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Full text of "The general hydrography of the waters of the Bay of Fundy"

gen-1952(July3) 




JOINT COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRiiPHY 




THE GENERAL HYDROGRiiPHY OF THE Wi^TERS OF IKE BaY OF FUNDY 

by 

H. B. Hftchey 
(revised by H. B. Hachey nnd Vif. B. Bailey) 



Atlantic Oceanograpbic Group 
St . Andrews , N , B . , 
July 3rd, 1952. 



o 

CO 

u 



60 




iiTLiiNTIG OCE^NOGR>xPHIC GROUP 
St. Andrews, N, B, 



THE GENERr.L HYDROGRiiPHY OF THE WATERS OP THE B^^Y OF FTODY 

by 

H. B. Hachey 
(revised by H. B. Hocbey j^nd W. B. B«illey) 



The Geneml Hydroprgphy of the Vi/aters of the Bay o f F'undy 

by 

H. B„ Hffchey 
( revised by H. B, Hgchey gnd W. B. Bailey) 

Introduction 

This report, bpsed on surveys In the Bqy of Fundy by Hnchey in 
1929 and 1930, Is essentially a re-Issue of the original manuscript 
report of the work carried out pt that time (Hachey 1931). The original 
work (Hachey 1931) has been re-arranged v/lth some alterations in general 
presentation to make it available to interested groups. The only major 
work in the Bqy of Fundy, since these surveys, was made by the Inter- 
national Passamoquoddy Fisheries Commission in 1932 (Wqtson 1935) » Thus 
this work st-^nds as a major contribution to the knowledge of the general 
hydrography of the Briy of Fundy. 

The enormous tides of the Bay of Ftandy have made th.ese waters 
well known the v/orld over. The conditions produced by these tides m.ake 
the region one of the utmost interest and importance to the oce^nographer « 
However the rapid changes in the hydrographic conditions caused by the 
ebb and flood of large masses of water over such an extensive area pre- 
sents a problem that allows present sampling methods to give only a 
picture of the general hydrographic conditions in this area. 

Considerable hydrographic data have been collected also, over a 
period of ye^rs, in connection with problems of marine biology, and 
these data are also used to present a long term picture of the hydro- 
graphic conditions o 
Description of the Region 

The Bpiy of Fundy (figure l) is ^n area of the Atlantic Oces^n, 
separating the province of Nova Scotia from Nrw Brunswick and the State 
of Ifaine. The mouth of the ^f\j , usually defined by a line drawn from 



2 - 



Chebogue Point on the south, to the Point of Main on the north, hn a 
n width of 87 miles (161 km.), ^nd nn dversge depth of 47 fathoms 
(85 m,). The area of the Bny is nbout 3,000 sq. mi » (7,770 sq , km,). 
At its head, the Bgy of Fundy divides into Chignecto hs.j on the 
north vifith .■^verfige depths ranging from. 20 to 8 fathoms (3G-15 m.,), 
and Min'^s Chf?nnel leading into Kin^s Bqsin to the east and south with 
average depths rnnging from 30 to 5 fathoms (55-9 m.,). At Cape 
Chignecto, where the ^f^j f oi'ks , the width is 30 miles (48 1cm „) , with 
qn pvernge depth of 22 fnthoms (40 m,), AboA/^e Cape Chignecto, the 
contraction in width and shdllov/ing in depth takes pl^^ce even m-ore 
rapidly th«n in the 3<ay Itself, 

Pnss«',mnquoddy Bay, situated close inside the entrpnce of the Bay 
of Fundy on the northwestern shore, is « large enclosed bay «(verQging 
15-20 fathom.?! (27-56 m,) in depth nnd communicates with the Bpiy of 
Fundy by two main channels. Western Passage pnd Letlte Passage, 

An im.pcrtant feature which pl'^ys n major role in influencing the 
hydrographic conditions in the -^ay of F'undy is C^^nd Manan Island 
together ivith its off -lying shoals. These features together occupy 
nearly h^^lf the entrance to the Bgy^ which divides into two channels, 
Grand Manan Channel and Southeastern Channel, 

On the southeastern side of the mouth of the Bay of Fundy is St, 
Mary Bay, connected to the Boy of Fundy by Grand Passage and Petite 
Passage. The depth of St, Mary Bay gradually decreases from about 20 
fatliom.s (36 m,) at its mouth to the shallow upper end. Just above St, 
Mary Bay, on the samje side of the Boy of Fundy, Dlgby Gut opens into 
Annapolis Basin, Directly across the B^y from Dlgby Gut is the 
estuary of the Saint John River, 

The bottom configuration appears to play an important part in 



determining the distribution of physical-chemicql properties in the 
Bny of Fundjo The 50 fnthom (91 m.) contour rounds the northwestern 
portion of Nova Scotia nt ^ distance of 30 miles (48 km,) from the 
shore. It then follows the general direction of the con:^tline 
f9ppro<5Ching to within 1 mile (0,6 km.) of the shore in t ie vicinity 
of Digby Neck. B'rom q position just north of Petite Pnssjage it 
proceeds in a northeasterly direction, crossing over to the New Bruns- 
wick side just south of the Saint John Estuary, at a distance of about 
10 miles (16 km.) from the shore. It then runs parallel to the shore, 
projects into Gr^nd Manan Channel, approoches the northermost tip of 
Grand Manan, rounds the eastern side of the Island, and passes out 
of the Bay, running parallel to the const of Maine at a distance of 
p.bout 20 miles (32 l-on.) from the shore. The 100 fathom (185 m,) 
contour reaches to the mouth of the Bay of Fundy from the Gulf of 
Maine. In the southeastern channel between Grand Manan Island and 
Brier Island, there exists an area in which the depths are generally 
greater than 100 fathoms (182 m,)„ From_ a line between Digby and 
Saint John, eastward a gradual shallowing takes place to the head of 
the Bay. 

Fresh water enters the Bay from, five are^s, as follows: 

(a) Saint John area 

(b ) Passaraaquoddy area 

(c) Chlgnecto area 

(d) Mlnas area 

(e) Annapolis area 

The Bay of Fundy receives the drainage from, an area over 25,000 
sq.mi. (64,417 sq.kni.) of which the Saint John River System is by 



_ 4 - 

far the most Important, draining an pren of more than 15,000 sq,mi, 
(38,850 sq.km.), ^ large amount of fresh water is supplied in the 
Pnssamaquoddy area through the St. Croix, Magaguadavic , and Digde- 
guash rivers. The Chignecto area receives water from the Petltl- 
codiac river while the most important supply in the Minos area is 
from the Shubenacadie river. In the Annapolis Basin, the Annapolis 
River and several large streams provide "he source of fresh water in 
this area. 
Tides 

The tides in the Bay of Fundy (Dawson 1908; Marmer 1926) are 
unique throughout the world. The menn mnge of these tides varies 
from 9<,0 ft. (2.7 m.) at the mouth to 44 ft. (13,3 m.) at the head. 
During the time of spring tides the mean range is increased by approxi- 
mately 14^„ 

The causes for these exceptional tides, which are the greatest In 
the world, are explained by the combination of various factors. 
Primarily^ the extreme tides are the result of the natural period 
of the Bay of Fundy nnd the period of the oce^m tide being practically 
the same. This results in resonance which is kept within bounds by 
the frictlonel forces involved. In addition there is a further piling 
up of waters near the head of the Bay resulting from the narrowing 
and shallowing of the B^y of Fundy in this area. It is of interest 
to note that tides In the Bay of Fundy are fundamentally of the 
stationary wave type, with the times of slack water nearly the same 
throughout the Bay, and the tid^l amplitude increasing with the 
distance from, the mouth of the Bay, 

Tidal currents in the Bay of Fundy show no direct relationship 
v/ith the tidal amplitude and are greatly influenced by shoals and 



- 5 - 



Islands. These currents run generally in and out of the B?^y veering 
only when the currents ore wepik. The currents range from 1 knot 
(1,8 km. per hr . ) negr the mouth to 7 knots (12,7 km, per hr , ) in 
the narrow channels. 
Nature of the Bottom 

The general nature of the bottom of the B?>y of Fundy, as obtained 
from data given on the latest charts of this region, is shown in 
figure 1, Three important types of bottom are found in the Bjjy of 
Pundy : 

(a) mud - the chief area extends from the mouth of the Saint John 
River and follows the coast of New Brunswick, extending almost to 
Grand Mqnan. To the eastward of Grand Mnnan there also exists an 
area of mud, of considerable extents A bottom of a similar nsture 
is seen to exist in the Chlgnecto Channel and extends in a south- 
westerly direction, in patches, along the coast of New Brunswicko 
Isolated patches of mud also occur in Minas Bnsin, Possamaquoddy Bqy, 
St, Mary Bay and in two areas near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, 

In each case the mud bottom is representptlve of deposition by the 
waters from the various drainage areas, 

(b ) sand and stones - the major portion of the bottom, of the Bay 
of Fundy consists of sand and stones. This applies particularly to 
the bottom in the deeper portions of the Bay. 

(c) rocks and ledges - the chief areas having a bottom of this 
nature are found in the vicinity of Grand Monan, and the western 
coast of Nova Scotia, A similar bottom is found in small areas 
scattered over the region near the head of the Bay, 



- 6 - 

Review of Egyijet' Hydrof;p«tphtcal Investl-gfitiona 

Through surveys made by the Roy«l W«vy in 1848, 1862, 1865 
«jnd 1866, the nature and configuration of the bottom was determined, 
while tides and tidal currents were investigated by the Canadian 
Department of Marine and Fisheries (Dawson 1908, 1917; Anderson 1930). 
Investigations into the physical and chemical aspects of oceanography 
in the Bay of Fundy beR'^n in 1916 (Craipie 1915 j Craigle and Chase 
1918; and Vachon 1918), Idavor (1922) wade use of D<^wson's results 
to determine the resultant movements in certain localities. He ex- 
tended this work by drift bottle investigations, and frdm the com- 
bined results worked out the general circulation of the wacers of the 
region. Mavor (1923) fiirnished a general picture of the hydrographic 
conditions in the Bay of Fundy by studying the distributions of 
teiaperature and salinity« Intensive ^ork in years around 1930 have 
attempted to account for the factors controlling the conditions as 
found. 

The data in this paper were collected over a period of years, 
and are discussed in the following orders 

(a) A general survey of the Bay of Fundy in 1929. 

(b) A survey of the Passamaquoddy region in 1929. 

(c) A survey of the freahet waters of the Saint John River 
Estuary in 1950a 

(d) TeTriper>8tu.re and salinity variations in the wgitera of the 
Bay of Fundy during the period between 1924 and 1930. 

(e) Surface water temperatures in the Bay of Fundy during the 
period between 1929 and 1931. 



- 7 



A G ener-il Surv ey of th e bqy of Fundy in 1 929 

The f^enernl survey of the B^y of Fundy wqs carried out between 
August 21st and September 19th5 1929. As will be seen from the pre- 
sentation of the dftt!=i, this ?5pproximqtes to fi survey of extreme 
summer conditions. The locations of the stotions in the survey network 
are shown in figure 2, 

I, Verticcil Distribution 

The vertical distribution of tempemture, salinity and density, 
for the five sections across the Bay of Fundy are shown in figures 
3, 4, and 5= 

Section 938-943 across the mouth of the Bay shows the sam.e 

distribution pattern for the three variables. For purposes of dis- 

cusslonj the waters in this section may be considered under four 

categories. Between stations 938 and 940 the waters are highly mixed 

and have relatively small differences in temperature and s^llnltyo 

This water In all probability is flowing out of the Bny of Fundy 

along the north shore after having been thoroughly mixed in the 

Grand Manan Shallows. The waters between stations 940 and 942 are 

typical of the w«ter in the upper 50 m. In the central part of the 

Bpy of Fundy as can be seen in section 968-960. This water, on the 

basis of the horizontal distribution of density (figure 13), is water 

that has come from the north central part of the Gulf of Maine, the 

higher densities (^) being attributable to an influence from the 

Atlantic throupjh the Fundian Channel. The water in the deeper 

portion of the section at station 941, having temperatures less 

o o 

than 7„0 C. qnd salinities greater than 33„1 /oo, is typical of 

the colder and more saline water whlch^ at this season, as the result 



- 8 - 

of Intense vertical mixing, tends to prorluce sub-norinpl temperatures 

in the Boy of Fundy. Finnlly, there is n body of water found to the 

eqstwnrd of station 942. This body of water, with temperatures 

o o o 

between 10 and 7 C. and salinities between 32.1 and 33.0 /oo, is 

found to enter the Bay of Fundy, after undergoing considerable mixing 

in passing around the southern coast of Nova Scotia. 

At stations 940 and 942 consider^'ble upv/elling is seen to be taking 
place as indicated by the nearness of the higher density water to the 
surface (figure 5). Considerations of the slopes of the Isopycnals 
indicate that there are three vaster movements through this section. 
On the left, from stntion 940 to the coast of Kaine the v/aters are 
moving out of the Bay of Fundy, while from station 942 to the coast 
of Nova Scotia the waters arc moving into the Bay of Fundy. These 
movements are also indicated by the temperature and salinity character- 
istics. Between stations 940 and 942 there appears to be cloclcv/ise 
circulation about station 941, which partakes of the nature of counter 
currents . 

Section 956-962, in the central part of the Bay of Fundy, shows 
a greater influence by river outflow -^s indicated by the increased 
temperatures and lowered salinities in the main body of w^^ter. This 
transition is more readily noted in the decrease in density [0^^' 
(figure 5), The strong tidal m^ixing is not as appreciable in the 
central part of the Bay as it is south of Grand Manan, and the 
waters are more stratified, as is seen in sections 956-962 and 968= 
963. On approaching the head of the Bay of Fundy the influence of 
the tides becomes greater until the waters are nearly completely 
mixed as in section 658-664, In the central portion of the Bay of 
Fundy, there is considerable upwelllng along the Rova Scotia coast 



- 9 - 

where the j.sopycnqls (flfrure 5) nro seen to he lifted to higher 
levels . 

In general it is seen thot the wnrmest waters <=re ohserved in 
the Rhallow boys at the head of the B-^y of f'undy. These waters, 
which are low in snllnlty, hold to the New Brunsv/ick shore, wbile 
alonp" the Novn Scotia coast, where considerable tidal mixinp and up- 
welling is taking plnce, the waters are colder and more saline „ The 
warmer lighter waters proceeding out of the Bqy of f^undy nlong the 
New Br-unswlck co^'st are thoroughly mixed, in the shallow -^rens south 

of Grand M-^nan, with the colder and more saline waters ''t the mouth 

o 
of the Bny to form p body of water with temperatures between 10.5 C, 

o 
and 8.0 C. nnd with corresponding salinities generally between 32o5 

o 
and 33,0 /oo . 

IT, Horizontal Distribution 

(a ) Temperature 

The horizontal distribution of temperature at 1, 25 and 50 m., 

is illustrated in figures 6, 7, and 8o As shown by the sub- surface 

IsothermxS for 1 m.etre (figure 6), the temperatures at the head of 

o 
the Boy of Fundy are greater than 13,0 C., with the waters of 

o 
Chlgnecto Bo sin and Minas Channel greater than 14,0 C. From the 

mouth of the Bay inwards, the temperatures decrease rapidly from 

o o 

15 C„ or greater to values of less thnn 10,0 C, in the ^rea south- 

y/est of Grand Mannn, Another rapid change In tem_perature occurs 

between the deeper waters and the coast of Novp Scotia, It is to be 

noted thnt the isotherms tend to follow the general direction of the 

o 
bottom contours well into the Bny, Tem.pera tures lov/er than 10,0 C, 

may be found in the inshore v/aters in the vicinity of the Novo Scotia 

coast, as well as neor the Nev/ Brunsv/ick and Ka ine coasts. Increasing 



- 10 - 

temperatures nre found In the sren from Gpond Mqrr^n to the estuary 

of the STint John River nnd from there to tVie he^d of the Bay. The 

colder suh- si^rf nee waters -are thus found to be 1n the Grand Mnnsn 

region ^nd plong the northwestern outer portion of the Movn Scotis? 

const , 

At the 25 metre level (figure 7) the waters, from q line between 

the Splint John ond Digby regions to the hand of the Bqy, show f5 pro- 

o o 
gressive increase in temperature from 9,5 to 13.5 C., with the waters 

o 
in Chignecto Fiasin and Minas Channel greater thon 14.0 C, From the 

Digby region to the Saint John estuary a progressive temperature 

o o 

increase from 8.5 to greater than 10.0 G. takes place across the 

Bay. South of Grand Manan and stretching along the coast of Maine 

o 
there is located a patch of w^ter with temperatures less than 9„5 C„, 

which represents the mixture of warmer waters from the Bpiy of Fundy 

and colder waters from greater depths in the Gulf of Taine, 

The isotherms for the 50 metre level (figure 8) show a gmdatlon 

o 
In temperature from 6.5 G. at the moiith of the Bay to a temperature 

o 
of about 9,0 C. in the area between Saint John and Digby, The depths 

near the head of the Boy nre. In general, too shallow to allow obs- 
ervations at this depth. The isotherms at this depth also tend to 
follow the general direction of the bottom, contours as was noted in 
the previous horizontal distribution. 

The difference between the distribution of tem.perature at 50 
metres and the distribution at 1 and 25 metres is worthy of consider- 
able attention. The distribution at 50 metres lllustr^^tes forcibly 
thot the deeper waters of the open oce-^n, that are carried to the 
Bqy of Fundy, are rapidly warmed before reaching any great distance 
into the Bay. On the other hand, the distribution at depths of 1 



11 - 



anci 25 metres point out th^t the sh=illov/er (sub- surf nee ) waters of 

the open oce^n proceeding into the B^y of Fundy r^re lowered in 

temperature „ This lowering of the temperature of the upper layers 

coupled with the rise in the temperature of the lower layers indicates 

that mixing of the waters of the various layers takes place on a 

considerable scale. Granting this, it is evident that there are two 

important regions v/he.re mixing takes place on a l^rge scale o One to 

the southwest of Grand Manan, and one over an nrea extending from 

Digby outward along the coast of Nova Scotia, As was seen in the 

vertical di stributions , considerable mixing in the main v/ater mass 

takes place generally In the whole Bay of f'undy area, 

(b) Salinity 

The distribution of salinity at depths of 1, 25 ^nd 50 metres 

Is shown in figures 9, 10 and 11, The waters at the head of the 

Bay of Fundy at a depth of 1 metre (figure 9) have a salinity as 

o o 

low as 31^0 /oo In Chignecto Channel, and as low as 31,7 /oo in 

Mlnas 'Channel o At the mouth of the Bay^ salinities are as high as 

o 
32,89 /oo o From, the region between Saint John and flgby to the 

head of the Bay^ the gradation in salinity is most m.arked, ranging 

o o 

from a maximum of 32,5 /oo to a minimum of less than 31,0 /oo in 

the Chignecto region. 

In figure 10 the Isohalines for the 25 metre level sliow much the 
same distributional pattern as at 1 metre with the exception that 
the isohalines near the head of the Bay tend to run across the Bay, 

At the 50 metre level (figure 11) the isohalines tend to follov/ 

the direction of the bottom contours. The salinities in this deeper 

portion of the Bny of Fundy, have an extremely small range (32,9 - 

c 
33,0 /oo). 



- 12 - 

(c) Density ((T^) 

Figures 12, 13 nnd 14 show the distribution of density ((J^) gt 
the 1, 25, and 50 metre levels. In the Bay itself at 1 m., densities 
vnry from less thnn 22.5 in Chignecto Chnnnel to a value greater thsn 
24. 9 In the Digby area. Southv/est of Grand Manan there exists a 
body of denser water, clearly the result of strong tidal mixing in 
the area south of Grand Mon^^n, of the warmer and lighter surface waters 
flowing out of the Boy smd the colder and he^^vier water from below 
50 metres flowing into the Bay. This heavier surface water is due to 
upwelling and must sink below or mix with lighter waters as it passes 
away from this area. Another pertinent point in the surface distri- 
bution of density Is the gradation along the 50 fathom (91 m, ) con- 
tour which runs into the Bay along the coast of Nova Scotia. A 
distribution such as this clearly points out the import<=nce of the 
bottom conf igxaration in producing m.lxing in this area. The density 
distribution at 25 metres (figure 14) has a range from greater than 
25.8 outside the Bay to less than 23,5 at the head of the Bny. As 
was found in all other cases the isopycnals at the 25 and 50 m. 
levels tend to follov/ the general direction of the 50 fathom bottom 
contour. This is not very marked at 25 m. 

Ill, Discussion 
The distribution of waters of vorious temperatures and salinities, 
as found in a given region, is determined by the movements from the 
various sources of supply. Wind action and tidal movements may be 
responsible for the piling of waters in certoin areas, but the 
result<int movements are determined by the prevailing Archimedean 
and Coriolean forces. The distribution of density tends to bring 



13 - 



about movements which sre further controlled by the rotj^tlon of the 
earth. As a result of the relationship between the distribution of 
density and wqter movements, certain principals have been derived 
to nssist in the hydrodynamic'^l analysis of water masses. One 
elementary principle st-^tes thnt if one f-^ces in such a direction 
that the lip-hter waters ore on the right h^^nd then one is looking in 
the direction in which the current is flowing. In the Bay of Fundy 
region the enormous tides result in large and complicated current 
systems. However, for purposes of hydrographical analysis we are 
interested only in the resultant movements, or circulation, and by 
making the following basic assumptions we are able to arrive at a 
simple and clear method for evaluating resultant water movements: 

(a) The net amount of salt water Introduced and removed from 
the Bay of Pundy is, during a complete tidal cycle, equal 
to zero. 

(b ) The outflow of water from the B?ty of Fundy is by necessity 
greater than the inflow of salt water due to the intro- 
duction of large quantities of fresh v/ater from the various 
drainage basin. 

(c) The outflowing waters are less saline than the inflowing 
due to the mixing of the waters that must occur in any 
tidal region. 

(d) The lighter water is on the right of the direction of the 
current . 

It therefore follows that, in general, the resultant outflow keeps to 
the surface layers while the Inflov/ing waters keep to the lower levels 
Also, the lighter waters are to be found proceeding fromi the head of 



- 14 - ■ 

the Bay, keeping close to fhe New J^runsv/ick ooqst to the region of 
the Saint John Estuary, thence to Grand Manan. At this point accorri- 
ing to Mavor (1S22) the waters round Grand Manan to the eastward and 
then flow southward along the Coast of Fa Ine . The incoming waters 
must then enter along the Nova Scotia Coast and hold to this coast 
reaching well into the Bay, This inflow of salt water is necessary 
to replace the salt water consumed in the mixing with the fresh water 
from the drainage basins and which has passed out of the area. Since 
the outflow is along the New Brunswick coast and the inflow along the 
Nova Scotia Coast, there must be a crossing over from the Nova Scotia 
side to the New Brimswick side. This crossing in actuality takes 
place throughout the entire length of the Bay, but is more oronounced 
in the region north of the line between Digby and Saint John to the 
head of the Bay, This movem^ent is clearly shown by the distribution 
of density (d^) at all levels, where the isopycnals by necessity have 
a tongue-like shape reaching well into the Bny, In the area to the 
southwest of Grand Fmnan a cyclonic circulation is in evidence in the 
upper layers (figure 12). This heavier virater, is therefore, dissi- 
pated as it breaks away from this area in its antl- clockwise movem_ent, 
sinking below the lighter waters of the surrounding region. The 
distribution of density (fS^) at 25 and 50 metres (figures 13 and 14) 
shows that this water is crried southward along the const of Maine, 
Tidal mixing and upwelling have been shown to play on imnortant 
part in determining the hydrographic conditions in the Bay of Fundy 
regions. The distribution of tem.persiture at 25 m= (fJgure 7) shows 
that upv/elling is effective at this depth, while at 50 metres 
(figure 8) the effect of the upwelling of the deeper waters is still 
In evidence. The surface densities (figure 12) illustrate upwelling 



- 15 - 

in the repion southwest of Cjr«nd I^'nnnn. At 25 metres (figure 13) 
and 50 metres (figure 14), th5 s upwellinp; is not <^?, well marked, due 
to the fnct thot there is les.'^ v^riqtion in density rut these depths 
thpn in the surf*?ice layers. As has been noted in viewing the 
vertical distributions (figures 3, 4, find 5) mixing t'^kes pl^ce 
progressively jis the waters re^ich into the B»y, so thnt the upper 
portion of the Bqy a s a whole is shown to produce n fairly well mixed 
water w^th the waters at the her^d being thoroughly mixed. It is to 
be noted, however, th-^t consldemble differences in temperature and 
salinity are to be found between the water in Finns Channel ^nd those 
found in Chignecto Channel, 

The area of the Saint John Estuary and the area near the mouth 
of P'^ssamaquoddy Bay have been omitted in plotting the results for 
the Bay of Fundy. IViese are-'S require special cittention ond will be 
discussed in I'^ter pages. 
A Survey of the Passamaquoddy Region 

The P'^ssaniaquoddy area consists of Passamaquoddy Bay and that 
part of the Bgy of Fundy extending from the entrances to P-^ssamaquoddy 
Bay to the southern extremity of Grand Manan, and including the Grand 
Manan Channel. The waters of this region are of particular importance 
to an understanding of the hydrogrnphic conditions in certain areas 
in the region around Grand Manan. Considerable -attention was given 
to this region during the summers of 1928 and 1929. However, much 
of the dat-a were very difficult to interpret. The data on which this 
paper Is b-^sed were collected during the period of September 5-7, 
1929, and are considered the best d-ata obtained for late summ.er con- 
ditions. The location of stations occupied during the survey are 



- 16 - 

shown on the ch??rt of the fires In figure 15. 

lo Vertical Distribution 
The vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and density 
((?^) for each of the sections occupied in the Passamaquoddy area are 

shown in figure 16, 

■f 

In section 948-897 the waters are relatively stratified to a 

o 
depth of 75 metres. Temperatures range from a high of 12,0 G„ at 

o 
the surface to less than 7o5 C, at the bottom (120 mo), with corres- 

o 
ponding salinities of 32,3 nnd 33„0 /oo. The density distribution 

in this section, which runs from White Head Island to Pt, Lepreau, 
affords an ooportunity to determine the general direction of the 
water movements through this section, B'rom the slopes of the iso- 
pycnals it is seen that there are tv;o main water movements, one into 
the section around Pt, Lepreau and one out of the section around 
White Head. The extent of these two movements varies with deptho 
In the upper 25 metres the Inward movement extends -almost as far 
south as station 949 while below this level to the bottom, both move- 
ments reach as far as station 951, Thus, on the basis of the area 
of this section, we may s°y that the greatest inward movement is 
in the upper 25 metres while the greatest outward movement is below 
this level. 

In section 953-955, across the southern entrance to the G^cnd 
Mpnan Channel, it is seen that the waters in this area are for all 
intents and purposes homogeneous in respect to temperature, sf'linity 
and density. So well mixed are these waters that the Archemedean 
forces acting on this body of water would be so slight as to be 
negligible. Thus such a water mass is mainly subject to movements 



- 17 - 

by the winds ^nd tides. 

Across the northern entrance to Grnnd Hl^mn Channel (section 
882-885) the W)c\ters J^re not ns thoroughly mixed ns they 5>re st the 
southern end. due to the encronchment of waiters froin north of the 
Chnnnel o Even so^ the waters in this section well illustrate the 
effect of tid.nl mixing. Temper^^tures in this section ronfr^e from 



greater thri.n 10o5 C, at the surface, near the centre of the channel, 

o 
to less than 10,0 C, nenr the bottom, with corresponding salinities 

o o 

between 32.6 /oo -^nd 32.7 /oo. From the slopes of the isopycn^lg 

it is difficult to form ^ny definite conclusion ps to the water move- 
ments through this section, and to a lesser degree with the ensuing 
sections. A.n interpretation of the residual water m.ovements is m.ore 
readily made from the horizontnl distributions of density ((ft) to 
be described later. 

Sections 890-893 rand 893-897, in the waters north of ^and Mqnan 

Channel, shov/ a greater degree of stratification, v/ith temperatures 

o o 

ranging from greater than 12,0 at the surface to 9.0 C. at the 

o 
bottom, v/hile corresponding s<^linities range from 32.3 to 32,9 /oo . 

II, Horizontal Distribution 

The horizontal distribution of temiperature , salinity and density 

(<r^) in the Passamaquoddy region are given for depths of 1, 25 ^nd 

50 m.etres In figures 17 to 25 , 

(a) Temperature 

The gradation in temperature ot 1 m.etre (figure 17) is from 

o 
the G^oonfj Manan Channel where temperatures ^^re between 10,0 G, =ind 

' o 
10,5 C., to the region ne°r Pt . Lepreau where temperatures are 

o 
greater than 12,0 C. It is to be noted that the waters proceeding 



- 18 - 



from the Saint John region eire higher in temperature thnn those 

proceeding from the P-^ss^^rnqquoddy region. At the 25 metre level 

(figure 18) the temperature gradient is in q considerably different 

direction than at one metre. From the mouth of Pogsamnquoddy Bpy 

to the open waters of the Boy of Fundy the temperatures increpse to 

o o 
between 10,0 and 11,0 C., in a narrow band north of Grand Man^n, and 

o 
then decrease to temperatures less than 10,0 C, on proceeding toward 

the deeper waters of the Bay of Fundy, Hence, the waters proceeding 
from the region of the Snint John Estuary and Pnssamaquoddy areas are 
v/armer than those at the s^me level in the open waters of the Bay, 
At 50 metres (figure 19) the waters in the Grand Manan Channel have 
temperatures about the same as at the surface and are thus seen to 
be fairly uniform, in temperature, as was observed in figure 16 (section 
882-885), There exists a relatively strong temperature gradient be- 
tween the waters north of the Grand Manan Channel and offshore waters. 
As at 25 metres, the waters at 50 metres are warmer in the Passa- 

maquoddy area than in the waters of the same depth in the open Bay 

o o 

(greater than 10,0 C, qs compared to less than 8.0 C,), 

(b) Salinity 

The distribution of salinity at a depth of 1 metre is shown in 

figure 20 where the greatest salinity is seen to be in the waters to 

the east of Grand Manan, The waters proceeding from Passamaquoddy 

o 
Bay are of greater salinity (greater thnn 32,4 /oo) than the waters 

o 
proceeding from the Saint John region (less than 32,4 /oo). The 

waters between Grand Manan and the mainland range in salinity between 

o 
32.5 and 32.7 /oo. 

The greatest salinities at the 25 metre level (figure 21) are 



- 19 - 

found In the offshore vj^tev?. , Tine waters nenr the entrance to 

o 
P-^ssgmaquoddjr Boy hsve s'llinlties slightly higher (less thfin 32 o5 /oo) 

than the w«*ters proceeding from the Siint John rep-ion (less than 
o 

32.4 /oo) wViile the salinities in the Grnnd Knnnn Channel range from 

o 

32.5 to 32.7 /oo) . 

At 50 metres (figure 22) the waters of lowest salinity (less than 
o 
32,50 /oo) are to be seen proceeding from the Passamaquoddy region. 

Between Grgnd I/lanan and the mainland the v/Qters have salinities rang- 

o 
Ing from 32,60 and 32,70 /oo, while the salinities in the offshore 

o 
v;aters are grentor than 32.9 /oo . 

( c ) Density 

The horizontal distribution of density i^t) at 1 metre 
(figure 23) shov/s that the lightest water at this level is to the east 
of the area under investigation and flowing from the Saint John region. 

Figure 24 illustrating the distribution of density (<ni-) at 
25 metres shov/s that the waters from the north of the area are flowing 
southwestward and sweeping in toward Passamaquoddy Bay just north of 
Grand Ivlonan. The lov/ densities in the approaches to Passamaquoddy 
Bay indicate that the waters in the region are flowing away from the 
area to the east of Grand Manan, Since the area is so strongly In- 
fluenced by the tides it is Impossible, using normal nrocedures, to 
get adequate data that will support an analysis presupposing simul- 
taneous observations. 

At 50 metres (figure 25) the v/aters are seen to b e moving towards 
the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay from the northeast past Pt , Lepreau, 
and fromi the south through Grand Manan Channel. 



- 20 - 
III, Discuasion 

In viewing the overall conditions ns found in the Pnasomnquoddy 
srea, it is found that the waters are brought into the area in the 
upper 25 metres from the north and east and to a certain extent from 
the Grand Manan Channel, This water after mixing near the mouth of 
^assamaquoddy Bay passes out of the area eastward of Grand Manan. Be- 
couse of the strong tidal mixing and upwelling, the waters near the 
mouth of Passamaquoddy Bay are denser than the waters further from the 
shore. This Is a result of the denser waters from the centre of the 
Bay of Fundy being drawn into the deep channel between Grand Manan 
and Cpimpobello Island and caught up in the mixing process in this 
area. With regards to residual movements in Grand Manan Channel, 
these seem to be very slight if at all, and v/hat movements there are 
appear to be directed northward, at the time of this survey. 
The Effect of Spring Freshets 

It hr>s been pointed out that the drainage waters from various 
areas are of great importance in dealing with the hydrography of the 
Bay of Fundy, The data considered up to this point were collected 
in the late summer of 1929, It is to be expected that at the time of 
Spring Freshets these drainage waters would be of greater importpince 
to the region, also there vrould be a greater contrast between the 
drainage waters and the waters peculiar to the Bgy itself. Due to 
the difference in the area of the drained regions, certain rivers 
supply a larger amount of fresh water than others. This would result 
in a greater contrast in salinity between the waters flowing from the 
varloTis areas de^lt with. In the Spring, there is little contrast in 
the temperature of the waters from the vnrious sources, and at the 



- 21 - 

same time, conditions ^re chonping so ropldly thctt the results ob- 
tained over p period of time could not be counted upon to give 
reliable results. Consequently, of thn d"tq collected in n survey 
carried out during the freshet of 1950, only salinity values are 
used. The locations of the stations occupied during this survey of 
the area from April 17th to May 8th, 1950, are given in figure 15. 

The horizontal distribution of salinity at 0, 10, 25 and 50 metres 
is shown in figures 26, 27, 28 and 29 respectively. In the surff=ice 
distribution (figure 26) the most prominent body of w«>ter resulting 
from the spring freshets is that proceeding from the Snint John River 
region. The main movement is outward from the Saint John Estuary, 
swinging to the right as It progresses, ^nd definitely outlined as 

far as the eastern extremity of Grand Manan. The salinity of the 

o 
main outflow varies between a value less than 27,5 /oo and q value 

o 
greater than 51,6 /oo, while the waters from the Possamaquoddy 



region have salinities greater th^in 51,8 /oo , The temperatures of 

o o 
the vnrious waters range from 0.95 to 6,65 C. at the surf nee, qnd 



from 1.25 to 4.90 C. at the bottom, thus the relative values of 
the densities would be roughly in the same proportion as the salini- 
ties. Consequently, the waters from the Soint John region eventually 
cover or mix with the waters from the P^ssnmaquoddy ars^ , There 
appears to be considerable movement of the fresher and therefore 
lighter waters from the Saint John area to the Possamaquoddy area. 
The greatest movement, as has been previously pointed out, is from 
the Saint John area towards Grand Man^n. The water from the Possa- 
maquoddy area penetrates into Grand Manon Channel, and then flows 
into the Bay of Fundy around the north shore of Grand Manan. It 



- 22 - 



then tends to proceed down the eastern const of Grnnd Kpnnn v/here it 

is covered over or mixed with the other waters in thqt region. 

At a depth of 10 metres (figure 27) the rnnge in the distrihution 

o 
of s"?.inity vories between 31.5 to prcter thqn 31.8 /oo. The 

waters nt this depth closely follow tVie movements at the surfnco, but 

they ore not en ''s large «^ sc"le. 

At 25 metres (figure 28) the outflow from the Saint John River is 
not RS prominent ms Pt higher levels. Thus it moy be stated that the 
freshet wter from, the S^- Int John River is carried away in the unper 
25 metres and joins with the waters from Passamqquoddy Boy before 
passing esist of Grand Mqnan «(t these depths. The wgter movements at 
this depth nre approximately the s^me as those in the upper layers. 

The distribution of salinity <>t 50 metres (figure 29) is indica- 
tive of a "dramr in" of waters to the Se int John and Pnssamaquoddy 

o 
area, IVaters v/ith salinities as high as 32.20 /oo reach v/ell into 

the mouth of the Saint John River, and the entrance to Passamaquoddy 
Bay. 

It has been shown that the movements from the Passamaquoddy and 
Saint John areas take pl«ce in the upper 25 metres. The actual 
physical nnd chemical conditions of the waters that make up this 
outflow will vary, but the fact remains however, that the v/aters nro- 
ceedlng from the drainage systems gradually become more saline as 
they progress into the Boy^ which m^eans that salt v/ater from the 
depths is being used up. Consequently, there must be a resultant 
inflow to m^'U-e up for this consumrption of salt v/ater. As has been 
demonstrated, this "inflov;" or "drav/ In" takes place at a depth of 



- 23 - 

about 50 metres. The "dmw in" of surface wnters to the. Pnngnrnnquodriy 
qren has nlso been demonstrated, ^^nd it i s to be borne in mind thnt 
the surfnce waters drawn Into the Passainaquoddy ores nre from the 
upper portion of the Bqy of I'undy. 
Results of Drift Bottle Experim.ents ^n the Pj^tssamaquoddy Area 

In order to furnish a check on the surface water movements in the 
Passamaquoddy ^re^ , drift bottle experiments were cpirried out in the 
Spring of 1930. ^in ordinary type of catsup bottle with a metal drag 
attached, ond contf>Lning a post card, was used in the experiments « A 
piece of red cloth was placed in the neck of the bottle ^^nd sealed 
with a waxed cork. The bottles were put out nccording to a definite 
plan, and the plotted returns used to furnish a picture of the sur- 
face circul'^tion of the region. The lines along which these bottles 
v?ere placed, *n groups of four ot one mile intervals, nre illustrated 
in figures 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34, The times nt which the bottles 
were released and the time at v^hich they were found is used to 
determine the maximum time of drift. Those bottles returned v^ithin 
the shortest period of time were used to determine the most probable 
direction ^nd rate of drift. These form the basis upon vi'hich the 
various drifts were plotted. Mavor's (1922) results are also used 
as a basis for plotting the resultant movements. It is to be borne 
in mind that drift bottles are carried to and fro by the tides, and 
thnt the resultant movement or circulation over a period of time is 
represented by the paths of the various bottles. The results of the 
returns from the various drift bottle lines will be dealt with by 
dividing the investigation into five series A, B, C, D, and Eo 



- 24 - 

I. Series A 

The base for this poriep of drift, bottles (figure 30), on v/hich 
four bottles were throv/n out nt e^ich of fifteen points pt 'nterv^ls 
of one mile, runs qlong n line from the co'ast of Grnnd Mnnnn enstvirard, 
A total of 60 bottles were put out of which 27 or 45/^ were returned. 
It i3 seen that the resultant movement indicated for this region is 
outward, with those on the outer half of the line recurving to the 
co^st of Nova Scotia qnd those on the inner half generally rounding 
the southern tip of Grqnd t.^nan and v/orklng down the coast of Maine,, 
Following the movement of a large number of bottles, it is seen that 
at le'^st three ronke a com.plete circuit of the lower half of the Boy 
of Pundy. The suggested movements demonstrate a cyclonic circulation 
around the basin and a clockwise movement around the eastern and 
southern co^st of Grand M^anan, In a porticul^r c^^se, a bottle set 
out at point 9 was picked up at Parker's Cove, giving it a minimum 
rate of travel of 4 miles per day (5,6 km, per day) „ 

II. Series B 

The b'^se for this series of bottles is shown in figure 31 o 
Four bottles were set out at each of twenty-two points on n line 
running northeasterly from Grand Knnan for 8 miles «nd then in a 
northv/esterly direction for a distance of 13 miles tov/ard the New 
Brunswick co^st. Fifty-four per cent of a total of 84 bottles set 
out on these lines were returned. The bottles put out over the l^st 
15 miles (24 Ion,) of the line demonstrated a v/ell defined movement 
of the surface v/aters toward the entrance to Pa ssamaquoddy Bgy„ A 
large number of bottles found their way ^long the east coast of Gr^nd 
Manan, some rounding Grand .Manan, while others crossed over to the 



- 25 - 

co"st of Novfi Scotifl. It is to h e noted thn t in the vicinity of 
White Hend some of the bottloa on reichinip this siren proceed townrd 
the Mci ine Const while others cross the Bny of Fundy to Novq Scotin, 
This fe«iture is to be noted in p.ll of the series m^ide in this experi- 
ment . 

Ill, Series C 

Four bottles were thrown out ^t each of nine points on p line be- 
tween the coqst of Mqine and Grond Mnnnn (figure 32). Of q total of 
36 bottles thqt were released 39^ were returned. All bottles tended, 
towards the const of Gr^nd Kin^n, nnd rounding the northern tip of 
Grand I-'^npn, some nlmost circled Gr^nd Mnnon to re^ch the coast of 
Wnine, while others restched the const of Novn Scotin , Two of the 
bottles put out from point 9 were returned from the eastern side of 
Grand Mnn'^n on May 12th, 1930, and May 13th, 1930. They therefore 
had travelled at a rate of not less than 6 miles per dqy (9o6 kmo per 
day) nnd 5 miles per day (8,0 km. per dny) , respectively, 

IV, Series D 

Figure 33 shows the b^se lines of Series D beginning near the 
main const of New Brunswick and ending nt Grand Monnn, Four bottles 
were put out at each of nineteen points and of these 50^ were re- 
turned. The general movement was towards the entrance to Pnssamaquoddy 
Bay, A number of bottles reached the eastern coast of Gpond Mqnan and 
from this region proceeded either to the coast of Maine or the const 
of Nova Scotia, Several bottles reached into Grand Mnnan Channel 
almost half way dov/n the north side. A bottle put out at point 14 
was picked up on May 8th, 1930, off Grand Manan, and has thus 



- 26 - 

t- r ••■ \' ■■^ 1 1 o '■I nt '> iDln:lri\im r«te oP Z in51e«? p-^r i^ny (4,8 km . r)er d'^y) . 
Another bottl<=^, sst out n t point 14 v/ts pic'-ced up "t Nev/ Tvlver Bench 
on June 22, 1930, ond therefore ]i^.6 covered r^ distTice of it lenst 
120 jn-!.le3 (l93 lor.) in " perAO'J of not lepr, th^n 48 dnys. 

V. Series E 

The hrjpe ?. ine 'n thin <=!t^r'efi (flp:ure ?)4 ) runs from the northejistern 
point of M-ilne to the northern tip of '-'r'^nd Iv'onon. A total of 28 
bottles vere put cut of vvh ' ch 64% vere i''aturned . It will he noticed 
thot these bottles from the extreme v/eatern end of the line yn'-ide their 
wfiy down the coapt of t'ciine. Sorne resch v/ell into Pj^ss'^mf^quoddy ^'^y, 
while others rounded the northern point of 'jrond L-'cnpn '^wl by follow- 
ing the e'^st co"st, found their Yinj ^round the southern tip of ^rnnd 
'^"'^nnn to re'' oh the co'><?t of Mqlne. One '^. ottle ro'ached the Nov Scotia 
Sc^pt. One bottle nut out nt point 7 on the extreme e«^stern end of 
the line, Ci'o«!sed over to the coast of J«"?5lneo This bottle, no doubt, 
h^d drifted to the entrance of -t'ogspnipquoddy Boy '^nd thence down the 
ccst to the point ot which it wn? found. A bottle put out at point 
5 wqs picked, up on jv'<'y 9th, 19-30, off Cnrnpobello Isl'^nd qnd therefore 
hqd tr--' v'elled nt » minimurfi rote of 2^ miles per d-^y (?.6 km. oer doy) , 

VI. Discussion 

The plotted repxilts from the drift bottle experiirents ore sub- 
ject to some correction. It is obvious th^t the ex^c- pnth of cny 
one bottle is unknov/n. A penerol picture 1=; derived from the more or 
less direct joining of the points of relep>se "nd return. Coupled 
with thi?:, the information, derived from the bottles that drifted for 
the shortest length of time, is used to plve •=) more rigid picture of 
the wqter movements. A siimmary of the definite results of the 



- 27 - 



Investigation follows: 

(a) All of the drift bottles indicated w tendency of the waters 
to circul-ate the island of Gr^nd Mnnon in « clockv/ise direction o 
The complete circuit of Gmnd Mnn«n is not suggested by the results 
from «ny one bottle „ The physical n«ture of the bottom to the south- 
west of Grqnd MTinn is orobnbly responsible, "s it hos been previously 
shown thot the surf nee wnters to the southwest of Gr<and Monnn cir- 
culate in an '^ntl-clockwise direction. 

(b) The movements of the bottles suggest 9 cyclonic circul«ition 
about the b^sin determined by the 50 f-^thoms (91 m.) contour in the 
Bay of Fundy, 

(c) An Intense movement towards the mouth of Prtsspimaquoddy Bc,y 
is definitely illustrated, while it v/ill be noted th-'t the v/nter 
movement along the co^st of Cqmpobello Island is outwnrd. 

(d) An inward movement in the m?? in wnters between Grand M^n^^n 
nnd the ras^inlgnd is noted in keeping with the clockwise circulation 
about Gr^nd Mnnnn, Hov/ever, the wnters in contact with the const 
of Mnine hnve nn outward movement. 

Annual Varintiong in Temperature and Salinity 

Vftrintlons in temperature ^nd salinity thn t occurred in the Be^y 
of Fundy between the years 1924 nnd 1930 inclusive, sre illustrated 
by reference to data obtained monthly from Station 5. The vari- 
ations in the conditions of the more stratified and deeper waters 
toward the mouth of the Bay nre illustrated by observations made at 
Station 3 (M'^vor 1923) between the years 1916 ^nd 1918 inclusive. 
The locations of these st-^tions are shown in figure 15, 



- 28 - 

I. Temperatures nt St<^tion 3 

In figure 35(a) the teinper«?tures nt Station 3 nre plotted for 

depths of 0, 50, nnd 150 metres for the period of November 1916 to 

May 1918. In November 1916, the temperatures nt depths '^nd 50 

o 
metres were pmcticnlly the s^me (7.6 C,), while r^t 150 metres the 

o 
temperature v/as 6.3 C. Enrly in December, however, the temperature 

o 
was fairly uniform throughout (6.1 - 6,7 C,), It will be noted that 

temperatures increase with depth until the last week in Mnrch when 

o 
conditions are approximately the s^^rae throughout (7,0 C,). The 

o 
minimxam temperature of 1.5 C. in the surface layer is renched in 

early February, while the minimum is reached at 50 m„ in late 
February, and at 150 m, in early April, In the period from the 
time the waters are of uniform temperature until the time the mini- 
mum surface temperature is reached, the changes in temperature repre- 
sent one phase of the temperature cycle thnt occurs in inshore waters. 
After this date, the effect of insolation begins to be noticeable 
and the surface temperatures begin to rise. It is not until the end 
of April that water temperatures at 50 metres ore greater than those 
at 150 metres. The temperatures continue to rise until the peak is 
reached in the surface layers in late August which marks the end of 
the second phase in tb.e temperature cycle. However, the subsurface 
v/aters continue to rise until about the end of September which repre- 
sent the third phase. Thereafter the temperatures decrease uniformly 

at all depths until December when uniform tempemture conditions are 

o 
approached with temperatures between 5,6 and 6,2 C„, m_arking the end 

of the fourth phase. Following the changes from this point on, we 

find that in 1917 the temperature of the water is fairly uniform 

o 
until late in J^nunry with temperatures between 2,4 and 2,7 C „ j, the 



- 29 - 

o 
mlnimiom temperature being ranched In enrly April (2.0 - 2,4 C „ ) „ 

Thus, while the cycle iis nwintained throughout the yenrs, the dfites 

nnd temperatures nt the ends of the vnrious phases mpy v«ary consider- 

sbly from yenr to yeor. 

II. Salinities «t Station 3 

In figure 35(b) the gnlinities sit Station 3 «re plotted for depths 

of 0, 50, qnd 150 metres for the period, November 1916 to Mpy 1918. In 

o 
November 1916, the snlinities at and 50 metres are the spme (32.7 /oo) 

o 
while the salinity f^t 150 metres is greoter (33.0 /oo). The maximum 

o 
value of 32 o8 /oo is reached in the surface waters in early December, 

while the maximum vslue of the salinity at depths of 50 and 150 metres 

o 
is reached in early January with values of 33,0 and 33.3 /oo, respec- 
tively. Salinities then decrease in the upper levels and a minimum 

o 
value of 27,9 /oo is reached in the surface waters in the early part 

of Mqy, In the waters at the 50 metre level n minimum value of 

o 
31.8 /oo is reached in early September, At the 150 metre level the 

o 
waters attain a salinity of 32,7 /oo in early July, '^nd then increases 

o 
sharply to a value of 33.3 /oo in early August, The decrease in 

s°llnity in the surface layer is accompanied by a decrease in the 

salinity of the waters at 50 metres. The increase in the salinity of 

the bottom layer in July is associated with an Incre-^se in salinities 

in the upper layers. The increase in the salinity of the bottom layer 

is indicative of replacement of the water at this level by a supply of 

more saline wgter from the open ocean. The replenishment is limited, 

however, as is shown by the decree f^e in the salinity of all layers 

from September until January, An increase in the salinity of =11 

layers takes place from the latter part of January until early April 



- 30 - 

due to the lack of fresh wnter run-off from the Ifind. Freshet 
effects nre ogoin evidenced In early Mpy. 

III. Discussion 
It nmy be seen thnt the vqrintions in tempernture nnd salinity, 
BS reflected ^t St=»tion 3, are indicative of vertical mixinir of the 
wnters of the various levels. This mixing is brought ?ibout by the 
following two ngencieg : 

is) Tldnl mixing -and upwelling which F>re common throughout the Bqy, 
(b) Mixing resulting from seasonal changes in density. 

The density of the water is determined by its temperature 
and salinity, the minimum density occurring during the summer ^nd 
the maximum in the winter time. As the densities fluctuate between 
these maxima and minima, there are times when the surface waters, which 
have the greater range, have the same density as the subsurface waters o 
This greatly facilitates vertical mixing through tid^l and wind action 
so that in time a thick isopynic layer is developed, at times reaching 
nearly to the bottom. This mixing causes an interchange between the 
waters at various levels. In 1916, this interchange was completed by 
the latter part of March. The interche-nge may not hs^ve occurred from 
top to bottom throughout, but it did take place in certain l^^yers, at 
least throughout a period extending from early November to late M^rch, 
The Intensive interchange must have token place In l^te November and 
was slowed considerably by a freshening of the surface waters and an 
increase in the salinity of the bottom v/aters. From early April 
onwards the heating and freshening of the surface layers bring about 
stable conditions that ^re not overcome until late November when 
interchange between the surface water ^nd the water at the 50 metre 



- 31 - 

level is nble to t^ke plnce. It Is not until Inte Jnnxa^ry th^t the 
wqter in the Ilw^ ' levels cqn be displnced throuprh vertical mixing. 

The incre'^Rp in <-he aqlinity of the bottom Iqyers cnn only t-^ke 
place when .-^ supply of wnter of greater snlinity is e^vpil-^bleo The 
replacement by outside waters undoubtedly tikes plnce continuously, 
but the mrtgnitiide of the supply nppenrs to v^ry considerably. In 
figure 35(b), we note that in eprly Jf^nu^ry, 1916, the snlinity of 
the bottom layer incre'^sed to n considemble extent. Compnroble in- 
creases occur ctgqin in enrly August 1917, *nd agnin in early April 
1918. A considerable difference in salinity at the various levels is 
to be noted in comparing the conditions of January, 1917, with those 
of January 1918. 

IV. Temperatures at Station 5 

Typical temperature-depth curves of water conditions at Station 5 
for e-'ch month for the years 1924 through 1930 are shown in figure 36. 
It will be noted that throughout the period the coldest surface water 
is always found in February or Mr>rcho The coldest water at a depth 
of 20 metres is found in March in all years with the exception of 
1930 when the coldest water at this depth was found in February. At 
a depth of 90 metres the coldest v/ater was found in February in 1924 ^ 
in April in 1929, and in March for all other years. The warmest sur- 
face v/aters occur in August or September, in all yesrs except in 1927 
and 1930, when the peak was reached in October. The warmest v/ater at 
90 metres occur in September or October. The maximum ^nd minimum 
temperatures of each level for each year of the complete period is 
given as follows: 



- 32 - 



Sur- 


fqce 


Mln. 


Mq X , 


1,2 


10o9 


1,1 


11.3 


Ool 


11.8 


1.3 


11.1 


2.6 


11.9 


1.9 


11.8 


0.6 


12.8 



20 


I/letres 


90 


Metres 


Min, 


Max. 


Mln, 


: ^1±^ 


1,5 


10.2 


1.7 


9,9 


1.0 


10.8 


1,2 


9o2 


0.1 


10.2 


-0,7 


9.7 


1.0 


10.3 


1,2 


9,3 


2.3 


11.4 


2,7 


10,1 


1.9 


11.0 


2,1 


8,8 


0.7 


11,5 


1,2 


11,2 



Year 



1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

V. Salinities *!it Station 5 
In figure 37 the s-^linities fire plotted PRPiinst depth for the 
years 1924 to 1930 Inclusive for Station 5, The freshest waters are 
found at the surface in either April or May, At 20 metres the less 
saline waters are found in April, May, June or even July, The lov/est 
snlinlty at a depth of 90 metres, may be found in any month within the 
period from January to July, The waters of highest salinities are to 
be found at all depths in the period extending from September to 
February. The changes in salinities are not neprly as regular as the 
corresponding changes in temperatures, and there may be considerable 
difference from month to month. The maximum and minimum vsilues of 
the salinities for e^ch level for e-^ch year of the complete period 
la given as follows : 
Year 

1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

(f ) Discussion 

In referring to the tables shov/lng the maximum nnd minimum 



Surf 


ace 


20 


Metres 


Min. 


Max, 


Min, 


Max, 


27,30 


32,84 


31.00 


32,72 


31,00 


32,63 


31.31 


32,88 


25,88 


33,01 


30.86 


32.72 


29.34 


32.61 


30,88 


32.72 


29,09 


32,88 


31,55 


33,01 


31,51 


32,77 


31,69 


32,77 


31,04 


32,43 


31,40 


32.54 



90 M. 


^tres 


Min, 


Max, 


32,03 


32,75 


31,94 


33,17 


32,20 


33,19 


32,09 


33,12 


32,16 


33,40 


32,39 


33,15 


31,91 


32,52 



- 33 - 

values of the temperatures nnd aillnlties throughout the period dealt 
with, it will be noted thit there ire con alder Able vnr1«tions in the 
conditions from ye'^r to yenr. Viflth regard to the temperature values 
nlone, it is seen th-^t there is « direct rel«i tion?.hlp betv/een the 
temperf^tures of the surface waters *?nd the temperatures of the waters 
in the lower levels. This me^^ns that there must be some means of 
transfer of heat in one direction or another between the various levels. 
During the summer months when the sun's he-^t is being absorbed by the 
surface l°yers, very little of this heat can be tt'-ansf erred by con- 
duction or direct radiation to the lower levels, due to the Increased 
stability of the waters in the surface layers. The direct relation- 
ship noted between summer temperatures at the surface and summer 
temperatures at the bottom indicates th«> t a highly efficient mixing 
process is at vjork in the Bqy of Pundy. On com.paring the maximum 
temperatures given for the various years it is seen that the years in 
which a higher surface tem-perature prevails, are also those in which high 
temperatures are found in the waters at the greater depths. The lowering 
of the temperatures at the surface tends to set up ordinary convection 
currents so that the process of mixing of the waters at the various 
levels is enhanced. Colder surface temperatures ^re also shov/n to be 
Indicative of colder bo'ttom. temperatures. At this point It might be 
argued that variations of surface tem.peratures in this region would be 
indicative of the variations in the bottom^ temperatures. It is readily 
seen that though the heat transferred fromi the water at the surface 
determines the temperatures of the waters of the i^aj of Fundy, the 
temperatures of the bottom v/aters carried into the Bay control the 
temperatures of the deep v/aters in the Bay. The actual part played 
by the various agencies depends in the first case upon climatic 



- 34 - 

conditions pind in the second upon the nmount of deeper wnter thnt ia 
carried into the Bqy. This nrfrument i? further enhqnced by inspec- 
tion of the tables of salinity vnlues. The snlinlty, in the mqin, 
is determined by the relative amounts of fresh nnd salt v/aters 
carried into the Bny by their respective ngencies. Evnpomtion 
enters aa a negligible factor. The amount of fresh water supplied is 
limited, and varies considerably from ye-^r to yenr. The lower salinity 
values found at the surface hold only for the times of river freshets 
which are of short duration. Consequently, there is nothing in the 
way of a direct relationship between s^'linit^'^ values at the surface 
and those found at greater depths. In other words, the movement of 
the outside waters into the Bay is the main fnctor in the determina- 
tion of the salinity of the waters at the greater depths, and the 
xvaters from the greater depths are the prime factors in the determina- 
tions of the salinities of the waters in the v/hole Bgy„ 

Representative Surface Water Temperatures 

Pour points in the Bqy of Fundy v/ere chosen such that they v;ould 
indicate the temperature regime in their respective areas. The sur- 
face temperatures for these points are plotted in figure 38. Lurcher 
Lightship data are indicative of conditions in the Bay near the 
western coast of Nova Scotia, while G^and Manan data are indicative 
of conditions to the southwest of the Isl^^nd. Conditions at the 
head of the Bay are Indicated by dat-' taken at the Isle Haute, while 
the conditions in Ppssamaquoddy Bay are represented by dat^ from St. 
Andrews . 

The main features brought out by these data are that periodicity 
of the temperatures in the four areas are approximately identical. 



- 35 - 

and thflt the qnnu>?l temperature rnnges v^rj from one nren to nnother. 

In pnrticulnr, it is Heen thcit nt Isle Haute, nt the he^d of the B^y, 

o 
the temperatures rnnged from greater thnn 14.0 C, in August, 1929, to 



less than -1,0 C, in February, 1930. At St. Andrews, the temperatures 

o 
ranged from greater th-^n 13,0 C, in August and September, 1929, to 

o 
-1,0 C. in January and i^'ebru-^ry of the following year. In 1929, at 

o 
Grand M^nan, the highest daily average temperature was 11,0 C, in 

o 
late September, with the lov/est of -1,0 C. in l^'ebruary 1930, At 

o 
Lurcher Lightship the highest daily average temperature of 12,0 C, 

*^ was recorded in August 1929, while the lowest was 2.0 C, in February, 

1930. Thus, in comparing the annual ranges for the varjous points, 

the efficiency of mixing in different areas in the Bay of Fundy can 

be appreciated. These annual ranges are as follows: 

o o 

Isle of Haute -1,0 G. » . . . . . = . „ , „ . . o ,15,0 C, 

St. Andrews -1,0 .. ,,........., „14 .0 

Grand Mnnan -1,0 ,,o ........... .13 ,0 

Lurcher Lightship 2.0 ,........,....,15,0 

The range in temperfrture at Isle Haute, St, Andrews, and G^gnd 

o o 

Manan shov/ a gradation from 16 C, at the hend of the Boy to 13 C, at 

the mouth. These results further Illustrate the results of pro- 
gressive mixing of the waters that take place in the Bqy, During 
the' summer months, the bottom waters nt the mouth of the B,qy h-^ve 
comparatively low temperatures. Mixing, v/lth the resultant bringing 
up of bottom v/ater, tends to keep the surface temperatures low. As 
a result of this m^lxlng, the bottom, v/aters further up the Bqy hnve 
slightly higher tem.peratures than those at the mouth. Consequently, 
their effect on the temperature of the surface water is not ^s great. 



- 36 - 

During the winter months the bottom vmters from outside nre of com- 
paratively high temperjjtureo The quantity of outside bottom w^ter 
brought into the B^y during the winter months is probably nt n mini- 
mum due to the rel'^tively sm-ill amount of surface outflow. Consequent- 
ly, the mixing process exerts Pt minimum effect on the .surface tempera- 
tureg with the result thn t little difference is to be found between the 
minimum daily average temperature nt different ports of the ^ay. The 
general cold surface water? present throughout the summer months is 
productive of n considerable amount of fog in the ^py of Fundy region. 
It is probable that the minimum amount of fog occurs at the he^^d of 
the Bqy while the maximtim occurs ^t the m.outh. This factor must be 
taken Into account in dealing with the aver-^ge dally w^ter tem.peratures 

at different parts of the Bgy, The range in temperature at Lurcher 

o 
Lightship is 13.0 C, a minimum for the whole region. Temperatures in 

o 
the vicinity of 15.0 C, were obtained, over a very short period in 

1931 only, as may be seen from the plotted results. The 'Absence of 

fog in this region during this time is a probable explan^^tion of 

this short tem-perature rise. Lurcher Lightship Is so located that 

the waters in this area are always effected to a considerable degree 

by the waters from the open ocean. This fact Is clearly shown by the 

o 
temperatures in the winter months ^ with a minimum value of 2„0 C„ 

Summary of Results 

(a) The large tides coupled with the nature of the bottom configura- 
tion are responsible for the specific hydrographlc conditions found 
in the Bay of Fundy. 

(b ) The bottom of the Bay consists of three important types; mud, 
sand and stones, rocks and ledges. 



37 - 



(c) Inflowing v/oters from the open ocepn hold clo?e to the Novn 
Scotia Coast. 

(d) Outflowing waters round Grand Mnn^n to the east "nd tend to flow 
pilong the Const of Mqine. 

(e) As the waters? 'ire Cf^rried out into the Bay a progressive mixing 
takes place with the result that the waters ft the head of the Bay are 
found to be thoroughly mixed o 

(f ) Mixing on a considerable scole has been shown to occur over a con- 
siderable area to the southwest of Grond Kan^inj -^nd also over an area 
extending along the northwestern coast of Nova Scotia. 

(g) Waters from the Saint John E.^tuary flow out in the surface layers 
and reach to the east of Grand Mqnan, Deep bottom water is drawn 

in to the region of the Saint John Estuary, particulorly nt times of 
Spring freshets, 

(h) Vt'aters from the entrance to Possamaquoddy Bay tend to hold close to 
the co«>st of Campobello Islando Before proceeding far they sink to 
lower levels or m_ix with adjacent waters <> Surface v^ater proceeding 
from, the upper end of the Bay of Fundy is drawn into the entrance to 
Pa ssamoquoddy Boy. Deep bottom waters are olso drown in at the 
lower levels . 

(i) The circulation in the m^in portion of the Bay of Fundy is in an 
anti-clockwise direction. The circulation of the wf-ter around Gr^nd 
Manan is in a clockT/vise direction,, To the southwest of Grand H'anan 
the waters which cover a considerable area are circulating in an 
anti-clockv/ise direction. These latter waters are heavier than sur- 
rounding ones and sink to lower levels when they are released from, 
the region. 



- 38 - 

(j) Spring freshet results brinp; out the Importflnce of the waters 
in the rep! on of the Snlnt John Estuary to the p-eneml conditions 
in tl-ie Bny of i^'und;/, 

(k) VeirlRtions in temperature ond pinlinlty throuphout a period of 
seven yenrs indic^ite the changes that took place throughout this 
period, Vori^tiona in the temperature conditions at different points 
in the Bay indicate the differences in the prevailing temperatures. 

Acknowledgements ; 

Jill datfi was collected under the direction of Dr. A, G. Huntsman 
who WQs responsible for the development of the general hydrogr^phic 
work, PIS carried out by the Atlantic Biological Station, His 
direction snd kindly suggestions are gratefully «cknov\?ledged , It is 
a pleasure nlso, to refer to the efficient co-operation of Mr, A, E, 
Calder, Master of the M,V, "Prince" and later of the M.V„ "Zonrces". 



- 39 - 
References 



Andersen,,_F^ Tide Tables for the Eastern Co^.ts of Cn.d. for the 

Ye*ir 1931. Ctt^ws, 92 pp. 1930. 
Cr:^le^_E.,_J^rne_^ndJ^^ Further Hydrogr.phic Inve3ti- 

gatlons in the B«y of F'undy. Contr. Cnn. Biol. (1917-1918), 

Ott'^wfl, 127-136, 1918. 
D.w3on, W. Bel l. Tables of Direction .nd Velocity of Currents .nd 

Time of Sl..ck 'A'.ter in the B.y of Pundy, Ott^w.., 15 pp. 1908. 
H^chey, H. B, The General Hydrography of the W.ters of the B.y of 

Fundy. Atlantic Biological Station. Original Konuscript 389, 

1931. 

Mnrrr)er^H_A^ The Tide. New York, 282 pp. 1926. 

Iavor,_J^_W^ The Circulation of the V/.ters in the B.y of Pundy, 
Pnrt I,. Contr, C.n. Biol. N, S. I, 103-124 pp. 1922. 

The Circulation of the Biters in the B^y of Pundy. 
P«rt II, Contr. C^n, Biol, N.S, I, 355-375 pp. 1923. 
VfL£hon^_A^ Hydrography in Pnssamaquoddy B«,y and Vicinity New 

Brunswick. Contr. Can. Biol, (1917-1918) Ottawa, 295-328 pp. 
1918, 



- 40 - 









Tqble I. 








Station 
No. 


Dqte 
1929 


Time 


Depth 
M. 


Snlinity 


Density 


Temper;? ture 
oC. 


658 


Sept, 29 


3.26 


p .m. 


29.99 


22.19 


14.80 








1 


30.08 


22.27 


14.75 






3.21 


25 


31.58 


23.47 


14,49 


664 


Sept. 19 


9,00 


p.m. 


32,05 


24,02 


13.60 








1 


32.09 


24.00 


13.30 






8.55 


20 


32.14 


24,08 


13.61 


665 


Sept. 19 


8.25 


p.m. 


31.76 


23,63 


14,40 








1 


31.74 


23.55 


14,70 






8.20 


25 


31.76 


23.58 


14,61 


666 


Seot, 19 


7.52 


p.m. 


31.83 


23,71 


14.30 








1 


31.78 


23.61 


14.56 






7,47 


25 


31,82 


23.65 


14,51 


667 


Septo 19 


5,57 


p .m , 


31.94 


23,87 


13.90 








1 


31.96 


23,86 


14,05 






6.52 


25 


31,92 


23.82 


14.10 


668 


Sept. 19 


6,24 


p,mo 


32.03 


24,03 


13.50 








1 


31,96 


23.93 


13.70 






6.19 


25 


31.96 


23,93 


13.70 


669 


Sept. 19 


5.31 


p.m. 


31.89 


23.82 


13,95 








1 


51 . 92 


25.86 


13,90 






5.25 


25 


32.10 


24.07 


13.50 


670 


Sept. 19 


4.55 


p.m. 


31.91 


)dO e OO 


13.90 








1 


31.87 


23.78 


14.10 






4.50 


25 


32,03 


24.01 


13,60 



- 41 - 
Table I (continued) 



Stntlon 


Drtte 


Time 


Depth 


Spllnity 


Density 


Temperature 


No. 


1929 




M, 






oC„ 


671 


Sept. 19 


4.01 p.m. 





31.53 


23,43 


14.50 


» 






1 


31.49 


23.35 


14.75 






3.55 


25 


31.83 


23.76 


14,05 


897 


Sept. 7 


1.11 p.m. 





32.27 


24,33 


12.90 








1 


32.29 


24.49 


12 , 09 






1.05 


25 


32.39 


24,69 


11.47 


933 


Aug. 21 


3.26 p.m. 





32.30 


24.25 


13.40 








1 


32.29 


24,30 


13,10 






3.20 


25 


32,38 


24.97 


9.59 






3.14 


50 


32.47 


25.13 


9.17 


954 


iiug. 21 


5.11 p.m. 





32.15 


24,03 


15.95 








1 


32.14 


24.17 


13,16 






5.05 


25 


32.95 


25.46 


9.54 


935 


iiug . 21 


2.00 p.m. 





32.52 


24,65 


12.20 








1 


32.43 


24,66 


11.80 






1.55 


25 


32.59 


25.18 


9.49 






1.50 


50 




- 


8.88 






1.43 


60 


32.66 


25,34 


8,78 


936 


". ug. 21 


11,58 p.m 


. 


32.65 


24.43 


13,80 








1 


32.68 


24.49 


13,66 






11.53 


25 


32,66 


25.10 


10,29 






11,48 


50 


32.92 


25,59 


8,49 






11.43 


75 


33.10 


25.86 


7.59 






11.35 


100 


33.19 


25.97 


7,34 



- 42 - 
Tqble I (continued) 



Stf^tion 

No. 


Date 
1929 


Time 


Deoth 

M, 


Snlinity 


Density 


TeniDerpiture 
oG. 


937 


Auf;. 21 


9.29 a.m. 





32,70 


24.17 


15,20 








1 


32.56 


24.13 


15,26 






9.24 


25 


32,77 


25,11 


10,79 






9.18 


50 


33.01 


25,94 


6,50 






9.12 


75 


33.23 


26.27 


5 , 5<j 






9.06 


100 


33,71 


25.61 


5.61 






8.58 


125 


33.87 


26.70 


5,81 






8.50 


150 


34.00 


26,72 


6,00 






8.41 


170 


34,02 


26,74 


6,00 


938 


Augo 21 


11,44 p.m 


. 


32,45 


24.90 


10,50 








1 


32 , 43 


24,92 


10,30 






11.39 


25 


32,50 


25.05 


9,74 






11,32 


45 


32,57 


25,13 


9.69 


939 


■n-up, 26 


1,56 a. in 


, 


32,68 


25,22 


9,70 








1 


32,72 


25,26 


9.60 






1.51 


25 


32,77 


25,38 


9,06 






1.45 


50 


32.81 


25,45 


8,81 






1.39 


75 








8,06 






1.31 


100 


33,12 


25.83 


7,95 


940 


Aug. 26 


3.51 it .m 


. 


32,84 


25,28 


10,10 








1 


52,81 


25,26 


10,00 






3.46 


25 


32,88 


25.86 


9,11 






3.40 


50 


33,08 


25,86 


7,50 



- 43 - 
Table I (continued) 



Station 

No. 


Date 
1929 


Tiire 




Depth 

M. 


Salinity 


Density 


Temperature 
oC, 


941 


Aug. 26 


6.00 a 


.m. 





32,70 


24.74 


12,40 










1 


32.70 


24,74 


12,40 






5.55 




25 


32.83 


25,14 


10,80 






5.49 




50 


33,03 


25.81 


7,60 






5.43 




75 


33.08 


25.98 


6,65 






5.35 




100 


33.46 


26,32 


6,31 


942 


Aug, 2S 


8 . 01 =1 .m . 





32.81 


25,29 


9.85 










1 


32.81 


25,31 


9.75 






7.55 




25 


32.95 


25,51 


8,55 






7.49 




50 


32.99 


25.75 


7,81 






7.43 




75 


33 , 21 


26.08 


6,60 


943 


■aug, 25 


9.40 a 


.m. 





32.75 


25,14 


10,50 










1 


32.72 


25.18 


10,10 






9.34 




25 


32,83 


25,47 


8,85 






9.28 




50 


32.90 


25.58 


8,46 






9.21 




75 


33.08 


25.80 


7,95 


948 


Sept. 7 


8.04 a 


.m . 





32.32 


24,52 


12,05 










1 


32.32 


24.55 


11,95 






7.58 




25 


32,59 


25.07 


10,19 


949 


Sept. 7 


9.13 ^ 


.m. 





32.68 


24,83 


11,90 










1 


32.68 


24.87 


11,70 






9.08 




25 


32.74 


25,18 


10,15 






9.01 




50 


32.84 


25-38 


9,49 


. 




8.55 




75 


33.03 


25,73 


8,15 










100 


33.15 


25.90 


7„64 













- 44 


- 
















Table 


I (continue 


>d) 




Stot5.on 
no . 


Date 
1929 


Time 


- 




Depth 

M, 


Salinity 


Density 


Tempernture 
oC, 


950 


Sept. 7 


10.26 


a 


.THo 



1 


32,47 
32.39 


24,65 
24,64 


12,00 
11,75 






10.21 






25 


32,63 


25.02 


10,65 






10.15 






50 


32,92 


25,63 


8,26 






10.09 






75 


33.08 


25.83 


7,70 






10.02 






100 


33.10 


25,90 


7,31 






9.54 






120 


33 , 15 


25,95 


7.30 


951 


Sept. 7 


11.23 


q 


.m. 



1 


32,34 
32,29 


24,49 
24,48 


12,30 
12 14 






11.18 






25 
50 


32,72 
32.99 


25,25 
25,73 


9,69 
7,96 






11.07 






75 


33.08 


25,86 


7,55 






11.01 






100 


33,04 


25,83 


7,49 


952 


Sept. 7 


12.12 


P 


.rrio 



1 


32,32 
32,32 


24,52 
24,59 


12,10 
11,70 






12.07 






25 


32.59 


24.95 


10,90 






..12,01 






50 


32,75 


25,36 


9,14 






11.55 






70 


32,92 


25,62 


8,33 


953 


Sept, 6 


11.17 


a 


.tti. 



1 


32,70 
32,70 


25,12 
25,16 


10,35 
10,10 






11.12 






25 


32,68 


25,15 


10 10 






11.05 






50 


32,63 


25,12 


10,03 


954 


Sept. 7 


12.10 


p 


.m c 



1 


32.68 
32,59 


25,12 
25.07 


10,30 
10,15 






12.04 






25 


32,68 


25,17 


10,00 



- 45 - 
Tc^ble I (continued) 



Station 

No. 


Dgte 
1929 


Time 




Depth 
M. 


Swllnlty 


Density 


Temperature 
oC, 


954 


Sept. 7 


11.59 




50 


32.61 


25,11 


10,00 






11,53 




75 


32.63 


25,13 


9.99 


955 


Sept. 7 


12.54 


p 


,m. 


32.56 


25.00 


10.40 










1 


32.57 


25,05 


10,15 






12.49 




25 


32.57 


25.04 


10.20 






12.44 




50 


32.59 


25,03 


10.40 


956 


Sept. 10 


6,33 


P 


.m. 


32,27 


24,57 


11,60 










1 


32.41 


24.70 


11.45 






6.28 




20 


32,61 


24.86 


11.42 


957 


Sept. 10 


7.34 


a 


.m. 


32,32 


24,52 


12.05 










1 


32.41 


24.58 


12.10 






7.29 




25 


32,61 


25,07 


10.25 






7.23 




50 


32,77 


25,36 


9.20 






7.18 




75 


33,05 


25.81 


7o75 


958 


Septo 10 


8.40' 


a 


.m. 


32,20 


24.53 


11.50 










1 


32.59 


24.84 


11.50 






8.35 




25 


32.65 


24.97 


11.00 






8.30 




50 


33,12 


25,83 


7.96 






8.25 




75 


33,06 


25.88 


7.21 






8.18 




100 


33,13 


25.96 


7.00 


960 


Sept. 10 


10.21 


a 


• rr.. 


32.52 


24,83 


11.20 










1 


32,59 


24,92 


11.03 






10.19 




25 


32.83 


25.40 


9.26 






10.11 




50 


32 . 92 


25.57 


8.65 






10.06 




75 


33,13 


25,89 


7„55 






9,58 




100 


33.19 


25.95 


7.50 



- 46 - 
Tflble I (continued) 



Stc.tion 

ITo. 


Dnte 
1929 


Time 


D 


spth 

M. 


Snlinity 


Density 


Ternrierature 
oC. 


961 


Sept. 10 


11,17 

11.12 
11.07 
11.01 


Pi em. 




1 

25 

50 

75 


32.43 
32.61 
32.97 
32.99 
33.06 


24.89 
25.01 
25.64 
25.71 
25.78 


10,70 

10.59 

8,46 

8,06 

7,90 


962 


Sept. 10 


12.36 
12.30 


p.m. 



1 

20 


32.59 

32.84 
32.92 


25.06 
25.38 
25.45 


10,20 
9,49 
9,29 


955 


Sept. 12 


7.28 
7.23 


p.m. 




1 

20 


32.84 
32.86 
32 . 92 


25.34 
25.35 
25.42 


9,70 
9,70 
9,59 


964 


Sept. 12 


8.42 

8,37 
8.31 
8.25 


a .m. 




1 
25 
50 
75 


32.72 
32.72 
32.95 
32.97 
32.99 


25.00 
25.02 
25.56 

25.63 


11,15 

11,00 

8,89 

8,75 

8.58 


965 


Sept. 12 


9.54 

9.49 
9.44 
9.38 


F! .m. 




1 

25 

50 

75 


32.61 
32.54 
32.92 
32,99 
33.12 


24.74 
24.70 
25.50 
25.66 
25.76 


12.05 

12.00 

9.05 

8.40 

8,38 


966 


Sept. 12 


11.07 

11.02 
10.56 
10.50 


n .m.. 




1 

25 

50 

75 


32.54 
32.54 
32.84 

33.10 


24.66 
24.69 
25.36 
25.68 
25,79 


12,20 

12.05 

9,59 

8,30 

7,98 


967 


Sept. 12 


12.18 

12,13 
12.07 
12.00 


p.m. 




1 

25 

50 

75 


32.57 
32.56 
32.86 
32 . 95 
32.97 


24.72 
24.73 
25.47 
25.60 
25.62 


12,05 

11.90 

8,95 

8,65 

8,54 


968 


Sept. 12 


1.21 
1.15 


p.m. 




1 
25 


52.32 
32.32 

32.39 


24.52 
24.55 
24.68 


12.05 
11,90 
11,54 


969 


Sept. 16 


7.33 
7.23 
7.18 


? .n. 




1 
20 


51.59 
31.85 
32.16 


24,04 
24.17 
24.47 


12.00 
12.00 
11.70 


970 


Sept. 16 


8.30 

8.25 
8,18 


a .m. 




1 

25 

50 


32.07 
32.03 
32.33 

32.84 


24.09 
24.08 
25.37 
25.41 


15,50 

13.20 

9,49 

9,29 











- 47 - 
















Toble I 


(continued ) 






Station 


Dnts 
1929 


Time 


Dep th 


Salinity 


Densit;/ 


Temper."^ ture 


J)0 . 




oC „ 


971 


Sept. 


16 


9 . 43 


a.m. 


32.54 


24.72 


11,90 










1 


32.61 


24.80 


11,75 








9.28 


25 


32 .66 


24,94 


11,20 








9.32 


50 


32,84 


25,36 


\^ o \D "t^ 








9.25 


75 


52.84 


25,36 


9,59 


972 


Sept. 


16 


11.06 


•^.m. 


52 ,66 


24,73 


12,35 










1 


32.56 


24.75 


11,85 








11.00 


25 


32.86 


25.35 


9,69 








10.54 


50 


32,84 


25,36 


9,62 


973 


Seot. 


16 


12 . 12 


p.n. 


32.75 


25,02 


11,20 










1 


32,75 


25,14 


10,49 








12.06 


20 


32.75 


25,16 


10,37 



Tpble TI, 



Station 


Date 


Time 




Depth 


S-^ Unity 


Density 


Temperature 


No. 


1929 






t » 






oC , 


853 


Sept. 5 


11.47 


s^ .m. 





32,36 


24,66 


11,45 










1 


32,38 


24,73 


11,10 






11.42 




25 


32,38 


24,73 


11,15 






11,37 




50 


32,47 


24o82 


11,05 






11.31 




75 


32,38 


24,72 


11,20 






11,25 




100 


32 , 43 


24.81 


10, G4 


873 


Sept. 5 


1.09 


p.m. 





32.54 


24,73 


11,80 










1 


32,47 


24.77 


11,35 






1.04 




25 


32,54 


24,98 


10,69 






12.59 




50 


32,59 


25,10 


9,98 


874 


Sept. 5 


1.42 


p.m. 





32 , 43 


24.75 


11,30 










1 


32.45 


24,79 


11,10 






1.37 




25 


32.48 


24,93 


10,50 






1.32 




50 


32.57 


25,06 


10,15 






1.26 




75 


32,59 


25,09 


10,04 


880 


Sept. 7 


5.00 


p.m. 





32,32 


24,34 


13.00 










1 


32.41 


24,64 


11,80 






2.54 




25 


32,59 


25,10 


10,01 


882 


Sept, 6 


9.26 


f* ,rn. 





32,72 


25,12 


10,45 










1 


Ori .08 


25,16 


10.05 


! 




9.21 




25 


32,72 


25,22 


9,85 






9.16 




50 


32,77 


25o27 


9.79 



- 48 



Table II (continued) 



Station 


Date 


Tlrne 


k 




Depth 


Sqli^nlty 


Density 


Ter.rperqture 


No. 


1929 








M. 






oC, 


883 


Sept, 


6 


8.47 


9 


,1T. . 



1 


32,61 
32,59 


24.94 
24.95 


11,00 
10,90 








8.42 






25 


32,59 


25.01 


10,55 








8.36 






50 


32.68 


25.11 


10,35 








8.30 






75 


32,68 


25,14 


10.14 


884 


Sept. 


6 


8.08 


9 


.m. 





32.57 


24.92 


10,95 








8.09 






1 


32,56 


24.93 


10.80 








8.04 






25 


32.56 


24.99 


10.45 








7.58 






50 


32.74 


25.26 


9.69 








7.52 






75 


32.74 


25.27 


9o64 


885 


Sept. 


6 


7.32 


r\ 


.ID . 



1 


32.61 

32.61 


2^.03 
25.04 


10,45 
10,40 








7.27 






25 


32.68 


25.11 


10,35 








7.22 






50 


32.66 


25,12 


10,14 


887 


Sept. 


5 


2.41 


? 


.m. ■ 




1 


32,56 
32.54 


24.93 
24,96 


10,80 
10,55 








2.36 






25 


32.57 


25,06 


10,15 








2.31 






50 


32.61 


25.09 


10,10 








2.25 






75 


32.74 


25.26 


9.69 


890 


Sept, 


5 


6.31 


P 


.m. 



1 


32.54 
32.43 


24.83 
24.77 


11,30 
11,20 








5.25 






25 


32.52 


24,85 


11,10 








5,19 






50 


32,63 


25.14 


9,90 








6.13 






75 


32.66 


25,23 


9,55 


891 


Sept. 


5 


5.54 


P 


.m. 




1 


32.41 
32.38 


24.73 
24.72 


11,30 
11.20 








5. 48 






25 


32 . 43 


24.77 


11,20 








5.43 






50 


32.59 


25.04 


10,34 








5.37 






75 


32.63 


25.15 


9,88 


892 


Sept. 


5 


5.05 


P 


.ni. 



1 


32.38 
32.30 


24,54 
24.53 


12,15 
11.95 








5.00 






25 


32.65 


25,17 


9.79 








4.54 






50 


32.83 


25.48 


8.73 


893 


Sept, 


5 


4.36 


P 


.in. 



1 


32.39 
32,32 


24,56 
24.50 


12.25 
12,20 








4.31 






25 


32.48 


24.87 


10,80 








4.25 






50 


32.75 


25,34 


9.30 








4.19 






75 


32.95 


25.62 


8,48 



- 49 - 
Table II (continued) 



Station 


Date 


Time 




Depth 


Scilinity 


Density 


Temperature 


ITo . 


1929 






M, 






oC, 


894 


Sept. 5 


3.52 


p .m« 





32.43 


24,73 


11,40 










1 


32.47 


24,79 


11,20 






3,47 




25 


32.48 


24.88 


10„75 






3.41 




50 


32.57 


25,05 


10,19 






3.36 




75 


32.63 


25,15 


9,88 


895 


Sept. 5 


3.16 


p.m. 





32.56 


24,82 


llo45 










1 


32.50 


24,84 


11,05 






3.11 




25 


32.56 


24,99 


10,49 






. 3.06 




50 


32.56 


25,00 


10,44 






3.00 




75 


32.63 


25,09 


10,19 


896 


Sept. 7 


2.05 


p.m. 





32,41 


24,45 


12,80 










1 


32.35 


24,53 


12,15 






2.00 




25 


32,47 


24,84 


10,95 


897 


Sept. 7 


1.11 


p .m. 





32.27 


24.33 


12,90 










1 


32,29 


24,49 


12,09 






1.05 




25 


52.39 


24,69 


11,47 


948 


Sept. 7 


8.04 


n «m 





32.32 


24.52 


12,05 










1 


32,32 


24,55 


11,95 






7.58 




25 


32.59 


25,07 


10.19 


949 


Sept. 7 


9.13 


R .m. . 





32.68 


24,83 


11,90 










1 


32 , 68 


24o87 


11,70 






9.08 




25 


32,74 


25,18 


10,15 






9.01 




50 


32,84 


25,38 


9.49 






8.55 




75 


33 , 03 


25,73 


8.15 










100 


33,15 


25,90 


7,64 


950 


Sept. 7 


10.26 


a .m. 





32,47 


24,55 


12,00 










1 


32,38 


24,64 


11.75 






10.21 




25 


32.63 


25,02 


10,65 






10.15 




50 


32,92 


25,63 


8,26 






10.09 




75 


33.08 


25,83 


7,70 






10.02 




100 


33.10 


25,90 


7,31 






9.54 




120 


33.15 


25,95 


7,30 


951 


Sept. 7 


11.23 


?? .m. 





32.34 


24,49 


12,30 










1 


32,29 


24,48 


12,14 






11.18 




25 


32,72 


25.25 


9.69 










50 


32.99 


25,73 


7,96 






11,07 




75 


33,08 


25,86 


7,55 






11.01 




100 


33,04 


25,83 


7.49 



- 50 - 
Table II (continued) 



St-^tlon 


Dat< 


a 


Tirr.e 




Depth 


Salinity 


Denr, ity 


Temperature 


No, 


192! 


d 






M, 






oC. 


952 


Sept. 


7 


12,12 


p .m. 



1 


32,32 
32.32 


24,52 
24,59 


12,10 
11,70 








12 . 07 




25 


32,59 


24,95 


10.90 








12,01 




50 


32,75 


25,36 


9.14 








11.55 




70 


32.92 


25.62 


8,33 


955 


Sept. 


6 


11.17 


■a .m. 



1 


32,70 
32,70 


25,12 
25,16 


10,35 
10,10 








11,12 




25 


32 , 68 


25,15 


10,10 








11.05 




50 


32,63 


25,12 


10,03 


954 


Sept. 


6 


12,10 


p.m. 




1 


32.68 
52.59 


25,12 
25.07 


10,30 
10,15 








12,04 




25 


32,68 


25,17 


10,00 








11,59 




50 


32 . 61 


25,11 


10,00 








11.53 




75 


32 , 63 


25,13 


9,99 


955 


Sept. 


6 


12.54 


p ,1T1, 



1 


32,56 
32.57 


25,00 
25,05 


10,40 
10,15 








12.49 




25 


32,57 


25,04 


10.20 








12.44 


1 


50 

'able : 


32.59 
[IT 


25.03 


10.40 


Station 


Date 


Time 




DeiDth 


Salinity 


Density 


Temperature 


-~W6. ' 


1930 






K. 






oC, 


864 


April 


28 


12,16 

12.10 
12.04 
11,57 


p,ra. 



10 
25 
50 
70 


31,98 
32,00 
32,21 
32,21 
32,29 




3,85 
3,25 
3,35 
3,50 
3,70 


873 






1.58 

1.52 
1,47 


p ,ni. 



10 
25 
50 


32,12 
32.14 
32,18 
32,25 




3,75 
3,75 
3,50 
3,49 


880 


apr il 


29 


8,17 

8,11 
8,05 


a .m. 



10 
25 
40 


32,05 
32.05 
32 ,03 
32.16 




3,65 
3,71 
3,40 
3,09 


881 


/i.prll 


29 


8,48 

8,43 
8,37 


a.m. 



10 
25 

50 


31,96 
31,98 
32,03 
32,29 




5,55 
3,66 
3,35 
3,55 



- 51 - 
Tqble III (continued) 



Station 

No. 



682 



Dqte 



Time 



883 



884 



885 



887 



893 



894 



895 



1930 






M. 




I\.'!p»y 


1 


9.38 


° .m. 



10 


32.27 
32.21 






9.33 




15 


32.21 


Mriy 


1 


10.17 


-q , in , 



10 


32.03 
32.14 






10.12 




25 


32.23 






10.07 




50 


32,27 






10,00 




75 


32.25 


Mny 


1 


10.54 


a ,H. 



10 


32.20 
32,25 






10.49 




25 


32.25 






10.43 




50 


32.29 






10.36 




75 


32.29 


¥.Rj 


1 


11.27 


a .n. 



10 


32.20 
32.25 






llo22 




25 


32.29 






11.16 




50 


32.23 


K.qy 


1 


2.28 


p .ni. 



10 


32.21 
32.21 






2.22 




25 


32.25 






2. IS 




50 


32.27 






2.09 




75 


32.28 


I'hy 


1 


12,11 


p.ra. 




10 


31.91 
31.94 






12.06 




25 


32.14 






12.00 




50 


32.52 


Mpiy 


1 


12.59 


p .m. 




10 


31.85 
31 . 91 






12.53 




25 


32.00 






12.47 




50 


32.10 






12 . 41 




75 


32.29 






12,34 




100 


32.45 


Mpy 


1 


1,46 


p ,m. 



10 


32.12 
32.14 






1.41 




25 


32.10 






1.35 






32.14 






1.28 




75 


32.14 






1.20 




100 


32,29 



Deofn Snlini ty Den sity Temperature 

3.75 
3,85 
3.84 



4,15 

3,80 
3.75 

3.55 
3,75 

3.95 
3,75 
3,76 
3.40 
3,75 

3 , 65 
3.76 
3,50 
3.75 

3.95 
5,90 
3,85 
3.80 
3,80 

4,45 
4.05 
3.V0 
3,80 

4,45 
4,15 
3,80 
3.75 
3.54 
3 ,75 

3.95 
3,60 
3.80 
3,80 
3.80 
3,80 











- 52 - 












Table III 


(continued) 




StPition 


Date 


Time 


Depth 


Salinity ^ens 


ity Temperpture 


No, 


1930 






M. 




^C^ 


948 


May a 


3,42 


p .m. 



10 


51.46 
32.05 


4.95 
4.20 






3.35 




25 


32.27 


4,00 


955 


May 2 


11,29 


^ .m , 



10 


32.27 
32.25 


3.85 
3,50 






11.24 




25 


32.27 


3,80 






11,18 




50 


32.25 


3.80 


954 


May 2 


10,48 


a .m. 



10 


32.27 
32,27 


5.95 
5,49 






10.43 




25 


32,25 


5,80 






10,37 




50 


32,27 


5.80 






10.51 




75 


32,27 


3„80 


955 


May 2 


10.06 


^ .in , 




10 


32.27 
32,25 


5,95 
5,44 






10,01 




25 


32,25 


5.75 






9,55 




50 


32,25 


3.74 


956 


April 29 


2,12 


p .m. 



10 


52,05 
52.00 


3.85 
3.50 






2,05 




20 


32.14 


5.59 


966 


rtpril 26 


9,30 


o.rfi. 



10 


51,55 
31,49 


2.85 
2.60 






9,25 




25 


52.48 


5,41 






9,20 




50 


32.79 


5.60 






9.14 




75 


32.79 


3.66 






9.07 




100 


32,79 


3,85 


967 


April 26 


10.53 


« .m. 



10 


31,76 
31,76 


2.85 

2,41 






10.47 




25 


31.89 


2,46 






10.41 




50 


32, 4P 


3.36 






10.55 




75 


32.79 


3.35 






10.28 




100 


52,75 


3,56 


958 


April 26 


12,05 


p .m. 



10 


51.92 
51 , 92 


3.05 
2.70 






11,57 




25 


31 . 92 


2.50 






11,52 




50 


32.12 


2.85 


969 


Korll 17 


8.14 


a.TTi . 



10 


31 u3 


1.05 
1,22 






8.08 




25 


31.53 


1.25 



- 53 - 
Tflble III (continued) 



Station 


Dflto 
1930 


Time 


I 


?epth 


S«llnit; 


No. 








■™ 










970 


April 


17 


9.28 

9.22 
9.16 
9,10 


a .m , 



10 
25 
50 
75 


31.76 
31,74 
31.76 
31.83 
31.35 


971 


April 


17 


10,41 

10.35 
10,29 
10,23 


a,m. 



10 
25 
50 
75 


31,85 
31,85 
31,85 
31,87 
31.85 


975 


April 


17 


8.40 


a ,m. 





31,53 


976 


April 


17 


9,55 


ft .IT! . 





31.80 


977 


April 


25 


11.30 

11.25 
11,20 


fioITi, 


/-I 

10 
25 
50 


31.36 
31.71 
32 . 03 
32.14 


973 


Aoril 


25 


10.55 


a oTn , 





30.28 


979 


Aoril 


25 


10,27 

10,22 
10.15 
10,10 


a .!Ti „ 



10 
25 
50 
75 


27.47 
31.65 
32,14 
32.54 
32.56 


980 


April 


26 


9,40 


n ,rn. 





30.62 


981 


«prll 


26 


9,12 

9,07 
9,02 
8,56 
8,50 


(a.m. 



10 
25 
50 
75 
100 


30.30 
31.38 
32,61 
32.68 
32.68 
32.70 



Den r1 ty T emper ature 
oC , 

0.95 
1,08 
1,13 
1,49 
1 ,65 



1,10 
1,43 
1,39 
1,39 
1 ,39 

0,95 

1,05 

2,45 
1,90 
2,20 
2,76 

2,05 

2,45 
2,15 
3,16 
3,41 
3,16 

2,45 

2,05 
2,76 
3o46 
3,51 
3.41 
3,76 



982 April 26 11,17 ^ ,ra. 31.83 3,15 

384 Aoril 29 9.47 a,m. 32,00 3,95 

3,50 
3,45 
3,45 
3,50 

983 iipril 26 9.57 a,m. 31.73 2,75 



9.47 a,m. 





32 , 00 




10 


32.05 


9,42 


25 


32.09 


9.36 


50 


32.30 


9.30 


75 


32,61 



stati on 

Eo." 



Date 
1930 



Time 



- 54 - 
Iqhle III 
Dep th 

v.. 



985 



987 



QP.Q 



990 



April 29 10.28 a.m, 

10,22 
10.17 
10.11 



April 2< 



11.18 f-.m. 



Mny 8 



2.06 p.r;i. 

2.00 
1.54 
1.48 
1 . 42 




10 
25 
50 
75 


10 







11.12 


25 






11.08 


50 






10,59 


75 






10.52 


100 


i-iprll 


29 


12.23 



10 






12.18 


25 






12.12 


50 






12.07 


75 






12.00 


100 


iipril 


29 


1,03 p.m. 



10 






12.58 


25 






12 . 52 


50 






12,46 


75 


-ti-prll 


29 


1.44 -o.rn. 




10 






1.38 


25 






1 .32 


50 






1.26 


75 


May 8 




3.04 o.m. 









3.03 


10 






2.59 


25 






2.53 


50 






2.47 


75 






2.41 


100 




10 
25 

50 
75 



I continued ) 
S-ilini ty Don si ty 



31,94 
32 . 09 
32.14 
32.30 



51.83 
31,83 
31 .87 
.23 



Oii 



32.30 



51.73 
31.76 



31 


.91 


'^(,"> 


.14 


32 


.41 


32 


.63 


31 


.78 


31 


.83 


31 


.91 


32 


.20 


32 


.54 


31 


.83 


31 




31 


.98 


32 


.34 


32 


.39 



31.04 
31,53 



32 


.43 


32 


.88 


33 


.04 




.04 


31 


.60 


31 


.91 




.34 




.97 




.12 



Tem'oern ture 
oG. 

3„65 
3,10 
3,36 



4,25 
3,25 
3.15 
3-25 
3 , 51 
3.76 

4.35 
3.10 
3,10 
2,70 
3.15 
3,70 

4,25 

3,10 
3 , 00 
3,20 

3,45 
3„10 

3,35 
3,65 

6,53 
4,33 
4,67 
4,62 
4,33 
4,43 

6,63 
5.85 
5.28 
5.00 
4.86 



- 55 - 
Table TTI (continued) 



St'^tl.on 


Dqte 


Time 




Depth 


3n Unity 


No. 


1930 








M, 




992 


Mny 8 


12.59 

12.53 
12.47 
12,41 
12.34 
12.26 


p 


.m. 



10 
25 
50 
75 
100 
125 


32.61 
32.72 
32.77 
32.95 
33.06 
33.10 
33.21 


993 


Mqy 8 


11.54 

11,49 
11,43 
11.36 
11,29 


p 


cm. 




10 
25 
50 
75 
100 


32.61 
32.59 
32.74 
32.79 
33.01 
33.15 


994 


Eqy 1 


4.36 

4.30 
4.23 
4,17 


P 


.ni. 



10 
25 
50 
75 


31.98 
52.01 
32.09 
32.16 
32.32 


995 


M,ny 1 


3,56 

3.51 
3.46 
3,40 


P 


.m. 



10 
25 
50 
75 


31 . 92 

31 . 96 

32 . 05 
32.10 
32.32 


996 


Fgy 1 


3.20 

2.15 
3.09 


■n 


.rn. 



IC 
25 
50 


31.92 
32.00 
32 . 07 
32.18 


997 


April 28 


1.30 

1.24 

1.16 
1.11 
1.03 


r-i 


.rri . 



10 
25 
50 
75 
90 


32 . 01 
31.96 
32.00 
32.23 
32.32 
32.41 


998 


x^pril 28 


11,41 
11.35 


a 


.m. 



10 
15 


51.83 
31 . 80 
31 . 91 


999 


May 7 


9.09 


a 


,m. 





32.30 


1000 


Mny 7 


9.27 





,rr.. 





32.29 



Den?, i ty T enToernture_ 
oC, 

6.53 
5.68 
5.47 
5,10 
5.00 
4o81 
4.80 



6.24 
5.90 
5.47 
5.19 
5,05 
4.60 

4.25 
4,00 
3.95 
3,85 

4,15 

3.90 

3.75 

4.95 
4.35 
4 . OC 
3.70 

3.75 
3,80 
3.44 
3.71 
3.40 
3.45 

3.85 
3,60 
3,44 

4.45 

4,15 



- 56 - 

Table IV. 
Line No. A. 



Point 



D 



ate 



No. 






1 


May 


8/30 




July 


23/30 




June 


15/30 


2 


June 


22/30 


3 


Au,sr„ 


25/30 



July 3/30 

Au,p:, 5/30 

Septo 27/30 

4 Sept. 1/30 

June 9/30 

5 Oct. 7/30 

6 Sept. 23/30 

7 Augo 5/30 
Aug. 12/30 
Aug. 12/30 

8 Sept. 20/30 

Oct, 26/30 
June 16/30 

9 Sept. 2/30 

Mqy 19/30 

11 July 22/30 
Aug. 7/30 

12 July 22/30 

13 July 28/30 

15 Aug, 5/30 
Oct, 5/30 
Oct. 5/30 



Place Found 



Old Proorietor, G.Mqnan, 

N. B. 

Black River, St .John Co., 

N. B. 

Off Frenchman's Bny, Me. 

Pemaquid Pt, Maine 

Kennebunk, Maine 
Or, Wass Is., Maine 
Parker's Cover, N. S. 
Duck Is., G, Manan, N. B. 

Cundy ' s ^ a rb our , Ma in e 
Cases Cove, N, S. 

Bishop Brook, N. S, 

Nash Is , , Maine 

15 west of Digby, N.S, 

5 miles from Metegan, N.S, 
West xidvocate, N. S, 

Welche's Cove, N, B, 
Highland Light, Moss. 
Port Lome, ^N„ S. 

Near Machnis, Maine 
Off Parker's Cove, N.S, 

V/est Advocate, N. S. 

6 mi. south Isle Haute, N„S 

Parker's Cove, N, S, 

Spruce Is,, Char, Co., N.B. 

West iipple River, N, S. 
Dodge Brook, N, S. 
Young's Gpve, N. S. 



Period 
of Drift 



1 day 



Rate 
of Drift 



76 
38 



days 
days 



45 days 



109 
56 
89 

142 


dqys 
days 
days 
days 


116 
32 


days 
days 


152 


days 


138 


days 


89 
96 
96 


days 
days 
days 


135 

171 

39 


days 

days 

days 


117 
11 


days 

days 4 miles 


45 
91 


per agy 
days 
days 


45 


days 


51 


days 


89 
150 
150 


days 
days 
days 



No. of bottles put out 
Percentage returned , . , 



e e « o 



60 
45 



Point Dat e 
No, 

1 May 0/30 
May 5/30 
May 5/30 

2 Sept. 24/30 

May 24/30 

3 Oct. 26/30 

4 June 6/30 
Dec. 21/30 

May 23/30 

5 July 10/30 

6 July 23/30 
Aug, 9/30 

7 June 9/30 
Aug, 21/30 

8 Oct, 2/30 
May 12/30 
May 19/30 



9 May 13/30 
May 12/30 
Mny 19/30 

10 May 16/30 
May 15/30 

11 May 18/30 
July 18/30 
Muy 13/30 

12 July 5/30 
Oct. 8/30 

13 May 19/30 



- 57 - 






Table V. 






Line No, B. 






Place Found 


Period Rats 




of I 


3rift of Drift 


North Hd, G, Man^n, N.B. 
North Hd, G, Manan, N,B. 
Castolia, G, Manan, N.B. 


1 

1 
1 


day 

day 
day 


Ogllvie Wharf, N, S, 

S. of Petit Mnnan, Maine 


132 
19 


days 
days 


N. of Nauset Lt „ Mnss, 


174 


d-3ys 


Sandy Cove, N. S. 
Darmls Co,, Ha. R. Me, 
Freeport, N, S. 

Barnos Is . , N, B, 


32 
230 

18 

36 


days 
days 
d-^ys 2 mi per 

dny 
days 


Hampton, N. S. 

Cape Small Pt., Maine 


79 
96 


rl "3 VS 

days 


Seal Cove, G, Manan, N.B, 
Cutler, Maine 


35 

108 


days 
days 


V/hite Is, 

Head Harbour, N. B, 
Pocologan Is,, Char. Co. 

N.B, 


150 
7 

14 


days 
days 

days 


Barnes Is., N. B. 
Malts Is,, N, B. 
C«rlov/'s Is,, N, B. 


8 
7 

14 


days 
days 
days 


He"d Hnrbour, N, B, 
Pt, Lepreau, N, B, 


11 
10 


days 
days 


St, Andrews, Is,, N. B. 
The Wolves, N. B, 
Barnes Is,, N, B, 


13 

74 

8 


days 
days 
days 


J one sport, Maine 
Cope Cod, Mass, 


61 
156 


days 
days 


Deer Is. Pt,, N. B, 
Corea Harbour, Maine 


14 
177 


days 
days 



14 July 17/30 9 mi. W, of Brier Is., N,S, 73 days 

15 May 16/30 Deer Is, N, B, 11 days 
May 15/30 Eastern Wolves, i'J, B, 10 days 



- 58 - 
Table V. (continued) 
Line No , B , 



Point Date Place Found 



Adams Is . , N. B. 
Leonardvllle , N. B. 
Simpson's Is,, N. B. 

Leonardvllle J N, B, 
Head Hnrbour, N. B. 

Port Lorne, N. S. 

Mill Cove, Ch"r. Co. N.B. 
Head Harbour, W. B, 
Bornes Is « , N. B, 
M.nits Is., IT. 3. 

Pen Pt., N. B. 
Vv'olves Is., N. B. 
Barnes Is., N. B. 

Bornes Is , , N„ B„ 
Bliss Is., N. B. 

Mo its Is., K. B, 
Passomaquoddy Boy, N.B. 



Noe of bottles put out 
Percentage returned 



No. 




16 


July 16/30 
Sept. 23/30 
May 12/30 


17 


May 16/30 
May 12/30 


18 


Sept, 14/30 


19 


May 12/30 
Moy 12/30 
May 13/30 
Moy 12/30 


20 


May 25/30 
Moy 15/30 
Moy 13/30 


21 


Mny 13/30 
June 2/30 


22 


Moy 12/30 
Moy 15/30 





Period 
of Drift 


R-te 
of Drift 




72 
131 

7 


days 
days 
days 






11 
7 


days 
days 






122 


days 




N.B. 


7 
7 
8 
7 


days 
dnys 
days 
days 






20 

10 

8 


dnys 
dnys 
days 






8 
28 


days 
days 




.B. 


7 
10 


dnys 
days 


1^ mi. 
per day 


lit , . 






. , . . ,84 








, . ...54 



- 59 - 

Tflble VI 
Line No, C, 



Point 

No.., 


Date 


1 


Aug. 18/30 


2 


June 1/30 
Apr. 26/31 
Sept. 11/30 


3 


Mny 19/30 
Moy 24/30 



4 June 22/30 

5 M^j 12/30 

6 Seot, lS/30 

Mqy 20/30 

7 June 21/30 
Mpy 31/30 

9 Mny 13/30 

Kqy 12/30 



Ploce F'ound 



Westport, N. B. 

Crott' s Is , , K-ilne 
Frenchman's ^«y, M-aine 
Petite P-^ssppe, K. S. 

I^'oose Peak Lt . , Koine 
Petit I/'nnnn Lt . , M^ine 

Boishubert Is., Ir«3 7_ne 



Period 
of Dr ift 

103 dqys 

25 dqys 
354 dqys 
127 days 

12 doys 
17 dpys 

46 dnvs 



Hits. 

of Drift 



Brndsford Gove, G.R'.onnn ,N,B. 5 dnys 

Provlnceto'wn, Fosr. ijs ■iqyg 
Little Dprk Hnrbour, 

G. M^r-n, N. B. 13 dnys 

Vifatirrous Is., M^-'ine 45 d-^ys 

Outer Long Is. Maine 24 dqys 

ViPiite Heqd, G.Monrin, N.3. 6 d^ys 

Kent's Is., G. K^n^n, N.3, 5 dqys 



1 ml . 
'oev dny 



5 mi , 
per d«?y 

6 mi. 
loer dflv 



No. of bottles put out .... 
Percent^tge returned ..,.,,. 



• • o . . . . o ,36 

39 



- 60 - 
T&ble VIT. 

Line No. D, 



Point 



Dqte 



No. 
1 June 9/30 



3 Oct, 16/30 
Kay 12/30 

4 Nov„ 26/30 
M^Y 19/30 
Msy 22/31 
Mny 15/30 

5 Iv'py 12/30 
Mqy 16/30 
Mqy 13/30 
June 30/30 

6 Oct. 9/30 
Mfiy 22/30 
June 22/30 

7 Mpy 18/30 
June 3/30 

8 Oct. 13/30 
Mqy 18/30 
Mpy 12/30 
Msy 22/30 

9 Aug, 26/30 
Dec, 26/30 



10 


July 10/30 
Mny 13/30 


11 


Mqy 12/30 


12 


Mqy 12/30 




Mqy 12/30 


13 


Mqy 25/30 
June 30/30 


14 


Aup-. 24/30 
Moy 8/30 



Plqce Found Period 

of Drift 

Svrallov; Tqil Lt . , G.Mqn^n, 34 dqys 

N.B. 

Nnntucket Is., M<?ss. 154 dqys 

Bornes Is, Chqr.Co, N.B. 7 dqys 

Off Pt, Leprequ Lt . , N.B, 205 dqys 

Deer Is., Chqr, Co, N.B, 14 dqys 

Herrinp Cove, Char. Co. N.B. 382 dqys 

N. E, Cutler Lt . , Mqlne 10 dqys 

Mill Cove Chnr.Co, K. B. 7 dqys 

Mill Cove, Chpr.Co. N. B. 11 dqys 

Bqrnes Is,, Char. Co, N, B, 8 dqys 

Adams Is,, Chqr, Co. N. 3. 56 dqys 

Cfloe Cod, Mass. 157 dqys 

Indiqn Is,, Chqr, Co., N.B. 17 dqys 

Fqirh.Qven, N, 3. 48 dqys 

Deer Ip-lnnd, N.B, 13 dqys 

Bqlns Is,, N. B. 29 dqys 

Wolves Is,, Chqr. Co., N.B. 161 dqys 

Mill Cove, Mqine, 13 dqys 

Heqd Hqrbour, Cnmpobello ,F.B, 7 dqys 

St .Helena Is,, Chqr, Co. IJ.B. 17 dqys 

Sv/an's Is. Mqine 113 dqys 

Mqchais Bqy, Maine 235 dnys 

Barnes Is. Chqr, Co,, N.B. 65 dqys 

Barnes Is, Char .Co., N.B. 8 dqys 

Heqd Hnrbour Is., Chqr, Co, 

N.B, 7 dqys 

He"d Hnrbour Is,, Char, Co. 7 dqys 

11 . o . 

Mill Cove, Chqr. Co., N.B. 7 days 

Indiqn Is, Ch-^r.Co,, N.B. 20 days 

Vl/oodward's Cove, G,Mqn"n,N,B. 56 dqys 



Rnte 
of Drift 



Opunquil, Maine 

Long Pt , G.Mnnqn, N, B, 



111 dqys 
3 days 



3 mi „ 
oer day 



- 61 - 
Teible YII (oontlm.ied) 
Line Mo. D. 

Ploce Pound P'^'/r' iod Rg te 

of Drifb of Drift 

Oentreville, N. S. 107 days 

New River Bepich, IT.B. 48 dtiys 120 miles 

in 48 d«y 

4 mi. v/est of Quoddy Heod,Me. G dpys 
Minturn, Mtilne 199 days 

19 Aup;. 23/30 V/hale Gove', G.Manqn, !I.B. 110 d-qys 

July 26/30 W. of Boqr's Heqd, N.S. 82 dnys 

June 14/30 S-^ndy Cove, J/'-^ine 40 days 



Point 
No. 


Dpte 


16 


Aug. 20/30 


17 


June 22/30 


18 


M.qy 14/30 
Nov. 20/30 



No, of bottles put out oo.,,.76 

Percentnr:e returned . .50 



- 62 - 
Tqble VITI. 
Line No „ E. 



Point 



Dcite 



No. 




1 


Mqy 16/30 
Mpy 10/30 


2 


Msy 19/30 
Mny 14/30 
Mpy 14/30 


3 


June 21/30 
Aug. 2/30 


4 


June 25/30 
Mny 16/30 
Aup. 9/30 


5 


June 16/30 


6 


Kay 9/30 




Sept. 3/30 
Moy 16/30 


7 


Mov 23/30 
Moy 14/30 
Aup;. 8/30 
May 12/30 



Ploce Fou nd Perl od 

of Drift 

Ggne Split Hnr., Koine 21 ri^ys 

Bqiley's Mistake, Mr» ine 5 dnys 

N.E. Koosebec Lt , , Mnlne 14 dnys 

Bo.'^t Head, Koine 9 dnys 

W. of Quoddy Hd., K^ine 9 dnys 

10 ml. N.W. Pt.LeprenUjN.B, 47 dpys 

Cape Small, Mnine 89 dnys 

Old Orchard, Maine 52 d^ys 

Indian Is., N. B, 11 d^iys 

Epst Ferry, IM.S. 96 days 

Spruce Is., N. B, 42 dnys 

Gompobello Is., N. B. 4 days 

G, Duck Is., K'^ine 121 dqys 

Kill Cove, Ghnr.Co., N.3. 11 d^ys 

E. of Petit Knnnn Is., Kn ine 18 dnys 

Morton's Rock, J'^s ine 9 d-^ys 

Bocnbec, N. B. 95 d^js 

Simpson's, N. B, 7 dqys 



Rnte 
of Drift 



2-|- ml o 
per da:/ 



No. of bottles put out . 
Percentage returned .... 



9 O O O 



28 
. 64 








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Pig, 31 Drift Bottle Results - Series B. 




Fig. 32 Drift Bottle Results - Series C. 




Flg» 33 Drift Bottle Results =• Series D, 




Fig, 31; Drift Bottle Results - Series E. 



— • - SURFACE 

— + — 50 METRES 

— O— ISO METRES 




OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY 

-A- 



31 



32 



» — SURFACE 
+ — 50 METRES 
0—150 METRES 



33 




OCT NOV DEC JAN TEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR ARR MAY 



Fige 35 Temperatures (A) and Salinities (B) for 
Station 3 - November 1916 to May 1918. 



tem/>ere^u'^ //> tj'c^r-ees C"*/» 3*/^/-o<i'o 




Rig. 36 Typical temperature-depth ciu^es at Station 5> 
for each month of the period 192U-30. 



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for each month of the period 192li-30. 




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