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Full text of "A general system of nature : through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals ; systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties with their habitations, manners, economy, structure, and peculiarities"

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% ^. ^. lltU pbrarg 

^ortl| Carolina ^tatc College 







Date Due 






L. B. Cat, 








animaliQf, Oegctatleg, anti.a^merals; 





Translated from Gmelin's last Edition of the celebrated 



Ifilh appropriate Coppcr-phdcs , 




*' Thus may our life, exempt from public haunt, 

" Find tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 

" Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." 





1 802. 

5SC5SC:3SC:::feC5*gCi3SC'3«C-3g!C--5SsC' J^sa;- sy*« 



THE Animals of this Clafs are of flow motion, foft fubrtance, 
able to increafc their bulk aiut reltore parts which have been 
d ttroycd, extremely tenacious ot 'ifc, and the inhabitants ol miiul 
places. Many of them are withont dillin£l head, and moft ot them 
without /ir^/. They are principally diitinguilhed by their lentacula 
or feeler I 

Uy the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfeft ani- 
ma 9, as being djilitutc of ^arj, nofe^ htudy eyes tiixd Je^s -^ and arc 
ther«forc totally diilindt from Infeds. 

They are divided in to five Orders, 

I. INTESTINA. Are of a formation the moft Cmple, and 
live, fome of them within other animals, 
fome in waters, and a tew in the earth. 
The Gordius perforates clay to give apas- 
fage to fpiings and water; the Lumbriius 
pierces the earth, that it may be expofed 
to the a£tion of the air and moiflure : in 
like manner, the Teredo penetrates wood, 
and the PhJt/at and Mytilus rocks, tocfte^ 
their diifoluiion* 





Are naked, furnifhed with tentacula or 
arms, for the molt part inhabitants of the 
fea ; and by their phofphoreous quality, 
illi'minate the dark abyfs of waters, rc- 
fledling their lights to the firmament Thus 
what is ben.ath the water correfponds 
with that which is above. 



A 2. 


JV. C ^UOz 






Arc MoUufca covered with calcareous ha- 
bitations or Jhelh^ which they carry about 
with them ; themfelves producing and often 
penetratisg calcareous bodies. Like infefts, 
they are multiplied into a vaft number of 
fpecies and varieties : and both in form and 
colours, exhibit fplendid examples of the 
power of the Almighty Artificer. 

Are compofite anima-s, holding a medium 
between animals and vegetables. Moft of 
them take root and grow up into ftems; 
multiplying life in their branches and de- 
ciduous buds, and in the transformation of 
their animated bloflbms or polypes which 
are endowed with fpontaneous motioti. 
Plants therefore refemble Zoophytes, but 
are deftitute of animation and the power of 
locomotion : and Zoophytes are as it were 
plants, but furniflied with fenfation and 
the organs of fpontaneous motion. Of thtfe 
fome are foft and naked, and are called 
Zoophytes \ others are covered with a hard 
(hell, and are denominated Lithophpes. 

V. INFUSORIA. Are extremely minute animalcules, defli- 
tute of tentacula ox feelers , and generally 
not vifible to the naked eye. They are 
moflly found in infufions of various vegeta- 
ble fubftances; and after becoming dry, do 
riot revive upon being replaced in moiUure. 




I. INTESTINA. Simple naked Animals wiihoiit limbs* 
A. Found within other Animals : eyei o. 

1. Afcaris. 

2i Trichocephalus. 
4. Uncinaria, 

3. Fil^ria. 
5. ScoUx. 

6. Ligula. 
12. Ltnguetula. 


8. Echynorhynchus. 





1 1. 









Body round, tapering each way : head with 

3 veficles. 
Body round, tapering towards the tail: 

head furnifhed with a probofois. 
Body filiform, elaftic : head with mem- 
branaceous angular lips : tail ot the 
fcmah aeiform or necdle-fhaped, of ihe 

jfifde armed with 2 hook§ inciofeU in 

pellucid veficle. 
Body entirely filiform. 
Body minute gelatinous opake: head ex- 
fertile and reiradile, with 4 pehucid 


Body linear equal and long. 
Body deprelTed oblong : mouth placed on 

the fore-part and furrounded with 4 

Body round long; the fore-part globular 

and truncate, with a circular aperture 

fringed at the margin ; hini-part of 

the female pt;int<;d, of the male hooded. 
Body round: probofcis cylindrical, re- 

tradlile, and crowned with hooked 

Body round: head crowned with prickles. 
Body pointed behind: the tore-part obtufe, 

with an orbicular mouth. 
Body round fmooth with a large dilated 

Body deprefled ovate, with a terminal and 

lateral poie. 
Body fiat jointed : head with 4 orifices for 

Body linear and ciliate each fide with re- 

fledcd prickles. 

Not inhabiting the bodies of other animals, 
a. fi itbout the lateral pare,, 

16. Goraius. 


|6. Gordiits. Body equal filiform round and fmooth; 

20. Hirudo, Body truncate at each extremity : head and 

tail uilatcd when in motion. 

b; Perforated with a lateral Pore, 

17: Lutnhricui* Body round annulate, furnifhed with minute 

concealed prickles. 
19; Sipunculus, Bod) round : mouth cylindrical and narrower 

than the head. 
18. Planar tat. Body depreiled, with a ventral pore; 

IL MOLLUSCA. Simple animals furnifhed with limbs. 

A. Mouth placed ahovs. 

Body fixed, with a fingle terminal dilatable 
aperture furrounded by ttntacula or cirri. 

Body fixed, with a fingle dilatable vertical 
aperture furrounded withclavate tenacula, ' 

Body fixed and furnilhed with a ri^id pe- 

Body loofe fmooth, with a fingle aperture 
without cirri. 

Body fixed; with 2 aperture?, one of which 
i? terminal,theo>her placed a little beneath. 

Body loufe ; with 1 apeitures, one attach 

Body loofe angular, open at each tnd, 

B. Mouth placed beftre* 

Pterotrachea, Body pervious gelatinous, with a moveablf 
fin at the heaJ or tail. 
Body round tapering articulate; feelers 2* 








Mom mar I a^ 











C. Mouth placed hejorc : body with a lateral perforation, 
1\. Li max. 
22. Laplyjia. 

24. Doris* 
38. Tethyr. 

Feelers 4: vent common with the lateral 

Feelers 4: vent placed above the lower ex* 


Feelers 7 : vent above the lower extremities. 
Body with 2 fmali pores on the ictt lide. 

D. Alouth before', body furrounded vJith feelers en the fore-part, 

4 J ; Holotburia, 


Jiolothurla. Feelers or tentacula flefliy. 
TerebeUa. Feelers or tentacula capillary. 

E. Mouth before : body furnijhtd with arms, 

Triton. Arms 12, divided; fomc of them chcllfcrous. 

Sepia. Arms 8-lo, befct with fuckers. 

Clio. Arms 2, membranaceous, extended like wings,* 

Onchidium, Arms 2, dilated, placed ut the fides of the 

Lobaria, Body above convex beneath flat, lobate. 

Lerntea, Arms 2 or 3 each fide, round tienJer; a 

''caudal ovarie«. 
Arms 6, each pair at a diflance. 


F. Mtuth before : body furnijhed with peduncles or feet. 

Body oval, furnifhed with eyes: feelers ft- 

frtaccous annulate. 
Body prcKeeding from a tube and and annu- 
late: feelers ftathcred : eyes o. 
Spio. Body proceeding from a tube and articulate: 

.feeltrs 2, long (imple : eye;* 2. 
Nereis. Body long creepinj^ , with lateral pencilled 

peduncles or tett : feelers limple. 
Naisi Body long creeping: peduncles or feet with 

fimple briltles : feelers o : eyes 2 ox o. 

G. Mouth placed beneath and generally central. 

• Phyjfophora. Body gelatinous, hanging by an air bubble. 

I. Meduja. Body gelatinous, fmooth. 

. Lucernaria. Body gelatinous wrinkled and furnifhed 

with arms. 
. Jjierias. Body coriaceous flat, generally radiate, and 

muricatc with papillar. 
. Echinus, Body crullaccous and covered with moveable 


III. TESTACEA. Mollufca covered with a fhcll 

A. Multivalves : Jhells with many valves. 

. Chiton, Valves placed in tranfverfe plates down the 

. Lepas. Valves unecjual : body feflile. 

54. Pbhoj 



55. PhUas. 

She;! bivalve : w^ith acceflTory vulvcs at the 

B. Bivalves : Jhell zilth 2 valves, Conchs. 

56. il^^tf. Hinge with generally a broad thick tooth, 

not let into the oppofite valve. 

57. StUn. Shell open at each end: hinge with a fingle 

or doiiblti fubulate refleiSled tooth, not let 
into the oppofite valve. 
<8. XeUina. Hinge with the lateral teeth of one ?alve not 

let into the other. 

59. Cardium, Hinge y/iih remote penetrating lateral teeth. 

60. Mactra. Hinge with a coinplicated triangular middle 

toot', and an adjoining hollow. 

61. Donax, Hinge with a generally remote lateral tooth, 

not let into the oppolite valve. 
(62. Venus, Hinge with generally 3 approximate divari- 

cate teeth. 

63. Spondylus. Hinge with 2 teeth fepcrated by a fmall 


64. Chama. jHinge in one fhell, with 2 oblique obtufe 


65. Area. Hinge with numerous penetrating teeth. 

66. Ojlrea, Hinge without teeth, but an ovate hollow* 

67. Anomia, Hinge without teeth, but generally a linear 

deprelfion on the rim, the beak of one 
vaive curved over the hinge. 

68. Mytllus, Hinge without teeth, with a Tubulate de- 

preifion, and generally fixed by a filky 

69. Pinna, Hinge without teeth: valves united at one 

end and open at the other. 

70 Argonnuta, 



•72. Conus. 

73* Cypraa, 

74, Bulla, 

7j;. Voluta* 

C. Univalves, with a regular fpire. 

Shell with one cell, fpiral involute. 
Shell with many cells, with a hole of com- 
Aperture efFufe longitudinal, without teeth. 
Aperture efFufe linear longitudinal, toothed 

each fide. 
Aperture a little contra<£led and placed ob- 
Aperture etFufe j the jpillar plaited. 

76, Buccinum* 

W O R M S. 

-^6. Bucclnunt. 















Aperture with a ftrtall canal leaning to the 

Aperture with a fmall canal leaning to the left, 
Aperture with a fmall llraight canal. 
Aperture contra<El:ed and fomewhat fquare. 
Aperture contracted and orbicular. 
Aperture contradted, lunate on the inner fide. 
Aperture contra£led and femiorbicular. 
Shell with a row of orifices along the furface. 

D. Univalves J without a regular fpire. 

Patella. Shell conic the aperture widened like a bafon. 

Dentalium. Shell flcndcr fubulatc, open at both ends. 
Serpula. Shell tubular, moftly ferpentinc, adhering to 

other bodies. 
Teredt. Shell thin, pierced into wood. 

Sabella. Shell eompofed of agglutinated grains of fand. 

ZOOPHYTA. Compofite animals efflorefcing like 

A. PP'ith a hard calcareous Jiem. Lithophytcs. 

Coral with cylindrical tubes. 
Coral with concave ftars. 
Coral with fubulatc pores. 
Coral with hollow round cells. 
Stem ftony, 

B. With a Jofter Jleni. 

Stem horny, befet with fmall fpines, and 
covered with a gelatinous fleftiy coat. 

Stem horny, and covered with a cellular or 
vafcular coat. 

Stem corky. 

Stem ftringy flexiic bibulous. 

Stem covered with minute cellular por««. 

Stem tubular filiform. 

Stem with filiform calcareous joints. 

Stem with filiform fibrous joints. 

Stem coriaceous, refembling a quill. 

Stem medullous naked. 








Ce Hep or a. 



94. Antipathes. 

95. Gorgonia. 









I(j .. ^V O R M S. 

V. INFUSORIA. Simple microfcopic animalcults. 

• A. With external ero-ans. 

1 04. Brachionus, 

105. VorticcUa. 

106. fr'tchoda. 

107. Core aria. 

1 1 4. Leucine ra. 




Body covered with a fhell and ciliate at the tip. 

Body naked and ciliate at the tip. 

Body hairy on one lide. 

Body rounded and furniflied with a tail. 

Body every where ciliate. 

B. Without external organs, jiattentd. 


Body angular. 
Body finuate. 
Body oblong. 
Body orbicular or ovate. 

C. Without external organs, round. 

113. Vibrio. 
1 16. Enchelis. 
115, Bad II aria. 


Body hollow like, a purfe. 
Body elongated. 
Body cylindraceous. 

Body compofed of ftraight flraw-likc fila- 
ments, varying in pofition. 
Body fphxrical. 
Body -Ji mere point. 


aris. II 

1. ASCARIS. Body round claftic, and tape- 
ring towards each extremity: head with 
3 veficles: tail obtufe or fubulate: intef 
tines Ipiral milk-white and pelhicid. 

A. Infejiing the Mammalia. 

*F/r«/V«.; Head fubulate: flin at the fides of the body very finely 
crenate or wrinkled. Jfcarldel. 

Mem. London Med. Ssc. v. p, 230. tt^i. 2. 

Coeze Eingexv. p- loz. tab 5. fig. i — 3, 

Valifn. Oper. \ . tr.b. 20 fig. C-i-io. 

Btayich. dijior. Morb. tab. i,.fig. 20. 

Phels. Hi/}. AUr. tab. i.ffa. i — j r. t. 2 fi i— ^. 

MuU. Hifl. Verm I. 2. pi. tab, 34. • ■•^' 

jr^mr JVm- A/^/?.;, p. 72 ^.7^. J )f^. 133-137. 

Jnhabirsthe inte/iines of chii.Iren and thin people, principally 
in the reftum. Ti>ey are generally in confiderable numbers, 
and occafion miny troublefome fymptoms, creeping lometimcs 
lip mo the llomach They are viviparous and about half an 
inch long. The/rw^A- has a fmall punftiform aperture * little 
below the head, through nhich the young are protruded. 
AW nodofe and divided into 3 veficles, in the- middle of each 
o/which there is an aperture, through which 11 receives uou- 
rilhment: body a little dilated in the middle and wrink ed at 
the Wes, pellucid and angular: tail gradudly tapering and 
terminating in a fine point, with a fmall aperture or vent below 
the iQiddle of the worm, 

*ir^'' ■^^'''"- ^'S''^'>' •"^"^^'^d ^ith a tranfverfe contradion beneath 
coiaes, jt . i-nouth triangular 

Mem. Land, Med. Soc v. p. 2-33. tab. i. 

^ldro'va7id. Inf. lib, 6. p t^z.f.g. 4, r, 

Johnfl. Inf. p, 158. /«3 24, w. 1. '* 

Redi Amn.-ui'v. tab. lofg. 2, 3. 

RediOpi'fc. 3. tab. lO. Jig. i — 4. 

Klein Herpetol. p. 63. tab, Lfig.^. t. 2./. i—y 

A51 Stockh. 1776. ;>. 140. tab. X. fig. i 3, 

Da'veren. Verm. p. 68. tab ^.Jig, \, 2. 

Muller Hi I}. Verm, i, 2. ;>. 35. 

i^/cf/;'. Einge-~u.p. 29. /<7^. 8 /t, i 6. 

^^\" Jerrn. IntejL tab. 6 /^ H4-14S.. t. 7./. ,53 .,.-9; 

Inhabits the inteftlne. of thin p, rlons, generally about the ,7^«;« 
but fomctimes alcends into the llomach and creeps out of the 
mouth and noilrils. They are frequently very numerous anti 
vivacious: from 12 to 15 inches long, Bu^ tranfparent, 
Jight yellow with a taint line down the fide. 

^ 2 They 


WORMS. INTKSTfNA. i. Afcaris. 




* Cants. 

They are OTipiroas ard ciiftingui(h^d from the Lumhrieus ferreUri^ 
or earth worm, in wanting the flcfhy ring below the head, and 
in having 3 veficles. 

//f«^ 3-lobcd, with a triangular aperture between: Body a little 
tvrinkled, with a circular deprcffurc about the middle, in 
which is a Imall punftiform aperture: tail fuhulate, with a 
large orifice or vent below the middle of the body. 

Found in the inteftines of the Vefpcrtilio auritus or long- 
cared Bat. 
Goes,. Ein^eiv, p^ 86. 

Body pale : intcftine milk white and fpiral. 
MuiJ. Zocl. ban 2. tab. 74. hg. \. 
Geez Eingenu. p. 73. tab. 2. fig 9, 10. 
Inhabits the intc ines oi feveral Ipccies of Seal, particularly the 

Phoca 'vitulina gnenlanjifa and hi/pidm j ana is from half an 

iach to 8 inches long, 
Bodi tapering at each extremity, ending in a fine point behind 

ai,d hooked: entirely pellucid. 

Body forked behind, fetiform and curved before. 
Mull. Zool.Dan. 2. tab. 74. /^. 3. 
Inhabits the inteflines of the Fhcca Grasnlanaica or Greenland 

Seal, and is about the fize of the laft. 
Body pale: tnte/imes vino\ii[y twilled: head very pointed befor<? 

at the bafe of u hich is a pore fecreting a Ihort probolcis. 

Tail ending in a point: head flattened and winged each 
fide with a membrane: fpermatic velfels curled, 
IVetn Venn. lnte,i. l. p. II. tab. (). fig. 38—40. 
Re:.i Opufc. 3, tab. S.fig. 1-4. 

2 Redi An:m,'vi'V»in an. 'viv /. 75- 

3 Rcdt Anim «a/«z , in an -viv. /. 73. tah. 13-/^. 8 \ 
Kedi Opu/i 3. tab. 17 -fig' 3- 

Found in the intvjrftcniis ot the Dog. 

Vifceralis, Fonnd in the kidneys of ihe Dog. 

Kedi Amm. 'vit; itian. liv, p. 308, tal\^, fig. 1| 


Found in the inttftines of the Wolf. 
Redi Anim, viv. in an. 'viv. p. 75, 

Lateral memboanes of the head tapering backwards. 
Froelich Naturf. 24. p. 1^0. tab. 4- _pg 30, 31. 
Goez. Eipgew. p. 84. Klein Herpet.p. 63. 



Inhabit: the intoftincs of the JVoIft sipd is principally /<»t»l}4 i» 
the duodenum. 

teonif. Found under the (kin of the Lion. 

Redi Atiim. viv. in an. vi<u, p. 75, and f* 309. tab* 9*^3* 

fi^nJis. Found in the intellines of the Tiger. 
Redi Anim. vi'v.inan, 'vi'v.f. 19. 
,^S. Acad. Paris t 1763, /. 47. 

Telis. Head with a grcyifh-white oblong veficle each 54?, whtcJi 

is obtufe and pellucid on the hind-part. 
Geex. Eirjgt^, p. 79. tab. It fg. 5> 9 — 13. 
Redi Anim.'vi'u. in. an., vinj. p. 12, ii^b. 13>^' 8, 
Inhabits the ftomach and inteftines of Cats, efpeswIJy tfe^e 
which are thin and emaciated; is generally found i» CSofi* 
derable numbers, and accompanied with the T(zmaferrt^a» 

Cafi, Head without the oblong veficles. 

Goez,. Eif:ge^w / 80. 
found m the intcltines of the Cat: very much rcfcinbles the 

lall, but IS eafily diftinguiihcd by its wanting the fefick* en 

the head. 

Martis^ Inhabit the inteftines of the Martin. 
Goez, Eingetv. p. 84.. 

BroKchialis Body whitifh, twifted or rolled up in balls, and appearing 
as if full of granulations. 
Wern. Verm Inteft. i. /«. 9, tab ^%y fig. 20, 21. 
Inhabits the lungs of the Martin, and is generally foiiod tn C9B* 
glomerate malles near the divilion of the bronchix, 

Renalis. Found in the kidneys of the Martin. 

Rtdt Anim. tvi'V, in. an, I'iv, p. ^o^, tab, g, fig I. 

Mtphitidis. Inhabits the inteftines of the Viverra mephitis, or (kunk. 
Redi Anim, viv, in an. vi'v, p. 1 4, 

Cuhnis. Inhabits the inteftines of the Urfus gulo, or Glutton. 
Redi Anim. I'iv. in an, 'vi-v. p. 14, 

Talpa, Inhabits the ftomach and inteftines of the Mole. 
Goex. Eingeiv. p-7S'^7' 

^urii. Tail feathered : inteftitie darker. 

Wern. Verm, intcji, \, p, 80. tab. 3, fig. I — 7, 

Iflhs bite 

t4 WORMS. INTESTINA. i.Afcaris. 

Inhabits the ftomach qF the moufe. 

Boi/y annulate; female with a triple foramen, 

///;•«, Inhabits the inteftines of the Goat. 
Soemmer. ap, Gi/ez. Eingeiu, p^ 175. 

Fituli, Body filiform ; tail rounded. 

Gos?c. Eingeiu. p 91, tab: 2. fg. 7, B. 
Vahfn op. tab. 34, pg- 2, 3. 
Clerk. Lumbric. tab. 10, 11. fig. 2, 3. 

Inhabits the lungs and trachea of Cattle : is viviparojis, and gc*' 
nerally gregarious. 

*Equi. Body cylindrical, large, pale. 

Goeze Einge=w. p.6z, tab. i,fg. 1 — 3. 

JBloch Eiace-w- p 30, tab, 8. Jig. 4 — 6. 

Vardell. diff p- J\, tab» 2, fig. 6. 

Inhabit! the intcftines of the Hor/e, and is often difcharged with 
the dung: is the largtft of the genus, rneafuring often a foot 
and half long, and is as thick as a man's little finger, 

Bodf with frequently large brown patches. 

Suh. Body pale, with a longitudinal pale ochre line down the 

• fides. 

Goez,, Eingeiv /•• 71. Pall Inf vinj, p. 14. 

Inhabits the inteftines of S^ine. 

Body as long as the laft, but much thinner. 


Found in the lungs of the Boar. 
Goez. E»ge^w p 92, ia/j. 2, fg 6. 
Body brittle and eafily broken to pieces, tapering to a point at e?ch 
extremity, about an inch long, and not thicker than a fine 
thread : brings forth its young alive through an aperture on 
the abdomen. 

B- Found in Birds. 

Jpil<rt Inhabits the intellines of the Falco chryfaetus or golden 
Rcdi Afiim, ^vi-v. in an. 'vi-v. p. %l. 

dlhicilla. Found in the inteftines of the Falco albicilla or cinereous 
Bloih. Eiugtiu. /. 3 1 . 


InJiabits the inteftines of the Falco Butco or Buzzard. 

Goczs Eingc-i'.\p, Z^^ 


WORMS. INTESTINA. i. Afcaris. 


Mihi Inhabits the ftomach and inteflincs of the Kite. 
Getze Eingenu. f. 85, 126. 
Body rather large and fpirally rolled up. 

SubhuteoHis Inhabits the inteflines of the Falco fubbuteo or Hobby. 
Block. Eitigeiv. />. 81. 
Body very flender, refembling a fine needle. 






Body obliquely truncate, obtufe, and flightly mucronate 
behind, with two incurved prominent prickles behind 
the pofterior aperture. 
Fraclch Naturf. 2j^, p. 24, tai. 4, //g. 1 1 — 13. 
Found in the fmaller intellincs of the Pfittacus afti'vui. 

Inhabits the ftomach of the Crow, 

Soemmer. af. Geoze Eingeiv. p. 75. 
Redi Anim. i/iv. in an. (vj-v-p, 83. 

Jnhabi*s the (kin about the throat of the Roller. 
Goeze EiKge'w.p,go, tab. 2, fig, 5. 
Pall. Inf. <inv. p. d I,' Block, EingcvJ. P- $1* 

Inhabits the inteflines of the Swan, 
Redi jimm. 'Viv. in an. i-iv. p. 80 ? 

Body white and flattifh behind, 

Bloch Bejch. Naturf. 4, p. 552, Goefte Einge^jj,p. 85. 
Found in the inteilines of the Wild Duck', is vivaparous, and 
from 4 to 2 inches long. 

Inhabits the inteflines of the Anas fuligula, or tufted 
Bloch Eingevo, p.^i. Oviparous. 

fCarhonis Inhabits the crop of the Pelecanus carbo, or Corvorant. 

Linnean Tranfact V. /, 24. 
Body yellowifli brown, and coiled up into a ball or mafs. 

*PelecttBii Inhabits the crop of the Pelecanus criflatus, or Shag. , 
Refemblcs the lafl- Linnean Tranfact. v. p, 24. 

Lari, Inhabits the inteflines of the Larus canus, or gull. 

Bloch, Befch. derberl, Naturf. 4, p. 452. 

Ciani^, In the inteflines of the Ardea ciconia, or Stork. 
Redi /, 'vi'v, in an. <vi'v. *; 86, 


f6 WORMS. INTESTINA, i. Afcaris. 

iardgf. In the intcftines of the Otis^arda, orBuftard. 
Bioch. Eitigeiv. f-i^' 

fafiJU/at Body papillous beneath: tail ending In a prickly briftlc. 
Block, Einge-w p. 32, tab. 9. fig. I — 6. 
Found in the inteitines of the Buftard; about 6 — 8 lines lonj, 

and not thicker than a horfe hair. 
Tail terminated by fometimes one, fometimcs 3 briftles, and 

furnifhed with 2 unequjl fpines near the tail : papill.a on the 

abdomen generally 4, with fomctiruca a fifth, and 3 Icflerone* 

on each ilde of the tail. 

Galhpavo- Inhabits the intcftines of the Turkey. 
tth» Goeze Et/tge'w.p 85. 

Gal/t't Head hooked; tail ending in a polat. 

Goeze Eingenv p. 75, 76, 85, 86. tab. \, fig, 4, 7, t. 
Found in the inteftines of young Cocks and Hens, 

Gallince* Intefline clavate : tail rounded. 

Goeze Eingo'uj. p 86. 
Inhabits the csecum of the Hen, 

fhaftani, Inteftine clavate: tail rounded. 
Goeze Eingenu, p. 86, 
Inliabics the inteilines of the Phaftanus pictus* 

TttraoHttt Inhabits the inteftines of Groufc. 
Redi Anim. viv. in an. 'viv^p, 82, 

Columha Found in the inteftines of the Houfe- pigeon.. 
Goeze Eingenjti.p. 84, 85. tab. \.fg. 6. 

Alaudai Found in the inteftines of the Lark. 

Goeze Eingetm p. 125. Vaxdell.dljf. p, 76. 

Slurnlt Found in the intcftines of the Starling. 
Goeze Eingt'W. p 86. 

TitfdU Found in the liver of the Thrufh, Field-fare or Redwing. 
Goeze Eingenu. p. 75, 77, 78. 85. tab. 2. fg. I — 3. 

C. Infejiing Reptiles. 

fiJIuiliiih. Inhabits the inteftines of the Tcftudo orbicularis, or rouni 
Redi axivt. viv, in en, viv. p. 80- 


WORMS. INTESTINA. i. Afcafis. tf 

Lacerta, Tail enjiing in a fine point. 

Geexe Eingcw. p: to8. Doe'ver. Verm. p. ^yi 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Lacerta palujiris or Newt. 

Biifoiis. Body filiform : tail rounded. 

Gocze. Ein^env. p. 93, 94, 434. tab. \.fg. I — 3. /. 35./ 7— 10 
In the inteftines of the load: viviparous. 

fulnmalis. Body filiform : inteftlne black : tail rounded. 
Gaez.e Eingenju.p. 95 — 97. tzh. ^. fig- 6 — 17. 
Found in the lungs of the 'Joadand Natter-jack : viviparouf» 

Ruletrte, Tail ending in a fine point. 

Goez. Einf^e'w.p. 95, 97, lOi; 

In the reftum 0? the 'Toad and "Natter-jack : viviparoaS| 

^rachealis. Tail fubulate. 

Goe%. Einge'vj, p. (^%, tab, t, fig. 8. 
In the lungs of the.'/oin/: viviparous. 

Rana. Tail fubulate : inteftines clarate. 

Goeze Ein%env, p. loi, tab. ^.fig. 4—9. 
In the re<ftuin of Frogs : viviparous. 

Intefiinalis. Body filiform: tail rounded. 

In the inteftines of Frogs. Goexe Eingeiv. /. 100. 

Di/pncos,' Tail ending in a fine point. 
Gocze Eingeiv. p. 98. 

Inhabits the lungs of Frogs^ and impedes their refpiration and 
power of fwimming : is extremely fertile, viviparous and 
ipirally twiftcd. 

/k/jv;. Tail rounded. 

Goeze Eingevj. p, 98, S'voammerd. Bill, Nat. p. 3 1 7, 
Found in the lungs of Frogs, but does not like the former, 
obftruft their refpiration or fwimming. 

D. hms Fijh. 

y!r-:,i!U. Found in the itUcflineS of Eels. 
Redi amii/i. I'/t. in an. g^/i'V. p. 86, 

• Marina, •Body filiform whitifh fmooth, twiftcd fpirally and lying 
flat : intcftine tubular 
Gordius Marinas. Brit. ZooL iv. tab, 20. fig. 3. 

VOL. IV...C Jfcan, 


WORMS. INTESTINA. i. Afcaris. 



Jf/can. Ic, rar. Nat. tab. J. fig. a, b, c. 

Common in the inteftines of fea fifli, particularly Herrings. 
Bleaks are alfo obfcrvcd to rife at certain feafons to the top of 
the water, and tumble about in feeming agonies, which has 
been luppofcd to be occafioned by their being infcfted with 
worms: aboui half an inch long. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the viviparous Blenny. 
Mull. Schr, der her I. N a turf, i /. 216. 
Btdy twilled in various ways and forming knot*. 

Found in the Pleuronedles Rhombus or Pearl. 

Mull, Schr. der berl. naturf, \.f.%\-^. 

Body ftraight necdle-ftiaped and curved at both ends. 
In the Perch, Goezi Einge^iv, p, go. 

Body inclofed in a membranaceous globule, flightly bifid 
and obtufe on the fore-part 

O. Fabr. fx. Granl. p. 268. «. 243. 

Found fometimes naked, fometimes inclofed in a globule, ad- 
hering to the outer ikin of the ftomach of the 3-fpined 

Body gelatinous fmooth flattifh, water-colour but milk-white at 
each ei.d, and with a milk-white line down the back; about 
4 lines long. 

*LacHjlris. Body lying flat and fpirally twifted, tapering both ways. 
Gordius Lacuftris. Syji. Nat. xii. 2. />. 1076. «. 5. 
Found in the inteftines of the Stickle-back and liver of the Pike, 
Body white fmooth and pointed at each extremity. 

Siluri, Straight, needle-fhaded and incurved at each end. 
In the Silurus Glanis. Block, Eingew. p. 31. 

Ferionis, ^^^Y round and pale alh-clour. 

In the inteftines of the Trout. Goeze Eiiigew, p, 77. 




Body filiform: tail rounded. 

In the inteftines of the Trout. Gtzze Enge-w. p, 93. 

In the inteftines of the Saln^o marasna. 
Kee/r, comm. Petrop. ll, p, 509. 

Straight rigid acicnlar, and ilightly incurved at each end. 
_^ BUck Eittge-ii:. p, 30, 3 I . Goexe EingenM. p, 90, ^ 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 2. Trichocephalus. 19 

Found in the intcftines of the commo» Pike. 
BoJy white, about 2 inches long. 

llalecis. Body filiform piano- fpiral and twifted. 
Bloch. Eingeiv. p. 33. lalf. 8 fg, 7.-10. 
In the leminal veflels and intcftines of the Herring. 
• Body about an inch long, and the thicknel's of a horfc-hair. 

Argentina. Inhabits the intcftines of the Argentine. 
Rtdi Anim, 'vi-v. in an^ n>ii\ /. 88. 

Gobionis Body extremely (lender : tail truncate. 
Goeze Einge'w.p. 127, tah. ^,jig' •"3* 
Found about the liver of the Gudgeon. 

Raja Body fetiform and flightly incurved on the fore-part, tapcr» 

ing and entire on the hind-part. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2593, Ic. 2. tab. ';\,fig* 1 — 3. 
Found in the ftomach of the Fuller-Kay. 
Tail ending abruptly : fnout ver)? long. 

Squall Found in the Shark : body glabrous. 

Redi Anim. njiv. in un. 'viv. />. 85. 

Le;hii Body rigid, horny, glabrous and pale brown : inteftines 

filiform, with variouily twifted milk-white veirds: 
tail ending in a minute globule. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 3, p. 53. tab. Ill, fig. 1 — 4» 

In the gullet of the Frog-fijh : lar^e. 

E. Infejling IVormu 

lumbrici Extremely minute and marked with 2 rows of darker dots; 
tail fubulate. 
Goeze Eingevj p. 1 10, tab, 4, fig.lO. 
Gleich. auferU Micro fc, f. 58, tab. 27, 28. 

Found in Lumbrici, between the fkin and humours, but is fel- 
dom difcovered without the afTiftance of glalTes, 

2. TRICHOCEPHALUS. Body round, 
claitic and variouily twifted : head or 
fore-part much thicker and furniflied with 
a ilender exiertile probolbis : tail or lower 
part long, capillary and tapering to a 
fine point. 

C 2 H^tninis* 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 3. Filaria. 

^Homims, Body above (lightly crenate, beneath fmooth ; and very 

finely (Iriate on the fore-part. 
Trichuris vulgaris. Mem, Lo'id. Med. Soc. V. p, 252, tai. 3. 
Roeder de Morb. Mucof. ed. Wrtjb,, tab. ^, fig. 4. 
Wern. Verm, intell.p, 84 — 86, iab. 6; fg, I 38 — 143. 
Bloch EingeiJO. 32, Jigt J'-<)- 
Goeze EingenjJ. p. 113, tab. d, fig, I --5. 
Inhabits the inteftines of fickiy children, generally the ccecum, 

and in confiderable numbers : about 2 inches long, and in 

colour refeinbles Afcarides, 
Heaa obtufc and furnifhed with a very flcnder probofcis, which 

it can ejeft or retraft at pleafure : tailor thinner part twice as 

long as the thicker end, and tern^inating in a fine hair-like 


*Equi, Inhabits the inteftines of the Horfe. 
Goeze Ez»geav. p. 118, tah. 6, fig, 8. • 
Body about 2 inches and a half long. 

A^ri, Head furnifiied with crenate fcales each fide. 

^ Goeze Engeiv^p. 122, tab, 6, fig. 6, 7. 
In the inteftines of the Boar: fize of T. Hominls 

Murii, Head furnifhed with 3 yeficles. 

Goeze Einge^M. p. \\()t tab.y, h. fig. \ — 5. 

Found in the inteftines of the Moufe, between the duodenum 

and re£tum. 
Body befec with white vcficlcs on the thinner part« 

Vulpiu Head a little pointed and refembling that of a ferpent : neck 
tranfverfely ftriate and furnilhed with veficles. 
F^ Naturf. 24,/, 142, tab. /^,fig, 25 — 29, 
Inhabits the cceeum of the Fcx. 

Lacerta. Head fcaly each fide: tail hooked. 

Goeze EzngetVyp. 123, tab. 7, A. fig. 6, 7. 
PnlL no^j^ com7:i. Peirop. ig^ tab, 10, fig 6. 
Found in the inteftines of the Lacerta apus. 

5. FILARIA. pody round, filiform, equal 
and quite fmooth : mouth dilated, with a 
roundiili concave lip. 

A. I»fefiing the Mammalia, 

Medinenfis. Body entirely pale yellowift. 

Gordius Mediucnfis. Syli.Nat,-iL\i. z. p, 1075, ». 3. 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 3. Filirla. ^j 

Sloan Jamaica, 'n,p. 190, tal;. 2.11, fg. i. 

Inhabits both the Indies, and is Ircc^uent in the morning dew^ 
from whence it enters the naked f"ec£ ot the flavcs, anc create^ 
the melt trcublefome itching?, frequently accompanied witj^ 
inflammation and tcver : it muft be cautiously drawn out by 
means ot a piece of fiik tied round its head; foi if by being 
too much Ilrained, the animal Jhould break, the part remain- 
ing under the fkin grows with redoubled vigour, and ocelli' 
fions often a fatal inflammation. It is frcjjuently 12 feet loRg, 
and not larger than a horfe-hair. 

Eqiii. Body tapering behind : tall finely pointed and incurved. 

Akild. ap. Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. p. 49. tab log. Jig. 10. 
Found in the cellular membrane of Iloifcs. 

Leonis. Found In the Lion. 

Reai Aaim.'vi'v. in an. viv, p. l/^,tab. g,fg, 2, 

Martis. Inhabits the Martin. 

Redi Anim. ifi'v, in an. 'vi'V. p, 1 5, tab. 9, fig, \ , 

Lcporis. J" the cellular membrane of Hares, 
PalL », nsrd, Beytr. 1. ;>, S3. 

B. Infejilng Birds. 

Falconis, '^" *h* cellular membrane about the abdomen and thig1i§ 
of Hawks. 
RcM Anim. 'vi'V, in an. 'via', p. 80, Vandell. di/f. /. 75. 

Stri^ls. J" ^^^ cellular membrane about the head and ears of owl*, 
Pall, n. nord. Bejtr. \, p. 83. 

Cornicis. I" the crop and lungs of Crows. 
Pall. n. nord. Beytr. i. /, 83. 


Found In the cellular membrane of the Stork. 
Redi Ajiim. <vi~j. in An. 'vi-v. /. 83. 

CaL'inar ^" ^^^ fmaller Inteflines of Poultry. 

Goeze Eingcnv. p. 126, tab. 7, B. Jig. 8- -10, 
Body capillary and about -z incnes long, 

C. Infcjiing infeCls in their perj'ecl flaie. 

•Scavabai. Found in the Scarobxus fipictarius. , 
Philofoph, TranJ\\. p. 45. 



WORMS. iNTESTIlSfA. 3; Filaria. 

Si/pia. Found in the Silpha obfeura. 
Goeze Eingenv. p, \zi. 

*Ciirabi, Found in the Carabus. 

Fhilof. Tranf. «, 8i. Pall, de inf. inn>. p. 1 2; 

Grylli. Fofind in tlie Gryllus or Cricket. ^ 

Frifch, InJ. i 2, p, 3, tab. 2, Jig. I. Roef. Inf-, 2. p. 58^ 
Sulz.HiJl.Inf.p.2>l. Pall. It. Up. 36. 

i/hnoculi. Found in the Monoculus apusi 

Wakh. Naturf. iz,p.t:{. 



D. Itifejllng the larlja of InfeSlt, 

Tail hooked. 

Ggexe Eingeiu.p* I27, Schrc^nch^ Natur» p, t^'i. 

1. Found in the Papilio polychloros. 

Wern. Verm. Intajl. cent. I. p. 6, Body white. 

2. Found in the Papilio Uiticai. 

Wern. p.b. Body yellIovvifh-grey» 

3. Found in the Papilio Betuljs. 

Wern. I^'ern. int. I. p, 6. Body white. 

4. Found in the Papilio Quercus. 

Wern. l^'erm. intejl^ 1, />. 6. Body vvbite» 

5. Found ifi the Sphinx Euphorbias, 

Hoef. \itf. I. Phal. I, p. 20. • 

6. Found in the Phalsena Quercus. 

IVtrn. Verm, inteft. \,p. 6. Body white. 

7. Found in the Phalaena Caja. 

Wern. Verm, intejt. i, p. 6. Body chcfnut^ 

8. Found in the Phalzena Ziczac. 
Degeer Inf. \,p. 309, tab, 34,/^. 6 — 8. 

9. Found in the Phalxna nupta. 

Gocze Einge^. p. 1 27, tab. ^,fg* 4-'— 6, 

Jo. Found in the Phalxna Pfi, 
Roef. Inf. I, Phal. 2, p. 6^^. 

■IX. Found in thePhala»na Pcllionella, 
Gceze Ein^exv.p. 128- 
Found under the fkin of the larva:, and is very dellruftive to 

them: is fometimes folitary, and 4 — 7 inches long. 
Body glabrous, hard, tapering both ways, but more obtufe on the 

fore-part, and defended as it were with 3 oblong lips. 

Found in the larvae of the Penthredo. 
Ji'tt Stodh. 35,/, 181. 


WORMS. INTESTINA: 4; Uncinaria; 5. Scolex. ^ 

Phryganea Found in the larvae of the Phryganea. 

Degeer Inf. ii. i, /. 555: A. 14. /j". 12 — 14. 

4. UNCINARIA. Body filiform, elafticj 
the fore-part obfcurely tul^erciilate, with 
iBcmbranaceous angular lips : tail of th<? 
female ending in a fine point, of the 
male armed with 2 cufpidate hooks iix- 
clofed in a pellucid veficle. 

Melist Female nearly ftraight : male with approximate hooks i.n a 
rounded veficle. 
Afcaris criniformis. Goeze Eingenu.p, io6. A. B» fig. 1—4. 
Froelich Naturf. 24. /. 1 36. MulL Nat. 22, /. 55. 
Found in the larger inteilines of the Badger, 

fulph. Female bent into an angle ; male with remote 4-fange(^ 
hooks in a heart- (haped 2-robed veficle. 
Froelich Naturf. z^, p. 137, tab. ^, fig. 18, 19, 
* Found in the larger inteftines of the Fox, 

5. SCOLEX. Body gelatinous, varioufly 
fliaped, broadiih on the fore-part antj. 
pointed behind ; fometimes linear an(} 
long, fometimes wrinkled and fliort,, 
round, flexuous or deprelTed : head 
protrufile and retractile. 

fburoMcti- Head with 4 auricles. 
^ij. Mull. ZooU Dan.z, tab. 58. Var. 2,/). 53. 

Scbr. der berl. Naturf. l, p. 206, 207, 210, 213; 

Found in the intelHnal mucus of the Turbot, Sole, Plaife, GiL-ir 

niad, and Lump fjh ; but is fcldom vilible to the naked eye. 
//(?<7^ pellucid, with 2 oblong fhining red dots behind; auriclcf 
plaited in various forms : Ki?i->4 pellucid, fhort, with a lunate 
margin, which when alive is ved. 

topbiit ^^ t^c inteftinal mucus of the Lophius pifcatorius. 
A'luU. berl. Naturf, Schr. \, p. 21 1. 

Body minute and hardly vilible to the naked eye : probably jth,c 
iamc as the lall. 


^4- WORMS. INTE3TINA. 6. Ligula. 

6. LIGULA. ^fp^^y linear, equal, lon<T; the 
fore-part obtiife ; tlic bind-!)art acute, 
with an impreffed dorfai future. 

{0ejiinalis Body dear white, and very narrow. 

Bloch Elngevj. p. 4, tab. I, fi^. 1, 2. 
Goeze Eingeiv. p. 183, tab. 14, fg. i — 3. 

Found in the intellines of the hlerganfir and Cruillemot : about a 
foot long, and exaflly refembling a piece of tape. 

Abdomina- Body pale afh, and rather broad. 
lis, Fafciola inteftinaiis. Syjl- Nat. xii< 

Ja. Stockh. 1747. tab. S,Jig. 6. 
I. In the abdomen of the Loehe. 
Bloch. Eingeiv. p. 2. 
' 2. In the abdomen of the Gudgeon. * 

Bloch. Befch. der her I Naturf. 4^ p. 549* 

3. In the abdomen of the Tench. 
Bonnet. InJeaoU Abh. /. 62. 

4. In the abdomen of the Crucian. 

Pallas n. nord. Beytr. i, p, ioo< • 

5. In the abdomen of the Dace. 
Pallas n, nord. Beytr. \, p. c)^. 

6. In the abdomen of the Bleak. 
Bloch, Eijigeiu, p. 2. 

7. In the abdomen of the Cyprinus Vimba. 
Goeze Eingenv. p. 189, tab. 16, Jig. 7—9. 

8. In the abdomen of the Bream. 

Goze Eingexv.p. 187, tab. 16, Jig, 4—6. 

Ruyfch.obft anat' n. 64, op. l, p. 61, tab. J", c. 

Thefe are found principally in the mefentefy, emaciating the 
fiih they infeft, and making them grow deformed : when they 
cfcape from the body, they penetrate through the fkin : they 
are are fometimes folitary and fometimes gregarious, about 
lialf a line thick, and from 6 inches to 5 feet long. 

7. STRONGYLUS. Body^ round, long, pel* 
lucid, glabrous ; the fore-part globular, 
truncate, with a circular aperture fringed 
at the margin ; the hind-part of the fe^ 
male entire and pointed, of the male 
dilated into loofe, dillant, ])e]Iucid mem- 

nsKxnt usMAXf ^f »'^^' . 

J\r« C. Steu Colkg€ 

WORMS. INTESTINA. 8. Echinorhynchus. 


Equlnusl Head opake : inteftine black. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 42. ftg. 1 — 12. 

Geeze Eingenv, p. 137. tab. 9. B.fig. 10, 11. 

Inhabits the ftomach of the Horfe, in great numbers* * 

Male pale yellow with a fine yellowifh membrane covering the 

inteftines, tail 3-leaved with a fmall fpine or two: female with. 

white filifsrm veficles furrounding the inteftines. 

Oviniis. Found in the inteftines of fheep. 

O. Fal^r. ap, Mutl. Zoel. Dan, 2. i>. 8. 


8. ECHINORYNCHUS. Body round: pro^ 
b of CIS cylindrical retractile, and crowned 
with hooked prickles. 

Thefe are found fixed very firmly to the vifcera of various ani- 
mals, generally the intelbnes ; and ohen remain on the fame 
fpot during the whole life of the animal: they are moftly 
gregarious, and are eafily dillinguifhed from the Ttenia. by 
their round in<lrticulate body. 

A. tnfedlng the Mammalia. 
Body pate: inteftine milk-white and {piral. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 1 if. fig. I. 

Found in great numbers in the inteftines of the harp and rough 

'Seal, and often nearly devours them : from 3 inches and a 

half to 8 inches long. 
Boily pellucid membranaceous, tapering both ways, and poiuted 

and hooked behind. 

Tubifer. Body whitifh glabrous and tapering behind into a fine 
Mull. Zool, Dan. 2. tab. 74- fig- 2. 
In the llomiich of the harp Seal: about an inch long. 

Gigas. Clear white: neck o: probofcis fheathed, with numerous 
rows of hooked prickles: orifices of fudlion 7. 

Gceze Emge-w. p. 143. tab. ll.fig- 1—6. 

Bloch Eingcw, p. 26 tab. J. fig. I-'8. 

Pallas ctmm. Petrop. 19./*. 202. tab. 11 fig. 3, 

Found in the inteftiucs of Sivine, efpecially thofe which have 
been fattened in fties: is gregarious and from 12 inches to 
I and a half feet long, the filaments of the probofcis appear as 
if united by 2 lateral ligaments. That which is found in the 
Bor>r is more of a blueiih caft. 

VOL, IV.— D BaUna-. 

26 WORMS. INTESTINA. 8. Echinorynchiis. 

Balana* Inhabits the Jnteftines of th« Whale. 

Phifps Jourti, p. lo^. tab. J -Jig. I. A, 6, C. 

B. Inf tiling Birds, 

Euteonis: Clear white: veficles of the tail blueifli and lentlform, 
Goeze Eingenjo p. i^/^.tab. \z.fig, 1,2, A. 
Found in the inteftiues of the Bu'x.xiird: 2 inches long. 

Sfofis. Probofcis covered with numerous prickles, 
Goe-ze Eingevj, p. i^^.tab, M.Jig. 13. 
F«und in the larger inteltincs of the Strix /cops, 

Aluconis, Body flightly wrinkled and opake : probofcis thickened. 
Mull. ZooL Dan. 2. tatb. 6t>. fig» 1—4. 
Found in the intcftines of the Strix aluco. 

Body flexuous : probofcis armed with innumerable prickles, and 
perforated at the tip in the centre, 

Probofcis clavate. 

Goeze Einge'w. p. X^^.tab. ll. Jig. 8—12. 

Found in the larger inteftines of the Taivny Ow/. 

P:ci, White, neck o : probofcis with fmall ferrate prickles, 

Go£ze Einge<w. p. 150. tab. ii, fig. 1--5 and A. 
Inhabits the inteltiaes of the Picus erythrocephalus and 'viridis; is 
gregaiious and about half an inch long. 

Boreal'n. Found in the inteftines of the Eider Duck. 
Phipps Journ. p. 103. tab, J. fig, I. 



Bofchaiis. Neck filiforni : probofcis a little prickly. 
Goeze E7ige--w. p, 163. tab. I'^.fig* 6, 7. 
Found in the intcllines of the Duck, 

Anatis, Body fcarlet ovate : thorax and probofcis covered with 
prickles, with a long fmooth neck between them. 
Coeze EingCT-v. p. 164. tab, X'x^.fig, i. z. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the •vtl'vct Duck, 

Mcrgi. Head and neck armed with prickles. 
Block Eingenv. p, 28. tab, J. fig' 9— 1 1. 

Found in confiderable numbers in the intcftines of the Mergtts 
Miimtu! : \ inch and a half long. 


WORMS. INTESTIMA. S. Echinorhynchus. 


Jlcat. Body with lateral wrinkles beneath on the fore-part. 

Mull. Zcol. Dati. 2. tab. ']\.ftg. 8. 

In the inteltines of the Aiuk: 4 inches long. 

Body white with a black line down the back, roundifli and a little 
pointed before, beneath flat, behind fubprifmatic and tapering 
to an extremely fine point ; probably not of this genus. 

Ardcaet Body flriatc: probofcis clavate. 

Gceze Eingeiv p. 152. ta'J. w.fig. 6, 7. 

Found in the Jrdea Alba. 

Body conic behind and liouatc each fide in the middle. 

Gazae. Inhabits the Ardea alba or great white Heron. 
Redi anim. 'vi'v in an, 'ui'V. p 85. tab. 15. fig, 18. 
Rtdi opufc, 3./1 229. tab, 21. fig, 9. 

Vanelli. Tail with a white veficlc. 

In the intellines of the Lapwing. Gscze Ei»gciv. f. 155. 

Meriilae. Ovate: thorax prickly. 

In the Black-bird and Tree Iparrow. Goeze Eingetjo. p. 165. 

C. Infejling Reptiles. 

Ranoi, White: probofcis united by 2 (lender white' filame^nts 
Goeze Einge-xv. p 159. tab. \2.fg. 10, 11. 
Pall, comm. Petrop. ig. p 4^2. ta/>. 9. fig. 2, A, a. 
Pall. Nord. Beytr. \.p. 109. tab, $.Jg, 37. 
Inhabits the intefline of Frogs : is gregarious and grecnifli or 
pale grey. 

Palcatus. Probofcis long and armed with many longitudinal rows of 
hooks: body marked on the fore-part with a pellucid 
blotch, on the hind-part with a pellucid dot. 

Frcclicb Nsturf. 24. />. 117. tab. 4. fig. 22 — 24. 

Found in the ducdcnam of the Salamnnder, near the pylorus. 

D. Infejllng Fijh. 

Anguillae. Body white fmooth : probofcis globular. 
Mull. Zobl. Dan, 2. tab. 6g Jig. 1 — 3. 
Le'wenh. Arcan. Nat. p. 313, 314.^%. Ij 2. 
Inhabits the intcftines of the Eel: opake. 

Proboftis fapported by the neck, and armed with 6 — 8 row^ of 
hooks, each row containing 5 or 6: male with 7 opake globules 
behind in a double row : fetnaU twice as long, with ovaries 
containing the linear fanus. 

D 2 Xiphice 

28 WORMS. INTESTINA. 8. Echinorynchus. 

Xifhia. In the inteflines of the fword-fifli, which it often perforates. 
Redi anim, 'viv. in an, 'viv. p. 8a. tab: z^. Jig. 7. 
Redt Opu/c. 3, tab. i<^. fig. i, 

Gandidus. Body opake white and flightly wrinkled. 

Mull. Zool. Dan \, p 139. tab. "ij. fig. 7 — 10, and 2 t. 34./. 7« 
Found in the intellines of the Jonk, Whiting pout, Whitings 
Blennius ranitiuj, P/euroneSes platej)jides, RuJ^e, Perch and Cy- 
prinus idbarus ; about 3 inchcb loiig, when extended at full 
length, and of equal thicknefj throughout, 
Body pale afh-co!our, yellowifli, brown, fulvous, fafFron, rcddifh 
or violet, according to the different fpecics in which it has 
been nourifhed : probofas with 9 — jj rows cf hooks, each 
row with 9 — 16 hooks; the male is lefs and oltcn found in- 
habiting diltinfl froi^i th^/entale. 

Lintolatia. Body with tranfverfe brown lines interrupted in the middle^ 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 1. p. 142. tab. 37,/^. U — 14. 
Pall. 7:ord, Beytr. I. p. 1 07. tab. I- fig. ^6. 
Palh noi'. comm. Petrop. ig./- 452. tab, <^.fig' 2. 
Found in the inteftincs oi Cod fifi. 
Body about 2 in^he; long : ^robofiis armed with hoolc.% 

Longicollts. Reddifh-white ; head rounded and longitadinally ftriate : 
neck filiforui: probofcis flightly hooked, 
Goex. Einge%v. p, 162 tab. iz.Jig. 12—14. 
Found in the inteftines of the 'Torsk. 
Probofcis armed with hooks. 

P'.curaneaii Sides of the body with undulate impreilions* 
Ma// Naturf, 10. />. 150. 
Found in the intestines of the 7«ri^c>/. 

Attcnuatus. G^obiferous* body equal yellow fmooth: neck filiform. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 1. p'. \iJ.tah. IJ.Jig. I— 3. 
Pall. Nord. Beytr. i. p. wo, tab. t,. fi^ 38. 
Found, though feldom, in the intestines of the Flounder. 
Body pellucid, of equal thicknefs, obtufc and rounded behindi 
probojcii united by a ligament each fide. 

Annulatus. Globiferous : body ending in a point : neck wrinkled. 
Mull. Zool Dan. I. p. i2>i. 
In the intestines of the Father laJJier, Tonk. and Bream. 

flatejfdda Snout pointed: body with an elevated terminal belt behind. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 74. '^^.5. 

. Id 






WORMS. INTESTINA. 8. Echinorynchus. 29 

In the ftomach of the Fltaronoaes platejfoides. 
Body pale finaoth, about 2 inches and a half long. 

Body foft wrinkled and obtufe at each end. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I. p. 140. Pall. nord. Bejtr. \,p. log. 
I^ound in the invellincs of the Perch. 

Probofcis with ip— ri2 rows of fpines. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I./. 140. Schr. Naturf, \.p. 214* 
Inhabits the jnteftines of the PMJfe. 

BocJy ftriate : probofcis clavatc. 

Goeze Eingeiv. p. 158, tab. 12.^^,7—9. 
In the inceftincs of the bearded Ltchs. 

Body clavate finooth : probofcis cylindrical, 
MJ.i. Zool. Dan. 2 tab. 69. y^ i— 3» 
Found in the intcftines of the Salmon. 

Body white glabrous opake, ventricofe on the fore part an4 
pointed behind: probofcis not fo prickly as in others. 

White globiferous and fublobate at the fides behind: neck 
cylindrical annulate: probofcis with 16 rows of iq 
hooks each. 
Hermann. Naturf. 17 p. 1 72. tab. 4. fig. 8 to. 
In tiie intestines of young Salmon., about 4 times as fmall as ^. 
Candidas and refembles E. annulatus. 



White : tail rounded a^d inferted into the body : prebofels 
Got'K.. Eingetv, p. 166. tab, iz.fg. 3-y. 
Found in the liver of the Salmon: probably not of this genus, 
Probofcis armed "vith inpunierable hooks. 

inhabits the intcftines of the Trout. 
Goez. Rnge-w. p. 157. tab. 12% fg- 5> 6. 
Body reddifh and very long. 

Maraenae. Body fpindlc-fhaped fmooth and flightly wrinkled, th^ 
hind-part tapering and rather obtufe. 
JS. Stockh, 1780. p. 44. tab. Z. fig. I, 2. 
Inhabits the intestines of the Salmo maraena. 

luciit Body pellucid and finooth. 

MuU.Zcol. Dant i. p. 138. tab, 2)7 'f'S' ^"^' 


go WORMS. INTESTINA. 8. Echinorynchus. 

Mull. Naturf. 12, /. 188, tah» S^f'S' *"5« 
Goeze Eingeiv. p. 156, tab, \2,ftg. 3—4. 
Found in the inteftines of the Pike. 
Body yellowifli, narrower and obtufe behind. 

Argeiuinte Inhabits the inteftines of the Argentine. 

Redi an. ■vi'v in an. viv. p. 87. AH. Hafn. 2, p» 225. 

Akfa Body filiform, the fofe part clavate and reddifh, with 6 

rows of loofe prickles: probofcis pale, with 8 rows of 
denfer prickks. 

Hermann. Naturf. 1 7,/. 1 77, tabt ^,/ig. II, 12. 

In the inteftines of the Sbad: 2 inches long. 

Probofcis cylindrical, a little thicker in the middle : neck fhortand 
deeper red, with 2 circles of prickles, 

^arbi Ovate, yello\^j fafciate : aeck long, white, cylindrical an<« 

Sc branch Naturf. l8,/». 83, tab. %, fg. D^-H. 
Found in the inteftines of the Barbel, 


L ophii 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Carp.^y cotnm. Petrop. 15,^. 500, tak. z6,fg, 5, 

inhabits the inteftines of the Cyprinus idbarus. 
Mull. Zaol. Dan. I,/. 140. Refembles E. candidus. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the R.oaGh. 
Mull. Zoo I. Dan, I, p. 156, 

Probofcis tuberous and prickly at the tip; body with a fin* 
gle mouth or fucker on one fide and 4 on the other. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. z,tab. Ol,fig. 2—8. 

Found, veryfeldom, in the inteftines of the Roach. 

Bsdy elongated, obtufe at each end; probofcis narrowed behind 
and armed at the tip with 6 ftraight prickles, each feated on 
fmall globule. 

Neck filiform : probofcis armed with very minute prickles. 
In the inteftines of the Bream. Goex, BingeiM. p. 163. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Frog-fifli. 
Mull. Sch. der berl. Naturf. I , />. 2 II . 
iWy white, and coUcdlea into glomerate niaflcs, 

Body rounded, white. 

In the inteftines of the Sturgeon, 

G!e«.,'Ehge--w. p, 157, 

9. UMKVQh, 

WORMS. INTESTINA. 9. Hasruca. 10. Cucullanuj. 3^ 

9. HiERUCA. Body round, the fore-part 2-. 
necked, and iurrounded with a iiugh 
row of prickles : probofcis 0, 

ris Body grey ifh- white and wrinkled. 

Gseze Eingeiu, p. 138, tab. 9, h. fig, 12. 

Inhabits ;he inteftincs of the Moufe, and is diliinguillied ivova, 
the Genus Echinorhynchus in wanting the retraftile probofcis. 

10. CUCULLANUS. Body fliarp, pointed 
behind and obtufe before : mouth orbi^ 
cular, with a ftriate hood. 

Thefe are moft of them viviparous, and generally inteftinal. 
A. the Mammalia. 

TaJpa Inhabits the common Mole. 

Goez. Eingetv. p. 1 30, tab. 8, fig. 7 — 8. 

Is gregarious, inclofed in a membrane, fpirally twilled white, 
and found in the fat about the peritoneum. 
Ocreatus Body fafciolate : tail flieathed. 

Goeze Eingenv. p. 182, tab. \S*fg- 6, 7. 

Found in the intcfdnes of the Mole ; gregarious, oviparous, 2 
inches long, and refembling a piece of Itraw, 

Muris In the lefler inteftincs of the Moufe. 

Goeze Ei/igev. p. 242. 

B. Infejiing Birds. 

Inhabits the intcftines of the Buzzard. 

Gaeae Eingenv.p. 85. 

C. Infejiing Reptiles. 

Ran^e Tail foliaceous. 

In the inteftincs of the Frog. Goezs Em^c^xu. p. 98. 

D. Infejiing Fi'\ 

Lncu/tris Body rufous and truncate before. 
Mull, Zool. Dan, I. p. 146. 

32 WORMS. INTESTINA. n. CaryophyUiSus. i2,LinguatuIa. 

1. In the Eel. Goeze Einge'w. p. 130. tab. g, A. j%g. I, 2, 

2. In the Perch. Goeze Eing, p. 17,2, rao 9, B. fig. A. 

3. In the Perea lutioperca. Go^z. £»«^'. tab. 9, A. /f^. 3. 

4. In the Ruffe. Af«^. Nattirf. \,p. 214, 2, />. 133. 

5. In the balmon. Go^g^ ^^n^"* /• I33- ^'^^^ 8, fg. 9. 10. 

6. In the Trout. Goeze Eing. p. 133. 

Thcfe are all found in the inteftines, the lafl: alfo in the liver* 
and arc very fertile. 

jiftariidei Head orbicular and hooked each fide : tail rounded, fhort^ 
pointed, w^ith 2 exferted fpicules. 
Goeze Einge^uj. p. 134, tab. %. fg.\ I— 16. 
In the ftomach of the Silurius planus ; is gregarious, about an 
inch long, greyilh-white, ana refembles the maggot of a fly. 

Murinus Ycllowifh-afli, and obtufc on the fore-part. 
Mull.Zoel, Dan. I, /. 144, tab. ^%yfg. I, 7. 

1. Armed with cirri. Mull. ZooL Dan. i. tab, iS,fg. l-^y. 

2. Without cirri. Mull. Zool. Dan. i,p. 144. tab, 38. <%. 8—11. 
Found in the inteftines of Cod fijli : oviparous. 

Bady long, flexuous, round, pellucid, and very finely ftriate 
acrofs; intejling brown . l?ead bro^icr, fuborbicular, and ap- 
pearing as if burnt on the fore-part: male armed with a 
blackiih, fetaceous, bicufpidate prickle at the tail near the 
vent : female with a tuberculate aperture in the middle of 
the body. 

11. CARYOPHYLL/EUS. Body round : 
mouth dilated and frinoed. 


Pifcium Inhabits the inteftines of various frcfti-wafer fifli, parti- 
cularly the Carp, Tench, Jefes and Bream. 
Gceze Eingeiu. p 180. tab. i 5,7%. 4, 5 
Block, Eingew. p. 34, tab. 6 frg. 9 — I 3. 

Body clay -colour, about an inch long» rounded at the hind-part 
and broader before. 

12. LINGUATALA. Body depreiTed, ob^ 
long: • mouth placed before, lurrounded 
with 4 pailages. 

Senata Inhabits the lungs of the Hare. 

Froelhh Netturf. z^. p. ^. fg, 14» ^S- 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 13. Fafclola. 33 

13. FASCIOLA. Body flattifli, with an aper- 
ture or pore at the head, and generally 
another at a diltance beneath, leldom a 
fhigle one. Gourd-worm. Fluke. 

Thefe are hermaphrodite, oviparous, and are generally found 
in the ftomach, inteftines or liver: the inteflines are flexuous 
and the ovaries lateral. 

A. Infejiir.g the Mammalia. 

Uominis Found in Mankind. 

Doe'ver. Fernit p. 54. Clerk Lumbric. p, lig. 

Vulpis Orbicular/ head thick, rounded, and feparated from the 

trunk by a circular arch; hind-part flexuous at the 
fides: tail with 2 cylindrical membranaceods appen- 
dages eath fide. 

Goeze Eiftgeiv. p. 176, tab. 14, fig. l\ — 13, 

In the intellines of the Fox. 

Putorii Minute and roiindifh, with 2 approximate pores. 

Goeze Eingew.p. 175, tab. 14. I and a half line long^ 
Found in the inteftines of the Polecat. 

Melts Body thick : head triangular. 

Goeze Eingenxj. p. 176, tab, \^, Jig, g, 10. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Badger. 

refpirtili. Elongated round, with red inteftines. 
fi/jis Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. J2, fig. 12-- 16.. 

Goeze Eingo^w. p. 171, tab. 14, fig- I -3. 
In the inteftines of the long-eartd Bat, which it frequently 

gnaws through. 
Body rcddifli -brown, itefhy, tranfverfely ftriatc with minute dots 

•Hepatica Body ovate and (harper before, with a white line down the 

middle and fpot in the centre. 
Schaff. Mojiogr. 'von, Ege.'Jch. ftg. \ — 17. 
Clerk. Lumbr. p. 141, tab, C)-,fig. 2, and tab. \2,fig. H, M, 
Philo/.^ranf- i.g, p. 248, tab. 7, f/g. i. 
Bar but Genera of Worms, tab. z,fig. I. 
Brejy Sammvl. p. 6()^,/!g. I — 4, 
Inhabits the liver of Sbeep, and is often vomited up in brooks ; 

is generally found lixcd by a pore nt. the exrremic}', .^nd ano- 

thcr in the middle of the abdomen, and occafions dropfy and 

the diiorder which is called the rot. * 

VOL. IV.— F. Bed. 

34 WORMS. INTE.STINA. 13. Fafeiola. 

Bsdy about an inch long, broader on the fore-part and termi- 
nated by a tube, the back marked with about 8 longitudinal 
furrows in 2 feries. 

Bourn Found in the livers of Cattle. 

Muli, Naturf, 18, /. 35, tab. \, fig. li. 

Percorum Found in the liver of Swine. 
Goeze Eingeiv, p, 171. 

Jfri Found in the liver of the Boar. 

Clerk. Lumbric. p. 119, 

*Cervi Inhabits the liver of Deer. 

Borlaje Nat, Hid. of Cornwall y tub. z\,fig. 10, 

Equi In the liver of Horfes. 

BuffoH. Hift. Nat.'w. p. 174, &c; 

Thcfe 5 Jaft refemble F. hcpatica, and are probably only va- 

Elapbi Body conic-ovate, with a very large aperture behind; 
mouth alfurgent and remote. 
Zeder Schr. Naturf. \o,p. 65, tab, 3.^. 8-11. 
Inhabits the ftomach of the Stag, and is gregarious. 
Body with a fingle pore. 

B. Infefling Birds. 

Bills In the gall du£^ of the black Eagle. 

Braun. Schr-. Naturf. lO, p. 61, tab, ^tfg. 4> 5. 
Body thick, gregarious. 

Buteonis Inhabits the Inteftines of the Buzzard. 
Body with 2 pores. Goeze Eingcw. p. 85. 

Milvi Body flat, with a double pore: inteftines frondofe. 

In the inteftines of the Kite. Goeze Eingeiv. p. ij^. 

Body roundifh, with a fingle pore. 

Goez. Eingenju. p. 174. tab. l^,fg. 4— 6^ 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Kite, 

Very minute, varioufly (haped, inclofed in a cyft or bag, 
and tcnaceous of life. 
Braun. Sc^T. Naturf, 10, p. 63, tab. l,fg, 6, 7. 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 13. Fafciola. 


Found in the thorax of the Strix Aluco and the IleJge-hog under 
the Ikin ; is probably not of this genas. 

Anatis pojy reddifli and roimdifh, with a fingle pore. 
Goeze Eingeiu. p. 174, tab, i^y_fig- 8—1 1. 
B/och. Ehig. p. 35, tab. lO, tig. 5—7. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. SAf/'S- ^"3' 
Found in the intellines of the Duck. 
Body fmall, pellucid, and fometimes white; the fore-part ending 

in a truncate triangle, the hind-part rounded : intcftines 

black, lexuous: oTarw lateral. 

Anferis Oblong, ovate, with oppofite papilljc placed in 2 rows : 
pores approximate. 
Fxoelich. Nitturf 24, p. U 2, tab. 4, fig, 5—7. 
Found in the redum of the gocfc. 

Gruis Inhabits the inteftincs of the Crane. 

Blacb. Eing.p. ^^,tab. lO, fig.^—J. 

Jrde«e Found in great numbers in the inteftines of the BittcJif. 
Body fuborbicular. Gnei^e Eingsf:. p. 177, tab. ^S'/S' '• 

C. Infcjiing Reptiles. 

Salamatt' Oblong, fublincar, refembling an oil-flaflc: pofcs remote. 
dra FroeMck. Haturf. z\,p. 119, tab. 4, fig. %—XO. 

Found in the reftum of the Salamaxder. 

Ran<e Body fubclavate : mouth feflile. 

Goex.. Eingetv. p. 93, 178. tab. lS,fig. 2, 3, 
Found in the intellines, lungs and liver of the Frog: it very 
{[ow in motion, firft contrafling itfclf ini' a globular form, 
and then dilating itfelf into a flat -broad Ihape. 

Vncinulata Body armed with 2 ela{lic hooks on the hind-part. 
Braun Schr. Naturf. 10, p. 58, tab. J,, fig- I--3. 
Inhabits thcefculcnt Frog, under the common integuments of the 

abdomen, in one or more numbers : in its motion it refemblcs 

a leeeh. 


D. hfcpng Fijh. 

Elongated, round and tailed, with a papillary lateral poxc. 
Mull. Zeol, Dan. I, /. 1 08, tab. S^,fg. S. 
Inhabits the intellines of various Fifhcs. 

Body of equal magnitude, with papillary pore?, the anterior one 
larger and extending over the forc-parl of the body : tai/nVi- 
i"orm, hall as long as the body. 

£ 2 Difiicba. 

36 WORMS. INTESTINA. 13. Falciola. 

Difiicha Elongated round, with a projeding excavated lateral pofc. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. \, p. 108, tab 30, fig. 9. 
Found in the intllines of various Fifhes. 

Body wrinkled, tapering lehind ; the forc-part fub-bifid at th^ 
end, the divifions uneg^ual and excavated at the tip. 

Angmll<£ Found in the Eel. 

Lewwenh. Arcan. J^at. p. 306,^^. 6. 

Scabra Elongated round, tranfvprfely flriate and ferrulate at ths 

Mull. Zool. Dan. Zy tab. ^l, fig- I — 8. 
Inhabits the ilomach of the IVhiting-pout. 
Body minute, hardly vifible to the naked eye, vivid, pellucid and 

protruding from its mouth a harder and hollowed fphrrrule ; 

with a white double fli'orm vcITcl, and another blackifli flexu- 

OU3 one filled with eggs, running down th? whole length of 

the body. 

£gl^tni Linear and flightly dep^-elTed: neck p. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. p. lo5, tab. 30, f.^. 4, 
Inhabits the intefttncs of the Haddock. 
Body half an inch long, cinereous, and rounded at the ends. 

Blemiii Linear and flat : neck puffed up, with a divergent truncate 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I, p. Jo6, tab. 30, fg. 5, 2. /. 78, fg. 9. 

Blcch. Einge'W. tab. 1, fg. lO, li. 

In the irit llin^! mucus of the «vrv/^^ro7/5 Bler.ny, 

Body not vifible to the naked eye, white, pellucid, generally 
curved into an obtufe angle y the lateral pore larger, placed in 
the angle of the body, and ppminent when in motion, with 
3 white veficles j the lateral pore with one veficle. 

Scarpa Body elleptic, and pcrfqrated at one end with a minute 
papilla: heck o. 
Mull Zool, Dan. \,p. 1 05, tab. '\0.fig. \. 
In the inteilines of the Father lafneri 

Body not vifible wiihont a glafs. pellocid, whitilli-grcy, obtqfe at. 
' each end and filled with eggs, 

Platejjr^ Body elliptic and green. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. 78, f.g. \-'y 

In the intellinal mucusof the/Va//?. 

Body extremely minute, opake, divided into 6 alternate parts of 

green and white; terminal pore large, lateral one placed in 

the middle: ^^^j deep green. 

WORMS. INTESTINA. 13. Fafciola. 37 

Luctoperca Qvate-oblong and (lightly ventricofe : neck fhort : margin 
of the terminal pore dihued and fmooth. 
"MulL Zool. Dan. I, p. 105, tab. 30, /z^. 2. 
In the inteftines of the Perca lucioperca. 

Bodv dhoMt the fizeof agrain of fand,brownifh : neck cylindrical : 
lateral pore a little prominent and narrower downwards. 

Percii Ovate, ventricofe: neck Oiort : terminal pore nodulous at 

the margin. 
Mull, Z90I. Dan. I, p. 105, tab. 30, fig^ 3. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Ru_gei larger than the laft. 
Body brown j 7iei.k white, cylindricalj granulate and terminated 

by a pore : lai.eral pore feated at the bafc of the neck : body ob- 

tufe behind. 

liigecna. Body rounded, with a long neck. 

Braun. Schr. herl. Naturf. 8, /. 236, tab, lo: 
Found in the jntcllines of theP^rc^. 

Cld'vata, Body roundifli, livid, wrinkled and clavate behind. 
Naturalifi' s Mifcellany, ix. /fl^. 303, 
Linnean Tranfaci. i, p. 187, tab, 17, fig. 2. 
Inhabits the Ptcific Oqean, in theftomachof the Scomber Pelamis '. 

about 2 inches long. 
Body whitilh-brown with a blueifh call, and annulate with fine 

wrinkles; towards the lower cxtreniity it becomes fphpsrically 

gibbous, ending in an aperture : wrA flender when in motion: 

lateral pore larger than the terminal one. 

VarKa^ I^incar, round: neck divergent, obtufe and perforated be- 
neath the tip. 

Mull. ZooU Dan. 2, tab. 72. fig. 8--I I. 

Found in the ftomach of the Salmon. 

Body elongated, often diverging into an acute angle, fmooth 
when extended, and a little wrinkled when contraded : late- 
ral pore placed nearly in the middle ; a double filiform white 
veficie running down each fide, and connected below with 2 
white ovate opake bodiss : eggi numerous, fcattered, yellowifii- 
grcen, in a flexuous hyaline tube, and each inclofed xn a pel- 
lucid membrane, 

I riocti Body elliptic, hyaline and rufous in the middle. 
J^iull. Zool. Dan, z, tab. 72, fig. 4—7. 
In the inteftines of the .b^Tw/z; Vf^ry minute, 
fore-part of the body retradile and extenHle, includirg a filiform 
coi^g'omeratc intelline and z veficlesj 



S8 WORMS. INTESTINA. 13. Fafciola. 

Pixrionis, Oblong and a little depreflcd ; the fore-part with 6 equal 
lobes on the margin. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. 72, fig. I — 3. 
In the inteftinal mucus of the Salmon. 

Body yellowifh, about a hnc long, the margin obtufely crenu- 
late, the anterior lobes nearly fquarc and membranaceous, 

Truttie Body oblong, v/ith 2 white lucid orbicular fpots behind the 
lower aperture, 
Froelich Naturf, 24.^. 126, tab. /^, fg. 1 6, I 7. 
found in the rcflum of the Trout, 

XjmhLe Oblong, flat, with a narrower retrailile neck. 
O. labr. Fn. Grcznl, p. 329, n. 314. 
Found in confiderablc numbers in the back of the Salmo Umbloy 

beneath the £kin ; i and half line long. 
Body whiciih, refembling a flafk, broader behind and obtufely 

truncate, the margin acute. 

J.ucii Lanceolate, with a crenate depreffed margin : neck long 

and round. 
Mull. Zool. Datu It p. 107, tab. 30,^^. 7, z. tab. J^ifg' 6—8. 
Be/ch. berl. Naturf. 4, p. 537, tab. 14, fig. i — 4,, 
Goeze Ein^eiv. p. 172, tab. 14, fig, 3. 
Found in the Itomach and osfopliagus of the Pike, 
Body vivid, red, i and half inch long, 

Halecis Found in the ftomach of the Herring. 
Lewwenht Epifi. 97, p. 47, 

*Bran'.te Oblong, roimd, tapering and obtufe a< the bafe: ne<:k. 
round and illghtly incurved. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. />. I I 7, tab. 30, fg. 6. 
In the inteftines of Breams and Stnklebacks. 
Bcdy white : lateral pore at the bafe of the neck* 

Jefis 'Body ovate and narrower on the fore-part. 

Block, Eingenv. /. 1 1 , tab. 2, fg^ 10, 1 1 . 

In- the inteftines of the Cyprinus Jefes. 

Body refembling a flask or long-nccked bottle. 

E. Infejilng Worms. 

^^■Jiginif Body oblong, white : mouth with tranfverfc papilla3. 

Mull. Zool. Dan, 2708. O. Fab.fn. Grceni. f/t 328, «. 3 1 3. 

Found in the inteftines of the Cuttle-fjh, 

1,4. T^NIA, 

WORMS. INTESTINA; 14; T^nia. 39 

14. TiENLA. Body flat and compofed of 
numerous articulations : head \vitli 4 
orifices for fuiStion a little below the 
mouth: mouth terminal, continued by a 
Ihort tube into 2 ventral canals, and 
generally crowned with a double feries 
of retractile hooks or holders. 


Thefc are deftincd to feed on the juices of various animals, and 
are mollly found in the alimentary canal, ufually at the upper 
part of it. They are fometimes found in great numbers, and 
accafion very diftreffing ailments. They have the power of 
reproducing parts which have been broken off, and are there- 
fore removed with confiderable difficulty. They are ovipa- 
rous, and difchargc their numerous eggs from the apertures on 
the joints, 

A. Found in other parts bcfides the inte/fines, and furnijhed 
with a veftcle behind. Hydatids. 

a, Infejling the Mammalia. 

Pifiform, inclofed in a veficic : broad on the fore-part anil 
pointed behind. 

Philof. Iran/. 43, «. 475, p. 305. 

Goeze Einge^v p. 196, 249, tab, 20. ^> fig. 12. a,b.' 

Wern. Verm. Inteft. p, 68, tab. 9, fig. 29 — 33 

Found in the liver, placenta, fack containing the dropfical fluid, 
and other morbid tumours 0^ mankind: is fometimes folitary, 
and fometimes many together in the fame veficle, 

*CelIul3fie Solitary^ and inclofed in a cartilaginous veficle and 2-tailed 
Wem. Ferm.InteJi. p. 2, tab. \,fig. I — 8. 

Inhabits the cellular fubilancc of the mufcles of Man: about an 
inch long, half as much broad and one-fourth as thick : h 
very tenacious of life : head furnifhed with obtufe hooks. 

Simite Inhabits the diaphragm of the Ape. 
Size of a nut. Goeze Eingeav. p. 24, 

Inhabits the liver of the Bat. 
Bkch^ S(hr, berl, Naturf, \,p. 334. 


40 WORMS. Il^TESTlNA. 14. Taenia* 

I'ulpis Found in the Fox. 

Re<^i Anim. I'iv. in an. viv, p, 13. 

Putorii Inhabits the liver of the Pole-cat* 

Goeze Eingenu p, 2o6, 

Urfi Pound in the Bear. 

Redi Anivt. njiv, in an. 'viv. p. 74« 

Gulonis Found in the Glutton. 

Redi Anim. 'vi'Ui in an, a/i'V. p. 1 4, 15, 

Hydatigena Single ; body elongated and gradually widening towards the 
head, terminated by a velicle which is twice as long 
and broad as the fore-part : head fellile, diftindl. 

Batfch. Band^. p. I GO, « 8, /f^. 46. 

Pal/. Mifcel. Zool.p 1 68, tab. \ 2, fig. l 2, 1 3. 

Bloch. Schr, der herl Naturf. \, p. 338, tab, 10, fig 9. 

Goeze Eingew. p. 223, tai^. ig^fg i, 2. 

Inhabits the liver of the Norway Rat, black Rat and Ri:atir Rat : 
I and a half to 8 and a half inches ion?. 

Hind-part of the body tv/icc as narrow as the fore. parr, and four 
times as narrow as the vcficle, linear in the middle : head 
equal to the fore-end of the body : neck o. 

Murina Single ; body elongated and growing gradually widet to- 
wards the head, the joints denticulate behind at the 
fides : veficle of the tail equaling the fore-part of the 
body: head feflile, diltind. 

Batfch.Bandw . p. 100, n.S,fg. 12—16, 18, 20,29,30,47—49, 

Pall. Mifcel.Zoal p, 160, 168, 171, ta^. lO, /. 12, 13. 

Goes:e Eing. p. 227, tab. 18, B./. 10—14, tab. 19,/. 3-14. 

Werner Verm, intejl. 1 , />. 1 3 , tab. <:^,fzZyll. 

Inhabits the liver of Mice : about the fize of a pea, though 
fometimcs it is as large as a nut : is diftinguiflied from the kft 
in having the joints longer, and the veficles at the tail much 

Cordata Single, round, the corpufcule diftinftly infertcd and bent 
in an angle: terminal vellel veniricofe, heart-fliapcd 
and pointed behind. 

Batfch. Band. p. 94, n. 4, /. 42, 43 . 

Goeze Einge^M. />. 218, tab. 18, B. /. 6, 7. 

Gaeze Eingeic.p. z^b, tab. iS,B.f 1 5-- 17. 

In the livers of Mies and Harej. Veftck min-ite. * 


Worms, intestina. 14. Txnia. 4i 

Pm/ormis. Single, round, turbinate, the animalcule contiguous and 
running into the ovate venticofe veflei behind.. 
Bat/ch Bandn.v. p. 96. n. S-f'S- 44' 45- 
Rcdi anim. vi-v. in an. 'vi-v. p, 72 tab. J-T^?* "• 
Goeze Eingetu, p. 200 — 2lg. tab. 18, A. and tab. 19, Bi Jig. 4,5. 
Found in gi-fat numbers in the livers o[ Hares, efpecially old 
ones, and coheres together in long bunches: is aboul the 
iize of a pea and blueifh-white, 

Vtriculatis Simple, round, the animalcule ditlinclly inferted and (Iraight; 
veficle oblong, obtufe and bottle-lhaped behind. 
Geozr Einoetv, p, iig.w. 3. fab. 1 8, ^/ig- B, 9, 
In the cellular rubilancc of the womb of the gravid Hars. 

Ferarum, Single, round, clavate ; the animalcule contiguous ami 
confluent on the lower-part with the oval-oblong; 
Batfch. Bandw. p. 98. n. 6 

1. Found in Deer. Coeze Einge-ix. p. 205, 206. 

2. In the Antelope Saiga. PaLl. 'loot. 12. tab., "i'/^g- S' 
Inhabits the omentum, peritonjeum and liver ot Stags an^ Antelopts: 

fize of a nut or walnut and fomotimei as large as a hen's egg, 
Vefide rather coriaceous, with franftcrfc ftri« : neck wrinkled. 


In the vifcera of the Goat. 

Harttnan Mi/cel. Kar, Cur. 1 795 . /•. J 5 2 r tab. 2 1 . 
Redi jinim. 'vi-v. m an. 'vlii. ^.75. 

Ovilla. i"^ the lirer and omentum of fheep. 

Goeze Einge-.K> p. 257. tab. 17./X. K'* ^I- 
Fall. Mi/ceil. Zeol. p. 161. tab. \z.fig. I-II. 

•Cerebralis Aggregate ; numerous animalcules united by their bafe to 
a larqe common veficle, diftributed about the furtace, 
and retradile within it : exterior veficle c 

Batfch Bandvj p 84. «. \ • fig- 34 l^- 

LctkeDreher der Schaafc Leipze, i-jZo I --3. 

Gceze Einge^'. p. 248. tab. 20. h.f'g. l-J. B- /• 6.-8. 

Found in vaft numbers in the '^rain, or fpiral marrow, imme- 
diately bencr>th the brain oijheep. Thefe noxi^-^us animalcules 
occafion giddinclb and staggering, and the dileule known by 
the name of Dur.t or Rickets ; which if the veficle 
be broken, is incurable ; for thefe munute worm?, in fize no: 
larger than a grain of fand, are each of them fuini(hed with 
32-36 hooks on the head, by which ihey fix thcmlelvcs firmly 
to the fubstance of the brain or it's coats. 1 hey chiefly attack 
yearling Iambs, 

VOL. IVi--F Vernjidna. 

42 WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Txnia. 

rervecina. V^eficle large : body (hort, with imbricate wrinkles. 

Goez, Eingenu, p. 208. tab. 17, A,y/V. 3-.C 
In the periconjcum of fat Sheep. 

Granulofa. Aggregate : numerous animalcules inclofed in a common 
yeficlcand adhcaring loofely to the fides; external and 
internal veilcle cailous. 

Bat/ch. handiv. p. 87, n. 2 fig, 37. 

Goeze Etngeix}. p. 258. tab. 20, ^.fig. 9-14. 

Found in the liver oijhtepi the veficlea from the fize of a nut to 
that of a hen's egg, and containing each many thoufand ani. 
ma.cules fwimmmg in the fluid with which it is filled • they 
are hardly vifible to the naked eye, fliort thick punfturcd and 
obtuie at both ends. 

Boi'tna. Single ; vcf.cle large: body fliort, with imbricate wrinkles. 
liartman, Mt/cel. uat. curio f. dec. 2. ann. 4. obf. 73, 
Pall- Mi/cell. Zool. />. 172. Goeze Einiew. p, 20c. ' 
In the vifcera and liver of Cattle. 

Jpri. Inhabits the liver of the Boar. 

Goeze Eingew. p. 205, 206. tab, 17. B./^. i,. s; 

Vefcile as large as a Walnut. 

Globofa. Single, round ; the animalcule didinaiy inferted and form- 
ing an angle; terminal veficle globular and etire. 
Batjch. Band^.p. 89. n. 3./. 38 — 41. 
^chr. der bed. Naturf. i.p. 337. tab. lO.fg. 1—8; 

1. In the Lungj. Bloch. Scbr. Naturf i.p. 337. 

2. In the Spleen. Blocb. Scbr. Naturf. i.p. 337. 

3. In the Liver. Goeze Einge-iu. tab. 17. A. fig. I, 2, 4, c. 

4. In the Peritonaeum. Goeze Eingew. tab. 17. B, fig. 6— o 
Pall. Mifcell Zool. p. 12. fg, i—ii. ^* 
Strals Mag. i.p. 64. fab. I, 2. 

Found chiefly in the abdominal vifcera of Snvine ; fize of a 
pigeon's egg and fometimes as large as an orange. 

Body very finely wrinkled ; the terminal veficle many times as 
large as the body, blueifli, but after the efcape of the animan- 
cule ycUowifli. 

Flmji. Conic, inclofed in a double veficle, the inner one adhering 
at It's bafe: head turned towards the neck of the 

Fifcher it! Wern. Verm. 3./. 65. tab. 5. 
Found in the cellular fublhnce of the flefh of S^-ine. 
Veficle oval, about the flze of a grain of millet-feed ; the outer 

covering confifting of the cellalar ra cmbntne itfelf, and thick 


WORMS. INTE3TINA. 14. Tsnia. 43 

claftic, fmooth within and wet with a humid ferum ; the in- 
ner covering pellucid and filled with a reddifh ferum. 

b. Infejling Reptiles. 

Salatnan- Found in the Salamander, 
ara. JleJi amim. 'vi'V. in an. iri'V,, p. iz't 

Serpentum. Found is Serpents. 

Redi anim, 'viv. in an^ 'vi^u. p, 1 2. 

C. Infejling FiJJ). 

Irutta. Inhabits gregarious in the liver of the Trout. 

Froeliih Naturf. 24./. 127. 

S. Found in the intejiina only, and without the terminal 

a. Infejling the Mammalia. 

^Sotitim. Articulations long and narrower with marginal mouths, 
one on each joint, and generally alternate: ovarite 

Linn. TranfaSi. ii, p. 247. /a3. 2^.fg. 1—8. 

Mem. Lond. Med» Soa. v. p. 257. tal>. 4. 

Batfch Band-M. p. l 1 7. «, 3.7%. I — 6. 9 — il. 21—23, 53* 

PsUl. Nord. Beytr. p. 46. «, I. tab. 2. fig. l--g. 

Philof. Tranf. 1683. n. 146, talf. I, 2,fg. 2, 6; lO. 

PhiloJ. Ira-tf. 1766./. 128. fni. 6. 

Gkichen Natiirf, \.p. 203. tab. d.fg. lO— 13. 

Clerk. Lumhr. tab. 7. A, B. 

Larger. Goexe Eingenv. p. 278. tab. 21. fig,. 1—7. 

Flat^ pellucid. Goeze Eingenv. tab. 21. fig. g--l2. 

Inhabits the inteftmes of Mankind, generally at the upper-part 
of the alimentary canal, where it feeds on the chyle and juices 
already animalized: from 3 to 30 feet long, and has been found 
even 60 feet. It is fometiines folitary, but gcnerallj in con- 
fidcrable numbers, and occafions emaciacion and various dif- 
treffing maladies; and adheres fo firmly to the inteftine, that 
it is removed with great difficulty. 

Head with a terminal mouth furrounded with 2 rows of radiate 
hooks or holders ; and a little beneath on the flattened furface 
4 tubercuiate orifices or fuckers, 2 on each fide: body compo- 
ied of a number of diftinft joints appearing as if flieathed in 
each other, each joint with a lateral marginal pore by which 
it attaches icfelf to the inteftinesj ihofe near the head a little 
F 2 fmaller 

44 WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Txnis. 

fma)ler, enlarging towards the middle and gradually leflening 
towards the tail : /^//ternjjnatcd by afemicircularjaint without 
any aperture. 

*Vulgans. Articulations fliort and broader, a mouth in the centre 
qt each joint : ovaries ftcllate roiind |;he rnouth. 

Metn. Land. Med Soc. v. p. 276. tab. 5. 

Natural. tAiJcei. vii. tab. 241 . 

Amoen. Acad- 2- p. 7. tab. l,fg- 2. 

Pail, n, 7io>d. Reytr. I. p, 59. n. 3. tab. 3. fi^. 13 — 16. 

Le Clerc. Lumir. p, 132. tab. 6.^g. 2. p. 136. /^i^. 7. 

Platfri p. 129 /«/^ 5-/,§- l« i?- J 59 ^'2iJ. 3- A> '? ^* 

^«</r); GV«, Afrj. tab. z. fig 9 /«^. "^^ fig \6. 

Wern. Verm, int^fi- P ^g. tab. ^.fig. ^7-rS7' 

Journ. dcPhyf. 1777. /. 243. tab, t.fig. 3, 4. 

Inhabits the inteftines ot Mankind, and like the laft, feeds on th? 
chyle ; is fomctimes found 3 or 4 together, and is from 1 to 
5 yards long : it is fo tenacious as to refill the moll violent 

Boay broader in the middle and tapering to^vards both ends; 
joints much narrower and broader than ihe last, finely striate 
longitudinally and wrinkled tranfverfely at the fides : kead 
referabling the last but is much narrower and fir.aller: tail 
ci ding in a rounded joint: onjaries of a stellate ox corol-like 
fhi|)e and placed round the mouths of the joints. 

ms"'^°''' Articulations oblong ellipiic^ with fingle marginal mouths, 

•l Canina. Mouths marginal and oppofite. 

/,/."«. Tra:./a^,'\\, p. z6p. tab: 2^. fig. 9. 

J na^K. Acad. Z. p. 8\. tab. 1 . /ig. 4. 

Pal/. Beytr'. \, p, 57. «. 2. tab. 3. fig. 10 — 12. 

Goex. Mnge^iu /• 3n t^tb. 21- fig- A — C. 

Bloch, Einge'w. p. 17'. tab. $■ fig- 6, 7. 

Werner Fer}?: inteft. p. ■^'i, tab (iJf — -69. 77— 7^). 

Br.lf:h. Ban'JrVJ, p. \±gftg. 7. «, 24 — 26, 57, 65, l6l, 

Inhiibits the intelline:^ oi' the Dog. 
z, Lupi. joiuti fligiitly ibeathed and broadifh 2t the lateral margin : ovarie^ 
■ jij laicicuUtc branchesj ihe branches fublinear and divaricate, 
the faicicuU oblique and niore fcparated. 

Baifch. Bandiv. p. 11$. n. 4./. 54. 

Qoc%e EingH'J- p- 3^7 • tab\ 22 fig. I — 5. 

Bloch Enige^v. p. 20- tn>>. 20. fig. 6-8. 

Ii!habit> the inteftines of the IFolf. 
> r:.-/fii7. Joints fiightly flieathed and not margined: ovaries in faf?:iculat$ 
branches, the branches inverfely ovate and fubpetiolate. 

Ba'fcl. Bandw. i>, iz6. ?;. 5./. 55, 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Txnia. 45 

Goeze Eingevj. p. 310, tab. 2Z, Pi, f. 6—9. 
Block. Eingew, p. 20, », 19, /a^. 6,/". 6—8, 
Inhabits the inteftines of the F«x, 

4« Litterttta Joints flightly ftieathed and not margined : ovary narrow, and 
confifting of a longitudinal fcries of ferpentinc lines, 
Bat/ch. Band<w- p, 128, n,6,f. 56, 
Gsfze Einge'W. p. 310, tab. 22, A. fig, IO--12. 
Inhabits the intcftines of the Fox. 

5. *Felis lladii of the head proje<^ing beyond the margin, 

LinneanTranf.n. p. 260. tab. 25,/', li. 
G.oez. Einge^J. p 315, tab. 22, B. /". .18— 22. 
Inhabits the intellincs of the Cat. 

6. Sciuri Joints flightly cohering and long, rounded and linear at each end ; 

ovary pinnate and flightly lobed, the lobes curled : papill® 

Bat/cb Bar-div. p 1 37, K. lO,^. 60. 
Goeze Ei»ge<tv. p. 332, tab. 23, /" 14. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Squirrel. 

7. Glirum Joints conglu!inate,oblong-ellJpiic : ovary irregularly pinnate\vith 

very flender branches : papillae foUtary. 
Bat{ch. Band'w. p. 134, n. S, fig. 58. 
Goeze Einge'W p. 335, tab. Z^, fig. 5» 6. 
Inhabits the inteltincs of the Dormou/e. 
Thefe are all from 18 to 24 inches long, except the laft, which 

is about an inch and a half; probofcis round : ne(;k not jointed j 

eggs rounded, and rufous or brown. 

Cucurbitina Body opake, yeliowiQi-white : all the joints fqu^re, with 

alternate mouths. 
Wern$r Verm, intefi, p. 56, tab. 3, fig. 70 — 76. 
RtJiopufc 3. tab.X-Ji f. \. 
Inhabits the inteftines of V>ogs; refemblcs T. folium, but i$ 

thicker with a broader head, the joints more equal, and 

broader on the hind-part, and furroundcd with a tumid mar* 

gin, and the ovaries are lefs, 

Serrata Joints ferrate, ftrlate : head large, 

' Bat/ch. Bandnu. p. 138, «. II, f. 19, 32, 61, 63,67, 

Redi Anim. •vi'v. in an. vi-v. p'Jli tab, i 3»/^6— 7, 

Redi opufc. 3. tab. 17,/". 1,2, 
l.Canii In the inteftines of the Dog. Goeze Eingeiv. p. 349, tab. 25, B, 
2, Felis j^eck very fliort. In the Cat. 

Bloch. Eingenjo, p. 19, n. 18, tah. 6, f. I --5. 

Goeze Eingeiv. p. 337, lab. 24, f. 1--6, tab. 25, h.f. I— 5. 

Pall. Noid. Bejtr. p 47, tab. z, f. I, 2. A. B. 3. 

he a fere Lumhric. />. 41, 47, 51. tab. 'i,,f\ 1,2. tah, 9,/, 3, 4, 







Thcfe grow to 19 inches long and 3^ broad ; the jointt reftan- 
gular, the fore -ones becoming gradually broader and fhorter : 
cvan pinnate in pairs. 

Joints orbicular : ovary pinnate, the divifions irregularly 
branched, the branches thickifh at the tip : head 
rounded : neck not jointed. 
Batfch. Bandiju,p 135, n. 9,/". 59. 
Goesie Eingenv. p. 350, tab. z6,f. 1—4. 

Inhabits the of the Cat ; 2 2{- inches long, and about 
3|- lines broad; of a clayey colour, with a line down the 
middle: joints fubglobular. 

Joints nearly fquare and truncate; body with a white lon- 
gitudinal ftripc containing the bag-fliaped ovaries dif- 
pofed in a row: neck twilled. 

Batfch. Bd,nd-w. p. 143, n, \ 2, Jig. 68, 69. 

Goeze Eingeiv. p. 352, tai. 25. A./". — 10. 

Found in the intelUnes of the Wild Cut : 6 inches long, and 
not broader than a piece of ftraw : body blueiih-white. 

In the intellines of the Weefel, Mariin and Polecat, 
Goeze Eingenv. p. 336. Batfch. BendixK p 143. 
Body about an inch long and ^ of a line broad. 

FilamentO' Joints fquare ; ovaries lai era], twilled, elongated beyond the 
fa, lateral naargin and terminating in the mouth of the 

joint: propofcis pyrifonn. 
Goeze Einge'w.p. 360, tab. 2-j, f. 6. 
Batjh.Band'W. p. 160,. n. 18,/". 84, 85. 

Inhabits^he inteftines of the Mole: father long: joints of the 
body mort and conic, truncate. 

Erinacei Joints ferrate, fhort: neck p: head crowned with a fnigle 
feries of hooks. 

Bloch. Eingenv. p. 20, tab. d, f-g. t, 2, 3, 7j 8. 
Inhabits the intellines of the Hedge-hog. 

Straminea Neck fimple and very thin : propQfcis pyriform : joints 4 
times as broad as they are long. 
Goeze Eingenv. ». 357, tab. 27,/". i — 3. 
Batjch. Bandnu. 188, «. 31,/'. 116, 163. 

Inhabits tlie intellines of the Mus cricetus ; about 8 inches long. 
Body capillary on the fore-part and conic behind. 

lU^fia Joints very fliort and broad, and tuberculate on one mar- 
' "^ ' gin: head large, quadrangular, truncate, with a fold 

on the throat. 
Jbi'.u. ap. MuiU 2«/. Dun. 3, /. 50, tab* IX O, fg. I . 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Taenia. 


Pall, n, nord. Beytr. \, f, 75, tab. 3, fig, 20. 

Cbabeit Malad. Verm. p. 22, tab. 2, _;f^. I. 

In the ftomach and inteftines of the Hor/ei 26 — 30 inches long. 

^adriloba Body lanceolate, the joints very fhort : head truncate, 
fquare, with 2 fmall lobes on each fide of the neck. 
MulUZool. Dan, 3,/. 51, tab. 110, Jig. 2, 3. 
Pall. n. nord. Beytr. 1,/. 71, tab. 3, fig. 21 — 24. 
Inhabits the ftomach and inteftines of the Hor/e^ 

Cafrina Round, conic; the joints very fhort, with 4 lateral mouths. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3, p. 52, tab. 1 10, Jig. 4, 5: 
Inhabits the ftomacn and inteftines of the Goat. 

b. Infejling Birds. 

PJittaci Body filiform, with very fhort joints: head extremely 
Goeze Eingeiv, p. 406. 

Inhabits in great numbeis the inteftines of the P/ittaeus hra- 
chyurus; above 14 feet long: /{'^^i rounded : «ff-4 not jointed. 

Cernicit Upper joints funnel-fhaped, lower ones elliptic. 
Goeze Eingeiv. p. 337, tab. 2^, fg. 7, 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Croiv. 


Serpentifor- Probofcis thicker at the tip and dilated at the bafc^ joints 

wedge-fhaped, dilated and abbreviated. 

Pali. H. nord. Beytr, i, p.ST, tab, Z' J^g' ^9* S^* 

1. Head feflile : probofcis piftillary and convex at the tip. 
Goeze Eingeiv. tab. 31,/". lo, 11, Bat/ch. Bandiu.f. 96-9?. 
In the inteftines of Crows, Rooks and Magpies. 

2. Head feffile : probofcis vcntricofc and pyriform. 
Goeze Engeiv. tab^itf. 12, 13. Bat/ch. Band. lOI, 102. 
In. :hc inteftines of Rai-ens and j^ays. 

3. Neck not jointed : probofcis piftillary and flightly umbonatc at 
the tip* 

Goeze Eingenj. tab. 31,/". I O, 1 1. Batfch. Band./. 99, loO, 
In the inteftines of Croivs and Rookst 

4. In the golden Oriole. Goezi Einge-iv, p. 393. 

5. In the Woodcock. Goeze Eiagew. p. 394. 

6. In Coots, Goeze Eingeiv. p. 394. 

7. In Plov'crs. Goeze Eingeiv. p. 394. 

8. In the Lapwing. Goeze Eingeiv. p. 394, 

9. In the Turtlc-Dove. Goeze Eingeiv. p. 394, 

10. In the Thrufh, Goeze Ei?igi"iv. p. ■^g^. 

II. In 

48 WORMS. iNTESTtNA. 14. Xxnia. 

i I . In the Grofbeak, Goeze Eingeiv. p. ^(^■^i, 
Thefc are white, with a very thin head, and about a fodt long* 

Carjoeatac- Joints (harp and prominent at each margin : ovaries incon- 
/// fpicuoys. 

Mull. Naturf. 14. ^* 157. 

Inhabits the inteftincs of the Nut'Craker. 

Cruterifor- Joints pitcher-fhaped : neck very long and fimple : pro- 
mis bofeis arrow-fhapedc 

Goeze Eingew, p. 396. tab.'S,\y B./. 16—18. 

Bat/ch. Bandtv. p. 180, «, l6, /. 103, 104. 

Inhabits the inteftines oi t\iQ greater /petted Wood-pecker. 

Body refembling a fine thread : head with a fingle ruw of hooks. 

Torquata Head with a black ring : neck capillary : joints very fliort 
and broad, the lalt acute. 
Block. Einge'W. p. 16, tab. 4, y, I i~i 3. 

In the inteftines of the Duck : is very numerous, S—g inches 
long, and about a line broad, 

Scolopacis In the inteftines of the Woodcock. Body white. 
MulL Schr. der berl, Naturf. i, />. 218, 

FiluM, Head rounded: probofels obtufe, with a fimple neck': 

joints of the body inconfpicuous. 
Goeze Einge'W, p. 393, n, 8, tab. 32, A.y. i — 7. 
Wern.Verm.inteJl. I. p. 54, tab. 3,/. 58—60, 
Bat/ch. Bandnu.p. 163, ». 19, tab. 86, 87. 
In the inteftincs of the Woodcock: about 7 inches long, and not 

thicker than a thread : body with 560 very thin articulations : 

neck pundtured. 

Infundihu- joints funnel-fliaped and ferrate: probofels cylindrical and 
liformist long. 

Goeze Engenu. p, 386, tab, 31, A. /g, 1—6. 
BlochEingPw.p. 14, n 8, tab. 3, fig. 3, 4. 
Block Naturf. 4, p, 555, tab. 12, /%■, 3 — 5. 
/*a//. TVor/. -5^/r I, p. 87, /^J^ 3, fg. 29, :?0. 
Bat/cb. Bandvj.p. 172, « ^ly fig' 31. 9' — 93> 164, 
2. In the Buftard. Goez. EingeiM. p. 390 

Found in great numbers in the inteftines of Ducks and Poultry, 
about 13 inches long when extended : mouths alternate : pro- 
bo/cii crowned with very Iharp recurved hooks. 

^turni. Joints longer, the lower ones tumid each fide : neck fliort> 
fimple : head nearly fquare. 
Goeze Einge-w. p. 397, n. ^li B. /ig. 19— ^2l« 


WORMS^ INTESTfNA. 14. Taenia. 49 

I^ihabits the inteftincs of the Starling; very thin and about 5 
inches long : the upper yw«rj rcfemblc very fine wrinkles, the 
middle ones are flattifh-oval and globular. 

Pajiris. Body thlckifti,- the joints very (hort and fringed on the hind- 
part with a groove. 
PalLn, nord. Beytr. l, />. 87, «. 10, ta6. 3, /g. 29, 30. 
In the inteftines of the Sparronu and greater Redfole» 

jiiruTidinis, ^o^y capillary: neck llmple : joints truncate, funnel- 
In the intcilines of the Martin. Goexe Eingenv. p. 390. 
Body hardly vifible, and about \ of an inch long. 

c. Infejiing Flfli. 

Nodulofa. Joints moilly piindured in the middle : head 2-llpped, each 
lip with double tricufpidatc prickles. 
Goeze Eingeiv. p. 418, tab. 34., Jig, 3 — 6. 
Pall, nord, Beytr, i, p. 90, a. 12. tab, 3,/". 32 and 32. C. 
Blech, Naturf, 4. /. 541, tab. 15. 
Batjth, Bandiv. p. 148, «. 15, /, 76, 79. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Pikei Perch, Ruffe, Eel and Dace; 
joints numerous, a little elevated in the middle, deprcfled and 
fubcrcnate at the fides, the hinder ones fomething broader, 

2, Inclofcd in a cyft. Pall, liord, Beytr, i, p, loi, tab, 3, f. 33. 
Found ih the liver of the Perch. 

C. Head unarmed ivith boohs. 

a. Infe fling the Mammalia. 

\ata. Whiter joints verjr Ihort and knotty in the middle, with a 
finglc mouth on each. 

Tranf.Linn. Soc. ii. p, 260, tab. 25, /. 12— 1 4. 
Pall.n, nord, Beytr. \,p. 64, tab. 3,/. 17, 18. 
Amoen, acad, 2, /. 80, tab. \i f. 3. 
Bbnmt Mem, pres de Par, l, /. 47^, tab. 15, 16. 
Gocze Einge^v. p. 298, tab. 21, fig. 8. 
Gleichen Katurf. 4, /. 204, tab, t, fg. 1-9. 
Batfck. Band^M. /». i H , ». 2, fig. 5 1 , 66. 

2. Txnia tenclja. Pall, jiord Beytr. tub. 2, fig. 19, A, B. 

Inhabits the inteftines of Mankind, principally the inhabitant* 
oi S'-j.itzerland aLXi(LRu£ia, and is very rare in thisco&ntry j is 
from 6 to 40 yards long, and is' more eafily expelled than the 

VOL. IV.— G * Body 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Taenia. 

Body more opake, thicker and broader than T. vulgaris: joints 
very finely ftriate, nearly half an inch broad and not more 
than a line and a half Jong : ovaries difpofed like the petals of 
a rofe. 

Dentata, Head pointed and feflile: larger joints tranfverfcly ftriate, 
all of them fhorter than they arc broad, with a raifed 
mouth in the middle of each lateral margin. 

Batjch. Bandnju. p. 184, «. zg, fg. no — 113. 

Werner Verm, inteji. p. 49, tab. 3, fg, 47 — 57, 

Inhabits theinteftinesof M««^/«</, but has not yet been diftinfl- 
ly afcertained in this country: 10 — 12 feet long. 

Btdy long, narrow and broader on the fore-part, thicker and 
more tenacious than T, folium : head beneath refembling a 
truncate heart : ovaries not vifible to the naked eye. 

Phociti Headlong, fquare, with 4 auricles. 

0. Fahr- Fn. Grcenl, p. 316, a 296. 

Inhabits the reftum of the great Seal; is fetid, yellow, grega- 
rious, 3 J feet long and 2 lines broad : Joints 400 and upwards, 
the upper ones veryclofely fet and minute : i-^fl^/connefted to 
the trunk by a narrower neck, 

Bacillaris. Head rounded with a pyriform probofcis: joints extremely 
narrow and refembling pieces of ftraw placed on each 

Goexe Etngeiv. p, 359, tab. 27, fg. 4, 5. 

Bat/ch. Bandiu,p. 191, n. 34,/^. 122, 123. 

In the inteftines of the Mole; iize of a thread. 

Neck not articulate. 

*Pe8inatu Oblong lanceolate, and contrafted on the fore-part into a 
very fliort probofcis : neck not confpicuous. 
Goeze Eingeiu. p, 363, tab. ij, fig' 7"-l3» 
Limburg Philof.Tranfa£l. ^6, tab. 6, f. i. 
Pall, nor d. Bey tr. i,p. 75, ». j,tab, 3, /, 25—27. 
Found in' confiderable numbers in the inteftines of the Hare; 
about 6 inches long and confilling of more than 200 joints. 

2. Inhabits the inteftines of the Rabbit. 

Journal de Pbyf. Sept. lyyH, /. 229, tab. 2,/. '3. 
Buffon. tiip, Nat. 12, tab. 13, p, 103. 

3. In the inteftines and ftomach of the Marmotte, 
Blumenbach Naturf. p. 412. 

Ovina. Very long ; joints very narrow and fhort, and rounded at 
each end: lateral velfels pellucid, diftin6l, with double 
marginal oppofite mouths. 
^ Bloch. Eingevjtp. 16', ft. 14, tab, 5. fg, 1 — 5. 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 14. Tania. 51 

Goeze Eingeiv. f). 369, ;i. 10, tai. zS, fg. 1—12, 

Batfcb. Band. p. 182, n. 28, fig. 109, 162. 

Inhabits the inteitines of Shtepi is extremely fertile, and from 80 
to 200 feet long; n-ith lateral oppofite mouths, one on each 
edge of each joint ; the hind- part is capillary, 

•2. Irthabits the inteftines of the Ox. '"" |^ 

JranfaSi. Linn. Soc. II. /. 261, tab, 25, fig, 15, 1 6, 

^a Head fquare with 4 apertures : joints dilated and very fhort ; 
mouths inconfpicuous. 
PalJ. n. nord. Beytr. I^/. 71, »• 6, tab. "itfig- 20. 
Goeze Einge-xv p. 353, tab. 25, B. fig, 1 1 — 13. 
Batjch Band'VJ. p. 201, w. 42, /_§■. 1 37, I 38. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Horfe : 10 inches long. 
Head large, with 2 membranaceous lobes on the hind-part each 
fide; joiHti imbricate or incumbent on each other. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Ethiopian Hog. 
PalL Spied, Zooi. 2, p. 22, lab, "it fi^^ 13. 

b. Infefiing Birds. 

ftra Upper joints rhombic, middle ones oval and pyrlform, 
lower ones globular and pctiolate. 
Goe%e Einge-w. p. 402, tab. 32, A- fig. l3-.l6i 
Blccb Eingenu. p. 14, tab. It fig, 5—7. 
Batfch Bandiu. p. \()l,fig. II9— tzi, 134.-136. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Buzzard, Lanner and Tbrujh, 
Body about i z inches long, the fore-part capillary : proho/ci} 
fhort and obtufc. 

ta Head fquare; joints fquare with (harp angles and a whitle 
knot in the middle refembling a pearl. 
Goeze Einge-iv p. 403, tab. 32, B. fig. 17—23. 
Batjch Band'w. p, 146, ». 14, y^^. 73 -75. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Buzzard', about a foot long, of a 
clayey colour, and knotted all the way down : joints ftiorts : 
neck fimple or o. 

^Jua Hind-part dilated, and fuddenly coutrafting itfelf towards 
the fore-part like the thong of a coach-whip. 
Goeze Einge-zv. p. 406. tab. 32, B. fig 28--31. 
Batfch Bandiv. p. 170, n 2 2, fig. 90, 169. 
Found in the mte incs oi' ihaKite: 2 inches long, 
frobo/cit fhort, broad and truncate-conic, 

G 2 Carj* ■ 



Candda- Joints oblong, the middle ones fomevvhat bell-fliapcd with 
bforiq^ a pellucid parallel mark on the margin: the anteripr 

end capillary. 
Goeze Ei/igetv. p. ^!^.tab. 32. B. fig. 24—27, 
Bflfjch Sand-xu. p 144. v. 13./. jo—yz. 
^^jl. Inhabits the inteftincs of the ^/uco OW. 

Ned very long and minutely punftured : joints scar the rrck 
with obtufe angles, the following ones rcfcmbling a candle* 

Crenata. Head obtufe; neck very long: joints crenate and 6 tinips 
as wide as they are lo»g. 
Goeze EingeiO. p ^g^. tab. ^i,B, /ig. 14, 15. 
Batfch Bandnu p, 187. «. lO,fig. I14, 115. 
In the intcftines of the greater Jpotted Wcod-pc^^ket;. 

Lanceplata^ Oblong-lanceolate and gradually diminifhing towards tlie 
forc-pari: head rcfcmbling a wart; joiiits very {hort. 
Block EingeiL' p. g. tah. i Jig. 5, 6. ■ 
Goeze. Eingeiv, p. 337. tab. 2g,f/g. 3--12. 
Pall. «. norif. Bejtr. i. p. 78, tab. I. fig. 26. 
Batfch Bandnjj.p. 165. n. zo. fig. 88, 167. 
Inhabita the inteftines or the Duck: 10 inches long, very tender 
and when clean pure vvhite. 
2. In the intcftines of* the Mcrganfr and Smeiv. 
Bloch Einge--W, p. 10. tab. l .fig, 9, ' 

Setigera. Body briftly on one fide, the briftlcs very thiii.fliort cylin- 
drical and truncate. 
Preelich Naturf. 24. /. ro6. tab. ^^fg. 1—7. 
Inhabits the inteftiRcs oi the Gooft. 

Anferis. Very minute and narrow, the fore-part capillary. 
Goeze Eifige-xv, p. 380. tab: zg.fg. i. 
Inhabits the inteftincs of the Gcofe. 

Jnatis. |iead obtule: joints fomewhat trjangqlar \siih lateral 
mouths under the margin. 

Pall n. nord Beytr. \.p. 85. tab. z.fig. 23. 

About 6 inches long qnd broader thap the fubfeq^ucnt onef, 

Bloch. Naturf. 4./). 555. tab, 14. Hg. 5 — 7, 
Batfch Bandwu, p. \()b. n 38 Jig. 13c. 
About 4 inches long and marked with lines' 

Gc'eze Einge-iv. p. 383. tab. ^C)-fg. i"3' 
l^ead hammer-lhaped : about 17 inches long, 

Pall. Nerd, Beytr. p $, '^.fg. 29. 
|"ound in the icteftines of Z?:<f/;j;. ' 


I ffafciola- 

2, line at a. 

3, malleus, 
4> Avium. 

WORMS. INTESTINA. u. Taenia. 53 

LaviJ. Head cylindrical ; neck very flender and long : joints 6 
times as wide as ihcy are long. 
Bloch Eiftgeiv. p. 15. tab, 4./^. 4-6. 
Batfch. Bandnu, /*• 194- n. l^-f. 1 26, 1 27. 
In the intcftines of the£)//rA-, ^po^eler and Goldcn-sye, 
Joints hardly vifiblc to the naked eye, 

Ctfieata. J-Jcad pointed fcflilc: joints wedge-fliapcd. 
'Batfch Bandix. p. 1 90. n. 32. /". 1 1 7, 1 18. 
Block Linge-iyj. p. I 5. tab. l-fig. I. 2. 

Inhabits the inteilines of the A/y?<rr^, Dvf^, Corte zn^ Zho-vehy : 
1 — 2 feet long; ^re^iJ/^/V fhprt, 

yi/f^r. Joints twig-like: fore-part llcnderer and cylindrical. 

■ O. Tahr.fn. G^scnLp. l\%,n. 297. b. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the A-vok ; about 9 inches long. 
Body whitifli, broader behind, and compofed of about i84Joint5, 
each marked with a papilla at the margin each fide. 

forda. Roundirti with he^rt-fhaped joints, the fore-part filiform 
:^nd pointed 
O. Fahrfn. Grotn!. p. 319- «• 298. 
Inhabits the inteftines ot the Razor-bilh 

Body whitilh, about 3 inches long, and coHipofed of 87 joints 
each marked with a papilla on the margin each fide. 


Joints rhombic with a few tranfverfe lines in the middle,, 
the hind-raargin tumid and containing the ovaries. 

Block Einge<w. p. I?, tab. 2' fig- ^-'9- 

Werner Verm, intefi. p. i^^.tab. J,, fig. 5B--63. 

Batjch Batidiv, p. 163. n. 19./. 86,87. 

Iiihabirs in great numbers the 'nteilines of the Bitfiard. 

^culy about 4 feet long and as thick as a, horfe-hair : bead oblong; 
neck capillary : ^o/zi/ J abqut 32000, fnort, broad and tender, 
one lide denticulate, the ofher containing the ovary which 
appears like a membrane twice as bro^d ^s the joint jtlelf. 

Lima, Yeiy thin; neck fipiple: probofcis (lightly pctiolate and 

with the head globtilar: joints Ihort dilated with q 
prominent obtufe hinder angle. 
Goeze Eingeiu. p. 399. tnbi 32. A. fg. 8-12. 
Batfch Band-iv.p. 194. n. '^J.f. 28, 128, 125. 
Found in great numbers in the inteftines ut Patridges. 
Body extremely minute and ?,bout 5 lines long. 

Maadaid, Thin pellqcid with a ferrate markin: front very fliort at^d 
dilated, with a black eminence in the middle, and acute 
prominent hind angles. 

54 WORMS. iNTE^yTINA. 14. T^nia. 

Block Eingeiv. p. 14. tah. 4 ^. 1—3, ^ 

'Batfch Band<w. p. K^^.n. 35. /I 124,125. 
In the inteftines of die Red-iving. Bvdy white. 

c. Infejiing Reptiles, 

iufonii. Roundifh before and filiform behind : head continued ob- 
tufe: joints cylindrical oblong and covered with a thin 
membrane, the margin filvery. 

Goeze Einje'W. p, 425, tab. ^^.Jig. 1—6 

Baf/c/y, Banaiv. p. 216. «. 50./. 155— r63, 165. 

In the inteftines of the 7 oa J and Salamander. 

Body white opalce and about 6 inches long. 

d, Infejiing pljh, 

4nguifU. Head feflile diftin^l thicker: joints oblong with irregular 
protuberances and 2 mouths on one fide. 

Batfch Band'vj p. 21 1, n. 46./" 148^-150. 

Goeze Engeiv. p. 414. (a^. 33. f:g. 6-8 

Redi ^nim. 'vtt\ in ah. iii'V. />. 86. tab, X^.fig. 4. 

Kedi Opufc. I, p, 252. tab. \^' fig, 4. 

Inhabits the inteftines of the Eel: 4 feet long. 

Head truncate before ; 8 firft joints longer : body compofed of 
about 600 jonirs, the upper ones fquarc and twice as broad 
as they are long, lower-ones orbicular and 8 times as broad 
as they are long. 

^ugoja. Serrate/ head obtufely conic with papillae each fiile united 
up to the tip : joints very fhort and dilated. 
Batfch Band'w. p. 208. n. 44.^. 142—145. 
Goexe Eingeiv. p. 410. tab. H-fig, i — 5. 
Redi Anim. tvi'. in an. 'vi'v. />. gi, tab, 15 •fi'r. 10. 
Rediopufc. 3. p. 245. tab. Z\,fig. 5. 
In the inteftines oi Ccdfjh: about 3 feet long. 
^'eck fubcylindrical jointed : hinder yo/W/ full of eggs. 

Scarpa. Head carinate: joints unequal, with lateral divergent mouths. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. j*.^. fig. \ — 7. 
O. Fabr.fn Granl. p. 319.^. 299. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the artned Bullhead^ 
Head changeable in it's form : body a little crenate on the margin 
with a longitudinal line each fide : /«/"/ obtufc t\\X\xz'. joints 
of the upper part of the body without mouths. 
^. Inhabits the inteftines of the '7;w.^ij/. 
Mull. Naturf, I, p. 145 — 152, 18, />. 25, 


WORMS, INTESTINA. 14: Tania. 55 

P»ta. Head bulbous with 4 prominent apertures : joints quad^ 
rangular, with marginal mouths. 
Mull. Zoo/. Dan. 2. tab. 44.,/%. I --4. 
Found, though rarely, in the intcftines of the Sea Perch. 
Body with a longitudinal white line each fide : jui»ts thicker 
and flatter than in others : head obtufe and narrower than the 
fubfequent joints. 
2. Without the lateral lines. 

Geeze Eingetu. p. 416. fab. 1%. fig- II — 14. 
Batfcb. Bandiu. p. 157. \6.f. 80—82. 
Inhabits the inteftiocs of the Silurus glanis. 

Erythnm. Very broad; head fhort quadrangular 8-lobed : mouth St 

the extremity of the head pundurcd. 
O. Fabr./n. Graenl. P. 317. a. 297. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Norway Perch; about 6 feet long 

and 4 lines broad : is exceedingly vivacious in fea-water. 
Bpdy milk-white with a violcc-grey inteftine : Joints terminated 

each fide with a papillary margin tending upwards, the m%l 

margin with 10 lerratures. 

Cernua. Inhabits the inteftines of the RufFe. 
Pall, clench. %ooph, p. 414, 

Sclida. Mouth placed under the margins of the joints : one extre 
mity with a pointed joint. 

Mull. Naturf. iS. p. 24 — 26. tab. I, fig. 1—5. 

Pall. ». nord. Beytr. I. />, y6—yS, tab, Z,fg. 27. 
Bat/ch Bandw.p. 224. n. 52 Jig. 170. 

Found in the belly of the Stickleback which it renders tumid, is 
harder and more folid than moil of it's kind and obtufely 
margined each fide : joints very long with an excavated lon- 
gitudinal line each fide. 

Gajleroflei. yery thin with an obtufe tail. 

Mull. Naturf. 18 /. 28 tab. i,fig. 6,7. 

Inhabits the int.ftines of the St\citleback\ extremely minute, the 
joints hardly vifiblc to the naked eye. 

■ ' ""' Body crenate : head continued : joints very (hort and par^lU 
clipidcd with double bimarginate mouths. 
Goeze Etngeiu. p. 415. tab. ^^,fg 9, 10. 
Baffch Bandxv. p, 20g. n. ^^.fg. 146, 147. 
In the inteftines of the Silurus Glanis; is lefs numerous and not 
£0 large as T. nodulofa. 


56 WORMS. INTESTINA. 15. ¥urU. 

SaJmonis Head globular, of a changable form : mouths it\d auoular 

joints inconfpicuous. 
Gcrze Eingeiu. /. 417, tab. 34, f. 1,2, 
B/ochEinge-w.p. 15, tab. 4, fig. y— 10. 
Befch. ber.L Naturf. 4, p. 545, tab. 10, /; 8, 9. 
Batfch. Band-TM. p. 212, «. 47> /• I5i> 152. 
2, T. tetragonoceps. PalL n. Beytr, tab. 3,/". 3I, A— D. 
Batfch. Band--w. p. 20^, n. A^l, f. 139—141. 175. 
Inhabits the inteftines of the Salmon ; from 2 lines to |: of a foot 

long : head ova! and 5 tiraes as large a'' the joints : body round- 

ifli, the joints gradually duniniftiing, behind, the laft 5 times 

as long as the reft. 

Frcelichii. Head and neck very long, flender, inarticulate and conti- 
nuous : ovaries branched and furrounded with a late- 
ral line. 

Fnzlich Naturf . li^., f, 124, tab. 4,/. 20, 21. 

Inhabits the iateftines of the Salmo WeliHianm. 

BeSlangu- Joints tranfverfe, roiinded at the ifiargin, with a pellucid 
lum, du£l in the middle bent nearly into a right angle, 

Batfch. Band-w.p. 159, ». 17,/. 83. 174. 
Bloch. Etr.genx.'. p. 1 1 , ». 3, tab. l ./". 7. 8. 
In the inteftines oi the Barbel: hardly an inch long- 
Bedy white, thin, femi-pellucid and thinner on tke tbre-parf. 

Toruhfa, Long, protuberant, with an obtufe head and crenate neck: 
joints orbicular with double differently Ihaped eyes. 
Batfch. Bandvj. p. iSl, n, 2f,f. 105, 108. 
Bloch Eingetu, p. 1 1, w. 4, tab. 2, fig. 1 — 4, 10, 11. 
In the Cyprinus Jefes : about 2 feet long. 

Head fiat and truncate on the fore-part : tied Ihort : Joints (bort, 

Latkeps. Body with very fine tranfverfe wrinkles, the hind-part 
thicker and obtufe at the end, the fore-part terminated 
by a crenate contraftile lobe. 
Pall. n.Nord. Beytr.p. 106, r.. 16, tab, 3, fig. 35.- 
Inhabits in great numbers the inteftines of the Bream; is very 
minute, about an inch long and foftifh. 

15. FURIA. Body linear, equal, filiform, and 
ciliate each fide with a lingle row of 
refledbed prickies preffed clofe to the 


WORMS. INTESTINA. i6. Gordius. 57 

Infernally FuRIA. 

Amoen. Acad. 3, ^. 322, Fn. Succ.tO'jO. 
- Soland Air. Api. I, w, 6. Pall, r.ord. Beytr. i, ^, 113. 

Inhabits the vail marfhy plains of Bothnia and Finland; where 
it crawls up fhrubs and fedge grafs, and being carried for- 
wards by the wind, penetfatcs fuddenly into fuch expofed 
parts of men and horfo as are not p; rpendicularly fituated. 
It quickly buries itfelf under the fkin, leaving a black point 
wh re it had e;Tteredj which is foon fucceeded by the mad 
excruciating pains, inflammation and gangrene of the part, 
fwooning and death. This all happens in checourfc of a day 
or two, frequently within a few hours, unlef- the animal be 
immediate'/ cxtrafted, which is effcfted with great caution 
and cifficulty,- oy applying a pjultice of curds or cheefe ; or 
carelullv diffcding between the mufcles where it had entered. 

16. GORDIUS. Body round, filiform, equals 
fiiiooth. Hair-worm, 

Aquaticus Pa^e brown with dark extremities; 
Pltur.M/relL iv. tab 121. 
Pianc. conch, app. c. 22, tab. ^, f.F, 

Inhabits fuft (lagaant waters, and is 4 — 6 inches long; it twifts 

itf.-lfiat> viriou^ contortions and knots, and if in dutioufly 

handled will inflict a bite at the end of the fingers, and occa-> 

fion the complaint called a Whit'ow. Ft is vulgarly fupoofed 

to '->e produced by horfc-hairs accidentally dropped into the 


*Arglllace- Body uniformly yellowifli. 

»/, Found m cUy at the bo.t>m of ftn^nant waters, which it pierces 

L^r nigh ; and is hardly diftinguilhable from the laft. 

Filiim. Bo?y fi'iform, whitifh and hyaline. 

i\lull dili.Verm.'x z, p. 31, n. 162. 

Found in the bari of old . ooJen pipes which have been placed 
in the ground, for the purpofc ofconveying itrcims of water j 
is extremely flen^er and a little tapering at o.ic end. 

LciBeus Body uniformly white and opake. 
Mull U't. fenn i. 2, p. 32, n. 163. 

Fjuiid in waters; whea touched contrafls itfelf in a 
fiiom.'nt, HuJ afterwards expands. 

Arenarius, Body fulvous and obtufe. 

MuU. tUJI, yerm.\, 2, p. 33. 

Inhabits ihc f4ndy b '^ .1 <.A Chriftians Bay'in Norway. 

VOL. Iv, -H 17. LUM- 

58 WORMS. INTESTINA. 17. Lumbncus, 

17. LUMBRICUS, Body round, annulate, 
with generally an elevated lielliy belt 
near the head, moftl^ rough with minute 
concealed prickles placed longitudinally, 
and turnithed with a lateral aperture. 


*fernjirii Body red, with 8 rows of prickles. Dew^werm, 

Bnt,Zoo/. iv. p 33, tab, 19, /jg. 6, 

Pdi'V. Cizoph, tab. 1 30, Ji^. 6, Red Exp. 4, tab, i$if, I» 
Le/Jer TheoL des inf. par j^yonnet f. 1,2, 3 
Murrey de Lumbrtc.Jet , obfer. tab. 2, f. I — 5. ' 
Fhelfam Akar. tab. 2,/. 4, 5. Bonnet inf. 2. tab> 4* 

2, Exaftly alifee, but about half the fize. 

FeuK. Bnt.Zcdl W.p. 33, tab. 19, f. 6, A. 

Inhabits decayed wood and the common foil, which by perfo'. 
rating, ic renders fjit to receive the rain : devours the cotyledons 
of plants and wanders about by night: is the food of Moles, 

■ Hedghogs and various birds. 

Body with about 140 rings, each of which contains 4 pair of 
prickles, not vifible to the eye butdifcoverable by the touch; 
when expanded is convex each fide, and when contrafted is 
fi.trifh beneath, with a xed canal down the whole body : the 
beit is wrinkled and porous : moutb placed beneath the probofcis» 

*Murinus. Back with 2 rows of briftly tubercles. Lug, 

Penn Brit, Zoo/, iv. p. ^4, tab, \g,f.y, 
It.Wgoth. i8(^, tab. ■^,f. 6, 

Pall. no-v. Aii. Petrop. 2, p. 333, tab. i,/". 19,29. 
Inhabits Ihores of Europe, where it buries itfelf deep in the fand, 

leaving a little rifing with an aperture on the furface ; and is 

ufed as a bait for fifh. 
Body pale red, round and annulate with greater and lefler rings, 

the firft prominent with 2 oppofite tufts of fhort briftles on 

each; the lower-part fqiooth, 

VermicuU' Body white, with 2 rows of prickles. 
ris. Mull. Hiji. Fermi i,p, 26, ». 158. 

Inhabits the wet and decayed trunks of trees and among moift 
leaves, moving very expeditioufly in humid places, but twill- 
ing itfelf up in dry ones : body polifhed, glabroQs, 

Variegatus Rufous, fpotted, with 6 rows of prickles. 
Bonnet Vers d*eau douce, tab, i, f, i — 5. 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 17. Lumbricus. 59 

Inhabits wet plantations, and is the moft beautiful of its kind : 
body red very finely tcflellate with brown, with a fanguincous 
line running down the wnole k)d7 : it eafiiy breaks in pieces, 
and as eafily reproduces what has been loft, 

Tuhifex. Body reddifh, with 2 rows of prickles. 
Mull. Zoal. Dan, 3, j>. 4, tab. 84, f. i — 3. 
Bonnet Vers d^eau douce, tab, 3> /^ 0, lO. 
Trembley tiifi. Polyp, tab. 7, f. z. 
Inhabits the bottom of rivuiets, where i: forms a perpendicular 

tube of earth for its habitation. 
Body pellucid, very fimple, thin and truncate at the tip, with a 

dark inteftinc. 

tineatui^ Body white with a longitudinal red line. 

Mulkr V. Wurm, />. 1 10, 1 18, tab. 3, /. 4, 5. 
Inhabits copiouily on the fhores of the Belticy among fea-weed ; 
IS pellucid with a rather fhort bo^y, with a yellow artery on 
the back, and a bifid vein towards the head : ovary white, 

Ciliatust Body rufous and dilate between the rin^s. 

Mull. Hiji. Ferm, i. 2, p 30. 
Inhabits the fea-coafts of Nornx:ay, 

^o^i- glabrous, with about 40 legments, the interfeaions armed 
with 4 tufts of very fhort briltlcs. 

'i^bicola. White, with a red dorfal fpot on each of the fegments. 

Mull. Zoo I. Dan, rar. 2, ta"^. 75, 

Inhabits the bays of Nor<way which have a clayey boftom. in a 
round membranaceous tube covered with mud, and about an 
inch longer than itfelf : fegments of the boi^ zc, the inter- 
feftions armed with 2 bnftles each fide : intefiint; black and 
running down the whole body. 

Bcbiurur, Body covered with rows of granulations, the hind-part 
obtufely truncate and furrounded with a double c^o^vn 
ot briftles. 
Pall. Ml/cell, Zool. /. 1 46, tab, 11,/. 1,6. 
Pa/l. Spicil. Zool. 10, p. 3, tab. \,f. \ — 5. 
Inhabits the fandy bottom of the Ihores of Belgium : is moft ob- 
fervable in winter, and is the food of Cod-fi(h ; body whitifh- 
grey with fulvous vifcera, about the fize of ones midde 
hnger : tongue flefhy, thickilh and boat-fhaped. 

'71;alafe~ ^^^Y ftriate, dirty red with fhining red Ipots, beneath grey: 
fria, mouth furrounded with a funnel-like tube, which is 

wrinkled within and plaited at the margin. 
Pall, Mi/cell, Zc'J,p. 47, tab. 11,/. 9. 

H 2 Pali' 

6q worms. JNTESTINA. 17. Lumbricus, 

Pall. Spicil, Zool. 10, p. 8, tah. \,f. 6. 

Inhabits the fhores oi torr.nval/, bc:ween the clefts of fub-marine 
rocks : laoi/y glabrous, mucoui?, thicker at one end and a 
litttle pointed at the other, the mouth pJaced above with 3 
faffren funnel. 

EduU'a Body whitifti-flefh-colour, fubclavatc behind, diluted and 
papillous before : m^ uth terminal and furrounded with 
"a very villous rim or wrinkle. 

Pall. Spicil. Zool. 10, tab. \, f. 7. 

Inhabits the fajidy fhores of the iflands in the Indian Ocean % 
nearly a foot long, and about as thick as a goofe-quill : buries 
itfelf a foot or m re deep in the fand, and is eaten by the 
Chir.eje : the rings between the villou<^ part and the hinder^ 
end 278, and feparated by an annular ftria: the hind-part 
bulbous, v> ith a double papilla ; the f«re-part bcf-t with nur 
pierous flefh colour ones difpofed in tranfverfc rows. 

*Oxjuruj. ^ody whltifh-livid, very fbarp at the hind-extremity an4 
obtufe belore, wiih a round retra£lile and pxfertile 

Pall. MtJceL Zool. p. 146, 147, tah. 11,/. 7. ?. 

Inhabits the ^ujjex coaft j about ?n inch and a half long, and 
annulate wirh very fine ftrise : fnout truEcate and ^ery finely 
granulate, v\ ith a hardly vifible pore at its bafe. 

Fragilii. Body red, with lateral divided warts and fafciculate brlftles. 
Mull. Zool. Dan I,/". 73. 

Inhabit ths muddy bottoms of the bays in Ncrii-ay. 
Body refcmbling L. terreftris \vith above jco fmo-ith zn^ very 
brittle ripgs ; headconic wi.h an approximate wrinkled mouth 

Armiger. Body red, with double lanceolate lamellae on ihc belly and 
none op the fort-part. 
Mull. Zool Dan 1, p 73, «• Z(),tab:22, /". 4, 9. 
Inb-^bits the iflands of Ac'itvy, at tbc bottoms of the baysj 
about 20 lines long and confuting of about 200 rings. 

Cirratus. Body armed with very long cirri. 
Stra:m A8. hiJro/. 4, tub.\^, f.J, 
Inhabits the hovu-ay feas, and is covered with annulate cirri, 

Sahellaris Body jointed and truncnte at one end, the intcrfedions of 
the joints thick and armed with 2 prickles. 
Hull. ZooL Dan. 3, /. 37. tab. 104, / 5. 
Inhabits the NovMcy feas : refcmbles L. lubicola. 

1 8. FLA- 

WORMS. INTESTINA. 18. Planaria. 


18. PLANARIA. Body gelatinous, flattifli, 
with a double ventral pore : mouth ter- 


A. JVithout eyes. 

Ztagnalis. Ovate, browi), the fore-part pale. 

Mull. Verm. i. 2, f. 53, « 178. ^all. inf. 'vin). p. l-JZ. 
Inhabits ftagnant waters : body opake, a little pointed on the 

fore-part, pellucid with 2 milk-white fpots : eggs numerous, 

whitifli and placed at the fides. 

Nhra^ Oblong, black, and truncate on the fore-part, 
J^uli Zool. Dan Z,p.\^.tab.\o(),f. -i,^. 
Inhabits rivers: body flat beneath, with 2 whitifh pores towards 
the hind-part difpofed longitudinally. 

Brunnea. Oblong, rcddilh-brown with a longitudinal blgck line. 
Mull. Hift. Verms i. Z. p. §4, «. 180. 
Inhabits , refembles the laft, 

Cilifita* Body long, deprefled and ciliate, 

Joblot Mic, u 2. tab. 8, f. 5-u, and tab, 10, /. 13 ? 

Inhabits ftagnant waters, under duck-weed : body grey, appear- 
ing as if compofed of granulations, with moveable briftles, 
the organ on the forepart rotatory. 

QhIo^ Body long, pellucid and truncate before. 

Mull. Hid. Verms i. 2,/, 56, n. 182. 

Inhabits i\agnant water, under duck-weed : refembles the laft, 
but is without thefringe, the margin all round i? teflelate with 
veiy fine ftria: : it fwallows the Cyclidia which inhabit the 
fame waters, and after a time difcharges them back again. 

Puniiata. Body long, round and green. 

Mull. HiH. Verm. \. 2, p. 57, n. 183. 
Found early in the fpring in wet meadows. 
Body obtu(e before, a little pointed behind, fprinklcd with fraall 
black dotj, and containing 5 red fphacrical pellucid eggs. 

Flacciday Body long, redd ifli -brown, with tranfverfe white lines and 
a lateral one. 
Mull. ZooL Dan. tab. 64, /. 3,4. 
Found among heaps of fhells in the bays of Nornvay: when at 

reft rolls itfelf up fpirally, and then gradually dilates itfelf, 
J^ody a little tapering at each end, rcddifh, immaculate, ab(?s'e a 
little convex and flat beneath. 


6i WORMS. INtESTINA. i8. Planaria. 

^o/gai Body long red. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. nh. S^.fg. i, z. 

Inhabits bays of Nor-juay ; body ftriate with biack, obtufe at both 
ends, above convex dotted with black, beneath paler with a 
Iwnule compofed of black dots on the fore-part behind the 

Jpgulatn. Body long redd ifli -brown with 1 white angles on the fore-- 
Inhabits fandy bottoms of the Ocean ; large. 
Body a little pointed before and obtufe behind ; above convex, 
benenth pale: tube while pellucid; intefiine reddifh fpiral; 
njent terminal; 

Ftubrat Body oblong deprelTed and pale red. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 6S. Jig. g, lo. 
Inhabits the deeps of Greenland ihores, upon fea weed* 
Body with fine tranfverfe lines above. 

^'iW/j> ^°^y oblong, above convex with tiranrverfe white ftreaks 
Mu/l. Zool. Dan. 2./. 77 tab. 68, /g. i — 4. 
Found among the roots of marine Fud. 
Body thickifli, beneath paler and uniform; the fore part obtufe 

with a red cleft each fide, and obliquely truncate behind ; 

towards the middle beneath is a ovate foramen : fvent in the 

middle of the back. 

Operculata. Body fubovate grey, and furnifhed beneath with a lid which 
conceals the exfertile tube. 

Mult. Zool. Dan, rar. 2. p 78. tab. (i^.fig. 5--S. 

Inhabits though rarely the fandy fhores and amohg Fuci in the 
bays of Norivay ; fomeihing refcmbles a Coffee-berry j and 
moves by bending it's margin, and by ipeans of it's marginal 
folds fixes itfelf to and afcends other bodies. 

Body greenifh-grey with a paler line down the back, beneath 
paler; the lid white; and the margin plaited 01* folded 

^abulafa. Body long, pointed on the fore-part, and truncate behind. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. p. 79- tab. dS.fg. 11, 12. 

Ifihabits in great plenty among marine Confervas in Greenland^ 
and the muddy bottoms of holes in rocks which retain water 
through the fumnier; and proceeds with a lerpentine kind 
of motion, but if the probofcis be touched contrads itfelf fud- 
denly into a minute cube: bodv white, above greyifh. 

WORMS. INTESTINA. i8. Planaria, 


Body pale ovate, very (harp pointed before, and wingejj 
v/ith fmall curled longitudinal membranes. 
Pall. Spicil Zool. IQ. p 20. tab: \,Jig. 12. a — e. 
Found in ditches among Duck-weed ; very foft, pellucid, of a 
changeable form, and mo\cs like a Aug, leaving a flime on th« 
bodies it paffes over : when it meets another animal it draw^ 
itfelf in like a fnail. 

icormt, gody oval lanceolate, obtufe at each end, grey cinereous 
dotted vv^ith black, with 2 very Ihort divergent tubes 
on the fore-part. 

Pall. Spicil. Zool. \o. p. 23. tab. l.fig. 14, a, b. 

Inhabits Belgium^ in waters coverered with Duck-weed, anc} 
when hurt or irritated fixes itfelf to other bodies like the 
leech by means of it's tubes: body beneath whjtilh \vit^ 
brownilh veins. 

Gnfea, Body grey dilated, elongated and pointed on the fore-pa|-t, 
the hind-part abbreviated and pointed. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. ^. p. 28. tat. 105. /f^. 1. 
Inhabits waters of lakes among Conferva. 

Fu/va. Depreflcd, broadifh, and pointed at each end, with a lopg 
black fpot down the middle. 
Inhabits Mu/l. Zoo,, Dan. 3./. 39, tai, 10^. /g. 2, 

yiridata. Oblong, round, green, and fomewhat pointed at each Qnit 
Mull. Z09U Dan. 3. p. 39. tab. lO^.Jig. 4. 
Inhabits wet meadows in Autumn. 

B. fVith u Jingle eye. 

GUuca. A little elongated, cinereous, with a white iris. 

MullHtJi. l^enn. 1,2./. 60, «, 184. 

Inhabits waters and is about a line long, pointed before an4 
broadifh behind, with fometimes a double black line in ti§ 
iniddie of the back and meeting at the ends. 

Lineata. Body long, above convex and cinereous with a longitudin,?! 

Muil. tiili, yerm. \, Z. p 60. 

Inhabits the Ihores of the Baltic i about a line and a half lo;)g:, 
beneath pale with a brown patch in the middle, tapering 
before and dilated behind. *^ ■ » 


6| WORMS. INTESTINA. iS. I^lanana. 

Rutilans. Linear with a black eye, and tapering to a point before. 
AW*. Zool. Dan. i- p 49- tab. \o(^. fg lo, li. 
In che Baltic among Fuci. 

C. With 2 eyes. 

* Fufca. Black -brown with a femipcHucid whitifh fpot above the tail. 

Hirudo nigra. Lin. •faanjad.xx. -p. 3 1 6. 

Pall. Spied. Zool. \0 p 21 tab. 1. fig 1 3 a, b. 

Found in flow ltreJn»^, upon aquatic plants. 

Body when at lell circular and leldom above a I'ne in length, 
when in motion linear deprtfled a \d extends irfelf to 3 1 nes 
long : it's motion is unitorm, I'mooth, by gliding along the 
fir earn. 

• La5ea. Body deprefled, oblong, whitifh, and truncate on the fore* 


Natur. MifceUany. xi. tab. 424. 

Hirudo alba. Linn, 'iranf. \\. p. 316, 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. /». 47. tab. 109./^. i, 2. 

Inhabits ponds and rivulets in the fummer ieafon, among aquatic 
plants; when in motion about an inch long: body ,.ith a 
white fpot in the middle, the purple vifcera elegantly branch- 
ing round it; the margin white and very tranipareiit : ofary 
oblong and generally pointed at the ends. 

Tofva. Deprefled, oblong, cinereous or black and whitifh beneath : 

iris white. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3./ 48. tab. \0().fg. 5, 6. 
Fojjnd in waters ; about 4 or 5 lines I'^ng. 
Body obtufe on the fore-part and a little pointed behind : eyz$ 

pellucid beneath: ventral pores white with pinnate Lrov/n 

inteftines : fometimes blackifh with 3 pores beneath and an 

angular white fpot behind the eyes. 

Tentaculata Deprefled, oblong, cinereous, and tubular on the fore-part. 
Mull. Verm. z.p. 63. n. 187. 
Inhabits ftagnant waters, about 7 lines long. 
Body nearl) obtufe at each end, the lateral margins finuate : back 
with a whitifh fpot, fometimes brown margined with black 
'dots: ^^//k whitifh or c\neT(to\x5 : intejlines fometimes vifible, 
with fimple or forked branches. 

Crenata: Deprefled, ovate-oblong, pale, with a crenulate margin. 
Mull Hift. Verm. 2. /. 64. «. 188. 
Inhabits lakes or Denmark i rcfemblcs P. laflea. 
Back dull reddifh-brown with a whitifh fpot in the middle : 
intejlines very much branched. 

^ . HelluQ. 

WORMS. INTESTINA; i8. Planaria. 


tielltto. Body ovate, round, green. 

Mull Zool. Dan. 3. /. 39 tab. loy fig, 3. 
Inhabits wet meadows : about a line and a ha'f long. 
Beily obtufc before and pointed behind : back duikj : mouth 
white, ^ 

Ob/cura, Ovate-oblong, white, and obtufe at both ends. 
.Mull Hili. IVerm. 2. p. Ot; tt, 1 90. 
Inhabits ponds : about a line long and fuhpellucid, 

Rojlrata. Oblong, hyaline, elongated at the extremity: eyes red. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3./. 4e. tab I05. /ff 6. _ 
Inh-ibits marfhe.s; jbout a line lon^, and whitifh with a pnrplifh 
mafs in the middle. 




Flat, membranaceous j white, with fcattered rufous fpecks 
Mull Zool. Dan. \,p. 1 11;. tab. 32 /f- 3» 4« 
Inhabits bays of^; rcfviu )les DtIs -bvUr^i 
^0/6' beneath immaculate wiih 2 clulters of black dots refembling 
a pair of eyes. 

Flat, rather oblongs with a tentaculiim or feeler from each 
fide of the head. 
Mull Zool. Dan. \.p. 116. tab. 22. fg. 5 — 7 
ini'.'.bitb biys of Norivay; Wiuri'h henealb dotted with white: 
the fore-part exfertilc and rctra-^ilc like a pre ofcis : behi.^d 
the tenwcula is a clufter of black dots, and another angular 
One each fide at the bale. 

Gblongv rufous, with a wh'te rofe-like fpot on the back. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. tab. 2o6. fig. 1, tab. loq.J.g; 7 — o 
Inhabits wet woods, and r?fcmbles the Vorticel'a radiati : about 
a line and ha f long: bri/j opake with a rell-icid marg'n, the 
fore part with numerous pale rays, the nuddie with a white 

S/aigata, Oblorig, pale, wiih 3 longitudinal lines. ' 
Mull. Zool. Dan ■;./. 41 r,{b 10^. fig. 8. 
Inhnbits wee marfiics : fo^j witu rufous ftreaks. 

Crofa. Cylindrical, whitfe with black eyes, and pointed at both 
Mull Zool. Dan. 3.^. 40. tab. loi^.Jig. 5. 

Inhabit:; among aquatic plants i about 2 lines long, tliough fome- 
timcs it is 10 Cimes as large: boJy pcliucid with 5—33 large 
fphrerical red egg.''. 

VOL. IV.— I Linearis: 

66 WORMS. INTESTINA. i8. Planaria. 

Linearis, Long, roundifli, and very pale yellow. 
Mull. Zool. Dan 3. p. 42. tab. \o6.fg, 2. 
Inhabits wet hollows ot woods ; about a line and a half long and 
ten times as narroiw ; the margin pellucid and white. 

Terrejlris. Linear; above'convex cinereous, beneath -white. 
Mull, tiiji. Fer'm. 2. p. 68. n. 196. 
Inhabit: about moift clumps among mofs : contrafts and expands 

itfelf like a leech, and moves like a fnail : body opake and 


IttrHgDna. Pale yellow with 4 quadrangular lamellae. 
IsUlL Zool. Dan. 3. />. 42. tab. lob. jig. i — 5. 
Inhabits clear ftagnant waters: the lamilla ixz fubmemrana-b 
ceous, pellucid, often times g fided, rarciy z-fided, 

Catitata. Oblong, cinereous with a diftindl head. 
Mull, Hift. Verm. z. p. 70. 

Inhabits the Baltic: body vifcid, obtufe before and pointed 
behind*, above gibbous blackilh with fcattered ^white dots, 
beneath flat and white ; near the region of each fide above 
is a white fpot, in the outer angle of which is the eye. 

Caudata. Body rounded before and tapering into a tail behind. 
Mull, Zool. Dan. 2. tab, 6S. fig. 13 — 15. 

Inhabits Ihores of Gr^f»/fl»</, among fea-wrack : is very vivac- 
ciousj 2 lines long, fubconvex «nd yellowiih rufous. 

Auriculata, Oblong, truncate and emarginate before and acute behind. 

Mull, Zool. Dan. 2. tab, 6S.Ji.g. 16, 1 7. 

Inhabits Norivay, in fea-water; is hardly vifible to the naked 
eye, gelatinous pellucid, with an oblong opake fpot in the 
middle ; and contrails itfelf into a fphperical or ovate form. 

Pilaris. Linear with a filiform contraftile taih 

M»U. Zool. Dan. 2. tab, 6S. Jig. 18 — 29. 

Found on the Madrepora prolifera; about an inch long and a 
line broad : body flelhy and reddifh fulvous, obtufe before and 
marked behii d with a reddilh fpot ; the fore-part befet with a 
very fliort (hining fringe. 

Lingua, Pellucid, brown-cinereous, and very obtufe at both ends. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. /. 40. tab. 105./^. 7. 
Found in fifli ponds in the Autumn, 

D. fFith 3 eyes. 


WORMS. INTESTINA. 19. Sipunculus. 6y 

Cefferenjis. Body long, green, and rufous behind the head. 

Mull. Zoot. Dan. z. tah. 64 fig. 5 %. 

Inhabits Denmark, on the F«cus furccliatus; obtuie before and 
pointed behind; fcgmencs of the body unequ 1 and marked 
with a row gf minute whitifh dots, the interlcdions pale. 

E. IVith4.Eyes. 

'armorata Qblong, blueiOi-grey or pale. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 3./. 43. tab. \o6. fg. z. 
i?'ound in wet ditches, about half a line long: infeHines glome, 
rate white wjxh a large round yellow fpo:: in the middle. 

CanJid.i, Body long whirl (h vnth a clear white line down the middle 
Mull. Hiji. Verm- 2. />. 71 

Inhabits the Ihorcs of Greenland, ii,nder Ibncs : about 20/3 
inches long : mQutb with ^n cxfertile tube. . 

uucata^. /"ale reddiOi, broadly truncate before and rather fliarp 
Mull. Zoch Dan. 3./. 43. tab. \o6. Jig. \, 

F. Eyes tiumerous. 

Tremsllaris Flat, membrsnaceous, pale yellow, with a finuate margin. 
Mull. Zool Dan. I tab. 32 Jig. i, 2. 

Inhabits the Baltic, and rcfembles a Tremella ; 9 lines long. 
Body above greyifh, the difk ydlowilh with a pinnate line in 

the middle, and behind this 2 white lunulcsj beneath whitifh 

with 3 milk-white fpots. 

• 19. SIPUNCULUS. i5(?4); round elongated: 
viout/i eylindrical, at the end, and nar- 
rower than the bod}^: aperture at the 
lidc of the body and verucitbrm. 


* Muiluj. Body covered with a clofe fkin and globular at the lower 
Pennant. Brit. Zool. iv. p. ^6^ tab, zo. Jig. 10. 
Barbut Gen. of Wormi. p. 16. tab. 2. fg^ 4. 
Martin on Mjrin. Jfcrms. i.p. 4. tab, I. fig, 2. 
Inhabits European Seas, under Hones; 8 inches Ion". 


I 2 Bs^ 

68 WORMS. INTESTINA. 20, Hirudo. 

Body conic and broader on the fore-part: mouth mnch flenderer 
than the body, and armed with fleftiy 3-pointed papillas; 
aperture near the upper-extremity. 

SactatttJt Body covered w]th a loofe (kin, and rminded at the lower 

Martin or Marine Wcrms, \,p,6,tab. %-f~g.^P 
Barbut Gei:. of Worms, p. 17, tab 2, fg. \. 
Amoen. Acad. 4, /. 454, tak. 3, fig. 5. 
i?. Pall. Spicil.ZooL 10, /. 12, tab, 1, fig. 8. 

Inhabits the American and Indian Seas : is fhancd like the former, 

except in being inclofed as it were in a loofe bag, and in not 

having the Jovver-end globular* 

20. HIRUDO. Body oblong, truncate ac 
both ends, unariried, cartilagenous, and 
iiioves by jjijating the head and tail, and 
controlling itlelf jptp q.n ^iroh. Leech. 

Udica. Body deprefled, brown, with a hundfcd tranfverfe muricate 
Inhabits maritime parts of //?<//«. 

*M:diciaa^ Elongated, olive- black, with 6 yellow-ferruginous lines 
'"• above, and fpotted with yellow beneath. 

Medicinal Leech, 
Natur, Ml/cell. vi. tab. 21.8, Bnt. Zool.'}M. p.o^t, 
Barbut Gen. of Worms y />, 19, tab. 2, fig 5. 
Ail. Stockh. 1757, p. 3c8, n 4, tab. d, fig. 1,2. 
Found in ftagnant ponds arid ditches, and is the fpecies ufed 
with fuch fucccfs as a phlebotomift in the praftice of Phylic : 
is viviparous. 
Body above compofed of numerous annuUir winkles, ^A'hich it can 
.coutrafl or (.xpand at pleafure, and marked *\ith vsrie^attd 
lines : mouth fmallcr than the tail, and armed with 3 cartila- 
ginous teeth, vyith which it draws blood : tail compofed of 
an annular roufcic, by which it has the power of feftening its 
body firmly to any objcft. 

•Ayaea//«- Elongated, olive-bro^vn, with an ochre-yellow marginal, 
g^a, band. , Horje- leech. 

T^aturaliffs Miicellany, vi. tab. 21 8. 

Barbut Genera of Vy'cr till, p. 20. tab^Z, fig. 6. 

feti'V. Gazoph. tab, 1 30, fig. 7. 

Ad. Stockh. 17 S7* "' 4' '^^' ^' /d- 3» 4' 


WORMS INTESTINA. 20. Hirudo. 69 

Found frequently in ftagnant waters, ditches and ponds; 4 — 6 
inches long : bodf above dull olive-black, with an ochre margin 
each fide ; beneath paler, with fometimes a few black fpots : 
tail thicker than the head. This Ipccies fucjis blood wjtl| 
great avidity and in large quantities, 

Uneata, Elongated, grey, with 4 longitudinal blacjf lines on the 
« MulLHifl. Verm 2, />. 39, ». 169. 
Found early in the fpring in flagnant waters; about an inch an4 
a half long ; body snnulate with numerous wrinkles, and wjtH 
6 deep black eyes in a- double tranverfe row. 

•Qctocula- Elongated, yellow-brown, with 8 eyes ip a lunate ferigs, 

ta, J3. Stockh. 1757, tab. d. Jig. 5 — 8. 

Inhabits ftagnant waters, among aquatic plants, and preys on 
monoculi and the fmaller animalcules; about 15 inches long. 

Body fimetimes brown immapulate, lomeiimes fprinklcd above 
with black dots ; fometimes brown withyellowifh dots abovej 
fometimes yellow-brown with a knotty line in the middle an4 
a lateral blackifh one pinnate within on the forcrpart ; fome, 
times yellovvifli with loneitudinai lines, the middle one kno^, 
ty, the lateral opes with j-emote j-ed dots : fy« often 9. 

f S/ag-W/>. Elongated, cinereous, with 2 eyes. 

Jld. Stockh. 1757, n. 4, tab. 6, Jig. 9 — 1 1. 

Inhabits wet hollows and rivulets; about 9 lines long, 

• Body whitilh, pellucid, fprinkled with cinereous dots and plaited 

at the fides: eggs about 40, furroupded by a pellucid circle, 

cinerous at firll and afterwards brown : the young after ex-» 

clufion adhere by their tails to the belly of ihe mother. 


*Cornpl0- ^ody dilated, cipereous, with a double tuberculate Hnc Oil 
»i(a. the back, the margin ferrate, 

^ Acl. Stockh \'J^y, tab. bf fig. 12 — 14. 

Found in (hallow Itreams ; about 4 lines long. 
Body with tranverfe bands compofed of 3 pale lines, the margin 
whitifli ; beneath grey: ^f^z^ pointed, white, with 6 eyes j 
tail orbicular and cinereous. 

^Firidis, Body deprelTed, oblong, green with a tranfparent iiiargin, 
and pointed at the tail. 
Sha~jo. Tra'ijiii Linn. Soc,i,/). 93, fab. 7. 

Inhabits clear cold waters {•about an eighth of an inch longj and 
like molt of tlie Genus has a power of rcprodu(5tion aljnott 
c^ual to that of the Polype; for if the animal be divided iu 
every diredion, the parts will become perfeft animals, and 
may be again divided and again reproduced ad infinitum. 



WORMS. INTE5TINA. 20. Hirudo. 

Boify deep grafs-green with a tranfparent border all round 
2, deep black ; eggs 5 or 6, oval and deep brown. 


^Hiiero- Body dilated, pellucid, yellow, with an entire margin. 
ciyta. Irembley hift.'Poh'p. tab. 7, fig- j. 

Found in llreains among aquatic plants : 7 lines long ; and often 
iixes itfelf oil the inhabitant of the iylclix planorbis, and. fucks 
its juici'S. 

Body flattifh, pointed before and broadifh behind j marked above 
with numerous fine longitudinal ftriic of black fpecks, and 
remote tranverfe brownifli oncs« the farthelt of which are 
black with fulvous Ipecks ; head \N\\nG : eyes 4.— 6 : eggs nu- 
merous, fphxrical, green, lurroundcd with a pellucid ring : 
the young ones that efcape firil arc yellow, the latter one's 

*.Gcbmetra Elongated^ yell£)wiftir-green y.ith 2 row.of \yhite fpots. 
Peiinojit Bni. Zool. iv.p. 38, lab. 20,^.13. 
Barbut Gen. o/Wstms, p, 20, tab. Z, f. /. 
Ruef. InC 3, p, 159, tab. 32. f. I--4. 
Frijch Inf. 6, /. 2.5, tab. I i. 
Leaermuller micrsj'cop. tab. 84, f a--i. 
Inhabits frefh v.aters, and fixes itfelf on the bodies of Trout. and 

other fifh after the fpavvning fealon : 8 lines long : moves as 

if meafuring like a compals. 
Body tapering bcfjrc unJ vCry broad at the tail-end : eyes 4 ; 

colour varying. 

Cinereous with a teftelate aiargiji : eyes 8, in a double lon- 
gitudinal row. 
Mull. HtjL k'etm. 2, p. 45^ w. i.73. 
• Inhabits rivulets i about iS lines long. 

Body dilated and covered every where wjth black fpecks; above 
wiih orange or white fpots^ or partly grey partly orange ; be- 
neath grey with 2 rounded white fpots in the middle, 

harghiflia Dilated, broWn with a telTelate margin : eyes 4, 
Mull. Uiji. Verm. i. 2. /, 46, w^l74 
Inhabits rivers, and rcfcmbles the lail ; 10 lines long. 
Head obtufe before 'and narrowed behind, white, pellucid and- 
• marked wiilt 2 tranfverfc brown bands : abdomen redcifh- 
brown, with very minute ftriae meeting beneath in doubled 
brown lines : back with 5 rows of whitifli dots, the lateral 
margin white, with a double brown line divided into I'quarc 
patches: /a// orbicula*-, pale with brown fpots on the margin. 

<iroru. Dilated, yellow illi, and divided on the fore-part. 
Mull. Zool. Da::. I,/. 69, n. 27, tab. 21,/. 1--5, 



WORMS. INTESTINA. 20. Hinulo. 7, 

Found in the Tea, ufually wiihin the Venus eXoleta ; about 13 
lines long and 7 broad : body marked with fine white ftrix, 
the fore-part narrower and obtufe : eggt very numerous, 
fphxrical, and fwimming in a gelatinous Huid, 

Hifpoglofj. Dilated^ whltiOi, with a double white eye in the mitjdie of 
the body. 

M«/A ZooL Dan. 2, tab. 54, /!• 1—4.- 

O.Fabr.fn. Grtrnl. p. 302, tab. i, /.,8, 

Ba/leropu/c. 2, p. 138, tab. 8,/. it. ' 

Inhabits the fea, generally fixed to the Ikin of Tuibots and Ho 
Itbuts -body oval, deprefTed, pellucid, a little pointed befor- 
and ending m a globular ring behind : head (omayNhn triani 
gular With a cinereous fpot each fide : eyes not vifible • tail 
\vith a row of tubercles beneath from the centre, and towards 
the middle 2 hooks. 

*Cre77ata% Slightly deprefTed, fuboval, with tranrvcrfe annular ftrla: 
the margin crenulatc. ' 

Tranfafl Linn. Soc.W p. 318, tab 29. 

Found in (hallow ftreams among aquatic plant'. 

Body_ greenifh inclining to a/h-colour, and tranrverfelv ftria^.> 
with annular ibu-c, from whence arife the crenaturcs of th^ 
nwgin : eyes 2, approximate •: upper furfacc convex, lower 

'Muricata. Body round, tapering, tuberculate, and furnifhcd with -> 
Ihort horns on the head. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv p. 38, tab. 20,/ 14. 

BaJ}, opuf. I, p. 82, tab. 10, /. 2. 

Muf. Adolph,Fred. l, p.()l, tab 8,/. 3. 

Barbut Gen. of IVonns, p. 20, tab. 2, /. 8 

Inhabits the lea and adheres to fifh. leading a black mark on the 
.pot: W larger th,n the tail; W^ rtrongly annulate ani 
tuberculate upon th^ rings: /^/7 very much dilated. 

n-anchiata DeprelTed, tapering, whiillTi, with 7 branched bridles on 

each lide: inteltines brown, bifid, pellucid. 

Tranf act. Linn. Sec. ii. p. ig3, tab. 17. / 3 

Inhabits the Pacifc Ocean ^nd adheres to Turtle: an inchlo.. 

i?^./y foft, dcpreiled, annulate with fine wnnkJes. and ta:.(-nn'e 

towards the head: W fmad, truncate: .,.,/ large, Su'l^ 


^i WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 21. Limsx. 


Naked fimple animals, not included in aJJidl, 
but furmjhed with, limbs, 

2L LIMAX. Body oblong, creeping, with a 
fleiliy kind ot Ihield above, and a longi- 
tudinal flat disk beneath : aperture 
placed on the right (ide, within ttie 
Ihield: feelers 4, fituate ai)ove tho 
mouth, with an eye at tiie tip of each 
of the larger ones. Slug or Snail, 

tavis. Body black, and almoft without wrinkles. 
Mull, Hift. Ferm, ii. / i, «. 199. 
Found among mofs, late in the autgmn : c; lines lorg. 
Boify glofly, with undulate tranfverfe ftriae on the fhield; nar- 
rower and not (o much wrinkled as the next. 

*Jier, Body black and furrowed with deep wrinkles. 

1. Deep black and paler beneath. 

Natur. Mifiel. tab. l^^y. Barbut. Gen, tab. 'i,, /. \. 

Lifi. An. AngU p 131. tab. 2, fg. 17. tab. anat. 5, /. 1, 

Lijier extrc. anat. tab. 3, f^ I — 5. 

Argtn<v. conch, tab, 28, /". 28. 

Berl. Magaz. 3, p, 341, tab. 5, f. 72. 

2. Black, with a pale greenilh ridge down the back, 

3. Black, beneath white : mouth yellowifh. 
Siuammedam Bibl. Nat, tab, 9, fg, i , 

4. Chcfnut-brown, beneath white : mouth yellowifli. 
Lifi. Synop. tab. \Q\, a, f 103, App, tab. 2, f. t. 
Berl. Magaz. 3, p. 339, tab. 6, f, yi. 

5. Duflcy-brown with a yellowifh mouth and Ureal; each fide. 
Found in woods, meadows, fields and gardens j i| — 5 inches' 

long : ~ crawls flowly, and leaves a flime upon whatever it 
pafles over. 
Feelers always black : back convex : JJiielii rovgli with numerous 
dots : abaiotnen wrinkled. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. ii.tmuiK. 73 

Alius, Body white. 

1. Entirely white. 

2. V^ Kite edged with yellow. 

3. White, with an orange margin and hind-head. 

4. White \Vith black feelers. 

Inhabits woods and groves : from 3 lines to 5 inches long, 

^Rufus. Body above pale rufous, beneath white. 

Lijf. Ans^. App. 6, tab. 2, /. i. Burbut, tab. 3, /. 2. 
Hill, llifi., an. />. S7, tab. 3. 

Inhabits (hady damp places and the bottoms of mountains : 1^ 
inch long; body without fpotsorbclt: \^Tgtt feelers black 

^Flcrvus. Body amber-colour fpotted with white. 

Found in herbage. Lif. Exerc, attat. tab. I, 

^Mdximus, Body cinereous, with or without fpots. 

1. Body immaculate: fhield black. blue. 
List, exerc. anat. tab. 3, f. 6, 7, 9, 10, 

2. Shield fpotted with black : body with black longitudinal 

Lister Anim. Angl, p. 127, tab. z, f. 15, 
S-wammerdam Bibl. Nat. tab. 8, /". 7. 
Berl. Magaz. 3, p. 336, tab.^,f. 69, 

3. Shield ^nd body fp^ted with black. 
Natural. Mi/c. tab. 137. Lister Sjn. f, 104, 
Lifter tab. anat, J,/". 6 — lO. 

Argenville Concho I, tab. 28,/". 3 1. 

4. Body with 5 whitilhftreaks; the lower-one interrupted. 

5. Body uich white and cinereous wrinkles, and black fpots in a 

double row. 

6. Body edged with white. 

Inhabits woods, gardens and damp cellars : 4'— 5 inches long,' 

Uyalmus. Body hyaline : feelers obfoletje, with a bro\yn line reaching 
from the feelers to the IhieKi. 
Inhabits damp moffy places, and is very deffruftive to the young 
(hoots of kidney-beans ; belly with, numerous interrupted 

*Agrestis, Body wfiitilh, with black feelers^ 

List. Anim. Angl. p. 120, tab z, f. 16. Synops. f. I. 
List. tab. anat. 5, y* II. Exerc. anat, tab. 3, /^ II.' 

Argeriv. conch, tab. 28, f; 27. 
' VOL. I v.— K BerU 

7>4, WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 21. Limax. 

Berl, Mugax. 36. p. 345, tab. 8, fg. 74. 
^/a«^. In/, 151, /^ii. II, fg. X. 

1. Entirely whitifh^ immaculate. 

2. Whitifh, with a yellowilh (hield. 

Tran/aB. Linn. Soc. iv. />. 85, tah. 8, yfg-. I — 4. 

This variety, and probably many others, has the power of fe- 
crecing a large quantity of mucus from the under furfacc, and 
formipg it into a thread, like a fpider's web ; by this means 
it often fuipends itfelf, and defcends from the branches of 
trees, or any heighth it had crawled up to. 

3. Whitifli, with a black head. 

4. Whitifh, with a cinereous back, 

5. Whitifli, with fcattered black fpeckj. 

Found in gardens, pafturesand groves, from May till December, 
and is the fpecies which has been recommended to be fwal- 
lowcd by confumptive perfons ; about half an inch long : 
when touched it fticks as if dead to the fingers, 

Cinctus. Yellowifli, with a cinereous belt on the (hield and body. 
Mull. Hist. Verm. 7., p. 9, «• 205. 
Found commonly in groves : z inches long. 
Bsdy immaculate, beneath white. 



Cinereous ; fhield -with a dqfky ftreak each fide : body pale 
Mull, Hist. Ferm. ii. /. 10, «. 206, 

Found on the Beech : back with a white ridge, each fide of 
which it is blueifh-afh ; abdomen fometiraes fpotted with black. 

RecticuU' Brown, with black dots on the fhield and lines on the body, 
/^j. Schaff. Verf. i, tab. i, and tab. 2, fig, I — 3. 

Inhabits gardens in Denmark and Germany: ij inch long. 

Aureus. Yellow, immaculate, with black feelers. 
Mull. Hist. Verm ii. p. 10, n. 208. 

Inhabits groves of Denmark and Nor^way : an inch and half long. 
Body beneath white, with a black line between the feelers. 


Reddifh, with a blackifh lateral Hue and back. 
Inhabits groves. Mull. Hist, Verm. \\. p. li, w. IC9. 
Body 8 lines long, beneath white : abdomen with a longitudinal 
brown fpot. 


Greenifh, with black head and feelers. 
Mull, Hist. Verm, ii. /«, 11, w. no. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 22. Onchidium. 23. LapHfia. 75 

Found early i-n the Tpring in hollows of woods filled with dry 
leaves : lo lines long : Jhield whicilh v/ith a yellovvilh cart. 

* Lanccolu' LIncar-lanceolate and very (harp at each end ; the margin 
•"s> furrounded with a membranaceous border : tentacula 

or feelers o. 
Pall. Spicil Zool. lo, p. 19, tab. I, fig,\\. 
Found on the coalt o{ Cornwall : of a very uncertain Genus, 

22, ONCHIDIUM. Body oblong, creeping, 
tiat beneath : mouth placed belore : feel- 
ers 2, fituate above the mouth : arms 2, 
at the fides of the head : vent behmd, 
and placed beneath. 

Tvplue. GnCH. 

IranfaH. Linn, Soc. V. p. I 32, 1 4^. 5, ^g. ^"^S- 
Inhabits Bengal, on the leaves of the Typha clephartini : about 
an inch long and ^ of an inch broad, bat linear and longer 
when creeping. In appearance it very much rcfcmbles a Li- 
max, I'Ut differs principally in wanting the fhield and lateral 
pore, and in being furnifhed with a vent behind. 
Boi/y above convex, alh-colour, and covered with irregular glan- 
dular tubercles ; beneath Hat and ii:nooth : hea^l yellowifh, 
fmall and placed beneath, which ^vhen the animal is in .mo- 
tion is perpetually changing its form and llze, and drawn 
in when at reft: mout/i) placed lengthways and continually va- 
rying its fhape from circular to linear : feelers retraftilc, re- 
fembling thofe of the Slug, and apparently tipt with eyes : 
firms dilatable, folid» compreffod and lomewhaf palmate wheu 
fully expanded. 

23. LAPLISTA. jBo^/y creeping, covered with 
refieci.ed membranes, with a membrana- 
ceous ihield on the back covering the 
luiigs: aperture placed on the right fide: 
vent above the extremity of the back: 
feelers 4, refembling ears. Sea-hare. 

*Depilan!. Body pale lead-colour, immaculate. 
Pennant Brit. Zool.\v_. tab. 2 \, Jig 21. 
Barbui'i Genera of WonaSy p, 32, tab. 3, fg, 5, $. 
Seha Muf. 3. tah^ t, fg. 8, g. 

K 2 Inhabits 

76 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 24. Doris. 

Inhilits European \pzi; from z to 5 inches long; is extremely 
naufcous and fciid^ a' d is (aid to caufc the hair to fall off the 
hai ds ot thofc who touch it. 

Boay an appirently mifliapcn mafs enveloped in a loofe {kin, - 
which folds over and nearly meets on the back : JJiieU nearly 
in the middle of the back and circular: the z fore-feelers x\\\ck 
anu placed forwards, the hind ones at a little ailtance back- 
\vard5, and refembhng ears, and behind thefc are tne eja. 

Fnfciata. Black ; the edges pf the membranaceous covering and pf the 
feelers fcarlet. 
Poiret Votage en Barbate 2, p. ", 

Inhabits the (hores of Parbary, among rocks : when touched it 
difcharges a black and red fames, but not fetid or depilatory 
like the laft. 

34-, DORIS. Body creeping, oblong, and flat 
beneath : mouth plaised below, on the 
fore-part; vent betiind on the back and 
furrounded by a fringe; Jeelers 2—4, 
feated on the upper part ol the body in 
front, and retractile Ayithin tlieir propei: 

A. TcntaciiM or feeler i 4. 

FaJiicuUna Body linear, grey-ferruginous, with fubferniginous an4 
fliarpilh paptllx on the b^ck. 
Limax niarirns. lorjk. jinim. Mar. tab, 26, fig. 5, 
Inhabits the Meffiterrattean Sea, and is generally found adhering. 

to floating timber; about an inch long. 
Body beneath pa e : feelers pale, pellucid. 

Mimpia, Pale cinereous, with 4 rows of dorfal papillx. 
Fofjk Ftn Arab p 100, n. 5. 

Inhabits the ^ledite'ranean, on floating fca-wecd j about the fizc 
of a grain of rice : hody paler beneath, oblorg : reins white, 
placed ne?r the head : papiUig numerous, ovate-oblong, obtnie' 
and pale cinereous. 

Radiata. Silver-bhie, beneath white, with lateral extenfile radiatCT 
iafciculate papillae. 
67^«au 'Natural Mi/ceLvVi fab. 221. 
Philof, Iranf 53, /. 57, 58. tab. 3. , 


WORMS. MPLLUSCA. 24. Doris. 


Inhabits the West htdian Ocean; shove an inch long. 

BoJy palf blue with a fi vcr glofs, the margi) and tips of all the 

pai'illae rich blue, obtufe in front aod t.ipering to a fine point 


Pennata, B^ck covered with fubcylindriclil papillae, incumbent tOr 
wards the hind-part 
Bomme Act. VUJf. 3, f, 292, tab, 3, fig. 2. 

Inhabits the fhorcs of Zealand, on zoophytes ; hardly an incji 
long : fomctimes whitifh-grey, fometimes rcddifli. 

feregrina> Feelers 4, not retradile : body milk-white, with 10 rows 
of blue-brown cirri or procefres. 
£i!'JoIin. Polyp. Mar. 3, p. |go, tab. J, fig. 3. 
Inhajits the Mediterranean 6ea, 

Ajfiiniu Feelers. 4, not retradile, annulate and tipt with white: 
body purple, with 7 rows of procelfes on the back. 
Cavqlin. Pohp, Mar. 3, p. 193, tab. '], fig,A[, 
Inhabits the Ahditerranean Sea, 

*J'go. Body oval, fmooth, with 2 fmall feelers at the moijth : 
vent lurroundcd by a ramified fringe. Sea Lemon. 

Katur Ml/cell, tao. 145, Bar but Woims, tah, 4, fig. 4. 
BitsZool. iv. p 43, tab 22, fig. 22. Boad/ch. Mar. t, 5,/. 4,5. 
ln;,abits the Mediterranean and European Seai : 3|- inches long. 
Body red, with fulphur fpots and black dots: fee/ers wnite dotr 
ted with :ed at the tip: ijem furroandcd by an elcgaiKly 
ramified fringe, fulphur fpotted with bhck. 

B. ^Fiih 2 tentacuJa or feelers. 

^Verrueofa. 'Bo^y covered with tubercles above. 

Mitella vcrucofa. Seba. Muf. 2, tab. 61, fig, 5. 

Penn^jtt Bnty Zcol iv. p. 43, tab, 21, fig. 23. 

Barbut Genera of Worms, p. 36, tab- 4-, fig. 1. 

Inhabits the Indian and European Seas, 

Body oblong, nearly cylindrical, convex and rounded^at the ex- 
trcmerics* the back covered with warts or protuberances: 
lateral margin deficfted -.pedal limb oval, oblong, with a fmooth 


^avigcya^ Body oval, white, with fafFron.colour clavate pedicels on 
the back. 

Muil. Zool. Dan. I, p 58, tab. XJtfig. I — 3. 
Bomtne A8, VUjs. 3, p. 296. n. 4, /. 3 ? 
Inhabits the Kor^way Sens, on fuci. 


^^ WORMS. MOLLU3CA. 24. Doris. 

io.-ij gelatinous, fubpellucid : iead with a lateral yellow truncate 
tubercle :y^/i?r J faffron -colon r : ra/7acute, witk a yellow Ipot. 

^adriline- White, with 4 black lines and fulphur auricles. 
ata. MuU. Zoci Dffi. I, /. 59, n. 23, tab. 17, f. 4 — 6. 

Inhabits Norivay Seas, on fuci. 
^£'<^ fometimes marked with fulphur fpots : feelen white. 

^apillofs. Body covered with papillx above, with a fmooth dorfal 
Bafter op,/uhs. l, p. 8 1, tab.\o, f. \. 
Forjk. Anim Mar. tab. 26, /. H ? 
AaJIafn. Id, /. 11 — 16^ Aa.Flif. 3,/. 2. 
Inhabits the European Ocean. 

Auticulata. White, with red dorfal fafciculate papillas tipt with white. 
Inhabits Norvjaj Seas. Act. Hafn. 10, p. 16. tab. 5,^. 6. 

Lbcinulata Whitifh, with 6 pbovate papilliE on the back each lidc. 
¥orp. Anim. Mar. tab. 26, f, 4. 

Inhabits Northern Seas-, among fuci ; about the fizfi of a large 
loufe, and variable in itb fliape. 

Cervi»af Reddifli-afi) with 8 branched papillae on th.e back. 
Bom>re Act. Vh(f. "^i p. 290, n. z, f. i. 

Inhabits Zealand^ on the Sertulaiia abictina ; about half an inch 
long : head and tail furnifhed with branched papillse. 

Coronata. Milk-white, beneath hyaline: back dotted with red, with 
6 pyramidal papillae tipt with red each fide. 
Act.VliJf. 1, p. 394, tab. 3,/. I — 3 and 3./1. 288^ 
Inhabits fhores oi Zealand ', hardly an inch long, 

Tetraque^ Quadrangular, coriaceous, pointed behind, above flat, with 
tra, carunculate clefts at the angles. 

Pall. no'v. Act. Petrop. 2, p. 237, tab. 5,/". 22. 
A Inhabits the feas about the Curile IJlands, 'where it is boiled and 
eaten by the inhabitants. 

*MiIamel- Body ovalj and covered with a rough punctured plate. 
lata, Barbui*s Genera of Worms, p. 36, tab.j^,f. 2. 

Mull ZooLDan. 2, p. 22, tab J^"],/. 6 — 8. 
Inhabits European Seas, and moves like a fnail. • 

Body glabrous, above pale brown with cinereous dots, beneath 
white ; the plais with fulphur dots above and white beneath : 
feelers brown : -vent tranfvcrfe, and furroundcd with 6 fulphur, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 25. Aphrodlta. ^9 

Obvelata. White ; body elongated, with a flexuous plate punclurecj 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. 47, _/". I, 2. 
Plane. Conch. Mtn. p. 105., tab, 5,/. G. H. 
Inhabits bays of Ni^rivay, and moves like a fnail. 
Boclj/ lubpellucid, beneath glabrous ; the plate rough wjth con-* 
vex dots above : /eelers funp]e. 

Muricata. Body oval, and covered every with pale yellow tubercles, 
Inhabits Norivay Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan. 3, tab. 85,/". 2-4. 

Pilo/a, Body ovate., pale yellow, and covered with foft white hairsj 
feelers fecretcd within their receptacles. 
Mull. Zool, Dan. 3, p. 7, tab, 85, /. 5 — 8. 

La'vis. Body oval, white; above flattifli and fmooth. 

Inhabits the Atlantic, Mull. Zool. Dan. 2, tab. 47, f, 3 — ^, 
Body flefhy, glabrous : 'vent furrounded with 8 plumes. 

Arborefcens. Feelers branched: back gibbous and fhooting out ipt<^*' 
Inhabits Ncr-xvuy Seas. Acl. Hafn. 10, /. 14, tab. 5, f. 5^ 

Froniofa, Body covered every where with numerous branched cirri. 
Inhabits Norivay Seas. Ad. Dronth. 5, /, 155, tab: 5,/. 2. 

Stellata, Body oval, with an 8-rayed ftar at the vent, the ray# 
JSomme Act. Vliff. 3, />. 298, n. 5, /. 4. 

Inhabits the fhores of Zealand: body .vl^itijli-grey, beneath flat^ 
and covered above with obtufc tubercles. 

2.5. 2\PIIRODITA. •Body creeping, oblong, 
covered with (bales, and fiirniihed witln 
numerous briftly I'afeiculate teet each 
lide : mouth tevinhial, cylindrical, retrace 
tile : feelers 2, letaceous, annulate > 
eyes 4. 

*Acu!eata» Body oval, brown, beneath flcfii-colour ; v. iih long filiy 
changeable hair each fide the body. 
Nat, Mi/ccl, tab. 205, Barbut^s Wor^s, tain. 4, f. 4. 


WORMS. MdLLUSCA. 25. Aphrodite, 

Brit, Zool. iv, tab 2?, /. 25. 

Rediopiifc. 3, tab. 25. 

Pa//. M;jcel. Zool ^ TJr tabs 7, /. i — 3. 

Bafterofufc fubs. Z. p. 62, tab b, j. 12. 

Barrel Ic. plant, rar. p 131, /a^. 1284. 

Sivanrntrdam ^ibL Nat, tab. ic, /". 8. 

i>ebaMuf I tab 53,/ 3. /a^. 90, / I, 2. 

Inhahits the European Seas. Hjid is o^ten found Ih the belly of 
the Cod fifh; feeds on tcftaceous aniraaU., and is 4— -7 inches 

Body convex above and covered ni:h fhort brcwr fin; the fide« 
with long rich green gold hair rhixed with fh-r; fi ines : 
•vent covered with 2 fca)e$ : be/(v covered with a naVed pale 
fkin : mouth p'aced beneath : ,/?t;/ about 3.0-36 .ach fide, 
each confilting of a tuft of 5- 6 liroDg blacic fpines. 

*Scabra, Body oblong, with 2 roS^^s of alternate fcales : moutK 
projedling, cylindrical. 
A. pedunculata, Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 4> /"• 27. 
Body much fnialler than the Mt, with 20 alternate fcales: legs 
about 20 each fide. 

*Sfuamata, Body oblong, covered with 2 rows of large unitormly- 

coloured fcales dotted whh black. 
Brit. Zool. iv. tab, 23,/. 26. ^ 

Barbut, tab. 4, /. 6, 
Ba/ier op. fubs. 2, /. 3, /a3. 6,/. 5. 
Pall. Mijcel, Zool. p, git tab. "], f, l/i^, a-d. 
H/Iull. Wurm. p. 170, tab. 13. 
Ma//. Zoo/, 2>««. 3, /. 25. /«(^. 96, f. 1--4. 
Inhabits i^«»-(y>?a« and Aliaiic Setts'; about an inch longj 
Middle of the bark and ^f/Zjf fmooth; the other part covered 

with large oppofitc rigid ochre-yellow fcales refcmbling thofe 

of a fi(h, 24 in number. 

tntbricata. Body oblong, with glabrous Variegated fcales. 
Barbut* s Genera of Worms, /».43» '"''• 4» f' 7-' 

Plana Oblong, with fmooth 2-coloured fcales. 

Mull lV\irm. p. x^o. tab. i^-M- i — >. 

Inhabits the Nortb Seas, about Iceland: i—z inches iong. 

Boay flat each fide, ^nd narrower towards the tai!, oi aooiit 36 
fegments and as many feet each fide, and furnifhed with as 
many Icales on the back decreafing in fize toAVards the tail 
and difpoled in 2 rows : probufds large thick. 

* Lftiucta. 



' Lepidotd. Body oblongs with a red ft ripe down the back. 
A. minuta. Brit. Zcol. iv. tab, 24. ^g 29. 
Pall. Mi/cell. Zool. p. 94. tab. J.fg. 15, a, b. t. 8i/. I, t. 
Bajier op. Sub/. I. b. I. tab. ^ fg 3. A— C. 
Inhabits European Seas; noc an inch long. 
Sca/ci inobriciue, very lineiy pundlurcd, about 14 pair; 




Linear tapering; pcduricles comprefTed and divided at thfc 
tip : fcales vclicular 
Inhabits the Me dlt err ant an. Pall. Mi/. Zool. tab. 2./g 3 — 6. 
Bed f very tender, with il pair of rounded fcales: peduncles ot 
feet 3 j each iidc and rather long. 

Oblong, violev/ with 15 dorfal fcales each fide. 
Inhabits Mull. Zool. Dart. prod. 2645. 

Scales of an uniform colour; middle of the back naked: legs 
with a fimplc brillly papilla: lateral cirri o. 
Inliabics Greentavd. Mull. Zool. Dan.prodr, zSj^O, 

26 SPIO. Body projedling from a tube, 
jointed and tiirniliied with dorfal fibres : 
pedimcles or feet rough with briiiles and 
placed towards the hixck\ feelers 2i long 
limple; eyeJ 2, oblong. 


* Beticormsi Feelers thin and ftriate. 

O. Fabr Katu'/ 6. p. 259. n. Utah $./g, I — 7. 

Bajier op. fubf. z. p. 134 tub. 12 f^g. 2. 

Inhabits the Ocean, principally where there is a clayey bottoni : 
about 3 inches long : the tube is comoofed of agglutinated 
particles ot earthy (hin, erect, and thrice as long as the body; 
from this the animal projcdi it*s capillary white feelers in 
frarch ol fjod, which confifts of fmall marine worms: body 
whitifii witii a tinge of green, with a red line down the 
middle of the back, the f.ind-part fea green, the fore-paff 
bhck'fli-grcy with traniverfc white ftriae : /:>ead pz]c. 


rtiiu Feelers thick and annulate. 

O. FiiW. Natur/. 6. p. 26.;. tab. S/^g- 8—12. 
Inhabits feas about Greenland; an irch loiig. 
Body o\i]ovf£, ycliowifh or reddilh u-iih a cinereous line ift the 
middle and at each end : iu'ie fragile ere6l greenifli, from 
wliich it projefls its feelers m fearcli ^t i'htiir'ix and orher 
imall jr,.::ine worms. 


82 WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 27. Amphitritc. 

27. AMPHITRITE. Body projeaing from 
a tube and nnnnlixtQ: peduncles or feet 
fmall, numerous ', feelers 2, approximate, 
feathered ; eyes 0. 

Rgfiiformis. go^y rounded : feelers fimple. 

Mull. JVurm. p. 194. tab, l6. Jig- I — 3. 

iW«//. Zool. Dan. 3./. 13. tab 89. _fig. i, 2. 

Inhabits the feas about Icelavd i about 3 inches long. 

Body a moll beautiful red : head defended by 2 femicircular 
arches: plumes 14, alternately red and white: annulatians o^ 
the body 80 — 90, with each a minute tubercle each fide ; tail 
pointed and not jointed : tube red, tough, coriaceous, fimple, 
4 inches long. 

Penicillui. Scutcl prickly ; probofcis clavatc 

. Inhabits the fands about Naples; above j inches long. 
Body with a black line down the middle and extending its 
whole length : feelers with numeroas fibres fpotted with red 
and yellow: probofcis as long as the plumes of the feelers: 
peduncle white tubular, the club red lliiatc : tube white fmooth 
firm and fomething fixed, 

I'entila^ Fibres of the feelers ciliate on the inner margin : pro- 
brum. Kofcis o. 

Natur. Mifcellatty. ix. tab. 324. 
Ellis' Corallines, p. 92. tab. 34. 
2. Ba/ier op.fubfe. 2. p. 1 78. tah. 9. fig, I, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean', about 3 inches long. 
jBu^ pale red, with 150 peduncles each fide: tube clay-colour, 
tapering towards the bafe, fixed with a few fcattered fibrils 
upon its furface, and rather coriaceous. 

Auricama, With 2 cirri each fide: the fore-part with 2 rigid gold 
Mull. Zool. Dan, I, p. 87. tab. 26. fg. 1-^6. 
Pall. Mi/cell. Zool. l.plj. tab: g.fg 1—13. 
Jl^/artifi, Conchyl. 69 — 72. tal}. ^' fg> 26, 27, 
Martin. Conch. I. tab. /^. fig. 26. 
Klein tubul.tnar, p. 21. tab. l-Jig. J. 
Klein echinod. p. 62. tab. '^'^•/ig. 163. 
Inhabits the Atlantic, hi-dian and South Seas, 
lube brown, diaphanous, fragile, one end wedge-fliaped arid, 
narrow, and fmoothcd within : head branched, white and 
armed on the fore-part with 16 hooks: trunk inverfely conic, 
fleel-blue, very fmooth. with 14 tufts of gold briftles each 
fide at the margin, 3 or 4 in each : tail compofed of 3 oval 
• minute hard laminzc, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 28. Terebella. 83 

Cridata. With 2 fmall branched horns. 

Mull. Zooh Dan. 2, tab. JO,/. 1.-4; 
Inhabits bays of Norivav, on old oyfler-fliclls 
I^o^y ro'jnd, flcxuDii.o, reddifli-yelinw, of 17 fegments, the forc- 
OHCs ii.rniflied each with >. protuberance and a bridle each 
lide : /:ead with numeious c.fri 6 times (horter than the body • 
/«^^_ fragile llexaous, compolcd of miid and pieces of broken 

^iSfr* ^'^'^ '''^'"'^' '^'''^ 2 '°^^' °^ ^"^^^' paleaceous fcalcs on the 
/w«/«, crown. 

M. «.x;. A?. A>/;-.^. 2. f. 235. /«i. 5. ;f,. 20. 
Jnhabus the deeps of the I^dia,: Sea : about 4 inches lone 
I^o,/y foft, tapering, flattifh above : peduncles crefted, armed ^virh 
cm and terminated by a flefliy appendacc :/,,/,rj nameroas. 

|P/«;,;e/2.. With 2 jointed feeler.., each nnder a tuft ot' pro,eOin^ 
f briR.cs: body round, clavatc and roughiHi towards the 


Mull. Zool. Dan. 3./.. 16. t,ih. 90./^. t. 2. 

Inhabits Uori.'sny Seaj, among Muffles. 

'is. TEREBELLA. Body oblong, crecpino-, 
naked, often inclofed 'in a tube, furniihcd 
with lateral faiciclesor tufts and branchiir: 
mouth placed before, furniilied uith lips, 
without teeth, and protruding a clavate 
])robofeis: /^f/^r^ numerous, ciliate, ca- 
pillary, icated round the mouth. 

Body round, with triple lateral fafcicles. 

Mi'll. U'urm.p. 188. tab. i-. fir. i, 2. 

7T'L'^¥' ^y77-"'nr.p. zx^^.'tab. l.fg, ,0, il. 

Inhabits fcas about Icela>id with a fandy bottom 

^^' red, 3.4 inches long, compofed of about 60 or 70 annu- 
Jations, and gradually tapering behind: upper-Iip with pro- cirri : uppcr-part of the back with a row of (hort cirri 
a. the fides: /;.^r thick, fragile, as long aS the inhabitant- 
uhen bruifcd it gives out a rod liquor which tinges water. 

V/ith 8 cirri on the anterior part of the body, and 4 round 
the mouth. 
Barbut. Gen. cf Worms, p. 64. tab. 7. fg. i, . 

^d Stockh. 1754. p, ,44. tab. 3. /,g. A— F. 
Inhabits the" Miditmanean, in holes of Rock% 
L 2 


?4 WORMS. MOLLUSrA, 28, Terebella. 

Bo^ blueifli, tapering behind : bead (ap'poned by a long retrac- 
tile neck iH'uing out between the branched tecleri; tncutb 
rounti, armed with cirri :yi't'^ fmali approximate, placed near 
the head. 

*Coftcti- Body whitifli, with numerous filiform cirri round the 
"£^' mouth, the upper-ones very lorn;, branchiie deep red. 

Pall. Mjcell. Z-oi. p. i^i tab \.fg. 17 — 22. 
Pennant Brittjk Zoology, p. 47. tab. ()Z.Jig. 163. 
Inhd its the Brttifh Coajis, withui the Sabcila tubiformis; about 
5 inches long, pelJucidj and tapering towards the lower end : 
body above red; head d^rxn^d with a icales beneuh : tube taper 
ftrJghr, compofed of minute particles of fand, about the iizp 
of a goofe quill and nearly half a foot long. 

Cor^plana- Body dcprefTed, with 4 cirri round thp mouth, and a double 
'^* fow of lateral penp iliecj protuberances each lidc 

Br oijon "Jamaica, p. 395. tah. 39.^^. t. 
Pal as ivlijcell- Zoo:, p. 109. tql>. 8. fig. 19—26, 
s r; Inhabits- Seas round the Wejl Indian Ifiands, and is extremely 

dellruflive to veflels lyirg at anchor: it cuts with great fa- 
cility through the ftouteil plank, and burrows in;o the fubftancc, 
jncruftating the fiJes of the hole with a fmooih tellaceous 
coat ; with equal cafe and expedition it deftioys pileb and the 
timber <if wharfs. 
Body with about 130 figments : back with an obtiife longi. 
tudinil flclhy fort of creft, 

Caruncula- ^ody dcprefTed quadrangular, vlth 4 royrs of pencilled faf- 
''^' cicles, tbofe on the belly without cirri. 

Nereis gigantei. SylL Nat. xii. 2. p. io85.«, 10. 

Pali. Mi/cell, Zcol. p. 102, tub. S.Jig. 12, 13. 

Seba MuJ\ 2. p ^l.tah. Si. fig. 7. 

Inhabits the /Jmerican and Indian feas, and like the laft is very 

dcltruflive to wharfs aini fhipping : 9-- 14 inches long. 
Segments of the Icdy abcrat 90: lateral pencils yellow, leated on 

a tranfverfe papilla, the ventral ones without cirri ; behind 

the cirri on the back is an oval dcprefftd caruncle ; branchia: 

or gills very much branched. 

Rojirata. Body nearly quadrangular, \vith 4 rows of pencilled tufts; 
palate elongated/ 
Shanv. Kafur. Mifcell. ix. tab. 339. 
Pall. Mifcell. Zool. p. 106. tab, 8. fg. ^4-10. 
Inhabits the Indian Sea ; 8 inches to a foot long. 
Body livid brown : tujts on the back deeper, thofc on tiie f.cos 
• ycllowiOi, all tf then* fuin;fticd wjth a cnrus ; ( ia. \<^ry 
• large. 

Flail a. 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 28. Tprebella. 85 

flwuti. Body deprcifed, broad, with aboiit 37 branchiae or gills 
each iule : tail toiked. 
SL-ww Nai, Mtjccll. Vii. tah. 2^$. 
Pall. Mi/cell. Zcol. f. 97. tab 8. /fj. 7 — 11. 
Inhabits t!ic Indian Of(?/j,v: 2^-— 5 inches long. 
' Bfiiy with about 33 — 40 leguients ; ti^fts with thin yelIo\vifla 
hairs: ^afi with a comprciied triangular crell turniflied with 
2 cirri on the fore -part. 

liubra. Body red, depreiTetl: tail terminated by 2 cirri: head with 

1 horny moveable jaws. 
Bammi Act, Vlij)'. 6. p. 379. /^. 4. A, B, 
Inhabits Zt'«/««./; about 3 inches long. 
Bods with about 144 tegiT>cnts, with a black ftreak down the 

hack; head wliite c\ lim-Uical ; when fhakcn pours out a 

whiiifh mucous ianics. 

.iphrcdltiiis Body round and gradually tapering backwards, beneath a 
little dcprelFcd with aa obfolete grcxjve: 8 fird feg- 
ments without branchice, the -5 next with fimple ones, 
the hinder-ones growing gradually larger and pinnate 
on one fide 
PalL No-v. ASl. Petrop. z. p. 229 tab ^. fg. l—Ji 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean ^ about a t'ocjt and a lialf long. 
Uod'i with aiiout j 50 fpgmcnts.: peduncles flefhy and furniHied 
with a cirrus : head with 2 cirri. 

Ricoi-nis, Probofcis with a fiaiple terminal 2-horned difk. 
Ahildg, l^amrf. J. p. 138. tab. 3 Jig. 4. 
Seba '^'uf. 3. tab. 16. Jig. ly. 
ShaT.v- NatuMliJis Mij'cedl. viii. tab. 290 .'' 
Inhabits the Amencau Ocean., and perforates into ibme of the 

gl.-jt'ofe madrepores where it icfides and occafionally protrude^ 

itfdf in iearch of foqd, 

"tellata.. Probofcis with a triple perfoliate disk, the anterior on? 
armed with a truncate horn ladiate with prickles. 
Ahildg. Naturf. 9 p. 138. tab. 3. fig. 5. 
Inhabits the Athencan Ocean. 

UO* NEREIS. Bod-)> loiig, crc{^ping, with 
numerous hileiul peduncles ov J eet ca^'h 
{\Aq: feeler. s inn pic, i-arclv 0: eyes '2 or -V, 
I'arel^' 0. 

X Mfivt 

S6 WOkMS. MOLLUSCA. 29. Nereis. 

A. Mouth furnipied with a clnzv or forceps. 

P'erftcDlor. Body fubdepreflTed : peduncles pointed and fiirnlflied with 
Mull. Wurm. p. 104. tab. d.fg. 1—6. 
Inhabits European Heas \ 4 inches long. 

Bodv with about 85 fcgmcnts growing gradually flendercr be- 
hind, ochre-yellow with a dull red ilreak down the middle : 
tail and anterior fegments of the body dirty grcenifh ; towards 
the middle fhining with various iridefcem colours : 
feehrs 3, fnort, lubulate ; lower ones 2, pellucid, conic ; la- 
Jatcral ortes 4, hofny : /ania red. 

*NDfiiluca. Body blue-green^ with 23 fegments: hardly vifible to the 
naked eye. 

Earbut\f JVifmSy tab. if, fig. %. Aman. acad. '^. tab. 3. 

Bailer cp./uhfcy tab. A^ fig. 3. 

Thel'c are found in molt leas, and are the animals which fre- 
quently illuminate the water, making it appear iis if on fire: 
they are extremely minute, pellucid and highly phofphoreous, 
giving an uncommonly lucid fplcndor to the waves in an 
evening ; by their extreme numbers and fmallnefs they eafily 
elude obfervation, but they may be dctefted by paffing a 
fma!! quantity of the water through blotting-paper. 

F'fftbriata. Body fubdeprefled : peduncles cirratc, glandular. 
Mull. Wi<nn p. 144, tub, St fig. I --3. 
Inhabits the Baltic : ab'-ut 3 inches long, and linear. 
B^y fulvojs, with a blue line down the middle of the back aiid 
belly : head with 8 feelers : ttiil terminated by 2 threads. 

jfirmlllarij. Body fubdcprelTed : peduncles conid, with glandular cirri. 

Mulljlfurm. p. liO^ iab.g, fig. I— 5. 

Inhabits the Northern Seas, and buries itfelf deep in the fand : 
about 15 lines long. 

Body filiform, with 3 moniliform feelers each fide the head 5 ar- 
ticulations about 120, all ahihed with a peduhcle cacK fide 
/<3/7 ending in 2 long threads. 

Iilo/li:. With lateral fafcicles of hairs above the peduncles. 
Inhabits Norixay Seat. Fn. Succ. 2097. 

^£c/c!gica. Cody abc^ve convex : peduncles cirrate and warty. 
. Pennant. Brit. Zool. iv. p.^J, tat>. 25, fg, 33. 
Bajler op, fulfc. 2, p. 133, tab. 6, ji-j^ 6, 
Mull. IVurm, p. 140, tab. 7, fi:g. I--3, 
Act. llafn. 10, p. 169, tab, 2, fig. lO. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 29. Nereis. 87 

Inhabits European Seas, among the roots of Ulvx, undpr Hones, and 
in empty Ihells : about 7 inches long, and has aflcxuouskind 
of motion. , 

Boiiy tawny, with whitifli frontal, caudal and lateral cirri and 
peduncles : janvs blackifh-brown : back with a fcarlet line 
down the middle : head with a triangular white fpot between 
the eyes, and 2 others at the fides: brijlles ferruginous; tait 
terminated by 2 cirri. 

Tubicola^ Body fubdeprelTed: peduncles (lightly cirrate and globular. 
Mull. Zcol. Dan. 1, p.(}o, tab. iS, fig. 1—6, 
Inhabits Nsrthern Seas. Body linear, with 5 ftraight feelers oa 

the head ; forms a tough tube of the indurated moiiturc ex:« 

uding from its pores. 

Nor^jjegica. Body convex : peduncles cirrate, feathered. 

MiiU-, Zcol. Dan. I, />.99, tab. 2g, /Ig. 1—3. 

Gunner Act. Ntdr of, 4. p. 51, tab. z^ fig.J'-XZ* 

Mus. Kirch. 13. /. 412. ftg. 8—10. 

Inhabits bays of the Nortvay Seas ; fize of a goofc-quill. 

Body with 126 fegments, yellowifh with a dull red line down 
the back ; head with 5 equal feelers: neck horned each fide 
above : tail terminated by 2 fine threads, thrice as long as 
the feelers. 

Pinnata. Body convcx : peduncles cirrate and pinnate. 
Mull, Zool. Dun. I, /), 102. tab. 2g,Jig,\—~. 
Inhabits bays of Nsrivay, on a blucifh clay. 
5<7..v cl cfnut with a blue-glofs; fegments 106— 122; ieeuivrhh 
5 jointed feelers; tail ending in z Ihort thick filaments. 

Csrniculata ^ody fubdcprefled, pinnate: peduncles furnirtied with ^ 
cirrus and long limple brilUe. 

Mu/l. Zool. Dan 2. tab. ^2- fg 1 — 4. 

Inhabits Nor-ivay Heas ; extremely minute and .".dive. 

Body whiulh, fplcndid, andgafhed tach fide ; the fegments about 
28 : lead with 6 feelers ; eyes glomerate and fine red: tail 
ending in 2 filaments, longer than the feelers. 

Pufilla. Body (lepreiTcd : peduncles cirrate, the filaments jointe3. 
Inhabits Nor-ivay Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan. pro dr. 2631, 

Incisa. Body convex, the fcgmems diftant: peduncles fimple 
O. Fabr. Fn, Grcrnl. p. 255. n. 277. 

Inhabits the Greenland Seas, \zt ficm lard. End among the rgqCj 
of the larger Ulvie ; z\ inches lo; i,. 

88 WORMS. MOtLUSCA. 29. Ncrfeis. 

Body elongated, above pale feriiig^noiis and greyi/h in the mid- 
dle, beneath reddifh- white, with a longitudinal furrow down 
themiddl*: her>d '\\'h 4 feelers: front with i Cirri: ja'v.s 
yellow : fegments arout 80. 

Mphroditoi- Body deprefTc'cl, not grooved : peduncles eiirate and furnifh- 
idei, ed with papilla^. 

0; Fabr, Fn. itdnl. p. 296. w. 27^. 

Inhabits the Greenland Seas w th a muddy bottom ; an inchlong; 
Head white; jdtvs and eyes blick : feilers 4: front with 2 cirri : 
Wy pellucid, the tore-part ochre-yellow, the reft reddifh vvi:h 
2 ferruginous lines on the ahdomen j fimetimes it is greenifh^ 
with reddifh lines on the abdomen and traniverre ones on the 

B. Mouth furn't pied iviih a prohojc'is. 

*Carulea, Smooth, deprelTed, blueifli-green, pellucid. 

Inhabits the Ocean. Brit. Zool p. 47. tab. 25. fig. 32. 

Body fnining, about 4 inches long, with a groove along the belly. 

*ritidis. Body deprcfTed : peduncles with lanceolate lafriellx or fcales. 

^dams 1 ratf. Lift. Soc. v. p, 8, 

Mu/I, Wurtn. p. 162. tab. \l.fg, i — 6. 

Inhabits the North Seas, and was found among young plants of 
the Fucus pinnatifidus at Tenheigh ; 2 — 3 inchc^ long. 

Body filiform, grafs-green. With about i 30 equal fegments : bead 
with 3 feelers each fide : eyes 2, black : proboCcis clavate, which 
it protrudes upon being touched : //?// with 2 fhort cirri. The 
younger ones are reddi/h, with Inowy head, feelers, cirri an'.' 

Maculaid. Body convex ; peduncles Svith heart-fiiaped fcales. 
. Mull, Wurm p 156. tah. io. fg. 1—6. 
Inhabits the AV/^iS/'af ; z~ — 4 inches long. 
Body with 200 fegments, green with a darker longitudinal line 
each fide, beneath paler and uniform : probofcis clavate, long, 
white ftriate with red : tyei 2 : bead white, front with 2 tTiort 
cirri each fide : feelers 4, white : brillles and fcales of the pe- 
duncles yellow-green : M^/ ending in 2 fhort cirri. 

Crafa. Body deprelTed : probofcis cylindrical : peduncles red, Vi^nh 
branched briftles. 
MuiUVur-n. p. 1 56. tab. I2. /|f. I-3. 
Inhabits the Ocean, on floating fucus ; 4 inches long. 
Body e.(\\i3X : head fmall, with 4 red feelers and 2 fhorter rec 
frontal cirri : eyes 2, black : probofcis truncate^ exfertile : tan 
* with 2 rigid uncaaal briftles, 


WORMS, MOLLUSCA. 29. Nereisi 


Shili/era. Body depreflcd : peduncles with elliptic fcales^ 

Mu//, Zool. Dan. 2 fai. 62. fig. 1- 3. 

Inhabits bays of Noriuay. Body filiforiil white, with oblong 
fcales on the back ; beneath a red line down the middle : 
head vjxx^xb feelers ; eyes 2 : peduncles come, curved back, with 
briitles at the tip^ and on one fide difpofcd in a fan-lhapcd 

PunSata, Body (lightly deprelTed : peduncles furriifhed with vei^y long 

Mull ZooL Han. 2, tab. 62. fig. 4, 5. 

Inhabits the Northern Seas, in oyfter-fliclls or uiider ftones. 

Body ycWowl^, with tranfverfclarovvn itreaiks and a longitudinal 
l-ed line down the hack; fegment;^ abut 40: head with 4 cir- 
ri : gyes 4 : cone of the peduncles marked with 4 black dots " 
tail tndiDg in z cirri. 

Mlfa, Body cdnvex i front horned : peduncles bifid* 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 62. fig. 6, 7 
. Inhabits Nor-way Seat, on a clayey bottom. 
Body white, annulate, and tapering behind: eyesO: phhfifcit 
membranaceou-s very pellucid, and capable ot being inflitedl 
to twice the width of the body : peduncles 77 each fide .1 . 

Plava4 Body depfelTcd : peduncles with oblong-ovate fcales^' 
Oi Fakr.fn. Greenl. p. 299. tab. 282. 

Inhabits the North Seai, among the roots of Ulvae ; 27 lines long. 
Body with about 140 fegments, yellow : feelers 2, united at the 

bafe : probo/cts with 2 fhort cirri ; eyes 2, black : peduncles with 

black brililes : tail with 2 black cirn. 

Longa* Body (lightly dcprelTed, and fiirnilhed with Conic papillii 
inltead of fcales of the peduncles. 

O Fahr./n. Grant, p, "2,00 i n. 283. 

Inhabits the (hofes of Greenland with a clayey Of fandy bote > , 
near the mouths of rivers ; 9 inches long. 

Body \^\t\\ (90— 240 fegments; fometimcs white, with black 
brifties and cirn at the end of the tail ; fomctimes reddilh ab"*/ 
or grey-green j fometimes greenilh above with darker fid-'i , 
beneath whitilh with a braffy tinge : ptduncles bifid. 

Ffijmatic^i Body triangular: peduncles diftant, with a fingle fetigera'is 
papilla citrate above. 
O. h'abr.fn. Grant, p. 302. n. 285. 
Inhabits the (hores ot Greenland; about 6 lines long. 
Body with 25 feg.Ticnts, ochre-yellow, with 3 grey lines on :' e 
back: head wnh. numerous white cirri, neck with ir: eyes \: 
rrt/'/ ending in 2 white cirri. 

VOL. IV.— M B/ofm 

90 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 29. Nereis. 

Bifront* Body deprelfed : peduncles with a fingle fetigcrous papilla 
cirrate above^ the middle ones alio branched. 

O. Fabt. fn. Grctnl. p, 303. », 286. 

Inhabits with the ialt, ^nd is continually moving icfelf about; 
near an inch long ; iegments 56. 

Bsily redcljlh brown ; head -wh^ii : eyes 4 ; cirri 7, 

Ccccai Body flightly convex: feelers 2, very fliort: peduncles 

with double ciliate lanaellze. 
0. Fabr.fn. Grxnl. p. 304. n. 287. 
Inhabits iandy fhores of Greelanci, under ftones, and like the 

Lumbricas burrows very deep ; 8 inches long. 
Body with 86 — lOO fegmenis ; feelers obtulely conic; probofas 

large, fphserical; eyts o. 

Ebranchia- Body round, annular, and tapering both ways : peduncles 
ia. cylindrical, ihort and bitarioufly pinnate each lide : 

feelers o. 
Pall. iiov. Ail. Petrop, 2. /. 231. tab, 5. fg, 8—1 o. 
Inhabits the German and Indian feas. 
Body blueifli or grey-brown, with 269 fegJlicnts, the laft crenatc. 

T.amliigera ^ody flattifh and tapering both ways: probofcis ftellate 

with 4 flelh-colour fpines: peduncles comprelfed and 
- furnifhed with a femilunar fcale above, aod a larger 

femi-heart-fliaped one beneath. 
Shanv Natur. M. if cell, ix. tab. 311. 
PalL nonj. act. Petrop. 2. p. 233. tab. 5. fig. 1 1 --17. 
Inhabits the Indian, Mediterranean and Northern feas, among 

aquatic plants, and is nearly 2 feet long. 
Body ochre-colour, with a dark line down the middle of the 

belly; fegments 200—550; head with 4 feelers; eyes 2, 

black; /«// bifid. 

Ciliata. Body depreflcd : moivth cylindrical, retractile: anterior 
margin ciliate : feelers o. 
MulL Zeol. Dan. 3. /. 14. tab, Sg, fig. 1—4. 

C. Mouth furnifhed with a tube. 

Prolifera. Body deprelfed : peduncles cirrate: front with a fingle 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 52. lig. 5—9. 
Inhabits bays of Aoriufl)' ; fegments 32— 46. 
Body rufous : head with 3 feelers : ejes 4, black : forceps and pro- 
bofcis o, but in its Head a thick fiexuous pellucid tube : tail 
with 2^cirri, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 30. Nais. 91 

,'50. NATS. Body creeping, long, linear, pel- 
lucid, deprelled: peduncles or feet -with 
finali briitles each lide : tentacuLa or 
feelers 0: eyes 2 or 0. 

Vermicula- Lateral briftles o : chin bearded, 
luris. Mull. IVtirm. tab. 4. Jig. 1,2. 

Roe/. Inf. 3. f. 578. tab, 93. Jig. 1-7. 

Found in Itagnant waters, adhering to duck-weed : 2 lincslong 

Head fubclavate : e^et o: peduncles with 5—6 briillcs. 

^Serpentina Body ferpentinc, with red fpiral inteftines and triple black 
Eha-iv, Nattir. Mi/cell. viii. tab. 270. 
MuU, Wurm, /, %^, tab. 4. Jig. 3, 4. 
RqcJ. Inf^ 3. p. 567. tab. 92. 
Inhabits Europe, in ftagnant waters ; 9 lines long* 
Peduncles warty, with 3 hooked briftles. 

*Prohn/ci. With finglc lateral briftles and very long probofcis. 
dea, Shanv Natur. Mrfcel. X. tab. 379. 

Mull. JVurm. p. 14. tab. I. fg. 1—4. 

Boef. Inf. %, p. 483. tab. 78. fg, 16, 17, tab, 79; /g-. I. 

Tremhley Polyp, tab. 6. Lcdcrm. Micref. tab. 82. fg.f* h. 

Inhabits clear ftagnant waters ; about \ of an inch long. 

Body hyaline with a blackifli flexuous inteftinc, each fcgment 
with a fingle longifli briftle each fide • head forked, and armed 
with a mouth and tongue : ^ent terminal : feeds on invifible 
aquatic infefts. 

^Unguis, With fingle lateral briftles, and without probofcis. 

MulhWurm, p.y^, tab. z: Jig. I -4. 

Inhabits river water; 4—5 lines long, and narrower than the lad. 
Mouth placed before and obtufe; forceps and probofcis o: vent 

*Digitata. With fingle lateral briftles : tail lacinia*e. 

^ha-w Natur. Mifcel. xii. Z^;^. 452. 

Mull. Ifurrn. p. 90. tab. 5. fg. 1—4. 

Found in Itagnant waters, or the fandy fcdiment of rivers, with 
its head attached to the llalk of aquatic plants; 4 lines long. 

Body with a reddilh vein down the middle, and turnifhed be- 
neath with a double row of very minute cihate protube- 
rances ; eyes o ; tail rounded and furniihed with 6 unequal 
rctrartile proccfles, 

M 2 Bat bat a. 


WORMS. MOI^LUSCA. 3i.Afcidia, 

1 areata. I^ateral briftles fafciculate: probofcis o. 

Mull, ffurm. p. So. tab. 3. Jig. i — 3, 

Found in the wet hollpwB of damp woods : 4 lines long, and is 
generally found adhering to fnails. 

^o?y furnilhea witii hairs beneath, ebch fegment with 4 diver- 
gent brjftlcs each fide ; fyet 2, black. 

( acft» I^ateral warts briftly : eyes p. 
iW^/. Zodi Dan prodr, 2653. 
lnhi\yi,x.i Northern S(as, and is probab'y the fame 3s Nereis caeca, 

Littoralii' Lateral bridles either o, Tingle, double, or fafciculatc. 
MuU. Zooi Dan. 2, tah. So, f':g. I — 8. 
Ipiiabits the fandy (hores of Copenhagen, 
iJo</y long, hliform. equal, red, very fragile and compofecl of nu» 

merous crowded annulations, with j6, 30, 37 fegnients, each 

furnilhcd with a lateral brilUc. 

MarinM. Bpdy with fingle lateral briftles, and furnilhcd with an ex- 

fertile tube 
tabrlfn Granl p. 315. » tgj. 
inhabits ifhores ot Greenland, under marine confervas; hardly 

an inch long, and rcfembltts Nereis prolifera. 
^o</v whitifli with a yellow ifh»grey line down the middle, above 

convex, beneath flat, and pointed behind : eyes 2. 

Ouady'icuf' Lateral warts bifid and briftly: abdomen fiirniflied with 
cirri tail 4-clett. 

0. fait fn. Grcenl- / 315. n. 296. 

Inhabits fandy coafts o{ Iceland, under ftones: 2| inches long. 

Socy ompofed" of 104 annular fegments, lometimcs pale red, 

' lometimes reddifh grey with a longitudinal purple lire> which 
is of a rjchcr colour beneath ; t-'pering towards both ends, and 
flatter beneath: eyet Atid/eeUrs o : tail ending in 4 procefles, 

31, ASCIPIA. Body fixed, roundifli, an4 
apparently ifliiing from a ilieath : aper- 
tures 2, generally j)laced near the upper 
erid, one beneath tlie other. 

Thcfe are found in the fea, and adhere by their bafe to rocks, 
(hell.*, and other fubmarine fubftances: they are more or Icfs 
gelatinous, a^J havt the power of fquirting out the water 
they take in : foinc of them arc,, fculent ; molt of them feflile, 
though a ftw are furniflied with a long italk or l«buljr ftem. 
7 hey alternately contradl and dilate thtmfelves. 


pi data. 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 31. Afcidia. 9^ 

Pafillofa. Body rough, and covered with fcarlet tubercles, 

Innabitstiic Adratic, Barbut^s Worms, tab. ^. fig. It 
Boadjch. Mar. 130. ttib. 10. /i^, I. 

Gslatinojn. Body fmooth, fcarlet, and fubdiaphanous. 

inhabits the Mediterranean, Broad/cb, Mar. tab. \0.fig. 3. 

* Iptejlinii- Body elongated, fmooth, whitifti, membranaceous, like the 
'^' inteftines of a quadruped. 

Inha-^its European Seas. Barbut's Worms, tab. ^./ig 3. 

Bttlierop.Jubf.Zyp 84 fab. \0.fig. 5, 

Boadjch, mur. 132. tab. \o.flg. 4. 

Gunner A^. nidrts. 3. />. 8 1, tab. I fig' 3» 4» 

BodyronnA, !ong, and tapering towards the bafe : one of the 
apertures placed 4t the fummit, the other a little below it and 
latordl : under the membrane is another canal, reaching nearly 
to the baie, and bending back up to the lower aperture 

Quadriden- Smooth, whitifh : the apertures 4-toothed. 
tata, Inhabitb North Seas, Mull. Zool. Dan. prodr, zyzt. 

Body fubglobular, 4 lines long, with 2 prominent beaks. 

* Rujlica, Oblong, brownifh with flefti-colour apertures ; the extre- 

mities rough, the middle fmooth. 
Brit. Zool iv. tab. 23./^, 35. Barbut. tab, <y.fg, 4, 
Mul. Zool. Dan. i./>. 49. tab. \^,Jig. \-^^. 
yohnfl. exang tab. \(). Jig. 8. 
Inhabits European Sea* ; about 2 inches long. 
Body flat beneath, one end turning up, 

Ecbinat^ Body h^mifphifical, hifpid, with fcarlet gaping mouths. 
Inhabits North Seas. Mull. Zaol. Dan. prodr. 2722. 
Boay whitifh, covered with warts each of which is armed at the 
tip wita divergent fubciliate prickles like the Caftus, the 3 
uppcf ones larger flefh-colour and ending in apertures, 

t^entuU, Body CQippreffed, hairy, with a red pouch: one of the 
apertures lateral. 
Mall. Zq^I. Dan. I. />. 24. n. 6. tab..^.fg 1-^4. 
Planch. Canch.p. 1 09 tab. 7. Jfohnjf. exang. tab. 20. Jig, 2. 
Gjfn. Jijcb. p. \^\.fig. I. Hill Anitn. \.tab f^. 
lournPhy/. 1777. ^'^'- P- 3S6. tab. t. Jig. 1^3. 
Inhabits the Northern Ocenn : 5, 6 inches long. 
feJy like an unformed mafs and covered with the fibfUs of 
Cc^nferva:, ochre-yeUoy. pellucid and gelatinous, 


94 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 31. Afcidla. 

Venofa, Elongated, fubcompreflfed, torofe, red; pouch the fame 
Mull, Zool. Dan. \. p. 85. tab. 25. Jig. i — 3, 
Inhabits Norivay Seas, adhering to Fuci : apertures red. 

Prunum. Ovate, {mooth, hyaline, with a white pouch : one of the 
apertures lateral. 
Muli. Zool. Dan. \.p. 127. ». 61. tab. ^J^-fg- I --3. 
Inhabits Northern Seas; fiz2 and appearance of a piumb. 
Skin milk-white, wrinkled; raysr of the apertures brown, 

Conchikga, Covered with fragments of fhells : pouch white, and gra- 
dually becoming blue. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. I. p. 128. «. 62. fai, 34, fig. 4.-6. 
Inhabits fcas of Noriuaj j body gelatinous, fubdiaphanous, cy- 
lindrical or oval. 

Parallelo' White, CQnvex, hyaline: pouch reticulate yellowifh: one 
gramma, of the apertures yellowilh. 

Mull, Zool. Dan, 2. tab. ^^'Jg- I— 3. 
Inhabits Norivay, amongft Fuci. 

Body oblong, nearly fquare with obtufe angles, and fometimes 
marked with fcarlet lines. 

yirgbiea. Elongated-compreljed, cryftalline, fmooth, with tranfverfe 
fcarlet rtrcaks: pouch reddilh. 
Mull Zool- Dan. 2. tab. ^q.fg. 4, 

Inhabits Nirnjoay Seas; on rocks, and refemblcs a piece of ice. 
Aperture, furroundcd with a tew' fparlct dots. 

Can'tna; Elongated, round, flaccid : pouch red. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. SS'-fiS' ^-'^' 
Rediopufc, •},. tab. 21. fig. 6. 

Redi amim. njiu. negl. ipi. 'uiv.p. lOU tab* l^' fg' 6, 
Plane. Conch. p. 45. tab. ^.fg- 5. 
Bsadfch JnJm. mar p. I 32. tab. lO.fg. 4, 5. 
Jout-n. Phff. I'll']. Febr.p. \ i.//^. I--7. 
Inhabits the Atlantic and Norivay Seas. 

Skin large glabrous white fubpellucid : clrcuihference of the 
apertures rich red, 

Paiula. Roundifh, yellowifh, rough, with a red pouch: orifices 
fcarlet patulous, one of them lateral. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab' 65. fig. i. 
Inhabits the Norijuay Seas, on rock fuci. 
Body pellucid ; mouth rtfcmbing a flafk, 


WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 31. Afcidia. 9^ 

Ajperfi. Subcompre(rcci, roughifli, uhite: pouch fpotted with red. 
Inhabits Norivay Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan. z, tab. d^./ig. 2. 
BoJy heart-Hiaped: skin pcllacid and fraooth vviihin : pouch 

Scatra, ComprelTed, whitifh, roughifli: pouch red, orifices the 

fame colour. 
Mull. Zuoi. Dan. 2, tah. (>S-/'g' 3- 
Inhabits Nor^Maj Seas, adhering by it's fide to Fuci, 
Body apparently fmooth, but roughifli to the touch : appertures 

rather narrow with a conic ntck : pouch not fpotted : outer 

skin very pellucid gelatinous and ffardiih. 

Orbicularis Deprelfed, whitifli, with unequal raifed dots on the pouch, 

r Inhabits Nor-ziay Seas ; on the Kucus rufus. 

\> Body gelatinous, orbicular, half an inch diameter, pellucid with 

[• anopakedisk: apert ure } coWneral, 6 7 toothed, with a fcarlec 

!. do: at the tip of the teeth : pouch whitifh. 

fCorrugata. Elongated, glabrous : pouch cinereous with white bands. 
Muii. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 79. fig. 3, 4, 
Inhabits Norivay Seas, adhering by it's roots to Fuci. 
Body round flaccid plaited wrinkled, the outer skin hyalkjc ; 
orifices pale yellow. 

Lepadifor- Clavatc, hyaline : with a yellow inteftine. 
mis. Mull. Zool. Dan. z. t ib. J(^.fig. 5. 

Inhabits Seas of Norivay, adhering to Crabs and Fuci. 

Body becoming eafily flaccid; club comprelfed and nearly fq^uare.- 

Om/Za»a/« DcprefTed, unequal, whitifli, with black inteftines : orifi- 
ces with tulvous dots. 
€. Fab./n. Grccnl. p. 332. n. 320. 
Inhabits landy fliorcs ot i,reeniand, adhering firmly bv its bafc 

to Hones aid rocks : 9 lines long. 
Body rather flefhy, oblong, pellucid, 

^ubcrculum Oblong, comprefl'ed gibbous, yellowifli with raifed dots of 
the fame colour : orifices vertical red. 
O. Fakr.fn Gra:nl. p. 332, n. 32!. 

Inhabits the deeps about Greenland, and adheres firmly to the 
roots of Ulv3c ; about 3. lines long. 

f'iilo/a, Obovate, fixed by roots, covered with thick whitifli wool: 
apertures terminal and uniform in colour. 
0. Fatr.fn. Grani, p. 335. ». 322. 




WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 31. Afcidia. 

Inhabits deeps of the Greenland Seas, fixed by its roots among 

the roots oi Ulvse: about 4 lines .long. 
Btdy erea found, covered with minute tubercles. 

Oval, with a long filiform ftem j both the apertures lateral. 

Nat4 MijcelL tahi 156. Mull. ZonU Dan, prod'-. 2741. 

Inhabits the Northern Oceatii and is found firmly fix. d by its hafe 
to ftones and rocks, and frequently covered dver with ferpulae 
and Zoophytes : about 9 inches long. 

Sodi reddifli-brownj covered with a thick callious skin ; within 
glabrous and white : Jle/» round, fihform, rigid ereft, a little 
bending, and thicker towards the tip: the clu^ or head fome- 
times fmooth, fometiines flightly grooved : atertures rough 
raifed and paler. 

Peduncuk' Stem gradually tapering, the head or body fufiforra : both 
ta, the apertures terminal. 

Vortex ovifeia. Syd. Nat,xi\. Ed^'. Glean. 356. 

PalU Sptdl. ZooU \o.p. 25; tab. \.fg, 16. 

Inhabits the lea between AJta and North America, and is found 

adhering to various marine fubftances. 
Body coriaceous, very much wrinkled, fcarlet, with papillary 
orifices furrounded by a few circular wrinkles. 

*MammiJ' Somewhat parallelipiped and whitlfh: apertures terminal, 
iaris. and ot the fame colour as the body. 

Palt. Spicil. Zool. 10, p. 24. tab. I, fig. 15. ^ ^ 

Inhabits the coaft of Comivall, and is found adhering in an 

horizontal pofuion, to fubmarine rocks. 
Body very irritable, varioufly fhaped wrinkled and gibbous, and 
here and there fprinkled with foft hairs; of a coriaceous fub- 
ftance and dirty whitifti : nipple of the aperture haemifphx- 
rical and a moft elegant fcarlet within* 

Glohularis. OvaUfphsrical, femipellucid: apertures terminal and fcarely 


Inhabits the fands of the Frozen Sea. Pali It. 3. «. 57. /• 1°9' 

Body ihoMt the fize of a cherry, affixed by a very fhort peduncle : 

jj^in hardilh imootft, and covered with agglutinated particles 


Phii/ca* Body round, red: both the apertures lateral. 

Alcyonium Phufca. fersk.f*. ^g. p. iig. f- Sz. 
Inhabits the Seas about Smyrna and Conjiantimple : 2 i inches 
long. The Greeks take off the outer skin and eat it with lemort 

j'lice. . n. • u 

Body fmooth, obtufe at each extremity^ fomctimcs ftraight, 

(^mctimes incurved^ 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 32. Satpa* 97 

OeJaiina* Comprefled, fmooth, white, with a pale pouch : orifices 
iurrounded with pale yellow dots. 
Inhabks Norivay Seas. Mull. Zool, Dan. prodr^ ijlp 

Cryflalina, Comprefred, fmooth, the pouch whitifh Snd fprinkled vi^Ith 
ieariet dots, 
lixhabits Nornuuy Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan.prodr. 2725. 

Ocioietttata Oblong, a-beaked, fmooth, whitifh : apertures 8 and 6- 
Inhabits Northern Seas. Ail. Hafn. lO, p. 1 68. fig, 7-9, 

PatelUfor" Bddy white with a red didc. 
mis, \Ti\A\ii\.\North Seas. Mull. Zco!. Dan. proar, zy^f). 

Pyura, ■ Conic, fmooth, within papillous and red 5 wtth 2 terminal 
tubes and 2 black dots between therti. 
Inhabits the Chili (horcs, many of them inclofed together in a 
fort of pouch or fack j they are eaten by the inhabitants. 

Auranti.i.n Subglobular, with a fcarlct poucli covered with rougti 
hardifh dots: papillae or nipples terminal cylindrical 
and wrinkled. 
Pall.noa'iAfli Peif-op. 2. p. 246. tab. J. fig. 38. 
Ihhahir? the fe-^ round the Curilc IJlana^. and adheres by its bafe 
to fhell and ftones : about the fize of an orange. 

Glohuitris* Ovate-globular, femipellucid, glabrous, pedunculate, with 
a finely pnndlured pouch: apertures diftant and very 
flightly prominent. 
Tall. no^. act. Petrop. 2. /. 247. tab. "J, fig. 39, 40. 
Inhabits Ncnhern Seas, about the fize of a large cherry. 
Body very (imple, v\ith a fhort peduncle or ftcm, pale grey, and 
rough with fine agglutii ated iand. 

Tafciculaii Body pyriform, fubferruginotis and flightly hairy : aperture 
furronnded witli 10 fafciculate tentacula or feelers. 
Shafw Nc,turaL Mi/cel. vi. ^ab. 214 

Inhabits the leas about Borneo, and is a very elegant marine 

82. SALPA. Body loofe, nayantj gelatinous, 
tuburar, and open at eacli extremity : 
intcjline placed obliquely. 

•VOL. I v.— N Tho 

o? WORMS. MOLLUSCA. *32. Salpa. 

The animals of this Genus are of a gregarious nature, and often 
adhere together ; they fwim with great facility, and have the 
power of contrafting or opening at pleafure the cavities at the 

A, Furnljhcd with an appendage. 

Maxima. Body with a fmall appendage at each extremity. 

Inh3.bits the Mediterranean. Nat. Mifcei vii, tsb. 232. 

Body hyaline with a bhieilh caft, ab-jat a fpan long, fomewhat 
quadrangular, with a dull teftaceous fpot at the lovver end : 
the lower appendage is fubulate, the upper conic. 

Pinndta. Mouth terminal : back with a yellow and white line : ab- 
domen with 2 reddilli-white lines. 

Inhabits the I^lediferraasa ■, Forjk. fn. Arab. p. 1 1 3. n. 31. 

Body about 2 inches long, nearly triangular, hyaline with an 
opake line on the back: appendage referabling a fi-n, and ra- 
ther triangular, 

Democrati- Body fafclate and prickly behind. 
ca. Shaiv Natur Mijcel, tab. 236, ForJk. jEgypt. /. n 3, ». 32. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, m large groupes, and fwimaiing 

confufedly in all direftions : about an inch long. 
Body oval, truncate before and ending in about 8 fpines behind, 
with a blueifli nucleus at the bafe or a radiate circle/ 

Mucronata. Mouth lateral : front with a hyaline fpine placed on the 
right fide, and another at the tail placed on the left 
fide: nucleus or Ipot behind oblong and blue. 

Inbabits the Mediterranean. ForJk. fn, Arab. / 1 14, «. 33. 

Body about an inch long, oblong-ovate, pointed behind : michut 

B. JVithout the terminal appendage. 

Punaata. Mcwth nearly terminal : back dotted with red and mucro- t 
natc behind : tail projecting. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean. Forsk. fn, ./Egypt. ^.114. n, 34. 
Body about an inch and a half long, hyaline with obfolcte bands 
oji the abdomen : nudeus cr fpot nea<- the tail opake 2nd yel- 

Qonfadtra- Mouth terminal : back gibbous. 
ta. Inhabits the Mediterranean, Forsk. fn. Arab. p. 11^. n. 3 j. 

Body about an inch long, nearly quadrangnlar, hyaline, foft, 
with a globular-ovate nucleus behind the gibbofity of the back, 
opake and reddifh-broWn with a pcUucid line proceeding 
from it, 


WORMS MOLLUSCA. 33. Dagyfa. 


Fa/ciata. Ovate-oblong: mouth terminal : abdomen fafciate: intcf- 
tine filiform, incurved above the nucleus or fpot. 
Inhabits the Mediterransan. Forsk. fn. Arab, f. 115. n. 36. 
Body/ about an inch and a half lone, hyaline with 5 bands on the 
abdomen: nucleus marginal, opake and ferruginous. 

tipU, Subcylindrical, obtufe, hyaline, with ii reddifli-brown nu- 

cleus : front wi^h 2 fmall tubes, the tips of which are 
perforated and red 

Inhabit? the Red Sea, Forsk. fn. Arab, p. 115. «..'3;7. 

Body not an inch long, nffixcd by its hale to ftoncs or fponge : 
nuchus near the bale, globglar and opake : intelUne bhieifh- 

Africana, Subtriangular tranfverfely, with loftriK? mouth terminal : 
bale with (i gibbofity and 3 nuclei, 
Fonk fn. Arab. yEgypt. p. Il6. n. 38. 
Inhabits fhores of Tuanis; about an inch and a ♦kalf long. 
Body hyaline, the firll nucleus opake, brown and globular, the 
reil whitish and fubpcUucid. 

SoUtaria. Hyaline, oval: mouth terminal, with a blue tube: vent 
lateral, blue. 
Torsk.fn. Arab. ^'Egypt, p, 1 1 6. n, 39, 
Inhabits the Red Sea, and is found adhering to grafs. 
Bod)/ hardly an inph long, a little depreffed : nucleus near the 
middle at the bafe, globular and pale reddilh brown, 

falycratica. Mouth placed beneath the upper extremity : front and tail 

[• Inhabits the Mediterranean, Forsk. fn, Arab. p. 116. ». 40. 

Body about an inch and a half long, rather rigid : abdomen with 
5 iranfverfe bands : nucleus globular, brown. 

33. DAGYSA. Body \oo^e, nayantj angulaf, 
tubular, and open at each extremity. 

iiotatei. Bocy marked at one end with a brown fpot. 
Banks and Solander, Ha'-jukefnvorth Foy, ii. p. 2, 
Inhabits the Spatiijli Sea ; 3 inches long and l thick. 
Thefe adhere to each other by the fides, and fo nearly i-ercmble 
the Genus Salpa, that they might with propriety be incorpo- 
rated into one. 



109 WORMS. MOLLUSCA, 34. Clava. 35. Aainia: 

34. CLAVA. Body flefhy, gregarious, rla^ 
vate, and fixed by a round peduncle: 
aperture fmgle and vertical, 

^ara/itica. With a whitifh pellucid peduncle, opake red club or head, 
and Covered with pellucid conic ere6l fpines. 
Muller Berch. berl. Naturf i. f. 406 tah. 5 Jig. 3, 4. 
Inhibits the Baltic, on iea weeds, fliell-firfi, and floating tim- 
ber: liiic the Hydra it pofTcfles^ the power of dilating an4 
coatrading the mouth. 

35. ACTINIA. Body oblong, cylindrical, 
fleihy, c(>ntra(!:tile, fixed by the bale ; 

* niouth terrninal, expanfde, furroundtd 
with numerous cirri, and without any 
other aperture. 

THefe marine animals are viviparous, and have no other aper- 
ture except the mouth : they feed on Ihell fi(h ^nd other ma- 
rine animals, which they draw in with their tcntacula or 
feelers, in a Ihort time rejcfting through the fame aperture, 
th' Ihells an^ indigcltible parts : they aflufne various forms, 
and when the tentacula are all expanded, have the appearance 
of full-blown flowers : ii\any pf them are eatable, and feme of 
thejn very fapid. 

Rufa, Rufous, with a rofy foramen or rnouth, and pale cirri; 
Mull. Zool. Dan I- / 75. i<i^' 23- 

Pi>ilof. Travf.\.i. tab. \b. fig. i — 3. Hill Anim. tah. 5. 
][nhabits the Ocean, and adhere? to rocks : its Ihape is very va- 
• riaWe, cylihdrical, globular, or evolute : r/rr/whitifli, flender, 
• flexible, movcabk and ihortcr than the diameter of the body^ 

the tip truncate. 

•Crajftcof" Body reds with thick conic cirri. 
^■f» Skaiu Natur. Mt/cei. tah^ 330 Barbut tab. 5, fig, 6, 

BafUr opujc. Jubf. 3,/. I ZO. tab. \'^. fig., i. 
Otcqueni P'hil, '^IranjaSl, 63. tab l6, fig. 10. tab. ij /. ll,l^. 
Inhabits the Atlantic, European, and Nortb Seas, 
Body pale red, tranfverfely wrinkled : cirri whitifh at the tips, 

^Plumof^, Tentacula fmall: the margin furroynded vith pencilled 
!4u(l. ZooltDan, 3, f, 12, tab, Z^, fig. i..— 4. 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 35.-Aaini. 


Bapr op./ubf. 3. /. 1 12. tab. 1 3. Jig. 2. 

Cunner act. Nidre/.^. p. 425. tab.']. » 

Picquem. Phil. Ira^'Jaa. 63. />. 397. 

Plane, conch tnia. nat, p. 43, ta6, 4. fig, 6, 

Inhabits ihe European Ocean, and is a inoft beautiful jparine ani- 
mal : its colours are very various> being red, fometimcs brown, 
orchclnut, or yellovvi(h-brown, white, or yellow ilh-grcen ; 
fometimes opake, ana often pellucid : the divifions of the 
aperture arc white or rufous, and fometimes orange, 

^AntmonoT Body nearly cylindrical, fhortifh, red: interior tentacula 
iiiei. ramiiicd, exttiior ones conic, obtufe. 

Inhabits rocky coafts ol Europe. Natur. Mi/cel. tab. 26^ 27. 
Bcdy with a triple row of circular tentacula, of a yellow colour 
varied with red : when it becomes lantjuid it protrudes the 
interior vifccra in the form of an inflated membrane, of a pale 
yellow colour ftripcd with rays of red and pale iea-green, 

Judaifa. Cylindrical, fmooth, truncate, with an internally undulate 
fmooth ilcin, 
^r\\{9.\i\ts iV.t Mediterranean. Plane, conch, min. tab. 6. 

^Effata, Subcylindrical and angHlarlyflriate. 

Inhabits the Of^aw. Bajl. op. fubf. i. tab. i^./g.Zt 

Coccinta. Varied with white and red: cirri cylindrical and annulate, 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 63. fig. \ — 3. 

Inhabits North Seas, fixed to hici and ftones. 

Body cylindrical! truncate, glabrous, the upper margin armed 
with a double row of conic white tentacula annulate with 
red: the gland glabrous, with perforated fiflure* in the centre, 

Undata. ]3ody conic, pale, with doubled wrinkled fulvous ftreaks. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 2. tab. 63. fig, 4, 5. 
Inhabits North Seat, adhering to fuci and millepores. 
^c<^ cylindrical when protruded, and truncate-conic when re« 

trafted : tentacula proceeding from tloe centre, pale, pellucid 

and long- 

Vidu ta. Grey, with longitudinal white ftreaks and cirri. 
Mail, Zool. Dan. 2, tab. 63. fig, 6 — 8. 
Inhabits Norivay Seas, on the Fucus ficcharinus. 
^0^ conic-truncate with 24 ftreaks : aperture with a wrinkled 
t!c4 centre. 

*Trun^ttta Pale reddifli-yellow, conic, pellucid, glabrous. 

Dicl^uem, Philof. Tranf. by p. 387. /al. ij, fig, l^? 
Inhabits ^he European Ocean. 


.102 WORMS. MOLLUSCA, 35. Aainia; 

l^odoja. Wrinkled and grooved; larger at both extremities, the up- 
p«r-one tnberculate, with intermediate fhort comprcf- 
fcd fcarlet cirri. 

0,Fahr. fn. Grarnl p. 350. «. 341. 

Inhabits the deeps of the Greenland Seat; 4 inches long. 

Body reddifh-whitc : aperture furrounded by a double row of 

Spectahilis. Blue, fmooth : cirri thick, fpottcd with white: aperture 
0,Fal>r.fn. Grcenl. p. 351. n. 342. b. 
Inhdhiii Greenland (^or&s, in ihe caverns of rocks. 
Body 2 inches long, with longitudinal Ureaks fometimgs dotted 
with white. 

Digitata. Fulvous dotted with white : cirri rofy, 

Inh^h'ntKht Northern Ocenn. Mull. Zoil Dan. prodr.2-j(^6. 
Body fofc, lubricous, whitifh-grey or reddiflix witb longitudinal 
lines dotted with white. 

Gigautea. Greenifli-grey, with a plaited border many times broader 
than the body : tentacula nipple-lhaped and greenilh. 
Inhabits the Jted Sea, Forjh.fn. Arab. p. 100. 5, 8. 
Body 4 inches long : tentacula tipt with violet. 

Alba, Gelatinous, Avhiiiih-hyaline: tentacula fmall, nipplcrlhap- 

ed and oblong. 
Forjk. fn. yEg\pt. ^rah. p, lOl. w. 9. 
Inhabits the Red Sea,, £xed to ftones ; not an irich long. 
Body with longitudinal dufky ftrjpes. 

Viridit. Greenifli-browji, whh tentacula as long as the diameter of 
the body. 
Forsk.fn. y£gfpt. Arab. p. J 02, «. Jl. 
Inhabits /Alexandria, fixed to fubmarine rocks. 
Body about an inch in dianicter, with many rows of tentacula, 
and under thefe marginal glands. 

Friapus. Body cylindrical and dilated at the bafe : teritacula fpQtted, 

Forsk.fn, Arab. p. 102. n, 12- 

Inhabus the /?frf' 6Vi?, adhering to fliclls; 2 inches long. 

Bodi whitifh clouded with h|-ovvn, with a red circle round the 
mouth: tentacnla 3 times (horter than the diameter of the 
body, the outer ones rcdcjifu, inner-ones yellow- 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 35. Aainia. 103 

Qandida. Smooth with a wrinkled foramen: tentacula fctaceous, 
riexuous, and placed at the margin. 
Inhabits liorth Seas. Mull. ZooLDan. 3. />. 58. tab^ 1 15. 

Bicornii, Hemifphxrical-oval, glabrous, 2-horned. 

inhabits the Karth Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan. prodr. 2800. 

VoVva. Body cylindrical and flat above, with 6 appendages at the 
Inhabits the Hcrth Secu, Mull, Zool. Dart, prodr. 1801. 

*Carjophl' Red-brown, with fmall pencillate tentacula. 
lus. Martin Mnrine PForms. \. p: I. tab, \' fig. I. 

Inhabits the Bntijk Coads. 

Iris. Body with a whitifh centre, and obtufe cylindrical tenta- 

cula, the outer ones rutous, inner ones blue. 
Inhabits AW/. Seas, ■ Muli. Z.oqI. Dan. 3. tab, 82. fig. 5, 6. 

Fiftella, Body with longitudinal tranrverfcly ftrlate wiinkles: ten- 
tacula cylindrical, obtufe, annulate. 
Inhabits NorthSeas. Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. /. 1 3. tab. SS. fig. 3, 

Pufilla, Elliptical, fmooth ; \v\i\\ 2 rows of tentacula or rays, thg 
outer ones tipt with black. 
SiMartf. afl. Stock. 178S. 3. n.J. tab. 6. fig. 2. 
Inhabits the Ocean in about 57 degrees latitude; about the fize 
of a large pea, and is the principal food of Whales. 

*Cereus. Body longitudinally grooved, with numerous unretradile 
flender fea-green tentacula, rofy at the tips. 
Nut, Mi/cell. tad ^Z^. Phil. Tranf, 52. tab. \. fig' I. 
Inhabits the coafl of Cor«xo'^//. Body brown. 

*Bdlis. Body warty \ head refembling the calyx of a flower: ten- 
tacula rctradlile, variegated. Sea Daifie. 

Philof. TranfcM. 52. p. 79. tab. \- f'g' 2. 

Inhanits the coaft of Comnvall. 

Stem fmooth, foft, iucining to car-nation, with white warts 
changing infenfibly towariis the • oraer of ihe cup into purple 
and at laft into dark brown : te?:tucuia or rays pellucid, un- 
equal and of vanouj colours, fonoc of them pale alh with 
brown fpots, othcr-j chefnut with white fpots : disk ftellatc, 
compcJfed ot va ■■taied rays of a beautiful mixture pf browa 
yellow alh-colour .ind white. 


ip4 WORMS. i\IOLLUSCA. 35. Aainia. 

^Gemmiacea 'Diik furrounded by fertiitranfparent retra£lilc tentaailat 
body longitudinally ftriatc with numerous miliary 
l^hilof- 'i ranfaSl . <;2. p. 82. tab. \ . /ig^ \, 
Inhabits the coaft of Cornnvalt, in the fiflures of rocks. 
Body pale red near the bafe, the reft yellow mixed with grcy- 
aih : glands of the middle row white, the others the fame 
colour as the ftem : tentacula whitifh, varied a: the upper-p<<rt 
with feveral tranfverfe lines and brown fpots of ah irregular 
figure, and like the backs of fome Snakes* 

*Mefemhy' Diflc furrounded with retrad^ile tentacula, the outer mar- 
anthemum. gin with a row of tubercles. 

Philof, frajffaci 52. /. 83. tab. I. fg. 5. 

lahabits rocky Ihores of England, and is red in the fiunmer, and 
changes in the aujumn to a dufky-green or brown ; tentacula 
red, blue, white or variegated: tuhercki varying iu colour. 

Sociata. Body ilender, trumpet-fhaped, with a fub.,lobular head 
furrounded with tentacula: progeny produced from 
fiefhy tubes proceeding from the bafe. 

Ellis PbiloJ, Tranf. 57. p. 436. tabi 19. fig. I, 2. 

Sclander and EUi, Cor all. p. 5 tab. I, fig. 1,2. 

Inhabits Barbadoes, fixed to rocks by its fraaller end, and gene- 
rally found ir large groups. 

Afitr, Stem thick, fmooth, flefhy, fubcylindrical, truncate at the 

tip and furrounded with tentacula. , 

Ellis Philof TranfaSi. 57. p. 436. tab. 19. /Tf. 3. 
Inhabits the Weji India IJlauds. 

Anetiune, ^^^Y flefhy, flattened ; the dilk (lightly 6-an ded, and fiif- 
rounded with numerous rows of tentacu ai 
Inhabits AT^/? Indies, Phil. Tranj, 57, tab. 19. fig. 4, 5. 

Hilianthus. Body flefliy, flattened, falver-fliaped ; the difk round and 
furrounded with numerous rows of tentacula. 
Inhabits fVeJl Inaies, Phil. Tranf. 57. /. 436. tab. 19. /. 6, 7. 

*Dianthus* Sitiooth, fubcylindrical ; the diflc 5-parfed and foliaceous,- 

with fmall white tentacula : mouth elevated and 

(triate . Sea Carnation. 

Ellis Phil, Iranf. ^7. p. 436. tab: 19. fig. 8. 

Inhabits rocky coafts o[ England, adhering to the under parts of 

rocks : it hangs downwards, and when left by the tide has ihe 

appearance of » ilender long-f^alked yellow figt 


WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 36. Mammaria. 10^ 

C^leniiula. Stem fubturhinate: difk furrounded by petal-fhaped tenta- 
cula or rays. Sea Marigold. 

ticldticier arid Ellis Coral/., p. 7. faS, I. ^g. 5. 

Uughcs Uifl. Barbadoti. p, 293. tab. z\. fg. i. 

Inhabits Earbadoes, and when difturbed finks into a hole : the 
diik f'sjrnifhed with 4 dark-coloured threads or arms, which 
cioic. together like a forceps and inclofe the prey: probably a 
fpccjes of Tubularia. 

Doholu.r.. 3ody ^-fidcd arid greyifh; the fainter atigles rough with 2 
rows of papilla?: disk a little convex and furrounded 
with .2 tentacula or rays. ^ • (»i-> oi. 

Pall. Ml/cell. Zool.p. 152. tab. g, fig. 10—12, and fab. ic. 
Inhabit* the Cape cf goad Hape. Body nearly 10 ftded, 5 of the 
angles obfoletc or fainter, truncate at both extrcrtiities, and 
liendercr towards the lower-end: tentacula diylded, brown, 
rough with minute granulations, 

*Ma:ulcta ^^^^Y obfcure red beneath, Iranfparent white with fin6 
purple fpots above: tentacula retracllle numerous fhort 
4dani's TranfaSi. Lin. Soc. V. />. 8. 
Inhabits the Sea of Mi!ford Ha^xn, furroUnding the apertures of 

d<ifer:cd {hells of the Murex defpeflus 
QoJ^- loagituuinany grooved, the edges of the bafe crcnatc : outer 
circumterence of the aperture with a narrow (Iripe of pink : 
u'heo expanded, the upper divifjon of the body feems formed 
opflefhy bnrs placed iii a reticulate manner; and lined with a 
fine mepibrane : from perforated warts,, plated irregularly on 
ih-e outer, coat, iffue white ulaisicnts vari<}ufly' twifted. 

36. :\ r AMiM ARI A. . - * Body , :fmooth, without^ 
cirri or fa\'s : aperture fmgle. 

MantKiJia. Body conic, ventrifofe, white. 

Inhibits North Seat, Mull. Zool. Dan. prodr. 2718, 

Varia. BoJy ovate, varied with >vHit'e,ancI piirole.' 

Inhabits Northern Ocean'. Mull. Zoo}^ Danyprfdr. ijig. 

Cobulus. Body globular, cinereous, and not fixed. 
O. lubr.fn. Griznl. p. 329. «. 315. 
Inhabits inc Greenland Sbore,, amongli the roots of Puci, and iz 

the chief food at the TercbcUa cirrata. 
liodv very fimple, fott,' fmoorh, gelatinoift with a ve/y thirt skin : 
iicou: a li'.ic and half in diameter. 

VOL. IV.— O 37. 

ia6 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 37. Pedicellaria. 38. Tethys. 

37. PEDICELLARIA. 5<?4y foft and feated 
on a rigid fixed peduncle : aperture fingle. 

Clehifera. Head fphsrical: neck o. 

MulU Zpol, pM*t. I. p. ^2. faL i(>.Jig. I — 5. 

Inhabits Norttern Seat, among the fpincs of Echini. 

Boify minute and rcfembling a Mucor : heaJ reddilh, having the 

appearance of a fmall cherry : peduncle or flem tawny, and co« 

veied with a gelatinous Hyaline skin. 

Iriphylla. (lead 3-lobed, the lobes nearly fquare and unarmed : neck 
, ' round. 

"MuU. Zool. Dan. I. p. 54. tat>. l6./g. 6—9. 
Inhabits Nor/h Seat, among the fpines of Echini. 
/lead w'nh reddifh or hyaline lobes, fometimes ovate: neck flexu- 
ous blue : peduncle chefnot-brown. 

Tridtn%. Head 3-lobed, the lobes oval and awned: neck round. 

Mull. Zool, Dan. \. p, 54. tah. 16. «. lO — 15. 

Inhabits North Seat, among the fpines of Echini. 

Heck frapoth hyaline, fometimes reddifh : lobes of the heaJ fome- 
times 4., and 3 times as long as the neck, rarely unarmed with 
awn. : peduncle reddifh and 3 times as long as the neck. 

as. TETHYS. ^0^^ detached, rather oblong, 

' fleQ\y, without peduncles : rrwuth with a 

terminal cylindrical probofcis, under an 

expanded membrane or lip : apertures 2, 

, on the left fide of the neck. 

Leporina, Membrane or lip ciliate. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Column^ aquat, 27, tab 26. 

Fimbria, Membrane qv lip crenulate or pointed. 

Boadfch. Mar. -fab. ^.^g. i. 2 Barbut. tab. 6. fig. 1. 

Inhabits ihc^ Adriatic Sea : abouf 6 inches' long. 

Body white : lip rounded, fprcad over the fore-part of the head 

and broader than the body, the border ycllowifh and thicker 

than the lip. 


WCiRMS. MOLLUSCA. 39. Pterotrachea. 


S9. FrEROTRACHEA. Body detached, 
gelatinous, v/ith a moveable fin at the 
abdomen or tail : eyes 2, placed within 
the head. 

wata. Abdomen and tail fiirni (lied with fins: head wi.h a round 
perpendicular probofcis, and a coronet ot 10 fpines on 
the tront. 

Nat. Ml/cell. tab. 328. Forjk. Arab. p. 117. n, 41. 

Inhabits ihe Mediterranean and Archipel-ago- 

Body fubcylindrical, about a fpan long ind an inch in diameter; 
head rounded on the fore-part and furnifhed in fronc with a 
cornet of 10 conic fpines: beneath the coronet is thf pro- 
bofcie, nearly 2 inches long, with a vvhitifh middle ncrvs. .tnd 
thick hyaline tip and terminal mouth : e^e% ieated on each 
fide the back of the neck intern-illy, and remote : trunk near 
the fin beneath fpotted with white; abdomen rough beneath, 
with an ovate pendulous pouch before the fin : vent near tne 
ligament of the taii: /a/7 vertical, an inch long, triangular, 
■with 4 prickly lines each fide, and terminated each fide by a 
icmicordate horizontal pinnule :^a ntuatedi)eyond the middle 
of the body, orbicular, comprtfTed. and fixed to rhe white 
]aminx of the trunk which are crenate ea.h fide ; beneath in 
the margin is another pinnule which i* bell-fhaped, hyaline, 
and afiixed by a middle point. 

ina^ Head elongated, projecting fmo^uh : fin central. 

Inhabits Forjk. fn, /Egypt. Arab p, Il8.;j. 42. 

Body hardly an inch long and very quick in motion ; eyes brown, 
at the bafe of the head ; head not crowned by fpines : fm 

onata. Head obtufe hyaline . inteftinc refpiratory and ciliate with 

Inhabits— —ForjA.yJr. Jrah. /Egypt, p, n8. ;:. 43. 

Body fubcylindrical, reddifh-hyaline : bead not dillincfl from the 
trunk: f>r/ pellucid tranfverfe oval black: trunk W\t^ a few 
whitifh dots beneath; fin roundiih longitudinal: intefiine 
whitifh before and reddHh behind, fixed by a violet membrane 
brown at the bafe; /ar'/ hyaline comprefTed tapering. 

'Ota. Abdomen without fin: tail longer than the trunk, with 
prickly lines and terminal horizontal fin. 
Inhabits the Archipelago, Forsk.fn. Arab, p, 118. n. 44. 



io8 WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 40. Derris. 41. llolothuna. 

3oa)i hyaline, 2 | inches long, with an opakc ycllowifh nucleus 
covered with white pellucid gluten: M;/enfifomi, more than 
twice the length of thd'trurfk, and turnilhed with a doubly 
fcmicordate fin. • 

'^O. DERRIS. Body cylindrical, cpinpofe4 
of articulations: mouth tcimmd]:Jeelers 2^ 

* Sanguinea X) E R R I S . 

Tranfad. Linn. She. iii. p. 67. tah. \l fg. I, ?. 

Inhabits the Coaft of Pcmlrokejhtr^. 

Bodh cylindrical, gradually tapering to a point behiati, compofed 
of joints and capable of great flexibility ; covered with a mem- 
branaceous tranfparcnt coat, through which the internal parts 
are \\^\h.c: head extended beyond the <iuter ssin, lefs than 
the anterior Mrt of the body, to which it is conneftcd by a 
nicmbranaceous covering forming a neck', feelers white, fitu- 
ated at the top of the liead, and capUile "of being raifeJ or 
deprefled at pleafure-; OT5«r,^'coh{ifting of 2 lip?, the upper- 
one hooked and moveable, the IbU'er-one ftraight and fixed. 
It moves by «n untjulatory inotioR of the whole body, 

41. HOLOTHURIA. Body detached, cy- 
liridrical, thick, naked, and open at the 
{i^txeimty: mouth furrounded .by fiefhy 
l^ranched ten taenia or feelers. 

Thefe are all inhabitants of the fea, and expand or contract thcm- 
felvcs at pleafure : the anrerior <»perture ferves them both as 
a mouth apd a vent, and from the hinder one the/ rejc<^ 
waters which hadlaeeii previouflj fucked in: the 'tentacula arc 

EJegans. With 20 branched tcptiapuU ::'body papilfouSj ubove reddifli, 
beneath while. ' "' 

Mull. Zool. Dan. \.f. \.tah. \.fg. 1 — 3. 

Gunner J/I. Sccckh. 1757.' *<?5. 4./I'; 3. 

Inhabits the Northern Seas, and fquirts qut water like a fiphon 
from the lower orifice; S-r-M inches long. 
1 Body varied with red and white : ^apitU pointed diftant, thof- 

of the back difpofed in 6 rows; teutaa,la flefhy white, the 
tip furnidicd v/uh a tuft of fibres which are tubercul'atc 
within. ■ 


'WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 41. Holothurla. 109 

^frontio/if. Tentacula trondolc : body fmopth. . 

Inhabits Worth Seas, 0. Fabr, fn. Granl. p. 353. n, 344.- 
-flort^ ovate Qbioiijg; (aitacula I o, larger than the head : apertures 

3; behind the head, approximate, and a lateral one mors; 


Poa':taj>us.Tent:u:nU branched: hqiy tapering behind, aqd rough 
with dots beneath. 
Mut!. TsOoL Dan, 3. p. 54. tab. 112, 113. 
Act, Ztcckh. 176^, />: 265, /^z^. 10. 
JnhaNifs Nornvay and Wediterranean Seas. 

-5i ■>• ovate, flat beneath, with 10 retraftile lentacola ; the pof. 
terior part conic and perforated at the end. 

fremula. Upper-fiirface covered with numerous conic papillx, lower 
with cylindrical ones: tentacula fafciculate. 

Nntur. Mjce I tab. 172 ' Barbut's tVstn:s, tab. b.fig. z. 

Boadfch, An. Mar. tab'. 6. tab. J, Jig. I 5. 

Plane Conch, mut. not. loS. tab S,Jig, A, B. 

f^a/fdelUif. p. Bg, f'ab.^,/g. l — :^, 

torsk.fn. u-E^ypt Jrab,tab:^Cj,fig.h> 

IvAxihns 'i)\t Medterranean and /Adriatic Sec}s ; a foot long. 

5c./>' cv.'indrical jvhen extended, and ctlon| when contratflcd, 
generally a beutjful mixure of red and white,' but it varies in 
colour : the cylindrical tubes beneath the body afl as fo many 
fnckers, by which the animal fixes itfelf £rmly to the bottom 
oi the Tea. ■ ' 

Phyfalii. Wit' difFcrenily fhapcd filiform pei^dulous cirri. 

^■hr.oin. Acad. 4 p. 2,4, lab. l- Jig. 6. 

Sloan Jamaica. X. p. 7. tab. ^,_fig- C. 

Ojb. It. 2,84. fab. 12,/. I, Barbutytab.6,/. 3. 

Inhabits the /Itlantic, and appears lik a tranfparcnt bladder, 

Bc^y o\'ate, fomewhac triangular and hyaline: bacli scute and all 
er.en : fncut fpiral ard reddifli: tettfacula numerou', unequal, 
fomc of them round, thick and fhort, fome capillary with a 
globular yellow tip, others longer and filiform. 

IhcUa. Oblong, with a fcjijarc crcll or comb and entire laterdl 
lines. ' ' ■ ' 

Brcnvnjamaic. tab. ^^,Jig. 3. Barbi^/;, tab. CJg. 4. 
Inhabits the American and Weji fnMan itzs^ 

Csudaia. OMong, with a round dcprcircd creft or comb and lateral 

interrupted lines : polterior part ending in a prqjcclion 
or tail. ' 

Broiun Jamais . tab. 43, /o-. 4. Barbut, tab, 6, fig. 5. 
^habits d.neri(^n and J>idia:n ocean. 


fi6 WORMS. MOtLUSCA. 41. ffolothurla. 

Pemdata. Oblong, with interrupted lateral lines, andj without cr^fl 
or tail 
Inhabits A^nerican Ocean. Bronmn Jamalc. p, 384. 
Thefe 3 lalt are of an uncertain Genus: the ^o^oblong, round- 
^ cd, ftowly tapering to both ends, 3 — 4 inches long and aboat 

1 in diameter; tranfparcntj of a firm gelatinous confifterce 
and hollow ; opening by a fmall triangular aperture next the 
creil, and a narrow round oric it the other extremity ; they 
have a fpiral milky line down the back, under this another 
larger opake ane, and on each fide below rhete another Imaller 
purple one. They are fomctimes found finglc, and often 
ilicking leftgChways togetitcr. 

^PentaSef. With 10 ramified tentaeula: body with 1; rows of papillx-, 
Brit. Zool. Jv. lith. 26, Jig. 4I. Batbut, tab. 6. fg. 6. 
PcmantPhtl. TranJ. J 701, p. 75. tab. ^ , Jig. 3, A, B. 
Mull. Zool Dam I, /. 1 10, tab. 31^ jii. tab. J<i8, fig, l^^4. 

Vandcll dij). p.%-j. tab, 2, fig. 12. 

Planch. Comh. min. hot. tab. 6, Jig. D^ E, F. 

Journ. Phyf. Oct. 1778, p 287, tab. W ^ jig. 1 — 6. 

Inhabits Europeati icis: about 6 inches long. 

Body grecnilh-brown : teniacula elegamly ramified, of a yellow 

and filvcr colour; papillee with fmall retraftik filaments illa- 

ing from them. 

Pafillojk* With 10 frohdofc tentaeula: body ovate and covered every 
where with pajoillae. 
Mull. Zool. Dati. 3. /.. 47, tab. \0%, fig. ^. 
Inhabits bays of the Sorth 8tas. ' 

Spallanzd' With ^6 filamentoHS tentaeula. 
jiii \v\\iihh% x\iC Meititerranean» Spallansii act. foa It, 2. 

Pfiapui, Mdiith with fle(hy papilla;: body with annular flriac, and 
Idhghudinal ones on the gland. 

Mull, ZooLDaH. 3: /. 27, tab. 66, Jg. I. 

jihildg. Naturf. 9. p. 133. tab 3. fig. I. 

Inhabits the Indian and Medtterravean feas ; 6 inches long. 

One half of the hod^ cylindrical with numerous annular ftrix, 
and terminated by the mourh furroorldcd by 3 wrinkled ftriae 
and protfilding an obloftg fafciculus O+rnais of tentaeula : the 
6thcr half obovate, gland-fhaped, with 24 longitudinal parallel 
elevated diHant rough ftris, the aperture concave furrounded 
*-•' by an excavated annulnf ftria, and furhjfhed with numerous 

fecurvcd fpines within, the exterior of ^'hich »re larger. 

:"r '. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 41. Holotfaum. ^^ 

^quamara. With 8 flighjtly branched tcntacula : body above rough, 
beneath fott. 
Mull. Zcol. Dan. I. p. 35. n. 10. tah. 10. fig. I— 3. 
Pall. no'V. act-. Petrof). z. p. 225. tab. 1 . fig 34 — 3-7. 
Inhabits North Seas, and adheres ^rmly to rocks. 

Penicillus, With 8 branched tentacula ; body bony, 5rfided. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I. /. 36. n. II. M^. \o, fig. 4. 

Inhabits deeps of the Northern Seas, on a muddy bottom. 

Body immoveable, ventricofe, fmooth, white, with a brown cc^lr 
lar which is black at the edges ; and a parallel granulate pa^c 
ring behind the tentacyia which ire carinate and blackjfla- 

Fu/ut. With 10 tentacula : body fufiform, downy. 

Mull. Zooi. Dan. I. p. 37. «. 12. tah. lo. fig. 5,6. 

Inhabits muddy deeps of the Notthem Seas, 

Body cinereous, rough wi;h minute fcale^, and befet with very 
Aiert fibres; protruding a cup-fliaped hollow body, furnifhe^ 
beneath with a neck, and dilated above into an orb perforated 
in the middle with a black {oTs.mcs^i te/Uacula denticulate at 
the fide, , ,.,//:.. 

Inhecrtns, Boidy brown with longitudinal wJiitift ftripes, and I2 iR.i- 
Nat. Mifcell. tab. 26c. Forsk. /Egypt, tab. l^- fig. A. 
Mall. Zool. Dan i. /. log. ». 49* tab. 31 fig. ^—7. 
Inhabits Northern aud Red Seas ; much longer than moll other's. 
[^ Body long, narrow, pellucid snd covered with inntamcr^ble vifcid 
papillae, by means of which it ft^cks to whatever it touches: 
tentacula ficQiy, lanceolate, and denticulate 0^ flightly brar\ch.- 
ed each fide. 

Lavij. Elongated, with white tcntacula: body witlv 5 royvs of 

lines ar\d<lots. ' 

O. Fa!>r. Fn. Granl. p. 353. «. 345. 
Inhabits Greenland Seas, among rock?: hides itfelf frcjquently ^.9 

the clay, protruding every other one of its tentacula ahd.cdn- 

tra(fiing the others ^ 

Body foft, fmooth, whitifh, pellucid, I ~-6 inches lojig : tentac^lf. 

fo!r, whitifh, and 8-cleft at the tip. ' 

^I'sKuta. Oblong, with 12 tentacula: body with 5 rows of >v;^rts. 
O. Fabr.fn. Gra:nl. p. 354. n. 346. 

Inhabits Greenland Seas with a fandy bottom, and woves very 
;/lowy by means of its extended papillae. 


Hi WORMS. MOtLUSCA. 41. Holothum. 

Boi^y 4 lines long, glabrous, fubmembranaceous, whitlfti and 
rarely reddilh : each row of/^/V/Af confilUngof lO: lentacdu 
yellovvifii ^rid 6-(.Ieft at the tip. 

Forcipata. t'^entricofe ; both en».ls narrow and conie, the antei'ior one 

0. Fabr.fn.Granr. p. 357. n- 3.49. 

Inhab^s GnenlanJ St;cii, with a clayey bottom, and is is often de- 
voured by the Cottus Scorpio; 5 ir^hes long. 

BoJy foft, lubricous, with a thin (kin covered witli innumerable 
hardly emtneAt dots : /creeps rigid, ochre- yelloiv, with curved 

Zonaria, Oblong, deprefied ; v/ith a fieft-colour (liealh ^ind a whit-' 
illi hyaline pouch, body marked with 5 yellow zones. 
Pall. Spicil. Zool 10. p. 26. tuh. i, Jig. 17, A, B, C, 
Inhabits the iea round /i;7//^j/fl. 
Mouth tranfverfc» with prominsnE gaping lip% • 

fiirdia': Body foft,*laJc, wiih white banda dotted with brown: teii- 

tacula linear-lanceolate and toothed at the (Ides. 
Forsk. /h. £g\pt, JraO. p. I Zl, k.-^B. 
Inhabits the RciiSea, among Zofterx, and adheres to the hands 

by means of its vilcid p.ipillx; i^ Ipan long. 
Bo^y with 5 white ftfipes dotted with black, and alternate nar- 

ro*v brown ones dotted with white : tertacilla i z, brown in 

the middle and pale at the fides, 

Max'f^'. Body rigid 'and nes^rly fquafe; ' above conV^j^, beneath (iat 
and edged with white: tentacula filifd'rm and cut like 
petals at the lip. 
Inhabits thcRedSfa. JEg. Arab. p. 121, 2. 50. 
Be:^ about a foot long, hard and rough, with papilla! : tentacxila 
grey-hyaline. ' 

Impafiens'.', Body rigid,/ cinereoUs : tentacula fo, filiform,- 7-clefr and 
denticulate at the tip. 
, Forskfn.. ^£gyp,i. Arab. /> , I 2 1 , «. 5 i.. 

Inhabits the (hores of the ReJ Sea, under (lone*, cr in the pores 

of the Spongia officinalis. 
Boiiy hardifti, cinereous, varied with fpots and bands, and rough 
with hcmifphserical warrs whitiOi in the middle ac'-d approxi- 
mate: tenftJcvlahyaWnc dotted with black andbbtufcly toothed. 


WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 42. Lobaria. 43. Triton. 44.LernaBi. nj 

42. LOBARIA. Body above convex, beneath 

flat, lobate. 


^au'rilcha Tail virith 4 lobes. 

Mull. Zool. Da/1, 3. p. 30. tab. IOC, /^. 1—5. 
Jfcaniui Act. Stockh. 1 772, 4, 5. /«^. lO^ fig. A)B. 
Jnhabits Northern Seas. 

43. TRITON, -eo^/ oblong: &w^/^ with an 
involute Ipiral probofcis : tentacula or 
afvis 12, 6 on each fide, divided nearly 
to the l^alcy the hind-ones chelifercus, 

^ Liitcreus. TrITON. 

Bttrhut's Worms, p. 6^, tabi 7. _fig. 2. 

/'^//c/ TranJ'act. $0. p. 874, /«i. 34, /f^. A, 

Inhabits Italy, in cavities of fubmarine rocks, and may be fcen 
in various fpecies of Lepas, particularly the anatafera. 

J&o4'Oval, the lower extremity rounded, larger, and divided into 
lobes at the fides; heaJ oblong, rounded, not comprefled, ter- 
minated by a tough membrane which connefts all the arms at 
their bafe : prchufiis long, tapering to a point, and cartilagi- 
nous : 7fiouth placed at the bafe of the tentacula : arms 6 pair, 
the 3 lo.ver-pair chelifercus; all jointed, involute and ciliatc 
on the inner margin. 

44. LERN.^A, Body oblong, fomewhat cy- 
lindrical, naked : tentacula or arms 2 or 
3 each fide and round, by which it iif- 
fixes itlelf: ovaries 2, projedling like 
tails from the lower extremity. 

Thefc are vvrithout eyes, and are very tronblefome to £lh, ad-* 
hering very firmly principally to the gills and fins. 

Body round, flexuous : rtiouih lateral and feated between 3 
flightly branched horns. 
Mull. Zool Dan. 3./. 65. tab. llS,fig.^. 

Strctm Sorui. i. p 209. tab. I, fig 18. 
Inhabits the North ^eaa,on the gills of Cod./iih, And is eaten ty 
rbe Creenlandcn ; about 2 inches long. 

VOL. IV. — P £e^ 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 44. Lernxa. 

£ei/j hoHow, lucmbranaceous, thicker before and behind, dull 
white or dirty red : neck long, tubular, filiform : tai/ ending 
in a perpendicular groove ; ovaries z, compofed of long 
twilled cirri. 

jBody cylindrical, clavate behind : thorax fprked : tentacuU 

lunate at the tip. 
Barbiifs WormSy p. 67, tab. 7,/'g' 3. 
Inhabits Pondsy fixed to the fides of Carp and Roach. 
Body about half an inch long and not larger than a ftraw, found, 

pale and fomewhat pellucid : tentacuU 4, 2 of them lunate at 

the tips. 

* Salmonea, B&dy obovate: thorax inverfely heart-fhaped: arms 2, ap- 
proximate, linear. Salmsn-louje. 

Barbut, tab.j,/!^. 4. Erander Pifc. 25. tab. It fig* I. 

Gijler Afi.Stfckh, 1751, />. 185. tab. b, fig. 1—5. 

Inhabits the gills oi Salmsv : t> lines long. 

Body pale, foft : ^m</ f mall, oblong, rather convex, with 2 hori- 
zontal lips, the upper armed with 2 rigid moveable hooks, 
tlie lower fliort, bifid : abdemen inverfely ovat« : ovaries rouad, 
granulate within, and as large bs the whole body. 

^A/ellina> Body lunate; thorax heart-ftiaped. 

Barbut, tab, J, fig. 5. //. IV^oth, 171. tab. Z.ftg* 4. 
Found in the gills o[ Cod znd Ling. 

*Huchoms. Body knotty : tentacula or arms 2: ovary double and uni- 
ted behind. 
Schranch It. Ba-uar, p. 95. tab. 2, fig. A-«-J). 
Found in the gills o'i the Salmo hucbo. 
Bodjc\Q%t white and fomewhat cartilaginous, 

CUvata. Body cylindrical, fubfinuate, and tripled beneath the tip of 
the fnout. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. I. p. 119. «. 54. tab. ^^,fg, I. 
Fcmnd in the fins, gills, mouth and eyes of the Perca »or-wegica. 
j?(7<<>' pellucid, white, with red lints : neck narrow, yellowifh, 
pointed at the top, incurved and knotty : ovaries tubular, the 
eggs adhering on the outfide. 

U cinattt Body fomething heart-fhaped : fnout fimplc, curved : 
mouth terminal. 
Mull, Zool. Dan. i. p, IZO. n. 55. tab. 33, fg. 2, 
Inhabits Greenland, on the fins and gills of Cod-fifh. 
Body foft, pale, With a longitudinal groove down the middle of 
the back ; ovariei rounded, and thickened towards the tip. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 44. LernJba. 


^hiua. Body rhomboid: arms 2 before and as many behind, all 

nodofe: head with 2 curved horns, 
Shatv Natur. Mi/cell. viii. tab. 295. 
Muii. Zool Dan. \,p. 121. tab. 3^.//"« %' 
Inhabits the gills of the ComiS Cohioi 7 n"^' ^^"Z' 
Body blucifh-vvhitc: heaH roundifh, with 2 incirtved horns : 

mouth placed between the horrs ard fiirrifHct^ v Jth 3 lips: 

arms angular, curV'cd, knotty : ivteflmft tranlluccnt above : 

tail bifid : ovaries fpiral, round, fut. ulate. 

adiata. Body fquare, deprcfTed ; ^rith 3 pair of arms and 4 horns. 

Shtiiv Nat. M'jcsl. viii. tab. 29^. 

Mull Zcol. Dan. \. p. It 2.. ft. 57. :ab. 33, /(^, 4. 

Fotmd about the m''uch of the Lcry-phtena >upej:ns. 

Body about 1 1 lines long, dirty white cr cinereous, and rough 
with hardidi tubcrclct ; the fides a little creoate.- head At- 
prefltd, rounded, a bttle more convex beneath, and covered 
with numerous papillx : cvaries large, oboval, 

fodo/c, Body^ fquare, tuberculate: with 2 very ihort arms beneath 

on eacii fide. • 

Scuiu Natur. viii, tab, 295. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. I. />• 153, «. 38. tab. 33./^. $. 
Inhiibits about the mouth of the Fcrea noriut^ica. 
Body foft, pale cinereott^:, above convtx, beneath concave, with 4, 

hard white tubercles in the middle of the back, and 5 whife 

teeth each fide : bead rounded and divided by a white Ilreak 

in the middle : ovaries oboval. 

'ytiMta. Body oblong, vflth 4 ftraight emarginate arms: head fub- 

ihaiu Natur. Mifcel. viii. tab. 295. 
Ma/7. Zeol. Dan, i. p. 124. n. 59. tab. 33i/^. 6. 
Found on the Plai/e and Litiguatula, 
£od)i covered with a pellucid fkin : front vi\\.\\ 2 horns armed with 

a fingle tooth: mouth with 2 feelers! ovaries brown j eggs 


^cdtralis. Head orbicular, hecuifphafrical: abdomen obcordate with a 
terminal truncate papilla. 

Sha^u Natur. Mij'ccl. viii. tab. 295. 

Mull. Zool. Dcrn. I, /, 125. «. 60. tab. -1,1, fg. J. 

Found on the gills and perioral fins of tlounders, kc, 

Bfdy white, diaphanous, covered with blackifh dots : croivn wuh 
2 falciform proje(flions: fnont conic, truncate, with 4 minute 
horns, 2 very Ihort fpines and 2 feelers near a third conic 
fpine : arms 2, not curved : ovaries 2, rather tiarrow, fuban- 
nulate and of equal diameter. 

P 2 Lota. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 45. Scyllafa. 

Lota» With 4 unequal ovaries. 

Oh (h^ %\\h of iiic Gai/us lota. Herm. Naturf. ig, tab.z,f,6t 
Month with 2 hooks : appendages 4, cruciate. 

Qydotfero* Body round, flexuous, with a double orifice in the middle of 
runti the Inout: fnout terminated by three 3-parted horns. 

I'ound on the Cyclopterus fpinofus- Mull. Zool Dan. 2745. 
Body refembling L. brancliialis, but the horn is flender, turned 
«p and entire at the tip: tail narrower, with 2 convex lobes 
each fide • o'varies fimple, fpiral, and nearly 5 inches long 
when extended. 
2, JJody lefs: ovaries greenifh; 

O;. the Cyclopterus liparis, Fabr.fn. Qreenl. pk 537. 

Jfinnarumt Rufous; head cylindrical and roflrate on the fore-part? 
tentacula 2, Innate, and bifid at the tip: arm only i. 

/ Cir. Fabr it: Nor-rv p. 282. «. 3. 

Found on the ciorfa) fins of the Gadus barbatns. 

Body deprefTed, fl; fhy, grooved on the back, with a cylindfical 

arr. placed \ the fore paj-t of the bapk, and concealed in a 

groove: ovaries loflg, cylindrical. 



4o. SCYLL^flA, Body poinprefled aiid 
grooved along the back : moi^tk confiit- 
ing of a terminal toothlefs aperture : 
tentacula or arms 3 p^ch fide, an4 
placed beneath. 

Body fixed : 4 extreme arms alike, the middle ones pa» 

Barbui'i Worms y tab, 7, fig. 6. Seba. Muf. I . tab. 74. fg. i. 
Inhabits the pceait, among boating fea-wecd. 
Body roundinlj^oblong, broader behind and phtyfe : mouth placed 
■ at the end of the fmaller extremity : back grooved, with a cre- 
nulate hollow by which it ilfixes itfclf to fea-weed : extreme 
arms fmaller and rourded, middle pair oblong, foliaceoui, 
bending over and fprinkled wjthin with papillae. 


qomphoden- Body detached : firfl pair of arms naked and hollow at ih^ 
fii, tip, the others with branched fibres within. 

Inhabits the Red Sea. Forjh. JEg)pt. /, 103, ». i 3. 

■WORMS. M6LLUSCA. 46. Clio. ny 

Uodf an inch long, pellucid, yellowifli with rufty-brown dots : 
back flat, dotted with brown at the margins, with a row of 
blue docs down the middle: /^//comprciled, with an elevated 
rounded repand back, ajid furniihed each fide with Imail 
brai'chcd fibres : abdomen dotted with blur and rough with a 
row of 5 whitifh papillae down the middle of each fide : firft 
pair of arms lefler and obovate, the reft contiguous with a 
dcjiticulatp margin. 

46. CLJO. Body oblong, nayant, o-cnerally 
iheathed, and furniilied with $^ dilated 
membranaceous arms or wins;-] ike pror 
cefies': tentaculcp 3^ befidcs^^ in thg 

Ccudata. With a large corapxeffed tailed fhcath. 

Inhabits the Ocean.' Bar hut, tab. 7, fg, 7, ///. 

PjratHidata Sheath triangular, pyramidal : mouth obllqiiely truncate. 
Nat. Mi/cel, tab. 206. Barbut, tab. 7, fig. 7, 8. 
Bronxns Jamaica., /. 386 tab. 43, iig. i. 
Inhabits the yimeri can Ocean', about an inch long. 
Body opake, flcHder, brownifh : eyes green : J/teath tranfpareni 
blueifh: ar/wj rounded, blueilh : /'W fmall, rounded. 

Retufa, With 2 tentacula: mouth horizontal, 2-toothcd : tail 
p )intcd. 

hihihhs ^meic;i>t Ocean. Brcnvn Jam. p.'^fiS. 

Body fmall, gelatinou', pellucid, blueilh in the water, and fcarlct 
ai each end : ^^<z^ narrower, globular, and divided by a groove 
into 2 cheeks: fnouth terminal, furnifhed with a lip each fide 
armed with 3 teeth, within which is another aperture armed 
with 4 IcfTer cruciate teeth : tentacula at the mouth 2, loft; 
ihoraii nearly globular: arms or luings fubrncmbranaceousj 
which it ufes like a p lir ot oars, 

Jonahs, Whitifh ; Jobcs of the head terminated hy a pointed flcfli 
colour papilla: tentacula 3, flelhyat'the mouth." 
Inhabits North Seas. Pall. Spial, Zool. 10. tab. l,/g.\S, 19. 
Bidv {oft. cnvpreA with o r^t^nUilV. /1.:- . L r i.. j... i_i 


m WORlVfS. ]VlOLLUSCA. 47. Sepia. 

Helictint, Body without (heath, and fpiral. 
Mart. Spit. p. 141. tab. Q^ fig, e. 

Inhabits the North Seas in great iiUmbers ; fixe of a ^ca. 
rr/;/g-j ovate, obtufe, larger than the body» 

Liffiadnd, Body without fheath, inverfely cohic. 

Natur. Mifcel, tab. 252 Mart. Spit, tab, Y./g. ^. 
Inhabits the Northern Octan ; about half an inch long. 
iJo^'pale whitifh-brown, refenibling a Slug, a little cootra<fl:e<l 
in the midddic and pointed at the end. 

47. SEPIA. Body ilefhy, receivii-ig the breaft 
in a llieatb, with a tubular aperture at 
its b^fe : arms 8, befet with numerous 
warts or fuckers, and in moil fpecies 2 
pedunculated tentacula : head Ihort : 
lyes large : mouth relembling a Parrot's 
beak* CiUtle-fJh, 

'Tbefe animals inhabit various Teas, and in hot clinaates fome of 
them grow to a prodigious lizc ; they are armed with a dread- 
ful apparatus of holders furniihed with fuckers, by which 
they fallen upon and convey their prey to the mouth : they 
have the power of fqulrting out a black fluid refembling ink, 
and which is faid to be an ingredient in the compofion of 
Indifln-lnk : the bdne in the back is converted into that ufeful 
article of Ilationary called pounce : the eggs are depofit- d upon 
fca-weed, and exatlly relcmblc a bunch of grapes; at the in- 
ftant the female depofits them they arc white, but the males 
foon pafs c/ver them to impregnate them> and they then be- 
come black ; they are round with a little point at the end» 
and in each of them is inclofed a living cuttle-fifli furrounded 
by a gelatinous fluid* 

^O^opusi Body without tail or appendage i pedunculated terltacula or 
longer arms o. 

Natur. Mifcel. tab. -i^^i). Bariut, tab.S./g. U 

Srba. Muf. 3. tah. z,fig. \ — 6. BeU. ajuat. tab. 331. 

Kalreut. Afi. Feirop. "]. p. 321. tab, II. 12. 

Pennant Brit. Zed. ivi tab, z^, fig. 44. 

Inhabits the Mecliterranean and Indian Seas, in the latter of which 
it fometimes grows to a vaft fize, the arms being 9 fathoms 
long. In thefe feas the Indians never venture out without 
hatchets in their boats, to cut off the arms, fliould it attempt 
to fallen upon them and draw them under v»'ater. 


WORMS MOLLUSCA. 47. Sepia. 1,0 

Body Ihort. rounded behind : anns tapering to a point, joirled at 
the bafe by a membrane or web, and covered within with 2 
rows of alternate fuckers. When opened, thii animal is faid 
to exhibit fo flrong and fplendid a light, as perfeilly to illu- 
minate a dark room. 

f* Oj^dtfalfs Body wiihout tail or appendage, and fqrrounded by .a 
margin : tentacula or longer arms 2. 

Brit. Zoo/. IV. p. 55. Barhut, tab. Z.fg. 2. 

Seba Muf. 3. tah. i. fig. 4. Okar. Muf. tab. 97. 

luhabits the Ocean, and is the prey of the Whale tribe and 
Plaife ; its arras arc alfo frequently eaten off by the conger 
eel, and are reproduced; the bony fcale on the back is that 
which is ufuallyfold in the ihops, and the blaclc matter which 
it fquirts out to daricen the waters round it and elude the 
pcrfuit of its enemies, is often ufed as ink. It was formerly 
eaten by the Ancients, and is even now ufed as food by the 

BqJ}' ovate, the margin crenate and interrupted at the bottom : 
8 of the anns fhort and pointed ; the z tentacula 4 times as 
long, rounded, the tips very broad and furnilhed within with 
numerous fuckers. 

Vug*icn. Body without tail or appendage: arms furniflicd with 
*«'«• hooks. 

Inhabits the Pacific. Molin. Chili, p. 174. 

Sody rounded behind: arms furnilhed with hcoks. retr?.<fli;e 
♦vitJiin their proper (heaths inftead of fuckers. 

H^xapus, Body tailed, 4 or 5 jointed : arms only 6. 
Inhabits the Pacijic. Molin Chili, p. 175. 

Body about half^ foot long, and the thicknefs of a finger: arm 
furni(hed with very minute fuckers which ftick very fall to 
whatever it fixes on. 

*Medis. Body long, flendcr, cylindrical: tail finned, pointed, and 
carmate each fide: long arms 2. 
Brit Zool iv. tab. 29. fig. 45. Barbut' tab. S. fig. 3. 
Inhabits the Ocea>t. and lomething refembles S. officinalis. 
Body ending in a point, and furnilhed with a membrane each 
Jide commencing about the middle of the body. 

•lo'dgo. Body fnbcylindrical, fubulate, and furnilhed with a flattifli 
inarp-edged rhombic memDranc at the tail each iide. 

Ynral. hh/cell tab. 363. Barbut, t ,b 8. fi.. 4. 

Bnt, ZooU xs, tab. 27.^7^. 43. Jsudh. Microj. x. tab. ij. 

i2o WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 48. Lucernarfa. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. \.fig. I — 4. t.^.f. 5, 6. 

Olear Muf, 44. tab. zt. jig. 2. 

Inhabits the Ocean f from 9 inches to 2 feet long. 

^£7V?> reddifti-brown, with 2 longer arms or tentacula: eyes fine 
blue: tne c?.rti'aginous plate or bone in the back is Jong lance- 
I'uped and tranlparent, a.-fl is placed as a Ipecies of PennatuU 
by Stba Muf. 3. /a^. 16. fg. 9. 

Sepiola. Body with 2 roureded wingi or proceTes behind. 
-5r/V. Zool. tab. 29. /?^. 46. Barbut. tab. ^,fg, 5. 
Johnft. aquat, tab. I. fig- 8. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and European Seai : fmall. 
^i?//)i fhort, rounded behind, with a rouna men)bra"ne or fin a^ 
the lower extremity : longer arms 2, 

Turticdta. Body entirely inclofed in a black pellucid membrane, with' 
2 femicircular wings or proceflfes behind. 
Inhabits the Pacific, Molm Chili. f>. 174. 
Bedy large, fometimes weighing 150 pounds, and convertible 
into a very pleafant and palatable food. 

48. LUCERNARIA. ^^j^); gelatinous, wrink- 
led, branched: mouth placed beneath. 

Qjtadrtcor' g^jy j^^- coiled, with 4 forked a'rms tentaciilate at the 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I. p. 147. n. 72. tab. o<)-fg- I — ^6. 

Leske Naturg. \.p. 508. tab. lo.fg. 5, 

Inhabits Northern Seas, on Fuci : feeds on polypi. 

Bodi without head or eya, brown, pellucid, quadrangular, each 
angle running into an arm the branchies of which arc termi- 
nated by a fafciculus of 30 — ^40 tentacula : tail flcxuous in 
the middle and difpofed in numerous plaits or folds, thickened 
at the bafe and tapering gradually, obtufe at the tip, and 
extenfile like the tentacula : meuti> white with cinereous ftris 
and 4-toothed. 

P^rygta. Body long papillous, with numerous globiferous arras de- 
flefted into an hcemifphere: fixed at the bafe by a byfTus 
or mafs of filaments. 

O. Fabr.fn. grcenl. p 343. », 233. 

Inhabits deeps of the Greenland Seast and feldom changes its 

Body varying in fhape, about f an inch long, reddifh with whi- 
ter globules and papilla; : neck ereft thick exfertile and befet 


WORMS. MOLLUSeA. 49. Mcdufa. J2i 

With numerous cxfcrtile papillae : arnti flcnder, ftiort, impli- 
cate or ent.tngled together. 

Refenlbling a flask : neck rourtd, the lower extremities 
dilated and fiirrounded with 8 fafcieiiH of tentacula. 

0. Fabr.fn, Qrccnlp 341. n. ^^2, 

Found in the Greenland Sens, sdhcring Vciy firmly to the lii^eft- 

- Ulva, from which it rcArely moves: feeds on Onifci, an . is 
about 1 ~ inch long. 

Body biaclc or rcddtfli, rarely chcrnut-br6wn with a gold tingi, 
lubricous, glabrous, the margin furrounded with 8 granulate 
tubercles rcfcmbling fo many fafcicali of t'*n:acula ah )ut 60 
in each and which are black tipt with white : mouth wmte. 

49. MEDUSA. So'iy gelatinous,- otfeicular, 
and generally flat underneath: mouth 
central, beneath. 

The animals of this genus Confift of a tender gelatinous n^al's of 
different figure, furnifhed with arms jr tentacular proccfs 
proceeding from the lower iurface: the I rger fpecies when 
touched caufe a flight tingling and r<?dneis, and arc ufur.'!/ 
denominated Sca-ncttles : they are funoofrd to coiftitute the 
chief food of cetaceous fi(h ; and moil of them fhitfc with 
great fplendor in the water. 

A. Body vitth clliate ribsi 

Body ovate with about 9 ciliate ribs. 

Shano Natur. Mijcell. tab. 1 12. Matt. Spit«. t. p./*. h? 

Broaon Jamaica. p 384. tab i^%. fig. 2. 

Bafler op. fuhf. 3.^. I 23 tah I4. /fj-. 5-. 

Inhabits Indian, Mediterranean and Uorth Seas : 3 f inches long, 

Bodj obtufely S-anglcd, hollow, tranfparent, open v cne larger 
extremity and of a tirm gelatinous iuhlhnce. It contracts and 
expands with great f.'.ciliry : ril>s purplilh and fornilhei with 
a finglc row o\ fhort flender fibres. 

fileus. Body globular with 8 ciliate ribs and 2 ciliate cirri. 
Ba/ier op. fubf. 3. p. 126. tab. i\-/.g. 6, 7. 
Martin. Spitsb. tab. p. Jig. g. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Northern Seas. 

lucumift Oblong with 8 ciliate ribs, without cirri. 
0. Fvhr.fn, Granhp. 3D1. «. 353, 

VOL. IV,~^ I^haVifs 

j2« WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 49. Mcdufa. 

Inhabits the (.ireen/and Seas, and moves flowly by means of the 
fibres on the ribs; when touched contrads itfelf into the 
form of an apple. 

Bodj white mixed with blue and covered with irregular red dots: 
aperturet 2, terminal and meeting in the oblong middle cavity. 

Q<vum. Oyate, with 8 ciliate ribs and 2 pair of cirri, one pair of 
which is very long. 
O. Fabr fn. Grccnl p. 362 «. 355, 
Inhabits Greenland ^eas, and refembles a hat; feldom larger 

than a Pigeon's egg. 
Body lucid and very fragile, the fragments while alive blue, 

B, Body Jmooth. 

Perpita. Body above fiat, beneath a little convex grooved and villous. 
Inhabits /Wr'fl. Aman, Acud. 4-/. 255. tab, 3./^. 7 — 9* 

• Cruciata. Body marked with a milk-white crofs. 

Inhaijits European Seen. Barbut'sJVorms. tab. 9. fg. I . 

Body like a tranfparent colourlefs jelly, and furrounded at the 
margin with fine fibres : the crofs marked with a brown fpot 
on each arm. Is very luminous when under fnn-fhine. 

Byjocella. Body convex, with 16 rays, and 4 united tentacula beneath. 
Bali op./ubf. 2. p. 62. tab. '].fig, 5 ^ 
Inhabits the fea round Portugal. 

Body above whitifli, the rays compofed of extremely minute 
'reddifh-brown dots : beneath concave : tentacula longer than 
the body, lanceolate and marked with reddifh ihiac. 

•^^«or^«. Flatliih, with a villous infleded tentaculate margin. 
Bali, op./ubf 2. p. 55. tab. 5. fig. z, 3. 

Inhabits the Ocean i extremely fimple foft and fringed at the 
margin with white, 

* /lurita. Convex above, with an infledlcd fringed margin ; beneath 

with 4 arched cavities near the centre. 
Barbut. tab. ().fg. 2. //. JVgoth. 172. /. 3./. 2. 

Bafi,op.Jubf z,tab. lif.fg. ^.7,^2- p. S'^—^^' 

Merret pin. p.']b,'j'J, 

Found frequently floating on the furface of the fea ; 2 — 4 inches 

diameter : when the iun ftiines upon it, re'fledls a beautiful 


•Capilkta. Body convex with 16 indentations round the margin, and 
numerous (lender filaments beneath. 


* P: 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 49. Medufa. 123 

Barhut. tab. <). fig. 3. h. IVgoth. tab, 3. f. 3. 

Bafier opuf fuhj. z. p. 60. tab, 5. <%. !• 

Inhabits the Ocean: about 8 inches in diamcto. 

Bo^j whitifh femipcllucid fragile ; above convex, beneath flit 
with a rough circle, within which arc 8 pair of rays j and a 
number of curled fibres and appendages from the cejitrc : 
the margin divided into 8 portions, each of which is emar- 

. Disk capitate, with 8 foramina or holes on the border: 

beneath arched and hairy, 
inhabits the 6fa' Bariut'j Warms, tab, ^•/ig. 4. 
Bs(J'y with an irregular reile^e^ margia. 

Marjupialis Semioval vs 1th 4 tentacula on the margin. 

Barbul. tab. '^■J'g' 5. ^ia/ic. Comb, rar t. ^. f. 5. 
Inhabits the Mgdnerraneun ; refemoles a purfe. 

Hemf-ha- Hemifphrcrical with 4 tranfverfe ribs beneath, and mar- 
''""''• ginal tentacula and globules: the margin entire. 

Muli. Zeol. Da'i. I. p. 22. n, 5. tab, yftg. I — 5. 
Gronov. ad. Helv, 4 p. 38. tab. i^. fig, 7. 
Inhabit* European Heas: about 2 lines in diameter, 

Pelagtca, Hemifph^irical-conCave with a crenate incurved margin and 
8 lentacula. 
Inhibits the American an4' Ailaniic Seas. Lccjil. It, 105. 

Xo3iljufc.» DeprcfTjd, with reudHh-brown warts and dots: margin 

with 8 red tentacula. 
Forfi.fn, /E^vpt, Arab. p. 10g./a5. 24. 
Inhabits tiie Atlantic and Mediterranean Seat, where they wander 

in large grouper, illuminating the waters, and it ihaken in 

fea water emit iparks of light; xhcfe 2 lall are probably only 


* Fi^/ca* Body with 16 brown rays and a brown circle in the middle ; 

the circumference edged with alternate crooked tangs 

and oval tubercles. 
Boriaje Conrcuatl. p. 256. tab, 2^, fig, 7, 3. 
' Barbu/s Worms, 80. tab, <), fig, "J, 
Inhabits the Coalt of Corn'u.'dH. Tentacula 41 lacerated, a litdc 

exceeding rhe body. 

* Piupura, Body with pale purple rays; and a light purple crofs in the 

centre, between each bar of which is a deep purple 
horfe- Uioe-Hiapcd mark. ' 

0.2 InhabitJ 

lU ' WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 49, Medufa. 

' Inhibits €ortfivall. Borla/e Corn, ta^, z^. fig, g, lo. 
Tevtacula 4i thick, fliort, not exceeding the body. 

^Tubercu' With 1 5 brown rays meeting at the centre, and fmall oval 
laiH' tubercles round the margin : tentacula 4, plain, much 

longer than the body. 
Borla/eCornnuall, p. 257. tab. 25, fig. 1 1, 12, 
Barbiit^s Worms, /. 81. tab. <^yfig> 8. 
Inhabits the co»ft of Corn^ualL 

* V»<i«!^'ta. M^-Tgin undulate, with fangs on the proj«fting parts: 
Beneath 4 orifices, between which is a ftem divided 
into 8 ragged tentacula. 

Bor/a/e Cornnv. tab- 25,^. 15., J^arbut, tab. <^sf$'9* 

Inhabits the coaft of CornivaU. 

fLunulata, Margin tuberculate ; beneath in the centre 4 conic appen~, 
dages forming a crofs, with fevcral others like ffcrrate 
leaves furrounding it : tentacula 8. 
Borla/e Cor^vJfll, f. 258. tab. Z^, fg. l6, 17. 
Inhabits the coaft of Cori^iuaU 

Tentacula not longer than th? rnargin, and between each a fcmi» 
' luar aperture. 

Nu<ia. Orbicular, blue, withouj creft : tentacula of the difk naked, 

of the ray with 3 rows of glands. 
Holothuria nuda. Gmelin Syfi. Nat.p 3143 , w. 22. 
Inhabits the Mediterratiean i not an incn diameter. 
BoJy with a whitifh diflc above, and radiate with concentric 

ftriae, the margin and border blue : tentacula filiform and 

blueilh -hyaline, 

Veklh, Orbicular, blue, with ^n oblique fimple creft or membrane, 
and numerous tentacula beneath. 
Shaw Nat, Mi/cell. tab. 250. 
BrQ'wnJqTiicitcatp,'^%'J. tab. ^B. fig. I. 
Jmperaf. Nat. tab. 91?. Col.ccphr. 20. t,ab. 22. 
Inhabits the Atlantic and 'hlediterranean Seas, 
j^pdji flat, thin, oval and marked with numerous concentric ftrije : 
i/«7or o-f/? glafly, with nufnerous ilri^. 

Spirans. Oval, blue, \f\\\\ oblique dividqd creft or veil, and numerous 
tentacula beneath. ; 

$ha''M Natur. hlijcell. tab. 247, 
Holothuria Spirans. Gmelyn Syjl. Nat. p, ^y^^. 
Inhabits the Meaiterranean\ about 2 inches long, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 49. Medufa. j2S 

Botiy thin, convex, and terminating in a -whitife centrai knob 
above, blue with a brown border: frefi 2-parted and ftriate : 

tent acuta filiform. 

Pt^lmo. Hemifphxrical -concave, with a fringed border ; beneath 
ftriate, t}ie ftem with 4 openings and 8 arms, 

Shanu Natur. Mi/cei.vm. tab. 299. 

Macri obsew. del pclm. mar. nap. 1778, tab. I, 

Inhabits the Tii/can fea. 

Body gelatinous, pellucid, tough, cryftalline : ^^a^ large, hemirr 
pha;rical, concave beneath, and marked with numerous ftrias 
crofTed by 16 diltant ligaments, each emitting a flaort branch 
both fides: border fringed with nuoierous roundifh blue fcal- 
lops : Jiem Urge, thick, f'quarc, with 4 lemioval openings, each 
of which his a large lobe above and a fmaller beneath : 
branches or arms proceeding from the lower part of the ftem 8, 
fubcylindric, pendent and wrinkled behind ; befides thcfe are 
>6 fubtrigonal appendages, bilid in front, and terminated on 
the upper fide by a fiat wrinkled furface; they arife from the 
beginning of each branch : the branches end in as many largi 
fubpyramidieal branchia, their 2 exterior fides prominent and 
ending in a thickly wrinkled furface : thefe are terminated by 
8 oblong fubtriangular thick pendent bodies, ending in 3 flat 
acute membranaceous pieces. WJthin the openings is a fiex- 
uous flriate blucifh-yellow band. 

Tj-rrbena* Convex \ the margin crenate, and furnifhed with very long 
fibres or threads : beneath are 4 tentacula. 
Inhabits Tujcan fea. Macri. chf. del palm. mar. p. ig. 
Body fmooth, tender, hyaline fpotted with red; beneath arc 4 
cavities, each marked with a red band. 

/"w/ifrrt/dm Diflc prominent; the margin 8-tlrpeK divided and ftriate 

beneath : tubercles 8. 
Inhabits TuJ\an fea. Macri. obf. p. 20. 
^oajF hyaline, about 2 pounds wbight; beneath fulvous, with 

innumerable curved fibres: tubercles bhieifh-white, ending in 

2 Hems terminated by a pellucid whitiH^ membrane, which is 

flaccid and blue or white at the tip. 

Utriculus.. Bottle-ftiaped, with a very loQg granular central tentaculuni 
beneath: margin with numerous blue tentacula tipt 
with white. 

Journ. d". Pl.-jf. ncv. 1787. /. 365. tab. 1, fg. 13, 14. 

Inhabits the Ocean. Hyaline, with about 30 niarginal cirri. 



WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 4^. Medufa. 

Caravella. Body ovate, with very long central tentacula beneath, and 
a crenulate veil above. 

Mull, Be/ch. Naturf. z. p. 150. tab.^tfg, 2, 

Sloan Jamaic. I. p. 7. tah^ 4, 5. 

Inhabits thi2 AtlanHci and inflames the hand by its touch. 

B<fdy thin< fmooth, fhining, blueifh, hyaline, and tapering each 
lide ; creft or -veil running the whole length of the back, femi- 
lunar, comprefied, furrowed wiih branched grooves, and mark- 
with rofy veins: /f«/fl<r«/a jointed, blue, fragile, and inter- 
mixed with flxorter tuberclci-. 

Vmbella. Tentacula of the diflc naked, of the margin glandular: 
margin membranaceous, crenate. 

Mull. Bffch.hlaturf, 2. lab. 295. tab. g,fg. 2,3, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian feas. 

jSoJy rigid, deprefied, with radiate grooves above } beneath with 
a clavate trunk in the middle, furrounded with fliort clavate 
tubes: tvntacula ']o\nx.tA^ v,h)n 3 rows of glands. 

Dimerpha. Back eminent: beneath a minute crofs furrounded with 5 
apertures : margin ciliatc. 

O. I'ahr.fn.Grcenl. p. 365. «. 359. 

lr\hzb\ii North Seas i lefs than M. jequorea^ 

Body wKen expanded orbicular, with a fquare inflefled margin ; 
beneath concave : back divided into 4 parts by radiate groove?, 
with an elevated central crofs and white fibres. 

Campanu- Di fie gibbous,; the border vVidc and ciliatc: beneath a hairy 
/a. crofs. 

Inhabit? Greenland Sea, O. Fabr,fn, Granl, p. 366. «. 360. 
Bodf conic-orbicular, beneath hollow and Inowy : frifige of the 
margin and crofs yellow, the latter often white. 

t>igttaia. Hyaline, with a piftil beneath in the centre : margiil 
O. Fahr.fn. Grctnl. p, 366, «. 361. 
■ Inhabits the Greenland Seas, and leaps with its margin bent in. 
Body very minute, conic, liriate : fringe yellow or white, and 
hooked within : pillil ending in a yellow or white pencil. 

froadif/a. Margin of the diHi varied with white opake fpots and dots : 
tentacula 8, dichotomous, befet with white pedunculate 
warts terminating in tufts. 

Pall. Spicil. Zoo I. \o. p. Z(j. tab.2,fg,\'—l. 

Inhabits the Jrckiepelago ; fmall. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 49. Medufu. 127 

Bodj flattifh, a little convex above, the border membranaceous 
and fringed with white fafciculi : beneath is a villous nucleus, 
which in the lefler ones is 8-angIcd, and in the larger ones 

letrafiyta. Hemifphjerical, without tentacula; furnifhed with 4 mar- 
ginal tubes united into a prifm. 
Forsk/n. yEg)'pt. Arab. p.\o6,n.ll . 
Inhabits the Rt^ Sea ; about a fpan and a half acrofs. 
Bo^Y hyaline, rather rigid : tales of the margin linear, 3 inches 
long, ftraight and flat, 

Oaoftyla. Hemifphierical, without marginal tentacula : beneath a 
4-tolded column with 8 many-cleft lobes at the jipj 
and 16 lateral app ndages. 

Inhabits the Red Sea. Fonk.frix .^g. Arah. p. ip6. k. 1 8. 

Hodj blueilh-hyaline, a foot in diameter; the column beneath 
about an inch and a half long. 

Andromeda Hemifpha?rical, without marginal arms: beneath 8 round 

ramified toliacepus arms. 
Inliabits the Red Sea » Sf^aiu Nin. Mi/cel tab. 259. ' 

Body tranfparenl, pale yellowifh-brown or blueifh, with white 

rays and entire margin; in the middle a fmall black crofs: 

arpis white, and a little thicker than a goofe quill at the in- 


Cerofta. Hemifphaerical, without marginal tentacula; beneath 8 
cultrate arins, toothed each fide below. 
Inhabits the Red Sea, Forsk./n. /Eg. Arab. p. J 07. n. 20. 
Body reddifh-hyalinc, about 4 inches acrofs, with a blue crols in 
the centre: arms beneath broad, and 2-lobcd at the tip. 

Per/ea. Hemifpharrical, hyaline, with an opake white ring within 

4 times interrupted: marginal tentacula o. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Forsk.fn. JEg% Arch. p. 107. «. 21, 

^c</y about 2 inches wide, with a very promineif margin: arms 

4, fublanceolate, about an inch long, and undulate at the 


Cephea, Hemifphrerical, tubcrculatc, rct'difh-brown: beneath 8 
arms villous at their cxircmiiies, and 9 very long 
filiform tentacula. 

Inhabits the Red Sea. Shaiv Net. I'ijceV, tab. 224. 

Body pellucid, with 8 paler rays: armi bluciih with black ex- 
trsmiiics : tentacula iomttiv 



WORMS. MOLLtjSCA. 5o:.i>byn;bphora.. 

ProBo fcii/a- Hcrm^phxilcji], with a long probofcis in the middle be- 
f"» . neath; and 6 marginaT tentacula. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, Forsk. fn. Arab. f. 108. n. 23. 
Body hyaline, z\ inches broad, with a prominent equal margin : 
prohofcii fubflexile and truncate at the tip, with a fringed 
folded vcrfatilc membrane. 

Mollkina. Dcpreffed, with 12 lateral apertures and tentacula. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Forsk. fn. Arabi p. 109, n. 25. 
Bodv an inch and a half in diameter, hyaline, th« margin pro- 
minent with 1 2 plaits. 

Piiettta. Ovate-campanulate, ■♦yrith a hyaline globe abore: wJthirt 
an oblong red nucleus : margin with numerous tenta- 
^ cula yellow at the bafe. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Forsk. fn. Arab. p. 1 1©. n. 26.- 
Bodv about an and a half high, the margin a little cbntradled. 

Crudgera. Hemifphasrical, with a reddifli crofs as wide as the body. 

Inhabits ■ . Fonk.fn. JF.g. J'S. p. 1 10. n. 27. 

^i?/^' about the fize of half a cherry,' with 4 very minute whiic 
approximate rmgs above ; the margin thin, prominent, vari- 
oufly flexile and often reddilh : tentacula very numerous, not 
as long as the body is wide. • 

Unguicula^ Orbicular; above flat with 16 rays: the margin crenate, 
ta» with 16 nightly incurved fangs. 

Snuai-ts AH. Stockh. 1788. 3. n.-j. tab. 6, Jig. l. 
Inhabits the ffiores of Jamaica ; fize of a fmall nutmeg. 
Body diaphanous, blueifh, fpotted. 

50. PHYSSOPHORA. Body gelatinous, 
pendent from an aerial velicle, with 
gelatinous feiTiIe members at the fides, 
and numerous tentacula beneath. 

Thefe are nearly allied to the IVIedufse, and might without much 
impFopriety be removed into that Genus, 

JJydrostati' Ch'al ; with numerous lateral 3-lobed veficles, open out- 
ca. wardly: middle inteftine ind 4 larger tentacula red. 

Forsk. fn. £gfpt. Arab. p. 119, n. 45. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean ; about half an inch long, compreffed.. 
and always- fwims with the tip of the veficle above the water, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 51. Afterias. 


Ru/ucea. Orbicular, and imbricate with otlong horizontal foliaceous 
membranes affixed to the veficle. 
lr\h.zb\t< iht Mediterranean. Arab, p, 120. ». 46. 
Body hyaline, an inch in diimeter, and refemblej a full-blown 
flower bending downwards : <veficle obtufe, ovate, reddifh, 
and covered with flat obtufe fpliaccous membranes curved 
and thickly laid. 

Filifcrmis, Lateral iftembers oblong, filiform and pendent. 

Inhabits ihj Mediterranean. Fenk, Arab. p. \zo. n. 47. 
^tdy very tender, not thicker than a thre.'d, and a fpan long, 
hyaline; with an obtufe ovate head about the hzc of a grain 
bi rice. 

ii. ASTERIAS. Body depfeffed, covered 
with a coriaceous cruft murkate with 
tentacula, and grooved beneath: vioutfi 
central, 5-rajed. Star-JiJJi. Sea-Jlar. 

Thcfe are all inhabitants of the fea, and arc marked with a- 
rough white Itorjy fpot above : they eJfily renew puts which 
have been loll by viol nee, and fix themfclves to the bottom 
by fwimming on the back and bending the xiyst 

A. LuHate. 

kobiliif Granulous, with a ridge round the margin, the diflc of 
which is glabrous. 
Inhabits NcrtJb Sc-as. Contop, Norsk. Natufg, 2. /. 291. 

Fuhilluii Lubricous, with an entire fimple margin. 

Muli Zool Dan l.p.6^. «. 25 tab. i(), fig.i^ 2, 
I'-habits North Seas, round the ifland Kahoim. 
Body above convex, covered with a Imooth fanguineous fkin, 
tranfverfely Itrlate here and there, befet towards the margin 
with loft cbtule white fpines, about the fizc of a millct-fecd, 
and divided into loarex, the margin not articulate, but rough 
in the angles with about 10 acute pipillx : beneath concav,, 
fmooth, v.'hitifh, with a rofy tinge, and hollowsd by 5 grooves 
each fide covered with horizontal batons. It tinges warm' 
water with a tawny colour, 

Militarit, Every where grP.nulous, with a palvinate margin, which is 

alike granalous. 
Inhabits Ntrth Seas. Mull. Zool, Dan, proJr, 28z8. 

Vol. IV.— R luna. 

13P WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 51. Afterias, 

Luna, Orbicular, entire. 

Inhabit? India, Aman, Acad. \. p. 2^6. tab, ^y fig. 14. 
Bod'i copipreileo and every whcie Sprinkled wiih xaifed dots, 

B. SteUate. 

*Pappo/a, With 12 — 14 ra^s, the edges of which arc furrounded 
with Ihort fafcicular procelTes ; the (urface muricate* 

Nat. Mi/celi. tab. 418. Burbutt tab. \Oyfg,z. 

Linck. Afi. tab. 32, fig. 52. tab. l\,fig. 54. 

Linck dell. mar. tab. 1 7, fg. ^8. 

Seba Muf. %» tab. 8, fig. 5, Colupt* ecp. tab. 38, fig. A ? 

Inhabits European and Ajiutic leas. 

Body above ferruginous, the difli Ipotted with white, the rays 
paler at the ends j beneath whitilh, with paler papillae and 
black grooves dowp the rays, th? disk tinged witji red : rayt 
1 1— 15> lanceolate and a little convex above. 

Spongio/ai Roughifti ; with 5 femicylindrical obtufe rays, unarmed at 

the edges, 
O. Fabr,fn, GrcEttl. p. 368. «. 363, 
Inhabits <^reenland Seas ; abut 7 lines in diameter. 
Body pale reddilh, with a very minute red central protuberance 

above, and rough with very minute crowded incumbent fpincs: 

rays infleded at the edges. 

*RuieHii Lax, with 5 lanceolate convex rays covered above with An- 
gle fpines difpofcd in rows. 
Afterias hifpida. Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 30, fig. 58. 
Linck. tab. g,fig. I9t tab. ll, fig. 15. tab. 14,/^. 23. 
Bafier opufc.Jubf. tab. 2, fig. i — 4. 

Plot. Oxfordjh. 85. tab. ^,fi!g, 4. Barbut, tab. lo, fig* 3, 
Seba Muf. tab. Syfig, 3, tab, 6, fig. 3, 4. 
Olear. Muf. tab. 8, ftg. 4. Barr, rar. tab. i«88. 

2, Baft, cpufc'.fubf 3. tab, iz, fi, I — 6. Column, aq, fab: 6, 

3. Linck. dell. mar. tab. ^^t fig. 69, 

Inhabits the Ocean; 9—14 inches in diameter. 

Boify above red, pale orange, yellowilh, cinereous or black, (ome- 
limes violet : rays 41 — 6, with 4 rows of papillae beneath : /»• 
bercles fomctimes fcattercd or difpofed in rows, fometimes o: 
prickles or briftles fometimes o. 

"^Sepofitaf With 5 joujid rays jeticulate beneath, and covered above 
with pedlinate prickles. 
Borla/e Cornwall, p. Z^<). tab. t^^ fiig. 1 8. 
Ltnck.ftetl. mart tab. 4, fig. 5, 7. tab. 9, /. 16. tali 30, /. 6z. 
Aiterias fpinola. Pennant Brit, Zool. i\,p, 62. n.^k. 
Inhabits European Seas j very fmall. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 51. AAerias. 131 

EnJeca. With 9 rays every where covered with peainate prickles. 
Linck. tab. l^,Jt^. 25. tah. 15, 16. /g. 26. fab. 17,/^. 27, 
2. Rump/. Mu/ tah 15, f,g. F. 

Inhabits North Seas. R.ys 5, 8, 10, generally 9. 

ikZ/flw/a. With 6 rays, the edges with diftant projeaing fafcicular 
flnhtbiti }^o)thern Seas. Seba Muf. .3. tab. 5, /J^.14, 15. 
Boay pale yellovv^ about 2^ lines in diameter, flat each fide. 

*ClaciaJ{. With 5 ancjular rays, the angles with prickly protuberances. 

Linck. tab. 38, and t.^b. 39, fig.dc). 

Inhabits the North Seas. Rays thick, lanceolate. 

BoJy when alive rufous undulate with white, fometimes cine- 
reous, brown or green j the dilk above with tubercles difpofed 
in a circle, beneath hollow : tentacula numerous, pellucid, 
with a row of fmall pinnules each fide.i back with a round 
itriate operculum or lid. 

■ •fiiathrata With 5 fhort thick rays ; hirfute beneath and cancelled 
f ahav€. 

Inhabits Europtan Seas. Pennant Brit. Zoo), iv. tah. 30, fig. i. 

^chinite!. With 20 rays, each with 2 rows of fuckers and numerous 

large and fmall moveable fpines. 

• Inhabits Bata'via, Sohud zuA Ellis Zooph, tab. 60— 62. 

Disk, like the riy^, covered with fpines. 

iieai-culattt^ Rays 4, reticulate with prickles. 

Linck. tab. 21, fig 36. tab. 41,/^. 72. 
Seba Muf tab. 7, fig. , . Ru„f. Muf. tab. l 5, fig.D. 
^HJJf' 114 tab 9,/;^. I. Barbut,tab. 10, fig. 4. 
, inhabits the Indian Seas. * t 

^hrygiana. Every where befet with papillce which are rofy beneath. 
Inhaous N^r^ay. Aa. Nzdr. 4./. 424. tab. ,4, ;5^. ,, 2. 

AW^«. With 5 con-vcx rays, longitudinally elevited and murlcate. 
Barbnt, tab. 10, fig. 5. Qre^. M.f 123. tab. 8. 

iT u^" 347^43. /«^. 7' a:?- 8 tab 25.y?f. 40. 

f'^u "-^u^- ,'"f- 5'A? 7> 8. /«/^. 6./.^. ,, 2, , ,. ,2. 
Inhabits the /W.aa Ocmw. 

'^../^r.^. Lax, with a grey-brown furface and violet tubercles- 
rays 5. 
Pennant Brit, Zool. iv. tab. "^O, fig, 56. 
Kadeap. Lin<k.p.<)y,fig. I — 9. 

^ 2 Inhabits 

^32 WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 51. Afterias. 

Inhabits European and Northern Seas. 

Body with fometimes a violet furtace, fomctimes with violet tij- 
bercles only, thefe are either difpofed in jrows or irregularly 
fcattereu: ^/ii orbicular : rayi ianceolatc and reddifti ac the 
tip: beneath yellovvifh in the grooves. 

Sanguin$^ Above fanguincous, the rays tipt with white. 
lenta. ' Inhabits l^orth Seas. Mull. Zoof. Dan. pmdr 2836. 

Perforata Unarmed, with perforated dots on the back. 

inhxhir:^ North Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan prodr. z^l^. 

Ar^ciaca Dilk broad : rays 5, ftibdepreffed and prickly at the margins. 
Mull. Zool. Dan i~ p. Z- tai. 8y fg. \—3' 
Aa. ^idrof. 4. tab. 1 4, fig. 3—6. 
Barhut, tab. \o,fig.6. Barr. ic. 128 1. 
Linck. tab. J^,ftg. H. *^^- ?»/%• 6- '''^- ^^J'^' ■ ^* 
SeiciMuf. S- tab.b.f.^—i 
Inhabits Mediterranean and North feas. 

•P.u.nrh Rays <> i diHc reticulate and perforated with dots : tubercles 
•E^ns. ^.y ^^ ^^^^.^^ fub;^rticu:ate: beneath a fmgle row of 

lnhs.hns European Seas. Bar'mt, tab. 10» fig' 7* 
All. irregularis, Brit. Zooi iv, p. 61. 
Linck. tab. b,f, 13 tab. 12,/ 21. tab. 13,/.22. 
iV^tf A/a/. 3. lab. 8, /^ 6. 8. Barr. ic, 1 285. 

/ • , With < femicylindrical obtufely 8-angled unarmed ray%,, 

;?7;;;/;?>. Muf. tab. 1 ?, /^. E Gr^w, M?/ ^fl^- 8, fig. 1 , 2. 

I. habits AW/V-f-r^'J^'fl" and /«fl'/«« Teas. 

i?«yx covered with obfolete warts, and between them at the 

iides are hollow dots: beneath the warts are difpofed in a 


*M,^bra With 5 broad membranaceous rays, extremely thin apd flat. 
naaa Aft. placenta/ Pennant Erit, Zoot.\s.tai>.l\, pg. %^, tS- 

Linck. Jiell. viar tab.\,f.2. 
InkMis Europti^n and Mediterranean kzs. 
Bays rough with tubercles : beneath with 5 elevated convex ri!:>s, 

Gr««vAzm. Pentangular, unarmed, each fide telfellate with granula- 
tions; the margin jointed, 
Linck. fell, tab I 3. fig. 22- tab. r'],fg. &r<,' 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3/^9- '«*• 92- M' i— 4* 
Inhabits the ifland Santa Craz, ^ 
^ ,^ ■' Q.Badifje 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 51, Afterias, ijj 

C. Radiate, 

Ro/ca. Rough, with reticulate granulations : rays round. 

Mu/I. Zoo/. Dan, 2 tal/. 67. 

Se^a MuJ. yp, 13. tab. J- fig. 5. 

Inhabits the Belgic and Norfway Seas ; a very elegant fpccies. 

^0^ above rich rofe-colour, fometimcs inclining to orange, 
with blackifh dots betw:;en the granulations ; beneath whitifH 
with dilated grooves; a quadruple row of tentacula, and c 
rows divergent pinnules ; rays white at the very tip. ' 

fertufa. Rough, rays round with a narrow gibbous bafe. 
Inhabits A'orfi' 6<?«j. MuU. Zool. Dan, prodr. 2839. 

• Qphtura. jQ-j^ ^^y^^, f^^jg ^,f ^he angles ferrate. 

ji3, Nidros.^-p- ij^.tab. "2^' fig. I 5. «b. 

Brit Zool \w:tah. ■>,Z.fg- 62. Barbiit, tab, lO.ftg- g» 

Sloan Jamaic. 2 tab. Zif\. fig 8. 9. 

Lir:ck. tab. 1 \.ftg 17- Phiiic, Co,ich. tab. j^. fig. 4. 

Inh>.b',tb the Ocean; [mal!, and njoves flowly. 

BcJf generally above grey reddifh or violet, rarely white ; 
g;abrous, with 5 rays : <//;(<!• orbicular : rays 4 times as Img 
as the body, flenaer quadrangular flexuous and covered with 
a lingle row uf fcales. 

It ii. fuipeftcd thit the mifchievous effefls, which at certain 
timciOl the year, are produced by CiLingthe common mulTels, 
are occafijijcd by their having fed upon this fpecies of 

4'^uleata, "V^ith glabrous prickles, fhorter than the diameter of the 
Mull Zool. Dan. ^. p. 29. tab. 99-//^. 1 — ^. 
LincL tab. zG.fig. 42. t. 40./ 71. 
Inhabits the Ocean Rays 5. 

Body varying i»- colour, orbicular, with n>i|iuts fcales beneath, 
() qi wnich refemble a Corol. 

Qliaris.^ With rough fpines, longer than the diameter of the rays. 

Unci. tab. l^-fig. 56. /. 37./. 65. V. 40./. 71.., 
Bar. rar. tab. I2g^. fig. I. Ba/but. tab. lo fg. lO. 
Inhab'.lfi the Indian and ^lorth Seas. Rays 5. 

9Sph^ru, With 5 flender jointed rays, hirfutc onthefidfsj with ^ 
■ ^' fmall globular head between the bafe of each jray. 

Inhabits European Seas, Penn. Brit. JCool. iv. tab, ^2.fg, 63! 
Bo^/y pentangular indentid fmooth above the apcrt'lre; beneath 

9 Pentfthyllat 

i34 WORMS. MOLLliSCA. 51. Afterlas. 

Pentd- With 5 flender rays, hirfute at the fides and telTellate aboVef 
phytla* and below with green, fometimes with sky-blue. 

Inhabits iJr/W/i Coalis. Bar/. Corniu. tab. z^. fg. 24. 
Boi(y regularly pentangular. . ■ 

* yaria. With 5 hirfute rays, annulate with red : body circular with 

lo radiated ftreaks ; the end^ lozenge-fortn. 
Inhabits Brit'tJ}} CoaJ!. Borl. Cbrnija. tab. i'^-fg. 21, 

^Acuhiu^i. With 5 flencer hirfute rays: body round, with alternately 
broad and narrow ftrcaks from the centre. 
Inhabits Britifit Coajis. Borl. Cornnv. tab. 25. fig. i<^. 

* llafiata. With 9 hirfute jointed rays : body pentagonal Indented, 

brownilh-rcd with 10 ochraceous ftreaks, 5 of which flender with javeline-ihstped extremities. 
Inhabits BHtiJk Coddi. Borl. CorniJd, tab. ZS'/'S- ^^' 

* Fi^a. With 5 flen<!er hirfute rays : body circular with 5 equidiftant 

dents penetrating deep into the iides, and 5 light co- 
loured ftreaks from the centre. 
Inhabits Britijh Coajis. Borl, Cornnv. tab. 2^. fig. 20. 

^ Nigra. With 5 hirfute olive rays telTellate with deeper (hades; 
body pentagonal black with 5 radiate (Ireaks of white* 
Inhabits Britijh Coajis. Bor-l. Corniv. tsib, 2^,/:g. 23. 

Tenella. W^ith 10 peftinate rays above; and filiform ones beneath^ 
which are thickened at the joints. 
Reiz. Aa. Stocklp. \-]%i.p. 233 n II. 
In abits the coall o\ Santa Cruz-; lefs than the titxt. 
Body white ; Hem of the rays longer. 

^Feflinata. With to pedinate rays above; and fewcfr filiform oncii 
beneath, the joints equal: disk fmooth above. 
Linck tab. "3,7, fig- 64, 66. Barbut t. \0. f II. 
Seba. MuJ. 3. tah. <^-f/g. 3, 4. Pet Gaz. t. if- f.^. 
Pennant Brit. ZooL iv. tab. ^S'Jig^ 7 1. 
Inhabits European and Indian Seas. 

Bcav covered above with 5 unequal valves j colour deep led : 
filiform rajs beneath terminated by an incurved claw. 

l^'ukira- With ID palmate- fubquadrifid peftinate rays above and 
]jiata. numerous filiform ones beneath : the diik granulate. 

Li7:ck. tab. 2^ ' fg- 33- ^ 22./. 34. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

• Caput 

WORMS MOLLUSCA. 52. Echrnus. ^35 

With 5 divided and fubdivided rays: diflc arid rays gran«- 
late : mouth deprelFed 

Natur Mi/cetl. tab. 103. Barhtit. tab. 10. fg, 13. 

L.nck. tab. \%.fg. 29 t. 19 /. 30. /. zo.f. 32, 

Seha Mitf. 3. tab. ().fg- I, 2. /. 1 1./. I. 

Knorr. delic. nat. tab. G, Mart. Spitz, tab. V.fg. E. 

Inhabits moft Seas, and is an extremely curious fea animal : th£ 
5 rays dividing into 2 fmaller ones, and each of thcfe dividing 
again into 2 others ; which mode of regular fubdivifion i,3 
continued to a vail extent, gradually decreafing in fize, till at 
length the lamifications amount to many thoufands, forming 
a beautiful net work. Its colour is fomecimes pale or reddifli- 
white, fomctimes brown. 

EarjaU. Rays divided and fubdivided ; diflc papillous and with th© 
rays granulate: moj^th a little raifed. 
Linck. tab. 2f).fig 48 /. lO.f, 49. Rumpf. Mu/ tab. 1(5. 
Inhabits the dpe of ^ood Hope. Body fulvous, 

Qligaefei. Rays very long aixd fiirple, with 2 acute moveable ilyles ^. 
each joint. 
Pall. nov. aa. Petrop. 2. p. 239. tab. (>-fig. 23 A, B. 
Found near the Ifland C^r^uiv, adhering to Gor^onia;. 
Body pentangular minute ochraceous and rather hard. 

J^igritM,. With 5 jointed rays covered with inabrjcate fcales above, ar\d 
lateral patulous ramifications ; difk obtufely pentan- 
gular and granulate. 
Inhabits Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. p. 20. fab. Ql-fig* I — 4. 

Tricelcr. With five jointed rays pr6linate at the fides, the ramifica- 
tions rough: difk hifped 
Inhabits Faroe IJland. Mull. Zool. Dan 3. tab, 97 fig, \ — 5. 

Fragilis% Difk orbicular murlcate, fpinous on the back : rays c, 
jointed and pectinate at the lides, the ramificatioi^ 
Inhabits hiorth 6cas. Mull. ^ool. Dan. 5. tab. ()^*/ig' l-r^* 


ECHINUS. Body roundifli, covered 
with a bony futured emit, and generally 
furnillicd with moveable Ij^nes. mouth 
placed beneath, and molily 5-valved. 



i26 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echiniis- 

Thefe are all inhabitants of the Sea, and many of them have 
P^/i^ been hitherto iound^in a foffile ftate: naany are efculent, and 

^ '■> they nrc in general armed with 5 (harp teith : the pores are 

each furnilhed with a rctraftile tenfaculum or feeler, by which 
the animal affixes itfelf to any objeft and ftops its motion: 
the ("pines are connefttd to the outer (kin by very ftrong 
ligaments,' and are the inftruments of motion. 

A. Vent vertical: tentacula every where ftniplc. 
a. Hemifpharical or ghbular. 

iE/tuUfitus ^ubglobular; with 10 avenues of pores, the fpaces between- 
covered with fmall tuoerclcs fupportlng the fpines. 
, Na^ur, Mi/cell. tab. 223. Barbut, tab, I l./i". I 
L-.fier Angl. 69 tab. -t^./ig 13. ^rit. Zool. iv. /. 34./. 74. 
Klein echinod. ed Lejh. f. 76 tab. 3«./. I, 
RumlfMuf. 31. tab. 13 f:g. B, C. 
Seba Muf. 3. tab, n.fig- 4- a, b. i. 12./. i, 6, 8, 9.' 
Argent). Conch, p. 307. tdb. 25.//V. F. 
Delic. Nat./el. tab. D fig. i.t.U. ii. f. l > 

1. Seba Muf. 3. tab, \o.fg. 14. 

2. Seba. Muf. 3. t2b. li.fg, 6. 

3. Seba Muf. 3 tab. W.fg* 7- 

/. Seba. Muf, 3. tab. 1 1. Jig. 9. 

5. White. Molin. Hill. Chili. p.^ 175. 

Inhabits European and Indian Seas. , 

Bodv reddi(h or yellowilh : fpinss (hcrt violet colour, looflng their 
colour and falling off the dead animal : pores in aboat 3 rows: 
tubercles furrounded with a circle of Lffer ones : 'vent clofed by 
a coriaceous membraae -covered with fpines. 

^kard. Subfphaerical, red, with blueifh fpines. 

Inhabits Northern Seas. MuU, Zool Dan. Prodr. 2845, 
Is probably the fame as the lalt, or Ech. lirdicus. 

brcrbachU Hemifphaerital, pale, with long pale fpines. 
enfts. Inhabits North Seas. Mull. Zool. Dan. prodr. 2846. 

^Mi/iattu Hemifphzerical deprelTed, with to anenues of pores, the 
fpaces between with 2 rows of protuberances. 
klcm. Echin. ed. Lejk. tab. 2. A, C, D. tab' ^ 3 1 . A, D. 
Sloan Jamaica. 2 p. 268 tab. 24.^. Jg. i — •}, 
Seba MuJ. ^.p. lO. fig- i— 4- '<"^- ^^'fi' 5~^* 
Del. Nat. I. tab. D. ii- yfg-. 3, 4, ^. tab. D, m./g. 4. 
Gualt. lejl. fab, loj^ji^. G, H, I,L', K. 


Worms, mollusc a. 51. ficVmus. 137 

Bajlcri, 2: Shell deprelTed, with fewer tubercles, and a ferrate line 
down the middle of the fpaccs: pores of the avenues 
placed in alternate rows of 2 and 3 foramina. 

Ltsk ap. Klein, tab. 43. ftg. 3 — 5. tab. 49. f. i, 2. 

BaJi.op.Juhs. 3. /. ll.f. 2 — 8. 

Reaum. 43. Par. ijlz. p. 177. /. 8. 

Gualt. Teji. t. 107./ A. 

Inhabits the European Qcean^ and is principally dillinguifhci 
from Ech. efculcntus, in being lefs, in h iving the top more 
deprcfied, and the avenues of pores narrower. 

S'/vZ/grceiufi^-grcy, olive-green or reddifh-violet : ^^r%zx fpaca 
with 8 rovv? of fiuall tubercles, befides fomc very minute 
fcattered ones : leffer fpaces with 1 rows of larger and as ma- 
ny Imall tubercles : anienues with a triple row of double pores: 
[pines 3 — 4 lines long, ftriate, acute or obtufe, whitilh, violet^' 
green or ulackilh •olive. 

HerHiJfhce- Hcmifphcerical, deprefled, with 10 avenues of pores, the 
ficus, fpaces with a ferrate future down the middle, and tranf- 

vcrfe lines : mouth pentangular, the angles obtufe. 
Klein, ed UA. tab. 2, E. tab \0,fig. 7. 
Oualt. TeJl. tab. loy, fig. M 
Dsl^c. Nat /el. p. 88. tab D, / 6. 

Inhabits •, probably a variety of Ech. efculentus. 

SJbcU yellowi(h-rcd with paler avenues, the bale ochraceous ^ 
rough with larger and fmiller protuberances. 

Jitgukfusi Hemifphxrical ; the fpaces granulate and bifarioufly wart- 
cd, the larger ones bi parted by a ferrate future down' 
the middle: avenues trifarioully porous. 
Klein. Echin. ed tej. tab. z, F, tab. ^z,fg^ l. 

2. Lefs, and grecni<h-grey. 

Klein Echin. ed leik. p, 94. tab. 3, A, B. 

Seba Muj. 3. ta!>, 10, Jig. 20. 

Argen'v. c>nch. i. p. 310, ta/f. 25, /g. H. 

Gua/t. TeJl. tab, 1 08, fig. A. 

Delic. Nat.jH. I./. 88 tab. D", fig. 4, $. 

Inhabits 7. Shell grey with a violet tinge. 

Spaces wi:h rows of granulations and protuberances; aveniut 
with double diftant pores, 

ExtaifatHS, Hemifphccrical ; fp?ces granulate, all of them bifarioufly 
tuberculate : avenues excavated and bifarioufly porous. 
Klein Ech. ed. lesk. p*gS' ^^- 44» /'&* 3» 4» 
SciUt de corp. 7nar. petrlf tab, 22, fig, 2, D. 
Found at /eronn in a petrified Itatc : grey-ycllow» 

VOL. IV.— S Qloluliti* 

tjg WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

Giohului. Hemifphaerical, fubg!obular, with 10 avenues, the fpaces 
muritate at the fides and porous in the middle. 
Inhabits ilic /ay,z«w Offal. Muj. Lud bir. -j 06, 
This. is probably ihe lame as fc-ch. graimlatus. 

Sj>b0roiJes Hemifphserical, gibbous : avenues 10, every where mufl- 
cate and poioub in the middle. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 

Gratilla, Hemifphsric^l, gibbous: avenues 10, triplicate; the fpaces 
muricate in a dtcuHate form. 
Inhabits the hidian Ocean. Muf Lud. XJlr. 707^ 

Lixula, Hemifphserical, with 10 avenues in approximate pairi; 
the fpaces tranfverfely muricate and pundtured. 
Inhabits the hdtan Ocean, Muf. Lud. Ulr. 107, 

Saxatilis» HemifphaiTical, depreffed ; pores of the avenues in a curved 
line, the curves oblique at the bafe, 
Uumpf. Amb. p.'t^\. tab, 14,/^ A. 
Set- a Muf. 3 tab. iO,/i^. 11. Bat but j tab. II,/". 2« 
Kietn ecktn. ed. lesk. tab, 5, and 30, A, B, 
Delic nat./el. I, tab. D, n\,f2g'. 6; 

2. Seba Muf. 3, tab. 13,/^, 10, 
KletJi echmoa. ed. lesk. tab, 39, J"ig. 4. 

3. Klein ec hi nod. ed. lesk. tab. 5, fig.c. 

4. Klein tchinod. ed. lesk. tab. 5, Jig. b. 
Inhibxii i\itMeutterranean, 2) Indian Seas, 
5'-^<?//rubelliptic, viclet-grcy or white: protuberances violet, red-» 

di/h or yejlowilh, in 2 or 3 longitudinal rows: pores of the 
aHjenues double, 5 pair in a row: «;oz</^ large : «rf«/ furround- 
ed with ovate acute fcutcs: fpines rigid, reddilh-brown,' with 
violet tips. 

/fw^r^f/a;. Orbicular, with 3 flat feneftrate bafe : fpaces 10, with un- 
equal fmall and large tutjcrcles : mouth with 10 angles. 

Klein echincd. ed. lesk. tab 4, A, B. tab^ 39, fig. 3, 

WaUh dilwv.Z. p. 177. tab E, i. a, 1. 

Inhabits . . Slell white, with granulations over all the 

fpaces and avenues; in the larger Ipaces are 6 rows of warts 
refemhling papillse : a^uenues broad, with 3 pair of pores and 
2 towards the crown : fpines violet-black ; ijent pentangular. 

Sttbakguh' Hemifphxrical, orbicular; with 10 fpaces, the Icffer ones 
ris* elevated, and 10 rows ot tubercles in each. 

Inhabits ■ ■, Klem ecbined, lesk, tab. 3. C, D. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 139 

Sk^'/ ^T^cm^-n^ a little inc'ining to chcrnut, and pulvinate al 
the Hafc: (iace^ with 4 tubercles placed in a rhombic form: 
pores of the avenues curved, in 4 or 5 pairs. 

* Ovarius, Ovate ; the br2;er fpaces bifarioiifly tuberculate, 
Pht. OxforJ'h^p. \oS ta/-. 5, /ig.6. 
Lairi. hthoph p 46. V 9 -,4— 949- ''='*• <?' A- 940. 
Boursr '^ctrif t. 76 «. 340. tab. %t. fig. 340. 345» 34^. 
Found in a petrified Hate in England and Normandy. 

t>iadmd. Hemifphsrical, depr^fTecl, with 5 avenues longitudinally 
tuberculate ; the fpaces lanceolate. 
Klein ed Iffi. tab.T,J, Hi- I. 2. tab. ^\. g. \,g. 2. 
Barhut, tab. 1 1, /%, 3. Peti'v. Amh. tab. 8, /i>. 5. 
Rumpf, Muf. p. 35. tub. »3, w. 5. tab. 14. / B. 
3. W ith tuhercuUts bands. Phsls . Zee-egel. />. 29, «. 27. 

3. Greenifh-vellow.. Seba Muf. 3. /fl^. 1I>/^. 10, 

4. BIicHfh, variolous, with long fpines. 
Seba Muf. 3, tab. i^, fig. 5. 

5. Ar/^/«. echinod. ed. led, tab. 46, fig,\. 
4>. Spines black annulate with white. 

Klein echinod. ed lesk p. 1 01. 

Inhibit? finds of the Indian Ocean. 

Shell orSicular, with a depreffed xQipy rich blue or grey-blue : 
mouthUrgt: 'i-fa/' circular an. i farr>un.:ed vith a pentangular 
Ikin : f>aces bifariouilv tuberculate, the tubercles perf .r ted at 
the tin: a'uetues with 3 pair of pores at the bafe and I at the 
tip: /'fines violet and blue-grey. 

^alafa*rius Sphxroi.?, clepreiTed: avenues 5, with black porous niargins, 

grauulate in the mividle with a double row or larger 

prominent dots 
Pall Spiel. Zool. 10 p 31. tab. t, fig 4—7. 
Kleii echtnnd. ed hik.p llv tab /[^,fitg. I — 4. 
Inhil/us t'le Indian '^ea: greenilh-white. 
Leff-'r uhrcln with >reen very brittle bridles: /pines refcmbling 

the '\en of the Equifetum, whitifh 'annulate with green and 

grey at the tip. 

Araaeifor. Orbicular, grey, with purple-grey fpines thicker in the 
tnii. middle. 

Inhabits American Seas. Seba Muf. 3, tab. 1 3, /ig» 6, 

Stellatui. With the lower fpines capillary. 

Inhabits American Seas. Seba Muf. 3, tab. 1 3, ftg, 7. 

S 2 Radial us. 

140 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. .l^chinus, 

RaJistvs. With 5 radiate avenues, forked gt the tip. 
Lesk. «p. Klettt. echin^ p. n 6, tab. 44, fig, i . 
Seba Muf, '3, tab, 14, fig' 1,2. 

Inhabits ' ■ . Each of the arvenus is terminated by 2 whitiih 
lays, and perforated with pale red foramina. 

Circinatus. With 10 granulate fpaces, bifarioufly tuberculate; the 
larger ones excavated, the lefler ones elevated, and 
fubpulvinate at the bafe. 

Klein echin. eddake, p. 1 1 9, tab. 45, Jig, JO. 

Scill. Corp. mar. tab. z^^ f. \? 

Found hitherto only in a foffile ftatc. 

Ciiarii. Hcmifphasrical, deprefled, with 5 flexuous linear ^vcnuesj^ 
the fpaces alternately bifarious. 
Kkin echin. ed. lesk. p. 125. tab. 7. Barbutt tab. 1 1 , /, 4. 

1. Kleinlesk. tab. 7, A. tab. 39,/. I, 2. tab. 5ify.h, Ij2. 

Seha Mvf. 3. p. 30, tab. 1 3, fig. 1 1, 1 2. 

Delic h'at./eLtab D,/'g.2. 

Phef. Zee-egel p. zg^ tab. i> fg. 10. 
t. Lefs. Kkin, ed.Usk.p. J27. tab, 7, 

.Rumpf. Amb. p. 33, tab. !2, fig. 3, 4. 

^^-^a Muf, 3, /«&. 3. Argennj. Conch, tab. 25. Ef. 

Z)^/«r. nat. D. iii.//^. 5. 

3. Spines fufiform. Seba Muf. 3I tab.. i^, fig. S. 
Klein ed. lesk. tab. 41. f'g- 4. /^^- 7. L>, E. 
i)cill. Corp. mar. tab. 22. fig. l — J. 

Bonann. Muf. p. 92. yTg". 17,18. 

Qualt. ted. tab. \Q%. ftg. D, E. PetiV', 7,/. 2. 

4. Spines claviculate. De luc. Naturf. 8. tab. 8. 
Kktn.ed. leik. p. 134. tab. ^6. fig. 2, 3. 
L««5. Lap. figi tab. 36. the middle figure. 

5. Spines obtule. Aia//. Zoc/. Dan. prodr. 2848, 

6. Echini Siamenfes. Rumpf. Amb. p. 34. 

Inhiibits the Ocean, generally of a livid-grey colour and flat at 
the bafe: fpaces granulate; with 2 rows of protuberances 
placed alternately, furnillicd with perforated papillse, lur*- 
tounded with a cjrcle or two of granulations, and leparated by 
a groove running round them ; in the place of lefler ones is 
an emment band between the avenues; wjc«/^ rather large. 

MamiUatus Kemifphxricai, oval, with lo winding avenues ; the fpaces 
muricaie and warty, the narrower ones abbreviated. 
Kletn echificc, ea. lesk. tab. 6. 34, 39. fig, i. 
Rnrnpf. AtiUp. 32. tab, 13, fig. I, z, 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 141 

Seba Muf. I. tab. io,fg. ij. Barhut, tab. 1 1,/, 5. 
Breyn. echin. t. i,/. 5. Cua!t, tejl. i, 108, B, C. 
Argenv. Loncb. p. 310, /. 25, /". A. 

f . Pbelf. Z^e-egel. p. 30, « 7. 
^. S^^^ 'V/z/ 3. />. 13,/. I, 2. 

4. SehaMuf. 3. /. 13./. 3. 

5. SebaMuf. 3./, 13,/, 4. 

Z)f/. A'a/. I, /. D./, 3. t. D. Hi./ 7, «. 

Inhabits Soutkern "^eas ; dcpreffed, of* ydlovr-afh colour inclin- 
ing to brown, beneath paler. 

Spaces 10, the papillx' not perforated as in the laft, but lur- 
rounded with elevated circle? j in the larger /pacei are about 
16 — 18 protuberances jhe middle ones larger, in the leffer 
fpaces about 14; aijenues with 4 — 5 pair of pores at thebafe: 
moutb large: nient rounded and furrounded with lofcales, c 
of which arc perforated ; colour of thc/pingi variable. 

L'ucunter^ Hemifphasrical, oval, with 10 flexuous avenues; fpaces 
muricate, the narrower on^s longitudinal. 
Klein echinod. ed, lesk. t. 4. C, D. 
Seha Mu/. 3. /. 10,/ 6, 16. /. 1 1 , /". 1 1 . 
Breyn. echin. t, I ,/. 6. Gualt, te/t. t. I07J/. C. 
Delic. nat.fel. i.p. 89. /. P. \.f, 8/ 

t. Suborbicular, Klein lesk. t. z^, /."£,, ?. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, and varies much in colour i fomctimes 
yellow -cinereous, fometimes blueifh or blackifli: the bafc 
pulvinate. • 

houih large: in each ,^^z<-^ is a double row of larger warts, and a 
fextuple row of fmall ones in the larger fpace.-, which in the 
leffer is quintuple: avenues with 4—5 pair of pores towards 
the ends, and 6 in the middle. 

J^ram. fleraifph^ricaUcval ami fli^htly deprefTed; with very fhort 
obtiifc truncate Ipiiits, the marginal ones clavatc and 

Klein ed.lesk. /. 47,/. I, 2. /. 44,/. 5. 

Bar hut's Worms., t.w.f.b. 

Jrgen'villt Lonch, l.p. 310. /. 25,/. F, G. 

Jjihabits jndian Seas. Circumference nearly orbicular, ciHcreous 
inciini.g to violet : j-a'cej 10, very finely grarulate, with 
fometimef an oiluple row of larger protuberances in the larget- 
ones, difpofed in a quincunx, and a double row in the leiTe'r 
ones: aojenues hrown, excavated, granulate, broad, with 4 
rows of pores: ///«o violet, feme of them clavatc, fome an^' 
plar at the tip, and fome cylindrical, 


i^i WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

^'CeretraUs, Hcmifphaerical orbicular, with 10 fpaces alternately nar- 
rower and covered with fcattered papillae : avenues flat, 
meting in confluent pairs before the area of the crown. 
Morton NortbznUt. p. 234.. tab, lO. fig, id, 
tu^d.lithopb. Brit. «. 979 — 98 1. 
Lejk. ed. klein. p. 136. tab. 8. A, B. 
Lang. lap. fig. p. t2 2. tab. 31. 
Bourg. petrif. tab. 51. fig. 334., 33$. 
t. Ploi'^taffordfh. p. 178 — \q%. tab f^.Jig. 21. 
I.ffi:. ed. klein. echin. p. 138. tab. 8, C. 
Hookas Works, p. 284, tab. Z. fig. 2, 3. 
Liiler lap. co(h. p. 120. ti\ et fig. 19. 
Lluid. litb Brit. p. 4.6. fig. 942, 943, 
Jang, lap' fig- p' 124. tab. 35. 
t^aletti. Muf. 2. tab. ^./fg. 8. 
Bourgmt petrif . p. ^b. tab. ^z. fig. 345. 346c 
Schfuthz. oryhsgr. p. '^I'J' fig- I 34« 
Scheuchx. phys.facr. tab. t^G.fig. 65.- 
Baier oryi'iegr. noric. tab. jfig- 36. 

3. Klein, echinod. ed, Lefk. p: 140. tab. ^^, fig. z. 
Rumbf. Amb. p. 337. tab. S9'f'g- E. 

4. Llein. ecbin. ed. LeiLe. 141. tab. S. ftg. !D, E. 

Inhabits various P'lrts of the world, and as yet has only be<h 
found in a foffile Hate, in a chalky and flinty foil. 

Jfiirizafts, Orbicular dep re iTed ; tubercles furrowed with a groove up 
to the tip and furrouned with a circle of granulations. 
Klein, ecbiuod. ed. Lesk. tab. 8. F, tab. afi.fig. 5, 
Found among chalk in a foffile fta^e* 

Ajfulatus. Shell fcutfellate, the fcutels united by tranfverfe futures. 
Klein, ecbinod. p. I 5. § 26. 
2. Teffellate. Klein ecbinod p. 16. § 27. 
.Inhabits— —probably not i diltinrt fpecies. 

Sardicus. Orbicular depreffed tuberculate, with t© imprefled avenues » 
the fpaces multifarioufly tubercled, with an imprelfed 
future down the middle. 
Klein, ed. Leske. tab. 9. A, B. tab. S^-Pg' 4-"^« 
Plane, comm. Bonon i. p. 236. tab. l.f'gi 4» S" 
Bonan. recr. I. p. (^z,fig. 19. 

Scill. corp.mar. tab. ^yfg- I • ^' 3^. B. a. j 

Inhabits the Tufcamwd. Adriatic Seas i large, grey-yellowifh-red, 
the bafc nearly fiat and more yellow; \iX'izx fpacei with tu- 
bercles difpoied in 8-12 ro^vs, with lefler ones and imall 
granulations in tne interltices j the lefler fpaees with 4-6 rows 
of fmaller tubercles ; a-cenues with 5 pair of pores placed m an 
arched row: mouth fmall with lo linuofities. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 14^ 

U •>} mui. Hemifpharrical dcprefieil ; the fpaces void of tubercles in 
the middle towards the upper part?, the ieffer ones 
more elevated: avenues narrow and bounded each fide 
by a row of tubercles. 
Klein. echinod.ed.Lcsk. p. 148, tab. lo,A. 

Inhabits Oiive green, the tubercles and bafc of thf avcr 

nues whiter: Urger ^accs with 12 rows of tub- roles at the 
broadcil part, leflcr Ipaces with 3, e-ich tubercle furrounded 
with a circle of lefl'er ones : a-venues hardly 2 lines broad, with 
3 pi-ir of pores intermixed with granulations : mcuib iaxzWi 
fjent furrouded with pentinguiar fcalcs. 

reriegatut. Orbicular fubangular; middle fpaces rofy, rich green cacli 
fide: avenues whitilh-green: bafe whitiih. 

Klein, echinod, td. Leik. p. 149. tab. 10. B, C. 

Scba Muf. i- tab. lO.fig. 13. Gualt.teli. t. lOJ./.F. 

Inhabits Largery^^rfi with the appearance of 3-4 warts furr 

rounded with granulations, IclTer fpaces a Intle elevated witri 
3 rows of warts: avemies with 3 pair of pores: n.oui/f roundifl) 
and very faindy finuate. 

Pfijiulojus. :^arger fpaces divided in the middle by a future, witli 
numerous tranfverfe rows of tubercles increaling irj 
number towards the middle; leiTer fpaces more elevated, 

Klein echinod. ^d. Leske. p. i 50. ta'tf. 1 1 . A, B, C, D. 

SebaMuf. 3. tab. 10 fig. 8. 10. 15. 

Inhabits-: hardly an inch high and about 2 in diameter^ 

brow nilh grey inclining to red, the leflcr fpaces paler, the 
bafe whitiih, and the protuberances reddifh : y^^fci 10, the 
larger ones with a rough difk, the future bounded by minute 
granulations each fiuc. with rows of tubercles confilUng at firft 
of one, then of 2, fo that in the middle they amount to about 
10; Icflor fpaces with 2 rows of tubercles with a ferrate line 
and minute granulations between them ; a'venues with 4 — ; 
pair of pores running into oblique lines : mouth with broad 

(Sranulatus Suborbicular fubangular : middle of the fpaces naked and 
divided by a future ferrate each fide, the larger onee 
^ with 7 rows of tubercles, the Ieffer ones with 4. 
Klein echinod. ed. Leske. p. 150. tab. 1 I. E, F. 

Inhabits -about I of an inch high and i { in diameter, tha 

bafe pulvinate and with the margin of the larger fpaces greenilh- 
grey. middle of the larger {paces and the Ieffer ones dull green; 
a'venuet with 3 pair of pores placed in a triangle : 'vent cir- 
cular with 10 fcalcs at the margin expanded Itke a rofe, 


J44 WORMS. MOLLUSCA.- 52. Echpius. 

TefellatHs. Wrth lo fpaces divided in the middle by a future and tcftelv 
late: avenues 10 bij)orous : mouth circular. 
Klei*i echinod. ed. Lesk. p. 153,. tab. II, G. 
Found hitherto only in a foifile ftate. 

Botryoidct. Spaces divided by a longitudinal future in the middle, the 
larger ones bifariouily tuberculate : avenues with a 
double curved rov/ of pores. 

Ki'ein ccbind. ed. Lesk. f, \ 54. tab. 1 1. H,- 

found as yet only in a foffile ftate. 

TcrtutKH' Hemifphajrical, v^ith 10 fpaces bifarioufly tuberculate» the: 
iicut, tubercles crenate and furrounded by a circle of granu- 

lations ; the larger fpaces with 4 longitudinal grooves^ 
, the leffer ones with 2. 
Klein echinod. ed. Lesk. tab. 10, D, E. tab. ^\. jig, 2. 

Inhabits Cinereous blueifh or greenifh, the bafe and avenuet' 

yellowifh : avenues bipbrous," che pores placed in a thickly- 
ferrate line; bafe pulvinate : mouth fmall ; <vent furrounaei 
with ro fcalcs. 

b. Sameihing refemhing the figure of ajbield. 

^Sinuatut, Convex; avenues 10 ftriate; fpaces 10: tubercles furroirndcd 
with a circle of granulations. Polar Jione, 

Plot. Oxfordjh. p. 91, 92. tab. z. fig. 9, 10- 

Klein echinod. ed. Lesk. p. 157. tab. 12. 

Lifier lap cochl. p. 224. 

Luid. lithoph. Brit, p. 48. «. 97I. 

Morton Northamptonjh. pi xi\. «. I. 

Found hitherto only in a toilile ftate. 

One of the ^ac^i" divided by an excavated linus : wvenuei broad 
and punctured at each margin : bafe a little excavated and 
furrowed by ^ divergent grooves: mouth fmall pentagonal. 

Semigkbo' Hemifphxrical, grooved,' with a fiat bafe: the protubcran- 
f"'' ces placed in rows. 

Klein echinod- ed. Lesk.p, rjS, tab. \^.fig. I. 

Lang, lap. ^g.p. 119. tab., 34. 

Volkm. Sil./ubt. l.^, 179. tab. $0.fig, 5. 

Bourg. petrifi. lab. 52. fig, 3<}.2. 

Found hitherto in a foflrle ftate only.' 

duin^ue- Painted with innumerable annulations, with a hollow inr 
fabiafus, the middle furrounding a 5-rayed convex flar/ 

Klein, echinod, ed, Lesk, p, 159. /<nl'. 4i-y%. h 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52, Echinus, i4S 

tFali. tnonum, dikv. z. p, iBi, tab. E, iii. f. 4. 
Ferf. der bafel. merkio 22. tab, iz.fig, I. 
Found hitherto among foffiles only. 

Consideus, Subconic with an elliptic circumference : fpaces and ave- 
nues 10, the latter tranfverfely grooved and porous at 
the inargin, the former divided by a ftraight excavated 

, future. 

K'ein echomd. ed. lesk. p. 1 ^g. tab. 43,/"- 2. 

Found as yet only in a fofliie ft:te: prorunenr.ces of tVie Tpaces 
thickly placed and furrounded by a circle of g^anulation^ ' 
bafe flat, groovc:d : vent circular. 

B. Vent placed beneath ; mrutb without tentaeiila. 

a. Bafe circular, in the periphery of which is the vcnL 

*Jlhb ca- Spaces I?,- covered with numerous fmall white tubercles, 
isruu the larger ones uiiiicU by a ferrate future and tranf- 

verfely lincate, the leifer onts tcrmiiiated by a foramefs 
at the crown : avenues 10, oiporous. 

Plot- O.xforafli. j 35- tab. Z- fig X3. 

Morton iSorthnmftunjh p 235. «. 1. 

Lnjd. lithchh B'it. p -47. n. 958, 9591. 

liesk.ed, Klein echinod p. 162 ta'y. 13, A. B. 

Jldrov. Muf. TtieiaU. / 455. Z'^. 4- 

Besi. Gc.ioph. c6n:ir. ta'K 19, 

Lang, la^. fig^p. 125. ta^. ^d, fg. 1. 

Mtil- ech. ivagr, p Jt fg> (>• 

Breyn. ech. />. 57, tab, z, tig. I, 2. 

Bourg pctrif p 77 tab $!;■>/§ S^'* 

F und hiiherc.) oniv in a f'/fti;e fate. 

Suboval : mouth orbicular, Imali : HJttii ovate. 

Dcprejfus. Spaces ic, the larger ones divided in the iitiddic by a fu- 
ture: avenues 10, biporous: crown dcprclied: yi-Att 

KL'in echin. ed, ksk. p, 164.. .'. 4.0, /. 5,6. 

WWc/?> diiwv. fftr^fium 2. p. i So /, E. ii /I 6, 7, 

Me/l. ech. ivjgr. p.'/. t. i, f. ?.. 

Kundm, rar. nut.i't art. yt /-g' 12, 

Nafarl.liafel. ^erkzv. 2 2. tab- 22, fig. W. 

Found hitlicrto .>nly iil a fol'ilc tlate. 

/f5«rf nioaeratc, with 10. lliarp finuofitics; i'^;?/ large, ovate. 

VOL. iV. — T *yi:haus. 

146 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

*P'ulgarisf Orbicular; with 10 avenues, 2 of them always nea-r each 
Morton Norihbampt. p- 235. ». 2, fah. \0, fig. II. 
Liji, Up cocbl. p. ZXCf'fig. 18. 
Lutd Itth. hnt. p. 46. n 944--950. 
Klein cchrnod. Usk.tub. « 3>/?^. C — k- ^ H» /• * — ^• 

IFAlch dawj. t. E. 1./ I, 2. a. /, 2. r. 9. d. f. 2. g./. i; 

Aidro'V. iAuf. p. 455,/ 3—6. 

0/!fflr MuJ. Goitorp.t.zi, f. 5,6, 

Scoiopendrites. Ovum anguhium. BeJI. gaz. cent. tab. ig. ' 

Buffonites. Muj. Caicecl. p. if^i. 

Rumpj. Amboin. tab, \, jig- 6—9, 

Mercat. metah. p. 246, pg. l — 4. 

Mell. ech. fVagr. p. 7, taO. l,J>g, 3, 4. 

Afy//. memcr. Saxon, p, 45 — 47. y^^. 2, 4) 5, 9, 10, 

■Volkvt.JtleJ.fubterr. p.xyt). tab. lo,Jig. 6, E. 

/f(?/w. lithogr. anger b. ^.71. /«^. 8, yz^. 13. 

Breyn. echin. p% 57. /<J^. 2^7%. 3> 4^ 

^j/^w. biblioth. app. tab. 2"^, fig. 27O. 

Found frequently in a foflile itate, in nurcbcrlcfs varieties of form. 

^aJri- With 4 avenues of pores. 
fefciatus, Klein ecbtnod. edlesk.p. 170. /«i, 47, _/f^« 3 — 5. 

Gehler charaii.foffil. extran, />• 1 3> fig. i • 

WaUb diluv. tab, 9, d. y;^. 3, g. y?^. 7—9. 

Found in a foflile ftate: circumference fometimes orbicular, 
fometimcs approaching to an oval, 

Sexfafiia- With 6 avenues of pores. 
tus, Klein ecbtnod. td. lesk. p. 170, tab. 50, Jig* 1,2. 

Gehler char Q&, fojji I. ext.p i"^, fig. 2, 
Walch diluv. monum* Juppl. tab. 9, g. fig, 4—6. 
Founjd hitherto only in a foffile ftate. 

b. The haje exaBly circular'. 

Suhuculus. Avenues 10, biporous; fpaces 10, 5 larger and 5 lefs : 
mouth and vent fmall, orbicular. 

!• Klein ecbinod. ed. lesk. tab, 14, fig. 1, m*- 

2. Klein ecbtnod, ed ksh. tab, 14, y. n, o. 

Found bnly in a foffile ft»te : tbr fpaces befet with very fmall 
circles : pores of the avenues very minute and crowded clofe 

c. The haJe oval, 

Cyclaftomut* Oblong, fubdeprefled : crown with 5 pores : mouth placed 
in the middle and round : vent oblong and near the 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Mcufa. 


Klein ethtnod. ed. lesk p. 173. tab. 17, fig. 4, $. 

Mull.Zool. Dan. 3./. 18. tah. g\,/.S> ^» 

Rumff. Jmb. p. 6. tab. l^,jig. D. 

Seba Muf '^. p. '^6 tab. 15J/30--37. 

Delic. nat.Jel. p 90, tab. D. i, /". 1 1. 

Bayer or^iloir ncr.iah. $/'•$$* 

Inhabits : cinereous or yellowifh : the bafe pulvinate ; 

ypaces 10, divided by a ferrate line down the middle, and he- 
let with minute tubercles inclofed in a circle : anjenues 10, 
biporciis, and extending to the mouth. 

SemiUttaris Vent longitudinally oblong ; mouth tranfverfe and fcmi- 
Klein echinod, ed. lesk. p. 174. tab. 49,/". 8, 9. 
Muf. Tei/ln. p. 114. tab.d. f.z, 
Seba Muf 3./. 19, tab. 10, f. 7. 
Inhabits the Asiatic feai pale ycllowifh-afh. 

."ffw/iycrw/j. Mouth pentangular; avenues 10, ftriate: larger fpaces 
airulate or divided into plates, the pieces pentangular. 

Klein echinod. ed, leske,p. \ 74. 

i>cill.corp mariM. t,\l,f. 1,2. 

inhabits : probaoly not qf thi<* diviiion. 

d. Bafe oval, acute ; vent oppcjite the mouth. 

*S£titatus» Convex, beneath flat : fpaces tuberculaie and alternately- 
larger, the larger ones ilividi^d by a ferrate future in 
the middle : mouth tranfverfe kidney-ihapcd, 

Luid. lith. Brit. p. 46. ». 95 ' -'95 3. 
Breytt cch. p. 58 tab. 3,/". t , ?. 
Albildg.Ste'venikl. p iz. tab. 2,/. I--5; 

I. Walch dilwv. tn',n. Z. p. 1 79 /. E, i. a.y. 4. 
Klein echinod. ed. lesk tab ^2.,/ 4 

a. W, Icb diJwv. monunt, Z. p 176. / E, i,y, 3,41' 

Klein echincd. ed. lesk", t. iZ.f.z, 3. 

Found only in a foflile ft^te : tubercles of the jpacei intermixed 
with very minu'e granularioi'- : »jo«/^ furrounded with tuber- 
cles fomcvvhat larger .ind forming a triangle: i>eHt fubovate : 
bafe a little cinvcx 'osvard'; the margin, with a more eminent 
ftnpe in the middle, bounded each fide by 2 finely granulate 

Ovatus. Ovate, aflulate, the pieces hexangular : crown naked : vent 
Klein echinod, ed lejk. p. 178. tab, S^ijig. 3. 
Hsak^/ Works, tab, 2, fg. 4 ? 

T 2 J* itkin 

^48 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus, 

2. Klein echttt' ed. hsk. fab ^z, fig. 5, 

IVakh diluv. motmm.^z. p. I 79, iab, E. i, a,/'. 5, 
Aldre'v. MuJ. mei. f. 455, f.g- 3. 
Bytem. bihlioth. app. tab. 23,7%. 270. 

3, Klein echin. ea. lesk. ic. tit, and tab, 8,/* G. 
JValch dilu-v. monum 2 /. 177. tab. E, a. /I 3, 
Found hitherto only in \ foffile ftate. 

5/^^/7 compofed of 20 rows of pieces, 10 larger and lolefs all of 
then; united by a ferrate future: /paces 10 larger and \o 
fnialler, in the latter of which are j impreflcd dots ; mouth 
rounded, fmall : vent fuboval, 

'^ Pu/}u!u/uj» Spaces obfolete and not tuberculate: avenues with raifed 
dots difpnfcd in pairs: crown imprelfcd. 
Plot. Oxfurdfli. §36 tub.z. ftg. \j^. 
Luid hth, Bnt. p. 47, «. 954. 
Lifi. lap. cochl.p. 215 f.g. 2()- 31. 
Klcim. echinod. ed. lesk p. \ 80 tab. 16, A, B. 
Mrno'2 Northampt. /• 335. tab. 10, fig, 12. 
Hod's Works, p- 284, tab. 3. fig. y, 
Hehv. lith Angerb.p.yo tab.'i. fg. 12, 
Mell.fih.'VJagr. tab. X-pg- 7, 8. 
Kundm. rar. nat. et art. p- 95. tab. 5. fir, 8, 9, 
Found in a foflile Itate : refembles Ech. fcutatua in figure, cir- 
cumference, moutti and vent. 

^adri" With 4. double rows of dots. 
radtatus* Klein echinod, ed. lesk p. \%z. tab, 54, /. l. 
Mell de cap. fig: Lubec. p. z8. /. 2,f. 7. 
Fouiid hitherto in a fpffik itace only. 

Mitiof, Ovate, with a flat or concave bafe : fpaces and avenues lo, 
the latter biporous ; mouth traniverfe, roundifh: vent 

1. Papillous. Kkitt ed. lesk. tab. 16, C, D. 

J. Waved. Kieined. lesk. tab. 17. a,^, 
Brem.ecbin. p. 58. tab. 3,/. 3, 4. 

3. Smooth. Klein eihin. ed. lesk. lah. 17, c, do 
Voikm.liks- ju^t, tab. '^O. fig. 7. 
Found in a (qiTile ftate. 

Puhiuu Qvate, with 10 fimply porous ayenucs; half pf ihe vent 
Klein echinod. ed. leb, p. 184. tab. 44. /". 5. 
Found hither;oonU in afolile flat^. 
Xhc 5 XdiX^cr /paces marked vviui imprefled circlci* 

«» Thi. 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus, 


e. The baje Ir regular ^ with % expanded fetal-Jhaped marks 
Qn the furfiiCff 

t The margin ivith angular jlnuojities, 

Ko/iiceus. FUttifh and roundiOi-oval : avenues 5, oval, with i dotted 
Barbut, tab. 1 1, fig* Q. 8loan Jamaic. tab. 242,/". 6 — 1 1. 
Klein echinod. ed, Uik, p. 185, tab. 17, A. 
Rumpf. Amb. tab. 14, C. Peti<v* 1 4,/. 10, 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. u,/ 2, 3. 
Delic. nat fel. i,p. 91. tab. D. l.f. t2, 

2. Klein echinod. ed. lesk. tab. tg. A, B» 
SebaMuf. 3. tab. 15, fig, u, 12, 
(Jualt. teft, \. tab. 1 10, A. 

3. Kletn echiv.od. ed, kik, tab. 1 8, B, 
Boccan. obf. p. 324, tab.f.g. l. 

4. Seba Muf, 3. tab. ^$, fg.\Zy 14> 23, 24, 

5. iC/f/w echinod, ed lesk. tab. 40. /a^. 41 >y. i. 

Inhabits the yfyf«//V Ocean^ the laft variety foiTle ; yellowiili, 
brown, fometimes dirty cinereous; covered with fmall tuber* 
cles like grains of fand, and difpofed in a quincunx form. 

Altus, Crow^n elevated, orbicular ; avenues broad, with convergent 
granulate tips. 
Klein echinod ed. lesk. p. \^C). tab. 53,/. 4. 
Sc II. Corp. mar. tab, 9, fig. I, 2. Bonan. ricr. t. 36, f. I. 
Walch diluv. monum. J'uppl. tab. 9, d. «. I. 

Found in a foffile ftate : higher than the laft : about Z inchei 
high and 6 broad at the widcft part of the bafe. 

+t Ovate J with an entire margin, 

lOv'formis, Convex and flat beneath: avenues 10, biporous and cx^ 
panded in a llellate form: crowrn with 4 pores. 
K'e':n echinod. ed. lesk. p. 191. tab, 20, c,d, 

1. Klein echin ed. lesk. tab. \ 8, C, D, 

2. Kle'n. echin. ed. lesk. tab 20, a, b, 
jll.-^rov Muf. met. p. 498, Ji^. i, 2, 
Rumpf, Amb. tab. 59. fig, D, 
Breyn. echin. p. 59. tab. 2, Jig. 45. 

Walch diluv monum. 2. p. 81 tab. E. iii, «, 5. 

3. SebaMuf. ^. fab. lo, fig. 23. 

Inhabits ; above brovvnifh-grey, beneath whitifli-grcy j 

granu'ate, with a circle round the granulations; mouth tranf- 
yerfe and flightly kidney-fhaped : vent marginal, near tha 
mouth : bafe with a paler glabrous line in the mid41c, reaching 
from one end of the fhell to the other. 

150 WORiMS. MOLLtrSCA. 52. Echinus; 

Oriiculatus Granulate; avenues biporous, the pores united by a tranf- 
verfe imprctred line, and the intermediate fpaces di- 
vided by a ferrate line in the middle, the reft of the 
fur face 5 -par ted. 

Klein, echinod.ed. leike^p. 194.. tab. 41, fig»i' 

Walch nwnum. diluu. p. I Si . tah. 41 > _/. 2. 

Bourg.pctrif.f.-jy. tab. i^'i,, fig. -3,^2, 

Found in a pctrihed ftate, and a very indiftinfl.fpecies. 

f. Flat on Icth fides ! the avenues rcjemhllng petals : 7nonth 
ctntral, fat, toothed : crotun zvith 4 pores, 

i JVith c Jtnucite margin and perforate Jurface. 

Biforit, The bafe wiih 5 grooves and 10 flexuous radiate line? : near 
the vent 2 oblong foramina. 

Kiein cchnnd. ed. ksh. p. 169. tab. 21. A, B, 

J.elic. nat.Jll. 1. />. 92. tab. D. i-/?jf. i. 

St. Muller Linncijch. Naturf. 6. B. tab.S,f. B, 

Inhabits ; above a little convex and pale yellowifli-afii, 

beneath ochraccous: fonietim'ts roundifh, fomenmes obtulcly 
triangular; the margin fomettmcs finuous, lometimes flexu- 
ous : .»;;5a?^ obtufely pentangular: vent fometimes circular, 
fometimes trxnrverlely oval; the adjacent foramina fometimes 
fliorter and fubovate, fometimes longer, narrower or linear: 
avenues refembling ovate petals or leaves, confiding of a fingle 
inner row of dots, and a row of oblique ftriae penetrating the 

^ehiaporuu Avenues emarglnnte at the tip:- vent near the nioutb, •vvlth 
5 foramina. 

Klein echinod, ed. lesh, p. 197. tab. ztt/ig.CfD. 

Hugh, Barb. 280. tab. 24,/?^. 3, 4. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 15,/. 9, 10. 

jdrgennj. conch, z. p. 63. teih. 7, f.g. C. 

Gualt, teJJ. tab. 1 ic, fig. K. 

Detic. nat.fel. i. p. 93. tab D. i. fig. 16, 

Inhabits : obtulely pentagonal ; above \vhitl(h-afh with a 

reddiih tinge ; beneath hollowed towards the middle, white 
•with a lutle yellow and blue veins ; fell with prominent divi- 
fions: at'enues oval: mouth obtufely pentagonal, the lips a 
iittlc prominent and perforated with a foramen : i-cnt nearly 
fquare with adjacent linear and fuboval foramina: cro'wn 
marked with a pentagonal liar. 

tkxdpbrus. Orbicular, with narrow avenues, and 6 narrow foramina 
near the vent. 
Klein echinod. ed. lake, p. 199. tab. 50^ fig. 3, 4. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 


Seba MuJ. 3. tab. l^, fig.j,Z. 

Delic. nat./el. i.p. 93 tab. D. i-fig. 17. 

Inhabits the Indian, American and i^outh Jeas, and very much 
refembica the lall : cinereous: froau« umbiiicare : ^^c a luile 
hollowed, darker and marked with frondofe lines. 

BmargiKa" Subpentagonal, with ovate avenues : vent oval, more re^ 
/'". mote from the mouth, with 6 foramina clofc to the 

Klein echinod- ed. lesk. p. zoo. tab 90, fig. 5, 6, 
Inhabits the ifland Bourbon; greenilh-brown. 
Shell a flightly heart Ihaped oval, a little pulvinatc, finuous, 4 
inches and 6 lines in tranfverfe diameter, crown patulous, 
bafe a little flatter, and marked with fleyuous branched fculpr 
tured lines. 

Juritus, Margin waved, the lower-one rounded, the upper-one 

nearly fquare and twice divided, with an opening pore 

between every 2 of the avenues, 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. 15. Jig. i, 2. 
Inhabits /'^r//a« feas ; yellowilh-grey, the upper margin tawny : 

the bafe flat, puntlured and marked with radiate ilrise; fvent 

oblong and placed near the mouth. 

Jnauritus,' Subcordate and aifulate, the pieces hexagonal : avenues 5, 
oval, emarginate at the tip, the fifth longer, and a jofe 
between every two of them. 
Rvmpf. Amb. p. 37. tab. 14, F, 

2. Seba Muf. 3. tab. 15, fg. 3, 4. 

Inhabits Amboina, in the river Pfagnitoe j 5 — 6 inches high and 
as many broad; the broader end thrice divided i thm anc} 
thickly covered with granulations fpinous at the bafej above 
reddilh-afli, beneath violet-red, 

^etraporui^^ Orbicular, lightly finuous, and perforated each fidp with 4 
foramina: vent circular. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 15, fig. 5,6. 

Inhabits : pale yellow-grey: froovn with 5 foramina ; 

fl'i'ifKKi?/ obtufe at the tip; the bafe funowcd with 10 flexupsf 
grooves bifid at the tips : mouth rounded and 5-toothed, 

tt With a Jinuate margiyi and entire Jurf ace, 

*La'ranum. Avenues oval, finely ftriate and clcfi at the tip : 
prominent : vent circular and near the margin. 
Klein echin. ed. lesk. p, 204. tab, 2^ fig, a, b, c. 
Riimpf. Amb. p. 36. tab. 14, y/g.E. 



l^i WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

Plot.Ox/rdJh.p tji. \ $$./^ 12. 

Gualt. teft. I JO, fi^. C,C. Hoce. ohf, p, 296. fig, 2, 

Seba Mu/. 3. tub x:;, fig. 25, 26. 

Inhabits — — , Granuht:, ochraceou?, ovate, fubprntagonal; 
t'.e bafe with 5 excavated rays divided into fo many equal 
fpaces ; mouth ohtufely pe: tagonil ; fvent hardly the breadth of 
a line diftart from the margin: cro=wn perforated with 5 fora- 
mina between the avenues, 

SairstunJus Orbicular, with radiate avenues. 

K/ein Echin. ed lesk p. 206. tab. 47, fig. /. 
Sail, Corp. mar. tab, 8, Jig^ >~^3- 
Andrtte Br a. d, Schnu. tab. $, /ig> g. 
Valent. Muf, tab, 3, Jig. 7. b. 
Found hitherto only in a fofSIe ftate. 

RtticuU' Ovate, flattifli, with 5 oval avenues: the furface reticulate. 
/aj. K'ein Ech. ed. lesk. p. 207. tab 4^, fiq 8, 9, 

Barbut, tab. 11, Jig. \o. Gualt. Tell. t. 1 lO, /. D, 
Rumpf. 4tnb. tab 14, Bg. C. 
Seha M"J 3. tab. 15, f.g. 23, 24, 35, 36, 38. 
Inhabits American and Ir.aian Ocean. 

Othicutaris Circular, with oval acute avenues: the bafe with 10 im- 
prelled porous rays: vent mid- way between the mouth 
and margin, both circular 
Klein. Echtn. ed le k. p. 208. tab. 45, Jig. 6, 7. 
Gualt. TeJl. tab, i \o, fig. B. Breyn. ech, tab. "Jy fig, I, 2, 
Bocc. obj p. 269. fig. 2, 3. . . 

Lang, lap fig- p. 122. ta.b. 35. the laftfigure. 
Inhabits the Indian Sea. 

Gorrallatus Orbicular, with oval obtufe fhort avenues. 
■Klein ed. lesk. p. 20g, tab. ^0,fig. 4. 
IValch dilun:.monum. z. p. 180. tab. E, \\. f. 8. 
Found hitherto only in a foiEle ftate. 

ttt With the margin toothed. 
Decadacty^ Shell perforated with 4 oblong foramina; the margin with 
la,^ 1 teeth . 

Klein echin. ed. lejL p. 209. tab, 22,/. A, B. 
Gualt. Teji. tab. \00, fig. H. 
Seba Muf. 3, tab. iS-fg >7> i^- 

Inhabits ^htli rough with granulations ; above blueifh- 

green varied w^ith cinereous; the avenues and luture^^ pale 
ficfh-colour; the baf. ycllovviih flefh colour, with loimprei- 
fed flexuous groove?, bifid at the tip and green ifh alh : a-ve- 
nues lanceolate-oval, entire, biporous, united by oblique ft las: 
teeth of the margin alternately fhortcr ; mouth rounded : 'vene 
ovate. ^^0" 

WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Etfhlnu^. 153 

OBoddSiy- The fore-part orbicular and perforated with 2 foracirna, 
'''^* . the hind-part 8-toothed: avenues lanceolate, 

KUin, e<J>ino{i, ed. Lesk^p. 2\\. tab, zz.fig, C, D. 
Breyn echin. p. 6x. tab. 1 fig* 5, 6. 
Gualt. teft. tab., 1 10. fig- F. 
2. Margin lo-tootlicd. Seba Muf. 5. ^^i. l^-fg' J 5, 16. 

Inhabits Soeli whitilh-afli ; affulate, the pieces convex ; 

cro-ixsn umbilicate : avenues emarginate. 

O'rhiculus. Porc-part orbicular entire, hind-part Unequally toothed: 
avenues lanceolate cleft and bent, 

Klein echin. ed. Lsjk p. z\z. tab. zz'Jfg.Et F, 

Rumpf. Amb. tab. M^.fg. i, 

lireyn. echin. tab. ^.fig 3,4. 

Bocc, ob/erv. p, Z'J'^. fig. I5. 

Valent.'Muf. l- p. l-J^. fig. Z. 

Argeni'ille Conch. 2, tab. J. Jig. 1). 
2. Klein echmod. eJ. Lejk. tab. it<^. fig, 6, 7,' 

^tba. M.uf. ytah. \<^.fig. 19, 20. 

Inhabits the Indian ^,a. 6Yv//flat, foborbicular, not perforated 
compofed of hexangular piece. ; the bafe flat with imprefrcd 
grooves: arjenuet Q\i\\ mouth ronvAt^ : w«/ oval. 

g. IVith 10 avenues en the croiim, the raysjiraight biporour 
and liillate: mouth and vent apbroxiviate in the middle 
part of the bajc, ' 

Su:Um. Surface globular, with an orbicular circumference • bafe 

narrow and flat in the middle: fides grooved: avenues 

pulvinate: crown excentric 

Phef. Zse-egel.p. 131. ;;. \. tab. l.fig. I 5. 

Kiem. Echin. cd Lejk. p. 213. tab. 48. 2 a. 2 c. 

hihabits 5;^^//yellovvilh-aih: cro<vjn pertoratcd with 4 pores- 

mouth cu-cular: wnt rather oblong and fmaller tiian the 


temraiis. Surft^ce glubufar, circumference fuborbicular: bafe pulvi- 
nate : fides very lightly grooved: avenues llightly pul- 
vinate: crown central. 

Pheij. Zee egel. p. i^i. n. 2. tab. t. fig. 6—10. 

Inhabits peihaps a variety of the lalt. 

ili'i////» very miinitc and orbicular, 

^rrj:i;n. Surhice globular,- circumference fuboval : bafe a little nar- 
rowed: fides grooved: avenues fubpulvinatc: crowii 

\'0L. IV.— U 


154 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

Phlf, Zet-egel f, I3i.«. 3. tab. \.fig, ll — 15. 

Inhabits-. larger tiian Ech, nucleus : mouth and 'vcnt eqaa], 

Cranlolaris Surface globular on the fore-part, the hind-part nearly 5- 
angled pulvinate and floping; circumference elliptic: 
' bafe a little narrowed: lides grooved: avenues pulvinate: 
crown eccentric. 
PkelJ. Zeeegel. p. 132, n. 4. tab. \.fg. l6 — 20. 
Klein eckinoa. ea. Lejky p. 214, tab, 48,^^. 3 a, 3 e. 
Pall. Sfinl, Zcol. 9. fab. I Jg. 24. 

Inhabits India: while, a'^d covered with granulations furroundci 
with 911 engraved circle : crown with 4 pores. 

Turcicus. Surf::ce and bafe pulvinate, circumference elliptic; fides 
hardly grooved : avenues fubpulvinate : crown llightly 
depreffcd and central. 
Thelj Zee-egel. p, 35, 132. tab. \.fig. 21 — 25. 
Inhabits probably a variety of the laft. 

V'dax Surface globular, circumference obtufely oval : bafe a little 

narrowed : fides grooved : avenues flattilh : crown 

Thelf. Zee.egel. p. 133. tab. \. fig. 26 — 30. 

Inhabits \)\z Adriatic : refembles Ech, craniolaris. 

Oi'khon. Surface pulvinate: circumference obtufely oval: bafe glo- 
bular: iKies flightly grooved : crown central, 
PheJf.Zce ( I. fig. 3' — 35- 
Inhabits perhaps a variety of Ech. craniolaris. 

Lathyruu Surface and bafe pulvinate, circumference oval: fides flightly 
grooved: avenues pulvinate : crown nearly central. 
Phelf. Zee-egel. p. 133. tab. 2. fig. 1—5. 
Klein echincd ed. Lesk. p. 215. tib. ^8. fig. 1 a. I c. 

Inhabits Shell dull yellow ifli -grey, and of a fliiddle fize 

between Ech. nucleus and craniolaris. 

Kqidnus. Surface and bafe pulvinate, circumference elliptic : fides 
fmooth : avciiues lubpulvmaie : crown central. 
PhelJ. Zee egei.p. x^^.tah. 2. fig. O—lO. 
Inhabits' Kiar,. ed. l,ssk. /». 2 1 5. 


Surlace pulvinate and nearly flat, circumference ovate and 
fubpentangiiiar: baie narrowed: fiues grooved : avenues 
pulvinate: crown central. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 155 

Phelf. Zee-egel.p. 134. tab. 2. fig. 13-15. 

Pall. Spkil. Zool. 9. />, 34. /a/$. I. fig. 25. 

Found frequently on the I'andy coafts of the Netherlands. 

Mouth orbicular, 

Taha. Surface and bafe pulvinate; circumfefence obtufely oval; 

fides hardly grooved: avenues flat: crown a litUe pro- 
minent and central. 

Phelf 7,ee egel. tab. 'i. fig, 16--20. 

Klein echlnoa.ed. Lesk. p. 2 1 6. tab, ^J^fig.d^ 

Delic. Kat.fd. \.p. go. tab. D i.//>. 10. 

Inhabits Size of a pea, ochraceous and granulate. 

InejuuHs. Surface gibbous on the fore-part, the hind-part flat and 
floping;. circumference oblong-oval and nearly pen- 
tangular: bafe globular and a little narrowed: fides 
grooved: avenues fubpulvinate : crown central. 

Phelf. Zee egel. tab. Z'fg, 2 I --2 5. 

Inhabits -Rack unequal. 

R-an:>m. Surface globular and mora Hoping behind, circumference 
acutely oval: bafe globular: fides grooved; avenues 
fubpulvinate: crown central. 

Phelf. Zee-egel. tab. 2. fig. 25—30. 

Inhabits probably a variety of Ech, minutus. 

Miffonius. Surface globular, circumference ovate heart-fhaped and 
fubtrigonal : bafe pulvinate: fides fliiditly grooved: 
avenues pulvinate: crown nearly central. 
Phelf. Zec-egel.p. 1^6. tab. Z-fg. 31 — 36. 
inhabits probably a variety of Ech. minutus. 

C. Vent lateral: mouth %uith pencilled tentacula. 

a. Circular; msuth central : vent Jquare, 

PUcenta. Subconic, with I o fpaces alternately narrower : avenues 5, 

lax flat and gaping at the tip. 
Barhut tab. ll> fig. 1 1, Rumpf Amb. ttib. \\.fig. G. 
Kteitiechin, ed. Lejk. p. 217. tab, 20. A, B, 
Peti'v. Ai)ib. tab. i l^fig. 5. Cualt. tefi, t. 210./. G. 
Briyn echin. p. 64. tab. 7. fig. 7, 8, 
Seba Mif. l^.ftg. 21, 22. 
Inhabits the ^Southern Ocean; a little convex and and conoid; the 

circumference lomewhat angular; the bale R^t : Jpac^s divi^ 

ded by an obtufely toothed vertical line; -vent placed on t^ij 

lurtice and nearly marginal. 

t^ 2 b. Heart ~ 

156 WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus. 

b. Heart-Jfjaped; the crown grooved. 

•Corangui- Above convex, with 5 imprefTed quadrifarioufly poroii? 
"'*"'• . avenues and 5 fpaces, 

1. Luid. lith. Brit, p. ^j-fig- 964 — 967. 

Hook. p. 285. tab, 3.J^J-. 8. Morton. Js'orthamp. p, 335, 
Klein eel: inod. ed, Lcsk.p. zz\.. tab. f, 23. C. 
Breyn ecbtn. p. 62 tah. $-fg' 5? 6. 
Ritt. oryQol. goJI.p. 226, t^ab. i. fg. J. 

2. Walcb Monum. diluv. 2. p» 176. tab. E. i'/g- 5. 0., 

3. If'^ikh Monum. dilwv, l^p. i8lp tah. E. Ui, fig, i. 

4. Fhelf, Zee-egel. p, 40. Pluimhart. 

5. Klein, echin ed.Lesk.p. 2Z^, tab. /['y.fig. X2. 

6. KUin. echin. ed. Lah. p 225. tab. z%. A,B> E, F, 
i*/?/ Oxfordfn. tab. 2.ftg. W. t. J.f. 9. 

Lifer lap. cochl.p. zz^.fig. 28, 29. 
Liid lith Brit. p. y/'.'n. 968, 969. 
ilJt'//f lap fig. Lubec, tab. z.f<g. ^» 
Bytem. Bibl. (j> fig- 33. t. z^.fig. 27 U 
i)'fl/Vr oryBogr. Noric p. 35. //i/'. '^ fg- 41- 42. 
Walch, ailwv. Monu?n. fuppl. p. 224. /'^i(J. 9 h.y?^. 13- 
Found hitherto in a foflile ftate only; and is probably the iimc 
as Ech. purpurcue, in a petfifid Uate. 

*LacunoJat Qvate gibbous, with 5 deprelTed avenues. 

T'rit. Zool. iv. tab. '$$'fig' 76. Barhut t. li.f. 8. 

A7f;«, ?<r.6. ^y. Z.<?;/f. tab. 23. A, B. /fi<&. 24, a, b. ^. 27. A, , 

Rumpf. A7nb.p. 36. tab. l^.fg. 2. 

G//i7//. ^f'/?. tub. 109 C. iJoff. o/^/". /. 296./?^. I, 

!)<•/;<:. Nat.fl. I p. t^>. P. iii./^. 3. 

Jldyonj. tePt.p. 404. //^. l', 2. 

/ildro'V. muj. met. p. 490,/?^. 2, 3. 

Bonan. recr. 2. ;>. '^Z-fg' 1 5. 

SdUcorp. may. tab. "J, fig' i- /. lo./. 4* r. 25./", 2. 

/iW*; JFo /Ja.^. 28^. tab. 3 //j-, 9. 

jfCundm. rar art.p.(^^. tab. ^'fg' 7* 

2. Bhel/. Zee-egel. p. 40. ». 9, 

3. P/'c//: Zee-egk. p. 40. ». 1 3, 

4. KJsi;:, ech. cd. Leik. tab. 2^'fig- C. d, e, /, 38. /5j. ^ 

Lifier Amm. Ang. app.p. z'S.f^. 3. 

Breyn echiK, p. 61 tab. $' f'g' J) 2, 

Seba. Muf. 3. tab. 10. fig. 2i. a, h. 

Jrs^env. Conch, p. 311. fab. ZS-fg. 1' 

Delic. Nat.fel. I. tab. D. V fg. 14.. r^ii. D. ii./Tg- (■'> 7* 

5* P^t'/f. Zci-egcl. p. 40; «. 1 1. 


WORMS. MOLLUSCA. 5a. plchinps. if 

Inhabits Indian Jtlantic and European Seas. 

Shell witti a purpjilh top: /paces tuberculate in waved rows; the 

lower fide Ituddcd and divided by 2 Imooth fpaccs : /pines 

<hort thick mixed with long ones. 

c. Heart'/haped ; the croivn not grooved. 

Raaiatus. Avenues 4; with impreded itrias porous on each fide: cxmn 
with 4 pores : fpaces 10, divided by a ferrate future in. 
the middle and arched tranfverfe futures. 

Klein, echini ed. Le/k.p. 234. iah. 25. 

Walch Monu>n. dtlwu.p. 182. tab:Y^, iv. «. I, 2. 

Found hitherto only in a foSle ftate. 

Bafe flac: mouth a little kidncy-lhaped and fiirroundcd with % 
fubpentagonal ftar of pores : i/tH/ roundifli, with 3 angles on 
the margin : ei'venucs confifting of a row of pores placed «!ofc 
together in pairs, each convergent; on the crown. 

Purpureus. Avenues 4, petal-fliapcd, lanceolate: larger tubercles placed 
in a zig-zag manrier: fpinc? acicular incurved white. 

Klein echinod. ed. Leskc. ta^. 43.^2. 3 — 5- '• 45'/' 5* 

Mull. /Lord. Dan. I. p. 1 7. ». 4. tab. 6, 
. Argen'ville Qonh, p. 31 1, tab. ^'^-/ig. 3. 

/////'/ Animals, tab. II, Scill' Lerp. mar. tab. \ i.ftg. I. 

Inhabits North Seas: above convex; the fides floping ; forcr 
part with 2 proje6^ions, hind-part truncate; bsncath flatj 
from the mouth to the vent a little convex and purple : verj^ 
finely granulate and befet with fmall fubclavate briflles, and 
fpatulate fpines feated on white tubercles : near the vent a 
kidncy-fliaped ftripc of minute white granulations and fur- 
rounded with numerous white tubercles* 

Fu/llHi. Oval with 5 avenues: vent remote. 

Mull. Zcol. Dan. '^. p. 17. fab: g\./ig. l-^^. 
Inhabits the North Seas; very mir.ute and diftinft from Ech. 
Ucunofijs ; probably not of this diyifion, 

Complanti' A Httle flattened c- ,h fide : fpaces and avenues 10, 2 of then^ 
till. placed in the furrows of the back. 

Klein echinod. ed. Lesk, p 238. tab. S^-fi- ^; *• 

lafig. lap /ig. tab. 35 fg, 1,2. 

Scbeuz. lith. Heh.p. di/igt 84, 

Scheutz. orsSJol. p. H^' f'g- 135- 

Breyn. echin. p. 63, t^b. 6 fig- I, 2. 

Bourg. petri/ p. 76. tab, 51./'!^. 330» 333' 334* 

Found in a foflile ftate : roundifh. 

158 WOkMS. MOLLUSC A. 52. Echinus. 

*Suhglobu'- Both ends convex, fubglobular, afTulate: avenues 10, with 
Int. biporous (Irix; vent ovate. 

Morton Northamp. p. zi^.tab. lO.fig, 8, 9* 
Lift,lap,cocU.p. IZZ- fig' 26-. 
Luid. lith. El it. p. 49. 71. 983—994. 
Scheuchz. Muf. diluu. p. 85* n. 800, 814. 
Brcyn Echin. p. 61. tab. ^.fig. 3, 4. 
BufaL Nat. Msrknjo.p. 2598. tab. zz. fig, k, 
\Valch Monum. dilii-u- z. p, 182. tab. E. iv.//^. 3, 4/ 
Found in foiTiie ftate : granulate, with 4 pores on the c«own 
/paces divided by a longitudinal ferrate future, and grooved 
-.with tranfverfe curvfid lines, the pieces 7ilided : mouth fome- 
what kidney-fhapcd and futrounded \vi:h tubercles difpofed in 
a ftellate form, 

Aiiattciytts Oblohgj hcart-fhaped and fubconiC ; the bafe flatter : ave- 
nues and fpaces 10 : mouth rounded and furrounded 
with an elevated maigin: vent oval and emarginate 

Klein, echinod.edt LesL t. z^^,.tab. ^l.fig. I, 2. 

Found in a foffile ftate : the larger fpaces with 7-angular piecesj 
leffer ones 6 -and j-awghd : -vent furruunded with an elevated 

Ekordatus. With a double crown. 

Klei7i. echinoJ. ed. Lesk.p. 244. tab. 47. fig. 6. ' 
Asdrea Br. a. d' Schvj. p, 16. tab. z. fig. C. 
Found hitherto in a petrifid ftate only. 

Carinaiut. Middl^of the back carinate. 

Klein, echin. ed. Lefk. p. Zif<^,tabi S^'fS- ^» 5* 
Bajer QryB. Nor. tab. y fig' 43. 
Valent. Mif. z. tab. "^.fig. J.n- \. 

Found in a fofuk ftatej refcmbles the lall, but Is natrowef behidd: 
mouth kidney -Aliped : vent obfolete. 

c. Ovate ; the avenues grooved. 

ifSpata?us Ovate, gibbous, with 4 deprcfifed avenues. 

^ ' Brit. Zool. XV. tab. l^.f'g. 75. Bnrhut. t. W.f. 7. 
Ginann. adv. z p. 41. tab. zg.fg. 174. 
I. Spotted. Klein echinod.ed. Lesk. tab. z\. A, B tab.zS. h, 
Scill. corp, mar. tab. 4, fg' 2, 3. 
Ru?npr. ^mb. p. 36. tab. 14. K.i. 
Gualt. tejl. tab. 109. fig. A. 

l. Larger. Phclf. Zie-egeL p. o^<). n. r« 
Knotty. Seba Muf. i- t.i! , 10. fg, 19, 

WORMS. MOLLUSC A. 52. Eckinus. 159 

4. Seba \Ju/. 3. tab. \o.fg. 22. 

c. Of one colour. Klein echinod, ed. Lesk. tab, 26. B, C 

' Sloan Jamaica, z. tab. 242. ^g, 3—5. 
6. Ovate. Kiein echind. ed. Lesk. tab. S^-f'S- 4« 

'Vetic. nat.fei. l'/. 91. tab. D, \.fig. «3- 
-7. Carinate. Klein, ed. lesk. tab. ^S-ftg- 4> 5» 
Seoa Muf. 3. tab. \\.f>g.'h 4; 
Gtt^/r. tefl. tab. 108. /};§-. Cj, G. 
8. Very large. Seba Muf. 3. tab. \\'fig' 5> 6- 
*GW/. ind. tefl. tab. \oq. fig. B B 
Inhabits i\fo/?5^^^: pale iulphur when freih , 1 M 

k//a little heart-fhaVd, gibbous at one end, ^^"^ marked vth 
a deep groove at ehe other: Jpmes flender, rcfembling briltles. 
fnoft remarkably fragile. 

d. Ovflte; fhe avenues not grooved. 

Brijjoides Oblong; ^vith 4 biporous o^atc lanceolate avenues u^^^^^^^^ 
' by tranfverfe grooves, with larger tubercles placed 

arch-wife between them. 
Klein echinod. ed. lesk. p. 257. tob. 27. B. 
Aldro'v.MuJ. Met. p. ASS' k' '^■ 
Scilla corp. Mar. tab. 10. fg. I. 
Breyn. ecbin. tab. i^.fig. 3- • ... 

VValch. dduv. Monutn. tab. E. ui. fg. 5. , . 

Found frequently in a foffile ftate : affulate, rougn wnh granu. 
Tations:^«.«///kidncy-fhaped and furrounded with a penta- 
gonol ftar of pores. 

Teres Convex, with 4 biporous petal-fhaped avenues not united. 

Klein echinod. ed lesk. p 252. tab. 49./?^- 12, 13. 

r« i. a carinate line perforated with pore. Mch fide defcen- 

ding from the crown. 

Oli-va Above convex punfturcd olive, with a double naked ban<i 
reaching trom the mouth to the bent. 
Klein echin. ed. Lesk. p. Z<^Z. tab. \\,fig> f. g- 
Seba Mill. 3 . //i^. 1 5 . /?^- 3 1 ' 3 2 . 
Inhabits 'Shell wittt 4 Itellate rays above. 

Amygdala Refembing an almond in figure. ... 
Inhabits, Klein, ed. Lesk, tab. 24. /^.J), J. 


1^0 Worms. MOLLUSCA. 52. Echinus; 

t't'dAV Altulate, oval; with lo avenues and fpac^s, the latter dU 
.vided by a ferrate future in the middle. 
Klein, ecbtn. ed^ Lesk,p. 253. tab. 41* fig. 5. 
Annon. Aa. Hslv. 4. p. 275, tab, \i^. fig. • — 3. 
Walch diluv Monuni. Z, p. I 82. tcth. E, iii fig. 6< 
Found hitherto only in a foflilc Itate, and is probably not of this 

Pyrlformis Ovate, and gibbous at one end; the bafe flat: avenues 5, 
fomewhat petal-fhaped J?nd obfoletely porous. 

kUin echin. ed. Leik. p. 255. tai). ^^-fig. "]* t. 51./ 5» 6. 

Found hitherto in a tofEle fcate only. 

Mouth and 'veni round, the former lomcthing hcarc-'fh^pcd an- 
gular and 5-lipped. 

tdpifi:ancri Obiijfely ov^al, co'nvex : crown excentric and perforated 
with 4 poies : avenues 5, brpoious, ovate-lanceolate 
arid cleft at the tip, 

Klein echinod. ed. lesk. f. 256. tah, \<)f fig. 10, II.' 

Found as yet only in a foffile Hate. 

Month as in the lad : 'vent placed above the broader margin of 
the Ihell, mouth at the narrower end and nearer the bafe : hafe 
flat, flight. y excavated, naked in the middle, elfewherc covered 
w-ith a circle of tubercles difpofed in rows. 

Patiilaris Very much deprelTed ; with avenues rcfembling a ftar. 
Khin, echinod. ed. leske, p. 256. tab. ^"tftfig. 5 — 7. 
Found only in a foffile Hate: circumference ovate; back a little 

convexj the bafe flightly excavated ; fides granulate : mwth 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 53. Chho«. 161 


Animals fo/t, of a fimple JlruElwre^ and, co^ 
vered with, a calcareous habitation orJhelL 

53. CHITON, ^nma/ inhabiting the fliell a 
Doris : Jllell confifling of feveral fegnients 
or valves difpofed down the back. 

Itiipidus. Shell with 6 plates or valves, ftriate. 

Scbrcst Conchfl. 3. /• 493. tab. q, fig. 18. 

Inhabits America', middle fixed ; blacki/h-grey with white fpots 
and dots; very finely ftriate, the ftrise minutely granulate. 

Thalafmus Shell 6-valvedj glabrous, oval, fea-green, with a paler 
middlcline above and thin hyaline border. 
Schrat. Eiuh in conch. 3. p, 509. «. 1 8, 
Schrcet. n. Litterat. 4. p. 4. tab. 1 , fg. 1 . 
Inhabits — — . Shell a little convex, 

Tubercula- Shell 7-valved ; body tuberculate. 
/^j^ SchrcEt. conchyl, ^. p. 494. fab. <jt fig* I9« 

Inhabits ^zwfr/r« ; oblong-oval, narrow, with tubercles above 
dirpofed in a quincunx; the fides cinereous mixed with white 
and marked with brown undulate bands; back grcenilh with 
a broad deep black band. 

•Crinitusi S^ell 7-valvcd, thickly fet with (hort hairs, 
Penn. Brit. 7.ool. iv. /i 71. tab. 36^ fg. I. 
Inhabits the fear near Aberdeen ; not an inch long. 

Atukatus. Shell 8-valved, ftriate: body a little prickly. 

Barbui's Shells, p 8. tab. it fig' 2, 
Amctn acad. 8, tab. 3, fig. I, 
Murr. ted. p. 40. tab. 2, fg. I, Muf. t. 10./. 4. Ed-vo. Glean, t. 286, /. B. 
Seba 'Muf. 2. tai.bu fig. 4. 
Chemn, conch, 10. tab. 173, fg, 1692. 

2. Chernn. conch, 10 tab 1 73, Fig. 1 69 1 ? 

Inhabits dfia. Shell tuberculate, ov«l, rough on the upper-part, 
with narrow fubulatered flightly curved unequal prickles i the 
laft valve fraaller. 

VOL. IV.—X Tafci, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 53. Chiton. 

Fajciatla' Shell 8-valved: body with a tuft of hairs on each fide of 
rsi, the valves. 

Cheirm. conch. lo. :ab.- 173, fig. xd'^Z, 

\vih&h\t& Barhary; cinereous, fmooth, the valves flightly carinatc 
with a tuft of whitiih hairs at the fides of each. 

S^immfitt. Shell S-valved, femlftriate : the margin covered with mi- 
nute fcales. 
Shaw Naturalili's Mi/cellany, viii. tab. 257. 
Chemn. conch. 8, tab. 94, _/>^. 788— 791. 
Chemu. chiton, tab. I , fig. i . 
Petiv. Gaxoph. tab. i ,fig. 4.\,figtZ* 
SpevgUr Naturf. l . p. 292. /. 7,/. L, M. 
Born Muf. C<£S* Find. tefi» tab^l^f, 1,2. 

2. Rough, variegatedi \y f, ^.z^hs 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 94, fig* 792, 793. 

3. Smooth, variegated. Chemn* chitt tab^ \,f 4. 
j{, jirgenv. conch, tab. z^, fig. M. 

5. 7-valved. Chemn, conch. 10. tab, 173,/*. l689» 
Schrcet. in Litter at, 4. p. 14. tab. I, frg, 2. 

6. Chemn. conch. 10. /ai. I'JZ* fs* ^^go. 

Inhabits America ; Valves very rarely 7, divided in two parts, 
one of which is granulate, the other finely ftriate ; ca- 
rinate, the extreme valves lunulate : grcenilh with alternate 
black and yellow or whitifti bands. 

PunBatHt. Shell 8-valved, fmooth : body with excavated dots. 
Eph. not. cur, 1727. /> 63. tab» i^fg. I, 2. 
Seba Muf. 3. tab I, fig. \ 3. 
Inhabits Europe^ Alia and America* 

Ruben Shell S-valved, fubftriate, the ftriae curved: body red. 

Ja. Kidrofs 3. /. 364, tab. (i^fig^ 1 4. 

Chemn. chiton* tab. 2, fig-. 8. 

Chemn. conch. 2>. tab. g6tfig.2l^* 
2. Marbled. Chemn. conch. 8. tab, q^,f. 812. 

Inhabits North Seas ; oval, oblongifh, with acarinate back, about 
an inch long; tawny, with a darker ilreak on the back bor- 
dered with white : margin of the animal brown or yellow 
with red fpots and dots. 2) Marbled with white and red. 

Albiu, Shell 8-valved, fmooth, with tranfverfe lines at the margins 
of the valves: body white. 
Barhut*s SheJIs» p. 8. tab. i,Jig, I. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 53. Chiton. ^65 

Chemn, conch. 8. tai. 96,/^ 81 7, Chit, tab. 2, f, 9. 
Inhabits Nortiwa Seat : oval, fmooth, white, the 2 end valves 

Cinams, Shell 8-valved, fmooth, carinate: body reddifli -with a fub- 
ciliatc border. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 96, fg. 818. 

Born. Maf. Caf. Vmd. tefi. tab. l,fig.'^. 

Inhabits Norivay Seas, among the roots of Ulvje ; 2 lines long''i 
depreiled, and narrower before, with 2 longitudinal grooves 
dosvn the back bounding the ridge in the middle : when alive 
both the (hell and aniuial are reddlffi, when dried cinereous. 

Bicolor, Shell 8-valved, thick, ridged ; the outfide fea-green, ihe in- 
(ide fnowy edged vrith black. 
Chemn- cnnch. 8. tab. 94, fig^ 794» 

Inhabits , rather large? the valves repand in the middle, 

the fora-one with radiate ftriae, 

Cerajtma, Shell 8-valved, cherry-colour, fmooth, with fnowy margi- 
nal teeth. 
« Chemn. caach. 8. tab. 94,^. 796. 

Inhabits , The animal when dried becomes black. 

Magellani' Shell 8-valved, thick, black-brown; above convex, with 
cus, a blackiih band in the middle of the back, and lateral 

yellowiHi llriae. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 95, ^g, 'J<)J» 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. 1, pg. 14, 15. 
Inhabits the Straights of Magellan ; large. 
Shell blacit within in the middle, elfcwhere ftnc green edged, 
round with brown, 

Fujiui. Shell 8-vilved, brown, fmooth ; the infide and teeth of the 

margin fnowy: back with triangular black fpots and 

dull yeilowilh bands each fide. 
Chemn. conch. 8 tab. 95, fig. 799, 800. 
Inhabits India', narrower than the lalt, with namerous teeth on 

the margin, and larger one? on the 2 end valves ; back more 

elevated and carinate, 

Metcuhtust Shell 8-valved, fmooth, within fea-grcen ; the margin co- 
vered with grey-white fcales : middle-valves on the 
fore- part and fome of them each fide fpotted with brown. 
Inhabits , CJienm. conch. 8, tab, 95, hg, 802. 

X 5 Mar. 

|64 WORMS. TESTACEA. 53. Chiton. 

Marmora- Shell 8-valved, fmooth, elegantly varied with white and 
''*'• blackifh, the middle valves greenilh within. 

Chemn, conch. 8. tab. %> J'lg' 803—805. 
Ckemn. chiton, tab. It f'g" 5. 
Knor, Fergn. j^. tab, ^Tifjg' 3> 4' 
2. 7-valved, Schrast. Litt. 4. tai. V^, fig. 3. 

Inhabits 4fnerica j varioufly marked with alternate blackifh and 
white bands, ftreaks, veins and fpots ; the border tumid, fca- 
\y, with alternate whitifh llecl-blue and blackifh patchej, 

Grtf^aA/Zw/, Piceous ; above flat with numerous raifed dots difpofcd in 
rows ; border broad, coriaceous, fpinous, with alternate 
black and white patchc?. 

Chemn. conch. 8, tab. 96, fg. 906. 

Inhabits Ameuca. Valves 8, rarely 7, 

Piceu.'% Shell 8-valved ; above fmooth, piceous, and varied with 
white and black. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 96. Jig^ 807 — 8 1 o, 
Chemn. chiton, tab. 2, Jj^. 6. and 6. a, b, c. 
Inhihits American and Red Seas ; refembles the laft. 
Shfll black in the middle within ; the fides grcenifli : back with 
alternate black fpots, and whitilh fpots, bands and veins t 
calves rarely 7 or 6« 

Induii Shell 8-valved, whitifh-afii, with a fcaly border: middle- 
valves very finely pundtured. 
Inhabit* America* Chemn. conch. 8, ta^, 96, fig, 811. 

Miitimut. Shell 8-valved, fmooth^ black, and co\'ered here and there 
with meal. 
Chemn. conch ^'i. tab. <^^i fg> 8 1 4. 
Inhabits the Norijuay Seat i very fmall, 

Cimex. Shell 8-vaIved, carinate, djaphanouf?, banded : each of the 
extreme valves very finely punctured. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab 96. fig 81 j, 

inhabits fiornvay ; fmall : within whitilh-alh ; with alterniate 
blackifh and paler bands, 

4-f'^llus, Shell 8-valvcd, deep black, above convex with a ycUpwifh 
fpot on each of th«» valves. 
Chemn. conch 8. tab. ^(}, Jig. 816. 
Inhabits i^orth Seat ; afiixed to the Mytihis modiolus. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lepas. 165 

6-igas» Shell 8-valved, thick, convex, white: the firfl: valve ere* 
nate, the laii toothed, the middle-ones cmarginate. 
Ckemn, conch, 8. tab 96, fg. iJip. 
Chemn chiton tab. 2, ftg. 10. 

\n\\3b'\t$ i)Lit Cape of Good Hope ; above 4 inches long ; the bor- 
der tumid, coriaceous and black-brown. 

Iflandiciis, Shell 8-valved, fubcylindrical, very finely punctured, and 
black with a cinereous boraer. 

Inhabits . ichrcrt. Eivl. in conch, 3. p. 509, n. ig. 

Shellvtry minute and narrow at each end. 

■ *Margina- Shell 8-valved, fmooth, with a ferrate refleded margin. 
tusi Inhabits Britain. Penn, Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 36, y?^. z. 

*Lev.'s. Shell 8-valved, quite fmooth, with an elevated band down 
the back. 
Inhabits i?ri/«»«. Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 36, /. 3. 

Amicalatus, Shell 8-valved, kidney-(haped, and very fragile, and co- 
vered outwardly with a rough coriaceous membrane. 
Pall. nonj. A8, Petrop. 2. p. 241. tab. 7, fig-, 26 — 30. 
Inhabits the Kurile Ijlands \ above 6 inches long : the valves im- 

o^-. LEPAS. Animal a Triton : jliell affixed 
at the bafe, and cpnlifting ol" many un- 
equal erect valves. Acorn-Jlidl. 

*^alanus. Shell conic, grooved; operculum or lid (hurp-polnted. 
Dono'vans Britijh Shells, i. tab. 30, y". 1. 
Pennant Brit. Zcol. \\\ p. 72. tab. 37. /"• 4- 
Ellis Philof. Iran/. 1758. 2. tab. J,^, f. 17. 
Lifler conch, tab. 443./". 286. Barbuty t, l,f. 5* 
Born Muf. Caf. Vind. tefl. tab. i , /. 4. 
Lewivenh. ap. 82. /. 472. tab. ^6^. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tah.<)y, fig. 820. 

2. Chemn. conch. S. tab, 97, ftg, 826. 

3, Bonan. Muf Kirch, ^.f'g'}}* 

Inhabits European and Mediterranean fca?, adhering in the great* 
til abundance to rocks, {hells, ice. generally whitifii j with 
about 6 outer valvee, 3 of which are elevated and ftriate, and 
3 excavated and fraoother : the pieces compofing the lid are 
finely crenate with tranfvcrfe wrinklef, 2 leiTcr, and 4 larger 
^nd pointed. 


i6d WORMS. TESl'ACEA. 54. Lepas. 

* Balamides Shell conic, truncate, fmooth: operculum or lid obtufc* 
Donovans Britifh Shells, i. tah. 36, pg 2. 
Da Cofia Brit, conch. ^.284. tai. iji/ig' f» 
Lifter hifi. anim. /irtgl. tab. 5 , fig, 4 1 , 
Lifter conch, tab. i\^a^. Jig, 287. 
Penn. Brit. ZooL iv. tab. 37, /g. 5. 
Chemn. concb. 8. /fi^, 97, _/?^, 821— 825, 

1, Seated cm a long tabular rugged ftalk, 
Donovan s Britijh Shelit, 1. tab. 36. fig, 3, 
Pennant Brit.Zool. iv. /a^. iy,/ig. J- A, 
Inhabits European^ American and Indian Seas, on rocks, flones^ 

ihclls, &c, leis than the iaft, and is wbitiih cinereous or 


*lntfnexta Somewhat deprefTed ; valves imbricate and obliquely ftriatc. 
Doncvani Brit. Shells V. tab, "i^, fig. I. 
Lepas ftriau, Brtt. ZogI. iv. tab. yjyfig. 7. 
Inhabits Britifi coajist adhering to oyfters, &c. 

*Ctirtmli' Shell with a dilated bafe and rather narrow aperture: valres 
enjist grooved near the lower edges. 

Pennant Brit. ZooL iv, /. 73. tab, l'],fig, 6. 
Ellis Philcf. TrctnfaS. 175^. tab. l\, fig. 16. 
Inhabits coaft of Corntuall: refembles a limpet.- 

*'fintinna* Shell conlc, obtufe, bell-fhaped, rugged and fixed, 
tulutn. Bar but' s Shells- tab. I . fg, 6. 

Lifer conch, tab. 443, fig. 285. 
Ellis Philof.Tranf 1758. tab. 34, fig.%, 
Argenv conch, tab. 26, fg. A, B. 
Chemn. concb. 8. tab. <)y,fg» 828 — 83 I. 
Klein Oftr. tab. 12, fg. 97. Kumpf. Muf, t. 4I,/. A, B. 
Guali. teft. tab, \o6. Jig, E, H, I. 
Knorr. Kergn. 2. tab. 2, /. 65. tab, ^O, f. x, 

Z. White. Chem. conch. R, tab. gS,fig, 832. 

Inhabits European^ Indian and American leas, and is frequently 
found adhering to the bottoms of Ihips and pieces of wreck : 
_/72f// purple, varied with white and red, or blucifh ; Ibmetimes 
cylindrical, or a little thicker: the elevated 'vahrs are perpen- 
dicularly ftriate, the deprelTed ones tranfverfely : pieces ot the 
lid nearly e<jual« 

*Diadema* Shell roundifli, 6-lobed ; the valves grooved longitudinally. 
Dono'vans Britifh Shells, ii. tab. 56, 
Lifter cc?ich. tab. 445, fg. 288. 
iralch. Naturf. 8. tab. 4, fig. A,^, C. 
Klein Ojlrac. tab. 12, f. 98. Barbut, tab. l,f. 7. 
Schrater Journ, 4. tab» Zf fig, 4, 5. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lepas. 


Guah. tejl. tab, lo6, fig. Q^ 

Born, Muf. Ctef, Vind. tefi. tab. l, fig,^^6. 

Chemtt. conch. 8. tab. 99, fg, 843, 844. 

Inhabits European and Indian leas : airty white, nearly an inch 
high, narrower on the upper part, the upper aperture funnel, 
ftiapcd, and about half the width of the other part of the ihclj ; 
'val'Vii 12, triangular, 6 of which arc excavated or deeper tham 
the others, and marked with hne'tranfvcrfc Itriae, the other 6 
are elevated, and confift of 4—5.-6 prominent ridges placed 
clofe to each other, and tranfverfcly marked with crenate ftrix. 

Shell fubconic, with 6 elevated wrinkled 4^parte(i lobes; 
the lid membranaceous and 2-toothed, 

Da Cojia Brit, conch, tab. \'J, f, 2. 

Philof. TranfaR. 1758 f.z. tab. ^\, f. I. 

Rump/, Muf. tab. 14, /. H. Petiv. Amb. tab, 1 ,/. 1 1, - 

Waicb Naturf. lO. tab. lO, f II, 12. 

Chemn. conch., 8. lab. 99, /". 845, 846, 

Found adhering to the peftoril wrinkles and fins of the Pbaliena 
hoops; about 15 lines high and 10 broad at the bafe; thick, 
lamellous, and a little mrrower at the top ; above truncate 
and very obtufe, the mouth clofcd with a lax ycllowiOi mem-; 'v^i/i'fj 12, triangular, 6 of which are elevated, nearly 
equal, marked with trdnfverfe wrinkled granulations, and 
furrowed with % longitudinal 4-parted grooves; 6 are lower 
and marked with fine tranfverfe ftriae. Thefe 2 lail fo nearly 
refcmblc each other, that they might without much impro? 
priety conllitutc one fpecies, 

^CeHata, Shell fomewhat conic, with equidiftant ribs divergent from 
the aperture: lid pointed. 
Donrmant Rrit.jJi ?)hells, i fab 30, f. 2. 
Found adhering to rocks on the Pembrokcjkire coaft. 

*Oinoid€5, Shell, conic, fmooth, the valves pointed: aperture very fmal!., 

Donavans Britifli Jhelli, l, tab ^O, j:j. 3. 

Found at V/eymout'-, adhering to ttii Lcpas anatifera. 

Shell fmall, reddiih : valves nuely tcllcl:atc. 

^Tejiudina* Shell plano-convex, with 6 excavated (Iriate rays. 
r:cm Bllii Philof. travf. 1758 ta-^. 34,7/1;. 12, 13, 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 40, f g. K. 
BoHan. Muf. Kirch. I. fig. ■^4. 36, 37. 
Gualt. Tefi. fab. 106. fig. M, N, O, P. 

Peti<v. Gazoph. tab. 9, fig. 9, jiU, 

Plane, conch, tab. ^i fig- 2. 

Chemtt» couch. 8. tab, ()^. ftg. 8^7, 848. 

• y 

h /• 9- 


^68 WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lepas, 

Inhabits the Ocean, and is found commonly adhering to fliells ;, 
fomething refem^les a globe cue off in the middle: white, 
fmoothifh, the lower aperture hexagonal and twice as broad 
as the upper: lid compofwd of 4 triangular pieces infertcd on 
a membrane. 

Guleata. Shell helmet-form, with 2 lateral aperture. 
Scbrcet. Einl. conch. 3. tab, 9 fig. 20, a, b. 
Found adhering to the Gorgoma 'verrucofa and 'vsntilabrum : fhcU 
boat fliaped, fmooth, with a rhombic apertare. 

Palmipes* Shell ere<9:, conic ; the valves palmate at the bafe. 
Inhabits the Ocean. 2. p. 544. 
Shell white, a little depreffed, fize of a large pea, fmooth i 

valves 4 — 6, divided as far as the middle into 5 — 6 iegments : 

lid 4-valved, oblique. 

^lulipa. Shell fubcubic, fmooth : lid acute and tranfverfely ftriate* 
Olaf.hl. Res. ^Ol tx a. tab. \i,fig. 13, 
Ajcan. ic. rar. 'Natur. tab. Jo, 
Inhabits the Northern Ocean. 

Mitella, ^hell comprefled, ered and irregularly ftriate. 

Ellis fhilof.'lran/. 1 758. tab. 2^, fig. 4. 

Pet.iiaz. tab. 6,/. 10. Ritrnpf. Muf. tab. 47,/. M. 

Klein oUrac. tab. \z. fig. \0Q. 

SebaMuf. 2, tab. 61, ftg. 8.3. /. iS,f. 3, 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab, 100, fig. 849, 850. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; Vvhite, covered with a dirty yellow 
ikin ; vahes numerous, generally triangular, unequal, acute, 
feated on a common black peduncle, which is coriaceous, fca»- 
ly and hollow within. 

Scalpellum. Shell compreired, 13-valved, fmoothifh, and feated on i 
fcaly peduncle. 

Ellis Philof. Tranf. 1758. tab. 34, fg. 4. 

Gualt. teft. 106. fig. C. Klein. /. 1 2, /. 91 /* 

Mull. ZooL Dan, 3. /. 23. tab. 94, fig. I, 2. 

Lifer conch, tab. 439. fig. 281. 

Chemn. conch. 8. /. 294. l^ign. f. f. a. h^ 

Inhabits North Seas ; lefo than L anatifern : 'val'ves refembling 
fcales, 6 each fide, the longer one curved and inclofing the 
others : peduncle very fhort, with annular wrinkles. 

Jnferfera. Shell comprefled, 5-valved, flriate, feated on a peduncle. 
Lif. conch, tab. 44, f. 283. Exerc, anal. t. 19,/. 4. $• 

Gualt. lOb.fg. 2, 3. A'/W«, t. 12, /. 2,3. 
Chemn. conch. 8, tab. 100,/. 856. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lepas. 169 

Inhabits the American and Atlnntic fea*, and ie rometi'mps found 
in a foffilc ftate : fedunde pale faftVon : firft val've curved, 
fmooth and carinatc on the hack, the reft with diftant ftria;, 
each of the larger ones turgid towar"ds the peduncle, with a 
wedged divergent end; the fniallcr ones narrower and mord 

^Anaiiura Shell compreficd, 5-valved, fmooth, feated on a peduncle. 

Natur. Mifcell. tab. igt. Barbiit, tab. l, f. lO. 
Pennant Brit. Zocl. iv. tab. 38, f, 9. 
Dono'vans But.Jhells, i. tab. 7. 
EUis Philo/TranJ. 1758. tab 34,/. 6. 
Da coda Brit, conch, tab \S, / 3. 
Lifter conch tab 440,/ 283. 
Chzmn.c::nch. tab. 1 00,/. 853 — 855, 
GualtAcjt. tab. \o6, f A, E, 

Jr^en-v. co.>,ck. tab. 26, / E. Zoomorph, t, 7,/. I, K, 
Seba M"/. 3. tab. 16. /. I. A. 2. 

2. She'l rounded. Lift. comb. tab. 439, /. 280. 

3. The longer valve fpinou^; on the back. 
Lijinr mnch. tab. 439. fig. 282. 

4. Cancellate wich fine ftnaei cinereous. 
Guaks Test. tab. io6j fig- B. 

Inhabits moft feas, and is generally found fixed in clufters txf 
the bottoms of veffels- and old piecesof floating timber ; gene- 
rally v^hitiih wich a blue call, the margins of the valves yel- 
low ; fonictim^r> marked with a ray or two dotted with black: 
peduncle long, coriaceous, black, and very much wrinkled to- 
wards the fhell, and growing paler and pellucid towards rhe 
bale, extenfile ; Ibmctinies though rarely red : ^jal-ues h^ely 
itiiaie; the 2 larger ones triangular ; the 2 top ones nearly 
triangular and about half the fize; the other narrow, long, 
curved, rounded at the back, a little protuberant at the bale 
and inclofing the others. 

This fpecies was formerly fuppofed to be the origin of the 
Ecrnacie goofe. See Gerard^ s Herbal, p. 1587, 1588. 

Aurita, Shell membranaceous, ventricofe, featcdon a tube and eared: 
mouth 8-valved, tootlied. 
EUts Philof. IranJ. 1758. tab. ^^,/.i. 
^eba Muf, 3. tab. 16, f. 5. 'Ediv. Gkan. t. 286, /". A. 
Cher:in. conch. 8. tab. lOO. /. 857, 858, 
inhabits iS'orth Seal : peduncle long. 

Pfitteci Shell hooked behind, 6-valvcd, wrinkled. 
M«lin Hut, Nat. Chili, p. 179. 

VOL. IV i — Y inhabit* 

i7b WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lcpis. 

Inhabits the Coaft ofChi/i; hardly an inch long: the z larger 
valves referable a parrot's bill : ffejh. white tender and very 

Miner. Shell reddifli, 6-'Valved, unequal : liJ ppinted. 

Inhabits India, Chemn, Conch. 8. tab, <)']-.fig. 827. 

5'^f'// marked with tranfverfe curved lines dotted with white* 

Vtrruca. Shell hemlfphxrical, ferrate, 6-valved; the 4 outer valve 
and lid plaited. 
Spengler Naturf, I./. loi. tab, I. fig. I — 9. 
Strcetn. A£l. Hafn, 10. /. 6. tab, ■^. pz* " — 9- 
Inhabits iVor/^ S^fl/; affixed to the Oflrea iflandica and others; 

Angujlata. Shell elongated, fmooth, 6-valved: the aperture narrow: lid 
very minute. 
Bonan recr. et. Mu/. Kirch. I, fig- 15. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. <j^'fg. 835. 

Inhabits Valves with a groove at the point of conjunftion ; 

fometimes flriate with red and white» 

Pcrofa. Shell granulate ftriate conic tubular; the lid obtufe. 
Schrat. Journ. 4. tab, z. jig, 6. a, b. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. g9./g. 836. 
2. Larger and broad, Klein Ojir, tab, iz.^g.gS. 
Lijler Conch, tab. 2^2. fig. z%j^. 

Inhabits India '. when frefli it is green on the outfide, but after- 
wards becomes black above and white beneath. 

Elongata. <^^\ cylindrical fnowy pellucid 6-valved and cleft above: 
lid obtufe grooved and tranfverfely ftriate. 

Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. <^%. fig. 838. 

Chemn. Schr. Naturf. 5. tab. ^.fig. 2, 

Bchrctt. Journ. 4. tab. 2. fig. 2. 

Inhabits Iceland; a very rare fpecies : hardly 5 lines broad and 
above 3 inches long; tranfverfely annulate and knotty heic 
and there beneath, 

Patellaris, Shell 6-valved; outw^ardly violet mixed with white, and 
marked with fine longitudinal ftris : within falcate: 
valves denticulate at the margin. 

Spengler Schr. Naturf. 5. tab, ^,fig. 4» 

Chemn, Lonch, 8, tab. gS.fig. 839. 

Inhabit? Coromandel ; a very rare fpecies. 

Teeth of the i-ahes alternately mfcrtcd in each other, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 54. Lepas. 


Spino/a. Shell conic with 12 triangular valves, 6 of them more de- 
prelFed lefs and whitilh tranfverfely ftriate, 6 purple 
and longitudinally ftriate; all armed with tubular re- 
curved fpines. 

Chemn, Schr. Naturf. 5. tab. 5. fig. 3, 4. 

Chemn. Conch, gS./ig. 84, /. 99./. 841. 

Inhabits I/idta. Lid wich 4 pointed waved llriat-e valvcs> 

yiolacea. Shell thick glabrous 6-valved, white with violet rays. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. gg./ig. 842. 
Inhabits India i (lightly gropved within, 

Pollicipetp Shell comprefTed erc£^, many-valved, fmooth ; feated on a 
fhort hard fcaly coriaceous peduncle. 
Argennj. Conch, tab. 26. ftg. D. Zoom^ t, J,/» G. 
Knorr, Vergnt 5. tab. l^./ig. 7. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. 1 00. /tg. 851, 852. 
Inhabits the Mediterrunean. 

The 4 larger i>alvts turned towards each other like the beak of a 
bird; leffer ones more than ?o. 

Cjlindrica. Cylindrical, (lightly curved, with a very large oblique ori- 
fice ; lip horned, 
Gronon). Zooph, tab. ig.f. 3» 4. 
Ellis Philof, tranfad. i^O.Jig. 15. 
Inhabits ihorcs oi Africa, under the torrid zone. 


Shell oval-truncate conic, with 6 bluei(h valves (haded with 
white, and 6 elevated reddifh ones fpmous and per- 
pendicularly ftriate. 

Scbrcrt. Einl.Conrh. I. p. ^l^^- tab. ^ Jig 21 ; 

Inhabits frequently found perforated by the Teredo, about 

an inch high; /rVobtule. 

Shell folid white deprelTed with carinous gropvcs, within 
unequally fmooth. 
Pall. Nov. Aa. Petrop. 2. p, 240. tab. d.fig, 24. A, B. 
Inhabits the KuriU IJlands. 

Conico-convex, with 4 ferrate-ftriate valves : lid a-valved. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. I. p. 21. tab, <)if. fig. 1^4. 
Inhabits the Northern Seat, 


55. PHLOAS. 

172 WORMS. TESTACEA. 55. Phloas. 

^5. PH '■ J AS. Animal an Afcidia ijhell bw 
valve, divaricate, with ieveral lelier dif- 
ferently ihaped accelibry ones at the 
hinge; hinges recurved, united by a car- 
tillage: in the inlide beneath the hinge 
is an incurved tooth. 

The inhabitants of this genus perforate clay fpongy ftones and 
wood, while in the younger Itate, and as they increale in fizcj 
enlarge theirjiabitation within, and thus become imprifoiied : 
they contain a phofpherous liquor of great brilliancy in the 
dark, and which illuininaces whatever it touches or happens 
to fall upon* 

*Da8jlut. Shell oblong, with reticulate fubfpinous ftrias on the upper 

Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. />. 76. tab, '^'^> fig' lO, 

Lifter Conch, tab^ ^I'h-fiZ' "^1^' 

Liner An. Angl. app. tab. 2. fig. 3.' 

Lijier exerc Atiat, tab. ig.fig. I, 2. 

Gualt. tejl. tab. \0^,fig. A, B, C, D. 

Seba Muf 3. tab. \6. fig. a, b,c, d. 

Born. Muf. Caf. Find. teji. tab< \.fg, 7. 

Argenv, Conch, tab. 26. fig. H, I. 

Chemn, Concha 8. tab. loi.fg, 859; 

Inhabits among rocks of Europe, and fhincs by night ; 5 inches 
long: entirely white with fometimes an ochraceous caft, thin, 
fragile, elongated and wedge-fhaped on the fore-part, convex 
behind ; the margin inflefled ; marked with fuhipinous llrias 
which become gradually more indiftinfl : hinge rcfembling a 
fpoon : acceJJ'orj •vah>es 4. 

Cojlata. Shell ovate, and ftriate with elevated ribs* 

Lifter Conch, tab. AZ^- f'g * ^^7* 
Bonann. recr 3. fig. 35. Muf.kirch, 2. f. 1 05. 
Gualt, lO^.fig. G. 
Knorr.Vergn. 2. tab. 2^. fig. 4. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. lO\, fig. 863. 

Inhabits /imerican Seas: white, nearly 6 inches long; the ribs 
oblique and armed with elevate fcales or obtufe fpines. 

Striata. Shell ovate, and multitlarioufly firiate. 
Gua/i. te/i- tab. 10^. fg. F. 
Qhemn. Conch. S. tab. 102. fig. 86a— 866. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 55. Phloas, 17^ 

Inhabit* Southern Europe and India, and the coaft of Barbary ; 
the ftriae here and there decuflate : the part near the hinge 
glabrous and withoat ilriac, 

'* Candida. Shell oblong, and muiicate on all parts with decuffate ftria:. 

Brit. Zoot. iv. tab. ^^./ig- I •• Barbut. t, \. f. \\, 

lili. An. Angl. tab. S-/jg- 39* Conc/j. t, 435./. zfi, 

Gualt.tejl- tab. XO^.fig. 2. 

Bonann Muf. kirch. 2. tab. 24.. 

Inhabits European and American Seas; very thin ; within filvery 
and more glabrous ; rounded at each end : tooth of the hings 
flender and clett : length near an inch, breadth an inch and 
a h*lf. 

Pujilla, Shell oblong, rounded, with arched ftria:. 
Broivn Jamaica. 417. tab. ^o.fig. II. 
Kumpf.Muf. tab. 46,//^. H, Burbut. t. I./. I, 2. 
Petiv. Amb. tab. ig. fig 8. 
Adanfon Senegal, tab. ig./ig. 1,2.? 
Martin. Befck. Naturf. 2. tab. I 2. fig. 6 — 9. 
Spen^l, Bejcb, Naturf. 4. tab. 5 fig. I — 5. 
Chemn, Conch. 8. tab. \ol.fig. 867 — 871, a, b. 
Inhabits America and Inaia, and penetrates the bottoms of Ships. 
Shell white or brownjlh, gaping on the fore-part, globular under 
the top, and marked with reticulate knotty (Iris. 

• Cri/pata, Shell oval, the part next the hinge more'obtufe waved and 
(triate : tooth of the hinge curved large and ftrong. 

Peiinant Brit. Zool. iv. p. 77. ta^. /^o.jig. 12. 

Lift. An. Ang. tab. Cj.fig. 38. App. t. z.f. y, 

Li/ier Exerc. Anat. tab, ig. /ig. 3. 

Lijler Conch, tab. ^^^.fig. 279. 

Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. lOZ. fig. 872-. 874. 
2. Shell thinner and fmaller ; tooth flender, obIi<|ue, 

Pennant Brit. ZooL p, 77. «, 13. tab. /^o.fig. 13.' 

Inhabits European Seas ; nearly 2 inches long and 3 ~ broad ; 
primary (hells divided by a tranfverfe wrinkled groove in the 
the middle, accefTory ones fmall. 

Qrientalis. Shell oblong with a ftraight margin; one half quite fmooth, 
the other with reticulate ftria:. 

Lijler Conch, tab. 431 . fg, 274. 
Chemn. Conch. 8. tab. loi.fg. 860. 
JValch Naturf it,. p. 86. tab. 3../%. 15. 

Inhabits Siam and Tranquebar ; large and thin : fhells gaping at 
pnc end only, and n^aiked within with reticulate ftrix. 


,74 WORMS. TESTACEA. 56* Mya. 

Camptchi^ Shell narrow white and very finely ftriate, 
entii. Lift. Conch, tabs 432. fg. 275. 

Inhabits the Bay of Campechy: an iudillinft fpecies. 

Cordata, Shell (hort turgid and furrowed with fine elevated tranfverfe 
ftrias; aperture heart-lhaped. 
SchfcEt. Eittl Conch. 3. p. 544. t^i. 9. fig, 22—24. 

Inhabits affixed to Coralls : Jhtll very thin fragile dirty white 

the tore- part fmooth except a few arched ridges, 

Chtloenfif, ■ Shell oblong, a little deprefTed, with ciftant longitudinal 
Inhabits Chili, on rockr. Mo/. Hi/i, Chili, p. 179^ 
She// 5 inches long, with minute appendages. 

Ttredula* Shell oblong white, with a longitudinal brown granulate 
Pal/. No'-u. Acl. Pnrop' 2. p. 240. tab, (>'/ig. 26. A, D# 
Inhabits the Belgic Shores, and penetrates timber. 

Hiani, Shell bivalve white with tranfverfe arched ftrix ; above con- 
nivent ; convex in the middle ; beneath wedge-lhaped, 
with a very large oval iperture, 

Cl}emn, Conch. 10. tab. ijz.fig. 1678^^1681 

Spengl. noni. aB.Joc. Dan. 2' fig 8-- 1 r. 

Inhabits American Ifiands, and perforates • calcareous rocks and 

56. M YA . Animal an A fcidia ; Jhell bivalve, 
generally gaping at one end : hinge with 
broad thick Itrong teeth, feldom more 
than one, and not inferted into the op-- 
pofitc vah^e. 

The animals of this genus perforate into the fand and clay at the 
bottom of the fca^ burying themfelves and their Ihells wholly 
or in part. 'J 

^'Iruncata. Shell ovate truncate and gaping greatly behind: tooth pro- 
jedling forwards and vtry obtufe. 
Pennant. Urit. Zoo/, iv. /. 7H. tab. \\.fig. 14. 
Liji. Conch, tab. ^zS./tg. 269. /Ir.^/. t: 5./. 96. 
/.% Ify^oth. 199. n. 3. tab. ^.fig. 3. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 56. Mya. 175 

Gualt. 7ejl. tab. C)\. fig. D. 
Chtmti. conch. 6. tab. I. fig. l, 2. 

2, Lilier conch, tab. ^iq, fig. 770. 

Inhabits European leas; z\ inches Jong. 

^^/-/Z dirty-white covered with a yeliowifh-brown flcin, thick, 
convex, with irregular tracfverfe ftris forming wrinkles^ 
within quite fmooth : \\\t fijh is frequently eaten, and is a 
principal food of lea birds. 

*Declivis. Shell brittle, femitranfparent, flisping downwards near the 
open end ; the hinge Higluly prominent. 
Found about the Hebrides. Brit. Zool. iv. p. 79. 
Shell lefs gaping than the laft: Jifii in great efteem as a food 
among the inhabitants. 

* Arenaria, Shell ovate, rounded beiiind: tooih projeding forwards, 
rounded and furnilhed with a lateral fmallcr one. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. /. 79, tab. 42. 
LiHer Cinch, tab, 418, ^g, 262. 
Bafter op. fuhf. r.p.bc). tab. 7, fig. i — 3, 
Argenv. Zoom. tab. ^,fi. 10. Lefifertest. fig. 106. 
Horn Muf. Caf. Find, test, tab. 7, ftg. A, 
Chemn. conch. 6. Vign, et tab. 1$ fig- 3> 4» 

2. Lister conch, tab. 419, fitg. 263. 

Inhabits F.aropean feas, under the fand ; z\ inches long ; ycllov. - 
ifh rcddi(h-brown or dirty-white :,^«// marked with tranfverfe 
wrinkled ftris : tooth of the hinge longer and more ob:uf<: 
than that of M. truncata. 

*Piaer::m. Shell ovate ; with a finglc longitudinal crenulate tooth in 
one hinge, and 2 in the other. 
Pennant Bnt. Zool. iv. /. 79. tab. 43, fig. 17. 
Lister can^h. tab. \^6,fig.l, tab. 1 47. /. 2, 3. 
List. An. Ang. tab.z, f. 30. App.tcib, I,/. '4. 
Gualt. Test. tab. 7,/. E. Barbut, tab. 2,f i. 
Argenuille conih. tab. 2"]% ftg. lo. Zoom. t.%.,f. 11, 
Schrcet. Flufconch, tab. 2,/. 2. tab. 3, f. 2 — 5. 
Chemn. conch. 6, /a5, i , fig. 6» 

2. Chemn. conch, 6. /«^. 3, _/^. 23, 24. 

3. Lift, conch, tab. 1 48. / 

4. Argenville conch' tab. 29, J?^. 1 8, 

5. Schrcet. Flufconch. tab. l,fig. 3. 

6. Schrcet. Flufconch. tab. 9, /%. I • 


,76 WORMS. TEStACEA. 56. Mya: 

Inhabits frefh rivers of ^a*-^^^, 2) Barbary, 6) Tranquebary and 
is the fhell which is commonly ufed to put water colours in : 
1 1 inch long, 3^ hroad ; covered with a brownilTi or blackifll 
coat, and under this yellow ifh or gri-enifhj with green rays; 
within fmooth and clay-colour: very thin and brittle, and 
docs not gape at either end. 

* Margati" Shell ovat6, a little contracted in the middle of the thinner 
lifenu margin: primary tooth of the hinge conic : protube- 

rant parts near the hinge decorticated. 

Brit. ZooL'w tab.^i,,/, 18. Barbutytab, z,f. 2. 

Lifter conch, tab. 1 49, Jig. 4- 

LifterAnim. Angl. app. tab. i, ftg- l- 

Gualt. tab lOZ, fig. C. Klein, tab. 10, f. 4.7. 

Knurr. Vergn. 4. tab. 2^, fig, 2. 

Chetnn conch 6. tab. i. fg. 5. 

Inhabits moll parts of the Ardic circle, and is generally found in 
mountainous rivers and ab -ur cataracls ; about 5 inches broad 
and 2~ long : J&et'/ thick, coarfe, opak-e, tranfverlely wrinkled, 
black on the outfide, and O'ten corroded by worms: hinge 
without lateral teeth, the primary tooth being received into a 
broad cleft loorh of theoppofite hlnge- 

This ihell is noted for producing large quantities of mother of 
pearl and peirl, thefe latter being a difeafe of the lifh analo- 
gous to the rtone in the human body. The river Conway in 
.Wales was formerly famous for producing pearl of great fizc 
and value. 

Pirna. Shell oblong, dilated, the narrower bafe comprelfed. 

Knorr. I'erg't. 4. tab. I 5, Jtg. 2, 4, 5. 

Chet7in. conch. 8 tab. 83, / 738, 739. t. 84, f. 748. 

Schroet. Einl conch. 2. tab J, fig- 4. 

Inhabits the Magellanic Strait.' and fhores of Barbara ; refembles 
a ham or leg of mutton : JJielKmoot^x, blue and white, open at 
one end : inl'ead of the hi^'ge is a deep tranfverfe hollow, in 
the iftiddle of which is a Iharp tooth in each valve : probably 
not of thii Genus. 

^^ul/ella. Shell tongue-fhaped ; the hinge terminal, deprefled and 

Lifter conch, tab. IO55./. 10. 

Rump/. MuJ. tab. 46. fig. A. Gualt. tab. 90. /. H. 

talent. Mu/ tab. 16. fig. 28. Barbut. tab. 2. f, 3. 

Knorr. Vergn. 5. tab. it fg' ^ — 3« 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 2. fg. 8 — 1 1. 

Inhabits the /Ww.* li inch broad, 4 inches long. 
•■ Shell varying in form according to its age: the t/^Z-i/w rather flat, 
gaping, finely ftriate tranfverlely, outwardly yellovvifh radiate 
with blackifll and yellowifli : tooth long, broad and grooved 
along the middle : probably not of this Genus* 



Ar^icao Shell ftriafe, the valves with 2 fubfpinous ridges 
without teeth. 
O. Fabr.jn' Grccnl. /. 407. «. 408. 

Inhabits the North Seas, among algae ; l| — 7 h'nes long; fize 
of a bean, pale yellow and milk-white within; rcfembles an 
Area: anteriorly ImprefL-d and a little flattifti ; the fore-part 
vcr}"- obtufc, the hind-part (horter and fharpifh, 

itftntula. Shell oval, e^uivalve, widely gaping arid ftriatc: hinge 
without teeth. 

Pall. It. 2. f. 700. 

Inhabits Tandy fltores of the CaJ^ian Sea, about an inch long : 
Jhe/I thin, a little antiquated, white, with about 33 ftriaein each 
valve, which are diitant at the fliorter end and more crowded 
in the broader : Imige with a thickifli inflefted lip. 

RadUta,- Shell equivalve, pellucid, very finely ftfiate tranfverfely, 
yellowiih-iireen with livid rays: valves Very broad on 
one fide and very narrow on the other. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 2. yf^. 7. 
2. Brownifh with blue radiate lines. 
Lifter conch, tab. i 52. fig. 7. 

Inhabits rivers of Malabar; thinner and mofc fragile than M. 
piflorum, broader and more flat ; infide clay-colour: primary 
tooth of the hinge crenate. 

Oblonga. Ovate-oblong; one valve with a broad flrong tooth let into 
a hollow of the other valve, and a lelFer tooth inferted 
between 2 fmall ones of the oppofite valve. 

Chemn. conch. 6'. tab. 2. Jig. IZ. 

Inhabits . Shell 1 1 inch long, 3 inches bropd, and is more 

ventrieofe than Maflra lutraria: refembles M. arenaria, of 
which it is perhaps only a variety. 

Anaiina, Shell globular, fnowy, pellucid : primary tooth of the hinge 
prominent and rounded. 
AJanfon Senegal, tab, 19, fig, 2. 
Chemn. couch . 6. tab. 2. fig. 13. 
Inhabits Guinea, and refembles the Solen anatinus. 
$hell\s\\.\i decuffate ftrise : each -value repand on one fide; 

Hicoharica. Shell equlvalve, fnowv, ovate-oblong, with decu (Tate flria?: 
tooth of the hinge finglc, broad, perpendicular aind 
Chtmn, conch, d, tab t 3. jig, 1 7, 1 8. 

VOL. IV.--Z Inhabits 

178 WORMS. TESTACEA. 56. Mya. 

Inhahits Nicobar IJlands : valves on one fide convex, broad and 
roundea at the margin, on the otner more angular, narrow, 
flat and gaping, 

jinstralis. Shell ovate-comprefTed, clofed : hinge with 2 lateral teeth. 
Chemn. conch, 6. tab. 3, Jig. ig, 20. 
Inhabits New Zealand: dirty ochraccous. / 

Gaditana. Shell rounded, flattifh, tranfverfely ftriate ; ochraceoMS, 
within white. 
Inhabits fhoresof Cadez. Chemn, conch. 6. tab. '^.fig, 22. 

Corrugata* Shell rhombic, green ; the protuberant parts wrinkled. 

Mull. Befch. tlatwf. i,. p, 58. tab. I. Jig. 7, 8. 

Schrizt. Flujconch. tab. 9. fig. 3, 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 3. Jig. 22. a, b. 

Inhahits rivers of Coromandei, and when the outer fkin or epi- 
dermis is removed is clay colour; thin, pel ucid, and marked 
with wrinkled ftnae from each part of the hinge; within 
painted with fine radiate ilriae : 1 1 — 1 5 lines long. 

Rugosa, Shell oval, wrinkled, outwardly greenifh, within margari- 
taceous: primary tooth of the hinge crenulate, with a 
longitudinal lateral one, double in the other valve. 

Chemn, conch. 10. p. 36^, tab. 170. jig. 1649. 

Inhabits rivers on the coaft of Coromandei. 

Nodosa, Sliell oval, thin, greenifh ; the protuberant parts knotty. 

Inhabits . Chemn. conch. 10. tab. ijo. f. 1650. 

NoriK-egica, Shell oval, longitudinally and thickly ftriate : one end 
rounded, the other truncate: protuberant parts de- 
Inliabits — — . Chemn. conch. 10. tab. \']Q.f. 1 647, 1648. 

Spuria. SJiell rhombic, green ; the protuberant part glabrous. 
Schrcst. Einl, conch. 2, 617. tab, 7, fig. 5. 

Inhabits rivers of Tranquebar ; refemblcs M. corrugata, but is 
nearly twice as large. 

Gljcemeris, Shell gaping at both ends, very thick, laraellous, oblong- 
oval, vvrlh tranfverfe wrinkled ftrirc : primary tooth of 
the hinge very thick. . 
Lt/ier conch, /ai. 414. Jig, 258. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 57. Solcn. 179 

Klein O/trac. tab. 1 1 . fig, 72, 

Gualt. test, tab, 90. fig. A. 

Born UuJ Car/, k'ind. tejt. tab. I. f.%, 

Chemn conch. 6. tab. 3, jig. 25. 

Inhabits the European Ocean, particularly the Spanijh and Medi' 
terranean kis ; 5 inches long and nearly 10 broad: cinereous 
or ochracecuj, within cretaceous : hinge with a lefler tooth 
and a ferics of wrinkles : refembJes a Solen. 

SjrmatO' Shell ovatc, deprenTcd; margin of the hinge wilh a fubulate 
phora. projcdion near the primary tooth, that of the other 

valve dilated. 
Grono-v, Z.ooph. tab, 18. fig, 1,2. 

Inhabits ri\ers of Guinea : marginal teeth each fide with parallel 

NitUa. Shell oval, white, fmooth; with an obtufe tooth in each 
Inhabits Ncrtvay. Mull. Zool. Dttn. prodr. 2963. 

Membranw Shell ovate, membranaceous, white, with a.prcwradled rc- 
eea. iledled margin at the probofcis. 

Inhabits . Olafs. ijl, ref. 901. tab. \\, f. lO. 

^yffifera. Shell coarfe and thick, oblong, ftriate, convex : hinge with- 
"out tooth. 
//. Wgoth. 198. tab. ^y fig. 2. 

Inhabits fifTures of rocks on the Creenlavd coz^, and is generally 
found affixed by a byfTus or mafs of iilamenti : 8 — 1 ■}\ lines 

*Dtthiei Shell with an oval and large hiatus oopofite the hinge, and 
the rudiment of a tooth within one valve. 
Found near Weymcuth, Brit. 7ool. iv tab. 44 
^hell brown and brittle, length of a horfe-bean, and fliapcd like 
a Pidachia nuti 

57. SOLEN. Animal an Afcidia: JJidl bi- 
valve, oblong, open at both ends: lunge 
with a liibulate retie6i;ed tooth., often 
double, and not inferted in tlie oppoiite 
valve. Razor -Jlieath. 

Z 2 * Farina, 

i8o WORMS. TESTACEA. 57. Solen. 

*Vagina, Shell linear, ftraight, roundifh, one end margined; hinge 
with a fingle oppofite tooth in each valve. 
Barbui's Shells, p. 20. fab. 2, fg. 4. 
Lifer conch, tab. ^cx), /. 255. tab, 418, /g. 256, tab. 412, /".I. 

tab. 1056, /_^. J. 
Bonan. recr. 2. fig. 57. MuJ. Kirch, 2. fg. 56. 
GW/. r^. /-a^. 95, Jig. C, D, E. 
Klfin Ofirae. tab. 1 1, Jig. 65. 
Lejfer teftaceoth. Jig. 1 20. 
/Tinory Vergn. I r<?^ 28, _/f^. 3. 
Chemn. conch. 6. /a^. 4, fig. 26 — 28, f/a, c. 

3. hiji. conch, tab, \\z. Jig,S, 

Inhabits European and Indian feas : 6 — 7 inches broad and about 
I long: T^f// yi-liOwifh, divided diagonally into 2 triangles, 
one of which is ftriate longitudinally, the other tranfverlely, 
and marked with curved bands. 

*Silijua, Shell linear, (Iraight ; one hinge 2-toothed. 
Donovans Britip ShelL, ii. tab. 46. 
Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 4-i;,Jig 20, Barbut, tab. Z. y. 9. 
Lifler anim. Angl. tab, 5, fig. 37. 
^^//. /4^aa/. /fl<^. 414,/. 2. JP/afff. «fff^, /. 3,/, 6, 
Gina». Ard, 2, /. 37. /^^. 2'j,J:g. 170. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. /a^. 7, y". l. 
Chemn. conch. 6. /<ii. 4, ^^ 39, f/ d, 

2, Shell marked with rofy lunules. 

Schrcet. Einl, conch. 2. tab, 7, Jg. 6. 

Inhibits European {sis, 2) India: 7 — 8 ij chei broad and ij 
long : fhell equally broad and compreffed, with a double 
tooth at the hinge receiving another oppofite, and on one fide 
another fharp toodi direfted downwards; colour olive-brown, 
with a conoid a fh colour mirk dividing the (hells diagonal!), 
one part itriate longitudinally, the other tranfverfely. 

"'EnP^s. Shell linear, a little bovi^ed like a f^ymetar: one hinge a* 

Donov'ins Britifh Shells, ii. tab. 50. 
Pennant Brit. Zoolxv. tab. Af'^tJig.ZZ* 
Lijler conch, tab. 311, fg. 257. 
hifler An. Angl. cppi tab. 2. J:g. 9, 
Argen<v co'ch tab. Z/^, Jig.Q. 
Chemn. conch 6. tab. 4, J. 30. et c. 
Schrcet. Einl. ranch, z. p. 262, tab. "J, f. 7. 
Inhabits European feas : about inches brc d. 
^/^d// coloured and marked like the lail, rounded at f,oth ends: 

the 2 teeth of one valve infcrted into a triangular hoi'.ow of 

the other. 

WORMS. TESTAGEA. 57. Solen. jgl 

^Pelhicidus Sliell fubarched, fuboval, pellucid : one hinge 2-toothcd. 
Inhabits /inglefea- Ent.Zo'l, iv. p, 84, tsh.^b.f. 23, 
Shel! thin, pellucid, about an inch broad, v.itli a double fliarp 
tooth in one valve receiving a fingle one from tht cppufite, 
with a proccfs in each Ihcll pointing towards the cartilage of 
the hinge. 

•Legume/1. Shell linear-oval, ftraight : hinges placed in the middle and 
2-toothcd, one ot them bihd. 
Dono'van s Bntjjh Shells, ii. tab 53, 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tah,^t.f. 24. 
Adatifon St/itfg. tab. 19, /. 3. Plane, tab 3. y. 5. 
Lijier conch, tab. 420. fig. 264. 
Gnalt. tell. tab. 91. f. A- Klein elir. t. I \,f, 66. 
BornMuf. C(rf. Hnd. ie/t. tab. 2, /. ?, 2. 
Chemn, conch. 6. tab. '^t fig' 32—34. 
Inhabits European and /itiantic feas : i\ inches broad. 
.S'^'^/Zluhpellucid, rsdiate from the hinge to the margin, ronnded 
at both ends, 

*Cu!tellus, Shell fomewhat kidney-ihaped, with 4 fingle topth in one 
valve, and 2 in the other, 
Peiin. l^rit. Zool. iv. tab \b, fig. 25. 
BarbHCs Shells, tub. 2, fig. 9. Lilter, tab. 421. 
Ijfjfer tejf.f. 186. Gualt. teji. tab. 90, /. f . 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. i^^- fg E. 
Clemn. conch- 6. tab. 5. f. 36, 37. 
Inhabits European and India', above 2 inches broad, 
iS/iv// fragile, covered with a rough cuticle, under which it \% 
dirty-white with tawny marks; both ends rounded, 

f.adiaUi:^ Shell oval, flraight, fmooth, with a tranfverfe deprelTed rib 
growing on one fide. 

Barbuf, tab. z.f,6. Lifer, tab. j^Z2, f z66. 

Rttmpf. Mif. tab. 49,/. E. 

Gualt. TeJi. tab. 91. /: B. 

Ar^enville conch, tab- 22, f. P, 

Knorr delic. tab. B. \\\. f. 9. I'ergn, I. tab, 6. f 5. 

Chem. conch. 6. tab. 5. f. 38 — 40. 

inhabits jndta; very thin and brittle : fell violet with 4 trsr.f- 
verfe white rays growing larger towards the thinner margin, 
rarely 2 : the deprcfTcd rib running nearly the length of the 
(licU ; hinge callous each fide, both the valyes 2 -toothed. 

Strigilatu.', Shell oval, obliquely ftriate. 

Lifer, tab, 416. f. 260. Gt<alt. tell. tab. 91, C, 

Bonan. recr.z.f 77. Muf. Kirch. Z.f. 76. 

Rumpf Mif m/', 45. N. Kf.'qrr. Vgrgn.b. t. j f./^'. 


Ig2 WORMS. TESTACEA. 57. Solcn. 

Adayisfeneg. i. tab. 19./?^. 2. te/i. tab. 2- fig. 7. 
Lhemn. Conch. 6. ra5. (>./ig. 41, 42. 
3. Shell white. Lifl. Conck, tab, \z\,fig. 265. 
Bonan. recr, '^. fig. 353. iVfz^ Kirch. Z.figi 107. 
Klein, o/lrac. tab. it. fig. 68, 
Adansjeneg^ 1. /^^, \<^. fig, I. 
Chann. Conch. 6. /<2i^. b.Jig. 43, 44. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean Atlantic and Indian Seas. 
Shell ro(y with 2 white rays, ftrong and ventricofe : z?"//?^^ a 
little prominent at the margin with a thin refleded tooth. 

Jistttifius^ Shell ovate membranaceous hairy, with a falcate rib at the 

kumff Muf. tab. 75. O. Argennj. Crmch. tab, 22. R. 
Born Mnf. Caf. Vind. teji. fyZ"^. njign. 
Ckemn. cone. 6. tab. 6. fig. 46 — 48. 
Inhabit-s the Indian Ocean, on a faudy bottom. 
uhill pellucid, white, thin like paper ; one end rounded and 

clofed. the other gaping like the beak of a bird : tooth in each 

valve refembling an car-picker. 

Macha. Shell oval-oblong, truncate before : otie^hinge 2-toothed. 
Inhabits the Pacific. Mofi. Hill. Chili p. 178.6-7 inches long; 
brown varied with blue : proQuces pearl, 

Bullatus. Shell roundifli iiiflated fubrtriate ; the fore-part gaping in 
confcquence of its crenatiires, 
, Barbut^s Hhells tab. l.fg. 7. Gualt. tefl, tub. 85, A. 
Cbemn. Conch. 6. tab, ^.fig. 49-50, 

Inhabits Indian and American Seas : brittle, white fpotted or 
clouded with purple, longitudinally ftriate, fubpelllucid : hinge 
with a finglc tooth, marginal ones rernote coinprell'ed and in* 
I'crted in a hohow of the other yalve, 

Minuius. Shell oval ; angles of the valves ferrate. 

Lefer Conch, tab. 426. fi.g. 267. 

Spengkr catal. rais. tab, 6.fg. 6 — 8. 

Chetnn. Conch, 6. tab. d- fig. 51, 52. 

Inhabits Northern Europe, among zoophytes; fue of a cucumber- 
feed ; longitudinally ftriate, truncate at the top, with acute 
ferrate ridges diverging from the hinge towards the top. 

firens. Shell ovate-oblong, with tumid bolTes. 

Inhabits Ja-va : very brittle, diaphanous, white, outwar41y 
grcenidi, valves unequal ; refembling in Ihape the Mya piflo- 
runi : the tip and bafe hardly clofed; with 2 approximate 
teeth ia one hin^- and none in the oppontc. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 57. Solcn. 


Diphos, Shell oval flraight fmooth, with prominent membranes. 

yalent Muf. tab. IJ,- fg' ?• 

Chemn. tench. 6 tab, T'f'g- 53> 54* 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean i rsfenibles S. radiatus: z \ inches 
long and 5 inches broad : covered with a greenifti cuticle 
under which it is violet with numerous rays, 2 of which are 
more dillindl: hinge with 2 teeth in one valve and one in 
the other. 

Minimus, Shell linear-oval ftraight ; hinges lateral 2-toothed, one of 

them bifid. 
Chemn. Conch 6. tsh. <,.fig. 31. a, b. 
Inhabits Trannuebar\ refembles S. legumen but is much Icfs : 

cuticle yellowifh, under which it is clear white; inner rib 

running down the whole fhell, 

Maximus, Shell linear oval ftiaight, with arched ftrias; hinges lateral 
Chemn. Cogch, 6. tab. ^-ftg. 35. 
Inhabits fhores of Nicobar, a very rare fpecies. 
Shell thin pellucid, white covered with a yellowilh cuticle: 4 
inches broad, i and a half long ; gaping at both ends ; teetk 
of the hing* not receiving one another. 

Cearaatus. Shell tranfverfely wrinkled, contraftcd in the middle, 
rounded at both ends: hinge in the middle, with fome- 
times one, fometimes 2 teeth in either valve. 

Chemn. Conch. 6, tab. ^•fig' 45. 

Schrizt. Flujconch. tab. (j.Jig. 17. 

Inhabits Nicobar IJlands : I of an inch long, 2 and a half broad. 

SMI dirty white and gaping at both ends. 

Rojcui. Shell rofy, equivalve : tooth of the hinge fubbifid, and in- 
ferte(4 in a hollow of the oppolite valve. 
Chemn. Conch. 6. tab, 7. fig. 55. 

Inhabits the Red Sea-, refembles Tellina radiata, but is open at 
both ends. 

Shell oval quite fmooth: hinge callous 2-toothed. 
LiO. tab. I'^l -fig, 236. Knorr. f-'ergn. 4. /. 5 /. 4. 
Chemn. Comh. 6. tab. "J. fig. 56. 
Inhabits Jamaica: beaks rofy without and within. 

Shell equivalve, tranfverfely flriate: hinge with a finglt 
Chemn. Conch. 6. tab. "]' fig- 57, 58. 
Inhabits Nicnbar ijlunds ; niiddle-lizedi 
Shell ^VRy rofy witii white rays. 


tS/, WORMS. TESTACEA. 5.9. Tcllina. 

Oicidens. Shell tranfverfely ftriate, fmooth at the protuberant parts, 
radiate with white and reddifh : both the hinges 2- 
toothed with a hollow in the middle. 

Inhabits Chemn. Covch. 6. tab. j' f'g. Ji. 

SMI with, a few white and reddirti fpois here jind there, within 
white : above 4 inches broad and 2 long ; both ends gaping : 
the hinge lateral. 

^Cri/ptu. Shell partly fmooth, partly rough with undulate crimped 
lines: hinge with a very long narrow tooth, 
Lejier Anim, Angl tab. 5. fig. 38. 

Found frequently in the river lees; refenlbles S* anatinus: pro- 
bably not a diftinft fpecies. 

ipenvUri. Protuberances or beaks of the (hell 2-parted: primary tooth 
of the hinge rounded, acce'Jary ones long and narrow, 
one of them curved. 

Inhabits catal. ralf. tab* ^'fig- 8,9. 

Shell hardly an inch long, 2 and a half broad ; rounded at both 

.58. TELLINA. Animal a Tetliys : Jhell bi- 
valve, generally floping on one fide; in 
the fore-part of one valre a convex, of 
the other a concave fold . hinge with 
ufuallj 3-teeth, the lateral ones fmooth 
in one lliell. 

A. Ovate and thichrjh. 

Gargadia. Shell roundifh comprefled and wrinkled on the forepart: 
valves toothed on the flope. 
Barbut. tab. l-fg. I. LeJJer teji.fig. II9. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab^ ifi, N. Klein, tab. ID. fig, 55, 
Chemn. Concb. 6. tab. 8 jig, 63, 64 a, b. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean: very rare. 

Shell white, the top and infide yellowifh : middle tooth of the 
hinge cleft. 

ttnguafelis Shell fubovate, rough, with lunate fcales difpofcd in at 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 45. G. Gualt. leH. tab. 76, B, 
Klein tab, 1 1 .yff. 62. 
Knorr Vergn, 2. tab. Z. fig- I 
Chemn, Conch, 6, tab, 8._/^. 6^» 


Worms. TESTACEA. 58; Telllna. 185 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: about twice as broad as it is long ^ 
the top and a few rays diverging from it pale rdfe-colour. 

Virgaia» Shell oval v^^Ith tranfverfe recurved ftrias, angular: lateral 
teeth a little prominent. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 4?.//^. H. 
Argen<viUe Conch, tab 25. fig. G. 
Kncrr. Vergn. 2. tab. 2\.fig. 4. and 4. /. 25./. i. 
Clxmn^ conch, 6. tab, ^'fg. 66—72. 

i. Gualt, ted. tab. 89. /fg". E. 

3. Otcah. test. tab. S6./g. <3. 

Inhabits the Indian and Atlantic Seas ; nearly 2 inches long and 
2 and a half broad : white or yellowifh with generally a fev/ 
t-ofy ray? : middle tooth of the hinge clefr, lateral ones trian- 
gular, one placed- on the flope the other behind the crown. 

/Jngu/aia. Shell fubovate, angular before, with tranfverfe recurved 
ftrix: lateral teeth o. 

Lister Conch, tab. 388./%. 235. /. 406,/". 252. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. g- fg- 74» 75. 

Schrcct. Einl. Cone. 2, tab, 7.7%. 8. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean : i and a half inch long, 2 broad : re- 
fcmtles T. virgata but is lefs oblong, entirely white, the an- 
terior angle feated more, outwardly, and the opening behind 
the crown oval. 

f:^ri. Shell oval with tranfverfe recurved ftrias: lateral teeth 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 45. /j?. D. 
Kncrr. Fergn, 6. tab. 12. fig. 2, 
Schrizt. Lml. Conch, z, tab. T^fig, g* 
Chemn. conch. 6. tak lO. /ig. 92, 93. 
2. Chemn. concb, 6. t. \0,f. 94. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean j refembles T. virgata but is lefs and 
more na rowed : the fore part infleded and vcr) rough, with 
tranlverfe wrinkles crolled in the middle by perpendicular 
ftrix ; fometimes cinereous with brown rays, fometimes white 
with blue rays, rometimes blueiih fpottcd with white with red 
rays, fometimes reddifh-white with red-rays. 
2. White-alh with rays varied with red. 

* Fragilis. Shell ovate white gibbous, with tranfverfe rec'urved ftrias: 
beaks yellowilh. 
Pennant Brit. Zoal. iv. pi S6. tab, ^y.f. 26.- 
Chemn, conch, 5. tub, <^- f. 84. 

VOL. IV,— A a Ifehakits 

i86 WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tellina. 

Inhabits European Seas: an inch broad and very brittle: the 
ftrije are croflcd by longitudinal ones : hinge with a fingle 
cleft tooi/j in one valve, in the other 2, both valves without 
lateral ones: colour white. 

*DepreJ]a, Shell very thick depreired oblong white, with tranfverfe 
concentric ftrias. 
Inhabits Europe. Brit. Zool. iv, />. 87, tah. ^J. fig. 27, 

* Craffa. Shell very thick broad depfelTed, with numerous concentric 
(Irise : the fides unequal. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tah. \^.fig 28. 
Inhabits Europe. I |- of an inch broad, i | long. 


Shell ovate with tranfverfe undulate wrinkles: hinge with 
2 lateral teeth ; left valve with a fingle cleft primary 
one, the other 2. 

Born. Muf. Car/. Find. tefi. tab. 2< fig. 3, 4. 

Chemn. Conch. 6. tah. ^. jig- 62. 

Inhabits Indian and American Seas ; a little broader than it is 
long and fmooth within : white or yeliowi/h. 

Infiatas ^^^^^ rounded thick fnowy gibbous, with very fine longi- 
tudinal fl:ria;. 
Inhabits Chemn, conch, 6. tah. ^' fig. 76. 

Muliangu- Shell ovate, a little ventricofe, unequivalve, with decuflate 
^"^^^ ftria: and finuate before : hinge with a lingle primary 

cleft tooth in the left valve, and 2 in the other. 
Chemn conch. 6. tah, ().fig. yj. 
Inhabits fhores oi Tranquebar : whitifti-afh. 

Papyracea, Shell thin ovate ventricofe and tranfverfcly ftrlate, with 
plaited wrinkles on the fore-part : hinges without 
lateral teeth, and with 2 primary ones. 

Inhabits Guinea. Chemn. conch. 6. tab. <)'fig' 7?. 

Shell Ahont 3 lines long, and i | inch broad; brittle, excavated 
in the middle, white within and fmooth. 

Gihbofa. Shell fomething triangular ventricofe and finely ftriate tranf- 
verfely : hinge with a ftrong lateral tooth. 

Inhabits Gualt. teji. tab. 77. fig. Q. 

Shell whitifh-green, inflcited each fide, fhorter on one fide: 
hinge with a fmglc primary tooth. 




hejuilatera Shell equivalve roundifli white, with a few tranfverfe ftrix 
towards the margin. 
Inhabits Gualt. teji, tab. 2^,/ig. C. 

Knorrii, Shell rich red with a violet margin. 

Inhabits Knorr. f^ergn. ^. tab. 21. /ig. 5. 

SM/ 2 \ inches broad, 1 i long. 

BorKi'i. Shell tranfverfely ftriate i one fide bent and reddifh, with 
red rays. 
Born Muf. Ca-f. Vind. ted. tah. 2. fig. 5. 

Inha':,its Shell I- of an inch long, 2 inches broad. 


P«/?//<3. Shell ovate ventricofe thin tranfverfely ftriate : hinge in one 
valve without teeth, in the other with a double primary 

Schrat. Flu/conch, p. 194. tab. ^.fig. 7. a, b. 

Inhabits rivers of Europe: very minute, dirty white, fnowy 
within, and brittle. 

* Maculata Shell fubovate thickiih, with decufTate ftris, and irregular 
Found at lenb^. 'Iran/. Lin. Soc, 'nu p. 252. 
Figure of the Ipots diflimilar in different fpccimens, but cxaflly 
alike in both valves. 

•Ri'valis. Shell obliquely fubovate, tranfverfely grooved, horn-colour. 
Maton TranJ.Unn. Soc. iii. tab l^'/'g- 37 — 4<^- 
Gu^lt. teji. tab. '] . fig. C, C. 

Found in the river A'von near Salijhury : fize of a pca^ 
Shell rough, with broader grooves, flattifh \)t\prt: hinge placed 
not in the middle but towards one end, with hardifh promi- 

nent teeth. 

B. OvatCf comprejfed. 


Shell oval fmooth, with prominent membranes. 
Inhabits European Ocean. MuJ. Lud, Ulr 479. «- 23, 
Shell Cizc of an egg, re idifli -white, with faint tranfverfe ftrix, white; cartilage white: hinge with a diftinft future 
each fide marked ^vith minute tranfverfe red ftriae, and 3 
teeth in each valve. 

Tiliacea. Shell oval, with rough pubes^ the flattened fides ferrate. 
Barbut. tab Z-fg' ^- J^^'^ff ^^«/« f^b. 45. K. 
Argen'v. conch, tab. 22. E. Klein, tab, il.ftg. 64. 

Aa 2 J\>:orr 

i8S WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tellina.. 

Knor» Vergn, 5. tab. 2<^, fig. 2. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. \o, fi^* 95. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean i very rare; if inch long, 3 broad. 

Primary tooth of the hinge cleft, lateral one long. 

*PLznata, Shell ovate, comprelTed, tranfverfely fubftriatc, fmooth, 
with acute margins. 
Donwarii B>it. fnelh,\. tab. 19, /". 2, 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv, tab. 48, f. 29, 
Gualt. left. tab. 89, fig, G ? 
Regenf. conch, i. tab. 3. ^g.zSi 
Chemn. conch, tab. Hifg- too? 

Inhabits European and Mediterranean feas : fmall. ^ 

iSi'f^// very thin, flat, pellucid, red, whitifh or deep violet, with 
concentric red Tmes ; the margin very acute. 

•J/ar/aW/J Shell ovate-oblong, with pale purple rays: hinge with 'A 
fingle tooth in one valve inferted between 2 teeth 'n\ 
the oppolite valve. 

Dononiani BritflelU, ii. tab. i^x., fg. 2. 

AdanfS^neg. i. tab, ijffg.zo. 

Lifer, tab./^\j. Jrgewv^canch. tab. 22,1, 

Born. Muf Caf. Find, teft, tab. 2, f. 6, 7. 

Chemn, conch. 6, tab. 7. fg. 59, 60. a, b. 

Solen vcfpertinus, Gmelin Syft. Nat. p. 3228. 

Inhabits European and Atlantic feas : refembles a Solen in being 
a little open at both ends, and not bent to either fide : within 
varied with blue and white j fometimes fmooth, fometimes 
fouglx with tranlverfe ftrije. 

La'vigata, Shell ovat<", fmooih ; lateral teeth margine'd: pubes with 
rough ftrise: membranes inflected, 
Rumpf. Muf tab. 45, fg. I ? 
Chemn. conch 6. tcib. 12. fig. ill. 
Schrat. EinL conch, 2. tab. Jt fg' 10. 
2. Lifter conch, tab. %^T,fig- 234. 

Inhabits European and Indian Seas: white with reddilh rays, 
yvithin redaiflij yellowifh or white. 

*Radiata. Shell oblong, with taint longitudinal ft^ix, poliQied : fur 
ture behind the be^ks caniculate 
Brtt. Zool. iv. tab. 49,/". 30. Lister, tab. 393. y. 24c. 
Gualt. tefi, tab. 89. I, Argcn'v. conch, tab. it, A. 
Klein Oflrac. tab. I 1 , fg, 60. 
Knorr delict fcL tab. B. iii. fig. 8. 
Knorr Vergn. I. tab. l<^'fg. 1,4. tab. Z. f. 2, 4. 
Regenf. conch, i. tab, 8. fg. 22- 
Chemn. covch. 6* tai*. 11. /fg-' 102. 

a. W'i'.: 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Telllna. 189 

2, With unequal fides, very large, wrinkled, white with thelnfidc 
filvery. Gualt. Te/t, tab. 88, P? 

^, With unequal fides, a little wrinkled, brown near the margin, 
furroundcd in the middle with a whitilh band, and purplifli 
near the hinge. Gualf. teft, tab. 89, A ? 

4. Shell yellow, Knorf Fergn. 4. tai- 2, fig, 2, 

5. Born Muf. Caf. Vind. teft. tab. 2, fig, 10 ? 

Inhabits European and American Teas : generally whitjlh, with 
red rays, and ting«d with a faint purple within, 

Xostrata. Shell oblong ; the fore-part produced into an angular beak, 

the angles flightly toothed. 
Lipr conch. tab.l%z. fg. 225. tab, 395. /. 242 ? 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 45. L. Argen'V. ccnch. tab. 22, O. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 86. D ? tab. 88. T» 
Klein Ofirac. tab. llyfig. 63. 
Knorr Verg^n. 4. tab. 2 fig, 3' — 5. 
Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. Teft. tab, 2, / 12. 
Chenin. conch 6. tab. lO. fg. 96. t. il./. 104. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean : fometiiaes white with frequently 

rofy rays, fometimes red with white rays, fometimes ydlpw, 

*lneqtii- Shell oblong, produced into a beak : upper valve flat, 
'vahiis. lovrer convex. 

Donp'vans Brit. Shells, ii. tab. ^l. frg* I. 
Grotto'V. Zooph. lab. iS. fg. 3, 
. Brunn, Befch, Naturf. 3. tab. 7^ fig. 25 — 28. 
Qhemn. conch. 6, tab. 1 1. fg. 106. a, b, c, d. 
Inhabits European and Horth Seas : white, fmooth, pellucid, with 
a ftraight dorfal future running out into an obtufe patulous 
beak : hinge with 2 primary teeth and no lateral ones. 

•frifajci' Shell ovate, fmoothifh, triradiate with red and flightly ftri- 
f»r«. ate tranfverfely. 

Dcnofvans Brit, fnells. ji. tab. 20. 

Barbut, tab. I, fig. 3. 

Ufter an. Ang. app. 32, ftg. 8, 

Chemn. ccnch. 6. tab. 12, Jig. 114. a, b. 

z. With tranfverfe red ftripcs croffing the rays, 
Barbut y tab. 3. fig. 4. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 12, fig. 115, 116. 
Inhabits Eurepean fcas : whitilh or pale red with deep red rays 

by threes ; the anterior part or flopc more obtufe, with an 

ov.atQ aperture. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tellina. 

*In£aniat{t Shell ovate, a little produced on the fore-part, flattifh : the 
beaks or crown fubmucronate. 
Penaant Bnt. Zool. iv. tab. 47, f. "^X, 
Li/kr An. Ang. app. tab. i, jig. 8. 
Born Mil/. Caf. VzrJ. te/t. tab. 2, fig. i 3. 
Cheum. conch. 6. tab. \2, Jig, 110. 

2. Edged with white. Chemn. conch. 6. tab. \o, /. 117. 

3. Entirely recJ. Lifter conch, tab. 405./. 25l>~- 

4. Red wilhio. Ltster conch, tab. 435,/". 250. 

Inhabits European and Mediterranean feas : nearly 2 inches broad; 
covered with a brown curticle, undep which it is whiciih 
with a few red rays. 

Dtnacina. Shell ovate, flattiQi, fmoothilh, and very obtufe on the 
Gualt. Test. tab.S^, N ? Chemtt. conch. 6. tab. My f. 119? 
Inhabits the Mediterranean; refembles the laft, but is lefs and 
purplift), with numerous red rays ; Hope very obtufe and trun- 
cate as in the Donax. 

fruHcata» Shell oval, coi-nprelTed, fubftriate; the fore part truncate 
and marked with a diitindt future. 
Inhabits Ja<va\ rcfetnblcs T. incarnata, but is violet, more 
brittle, and the iore-part more truncate : all the teeth of the 
hinge emarginate. 

Trilatcra. Shell flat; the fore-part truncate and yellow: crown white: 
hinge with a finglp primary and lateral tooth. 
Inhabits — — . Chemn. conch. 6, tab. 10, f 85. 
i'-^f// triangular : i\ inch long, more than 2 broad. 

Chibngal Shell oblong, brittle, yellowilh : hinge with a fmgle primary 
tooth in one valve and 2 in the other. 

Chemn. Conch. 6. tab. lo.fg 87. 

Inhabits European Seas: fhell rounded on one fide, 

^peHgleri. Shell white, tranfverfely ftrlate, and bifarioufly hooked 
each fide. 
Spetigler Befch. Naturf. \. tab. c^-fg- I- — 3. 
apengler cataL raif tab. 4, fg. 3 — 5, 
Chemn. L,cnch, 6. tab. 10. fg. 88 — 90. 

2. Without the hooks. Li/Ier conch, tab. 398, y. 237. 

\r\\\^Q\\.i'Nicohar1fands: thick, 11 lines long and 2 inches 8 
lines broad : white with a rofy crown, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tclllna. 19? 

*Rtigcsa. Shell oval, with rugged concentric ftrix. 

Inhabits Weymouth Brit. Zool. iv. tab, ^"J, f' 34. 
Shell about the fize of a filbert. 

•Corn-fbi. Shell oval-oblong, (deeply flriate parallel to the margin; 
enjis. Inhabits CormJIi coa/t. Borl. Corn. tab. 28./. 23. 

Fervemit. Shell oblong-ovate, comprefled, radiate with white an4 
reddilh, with fine tranfverfc ftriae : hinge without Ia» 
teral teeth. 
LiHer conch, tab. 394, fg. 241. 
Chemn. Conch. 6. tab. M.Jig. 9 1. 
Inhabits North Seas : an inch Jong and 2 broad, 

Ofercuiata. Shell purple, with white bands and deculTate ftrix ; one 
end more produced : one valve convex, the other flat, 
Knorr. I ergn. 6. tab. 12, Jig. i? 
Chemn. conch. C. tab. I \.j>g. 97. 

2. Ochraceous, Chemn. Conch. 6. tab. i^'/g. 9^» 

Inhabits In^ia ? zl inches broad, i| long: hinge without late, 
ral teeth, a fingle primary one in one valve and 2 in the other / 
Jhdl with fine tranfverfe llrisc ; 2) tranfverfe ftriae thicker ; 
hinge with a lateral tooth, the primary one cleft, in the hit 
valve a fingle one, and 2 in the other. 

-Hyalina. Shell oval, unequivalvc, flat, pellucid, with very fine decuf- 
fate ftrix: hinge without lateral teeth, 
Chemn. conch, 6. tab. 1 1 .jig. 99. 
2. Schrat. Einl. conch. 3. p. 6, n. 14. 

Inhabits Guinea, 2) India; x^ inch long, nearly ^ broad. 
Shell {t.Qwy, thin, with a very acute margin : left valve with » 
fingle primary tooth, the other with 2. 

#'//rftf. Shell yellowiQi, very thin, perpendicularly ftriate and pro- 
duced before: hinge without lateral teeth. 

Chemn conch. 6 tab.\\,f \o\. 

Inhabits hcrth and Baltic Seas : very brittle, rounded behind ; 
hinge with a fingle pnir.a'y tooth in the opper-valve and i 
fmall ones in the lower. 

Lauceolata. Shell oval, very thin, pellucid, tranfverfely ftriate and 
pointed before : hini^c vnihout lateral teeth in one 
Chemn. cotich, 6» tab. i ; 


192 WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. TelUna. 

Inhabits India: 10 lines long, an inch and 8 lines broad; (had- 
ed with reddilh ; primary tooth of the hinge fingle and flightly 

Afelituu Shell oval, pellucid, varying in different pofitions of light, 
with a rib in each valve reaching from the hinge t» 
the outer margin, 
Chonn. conch. 6. tab. 12, Jig. I07. 

2. Papyraceous, white* Schrcct. conch. 3. /< 8. a. 18, 
Inhabits Nicohar: very thin. 

Coccinea, Shell oval, pellucid, fcarlef, with fine tranrverfe ftric* 
Chemn. conch, 6. tab. 12. f. 109. 
Inhabits the fea round Iceldnd: very thin. 

Virgima, Shell with fine trahfverfe ftris, and produced forward* 
into a beak. 
Li ft fr conch, tab. 159. ftg. 15,. 
Inhabits rivers oi Virginia : very finall and rounded. 

Alata. Shell green, nearly triatigular ; the margin dilated. 
Lifter ^ tab, 1 60. /. 16. Klein o/tr, tab, 9, f. 36. 

Inhabits : near 2 inches broad, and i| long: of an ua- 

certain Genus and divifion. 

Pe^inaia. Sheil rounded, flat, thin, brownilh, with longitudinal ftria: 
Inhabits ■— — , Lifter conch, tab, 300, fig. 137. 

Angustata. Shell flattifh, red with white rays, one end pointed, .th« 
other rouiided. 

Inhabits . Lifter conch, tab. 383, f. 26, 

^bell middle-fized, twice as broad as it is long. 

Variegata, Shell oval, rounded at each end, variegated, with a whlt- 
i(h ray at the crown. 
Lifer conch, tab, 384./*. 27. 

2. Broad, whitifh and radiate with red. 
Lifer conch, tab, 385,/". 232* 

3. Small, whitifh, with purple fpots or rays. 
Inhabits » Lijier conch, tabi 389, fig. 228, 

IXadagaf' Shell oval, a little pointed at oiie end. 
earienfi. Lift, coucb, tab. 386,^.233. 

Inhabits Madagafan z\ inches long, 3j broad. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tclliaa. 






* Rhomho- 





Shell purplifh at each end. 
Lifter conch, tub, 39 1, /g. 230. 

2. Cualt. left. tab. 77. %. L ? 

3. Guah.teji. tab. J-J, fti- '^ ^ 

Inhabits .An inch and a half long, and fomething broaden 

Shell pointed at one end, within yeltdwifh, without radi- 
ate arid rough with tranfvcrfe Itrix. 
Inhabits . i| inch long, 3 inches broad. 

Shell {lightly Wedged, whitifh andi trahfverfely lhlate„ 
I.^/?. Co^cij. tab. 401. ftg. 244.- 

Tiiangularand thick.. Lifter touch, tab. /^Oi. f.^^S' 
lnr>«'bits : above an incfi lOng, i^ broad, 

Shell wh'te, with unequal fides, a little pointed at one end, 

Lftfr conch, tab. /{r>7, fig. 2^'^. , , 

Inhabits Nor'waji Seai ; i^ inch long, nearly 2 broad. 

Shell tli'clr, ".'le bcnk nurplifli without. 
L//f. conch, tab. 40S, f-.g. 2'^4, 
Inhabits Jamaica: an inch lDQg,'r|-'bro'ad. 

She'll outwardly white and rough with tranfverfe ftri^/ 
yvith'ii b^uciOi. . 
Lijter An. Aug. p. 17 1, tah. 4. fig. 26. 

2, Bonan.recr. 2. fig. 4^5- Muf. Kirch. 2. f. 47. . 
Found in th^^ river Tees: 2 inches broad, above 1 long. 

Shell purplifli-tawny with white rays. 

Bonan. recr. 2. fg. 42. Mu/', Kirch. 2. f. 41; 

Inhabits Bntifti iad Baltic Seas: afl irich long, ij- broad. 

Shell rofy with a \vhite band. 

Bonan. recr. z.f.g.^\. Muf Kirch. 2. /". 43- 
Inhabits lliorcs ot 1 ifcany : rometimes white, with a fpot on the 
knob relembiing the' flower of a pomgranatc 

Shell whltidi with a paler band, within yellow, 

Guak. Test. tab. 77. H > 
2. Gualt. Teft. tab. 77. M ? . 

Inhabits , 2) with a purplifh hinge. 

Shell reddil"h, with pale yellow fpots and decudate ftri«= 
Gualt. teft. tab.S^. f C. 
Inhabits — . Shell i of an inch long, 1 1 broad, 

VOL. iV. — B b Pla/i^' 

194 WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. TelHna; 

Plana, Shell with unequal fides, deprefled and very minutely 

Inhabits . Gualt» ttft. tab. 88, fig. H, I, L. 

Shell white or purplilh, fometimes rofy. 

Striata. Shell with unequal fides, round at both ends, rofy-white, 
Inhabits — — ;. Gualt. teft. tab. 89,/^. C. 
Shell 2 inchef broad, t| long, 

Refea. Shell rofy, with thin ribs running from the hinge to the 

Inhabits . Knorr Vergn, 5. tah, <), fg. 3. 

Shell an inch long, i| broad. 

Punirea. Shell oval, flat, with equal fides and very thick tranfverfc 
ftria?, light fcarlet. 
Born. Muf. CaJ. Vihd. teft. tah. 7, >%. 8. 
Inhabit! — — . Shell an inch long and nearly z broad. 

ComplarM- Shell obovate, flattened, obfoletcly ftriate, recdifh with a 
/«. dilated margin, and aflightiy downy gape on theflope. 

Born. Muf. Ceej. Vind. teft. tab. 2, fig. 9. 
Inhabits — — — . Shell nearly 2 inches long and 3 broad. 

Fabula, Shell ovate, comprefled, infleftcd, a little produced before; 
one valve fmooth, the other with oblique fefleded Itrias. 
Grononj. Zooph. tab. 18, fig. 9. 
I»habits Meditenaman, America and }^orth Seas. 
Shell white, about the fize ot a Lupine feed. 

Jdanfoni, Shell whitifh with a violet hinge. 
AdanfoH Seneg. tab. 17. fig. 9. 

Foarul frequently on the African fhores, in hollows of rocks 
filled with fait water : 2 lines broad, 

Cancellata, Shell thin, dirty-white, with numerous fine longitudinal 
grooves crofling the tranfverfe wrinkles. 
Inhabits the Atlantic. Adanj Seneg. tab. ^7t fig- 19. 
Shell ©pake, an inch broad, and not quite fo long. 

Strigoja, Shell with whitiflli band", glabrous and wrinkled at the 
margin : upper-valve with 2 teeth in the hinge, the 
other with 3. 
Adanfan Stneg, tab. 1 7, fig. 9, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tellina. ig5 

Inhabits African Shores: about twice as broad as long ; the 
younger ones with yellowifh bands which in the full grown 
ones are grey -violet. 

C. Suborhiciilar. 

Dalaujlina. Shell dilated-orbicular, with lateral teeth in one valve. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean: whitifh with obfolete rutous rays: 
fize of a Lupine. 

Remits. Shell fuborbicular comprefled and tranfverfely wrinkled. 
Barbut. tab, Z-f'g- $. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 43. I. 
Lift Conch, tab. 206. fig, 102. ted. tab. z. fig. 8- 
Born Muf. Cas. Vind. teli. tab. 2.ftg. I I. 
Chemn, cone. 6. tab. 12. fg. i iz. 1 13. > 

Inhabits the Indian and American Ocean : about 3 inches long 

and 3 i broad: the amyrican fpecimens have a yellowifh mixture 

and the wrinkles are not fo llrong. 

Reticulata, Shell lentiform, or rcfembling the leaves of the Duck-weed, 

comprelFed reticulate. 
Barbut'' s Shells, tab. I. fig. 6, 
Inhabits India: 2 inches long and i ^ broad. 
Shell white with tranfvcrfe ftris crofled by the longitudinal ribs; 

within yellowifli : behind the beaks a hcath-fhaped very iTiort 

imprcffion : hinj,e with 2 very finail primary teeth and a finglc 

lateral one each fide. 

Sco.liti'!*^ Shell lenticular roughs with lunate fc^les difpofed in a 
Rumjf. Muf. tab. 43. E. Gualt. t(Ji. tab. 76. E. 
Knorr, Vergn. 6. tab. 37 fis^. 3. 
Chemn. conch. 6, tab. \l fig 122 — 124* 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean : 2 j inches long, 2 \ broad, 
^hcll white with ferruginous Ipots. with an oblong hollow behind 
the beaks, the lips not grooved. 

\aS(H, Shell lentiform gibbous white pellucid fmooth. 
Gualt. tejl. tab. Jl.fg. D. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab I'^.f'g. 1 25. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean i a little larger than a Lapinc, with 
faint tranfverfe ftriacj the hinge without teeth. 

• Carnwia, ^^^^^ fuborbicular, white with a rofy tinge within and with- 
out; the outfide with belts of a deeper red, and marked 
with fine ftrL-e difpofed in oblique and reflcfted direc- 

B b 2 Donovan*! 

196 WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tcllina. 

Doncvar^s Brit. Shells, il. tab. 47. 

Pennant Brit. Zool, iv, tab. \().'jig' 32. 

Lijl. An. Angl. tab. if. fig. 25, Conch, tab. 2'i<)>fig- l/^^ 

Born Muf. iXifs. Vind. teji. tab. 2'yig. 14. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. I'i'/ig- 126. 

2. Entirely white. Brit, Zool. iv. tab, /^.g./ig. 3Z. A. 

Inhzhiia Europe And American Ijlands: its teeth refembles a Car- 
dium, but has a flope on one fide. 

• Bimacu- 

Shell triangularly rounded ftnooth, syhitifli with 1 oblong 
red foots on the infide, 
Donm/an s Brit Shells. X.iab. ig-fig- I. 
Chemn, conch, 6. tab. I'^./'ig. 127. 

2> Chemn. conch. 6. tab. i'^'/ig. 132. a, b. 

Inhabits European and American Heas; hardly an inch broad, with 
■ a few very faint tranlverfe ftri<e, generally whicifh on the out- 
fide; the flexure or flope is hardly diltinguilhablc. 

Bale^icii Shell rpundifli fmooth, the outfide bloom colour. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 13. fig. 128. 
Inhabits the Baltic: about tne fize of a horfc-bean. 
Shell very thin fragile brittle, wjthin whitiih. 

PiJ/ormit. 3hell fubglobular fmooth, within carnation, obliquely fub- 

ftriate, the itriae rette£led into an acute angle on the 

Inhabits Europe, at the mouths of rivers : fize of a f ea. 
Shell white with a purplifh top, rarely entirely white: the ftriac 

hardly vifible to the naked eye : primary tooth of the hinge 

fimple, lateral ones a little prominent. 

Di'varicata Shell fubglobular white, with oblique bifarious flri.c. 

iijier. tab. 301.//^. 142. Klein, oflr.t.^.f. 28. 

honun. recr. l- fig- 349- ^W. hzrch. 2./, IC4. 

Ckcmn. conch. 6. tab. l^./ig' lig> 1 3°. 

Inhabits the American and Mediterranean Seas', abont an ircH 
long: foraetimes blueifh or cinereous, but generally whitifli : 
Jiria very thin undulate and diverging both ways: margin 
crenate: f.exure p : primary tooth of the hinge double, lateral 
OFfps 0; \i probably a Cardium. 

Tifgitaria. Shell fubglobular pale, furrcundeU with pbliqv.c uniform 
Chemr.. conch. 6. tab. 12. fig. 120, 121. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, Amnican and Inaicn Scrs: fre nf ^ 
pea and nearly an inch long ; generally fincoih, often reddifl;- 


WORMS. TESTACBA. 58. Tellina. f^j 

orange, fometimes marlced with undulate ritfons fpots ; the 
ftrije inclitje o'>liquely towards the oflrer margin like the liner. 
at the ends of the fingers, which gives it the appearance pt 
being ipirally llriate. 

f Cornta. Shall globular glabrous horn-colour, with z tranfverfe groov^e. 
Pennant Brit. Zocl. iv. tab. 49-y?!J'. 3'i- 
Lljler, tab. ^^<^-fig- 14. Guat. tefi. t. -;./ B, C. 
lAller an. Auj^L tab. y. fig. 31. App. tab. \.pg 5. 
j-lrger.-v. Cotuh, tab. 27. fig. g Zcom, /. ij. /'. 10. 
Schrat. Flujconcb. tab^ ^-fg- 3 — 'i* 
Chsmn. conch. 6. tab. i 3. y/^. i 33, a, b. 
Inhabits ponds and f rtih water of Eumpg ; fize of a pea. 
Shell peiiucid polifhcd, very finely llriate acrofsj within blucidi- 
' white, without white or pale or blucifli-aih, with tranlverfe 
black curves one of which is more dilHnd; aoout the fize of 
a pea, often more than twice as large : lateral teeth of the hinge 
elongated, rniddlc-ones hardly any. 

La^ulfris. Shell rhoir.bic flattiili glabrous, with an acute protuberance; 

£hemn. conch. 6. tab. ^^'fg- I3>- 

Inhabits pools or niarfhcs oi Europe : 6 lines long and 4 broad j 
viviparous : 7'';t'// brownifh, the back of the valves cinereousj 
the margin white, within white; the youger ones entirely 
white and diaphanous: bini^^e without middle teeth, lateral 
ones 6 obiqlete. 

4ni7'iccip ^'ncll fpmcwhat heart-lhaped, tranfverfcly grooved, with an 
' obtufe ptotuberance. 

Chemn. conch, b tab. 13. fig. I 34. 

Inhabits pools and ditches of Europe', i — 5 lines broad. 
Shell Icfs globular than T. cornea, within glabrous and bluciihj 
without white brown or yelhjw with a bl^ckifh rib or two j 
the younger ones entirely white and pellucid : h<f7ge vvitli 2 
middle teeth in each v.vlvc and a lateral one each nde. 

FJuwinAtii. Shell triangular gibbous and tranrvcrfely ftriate. 

Inhabrs the Euphrates. Mull. Venn. z.p. 20,. ;/, 390. 
Shell thick hard opake, broader towards the hinge on the forcr 
part: outwardly g'-ccn with imbricate ftrin; parralle! with the 
aperture, within blue: hinge with (> middle teeth, the lateral 
Cdch fide long and with the receiving grooves crenulated, . 

Fluminea. Sh^ll triani^iilar t^bbous tranfvcrfely ribbed. 
Mull. lerm. t rr. et liu-j. 2. pK Z06. n. 391 . 

Inhabits the river which waflics Canton in China, 6 — S lints 
long nd broad: opake, without green, witliin whitifii marked 
wi'.h fi black femicirc'.e : hinge as in the former. 


198 WORMS. TESTACEA. 58. Tellhu. 

PlwviauUs^ Shell triangular, tranfverfcly wrinkled. 
J^ull. Verm, terr, et flu-u. 2, /. 2o6. n. J92. 
Inhabits Canton, and with the 2 laft approach to the genus 

Venus ; hinge as in the former ones : 8 lines long, 9 broad : 


therica. Shell globular fmooth polifhed, with a toothed margin, 
Bonann. recr. 2. fig. %z. Mu/. ktrch. z. fig. 31. 
Inhabits fhores of Iberia ' fmall, ruflet-brown, fometimes yel- 
lowifh-brown mixed with black. 

Adriattca' Shell fubglobular, without white within margaritaceous : 
the margin denticulate. 
Borann. recr. Z. fig. 34. Muf. kirch, 1. fig, 33, 
Inhabits the Ihores of the Adriatic: fmall. 

Siiiuofa. Shell fubglobular, equivalve and equal Tided, with a few 
tranfverfe ftriae. 

Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. yj.fg. D, E, 

i"^*// middle-fized, whitifli or reddifh. 

Purpurata. Shell with equal fides, fmooth, fine lucid purple. 
Gualt. teli. tab. Il-fg. L. 
Inhabits -Shell in inch long and i \ broad. 

Candida, gbell fuborbicular, with fine tx^nfverfe ftriae, white, 
Gualt. teji. tab. yj.fg. A. 
2. Lefs and fmooth. Gualt, te/I^ tab. 77, P, 

Gallica. Shell triangular pe6>inate. 

Argenville Conch, tab. zi.fg. I 1. 

Inhabits France in the Marine: hinge wirh a fingle tooth, 

^enegalenfii Shell triangular-globofe, thick hard fmooth, with tranfverfe 
Inhabits /^/r/Vtf. Adans, Seneg. tab. 17.//^, 14. 
Shell white or flefh-colour, fometimes red radiate with white. 

Airguhfa. Shell oval flattiih, tranfverfcly ftriate, the fore-part angu- 
larly infledled: primary tooth of the hinge bifid, lateral 
ones remote. 
L-.habits Ameri.a. Chemn. cone, 10. tab., ^'].fg* 1^5 4> '^Sj* 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardium. 199 

Polygona, Shell white tranfverfely ftriate, orbicular, angular on the 
fore-part : hinge without lateral teeth, the primary one 
projecting doubled, in ohe valve 2. 
Inhabits hdia. Chemn. cone. lo. tab, ijo.fig. 1651 16^3. 

59. CARDIUM. Anivial a Tethys : fiell 
bivalve, ncarJj equilateral, equi valve, ge^ 
nerallj convex, longitudinally ribbed 
Itriate or grooved, with a toothed margin; 
hinge with 2 teeth near the beak, and a 
larger remote lateral one each lide, each 
locking into the oppofite. Cockle* 

Coitatum, Shell gibbous equivalve, with elevate carinate concave 
membranaceous ribs. 
Barbut's Shells, tab. "3,. fig. j. Major. tef,tab. lo. 
Jrgen'v. Conch, tab. 26. A. Gualt. teli. tab. JZ.T>. 
Adanfon Heneg. tab. iS.fg. 2. 
Lift Conch, tab. 327- Ru??ipf. Muf. tab. J^S.Jg. 6- 
Column, purp. 26. tab. 27. Kncrr. Vergn. i. tab, 2%.fg, 22. 
Chemn. cone. 6. tab. i^, fg. 1 61. 

Inhabits the Jfrican Ocean: 3 inches long, 3 I broad, and above 
3 high ; w/hitifh with broad brown grooves. 

Cardifa. Shell heart-fhaped, the valves comprefTed and carinate wiib 
teeth : beaks approximate. 

Barbut. tab. ^.fg. 8, Gualt. teli. tab. S4. fg. B, C, D. 

Li^er Conch, tab. 318. 319. Knotr. Vergn. i- tab. z^.fg.z, 

Rumpf. 42. E. Klein- ofjr. tab. 10. fig. 39. 

Argen^v. Conch, tab. 26. I. 12. K. 

Bonann. recr. 2. tig, ^9. Muf. lurch. 2. fig. 48. 

Knorr Vergn. \,tab, l8. fg. ■^.t.ii.f.i. 

Born Mnf. Caf. Find. teji. tab, 2. fig. 15—18. 

Chemn. cone. 6. tab. i^^.fg. 143 — 146. 
2. Lister Conch, tab 320. yfp-. 157. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean : 2 \ incnes long, and ahove 2 broad ; 
refemblcs the human heart: the ribs are placed obliquely, 
and before the beaks is a heart-fhaped deprefiure or gape: 
generally whitifli with fometimes a few rtd fpots ; fometin^c* 
flat on each fide, rometimes concave on one fide. 

Rojeiim, Shell heart-fhaped; the fore-part furrowed with lines, the 
hind-part with broader ftirae, forming by their con- 
jundlion the figure of a heart: one part convex, the 
other concave. 

^oo WOx^MS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardium. 

Argeti'V, Cnnch. tab. 23, D, Cbsmn, cone tab: \^./g, 147.' 
] nhzb Its N:cobar tjliifi:/' : riilcmbles C. cardifl-t. 
Sbcul varL-d with vvt>i:e and role-colour, with a heart-fhape^ 
gape before the be-..ks. 

ketufum. Shell heart-fliaped ; the valves firiate crenulate fubcarrnatc : 
behind the bea'ks a h'lnate hearr-lhapfed gape. 

Born Muf. CeeSj. Find teU. tab. 3. fig. j , 2. 

Chemh. cone. 6, tab. 14. yf^. 139 — 142. 

Inhabits India, Arabia and Egypt; a middle fpecies bstwe:- '" 
hemicardiuin and C. fraguni : about 2 inches long and ncariy 
as much broad ; thick, milk-whice, anteriorly concav', con- 
vex behindy appearing as if truncate: tht niargih' with plaited 


Shell heart- fharped, fubquadritefal, with carinate valves:' 
beaks diftant. 

Barbut. tab. I. fig, 9. Rumpf. Muf tab. 44. H. 

Peti-u. Amb. tab. 1 7. /". 4. Guatt.test. tab. 83,0, 

Knorr. Vergn. 6. tab. '^fig, 3- 

Chemn. cone. 6. tab. \6-fig, 159, 1 60. 

Inhzbrn t\\Q Indian Ocean; refem ^les C cardlfl'a. 

ahcll outfide ochraceous, within I'nowy ; a few of the rrbs gla- 
brous, the rail nodulous with the intermediate grooves vvrinklec^ 
and marked with excavated dots. 

Lithocar- Shell heart-fhaped, fubtrilateral, the valves traiifverfely 
a'iiim, grooved, the fore-part longitudinally itrrate. 

Found hitherto in a fofiile Hate only : refcmbles the laft : •val'ves 
carinate on the fore-part, the ridges crenulate: beak^ approx- 
imate, with an ovate g-ipe beneath them, the upper-part of 
which is ikttilh longitudinally crenulate ftriate with a higher 

Liveatiim, Shell heai t-fliaped, carinate, the fore-part obliquely trun- 
cate, thin, quite fmooth, fnowy with gilt ftriae: marv 
gin denticulate. 

Ktiemm. lab. Rudaht.p 210. tab, 12, ftg. 4, 

Inhabits— — 5:^1.'// above an inch long. 

* Medium. Shell fomething heart-fhaped, fubangular; the valves an- 
gular grooved fmooth. 
Dono'vans Brit. Shells, i. tab. 32. pg. 11 
Liiter. Comb. tab. 316. Gualt, test. tab. Zr^^i 
Bonan. recr. 2. fig. 94. Muf. hieh. 2. fig. 91 . 
Knorr Vergn. i. tab. 29. ftg. 5^6. t, ZO.j. 5. 

Spcngkr Conch, tab, ^-fig' k» 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardiura. 201 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. l6, Jig, 1 62-— 164. 
2. Schrat. Einl. in conch, 2, tab, "], fig. il. 

Chemn, conch. 6. tab. 16, fitg, 165 ? 

Inhabits European and American fcas : refembles C. hemicardium. 

Shell marked with chefnut or brown fpots j ribs numerous, the 
intermediate grooves fmooth ; valves on one fide a little trun- 
cate, but prominent in the middle: hinge with a fmgle pri- 
mary tooth; 

*AcuUatum Shell fomewhat hcart-fliaped ; the ribs high and grooved 
down the middle, and befet with large hollowed fpines 
hear the circumference. 

Dono'vans Britijh Shells y i. tab. 6. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab, $ 37, 

Lijier conch, tab. 321, Bar but, tab. "^y fig, 10. 

Jrgen-ville conch, tab. Zl, B. Gualt. teft, tab.JZ. A. 

Bonan. recr. 2. fig. 96, 97. Muj. Kirch, 2. fig, 95, 97, 98. 

Seba Muf 3. tab. 86. jig. 4. 

Murr. fund, tefiiac. tab. 2, fig 9. 

Chemn. co>ich.6. tab. 15,/". 155 — 157. 

2. 5f3« Muf. 3. /«^ 86, /^. 5. 

3. 5^i^rt Mw/". 3. tab. ^tyfiig 8. 

4. Born Muf. Ccef. Find. te/t. tab. Z, f. S» 

5. Bonan, Muf, Kirch. 2. //j^'. 94. 

Inhabits Furopeau and Mediterranean feas ; refembles C. echina- 
tu;ri, but is longer, more con\ex and a little truncate on one 
fide, but elevated towards the margin, with 2 ribs: yellowifli- 
brown with fometimes darker bands: hinge with 2 teeth in 
each valve, lateral ones 2 in one valve and 3 in the other. 

*Echina' Shell llightly heart-fhapcd, with carinate fpinous ri^>s. 
turn. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv.p. 90, ». 38. 

Lifer conch, tab. 324; An. Aug, tab. ^fftg, 53- 

Mull. Zool. Dan. I. tab l^y/lg, I, 2. /. l^,f. I — 4, 

Bonan. rccr. z.f. 90. Mif. Krch. z.f. 88. 

Gualt. Tefi. tab, 72. f. B. Clein oftr. tab. IC,/, 40. 

Da cufta Brit, conch, tab. 14, f, 2. 

Seba Muf ^.tab. S6. fig. 3. 

Murr.tefiac. tab. Zy fig. 19. 

Lefii. Naturg. i. tab. to, fig. 8, 

Chemn, conch, 6. /ai&. 15. ^^. 158. 

2. 5f^fi M///; 3. /a^. 86. fig. 13. 

3. Bonan. recr. 2. fig-JZ. Muf, Kirch, z, f» J I. 

Inhabits European Seas: white or tawny with white bands; 
fmaller than the laft and more rounded : the grooves deep, 
about 18, and wrinkled near the hinge: the prickles grow- 
ing larger from the middle towards the circumference, and 
none near the hrnge. 

VOL. IV.— C c *eiliarc 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardium. 

•Ciliare, Shell (lightly heart-fliapei!, with triangular ribs befct along 
the ridges with thin ("pines. 
Dono'vans Britifh Sbelb, i. tab. 32.^. 2. 
Pennant Brit, Zool. iv. tab. 50, /" 39. 
Barhut, tab. %. f. H. Lifter conch, tab. 3?^. 72. C. KnorrVergn^t.^^f, 5, 
C/f^/w. fonfi&. 6. /a^. 17,/. 171, 12. 
Inhabits: European Seas y fize of a hazel nut, 
5/f'f//thin, britrle, whitifh, with about 18 ribs: the grooves 
tranfverfcly wrinkled ; the ribs triangular and fpinous, 

Ciliatum, Shell (lightly heart-diaped ; with elevated fubtriangular ci- 
liate grooves. 

O. Fabr.jn- Granl. /, 410. «. 411. 

Inhabits ^^15^/6 Seas, and very inuch refembles the laft, but has 
32 — 38 ribs : Jhell thick, oblique, convex, 19 lines broad, 18 
long, under the curticle cinereous or whitifh grey, within 
white; grooves with undulate ftrias ; ribs ciliateon the ridges, 
the middle ones a little convex, the lateral ones triangular. 

Tubercular Shell fomewhat heart-(haped, with obtufe knotty iranf- 
tum. vcrfely ftriate grooves. 

Lt/er conch, tab, 329. Rumpf. Mnf. t. 48, f,\\, 

Bonan. recr et Muf. Kirch 2. fig. ICO. 

Gttalt. Teft tab. 71. M. Argenv. Zoom, tab., 6, C, D. 

Seba Muf. 3 tab 86, Jig 7 

Knorr. i^ergn. 5. tab. 30, f, 2, and 6. /, 8, /. 3. 

Reoenf, conch 1. tab. 8, fig. 23, 24. 

Ckemn. conch. 6. tab. \']t fig 1 73. 

2. Seba Muf. 3. tab, 26 ^ fig. 2, 

3. Seba Muf. 3. tab. ?6, ftg. 6. 

4. SebuMuf 3. /«^. 86, /}^. 14. 

5. Knorr Fergn, 2. /<^^. 29, /%. 4. 

6. Knorr Vergn, 3. /a^. ^,fig, 5. 

Inhabits x)^t Mediterranean : varioully coloured and marked, ge- 
nerally brown with darker bands, or white with brown bandsi 
very convex and tranfverfcly wrinkled, with about 20 — 23 
ribs, which are convex and fprinkled with a few knob?, 

hocardia. Shell heart-fhaped, with arched imbricate fcales along the 
hifler, tab, 323, Rumpf- Mtf. tab. 48, /. 9, 
Bonan. reir. 2. f. 95. Mny. Kirch, f 93. 
Jrgenv. conch, tab. 23, M. Oiear. Gott. t, 29, f, 3/ 
Rsgenf. conch. I. tab. ^, fig. ^b 
Born. Muf. Caf.Vind. iefi, p. 39* I'igv.. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardium. 503 

Chmn. comh. 6. tab. 17, fig. 174 — 176- 

Inhabits the Mediterranean: i\ inches long, and nearly as much 
broad : greyifh-white with a few red Ipots or clauds, within 
white, purple in the middle : hingt with a fingle primary 
tooth in each valve. 

Fragum. Shell fomcwhat heart-Oiaped, fubangular, with elevated 
lunulas down the grooves. 
Lifier, tab. 3 1 5, fig. 152. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 44, G. 
Bonan, recr. 3. /. 374. Muf. Kirch. 2./. 1 lO. 
Petinj. Amh. tab. 18, /- 21. Gualt. tefi. tab. 83, E, 
Born. Muf. Caf. find, tejt, tab. 3, /. 3> 4- 
Schrttter Journ. Nat. 3, tab. 2, ftg. 6. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 16. fg. 166, 167. 

2, Kmrr Vergn. 4, tab. 34, fig. 5, 

3. GW/. /^y?. /<2^. 17, /. N. 

Inhabits /w^'fl ; fomething triangular, white with fulphur lu- 
nules, within fnowy : the ribs flattilh. 

Vnedo. Shell fubcordate, with lunate coloured grooves. 

Lifier conch, tab. 315,/. 151. Guait.teft. t. 83, A. 
Jrgenv. conch, tab. 23, N, Rumbf. Muf. t. 44, F. 
Bonan. ren: 1. fig 375. Muf Kirch. 2. f lOg. 
Petiu. Amb. tab. 17, /. 4. Valent. abb. t. 16,/. 23. 
Seba Muj. 3. /fl^. 86, fig. 12, 
Knorr. Vergn 2. /<z3. zg, f.l. 
Regenf, conch. I. /^^ 3./. 25. 
Chemn. conch. 6. M^. 16. /i^. 1 68, 1 69. , 

a. Knorr Vergn. 2. /«i. 29, //]^. 3? 

Inhabits /W/a; refembles C. fr.'gum, but is twice as large, and 
has fewer red fcales on the grooves : the lips of the anterior 
margin incumbent. 

MuricatuM Shell fubcordate, grooved and murlcate at the fides. 

Lifier conch- tab. IZZ. ftg. 159. t, 326, _/", 163. 

Knorr Vergn 4. tab l^, fg. 5. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. ly.fig. 177, 178. 

Inhabits America: cinereous, white or yellowifti, mixed or fpot- 

tcd with bay; the margin ferrate: hinge with 2 red ftripes 


Magnum, ^hcll oblong, with angular grooves ferrate at the fide. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. tj. fig, 1 91. 

2. Lifter conch, tab. H^tfig- 168. 

Bonaft.recr. 2, yi<r. 92. Muf, Kirch. 2, f. 90. 
Born. Muf, C^f.Find. tefi. tab. 3./. <), 7. 

C c 2 Cbejfin 

204 WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardium. 

Chemn, cench, 6. tab. "i."}* Jig. 179. 

3. Gualt. left. tab. 17, fig. H, 

Born. Muf. Ctef. Vind. te/t, tab, 3, fig. ;o. 
Chemn, couch. 6. tab. 17. fig, 180, ' 

4. Martyn Univ. Conchol. 2. tab. 80, 

Inhabits America and /«^jV«: Ihell ferrate on the margin, with 
20—30 grooves tranfverfely wrinkled; yellowilh, withih 
white: 2) ochraceous wijh tawny (pots: 3) cinereous 
with blackifti fpots. 

Tlavttm. Shell fubovate, grooved, the anterior margin rough, the 
poftisrior one toothed. 
Banan. recr. 2, fig. 72, Muf. Kirch. 2. f. 79. 
Sckrat. Einl. in conch. 2. tab. 7, /". 1 1. a, b. 

2. Knorr Vergn, 6, fab, 3. /"• 5« . 

3. Gualt: tefi. tab.']\,f.Q. 

4. 5o«fl« rfrr. 2. /, 89, Af^. Kirch. Z, f. %J. 

5. Rumpf. Muf. tab, 44, ^^. E. 
Petiv. Amb. a^. 29. tab. 8, y?^. 3. 

Inhabits /«<//'« ; the back and hind-part generally yellow and 
fometimes fpotted, the reft and infide white: ribs about '27, 
convex, the 5 or 6 anterior ones with fharp fpines, 12—13 
hind-ones with flat tubercles, the others fmooth. 

^^a-viga- Shell obovate, with obfolete longitudinal ftriae and a few 
tUTi. tranfverfe ones concealed by a thin cuticle. 

Donovan sBritifli Shell:, W. tab, 54, 
Pennant Brit. Zool iv. tab. ^l,fig 40, 
Lifi. conch, tab, 332. Gualt. teft. tab. 82, A. 
Knor'- Vergn. 2. tab. 20, /". 4, 5. /. 10, f. 7, 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab, \ 8, fig. \ 89. 

2. Kecmmer conch, tab, \ 2, fi^, 4 ? 

3, Martyn univerf, Conchol, 2. tab.jg. 
Inhabits £«;'o//'«« and American feas; 

2 inches long and nearly 2 broad : 

varioufly coloured and marked, but generally of a deep brown 
fulphur orange or red, fometimes fpotted and fometimes mark- 
ed with tranlverfe bands. 

refemblcs the lad : above 
the margin ferrate within : 

Serratum, *Shcll obovate, fmooth, with obfolete flrix ; the interior 
margin ferrate. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. I 8. f. 185, 186. 

Inhabits Mediterranean and Indian feas; lefs than C* Izevigatum, 
and not fo convex ; yellow; the exterior margin crcnulatc ; 
beaks regular. 

' ■ ' *Eduk, 

WORMS. TESTACEA. tig. Cardium. 2.o5 

♦ UuJc, Shell antiquated, with about 28 deprefTed fibs, with obfole^. 
recurved fcales Common Cockl 

Petmant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. ^Oy fig, 41. 

Lifler conch, tab. 333./. 170. tab. 334>/. t7i» 

Lifter Anin, AngL tab. S> fi^ 34' 

Gualt. test. tab. 71, F. Knorr f^ergn. 6. tab. 8,/". 2, 4. 

Cbemn. conch. 6. l^ign. 4, C. tab. l().f. 1 94. 

Found on all Tandy coalls, in great abundance, lodged a little 
beneath the fand ; their place is pointed out by a round depref- 
fed fpot : Jhell generally white, with fometimes a blueifh or 
yelIowi{h caft ; the ribs a little rough near the circumference,' 
The filh affords a ivholefome and nouriftiing food. 

Ifiandicum, Shell grooved, with about 36 triangular fmooth ribs. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. ^<)t f'g* 195' 

Inhabits /(Tf/flW and Greenland ^e^s ; refembles the laft, but the 
grooves arc deeper and more numerous, and there is no tranf- 
verfe Itriae except the outer margin: blackifh, fometimes banded. 




Shell antiquated, glabrous, thin, moufe-colour, with angu- 
lar ferruginous lines ; the margin fmooth, with obfo- 
lete longitudinal ftria?. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. K), fg. 198. 

Inhabits Greenland and Iceland: z^ inches long, 3I broad: 
fometimes marked with brownifii bands ; probably a variety 
of C. edule. 

Shell antiquated, with ?o remote grooves, the intermediate 
fpaces rugged. 

B arbutus Shells, tab, 3, fig. 12, 

Regenf. conch. I. tab. 12, fg. 77, 78, 

Chefiin. conch. 6. tab. 19, fig. 197. 

Inhabits European feas, principally the Mediterranean : refembles 
C. edule, but the Ihells have an evident ridge on the fore- 
margin when clofed, a narrow depreffure behind the beaks, 
the grooves deeper, and the ribs fewer and more convex : 
colour fometimes ferruginous with livid bands; fometimes 
white, the anterior part brown, within blueifh ; fometimes 
white with ferruginous ycllowifli or blueifh bands. 

Shell fiibantiquated, the forepart glaucous, the hind-part 
with 20 grooves imbricate upwards : beaks violet. 
Poire t Voyage en Bark. z. p. \'^. 
Inhabits 5ar^«ry ; 10 lines high, 12 broad, 8 deep. 

Pectinatum, Shell (lightly heart-fliaped and pCiHilnate, 
Murr^fund.tejl. tab. 2, fig, 18, 


iQS WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardlum. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean: white, with diftant ftrias rough 
upwards; the cavity under the beaks yellow; behind the 
beaks an o^ate gape, margins prominent, 

virgineum. Shell triangular-rounded, equilateral, with tranfverfe mem- 
branaceo-recurved wrinkles: hinges blue. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean, and approaches to the Genus Madra 
in the lateral teeth of the hinge: elegantly banded, covered 
with a glaucous cuticle, and white within. 
i, Chemn. conch. 6, tab, l8,yi l8i, 
Grcno-v. Zooph. tab. i8, _/". 5, 

Inhabits /W/rt and //w<?nV«: fliell thin, brittle, longitudinally 
flriaie, purple on the anterior margin and red at the beaks. 

frilatefum Shell triangular, gibbous, ftriate. 

Inhabits tne Cafpian fea : a very indiftinft fpccies. 

JuHcuU. Shell heart- fhaped, fubrhombic, with 24 ribs each fide, 
the grooves very finely crenulate : beaks diftant. 
Inhabits Arabia and Egypt. Regenf. conch. 2. tah. 9. 
Shell whhe, pellucid, z^ inches long, i| broad: margin of the 
back revolutc, toothed. 

7>/A» Shell oval, fmooth, the mafgins each fide the beaks ftriate. 

Inhabits . SMI fmooth, cinereous, radiate with white : 

beaks refie£led. 

Monftro/um. Shell gibbous, one fide imprefied and ochraceous, the other 
convex, heart-lhaped and whitilh fpotted with yellow ; 
the valves with toothed ridges. 
Chetnn.conch.6. tab. 1 4, fig^ 149, 150. 
Inhabits Nicobar IJlandt : a very rare fpecics. 

€ftna. Shell gibbous with prickly ribs, the anterior ones with re- 

curved membranaceous tubercles crenate at the fides, 
the intermediate grooves granulate, 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. ^ St fig' 153, 154. 
2. SbrcEt. Eint. in conch. 2. tab, j, fig. 13^ a, b.- 

Inhabits Kicchar IJIands : ochraceous, the anterior margin flefh- 
colour, beaks reddifh ; z) ribs more rounded, not prickly 
but granulate. 

Riftgens. Shell rounded, ventricofe, white, with deep teeth on the 
margin, the anterior ones rofy. 
Lifter, tab. 350. Jdan/,Seneg. tab. \o, ftg. i* 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardiura. 207 

Knorr rergn. 4. tab. 14, /. 3, 6, t. 3./. 4. 
Chemn. conch, 6. Z^^. 16. Jig. 1 70. 
Inhabits Ihores of Africa and America. 

Papyrace- Shell pellucid, cinereous, with thin longitudinal ftrjar, 
«w. Inhabits /n^/«. CAf»T«. conch. 6. /«A. 1 8. fig. 1 84. 

5i{>f// very brittle, within white, with purpUfti fpots. 

Aeolicum, Shell thick, with longitudinal anterior ftrix, and tranfverfp 
poftcrior ones. ' 

LiRer conch, tab. 314. Argenv conch tah.z\yhf 
Bonan. rtcr. z.fg 91. Muf Kirch, z.fig. 89. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. 26,/. I, 2. tab. 27,/. 3. 
Chemn conch. 6. /a/^. 18./. l87» '^8. 

Inhabits 6V«^fl and the Antilly IJIands ; very convex, varied 
with white and reddilh. 

Oblongum. Shell yellowifli, oblong, turgid, ribbed, the anterior parts 
glabrous, heart-lhaped, with a crenate margin. 

Chemn. conch, 6. tab. t(), fg- X9C'. 
Bom. Muf. Caf. Find, tell tab. 3, /. 8. 

Inhabits the Meaiterranean : 3 inches long, and about Zj broa,d .: 
ribs about 30. 

Craffum, Shell brownifh, rather oblong, thick, antiquated, with 
deeper teeth on the margin. 
Schrat. Einl. conch, 2. tab. "], fig. 12. 

Lifter conch, tab. ^^2. fig. 169. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and North Seas ; refembles C. ob- 

longum, but is much larger, not fo narrow, thicker, and hif 

abouc 23 Hatter ribs. 

Latum. Shell broad, with unequal fides, within white ; the ribf 
rather flat and fpiiiulous. • 

Chemn, conch. 6. tab 19. fig. 192, 193. 

Knorr Vet gn d. tab 7-fif,.6, 

Born. Muf. Cr/. Find. Teft. tab. 3, /. 9. 

Inhabits Tranquebar and hlicobar Jfland^ : % inches long, zf 
broad ; fometimes white on the crown, yellowiflj in the mid- 
dle and edged with yellow ; fometimcb the crown i.^ varied 
with brown, the other part yellowi(h with a few brown bandi. 

*Pvgma;um Shell fomewhat heart-fhaped, fuban'nilar ; the grooves ^*mr 
bricated or befet witii recurv<id fca'es. 
Donovan, i. tab. "^z, fig- 3 Lilk" cofuh. tah. 317. 
Inhabits Englijh coasts: reddifli-brown or blueiih-whitc. 


5o8 WORMS. TESTACEA. 59. Cardiuni. 

Maculatum, Shell (potted, with crowded undulate wrinkles ; ribs broad, 
grooves very rarrow : within pale rofy. 
inhabits the bay of Catnpechy. Lifter conch, tab, 328. 
Shell nearly 3 inches long and 3I broad, 

Flexuosum, Shell rounded, brown ^ the ribs a little ffexuous, grooves 
Lister conch, tab, 343>y. 180. 
Inhabits—— Shell \\ of an inch long, and about as much broad. 

*Flu'viatile Shell flattilh, thick, white, with fiat ribs. 
Lifter an. Ang. p. iSj. tab 5. fig. 3. 
Found, though rarely, at the moath of the Tees, 

Gaditiinttm, Shell rounded, yello'wifh-whitc, varied widi red grecrr 
and brown, and marked with decufl^ate ftrire. 
Bonan. recr 2. /. 63. Muf. Kirch, 2, f 62. 
Inhabits near Gadez: probably an Arca,^ 

Brajilenfe, Shell rounded, v^^ith broad fiat ribs very finely crenate*'- 

Bonan. recr. l- fig. 395- Muf. Kirch. Z. /, 117. 
Inhabits commonly the fhores of Brafil, 

AmhQintnfe. Shell rather oblong, white with blackilh fpots ; the ribs 
very convex. 
Inhabits ^;«io/««. Bonan. Muf. Kirch. Z,f, 129. 
Shell \\ inches long, with about i2 ribs, 

Squamofum, Shell heart-fhaped, equilateral, tawny-white, and purpliflt 
within : ribs with imbricate fcales. 

Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. yi-fig. N. 

Refembles C. fragum, but wants the teeth at the anterior margin. 

Cancella- Shell reddilh, thin^ rounded, with dccufTate ftrisc. 
turn. Inhabits minute. Gualt. teft, tab. 75. /%. £. 

Ruhigino' Shell reddifh, unequal-fided, with convex ribs tranfvcrfely 
Inhabits Gualt. Teft. tab. 8^, fig. D. 


Alhtdtm, Shell unequal-fided, ribbed, whitilh, within purpl«. 
Inhabits — — minute. Gualt. Test. tab. 83,/. H. 

firefcins* Shell inequilateral, oblong, with very fine ribs doubled 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 60. Madlra. 2o^ 

Inhabits Gualt, test. tab. %\-fg. A, 

Shell bricrie pellucid, greenifh-white, with fomctimes a few rofy 
fpots, within filver/. 

Tajctatum. Shell rounded, whitifli with a brown band: the ribs acute. 

Inhabits Knorr. Vergn. 6. tab. '^■fig. 3. 

Hinge brown and cinereous on the outilde. 

50. AlACTRA. Animal a Tethys : fiell bi- 
valve, itilequal lided, equivalve: middle 
tooth of the hinge comphcalcd, with a 
ftnall hoUon- each fide, lateral ones re- 
mote and inferted into each other. 

iiptrtgUrt. Shell, fmooth, with a flat anterior margin on which is a 
lunate gape. 

Chemn. cone. 6. tab. 20. fig. 199 — 201. 

Shengl.Cdtab. tab. Z-fig. i — 3. Schrcct. Lift, i./ig,^ — 6.. 

Inhabits the Cape of good Hot>e: nearly as large as a man's hand: 
a little gaping, pale, fubdiaphanous, fubtriangular, 3 i inches 
broad: the anterior fide fubcarinate, the pofterior flattifh and 
firiate; gape before the hinge lunate acute and reaching to 
the hollow of the hinge : beaks incurved : intera! teeth of the 
hinge triangular. 

.hcatana. Shell with tranfverfe wrinkled plaits, diaphanous: anterior 
niargin flattilli : behind the beaks a comprefled oblong 
Chemn. cone. 6, tab, 20 fig, 202--204, 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean '. 1-2 inches long, 2 | broad. 
Shell \.\\\x\. WVp. paper, with fmooth lanceolate depreffions each 
fide the hinge, the anterior one flattifh with a ridge near the 
beaks, the pofterior one imprefled and more ovate; beaks in- 
curved recurved: lateral teeth oi the hinge compofed of 2 
parallel membranes. 

Papyracea. Shell very thin pellucid white convex, the fore-part a little 
gaping, very finely ftriate and ribbed. 
Chemn. cone, 6. tab. 'i.T^-ftg- 23. 

Inhabits Nicobar IJlandt, extremel7 rare: refembles the.laft, but 
is more convex and unequal fidcd ; except in the hinge, is 
very like a Tcllina. 

VOL. IV.-D d Striitula, 

2io [WORMS. TESTACEA. 60. Madra. 

Siriatula, Shell fmooth ciaphanous; the beaks fubftriate, with a 

fmooth marginal impreflion betore them furroundcd 

by a rim. 
Guah. teft. tab. 85. F. Knorr Vergnt 6. tah* 'iA'f'S' ^* 
Chert- . cone. 6. tab. z\,fig, 205, 2o6. 
Inh'Sbits the Mediterranean and Ccromatidet Coajis: about 2 | 

inchej long and 3 broad : white, fubtriangular, rather convex, 

a little gaping on the fore-margin. 

Striata. Shell thick triangular, with ftrong thick crowded fmooth 
arched ftrias. 
Inhabits Chemn, cone, 6, tah. 22, fig. 222. 
Shell white, glabrous within at the b^aks. 

Rotundata, gj^gjj obiufely trian!J:ular, whitifh, with milk-white bands 
on the bea.vS ; the margins each fide the beaks violet. 
Liner, tab. 263. Schrcr.t. Einl. Conch. 2. tab. ^' fig* I* 
2. Lifter Conch, tab. zb^. fig. 100 f" 

Inhabits the Mediterranean: i \ inch long and niarly 2 broad; 
the fore-part marked with very fine ftriae. 

Glabrata, Shell fmooth diaphanous ftriate ; the beaks very fmooth, 
the margins each fide of them ftriate. 
Gualt teft. tab. 7 1 . fig. A. 
Chemn cone. 6. tah. 22' fig. 2l6, 217. 

Inhabits the African and Indian Oceanf. if inch long and 2 
broad j white, with very fmooth beaks ftriate on the border. 

Kiiida: Shell fnowy glolTy thick diaphanous fmooth: depreffions 
each fide the beaks ftriate, the anterior one marked 
with a ridge. 

Schrcet. Einl. pone. 2. tab. S.fg, 2, 3. 

Inhabits refembles the laft, but the beaks are retrovertcd and 

diftant, and the (hell triangular. 

Ccrallina, Shell fmooth fubdiaphanous, white with paler bands. 
Bor,anrecr. T"fig. 53. MuJ kirch, 2. fig. 52, 
Rondel teft. \.tab, 33. Gualt. test. tab. 71. B. 
Klein ostr. tab. i 2. fig. 80. Plane, conch, t. 3./". 4? 
Chemn tone. 6. tab. zz. fig. 218, 219. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Guinea : 2 inches broad, I \ long: 
triangular, with obtufe depreifions each fide the beaks, 

Lailent Shell thin turgid pellucid white, the fore-part very finely 
ftriate with paler bands. 
Chtmntconc. 6. tab. zz.fig. 220. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 60. Maara. 


Inhabits the Indian Oceavi refemblcs the laft. but is more equal 
thinner and more convex ; the anterior part flattilh with an 
obtul'e margin, 

^Stultorum. 2>\ic\\ femitranfpareBt fmooth glolTy, obfolctely radiate, vrhite 
withoiit and purplilh within. 
Pennant Brit. Zoo), iv. tah. 52. *ig. 42* Barhut. t. 4../. 1. 
Lister conch, tab. Z^\. Gualt test tat. J\f^- C, 
jidunftfeneg. tab. ^l-fig- 1 6. Knorr. yergn.6. t. i^.f, I. 
Murr. fund. test. tab. 7. fig. lO. 
Bo->n Muf C^ef. Vi>id. teft.f. 50. ^ign^ 
Chemn cone 6. tab ZTjfi 224 -227. 
.Inhabits European and American Seas : lize of a hazel nut. 
She// very convex, fo.nething triangular, brown teftaceous or 
cinereous, with or without very faint rays. 

iarandts. Shell femitranfparcnt fmooth, fawn colour with pale rays: 
the beak and hinge placed beyond the middle. 
Cl>enin. cone. 6. tab. 23. Ji^. 228. 

Inh4bics refembles the lalt, but is 2 5 inches long, 3^ broad, 

gaping at the extreme angle, the anterior fiae more produced. 

• iio/iJa, 5hgi] opake fmooth Kh fubantiqiiatcd. 

Pennant Bnt. Zoo/, iv. tub, S'^-J^i' 43* A. /. S^'/' 43' 

Duno'van's Brit. §he//s. ii, tal>. 61. JDa Co/la. tab. ^'i- fig' I. 

Lifter Conc/ Zj^.fig. 87, 88. Barbut. t. 4./". 2. 

Lijter Anim. Ang/. tab, 4. fi^, 24 

Bonann. recr. 2. tah. 51, 52. Muf. ^irch. 2 tab. 80, 81. 

Klein Oftr. tab. lO. fig. 42. /(norr, Vergn. 6- t' 8./. 5. 

Chemn. cone. 6. tab. zt,. jig. 229. 230. 
2. Chemn cone. ID. tab, yo-fg 1656. 

Found very commonly on European Shores, 

ShelZ very thick ftrong, white yellowifh cinereous or brown, 
frequently marked with blue or pale orange belts ; in a live 
ftate Iniooth, in the dead with a few high tranfverfe ftrias like 
ribs: lateral teeth fmall elongated with a large hollow, the 
middle tooth fmall. 

*Lutraria. Shell oval-oblong fmooth, without lateral teeth. 
Donovan*! Brit She//s. v. tab. 58. 
Pennant Tirit. ZnyJ iv. tah. 53. fig, 44; 
Da Costa Brit Conch tab. X"]- jig. 4. 
Lister Conch, tab 455. An. Ang/. tab. ^, fig. \i^. 
Bo nan. recr, et Muf. kirch. t. fig. 19, 
Rumpf. Muf. tab, 45. M. Gualt. test. tah. 90. A. 2. 
Chemn. cone. 6. tab. 2\.ft^ 240, 241. 
inhabits European Coasttt near the mouths of rivers. 




WORMS. TESTACEA, 60. M^ara. 

Shell much produced on one fide, and gaping at both ends J 
refembles a Mya : dirty white or yellowifh tinged with orange 
and irregularly clouded with brown : hinge with a fmali and 
large triangular cavity in one vajve, and a fimilar cavity with 
an elevated triangular tooth in the other, 

Cygnus, Shell fnowy thick 3-rided, very finely ftriatq tranfverfely; 
the fore-part llattKh and flightly wrinkled : behind the 
beaks a broad heart-fhaped thinly ftriate impicJUon. 

Cbemn, cone, 6. tah. 21, fig. 207. 

Inhabits franquebar : ao inch long and rather more broad. 

Uaculata, Shell obtufely triangular fmooth thin, with pcl'ucid chcfnut 
fpots, within white and very finely ftriate; behind the 
beaks a heart-lliaped impreflion..' 
Chemn. cone. 6. tab. zi.fig., 208. 
Inhabits India ; about i \ inch long and rather broader. 

TurgtWa, Shell inflated, faintly ftriate, ochraceous and white within; 

beaks diftant purplifh : hinge with a iupernumerary 

triangular double tooth. 
Chemn. cone. 6. tait 2 1 .fig. 210, 2 1 1 . 
Inhabits Tranquebar: z \ inches long, 3 | broad ; thin fubpel- 

lucid, finely flriate and wrinkled before and behind. 

Violacta* Shell thin, obfoletely radiate, finely ftriate tranfverfely : 
margins each fide the beaks whitifh: hinge with i 
fupcrnumerary double triangular tooth. 

Chemn cone. 6. tab. ZZ, fig. 213, 214. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab, ^'fg- 2? • 

Inhabits Tranquebar : aboUt 2 inches long and 3 broad. 

Shell thin fcrittlc griping here and there, anterior margin oblong 
elevated wrinkled. 

Cuneata. Shell wedge-fhaped blue finely flriate tfanfverfely, the mar- 
gin crcnulaie within. 
Chemn^ cor.c. 6. tab. zz.fig. 2 1 3. 

Inhabits refembles the lalt, but is only an inch long and 

jiardly as much broad : foinctimes white^ ' 

Glauca, Shell ovate, dirty white with glacous rays, very finely ftri- 
ate tranfverfely, the anterior part wrinkled. 
Born Muf Vas. Vind. test. tab. '^i jig. 1 1, 12. 
Chemn. cone, 6. tab. z^.fg. 232,233. 

Inhabits the Meaiterrar.ean : 2 | inches long, 3 ^ broad: beaks 
turned backwards, with a narrow gape between them. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 60. Maara. 2J3 

PelluaJa. Shell ovate tliin pellucid white, with unequal tranfverf? 
Chemn, cone. 6. lab. 24. fig. 2 34.- 

Inhabits Guinea; i \ inch long, and z hroiA \ Jhell brittle, a 
little produced torwards and gaping. 

Franii:s. Shell ovate thin fmppth pellncid flattiO^^ the anterior gape 
tranfverfely itriate ai^d wrinkled. 
Chemn cone. 6. tab. 24. fig. 235. 
Inhabits Nicobar IJlands ; refeinbles the laft. 
Sbgll gaping and ilightly plaited on the fore-part ; the margin 
'acute, fubangular before and rounded behind. 

Rugo/fl. Shell ovate, dirty white, with elevated longitudinal ftrla; 
croiTing the tranfverfe ones which are a little more 
Inhabits Eurofenn Ocean. Chemn cone. ^. tab.. lJf.fig> 236. 
Shell z\ inches long, 2 | broad ; thick and white within. 

Nicobarica- Shell ovate thin pellucid fmooth pn the fpre-part, the hind- 
part with cancellate llrice. 
Jnhabits Nicobar Ijlands. Chemn. cone, 6, tab. 2^. fig. zyj. 

Complanata Shell ovate thin with arched plaits, the plaits tranrverfely 
fhiate : lateral teeth o. 
Inhabits India. Chemn. cone. 6. tab. z\.fig. 238, 
Shell \\\\\\.z or blueifl^: an inch long, 2 \ broad. 

• Llitcri, Shell very thin, nearly round, whitifh : hinge with a tri- 
angular tooth and large pyriforiti hollow, 
Lifler Anim. AngL tab. \. fg^ 23. 
Found at the mouth of the river Tees: I \ inch long and 2 broad. 

'■'i^ifita. Shell ovate comprefled tranfverfely {Iriate: teeth of th? 
hinge very minute, with a large oblique hollow. 
Adans Conch, tab. I 7. fig. 18. 
Chemn. co7tc, 6. tab. ().fig' 21, 
Peti'V. Gazoph. tab. ()■ fig. 3. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean : 21 lines broad, 17 high, and 7 deep. 

61. DON AX. Animal a Tcthys; JJicll bU 
valve, wilii generally a crcnulate margin,, 
the frontal margin very obtulb : liin<>(: 
with 2 teeth., and a fingic niargaial one. 
plaeed a little beliind, rarely doubk: 
trii)le or 0. 


U4 WORMS. TESTACEA. 6i. Donax. 

Scorfum, Shell tiiangular heart-fhaped, with a flat frontal margin 

Lifter tab '1,'j']. fig zzo. ^rgen^j Conh. tab. z\. L, 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. J./ig. J. E. 

Born Muf. C^f. Vind. teft. tab. ^.fig. i, 2, 

C herttn, cenc. 6. fab, 2^.fi^. 242 — 247. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; cinereous mixed here and there with 
Violet, within fnowy except near the hinge which is violet: 
marginal teetb double in each valve with an intermediate ca- 

Pube/cenu Shell ciliate with fpines on the frontal margin. 

Barbut. tab. ^,fig. i . Rump/ Muf. tab. 42. F. 

Chemn.conc. tab 2'^, jig. 24S. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean ; refembles the laft on the infide, but 
on the outfide is whitifti with fine decuffate ftri e : fore-margin 
flat with an ovate gape , behind the beaks aa ovate oblon<r 
aepreflure. * 

P.f'go/a, Shell wrinkled and gibbous before, with crcnate mar ins. 

Li/er. tab. ^yi^. Adans, %eng. tab. i^./ig. i. ^ ' 

Bovan.recr. 2. tab. 37, 38. Muf. kircb. z fig. 7,6, 37. 

Gualt. test, tab. 89, F. Argenv. Conch- tab. 22, L. 

KUiji ostrac, tab. 1 1 ftg. 61 , 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. S6./lg. 10, li. 

Chetfin. cone. 6. tab. 25. fig. 250 — 252, 

Schmt. Journ. z. tab. 2. Jig* 9. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Atlantic and American Seas: general'v 
I of an inch long and i broid ; marked with various colours, 
and frequently banded, v/ithjn violet and white: marginal 
t$oth o. 

♦ Trunculus Shell fmooth in front, within violet, the margins crenatc. 

Donovan's Br-t Shelh. i. tab. 2().Jig. I. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. SS /g- ■^S' 

lister Concb. tab. 376. Jn. ^. fig. 31;; 

Mans Seneg. tab iS.fg. 2. Gualt. test. tab. 88. 

Bonan. recr. 2. fig. 47. Muf kirch. 2, fig. 48, 

Knorr ^ergn. i. tab. y.fg. 7. Barbut. t.±,f. ;, 

Born. Muf Caf Vind. teft. tab. 4. fig. 3, 4. 

Chemn. cone. 6. tab. 26. fig. 253, 254*. 

InhihitsEuropean Coasts : whitiOi with a yellow tinee and marked 
with brown and purple bands, elegantly ftriate longitudinally, 
varies in its colour: fomething more than an inch broad. 

very obtufe before and every where ftriate, the mardn 
denticulate. ' ^ 

l"'"'f.^"f ^'"'*^''" Europe. Knorr. Ver^n. 6. tab, 28. fi<r. 8. 
<V.y// white and rather gibbous. ** 

♦ Den 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 6i. Donax. 215 

Shell very obtufe in front, the lips tranfverfely wrinkled, 
finely ftriate longitudinally, the margin denticulate, 
Donofvari s Brit. Shells, i. tab. 24* 
Liter. Conch, tab. 376 fig. 218.219. 
Liji. An. Angl. tab. $.fig. 3;. Barbut.t. \.f. 4. 
Gualt tell, tab, 89. Knorr. Vergn. 2. tab. Z^.JJg. 2, J, 
Chemn» conch. 6. tab. 2b., fig. 256, 257. 
2. Knorr. Vergn. 2. tab. 2^. jig. 4. 5. 

Inhabits European and American Seas: larger than D. trunculus< 
Shell wedge (haped, longitudinally ftriate generally whitifh or 
blueifh with different fliades of brown and varioufly coloured 
rays or bands, within whitifh. 

Shell wedge-fhaped, the margins very entire. 
Li/ler Conch, tab. 392"_/%. 23 1. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. '].fig% 3. 
Born Muf. C«tf. Vind. teft. p. ^z. Vign. 
Chemn. conch. 6, tab. 26. fig. 260. 

2. Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 7. fig. 7, 

3. Chemn. conch- 6. tab, 20. fig. 267. 

Inhabits I'ranjuebar ; an inch long, i | broad. 

Shell white, often radiate with blue, 2 ) yellow or rufous with a 
violet margin ; traniverfely wrinRled ii; Front with perpendi- 
cular lines croiTing the wrinkles, with fine decullate ftriae 
clfewhere : within violet and white. 

Shell gibbous, very finely ftriate tranfverfely, fpotted with 
yellow: tip of the umbo or crown and entire band at 
the outer margin blueilh, the former intercepted by a 
white ray. 

Chemn, conch. 6. tab. lb. fig. 266. 

Inhabits rcfembles the next, but i? thicker and the beaks arc 

bent towards the anterior margin and is ciofed at each hde. 

Shell ovate comprefled fmooth, marked with purple waved 
lines ; margins crenulate. 
Lifter conch, tab ^jg, fig. 222. t 2So,f 223. 
Adans Seneg. tab. ij.fig. 31. Bamut. t. \.f. f^. 
Bonan.recr. z.fig. X'^,. Muf. kirch. Z.fig 42. 
Rumpf. ^^luf. tab. 43. L, M. Guahlteli. tab, 88, Qj 
Petiv 2,fg,'J. t 18./. 5. 
Kl'inoft. tab i-l.f'g. 59- Murr.tell. t. 2.f. 5, 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. ifg' 4, 5. 
Chemn. conch, b. tab. 2b. fig. 2b\ — 26c. 
2. Lifter Conch, tab. 38l.y)j. 1 24. 

Inhabits the Malabar Coasts, elegantly painted with angular 
reddilh blueifh or brown lines: the hinge Ibmething relem- 
bles that of a Venu?. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 6i. Donax. 

Muricatd. Shell ovate, with muricate ihiE: the margin denticulate. 
Inhabit!* the Indtat: Ocean. Muf. Lud. JJlr. 496. «. 54. 
Shel giSbous r.ddifV., the frontal nlargin gaping and ending each 
lide in a conipreffed tooth. 

* Iriis» Shell oval, with tranfverle v/aved ere6l ftriate membrana- 
ceous wrinkles or foliations. 

DoTWuans Brit- Sbells} tab. 2(^.fig.2. 

Da Cojla Bnt. Conch, tab. \S.fig. 6. 

Gualt. ieft. tab. g';'/ig. A, 

Chemn, conch. 6 tab. 26. fig. 268 — 270. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and is found frequently on tlie fhores 
oi De'vonJIiire and Corfiivall buried in tie lands : about the' 
fize of a fmall Icidncy-bean ; the anterior part> very obtufe and 
marked with arclied wrinkles which are ereft and a little re- 
fledled and larger towards the lim: the hinge fomewhatrefcmbles 
that of a Venus. 

Ldvigatai Shell obtufe before, obfoletely ftriate at the fides, yellowifh- 
grcen within and violet at the beaks; margin very 
entire: hinge without marginal teeth, 

Chetm. conch. 6. tab. 2^. Jig. 249. 

Inhabits Iranquebar: an inch and 6 lines long, z inches 3 lines 
broad : margins near the beak a licrle incumbent. 

Sfino/a, Shell fnowy, within blueifli : the hind-part friiooth and 
perpendicularly llriate, fore-part truncate and very 
finely cancellate; the angles fpinous. 
Chemn. conch, 6. tab. 36. fig. 258. 

Inhabits Tranquebari very rare: beaks glabrous i hinge as in 
D. rugofa. 

Incoi'nata. gj^gjj flefli-colour, the anterior part truncate wrinkled and 
marked with reticulate ftrix, hind-part wedge-fbaped 
and furrowed with fine perpendicular flri«. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 26. fig. 2^9. 

Inhabits Tranquebar; fomctimes croiTed with a few yellowifli 

Argented, Shell oval fmooth, olive green within filvery: the margin 
with more elevated acute teeth near the hinge. 
Inhabits Gualt, test. tab. SS./ig. R. 

Micclor, Shell ovate, with elevated ftriae crofling a few tranfverfe 
ones; rufous with a white ray on one fide. 

Inhabits Gualt. test, tab. 88./^. S. 

Radiata , 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 217 

Hdiimfit, ghell brown with hyaline fpots; the outfide with crowded 
arched tranfverfe (Irix, infide With perpendicular ones; 
the fore-part wrinkled, 
Schrat. EirJ. conqL ^.tab.S./ig: ^» . . ^ 

Inhihks 3 ra?iqueUr: about an inch broad and more than l r 
long • the fore-parc not very obtafe and marked with 2 white 
ravl, the hind-part rounded with a white border} within 
Inowyfpotted with pale yellow and blueilh ; ^/r« with a 
fingie obtufe middle tooth in each valve, and a double tuar- 
ginal one in each: margin or rim very entire. 

Stramhiea. Shell with very thin perpendicular ftrias gfofllng tne tranf- 
verfe ribs on the for«-part; ftraw-colour with darker 
tranfverfe bands; the margin tawny and very entire 
Schrcvt. Einl. ConcL 3. tab. S./ig. 4. a, b. 

Inhabits -above an inch long and I broad : within flcfh- 

colour, violet towards the rim, with a broad fubconvex border 
on the anterior part: licaks teddifh : ^■«^f with 2 marginal 
teeth in each valve. 

CrtW/Va. Shell entirely white with a few thin arched tranfverfe ftri^e 
which are oblique towards the rim : hinge with 3 ob- 
lique middle teeth : margin very entire. 

Schrat. Einl concha 3. tah. S fig. 5. . . 

Inhabits Tranqueban not quite an inch long and fomething 
broader ; Jliell thin brittle, a little elevated in the middle on 
the forc-paft : the ftrisc forming wfinklcs towards the nm. 

.63.- VENUS. Animal a Tethys : JJiell bivalve, 
the tiontal margin tiattened with in- 
cumbent hps: hmge with 3 teeth, all of 
tlieiii approximate, the lateral ones di- 
vergent at the tip. 

A. Shell fomewhat heart-Jhaped. 

Dlone. ■ Shell tranfverfely grooved, with a double row of fpines on 
the flattened lide. 
Sha^M biatur Mi/cetl. tab. 163. Barbut. tab. ^.ftg. 9. 
Ltfler tab. 307. Bcnan. Muf. kirch, Z.fg- »2i« 
Rumpf. M-.i/. tab. ifi>pg- 4. Oear. UuJ\ 29. fig. 4. 
Peti'v. Gaz. tab, Z\./'g. 9- Oualt. teli. t. id. f.Y>. 
Leffertcst. fig* 134. Argen'vilk cone, tab; Zt, f'tg.U 

VOL, iV.— E e M»rr* 

2i8 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. test. tab. Z. ftg. il, i6. 17. 

Knorr. Vergn. I. tab. ^' f'g. 3. 4. 

Knorr delic. nat. Jel tab. B./ig. 9. 

Born Muf. des. V^ind. teli.p. 57 'vign.fig. a. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab^ zj,fig. 271 — 273. 

Schrcet. Litter at. \'fig. l> 2, 

Inhabits the American Ocean, and is extremely rare and valuable. 

5/&f// equivalve, fomewhat heart-fhaped, rounded, pale, pink, a 
little gibbous before and behind, and marked with tranfverfe 
parallel fharpened ribs; within fraooth white and arched or 
vaulted under the knobs: hinge of the left valve 3-toothed, the 
teeth approximate and diftinfl from the focket, the middle one 
comprefled and fmaller, the lateral ones divergent thickifh and 
obtafe; the othsr valve with 2 approximate compreffed teeth 
between 2 hollows : margin or rim very obtufe and entire: 
beaks recurved rather obtufe and glabrous at the tip, with an 
ovate flefh-colour depreffion behind them : the flattened fide 
fleHi-colour with a pale border and yellowifh ftripe reaching 
half way from the beaks, obliquely ftriate, and furnilhed with 
a row of fpines each fide originating *rom every fecond or 
third rib of the fhell, the fpines incurved growing gradually 
longer and grooved beneath; within thefe and near the beaks 
is another row of 5 fmaller fpines each fide. 

Paphya. Shell fomewhat heart-fliaped with thickened wrinkles; the 
flattened fide with attenuated wrinkles, and complica- 
ted lips. 
Lifier Conch, tab. 279. Regenf. conch, J 'fig' ii» 
JSonann. recr, z.fig. 75. Muf. kirch. z.fig- 72. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. Af^-fig. 5. Gualt. tefi. tab. 85. A* 
Spengl. conch, tab, \-fig- I. Argen'V. conch, tab. 21. B. 
Knorr, Vergn. 2. tab. z%.fjg. 2. 6. /. 5./, 6, t. b.f. 2, 
Chemn. conch. 6- tab. 2j. ftg. 274 — 276. 
I 2. Chemn.. conch. 6. tab. 2"], fig. 277. 

3. Knorr Vergn. b. tab. ^.fig. 6. 

Inhabits American IJlands: 2 inches long, i f broad. 

«S>^f// white with brown fpots Itrias and waves, the anterior part 
with ^angular brownifh lines : the tranfverfe ribs are broad 
and convex : behind the beaks a brown depreffion. 

Marica^ Shell fomewhat heart-fliaped, with decuflate ftria; : the 
flattened margin lamellous. 
Lister conch, tab, ^(^y. Argen'V. Zoom. tab. 12.C,' 
Chemn. cone. 6. tab. 2"]. fig. 282 — 286. 
Inhabits the American Ocean : very rare. 

^hell white with reddifh-brown fpots rays and veins ; the margin 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 219 

^yferai Shell fomewhat heart-fhaped with tranfverfe remote reflec- 
ted grooves; the margin crenulate, 
Lijler. conch, tab. 277, 278. 285, a. 
Bonan. recr. "^./ig- 348/" Muf. Kirch, 2. fig. 103. 
Gnalt. teft. tab, 88 D. Klein ofir. tab. i-O.fig. 48, 49. 
KnorrVcrgn. 4. tab. 2^. fig. 3 ? t, Z%.f. 3. 
Grono'V. Zooph. tab. 1 8 fg. 8. 
Born. Muf. CaJ\ Vind. teft, tab. 4. fig, 9. 
Chernn. conch. 6. tab. 2-]. fig. 279 — 281 ? t. zS.f, 287 — 294. 

2, Lister cone. tab. 2S0, fig. 117. E. 

Inhabits the American Ocean; rare and valuable ; varies in colour 
and marks: ribs thin and (harp. 

Bajana, Shell brittle glabrous, with a few tranfverfe ftria?. 
Bonann. Miif. Kirch. 2. fig. 124, 1 25, 
Inhabits Brafl : ochraceous varied with black, 

Exca>vata, Shell lentiform, tranfverfcly ftriate, with a deep heart- 
fliaped depreilion behind the beaks ; flat fide broad. 
Schrast. Einl. in conch. 3. tab, ^.fg. 10. 

Inhabits refembles V- linuata, but the (Iriae are thinner and 

acute, forming wrinkles on the anterior and potterior fides; 
colour brown yellow or whicilh-alh; the flat margin fcaly. 

*Verru:ofa. Shell with membranaceous tranfverfe ftriate grooves forming 

tubercles towards the outer margins ; the margin 

Donovan s Britifh Shells, ii. tab, 44. 
Borbafe Cornn.vall. tab. 21, fig. 31. 
Pennant Brit. Zool' tab. S'^-fg- 48. 
Da Costa Brit, conch, tab. \z.fig, i. 
Adan s Seneg. tab, \S. fig. I. Gualt. teji. tab. 75* H, 
Petiv. q^Jig. 1 7. Lijler. conch, tab^ 284. 
Argen-ville conch, tab. 2 1 . fig. 60. 
Born Muf. Cotf. Vind. teft. tab. \. fig. 7. 
Chetnn. conch. 6. tab. 2().fig. 299. a, b. 300. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean, Engltjli and Antilly coafts : thick, 2 

inches long and as much broad; fometimcs marked with a 

few brown fpots and rays* 

Lapicida, Shell white, longitudinally ftriate forwards and tranfverfeiy 
Chemn. conch. 10, p. 356. tab, \J2,fig, 1664, 1665. 
Inhabits American IJlands, 

Divergenr. Shell white, with very fine crowded divergent ftrije. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. lyz.fig, 1666. 1667. 
Inhabits American IJlaads, 

E e z Carina- 

220 WORMS. TESTACEA. 6a. Venus. 

Cajtna, Shell with tranfverfe recurved acmte grooves ; the pofterior 
margin crenulate, and grooved behind the beaks. 

Lijier conch, tab. 2^6. ftg. \zy 

Coemn. conch. 6, tab. z(). jig, 301, 302 .'' 

Sxhrcet. Einl. in conch. 3. tab. S./ig. 6. 

Inhabits European Seas, and is often found in a foffile {late; 

Shell white with brown fpots ftris and marks; dejprcilion behiijd 
the beaks browp ; beaks reddiih, 

Cancel/ata, Shell with tranfverre jncmbranaceoiis remote ftriac and ^ 
heart-ihaped deprellion behind the beaks. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. $<)'/ig' 4. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. l^./tg. 137. t. 29./. 304 — 307. 

Inhabits the InJian Ocean; above an inch long and i| broad; 
cinereous with obfcure brown rays, within red or brownifli j 
lom^times funowed with longitudinal ilrix ; margin crenulate. 

• p^Uina. Shell radiate, wi^h tranfyerfp o|)tufe Arise : hind tooth at 
the hinge very minute : margin crenulate. 
Lhter. tab. 281, 282, 295. Brit. Zofoh Jv. tab- S^- /'S' S°' 
Klein ostr, tab. \o.fig. 54. Bytem. app. t. II, /". 39. C-? 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. l^.fig. 2—5. 
Born Muf. Ccef. Vind, teft. p. 57. i»gn. fg, b, 
Chemn. conch, 6. tab» 30.^^.308,310. 

2. Lifter conch, tab. 295.7%. 132? 

■ Inhabits Amrican and European Seas ; an inch long and i| broad j 

thick flattilh very fmooth, varying in colour, with ufually 

about 3 brownifh or reddifh rays, and a few angular lines; 

depreflion behind the beaks brown heart-fliapcd i the anterior 

lope with brown lines and fpots. 

Guhmnds, Shell cinereous, within fnowy, with tranfverfe acute {Iriac : 
anterior margins white, the lips finely flriate and rofy: 
margin very entire. ' 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 30. Jtg. 31?. 
Bern. Muf. Caf. Vind^ teju tab. ^. fig. %, 

S, Chemn. oncb, 6. tab. ^^m Jig. 312, 

Inhabits fhores of Africa, rel'emblcs the lad. 

Shell mixed here and there with pale rcddifh ; the (Iriac elevated 

and ilrong but not branched ^ depreflion behind the beaks 


Fetulca* Shell flightly grooved, the margin crenulate : anterior mar- 
gm with a fubovate gape, the membranes acute. 
Inhabits Southern Europe; fize of an hazel nut: clouded vyith 
white and brown : deprellion behind the beaks oblong, 


WORMS. TESTA CEA. 62. Venus. 


Shell with tranfverfe obtufc greoves: lips of the anterior 
margin with an elevated angle. 

"Rumpf. Muf. tab. 43. fij^. A ? O ? Guah. teft, tab. 83. I. 

Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. teii ta,b. 4,/. >p. 

Chemn. conch. 6, tab. l\,fig. 333. 334. 

Inhibits Ameuca and Indian Ocean; an inch long, l| broad; 
whitilh with rufous dots or rays, or cinereous with brownifh 
fpots and llris, fometimes though rarely ("nowy with blade 
depreiTures each fide the beak and blue hinge: tranfverfe 
Itrias flightly crenate and bifid towards the front ; frontal 
margin rctufe rufous obliquely ftriate with elevated gibbous 
lateral angles : nurgin very flightly crenulate. 

Shell with tranfverfe parallel very obtufe grooves: frontal 
margin glabrous : deprelljon behind the beaks ovate. 

Lister conch, tab^ 26%. Jig, 104, 

Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. T,.f. ^, 

Chemn. couch 6. tab. IZ.f, 337 — 339, 

Inhabits India; refemblcs V. Chioni j 2 \ inches long and nearly 
3 broad : fiuU thick flaitifli, flefh-colour with numerous brown 
rays and an orange band towards the margin .• in front a 
long narrow gape : hin^e with 4 middle teeth. 

Shell thick ilrong with flight tranfverfe ftricc and covered 
with a brown cuticle, within pale violet j deprelFion 
behind the beaks ovate : margin crenulate. 

Lijler tab. z-]\.fig. 107. 

Spengl. Schr. Naturf. 6. tab. d-fig. J -3. 

Chemn. conclp. lO- tab. 17I. fig. 1659, i66o. 

Inhabits Europe and North America, and is found foflile in the 
the mountains of H'v.'eden, in North America, thefe fhells are 
called Clatnst and the Indians make their Wumpum or Indian 
money of them. 

Shell above 3 inches long and nearly as much broad, ovate, nar- 
rowed on the fore-pan ; under the cuticle brown Itraw-colour 
with violet rays beneath and on the fore- part, Viith elevated. 
tranfverfe femiclrcular ftriie and longitudinal grooves : im- 
preiTion behind the b:aks heart-ihaped and longitudinally 
ftriate; frontal margin glabrou-s, 

*J^lindica. Shell thick ftrong with flight tranfverfe ftrix and covered 
with a brown cuticle, within pure white : impreilion 
behind the beaks o : margin entire. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 53. f,<T, 47, 
Lifter tab 272. Anin. Angl. tab. i^. fig. 22. 
Da Cofa Brit conch, tab. l-^.fig. 5. 
Gualt. tefi. tab, S^.fig. B. 
Born, Muf. Ccif.i^md. tell. tab. ^.fJg. u. 

• ^\eree^ 

22^ WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. "i^-fig' 341* 

2. Lijier conch, tab. lo^y. fig, 3, 

3. Chemn, conch, tab. 32. /%. 342. jidatfs feneg, tab. \6,Jig. 7. 
Inhabits Europe Africa and the Cafpian Sea : ^l inches long and 

nearly 4 broad. The fifli is eaten by the Icelanders. 
She!/ covered with a thin gloffy cuticle tranfverfely ftriate and 
brown in the older fliells yellow in the younger, under which 
it is white with tranfverle reddifli bands; within entirely 
white: anterior flope long narrow clofed : margin acute and 
very entire, 

9 Chione. Shell fmooth with fine tranfverfe wrinkles: the margin 
entire : hind-tooth of the hinge lanceolate. 
Donovans Briiijh Shells, i. tab. I J. 
Leigh Lacajping. tab. 3 /. 5. 
Ufter conch, tab. 269. Gualt: left, tab, S6./.A. 
lionan. reir. 2-f-g. 64, 65. Muj. Kirch, 2./. 63, 64. 
Argen'v. conch, tao, 21 C. KnorrVergn. 6. tab. 4./^ !• 
Reojn/. conch. 1. tab. S. f. 17. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 32.^. 343. 

2. Rumpf. 42. G. Pet. Amb. tab. 18,/. 20. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab, ^z./' 340. 

3, Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 32. y. 344* 

Inhabits Britijh and Afiatic Seas : 2 | inches long and 3 \ broad; 
Jfiell imooth glofiy, brown or buff-colour with a few taint rays, 
v/ithin pure wni.e ; 3) Tnowy with faint angular reddilh lines, 

Maculata. Shell fmooth with a few faint fpots. 

Lifter conch, tab. 270. Gualt, tell. tab. 86. I. 

Argennjille conch, tab. 21. H. Megenf. conch. I, tab.%.f. 16, 

Adans feneg, 1. tab. IJ.f, 15. 

Knorr Vergn., z%.f. 5 and 5, t,ZO.f, 3. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. ^^.fg- 345. 

Inhabits the American Ocean; refemblcs the laft, but is only 1 1 
inch long and 2 \ broad : white brown or greenilh-brown, 
with brown or tawny fpots and fometimes 2 interrupted rays: 
hind-tooth of the hinfje fliort thick obtufe. 

Meretrtxt Shell glabrous, with a brown gibbous flope before and 
gaping membranes: margin entire. 
Gualt. Tejl. tab. 76. C. Argenz>. conch, tab* 21. F, 
Knorr Vergn. 6, tab. 6./! 3. 
Schrcet. Journ. 3. tab, z.f. 7. 
Chemn, conch, 6, tab. 33./^. 347 — 352. 
2. Boiit. Muf. C^f. Find. t:fl. tab. 4. /. 12, I 3. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocew?, near the mouths of rivers. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 223 

Shell thick convex quite rniooth, fometimes white fometimes 
brown, with or without rays; within white. 

Tumid, quite fmooth radiate with white, lips of the an- 
terior Hope fubvioleti 

Cualt. Test, tab. ^"i. fig. V. 

Knorr. Vergn. 4. tab. 2^,/ig. 2 and 6. t, 10. f. 5. 

Schrczt. Einl csnch. 3 tab. 8,/jg. 7. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian Seas', about I |- inch long 
and 1 |- broad ; 77t«'// glofly yellowifh with white blueifh or 
browniih rays: anterior flope oblong, pointed below, imprefled, 
glabrpus, varied with white and blue i iinprelfion behind the 
beaks nightly heart-lhaped and white. 

Shell triangular rounded, gibbous, quite fmooth and marked 

with angular characters. 
Lijler conch, tab, z^J, 258, 259, 262, 287. 
Eonan.recr. l- fig. 376, 378. Muf. Kirch. 2./. 311,312. 
Rumpf. Amb. tab. 42 k. Gualt. Tejl. tab. 82. H. 
Valtnt. Abh. tab. i^-f'S- ^^- ■^''g^^'^' coach, tab, 21, M* 
Lejfer teftaceoth.Jig. 108, 109. 
Knorr y^ergn. i. tab. z%.fig, 2, 2. /. 10./. 2, 3. t, if.f, 4 and 6. 

tab. 6. fig. 5, 6. 
Chemn. conch, 6, tab. ^^ fig- 367 — 381. 
Regenf. conch. I, tab. 1 fig, 3, 4. t. \.f.Sf\» 
Inhabits the Indian Qrean and Red Sea : 1 f inch long and nearly 

2 broad; white with brown chefnut and pale yellow lines 

forming triangles, and marked with tranfverfe very fine arched 

ftriae : margin very entire. 

Shell fmooth, tranfverfely ftriate before and behind: pofte- 
rior flope obcordate with violet veins. 
Inhabits the Southern Ocean. 

Shell ovate comprefl^ed, tranfverfely ftriate, with a gaping 
future behind. 

Lifler conch, tab. 378. Argenv. Zoom. tab. 12 B' 

Knon l^cign. 6. tah. 7, fig, 2, 4, 6, 5, 6. 1 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. ^7^. f.g. 450 — 454* 

Inhabits the American And Indian Ocean; I finch long, 2 f broad: 
Jhell white with blueifh brown or ro(y angular lines or Ipots, 
or violet, or marked with alternate blue and flame-colour 
bands; within v/hite with tranlverle ilriae : bea/is diiUnt : 
anterior flope cut: margin denticulate. 

Shell fubovate tranfverfely ftriate and fubpdlucidi the 
membranes clofed. 
O. Fabr.fn. Grccal. p. 41 2. h, 41 3. 



WORMS. TEST ACi^A. 62. Venus. 

Inhabits Iceland^ among the ulva foliacca: 1-2 inches broad; i i 
long ; Jkell thin brittle oblong, outwardly violet-brown with 
a whicilh border, within white without longitudinal ftrix. 

• DsPiorata Shell oval, langitudlnally wriiikled^ famipellucid, radiate 
with purple and white within and without, 

Pennartt Brit. ZooLi^.tab Sl'M' 54* 

Lifter conch, tab. 425./^. 273. 

Seba Muf, 86.}%. \y r 

Knorr Vergn. t. tab, zo. Jig. 5 and j, /. 11./ 2. 
, Chetnn,conCh.6.taif.(^.jfig.'J<^-^^2, 

2. Chemn, 6. tab. f.fig> 83. kuml>f. Muf. tabt 4^. C. 

Peti'v, Arab. tab. 17./^. 9. Gualt. ieft. tab. 85. G. 

Inhabits European and American Seas : 1 f — 2 inches long, 2 {- 
5 broad : marked with a few tranlverfc stria: croffing the 
wrinkles; without white cinereous yellowi(h or purple with a 
few blueifh or reddifh rays : htngs with 2 teeth in one valve 
and I which is cleft in the other. 

Fimhriata. Shell oval gibbous, longitudinally ftriate and trahfverfely 

grooved ; the margin crcnulate. 
Bar but. tab. \ jig. 1 1 Argen'v. conch tab. 21. Gi 
Li fier conch, tab SSJ./f. 172. t. 1056.^: \? 
RumpJ. Muf tab. 43. F. Guak. tefi. tab 75. C. 
Petiv. amb. tab. x^.fig. 8. Klein ostr. t. 10./. 52* 
Born, f^'uf. Co/, yind. te/t. tab. 5 Jig. 4. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. /[.^.Jig. 448, 449. 
2. Reddifh with a blackilh margin and without longitudinal strisc. 
Rum/)/. Muf. tab. 43 G. Petit', atrtb. tab, l^./g. 10. 
Inhabits East India : 2 inches long and 3 broad. 
She// white strong with an oblong gaping (lopCj and imprefiion 

behind the beaks : hinge with 2 middle teeth and 2 lateral 


Reticulata. Shell with elevated dccuiTate ftrise, and a hcart-fhaped de- 
preflion behind the beaks ; the margin entire. 
LiJler conch, tab. 836. Gualt. teft. tab. 83. L. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. tub. \o.fg. 3. 
Chemn. ccnch. 6. tab. 3b. fig. 382 — 384. 
2. Spotted with brown or red. Gualt. test. tab. %%. A. 

Inhabits /«^m; rcfembles the last, but is more heart-fhaped ; z 

inches long, 2 \ broad, and is more gibbous : jhell white with 

brownifh or reddifh clouds, fometimce radiate or fpotted ; the 

* stria: chin, the tranfverfe ones a little curved ; hinge with 3 


Squamo/a, Shell with reticulate ftria: and fcaly on the back part. 
Barbut, tab. 4. /, x 2, Rumpf* Mnf. tab, 44. M» 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 225 

Petrj, amb. tab. ^^.f'g- 17. Gualt. test, tab, 33. G. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tah, ^X-fig. 335- 

Inhabits ImUa ; refembles V. flexuofa. 

Shell yellovvifh Or ferruginous, the anterior Hope Imprcfled ob- 

long-ovatc with blue veins and lines> pofterior flope brown; 

within white : margin entire. 

Shell roundifh, with dctufTate membranaceous ftria:: lips 

Gualt, test. tab. 76. G. Argetiv. conch, tab. 23, F, 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab, xo.fig. I. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 36.//^. 388, 389, 
2. Lister conch, tab. l^\. fig. 178. 

Inhabits India; refembles V. reticulata, but is more coarfc folid 

and convex : pollerior flope flit and hardly impreiTed; outiide 

marked with brown fpots lines and marks, the fore-part browH: 

within blue. 

Shell nearly triangular fraooth', retufe before and behind. 

Lifter conch, tab. 252. Gitalt. teli. tah, 75. Q^ 

Adanf. Seneg. I. tub, IcS./ig. 4. 

Chemn conck. 6. tab. l^-ftg- 33°- 3 3 2. 
Zi Velio wifh -brown with bluciihlips. 

Knorr. l^ergn. 6. tab, ^.ftg. 4. 

Inhabits Africa, 2) the Mediterranean ; about an inch long and 
fomething broader ; marked with fine iranfverfe ftriae : yel- 
lowifli-brown white or cinereous with fometlmes 2 brown 

Shell with tranfverfe membranaceous arched ftrix: pofterior 
flope reddifh, heart-fhaped with oblique lips. 
Argenv* conch, tab. 21. k. I'al. abh. tab. iS-fg' 21. 
Chemn conch, 6. tab. 7.%. fg. zg'^—zgj. 

Inhabits the Indian Seas; very rare.- pale flefh-colour with a 
white knob, the anterior flope red glabrous deep with an ob- 
long gape. 

Shell gibbous with tranfverfe membranaceous arched ftrias: 
pofterior Hope heart-ftiaped: margin crcnulate. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 2^. fg. 303. 

Inhabits India, above 2 inches long and as mucn broad. 

.Ji>eV/ thick, whitifli afh with oblong chefnut fpots ; anterior flope 
oblong fubimorefled, in the left valve glabrous and varied 
with white and brown, with an oblong gape. 

Shell with tranfverfe arched ftriae membranaceous towards 
the margin: anterior flppe fhort, pofterior imprcftion 

VOL. IV.— F f Schret 

226 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Shral. EinL in conch, 3. tab. %• Jig. 8, 9. 
Inhabits the Red Sea; relembles V. quineenfis.' 
SheJ/ bloeitti on the foie-part outwardly, within deeper; hind* 
part generally dirty white. 

GranulataX Shell rounded, with decuflate ftrix, the fore-part and cre- 
nulate margm vio'et. 

Bern. MuJ, Caf. Vind. tej), tab. if. Jig* 5, 6. 

Chemn. conch. 6. tab. "^o.fg. 3 1 3« 

Inhabits the American Ocean ; rerembles V. marica, but the an- 
terior flope is glabrous and fometimes livid fometimes varied 
with white and blueifli; Jhell white varied with livid or 
blackifti fpots and angular lines : pofterior impreflion hcart- 
fhaped and blackifh or blueifh. 

Imbricattit ^^^ ^'^^ perpendicular imbricate ribs tranfverfely ftriatej 
the margin crenate 
Lister conch, tab, 497. hg. 52. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. %0. fig. 314* 315. 

Found in a foflile ftate in France', the hinge is that of a Venus, 
but in its general appearance it more refembles a Cardium. 

Divaricata Shell with thin tranfverfe longitudinal ftrias crofling fome 

divergent ones towards the margin : pofterior imprellion 

ovate: maagin crenate. 
Lifter tab. 310. Chemn. conch. S. tab, '^o.fig. 316. 
Inhabits Eaji India: white with brown lines veins and fpots: 

anterior flope oblong gaping veined blackilh-brown ; hinge 

with 4 teeth. 

Contraria* Shell oblong flattifli with tranfverfe ftriae contrary on the 
hind-part: margin crenate. 
Chemn, conch 6. tab. 30. ^g. 317—319. 
Inhabits Guinea ; refembles Cardium ^olicum. 
Shell oi various colours; the anterior flope and inner margin of 
the pofterior fpottted with black. 

Galhu* Shell oblong-ov?te radiate, with thick crowded tranfverfe 
ftrras: anterior lope broad ovate: pofterior impreffion 
Chemn, conch. 6. tab. 'i'i-.fig, 324, 325. 

Inhabits Malabar, 1 \ inch long and above 2 broad; the 
younger ones cinereous, the old ones yellowifti with 4 
darker rays. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 


Flammea, Shell tranfverfely ftriate, the back glabrous: anterior flope 
very broad with brown lines: imi»refIion behind the 
beaks heart-ihaped with brown lines. 
Scbrcet. Einl. Conch. 3. /. 200. tab. S./tg. 12. 
2. With 3 brown rays. Schrctt. conch, p. 200. n. 146. 

Inhabits the Red Sea, refembles the laft, but the knob is bluei/h 
and the (hell is white with cinereous lines fpots and marks. 

Corbicula, Shell triangular fmooth truncate each fide with ycllowifh 
rays: Hope heart- (haped: margin very entire. 
Knorr Fergn. 5. tah. 15. fig. 2 and 6, t, lo.f. 5. 
Cl^emn. conch. 6. tab. Z^'f^S' 5^^- 

Inhabits the At /antic and American Seat : anterior flope pale 
chefnut with a large gape. 

* Sinuo/a. Shell fomewhat triangular thin Convex, with a deep obtufe 
indentation in the middle of the front. 
Dono'vans Britijh Shells, ii. tah. \z.fig. 2. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. SS'/'i' S'* A. 
Found at Weymouth, 

Shell triangular, quite fmooth, olivaceous obfcurely baneed; 

within white or blucilh : anterior flope heart-fliaped, 

porterior ovate. 
Martin. I. Manigf. I. tab. \.fig. 1.2. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. '},'i.fig» i2y--^2^. 
Inhabits rivers of Guinea ; very rarei 
Shell thick coarfe, with convergent beaks, and crcnate teeth in 

the hinge. 

Shell green, within white, with tranfverfe unequal mem- 
branaceous ftrias : margin acute. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. ifZ.ftg , H. 
Chemn, conch. 6. tah, ^2. jig, 2 36, 

Inhabits rivers of Ceylon : 2 \ inches long and 3 broad j with an 
oblong gape on the anterior flope: 2 of the hinge-teeth cleft. 

Shell gibbous fnowy, the anterior part convex and with the 
infide pale violet ; anterior flope roundith, pofterior 
hcart-fhaped ; margin very entire. 
Chemn: conch, 6. tab. H.fig. 346. 

Inhabits India : on the anterior flope is a large oblong gape ; 
anterior tooth of the hinge in each valve crenulate. 

Shell thin glabrous convex, white varied with brown pofte- 
rior Hope elongated, with oblique tumid lips : hinge 
with 4 teeth. 

F f 2 Cualt, 

228 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Guali.test, tab. 75. M. Knorr l^ergtt. 4. tab^ ^./[ifig. z. 
Chemn, conch. 6. tab. I'^.ftg* 353' 354« 
Inhzhks Mauritius IJIattd; rcfemblcs V. laeta. 
S^e/I marked with brown rays fpots and angular lines : anterior 
flope excavated with an oblong gape, 

Opima* Shell thick convex, with an ovate anterior flope and ovate 
heart-fliapcd one behind : hinge with only 3 teeth. 

Chemn. concb. 6. tab. l\-Jig' 355 — 357. 

Inhabits India: fometimes pale with darker rays, fometiines 

white with blueifh fpots and clouds, fometimes grey with 

darker fpots and clouds. 

Xrl*'*^fata.^\izVi convex, grey; with 3 blackilh-blue rays: poflerior 
< flope elongated, with tumid lips. 

Inhabits ^rtfa^K^W. Chernn. conch. 6. tab. 'i\- fg^ 358. 

VehuUfai Shell ochraceous with cinereous and bliieidi fpots: antcrioj 
flope oval with blweifli lips, pofterior flope ovate 

(^hemn. cench. 6. tab. 34. fig. 359—361. 

\xxh-}^\i%Tranquebar'. generally marked with 4 ra)s varied v/ith, 
cinercoijs and white. 

Contemta? Shell thick triangular equilateral glabrous, with convergent 
beaks: prirnary tooth of the Ijinge crenulate. 
Chemn^conch. 6. tab. '^\' fig. 362, 363. 

Inhabits Afa/a^ar; minute, ^^a^i fometimes white, fometlme« 
reddlHi ordufky, fometimes marked with a fanguineous M. 

Japoniea, Shell oblong-ovate, inequilateral, with crowded tranfvcrfe| 

flrias at the fides: poflerioi: iiiaprelfiou ol^long-ovate. 

Bonann. Muf. kirch.Z.fig, X^S^'f 

Chemn. conch. 6 tab. ^^-fig' 364, 

Inhabits Jafan: yellowifti or milk-white with purple triangular 

charafters arid angles : probably not of this divifion. 

Striata. Sh^ll ventricofe, angular at the anterior part, with tranfverfe 
thick fmooth ilightly arch<;d ftri*e ; polterlor impreflior 
Bonan. recr. Z.fig* 377. Muf. Kirch. Z. ftg. 113. 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 36. /j-. 385. 

2. Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 36. fig. 386. 

Inhabits India', grey-white with brown rays clouds and fpots;; 
anterior flope ovate with plaited lips. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 229 

Textile. Shell oval quite fmooth inequilateral: flopes oblong with 
pale chclnut or oblong lines: margin very entire. 

Lifter Conch, tub. 400. KnorrVergn. 2. tab, z^.fig. 4. 

Chtmn. conch. 7, tab. ^l.f'g- 442, 443» 

Inhabits Mulakar and t;ie lied Sea ; i ^ inch long, 2 I broad : 
ycllowifh or pale flefli-coj.)ur with blucilh or brownilh veins; 
lips of the anterior flope rounded. 

Ccrrugiiia. Shell ovate vi'hitifh, with tranTverfe ftriae, which on the 
anterior part are thick and Itrong, on the pollerior part 
very thin and undulate in the iTiiddie. 

Qbemn. conch. 7. tab. ^z. fig. 444. 

Inhabits int Mediterranean: anterior flopc with an oblong gaping 

Monftrofc. Shell ovate whitifli with decuffate flrix : hinge with only 
1 teeth in the left vale. 
Chemn, conch, 7. tab. \z.fig. 445. 446. a, b. 
Inhabits Nicbar JJlamis, very rare: the left valve extends over 
the other at the liinge and at the fides. 

Fonderofa, Shell folid weighty inequilateral, wrinkled on both fides, 
cinereous: margin crenulate : hinge with 2 teeth. 
Chemn. Naturf. 19. tab. \S.fig. a, d. 
Chemn conch. 7. tab. tg.fig. A — D. 

Inhabits the 6W/.'itT-^ Ocean: oblong-ovate: beaks turned back: 
poflerior i:v;pre{!ion ovai?. 

Siihviridij, Shell grecnifli glabrous thick, with prominent beaks: mar- 
gin Very entire. , 
\Ti.\\.i.hiti—-^^Lister Csnch. tab; l^^./ig. 13; 

Kollrata. Shell ovate with perpendicular fcalyftriac cro/fing the tranf- 
verle ones 346. Klein, odr, tab, lo./igl 51. 
2. Lifter conch, tab. 348./}^. j 86. 
Inhabits 2) fpotted with brown. 

l-tft'^. Shell brown with very fine perpendicular ftrix. 
Lister conch, tab. 423. yl?. 271, 
Inhabits -1 | inch long, 2 | broad. 

Lufitanica^ Shell oblong with fine tranfverfe ftria; : the margin crenatc. 
Bonan.recr. z.fig. 45. Muf. Kirch, 2.fig» ^*, 
Inhabits Seas round Portugal, 


230 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

PunSulata Shell ovate, white with bay lines and yellowifli dots. 
Bofian. recr. 2. fig- 46. Muf, Kirch, z.fig. 45. 
Inhabits feas round Corjica. 

Fa/data, Shell round fraooth, with bay and yellowilh rays; one part 
blue, the other livid. 
Inhabits BonaK.recr, 2i fig. 66. Muf. Kirch. 2. fig. 65. 

Cornea, Shell oval inequilateral and (lightly wrinkled, fleQi-colour 
with 3 rays. 
Bonanrecr. 3. ftg. 3?2. Muf. Kirch. z,fig. 1 1 5. 
Inhabits 1 ^ inch long, 2 ^ broad ; towards the center in- 
clining to roly or purple, 

Virgata. Shell fteel-blue with pale yellow rays, within violet. 
Rumpf. Muf tab. 42. I. Pet. Amb. tab. \Z.fig. 16. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean; refembles V, coaxan but is thinner. 

I'erf color. Shell oval obliquely ftriatc, whitilh with white fulvid blue- 
ifli and red rays. 

Inhabits Gualt. teji. tab. S6.fig. B, C. 

5^c// inequilateral and deeply grooved. 

fariegaia. Shell ovate inequilateral, very finely ftriatc and dotted with 
blueilh, with brownift] and blackiih rays. 

Inhabits GuaJt teft, tab. 89. H. 

Shell with a few tranCverfe white lines, 

4methyfir.a Shell ovate violet, with perpendicular (Iria:. 

Inhabits Argennj. Couch, tab, zi.Jig, D, 

Shell near 2 inches long and 2 \ broad. 

Calipyga, Shell ovate behind, tranfveifely Inequilateral^, flriatQ and 
marked with angular lines. 
Born Muf Ctes. Find. test, tah^ S' fS'> *• 
2. Bonan, recr, 2. fig. 62. Muf Kirch. 2, ftg. 61. 

Inhabits the Ihores of Lijbon : yellowifli with brown lines and a 
fnowy knob. 


Senegaknfis Shell ovate with very fine decufTate ftria;, white or flefli- 
colour varied with brown. 
Inhabits S^Hf^a/. Adans. ij.fg. II. 
Wf// minute, i i inch broad and not an inch long. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 


Mctadoa, Shell triangular, white or yellow, with about 40 tranfverfc 
parallel grooves. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adant Seneg. tab. \%. fig» 5* 
Refembles V. tripla; about i f- inch long. 

Siucinaai Shell heart-lhaped with tranfverfe remote excavated grooves; 

the margin crenulate. 

Inhabits Mant. z. p. 546. 

Shell about the fize of the little finger, with 14 grooves: pof- 

terior flope ovate imprcffed, anterior flope with a jagged 


Cimprefa. Shell flightly hcart-fhapcd, very much comprefTcd, tranf- 
verfely grooved. 

Inhabits Mant. 2. /. 546. 

Margin very entire : Hopes linear and a little jagged. 

Auliralis. Shell hcart-lhaped polllhed, white with brownifh charac- 
ters ; the margin very entire. 
Chemn, conch. lO. tab. ijl'/'g- 1662, 
2. Martyn univers. Conchol. tab. 40 /* 
Inhabits the Southern Ocean. 

Gigantea, Shell ovate livid, with numerous interrupted blueifli rays:, 
pofterior impreflion ovat«r 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab, I'/l'f'g* 1661. 
Favann, Conch, tab. ^^.fig" 9'» 
Inhabits Ihores of Ceylon and Florida. 

B. Orbicular. 


Shell lentiform with crenate decuflate ftrix : pofterior flope 
imprelTed ovate. '^Y], Adans./eneg. tab. 16. fig. 3, 
Bonan. recr. 2.. ^g,6g. Muj. Kirch. 2.. fig. 70. 
Rumpf. MuJ. tab. 43. H, Gualt, tell. tab. 77. A. 
Petiai. tab. iS./tg. 9. 
Argen-vilk ecnch, tab. 2 i.fig* E. 
Eytem. app. tab, 1 1 ./"ig. 44. 

Knorr. Vergn. 2. tab. if. fig, I. /. 3./". 2* and 6. /. I'J.f 2, 
Chemn. conch. 6, tab. IfJ-jig. 390, 391. 

2. Knorr Fergr. 4. tab. "^.fig. 2. 

3. Venus orbicularis. Syjl. Nat. %.p. 688. 
\vi\i2ki\X^ American and Indian Ocean; large. 


232 . WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Veuu?. 

SMI (omtiimes entirely white, fometimes reddifh at the fides 
and red within with a yellow knob ; perpendicular ftrise 
ftrqnger ; margin within glabrous, without crenate ; flopes 
narrow : hinge with 2 middle teeth. 

Proflrata. Shell orbicular, tranfverfely flriate, with rough membra- 
naceous lips. 
Born Mil/. Cf»s, Find. tejl. tab, S'f'S' ^• 
Chemn.^ 29./^;?. 298. 

Inhabits Coromandel ; 2 inches long and a little lefs broad. 
Shell flattened black cinereous or brownifh : beaks inflefted : 
anterior Hope with an oblong g:ipe, pofterior heart-fhaped. 

Penfyha- Shell lentiform with glabrous wrinkles, white, with a lou- 
yj^^^ gitudinal groove on the anterior part each fide. 

Lifter. r«^. 305. Argenu. conch, tab. 21. N. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 1 4. fig. 4. 
Born. Muf. C<:ef. Find. tejl. tab. ^.fig, 8. 
Schrent. Journ. 31. tab. '2.. fig. 8. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 37. fig. 394 — 396. 

2. With an additional longitudinal groove behind. 
Lifier Conrh. tab. 265 ? tab. 298. 

Chemn. conch, 7. tab. 39i^/%. 408, 409. 

3. Very brittle. O.Fab.fn. Grant, p. 313.W. 314.^ 

Inhabits America', 2 inches long : white lolid with a linear fron- 
tal gape; pofterior imprcflion fmall wrinkled heart-fhapcd : 
margin very entire. 

spuria. Shell white fubglabrous, with a longitudinal groove on the 
anterior part : hinge without lateral teeth. 
Lister. Conch, tab. 2g6. fig. 153. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. '^^.fg. 399. 
Inhabits Iceland vc^^ Ferroe IJland', refembles the laft. 

Iscrustata. Shell lentiform glabrous and quite fmooth with excavated 
Inhabits India. Muf. Lud. Ulr. p. qoj. n. 68. 
Shell covered with a thick whitifh crult within, and is probably 
the fame as V. tigerina deformed by age. 

Puniiaia. Shell lentiform, longitudinally grooved, dotted within. 
Ru?npf Muf. tab. 43. D. Gualt, teft. tab. 75. D. 
Petiv. Amb. aq. tab. iS.fig. 6. 
Chemn. conch. ", l~.fg. 397, 398" 
Inhabits India, 2 inches long, 2 I broad. 

5W/ thick antiquated, white mixed here and there with reddlfli, 
covered within with a thick ochraccous cruft j the margin 
very entire, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62, Venus. ^33 

*Exclcta. Shell lentiform, tranfverfely ftriate, pale with obfolete 
rays ; pofterior Hope hcart-lhapcd, 

Donovan s Br:t Shells, ii. tab. \t.fig. i. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. ^S.feg.^g. 

Da Cojla Bnt, Conch, tab. It.fig- 5- 

Lister, tab. ZC)Z.ftg' I 28. /. 297./. I 34, 

Gualt,test^ tab, 75. F. Adam. fen. i. tab, \6.ftg. 4. 

Born Muf. Caf. Vtnd. teft. tab. S- fg- 9« 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 2^. Jig' 40Z — 404. 
2. With a few longitudinal yellowKh lines. 

Brit. Zool. iv. td). 54./i'« 49- A, Lister, tab. 293. 

Chemn. conch. 7. /fl<^. jJ^. /?^^. 406. 

Inhabits Nor--May and Brilijh Coasts i about 2 inches long and as 
much broad; refembles V. prolifataj but is more convex and 
the lips are riot rough: beaks incurved: within covered with 
a thick whitifh crelt : pofterior impreffion ferruginous. 

• Utidata.- Shell thin convex orbicular, whitifh tinged with yellow; 
with thin tranfverfe (inx: margins waved. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. SS-J'S- S^\ 
Inhabits BritiJIi Seas; fize of i hazel nut. 

Tumidula. Shell gibbous, with tfanlverfe remote rather obfolete 
Inhabits-: Mant. 2. p. 546 : margin very entire. 

Sinenfis. Shell longitudinally flriato, with tranfverfe white and vi- 
olet arches. 
Chemn conch. 10. tab. ly I. f/g. 1663, 
Inhabits the Qhintfe Shores, 

Sinuata. Shell lentiform, tranfverfely ftriate, with an oblong gaping 
fent on the anterior Hope: hinge with 4. teeth. 
Lifter conch, tab 294. fig, I JO. 
Chemn. conch. 7. lab. ^S./ig. 400, 40 r. 

2. With a few paler bands. 
Lifer conch, tab. 2()0. fig. I 26. 

3. Like var. 2. but fma'.lcr. 
Lifier conch, tab. zSg. fig. 125, 
Cuait, test. tab. 7$./ig- N. 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. l^-fig. j. 

Inhabits Nicobar If anus ; refembles V, exoleta, but is lefs or- 
bicular, more convex, aiul tlie ftriae are more elevated, 

* Bona.'is. Shell lentiform, wit!i very remote tranfverfe membrana- 
ceous ftrix. 

VOL. IV.— G g Br.-. 

234 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Brit. Zool. IV. p. 96. Cualt. test. tab. TS'fig- 5. 

lt(ler conch, tab. 21^^. fig* 88. 

Li/ler an. Angl. tab. \.Jig. 23. 

Chemn. conch.. 7. tab. 2)9' fg' 4^2 — 414' 

Inhabits European Seas i i | inch long and nearly 2 broad; co- 
vered with a chefnut cuticlcj under which it is white, angu- 
lar, with unequal ftrix which are a little more remote than 
they are in V. exolcta: anterior flope with a long and narrow 
fent, pofterior depreffion heart-fhaped : hinge with 1 tooth in 
one valve and 2 in the other. 

Pe^inata. Shell fublentiform with longitudinal wrinkled grooves, 
branched near the anterior margin. 
/ Lister Conch, tab. 312,313. 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 42. D. \%.jig. 14. 

Gualt. teji. tab. 72. E, F. tab. 75. A. 

Argenv, conch, tab, 21. P. Knorr Vergn. 6. tab, '^' fig* 3. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 39. fig. 415—419. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Ocean ; above I \ inch long, 
and about 2 broad, more ©r lefs convex, fomctimes white with 
a brown pofterior ftope and a few fpots on the anterior part, 
fometimes entirely (potted with brown, fometimes marked 
with a few black brown fpots on the anterior part : margin 
unequally crenate. 

Scripic. Shell lentiform.comprefred ftriate angular, the hinder angle 
Rumpf. Muf. tab' 43, C. Argen'v. conch, tab. 24. M, 
Pet. Amb. tab. i8./j-, 3. Gualt, teft.tttb. -j-j. C. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. l^'fig. 3. 
Cherfin.corich. 7. tab. J^O. fig. 420—426. 

2. Born. Muf. Caf. Find. te/t. tab. ^. fig, 7. 
Chernn. conch. 7. tflb l().fig. 410, 41 I. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean and Red Sea : very rare,' 
Shell truncate each fide, the hind-part more fo than the fore ; 
within white with a brown fpot j without varied : margin 
very entire : dopes marked with chefnut fpots. 

Edcnrula. Shell fubglobular-lenticular, wrinkled, without teeth: 
pofterior flope ovate. 

Lister conch, tab. 260. Gualt. test. tab. 88. B. 

Chemn. conchi 7. tab. 40./%. 427—429. 

Inhabits the American Ocean: diaphanous whitifh, when frc(h a 
little reddifh, within golden except the margin which is very 
entire : fent on the anterior flope narrow : beaks turned back, 

Clr.aa. Shell very convex and furrounded with rings, the inter- 
mediate grooves crenate: pofterior Hope heart-fliaped ; 

margin crenulate. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 235 

Chemn, conch. 6. tah, ">,(>* fig' 387. 

Inhabits— Minute, white wiih ferruginous fpots and clouds, 

within with a few purple fpots under the beaks. 

Cancentrica Shell white fuborbicular compfeflcd, ■with concentric ftrix : 
margin very entire : porterior flope heart-fhaped. 
Adans Jeneg I. tab. iG.fig. 5. 
Lister conch, tab. 261. 288, 291. 
Cualt. teH. tab. 'jb.f'g. F. 
Born. Muf. Ca:f. Vind. teH. tab. S' Tig. S' 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. 37.//^. 392, 393. 

Inhabits the dtlantic and Ameiican Seas: r;uher large; anterior 
flope gaping : hinge with 4 oblique approximate teeth. 

Juvenilisi Shell lentiform, with tranfverrc crowded circular ftrii ofi 
the anterior part which terminate in wrinkles behind: 
poftcrior Hope hcart-lhaped : margin very entire, 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. "i^.fig- 407. 

Inhabits India : white with chefnut fpots varied with white 
bands and rays; anterior flope with an oblong linuate gape, 

IJijIrio* Shell lentiform with tranfverfe acute arched ilrias : margin 
entire ; pollerior Hope heart-lhaped ferruginous, 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. l''^- fig» 407. 

Inhabits India: varied with ciieiiiut fpots and rays: anterior 
flope long broad linuate and marked with whice and chefnut 

Globo/a. Shell globular hyaline with very fine tranfverfe flrias: mar- 
gin very entire : hinge wim 2 teeth. 

Chemn. conch, y. tab, /[.6. fig, j^.^0, 431. 

Inhabits the Red Sea; very rare: about an inch long and i \ 
' broad; flopes flightly impreflcd. 

Pe£lunculu! Shell orbicular equilateral, tranfverfely wrinkled and varie-. 
gated with rufous. 
Inhabits Japan. Lifter, tab. 254, 255, 256^ 

Albida. Shell orbicular fubcompreffed equilateral white, with very 
fine tranfverfe itris. 
Inhabits Jauiaica. Lijier. tab. 373.//^. ico^ 
2. luister conch, tab. 274. tig. i lo, 

Campechettm Shell orbicular inequilateral, with crowded acute tranfverfe 
fis. flrice. 

Lister conch, tab. 283, yf^-. 12I» 
Inhabits Camt<echy . 2 v inches longt 

G g 2 Cra£a: 

236 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Crajfa. Shell orbicular folid compreffed, with fine tranfvcrfe ftrix 
and red rays. ' 

Inhabits Lifier conch, tab. t^'^.ftg^ 136. 

Purpura/- Shell orbicular with very fine tranfvcrfe ftriae and purplilli 
ceiti, rays. 

Inhabits Lijler conch, tab. "^oy/lg. 144, 

2. Lifler conch, tab. 364. Klein cstr. tai. l^'jig' SI- 

Rubra. S^ell orbicular inequilateral, cliefnut with darker rays and 
■ crowded thick tranfvcrfe flrix. 
Inhabits J<w;fl/<rfl. Lister, tab. -^oS. fig. ii(^. 

Pv.filh. Shell orbicular inequilateral, whitifh with perpendicular 
ftrias. J 

Inhabits*-— Z//j/^r fo«f^, /<7^. ^ii.f'g. 147. 1 

This is probably a fpccies of Cardium. 

Violacea. Shell violet within, with perpendicular fcaly flrix : margin 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab, 338./?^. 175. 

Shell middle-fizcd, longer than it is broad, 

S^adicta, Shell chefnut, with perpendicular ftriae which arc fcaly 
towards the margin. 
Lister conch, tab, 340. fig. \yj. 
Inhabits ■ 2 inches long and nearly 2 f broad. 

Cancellata, SheH fubrufous csncellate. ' 

\xA\dki\X:i'— -^Lister conch, tab. i\^. pg. 181. minute. 

Lengaknjis Shell orbicular, nearly equilateral, with thick perpendicu- 
lar ftriae : beaks turned back. ' 
Inhabits Bengal. Lister conch, tab, l\S, fg, 182. 

* ^urea. Shell fuborbicular golden inequilateral, with very fine 
crowded tranfverfe ihix. 
Inhzhlii Englana, Lister conch, tab. zo\. fig, 249. 

Cbfcura. Shell broyvn with very thin perpendicular ftriae. 

Inhabits Lifter conch, tab. ^z^. fig. 111. 

Shell I 4 of an inch long, z |- broad. 

I'lrturata, ^^^^^ orbicular fubequilateral, with perpendicular wrinkles 
and puiple ravs. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 137 

Lister conch, tab. ^z\. Jig, 272. 
Inhabits 1 | inch long, i I b'oad. 

Xux. Shell lentiform teftaceous wrinkle.^, the poflcrior flope 

Eonan. recr. 2. F,g, 39. Muf. kirch, '^■. J'^. 38, 
Inhabits Seas of ')onia, 

Rugata. Shell orbicular teftaceous fubequilateral, with diflant tranf- 
vcrfe Avrijikles. 
Inhabits-*— -/iow(3«« recr. Z- fig. 5-^. 
Bonan, Muf, Kirch, z, fig. ^Z, 

Gihbula, Shell lentiforrn, tranfverfely ftriate, truncate on the an- 
terior parr. 

Inhabits rBonan recr. z.fig. 55. 

Bonan Muf. kirch. z.ftg. 53. 

Sieilata, Shell orbicular fmooth, golden with a wh.ite ftar at the 
Inhabits Lisbon^ Bonan, recr, '^*AZ' ^^* 

halua. Shell orbicular paje yellow, with elevated tranfverfe diftant 
Bonan recr. Z,fig, 76. Muf. Kirch. Z. fig' 75. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean, about Italy. 

Brafiliana, Shell lentiform, yellowifh-bFOwn, with tranfverfe thin dif- 
tant ihi^ : anterior flope broad blueilh, poiterior flope 
heart-fliaped blueilh- 
Bonan, recr. Z'fi'Z* 345* Muf, Kirch, z.fig. 102. 
2. Bonan. recr. I. fig, 380. Muf. kirch. 2. jig. 114* 
Inhabits fliorcs o'i Braftl: beaks bent back. 

Pellucida. Shell orbicular pellucid fmooth ; anterior flope pale golden 
with chefnut fpots, poftcrior flope heart-fhaped with 
green and red veins. 

Inhabits .Brafil. Bonan, recr. "i.f'g' 397- 

Bonan Mif, kirch. z, ft g. 118. 

^oloferic^ Shell orbicular folid, white with undulate gold ftr^x, and a 
broad yellow band towards the margin varied with 
tranfverfe brown lines. 
Bcnan. recr. "i. fig. 398. Muf. hiich. z.fig. 1 1 9. 
Inhabits larger than V. pellucida. 


^38 Worms, testacea. 62. Venus. 

Macajf- Shell orbicular ventricofe thick, brownifh radiate with 
arica. white, and marked with annular ftrias. 

Inhabits MacaJJar. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 43. K. 
Petiv- amh. aq. tab. \%.ftg. 13. 

Jurantia. Shell fuborbicular orange-colour. 

Inhabits Valent,ahh tab. ii^.frg 20. 

Shell nearly 2 inches long, and 2 \ broad, 

Fuha. Shell lentiform fulvous, with very fine circular ftriae. 
Inhabits Guah. tejl. tab. y^-ftg. E* 

Candida, Shell orbicular white, with reticulate liria;. 
Inhabits Qualt. te/t. tab. 75. fig L. 

Albicans. Shell orbicular, tranfverfely ftriate, whitilh with brown 
Ipots lines and angular charaders. 
Inhabits— —G'W/. test. tab. T^'fg' G. 

Vndulata. Shell fuborbicular, tranfverfely ftriate, whittfli with teddifli 
undulate lines and dots. 
Inhabits^ Gualt. tefl. tab, 7$. fig. 0. 

2, Gualt, te/t. tab, T^-fig- ?• 

' 3. Gualt. teit. tab. J$.jig. R. 

4. Gualt. teJl. tab, "jS./ig. A. 

Litieata, Shell orbicular equilateral, white with very fine tr^nfverfe 
ftrias which are thicker towards the margin. 
Inhabits Gualt. fe/t. tab. JJ.ftg. B. 

Lavis Shell fmooth, nearly equilateral, whitifti, 

Inhabits Gualt. tefi. tab. JJ.ftg. F. 

2. Gualt. Test, tab, JJ.ftg, G. 

Cornea. Shell orbicular fmooth inequilateral, livid horn-colour with 
a tranfverfe white line. 
Inhabits " . -Gualt. Jest, lab, Zz.fig. B. 

Guttata. Shell orbicular fulvid, dotted with white at the margin. 
Inhabits Gualt. test, tab, %z.fig% F. •♦ 

Rufe/cens, Shell inequilateral reddifb, fmooth with a few tranfverfe 

Inhabits — Guah, test. tab. ^S'/tg- D. 




WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 


Shell lentiform, with cancellate ftrix and radiate ; the mar- 
gin crenulate : greeniOi with darker fpots. 
Jn habits- ■ ■ 'Argewv. Zoomorph. tab, ^./tg. B. 

Shell white with radiate fpots and arched ftriae, in the mid- 
dle a large grey fpot tapering upwards. 
Inhabits Argenv. Zoomorph, tab, iz. ftg. G. 

f umens. 

Shell entirely flefh-colour, with longitudinal ribs crofling 
the rather remote tranfverfe wrinkles. 
Inhabits ■ Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. '^. ftg'. 3» 

Shell I \ inch long and 1 \ broad; 

Shell thin, a little convex, with fine tranfverfe ftria: : within 
fnowy, without marked with the letter W and many 
fcattered dots: beaks infledled. 
Inhabits- ■ Regenf. conch, y./ig. 12. 

Shell tumid folid fmooth, with a few tranfverfe wrinkles 
towards the margin. 
Inhabits Africa. AdanSyfeneg. 16. fig. J* 
Shell covered with a dirty white fkin, i ^ inch long and above « 
broad : hinge with 4 teeth in each valve. 

Diaphane,. Shell thin orbioular pellucid quite fmooth fnowy: 
with 2 teeth in each valve. 
Inhabits Africa, Adam Jeneg. I. tab. iS.fig, 8; 
Shell about an inch and a half in diameter. 


Shell fuborbicular comprefled hard tranfverfely grooved, 
reddifli with brown rays, within violet. 
Adansfeneg. I. tab. ijifg^ 12. 

Inhabits Africa: about 6 inches broad, 4 \ long: probably not 
of this Genus. 

Shell orbicular comprelfed fnowy, with longitudinal rounded 
grooves crolTed by tranfverfe ftris, 
Adans feneg. I. tab. l^.fg. 3. 

Inhabits Africa: about 9 lines in diameter; grooves 26 — 30: 
hinge with very (hort teeth. 

Shell tranfparcnt, pale fulvous within and without, with 
very fine longitudinal grooves. 
Inhabits ^/ru-^z. Adans feneg. \,tab. iS.fg. 4. 
About 16 lines long and not fo much broad, 


^4o WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Dj/cors, Shell orbicular, a little convex ; with longitudinal ftri^, the 
miJdle ones perpendicular, the outer ones oblique 
divergent and crolfed by tranfverfe ones, the interme- 
diate grooves and inner margin crenate. 

Inhabits Schrctt. Eir.l. in conch, 3. tab. S.Jig. ji. 

Shell inequilateral whitifli or ochraceous, with a few undu'Iaie 
ftrice or rays, fometimes marked with a few brown fpocs and 
clouds, within white: pofterior Hope oblong hearc-fliaped ; 
anterior flope narrow oblong brown, the lips cancellate white 
with black lines; 

Jcukata. Sheil orbicular fubequilaferal, with elevated acute tubcr- 
culate ribs: margin denticulate and crenate: hinge 
■with 2 middle teeth. 

Inhabits Schrat. Einl. in conch, 3. tab. 8. fig. 13. 

Shell rarely of one colour rcfembling the bloffoms of the peach 
tree, generally white ftriate with brown : the grooves deep. 

C. Oval a little angular near the beaks. 

*Litterata, Shell ovate, a little angular before^ with numerous fubun^ 
dulate tranfverfe Itrias. 
Pennant Brit. ZooL tab. S7-.^g' S3' 
Lijier Conch, tab. 402.^. 246. 
RutnpJ, Muf. tab. 43. B. Gualt. test. tab. 86. E, F. 
Argennj, conch, tab, 2 1. A. Petinj. amb, tab. \%.fg, 2. 
Bonan.recr. 2. fig. 67. MuJ\ Kirch. 2. Jig- 66. 120, 
Valent abh. tab. 13. fig. 6. /. 14./. 13. 
Knorr Fergn. 1. tab, ^>fig^ 4« Barbut. t. 4. y. ij, 
Regenf. conch. I. tab. 4. fig. 39. 
Chemn, conch. 7. tab, 41. fig. 432 — 434» 

2. Clouded. Chemn. conch, 7. ^ 41.^. 435, 
Valent. abh. t. \\.f. lO, 1 1, 12, 1 4. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. r, »4./i i. 

3. Dotted. Chemn. conch, 7. tab. 41. fig, 436, 437. 
Valent. abh. /. 15./. 19. 

4. Sprinkled. Chemn, conch, ']y tab. \1. jig. 438. 

5. Radiace. Chemn. conch, 7. tab. J^i, fig. 439. 

6. Spotted. Martin. Naturg. I. /. iz.f. 4. 

7. Valent abh. tab. l^.fig. 7 — 9. t. l^'f" IJ, x8. 

8. Regenf. conch, 1. t. if. f. 40 ? 

Inhabits Europe and India; z inches long, 2 ^ broad. 

Shell thick, whitifh with zig zag lines which in the European 
fpecimens are very faint ; anterior flope long narrow deep, 
with a longifh broad ftnt .• beaks very fmall. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

24 i 

Skell inequilateral thin, with fine deCuflate ftriaj, white re- 
ticulate with brown. 
Guah. teji. tab, ?6. fig. H. 
Chemn. conch, j. tab. /^i^fig. 440. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Britifi coajlr^ 

Rotmdata, Shell ovate, a little angular before, with tranfverfe flrias: 

middle tooth of the hinge bifid. 
Argenv.ZoGm. tab. 12. D. Olear gotl. tab. 2().ftg. 2. 
Knorr. Vergn. 2. tah. \2,fg. 4, 
Chemn, concb, 7. tab. ^2. Jig. 441. 
Inhabits the Indian 0^ea\ ; 1 \ long and 3 broad ; brown- 

ifh or ycllouifli with rays conipofed ot brown and yellow 

fpots ; pollcrior flope ovate lanceolate. 

*Decu/fata. Shell ovate with decufTate ftri^e, angular before. 

Gualtteft. tab. Z^.fig. E, I, L. Bnt. Zool. iv. t, 56./, 56? 

Brjrn Muf. Cits. Vind. test. tab. $ fig. 2, 3. 

Chemn. comb. 7. /. 43-/". 45 5 > 456. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean \ i \ inch long and 2 broad. 

5/6(?// thick Hrong convex, varying in colour, radiate fpotted or 
Itreaked ; within white mixed with yt How : p(;llerior flope 
very minute and rctufe : anterior flope long narrow with ge- 
nerally an inner blue margin : hinge with generally 2 cletc 
teeth .' 

Virgima. Shell fubovatc, fubangular before, with unequal tranfverfe 
ftria:: : anterior flope tumid. 

Chemn. 7. tab. \2.fig. 447- t- 43- /• 457> 458- a — c. 

Inhabits tlic Adriatic, and other feas ; refembles the laft, but is 
lefs and without the perpendicular itria;. 

.Si^f// reddifli, lometimes radiate, with cinereous fpots or angular 
brown lir.e^j within white or ycUowifll, lometimes blue at the 
fides or margin, more or lers ovate, and the tranfverle ilriae 
more or lefs confpicuous : the filh is eatable. 

Virginica^ Shell ovatc tranfverfely wrinkled : hinge with 2 teeth, 
inhabits I'irginia. Lifter conch, t. 390. _/'. 229. 
5^^// about an inch long and i ^ broad. 

*Rhombot- gj^gj] deprelfed rhomboid, with concentrtc and very neat 
ftrix; pale brown variegated. 
Inhabits Britijh Coajiti Brit. 7.ool. \v. p. 97. n. 55. 
Shell ^ of an inch long and i ^ broad. 

Cvuentaia. Sliell ovate Inequilateral, tranfverfely ftriate and fpottcd wjth 

* VOL, IV.— Hh li.tcr 

242 WORMS. FESTACEA. 62. Venus. 

Lister «tnch, taK 396, Klein utr. tah, 10, jig. 50. 

2. LiRer conch, t. 403./'. 247. 

Inhabits—— 5/6^// with rough ftris. 

Liat/ctm. 5|jgij ovate tranfverfely ftriate, without radiate and marked 
towards the margin with charadcrs lines and fpots, 
within yellowifh. 
lahibits— — Z,/j/^ conch, tab. 404. _/7^. 248, 

Sanguinc" Shell oval fmootli yellowifh with red fpots and dots. 
Unta. Bonan. recr 2. fig. 68. Uuf Kirch. 2. ftg. 67. 

Inhabits (horcs of Naplet : i \ inch long, i \ broad* 

jirgentea^ Shell oblongifli fmooth, filvery with black lines united into 
Bonan, recr. z.fig. 85. MuJ. Kirch, z.f. 84. 
Inhabits (hores about Cadez, 

Donacina, Shell oblongifti flattened, the anterior part tranfverfely 

grooved ; the internal margin crenulate : flopes linear 

Inhabits— —A''«orr Vergm 6. /. 28. y. 7- 
Sbell I \ inch long, i \ broad : fometimes of one colour, fome* 

time& marked with fpots lines or angles : hinge with only z 


Jfra, Shell grooved, the knob pointed: poftcrlor excavation 

wrinkled and heart- fhaped. 
AdoHt jeneg. \.t. 16. f. 6. 

Inhabits Africa: an inch broad; the grooves very fine and 
about 130, 

Dealhata. Shell oblong thin flattened, blueifli when the filh is alii^e and 
fnowy when dead. 
Adans.feneg. \,t. 17./- 1 8. 
Inhabits Africa : i | inch broad and about ha'fas long. 

Lithophaga Shell ovate reticulate, gaping each fide : hinge with 2 teeth 
alternately bifid. 
A£l,Taur. 1786,1787.^. i( — \^-pg< t> 2. 
Inhabits (bores o^ Croatia, among rocks and ftones. 

63. SPON- 

WORMS. TESTACEA, 63, Spondylos, 24^ 

63. SPONDYLUS. ArtDnal a Teihys: JJiell 
hard, folid, with unequal valves; one of 
the valves convex, the other rather iiat: 
hinge with 2 recurved teeth feparated by 
a fmall hollow, 

(^aiianpus» Shell flightly eared and fpinous. 

Lil^er coneh. tab. 206 — 209. Barlttt, tab. 5- /%» ^♦ 

Adanf. Seneg. 1. tah. 1 4. fig. 6, 7. 

Bonart. recr. and Afw/l Kirch. Z* fig. 20—22, 

Ruml>f. Muf tab. 47. E. tab. 48. I. 

Petiv. Amb. aq. tab. zo, f. 6, 

Gualt, tefi. tab. 99, F. tab. lOl, A, B. 

Argenv. conch, iah. 20, B, E. 

Arginv. Zoom, tab. 1 2. f. A. 

Klein oftr. tab. 8^ /. 23. /. 9, /. 37. 

5'r5a Mzj/; 3. /. 88./. I— II. /. 89,/. 1—7. 

Rtgtnf. conch, tab. 4.. /. 48. 

Knorr Delic. tab.B, iv. /". I. 

ilT/forr /^tr^n. 1. tab. y.f. I, 5. /. g, f. »• 

Murray teft. tab. z. f^a^. 

Born. Muf. Caf Vind. tejl. 76. vign. 

a^emn. conch. 7. tab. J^^.f 459-462. t. 45. /. 463-4^. /a*. 
46./. 472. /. 47. /: 474--478- J . f J ' 

Inhabits Mediterranean, Indian and other feas, and is tound m 
infinite varieties as to fi2e, thicknefs and colours; fon^etirjtej 
entirely purple, orange, white or bloom -col oar, lometiijiw 
marked with various llreaks, Ipots, dots or bands. 

Rtgius, Shell without ears and fpinous. 
ArgenvtI/e conch, tab. zo, fig. G. 
Chemn. conch. ~j , tab. ^^i fig» 47'* 

2. Knorr Vergn, 5, tab, d, fig* 2. 

3. Knorr Vergn, 5. tab, l^y fig. 1. 

4. Aroenville conch, tab, 20, fg. L ? M ? 
Inhabits India^ 3) near Malta: very rare. 

5>^^// fubglobular, within white, without purplirti, fcarlct, flame- 
colour, orange or white : /pines generally 2 inches long, fome- 
times cylindrical, with a crcnate margin. 

FUcatus^ Shell without cars or fpines, plaited. 
Adanf. Seneg. tab. \^, fg. 2. 
Lifter conch, tab. zio,fig. 44. tab. 1059,/", 1. 
Gualt. left. tab. 99, E. tab 104, F? 
Schr at. litter at, 1. tab. 1, fig. 7. 

H h 2 Cherttn. 

244 WORMS. TESTACEA. 64. Chatna. 

Chemn. conch. 7, tab. 47. fig, 475 — 482* 
2. Orange-rolour. Regenf. cmch. i . tah^c). f. 30. 
Inhabits mdiay America and the Mediterraneanr 
S/:^el/whiti, with yellowifh, reddifh, brownifli, or violet lines 
and veins. 

Citreus. Shell oblong, plaited, fpinous. 

Inhabits Anen-viUe conch, tab. 20, ftg. K. 

6'/{'f// imbricate, about 2 inches long, 1 1; broad ; cilron-coloui- 
or red with an orange inner margin. 

6^. CHAMi\. Animal a Tethys: Jliell h\- 
valvc, rather coarfc : hinge witli a callous 
gibbolity, obliquely infertcd in an ob- 
lique hollow : anterior dope clofecl. 

C»r. Shell roundifh, fmooth: beaks recurved: anterior flope 

with a gaping fent., tab. iy^.f. ill. Bar ha, tab. 6. f. 1. 

Bonan. recr. 2, f. 88. ^^^f. Kirch. 2. fig. 92. 

Rutnpf. Muf. tab. 48./. 10. Gicalt.tefi. tab. 71, E. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 86. fig, I. 

Ginann. aarial. tab. 2. tab. 19. y^. I 2(j» 

Knorr Vergn. 6. /^^. 8. fi^. I. 

Chemn. conch. 7. /^^. 48.}%. 483. ' 

Inhabits the Adriatic and Cafpian Teas : very large. 

Shell covered with a blackifli ikin, under which it is varied with 
white and brownifli : thick, roundifli, tranfverf;ly wrinkled, 
clofcd ; the margin very entire; valves reiembling a turgid 
heart : beais rcddifh, large, twilled like a ram's horn : polte- 
rior flope retufe, a little elevated in the middle ; anterior flope 

^'i"^'- Shell plaited, with arched fcales : pofterior Hope gnping, 

with crenulate rnargins. 
Lifier, tab. 35? — 3i;4. Barbut, tab. (>' figf 2- 
P.timpf. Muf. tab. 42. A, B. Arg. conch, tab. 23. E. 
Lonan.recr. z. fig 83, 84. Muf Kirch. 2. /^. 82, 83. 
Petiv. Jmb. aq. tab.f^, f. 13. tab. J, fig' 13* 
Gualt. tef.tah. ^2. f A— G. tab. 93. f. B. 
Klein (jfir. tab. \0, fg. 53. Olear. Muf. tab. 29. /. 6. 
Knovrl'crgn. I. tab. 19. f. 3, and 6. tab, 3'', /. 3. 
RegCTf. conch. 1. /a^. 10. yfg-. 48. 
Murray tefiaceoL tab. l.f. 12, 20. 
Chemn, conch. 7. /«(^. 49, f. 492 — 496. 

2, Qhemn'. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 64. Chama. 245 

2. Chemn. conch. J, tab. 49. ftg. 497« 

Inhabits ihc Indian Octan; and is foinetimes fo fmall as not to 
incalure at; inch in 1 ;iigt!i ; fom times hr exceeds all other 
teftaccoiis proUudions, hj^ving been found of the weight of 
of 532 poundo, ar.d the nfh or itjhabitant fo large as to fur- 
niHi 120 men with food, and llrong enough to cut afunder a 
cable and lop off men's hands : JkeU iucid, white, fometimes 
jofy varied with yellow, red and white : pollerior aperture 
ovate, with a tumid crenatc circumterence ; njar^in toothed : 
hipge armed with a tooth bcfides the calju5. 

Uippopu!, vShcll plaited, muricate: pofterior ilopc retnfe^ clofctfj 
BarbiUy tab. 6. f. 3. Li Cter^ conch, tab. 349, 350, 
RuiKpf. Ml'/, t. 42. C. Jrg. conch, t. 23. H. 
Boiian. rccr. 2. /. 81, 82. Muf, Kirch. 2. /. 80, 8j. 
Peti-v. Jmh. aq. tab. 18. /. 15. 
Curlt. ted. tab.<^l. A. Leffer tejl.fig. 124. 
Hegenf. conc^ij. I. tab. lo.y. 49. 

Knorr Vergn. \ . tab. 22, /• 1,2, and 6, tah^ 9. y. 3. 
Boi-n. Muf. Caf. Find, teli, p. 79. njigv. 
Chcmn. conch, 7. tab. qo. f. 49S, 499. 
Inhabits the India Ocean: 5 inches long and 7 broad. 
Shell \s\\\x.(i. varied with red and purple Ipot?, fometimc? yellow- 
ifh ; ventricofe: hinge witii yellow callofities, in one valve 2, 

4nt!quata, Shell fomewhat hcart-fhap,ed^ wjth longitudinal grpoves, 
ar.d tranfvcrfe Itriie. 

Adanf. ^en. I . tub. 16. f. 2. 

^onan recr,. 2. f. 98, Muf. Kirch. 2./". 6. 

Valent.abh. tab. ib.f. 30. Gualt.teft. t. 71, I, L. 

Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 10. f. 3, and /. 14, _/'. 2. 

Chcmn conch. 7. tab, j\.%. fig. 488 -491 , 

Inhabits American, Atlantic ard Indian feas. 

iS^**// inequilateral, with brown or ferruginons /pots; ribs 19— » 
22, tranlverlely ftriatc : margin toothed : beaks inllcdlcd 
|3?.ck ; anterior margin wjtl. a deep clofed fcnt, 

Trapezia. Shell trapeziform, gibbons, with longitudinal crenulatc 
Schrcct. EinU in conch. 3. tab. S, fig. 17. 

Inhahhs Nerivay feas ; fmall, about the Cizq of a pea; white 
mixed with brown towards the margin, gibbous WMthacrenaie 
margin .- ftrix about 20, with unequal obtufe knots : beaks a 
little recurved : pollerior ilope ovate, heart-ihaped ; anterior 
flops oblong, flat and crenate on ihcoutfide, 


246 WORMS. TESTACEA. 64. Chama, 

Smior^cum siieii fuborbicular, compreffed, coarfe, with decuflate Rtix, 
lata, 2. Lime Lehrh.Thierr, 2. taB.^y,/^k? 

Inhabits — — S-hell longitudinally ftriate and imbricate with 
fcales ; pofteriorflope withawhitifh lobc;hind-njargincrenate^ 

€ah(ttlaia. Shell oblong, with imbricate grooves ; the anterior pan' 
ManJ. Seneg, I. tab. 15. fig, 8. 
Lister conch, tab. 347. Gualt. teft. tab. 90. /, F. 
Born Muj: Ctef. Vtnd. teft. tab. 5, /. 10, 1 1, 
Cbemn. conch, J, tab ^O. Jig. 500, 501. 

2. Litter conch, tab. -i^^. fig, 186? 

J. Bonan. Muf. Kirch, z, fig. \z-j. 

Inhabits tne Atlantic, American and Indian {^3.%, attd is fbmecime» 
found foiTjle ; about ^ an inch long and \\ broad: white, 
rather brown when young; hinge with 2 teeth: exterior 
margin ierrate, interior f«>ooth. 

CafJata. Shell heart-fhapcdj tranrveFfely ftriate; one fide elongated, 

2, Kidney -fhaped. Knorr Fergn. z.taB.Z'^.f. 7. 
Chemn, conch. 7. tab. 50, fig. 502, 503. 
Inhabits the Indian and Red Seas : 'ferruginous or chefnat, 

Sntiata. Shell roundKh, with toothed grooves- mixed with dots: 
pofterior flope retufe. 
Inhabits — — — Shell white, the outfide reddifli : grooves ele- 
vated, longitudinally toothed and alternately Ihortcr: margin 
crenulate; pollerior Hope hcarc-fhaped. 

Otlenga. Shell oblong, the fore-part angnlar, with anterior acute 

Chemn. conch. J. tab. ^O^fg. 504, 5O5, 
Inhabits fhorcs of Gi<;K^/?, and refembles Mytilus modiohis. 
Shell fabdiaphanous, white, with very fine decuffate llrise, wjthfn 

citron-colour: margin very entire, hinge with 3 middle teeth, 

and an oblong acute lateral one locking into a hollow between 

2 teeth in the oppofite valve. 

Lazarus* Shell imbricate with jagged lamellae ; beak a little fpiral 
Argenfu. conch, tab. 20. P. Knorr Vergn. I, /. %, f.\. 
Rum*f. hluf. tab. 47, C. /, 48, /. 3. 
Vaient. 13, /fg. 4. t» 16, y. 22- 
SehaMuj. 3. tab, SS.f. 12, /. 89,/. 6, 9, li' 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 64. Charaa. 2^7 

Bern Muf. Caf. Vind. teft. tahi^.f. 12 — 1 4. 

Chemn. conch, ■j.tah. ^i-fg. 507 — 509. 

Inhabits incUa^ and is found adhering to rocks. 

Shell yzMio-vi Qx white with red bfiaks, within glabrous; the up- 
per valve a little lefs and flatter ; in the hinge of the lower 
valve an obtufe thick broad callus crenate on each fide, witij 
an oblique adjacent hollow. 

JGtypkeUet. Shell orbicuiar, muricate ; one valve a little flatter, the 
other with a fubfpiral produced beak. 
Sloan. Jamau tab. 241./". 4 -7. Later, tab. 212, 2 1 3, 
Adanf Seneg. I. tab 15. Klein oflr. tab^ \Z. f. 86. 
Gualt. teft. tab. loi, fig.Q — F. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 16. f. i. 
Cbemn, conch, '],tab. ^l./ig. 510— 5 1 3, 

2. Gualt. test. tab. \oi. Jig. hi 

3. Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. 6. fig. I. 

4. Schrat. Einl. in conch. 3. tab. 8* f. l<). 

5. Chemn conch. 9. tab. l\6.fig. 992. 

<j. Chemn conch, g, tab. \\6,pg. 993. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, American and Indian feas, fixed to 
rocks: yellow or red varied with reddifh or white: fcales 
fomctimes more foliaceous, fomctimes arched and muricate. 

hUvnis, Shell with conic valves, and horn- fhaped oblixjuetubulaj 
beaks longer than the x^alve. 
Lifter. tab. 214. Klein, o/lr. tab, iz.fig. 87,88. 
Major teftac. tab. 2. Gualt. tefts tab. lOl, f, G, 
Chemn. Naturf. 20. tab. l. fig. I — 5. 
Chemn. conch, S^./ig- 516 — 520- 
Schrcet. Btnl. in conch. 3. tab. 8, fig. 18. 
Inhabits American, Indian and Mediterranean feat. 
Shell yellow each iide red or white, with imbricate lanpiellas and 
Seldom wrinkled. 

A-cinella. Shell grooved, muricate, with excavated dots: hijige with 
a fe/file callus. 

Lifter conch, tab. 355. Clear. Muf. tab. 29. f. 3. 

Bonan. recr. l.f. 336. Muf, Kirch, z. f. HI. 

Chemn. 7. tab. $z. f 552, 553. Lejfer teft.f. 98, 

Knorr. Vergn. 6. tab, l^./ig. I. t. 36. yi i,2. 

Inhabits the American Oiean ; 2 inches broad and nearly as much 
long: white with fometlmes rofy fpincs, within yellow.ifh; 
the margin crenate : pofterior excavation large, heart Ihaped, 
warty, wrmklcd. with frequently an appendage on one fid<v 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 64. Chama. 

Moltkiatia. Shell obtufely triangular equilateral plaited : anterior fl'ope 
elevated, with oblique pUits and lbi:e. 

Chemn. conch, j. tab. 48. /i^. 4S4 — 4.87. 

Inhabits ^refembles (_h. Cor, ubout the fize of an hazel nur: 

milk-white opake, the beaks a little diltant : hirige wuli a 
rounded narrow tooth un-ier the beaks and an adjoining hollow 
fov the inlertion of the tooth in the oppofite valve ; a little' 
forwards is anothet long deep hollow between 2 teeth, and 3, 
little farther back another round dilated tooth. 

Concamra- Shell with tranfverfe wrinkles eroding the broad longitudl- 
. ''«• nal. flrije: in the middle ot each valve within is au 

additional chamber. 

Walch. Naftirf. 12. p. 53. tat>. I -fig- 3~ 7» 

Cheinn, conch. 7. tah. ^o.j'ig- 506. a — d. 

Inhabits the American Ocean: fmall, whitifli, verj rare. 



Shell rounded, with lam'ellse difpofed in rows : Jnternaf 
margin crenulaie. 
Seba.Muf, l^tab. 88-yj^; 8: 
K7iorr Fergn, \.t.zi> f. 2, and 5. /. 24./". I* 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. ^^-fg- 514J 515. 

2. Seha Muf. 3. tab. 89. fig» 12 ? 

Inhabits the American Ocean ; refembles Ch. gryphoides. 
iS/^'i'// fometimes yellow or red, fometimes varied with white and 
red, within white or red or variegated; both the valves con'- 
vex, the lam,ellze increafing towards the margin. Probably a 
variety of C. Lazarus, 

I'oliacea* Shell white with foliaceous ferrat-e tranfverfe flrioc, the 
interftices crenate: beaks recurved. 

Lister conch, tab. 215— 217. //[g-. 51-^-53. 
Klein o/ir. tab. i z. fig. 8 1 . 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^Z.fig. 521, 
2. Li Her conch tah. 21 ^./ig. 50. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and American Seas, and is found i'D:'':.'\l 
in Campanid : fometimes round, fometimes oblong. 

A rat a 4 


Shell rounded, white undulate with brov.^n, with triangular 
wrinkled perpendicular ribs : margin unequal. 
Bonan.recr. 2.figt 86. Muf. Kirch. z.fig< 84. 
Inhabits Ihorcs of Sy;-<Jf«/^ ; probably a Cardiv.m. 

Shell wrinkled oblong narrow brown: lower'valve with a 
proje6ling rounded fubincurved beak. 
Inhabits Guall. test. tab. \o\.fig. L 




Shell roundifli ventricofe Inequivalve muricate, with fcat- 
tered unequal fcaly fpines. 
Inhabits America. Regenf. conch, I. /. \. f. 44. 
Shell citron colour. 

Shell roundiih, longitudinally ftriate: pafterior flope retufe. 
Molin.nat. Hist. Chili p. 178. 

Inhabits the Chilcfe (hores, where it buries itfelf in the fands." 
Jliell white violet and yellow, within elegantly purple : about 
4 inches in diameter: the iifh is a very rich arid picafant food. 

Shell fubnrbicular, with very deep grooves: tHe wrinkles 
flightly imbricate: margin doubly folded. 

Inhabits- about the fize of a man's finger; gibbous, thick, 

with 30 grooves; the outer margin with concave eminent 
projcdions from the wrinkle?, the inner margin obtufe plaited: 
hinge with 2 or 3 oblique grooves declining towards the an* 
terior fide* 

Shell oblique with a lateral obliqiie pit,- wrinkled: callus 
of the hinge toothed. 
Inhabits Barban ; refembles Anomia Gryphi. 
^hell very ponderous and thick, about the lize of a fid; beaks 
obliquely incurved back: anterior Hope longitudinaliv grooved 
and oblique towards the beaks, poJlerior flopc longitudinally 

Shell cylindrical white diaphanous, with deeuflate ftriaD; the 
tranfverfe ItriaJ arched and imbricate; 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. 10. tab. i-jz. fig. 1673, 1674. 

Qo. ARCA. Animal a Tethys?7^^// bivalve, 
equivalve: hznge with numerous Iharp 
tec til altsrnately inlerted between each 

A. Alargin very entire : Leah recurved. 

Shell parallclipiped^ deeply ftn'ate longitudinally, the lefrer 
valve obliquely carmate. 
Rwnjif. MuJ. tatft 47. y^^- k. Gualt. ts/i. tab. 9v B. 
Eonann. Miif. kirch. l.fig' I 2^> 123. Bar but. tab. "J. fig. I. 
Peti'V. amht tab. 20. fig. 9. Argeivv, conch, tab. Ig. I. 
Klein ndr. tab. 9>.fig, 16. Lef'er tejl.fig, 137. 

VOL. IV.— li Knzrr 

250 WORMS. TESTACEA. 65. Area. 

Knnrr. Vergn. I. tab, '^I'f'K' 3* 

MuHin. Bejch. l^aiiirf 3. tab. b. fig, 14. 

Chemn. conch, 7. tab. ^},. fig- 524* 525. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean and is extremely rare. 

5/^/=// white, fometimes with brown 1 fh f'pots or clouds, thrice as 
broad as it is long } the infide ftriate, the outlide ftriate in 
various direfticns ; valves diffimiJar: margin crenate within, 
and in younger fhells without aifo. 

jB. Margin entire : beaks inJleSfed, 

*.h,ote. Shell oblong ftriate and emarginate at the tip : beaks very 
remote : margin gaping. . Noah's Ark. 

Area tortuofa. Pennant Brit. ZooJ. iv. p. 97. 
Barlafe Nat.Hili. Cornvjall tab. z%.fig. 15, 16, 
Barbut, tab. "J. fig. 2. Lifer, t. 368, 369. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 44. P. Gualt.iest tab. 87. G,H. I. 
Jdans.feneg> i. tab. \%. ftg. 9. Leffer test, fig, 138. 
Bonan. recr. 2. fig. '^2. Muf. Kirch. 2. fig. 31. 
Peti'Vi amb% tab. \'].fig. 10. Argenu. conch, tab. 23, G. 
Knorr. delic. fcl. tab. B. y.fg- 2, 
Knorr Vergn. l. tab. \6.f.g. 1,2. 
Regenf. conch. I* tab. 12. /ig. 73 
Chemn. ^i. fig. 529-531. t. 54./. 532, 533, 

2. Argen'ville cone' »tah. 29.^^, 20. A. 

Inhibits the Mediterranean Atlantic and American Seat. 

Shell rhomboid, white, generally fpotted clouded ftriate undulate 

or veined with brown or yellow j outer margin crenate, the 

inner entire, 

•Barbata. Shell oblong ftriate, bearded with byffiis: beaks approx. 
imate : margin clofed. 
Lister conch, tab. 231. Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 2. f^» 7, 
Bonan, recr. 2. fig. 79. Muf. Kirch. 2- fig. 78. 
Cualt test. tab. 9. F. Argen-v. Conch. tab, 72. M* 
Murray, testaceol, tab, 2. jig, 22. 
Martin Befch. Naturf. 3. tab. 6.fgi 8. 
Chemn. conch. 7, tab, 54._/%. 535. 

2. Gualt. test. tab. 90. Hg. B. 
Martin Befch. 3. tab. d.fg, 12. 
Chemn.conck, J. tal, 54./'. 53-ijw 

3. Seba Muf 3. t. 88./. 1 3. M://! /^/J /, 6./r i. 

CZv^W. ««f/;;. 7. /. 54./. 536, 537, 

^. Rumpf. Muf. t.Af\.f.L, 

Inhabits European American and Indian Seas, 
abeU pale chelnut under the byflus, fomctimcs mixed with white, 
and marked with dccultate flrise: the fibres in the angle of 
Icfflion are nodulous. 



25 1 

Modiolus. Shell oblong ftriate, and angular anteriorly. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean ; refembles Mytilus modiolus, and is 
about the fize of a large bean : within white or pak violet, 
without ycllowifh : hinge elongated : valves anteriorly deeply 
filiate, behind a little longer than the beaks. 

Shell ovate pellucid fubftriate, with a diflincSl prominent 
anterior flope : hinge ciliar. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean : white finely polifhed and very mi- 
nute, nearly triangular with fine tranfierfe femilunar ftris .• 
beaks placed in the middle: flope tranfvcrfely ftriate: teeth 
fubulate and very fliarp : margin without teeth within and 

0-vata. Shell ovate with deculTate flrlas, fnow^y and covered with a 
ruflct-brown epidermis or fkin: margin gaping. 
Inhabits the Red Sea. Chemn. conch. 7. tab. S^'/ig- 538, 
SMI hrgc with an undulate grooved and flriate pofterior exca- 
vation : probably not of this family. 

Pellucida. Shell pellucid briitle, rounded at each end, obfolelcly ftriate: 
teeth of the hinge very fliarp, 
Spengler Catal. l . tab. I o. fig. II. 
Chemn, 7. /. 55./". 541. a, b. 

Inhabits Nicobar IJlandr. thin, ftraw-colour or brown, within 

Rcjirata. Shell a little convex with tranfverfe ftrias ; the hind-parr 
rounded, fore-part extended into an acute beak. 
Martin. Bejch Naturf. 3. tab, "}. fig' 1 7, 18. 
Schrezt. jiiijconch. tab. C).fig. 2. 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. SS^fig- 54^' 3, b. 
Inhabits the Baltic and Norivay Seas ; refembles the laft. 
Shell \ an inch long, i \ broad, covered with a greenifii fkin : 
beaks minute and bent back. 

Srictta. Shell lentiform, with very numerous decuflate ftrias, late- 
ritious and reddilh within: polterior excavation trian- 
gular: hinge arched. 

Chemn, conch. 7. tab. 58. 

Inhabits the Red Sea: an inch broad, and fomething longer, 

Pulfhclla. Shell roundifli, biradiate, with tranfverfe arched ftria?. 
Inhabits Rumpf,Mn/. tab, ^7-fig> I. 



252 WORMS. TESTACEA. 65. Area. 

Afra, Shell whitifli, covered with a whiter flcin, with deculTate 

flrise, grooved and obliquely truncate. 
Inhabits /Ifnca. Adans^feneg. i* tab. \%. fig. 8. 
Shell 4-5 lines long and 3 broad: longitudinal grooves 40 — 50, 
tranfverfe ones 20: bedki approximate : margin clofcd. 

Voffilis. Shell thick roundifh, longitudinally ftriate and tranfverfely 
ribbed ; the ribs \yith undulate rtri^:. 
Schrat. neue litterat. T.,fig. 3, 4. 

Found in a foffile ftate in thp Dutchy of Vmbourg : 5 inches 
long, 3 I broad. 

Caticellata. Shell with cancellate {Irix and bearded ; the margin gaping 

in the middle. 
Schraet. Einl. Conch. 3. tab. <^. fig- 2. 
Inhabits the American Ocean; covered with a mofly (kin, under 

which it is brownilh, outwardly mixed with white with 4 

tufts of hairs: beoh flightly recurved with a lanceolate de- 

preffion behind them. 

Minuta, Shell a little comprelTed, traufverfely ftriate, tapering at the 
remoter end add rolinded at the oppodte ones. 

Chemn. ccnch. 10. tab. ^"jo.ftg. 1657, 1658. 

Inhabits the Greenland Seas ; refembles a Mya ; 2\ lines long : 4 
broad: ochraceous, glabrous, clofed: beaks connivent white 
acute not ilriate. 

C. Alarg'in crettaiet beaks recurved. 

♦ Lafiea, Shell fubrhombic diaphanous, with obfolete decuffate ftris. 
I-iPici' conch, tab. 235.//^. 69. 
Bonai:n. recr. l-fig- 34. Mvf. kirch. Z.f. 33. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^S-fig- 547« 

Inhabits moll flt^ropsan Seas: iizc of a horfe-bcan; beaks ap- 

Kaduhfa.-^. Shell oblong with ftriate tubercles: beak? incurved remote: 
, margin entire clofed. 

il'fa//. Zool. Dan. prodr. 2984. 
Ijihabit? Denmark -^ reiembles the laft. 

A • . Shell obliquely heart-fhaped, with numerous unartne4 
.%nttouatitt r 1 J 1 .. 


Liiter cijub. tab. 2 30. //■§•. 64. /. 236. f. 70. 

Adam Jeneg. \. tab., l^ifg 7- Barhut. /. 8. /', 3. recr. ard Muf, Kirch. 2. fig. 73, 74. 


WORM?. TESTACEA. 65. Area. 253 

Rujnpf, Muf. tab. 44. I. Guah,test. tab. 87. B, C. 
PetfO. tab. ij.f. 8. Klein 'ojir. tab. 11./". 73. 
Grono-j. Zotph. tub. \%, /. 1 3. Murr. t(Ji. tab. z, f. 15. 
Knorr Vergn. 1. tab. 24. fig. 3, 4. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 55. y/^, 548, 549. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean , Indian and Amfrican feas, 
5ZW/ rather large, white covered with a hairy ikin : the anterior 
flope with a comprcffed prominent angle. 

Senilis. Shell obliquely he?)rt-(haped, fmooth, with 5 grooves: 
margin plaited. 
AdanJ. Sen'g. I. tab. I 8. /. 5, 
■ Lifier conch, tab. 238. Gnalt. tell, tab. 87. D. 
'Argen'v. conch. t(ib. 23. fig. k. 
Chd/nn.conch.'j. tab. 56. /^ 554—556. 
Inhabits America and Africa: 3 inches long and 4 broad. 
.S;6t7/ thick, white, covered witii a black (kin mixed with fea~ 
green: anterior part gaping. 

Granofa^ Shell (lightly hcart-fhaped, v/ith muricate grooves. 

Lifter., tab. 241, 242. Peliv. amb. tab. \'].f. 7. 

Major telt. tab, 10, f. 3. Rumpf. hluf. tab. 44. /» k. 

Ga<2//. /p//. tab, B7, E. Argen-v. conch, f.23, C. 

Klein oftr. tab. to. y. 45, 46. 

Knorr Tergn. 6. /^2^. 34> ^^. 2. 

Martin Befh. Naturf.'i. tab. 6. f.lO. 

Chemn. conch. 7: /«^. S^' A^' SS7' 

Inhabits the j^nerican and Indian Ocean: l| inch long, t|brQadj 
white, nearly equilateral, with about 20 ribs which arc co- 
vered with fpinous tubercles, 

Cerbicu/a, Shell Ovate, a little compreiTed, with perpendicular knotty 
(Iris: beaks obtufe, approxitrjaie. 
Chemn. conch. 7. fab. 56. _/fg^./558, 

2. L«/^r conch, tab. 2^4. /i^. 68. 
■ Klein Ojir. tab. 10. f. 43, 44. 

Chemn. conch, j, tab. 56, _/". 559, 

Inhabits hicohar IJlands; refemblcs the lafi: : about ic lines Ions, 
and an inch brpad : 2) fubglobalar with capillary ftrix within. 

Decujfata. Shell lenticular, with longitudinal ftrire crofTed by hardlv 
vifible tranfverfe ones: anterior ilopeclofed. 
Regenf. conch. I. tab. z- fg. zz. 
Knori- Vergn. 5. tab. lO.fg. 3. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. S7-fS' S^^* 

Inhabits the American Ocean : Ihsll varied with fcattcrcd brown 
fpots : hinge {lightly arclied, 

254 WORMS. TESTACEA. 65. Area. 

JE^ulatera Shell lenticular, nearly equilateral, perpendicularly ftriate 
without and within ; white with chefnut fpots. 

Chemn. conch. 7 tab. ^1 • fig' 562. 

Inhabits the American Ocean: refembles the 1 aft, but the fhell is 
thinner and the beaks approximate, 

Fallens, Shell lenticular, fuboblique, with decuflate ftrioe: anterior 

flope with a very narrow fent. 
Schrcet. Einl. in conch, "i^, tab. 1^. f I. 
Inhabits the Indian and American Ocean. 
Shell equilateral, within white, without pale with here and there 

a dulky fpoc or cloud and fine ftrire croffed by very numerous 

and very fine tranfverfe ones : heaks connivent, placed in the 

middle: ^/w^.? arched. 

Cuculhis. Shell ventricofe, with decufTate flrl^ : anterior flope hearl- 
Ihaped : valves augmented, with a curved rib within 
which is barred with violet, one of them prominent: 
beaks remote. 

Martin Befch. Natwf. 3. tab. J.f. 15, 1 6. 

Chemn. conch. 7, tab. 53, f. 526—528. 

Inhabits Nicobar JJlands ; above 2 inches long and 3 broad : the 
outlide cinnamon : probably not of this divifion. 

Magellatii' Shell rounded each fide, chefnut, and marked with decuHate 
ca. ftriae : the external margin inflected and repand in the 

middle: beaks approximate. 
Chemn. conch. J. tab, 53. fig. 539. 
Inhabits the ftraits of M«^^//««. 

Reticulata. Shell fubrhombiG, white, with decuHate flri^: beaks ap- 
proximate: anterior flope heart-fllaped, 
Li/ier Conch, tab. ^i-^.Jig. 67. 
Martin Befch Naturf. 3. tab, 6, /. 9. 
Chemn. conch. 7. /. 54./'. 540. 
Inhabits refembles A. Noas. Prqbably not of this divifion. 

Candida. Shell 'pellucid, rhomboid, with decaiTatc ftrias ; the fore- 
part produced, the hind-part truncate : beaks remote: 
margin with an ovatc-ciliatc gape behind. 
Chimn. conch. 7. tab, ^S'fiS' S'f-^- 

:. Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^S'J'S' 543' 

Inhabitb the American ocean, and African fhores. 
Shell white, appearing as if granulate, and covered with a black- 
ifli-brovvn epiderniis or ikin. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 65. Area. 255 

Ituiicai Shell inequivalve, ovate, with flat longitudinal Hv'ix. and 
deep grooves: anterior flope heart-ihaped. 
Li/Ier conch, tab. z^z. fig. 66, 
Martin Befch. Naturf, 3. tab. 6. _/. 13. 
Chemn conch. 7. tab. 55. fig. 543. 

Z. Mariin.Befch. Naturf. i. tab. 6. Jig. II. 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. ^(i-fig. 552. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean : \ of an inchlong, i|-broad. 
Shell white covered with a brown villous fkin. 

Jamaicenjis Shell rounded before and truncate behind, with crenate or 
nodulous perpendicular ribs. 
Inhabits Jamaica. Lijier conch, t. Z2(),f. 64. 

Campechi' Shell ovate with broad crenate or fcaly perpendicular ftria; t 
enfii* hinge arched. 

Lijier conch, tab. 237. /. 71. 

2. Lifter conch, tab. 243, fig. 74. 

Inhabits Campechy bay. 2) Barbadoes, 

Lata. Shell broadifh, cancellate, truncate before: the flattened 

fide heart-fhapcd. 
Inhabits ■ Gualt. test, tab, 90. fg. C- 

iS^f// ventricofc, hardly an inch broad and about half as long ; 
probably ot the next divifion, 

Senegahnfis Shell ovate, longitndinally grooved with flight tranfverfe 
wrinkles ; white. 
Adan$. Sene^. I. tab. 18. fg. 6. 

Inhabits Africa: 8 lines long and 10 broad; fometimes redSifli; 
grooved within. 

D. Margin crenate ; beaks infcclea'. 

Vndata. Shell lenticular, without cars, fmoothifli, with a plaited 
margin. z /. 60, 61. Muf Kirch, z. f. 58, 60. 

Gualt. test. tab. 72. G, Knorr Vergn, 6. /. 14./'. 4, 

Martin Befch. Naturf. i. fab.b f. z. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 57. fg. 560. 

Inhabits the Americah Ocean; refembles the next. 

Shell 2 incnes long and nearly as much broad, equivalve, with 
very fine crowded tranfverfe flria;; fpottcd with brown, with- 
in white and (ometimes fpolted with brown : beah approxi- 
mate ; hinge arched. 


256 WORMS. TESTACEA. 62. Area. 

PeHunculus Shell lenticular, flightly ea;- d, widi .lightly imbricafe 
grooves: the margin pliited 

Lifter conch, tab, 239 / 73 Barhnt, t. J.f A* 

Bonan Muj„ Kirch. Z.Ji^^. 129. Guult, test, tu: , 72, H. 

Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. 12 fig, 4 

Martin Bejch. Naturf. 3. tab. 6. /%. 3,4. 

Chemn. conch, 7. ///^, ';'6,fig 5t>S, 569. 

Inhabits tlie America'! Or^azt and Red Sea: flattifli, i|inch long 
and fomething broader; white with fcattefed brown fpots 
which are fometimcs ceflelate, within brown fometimes mixed 
with white: grooves 16 — 'zo: hinge arched. 

Fe^inata. Shell lenticular, without ears, with Idngitutlinal fir.ooth 
Cbemn. conch.j. tab ^^%. ft 570. ». i, 2,/. 571. 

2. Lifter Conch, tab. 239. y'. 81. Klein ofr. tab. 10. fig. 41. 
Inhabits the American Ocean; aclembles the laft, but is lefs and 

more convex: brown, chefnut or pale yellow, fpotttd, cloud- 
ed or waved ; within brownifh or white. 

'Gljcjme- Shell fuborbicular, gibbous and faintly flriate tranfverrely . 
fis. Donovan s Brit fhe/h, ii. tab. 37. 

Pennant Brit.Zool iv. tab. S^y jig, 58, 

Da CoftaBnt. Conch, tab I i, fig. 22. 

Lister conch, tab. 247. Barbiit, t. 7, f, 5. 

Adanf Seneg* i. tab iS.fg. 10. 

Gua/t. tefi, tab. 82. fig. C, D. 

Knorr Vergn. i. tab. 21 fig. 4, and 6. I, 1 4./'. 3. 

Chemn, conch, 7. tab 57, /f^. 564. 

Inhabits Mediterranean^ European and Indian feas. 

<S-6«?// 2 — 4 inches in diameter : hinge arched : colour generally 
whitifh, with ferruginous zigzag lines or marics, foineiimss 
reddifli oryellowifn, fometimes fpottcd, clouded or undula:;;. 

Pilo/^i. Sliell fuborbicular, equilateral, hairy. 

Lister conch, tab. 240. Gualt. tefl. t. 73. A. 
Bonan, recr, 1, fig. 80. Muf. Kirch. Z.f, 79. 
Knorr Vergn, 2. tab. 2'}^.f,6.Sc6.t.l z.f. 4. 
Martin Befch, Naturf. 3. tab, 6,f. i. 
Chemn, conch, ST'/'i-S^S* S^^' 
Z, Bonan, recr, 2. jig. 78. Muf. Kiri:h» z.f. 77. 

3. Lister conch, tab 246. fig, % it 

Born MuJ\ Caf. Vind.tell, tab. 6,/. i, a, b. 

4. Bonan, Muf, Kirch. 2. fig. 131? 

Inhabits Mediterranean, Afattc and American feas : z\ inches long, 
z\ broad : brown, within white and fometimes fpotted with 
brown, covered with a villous skin : the perpendicular ftria; 
obhq_ue and confpicuous w^ithin, crofled by tranfverfe wrinkles. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrca, - 257 

hunimariii; Shell roundilli, fmooth, flightly eared and tranfverfelyflriate. 
Inhabits ihe Metiiterrafiean ; /ize of a man's nail. 
Shell ipo\i{hcd, with undulate rufous marks: the ftrias verv fine. 

^Nucleus* Shell obliquely ovate, fmoothifh, with a triangular hinge. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab, ^%.fg, 59. 

Barhut, tab. J^Jig. 6. Gualt. test. t. 88. R. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab, 58. fig, 574- a» b. . 

Inhabits European feas, and is fometimcs found foflile ; fize of 
an hazel nut; covered with an olivaceous skin under which it 
is white, within filvery : fiell unequally triangular, witii very 
fine perpendicular flria crolTed by a few arched tranfvcrfc 
ones: djpreSon b hind the beaks hearc-lhaped. 

Rhomhoidea Shell entirely white, rhomboid heart-fhaped and ribbed, 
the anterior anddorfai ribs knotty: beaks remote. 
Listtr. tab. 244, fg. 75. Gualt- teft. t. 87, A. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tub. i.t« fig' 2. 
Chemn. conch 7 tab. St),fig. ^^l, a, b. 

Inhabits the Indian 2ivA American Ocian'i interior flope heart 
fliaped, p.ifterior one rhomboid. 

Marmorata Shell eqiiilateral, thin, flattifh, with very fine decufTate 
(Irias : beaks approximate : hinge arched. 
Lhemn. cbnch. 7. tub. 57 fig, 563. 

Inhabits the American Ocean: white varied with yellowifh cha- 
rafters and fpots. 

Angulofa. Shell ventricofe, with longitudinal ftrioe and lines, and an- 
gular on one fide : beaks approximate: hinge arched. 
Lister conch, tab. 245. fig. 76. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^J' fiig. 567. 

Inhabits fhores of Africa and American Octan: brown with a 
few fpots. 

Scapha. Shell oblong, very much deprcflcd, ftriate : beaks very 
nightly prominent. 
Inhabits C^'/ij«. Gronov. Zooph. tab. 18. f.f. 

6Y). OSTREA. Animal a Tethys : fiell bi- 
valve, generally with unequal valves and 
ilightly eared, hinge without teetli^ but 
furniihcd with an ovate hollow, and moft- 
ly lateral tratilVerlc grooves. Oyjler. 

VOL. IV. — K k " Moft 

258 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 

Mod of this genus are furniftied at the hinge internally with 
numerous parallel tranfverfe grooves in each valve, and are 
immediately diftinguiflied from the Genus Area, in not hav- 
ing teeth alternately locking in each other : the Scallops leap 
out of the water to the diftance of half a yard, and opening 
the (hells, ejed the water within them; after which they fink 
under the water ,^ and fuddcnly clofe the flieils with a loud fnap. 

A. Falves funi'Jhed with ears and radiate. Scallop. 
a. JEquilateral : ears of the valves equal. 

* Maxima, Shell with about 14 rounded and longitudinally ftriate rays. 
Doncvaris Brit fheils, n. tab. 49. 
Pennant Brit. Zool iv. tab. 59. fig. 6i. 
Da Cofta Brit, conch, p. 140. tab. 9./". 3/ 
Lister, an. Ang. tab. V,. f. 29. Conch, t, 263, 167. 
Bonan recr. z.fig- 8 Muf. Kirch. 2. y. 7. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 98. A, B t. 99. A. 
Knorr Vergn. I, tab. \^.f. I, 2. & 2. /. 14./! I. 
Regenf. conch. I. tab. 2./. 19, /. 7./. 3. 
Bytem app. tab. \z. fig. 50. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 60. fig. 585 — 587, 

2. Lijter conch, tab. i6S. it 

3. Knorr delic. nat,fet, tab, B. 'n.fg. 2 ? 
Knorr Vergn. \. tab. 4. fig. 2 ? 

Found in moll European Teas, in large beds ; whence they are 
dredged up, and pickled and barrelled for fale. This is the 
Ihell which was formerly worn by pilgrims on the hat or coat, 
as a mark that they had croffed the fea, for the purpofe of pay. 
ing their devotions at the Holy Land : in commemoration of 
which it is ftill preferved in the Arms of many families. 

<S^^/^ about 5 inches long and ji broad : ears laage, with decuf- 
fate ftrias : hinge with a large deep hollow : loiver-'val've con. 
vex, white, often varied with red bands or fpots; upper-nialrug 
flat, reddifh. 

*yacobcca. Shell with about 14 angular and longitudinally ftriaterays. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 60 fig. 62. 
Lifter conch, tab. 165, 166, Lejfer teft. fig. 139. 
Bonan recr. and Muf. Kirch. 2,f, 3, 4, 

Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 22./. 3, 5. /. 22./ 4 and 6, t. 38,/. I. 
Gualt. teft. tab,()(^. B. 
Cbemn conch. 7. tab. 60, fig. 588, 589. 
Inhabits European feas ; lefs than the lall. 

Grooves of the 7^f//tran fvcrfely ftriate; upper-ualnje ^^.U with 
rounded rays, which are very finely ftriate tranfverfely'; hnver 
<val-ve with angular rays, which are ftriate longitudinally : ears 
concave and fmooth on the upper fide. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oflrea. 259 

ZUzac. Shell with 18 flattened rays. 

Lijier conch, tab. 1 86. fig. 5. 

Re gen f. conch. 1. fab. W.fig. 53> 

Knorr Vtrgn. 2. fab. l^, fig. 3. /. 20, yi 1. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab, 6\. fig. 590 — 592, 

Inhabits the American Otean; fometimesof one colour, fometimes 
vaiiega'ed: ^«r/ very finely wrinkled : Ju-u>cr-n'a!ve cor\\ ex, 
with 18— 20 rays, which are very finely flriate tranfverfely, 
and about twice the number of perpendicular ftrijs within ; 
uppir-'val-ve flat, with about twice as many angular lines as 
there are rays, 

Striatula, Shell with 1 6 faint rays with tranfverfe membranaceous 

ftrix; the tnargin very entire. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Muf. Lud. Ulr. 523. ». lOl. 
Shell middle fixed, varied with purple and white, within yel- 

Jowilh : interlHces of the rays white : liiver' valve almolt as 

flat as the upper. 

Miniita. Shell with 20 convex rays. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Muf. Lud. Ulr. 524. n. 1 02. 

Shell ibowt the fizc of a nut: hn.ver-'val've white and very con- 
vex : uppcr-'val-ve white clouded with brown, flatter and 

Pkuroncilts Shell equivalve, with 12 doubled rays, and fmooth on the 
Barbut, tab, 8 /7^. i. Rumpf. ¥u/. t. 45. A, B. 
j^rgenv. conch, tab. 27. G. Gualt. teji, t. 73. R. recr. 3. fig. 354. A////". Kirch. 2 f, 108. 
Peli-j. Am!>.tab.\\j.ftg. -M^. Lef]'er tcj\. f.%Cj. 
Klein oflr. tab. ()• f'g. 30* Knorr Vergn. i. tab. ZO.f. 3, 4. 
Chemn conch. 7. tab. 61. fig. 595. 

2. Knorr Vergn. 5. tab z\. fig. 6. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; fomctimcs rcddiHi, or flefti-colour, or 
liver-colour, within filvery ; 2) orange radiate with red : 4^ 
inches long and gaping at each end. 

Laurentiit Upper-valve fubconvex, finooth, with fine perpendicular 
lines crolTing very fine concentric tranfverfe ftria; ; 
lower-valve with 24 rays, and 48 ftriae within. 

Chemn conch. 7. tab. 61. fig. 593. 

Inhabits fhores 01 >'outh Amertra: very r^re. 

Shell 2 inches 8 lines long and about ?s much broad : upper -'valiis 
chcfnut with white rjys and whitifli fpotsj lonuer-'val've white 
(haded with vellowifli, the valves a little darker. 

K k 2 Jtpcnica 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 

Japonica, Shell equivalve, a little convex, margined with yellow : 
upper-valve with fairt lines crofling concentric tranf- 
verfe bands, and 48 elevated ftrix within. 

Chemn. conch 7. tal. 62. fig. 596, 

Inhabits fhores of (ruitiea and Japan; 5!- inches long and broad: 
refembles O. Pleuronefte?, but is is coarfer and thicker : ears 
very finely wrinkled, and furnifhed with, a or 
Jinob beneath : Iciver-'va/^e ochraceous and quite finooth. 

Magellani-' Shell equivalve, glabrous, with oblong crowded ftrias. 
cat Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 62. fig 597. 

Inhabits the Straits of Magella7i; rcfemtJes O. Pleuronefles : 
j^z^// lateritious, not radiate, quite fmoth within : ufper-'val've 
. more convex ; loiuer-'valve flitter than in moft others : ears 
tranfvarfely ftriatc. 

llybria'a. Shell with 9 or 10 rays, the interflices longitudinally ftri- 
ate: margin repand within. 
Lister conch tab. 173. Klein 0/trac. t. <^.f. l\. 
Chemn. conch. 7 tab. 63 /%. 601,602. 

Inhabits the Nornvay/easi thin: lon.ver-'val've vi)\\tQ, upper. 'val-ve 
fanguineou", with anguhr veins and lines. 

yU'dula Shell nearly equivalve, with 12 convex rays crofled by 

crenate ftria;. 
Barbuty tab. 8. fig, 2. Rumpf. Muf. t 44. A. 
Lifiet (onch, tab. ij^yfig. 11? tab. ^T^t fi' 12. 
Peti'v. Amb. tab. \j/f. I. Gualt. tfst. tab. 74. L. 
Argenm. conch, tab. 24. D. Knorr Vergn. 5. /. 9,y. 4 ,' 
Chemn. conch, j.ta'y (i^- fig- 599,600. 
Inhabit;-, the InSanOcean : 3^ inches long, 2f broad. 
6^^// oblong, white, or varied with white and brown : lo^verr 

'val've a little more convex } cars wrinkled and furrowed with 

oblique ftiis. 

Imlricata. Shell nearly equivalve, flattifh, with 9 unequal rays im- 
bricate with fcales. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 69. f. G. 
Inhabits the Red Sea ; refembles the Isft. 

Shell whitifh with purple fpots, and a litiie crenate at the mar- 
gin ; the rays alternately larger, 

SrJfotma'a. ^^ell roundiih, with 8 convex chefnut rays: ears roundidj, 
white with a yellowiOi border. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 19. _/. 4. 

Inhabits Shell i| inch long and 2 broad. 


WORMS, TESTACEA. 66. Oftrca. 


flica. Shell nearly equivalve, with 6 cf-^nvex fmoothiOi rays ancj 

filiate ucrols. 
Ru7n^f. Mil/, tab . j^\ O. \..ister conch, tab. 171. 
Bonan. recr. and hltij. Krrch. I.fig- 9, lO. 
Petinj. amb, aq. tab. z.Jig. \o. 
Gualt. tej't. tab. 74. C. Argen'v conch, tab. 24. C 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. bz.fg. 598. a, b. 

2. Gualt. test, tab, "Jl- ji%. E ? 

Inhabits lndia\ al oat \\ inch long and an inch bjroad. 

Shell white, or white fpotted with brown, or red ipottcd with 

white ; the tranlvcric tlriae placed ac a diltancc ^rom each other: 

jnar^in repaid. 

Crer.ata. Shell roiindifh with convex rays, the outer ones finely ftriatc 
longitudinally: margin deeply crenate. 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab, I'jo.fig, 7. 

Ears tranfverfcly itrlate. 

• Sinuo/a. Shell ovatc with very numerous and fine flriir ; the margir] 
creiiate wiihin. 
Lift. An. Angl. tab. 5. fig, 31. Conch, tab. 172, 
Inhabits Britift} Seas: ih^W varied with fafiron. 

Spammo/a, Shell oblong with fcaly rays, the interflices broader and 
marked with perpendicular ftrice 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab. 184 /z^. 21. 

Shell varied with angular lines ^nd fpots : ears wrinkled perr 

Dubia, Shell roundilh, with 18 rays imbricate with fcales. 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab. \<)Z.fig. 29. 

She'd nearly \ inch long : ears llriate traniVerfely. 

*Suhrufa. Shell with 20 fmooth rays, the interflices tranfycrfeiy flriatet 
margin crenate. 
Dono--vans Brit. Shells. \. tab. 12. 
Pennant Brit. TjooI. iv. tab. bo. fig. 60. 
Borlufe Ccrniuall. tab, z%.fig. 18, 21, 22. 
Lijter Anim. Angl p. 185. tab. ^.fig- 30, 
Inhabits Britijli Shores -j 2 inchss long and as much broad. 
Shell t\\\n, generally pale red, fometimcs fpotted with white and 
black : ears transverfely llriate. 

VeiTtcolcr^ Shell flattened with 18 fmooth rays, the interflices Cancellate- 

Inhabits Bonan. ;vfr. and Muf. kirch. 2. fip. 6. 

iS,6^// pale yellow, white, fea. green, biackifh erred: ears XxzrA- 
vcrfely liriate. 


l62 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oflrca. 

Rafea^ Shell ro^mdift, with 5 rays. 

Inhabits Botian. recr &r\d. Maf. kirch. z.ftg, i6. 

5/W/ middle-fized, rofy with white rays, or green mixed with 
yellowifh lurid and leek-green, with livid rays. 

tiijca. Shell brown, with flat rays which difappear towards the 
Bonan. recr. Z. fig. 87. Muf. kirch. 2. fig. 86. 
Klein o(lr. tab, ^-fig' 35. 

Inhabits the Indian Sea ; ftvell white within; lower-valve con- 
vex, upper-valve flat. 

f^mis. Shell thin flat purple, with very minute perpendicular ftria; 
crolfing circular tranlverlo ones: within the ftrije are 
Inhabits •^Gualt. I^.fig, C. 

Lutea. Shell thin pale yellow with thick r-ays. 

Inhabits Giialt. tefl. tab. ji.D. 

z. Regenf. conch . i. tab. "J'figt^i^' 

Murkatai ^hell roundiih, white with a mixture of fafFron : the rays 
convex and very finely and Iharply muricate. 
Inhabits— —G«a//. teli. tab. 73. I. z\ inches long. 

Cofifper/a. Shell roundifih, tawny dotted with white and black: the 
rays thick. 
Inhabits. Gualt. test, tab. 73. O. fmall. 

Kodukfa, Shell roundifh, brown with black tranfverfe lines and dots: 
the rays convex and knotty. 
Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. 73. P. 

Kadiata* Shell thin, whitifti-rofy with white ftripes; the rays 
Inhabits ■ ' -Gualt. teft. tab y^fig. Q^ 

Punilata, Shell oblong, pale yellow fpotted with white: beaks varied 
with white and brown : the rays crcnate. 

Inhabits Gualt. test. tab. ']\fig. G. 

Shell z inches long : ears cancellate. 

Actikafa, Shell thill, varied with rofy and whitifh, roundifli ; the 
rays thick with aculate fcales. 

Inhabits- Gualt. Test tab. 74. H. fizg of the laft. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 263 

fUna. Shell thin flat, white with a fafFron hinge: the rays rounij 
and broad. 
Inhabits Gualt, left. tab. 'J^,fig, I. 

Pufilla. Shell oblong red and very minutely ftriate. 
Inhabits Gualt. teji. tab. "J^.fig. A. 

Flanie/cem, Shell convex each fide and ycllowi(h within; the rays convex, 
lt).\izh\is-——Regenf. conch, i , tab, i . fig, 8. fmall. 

Flabellum' Shell roundifh, deep red with a white hinge and few fpot*; 
the rays fmooth. 
Inhabits - ' " Regenf. conch, i. tab, (^-fig, 33. 

SfondyloJes Shell glabrous red. 

Inhabits Regcnf, conch, i. tab. ^-ftg* 34.' 

Rcfembles a Spondylus, but the ears are equal, 

Violacea. Shell flattifh each fide, thcoutfide brown, the infide vtolet 
Inhabits the Mediterranean. Regenf, conch, l. tab, 1 i.fig. 52, 

Aurantia. Shell roundifh plaited and very finely ftriate longitudinally, 
with a white femicircular band towards the hinge. 
Inhabits ■ ' '•Regenf. conch, i, tab. ii.fg. ^6. 

Vittata. Shell within purple, without with alternate brown and red 
bands; the rays convex. 
Inhabits ■ Rsgenf. conch,, w.ftg, jg. 

Miniata, Shell white with confluent red fpots ; the rays rou^-h: the 
convex valve with tranfverfe crifp lamellae. 

Inhabits Eorn Muf. Cas. Find. test. tab. 7. fig. i. 

Shell I inch 6 lines long, i inch 4 lines bjoad. 

Jnfata. Shell convex each fide, clofed oblong pellucid, with 335 
Born. Muf. Ccef. Find. teft. tab. 6. fig. /, 8. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 68. fig. 648, b. 

Inhabit? very rare : ochraceous, thin, and twice as long 

as it is broad, 

b. Ears unequaly cue of them generally ciliate with fpltus 

■ PaJUtm.. 

254 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 

Pallium. Shell equivalve with I2 convex rays, flriate rough and im- 
bricate with fcales. Ducal Mantle. 
Bar but. tub. ^.f'g. ?. Rumpf. Muf tab. 44 B. 
Argen'v. conch, tab. 24.. I. Gualt tefi. tab. 74. F« 
Lister conch, tab. 187. fetinj. amb. tab, ^"J.figy 2. 
VaUnt. abh. tab. l6.fg. 26. M:irr. tej}. t. 2./. 4. 
Seba MuJ. 3. tab. ^"J. fig. 8 — 12. 
RegcKi). conch. I, /-a^, 6. Hg. 59. 

Knorr. Vergn. 1. tab. 5. r«'i. zx.fig. I, i. /. 27, /i z. 
Chemn, conch, 7. ^a^. 64, fg. boy. 

2. 5^^« il/«/". 5. /fl^. Sj.fg. 17 ? 

3. Kjwrr Tergn. i. ^c^. tg. fig. 2. 

Inhabits India. Shell (olid, red varied with brown and white." 
^arr llriate crenate or fcaly, one ot them longer; margin of 
the fhell denticulate. 

dRKgmno. gjj^j^ equivalve, with 9 thick obtufe rays, the interftices 
longitudinally ftriatetuberculatc and prickly. 

Chemn, conch. 7. tab. 64 fig. 608. 

Inhabits the Red Sea ; reiemblesche lad. 

Shell white with fanguineous fpots; the margin with crenate 
plaits, the border purplifh ; ears with tranfverfc nodulous 

Maculofa. Shell equivalve, pale yellow with tawny fpots; rays \1 - 
thick and flattiih : ears white with dull ferruginous 
marks and tranfverfe fcaly ribs. 
Inhabits Knorr Vcrgn. 2. tab. ig.Jig. 5. 

tJodofa. Shell with 9 rays covered with apparently vcficular tuber- 
Barbut.fab. S.^g.^.. Bonan. M.u/. Kirch, t.fig. 138. 
Argenij. conch, tab. 24. F. Lifier, tab. iS6._fi'g. 24. 
Rumpf. Muf. t. 48. f. 7, Gualt. test. tab. 99. C, D» 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. ^I . fg. I — 5. 
Regenf. conch. \. tab. 4. fg. 38. 
Kmrr delic. tiaf fel. t. B. xi.f. 5. 
Knorr Tergn. i. tab. 5. /". I, and /ai. 13,/. ^. 
Spengler Befch. Naturf. z,tab. 13, /ff. I, 2. 
Chemn. conch. 7. /a^. 64, f. 609—76 11. 

2. A'worr Vergn* 2. tab. Zl-fg- 5 ? 

3. Knorr Vergn. 3. /a^. 24./^^. I. /. 25,/. 1. 
Inhabits the American and African Ocean. 

Shell fometimes red or fcarler, fometimes varied wiih r^d and 
white or tawny and white mixed with yellow: upper-'valve 
more convex than the lower : ear fpinous within and beneath. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftfea. 265 

Pesfelisi Shell with 9 ftriate rough rays : one of the ears Very fmall. 

Bonan.recT. Z' fig' J. Muf. Kirch. Z.f. 8. 

Bom. Muf. Caf. yhd. te/t, tab. 6. fig. 2. 

Ckemn, conch, j. tab. 6^. fig. 6 1 2. /. 65. y. 613, 

Inhabits rhe (hores of jfrica: fmall, thin, pellucid, general!/ 
pale flefh-colour fpotted and veined, within glabrous white, 
with fubundulate rays and crenatc plaits on the margin: ears 
with tranfverfe knotty llri^e. 

Pellucensk Shell nearly cqliivalve with 9 rays, fmooth with fpdon-lik^ 
hemifphaerial fcales on the lower valve. 
8. Chcmn. couth. 7. tab. 66. jig. 625 — 627. 

Inhabits the African Seas : ovate, miilute, pellucid, glabrous, 
white; the upper.'valve fpotted. with red, 

dbliterata. Siiell ftnooth on the oiitnde with 24 doubled rays. 

Ckemn. conch. 7. tab. 66 fig. 622 — bl\. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; refembles V. Pleuroncftes, biit is 
lei's : Jliell with very fine decuffate ftrias ; the lower-valve pale 
rediilh, and yellowiih at the hinge ; upper-Valve dirty red 
or pale tawny. 

Sanguinea: Shell equivalvc with 22 rough tqys: ears fmall. 

Listsr conch, tab, l^^.fig. 22. Guuit. teit, tab. 74, M ? 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. bt). fig. 628, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, dl.amic and American Seas. 
Shell roundi/h fl^tilh, red fcarlet or tawny ; tne fpaces betwceh 
the r»ys ftriate longitudinally: about 2 inches Idng and i| 

♦ Varia. Shell equivalve with abowt 30 compreifed rays befet with 
tranfverfe prickly fcales: one car very fmail. 

DoTio-vans Britifh Shells, i. tab. l.fig. I. 

Pennant BritiZooi. iv, tab. 61. fig 64. 

Da Cofa Brit conch, t, \o.f. I, 2, 4, 5, 7, g. 

Li/ler conch, tab. 187. /[rgen-ville conch, tab. 24. H, recr. and Muf. Kirch, 2.. fig, 5. 

Cualt. tefi. tab. 73, G> H. tab. 74. R. 

Knorr l^ergn. 2. tab. i^. f'g. 3— *5. f. Jt. /. 3. /. i2,f. 5, 6. 
t. 16. f. 2. Argenv, conch, tab. 24. H. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 66. fig. O33, 634. 

Inhabits moil European Seas: varies much in colour, from pale 
yellow to various fhades of orange and brown, with fometimej 
a tew white fpots : /hell rather convex, with rough jags or 
fpinous protuberances down the rays; fpaces between th.e rays 
not rtriate : one ear very fmall with a double row of fpines, the 
•thcr with wrinkled plaits and armed beneath with 5-7 fpines, 

VOL, IV.— .LI *Fuffc* 

266 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Ollrca. 

* PufiOt Shell equivalve with about 40 filiform rays, the furface often 
irregular or diftorted. 

Donovan* s Brit Shells, i. tab. "i,^. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. bx.flg. 65. 

DaCosta Brit. Cotich. tab. \o.fig. 3, 6. 

Lifter an, Ang. p. 186. tab. ^.fig 31. 

Lister conch, tab. \%\.ftg. 18. t. 189 f, 23. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, z- fig. 15. 

Knorr. f^ergn. 4. tab. i 2 ftg. 2 and 5. /. 1 3. /I 2, 

Chemn. conch. 7. ?fl/^. dy-ftg 635, 636. 

Inhabits European Atlantic and American Seas, 

Shell generally fmall and a little longer thas it is broad, fome- 
rimes with a i'mooth furface, but moftly with an irregular 
waved furface as if deformed by an accident : very variable 
in its colours and marks, but commonly fine red: one of the 
ears is vtry Imall, the other fharply fpined beneath. 

*Oh/oleta. Shell fmooth equivalve femitranfparent, dark purple, with 
^ fubofeiete rays. 

Donaiian's Brit. Shells, i. tab. X'f'g' 2. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 6l B_fg. 66. 

Inhabits Britijli Coafis^ f of an inch long. 

Shell\.\i\r\i the valves equal and fhallow, v. ithin fmooth and brown 
with a pearly glofs ; outfide dull purplifli-brown with nu- 
merous longitudinal ftriae between the rays; ears very unequal 

• Lavis. Shell very fmooth 5 ears ribbed. 

Inhabits Anglefea. Brit. Zool. iv. /. 102. a. 67. 

• Glabra. £ars nearly or quite equal: fhell equivalve with 10— 15 

fmooth flattilh rays ; the infide with elevated doubled 

Bonann- Muf. Kirch, and recr. 2. fig. 11 — I 3. 

Gualt. test. tab. 73. H. tab. 74. A — D. F. Z. 

Klein ofir. tab. (). fg. 29. Seba. Muf 3. tab. Sy.fg. 16. 

Pegenf. conch. I. tab. I. fig. 10. r. 3 f. 30, 31. 

Knorr Vergn. I. tab. 8. fig. 5, 2. /. \0.f. 2, 

Born Muf. Cas. Vind. tell. tab. 6, fig. 4. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 6y.fg. 638 — 645. 

Inhabits European and American Seas : nearly 2 inches long and 
as many broad; roundifh ; red yellow or brown, fpotted or 
clouded, fometimes white with the upper valve fpotted with 
brown : margin repaid. 

• OptrcuU- Shell with about 20 rays, roundifli and rough with decuflale 
ris. ftrias ; the upper valve a little more convex. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. OArea. 267 

Lifierccnch. tab. 190, 191. 

Seha Mil/, 3. tab. "ij.fg. 15. 

Knorr Vergn. z, tab. "i^. Jig. z\ 3 ? 

Chemn. conch, j-. tab. 67. Jig» 646. 

Schrcet. Eir.l, in conch. 3. tab. 9. jig. 3. 
2. jKwarr Vergn. 5, //j^. 28, //V, 4. 

Inhabits northern feas oi' Europe : 2{ inches long and broad. 

^/-r// gaping, generally variegated with ipots and other marks ; 
rays acute, fometimes rounded : margin repand and toothed 
within : ears with decuflate wrinkled ftrix, the larger one 
cmarginate and fpinous under the incifure. 

Gibbai Shell equivalve, gibbous, with 20 glabrous rays. 
Broivn Jamaic, tab. 40. f. 10. Gualt. test- t. 73, F. 
Re genf. conch. I. tab. \,fg. II. t. z,f. 16, 17. 
Knorr Vergn. i. tab. iS,/ 2, Sif 2. /. 5./. 4. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 6^, fig. 619, 620. 

2. ^//?fr Conch, tab. 182. yi 19. 

Inhabits the American and Atlantic fea.'. 

ShtU convex esch lidc, red with fometimes a few white fpots, 
and marked vvitii fine crenate longitudinal 4txiffi; margin crc- 
nate ; ears nearly equal. 

Sulcata, Shell white with flefli-coiour fpots ^ the rays glabrous, 32 
on the lower-valve and 25 on the upper. 

Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. tejl. tab. 6, ftg. ^y 6. 

Chemn. co?ich, 7 tab. 63. fig, 603, 604. 

Inhabits fhores of Malabar; about \\ inch long and fomething 
broader: margin plaited, crenate ; fov.'sr-'valve with an em*t- 
ginate fpinous ear, upper-valve flattened. 

Hiflrionica, Shell thin, flattened, pellucid, with very fine tranfvcrfe 
wrinkles and 1 1 rays. 
Bonan.recr. and Muf Kirch. 2, fg. 14. 
Kncrr Vergn. 4. tab. \z, fg. 13. 
Born Muf. Cesf. Vind. tetl, p. 97, lign.Jig, 6. 
Chemn. conch. 7, tab. 65, y" 614. 

Inhabits 5/.^// fpottcd with red, white ?nd black: ravs 

waved: ^«r^ nearly equal. ' 

IJandica, Shell orbicular, with purple circles and about 100 rays 

//. Wgoth. tab. 5. fig. 7. Lifer, tab. 1057. f a, 

Gualt. test. tab. 73. R. Sela Muf, 3. /. 87./. 7, 

Knorr delic. tab. B. ii. fig. 3, 4. 

i^^l^rr Vergn i tab. ^, fg. i. ,. 5,/. ^^ & ,^ ^^ 

Spetigler ^chreb.Naturf. \. tab. ^,fg.r ^'' 

Chemn. conch, 7. /<?/^, 65. /fj. 615, 616. 

^ ^ - Inhabits 

26S WORMS. TESTACEA, 66. Oftrea. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean^ m innumerable varieties. 
Shell 3|- inches long, '^\ broad: fometimes whitifli, but moftly 
mixed with a fioe pale bloom or yellowifti, and markrd with 
tranfverfe femilunar bands: upper-'valve more elegantly mark- 
ed, with 50-100 rays rough with acute imbricate fcales : mar- 
gin crenate : ears with tranfverfe fcaly ftrise, the larger one 
^marginatc and fpinous: ihe Jijk is eaten. 

IriraJiata Shell nearly equivalvc, glabrous, immaculate, with verV 
minute ftri<e. 
Mull. Dool. Dan. 2. tah. 6o. jig. I, 2. 
Found amopg Fuci in the feas of Noriuay. 

Shell red with fmall white fpots, within reddifh : upper-valve 
with 3 rays : ovary of the fifh yellowifti. 

Fuci^ Shell nearly equivalvc, (Iriate, fpotted, rough, tow^ards the 

Muli. Zool. Dan. z.tah.^Osf. y — ^. 
Inhabits "North f>eas, on the Fucus faccharlnus. 
Shell rufous with whitifh or paler fpots, within red and qbitq 

fmooth with pellucid fpots: rays of the upper-valve obfokte : 

ovary of the ftfh rich red. 

Tigerina. Shell nearly equivalvc, Ilriatc, glabrous, red with whitifli 
Mull, Zeol. Dan. z. tab. 6. fig. 6 — 8. 

Inhabits the liorth Seas, on Fuel : lower-valve more deeply 
grooved, and varied with large undulate cofluent pale yellow 
fpots ; upper-valve dotted .' ovary of the fifli white. 

Septemrofii' Shelj nearly equivaTv^, flriate, glabroiis, with 7 convex rays, 
ata. Inhabits Northern Seas, Mull. Zool. Dan. prodr. 2992, 

Jrata. Shell nearly equivalvc, within and without grooved and 
red y one part rough, the other glabrous. 
Inhabits l^orth Seas. Mull, Zool. Dofi.prodr. 2995. 

Seftateria,^ Shell convex each fide with 22 rounded and tranfverfe 
wrinkled ra)»s, the interllices with longitudinal granu- 
late ftriqp. 

Ftgenf, conch. X . tab. 3 . fig, 36 ? 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 65, fig. 617. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; 2 inches 9 lines long, and about as 
much broad; cutfide chefnut varied with violet and white, 
infide riolc:, the circumference bordered Vvith dull bay. 

y-v-, Citrina 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 66, Oftrea. 


Citrina, Shell orange, with 22 rounded rays and plaited margin i 
lower-valve flatter. 
Valent. ahh. tab. \l-, fig- I. 
Che. fin. conch. 7. tab.Gi^. ftg.S\9,. 

Inhabits /«</ia ; fome of the rays are fcaly, and ^Ontc of the 
grooves have granulate lines. 

TurgfJa; Shell equally co'nvex, both fides with 20 glabrous rays, the 
iriterltices with tranfvcrfe <:rowded wrinlcles ; the 
margin with plaited teeth. 
Lister concha tab. 169. fig. ^. 
Chemn. conch. 7- tab. 6^. Jig. 6zl. a, b. 

Inhabits the Jn^ian and American Teas: ears very minute : lower- 
valve white, upper-valve yellowifli varied with brown, white 
and cinereous, 

^ulphurea. Shell flattened, thin» pellucid, ftriate, with numerous i«T 
bricate rays; the margin with crenate plaits. 
Seha Muf. 3. tab. 87. fig. ^3, 18. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 66. fig. 629, 

2. Seba Muf, 3. tab. 97. fig. 14. 

Chemn. conch. 7 /n^. 66. fig. 630, 93 1. 

Inhabits the Red Sea i % inches long and a little narrower. 

Shell t\nn, fragile, fulphur or orange, fomctimes red with an 
orange hinge and a femilunar white band, or viried with, 
white and pale tawny with a fanguineous border: lo'wer-'val'yg 
with equal rays, thofe of the upper-'vaiiie alternately Icfj^, 

Pgrphyrea. Shell convex, purple, within white or red, with 25 thick 
rounded fcaly rays. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 66. fig. 632. 

Inhabits the Red Sea ; 2 inches 3 lines long 'and as much broad : 
Jhell vzr'xtd with a few white fpots. 

fitrea. Shell hyaline with an acute margin, very flender rays, and 
concentric fcaly curves. 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. dj. fig. 637^ a. 

2. Chemn conch. 7. tab. 6-j.fig. 637. b, 3. 

Inhabits the iVor/A .Sfizj ; among Fuci and Zoophytes: lizeofa 
pea; /-<?// fmooth, brittle, v/hite, or varied with white and 
red ; one ear emarginate and fpinous. 

Tranqucha- Shell with 20 rounded rays, the intcrflices very finely 
ria, wrinkled: margin repand, 

Lijler conch, tab. 179. Giialt ted. tabi 73. L,M. 

Knorr Fergn. 2. tab. 4, fig. 2, 3. 

Born Muf. Cfef Vind. left. tab. 7, fg. 2. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Qftrca, 


Chemn. conch. 7. tab. 6j. fig. 647, 648, 

Inhabits Tranquebar: fometimes of one colour, which is moftly 
orange, fometimes varied with undulate brown red or cine- 
reous fpots : upper --valve more convex. 

Shell white with purple fpots and numerous unequal rays: 
the margin crenate. 
Inhabits the Red Sea. Chemn. conch. 7, tab. 69, H. 

Crenulaia. Shell oblong, with undulate rays and flriJE, and tranfvcrfc 
interrupted bands : margin crenulate. 
Inhabits Lifier conch, tab. iJS^f' 12. a. Small. 

Snnominata Shell roundifh, fpotted, with deep grooves very fmely ftriate 
tranfverfely: margin crenulate. 

Inhabits Lifler conch, tab. 1 75,/. 12. b. Small. 

One of the ears hardly vifible. 

Rufe/cens « 



at a. 



Shell roundifh, pale rufous, with 24 rays : the ears with 
decuflate llrice. 
Inhabits Ltfler conch, tab. \2o, f. 17, Middle-fized. 

Shell roundifh, with thick rays furniflied with diftant pa- 
rallel fcales, and prickly at the fides. 

Inhabits Liller conch, tab. 183,/}^. 20, 

Shell convex, fpotted ; the margin crenate. 

Shell rather oblong, with narrow fcaly rays, the interftices 
broader and ftriate perpendicularly: ears with perpen- 
dicular wrinkles. 

Inhabits Lifter conch tab. I 84, f. 2i. 

Shell ViTied with angular lines and fpots. 

.Shell flattened, with 10 finooth flat unequal rays: ears 
tranfverfely ftriate 
Inhabits Lr/ter conch, tab. 188, /. 26. 

Shell thin, w|th depreffed fcaly rays: ears fliort, 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 44, fig. C, ' 

2. Regenf. conch ■ i. tab. 10, fig 45. 

Inhabits India and the North Seas. 

Shell bay, or cinereous fpotted with black, fometimes white or 
carmine or pale orange. 

Shell with 20 rays and tranfverfe fetnilunar bands. 
Inhabits India, talent, abh. tab. I 3, f, 2. 
Shell rad ; referables O. maxima, but the ears are unequal. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 2ji 

Media. Shell fomevvhat oblong, with crowded rays. 

Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. 74. f. N, O. 

ShiU middle- fizcd, reddifli, iaffron or piceous. 

Crocea. Shell fatfron, with muricate fcaly rays alternately lefs. 
Inhabits — — Gualt. teft. tab. 74, f. P. Small. 

Florida. Shell roundifh, white, with rofy fpots. 

Inhabits — Gualt, tejl. tab. 74, /. (^ Small, radiate, 

Ochrcknca, Shell oblong, ochraceous, with rays fmooth on one part and 
granulate on the other. 
Inhabits Gualt. tcjt. tab^ 74, /. S. Minute, 

Mu/teltBa, Shell pale tawny, with yellow fpots and bands and fmooth 
rays: ears tranfverfely ftriate. 
Inhabits — ^- Gualt. teji. tab. j^, f. T, 
Shell z\ inches long and about as much broad. 

flammea. Shell faffron, rather oblong, with very fine perpendicular 
Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. 74, /. V. yQT<j minute. 

Jncarnata, Shell rather oblong, flcfli-colour, with interrupted red 
bands and flattened rays. 
Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab; 74, /". X. Small. 

Guttata, Shell yellowifh, rounded, dotted with red, with rays un- 
equally conv^erging at the hinge- 
Inhabits Gualt. teft. tab. 74, B, B. Small. 

Deprejjit. Shell ochraceous, with flat bifid rays. 

Inhabits Gualt. teft. tub. ■^4. /. D, D. 

Shell iho\xx. an inch long and fomething broader.' 

Reg:at Shell roundifh, deep red, with ronnded rays. 

Inhabits Seba Muj. 3. tab. 87, fig. 6. 

Ear of the lower-valve deeply emarginate. 

Palliata, Shell equivalve, with numerous fmooth rays. 

Inhabits Kmrr Vergn. i. tab. 19. /. 2. 

Refembles O. Pallium, but is lefs rough, and has fewer rays; 
T^if// llraw-colour with purple undulate bands. 

Smlnuda, Shell orange, oblong, muricate, with fcales as far as the 
middle; with 22 rays. 
Inhabits — — Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 9. f. 4. 
Shell x\ of an inch long, \\ broad: ears with very fine fcale;?. 


^72 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oflrea. 

Modista. Shell roundifh, hoary, with brownifhj reddilh and bhieifh 
fpots ; (paces between the rays broad. 

Inhabits ^ Regevf. conch, 1. tab. 5. fig. 55. 

Shell with 2 filiform bands at the hinge. 

Principalis 5h?ll purple with a brown margin ; the rays fcaly frotrf 
the middle and Imooth at the hinge. 
Inhabits — — Regenf. canch. I. tob. t2j f. 63. 

Thftioior* Sheii variegated, with peflinate fmooth rays. 
Inhabits Regenf . conch, 1, tab. 12, T. 64, 

C» Valves mori gib'ojus on one fide, 

flavicantk Shell nearly equivalve, with 8 ftriate rays, the margiii 
rounded on one lide. 
Inhabits South Seas. Muf. Lud, Utr. 531, a. 1 17. 
Shell ratiier oblique, white varied with brown and red, within 
white i the rays yellow ; one of the ears vciy ihorr, 

^afiafa. Shell equlvalve, with 20 rough rays, the interftices ftriate : 
ears equal, fmall. 
Lifer conch, tab. 177. fig. 14* 
Gualt, tejL tab. 74. E, E. tab, 88, F, F. G. 
Inhabits the American and Atlantic (eas. 

Shell white, pellucid, gaping each fide, very finely ftriate within ; 
the margin crenate. 

Fragifi:, Shell equivalve, with 25 rays; margin very entire : ears 
Chemn. conch. 7. /. 68. y, 650. 

Inhabits Nicobar Iflandt ; refembles the laft, but is flatter and 
has more rays : fhell K\i\Xi, brittle, x\ inch long and about 
, half as broad, 

LiJAa. Shell equivalve, with 22 imbricate fcaly rays, rounded z\ 

one margin: ears obliterated. 
Bar but, tab, 8, fig. 5. Peti'V. Amb. ^ 8,/. 4, 
Argent, conch, tab. 24, E, Gualt. tejt. tab. 88, F. 
Bonan. recr. 2 f. -jl. Muf. Kirch. 2. /. 69. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 44. D. Klein oftr, t. 9, /, 35- 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 34, fig, 3. 
Chemn. conchy 6. tab. 68, fig. 65 J , 
2. Gualt. teft, tab. 88, fta, E. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean y Indian and Redfeas, 
Shell -finches long, _2| broad ; white and rather flat ; the number 
of rays uRcertain, the fcales elevated and acute: ears wrinkled. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 273 

Olatialist Shell equlvalve, with 50 imbricate interrupted rays : ears 
equal, one of them unequally plaited. 
Lifter conch, tab, 176. Klein ojlr, t.(), f. 32, 33, 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 38. fg. <;. 
Chtmti. conch. -] . tab.6Z. fig. 652. 

2. Cbemn. conch. 7. tab. 62* fg. 653. 

Inhabits the American Ocean ; refembles the laft, but has more 
numerous rays: y/i^// fnowy with a crenatc mcrgin j 3) mar- 
git\ entire* 

Hians, Shell whitifh, thin, gaping each fide and oblique^ with 

obfolete undulate rays and tranfverfc rounded femi- 
lunar ftrix. * 

Schrtrt. Einl. in conch. 3. tab. <^, figi 4* 

Inhabits Nor^vjay ; if inch long, \ of ah inch broad: ears very 
finall and acute : margin crenate, very entire within. 

E.-cavata. Shell dirty-A^hrte, -with longitudinal undulate (Irix and a 
few tranfverfe rings, fmooth within : one ear obfo- 
lete: margin very entire. 
Cbe.vtn. conch. 7. ta!>. 68./, 654. 
Inhabits Norway, rare: 5 inches long, 3^ broad." 

B. Rough and generally plated on the outftde. Oyfters. 

Malleus. Shell equivalve 3-lobed, 2 of the lobes placed tranfverfely 

like the head of a hammer^ 
Barhut, tab. 9. fig. I. Rumpf. Muf. tab., 47, H. 
Argenv. conch, tab. 19. A. Gualt, test. tab. 96. D ? 
Lip. tab. 219. Bonan, Muf. Kirch. 24 fg. 120. 
Petiv. Amb. aq. tab. zOy fig. 10. 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. 91. /. 4, 5. tab.()i. f. i, 2. 
Spenghr teft. conch, tab. i. fig. A. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 70. fig. 65^, 656, 
Inhabits deeps of jhc Lndian and South Seas : very rare. 
Shell Aboi\t 6 inches long arid 41 broad ; black with a dark bTne 

caft, gaping, formed like a crofs ; the valves lamellate. 

yalftllat Shell fubppllucid, narrow, elongated, brittle, lamellate; one 
end rounded ; within very fmooth and gloflTy, 
Chemn. conch. S. tab. 70. fig. 657. , 

2. Mart. allg. Naturfi 4. tab. 147, fig. z. 

Inhabits tlie /?f^ .S'^/j; 3-'- inches long, i broad. "* 

Shell violet, tawny or ferruginous, gaping at the hinge; rough 
on the outfide, and thinner at the rounded end. 

VOL. IV.— M m Anatina. 

274 WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrca. 

Jnatina* Shell pellucid, lamellate and laterally incurved. 

Spengler catal. ralf. tab. 6. Jig. 1,2. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. JOy f. 658. tab. 'Jitf. 659. 

Inhabits Nicobar IJlands : about an inch broad, and including 
the curvature 3 inches long: its fhape in fome manner refem- 
bles a duck when fitting : Jhel/ thiUf brittle, varied with white 
and violet, 

Diluviaaa. Shell plaited on the outfide ; the margin with ered acutan- 

gular teeth. 

Found in a foffile ftate in the calcareous mountains of SnueJett, 

\ out the fize of a common oyfter; the margin with ereft 

'ierratures formed as it were of the imbricate lamella: of the 

fhell, and tranfverfely ftriate : valves wiih peftinate plaits 

and acute wrinkles. 

Folium. Shell ovate, obtufely plaited at the fides, parafitical. 

Barbut, tab. 9, fig. 2. Rumpf. Muf. tab. \-]t A, 

Peti'u. Amh. tab, \o, /. 1. Argenv. conch, r* 19. F. 

Klein Oftr. tab. 8. jig. ZZ. SpengU conch, tab. I, H. 

Knorr Vergn. \. tab. 23,//^. 2. 

Chemn, conch. 8. tab. 71, fig. 662—666, 
2j Schra:t. litterat. 2. tab, I. fig. 5, 6. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, where it is frequently found adhering 
to Gorgoniae : Jhell ftraw-coulour, pale tawny or violet, within 
filvery : hinge with a triangular hollow : upper'<val<ve turgid on 
the back towards the middle, wrinkled each fide and tranf- 
verfely ribbed y lo^er-'vahe lefs^ flatter and grooved in the 

Orbicularis Shell orbicular, flat, vrith an entire crenate margin. 
Gualt. ted. tab. 104, G. Chemn, 8. tab. 74. ftg. 680 ? 
Inhabits — — Shell with a very obtufe margin, about the fixe 
of the end joint of the thumb. 

*Edulis, Shell nearly orbicular and rugged, with undulate imbricate 
fcales : one valve flat and very entire. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab 62, lower figure. 
Lister An. Ang. tab. ^' fig% 26. 
Lister conch, tab. 202. jig. 36. /. 203, /. 37. 
Bonan. recr. 2' jig' 70. Muf, Kirch. 2. f. 68. 
Cualt. tejl, tab. 102. A, B. Argenti. Zoom, /. 5. A, 
Bafier op,fubf. 2. tab. 8, Hg. 1,2. 8, 9, 
Ginann. adr. 2. tab. iS.fig. 127. 
Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. 2^, ftg. 2. /. 25./. 2, 
Chemn. conch. 6. tab. 74. fig. 682. 
2, Adanf. Senig. 1. tab, 14. fig, 3. 
Lister t tab, 193, 194, Klein oftr, tab, 8,/. 21,' 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 275 

Born Miif. Caf. Vind. teft. tab, 6. /. 9, lo. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab, Jh/^g. 672, 673. 

3. Martin allg. Natur/. 4. tab. 48,/. 3, 4. 

4. Chemn. conch. 8. /fl^. 71, /. 660 ? 

5. am«. «»f^. 8. tab. 71, /. 661. 

Inhabits £«r./.«» »nd /.^r«« feas, «ffi^e^/°/,'^^'^' ^'^ , V^^^^^ 
beds: the fi(h is well known as a palatable and nutrit ous 
food : A// of various fizes, forms and colours, vvithin white 
and often gloiTy like mother of pearl : the old nicUs have often 
an Anomia fixed to them, and arc frequently covered with 
Serpuls, Lepades, Sertularix and other marine produft>ons. 

Smiabrata Shell oval, llightly cared, fmooth, with an oblique bafe. 
Gualtt test. tab. 84. fig. H. 

Schrat. einl. in conch. 3. tab, 6. fig-^- , ^ 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, about if inch long and Xj broad . 

dirty olive with a few undulate white lines : very thin ; each 

valve convex and ending in a beak: htnge with 5 rounded 


•Striata. Shell oval with longitudinal filiforni ridges: infide green. 

Donovan sBritiJhJhelU, ii. tab. /^<i. 

Da Co/ta Brit, conch, tab. \ I , fig> 4. 

Lifter An. Ang. tub. 4. fig. 4, 

Gualt. conch, tab. 104, fig* B ? , . ,. 

Inhabits European feas ; about an inch in diameter. 

5.^.// thick, ftrong, nearly opake, not membranaceous as m the 
common oyfter, with numerous flender irregular ridges di- 
vStowards the bottom : upper-.alve flattilh, lower cOn. 
cave: htnge broad, deep, fomewhat triangular and ftr a e 
tranfverfely. In many (hells is a white radiate mark below 
the hinge, formed by the cartilage of the hlh. 

Tornicata. Shell rough, p^long, linear, with divergent hinges vaulted 
Chemn conch. 8. tab. ^l^fg- 667. a, b. 

Inhabits the Red Sea. Shell brittle, membranaceous, tawny, 
about as long as a finger, terminating at the hinge in an elon- 
gated acutangular beak. 

Sirienftu Shell rough, lamellate, unequal and glabrous within : lower- 
valve larger, concave and ending in a beak, with 10 
obtufe plaits. 
Chemn conch. 8. tab. -Jl^ fig. 668. 

ln\iih\r.^ Chinefe f lores ; 4 inches long and a Wttle narrower: 
fiell ruffet-brown, within whitifli towards the hinge, 

M m 2 S!'°"' 


WORMS. TESTACEA.^ 66. Oftrea. 

Spondilo' Shell equivalve,^ pellucid, flattened, oval, beaked, glabrous, 
idea, ^\x\i perpendicular undulate granulate ftrix on the 

upper- valve : margin very (harp. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 72. fig. 669, 670. 

Inhabits India i 3 inches 2 lines long, 2 inches 5 lines broad: 
flieli white with a few tawny fpots. 

farJkahUu Shell plaited and terminating in a long incurved hollow 
be^k ; the middle ribs with imbricate fpinous wrinkles \ 
the other valve flat. 

Chemn. conch, 8 tab. 72.^.671, a, c. 

Inhabits the Red/ea: 2 inches 3 lines long, and about an inch 
broad : the fldt valve whitifh, the other iubviolet. 

fUcatula. Shell with longitudinal wrinkleji plaits j the Jpwer-valve a 
little lefs and flatter. 

Gualt. te/t. tab. \o/^, fig. A. 

Chemn, conch, 8. tab, 73. /%, 674, 

Inhabits American and Mediterranean feas : varies very much ill 
fhape and fize, bup is generally cinereous with a mixture of 
violet, ibuietimes vvhite with red or blueifh I'treajis. 

^ostrata. Shell oblong, rugged; the upper- valve lamellate with a 
denticulate margin, the other excavated and longitudi- 
nally grooved : beak prominent. 

Gualt. teft, tab. 102, fg.t>. 

chemn. conch. 8. tab.y^. fg'^?^' 

Inhabits the Mediterranean: upper -valve yellowifh-green, the 
other violet yaried with white ; within cretaceous or chalky, 

rirginica. Shell nearly equlvalve, thick, rough, lamcllous ; one valve 
with a prominent beak. 
Lifter conch, tab. 200. fig. 34. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab^ J'^- fig' 677, 
Z. Lister conch tab. 20 1. f. 35. 
Chemn, conch. 8. tai. 74. fg. 678. 

Inhabits American and Indian Oiean : 9 inches long and 4 broad : 
whitifh or ochraceous, within gloffy-white. 

Cornucctia' Upper-valve flat, lower- one hollow and ftriate, rough with 
fcales, wrinkles and plaits, and ending in an elongated 

Batn Muf. Caf. Find. teft. tab. (*, ftg. 1 1, 12,. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab 74. fig. 679. 

Inhabits the Indian and African oceane 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrca. 277 

Paralitica. Shell thin ; lower- valve convex and thicker, the other flat,. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 46. O. Klein Oftr. tab. 8. /. 1 7. 
Peti-v, Amb. tab. IQ. /^. U. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. "^.fig' 68 1. 

2. Adanf.Seneg. l. tab. 14. fg. I. 

3. Chemn conck. 9. /<:^. Il6./7f. 997. 

Inhabits the y;;<//'«« and Atlantic leas, and fixes icfelf to the roots 
and ftumps of trees growing dole to and hanging over the wa- 
ter, cfpecially the Mangifera ; varies in iorm and fize, hue is 
often as large as the palm of liic hand. 

^xalbiJa, ^\xq\\ thin, the upper-valve longer and more convex. 
KnorrVergn. 5. tab. i<i/ig- 3. 4. 

Inhabits the Adriatic, and is found fixed to other fhells fometimes 
»lone fometimes feveral together; about 1 | inch long, hut is 
variable as to (hape and fize ; generally whitifh, rarely yello\v' 
or violet. 

GriHata. Shell rugged, with imbricate lamella : the margin with 
obtufely plaited teeth; the beak of one valve produced. 

Born. 1^'uf. Caf. Vind. te/t. i. tab. J. fig, 3. 

Inhabits— —A'^^// an inch long and 10 lines broad, white witlj 
a few black fpots : kinge with a broad conic tooth in the 

^^egaknf.t Shell equivalve roundilh Imooth flat. 
Adans jcneg. i. tab. \\.fig. 5. 

Inhabits fhorcs of Senegal, and adheres to rocks; about 2 inches 
in diameter: tawny, within whitifh. 

■Stellata* Shell thin dcprefled rough unequal; the upper-valve ribbed, 
the ribs with a few fpines. 
Schrat. Einl. in Conch. 3. tab. 9 fig. 7. a, b. 
Inhabits Guinea, and is found afHxed to other bodies by the 
hinge: fometimes round fometimes oblong ; very thin, whire 
with red or blucifh rays fpots or marks. 
0~a/is» Shell oval very thin and terminating in a Ihort acute lateral 
channelled beak ; with oblblete unequal perpendicular 
Shreet. Einl. in conch. S. tab. ()-fig* 8. 

Inhabits Shell about an inch long, brittle, whitifli, within 

gloffy filver-white : lo--.i£r-'-jalue exceeding the upper both m 
length and breadth. 

■:t>jracea. Shell roundilh fnowy very thin pellucid \ upper-valve ter- 
minating in a fhort acute beak. 


inS WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea. 

Schrat, Einl. conch , I. p. 378. 

Found firmly fixed with the Lepas Tintinnabulum. 

Annuiata. Shell equivalve orbicular white, with concentric fcmicircles. 
Inhabits North Seas. Mull, ZooK Dan, frodr. 2987, 

Retu/a. Shell equivalve oblong white glabrous ftriate ; with an um- 
bo or knob remote from the hinge. 
Inhabits l^orth Seas, Mull. Zool.Dan. prodr, 2988. 

C. Hinge with a perpendicular grooved llne» 

Ptrna, Shell equivalve obovate unequal, rounder at one end, 

Barbut. tab. <^.fig' 3- Lijler. tab. 199. 228. 

Klein ojir. tat), ^.fig- 1 9) 20. Seba Muf. 3. tab, 90. 

Martin Bejch Naturf. 3. tab. J. fig, 20, 21. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. S^'/'g' 579. 580. 

Schrcet. conch, '^.tab. <)'fig* 5. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Seat; about 2f inches long, 
and in figure fomething refemblcs a ham or gammon of bacon: 
Jiiell white or dull ferruginous, lamellate, fmoorh at the hinge, 
with a fhort ftraight open beak. 

I/ognomum. Shell equivalve, with a larger lobe nearly forming a right 
■■ angle with the hinge. 
Barbut. tah. <).fig. 4. Rumpf. Muf. tab, 47, I. 
Petiv. Amb. zo.ftg. II. 
Klein ollr. tah. "^.fig. 1 5, Seba Muf. 3. /. 91 . /". 6. 
Chemn. cor,ch. 7. tab. ^^.fig' 584. 

2, Seba MuJ -i^.tab. ()\.Jig J. 

3, Gualt. tell. tab. 97, A. f^aknt.abh, tah. X^'fig* 5* 
Seba Muf 3. tab. ()l.Jig. 8. 

Knorr Vergn. ^. t. lO.f, I, 2. and 6. /. l^'f I. 
Martin Befh. Naturf. 3. t. f.f 19* 
Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^g.fg' 582. 

4, Chemn. conch. 7. tab. ^(^.Jig* 583* 

Inhabits xhz Indian^Ocean and South Seas; 5 — 7 inches long, and 
about I A broad in the middle: Jliell black with a violet mix- 
ture and pearly within ; lamellate with an open beak : a very 
rare itell. 

Efhppiuw,. Shell equivalve orbicular compreired membranaceous. 

Li/ler conch, tah. zij. Klein, oftr. tab. iS.fg. 8. 

Seba Muf. 3. tah, ()0.fg. I. 

Knorr. f'^ergrt. 6. tab. 21. %. I. 

Martin Be/ch. Naturf. 3, t. J.f. Z2. 

Chemn. conch. 7. tab. sS Jig, 576, 577, , , , . 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 66. Oftrea, 279 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean and Cape of good hope : very rare. 
^bell about 5 inches long, 5 \ broad, blacki(h fciruginous or 

purplifh and pearly within ; roundifh, lamsllate, with a very 

acute margin. 

f'tSla, Shell equivalve thin pellucid and pointed at the hinge, the 

other end dilated: margin very acute. 
Martin Befcb. Maturf, 3. tab. ".Jig. 23, 24. 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. 58. fig. 575, 

Inhabits the ked Sea i more than an inch broad and above 2 
long; ycllowilh-brown with paler undulate rays. 

Legumen, Shell flat hoary thin pellucid lamellate : hinge with an ob- 
lique line; the interftices of the grooves black. 
Chemn. conch, 7. tab. $().fg' 578. 

Inhabits Nicobar IJlands : 4 lines broad and above 2 inches long : 
near the knob is a livid fpot. 

Alatai Shell flat brittle pellucid, andf dilated towards the margin \ 
hinge with an oblique Hnc ending in a fmall beak. 
Inhabits America. Chemn. conch. 7. tab. '^(). fig% 581. 

Mytihides, Shell nearly equivalve ovate ventricofe flraight. 
Schreb. berl, Naturf. 2. tab. <)'jig. 9. 
Found in a foffile itatc in Alface. 

Terta. Shell equivalve intorted. 

Schreb. berl. Naturf. 2. p» 276. 
Found foffile in Alface, 

Pes ktra, ^-^^w equivalve fmooth wcdge-fhaped with 6 obtufe plaits. 
Lifer, tab. 171. Gualt test. tab. 74. C. 
Argenv. conch, tab. iJ.fig.A. 

Inhabits Shell varied with purplifli and white and marked 

with very fine longitudinal l^rias ; the margin flightly fcallopcd. 

67. ANOMIA. 

28o WOI^MS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomii; 

67. ANOMIA. Animal an ematginate cili-' 
ate ftrap-fllaped body, with briftles or 
fringe affixed to the upper-valve; arms 
2, Knear longer than the body, connivent 
T)roje6liiig, alternate on the vdve and 
ciliate each fide, the fringe? affixed to 
each valve: Jliell bivalve, inequivalve, 
one of the valves flattifli, the otlier gib- 
bous at the bafe with a produced beak, 
generally curved over the hinge ; one of 
the valves often perforated near the bafe: 
hinge with a linear prominent cicatrix 
and a lateral tooth placed Avithin, but in 
the flat valve on the very margin: 2 bo- 
ny rays for the bafe of thd animal. 

Cfanhlarit Shell orbicular, the gibbous valve conico-convex, the flat 
valve with 3 hollows at the bafe. 
Retz. Schr. berl. Naturf. z. tab, \.fig. 2, 3. 
Chemn: conch. 8. tab. "jS.fig. 687. a, b. 
2. Chemtu concL 8. tab. 7^- fig- 688. a, b. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Seas and Philippine Ifiands., and is 
fometimes found foffile; about an inch long and | of an inch 
broad : whitifh ; the lower-valve thicker,, within qre 3 fmooth 

* P fi- ^^'^^ oblong with branched grooves, the gibbous valve with 
2 hollows behind^ 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab, 'jS./ig. 689^ 690. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, and is often found foffile : about an 
inch long and I broad : flat valve perforated, the other rough 
with longitudinal fcaly Urise which are here and there bifid, 

^Ephippium Shell roundifli pellucid with wrinkled p.\aits; the flat valve 
Donovans Brit. Shells, \. tab, 26, 
Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 62. 
Da Cojla Brit, conch, tab, ll./ig» Z' 
Bonan. reef, z.fig' 56, Muf. kirch, ^t fg' SS' 
Gualt. i:eft. tab.^gj. B. Lifier. tab. 20^./ig, 38. 
Ginannadr. 2. tab, ZJ , jig. X72. Barbut. t. XO,f. 3. 
Argenw, conch, tab. X^.fig. C. 
Chemn, concb, 8. tab, jb^fig. 692, 693. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomia. 281 

Inhabits European and American Seas, and is frequently found 
fticking to the common oyftcr ; about 2 inches long, 2^ broad; 
the outfide rugged and fitray, the infide fmooth and pearly: 
varies much in colours, but all have generally a filvery hue. 

•Ce/>a Shell obovate unequal violet; upper valve convex, Ipwer 
Knorrt Vefgn. 6. tab. g./Tfi 5% 
Murray tejiaceol. tab. 2. /7|-. 1 3. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 76. fig. 694, 695. 

Inhabits European and Ameiican Heas ; about the fize of a wain tit; 
varies in it's (hape: lower-valve white, upper-valve reddifh- 
blue; refembles the laft but is much lefs and fmoothcr. 

Elefirica, Shell roumlKh yell6v»r fmooth j one Valve convex and gibbous, 
Borhut. tab. Cj.fig. 4. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 47. L. 
Lijler. tab. 20^. Jig. 39? Pethj. amb. t. io,/, 8, 
Knorr Fergn. 5. tab. t$.fg' 6. 
Chemn. concha 8. tab. 76. fig. 691. 
Inhabits Coalts of yf^rzca; refembles the laft. 
Shell fmall brittle extremely thin ; lower-valve flatter with an 
oval perforation and a fmall knob in the region of the hinge, 

*Squamula Shell Tmall orbicular, very entire, thin like the fcale of a 
fi(h ; one margin gibbous and fmooth. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. p. 109. «. 71. 
Chemn conch. 8. tab. l^-fig. 696. 

Found frequently in the European Seas, adhering tooyfters crabs , 
and other fifh : 7^1^// minute flat delicate and filvery, one valve 
generally perforated. 

Patellifor- Shell ovate convex fubdiaphanous ftrlate, the pofterior beak. 
mi's. recurved and fmooth. 

Inh'ibirs l^arth ^eas. Mull. 7.ool. Dan. prodr, 2999.- 
6'^^// whitifh thin brittle, refembling Patella luteaj marked with 
very fine longitudinal ftrisc croffed by tranfverfe ones ; beak 
obfolcne: lo=i>jar-valvt flat fmooth and perforated at the bafe. 

•Scobinata, Shell roiindilh, fmooth and rough within; the beak per- 
Gualt. tejl, tab. ^^^^fig- A. 
Chemn, conch. 8. tab, 1^- fig, 704 f 
Schrott. Journ, 3. tab. 2. fig. 4. 
Schrat, Einl, in conch. 3. tab. 9. fig. 9, 

Inhabits the Off i3«: thin pellucid white, very finely ftriate, fil- 
very within i the outer margin glabrous and acute- 

VOL. IV.— N n Aurha. 

282 WORMS. TESTACEA. 67, Anomia, 

Aurita, Shell fubovate ftriate and {lightly eared ; beak perforated. 
Gualt teft. tab. <)6.Jig. B. 
Inhabits Noriuay Seas ; refembles A. Caput ferpentis. 

Retuja, Shell obovate ftriate retufe with a longtitudinal concavity ; 
beak perforated. 
Fit. Suec. 2153. Mull. Zool. Dan. trodr. 3000. 
Inhabits Noriuay Seas, adhering to Zoophytes, 

*Gryfi>ur Shell oblong finooth, with an obfolete lateral plait on one 
valve and ineurved beak, the other valve fhort and 

Mu/. lejjin. tab. 'y. fig. 9. Olear, Muf, t, 33./". 3t 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 59. B. Bonan recr. 2. //>. 31. 

Lijler an. Angl, p. 238. tab, ^-fig* 45. 

Column, aq. p. S^-f'S'S^' 

Found frequently in a foflile ftate : Jhell lamellate wrinkled, va- 
riable in form and fize. 

• PeSens, Shell femiorbicular deprefled with numerous ftrias : one 
valve flat. 
Lifier an. Angl. p. 243. tab. <^yfig* 49. 
Found in a folfile ftate : jliell with a tranfverfe line near the hinge, 

Striatuhs Shell roundifh and a little dilated, gibbous each fide, ftriatej 
valves equal. 
Found hitherto in a foflile ftate only. 

Shell roundifti, but much broader than it is long, more gibbous 
behind, the anterior margin thin. 

*Truncata. Shell fuborbicnlar obfoletely ftriate ; the hinge truncate. 

Lister csnch. tab. \(}Z. fig. 23, 

Lister, anim Angl. tab. 9. fig. 50, 

Born Muf. C^s. Find. test. t. b.f. 4. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab "jj-fig. 701. a, b, 

Schrect. Joum. 3. tab. Z.fig. 5. 

Inhabits j£'ttro/'^a« ^^^i, affixed to corals; refembles A. ftriatula, 
but has a ftraight jagged hinge : Jhell whitifh, broader than it 
is long, convex with very fine decuflate wrinkles, within 

Re^cularit. ^^^^^ heart-ftiaped with decuflate ftria;, the fhorter valve 
more gibbous. 
Muf leftn.p. 88. tab. <;.ftg. 5. 

Found foffile; Jhell with rather prominent comprefled iides, the 
beak of the flat valve a little prominent. 

Plicate I la. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomla. 285 

Tlicatella. Shell dilated lunate plaited, with longitudinally flriate grooves, 
the middle broader 
Found hitherto in a foffile ftate only. 

Shell flightly miiricate at the fides, with longitudinal plaits; 
back of the upper valve a little pronainent. 

* Crifpa. Shell dilated triangular plaited with wrinkled grooves, the 

middle broader. 

Muf. Teff. tab, i^.fig. 7. Liji. Angl. t. 9./. 56. 

Found in a foffile flate in England ^nd SivitzerlanJ. 

Shell nearly lunate, with 5 or 6 wrinkled arched tranfvcrfe grooves, 
the fides flightly mucronate : beak of the upper-valve pro- 

*Lacuno/a» Shell foundifh with numerous grooves, the valves plaited at 
the tip ; one of them ftiortcr and pitted : the tip 4- 

Lister an. Angl. f. 249. tab. 9./^. 57. 

Muf. Tef. tab. t;./'tg. 6. Grew. Muj\ tab. ig./ig. 6. 

Klein estr. tab, M./ig. 57. 

Found hitherto in a foffile ftate only. 

Pubefcenst Shell obovate grooved ; the beak of one valve prominent, 

of the other gaping, 
Schrcrt. Einl. in conch. 3. tab. ^- fig. a, b. 
Inhabits Nornjoay Seas, on zoophytes. 
Shell fmall, about the fi'ze of a Cucumber feed, white nearly 

equivaive, covered with fmall ereft dirtant hairs which are 

probably a minute fpecies of fea weed, or fpunge, not retufe 

or plaited, longitudinally grooved. 

• Cu/piikta Shell conic pointed grooved ; one valve- convex with an 

incurved beak, the Other pyramidal with a large trian- 
gular foramen. 

^ranfaSl. Linn. Soc Vol. 3. tab. l- figy I— 4. 

Inhabits Derbyjliiret in a pctrifid Hate. 

Lcnver 'vah'e convex broad, wrought with clofe thick longitudinal 
ribs and crofled by a few flight concentric circles ; the middle 
rib much larger, forming a convex ridge down the centre of 
the valve, increafing in breadth towards the margin in which 
place they are undulate, the number of ribs above 29; beai 
fmall pointed and curved over the hinge, a ftraight line extending 
the breadth of the ftiell : upper-<val~je pyramidal, gradually 
tapering to a fine point, the back rounded, longitudinally ribbed 
and indented with a deep concave groove, corrcfpondent to the 
ridge in the other valve ; the groove and ribs crofled by a few 
ftrong diftant wrinkle?; the front or part extending from the 
N n 2 hinjjc. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomia. 

hinge to the tip, flat, fmooth and perforated, the perforation 
large and refembling a long perpendicular flit or fent. 

Far£la, Shell roundifli with numerous grooves j the valves convex 
and 8-to6thed at the tip. 
Found foflile in Switzerland and IVeJifihalia, 
5/&f // foraetimes nearly globular. 

Caput' Shell obovate, ftriate, downy ;*one valve with a longer per- 
Serpentis» '' foratedbeak. 

Grundier Naturf. z. tab, l- fig. 1 — 6.\ 

Born Muf. Caf. Find. tefi. tab, 6. fig. 13. 

Schrat. abh. Naturg. 2. tab. 5. f. 8. a, b. /. 9. a, b, 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 78 Jig. 7 1 2. 

Inhabits the deeps of the AVii'flj'yJaj, generally found adhering 
to the Madrepora prolifera : fnell white, longitudinally and a 
little tranfverfely ftriiite, comprefled forwards with a crenulate 
margin : hing^ pipjninent at the fide and armed wiih a tooth 
in each valve : upper-'vahe prominent behind and longer each 
way, declined on the fore-part and marked with a groove in 
the middle, the tip perforated, through which it affixes itfelf 
to corals and zoophites by a ftrong ligament: lowet .'vahe 
rounded and retufe before. 

flerebra- Shell obovate, frnooth, convex: one yalye with 3 plaits, 
tub* the other with 2. 

Lifter Anim. Ang p. 240. tab. 8. jig. 46 ? 
Column, purp. 1 2. fig, 1. /. 32. 
Klein ofir. tab. II. fg. 74. 

Found plentifully in a foffilc ftatc : the beak of one valve pro- 
minent and perforated, 

Angulata, Shell with comprefTcd plaits at the fidej of the bafe anteri- 
orly, the middle 3-toothed. 
Muf. ^ejftn. p. 96. tab. 5. fig. 4, 

Found in a foffile ftate: fxell fmooth in othpr parts and varying 
/ in the number of plaits forwards. 

Hyllerita, Shel} dilated, fmooth, convex, ftriate, vyith about 3 lobes \ 
the anterior part dcpreiTed, with an acute margin. 

Muf. lej/in. p. 90. tab. 5. fg. 1 — 3.- 

Wolf Hcijj.fubtcrr. tab, 3. jig. 3 — 5, 

Worm. Muf. tab. 83, 

Foucd in a fofTile ftate in Germany ; varies in fizc and fomething 
in its figure : fnell fmooth, rarely marked with fine ftri^ j one 
valve Ihorter and very convex in the middle, with deprcfled 
fidcij the othef longer and flat, and ending in a raihtr long 







WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anoraia. 

Shell 2-lobed, equal, ftriate. 

Found hitherto in a foffile ftatc only. 


Shell orbicular, flat, pellucid ; hinge with 2 linear callofities 

growing internally on the Ihell. 
Ltjier conch, tab. 225,^^.60. tab. 226,/. 61. 
SebaMuf. 3. tab. go. Knorr rergn. 2. tab. 24. /. I. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 79. fig. 716. 
Inhabits the hiJian Ocean \ 5 inches long and as mOch broad : 

Jhell white, Ihining.filvery within, pellucid, thin, brittle, with 

very fine longitudinal llrias crofling the arched tranfverfe 

wrinkles : upptr-valve nearly flat. 

Shell nearly quadrangular, convex, and yery neatly clofed, 
bronzed; the margin repand. 

Bonann. Muf, Kirch. 2, }%. 1 35 • 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 90. the middle figure. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 79. fig. 714. 
'j. • Shell lefs, one valve white. 

Rumpf. ¥uf. tab. 47. B. Gualt. tefty t. 1 04. B, 

Petii). Amh. aq. tab. 20. fig. 3. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 90. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean', refembles the lalK 

Shell lamellate, glofly within, often above 7 inches long and 
broad, with a few pale chefnut rays, and innumerable longi- 
tudinal ftris reflefting iridefcent colours towards the margin ; 
hinge with 2 callofities convergent towards the knob. 

Shpll povered vyith fpines as long as .the fhcll. 
Inhabits England, in a foffile ftate. 

Shell rouBdifli, prickly, the crown fmooth and recurved 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 77' fig. 702. 

Inhabits Noriuayjeas, on Fuci and Zoophytes : lozver-vahe flat, 
fmooth and perforated at the crown. 

Muricata, Shell hyaline, ventricofe, the crown bent towards the 
right: upper-valve longitudinally ftriate, the ftria: 
ending in Icales and hollow fpines. 
Cheoin. conch. 8. p, 65. I'ign. 1 3. /Ig. A, B. 
2. Chemn. conch, 8. p. 65. i^ign. l^. fig. C,D. 

Inhibhs Guinea. Shell fnowy ; the lower-vaKc flat and very 
thin, the circumference ot th- perforation elevated, with i 
lateral tooth. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomia. 

Squaina, Shell oblong, with a rounded margin: one valve flat, thin, 
Smooth, with a large ovate perforation at the tip, the 
other a little convex and longitudinally ftriate. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. ']']• ftg- 697. 

Inhabits feas of Norvjay ; larger than A. Squamula. 

Shell brittle, adhering to other bodies by the flat valve, 

FunBata. Shell orbicular, hyaline, thin, ptindured 5 the flat Valve 
perforated at the tip, with impreired dots on the outfide. 

Inhabits Feroe If.and. Chemn. conch. 7. tab. TJ • f- 698 
Shell fhiall, brittle, with elevated dots on the outfide of the 
convex valve. 

Undulata. Shell with a crenate rtiargin ; the flat valve very thin and 
fniooth, with a large oval perforation; the convex 
valve with tranfverfe arched flirias crofllng undulate 
longitudinal ones. 

Cktmn. conch. %. iah.-jj. Jigi Sqc), 

Inhabits the Mediterranean anii North feas j fometimes reddifh, 

Capenjist Shell longitudinally ftriate, a little truncate, with a rounded 
crenate margin ; the flat valve with a 2-fpined rib 
Chemn'. conch, %, tab, 77. fig. 703* a — C. 
Inhabits the Capeof Good Hope : fometimes reddifli or white. 

Detruncata Shell truncate^ orbicular, longitudinally ftriate; the flat 
valve with 3 ribs within, the other valve longitudinally 
ftriate within and divided by a partition in the middle. 
Gualt. tefu tab. 96. fig. C. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab, 78. fig. 705. a — d. 

Inhabits the JVjW//«r««^a», adnenng to corals: fmall and per- 
forated at the crown. 


^' it re a. 

Shell horny, fmooth and convex each fide ; the upper- 
valve emarginate and radiate at the fides, with an 
elevated fanguineous back and prominent perforated 

Chemn. conch* 8. tab^ 7^'f'g- 706. 

Inhabits India. Shell tiiin, pellucid. 

Shell ovate, ventricofc, hyaline, cxtreflHely thin ; lower- 
valve' with 2 bony rays at the hinge befides lateral 
teeth ; upper-valve with a prominent perforated tip. 
uirgeii'-u. Zoo?n. tab. 1 2. E. Knurr Vcr^n, 4* r. 30._/~. 4. 
ll'i'.Uh 2\utuyf. 3. tab. ^.f.^* 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 67. Anomia. 


Bern Maif. Caf. Vind. tefi. p. 1 1 6. fvign, 
Spengler cat at. raif, tab. ^. f. 1, 2. 
Schrat. jfourn. 3. tab. 2. f. I. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. "]%. f. 707 — 709. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean \ \\ inch long and about an inch 
broad : glolTy within. 

CraniuTT,, Shell fmooth, ventricofe, with fine tranfverfe ftria;. 

Inhabits Nernjcayjeas. Schrcct. Journ. 3. tab. z,f. 2. 

Shell \ of an inch broad and fomething longer, very thin, cover- 
ed with a dirty brownifh fkin, under which it is i'nowy and 
pellucid : the longer valve perforated at the tip, with very fine 
tranfverfe ftria; croffing very crowded undulate longitudinal 

Dor/ata, Shell heart-lhapcd, folid, with arched tranfverfe rings and 
wrinkles, and longitudinal ftrite and grooves ; the 
convex valve perforated at the tip and elevated on the 
Gunther Naturf. 3. tab. 2,' f'i' I—- 3* 
Chemn. conch, 8. tab, 78. fig. 710, 71 I. 

Inhabits Megallamc feas, and is often found foflile : Jlie/l cincr 
reous, the margin, repand, 

Pfittacea, Shell horny with very fine longitudinal flris; the (horter 
valve gibbous; the longer one flat with an incurved 
perforated tip, the perforation triangular. 
Lister, tab. z\\. f. 46, Argen-ville conch, t. 23. 6. 
Klein oftr, tab. 12. fio. 84, 85, 
Spengler catal. raif, tab. 4. fg. 8. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 78. fig. 713, a— c. 

Inhabits Greenland feas ; very rare : Jhell rather large, pellucid, 
with an acute fmooth angular margin. 

tridentata Shell yellowifli, pellucid, thin, with very fine tranfverfq 
flria?, tricufpidate, with tubular points, the valves 
Chemn, conch. 8. p, 65. 'vign. I 3. /. a— d. F, G, 
Inhabits the Mediterranean : the broader fide with plaits and 4 
longitudinal grooves : crown obtufe, femiorbicular, 

Spondjlodes Shell ovate, antiquated, with an obtufe caniculate beak. 

Inhabits Litter conch, tab. 211. fig, 45. 

Klein ofr, tab. 12, fig. 82, 83. 

Vetttricafa, Shell fubovate, fcjid, with a caniculate beak, 
Scbraf. Journ, 2, tab.z.fg. 3, 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 

Inhabits . • " found adhering to the Madrepora prolifera : 
Jhell dirty oehre ; with a large perforation at the tip, longer 
on one fide. 

Qryphfdei Shell oval, fmootb,- foHdy opake; the leffef valve with a 
ftraightifli obtufe truncate beak. 
Inhabits — — Schrat, jfourn, 4. tab. 2, Jig. 8. 
Shell whitifh : refembles A. Gryphus, 

fkxuofa. Shell very thin, lamellate^ hollowed in the middle ) the 

upper-valve flat ; lower-valve convex towards the 

Crown, with an orbicular perforation beneath the 


Inhabits Notnvay /eas, adhering to the Madrepora prolifera; 

Jke/1 fmoke-colour, the convex part of the lower-valve filveiy. 

Rugofa, Shell obovate ; the upper valve convex for the. greater p^rt, 
and very finely wrinkled ; lower-valve very thin and 
fmootb with a kidncy-fhaped perforation. 
SchrcEt. Einl. in conch. 3. tab, 9. fig. 12. 
Inhabits Nor'wajfeas, fixed to the Madrepora prolifera. 
Shell whitilh, with a very acut?e margin^ 

Cylindrical Shell very thin, cylindrical and narrowed outwardly; up- 
per-valve gibbous, lower hollow. 
Schrcct. Einl. in conch, 3. tab, 9. fg. I 3. 
Inhabits North feasi adhering to the fpines of the Echinus Cidaris J 

Nucleus* Shell glabrous, oval and longitudinally grooved. 
Inhabits North feas. Mull. Zool, Dan. prodr. c|oo8. 

Avenacea. Shell pyriform, protraded and llightly comprefTed towards 
the hinges. 
Inhabits North feas. Mult. Zool. Dan. frodr, 5004, 

Sandalium. Shell turbinate, the back flat, with a ftrlate cavity ; the 

lid flat and hcmifphaerical. 

inhabits Germany, in a foiTiIe ftate : in figure fomething refembles 

the Madrepora turbinata: Jliell foYid, thick, about the fize of 

a man's little finger : the lid or flat valve concentrically ftriatc. 

68. jVIYTILUS. Animal allied to an Afcidia: 

Jhell bivalve, rough, generally affixed by 

a bj^fTus or beard of filky filaments: hinge 

molUy without teeth, with generally a 

fubulate excavated longitudinal line. 


WORMS. tESTACEA. 68. Stilus. 289 

A. ParafttUal : affixed as it were by claws. 

Cfista gdli Shell plaited fpinous; both lips rough. 

Barbut. tab. I I. fig, 12. Riunlif, Muf. tab. 47. D. 
Argenu. conch, tat>. 20. D, Pcti-v. amb. tab, 20. fig, 2, 
• Cuult. teft. tab. 104. E. Knorr. del. tab. B. iv. fig. 8. 

KnorrVergn. \0.fig. 3 — 5 and 5. t, \6.f. i.- /. IJ.f. 1-3, 
Cbemn. cinch. 8, tab. y6.fzg. 683> 684. 
2^ Qualt.teit. idh. xo^.fig.f). 

Chemfi. couch. 8. tab. yi-fig. 675. 
3. Davr/. catal.fy/i. i, tab, ig.fig. ic« 
4.' Chemn. conch. 9. tab. i 16. fig. 998. 

Inhabits tlie Lu/:a/i Ocean and Red Sea, affixed to Gorgon ia ; 
fiell purple-violet pale cinnamon or bay, rough with laifcd 
dots, within honey-colour; nearly equivalvc clofed with 
5-8-10 oblique or llraight acute plaits: hollow at the hinge 

tfyotis: Shell plaited and imbrlc.ite with brcid comprclfed fcalesi 

both lips Imooth. 
Barbut, tab. W. fig. 3. Gualt. test. tab. 103. A. 
Argetfj. Zoomarph. tab. l 2 ■ fig. F. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. I^.fig. 685. 
Inhabits the Ocea-.i, on beds of Coral ;/:f// dirty grocninx-ycllow 

lamellate, the phits curved here and there and bci'ei: with 

hollow grooved nuclei* 

^rons. Shell plaited fmoothlfh : one lip rough. 

Jrgenv. 19. D. Gualt, test. tab. 104. C. 

Knorr I'ergn. 4 tab. S.fg. 3. 

Bom. Muf. Caf. Find. teft. p., 121, '■Jign.fig, b. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tah. Jyf^. 6S6. 

Inhabits the American OceM, on Coral beds : ,<'..•;/ red difh blueifli 
or brown, gencrall) oval with the margin pif.ited each fide and 
denticulate : /o^-iver-i'a/ve glabrous and groo"cd in the middle.^ 
ppper-val-ve rough with raifed dots a: the margin and an ele- 
vated rib in the middle. 

5. Fiat 6r ccmprejfed into a fiottcyud form and jiightly eafi:d. 

kargartii. Shell flattened, nearly orbicular, with a tranfverfc bafc im- 
feriis. bricatc with toothed tunics. 

Barbut. tab. 10. fig. 4, Rumpf Muf. tab. AJ. F. 

Argeni'ille conch, tab. 20. A. 'Gualt. teft. ti%j^. f. 2, F, Ci. 

Liihr. tah. 221. fig. 56. tab, 223, 22.). 

Bonan. recr. and Muf Kirch. 2. fig. i.' 

Peti'V. amb. aq. tab. 20. fig. 4 — 7. 

Knorr rergn. z. /. 25./. i—^ and 4. .♦. i >'. r, i . 

VOL. IV.~Oo ' /i„rn 

290 WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 

Born, Muf. Ccpf, Vind. teft. p. I2i. 'vign. fig. A. 

Chemn. conch-. 8. tab. %.fig. 717. — 721. a, b. 

Inhabits American and Indian Seas ; about 8 inches long and 
fometbing broader; the infide is beautifully polifhed and 
produces the true Mother of pearl, ^ind frequently the moft 
valuable pearls ; the outfide fometimes fea-grcen or chcfnut 
or bloom-co!our with white rays, or whrtifti with green rays; 
when the outer coat is removed it has the fame perlaceous 
luftre as the infide: tne younger fhells have ears as long as 
the fhell and refcmble feallops. 

Unguis, Shell round! fh longitudinally flriate pellucid and flightly 
\Ti\izb\iithcNlediterranean. Muf, Lud.Ulr. 539. «. 131*^ 
Shell very thin hyaline, with very fine perpendicular ftrise, 
about the fize of a man's nail; is probably of the genus 

C. Ventricoje or convex. 

* Liiho- Shell cylindrical, rounded at both ends. 
phagus. Bar but, tab. 10. fig, 5. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 46. F, 

Argenv. Conch, tab. z6. K Zoom, tab, J'fig* 5. 

Johnll exjang. tab. i$.fig. 1 8, 19. 

Bonan. recr. Z.fig: zy — 29? Muf. Kirch. Z.fig% 27, 2?. 

Petiv. amb, aq. tab. ()> fig, 13. 

Lifier conch, tab. 427. tah. 437. the laft figure. 

Gualt. test, tab. 90, D. Lefier test.frg. 132. 

Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. tell. tab. "J. fig. 4. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. ^2. fig. 729, 730. 
2. Cinnamon colour. Chemn. 8. tab, ^2, fig, 730. 

Inhabits European American and Indian Seas, penetrating and 
eating away corals rocks and even the hardeft marbles : about 
an inch broad and 3 long ; marked with arched tranfverfe * 
Hixix. : fiell h\&ck bay or greenifh, within opal-blue filvery- 
white er perlaceous, The European fpecimens have a thin 
brittle fhell ; the Indian ones are fofter and nearly coriaceous. 

* Bugofus. Shell rhombic oval brittle rugged antiquated and rounded 
at the ends.. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab, 63. fig. 72. 

Schrcet. Eir.l. in conch, y. tab. ^.fig. 1 4. a, b. 

Inhabits Northern European Seas and lake?; and is ufually found 
lodged in great numbers in lime ftone, each in a feparate 
apartment, with apertures too fmall for the fhell to pafs through 
without breaking the flone : fiiell about the fize of the laft joint 
of the little finger, dirty grey, within half blue half white, 
and marked with vtry fmall longitudinal ftrije crofiing ih« tranf- 
verfe wrinkles. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 291 

Jittocularu. Shell blue flriate with vaulted knobs and a white di/repi- 
ment or partition. 
Spengler catal rais. tab. (>.fil[. 3 — C. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tah. %i,fig. 736. a,b. 737. i 3. ^ 

Inhabits Nicohar IJlands: ovate ; the anterior part flat, the mid- 
dle convex and gaping with an oval foramen ; the hind-part 
convex; covered with green Ikin, 

Pxitstus. Shell convex, one of the margins angular; the frontal ex- 
tremity crenate. 

Lijier conch- tah. 365, /7g. 205. 

Chemn. conch, tah. S^.Jig. 754. 

Inhihiti American Ocean and Red Sea ', i | inch long : ferrugi- 
nous vvhitifh yellowifh or brown, fomctimes blueifli : hms' 
with 4 or 5 lateral teeth. 

Barbatus. Shell fmoothilh, ferruginous on the outfide, and bearded at 
the tip. 
Ginann. adr. 2. p. 36. tab. zj,/}g. 169. 
Gualt. tell. tab. ()\.fig. H. 2 ? 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab, ^^.fio-. 740, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Norivay Seas; anhering to Litho- 
phytes; | of an inch long; under the ficin reddifli-ferruginous 
blue or whitiih. 

♦ BJu/ij, Shell fmoothifli violet, the valves (lightly recurved on the 
obtufe fide and fomewhat angular on the acute C\de: 
beaks pointed. 

Pennant Brit. Zoo/, tab. bj^.fig, 73. 

Later conch, t. 362. f. zOOi Barbut. t, litf. 6, 

Lifter an. Ang. tub. ^,/ig. 28, 

Bonan. recr. z.fig, 30. Muf. Kirch, z, f. 29. 

Ginann. adr. z. p, 36. tab. ll,fig, 168. 

Baster op,fuhf. 3. p. loi. /. u./. 9—1 1, 

Argentine Zoom. t. 5./. D, E, F. 

Knorr Vergn, I. tab. \. fig, 5, 6 and 4. /. 15./. 1,' 

Regenf. I./.7./. 8. ^ 11./, 58. r. 12. Z". 71, 72.' 

Chemn, conch. 8. t. 84./. 750, 751. 755. 

2. Lifter Conch, tab, 362. fig. 201. 

3. Lister conch, t. ^Sz./. 202. 

4. Lister conch, t. 363./". 204. 

5. Gualt. test. t. J. A. 

Inhabits European and Indian ^eai ; generally 2-3 inches long, but 
IS much larger within the tropics and fn^allcr more mrthwarJ; 
found in larg; beds, and geneaally adhering to other bodies 
by means of the long filky beard ; the fifh affords a rich food, 
but IS often extremely noxious to many conftitutions. 

O o 2 Sheli 

292 WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 

Shell n&ixiy triangular, flightly carinate near the beaks, coycrcci 
with a brownifh fkin, under which it is rich violet, fometimes 
yellowifh, fometimes ftriped with pale rays. 

* Iiuur-va- Shell very crookei on one fide near the beaks, then greatly 
ti'S' dilated; within \yith a violet tinge. 

On the dnglefea Coast. Brit Zool. iv. tab, 6j^.Jig, 74.. 
Uhll covered with a thick rough flcin. 

• PcUucicius Shell oval tranfparent and very elegantly radiate length ways 

wiih purple and blue. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 63. A^, 75. 
Found at Jngle/ea, in oyfter beds : z inches long. 

*U7rJ)ilica' Shell contracted into a deep rugged cavity oppofite the binge, 
''''•'• forming a deep hpUow wh?ii the valves are clofed. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. (i'^^fg. 75. 
Donovan s Brit. Shells. \\. tab. 40. 
Found at Jnghjea-y nearly '5 inches long. 

Shell oval, reiembling M. modiolu;, but is diftinguifliecj by the 
remarkable indentation near the beal;s. 

• Curtus. Shell fliort ventricofe obtufe at the beaks and dirty yellow. 

Found at Weymouth. Brit. ZcoL iv. tab. 64. fig. 76. A. 

Ungulatus. Shell fn^ooth {lightly curved ; hind-margin infle£led : hinge 
terminal 2-toothed. 

Lister, tab. 360,364: Gualt,4est. tab.^i, E. 

Regenf. conch. \. tab. 4. I:g. 47. 

Chemn ccuch. 8. tab 84./". 756. 
2. Chemn. conch. %. tab. 84- f. 747. 

Inhabits the MedjUrranean and Cape of good hope, 2) Nenv Zealand: 
refcmbles M. eduli?, but is ^ inches long and z\ broad: fiicll 
green blueifh ov blai k vvith a mixture of green, annulate; 
aeaks ciillant pointed : hinge with 6 teeth at the tip, the groove 
with very nuwierous crenatiircs: 'valves very convex, refemb- 
ling the hoof of an Qx, ' 

Bi'u-ns. Shell ihiaie flightly curved, th^ hind-margin infleiSled : 
hinge terminal 2-tooti)cd. 

Lister, tab 3;6i 3 58, 366. 

fC'ein o^tr. tab <)> pg. 24.. 

Knorr I'ergn. 4 / SO-/". 3 and 6, t. ^,f. 3. 

Chemn. ronch. S, tab. ^l-fig 742,743. 

Inhabits the Meaiferranmn Aithiopic 'Atlantic and li'MflgcIla'uc Seas ; 
haral/an ich long; /^f//llriatc lon<>itudinally, cove.'cd with a 
cinereous f-:inj under which it u brown blue or thtck, 

' ' * Medio- 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 


*\loiiiolu}. Shell fmooth blackifti, obtufe at the fmaller end and rounded 
at the other \ one fide angular near the beaks, 

Tennant. Brit, Zool. iv. taL. bb.fig. 77, 

J)onovans Brit- Shells. \. tab. 23. 

Da Cofia Brit conch, t. I 5./". 5. Barhut, t. w, J. J. 

Mull. 'Zool. Dan. 1. tab, K^-i^.f. 2— -5, 

Lifter, t. 359 /, 198. Adam Jhug. \.t. \^.f, 1. 

Argen<v. conch, tab. 22. C. Rumpf, Muf. tab. 46. B, C, D ? 

Gualt. teftt tab. 91. H- Knorr Fergn. 4. f. I5-/", 3. 

Klein ojir.t, c^.fz^. t. W.f. 67. 

Chemn. conch. §. t. Sy./. 757-^760. 
2. Li Her conch, t. ^^6 /. 194. 

Klein oflr. 12. tab, 78, 79. 
^, Lifier conch, tab. 1057./". 5. 

Inhabits luropean American and Indian Seas, adhering to Fuci and 
' Zoophytes; 6-7 inches long arid nearly 3 broad. 

5/^^//blueifh under the fl;in or with a mixture of -white, ronietir:ie§ 
white or yellowifh with red rays, or half cht-fnut and white 1 
beaks tumid oblong; the front ftriatc; hind-pjrt prominent ; 
hin^e near the beaks : the Jijh red or orange and eatable. 

'^Cygneiis. Shell ovate very brittle and tranfverfely wrinkled: the aq^ 
terior end comprefTed, the other rounded: hinge lateral. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 6y./ig. 78. 
Dono-vans Brit. Shells, ii. tah. 55, 
Lilier conch, tab. 156. An^ Angl. app. t. 2.f. 29, 
Gualt tefl. tab. 7. ¥. Schra-t. Flii/c. tab, 3./, 1, 
Argeti-ville conch, \,tab. Z\. fig. 5, 6, 7, 11. 
ClKmn, conch. 8, tab. 85./". 762. 

2. Radiate. Lifter conch, tab. x^^.f. \o, 

3. Lifter conch, tab. I50.y^. 5? 

Found frequently in Rivere and Poqdsj i-r-^^ inches broad and 
nearly 3 long : fiell ^tn'^, covered with a greenifli Ccin, uijder 
which it is tranfverfely wrinkled, oehraceous or varied with 
bright brown and fomctimes radiate : within white opake and 
often rough with Imall peayls : beaks minute retroverted and 

9 Anaflaus Shell oval, a little comprefTed, very brittle and fcmitranf. 
parent, with a menibranaceous margin: beaks decij- 
Pennant Brit, Zool, iv, t.':b. 6S. fg. 79. 
Lifer, tab. I 53. //^, 8. Klein ofr. t. (). f. 26. 
Gualt, test. tab. 7. E. Schrcef. Flufc. tab, Lfi^. 2, 3. 
Argen-v, conch, i. 'tab. 'z^.jig- i, 2. Zoom', t. 8./. S — 11. 
Petixi. Gazoph, tab. '^J^.fig. 8, 9. 
Ghemn. conch. 8. tab, 'bb.fig. 763, 
2. Lister conch, tab, I54, fig. 9. 
3- Lilier conch, tab. ^^o.fig. 6? 


294 WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus 

Inhabit^ frefh waters of Europe; refembles the laft but is longer 
and narrower ; about 5 inches long and z 5 broad; Jlie// very 
thin pellncid, rounded at both ends, greenifli with very fine 
ftrije parallel with the aperture and a few blackifh wrinkles ; 
within glofiy white blue or yeilowifh and fometimes fhining 
with iridclcent colours. 

t)ucks and Crows are extremely fond of this and the laft fpecies : 
crows, when the fhell is too hard for their bills, fly with it to 
a great heighth, drop the fhell on a rock, and pick out the 
meat after the fhell is broken by the fall. 

I'lftdts, %\xc\\ fmooth ovate membranaceous pellucid, with a termi- 
nal hinge. 
\T\\\ih\x.i Southern Ocean, Earhut. tab. Jl./ig, lO. 
ShU grscn, very thin, about the hze of a man's nail, 

Ruhr. ^hell wrinkled, the valves oblique and dilated in front : 
margin of the hinge equaling the tip. 
Inhabits Southern Ocean. Mu/. Lud. Ulr. 543. v. 139. 
Shell red minute convex, with a very fhort compreffed tooth in 
the hinge. 

jHu:. Shell tranfverfely ftriate; beaks gibbous: hinge lateral. 
Inhabits fhores of C^//;'. Molin. Chil. p. \'jj. 
Shell about 6 inch«s long and 3I broad, covered with a blue (kin, 

under which it is fnowy with a blue tinge: the/^ is white 

and a very grateful food. 

Jter, Shell groved and fcaly behind. 

Inhabits C>6///. Molm, Hist, Chili. . p, iyj» 
Shell rough like a Pinna, lefs than the iart, dull blue: the^^^ is 
black and n^t eatable. 

• Df/cers. Shell oval horny fubdiaphanous : the extremities ftriate lon- 
gitudinally, the middle tranfverfely. 

Dono'vans Brit. Shells, i. taL 25, 

Herman Katur/. \y. tab. I- fig- 5 — 8. 

Born Muf. Caf. Find, te/t, p. 1 2 1 . vign, 

Chemn. Naturf. 10. tab. \.fig- 8. 

Chemn. conch. %. tab. %^'fig. 764/— 768. 

Schreet Einl. in conch. 3. p. 444. tab, ^-fig' 15- 

Inhabits Europeam^ad, Southern Seas, affixed to rocks and other 
fhells by its beard ; fiell fmall brittle fcmitranlparent, brown 
with fometimes a mixture of green near the edges, within blue, 
ifli with a red or grcenifh-white tinge :_ the outfide is divided 
into.3 compartments, the middle of which is marked with ex- 
tremely fine tranfverfely ftrijc : thc/ifi is not eatable, with a 
white foot, fulvous lips, red-brown branchiae and anterior aper- 
tures, and brown back. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 68- Mytilus. 


Hirundc, Shell fmooth ; the valves 2^1obed, lobe at thehinge longer 
and thinner. 
Lider. tab. Z20, 224. Barhut. tab. Us Jig. 8. 
Adans feneg. I. tab. i^'f-S' ^• 
Argen'v. conch, tab, 19. B. Gualt. teff. tab. 94. B. 
Rumffi MuJ. tab. 46. G, Petiv. amb. tab^ ^9-J'ig' 9' 
Bonan. recr. 2. fig. 58. Muf. Kirch, z.f. 57. 
Klein ojir. tab. 8./ig. 13. /. 9./. 38. 
Knorr, delic Nat. tab. B, ^v./ig. 7. 
Knorr Vergn. 4, tab. S./ig. 5 and 5, /. lO.y. l, z. 
Cbemn. Conch. 8. tab. 8l./lg. 722 — 725. 

2. Chemn. concha 8. tab. ^i-fig- 726. 

3. Chemn. conch. 8. /^^. Sl,/ig. yz-]. 

4. G«^//, m/. /^(^. 94. A. Knorr. ^'ergn. 6. tab. zl 
Chemn. 8. tab. Si. fig. 728. 

5. Adans feneg, x.tah. l^'f'^' 5' 

6. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. lyi. fig. 1672. 

Inhabits the Indian American Mediterranean and Atlantic Seas, ir;. 
great varieties of fize thicknefs form olour and marking? : 
Jhell contrafted at the bafe, with very fine and crowded tranl- 
verle wrinkles j within pearly, 

Phkadis, Shell oblongs more obtufc on the fore-part, rough with 

tranfverfe wrinkles. 
It, Wgoth. tab» ^. fig- 22. 

Mull. Zool. Dan. 3, /. I I. tab. ?>-J.fig» I — 3» 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab %z.fig. 735. 
Inhabits the North Seas, and penetrates beds bf Coral and rocks 

like the Phloas: about if inch long and I5 broad: the ends 

not quite clofed : hinge without teeth, or with a very fnjali 


Striatulus. Shell very finely ftriate; the hinge terminal and i-toothed. 
Born Muf Caf. /ind. tefl. tab. J.fg<. J ? 
Lhemn. conch. 8. tab. S^.fg. 744. iy b. 
Schraet. Einl. in conch. 3- t. <).f. 16. 

Inhabits the Northermx\6. Indian Seas ; \\ inch long and i^- 
broad :7^«'//femilunar, dilated on the fo c-part, fuodiaphanous, 
chefnut: the margin very hncJy crenate outwardly. 



Shell flattifh on one Tide and infledled, with convergent in- 
curved beaks : hinge i-toothed, 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab, Sz.fig. 732. 

Inhabit* the American Ocean: within pale clay-coliur covered 
with a brown coat or flcin. 

Plicatut. Shell rhombic inequiialeral, tranfverfeiy flriate and wrink- 
led: beaks incurved. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Myt'iliis. 

Chemn. conch, ^.iabi 9,1. fig. 733. 

Inhabits iiicohar Ijlands'. (hell hya'ine very brittle, within palc 
filvery ; one end rounded, the other dilated and angular. 

Shell 6vat*» fubdiaphanousy with very fine longitudinal ftriaej 
margin acute: hinge 2-toothed. 
Chemn, couch, 8. tah. 82. jig. 734. 

Inhabits "Nicobar Ijlands; very rare. She/l (nowy and polifhed 

■^/^'■- Shell nearly triangular, dilated before and flattifh gaping 

behind : beaks pointed turned back : margin very acute. 

Born Ml./. Caf. Find. left. tah. J. fig. 6, 7, 

Knbrr Vtrgn. 4. tah, i 5. fig. 5 ? 

Chemn conch. 8. tab. '^l-fig. 739' — 741. 

Inhabits Southern parts ol the Mediterranean and flaores of Africa •. 
4 inches long and 2 broad ; within ochraceous with iridcfcent 
colour?, without ftraw-colour mixed with greenifh and yel!owi(h 
and marked with reddiili lines and angles: perhaps a variety 
of My a Perna. 

S,marag- Shell nearly triangulaf flattifh ? hinge 2-toothed in onr 
dinus. valve and i -toothed in the other. 

Chemn, conch. 8. tab, S'^.fig. 745. 
2. Chemn. conch. 8. tab, 84. %. 746. 

Inhabits Tranquebar; green and a little perlaceoas within: 2! 
Inhabits Guinea ; brown with a green margin' and fometimes 
a few fpots on the diflc. 

VerF.color. Shell nearly triangular fiattifli : hinge i-toothed ; margin 
glabrous acute. 

ArgenfO. conch, tab. iz<jig. Q. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. ^j^.fitg, 748, 

Inhabits fhores of Guinea, refembles M. afer : 3 inches long and 
above 2 broad : _/?»f// covered with a brown skin, under which 
it is marked with crowded dull green tranfverfe Uria; 2 bands 
and varied with violet white and chelnut : probably a variety 
of My a Perna. 

Corallio- Shell carinate in the middle' and crenate at the margin, 
phagus. vvith an obtufc knob. 

Chemn conch. S. tab. ii^'/ig- 7$2^ 

Inhabits the Jtdianznd American Ociartt and perforates rocks like a 
Phloas : about ^ of an inch long. 

tineatun Shell triangular and dilated outwards, with angular deculT- 
ate and Confluent lines : hinge 2-toothcd. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 


CtHmn. conch » 8. tab, %\,fig. 75^- 

Inhabits ^hell minute, ycUowifh with a mixture of green, 

within a little Hlvery. 

Fabm. Shell oval rufous flriatc, with a crcnulate margin. 

Chemttt conch. %. tab. 85.^^. 761, 

Inhabits the feas of Greenland, affixed to rocks by a bronzed 
bvflus or beard, and is the food of the Anas hyemalis and hil- 
trionica ; ^if// inflated femipellucid fmooth, covered with a 
bro^Q skin under which it is white and margaritaceous 

Ftmjiatilis. Shell thin flightly wedged, \*^ithiri red^ifh : beaks recurved 
and large 
Liter concha tab. ^^T-ftg- 12, 
■ Inhabits ffjih waters oi Europe i refembles M. anatinus, and is 
probably not a diftind fpecies. 







Shell oblong narrow wi'h very fine tranfverfe ftrias: one 
iide emar^inate, the othei" rounded : beaks prominent 

Lifier conch, tab. 3^9. /^f. 197. 

Inhabits^ Shell minute brown. 

Shell broad fliort and rounded behind : beaks conic protu- 
Inhabits— —Z,//?fr ro»f^. tab. '^(i\»fig, 199. b. 
Klein 0/tr. tab, ^.jig* 27./. 129. 

Shell broad and covered with a rough rugged yellow coat, 
within milky. 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. kirch. Z-fg. 17. 
Inhabits the Perfian Sea; thrice as broad as it is long? 

Shell broad very fmooth, flammeous or rofe-colour with 
white bands i beaks obtufe. 
Bonan recr, Z.ftg, 35. Muf, Kirch, i-ftg- 34* 
Inhabits Portugal ; thrice as broad as it is long. 

Shell pellucid Ihining, blueidi with a claret-colour and pale 
red band. 
Bonan. recr. "i-fig- 352. Muf. Kirch. Z.J, 106. 
Inhabits Brajil, twice as broad as it is long. 

Shell broad and rounded at both ends, claret-colour with 
inidulate blucifh and greeniih itria; : margin ferrate. 
Inhabits the Portuguefe Sea; longer than M. oifttts, 

VOL. IV,-. P p ' Pur^ 

298 WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus, 

Purpureust Shell rounded behind ; pale flefli-Golour> purple within: the 
margin denticulate. 
Bonan.recr. I. fig. 384. Muf. Kirch, z.f. 116, 
Inhabits Ihores of Braftl, 

Saxatilis. Shell ear-fhaped, with granulate wrinjiles on the outer fide 
dilated and rounded. 
Rumpf Muf. tab, 46. D. 

Inhabits Amhoina, affixed to rocks, and is eaten by Ducks and 
fwine : fhorter and broader than the joint of a finger. 

Argenteus. Shell tranfverfely ftriate, rounded at each end, brown, fil- 
very within: beaks rounded, 
Inhabits Gualt. test. tab. 7. J). 

Fulgidus* Shell narrow (hining blufh-^olour with violet fpots at the 
fides: beaks rounded dilated, 
Argen'v, conch, tab. zz. fig. D, 
Inhabits the kis oi MageUan : Ihines like mother of pearlv 

Jzureus, Shell gibbous azure with yellowilh ftripes beneath ; beajcs 

Argenv. conch, fab. zz, fig. H. 
Inhabits SheU about an inch broad and | long, narrowed Zt 

the lower margin. 

Murinusi Shell moufe-colour with violet fpots and a bfoad rounded 
rofy margin: beaks pointed ftraight, 
Inhabits Guinea. Argen^v. conch, tab, ZZ. K. 
Regenf conch. l, tab, <^.fig. 32. 

Tejlaceut. Shell long narrow, covered with a,teftaceous fkin, under 
which it is (hining filvery varied with blue red yellow 
and brown. 
InYiihit?——^ Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. ij.y/g-. 4. 
Reiembles M. modiolus but is larger and far more beautiful. 

Virgaius. Shell dilated outwardly, greenifh-yellow with rofy ftripes: 
beaks obtufe curved. 
Inhabits Knorr Vc9gn. 4. tab, z.f tg, 2. 

Cordatus, Shell oblong very thin, white with obfolete flrix, with a 
heart-lhaped gape behind. 
Spengi. Befch. Naturf, z. tab. 9. A. fig. 3 — 5. 
Spengl, catal, raisf taht ^•fig* '3— '*?» Coll.f, iz. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 68. Mytilus. 299 

Martin Befch. Katitrf, 2. tab. iz.ftg. 1. 
2. Murtyn u>ii-vers~ Conch,'jj. 

Inhabits the mdian and Southern Octan^ adhering to corals and 
marine fubllances. 

Stagnalis. Shell oval flattifh and tranfverfely ribbed. 

Schrctt. Flujconcb, tab. 1. fi^, I. 

Found, n the lake Sch^aitjea, refembles M. cygneus, but is as 
much as 8 inches broad and \\ long, and is lei's convex; j^Zt?// 
grcenifh with darker rays and yellowifh-brown at the margin. 

Zelhifis* Shell oVal conVex, rounded behind, elongated and obtufeJv 
pointed before: beaks obfoiete. 
Schrivt. Flufconchi tab. 2, Jig. 1. 

Inhabits liagnant waters oi Germany, refembles M. cygneus but 
is 7 inches broad and 3 long; greenifh-yellow. 

Rojeuu Shell fuborbicular with 15 triangular crefted grooves and 
alternate triangular teeth. 
Inhabits Africa. Adans Scneg. i. tab. M^.fig. 4. 
Shell ro(yt within white, purple at the margin; 3 inches broad 
and a litde fhorter : probably not of this genus. 

Puniceus, Shell gibbous pointed, with 15 grooves: margin toothed. 
Inhabits Y^irrt. Adanf. Seneg. 1. tab. \^. fig. 2. 
Shell 14 lines long and about half as broad; under the fulvous 

s^in violet or fcarlet, fometimes mixed with brown and »reen: 

binge with 4 very^ minute teeth. 

Nige>\t Shell flat thin with Very fine grooves, covered with a black 

fkin under which it is inilky and ttnely poliihed. 
Inhabits Africa. Adanf. Seneg. i. tab. 15. _/?§•. 3. 
Shell very thin, about an inch and a half long, with about 100 
grooves : hiage with i or 2 minute teeth'. 

Lxvigatusk Shell flat fmooth covered with a thick fulvous fkin, under 

which it is rofy. 
Inha'nts Africa, Adans. faneg. 1. tab. ^S'J^S' 4* 
Shell 2 J inches long and about half as wide ; within perlaceous; 

the skin fometimes with a greenifh mixture; hmge 2--3 


Diibius» Shell tranfverfely wrinkled, obtufc at each end, fulvous, 
within margaritaceous: beaks obibiete : hinge without 
Adans Jeneg. \^ tab. ly. /ig. 2 1. 
Inhabits frelh waters of Senegal; <; inches brorad, 2 lony;, 

Ppz " To!j. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 69. Pinna. 

Tolymor-, Shell 5-celled ; valves carinate and flattifh on the incumbent 
/^w* fide : beaks obtufe and infle<Sed backwards. 

?all. it. I. app. n. 85. 

Inhabits the Ruffian/ea j about the fize of a plumb-ftone, and is 
found in frefh waters 4 times as large ; adheres in mafles to 
ftones and marine fuftanccs by means of fmall tufts of byflus: 
Jhellhrown, the divifions of the cells \exy Ihort, 

Cfl«/W«/«/ Shell fmoothifh, chefnut-brown, within parti-coloured: 
focket of the hinge catiiculatc. 
Inhabits New Zealand, Mcutyn univ. conch, z. tab. 78. 




Shell oblong, thin, greenifh, truncate: bea)cs fharp and 

carinate ; valves gaping at the end. 
Shaiu Natur. Mi/cell. ix. tab. 315. upper figures. 
Patella unguis. Gmelin Syji. Nat. 3710. n. 95. 
Riimpf. Muf. tab. 4. L. Petiv. Gaz. tab, 32. /g. 9. 
I)a coda conch, tab. z.f. 2. Hump, conch, tab. 2. L, 
Fanjan. conch. I. tab. 4 fig. TL. 
Chemn. Naturf, 22. tab. 3. fig. A-E. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. ijz fig. 1675 — 1677. 
Inhabits Amboina: whitifh with a caft of green: upper-ends 

very fharp, forming a prominent keel : valves exactly fimilar 

but open at each extremity. 

Shell oblong, thin, greenifh, truncate: beaks (harp and 
carjnate ; valves completely clofed.- 
Shaw Nat. Mifcel. ix. tab. 315. lower figures. 
Inhabits Japan, and exaftly refembles the lafl, except in having 
the valves exadly clofed, 

69. PINNA, Animal a Limax: Jlicll bivalve, 
fragile, upright, gaping at one end, and 
fuvnillied witli a byllus or beard : hmgc 
without teeth, the valves united into one. 


The inhabitants of thefe fhells produce a large quantity of fine 
flrong liyflus, which by the Italians is woven into a f(n-t of filk : 
the flicUs are generally found flanding ereft in the fnioother 
waters of bays, with the larger end a little open : the fjfh of 
many of ihem is a very rich food. 

Shell vaulted, with arched fcales arranged in rows. 
' Bar but, tab. 12. fig. 1. Lister conch, tab, 373, 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 69. Pinna. 301 

Adanj. Seneg., li^.fig. 5. Gualt.teit. tal>.yg. C, 

Gir.ann. .4dr. 2. taB, 25. Jig. 1 66. 

Chemn conch. 8. tah. 8S. fig. yj^. 
2. Rum;/. Mil/'. tnh.A^b. jig, \\. Gualt. tefl, tab. 8l» A. 

Pietiv. tah. iq pg.t. 

Chcmn. conch. 8, trh. 88. fig. 774. 

Inha- its the American and Atlantic Oceans: iz — 16 inches long, 
4f — 8 hroad : lliejl red, with 6—8 grooves. 2) Inhabits the 
Indian and Red Scfis : black \vith hardly vifible grooves. 

Shell longitudinally flrlate half-way ; one fide (lightly wrin- 
kled iranrverfely. 
Gua/e. tefi. tah. 79. A. Jrgenv. Zoom, tab, 5. N? 
Ch?':x\\ conch. 8 tab, 8"/. fig. 770. 
?, Che.-: conch. 8 //r^, 87. /ig. 771. 

Inhabiio the Lidtan Ocean; 3 infhes long and 4 broad ; {he'I 
triangular, hjrny, 2) 4|^ inches long, 2 1 broad : lefs, thin- 
ner and mori? rare. 

Nc^.'is, Shell ftriate, with caniculo-tubular fubimbricate fcales. 
JBqnan recr. 2 Jig 24. AlnJ. Kirch, z. Jig. 2b. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 78. B. Seba h^uj, 3. tab. 9I. fg. 3. 
Knorr delic. nat tab. B. v. fig- 3. 
Knorr Vngn. 2, /(3i^ 26, f. i. Lisie*, tab. 373. 
Chemn. conch. 8. /^/', 8<.). Jig, 775, 776. 

2. Lijier. tab. ^JZ. Chetnn. conch. 8. r, 89./". 777. 

3. Knorr Vergn, 2. /a^. 26. y";^. 2. 
Chemn. conch. 8, /a^. ^Z. fig. 7^5. 

4« Argenv. conch, tab. 2 2. y^^. F. 

Chemn. conch. 8. ^«^. 86. y'/]^. 769, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean, Adriatic and American feas ; 7!^ inches 
long, 3|- broad : jliell brown, the exterior margin rounded ; 
fcales larger towards the edges and nearly \ an inch long: 
one haU of the valves ribbed, the other with tranfverfe wrin- 
kles, which towards the broader part are crofled with ftriae. 

"'Mun'cata, Shell (Iriate, with concave ovate acute fcales. 

Dono'vans Brit.fiells, i. tab. 10. 

P. fragilis. Pennant Brit. Zoal.'w. tab. ()J, J. 80. 

Da cojia Brit, conch, tab, 16. f 3. 

Barhuty tab. \2,f 2. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 46. M. 

Petiv. Amb. tab. 10. f. 7. Gualt. tell, t, 79, F. 

Lifter conch, tabi 370? 371? 

Chemn. csnch- 8. tab. 90. Jig. 779. 

Sckrctt. einl. in conch. 3. tab. 9, f. 17. 

Inhabits European and Indian feas : 3 — 9 inches long and J— 3 
broad: JJi ell thin, brittle, pellucid, horny ; the outfide witu 
longitudinal ribs rough with rows of fmall prickles, 



'W^ORMS. TESTACEA. 69. Pinila. 

Retundaia Shell with obfolete fcales, the margin rounded. 

Gualt, teji. tab. 8o. A, B. Seba MuJ. 3. /. 91./. i. 

Chemn, conch. 8 tab . f^'i^, fig. ^9. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean ; fometimes above 2 feet long j JJ.^ell 
oblong, whitifh, with perpendicular undulate parallel wrin- 
kles, and very fine concave acute fcattered fcales on the broad- 
er part. 

Squ&mefa. Shell with very fine undulate fcales and flexuous broad 
wrinkles ; the fmaller end pointed and naked. 

tifier^tab. 374. Gualt. left. tab,y%. A. 

Argen'ville conch, tab. 2 2. fig, B. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 92. fig. 784. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean ; about 13 inches long'and 6\ broad : 
a little chefnut at the larger end and whiiifh at the fraall one ; 
the external margin angular. 

Cartiiai Shell thin^flefh-cblourj naked, longitudinally grooved ; the 
external margin acute and rouhded. 
Knorr Vcrgn, 2. tab. 23 fig. 1. 
Inhabits fometies variea with white fpots. 

Sue cat a. 


to at a. 

Shell fmooth, fatchel-fhaped, a little ere£l and flightly faf- 

Barbuf, tab. li. f 3. Gualt. tef. tab. 79, F- 
Rumpf Muf. tab. 46, N. Petiv Amb. tab. ig,f. 7. 
Chemn. conch. 2, tab, 90, _/". 779. Lificr,t, 371? 
Schr^t. einl. in conch. 3. tab. <)• fig. 17. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian feas ; 55 inches long, 2| 

broad : Jhell thin, above reddifh, beneath vvhitilh, above flat 

with a rounded margin, beneath gibbous, without fcales, but 

marked with 10 broadifti longitudinal Itriae. 

Shell fmooth> tubular^ finger-fliaped, incurved, the extreme 
margin membranaceous. 
Inhabits Inaia. Muf. Lud. Ulr, 546. n, 146. 
5'^^// flattilh, oblong, pellucid. 

Shell nakedj lobed. 

Inhabits India. Muf. Lud. Ulr. 547. k. 147. 

Shell llraw-colour, wiih purple llria", membranaceous and 
heart-lhaped when the valves are open ; the lateral lobes 
rounded and broaaer, with a nerve from the ningc to the 
lobes, arid from the nerve are lateral lines. 

yinea. Shell hyaline, with longitudinal fubundulate ftrias, the ftrias 
wiih a few fcales and crolfed by other tranfverfe ftrix 

at the margin. 


WORMS, TESTACEA. 69, Pinna. 


Gualt. teji. tab. 78. C. tab. 79, E» 
Chemn. cdnch. 8. tab. 87. jig. 772. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean ; very rare, 

Shell narrow, long, naked, carinatc, with tranfverfe uji? 
dulate wrinkles. 
Bman recr. 2. fig. 23. Muf. Kirch. 2,/. 25. 
i?«;w//. M;/. /«^. 46. I, K. Klein oftr. tab. il./. 71.' 
Peti-u. Amh. aq. tab. \g. f 4, 5. 
Chemn. conch. 8. /'a^. 90. /. 778. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean ; pale horu-colour, curved at the hinge, 
and marked with ?i few longitudinal ftrise. 

Shell thin, infleaed at the lateral margin, yellowifli with 
black-brown rays ; with a few longitudinal ftrix. 
Chemn. conch. 8. tab. go. Jg.ySo, 

Inhabits the Red Sea; horn colour, long, with a few tranfverfc 
curved ilrias at the gurved margin ; the larger end rounded. 

Exusta," Shell flattifh, horny, with blackifli rays fpots and clouds, 
and many fmooth ftriae ; a few fpinous ftriae with ca-. 
niculate I'cales. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 91. fig. z. 

Chemn. conch. 8. tab. 91, jig. 'j'hl. 

Inhabits the Southern Ocean of India \ rare. 

Vexillum, Shell truncate ^ the outer margin, dilated, naked, horny, 
with a few black clouds ; longitudinally ftriate pn the 
fore-part and tranlvcrfcly wrinkled behind. 

Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. teft. tab. 7. fg, 8. » 

Chemn. conch. 8, tab. 91. Jig. 783. 

Inhabits India; extremely rare: fnell appearing as if winged, 
with a curved lateral margin. 

Papyracea Shdll very thin, brittle, horny, with longitudinal ribs; the 
extreme margin roundifh. 

Chemn. conch. ^. tab.g$. fig. -^Sb, 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: back of the ribs fometimes fcaly; in 
the middle of the fliell a violet-brown fpot, and a few tranf- 
verfc wrinkles at the lateral margm. 

Sanguinea, Shell flattifh, flightly incurved, red, with a few perpendi^ 
cular fmooth llriae. 

Inhabits Gua/t. teft.. tab. 79. fig. P. 

Skdl 3 inches long : probably not a diltinft Ipecies. ' 


304 WORMS. TESTACEA. 70 Argonauta. 

'BuUatai Shell very ftraight, tliin and perpendicu^ariy ftriate, with 
tranfverfe fpinous wriiiklci at the loWer margin. 

Inhabits Gualt. teft tab. 79. fig. C. 

Probably not a diftind fpecies. 

• 70. ARGONAUTA. Animal a Sepia or Clio: 
Jhell univalve, fpiral, involute, membra*, 
naceousj 1-celled. 

jirgo. Keel or ridge of the fliell iligiitiy t<'>oihed each fide. 

Lister conch, tab. 554, 555. Loch. Muf. Bejl. t. 19. 
Bonan, recr^ and Muf. Kirch. I . fig. 13. ' 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 18. fi^. 1 04. A, B. 
Gualt teft. tab. ii. A, B, t.\z. A, B, C. 
Otear Muf. tab. iz> f. 4. Le[)er teft. t.l. n.6. 
Kith oftr. tab, l-fg. 3. Murray tejt. t, \. f. 8. 
Argenville conch, tab, 5. A — C. Zoom. t. z.f. 2, 3. 
Muf, Gott-zvali/j tab, 40, fig. 272—274, 
Seta Muf 3. tab. 84. fig. 4 — 12. 
Ginann. adr. 2- tab. 3 fig. 29. 

Knorr deli c. tab. B. \-, fg. 314. Vergn^ i. /aZi, 2./! 1.2.4, taO. 
99./". \yand6. tab.'^l, 

2. Martin conch. I. /«^. 1 7. //^, 1^7. 

3, Martin conch. I. /<2^. I- fig. 158, 159. 

4. Martin conch. I • /^z^. i 8 y}^. 1 60, 

5, Martin conch, \, 'vign. &, fig. 2. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian Oceani and is the famous 
Nautilus, fuppofed in the early ages of fociety, to have firft 
taught men the ufe of fails : when it means eo fail, it dif- 
charges a quantity of water, by which it was made heavier 
than the fea-water, and rifing to the furface, ereds its arm-s 
and throws out a membrane between them, by which means it 
is driven forwards like a veflel under fail ; two of the arms it 
hangs over the fhell, to ferve as oars or as a rudder. 

Shell white or yellovviQi, with fmooth or knotty itriap or ribs^ 
which are fometimes forked; the keel generally brownifti. 

Fiireus, Keel of the fliell toothed in the middle. 
Argenville Zoomorph. lab, lo, fig. B. 
Martin, conch, i. p, 239. tab. 18, fig, 163. 
Inhabits — — A very rare fpecies. Shell conic, tranfvcrfely 
ribbed, with a convex keel : aperture ova!. 

Cytniiutn, Keel of the {hell wrinkled and without teeth. 
Gualt, teft, tab. 12. fig, D. 
Martin, conch, J, tab. 18. fig. l6u 


WORMS. TEST ACE A. 71. Nautilus. 305 

Inhihiis the Mediterranean : very fm all, deprefTed, thin, wrin- 
kkd, with very fine longitudinal llris crolTing the wrinkles, 

Ccrnu, Keel with 4 fmooth elevated rings. 

Spengkr Befch. Naturf. 2. tab. I3. /", 3—5. 
Chemn, conch. 10. tab. \y], fig, 1271— •I273. 
Fa-van. cnnch^ tab. 5. fig. I. 

InhnbitJ the Cape of Good Hope ; about a line high and 5 broad ; 
JJie/l thin, pellucid, with llexuous llria; : whorls of the" I'pinc 
all confpicuous outwardly and leparatej the aperture paraU 

'■-ilicix. Shell perforated, with ah entire keef. 

Pall.fpic. Zcol. 10. p. 38. Fab.fn. Grcznt, p. 386, n. 384. 
Inhabits the Grecnlaid feas, and is feen frequently floating in 

fpring iind autumn '. Jhell\&xy briule, white, with fine grooves: 

about 3^ lines in diauieter. 

71. NAUTILUS. AnimaU (Rumpf. 
yi'Jig. 13.) jlidl univalve, divided into 
feveral departments com nmnieating with 
each other by an aperture. 

A. Spiral y rounded y with cofifiguous whorls. 

PoMpi/ius, Aperture of the fliell heart-fhaped ; whorls obtule, fmooth. 

Rump/. Mil/, tab. 17. A, C. Kiein ojir. t. l.f.l. 

Lister conch, t. 550. /" «, 3 t. f^^\, 

^onfl. aq. tab. 10. fig. l, 2. 7. 

Bo'ian recr. and Muf Kirch, \.ftgn 1,2. 

Gualt. tefl. tab. 17. t\. fig. A, B. /. I7. B. /, 1 2. 

Argen'v. conch, tab. 5, fig. E, F. 

Petiv. Amb. tab. 3, /". 7. Ga-zoph. /, 99. D. 

Seha Muf. 3. tab. S^, fig. t — 3. 

Le/fer te/laceoth. tab. 2. fig. 1 1. 

Kiwrr delic. nat. tab. ^fig- I, 2. and t. B. \. f. I, 2.' 

Knorr Fergn. I. tab. l.f. 1,2. tab. Z. f 3. 

Martin, conch, l. p. 226. 'vign. 10. t. lS,f. 1 64 — 1 67. 
i. Lifier conch, tab; 1^2. fig. 4, 

Knorr del. nat. tab.B. 3. fig. I. 

Fai'an. conch, tab, 7, D, 3. Catal. raif, t. 2. 

Chemn. conch. lO. /. 1^7'/ '274, 1275. 

Inhabits the Indian and African Ocean ; often very large, and 
finely variegated with brown flexuous ftreaks, fpots and marks, 
under the outer covfring which is white ; within of a moft 
beautiful pearly glofs. Of this fpecic?, the inhabitants of ihc 
£aft make drinking cups. 

VOL. IV,— Ci.q ♦C«/f«r 

3o6 WORMS. TESTACEA. 71. Nautilus. 

*CaIcar. Aperture of the (hell linear: whorls with elevated joints. 
Adt'tns and Kanmacker Microfc. p. 641. tah, x\-f. 31- 
Plane, conch, 12- tah. \. fig. 3, 4. 
Gualt. test' tab 19. B, C. Led. Micr. t. 8./,c, d, 
Mantin. conch, l(). fig. 168,169. 
Found on Sheppy IJland: minute, white, opake, 

*Cr!fpii-, Aperture of the (hell femicordate : joints of the whorls 

Adams Microfc. p. 640* tab. 14. fig. 30. 
Plane, conch. \0.t. l.f. 2. Gualt, test. /, 1 9. A, D. 
Ginnann. Adr tab. l^. fig. 112. 
Led. Microfc. tab. 8 fig. 6, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Sheppy IJland: very minute. 
Shell opake, white, umbilicate each fide, granulate and marked 

with flexuous ftris : back carinate : fiphon central : chambers 

a little infleded in the middle, 

*Beccarii, Aperture of the (hell obovate, the whorls twifted with 

deep joints. 
Adams Mtcrojc. p, 640. tah. 14, fig.zg. 
Plane. conch, tab. \,f. I. Gualt teji. tab. 19'. H, H, I. 
Ginann. adr. 2. tab. 14. f. III. Murray left. t. lyf. 16. 
Martin, conch. I. tab. ig. f. 178, 179. t.zo. f. 175 — 177. 
2. Shell comprefled, with a linear aperture and contiguous whorls 

marked with elevated ftriae J many -rayed. 
Grono^j. Zooph. tab. i<^. f. 5> 6, 
Inhabits moft fhorcs. Shell deprefied, minute, fine pellucid 

crimfon while the fifh is alive, white when dead. 

*Laviga' Shell fpiral, with fmooth joints. 
tulus, Adams Microfe. p.6i\.\. tab. i^. fig. ^l. 

Found at Sand-juich: very minute. 
^-^^// femipellucid, white, glolTy. 

*Depre/Ju' Shell fpiral, flightly umbilicated each fide, with many 
ius. deprefied joints. 

Adams Micr of. />. 641, tab. \\. f 33. 
Found at Rerul'ver : very minute and rare, 
»Si»f// white, opake. 

*lSnhilica- Shell fpiral, umbilicate, with fpiral joints. 
tulus. Adams Microfc. p. bi^\. tah. i^,fig.'i,\. 

Found at Sand^vich : minute, white, opake. 

*Crafulus0 Shell fpiral, thick, umbilicate each fide, with fine joints. 
Adams Microfc. p. 641, tab. i^.fig. 35. 
Found at Reculver, very rare : white, opake, minute. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 71. Nautilus. ' 307 

*LobataIus Shell fplral lobate, the fpires rounded on one fide and dc- 
prelTed on the other. 
Adams Micro/c, p. 642. tab. l/^.fg. 36. 
Found at Whitjiahle i minute white opake. 

* Carina- Shell oblong carinate, with a narrow oval aperture. 

tulm, Adams Micro fc. p. 642. tab. 14. fig^ 37. 

Found at Handiuich'. rare, minute, white opake, 

•Subarcua- Shpll a little bending, with raifed joints. 
tulus, Jda}nsMicroJc,p.6^z. tab. l^-fg, 38. 

Found at Sheppy ; minute opake brown. 

Baltbicuf. Shell white convex with a linear aperture: firft whorl far 

exceeding the others in fize. 
Scbra^t. Einl. in conch. I. tab. 20. fig. I| 2. 
Inhabits the Baltic; adhering to the roots of Fuci ; refemblcB 

M Beccarii j 772^// fometimes opake fometimes poliflied, often 

pellucid : iJhorls fometimes fmooth ftriate ribbed or tuber- 


Ihlicitei, Whorls of the (hells concealed. 

Schrat. Einl. in Stein. 4. tab. \o. fig. 2. 

Found in a foifiie iUte on St. Peter's Mountain at Mctftritcb ; 

very Imall : fometimes convex, fometimes depreffed, fmooth 

or llriate, 

Rugc/uj. Apertures of the (hell linear: whorls comprelTed with 
thickened margins. 
Inhabits the Southern Ocean ; very fmall : white, fomewhat de- 
prefTedj the internal divifions a Jittle promineut outwardly 
and appearing like trajifverfe wrinkles. ' 

Umbilica- Aperture of the (hell comprefled linear : whorls comprelTed: 
tus, umbilicus concave. 

Column. Fhytob. 2. tab. ^S./lg. E, 

Inhabits Croatia: minute: ihell obliquely jaintedwith tranfverfc 
grooves anlwering to the diiilions within, particulary at the 

B. Spiral rounded ; with feparated whorls 

Spicttla. Aperture of the (hell orbicular : whorle cylindrical. 

Snvammerdam Bthl. is at. I, tab. J -fig- 7» 8. 

Lister conch, tab. 550. 2. Bonann. MuJ. Kirch, l.fg. 39. 
Rutnpf. Muf. tab. 20. fig. i. Gualt, test, tab. 19, E. 

Qji 2 Argcn^d* 

3o8 WORMS. TESTACEA. 71. Nautilus. 

Argenv, conch, toh. 5* G. Breyn'. pclyth. 2i. fg, z, 

Klein oftr. tab. \.Jig, 6. By tern, app, tab. I \.fg. 49. 

Knorr Vergn. I. tab, !• fig. 6. 

Martin, conch. \. tab. zo. fig. 184, 185. 

Inhabits the American and Indian Oceam ; about an inch in di- 
ameter; whitilh. within Ihining like mother of pearl; orbicular, 
the whorls gradually decreafing inwards, the firft a little ftraight, 
fiphon contiguous to the walls of the {hells. 

Spengleri. ^\y^\\ fmooth vvith 4conic tubercles. 

Spengler Schr. Dan, Ges. 1. tab. z.fig. 9. b. c. 
Inhabits India j very minute. 

Vnguicula- Shell diaphanous, the middle partitions protuberant outwards: 
tus, furface with 6 conic tubercles. 

Spengler Schr, Dan, I . lab. 2 fig; 9. d. 

Inhabits India ; very minute thin white polifhed and flightlv 

G. Elongated and Jiratghtijh, 

Setnilitms. Shell incurveai fpiral at the tip : whorls contiguous. 
Column phyioh. 1-tib, zS.fig.D. 
Martin, conch. 1. ta^. 20. fig. lt?6, 187. 

Inhabits Croatia: very minute, convex, the partitions appearing 
outwardly, fometimes umbilicate. 

l^ituuj. Shell fubconic, with globulnr divifions growing gradually 
lefs: the tip incurved fpiral. 
Spevgl. Schr. Dan. 1. tab. 2. fig. lO, d — g. 
Kletn Danz Naturfi. Schr, 2, tab. I, a. 
Inhabits the Red Sea; found frequently foffile, 

Obliouus, ^^^^^' ftraight with a flight curvature; the divifions obliquely 
• • ' ftriatc. 

Gualt tcfl, tab. ig.fiig. N. 

Martin, conch, angn. I. fig: H, N. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic. Shell minute, with 
a crcnate circumference; the fiphon central. 

Raphawf' Shell fiibcylindrical with thick divifions marked with i2 
t'>'um. elvated ftrias : fiphon central regular. 

Ledcrtn. Microfc. tab. \.fg. X. lower figure. 
Inhabits the Adriatic and Mediterrnnean Seas. 

Raphanus. Shell jointed, the divifions thick with 17 elevated &.i\xi 
fiphon fublateral oblique. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 71. Nautilus. 

Lederm. Microfc. tab. 4. X. upper figure, tab. 8. F. 
Plane conch ia^. \.fig. 6. Guilt, teji. tab. 9. L, IVI. 
Inhabits the Adriatic and Mediterranean : minute. 



Shell ovate oblong, with thick diviuons marked with 8 \^z 
terniptcd elevated ilrise: ffphon oblique. 
Inhabits the. Mediterranean; minute; aiilinguifhed from ^| 
]all in having the itrias at the pomt of the divifions a Jinlg 

B^adicula. Shell oblong-ovate, with thick glabrous divifions. 
Lederm. jnicrojc. tab. 8,/ig.e. t, ^.f I. s. 
Plane, conch. 14. tab. I f:g, 5. 

Inhabits the Adriatic; very rare and minute: fiphon a ]i;iJe 

Fa/da. Shell with ftriate divifions and fmooth elevated joints. 
Gualt. teit. tab. ig. O. Mart, conch, i. njign. I. D. 
Inhabits the Adriatic: very finall. 

Shell conic, with crowded llrise, obtufe at the tip and dentfcu- 
J.ate at the margin; the fiphoi) ceijtral, 

Ine^ualis. Shell cylindrical with 8 divifions, the fccond and third ygjrjj 
Ihort: aperture margined. 
Spengrl. Schr. Dan I. tab. z. fi^. lO. a-.— c. 
Inhabits the Red Sea: very minute and clear white, 

5ij>hunculus Shell fmooth with cylindrical remote divifions, the jglftfl 
tapering cylindrical. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. l().fig, R, S. 
Martin, conch, i. •i/;y« I. fi,^. F. FF. 
Inhabits fe?s of Sicily, adhering to coral rocks. 
<S^^//minuie, with 11 divifions alternately narrower andbrqadgf. 

1{.egumen. Shell compreired jointed and margined at one end: fipl^gft 
Gualt. teji. tabi 19. P. Lederm. micr. tab. 8. fig. g. 
Martiji, conch, i 'vign. I. fig. e, E, I. 

Inhabits the Aadnatic. Shell minute fubconic, the tip culti:|{j: 
on one fide and flightly curved on the other. 

Orthocera, Whorls of the fhell with carinate ftrix. 
Schcuehx,. HeJ-v. "J- fig- 8. Dilu'y.()^S. 
Inhabits the Oceamnd is frequently found foffilc. 

* BelKi;;.., 

310 WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

* BeUtimita Shell equal fmooth conic acute. Thunder-ftonc, 

Found in a foffile ftate in moft parts oi Europe t they have received 

their englilh name from a notion that they are thunder bolts 

and alwaiys found after a ftor:n. 
Shell varying in fize, from i an inch to 8 inches, conical, a 

little trani'parent, and when burnt or rubbed fmelling like 

rafped horn. 

'J'2. CONUS. Animal a lAmax: Jkell uni- 
valve, convolute, turbinate : aperture ef- 
fufe, longitudinal, linear, without teeth, 
entire at the bafe: pillar fmooth. Cone. 

A. Spire or turban nearly truncate. 

Mar mor eu5, ^\\s:\\ zox\\c brown, with ovate fubangular white fpots : 
whorls of the fpire caniculate. 
Natural, Mifcellany. tao. 21 1. Lister conch, tab, 787. 
Olear. Muj' tab. Z'^-fg. 2. Gualt. te/t, tab. 22. D. 
Muf. Gott-voaU. tab. 14 fg. 104. a. 
Bonanrecr. and Mu/.Kir<h,, 3. fig, 123. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 32. N. Argenv. conch, tab. 12. M. O, 
falent.abh. tab. l- fig. 25. /. 5./. 43. /. 7./. 65. Ay 
Peti'v, Gazoph. tab, 0^"], fig, il. 

Seba Muf. I. tab i^^-fig. 1 — 4. 13 — 19. t. 47./i 1 — 4. 
Knorr. P^er-gn. I. tab. 7. fig^ 4. t, 1 5./". 2, 
Regenf. conch. \,tab. ^'fig- 53. 
Martin conch. 2. tab. bz. fig. 685,686. 
?. Vaknt. abh, tab. 2. fig. 10. /. 5. f. 44. 
Knorr P'^ergn. I. tab. 7. ^^. 4, 
Martin. conch. 2. /«3. 62, fig. 687, 688, 

3. Chemn. conch. lO. /«/•. 1 l%.fig. 1279: 

4. Chet/in. conch. 10. /a^. I'^g.fig' 1292.- 

Innabits the American Ocean. Shell very finely ftriatc, fometimcs 
blackifti or fulvous ; the fpots often nearly triangular and run- 
ning into bands; ivhorls emaiginate and armed with fpinous 

Jmperia/ls. Shell whitilh with longitudinal livid bands and divided 
brown and v/hite linear belts. ' 
Rumj.<f. MitJ. tab, 34, H, I. Lister conch, tab. 766. 
Jrgenv. conch, tab. "jbb.ftg. 15. Gualt. tell. tab< Zl, A. 
Vuknt, abb, tab. Z"^. fig, 6. Klein ofir, t. 4. /", 84. 
Seba Muf 3. tab, ^"J.fig. 1 8 — 21. 
Knorr, Vtrgr^ z. tab. W.jig. Z. 
Regenf. conch, l.Jab, 'i^fig' 35. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 


Litter at us. 

Martini conchy 2. tab. ()Z*fig. 690—692, 

2. Mart, conch 2. tab. bz. fig. 693 ? 

3. Lkemn. conch. 10. tah, 1^9'/'.?' '289. 

4. Chemn. conch. 10. ta6. 139./;^. 1290, 129 I. 

Inhabits rather rare, Sh,// large white with about 2 yellow- 

i/h bands ai)d numerous belts com pofed of brown and white 
interrupted belts: /"pire flat, painted with brown undulate 
ftripes, often emarginatc. 

Shell conic white with brown dots. 

Li/ler tab, 773, 774. Rumpf. MuJ. tab. 31. D. 

Bonan.recr.i.fig, 132? 363. Muf. Kirch, i. f. 357.' 

Gualt, test. tab. Zl.fig. G. H. 

Seba Mil/. 3. tab. ^$.fig. 3 — 5. 

Mu/. Gotpwald. tab. 14.. fig. lOI. c, d. 

Knorr. delic. nat. tab B. \\\.fig, 4. 

Knorr Vergn. i. tah \6.fig. 3 and 3. /. 3.^^. 2, 

Regenf. conch, i. tab. I- fig. 29. /. 4. f. 46. 

Martini co^ich. 2, /^i^. 60. fg. 666 — 668, 
2. Gualt.teft. tab. 22. fg. B, C. 

5f^tf Mw/. 3. /a^. 44./^. 5—7. /. 45./. 8, 9, 12—15. 

Knorr Vergn. 3, /a^. 6,/V^. 4 and 5. /. 24./. 5. 

Martini, conch. 2. tab, t)O.Jig. 669. 

Inhabits the AJiatic Ocean: foraetimes reddifh or yellowifii; 
with fubcubic dots or fpots difpofed in rows, between which 
are a few obfolcte yellow bands or chefnut lines: //>ire 
marked with brown ftripes, nrore or lefs flat or convex. 

Shell conic polifhed, with a pointed muricate fpire : whorl^ 
Li/Ier tab. jSG.fg. 35. Rumpf Muf. tab. 33. Y.. 
Retiv. Gazoph. tab. l\.fig. II. Valent abh. t. \.f. 9, 
Gualt. test. tab. 20. fig. G. Olear. Muf. t. -3,1. f. 5. 
Argenville conch, tab. i 2. T. zoom. tab. 3. F. 
Seba MuJ. 3. tab. <^if.fig. II — 13 
Knorr Vergn. i. tab. 7, fig. 3. and 2. /, 5,/. 2. 
Regenv. conch. I. tab. 6. fig. 65, 
Martini conch. 2. tab. $^-Jfg. 645 — 653. 
2. Chemn. conch. lOt tab. 140. y%. 1301 — 1303. 

Inhabits India. Shell ruflet-brown yellow or orange with 2—4 
white bands marked with elongated Ipots : fpire whitifh varied 
with undulate ftripes and pointed in the middle. 

Shell conic, with a blueilh bafe. 

Lijler conch, tab. 753, 754. 758. Rumpf. Muf. tah. 31. E. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 20. B. Kieinoftr. tab. /^..fg. 83. 
Bonan. recr, I. fig. 365. Muf Kirch. I, fig, 356, 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. ^J.fg. 8, 9. 


§H WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

Knorr l^crgn. 2. tab. 2^, frr, 4,; & 3. .'. 22,/i ll 
Ml//. Gott-w. tab. i3i/'i- 99, N. /^/'. 14,/". 105, a, h. 
Martini conch. 2. ?«^. 53, /<;;. S^^-.j^g. 

2. Knorr Vergn. 4. /a A. lO /^^. 5. 
Martini conch. 2. M^, 63, yf^. 70 1 — 703. 

3. L//?fr ««^/'. /«i. 767, ^'.g. I 7. 
Valent.ahh. tab. 6 yTg-. 52. tab %,/. Ji. 

Gualt, test. tab. 21, H. Seba Muf 3. /. 55,/;' 4 — 9; 
K?iorr Ver^n. 2. /i2^. \Zi Jig. 3. 
Regenf. couch. \. tdb, 8. jf^. ig. 
Martini conch. 2. /a^. 59, /". 653, 654, 

4. Knorr P''ergn. 6. /a^. 1 1./^ 4? 

5. Chemn. conch. Itf. /iSi^. 138,/'. 128 1. 

Inhabits the /Ifrican Octan. Shell ftnooth, yellowilh, ofteii 
fnowyj 3) tefTellate with white and red; 2) white with a 
Uraw-colour band : _/^/;vblue, or blue with a white fprie 
marked with an ochfaceous band. 



Shell conic, glabrous, with a brown bale: fpire a little 
convex. , 

Litter, taby 786. 781? Vaknt. t. 'i^.f. 22, 23. t. 6.f. 49. 
Mil/ Gott-z' 12./. 85. b,c. tab. 13,/. 99'. e— g. 
Knorr Fergn. 1. /«^. J. Jig. 6. /. \^. /■ 3. 
Martini conch. 2 /fli5; qg. _yfo'. 660— 66^, 

2. GWr. /^y?, /a^. 20. jig 1. 

3. Rumpf. MuJ. tab. 33.X. Argenv. conch, t. 12. K;- 
GW/. /^/?. r. 22. M. Regenf. I . t. J.f. 7. 

4. Bcnan. recr. 3. /. 36 1. Af«/: Kirch. 3./. 354. 
*S^3/2 Afa/" 3. tab,\z. fg, 26 — ^6. 

5. Bonan. recr, Sc MuJ, Kirch, jy. 139. 

6. Vaknt, tab. 5 /. 47. GW/. /^. /. 20, Q^ 
SebaMuJ'. 3. tab. 42, yTg-. 40, 41. 
Martini conch. 2. /. 57./« 630, 631. 

7t Fauann. conch, z, tab. 15. A. 

Chemn. conch. 10, tab. 138.//^. 1280. 

8. Gualt. tefl* tab. 25. F. 

Chemn conch, lo. tab. l/\.O.Jg. 1298, 

9. Chemn. conch, 10. /. 144. A. y. a, b, 

10. Kaemm. Cab. Raids fl. t, 7./. 4. 

Inhabits v4/z]fl. Shell olive, yellow, brown, chefnut, or a mixture 
of Tome of them, feldom of one colour ; generally with a while 
band or two, with undulate or fquare fpots, and numerous 
rows of dots or fpots ijfire fometimes flat and generally ftripcd. 

Tribunus: Shell white, with 3 yellowifla bands fpotted with chefnut r 
fpire a little convex ; the bafe tranfverfely ftriatc. 

Inhabits Martini conch. 2. t. 59. y. 655. 

8hell painted with a few undulat-e chefnut lines. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 313 

Milis, Shell conic, rough, with a brown bafe : fpire, convex. 

Lister, tab. 786, yfg-. 34. uirgeni). conch, t, 12, L. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 33, W. Gualt. te'li, t. 20* N. . 
SebaMuf. 3. Tab, \Z. fig. 23 — 25' 
Muf. Gottixald. tab. 1 3. fig. gg. a, b. 
Knorr Vergn. I. tab^ ^S*f' 4* ''^'^ 3* '• ^'Z* 2> 3. 
Martini conch. Z. tab. jg,/*, 663, 664. 
Inhabits /W/j : whitilh or yellowifh with longitudinal undulate 

lines ; the bafe tranfverfely ftriate : near the fpire which is 

fpotted with brown, is a brown band. 

■%ingulum. Shell conic, yellowifh, with a firigle elevated belt in the 
riiiddle: fpire acute. 
Inhabits Friendly JJlands, Mart, u/tiv, cofich, \, tab. 3g. 

B« Pyr'ifornij with a rounded bafe : the cylinder half as- lon^ 
again as the fpire. 

Princpps. Shell yellowj; with purplifli-brown longitudinal branched 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. 1. fig. 138 ? 
Schrcet. Einl. in conch, i . tab. I, fig. 3, 
■z. Lifierytab. 77g. Gualt. tejl. t 25. Q. 

Argenn). conch, tab. 12, B. Knorr Verg. 3. t,\,f. 2, 
SebaMuf. 3. tab. 47, fig. 30,31. 
Martini conch, z/tab. 63, _/". 69g, 70O. 
3. Chemn. conch. ID ra^. 138, /*. 1276, 
» Inhabits the Indies; z~ inches long, and marked with 2 white 

bands which have a few brown fpots : fpire ohl\x(s, with very 
fine tranfverfe ftriae: fpots on the fhell chefnut, with fomc 
black ones above: 2) fhell ftiorter and black-brown* 

Ammiralist Shell with rough punfturcs at the bafe. 
I . Lar'va. Without bands. 
tus. Martini conch. 2 tab. ^^tfg, 635, a. 

Z. America- With irregular bands. 

a. Shell brown, douched and fpotteci with white. 
Rumpf Muf tub. 34, E. SebaMuf 3. /. 46,/. io. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 57, fg. 640. 

b. Shell_ reticulate and clouded with chefnut, with fometimes a 

white band. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 34. F. Jrgen'V Zoom. t. 10, K, L, V. 
SebaMuf 3 tab. ^S. fig. n, 12. 20,23, 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab, 24, fg. 4. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 57, /'^. 638,639. 

VOL. IV.~R r o White 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

c. White, fpotted, dotted and clouded with browji. 
Littery tab. 759, 777. Gualt teji, tab, 21,/. L. 
Knorr Ver^n 6. tab, t^,/tg.^. 

Martini CO'! ch 2. tab. 61, Jig.6y3. 

d. White wirh bands marked with orange lines. 
Argeai'iile Zoom. tab. 20, fig. G. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab, 44, ftg. 6. 
Martini conch. 2. /a^. 53, /?§•. 590* 

e. Chemn. conch, jo, /^nJ. \j^o, fig. izgy. 

3. With a fingle regular band. 

t^Anglicus. With numerous pundured white belts: fhell red: the fpire 
fpotted with brown. 
Gualt left, tab. 20, fig. P. 
KticrrVergn. ^,tah. ijyfig, 5. /. 24,/. 3. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 6 J , fig, 680. 

h.Coronatuj With a belt ofredcjifh dots, and tranfverfely elevated lines. 
Argenv. Zoom. tab. 10, fig, M, 
Martini conch. 2. p. 275, w^gw. 26. p . %\if, f,\. 

c. With a yellow band in the middle, and numerous pundtured 

Argcn-j, Zoom. tab. 10, fg, N. 
Martini conch. ?. njign. 2>'i. /. 214,/". 2. 

d. Shell brown, with a white band and an oblique row of whitifh 

Knorr Fergn, ^, tab. z^y fig. '^. 

4. With 2 regular bands, 

a. Repius, Bands orange with darker line?, the interllices white : fhell with 
orange dots and undulate fpots. 
Seln MuJ. 3. tab. 46, fig. 22, 23, 
Martini co?ich. 2. tab blyfig. 677. 

b. Bands varied with white and brown : fhell white with waved 

brown Ipots. 
Martin conch. 2. tab. 6z,flg. 684, 

c. Bands yellowifh with trifarious brown lines : Ihell white ftriate 

with brown. 
K;;orr Fergn. 3, tab. 6, fig. 3. 

d. Bands brown with granulate llrix : fhell clouded, white and 

Martim Naturg, i./. 378, tab. \(),fig» 12. 

5. With 3 regular bands. 
a. Ordina- Shell tellaccous fpotted with white : bands white, fubreticulate, 
^^•^^^ with a jointed belt in the middle. 

Knorr Fcrgn. 4. tab, ^, fig. I. Rnmpf. Muf, t. 34, C, 

1 . Gui- 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 315 

h.Guine- Shell Hraw-colour; the middle band with angular fplendid 

en/is^ bloom-colour lines. 

Argenv. Zoom. tab.\o, Q^ Cbemn. lo. tab. 144, A. j?^. l,k. 

c. Surina- Shell bay with numerous dotted belts : bands fpotted, the lower- 
Pten/ist one dotted with brown and white, 

Argen-j. Zoom. tab. lb, fig. R, 
Martini conch. 2. p. zSz.'vign. z6. p.214.,/'. 5. 

f Cbemn. conch. 10, tab. \^(), Jig- J 293. 

d. Shell brown, with hcart-fhaped white fpots : bands white, the 
middle-one with 2 fquare fpots. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 3. jig. I* 

6. With 4 legular bands. 

tk.Summus. Shell ferruginous with fcatte/ed white? fpots; bandsyellow, very 
finely reticulate, the third with a belt fpotted with white. 
Rumpf. Muf. tah. 34, B. Argen'viUe conch, tab. i 2, N. 
Pett'V.Gax.oph. tab. zS,/ig. 4. A/nb. t. lS>f' ^^• 
Seha Muf. 3. tah.^.'i, Jig. 5, 6. 
Knorr del tab. B. v. fig. 6. Vergn. I. tah. S,f. 2. 
Regenf. conch, 2. tab. l,f I. Favan. tab. ^J, fg- I> 1 • 
Spenglcr Sc!t. coKcb. tab. \, fig- E. 
• Born Muf Caf Vind. teft. tab. 7, fig. 1 1. , 
Martini conch. 2, tab. 57, fig. 634.. 
Chemn: conch. \Of tab. i^i, fig. 1308. 

•f- Chemn. conch, 10, tab, \j[\.fig. 1309. 

7. With 5 or more regular bands. 

OcciderJalis Shell teftaceous fpotted with white and an articulate belt : bands 
yellow, reticulate. 
Argenv. Zoom. tab. 10, O, P. Seba R^uf 3. /. 48,/. 4. 
Motini conch. 2. tab 57, fig. 63^. 

S. With punttate-rcticulate belts. 

3. Cedn Shell yellow painted with red : belts ij in number and milk- 

W//, white. 

Argenv. Zoom. tah. 10. H. Seba Muf. 3. tab,^2,f. 8. 
Knorr I'ergn. 6. tab. It f'£. i. 
Alartini conch. 2. tab. 57, fg. 663. 

b. Shell orange with crowded elevated interrupted chefnut lines. 
Spenglcr Befch. Katurf 1 tub. 9, fig. 6. 
Chemn. conch. 10, tab i^l, fig 1306. 
Inhabits the feasor South America, in almoft endlef- varieties* 

fume are accounted io rare and prLCioui, tijat the Cedo i\W* 

has been valued at 100 guineas. 

l> icaritts Shell teftaceous fpotted with white; with 4 yellow imma- 
culate bands, the fecond arit^uiarly divided. 

R r 2 Ar^r^v 


WORMS. TESTACEA. ri. Conus. 

Argenv. Zoom. tab. 1 2, H. Rump/. Muf. tab. 34. D. 

Petin). Amh. tab. 15, fig. 11. 

Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 3, fig. I. 

Favann. conch, tab. I 7, yip;. I, 5. 

Chemn. conch. lO. ^a^. 141. /Jp-. 1307. 

Inhabits the Southern Ocean. ' 




t. Pafilt 


Shell conic, fmooth, glabrous, with obtufe fculpturecj 
LiJIer, tab. 784 ? Valent. abh, tab, 6. fg. 50 ? 
Martini conch. 2. tab, ^g, /ig, 659. 

Inhabits Shell yellow fpotted with white, and marked with 

very nutnerous tranfverfe ftriae articulate with white & brown. 

She!! fiibcyljpdrical, fmooth, glabrous. 

Argenx'. conch. :ab, I 2, M ? Vxilent. tab, 3, /. 21. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. \'^j, fig. 13, 14? 

Matin: c^nch, 2. tab. 62, fig. 689. 

Schrc£t. Ein'i. in conch. \. p. 36, tab. \,f. 4, 

Fa'vann. conch, tab. i\, fig, E, 2. 

Chemn. conch, lO. tab. \^\,fig. 1312*' 
i^ Chemn. conch. 10, tab. i^XyJig. 131 3, 1314* 
' Inhabits—— Shell tinely poliflied, yellow or brown with fome- 
times an o.liye (hade, fpotted with white and marked with very 
finely punftured tranfverfe ftriae. 

Shell with linear belts articulate with \yhite 9n4 brown. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 34, G. Qlear. muf t. 32,/. 3, 
AdanJ. Seneg. i . tab. 6, fig. \. 
Lifter conch, tab. "J^lifig. 1 6, tab. 769,/". 17, b. 
Bonan.recr. ^' fig. 337. Muf. Kirch. 3. /". 336. 
Gualt. teft. tab, 22, fig. G, H. 
Arg^env. conch, tab. 1 2, fig. Q. 
Seba Muf.-*-^. tab. ^% fig. I — 3. 
Knorr Vergn, 3, tab, I, fig. 1, 
Martini conch, z. tab. 0, fig» 624, 625. 

Argengille conch, tab. I 2, _/?^. V, 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 56. 

Inhabits fliores of Guinea', ftiell red* with bands alternately t^{- 
felate wi:h brown and red. 

Clauciii, Shell emarginate at the bafe, flriate : fpire unarmctl, with 
contiguous whorls. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 33, G, G. Val. abh, tab. 9,/. 84. 
Bonan. recr. Sc Muf. Kirch. ^. f, IzSi 
Gualt. tefi, tab. 22, fig. F. 
Seba muf 3. tab, 45,/". 6. /. SS^fi- "^* 
MufGotfwaU, tab, j^, fig. \oi> 1 03. 
" "■ Knotir 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Gonufi. 


Knorrvergti. I* tab, i7,/7g-. 4, & 2. tab. 7,/". t. 

Martini conch. 2. tab, 61, /ig. 670—674. 

Chemn. conch. 10, /<7^, 138,/. 1277, Jz?^- 

Inhabits India and Jfrica. Shell varied with brown chcrn4t 
and red fpots fometimes difpofed in rows, the Ipire tranfverfcly 
ftriate, fometimes more fornetimcs Icfs convex, and marke4 
with ipots which are fometimes fquarc and rarely flriped. . 

Monachus. Shell gibbous, clouded >yith blueiiTi-brown, acute, ftriate 
at the bafe, 
Rumpf. muj. tab. 33, C, C. Lister, lab. 756, /. 8, 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 25, ftg. M. 
Seha mul\ 3. tab. 47,/- 27. tab, 48,/. 46, 47. 
Knon 'vergn. ^. tab. l^yfig- 2. 
Martini conch. 2. tab SS^f- ^'?' *^ — ^' 
2. Chemn. conch. lO, fab. 1^2, /. l%ig, l^20. 
Inhabits India? Shell {omet'mes dotted in rows. 

Minimus: Shell greyifh fnrrounded with oblong dots. 

Inhabits Martini conch, z tab. 55>/"' ^'3' 

Knorr,Vergn. 5. tab. 25,/". 5, & 6. t„ \,f. 5. * 

Rujiicus. Shell ov^e, rugge4 and ptiuricatp at the bafe ; the fpip 

1, Without band. 

Rumpf. muf. tab, 32, /. R. Gualt, teil. /. 25, R. 
Seba muf. 3, tab, 43, y"/^. 32 ? 
Martini conch, z, tab. 52, fig. 578, 

2, With a band clouded with whitifh. 

Gualt. tefi. tab. 25, E. Jrgen-v, conch, tab, 1?|D. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. ^2, fig, 37--39. 
Martini conch, 2. tab. 67,, f. 694,695;. 
Knorr l^ergn./\., tab, ^%ifig' %, 
Muf, GottiAjaU, tab. \ 2, fig. 86, b ? 

3, Chemn. conch. 10, /^z^, 144, A,f,c., f ? 

Inhabits Africa, Shell livid : 2) varied with blackiHi lines ic dots. 

Hfi'cator. Shell ovate, white, with reticulate yellow bands. 

Adanf. Sencg. I. tab. 6, "f^. 3. 
t/V/fr conch, tab. -]%%, ftg. 41, 
^cnfl« recr. & Af?/. A^tV<rA. 3. y*. 136. 
Valent. abb. tab 7, fig. 65, B. 
j^rgenv. conch, tab. 12, P. 5f^d: Mfc/ 3. tab. 54;,' 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. \,fig- 4. 
Ma/I Gottivald. tab, i z,f. gz, a. 
Martini conch. 2. ra^. 56, ^^. 619, 62O. 

Inhabits Africa. Shell middle-fized, ibmctimc^ yellowiih v^^th 
brown or tawny bands. 


3i8 WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

Betulinu!, Shell flightly emarginate at the bafe and wrinkled : the fpire! 
flattifli and mucronate. 
Lifter conch, tab. \6z./ig II. Rumpf. MuJ, tab. 31. 
Bonan, recr. and Muf. Kirch. ^.Jig. 131. 
Gualt, test. tab. zi-ftg- B. 

Seba Muf 3. tab. i^\-fig. ! — 4. /. 45./. 7, 10> li, 
l/luf. GcttwaU. tah. i'^ fig. loi. a, b. 
Knorr l^ergn. z. tab. 1 I. fig- 3. 
Martin, conch. 2. tab. 60. fig. 665. 

2, Martini ccnch. 2 tab 6l. fig. 6"/^. 

3. Knorr D eh c. H. 'if'g- 5? 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab l^l-figii'^it. 

Inhabits India. Shell rather large, yellow or ochraceous, with 
teffellate Ipotted bands and intermediate brown or yellow lines: 
i) white with 3 rows ot violet charadlers : 3) v/hitc with 
brown bands Ipots and dots, 

F:gul:mi, Shell fiightJy emarginate at the bafe and wrinkled: fpire 
acuminated, with flaitilh whorls. 
Rumff. Muf tab. ■^i.fg.V. t. 33./ i. 
Li/ier. tab. 'j'^y fig. 32. Gualt. teft. tab. 20. E. 
Val. abh. tab. 4. fig. 45. Argenm. conch, tab, 12. A, 
Seba Muf 3. tab. 54. fig. T— 4. 8. 
Muf. GottzvaU,. tab. 1 1- fig. 98. a — f. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. \ x.fig. 2 and 5. /. l^.f, 2. 
Re gen f. conch. I. /^3. lO./^^. 47. 
Ma tin conch, z. tah. ^(^.fig. 656—658, 

2. Knor^ Fergn. 6. tab. iS-/^i ^• 

3, Che?nn. conch. 10. tab. 138 _/?^. 1285. 

Inhabits India. Shell about 3 inches long, brown ferrnginous 
or yellow, rarely olive^ with darker lines and fpire, within 
generally whire, with fometinnes a yellow or while band or 
two: 2) fhell more elongated, orange with darker lines and z 
yellowifh bands, the fpire roddifh fpotted with black. 

thraus. Shell ovate white, with black bands compofed of tranfverfe 
Ru?npf. Muf. tab. 33. B. LiH. tab. 779.//^. 25. 
Argennj . conch, tab. 12. G. Gualt. test. tab. 25. T. 
, Adans feneg. 1. tab. (>.fig. 5. 
Bonan. recr. and Mrff. Kirch. 3. fig. 12 2. 

Fal. abh. tab. W.fig. 94. Petiv. Gaz. 99- y%. J2, ' 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. \-].fig. 28, 29. 

Muf. Corfwald, tab. J 4. fig. lOI. e, f. f:g. 104. c, d. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. /<3^. 6. /5^. 2. 
Martini conch. 2. /d!^. 56. _/?§■. 6 1 7. 
2. Chemn. conch. lO. tab. 144 A.yf^. q, r. 

Inhabits /W/«, «S/W/ rather fmall, i'onietimes reddifh with pa- 
rallelo'ramatic fpots which are often chefnut. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Coiius. 319 

Shell emarginate at the bafc, and ftriate: whorls of the 
fpire channelled. 
'Rumpf. Muf. tab. 33. Z, Lijler. tab. 'j^J. fig, 9. 
Bo7ian. MiiJ. Kirch, l- fig. 408, 
Gualt. test. tab. 25. N, O. Pet. Gaz. t. y^.f. i. 
Argenm. Conch, tab. 31. E. Seba Muf. 3. tab. SS-fg* I . 
fCnorr. aelic. Nat. tab. B. V./g. 7. 
Knorr Vergn. l. tab. J 'fig-- 5 and 6, t. l6.f. 4. 
MuJ. Gottivald. tab, tz.jig. 88. a — c. 
Regenf. covch. I. //3^. J- fig, 2. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 6^. fig. "^W — 7 1 3. 

2. Rumpf, Muf. tab. S^-ftg. 2? 
5f5a iVL//; 3. tab. SS-/'S' ^3 - 
Martini conch 2. tab ^^-fg, 698. a. 

3. Lifer conch, tab, J 61. fig. 10. 
Rumpf Muf. tab. ^l-fig. A. 
GWf. /<?/?. /«/^. 25./?;^. P. 

^or« Af«/". C<#/". '/ind. tefi. t. 7./. 12. 
Martini conch, z. tab. b^. ftg. 696, 697. 

4. Chemn. conch. \o. tab. 139-/^^. 1294? 

5. Chemn. conch. 10. /. 140 / 1295. 

Inhabits Afta. Shell long narrow, white with fcattered blaclc 
or red fpots which are fometimes glomerate and rarely united 
into bands ; whorls of the fpire obtufe, in 2) and 3) crowned 
>vith tubercles, 

Varius. Shell elongated muricate, the fpire crowned and acute. 
Lifter, tab yy^-fig. 21. Rumpf. Muf tab. 34 L; 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch,. 3._/%. 129. 
Gualt. teji. tab. 20. fig. F. 

Argenwl/e conch, tab, iz. R. Zoom. tab. 10 A, 
Seba Muf. 3. /. 44./. 19—22. t, 48./. 14, 17, 24, 25. 
Knorr Vergn. I. /. 8./. 4. /. 24./. 5. 
llegenf. conch' i, t. J. f f), lO 
Martini conch, 2. t. 6\. f 679. /. 62./, 6S2. 
2. Seba Muf 'i,. t. 48./ 26-28. 
Fa'vann. conch, t. \6.f E. 
Chemn. conch 10 t. i 38.^'^. 1284. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Shell white with brown chefnut or 
yellow clouds, and granulate ilrias running over the whole 

Achatinusl Shell elongated, very finely flriate tranfverfely, variously 
clouded and fpotted with white: fpire fhort, fpotte^ 
with brown and tipt with red. 
S.eba Muf. 3. tab. 44.//^. 30, 
Muf. Gottnvald. t. \z.f. 89. b. 90. 
Martini conch. 2. /. 52./. 579, 58c, 

2. Seba 


WORMS. TEStACEA. 72. CdAus; 

2. Seba Muf. 3. /. 44t/. 29. 
'^. Chemn. conch. I0< /. \/^O.f, X296? 
4. Qherkn. conch. lO. f. 142./* I 3 17. 
Inhabits the American Ocean. 



Shell with white rays and bands. 
Valent, abh. tab. 6. fig. 01.. 
Martini conch. 2. /, 53. /. 584. 
Inhabits She/i hcowa, pale yellow or cinereous. 

Shell with pale yellow or chefnut fpots, vrith generally 
white or yellow tranfverfe bands compofed of grains' 
or fpots. 

Lister conch, tab. JJi^ fig- 18. t. 777. ^3. 

Rumpf. Muf tab. 34. M. Valent. abh. t.d.f. 48. 

Bonan. recr. yfig. I 30. 364. Muf, Kirch, ^./ig. 1 30. 358; 

Gualt.teft.t. zx.f.t^. 

SebaMuf. 3./. 42./. 10,11,22. t.J^.f. 13-15. 

Regsn'v. conch. 1. t. J.y. 37. 

Martini conch. 2. tab SS'/'S' ^°3» ^°4» ^°^» ^®7* 

2. Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. \2.fig. 4. and 5. t, 22. f, 2. 
Regenf. conch. I . r^'^. 1 1./'^. 54i 5$. 

Martini, conch. 2. tab. $Sf'S' ^'^S* 

3. Martini conch. 2, /«A. 55. /z^. 608; 

4. Martini conch. 2. tab. ^'^.fg. 609 — 6u. 

5. Seba Muf. 3. /e^, Al'fig' 29, 30. 

6. /r«orr Vergn. 2 ' /<s^. I . fig% 7. 

7. Knorr Vergn. Z.t. \.f. 6. 

8. /sTwrr Vergn. 2. t. I. /". 5 ? 

9. Knorr Vergn. 6. /. I./l 3. 

10. Ar«f>rr. Vergn. t. t. uf. 4. 

11. Gualt.teft, tab. 21. £). Flavan. conch. 2, tab.. 14. C. 
Chcmn. conch, lo. tab, xi^O.fig. 1299. 

12. Chetnn. conch. 10. /. xip.f. 1300. 
Inhabits the Wiaa QfM«. Spire rather acute. 

Jafpideus, Shell light olive with multifarious white dots and an oblique 
Martini conch. 2. tab. SS'J^i' ^^^' 
2. Muf. GottnvaU. t. 13./, 97- a. 
Inhabits 5^^// oblong Imall. 

Nebtilofus. Shell brown with blue cloud's and' white fpots.' 
Gualt. test, tab, 25. R. Val, abh. tab. 9 fg. 74. 
2. Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. Z-Jig* 126, 
Knorr. Vergn. 3. f/s;^. 16. fig. 2. 
Regenv. conch.- 12. fig. 68. 
Martini conch. 2-, tab. 'SS'Ji* ^^4« 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 


Inhabits Shell narrow, a little convex towards the fpire ; 

probably a variety of C. minimus, 

Oculatus, Shell conic yellow, vtrith white eyes and band ; the baf- 
ftriate obliquely. 
Martin conch, z. tab. ^S.ftg.b\6. _ 

Inhabits Spire a little ptominent ; probably not of this tribe. 

Coffea. Shell (hort brown, with 2 white bands, thai neareft the 
fpire fpotted with brown. 
Martin, conch. 2. tab, <^(i-fig» 6 1 8. 
Inhabits Shell middle-fized. 

Jmadh Shell pale brown, with a broad band and articulate belts 
above and beneath : fpire acute, crowned with tuber- 
cles and very finely ftriate tranfyerfely. 
Argenwlle Zootn. tah. lo. S. Conch, tab. I. fig' 5- 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. tab. ^.jig. 3- 
Martini conch. 2. tab. S^-f'S- ^42» 043' 
Fa'vann. eonch. tab. i S>fg' ^* 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. X^Z.fg- ^^22, 1323. ^ 
Inhabits Shell more or kls narrow or ventncofe, 

F^lmine^s Shell With chefnut ftripes running down the whole length : 
• fpire acute and with the pillar-Hp fpotted with chefnut 
the bafe acute and obliquely ftriate. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 2. tab. 58./^. 644. 

Jrachnoi. Shell reticulate with chefnut, with 2 or 3 darker bands: 
fleuj. fpire crowned and acute. 

Jrgen-v. Zoom. tab. lO. T. Knorr Vergn. 6. tah. \.fig. 4. 
Spenglerfelt. conch, tab r.fg. D. 
Martini conch. 2. tah. (>\.fig' 676. 
2. Chemn. conch. \0. tab. 144. A. y%. c, d. 
Inhabits An extrefnely rare ipccies. 

^ ^ Shell brown with a white band, undulate with reddilh, 

Uojf<itu,. ^^.^j^ ^j^.^j^ ^^j ^^^^^ ^^j^. fpire nodulous with a 

granulate band. 
Inhabits Gualt. te/t. tab. 20, fig. O. 

lmcopa'.s Shell wbi^e clouded ftriped and fpotted with brown, with 
numerous rows of white and brown dots: fpire crowned 
with tubercles. 

VOL. IV.— S s 




WORMS. TEST ACE A. 72. Conus, 

Lister conch, tab. 7S9'f'S' 4» '• 777-/« ?4« 
Gualt. teji. tab. 21. L. Knorr Vergn. 6. /. 13./. J-. 
Martin, conch. 2. tab. 61 /7f. 678. 
3. Mar//« Haturg, \.p. 378. /a*. 19 fig* i?- 

3. Gafl//. m/. tab. 20. //j-. L ? 

4. Gtffl//. /f/?./. 20./. M? 

5. Seba Muf. ^itab. 48.7%. 36, 37. 
Chemn. conch, 10. /a*. 140./^. 1305. 

Inhabits thp American Ocean. Spire generally acute. 

Shell citron with black lines interrupted beneath: fpire 
crowned with tubercles and with the bafe white. 
Inhabits the Luraccas. Martin, conch, i, tab. t\. fig. 68 1. 

Injularis. ^hell white with chefnut clouds fpots and dots : fpire acute. 
Inhabits Martin, conch, 2, tab. hi. Jig. 683. 

Coronatus, Shell with alternate articulate belts and tefFellate fpots t 
fpire crowned with tybcTclcs. 
Gualt. teJi. tab. ?o. R. Valent.abh. tab. I. fig, 24. 
Bonanrecr. and Muf. Kirch. Z'fig- '34? 
Muf. Goft-tvald. t. 1 2. /". 91. A, b. Jig. 92. b, 93. a— e. 
2, Martin, conch. 2. tab. t^.fig. 709. 
3» Martin, conch. 2, fab. 6^. Jig. yio, 

4. Chemn. conch. lO. /a^. I39-]A^' I286. 

5. Chemn. conch. 10. /. 139./- 1287, 1288. 

Inhabits— —5i'f// minute, in yery numerous varieties, and often 
with a white band. 

PmSlatui. Shell with 2 yellowifh-browji baads gind nunjerous li;ie?jof 
4ots: fpijre varied with yellow dots and lines. 
Inhabits— —/C/zorr /^iP/-jK, 6.. tab. 13. fig. 6. 

'/^ylanicus Shell fnowy with rofy and brown clouds, and numerous 
articulate belts varied with white and chefnut: fpire 
Martini neueji. Manig. I, p. 445^ fab. I. fig. 2.0. 
C be mn conch. lO. tab. 1 42. fig. JI318. 
Inhabits ■ The bafe obliquely grooved.. ^ 

SJidus. Shell conic thick, tranfverfely ftriate, clouded with white 
and brown, with a broad white band and pyramidal 
fpire ,j the whorls channelled. 

Inhabits-"!— C/?'m//. conch, 10. p. 59. tab, i>^i. fig. 1310, 

C, Elongated 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 323 

C. Ehngatedi «"^ rounded tit the bafe : the cylinder ss long 
again as the f pi re. 

Clavus. Shell with convex Tmooth flrix : the bafe blueifli. 
Lifier. tab. J^^.fg. 34. Knorr Vcrgn. 5. r. II, f. 5. 
Martini conch. 2. tab, 52. /fj^. 57^. 
2. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. Mf'^.fig- ^Z'^1' 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean : extremely rare. 
Shell narrow long yellow with white fpots, and 2 deeper hands 
fpotted with white : the fpirc fpottcd and gradually tapering 
to an obtultf point, 

KuJJatella. Shell fubcylindrical, red, not crowned with tubercles, rough 
with tuberculatc ftriz. 
Rumpf. Mttf. tab. 33. E? Cualt left. tab. 25. I-. 
Argennj. conch, tab, \'^. fig. P. 
Mvf. Gottivald. t. 13./; 96. a — c. /. 43./. 52. a. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. ^-fg. / . 
Martini conch. 2. t. 51. /" 567. 
2. Chemn. conch, i. t. 143./". 1329. 

Inhabits though rarely the Ifland Nujpitello in /Ifia. 
Shell p3]e, clouded and fpotted with red, rarely entirely white, 
with yellowifh- brown granulate tranfverfe ftria; ; Ipire ending 
in an obtufe point* 

^ertbtlKim. Shell white fhadcd with blue, fubcylindtical, with annulate 
ftria: and yellow bands. 
Martini, conch. 2. tab. ^Z.fig. $77* 

2. Lister conch, tab. 7it<^fig. 36. 
Chemn. conch. 10. /«/>. 43,^^. I330» 

3. Chemn. conchy \o. t, 43./. 1331. ». I. 
Inhabits 2] varied with rows of browrt dots. 

Coccineuj; Shell red \vith tranfverfc lines dotted with black, with a 
white band and fpire fpotted with red. 
Inhabits— —A';7orr Vergn. 5. tab. 2\.fig. 2. 
2. With 2 white bands and numerous articulate belts, 

La-tuu Shell fubcylindrical with annular ribs, red with darker 
clouds and barred with white; the fpire fpotted. 
Liter conch, tab. •j6o. fg. 5. 
Knorr Fergn. 'J,. ta!>. 6.y7^. 5. 
Inhabits— -—probably a variety of C. granulatus. 

Ocbrokuciis Shell fubcylindrical yellow : the hafe obliquely (Iriate with 
a white band near it: fpire pointed, with ftriped 

S s ;? Martin. 

$24 WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

Martini c(mch. 2, tab. i^Zi fig. ^1'^, 
Z. Sebaniuf, 3. tab. \\, fig, 12. 

Inhabits Shell in 2) fpotted with yellow and chefnut, an4 

Viried with decufl'ate ftrize dotted with red. 

Liexns. Shell rufous with fulvous fpots and tranfverfe ftriae : fpire 
fpotted with yellow : the bafe obliquely ftriate. 

Inhabits Vaient. cbh. tab. %, fig. 7. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. ^2» fig. 572, 

Jffinis, Shell blueifli.white, with 4 fulvous Hneate bands and in- 
termediate dull purple dots or marks. 
Martini conch, z. tab, ^z, fiig. 571. 
Z. Vaknt. abh. z. tab ll-fitg. I40. 

Inhabits Refembles C. araufiacus: the fpire fpotted, ihc fpots 

in 2) are elongated into ftripcs, 

Violaceus, Shell white with violet clouds and bands ; the rays pale 

Ma^t. neue/l. matiigf. \,p. 444. tab. z, fig. 18, 1 9. 
Inhabits — — Spire pyramidal, with 6 whorls. 

Granulatut Shell rough, unarmed, with fmooth grooved ftrijE. 
Rumpfi. muf. tab, 32, T, Gualt. tejl, tab, 25, H. 
Peti'v. Aquat tab, '^y fig. i. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. d, fig. 5. 
Lifler conch, tab. 76^, jig 12 ? tab. 760, fi. I. 
Martini conch. Z. tab. S7,fig'(3l^. t- S2>/. 574, 575* 
Z. Seba muf. 3- tab. 48, fig. z6. 

Inhabits the African Ocean. Shell red with white bands and 
purple lineate dots, 

Po^zonias. Shell white within, the outfide yellowifli-^brown and rough 
with very fine granulate lipes ; with a white -band at 
the fpire denticulate beneath, another at the bafe with 
a paler tinge ^nd numerous filiform ones. 

Born. Muf. Cecf Find., ted. tab. J* fig. 13. 

Inhabits Spi-re flattened, with ftriped fpots; the bafe put- 

wardly dpfky and violet within. 

Bifafciaius. Shell white, with angular chefnut lines and 2 orange bands ; 
fpire prominent : ba(e furrounded with orange lines 
and intermediate teflelate fpots. 
Inhabits — '■ Born, muf Caf Vind. ted. tab. T,jig. 10. 

h'iv€Ht, Shell conic, fnowy; the fpire prominent and crowned with 
tubercles: aperture large. 
Inhabits — — Born muf, Cesj. Vind. telU tab. J, f. 9. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 325 

Jrau/iacus, Shell not crowned f fmooth, with whitifti bands: whorls 

grooved at the tips. 
Rump/, muf. tah, 34, A. Pet, Amb. t. 7,/. 7, 
FaUnt, abh tab. 12^ fig. I CO. 
Arg. Zoom tab, 10, 1. Stbamuf. 3. t. 48,^,7. 
Kn^r Vergn. I. tab. %,Jig' 3 & 5. /. 24, ^^ I. 
apengkr felt , conch, tab. 2, yi E. 
Martini conch. 2. tab, 57, fg. 636, 637. 
2. Chemn.covch. 10, /a^. 144, A. /I 1. 

Inhabits /W/a. S/)^// white, with 2 or 3 orange bands and 

white lines tcflelate with brown foots: fpire with oblong red, 

white and brown fpots. 

Magus. Shell fubcylindrical, with longitudinal bands dotted with 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 32, Q. Gualt, test. t. 20, F ? 
Bonan,recr. t,. f. 362. Muf. Kirch. 3./. 355;' 
ylrg. Zoom. tab. II. C. Seba ;««/! 3. t. 44, f. 27. 
Knorr Fcrgn. 6. tab. 16, /l 5? /. I,_/". 3. 
Martini conch. 2. ta/>. 58, /". 641. 

Inhabits India. Shell white, with pundate lines and oblong 
chefnut, yellow and brown fpots: fpire acute, fpotted. 

S'.-iatu!: Shell ovatc-oblong, gibbous, clouded^ with very fine parallel 

brown ftria?. 
Rumpf. muf tab. 3 1 , F. Gualt. test, tx 26, D, 
Adanf. Semg. I . tab. 6, /. 2. 
Lifer conch, tab. 7S5>y^ 7. tab, 760, f. 6. 
Valent. abh. tab. 7, y!-^. 60, 61. 

Petiv. Gaz. tab. 9S, /. 9. Argen<v. conch, t. 13. C. 
Seha muf. 3. /a^. 42, f 5 — g. /. 47,/". 22, 23. 
Mk/". Gottivald. tab. I2,fg. 83, a— g. 

Knorr Vergn, l. t. 18,/. i,^& 3. /. 12./. 5. t. 21, /.I. t.Zl,/.^. 
Regenf. conch, I. /a^. 8, /f^. 13. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. G^, fig. 714 — 716. 
2. C/&fw;f ««r/^. I O, tab. 1 41 , /?g. I 3 I ' • 

Inhabits Africa. Shell 4 inches long, fnowy with fometimes 

reddifli or yellowifli Urisc, the bafe emarginate, tranfverfely 

ftriate. ' 

7efitilt, Shell with reticulate yellow veins, and yellow and brown 
Argenz'. conch, tab. I 3,/. F, I. Lifter, t. 78S./. 40. 
Adanf. Seneg. I. tah.6, f. 7. Rumpf. muf t. 32, O, P. 
Bonan recr. i:L' Muf. Kirch, "i-fig- 135. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 25, I, A A. Clear, muf t. 3 1,/". I, 3. 
^eba muf. 3. tab. £^7,, fig. 6 — 12. /. 47./'. 13,17. 
Muf Gittv.aLl. tab. \l, f. 85, a— c. /; 94, a, b, d—h^ 


,3^6 WORMS. TEStACEA. 72. Conus* 

Knorr Fergn. I. tab. 1 8, /. 6, l^ 2. tab. 8,/. g, 
Regenf. conch. I . tab. 6, y"/^. 62. 
Martini conch. 2. /a(5. ^\t f. 598—600^6024 
Chemn.Befch btrl Naturf. 3. /. 8,/. A. 
Chemn. conch. 10. /<»^. 143,/! I324» ^S^S* 

2. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 143,/^ 1326,2. 

3. Chemn. conch. 10. /(3/i. 143,/". 1326. b, c. 

Inhabits A/ta. She// white with 3 orangfe bands: 2) blooJrt- 
colour with 2 darker bands. 

y!a/tcus4 Shell white, ^^'itH hrowri fetfcUlar veins and infternipted 
longitudinal bands. 
Kat. mi/ce/. tab. 396. Va/eni ahh. t. 9,/, 75. 
Argenv conch, tab, 13,D, G. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 33, /*. 3j 4, 
Bonan. recr, ic Muf. Kirch, "i,. fii^, 1 33. 
CW/j ten. tab. 25, yfa. V, X, Z. 
Sehamuf. 3, /<zi. 43,/}^. i — 5. /. 47,/. lo— 12. 
0/ir«r Ma/! /fl^. ■^l, Jig. 4, 5. 

Knorr Fergn. 2, tab- I,/ l-^^Jj ic'3. t,tg,f. li 
Rcgenf. Conch, l. /«3. %i fig. 25. 
5<7r«. il/a/; C'«^. /V«^. /f/?. /fl/^. 7, /. 14. 
Chemn. conch. lOj M^. 143,/^. 1328, 

1. Martini conc/x. z. tab. S^y /'g- S9^' 593' 594' 

2. Mantiiti cohch. 2. tab, S3>/^i' S9^- 595* '•54»/' 59^* 

3. Martini conch. 2. /rt^. S\t fig. S97' 

4. Ycllowiih-brown with reticular perpendicular heart-fliaped fpots, 

5. Martini conch. 2. tab. ^^1 fig. to I. * 
Scba muf. 3. tab. ^Jtfig. y? 

6. Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. 18, f 2i 

Inhabits ^/?a. Varies much in ih colours. 

'ZUmte^ Shell frtlodthj white, with bay charafters and rows of dots, 
wi»h 3 white belts and Ipots; the tip reddilh: fpire 
conic, with grooved whorls. 
Martini conch, 2. tab. 53, fig. 590. 
Chemn: conch. 10. tab. I4'i,fig. I33i» «. 2. 
Z. Chemn'. conch. 10. tab. 138, /Vg. 1282, 1283» 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

D. Ventr'icoje. in the middle and iontraSled at each end* 

SinenRs. Shell ventricofe in the middle, yellow with white eyesi 
the bafe tranfverfely llriate. 
Inhabits ■ Regenf. conch \. tab. 12, fig. 66. 

Martint conch. 2. tab, ^6, fig. 615. 

E Thin^ ventricofe, and tinkling when thr*own on its back 
upon a tabic, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 327 

Sfeifrum, Shell blucifli, with yellow clouds ami ycllowiQi-while dots 
and ftrix. 
Rumff. muf. tab. 32, S/ Lijltr. tab. 783. 
Val.abh. tab. ^. ftg. 39. Gualt. test, tab. 25, S. 
Sebamuf 3. tab. 47>^. 34, 

Muf. Gotfwald. tab. \2, Jig. 84; a-d. fig, 85. a. d. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. S.'fig 4. 
Martini oonch. 2. /«^. 53, //g. 581—583. 
^. Chemn. conch. lOt //j^ 140, y. J 304. 

3. Chemn. conch. lO. /fli. 144, A. y g, h. 

4. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 144, A,/". 0, p. 
Inhabits the Adcuic Sea:. Spire rather acutc» 

BuUatuf, 5hell y.eUow clouded with white. 

Adanf. Seneg. \. tab. 5. y. 1. 

Lifter, tab. 7^1, 742. 748, 749. Cualtteft. tah.zS. C. 

Argen'v. conch, tab. 13, H. Regenf. conch, t. \\,f. 45. 

SeSaMuf. 3. tab. ^Z, f/g. 14, 15. tab ^If Jig. 15, 1 6. 

MuJ. Goifwald. tab. 10^ Jig. a— f. tab. 66. a, b. 

Knorr Vergn. 5. /a^. 8,/^. 2,3, tab. 11,/. 4. 

Martini conch. 2. /a^ 65,/ 725 — 732, 

Chemn. conch. lO. /tf^. 142. _//§■. 1 31 5, 1316. 

Inhabits •S/f'^// thin, fometiines of one colour, frequently 

fpotted, clouded or barred, more or Icfs vcntricofe ; the aper- 
ture moftly ample and blueifh; fpire ibmetimes flat fometime^ 

Tulipa, Sheil oblong, gibbous, fmooth : aperture gaping. 

Jrgmv. conch, tab. 1 3, B. Lister., tab. j6^. 

Benann. MuJ. Kirch. J- ^. 41 I. 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 34, K. Val. abh. tab. JO, f. 89. 

Stba MuJ, 3. tab. 4.2, Jig. 16-.21. /. 43,/. 20 — 2?. 

Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. li, jig. 4. 

Regenf. conch, l. tab. 2, fg. 20 

Martini conch, 2, tab, 64, 65 . Jig. 7 1 8—72 1 . 

liihabits India, jifrica and South America. Shell not crowned 
with tubercles, white with here and there blucilh, brown, 
yellow or red cloud?, ?nd painted with cbefnut interrupted 
lines ; aperture blueilh : bafe obfolctely ftriate obliquely ; 
fpire acute, fmooth, fpotted, with very fme tranfverfe Ihiae* ' 

Geog^raphi' Shell oblong, gibbous, crowned : aperture gaping. 
ciut Rumpf. MuJ. tab.^t, G. Arg. cnich. tab. 13, A. 

Klein, ojlr. tab. 5, fig. go. Lijltr, tav. 747. 
Bonan recr, Sc MuJ. Kirch. 3. /". 319. 
GuaJt, test, tab, 26, E. Pctiv. Gaz.. tah, 98, /. 8. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 42,/'. i, 4. 
Knerr Vergn. 3. tJb. 21,/. 2, .'c ^. /. 1 7,/. 5. 
Mv/, Gott-vioU, tab, \x, ftg. 8 J, .1, 

328 WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprxa. 

Martini conch, 2. tah^d^y f^ 7^7^ 

Inhabits the Indian and Jfrican feas. Shell fubcylindrical, 
wrinkled at the bafe and a little narrower, pellucid, white, 
fpotted and clouded with brown : aperture white : fpire fomc- 
times rofy. 

Nubecula. Shell white, clowded and fpotted with orangcj with fcat- 
tered white dots: fpire prominent, acute. 
Inhabits Seba muf. 3. tab. ^z, fg. 14, 15, 

Martini conch, 2. tab. ^6, /ig. 622. 
2. Argen'v. conch, tab. l'^> fg' H. 

Spurius: Shell white, with alternate rows of irregular chefnut of 
blackifh fpots and interrupted pun6lured bands. 

Inhabits Seba muf. 3. /. 44-1/. 24, 25, 28. /. 46,/. 24-. 29. 

Gualt. ted. tab. 2 1 , D, F, Argennjille conch, t. l 2, C. 
Kftorr'vergn, 3. tab. iS, fig. 5, & 5. tab. g, /. 6. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. ^b, fig. 626.-628. 

Vexillum. Shell brown fhaded with white, with a white interrupted 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 31,/. S. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 20, M. t. 21, E. 
iieba muf 3. tab. 44,/. 8--1 1. /. 45, f. 16, 17; 
Martini conch. 2. tab. $y,f. 629. 
2. Chemn. conch. 10 /<z^. 144, A. /. M. N. 

Inhabits The white band is lometimes cruciate. 

Fentricofus, Shell brown barred with white, beneath narrower (haded 
with blueifli and fmooth : fpire conic, exferted. 
Inhabits . < ■ Keemm. cab. RudolH. tab. ^yfig- 3> 4» 

73. CYPPtiEA. Animal a Slug: jhell uni- 
valve, involute, fubovate, fmooth, obtule 
attach end : aperture effufe at each end, 
linear, extending the whole length of the 
ihell, and toothed each iide. 

Coiory or Gourie. 

Exanthma. Shell liightly turbinate, ferruginous with whitifli round 
fpots and eyes: line down the back a little branched. 
LiHer conch, tab. 698, 699. 

Bonan. recr. 3.//jf. 257. Muf. Kirch. 3. fig' ^2^6. 
Gualt. tcli. taby 16, O. Teti'v. Gaz, t. 96, f. 6, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypraa. 329 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. jb, ftg. ^, 5. 16, 18. 

Muf. Gott--waU. tab. 1 4./; a--f. 

Regenf. conch, i. /^/i. 6, y?^. 63. /^^. lO,/*. 38, 

Martini conch. \. tab. 28, yf^. 289, /, 29,_/i 298, 300. 
2. i//?^r conch, tab. 697,/}^. 44, 

Chema. conch. 10, ra^. \^'^,fig' '343' 

Inhabits the American and Atlantic feas. Shell beneath paler, 
immaculate, fome of the fpots on the fides ocellate; teeth of 
the aperture brown ; where the outer coat is worn oft'becomes 
barred or teflclate with brown or blue : within fine purple. 

Mappa. Shell nightly turbinate and marked with irregular charadlers: 
line down the back branched. 

Rumpf. Muf. tab, 38, B. Arg. conch, tab. 18, B. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 76. fig. 3, 1 3. 

Petiv. Gaz, tab. g6,fig. 6. Amb. aq. t. l6,f. Zm 

Knorr delic. tab, B. iv. fig. 5. 

Knorr Vergn, 1. tab. 26, fig 3. 

Martini co7!ch I. tab. 25,^^.245,246. 

Inhabits the Indian and African feas : refembles the laft, but is 
(horter and not thtckened or fpottcd at the fides : full above 
yellowifh-brown with a few white eyes, beneath fmooth, flefh- 
colour with pale brown fpots: teeth of the aperture yellow. 

Arabica, Shell flightly turbinate, with irregular chara6lcrs : ftripc 
down the back fimplc. 
Rumpf muf. tab, 38, M. Barr, rar. t. 1325,/. 20. 
Liitery tab. 658, Gualt. tefi. tab. 16, V. 
Lochn, Muf. Befler. tab. 2 1 , fig. 8. 
Muf. Gottvjald. 2. tab. 7. fg. a— d. f. 8. b. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. 2,/. 2. t. 12./. 2,6*6, /, 20,/, 2, 
Martini conch. I tab. l\, fg. 328—330, 
Schra:t. inn. Bau conch, tab. 3, fg. 5. 

2. Lifer, tab,6i^<). Argennj. Zoom, tab, II, I. 
Bonan. recr. 3, fg. 260. Muf Kirch, ^.f. z^g. 
Muj. Gott^-ald. tab. 2. Hg. 8. a, 

Knorr Vergn. 2. tab, l6, fg. I.< 
Martini conch. I . tab. 3 1 ,fig. 3 3 1 . 

3, Martini conch. 1. tab. Z(), fg. "^o^.' 

Inhabits hjdia. Shell 2 — 3 inches long, above whitilh or bluc- 
ifh, with irregular brown marks refembling Arabic characters j 
the fides thickened and covered with dark purple fpots; lips of 
the aperture flat, reddi(h-grey, the teeth pale chefnut : when 
the outer coat is worn the Ihell is fometimes blueifli with 
brown band?, or bay with here and there a whitifli cloud, or 
pale with darker angular fpotb and lines, or brown mixed with 
violet, fometimcs reddifh-blue, or white fhaJcd with blue. 

VOL. rV.— T t Jrgus 

330 WORMS. TESTACEA; 73. Cyprxa. 

Jrgus, Shell flightly turbinate, fubcylindrical, fprinkled with 

eyes ; beneath 4 brown fpots. 
Lifter^ tab, 705. Rump/. Muf. tab. 38, D, 
Argenv. conch, tab. \ 8, jig. D. 
Bonan. recr. IS Muf. Kirch. 3. fig. 263. 
Barrel, rur. tab. i^2^,/ig, 25. 
Pet. Gaz. tab. 97, fig. 6. Gualt. tejl. tab, 16, F, 
Vaknt. abh, tab^ ^o, fig. 86. LeJJer teft,f. 28. 
Klein O fir t tab. 6, "f^. loi. 
Knorr Fergn. 3>. tab. 1 1 , jig. 5, 
Regenf. concha i, tab. 5, yj^. 57. 
Martini canch, i. /«^. 28, /i^. 285, 286* 
2. Favann., catal. raif. tab. 2. 

Chemtt. conch. 10, ^«i. 145,//^. 1 344, 1 345. 

Inhabits the Indian and Atlantic feas. Shell about 4 inches long, 

narrow, above grey or yellowilh with 3 brown bands ; the 

eyes fometimes connefted ; fpots beneath larger on the left 

fide: lips ftraw-colour with brown teeth, 

Tatudjna' Shell obtufe, fubcylindrical ; the extremities depreflfed. 
ria. Lijler, tab. 689. Rumpf. muf. tfib. 3.8, Q. 

Peti'V. Amb. aq. tab, 8, ftg. 7, 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 27, fg, 2. 
Martini conch. Z. tab. 27, fig. 271, 272. 
Inhabits the Per/tan Gulfh and Indian Ocean. 
Shell the largeft of its genus, whitiih with ruffet-brown clouds, 
and large blackifh fpots fcattcred here and there, with fome- 
times a few white ones, 

Siercoraria. Shell flightly turbinatey gibbous, with livid and tcftaceous 
fpots, ^anarginatc each fide, and flat beneath. 
Lifter, tab. diij. Gualt. teft. tab, 15, T? 
Column, aq. tab, 69, ftg. 1 , 2. 
Peti'V. Ga?.. tab. 96, fig. 7, 8. 
Barrel, ic. tab. 1321, ftg. 23. t, i^21,f.t^, 
Muf. Gottiuald. tab. 3, fig. io. a, b, 
Knorr Fergn. 4, tab.l^t fig. I. 
Adauf. Seneg. J . tab. 5, _/?§•. I . A, 
Schrat. Einl. in conch. I. fab. I, yTf. 5. 

2. Goa/f. /^. /^^. 13, fg. L ? 

3. Chemn. conch. 10. //z^- l<^^ifg. 1332, 

4. Chemn. conch. lo. /a^. 144,//^. 1333. 

Inhabits Guinea. Shell fubovate with glaucous waves, the fore- 
part with a brown fpot near the fpire, the hind-part with a 
deprefTed defiefted margin ; inner lip very retufe behind ; 
aperture gibbous on the fore-part with white teeth, the inter- 
<nediate grooves brown : under the outer coat (ometimes 
grcenijCh-bluc with a iayt fpots or pellucid bands, fometimes 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypraea, 331 

marked with brown fpots and a bine band ; or greenifh with 
5 or 6 brown bands or z ilraight and 2 undulate bands ; or one 
fide livid and the other greenifh ; or black with z white fpots ; 
or blue with rcddifh I'pots; or pale blue with a reddilh glofs» 

Carneola* Shell flightly turbinate, pale with fiefh-colour bands : mouth 
violet- ' 

Lister, tab. 665. Rumpf. muj. fd^. ■^S,K, 
Pet. Gas:, tab. 30, fig 8. Gualt, teft. tab. 1 3, H. 
Argenv. conch, tab. 18, fig-O. 
Muj. GottTJuaU, 5. tab. \6, fig. a,b? 
Knorr Fetgn. 6. tab. 17, /ig 4. 
Bom Muf. Ctsf. Vind. teft. tab. 8, ftg. t. 
yiartynuni^'erf. conch, i. tab 14. 
Martini conch, i. tab. 2%,fig.z^-j, 2S8, 
SebaMuf. 3. tab. 76, /f^. 23 ? 
Inhabits the Aficitic Ocean: z\ inches long. 
^hill thin, narrow, beneath and within white; fometin^es above 
cinereous with brown bands. 

Zelra. Shell turbinate, cinereous with brown bands. 

Lifter, tab. bbc). Argen'v. conch, tdb. \ 8, G. 

Bonan recr. 3. fig. 266. Muf, Kirch. 3,/*. 265. 

SchrcEt. Einl. in conch, I. p. lOl, t. I ,/". 6, 

Inhabits /nJia : refembles the laft, but is twice as large, and the 

fpire more prominent ; beneath arc obfolete eyes ; teeth of the 

aperture brown, 

Ta/f>a. Shell iiightly turbinate, fubcylindrical, teftaceous -with pale 
bands: beneath thickened and brown. 

Lijter conch, tab. 668, fg. 14. 

ylrgenv. conch, tab, l8, H. Rumpf. Muf tab. 38, I. 

Petiv. Amb. tab, \(>, fig. I. Gualt. teft. tab. 16, N, 

Valent. 2. ftg. I 3. 

Barret, rar. tab. 1325. fg. 19/ 

Muf Gctt-uuald. tab, 6, fig. 23, a? 

Knorr Vergn. I. tah. 27 fig. 2, 3. 

Re'cnf. conch. 1. tab. lO, fig. 37. 

Martini conch, l. t'ign- 27. p. 275, 274. 

Inhabits India. Shell 3 inches long, nnely polilhed, above liver- 
colour, cinereous, whitifh or yellowifh-brown with 3 paler 
bands, within white: teeth of the aperture brown, the inter- 
ftices grey. 

Jmtihjstea. SheH flightly turbinate; the fides gibbous and decorticate; 
back violet. 

Lister, tab. 662, Rumpf. Muf t. 13, Q, 
teti-^ t Gaz, talt 32, fg. I 0. 

T t 7. Seba 

33* WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprsea. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. I^^ftg* 2. 

Muf, Gcttnuald. tab, 3. fig. 1 3. a, b. t, 5. /. 18, c. 
Knorr Vergn^ 5. /«ii. ^'^. ftg. 5, 
Martini conch. I. /tf/'. 2^. fig. 247—249. 
2. ^^/Jia Afi«/". 3. r^:^. lb. fig. 24? 

Inhabits Madagajcar. Shell thin, with 4 clouded brownifh 
. ' bands above ; the fides marked with various charadlers : 

within blue. Spise lefs prominent than in C. Zebra. 

PKrtaa. Shell {lightly turbinate lurid and (lightly barred ; the extre- 
mities pale yellow with 2 black fpots. 

tifer. tab. 671. 673. Jrgenv. conch, tab. 18. C. 

Bonan recr. Z- fig' 251- Muf Kirch. 3. /f^. 250. 

Gualt. teji. tab. \'i-fg' E, I. 

Muf Gott<^ald. tab. S'f'g' '6' C 

Adans jetieg. I. tah^ S fg' t. D. 

Martini conch. 1. tab. 'i^O.fig. 315. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Atlantic and A^nerican Seas, 

Shell 2 inches long, long narrow, beneath white, above moufe- 
colour with darker bands, or greenifh or reddilh with blueifh 
bands, or brownifh with reddifh bands the margin of the 
whorls fometipies black, or pale brown with whitifh bands, or 
bay with obfcure or blueiOi bands, or chelnut with a yellovy 
tfand and another white one, 

VeneUi. Shell {lightly turbinate fpotted and marked with yellowifli 
dots; the extremities fpotted with brown: throa^ 
Inhabits— —Pt;/. Gaz. tab. 95. fig, 13. 

Lota, Shell {lightly turbinate, white, with fub'ulate denticles. 

Bonan. recr. o' fig' 245. ^^vf Kirch. $» fig. 244. 
Muf Gotlwald. tab, S-f'^' 20- a — c. 
Born Muf Cas. rind. test. tab. S.fgt 4, 5. 
Martini conch, i. tab ^o.fig. 322. 
2. Gualt. teft. tab. \6.fg. C? 

Inhabits the Teas of Sicih. Shell milk-white and hrghly polifhed, 

wiih a tranflucent blufh of red between the teeth of the left 


Fragilis, Shell turbinate ovate glaucous with longitudinal teftaceous 
waves and pale bands. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean. Gualt, test, tab, 16. Q. 
Refembles C. arabica in fliape but i$ more thin. 

Guttata, Shell thin gibbous, fulvous dotted with white, with an ho- 
rizontal line \a the middle : beneath white, with yel- 
low teeth. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypr^a. 

Inhabits LUler, tab. 676. Gualt* tab. 16. I, 

Martini conch. I. tab. 2^, jig. 252, 255. 


Cinerea. Shell thin ventricofe, reddifh-grey with paler bands: mouth 

Inhabits Gualt, test, tab. 16. H, L, M. 

Lilier. tab, 667, 668. fig. 13. a, b. tab. 670. 
Martini conch. I. tab, 2^- fig. 254, 255. 

Plumbea. Shell llightly turbinate, thin ; back lead-colour with 4 
bands varied with blue and brown undulate with 
browniOi at the margin gnd marked with blue and 
brown lines. 

Martini conch, I. tab. zS./ig, 256. 
Inhabits Giiinea: rcfembles C, Exanthema, 


Shell flightly turbinate, ruflet-brown with white eyes and 
3 paler bands on the back. 
Lijier. tab. 6g-j. Knorr Vergn. I. tab. $ifig. 3,4. 
Bonan. recr. "i- Jig. 267. Muf. Kirch. I- fig, 266^ 
Martin, conch I. tab. z6.fig. 257, 258. 

2. Fal, abh. tab, (). fig. 83. 

3. Seba Muf 3. tab. "jS.fig. 20. 

Inhabits the American Ocean, Shell ntkcr large and of a coffee- 
colour hue. 

Hi Brio. 

Shell ovate flightly turbinate, with livid eyes; beneath flat 
white; iidcs thickened black fpotted with brown: 
dorlal line livid : throat violet. 
Lister conch, tab. (>^<)-fig. 3. a. 
Knorr Fergn. 2. /. \b f. i. 
Martyn um-v. conch, tab. IJ. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 

Autantium. Shell flighly turbinate orange with a white immaculate 
edge: throat bright red. 
Martyn uni'vers, couchol. 2, tab, 59, 
Inhabits the Friendly Iflands, 

Ferruginofa Shell thin elongated, ycUowilli or blucifli with ferruginous 
fpots; within blue. 
Martini conch. \. tab. zb.fig, 260 262. 
Inhabits— —5^f// blue when worn down. 


^34 WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypr^a. 

Livida. Shell thin elongated, uniformly flraw-colonr pale yeHovir ©r 
reddifli : beneath dotted with brown : teeth fubulate. 

Inhabits —Lzfler conch, tab. 656. 

Bbnan, Miff. Kirch. 3./^. 405. 

Gihba. Shell thin gibbous j the back clouded and tranfverfely 
Lifter conch, tab, t^l-fig* 7. 
Inhabits — ^rekmbles L. amethyftea. 

Tiirhinata. Shell turbinate ovate, glaucous with angular pale fpotS. 

Inhabits Born, f^'uf. CaJ. Vmd. telt . tab. 8. fig- 6» 

2- Brown with z banus. hilier. tab. 675. 

Venerea. Shell oblong, brown with ftriped gold fpots: within blue. 
Inhabits Donan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, "i^.ftg. 262. 

Purpura/- Shell oblong purpHdi ; beneath furfounded with a white 
"'"' line. 

Inhabits -Gualt. left. tab. 16. A, 

2. Qualt. test. tab. \6.Jig, B. 

Albida^ Shell oblong whitilli ; ends of the lips fpotted with fulvous. 
Inhabits Gualt. ted. tab. 16. C, 

kufejUBs. Shell oblong reddifh-brown, beneath whitidi. 
Inhabits— ^^^ Gualt. tejl. tab. l6'D. 

Tranfucens Shell cylindrical, cinereous with pellucid bands. 
Inhabits -Guak. test. tab. 16. G, 

VunBulata* Shell cylindrical fragile, white with tranfverfe bands gH 
reddilh dots. 
Inhabits— —*^Gtfa/r. m/. /«3. 16. P, 
2. l^uj. (iolt<watd. tab. 6. Jig. 23. e, 

rigrhia. Shell obtufe ovate (lightly turbinate, with a longitudinal 
teftaceous line. 

Inhabits ^eba Muf. 3. tcb. 76. fig. 12. 

Rcfembles C, Tigris, but has a manif<jft fpire and much fewcf 


r) L- Shell oblong, ferruginous with paler bands* 
Inhabits »^^eba Muf 3. tab, 76. fig, 15* 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 73, Cyprxa, 


Trlfafcidta Shell turWnate thin blueifli-brown, with 3 yellowilh bands 
varJeJ with brown at each cmi 
Inhabits Knorr Vergn, 6, tab. iS. fig, z. very rare, 

Con/purcata Shell turbinate, blueiih-white dotted and clouded with 
Inhabits . Borg, Muf. Caf. Vind. teft, tab. 8. fig. i. 

Bifafctata. Shell oblong fliaded with purplifli, with a draw-colour band 
and another narrower white one, and a bfown border. 

Inhabits Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. Teft. tab. S.ftg. 3, 

Shell abouC'4 inches long.. 

Cflindrtca. Shell cylindrical, above pale violet and fpotted with bfOwn 
at the fides, with 2 browri fpots at each end. 
Inhabits— —j&ora Muf. Goes, f^ind tejl. tab. ^-ftg. 10. 
Lips white : back with fometimes ^ brownilh bands. 






Shell cylindrical milk-white, one fide bordered and varied with 
a few pale yellow narrow marks: back with 3 brownr- 
ifh waved bands. 
Inhabits Hchrat, tinl. in conch, l.p, t6i. tab. l.fg. 7. 

Shell ovate, a littleHeprefTed, one fide llightly bordered : back 
vyhitilh with crowded yeliowilli-brown dots and waves 
and 3 obfolete darker bands. 

Inhabits. Schrcet. Eijil. in Coxh, l.p, 165. «. 120. 

She// very thin and narrow, beneath and at the fides white, i^ 
inch long, ^ broad ; within the fpire are 2 brown lines; ont 
lip without teeth, thofe of the other fubulate. 

Shell oblong, of one colour wiih a tinge of bloom, beneath 
dotted with white with the border of one fide and the 
teeth of the lip white, above yellow at each end: fpire 
tipt with black. 
Inhabits- Shrat. Eini. in conch. \. p. \G^. n. 121. 

Shell thin oblong barred with brown 3nd dottejJ with red at 
the fides. 
Inhabits — 'b^artiui coneh. 1. tab. 26 fg. 265, 266. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. '^•fig> 234. 
Muf. Gott-wald. tab.^.fg, 14, g. 3. and /. 6./. 23. d. 

Shell turbinate glaucous margined, above gibbous with tT.anf- 
verfe brownilh bands: throat glaucous. 
Inhabits G//m<7, £hemn. conch, \o, fab. 144. fi^, J 344* 


336 WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypra^a. 

Regina, Shell gibbous, glaucous-brown with triangular teftaceous 
and whitifh fpots and 3 tranfverfe bands: throat blackifti- 

Inhabits Seba Muf, 3. tab. y6./er. 5/ ». 3. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. iS./ig. 2. /. 27./, 6. 
Martini conch, l. tab. 22,/ig. 207, 208. 

Undulata, Shell turbinate, undulate with brownifh clouded with pale 
ochre, with deeper bands. 
Inhtibits Mauritius JJIanii. Chemn> 10. tab. 144. _/?§•# 1337. 

B. Obtufe and without manifeji fpire. 

Caput Shell triangularly gibbous and rather obtufe behind. 

ferpenlis. Lipr. tab. 702. fig. 50, Rumpf. Muf. tab. 38. F. 
Bonan. recr. I. fig. 258, Muj. Kirch, l-fig. 1^1 ■. 
Rondel, aq. 2. p. 103. fig. 3. 
Pet, Gaz, tab. 26. fig. 9. Jmb. aq. t, 12./, 7. 
Gualt. test. tab. 15. 1. O. Jdansfeneg. I. tab. 5. G, 
MuJ. Gott-wald. tab. 6. Jig. 3 1 . a. d. 32. a. 
Knorr. Fergn. 4. tab. g._fig. 3. 
Martini Lonch. I. tab. 30. /f^. 316. 

Inhabits Mauritinus and Nujfatella IJlands : if inch long. 
.5/^^// brown fpotted with white, beneath white, within violet. 

Rtticulum^ Shell roundiOi gibbous, brown with white confluent reticu- 
' late eyes and a white horizontal line in the middle of 

the back ; beneath white. 
Lipr. lab., 701. fg. 49. Martin, i. tab. 26. fig. 259. 
2. Liiter conch, tab. yo^. fig. 53. 

Inhabits.^ Refembles C. Caput ferpentis. 

Mauritians Shell triangularly gibbous, behind depreifed acute, beneath 
black . 

Rutnpf Muf. tab. 38. E /«/. nbh. tab, 34./^. I. 

lijler. tab. 703. Pet. Gaz. tab. ()6.fg. E. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf Kirch,. Z-fS' '^^^' 

Gualt, i^.fg. S. 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. jb.Jig. 19. 

Mu/. Gott-wald. tab. 6. fig. 29. a,b,/7^. 30. a, b. 

^;;orr t^ergn. i. M^. I3.7f§;. I. 2. and 2. /. 27./. 5 

Martini conch, ZO.fg^ 3 1 7 — 3 19- 

Inhabits the Iflands Java, Mauritius and hufatelk. 

Shet'I Wrgc ipotted with brown. 

yitellus. Shell livid with fmall white fpots. 

Rimpr, Muf. tab. 38. L. Pet» Gaz, tab. 80.//^. 3. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprxa. 337 

Lilkr toneh, tab. 6921693. 

Bdttan recr. ^ Muf. Kirch, l.ftg* 254. 

Gualt. tefi» tab. \'i,,fig' T, V. 

Muf. Gott'vjald. tab. 2, fig. 9. a, d. 

Kmrr vergn. 6. tab, 20, fig. 3. 

Martini conch. I. tab 23, yi 228,229. 

Inhabits the /W/a^ Ocean. Shell 2 inches long, \tty pale yeU 
low with 3 obfoletc tranflucent bands, the fpots round, within 
blue, the fides dotted and fpotted with cinereous. 

JJ/tf.f, Shell retufe, gibboiis, cinereous with a longitudinal brown 

band : teeth of the aperture blackilh. 
Lifter, tab. 657, Rtmpf, muf. tab, 39. S, 
Jirgewu. conch, tab. iS, fig. E. 
Seba Muf. tab. 76, fig, Hi 34* 
Knorr Fergn. ^, tab. 1 2, fig. 3. 
Martini conch, t. tab, z^, fig. 222, 223. 
Inhabits the American and Mediterranean feas, - 
Shell folid, very flightly gibbotis, white at the fides and beneath: 
back with pale brown fpots. 

7igrii, Shell ovate, obtufe behind and rounded before, ferruginous 
with deep brown fpots and a yellowifli longitudinal 
dorfal line* 

Katur. Mifeel. tab, 193. Lifter, tab. 68 1, 682. 

Rumff.Muf. tab. 38, A. Pet. Gaz. t. 96,/. 17. 

Barrel, rar. tab. I 325,/. 23. tab. 1326. /. 24. 

Jtonan. recr. ^. fig. 231, 232, 256, 264, 265. 

Bonan. Muf. Kirch. Z. fig. 231, 232, 255. 264, 265. 

Pa/, abh. tab. I, fig. 3. tab. 3. fig. 29* 

Gualt teft. tab. 14, fig. G, H, I, L, 

Argenv. conch, tab, 1 8, F. 

Seba muf 3. tab. "3,6, f, 7, 9, 14. 

Olear. Muf. tab. 30, fig. 3. tab. IZ, fig, 55, a. 

Muf, Gott'-wald, tab. 1. a, b.yir. 2, a, b. fig. 3, a. 

ATworr r^^«. I. tmb, 26, /fg-. 4 Sf 6. tab, 2 1, /'.4, 5t 

i5or«. Mtf/: C**/. Vind. teft. tab. 8,/. 7. 

Martini conch. I. /a^. 24,/. 232 — 236. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean and ACtatic : 4I inches long. 

Shell with fometimes a yellowifli or blueiih glofs, the fpots gene- 
rally numerous and rounded ; beneath white ; dorfal line 

flammta. Sliell ovate, obtufe behind and rounded before, with waved 
yellow fpots. 
Inhabits f^alent.aih, tab. /[t Jig. 30. Very rare. 

VOL. IV.— U u Olivacca. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprsea. 

OHvacea, Shell ovate, olive clouded with yellow and fpotted 
with brown, beneath flat,, pale brown, within bluc- 
ifh ; teeth of the lip white. 

Inhabits Martini concb. l. tab, ^If/ig. 33s. 

Refembles C. Tigris, but is lefs. 

laminea. Shell ovate, very thin, white with greenifli-yellow dots 
difpofed in rows, within violet. 
Lister, tab. 672, /. 18. Gualt. test, tab, 16, S. 
Sebamuf. 3. tab. yS, fig. i, 2, 8. 
Muf. Gott<waU. tab. 1, fig- .11, a,b.y. 12. 
Inhabits —— RefembUs C, Tigris. 

tynx. Shell oblong-ovatc with brown dots and a yellowifli line; 

the hind-part a little acute, with a rufous mouth. 
Lifier, tab. 62^. Bumpfmuf. tab 38, N. 
Pet. Gaz. tab. 97, f. 17. Murray teji. tab. I, f. 10. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. \%, Z. tab. 14, B — D. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 55, «. 20 

Muf. Gottixald. tab, \,ftg. 5, e. tab, 5,/. 18, a-.C, 
Knorr Ferg. 4, tab. 9, /. 6, O 6. /. 23,/. 6. 
Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. teft. tab, 8, / 8, 9, 
Martini conch, 1. tab. z-x,, fig. 230,231. 
2. Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. Z^yfig. 7? 

Inhabits Madagafcar and the Indian Ocean. 

Sbell ihont 2 inches long, whitifti, blueifh or yellow, the fides 

and beneath white : lips rufous between the teeth, 

Jfabella. Shell fubcylindrical with pale yellow extremities. 
Listery tab. 660. Rumpf. muf. tab. 39, G, 
Pet. Gaz. tab. 97, f. 16. Amb,aq. 16, /. 16. 
jirgentii. conch, tab* I 8, P. Muf. Gottwald. t. 7, f 3^» 
Knorr Vergn. 4. /a^. 9, fig 5. 
Martini conch, l, M^. 27,/. 275/ 
Inhabits Mauritius and Madagafcar iflands. 
5<^f// i\ inch long, narrow, white or grey dotted with black and 
fometiines barred : teeth of the lips white. 

4mbigua. Shell pyriform, duflcy with paler clouds and fpots. 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 76, yi^. 30. 

Inhabits probably not a diftinft fpccies. 

Scurra. Shell ovate-oblong, beneath flat, yellowilh with greenifli 
and livid confluent drops; the fides varied with fcat- 
tered brown dots. 
Inhabits /«^;a. Martini conch, i. tab. 27,/", 276, 277, 
Chemn, conch, 10. tab, 144>_/'. 1338, a, b. 

C. Vm^ 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprxa. J39 

C. Umhilicate or perforated. 

Onyx, Shell beneath brown, ?bove whitilh. 

Rumpf, muf. tab, 38, G Gualt. te/t. tab, I 5, N. 
Bonan. recr, 3, fig, 255. Muf. Kirch. 3, /. 254. 
2. Chemn. conch, 10, tah. 1 45, A. f. I 341 . 
Lister conch, tab. 6^-J. fig. 2, 
Inhabits J/ia ; fmall. 
Shell AhQve ochraceous, relembling C. Caput ferpentis. 

Clande/tiiia Shell with very fine tr^^nrverfe lines here and there con- 
Inhabits Mia. Shell finooth, livid, fize of C. afellus, beneath 
white, immaculate, above with an obfoletc pale band or two, 
with yellowjlh ftrjs hardly vifible without the afiiftance of a 

SuccinSla; The intprjor lip rounded at each extremity. 
Inhabits Muf. Lud.. Xflr. 575. n. 197. 

Ziczac^ Shell pale yellow wijh browii:dots, thp extremities with 1 
brown fpots. 

Lifter^ tah. 661, Muf Goffw, tab, ^, fig- t8, i»k- 

Pet. Gaz. tab, \ 2, fg. 7, Argenv. conch, tab. 18. N, R. 

Seha muf. '^. tab, 55./^ 2, 3, H. 

Martini conch. I, tab. 11, fig. 224 — 227; 

Inhabits Shell above pale flefh-colour with 3 obfolete 

white bands and zigzag rcddilh or yellowilh lines, beneath 
pale yellow I'potted with black ; fometimes ruffet-brown with 
2 white bands undulate with brown, and white beneath ; or 
white with longitudinal pale tawny undulate lineF, beneath 
yellow dotted with brown ; or hoary with crowded darker an- 
gular lines, beneath fnowy. 

Hirundo. Shell above blueifli, the extremities marked with 2 brown 

Lilier, tab. 674,/^. 20,21. Pet. Gaz. t. 30,/, 3. 

Bonan, recr. 5c Mif. Kirch. 3./. 235.- 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 55, fg. 8j 9. 

Muf Gottnjuald. tab, 6. fig. 25, b,C. 

Knorr Fergn. 4. tab. Z^yfig. \. 

Born Muf CafVind. tell. tab. 8,/. II. 

Martini conch. I. tah^ 2%, fig. z^z. 

Inhabits the Maldi-oa ifands, refembles C. afellus. 

Shcll\oTi%, narrow, beneath white, the margin dotted, above of- 
ten dotted or Ipotted with brown, with 2 tranfverfe white 

' U u 2 JjfHus 

34* WORMS, TESTACEA. 73. Cyprsa. 

jifellus. Shell white with 3 brown bands. 

Rumpfp Muf, tab. 39. M, Lijier, tab. 666. 
Argeniiille conch, tab. x8. T. Gualt. tab. 18. M. CC, DD. 
Pet. Gar. tab. if)' fig. il. Amh. aq' tab, 16, Jig, x8. 
Bonanreer. zndMu/. Kirch, %'fig. 236. 
Barrel rar. tab. \%tt'fig. 27. 
Muf. Gottiuali. tab. 6. Jig. 26, a— c. 
Bytem. app. tab. 12. ftg. 567—58. 
Adans,feneg. i , tab. 5. fig: 8. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. /«^. 2^. fig. 3. 
Martin, conch. 1. ra^. 27. Jig ^ 280, 281. 

Inhabits the Madeira IJlands. Shell oblong minute, the band* 
margined with yellpw and fomctiroes they arc reddifb, 

Srroneg, Shell with an equal teftaceous fpot. 

Inhabits Muf. Lud, Vlr. 577, n, 202. 

Urfellut, Shell oblong white, above fmooth varied with brown and 
marke^ with 2 brown dojts at the umbilicus or perfo- 

Rumpf Muf. tab. 39. O. Gualt, tefi, fab. 1 5. li. 

Martin, (onch. tab. Zj^. fg. z^i. 

Inhabits— — 'Shell very minute and rare. 

fvrunti Shell pale brown with paler bands and ochraceous fpols, 
beneath and at the fide? fulvous, within blue^ 
Gualt. teft. tab. \\'fg. E. 
Martin conch \. tab, zS.fig. zSy, 268, 
Z' Lijier conch, tab. ^bf..ftg. i2 ? 
3. Muf Gottauald. tab. J. jig- 33- i, k ? 
Inhabits— —Teeth of tl^e lip white, 

MtKuJoJa, Shell narrow long with fleih-cplour fpots above varied with 
pale fulvous and glaucous ones, the fides chefnut. 
Inhabits ■ ■ Bonan, recr. 'i-fg. 259. Muf Kirch, f. 258. 

fuilat Shell thin, the fides rufTet-brown, above white or pale 
brown with tranfverfe bands or a fainter horizontal 
Inhabits ■■ ■ Martin, conch. \. tab. zd.fig, 269, 170. 

tndica% Shell cylindrical, marked above with charaders eyes and a 
paler horizontal line, the ijdes bloom-colour dotted 
with black; teeth of the lip brown. 

Inhabits India. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 39. H. 

Refembles C, arabica, and may be placed in the diviiion A, or C. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypr«». 341 

Ovum. Shell thin oblong, olivaceous with fcattered ferruginous 
(pots; beneath white 
Muf. Got/ivalJ, fab. $ fig. 19 g. h.^/^. 22. b. 
Martini conch, i. tab, i'J'fig' 178, 279. 

inhahits— — 5^^// narrow, an4 when worn down is marked with. 
3 blueifh bands above J interftices between the teeth of the 
lips brownifh, 

Felitta, Shell oblong narrow, plumbeous with ferruginous dots and 
fpots, and paler bands marked at each end with % 
brown fpots. 

l-i/ 680. Sda Muf. 3- ta6, $<y-jig. J 9. »• 7, 

Mar'ini conch. I. tab. zi.ftg, 283, 284. 

Inhabits — —Shell ihovti. blueifh \yheR worn down. 

Atcmaria, Shell oblong, fnowy dotted with brown, each end marked 
with 2 dulky dots. 

Martini csnch. \. tab. z%.fig. 283, 284, 
Inhabits— t-^—i'itf// about \ an inch long. 

Nciuto/a. Shell oblong gibbous, brown with chefnut fpots. 
Inhabits . ■ Li Her conch, tab* 6$2./ig. 35, 

Qchrohuca, Shell thin, ochraceous with paler fpots- 

IHJkabits m> •Bonatt. recr» 3.^. 244, M"/^ Kirch, 3 ft 24^. 

Stellata, Shell thin, cinereous dotted with brown, and marked with 
tranfverfe elevated ftrije. 
Inhabits— — Bor.nn. recr. ^-/ig' 24$. Muf. Kirch. 3./, 247, 

Subjiava. Shell rather oblong gibbous fmooth yellowifh. 
Inhabits Gualt, teji. tab. 13. D. 

Leucogatter Shell oblong purple, beneath white. 
Inhabits— ——Ga«//. tefi. tab. 13, F, 

faritlofa. Shell oblong, duflcy with 2 bands on the back and whitiih 
Inhabits Gualt. tefi. tab. 13. M— Q_T. T. 

F^ly^j* Shell folid oblong, fulvous with brown fpots difpofcd in rows 
and 2 duiky bands ; the fides anJ beneath falfron. 
Inh^bJK — r—'(''<'flf' f'J^' '^^* 13. S. 


3n WORMS. TESTACEA. 72. Conus. 

Lettcoitana. Shell oblong gibbous, clouded with brown and blue, the 
fides fpotted with black ; mouth white. 
Inhabits Guah. teff, tab. 14. A. 

Uuedta, Shell ovate, marked above with line5, with a fpotted border. 
Inhabits — - — ^rMw/*. Gottiuc^ld. tab. z. fig, 7. f, 
2. Mu/, Gotfr^-a/ii. tab, ^./ig' 14. gj i. 

Cancellata. Shell ovate gibbous, with cancellate fpots, and an horizon- 
tal line above. 
Inhabits — -^Muf. Gott^vald. tab. ^./ig, 1 8. l-r-n./Vj, 19. a— C' 

Lutea, Shell brown! fh with t white bands, beneath pale yellow 
dotted with brown. 

Grcno--v. Zocph. tah. ^1 ■ fig- 1 9. 
Inhabits i'y^^// oblong narrqw? 

Badia^ Shell oblong gibbous, above bay with brown and white dots. 
Inhabits — -~-^Bytem, apj>ar. tab. xz.ftg. 57. 

Punilatai Shell ovate white with teftaceous dots. 

Inhabits— —5A^// flightly margined; mouth viK\Xe» 

Zonaria. Shell ovate fmoothiHi, yellow ifh with 4 brown lunules* 

Chenn. crmeh. 10. tab. \i^\.fig. 1342. ►- 

Inhabits the fhores of Guinea : very rare, 

Conoidea, Jyip toothed within with 3 rows of tubercles : pillar-lip 
without teeth. 
Scopol, Delic. inf. 2. tab. 24. fig. 3,* 

D. Margined. 

Crihi-aria. Shell umbilicate, pale yellow with round white fpots. 
Lifter, tab. 69;. Argen'v, Conch, tab. 18, X. 
Fit. gnz. tab:. 80. K. tab. ^- fig. 3 ? 
Muf. Gottivald. tab, z. fg. 7. c ? fg. 9. g, 
Rei^enf conch. 1. tab. XZ.fg. 74. 
Martini conch I. tab. ^l'fg» 336, 
Inhabits— —5iW/ oblong narrow, fize of a fparrow's egg, ocel* 

late, beneath enterely white, fomctimcs fpotted with yellov\« 

between the teeth of the lip. 

•Moneta* Shell whitifh with a knotty margin. 

Litter, tab. 709. Argeiiv. conch, {ah. iS. K, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypraia. 343 

Rumpf. Muf. tab. 39. C. LeJJer test fig. 26. 

Pet, gaz. tab. ^"J-fig. 8- ^mb. aq. t. 16. f. 14. 

Bonan. recr, & Muf. Kirch. I' fig, 233. 

Sarrel.rar. tab. 1^2^, fig- 26 

Gualt tefi. tab. ^J\- fig- 3 — 5. Murray test. t. I./. M. 

il/a/. Gotfvjald. tab. "J fig. 42. a — g. 

Bytem. appar. tab. \2.fig. 59. 

Knorf Vergn. 4. /ai. 24.7%- 4> 

Martini conch. \. tab, l^-fig- 337 — 34d« 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Atlantic A'.thiopic and Indian Seas ; is 
iifhed up by the Negro women, 3 days before or after full-moon, 
and tranfported into Bengal Siam America and the adjacent 
iflands, and is the fpecies ufed by the native Blacks in com- 
merce, inllead of nwney. 

Jnnu/ut, Shell furrounded on the back with a yellow ring. 
Rump/. Muf. tab. 39. D. Pet. Gaz. tab. t.fig. 8. 
Rondel, test . Z-fijg, 4- Gualt. test. tab. 14. fig. I, 2, 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. 3. ftg. 1 40, 141. 
Muf Gottivald. tab. "J.fig. 33. f, g. 
Knorr Fergn. /^. tab. g,fig. 4. t, l6.f. 4. 
Martin, conch, i. tab, i^. fig. 239, 240. 
Inhabits Amboina and Alexandria, 
Shell ochraceous, within blue, beneath Hattifh.' 

Caurica, Shell with a gibbous unequal whitifli margin dotted with 
brown, the back marked with teftaceous clouds. 
Lister, tab. 677, 678. Rumpf. muf. tab. 38. P. 
Gualt. tefi. tab, 15, A A. Murray test. tab. I. fig. 13. 
Martin, conch, i, tab. z().fig. 301, 302. 

2. Rumpf. muf. tab. 38. O. 

3, Martini couch. I . /. 29./". 303. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Shell folid. Beneath yellowifh or 
white, with 4 obfulete brown bands. 

Erofa, Shell with a jagged margin, yellow dotted with white, the 

fides with a brownilh fpot. 

Lister, tab. 690. Rumpf. muf. tab. 30. A. 

Pet. Gaz. tab. gj.fig. 19. Gualt. tefi. tab. 1 5. H. 

Muf. Gottnuald. tab. ".fig. 37. a — c. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 20. fig. 4. 

Born Muf C^f. Vind. tefi. tab. 8. f.g. 13. 

Martini conch. I. ra^, 'i^o. fig. 320, 321. 

Inhabits Mauritius and Afcenfion Ifiands. 

Shell above convex, fometimcs brown or greenifli dotted with 
white, fometimcs fpotted with pale brown with a {lightly ob- 
lique grceniih line in the middle; beneath and at the fides, 


34+ WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypraca. 

Derofa, Shell with a jagged margin, flefti-colour with a greenifh 
back marked with fulvous dots, the fides dotted with 

Inhabits the Ueiitfrranean^ Grono'V. Zooph. tab. iS./ig. lO. 
SMlvfith 3 obfolcte bands above, beneath fmoothilh reddi(h. 

Flaveela, Shell with a jagged margin yellow dotted with white, the 
fides marked with obfolcte fcattered brown dots. 

Inhabits The white docs or eyes are here and there running 

into ftria:i very much refenablcs C. erofa. 

S/urca, Shell flightly margined, yellowiOi with deeper fpccks, the 
fides dotted with brown. 
Inliabits the Mediterranean. S/W/ovate fmooth ; fometimes livid, 
immaculate, diaphanous, without teeth; the margin above 
crenulate brown* interior lip with a reflefted tip behind. 

OS/onga. Shell oblong ovate, above blueifh dotted and fpotted with 
brown, beneath and at the fides white. 
Born. Muf. Ca/. f^ind. teli. tab. »,/'g' 14- 

Inhabits SMI with a manifelt fpire, and therefore belongs 

more properly to the divifion A. 

StoliJa: Shell cinereous variegated with tcftaceous. 

Rump/, muf. tab. 39. E. Argeiiv. conch, tab, 18, Y. 
Seba muf. 3 . tab, 5 5 . fig. 1 z— 1 4 , 
Muf. Gotfwald. tab. $.ftg. 22. a. c. /. 6./. 28 ? 
Bor,t muf Caj. Vind. tell, tab. S.fg. 12 ? 15 ? 
Martini cench, I. t, 28./. Z92, 293. 

2. Bonann. recr. and Muf kirch. l-fg. 237. 

Rumpf. muf. tab. 39. F. Muf Goitvjald. /. 6,/. Z/. 
Martini conch, I. /. 28,/. 294, 295. 

3. Giialt.tejt. t. 16. f. E. 

4. Martini c(mch. I./, 28./. 296,297? 

5. Lister conch, t. 679,/. 26, 
Inhabits ^;7;^oMa: 1 flinch long. 
Shell white beneath and at the fides. 

Hehola. Shell triangularly gibbous, dotted with white, jagged behind, 
beneath yellow immaculate. 
Lister, tab. 69 1. Rutrpf. mul. lab. 39. B. 
Bonan.recr. I. fig. 247. MuJ kirch. f. 246, 
Gualt. test. tab. 15. B B. Leffer test. fig. 27. 
Martini conch. I. tab. ^O, fig. ^26, 'iZ-^. 

inhabits the Indian Ocean. Shell yellow with white dots and 
eyes above, fometimes marked with chefniit Itars between 
white or blueilh fpots, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypres: 345 

O^cllata. Shell flightly margined, pale yellow with black eyes. 
Lider. tab, 696. Pet. Gtv^. tah. ^.fig. 7. 
Bonan. recr. '^. fig, 359. Muf. Kirch, ftg, 352, 
Muf. Gott'-voald. tab. y.jig, 32. c, d, e ? 
Martini conch. I. tab. '^\.fig.. 333, 334. 

Inhabits Shell \ an inch long, the margin white dotted 

with brown ; teeth of the lip whire. 

Parana, ghell pale Violet dotted with white. 

Born, muf C<ef. Vind, ted. tab. ^tftg* 1 6. 
Martini conch. I. tab. 'iO.jig, 324, 325. 
2. Lister, tab. 694. Seba muf. 3. tab. 55. fig, 19. 
Muf. Gottnuald. tab. J. fig, 33. b, c. 
Martini conch, I. tab. l\.fig. 237,238. 
Inhabits Shelly try fraall, above livid pale ydllow or brovvnifli 

• Pedicultts. Shell with Humerous tranfvcrfe furrows^ fome of them 
forked. Nun, 

Dono^atisBritiflfiells. tab. 43. 
Da Cofa Brit, conch, tab. 2. fig. 6, 6i 
Penn Brit. Zool. iv. tab. JOffig, 82. 
Borlafe Cornivull.p. 277. tab. z^.fig. 12, 13^ 
Lifter An. Ang. tab. •>,. fig, 17. 
Lifler conch, tab. 706, 707, 
Argennj. conch, tab. 18. L. Zootn. tab. 3. I, K. 
Rumpf muf, tab. 39. P, Gualti tab. 14. O, P. 15^ P, R. 
Seba muj, 3. tab, SS'/'S' ^2* 
Muf. GottKJuald. tab. S'/'g' 21* • 
Knorr l^ergn, 6. tab. ij.fig. 6, 
Martini conch. I. tab. zq.Jig. 306— 31I. 
2. Much larger. Knorr Vergn. 6. /a^. y^^fg,"]* 

Inhabits mod fea Coafts. Shell very fmall ovate, with various 
tints of red or white and with or without fpots, and fometimes 
marked with a longitudinal groove fometimes not, 

Niir'eits, Shell margined each fide flightly produced and rugged, with 

raifed tubercles above. 
Lister, tab 708. Argenv. conch, tab. l8' V, 
Rumpf. Muf tab. 39. I. Gualt. tefistah. Mf.fig. Q, R, S, 
Petiv. Gaz.. tab. ^"J-fig. 12. Amb. aq. t, 16. f. i I, 
Muf, Gottifjald. tab. 8 fg. 44 a, b. 
Knorr P'ergn. ^.tab. l^,fg. 7. 
Regenf. conch. I. tab. 12, fig. 78. 
Born Muf. Ca:s Vind test. t.%.f. 17. 
Martini conch. I. tab. K^-fig- 312. 
Inhabits the Ifland Nufjatillo. Shell oSlong white cinereous or 

ileel- blue, about an inch long, the (ides tranfverlely grooved, 

teeth of the lips acute. 

VOL. IV.— X X Mada- 




WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cypraea. 

Shell whitifli produced each fide, the back tuberculate and 
marked with tranfverfe undulate flrias. 

Lijier' tab. jio, fig. 6i. 
Z. Muf. Gotfwald. tab. S.fig. 44. c, d. 

Inhabits Maaagafcar ; refembles the laft, but is broader* 

Shell fomewhat produced with elevated dots but not ftriate, 
the extremities pale yellow. 
Argennj. conch, tab. i8* S. ■ 

Muj. Gotfwald, tab. 7. fig. 33. d ? e? 
Knorr Fergn, 4. tab. l6./ig. 2. 
Born Muf. Cas. Find. test. tab. S./ig, 18. 
Martini conch, l. tab. zg. Jig. 313, 314. 

Inhabits— —-SW/ inclining to chefnut, the tubercles Icfs than in 
C. nucleus^ teeth of the lips reflefted. 

Cicercula* Shell produced each fide and fprinklcd with raifed dots. 
Lifer, tab. 7 10. fig. 60. Gualt. teff. tab. 14. T, 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. 3. ftg z^l. 
Rum^. muf, tab, ig.fig. K. 
Born muf Ctzj. Find. tefl. tab. B' /ig. 19. 
Martini conch. I. tab. Z^.fig. 243, 244. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian Seas, 
Shell white or whicifh, with a convex back. 

Globulus Shell produced each fide and finooth. 

Rumpf. Muf tab. 39. L, N. Gualt. tejl. tab, 1 4. M, 
Muf. Gottiuald. tab. 8. fig. 44. c, f. 
Murray teft. tab. \,fig. 12. 
Born muJ. Caf. Vind. test, tab, ^»fig. 20. 
Martini conch, l. tab. z/^.fig. Z/^z, 
Knorr Fergn. 6. tab. 21 fig, 7. 
Chemn. conch, lo. tab, ^\$'fig' I349> 'SS*^* 
2. Gualt. teft. tab 14. N. 

Inhabits Afa, chiefly about Amboina. 

(Si*^// globular white or yellow, rarely dotted with brown or red. 

Affinis. Shell oblong, flightly produced, fmooth, yellow, ocellate 
each fide before. 
Knorr Fergn. 6. tab. Zl, fig. 7. 
Inhabits refembles the laft, but is more oblgng. 

Squalina» Shell thin oblong, white with ferruginous dots and fpots. 
Lifter, tab, 684. fig. 31. /. 686./. 33, 
Gualt. tefl. tab. 16 I. 
Mu[. Gotfvoald. tab. i^-fig' 18. d — f. 
Martini conch. I. tab. z^,fig. 250, 251. 
,2, Muf, Gottwald. tab, l.f'g- 33. a, b. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 73. Cyprx^. 347 

Inhabits S&ellihln with fometimes confluent fpots, the margin 

fpotted with brown, the back with often a whitilh horizontal 

Fimbriata. Shell white or grey with obfolcte ferruginous fpots and 
tranfverfe bands ; lips of the mouth marked with violet 

Martini conch. I. tab. zfi-. fig. 263, 264. 

Inhabits— —Si'f// red when worn down, 

Cruenta, Shell gibbous, above blueilh with rufous dots, beneath ^xA 
at the fides white; lips citron. 
Inhabitb Qualt. tf/t. tab, 15. E. 

Reticulata, Shell reticulate, the margin varied with ftriped fpots. 
Inhabits Rump/. Muf. tab. 39. R. 

Rubiginc/a Shell oblong white, within violet ; back' with a ferruginous 
, blotch; each end marked with 2 pale yellow fpots: 

teeth of the lips yellowilh. 
Inhabits— —M«r//«/ ro«c-^. i. tab. 29.//^. 305. 

Miliaris. Shell thin fliort, yellowifli-green with milk-white eyes and 
marked with a lateral horizontal line. 

Inhabits 'Liiter tab. 700, 701, 

Martini conch, ^o./ig. 323, 

Acicularis. Shell folid, above yellowifli dotted with brown with an ho- 
rizontal pale line, beneath milk-white, with impreffcd 
dots at the margin. 
lTA\3.h\ti—-r'Martini conch, I'it fg> 335. 

Craja. Shell thick, yellowifh with 3 whitiih bands: niouth blueifti. 

Inlubits above 4 inches long, 

Lijter conch, tab, 66^, fig, 8. 

Vinofa. Shell above white with a claret (lain and marked with pur- 
plilh eyes lurrounded with a black circle and an hori- 
zontal white line : within blue. 

Bonan. recr, l- fig 253. Muf. Kirch, "i,. fig. 252. 

inhabits the Mediterranean. She/i with a fnowy margin, 

Anguflaia. Shell narrow, brown with reddifh fpots at the fides. 
Inhabits (hi.alt. tat. tab. 13. Q^Q^ 

X X 2 Si/nihi. 

348 WORMS; TESTACEA; 74. Bulla. 

^imilis. Shell oblong gibbous, yellowifli dotted with white, with a 
blackilh fpot at the margin. 
Inhabits— —Ga«/^ ted. tab^ 13. R. 

Striata, gj^g]] conyex blueifh-white dotted with browp: beneath 
yellow ftriate on one fide. 
Inhabits— —r<?W^ '{/?• f^l>' H* P* 

Chinenlts, Shell oblong folid variegated, with orange lips. 
Inhabits 1 ' Argsnv, conch, tab, l8. Z. 

Pu/illa. Shell blueifh fpotted with brown and marked with 3 bands. 
Inhabits ■ :, ■■ Argenn), conch, tab, i6./ig, i, 

74. BULLA. Animal a Limax: Jhell uni- 
valve convolute, unarmed ^vith teeth ; 
aperture a little ftraitened, oblong, lon- 
gitudinal, very entire at the bafe : pillar 
oblique, fmooth« 

QifutK, Shell ovate obtufe, (lightly 2-beaked: one of the lipq 

Argeni). concb, tab, \%, A, Lister, tab. "J^'fig, 65. 
Rumpf. muf. tab, 38. Q^ Lejir test. fig. 2Z. 
Val. abh. tab. 4. fig, 32, 

Peti<v, Gaz. tab. 97'/ig. '/. Amb, aq. tab. 8. fig. 9» 
Bonan. recr. ^.fig. 252, ]^uf. Kirch, "^./ig. 25 1 •^.AfB, 
Seba muf. 3. tab, 76., fig, 6, 10, 1 1 , 
Muf. GottivaU. tab. "J fig. 43. a— -c, 
Knorr f^ergn. 6 , tab. 3 3 . Jig, i , 
Martini conch, \. tab. zz. fig 205, 206. 
^, Martyn^s unit'erf, Conchol, 2. tab, 60. 

Inhabits Amboina, 2) the Friendly IJlands \ ffom it*s having one of 

the lips toothed appears like a Cypraea : 4 inches long : fliell 

fmooth fnovvy with a pale yellow mouth, 

Y^hja* Shell 2-beaked, the beaks long ftriate acute. 
Lister, tab. 71 \'fig. 63. Leffer test. fig. z^. 
Argen-v, conch, tab. 18. I. Spengl. conch, tab. I. C. 
Bonan. Muf. Kirch, '^.fig, 390. 
Seba muf. -J^.tab. i^S.fg. i^ — 16, 
Knorr Vergn. ^,tab. \,fg. 2. 3, and 6. /. 32./". 1. 
Martini conch, \ . tab. z^.fg, 217. a, b./Tg-, 2 1 8, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 349 

Inhabits Jamaica, and is exceedingly rars. 

Shell t\\\v\, labglobular in the middle, tranfverfely ftriaic, white 
or yellowifh a(h ; the beans are foraetimes a little curved. 

Biroftrit* Shell 2-bpaked, tl^e margiji thickened outwardly: bcaki 
long fraooth. 

Lister conch, tab. 7 1 1 . fig, 6$. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. zo. fig. 5, 

Inhabits Ja'va : refembles the laft but is much fmaller, hardly 
as large as a bean, and the middle not fo much inflated: Jhell 
Tmouth, whitilh flefh-colour with equal beaks obliquely trun- 
cate, one of them a little afccndin^j : aperture n^ixly equal, 
^ut broadej towards the beak, 

Sfglta* Shell oblong, rather obtufe at both ends, equal ; lip arched, 
the margin thickened within. 
Lilier. tab. jxz.ftg 68, Gualt,^ ^S'/^i' 4- 
Pet. Gaz. tab. bS.fg, i — 3. 
Ginann adv. 2. tab. I 3. fig- 95. 
Barrel, ic. 31, 32, 35. 
Marthii conch. I. tab, 23. ^g. 21 J, 216, 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and ^idri^itic.. 

Shell white fmooth, about twice the fize of a grain of wheat, 
flightly beaked, without external fpire : fl/^r/ar^ longitudin*! 
lunate, with a fma)l obfolete tooth at the tip of the pillar. 

ferrucofa. Shell tranfverfely angular ovate, with a bony dot each fide, 
LiBer, tab. 1\l. fig, 67, Lejj'er tejl.jig. 24. 
Pet. Gaz. tab. g(^.fig. Z. Amb. aq. t. l6,f. 22, 23. 
Rumpf. Muf. tab. 38. H. Gualt. test, tab, 16. F. 
Argen'v. conch, tab, 18. M. 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. ^^'fg. IJ: 
Knorr Vergn' 4. tab. lb. fig, 7. 
Mariini conch, I. tab. z^-jig. 220, 221. 
Inhabits India: refembles a Cyprxa. 
Sheli \Nh.\tt with reddifh extremities, oval, 

Cibhofa. Shell angular with an elevated belt. 

Lifer, tab. 71 \ fig. 64.. Argenv. conch, tab, 1 8. 0. 
Column, Purp. tab, ^O.fg. 5. 
Pet, Gaz. tab. 15. fig. 5. Lefer test, fig, 25. 
Bonan, recr. and Muf. Kirch 3 •/i'- 249. 339, 
Seba muf. ■},. tab. 55. //f. 18. 
Muf. Gottivald. tab. S.fg. 46, a. 
Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. lt\..fg. 3, 4 and 6. .'. 32./'. 4. 
Martini conch, i . tab. 22. fig- 2 1 l — 214. 

Inhabits Braftl. Shell loi^g narrow white or tinged v.'ith a bleom- 
folour ; aperture ftraighc. 


350 WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 

tfaucum. Shell rounded pellucid, flightly ftriate tranfverfely and per- 
forated at each end. 
Lijler. tab. 714./^ 73 Rump/- Muf. tab. 27. H. 
Bonan, recr. and Muj. Kirch, l- ftg. 4. 
Gualt, teft. tab. 13. G G. Argeti'v, conch, tab. 13. Q^ 
Seba muf, 3. tab. 3.8. yfg-. 2, 3. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. /i?<^. 38./^. 2, 3. 
Martin, conch. 6. /«./ 38 /i'^. 2, 3. 
Martini conch. I. /^z^. 22 ^ij 200, 201, 
Inhabits the /ifncun and Indian Seas : an inch long. 
6'/^i?//thin, fometimes glabrous on the middle of the back. 

• Afer-ta, Shell roundifli pellucid, iranfverfely fubflriate, one end much 

produced : the apertures very open. 
Gualt. test. tab. I 3 Jig. E E, 
Martini conch x.p. 266 ijign. ^l-fig. 3. 
Schrat. Eivl. in couch. I, tab. i-Jig. 8. a, b. 
Fa'vann. conch, tabi 27. F. 7 
Chemn. conch. 10. M/^. 146. /i^. 1354, 1355. 
B. patula. Brit. Zool.'iv.p. 117 tab. ^o. Jig. 85. A. 
i)fl Co/?« 5n>. conch, tab. Z.Jig. 3. 
Inhabits Europe and Africa. HhellivcisWy one end much produced 

and f ufiform ; the Jqvver.lip very much fprcad out. 

IJjdatis, Shell rounded pellucid and flightly ftriate longitudinally : 
Crown umbilicate. 
Gualt, test. tab. ^.y fig. D D, 
Chemn. conch, (). tab. \\%. jtg. lOig, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean ; about the fize of a (mall pea, and 
refembles the laft. 

* Ampulla. Shell rounded, obtufe at one end: crown umbilicate. 

lifier. tab. 713, 7 1 4. fig. 72. 71^ f'g- 74- 

Rutnpr. Muf. tab. 27. G. Le/Jer test fig, 3 1. 

Pet. Gaz. tab, ^o. fg. 13. /. 99./. 14. 

Gretv niif. tab. 9. /%. 7, 8. 

Guali test. tab. I 2. E, F, I. 

Murray test. tab. l-fg- 9- 

Seba muf 3, tab. S'^-fg- 34—44 

Knorr l^'ergn. 2. tab. S.fg. 1--5. /. 17./. 6. 

Martini conch. I. tab. 21. /%. 188-I93. /• 22./. 202-.204. 

Inhabits moll feaCoalls; 2-3 inches long. 

Shell whitQ marked with various fhadcs and fpots of red brown and 
blue, with fometimes flexuous blacker grey lines; the inner 
fide lapping over the pillar fo as to render it invifible. 

• Lignaria. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 351 

*Lignaria. Shell oblong-oval, tranCverefcly ftriate ; the crown narrower 

and nightly umbilicate. 
Do/Krjans Brits jliells, tab. 27. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 70. fg. 83. 
Da Cofta Brit, conch, tab. 1. Jig. 9. 
TranfaH. Vmn. Soc. ii./. I 5. tab. 2, 
Lister conch, tab 7 1 4, Jig. 7 1 . 
Bonan.MuJ. Kirch, l- Jig. 406, 
iTwrr r^rga. 6. fab, ^Jijig- 4. 5« 
Martin: conch, l. tab, Zl, Jig. 194, 195. 
Inhabits the European coalts; nearly 3 inches long. 
She/I thin, of a dirty colour like fome woods, within white : ///- 

/arflexnous and vifible to the eye up to the crown. 
The inhabitant of this fpecies, and probably thofe of moft of the 

genus, is furnilhed with an organ exaftly refembling thcgiz- 

zard of a fowl, and which it appears to ufe for the purpofe of 

raafticating its food. 

*Regullien- Shell thick, white, opake, the aperture comprefTed in the 
/?;. middle. 

Adams Microjct p. 640. lab. l^, Jig. 28. 
Found at Recuher: very minute and rare. 

Pfy/i;. Shell rounded, glabrous, pellucid and marked with tranf- 
verfe lines : fpire rctufe. 
Lisfer conch, f^b. yi^, ^g. y^. 
Bonan. MuJ, Kirch. 3. /f^. 403. 
Fal. alh. t. 2,/. 19. Gudlt. test. tab. 13, F F. 
/Irgen-v. conch, t. 17, I, Klein ojir. t. 5. /"• 98. 
Scba MuJ. 3. tab. 38.//^. 46 — 50. 
Martini conch, i. tab. zi. fig. 196 — 198« 

2. Kamm. cab. Rudolst. tab. 9, Jig. 5. 

3. yiartyn uni'vcrj. conch, i. tab. ll. 

Inhabits India. Shell very thin, with blackifli or brown lines, 
between which are often rows of dots. 

Amplujlra. Shell roundlfli with an elevated obtufe fpire and flefh- 
colour bands. 
Chemn. conch, lO. tab. 146, fig. 1350, 1351. 
Inhabits Ajia^ Shell white. 

Ficus. Shell obovate with a clavate crown indiftinft fpire and 

elongated beak, the furface marked with reticulate 
Lister t tab. 750, 751. Cv.alt. tcH. tab. 26, I, M. 
Rumpf. muj. tab. 27, K. Lefjer teji. Jg-SI* 
Petinj. Amb. aq, tab. 6, J^tg, 9. 
Bonan. recr. S Muj', Kirch, 3. fig. 15. 
» Argenvilljf 

^5/ WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 

Argenville coneh. tah. 1 7 , jig, O, 

Seliamuf. 3. tai. 62, fig. I — 6. 

Muf GottTxald. tab. 10, fig. 70. a, b. 

A'worr </(?//V. nat. tab. B, ii./?^. 7- 

Kfiorr fergn, I. /«i. \^. fig. 4. ^3- '• 23,/. I J 

Martini conch. 3. /«3. 66. /i^.- 733-735. 

2. Z-n/^r fOKf/?'. /'fli. 877. 

Martini conch. 3. /fl// 6b. fig. 736, 737^ 

3. SebaMuf 3* /"rt^. 68j /fj. 19, 20. 

4. Lister conch. tab< 816^ 
A'/«« o/?r. /«^. 4. //^. 79, b^ 

5. Schrcct.EinL m 'verjt. 4. z^^. io,fig^ 8. 

Inhabits the American and Indian ocean ; 3 inches long. 
5/W/whitifli, with cancellatc ftria; and fpots, dots or lines, within 

white or blueilh : aperture large, with a fmilunar ineifure j the 

tail or elongated beak hollow within. 

Ra*)a. Shell rounded, torbinate, flightlyftriate, with a curved beak 

and finely wrought fpire. 
Jrgenv conch, tab. 17, K. Rumpf. muf, t» 27, F. 
Cualt. tejl. tab. 26. fig. H. Klein oftr, /, 4,/, 80. 
Valent. abh. tab. g, fg. 82. 
Peti'V Ami), aq. tab, 9, fig. 8. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 38,/. 13 — 24. /. 68,/. 7, 8. 
Knorr del. /. B. ii./ 8. Vergn. I, /. 19,/. 5. 
Martini conch. 3. /a^. 68,//^. 747-749. 
2, Chemn. conch. 10. /a/^. 142,/. 1364 — 1 366. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean; 2 — 3 inches long. 
5/W/ white 01 greenifh, and v/hen full grown evidently ftriate, 
Thcfe 2 laft fpecies, by their projeding beaks, approach to the 
Genus Murex. 

Caniculata. Shell cylindrical, the whorls of the fpire grooved. 
Inhabits ■ Shell teftaceous with paler clouds. 

Qonoidea. Shell oblong-turbinate, fmooth, the bafe fubftriate, with 
crenulate futures. 

Inhabits Shell ochraceous, fize of an acorn ; the bafe emar- 

ginate ; pillar-lip obtufe; pillar with 5 or 6 folds; fpire 
conic, half as long as the (hell, the whorls thin and iinbricat'r 
9nd appearing as if crenulate with dots at the margin. 

• F0H//W/J Shell ovate, pellucid, with an obfolete fpire, the whorls 
contrary or turning from right to left: aperture ovate- 
Lilier conch, tab. 134. Anim.Ang. tab. z, f. 25, 
Muller Naturf 15. tab.\,ftg. i — 12. 
Guak. tej}, tab, $,ftg. C C. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulk. 353 

Martini Berl. magaz- 4. tab. 1 1, fig. 6i. 

SchroEt.flufconch. tab. 6, fig. 16. a, b. 

Chemn. conch. 9. r^z^. iO^, fig. 877 — 880. 

Inhabits the ftiores of the Danube^ and is found in many parts of 
Europe in lakes and rivers: about \ of an inch long. 

Shell thin, brittle, polifhed, yellowifh or white : jpire with 3 
whorls, the laft inflated : inhabitant white or grey with a jag- 
ged meAbrane. 

Hypnorum, Shell ovate, pellucid, with a prominent contrary fpJre; the: 
aperture ovate-lanceolate. 
Chemn. conch. 9. tab. 103, fig. 882,883. a, b. 
Inhabits Europe, among wet mofs ; probably a variety of the laft. 

Turrita. Shell polifhed, with a pointed fpire : ap&rture oblong. 

Mull, 'verm.fiuv. et terr. z. p,l6(). ». 345. 

Inhabits Northern Europe, in ditches and wet meadows. 

Shell 1—6 lines long, ovate-oblong,' the whorls turning contrary, 
pellucid, fulvous or black : fpire with 3.-6 fmooth whorls: 
inhabitant deep black, the tip of the feelers only white. 

Gelatinofa. Shell Very brittle with a deprefTed contrary fpife : aperture 

ending in a beak. 
Inhabits rivers of Denmark, z\ lines long. 
Zhell ventricofe, fulvous, diaphanous, very brittle and light as a 

feather: Jpire broad, the whorls obfolete except the laftj in~ 

habitant grey, thrice as large as the fhell, which it completely 

involves in a thick gelatinous membrane. 

Terebetlum, Shell cylindrical, with a fubulate fpire truncate at the bafe. 
Lister, tab. 736. Rumpf. muf. tab. 30, S. 
Peti-v. Amb. aq. tab. i 3, fig. 24. 
Bonan recr. 13 Muf, Kirch, I. fiig. 57. 
Gualt. tefi. tab, z%,0. Lejfer tefi.fig, 33, 
Argenx'. conch, tab, 1 1, fig. G. 
Klein ostr, tab. z, fig. 48, 49. 
MuJ. GottzvaU, tab. 43, fig. 53, a, b. 
Knorr Vergn. 2, tab. 4, /ig. 4, 5. 
Martini conch. 2. tab ^\if 568, 569, 
3. Lister, tab, 737. Pet. Amb. tab, I 3, f. 24. 
Chemn. C07ich. lO. tab. 1^6, fig, 1 362. 1363. 
inhabits the Indian Ocean, and very much refembles a Conus. 
^hell narrow, above 2 inches long, generally tranfverfely ftriate, 

white with ufually pale yellow fpots, dots or clouds, rarely 

with 4 bands. 

Cypraat Shell ovate ; the fpire indiftin£l and a little prominent at 
the tip: aperture more dilated behind, the pillar 

VOL. IV.— V y Knort 

J54 WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 

Knorr'vergn. 6s tab, \, fig, $^ f. 2y,/. 6 I 

Born Wluf. Caf Vind. teji. tab. 9, fig. 2 ? 

Inhabits the Mediterramatty about the fize of an acorn ; is pro- 
bably the Cyprsa Ipurca or Conus bullatusr in a different 
ftagc of growth. 

Virginca, Shell with particoloured double bands and purple truncate 

Katur, Mifcell. tab. 268. Lister^ /. 15. 844. 
Gualt. left. tab. 6. A. /. 45. J). 

Petiv. Gaz. tab. 22, /". 1 1 . /. 1 5 1 ,y. i . ' 

jlrgenv. Zoom. tab. 10, G. Spengler conch, t. l,G» 
Schrat.Jlufconch tab- 8,y^. j, 4. ina. bau, conch, t, 5»/*. "^ 
Knorr Verg. 6. tab. 28,/. 4, ^ i. /. ZQ,/, 7. 
Bonan, recr, & A/m/". Kirch, "i'fig* 66. 
5^^a «»«/". 3. tab. 40, yTg-. 38. 
Klein ojlr. tab. \']tfig. \\(>, 
Chemn. conch. 9. tab. iij, fig. 1000—1003. 
2. Whorls contTary. Chemn. 10. t. 173 /. 1682, 1683. 

Inhabits rivers of Afia. Shell twifted like a Turbo, with 8 

whorls gradually tapering to a point, white or blueifh with 

red, green, yellowifli, black, or brown hands : affrture nearly 


Faffiata. ghell conic, pointed with tranfverfe bands and undulate 
fpots : aperture white. 
Seba Muf. 3 tab. 39, fig, 64 — 66. 69-. 74. 
Knorr Vergit, 5. tab. z^, fig. 4. 
Chemn, conch. 9. tah. 117, f% 1004— IO06, 

1. White with blue bands. 
Seba muf 3. tab, 39, f, 62, 63. 
Jrgenv. conch, l . apf- tab. I , fig. G, 
Martini Berl. magax, 3. tab, 5, f, 52. 

2. White with brown bands. 
Seba muf. 3. /a^. '},()• f'g. 67, 

Gafl// /</?. r«^. 6, D. ^rg-. ««fZ'. r. 1 1, M. 

3. White with variegated hands. 

Z,//?^r, Mi. 12. Cualt. tut. tab. 6, C. 
6'<fi5« muf. 3. /a^, 39, /. 68. 
A7«« oftr. tab. It fig. 43. 
Regerif. conch. I. M^. 10, fg. 46. 

4. With a fulvous band, a violet one and a gold one. 
Bonan recr. 3, fig. 379. M«/i ^/r<r^, 3,/". 366. 

5. Chemn. conch. 9. /. lijtf. 1007, I008. 

Inhabits South America and /«rf';a ; refembles the laft, but is longer 
and not fo highly polilhed, and the pillar is entire, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 3:55 

Strigata* Shell conic, pointed, glabrous, with undulate fulvous ftreaks! 
pillar with a ftraight refledted beak. 

Inhabits — i Mull, t^trm.fiwv. et terr. 2. /, 148. n ^^6. 

Shell white, above 2 inches long, with a pale blueilh aperture : 
pillar perforated : fpire with 8 whorls. 

Stn'atula, Shell conic, white, ftriate, the pillar ftralght and refleded. 

Inhabits A^uU. ' (err, 2. f. 1 47. «• 335. 

Refembles the laft, but is much Icfs and without llrcaks. 

Exarata, Shell oblong, pointed, white, grooved, with the aperture 

inhabits Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 120,/. 1^31, J032. 

iS;>&f// brittle, pellucid, with an imperforate ftraight pillar j fpire 
with 6 or 7 whorls. 

Bifafciata. Shell a little tapering, efe£k, white with 2 broad reddilh 
bands at the aperture. 
Inhabits - > -' ■- LtJliVy tab. 16. A land fpccies. 

iimhlgua. Shell d little taperlngi a little comprelTed, pale flefh-colour 
with 2 remote bands, one broader and brown, the 
other blue. 
Inhabits KnUrr Vergn. 6. tab. z'i, f'g, 4. 

Zchra^' Shell ovate, pointed, with longitudinal brown bands : pillar 
infleiled entire. 
Lifier, tab. 9 — II. ^78, 580, 
Pet, Gaz. tab. 44, /i y, ^rg* 2.ootn, tab. 1 1, L, 
Seba muf. 3. tab 39,/. 50, 5c. 54, 55. ^ 71,/. 4, 5. 
Bont.Muf.Ca/. Vind.tejL tab.xo,/. i, 

2. Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. it, f. 2. 

3. Chemn. conch. 9. tab. 103,/". 875, 876. 

4. Chemn, conch. (). tab. Il8,y. 1014— 1016, 
Inhabits the Cape and Tranquebar : a land fpccies. 
Shell white with crowded undulate lines, 

lichatitia Shell ovate, pointed, with a wide crimfon mouth and tip j 

pillar truncate. 
Natur. Mi/cel. tab. 248. Column, aq. c. 8. t, 16, 
Lifter, tab. 579. Ronan, recr. 3, f. igz. 
Seba muf, 3. tab. "Jiifigs I — '3» 
KUin ojlr. tab. l^fig% 60. Schrat^flufc, t. 6,_/i i, 
Knorr delic. nat . tab. B. v,fig. I. 
Knorr f^ergn. 3. tab. 3,/. I -^' 4. tab, 2^, /. i, 

2 White tii^r witli yellow* 

Y y 3 Qunlt. 

35^ WORMS. TESTACEA. 74. Bulla. 

Guah, teji, M^. 45,8. Argennj, conch, l./. lO^E.. 

Bonan, Muf. Kirch. 1- fig* 1 90. 

Sehamuf. 3. tab. Jit fig- 7 — lO. 

Muf. Gottwald. tab. 33. fig. 220. 

Chemn. conch. 9. tab, 118. /Tf. 1012, 1013, 

3. Fulvous or white with acrimfon pillar, 

4. White with crowded bands apd pale pillar. 
Argenv.. conch. I. app, 2. L. 

Inhabits the American Ocean : 8 inches long. 

Shell generally whitiih with longitudinal undulate brown or 

blueifh ftripes. 
Thefe 2 laft {pecies approach in their fhape to the genus Helix. 

Hyalina. Shell oblong, horn-colour, with a retufe fpire. 
Muf. Gottnuald. tab- 8, fg. 20 ? 
Martini conch. I. tab. 2\, fig. 199. 
Inhabits 1 ■■• She// thin, hardly ^ an inch long. 

Ovata, Shell fubovate, flightly 2-beaked, ftriate on the back and 
^ gibbous in the middle, chefnut with white fpots ;incl 
bands, within violet. 
Bonan. recr. ^ Muf. kirch. 3. fig. 262. 
Martifii conch- I. tab. 22, fg. 207,208. 

Inhabits — — refembles B. ovum, but is fnjoother and more ob- 
long, and the ppper-lip not {o diftinftly toothed, 

Ferruginofa Shell fubovate, equable, pale grey undulate with brown 
and marked with ferruginous fpots and 2 white band§. 
Martini conch. \. tab^ 22, fig. 209. 

2. Muf, Gottwald. tab. %, fig. 53 ? 

3, Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. z%.fig. \, 

Inhabits - i \ inch long: refembles B^ ovata, 

Velutny Shell extremely thin and umbilicate each fide, white with 
capillary brown lines and a fnowy band edged with 
brown each fide. 
Martin, neujt, t^annig. 1. tab. 1,fg. 10, II. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. \^6. fg. 1348,1349, 
2. Born. Muf. C^cf Vird. te/i. tab. 9,/. i. 
Inhabits ■ She/J above an inch long. 

Fe/icctt Shell ovate-oblong varied with cinereous, within milk- 
white, folid, pellucid; aperture wide: back with 2 

Bonan . recr. 3 . fg . 332. Muf. kirch, 3 . fig, 330. 

Klein oftr. tab.(),fig. 96. 

Iphabits Brafil: refembles B, ampulla. 

WORMS. TESTAGEA. 74. BuUa. 35/ 

•CylinJrica Shell cylindrical fmooth white very tfiin and ilightly um. 
Brit. Zool, iv. tab. JO. Jig. 85. 
Gualt.test. tab. 1$'/^' '• 
la'vann. conch, tab, 27 F- 5* 
IJelbl. Bohem. ebb. 4. tah- Z-fig- 3°' 3i' 
Cbemnconck. \o. tab. 146./^, 1 350, 1357. 
Inhabits Europe : tvyice as large as a grain of wheat. 

i^liva* Shell cylindri<;al, the aperture fuborbicular and dilated be- 

Lister, tab. VH-A- 7° ^ ^^"" '• 'i'f' 99' *» ^.» 
Jiihabits— ; — probablj the fame as the lall. 

Valuta, Shell fmooth cylindrical olive ; aperture effufe ; pillar in- 
flefted truncate. 
Chemn. conch. 9, tab. WJ.fg 1009, 1 010. 
Inhabits "^^ire with 7 whorls. 

pomini- Shell fubcylindrical fpiral, reddifh with longitudinal^ ftria: 
chenffs: and fpotted, the futures crenulate: pillar finuate 

Inhabits St. Domingo. Chemn. conch. 9. tab. wj.fig loii. 
Shell longitudinally grooved, narrow granulate at the fuiures : 
the outerraoft whorls brown. 

PurpHna. Shell ventricofe rugged and longitudinally ftreaked : pillai 
truncate: aperture ovate with a pointed lip and deep 
black border within. 
Chemn. Qonch. 9. tab. \\%.fig. 1017, I0i§, 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. \\.fig. I, 
Inhabits Jfricat.)n fields where rice is fown. 

S/rete. Shell ovate thin brown rough. 

Inhabits Knorr k'ergn. z. tab. ^.fig. 5. 

Soliia. Shell folid, red varied with violet with a red margin : fpire 
a little prominent. 
Inhabits Knorr Vergn. 6. tub. Z\.Jig. 2. 

&tercus Shell Inflated glabrous horny, cinnamon colour with 5 rows 
tulicum. of dots: pillar finwate, with an acute lip. 
Chemn. conch. 9. tab. 126. fig. 1026, 1027. 
Fa-uann. Latal. tab. z.fg. 129. 
Inhabits x — Shell extremely thin and ovate. 




WORMS. TfiSTACEA. 75. V'oluia. 


Scabra, Shell ovate rodgh lligfetly carinate on the back and marked 
■with deculfate ftriae, white with rofy lines: pillar 
fcalloped reflefted. 
inhabits jfa<va. Chemn, conch, XO, tab. \\%.fg, I352, 1353. 

jakefa. Shell ovate pellucid, with a tnlncate channelled crown * 
Muil. Zool. Dan. 2. p. 88 tab. yx.fg. \ — J. 
Cherrin. conch. 10, tab. 146./^. 1358. «. 1—^3. 
Inhabits Nor^Mciy Seas. Shell 6 lines long. 

Shell cylindrical horny tranCverfely ftrlate with a retufe top 
or crowh : whorls margined channelled. 
Inhabits Ce)ilbtr. Chtmn, conth. 10. tab, 1^6. fg. 1359 — 1361. 

TruHcafa» gj^gji hyaline thin oblong, with dn incufVed truncate pillar. 
Inhabus Ka:mm Cab. Rud. tab lo./^. 5. 2 inches long. 

Ctirriea> Shell ov^ite flefh-colotir gibbous: lip arched thickened anJ 
toothed within. 
Inhabits (hores oi Jfrica, Poiret 'voyage tn Barb, 2./. 2!. 

•TrUHcata: gj^gj| fubovat white ftpake, with a truncate tip. 
Jdams Tranf, LI tin. Soc. v. tab. \ fig. \,z. 
Found on the fands in Pembrokefaire : very mmute, 


VOLt'TA. Animal a Limax *JIieU 1- 
celled fpiral: aperture without a beak 
and Ibmewhat oftufe: /'zV/^r twilled or 
plaited, generally without lips or perlb- 
i^ation. Mitre. Volute, 

A. Aperture entire, 

Aiirii Shell cohtra£led oval-oblong with a rugged fpire: pillar 2- 

Mida. toothed. 

Lister, tab. 1658 fig. 6. Rumpf. muf. tab. 33. KNH. 

Jrgen'V. conch, tab, lO, G. Gualt. test. tab. 55- G* 

Pet. amb. tab. 8. fig. t. Klein o/tf. t, 7./. 122. 

Seba muf. 3. tab. yi.fig. 6. z\. it. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 2^. fig l. 

Martini conch. 2. /. 43. /". 436 — 438* 

Spenglerfelt. conch, tab. 1 . L. 
2. Lister conch, tab. ^S7-/'S' 3^- b. 
ai Ghtmn, conch, lO. t^ib. l^^.fig. 1395, 1356. , . , .. 

WORMS. TESTACEA, 75. Voluta. 35^ 

Inhabits Inaia^ in m;»rfliy woods and fwamps, and very much 
refcmbles an Helix; about 4 inches long: Jliell brown folid 
wrinkled or ftriatc ; fpirc large with 6—9 whorls each termif 
nated by a granulate band, the outer oncj cancellatp ; aperture 
long, wider beneath. 

flammea* Shell oval-oblong with a wide aperture : pillar i-toothed, 
Lifter, tab. %\/i^.fig, 24, Mart, t. 43./. 439. 

2. Lister conch, tab. Zz-j./ig. 49. c, 

3. Lijier. tab. ^^if fig. 60. 

4. Lister, tab. 834 fig. 61. 

Inhabits S he U more inflated and fhorter than the laft; white 

with perpendicular waved ted {tripes; pillar margined with 

^alca/a. Shell conlra£led oval-oblong grooved, whites dotted with 
yellow : pillar with 2 plaits. 
Martini concb. 2. tab. ^^. fg. 44O, 44 1. 

Inhabits— -refemblcs the laft but is hardly | of an inch long, 
and has a deep groove between each plait or fold of the pillar. 

Bifafiata. Shell thin tranfverfely -ftriatc, flefh-colour with 2 white 
bands: pillar i-toothed. 
Lifter concb. tab. ^I'y. fg, 58. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 43. /7f. 442, 443.- 
Inhabits— — not an inch long : aperture long narrow. 

Fla'vai Shell contra^ed on the upper-part, yellow with a crenulate^ 

lip : pillar with 2 plaits. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 43, fig, 444. 
InUabits — Shell 4 |^ lines long : fometimes ehefhut with an 

obfolcte darker band and white 3-loothed pillar : fpire with 

7 flat whorls, 

Minuta, Shell oval-oblong banded : pillar with 3 plaits. 
Lister conch, tab. 834. fig. 59. 1 
Martini conch, 2. tab. ^'i- fig. 445. 
Inhabits— —S^tf// fometimes brown with 2—6 white bands, 

fometimes white with 4 alternately yellow and coffee- coloux 

bands and the lip 3 -ribbed. 

Pufilla. Shell thin brown; whorls of the fpire canccIUte: pillar 3- 
Qjualt. teft. tab. ^^.fg. F. 
Marti*, concb. 2. tat>. 45. yi^, 446. 
InAabits— -refcmbles V. auris midx but is very minute. 


^^o , WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluti. 

Glabra. Shell oval-oblong glabrous with a refleaed grooved Hp? 
pilFar i -toothed. 
Martin, canch.z. tab. /Sf^.ftg'A^l^A^^- • r »i, ^r 

Inhabits Shell near 2 inches long, more ventricofe than V. 

auris mids and the aperture more contraaed above ? white 
with perpendicular waved yellowifh or chefnut ftripes. 

^uri, Silent ^^d\ oval gibbous Ombilicate : pillar with a fingle thick 

flexuous plait. 
Born Muf. Caf.Vind. tell. tab. ().jig. 3> 4; - a . A 

Inhabits- Shell glabrous, aboVe 2 inches long, inflated 

fliort, brown with perpendicular undulate chefnut ftriae : 

aperture ov&tt: /pire oht\ik. 

Aui-isjuda Shell contraaed oblongs with a fmooth fpire and 3-toothe5J 

Lister, tab. ^i. Botiaft. Muf. Kirch. J./^. 412. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. \\.fig 449— 451- 
Schrat. Flufc. tab. c).fig. 10. Einl. conch. I. t. l.f. 9. 
2. Liller. tab. 1058.//^. 9< GronoiJ. Zooth. tab. iS. /ig. 12. ^ 
Inhabits fens of In^lia: refembles V. auris midae, but is lels 

narrower and more oblong ; Jhell brown or white with waved 

brown fpots j fpire with 6 whorls, the firft and outer ones very 

finely cancellated 

Juris Shell fufiform granulate with an ovate aperture: pillar cut 

Malchi. and very fpreading. 

Chemn> conch. 9. tab. 121. fig. 1037, 1041, 
Inhabits Nenv Caledonia, near 3 inches long. 
Shell covered with a dirty brown epidermis or cuticle, under 
which it is white : fpire with 6 whorls convex and ribbed in 
the middle : aperture white .' probably not of this genus. 

^Tornatilis Shell oval pointed at each end and fpirally ftriate : pillar wirfi 
a iinglc fold. 
Doni'vans Bnt. Shells, ii. tab. 57. 
Da Costa Brit, cunch, tab. S./ig. 2. 
Penn. Brit. ZooL iv. tab, Jl.fg- 86. 
Lister, tab. 835. Knorr ^ergn. 6. tab. XCj.fg* 4- 
Martini csnch. 3. tub. ^^./g. 442, 443- 

Scbra:t. n. litterat. 3. tub. 2, ft|^. 12, 13. , 

Inhabits (hores of £«ro/^. Shell pale red with white bancs.; 
fpire with about 5 whorls, 

. - ^ Shell thin brittle nearly cylindrical with a wide rounded 
jonenjis. j^^outh: fpire obtufe with 1 whoris. 

Inhabits the Ifland Jona, Brit. Zool. 71-/^. 87. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 361 

• Allf3. Shell white opake and longitudinally ftriate. 

Adam. Micro/c. p. 639. tab. l^.Jig. 27. 

Found at Sandnjoich ; very minute : refcmbles the laft, except in 
fize and the form of the aperture. 

Solidula, Shell contra(9:ed oblong-ovate opake ftriate : fpire elevated 
and a little pointed: pillar llightly plaited. 
Bonan, recr. and Muf. Kirch. I. Jig* 1 45 ? 
Klein Oftr, tab. I. fig. 72. 
Schreet, n. litterat. 3. tab. 2. fig. 14, 15J 
K<emm. cab. Rudolst. tab, 8. fig. 3, 
Chemn. conch. \o. tab. ij^g./ig. 1405^ 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 43.//^. 44O, 441. 
Inhabits She/J with a grey longitudinal line. 

Li-vida. Shell contra£led ovate cylindrical : fpire a little elevated and 
fomewhat obtufe: pillar with 5 plaits. 
Gualt. teji. tab. 25. B, C. 

Inhabits Africa. Shell ventricofe, about an inch long, livid with 
tranfverle obfoletc pale bands. 

Cjaffea. Shell conira6led fmooth vvith an obtufe fpire: aperture 
toothed each fide. 
Lister, tab. 834,/)^. 39. F am ann conch, t. 6^.f. 47. 
Chemn. conch. 9. tab. i2t. fig. 1 043, 1044, 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 43.. /Jg". 445" 

Inhabits— —refembles a Conus, but the aperture is contrafled 
behind : Jliell dull livid-colour. 

B. Subcylindrical e?nargina/e. 

Porphyria. Shell fmooth ; fpire obliterated at the bafe: lip retufe in 
the middle : pillar obliquely ftriate. 

Argenv. Conch, tab. 13. k. Rumpf, muf. tab. 39./". I. 

Bonan recr. and Muf. Kirch. ^.Jig. 142. 

Gualt. teft. tab. 24. P. Seba Muf. 3. tab. 53, E. 

Muf. Gott-ivald. tab. i,z. fig. 19. a. 

Knorr delic. t. B. iv./l 4. Vergn. l. /. 15./". »• 

Regenf, conch. I. tab. 2' fig* 151 

Martini conch. 2. t. ^y.f 485, 486. 498. 
a. I.i/ler conch, tab. 727. 724? 

Gualt. teft. tab. 24. N, O. Argenu* conchy tab* 13. N, 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 55./". A— D. 

.\f///, Gott'-juald. tab. JfZ.fig* 22. a — c. 

Knorr Vergn. 2, /. 12.^. I, 2. and 3. /, 2.y^ 3» 

Martini conch, 2. /• 45./". 476, 477. 
3. Martini conch. 2. /. d.8.y. 519. 

VOL. IV.— Z z Inhabits 

362 WORMS.- TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Inhabits Bra/tli refembles the next but is 4 tinics as long, nearly 
5 inches : ^zf// reddifh with numerous brown angular lines.* 
lip tranfverfely ftriate with dirty yellow : pilar brownilh witTi 
white plaits. 

Oliva. Shell fmooth, the fpire refle£tcd^at the bafej pillar obliquely 
Li/2er. tab. 718, 719, 731, 732, 734. 73?, 739, 740. 
Gualt, teji. tab. z^^fig- B, G, M, N, P, Q, T. 
Seha muf. 3. tab. Sl*M- G, I, L, M, O^Y. 
Rumpf. Muf. tah. ^9' f>g- 2-^S- 
Muf. Gottnvald. tab. \z.ftg. 1, 2,6, 7, 13, 15, 19. /. 43./. 25, 

27>30'^«»34.35-37»39. 42' 
K7iorr l^ergn. I. tab. iS'J'g- ?• 3" '• 2./. 4. /. 17./. 3« 5. t. ig.' 

/. I. /. 26./. 3, 4. ^ 27./. 5. t. 28./. 6. and 6./. 23./. 5. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 45. %. 472-474, 475. 478-481. /. 46. 

/; 486-490. 497. fab. 47. fig. 499-504. /. 48./. 509-518. 

/. 49./. 531 /. 51./. 562, 563. 
Chemn, conch. \0' tab. i/^j.fig, 1367— 1382. 
Regenf, conch, l. tab. \.fig. 2. 
VaUnt.abh. tab. %.fig. 68, 69. 

Argennjille conch, tab. I'^.fig, O, R. S, Zoom» tah, II, A, 
Klein oHr, tab, ^./ig- 91. a, b. 
Inhabits tlig Indian Seas in almoft endlefs varieties of colours and 


Annulata, Shell fmooth white with a carinate ring on the back. 

Inhabits Lifter conch, tab. 7 1 7. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. ^^^f'g. 564. 
2, With reddifh waves. Mart. Mannigf. t. 2.f, 21. 

Utriculus, Shell elongated fmooth, with a rather prominent fpire. 
Lifter conch, tab. 723. TlO.fig. 19 ? 
Gualt. teft. tab. 24, G. Argennt. Zoom. tab. 13. M. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. XZ.fig. 4, 5. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 49, ^O. Jig. 539-542. 

2. Mvf. Gotfvuald. tab. \z.fg. 9, 10. 14. a— c. I5« a, b. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 48, ^j-, 520. 

3. Knorr l^ergn. 5. /c^. 4 yf^. 4. 
Martini conch. 2.t. ^l.f. 565, 566. 

4. Lister, tabf 733. Martin. 2, tab, 50./*, 543, 544, 

5. Lister, tab. y 2^. fg. 13. 

M«/*. Gettivald, /, 25,y, 173. b. 
Martini conch. 2. tab ^O.fg 545—548. 

6. Lister, tab. 722. Rumpf, MiiJ. tab. 39./- 9. 
Bonan. recr. and M^/I Kirch, "i.fig. 141. 
GW/. /^. /a^. 23. R, S. /ai. 24. A, 
i'f^*? ;»»/. 3. tab, 53. P, Q. 

. Muf. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 363 

Muf. GottixaU. tab. ^z.fg. 2. b,c, 4.- /. 43./". 51. a— c. 
Knorr Vergrt. 3. tak. \7'fig' 2 --5. /. 18./', 1,2, 
Martini conth, 3. tab. 50. y)^. 549—554. 

Inhabits the Indian and Etbiopic Seas, in numerous varieties; 
refembles V, oliva, but is more elongated. 

Hiatula, Shell thin with a cinereous fpotted back callous beneath: 
aperture large: pillar toothed at the bafe. 
Lifter, tab. 729. Martin. 2. tab. $o./ig. 555. 
Inhabits the Spanifti coasts, refembles the laft: mouth blue or 
or brown, rarely' white : back with a white or yellowilh cal- 

jfei/pidea. Shell white dotted with greenifli-brown or violet : fpire 
promiijent, the whorls with a band compofed of fpots 
at the bafe. 726. Martin 2. tab. ^o.fig, ^^6 
Inhabits the Spanijk fea, about an inch long, and has a very 
prominent fpire. 

Ni<veai' Shell fnovvy elongated fmooth banded. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 'yO.fig. 557> 558. 

lii\\z\\ls xhQ Spanijh feas : firll whorl of the fpire brownifti or 
reddilh with 2 white or clouded blue bands : probably a va- 
riety of V. oliva or utriculus* 

l/pidula. Shell fmooth with a prominent fpire and fingle margin: 
pillar obliquely (Iriatc. 
Adans. feneg. \. tab, ^.Ttg. ?• 
Bonan.recr. l- f<g 396. Mitf. Kirch. Jig. 363. 
Barr. ic tab, i^zz/jg 17. Rumpf. Muf- t. 39./. 7, 8. 
Pet. Gaz. tab. S9 f'g- 8- GuaJt. test, tab, 23. C — E. 
Jrgenv. conch, tab, 13. Q. Seba mnf. 3. tab. 53. X. g — k. 
MuJ,Gottn.vald. tab: \2.f1g, 1,3.6,7. /. 43./. 37,40-44, 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. \<^-fig- 3. 
Martini conch. 2. tab, ^<). fig. 522—530. 532-538. 
i. LiHer. tab, 7 ZO. fig. 4, 5. Rumpf. Muf. t, l^tf 6. 
Gualt, test. tab. 21- fg. H, I, L. (^ 
Seba Mtrf 3. tab. Sl-f'g-^' 
Muf. Gott^ald. tab, ^2. fig. 5.C. /. 43./. 36. 
Knotr Vergn. 2, tab. \o,fig. 6, y. 
Martini conch. 2. tab, \(i.fig. 491, 492. 
3. Lister conch, tab. 721. fig. 6, 7. 

Muf. Gott^-Lvald. tab. 42. fig. 5. d. 15. h. 
Martini conch, 2. t-ab, 46. fig. 493, 494. 

Inhabits India in very numerous varieties, about an inch long, 2) 
2 inches \on^: Jkt/i white with various markings, within 
darker or brown. 

Z 7, 2 Carncokis.' 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Carneeluit Shell orange with blue bands: fpire flattened and with the 
aperture white. 
Inhabits— —M«r//«/ fo«f^, 2. tab» ^6. Jig. 495. 

N C. Oboval effufe emargtnate . 

DaSiylu's. Shell frnooth, with decuflate ftrise, obtufe : pillar with 6 

Lister, tab. Si ^. fig. 23? Guah. test. tab. 28. O, P. 
Seba muf. 3. tab, 53. S. 
Favann. conch, tab. i^:/ig,F. I, 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. ^^O.fig. 141I, 1412^ 
Inhabits Indian \\ inch long: Ihell varied with whitiih and 

flelh-colcur, lip flightly crenate. 

Miliaria, Shell flightly emarginate white with an obliterated pale 
yellow fpire : pillar obliquely ftriate. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean ; refembles V. monilis, but is lefs, 
Ihorter, more inflated and quite frnooth, fometimes entirely 
pale yellow, 

Monilis* Shell entire white with an obliterated white fpire; pilla,f 

obliquely ftriate. 
Muf. Gottnjoald. tab. 8. fig. 46,0. 
Martint conch. 2. tab. ^Z.Jig. 426. 
2. Adans Jemg, \. tab. 5. fig. 4. 
Martini conch. 2. tab- 42 fig, 428, 
Inhabits China where it is ufed to make beads and neck-laces, 

I J an inch long: lip prominent, aperture large, pillar with 4 

or 5 plaits. (2 Inhabits Jfrica^ 2\ lines long; pilUvr with 

8 — 10 very ihin piaits, 

Exilis. Shell obovate entire, yellowifh with 2 brown bands ; fpire 
prominent : pillar obliquely flriate. 
Inhabits— —-ikftzr^m conch. 2. tab. 42. Jig. 427. 
2, GloiTy-white with a pale yellow band. 
Schrat. einl. tn conch, i , tab. i-fig. 1 8, 

Perficula ^^^^^^ frnooth with a retufe umbjlicate fpijre : pillar with 7 
plaits: lip with a crenate margin. 
1, Shell dotted with red. 

Lister, tab. 803, fig. 10. Pet. Gaz. t. S.J'. 2. 
£onan. recr. J^'Jig. 246. Muf. Kirch. '^•Jig, 245. 
Gualt. teji. tab. zS.Jig. C, D, E. 
Muf Gottiva/d. tab. S.Jig. 48, 49, 51. 
MoTtini conch. 2. tab. ^z.fg, 421, 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 365 

2. Shell with red lines. 

Lijier. tab. 803. fig. g. Adanf. Seneg. I. /. 4. /". 4. 
Pet. Gaz. tab, 8. //>. lO. G:/^//. tett. tab. 28. B. 
Bonan. recr. and Af/(/. Kirch, ^.fg. 238. 
M«/. Gotfvoald. tab. ^,/ig' 48, 49, 51. 
Knorr. Vergn. 6. tab. zi. Jig. b. 
Martin, conch, 2. tab. ^z. fig. 419, 42b. 

3. Shell reddifh fpotted with white, or uniformly white or blueilh- 
Muj. Gottivnld. tab. ^.fig 46, 47. 5 1- 62. 

M&rlini conch. 2. /«i^. \z.fig. 416 — 418. 

4. Shell barred with black, the fpire a liule prominent, 

Inhabits the African Sea and Senega/: an inch long. 

'Pallida, Shell entire, oblong-ovate, with an elevated fpire; pillar 
with 4 plaits. 

Tranf.iS. Linn. Soc ill./ 253. 

Lifter conch, tab. yi^.jig. 70. 

SchrcEt. Einl in conch \. tab. l-figy 10. a,b, 

Adanf. Sen'.g. I . tab. 5, fig. 2. 3 

Inhabits European and African Shores. Shell fmall long narrow 
whitifh or wax-colour j refcmbles Bulla cylindrica, but has an 
evident fpire and plaited pillar and is linely poliflicd. 

Faba* Shell flightly emarginate fmooth and a little plaited : fpire 

prominent: pillar with 4 plaits: lip with a crenulate 

Adam feneg. I. tab. \fig 2. Gitalt test, tab. 28. Q^ 

Muf.Gott<wald. tab. 2<i-ftg. 170. a — d. 

Knorr ^crgn. 4. tab. ij.fig. 6. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. ^z. fig. 432, 433. 

Inhabits the African Ocean; about an inch long. 

Shell n&Tiow Jong polifl;eci, hoary with rows of black dots, 

,^, » ,, Shell very entire fmooth with a lavigated fpire : pillar \yiih 
4 plaits : lip gibbous margined toothed. 
Adans feneg. 1. tab. \. fig. I. Lifter, tab. 818. 
Gualt. teH. tab. 28. A, L. Klein, ofxr. t. ^.f. 92. 
Muf. Gottniald. tab. Z'^.fig. 169 — 173. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 21. ftg. 2. 3 and J. /. 23./I 3. 
Martin, neujl mannigf. 4. /a^. 'i- fg- 25--28. 
Martini conch. 2. /<aA. ifZ'fg' 429-431. 434, 435. 

2- Shell ochraceous with black dots. 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, '^.fg. 49. 

3. Shell narrower, bay, lip not margined, pillar with only 3 pidits. 
Bonan, recr, "i- f.g. 326. Muf. Kirch, 2. fig, 100. 

4. Shell 

366 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

^. Shell white with yellow lines. 
Seba muj\ 3. tab. ^S'/'i- 3^- 

5. Shell white with purple clouds, whorls of the fpire margined, 
Gromv. Zeoph, tab. ig./fg-. 13, 14. 

6. Chemn. conch. 9 tab. 104.. Jig. 890,891. 

7. Chemn. coHch 10 tab. \^o,Jig. 1422 -I424. 

Inhabits the African and American Heat : i -2 inches long. 

SaeU ehhf-r unitormly white cinereous or brown, fometimes ftri* 

ate or undulate or mariced with ftriped Ipots or white eyes or 

angular lines. 

Piunu!», gj^gjj ygjy entire fmooth with a lasvigated fpire : pillar with 
4 plaits : lip neither margined or toothed. 
tijier. tab. SiJ. Adan% Jeusg, \. tab. \' fig. 3, 
Martini conch z tab. J\.z. fig, A^zz, ^zt,. 
Inhabits the i//<?W GsA-^tf : i| inch long. 
Shell blue bliieilh or grccnifh grey, 

kcticalata, gj^^jj ^j^j^ ^jjg|^j dCGulfate grooves: lip internally ftriate s 

pillar nightly perforated. 
Lifter, tab. 830. /trgenv. conch tab. 17. M, 
Bonann. recr. and Muf. kirch. i. fig- S*. 
Seba muf 3. tab. 49. >j?. SI' 55* 
Muf. GottnvaU. /^^. 25. %. 1(35. a, b, 
Knorr l^ergn. ^.tub. l&./'g 7? 
Martini conch. 7,. tab. I zi. fig. IOO7--1009. 
Z. Seba muf. 3. tab. ^()-fig. 5^-^ 

Inhabits the Amtrican 0<ean and : fheil 2 inches long and 

about the fizc of a plum ; varied wiih white and paL- yellow, 

or brown barred with white, rareiy entirely orown or white; 

inflated wiih obfoleie grooves wnich are elevated into tubercles 

in the angle of fedion: aperture white: lip traniverfely grooved; 

pillar with a few doubled plans and iurnilhed with a ihort 


M^^caforia. Shell ftriate, with an obtufe fpire : pillar retufe toothed, the 
lip gibbous and denticulate. 

Lifier- tab. 824. >^. 43. Pet. Gaz. t. 9./, 4. 

Adanf. feneg. I tab, <^. fig. 29. 

Bman. recr, and Muj kirch ^-ftg- 36. 

Giiialt. te/i. tab, 43. I, L. Muf Gotlnuali. tab. 1 6. fig, I 2. b, c, 

Y^ntrr l'e>'gn. 4. tab. 12, fig. 5, 6. t. iS f 3. 

Martini conch, z. tab. 4.\-fig. 452—458. 
2. Lijfer. tab. '^Z'J.fig- 49. E. 
3-. Knorr Vergu, b. tah. \b. fig. 6, -] . 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 367 

Inhabits the Mediterranean^ jEthiopic, American and Indian fcas, 
refembles the next ; about | ol an inch long. 

5/?^?// uniformly white or yellow, or varioufly marked with fpots, 
clouds r,x bands; folid and Ihort, with tranfverfe elevated nor 
dulous Ihiqe. 

Rustica, Shell fmoothifh, with a prominent fpirc: pillar retufe, 
denticulate, the lip gibbous and denticulate. 

Lister, tab, Sz/^., fig. 44. /, 821;, 826./. 49, /. 827,/. 49. a,b. 

Adams Seneg. I. talf. f)- /ig. 28. 

Gualt. tell. tab. 43. ftg. C, D, E, G. H. 

Bytem. app. tab. 11, /rg. 41. c, 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab^ \%, fig. 4, 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 44. fig. 459. 462, 463. 465 — 471, 

Inhabits the Medit err fine any /Ethiopic and American feas, in great 
varieties of fize and marking?, and is diftinguilhed from the 
laft by its wanting the ftriae; fometimcs uniformly red or y^el- 
low, fometimes white, fpotted, ftriate or clouded with biown 
chelnut or yellow. 

Paupercula. Shell entire, fmoothifh, with a ftriate bafe: fpire a litll^ 
prominent, the pillar with 4 plaits; lip obtufe. 
Lijler, tab. 819, fg. 35, Gualt. teji, t. 55, L. 
JCnorr Vergn^ 4. tab* 26, fig. 5. 
Martini conch. ^. tab, l^c), fig. 1386,1387, 
Schrtzt. Einl. in conch. I . tab. i tfig. 1 1 . 
z. Gualt. teft, tab. 43, fig. O. F? 
3. Chemn. conch, 10. tab. 1^0, fig. 1417, 1418. 

Inhabits Mediterravean and Indian feas : Shell fplid, blackifh? 
ferruginoys with longitudinal white lines. 

Mendicaria Shell {lightly ftriate, with a fubgranulate fpIre : pillar 
fmooth, the lip gibbous and denticulate. 

Lifter, tab. 826. /. 47- Fet.Gaz. t. 1 I,/. 5. 

Bonan. rccr. U Muf Kirch. 3. fig. 50. 

Gualt. tefi. tab. 52, E, Knorr Vergn. 4, /. 16, f. 3. 

Martini conch. 2. /fli. 44, fig. 460, 461, 

\vi)M.\>\x.% \.\iQ Mediterranean &nd Indian i'ezs: Shtll black and a 
little rough to the touch, fize of a kidney bean, the whorls 
beneath with 3 yellow bands; fpire with a fingie afcending 
line and flightly nodulous whorls. 

Cancillatfi Shell entire, plaited, and reticulate crofs-wjfe : pillar with 
3 plaits, nightly umbilicatc and a Ijttle produced. 
' Adanf. Seneg. I, tab. 2, Jig. 16. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 48, fig. E— E. 
Bern Muf. Caf. hn//. teit. tab. 9, f. 7, 8. 
Knorr l^ergn. 4. t^b. 5, fig. 5. 


368 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Inhabits the African ocean and Senegal; refembles the Murex 
fenticofus, but is Ihorter : JJieli zhoat an inch long, with lon- 
gitudinal ridges croffing fharp elevated tranfverfe ftriae, white 
with 2 ferruginous bands on the back : Jjiire acute : pillar 
ending in a fhort beak. 

Elegans. Shell fmooth, white, with blue bands and yellow mouth : 
fpire nearly obliterated ; pillar 6-toothed. 
Lister, tab. 803,/". 1 1. Bonan. Muf, Kirch. 3./". 269. 
Martini conch. 2. tab 42, fi^. 424, 425. 
Inhabits Shell hardly an inch long. 

Q'vum. Shell fmooth, greenifh-white, with numerous bands: lip 
infledled: pillar with 4 plaits. 
Kncrr Vergny 4. tab. Z^,/. 5. t, 27,/. I. 
Inhabits Shell 2^ inches long. 

J"*/«rf/«<7/^z. Spire obfolete : the fides with thickened margins: pillar 
with 4 plaits. 
Born Muf. iZaj Vtnd. test, tab. 9, /. 5, 6. 
Favann. conch, tab. 29, fig. E. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab, I 50, y?f . 1 42 1. 

Inhabits Shell fmooth, fnowy, rarely reddifh, or yellow 

with 3 darker bands : mouth lanceolate, 

Nucea, Shell fubflriatc, glabrous, with an obtufe fmooth prominent 
fpire: pillar with 5 plaits. 
Chemn. conch. lo. tab. 150, yTg-, 1419, 1420. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

Conuu ^h^W conic, white, with hollow pundured grooves at the 
bafe: whorls crenate : pillar with 6 plaits. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch, 10. tab. i^o^f. 1415, 1416. 

D. Fuftform. 

Iringa. Shell nearly entire, oblong, fmooth, with a prominent ex- 
coriated fpire: pillar with 3 plaits: lip llightly 
toothed inwardly. 

Manf. Seneg. I. tab. <^y f. 27. Gualt.test. t.^^, B. 

Schrcet. Einl. in conch. I. tab. i.f. iz. 

inhabits the Mediterranean : j%J/ polifhcd, hardly an inch long, 
clouded with pale yellow and white: pillar with very thin 
plaits: /// not margined outwardly, but gibbous within in the 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. ^ 369 

Cornicttla, Shell (lightly emarginate, oblong, fmooth, horny, with a 
longifh fpire: pillar with 4 plaits: lip equal and 

Gualt. test. tab. 43, fig. N ? 

Schrat, inn, Bau. eonch. tab, 4. fig. 2. 

Schrcet. Etnl. in conch. I. tab. l,y. 13. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and JEthiopic feas ; refembies the laft, 
bur the fpire is longer and the lip not toothed or gibbous with- 
in : fiellmo^\y fmooth, very rarely marked with line tranfverfe 
ftris ; black with a reddifh -ochre or yellowilh-brown hue and 
varied with wa^ed ftripcs, or pellucid like horn with fome- 
times 2 whitilh bands. 

yirgo. Shell entire, tapering, plaited and tranfverfely ftriatei pillar 

with 3 plaits and perforated. 

Inhabits Shell about a tinger*s length and marked with 

about 12 grooves, the bafe reticulate: /pirt with 10 diftinft 

whorls marked with a red line and 2 bands, the upper yellow 

the lower-one white : beak elongated as in a Strombus. 

Ocahriujcu- Shell emarginate, flriate and tranfverfely wrinkled : pillar 
^^» with 4 plaits and perforated: lip crenulate. 

Rump/, muf, tab. 29, T. Gualt. teji. t. 53. D, H ? 
Martini conch . ^. tab. \\<),fig. 1 388, 1389. 
Inhabits India. Shell rough, white, with brown wrinkles, 
rarely cinereous with white wrinkles j about 2 inches long. 

IRj/fiina. Shell nearly entire, tranfverfely wrinkled: pillar with 4 
plaits: lip crenulate. * 

Gualt. teft. tab. 54, fig. G ? 

Inhabits /ru//« ; refembies the laft, but is narrower, longer and 
covered with flefh-colour fpots : beak entire, without perfora- 
tion : lip recurved, crenulate and covered with rounded tu* 

Nubihu Shell nearly entire, fmooth, yellowilh with red clouds, 
tranfverfely ftriate: lip crenulate: pillar with 4 plaits. 
Marty n univerf. conch. I . tal^. 2 3 . 
Inhabits the Southern Ocean and Friendly IJlaiids, 

Sengui/uga, Shell emarginate, longitudinally grooved and tranfverfely 
ftriate: pillar with 4 plaits: lip Imooth. 
Lister, tab.Szx, fig. 38. Rump/, muj. tab. 29. V, 
•Pf/, Gaz. tab. 4, fig. 5. Gualt. tefi. t. 53, F. 
Bonan. recr. 13 Muf. Kirch. %. fig* "J^. 
Seba Muf. I. tab. /^(), fig IJ,12. 15, r6. 
Knorr rergn. 4, tab. 1 1 , f:g, 4, 

VOL. IV. — 3 A Regenf, 

370 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Regenf. covch, i. tab. \. fig. 5. 

Martini conch. \, tab 148. _/?§-. 1367,1368, 1373, 1374. 
2. Adanf. Seneg. l. tab. <), f^g. 35 ? 

Inhabits the Meditenanean and Indian (czs; \\ inch long. 

Shell nodulous at the meeting of the grooves and ftriae, the grooves 
red or marked with thin alternate white and brown bands : 
fpire acute, the whorls with generally a double band compofed 
of red dots, 

Caffra. Shell emarginate, round, fmooth : whorls of the fpire with 
plaited ftrias: pillar with about 4 plaits. 
KnorrVerg. 5. tab. 19,/*. 4. Gualt.test. /. 53,E. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 49, ftg. 21, 22. 41. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. i^S./tg. 1369, 1370, 

2. Bonan recr. ^ Muf. Kirch. 3. /". 74. 

3. Knorr 'vergtt. ^, tab, ig, fig. 5. 
Inhabits the Afialu fea\ z\ inches long. 

Shell acute, black, violet or yellow, with white bands and more 
orlefs diftinflly plaited. 

Morio» • Shell (lightly emarginate, round, fmooth : pillar with about 
. 3 plaits. 

Inhabits very much refembles the laft, but is twice as thick, 

brown, furrounded with afingle wliite line beneath, fpire not 
ftriate, and the pillar has only 3 fmall pUits. 

Acus» Shell tapering and tparked with trgnfvcrfe rows of red 

dots: fpire pointed, fmooth. 
Martini cmch. 4. tab. 157. fig, I493> I494* 
Inhabits-' ■■■ Shell hardly an inch long, white or yellowifh- 

Vulpecula, Shell emarginate, fubangular, unarmed and tranfverfely 
ftriate: pillar with 4 plaits: throat ftriate. 

Rumpf.muf. Tab, 39, R. Pet. Gaz. tab. 56,/'. J, 

Gua/t, tej't. tab. 1^ if, fig. B, C. 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 49' fig- 33> 34' 

Knorr Vergn. 3. fab, 15,/^. 2. ^ 5. /, l6,/.3» 

Martini conch. 4. tab.'^^^i.fig. 1366. 
2, Checkered mitre. Martyn uni'verf, conch. I, /. 19, 

Inhabits India ; about 2 inches long, 

i/-^// long, narrow, ribbed, rufous -or yellow, with fometimes 
darker bands : lip fpotted with brown : fillfir white with a 
brown fpot in the middle, 

Plicaria* Shell emarginate, angular, the anterior angles a little fpin- 
ous: pillar with 4 plaits: lip fmooth, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 


Rvrnpf. Mil/, tab. 29, S, Lister, tah. Seo. 

Bonan recr. Sc Muf. Kirch. 3, fig. 64, 65. 

Gualt. teft. tab. 54. D — F. Jrgen'V concL tab. 9, Q. 

Klein ojir. tah. (), fig 87. 

&eba Mhf. 3 tab. 39, fig, 23, 24. 

Knorr Fergn* /. 15,/. 5.6. 3. /. 27, /*. 4, 6. /. 12,/. 5. 

Martini conch. 4. /^;*, 148 /?. 1 362— I 365. 
2. Chemn. conch. 10. /a^. 151- /'i'- 1444> '445* 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean; 2 inches long. 

Shell mxxow, long, pointed and tranfvcrfely ftrlate, within blue 
barred with white^ or white with bands ot another colour, 
without \N hite with red violet cinereous or green bands and 
circulai- Itrise ; each end red, blue or cinereous, 

BuUatat Shell cylindrical, glabrous, reddifh with fublivicl belts: 
fpire obtufe: pillar with 4 plaits within: aperture 

Chemn, conch. 10. tab. i^O, f. 1409, 1410. 

Lijtert tab.%\lyf ii? Bonan, Muf. Kirch, ^.f, 269. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 42. /I^. 424, 425. 

Knon- Vergn. 4. tah. 23, /. I . /. 27, /'• 1. 

Inhabits the Indian i>c£an. 

Crenulata, Shell cylindrical with decufTate flriae and impreflibd dot?, 
white with ycUowilh clouds : lip and whorls nodulous, 
the latter with crenulate margins: pillar with 8 plaits. 
Chemn, conch; 10. tab. l^O,fig. 1413, 1414* 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 

Scutulata. Shell tapering, hiack with white fpots and tranfvcrfely 
ftriate: Hrft whorl a Uttle ventjricofe: pillar with 4 

Chcnn. conch. lo. tab. l^ltfig- ^28, 1429. 

Inliabits the Indian Ocean. 

v'igra. Shell tapering, emarginate, blackifh : whorls flattilh : 
lar with 4 plaits. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. ^S^'/'i" '43°» '43'' 
Inhabits (hores of Guinea, India utid Greenland, 


Subdivifa, Shell tapering, emarginate, longitudinally ribbed, plaited 
and ftriate tranfvcrfely: pillar with 3 plaits. 
Chetnn. conch. ID. tah. t 51, y'/^. 1434 — 1 437. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

Cnientata. Shell tapering, emarginate, barred and tranfverfcly llriate, 
with longicndinal knotty ribs fpotted with red: pillar 
with 3 plaits. 

A 2 

{.'■he inn. 

372 WORMS. TESTACEA. ^5. Voluta. 

Chemn. conch. lo. iah. iJiiT^J". 143S» 1439» 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 

^xajperaia Shell tapering, emarginate, granulous, with decufTate ftrire 
and longitudinal ribs barred with brown : pillar with 
5 plaits. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. IS\' fig- 1440, 1441. 
J. Martyn uni'verfal conchoU I. tab. 21. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 

Cranofa, Shell tapering, emarginate, tranfverfely ftriate and longi- 
tudinally grooved, with elevated dots and reddifh lines, 
the tip and bafe blackifh : pillar with 3 plaits. 

Chemn. conch, xo. tab. \$\» fg' 1442, 1443. 

Inhabits the Indian Orson, 

Cajla, Shell tapering, fmooth, brown with white bands ; pillar 

with 6 plaits and emarginate at the bafe. 
Chemn. conch' 10. p. 174. 'vign. 20, fig. C, D. 
Martyn uni'verfal conehol. 1 . tab, 20, 
Inhabits the ihores of Amboina. 

len4ozsnia: Shell tapering, chefnut with flexuous white bands: pillar 
obfoletely plaited. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. \J^%. fig. I 37 1, 1372. 
IValch Naturf. 4. tab. I. fig. 3, 4. 
I^nhabits Shell 2 inches long, 

Wtfjr«W, Shell tapering, white with reticulate and fpottcd brown 
Martini conch. 4. tab. i^g, fig. 1377. 
Inhabits '- M ■■ >S^g^ about an inch long. 

Nodutofa. Shell tapering, brown, cancellate, the angles of fedion no- 
dulous and whitilh : pillar with 4 plaits. 
Inhabits. Gualt. teft. tab. 52. F, G, 

Martini conch. 4. tab. 149. y. 1385. 
2. Martini conch, j^. tab. 149,/. 1390. ^ 

Siadicea. Shpll tapering, chefnut with yellow clouds and fpots : fplre 
with 8 longitudinally plaited and tranfverfely ftriate 
whorls: pillar with 5 plaits. 
Inhibits-"— -lUartiiii conch. 4. tab, 1^0. f, 1392. 

4ifrantia. Shell ta-pering, or;i:^ge ; 4 firft whorls of the fpire with a 
white band: lip denticulate: pillar with 4 plaits. 
Inhabits— —A/ar//«/ conch. 4. tab. 150,/. 1393, J 394- 

DecuJJata , 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 


Dccufata, Shell tapering, with decufTate ftriac, the longitudinal ones 
undulate; yellow, with about 4 plaits on the pillar. 
Inhabits 'Mai tint anch. 4. tab. 150 fig. 1395. 

Pofygona, Shell tapering, pun£lnred ; the whorls longitudinally ribbecf 
and very finely (Iriate tranfverl'ely, the 3 firft angular: 
lip grooved: pillar ilightly nmbilicate, with about < 

Inhabits ■ ■ Martini conch. 4. tak, J go.yff . 1401, 1402. 

S&e^I very long and narrow, wiiiic Ihaded with brown and blacki 
^ire with lo whorls. 

Acuminata. Shell tapering cancellate with a fliort cancellate beak : pillar 
Marttni conch. 4. tab. \^0'Jig, 1403, 1404. 
Inhabits Tranquebar i very long and narrow, pale yellow or vio- 
let with (omecimes a white band : J'pire very acute at the tip. 

Biphcata, Shell tapering flmooth, white with yellow fpots and black 
dots: lip acute . pillars-plaited. 
Inhabits Martini conch, \. tab. 149 Jig. 1375. 

lurricula. Shell tapering; pillar with 2 plaits : whorls rather turgid, 
with a band of black dots, the firfl; whorl double. 
Inhabits Martini conch, tab. \\f)-Jig, 1376, 

Lineata. Shell tapering, with perpendicular black .lines crofling a 
white band: pillar with abo"it 3 plaits. 
Inhabits Martini conch. ^. tab^ l\<).fig. 1378,1379. 

Difcort. Shell tapering, beneath brown dotted with white, above 
white with perpendicular waved yellow flripes. 

Inhabits 'Martini conch. 4. tab. 1^0. //g. 1400. 

2. More pointed and hoary with longitudinal fcriuginous ftrix; 
Martini conch. ^. tab. l^o. fig. 1405. 
SZW/ minute and ventricole beneath. 

Shell tapering with very fine tranfverfe (Irix, duCcy with 
red dot5i and 2 paler bands.. 
Inhabits Martini couch. ^. tab. ^^^.fig. I4e(j. minute. 

Shell tapering and grooved longitudinally, brown with a 
tranfverfe white nodulous band: pillar 5-toothed. 
Inhabits Martini conch, ^. tab. i^O./ig. 1407, 


^74 WORMS. TEStACEA. 75. Voluta. 

La'vigaia. Shell tapering fmooth brown, border of the rnouth paler 
fpire with a paler band. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. i^'^-fig- 1408, 
Inhabits— — Shell narrow fmall. 

Ocellata. Shell tapering, chefniit with white eyes. 

Inhabits -Martini ionch. ^. tab. ^S^-J'S- ^4°9« niihute.' 

j^^a/uta. Shell tapering, red with rows of black dots: lip prominent: 
beak retieded. 
Inha.bns-'—Mdnini conch, 4, tab. \<^o.fig. 1410. 

Marmorea. Shell tapeiringj varied with white and brown : lip infle£led. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 4. fab. i$0,fig. 141 I. 

Barbadenfts Shell tapfering reddifh with very fine tranfverfe ftriae: aper- 
ture oblong-oval: fpire-obtufe. 

Liter conch t tab. ?)i(),ftg. 33. ' 

Inhabits the American Oiean\ about J|inch long. 

Clathrata. Shell tapering cancellate With dti obtnfe fpire; lip margined: 
beak retle(5led. 
Inhabits tne Ajnerican Ocean. Lister, tab. Big. fig. 34. 

Tricolor, Shell tapcring gibbous yellow, each of the whorls with a 
white band telfellate with black : pillar 3-plaited. 

Inhabits Bonan recr. and Muf. Kirch. '^- fi?. 37. 

Shell tailed : fpire obtul'e at the top. 

Turrita, Shell tapering," chefnut-brown with undulate brown lines, 
with horizontal dbfolete nodulous plaits ; aperture 
ftriate : pillar 3 plaited. 
Lister, tab. 836. Martir.: tab. l^l.fig. 1317, 1318. 
Inhabits Shell with a (lightly prominent beak. 

Syracufana Shell tapering fmooth> white with perpendicular waved 
blackifh-ycliow llripes. 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, 'i-fig. 40. 
Inhabits Sjracufe ; longer and nirrovver than the laft. 

Nitens. Shell tapering polifhed, chcfnut within white: pillar \Vith 
4 plaits. 
Bonan. recr. 3. fig. 322. IMuf, Kirch, "i- fig. 323, 
Inhabits Hhe/l 4. little ventiicole. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 375 

Qtnna, Shell tapering, citron with rufous bands. 
Valtnt abh. z. tab. z. fig. 12. 
Inhabits Shell z\ inches long, 

l^ucronata. Shell tapering, pale brown and longitudinally ftriate: fpire 
perforated: pillar perforated 4-plaited. 
Inhabits ■ Gualt. tefi. tab. 52. M, 

"Rvgofa. Shell tapering a little ventricofc, longitudinally wrinkled ar^d 
tranfverfely ftriate, whitifli vvith piceous lines. 

Inhabits r-Gualt. ttft. tab. 54. A. 

Spire acute and ribbed at the tip : lip margined. 

Strigofa. Shell tapering, cinereous (Iriate with red : fpire glabrous, 
the whorls rather tumid. 
Inhabits -Argen'V. conch, tab. 9. V. 

Fojfilis. Shell tapering glabrous : pillar with 5 plaits. 
Argenv. conch, tab, zg.yf^. 6. b. 
Found hitherto in a foffile ftate only, 

Leficofiiaa. Shell tapering thin glabrous, brown fujrounded with lines of 
white dots. 
Knorr Fergn, 2. tab. $.Jig. 7. 
2. Nitted mitre. Martyn. univerf. conch, X. tab, 22. 
Inhabits — ^-r^i)x\\t Friendly IJlandi. 

Clathrns. Shell tapering, whitifli cancellate: whqrls with a band of 
yellow fpots. 
Inhabits Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. z-J.fig. 3. 

Virgata, Shell tapering tranfverfely. ribbed, with a tranfverfe brown 
band and longitudinal waved fpots. 

Inhabits Knorr l^ergn. 4. tab. I \.fig. 2. 

Shell thick, 2 inches long; aperture white ; the'ribs fcaly. ' 

Leucoftoma. Shell tapering, cancellate, varied with tawny and while 
with waved brown fpots; mouth ochraccous. ' 

Inhabits . Knorr Vergn. \. tab, W-.fig. 3. 

Variegata. Shell tapering tranfverfely ftriate, yellow with a brown 
band and fpots and numerous Iclfer vvhite ones. 
Inhabits Knorr Virgn. 5. tab. lS,/ig. 6. 


376 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Filiarit, Shell emarglnatc a little tapering marked with decufTate 
ftriae and furrounded with fine red lines: pillar 3- 

Inhabits Mant. z. p, 548. 

^iW/ pale fufiform, about the length of a little finger: throat 
white with fimple lips: nuhorls 3, appearing as if begirt with 
fine red moniliform threads, the lall with 12. 

Voha. Shell cylindrical whitilh glabrous : fpire projeding abtufe 
and emarginate at the bafe : pillar with 4 plaits. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 148./^, 1389, I 390. 
Inhabits the fhores of Guinea ; above 2 inches long. 

Zier-voyelii. Shell ovate bay, longitudinally wrinkled, beneath tranf- 
verfely grooved : fpire obtufe and crenate at the future: 
pillar 4-plaited : lip denticulate. 
Inhabits Chemn. co7tcbt 10. tab. 149. _^^. 1406. 

Rhinoceros. S'^^^' ovate-triangular rugged knotty tranfverfely grooved 
and umbilicate: whorls muricate with knobs: pillar 
3-plaited : lip toothed : throat ftriate. 

Chemn. conch, 10. tab. ^^O.fig. 1407, 1408, 

Inhabits fhores of Ktiu Guinea. 

Codata. Shell tapering white : fpire with very fine tranfverfc ftriae 
and rounded ribs, the firft whorl wit^ 3 brown bands : 
pillar 4-plaited. 
Inhabits' Schraet. Einl. in conch, \. tab. \' fg. 17. 

Beak a little reflefted, with 6 oblique ftriar. 



Shell ovale white: fpire fpotted with brown, the firft whorl 
with 6 brown bands : tail emarginate : lip imprefTed : 
pillar with 6 plaits. 

Inhabits Schrctt. Einl. in conch, 1. tab \,Jig. 16. 

Whorls oithi fpire marked with rows of black dots. 

Shell emarginate Ariate and marked with hollow punctures: 
lip denticulate : pillar 5- plaited. 
Lijier. tab. Szz. Knorr l^ergn. z. tab. ^. fig- S« 
Seba niuf, 3, tab. ^o.fg. 28. 47 — 49. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 54. fig- H. 
Martini conch. ^. tab. l^j.Jig. 136 1. 

2. Knorr Vtrgn. 2. tab. \,Jig. 6. 

3, Fa'vanm conch, tab. 31. fig. D 3«' 

Chtmn, conch. \ ^^^'fig. 1432. '432' 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 37^ 

Inhabits India; 3 inches long. Shell narrow brown, with darker 
longicudinaJ Itrias and elevated iranfverfe ones covered with 
flactilh granulations. 

Cardinalis, Shell emarginate tranfverfely flriate, white with rows of 
chefnut fpots which are generally teirellate: pillar with 
5 plaits. 

Lister, tab. 838. Gualt. tejl. tab. 53. G. 2. 

Seba muf. 3. tab, ^o./lg. 51, /. 5I._/1 6, 7. 

Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. z%,fig. 3^ 

Born Muf. Caf.Vind. teft. tabt^./tg, 11, iz« 

Martini conch. 4. tab. i^J.fig. 135^, I359. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean ; refemblcs V. pcrtafa, but is more 
vcntricofe and obtule. 

Shell emarginate finooth : margins of the whorls entire : 
lip denticulate : pillar with 4 plaits. 

Natural. Mijcell. tub. 244. Lister, tab. S^g./tg. 66J 

Rumf/. muf. tab. 29. K. Gualt, test. tab. 53. G. I. 

Bonau. recr* and Muf. kirch, 'i^.fig. 120. 

Argen'v. conch, tab. 9. C. Bytem. app. tab. i l./ig^ 47; 

Seba muf. 3, tab ^i.fig. 8— 19. 

Knorr delic. tab, B. iii. ftg. 3. l^ergn, I. tab. d.Jig^ Z' 

Regeni;. conch. 1, tub. 3. /ig. 33. 

Martini conch. 4. tub. l^y.fig. 1 360, a. 

Inhabits India. The inhabitant or li(h is faid to be of a poifon- 
ous nature, if eaten, and to wound thofc who toueh it with a 
kind of pointed trunk. The natives of the iiliDd Taana fix 

. the fhcils in handles and ufe them as hatchets. 

Shelly inches long, covered with a yellowifti .brown cuticle, 
under which it is white with rows of fquarifh bright red fpots 
which arc rarely yellow and fometimes confluent.- 2 firft of the fpire glabrous, the reft finely Itriate tranfverfely. 

Shell emarginate traufverfely ftriate: margins of the whorls 
and lip denticulate: pillar with 4 plaits. 

^haiu Natur. Mifcell tab. 244. lower figure. 

Lifer, tab. S^g.ftg, 67. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 29. I. 

honan.recr. ^nd Mu/'. kirch. "^-fig. 119. 

Argeh'V. conch, tab. 9. E. Gualt. test. tab. 53, I, 

Seba muf 3. tab. ^1 fig. I— 5. 

Knorr Vergn. I. tab. 6. tig, \i 

Re genf. conch. I. t. \,f. \. 

Mart'.ni c-.nch 4. /. 147. /: 1353, 1354/ 
2. Lister, tah. 84O. Gualt te/l* tab. 53. I. 2* 

Valent »bh. tab. $.fg. 45, 

Seba muf. 3. /. 50./'. 29, 30. /. 51, /; 37, 

Knorr Vergn, 4. tab. zi.fg. 2, 

VOL.IV.-3B j,j^,,.„. 

378 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75, Volutin 

Martini conch. 4. fab. 147. fig. 1355. 1356. 
3, Kamm. Cab. Rutfolft. tab. g fg S. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean i refembles the laft, but tho fpots arc 
more irregular and deeper coloured 

Patriar* SJveU obovate folid tranfverfely ftriate, whltifh with fatFron 
ehalis, and reddifti ftrlse, niarked with nodulous plaits: pillar 

4.-plaited; whorls crowned with tubercles. 
Inhabits /«///«. Cbenm conch. 10. tah. 150.^?^. 1425— -1427. 

Mujica. Shell margined, with obtufe fpiqes in the whorle: pillar 
with 8 plaits: lip fmooth and very thick- 

leister y tab. 805, 806. 8fi2. Argewv. concb. tab 14, F. 

Ronan. recr. ^ fig. 296 — 298 Muf kitch. yfig. 297—299. 

Gualt. test. tab. 28. x z. 3. Bytem app. tab. 8 Jig. 48. 

Mu/.Gottwald. t. \b.f. 155.3 — c. 117 a-r-d. Ii8. a, b. 119. b— f 

^eha muf. 3, tab. 57, fig. 7 — 21* 

Kncrr Vergn. l.t.l^.f. 1,2. /. 15./. 4, 5. 3. r. 12./. I. 6, 
/.. 23./.1. 

Martini conch, -i^.tab^ 9^-fg- 926--933 
2. Chemni concha \o, tab. \^C). fig. 1401 — 1404, 

Kncrr Vergn. ^. tab. iz.fig. l' 

Inhabits the American Ocean, Shelf with numerous tranfverfe 
bands compofed of parallcll brown Hues, between which are 
dots and marlcs in fome meafure refeinbling mufical notes ; 
whltifh, rarely olive with 8 white bands and chcfnut dots ; 
fometimes long and fufiform, fometifpes fhort and ventricofe : 
fpires often long and acute, often Ihorter ami more obtufe : 
pillar with 9--!? plaits, 

Fefpertilio, Shell eiriarginate, with acute fpires on the whorls: pillar 4- 
plaited; lip fmooth, 
Lifter. 807,808. tab. 32. H. 
Bonan. recr. I- fig, 294. 305. Muf. Kirch, ^.fig* J^J^ 306. 
Valent abh. t^b. ^fig. I. t. J.f. 62. 
Gualt. ten. tab. %%.fig. F, G, I, M, V, T ? 
%eba muf. 3, tab. n. fig. 4, 5 Klfin oftr. t, 5./. 89. 
Muf ij.fig. i2i.a-.c. 122. a -c 123. a,b, 
Knorr delic. tab. J. \'l.fig. 5. Vergn. I. t. 22. f. 3. 
Martini conch. ^ tab. 97. fig, 934 .940. 

2. Valent abh. tab. J.fig.f^Z, Naturf. 19./, l»f.%, 

3. Chemn. conch, g. tab. 10^. fig, 888, 889. 

4. Chemn, conch. 10. tab. 149. 1397 — 134©. 
Inhabits the Indian Seas ; 3—6 inches icJng. 
5/f'f//whiteor}ellowifli,or tulvous with angular chefnut or brown 

lines and fpots, fometimes thin fometimes niore inflated.* 
ffhes longer and fharper or Shorter and more obtufe. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voltita. 379 

Jrabi a. Shell emarginate, the whorls tuber<^ulatc and marked with 
black charadlers: pillar 4-plaited. 
Inhabits AVov Zealand, Mart. univ. conchoU 2. tab. 52. 

Fltlrah, Shell emarginate, the whorls with fubacute fpines : pillar 
with 5 ftronger plaits and 3 obfolete ones. 
Vtfier. tab. 8og. Argeni), conch, tab. 14. D. 
Bonan. recr. '^./ig- 293. Muf. Kirch. 3. fig. 292. 
Gualt. teji. tab. 28. Z. i . Olear muf tab. 30. Jig. 5, 6. 
Muf. Gott=waU. tab. l()/ig. II5 C 1 1 9. a. 
Sela muf. 3. tab. i^J'/'g. I, 2. 3. 6. 
Knorr Vergn. \. tab. l\.fig. I, 2. and 6. t. ^^f. 1. 
Martini conch, ^.tab. g6./ig. 924, 9*^. 
Inhabits India and "Jamaic.i'y very rare: 6 inches long. 
<S/v// marked with tranuerlechefnut lines which are often croffed 
by longitudinal attd frequently undulate ones. 

Turbintlius Shell nearly tintire turbinate, with Conic fomcwhat ereft 
fpines, the upper ones larger: pillar with 4 plaits. 
Liiter. tab, 81 1. Rump/. Muf. tab. 24. B. 
Bonan recr. 1.f:g. 373. Miif, kirch . I. fig 367. 
Gualt. tejl, tab. 26. L. Argenv. conch, tab, 14. P. 
5^^fl muj. 3. /fl^. 49. /7f 76, 77. ^ 60/1 8. 
Muf Gottnxjald, tab. I \.fg 79. a> b. 
iv«crr TiPr^w. 2. /<j5. 2 /7f. 3. /. X'^.f. 2, 3. 
Regtnf conch 2. fig* l8. 
Martini conch. 3. w^. *)^. ftg- 944. 
Inhabits the Indian Oceant about 3 inches long, 
^i"?// white, outwardly barred with brown. 

Capitellum, Shell ovate rugged knotty : pillar 3-plaited. 
Lister, tab, 8 to. Gualt. teji. tab, 37. A. 
Bonan recr, iftg. 270. Mnf. kirch, 3. /7j'. 272. 
jirgenv. conch. t<J>. I 5 ftg. k. 
/Tworr Vergn. 6, fa^, zo.fig. 6. /. 35./". 2. 
Martini conch, 3. /a^. <)^.fig, 947» 948. 
2, Martim conch 3. /«^. ^<)-f'g' 949» 950» 
ATwrr Vergn. 6. /«^. "i^-fig- 4. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Stay; refembles mur ex trunculus: 
_/^*// 2| inches long, thick white, fometimes barred with 
brown, marked with decuflate ribs. 

Ceramica, Shell ovate acute, with divergent fplres: pillar with about 
5 plaits. 
Lister, tab. 829. Gualt. teJl. tab. 55- D. 
Rumpf Muf. tab. 24. A. tab. 49. L. 
Bonan. recr. ^-/ig. 286. il^Ay^ Kirch. S-/'^. 2S7. 
Argenv. conch, tab. i j, E. Z-^^^r tef.Jtg, jb, 

3 B 2 A';70r„ 

3^0 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Voluta. 

Knorr Vergn. z. tab* "i-fig^ 2. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. ()().fig. 943. 
2. Knorr Vergn. %„ tab. Z'^.fig- 2. and 6. /. zo.f, 6. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. \^%.jig. 1383, 1384. 
Inhabits Caromandel and Cerapi ; refemb^cs V. Turbinelluj, 
S^f// thick white with brown lines and fpots ; fpines on tKe 
outer whorls gradually leffening into tubercles. 

Pyrum, Shell oboyate flightly tailed, with llriate whorls on the 
fpire, the tip produced and quite glabrous : pillar with 
3 plaits 

Lister, tab. 815. GuaJt. tefi, tab. 46. C, 

Bonan, recr. and Muf, Kirch. '^. f-g. 194. 

Muf. Gittiuald. tab. -J^rij fig. 22 1, a. 222. b. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. "^(^ fig' !• 

Martini conch, 3. tab. 95. _^^. 916, 917. 

2. Lilier. tab. 816. fig, 26 Rumpf t, 36./. 7 ? 
Kkin 0/tr, tab. ^. fig. 79 a. 

Knorr Vergu. 6. /«^. Z"] • fig' i- 
Mar'ini conch. 3. /a^. <)^.jfig' 918, 919. 

3. Chemn. conch. 9. f/j/5. lO^, fig. 884 — 887. 
Inhabits Tran^uebar and Ceylon, above 7 inches loJjg. 
iS/'*//tranfverfely undulate, pale with rows of minute parallelogram. 

fpots, the tip cylindrical, the bafe glabrous and obtufe : bealc 
exferped fpreading and entjre. 

lafponica. Shell obovate fmooth, with a pointed fpire and dilated belly. 
Rumff, muf. tab. 'hT-fig* 3, 4* 
Scba Muf. 3 tab. S7-/'g- 25, 26. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 11. fig- 2. 
Martini conch. I, tab. Sg fig. 872, 873. 
2i Bonan, Muf. Kirch. 3 fig. 395. 

Inhabits the Indian and American Seas. Shell ochraceous witji 
brown dots or lines, rarely undulate : pillar with 5 plaits. 

Vexillnm. Shell ventricofe, yellowifh- white with orange bands ; the 
firft whorl tubercnlate ahd much larger than the red; 
pillar with about 6 plaits, 

l<!atur Mifcell. tab. 52, Rumpf. muf. tab. IJ'fig' 2. 

Jlrgenu. Zoom. tab. "/.fig' O 

Knorr '/ergn. ^.tab. ^ -fig. i. 

Spengler felt . conch, tub. 1 , F F. 

Martini conch. 3. tab, 120 fig. 1O98. 

Ketmmer Rudolii. Cah. tab. ^-fig- »• 6. 

Chemn. conch' 10. vion. ZO. Jig. A, B. 

inhabits the Indian Ocean, and u very rare, 

iVW/emarginate, ventricote in the middle, with a pointed fpire; 
in the aault iheli the orange bands are divided at the lip. 


WORMS TESTACEA. 75. Voluu. 33i 

Fla^icanf. Shell pyriform fmooth with yellowifh clouds: fpire varied 
with chcfnut fpots: pillar 4-plaited. 

Inhabits Seba muf. 3. tah. 67. fi^. a, b. 

Martini conch. 3, tab. <)SfZ- 9^^' 9^3* 

Rupestris. Shell elongated ribbed, the ribs crolTed by very fine tranf- 
verfe lines; lip margined: pillar with many plaits: 
fpire papillary at the tip. 
Martini cohch. 3 tah. ()'&-fig 941, 942 
Inhabits 6'/'t7/ 4 inches long, yellowifli with brownifh clouds. 

Kaja, Shell ventricofe, the fpire ribbed with very fine tranfverfe 
flrias croiring the ribs: lip margined: pillar 3-plaited 

Seba Muf 3. tab. ^q.fcg. 32. 

Knorr Vergn. ^.tah. zb.fig. 6. 

Martini conch. /\.. ta^. I 24, 1 25. y"/^. 1 1 72, TI73. 

Inhabit" Mauntius IJland and 'Guinea, above an inch long : 
brownifft with fine white lines, 

Craticulata Shell tapering and tranfvcrfely rtriate, white with longitn- 
dinal chefniit ribs: lip denticulate llriate: pillar with 
3 plaits. 

Lifler. tab: 919. 967. Knorr. 2. tab ^-/^g. 6. 

Seha muf. 3. tah. '^O. fig. 55- ^ 51 /. 3I» 32- 

Martini conch. 4. tah. 1382, 1383, 

Inhabits— Wf// nearly 3 inches long. 

Spiralis. Shell longitudinally ribbed and very finely ftriatc tranfverfely, 
the 2 firll whorls with a row of acute tubercles : pillar 
Rumpf. amh, tah. tc^. fig, X. 

-Inhabits the Indian Seas; cinereous brown or white, narrow 3't 
the bafe, cmarginate, flightly reflecftLd. 


Shell a little ventricofe, ochraceous with white and brown 
lines: lip .fubulate : fpire with convex whorls, the 
firil 3 times as large as the relt. 
Knorr Vcrgn. 6 tab. 2(). fig. i, 2. 
Favann conch, tab. 28 t.. 
Cbemn. conch lO. tah. \i^%.fg 1383,1384. 
Inhabits the Straights rf Mngellan, 4^ iiich« long. 
2. Knorr fWgn. j. tah. 2yfig. 2. 

Shell z inches long, ana narrower; ending in a Iharp dagger, 
like point ; fiHl whorl of the fpire oofcurel/ undula.e. 


3^2 WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Volou; 

Filo/u. Shell very finely reticalate ftriafe, with elevated tfanfrerfe 
belts : pillar 4-plaited : lip crenate. 

Inhabits "Bom uiuf, Ctes. Vind, ieji. tab. g.fig' 9, 10. 

Shell white with i6 chefnuc belcs: plilar a jictlc umoilicatc. 

fujtata. Shell coarfe brown fmdoth, the bafe tranfverfely (Iriate : 
fpire jobtufe, the firft whorl ventricofe with 4 narrow 
bands, the reft with a bro;id white band : pillar umbi- 
licate 3-plaited. 
Inhabits— —^fi'/-^?.. Einlt in conchi. i. tab. \'fig- 1 5. 

Et Vcntr'Kofe : fpiri papiUary at the tip. 

iEthiopica, Shell cmarginatCj the fpire crowned with vaulted fpines 

pillar 4-plaitc(!. 
Lilier. tab. 797. 801, G*taJt. test. tab. 29. H, I. 
Benan. recr, and Alif/. Kirch, "^-jig- !• 
Argewuille conch, tab 17. F- liumpf. Muj tab, 3I. A, B. 
Lejjer teji.ftg. 55. Seba muf. "i,, tab, 64. jig. I, 2, 4. tt 65. ^1 

I, 2. 4. 10. \i t. 66./. I — J, 6 — 10. 15. 
Muf. Gottiuald. tab. qfig. 64. n. 61. b. 
Knorr delic. tab. B. ^ifig 2. Vtrgn. t. iff. I. 
Martini conch, ^.tab. 7^ -j6. fg. 777-^788. 
2, Chemn. conch. 10. /<7^. 148. /fg. 13874 138S. 
Inhabits. /*fr/?« Afia and the Cape of good hope. 
Shell J or 8 inches long, with ycllowiih fpdts or bahdsj (horter 

and more vcntrieofe oc longer and narrower: fpwes long fhort 

broad or narrow : knob at the end of the fpire fometimes ob- 


'Cymbium. Shell erharginatCi whorb of the fpire with grooved margins: 
pillar 4-plaited. 

Lifter: tab. 796. 800 Gualu test. tab. 291 B, 

Column, pur p., 30. fig 3. 

Adansjeneg.t. 3-/'-. »• Argeii'v tab. 17. G. 

Bonaii. recr. and Muf. Kirch, y fig 2. 

Seba mrf 3. t 65 /. 5, 6. 8, 9. t. 66 /. 5. 

Knorr delic. tab, B. V!;/^. 3. ^/?rg-«, z.t. ^O f, 1. 

Martini conch. 3. /«i. "jo. fig. 762-765. 

Inhabits 5^a;>? Africa and Jmetica: fometimes fhort and broad, 
fometimes longer and narrower, fmooth, often uniform ia 
colour, often marked with brown fpots ; /'/ callous. 

Olid. Shell emarginatc, with a fmooth fpird"^: pillar with about 3 

histir. tab. 794. Adans fineg. I. tab. 3. /fo. 2, 
ilmian recr. and Muj, Kirch. 3 J/g. 6. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 75. Valuta. 383 

Gualt. test, tab 29, A. Lefer teft. f. 54. 
Argrnv. Zoom, tab.. 1 1, H. ^Uin oft. tab. 5, Jig, 97. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 66, fig. 13, 14. 16, 18. 
Muf. Gottivald. tab. 10,/^. 68. a— c, 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 23, fig. 2. 
Martini conch. 3. ^a^. 7 1, yf^. 766. 
Schrcef. Einl. in conch. I /«!&. \. fig- 14- 
Inhabits Spain, Jf^i^'f^'i /ffhiopia and the Philippine Ijkt. 
Sheil about 4 inches long, yellowilh or reddiOi, rarely varied|j 
brown, brqadjer thai> ihe laft. 

jSmfiot Shell elongated, with a broad afjertujre: lip acute: wjipr^^ 
of the fpire hardly vifible. 

Inhabits Martini conch, a. tab 6^, fig- 7?2 — 724. 

Shell vi'^xti or brown, about an inch long, 

Nep(uni, 3hell cmiarginate, covered with a brown cuticle undef 
which it is reddiih : lip a little prorijifient ; pillar Ar 

Lijier, tab. 3 02. Gualt. teft, t. ij, A. A, 

Seba Muf 3. tab. 64,/. 3. /. 65. /. 3. 7. /. 66,/. 4. 

M^tini conch. 3. tab.'ji, fig. 767, 

Inhabits the Perfian Gulph : 8 inches long and nearly a$ pjuch 
broad : _/^/r^ with 4 whprls. 

Navicula. Shell emarginate, the lip a little promiiient : pillar with 

about 4 plaits. 
Litter, tab 795. Knqrr Vergn. 5. /. 28,/ 2. 
Seba ^uf. 3. /a^. 6^. fg. 10, 11. /a^. 66^ fg. \\, 12,17. 
Martini conch. I. tab, "J I, fig. 768 — 771, 
Inhabits refembles the laft, but is hardly 2 inches long: 

fometimes uniformly ochraceous, rcddifh orphcfnut, foinetimes 

fpotted or marbled. 

Papillaris Shell elongated, with a long tubercle at the tip. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 6^, fig. 9. 
Muf. Gottzy. tab. lO, fig. 6g. 
Knorr Vergn, 5. tab, 28, fg, 7. 
Inhabits ■■Tubercle at the tip fometimes obliq^ue. 

hdica. Shell elongated, yellow with 3 bands of brown d9ts: pil- 
lar 4-plaitcd. 
Muf. GotiuiaU. tab. I O, fig. 64. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. 8, fig. i« 
MartiMi conch. 3. /a^. 72. f/g. 772, 773. 
Inhabits /«<//«. Sheil narrow, with 5 whorls, 


384 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Bucdnura. 

Scapha.. Shell coarfe, clouded, with zigzag brown lines : pillar 
blueifli and 4- plaited: lip fubulate. 
Lilleri tab, 799. Gualt tejl. t. 28, S. 
Bonan. recn S Mu/ Kirch. '^^ fig. 10. 
Zeba muf. y tab. 6^^ fig. 51 6. 
Klein oftr. tab. 5. /. 94. Le[fer tefl.f. (j6. 
Martini -ranch. 3. tab 72, fi^. 774 — 776. 
Inhabits the Cape of (aood Hope : extremely rare. 
SheJ/ihoTt, broid, white or yellowilh : aperture broad : /pire with 
6 whorls. 

Cy/niidia. Shell ovate> glabrous, Whitifli with longitudinal red lines ; 
whorls knotty : pillar 3-plaited. 
Chemn, conch. lO. ial. i^S, fig, 1385, 1386. 
Inhabits Indian Ocean : 2 inches long. 

Prttputium Shell fubovate, teftaceous with reddifh-bay fpots : pillar 4- 
plaited, cmarginate at the bafe. 
Lijier, tab. 798, Seba miij. 3. tab. 66,/. 1 1 ? 
Chetnn. c6nch. 10. tab, 148,/}^. 1^91, 1392* 
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel, 

Clans. Shell cylindrical, yellowilh: pillar 3-plaited, cmarginate: 
aperture efFufe, fpreading. 
Chemn. conch, 10. tab, 148. /". 1393. 13^4. 
Seba mvf 3. iab^b\.f. 9.*— il. t.b6,f. 13, 14. 
Inhabits the Ealtern Ihores of Africa. 

Reticulata Shell white, fmooth, reticulate with gold, emarginate : 
pillar 4-plaitcd with a conic fpire, the tirll whorl cy- 
lindrical and ventricofe. 

Ka:mm. Cab, Rudolf, tab. ^, f i, 2. 

Inhabits Java: above 2 inches long. 

$peSlabilii Shell hrownifti-yellow ftriate with brown ; pillar 3-plaited. 
Keemm. Cab. Rudolli. t. Itf l. 
Da-oil. Cat al. I. tab, %, fig. S. 
Inliabits the Magellamic Straiti : 5^ inches long. 

76. BUCCINUM. Animal a Limax: Jlieli 
univalve, Ipiral, gibbous : aperture ovate, 
terminatino; in a iliort canal leanino; to 
the right, ^vith a retule beak or projec- 
tion: pillar-lip expanded. Whelk. 

A. -&- 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Bucclnum. 3^5 

A. Inflated, rounded, thin, fubdiaphanous and brittle. 

Shell roundifh, furrounded with obtufc grooves between 
which is an elevated line : aperture without teeth. 
Lister, tab. 985. Pet, Gaz. tab. <^<)i fig. II. 
Adanf, Seneg, I. tab. Ji jig' t>. 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 27. D. Gualt. teft. tab., 44, T. 
Kliin oftrac. tab. 4. fig. 74, 
Muf. Gottivald. tab. 27. fig. 1 88. a> c. 189. a, d. 
Kncrr Fergn, 5. tab. 12, f:g. I. 
Martini concb. ^. tab. 1^7- fg- IO76, 1077. 
Inhabits the Indian jea \ about 4 inches long. 
Shell brown or browni(h with numerous darker cloud andfpotsS 
fpire with 5 inflated whorls feparated by a groove. 

Shell obovate, furrcFunded by grooves v*rhich are double on 
the fore-part r aperture without teeth. 
k'ifter, tab. 898. Gualt. test. tab. 42. A a. 
Bonan. recr. "i^.f. 183. Wluj. kirch. Z.ftg" 179. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. I \6.fg. 1070. 
Schrat. Eird. in conth. i. tab. 2, fig. 1, 
2. Bonan. recr. 3. f, 26. Af«/*. Kirch, '^.f, 25, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic i nearly as large as a man*s 
head : fkell ochraceous, nearly globular ; pillar umbilicate. 

Shell ovate, inflated, flightly grooved and undulate with 
white: aperture without teeth. 
Lister, tab. 9S4. Column, aq. t. dc^if. 5. 

Rumpf. muf. tabt 27, C. Argenv. conch. /. 17, A. , 

Adanf. Seneg. 1. tab. 7, f. 5. Gualt. tab.^l. F. 
Bonann. recr. 3. fig. 191. M///". /i/rc^. 3* f, 189. 
i'^-^a OTi(/*. 3. tab. 68, yff. 12, 13, l6. 
i^/«/". Gotcwald. tab. zy, fg. I, 2. 
Knorr l^ergn, 3. /^^. 8, jf^. I. 
Martini conch. "1,. tab. liy,fg' 1 07 8— 1080. 
Inhabits India* America and /Ethiopia ; 6 inches long. 
Shell yellow, undulate or waved with white, the ribs flattened : 
pillar umbilicate : fpire with 5 or 6 prominent convex whorls, 
between each of which is a i'mall groove. 

Shell ovate furrounded with obtufe grooves: aperture 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 23. fg,^. tab. l-j, B. 
Bonan recr. Jif Muf. kirch. 3. fig. 22. 
Gualt. teft. tab. 5 1 , C. Argenv. Conch, t. 27, Lj 
Seia muf. 3. tab. 70. fig. 3, 4. 
Muf, Gettivald. tab. 27, fig. 184,0* 

VOL. IV. — 3 C Knorr 

386 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 23, fig. 2. 
Martini conch 2 tab, 36, Jig. 370, 37 1 . 
" 2. Z-///Vr fo«f^. tab. 792, 7'^. 45 ? 

Inhabits Ja'voy /fmboina and Mexico : 2\ inches long. 
5/&f// thick, wnite, fpotted with yellow or rcddifti : firft whorl of 
xht/pire with 12—14 yellowifh ribs, the very tip polilhed. 

Dolium. Shell ovate, furrounded with remote obtufe grooves \ beak a 

little prominent 
Rutnpf,muf- tab^ 27, A, Calceol muf. 3./. 41. 
Lifter, tab. 899, Gualt. te/i. t. 39, E. 
Bonan recr. 3. /. l6, 17. 25. Mt/ Kirch, f^ 16, 17. 28. 
Jrgeniille conch tab. X"]. Jig. Q^ 

SebamuJ. 3, //z^ 68,/.9— 11. tab. -JOjftg. i, 2. 5,6? 
iV/a/". GottixaU. tab. ■i'],ftg- 185. b. 188, b, 
Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. Z, fig. 4. 

Mavdni c^ n6— 118,/. IO72 — 1075,5082. 
Inhabits feas of S/W/y, 4rnVfl and /Wj^j; refembles B. galea, but 

is thinner : fiell white, fometimes fpotted with brown : pillar 


Caudatum, Shell ovate, furrounded with rounded ribs ; the beak a little 

Knorr Fergn. 5. tai, 3, y/]g-. 4. 

Martifticonch.^. tab. \\S,fig,\oi^, 
2? Z//?£r, //j/i. 940. Klein o/ir. tab 3, /". 61. 

Knorr Fergn.6. tab. 2g, fiig. 5, 

Inhabits — : SheJJhTOwn, umbilicate, with a wide aperture: 

hp plaited and toothed within : Jpire with 6 fhort inflat d 
whorls. 2) S^f// I of an inch long, thin, ftraw-colour, brown- 
ifli in the ribs : whorls of the Jfiirg with very fine horizontal 

Ni'vetm.l Shell fnowy, ribbed : outer whorls of the fpire hardly pro- 
Inhabits— —A«orr ^(?r^«. 6. fab. 36. fig. 5. 
ish^I/ hardly half an inch broad and high : a very uncertain 

Clathratum Shell ovate, longitudinally wrinkled and tranfverfely plaited, 

with a Ihort recurved beak. 

Inhabits Born MuJ. Caf. Find. test. tab. 9, /, 17, 18. 

Shell pale cinereous, the angles of the feflions tuberculate : fpire 

acute, a Ijt'iJc prominent : pillar-lip crenatc and grooved 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Bucclnum. 387 

• Lineatm-, Shell pyramidal or Oiarp pointed at bottom, white with 

dark brown fpiral lines. 
Donovans Brit. Shells, i. tab. 15. 
Inhabits the coafl of (^ornrvall ; very fmall. 

Sheil ovate, with about c whorls, the tip of the fpire acute ; va- 
ries in the number and difpofition of the fpiral lines. 

• Breve. Shell white with 5 whorls which are longitydinally ribbed 

and tranfverfely ilriate. 
Truv/a£ls linn. Snc. iii tai. 11,. fig- 3> 4. 
Found on the Pembrokejhire Coajl. Shell opakc. 

•Minimum, Shell minute, with 5 fpines, fpiraliy ftriate and tranfverfely 
B. Minutum. Pennant. iv./>. \22. tab. 79. 
/<??. Niaro<. i^ fig' 24. 
Inhabits England and Nvri>jay : lefs than a pea, 

•Obfu/uhtm Shell white opake, with 3 fpires and oval aperfure. 
jitlams and K^nmack. Microfc, p. 639. tab. \^.f'g, 25. 
Found in Faverjliam Creek: very minute and rare. 

B. JFith a fhort exfertetl reflea-e-d beak: Up unarmed out- 

•Minutum. Shell white opake, with 3 whorls which are longitudinally 
Tranfaa. Linn, Soc. iii. iah. 13./^. 7» 8. 
Found on the Pcmbrckejliire Coafl: very minute. 

• Litve. Shell fmooth, with 3 whorls ar^d a long beak. 

Tranfaa. Li'in Soc, iii. tab. i^./ig. 7» 8. 
InhaSits the Pembroke fair e Coast: very fmall. 
Zhell white opakc, the firft whorl much more inflated than the 
fecond : aperture oval. 

•Ohtujifi- Shell fmo >th wnth 3 whorls and a long beak: aperture con- 
mum, trudlcd. 

^ranfac:. Unn, Soc. IH. tab. i^-ftg- 9» to. 

Found on the I'embrokcfnire coait: very minute, differs fr^m the 
laU in the form of the aperture, and in having the whorls of 
a nearly equal fize. 

Echino- Shell with 4 tuberculate belts and prominent beak. 
pborutr., Lifler, tab^ 1003. Rumjf.muf. tab. zy.ftg- I. 

Bqpan recr, and Muf. Kirch, I- fig- 18, 19. 

3C2 ^«'*^' 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 




Cualt. test, tab, /^"i-fig' 3. Argenvp conchy tab, 17. P. 

Argenv. Zoom. tdb. 3. /7j?. H. 

Gtnann. adr. 2. tab. S'f'g- 43» 

Seba muf. 3 . tab, 68 , fig. 18. 

JVf«/". Gotttuald. tab. 2^. fig, 1 64. /a^. ZJ'ftg. 1S6. 

Knorr Vergn. I. tab. ij.fig.i. 

Martini conch. 2. tab, \i.ftg. 407, 408. 

2. Lifter, tab. loi I .//^. 71, e, f. 

3. Bonan.recr. I, fig, 160. M«/. AT/Vf/t. 3. /". 1 62. 
Inhabits the Adriatic znA Mediterranean Seas. 

Shell brownilh with white tubercles within, tranfverfely flriate, 
umbilicatc;>^/rf pyraijiidal : beak long, bent bacic : /;)5po]ifhcd: 
belts often 5. ' 

Shell a little plaited forwards, marked witb decufTate ftrias : 
aperture toothed : beak recurved. 
Lister, tab. 1002. Gualt. teft. tab. 40. C. 
Borian. recr. I. fig. 1 56. Muf. Kirch, 3./. l6|. 
Argenv. conch, tab. ^S-/ig, D ? 
Martini conch, 2. tab. SJ.fg, 379, 380. 
t. Knorr njergn. 3. tab. 28. fg, ^, 
Favann. conch, tab, ZC. P. 4. 
Seba muf. 3. tabl 53. ti, i, 2.- 
Cbemn. conch, 10. ?^75. 153^. ftg. 1 459* 1460, 
3. 5<ro/o/. delic.Infub. 2. f/ii. 2\.fig. \. 
Inhabits Jamaica. Shell c'lnereoas or reddifh, with fomctimes a 
row of tubercles at the bale of the Ipire, rarely with manife^ 
longitudinal ilrix or cancellate. 

Shell turbinate and cfowned wtth fpines: aperture toothed; 
beak recurved. 

Lifter, tab. ioo6. Rumpf. muf. tab. 2"^. jig. I. 

Bonan, recr. and Muf. Kirch. I* ftg, 155. 

Gualt. test. tab. J^o. D. Lejfer test, fig, ^6» 

Seba muf. 3. tab, yyfig. 7, 8. 17, 1 8. 

Muj. Gottioald. tab, 2/^.fg, 1 59. aa. bb. 

Knorr Vergn. 3. tab, 2. ftg. I. 

Martini conch, z tab, Z'^fig- 348, 349; 
2, liister. tab, loo8./z^. 71. b, C. 

Rumpf, Muf. tab, 21. A- 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 35. fig. 362, 

Inhabits India: 9—12 inches leng* 

Shell white with reddifh or chefnut fpota. 


Shell with deculTate ftrias and knotty belts between which is 
a double line : aperture toothed : beak recurved. 
Rumpf. Muf tab. 23. D. Gualt tAt. tab. 40. F. 
Barrel, rar: tab. 132^. fig. 29. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 389 

Seha mu/. 3. t. 73./. 3, 4. g. 

Knorr. yergn. 2. /. 9,/". 3 ? and 4. lah. I, 

Rfgenf. conch. 1. / I2.y. 69 

Martiti. conch. 2. /. 32./. 341. /. 3^-/ 346, 347. 

Inhabits Ainerica and India; brown varied with re4(H(h and 

white, the aperture fcariet with 2 white teeth and interflje- 

diate black groovci. 

Tubero/um. Shell with 2 tuberculate belts and lecurvcd beak. 
Lister^ tab, 1004? Gualt. teft. tab. 41. A, A, A, 
Bonan. recr» '^' fig- 323. Af///". Kirch, ^.f. 322. 
Seba Mu/. 3. ta(). 73. //^?. 5, 6, lO, II, 14, 15. 
Mu/. GottiuaU. tab. I"},, fig 1 59. a, b. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. /^^, lO./i^. I, 2. 
Martini conch, z. tab. l\ fig- 359 '• 38./". 381,382. 

2, >^V^a ff////". 3. /G^. 73. /^^. 2 ? 

3. Knorr P'ergn. 6. /o^''. 18 /ig. I. 

Inhabits the /tmerican Ocean : 10 inches long. 

Sheil i'potted and waved with red and brown, when full grown 

fomewhat triangular, wish decufiate ftrise : belts lometimc:; 

3 or 4: aperture with white teeth and an intennediate black 


FUmmeum. Shell ilightly plaited and crowned: aperture toothed: beak 
Lister, tab. 1 005. Rump/.Mu/ tab. 33.//^?. 2. 
Bonan- re<r. and Mu/. Kirch, "^.fg. 156. 
Valent. abh. tab. 1 1'./ig, 99, lOO, 
Seba mu/. 3. tab, 71' /'g- 19. 20. 
MuC.Gott'wald. tab. z^./ig. 160. 
Martir.i conch, 2. tab. '},\.ftg. 353, 354. 

2. '$>eba mu/. 3. /a^. Jl-fg. «6. 

3. Grono-j. Zoopb. tab. \^fig- 9. 

Inhabits the American Ocean: about 5 inches long- 

iihel/ white with brown waved fpots : aperture with 7 black 

fpots, the tecih ftrong and obtufe : pil/ar tranfverfely ribbed 

with white, 

Tejiculuj. Shell obovate, \vith dcciilTate ftrlx and elevated longitudinal 
ones: aperture toothed: beak recurved. 
Lister, tab. 1 00 1, Uump/. il fs^l 
Bonan recr. I. fg- 162. Muf. Kirch. 3./. 163, 
Vahnt.abh. tab. -J.fg. S9- Gualt. te/t. tab. 39. C. 
Seba mu/, 3. tab.'jz./ig. 17 — 21. 
Muf. Gotti^ 145 — 149. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. r. 8./. 2. 
Martini conch. 2.t- 37-/ 37>» 376* 
2. .Martini conchy z. t. 37. f. 377» 378. 


390 WORMS. TESTACEA. 7.6 Buccinum. 


Inhabits Ainerica and Indian about 4 inches long. 

Zhell white or reddilh, generally fpotted with yellow ; inner pillar 

Jip obliterated, outer one ochraceous (potted with brown : 

pillar with white plaits or teeth. 

DecuJJatum Shell with decuftale ftrine and cbvered with fmall fquare 
fcales: aperture toothed: beak recurvet). 

Lister, tah. 1006 Gualt. tell. tab. 40. B. 

Bonan. ricr. and Muf. Kirch, i.fig' 157. 

Muf. GcttivaU tab. l^. Tig. 154. b>c. 156, a', 157, a, b, 

iCnorr Fergn 2. tab. \o. fig, 3, 4. 

Mart im conch. 2. 't, 35./"- 36a, 3161 • 367, 368. 

Inhabits Africa and 'he Mediterranean. Shell white frequently 
teflellate cr undulate with brown: oulct pi'lar lip hugged 
ftrong broad and crenate within, inner lip rough with railed 

'Areola. Shell fubdriate ahd rurrotinded with 4 rows of fqUare Tpots: 
aperture toothed: beak recurved: 
Lijter. tab. I002. falent abh. tab. 9. tig. yj. 
Rumff. muf. tab. t^-fi^- B, C I, 2. 5. 
Adans feneg. I. /. 7 /■. 8 Argennj conch, tab 5. T. 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. 3 ftg, 20, 21. 154 ? 
Klein ojlr. tab. 6. fig. 102 ? 103. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 39. G, H. tab. 40 E. 
Seba rnuf. 3. tab. JO. fig. 7 — 9. 

Muf Gott'f:ald.t. 22 /. 150 — 152 b. t.T.'^.f. I 56. b. 
Martini conch. 3./. 22,/. 344, 345. *. 34./. 35°— 35^' 
2. Liter couch, taby loA,6 jig. 9 

Inhabits /W<<2 and the Mediterranean: 3 inches iong. 
Shell fometimes I'n.ooth, fometimcs more or lefs llriate : outer 
pillar-lip with a toothed inner margin. 

Ttgrinum. Shell ovate fmooth, blueifli with tranfverfe yellow bands 
fpotted with brown and intermediute brown charaders. 
Inhabits lienu Zealand. Martynuniijtrf. conch. 1. tab. 8. 

Vndulatunu Shell with fometimes tranfverfe ftriai and waved fpots: 
fpire obtufe and with the inner iip glabrous. 

Lifter conch, tab. <^c^b. fig. 6l. 

2. Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, ">)• fig. >39' 
Gualt. test, tab. 39. B. 

3, Seba Muf 3. tab. 62. fig. J 4, is;. 17. 

Inhabits relcmbles B. areola, but is more produced. 

Cicdtrico- Shell ovate fmooth and covered with hollow pundures: 
fum. ' fpire elongated : lips toothed', beak recurved. 


WORMS, TESTACEA. 76. Buccinmn. 39? 

Grono'v Zoopb tab i<) fig I, 2. 

Inhabits hHia ; refcmoles B areola but is more oval : Jpire cun^ 
cellate : outer pi lar lip toothed, the inner wrinkled, 

Tejellatum S^ell thin cinereous with white bands teflellate with brown: 
whorls with 5 rows of tubercles. 
Seha tnnf. 3. tab. 73 jig. I. 12, 13. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. l^.fig. 369. /. yj f, 374, 
Inhabits the South Seas: extremely rare : 6 inches long. 

PennatUfH. Shell white with variegated yellowifli chefnut and white 
Ibands: beak recurved. 
Inhabits India., muf. tab. 23. C. 
Martini conch, 2. tab. 36. ^/^gv. 372, 373. 

Maculofum. Shell with 4 fpotted bands : whorls a little prorninent and 
longitudinally ribbed, the firll: crowned with tubercles. 
Inhabits 1 i\ inches Jong, Litter, tab. 997. 

Bilitseatum. Shell txanfyerfely ftriate : fpire obtufe, the whorls with a 
fpotted band and 2 lines. 
Inhabits Lister conch, tab. 99 rf. 

Gibbum* Shell coarfe, taanfverfely ftriate and wavc-fpotted : fpire 
acute pyramidal. 
Inhabits 2 inches long. Lister, tab. 999, 

Ventricofum Shell vcntricofe ftriate: pillar-lip thin: beak ftiort. 
Inhabits LiQer conch, tab. 1007, 

Strigofum. Shell tranfverfely ftriate: fpire acute the 2 firft whorls 
crowned with fpines: outer pillar-lip fpotted within 
and emarginate without. 
Inhabits Lifier corxh, tab. lOi l.fg. 71. f. 

Rugofnm, Shell fmooth, with undulate fpots: fpire rugged and ftriate; 
beak with 5 plaits: outer pillar-lip ftrong and ftraight* 
Inhabits 3 inches long. Lister tab. io\^, 

Pondtrofum Shell coarfe with a (lightly prominent acuje fpire: the firft 
whorl crowned with tubercles: outer pillar-lip ribbed 
Inhabits %\ inch long. J^ister. tab* io\6. Jig. 74, 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 


Recurnji' Shell fmooth and marked with bands of riifous fpots ; fpirc 
rolirum. a little prominent, the firft whorl inflated. 

Lifter conch» tab. I0l6.y7^, 75. 
Inhabits Barbadoes : i{ inches long. 

Shell tranfverfely ftriate and fpotted here and there, with 3 
equal bands: aperture blueifh within: outer pillar- 
lip toothed, inner with rows of tubercles, 

Botidn. recr. and Muf, Kirch. 3. fig. 158. 

Inhabits Shell about 3 inches long. 

Senegahcum §jjg]j ^|j|^ ^,^q tranfverfe Arts and 3 fpotted bands: fecond 
whorl of the fpire furrounded with a turgid ring; 
outer pilla;ry-lip crenate. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adanf, Seneg. x. tab. "-fig- 7» 

Ochroku- Shell oehraceoiis, tranfverfely ftriafe : firft whorl of the 
''*'"• fpire crowned with fpines : outer pillar lip toothed, 

the inner repand. 
Inhabits ' 2\ inches long, Gualt. teft. tab. ^l-pg- 2« 

Shell tranfverfely ftriate : fpire depreffed, the outer whorl 
a little knotty at the margin: aperture toothed: beak 
Inhabits America, Grotiov, Zooph. tabt ^<)^f'g' 181 

Shell obovate umbilicate, fulvous, with very numerous tranf- 
verfe ftrise: beak recurved: pillar-lip membranaceous 
united : lip of the aperture acute. 

Chemn. conch, lO. tab. i^z.fig. 1456, 

Inhabits the Mediterraneajiy near Naples* 

Shell ovate, tranfverfely grooved, whitifh with reddifti 
bands, varicofe: fpire conic with decuffate ftrias: aper- 
ture oblong toothed : inner pillar-lip plaited granulate; 
lip of the aperture fringed fpotted. 

Inhabits India. Fo'vanm conch, tab. 24. D. 

Chemn. conch. lO. tab. ^^Z'J^g' ^^'il* '45^* 

Martini conch. 2. tab, "^^ fg- 35 6. 

Tyrrhenum, Shell globular yellowifh grooved ftriate: fpire conic: apf- 
ture white : lip margined and ftightly toothed within. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab, 153. yfj?. '461, 1462. 
Bonan. recr, '^.ftg. 160. Wuf. Kirch. I'ftg, 162. 
Gmnann. op.poHh. ^,fg.i^j^. t.(>.f, 45. 
Inhabits the fcas round Tufeat^t 







WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 393 

via- Shell ovate white, tranfverfely ftriate and grooved: fpire 

conic : lip of the aperture doubled and toothed within; 

pillar-lip turned back and wrinkled : beak very Ihort. 

Inhabits India and America. Chemn, lo, /. 153./, 1463 14.66. 

C. Lip pric\]y outwardly on the hind-part : in other rejpe6ls 
rejemhling the lajl divijion. 

^"•^* Shell a little plaited and crowned with papillas. 
Lifter, tab. 1015. Gualt. teji. tab. 39. D. I, 
Bonan.recr. and Muf. Kirch, "i^./igs 1 1 3. 
Rurnpf. muj. tab. 25. D, and fig. 6, 7. 
Mtif. GoitzvaU. tab. 2%i/ig. 155, 156, 158. 161— 163, 
Argenv. conch, tab, \\.fig. G, 
Seba muf. 3. /. 53./. 8. 1 1 --16. 29, 30. 
Martini conch. 2. /. 35./. 363. /. 38. f. 383-386. 
2. Lijler, tab. loij. Seba muf 3. tab. ^^./ig. 21 ? 
Fn habits America India and near Alexandria. 
>S/^// ochraccous blueifh or white, rarely with waved fpots, fre- 
quently with a tranfverfe band or two more or lefs evidently 

». Shfll fmooth and crowned with papilla;. 

Litter tab. gg6./g. 60, Giea/t. teJi. tab. 40. A: 

Rf.mpf. muf. tab. 25, A. and fig. 4. 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 'Ji.-fg. II— 1 6. 

MiiJ. Gott^vald. tab. zz. fig. 153. /, 23.^. 1 54. a: 

Knorr l^ergn. 3. tab. ^.fig. 3. 

Martini tonch. z. tab. ^Z. jig. 342, 343. 

Schrat in Ban. conch, tab. "^-fig, 4. 

Inhabits the Indian Sea ; about 5 inches long. 

She/I cinereous with 4-6 darker banda, within brown, rarely" 
traniverfely ftriate without, with an acute pyramidal fpire : 
outer whorls canccllate : outer lip toothed and armed beneath 
with 3 or 4 fpincs; inner lip rudged beneath and (lightly 
punflurcd, above glabrous white. 

Shell entirely fmooth. 

Rumpf. muf. tab. 25. E. andyi^g-. 8, 9. 

Bovan recr. and Muf. Kirch. I. fig. 1 52. teli. tab. 39 F. L. Argenv. conch, tab. 14. H. 

Seba muf 3. tab. S3-f'g- 3"7« to. 17—20. 
MiiJ. Cott-iua/d. tab. z^.fig. 166. a, b. 167. 
Kr.or' Vergn. 6. tab.. 1 I. fg. 3. 
Rcgevf. conch. \.,tab. lo. fg. ^o. 
Martini conch. 2. tab. 35. fig. 364. 366; 

2. Seba muf. 3. tab. ^^.fg. 9. 

3. Seba 7nuf. 3, tab. 53./^. 26, 27, 

4. Siba muJ. 3. /fl//, 1^7% fg. 22. 

^ VOL. IV.— 3D 


a, b. 1 68* a, b. 


394 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinura. 

Tnhabits AUxandiia Amtrica and India. 

Shell v/it\i yellovifh -brown waved fpots ; pillar with 2 pUjts: 
probably a variety of B. erinaceus. 

Tffulatum, Shell a little ventricofe: whorls of the fpirc with a band at 
the bafe teflellate with black. 
ti/ier. tab. 957. Martini conch z. tab. 38 fg 387. 388. 
Inhabits-— >—5i'^// with generally waved chefnut fpots, 

isfodulo/um, sj^gii (lightly plaited and crowned with papillae: lip fmooth, 
fpotted above, the hind part with 2 rows of (harp 
Inhabite— — 5^^rar/. Einl. in conch \ . tab. 2. jig. 9. 
Refembles B* Erinaceus : about an inch long. 

Fimbria, Shell grooved with an acute fpire, the whorls with rows of 
Inhabits— —S^ia w«/". 3. tab. 53. /?g-. i> 2. 
Shell large, yellowilh-grey with white grooves. 

^japillojum: Shell covered every where with tubercles. 
Lister, tab. 969. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 29. M. 
Gualt. tejl. tab. 44. G Argenv, conch. («b, 9 Q. 
Seba muj. 3. tab^ 49. ftg. 57 -.59. 
Knorr f^ergn. 2. tab. 2J./ig, 2, 
Martini conch. 4. tab. I 25. fig, 1 204, 1205. 
Inhabits the Fndian Sea, 2^ inches long ; rather rare. 
Shell ytWowifh with chefnut fpots; the tubercles difpofcd in rows: 
/// armed with 6 fpines, 

CUaSt Shell fmooth, the inner pillar-lip 2-toothed. 
Lister, tab. g^i./ig. 40. Rump/, Muf. tab, 29. P. 
Seba muf. 3 tab. zg./ig. 56, 57. 60, 
Kttorr Fergn ^. tab. ^. fig. 5. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. iz^./ig. II96— 1200, 
Inhabits the Indian Ottan : very rare. 
She/I fmooth, a little ventricofe, above 2 inches long, white with 

oblique yellow or yellowifli-brown lines and brown fpots, the 

tip red. 

D. Pillar-lip dilated and thickened. 

Ar<ularia. Shell plaited and crowned with papilla*. 
Lister, tab, ^"JO. Rumpf. muf, tab. ZJ.IA, 
Bonan recr. zn6. Muf Kirch, "i.fig, 175. 340. 
Gualt. teji. tab. 44. P, Q, R. Argenv. conch, tab, 14. G. 
Seba muf . ^, tab. Sl'f'i' 28. 32-35. 37--41. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 395 

'Muf. Gott-ivaU. tab. 26. fig. 178. d. 183. a C» 

Knorr Vergn. 6, tab 2z. fig, 3. 
Martini co^.ch. z. tab. ^\ jig. ^og — 412. 
2. /?«/«;)/: Muf. tab. 27. N. GW/. test. tab. 4-^, N. 
^^*fl muf 3 /a^. 53.//^. 44,45. 


Martini conch. 2. /«^. \\.Jfig. 41 3. 
. Bnnan. recr, and Af»^ Kirch, 'i-fg. CO. 

4. Gronov. Zooph. tab, ^9- fig. 7, 8. 

5. CfeOT» «w^ 10. ^a^. 154.^7^. 1474. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, Shell v/hsit cinereous, or brown with 
fomctim.5 a white band, rarely reddifh with a white band, 
cancellate; //^ribbed. 

• Pullus. Shell gibbous obliquely ftriate and tuberculate : aperture 

Pentt. Brit. ZooL iv. tab. "jz.fig. 88. 

Lilier. tab. 97 1 . Gualt, test, tab, 44. N. 

Adans feneg. 1. tab. ^.ftg. II ? 

Knort" Vergn. 6 /. 22./", 5, 

Schra;t.. Einl. in conch. I. /. i.f. 2. 

Inhabit? the Mediterranean and European Coasts. 

Shell not zn inch long, brown or dull fcrruginoa~5 with decuflate 
llrias and fometimes a tranfvcrfe white band or iwo :f/>ire 
with 5 whorls t outer pillar-lip rounded and toothed, inner 
one polifhcd white. 

Gibbofaluffi Shell sibbou? frrtooth. 

Lijier. tab. 972, 973. Gualt. teft. tab'. 44. L. 

Bonan. recr, I. fig. 383. Muf Kirch. f, 369. 

Muf. Gott-iuald. tab. zb.fig. 178. c, 

Seba /«'//" 3. tab. 53. /f^. 46. 

Knorr l^ergn. 6, /a^, 22 /ff. 6. 

Martini conch. 2 /. 4I /! 414,415, 

Schraet. Einl. in conch. I. ^. "^zc^fig. 3 a, b. 

2. Knorr Ver^n. 6. M^. ZZ. fig. 4, 5, 

3. Knorr Vergn. 6. /«^. 36. /f^. 5 ? 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Indian Seas : fnlall. 
Shell (nowy or tinged orfpotted. 

Mutabile. Shell fmooth, when full grown rugged: fpire exferted ,: 
inner pillar lip extended forward andthickirti. 
Inljabiis the Mediterranean. Gualt. tefi. tab, 44. B, 
Shell thill fmooti>, pale, white or yellowi(h-bro\vn, with fome- 
times 2 obfulete bands ; fpire very fine, the whorls very diftin£>, 
a? long as the fhdl, the upper margit^'obfoletely white and 
lufous ; the adult (hell longitudinally wrinkled cinereous and 

3^2 Keriteum, 

396 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 

Heriteum, Shell convex obtufe fmooth ; inner pillar-Hp obfolete. 

Gucdt teft. tab. (x^.Jig. C. l- 

Bern Muf. Caf-Vind. teft. tab, lO, fig. 3, 4. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean : fize of a pea ; refembles a Ncrtta» 
but the ap"rture is emarginate behind : Jliell nearly orbicular, 
pale, beneath rather flat, white, gibbous, the upper future 
towards the whorls with a purplifh vermicular line. 

E. Pillar-lip appearing as if wonifiat. 

Harpa. Shell with equal longitudinal diftindl mucronate veins : 
pillar lip fmooth. 
Lister, tab. 992 — 994. Klein, oftr. tab. (>> fig. 1 05. 
Rumpf muj. tab. ■^2. K — M. Argemv. conch, tab. 1 7. D. 
Bonan, recr. and Muf kirch. Ty.fig- 185. 
Gualt, test, tab 39, C,D, E, G. Lef'er teji. ftg, ^(), 
Seba muf 3. tab. 70. Mtf. Gottinjold. tab. 15. 
Knorr Vergn, I. tab. g.fg^ 3 and 2. /. S./. 2. /. \<),f. I, 2. 
Murray test. tab. \.fg 1 4. Regenf. conch. I. t. 2. f 14. 
l^'artini conch, 3. tab. i\g.fig. 1090 — 1092. 1094--1097. 

2. Pall Sfic. Zool. 10. tab, ^-fg. 1,2. 

3. ( hemn. conch, 10. tab. lj2.fg. 1451. 

4. Chemn. 10. tab. 152. fig. 1 45 3. 
Inhabits the Indian Sea : 4 or 5 inches long. 

Shell ovite, beneath generally bay or brown, with oblique nar- 
rower or broader ribs and more or fewer black tranfverfe ftria: 
which are fometimcs fpotted, the fpots often teflellate : the 
inierftices of the ribs white with pennate fpots : 2) fell grey 
with unduUte fpots, within purple-violet. 

Costatum, Sh^U with equal longitudinal crowded mucronate veins : 
pillar fmooth. 
Argen'V'iUe zoom. tab. 1 1. F. Favann. conch, tab. 28, A. 4. 
Martini conch, 3. tab. lig.fig. 1093, 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. 1 5 2, fig. 1452. 
2. Martin uni'verf. couch, \.tab. 6. 

Inhabits 2) Falkland Ifands ; extremely rare. 

Shell \s\\\i approximate ribs which are feldom ftriatc aod fpotted: 
probably a variety of the laft. 

Fer/icum, Shell flat, with a crenulate lip and t^at pillar. 
Lister, tab. 987. Ru?npf Muj. tab. 27. E. 
Argen'v. conch' tab. 17. E. Gualt. tat, tab, 51. L. 
Seba muf 3. tab. ']Z-fg 10, 1 1. 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. z.fg- 5. and 4. t, 5. f. 4. 
Martini con'fh. 3. tab. t().ftg. 760. 

2. Valent /ibh. tab. 3. fig. 20. 

3. Seba muf i. tab. "jz.fg' 12— 16. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 397 

Favann, Conch, tab. 17. D. 3. 

Cbemn conck. 10. tab. \^^.fig.i^6-j,1^6S. 

Inhabits India and the Perjmn iiuiph : 4 inches long. 

SheilhrovJXi traniVerfcly Ibiate and fpotted with white, or fur- 
rounded with thread's fpotted with white and brown or with 
bands Ipotted alike, 

Monodon, Shell rough, with a crenulate lip: pillar flat, protruding 
obliquely a fubulate fpine. 
Pall. Spicil. zool. lO tab, 3 /'^. 3, 4. 
Knorr yergn. 4. tab. ^O. fig. i. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 69. fig. jdl. 
Regenf. conch, z. tab. "J.fg, 2. 
Fwuann conch, tab. 2.^ .Jig D i. 
Martimi conch. I. tab. \o. fg. 50. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tah. 154, /f^, 1469, 147O. 
Inhabits Jmetica, Shell grey, within whiti. 

Fatulurr., Shell muricatc, the lip crcnate without: pillar falcate. 

Ltjicr. tab. 989. Adam feneg. I. tab. 1 . fig. 3. 

Bonan. recr. 3. fig, 368. Muf. kirch. 1. fig. 361. 

Gualt. test. tab. 51. D, E. Knorr Vcrgn. 6. tab. Z\- fig> I» 

Muf. Goti'vcald. tab. ib.ft^, 179. a. 

Martini conch. 3. tab. ()()■ ftg. 757, 758. 

Inhabits America ana Ethiopia : 4 inches long. 

Shell ftrong folid, with tranfverre black ilria? and fometimea 
intermediate white lines and 2 white bands : whorls with a 
triple knotty acute belt on the belly and a double lower-one 
more obtufe. 

Ha-mafloma ShgH flightly muricate, the lip ftriate wiihin: pillar flattifh: 
throat tulvous. 

Lhter, tab. 998. Gualt. teft. tab. 51. A. 

MuJ. GottwaU. tab. 1 i.fig. 80. a, b, e, f ? 

Martini conch. 3. tab. \ot. fig. 964, 965. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and /£thiopic : 2 inches long. 

Hhell ovate coarle tranfvcrfely ftriate, brown or cinereou?, fome- 
times marked with brown lines : /// crenulate within : fpirc 
obtufe, the whorls iurroundcd with a double knottj b.^.nd. 

* Lapillus. Shell ovate acute and fpirally ftriate, without protuberan- 
ces: pillar flattiili. 
Donovan s Brft. Shells, i. tab. II. 
Penn Brit. Zool. iv. tab, "jz. fig. 89. 
l^a Costa Brit, conch, tab. 7. fig. l — 4. 9. 12. 
Lister, tab. 965. Anim. Angl tab. "i,. fig. 5.6. 
Borlafe Corn'-ivall. p. 277. tab. 28, fig, 1 1, 
Adanl. Scneg. i. tab, 7. fig. 4, 


3^8 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinun). 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. zg. fg. 4. 

Martini conch, l-t^b. \z\. fig. mi, 1112. and 4. t. 1 22./. 1 1 24, 

1125. U28, 1 1 29. 1136, 1137. 
Inhabits £«ro/^« Shores', i^inch !ong< and i5 one of the fpecies 

which yields a fine purple durable dye. 
^i-/?// white cinereous or yellowifh, often tranfVerfely barred and 

fpirally grooved; fometinics thin without teeth in the aperture, 

folnctinles more folid and the aperture toothed. 

Smaragdu- Shell ovate, acute glabtods: pillar fiightly plaited and 
^'''- flattilh. 

Inhabits Argetru. conch, tab. 6, P. 

Shell gtoo\cd a la fhining like mother of pear], and ihintng with 
a green glofs. 

Julfai Shell a little fufiform, yellow iljh-brOWn : fpire cancellate, 

the firll whorl nearly fmooth and thrice as long as the 

Inhabits India. Martini conch 3 tab. 94, fig, 90S, 

Shell ventricvjfc above, beneath narrow. 

Pyrum. Shell turbinate, with a red aperture: pillar fmooth: fpire 
Ihort, the firft whorl ventricofe. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. ^^-fig. 909, 9IC. 
i, Scopol. deL hij. 2. tabi z\. fig, 2? 

Inhabits India and the Red Hea : extremely rarigi 

Spadiceum. Shell oblottg turbinate, chcfnur with trantverfe undulate 
white lines. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 3. ttib. 94 fig. 911. 

F({llik. Shell convex tranfverfely plaited : fpire fliort : pillar callous. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. c^\.figi,C)\z — 914. 
Fouud foflilc in Germany. 

Umhilicd' Shell oblong turbinate plaited: fpire knotty: aperture 
'''^* grooved within : pillar flightly umbiticate. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 3. tab. <^^.fig. 9 1 5, a. 

Candiduin, Shell oblong turbinate folid fmooth white* 

Inhabits Martini conch, 3. -vtgn. '},\',fig- a, 3. 

Stala. Shell oblong, the aperture oval emarginate 4-toothed » bafe 

white; fpire acute, the whorls diftant, the firll with 4 
glabrous ribs. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. BMCgi.num. 




Martini eonch, 3. tab. 1 1 8./^. 10^9. a. b, 
Schrcrt. Einl. in conch. 1. tab z.ftg^Z. 

2, Knorr Vergn. 3 tab. J. fig. 2. 

3. Lister conch, tab. loi^g./tg. 2. 

Inhabits- Shell fom€times white, Cometimcs brown. 

Shell ventricofe eoarfe grey glabrous, with an oval apcfturei 
pillar callous, the bafe with 2 callofities. 

Inhabits-! Martini conch. 3. tab, i ?0. fig. 1099, UOp, 

Spire hardly piomineiit, with 5 whorls, 

Shell fubglobular glabrous, the aperture oval and iTiargine4 
each fide: lip toothed: pillar fubftri^te: fpire hardly 

Martini conch. 3. tab. iZO./ig. MOl, I102. 

found in a foffile ftatc; fie/ibrown, with a few oblique ftriae H 
the bafe. 

Labantnth- Shell ponderous convex glabrous, the whorls diftant and 
«-f« margined ; aperture gmple oval : pillar with oblitjii^ 

Seba Muf. 3. tab, ^y. t. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. I 20. fig, 1 103. 
Inhabits ^o//<jz;^. iiif// pale yellovvilh-broy/i).. 

Rfifiicum, Shell coarfc ovate oblong, white with tranfv'erfe brown ftr is? 

aperture oval; beak a little prominent: firft Avhofji 

Lifter, tab. 831, Adunf. Zenig. \. tab. (). fig' 25. 
Gufllt. t£Jt, tab, 43, X. Knorr Vergi}, 3. tab. xi^. fig. 5. 
Seba muf 3. tab, t^t^. fig. 14 — 16^ 
Martini conch. 3, /a^. xzo.fig. \ 104, IlOj. 
Inhabits India and Africa. The tranfverfe flria: arc often yjiried 

with brown and white with a tinge of blue and gr.cen. 

Varium^ Shejl ovate eoarfe, yellow with elevated nodulous trgnfverfe 
darker ribs : aperture oval, without teeth. 

Inhabits Knorr Vergn, 6, tab. 2'^.fg. 3. 

Martini co/fch. -^.lab. tzi. Jig. »io6. 

filofum. Shell ovate, whitilh furroiinded with red threads: fpire a 
little prominent: aperture oval, the lip ftriate with jred,; 
pillar llightly umbiljcatc. 
Inhabits Martini conch. ^, ttfb. 121, fg. 1 113, 1I14. 


400 ' WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinura. 

Coronatum* Shell ovate, ftriate, whitifh with chefnut fliades, and a 
white band in the middle edged with brown fpots each 
Martini conch. ^. tai. 121. fi^. IltJ, II16. 
2. Lijier, taB. 986. Klein ofir. tab. 4, /. 75, 
Inhabits Shell gibbous in the middle. 

Squalidum. Shell fubglobular, whiti{h with leek-green and lurid tef- 
fclate fpots difpofed in rows. 
Bonan. recr. "i^s fig. 393- Muf. Kirch. '^t/'^f^Jt 
Inhabits— —5//r^ with 4 whorls. 

Crafum. Shell fubcylindrical, tranfverfely ftriate, reddilh with chef- 
nut bands: lip denticulate. 
Inhabits Cejlon. Kamm. Cab . Rudoiji , tab, "Ji fig* 2, 3. 

Fornicatum Shell ftriate, brown fpotted and barred with white; whorls 
caniculate with 4 rows of knots. 
Kamm. Cab. Rudolli. tab. <^, jig- 1. 
Inh'/bits Shell i\ inch long. 

F. Smooth and not enumerated, in the former divijlons* 

Spiratum. Shell fmooth, the whorls feparated by a canal : pillar ab- 
rupt, perforated. 
Column^ piirp. 15. tab, l6, fg. 2. 

1. Lister, tab. 983. fig. c. Guatt. test. /. 5 I, B. 
Argen<v. conch, tab. 17, N. Rumpf.muf. t. 49, D. 
Bonann. recr. 3. ftg. 370. Muf. kirch. 3. f. 362. 
Seba mtf. 3. tab. 73. fg. 21, 22, 24? 25 ? 
Knorr Vergn. (>-fig- 5. & 3t t,^,f^, 
Regenf. conch, \. tab. 10, fg, /\.i. 

' Martini conch. 4. tab. i ZZ.fig. 1 1 i 8. 

2, Lister, tab. 981./". 41. Rumpf muf. t, 49, C. 
Bonan recr. Ijj Muf. kirch. 3. fig. 70. 

Klein ojirac. tab. 2. fig. 46. Seba muf 3. /. 73,/"- I 3. 26. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. \ 22, fig. 1 1 20, 1 121. 

Inhabits India and China; about 2 inches long. 

i'/W/white with chefnut lines and fpots : Jpire with 6 or 7 whorls, 
the firft vcntricofe : aperture ovate, emarginate, ending in a 
canal above; the penoration deep and appearing 2-parted ; 
bafe of l) blue. 

Pyrozonias Shell with tranfverfe plaits and and undulate ftrix, the bafe 
and fpire a little prominent : each of the whorls with 
a fulvous band, the firft double. 
Inhabits -Martini conch. 3. tab. 109,/. 1017, 


WORMS. T^STACEA. 76. Huccinum. 


Lx'viufca* Shell oblong, very finely ftriate, pale brown with darker 
^»'»» bands : aperture oval, ending in a caBah firft whorl 

gibbous and very large. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. I 24. fg. 1 1 50. 
Inhabits indid. Spire with ^ or 6 whorls. 

Ocellstum, Shell fmooth, black with rovvs of white fpots and dots: fpire 
a little prominent, the firft whorl veatricofe. 
Inhabits Martini conchy 4. /. 124,/! 1 160, 1 161. 

Pyramidak Shell obtufely pyramidal and tranfverfely ftriate, white with 
blackifh and brown clouds and ftripes, 
\tt]\z\i\K%lranqutbar.i Lister, tab. ^So. 
Martini concb. 4, tab. IZJ^., jig, 1 1 70, 1171. 

Glaherri^ Shell quite glabrous and minute. 
mum. Martini conch. 4. tab. l zz, ftg. 1 1 77— 1 182. 

Inhabits— — Shell with (ometimcs a teffellate band on the 2 firft 
whorjj, or with a row oi fpots oh the firft whorl» or undulate 
fpotied and dotted with brown. 

Strigo/umi Shell minute, tranfverfely ftriate. 

Inhabits Martini conch. J^, tab. I25./- 1 1 83— II 88. 

.S/^// toothed or fpotted in the aperture. 

Trifafciu' Shell glabrous With 3 broad red bands within: firft whorl 
""w- ol the fpire ventricofe. 

Inhabits — -Gualt. tefi, tab, 44, A. An inch long. 

Leufozoniot Shell glabroiis, with a' whke band and chefnut lines. 
Inhabits Seba muf. 3. tab. 39, fig. 37. iVlinute. 

Cancella- Shell glabrous, with decuflating bands a;nd lines. 
turn. Inhabits ■ 'Stbatrtuj. 3-, tab, "i^t fig, 38. 

Obtujutr.. Shell glabrous,, ocbraceous: fpire with an obtufe blue tip, 
the firft whorl ventricofe. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. \.%, fig. 3. 
Martini Conch 4. tab, 12^, fig. It 93. 
Inhabits ' * 5i^g//aboat 2 inches long. 

Glittratum Shell glabtous with obfolete whorls, the loweft flightly 
channelled and produced at the bafe. 
Li^er tap. 794. Knorr. Vergn. 2. t.\\6,/lg. 4i 5* 
Bonan. ret'r. i^ Mufi, Kirch. 3 fiig. I49» 

VOL. IV. — 3 E Gualt 

402 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 

Guah.tejl. tab. 43 T. ylrgem). concha t. ^yG* 
Martini conch, 4, tab. \Z2,f, 1 1 17. 

2. Lijier, tab. 982. Klein o/ir, tab. 2. 7^^.' 47. 
Martini conch. 2. //7^. I 22, jO^, 1 1"79. 

3. Martyn univ. conch 2. tab, 48 ? 

Inhabits America and Africa: l\^—^ inches long. 
. (S/'ir// polifhed, orange mixed with white : 2) white with chcfnut 
•'fpofs anda reddifh tip. 

Stromboides Shell glabrous with diflin£k whorls i lip prominent : bafe 
obliquely ftriate. 

Inhabit?- Hermann. Naturf. 16. tah,z,fg. 5,6. 

Shell yellowifh. brown, with 5 or 6 convex whorls. 

Preero/um. Shell ovate, fmooth, black with a carious fpire, the pillar 
Liiter conch, tab. 1 24. fig. 24 ? 

Chemn. conch. 9. tab. MO, f, 1035,1036. 
Inhabits Southern Europe: fize of a bean. 
Shell coirk, with an abrupt jagged crown. 

Australe^ Shell oblong, frrlooth, thin, faifciate, with an oval entire 
Chemn. conch g; tab. 12O. /. 1 033, 1 034. 
Fa^ann. Catal. tab I. fig. ^6. 

Inhabits rivers of Nenv Zealand': 3 inches long, and appears an 
intermediate fpecies between the Buccinum, Bulla and Helix. 

Orhita. Shell ovate, thick, whitifh, tranfverfely ribbed and grooved: 
aperture oval : lip plaited within ; pillar-lip flat. 
Chemn. conch. lO. tab. 154, y. 1471, 1472. 
Martyn uni'verf. conchol. 2. fig. 45. 
2. Chemn. conch. lO. tab. ^^^y fig- 1473* 
Martyn uni'verf. conchol. I . fg. 7, 
Inhabits fhores oi Neiv Zealand. 

Turgitum. Shell obovate, lllghtly umbilicate, yellowifh with rows of 
red fpots: lip finuate. 
Chemn, conch. 10. tab. 154,/?^. 1475, 1476. 
Zorn n.danz. Ahh. i. tub. 3, fig. 4, 
Martyn uni-verf. conchol. 2. fig. 49. 
Inhabits fhores of Nenw Zealand* 

G. Angular f and not included in the former diviftons. 

Und^um. Shell ovate, with tranfverfe elevated glabrous ftrix : belly 
obtufely 5-angled : lip ftriatc within. 
Littery tab, 938. Rnmpf. muf. tab. 29, O. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. ^ 403 

Argenv. conch, tab. g. N, Beha muf. 3. tab. $2./ig. 26.- 
Knorr qjercn. z. tab. \/^.figt 4» 5« 
Martini conch. 4. tab. \zi.fig. 1 1 26, 11^7,' 
2. Eon an. Muf. Kirch, 3, /^^. 399. 

Inhabits Malacca: about 2 inches long. 

^/W/ yellovvifh with brown ftrjae, andiomctiroes, 71'or 8 angles: 
beak chaonelled r^'flefted. ' , . ,', 

Affne. ^\i^\\ ovate with tranfverfe elevated glabrous (Irias: l?elly 
cylindrical: lip ftriate within. 
Martini conch, i^. tab. IZI- fig- 1135- 
Inhabits very much teiembles the lall. , 

Treinqueha' gj^^jj ovatc, thc"fpire' li-angled and -traftfverfely ftriate: 
'''"'^'" aperture toothed: lip orange: pillar perforated. 

Muf. Gottwald. tab. 26, fig- \1%- a, b 
Martini conch. 4. tab. l2'^./ig. I147— 1149. 
Inhabits t!ie Coaft of CoromandfL 

I'tr/icoh'-, Shell coarfc, dirty brown, tranfverfeiy ftviate, the interftices 
of the rtrix with 2 rows oi black dots: fpire with 4 
channelled whorls. 
Inhabits India. Martini conch. 4 tt^b. 12^, /tg. II45. 
Shell fliort with a large oblong aperture ending. in a fhort canal, 
fometimes thin and long with angular lines, 

Cruentatum Shell tranfverfcly ftriate, with red parallelogram fpots. 
Inhabits ... i Martini conchy 4. tab. 123. fig^.x l,^ 3, . 1 1 44, 

Sulcatum. Shell ovate, brown with fnowy fpots: whorl» of the fpire 
grooved: throat llriate : lip crenulate, r .' 
Inhabits - Bom muf, Cccs. Find, teji, fab. lO, fig. 5,6. 

-•-.'■!• y -? 

Rumffii. Shell thin yentrjcofe narrow, with a conic deprefTed fpire, 
the firli and fecond whorls crowned with fpines. 
Jnliabits: — — -Rumpf. muj, tab, 25./?^. 3. 4 incites long. 

Bezoar. Shell roundifh wrinkled, the whorls lanacllate on jhe fore- 
part: pillar perforated. 

Argenv. conch, tab. 15, G. Spengl. conch, tab. 2. H. 

Martini conch. ^. tab. bS. fig. J 1^^, yS$. 

lohabiis China. Shell dirty ochraccous varied with brown, 
within yellow ; coarfe, with deculTate wrinkles or ftriae and a 
Iblid bent beak wrinkled and covered with imbricate fcalcs : 
fpire angular with lUaight fides, the fore-part flattifh plaited 
cr toothed above. 

1 E 2 GlaciaU' 

4P4 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinura. 

C/aciale* Shell fmooth fubftriale ovate- pblong^ t^e I6vyejr whorl fub-' 
Schrat, tt. litterat. 3. tab. "i-ftg. 20, 21. 
Chemn. conch. \o. tab, l^Z- fig. 1446, J447' 
Inhabits Ihores of the Northern Seas: 2 inches loBg. 
^i'f// thick ftony pale reddi/h, within glofly white : whorls 7, 
with many curved angles. 

9Undatttm. Shell oblong coarfe, with deep trapfverfe yndulate ftria: 
whorls y, with many curved angles. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 73 fig. 90. 
Lister, tab. gtz.ftg. 14. Jn.AnoJ, t,'^. f. z. 
Bonan, recr. l-Jig- 1 89. M«/. Kirch. I. Jig. 19I. 
^uiiipf. Muf. tab. 29. H. ^f^« wa/T 3. r^^. l()'pg, 76 — 80, 
iC«crr </(?//>. /fl^, B. yi. Jig^ 6. Fergn. 4. r. ig.jT. 1, 
5or« wz///; C^. Vinct.'tcli. tab. ^fig. '4» '5* 
Martini conch. \.tah. \i6. fig.' izod — 12X1. 
?. Bonan. MuJ. Kirch, "i,. Jig. 399. 

3. Sebamuf. 3. ?«5. l<)-/ip: 8 1, 82. 

4. 5or«. Mw/" Qf/I yind. fig. 15, 16. 
' -CheThn. conch, 105. /Tg-, 892,893. 

Inhabits Europe India and the North Sefis: 3-4 inches long. 
•S/v// rsugh cinereous or brownirh, rarely chefnut barred with 
' white, or blue, tranfverfely and obliquely undulate : fpire with 

7—9 whorls : aperture lunate, covered with a horny lid marked 

op the outfide with fine concentric ftiiae. 

•Striatum. Shell ovate-oblong with tranfverfe elevated ftria:, undulated 
near the tip. 
Tennani. 4. tctb. 7^. fig- 91. Lister tin. angl. t' 3- f- 3. 
Inhabits Britijk Coajis : about 4 inches long. 

aiiatum. Shell elongated flightly tailed angular and longitudinally 
■' ciliate: pillar flightly plaited. 

O. Fabr. fn. Grcenl. p. 401. n. 402. 

Inhabits Grf^w/^W^^fl^ : 6 inches long. 

S/^f/Zwhitifli, within glabrous, covered with a ciliate plaited fkin« 
aperture large : J'pire wiph 5 whorls, the point or beak glabrous. 

Viridulum, Shell oblong fmooth glabrous pointed, with minute tranf- 
■ verfe llriae, longitudinally ribbed. 

O. Fabr. fn. Grcenl. p. 402. n. 403. 
Inhabits the deeps of G;-«Kt«n^: 4 lines long. 
Shell long thin fuhdiaphhnoas grcenilh-white with a fhort ob- 
tufe hardly rc|leded beak: pillar-hp ^cul&i J'pire wjth 6 or 7 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 


Carinatum, Shell oblong-conic tranfverfely (Iriate, the upper whorls 
with many oblique and obtufe angles, lower-ones with 
a fingle ridge. 
Inhabits the 5ok//& Sea. Phipps yourn. tab. 13./*/^?. 2. 

So latum. 



Shell ovate with unequally diftant longitudinal tubercles on 
the belly: lip caniculate and a little diflincl. 
Hermann. Naturf. 16. tab. z./tg. 3,4. 

Inhabits-' ■ refembks'^ r^ .d .tuni ; JJjell whitifli mixed wtth 
yellow, wicn 6 ribs, he itrft and fecund whorls 5 times as 
broad as the other?, the Ipire obtufe. 

Shell oblong glabrous brown, with a yellowilh band in the 
middle of the firft whorl. 
Inhabits— Knorr yergn ^. tab. iO. ^g. 3, 

Lineatnm, Shell cinereous with longitudinal imdulate and interrupted 
tranfverfe brown Itrias : margin white fpotted with 
brown: aperture white. 

Inhabits Knorr I'ergn. 3. tab. \^,fig. 4, 

Refem bles B. undatum, but has not the angle*. 

Maclovien/e gj^gjj oblong with waved fpots and clouds : fpire fhort, the 
firll whorl gibbous: tail narrow and a little prominent. 
Inhabits I'^alent. abh. tab. W-fig' 97. 

Foliorum, Shell thin with a fliort acute lUghtly ribbed fpire, the firft 
whorl fubglobular. 
Rumpf. MuJ\ tub. 29,//^- Y. 

Inhabits India, among the leaves and branches of maritime 
• Ihrubs, an inch lung: greeni(h-afh dotted with black. 

Textum. Shell ventricofe cancellatc, with diftant vrhorls. 

Marttr.i conch. 4. t ih, I2y./ig. I 201, 1202, 
Inhabits— —SA// about an inch long. 

Strigolum, Shell oblong longitudinally plaited and tranfverfely ftriate: 
the ftri^ brown and black and itriate with white. 
Bonun. Muf. Kirch, t,. fig 38. 
Cherr.n. conch. 4. p. 49 vign, 38. fig- a, b» 

Inhabits 67»f// hardly 2 inches long, a little ventricofe, the 

aperture ribbed j pillar llightly plaited : probably a Murex. 

* Angl'uuni Shell oblong with tranfverfe elevated ftrix : fpire with 6 
brown whorls. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Euccinutn. 

Lilier conch, tab. q'j'i,. fig. 17. 
Bytem. app. tab. 1 1 . fig. 43, 
Martini conch. ^ tab^ I z6. fig. J2I2. 
Inhabits England Shell a. Wait venn-icofe. 

* Porcatum j^^^^ ventrlcofe ribbed brown, the firft vyhorl a little 
''*'.'■ ■ ing the next. 

Knorr Vergn. 6, tab. '2'^'. fig. 3 ? 
Martini conch 4. tab. ii6.fig, 1 21 3, 121-4.. 
2. 'LiP^er tab. ^^Z- i^-. i^* 
Inhabics fhorci o\ Ejigtaiid. 




Shell glabrous white; fpire obtufe and bluellh at the tip, 
the firll whorl vehtricofe and twice as large as the 
Inhahks ■ ■ ■ Martini conchl 4. tab. \T] . figi I 215, 1216. 

2. Lister conch, tab. 97S fig. 35. 

Shell oblong narrow glabrous, yellowifh with red waved 
foots and clouds: the outer whorls perpendicularly 

Inhabits Martini conch. ^. tub. ^'ij^fig. I 21 7. 

Probably belongs to the genus Murex. 

Pluwatum. ^hell t)blong narrow, clici'ruit with darker belts ; throat 
narrow; black or blue, with while ftriate teeth: lip 
Ihiate wijhin. 

Lister: tab. 822. Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. z\.fig> 6. 

Martin, conch. \. tab. \i'] ■ fg- '4.'^ — 1420. 

Inhabits South American Ijlandsi Ipirc acute. 

lyratum. Shell oblong narrow, horizontally ribbed, the ribs tranC^ 
verfely flriate. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. \ZJ f'g. 1 22 1, 1222. 
2. Bonan.recr. and Muf. K.rch. 3. /^ 34. 
Inhabits 5>^ J/ elongated : pillar fmoctb. 

Cluthratum S^*^^^ hoary ovate ventricote, with longitudinal ribs crolH^ 
by tranfverfe plaits: lip grooved within. 
Born r^ uf. C^f. I'ind. tejt. tab. C). ftg. i/j » 8. 
Inhabits ,Spire acute : beak ftiort recurt^ed, 

• Reiicula- Shell oblong ovate, tranfverfely ftriate and longitudinally 
i,if„^ wrinkled: aperture glolly toothed. 

Pennant, iv. tab. "Jif-fig. 92. Lister, tab, 966. 
Pet. Caz. tab. 6.\.fig. 8. /. JS-f-.^^ 

Bona n,' 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 7.6. Buccinnm. 407 

ISonaft, recr. and tAuf. Kirch. Z' fig. Sz. 

Gualt, left, tab, 44.. C Knorr Vergn, 5. t'ah^ 16, fig. 3. 

B»rn muf Ctef Vind ted. tab. 9 fig 16. 

Martini conch. 4. tab, 1 24. fig. I 164. 

Inhabits European and Althiopic Seat: fize of a nut. 

Shell generally brown, but varying to many colours. 

*Minutum. ^\^q\\ minute, with 5 whorls, fpirally ftriate and tranfverfclv 
Pennant Brit, Zool. iv. tab. 79. 
A^. Nidrof. iv. tab, i^.fg, z^. 
Inhabits England and Norway ; lefs than a pea. 




Shell ovate cancellate white^ the firft whorl ventricofe, 
I^artini co7ick, ^t tab, izi.fg. 11 22, 1123. 
Inhabits Tranquebar i about an inch long. 
Shell with 5 whorls: beak a little prominent. 

Shell yellow with pale brown bands : fpire cancellate, the 
whorls diitant flat, the firft a little convex : aperture 
triangular, the lip toothed: pillar plaited verrucofc 
Chemn. conch. 4. ^. i, vign. ^7' fig. a, b, c. 
2. Knorr l^ergn, 6. tab. I 7. fg. 7, 
Martini conch. 4. tab, izz. fg. I I 30. 

Inhabits Shell fometimes reddifh : fpire with 6 whorls: per- 
foration funnel -fhaped : extremely rare. 

Shell with deculTate ftria?, brown within white. 

Inhabits Jadia, Martini conch, a, tab, 12^. fg. i I3t{, 1 139. 

Nodulofum, Shell white varied with brown, tranfverfely ftriate and here 
and there nodulous. 
Muf, Gottwald. tab, y6.fg. 125. d, e ? 
Martini conch. 4. tab 123 fg. 1 1 40, 
Inhabits ihores of American If.ands. 

Pifcatorium Shell cancellate and nodulous in the angles of fedion ; 
aperture toothed each fiJe, acute. 
Lifer conch, tab. \oz\.fg. 89. 
Martini conch, 4. tab. l 24. fg. I I 5 l , I 1 5 2. 
Inhabits India', probably a Voluta. 

.V. Af««r//;V Shell white, within yellowifh : lip 6-toothed: whorls 
crowned with fpines, the firft with 4 rows. 
Inhabits Mauritius, Martini conch. 4. tab. I2^,fg. 1153, 1 154, 


^o8 WORMS. TEST ACE A. 76. BuGclnura. 

Armilhtufn Shell oblong, the aperture ample and without teeth, each of 
the whorls crowned with a row of tubercles. 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab, 954. fg. $. 

Knorr Vcrgn. j[, tab. z^- fig- 2. 

Born muf. Laf, Vind. teli. tab, 1 1 ^fig. 6, 7. 

Martini conch. 4. tab, 124' fig' I ' 5 5— 1 1 5 7. 

Plicatulum. Shell oblong, perpendicularly plaited and tranfverfely ftriato, 
ivith alternate white and brown bands, wfthin violet. 
Inhabits Mia. Martini conch. 4. Ub, M^'fig- II5^> ^'59- 
2. Gualt. test. tab. 44. ^g. E. 

^Vukatum Shell ventricofe oblong with longitudinal plait-like ftris; 
croffed by very fine undulate tranfverfe ones. 
Sebamuf. ■^.tab. /i^i).fig.b\,6z. 
Martini conch. 4- tab. \Z\.fig. 1162, 116 J. 
2. Gualt. test. tab. 44.-/5. V. 

Mflr/,WfO«fA. 4. ^ 124./. 1165, 1166. ^ . ^ , . ^, , 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Ihores of ol England aUd the 

^/^rmiddre-nzed, varying in colour. With vfhite and blueilh- 
brown and yellowifh alternate ftris. 

StdatuH. Shell with party-coloured bands tranfverfely flriaterfpire 
horizontally ribbed, one part of the firft whorl glabrous. 
Martini conch, i,. tab. \^' fig. 1 1 67— 1169. 

2. Seba Ml./,Si'fig'^l^- , ,.„ ,, .- v A 

Inhabits Tra«y«f^«r. ShellhtoviH or reddiQi with white band?,- 
or white with brown and reddifli bands; aperture toothed 
\vithirt : pillar with a fingle f)lait. 

Na»um, Shell minute white cancellate, the fpire acute. 

Inhabits. Martini conch. 4. tab. tzs-fig' » 1 7°- 

Exi/e. Shell finall natrow cancellate, with a large crenate fpotted 
Inhabits Martini conch- 4. tab. 125./^. riS^-^i 19>. 

Cha/p. Shell cancellate, with perpendicular ribs, the intcrlliccs 
fmooth and l^at: aperture ovate. 

Inhabits Martin: conch. 4. tab. 12$. fig. UQi- 

Shell minute with an hardly prominent fpire. 

Verrucofutn. Shell with deculTate ftaix, knotty in the angles of feftion, a. 
little ventricofe, pale yellow with a blueith band on 
each whorl. 

Inhabits Guak test, tab, 43* M. i^ inch loas. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 


Alatum. Shell gibbous, with decufTate ftriae, knotty in -the angles of 
fedion, the tranfvdrfe flrize undulate: lip winged. 
Inhabits Gualt. test^ tab. 43. Z. an inch long. 

Nigra punc- >^jjeii narrow rugged^ the wrinkles tuberculate with white 
''''"'"• and dotted with black. 


-Gualt. teli. tab, 44, F. | of an inch long. 

Nitidulum, Shell ovate-oblong polifhed barred and marked with longi- 
tudinal rugged Itrix: lip (lightly toothed within. 
Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch, 'i' Jig' 60. 
Gualt. tefi. t^b. ^Z. fig. C. . 
Martini conch, ^ tab. izi^.fig. 1x94? Iigj. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean', varying in colour and the number of 
bands : often furrroundcd with a black belt : pillar-lip not 

Z.rfrz/;^<2/*w gj^gll ovate-oblong polinicd ftriate with brown and fmooth; 
aperture without teeth or pillar-lip. 

Gualt. ted. tab. 25. B, 

Inhabits the Mediterranean; refembles B. nitidulum, but the 
aperture is without teeth and the pillar without lip : fpire 
without plaits : colour pale with obfoletc fpots and darker ftriae. 

tamlhfum gj^^ji f^jg^tly plaited, tranfverfely ribbed, grooved tubercu- 
late lamellous, barred with chefnut-brown and vvhite. 

Chtmn. conch, 10. tab. 179. njign. 21. fig. A, B. 
Manyn uniyerfal conchol. 2. Jig. 44. 
Inhabits the I flands of Nc'w Zealand, 

Scutalatum Shell fmooth chefnut-brown veined, with flattifli whorls and 
obtufe beak. 
Chemn. conch. 10. 'vign. 21. Jig. C, D. 
Mart\n. uni-1'erj. conch 2. Jig. 55, 
Inhabits Aiores of h^evj Zedland, 

SauitoriuM, Shell ovate ventricofe black" vvith a (hort fpire: pillar de^ 
prelfed white : throat white: lip llriate and crenulate 

Chemn. conch. ID. tab. l^2./ig, 1449, 145O, 

Martyti U7iiv. Conch. i.Jig.g. 

inhabits (hores o( Ne-w Zealand. 

yentricojtitn Shell ovate-oblong, brown (triate with White and flrghtly' 



^jo WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buceinum. 

M»rtyn univ, conch. 2. tai. if]. 
Inhabits St, (.^eorges Bay, 

Tefiudineum Shell ovate fmooth with alternate .whitifh and browniih fpots 
in interrupted rows. 
Chemn. concha lO. tab. M^z.fig, I454. 
Zornn, Danz. ahh, i. tab, ^./ig* 5. 
Inhabits Ihores of Nenu Zealand, 

Catarrhac' gjjgjj q^^iq rough, with crowded tranfveife grooves and 
'''• flame-colour undulations. 

Inhabits Nevj Zealand, Chemn. cen<h, \0, tab. ^S^./ig. 1455. 

Tahiteu/e, Shell tapering tranfverfely ribbed and grooved, with a nodti- 
lous fpiral flria at the future of the whorls: aperture 
ovate: lip llightly plaited. 
Inhabits Otaheite, Chemn, conch% lO. tab. l^^'f^Z' H77* 

Lamellaturrt Shell imperforate lamellate, white within purple: lip white. 
Kamm. Cab. Rudolft.p. 134. tab. <) ftg- 2, 
Inhabits — Shell if inch long; 

H. Tapering fubulate fmooth. 

Ueculatum Shell a little fpindle-fhaped, with fmooth undivided very 

entire whorls. 
Lister, tab. 2^.6. fig. 74. Rump/, muf, tab. 30. A. 
Bomn recr. Z-ftg. 3»7- ^«/« ■^'>"<"'^- i- f^S' 3»3« 
Gualt. tell. tab. 56. I. Argennj. conch, tab. 1 1. A. 
Seba Muf. 3. tab. 56. fig, 4. 

KnorrP'ergn. 3. tab. zyftg 2, 3? and 6. /. 19./. 6. ~ 
Martini conch ^. tab. 153./?^- H40» 
2. Rufnpf. muf. tab. 30. D. Seba muf. 3, tab. 56, fig, II. 
Martini conch. 4. /a^. 153. /^f- i442« 
Inhabits /^a and Jfrica : 8 inches long. 2) /»<//«, 
iS/(»f// yellowi(h barred with white and marked with circles of 

chcfnut fpots :^zr^ with 14. or more whorls, the outer ones 

only tranfverfely ftriacc, in 2) all of them with horisontal 

curved ftrix, 

Sniuktumt Shell fubulate fmooth undivided very entire^ 
Lister^ tab. 842. Adansfeneg, I. tab. ^-fg, 51" 
Bonan.recr. and Muf Kirch, ^./ig. n8. 
Rumpf. muf. tab, 30, B. Gualt. tef, tah, 56. B. • 

ArgentK cunch. tab. II. A. Martin, tab. ^S^'ftg- 144I» 
Seba muf 3, tab, S^-fS' '^» ^3' ^4* ^7» ^^* 
2. ^»orr ^(rr^«« i. tab, 23./^. 4. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 411 

Martini conch, ^i tab. i^^-Jg' 1443- X446, 1447' 

3. Liuer. tab. 841./^. 845. c. 

4. Seba Muf. 3. tab. li^.fg. 39. 

Born Muf. Caf. Vind. teli. tab, \o,fig. 9. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, 5 inches long; refembles the laft, 
but the firft whorl is not gibbous: {hell pale with roundifh or 
fquarilh ferruginous fpots difpofed in pairs on each whorl. 

Crenulatum Whorls of the fpire bifid with a crenatc margirj. 
Lijier. tab. 2^6. fig. 75. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 30. E. 
Gualt, test. tab. 5, L. Seba muf. 3. tab. s6._/Jg-. 9, JO. 
Knorr Vergn. I. tab. %.fig. J. 
Martini coich. 4. tab. \<^^,jig. 1 445. 

2. Borx Muf. Cas. Viiid teji. tab. \0. figX 8, 

3. Seba muj. 3. tab 56 fig 35, 36. 

4. Argenv. conch, tub, I ^,fig- I- 

Inhabits Africa and India : above 5 inches loogi 
She/l ocownifh flclh-colour, often whitifh; inferior margin of the 
whorls furroundcd '.vith a crenate callus, the crenatures firiate 
with brown and marked with nearly i'quare tubercles at the 
fides, each of them likewik iurroundcd with a row of brown 
dots the iirft of which is triple, 

Heilicum, Whorls of the fpire bifid, the upper margin comprelTed 
Gualt. te/r. tuj 56. C. Seba muf, 3. tab. 56. _/?§■. 21. 
2. Gualt. tell. tab. 56.//^;. D 

Inhabits .'ifrica : 4 inches long. Shell white, each of the whorls 
furroundcd with an obfolete band fpotted with yellow. 

Vittatum. Shell fubftriate, with a doable crenulate future on each of 
the w hoi is. 
Lister tab. ^11 -fig- S4- Adans f^neg. u tab. ^.ftg. 2. 
K'ein odr.tcJy, J.J'g, 1 21- K^'iorr Vergn. 6 tab. l^.ftgf 4" 
Martini co7:ch. 4. tab. lS$fig- 1 46 1 — H^S* 

2. Jdat/ Seneg. I. tab. \.ftg, I. Lister, t. 997./. 33« 
M<rtini conch. 4. ^. I 5 5 . /. 1 468— 1 470. 

3. Knorr V/^rgn. 5. /. 22./. 5. 

InnaDits yy:'rf«and India: above 2 inches long, 
^/W/foinetimcs blueini-afli with white bclcs; fometimes white, 
the extreme whorls reddifh cinereous or blueifli.- ovate tape- 
ring ; wich remote tranfverfe itrix : aperture large with a 
white polilhed margin. 

Strigilatum Whorls of the fpire bifid and obliquely ilriate. 
Liiter. tab. 845 ./7^. 73. Rumpf maftab. 30, H, 
Knorr ^ergn. 6. tab. ZZ.ftg- 8. 9. 
Martini conch, 4, /, I55./» 1 45^' 

3 F 2 2. Lifef 

412 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinunj. 

2. Liliertah. 679. fig. 36, 37. Gualt. test, tab, 57. O. 
Argenv conch, tab- i i. R, S. 
Born Muf. Caf, Vind ted. tab, 11./. 10, 
Ckemn. conch. 4.^. 235. vign, /^o.fig. i. 
Inhabits Southern Seas of A/ia : 2} incKes long. 
Shell &rz\v-co\ovir or brown: fpire with 16 — 20 whorls. 

Duplicatum Whorls of the fpire biparted and (Iriate. 

/.///^r. /«^, 837. fig. 64. Gi/fl//. /f/?. tab. 57. N. 

Bonan. recr. Muf. Kirch. 3 ^^. 1 1 o. 

Knorr Vergn 6. ^^3. 18./^. 6. /. 24./'. 5. 

Martini conch. /^ tab. \$'^- fig. I455« 
2. Born Muf. Caf, Find. teft. /, 10./. 13? 

Inhabits [ndia : 4 inches long. S,6e// brown wjth paler belts and 
a narrow white band on the firlt whorl, or,lleeI-blue, or recidifh, 
longitudinally ftriate; the whorls divided by a broad flat 

Lanceatum, gj^^u fj^Q^^f^ ^jjj^ entire whorls and longitudinal teftaceous 
Rumpf, muf. tab. 30. G. Argen'v. conch, tab. \l. "Z. 
Knorr Vergn. 6, tab. 24. J^?. 4. 
Martini conch, if, tab. 134./^. 1450. 

Inhabits /W/«. 5/^^// thin pellucid and very finely ftriate at the 
tip, hoary, with an acute fpire ; ^<?tfi hardly retufe. 


Whorls of the fpire bifid fmooth. 

Lifer tab. 8^3. Uumpf. muf. tab. 30. C. 

Bonan. rccr. and Muf. Kinh. 3. fig. \oj. 

Gual. tteft. tab. 57. M.I? 

Seba muf. '2^. tab. ^^-fgt 15. 19. 

Knorr Fergn. \. tab, 2'^. fig. 5. and 6. t. iS.f. 5. 

Martini conch. 4. ta'>, i^^.fg. 1 444. 
2. Born Muf. Cfff Vind teft. tab. 10. fig. 7. 

Inhabits Africa ana India ; above 4 inches long. 

«Si6^// lateritious with white waved fpots and bands. 

Murinum, Whorls of the fpire fubangular, with 3 muricate ftrice. 
Inhabits Africa. Gualt. teft. tab. 57. P. 

S/'f// black with a gibbous bafe, the whorls often white at the 

Tigrijium, Shell pellucid, white with redvlilli dots; all the whorls 
nightly emarginate on the buck. 
Gualt. 56. G. ^.eha muf. 3. tub. 56. A. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. l ^\. fg- 144^ 
Inhabits Shell very minute. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinutn. 



Shell acute whitifh with undulate horizontal lines: whorls 
bifid crenulate wrinkled: pillar fpirally twilled. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. 154 yf?. 1449' 
Inhabits 5/W/ about if inch long, 

Succinaus, Shell fubulate, horizontally ftriate: all the whorls girt. 
Martini conch /^. tzL 154./?. 145'- 
Inhabits the /W/«» Ocean : jJicU white or ftravv-colour. 

Commacu' Shell fubulate varied with yellow or redddifli patches: whorls 
latu7n. flattilh tranfverfely rtriate and furrounded with an 
elevat(id belt. 
Martini conch. \.tah. 154. fig. 1 45 2. 
2, Knorr I'ergn. 6. /. 22 /. 8, 9. 
Inhabits Shell white or greyilh. 

Ilailatum. Shell a little ventricofe ; the whorls perpendicularly ftriate, 
with alternate brown and white bands. 
Martini conch. 4. tab, \^4fjig' I453» H54- 
Inhabits 5/6f// hardly li inch long. 

Aciculatum Shell white with brown bands of hollow dots. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 4. tab. ^^^-fig^ 1457' 

Phallus. Whorls of the fpire longitudinally ribbed, the bafe with a 
rugged future ; lip a little prominent and emarginate 

Martini cotrch. ^. tab. 15; fig. 1 464, 1 46 5. 

Inhabits India- S/j^/Zthin, covered with a brown flc^n, under 
which it is yellowifh brownifh orreddiih and femitranrparent, 
with white ribs, within fmooth: Ipire with o whoris, the 
ribs a little curved. 

Flumineum, Whorls of the fpire convex diftant tranfverfely ftriate, the; 
upper-ones horizontally ribbed. 
Lister, tab. n8. Mart. Bcrl. Mag. 4. tab. 10. fg. 52. 
Found in frefti waters: 3I inches long. 

Ajperum, Whorls of the fpire ribbed, and tranfverfely ftriate, the firft 
gibbous: beak a little prominent. 
Lilt er conch, tab. gz$-fig. 17, iS ? 
Inhabits Shell if inch lon^. 

Muricinum. Shell reticulate wrinkled, with an incurved fpire: aperture 
crenate: pillar wrinkled; lip thickened. 


414 WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 

Inhabits Lister conch, tab. <^l6, fig. 19. 

Kefembles Murex clathratus : probably not of this tribe, 

jubercula- ^ji t^g whorls furrounded with a row of tubercles. 
'"*"' Inhabits Lifer tab. g^S./ig. 11. b. minute. 


Shell fubulate ptinflured tranTverfcly flriate : aperture obr 
ovate: whorls of the fpire furrounded with a band, the 
firrt ventricofe. 
Inhabits Lister tah.c^j^. fig, 38. An inch long. 

Acicula. gj^^ji fubulate fmooth very thin and finely ftriate tranfverfely : 
whorls of the fpire contiguous. 

Inhabits in frefli waters. Lister tab. 1055.3^^. 7. 

Shell tapering to a fine point ; aperture oval. 

Yafciolatum Aperture of the fliell ovate-oblong: whorls ventricofe diftant 
and horizontally ftriate, the ftriae elevated and feparated 
by an intermediate band. 

Inhabits Klein 0/tr tab. y.fig- 123. 

Bonan, recr, and Muf. Kirch. },■ fig. 45. 

Ki-veum. Shell fubulate fmooth, fnowy with 2 bands : whorls of the 
fpire coniiguous. 

Inhabits ■ — Klein oftr. tab "i-fg^ 1 1 7. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch^ i'/'^- 'OQ* 

Mucrona- Shell a little ventricofe, white with brown undulations: 
'*'■''• aperture oval. 

Inhabits Bonan. Muf. kirch iftg. 400. 

Shell above 3 inches long, with 5 whorls. 

Digitellus. Shell coarfe, with a fubincurved obtufe tip. 
Inhabits India. Rumpf. m:f. tab. 29. Q^ 

Shell \ an inch long, fometimes granulate grey and barred, fome- 
tim«s very fmooth and fnowy. 

Ohliiimm, Whorls of the fpire entire with oblique decuflatc ftriae. 
Inhabits India. Rumpf. Muf. tab. 30. F- 
Shell 3. finger's length and the thicknefs of a quill. 

Chalyheum. Shell fubangular grooved. 

Inhabits India. Rumpf Twf. tab. I0,fig. r. 

Shell x\ inch long, Iteel-blue or dotted with white and black. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 76. Buccinum. 415 

Flaviatile. Shell thin with contiguous whorls and flightly emarginatc 
Rump/, tab. 30. p. Mart. Berl. Mag. 4. tab. g. fig. 39. 
Inhabits muddy mouths of rivers in InJia : 4- 5 inches long. 
She// OTpike, greenilh-grey with lometimes bkcli lines. 

Radiatum, Shell Tubulate, whitilh with rcddifh rays: whorls convex, 
furrounded with granulate ftrix, the firft vcntricofe 
and twice as large as the next. 
Inhabits Gualt. teji. tab. 52. D. 

Lividulums Whorls of the fpire longitudinally wrinkled and marked 
with tranfverfe granulate ftrize, the firft twice as large 
as the next 
Inhabits " Gualt, teft. tab. 56. F. anc inch long. 

Edentulum^ Whorls fpot ted: aperture long, without teeth: pillar plaited. 
Inhabits " Argen-Vt conch, tab, 1 1. O. 

Pugio, Shell longitudinally ftriate, with pundured fpotted bands 
between the whorls. 
Inhabits •Argenof. conch, tab, 1 1, Qj_ 

Canicula- Shell fpotted, with 17 grooved whorls. 
turn. Inhabits Argenv. concb, tab, 1 1 , T. 

Varicofum. Whorls of the fpire convex and twice crowned, the firft 
with 3 rows of punctures. 
Inhabits Zeba muj\ 3. tab. S^f'S' ^7* 3i inches long. 

Cujpidatum Shell fubulate fpotted, with convex fubremote whorls. 
Inhabits ' . Seba muf. 3. tab, ^d.fig, zo. 

Cinereum. Shell fubulate fmooth cinereous, with obfolete band?: whorls 
undivided and longitudinally ftriate at the future, 
Born muf. Ccts. Find. tcft. tab. lO. fig. II, 12. 
Inhabits 'near 2 inches long, with 14 whorls. 

Virgineum. <z^\^^\\ greenifh-yellow with 2 red bands: whorls of the fpire 
flattifh : apertere large oval. 
Inhabits rivers of l^irginia. Luter tab. \ i 3. 
Martini Berl. Magaz. ^, tab. \o fig. 48. 

Proximo- Whorls of the fpire bifid; the lower-one fubflriate, the 
'"^* upper-one filiform. 

Inhabits Mant. 2./, 550. 5^^// iubulatc glo%. 


41 6 WORMS. TEST ACE A. 77. Strombus. 

Monile. Whorls of the fpirc bifid; the upper-one grooved, th6 
lower-one moniliform. 
Inhabits MaKt. z. p. 550: fubulatc yellowiih-White. 

Cingulaium Shell with 3 elevated belts grooved above and beneath. 
Inhabits Iceland. Mant, z.p. 550. fize of a cherry. 
5/^^// ovate cinereous tranfverfely ftriate ; the behs fmooth, 3 on 
the belly and 2 on the fpire : ivhorls flattiOi above : aperture 
obovate : pillar flattifh. 

G i urn Whorls of the fpire bifid, the lower-one fwbAriate, the upper- 
one more protuberant. 
Inhabits Maxf. 2. p. 550. White fubulate, 

^Obtufulum Shell white glofly femipellucid : fpixe with 5 whorls : aper- 
ture oval. 
Found at Faveijham. A^am microjc. p, 63^. tab, H-/'^ 26, 

77. STROMBUS. Animal a Limax : JhelL 
univalve fpiral: aperture m\\c\\ dilated; 
the lip expanding and produced into a 
oroove leaning; to the left. 

Th'efe (hells, in their younger llate, want the lip, and have a thin 
turbinate appearance : many of them have therefore for this 
reafon, been miftaken by authors, and referred to a Genus to 
which they do not belong. 

A. Lip projeHtug into linear dlvljiom or clazvs. 

pufnj Shell tapering fmooth, with a fubulate beak and toothed 

■^ ' lip. 

Lister tab. 854. Seba viuf. J. tab. ^^'.fig- 1 03. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. 6. H^. I, /• J-f- ^• 
Martini conch. ^,tab. i^Ji./ig. 1 496, 1 497. 
Spenghrfelt. Conch, tab. 3. B. 

Chemn. Naturf. 9. tab, (^./tg, 2. Schrcet. Journ, 5. i. l.f, 2* 
2. Bonan, recr. and lliuf. Kirch. I' pg^ 121. 
Lister tab. 9 1 6. A^genv. conch, tab 10. D, 
Klein oRr. tab. \. fig. 77. ^eha muf. 3. /. $6./. 2. 
Martini conch, if. tabt '59- A?" '5^0. 
Chtmn, conch. 4. p. 344. vign^/^l. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Stfombus. 


Inhabits the Red Sea: refemblcs a Murex in having the beak ra- 
ther ftraight, but approaches nearer to the Genus Strombus }n 
being fmooth and having the lip toothed : JJtel/ brown, tranf- 
verlely ftriatc at the bafe, the pillar white, beak black out- 

*Pe^ Pek' Lip with 4 pale palmate angular claws: mouth fmooth. 
'^''^' Corvo rani's Foot. 

Dono-vtiHi Brit. Shells, tab. 4. Pennant tab. J^^ f, 94. 
Da Coda Brit Lonchol, tab. 7. fg. 7. 
Lider, tab. 865, 866. fg. 21, tab» l^S9» fg' 3« 
Bonanrecr. and MuJ\ Kirch. "}). fig. 85. 87. 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 53. A — C. Arg. conch. tab.\\t M. 
Klein cjir, tab. 2, fig. 41 , 42. Le//er ted. f. 80. 
Sehamuj. 3. tab. 6zy f. ij. Murray te ft. tab, \, fig. 2i, 
Muf Gott-jjald. tab, 18, ^g. 130, a, b. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. tab. 8j,/ig. I, 2. 
Martini conch, 3. tab. 2^. f'g.Sj^H — 850. 
Inhabits European and American Seas : 2 inches long. 
5iv// pointed, whitifh cinereous or reddifli, within white, fmo'oth, 
poliflisd : nxihorls tuberculate. 

Lip with 6 curved claws and fecurVed beak. 
Lifier. tab, 87O. Rumff. muf. tab, 35. A 
Gualt teft. tab. 35, B. Lochn. muf. Besl. t. 21, fi. 6, 
Lejfer tefi. f. 81. Muf. Gottiu. t. 20, fi. 141, b. 
Seba niuj. 3, tab, %z, fig. I, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12. 
Knorr delic. tab. B. 11,/". I. Vergn. I. /. 27, y. I, 
Martini conch, tab. 26. fig. 853, 854. /^i^. 87,/. 856, 857. 

2. The younger fliell. Lifter, tab.Sy:;. 883. 

Bonan recr. 3./. 314, 315. M// Kirch. 3./*, 3I7« 

Rtmpf. muf, tab. 35, B, C. tab.'^jff. i; 

Gualt, test, tab 26. B. /rt3. 35, A. 

.^rZ-fl ;ww/". 3. /u3. 6l,fig. 34, /. 73, y. 29. /, 83,/. 1, 2. 

A///! Gotttvald, tab, zi, fig, 144, B. 

Martini conch. 3. /«^. 85. //V. 85 1, 852. /. g2,f. 895— 90I. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: very rare and valuable. 

Shell large, brown varied with whit?, the back tuberculate : lip? 

ftriate : cla^s 6 including the beak, very long, the 2 hind- 

oses divergent and bent outwards. 

Lip with 4 knotty claws, the hinder one very long. 

Lister, tab. £67. Rumpf. Muj, tab. 36, K. 

Argeiev. conch, tab. 14. K. talent, abh. t, 3,/. 28. 

Bonanrecr. "i,* fig. 312, 313. Muf. klrch, "i^.f 316. 

Gualt tefi. tab. 36, C. Seba muf, 3. /. 82,/". II, 15, 

MuJ. Gctt^iaU. tab. zx. f 144, a. Knorr I'ergn. 2. /. 3,/. I, 

Murray tefi, t, 1, f. 29, Mart, conch, t, 88./. 860. 

VOL. IV. — 3G ' Inhabits 

4i8 . WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: 4 inches long. 

Shell thick, the back tranfverfely flriate and tubercukte, mouth 
violet, llriate and armed each fide with white teeth. 

Lamhis, Lip with about 7 {traightifh claws and fmooth mouth.r 
Rumpf. muj. tab. 35, F, H. Gnalt. test, t. 36, A, B, 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 82, fg. 8. Leffer tefi. t. 82. 
Muf. Gottixald tab. 20, ftg, 1 41, a. 
Martini cOnch, 3', tab. 86, fig. 855. t.^\,f. 888, 
Chemn. Hatiirf. g. tab, 6^ /". I, a, 

2. Rumpf. muj\ tab. 35, E, GW/. /fj^ r. 35, C. 
Seba muf. 3 /a^. ^t, fig, 2,3,5,16, 17, 20, 
M»/ Gcit'-ivald. tab.' zi, fig. 139. a. 142. 
Martini conch. 3. tab.%-j, fig. 87, /^. 858, 859/ 
Rumpf, muf. tab. 35, D, G. Gwa/r. /^j/. /. 30, A; 
Lifer ^ tab. 866, f 21. Seba muf. 5. /. 16, /. 9, 10. 
ifworr /Vr^w. 2. /a^. 27, fg. 4. & 3. f. 7,/ i. 
iyja/". Goft-Tv. tab. \8. fg. 128, b. /, 28,/. 205, a, b. 

Martini conch. 3. f.go.f 884- i^. 91,/. 889. /. 92,/. 902, 9O3. 

3. Knorr l^ergn. 5. /«^, ^t f'g- 3* 

Chemn. conch, lo. tab. 158, A^. 1508, 1509. 

4. Chemn. conch. 10. /<7^. 155. /}^. 1478. 
Inhabits /f/f<z. Shell large, brown varied with white, the mouth, 

reddifh, claws not knotty, 

Milkptda. Lip with 10 infledted claws and fubftriate mouth : back 

c^mpreifed, gibbous. 

Rumpf muf. tab. 36, I. Lister, tab. 868, 869. 

Argent ille conch, tab. i^-fg. B. 

Jionan. recr. 3. fig. 311. Muf kirch. "l. fig. 315. 

■ Martini conch. 3. /. 88./". 861, 862.. t. 93,/". 906, 907. 

2. Chemn. conch, TO. /. 155./'. I479» '480, t.\(^'j,f. I494J I495 

Inhabits the Southern coalts of Alia : rather rare. 

Cla^ous. Shell tapering, fmooth, with a fubulate beak andfimple lip, 

Inhabits -^^g^ conch, tab. 10, A 

Martini conch. 4. tab. l^<^'fg, \^o\, 1502. 

Lentigino- Lip thickened- aixl 3-lobed on the fore-part; back wartj 
fus, . and crowned with tubercles: beakobtufe. 

Lister, tab. 861. Rumpf muf. tab. 37, Q. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf Kirch. 1,.fig. 300. 

Crualt, test, tab, 32, A. Arg^ conch, tab. 15, C, 

Seba muf 3. /^/^. ^z, fig. 17, 1 8. /«(^. 6i,y; 17, r. 6*,/. xi, 30 

Muf. Gottn^ald. tab. 178,/^. 128, a-d* 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 


Knorr Vergn. 3. tal, 13,/ 2. /. 26,/. 2, 3. 

Martini conch. 3. Mi'. J^y/'g- 800— 8o2. 

Chemn. conch. \o. tab. 158,% 1510, 1511.' 

Inhih'ns A Cta ina America : 3I inchcslong. 

5/?^// ponderous, brown and grecnilh ; lip and pillar pohlhed., 

Fa/ciatus. Lip entire : back crowned with 3 rows of protuberances 
and rofy between them. 
fjfler, tab. 860, 883. Khin ostr. t. 6,/. 107. 
z. Bonan. recr. 3 /%. 306. MuJ. kirch. 3./^. 307. 
3. Seba muj\ 3. r^^. d^.jig- 6—8. 
MuJ.GottiJ. tab. l"], Jig, 127. 

A:«<7rr JV^«. 3- re^. i7./i;- i. & 5. ^ 16./ 4. 
yl/ar/Zn/ rj^W:-. 3. tab. 82, /};^. 8 ^3, "34 t q, f 89c. 
2. CLemn conch. 13. ^7(^. 155. A?- '4^3' ^^4- 
' Inhabits Africa. Shell white with numerous whorls lurrouaded 
with a Tingle row of tubercles ; thinner and twice as long as 
the laft, and the lip more acute and prominent. 

Raninus, Lip thin, rugi^ed, repand above : back orange tranfyerfel/ 
ftriate and crowned with tubercles: aperture polilhed, 
Inhabits — —Kncrr Vergn, 6. tab, 29, fg, 8. 

Callus. Lip mucronate on the fore-part and very long: back 
crowned with tubercles: beak liraight. 

Lister, tab. 874. 87 1. Rumpf. inuf. tab.y;, f. q. 

Bonan. rccr.' 3. /jg. 307— 309. Mi'f kir.h.f. 308 — 311. 

Gualt. tcft. tab. yi, M. K.em. ojlr. t. 6, f. lo8, 

Uuf. Gott-juaU tab. 18,//;^. 129. a. /. 19,/. 133- '^^ 

Knorr JcUc. tab.)i,\v.f 3. Ve'-gn 4. t.\2,f. I. 

Martiniitconch. 3. tab. ^^^ fig. 841—847. 

Argenv'lle ccnch. ta'if. \ 4^ jig, K. 

Hebamuf, 3. tai), 6z,fig. 4, 5. 9, 10. 12. 14, 15. 27. 
«. Seba Muf 3. tab, 6z,^fig. z, 3. /. 63,/. 6. 

Chemn. conch. lO /«*^. 1 58, f.g., {506,1507. 

lnhr^birs Afui and America : 6 inches long, the beak «— 2* 

6'^-// Ibme'iimes uniformly brown, y.llow or violet, fometimes 
va-ied with ipots and rays; the bacic furrounded with fmooth 
ribs which arc lometiines fimple, fomctimes double i the firlt 
whorl crowned v;iih tubercles which in the other whorls are 
more or h.:{i confpicuous^ 


Lip proje£tin:i into a iharp point 
creel and acute. 
Lister, tab. 871, 872, Rumpf. muf. tab. 37, R- 
Argenz'. conch, t. 14, O. L'.valt. teli, t. 32, D, H. 

3 G 2 

back muricate: beak 


42» WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombys. 

Bonan- recr. ^.f. 301, 302. Muf.kirck. 3 f, 302, 305, 

Klein oflr. tab. 6, fig. 106. LeJJer te.t, tab^-jc^. 

Muf. Gotttv. fab. 29./", 1-31. a—k. 132, 133, 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 6\. fig. i, '2, 3—6. 

Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 15. fg, i, 2. 

Martini conch. 3. /^^. 84. y/g-, 838--84C. 

Martyn iiniv. conch, i . ^^. i . 

Chemn. conch. 10. /a^. 156,^, 1 485-- 1488, 

Inhabits Southern coafts oi J/ta: 3 inches long. 

J,^^// thick and generally variegated in colours j back crowned 
ivith 3 cr 4 rows of tubercles, the interftices tranfverfely rib- 
bed : outmoft whorl cancellate : mouth fleih-colour ; pillar 
white : beak more or lefs eredl and acute, 

^ugilis. Anterior Up prominent, rounded, fmooth: fpire fpinous : 
beak 3-Iobed, obtufe. 
lister, tab 864. Gualt. tejl. tab. 31, G. tab. 32, B. 
Bonan. recr. l- fig» 229. 299. Mtf. kirch. 3. /". 229. 301. 
Argen-v. conch . tab. 15, A. Rumpf. muf. /. 36./". 6. 
Muf. Goit^M. tab. \"jyf. iZ^. a, b. 126. a, b. 
Knorr Vergn, 1. tab. ^. fg. 1.^3. tab. \6, f.l. 
Martini conch. 3 tab. 81. /ig. 830, 831. 
2. Knorr Vergr, i. tab-^o, f. i. &6. r. 29. y. 6,7. 

Muf. Gottiv. fab. 28,/. 202. a, b.c. 293. 204, a, b. 207. a. 
Martini conch. 3. /a^. 90./. 882, 883. 
1^, Chemn. conch. IC. tab. 1^6^ fig. 1 493. 
■ Inhabits Soiiih America. 5/^f//flefh. colour, reddifli or brownilh, 
■ within paler and polifhed : lip (lightly toothed within : back 
fmooth : firll whorl of ihe fpire crowned with fpincs which in 
the others grow gradually lefs, the outmoft whcrls cancellate, 

Alafus. Anterior Up rounded, prominent, fmo»th : fpire unarmed : 
beak 3-lpbed, obtufe. 

Martini conch. 3. tab. gi,fig. 804. 

Schraet. Einl. in conch. 1 . p. 454. tab. 2, fig. 14. 

Inhabits —Shell brown with a white band fpotted with 

brown : fpire white, radiate and undulate with brown : belly 
and pillar pale bay:' beak flefh-colour : mouth white: /// 
within polifhed, brown, blue and red, the margin fic{h-co. 
lour : back Imooth and crowned at the bafe with ilightly cur- 
ved tubercles. 

Marainatus h\p a little prominent: back margined, fmooth: beak 
Martini conch. 3. tab. jc^.f^, 816. 
Schrctt, Einl. m conch, l, /;. 431. tab. 2, fg. 10. 
Chemn. conch, ic tab. i^b, /.g. 1489, 1490. 

\ fnhabits 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 


Inhabits— ——5^j?//yellow-brown with narrow white bands and 
brown interrupted threads : the firft whorls pale brown, the 
laft rofy : lip and pillar fnowy, toothed within : back fmooth: 
4 firit whorls margined. 

J^uhuanus. Lip a little prominent : back fmooth : whorls rounded, 
Lister, tab. 849—851. Rumpf. muf. tab. 37, S. 
Gualt. teji. tab. 31. H, I. Jrgerrv, conch, tab. 14, N. 
Seba muf. 3, tab. 61, jig. II — 14. 20. /. 6z, f. 31, 32. 
Knorr rergrt. 5. tab. lO, Jig. 5, tj 6. /. 15,/. 3. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 11. f' 789 — 791. ^ 88./. 865 — 869. 
Muf. Gottivald. tab. 88, Jig. 191 . a, b. 

2. Knorr l^ergn. 6. tab. xy, Jig. 2. 

3. Chemn. conch, 10. tab. 157, fig. 1499, 1 $0O, 
Inhabits Southern coafts of Afia: 2\ inches long. 

. Shell white with' numerous rays or tranfverfe bands : pillar witk 
black lines: throat led: //^reddilh. 

Giblerulus Lip a little prominent: back fmooth: whorls gibbous, 

Lister, tab. 847. Rumpf. muf. t. 37, Y. 

Bonan recr. Sc Muf. Kirch. 3. fg. 150, 

Falent. abh' tab. 7, / 64. Gualt. teft. t. 3 1 , N. 

Argenv. conch, tab. 1 4, fig. N. 

Seba muj. 3, tab. 62, fig. 17 — 19. 51--53. t.Sz, f, 48, 49. 

Ma/; GottnvaU. tab. 2%, fig. 190. a— d. 195. 

Knorr Vergn. 2. /a^. I4»/^ 3*^ 3- '• 13» Z^" 4* 

Martini conch, tab. 27, ;f^. 792--798. 

Inhabits the Southern fiiores o{ ARa. Shell white with nume- 
rous bands fpots or clouds : lip llriatc within, and with the 
pillar partly blue and red, 

Onifcus. Shell obovate, with knotty belts and a fubulatc fmooth 

Lister, tab. 79 T. Seba muf. 3. t. 55. f, 23, 

Vaknt.ahh. t. A^. f 33. Craa//. teJL tab z\,\. 

Muf, GottzoaU. t. 2b, f. 179. b. 180. 

Knorr /ergn. 4. tab. f. 4. & 5. /. l ^,J. 4. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 34,/". 357, 358. 

Inhabits vSo/</A American Ocean: about an inch long. 

Shell pale with blackilh fpots ; the knobs dil'pofed in 3 longitu- 
dinal rows : beak not projetflipg : fpire very obtufe and fur- 
rounded with a finglc knott) belt : aperture white, longitudi- 
nal : pillar fmooth : outer /./hardly repand. 

C. Dilated, 

422 WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 

C. Dilated, 

Lucifer, i*'? rounded and entire on the fore-part : belly doubly fll-i- 
ate: fpire crowned with tubercles, t.he upper ones 
Lister, tab. 877, 878. Rumpf. muf. t. 49, M. 
Bonan rear. 3. f. 288, 303. Muf. kirch. "^.f. 289, 305. 
Barrel rar. t. i^zy, f. 7. Val. <ibh, t. 10, f. 81. 
Gualt test. tab. 54. M. /. 55. A, B. 
4r^. conch, t. 14. I. Klein oflr, t. \,f. 85. 
Sebamuf. 3. /. 62,/. 38 — 40. Leffer tefi. f, 75. 
Mzf. (yottiv. t. 28. V. 199, b. 200, a— c. t. '3,\,f 215—217. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab, 29, f i. & 3. ?. 5. /. 4. /. \6.f. 4, 
Martin: conch. 3. tab, 90. /. 878, 879. 881. 885, 886. 

2. Valent. abh. t, 10, f. 90' Gualt. test. t. 48, F ? 

3. Bonan recr, and Muf. kirch. 2,. f. B6 ? 

4. Lister, tab, 886? Guajt. test. t. ^4,M. 

Inhzh'its South ^/fienica. Shell variegated, rcfembling the next, 
but is thinner and armed with much iefs fpines; probably a 
yoBnger fpecimen of St. gigas. 

Gi^as ^'P '"0^"'^^^ ^^^ ^^^y l^rge: fhell crowned: belly and fpirc 

with conic expanded fpines. 
Lochn. Mif. BeJIer. /. 20. Column, aq. t, 60,/. 5. 
Bonan. recr. %. /". 304. 321. 404, 405. 
Bonan Muf. Kirch. 3./. 304. 321. 385, 386, 
Gualt. teji. tab. 33. A. Olear. muf, tab. 32,/. 5. 
Muf. Got f IV, tab. 1 8, fg. 128. a. 
Martini ccnch. ^. tab,2o, / 824. 
Inhabits South America: 10 inches long, 9 broad, 
.S/?'^// glofly- white, within rich rofe-colour. 

Latiffimuu ^^P rounded and very large : belly unarmed : fpire a little 
Lifter, tab. 856, 862. Rumpf. muf tab, 36. L. 
Sebamuf -^.tab.b-J,, f. l — 3. /. 83,/. 12— 14. 
Martini conch. 3. /. 82, /. 832. /. 83, /. 83;. /. 8>5. /. 874-876. 
Inhabits Afta. Shell folid, 14 inches long, vaiieJ with brown 
and white, fometimes radiate : Up within white, mouth rofy. 

Epidroiiis, ^'P rounded, fhort : belly fmooth: fpire a little knotty* 
Lister, tab. 853, /.ID. Rumpf muf tab, 36, M, 
Seha muf 3. tab. 62, fig. 21, 22, 26. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab^ 33. /~. 2. 
Martini conch. 3- tab. 'j(^, fig. 82 i. ' 
2, Bonan. recr. ISj Muf kirch. 3.^"'. 342. 
Inhabits Southern Alia : 3 — 3f inches long. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 


Shell white, fometimes variegated : /pire with knotty plaits, the 
outmoft cancellate: lij) femicircular, fnowy within: pillar 

Lip retufe gibbous: belly and fpire with knotty plaits; 
aperture 2-lippcd fmooth. 
Rumff. muf. tab. 36. P, Gualt. tej}. tab. 31. L. 
Schrcct.. Einl. in conch. I. tab, 2' fig. H. 
Chemn. conch 10. tab, 156. /?§•. \^^\, 1 492. 
Inhabits Infiia: hardly \\ inch long. 

Shell teftaceous or white with 2 bands above dotted with yellow 
and 2 chefnut ones beneathy and rays running through the 
whorls : //// whitifh ; mouth fmooth yellow and not ftriate. 

Canarium. Shell fomewhat heart-fhaped with a rounded fhort retufe 
fmooth lip: pillar fmooth. 
Lister tab. S^'^./ig. 9. Rump/, muf. tab, 36. N. 
Fet. Gaz. tab. gS.fig, 1 1. Argennj. conch, tab, 14. Q^. 
Klein oftr, tab. ^.fig. 73. Knorr Vergn. i. t. 18./. 5, 
Seha muf. 3, tab. 61. fg. 23 — 25. 28, 29, 
Bonan recr. and Muf. Kirch, l-fg' H^* '47- 
Martini conch. 3. tab. "J^- fig- 817, 8l8. 

2. Seba muf 3. /«i. 61. fig. 16? 

3. iL«orr Vergn. 3. /<3^. ll' fig' 3? 

4. M«/: Gottivald. tab, 39. _/%. 135 ? b. 
Inhabits Southern coafts of v^a: Zj inches long. 
ShellyeWow or brown with fometimes brown angular tranfvcrfc 

lines, very gibbous : pillar fnowy. 


Lip rounded (hort : belly fmooth : fpire elongated, the 
whorls divided by an elevated future. 
Lister tab 8 ^2, fig, 8. /. 855./ 12. a, b. 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 36, O. Argenv. conch, tab, 9. F. 
Seba muj. 3. tab. 6z. fig. 18 — 20. 
Muf Gotfvjald. tab. K)- fig' I 36. I 38. /. 28./. 2o6. 
Knorr Fergn. 3, /^jii^. lo,fig, 2. 
Martini conch, 3. tab, "Ji^, fig. 8I5. 819, 820. 

2. Chemn, conch. 10. tab. i 55./?g-. 1481, 1482. 

3. Chemn, conch. 10. /aiJ. ^S7*fiS '49^* 
Inhabits ^/fdi : about 4 inches long. 

Shell whitifh with brown bands, or brown with whJtifh fpotted 
bands, rarely of orte colour: refembles St. epidromis but has 
a longer fpire with more diftant and longitudinally plaited 

Stucin£lus, Lip rounded retufe : belly fmooth with 4 pale Unear punc- 
tured belts* 


424 WORMS. TESTACEA. 77, Strombus. 

Lifter, tab. S^g.Jg. l6, Rumpf. Muf. taht 37. X. 

Guah.test. tab. 33. B. j^genv. cotich. tab, 10. C. 

Seba muf, 3. tab. 61. fig. 16. 

Muj. ^<) fg. 134. a, b. 

Martini conch. 3. tab. "jq.fig. 815, 8r6. /. 89./. 877. 
2, 5or« A^a/*. CafVind. te/t. tab. 10. fig. 14, 15, 

Inhabits J/ta^ Shell fmooth teftaceous, with a fmooth fubcari-' 
rate back furrounded with bigeminate lines dotted with white: 
fpire with ftriate whorls and a fmall crenate ridge : outer-lip 
ftriate within, interiot fmooth gibbous artd fubftriate on the 

Spinofus, 1-ip tapering eriiire fHghtly plaited and crowned with fine 
fpines : fpire prickly. 

Gualt test. tab. 55. E ? Pet. Gaz. tab. 78. fig.* 1 1. 

j^rgen-v. conch, tab. ZC). fig. \6. 

Found hitherto in a foffile ftate only : refembles Voluta vefper- 
tilio, but h not emarginate at the bafe and the pillar is not 
always plaited ; fl^ell whitifh with nirme>ou's purplilh parallel 
linesi above angular, and crowned with very {harp fpiaes. 

Fi/furella, -^ip continued into a longitudind cleft ridge. 
Argenv. conch, tab, 23. lin, z, n. 6. 
Pet, Gaz tab. Il-fg- j, 8. Murray test. t. I./. 30'. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 158.//^. 1 498, 1 499, 
Inhabits hidia, and is frequently found foffile in Campania', 
Shell white, fize of Turbo clathrus ; the whorls with carinatc 
ribs, except the largeft which is fmooth beneath ; aperture ob- 
long : outer-hp a little dilated, the inner-one united; beak 
fhort ftraight. 

Urceusi I^'P tapering retufe (hort ftriate : belly and fpire with knotty 
plaits: aperture 2-lipped unarmed. 
Lister, tab. 857. P..umpf Muf. tab. 37. F. 
Pet. Gaz. tab. 98. fig. iC). Valent. abh. t. 7'./. 65. 
Bonan. recr, and Mif. Kirch, t^. fig. 144. 
Gualt test. tab. 32. E. G. Knorr t^ergn, I. tab. l^-fig. 5. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. hd.fig. 28, 29. t. 61./. 24 — 30, 31. 57 — 59. 
Muf Gottiuald. tab. z%.figi 193, 194. »» b. 196. a. d. iQ8.a— e. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. I'i.fg' 803 — 806. 

2. Rumpf. muf 3. tab. 37. ^ 'fig. 870. 

3. Seba muf 3, tab. 6\.fig. 28, 29. 36, 37. 

4. Seba muf 3. tab. di.ftg. 32, 33. 35. 38, 39. 

5. Seba muf, 3. tab, 6\ fig. 60, 61. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: 'z\. inches long: Tarics much in 
colours and mark-s- 

Trident aim. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombiis. 425 

TriJentatus Shell thin, white with orange fpots and clouds: ^back 
fmooth plaited: beak violet: whorls grooved: lip 3- 
Lilier. tab. 858. Gualt. test. tab. 33. C, D, 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 61. fig. 34 
Martini conch, 3. tab. 78. fig. 8 ID — 814. 
2. Ckemn. conch. \o. tab. \^'].f'g- 1503. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: refemblcs the lall. 

Dentatus* Lip tapering fhort toothed : belly and fpire plaited. 

Seba muf. 3. tab. 61. fig. 25. 41 — 47. 55. 

Schraet. Einl in conch. I . tab. 2- fig. l 2. 
2. Sf<^a }n!if. 3. /a3, bi.ftg. 65 ? 56 ? 

Inhabits refembles St. urceus, bnt the fpire is obliquely plaited 

and the whorls arc more diftant and the ftrise on the aperture 
are more diftina.- fjell \\ inch long, fometimes variegated, or 
white fpotted with brown at the margin, or pale yellow with 
white lines; fometimes thin and diaphanous, fometimes folid 
and opake. 

Cofiatus. Lip very thick, firft whorl crowned with tubercles, the 
interftices of the tubercles plaited, the next tranfverfely 
ribbed, the reft tranfverfely ftriate. 
Lidcrtab. 863. Martini tab. Zx.fig. 829. 
2. Muf. (Jctt-ivald. tab, 17. fig. 824. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. gi.fg' 887. 

Inhabits Shel/ thick, 5 J: inches long and 5 broad ; frequently 

pale yellow, and rofy between the tubercles. 

Rryofiia. ShciI conic with a mucronate 8-toothed lip and krtotty 
^ fpire. 

Lifer tab. 882. Martini conch, tab <)l>fg. 904, 905. 
2. Seba muf 3. tab. b'}^. fig. 3. 

Martini conch. 10. fab. * 5 9 • /ff 1 5 1 2 — i 5 1 5 • 

Inhabits above 7 inches long : extremely rare. 

Shell brown varied with white with a few blueifli clouds : proba-f 
bly fiot of this divifion. 

.ij^t^nis. cjhell tranfverfely ftriate gibbous: fpire unarmed, the firft 
^, horl crowned with tubercles. 
Inhabit: —Lifier conch, tab. 889. fig. 10. 

Latus. Lip a little prominent and twice einarginatc beneath: firft: 

whorl of the fpire fmooth in the middle and tranf- 
verfely llriate eacii fide, the others crowned with obtufe 

Inhabits Seba muf ^,iab. 63./^^. 4, 5. 

VOL. IV.— 3 H L^t-is. 

426 WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 

Lavis. Shell fmooth, filvery radiate with brown, with obfolefe 
tranfverfe plaits: fpire elongated, with inflated rounded 
Regenf. conch. 1. tab. \2.Jig.6j. 
Inhauits -fomeihing more than 2 inches long. 

k^exillutiu Shell folid fubcylindrlcal, with alternate reddifh and ochra- 
ceous bands : lip denticulate within : pillar flat glabrous 
and emarginate at the bafe. 

Chemn. conch. 10 tah, \^J.fig. 1504, 1505. 

Kfcmm Rudoht. Cabin, tab. 7. fig. 2, 3. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: wety rare. 

Nortvegicus shgij oblong fubulate white with round whorls : ' aperture 
fpreading ovate: beak a little afcending. 
Inhabits fhores of Noriuay : of an uncertain divifion. 

D. Taperingy -with a very Jong fpire. 

rubercula. Shell ovate-oblong tubereulate : lip thickened. 
*"'• Seba Muf. 'i,.tab. S^'f'g- 21. 

Born Muf. Caf. Vtnd. teft. tab. 10. /ig: 16, 1 7, 
Martifii conch. 4. fab. I ^7. fig. 1490. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. She/I very coarfe, the whorls covered 
with rows of raifed horny dots : Zip gibbous : aperture ovate ; 
beai very fhort recurved. 

Paiuffrif. Shell fmoothiOi : lip feparated behind. 

Lister tab. S^y.fig. 63. Rumj>f. Muf. tab. 30 Q. 

Seba muf. 3. tab, ^O.fig. 13, 14. 17, 18. 

Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. 18 fig. i. and 5. /. 13./. 8. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. 156. _//§■. 1 4.72. 

Inhabits Savannas of the Inaian Ocean. 

Shell thick yellow or brown, with 12—16 whorls, the firft twice 

as large as the next, the reft longitudinally plaited and with 

3—5 tranfverfe ftria:, 

'^ff- Shell fmooth: lip feparated before and behind. 

Lifer tab. 115 Seba muf. 3. tab. 56 fig. 13, 14. 

Petiv. Ga%. tab. x^ fig. 1 6. Riimpf muf. tab. 13. R, 

Chemn. conchy 9. tab. f^^./ig. 1227, 

Inhabits Fens of Amboina : about 26 lines long. 

5^^// black-brown or bay, within white, very finely ftriate tranf- 
verfely: aperture ovate : fpire fubulate with 12 flattifh conti- 
guous whorls. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 77. Strombus. 


Lineatus. Shell fubnlatc brown with 7 fpiral impreired lines: aperture 
Lister tab. Il6. Mart. Berl. Mag. 4. tab. \0.//g. 50. 

Inhabits Shel/ 1 1 lines long, glabrous ; mouth blueilh with 

decufl'ate firi^. 

PunSatui. Shell fubulate, yellowifh with a white band ftriate with red 
near the future: lefler whorls grooved. 

Lister tal>. ()■](). fig 36. Pet. Gaz, t. i^.f- \6, 

Rumpf. muf tab. 30 P. Gualt^ test. tab. 6. E, F ? 

Kvorr Vergn I. tab 7. 

Martiji. Berl Magaz. tab. ()'fis,. 3Q. 

Inhabits '^hell t\\\n pellucid glabrous, about 18 lines long: 

mouth and pillar whitifh : aperture obovate : J^'ire with 12 or 
I 3 whorls, the 6 larger onee fmooth. 

Vihoi, Shell fubulate cinereous tranfverfely ftriate: whorls nodu- 
lous and marked with red Itreaks. 
Lister fab. \\q. Pet. Gax. tab. \oo.ftg. II. 
Gualt te/i. ta'j.,6.G. Berl. Mag./^.tab^ ^o.fg. 51. 
Chemn. conch 9, tab 1^6. /g. I 26 1, 1 262. 
2. Marty n univ. conch. I tab. 12. 

Inhabit? Coromandel z) Ftiendly IJlands: 4 — 14 lines long. 
Aperture ovate: inner -lip glabrous: ^johorfs 8--II, each with 2 
rou's of tubercles. 

Auritus. Shell barred with brown: whorls muricate: apje^turc ovate. 

Lister tab. izx.fg. 16. Berl Mag. ^. t. lO.f. ^^, 

Chemn. conch. 9. tab. 'i'^d- fg- 1265. 1266 

Inhabits Africa: 16 lines long. 5/)^// h?rd, yellow or white 
with a white mouth and pillar: outer lip repind : ffire with 
7 whorls, each with 7 yellow thick obtufe comprcffcd tubercles. 

Acukatuti^ ^\\c\\ browh liiberculate : whorls minute: lip depreffed 
■ ; crenulate. 
Lister tab. 1 2,1, 122. Klein oflr. tab. Z fig. 39,, 
Argen-xf. (onrh'tab. I I. Berl. Mag. 4. tab, i i.fT. 58. 
Chemn. conch, f^.tab. 136 fig, 1 267, j 26S. 
2. Hercules club. Martyn um'verf conchol, I. tab. 13, 
Inhabit.s mardies of /frica : 1 8 lines long, 

Shell hardifli with a v\hite mouth and pillar; y^/V,» with i 2 whorlx, 
eac'i with 5 rows of tubeiclts which in the outer ones are conic 
and acute. 

Agnatns. Shell fmooth, th.e lip very prominent and eraarginate behind. 
Inhabits ^ Seba tr.uj. 3. tab. ^o.fg, in. 



/^ig WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Dealbatus. Shell with tranfverfely ftriate black whorls, the outer ones 
fraooth and with the margin of the lip and pillar white. 
Inhabits Soba rnuf, 3. tab. $6, fig. 13, 14. 

Fufcuj, Shell brown, with numerous tubercles on the whorls: Up 
feparated before and behind, within ftrrate with brown. 
Inhabits- Kncrr I'^ergn. ^. tab. i^./tg. %. 

Marginatus Shell brown, the lowefl; "\yhqrl edg?d with white. 
Inhabits -Knorr Fergn. ^. tab. zz. fig, 1^. 

lividus. Shell fubangular, with fpinous knots; lip feparated on th? 

Inhabits —Chemn. conch. 9. tab. 11,6, fig. 1269, 1270. 

Sh!I brown, tranfverfely ftriate. 

Striatus. Shell convex ftriate, white with a few fulvous ftreaks; 
pillar finuate infleded. 
Buccinum Striatum. Mull. Verm. 2. n. 339. 

Inhabits Shell 2\ inches long, thin pellucid: aperture ovate^ 

oblong :^zV^ with 7 or 8 whorls with incumbent margins: 
probably a Helix. 

Simter, Whorls turned contrary; fliell thin and longitudinally 
Chemn. cctich.g. tab. 'i\4,, fig. ^'i2y<)'^l' 

Found hitherto in a fofiilc ftate only in Helvetia, Shell i| inch 
lone, with 10 whorls. 

78. MUREX, Animal a Liniax: /i^// uni- 
valve, Ipiral, rougli with membranaceous 
futures: aperture oval, ending in an en- 
tire fh-aigbt or Uiglitly alcending canal. 

A. Spiiuiis, with a produced beak. 

Ha^uellum. Shell ovate tuberculute, with a long fubulate ftraight muri- 
• cate beak. 

Lijter tab. 903. Rumpf. ttuif. tab. 26. F. 
/Irgcnv- conch, tab, 16 B. Lefer lithol.fig. 71. 
Bonan,recr. ^.ft^, 268. Muf Kirch. I. jig. ^-jO. 
Gualt. teft. tab, 30. E. Klein Oftr. tab, 4.//^. 81, 
Scba tnuf. 3, tab. •]^'f'g* 5> ^• 


WORMS, TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 429 

Kmrr l^ergn. I. tab. i2.Jjg, 2, 3. 

Martini conch. 3 tub. HS^J'S' 1066. 
Z. Martini conc/j. 3 /. 1 15./- 1067, 1068. 

Knorr yurgn. 3. / g.y, 4. 

Inhabits /i/?« America and the i?f</ ^tw, and varies much in co- 
lour and length of the tubercles on the beak .• aperture rounded, 
generally rofy, mouth fometimes white ibmetimes blueilh, 

Trihulur, Shell ovate with a triple row of fetaceous fpiries, the beak 
elongated fiibulate with fimilar fpines. 

Thorny Woodcock, 
t. With fpines flioner than the beak. 

Lijler tab. <)02. Da Cojia conch tab, ^^ fig- 5. 
Bonan. recr. -^.jig, z6q. Muf. Kirch, ^-fig- 271. 
Column, aq, t. ho.f. 6. Rumpf. Muf, tab. 26. G, 
Gualt. teft. tab. 31. A,/^. 1 — 3, 
Seba muf. 3. tab, J^'fg. 4. 
LeJ/'er teft.fig. 72. Murray tefl. t. \.f, I J. 
Knorr ddic. t. B. V.f. 5. Vergn. t, 1 1 ./. 3, 4, 
Martini conch, 3. /. u3-/i 1053—1056. 

2. With fpines as long or longer than the beak. 

Natur Mi fell, tab. 460. Gualt. tef. t. 31. /! A. 4. 

Rumpf, muf. t. z6.f. 3. 

Argen'v. conch, t. \6.f. h.1 

Sfbamuf 3. t.y^ f. 1--3. 

Knorr Vergn. 4. t. 27./. 1. 

Martini conch. 3./. 113-/'. IO52. 

Inhabits Alia America and the Red Sea : very rare. 

S/ff//\vhiciih or reddilh tranfverfely ftriate. 

Ccfttutus. Shell roundilli and furrounded with fubulatc obliqiffe fpines. 
beak long fubulate tbaight with a few ftiort fpines. 
Lister tab. 901. Column, aq. tab. 60. fig, 3. 
A.ians feneg I. tab. 8. fig. 20. Gualt, teft. tab. 50. D. 
Peti'V Gaz. tab. 68.ftg. 12. Rumpf. muf, t, z6.f. 5. 
Bonan, recr, 3 fig. 2S3. Muf Kirch, "i,. f. 284. 
Seba muf, 3. /fl\ 78.//^. 7— 9> 10, 1 1 ? 
AT/zarr Vergn 6. /a^. ij.ftg.x. 
Martini conch. 3. M^, 1 14 fi^. IO57. 
Inhabits Southern coafts of Africa : very rare. 
Shell 8 inches long, tranAerfely ftriate. white yellow or ptie 

chcfnut, within rofy : fpines 2 inches long : --whorls rounded 


Erandaris. Shell fubovatc furrounded with (Iraight fpines : beak ino- 
deratc fubulate ftraight and obliquely furrounded with 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

liistcr, tah. 9C0. Ginan. adr. 2. /. 8, /". 61, 62. 
Petiv. Gaz. taht 68, y. 1 2. Bvtem. app. t. 12,/. 60. 
^rg. Zoom. tab. 4. C Regenf, conch. \. t.6,f. 67- 
iWa/:; Gottnu. tab. 38, /^ 26i. a — d. 263. a-r-c. 264, a— -d, 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. 18,/. i, 2. /. 22,/. 4, 5, 
Martini conch' 3. /fi^. 114, 115 //^. 1058—1065. 

Bonan. recr. 3. y}^. 282. Muf kirch. 3. _/". 283. 
Gualt. testttai'. 36. F. 

Bonan. recr. 3. /Tg', 281. 7kf«/". ^//r^. 3. /". 283. 
Rumpf.muf.fab. zb, fig 4> ', 

Fa'uann. conch, tab. 38.. E. I. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 164, /". 1571. 

Chemn. conch, i o, tab. \b\, fiiy ' 5 30- - t 5 3 5 . 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic. 

Shell white, cinereous or brownifli, with- a triple row of fmali 
ffVpej, the third row ftiorter, rarely 9 Tingle row with the 
beak unarmed. 

Trunculus, Shell ovate, kn-tty and furronnded with fpincs on the fore- 
part: beak Ihort, perforated, truncate. 
Lijier, tab. 947. 952 ? lOIO ? Giialt. tett. t.^l- C, 
Column, purp. tab. 13. fig. i. Klein ojir. t.6,f, 104, 
Boruin recr. Z' fig' ^/l. 272. 274. 
Bonan Muf. Kirch. 3. fig. 273, 274, 276. 
Seha muf. 3. tab. z^z. fig. 15, 16. 

Muf. Gottikjald. tab. 38, fif^. 256. c. 259. a.-f. 261. a, b. 
Knorr Fergn. 3. tab. 13. fig. 1.5. 4. & 6. t, 1 9 /• 6.- 
Mariini conch, I. tab, }og, fig. 1018--1020. 

2. WnlcJo Petref. 2. tab^Q.m. ^g. 2? 7? 

3. Spengler catal.raif. tab. Z-, fig. 2, 3. 

4. Chemn. corich 9. /fl(5, 105./}^. 897, 898. ^ 

5. Chemn. conch. \0, tab. 161. fig 1528, 1529. . • . • ;i,^ 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and J^amaica. . j,.„^t 

Shell very variable in colour , fometimcs barfed ard tranfverfely 
ftriate: heak fometimcs ftraight, fometinies bent to the left. 

Pomum, Shell ovate, knotty,. with -5 — -7 protuhjerances: beak broad. 
Lister, tab 994. Adanf Seneg. I. tab. g, f. 22,, 
Arg, Zoom, tab, ■^,F.. Knorr Vergn 3. /a^. 9,/"* I. a 
Martini conch, 3. z^^, 109, I lO, fig. 1021 — IO25. 
Inhabits the£a,llerqiJiores of Africa ; coajfe and^panderous. 
.iKJ:;* '(!■', -.ujr-i 8 ^W . 

/JffK^iV;^ "Shell ovate, trarifverfely grooved, with'cphvex ribs crofiTed 
by perpendicular knots: beak imperforate. 
Adanf Seneg.. 1. tab. g% fig- 22. 
'•'n 'A'- -Seba miif,'ytab.\(),fiig.t^'i 

Kner" Fergn.- 4. tab. 23, fig.. 3. 

Martini conch. 3. /«^, ilO. fig. 1026--1028. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


Chemn, conch, 10, rah. S\. fg. 1540, 1541* 

Inhabits the Eallern coafts of Africa, 

Margin of the lif membranaceous : fpire with 7 diftinft whorls, 

Triacart" Shell turgid, knotty, tianfverfeiy ftriate, with a triple. row 
f^"^' of fpines. 

Walch ^etref. 2. tab. C. i. /%. 5. 

Found in a foffile ftate: Jliell (haped like a fig, with 5 or 6 hori- 
zontal belts croffing the ftris : beak above an inch long: 3 
outmoft ^whorls knotty and a little prominent. 

Melanama- Shell tranfverfely ftriate, with 8 rows of hollow black 

f^os, fpines : fpire a little knotty and prickly : beak fubulate. 

Inhabits— —iW«r//«/ fOKf>&. 3. tab, 10^, Jig. 1015. 

Radix. Shell white, with numerous rows of frondofe black undu- 
late fpines. 
Inhabits Argenv. Zoom. tab. 1 1, K. Extremely rare. 

Candfdus. Shell white with rows of fpines and very fliort beak. 
Inhabits - Argenv. conch, tab. 16. G; 

Shell 2 inches long : fome of ihc /pines black. 

FafciatJtj. Shell inflated, with rows of fpines, white barred with 
brown: fpire with 4 diftindl turgid whorls. 
Inhabits KnorrVergn. 6. tab, 40. ftg. 6, • 

B. Sutures expanding into crijped foliations: beak abbrevi- 
ated. Purpura. 

Ramofus, Shell with a triple row of foliations and contiguous fpire : 
beak truncate. 
Rumpf. muf tab. 26. A, C. Lister, tab. 946^ 
Argenv. conch, tab. i6. C, E, H. Zovm. t. 4, D, 
Column, aq. tab. 60. Klein ojir. tab. 4, Jig. 82. 
Bonan recr. Z'f'g 275, 2/6. Muf. Kirch, 3. /. 280, 281, 
Gualt. tcli. tab. 37, D, G, H, T, L. 
Scba Muf. 3. tab. '^2, Jig. 21. tab. yj,/. 1—4. 7—12. 
MuJMotfw. tab. I'JyJ'g. 255. a. 256, b. tab. 38,/". 257, a. 
Knorr Vergn. I. tab. 25,/". 1,2. t. 26, f. 1 — 3. /. g,/! 3. 
Martini conch. 3. tub. \0^y ftg, 990, 991. 993,994. 
Inhabit? .■ifia, America, Ferlia and tiie Red Sea. 
Shell tnnfvcriely ftriate, varying very much in fliape, colour and 
appearance of the foliations. 

Foliatus. Shell with a triple row of foliations : apertu^-e i-toothed. 


432 WORMS. TESTACEA, 78. Murex. 

Martin univer/. coitchoh 2. ftg, 66* 
" Chemn conch. \o ■ Jig. 153. 
Inhabits the Eaftcrn fhores oi North America* 

Scorpio, Shell with 4 rows of foliations : fpire capitate : beak truiW 
Rumpf. tnuf. lah. 26. D. Gualt, teft. tab. 37. M. 
Valent. abh. t. 4,/. 36. 37. Jrg. conch, t. 16, D. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. TJ'J'g. 13 — 16. 
Knorr Vergn. 2. tab, w.fg. 4, 5, 
Martini conch. 3. tab. \o6. fg. 998 — 1003. 
Inhabits Southern Afia : extremely rare and valoable. 
Shell white, brown or black : aperture orbicular : one of the 
<whorl$ turgid and larger than the reft. 

Saxntilist Shell with 5 rows of foliations and contiguous fpire : beak 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 26, fig. 2. Klein oftr, t. 6, fig. lOQ. 
Sehamuf. 3. tab. Tit fig. ?> 6. Murray test. t. lyf. 26. 
Muf. Gottnjoald. tab. l^yftg. 255. a a. b b. 256. a. 257. b^c, 
Regenf conch. 1. tab. 6,/. 6. tab. 9,/". 2b. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 107, 108./". 1004-- 1 014. 
2. Walch Petref. 2. tab. C. Jig. 3, 4. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Altai in great Varieties. 

Diaphanuu ShelVwhitc^ diaphanous, with 6 rows of foliations; the fo- 
liations tipt with black. 
Inhabits— —^rg-^«'V/'//if conch, tab. 16. F. 

Cichoreum, Shell ochraceovs, tranfverfcly ftriate, with numerous row&^ 
of foliations. 

Inhabits Argenville conch, tab. 16, K. 

Foliations not very prominent or crifped, 

VerRcolor, Shell varied with white and red, with flat acute foliations" 
pointed with black. 
Inhabits-^'^ Knorr Fergn. 5, tab. ^, Jig. 1. 

*Erinaceu.'. Shell fubangular ; the whorls crowned with tubular and fuh- 
fpinous raifed fcales or points : beak (hort and covered, 
Dono-van^s Brit. Shells, tab. 35 Pennant iv. t. 76, _/*. q<j. 
Da Cofla Brit Lonchol. tab. 8. fg. 7. 
Gualt. tejl. tab. 49. H. 
Seba ntuj. 3. tab. 49, f. 78. 79, 
Martini conch, 3. tab. no. fig. 1026 — 102?» 
Inhabits European (cas : about 2 inches Icag. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 433 

Shell extfemely nigged, furrounded with tubular fibs, each rib 
ending uith its mouth on the angle : aperture extremely oval : 
fpire pointed, with 6 whorls : /// broad and crenate. 

Stnaitism Shell with 7 rows of foliations, white with elevated tranf- 
verfe brown ftrice. 
Martini co7ich. 3. tab. \0<^. ftg, 1016. 
Gualt, lest, tab, ^o. fg. C ? 
Inhabits India. Spire with 7 whorls. 

Iripterus. Shell elongated, triangular, with membranaceous foliations 

at th^ ani^ies. 
Born.. Muf C.ff. Vind. left. tab. \Of fig. 18, 19. 
Found foffile in Campania. Shell fnowy, tranfverfely wrinkled, 

the wrinkles crofTcd by longitudinal Ilriai: aperture d'o\or\g- 

ovate, granulate : fpire with 7 whorL granulate between the 


bacellum. Shell umbilicate with muricate ribs^ the whorls flattifh 
above with acute margins: lip crenate : beak ftraight, 
Inhabits Nicobar. Chemn, conch. 10. /. 163,/'. 1561, 1562. 

Mctacilla. Shell triangular, knotty, tranfverfely grooved, with a triple 
row of tubercles: beak long, fubulate, flraight: 
mouih white. 
Inhabits /W/«. Chemn. conch. 10. tab, 163, _^^, 1563. 

'Iriqueter, Shell long, fubulate, triangular, with reticulate ribs and 
ftraight clofedbeak. 

Inhabits Bom Muf. C^ef Find. tefl. tab. iijfig- i. 2. 

Shell wh-rz f'potted with red: aperture elliptic, the lip crenate: 
fpire pyramidal, with 6 whorls, 

C. JJ' ith ihiek protuberant rounded futures, 

Lyratuj, Shell With protuberances crofTed by fmooth belts : aperture 
Inhabits Georges Baf. Martyn uniij. conch. 2, tab, 43, 

Rana. Shell r6ugh with oppofite imprefTed protuberances, and a 

mtiriuate belt or two: aperture cominonly toothlefs 
and ovate. 

Li/Jer, tab. 995,/^- 58. tab. 949, Pet. Oaz. t. IOC,/. 12. 

Rumpf. muf tab. 44, G. Gualt. teji, tab, 49, L, 

VOL. IV. — 3 I Bonan. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Bonanrecr. 2,-J^g' '^z. Muf. Kirch, l- fig. 1 8 J. 

Seba muf. 3. tab, 60, fig, 13. 15 — 19. 

Muf, Gottnu, tab, 'i,(>. fig. 232. a, b. 

Knorr Vergn. 2. tab, 13, ftg, 6, 7. & 3. M^, 7,^. j. 

Martini conch. 4, /dii, i^i,fig- I 268-^-12^6. 

2. Lip crenate. Lifer, tab, 995* j^^. 59. 

3. Bonanrecr. I- fig 350, Mw/^. kireh.'^, f, 346. 

Inhabits /^/fa. Shell white, grey or brown, with elevated tranf- 
verle ftriac which are {bmeiimes granulate. 

Gyrinus. Shell with oppofite continued protuberances and barred 
with tuberculate dots: aperture orbicular. 
Lifter, tab. 939, Adanf. Seneg. l. tab 8,f. 13. 
Gualt teft. tab. 49. E. Argenv. conch, tab. 9, P. 
Sebamuf. 3, tab, 60., fig. 21--27 

Mif Gott-iv. tab. 35,/. 228. /. 36,/. 231.2, b. 235.-237,238. 
Knorr Vergn 6. tab. 2^. fig. 5, 6. 
Martini conch, ^. tab. iZ-j.f. 1224--1227. t.\2%,f. 1229—1235. 

2. Valent. abh. tab. i\,fig. 93 ? 

3. Martyn uni'verf. conch 2. 41. 

Inhabits the Mediterrariean, Atlantic, America and India, 
Shel/ (,m.U, white or brown, with alternately lefs bands of ele- 
vated dots. 

J^sis. Shell turgid, with oppofite continued protuberances: fpirfe 
pointed, the whorls furrounded with a crown of tu- 
bercles, the outmofl: glabrous. 

Inhabits ■ Falent. abh. tab. 1 1, fiig. 95. 

Firft luhorl of the fpire with a triple or quadruple crown of 
round tubercles. 

Lampas, Shell with nearly oppofite protuberances, gibbous, the 
protuberances longitudinally tubcrculate. 

Lister, tab. 1 02 3, Rumpf.muf tab, 28. C, D. 

Gualt. test tab. 50, D. Klein oflr, tab. 34 f. 59, 

Muf. Gottixald. tab. 2^, fig. 174. x. a, b. 

Bonanrecr. IcMuf. Kirch. I. fig. 103. 

Argenv. conch, tab. 9, D. Knorr Vergn. 2. tair. 2S, f. J. 

Martini conch. 4. /. 128,/'. 1236, 1237. /. zg.f. 1238, 1239. 

Inhabits India; 4 — 14 inches long. Shell red or chefnut and 
rough with very minute tubercles : aperture oval, toothed each 
fide, whitiQi fiefh-colour, with an orange oval border withiji. 

OUariuvti Shell with alternate protuberances and numerous tubercles: 
back unarmed behind and ftriate : aperture toothlefs. 
Column, aq. tab. 53. Gualt. test, tab. 49, G. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 435 

Bonanr^cr. y Muf^ kirch, y f. 1 05, 
Knorr Vergn. 3. tab. 9, fg. 5, 
Martini conch. 4. tab \ 30, ^^^ . 1242? 
Schrett. Einl. in conch. 1 . tab, 3 , /". I . 

2. Walch. Petref 2. />. I 19. //i^. C. ii ^^. 5. 

3. Jif/^fl »7///. 3. tab.^iffig. 34? 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and African feas, 

Fcrnorale. Shell with deculFate protuberances, triangular, wrinkled 
and knotty on the fore-part: aperture ovate, toothless. 

Lister, tab. 941. Gr^oy Mk/I /. 11,/. 78. 

Bonan.iecr. l.fig 290, Muf. kirch. %. fg^ 2g\. 

Gualt. tcji. tab. 50, C. Jrgen'v. couch, t, 10, B. 

^^3/2 wo/. 3. /ii3. 63. fig. 7-- 10. 

MufGotl-Mald. tab. 32, /}^. ziS. a-i. 

A'wrr rt',?/, r^/^. B. iv./". 2. r^r^«. 4. /<z^. l6, /". I. 

Regenf. concb. l . tab. 2 , fig. 2 1 . 

Martini cench. 3. tab. 1 l J, //^f . I 39. 

Inhabits Afia, Guinea and America: 5-7 inches long; 

S/.'^// brown with tranfverfe ribs which are white towards the 
aperture, with intermediate grooves tranlverfcly flriate : beak 
turned inwards. 

Cttfaceus, Shell with afingle profuberance, angular and a little wrin- 
kled with knots : aperture tootncd: pillar perforated. 
Lister, tab. 942? Knorr Vergn. 2. tab. Zif, fig. 5. ' 

Seba muf, 3. tab. if^,f. 63, 64.. JI-tJ'},- '• 52,/". |0? H- 
Muf. Gott-wald. tab. zy, fg.iSy. b. 
Martini conch. 3. /fli-). l iS, Ji^. 1085 — 1088. 
Chemn. conch, 10. tab. 163./^'. I 559, 1560. 
Inhabits Barbary, Guinea and .Sow/ -6 America: 3 inches long. 
67^^// brownifh with a tinge of bloom, or white, with perpen- 
dicular undulate lines, 

Lotorium, Shell with decuflate protuberances, angular with longitu- 
dinal tuberculous knots: beak flcxuous: aperture 
Lister, tab. 934, 937, 94S. Rumff. muf. tab, 26. B. 
Argen-v. conch, tab. 10, fig. M. 
Martini cntich. 4. tab. 130. /'. I 246, 1247. 1249. 
Schrett. Einl, in conch, \. tab. 3, f. 2, 
2, Seba muf. 3. tab. 57, /i- 30. 
Knot r Vergn. 5. tab. 21, fig. i. 
Martini conch, 4 tab, 131,/". 12^2, I 253, 
Chemn. conch, 10. tab. 1 69, /i 1 634. 
Inhabits t\it Mediterranean, 

3 I 2 Pileare. 


Shell Avith decuffate protuberances and a little wrinkled with 
knots: aperture toothed : beak fubafcending. 

Adanf, Seneg. I. tah. S./ig- 12 ? Runipf. muf. tab. 49. I. 

Gualt. teji. tah. 49. A. Seha ?nuf. 3. tab. S'h-f'S'^' 2. 

Muf. Gotfwald. tah. ^^.Jig, 227. a. 

MartJnt conch. 4. tab. I 30, J 3 !./(?• I243. 1248. 125c. 

Schrtxt. Einl. in conch. I. /. a.^^. tc^b. '^-fig. 3. 
2. 5'^ifl wzf/. 3. tah. 52 //g-. 3 ? 

Inhabits the MeiHtfrranean, 

Bufonius. Shell with 6 oppofite continued vaulted protuberances ao^ 
knotty belts; beak oblique. 
jlrgeti'v, conch, tab. 9. R. ^ebamuf. 3, /"a^. 60. fig. 14. 20. 
A/«/; GottivaU. tab. ^g.fig- 234. b. 
Martini conch 4. //l<^. izgflg. 1240, 1241. 
Inhabits — W<;//rare, and lefcmbling B. gyrinur, 

Pyrrm. Shell varicofe ovate tranfverfely grooved and knotty, with a 

long flexuoiis fybulate beak. 
Lifter tab. 935 fig. 29. Ga«//. /a/, tab. 37, F, 
i?KW^'C Mtt/. tab. 24. r, H. /zj^. 26. E. 
Argenu. conch, tab, 10. O. /a3. 16. I. 
^/«/; ofir, tab. ^-fig. 64. /. 6./ 1 10. 
Knorr Fergn. 2- /^j3. 7.//^. 2, 3. and 6. /. 26./. 2.' 
Regenf, conch. I. ?«^. 5. //]§-. ?o. t.S.f, 60, 
Martini conchy 3. Z^*^. 112. I.040 — 1044. IO48 — 1051, 
2. Martynunioj. conchol. 2, /<s^. 56, 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, in numerous varieties. 

5/W/ white, fomerimc' varied with biown, or chcfnut, oryellovv- 

idi brown ; angular, longitudinally Itriate and tranfverfely 

grooved : aperture oval toothed ; pillar fonietimes toothed, 

fometimes topthlefs. 

Qtudaftts, Shell thin t;ranfverfely (Ir'.ate, brown varied vi'ith white: 
bpak fubulate : fpire a little prominent and tipt wi|h 
brown, the whorls grooved, the firll gibbous. 
Inhabits — -—Martini conch. 3. tab. i\l.fig. 1045 — 1047, 
Z. Lifter conch, tab. 893.//^. 13 ? 

Nubecula, Shell with decnfTate protuberances, obtufe with knotty 
wrinkles: belly ec^ual: aperture toothed. 
Gualt test, tab 49. I. Argen-v. conch, tab, 9. k. 
Seba rmf. 3. tab. ifiypg^ I — 6. 

Muj. Gottwald. tab. 36.//^. 228. b — d. 229. a, b. 230. a, b. 
K'iorr Fergn 1 3 'fg. 3, 4. and 3. t. 5./. 2, 3. 
Martini conch, i^.tab. l^Z-fig- I 259-. 1 267. 
Chemn. cench. IQ. tab. iSz.fg- I45^> I457« 
Inhabits .tfrica India and South Ametica-. rathef rare. 
£he/l ixd or yellow and barred. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 437 

Scrobicula- Shell with neaily oppofite hollowed protuberances, fmooth: 
(or. aperture toothed. 

Litter fab. 943. Gualt test. tab. 49. B- 

Pet. Gaz. tab. \00. fig. 12. Fa-vanm conch, tab. '^2.. E, 

Sihrat. n litter at. ^. tub. 2.. fig' 16, 17. 

Chemn. conch. 10 tab. 163.//^. '556,1557. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. 

Reticularis. Shell with nearly oppofite protuberance?, reticulate, \yjth 
tuberculate Ipots: pillar alnioit toothlefs beak afcending. 

lister tab. 945- »• 30- X^jjT?^ teji ftg. 64. 

Bonan. recr. and Muf. Kirch. 3 fig. \()l, 

CuaU. test. tab. 49. M. tab. 50, A. 

Murray teli, tab. i. fg I 8. 

Born /I uf. C^f. yind. te/t. tab. M. fig- 5. 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 41 /ig. 405-6. and 4. /. 128./. 1228. 

Schrcst. n litterat. 3. tab. l- fig. 18, 19. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and America: 6 inches long. 

Shell tranfterfely ribbed and longitudinally llriate, with partu 
coloured knots in the angles ot Tcdion : aperture with a rei 
border ; lip toothed. 

lameUo/ui. Shell with membranaceous protuberances continued through 
the rpire and terminated with a fpine. 
Inhabits Falkland IJlands. Martyn umnjerf. conchol. 2. tab. 42. 

Nodatus, Whorls knotty: bealc flraight : aperture violet : lip toothed. 
Inhabits Ne'w Holland. Mart* uni<v.concb, Z. tab. 51. 

Anus. Shell with a dilated membranaceous protuberance and lips, 

gibbous and reticulate with tubercles : aperture finuous: 
beak er«<5l. 

Lister tab. 833. Argcwv. conch, tab. 9. H 

Rumpf. muf. tab. 24. F. Gualt. teji. tab. 37, B ? 

Pet. Gaz. tah. J'^.fg. 9. /. 99. f- 10. 

Bonan recr l.fg. 279, 280. Muf Kirch. I. fig, 278, 279, 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. bo. fit]. 4. 6, 7. 

Muf Gott^jiald. tab. "jb.fig. 177, 178. a, b, 

Kncrr f^ergn. 3. tab. 3. fig. 5, 

Martini conch. 2. tab. 41 .fig. 403, 404. 
, 2. Gualt. tefi. tab 31. D. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Ada : 3 inches long. 

Shell g ncrally bro'.vn with, white bands and Tubtriangular 

Miliarif. Shell varicofe with tuberculate belts: aperture a little 


toothed: beak elongated: whorls ventricofe. 

438 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Valent. ahh. z. tab. 14. a. 15. b. 16. c. 17. d. 18. e. 
Knorr l^ergn. 3. tab. 2(),fig. 5. 
Martini conch. ^. p. 303. 'y/^«, 'i^K.Jig. 1— 5. 
Chemn. conch JO. tab, \b\. fig. 1532 — 1535. 

Inhabits Shell cineieous greenifh rutous or white, the tu. 

bercles fometimes black, rarely rufous. 

Senegahnfis Shell tranfverfely ftrlate, with fpinous protuberances, the 

fpines decreafing towards the head. 
Adam feneg. I, tab. 8 fig. 1 9. 
Inhabits Senegal: about 2| inches long. 
Shell with 9 tubercle?, alternately lefs, each of them armed with 

8 fpines ; Jpire with 8 whorls. 

• Carinatus Shell ventricofe with 5 or 6 whorls forming angular ridges : 
aperture femicircular : beak a little retleSed. 
Inhabits Europe : 4 inches long. Pennant, tab. 77. £g. 96. 

D. More or lefs fpinous and without tnanifefi beak, 

Ricinus. Shell obovate, with fubulate fpines: aperture and lip toothed. 
Rumpfi. muf. tab. 24. E, Gualt. tejl. tab, 28. N. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 60. fi.g. 37. 39. 42. Murray, t. \. f. 19. 
Inhabits the Ap.atic Ocean: about if inch long. 
Spines dilpofcd in rows: fpire prominent: ?nouth violet. 

K'odus, Shell obovate with conic fpines: lip toothed: pillar fmooth 

Inhabit? Knorr Fergn. 6. tab. li^.fig. 7. 3|: inches long. 

Shell\t{% than M. ricinus: aperture flefh-colour. 

Neritoideus Shell with numerous rows of knots : lip with pointed angles: 
pillar flattifh. 

Lister tab. 804. Khin ofir. tab. l. fig. 30. 

Eonan. recr. and Mufi.kirch. ^- fig- 173. 

Seba muf. 3. tab, 60. fig 41. 48. 

Muf. Gotti.vald. tub, ix.fig. 81. a? b ? c. 

Knorr Fergn. I. tab. 2^. fig. 5, 6, 

Marti}ii conch. 3. tab. lOl. fig. qjz, 973. t^ XOZ, f. 976 — 979. 

Inhabits India and refembles a Nerita or Miirex. 

Shell fometimes white with black tubercles and violet mouth, or 
jellowifh-brown with brown tubercles and yellow aperture : 
firft <u;horl w'xrh 4 rows of tubercles on the back: lip armed 
with 3 or 4 fpines : pillar with 2 — 4 teeth. 

Fucus. Shell coarfe ventricofe ftriate tranfverfely with 4 rows of 

knots: pillar impreiled and with the outmoft whorls 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 






Lister tab. 990. Gualt test, tab. 66. B. o. 
Bonan recr, and Muf. kirch. 3. fig. 174. 
Martini conch 3. taJ). 1 00, fig. g^q — 962. 

Inhabits S/yel/ rare, about li inch long. 

Pillar marKcd with 2 or 3 black dots. 

Shell obovate and knotty on the fore-part : aperture tooth- 
lefs and fuborbicular. 
Inhabits Chine/i Shores. Mol. Hist Chil. p. 180. 
SIkU 4 or 5 long .- the inhabitant is eaten by the natives 
and contains a purple juice in a veficle on the neck. 

Shell fubovate, with acute fpines: aperture toothlefs repand. 
Argenv. conch, tab 14. P. Gualt. test. tab. 28. R. tab. 44. S» 
Sebamuf. 3. tab, <^2.fig, 30, 31. /. 60./. 33. 43. 47. 
Regenf. conch. I. tah. ^. fig. 32. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. io\. fig, 974,975, 
2. Walch petref. 2. p, 120. tab. C n. fig. 9? :'. M 

Inhabits Shell fometimes bay varied with white, or yellow- 

i(h- brown with or without Cpots : fpi/n's in 4 rows: aperture 

Shell ovate, with obfolete fpines: aperture toothlefs: pillar 
tranfvei;fely ftriate. 
Lider tab. g^^.fig, 8. /. 957. /". 9, 10. 
Rump/, muf. tab. z\.fig. 5. Seba muf. 3. t. 60. f, 45. 
Argen'v. conch tab 17. H. Knorr Vergn. 2)- t. zq. f. 6, 
Muf. Gottnjoald. t. ll.f, 80. c, d. t. 26. f. 126. 
Born Muj. Cess. Find teji t. g.f. 1 9, 20, 
Martini conch. 3. /. 101. f. 966 — 968. 970. a, b. 971. 
Schr(zt, Einl. in Verst. 4. /. "]. f. 7. 

2. Lister t. 956. f. 7. Martini conch. 3. t. JOO./". 963. 

3. Adans feneg. \.p. 100 /. -»./: i. 

Inhabits Southern Afin, 2) wtltern fhores o{ Africa. 
Shell whhc, or browniih vaiicd with white, more or Icfs turgid ; 
fpines or tubercles blackifh. 

Shell ovate ftriate, with 3—5 rows of obtufe fpines or tu- 
bercles: aperture tranfverfely ftriate. 
LiJIer tab. 958. y}^. 11. ^.991, 896. 955. 990. 
Rumpf.muf. tab. 24. C, D. 

Bonan. recr ^.fg. 381. Muf. kirch. 3. fig, 386* 
Gualt. test. tab. 37. C. tab. 43. V. 
Argenv. conch, tab. 14. L. 
Klein oHr. tab. 3. fig. 58. r. 7./*. n 2, 

Sebamuf ^. f. 52./. 22, 23. zj, 28. /. 60. f. II, 12. 30 — 32, 
KnorrVergn. q. t.^.f. 2. and 6. /. 24. y. 2. t. 35./*. 3. 
Ma/ Gott'wald. t. 38./. 260. a? b ? /. 26. f 182. 
Martini conch, 3,/. 99./, 945,94.6./. 100. f, 954 — 958. 


^1^ WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Inhabits Guinea India and the iflands of the Indian Ocean. 

Shell tranfverfely ftriate on the back, and armed with rows of 

obtufe fpitK-s or tubercles varying in numbers ; whorls of the 

fpire diftant, 

Sentico/us. Shell a little tapering, longitudinally ribbed and tranfverfel}r 

canceJlate : aperture itriate 
Bonan. recr. and MuJ. kirch. ifi^' 35» 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 29. N, Gualt. teji, tab. 51. G. 
Argenv. conch, tab. 9. O. Seba muf. 3. /. 49. f. 4^—48, 
Kjtorr Vergn. 3. tab. 24 jfg". 4, 5. 
Martini conch. 4. /. x^^x^.f. 1466, 1467 
Innabits the Indian Ocean: about 2 inches long. 
5/{'f//ycllowi{h with a brown band on each of the whorls, the rib? 

prickly: aperture oblong: piUar with a fingle plait: fpir; 

pointed, with diftant whorls. 

Melengtra. gj^gjj obovate glaucous, with a fubfpinous whcrl rather 
prominent fpire and fmooth aperture. 
Lister tab. 904. Rumpf. mzif. tab. 24. 2, 3. 6. 
Bonan. recr. yjig. 186. 293. Muf. kirch. f. 1 85. 296. 
Gualt. tejl. tab. 26. P. /a^ 31. F. 
■ 'Argenv. conch, tab. 15. H. Seba muf. 3. t. J1- f l— 9r- 
Muf GottiAjald. tab. 1 1 . fig. 71 , 72, 73. a, b. 
Knorr Vergn. I. t. ij.f. and 2. I. 
Regetif. cavch. l. t. $■ ^- 49* '• ^^-f 36. 
Martini conch. 2. t. 39. 40^". 389 — 397. 

2. A^Bcrr Vgrgjt. 3. /«^. 7._/%. 3. and 5. /. 4 /". 2. 

3. Rumpf. muf. tab. 2Cj. D. /fl^. 24. /". 4. 

^f-^« iV//,/. 3. /. 49./*. 80--82. /. 52./. 19,20. /. 60./. 9, 16, 
A/«/I G^tfu'. fab. w.fg. 74-78. /. 27./. 187. a. 
Martin, conch. 2. /<2^. \0,fg, 398-402. 

4. Chemn* conch. 10. /. \6^ f. 1 568, 

Inhabits /«d';fl and ^Twmrc, in great varieties : 5I inches long. 
Shell generaly brown barred with white; aperture oval larger 

Jpire with knotty whorls, rarely fmooth, the firft very large and 

turgid and mollly furroudcd v^iih fpines. 

Ccnfui. Shell thick ventricofe white tranfverfely grooved and knotty^ 
aperture repand ovate : lip finuous, plaited inwardly 
and denticulate. 
Inhabits India. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 160, fig. 1516, 1517. 

Lima. Shell brown fubovatc and llightly beaked, with crowded 

nodulous paler beltj. 
Inhabits Georges Bay, Martyn utti'V. Conch. 2, tab. 46. 

E. With 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


E. IVith a long Jiraight fubulate clofed bcahy and unarmed 
with Jpines, 

Cario/us. Shell without beak, (lightly plaited, ovate, pointed: tip 
Found in the Aqueduft at Se'ville: fize of a bean. 
Shell oh\on^, pointed, cinereous, fubdiaphanous, longitudinally 
grooved and emarginace at the bafe, 

Babyloniust Shell tapering, with acute fpotted belts and ftraight tail : 
lip cleft. 
Lister, tai* 917. /". 11. Rumpf. mtif. t. 29. L. 
Aygetinj. conch, tab. 9. M. Zoom, t, 4./". b, 
Valent. abh. tab. \.fig. 8. Gualt. teit. tab. 52. Ni" 
Knorr dellc. tab, B. w.f. 6. Vergn. t, 14./^ 2, 
Regenf, conch, i. tab. \.f> 9. 
Martini conch. 4. tah, I43._/. 133T— 1335- 

2. Chemn, conch. 4. tab, 143. <vign. 39«/. B, C. 

3. Bonan. recr. & Muf. Kirch. Z'f'g^ 4^» 
Muf. GcttHvald. tah. 34. ;^. 221. f. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab 23. _/f^. 3. 

4. Martini conch, 4. /«^. I45>^^. I345> 1346. 

5. Chetnn. conch. 10. /^z^. \6z, fig. 1550,1551. 
Inhabits India and American ijlands : 4 inches long. 

Shell furrounded with white belts and marked with fquare brown 
or black fpots. 

jfuvanus. Shell tapering, with immaculate knotty belts: lip with a 
feparate fcoop. 
Lijler, tab. gi^. Alar t. conch, t. 143,/". 1336 — I 338. 
Inhabits India; relembles the laft, but is white, immaculate and 
fometimes varied with yellowifh-brown rays: beak longer or 
ihorter : nvhorls carinate or tuberculate and fubllriate. 


Shell ventricofe, pointed, with a cancellate refle£led beak: 
• aperture oval: whorls with tranfverfe granulate ftriae : 
bafe crowned with fpines. 
Lister, tab, 1018. fig. 80. Adanf. Seneg. I., 3. 
Gualt. test, tab. 56. M, N. Arg. conch. /. 1 1. F, 
Seba mnf. 3. tah. 50. fig. 23, 24. 
Martini conch, 4, tab. 1 57. Jig, 1487 ? 1489. 

2. Lister, tab. 122. f. 18. Klein odr, t, z.f. 40. 

3. Schrcet.flufconch. tah. 9 ^^.91 
4 Martyn uni-u. conch. 2. tab, 58, 

Inhabits Senegal. Shell fpotted, with a finglc plait on the 

VOL. IV. — 3 K 


442 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Mufex. 

Stramineus. Spire with elevated ring?, the interftices filled with fhor 
flraw-like proje£lions: all the whorls Crowned with 
tubercles at the bafe : aperture violet : lip undulate and 
with the pillar fnowy. 

Spengler l^aturf. 17. tab. z. fig. A, B, 

Chevin. conch lO. tflb 160. fig, 15ZO, 1521. 

Fofvan conch, tah. 79. S. Mart, uni'v, conch. Z, f. 53, 54* 

Inhabits the Southern Ocean. Shell ftraw-colour, 3 inches long, 

Auflralis. Shell ovate, longitudinally flriate : lip undulate: whorls 
caniculatc, the firft turgid and 4-plaited, the next 
Spengler Katurf. 17 tab. 2. Jig. C, D. 
Inhabits the t>outh Sea : 2\ inches long. 
Shell ftraw-colour, with a yellow pillar and fnowy lip. 

Uncinatus. Spire pointed and tranfverfely ftriate, the 4 firft whorls 
with a callus armed with hooks in the middle, the 
fifth and fixth ribbed, the reft glabrous. 
Inhabits Schr at. fuf conch, tab. ^ Jig- 15. 

Shell an inch long ; aperture oval : lip toothed : /pire with 9 

*Turris, Shell tapering," the whorls crowned with tubercles and 
furrounded with a granulate belt, the firft very finely 
ftriate tranfverfely. 

Inhabits Bonan. recr. & Muf. kirch. 3. f. 79, 

Shell white with a reddifh band : refembles M, babyloniciis, but 
the lip is entire. 

Ceitntus. Beak a little refleded and obliquely ftriate: 3 firft whorls 
of the fpire ribbed, the other 4 cafncellate, the firft obw 
conic : pillar with a fingie plait, 
Jrg. conch, tab^ 29./"- 3- Kvorr petrif 2. /,C. ii./*. 7. 
Schraet. Elnl. in Verjl. 4. tab. 8, fig. 3. 8. 
Found foffile in Campania: the ribs of the firft whorh terminat- 
ing in fpines above. 

Asper^ Shell longitudinally plaited and tranfverfely ribbed: fpire a 
little prominent: aptrture ovate: lip crenulate. 

Inhabits Martini conch. 4 tab, 150./. 1396, 1397. 

.S^^// reddifh, with 5 or 6 whorls; the libs acute. 

Colus\ Shell tapering, ftriate, knotty, carinate. with a longftraight 

beak : lip crenulate. 
Liffer, tab,^\j.f, 10, t. 918. Rutnpf muf. tab. ig, F. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 443 

Bonan. recr 3 fig- 360? Muf. kirch Z- f'g- 353^ 

Guolt, test. tab. 52 L. Argen-v, conch tab. g B. 

Klein odr. tab. 78? Knorr Ftrc^n, 3. tab, ^./ig. I. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. I 44 fig I 342. 
2. Regenf. conch i. tab 2. fig, 52. 

Fuvuim. conch, tab. 33 A. 5 tab. 35. C. I. 

Chemn. conch. iG,tab. xbo.jig 1523. t \6l.f. 1536, 1537. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Shell vshite. cianfverfely llriafc, 
round or angular ; ivhorh fepa-rated by a grf)OVe and crowned 
•with knots, the upper- cues brown ; beak nearly 3 inches long, 
beneath brownlih. 

MoriCf Beak dilated: TneH black with a white band: whmls a 
little knotty : pillar wrinkled. 
Lister tab. 928 Adans. feneg. 1. tab. ()-/ig- 3I« 
Bman recr. I' fig- 357 Muf Kirch 3/'- 350. 
iieha Muf. 3. tub 80. ^y/orr //f//'.:. tab B ^-fg 4. 
1 il//</; Gotl^ald, tabs zc^.fig. 209. a jr. 3i.y- 209. b. 
Knorr Vergn \,tab. zo. fg^ 1,2. tyb.f 2. 
Regenf. conch, i. tab. li- f'g- 6c. 
Martini conch. 4. /«^. 139, I40,y75-. 1300 — 1303. 
Inhabits Africa: 6 ind.cs lo>-'g. 
Shell brown or cinereous an,d traivfverfcly ftriatc. 

CochMum, Beak dilated : whorls of the fpirc flat above. 

Argenij. conch, tab. 9. A, Favann conch, tab' 39. B, 3. 
Seba muf 3. tub. ^z.fig. 6. t. 57 f 27, 28, 
Chemn. conch 10. fab 1 64. y/^. 1569. 
Inhabits the Inauin Ouan. 

Spirillu!, Shell with a long beak : fpire niucronate, the whorls convex 

Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. Zif.fig- 3. Spengl.felt. <onch. tab. 3. E, 

Mart ni conch. 7^. t'lb. ^^S fg' 1069. 

Schrat Einl in conch. I. tab. r^. fig. ^. 

lur.w'Aii -Irunquebar: refimblcs M. canicuhtus, but the whorls 
arc not feparatsd by a groove •. fiell ventricofe beneath, con- 
vex above ; fp:re with a prominent: ob^ulc knob in the centre, 
t'.: whorl- furroundcd with an acute margin above: beak lub- 
cylindrical, not dilaied to vards the aperture of the belly : 
pilar with a tranfverle wrinkle. 

CaniculeUut Beak dilated: whorls of the fpire feparatcd bv a fmall 
Valent. abh. tab. 1 1 -fig, 92. Guolt. teji. tab. 47. A. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. b^.fig 21 ? 22 .^ 
Kiorr delic. nat. tab. B. v\.fig. 4. 
Murtim coach. 3. tab. 66, fg. 733 — 74c, /, 67./. 742, 

3K2 Inhabits 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Inhabits Canada and the frozen Sea, Shell brown, fometimes 
larger and uniform, fometimes kfs and radiate fmooth or tranf- 
verfely ftriate : margin of the back knotty. 

Ficuu Beak dilated : fhell ftriate, the whorls feparated by a fmall 
canal; the outer-ones brown, the firll ciowned with 
knobs at the bafe. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 3, tai>. 66. Jig. 741, 

2. Guah. teH. tab. 26. N. 

3. Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 16^. fig^ 156^4* 'S^j. 

Carica. Beak dilated ; (hell tranfverfely ftriate : fpire a little pro- 
minent, the whorls crowned with fpines at the bafc. 
Lister tab. 880. Guah.. teft. tab. 47. B. 
Knorr Fergn. \. tab. '^o.Jtg. 4. and 6. t. 27./". i. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 6j.fig, 774. /. 69,/. 756, 757. 
Inhabits about 8 inches long : fillar plaited. 

Kapa. Shell folid umbilicate with a triple row of knots and tranf- 

verfely ftriate: aperture large ftriate. 
Knorr Fergn. 1^. tab. z\,fig.z. Spengl conch. 5. C. 
Martini conch. 3. tab. 6%. Jig. 750 — 753, 
2. Lister tab. 894, 895, 

Inhabits India : refembles Bulla rapa, 

Niveus, Beak dilated: ftiell fnowy diaphanous : whojls of the fpIre 
feparated by a fmall groove, the firft with tranfverf^ 
carinate ribs. 

Bonan recr. yfig. 338. Muf. Kirch. 3./, 337. 

Inhabits the Seas round BraJU. 


Shell hemifphserical glabrous diaphanous, with a fpreading 
ftraighl beak, crown papillary. 
Lister tab, 881 . Ellis corallines, tub. 33. A. a. 
Muf. Gottav. tab. 30. /7^. 2, 5. 

Inhabits North America. Whorls convex and growing gradually 
lefs towards the tip. 

Aruanus, Beak dilated : fpire crowned with fpines. 
Rumpf. muf. tab. z^.fig- A. 
Bonan. recr. and Muj. Kirch. 3. /* loi. 
Chemn. conch. 4 /. 143. "vign. 39,, D- 

Inliabiti AW' Guinea. 5^-^// coarle ponderous, blacker bhieifti, 
furrounded with rings: aperture angular: beak rather Jong: 
jpire niucronate. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


Perver/us, Beak dilated and repand ; fpire turned contrary and flightly 
Lister tab. 907, 908 ? Gualt. teji. tab, 30. B 
Argenville conch, tab, 15. F. Ellis Curall. tab. 33. B, 
Muf. Gottnviild. tab. ^z./ig. 219. a, b. 
Bailer op.fubcef. tab. ^-fig' I. B. 
Cbemn. conch. 9. tab, xoj./ig. 906, 907. 
Born Muf. Caf. Vind. tefi. tab. i\. fig. 8, 9. 
2. Chemn. conch, 9. tab. iOJ./ig. 904, 905. 
Inhabits the American Ocean: exc edingly rare. 
Spines fometimes pointed, fometimes more obtufe, 

*Antiqutu* Beak dilated : (hell oblong with 8 round whorls, the firft 
Lister conch, tab. 962./^. 1 5. An, angl. t. 3. /". I— 3. 
Mull. Zool. Dan. 3. ta'K i\S,/g. 1.-3. 
Bonan, recr. Z- fi&- *9° ^^^- ^^"^^k- if' ^92. 
6eba Muf 3. tib. 39 fg. 75. /. 83. f, 3-6. t. 93./. j. 
Martini conch. ^ tab. 1 38, /f^. 1292 — 1294. I 296. 
Hermann Nat urf. 16 tab. Z-fg-J- 

2. Seba muf 3. /<2(f. ^l.fig- 7 ? 

3. Martin Mannigf. 4. /. 2./. I4? 

Inhabits European 7Lr\6 frozen Seas: 4-6 inches long. 

Shell difii, dirty yellow, very finely ftriate tranlVcrfely or longi- 
tudinally plaited : whorls of ihc fpire feparated by a groove, 
the middle-one fometimes crowned with tubercles, rarely turnetl 

•DefpeElui, Beak dilated: lliell oblong ftriate and fomewhat rugged: 
whorls 8, with 2 elevated lines. 
Do72war!s Britifi ficlls . tab, 31. It. Wgoth. i. ^.f 8. 
Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv. tab. y'&.fg. 98. 
Da Cojia Brit, conch, tab, 6. fig. 4. 
Lifter an. Ang. tab. 3 fg. \ . 
Martini conch. 4. tab. I 38. fig, 1 295. 

2. Lifter conch. IO57,/. I ? 

3. Martyn uni'verf conch, if 5. Favann. Caial, t. A. f. 946. 
Cbemn. conch X 10. tab. \6'^. fg. 1558. 

Inhabits Europeau Seas : about 5 inches long. 

S/6^// coarfe white, v. itii a glofTy orange-yellow aperture: the 

ftfi is fometimes eaten, but is ofterier ufed as bait for Cod and 

Ray fifh. 

Fornicatus, Beak dilated: (hell ovate-oblong, the whorls ventricofe lon- 
gitudinally ftriate and a little angular. 
Inhabits Greenland Seas. O. Fabr.fn. Grtvnl. 399, 
Shell zbovs 3 inches long, fubdiaphanous fmoothifh and yellow, 
within white and glabrous : ivhorls 7, with wide tranfverfe 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Incrafatus. Shell oblong, tranfverfely wrinkled and longitudinally ftriate: 
lip denticulate wiihin and thickened without. 
Inhabits Ml. Nidros, 4./. 96. tab. \b.Jlg. 29. 

•7ira»fd!/«j. Shell oblong longitudinally ribbed: beak a little reflefted 
emarginate truncate. 
M. collatus. Pennant Brit, Zool iv, tab. 79. 
AS. Niaros. 4./. 97. tab. 16 fig. 26. 
Inhabits European coajls : very minute, with 6 whorls. 

• Jcumina- Shell narrow oblong ribbed, with 9 pointed fpire. 
tus. Inhabits England. Fenn, Brit. Zooll., 79. minute, 

-A^g^i' Shell gibbous with tranfverfc tuberculate ribs ; brown with 
darker bands, within white: aperture ovate. 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 49. B. Klein ojtr. tub. J ■ fig- 128, 
Le/Jer teft.fig. 62. Knorr yergn. 5. tab. J./^J. 3. 
Martini conch. 4- tab. izy fig. 1223. 

2. ^eba muf. 3. tab. $7 fg S3' 

Martini conch. 4. /^^. i^l^fg' I2S5> 1256. 
Chemn. conch. lO.t. l6o.f. 1522. 

3, Martyn univ. conch, i. /^^. 3. 

Inhabits /W/a; i) Friendly and Society IJlands, "^ 

Macuhfus* Shell cancellate, yellow with alternate white bands and 
chefnut patches: fpire with ir round whorls. 
Lijler tab. 1022, Runipf. muf. tab. 49. G, 
Seba muj. 3 . tab. 5 I .y>j-. 20, 2 1 . 
Martini conch. 4. /ai^. 1^2, fig- 1 257, 1 253. 
Fa'vann. conch, tub. 'S'},fig. X? 
2. Bonan. rccr. and A/^ A'zVf. $./ig'^ 48. 

Inhabits /W/^ r extremely rare, / 

Magella- Shell ventricofe umbilicate tranfverfely ftriate, cinereous 
«/f«i. within violet: whorls of the fpire with paralell ribs, 

the firft very large. 
Knorr Vergn- 4. tab, ^o.fig. z. 
Martini conch. 4. tab, l^g. fig. 1297. 
2. Chemn conch. 10. tab. \b\.fg. 1570. 

Inhabits the Straights of Magellan : refembles Buccinum harpa, 
Shell with, an oval aperture; nvhorls with high acute foliaceons 

Cancellatus Shell ovate folid opake cinereous: whorls of the fpire can- 
cellate and feparated by a groove. 
Inhabits m Knorr l^ergn, 2. tub, 27. fg. 3, 

^ Stolopaceus, 

WORMS, TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


^cohpaceus. Shell brown, whorh furroundefl with grooves and with tu- 
bercles above, tip of the tubercles and aperture white. 

Inhabits Knorr f^ergn, 3 fal>. 26. fig 4. 

2. Knorr Vergn. 3. tab lb. A^. 5 ? 

Van 2) more elongated and airty yellow, with an obfolete 
band on the whorls, the tubercles more globular. 

Litteratus, Shell ventricofe tapering fpotted with black : pillar with a 
fingle plait : beak Ihort. 

Inhabits Born Muf Ctef. Vind tell, tab, w.fig. I4> ^5« 

Shell fnowy, with a wide aperture : fpire with 8 prickly whorls. 

Trigonus. Shell fubtriangular cancellate : fpire with inflated contigu- 
ous whorls, the firll with a large diftindl tubercle. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adam Jene^,. I. tab. 8. fig, 14. 
Shell 2 inches long ; fpire with 7 whorls. 

Semilunaris Shell longitudinally ribbed and very finely ftriate tranfverfely: 
fpire with flattifh diitant whorls with rows of tubercles: 
aperture femilunar. 

Inhabits Senegal. Adam.feneg. 1. tab. ^.fgt i^. 

Shell an inch long, the whurls with a fingle row of tubercles 
the fec«nd with a double or triple row, iirft with 6 or 7 rows, 

CoJIatus, Shell with annular ftriae and inflated round whorls, each of 
them with 9 rounded parallel fpinous ribs. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adam feneg. 8./^. 19. 
Shell about 2| inches long. 

oulcatui. Shell rounded, with annular grooves : aperture oval: firft 
whorl of the fpire turgid. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adam feneg I. tab. <^-Jig. 2 J. 
Shell I \ inch iong, with 9 contiguous whorls, which are fometimes 
inflated, fometimes flattifh. 

Su/iformis, Shell elongated, with numerous rows of very minute crow- 
ded tubercles. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adans feneg. i. tab. (),Jig. 23. 
Shell 6 lines long, with about 8 whorls, the rirfl: with 12—15 
rows of tubercles, the Iciond with 5, 

Trifonis. Shell ventricofe oblong fmooth, with rounded whorls toothed 
aperture and ihort beak. 
LiHer tab.^^g. Rump/, Mu/. tab, zS,B. znd I. 
yalent. abh. tab. ^.Jig. 66, 67. Gualt, test. tab. 48, A, 
Bcvan recr, and Mh/, kirch. yfig. 188, 


448 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Stha muj, 3. tab» 8 1 . Knorr delic* tab, B. vi. y. i . 
Muf. Gott-wald. tab. 34, fig. 224. a. tab, 35, /I 225, b. 
Krtorr Fergn. 2. tab. 16./. 23. ^ 5. tab.^.f. I. 
Martini conch. 4. /fl^. 134., 135. /I 1246, 1277—1283. 

2. Z./j/«r. /fl^. 960, Muf. Gottnv, tab. 25. ^. 224, 
Martini conch. ^. tab. 17,6, Jig, 1284,1285, 

3. iiC/«« ojir, tab. 7. //§-. 127 ? 

Inhabits India and the South feas : 2) the Mediterranean. 
5/&f// 16 inches long, white and appearing as if covered with 

brown, yellow and black fcales: pillar white with tranfverfe 

black ftrise : whorls of the ^/r^ leparated by a nodulous future, 

the firft marked with ftriate grooves. 
This is the fpecics which is ufed by the natives of Netv Zealand 

as a mufical fhell, and by the Africam and many nations of 

the Eaft as a military horn. 

Fuslo. Shell ventricofe, oblong, fmooth : fpire ftriate, with round- 
ed whorls: aperture fmooth: beak (hort. 
Lister, tab. 914* Adanf, Seneg. I. tab, 4, y, 3, 
Rumpf, muf. tab. 49. E. Gualt. test, t. 52, I. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. i^j^fg. I 357. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean and Africa: very rare. 
5>?>/?// about if inch long, white with brown or fulvous fpotS 
often difpofed in rows. 

Tulipa, Shell ventricofe, oblong, fmooth : whorls rounded, with a 
double future: pillar with 2 plaits: beak dilated, 
Liller, tab, 910,911. Argenv. conch, tab. 10, K. 
Bonanrecr. 3.7% 187. Muf. Kirch. ^. fg- 1 86. 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 49, H. Gualt. tef. tab, 46, A. 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 71. fig. 23—31. 
Muf Gott-wald. tab. 2(),fg.zzo. a,b. 
Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. iS, fig. 5. ^ 6. tab, 29,/*. I, 
Regenf. concb. 1. tab. ^^fig- 35. 
Martini conch. 4. /. 136, 137./*. 1256--1291, 
2. GW/. ^^i/. //i/^ 45 >>^- E ? 

Inhabits 5o«/^ America. Shell generally fpotted and clouded, 
within tranlverfely ftriate: whorls with rarely a fingle future. 

Clathratusi Shell oblong, beaked and grooved, with longitudinal fub- 
membranaceous plaits. 
Lifer, tab. 926./^. 19. Klein ojir, tab. 3,/", Sj^ 
Inhabits Iceland: refembles Turbo clathratus, but has a (hort 
beak and numerous ereft comprefTed plaits. 

Najfa, Shell folid, black or pale brown with a white fubdiapha- 
nous band : whorls knotty : pillar a little plaited 



Lister, tab. 828. Knorr Fergn. 6. tab. 20, f, 7. 
Vaknt. abb. tab. 8./. 71. Regenf. conch, I. t. J,f. 1. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 122, I 23, fig. II 31 — 1 1 34* 
Spengler felt, conch, tab. '^t Jig. F. 
Inhabits ' — A fpccies between the Voluta and Murex; 


Plictttus, Whorls of the fpire plaited and knotty. 

Lister, tab, 939, fig, 34. a. Klein ojlr. t, "i,,/. 56, 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 49. fig. 70. 
Martini conch. 4. tcib. 1 23, jig. 1 141, 1 142, 
Inhabits, though rarely, in India. 

Scala. Shell umbilicate, with diftant wedged ribbed and! tranf- 

verfely ftriate whorls : aperture heart-fliaped. 
Inhabits - •Muf. LeeJ. fig. B. 

Chenin. conchy 4. p. 1. i:ign. 37.^^. a,b,c, 
iVW/reddifli-white, fometimes yellow with pale brown bands. 

Fi/cellu.T.t Shell angular, longitudinally plaited and tranfverfcly ftri- 
ate: lip toothed : mouth violet: beak flraight, (hort. 
Inhabits China., Chemn, conch, lO. /. i60i f. 1524, 1525, 

Corona. Shell faftigiate, with brown and yellowifh bands : whorls 
above flattifh with waved imbricate fcales: beak 
ftraight, entire. 

Inhabits Mexico. Da<vil. Catal. I. tab, 9. A. 

Chemn. ctmch, lo. tab. \6\. figi 1526, 1527. 

Beak dilated, fhell ovate, with a few elevated obtufe belts 
on the whorls. 

Bonan. recr. Sc Muf. Kirch. 3. f. 347. 

Seba ?nuf. 3, tuh.\C). fig. 74? 75 ? 

Knor*- Fergn. 5, tab. ^-fig, 5. 

Inhabits the Ocean: fize of a walnut; 

3hell horny, tapering both ways, furrounded with numerous ob- 
tufe and very raifed belts, 2 on the whorl: />i/lar perforated: 
aperture ovate^ a little tranfverfe forwards, excavated at the 
outer margin, and tapering behind into a hardly manifell and 
11 ghtly eniarginate canal. 

Shell oblong, flender, white, the margins of the whorls 
complicated, the tip tubercular: aperture toothlefs: 
beak a little afcending. 
Donovan^s Brit. Shells, tab. 38. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 76. fig. 90. 
Da Costa Brit, conch, tab. 6. fig. 5. 
Litter Anim, Angl. tab. I- fig 4. 

VOL. JV. — 3L GUalt. 

450 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Cualt, tejt. tab. 46. F. 

Inhabits ^r/V//7i znd North feas : 3inche»lonf. 
SMI white covered with a brown £kin, tranfverrdy ftriate: jpir^ 
with 8 round whorls, 

Ligftanuu Shell oblong, Goarfe, with obtufely knotty whorls: aper- 
ture toothlefs: beak Ihort, ftraightilh. 
Bonan recr. i^ Muf, kirch. 3. y. 32 ? 
^eba muf, 3, t. 52, y 4. Knorr Vergil^ 6. /. 26. f. 5. 
In-habits the Ocean: about a finger long. Hbeli Imooth, coarfc, 
with a iingle row of knots on the whorls. 

Trapezium, Shell oblong, obtufely angular, with flightly knotty whorls: 
aperture toothed : beak fhort and ftraight. 
Lifter, tab. 931, Knorr Fergn. 4. tab. 20, ^g, l, 
Rumpf. muf. tab. 29, E tab, 49, K. 
Boiianrecr. '>,,fg- 287. Muf. Kirch. j.f.zSS, 
Gualt. tefi. tab. 46, B. Argetin) , conch, t. lO, F, 
Muf. Gott^w. tab. 28. f. 208, /. 29, y. 210. a,b. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 1 39, f. 1 298, 1299. 
2. Lister, tab. 920. Knorr t^ergn. 2. /. \^,f, J. 
Rumpf. muj. tab. 29, G. /. 49, F. 
Gualt test tab. 52, T. Jrgenv. conch, t, II, H. 
Muf. Gott^eild. tab. ■^j^., fg. 22, z,h. 
Martini conch, 4. tab. 1 40, /^, i 3 1 0, 1 3 il . 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean: often above 6 inches long, 
>^/er/ir^ tranfverfeljr ftriate within : ////ar plaited : ^f«^ wrinkled 
outwardly : each of the nvhorls with a double brown line and 
a row of obtufe tubercles, 

Vefpertilio, Shell folid, ventricofe, fmooth, with an oblong-oval aper- 
ture: beak and crowned fpire ftriate, the outer whorls 
Lister, tab. 884, 885. Valent. abh. tdb. 6, fg. 57, 58. 
Muf. GotfvjaU. tab. 31,^/. 203. a. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. X^Z.f. I 323, 1324. 1326,1327. 

2. Sebamuf. 3. tab. ^z^ f'g 6? 

3. Chemn. conch' \0. 164.^^^.1566,1567. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean : above 4 inches long. 
Shell ch^{xx\xt, within flefh-colour, 

Scoljpius^ Shell thin, diaphanous, ventricofe and tranfverfely ftriate, 
the middle of tiie back fmooth : fpire with obtufe un- 
dulate knots; piliar 3-plaited. 
Martini conch 4. tab. \^z~ fig. I 325. 
2. Gualt. tej, tab. 52. R? 

Inhabits between the Genera Voluta and Murex. 


WORxVrS. TESTACEA. 78. Murcx. 451 

5/5(?// white, with 9 or lo whorls on thefpircj the tubercles 
hollow within : leak &r\n\i\ite. 

Uarpa, Shell ventricofe, longitudinally ribbed, the ribs tranfverfely 
ftriate : fpirc a little pr )mincnt, the whorls diftant. 
Inhabits— —A/^r/;/j/ conch. 4. tab, 142. Jtg. 1328 — 1330' 

^uha. Shell fufiform, tranfverfely ftriate, white with a brown tip 

to the Q)ire: whorls diftant and crowned at the bafe 
with knots. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. HJ./Tf. 1333. 

Inhabits China: nearly 6 inches long. 

Beak rather long : fpire with 8 whorls. 

Syracufanus Shell oblong, with fti-iate plaited whorls covered with tu- 
berculate ridges: aperture toothlefs: beak fliort. 
Bonan recr. & Muj. kirch, 3. /?^. 80. 
Inhabits i\\z Mediterranean : extr rnely rare, 
//^i'or/j t.eitaci'0'js with white divifions : ^iTisi moderate, obliquely 
ftriate outwardly. 

Craticula- Shell oblong, with rounded plaited and tranfverfely reticu- 
fus. Jate whorls: aperture toothed : beak fhort. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. 5^t7/ whitifh, flightly plaited longi- 
tudinally, with elevated ferruginous angks : ivhorls with 
elevated ftrias : aperture ftriate within. 

Scriptus. Shell nearly without beak, fufiform, fmooth, pale with 
longitudinal brown flria? : lip toothed. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean : larger than a grain of barley. 
Shell oblong, witl) fubpiceous flcxuous ftrize. 

Ternatanus Shell tranfverfely ftriate, with diftant undulately tubercu- 
late whorls: aperture oblong: beak ftraight, longifti. 
• \ LiHery tab 892. Valent. ahh. tab. l,f. z. 

Se'ia miif. 3, tab '^i. fig. 5* 

Muf Gotivj.' tab. 31./. 211. a— c. 212. a, b. 214. 
K>!orr I'ergn. 6. tab 15, pg. 4. /. 2^, fig I. 
Martini conch. 4- tab. 140, yVjf. 1304, 1305. 
Inhabits Temate I/land: 4 inches long: yellow. 

Jnfundibu' Shell umbllicate, undulately knotty, with elevated browa 
lum. ftriiE ; perforation tunneUlhaped : pilhr 2-plaited. 

List:r, tab. 921,/. 14. Seha muf. 3. r. i'O,/". 54, 
Bonan reir. & Muf, Kirch, fig. 104. 

3 L 2 Chemn. 

452 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex, 

Chemn. conch. 4- /• 143. 'vign, 59. a. 

Inhabits— —5"^^// 4 inches long, with 9 whorls: very rare. 

PoJygonus. Shell a little ventricofe, undulate with tubercles, ftriate 
grooved and obtufely angled : black with an oval aper- 
ture and fhort beak. 

Lister tab. 922. Argenv. conch, tab. 10. L. 

Bonan. recr, and M.uJ\ kirch. '^- fig. 75. 

Gualt. teji, tab. 52. P. Muf. Gott-w. tab. ^4-' fig' 222. g. 

Knorr l^ergn^ 5. tab. lO, fig. 4. and 6. /. i^.^. 5. /. 37. /". 1. 

Martini conch, 4. ^, 140. y. I 306 — 1309. /. i^l./. 1315 — 1316/ 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean: 3j inches long. 

Shell fometimes umbilicate, i'ometimes not : pillar with or with- 
out plaits. 

JJlanatcus, Shell tranfvejrfely ftria^c, fnovk^y covered with a brow^n (kin: 
fpire papillous at the tip with round whorls, the firft 
very large and ventricofe. 

Inhabits Iceland. Martini conch. 4. tab. it^x.fg. 1312, 1313. 

Shell f^ inches long, with 6 — 9 whorls: aperture oblong: beak 
ihort : lip acute : pillar fmooth. 

Ltevigatus, Shell fufiform : fpire tranfverfely (Iriate, with diftant flattifl; 
whorls, the firft round and fmooth : beak rather long, 
jlrgenvilk conch, tab. zg, v. 6. fig. 4. 
Martini conch, 4. tab. 141. fig, T319J 132c, 
Schrat, EinU in Verfi 4. tab. 10. fig. 7. 
Found foffile in Campania : 3| inches long. 
Aperture oval; beak iometimes a litt|e bene, 

Fojplii, $liell fufiform thin cancellate, with a long beak. 
Martini conrh. 4. tab. \\\.fg. I 321, 1322, 
Schrcct. Einl. in rent. 4. tab. S.fg. 5. 
Found foiTiIe in Campania: \\ inch long. 
WhorL more or lefs ciiPant : pillar plaited ( r fnriOOth, 

Cant^ditf. Shell fnowy tranfverfely ftriate : fpire with diftant whorls 
carinate in the middle and crowned with tubercles: 
aperture oval: lip grpovcd within ajid denticulate at 
the margin. 

Martini conch. ^. tab. i/\.^.f^. I 339. 

Inhabits Shell g I- inches long, 

Anfatus. She!) brown tranfverfely ftriate : fpire mucronate, the whorls 
diflant convex and knotty at the bale: beak long. 
Regerf. conch. I. tab. iz, fig. 62. 
Martin: conch. A^.tah. \if\. fig. 1340. 

Inhabits ^5!; inches long: the ilrja alternately Icfs, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 453 

Undatus. Shell folld ventricofe with waved angles and very finely 
ftriate tranfveiTely : fpiire mucronatc, the whorls knotty 
at the bafe : lip denticulate. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 145. fig. J 34 3* 
Inhabit.s India : %\ inches long, and ponderous. 
Shell vi\Ci\.z, with 14 whorls and {lightly incurved beak. 

LongiJJimus Shell thin ftriate, with an obtufe knotty fpire and long very 
ltrai<j;ht beak. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. l\^. fig, 1344* 
Inhabits //r^/a : finches long. 67^/7 white, with lO whorls. 

tanaa. Shell narrowed: whorls of the fpire tranfverfcly libbed and 
longitudinally crenatc: aperture ovate, ribbed with 
white within and toothed at the margin: pillar-2 
Inhabits Ajnbotna. Martini conch. 4. tab. 14;.//^. I 347. 
Shell exceedingly thin and narrow, the younger ones reddifh, the 
adult ones white, interflices of the ribs and aperture violet : 
jpire with 1 1 or 12 whorls. 

Jnguttus* Shell narrowed: firft whorl of the fpire longitudinally 
plaited and tranfveifely ribbed, the others fmooth and 
round: beak tranfverfely ribbed. 
Inhabits talent abh. tab, i.ftg. 6. refembles the laft. 

Verfifolor. Shell fubcylindrical with an obtufe fpire, the whorls round 
and Ilriate, the lower-ones moftiy glabrous* 
Kncrr Vergn, ^. tab. \/^,fig. I. 
Martini ccnch. 4. tab. \ip.fig. 1 348. 

Inhabits India: Jhe II hxQVivi vai legated, rare!) fnowy; with 9 

Verrucofui. Shell uinbilicate and furiounded with belts, the middle ones 
more raifed : whorls crowned with tubercles whick 
are fpotted with brown : beak infleded. 
Martini conch. i\.. tab. \^G.fg. I 349. ^IS^' 

2. Martini conch. ^. t, x^i^.f. I 341. 

3. Bonan recr. and Muf. kirch. Z' j'S' ^^* 

4. Mil/. Gott^vald. /. 43./, 221. e, 
innaOits the Red Sea. 

Striatulus, Shell thin tranfverfely ftriate: fpire mucronate, the whorls 
round: beak long: aperture ovate: lip crenulate. 
Muf. Gott-joald. tab. l\. fg- 22 1. c, d. 
Martini conch. 4. /. I 46. /: i 35 i , 1352, 

Inhabits Shell 4 inches long, covered with s brown fkin. 


454 WORMS. TESTACEA. r8. Murex. 

Pardalisi Shell rounded, white with violet fpots, longitudinally rib- 
bed and tranfverlely itriate : fpire obtufe: beak long. 

Inhabits— Kmrr Ver^n. 2 tab. 9. fig. 4. 

Martini conch 4. /. 149./". 1384^ 
2. Bonan. r^rr. and Muf. kirch. ^. ^g- 145. 

Gigas, Whorls of the fpire turgid gibbons nodulous and anulate : 
beak reflefted: lip denticulate beneath 
Inhabits Lister tab. 931. Shell z\ inches long. 

Lignofust Shell whitifh ; fpire obtufe, the whorls flightly crowned 
with wrhikied unequal tubercles: beak tranfverfely 
Inhabits. Gualt. tea. tab, 52. O. Shell l| inch long. 

Gibbulus, Shell tapering orange: fpire obtufe, the whorls diftant with 
longitudinal ribs and iiexuous traniverfe ftris: beak 
Inhabits Knorr Vergn, ^.tab. lO, fig. 4, 

Qranularis She}] tapering: fpire with contiguous whorls feparated by a 
flexuous line, the firll ventricofe. 
inhabits the Aanatic. Knorr Vergn^ 4. tab. i^.fg. 4, 

Fexillum^ Shell tapering tranfverfely ribbed : whorls coi^vex: aperture 
oval: lip denticulate: beak ihort. 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab, zb.fg. 5. 
Inhabits- - ■■■ Shell orange with brown belts, 

Vulpinut'. Shell oblong ventricofe ; the whoils with a ftriate margin: 
aperture glabrous: beak Ihort and bent outwards. 
Born Muj, Ctfs. Vindttft. tub. \0.fg, II, 
Inhabits " ■ Shell middie-fizcd, tawny, with 8 whorls, 

/^fer. Shell ovate, tranfverfely ftriate: fpire with flattifti whorls 

crowned with a row of lounded tubercles, 
Ixxh^hits Senegal. Adans feneg. \. tab, ^- fig- i^- 
Shell I \ inch long, fulvous or white varied with brown : 
<ivhor!s 9. 

Campanicus Shell ventricofe: fpire obtufe cancellate with carinate whorlsj 
the firft ventricofe and fmooth : beak long fmooth, 
Argenfille cciuh. tab, 29. n. 6.fg. 5. 
Schrcct, Einl. in rent. 4. r. 8. /". 7. 
Found fofEle in Campariia : 3 inches long, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


Arenofust Whods of the fpire with dcculTate ribs, the firft very large 
the 3 outmoft fmooth: beak acute: aperture oval: lip 
toothed outwardly. 

Spengl.fchr, Dan. ge^. I. tab. 2. fig^ 8. 

Inhabits tne fandy ihores oi India : very fmall. 

Maroccmlis Shell narrow browniHi tranfverfely ftriate: fpire mucronate, 
withdiftantcontrary round longitudinally ribbed whorls: 
beak prominent: aperture oval. 

Mariin.n. Mannig 4. tab. 2. fig. 17 — 19, 

ScnrtTt. in Bau. cone t \.f. 6, ( 

Cbemn conch. 9./. 105./. 896. 

Inhabits fhores o{ Morocco: \\ inch' long.' 

Lineatus. Shell oblong, whitifh with tranfverfe reddilh (IriiE : beak 
^ ihort llraight. 
Inhabits Ne-w Zealand, Cbemn, 10. tah, i6\.fig. 1 572. 

Perron. Shell a little tapering, the whorls carinate above, margined 
and flattened: beak long llraight. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab. 161^, /ig 1573, 1574. 
Davtl. catal. rais. I. /. 5./", L, 

Inhabits the Southern Ocean. 

Larva. Shell cylindrical : fpire with a crenate callous belt, the 
upper-whorls with plaited knots, lower-ones flattilh : 
beak ftraight (hort emarginate. 
Inhabits ■ ■ Chemn. conch, 10, tab. \6\.fg. 1575,1576. 

Neritoideus Shell folid thick coarfe: fpire exferted, the whorls tranf- 
verfely ftriate: aperture femiorbicular and ftriate : 
beak ihort itraight. 
InhaL;iCs -" ' Chemn. conch. 10, tab. it^.Jig. 1577, 1578, 

Prfjmaticus Shell ovate-angular, iridefcent, longitudinally grooved and 
plaited: beakih-rt: lip detuiculate. 
Chemn. conch. 10. tab^^b^ f:g. 1635, 1636. 
Marfan, um^xerf conch. I -fig. 2. 
Inliabits India and the South Seas. 


Columla* ■ Shell with longitudinal plaited ribs and tranfverfely grooved 
*■""" angular fpuious carinate, ahernately varied with white 

and brown : whorls leifening fuddenly ; beak Ihort 
ftraight : mouth violet. 
Inhabits Fu/o Co.idor. Martvn uni-u. cojtch fig, 4. 
Chemn. conch. 10, tab. ib^.fg. ^^i7t 1638. 

456 Worms, testacea. 78. Murex. 

A/penivius. Shell ribbed, varied with brown yellow and white: whoris 
oblique with a tuberculate margin and brown band 
ia the middle and another white one : beak. Ihort dila- 
ted afcending. 

Kamm. Cab. RudoUt. tab. ^- fig- 7. 

Inhabits ShellnarXy 2 inches long. 

Undulattts. Shell white undulate with bay, with grooves marked with 
raifed ftrias : whorls nodulous at the maagin ; beak 
Ktemm. Cab. Rudoht, tab, XO.jig, I. 
Inhabits Red Sea : above 4 inches long. 

F. Tapering, fubulafe, with a very Jhort beak 

Vertagus, Whorls of the fpire plaited above : beak afcending : pillar 

plaited within. 
Lifter tab. tozo. jig. 83. Rumpf. Mitf. tab. 30, K. 
Peti<v Gaz. tab. K,6.fig. 4. Gualt. teji. tab, 57, D. 
Bonon recr. and MnJ. kirch. I, fig* 84. 
Jlrgennj, conch, tab. 1 1. P. Klein oRr. t, ll.f. i\8» 
Seba muf 3. tab. ^O.fig. 22. 42. <. $\.f. 24. 33, 34. 
Ktwrr Fergn 6. tab. 40 fig* 4, J* 
Murray test. tab. i.fig. 28, 

Martini conch, 4r. tab. i ;6, \^7>fig. '479' '4^°, 
2. LiRer tab. tozi.fig. 85, b. Gualt. test. tab. 57. F, H* 
Seba muf. 3. tab. ^'^»ftg. 43, 44. 
Knorr Fergn. 3. /. 20. f. 3. and 5. /. i;. 6, 
Martini conch. 4./. 1 57,/', 1 481, 1482. 
Inhabits India: about 3 inches long, with 15 or more round 

whorls feparated by a groove, the lower-ones fmooth on one 

part : beak very fhort, 

Aluco* Whorls of the fpire tuberculate with a fpinous ftreak in the 
middle; pillar with a fmgle plait: beak afcending. 
Lister tab. 1025. Rumpf. muf. tab. 30. O, 
Adanf. Seneg. i. tab. lo.fig. 2, Gualt test, tab, 57. G. 
Bonan. recr, and Aluf. Kirch. "^tfig^^T- 
Seba muf. 3. tab. ^o.fig. if, 16. 36. 
Knorr Fergn. i. tab. l6. fig. J^. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 156.//^. 1473 — 1477. 

2, Lifer tab, 1017. Argenv. conch, tab. 4. H. 
Rumpf. tnuf. tab. 30. N. Gualt. test. tab. 57. A, Bf 
Seba muf. 3. tab. 50./'^. 37* 39. '• i^'f' 2Z, 23. 25, 
Knorr Fergn. 3. /<?^. id. fig. 5. 

Martini conch. 4. /^^. i^d-fig. H?^' 

3. Spengl, Nat. 9. //ai. i^.f'g' 3. Fa<van. conch, tab, 79. N. 
Chetnn. conch, to, tab. itZ' fig. 1548, 1 549. 

4, Sc&r.-et, 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 


4. Shrcet, Flu/cmch. tab. %»fig> 1 1, I 2. 

Bonan rear, and Muf. kirchsfig. 82, 

Inhabits the Southem Ocean Red Sea and Atlantic 4 inches long, 
^Z*^// generally whitifh fprinkled with blueifli or brownilh dots; 
nuhorh tranfverfely ftriate ; lip rounded : aperture oval. 

Annularis. Whorls furrounded with longitudinally ftriate belts, the firft 
whorl tranfverfely ftriate: beak afcending. 
Inhabits Martini conch. 4. tab. 1 57. fig. i486, 

Plicatulust Shell ventrlcofe with a tranfverfely ftriate fpire, the whorls 
with longitudinal]^ knotty plaits: aperture oval. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. \$7-fig. 1 488. 

Inhabits Shell yellowilh with white plaits: fpire with 8 

whorls; pillar with a lingle wrinkle. 

Sordidus. Shell ventricofe tranfverfely ftriate and crowned with black 
knots: lip dilated. 

Inhabits Martini conchy /{.. tab. I'y^./'g' 1490. 

Shell generally blueifh, with • hardly prominent beak: probably 
a variety ofStrombus tuberculaius. 

Cingulatuj. Spire tranfverfely ftriate and grooved, the whorls furrounded 
with 3 rows of granulations, the firft alittie knotty. 
Inhabits Iranquebar. Martini conch, 4.. tab. ^Sl'fiS' H9^* 

Fufat:^ Shell brown rounded : firft whorl of the fpire gibbous, the 
following ones varicofe, the laft with numerous fpines. 

Inhabits ■ — Mart. BirU Mag. 4. tab. \0.fig. C4, 

Lister tah. 120. Klein ojir, t.z.f. 38. 

Fafciatus, Shell tranfverft'ly ftriate : the fpire crowned. 

Lister tab. \z\.fig. j6. Mart. Be^U Mag. 4. tab. 10. fig. 55. 
z. LUhr t. izi,f 17. Klein cpr.t. 2. f. 39. 
Martini Ber I. Magaz. 4. t. \0.f, 56, 
Inhabits Rivers of America, 

Flu^iatilis., Shell brown : firft whorls of the fpire crowned with fpioes 
the others with knots: aperture repand. ' 

Inhabits lijler tab. 122 Jig. 20. 

Martin. Ber I. Magaz. 4, ta'^. ll.Jig. 58. 

.ilatui^ Shell reticulate : fpire mucronate, the firft whorl grooved 
and tranfverfely Ihiate: lip winged. 
Inhabits ■ - Martini conch. 4. tab. 159./"^. 1503, I CO4, 
apire annulate, with 9 whorls furrounded wuh a llriate band. 

VOL. IV— 5iVI Ncdulo/us, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Nodulofus, Shell tranfvcrfely ftriate and alternately barred with brown 
and white : fpire mucronate, the whorls diftant with 
undulate knots. 
Martini conch. 4. tab. 159. fig. 1505, 1506. 
Inhabits. Shell with a (lightly prominent lip. 

TereheUa. Shell with a triple moniliform belt on each of the whorls : 
aperture oval, with curved ftris within. 
Knorr Fergn. l-tab. 15. fig. 3. 
Martini conch 4./. 1 55./. 1 45 8 — 1460. 
Schrat. inn. Bau. conch, t. 5./". 2. 

2. Bonanrecr, ^.fig. ^Z-], Mvf^kirch. 'i,.fig. 328. 

3. Born Muf. Ca/. Vind teli. tab. lU/^. v6. 

Inhabits Shell \-zk inches long, chefnut or brown OT 

whitifh-chefnut ; fometimes uniform, or chefnut with white 
belts, or white with chefnut belts: aperture often varied with 
blue and white. 

Fufcatus. Spire with crenolate whorls, the upper ftria denticulate. 

Gualt. test. tab. 56. H. Jrgenv. conch, tab. 11. the laft figure. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Shell white covered with a brown 
fkin, the bafe obtufe: whorls with each a knotty belt in the 
middle and a band each fide, one of them granulate, the ©ther- 

Toruk/ui. Whorls of the fpire with a flightly knotty zone above : beak 
Inhabits Shell white, fmooth or marked with obfolete lon- 
gitudinal ftriae, the tip plaited : zone of the whorls elevated 
gibbous obtufe. 

Hadula, Whorls of the fpire tuberculate, with a double row of punc- 
tured (Iriae. 
Inhabits Africa. Scljrert. Einl. in conch. I. tal. 3. fig. 6. 
Shell reddilh or brown : tubercles often tipt with white : aperture 


Whorls of the fpire grooved tranfverfely ftriate and muricate: 
beak afcending. 
Inhabits Guinea. Schrat. Einl. in conch. I. tab. 3- A; 7* 
^>t^// milk-white with rows of brown dots, folid with 12 — 14 
longitudinal grooves: aperture fuboval : pillar with a finglc 

beak acute afcending. 

^ ; ,. , Shell rough with decuflate tubercles : 
GraKu/, ^ .^^^^ ^5^^ 1020./;^. 84. Rump/, muf, tab. 30. L. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex:. 459 

Argenv. conch, tab. 1 1, k. Klein ofir, tab. 7,/^. 1 19« 

Seba muf. 3. tab. %\.fig- 35- 

Martini conch. 4. tah. 1 5 7- A- '4^3' 

Inhabits India. Shell z inches long, white .• the n^:horls longi- 
tudinally ribbed and tranfverfely llriate ; aperture oval ; pillar 
with a tingle plait. 

•Duollaius Whorls ofthefpire with longitudinal plaited grooves, the 

tip appearing as if broken otF. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. 69. 
Inhabits European ^as\ refembles Helix dccollatus, but is emar- 

ginate at the bale; aperture obovate : upper-margin of the 

whorls tapering with longitudinal ftriae and imbricate plaits, 

the grooves black opake. 

hUluccamis Shell ftriate : whorls of the fpire tranfverfely grooved with 
undulate longitudinal plaits: lip dilated crenulate: 
beak tubular. 

Liliertab. 1021. fig. 85. b. Gualt.tesf. tab. 57. E. 

Bonan. recr. and A/a/C kirch. "^.fig- 6iJ. 

Rumpf. muf. tah ^o. fig. T. 

Martini conch. 4. tab. \<^']%fig. J 484, 1 485. 

Inhabits marlhes of Molucca Ifiands, 

Minimus. Shell with tranfverfe undulate ftrije crofled by longitudinal 
lines: aperture orbicular. 
Inhabits Jamaica. L'Jier tab, 1018, fi^. 81. 

Strigilatus. Shell longitudinally ftriate : whorls undivided, with a fnowy 
belt at the future fpottcd with rufous. 
Inhabits Bom Muf. Qaf Vind. teji, tab. lO, fig. 10. 

Tubercula- Shell tranfverfely ftriate and furrounded with glabrous knots: 
tut' lip thickened. 

Inhabits Born Muf Crtf Vind tefi. tab. 10, <%. 16, 17. 

Shell folid, a liule gibbous, obtiife ; the knots black tipt with 

Gihhofus% Whorls of the fpire margined: belly gibbous: lip cleft 
denticulate: beak Ihort. 

Inhabits Btrn muf. Ca-f. Find. tefi. tah. i i.fig. 12, 13. 

apire with 9 ilriate whorui and longitudinally plaited; heak 
ftraight Ihort : Jhell with redailh fpots. 

J, Shell black, the whorls tranfverfely ftriate and tuberculate: 

^* pillar with a ftngle plait: beak ftraight. 

Inhabits Born Mul. Caj- Vmd.tefl, tab, M'fig. 17, i8.' 

Spin with 10 whorls ; Up crenulate. 

3 M 2 • Cott' 






WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Shell with 4 contrary whorls marked with double ftria;: 
beak dilated. 
Lister tab. 950. Regenf.. conch, tab. \. fig. 36. 
Martin n. Mannigf. 4. tab. z fig% 14. 

Fwoann. Conch, tab. 32 I. N. tab.jc). I. F. tab. 80. I, R. 
Chemn. conch. 9 tab. 10^. fig. 894, 895. 
Inhabits European and North Seas. ■ 

Shell contrary hyaline, with 6 very finely crenulate whorls. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. 9. tab. lO^.flg. 899, 

Shell tapering, very rough with granulations; lip doubled 
emarginate each fide arid toothed whhin: aperture 
oval Itriate. ■ ■ ' 

Inhabits Chemn. conch. 10. tab, ibz.ftg. 1544, 1545. 

Shell tranfverfely (Iriate and fpotted: whorls with plaited 
knots: beak afcending: lip doubled dilated, pillar-lip' 
replicated and glabrous. 

Inhabits Pullo Condore. Martyn univerf. conch. 2. tab. 57, 

Che?nn. conch. lO, /, 256. yign. 22. A, B. 

Shell yellowilh hexagonal with tranfverfe granulate ftriae: 
firft whorl tuberculate; apei^ture roundilh: lip dilated, 
Chemn. conch, to. tab. \bz. ftg. 1554, 1555. 
Inhabits the ^gutb Sea, and is frequently found foffile. 

Shell with 5 fpirally Ilriate whorls and remote ribs : beak 
Inhabits the Welch coads. Linn. Tranf. iii. p. 55, 
5/^f// very minute elegant and pellucid. 


79. TROCHUS. Anwial a Limax: >^// 
'■ univalve, Ipiral, more oriels conic; aper- 
ture fonicwhat anirular or rounded, tiie 
upper-lide tranfveife and contracted: 
pillar placed obliquely. 

A. Eredff ivith the pillar perforated. 

Shell conic finoothilli fubumbilicatc. 

Liste)>- tab. 617. 619, 620. Olear muf, tab^ 29.//^. 5. 
hot:an, recr. and MuJ. Kirch, l-fig- 102. 
Humpf. MuJ. tab. 21. A. and 3, 4. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 461 

Gualt teft. tab. 59. B, C. Argenv. conch, tab, 8. C. 

'hluj. Gott-wald. tab. 39. fig. 265. a — c. 

Regenf. concb^ 1. /. 4. /". 42, 

Knorr Vergn. I./. 12. A 4. and 2. /. 5./. I, /. 6./*. 1. 

Chemn. comh.^. t. 167./. 1605 — i6og. /^ 168./. 1614, 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, ^heil larg-: ponderoui r.ith oblique 
red perpendicular llriar, and fine pol'.ftied filvery when the 
outer coat is taken off; the tip obfoktely knotty, the whorls 
without knots: inner-lip oblolety 2-lobed : aperture filvery: is 
diltinguifhed from the next fpecies by its fm oth mouth and 
in not having the pillar denticulate, and the bafe of the belly 
js convex and linooth. 

^aculatus. Shell conic tuberculate with an oblique perforation : inner* 
lip obfoleteJy 2-lobed. 

Lister tab 632 ? Rumpf.muf /a^. 21. B, C .' 

Bonan. recr. and Muj. Kirch, "^.fig. 96, 

Gualt. teji. tab. 61. D- Murray, teji. tab, i.Jjg- 20. 

Mu/.GottivaU. tab. 39./^ 266 a?b? 

C/!.\b. 5. fab 168.7%. '615 — l6l8. 

Schrcet. EinL in conch. I. tab. 3 fg. ()- 
2, Cbemn. conch. 5. tab. i6g. fig 1623, 1624. 

Inhabits Alia and South America : flicll ponderous, furrounded 
with rows of tubercles varying in heighth, and m-rked with 
red brown white and green rays .• J'pire with 9 flattilh whorls, 

Perfpeai'vus Shell convex obtufe margined, with a pervious crenulate 
umbilicus or navel. 
Lifler tab, 636, Rump/\ muf tab. 37. L. 
Jlrgen'v. conch, tab, 8. M. Peti-v. amb. t. 2. f. 14, 
Bonan recr. I- fig. 27, 28. Muf Ktrch. 3./. 26, 27. 
Gualt. test, tab. 65. O. Lefcr tefi.fig 7. 
Seba muf. 3. /. 40 /. I, 2, 13, 14.28. 41, 42, 
Knorr yergn iX.fg. 1,2, 
Regenf. conch. I. tab. ii,fig. 61. 
Born Muf Caf Vind, telt.p. 326. vign, f. b. 
Chemn, conch. 1^. tab. X'jzffg. 1691 — 1696, 
2, Lifieriab 633? Gualt. te/i tab 6^.D, 
■ Inhabits Afia and Al'nca . 2| inches long and an inch high* 
Shell flat on oue fide, the penoration funnel-fhaped with a double 
granulate belt: a moll beaulitui fliell. 

flybriduj. Shell convex : pillar 2-toothed: perforation crenulate. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 173. fig. 1702? 170c ? 

Inhabits the Mediterranean', refenibles the laft, but is lefs and 
varied with white and browr., beneath white, and the perfo- 
ration is harrower. 


46'^ WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Cruciatus. Shell convex with callo-punftured ftriz: pillar i-toothed. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab^ 171. fig. 1674. 
Schrcet. Einl. in conch. I. tab. 3. /7^. lO. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean. Shell flTfUginous or reddifh with 
whitifti bands : /pire with 4 or 5 whorls. 

* P/W««?«// Shell fubovate, flriate, with concatenate globular dots; 
pillar and aperture toothed: umbilicus crenate. 
Lister, tab. 637. Argenv. conch, tab. 8, fg, L, Q. 
Jdans. Seneg. I. tab ll^fg- $• Pet. Gaz. t, 14,/. 10/ 
Bonan recr ^ Muf Ktrch. l- fig. 222» 223. 
Gualt, isji. tab. 63. _fig. B. 

Knorr Vergn. i. tab. 30, /g", 6.- ^ 4. M(J. 26,/. 3, 4. 
Chemn, conch ^. tub. \']\, fig. \()jz, 1673, 
2. Chemn. conch. 5. /«^. 171^ y^^ 1678. 

Inhabits European and Afiaiicfeas. Shell red covered with al- 
ternate ftriae <)i concatenate white and black dpLS and red ones. 

•Magus, Shell obliquely umbilicate and convex : the ridges of the 

whorls rifing into obtufe tubercles. 
Donovans Brit, Shells, I . tab. 8. 
Da Cojla Brit. Conch, tab. 3, fig. I. 
Pennant Brit.Zool. if. tab. 80. fig. 107. 
Borlafe Cornivall, p. 278. tab. 28, fig. 6. 
/.m^r, /d^, 641. f. 32. Jrgewv conch, t. 8. S. 
Gaa//. /^. /«^. 62, L. /rt3. 64, C ? 
Sebamuf. 3. /«/^. ^\,fig' 4 — &• 
jfiTwrr Vergn. 6s /«^. 27, /"/j. 4. 
Chemn. conch. ^. tab. ij^tfiig' 1656— 1660. 
2. Adanf. Seneg. I. /^^. I2, fig. 8? 
Inhabits European and Ajrican Coafts , 
Shell gencriWy white with fine red zig-zag ftripes and waves, or 

dull yellow with dark brown lliipes : /pire with 4 or 5 obfo- 

letely flriate whorls: when the outer coat is taken off, is of a 

rich filvery perlaceous colour. 

Modulus. Shell flriate, above plaited, beneath more convex : aperture 
ovate, I -toothed. 
Lister, tab. 653. fig. 52. Che/nn. 5. /. 171, f. 1665. 
Schrcet. Einl. in conch. I . tab. 3, y". II. 
2. Lister, tab. t^"*,,/. 53. tab.b$^. 

Inhabits the Redfea: fize of Tr. pharaonis. 

Shell fublenticular, whitifh with purplifh fpots ; mouth ftriate^ 

Mur.ieatus. Shell fubumbilicate, ovate with muricate tubercles. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean, Gualt. test, t, 64, H. 
Shell white, with an ovate fmooth aperture, andjminute oblong 
perforation ; fizc of a nut, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 


^caber. Shell fubovate, with alternate larger moniliform grooves. 

Inhabits Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 171,/. 1667 ? 

Shell blackifh with a yellowifli aperture. 

^ariusn Shell obliquely umbilicate, convex, with flightly margined 
Inhabits the Mediterranean^ Shell pale with greyifh bands, fur- 
rounded with an obfolete margin. 

*Ciuerarius Shell obliquely umbilicate, ovate with rounded whorls. 
Donavan tab, 74. Da cotta, tab. 1* fm 4. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. \v. p. 127. «. 106 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 171. jig. 1686. 

Common on the European Jliores. Shell cinereous with oblique 
pale bands, or white with dirty-brown fpots : fizc of a pea, 

DivaricH- Shell fubumbilicate, the perforation nearly confolidated ; 
tus. ovate, tlTe loweft whorl more remote. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Greenland feas . 
Shell green barred with red dots. 

*Umbilica- Shell conico-convex, with an exadlly cylindrical {)ervioW3^ 
">. perforation : the whorl flightly emargihate. 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv, tab. 80, /. 106. 
Liffer, tab 641. Anim. Ang. t. 3./'. 1 5. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. ifi,/. 1 666. 

Inhabits European fiores : IhcU dirty-white with purple waves : 
perforation white within : varies much in colours. 

Solarij. Shell convex, conic, with fpinous margined whorls: apeiv 
ture femi-heart-fhaped 

Rumpf. muf. tab. 20, fig K. 

Man tin Keust. Mannig. \. tab. Z,/,l^, 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 173,/". 1700* 1701. 
2. Gold-colour with brown rays. 

Litter, tab. 6zz. Seba muj. 3 tab. 59> ^^« 1 — 4* 

Bonan. recr. l- fig. 366, 367. Muf. Kirch, ^.f. 359, 360. 

Klein oftr. tab. \, f 19. LeJJ'er testae, fig. 15. 

Kncrr yergn. 4. tab. S,f.z.ScC. t. z6,f. 4. 

Chemn. conch 5. tab, 174,/. 1 7 16, 1717. 

SchrcEt. Journ. ^.f. 9 the lid. 

Inhabits India and America: 2 inches in diameter. 

Shell w'hitifh, tranfverl'ely Itriate : the margin of the ivhorh fer- 
rate with fpinous projections. 

leilum. Shell depreflcd, oblique, white with brown lines: fpire 
tranfverlely ftriatc and longitudinally ribbed, the firit 
whorl ventricofe : aperture orbicular. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Lister^ tab 653./ 51.* Gualt, tejl. t^(i\.f^ 6, 

Kncrr Vergn. 4. tab. 6. j'tg 5. 

Chemnx conch. 5. ra^. l65._/f^. 1567, 1 568. 

Chemit. conch. 5, tab. 165. _/%. 1569, 1570? 

Lister, tab. 654./". 54. Fa'van. comb. 2, t, 8. D, 
Keemm. Cab. Rudolst. tab. 12. f I. 
Chemn, conch. lO. /a^. 165, y%. 1583, I 584. 

Inhabits refemblcs an Helix : pilldr with a brown border: 

firft lAjhorl twice as large as the reft. 

Camu. Shell conic, white fpotted with red : whorls round, with 
moniliform belts of granulations. 
Inhabits India. Chemn, conch. 5. tab. 167. f. 1610. 
Perforation reaching through the firll whorl only. 

Sfinofus* Shell fubequal, mucronate: whorls of the fpire fpinous 
beneath : a band each fide lineate with white and 
black, and a triple row of knots. 

Inhabits ' Chemn conch. 5. tab. l^'J.fig' 161 1, Very rare. 

Shell violet and blackifh : fpire with 9 whorls. 

Jujuhinus, Shell lateritious fpotted with white ; the bafe flat, with 
concentric lines of concatenate dots : whorls canicu- 
late, telfelate at the lower margin with white and 
chefnut, and furrounded each fide with elevated dots. 
Muf Gottnuald. tab. 39. fig, 269 ? 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. loy.f 1612, 1613.^ 
Inhabits South America : refembles Tr. ziziphinus, 

Alveare, Shell with knotty plaits and tranfverfe granulate ftriae^ 
with belts of concatenate dots : perforation funnel- 
form : pillar crenulate. 
Chemn, 5. tab. 168, f. 1619. Gualt test. t. 60. P. 
2. Chemn, conch. 5. tab. \6%.f. 1 622. 
Inhabits JnJia. Shell green and white, within perlaceous, very 
finely annulate. 

Conca'ons, Bafe of the (hell and continued perforation funnelform: 
fpire with contiguous undulate-plaited whorls : aper- 
ture denticulate at the margin. 
Chemn, conch. 5, tab. l6S. fiP, 1 620, 1621. 

2. Gualt, test. tab. b^. fig. A, 

3. Lifery tab. 627. Klein cftr. tab. I. f. 20. 
Inhabits India : about z inches broad and high. 

Shell a mixture of fca-grcen, red Jind vioktv aperture compreited 
each fide. 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. trochus. 4^5 

ShelJ furrounded with granulations and knots, green, to- 
wards the tip whitilli, the very tip varied with biack 

dots. A ^ 

Inhabits India, Chemn. conch, 5. iab. 169. f, 1625, ib2b. 

Cofijper/us^ Shell covered with white, greenifh and buff-colour fpots, 
-the tip with red and black one?, within perlaceous, 
the bafe white fpotted with red: whorls with many 
rows of knots, the lower margins glabrous. 
Inhabits India. Giialt. teft. t. 60. B. 
Chemn. conch. $. tah. 169./ 1627. 

rentoriumi Shell with wrinkled plaits, covered with a hyaline cuticle 
under which it is fea-gr.en, within perlaceous: 
whorls knotty beneath with concatenate dots 111 the 

Inhabits India. Chemn. conch, 5. t. l6g.f. 1628. 

ywo firft 'whorlj very diftant : per/oration funnel form. 

Ochrokucus Shell with wrinkled plaits, obliquely crenate and tranf- 
verfely ftriate : the bafe flat, white with red dots. 
Inhabits India, Chemn. conch t; tab 169,/. 1629. 
2. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 169 / 1632. 

Btellatus, Shell with plaited wrinkles, fea-green: whorls with con- 
catenate dots, the upper-ones with a radiate fpinous 
Inhabits India, Chemn. conch. 5. tab. \6().f. 16 30. 

^penzUri, Shell furrounded with numerous rows of ochraceous knots' 
and granulations waved with red: one part of the 
bafe fmooth. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. $. tab. \6^, fig. 1 63 1. 

Cosratu!. Shell with elevated concatenate dots: whorls with oblong 
white knots beneath, and intermediate purple grooves. 

Inhabits Argenv. conch, tab. S. T. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab, 169. /Jjf. 1633, 1634. 

Shell white at the bafe, ftriate and punaured, radiate with red 
towards the fpire, 

ha-q-mlis: Shell rough with unequal knots and granulations: whorls 
with many rows of knots, each marginal row with 
larger tubercles. 

Inhabit: Gualt. ted. tab: 60. O. 

VOL. IV. — 3 N Chemn. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab, 170.//^. 1635, 1636 

5>^// generally green with chefnut clouds and rays; the bafe 
white granulous, with rofy rays. 

Regius. Shell tranfverfely ftriate with many rows of knots, white 
with a rofy Ihade : each margin of the whorl a little 
prominent: perforation funnel-form. 

Inhabits Chemn. conch, 5. tab. ijo./ig, 1637. 

Shell with a white flat bafe, furrounded with concentric granu- 
late ftriae, 

ferrucofus. Shell conic, white radiate with purple; perforation funnel- 
form immaculate: margin of the whorls nodulous. 
Inhabits— —C/'fWw. conch. 5. tab, 170. fig, 1638. 

Cylindricm Shell cylindrical brownifh, with convex whorls marked 
with tranfverfe crenulate ftriae; perforation a little 

Chemn. couch, 5. tab. i-jo.ftg. 1639. a, b. 

Inhabits Shell middle-fized and very rare. 

Ra4iatut. Shell pyramidal radiate with red: whorls with concatenate 
dots: perforation funnel-form. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. ijo./ig, 1 640. 

2. Chemn. conch, 5, tab. ijo./ig. 1641, 1642. a, b. 

3. Gualt, test, tab. 6l,/ig, E? 

Inhabits South America and the adjacent iflands. 

FiriMs. Shell green, with 5 rows of knots on the firft whorl and 4 
on the next, the reft glabrous. 

Inhabits Chemn, conch, 5. tab. \ JO. fig, 1 643, 1 644, 

Perforation funnel-form, not following the diredion of the 

Rufiicui, Shell obtufely pyramidal, black-brown. 

Inhabits China. Chemn, conch, 5, tab, ^jo.fig, 1645, 1646. 

Nigenimus Shell deep black : fpire tranfverfely ftriate, the whorls 
flattilh : pillar i-toothed. 
Inhabits C>^/>?<5;. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. xjo.fig* 1647. 

Fanulum. Whorls of the fpire ochraceous with fpotted tubercles, 
feparated by a fpotted wrinkled groove. 

Inhabits Knorr ^ergn. j^,tah. 2.^. fig. 5. 

Bonan. recr, I. fig, 396. Muf, Kirch, ^-/'g. 372t 
Chemn. conch, ^. tab. ijO.ftg.iS^S, 1649, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 467 

Strlgofus, Shell pyramidal tranfverfely ftriate, ochraceous varied with 
black at the tip : whorls of the fpire flattilh, the 
margin a little tumid and fpotted with red. 

Chemn. couch. ^, tab, ^^o.fig, 1650. 2) 1651: 

Inhabits fhores of Morocco; very fmalU 

fyramis. Shell pyramidal with chefnut fpots and clouds: whorls 
with a vaulted nodulous margin. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tah. 170. fig. 1652. 2) 1653. 

Inhabits Shell f an inch 2) an inch high, with granulate 

llriae between the tubercles of the margin, 

Caj>en/!j. Shell deprefied, varied with white and chefnut ; the bafe 
convex with a fcarlet ring marked with deeper fpots. 
Inhabi:s the CaJ)e. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. iji-figi 1661. 1662. 

^Sypius. Shell depreifed, white fpotted with red : whorls diftant, 
tranfverfely ftriate and plaited : pillar i-toothed. 
Chemn. conch 5. lab. \-]\.jig, 1663, 1664. 
Inhabits the Sea near Suez. : | of ao inch long. 

Deprefus. Shell depreflfed, whitifh radiate with red and red at the tip: 
whorls girt with a belt of moniliform dots. 
Inhabits-f Chemn. conch. 5. tab. iT^.ftg- 1668. 2) J669. 

Lavigatus Shell pale brown, with a fubconvex bafe: whprls fmooth, 
obfolctcly flriaie tranfverfely: perforation funnel-form 
and white. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 170. fig. 1670. minute. 

Graenlan- \q\\ pellucid flefh-colour, wjth a convex bafe: whorls 
dicus, convex and very finely ftriate tranfverfely. 

\x\h3.h\r.s Greenland. Chemn conch. ^. tab, \-]X. fig. idl^- 
Spire with 6 whorls: aperture luborbicular. 

Ro/eus. Shell convex rofy grooved, with a very minute perforation. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 17 !.//>. 1675. 
Inhabits the Capeofgood liope : very fmall. 

Patholatus. Shell depreflcd, brown with whitifh fpots. 

Inhabits Chemn. 5. tab. \']\-fg. 1676. very minute. 

Viridulus. Shell greenifh obliquely radiate with white: whorls convex, 
with a belt of moniliform granulations: pillar toothed. 

Jnhabits Chemn. conch. 5. tab. ij^.fg. 1677. 

3 N 2 Vrbanus. 

^68 WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Urbamis. Shell convex, with numerous rows of granulations : perfo» 
ration denticulate : aperture crenulate. 
\r\\2h\\.s——'Chemn. conch. <:.. tah 'iji-fig. 31670, 
Granulationi partly white partly flefh- colour, 

Guineenfii. Shell clouded with browij and grey, with numerous rows of 
grr ulations and knots: aperture crenate; perforation 

TrV^ab'ir Guinea. Chuni^ conch. ^. tab,, ijl. jig, l^i'io. 
Shell 8 lines brood and above 6 high. 

Nodultu. Sh^ll cinereous with moniliform belts of granulations; 
perforaiion white toothed; aperture crenate. 
Inhabits Cbemn. conch, 5. tab^ ijlt/ig. 1 681. 

Carneus. Shell deprefTed, pale flefh-colour with crowded monilifornj 
belts of graiiu.ations: perforation large i-toothed. 
Inhabits — -—Chcmn. conch/ ^ tab. iji, fig. 1682, 

^Teff'ellatus Shell tranfverfciy ftriate: fpire with dirtant whorls ^nd 
numerous fquare fpots. 
ln\iib\x.& European Seas ^ Chemn. ^^ tab, l^l'/ig* 1683. 

Croceui, Shell convex chefnut: fpire with convex whorls, the outer 
ones faffron. 
Inhabits Jfnca, Chemn. conch, 5. tab. ^']\yfig> 1 684, 

Obliquatus. Shell deprelTed convex with oblique fubviolet rays : fpire 
with convex whorls. 
Inhabits the Mediterranean, Chemn. 5- tab. "iji.fg' 1685. 

Vittatus. Shell convex chefnut; whorls with a fillet varied with red 
and white at the upper margin. 

Irj.'ubits Chetnn. conch. 5 tab. \']\-fig. 1687. 

ArgenniilU conch, tab. 9 Jig. E. 

Sfhrceteri. Shell deprefled pyramidal, with a concave bafe : whorls 
Xxznivcx^cly iKnzic and obliquely ribbed, the firfl with 
a carinate margin : perforation hmnel-lorm. 

Foflile in Campania. Schrcct. Einl. in conch. 2. /. J. J". 2, 3, 

Indicm. Shell conic-convex, >vith unarmed whorls: aperture femi- 
Inhabits India. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. \JZ.Jig. 1697, 1698. 
Shell ^urdU an inch -'ligh, very finely Itnate oblic^uely : per/orafion 
fpiral : ipiie wuh 5 hyaline whorls. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 469 

hfurii Shell dcprcired chefnut : whorls flattifh with numerous rows 
}ituj:,rr^:t of granulations, tranfverfely ftriate and crenate : per- 
foration pervious and crtnulate. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch, 5. /.173. f. 1706, 1707. very rare. 

Stra/n'tneui. Shell ftraw-cplour, the whorls convex crenate dccufiT-tely 
{triate and feparatedby a groove: perforation pervious. 
Liitcr tiib.6T,<^ Chemn. ^, tab, x-jz. fig. 1699. 
Inlubics ftioresot Tranquebar: fpire with 5 orb whorls^ 

Fariegatus* Shell wlute with brovvnifh rays and marked with crenate 
llrias : perforation pervious crenate. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. 5. tab, tyi.fig. 1708, 1709, 

Areola, Shell convex tranfverfely ftriate, white with fquare reddifh 
fpots : perforation crenulate. 
Inhabits— —C^i'/««. fonc.^. 5. tab. ifi^. fig. 1710, 1711, 
Whorls of \.\iQ fpire feparated by a white llreak. 

Jnermis, Shell greenifh-yellow with longitudinal plaited ribs termi- 
nated by a fpine : aperture comprefled: perforation 
Inhabits --Chemn. conch. 5. tab. lyi-fig- 1712, 171 3. 

Imperialis, Shell conlc, olive covered with rows of raifed violet fcales: 
whorls inflated with a fpinous radiate margin: pcrfo* 
ration funnel-form white. 

Chemn. conch. 5* tab. 173. ly^.fig. 1714, 1711;. 

Inhabits the South Seas; rather large : /pire with 7 whorls. 

Planus, Shell deprelTed ftraw-colour with darker ribs: whorls of 
the fpire plaited: perforation pervious. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch, 5. tab. 174. yfg-. 1721, 1722. 

Albidus, Shell conic white with oblique brown bands: whorls cani- 
culate near the future- 
Inhabits Born Muj. Ca^s. Vind tefi. tab \o,fig. 19, 20. 

fufcatus. Shell conic, the bafe greenifh-grey fpotted with brownl: 
whorls round: perforation cylindrical. 
Inhabits Born Mufi. Cirs. Find. tefi. tab, 12. fig. i, 2, 

Fajciattu. Shell Conic fmooth, white fpotted with brown and barred 
with rofy: whorls round, flattilh at the future. 
Inhabits Born MuJ, C^s, Find. tell. tab. 12, fg, 3, 4. 


470 WORMS. TESTACEA. 78. Murex. 

Corallinui* Shell conic, red dotted with white, (lightly perforated j 
whorls round, the firll with 15 rows of tubercles, the 
next with 6. 
Inhabits Senegal, Adans, feneg. I, tab, iz.fig.^, 2) c. 
Shell 4 lines long : Jpire with 6 whorls. 

Cri/etfs. Shell grey with whitifh fpots : whorls flattifh and tranf-j 
verfely grooved. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adanf. Seneg, 1. tab, iz. fig, 6. 

Ferrugimu; Shell convex, the whorls turned contrary. 
Martin neuefl. Mannigf. 4. tab. \.fig. 1,2. 
Chemn. conch. 9. /. 1 14. /. 977. a, b. 
Found near Scaphujia, converted into Iron ore. 

Novus. Shell pyramidal with contrary round whorls, 3 of them 
with a quadruple trifarious row of tubercles, the fourth 
exceedingly ftiftant. 

Spengl. n, Samml. Dan. get. l.iab. \.fg-- 5. 

Chemn. conch- 9. /. 113./^ 970. 

Inhabits— —5>6£'// with a flat bafa and comprefle^ aperture. 

Fragilis. Shell extremely thin and wax-colour: firfl: whorl of the 
fpire large, with a brown band in the middle. 
Inhabits Schrast, Einl. in conch, \, tab. i. Jig. \6. minute. 

Callo/us. Shell obtufcly pyramidal : fpire with 4 elevated contiguous 
whorls, tumid at the margin. 
Chemn, conch. 9. tab, I 2Z. fg. 1 05 I . 
SchrcEt. fiufconch.tah-b.fig. lO. z) ftgy \Z. 

Inhabits Shell with a comprcfled aperture and pervious per. 


Af^f* Shell convex, grey with whitilh fpots : whorls flattlfh. 

Inhabits Senegal. Adanf. Seneg. I. tab. iz.fg. 6. 
Shell about 6 lines long and twice as much broad- 

Neritcideus Shell fubovate, convex-dcpreflTed, fmooth reddifli glabrous. 
Inhabits Greenland. O. Gnznl.p, 393. n, 391 . 
Shell 2 lines long, the inhabitant blueifh-black. 

Perlatutt Shell reddifti with elevated dots, unequally ribbed: fpire 
deprcJTed, the whorls convex. 
Inhabits— —iw?«z/w. Ca^. Rudolst, tab, 12, /tg, i. fmall, 

• Terrestrisi 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 471 

*Terrestris Shell minute, conic, livid. 

Pennant Brit.Zool. iv. tab. 8, fg. 1 08. 
Found on the mountains of Cumberland. 

•Fuscui. Shell opake, brown, margined, with 5 fpires and roundifh 

Jdams Microjcopey p. 638. tab. \\tjig- 24* 
Found common at Sandwich. 

B. ImperferatCy ereity the umbilicus or navel chfed, 

Veitiarius, Shell conic-convex, with a gibbous callous bafe and fome- 

what heart-fhaped aperture. 
Lifter, tab. 649 — 652. Pet, Gaz. tab. il, /", 6. 
Gualt. teft. tab. t^, jig. A, B E--H. 
Bonan. *ecr. Z- fg. 208— 2IO. 355, 356. 
Bonon, MnJ.kirch. 3. f:g. 208, 209. 2U. 348,349. 
Klein o(ir. tab. I, fg. 13 — 15. 

Knorr Vergn. 4. tab. 2^- jig- 4- & 6, tab. 22, f. 7. 
Chemn, conch. 5, tab. 166. fg. 1601. a— h. 1 602. I — 3. 
Schra;t. Einl. in conch. I. tab I, fg. 12, 13. 
Inhabits the Mediterraneamnd Ada: very fmall. 
Shell fmooth, above glaucous with tranfverfe waves or zigzag 

lines, beneath with a broad whitifh convex callus ; varies 

much in its markings. 

Labia. Shell ovate, fubftriatc: pillar i-toothed. 

Liller, tab. S^^-f'S- 42- '^^« 645. Rumpf. muf /. 21. E. 
Adanf.feneg. I. tab, 12, fig. 2. J? g. conch, t.6. K, 
Born muf C(zs. Find. teft. tab. \l, fig. 7, 8. 
Chemn, conch 5. tab. 166, Hg. 1579— I 58 1. 

2. ATworr '/ergn. I. /«<^. iO, fg. 7, 

3. Martyn univerf.conchol. I. /a^. 34* 

Inhabits vfwVr, ^/-/fa and Neiju Zealandj refembles a Turbo. 

^uber. Shell a little deprefled: whorls fubcarinate, and nodulous 
at the upper and lower margin. 
Sebamuf. 3 tab. ']if.fig, 12. Argenv. conch. t.S. I. 
Knorr Vergn. I. tab. 3. /}^. 2. & 4 tab. 4,/. 3, 4. 
Regenf. conch. I. /^(^. 12, jig. 76. 

C/^?w/z. fowc/?), 5. /a/^. 164,/. 1561 /. 165,/. 1572--1576. 
2. Regenf conch, i. r«^ 3, //^. 27. 

Inhabits the 1^ editerranean dnd South America. 
Shell ponderous, green with various marks, lometimes 2 inches 
in diameter : luhorls longicudiaally ribbed : probably a Turbo. 

Stn'afus, Shell conic: the lad whorl a little angular: aperture 



472 WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus, 

inhabits the Mediterranean^. Gualt. test, tab, 6i« N. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 162, fig. I 527, I 528. 
Shell minute, white with oblique black lines. 

*Conuius. Shell conic, fmooth : whorls feparated by a prominent line. 
Donovan's Brit.Jhells, tab. 8. /??. 2, 3, 
Da Costa Brit, conchol. tab 2, jig. 4. 
Pennant Brit. Zool. 80, /ig. 104. 
Lister, tab. 616, Jig. 2. Gualt. te/t, t. 61, fig. B. G. Mi 
Chemn cor^ch. ^. tab. 166, fig. l^SS—i ^g\. 
Inhabits Europeanfeas, and is hardly dillinft from the next. 
Shell xzdi or yellow with cbefnut bands or raysj the tip tuber, 
cular : nuhorls flattilh, the outer ones knotty. 

Zizjpbi- Shell conic, livid, fmooth, tranfverfelj ftriate: whorls 

Dono'vans Brit.Jhells, ii, tab. yz. 

Da casta Brit, conch, tab. 3. fig. 2; 

Pennant Brit. Zool. iv. tab. So.f/g, 103. 

Lister, tab. b\6,f. I. Anim. Ang. t. -i,. f. 14. 

Gualt. te/t. t.b\,Q. Arg conch t.S.'N. 

Klein oftr. tab. 2, /. 36. Rumpf. muf. t. 21./. if 

Knorr Fergn. 3. /. i^ff- 2> 3» and 6. /. zj.f» Ji 

Born. Muf. Caf. Vind. te/t. tab. 12,/. 9, lO. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tc^b. i6b. Jig. 1592— 1 598. 

Inhabits Enropean and African coalts. Shell generally livid or 
pale red variegated with deeper red or brown ftreaks and 
marks : ^whorls contiguous, the upper ones very finely gra- 

Qlelifcui> Shell conic, furrounded with numerous rows of white or 
green moniliform granulations : pillar i-toothcd. 
tlhabits iW/^. Knorr Vergn I. tab. 12. 
Chemn. conch. 5 . tab. 1 60, fig. \ 5 I o — \ 512. 
Shell 2 inches high and as much in diameter. 

Diitortus* Shell folid, white, polifhed, ftriate, dlftortcd and obtufe at 
the tip: firft whorl gibbous: aperture comprefted, 

Pallas fpicil. zool. lO, tab. 'i- fig. 7, 8. 

Martin. Berl. Satnmh ■ I, fig- 4, J. 

Chemn conch. 5 tab. 160. fig. 1513, a, b. 

Inhabits Spire with 7 whorls ; of an uncertain tribe. 

Virgeau!, Shell pyramidal, with rofy and white ftripesand numerous 
rows of knots: the bafe with concentric white and 
red circles. 


WORMS. TEStACEA. 79. Trochus. 


Inhabits India, Lifter , tab. ^Z^. ftg. 17. 
Chemn. conch. <^. tab, \6o. fig. I 5 I 4, 1515. 
2. Muf. Gottnvalti. tab 39. pg, 268, 270. 

Ftvsolatust Shell cinereous variegated vi^ith greenifh, whitifh and red« 
difh : whorls of the fpire tuberculate at the lower 
margin, the outmoft hollowed round. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. \b\. fig. I 5 16 -I 5 19. 

Inhabits the Redjea : whorls 13 : pillar i-toolhed. 

Idiapbanust Shell thin, pellucid, with alternate chefnut and white liio- 
niliform belts of granularions : whorls convex. 

Spengl. Naturf. 9. tab. 5 fig. 2. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 161. fg. 1520, 152 1. 

Inhabits (heres of Nevj Zealand : \\ inch high, and as much 
broad : aperture large. 

/<;■/. Shell covered with a fmooth coat, under which it is blue- 

ilh with reddifli angular and undulate lines, and Ihin- 
ing with rich iridefcent colours; ftriate, 
Walch Naturf 4 tab. 1. fig, 5, 6. 
Zorn Naturf. 7. tab. 2. fig. Q t C. 2, 
Chemn conch. 5. tab, 161 /^. 1522, 1523, 
^ Martjn univerf. conch. I . tab. 24. 
Inhabits the Southern Ocecn. 
Shell w'nh an acute fpire and 7 — 9 contiguous whorls. 

^straiiu. Shell pyramidal, tranfverfely ftriate, varied with white aftd 
red, the tip green^ pellucid. 
Chemn, conch 5. tab. l6i. fig. 1524, 1525. 
Inhabits the South fea: an inch high : whorls 7. • 

Netatw. Sfiell with decuflate ftriae, wkhin grooved: the tip deep red. 

Inhabits Schrcet. jfourn. 5. />. 438.y/^. 10, 11. 

Schrat. Einl. in conch, i . tai. 3, f. 14. 

Mlegani, Shell pyramidal, ftriate, brownifti purple. 

Inhabits the South fea- Zorn. Nat. 7. / z.f. D, 1,2, 
Thefe 2 laH are probably varieties of Tr. rollratus. 

'ilefanojto- Shell obtufely pyramidal fpotted with greenifli : apcfture 
ma, (letp black within 

Inhabits the South fea. Chemn. 5. tab, 161./. 1526, a, b. 

Irythroleu' Shell minute, pyramidal, ftriate with white and red. 
«>, Inhabits Morocco, Chemn. 5 tab. 162. y, 1529. a, b. 

VOL. IV. — 3O Pune^ 

474 WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Pmilulatus Shell very minute, red, pundulale. 

Inhabits Moroffo. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. \(>z. fg. 1530. 

Jmbricatus Shell pyramidal, obliquely grooved,^ plaited and ribbed; 
whorls a little prominent at the margin. 
Lis/er, tab. 628. Guatt. tejL tab. 60. Q_ 
Born. Muf Qtcf.Vind. teR. tab. 12. fig, 1 9, 20. 
Chemn. conch* 5. tabs \62,f. I 531. 
2. Knorr Ver-tt ■^. tab. 29 /Ig. I, 2. 

Chemn. conch. 5. r«^. \tz, f. 1532, 1533* 
Inhabits ^o«/^ American ieas. 

Amtricanui Shell longitudinally grooved, ochraceous: whorls trunf- 
verfely ftriate : lip denticulate: 
C/^'mw. «»<:*• 5- tab. 162,/. 1534, 1535. 
Inhabits South America^ fpire with 6 whorls. 

Ccelattis, Shell fea- green, with protuberances and oblique fcaly 
plaits : whorls of the fpire tranfverfely Itriate and 
grooved in the middle, the lower margin of the firft 
whorl rough with concave fpines. 

Lister conch, tab. 6j^6. tab 6^j. fig 40. 

Bon. recr. 3./. 1 1 . 167, 394. Mu/. Kirch. 3./.1 1, 12. 167. 38a 

Seba Muf. 3. tab. 60. Jig. I, 2. 

Knorr Vergn. 5. tab. it. fig- J. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 162 fig. I 5 36, I537. 
2. Fa'van. conch, t. 79. I? Martin conch, \. f. 53, 

C/^fw». fowf-^. 10. tab. 16^. fig. 1581, 1582. 

Purtureus. Shell purple, with plaited tuberculate whorls, and very mi* 
nute moniliform belts of granulations: aperture fub« 
Inhabits— C-^^z/zw. c(>nch. 5. tab. xSz, f. 1538, 1539. very rare. 

Cookii. Shell fea-grcen with numerous rows of tubercles and ob- 
lique undulate plaits: whorls of the fpire caniculatc 
each fide, the firft above convex, beneath flattifli. 

Spengler Naturf. 9. tab. 3. fig. 5, 6, 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. i^-x^./ig. 1540. and a, b. /. 164. f. 1551. 

Inhabits Cooke's Bay:. 4 inches Jong and as much broad, and 
covered with 3 horny lid. 

Nodukjitt, Shell brownilh with a convex bafe : whorls with a fingle 
row of tubercles, the firft with 2 : each lip margined. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. i^l-f. I545> 1 546. 
Inhabits the Soiah/eas and America i tubercles white. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 


Mauritia- Shell pyramidal, white varied with reddifh and green : 
anus, whorls fpinous, with an obtufe lower margin: pillar 

emarginate, plaited. 
Litter, tab, (iz<^. GuaJt. tej}. tab, 6l. D.F. 
Bonati. recr. ii. Muf. Ktrch. "i- f'g 90. 
Lhemn conch. 5, tab 163 Jig. 1547, 1548. 
Inhabits the iilands Bourbon and Mauritius: whorls 10 — J2. 

Fetiestratuf Shell white, pyramidal : whorls of the fpire longitadinally 
ribbed, with tranfyerfe monilit'orm belts ot green 
grauLila ions. 

^umpf muf tab. zx.f. 7, Regenf. conch. \. t.z. f. 13- 

Gucdt test. tab. 60. N. hluf. Qottnx) t. 'i(), f. 267. 

Chemn conch, 1^. tab* 163, /". 1549, 1550. 

Inhabits the Indian &nd South jeas : ij inch wide. 

Pillar flightly incurved, with an excavated tooth, 

H^Ucimis, Shell convex each fide, folid: fpire fmootli, the 2 firft 
wjioris obliquely ribbed and excavated in the middle: 
aperture nearly femilunar. 
Knorr Vergn. 4. tab 6. Jig, z, 
Chemn. conch, ^. tab. \h\. fig 15 60. 
Inhabits S.uth American feas. 





Shell ovate, with undulate ribs and tranfverfe ftrias : aper- 
ture a little comprelfcd; whorls of the fpire ventricofe, 
the firft fubcarinate at the-bafe 

Chemn conck, 5. tab. 16.5 fig 1 562, 1563. 

Inhabits the South fen: 2 inches broad and high. 

Shell black, the ribs of the firil whorl ending in a row of tuber- 
cles : pdlar fine green, 

Shell obtufely pyramidal, black with a purple band at the 
bale: pillar white: all the whorls of the fpire rounded. 
Knorr Very n. 5 tab 3. fig. I. 

Inhabits Lhipa: fpire with 5 or 6 whorls, the band at the bafe 
ottcu fpottcd w^ith white and yellow. 

Shell black with a fubconvex granulate bafe : whorls grooved, 
with moniiilorm belts of alternate black and white 

Chemn. conch. <j. tab. 165. fi^, 1571. 

Inhabits the South Jea. Shell minute, with 5 whqrls. 

Shell obtufe: whorls roun<l, with many rows of tubercles, 
grooved and tranfverfcly flriate: pillar toothed : aper- 
ture lunatet 

1 O 2 Inhabits 

47^ WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Inhabits. Chemn* conch, 5, tab. 166. /. 1782. 
5^^// cinereous or teftaceous; pillar-lip plaited and wrinkled 

Tejfellatus. Shell conic r- convex, tranfverfely ftriate, with oblongr 
fquare fpots difpofed in rows : aperture large, fub- 
compreired : pillar lip fpotted with black: pillar 
■white, tooth-like. 
Born. Muf. Ctej- Vind. test. tab. ^2,fig, $, 6, 
Chemn. conch, 5. tab. \6b,fig. 1583. 

2. Qhemn. conch ^., tab. \bb. fig. 1 585. 

3. Chemn. conch. 5, tab. 166. fig. 1586, 1587. 

4. Lilier, tah. 642. Adanf. Heneg. \. t.\z. f. 1, 
Bonan. recr, $5" Muf kirch. 3. fig. zoi. 

Gualt. tefi, t. 63. f. D, E. G. Klein oftr. t. 2. 7.53, 54. 
Kncrr Vergn. \. tab. \o^ fig. 6. 
Chemn conch. ^. tab. 166./. I 5 84, 
, Intiabirs the Mediterranean, 4) Africct, 

Wh'.rls of the ^»r round, the fpots blackifh or cinereous, rarely 

dttrinus. Shell conic-convex, citron with angular black lines; the 
2 firft whorls fhaded with brown. 
Inhabits Jfia. K/forr Vergn. I. tab. 10. f. 7, 

Granatum, Shell pyramidal, white variegated with fcarlet, the bafe 
fubconvex: whdrls convex with moniliform belts of 
granulations, the 2 firft very large. 

Chemn. conch- 5. tab. 170. fig, 1654, 1655. 

Innubits the iteuthfea: about 2 inches high and nearly as much 
broad ; fpire withg or ;o whorls, 

Crocatus. Shell fmooth, conic, whije with a fafFron tip: whorls 
round and feparated by a groove at the future. 
Inhat)ils — —Born MuJ, Qeef. Vind, tejt. tab. \l. f^ II, 12. 

Conchyli^ Whorls round and obfoletely plaited, the firft brpwnifh : 
o^borm. aperture compreilcd, browniih ; mouth and concave 

bale brown. 
Martin, befch. Berl. Naturf 2. tab. iz.j. 2, 3. 
Born. Mufi (J,aj Vmd. test. tab. \ 2. fig. 21, 22, 
Qhemn, conch. 5. tab. 172. fig. 1688—^690. 
InhaDUs 6outh Ainerica : 2 niches hi^h, z\ broad, and is often 
found with iloncs, corals and teltaceous lubllances adhering to 
it: Ji^ire vvith 6 whorls. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 477 

pantheri. Shell convex, white with green brown and fulvous fpots; 
nus. whorls with 2 rows of tubercles, the fecond whojrl 

plaited carinate. 
Inhabits Senegal. Adans faneg. i. tah. 12. fig. 9. ^) fig- 10. 
Shell about 8 lines long and fomcthing broader. 

Grandma- Shell rough with concatenate globules, the bafe convex 
tus. y>i\x\\ concentric granulate ftrias: lip doubled toothed. 

Inhabits Falmetton IJJand. Martyn. iini'ver/. conch, I. fig. 38. 
CbemJi. (onck, 10. tab. l6g./ig. 1639. 

hequalis, $hell deprelfed, with belts dotted with white beneath: 
whorls crowned with fpines and a double row of raifedl 
Inhabits Friendly IJlands, Martyn univ, conch, I. tah. 31. 

Tigris. Shell fubovate, grey with red ftripes and tranfverfely ftrUte 
with white. 
Inhabits Ne=w Zealand, Martyn univ. conch. Z, fig. 75. 

Pulligo, Shell conic, brown obliquely ftriate with black. 

Inhabits Georges Bay, Martyn univ. conch. 2. tab. 76, 

* Parvus, Shell conic white, with 4 tuberculate whorls. 

Found on the Pembrokejhire coast, TranJ, Linn^ Sec, iii. /. 65. 

C. Tapering, with an exferted pillar, and falling on the 
Jide when placed upon the baje. 

Telefcopium Shell imperforate ftriate, with a fpiral pillar. 

Lister tab. bza^, Argenv. conch tab. II.B. 

Bonan recr., and Muj\ kirch 1. fig. 92. 

Ruinff. niuf. tab. Zl. fig. 12, Gualt. test, tab. 60. D, E. 

Seba MuJ. 3. tab. 50 fig. i — 12. Murray test. t. l.f. 2J. 

Knorr del. tab. B ^^fg. 9 Vergn. 'i^.t. 22 f 2, 3. 

Born Muf. Cr^f.l'ind teii. p. 326. 'vign.ftg, d. 

Chemn. conch. ^. p.\bo.fig. 1507 — 1509. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocet^n : about 4 inches long 

.S/ff/V tapering, like a tclleicope when drawn out; brown liver- 
colour or blackilh, the firft whorl generally barred with white; 
//V/«r a little prominent, with a tooth or plait in the middle : 
Hvhorls flattifh, 

Dolabratus Slioit umbilicatc glabrous: pillar with recurved twifted 
Lister tab. 844. Argenv. tab. 11. L. 


478 WORMS. TESTACEA. 79. Trochus. 

Knorr Fergn, 6. tab. 29. fi^. 2. Walcb, Nat. f, t. 3./'. 5,. 

Chemn, conch, ^.t. }6y./. 1603, 1604. 

2. Lister tab. 8^^. Jig. 72. b. 

3. Pet. Gaz. t. 118./. 15. GW/. /^//. tab. 4. M* 

Inhabits 5o«/^ America. Shell white, generally furrounded witl^ 
yellow lines and a few brown ones; nuhorls roundifli, feparatecj 
\)y a fine groove : aperture toothed; pillar with 3 plaits, 

Perver/us* Shell imperforate glabrous : whorls contrary, with a double 
row of excavated dots 
Inhabits the Mediterranean : fmall, hom colour. 
Whorls cylindrical, with "crenate pundlures : aperture fquare: 
pillar a liitle prominent at the bafe. , 

Pu/tllust Shell flat at the bafe, with fine tranfverfe Ariae croflTed by 
oblique finer ones: aperture comprelftd: whorls con- 

Spengl. «, Schrift, d^en. t , tab. I . fig, I , 

Chemn. conch 9. tab, Wij.fig. 996. 

Inhabits the Indian Seas, and is generally found among the fand 
within fide larger fhcllsi hardly \ of an inch long; probably 
a variety of the laft. 

Vndulatui, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^* ^'^^ \>2i{ty with longitudinal ribs crofling 
flexuous tranfverfe itrias: aperture femilunar: whorls 

Spengl. n. Schr. dan, \.fig. 2, 

Chemn. conch, g. tab. 11$' Jig ^^1* 

Inhabits the Indian fiorei : lefs than the laft. 

yentricofus. Shell cancellate, glabrous at the bafe: aperture fubovate: 
whorls contrary, the upper-ones ventricofe and turgid. 
Spengl. Schrift. deen. I. tab, i. fig. 3. 
Chemn. conch. 9 t. Wl-f. 968. 
Inhabits the Indian funds: fize of the laft. 

Anmlatus, Whorls of the fpirfe contrary and ribbed each fide: aperture 
nearly fquare. 
Spengl. Schr. dan. I. tab, I. fig, 4. 
Chemn. conch. 9. t. 1 13./^ 969. 
Inhabits the Indian Sands: fize of the laft: ^whorls j2 — 15, 

Flumineus. Shell fubpyramidal umbilicate fmooth, white with a reddifh 
tip: whorls feparated by a groove: aperture femi-' 
Inhabits Shrart, Fhfcmch, tab. 2, fig. 16. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 479 

Pundatus, Shell imperforate, the whorls with a triple row of promi- 
nent dots. 
Inhabits Southern Europe and Africa: fize of a barley-corn. 
Shell ferruginous, covered over with obtufe : aperture fquare: 
pillar hardly vifible and caniculate. 

Sfriatellus. Shell imperforate, with longitudinal oblique parallel ftri^e. 
Inhabits the Mediferranean : fmall, white tipt with violet. 

Ziczar. Shell fubftriate and painted with darker angular lines: aper- 
ture fuborbicular. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tah, \b6,Jig 1 599. 3, b, 
2. Lister tab 583. /f. 38. 

Ckemn. conch. 5. tab. 166. fig. 1600. a, b. 
Inhabits — ^^Whorls 5 or 6 : of an uncertain genus. 

Lunaris, Shell contrary, moderately convex fmooth and (lightly um"- 
bilicate: whorls 5. 
Inhabits— —C/^?««, conch. 9. tah. iiS-fig' 97^» 

Hirtenlls. Shell pyramidal, nearly imperforate, white with a reddilb 
Chemn. conch. 9. tab. MZ. fig. 1055, 1056, 
Fouud in gardens, in warmer climates. 

SO. TURBO. Animal a Limax : j%<?// uni- 
valve, fpiral folid: aperture contradted 
orbicular entire. WreatK 

A. Pillar 'margin of the aperture dilated imperforate. 

Shell roundifh fmooth and very obtufe, ventricofe above, 
Knorr Vergn. 6. tab. 2lf'g- 8. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 185./^. 1854. n. a — f? 
Inhabits Northern Seas : /hell brown variegated with white. 

Shell ovate glabrous and rather obtufe. 

Knorr l^ergn. 6. tub. 23 fg. 9. 

Chemn, eonch. 5. tab. 185. fig. 1854. n. 1 — 1 1 ?' 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and America: minute. 

Shell iomttima uniformly yellow red or brown, fometimes va-- 

riegated or marked with bands and lines : aperture ovate: re- 

(embles a Nerita. 


48o WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 

^LittcreuSt Shell fubovate acute flriate. PerriwinhU» 

Dononjans Brit. Shells, I. tab, JJ.yf^. I* 2. 

Pennant Brit. Zonl.x iv. tab, ^y, fig. 102. 

Bajler op./uhfec. 3, tab. l^'fig- I. 

Lister tab, 585 fig, 43. Anim, angly t. 3. yi gf. 

GW/. /^y?! tab. 45. A. C. G. 

Argen'v. conch, tab, 6, L, Zoomorph. tab. 3. A. 

J5<jr/« Muf. Caf. Find, tefi.ftg. I 3, 1 4. 

Chemn, conch, 5. /a^. 185./%. 1857, 1855. 1855* 
2, Lister conch, tab \o^C). fig, 6 — 8. 

Inhabits moft European Shores, and are faid by Sailors to indicate 
ftormy weather if feen crawling high up the rocks, and calm 
weather when they defcend; the ti(h is very frequently eaten. 

Shell about l| inch high, very finely ftriite tranfverfely, fome- 
times blackifti with white lines, or brown with darker lines, 
or rcddifh yellowifh or whitilh with various hues and markings: 
whorls 5 — 7 contigi»us, the firll very large: aperture fub- 

^Tumidujt Shell pale red, with 5 diftindt tumid elegantly ftriate whorls, 
the firft ventricofe. 
Penn. Brit, Zool. iv. tab. S2. fig, 1 10. 
Inhabits woods of England: very rare. 

* Rudixt Shell fmooth, with 5 diftin£l tumid whorls: lip thick and 
glofTy within. 
Donovan s Britifii fiiells. l. tab. "iZ'fiS" 3» 

Inhabits weftern coafts of England: >ery much rcfembles T, 
littoreus, but the whorls are more diftinft and tumid and not 
ftriate; colour greeniih with a pale margin to the aperture. 

^ Lineafus, Shell fomewhat conic, cinereous variegated with frne zig- 
zag black ftreaks: pillar with a wide tooth. 

Dono'van^s Brit. Shells, ii. tab. 71. 

Da Cofia Brit. Conch, p, 1 00. tab. S.fig.y, 

Inhabits the fouthcrn and weftern coafts of England,. 

5'i'f// large thick, top-(haped, wuh irregular black or pale bfown 
or reddifh -brown irregular lines ; when the outer coat is wora 
off", the (hell appears of a fine perlaceous eolouf • 

Muricatus* Shell umbilicate fubavate acute, furrounded with ftr)«e of 
raifcd dots: pillar-margin a little obtufe. 
Lister fab. "^O.fig. 28. Gualt. tefi, tab. 45. E. 
Adans. Seneg, i. tai. XZ.jig. 2. 
Born Muf. Caf. Find, teft, tab. iz.fig, lc$, l&. 
Chemn, conch. 5. /. 177./'. 1752, 1753. 
Inhabits Europe America and Africa: an inch high. 

WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 481 

Sbeil blueifh white with a brown mouth: av(!;er/f tranfverfely 
ftriate and diftaiit. 

lituus» Shel! fiibovafe fmooth : aperture lateral margined: umbi- 
licus covered. 
Inhabits Pulo Cofuiore. Martynuniv, conchol, I. tah, 27. 

Punadatiu Shell fnbovate fmooth bro//n, with paler flat dotted belts: 
aperturf clay colour. 
Inhabits— —A/«r/|'«. um'V. conch. I. tah. 36. 

B- Solid imperforate. 

• Cimex, Shell oblong-Ovate with decuffite ftrias and eminent dots. 
Dono<vati'i Brit. Shells tah. 2. lig, I, 
Jdan$. feneg. i. tah. 10 l^ig. b? 
Da Cojia lirit.covch.t. 8.V. 6. g. 
Gualt. tefi. tah. 44. fig. X, 
Inhabits European Coa/ls : verv minute. 

■S^/"// thick '.vhitlrti, without ^I'lfs: Up bordered with white within: 
firft whorl of Xhc/pire 4 times as large as tne rell, 

Pullu.s. Shell ovate fmooth, variegated red and white: aperture a 
little angular forwards 
Donovans Bnt, Shells tab. 2. fig. 2—^. 
Da Coll a Brit Lonchol. /. 8./. I. 3. 
Born Muf. Quj Vind.tefi. tah, xz.fig. 1 7, I S.- 
Inhabits European feat , ,'7?if// mii ate thin tranl^iarent glofly, white 
or rote-colour with red ji;h marks in various directions. 

*Fa/ciatus: Shell oblong, white maroled or fafciaie with black: fpire 
with 6 tumid wh )rls. 
Doncrcaus Brt. ^heili i. tab, l2.. I. i^er tah* 19, 
Pennant ftr/t. Zool. iv. rah, 82, yf^. 119.- 
inhabits the IFelch .ioa/ls: \ an inch long, 

Pcrfonahus, Shell convex fmooth: the aperture fomewhat angular. 
Inhabits //^^'^ R.;;npf, >,t:(J\ tub. 19 % i. 
5^^//cinerc^jus dotted -wi'.n crown ; rtfembles a Nerita. 

Pttholatus^ Shell ovate fmooth glolfy : the whorls fomewhat angular on 
the upper- p.irt. 
Nat-tr MijceU. t.'b. ^!^g. Lijier tab. 584 /^. 39, 
Rumpf muf. tut) 19 D. and^V. 5, 6, 7. 
Argenv. conch, tab. 6. v.. Zoom, tab, 10. D. 
VaUnt. abb. ta;>. 6. fig. 55. te/f. tab,, 64. F, 

VOL, IV— 5^ fC/ein 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 


Klein oflr, tab, 2, fig, 51- Knorr ielic. t. B. T, iii. f. 7. 

Knorr Fergn. l.tah 3. ftg. 4. and 2. t. zz.f» I, 2, 3. t. 3,/. 3. 

/. 23 f 4. /. 28./. 2—5. 
Regenf. conch, l. tab, S. fig, 18. /. 9./ 27. 
Chemn.comh.^.t. 183, 184./. 1826— 1839. 

2. Seba muf. 3, /. 74./ 3. 5. 7, 8 16. 

3, Gualt.test. tab 63. I. Valent. abh t. 2. f- 27. 

Inhabits India and ^o«/i' America: /^^/Z glabrous, ehefnut with 
particoloured bands, very finely ftriate longitudinally : 'whorls 
round: pillar yellowifh green, 

Cochlusi Shell ovate ftriate, with a fingle thicker ftria on the back. 
Lifier tab. 584. kg. \0. tab, 586. Klein cjir.t. Z.f 5 5- 
Valent. abh. ^6. f 53, 54- 5^' Seba muf. 3. r. 74./. 30* 
ir«cr/- /V^». I . / J /". 5 BegenJ. corch. \. t. \.f. 1 2. 
C/^mw. fow/6, y. ^ 182./ 1805, 1806. 
Schrat. Einl. in conch. 2, /. 3./. 17. 
a. Argenv. conch, t. b.f Ql 
3. iC«orr i^//r. /. B. iii,/ 6 ? Te^r^w. i, t. 3./. 3 ? _ 

Inhabits /«^/a ; /-f// green or greenifh-brovvn varied with white, 
and girt with white bands fpotted with brown, with very fine 
longitudinal ftrias and a fingle thick tranlverfe one on the back; 
aperture fil very. 

Shell fubovate wrinkled: whorls farrounded with 2 rows 
of vaulted fpines. E. Argenv. conch, tab, b.!). 
Gualt. test. tab. 62. H. KUin ofir. t. 7./. 126, 
Sebamuf. 3. tab. 74./^. 9 — H- 
Knorr Vergn. 2. /. 14./. 2 and 5. /. 1 3./. 3. 
Chemn. conch. 5. /. 178./- ^7^^- ., ... 

Inhabits India 5-6^// yellowifh radiate with biown, gilt within: 
pillar and lip white : nvhorls diftant, tranfverfely ftriate and 
marked with longitudinal lines, the upper-ones plaited. 

Echinatus. Shell fubovate wrinkled, with obtufe vaulted fpines on the 
whorls: pillar-lip expanded crenate. 
Martynmi'verf, Conch., I. tab. 26. 2) tab. 3. 
Inhabits the 6oiith fea and Friendly IJlands. 

^eatum Shell ovate, with obtufe deprefled fpines, beneath papillous. 
perjicum, Argenv conch, tab. S.? } 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. \t-2,.fig. I 543, 1544' 
2. Spines pointed. Gualt test. tab. 60. M ? 

Inhabits India. Shell cincre us with brown bands; nxhorls 6, 
tranfverfely wrinkled, with 2 rows of fpines: mouth white 



WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 


Shell conic, with obtufe concatenate fpines, beneath with 
papillous (trice. 

Rumpf. ffiuf tah l\. D. Argenv conch, tab. 8, A. 

Lister tab. 64+. Knorr Vergn I. tab. z^.ftg. 3, 4. 

Ke.n o/ir. tah. z.ftg. 37. ^Seba muf 3. /. 60./. 3, 

Chemn. conch. ^. tab. idyf'g- 154'' '542- 

Inliabits India. Shell 3 inches high, rough, with undulate plaits 
and wrinkles: tellaceous, with an ochraceous aperture : _yj>/r* 
with 8 or g whorls, the firft with 2 rows of fpines. 

Shell fubconic, variegated with black and grey and covered 
with hollow fcales : aperture margaritaceous crcnulate. 
Inhabits F.-iendly ijlarjs. Martjn ur.i-v. conch. I. tab. '^^. 

Shell pearly imperforate deprefTed: whorls rough, with 
coinprcired hodow fpines above. 
Lister tab. f^oS.fig. 46. Rufn/f. muf, tab, 20. I. 
Ar^env. conch, tab- 6. R. tab. 8. H. 
Gualt.test. tub 65 N. P. Klein ofir. /. I./. 2t ? 27. 
Sebamuf ^. tab 59/'>- S' ^• 

Knorr Fergn 4. tab 4 /7-:. 2—4 /. 6./. 2. t- 7./. I. 
Chemn conch. ^. tub 164. /Ig- >^;2, 1553./. 124,/. )7l8— 1720. 

2. i:he'rin conch, ^.t. 180/ 1786, 1787. 

3. Chemn. conch. 10 /. 1650./ 1585, 1586. -r. • , 
Inn?.Hits Indfa, 2) the MeJiterranean. Shell greeniih with 5 

diftant knotty whorls. 

Shell ftibovate (Iriate : whorls rugged above. 

Lder tab. 647, /f. 41 » Knorr Ver^n. 2. /. 20./ I. 

Bonan. recr. 3. fig. 12, 13. Muf kirch. J,, fig. 12 — 14. 

Gualt teft. tab. 63. F. H Argen-v. conch, tab. 8. O, \ 

Klein ofir. tab. 2 f'g- 50, 

Chemn. conch t^. tab. 180.7%. ^7^2 — 1785. 
2. r/'m«. 5. /• 181 / 1803, 1804; Gtt-a//. tab. 63, C. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic, 2) AVw Zealand. 

Shell greerifli ciojded with cinereous or white : pillar red : throat 
filvery; ni-horls with obfjleccly knotty wrinkles on the upper- 

Shell fubovate fmooth: whorls with 3 rows of protuberances: 

beak dilated behind. 
Lister tab. 587 Gualt test. tab. 64. A. 
Sebamuf 3. tab. 7^- fig 1,2. 
Knor- Tergn. 3. tab. zd-fg. I. /• tl'f- '• 
Chemn ^.tat. lyi^.fg. 1775. 1776. 
Inhahits South America: refemblesT. olearius, but is thinner and 

has 2 incomplete rows of knots : jhell dull green, with bands 

compofed of white brown and reddilh ipots, 

3 P 2 Sarmaticus, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 

Sarmaiicus. Shell convex obtufe : whorls knotty above and fcparated by 

a canal 
Bonnn r cr. and Muf. Kirch "^^ fig. l66? 
Ar^eifo conch tab. 8 V Regenf. conch !, tah. ^-jif, 7. 
Chetnn conch 5 tab. y'jq jif^ '777> i?/^. '781. 
2. Knoi*-'^ \\\.ftg. 2. Vergn \.t 3 Z' 1. 

Iiihahits Asiatic ?vd Af>:cun ^ea\ She// covered with ayeMonifh- 

orange coat, under v^h'ch it is ceep black, within filvery : 

•u/Wj- with rnany rows of kViOts, thofe ot the upper row very 


Okarius. Shell convex obtufe fmooth angular. 

Bonan recr. ai d May. Kirch'. 3 /:>. Q. 1 8it. 
Rump/ muf tab, 19. A. P. G«^A ??/?. tab, 68, A.- 
jfir/«« o///-, tab- 7- fig' '84. Khorr /■^er^fn. 2. t. 9-/". I* 
iJ.emn, co-ch. <^.tah. 178 /"/p-. 1771, 1772. 

2. i^c'/sw >ffr. 3./^. 406. M«/. Kirch. 3./". 38(5, 

3. liee'f conch. I /i?/^ '^ fig^ 5? ? 

• L.htmn. conch ^. taK IJ^-fig •773> 1774? 
Inhabit- / ^'/a .*^,6t-// v. ith 3 rows of knots on the back: firft 
whorl oblique gibbous. 

Whorls of the fpire ronnd, with decu (Tate flrias ; the firft 
with 3 rows of imbricate fpines. 
Ckemn. conch. 5 tab 1-9 fig. 1779, 178c, 
Intiabits China. Shel/ r<iih:.t large, olive. 

Shell rugged: whorls round, diftant, tranfvcrfely flriatc, 
anu armed with linall imbricate fpines. 
Chann. CO ch 5 tab. \Zq fig. 1778, 1779. 
Iniunts Cite Redjea 6Vpf/7,whiti(h wuli chefnut rays, or brown 
r^diat^ wiih white; wic;un fiUery. • 

Imperialism, Shell glabrous gloffy-green, withinfnowy: aperture filvery: 
pillar lip call(>us above. 
InhabUb China. Chemii. c n^h 5. tab. 180. fig. 1790. 
WhorU of ihe/pire very convex. 



Coronatus. Shell wrinkled, white with greeni'h clouds, the tip orange : 
whorls crov\ncd with fpines and knots: pillar pnxiucqd 
into a beak. • 

Lijter tab. 57:;. Chemn. ^.tab. i So fig. 1791,1792, 
2. A'r(re»'v conch, tab. 6 Q. Chemn. f^rab. i$0, fig. 1793' 
Inhabits (eas of Maiacca : extremely r.ire. 

Caniculatus Shell grooved and tranfvcrfely flriate, greenilh-whiie with a 
few chefnut niarKS: whorls very convex. 


WOK MS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 4S5 

Hegeftf, concb. I. tab lo fig. 44. 

Chemn. coucb. ^ tab. \%l.fig. 1794. 

lnhabit> India. Shell ponderous, with 6 whorls. 

$et(^us. Whorls of the fpire cylindrical groo\'cd and tranfverfcly 
itriate: outer pillar-lip crenate. 
Rui/tpf. muf. tab. lO C. Gualt, test, tab 64,3. 
CLermi conch. ^. tab. iSl./g 1 795, 1 796. 
Inhabit^ Jfrdia. Shell with pccous fpocs and white and chefnut 
rays j^l'^ccd alternately : ^ijhorif 6. 

Spari'erius. Shell oblong with broad fmooth flrix, ycllowilli fpotted 
with brown. 
Cbemn conch. 5 tab. \%\.fig. 1793. 

Inhibits India, Shell with unequal ftri^i and Cf round whorls: 
aperture Ihining iike mother ot pearl. 

Spino/us, Shell oblong, tranfverfely ftriate, the ftri^ fpinous: aperture 

Inhabits India. Ch;mn.corch. ^.tah. iSi. /ig. 1797. 
Shell vvhitifh and yellow radiate with black ; ivbjrls 6, 

Moltkanus Shell filvery-grey with tranfverfe yellow and orange bands: 
whorls with moniiiform belts of granulations, above 
plaited knotty and armed with hoHo.v fpines. 

Inhabits Ckemn, conch. 5. tai. \%\.fig. 1799, 1800. 

Aperture perlaceous ; pillar iilvcry. 

Shell variegated white and yellowifh : whorls round, tranf- 
verfely Itriate, and feparateti by a canal. 

Chemn conch. '^^ tab. iSl. fig. 1801, 1802. 
2. Herman iVa/urf. \b. tab. z.fig 1,2. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean, very rare: apertun fiivery within. 

Qajianea, Shell tranfverfely (Iriate, chcfnut-brown fpoJted with white: 
whorls furroundcd with rows of knots. 

Ckcmn. conch. 5 tub. \%Z. f:g. I 807 — I 8 10. 

2. Chemn. conch. 5. tab. xiz.fig. 1813, 1814. 

3. Regenf. conch, i. tab. \z,fig. 70. 
Inhabits South America. Spire with 5 whorls, 

{^reiiulatus. Shell filvery-grey furroundcd with many rows of knots: 
aperture milk-white within. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch. ^- tab. \%z,fg. 181 1, i8l2. 


4&6 WORMS. TESTACEA. So. Turbo. 

SmaragduC Shell ponderous, (lightly deprefled, fmoothifh and obliqAjely 
wxinkled : fpire with 4 whorls^ the firft round and 

Zorn Naturf, 7. tab.z. fig. A. 1. A, 2 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. I 82, f. 18 15, 1816. 

Inhabits Ne^w Zealand: z inches broad and high. S/^^// green, 

Pap'jraceus Shell pellucid, very thin and finely annulate, the firft whorl 
very large, the next with a band varied v/ith white 
and red ; aperture oval. 
Inhabits -Lhemn. conch. ^^ tab. iSz.f. 1817, 1818, 1819? 

JEthiops. Shell tranfverfely grooved, black with fine ftrias on the 
firlt whorls, the reft filvery; each lip bordered with 
Inhabits— —.ForK. MuJ. CaJ. find. teli. p. 34.0. 'vign.f.hi 
Chemn conch z^.tab. \%z. fig. 1820, 1S21. 
tS/'f// middle- fized, with a dilated aperture. 

Ktcpbaricui Shell browniih, reticulate; v/horls furrounded with belts: 
V aperture with a pellucid grceniih border : pillar with 

a citron callus : throat g'^ldcn, 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. i^Ztf xSzz, 1823- 

2. Chemn. conch. ^ tab. \%z.fig. 18:^4, 1825. 

3. Born Muf. Caf. Ifmd. lest. tab. 13./%. 10, I 7. 
lvihd.hil& Nicobar ifa7idi: middle-iized. 

Cidaris, Shell fmooth, with compreifed roundifh whorls, the firft 
round aud very large: aperture comprefled, filvery- 
grcen : pillar a little prominent. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. iS^.fg, 1840-1847, 

Valent. abh. tab ^. f 35. Argenv. conch, t, 6. B. O. 

Seba muj. 3. tab. 74. fig. I 3 — i;. 

Schrcct. Etnl- in conch 2. />. 82, 83. 

Inhabits India and China, in infinite varieties of colours and 

Nigerrimus Shell fmooth, deep black: whorls with an excavated mar- 
gin and diftant. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 185./. 1848. 2) 1849. 
Inhabits i\\e. Southern Ocean. 

tieliciitus. Shell fmooth, nearly imperforate, roundifh with contiguous 
convex whorls : pillar thickened. 
Born Muf Caf Vind. tejt. tab. iz. fg. 23, 24. 

Inhabics — ■ Shell purple and greeniih with a fdvery throat. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 


PunSlatus. Shell ovate, thick, with amucronate fpire : whorls fmooth, 
fiattifh, the 2 firfl: very large. 
Inhabits Senegal. AdanJ. Seneg. I. tab iz.Jig. \. 
Shell 6 or 7 lines long, plumbeous, fometimes reddifh, with 
rows of white dots, within cofFee-colour. 

Hamafto- Shell ovate, folid, glabrous, with 6 ftriate whorls : aperture 
^^^* margined, oval. 

Inhabits— — ScopoL delic. InJ. I. tah. 2^. Jig, B. 
Shell 3 inches long, white : -uihorls ventricofe, contiguous, the 
firlt reddifh above: aperture brownilh within, 

Torquatus. Shell ovate, with convex tranfverfe grooves and rugged 
ftrias: whorh with a knotty belt: mouth filvery. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Marty n conch. 2. fig. 71. ' 

Chemn. conch. 10. /. 295. 'vign, z\. jig. A, B. 

Vndulatus. Shell ovate -convex, with longitudinal undulate ftreaks ; 
fpire obtufe : mouth filvery. 
Chemn. conch, IC tab. 196. fig, 1640, 164I. 
Murt . uni'v . conch . I. tab. zc^. 
Inhabits Nevj Zealand &n(\. Holland, 

hiveust Shell fpiral, fnowy, diaphanous, tranfverfely ftriate : whorls 
often diftorted. 
Chemn. conch. 10 tab. l6^. fig. 1578,1579* 
Ktemm. cab. Rudolji. tab 8. fg. 4, 5. 
Inhabits Nicobar IJlands, 

Helkoides, Shell horny, fubdiaphanous, with 3 ribs, fmoothifh; firft 
whorls diltant : aperture triangular. 
Chtmn. conch. 10 tah 165,^^ 1589,1590. 
Inhabits the Indian Ocean : probably an Helix, 

*Nitidas. Shell fmooth, opake, obtufe, with 4 whorls : aperture oval. 
Found on the Fembrokejhire coaft, Linn, Tranf. iii. ^. 65. 

*Scriptus, Shell fmooth, opake, with 3 whorls, and brown lines re- 
fembling charaders: aperture roundifh. 
TranfaQ. Linn, boc lii p.^S- '^^' ^i-j- ''» ^2, 
Found on the Pembrokffiire coast : minute. 
The lines exaftly refemble thofe on the Lichen fcriptus. 

*Cotfatus. Shell opake, with 4 whorls deeply ribbed longitudinally 
and tranfverfely itriate : aperture oval. 


48S WORMS. TESTACEA. 8o. Turbo. 

IranfaSl. Littn.Soc. iii. tab. I 3. Jig. 13, 14. 
Fonhd on th?i f'em6*-oie/Jiire coijjt. Shell minute, white: aper- 
ture margined: rihglod'y, 

•Suhluteus. Shell opake, with 5 longitudinally ribbed whorls: aperture 
rounded, margined. 
^ran/ail. Linn. Sdc. iii. tai>. I3.y. 15, 16. 
On the PembrokeJIiire coast : minute, pale yellow, 

•Ali&Jtu, Shell opake, with 5 longitudinally ribbed whorls ; aperture 
roundifh, not margined. 
7ranfaS. Linn. Sor. iii. tab. 13./^. I7, 18. 
On the PembrokeJIiire csast. Shell minute.' 

^ReticttUt' Shell white, opake, with 4 reticulate whorls: aperture 
tus» roundish. 

TranJaSi Linn. Joe. iii. tab. 13. fig» 1 9, 20. 
Adanti Microjc. p 636. tab. \ if. fig., 14, 
On t\ic Pembrokejhire coast: minute. 

•Ruber, Shell opake, fmooth, with 5 whorls: aperture roundifli. 
Tranjaa. Linn, foe iii- tab ^1% fig* 21, 22, 
Adams Microjc. p. 637. tab. \\.ftg. 15, 
On the Pembrokejhiie coast : minute. 

•Inttrititu- Shell pellucid, fmooth, -jvith 5 whorls feparated by a thin 
tuii rib. 

Tranjaci. Linn. foe, iii. tab. ^l*ftg. 23, 24* 
On the Pemb'-okefiiire coast : minute. 
Sbeli white, with a roundilh aperture^i 

•Striatus. Shell pellucid, white, with 5 fpirally ftriate whorls : aper- 
ture oval. 
7ranja3. Linn. Joe, iii. tab. l^- f 25, 26. 
On the Pembrokejhire coast. Shell minute. 

•Subarcu- Shell pellucid, white and a little curved towards the tip, 
«»/«j, with 10 longitudinally ribbed whorls. 

TranJ'aB. Linn. Joe. iii. tab. 13. /". 27, 28, 
On tht Pembrokejhire coast : minute. 

*yEreus, Shell pellucid, with longitudinally ribbed whorls: aperture 
TranJ'a6l.Linn. foe. iii. tab. 13, /". 29, 30. 
On the Pembroke fhire coast : minute. 
Shell brafTy between the ribs, the ribs whi>:. 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 489 

*EUgans. Shell pellucid, with 6 fpirally ftriate whorls, and remote 
ribs : aperture oval. 
TranfaSl. Linn. Joe. iii. tah. I 3. fig 31,32. 
Found on \kiC Pembrokefnire coast: minute. 

^Ptllucidas S^ell pellucid, vrhite, with 5 reticulate whorls: ape/ture" 

T^anfaS. Linn. foe. iii. tab. 13. fig, 33, 34, 
Found on the PembrokeJIiire coafis minute. 

*Canalicu' Shell pellucid, whitifh, with ^ longitudinally grooved 
latus. whorls: aperture roundifh. 

Coaft of Pemhrokejhire, Ltnn, Iranf, \\\tp. 253. 
Shell minute, the fpires feparaied by an elevated line^ 

*Di'vifuf. Shell pellucid, white, with 4 whorls, each divided into two 
parts ; the upper one fmooth, the lower one fpirally 
llriatc: aperture fuboval. 
Tran/ait. Linn. foe. \i\. p. 254. 
' On the Pembrekejkire jands. Shell minute, 

. C. SoliJy perforated. 

Pica. Shell conic, rounded, fmooth, with a fmall tooth near th« 

Liiter, tab. 640. /. 30. Gualt. teji. tab, 68. B. 
/Irgenv. coneh. tab, 8, G. Adohj. Seneg. x.t.lZ.f. 7, 
Peti'V. Gazoph. tab, J.f. 9. Kkin oitr. t. z.f. 52. 
Bonan. reer. Sc MuJ. Kirch. 3./, 29, 30. 
Knorr Vcrgn, I. tab. xo.f. i. & 2. t, z\. f, 3 ? 
Regenf. conch. 1. tab. 6./. 66. /. i i-f. 57. 
Chemn. conch. 4. t. 151./. 1420, 1421. Oi; 5, t, I'jb./^X'^'jO.i.'J^l. 

2. .Chemn. conch. 5, /. I1S5./, 1850? 185 1? 

3. Ciemn.conch. 1^. t. l-ji.f. 1769,1770? 
Born Mil/. Ca-j-Vind. test, tab l^^./, l, Z. 

Inhabits mo!t leas : Jri.ell folid, 2-^ inches high, 3j broad, radiate 
with black : pi/lar chin, whuc : ivhorls 6, convex ; umbiucnt 
or navel with a double canal. 

SaK^uineissi Shell llightly umbilicate, conic-convex, ftriate, fmooth: 
whorls llightly grooved. 
Chemn. cvnch. c^.t. 1'77./. '756, 1757. 

inhabits /^'hV^. Shell convex, red, lizeofapea: navel ComC' 
times perluratcJ, Ibmetimja not. 

Jy^y>:j.-/j~ S\\c\\ fiibovatc, with higher dorfal tranfverfcly ftriatc lines, 
««/. /iiiren^ilU ccK.b. t, 6. F. Knorr l-'^ergn. 3^/. 15. Jc 5, 

VOL. IV. — 3 0^ Rumpf. 


WORMS. tESTACEA. 86. turbo. 

Rumpf. muf. t. 19, f. 2, Regenf. conch, i. /. ii./. 50, 
Guait.teit. tab- 64 D. Seba muf. 3. /. 74./. 6. 
Chemn. conch, ^, t. I77'y. 1758 — 1761, 1763—1765* 
/ 2. Valetit. ahh, tab. ^'fil' 79 — 81, 

3, Seba muf. 3. /a^. "J^^fg. 20 — ^-22. 

Inhabits /W/a. Shell whitifh radiate with brown, the tjp 
fometimes red : fpire with 6 whorls, the iirft much larger than 
the reft : aperture iilvcry. 

Margarita- Shell fubovate, with higher fmooth dorfal lines. 
ceus, Rumpf. muf. t, 19./", 3, 4. Regenf. conch, i, t. IG, /! 43. 

Jrgenv, conch. /, 6, A. Seba muf. 3. /. 74. f. 4. 
Chemn. conch. 1^. tab. 177.^^.1762, 
SchrcEt. Einl. in conch, 2. /. 3. /". 18. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. Shell ventricofe, brown varied with 
green and yellowifh : fpire with 5 or 6 whorls, 

Verficohr. Shell glabrous, with very fine tranfverfe ftrise, varied with 
green and white : whorls flattifh, contiguous, the firfl: 
very large and rounded. / 

Lister conch, tab, 576. fig. 29. 
Chemn. conch* 5. tab, \']b.fig, 1740, 174X. 
2, Chemn. conch. ^, i. 176./". 1347. a— d. 

\nhih\u i)xt ii out h Je a. Spire with 4 whorls: lip z little cleft 
and crenatc ; aperture fhining Ifke mother of pearl. 

Delphinusi Shell with a rough umbilicus : whorls vvith branched fpines. 

jirgenv. conch, tab. 6. H. Rumpf. muf t. 20. H. 

Lister, tab. 608, f. 45. Valent. abh. tab. ^.f. 41. 

Petiv. Ami. tab. 3. fig. i, Grenv, Muf. t. 11, f, 5,6, 

Bonan recr. and Muf. kirch, 3. fig, 31, 

Gualt. test. t. 68. C, D. Seba Muf. 3. /. 59- /, iz — 27. 

Knorr Fergn, I. tab, 2^./, 4, 5. tff 4. /. 7./. 2, 3. /, 8./. I. 

Regenf. conch. 1. /a^. S. fig, 14. 

Chemn. conch. 5. /<3i^. 175.7%. '725--1736. 

Inhabits /wfl'/Vz. Shell brown, blackifh or reddifh varied with 
white, in great varieties ot fize and difpofition of fpines: na- 
njel rough with fpines and fcales : luhorls tranfverfely ftriate, 
with ufually 2 rows of fpines, the outmoft flattened. 

Kodulofus, Shell deprefled, knotty, with tranfverfe granulate ftriae : 
firfl whorl with an unequally tuberculate ridge on the 

Inhabits India. Chemn. conch. 5, tab, 1 74. fig, 1 723, 1 724* 

Shell rcddifli-white with black granulations, 

i>istortut. Shell fubmucronate, every where covered with fmoolh 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 491 

Chemn. concha 5. tab. ^7^-/ig. '737 — '739^ 

Sch^czt, EmI, in conch. 2. tab, "^.fig. 1 9 

Inhabits India. Shell ro(y. the hafe white with many rows of red 
knots : aperture and perforation fmooth yellow ; fpire with 6 
prominent diftant whorls {eparated by a groove and marked 
with a knotty ridge in the middle, 

Stellarisi Shell greeni'ih with a convex bafe : whorls radiate with 
fpines, the firft with 12 very large fpines. 
Chemn. conch. 5, tah. ib^.fig, I553. 

Inhabits the Houth /ea x fmall. 

Acjikatui; Shell with a convex bafe: whorls crowned with laciniate 
fpines, the firft with 9 very large ones, the outmoft 

Chemn. conch. 1^. tab. 164.//^. 1554 — 1557. 

lxi\iz\i\is Nicobcir I/lands'. "S/Z-^es fc^ .green^ 

Stellatus. Shell yellowifh fubpyranntdal, with a flattened bafe: whorls 
fpinulous at the lower margin. 

Inhabits Kuorr i'ergn. 4. tab. if. fig- <,. 

Chemn conch. 5. tah, i6^./ig. 1558, 1559. 

Mefpilus. Whorls convex and feparated by a band teflellate with 
* brown and white : aperture filvery : pillar white. 

Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 176 fg. 1742, i743._ 
Inhabits the South yea : refeinbles a medlar in colour. 

Granulatus Shell furrounded with granulate or knotty rings, dirty 
green with a reddilh tip : aperture filvery within ; 
pillar-lip fpotted with orange. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab, \7b.fig, I744> 1745. 
z. Chemn. conch, 5 tab. 176. fig. 1746. 
3. Lilier conch, tab. 575-/? 28. 
Inhabits the Indian and Souih/eas. 

£ujus Shell imprefied above, concave beneath: fpire annulate, the 

firft whorl very latge: perforation fpoon-ihaped. 
Chemn. conch. 5. tab. 176. fg. 1748, 1749. 
Inhabits tlie South fea. Shell white and green with obfcure 
violet green red and generally teffellate fpots. 

Atratus. ^^^^^ black ifli with double alternate black and cinereous 
monilitorni belts ot granulations: pillar i -toothed. 
Chemn. conch, 5. tab. \77*Jig. I754> J755. 
Inhabits Nicobar Ijlands : fize of a nut. 

3 Q 2 Denfatus, 

^92 WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 

Denfatusi Shell deprelTed orbicular, white varied with brown : lower 
marc^in of the pillar denticulate. 
Inhabits Chemn. conch, 5. tab^ 178 Jig. 1767, 1768. 

Diademaf 5hell dirty green varied with brown and furrounded with 
numerous crowded threads: whorls 4, the firft; very 

Chemn. conch ij. tab. 145. vign^ 43, ftg. A, B, 

Inhabits Nenju Zealand \ large. 

Cinereus. Shell fmooth roiindifh, cinereous varied with white and 
black : whorls fubrtriate ventricofe and flattened at the 
Inhabits Born Muf. Cas. Find tefi. tab. \2-fig. 25, z6. 

Carinattu. Shell thin diaphanous white round pyramidal : fpire with 
6 carinate vNhorh: perforation fpiral. 
Inhabits Born Muf. C^s. Find. tell. tab. l^./ig. 3, 4. 

"^f""' Shell thin fmooth, with flattened whorls. 

AdanJJtneg l. tab. iz.jig. 3. 2) fg. 4. 
Inhat^its iienegal: 2 lines long. Brown fulvous or grey. 

flanorbiu Shell depreiPed fmooth opake brown. 

Ii.habitj (jreenland, under ilones. O. Fubr.fu. GrcenI.J>,^g^.n.^2}. 
Shell with 4 Wiioris, i^ Hne in diameter. 

JWarfW/w Shell hyaline fmooth fubcarinate^ with 6 rounded whorls ; 
lip fringed refle£led. 
Inhabits i.hemn. conch, g. tab. \zy hg* 1063. 

Helicoides, Shell white, with angular brown linesabove: whorls rounded: 
perforation detp wide and funnel-form. 
Inhabits Chemn, conch, 9, tab, iz^fig, 1067, ic68; 

Foliaceus, Shell pyramidal with foliaceous wrinkles, variegated white 
' and rofy : perforation large. 

Inftabiis——C/ *.'««. conch. 9, tab. 123 Jig. 1069, 1070, 

4figuii. Shell tranfverfely ftriate, green ftriped with black, within 
Inhabits— —iV/a'-/}'« univtrf. conchol. 2. tab. 70. 

Porf)h\rites. Shell granulate, variegated green black yellow and white, 
flightly umbilicate, within margaritaqeous. 
Inhabits iVVw Caledonia. Mart, um-v. conch, 2, tab. 72, 


WORMS. TESTACEA. 80. Turbo. 493 

Smatagdui. Shell quite slabrous ftrute gret-n. 

Inhabits ifeiv Zealand. Mart, umv.conc. 2. tat. 73, 74« 

D. Cancellule. 

Crevellui. Shell witji a flattiOi fpreadii.g navel: whojls round, with 
creisatc (iris. , ^ , 1 

InaJ.its .lizj of a lupine. Shell (^>\yA rufous, above pU