16. Albin, i. pi. 77. Will. Engl. 

314. t. 56. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 13. Lewin, v. pi. 189. Id. xsxv. 2 — the eg-g. 

Wale. ii. pi. 171. Puft. Dor*, p. 15. Don. pi. 104. Wern. Tr. iii. 174. Orn. 

Diet, fy Sup. Graves, Orn. 

LENGTH twelve inches, breadth sixteen ; weight four ounces 
and a half. Bill one inch and three quarters, dusky, with a reddish 
base; irides red ; plumage above olive brown, the middle of each 
feather black ; beneath, to the middle of the belly, ash-colour ; 
lower belly, thighs, and vent, the same, with rufous edges ; sides of 
the body barred transversely black and white; bastard wing furnished 
with a short spine ;* quills dusky ; under the tail white; tail short, 
the feathers twelve in number, and the length two inches, black, 
tips of the two middle feathers ferruginous ; the others the same on 
the margins; legs dusky red; toes long, divided to the bottom. 
Both sexes much the same, but the bill in the male is longer, and 
more red. Young birds have the feathers of the fore part of the 
neck margined with white, and some of those have the bend of the 
wing barred black and white ; but whether owing to Variety, or 
peculiar to young birds, is not certain. 

This species is sufficiently common in England, but more plen- 
tiful in many parts in the winter season. Its chief haunts are the 
edges of ponds and rivulets, well furnished with cover; under which 
it may shelter itself in cases of danger, and as it runs fast, it will 
more often trust to its legs for escape than to the wings, for it flies 
with difficulty, and with the legs handing down ; it will also fre- 
quently take to the water, where it swims tolerably well ; and often 
will run on the surface, if there be any weeds to bear it up. 

Is called by some the Bilcock, and Brook Ouzel. It makes the 
nest of sedge and coarse grass, among the thickest aquatic plants ; 

* The Troglodyte, Cape, and Black Species, are furnished with the same. 



RAIL. 369 

lays five or six* pale yellowish eggs, marked all over, irregularly, 
with dusky brown spots. — This species is found in plenty on the 
Continent of Europe, Sweden, Norway, and Russia, and the west 
part of Siberia; as well as throughout Germany, France, Spain, and 
Italy ; but there seems migratory ; is common in the winter, in the 
Province of Andalusia, and on all parts of the Isthmus of Gibraltar, 
especially in the flooded season ; is seen, spring and autumn, 
passing over the Island of Malta, and has been met with at sea, 
50 leagues distant from the Coast of Portugal. Its food supposed 
to consist of insects and worms principally. Dr. Lamb, of Newbury, 
on opening one, found the stomach very muscular, and containing 
only a few broken small shells.f 



2.— NEW-HOLLAND RAIL. 

SIZE large ; height of the bill from the ground when standing 
twenty inches. Bill one inch and a half long, green, the end yellow ; 
crown of the head and nape rufous ; the rest of the parts above olive- 
brown, inclining to red brown on the back ; sides under the eye, 
and all beneath from the chin slaty grey, increasing to black on the 
belly, where it is crossed with numerous lines of white ; vent plain ; 
thighs grey ; tail short, and hid by the wings when closed ; under 
the middle of the wing a tuft of white ; legs stout, full of segments, 
length of the shins three inches and a half; middle toe three inches, 
colour dusky ; claws moderate. 

Inhabits New South Wales. — In the collection of Gen. Da vies. 

* From eight to twelve. — Bechstein. Colonel Montagu says, frequently in willow beds. 
In such a situation he found one with six eggs, of a spotless white, and very smooth, rather 
larger than those of a Blackbird ; the shape a short oval, with both ends nearly alike. — 
Orii. Diet. 

f Dr. Fleming met with one, having the stomach exclusively filled with the fry of the 
helix lucida. — Wern. Trans. V. iii. 180. 

vol. IX. B B B 



370 Rail. 

3— GULAR RAIL. 

Rallus gularis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 196. 328. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill dirty red ; plumage black brown, 
undulated with white ; forehead, crown, hindhead, and nape, ferru- 
ginous; chin white; throat and breast deep lead-colour ; belly 
fasciated with white; legs blackish. 

Inhabits Java, and called Tikussan ; also Sumatra, and there 
named Ayam Ayam. 

4. —FOUR-STREAKED RAIL. 

Rallus quadristrigatus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 196. 

LENGTFI eight inches and a half. Plumage above brown, 
mixed with grey; beneath paler; chin whitish; head above dusky, 
on each side two streaks of white. — Inhabits Java. 

5— VIRGINIAN RAIL. 

Rallus Virginianus, Lin. i. 263. Gm. Lin. i. 716. Bris. v. 175. Id. 8vo. ii. 257. 

Ind. Orn. ii. 755. 
Rallus Pensilvanicus, Bris. Sup. 138. Id. Svo. ii. 257. 
L'Ypecaha brun, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 374 ? Var. 
American Water Rail, Edw. pi. 279. 
Virginian Rail, Arct. Zool. ii. No. 408. Gen. Syn. v. 228. 1. A. Amer. Orn. vii. 

109. pi. 62. f. 1. 

SIZE and shape of the Common Species ; length ten inches ; 
breadth fourteen. Bill dusky red, point black; irides red; crown 
dusky; sides ash-colour ; from the bill to the eye a white line; lower 
eyelid white ; chin the same ; neck behind, back, and tail, brown, 
streaked with black ; fore part of the neck and breast brownish 
orange ; lower part of the belly, sides, and thighs, barred dusky 



RAIL. 371 

and white ; vent mixed with white, orange, and black ; wing coverts 
reddish brown; ridge of the wing white; quills and tail dusky; 
legs dark flesh-colour. The female is shorter by half an inch, and 
the breast much paler, with more white on the chin and throat. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania; first appearing there in May, and depart- 
ing in November ; called in New Jersey, Mud-Hen, as it constructs 
the nest in the mud, at the bottom of a tuft of grass, composed of 
old wet grass and rushes; the usual number of eggs from six to ten, 
one inch and two-tenths long, by nearly half an inch ; dirty white, 
or cream-colour, with specks of reddish, and pale purple, most at 
the larger end; commences laying in May, and supposed to have 
two broods in a season. It feeds on small snails, worms, larvae of 
insects ; and sometimes on the seeds of vegetables ; common in 
Georgia, among weeds and grass, and in rice fields. 



6.-CLAPPER RAIL. 

Rallus crepitans, Ind: Orn. ii. 756. Cm, Lin. i. 713. 

Clapper Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 229. Arct. Zool.'u. No. 407. Amer. Orn. vii. 112. pi. 
63. f. 2. 

LENGTH from fourteen to eighteen inches, and eighteen or 
more in extent. Bill two inches long, dusky brown ; irides dark red ; 
crown, and all the upper parts of the plumage olive brown, the 
feathers edged with pale ash-colour; chin, and line over the eye, 
brownish white ; fore part of the neck and breast yellowish brown; 
sides over the thighs and vent barred ash-colour and white ; legs 
brown. Both sexes nearly alike. 

The young of the first year are olive brown above, streaked with 
pale slate : wings pale brown olive ; chin, and part of the throat, 
white ; legs pale horn-colour. 

Inhabits North America ; arrives at New York in May, and 
departs in October : it first makes the nest of a little dry grass, and 

B B B 2 



372 RAIL. 

lays an egg, and continues so to do to the number of ten, during 
which it continually adds materials, till the nest rises to the height 
of twelve inches, or more : the eggs are pale clay-colour, sprinkled 
with small dark red spots ; are one inch and a half in length, and 
one inch broad, rather obtuse at the small end. These are of ex- 
cellent flavour; and so abundant are the nests, that one hundred 
dozen of eggs may be collected by one man, in a day. These birds 
frequently suffer by storms and tempests, which, by raising the 
water in the places where they are, destroy both eggs, and sitting 
birds. The food consists of small shell fish, small crabs, and other 
marine insects. 



7. —TROGLODYTE KAIL. 

Rallus Australia, Ind. Orn. ii. 756. Gm. Lin.i. 717. Mus. Carls, pi. 14. 

Rallus Troglodytes, Gm. Lin. i. 713. 

Troglodyte Rail, Gen. Syn. v. '229. Id. Sup. 255. Id. Sup. ii. 322. 

SIZE of a small Fowl ; length seventeen inches. Bill reddish 
brown, two inches long, and a trifle bent ; irides dirty yellow ; the 
feathers of the crown, neck, back, breast, and belly, brown, margined 
with rufous grey ; cheeks and throat cinereous ; over the eye a streak 
of the same ; the wings very short, the coverts as the back ; on the 
bastard wing a spur, half an inch long, straight, pointed, and lies 
hid among the feathers ; quills brown, with transverse, ferruginous 
spots on each margin ; vent and sides brown ; tail four inches long, 
brown, the feathers margined with rufous grey; legs reddish brown. 

Inhabits New Zealand, particularly in Dusky Bay; are numerous, 
and there called Water-Hens; and indeed, at a distance, appear not 
unlike Fowls. They run swiftly, and scratch on the ground, like 
our poultry ; from the shortness of the wings are unable to fly, nor 
do they ever take to the water ; are chiefly met with on the sea beach, 
and the skirts of the woods, where they pick up worms, and other 



pjl . CLvm. 




&%&fo/?r >//„//. Vrrr.A. 



RAIL 37.3 

insects, on which they feed ; are often found under the roots of trees, 
and will frequently run into holes, and hide themselves under the 
bushes; observed to cry against rain ; are so tame, as to suffer them- 
selves to be knocked down with a stick. Were esteemed as good 
food by our people, when skinned : the fat is high-coloured, inclining 
to orange. They are also found in Charlotte's Sound, and on the 
neighbouring Islands, but in very small numbers. 



A.— Troglodyte Rail, Gen. Syn. Sup. 322. 

This varies in being smaller, and wants the white streak over the 
eye. In this the spur of the wing is large, and formidable, the bill 
two inches long, more bent at the tip, and the nostrils in a deep 
furrow ; the length of the bird only fourteen inches. We have seen 
other Varieties, which chiefly consist in difference of size, but in 
respect to plumage much the same on the upper parts; sides of the 
head, and streak over the eyes, pale ash-colour ; beneath the same, 
but deeper; thighs feathered to the joint. — These inhabit Lord Howe's 
Island, also New-Holland, but are rare. 



8. -PHILIPPINE RAIL— Pl. clviii. 

Rallus Philippensis, Lid. Orn. ii. 756. Lin. i. 263. Gm. Lin. i. 714. Bris. v. 163. 

t. 14. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 254. 
Le Rale des Philippines, Buf. viii. 160. PI. enl. 774. 
Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 230. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill thirteen lines and a half, grey; 
the feathers on the upper parts of the head, neck, and body, dusky, 
edged with rufous grey ; some of the scapulars spotted with white ; 
over the eye a white streak, tending to the hindhead ; beneath this 
a broader one, passing through the eyes; throat dirty white; fore 
part of the neck rufous grey, marked with indistinct, transverse, 

* Dr. Forster. 



374 RAIL. 

brownish bands; under parts From the breast barred grey and brown, 
least so on the belly, where it is almost white ; wings marked with 
white, and chestnut spots; greater coverts barred with chestnut; 
quills brown, the two first marked on the outer edge of each web 
with white, and towards the shaft with chestnut; the others only 
with the last colour ; tail dusky, the feathers edged with rufous grey, 
all but the two middle spotted on the inner web with chestnut ; 
legs grey. — Inhabits the Philippine Islands, where it is called Tiklin. 



A.— Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn.v. 231. Var. A. pi. S6. Ltd. Orn. ii. 756.4. D. 

This is ten inches long. Bill one inch and a quarter, and brown ; 
nostrils in a long furrow, the head and sides, with the eye and nape, 
ferruginous chestnut ; over the eye a pale streak ; upper parts of the 
body brown, with a black and white transverse stripe near the end 
of each feather; resembling black and white stripes on a brown 
ground ; the hind part of the neck appears striated, on the back 
more like spots, and more white than black; rump plain; the under 
parts from the chin, and down the middle to the breast, light ash- 
colour; but the sides of the neck, the breast, and belly, are striated 
with black and white ; vent pale ferruginous brown ; wing coverts 
like the back; quills spotted brown and white ; the tail is very little 
longer than the wings ; legs flesh-colour; claws brown. 

Inhabits Otaheite. 



B.— Rallus striatus, Lin. i. 262. Gm. Lin. i. 714. Ind. Orn. ii. 756. 4. y. 
Rallus Philippensis stiiatus, Bris.v. 167. t. 14. f. 2. 7d.8vo.ii. 255. 
Le Tiklin raye, Buf. viii. 161. 
Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 232. 4. C. 

LENGTH eight inches and a quarter. Bill horn-colour ; crown 
of the head dusky and chestnut mixed ; hind part of the neck plain 
chestnut; the lower part of it, the back, and scapulars, dusky brown, 



RAIL. 375 

marked with whitish spots; rump and upper tail coverts the same, 
but paler; on the wings a few transverse white streaks ; throat rufous 
white; cheeks, fore part of the neck, breast, and upper part of the 
belly, ash-colour, tinged with olive; lower belly, sides, and thighs, 
barred dusky and white; quills deep brown, barred with rufous 
white on the outer, and with white on the inner webs ; tail dusky 
brown, barred with white ; legs grey brown. 
Inhabits the Philippine Isles. 

C— Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn. v. '232. B. Ind. Orm ii. 757. 4. 5. 

In this Variety the plumage is paler, and the streak over the eye 
grey, the hind part of the neck striated across brown and white; 
the middle of the back and scapulars white, with a very little mix- 
ture of brown on the first; wing coverts olive brown, transversely 
blotched with white ; second quills white within, without olive 
brown ; the greater olive brown, marked with large ferruginous 
spots; the exterior wholly white, the second white within; the 
quills and tail of equal lengths, the latter, barred olive brown and 
white ; all the under parts of the body white ; bill and legs pale 
yellow brown. 

Inhabits the Isle of Tonga-taboo. — Sir Joseph Banks. 



D. — Philippine Rail, Gen. Syn. Sup. 255. Ind. Orn. ii. 757. 4. c. 

In this the bill is red ; plumage reddish rufous colour ; the back 
darker, spotted across with white ; wings nearly the same ; the quills 
not spotted ; beneath from the chin to the belly pale ash-colour, 
from thence white ; legs pale green. 

Inhabits India, and called Chaha. We have seen other Varieties* 
but probably arising from imperfect plumage. 



376 RAIL. 



9— BANDED RAIL. 

Rallus torqnatus, Ind. Orn. ii. 757. Lin. i. 262. Gm. Lin. i. 714. Bris. v. 170. 

t. 15. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 255. Borowsk. iii. 102. 4. 
Le Tiklin a Collier, Buf. viii. 162. 
Banded Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 233. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill one inch and a half long, grey 
brown; the plumage on the upper parts olive-brown; cheeks and 
throat dirty black ; under the eye, from the bill, a streak of white, 
finishing some way behind it ; the under parts, from chin to vent, 
streaked across with black and white, except just above the breast, 
where a chestnut band, three quarters of an inch broad, encircles it as 
a collar; thighs barred brown and white ; the quills are paler on the 
outer margins, the three first banded with white on the inner webs, 
and the six following with rufous chestnut ; tail brown ; legs the 
colour of the bill. 

Inhabits the Philippine Isles. It seems allied to the last. 



10.— BROWN RAIL. 

Rallus fuscus, bid. Orn. ii. 757. Lin. i. 262. Gm. Lin. i. 713. Bris. v. 173. t. 15. 

f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 256. Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 196. 
Le Rale brun des Philippines, PI. enl. 773. 
Le Tiklin brun, Buf. viii. 161. 
Brown Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 233. 

LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long; 
the plumage on the upper parts is brown ; beneath reddish brown, 
palest on the throat; lower part of the belly inclining to grey; 
beneath the tail barred black and white ; legs yellow. 

Found, with several of the above Varieties, at the Philippine Isles, 
and all known by the general name of Tiklin. Inhabits also Java. 



RAIL. 377 



11.— RED-BREASTED RAIL. 

Rallus ferrugineus, Ind. Orn. ii. 758. Gm. Lin. i. 716. 
Red-breasted Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 234. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill pale; plumage above dusky; over 
the eye a pale line ; hind part and sides of the neck and the breast 
ferruginous ; beneath the body ash-colour, barred on the sides with 
narrow white lines ; legs yellow. 

I met with this in the collection of the late Mr. Tunstall. 



12 —CAPE RAIL. 

Rallus Capensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 758. Lin. Mont. 1771. 525. Gm. Lin. i. 710. 
The Rail, Brown, III. 95. pi. 38 ? 
Cape Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 234. 

NEARLY the size of the Crake Gallinule. Bill black ; head, 
neck, back, and beginning of the breast ferruginous ; under parts 
from the breast, the quills, and tail, undulated black and white ; 
two middle tail feathers ferruginous ; legs deep blood red. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and probably Ceylon. In 
that figured by Brown, the bill and legs are brown. Found in 
Abyssinia ; killed in a small river at Gibba : has the manners of the 
Water Hen. 

13— BLUE-NECKED RAIL. 

Rallus ca;mlescens, Ind. Orn. ii. 758. Gm. Lin. i. 716. 
Blue-necked Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 234. 

LENGTH seven inches. Bill one inch and a half long, red, 
the upper ridge and end dusky ; plumage above reddish brown ; 
chin, throat, and breast, pale blue ; belly and vent white, transversely 
streaked on the sides with black, as in the Common Species ; legs 
red. — Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. — Sir Joseph Banks. 

TOL. IX. C C C 



378 RAIL. 

A. — Length about seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch 
long, dusky; irides hazel ; plumage on the upper parts olive brown, 
with a few dusky streaks, not unlike the Common Species; chin, 
fore part of the neck, and breast, pale dusky blue; belly and vent 
dusky white; sides over the thighs irregularly marked with black; 
thighs and quills dusky ; near the pinion of the wing a narrow spur, 
or hook, about half an inch long, and a little bent. This lies con- 
cealed under the feathers, until the bird has occasion to raise it for 
defence ; legs pale blue, toes long. 

In the collection of Mr. Francillon ; supposed from New-Holland. 

14.— DARK RAIL. 

LENGTH between seven and eight inches. Bill dusky, both 
mandibles inclining to each other, and pointed at the ends ; irides 
red ; general colour of the plumage of the head, neck, and body, 
dusky black, with a deep blue tinge ; back and wings deep brown ; 
under wing coverts cinereous, with darker spots ; legs pale red ; 
toes very long ; claws hooked at the end ; tail short, and the wings 
reach to about the middle of it. — Met with in Norfolk Island, in the 
South Seas, in December. — Mr. Francillon. 

15— RUFOUS RAIL. 

LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill rather stout, dusky black; 
head, neck, all beneath the body, and tail, rufous ; thighs dusky 
brown; back and wing coverts black, marked with spots; quills 
brown, spotted with white on the outer webs, generally five or six 
spots on each feather ; tail cuneiform ; the two middle feathers 
pointed at the ends; the quills reach to the middle; legs dusky 
black ; toes long, claws moderate. 

Inhabits New-Holland. — In the collection of Mr. H. Brogden. 



RAIL. 379 



16.— RUFOUS-HEADED RAIL. 

LENGTH from bill to rump four inches. Bill dusky, half an 
inch long; head, neck, and beginning of the breast fine ferruginous ; 
the rest of the plumage, above and beneath, barred dusky black and 
pale rufous; quills dusky, mottled and spotted with pale rufous on 
the outer webs; legs brown, one inch and a half long, middle toe of 
the same length. In this specimen the tail was wanting. 

Inhabits Sierra Leona. In the same collection with the last. 



17 —CEYLON RAIL. 

Rallus Zeylanicus, Ind. Orn. ii. 758. Gm. Lin. i. 716. 
Ceylon Rail, Syn. Gen. v. 235. Brown, ill. 96. pi, 37. 

LARGER than the Common Rail. Bill and legs red; head 
dusky; neck, back, and tail, ferruginous; wing coverts as the back ; 
prime quills black ; the fore part of the neck, breast, and belly, 
reddish, clouded with brown. — Inhabits the Island of Ceylon. 



18.— PACIFIC RAIL. 

Rallus pacificus, Ind. Orn. ii. 758. Gm. Lin. i. 717. 
Pacific Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 235. 

SIZE of the Common Rail. Bill blood red, with a pale brown 
tip ; irides red ; head brown ; over the eyes a whitish streak ; nape 
ferruginous; throat white; breast bluish ash-colour; back and rump 
black, sparingly sprinkled with small white spots; wings short, 
black, with interrupted white bands; quills brown ; tail very short, 
black, spotted with white, scarcely to be distinguished from the rest 
of the plumage ; belly, sides, and vent, whitish; legs flesh-colour ; 
claws pale. — Inhabits Otaheite, and the neighbouring Isles. 

c c c 2 



380 



RAIL. 



19 .— TABUAN RAIL. 

Rallus Tabuensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. Gm. Lin.\. 717. 
Tabuan Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 235. 

LENGTH six inches and a half. Bill black ; eyelids and irides 
red ; plumage in general brownish black ; beneath dusky ; legs 
reddish brown. 

Inhabits Tongo-taboo, Otaheite, and other Isles in the South 
Seas ; also, Norfolk Island. One from the Island of Tanna was 
more inclined to brown ; the vent white, barred with black lines ; 
legs red. 



A.— Tabuan Rail, Var. Gen. Syn. v. 235. Ind. Orn. ii. 759. 12. /3. 

This varies in having the plumage more inclined to brown ; the 
vent white, transversely barred with black lines ; legs red. 
Inhabits the Island of Tanna. — Sir Joseph Banks. 



20— BLACK RAIL 

Rallus niger, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. Gm. Lin. i. 717. 
Black Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 236. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill one inch, yellow, end brown ; 
plumage in general dusky black, deepest on the head ; legs and toes 
long, brown, in some birds red; claws brown. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa. — 
One in Mr. Salt's collection measured only seven inches and a half. 
Another in Mr. Bullock's Museum about eight inches : this had a 
small knob, or blunt spur at the bend of the wing, and below it a 
second, smaller, but more pointed ; legs pale red. In all these the 
tails were very short ; toes long and slender, and the claws hooked. 



RAIL. 381 



21.— SANDWICH RAIL. 

Rallus Sanduicensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. Gm. Lin. i. 717. 
Sandwich Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 236.- 

SIZE small. Bill dusky ash-colour ; plumage in general pale 
ferruginous ; the feathers on the upper parts darkest in the middle ; 
tail short, hid by the upper coverts ; legs dusky flesh-colour. 

Inhabits the Sandwich Isles; has been also found on the Island of 
Tanna, but with a darker plumage, and the bill and legs yellowish. 



22— OTAHEITE RAIL. 

Rallus Taitiensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. Gm. Lin. i. 717. 
Otaheite Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 236. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill three quarters of an inch, black ; 
head, neck, and under parts, dark ash-colour, palest on the chin ; 
wing coverts and upper parts of the body dark red brown ; quills 
dusky, edged with white; edge of the wing, and the first quill 
feather white; tail one inch and a half, rounded in shape, and black; 
legs dusky yellow, claws black. 

Inhabits Otaheite and the Friendly Isles. — Sir Joseph Banks. 

23— DUSKY RAIL. 

Rallus obscurus, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. Gm. Lin. i. 718. 
Dusky Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 237. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill scarcely one inch, dusky black, 
edges of the mandibles yellowish ; plumage above wholly deep 
brown, tinged with ferruginous, and streaked with black ; beneath 
ferruginous brown ; legs two inches long, red brown. 

Inhabits the Sandwich Islands. 



382 RAIL. 



24— LONG-BILLED RAIL. 

Rallus longirostris, Ind. Orn. ii. 759. 

Le Rale a long bee de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 163. PI. enl. 849. 

Long-billed Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 237. 

LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill long in proportion, and 
rather stout, ferruginous, with a dusky point; plumage on the 
upper parts of the body faint ash-colour, the feathers streaked with 
dusky down the middle ; chin nearly white ; the rest of the under 
parts ferruginous white, striated on the sides of the body as in our 
Rail ; legs pale straw-colour. — Inhabits Cayenne. 



25— BARBARY RAIL. 

Rallus Barbaricus, Ind. Orn. ii. 760. Gm. Lin. i. 719. 
Barbary Water Hen, Shaw's Trav. 255. 
Barbary Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 240. 

LESS than a Plover. Bill one inch and a half long, black ; 
breast and belly deep brown, or rusty ; back the same, but much 
darker; wings spotted with white; rump variegated above with 
black and white streaks, below white; legs dark brown. 

Inhabits Barbary. Although Shaw calls this a Water Hen, it 
may be presumed rather to belong to the Rail than Gallinule Genus, 
both from the length of the bill, and no bareness on the forehead 
being mentioned. 



26.— DOUBTFUL RAIL. 

Rallus Dubius, Ind. Orn. ii. 760. It. Poseg. 26. 
Doubtful Rail, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 322. 

THIS is nearly the size of the Common Gallinule. Bill and 
legs dusky green; the face pale ferruginous; chin dusky white; 



RAIL. 383 

round the neck a broad collar of white; plumage in general barred 
brown and ferruginous ; belly white ; sides brown, banded with 
ferruginous ash-colour; the first quill white on the outer edge. 
Inhabits Possega, in Hungary. 



27.— FASCIATED RAIL. 

Rail us fasciatus, Lin. Trans, xiii. 328. 

THIS is chestnut above ; breast and throat ferruginous ; abdomen 
transversely barred with black and white ; quills dark brown, with 
some white bars; bill bluish black; feet and irides red. 
Inhabits Sumatra. — Raffles. 



384 



JACANA. 



GENUS LXXXVII— JACANA. 



1 Chestnut Jacana 


7 Chili 


C Var. 


2 Variable 


8 Luzonian 


10 African 


3 Black 


A Var. 


A Var. 


4 Brasilian 


9 Chinese 


11 Indian 


5 Green 


A Var. 


A Var. 


6 Faithful 


B Var. 


B Var. 



JjILL slender, sharp-pointed, thickest towards the end ; the base, 
in many species, carunculated. 

Nostrils subovated, in the middle of the bill. 

Wings armed on the front with one or more sharp spurs. 

Toes four on each foot, very long, and furnished with long, 
straight, pointed claws. 



1— CHESTNUT JACANA. 

Parra Jacana, Ind. Oni. ii. 762. Lin. i. 259. Gm. Lin. i. 707. Borowsk. iii. 99. 

Jacana armata fusca, Bris. v. 125. t. 11. f. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 244. 

Gallinula Brasiliensis 4ta. Marcgr. Rati, 115. 11. Will. 237. 

Yohual quachili, Raii, 178. 5. 

II Cirujana, Gabin. de Madrid, ii. p. 61. lam. 64. 

Le Jacana, Bvf. viii. 185. pi. 16. PI. enl. 322. 

Gemeine Jacana, Schmid, Vog. p. 129. 1. 112. 

The fourth Brasilian Water Hen of Marcgrave, Will. Engl. 318. 

Le Chevalier, Ferm. Surin. ii. 193. 

Spur-winged Water Hen, Ediv. pi. 357. 

Chestnut Jacana, Gen.Syn.v. 241. 

SIZE of the Water Rail ; length about ten inches. Bill one 
inch and a quarter long, and orange-coloured ; on the forehead a 
membranous flap, half an inch long, and about equal in breadth ; 
on each side of the head a second, but narrower, and together sur- 
round the base of the bill ; the head, neck, breast, and under parts, 
are black ; the back, wing coverts, and scapulars, fine chestnut, 



JACANA. 385 

with a mixture of black on the outer angle of the wing ; at the bend 
a strong, sharp, yellow spine, a quarter of an inch long ; quills olive 
yellow; the seven first are tipped with brown, and bordered with the 
same for one quarter of the length ; but the outer one the whole 
way on the outer edge; the next twelve have the ends only margined 
with brown ; the four nearest the body purplish chestnut, nearly as 
long as the greater quills, when closed; tail much rounded ; the two 
middle feathers chestnut and brown mixed, tipped with black ; the 
others the same, but no mixture of brown ; the legs greenish ash- 
colour. In some birds the belly has a mixture of white, and one 
had here and there a white spot on the black parts. 

Inhabits Brazil, Guiana, and Surinam, also St. Domingo; fre- 
quenting the marshy places, sides of ponds, and streams, and wades 
quite up to the body in the water; mostly seen in pairs, and when 
separated, call each other continually, till they join again ; their 
voice is sharp and shrill, and somewhat resembles laughing : are 
very shy birds, and most common in the rainy seasons, in May and 
November. This, as well as the other Species, is called by the 
French, Chirurgien ; by the natives of Brazil, Jassano. The flesh is 
accounted pretty good. 



2— VARIABLE JACANA. 

Parra variabilis, Ind. Orn. ii. 763. Lin. i. 260. Gm. Lin. i. 708. Boroxcsk. iii. t. 54. 

Gallinula armata Indica, Gerin. v. t. 483. 

Rallus digitis triuncialibus, &c. Klein, 104. 7. 

Jacana armata varia, Bris. v. 179. Id. 8vo. ii. 245. 

Jacana varie du Bresil, Buf. viii. 192. PI. enl. 846. 

L'Aguapeazo blanc en dessous, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 385. 

Spur-winged Water Hen, Edw. pi. 48. Bancr. Gniun. 173. 

Variable Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 244. 

LENGTH nine inches. Bill fourteen lines long, orange .; i rides 
yellow ; on the fore part of the head a flap of red skin, tending 

VOL. IX. D D D 



386 JACANA. 

backwards, and divided behind ; crown dark brown, spotted with 
darker brown ; hind part of the neck the same, but very deep ; above 
the eyes a line of white, passing- down on each side; and close to this 
a black one, continuing through the eye, and joining with the black 
at the back of the neck ; sides of the head and the neck rufous 
white; chin, breast, and belly, pure white; on the fore part of the 
wing a yellow spur; scapulars pale brown; lesser wing coverts 
purplish chestnut ; the middle brown, the greater black ; four of 
the quills next the body brown ; the others green, margined with 
black at the ends, the outmost wholly so on the outer web ; legs 
bluish ash. It varies much ; in some the white streak over the eye 
passes behind a very little way, and tends towards the nape; in some 
also the black streak begins at the base of the bill, in others only at 
the eye, or a streak of white over the eye, not accompanied by a 
black one ; the hind part of the neck varies from dusky, to quite 
black, in different specimens ; some have only the rudiment of a 
spur, and the red caruncle at the forehead smaller, and lying back 
on the forehead ; probably these differences constitute the marks of 
sex or age. — Inhabits Brazil ; also plentiful about Carthagena, in 
South America, thought to be a young bird of the first described. 



3— BLACK JACANA. 

Parra nigra, Ind. Orn. ii. 762. Gm. Lin. i. 708. 

Jacana armata nigra, Bris. v. 124. Id. 8vo. ii. 243. 

Gallinula tertia Marcgr. Rail, 115. Will. 237. 

Le Chirurgien noir, Buf. viii. 189. 

The 3d Brasilian Water Hen of Marcgrave, Will. Engl. 318. 

Black Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 242. 

SIZE of the last. Bill saffron-colour; membrane on the forehead 
rufous; head, neck, and upper parts black; breast, and beneath 
brown ; quills green, tipped with brown ; tail black ; on the fore 
part of the wing a yellow spur; legs ash-colour. — Inhabits Brazil. 



JACANA. -387 



4— BRAZILIAN JACANA. 

Parra Brasiliensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 763. Gm. Lin. i. 708. 
Jacana armata, Bris.v. 123. Id. 8vo. ii. 243. 
Aguapecaca, Rail, 115. 9. Will. =231. Id. Engl. p. 317. 
Le Jacana-peca, Bnf. viii. 190. 
Brasilian Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 243. 

SIZE of the first Species; plumage wholly greenish black; on the 
fore part of the wing a sharp, yellow spur; legs and toes long as in 
the others. 

Inhabits Brazil, Cayenne, and Guiana, and there called Agua 
pecaca : has the general manners of the Chestnut one, but differs in 
some respects, for it is not only seen in pairs, but sometimes twenty 
or thirty together, skulking among the flags in the watery places; 
feeds on small fish, and aquatic insects, wading some way in the 
water after them. 



5.— GREEN JACANA. 

Parra viridis, Ind. Orn. ii. 763. Gm. Lin. i. 708. 

Jacana, Bris.v. 121. 7rf.8vo.ii. 242. 

Gallinula Brasiliensis, Jacana dicta, Rail, 115. Wilt. 237. t. 59. 

Le Jacana vert, Biif. viii. 189. 

Brasilian Water Hen, called Jacana, Will. Engl. 317. § x. pi. 59. 

Green Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 243. 

SIZE of a Pigeon. Bill more than one inch long, half red, 
half yellow ; the fore part of the head covered with a round blue 
membrane, the colour of a Turcoise ; plumage in general blackish 
green; the head, iieck, and breast glossed with violet; under tail 
coverts white ; legs yellowish green ; toes very long, the middle one 
two inches and a half; the claws also long and yellow. 

Inhabits Brazil, probably allied to the last; but authors have 
not mentioned any spur on the wing. 

D D D 2 



388 JACANA. 



6.— FAITHFUL JACANA. 

Parra Chavaria, lnd. Om. ii. 764. Lin. i. 260. Gm. Lin. i. 709. BorowskAW. 99. 3. 
Chauna, Chavaria, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. xcvii. 
Faithful Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 246. 9. 

SIZE of a Dunghill Cock, and stands a foot and a half from the 
ground. The bill conic, a little bent, and dirty white ; the upper 
mandible as in the Cock ; nostrils oblong, pervious ; on both sides, 
at the base of the bill, is a red membrane, which extends to the 
temples; in the middle of this the eyes are placed ; irides brown; on 
the hindhead are about twelve blackish feathers, three inches long, 
and these form a sort of crest, which inclines downwards ; the rest 
of the neck, which is three inches long, covered with thick black 
down, but under the bill and temples pure white ; body brown ; the 
wings and tail blackish, clouded with grey, the last short; on the 
bend of the wing two or three spurs, half an inch long; the belly 
dusky; thighs half way bare of feathers; joints thick, and swelling; 
legs very long, strong, yellowish red ; toes so long as to entangle 
one in the other when walking. 

Inhabits the lakes, &c. on the River Cinu, and adjoining rivers, 
about thirty leagues distant from Carthagena, in South America, and 
is said to feed on vegetables ; its gait is solemn and slow, but it flies 
easily, and swiftly ; it is unable to run, unless assisted by the wings 
at the same time : when any part of the skin is touched by the hand 
a crackling is felt, though it appears very full of down beneath the 
feathers, and indeed this down adheres so closely, as to enable the 
bird at times to swim. The voice is clear and loud, but far from 
agreeable. The natives, who keep poultry in great numbers, have 
one of these tame, which goes with the flock about the neighbourhood 
to feed during the day; when this faithful shepherd defends them 
against birds of prey ; being able, by means of the spurs on the 
wings, to drive off even the Carrion Vulture. It is so far of the 



JACANA. 389 

greatest use, as it never deserts the charge committed to its care, 
bringing tliem all home safe at night. It is so tame, as to suffer 
itself to be handled by a grown person; but will not permit children 
to attempt the same. For the above account we are indebted to Lin- 
naeus, who received the whole from Jacquin, and is the only one who 
has given any account of this wonderful bird. 



7.-CHILI JACANA. 

Parra Chilensis, bid. Orn. ii. 765, Gm. Lin. i. 707. Molin. Chil. 223. Id. Fr. ed. 239. 
L'Aguapeazo proprement dit, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 384. 
Chili Jacana, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 324. 

SIZE of a Magpie, but with longer legs ; the bill conic, some- 
what bent at the tip, in length two inches; irides yellow; on the 
forehead a bilobated, red caruncle; the head somewhat crested, 
black ; neck behind, back, and fore part of the wings, violet ; before 
to the middle of the breast, black; belly white; the quills and tail 
brown, the latter short; at the bend of the wing a yellowish, conical 
spine, half an inch in length ; legs brown, naked above the joint, 
as usual in the Genus; but the toes less elongated. 

This species inhabits Chili, frequenting the plains, and living 
chiefly on insects and worms, but rarely seen in the higher situations : 
makes the nest among the grass, and lays four fulvous eggs, spotted 
with black, and about the size of those of the Partridge; the male 
and female generally together, very rarely uniting into flocks: when 
any one approaches the nest, the bird lies still, till the person comes 
quite close, when it springs upon him with the utmost fury, in order 
to defend the young or eggs ; is generally silent during the day, and 
at night likewise, except any one approaches, when it sets up a cry; 
hence the Araguies make use of them, in war time, as sentinels, to 
prevent their being surprised. The natives formerly took these birds 
by means of the Falcon, but it will on all occasions defend itself 



390 JACANA. 

most vigorously ; it is now shot with the gun ; the flesh is in great 
estimation, being thought equal in flavour to that of a Snipe. 

D'Azara says it is not uncommon, is a lively and active bird, and 
not migratory ; male and female alike ; wings reach exactly to the 
end of the tail ; makes no nest, but lays the eggs on a few green 
leaves of the marsh pennywort, or other similar aquatic plant; they 
are four in number, straw-colour, marbled, or veined with black. 



8— LUZONIAN JACANA. 

Parra Luzoniensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 764. Gm. Lin. i. 701. 
Le Chirurgien de 1'Isle de Lu^on, Son. Voy. S2. pi. 45. 
Luzonian Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 245. Id. Sup. 256. 

RATHER less than the Chinese Species. Bill greyish, straight, 
and a little enlarged at the end, somewhat like that of a Gull; top 
of the head deep brown ; over the eye a stripe of white, passing 
down on each side of the neck, and changing into pale yellow 
behind the eye; through the eye another stripe of ash-colour, ac- 
companies the first, quite down to the wing; back brown ; beneath 
from chin to vent white, except a large spot of brown on the breast; 
at the bend of the wing a sharp spur ; the lesser wing coverts white, 
the others pale brown, transversely barred with black ; the second 
quills white, the prime black ; from the three or four of the last of 
last of these arise as many naked shafts, two inches long, and ending 
in lance-shaped, feathered points ; they spring from the middle of 
the shaft of the feather to which they belong, the shaft appearing 
divided, or branching into two at that part; legs and toes very long, 
as in others, and dusky black. 

Inhabits the Island of Manilla, chiefly in the moist places, 
borders of the sea, lakes, and rivers, and has the manners usual to 
others of the Genus. 



JACANA. 391 

A. — Bill greenish, shaped as in the former; crown of the head, 
neck behind, and back, brown; above the eyes white; along the 
side of the neck a yellow stripe, divided from the fore part by a 
second of black, finishing on the breast; excepting this all the 
under parts are white ; wing coverts white, crossed with a few bars 
of brown ; prime quills black, ending in two projecting narrow 
feathers; tail cuneiform, brown; legs pea-green. 

Inhabits India, where it is called a Plover.* Found also in 
Ceylon, where it is called Een-Yahn-wah.f 



9.— CHINESE JACANA.— Pl. clix. 

Parra Sinensis, hid. Orn. ii. 764. Gm. Lin. i. 709. 
Vuppi-pi Jacana, View of Hindoost. ii. 159. 
Chinese Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 246. Id. Sup. ii. 324. 

LENGTH twenty-one inches. Bill dusky ; forehead, crown, and 
beneath, to the breast, pale cinereous cream-colour ; back part of the 
head black ; of the neck yellow, divided from the white before by 
a line of black on each side; body vinaceous red; wing coverts 
white; quills black; tail long; legs and toes as in others of the 
Genus, and greenish. 

Supposed to inhabit China, seen in China drawings. 



A. — Chinese Jacana, Gen. Syn. Sup. 256. pl 117. 

Length two feet, size of the Gold Pheasant. Bill bluish ; front 
of the head, cheeks, fore part and sides of the neck, white ; hind- 
head black, descending in a line on each side of the neck to the 

* I suspect that this is related to the following Species, as I have been informed, that 
when perfect; the two middle tail feathers are longer than the others, as in that bird, 
f Mr. J. Daniell's drawings. 



392 JACANA. 

breast; hind part of the neck yellow buff-colour; between the neck 
and back gilded brown ; beneath from the breast deep purple ; 
back and scapulars reddish brown; wing coverts white, quills brown, 
the secondaries edged with white; the ends of some of the primaries 
grow very narrow towards the tips ; and finish almost in a point ; at 
the bend of the wing a short, sharp, horn-coloured spur ; four of the 
middle tail feathers greatly elongated, and shaped as in the Gold 
Pheasant, the longest ending in a point, the shorter less pointed, and 
marked near the tip with an oval spot of white ; legs green, toes and 
claws very long, as usual in this Genus. 

Inhabits India, where it is called Vuppi-pi. — From the drawings 
of Lady Impey : is also called Sohna. In other drawings called by 
the Mussulmans, Surdul, and Sookdel. 

It is found in marshy places near Calcutta, in the rainy season, 
in flocks, and makes the nest of the leaves of Paddy in the Water. 
The Mussulmans eat it. 

One of these in the collection of drawings of Gen. Hardwicke, 
and said to be a female, weighed three ounces and thirteen drachms; 
it is smaller, and without the elongated tail feathers ; crown of the 
head rufous; sides of the head, and all beneath, from the chin, white; 
from the nostrils a narrow dusky streak, continuing under the eye, 
and on the sides of the neck to the back, which is pale cinereous 
brown, with large waves of buff; wing coverts very pale ash, with 
dusky, lunular, narrow waves; outside of the wing white ; tail pale 
ash-colour; in shape rounded, without the four elongated feathers; 
but the wings have similar appendages at the end of the quills, 
though very short ; and the spur at the bend of the wing very small; 
legs pale. — Inhabits India; found at Cawnpore, by name of Peewa. 



B. — This differs in being black on the nape; behind the neck 
pale rufous; neck red brown; the whole head besides, and the neck 
to the breast white, from this the rest of the under parts are black; 



JACANA. 393 

the quills are dark, with the margins and ends white, but do not 
end either in points, or appendages of any sort : in the tail are four 
very long feathers, two of them longer than the others; the bill and 
legs are pale. 

C — T observe another with the head and neck to the breast white, 
hind part of the neck clay-colour, between the two a line of black, 
springing from the nape ; back fine rufous brown ; beneath from the 
breast brownish black ; some of the quills end in a point; two elon- 
gated feathers only in the tail. From the above it appears that much 
variety takes place in this beautiful, and elegant species, but how far 
arising from age or sex cannot well be determined; in all, however, 
the wing coverts are more or less white; and except the greatly elon- 
gated feathers, the tail is of a moderate length. We cannot doubt 
of there being four of such in every complete bird, although only two 
may appear in some drawings, as may be seen in our plate* In 
some the ends of several of the quills are pointed, in others the ends 
continue narrow for some length, and several have the ends finished 
as quills are in common. I find the Indian name to be Pekwar, or 
.lull Mor; called by the English, the Water Peacock. We find a bird 
of this kind, met with by D'Entrecasteaux in the Island of Bouro, 
which is said to differ very little from the Chinese Jacana, but is no 
further described. By some admired for the agility with which it is 
enabled to walk from leaf to leaf of the Great Water Lily. 

10— AFRICAN JACANA. 

Parra Africana, Ind. Orn. ii. 764. Gm. Lin. i. 709. 
African Jacana, Gen. Syn. v. 246. pi. 87. 

LENGTH nine inches and a half. Bill dusky, tip horn-colour; 
forehead bare, and blue; the plumage above very pale cinnamon ; 

* In General Hardwicke's drawings there are four of the long tail feathers, two longer, 
and two shorter. 

VOL. IX. E E E 



394 JACANA. 

chin and throat white; breast tawny yellow, mottled, and barred on 
the sides of it and the neck with black ; under parts, from thence, 
like the back, but darker; greater quills black ; on the inner part 
of the bend of the wing a short, blunt spur; through the eye, to 
the hind part of the neck, quite to the back, black ; legs greenish 
black ; toes and claws very long, as in others of the Genus. 

Inhabits Africa ; Mr. Bruce found it in Abyssinia, where it is 
called Meylie. Mr. Salt brought into England five specimens, four 
of them were shot in a small fresh water lake belonging to Signor 
Montero, at Mozambique ; and the other at Chelicut, in Abyssinia. 



A. — Length thirteen inches, from tip of the bill to end of the 
tail. Bill dusky, pale at the end ; forehead bare some way ; crown 
of the head black, passing down the back of the neck to the back ; 
back and wings cinnamon-colour ; lesser quills the same, but darker; 
great quills black ; from the nostrils, through the eye, pale rufous 
brown ; the rest of the neck in general, and all beneath white, a 
little tinged on the sides with pale rufous ; tail dusky ; thighs rufous 
white ; legs black. 

Inhabits Senegal ; differs but little from the one before described, 
and is probably the other sex. — In the collection of Mr. Brogden. 



11.— INDIAN JACANA. 

Parra Indica, Ltd. Orn. ii. 765. 

Parra superciliosa, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 194 ? 

Indian Jacana, Gen. Syn. Sup. 257. 

SIZE of the Common Water Hen. The bill yellow, base of the 
upper mandible dusky blue; near the gape a red spot; head, neck, 
and under parts, deep bluish black ; back and wings dirty cinereous 
brown ; quills darker, inclining to violet ; over the eye a broad white 



JACANA. 395 

streak, reaching some way beyond it; legs dirty luteous brown ; toes 
and claws long, as in others of the Genus. 

Inhabits India ; called at Bengal, Peepee and Movva; at Hin- 
dustan, Condey ; is called also Dullpee, from its living in a floating 
manner : is a shy bird, frequenting stagnant lakes, where it is not 
easily come at; makes the nest upon floating islands, among weeds, 
pretty close to the banks. The male and female are much alike. — 
Mr. Middleton. 



A. — Head, neck, and under parts black, with a gloss of purple 
and red in various lights ; behind the eye a broad white streak ; back 
and wings pale reddish brown; quills black; bill pale; legs greenish. 

Inhabits India. — Sir John Anstruther.* One of these in the 
Museum of Mr. Bullock, said to have come from Java. 



B. — Another had the head, neck, and breast, purplish black, 
paler before ; chin white, but no streak of white either above or 
behind the eye ; beneath, from the breast to the fore part of the 
thighs, white, spotted on the outside with black, and ash-colour ; 
bill pale ; legs pale green. In a drawing, similar to the latter, the 
bird was called Mackaney. 

* I observed one of these in some India drawings, in which was a double crimson lobe 
at the base of the bill, under tail coverts dull red, otherwise like Var. A. 



E e e 2 



396 



GALLINULE. 



GENUS LXXXVII1— GALLINULE. 



* With moderate Bills. 

1 Crake Gallinule 

2 Grinetta 

3 Spotted 

4 Olivaceous 

5 Little 

6 Dwarf 

7 Common 

8 Brown 

9 Great 

10 Speckled 

1 1 Yellow-legged 

12 Piping 

13 Abyssinian 

14 White-chinned 

15 Mournful 



16 Javan 

17 Madras 

18 Kookra 

19 Crested 

20 Green 

21 Red-tailed 
A Var. 

B Var. 

22 Carthagena 

23 Cayenne 

24 Chiricote 

25 Black-bellied 

26 Variegated 

27 Martinico 

28 Favourite 

29 Crowine 



30 Yellow-breasted 

31 Soree 

32 Rufous-breasted 
A Var. 

* * With Bills very strong 
and thick. 

33 Jamaica 

34 Minute 
A Var. 

35 Violet 

36 Purple 

37 Black-headed 

38 Black-backed 

39 Black-jointed 

40 White 

41 New-Holland 



oIRDS of this Genus have the bill thick at the base, and sloping 
at the point; the base of the upper mandible reaching far upon the 
forehead, where it becomes membranaceous. 

Body compressed. 

Wings short, and concave. 

Tail short. 

Toes divided to their origin. 



* WITH MODERATE BILLS. 



].— CRAKE GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Crex, Ind. Orn. ii. 766. 

Rallus Crex, Lin. i. 261. Fn. suec. No. 194. Gm.Lin.i. 711. Scop. i. No. 154. 
Sepp, t. p. 275. Brun. No. 192. Muller, No. 218. Frisch, t. 212. b. Georgi, 
p. 172. Fn. arag. p. 79. Borowsk. iii. 100. t. 55. Fn. Helv. Schoef. el. t. 60. 
Gerin. iii. t. 248. Tern. Man. 445. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 687. 



GALLINULE. 397 

Ortygometra, Raii, 58. A. 8. Will. 122. t. 29. Bris. v. 159. 3. 7rf. 8vo. ii. 253. 

A'r«?n.349. 1. tf/ein, 102. 1. Id. Stem. 22 t. 23. f. 2. a. b. Id. Ov. 31. t. 12. f. I. 
Porphyrio rufescens, Bris.v. 533. 7<i. 8vo. ii. 353. WU1.2W. 

Rale de Genets, Roi des Cailles, Bi«/. viii. 146. pi. 12. PI. enl. 750. Hist. Prov. i. 353. 
Re delleQuaglia, Zinnan. Uov. 36. t. 5. f. 18. Get. Uc.Sard. 277. 
Wachtel koenig, Naturf. xiii. 220. Bechst. Deuts. iii. 262. 7d. Tit/. 2d. p. 270. 
Wiesen Schnarre, Wachtel Koenig, Gunth. Nest u. Ey. t. 45. 
Land Hen, Will. Engl. 316. 

Daker Hen, or Rail, Alb. i. pi. 32. Will. Engl. 170. pi. 29. 
Crake Gallinule, Gen.Syn.v. 250. Br. Zool. ii. No. 216. pi. 75. Id./ol. 131. 7d. 

1812. ii. p. 119. pi. 20. f. 2. Flor. Scot. i. No. 162. 7>ec. 72mm. i. 470. Arct. 

Zool. ii. No. 412. Russ. Alep. p. 64. Bewick, i. pi. p. 311. Lewin, v. pi. 190. 

Id. pi. xxxvi. 1. — the egg. Donov. v. pi. 116. Pult. Dors. p. 15. .Lin. Trans, i. 

124. 7d. iii. 14. Orn. Diet. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch, passing a little way on 
the forehead, colour greyish brown ; irides hazel ; plumage above 
and scapulars, pale rufous brown, the feathers with broad dashes of 
black down the middle ; beneath paler, plain ; chin and middle of 
the belly nearly white ; wing coverts fine pale tawny, or ferruginous 
brown ; quills darker, with black shafts ; outer edge of the wing and 
the exterior web of the outer quill white; at the bend of the wing a 
small rising, or knob, but not visible to the eye ; tail cuneiform, 
consisting of twelve feathers ; the two middle ones two inches in 
length, colour as the back ; legs dirty grey. Both sexes said to be 
much alike, but in some specimens the sides under the wings have 
a few brownish bars. 

This is not uncommon in England in summer, appearing about 
the latter end of April, and disappearing in October ;* is supposed 
to pass the winter in Ireland, as it is found there in great plenty, and 
at all seasons ; for the most part is seen about the 20th of April, at 
Anglesea, in Wales, and generally thonght there to have come from 
Ireland. Found also in most of the Hebrides and Orknies ; likewise 
in Scotland ; but no where common, nor is this bird at all plentiful 
in England, though in some parts much more so than in others. It 
generally frequents high grass, or corn ; makes a nest of moss, or 

* For the most part called Land Rail ; called also Corn Crake, and Bean Crake. 



398 GALLINULE. 

a few dry plants, and lays ten or twelve eggs, one inch and a half 
in length, not unlike those of a Missel Thrush, of a reddish, cine- 
reous white, marked with a few blotches, and others of a pale reddish 
ash-colour; the young are at first covered with a blackish down, and 
run soon after they are hatched : the old birds run fast, but fly 
awkwardly, and with the legs hanging down, as the Common Rail. 
The usual note, especially on their first coming, is not unlike the 
noise made by drawing the nail over the teeth of a comb, and has 
been compared to the word Crek, crek, crek, often repeated, whence 
it has gained the name of Corn Crake. The food is grain, and 
seeds of many sorts, also insects. On their first appearing in England 
are so lean, as to weigh no more than six ounces, but will often 
increase to eight before they leave us, and gain so much fat, as to 
exude through the skin like oil, soon after the bird is killed : the 
flesh is esteemed an exquisite morsel. Mr. White observes, that 
as the gizzard was found filled with small shell snails, some whole, 
and no gravel ; and the craw, or crop, lax, containing a mucus; the 
bird might be dressed with the entrails in, as the Woodcock. It has 
been said, that wherever Quails are in plenty, the Crakes are more 
common,! at least it is so observed in the temperate parts of Russia 
and Siberia, % where they are sufficiently known : are found as far 
north as Norway ; and not uncommon in Germany, France, Italy, 
and Spain ; and although from the shortness of the wings in this 
bird, it should seem incapable of migrating from this kingdom ; yet 
certain it is, that it makes its appearance first in Spain and Gibraltar, 
in September, which is about the time it leaves England, and continues 
there till December.§ It is said to be found at Aleppo || in spring 
and autumn, but only on the passage north and south; and we have 
seen it more than once in drawings from India, but whether it is 
common there we have not learned. 

* Nat. Calendar, p. 68. f Hence called the King of the Quails. 

X Particularly about the Steppes of Sysran, and other Deserts ; they make a great noise 
at night, and are known by the names of Dergun and Korastel. — Dec. Russ. i. 470. 
§ White. || Russ. Alep. p. 64. 



GALLINULE. 399 

A. — Crake Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 251. Var. B. Ind. Orn. ii. 707. y. 

This seems rather smaller than our bird; the plumage much the 
same on the upper parts; wing coverts and beneath the body rusty 
brown ; legs dusky. — In Chinese paintings. 

B.— Crake Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 250. Var. A. Ind. Orn. ii. 766. 1. A. 

Size of the European Species. Bill somewhat larger, and black ; 
the upper parts of the plumage fine rufous brown, beneath much 
paler; quills and tail darkest; chin and vent reddish white; legs 
dusky red. I received this from Jamaica, where it is said to have 
the manners of our Gallinule. 

2— GRINETTA GALLINULE. 

Gallinula nsevia, Ind. Orn. ii. 772. 

Fulica nsevia, Gm. Lin. i. 701. 

Porphyrio nsevius, Bris. v. 538. Id. 8vo. ii. 355. 

Poliopus, Gallinula minor, Raii, 114. Will. 235. t. 58. 

La Grinette, Buf. viii. 179. 

Small Water Hen, Alb. ii. pi. 73. 

Grinetta Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 263. Will. Engl. 315. pi. 58. 

LENGTH under ten inches, breadth sixteen. Bill and irides 
yellowish green ; forehead bare, and yellow ; head and body above 
black, the feathers margined with rufous; those of the back fringed 
with white ; over the eye a white streak ; throat, fore part of the 
neck, and breast, bluish ash, spotted with black ; belly and thighs 
pale rufous ; sides barred black and white ; wing coverts rufous, 
with transverse, waved, or zigzag lines; quills dusky brown, edged 
with white ; tail the same, but the two middle feathers white on 
both margins; legs dull yellow. This is said to inhabit Italy, about 
Bologna, and known by the name of Grinetta; at Milan, called 
Gillerdine; and at Florence, Tordo gelsemino. It seems a doubtful 
species, and a bird in incomplete plumage. Most probably belong- 
ing to the Crake Gallinule. 



400 GALLINULE. 



3— SPOTTED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Porzana, Ind. Orn. ii. 772. 

ochra Gesneri, Raii, 115. Will. 236. Gerin. v. t. 484. 

Rallus Porzana, Lin. i. 262. Gm. Lin. i. 712. Scop. i. No. 144. Frisch, t. 211. 

Boroivsk. iii. 102. Fn. Helv. Tern. Man. 446. Id. Ed. 2d. p. 689. 
Rallus aquaticus, Maruetta, Bris. v. 155. t. 13. 1. Id. 8vo. ii. 252. 

alter, Klein, Av. 31. t. 12. f. 2 ? 

aquaticus, Sepp, iii. p. 261. t. 127, 128. 

Der Mittlere Wasserralle, Bechst. Deutsch. iii. 271. taf. 15. 

Petite Rale d'Eau, ou le Marouette, Buf. viii. 157. PL enl. 751. Argeno. Lithol. 

533. t. 25. 
L'Ypacaha varie en dessus, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 378. 
Spotted Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 264. Br. Zool. ii. No. 215. Id.fol. 130. t. L.* 1. 

Id. 1812. ii. p. 117. Arct. Zool. Sup. p. 69. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 10. Lewin, v. 

pi. 192. Donov. v. pi. 122. Walcot, ii. pi. 172. Orn. Diet. Sf Sup. 

THE length of this species is about nine inches, breadth fifteen ; 
weight four ounces and a half. Bill greenish yellow, the base 
reddish orange; irides reddish hazel; plumage on the head brown, 
dashed with black ; over the eye a pale grey streak ; hind part of 
the head and sides cinereous brown, marked with small white spots; 
back and wing coverts olive-brown, dashed with black, the edges of 
the feathers spotted with white; greater coverts blotched and barred 
with white ; sides of the head, beneath the eyes, the chin, and neck 
before, pale grey, dotted with brown ; breast brown, spotted with 
white; belly cinereous and white mixed; down the middle dirty 
white ; vent and under tail coverts yellowish white ; legs pale green. 

This bird is found in the same places as the Common Gallinule, 
but is not very common in this kingdom, and indeed in some parts 
is scarcelv known. It is by many supposed to migrate in autumn ; 
but we have learned that it breeds in Cumberland;* and one, in 
company with its mate, was shot near Dartford, in Kent, in the 
summer months, some years since. In the Orn. Diet, it is said to 
be found in Caermarthenshire, Sussex, and Hampshire, in which 

* Dr. Heysham. 



GALLINULE. 40 1 

last county we have ourselves twice met with it ; it is generally seen 
about the first of April, and disappears in October; but I learn 
from Col. Montagu, that he received a fine specimen of the female 
once so early as the 16th of March, and that its being excessively 
fat, and in fine condition, made him suppose it had been here all 
the winter. It is a solitary bird, except in breeding time, and makes 
the nest among the rushes and reeds, composed of rushes matted 
together, in the form of a boat, and fastened by one end to a reed, to 
prevent its being carried away by the water. The female lays seven 
or eight white eggs : the young run as soon as hatched, and are 
wholly black. If not migratory, it at least changes place, in France, 
Italy, and Spain. Great numbers appear, in pairs, on the Isthmus 
of Gibraltar, about the middle of February, and to the end of March, 
or as long as the low grounds continue watered. In summer they 
disappear, but are seen again in September and October. Mr. 
White observes, that he could never find any distinction of sex, 
except that the females were rather smaller than the males. We 
find it likewise in the southern, reedy, grounds of Russia, and the 
west of Siberia,* but no where so plentiful as the Common Species; 
have also seen it among other drawings from India, and may there- 
fore suppose it to inhabit that part of the world. A species analogous 
to this, if not the same, is also found at Hudson's Bay, in length 
only eight inches, breadth fourteen, and weighs scarcely three 
ounces ; comes to that place in May, and is seen in plenty along the 
coasts of the bay, and about the rivers, brooks, and lakes ; lays ten 
or twelve white eggs, in a bush, or among grass, and departs in 
October; is called there Paupakapatesew. The food of this bird is 
not for certain known, but probably is the same with that of the 
common sort. Buffon mentions one, which was kept tame, and 
observed to stand in the water for a long time together, if not dis- 
turbed ; it was fed with bread and hempseed. 

* Mr. Pennant. 
VOL. IX. F F F 



402 GALLINULE. 



4— OLIVACEOUS GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Foljambii, Olivaceous Gallinule, Orn. Diet. Sup- with an Engraving. 
Gallinula Baillonii, Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. 692. 

LENGTH seven inches and a half, breadth ten and a half. Bill 
nearly three quarters, greenish yellow, the base red; irides and 
orbits bright orange red ; cheeks and forehead dusky cinereous; sides 
of the neck and throat pale cinereous; breast, belly, and thighs, 
plain dark cinereous, or slate-colour, like the Water Rail ; back of 
the head deep olive-brown ; neck behind yellowish olive ; the feathers 
of the back have a mixture of olive-brown, and dusky black ; mar- 
gins mostly of the former colour, the edges paler; scapulars dusky 
black, with broad olive margins ; wing coverts olive-brown ; quills 
dusky, the outer webs edged with olive ; rump and upper tail 
coverts very dark olive-brown, with a mixture of dusky black ; tail 
feathers deep dusky brown, the shafts paler, and the lateral ones 
margined with olive yellow; vent and under tail coverts dusky 
cinereous, some of the feathers deeply margined with sullied white; 
sides behind the thighs olive, slightly margined as the last ; legs 
olive. Supposed to have been obtained from the fens of Norfolk. 
We first met with it in the collection of Mr. Foljambe, who found 
it, among others, in a poulterer's shop, in the month of May, 1812; 
and a second specimen was in the collection of Mr. Plasted, of 
Chelsea, but could not learn where he procured it. 



5— LITTLE GALLINULE. 

Little Gallinule, Orn. Diet. Sup. with an Engraving. 

LENGTH seven inches; weight two ounces. Bill five-eighths 
of an inch, bright green ; general colour of the plumage olive- 
brown ; upper parts of the head dusky brown ; cheeks paler brown ; 



GALLINULE. 403 

over each eye cinereous; chin and throat white, the latter inclining 
to cream-colour ; lower part of the neck, breast, sides, and greater 
part of the body beneath, plain fawn-colour; lower belly, thighs, 
and vent, olive-brown, spotted with white, and slightly barred with 
paler brown; hind part and sides of the neck pale olive-brown, 
back and scapulars black, deeply margined with the same olive- 
brown, the inner margins very pale; rump pale olive-brown; tail 
the same; legs bright green for three-eighths of an inch above the 
knee ; toes long. 

A specimen of the above was shot near Ashburton, in Devonshire, 
in 1809, and communicated by Mr. Tucker: at first sight it might 
be taken for a young bird of the Spotted Gallinule, but we have 
the authority of Colonel Montagu, to introduce it here as a nonde- 
script, and clearly new, as he has examined it with attention, and 
compared it with the Spotted Species. 

A second of these, which probably differs in sex, had the sides 
of the head brown ; the white of the chin less pure ; and the breast 
and belly crossed, and mixed with fawn-colour and dull white; on 
the wing coverts and lesser quills, and middle of the back blackish, 
with small white spots; in other things like the former description. 



6.— DWARF GALLINULE. 

Rallus Pusillus, Ind. Orn. ii. 761. Gm. Lin. i. 719. It. Poseg. p. 26. Pall, reise, 

iii. 700. 30. Bechst. Deuts. iii. 274. t. xvi. Id. Ed. 2d. iv. 484. 
Gallinula pusilla, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 690. Gerin. v. pi. 482. 
Rallus parvus, Scop, Ann. i. 108 ? 
Dwarf Rail, Gen. St/n. Sup. ii. 323. 

THIS is not unlike the Water Rail, but only the size of a Lark, 
and somewhat similar in colour; the face, fore part of the neck, 
and as far as the middle of the breast, blue grey; chin white; through 
the eyes a pale ferruginous streak ; all the upper parts black, mixed 

F F F 2 



404 GALLINULE. 

with ferruginous,, having longitudinal lines of white on the back ; 
belly and vent black, crossed with narrow white bands; legs green. 
Inhabits the salt lakes, and reedy places in Dauuria, and often 
flirts up the tail between the wings, carrying it in that manner. 



7— COMMON GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Chloropus, Ind. Orn. ii. 770. Raii,U3. A. \. Id. 190. 15. Will.2'23. 

t. 58. Bris. vi. 3. 1. t. 1. Id. Svo. ii. 358. Klein, 103. 2 ? Schcef. el. t. 30. 

Tern. Man. 449. Id. Ed. 694. 
Fulica Chloropus, Lin. i. 258. 4. Gin. Lin. i. 69S. Scop. i. No. 153. Brun. No. 

191. Mull. p. 27. Kram. 358. 1. Frisch, t. 209. Sepp, t. p. 71. Fn. arag. 

p. 79. Fn. Helv. Klein, Ov. iii. t. 12. f. 3. Gerin, v. pi. 586. 
Gallinula orientalis, Lin. Trans, xiii. 195. 329. Var ? 
Poule d'Eau, Buf. viii. 171. pi. 15. PL enl. 877. Hist. Prov. i. 352, 
Le Gallinelle, Celt. uc. Sard. 377. 
Wachtel Konig, Schmid, Fog. 133. t. 118. 
Der Grunfuss, Naturf. xiii. 191. 218. Id. xviii. s. 234. 
Das Grunfussiges Meerhuhn, Bechst. Dents, iii. 237. Id. Ed. 2d. iv. 489. 
Gallinella aquatica, Porzanone, Zinn. Uov. 109. t. 29. f. 98. 
L'Yahana proprement dit, Foy d" 1 Azara, iv. No. 379. 

Common Water Hen, or Moor Hen, Alb. ii. t. 72. & iii. pi. 91. Will. Engl. 312. pi. 58. 
Common Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 258. Br. Zool. ii. No. 217. pi. 77. Id.fol. 131. 

pi. L. Id. 1812. ii. 121. pi. 22. f- 1. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 411. Id. Sup. p. 69. 

Fl. Scot. i. No. 163. Hayes, pi. 30. Bewick, ii. pi. p. 128. Lewin, v. pi. 191. 

Id. xxxvi. 2. — the egg. Walcot, ii. pi. 169. Donov. pi. 110. Pult. Dors. p. 16. 

Orn. Diet. 

LENGTH fourteen inches ; weight about fifteen ounces. Bill 
red, tip greenish ; at the base a red, bare membrane, spreading some 
way on the forehead ; irides reddish ; the plumage in general is sooty 
black above, with a tinge of olive; beneath cinereous; sides over 
the thighs black, streaked with white; the outer edge of the wing, 
and under tail coverts white; above the joint, at the commencement 
of the bare part, a circle, or garter of red ; the rest of the bare 
space and legs are greenish ; toes flat, and broad. The female is 



GALLINULE. 405 

smaller, and the colour paler; the chin, and sometimes throat, white; 
the bill scarcely red at the base, and the bare skin of the forehead 
olive-brown ; the whiteness or the chin and throat, however, is not 
constant, and as to the colour of the forehead, it appears more or 
less red according to the season. 

Inhabits England at all times, frequenting the borders of the 
rivers and ponds, where weeds grow, concealing itself behind the 
latter. It makes the nest on a low stump, or shrub, not far from 
the water side, of flags, rushes, or the like : the eggs, sometimes 
nine or ten in number, almost two inches long, yellowish white, 
marked with irregular, reddish brown spots, with a few smaller 
interspersed ; it is said to breed twice in the season. It is an 
active bird, and frequently lifts up the tail, shewing the white vent, 
and this it does also when running on the ground : it flies, however, 
awkwardly, and with the legs hanging down, and seldom far at a 
time ; and though not a web-footed fowl, will swim and dive well, 
but often pays dearly on the latter occasion, as it not unfrequently 
falls a prey the pike, especially the young birds. The nests, too, 
are often swept away by the summer floods, when too near the water. 
This bird is by some called the Moor-Hen, Water-Hen, and Cuddy ; 
is for the most part wild, but may be brought up tame ; and we have 
known it, in retired places, so familiarised, as to come up to the 
poultry yard with the Ducks, which frequented the ponds, near the 
house.* This bird, when shot on the wing, will frequently shelter 
itself in the nearest tree, especially if much wounded. 

It is a common species on the Continent of Europe, to the north 
in Russia, and the west of Siberia, also Denmark, but rare : we 

* Mr. Jefferys, of Maidstone, related to me a singular circumstance. In the year 17S7, 
on hearing an uncommon fluttering on the outside of a chamber window, near that place, 
in which there was a light, about two o'clock in the morning, some one went out, and 
caught one of these birds, which had made an attempt to get in ; it was full grown, and 
having a wing clipped, was kept afterwards in a garden for two years, but for the most part 
hid itself on the sight of any one, though it would suffer itself to be taken occasionally. 



406 GALLINULE. 

trace it through Germany, France, Italy,* and Spain, also Gib- 
raltar, and the opposite shore of Barbary ; but how much farther 
in Africa is uncertain. We have, however, seen it frequently in 
drawings done in India, where it is called Dawke, or Dahuc. 

Inhabits America, from New York to Carolina ; is mentioned as 
a native of Jamaica, and other Islands in the West Indies, where it 
is said to feed on plants and small fish, which it also does in this 
kingdom, as well as on water insects ; will often feed on the remains 
of corn, left in the stubble after harvest; and though its flesh in 
general is not greatly sought after, it will be found, when in good 
condition, to be very palatable. 

I observed a specimen of this among others in the collection of 
Lord Seaforth, brought from South America; but in no place more 
frequent than in the Island of Tristan da Cunha, having spread over 
the whole Island ; some conceal themselves in the woods, and 
are occasionally run down by dogs; others fly about the cantonment ; 
and are so tame as to suffer themselves to be caught with a hand- 
net, &c.f Is found also in Java, but the specimens are smaller, and 
have a much wider, and differently shaped frontal clypeus :£ the 
bird is called there Pro, or Opel-opellan. 



8— BROWN GALLINULE. 

Gallinula fusca, Ind. Orn. ii. 771. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 695. Friseh, 210. 

minor, Bris. vi. p. 6. Id. 8vo. ii. 359. Gerin. v. t. 487. 

alia Aldr. Will. 234. 

Fulica fusca, Lin. i. 257. Gtn. Lin. i. 697. Fn. arag. p. 78. Fn. Helv. 

' albiventris, Scop. i. No. 150. 

Rallus Italorum Aldr. Rail, 116. 15. Will. 238. 

Das braune Meerhuhn, Bechst. Dents, iii. 245. 

Wasser Huhn, Gunth. Nest. u. Ey. t. 20. Naturf. xviii. p. 70. 

La Poulette d'Eau, Buf. viii. 177. 

* The Moor Hen of Ionia is much commended, and highly esteemed. — Plin. Nat. Hist. x. 
cb. 48. f i»- trans, xii. 496. % Dr. Horsfield. 



GALLINULE. 407 

Another green-footed Water-Hen, of Bellonius, Will. Engl. p. 314. 
Aldrovandus's Italian Rail, Will. Engl. 319. 
Brown Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 200. 

THIS is less than the Common Gallinule ; length one foot. Bill 
one inch, olive-green; irides red; eyelids white; plumage above 
olive-brown ; throat and fore part of the neck deep ash-colour, 
tinged with olive ; breast and under parts ash-colour, the feathers 
margined with white at the ends ; under tail coverts black ; bend of 
the wing white; quills dusky brown, the outer one edged with 
white ; tail olive-brown ; the outer feather white, the shape a little 
rounded ; legs olive brown ; garter yellow. 

Inhabits France, and is a solitary bird ; said to frequent the same 
places with the Common Gallinule, of which it is thought to be in the 
first year's plumage, but not mixing with that species: it lives on 
the same food, and the flesh is like it in taste ; and if the same with 
Aldrovandus's Rail, is taken in the neighbourhood of Venice, with 
great ceremony. te A troop of servants wearing buskins, or high 
" shoes, do, in the room of hunting dogs, wade up and down the 
" shallow waters thereabouts, and put up these birds with certain 
" clubs they carry, shaking and beating the shrubs and bushes where 
" they lie, so that they may afterwards become a prey to the Falcons 
" that wait for them ;" and the flesh is compared to that of a Thrush 
or Quail.* We have seen this in India drawings; but the head, neck, 
and under parts were dusky white. 

9— GREAT GALLINULE. 

Gallinula major, Bris. vi. p. 9. Id. Svo. ii. 360. 

Gallina chloropus altera, Raii, 114. Will. 133. 

Grande Poule d'Eau, ou La Porzane, Bnf. viii. 178. 

Das grosse braune Meerhuhn, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 248. 

The other green-footed Water-Hen, of Aldrovandus, Will. Engl. 313. 

Brown Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 261. Var. A. 

LARGER than the Common Species ; length eighteen or twenty 
inches. Bill two and a quarter; the base and greater part of the 



408 GALLINULE. 

under mandible yellow, the rest black ; bare part of the forehead 
yellow; head and neck blackish; upper parts of the body and 
wings chestnut; breast, belly, and sides, dull ash-colour, crossed 
with indistinct lines of white ; tail rounded, chestnut, the two outer 
feathers white ; legs green. 

The female differs in being paler. According to Buftbn, it is 
common in Italy, about Bologna, where it goes by the common 
name of Porzane. 



10— SPECKLED GALLINULE. 

GuHinula maculata, hid. Om. ii. 772. Tern. Man. 450. Id. Ed. 2d. 695. 

Tringa maculata, Gm. Lin. i. 701. 

Porphyrio punctulatus, Bris. v. 530. Id. Svo. ii. 354. 

Gallinula erythra Gesneri, Rail, 109. Will. 226. t. 26. 

Das geflekte Meerhuhn, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 248. 

Matkneltzel, Matkern, Will. Engl. 304. Klein, 101. 8. 

Spotted Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 266. 

SIZE of the Crake Gallinule; length eleven inches. Bill dull 
yellow; forehead bare; plumage rufous brown, with black and 
white spots on the wings; sides of the head, throat, and neck before, 
white ; from thence to the vent brown ; the two middle tail feathers 
black, tipped with white, the others brown ; legs grey. 

Inhabits the marshes of Germany. 

1 1 —YELLOW-LEGGED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula flavipes, Ind. Orn. ii. 773. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. 695. 

Fulica flavipes, Gm. Lin. i. 702. 

Porphyrio rufus, Bris. v. 534. Id. Svo. ii. 354. 

Gallinula ochropus major, Raii, 115. Will. 236. Klein, 101. 2. Gesn. Av. p. 452. 

Das gelbfussige Meerhuhn, Bechst. Deuts. iii. 249. Naturf. xiii. s.219. No. 132. 

La Smirring, Buf. viii. 180. Will. Engl. 316. § vii. 

Yellow-legged Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 266. 

SIZE of the Common Gallinule. Bill yellow, end black; edges 
of the eyelids saffron-colour ; forehead bare, pale yellow ; the rest of 



GALL1NULE. 409 

the head and upper parts rufous, spotted with black ; sides of the 
head and under parts white; lesser wing coverts spotted with dusky, 
and a little brown, growing reddish towards the tips ; the outer 
greater ones the same, but those nearest the body white; quills 
black ; tail rufous, spotted with black; legs pale yellow. 

Inhabits Germany, by the name of Smirring, probably from its 
note. The figure in Gesner seems to have an imperfect back toe. 



12 —PIPING GALLINULE. 

Gallinula fistulans, Ind. Orn. ii. 773. Tern. Man. Ed. 2d. 695. 

Fulica fistulans, Gm. Lin. i. 703. 

Porphyrio fuscus, Bris.v. 531. Id. 8vo. ii. 353. 

Das Glutthuhn, Bechst. Dents, iii. 250. 

LaGlout, Btif. viii. 181. 

Piping Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 207. 

LENGTH eleven inches or more. Bill black ; the forehead bare, 
yellowish green ; plumage above brown ; sides of the head and under 
parts white, with a little mixture of the same on the wing coverts ; 
quills and tail brown ; legs yellowish grey ; claws grey. 

Inhabits Germany, frequenting the banks of rivers and ponds, 
like most of the Genus. It is called about Strasburg, Glutt, perhaps 
from its making a shrill kind of note, not unlike that of a small flute 
or fife. The three last described I have never met with. M.Temminck 
supposes them to be mere Varieties of the Common Species ; or at 
least birds in immature plumage. 



13 —ABYSSINIAN GALLINULE. 

LENGTH ten inches to the end of the tail, and to the toes, 
thirteen. Bill one inch and a quarter, dull yellow, with a dusky 
tip; nostrils in a long furrow; plumage above fine deep chestnut 

VOL. IX. G G G 



410 GALLINULE. 

biack, somewhat glossy ; beneath fine deep ferruginous, the lower 
belly brown; chin pale; under tail coverts white, and reach almost 
to the end of the tail ; sides over the thighs deep chocolate ; legs 
bare above the joint, for half an inch; shins two inches long; the 
middle toe the same in length, the others shorter; hind claw three 
quarters of an inch, all the claws hooked ; the first quill is shorter 
than the second, and the third the longest ; tail two inches long, and 
the wings reach to near the end of it. 

In the collection of Mr. Salt ; killed on a small fresh water lake 
at Mozambique, with the African Jacana. 



14— WHITE-CHINNED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula gularis, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 195. — Horsfield. 

LENGTH seventeen inches. Plumage brown ; beneath grey, 
transversely undulated with brown ; chin white ; back, and wing 
coverts margined with dull grey; tail hoary brown. 

Inhabits Java, and called Burong. 



15.— MOURNFUL GALLINULE. 

Gallinula lugubris, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 195. 

LENGTH twenty inches. Plumage in general blackish lead- 
colour; back, and wing coverts margined with paler, the former 
with a gloss of brown; quills brownish ; the anterior margin of the 
wings white ; on the belly some very slender brown fasciae ; second 
quills paler, margined with brown ; axillaries and vent banded with 
white. — Inhabits Java; called by the Javanese, Bontod. 



GALLINULE. 41 I 



16— J A VAN GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Javanica, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 196. 

LENGTH fourteen or fifteen inches. Plumage above black; 
forehead, and sides of the head white; rump yellowish ferruginous; 
axillaries and sides of the belly black. 

Inhabits Java ; called Sri-bombo, and has some resemblance to 
the Red-tailed Species. 

17.— MADRAS GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Maderaspatana, Ind. Orn. ii. 767. 

Fulica Maderaspatana, Gm. Lin. i. 700. 

Crex Indica, Madras Rail, Rait, 194. t. 1. f. 4. 

Porphyrio Maderaspatana, Bris. v. 543. Id. 8vo. ii. 357. 

L'Angoli, Buf. viii. 205. 

Madras Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 253. 

SIZE of a Duck. Bill and legs long; forehead bare and white ; 
plumage above fine ash-colour; sides of the head and under parts 
white ; across the lower part of the neck crescent-shaped black spots ; 
quills ash-colour, edged with black ; tail short. 

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Madras, there called Boollu-cory; 
also Malabar, where it is known by the name of Caunangoly. 



18— KOOKRA GALLINULE. 

LENGTH seven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long, 
and black ; irides red ; plumage in general above pale olive brown • 
most, of the feathers above the body are dark in the middle, and many 
marked on the margins with white, appearing as streaks and spots >' 

G GG 2 



412 GALLINULE. 

wing coverts plain ; the forehead, sides of it, and all beneath very 
light bluish grey ; thighs barred dusky and whitish ; tail short, the 
colour of the back ; one or more of the outer feathers barred dusky 
and white ; legs pale green. 

Inhabits India. — General Hardwicke ; called Jelb-kookra ; met 
with at Chetcote, in April. 

19— CRESTED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula cristata, Ind. Orn. ii. 773. 
Fulica cinerea, Gm. Lin. i. 702. 
Crested Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 267. 

SIZE of the Coot; length eighteen inches. Bill as in that bird ; 
forehead and crown bare, reddish, and rising at the back part into 
a knob, not unlike that on the head of the Guinea Pintado; head 
and neck ash-colour; chin mottled with white; body and wings 
greenish ash-colour ; outer edge of the last pale ; under parts of the 
body pale ash ; middle of the belly white ; legs very stout, and 
brown. — Inhabits China, and India ; in the latter called Runcnr. — 
Sir John Anstruther. 

20.— GREEN GALLINULE. 

Gallinula viridis, Ind. Orn. ii. 769. 

Fulica viridis, Gm. Lin. i. 098. 

Porphyrio viridis, Bris. v. 529. Id. Svo. ii. 352. 

La Poule-Sultane verte, Buf. viii. 204. 

L'Yahana blanc et bleu de Ciel, Voy. d'Asara, iv. No. 381. 

Green Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 257. 

LENGTH eleven inches and a half. Bill and bare part of the 
forehead greenish yellow ; plumage on the upper parts of the body 
dull green, beneath white; legs greyish yellow ; claws grey. 

Said to inhabit the East Indies ; but M. d'Azara mentions it as 
being at Paraguay. 



GALLINULE. 41-3 



21 —RED-TAILED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula phoenicura, Ind. Om. ii. 770. 

Rallus phoenicurus, Ind. Zool. p. 19. t. 9. Gm. Lin.'i. 715. 
Red-tailed Water Hen, Ind. Zool. p. 10. t. 9. Id. 4to. p. 49. pi. 12. 
Red-tailed Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 259. 

LENGTH nine inches ; weight seven ounces and a quarter. Bill 
yellowish green, base reddish; forehead bare, flesh-coloured; plumage 
above black; forehead, round the eyes, and under parts, white; 
quills black, marked with large bluish spots; vent and under tail 
coverts ferruginous red ; legs dirty green, tinged with red; toes long. 

Inhabits Ceylon, is there common, and call Kalu-kerenaka; is 
often figured in Chinese paintings, as well as those done in India. 



A.— La Poule-Sultane brune, Buf. viii. 204. PL enl. 896. 
Red-tailed Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 259. 13. Var. A. 

Length fifteen or sixteen inches. Crown and upper parts of the 
plumage dusky ash-colour; forehead and under parts white; belly 
and vent rufous ; quills and tail black ; legs yellow ; toes long. 

Inhabits China. — One in General Hardwicke's drawings called 
Bodeh. 



B. — Gallinula phoenicura, Ind. Om. ii. 771. 14. y. 
Red-tailed Water-Hen, Gen. Syn. v. 260. 13. B. 

In this the crown, and all the upper parts of the plumage, quills 
and tail are of a full glossy black ; the forehead and under parts, as 
far as the vent, white ; the last red ; legs slender, yellow ; toes long. 

Inhabits various parts of India ; is called at Bengal, Dahuc, and 
Dauc, and is said sometimes to be twelve inches in length. Is found 
at Calcutta all the year, among long grass and weeds, on the banks 
of ditches and ponds, in pairs ; breeds in the rainy season, and lives 



414 GALLINULE. 

on water insects and worms. The Mussulmans eat this bird, and the 
lower classes of Hindoos give it to women when sick ; the way they 
are taken is by placing tame ones as a decoy, near the water, in 
cages, so constructed as to admit of a wild one entering, but not to 
return. I observe, in a drawing of one of these birds, that the base 
of the bill above, and forehead, are both red, of which colour I 
suspect them to be in the breeding season. 

I received a specimen of this from the Cape of Good Hope ; it 
was attempted to be brought to England alive, being tolerably 
familiar, but died in the passage. Besides the above, we have reason 
to think that there are further Varieties, as I have met with repre- 
sentations of them in two different sets of Chinese drawings, in both 
of which the forehead was of a deep red; bill and legs green; the 
quills and tail dusky black. Kolben mentions one, as common at 
the Cape of Good Hope,* but merely says, that it is black, and of 
the size of the Common European Species. This is probably one of 
the above Varieties. 



22. -CARTHAGENA GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Carthagena, Ind. Orn. ii. 767. 
Fulica Carthagena, Lin. i. 258. Gm. Lin. i. 700. 
Rallus rufus Americanus, Bart. Trav. p. 294 ? 
Carthagena Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 252. 

SIZE of the Coot. Forehead bare, and blue; the body wholly 
rufous. — Inhabits Carthagena, and, if the same bird with the Greater 
brown Rail of Bartram, is found in Pennsylvania in spring, coming 
from the south ; and after breeding and rearing the young, disappears. 

* Kolben, Cup. Engl. Ed. ii. 140. 



GALLINULE. 416 



23.— CAYENNE GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Cayanensis, Lid. Orn. ii. 767. 

Fulica Cayanensis, Gm. Lin. i. 700. 

Grande Poule d'Eau de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 182. PL eul. 352. 

L' Ypacaha, proprement dit, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 367. 

Cayenne Gallinule, Gen. Sy'n. v. 252. 

LENGTH eighteen inches. Bill three inches long, yellow, with 
the base green, and the tip dusky ; irides bright red ; chin, sides of 
the head, and a little way on the neck before greyish white; head, 
the rest of the neck, lower part of the belly, and thighs dusky grey 
brown ; back and wing coverts dull olive ; breast, upper part of the 
belly, and quills, bright reddish rufous; legs red. The young birds 
are grey, not acquiring any red colour till after the first moult. 

Inhabits Guiana and Cayenne ; is common in the marshy places, 
and lives on small fish and insects: extends also to Paraguay and 
Buenos Ay res ; called Ypacaha, from its note expressing that word, 
and to be heard a mile off; the Spaniards call it Poulette ; sometimes 
attacks poultry ; and during the absence of the hen, takes away the 
eggs, and destroys the contents ; the eggs are therefore scarce. This 
bird will also eat many kinds of fruit, bread, and meat, but most 
fond of worms ; in appearance is very tame, but will not suffer itself 
to be handled ; it pilfers, and hides many small articles, which it 
finds about the house ; but is useful in destroying rats and mice, and 
after killing them, if not too large, swallows them whole. 



A. — L'Ypacaha noiratre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 376. 

This is thought, by Azara, to be a mere Variety of the Cayenne 
Gallinule. 



416 GALLINULE. 



24— CHIRICOTE GALLINULE. 

Le Chiricote, Voy. d'Axara, iv. No. 368, 309. 

THIS seems greatly to correspond with the former, } r et differs 
in many points ; it is only fourteen inches and a half long, and 
twenty-three broad. Throat pearly grey ; top and sides of the head, 
and the whole of the neck, lead-colour; breast red; top of the back 
and upper wing coverts dusky green ; lower part, rump, tail, and 
thighs, black; quills red, under coverts crossed with rufous and 
dusky ; naked part above the joint and legs blood red ; the bill light 
green, wrinkled at the base. 

Inhabits Paraguay, where it is common, but differs in habits 
from the Cayenne Gallinule; for it is found deeper in the woods, and 
frequently seen on tall, well clothed, trees; is also more numerous; 
sixteen to one of the Ypacaha, or Cayenne Species. The Guaranis, 
and Spaniards, call it Chiricote, as the note expresses that word 
distinctly ; it is familiar, and when tame, feeds on meat and maize. 



25. —BLACK-BELLIED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula ruficollis, Ind. Orn. ii. 767. 
Fulica ruficollis, Gm. Lin. i. 720. 
Black-bellied Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 253. 

LENGTH seventeen inches. Bill two inches and a half long, 
yellow, with the base red ; crown brown ; neck behind cinereous 
brown ; back greenish brown ; quills the same, with rufous margins; 
chin white ; fore part of the neck and breast bright rufous ; belly, 
thighs, vent, and rump, black: sides and under wing coverts trans- 
versely barred rufous and black ; legs red, pretty long. 

Supposed to inhabit Cayenne, having been brought from that 
place with others ; but no history annexed. 



PI, CIX 




/////■//'//fro ujt/umuu . 



GALLINULE. 417 



26. —VARIEGATED GALLINULE. 

Rallus variegatus, Jnd. Orn. ii. 760. Gm. Lin. i. 718. 
Rale tachete tie Cayenne, Buf. viii. 165. PL enl. 775. 
L'Ypeealia varie, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 370. 
Variegated Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 237. 

LENGTH eleven inches. Bill one inch and a half, yellowish ; 
back part of head dusky; chin white; the rest of the head, next the 
body, irregularly spotted with black and white, and streaked trans- 
versely on the sides, as in the Common Rail ; wing coverts brown, 
dashed with white, the rest of the wing brown ; tail dusky, some of 
the middle feathers edged with white ; legs yellow. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and extends to Buenos Ayres, but is not 
common there : met with also at Guiana. 



27— MARTINICO GALLINULE.— Pl, clx. 

Gallinula Martinica, Ind. Orns ii. 769. 

Fulica Martinica, Lin. i. 259. Gm. Lin. i. 700. Jacq. Fog. 12. No. 9. t. 3. 

Porphyrio minor, Bris. v. 526. t. 42. f. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 352. 

Rallus aquaticus minor, Bartr. Trav. 294? 

La petite Poule-Sultane, Buf. viii. 206. 

L'Yahana vert et bleu de Ciel, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 380. 

Martinico Gallinule, Gen. Syn v. 255. pl. SS. Id. Sup. 258. 

LENGTH about twelve inches. Bill yellow, with a red base ; 
forehead bald, and blue ; irides red ; general colour of the plumage 
Hne glossy green; but the head, neck, and under parts are purple, 
changeable blue; lower belly dusky black ; vent white; quills and 
tail dusky, edged with green; at the bend of the wing a small blunt 
knob ; legs yellow ; toes very long and slender. 

VOL. IX. H H H 



418 GALLINULE. 

Inhabits Cayenne, and other warmer parts of America ; also the 
West India Islands, particularly Martinico, in the swamps, where 
it is valued for its food : it has frequently been brought alive to 
England, as it bears confinement well, and is pretty tame, though 
never so as to be at large. Those we have seen alive here were fed 
with rice, bread, lettuce, and other such food. In its wild state it 
sometimes utters a soft and fine note, especially in the breeding 
season. The above description answers for the most part; but we have 
observed one, which had the upper parts blue green, with a tinge 
of brown ; crown of the head brown ; under parts white ; a little 
mottled with black in the middle of the belly, but more so across the 
lower part of the neck, just above the breast; chin quite white; legs 
brown. From comparison of size, shape of the bill, and legs, I am 
inclined to suppose it of a different sex only, if not a young bird. 

That described by Brisson differs, in having the bare part of the 
forehead and legs red, and is said to inhabit the East Indies, as well 
as America. 



28 —FAVOURITE GALLINULE. 

Gallinula flavirostris, Ind. Orn. ii. 769. 

Fulica flavirostris, Gm. Lin. i. G99. 

La Favorite de Cayenne, Buf. viii. 207. PL enl. 897. 

Favorite Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 256. 

LENGTH twelve inches. Bill yellow ; upper parts of the 
plumage deep blue; sides of the head and neck paler; neck before 
bluish white; belly, thighs, and rump, white ; quills and tail brown, 
the last darkest; legs long, yellow, hind toe very long. 
Inhabits Cayenne. 



GALLINULE. 41& 



29.—CROWING GALLINULE. 

Gallinula purpurea, Lid. Orn. ii. 769. 

Fulica purpurea, Gm. Lin. i. 099. 

Quachilto, Porphyrio Americanus, Rail, 116. 14. Will. 238. § II. Id. Engl. p.319.§ If. 

L'Acintli, Buf. viii. 208. 

L'Yahana blanc et brun roussatre, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 382. 

Crowing Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 257. 

SIZE uncertain. Bill pale; irjdes fulvous; the plumage of a 
dark purple colour, with some white feathers intermixed ; legs 
greenish yellow. 

Inhabits Mexico; is a marsh bird, feeding on fish, and thought 
to be not ill tasted meat; is called by some Yacacintli, and said to 
imitate the watching, and crowing of a Cock. In young birds the 
bare part at the rise of the bill is red. 

M. d'Azara met with only one of these in Paraguay, and that in 
March ; he says the length is ten inches, breadth seventeen. Bill 
dusky, with a green base; throat and under parts white ; sides of 
the head, and neck before pale rufous brown ; the crown, and half 
of the neck behind deep brown, mixed with pale rufous : the rest of 
the upper parts of the neck, and wing coverts dusky brown, glossed 
with green ; quills dusky, glossed bluish green ; back and tail dusky 
brown ; garter and legs straw-colour, tinged with green. 



30— YELLOW-BREASTED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Noveboracensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 771. 

Fulica Noveboracensis, Gm. Lin. i. 701. 

Yellow-breasted Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 262. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 410. 

THIS is smaller than the Common Quail. Crown and neck behind 
dark olive brown, spotted with white ; back brown ; scapulars edged 
with yellowish white ; breast dirty yellow; legs brown. 
Inhabits America, chiefly about New York. 

H H H 2 



420 GALLINULE. 



31.— SOREE GALLINULE. 

Galliiuila Carolina, Ltd. Orn. ii. 771. Frank/. Narr. App. p. 690. 
Rallus Carolinus, Lin. i. 263. Cm. Lin. i. 715. 
■ Virginianus, Bartr. Trav. p. 294. 

— — — terrestris Americanus, Klein, Av. 103. 4. 
Porphyrio freti Hudsonis, Bris. v. 541. Id. 8vo. ii. 356. 
Rallus Virginianus, Rail, Amer. Orn. vi. pi. 48. f. 1. 
Le Rale de Virginie, Bnf. viii. 165. 
L'Ypeeaha a face noire, Voy. d'Asara, iv. No. 373. 
Little American Water-Hen, Edw. pi. 144. 

Soree Gallinule, Gen. Si/n. v. 262. Arct. Zool. ii. No. 409. Cates. Car. i. pi. 70. 
Burnab. Tr. 1G. 42. 

SIZE of a Quail, but stands higher on its legs; length from 
eight to nine inches, and fourteen in breadth. Bii! one inch long, 
and ye'Sow, base over the forehead bare ; irides red ; the crown and 
upper parts of the head dull brown, spotted with black ; the face, 
round the bill, the chin, and part of the neck before, black ; sides 
of the head, neck, and breast, bluish ash-colour ; belly and sides 
dusky white ; the last barred with black; body above brown ; back 
and scapulars edged with white, appearing streaked ; outer edge of 
the wing white ; quills and tail brown ; legs dusky green. 

Inhabits Virginia, at certain seasons, in vast plenty, and is called 
Soree. Burnaby, in his Travels, mentions catching 100 dozen of 
Sorusses in one night, by the Pamunky Indians, in King William's 
Country. The manner of taking these birds is remarkable : the 
Sorus is not known to be in Virginia, except for about six weeks, 
from the latter end of September:* at that time they are found in 
the marshes in prodigious numbers, feeding on the wild oats, and 
seeds of reeds; at first they are exceedingly lean, " but in a short 
•' time grow so fat, as to be unable to fly ; in this state they lie upon 
"the reeds, and the Indians go out in canoes, and knock them down 

* The greater part of September and October they are sold at Philadelphia from half 
a dollar, to a dollar per dozen. Disappear with the first frosts; some remain in Virginia 
till the first v./, k in November. — Amer. Orn. 



GAI.LINULE. 42! 

lt with their paddles: they are bigger than a Lark, and are delicious 
" eating. During the time of their continuing in season, you meet 
" with them at the tables of most of the planters, breakfast, dinner. 
" and supper." 

In Georgia it is seen frequently in the marshes, and sides of 
ponds, but is not very common ; is known there by the name of 
Water-Hen, or Sedge-Hen, also the Water-Rail. It should seem 
that both the Virginian Rail, and this bird are known under the 
appellation of Soree, except they are one and the same, which is not 
improbable. Bar tram calls it the Soree Bird, or Little Brown Rail : 
and adds, that it is also called Wigeon in Pennsylvania; extends to 
Paraguay, two of them having been met with there. 

One, which I suppose to differ in sex, was sent from Georgia ; 
crown of the head rufous brown, down the middle a dark streak ; 
sides of the head very pale cinereous brown ; chin white; nape and 
neck behind rufous brown, the lower part streaked with dusky; back 
and scapulars as in the other; wing coverts plain brown ; quills the 
same; outer web of the outer quill white, except just at the end; 
throat to the breast pale brown ; middle of belly white ; sides barred 
dusky and white ; under tail coverts pale rufous ; legs the same, 
but paler. — Sent from Georgia by the name of Spotted Gallinule, 
but is probably only a sexual difference of the Soree. In the A mer. 
Orn. it is observed, that the females and young males of the first 
season, have the throat white; the breast pale brown, and little or 
no black on the head. The males may always be distinguished by 
their ashy blue breasts, and black throats. 

32.— RUFOUS-BREASTED GALLINULE. 

Rallus Cayanensis, Ind. Orn. ii. 700. Gm. Lin. i. 718. 
Le Rale de Cayenne, PI. enl. 368. 
Le Kiolo, Bvf. viii. 164. 
Cayenne Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 238. 

LENGTH eight inches. Bill brown; crown of the head rufous; 
rest of the upper parts olive brown ; the under, as far as the thighs, 



422 GALLINULE. 



rufous ; the last olive brown ; the vent pale ; from the gape a broad 
blackish streak passes on each side of the head, including the eyes 
on the upper part; quills black ; legs reddish brown ; the tail short, 
olive brown. 



A.— Rale a ventre roux de Cayenne, PI. enl. 753. Gen. Syn. v. 238. 

Length seven inches. Plumage above of a deeper brown ; crown 
chestnut; the streak on each side of the head blue grey ; the under 
parts of the bird are rufous, but deeper than in the last, and continue 
more backwards; the inside and lower part of the thighs are dusky ; 
chin and vent rufous white; bill dusky; legs pale brown. 

Inhabits Cayenne, with the last, and perhaps differs only in sex ; 
common also at Guiana, and there called Kiolo, from the note, and 
chiefly heard in the evening, at sunset ; they collect together in order 
to pass the night, dispersing singly among the thick bushes in the 
day time, and make the nest between the forks of shrubs, near the 
ground, of a reddish kind of plant, with a cover at top, impenetrable 
to the rain. — One of the last described is in the collection of Mr. 
M'Leay, who received it from Berbice, by the name of Soribibi. I 
have also seen one, which was only six inches in length ; probably 
a young bird. 



33— JAMAICA GALLINULE. 

Rallus Jamaieensis, Ind. Orn. ii. p. 761. Gm. Lin. i. p. 718. Brh. Sup. 140. Id. 

8vo. ii. 258. 
Le Rale Bidi-bidi, Buf viii. 163, 
Least Water Hen, Edw. pi. 278. Brown, Jam. 479. 
Jamaica Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 239. 

LENGTH six inches. Bill black, base reddish ; head and throat 
black; the upper parts of the head, neck, and back rufous brown, 
crossed with blackish streaks ; the neck before and breast bluish ash ; 



GALLINULE. 42.J 

from thence to the vent barred white and brown ; the wing coverts 
brown, spotted with white: quills rufous brown, barred with black; 
the secondaries spotted with white ; tail as the greater quills, with a 
few spots of white; legs brown. 

Inhabits Jamaica, where it is called Bidi-bidi. 



34— MINUTE GALLINULE. 

Rallus minutus, Ind. Orn. ii. 761. Gm. Lin. i. 719. 
Le Petit Rale de Cayenne, Buf. tail. 167. PI. enl. 847. 
L'Ypecaha a sourcils blancs, Voy. d'Azara, iv. No. 377. 
Little Rail, Gen.Syn.v. 239. 

THIS is in length five inches. Bill brown; the plumage on the 
upper parts of the body the same ; darkest on the back and scapulars, 
which are streaked with white ; the wing coverts black, spotted with 
white ; sides of the body undulated black and white, as in our Rail ; 
over each eye a white streak ; the under parts pale dusky yellow, 
approaching to white on the chin and throat, and inclining to ash- 
colour on the belly ; quills brown ; the tail barred black and white ; 
legs pale yellow. — Inhabits Cayenne ; three only of these were seen 
in Paraguay, and two of them young birds. 



A.— Little Rail, Gen. Syn. v. 240. Var. A. Ind. Orn. ii. 761. 23. /3. 

Length five inches and a half. Bill brown, under mandible 
yellow ; plumage above brown ; back and wing coverts crossed with 
several striated white bands ; the chin and fore part of the neck to 
the breast dirty white ; the middle of the neck behind rufous ; the 
sides of it ash-co!our ; belly, sides of the body, and vent, undulated 
black and white ; quills and tail cinereous brown ; legs yellow. 



424 GALLINULE. 

I received this bird from Jamaica, and have also seen a specimen 
from Cayenne. These are clearly Varieties of each other, and both 
probably related to the Jamaica Rail. 



** WITH BILLS VERY STRONG, AND THICK. 



35. -VIOLET GALLINULE. 

Porpbyrio alter, Aldrov. iii. 438. t. 440. Ind. Orn. ii. 7G8. G. /3. Fn. arag. p. 78. 

Porphyrio hyacinthinus, Tern. Man. Ed. \\. G98 ? 

Purple Water Hen, Edw. pi. 87 ? 

Purple Gallinule, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 326. A. 

THE size not mentioned. Colour of the plumage, for the most 
part, violet black; fore part of the neck blue; vent white; forehead 
and legs red. — This was sent from Tyrol, and, according to M. Aso, 
is either a remarkable Variety, or new Species. 

M. Temminck's bird, quoted above, and appearing to be the same, 
is eighteen inches in length ; the cheeks, throat, neck before, and 
sides of it turquoise blue; hindhead, nape, thighs, and belly bright 
indigo blue; the breast, back, wing coverts, quills, and tail glossy 
indigo ; the under tail coverts white ; bare part of the forehead, bill, 
and irides red; legs reddish flesh-colour. 

This bird inhabits the marshy parts, on the borders of rivers and 
lakes, in Sicily, Calabria, the Ionian Isles, throughout the whole 
Archipelago, and the Levant ; also Balmatia, and the southern 
provinces of Hungary; rarely seen in Sardinia: breeds in the marshes, 
making the nest of sticks and plants, laying three or four white eggs, 
nearly of a round shape. 



GALLINULE. 425 



36. -PURPLE GALLINULE. 

Gallinula Porphyrio, Ind. Orn. ii. 768. Amer. Orn. ix. 67. pi. 73. f. 2. 

Fulica Porphyrio, Lin. i. p. 258. Gm. Lin. i. 699. Sco/>. i. No. 152. Bris. v. 522. 

t.42. f. 1. Jd. 8vo. ii. 351. 7?a», 116. 13. jspitf. p. 238. Klein, 104. 6. Clut. 

ex. 370. f. 84. Aldr. iii. 437. t. p. 439, Borowsk. iii. 97. t. 53. Gerin. v. t. 485. 
Porphyrio Indicus, Lin. Trans, xiii. p. 194. 
Chloropus Acbac, Phil. Trans, xxiii. p. 1395. 19. 
Der Blau-Vogel, Gm. reise, iii. 79. t. 12. 
La Taleve de Madagascar, PL cnl. 810. 
Kaloe, Cook's Last Voy. App ? 
Pindaramcoli, Bartolomeo Voy. Engl. p. 224. 
Purple Water Hen, Albin, iii. pi. 11. * 
Purple Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 254. Id. Sup. ii. 326. 

SIZE of a Fowl : length one foot five inches. Bill very stout 
at the base, compressed on the sides, and above one inch and a half 
iu length, colour deep red ; irides fulvous; forehead bare, and red; 
the head and neck behind glossy violet; cheeks, throat, and fore 
part of the neck, violet blue; back, rump, wings, and tail, dull 
green, but glossy; quills brown within; tail rounded in shape ; under 
coverts white; legs stout, the colour of the bill. 

The female differs in being smaller. This bird is more or less 
common in all the warmer parts of the globe, abounding on the coast 
of Barbary, as well as in some of the Islands of the Mediterranean. 
In Sicily they are every where kept for their beauty, but whether 
indigenous thereto we are not certain : are frequently met with iu 
various parts of the south of Russia, and west parts of Siberia, in 
places where reeds grow, and are not uncommon about the Caspian 
Sea ; but in the cultivated rice grounds of Ghilan, in Persia, in great 
plenty, and in the highest plumage. Are very common in Egypt; 
atRosetta, and other parts, are called Sultanas, and are easily tamed, 
if taken young; their cry, according to Sonnini, nearly resembles 
the laugh of a person masked. They seem fond of rice, and from 

* The toes are placed faultily, viz. two before, and two behind. 

VOL. IX. Ill 



426 GALLINULE. 

this called by some Poule du Riz ; often seize the food, and bring it 
to the mouth with one leg, like Parrots: as soon as they take the rice 
they constantly run to the water; appearing to bite, or chew it while 
drinking.* The figure of this bird may be observed in Chinese 
paper hangings; and in some drawings from thence it is called 
Chinka ; is frequent also in India, and there called Koema and 
Kareema; likewise at Madagascar and Java, by the name of Pee- 
lung. Our circumnavigators saw them at Tongo taboo, in vast 
numbers, as well as at the Isle of Tanna, and other parts. It is said 
to be common also in the southern parts of America, and has been 
seen in Georgia, but is probably rare. 

The female makes the nest among the reeds the middle of March, 
lays three or four eggs, and sits from three to four weeks; is very 
docile, and when tame, will associate with other Fowls, scratching 
the ground with the feet, like common poultry ; will feed on many 
things, as fruit, roots of plants, and grain ; is fond of fish, which it 
dips into the water before it swallows them ; will frequently stand on 
one leg. A pair of these kept in an aviary in France, made a nest 
of small sticks, mixed with straw, and laid six white eggs, perfectly 
round, but the hen was careless of them, and they came to nothing : 
the flesh is said to be exquisite. 

37.— BLACK-HEADED GALLINULE. 

Gallinula melanocephala, Ind. Om. ii. 768. 

Fulica melanocephala, Gm. Lin. i. G99. 

Porphyrio melanocephalos, Bris.v. 526. A. Id. 8vo. ii. 353. 

Gallinula palustris, Feuill. Obs. 1725. 288. Buf. viii. 209. 

Rallus major subcceruleus, Slate-coloured Water Rail, Bartr. Tr. 294? 

Black-headed Gallinule, Gen. Syn. v. 257. 

THIS is wholly blue, except the head and neck, which are 
black, with a broad bare space on the top of the head. In the 

* Porphyrio solus Morsu bibit. Idem est proprio genere, omnem cibum aqua subinde 
tingens, deinde Pede ad rostrum veluti manu afferre. — Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. x. cap. xlvi. 



GALLINULE. 427 

female the crown is fulvous ; upper part of the body the same, 
streaked with white on the scapulars ; wings greenish, with a fulvous 
tinge ; quills greenish blue. 

Inhabits the warmer parts of America; and, if the same mentioned 
above by Bartram, is met with throughout the year. M. Brisson 
makes it a Variety of the Purple Species. 



38— BLACK-BACKED GALLINULE. 

Porphyrio melanotus, Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. 701. 

LENGTH nearly twenty-one inches. Bill and top of the head, 
as far as the middle of the crown, deep blood-colour; head, and 
neck to the shoulders purplish blue; back and wings deep black; 
bend and bastard wing deep blue; quills black, with blue edges; 
belly and thighs slate-colour ; tail short, black above, and slate 
beneath ; legs stout, bare above the joint two inches; the shins four 
inches and a half in length ; toes the same, both red. 

Inhabits New South Wales. 



39.— BLACK-JOINTED GALLINULE. 

LENGTH twenty-three or twenty-four inches. Bill and bare 

part on the crown crimson ; chin, throat, neck, and under parts in 

general blue, but the head is nearly black, inclining to purple ; the 

breast is paler, with a greenish tinge ; the whole of the back and 

wings deep greenish black, with a purplish gloss on the back, and 

the margins of the wing coverts glossed with green ; a little below 

the bend of the wing, a slender spur, half an inch in length ; greater 

quills outwardly blue; tail black, the under coverts white; legs red, 

bare above the joints ; but those, as well as all the joints of the feet 

and toes, are black ; claws black. 

I ii 2 



428 GALLINULE. 

Inhabits New South Wales, found in the swamps in August, but 
is rare ; called by the natives Goola-warrin, or Girra-wang. I 
observe a similar bird among the drawings of Lord Mountnorris, 
done in India. 



40—WHITE GALLINULE. 

Gallinula alba, lnd. On. ii. 768. 

Fulica alba, White Fulica, White's Joum. p. 135. pi. p. 238. 

White Gallinule, Phil. Bot. Bay, pi. p. 273. Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 327. 

SIZE of a Hen ; length two feet. Shape and colour of the bill 
as in the Purple Species, with also the crown red, and bare; irides 
red ; round the eye scarcely covered with feathers, so that the skin is 
visible, appearing somewhat rough ; the whole of the plumage pure 
white; the legs red, claws brown ; on the bend of the wing a sharp 
spur. Some of these birds, supposed to differ in sex, are of a bright 
blue between the shoulders, and spotted on the back with the same. 

These inhabit Norfolk Island, are very common, and so extremely 
tame, as to be easily knocked down with a stick ; they feed on various 
things, and have more than once been observed to eat the ejected 
food of the Booby Pelican. It is to be suspected, that this is no other 
than a casual Variety of the Purple Gallinule, particularly as that 
bird is in sufficient plenty in Tongo taboo, Tanna, and other Islands 
of the Pacific Ocean ; independent of Java, Madagascar, various 
parts of the East Indies, and China : it is probably the same met 
with in Lord Howe's Island, said to resemble a Guinea Hen in make, 
and to weigh four pounds, and that the cock's wings were beautifully 
mottled with blue; none of them could fly, but were run down by 
the seamen.* 

* See Account of Botany Bay, by J. Callam, 1783. 



GALLINULE. 429 

The Purple Gallinule of New South Wales is probably different 
from the Indian one, and is said to undergo extraordinary changes 
during its progress to maturity ; that of Howe's Island, when young, 
is entirely black; from that becomes bluish grey; and afterwards 
pure white. 



41— NEW-HOLLAND GALLINULE. 

SIZE of the Purple Gallinule. The bill in shape the same, but 
smaller in proportion ; the colour deep green, with a yellow tip ; the 
general colour of the plumage olive brown ; beneath deep ash ; some 
of the feathers on the sides, under the wings, white at the ends, and 
some of the under wing coverts mixed, or barred with white ; middle 
of the belly nearly black ; sides and thighs ash-colour ; quills brown 
within ; crown of the head and middle of the neck behind brown ; 
legs stout, olive green. 

Inhabits New-Holland ; some of these birds have a strong gloss 
of blue and green, when exposed to different lights. This is probably 
an immature bird of one of the three last described, which appear to 
be much related to each other; for so little is known concerning them, 
that till some discerning naturalist may set us to rights from his own 
observation, we have thought it best to treat them as distinct. 



430 SHEATHBILL. 



GENUS LXXXIX— SHEATHBILL. 

JjILL strong, thick, a little convex; the top of the upper mandible 
covered with a corneous sheath. 

Nostrils small, just appearing beyond the sheath. 

Tongue round above, flat beneath, and pointed at the end. 

At the bend of the wing a blunt knob. 

Legs stout, gallinaceous, bare a little way above the joint. 

Toes edged with a thick membrane; the middle toe connected to 
the outer as far as the first joint ; claws channelled beneath. 



WHITE SHEATHBILL.— Pl. clxi. 

Vaginalis Chionis, Ind. Orn. ii. 774. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. Anal. p. cviii. 

Vaginalis alba, Gm. Lin. i. 705. (Chionis Forst.) 

White Sheathbill, Gen. St/n. v. 269. pl. 89. Penn. Indexes frontisp. Nat. Misc. 481. 

SIZE of a large Pigeon ; length as far as eighteen inches. Bill 
black ; at the base, over the nostrils, a horny appendage, which 
covers them, except just on the fore part, and descends so low on 
each side, as to hang over part of the under mandible ; this, however, 
is movable, and may be raised upwards, or depressed, so as to lie 
flat on the bill ; round the base, between that and the eyes, and 
round them, the parts are bare, and covered only with warty 
excrescences, which are whitish, or pale orange-colour ; over the eye 
a brown, or blackish one, much larger than the rest, reaching a 
little behind ; irides dull lead-colour ; the whole of the plumage is 
pure white ; at the edge of the wing, a little below the bend, a blunt, 
blackish knob; the legs bare a little above the joint, are two inches 
long, stout, and reddish : in young birds the tubercles round the 
eyes are very small, or wholly wanting, instead of which are a few 
downy feathers. 



PJL..CLXI. 




! 

J 




{ //;//,\//r^j/// 1 



SHEATHBILL. 431 

This bird inhabits New Zealand, as well as several of the Friendly 
Islands, and we believe New-Holland ; is apt to vary in the colour 
of the extremities, as well as size, in different places: those from 
Kerguelen's Land have brown legs, and black toes ; in some the legs 
are white, or pale blue ; and in one from Staaten Land, the legs 
were black, and the bill in some specimens pale brown. 

These birds haunt the sea shores in flocks, and feed on shell-fish 
and carrion ;* as to the use of them for food there are various 
opinions; some put the flesh in competition with tl at of a Duck, 
while others tell us, that it is worse than carrion, and has such an 
offensive smell, that they could not venture to taste of it, even at a 
time when they were not easily disgusted.f We may therefore 
conclude, that those who praised it as a delicacy, were at least very 
hungry. 

* Forst. Voy. i. 518. f Cook's Last Voy.\. 88. Forst. Voy.'n. 205. 



432 CEREOPSIS. 



GENUS XC — CEREOPSIS. 

JjILL short, convex, bent at the tip. 

Nostrils at the base, under the cere. 

Tongue obtuse, whole. 

Head covered, as far as the eyes, with a rough skin or cere; at 
the bend of the wing a blunt knob. 

Tail short, consisting of sixteen feathers. 

Legs stout, bare above the knee ; toes united by a membrane, 
half way from the base ; back toe small. 



NEW-HOLLAND CEREOPSIS— Pl. clxii. 

Ceieopsis Novse Hollandiae, Ind. Om. Sup. lxvi. Tern. Man. Ed. ii. p. cvii. 
New-Holland Cereopsis, Gen. Syn. Sup. ii. 325. pl. 138.* 

SIZE of a small Goose ; length nearly three feet. Neck long; 
the bill is black, thirteen or fourteen lines long, but from point to 
gape somewhat more ; the under mandible shutting close beneath 
the upper; from the base of the bill begins a bare, rough, yellow 
skin, rather swelling, and covering the whole as far as the eyes at 
least, and round them as a cere ;* the plumage for the most part ash 
grey, but the neck and under parts are paler, the upper inclining 
to brown ; some of the wing coverts and axillaries have a dusky 
blackish spot near the ends, and the quills are dusky towards the tips; 
the tail is rounded in shape; at the bend of the wing a blunt knob; 
the second quills nearly as long as the primaries ; the bare part of 
the thighs is one inch and three quarters ; leg seven inches and a 
half; middle toe three inches and three quarters; the bare parts are 
orange-colour, but the fore part, above the bend, the toes, and claws 

* In the specimen we first saw, this bare part extended far beyond the eyes. 
/ 



L.CT.XTT. 




C hv/' y/f>//7r //f/ 6'f /'ro/t.)/.> 



CEREOPSIS. 433 

are black ; toes four in number, the three forward ones stout ; behind 
a short one, very small, and scarcely reaching the ground ; on the 
sole of the foot a solid knob, on which the foot is supported. 

Inhabits New-Holland, more common all along the south coast, 
and most so in the Straits called D'Entrecasteaux. 

In the Voyage in Search of Perouse, p. 258, is the following 
passage : — 

" Swan of an ash-coloured grey. Bill black, with a tumour of 
sulphur-colour, yellow at the base; legs tinged with red." 

A specimen is now in the British Museum. — This is probably the 
bird mentioned in Collins's Voyage,* seen on Preservation Island, 
with along, slender neck, small short head, and rounded crown; a 
short, thick, arched bill, partly covered with a pea-green membrane, 
which soon shrivelled up, and came away in dried specimens. Its 
plumage dove-colour, set with black spots : the voice deep, hoarse, 
and changing. In size rather less than our Tame Goose, and lived 
upon grass : the flesh was excellent. Mrs. Lewin informs me, that 
it is in sufficient plenty in some parts of New-Holland, and from its 
being so about Cape Barren, has obtained the name of Cape Barren 
Goose. It certainly, at first sight, appears in many points not unlike 
that bird, but in the bill it entirely differs from any of the Genus, 
and the legs are bare a great way above the joint, although it must 
be owned, that the feet having a considerable membrane between 
the toes, would otherwise bring it to class with the Web-footed. 
Mrs. Lewin adds, that with management, it becomes very tame and 
familiar, so as to be domesticated with our Common Goose, and that 
the flesh is well flavoured. 

* Vol. ii. p. 160. 

END OF VOL. IX. 



JACOB AND JOHNSOX, PRINTERS, 
WINCHESTER. 



Directions for placing the Plates. 



Plate 140 ROSEATE Spoonbill - to face Page - 5 

141 Horned Screamer _____ 8 

142 Brazilian Cariama ----- 12 

143 American Jabiru ------ 14 

144 Crested Boatbill - - ... - 20 

145 Tufted Umbre ----._ 03 

146 Gigantic Crane --____ 38 

147 Modun Crane -.42 

14S Wattled Heron - - - _ _ -73 

149 Abyssinian Erody - 137 

150 Black-faced Ibis - - - - - - 168 

151 White-headed Curlew - - -* J - - 175 

152 Cape Snipe 198 

153 White-winged Sandpiper - 296 

154 New Zealand Plover ----- 338 

155 European Courser - 351 

156 Pied Oyster-Catcher 356 

157 Austrian Pratincole - 360 

158 Philippine Rail 373 

159 Chinese Jacana ______ 391 

160 Martinico Gallinule 417 

161 White Sheathbill - - - - - - 430 

162 New-Holland Cereopsis .... 432 



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FLJEt.