(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system"

®l|f i.if. iitU Htbrarij 




JJortb QIaralttta ^talp Qlollpge 

QK97 
V.5 



105388 
This book must not be 
taken from the Library 
building. 



26M— 048— Form 2 



GENERAL HISTORY 



DICHLAMYDEOUS PLANTS, 



COMPRISING COMPLETE 

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE DIFFERENT ORDERS; 

TOGETHER WITH THE 

CHARACTERS OF THE GENERA AND SPECIES, AND AN ENUMERATION OF THE CULTIVATED VARIETIES; 

THEIR PLACES OF GROWTH, TIME OF FLOWERING, MODE OF CULTURE, AND 

USES IN MEDICINE AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY; 

THE SCIENTIFIC NAMES ACCENTUATED, THEIR ETYMOLOGIES EXPLAINED, AND THE CLASSES AND ORDERS 

ILLUSTRATED BY ENGRAVINGS, 

AND PRECEDED BY INTRODUCTIONS TO THE LINN^EAN AND NATURAL SYSTEMS, 

AND A GLOSSARY OF THE TERMS USED: 

THE WHOLE 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NATURAL SYSTEM. 



BY GEORGE DON, F.L.S. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 

Vol. IIL— CALYCIFLOR^. 



LONDON; 



PRINTED FOR J. G. AND F. RIVINGTON ; J. AND W. T. CLARKE; LONGMAN AND CO.; T. CADELL ; J. RICHARDSON ; JEFFERV 
AND SON; BALDWIN AND CRADOCK ; J. BOOKER; J. BOOTH; HARVEY AND DARTON ; S. BAGSTER ; SHERWOOD AND CO.; 
HARDING AND LEPARD ; J. F. SETCHEL ; WHITTAKER AND CO.; SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL; AND E. HODGSON. 



MDCCCXXXIV. 



LONDON ; 

GILBERT & RIVINGTON, PKINTERS, 

ST. JOHN'S SQUARE. 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME, 



COMPRISING THE 



SYSTEMATIC AND ENGLISH GENERIC NAMES, AND THE ENGLISH AND SYSTEMATIC SYNONYMES. 



In this Index the systematic names used, and the English names in common use, are in Roman letters ; the synonymes in Italics; the names of Classes, 
Sub-classes, and Orders in large capitals ; and the names of Sub-orders and Tribes in small capitals. 



Abelia, 452 

Ach-weed, 288 

Achyranthes, 83. 91 

Acicarpha, 696 

Aciphylla, 318. 

Acrolasia, 61 

Acrodri/oiiy 610 

Acrotriche, 780,781 

Actinanthus, 274 

Actinoplvjllum, 390, 391 

Actinotus, 263 

Aculeosa, 745 

Acuniiia, 849 

Adamia, 235 

Adenopbora, 769-771 

Adina, 471, 472 

Adoxa, 383 

^ginclia, 486. 663 

^gopodium, 287, 288 

iElbusa, 305, 306 

JEtlmsa, 282. 284. 305. 320. 

Agapetes, 862, 863 

Agarista, 837-838 

Agasyllis, 347 

Agasyllis, 330. 330 

Agostuna, 290 

Aidia, 452 

Aikiuia, 738, 739 

Aizoon, 153, 154 

Aizoon, 152 

.■\jouan, 285 

Ajawain, 285 

Ajava-seed, 285 

Alacospermum, 291 

Alaternus, 446 

Alepidea, 266 

Alexanders, 380, 381 

Alibertia, 542 

Allasia, 43 

All-seed, 93 

Alseis, 512 

Alsinoides, 82 

AlteriiaittJtera, 92 

Amaioua, 488, 489 

Amajona, 488 

Amaracarpus, 562 

Amber-tree, 636 

Ambraria, 636 

Ambraria, 635, 636 

Ammannia, 530 

Amn.i, 286, 287 

Ammi, 280. 283, 284. 289. 31S 



Ammine>e, 274 
Ammios, 284 
Annuoides, 284 
Ammoniac, 328, 329 
Ammyrsi7ie, 851 
Amordica, 35 
Ampelosicyos, 39 
Anacampseros, 75, 76 
Anacanipseros, 80. 114-116 
Ancylanthus, 559 
Anderosacme, 519 
Andersonia, 784 
Andersonia, 721 
Andrachne, 834 
Andromeda, 829 
Andromeda, 829-833. 835- 840. 

850. 857 
Andromede.^5, 828 
Anethum, 336, 337 
Anethum, 282. 306, 307. 338 
Angelica, 322, 323 
Angelica, Garden, 324 
Angelica, 275. 315. 317. 319. 

321-324. 334, 335. 348 
Angelice^, 321 
Anguina, 38 
Anguria, 42 
Anidrnm, 381 
Anisanthus, 452 
Anise, 294 
Anisosciadium, 371 
Anisum, 294 
Annesorbiza, 304 
Anonymus, 535 
Anopterus, 195 
Anotis, 533-535 
Antacanthus, 569 
Anthactinia, 51 
Antherura, 584 
Anthosperme.e, 634 
Anthospermum, 635, 630 
Anthospermum, 635 
Antbotium, 727 
Antbriscus, 364, 365 
Antliriscns, 295. 362. 366 
Anthyllis, 93 
Anliphylla, 214 
Antirrhoea, 553 
Antonia, 598 
Anvcbia, 88 
An'ychia, 89 
Anys-wortle, 305 
Aparine, 656. 658, 659 
Aparinete, 637 



Apariiies, 637 

Apenula, 768 

Aphyllantes, 733 

Apinella, 281 

Apium, 276-279 

Apium, 279, 280. 285, 286. 

288. 294, 295. 316, 317 
Apocynnm, 561 
Apradus, 372 
Arabidia, 207 
Arachnimorpha, 516 
Aralia, 378, 389 
Aralia, 384-388. 391-395 
ARALIACEiE, 383 
Aralite, 383 
Araliastrum, 384 
Arbutus, 834-835 
Arbutus, 835-837. 839-841. 
Arceuthobium, 408 
Arcbangelica, 323, 324 
Archangelica, 351 
Archemora, 338 
Arctopus, 372 
Arctostapbylos, 835, 836 
Arenaria, 93 
Argostemma, 523, 524 
Argylopkora, 469 
Arnoldia, 201 
Ar-nut, 290 
Arpitium, 320 
Arracacha, 377> 378 
Artedia, 3-53 
Artedia, 275. 354 
Artbropbvllum, 395 
Ascarina, 434 
Ascarina, 434 
Asephananthes, 48 
Ash-weed, 288 
Aspera, 659 
Asperula, 637-640 
Asperula, 634. 642. 651 
Asperulea; 637 
AssafcEtida, 326, 327 
Asteriscium, 263 
Asterocephalus, 687-695 
Astilbe, 229 
Astoma, 381 
Astrantia, 265, 266 
Astrantia, 264. 266. 335 
Astrepbia, «70 
Astrcphia, 674. 677, 078 
.\stroloma, 775 
Astrotricha, 258 
Astydamia, 340 

a 3 



Athamanta, 315, 316 
Athamantha, 275. 284, 285. 

307-309. 312-314. 319,320. 

333. 335. 362. 376. 378 
Atrema, 381 
Aucuba, 433 
Augusta, 513 
Augustea, 513 
Anktiba, 433 
Aulaxis, 206 
Aureliana, 384 
Aversia, 92 
Avicularia, 708 
Axanthes, 540 
Aylmeria, 83, 84 
Azalea, 850 
Azalea, 845-848. 850. 
Azorella, 259, 260 
Axorella, 257-261 



Baconia, 570 

Baderoa, 34 

Balardia, 92 

Bald-money, 320 

Bald-money, Swiss, 320 

Balsam Apple, 35 

Bandhuca, 570 

Barbadoes Gooseberry, 175, 

170 
Burleria, 538 
Bartlingia, 034 
Bartonia, 01, 62 
Bauera, 203 
Bauere.e, 202 
Bear- berry, 835, 836 
Bear's grape, 854, 855 
Bed-straw, 647-658. 660, 661 
Befaria, 849 
Bejaria, 849 
Belangera, 202 
Belilla, 489 
Bellardia, 508, 509 
Bell-flower, 750-768 
Benincasa, 29 
Benzonia, 604 
Bergenia, 200 
Bertiera, 505 
Berula, 295 
Betckea, 080 
Bhoopideft, 090 
Bifora, 381 



Biforis, 305 

Bigelowia, 013-0)6. 618. 621 

Bikkia, 514 

Bilberry, 852 

Bitlardiera, 576 

Billiottia, 560 

Bishop's Weed, 280, 287 

Bistella, 231 

Bivofitea, 90 

Black Wattle, 201 

Blsria, 804, 805 

Blieria, 805 

Blandfordia, 204 

Blea-berry, 852 

Bloiidia, 229 

Blue-bells, 759 

Bluets, 852 

Blumenbachia, 62 

Boba?a, 554 

Bobea, obi 

Boerhavia, 67I 

Bois de rat, 556 

Bois Mussard, 556 

Bolax, 260 

Bolax, 254, 255. 258-261 

Boopis, 096 

Boopis, 696 

Borreria, 611-618 

Bouvardia, 485, 486 

Bouvardia, 510 

Bowlesia, 258, 259 

Bou-lesia, 201. 335 

Bradlceia, 347 

Breonia, 472 

Brignolia, 542 

Brignolia, 307 

Broad-scaled Heath 807 809 

Bronnia, 70 

Broussaisia, 235 

Bruchia, 576 

Brunonia, 731 

Brunonie.e, 731 

Bryanthus, 833 

Bryonia,30-33 

Bryony, 30-33 

Bryony, White, 32 

Bryophyllum, 109 

Bubalina. 488 

Bubon, 336 

Bubon, 301. 307-309. 31 1 , 31 2. 

316 
Buchozin 633. 
Buddha, 010 
Buena, 470 479. 538 



1053S8 



IV 

Bulbocastanum. 289 

Buglossum, 728 

Bulliarda, 99 

BuUiarda, 98 

Buniuni, 289-291 

Bur.ium, 262. 284-285. 288- 

289. 307- 319 
BupleuToides, 635 
Bupleuruni, 296-301 
Ba/jfeMnira, 280.301.376 
Buprestis, 297. 301 
Bur-parsley, 360 
Bnrcardia, 70 
Burchellia, 488 
Burghartia, 70 
Burnet-sa.vifrage, 291-294 
Biirneya, 554 
Button-wood, 610 611 
Button-weed, 619-623 



Cachrys, 372-374 

Caclirys 275. 313. 321. 347. 

354. 374 376 
Caclete, 156 
Cadi, 156 
Cactinere, 156 
CactoidefF, 156 
Cactus, J57-177 
Cadamba, 550 
Caiophora, 65 
Calamhoe, 108, 109 
Calandrini.i, 78-80 
Caldasi-i, 368 
Caldcluvia, 200 
Calico-bush, 850 
Callicocca, 604-608 
Callicoma, 201, 202 
Callipeltis, 661 
CaUlphyllum, 213 
Callisia, 812-816 
Callisace, 336 
Callogyne, 726 
Calluna, 828 
Calycera, 690 
CALYCERE^, 696 
Calycomis, 201 
Calysphyruni, 665 
Calycophyllum, 486, 487 
Cameraria, 82 

CAMPANIE.E, 731 

Campanula, 750-768. 
Campanula, 734-746. 750. 768- 
773 

C.\MPANULE«, 746 

CAMPANULACEyE, 731 
Campanumcea, 735, 736 
Campderia, 307 
Campylo.sperm^e, 359 
Canaria, 736 
Canarina, 736 
Canela, 478 
Canepliora, 488 
Caitepltora, 488 
Canonantlius, 718 
Canterbury bells, 757 
Canthiuni," 562, 563 
Canthium, 506, 507. 562. 564, 

565 
Cauliia, 71 
Capnophyllum, 337 
Capnophyllum, 347 
CAPKIFOLIACE^E, 435 
CaprifoUum, 444-449 
Caprosnia, 634, 635 
Caquepiria, 498 
Carapichea, 608 
Caraway, 288, 289 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Cardionema, 90 
Carcum, 288 
Carica, 44 
Caricea; 43 
Carissa, 562 
Carota, 354 
Carphalea, 520 
Carphalea, 486 
Carrot, 353-359 
Carrot, Candy, 316 
Carrot, Common, 354-359 
Carum, 288, 289 
Carum, 284. 310. 322 
Carvi, 288 

Cascarilla, 474. 478, 479 
Cassandra, 830 
Cas&idocarpus, 263 
Cassiope, 829 

Cassupa, 492 

Cassijtha, 176 
Catchweed, 658 

Catepha, 257 

Catesbaa, 510, 511 

Catesbo'a, 517. 509 

Caucaline.e, 300 

Caucalis, 360 

Caiicalis, 264. 347. 352, 353, 
354. 361, 362 

Cedrela, }06 

Celeriac, 277 

Celery, 277-279 

Celosla, 91 

Cenolopliium, 313 

Centella, 254, 255 

Centranthus, 672 

Ceph-elide-t., 604 

Cephailis, 004 008 

Cephcelis, iS&. b&b. 591. 608, 
609 

CErHALANTHE;E, 609 

Cephalanthus, 610 
Cephalanthus, 467-468 
Cephalaria, 684-686 
Cephalaria, 684. 088 
Cephaleis, 604 
Cephalina, 487 . 
Cephalostigma, 735 
Ceratopetalum, 202 
Ceratopetahivi, 202 
Ceramia, 806, 807 
Ccratosanthes, 39 
Ceratostema, 863 
Cerdia,93 
CerefoUum, 364-360 
Cereus, 164-171 
Cereus, Creeping, 168 
Cereus, Night-flowering, 168 
Cereus, 163. 170, 171 
Cerionanthus, 684, 685 
Ceriseus, 494. 500, 501 
Cervaria, 333 
Cervicaria, 750. 755 
Cemchia, 742 
Cestrum, 486. 599 
Cevallia, 697 
Chserophyllum, 365-368 
Cha-rophiillum, 291. 362-365, 

368, 369 
Cliamepcerasus, 446. 449, 450 
Chattueledon, 850, 851. 
Chamaesciadiuni, 289 
Chama:daphne, 548 
Chaytderoba, 3 
Chapeliera, 503 
Charantia, 35 
Chasalia, 603 
Chatc, 27 

Chay, or Che, 529, 530 
Chaijota, 37 
Chayote, 37 
Cheese-rennet, 655 



Cheytocarpus, 619 
Chervil, 364, 305 
Chervil, Garden, 365 
Chervil, Great, 369 
Chervil, Sweet, 369 
Chervil, Wild, 366 
Chimaphila, 865 
Chimaza, 865 
Chiraarrhis, 513 
Chiococca, 568, 569 
Chiococca, 520. 569 
Chicointfa, 555 
Chione, 554 
Choco, 37 
Chlorophi/tum, Oil 
Chloranthus. 434 
CHLORANTHE^E, 433 
Chomelia, 509 
Cfioinvlia, 553 
Chona, 817, 818 
Chondrocarpus, 248. 253 
Chondrosea, 213-217 
Chrislimia, 485 
Chrysosplenium, 227 
Chu-Lan, 434 
Cianitis, 234 
Cicely, 365-368 
Cicuta, 275, 276 
Ciciila, 283. 285, 286. 306. 

313. 337. 377 
Cicularia, 275, 276. 304. 

364 
Cieca, 48 
Ciliaria, 212, 213 
Cinchona, 473-479 
Cinchona, 408. 479-483. 486. 

488. 511. 032 

CiNCHONACE.E, 466 
CiNCHONEX, 472 

Cilrulhis, 40 

Cladothamnus, 865, 866 

Claytonia, 80 82 

Claytonia, 76-80 

Cleavers, 658 

Clermontea, 698 

Clethra, 841,842 

Cliffortia, 637 

Cnidium, 313, 314 

Cnidium, 313. 315. 317-319. 

333. 309 
Cob(ca, 446 

Coccocypselum, 508, 509 
Coccocipsilnw, 485-508 
Coccoojpsilum, 484. 509. 538. 
Codia, 202 
Codia, 201 
C0DIE.E, 202 
Codonium, 432 
Codonopsis, 736 
C1EL0SPERM.E, 381 
Ccelospermum, £58 
Coffe, 579 
CoflTea, 579 584 
Coffea, 440. 507. 569. 676. 

578, 579. 603 
C0FFEACE.E, 562 
Coffee-tree, 579-584 
Coffee-tree, Common, 5(9-681 
Coffee.?;, 562 
CoUadonia, 375 
Colladonia, 598 
Colobanthus, 83 
Colocynth, 28 
Colocynth, False, 41 
Colocynthis, 28 
Columbaria, 691 
Condalia, 508, 500 
Condaminea, 511, 512 
Condylocarptts, 346 
Conioselinum, 321 
Conium, 376, 377 



Conium, 291. 305. 314. 337- 

341.347.360. 378 
Conopodium, 290, 291 
Conotrichia, 485 
Conyza, 532 
Cordiera, 543 

CoRDIERE<E, 543 

Coriander, 382 

CORIANDRE.E, .381 

Coriandrum, 3S2 
Coriandrum, 275. 306. 377. 

381, 382 
Cor ion, 381 
Cormigonus, 514 
Corn-Salad, 668 
CORNER, 398 
Cornelian Cherry, 400 
Cornidia, 234 
Cornus, 398-401 
Cornus, 442 
Corrigiola, 86 
Corrigiola, 89 
Cortia, 337 
Cosmelia, 784 
Cosviia, 78 
Cosmibuena, 479 
Cosmibuena, 478 
Cotyledon, 109-111 
Cotyledon, 99. 108, 109. 111- 

113. 214. 249 
Coussaria, 576 
Coutarea, 472 
Covelia, 619 
Cowbane, 276 
Cow-berry, 866 
Cow-parsnip, 341-344 
Cow-parsley, Smooth, 364 
Cranberry, Common, 858 
Cranberry, American, 858 
Crantzia, 255 
Crassouvia, 109' 
Crassula, 99-103 
Crassula, 80. 98-108. 118, 119 
CRASSUL.\CE^, 97 
Crassideic, 97 

CRASSULE.E, 98 

Crethamus, 321 

Creodus, 4,S4 

Critamus, 285 

Crithmum, 321 

Crithmum, 285.307. 311. 313. 

319 
Crosswort, 641, 642. 656. 662 
Crucianella, 640-642 
Crucianella, 627 
Cruciala, 650 
Cruciella, 258 
Cruckshanksia, 631 
Crusea, 627 
Crusea, 554. 630 
Cryphaa, 434 
Cryptocarpha, 696 
Cryptopetalura, 232 
Cryptospermum, 291. 663 
CryptotEenia, 291 
Cucullaria, 601 
Cucumeroides, 30. 
Cucumber, 15-28 
Cucumbers, 15-27 
Cucumber, Small-seeded, 34 
Cucumber, Squirting, 34-36. 
Cucumis, 6-28 
Cucumis, 28, 29. 38 
Cucurbita, 40-42 
Cucurbita, 4, 5. 28-30 
CUCURBITACE^, 1 

CUCURBITE.F., 24 

Cuellaria, 841, 842 
Cumbulan, 29 
Cumin, 348 

CLMINE.E, 347 



Cuminum, 348 
Cuminoides, 370. 
Cuncea, 633 
Cunninghamia, 553 
Cunonia, 201 
CUNONIACEiE, 196 
C1JNONIE.E, 197 
Cupi, 506 
Cupia, 500, 607 
Currant, 186-191 
Currants, Black, 190 
Currants, Red, 188, 189 
Currants, White, 188. 189 
Curtogyne, 106 
Cussonia, 387 
Cuviera, 559 
Cuviera, 660 
Cyanea, 699 
Cyathodes, 776 
Cyathodes, 781 
Cyclospermum, 282 
Cymbocarpum, 382 
Cymopterus, 350 
Cynapium, 306 
Cynosciadium, .305 
Cyphia, 718 
Cypselea, 73 
Cyrtanthus, 493 
Cyrtospermnm, 291 
Cystanthe, 785 

D. 

Dactylites, 218 

Daclyloidcs, 218 

DabcEcia, 833 

Dahlia, 397 

Damnacanthus, 662 

Dampiera, 730, 731 

Danaa, 380 

Danais, 483 

Danewort, 436 

Darluca, 571 

Dasyanthes, 826 

Dasyloma, 305 

Dasyspermum, 291 

Dasystemon, 99 

Daucine/E, 353 

Caucus, 353-359 

Danes, 284. 287. 316. 320. 

333. 353. 360 
Deadly-carrot, 349, 350 
Decaspora, 781 
Declieuxia, 566-568 
Deforgia, 195 
Deidamia, 59 
Delissca, 699 
Democritea, 61 1 
Dendrophthoe, 418-420 
Dentella, 524 
Dentella, 523 
Deppea, 524 
Dermasea, 217, 218 
Desmia, 807 
Desclicra, 569 
Deverra, 307 
Diamorpha, 125 
Diaphi/llum. 298 
Diaspasis, 730 
Diconangia, 196 
Dicorypha, 397 
Dicor'yphe, 397 
Dicrobotnfum, 551 
Didiscus,'256 
Diervilla, 444 
Dieterica, 200 
Dielrichia, 107 
Dill, 337 
Dillenia, 637 
Dimetopia, 256 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Diodia, C24-626 

Diodia, 485. 612. 615. 620 

623. 626, 627 
Diotollwca, 681 
Diplecosia, 838 
Diplospor.i, 565 
Diposis, 262 
D1PS.\CE^, 681 
Dipsacus, 682-684 
Diptera, 206 
Dipleri/gia, 263 
Discopleura, 283 
Disemma. 56 
nisodca, 560 
Distylis, 726 
Ditoca, !>5 
Dog-brambic, 178 
Dog's-poison, 306 
Dogwood, 398-401 
Dogberry-tree, 399 
Donatia, 231 
Dondid, 265 
Dondisia, 559 
Dondisia, 265 
Dorema, 328 
Dortmanna, 715 
Dracophylluni, 785 
DracophijUnm, 785 
Drepanophyllum, 285. 295 
Dringi, 29 
Drummondia, 228 
Drusa, 261 
Dufresnia, 667 
Dithamelia. 489. 540-542 
DuiiaVta, 536 
Dmoia, 495 
Dwarf elder, 436 
Dysoda, 633 



Earth-nut, 289-291 
Earth-chestnut, 290, 291 
Ecbalium, 36 
Echeveria, 113 
Echeveria, 70, 71 
Echinocactus, 161-163. 
Ecldnocactus, 157- 161 
Echinophora, 371 
Echinophora, 353. 360. 373 
Ectasis, 826, 827 
Elaeoselinum, 300 

EL.EOSELIXE.E, 359 

Elaterium, 34 
Elaterium, 36 
Elatiue, 768 
Elder, 436-4.38 
Elytranthe, 425-428 
Endressia, 315 
Enkianthus, 833, 834 
Enymonospermiim , 378 
Epacris, 781-783 
Epacris, 778. 781. 783-785 
EPACRIDE.B, 773 
EPAcniE.E, 781 
Epigffia, 841 
Epiphyllum, 170, 171 
Epithiuia, 565 
Eremia, 828 
Erica, 790-800 
Erica, 800-828. 833. 
Erice^, 790 
ERICACE.E, 785 
Erigenia, 256 
Erineon, 750 
Eriocalia, 263 
Eriodesmia, 827, 828 
Eriogynia, 220 
Eriosynaplic, .329 



F.rithalis, 557 
Eritltalis, 543. 554 
Erithodes, 725 
Ernodea, 633 
Ernodea, 514. 634 
Eropheron, 206 
Eryngiuni, 266-274 
Erynsium, 263 
Eryngo, 260-274 
Erythrodamim, 547, 548 
ErythropaUim, 29 
Escallonia, 192-195 
ESCALLONlEiE, 192 
Eubasis, 433 
Eulophus, 381 
Euniachia, 566 
Euosma, 539 
Enosmia, 539 
Eurylepis, 807-809 
Eurystegia, 809, 810 
Euryloma, 816, 817 
Eurothia, 608 
EuspermacocejE, 611 
Euthales, 720 
Evea, 606 
Eeosma, 510. 539 
Evosmia, 538, 539 
Exocantha, 371, 372 
E.xostema, 480 
Exostemma, 480-483 
Eyselia, 64? 



F, 

Falcaria, 285 

Famarea, 578 

Faramea, 578 

Fareiria, 473 

Fedia, 671 

Fedia, 666-671. 680 

Female Cornel, 399 

Fennel, 306, 307 

Fennel, Giant, 325-328 

Fernelia, 509 

Fenielia, 484 

Ferula, 325-328 

Ferula, 323, 324. 329. 331, 

332. 334. 336 
Ferulago, 325 
Ferularia, 325 
FeuiUiea, 39 
Feuillea, 3 
Fever-wort, 443, 444 
Fevillea, 3 
Ficoidea, 153 
FICOIDE^, 125 
Field Madder, 637 
Fig Marigold, 125-151 
Finocchio, 306 
Fhchera, 257, 851 
Ftoerkea, 769. 771 
Flowk Wort, 248 
Foeniculuni, 306, 307 
Fcenkulum, 336 
Fool's Parsley, 306 
Forgesia, 195 
Forstera, 722 
FothergilIa,397 

FOTHERGILLE.E, 397 

Fouquiera, 70 
Fouquiera, 71 
FOUQUIERACE/E, 70 
Fragosa, 259 
Fragosa, 260, 261 
Franciscea, 107 
Francoa, 204 
Francoacea, 203 
Fralkhia, 450. 576 
Fuchsia, 542 



G. 

Gaiadendron. 431, 432 

Gaillonia, 6.32 

GALACIN.E, 203 

Galax, 204 

Galbauopltora, 336 

Galbanum, 348 

Galecr, 6.37 

Galium, 647-661 

Galium , 637-040. 645, 646 

661, 662 
Galopina, 635 
Galvayiia, 599 
Gambler, 469, 470 
Gambir, 460, 470 
Gardenia, 496-499 
Gardenia. 494, 495. 499-504. 

506. 511. 542.562. 564 

G.\RDENIACEj;, 487 
GARDENIE.E, 488 

Gastonia, 388 
Gastonia, 387 
Gater Tree, 399 
Gaultheria, 839-841. 
G aulllieria, 8-il 
Gaya, 320 

Gaylussacia, 858-860 
Geissois, 203 
Genipa, 495 
Getiipa, 505. 542 
Geiiipella, 542 
Geophila, 608, 609 
Geryonia, 206 
Gerontogea, 529-531 
Geimsia, 79 
Gilibertia, 387 
Giugidium, 353, 354 
Ginginsia, 83 
Ginseng, 384 
Gladiolus, 715 
Glinus, 154 
Gliiius, 153, 154 
Globulea, 105, 106 
Glossoma, 401 
Glyceria, 248 
Goat's Fennel, 373, 374 
Gohoria, 287 
Gomara, 99 
Gomo^ia, 547 
Gonotheca, 532 
Gout Weed, 288 
Gonzalea, 537, 538 
Gonzalagunia, 537 
GOODENIEX, 723 

Goodenia, 723-726 
Goodenia, 720. 729-731 
GOODENOVI^, 722 
Gooseberry, 177-185 
Gooseberries, 179-185 
Goose-grass, 658-060 
Gooseshare, 658 
Gosling-weed, 658 
Gourds, 40-42 
Gourd, 4, 5 
Gourd, Bottle, 4 
Gourd, Trumpet, 4 
Gourgourde, 4 
Gourgourdette, 41 
Gourd, Cheese, 40 
Gourd, Orange, 41 
Grahamia, 75 
Granimanthes, 100 
Gramniatocarpus, 65 
Gramniosciadium, 370 
Granadilla, 51-53. 55 
Gronovia, 43 
Grossularia, 177 
GROSSULARIE.i:, 177 
Ground-nut, 291 



Grulhamannia, 611 
Grumilea, 577 
Grumilia, 577 
Grunilea, 577 
Guelder-rose, 443 
Guettarda, 550-553 
Gnrttarda, 538. 553, 554. 586 
guettardace.e, 544 
Guettakde;e, 547 
Guilleminea, 96 
Gum-ammoniac, 328, 329 
Gnm-galbanum, 348 
Gymiwcarpoit, 87 
Gymnocarpos, 87 
Gymnocarpum, 87 
Gynuwcarpiis, 87 
Gymiwpleura, 60 
Gynoctbodes, 558 
Gynopachys, 492 
Gipwpera, 206 
Gyimanlhus, 666 
Gypsocallis, 800-804 



H. 

Hacquetia, 265 
liacquelia, 263 
Hienkea, 80. 432 
Hanselera, 380 
Hagca. 90, 91. 93 
Ilalesia, 550 

HAMAMELE.E, 396 

HAMAMELIDE^, 395 
Hamamelis, 396 
Hamamelis, 397 
Hamelia, 540-542 
Hamelia, 451, 489 
Hamelie.e, 538 
Hamiltonia, 554, 555 
Hamiltonia, 555 
Hare's-ear, 296-301. 635 
Hariota, 176 
Hart-wort, 340 
Hasselquistia, 345 
Hawk-nut, 2.90 
Heath, 790-800 
Heatli, Cantabrian, 833 
Hedera, 391-395 
Hedera, 385, 386. 390 
Hedge-parsley, 361, 362 
Hedgehog-thistle, 161-163 
Hedyosmum, 434 
Hedyote^, 524 
Hedvotide.e, 511 
Hedyotis, 524-527 
Hedi/olis, 516, 517. 524. 527- 

536. 538. 618. 621. 663 
Heinsia, 503 
Ilellehorus, 266 
Helosciadium, 281-283 
Helospora, 504 
Hemesotria, 670 
Hemlock, 347 
Hemlock, Water, 276 
Heracleum, 341 -.344 
Heracleum, 293. 340, 341. 345, 

346 
Herb Gerard, 288 
Hermas. 376 
Hermas, 301 
Herniaria, 86-87 
Herrera, 557 
Heteromorpha, 301 
Heterosciadium, 263 
Heuchera, 229-231 
lleuchera, 232 
Heiuctina, 489 
Hexasepalum, 623 
Higginsia, 510 



Higginsia, 510. 539 
Highland-miken, 320 
Hlllia, 473 
Himatanthus, 664 
Hippobroma, 717 
Hippomarathrum, 308. 373 
Hippotis, 504 
Hippotis, 584 
Hirctihis, 211 
Hoffmannia, 510 
Hoffmannia, 514 
Hololachna, 156 
Holosteum, 93 
Holostigma, 716 
Homalocarpus, 262 
Hondbessen, 562 
Honewort, 280 
Honeysuckle, 444-451 
Horsfieldia, 266 
Hortensia, 233 
House-leek, 122-124 
Houstoiiia, 480. 534, 535, 566 
Huanaca, 261, 262 
Hugelia, 256 
Hyala, 90 
Hydnophytum, 547 
Hydrangea, 232-234 
Hydrangea, 234 
Hydrangea, 232 
Hydrocotyle, 248-255 
Hydrocotyle, 255, 256. 201, 

262. 282 
Hydrocotyle/E, 248 
Hydrophilax, 633 
Hydrophilax, 618. 634 
Hydropyxis, 84 
Hylacium, 559 
Hymenanthes, 849 
Hymenodictyon, 480 
Hymenogyne, 151 
Hymenola;na, 378, 379 
Hymenopogon, 473 
Hypericum, 155 
Hypobathrum, 547 
Hypopitys, 866 



Ignatia, 497 

ILLECEBRE.E, 86 

lUecebrum, 88 

Illecebrum, 74. 87, 88-93 

Imperatoria, 335 

Imperatoria, 315. 318. 322- 
334 

Indian Fig, 171-175 

Indian Mulberry, 544-547 

Involucraria, 42 

Ipecacuanha noir, 685 

Ipecacuanha, Spanish Ameri- 
can, 585 

Ipecacuanha, Brown, 606, 607 

Ipecacuanha, 606, 607 

Ipecacuanha, White, 627, 628 

Irish Whorts, 833 

Iron-wood Tree, 565, 566 

Isertia, 538 

1SERTIE.E, 536 

Isidorea, 514 
Isika, 449 
Isophyllum, 297 
Isotoma, 710 
Itea, 196 
Ivy, 391. 395 
Ivy, Common, 391 
Ivy, Irish, 391 
Ixora, 570-574 

Ixora, 486. 51?. 556. 570. 
574-579 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Janipaba, 495 

Jackia, G04 

Jaracatia. 43 

Jasione, 733. 734 

Jasiojte, 266 

Javilla, 3 

Johrenia, 345 

Jasminum, 496 

Jasmine, Cape, 496 

Jatamangsi, or Jatamansi, GC7 

Joliffia, 39, 40 

Juncaria, 93 

Jupiter's beard, 124 

Jupiter's Eye, 124 

Juvanee, 285 



Kadua, 533 

Kalanchoe, 108 

Kalmia, 850 

Kalosanthes, 107 

Karpaton, 453 

Eentrantlms, 672 

Kingstonia, 211 

Kinkina, 474. 482 

Klaprothia, 66 

Knautia, 686-688 

Knautia, 688, 689 

Knawel, 95 

Knotgrass, 88 

Knoxia, 628, 629 

Knoxia, 532. 535. 5C8. 61 i 

623. 633 
Kohautia, 532 
Kolbia, 43 
Krubera, 347 
Kundmannia, 307 
Kutchubsea, 492 
Kyrlanthus, 493 



Labrador Tea, 851 
Lady's bed-straw, 655 

Lagenaria, 4 

Lagoecia, 370 
Lagcecia, 288 

Lahatja, 91-93 

Lamb's lettuce, 667-671 

Lainpra, 256 

Laniprotis, 810-812 

Landia, 491 

Laretia, 261 

Larochea, 106. 108 

Laserpitium, 350-352 

Laserpitium, 313-315. 317 
320-324. 327. 335. 341 
348. 352. 354. 360. 374 
375 

Laserwort, 350-352 

LasiaitthuSi 548. 555 

Lasionema, 479 

Lasiostamat 547 

Laugeria^ 551, 552 554. 

Lauristine, 439. 

Lauristinus, 439 

Latvsonia, 520 

Lecananthus, 472 

Lechenaultia, 727 

Lecockia, 375 

Ledeburia, 293 

Leconlea, 561 

Ledum, 851 

Ledum, 851 

Legouiia, 743. 768, 769 



Leiospermum, 200 
Leiotulus, 340 
Leiophyllum, 851 
LeJiiia, 73 
Lenlago, 438. 440 
Lepeostegeres, 427 
Lepicephalus, 684-686 
Leptarrhena, 226 
Leptasea, 212, 213 
Leptocaulis, 283, 284 
Leptodermis, 555 
Leptrina, 82, 83 
Lepuropetalum, 231 
Lessonia, 274 
Leucolcena, 258 
Leucopogon, 777- 780 
Leucothoe, 831, 832 
Levenhookia, 722 
Levisticum, 321 
Lewisia, 77, 78 
Leycesteria, 451 
Libanotis, 311. 313 
Lihanotis, 316 
Lichtensteinia, 301 
Lichtensteima, 423 
Lightfootia, 734, 735 
LightfooHa, 514. 744 
Ligulnria, 208 
Ligusticum, 317, 318 
Ligusticum, 279. 284, 285. 
288. 304. 306, 307. 312- 
315. 319-321. 3-25. 327. 
330. 333. 335, 351. 3C9. 
378-380 
Limnia,6\, 82 
Ling, 828 
Ling-heather, 828 
Lignstntm, 520 
Linn£ea, 452 
Linum, 536 
Lipostoma, 663 
Lissanthe, 776 
Listeria, 528 
Lithophila, 94 
Litosanthes, 557 
Loasa, 62-65 
Loasa, 62 65 
LOASE.S, 61 
lobaria, 210. 224, 225 
Lobelia, 704-715 
Lobelia, 698-704. 715-719. 

728. 735. 742 
LOBELIACEyE, 697 
Loeflingia, 96, 97 
Loeflingia, 90. 92 
Loiseleuria, 850, 851. 
Lumatium, 327 

Lonicera, 444-451 

Lomcera, 424. 444. 451. 488. 
568 

Lonicere;e, 443 

Loosa, 62 

Lophandra, 810 

Lophosciadium, 352 

LOR.\NTHACE/E, 401 

Lorantherc, 401 

Loranthidca; 401 

Loranthus, 409. 430, 431 

Loranthus, 404. 400. 400-432. 
450 

Lovage, 317-319 

Lovage, Common, 321 

Loxaiithera, 430 

Lucinaa, 487, 488 

Luculia, 480 

Lucya, 536 

Luffa, 28, 29 

Lussacia, 859 

Lychniscahiosa, 686 

Lycium, 633 



Lygislum, 484. 538 
Lygodysodea, 560 
Lygodysodea, 561 
Lygodysodeacetp, 560 
Lyonia, 830, 831 
Lysinema, 783 
Lysipomia, 716, 717 
Lysipomia, 726 



M. 

Machaonia, 632 
Macrocnemum, 512 
Macrocnemum, 478. 487- 489 

492.501. 511 513 
Madder, 042. 647 
Madder, Dyers', 643, 644 
Madder, Indian, 529, 530 

642 
Magvdaris, 375 
Malabaila, 340 
Malanea, 553 
Malanea, 483. 553, 554 
Malesherbia, 60 
MALESHERBIACE.^, 60 
Malesherbia, 60. 
Male cornel, 400 
Mammillaria 157. 160 
Manettia, 483-485 
Manettia, 490 
Mapouria, 588 
Maralia, 387 
Maralhrum, 309 
Margaris, 5C9 
MarianlUemum, 750 
Marlea, 396 
Marquisia, 565 
Maschalanthe, 540 
Masterwort, Great, 335 
Masterwort, 265, 266. 335, 

336 
Masterwort, Wild, 288 
Mastixia, 401 
Mattldola, 551 
Mauclmrtia, 281 
May-apple, 53 
Meadow-saxifrage, 308 311 
Medium, 750, 751 . 
Meerburgia, 94 
Megasea, 206 
Meladora, 833 

Melanopsidium, 542. 560 

Melanoselinum, 352 

Melanoselinum, 318 

Melichrus, 775, 776 

Melo, 5 

Melon, 5-15. 27 

Melon, Water, 28 

Melons, 5-15 

Melons, Maltese, S 

Melons, Persian, 6, 7 

Melons, Cantaloup, 5, 6 

Melocactns, 160, 161 

Melon thistle, 160, 161 

Melopepo, 40 

Melothria, 37 

Memecylum, 841 

Menestoria, 504 

Mentzelia, 65, Qd 

Mentzelia, 61 

Menziesia, 850. 

Menziesia, 833 

Mephitidia, 548, 549 

Merciera, 772 

Mercurialis, 254 

Merida, 73 

Meridiaua, ^^-ib 

Mesembryanlheninm, 125-151 

Metabolos, 536, 537 



Meu, 320 

Meum, 320 

Meum, 281, 282. 289. 336, 307- 

315, 316. 320.336 
Meynea, 550 
Michauxia, 750 
Micranthes, 217 
Microcodon, 737 
Micropetalum, 208 
Micropleura, 256 
Milk-Parsley, 322 
Milkwort, 759 
Miltus, 154 
Mindium rhazes, 750 
Minuartia, 96 
Mini ARTiE.E, 96 
Misodendron, 408, 409 
Mistletoe, 402-409 
Mistletoe, Common, 403 
Mitchella, 548 
Mitella, 227, 228 
Mitella, 228 
Mitracarpum, 630, 631 
Mitrophora, 671 
Mniarum, 95 
Modecca, 58, 59 
Mollia, 91-93 
Molopospermum, 368 
Momordica, 35-37 
Momordica, 29. 34.39.42 
Monanthes, 124 
Moneses, 865 
Monopsis, 717 
Monotoca, 780 
Monoioca, 781 
Monotropa, 866 
Monotropa, 866 

MO.>IOTROPE.E, 866 

Montia, 82 

Moor-Heath, 800-804 
Moquinia. 423 
Morelia, 543 
Morinda, 544-547 
Morinda, 488 569. 606 

MORINDE.E, 544 

Morina, 681 , 682 
M0RINE.E, 681 
Moschatell, 384 
MoscUatellina, 383, 384 
Mouffetn, 666 

MULINE.E, 260 

Mulinum, 261 

Mulinum, 261-263 

Munjith, 642 

Muricia, 42 

Murucuja, 56 

Muricuja, 56-58 

Mmcaria, 218, 219. 222, 223 

Mussa;nda, 489-492 

Mussanda, 480. 480, 487. 502 

603 
Musschia, 772 
Mycetia, 506 
Myliitum, 322 
Myonima, 556 
Myrmecodia, 547 
Myrmecodia, 547 
Myrrhis, 369 
Myrrhis, 290, 291. 363, 364 

370 
Myrtiphyllum, 593 

N. 

Nacibea, 483-485. 510 
Nardostachys, 066, 667 
Nauclea, 466-469 
Nauclea, 469-472. 487. 610 
Nauclee*:, 466 



Navel-wort, 111, 112 

Neckeria, 94 

Needhamia, 781 

Nenoj, 637 

Nertera, 547 

Nertera, 548 

Nerleria, 547 

Nescidia, 565 

Neurosperma, 37 

New Zealand Spinach, 152 

Nhandirobay 3 

Nhandirobe.1, 3 

Nigrina, 434 

Nintooa, 447 

Nitraria, 155 

NITRARIACE.'E, 154 

Nobula, 635 

Nonatelia, 557, 558 

Nonatelia, 555. 557. 592. 664 

Nopalea, 156 

Notanthera, 428-430 

Nuytsia, 432 

O. 

Obolaria, 452 
Octavia, 557 
Octodon, 611 
Octopera, 828 
Odo7>titcs, 296, 297 
Odoniocarpa, 667 
CEnanthe, 302-304 
(Enanthe, 262. 301, 302. 305. 

311. 320. 338 
O'Higginsia, 510, 539 
Oldenlandia, 527-532 

Oldenlandia, 232. 517- 524- 
527. 533. 536. fi22. 630 

Oligacoee, 677, 678 

Oligarrhena, 781 

Olive-Parsley, 360 

Oliveria, 370 

Olostyla, 540 

Opercularia, 662, 663 

Operctdaria, 662 

OPERCULARIE.E, 062 

Ophiorhiza, 521-523 

Opiiiorliiza, 490 

Opopanax, 324 

Opulus, 442 

Opuntia, 171-175 

Opuiitia, 170 

OpuntiacejE, 157 

OreoscHimm, 330. 333, 334. 380 

Oribasia, 557, 558 

Orlaya, 353 

Orostuchys, 112, 113 

Orpine, 85,86. 116 

Ortega, 93 

Ortegia, 93 

Orthosferm-e, 248 

Ortiga, 62 

Orygia, 154 

Oshac,.or Ooshak, 328, 329 

Osmorhiza, 369, 370 

Osterdyhia, 201 

Ostericum, 322 

Ottoa, 302 

Ouronparia, 471 

Ovilla, 733 

Oxyanthus, 494 

Oxyaiithus, 491 

Oxyceros, 502 

Oxycoccus, 857, 858. 

Oxycoccus, 841 



Pachysa, 805, 806 
Pachypleurum, 347 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



VI 



Padavara, 546 
Psderia, 5(ji, 562 
Paderia. 483. 485 

P.EDERIE.«, 560 

Palicoureii, 598-603 
Palicourea, 591 
Paliciirea, 586. 599 
Palimbia, 329, 330 
Panax, 384-386 
Panau; 265. 389 
Panic, 204 
Papaw tree, 44-45 
Papaya, 44 
Papaijie, 43 
PAPAY.\CE,^, 43 
Papilla, 677 
Papularia, 72 
Parastranthus, 716 
Paratropia, 395 
Paronycliia, 88-90 
Paronychia, 87. 88-93 
PARONYCllIE.E, 84 
Paropsia, 46 
Paropsie.!:, 46 
Paisley, 279-280 
Parsley, Macedonian, 316 
Parsnip, 338 340 
Parsnip, Garden, 338 340 
Paschanthus 58 
Passion-flower, 46-55 
Passiflora, 46-54 
Passiftora, 56 58 
PASSIFLORE.«, 45 

PaSSIFLORE.E VER.E, 46 

Pastinaca, 338-340 
Pastinaca, 323, 324. 327- 336. 

338. 345. 354 
Patabea, 609 
Palabea, 488 
Patinia, 543 
Patrinia, 666 
Patrinia, 667 
Pautsauvia, 396 
Pavatc, 574 
Pavetta, 574-576 
Pavetia, 562. 571, 572. 599. 

634 
Peach, African, 487 
Pearl-berrv, 569 
Pecheya, 5^6 
Pecten veneris, 363 
Pectophytum, 260 
Peganum, 155 
Penarvalli, 4 
Penny-wort, 248-255 
Pentachondra, 781 
Pentacaena, 90 
Pentacrypta, 276 
Pentagonion, 768 
Pentaphragma, 731 
Penthorum, 125 
Peplis, 536 
Pepo, 40 

Pepper Saxifrage, 319 
Pereskia, 175, 176 
Periclymenum, 444-446 
Perlebia, 375 
Pernettya, 836, 837 
Perojoa, Ti9 
Peruvian bark, Vellow, 474- 

477 
Peruvian bark, Red, 478 
Peruvian bark, Pale, 474 
Petagnia, 263, 264 
Petesia, 507, 508 
Petesia, 484. 515. 520. 527. 

566 
Petitia, 314 
Petola, 29 
Petromarula, 749 
Petroselinum, 279, 280 



Petrosclvnim. 310 
I'etunga, 509, 510 
Peucedane/E, 324 
Peucedanum, 330 335 
Peuredaiii.m, 281. 286. 289. 

290. 313 319. 320. 325. 

330. .335. 340. 344 
Pfiacosperma, 79 
Phalerocarpus, 841. 
Phallaria, 559 
Phaniaceum, 83. 92 
Phellaiidrium, 262. 304. 320 
PItemeranthus, 76 
Phosattthus, 538 
Phthirusa, 421 
Phu, 676 
Phil, 679 
Phyllachne, 722 
Phi/llaclis, 672, 673 
Ph'yllarlhus, 170 
Phyllis, 635 
Phyllis, 635 
Phyllodoce, 832, 833 
Physocalycium, 109 
Physospermum, 379, 380 
Physospermum, 378 
Phyteuma, 746-749 
Phyteuma, 438. 731. 733, 734. 

749, 750. 763 
Phyteumoides, -521 
Piciiocomon, 684. 695 
Pieris, 832 
Pig-nut, 290 

Pimpinella, 281-284. 288. 320 
Pimpinella, 291-294 
Pimpernel, 291-294 
Pinhiea, 486 
Pinckneya, 486 
Piringa, 498 
Piriqueta, 70 
Pistorinia, 111 
Pithuranthos, 307 
Pitonia, 481 
Placoma, 634 
Platartocephalus, 610 
Platycodon, 737 
Platylophus, 200 
Platymerium, 664 
Platyspermum, 353, 354 
Plectritis, 671 
Plectronia, 564 
Plectronia, 385 
Pletickia, 154 
Pleurospermum, 378 
Poaya, 615. 617 
Poaya do praya, 615 
Plocama, 634 
Podagraria, 286, 287 
Podopetalum, 315 
Poiretia, 535 
Polia, 90 
Pollichia, 94 
P0LLICHIE.E, 94 
Polycarpoea, 90 

POLYCARP.CJE, 90 

Polycarpon, 93 
Polycarpon, 231 
PolygonifoUa, 86 
Polyosma, 401 
Polyozus, 577 
Polyphragnion, 543 
Polypreniuni, 536. 671 
Polipremum, 667 
Polyslemon, 203 
Polyscias, 388 
Polyta;nia, 345 
Pomangium, 524 
Pomalium, 504 
Poinax, 662 
Pompion, 40 
Ponceletia, 784 



Poppya, 35 
Porophyllum, 214 
Porphyreon, 213 
Portlandia, 513 
Portlanditt, 472. 482. 514 
Portulaca, 73-75 
Port:,l<Ka,15-l& 80. 154 
Portulacaria, 80 
PORTULACACE^, 71 
Posoqueria, 493 
Posoqueria, 495. 500, 501. 

503 
Posoria, 493 
Potima, 578 
Pouchetia, 506 
Pozoa, 262, 263 
Pozoa, 263 
Prangos, 374, 375 
Pratia, 699, 700 
Prickwood, 399 
Prisniatocarpus, 743, 744 
Prismatocarpus , 768, 769 
Prionitis, 285 
Prionotes, 783, 781 
Proustia, 263 
Psathura, 555 
Psathyra, 555 
Psatura, 555 
Psiguria, 42 
Psilobium, 664 
Psittacanthus, 415-418 
Psychotria, 584-598 
Psijchotria, 546. 554. 557-559. 

583, 584. 599-603. 608, 

609 
PsychotriacetE, 562 
Psychotrophum, 592. 594. 608 
Psydrax, 564 
Psvllocarpus, 629, 630 
Psyllocarpus, 567 
Pterocephalus, 688, 689 
Pterovtarathrum, 374 
Pterophylla, 201 
Pterospora, 866 
Ptychotis, 284 
Ptychodea, 520, 521 
Purgosia, 103-105 
Pumilea, 68 
Pumpkin, 40 
Purslane, 73-75 
Purslane, Common, 73 
Purslane-tree, 80 
Putoria, 634 

PUTORIE.E, 633 

Pyrola, 863, 864 
Pyrola, 865 
Pyrole^, 863 
Pyrostria, 556 
Pyrostria, bb-i 
Pyxldanthera, 231 



Queria, 96 

Qucria, 88 

Queriace^, 96 

Quino, or Quina, 474-479. 

482 
Quinquina, 474-477. 481, 482. 

491 
Quintinia, 195 



R. 

Rachicallis, 535, 536 
Radiana, 73 
Rampion, 746-750. 765 
Rampion, Small, 765 
Rampion, Garden, 765 



Randia, 499 503 

lixmdia, 495.510,511. 564 

Hupmictilus, 746, 747-765 

Rapttnculum, 746 

Hapntitia, 750 

Riipantium, 706. 711. 717. 

746 
RazoumowsKia, 408 
Heaumuria, 155 
REAUMURIACE.E, 155 
Red Gum-Tree, 202 
Relbum, 646 
Remijia, 478, 479 
Retiniphyllum, 557 
RHIPSALIDE.E, 176 
Rhipsalis, 176, 177 
Rhodora, 848 
RHODORE.E, 842 
Rhododendron, 843-848 
Rhododendron, 848 
Rhodiola, 114, 122 
Ribes, 177-191 
Ribesieie, 177 
Richardia, 627, 628 
Richardsonia, 627, 628 
Richea, 785 
Rigocarpiis, 5 
River-wood, 513 
Robertsonia, 206, 207 
Rocama, 72 
Rochea, 106, 107 
Rochea, 107, 108 
Roella, 745, 746 
Roellv, 734. 738. 742. 744. 

772 
Roioc, 544, 545 
Rolofa, 154 
RoU'andia, 698 
Ronabea, 584 
Rondeletia, 514-517 
Rondeletia, 491, 492. 501 . 506, 

507. 517-521. 560 

RONDELETIE.E, 511 

Rose-bay, 843 

Rose-rool, 114 

Rotlimamiia, 498. 502 

Roucelu, 750. 761 

/fii6fo/a, 638, 639. 641,642 

Rubia, 642 647 

RMa, 96. 627. 638, 639, 641 

RUBIACE^, 453 

Rubioides, 662, 663 

Rudgea, 584 

Rudgea, 583 

Rutingia, 75-77 

Rumia, 275 

Rumia, 337 

Rupture-wort, 86, 87 

Riisselia, 231 

Rutidea, 577 

Rytidea, 577 



Sabicea, 539 
Sagina, 83 
Salaxis, 828 
Sahlbergia, 496 
Saldinia, 569 
Salzmannia, 609 

SAMHIICE.E, 436 

Sambicinecr, 436 
S.ambucus, 436-438 
Sambucus, 388 
Samphire, 321 
Sanicle, 264, 265 
Sanicula, 264, 265 
Sanicula, 275 
Sanicule«, 263 
Saprosma, 576 
Sarandi, 610 



SarcocephalE/E, 487 
Sarcoceplialus, 487 
Sarcoslylcs, 234 
Sarissus, 84 
Saxifraga, 206-226 
Sarifraga, 226, 227. 292 

saxifragacea;, 204 

Saxifrage, 206-226 
Saxifrage, Golden, 227 
Sa.\ifrage.e, 206 
Scabiosa, 689-695 
Scabiosa, 684-689 

SCABIOSEiE, 682 

Scabious, 689-696 
Scabious, Sweet, 691 
Scaligeria, 381 

SCANDICINEJ,, 362 

Scandix, 363 

Scandix, 289. 291. 360-362. 

365-367. 369, 370. 375 
Scajvola, 727-730 

SC.EVOLE.F,, 727 

Srhiedea, 568. 628 
Sciadophytmn, 235 
Sciadophyllum, 390, 391 
Sciadophyllum, 395 
Schefflera, 389 
Schizanginm, 630 
Schizomeria, 202 
Schcepfia, 432 
Schradera, 542 
Schradera, 605 
Sclmberlia, 266 
Schultesia, 739 
Schultzia, 286 
SchulUin, 337 
Schweinitzia, 867 
SchwenlcfehUa, 508. 539, 540. 

558 
SCLERANTHEtE, 94 
scleranthe^e, 95 
Scleranthus, 95 
Sclerococcus, 536 
Sclerosciadium, 305 
Sclerostemma, 689-691 
Scolosanthus, 569 
Scurrula, 42l-42b 
Scyphanthus, 65 
Scyphiphora, 634 
Sea-holly, 268 
Sea-holme, 268 
Sea-hulver, 268 
Sea- parsnip, 371 
Sechium, 37 
Sedum, 113-122 
&rf«)n, 111-113. 122. 124-125 
Selinere, 32i 
Selinum, 322 
Setinum, 261. 280. 289. 310. 

313-314. 318. 322-324. 330. 

333 336. 338. 350. 352 
Selliera, 725 
Sellowia, 94 
Semperviva , 97- 
Sempervivum, 122-124 
Sempervivum, 112. 119-121 
Septas, 99 
Serissa, 633 
Serisstt, 564 
Seri.tsus, 633, 634 
Seseli, 308-311 
Seseli, 277- 281-286. 288-289. 

301. 304, 305. 312. 314. 

316-320. 32.3. 369 

SESELINE.E, 301 

Sesuvium, 152-153 
Shallon, 839 
Sheep's-bane, 248 
Sheep's-Iaurel, 850 
Sheep's-scabious, 733-734 
Sherardia, 637 



Till 

Sherarilia, C34. G59 
Shepherd's-iieedic, :i(i3 
Sicclium, 50(t, S09 
Sickingia, Gfj4 
Sicyoiiies, 33 
Sicyos, 33, 34 
Sinjos, 36, 37. 261 
Siderodendron, 565 
Sideroxyloiilfs, 565 
Jif Jera, 257 
Silaus, 319 
Siler, 347, 348 
Silcr, 330 347. 351 

SiLERINBX, 347 

Simira, 588, 589 

Sipanea, 520-521 

Sipanea, 521 

Siphocampylus, 700-704 

Sisarum, 294 

Siser, 338 

Sison, 286 

5ison, 25C. 264. 276. 280. 282- 

284. 286-291 294, 295. 330. 

338. 377 381 
Sium, 294-296 
Sium, 277. 280-282. 284, 285. 

289-291. 304. 307. 308. 310, 

311.319. 330. 338 
Skirret, 294-296 
Smallage, 277 
Smeathmannia, 46 
Smyrne«, 370 
Smyrnium, 380 
Smyniium, 276. 286. 315. 327. 

380 
Snake-gourd, 38, 39 
Snake-root, 521-523 
Snow-ball Tree, 442 
Snow-berry, 568, 569. 841. 
Solandra, 255 
Solena, 31, 493 
Soranthus, 307, 308 
Sow-fennel, 330 
Sowa, 337 
Spallanzania, 514 
Spananthe, 262 
Spananthe, 262 
Spalularia, 207, 208 
Specularia, 768, 769 
Specularia, 717 
Speculum veneris^ 768 
Sphenotoma, 785 
Spermacocc, 019-623 
Spermacoce, 61 1-618.624-633. 

636 

SPERMACOCE.E, 609 

Spermadictyoti, 554-555 
Spermatura, 369 
Sphallerocarpns, 368 
Spielmnnnm, 281 
Spikenard, 6(i(i, 667 
Spikenard, .\nierican, 388 
Spica Nardi, 667 
Spignel, 316. 320 
Spiraa, 201 
Spiradiclis, 524 
Spirostylis, 430 
SpomltjUum, 341-344 
Spotted-leaved Laurel, 433 
Sprengelia, 784, 785 
Spurred Valerian, 672 
Squash, 40 
Sticliu, 631,632 
St. Dabeoc's Ueatb, 833 
Stattrospermum, 630 



INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. 



Stellatx, 637 
.Stenanthera, 775 
StenocCElium, 347 
Stcnostemum, 553 
.Stenostomum, 553 
Steplmnium, 602 
Stereoiijlon, 192-195 
Stevensia, 472 
Stigmanthus, 560 
Stigmatanthus, 560 
Stilbe, 610 
Stipularia, 664 
Stipulicida, 93 
Stone-crop, 114-122 
Stone-parsley, 286. 312, 313 
Slraopha, 434 
Strap-wort, 86 
Strawberry tree, 834, 835 
Strempelia, 579 
Struthanthus, 409-415 
Strumpfia, 560 
Struv:pliia. 560 
Sturmia, 553 
St. Peters'-wort, 451-452 
STYLIDE.E, 619 
Stylidinm, 619-622 
Slylidium, 396 
Slylis, 396 
Stylocorina, 540 
Styiocoryna, 494 
Stylocoryjta, 506 
Styphelia, 774-775 
Styphelia, 775-778. 780, 781 
Stvphelie/E, 774 
Succisa, 684-686. 690 692. 695 

SUCCULENT.E, 97 

Sulphur-wort, 330-335 
Suteria, 608 
Sweet-cicelv, 369 
Symphvandra, 771, 772 
Symphoria, 451, 452 
Symphoricarpa, 451 
Symphoricarpos, 451, 452 
Symphoricarpos, 432. 448 
SympiiyogvnEjE, 203 
Sympieza, 805 
Syringodea, 818-826 
Symphyoloma, 341 



Tacsonia, 57 

Tacsonia, 54 

Tnfalla, 434, 435 

Talinum, 76, 77 

Talinum, 75, 76. 78-80. 154 

Tavgaraca, 541 

Tapogomea, 604-606. 608 

Tarenna, 507 

Teazle, 682 684 

Teazle, Fuller's, 682, 683 

Teazle, Wild, 082 

Telephiastrum, lb 

Telephie.?;, 85 

Telephium, 85, 86 

TelepJdum. 116 

Tclfuiria, 39 

Teilima, 228 

Tenoria, 301. 341 

Tepesia, 538 

Terebrasia, 552 

Terra Japonica, 469 

Tertrea, 568 

Tessiera, 632 



Tetilla, 204 
Tetragonia, 151, 152 
Tetragonia, 79 
Tetragouocarpus, 151 
Tetramerium, 578, 579 
Tetter-berry, 32 
Thapsia, 349 
Thapsia, 315. 350, 351. 353. 

360. 374, 375 
Th.^psie.i;, 349 
Thaspium, 315 
TImspium, 276 
Thibaudia, 860-862 
Thibandia, 859. 862, 863 
Throat-wort, Great, 757 
Throat-wort, 769 
Thunbergia, 498 
Thifmclcea, 633 
TIaisselmum, 322. 332, 333. 

336 
Tiarella, 228, 229 
Tiarella, 229, 230 
Tiedemannia, 337 
Tilljea, 98 
TUlera,S9. 118. 125 
Tiniionius, 554 
Tinus, 438, 439 
Tocoyena, 492, 493 
Tocoyena, 501 
Tontanea, 509 
Torch-thistle, 164-171 
T0RDYLINE.E, 345 
Tordyiioides, 346 
Tordvlopsis, 346 
Tordyliura, 345, 3l6 
Tordi/tium, 340. 345. 347. 361 , 

362 
Toricellia, 388 
Toiilis, 361, 362 
Tor His, 361. 365 
Tournefortia, 636 
Trachelium, 769 
Trachelium, 744. 750. 755. 

756. 772 
Trachymene, 257 
Trachymene, 256, 257 
Trachypleurum, 296 
Trachi/spermum, 284. 291 
Tragium, 292-2!)4 
Tragoselinum, 288. 292 
Trepocarpus, 348, 349 
Trianthema, 72 
Trinnthema, 87. 153 
Tricalycia, 543 
Tricliera, 687. 689 
Trichlis, 93 
Trichocladus, 397 
Trichosanthes, 38, 39 
Trichosnntlu-s, 3-37 
TridaclyUtcs, 225, 226 
TrigonophyUum, 214 
Trilopkus, 396 
Trinia, 281 
Trhua, 275 
Triodon, 626, 627 
Tnosteum, 443 
Triosteum, 539 
TriplinervUan, 218 
Triplostegia, 680 
Tristerix, 418 
Trochiscanthes. 315 
Trochocarpa, 781 
Trochocarpa, 776 
Tula, 524 
Tuna, 171-173 



Tupa, 700 
Turgenia, 361 
Tnrgosia, 103 
Turia, 30 
Turk's-cap, 160 
Turnera, 67-70 
Turnera, 70 
TURNERACE^, 66 



U. 

Ucrianu, 493 
Ullucus, 80 
Ulospermum, 347 
VmbellatiF, 235 
UMBELLIFER^, 235 
Umbilicus, 111, 112 
Uncaria, 469-471 
Uncaria, 468 
Uraspermum, 369, 370 
Urophyllum. 540 
Urceolaria, 542 
Uva-ursi, 835 



V. 

V.\cciNiEyi:, 851 

Vaccinium, 851-857 

Vaccinium, 833. 841. 857, 858 

Vahlia, 231 

Vaillantia, 662 

FaiUantia, 656 

Valantla, 646. 656-659. 661, 

662 
Valentiana, 453 
Valerian, 672. 680 
Valerian, Garden, 676 
Valerian, Offloinal, 679, 680 
Valeriana, 672-680 
Valeriana, 666-672. 680 
VALERIANE^, 665 
Valerianella, 667-671 
Valerianella, 635, 666 
Vanguiera, 549-550 
Vangueria, 549 
Vareca, 59 
Vauanthus, 106 
Vavanga. 5i9 
Vegetable tnarrow. 41 
Ventenatia, 720, 775 
Vetea, 369 
Velleia, 726-727 
Velleia, 726 
Venus's comb, 363 
Venus's looking-glass, 768, 

769 
Verea, 108 
Vereia, 108 
Verulamia, 570 
Veslingia, 153 
Viburnum, 438-443 
Viburnum. 233, 234. 400 
Vicatia, 377 
Virecta, 521 
Virecta, 520, 521 
Vireya, 848 
Viscoides, 593 
Viscum, 402-408 
Viscum, 408, 409 
Visnaga, 287 
Viticella, 204 
Vitis idaea, 851 



Viviania, 550. 552. 560 
Votomita, 401 



W. 

Wahlenbergia, 737-743 

IVahlcubersia, 494. 735. 737 

jrallichia,'r,W 

Wallrolhia, 320 

Wallrotlda, 290 

Water chickweed, 82 

Water parsnip, 294-296 

Webera, 506, 507 

Jf'ebera, 563 

Wegeila, 444 

Walter drop-wort, 302-304 

Water drop-wort, Hemlock, 

303 
AVayfaring tree, 441 
Wayfaring tree, American, 441 
Weinmannia, 197 
ireinmamiia, 200, 201 
WiUdenovia, 514 
Wendlandia, 517-520 
Wendia, 344 
Wendlia, 344 
Wcpferia, 305 
White Bird's Nest, 866 
Whortle berry, 852-857 
Wild hops, 32 
Wild nep, 32 

Wild Rosemary, 851. 829 
Wild vine, 32 
Wydleria, 280 
Wild cornel-tree, 399 
Wild cummin, 370 
IVindmannia, 197. 199 
Winter-green, 863-865 
Witch-hazel, 396, 397 
Wolf-berry, 451 
Woodbine, 445 
Woodroof, 637, 640 
Wood-rose, 640 
Woodrowe, 640 
Woodrowel, 640 
Woodruff, 640 
n'ljlia, 363, 364 

X. 

Xanthophytum, 520 
Xanthosia, 258 
Xeraiilhus, 75 
Xyloslcum, 446. 448-450 
Xylosteon, 446 

Y. 

Ver-nut, 291 

Yellow Bird's nest, 866 



Zaleya, 72 
Zaluzania, 505 
Zamaria, 506 
Zanonia, 3-4 
Zanthoxylon, 385 
Zenobia, 830 
Zizia, 276 
Zozima, 344, 345 
Zozimia, .344, 345 
Zucca, 43 
Zuccarinia, 487 



THE 



GARDENER'S AND BOTANIST'S DICTIONARY. 



Order CIII. CUCURBITA^CEyE (plants agreeing with 
Cuci'irbita in important cliaracters). Juss. gen. p. 393. D. C, 
fl. fr. 3. p. 688. Aug. St. Hil. in mem. mus. 9. p. 190-221. 
Ser. in mem soc. hist. nat. gen. vol. 3. p. 1. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 297. Lindl. introd. nat. syst. p. 19.2. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, monoecious or dioecious (f. 1. b. c. 
f. 3. b. c), axillary. Calyx ganiosepalous (f. 3. a. b.), .'5-toothed, 
sometimes obsolete. Corolla 5-petalled (f. 2. a. f. 1. c. f. 3. c), 
but usually only 5-parted, distinct from the calyx, and some- 
times somewhat continuous with it, rising from the margin 
of the torus, sometimes fringed, constantly yellow, white, or 
red, very cellular, with strongly marked, reticulated veins. 
Stamens 5, either distinct, or joined in 3 parcels, and sometimes 
all together ; filaments rarely pilose ; anthers 2-celled, very long, 
sinuous, rarely ovate and short. Style rarely almost wanting, 
crowned by 3-5 2-lobed stigmas, which are thick and velvety, 
but rarely fringed. Ovarium 1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentas. 
Fruit fleshy, more or less succulent, crowned by the scar formed 
by the calyx, 1-celled (f. 3. e. f. 2. b.), with 3 parietal placentas, 
which are indicated on the outside by nerves. Umbilical funicle 
tumid towards the seeds. Seeds frequently obovate, flat, fixed to 
the parietes of the fruit, enveloped in an arillus, which is either 
juicy, or dry and membranous ; testa coriaceous, often thick at 
the margins ; hylum oblique at the top of the seed. Embryo 
straight, flat, without albumen. Cotyledons foliaceous, pal- 
mately nerved ; radicle basilar, directed towards the hylum. — 
Roots annual or perennial, fibrous or tuberous. Stems herba- 
ceous, climbing by means of tendrils. Leaves palmate, or with 
palmate ribs, succulent, covered with numerous asperities. Ten- 
drils solitary, lateral, divided or undivided. Flowers solitary, 
panicled, or in fascicles. Bracteas usually wanting. Branches 
rising between the leaves and tendrils. 

This order is nearly related to Passiflorcce, to which they are 
so closely allied, as hardly to be distinguishable, except in their 
mnnopetalous corolla, sinuous stamens, unisexual flowers, and 
exalbuminous seeds, the habit of both being nearly the same. 
There is an aflRnity between the order and Caitipainilacccv in the 
VOL. ni. 



D. H. HILL 
North Carolina State College 



perigynous insertion of the stamens, the inferior ovarium, the 
single style with several stigmas, the quinary division of the 
flower, connected with the ternary division of the fruit, and 
some analogy in the nature of the floral envelopes. The 
small tribe Nhandirbbece consists of plants having the habit of 
Cucurbiiaccie, but some resemblance in their fruit to that of 
Lecythidece, which, as is well known, border close upon Mi/r- 
tacece ; but beyond this resemblance of the fruit, which 
appears altogether to be a structure of analogy rather than 
that of affinity, there is nothing to confirm the approachment. 
Cucurhitciccce is one of the most useful orders in the vegetable 
kingdom, comprehending the melon, the cucumber, the choco, 
and the various species of gourd and pumpkin, all useful as 
food for man. A bitter laxative quality perhaps pervades all 
these, which in the colocynth is so concentrated as to become 
an active purgative principle. The colocynth of the shops is 
prepared from the pulp of Cuciimiis colocijnthus ; it is of so 
drastic and irritating a nature, as to be classed by Orfila among 
his poisons ; but, according to Thunberg, this gourd is rendered 
perfectly mild at the Cape of Good Hope, by being properly 
pickled, Ainslie 1. p. 85. The bitter resinous matter in which 
the active principles of colocynth are supposed to exist, is called 
by chemists colocynthine. A waxy substance is secreted by the 
fruit of Betiincasa cerifcra. It is produced in most abundance 
at the time of its ripening. Delisle descrip. The leaf of Fcuil- 
lea cordifblia, is asserted by M. Drapiez to be a powerful anti- 
dote against vegetable poisons. Edinb. phil. journ. 4. p. 221. 
The fruit of Trichomnthes palmtita, pounded small, and inti- 
mately blended with warm cocoa-nut oil, is considered a valuable 
a])plication in India for cleansing and healing the offensive sores 
which sometimes take place in the inside of the ears. It is also 
supposed to be a useful remedy poured up the nostrils in cases 
of ozaema. Ainslie 2. p. 85. The root of Bryonia possesses 
powerful purgative properties, but is said to be capable of 
becoming wholesome food, if properly cooked. The perennial 
roots of all the order appear to contain similar bitter drastic 
virtues, especially that of Momurdka clalerium or Squirting 
B 

LIBRARY 



CUCURBITACE^. 



Cucumber. An extremely active poisonous principle, called 
elatine, has also been found in the placentas of the fruit of this 
plant. It exists in such extremely small quantity, that Dr. 
Clutterbuck only obtained 6 grains from 40 fruit. Edinb. phil. 
journ. 3. p. 307. An ingenious explanation of the cause of the 
singular ejection of the seeds of this plant will be found in 
Dutrochet's Nourellcs Recherches sur I'Exosmose. The root 
of Bryonia rostrata is prescribed in India internally in electuary 
in cases of piles. It is also used as a demulcent, in the form of 
powder. That of Bryonia cordifblia is considered cooling, and 
to possess virtues in complaints requiring expectorants, Ainshe 
2. p. 21. The root of Bryonia epigce'a was once supposed to 
be the famous colomba-root, to which it approaches very nearly 
in quality. The tender shoots and leaves of Bryonia scahra are 
aperient, having been previously roasted. Ainslie 2. p. 212. The 
seeds of all the species are sweet and oily, and capable of forming 
very readily an emulsion. Those of A mpclosicyos scdnde/is are 
as large as chestnuts, and said to be as good as almonds, having 
a very agreeable flavour. Wiien pressed they yield an abund- 
ance of oil, equal to that of the finest olives. De CandoUe 
remarks that the seeds of this family never participate in the 
property of the pulp that surrounds them. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

TuiBE I. 

Nhandiro bEjE. Tendrils axillary, in the place of peduncles. 
Flowers dioecious. 

1 Feui'llea. Calyx of the male flowers 5-cleft. Petals 5, 
joined at the base. Stamens 5, inserted with the petals, some- 
times 10, but 5 of them are sterile. Calyx of the female flowers 
5-cleft. Petals 5, distinct. Styles 3 ; stigmas broad, bifid. 
Fruit globose, fleshy. 

2 Zanonia. Male flowers. Calyx 3-lobed (f 1. «.). Petals 
5, joined into a 5-parted rotate, spreading corolla (f. 1. b. c). 
Stamens 5, joined at the base; anthers 1-celled. Female 
flowers. Calyx with a long turbinate tube, and a 5-lobed limb. 
Corolla as in the male flowers. Styles 3, spreading, bifid at the 
apex. Fruit long, turbinate, fleshy ; seeds winged (f. 1. d. c). 

Tribe II. 
CucuRBiTE^E. Tendrils lateral, stipidar. Flowers herma- 
phrodite, dioecious, or monoecious. 

3 Lagena'ria. Calyx campanulate, with subulate or broadish 
segments ; corolla white ; petals obovate. Stainens 5, triadel- 
phous. Stigmas 3, thick, 2-lobed. Fruit 3-5-celled. Flowers 
dioecious. 

4 Cu'cuMis. Calyx tubularly-campanulate, with subulate 
segments. Petals almost distinct. Stamens 5, in 3 parcels. Stig- 
mas 3, thick, bipartite. Fruit 3-G-celled. Flowers monoecious 
or hermaphrodite, yellow. 

5 LuFFA. Male flowers panicled ; tube of calyx hemisphe- 
rical. Petals distinct. Stamens 5, free ; anthers very sinuous. 
Female flowers solitary ; tube of calyx clavate. Stigmas reni- 
form. Fruit ovate, 3-celled. Flowers yellow. 

6 Beninca'sa. Flowers polygamous, monoecious, solitary ; 



calycine segments with undulated, toothed margins. Petals 
obovate, spreading, curled. Stamens in 3 parcels ; anthers 
irregular, with distant circumvolutions. Stigmas very thick. 
Flowers yellow. 

7 Erythropa''lum. Flowers monoecious. Limb of calyx 
obsoletely 5-toothed. Petals 5, bicallous at base inside. Sta- 
mens 5, rising from the edge of the tube. Style short. Fruit 
clavate, 1-celled, 3-valved, 1-seeded. 

8 Tu'bia. Flowers monoecious. Male ones umbellate. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla 5-petalled. Stamens 5, in 3 parcels ; 
anthers irregularly undulated. Stamens barren in the female 
flowers. Stigmas 3, 2-lobed. Fruit cylindrical, villous, warted. 

9 Bryonia. Flowers monoecious or dioecious ; petals almost 
distinct. Male flowers. Calyx 5-toothed. Stamens in 3 parcels. 
Anthers flexuous. Female flowers. Style trifid. Fruit ovate 
or globose, smooth. Tendrils usually simple, seldom bifid. 

10 Si'cYos. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers. Calyx 
5-toothed. Corolla 5-parted. Filaments 3. Female flower. 
Style trifid ; stigmas thickish, trifid. Fruit 1-seeded from abor- 
tion, usually beset with spines. Peduncles many-flowered. 

11 Elate^rium. Flowers monoecious ; male ones racemose 
or corymbose. Calyx with inconspicuous teeth. Corolla hardly 
gamopetalous. Filaments and anthers joined. Female flowers 
solitary. Calyx echinated at the base, with the neck filiform. 
Style crowned by a capitate stigma. Capsule coriaceous, reni- 
form, echinated, 1-celled, 2-3-valved, many-seeded, bursting 
elastically. Flowers yellow or white. 

12 Momordica. Flowers monoecious ; peduncles filiform, 
unibracteate. Male flowers. Calyx 5-cleft, with a very short 
tube. Corolla 5-parted. Stamens in 3 parcels ; anthers con- 
nected. Female flowers with 3 sterile filaments. Style trifid. 
Ovarium 3-celled. Fruit generally muricated, bursting elas- 
tically when mature. 

13 Neurospe'rma. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers. 
Calyx and corolla 5-parted. Stamens 5, diadelphous, having 2 
glands alternating with the bundles. Female flowers. Calyx 
and corolla parted. Ovarium beset with 8 series of warts. 
Style trifid, girded by 3 glands at the base ; stigmas 2-lobed. 
Fruit fleshy, 3-celled, but when mature 1-celled, 3-9-seeded. 

14 Se'chium. Flowers monoecious, yellow. Calyx 5-toothed, 
with 10 foveolse. Corolla joined with the calyx. Stamens 4-5, 
monadelphous. Style thick ; stigma capitate, 3-5-cleft. Fruit 
obcordate, 1-seeded. 

15 Meloiiiria. Flowers monoecious. Calyx 5-toothed. 
Corolla campanulate ; petals ciliated or toothed, never fringed. 
Filaments 5, in 3 parcels. Style 1 ; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit 
3-celled, many-seeded. 

16 Trichosa'nthes. Flowers monoecious, white. Male 
flowers. Calyx subclavate, 5-parted, appendiculate. Corolla 
5-parted, ciliated (f. 2. a.). Filaments 3. Anthers joined. Female 
flowers. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 5-parted, laciniately cili- 
ated (f. 2. a.). Style trifid (f. 2. d.). Stigmas oblong, subulate. 
Fruit oblong (f. 2. b.), I or 3-9-celled. 

17 Ampelosicyos. Flowers dioecious. Male flowers. Calyx 
turbinate, 5-cleft (f. 3. «.); segments denticulated (f. 3. 6.). 



CUCURBITACEiE. I. Feuillea. II. Zanonia. 



Corolla 5-petalIed(f. 3. c.) ; petals oblong, fringed (f. 3. d.). Sta- 
mens 5, in 3 parcels. Female flowers. Limb of calyx 5-toothed. 
Corolla as in the male. Stigma capitate, 3-lobed, ex Bojer. 
Fruit fleshy, 2-3 feet long, and S inches thick, elongated, fur- 
rowed (f. 3. e.). Flowers purple. 

18 Cucu'rbita. Flowers monoecious, yellow. Petals joined 
together, and with the calyx. Male flowers. Calyx campanu- 
late. Stamens 5, in 3 bundles and syngenesious. Anthers 
curved at both ends. Female flowers. Calyx clavate, narrowed 
towards the apex. Stigmas 3, thickish, 2-lobed. Fruit 3-5- 
celled. 

19 Involucra*ria. Flowers monoecious. Male ones um- 
bellate, sessile ; bracteas reniform, fringe-toothed, involucrum- 
formed. Tube of calyx obconical ; sepals linear, acute. An- 
thers joined together. Female flowers solitary, on long pe- 
duncles. 

20 MuRi'ciA. Flowers monoecious. Calyx 5-parted, in- 
closed in a large undivided, 1 -flowered sheath. Corolla cam- 
panulate, 5-petalled. Stamens 5, in 3 bundles, and syngenesious. 
Style 1 ; stigmas 3, sagittate, horizontal. Berry muricated, 1- 
celled, many-seeded. 

21 Angu'ria. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers. Calyx 
campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla joined with the calyx, ven- 
tricose, red, 5-parted. Stamens 2. Female flowers with a calyx 
and corolla as in the males, and 2 sterile stamens. Style semi- 
bifid ; stigmas bifid. Fruit 2-4-celled, many-seeded, somewhat 
tetragonal. 

t Genera not sufficienthj known. 

22 Zu'ccA. Flowers solitary, axillary. Bractea large, con- 
cave, involving a large, coloured, 5-sepalled calyx, and girded 
by 5 scales at the base. Stamens 5. 

23 Alla'sia. Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx gamosepalous, 
girded by a short involucrum. Segments 5, acutish, pilose. 
Corolla 4-petalleQ ; petals pilose. Stamens 4, but more pro- 
bably 8, joined by twos ; anthers 2-lobed. Style subulate, 
crowned by an acute stigma. Berry fleshy, large, oblong, ob- 
tuse, 1 -celled, many-seeded. 

24 Gronovia. Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx funnel- 
shaped, 5-parted ; scales 5, linear, petal-formed, pellucid, alter- 
nate with the calycine segments. Stamens 5, free, alternating 
with the scales. Style crowned by a capitate stigma. Berry 
dry, nearly globose, 1 -seeded, crowned by the dry permanent 
calyx. 

25 Kolbia. Flowers dioecious ? Calyx gamosepalous, 
with a crenulated edge. Corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed ; lobes 
with glandular edges. Nectary ? 5-leaved ; lobes with feathery 
ciliated edges. Stamens 5, monadelphous ; filaments short ; 
anthers long, conniving. 

Tribe I. 

NHANDIRO'BEjE (plants agreeing with Nhandirbba in im- 
portant characters). St. Hil. ann. mus. 9. p. 215. Turp. diet, 
sc. nat. atlas, icon. 2. D. C. prod. 3. p. 297. Tendrils axillary, 
peduncular. Flowers dioecious. 

I. FEUILLEA (in honour of Louis Feuillee, a traveller in 
Chili ; author of Journal des Observations physiques, mathema- 



tiqucs, et botaniques, faites dans I'Amerique Meridionale, &-c. 
3 vols. 4to. Paris, vols. 1 and 2. 1714. and 3. 1725.). Lin. 
gen. 1118. Juss. gen. 397. Lam. ill. t. 815. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 297 — Fevillea, Pers. syst. regl. ed. 15. p. 929.— Nhandi- 
roba, Plum. gen. 20. t. 27. 

Lin. syst. Dioecia, Pentandria. Flowers dioecious. Male 
flowers. Calyx 5 -cleft beyond the middle. Petals 5, rather 
joined at the base, inserted in the throat of the calyx, and alter- 
nating with the sepals. Stamens 5, inserted with the petals, and 
alternating with them, sometimes 10, but when this is the case, 
5 of which are always sterile, (ex Juss.) Anthers 2-celled, 
didymous. Female flowers. Tube of calyx adnate to the ova- 
rium ; limb 5-cleft. Petals 5, distinct, or joined at the base, 
oblong. Lamellae or abortive stamens 5, sometimes alternating 
with the petals (ex Juss.). Styles 3. Stigmas broad, bluntly 
bifid. Fruit globose, fleshy, 3-celled, indehiscent, with solid 
bark and a large fleshy trigonal central axis ; cells many ovu- 
late. Ovula erect from the centre. Seeds compressed, oval. 

Embryo straight. Cotyledons flat, rather fleshy Intratropical 

American, rather frutescent climbing herbs. Leaves alternate, 
petiolate, exstipulate, palmately nerved, cordate, glabrous. 
Tendrils axillary, spirally twisted, in place of peduncles. Pe- 
duncles axillary, 1 or many-flowered. Flowers small. Seeds 
oily, bitter. Tliis genus has a habit emidating Passiflora. Fruit 
in the form of that of Couroupita, a genus oi Lecylhidece. 

1 F. puncta'ta (Poir. diet. 4. p. 418.) leaves 3-lobed or 
ternate, beset with glandular dots on both surfaces along the 
nerves, but more especially beneath ; lobes of leaves lanceolate, 
rather cut. %.'~^. S. Native of St. Domingo. Trichosanthes 
punctata, Lin. spec. 1432.amoen. acad. 3. p. 423. exclusive of 
the country. Fevillea trilobkta, Reich, syst. 4. p. 253. 

Dottcd-\e&veA Feuillea. PI. cl. 

2 F. triloba'ta (Lin. spec. ed. 1. p. 1014.) leaves rather 
glandular on both surfaces, 3-parted or trifid ; lower lobes ob- 
tuse, upper ones acute. %.'~^. S. Native of Brazil. F. scan- 
dens /J, Lin. spec. ed. 2. p. 1457. F. hederacea, Poir. diet. 4. 
p. 419. Chandiroba or Nhandiroba, Margr. bras. 46. lower figure. 

T/iree-lobed-leaved Feuillea. PI. cl. 

3 F. coRDiFOLiA (Poir. diet. 4. p. 418.) leaves glandless, 
cordate, acuminated, or somewhat 3-lobed, and rather serrated. 
1/ . '^. S. Native of the West Indies. Plum, ed Burm. t. 209. 
F. scandens a, Lin. spec. ed. 2. p. 1457. F. hederacea, Turp. 
in diet. sc. nat. with a figure. The leaves of this species are 
said to be a powerful antidote against vegetable poisons. 

Heart-leaved Feuillea. PI. cl. 

4 F. Javilla (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 124.) 
leaves glandless, roundish, sinuately cordate, acuminated. 1/ . 
^. S. Native of New Granada, in woods near Turbaco, where 
it is called Javilla by the inhabitants. Seeds with subalate mar- 
gins, hence this species agrees with the genus Zanonia. 

Javilla Feuillea. PI. cl. 

Cult. A light rich soil will suit the species of Feuillea ; and 
cuttings of them will root readily under a hand-glass, in heat. 
They are well fitted for training up rafters in stoves. 

II. ZANO'NIA (named in memory of Giacomo Zanoni, for- 
merly Prefect of the Botanic Garden at Bologna, author of 
Istoria Botanica, Bol. 1G75. fol. edited in Latin by Monti, 
1742. He died 1682, aged G7.). Lin. gen. 1117. Juss. gen. 
397. Lam. ill. t. 816. "Blum, bijdr. p. 937. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 298. but not of Plum. 

Lin. syst. Dioecia, Monadclphia. Flowers dioecious. Male. 
Calyx 3-iobed (f. 1. «.). Petals 5, joined into a 5-parted rotate 
corolla (f. 1. i.e.). Stamens 5 (f. 1. c.) ; filaments flat, con- 
nected at the base ; anthers 1 -celled, adnate to tlie tops of the 
filaments. Female. Tube of calvx long, turbinate ; limb 5- 
B 2 



CUCURBITACEiE. II. Zanonia. III. Lagenaria. 



lobed. Corolla as in tlie male. Stjles 3, spreadinsr, bifid at. 
the apex. Fruit long, turbinate, fle'shy, having a circular line 
at the apex, formed from the vestige of the calyx, opening by 
3 valves at the top, 3-celled ; the rind solid : central placenta 
fleshy, large, trigonal ; cells biovulate. Seeds ovate, mar- 
gined by afoliaceous wing (f. 1. e. </.)„ exalbuminous. Embryo 
inverted. — Smooth, climbing, Indian plants. Leaves alternate, 
petiolate, exstipulate, ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base, 
acuminated, quite entire. Tendrils axillary. Peduncles also 
axillary and racemose. This genus, from the general form of 
the fruit, is like the genus Couritari, but from the characters it is 
allied to FevUlea. The interior fabric of the seeds is unknown. 



FIG. I. 



Sect. I. Zan6nia (see genus for derivation). Blum. 1. c. 
Cells of fruit It-seeded. Fruit elongated, somewhat tetragonal. 

1 Z. I'ndica (Lin. spec. 
11J7.) leaves elliptic, acute, 
rather cordate at the base ; 
racemes axillary. Pj . '^. S. 

Native of Malabar, Ceylon, '^'^ t0^'^t^\u'^\ '^^^ 

and Java. Blum. 1. c. Pe- 
narvalli, Rheed. mal. 8. t. 
47 and 48. 

Indian Zanonia. PI. cl. 




Fruit hemispherical, truncate at the 



Sect. II. Alsomitra 
(from akaoi:, alsos, a grove, 
and furpa, milra, a girdle ; 
the plants grow in groves 
and entwine round the trees 
by means of ring-like ten- 
drils.). Blum. 1. c. Cells 
of ovarium many-seeded, 
apex, or elongated. 

^ Z. macroca'rpa (Blum. 1. c.) leaves ovate-elliptic, acutish, 
rounded at the base ; racemes axillary. y^ . ^. S. Native of 
Java, on the mountains of Parang. 

Large-f rutted Zanonia. PI. cl. 

3 Z. sarcophy'lla (Wall. pi. rar. asiat. 2. p. 28. t. 133.) 
leaves trifoliate ; leaflets thick, fleshy, ovate, obtuse, quite 
entire. Tj . ^. S. Native of the East Indies, in sterile ex- 
posed situations along the banks of the Irawaddi. The plant 
climbs by means of simple and slender tendrils. The leaves 
are of a pale glaucous colour. Flowers small, very numerous, 
forming ample, greenish, nodding panicles. The different sexes 
are produced in distinct plants. 

Fleshy-leaved Zanonia. Shrub cl. 

4 Z. cLAViGERA (Wall. 1. c.) smootli ; leaves trifoliate ; leaflets 
oblong, acimiinated, quite entire; fruit large, clavate. Tj . ^. S. 
Native of Silhet, where it is called in the Bengalee language 
Kkhnobcra. The fruit is 3 inches long, and as thick as a thumb. 

Club-beaiwg Zanonia. Shrub el. 

5 Z. angula'ta (Wall. 1. c.) smooth ; stem angular ; leaves 
simple, somewhat hastately lanceolate, cordate at the base ; fruit 
large, clavate. ^ • ^. S. Native of Silhet. The fruit is as 
long as a finger, and very thick. 

Angular-slemmeA Zanonia. Shrub cl. 

G Z. cissioiDEs (Wall. 1. c.) stem filiform, angular ; leaves 
pedate, with 5 or 7 leaflets ; leaflets lanceolate, acuminated at 
both ends, coarsely and cuspidately serrated ; petioles and pe- 
duncles pilose. I; . ^. S. Native of Nipaul. 

Cissus-lihc Zanonia. Shrub cl. 

7 Z. la'xa (Wall. 1. c. p. 29.) stem filiform, much branched, 
bifariously pilose ; leaves trifoliate ; leaflets acuminated, ser- 
rated, intermediate one lanceolate, lateral ones half cordate ; 
petioles and peduncles pilose, h . ^. ii. Native of Silhet. 



Loose Zanonia. Shrub cl. 

8 Z. heterospe'rma (Wall. 1. c.) stem filiform, very slender; 
leaves pedate, with 5 leaflets ; leaflets lanceolate, acuminated, 
serrated ; capsule clavate, angular, borne on very long capil- 
laceous peduncles ; seeds scabrous from scales. ^ ■^. S. Na- 
tive of Mount Taong Dong, near Ava. Capsule chartaceous, 
trigonal, 8 lines long, with a 3-toothed mouth. The scales on 
the seeds are elegantly imbricated, and girded by a narrow 
margin. 

Variable-seeded Zanonia. Shrub cl. 

Cult. See Feuillea, p. 3. for the cidture and propagation of 
the species. 

Tribe II. 

CUCURBI'TEiE (plants agreeing with Cucurbita in impor- 
tant characters). D. C. prod. 3. p. 299. Tendrils lateral, 
stipular. Flowers hermaphrodite, dioecious, or monoecious. 

III. LAGENA'RIA (from lagaia, a bottle ; form of fruit of 
some of the species). Ser. diss. I. c. D. C. prod. 3. p. 299. — 
Cucurbita species of authors. 

LiN. sYST. Dioecia, Polijdeiphia. Calyx campanulate ; 
segments subulate or broadish, shorter than the tube. Corolla 
white ; petals obovate, rising from beneath the margin of the 
calyx. Male. Stamens 5, in 3 parcels, the fifth one free. Female. 
Style almost wanting ; stigmas 3, thick, 2-lobed, granular. 
Fruit 3-5 ? celled. Seeds obovate, compressed, 2-lobed at the 
apex, with tumid margins. Flowers monoecious. 

1 L. VULGARIS (Ser. mss. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 299.) plant 
musky scented, clothed with soft pubescence ; stems climbing ; 
tendrils 3-4-cleft ; leaves cordate, nearly entire, biglandular at 
the base, pilose, rather glaucescent ; flowers monoecious, stel- 
late, spreading much, in fascicles ; connectives of anthers beset 
with oblong-ovate, acute papillae ; fruit pubescent, but when 
mature quite smooth ; flesh white, edible. ©. ^. H. Native 
within the tropics. Cucurbita lagenaria, Lin. spec. 1434. .Sieb. 
hort. 1. t. 69.— Rumph. amb. 5. t. 144.— Mor. hist. 2. p. 23. 
sect. 57. t. 5. f. 1, 2, 3. Flowers large, white. Fruit shaped 
like a bottle ; when ripe of a pale yellow colour, some near G 
feet long, with a roundish bottom and a neck ; the rind becoming 
hard, and being dried, eon'ains water ; it is then of a pale bay 
colour. The bottle-gourd is called Charrah by the Arabians. 
The poor people eat it, boiled with vinegar, or fill the shells 
with rice and meat, thus making a kind of pudding of it. 
It grows in all parts of Egypt and Arabia, wherever the moun- 
tains are covered with rich soil. In Jamaica and many other 
places within the tropics, the shells are generally used for holding 
water or palm wine, and serve as bottles. The pulp of the fruit 
is often enijiloyed in resolutive poultices ; it is bitter and purga- 
tive, and may be used instead of colocynth. 

/ ar. a, goiirda (Ser. mss. ex D. C. 1. c) fruit unequally bi- 
ventricose. — Moris, hist. sect. 1. t. 5. f. 1. Dodon. pempt. 668. 
f. 1. Bottle gourd. Gourde des pelerins. 

I'ar. (3, goiigoiirda (Ser. 1. c.) fruit ventricose at the base, 
neck oblong. — Rumph. amb. 5. p. 398. t. 144. Braam. icon, 
chin. t. 1 7. Commonly called Gotigourde. 

Far. y, depressa (Ser. 1. c.) fruit globose, depressed. 

Far. S, turbinata (Ser. 1. c.) fruit somewhat campanulately 
pear-shaped. Mor. hist. sect. 1. t. 5. f. 2. Dodon. pempt. 
t. 669. f. 1. 

Far. e, clavala (Ser. mss.) fruit obovate-oblong, club-shaped. 
— Moris, hist. sect. 1. t. 5. f. 3. Dodon. pempt. 669. f. 2. 
Gourde trompette, Gourde massite, or Trumpet gourd. 

C(.mmo« Bottle Gourd. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt.'l597. PI. trail. 

2 L. viTTA TA (Ser. 1. c.) leaves roundish-cordate, somewhat 
repand, obsoletely denticulated, rough ; peduncles crowded, 1- 
flowered ; fruit pear-shaped, striped lengthwise, puberulous. 



CUCURBITACEyE. III. Lagenaria. IV. Cucumis. 



O. H. Native country unknown, but collected in the gardens 
of India. Bontcng-suri of the Hindoos. Cuciirbita vitt^ta, 
Blum, bijdr. p. 93x;. 
Ribbed GonxA. PI. cl. 

3 L. ? Hi'spiDA (Ser. 1. c.) greyish, pilose; leaves cordate, 
5-angled, acuminated, denticulated, beset with pedicellate glands 
beneatli ; stem and petioles densely his])id ; flowers densely 
clothed with ferruginous hairs. ©. F. Native of Japan and 
the East Indies. Cucurbita hispida, Thunb. fl. jap p. 3^2. 
and Willd. spec. i-. ]). COS. Waluh of the Indians. Perhaps 
only a variety of L. vulgaris. 

Hispid Gourd PI. trailing. 

4 L. ? idola'trica (Ser. I.e.) leaves cordate, cuspidate, obso- 
letely 3-lobed, pubescent, biglandular at the base ; lateral lobes 
very short and cuspidate; fruit pear-shaped. 0. F. Native 
of Guinea and the East Indies. Cucurbita Idolatrica, Willd. 
spec. 4. p. G07. Blum, bijdr. p. 930. Labu-eycr and Kuhuk 
of the Hindoos. Perhaps only a variety of L. vulgaris. In 
India the fruit of tliis plant is held in great veneration by the 
Hindoos, in their religious ceremonies. 

fiorshipped Gourd. PI. trailing. 

Cult. See Cucurbita, p. 41. for culture and propagation. 



IV. CU'CUMIS (said to be from icikvoq or Sikvof. Varro 
says, " Cucumeres dicuntur a curvore, ut curvimeres dicti"). 
Lin. gen. no. 1479. Juss. gen. p. 395. Gasrtn. fruct t. 88. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 299. — Cilcumis and Melo, Tourn. inst. p. 
104. Colocinthis, Tourn, inst. p. 107. — Rigocarpus, Neck. elem. 
hot. no. 386. 

LiN. svsT. Dioecia, Pohjadelphia. Calyx tubularly campa- 
nulate ; segments subulate, hardly the length of the tube. 
Petals hardly joined together or to the calyx. — Male. Stamens 
5, in H parcels. — Female. Stigmas 3, thick, bipartite. Fruit 
3-6-celled. Seeds ovate, compressed, not marginate. Flowers 
monoecious or hermaphrodite, yellow. 

1 C. MELo (Lin. spec. 143G.) stem trailing, scabrous, cir- 
rhiferous ; leaves roundish, angular, petiolate; male flowers 
having the tube of the calyx rather ventricose at the base, and 
rather dilated at the apex ; stamens inclosed ; anthers shorter 
than their connectives ; the hermaphrodite flowers with the an- 
thers as in the males; stigmas 3-4, shortly 2-lobed ; fruit ovate 
or sub-globose, 8-1 2-furrovved ; flesh sugary, yellow, red, or white. 
©. F. Native of Asia. Called rhctimou by the Hindoos ; 
J\lelon, Engl, and Fr. ; Mclone, Germ. ; Mellone, Ital. 

The melon is a tender annual, producing one of the richest 
fruits brought to the dessert, and has been cultivated in England 
since 1570, but the precise time of its introduction is unknown. 
It was originally brought to this country from Jamaica, and was, 
till within the last fifty years, called the nmsk-melon. The fruit, 
to be grown to perfection, requires the aid of artificial heat and 
glass throughout every stage of its culture. Its minimum tem- 
perature may be estimated at 65", in which it will germinate 
and grow ; but it requires a heat of from 75° to 80° to ripen its 
fruit, which, in ordinary cases, it does in 4 months from the time 
of sowing the seed. 

1'arieties. — There are numerous varieties, many of which, 
especially those raised from seeds brought from Italy and Spain, 
are not worth cultivating. The best sorts are included under 
the name of Cantaloups, an appellation bestowed on them from 
a seat of the Pope near Rome, where this variety is supposed 
to have been originally produced. The general character of 
the Cantaloups is a roundish form, rough, wartv, or netted outer 
rind ; neither very large in fruit or leaves. The Romanas, an 
Italian sort, is next in esteem, are generally oval-shaped, regu- 
larly netted ; the fruit and leaves middle-sized, and the plants 
great bearers. Many varieties of both these sorts, however, 



that were formerly in esteem, are now lost, degenerated, or sup- 
planted by others of Spanish or Persian origin. The following 
is a descrij)tive list of the sorts. 

List of Melons. 

Var. a, rcliculalus (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. ."SOO.) frm't 
roundish or oblong, with a grey reticulated rind. — Blackw. herb, 
t. 329. The following sorts of melons belong to this variety : — 

1 Bcechnood melon. This is an excellent, early, greenish 
yellow kind, with a netted rind and a greenish-white flesh, of a 
middle size. 

2 Melon maraicher. The flesh of this sort is very thick and 
watery ; hardly sweet-scented. 

3 Melon de Uonjleur. A late melon, with a thin yellow rind, 
and pale red sugary flesh. It is of inferior quality but large 
in size. 

4 Melon des Carnies. A well-flavoured large fruit, with a 
thick orange rind, and juicy sugary pulp. 

5 Melon de Langeais. A middle-sized, ribbed fruit, with 
orange-coloured, sugary, sweet-scented flesh. 

6 3Ielon sucrin de Tours. Fruit large, with firm, sugary, 
orange-coloured flesh. 

7 Sucrin a cliair blanche. 

8 Sucrin a chassis. 

9 Sucrin vert. 

1 Sucrin a petits grains. 

11 Succada. A late green middle-sized netted melon. 

Far. j3, Cantalupo (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 300.) fruit hw^e, 
with broadly ribbed, and furrowed, warted, thick rind. The fol- 
lowing sorts belong to this variety. 

1 Early Cantaloup. A deep-furrowed, early, middle-sized 
kind, with white, deeply-furrowed, thin skin ; and orange-coloured 
flesh, not very highly flavoured. It sets well, and is a great 
bearer. 

2 Silver cantaloup. Cantaloup argenle. A shallow-fur- 
rowed, middle-sized fruit, and before it is full grown is mixed 
with silver and green. 

3 Large black Holland cantaloup. Cantaloup gros noir de 
Hollande. A large fruit, with green, furrowed, thin rind: and 
red rather coarse flesh. 

4 Hybrid cantaloup. A small good early fruit, with a 
whitish rind and red pulp. 

5 Montagu cantaloup. This is a variety produced from the 
Italian green-fleshed and the siriooth scarlet-fleshed cantaloup. 
A middle-sized, early good fruit, but with a thick, yellow, fur- 
rowed rind and pale red flesh, which is soft and juicy, and com- 
pletely melting in the mouth. 

6 Netted cantaloup, or Jlliite-seeded cantaloui^. This is a 
very juicy, highly-flavoured, small fruit, with a thin, netted, 
yellow rind. 

7 Orange cantaloup. A small, round, pale yellow, netted 
fruit. The flesh, when just fit for cutting, is orange ; but when 
riper it is more red. In respect to flavour, it is excelled by 
none of the melon tribe, being juicy, sugary, and rich. The 
plant is a free grower, an early setter, and a great bearer. 

8 Black rock cantaloup. A large late melon, with a thick dark 
green rind, and salmon-coloured flesh. It is juicy, but not very 
high flavoured. 

9 Carbuncled rock cantaloup. Very like the black rock, as 
to colour and flavour, but differs in being cheese-shaped. 
There are a small and a large kind of this ; the smaller kind is 
the best. 

10 Lee's rock cantaloup. Rather long than round, and more 
green than black. Much the same in flavour as the preceding. 

11 Scarlct-fcshed cantaloup. A middle-sized early good 
fruit, with a thick yellow rind and red sweet flesh. It is par- 
ticularly high flavoured. 



6 



CUCURBITACEyE. IV. Cucumis. 



12 lialian green-fleshed. A middle-sized early good fruit, 
with a thick yellow rind and green flesh : in flavour both rich 
and sweet. 

13 Ionian green-fleshed cantaloup. A large thin-skinned 
lemon-coloured and lemon-scented fruit, of excellent flavour, 
but not a great bearer. 

14 Egyptian green-fleshed. A middle-sized early good fruit, 
with a thin white netted skin and green flesh : in flavour resem- 
bling the preceding. 

15 Dnich green-fleshed. An indiflferent sort. 

16 Crimea green-fleshed. A useless late fruit, of middling 
size, will) a thin green skin and pale red flesh. 

17 Persian green-fleshed. A middle-sized, green, thin- 
skinned sort, with green flesh. Not good. 

18 Green-fleshed Masulipatam. A very small and excellent 
early sort, with green skin and green flesh. 

19 Green-fleshed J'alparaiso. Not very good. 

20 Red-fleslud J'alparaiso. 

21 Dutch rock. A rather large good fruit, with a thick 
yellow rind, and orange-coloured flesh. 

22 Early rock. A good early fruit. 

23 Golden rock. A middle-sized fruit, with a thick yellow 
rind and pale red flesh, of excellent flavour. 

24 Scarlet rock. 

25 Silver rock. A large late fruit, with a thick yellow rind, 
and pale red flesh, which is juicy, sweet, and well-flavoured. 

26 Netted scarki-fleshed. A good sort. 

27 Smooth scarlct-fleshcd. A middle-sized fruit, of excellent 
flavour. The rind is thick, smooth, and yellow, and the flesh 
orange-coloured. 

28 Windsor scarlet-fleshed. A rather large, excellent-fla- 
voured, late kind, with thick green rind, and salmon-coloured flesh. 

29 Lee's Romana. A middle-sized, longish, shallow-furrowed 
fruit. Rind hard, partly netted, and pale yellow : the flesh full 
yellow and pretty high flavoured, but not very juicy. 

30 Large netted Romana. The largest of the romanas, regu- 
larly netted all over, and shallow-furrowed, often attaining a 
large size. Rind hard and pale yellow, the flesh full yellow, 
but not very juicy : very high -flavoured, if eaten sharp ripe. 

31 Fair's Romana. A small oval fruit, the rind greenish 
yellow when ripe, and the flesh a pale yellow, not very juicy ; 
but well-flavoured and agreeable. 

S2 Early Polignac. An early rich middle-sized fruit, with 
a thick yellow rind, and pale red flesh. It is in frequent cul- 
tivation. 

33 Portugal. There are two varieties of this kind, a small 
and a large sort ; they are noted as good bearers and early. 

34 Sn'cet Italian. A large orange-coloured sort, of moderate 
quality. 

35 Abetted succado. A middle-sized late green-skinned sort. 

36 Small Levant. A middle-sized sort, with a thick green 
skin and pale red flesh. Not of good quality, 

37 Smooth yellow-fleshed Valparaiso. A middle-sized, late, 
green, thin-skinned sort ; the flesh white, of moderate flavour. 

38 Brasilian. An inferior middle-sized sort, with thin green 
skin and orange-coloured flesh. 

39 Melon d'ele d'Odesse. A rather large, later, indifferent 
fruit, with thin orange skin and white flesh. 

40 Melon d'Olor. A very small fruit, with yellow skin and 
white flesh, of good quality. 

41 Netted French melon. A rather large late fruit, with a 
thick yellow rind and yellow flesh, of bad quality. 

42 Nutmeg. A late green, thick-skinned sort, with white 
flesh. 

43 Queen Ann's melon, early queen, or queen's pocket melon. 
A very small fruit, with ornamental striped thin skin, and white 
flesh. 



44 Carthagena. A large high-flavoured fruit, with a thick 
orange-coloured rind and pale red flesh. 

45 Cassahar. A large late fruit, with green thin skin, and 
white flesh. 

46 Cephalonia. A large oblong fruit, with thin yellow skin 
and green flesh, of tolerable flavour. 

47 ChoufleuT. A large fruit of little use; the skin is thick 
and yellow, and the flesh pale red. 

48 Gahoon. A large late fruit, of little value ; with yellow 
skin and yellow flesh. 

49 Gercc, ostrich egg. A middle-sized late fruit, of excel- 
lent flavour : the skin as well as the flesh is green. The plant 
is rather tender. 

50 Gros Prescott fond blanc. A large late fruit, with a thick 
yellow rind, and orange-coloured flesh. 

51 Petit Prescott. Fruit depressed, crowned at the top; 
ribs warted : flesh delicious. 

52 Cantaloup) natif d'Allemagne. An early fruit, with a 
greenish-yellow smootiiish rind, but not of good quality. 

53 Cantaloup boule de Siam. Fruit very much depressed, 
with a dark green rind, full of warted ribs. 

54 Hardy ridge. A middle-sized late fruit, with a thick 
yellow rind and red flesh, of good flavour. 

A list of melons which are hardly known ; but none of them 
are perhajjs north cultivation. 

1 De Andalousie. 2 Cantaloup d chair verte. 3 Cantaloup 
a fond noir. 5 Cantaloup Galleux. 6 Chili musk. 7 Crimea. 
8 Citron. 9 D'Espagne. 10 Fagos. 11 Fin hatif. 12 Gol- 
den egg. 13 Grand Mogul. 14 Green Spanish oval. 15 Gros 
Galleux a chair verte. 1 6 Hardy scarlet-fleshed. 1 7 Highclere, 
18 D'Hiver. 19 Large Astrachan. 20 Levant. 21 Melon 
gris des Carmes. 22 Melon of Honda. 23 Melon of Jaffa. 
24 Melon Turc. 25 Madeira. 26 Mendoza. 27 Le Mogul. 
28 Du Peron. 29 Pine apple or Melon d' Ananas. 30 Musk 
melon. 31 Carthagena musk melon. 32 Murray's j)ine-apple. 
S3 A'oir de Hollande tres gros. 34 Turkish melon. 35 Valen- 
tia or winter melon. 36 Wynestay. 

Far. y, Maltensis (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 300.) fruit with 
a smooth thin rind. This; variety is divisible into two parts, as 
Maltese Melons and Persian Melons. 

* Maltese melons. 

1 Melon de Malte blanc or Melon de Malle a chair blanche. 
An early middle-sized ovate-oblong fruit, with white watery 
sugary flesh. 

2 Melon de Malte jaune. Flesh of fruit orange-coloured, 
sweet-scented. 

3 Melon de la Moree ou de Candie, or Melon de Malte d'hiver. 
This kind is cultivated in various countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean sea, and particularly in the orange gardens at 
Hiers, near Toulon, whence its fruit is sent to Paris. The skin 
is thin; the flesh white, firm, sugary, and juicy ; not rich, but 
pleasant. The shape oval, size about a foot long and eight 
inches broad ; of a dark green colour. This fruit is regularly 
imported, and may be had in the fruit shops from September to 
January. 

* * Persian melons. 

1 Daree. A good-sized fruit ; skin thin and green ; flesh 
white, high-flavoured. A late fruit. 

2 Dampsha melon. An excellent, late, rather large fruit, of 
nearly a cylindrical form, and netted ; rind thin and yellow when 
ripe ; flesh green, quite melting, and of excellent flavour. The 
fruit will keej), if hung up by its stalk, for some time. 

3 Large germek. An excellent early green-skinned sort, of 
considerable size ; flesh green. 



CUCURBITACE^E. IV. Cicumis. 



4 Small germck. This is much smaller than the last-named 
sort ; the skin is yellow and the flesh green. 

5 Goorgab. A middle-sized late fruit, with yellow rind and 
white flesh. A useless sort. 

6 Green Hoosahtee. A middle-sized late sort, of good quality ; 
rind thin, green ; flesh white. 

7 Striped Hoosaiiice. A very good late sort, with greenish- 
yellow rind, and white flesh. 

8 Kasan sugar melon. A good sort. 

9 Keiseng. This is said to be one of the best Persian melons ; 
the skin is thin, pale yellow, and red, and the flesh white. 

10 Kiirchaing. A very good sort, of considerable size ; the 
skin is lemon-coloured, and the flesh white. 

1 1 Melon of Erivan. 

12 3Ielv/i of Gergcr. A middle-sized good fruit, with yellow 
skin and red flesh. 

13 Melon of Nuhshcvan, This is an excellent late kind ; tiie 
skin is yellow, and the pulp white. 

1 4 ]\[elon of Nusserabad. 

15 Melon of Seen. A middle-sized fruit of indifl'erent quality. 
It is a late sort, with yellow rind and green flesh. 

16 Green Persian. A fruit of indifferent flavour. 

1 7 Oldaher's Persian. A fruit of considerable size but no 
merit ; the rind is orange-coloured, and the flesh green. 

18 Sir Gore Ouseleifs Persian. A large fruit of good quality ; 
the skin is yellow and the flesh white. 

19 Sweel melon of Ispahan. This is said to be one of the very 
best melons. It grows to a large size ; the skin is yellow and 
the flesh green, crisp, sugary, and rich in taste. 

20 Talibee melon. 

21 Teheran melon. 

22 Saloniea. A round fruit, with a gold-coloured rind, and 
white flesh ; improves in flavour and richness till it becomes 
quite soft ; consistence of its pulp nearly that of a water melon, 
and very sweet. 

On the degeneracy of the larger varieties of Persian melons. — 
Mr. Knight thinks that it would be strange if every large and 
excellent variety of melon did not degenerate, under our ordi- 
nary modes of culture. For every large and excellent variety 
of melon, must necessarily have been the production of high 
culture and abundant food ; and a continuance of the same 
measures to it, in its highly improved state, must be necessary 
to prevent its receding in successive generations from that state. 
Abundant food, it is true, is generally, perhaps always, given by 
the British gardener to his melon plants: but sufficient light, 
under the most favourable circumstances, can only be obtained 
during a part of the year, and a sufficient breadth of foliage to 
enable the melon plant properly to nourish a fruit of large size 
and rich saccharine quality, so that it may obtain the highest 
state of growth and perfection which it is capable of acquiring, 
has rarely, and probably never, been given in any season of the 
year, by any British gardener. Mr. Knight has cultivated the 
Sneel Ispahan melon, and found it a very superior variety. He 
has cultivated this variety generally in brick pits, surrounded 
by hollow walls, through which warm atmospheric air at all 
limes enters abundantly ; putting each plant in a separate large 
pot, and suffering it to bear one melon only : but the fruit sets 
sufficiently well in a common hot-bed. The rind of the Ispa- 
han melon, being very soft and thin, the fruit is apt to sustain 
injury on the lower side ; they should be raised above the 
ground a little by some means while young, so as the air may 
pass under them. When seeds of the Ispahan melon are only 
wanted, it is quite time enough to sow in the beginning of 
April, so that the fruit may ripen in August. Very valuable 
varieties of melons may be obtained, for one generation at least, 
by cross breeding among the smaller and more hardy varieties 



of green and white-fleshed melons and the large Persian va- 
rieties. It is generally supposed that the offspring of cross- 
bred plants, as of animals, usually present great irregularity and 
variety of character ; but if a male of permanent character and 
habits, and, of course not cross-bred, be selected, that will com- 
pletely overrule the disposition to sport irregularly in the cross- 
bred variety ; alike in the animal and vegetable world, the per- 
manent habit always controlling and prevailing over the variable. 
The finest varieties of melon are usually supposed by gardeners 
to be fruits of as easy culture as the pine-apple, but experience 
has led us to draw a contrary conclusion. If the leaves of the 
melon plant be sudilcnly exposed to the influence of the sun in 
a bright day, which has succeeded a few cloudy days, for a short 
time only, they frequently become irreparably injured. If the 
air of the bed be kept a little too damp, the stems of the plants 
often canker, and the leaves and stalks sustain injury in the 
common hot-bed ; and, if the air be too dry, the plants, and 
consequently the fruit, are injured by the depredations of the 
red spider. — Loud. gard. mag. vol. 7. pp. 186, 187, 188. 

In the cultivation of the melon, Knight observes, " it is a 
matter of much importance to procure proper seed. Some 
gardeners are so scrupulous on this point, that they will not 
sow the seed unless tiiey have seen and tasted the fruit from 
which they were taken. It is proper, at least, not to trust to 
seeds which have not been collected by judicious persons. Some 
make it a rule to preserve always the seeds of those individual 
specimens which are first ripe, and even to take them from 
the ripest side of the fruit. A criterion of the goodness and 
probable fertility is generally sought by throwing them into a 
vessel containing water ; such as sink are considered as good, 
and likely to prove fertile, and those that float imperfect. It 
is remarked of seeds brought from the Continent, that they 
must have more bottom heat, and the young plants less water, 
than are necessary for seeds ripened in this country, or young 
plants sprung from these." 

The cidture of the melon is an object of emidation among 
gardeners, and the fruit of the best sorts have a peculiarly rich 
flavour, thought by some to bear some resemblance to that of 
the pine-apple. " Ripe fruit," Abercrombie observes, " may 
be had by forcing at any season, but the main crops, raised for 
the general demand, are seldom cut, at the earliest, before May, 
and the last succession mostly ceases to yield fruit after October." 
" To ripen the best largest fine kinds," IM'Phail observes, " as 
great an atmospherical heat, and a bottom heat to its roots 
also, is required as is sufficient to ripen the pine-apple in this 
country ; but as the melon is produced from an annual plant, 
the seeds of which must be sown every year, it requires a dif- 
ferent mode of culture. Different methods of culture, and various 
kinds of earth and of manures have been recommended and 
used successfully in rearing of melons. The great thing, after 
phinting, is to give them plenty of atmospherical heat, and a 
sufficiency of external air, and water. Those methods which 
are most simple and the least expensive, and best calculated to 
assist in making a suitable climate for the melon to grow in 
and ripen its fruit well, should be preferred." 

Soil. — Abercrombie says " The melon will succeed in any 
unexhausted loam, rich in vegetable rudiments, with a mixture 
of sand, but not too light. Tiie following is a good compost : 
two-thirds of lop-spit earth from a sheep common, adding sharp 
sand, if the earth contains little or none, till half is sand; one- 
sixth of vegetable mould ; and one-sixth of well-consumed 
horse-dung. Or, if the earth is not obtained from a pasture, 
rotted sheep-dung may be substituted for the last. The ingre- 
dients shoidd have been incorporated and pulverized by long 
previous exposure and turning over. The compost should be 
dried under shelter before it is used, and warmed in tiie frame 



8 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



for pottini;." M'Phail says, " Melons will grow and produce 
fruit of a good flavour, if they be planted in any kind of earth, 
not of too light a texture, whether it be taken from a quarter 
of the kitchen garden or from a corn-field, mixed well with 
good rotten dung ; but earth of a loamy nature is the best, 
because it retains moisture longer than lighter earth. Earth, dug 
from the surface of a common, where sheep and cattle have 
long been pastured, is excellent for the melon. It should be 
broken well, and Ilea few months before it is used, and if it be 
exposed to a winter's frost it will do it good. This sort of 
earth, if it be taken from the surface of the common, will re- 
quire no manure the first year of using. I would here mention 
that unless the earth which 1 used for the melon ])lants was 
very strong, I made it a practice, when the melon-beds were 
wholly earthed up, to tread the surface all over, which makes 
the earth retain its moisture longer than if it were left loose." 
Earth for melons, according to Nicol, " may be thus composed : 
one-half strong brown loam from a pasture, a quarter light 
sandy earth, an eighth part vegetable mould of dec.iyed tree 
leaves, and an eighth part rotten stable-yard dung. The mould 
for both cucuuibers and melons should be well incorporated, 
should be exjiosed to frost, and be frequently turned over to 
ameliorate." It appears from a passage in ^lorier's second 
journey into Persia, p. 147., that pigeons' dung has froin time im- 
memorial been much soughtafier for manuring melons. Immense 
pigeon-houses are built on purpose to collect it, and when there 
is a dearth, as melons produce the earliest return of food, every 
one is eager to cultivate them, and tliat kind of manure, being 
then in great demand, sells very high. During the famine in 
Samaria, mentioned in 2 Kings, ch. vi. it is said to have sold 
for five pieces of silver the cub. 

A correspondent in the gard. mag. 2. p. 404. on melon 
compost, and on the influence of soil on Hydrangea horlensis, 
has always used for his melons the compost to which the Dutch so 
strongly adhere, viz. one-third strong hazel loam, one-third scour- 
ing of ditches, and one-third rotten dung, exposing the mixture 
two years to the influence of the summer and winter, to evaporate 
what noxious qualities inaylurk in the earths: for it is well known, 
that in proportion to the degree of salt of iron, it will be propor- 
tionably sterile. He had often observed the leaves of his melon 
plants turn yellow, occasionally plants died, for which he could 
not account ; he suspected iron, as it pervaded his district, to be 
the cause ; but as a magnet would not take up any of the com- 
post, bis attention was diverted from that point. Similar results 
in future seasons again called his attention to it, and he added 
lime, to correct the sulphate of iron, if any ; but he lost his 
whole crop, which he fancied by the application of the lime. 
As during winter a red oxide filtered from the compost heap, 
he again felt certain of the presence of iron. He submitted the 
compost to the test of burning, and having by that means got 
rid of the superabundant carbon, the magnet immediately de- 
tected the iron. He changed his soil, and has never lost since 
any melon jilants. The experiment proves that the old test of 
the loadstone may be defeated by the presence of other adherent 
matter ; for though it was inactive over the cold soil, it acted 
in full force upon the soil when, by roasting, it had discharged 
its gas. Wiiilea profitable experiment resulted on the one hand, 
a great amusement occurred on the other, with some greenhouse 
plants. He mi.\ed the compost fresh from the ditcli with water, 
and fouiid a precipitation of iron. He used the soil and water 
to Ilydn'ingui hurtcnsis, a cutting from the common pink variety, 
and it so altered the pink colour of the flower to purple, as to 
form a new ))lant. He applied the same to other j)lants, in 
some of which it altered the colour of the flowers, but in others 
it liad no efl"ect. 
Estimalc of sorts, — Examine the list. The cantaloups are in 



the highest estimation for quality and neatness, although not 
uniformly such great bearers as others in the list. 

Time of beginning to force. — " From the time of sowing, 
ripe fruit may be cut in about fifteen weeks, as an average 
period ; when many short and winter days fall in the course, it 
may last eighteen weeks; but when the forcing is not commenced 
until the days are nearly twelve hours long, and continually 
lengthening, ripe fruit is sometimes cut in ten weeks. The pe- 
riod also depends upon the sort. Little time is gained by begin- 
ning excessively early. The early and main crops are commonly 
originated from the middle of January to the first week of Fe- 
bruary, the latter or succession crops at the beginning of March ; 
and late crops, intended to fruit at the end of summer, in the 
middle of April. M'Phail and Nicol sow in January. " The 
latter says, " I formerly cut melons for three years successively 
on the 15th, 12th, and lOlh of May, and never sowed before 
the last week of January or 1st of February. In 1788, when 
at Rainham Hall in Norfolk, I sowed melons on the 12th of 
March, and cut ripe fruit on the 20th of May. 1 he kind was 
the Early golden cantaloup. This shows how little is to be 
gained, or rather how much may be lost by early forcing." 

Funning the seed-hed. — The plants may be originated in a 
cucumber-bed, and this is the general practice ; but Abercrom- 
bie prefers a separate bed, built a slight degree higher than 
for the cucuinber at the same season, and adapted to a one or 
two-light frame, according to the quantity to be raisetl." Nicol 
raises the melon almost exactly in the same manner as he does 
the cucumber. 

Choice of seed. — " Seed under the age of two years is apt to 
run too much to vine, and show more male than female 
blossoms ; but new seed may be mellowed by being carried in 
the pocket a fortnight or more, till the heat of the body 1/as 
dried and hardened it Seed 20 years old has been known 
to grow and make fruitful plants, but seed that has been kept 
3 or 4 years is quite old enough, and less likely to fail than 
older." M'Phail says it is best not to sow melon seed till it be 
2 or 3 years old. It cannot be too old if it be sound and 
grow well. Nicol says, " I have sown melon seeds 20 years 
old, from which I have raised very healthy and fruitful plants." 
Kal. p. 396. Miller and Nicol say young melon seeds may be 
worn in the pocket, near the body, for several months previous 
to sowing, which has the effect of fully maturing them. " If 
seeds of the last season," Nicol observes, " be sown without 
taking this precaution, or something similar, the plants will not 
be fruitful, but will run much to vine, and show chiefly male 
blossoiTis." — Kal. p. 396. 

Sowing. — Abercrombie says, " Having moulded the bed, 
and proved the heat, sow in pans 3 inches or pots 4 inches deep, 
rather than in the earth of the bed. Sow a second portion in 
5 or 7 days, to provide against failure. Do not at once plunge 
the pots to the rims." — Pr. gard. p. 108. 

Treatment till removed to the fniiting-pit. — " As soon as the 
plants appear, give air cautiously, guarding the aperture with 
matting at night and on frosty or gloomy days. At favourable 
opportunities wipe the condensed steam from the glasses. When 
the seed-leaves are about half an inch broad, prick the plants 
into small pots, 5 inches in diameter, 3 in each pot, giving a 
little aired water just to their roots, then plunge the pots into 
the earth of the hot-bed partially or to the rims, according to 
the heat. Adn)it fresli air every day in moderate weather, at 
the upper end of the lights, raised an inch or two, according to 
the tenqjeratnre of the external air, more freely when sunny than 
cloudy, shutting closer or quite close as the afternoon advances 
towards the evening, or sooner, if tiie weather changes cuttingly 
cold, and cover the glasses every night with mats, and uncover 
in the morning, as soon as the sun is high enougli to reach the 



CUCURBITACE^. IV, Cucumis. 



9 



frames. Give occasionally a very liglit watering, vvlien the 
earth appears dry. As tlie plants advance into the first rough 
leaves, tiie first runner-bud in the centre should be stopped, 
by cutting or pinching the top off, close to the first or second 
joint, an operation which strengthens the plants, and promotes 
a lateral issue of fruitful runners. Be careful to sujiport a 
regular tenor of heat in the bed, by laying first an outward 
casing of straw-litter round the sides, to defend it from the 
weather ; afterwards, if the heat declines, remove the above 
casing, and apply a moderate lining of hot dung to one or 
more of the sides. In matting at night, be careful not to drive 
the rank steam of the linings into the beds, by letting the ends 
of the mats hang down." 

Fruiliiig-bed. — Form it as directed for the cucumber-bed, but 
6 inches deeper. IM'Phail savs, " 4 feet hi;^h, and after it has 
stood about a week, tread it down, and make it level, and set 
the frames upon it." 

Moulding the bed. — Abercrombie directs to " mould it by 
degrees to 8, 10, or 12 inches' depth, first laying the compost 
in little hills of that thickness, one under each light, with the 
intervals earthed only 2 or 3 inches for the present, till the 
general heat is moderated." M'Phail lays in, under each light, 
a small hill of earth about 1 foot high. 

Planting. — When the earth of the hills is warmed by the heat 
of the bed, and the plants have leaves 2 or 3 inches broad, 
or have begun to push lateral runners, turn them out of the pots, 
with the ball of earth entire ; set a ball containing one plant in 
the middle of each hill, inserted clean over the ball ; or set at 
most 2 plants under the centre of a large light. After planting, 
give a gentle watering over the hills and round the roots, 
avoiding to wet the shanks of the plants ; shut down the glasses 
close, till the heat and steam arise, then give air moderately. 
Extend a slight shade over the glasses in the middle part of 
warm summer days, if the plants shrink or flag their leaves 
before fully rooted in the hills, which they will be in 2, S, or 4 
days after planting." 

Temperature. — " The melon requires a minimum heat of about 
65° from the time of germination till the fructification, and the 
heat of about 75° to fruit in." — Abercrombie. M'Phail, as 
appears from the table in his " Gardener's Remembrancer," 
kept his melon and cucumber frames at the same temperature ; 
stating, that if any person kept melon or cucumber plants in 
the same degrees of heat, they will not fail of success. Nicol's 
medium heat for melons is 70°. The proper temperature must 
be kept up by repeated linings, at least till the middle of July. 
After that, sun-heat may suffice to ripen the crop. Till this 
season the greatest care is necessary not to burn or overheat 
the plants. M'Phail says, " examine daily with your hand the 
heat of the bed, pushing your fingers into the dung imme- 
diately under the hills of earth in which the plants grow ; and if 
you find the heat likely to be too powerful, pour cold water all 
round the bottom of the hills of earth, to lower the heat of 
the bed. Remember this must be daily attended to till the 
heat of the bed be so deL-iined in the middle, that the roots of 
the plants be in no danger of being hurt by the heat of the 
dung under them. In case this necessary precaution has been ne- 
glected, till the heat immediately under the stems of the plants has 
become too hot, pour plenty of viater 80° warm round about the 
sides of the hills in which the plants grow, and among the stems of 
the plants, which will bring the earth and dung immediately under 
the plants to the same degree of heat as the water which is 
poured into it. When the heat in the middle of the bed be- 
comes so cool that there is no fear of its being too great for 
the roots of the plants, watering that part of the bed to keep 
the burning heat down of course must cease, and as the roots 
of the plants extend, earth may be added to the hills. As 

VOL. III. 



soon as the heat of tlie bed declines, linings must be aj)plied 
to it, which will set it into a fresh fermentation, and then the 
surface upon the bed must be examined occasionally, by push- 
ing the hand into it in different parts, and when a burning heat 
is felt, pour in some water as before directed. In this way you 
should persevere, still keeping a strong heat in the linings. 
Remember that the surface of the bed all round about the hills 
should be left uncovered with earth, and the dung should be 
loosened occasionally, to let the heat rise freely to nourish the 
plants." In July, " melons will do without heat in the linings, 
but I found by experience that they do best by keeping a heat 
in the linings all the summer. If a heat be kept on constantly 
in the linings, and the plants watered sufficiently, they w^ill 
continue to produce fruit till the middle of October." 

Air. — As long as weak steam is perceived to rise from the 
bed, leave an aperture, even at night, for it to escape ; guard- 
ing against the influx of cold air by a curtain of matting. 
Admit fresh air to the plants by tilting the glasses more or less 
at the most favourable hours in a dry day. After the bed has 
come to a sweet heat, shut down close at night. As the fruit 
enlarges, it becomes more necessary to seize every proper 
opportunity of admitting air ; raising the lights from 1 to 4 
inches, according to the season, the heat of the bed, and tem- 
perature of the external air, shutting close if that should turn 
cold, and always timely towards evening. As confirmed summer 
approaches, admit air still more freely. Nicol says, " air should 
be freely admitted, though not in such quantity as for the cu- 
cumbers, which do not require so high a temperature as melons 
do. In sunshine, however, the mercury in the thermometer 
should be kept down, by the admission of air to about 80° or 
75°." M'Phail says, " look into your melon-pits in the morn- 
ing, and if there is a dew on them, standing like beads round 
the edges of the young leaves, it is a good sign ; but if there is 
no dew on them, in the form I have described, they are not 
in a very prosperous condition. The air in the frames is not 
sweet ; they either want water or sprinkling of water, or else 
the heat of the air in the frames is too great in the night. In 
hot weather melons are better to have air left at them all night, 
and in very warm weather to take the glasses entirely off in the 
evening, and put them on again in the morning : by this means 
the plants will get refreshment from the dew in the night." 

fVater. — After the plants are ])laced on the hills, give oppor- 
tunely gentle waterings, increasing them as the season and the 
growth of the plants advance. " Water circumspectly and 
scantily while the fruit is setting or young in growth, as 
too much moisture would make it decay. Take a warm morn- 
ing for watering before the middle of May ; in summer the 
afternoon or evening. Use soft water warmed to the air of the 
frame, and let as little as possible fall on the setting or new set 
young fruit ; nor much near the main head of the plants, for 
fear of rotting that part. Shut down the lights after watering 
for a short time ; and if in the morning part, and a strong sun, 
spread a mat over, to prevent the sun from injuring the plants 
by acting on the water lodged on the spray of the leaves. As a 
strong steam will now arise, remove the mats in an hour or two, 
and raise the glasses at the top, to give vent to the steam and 
give air to the plants. As the fruit becomes nearly ripe, lessen 
the quantity of water given, barely keeping the plant from 
flagging, and withhold water when the fruit begins to turn 
colour." Nicol says, " water once in 4 or 5 days in the after- 
noon, watering over the foliage. Repeat the waterings oftener, 
as the season and the growth of the plants and fruit advance, in 
order to swell them out the better." — Kalendar, p. 387. M'Phail 
says, " If the weather is warm and dry, the melons will pro- 
bably sometimes require water twice a week ; if the weather 
is wet and cloudy, they will not require it so often." — Gard, 



10 



CUCURBITACEiE 

leaves of melons sus- 



Rem. p. 300. Kniijlit, finding that the 
tained great injury from the weight of the water falling from 
the watering-pot, pours the water on the tiles which cover the 
surface of the bed. See Training. 

EartliinfT.^Viiri'orm this operation as directed for the cu- 
cumber, after the heat of the dung has become moderate, earth- 
ing up by degrees the intervals between the hills, till the depth 
of^the eartli becomes equal. Eight or ten inches' depth of earth 
M'Pliail states to be enough for the roots of the plants to run 
in, provided the bed or fermenting mass beneath be made of 
leaves of trees, or of dung well prepared ; for if the bed under 
tiie earth be in a good state, the roots will grow into it, 
and draw from thence considerable nourishment to the plants. 
1'he roots of the melon do not naturally run deep, they extend 
horizontally not far from the surface, especially in forcing frames, 
where the moist warm air is more confined than in the open 
atmosphere.— Gard. Rem. p. 03. In early forcing, leave un- 
filled up with earth a space of about 7 or 8 inches wide, against 
the inside of the frames, immediately adjoining the hot linings. 
" By this method the heat of the linings do more powerfully 
warm the air in the frames, than if the earth was made level 
home to the sides of the boards of the frames to which the 
linings adjoin. But if melons be not planted earlier than the 
montli of May, this precaution need not be attended to, unless 
the weather prove uncommonly cold, and but little sunshine." 

Training. — As the plants advance into the first runners, 3 or 
four joints in length, if no, fruit be sliown, stop them at the 
third joint, in order that they may produce fruitful laterals ; 
and as the runners extend, train them over the surface of the 
bed with neat pegs. Many of these runners, as the plant pro- 
ceeds, will show embryo fruit at the joints ; but a great many 
barren ones are occasionally produced, and hence it becomes 
necessary to regulate them. Abercrombie says, " cut out the 
superabundant, unfruitful, or evidently useless shoots, especially 
the very weak and most luxuriant, for the middle-sized are the 
most fertile." Nicol says, " melons should be kept moderately 
thin of vines, though not so thin as cucumbers (the foliage 
being smaller), which should never be much lopped at one time, 
as they arc also apt to bleed. All bruised, damped, or decayed 
leaves should be carefidly picked oft^ as they appear, and the 
plants should be kept clear from weeds, or any rubbish that 
may he conveyed into the frames by wind or otherwise. 
M'Phail directs to " cut out from the melon-frames all super- 
fluous or decaying shoots. Stop shoots a joint or two before 
the fruit, and also cut oft' the ends of the long running slioots 
immediately before showing fruit, if there is a leading shoot 
coming out by the side of it ; for you ought to remember always 
in pruning melons, that a fruit will not swell well except there 
be a growing shoot before it ; and tliis shoot, which is called a 
leader, because it leads or draws the sap from the roots to and 
past the fruit, should be stopped before a joint, that will, if 
the plant is in good health, sprout out again. Do not let your 
plants get too full of leaves, and cut off the oldest and worst 
leaves first. This ought to be done at least once or twice a 
week, by which method they will be nearly always in a medium 
state of thinness, and the plants and fruit will derive advantages 
which tiny would be deprived of were they suffered to become 
over-crowded with leaves and shoots, and then a great many 
cut out at one time. If melons are of a large kind, no more 
than one or two should be left on a plant to swell ofl' at one 
time ; if smaller three or four fruit may be left." — Gard. Rem. 
p. 2TS. Knight, in an ingenious and philosopliical paper on 
the culture of the melon, states " that his crops of melons 
failed, because watering over the foliage, pruning, weeding, &c. 
had removed the leaves, on the extended branches, from their 
proper position, and these leaves, being heavy, broad, slender 



IV. CuCUMIS. 

and feeble, on long footstall<s, were never able to regain it. 
In consequence, a large portion of that foliage which pre- 
ceded or was formed at the same period with the blossoms, and 
which nature intended to generate sap to feed the fruit, became 
diseased and sickly, and consequently out of office, before the 
fruit acquired maturity." To remedy this defect, the plants 
were placed at greater distances from each other, viz. one plant 
of the Salonica variety, to each light of G feet long by 4 feet 
wide. The earth was covered with tiles, and the branches 
trained in all directions, and hooked down over them with pegs. 
They were thus secured from being disturbed from their first 
position, the leaves were held erect, and at an equal distance 
from the glass, and enabled, if slightly moved from their proper 
position, to regain it. " I, however, still found that the leaves 
sustained great injury from the weight of the water falling from 
the watering-pot ; and I therefore ordered the water to be 
poured from a vessel of a proper construction, upon the brick 
tiles, between the leaves without at all touching them, and thus 
managed, I had the pleasure to see that the foliage remained 
erect and healthy. The fruit also grew with very extraordinary 
rapidity, ripened in an unusually short time, and acquired a 
degree of perfection which I had never previously seen. As 
soon as a sufficient quantity of fruit, between 20 and 30 pounds 
on each plant, is set, I would recommend the further produc- 
tion of foliage to be prevented, by pinching off the lateral shoots 
as soon as produced, wherever more foliage cannot be exposed 
to the light. No part of the full grown leaves shoidd ever be 
destroyed ; however distant from the fruit and growing on a 
distinct branch of the plant, they still contribute to its support ; 
and hence it arises, that when a plant has as great a number of 
growing fruit upon part of its branches, as it is capable of 
feeding, the blossoms upon other branches, which extend in an 
opposite direction, prove abortive." — Loud, encycl. gard. p. (318. 

Setting.—" As the fruit bearers come into blossom, you may 
assist the setting of the fruit, by impregnating some of the female 
blossoms with the male flowers, as described for the cucumber. 
The melon, however, will also set naturally, and produce fertile 
seeds, if the time of fructification fall at a season when the 
glasses can be left almost constantly open." — Abercrombie. 
Nicol says, " he has proved experimentally, that melons not 
impregnated will not swell off so fair and handsome as im- 
pregnated ones, and, therefore, considers it more necessary to 
attend to this operation in melons than in cucumbers. There- 
fore let nature be assisted in this work, considering that she is 
more under restraint here than if the plants grew in the open 
air, where the wind, insects, and other casualties, might be 
helped." — Kalend. p. 384. 

Care of fruit. — " As the fruit increases to the size of a walnut, 
place a flat tile or slate under each to protect it from the damp 
of the earth ; the slab thus interposed will also assist the fruit 
to ripen, by reflecting the rays of the sun." — Abercrombie. 
M'Phail says, " The fruit should lie upon dry tiles. When 
the fruit is young, it is better to have a gentle shade of leaves, 
but when it is full swelled, it should be entirely exposed to the 
sun." Nicol advises placing the fruit on bits of slate or glass 
some time before it begins to ripen, as the flavour might else 
be tainted, but by no means slate or moss the whole surface of 
the bed, lest you encourage the red spider. Think on the re- 
flection of the sun upon the slates or tiles, in hot weather par- 
ticularly, and of his additional force in shining through glass. 
It is more consonant to the nature of the plants that they be 
trained on the earth. By mossing the surface, the indolent may 
find a pretext, as it no doubt, in some measure, lessens the 
labour of watering. But it is wrong to do so, in so far as it har- 
bours and encourages the breeding of various insects, and as the 
fruit approaches to maturity, taints it with an unpleasant effluvia." 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



11 



Time of maturation. — " Tlie interval between the setting of the 
fruit and perfect maturity is generally from 30 to 40 days ; but 
the plants in the same bed, and the vines on the same plant, 
often show some diHerence in the time of reaching maturity." — 
Abercrombie. 

Cutting the fruit. — " Ripe melons are distinguislied by their 
full size ; sometimes by turning yellowish, more constantly by 
imparting an agreeable odour, often by the base of the footstalk, 
close to the fruit, cracking in a little circle. On these indica- 
tions, the fruit should be cut before too mellow or dead ripe, 
that it may eat with a lively sharp flavour. The morning is the 
time for cutting." Melons, Nicol observes, " if allowed to 
remain on the plant till they be of a deep yellow colour (which 
many do) lose much of their flavour. They should, therefore, 
be cut as soon as they begin to change to a greenish yellow, or 
rather, as soon as they begin to smell ripe. They may lie in 
the frame for a day or two, if not immediately wanted, where 
they will acquire sufficient colour. But if they are let remain 
many days in the frame, they will become as insipid as if they 
had been left too long on the plant." 

Saving seed. — " The ordinary mode is to request the seeds of 
particularly fine fruits, of approved sorts, to be returned from 
table. The best way, however, is to pick some of the best 
ripe fruit, take out the seed, clean it from the pulp, and let it 
be well dried and hardened, and then put it up in paper." — 
Abercrombie. Nicol says, " wash it very clean, skimming off 
the light seeds, as those only that sink in water will grow." — 
Kal. p. 396. Great care must be taken that the sorts, from 
which seeds are saved, are genuine and distinct. When different 
sorts are planted in the same frame, this cannot be the case. 

Second crop from the same 2)lants. — " When the fruit of the 
first crop is off", a second crop may be obtained from the stools, 
which often proves more productive than the first. If the first 
crop is taken before the middle of June, the second will come 
in at a very good time. For this purpose, as soon as the fruit 
is cut, prune the plant, shorten the vigorous healthy runners at 
a promising joint. At the same time take off all decayed leaves, 
stir the surface of the mould, and renew it partially by 3 inches' 
depth of fresh compost. Water the plant copiously, shutting 
down the glasses for the night. Shade in the middle of hot 
days, and give but little air until the plants have made new 
radicles and shoots. Afterwards repeat the course of culture 
above described, from the stage when the first runners are sent 
out till the fruit is cut." Nicol says, " When all the fruit of 
the first crop are cut, suppose in 3 or 4 weeks, the plants may 
be pruned for the production of a second crop, equal and 
perhaps superior to the first. They should be cut pretty much 
in, in order to cause them to push plenty of new vines, which 
will be very fruitful, observing always to cut at a joint of some 
promise, and to thin out all decayed or unhealthy vines, dead 
leaves, &c. Observe also to cut an inch or two above the joint 
you expect to push, and then to bruise the end of the stem so 
lopped with the thumb and finger, which will, in a great mea- 
sure, ])revent it from bleeding. The plants should be shaded 
from the mid-day sun for a week or ten days, exposing them 
to his full rays by degrees. Now, also, let tlie mould in the 
frame be well watered, in order to put the roots in a state of 
active vegetation; point over the surface with a small stick, 
or little wedge, and cover the whole with about 2 inches of 
fresh mould. This will greatly encourage the plants, and cause 
them to make new fibres near the surface. At this period air 
need not be admitted very freely, es])ecially while the glasses 
are covered, but rather as it were endeavour to force the plants 
into new life. After they begin to shoot, water, admit air, 
prune, train, and otlierwise manage the plants as before directed. 
if the season be fine, they may yield you a third crop by a 



repetition of the above rules, coming in in September, which 
might be very gratifying. I once had 52 full-sized fruit pro- 
duced in a 3-light frame, a second crop, and two dozen on a 
third off the same plants, the early golden cantaloupe. Of the 
first crop 20 fruit, two were cut the 10th of May. Thus, a 
3-light box produced, in one season 102 full matured melons." 
M'Phail says " if you intend to have melons as long as there 
is a sufficiency of sun to ripen them tolerably well, you had best 
put linings of warm dung to some of your beds. These, if 
applied in time and kept on, will cast fresh heat into the beds, 
and, with other necessary assistance, the plants will grow as 
long as you want them." 

Plan of obtaining a second crop of melons. — " When the first 
crop of fruit is nearly gathered, cuttings are taken from the 
extremities of the shoots which show the most fruit ; these are 
cut off' close under the second advanced joint, or about the fifth 
leaf from the top ; the two largest leaves at the bottom of the 
cutting are taken off, and thus prepared, are inserted in 24- 
sized pots, two in each pot, in light rich soil, gently shaken down. 
After being watered, the pots are placed in a 1 -light frame, on 
a hot-bed previously prepared, and plunged in the moder- 
ately dry soil, with which it is covered. The frame is kept 
close and shaded for a few days, and in a week the cuttings 
will have struck root. The old melon-plants, with the soil in 
wliich they grew, are now all cleared out of the frames, fresh 
soil to the depth of 12 inches put in, and the beds well lined 
with fresh dung. In 10 days from the time of inserting the 
cuttings they will be ready to plant out, which is done in the 
usual way. When the plants have pushed about 14 inches, 
the end of each shoot is pinched off, to cause them to produce 
fresh runners, and the fruit which showed on the cuttings will 
swell rapidly, and in 3 weeks after replanting the beds, abun- 
dance of fine fruit may be expected. This way of getting a 
second crop is fiir more certain than either pruning back the 
old plants, or planting seedlings ; because cuttings grow less 
luxuriantly, are less liable to casualties, and are much more 
prolific." — Harrison ex Loud. gard. mag. 2. p. 414. 

Cultivation of the Persian varieties of the melon. — T. A. 
Knight (Hort. reg. no. G. p. 263.) erected a small forcing- 
house for the exclusive culture of this fruit, and grew tliem by 
means of fire heat. This house consists of a back wall, nearly 
nine feet high, and a front wall nearly 6 feet, inclosing a hori- 
zontal space 9 feet wide and 30 feet long. The fire-place is at 
the east end and very near the front wall ; and the flue passes 
to the other end of the house, within 4 inches of the front wall, 
and returns back again, leaving a space of 8 inches only be- 
tween the advancing and returning course of it, and the smoke 
escapes at the north-east corner of the building. The front 
flue is composed of bricks laid flat, in order to give a temperate 
permanent heat, and the returning one with them standing on 
their edges, the usual way. The space between the flues is 
filled with fragments of burnt bricks, which absorb much water, 
and generally give out moisture to the air of the house. Air 
is admitted through apertures in the front wall, which are 4 
inches wide and nearly 3 in height, and which are situated level 
with the top of the flues, and are IS inches distant from each 
other. The air escapes through similar apertures near the top 
of the back wall. These are left open, or partially or wholly 
closed, as circumstances require. Thirty-two pots are placed 
upon the flues, each being IC inches wide and 14 inches deep ; 
but they are raised by a piece of stone or brick to prevent their 
coming in actual contact with the flues. In each of these pots 
one melon-plant is put, and afterwards trained upon a trellis, 
placed about 14 inches distant from the glass, and cadi plant 
is permitted to bear but one melon only. The height from the 
ground at which the trellis is placed, is such as can be con- 
c 2 



12 



CUCURBITACE^. IV. Cucumis. 



veniently walked under, to discover the appearance of red 
spiders or other noxious insects ; and by tliis method two, and 
even three crops may be obtained in one season. Being so 
liable to burst, Mr. Kniglit raised the points of the fruit higher 
than the stems, and not one failed to ripen in a perfect state ; 
they were found to rijjen very well hanging perpendicularly, but 
the hpalian grew very deformed. 

Laic crop on old hot-beds. — To ripen melons, not earlier than 
the month of August, M'Phail " generally made beds of dung 
which iiad first been used for linings to the early cucumber and 
melon-beds. For this purpose, this kind of dung is better than 
new dung, because it does not heat violently, and for a consider- 
able time keeps its heat. Leaves of trees make very good 
melon-beds, but they do not produce heat enough alone for 
linings ; but of whatever materials melon-beds be made, the 
air in the frames among the plants should be kept sweet and 
strong, otherwise the plants will not grow freely. It may be 
known whether the air be sweet or whether it be not, by putting 
the head in under the lights and smelling it. But it frequently 
liappcns to be difficult to bring dung-beds into a requisite state 
of kindliness for these delicate plants, for if the dung by any 
means get and retain too much water, before its noxious 
vapours pass oft^ by evaporation, it will stagnate and become 
sour, and until these pernicious qualities be removed, which 
requires time and patience, the plants will not grow kindly ; and 
besides this, although corrupted, stinking air hinders the growth 
of plants of the melon kind, it greatly promotes the health and 
forwards the breeding of different kinds of insects, which feed 
upon and otherwise hurt fruits and plants, and esculent veget- 
ables of various kinds." 

A method of growing the melon, adopted by Mr. Lovell, (Gard. 
tnag. 7. p. 461.) varies in one or two very essential points 
from any that he has seen practised ; first in well bedding and 
firmly rooting the plants to support a good crop of fruit; second 
in early setting and preserving the first fruit, and forcing the 
whole of the plants luxuriantly through the whole of the period 
necessary for their maturity. To effect this he prepares his bed 
with dung well watered and fermented, or tan, not wishing such 
a strong heat as for cucumbers. He sows his seeds in pots, 
in which the plants remain until they are turned into the hills, 
leaving only 3 plants in each pot. These he places in the dung, 
in order to start them as soon as the bed is made up, unless 
there should be another bed in use at the same time. As soon 
as the second rough leaf appears, he puts a hill of good melon 
soil under each light, composed of good loam and turf, adding 
a sixth part of good rotten dung, well mixed with the spade, 
but not sifted. This he waters if dry, and treads in the 
hills firmly, making a hole in the centre, and turning out a 
pot of plants with the ball entire into each hole. Should the 
weather be very warm, he waters them overhead abundantly, 
and in the space of a fortnight they will have grown to four 
or five joints each : he then stops them down to three joints. 
By this time the heat of the bed wUl have become reduced to 
such a temperature as to allow of moulding up the plants, well 
heading in and watering as you proceed. As the plants will 
at this time be strongly rooted, and in vigorous growth, in the 
course of three days they will have pushed a strong shoot from 
each of the three eyes in a horizontal direction, and they will 
seldom fail of showing fruit at the first joint ; you may rely at 
least on two out of three of these fruits setting. Before the 
fruit comes to blossom, the bed must be covered li inch thick 
with dry sand, but mould will do, and do not water the bed 
any more for at least 3 weeks. This prevents the newly 
formed fruit from turning yellow and damping off. All shoots 
that appear, except the three above mentioned, must be removed. 
As these shoots will show fruit at the first or second joint, if 



such fruit be set and taken care of, it will be three parts grown 
before the vines will have reached the outside of the bed, arriv- 
ing at perfection in nearly half the time it would have done if 
the vines had been left in confusion. Particular care must be 
taken in pruning, never to stop the three shoots that bear the 
fruit, nor yet the lateral ones produced from the same joint as 
the fruit. These lateral shoots will show fruit at the first joint, 
which fruit must be preserved until the other is swelling, then 
take off this lateral shoot, but do not stop the vine. But shoidd 
any accident happen to the other fruit, the shoot bearing it 
must be taken off, and the lateral shoot treated as a main one, 
when the fruit on it will swell accordingly ; and all the laterals 
that spring from the main shoot must be stopped, leaving one 
joint and leaf only. 

On the cultivation of the melon. — J. Holland (Gard. mag. 7. 
p. 575.) plants off his seedlings singly in 60-sized pots, and 
when sufficiently advanced in growth they are stopped so near 
the seed-leaf, as only to admit of them tlirowing out 2 lateral 
shoots, and when these principal leaders extend to 2 or 3 joints, 
they are finally planted out into frames or pits, having the bot- 
tom heat arranged according to the advanced state of the spring 
months. Five melons were produced by a plant set in the 
centre of a two-light frame in the beginning of May, upon an 
old bed that had been previously employed for raising radishes. 
A dung lining was added to the back and one end of the frame, 
which was all the artificial heat the plant received, one vine 
was trained to the back and the other to the front of the frame. 
His practice is never to stop the vines until they have extended 
as far as their confinement will permit, and the laterals from the 
two leading vines, as they advance in growth, are trained to the 
right and left over the bed with neat pegs, and every fruit blos- 
som, as it expands, is carefully impregnated and placed upon a 
tile under the shade of a neighbouring leaf. In a day or two, 
or as soon as he thinks the fruit will set, he stops the vine at 
the first or second joint beyond it. In this way he proceeds, 
in setting all the fruit he can, until the surface of the bed is 
covered with foliage, which is never deranged more than can be 
avoided. While the fruit is setting, he gives air very freely, 
sometimes he draws the lights quite off for a few hours on sunny 
days, and he also, by applying or withholding heat or water, 
endeavours to keep them in a state betwixt luxuriance and de- 
bility, for in either extreme they will not set well. Having 
advanced thus far, he commences swelling them off. He begins 
this with pinching off all the ends of the lateral shoots that 
have not already been stopped to assist the young fruit. He 
now gives no more air than will prevent the sun from scorching 
their leaves. He looks over them every morning, and takes off 
all the blossoms as they appear, and stops every young shoot 
back to one joint above that of the vine which produces it. He 
watches over them every afternoon in fine weather, and before 
the sun has quite left the frame, he syringes or waters them all 
over, leaves, fruit, and all, and shuts down the glasses for the 
night. He always prefers performing this while the departintr 
rays of the sun have sufficient strength to raise a sweet vaporous 
heat of about 90°, which serves them to feast upon long after 
the sun has disappeared. A few days of such treatment will 
determine which fruit will take the lead in swelling off, out of 
which he selects 2 or 3 to each plant, according to the sort, 
and all the rest he cuts away. As the fruit advances in growth, 
it is necessary at intervals to turn them a little on the tiles, to 
prevent them from growing flat, and discolouring on one side, 
and also from rotting. When they have attained as large a size 
as he thinks the sort will admit, he leaves off waterinu-, and 
again gives all the air he can, by taking the lights entirely off 
when the weather is favorable ; and if the season is not too 
far advanced, he leaves them to ripen without any other assist- 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



13 



ance. For an early crop of melons, he grows the small early 
cantaloup, 1 plant in a light when the frame is narrow, and 'Z 
if wide, with 2 or 3 fruit on each plant, which in general 
wei^h from 2 to 3 pounds each. He succeeds these witli the 
scarlet and grcen-Jlcsh, planted and trained as above, the pro- 
duce of which is from 2 to 6 pounds. His principal crop is, 
however, from the black rock, which he has grown of all sizes 
up to 13i lbs. weight; the plants are much more hardy than 
many other sorts, it is a good bearer, the fruit handsome, and 
the flavour excellent. The sort which he grew so large was 
originally from France, and in its primeval state was a rock ; 
but it has lately been strongly impregnated with the scarletflesh, 
which fruit it now resembles in all its cliaracters, except in 
growing much larger. The largest melon weighed 24|^ lbs. 
The above is Mr. Holland's general practice of cultivating the 
melon, which practice he says he will still continue to adhere to 
unless fully convinced he can adopt a better. 

Insects and diseases. — To prevent melon plants from being 
infested with insects or injured by diseases of any kind, no bet- 
ter method can be adopted than to keep the plants constantly in 
a healthy, vigorous, growing state ; for this purpose, M'Phail 
observes, " they must be constantly attended to, giving them 
plenty of heat and water. In warm weather in the spring and 
the summer, they should be watered occasionally all over the 
fruit and leaves, till the earth in which they grow be thoroughly 
moistened, and a stronger heat than usual be kept in the frames 
about the plants for a few hours ; also the lights should be shut 
down every afternoon, with a good strong heat among the plants. 
If there be sufficient moisture in the earth the greatest sun heat 
in the afternoon will not hurt the plants, but it might scorch the 
sides of the large fruit, exposed to the sun-beams operating 
upon the glass, which should be guarded against. The frames 
and lights should be kept clean and painted over once every 
year. Melon plants are subject to be infested and hurt by the 
mildew and by the canker. These diseases come upon them 
because they are not in a good climate, they have not a suffi- 
ciency of heat, or the dung and earth of the bed is in a stagnated 
state. Melon plants are liable to be greatly injured by an insect 
called the red spider, which increases surprisingly in hot dry 
weather. As I said before, nothing will prevent plants from 
the inroads of disease and insects but heat, sweet air, and a 
sufficiency of water, which sweetens the atmosphere, and makes 
it healthy for vegetables as well as for animals. And nothing 
will eradicate disease and insects from melon plants but good 
management, strong heat, and plenty of water given all over 
them. Diseased plants, or plants much infested with insects, 
cannot produce good healthy fruit. The mildew is a most 
pernicious disease to all sorts of plants. On melons it gener- 
ally makes its first appearance on the oldest leaves and on the 
extremities of the young shoots. The cause of it, I apprehend, 
is unhealthy nourishment comprehended in the elements, or their 
not harmonising in the promotion of the growth of the plant ; 
for by practitioners it may be observed, that when a dung hot- 
bed gets into a stagnated sour state, the plants do not grow 
kindly, the air in the frames is saturated with unhealthy parti- 
cles, and so also must be the juices drawn into the plants by 
their roots. These must breed diseases, if preventive means 
be not applied. It cannot be reasonably supposed that plants 
of a delicate nature will continue in a healthy state growing 
upon aheap of stinking dung, and in confined air. When melon 
plants have become diseased, or much infested with the red 
spider, they should either be destroyed, or effectual means 
used to cure them. To destroy the plants is easy ; to cure 
them let the following methods be put in practice : get j)lenty of 
horse-dung thrown up in a large heap, turn it over once or 
twice, shaking and mixing it well, and let it lie till its rankness 



be somewhat evaporated, and if there be linings at the beds, 
take them entirely away, examine the dung of the beds, and if 
it be wet and has a bad smell, take a sharp-pointed stake, and 
make holes all round in the sides of the beds unto their centre, 
in such a slanting way that the water may easily run out of 
them ; then make a strong lining of the prepared dung all round 
the beds, and by occasional augmentations, keep up the linings 
nearly to a level with the surfiice of the earth in which the plants 
grow. As soon as the linings have cast a strong heat into the 
beds, scatter some Hour of sulphur all over the plants, and keep 
as strong a heat in the frames as the plants can bear ; a heat of 
120° will not destroy them, if the steam of the linings be pre- 
vented from getting in among the plants. Water the plants all 
over their leaves about once a week, with clean water 100° warm, 
and if the sun shine keep the lights close shut down all day, 
and cover them up in the evenings, leaving a little air all night 
at each light, to prevent a stagnation of air among the plants. 
Continue this process till the mildew and the insects disappear, 
and the plants appear to grow freely, and afterwards manage 
them in the usual way, taking care to keep up a good strong 
heat in the linings. This method sets the old stagnated bed in 
a state of fermentation, which makes (he moisture run out of 
it, and dries it so, that water given to the plants has free liberty 
to pass off. If the linings do not heat the air in the frames 
sufficiently, let some of the earth in the inside all round the 
sides of the boards be removed, to let the heat from the linings 
rise freely in the frame." 

Culture of melons in a dung-pit. — " A glazed pit to receive 
either stable-dung, leaves, or tanners' bark, is calculated to ripen 
superior fine fruit. The well of the pit may be formed either 
by a nine-inch wall, or by strong planking, a yard in depth, 
from 6-8 feet wide, and in length from 10-20 feet or more as 
required. A low glass-case is to be fitted to it, adapted to the 
growth of the melon. Having raised the plants in a small seed- 
bed, as for the frame crop, ridge them out into the pit in the 
usual manner. Give the proper subsequent culture, and when 
the strength of the fermenting mass begins to decline, add linings 
outside the pit, if inclosed by boards, but if inclosed by a 
nine-inch wall, cut away as much of the dung and earth within, 
and throw it out, as will admit a lining of well-tempered dung." 
— Abercrombie. 

Culture of melons in a flued pit. — One such as that proper 
for the nursing pinery is here understood ; and the plants being 
raised in the usual way, and the bed, whether filled with dung, 
tan, or leaves, or a mixture of these, being moulded, plant about 
the end of July. Nicol prefers for such late crops " the early 
golden cantaloup, the orange cantaloup, and the netted canta- 
loup, planting a part of the pit with each." A very mild bottom 
heat is sufficient for the purpose here in view ; and if the pit 
has been occupied in forcing asparagus, French -beans, or straw- 
berries, on a bark, or a bark and dung, or on a bark and leaf 
heat, it will require no other preparation than to be stirred up 
and have a little fresh materials added, keeping the fresh bark, 
dung, or leaves well down, and finishing the bed with some of the 
smallest and best reduced. When it has settled a few days, let 
it be moulded all over to the thickness of 12 or 15 inches ; pre- 
viously laying on a little more of the above small materials, in 
order to keep the plants well up to the glass, as the bed will 
fall considerably in the settling. It should be formed, and the 
mould should be laid on in a sloping manner from back to front, 
so as in some measure to correspond with the glasses. All 
being ready for tho plants, they may either be planted in a row, 
in the middle of the pit, at 2 feet apai t, or may be planted in 
4 rows at 4 feet apart ; or, if they have been planted in nursing, 
3 in a pot ; plant in the centre of each light, as directed for 
the common hot-bed, in March. Let them have a little water 



14 



CUCURBITACE^. IV. Cucumis. 



and be sliadeil from the sun for a few days, exposing them to 
his rays by degrees. The future management of the plants dif- 
fer in nothing from that of melons in a hot-bed till September, 
when it will be proper to apply fire heat."—" About the begin- 
ning of September it will be proper to apply fire heat, in order 
to fiirther the progress of late fruit, and to dry oif damps. Let 
the fires be made very moderate at first, however, and increase 
their strength as the season becomes more cold and wet. Keep 
the mercury up to 70° in the night, and in the day by the addi- 
tion of air keep it down to about 80° or 75°. Very little water 
«ill now suffice for the plants, as their roots will be fully esta- 
blished, and be spread over the whole bed ; the heat of which 
will also now have subsided. They should only, therefore, have 
a little water once in 8 or 10 days, and as the fruit begin to 
ripen off, entirely withhold it. Keep the plants moderately thin 
of vines and foliage ; be careful to pick off all damped leaves 
as they appear ; and fully expose the fruit to the sun as it 
ripens, in the manner directed for melons in the hot-bed. In 
this manner I have often had melons in October and November 
fully swelled, and in good, but not of course in high perfection, 
for want of sun to give them flavour. Any who have a pit of 
this kind, however, for the forcing of early vegetables, straw- 
berries, flowers, &c. cannot, perhaps, occupy it to a better pur- 
pose in the latter part of the season, as the trouble is but little, 
and the expence not worth mentioning." 

Culture of melons in M'Phail's jut. — The inventor of this 
pit says, " For the purpose of raising melons early, for many 
years I cultivated them on a brick bed, on the same construc- 
tion as that which I invented for rearing early cucinnbers, ex- 
cepting only that through the pit of each 3-light box I carried 
no cross flues. When this bed was first set to work, I had the 
pits filled level with the surface of the flues, with well fermented 
dung or with the dung of old linings from the cucumber-bed. 
In each 3-light division I made the pit about 3 feet 6 inches 
wide and 10 feet long, and 3 feet deep below the surface of the 
flues. On the surface of the dung in the pits, I had laid about 
10 inches thick of good earth, in a ridge of about 20 inches 
wide, from one end of the pit to the other. When this was 
done, I made a lining round the bed, and as soon as the earth 
became warm, I set the plants into the ridge of the earth, and 
gave them a little water, and kept a strong heat in the frames, 
and filled up the pit gradually as the roots and plants extended 
themselves." — " The dung or leaves of trees in the pit require 
not to be changed every year, neither need the earth for the 
plants be removed entirely every season, for by experience I 
found it to do very well by digging, and mixing with it some 
fresh earth and manure in winter, and exposing it to the rains, 
the frost, and the snow." — " In forcing melons early, the surface 
of the cross flues, as well as the surrounding and outside ones, 
should be kept bare of moidd till the days of the spring get 
long, which will let the heat of the linings arise freely through 
the coversof the flues to warm the air among the plants. After 
the cross flues are covered with earth, those which surround 
each frame may be left uncovered till the month of May or 
June." — Card. rem. p. 64. 

The cidture in the brick bed is, in other respects, the same as 
that already given for melons in frames, and cucumbers in brick 
beds. See the monthly table of temperature under the cucumber. 
Culture under hand-glasses. — " A successive or late crop, to 
fruit in August and September, may be raised on hot-bed ridges 
under hand-glasses. Sow in a hot-bed from the middle of 
March to tlie middle of April. When the plants have been up 
a few days, while in the seed-leaves, prick some into small pots, 
two plants in each ; water and plunge them into a hot-bed, 
managing as directed for the young frame plants, till the rough 
leaves are from 2-4 inches long, and the plants ready to shoot into 



runners. From the middle of March to the third week of May, 
when the plants are a month or five weeks old, they will be fit to 
ridge out underhand-glasses. With well-prepared stable-dung, 
or, with a mixture of fermented tree-leaves, build the hot-bed four 
feet wide and 2 J feet thick, the length according to the number 
of glasses intended, allotting the space of 4 feet to each. In a 
week or ten days, or when the dung and leaves are brought to a 
sweet or well-tempered heat, mould the bed 1 or 12 inches thick, 
then i)lace the glasses along the middle, and keep them close 
till the bed has warmed the earth. The same, or next day, 
insert the plants ; turn them out from the pots with the ball of 
earth entire, and allotting plants for each glass, insert the ball 
into the earth, clean down over the top, closing the mould about 
the stems. Give a little water and place the glasses over close. 
From about nine in the morning till three in the afternoon, of 
the first two or three days, shade the plants till they have taken 
root, when admit the sim more freely, yet only by degrees from 
day to day, till they can bear it fully without flagging much. 
Give air daily, in temperate weather, by tilting the edge of the 
glasses on the south side, an inch or two ; but in the present 
stage of the plants shut close at night. Cover with mats till 
morning, constantly keeping the glasses over. Give occasional 
moderate waterings with aired water. Cover in the day time 
with mats in bad weather, or heavy or cold rains ; and continue 
the night covering until confirmed summer in July. Meanwhile 
attend to the heat of the bed ; if this be declined, so that the 
minimum temperature be not 65° at night, with the aid of mat- 
ting, line the sides with hot dung, covered with a layer of mould. 
The revived heat from the linings will forward the plants in 
fruiting, while the earth at top will enlarge the surface for the 
runners, and the bed for the roots. When the runners have 
extended considerably and filled the glasses, they must be trained 
out. Accordingly, at the beginning of June, in favourable 
settled warm weather, train out the runners, cutting away 
dwindling and useless crowding shoots ; then the glasses must 
be raised all round, 2 or 3 inches, upon props to remain day 
and night. Cover with mats in cold nights and bad weather, 
but first arch the bed over with rods or hoop-bands to sup- 
port the mats. Apply moderate waterings as necessary in the 
morning or afternoon. Oiled paper frames, formed either arch- 
wise, or with 2 sloping sides, about 2 feet or 2|- feet high, and 
of the width of the bed, are very serviceable in this stage. 
Some persons use them from the first, under a deficiency of 
hand-glasses. But the proper time for having recourse to them, 
is when the plants have been forwarded in hand-glasses till the 
runners require training out beyond the limits of the glasses, 
some time in June ; then removing the glasses, substitute the 
oiled frames, as these paper screens will entirely aftbrd pro- 
tection from heavy rains or tempests, as well as from nocturnal 
cold, and also screen the plants from the excessive heat of the 
sun, while, being pellucid, they admit its influence of light and 
warmth effectually. Give proper admission of free air below, 
and occasional watering. With respect, however, to the crop 
for which no oiled paper frames have been provided, continue 
the hand-glasses constantly on the bed, over the main head and 
stem of the plants throughout the season, to defend those capital 
parts from casual injuries by the weather. Throughout June, 
and thence to the decline of summer, be careful, if much rain 
or other unfavourable weather, or cold nights occur, to shelter 
the beds occasionally, with an awning of mats or canvass, par- 
ticularly when the plants are in blossom. Likewise turn in 
some of the best full set exterior fruit under the glasses, or 
some spare glasses might be put over the outside melons, to 
forward thsm without check to maturity. Some will be ready 
to cut in July, others in August, the more general time, and in 
September ; they being generally, after setting, from 30-40 days 



CUCURBITACETE. IV. Cucumis. 



15 



in ripeninc;. The crop coming in at the decline of summer 
will not 1 ipen well, unless guarded from cold at nights, and 
assisted by linings. The fruit that do not ripen may be used 
for mangoes. 

" ff'ide ridge, or the fruiting-bed, may be made 6, 7, or 8 
feet wide, for the plants to have an ample surface for their ex- 
tending runners, defended either with a regular frame, and glasses 
of proportionate dimensions, or a case formed of an inch and a 
half boarding, ranged connectedly along both sides of the bed, 
without any external cross divisions, other than top cross bars, 
to stay the sides and support the glasses." 

Method of groni7ig crops of melons in the open borders The 

mode of growing cucumbers on ridges ofshallow beds of half-spent 
dung in the open air, is well known to gardeners ; and in warm 
situations melons may be grown in the same manner. The sorts 
grown by Mr. Greenshiekls were the black rocks, gnen-Jleshed, 
netted, and early canlahiiip. The seeds of the first crop were 
sown about the middle of March, in pots in a cucumber-frame, 
and the bed or ridge was prepared in the first or second vveek 
in May, 4 feet wide, and 1 foot higher at the back or north 
side than in front. Hand-glasses, with 2 or 3 plants in each, 
are placed, 4 feet apart, along the centre of the bed. Very 
little air is given till the plants have filled the glasses, but when 
these appear to get crowded with vines, the glasses are raised 
up, and the plants allowed to grow up in the manner of ridged 
cucumbers. If the vines are very thick, a few of the weakest 
may be pinched otf, and the top of each leading shoot or vine 
removed. No more pruning will be necessary for the season. 
Setting the fruit at tliis season of the year is quite necessary. 
To have handsome fruit, not more than one or two should be 
left on the plant. They will begin to ripen about the first week 
in August, and continue to be produced through that month and 
part of September. To prolong the season, seeds may be sown 
three weeks later, planted out like the first crop, and when there 
is appearance of frosty nights, a cucumber-frame and sashes 
may be placed over them. By this means tolerably good melons 
may be had till the end of October. — Greenshields, ex Loud, 
gard. mag. 3. p. 182. 

There is another method of cultivating melons in the open 
air ; that is, to raise a bed of old tan, and tramp it well and 
firmly down, placing some stakes and boards behind to keep up 
the tan, so that the bed may slope in front ; G inches of mould 
should be placed on the tan, and the melon plants planted into 
it. Grass or leaves may be placed at the back of the bed to 
keep up the heat. The plants should be reared on a hot-bed. 

Melon. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1597. Pl.tr. 

2 C. DELiciosus (Roth. cat. 3. p. 307.) angles of leaves blunt; 
fruit roundish-ovate, pubescent, with white, very fragrant flesh, 
and a thin rind. ©. F. Native of the East Indies, but now 
cultivated in Spain. Perhaps only a variety of the common 
melon. 

Delicious Melon. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1818. Pl.tr. 

3 C. SATivus (Lin. spec. 1437.) stems rough, bearing ten- 
drils ; leaves cordate, obscurely 5-lobed, petiolate, terminal lobe 
the largest ; flowers on short peduncles, largish, usually by 
threes ; male flowers having the tube of the calyx tubularly- 
campanulate, and with a spreading deflexed limb ; fruit long, 
somewhat triquetrous, smooth or prickly, and usually shining, 
having the carpels distinctly separable in the inside. ©. F. 
Native of Tartary and the East Indies. — Blackw. herb. t. 4. — 
Lob. stirp. 3fi3. f. 1. The cucumber is caWed Ketimou and 
Timou by the Hindoos. Flowers yellow, as in the rest of the 
species. 

The cucumber is called concnmbre in French ; gurke in Ger- 
man ; and Citriuolo in Italian ; it is a tender annual, a native of 
the East Indies, and vias introduced in 1573. It is a trailing 



and climbing plant, with large, roundish, rough leaves, furnished 
with tendrils, and if sown in the open air in May, produces 
flowers from July to August. Tiie cucumber is of nearly as 
great anti(|uity as the vine, for Moses, the earliest Jewish author, 
mentions it as abounding in Egypt when the children of Israel 
were there, above 3000 years ago. (Numbers, chap, ii.) In 
England it is cultivated generally and extensively in forcing 
frames, and in the open air, and especially near large cities and 
towns. " Not only gentlemen," as M'Piiail observes, " but 
almost every tradesman who has a garden and dung, have their 
cucumber-frame." In Hertfordshire, whole fields are annually 
seen covered with cucumbers, without the aid of dung or glass, 
and the produce of which is sent to the metropolis for pickling. 
In march, cucumbers fetch in the London market a guinea a 
dozen ; in August and September a penny a dozen. The village 
of Sandy, in Bedfordshire, has been known to furnish 10,000 
bushels of pickling cucumbers in one week. 

Use. — The green fruit is used as salad ; it is also salted when 
half grown ; and preserved in vinegar when young and small. 
In Germany and Poland, barrels of h:df, and also full grown 
cucumbers, are preserved from one year to another by immersion 
in deep wells, where the uniform temperature and exclusion of 
air seem to be the preserving agents. 

Varieties. — The principal of these are as follow : — 

List of cucumbers. 

1 Early long prickly. — This fruit is from 5-7 inches long, of 
a green colour, with few prickles. The plant is a good bearer, 
and upon the whole this is the best cucumber for the general 
summer crop, the flesh being very crisp and pleasant. 

2 Largest green prickly. — From 7-10 inches long; it has a 
dark green skin, closely set with small prickles. This is a hardy 
sort, but does not come early. 

3 Early short prickly. — Not more than 4 inches long ; the 
skin green and rather smooth, but with a few small black 
prickles. This is one of the hardiest and earliest sorts, and is 
often preferred for the first crop. 

4 Dutch or white short prickly. — Though not much cultivated, 
is recommended by some as preferable even to the early long 
prickly; it has fewer seeds, is evidently diflTerent in taste from 
most other cucumbers, but of agreeable flavour. 

5 Cluster cucumber. — A very early sort ; the flowers appear 
in clusters of 3 or 4 together; the fruit is seldom more than 5 
inclus long ; it is at first of a fine green colour, but becomes 
yellowish as it ripens. The stems of this variety are much in- 
clined to climb by means of their tendrils upon sticks ; the 
leaves are small, and the plant altogether occupies but little room. 

6 Smooth green Roman. — An early sort ; the fruit becomes 
large and long, and is quite smooth ; the plants grow very strong, 
and require a good deal of room. 

7 White Turkey. — The stalks and leaves are larger than in the 
otlier varieties ; the fruit also is very long, sometimes from 10- 
15, or even 20 inches ; it is quite straight, and has a smooth 
skin, destitute of prickles ; it is produced sparingly, and late in 
the season. 

8 Long green Turkey. — Sometimes sown for the late crop. 
Late cucumbers, however, are much less cultivated than the 
early varieties, most gardeners being of opinion, that those 
kinds which are best for the early crop, are also best for the late. 

9 Nipaul. — Fruit very large, usually weighs upwards of 12 
lbs., measures in girth 24 inclies, and in length 17 inches ; flavour 
pleasant, and esteemed for standing. It is a native of Nipaul, 
from whence it was introduced to the botanical garden at Cal- 
cutta ; but it is not likely that it ever will l)e much cultivated 
in this country. 

Culture. — The culture of the cucumber, as a table esculent. 



16 



CUCURBITACE;E. IV. Cucumis. 



is chiefly carried on by artificial heat, and is therefore treated 
of under that head. For pickhng it is cliiefly cultivated in the 
open ground, by what is termed drilhng. To have a crop in 
the natural ground, the seed is sown in warm compartments of 
rich earth, towards the end of May or beginning of June, when 
the weather is settled, warm and dry. The plants should mostly 
remain where sown, to produce late fruit towards the end of 
July, or more generally in August and September ; small for 
pickling, and in lar<jer growth for ordinary consumption. Sow 
a portion in a warm border, and the main crop in an open com- 
partment. Dig the ground neatly even. Trace lines with in- 
tervals of 5 or 6 feet ; and in the lines mark stations 3^ feet 
distant, then with a trowel at each of these spots, form shallow 
circular saueer-lorm cavities in the surface, 10 or \2 inclies 
wide and about an inch deep in the middle. Sow in the middle 
of each cavity 8 or 10 seeds, half an inch deep. When the 
plants are come up, and begin to put forth the first leaves in 
the centre, thin them to 3 or 4 of the strongest in each hole. 
Earth these up a little between and close round the stems, 
pressing them a little asunder, and give them some water to 
settle the earth below and above. In their advancing growth 
train out the leading runners, supplying them with requisite 
waterings in dry weather 2 or 3 times a-week, and sometimes 
every day in very dry hot weather, in July, August, or Septem- 
ber. At this season water early in the morning and late in the 
afternoon towards evening." 

Gathering. — " The crop comes in sometimes towards the end 
of July, but more generally not before August in full produc- 
tion ; continuing till about the middle or end of September, 
when the plants decline. Be careful to gather the fruit in a 
fine state both for pickling and other purposes. They must 
be quite young for pickling, not exceeding 2 or 3 inches in 
length." — Abererombie. 

Forcing cucumbers. — To produce cucumbers at an early 
season, is an object of emulation with every gardener ; and 
there is scarcely any person who has not a cucumber-bed in his 
garden. We shall lay down a systematic view of the practices 
of the most approved gardeners in the culture of this plant, as 
has been our usual custom with other garden plants. Cucum- 
bers are forced in hot-beds, pits, and hot-houses, and the heat 
of fire, and warm water, and steam, and dung, have been applied 
to their culture ; but dung, as the author last quoted observes, 
is the only thing yet found out, by the heat of which the cu- 
cumber may be advantageously cultivated. 

Soil. — Cucumbers, like every other plant, will grow in any 
soil, though not with the same degree of vigour, provided they 
be supplied with a sufficiency of heat, light, water, and air. 
For early forcing, Abererombie recommends a mould or com- 
post of the following materials : " One third of rich top-spit 
earth, from an upland pasture, one-third of vegetable mould, 
and one-sixth of well decomposed horse-dung, with a small 
quantity of sand." M'Phail used vegetable mould made from 
a mixture (accidental) of the leaves of elm, lime, beech, syca- 
more, horse and sweet chestnut, spruce, and Scotch fir, walnut, 
lauri i oak, evergreen oak, ash, &c. and among them withered 
gras^ :ind weeds of various kinds. " This vegetable mould," 
he says, " without a mixture of any thing besides, is what I 
used for growing cucumbers in, and by experience I found it 
preferable to any other moulds, earths, or composts whatever, 
either in my new method of a brick bed, or in the old method 
of a bed made of horse-dung." Nicol says, " soil thus composed 
will produce cucumbers in great abundance : three-fourths light 
rich black earth from a pasture, an eighth part vegetable mould 
of decayed tree-leaves, and an eiglitli part rotten cow-dung." 
Kal. p. 393. W. T. Alton gives the following as the compost 
used in Kew Gardens : " Of light loam a few months from the 



common, one-third part, the best rotten dung one-third part, 
leaf-mould and heatli-earth of equal parts, making one-third 
part. The whole well mixed for use." G. Mills states that the 
soil he uses " is half-bog or black mould, got from a dry heathy 
common, and half leaf-mould : after lying 12 months in a heap, 
the compost is fit for use." 

Time of beginning tu force. — Abererombie says, " Managers 
who have to provide against demands for early cucumbers, 
must raise the seedlings from 10-12 weeks before the fruit will 
be required, according to the length of the days in the interval. 
In proportion as the entire course embraces a greater part of 
the mid-winter, the liability of failure from obstacles in the 
vreather will be greater. The last fortnight in January, or first 
week in February, is a good time for beginning to force the most 
early crop. In the subsequent months, both main and second- 
ary crops may be started as required, and will come forward 
more freely. To have a constant succession, seedlings should 
be raised twice a month. As the course of forcing more coin- 
cides with the natural growing season, the length of it will be 
reduced to 8, 7, or 6 weeks." M'Phail says, " those who are 
desirous of having cucumbers early, had best sow seeds about 
the 20th of October ; they may be sown at any time of the 
year, but the spring and autumn are the best seasons. Cucum- 
ber plants may be made to bear fruit plentifully from about the 
middle of March till the middle of September ; but from the 
middle of September till the middle of March their produce 
will be but scanty. Cucumber-plants, raised from seed in Oc- 
tober, will begin to produce fruit in February or March, and 
will continue to bear till the following month of October, pro- 
vided they be kept in frames and get plenty of heat and water." 
Nicol recommends the middle of January. He says " Some begin 
sooner, but it is striving hard against the stream to little pur- 
pose. If the dung be prepared and the bed be got ready, so as to 
sow about the first of February, the success will often be greater 
than by sowing a month earlier, the growth of the plants being 
frequently checked by bad weather, and sometimes they are 
entirely lost." Alton, in the paper above quoted, sowed on the 
12th and 20th of August, with a view to cidtivate in stoves, a 
regular supply of this vegetable being annually required for 
the royal tables. G. Mills sows on the first of October. 

Sorts. — Abererombie recommends the short pricMy for very 
early fruit, and the long prickly kinds for the chief early and 
main summer crops. Nicol says every gardener has his favour- 
ite sort of cucumber, and it is no easy matter to advise. He 
names as early sorts generally known, the early short prickly as 
the earliest ; the early smooth green, a long fruit, the long green 
prickly, and the ivhite prickly, a white fruit. 

Choice of seed. — " It is advisable," Abererombie observes, 
" to have that at least from 2-4 years old, in preference to newer 
seed, which is more apt to run luxuriantly in vine, and the plants 
from it do not show fruit so soon or so abundantly as those from 
seed of greater age. But when seed has been kept more than 
4 years, it is sometimes found to be too much weakened." 

Forming the seed-bed. — " A one-light frame," Abererombie 
says, " will be large enough for ordinary purposes. Choose a dry 
sheltered part of the melon-ground, and form a bed for a 1- 
light frame. When high winds are suffered to blow against a 
cucumber-bed, they have a very powerful effect on it, for in 
that case the heat will not only be greatly abated, but also forced 
and driven into the corners of the frames, and, consequently, 
some parts thereof are rendered too cold, whilst other parts are 
made too hot, and of course the plants are all equally endangered, 
retarded in their growth, and perhaps some, if not all of them, 
totally destroyed. Therefore, when a cucumber-bed is about 
to be built, the first object of consideration should be, to 
have it, as well as possible, sheltered from the high winds and 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



17 



boisterous, stormy weather." Havinjr put on the frame and 
waited till the bed is fit for moulding, lay in five or six inches' 
depth of the proper earth or compost. M'Phail "makes up a 
bed of good dung, four feet high, for a 1 -light box." Nicol 
" builds a bed of dung, carefully fermented, to the height of 
5 feet at back, and 4 at front, keeping it a foot larger all round 
than a 1-light frame, or about five or six feet by three or three 
and a half. He then covers with turf, and on that lays fine sand, 
as free of earth as possible, to the depth of about 6 inches, 
laying in a sloping manner, corresponding with the glass and 
within G inches of it ; over which lay an inch or two of dry 
light earth." Aiton and Mills also prepare a bed for a 1-light 
box ; the latter forms it on a stratum of wood 1 foot high for 
drainage, and 8 inches higher in the middle than at the sides, 
as the sides are liable, from the weight of the frame, to settle 
faster than in the middle, which causes the piles of earth to 
crack ; by which in fruiting-beds more especially the roots of 
the plants are greatly injured. 

So7vi»g. — Abercrombie sows some seeds in the layer of the 
earth, which he spreads over the bed, putting them in half an 
inch deep. He also sows some seed in 2, 3, or more small 
pots of the same kind of earth, which may be plunged a little 
into that of the bed. M'Phail sows in a pot filled with rich 
earth, covers about 2 inches thick, and sets the pots on the 
surface of the naked dui>g on the bed. Nicol sows immediately 
after the bed is made, without waiting till the heat arises, which 
he says is losing time, and the opportunity of bringing on veget- 
ation by degrees as the heat rises. He sows in a broad pan 4 
inches deep, or in small pots 4 or 5 inches in diameter, and as 
much in depth. These he fills with " fine light earth" or veget- 
able mould, and covers the seeds 2 inches. He plunges these 
to the brim in the back part of the bed (which, it will be re- 
collected contains a stratum of earth 6 inches thick, over one of 
sand and another of turf), puts on the light, and lets the frame 
be matted at night, in the ordinary way. 

Raising plunis from cuttings. — M'Phail says, " Instead of 
raising cucumber plants from seeds, they may be raised from 
cuttings, and thus kept on from year to year, in the following 
manner ; the method of sticking them in is this : take a shoot 
which is just ready for stopping, cut it oft' just below the joint, 
behind the joint befoie which the shoot should have been 
stopped, then cut smooth the lower end of the shoot or cutting, 
and stick it in fine leaf or other rich mould, about an inch deep, 
and give it plenty of heat, and shade it from the rays of the 
sun till it be fairly struck. By this method, as well as by that 
of laying, cucumber plants may readily be propagated." J. 
Mearns, gardener at Shohden Court, near Leominster, propa- 
gates his cucumber-plants for a winter crop in this way, and 
" finds that the plants raised from cuttings are less succulent, 
and therefore do not so readily damp oft", or suffer from the low 
temperature, to which they are liable to be exposed in severe 
weather ; that they come into bearing immediately as they have 
formed roots of sufticient strength to support their fruit, and 
do not run so much to barren vine as seedlings are apt to do." 
He takes the cuttings from the tops of the bearing shoots, and 
plants them in pots 9 inches deep, half filled with mould. He 
then waters them, covers the tops of the pots with flat pieces of 
glass, and plunges them into a gentle bottom heat. " 'i'he 
sides of the pot act as a sufficient shade for the cuttings 
during the time they are striking, and the flat glass, in this and 
in similar operations, answers all the purposes of bell-glasses. 
The cuttings form roots, and are ready to pot off' in a fortnight. 

Temperature of the sccil-bed. — Abercrombie says, " The mi- 
nimum heat for the cucumber is 58° at the coldest time of night, 
in the day-time 6.5'-' is sufficient for the maximum ; because air 
admitted, when the sun has great influence, will do more good 

VOL. III. 



than a higher heat. M'Phail says, " If it were possible to 
keep the heat in the frames always to 80'^, with the concurrence 
of proper air and moisture, 1 am of opinion that that would be 
a sufficient heat for the production of the cucumber." Nicol 
keeps the air in the bed to about GS*^ in the night, allowing a 
few degrees of a rise in sunshine. Aiton rears and fruits his 
plants in a stove. Miller says, "The heat I wish to have in 
the seed-frame is from 65° to 75°." 

Treatment of the plants until remoced to the fruiting-bcd. — 
After sowing, Abercrombie " continues the glasses on the frame, 
giving occasional vent above for the steam to evaporate, that 
the bed may keep a moderate heat, and not become too violent. 
The plants will be up in a few days, when it will be proper to 
admit air daily, but more guardedly, at the upper end of the 
light, which may be raised from half an inch to an inch or two, 
according to the temperature of the weather, that the plants 
may not draw up weak, or be injured by the steam. In frosty 
weather hang part of a mat over the aperture. When the plants 
are a little advanced, with the seed-leaves about half an inch 
broad, take them up, and prick some in small pots of light earth, 
previously warmed by the bed. Put 3 plants in each pot, and 
insert them a little slopingly, tpiite to the seed-leaves. Plunge 
the pots into the earth, and you may prick some plants also into 
the earth of the bed. Give a very little water just to the roots ; 
the water should be previously warmed to the temperature of 
the bed. Draw on the glasses ; but admit air daily to promote 
the growth of the plants, as well as to give vent to the steam 
rising in the bed, by tilting the lights behind, from half an inch 
to an inch or two high, in proportion to the heat of the bed and 
temperature of the weather. Cover the glasses every night 
with garden-mats, and remove them timely in the morning. 
Give twice a-week, once in two days, or daily, according to the 
season, a very light watering; keep up a moderate lively heat 
in the bed by recpjisite linings of hot dung to the sides." 
M'Phail, having sown, and placed the pots on the naked bed, 
says, " the plants will come up in a few days, and when they 
have fully expanded their seed-leaves, transplant them into small 
pots, 3 plants in each pot. Set them on the surface of the dung 
in the bed, and let a little air be left at the light day and night, 
to let the steam pass off' freely." — " When the seedling plants 
have one or two joints, stop them, after which they generally 
put forth 2 shoots, each of which let run till they have made 
i or 2 clear joints, and then stop them, and afterwards continue 
throughout the season to stop the plants at every joint." Nicol 
directs to guard the seed from mice, which generally swarm 
about hot-beds, by laying a pane of glass over the pot or pan 
till they come up ; and afterwards at night by covering with a 
pot of equal size, till the seed-leaves have expanded and the 
husks have dropped ; for until then the plants are liable to be 
destroyed. The cover, however, should always be removed by sun- 
rise, and be replaced in the evening. It is at night these vermin 
generally commit their depredations. No air need be admitted 
till the heat begins to rise, and steam begins to appear ; but after 
that the lights should be tilted a little every day, in whatever state 
the weather may be, until the plants break ground. Air must then 
be admitted with more care, and if frosty or very chill, the end 
of a mat should be hung over the opening, that the air may sift 
through it, and not immediately strike the plants. A little aired 
water may be given once a day, from the time the seeds begin 
to chip ; and if a very strong heat rise, the pots should be 
raised a little to prevent the roots from being injured. They 
should be frequently examined on this account, and if the heat 
be violent, should be set loosely on the sand, or be placed en- 
tirely on the surface. The air of the bed should be kept to 
about 65° in the night, allowing a few degrees of a rise in the 
sunshine. If the weather be severe, the mats must be doubled 
D 



18 



CUCURBITACEjE. IV. CucuMis. 



or tripled, and if mild perhaps a single one will suffice. But 
unless in very bad weallier tliey should always be removed by 
sunrise, in order to admit all the sun and light possible to the 
plants, which are very essential to their welfare. When the plants 
are about an inch and a half high, they are then fit to be pricked 
out into nursing pots. These pots should be about 3^ or 4 
inches in diameter at top, and as much in depth. The mould 
to be used should be the same as that in which the seeds are 
sown, and should be laid in the frame a few hours previous to 
pottinT, in order to bring it to a proper degree of warmth, that 
the tender fibres be not chilled by it. Let the pots be filled 
about one half with the earth, turn the plants carefully out of 
the seed-pot ; place three in each, against the side of the pot, 
and so as their leaves may be just above its margin; then cover 
the roots with the mould, rubbing it fine between the fingers, 
and filling the pots nearly to the brim. Work over the sand in 
the frame to its full depth, plunge the pots to within an inch of 
their rims, and cover the whole surface with a little dry earth as 
at first, making it level with the tops of the pots. Then give a little 
aired water, in order to settle the earth to the roots of the plants. 
The plants will now require due attention. Let air be admitted 
to them as freely as the state of the weather will allow, and 
supply them moderately with water once in 2 or 3 days. Exa- 
mine the pots frequently, if the heat be violent, lest the roots 
be scorched, setting them loosely or pulling them up in that 
case, or if thought necessary, placing them entirely on the sur- 
face. If much steam aboimd in the bed at this time, it may be 
pro])er to leave the light tilted half an inch in the night, ob- 
serving to hang the lap of a single mat 2 or 3 inches over the 
tilt. But if the bed was carefully turfed over, as directed at 
making up, this will seldom be necessary, never but in thick 
hazy weather. Mat up carefully at night, but make a point to 
admit all the sun and light possible to the plants ; therefore, 
uncover always by siui-rise ; and frequently wash and wipe the 
glasses clean, outside and inside, as they are often clogged by a 
mixture of steam and dust. Also, occasionally stir the surface 
of the sand or earth in the frame with the point of a stick, in 
order to extirpate vapour, that hovers on the surface, and so 
purify the internal air of the bed. If the heat begin to decrease, 
and particularly if the weather be severe, it may be necessary 
to line one or more sides of the bed, that the plants may receive 
no check in their growth. If it be a 1-light box, both back and 
front may be lined at the same time, and, if necessary, in 10 or 
1 2 days, the two sides ; and if nuich steam arise from the 
linings after they come into heat, bo careful in matting at nitrht, 
to tuck up the edges of the mat, lest it be thrown into the bed." 
Mills, as soon as the seed-leaves of the plants are fully ex- 
panded, transplants them singly into pots of 48th size, gives a 
little water and air night and day. His temperature for seed- 
lings, as already stated, is from G5° to 75°. With this heat and 
water, as the earth in the pots becomes dry, and a little air night 
and day, so as to keep the internal air in the frame sweet, and 
fluctuating between the degrees of heat above mentioned, the 
plants will be fit for finally transplanting out in a month, that is, 
by the 14th of November, into the fruiting-frames. 

Fonnhifr the fruiting bed. — Abercrombie directs, " When the 
plants are advanced in some tolerable stocky growth, that is, 
when the first rough leaves are 2 or 3 inches broad, or when the 
plants have been raised about five weeks, transplant them to the 
larger hot-bed, with a 2-light or 3-light frame, sometimes 
called the ridging-out-bed." Form the bed on general prin- 
ciples, of superficial extent, according to the frame it is to sup- 
port, leaving from 4 to G inches all round, and fixing the height 
according to the season. Thus in January, Abercrombie directs 
" the bed to be 3 feet 9 inches high in front, 4 feet 6 inches at the 
back, and 6 inches larger than the frame all round. In February, 



3 feet 3 inches high at the front, 4 feet at the back, and 4 inches 
to spare round the frame. In March, 3 feet high in front, 3 feet 
G inches at back, and 4 inches beyond the frame every way." 
" Put on the frame and glasses presently after the body of the 
dung is built up, to defend it from the weather. At tlie same 
time raise the glasses a little at the upper end, in order both 
to draw up the heat sooner, and to give vent to the rising steam, 
until the bed is reduced to a regular temperature. In connec- 
tion with the thermometer, the cultivator may be assisted to form 
a judgment of this by trying sticks, that is, 2 -or more sharp- 
pointed smooth sticks, thrust down in different parts of the bed, 
which at intervals may be drawn up, and felt by a quick grasp 
of the hand. The smell of the vapour is also a criterion ; it 
should not be strong and fetid, but mild and sweet. While 
taking care that the heat is not so intense as to burn the mould 
when applied as below, let it not be suffered to evaporate un- 
necessarily by delay. If the temperature appear to be not suffi- 
ciently high, take off the frame, and add another course of dung." 
M'Phail, when he fruits the cucumber on dung beds, begins to 
make preparation for the fruiting-bed, about 3 weeks before the 
plants are ready to be planted for good. The dung collected, 
after being well worked, is " made up into a bed of about 4 or 
5 feet high, and the frames and lights set upon it. It is after- 
wards suffered to stand for a few days to settle, and until its 
violent heat be somewhat abated ; and when it is thought to be 
in a fit state for the plants to grow in, its surface is made level, 
and a hill of mould laid in just under the middle of each light, 
and when the mould gets warm the plants are ridged out in it. 
After this, if the bed has become perfectly sweet, and there be 
heat enough in it, and the weather prove fine, the plants will 
grow freely." Nicol builds his fruiting-bed about 4 feet high in 
front, keeping it fully a foot broader than the frame all round. 
He turfs it, and lays on sand as in forming the seed-bed, if the 
dung has not been well fermented. " But otherwise, placing a 
thick round turf, a yard over, in the middle of each light, so as 
that its centre may be exactly imder the plants, will generally 
be found sufficiently safe." The frames are now put on, and 
the beds matted up at night to make the heat rise the sooner. 
Mills says, " Well preparing the dung is of the greatest im- 
portance in forcing the cucumber, and if not done before it is 
made into a bed, it cannot be done after, as it requires turning 
and watering to cause it to ferment freely and sweetly ; fresh 
dung from the stable will require at least 6 weeks' preparation 
before it will be fit to receive the plants. A month before it is 
made up into a bed, it should be laid up into a heap, turned three 
times and well shaken to pieces with a tfork ; and the outsides 
of the heap turned into the middle and the middle to the outsides, 
that the whole may have a regular fermentation, and if any ap- 
pear dry, it should be made wet, keeping always between the 
two extremes of wet and dry. A dry spot of ground should be 
chosen to prepare the dung on, that the water may drain away 
from the bottom of the heap. The dung having been a month 
in heap, I make the bed as follows : I form a stratum one foot 
high of wood of any kind, but if larger the better (old roots of 
trees or any other of little value will do). This is to drain the 
water from the bottom of the bed, for after a month's prepara- 
tion, with every care, it will frequently heat itself dry, and re- 
quire water in large quantities, which, if not allowed to pass off 
freely, will cause an luivvholesome steam to rise, in which the 
cucumber plant will not grow freely. On this bottom of wood, 

1 make the bed 4 feet high with dung, gently beating it down 
with a fork. This is done about the 1st of November, and by 
the month of February the 4 feet of dung will not be more than 

2 feet thick, which, with a foot of wood, at the bottom, will 
make the bed .'3 feet high. This I consider a good height; 
for if lower, it cannot be so well heated by linings, which is the 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cicumis. 



If) 



only method of warming it in tlie months of Feliruary and 
March, as by that time tlie first heat of tlie bed will have quite 
declined. Having made the bed, I put on the frames and lights, 
wjiich I shut close till the heat rises. I then give air night and 
day, sufficient to allow the steam to pass off, and once in 2 days 
I fork the surface over, about inches deep, to sweeten it, and 
if in the operation I find any part dry, I carefully wet it. The 
bed being quite sweet, I prepare it for the mould, by making the 
middle about 8 inches lower than the sides, as the sides are liable 
from the weight of the frames to settle farther than the middle, 
which often causes the hills of earth to crack, by which the roots 
of tlie plants are greatly injured." — Mills ex Loud, encycl. gard. 
p. 632. 

JMoiildiiig, — " As soon," Abercrombie observes, " as you 
deem the bed to have a lively, safe, well-tempered heat, which 
may be in a week or 10 days after building, proceed to mould it. 
Earth the middle of each light, laying the mould so as to form 
a little hill from 6 to 10 inches in height, according as seed is to 
be sown, or plants from the seed-bed inserted. Then earth over 
the intervals between the hills, and the sides of the frame only, 
from 2 to 4 inches, as a temporary measure, until the heat is 
ascertained to be within safe limits. After the whole bed has 
been for some time covered, examine the mould ; if no traces of 
a burning effect appear discoverable by the mould turning of a 
whitish colour, and caking, it will be fit to receive the plants. 
But if the earth appears burnt, such part should be replaced by 
fresh, and vacuities made to give vent to the steam, by drawing 
every part of the hills from the centre. When the bed is in fit 
order, level the mould to 6 inches deep to receive the seeds ; but 
to receive plants in pots the hills of earth should be kept 10 
inches deep or more. If there be any motive for haste, while 
an excess of heat is to be suspected, the danger from burning 
may be obviated by leaving vacancies in the top of the mould ; 
by placing patches of fresh cow-dung or decayed bark to receive 
the pots of seeds or plants ; and by boring holes in the bed with 
a round pole, sharpened at the end, which holes should be filled 
up with hay or dung when the heat is sufficiently reduced. 
Some persons place a layer of turf with the sward downwards be- 
tween the dung and the mould ; but this, if ever expedient, is 
only in late forcing ; for in winter the full effect of a sweet well- 
tempered heat is wanted, much of which, by beiiig confined at 
the top, may be forced out at the sides." M'Phail, in mouhling 
common hot-beds, also raises hills in the centre of each light in 
the usual way. Gard. rem. p. ,51. Nicol gathers up from the 
surface of the beds a sufficient quantity of earth to raise hills 
whereon to plant ; one exactly in the middle of each light, about 
a foot broad at top, and to within 6 inches of the glass. If the 
frames be a proper depth, they should be 12 or 15 inches high 
above the turf. Kal. p. 365. Mills puts under the centre of 
each light one solid foot of earth, the top of which is hardly within 
9 inches of the glass, and the top of the plants when planted in 
it will be within 3 inches of the glass. 

Planting out. — Abercrombie, when the temperature is ascer- 
tained to be right, brings the plants in their pots ; turns over the 
hills of mould, forming them again properly, and then proceeds 
to planting. " Turn those in pots clean out, one pot at a time, 
with the ball of earth whole about the roots, and thus insert one 
patch of three plants which have grown together, with the ball 
of earth entire, into the middle of each hill, earthing them neatly 
round the stems. Also any not in pots, having been pricked 
into the earth of the bed if required for planting, may be taken 
up with a small ball of earth, and planted similarly. With water 
warmed to the air of the bed, give a very light watering about 
the roots, and shut down the glasses for the present, or till next 
morning. Shade the plants a little from the mid-day sun a few- 
days till they have taken root in the hills, and cover the glasses 



every evening with large mats." Nicol, before planting, if the 
beds have settled anywise unequally, rectifies and sets level the 
frames, by placing boards, slates, or bricks under the low cor- 
ners, so as to make them correct. He then makes uj) the out- 
sides of the bed with dung a few inches higher than the bottoms 
of the frame, over which he lays some dry litter or fern fronds, 
and planks at top to walk on. He then takes the pots of plants, 
each of which are supposed to have got two or three rough 
leaves, and nqakiiig a hole in each hill, full large enough to re- 
ceive the balls, turns them out of tlie pots as entire as possible, 
placing them level with the surface of the hill, fitting the earth 
round their sides, and settling all with a little water. In the ca«e 
of planting older plants than the above, at a farther advanced 
period of the season, or such as have quite filled the pots with 
their roots, the balls may be reduced a little, and the fibres 
should be singled out, if anywise matted. But the above plants 
are supposed to have barely filled the pots with roots, and then 
the balls should be kept entire, that they may not receive a check 
in transplanting. 

Temperature for fruiting plants. — Abercrombie's minimum is 
55°, and maximum in the day time 65°, the same as for the seed- 
bed. M'Phail says, " It appears that during the winter and 
spring months the medium heat of the air in the frames should 
be 75°, and the maximum heat 80°. But when the sun shines 
the heat of the air in the frames is increased to a much higher de- 
gree ; so that reckoning this heat, the medium for that of the air 
in the frames may be 80°." Gard. rememb. p. 59. Nicol's 
medium heat for cucumbers is 60° ; in sunshine he admits as 
much air as will keep down the thermometer to 65°. Kal. p. 366. 
Mdls, in the fruiting frames, wishes " to have at all times from 
70 to SO degrees of heat, which I regularly keep up by applying 
linings of hot dung, prepared one month previously, in the same 
manner as that for the beds. For the first month I cover the 
glass with a single mat only ; and as the nights becume cold, I 
increase the covering, using hay, which I put on the glass, and 
cover that with a single mat. I regulate the heat at night by 
the warmth of the glass under the hay, for when the glass is 
warm, which should be in two hours after covering up, a little air 
is required. When the glass and hay covering are warm, which 
is easily known by putting the hand under the hay on the glass 
light, the internal heat of the bed will be about 78 degrees, in 
which degree of heat the cucumbers have grown in length in 1 6 
hours one inch and a quarter. I give a little water round the 
insides of the frames, as often as I find them dry, which causes 
a fine steam to rise, and I think it better than watering the 
mould, for if this latter practice is often repeated in winter, 
when the sun's power is insufficient to absorb the moisture, and 
the glasses can be but little open to allow the damp to pass off, 
the earth in a few weeks will lose its vigour, and the roots of 
the plants will perish. Great care should also be taken, at this 
season, not to injure the roots by too much heat, which is not 
less detrimental than too much moisture : they can only be 
secured by keeping up a regular warmth, just sufficient to expel 
the damp, which arises in the night from the fermenting dung." 

Linings. — The requisite degree of heat, Abercrombie is care- 
ful to support in the bed when declining, " by timely linings of 
hot fresh dung, which may be applied to the sides 15 or 18 
inches in width, and as high as the dung of the bed. Generally 
line the back part first, and the other in a week, or from 10 days 
to a fortnight after, as may seem necessary by the degree of 
heat in the bed. Sometimes if the heat has fallen abruptly 
below the minimum degree, it may be proper to line both sides 
moderately, at once to recover the temperature sooner, and \yith 
better effect ; but be particularly careful never to over line, 
which would cause a too violently renewed heat, and steam m 
the bed. The dung for linings must be fermented, as in first 
D 2 



20 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



building a bed." When the heat decreases, Nicol cuts away the 
old duni; perpendicularly by tlie frame, and adds new linings, 
(generally beginning with the back first,) 2 feet broad to the 
height of G inches about the bottom of the bed frame. As it 
will sink considerably in heating, he adds to it in a few days. 
Mills applies linings of hot dung prepared a month previously. 

Covering. — This must be nightly performed till June, pro- 
portioning the warmth of the cover to the heat cf the air in the 
bed, and that of the external air. Mats are laid next the glass ; 
on these a layer of hay, and over these mats, made fast by boards, 
but not hanging over the linings, is the usual mode, early in 
the season. M'Phail says, " My method of covering up was 
as follows : in the first place 1 laid clean single mats on the light 
in length and breadth, just or nearly to cover the sashes, taking 
care not to suffer any part of the mats to hang over the sashes, 
on or above the linings, for that would be the means of draw- 
ing the steam into the frames in the night time. On these mats 
was spread equally a covering of soft hay, and on the hay was 
laid another covering of single mats, upon which were laid two, or 
sometimes three or four rows of boards, to prevent the covering 
from being blown off by the wind. The mats laid on next to 
the glass are merely to keep the seeds and dust, which may hap- 
pen to be in the hay, from getting into the frames among the 
plants. If the bed be high, in covering up steps or short lad- 
ders must be used by those whose ofRce it is to cover and un- 
cover; and great care must be taken not to break or injure the 
glass." 

Air. — Abercrombie directs to " admit air every day when 
the weather is moderate, without much wind ; and always more 
freely on sunny days, than when cloudy or cold and frosty. 
Open the lights behind, only a little at first, sooner or later in 
the day, according to the temperature of the season ; increasing 
the opening from about half an inch to 1, 2, or 3 inches, or very 
little more (decrease the opening occasionally, if the weather in 
the early part of the season changes very cold) ; and shut close 
in the same gradual order towards afternoon, generally shutting 
close in tlie evening, unless in the early state of the bed, a 
considerable heat and steam continues. In this case you may 
occasionally leave open about half an inch, hanging the end of 
the mat before each opening'." M'Phail says, " A cucumber 
plant delights in a strong heat, and in sweet wholesome air ; but 
if the air in which it grows be contaminated, unhealthy, or im- 
pure, the plant will not continue long in a healthy flourishing 
condition. Whatever is disagreeable to the smell becomes in 
time hurtful to tlie cucumber plant ; therefore whoever would 
wish to know if the air in a cucumber frame be in a healthy 
nature for the plants, should smell to it." He adds, in giving 
and taking away the air, do it gradually, that is, by little and 
little at a time, which without doubt is the best way : for sudden 
changes are always attended with unpleasant consequences. A 
due proportion and continual supply of fresh air is at all times 
necessary, and more or less is required according to the heat of 
the linings, the temperature of the weather, and the thickness of 
the coverings put on at nights. Card, rememb. p. 42. Nicol 
admits air regularly in as large portions as the state of the 
weather will allow, being careful to let off rank steam, if it 
abound, by leaving a tilt, even in the night. Mills says, " My 
usual time of giving fresh air to the frames, and permitting the 
foul to escape, in the winter months, (that is, from the middle of 
November to the middle of February,) is as follows : between 8 
and 9 in the morning I raise the lights, and let the confined air 
pass off, shutting them again ; about 10 I give a little air ; at 11 
more ; at one I lower the lights a little, and between 3 and 4 I 
close them entirely. About two hours after the covering of 
hay has been put on, I give a little air for the night. Should the 
weather be changeable, the lights must be raised or lowered 



more or less, as circumstances may require ; but some air about 
the times of the day above mentioned is absolutely necessary to 
keep the plants in a free growing state." 

Water. — "Give necessary waterings with water warmed to the 
air of the bed, mostly in the forenoon of a mild day, in early 
forcing ; and in the morning or afternoon in the advanced season 
of hot sunny weather." — Abercrombie. M'Phail says, "The 
quantity of water requisite to be given to the plants depends 
upon the heat of the bed, the strength and age of the plants, and 
also on the temperature of the weather. When the weather is 
cold, wet, and gloomy, and the air moist, they require less water 
than when the weather is clear, and the air more dry. If too 
much water be given, or if water be given too often, it will hin- 
der the fruit from setting and swelling kindly ; and if too little 
water be given, the plants will grow weak, and the fruit hollow. 
I seldom watered the plants with water warmer than 85°, nor 
colder than 65° ; although in general I tried by the thermometer 
the warmth of the water I used, yet it is not necessary so to do. 
A good way to know if the water be of a proper temperature is 
to take a mouthful of it, and when it feels neither hot nor cold, 
then it is in a fit state for accelerating the growth of the plants, 
or for making them grow fast. I made a constant rule never to 
water the plants but with clean sweet water ; and if the water be 
clean and sweet, I am of opinion it makes little or no difference 
whether it be pump water, spring water, rain water, or river 
water. However, it is a good quality in water to bear soap, and 
make a lather therewith, which rain and river water readily do ; 
but the pump and spring waters are found too hard to do it, yet 
this may easily he remedied in them, by letting them stand a 
few days in the open air, and sun's rays. With regard to the 
time of the day in which the watering ought to be performed, I 
think it is not material, nor did I ever make any rule with re- 
spect to the time, but gave them water at any hour of the day, 
when I saw they stood in need of it, and when it best suited my 
conveniency. Those who have hot-houses may get their water 
warmed there, and those who have no hot-houses may get some 
from the house, or from some other place where water is fre- 
quently heated. One gallon of hot water will properly water 
several gallons of cold water." Tate says " in spring and in the 
summer months the water may be warmed by exposure to the rays 
of the sun." Nicol airs his water "' by some means or other ;" 
waters once in two or three days after planting, and liberally from 
the rose of the watering pot as the plants advance. The time 
chosen is the afternoon about 4 or 5 o'clock, in order not to 
scorch the plants, which, he says, often happens, when, after 
morning waterings, the sun's rays suddenly dart on the plants. 
Kal. p. 306 — 3S5. J. Mearns, already mentioned, uses water 
impregnated with sheep's dung, as does Mr. Knight. Mearns 
tried this water first " on some cucumber plants in the pine 
stove, which had been planted in January, but which in conse- 
quence of dull weather had become weak, and of a pale green 
colour ; he applied the liquor to the roots, and in a few days a 
great change in the appearance of the plants was produced ; the 
foliage assumed a hardy green, the shoots acquired an unusual 
degree of strength, with short joints, and although tlie stove had 
scarcely any air given to it, yet the fruit swelled rapidly, and 
attained a large size." These plants continued in bearing till 
May, and were then cut back to witliin 6 inches of the root, 
when they started again with vigour. " No water was ever 
given over the leaves, but a continued supply of the liquid 
pigeon-dung manure lo the roots." Mearn. ex Loud. ency. 
Card. p. 635. For Mdls's practice as to watering see his pro- 
cess under temperature. 

Earthing. — " Observe," says Abercrombie, " in proper time 
when the first heat of the bed is moderate, to begin adding more 
earth between the hills, as the extending roots require to be 



CUCURBITACE^E. IV. Cucumis. 



21 



covered, or the runners to be supported with mould ; raising it 
by degrees equal with the tops of tlie hills, all in level order 
from 8 to 10 inches thick." Tract. Gard. p. 72. Nicol, " by the 
time the plants have sent out runners, and the roots spread 
quite over the hills, enlarges them ; beginning by stirring up the 
earth in the other parts of the frame to its full depth with a 
hand-fork or weeding-iron, breaking it fine if anywise caked by 
the heat. To this add fresh mould, sifted or finely broken, and 
in a dry state, so as to raise the surface nearly to the level of 
the hills ; laying it in a sloping manner from back to front. 
Previously he rectifies the position and level of the frames, and 
raises them so that the glass may be eight or nine inches above 
the mould in the centre." Kal. p. 367. 

Training. — To force the cucumber into early fruit, Aber- 
crombie directs to " stop the runners as soon as the plants have 
made two rough leaves ; as the bud that pro<luces the runner is 
disclosed at the base of the second rough leaf, it may be cut off 
or picked out, or if the runner has already started it may be 
pinched off close. This is called stopping at the first joint, and 
is necessary for a stronger stocky growth, and an emission of 
fruitful laterals ; and from these other prolific runners will be 
successively produced. The vines, without the process of stop- 
ping, would generally be both weaker, and so deficient of fertile 
runners, that they would sometimes extend 2 or 3 feet without 
showing fruit. When plants which have been once stopped 
have extended the first runners to tiiree joints without showing 
fruit, they are to be again stopped for the purpose of strengthen- 
ing the plant, and disposing it for bearing. As fertile runners 
extend, train them out regularly along the surface, fastening 
them down neatly with pegs." M'Phail stops his plants when 
they have two joints ; and " when the plants shoot forth again 
after the second stopping, they seldom miss to show fruit at 
every joint, and also a tendril ; and between the tendril and the 
showing fruit, may clearly be seen the rudiment of another shoot, 
and when the leading shoot has extended itself fairly past the 
showing fruit ; so that in pinching off the tendril and the shoot, 
the showing fruit is not injured. This stopping the leading 
shoot stops the juices of the plant, and is the means of enabling 
the next shoot (the rudiment of which was apparent when the 
leading shoot was stopped,) to push vigorously, and the fruit 
thereby also receives benefit. When the plants are come into 
bearing, if the vines are suffered to make two joints before they 
are stopped, at the first of these joints, as I before said, will be 
seen showing fruit, a tendril, and the rudiment of a shoot ; but 
at the second joint there is seldom to be seen either showing 
fruit or the rudiment of a shoot ; but only a tendril, and the 
rudiments of male blossoms. It is therefore evident, and but 
reasonable, that the shoot should be stopped at the first of these 
joints ; for were the shoot to be let run past the first joint, and 
stopped before the second, perhaps no shoot would ever spring 
forth at the said second joint, but only a cluster of male blos- 
soms or leaves, which would serve for no good purpose, but 
would rather exhaust the juices of the plant, which ought to be 
thrown into the productive parts of it. If the plants are suf- 
fered to bear too many fruit, that will weaken them, and in such 
case some of the shoots will lose their leaders, that is, the rudi- 
ments of some of the shoots will not break forth, the numbers of 
fruit having deprived them of their proper share of the vegeta- 
tive juices. The rudiments of some of the shoots may also be 
injured by accident, which sometimes prevents their pushing ; 
but from whatever cause this happens it matters not, for by the 
losing of its leader the shoot is rendered unfruitful, and therefore 
should be cut entirely off. In the course of the spring and 
summer months, several shoots break forth here and there from 
the old ones. When too many break out, cut off the weakest of 
them close to the old shoots, and those which remain, with re- 



gard to stopping, serve nearly in the same manner as young 
plants. If the old shoot from which the new one bursts forth 
lie close to the moulds, it sometimes sends forth roots from the 
same joint from which the young shoot proceeded, by which the 
young shoot is much invigorated, and the old plant in some 
measure renovated. When this young plant is fairly formed on 
the old shoot, it somewhat resembles a young plant formed and 
struck root on a strawberry runner ; and if the shoot were to be 
cut off on each side of the newly formed plant, and no part of the 
plant left in the frame but itself, by proper treatment it would 
soon extend itself all over the frame. In winter, when the 
plants are young, and before they come into bearing, it some- 
times happens that they send forth too many shoots ; in that 
case, cut the weakest of them off, not suffering them to become 
crowded and thick of vines, for that would weaken, and prevent 
the plants from bearing so early as they ought to do. Keep the 
leaves of the plants always regularly thin. The oldest and 
worst of them cut off first, and cut off close to the shoot on 
which they grow. This is necessary and right, for if any part of 
the stalk of the leaf were to be left, it would soon putrify and 
rot, and perhaps destroy by damp the main branch from which 
it proceeded." Nicol. " Cucumber plants will put out runners 
or vines, whether the heart-buds be picked out or not, which is 
a matter of trivial concern, although much insisted on by some, 
as being necessary to their doing so at all. For my own part I 
never could discover any difference, and I have repeatedly made 
the comparison in the same bed, which otherwise of course could 
not be fair. When the vines have grown to the length of 4 or 
5 joints, and if fruit appear on them, tliey may be stopped at 
one joint above the fruit ; but otherwise, they may be allowed to 
run the length of 7 or 8 joints, and may then be stopped, which 
will generally cause them to push fertile shoots. These should 
be regularly spread out, and be trained at the distance of S or 10 
inches apart." 

Pruning and training cucumber jdants. — W. P. Vaughan, 
(Gard. mag. 7. p. 46^.) considers the productiveness of cucum- 
ber plants as depending principally on pruning, and the age of 
the seed ; his system of management is therefore as follows. 
As he saves a few seeds annually he has always some three years 
old ; these he sows in shallow pans in a dung heat not under 70^, 
and by the time the plants have spread their seminal leaves, he 
has soil and 32-sized pots ready dried in the frames, and plants 
them so as they will just reach over the rim of the pot when 
planted 3 or 4 in each pot, making them form a triangle or 
square ; he then fills the pots to within half an inch of the toji, 
waters them, and keeps them in a brisk heat of from G5° to 75'^. 
And as soon as they have spread their first rough leaves, he 
picks out the leading bud from each plant close to the second 
leaf, and in a few days afterwards each plant will put forth two 
shoots, and they are ready for plunging in the hills without 
breaking the balls of earth, that is, one potful in each hill. 
When the lateral shoots have made two joints, they must be 
stopped at the second as before, and pegged down with a piece 
of straight stick, 6 inches long, broken half through in two 
places, so as to form a square. Each shoot will now produce 
two more, which never fail to show fruit at the first joint, and 
must be stopped at the second, which operation must be done to 
all as they make two joints. Picking off the male blossoms and 
setting the fruit, as they open, should be done in the morning 
just before the sun comes strong on the frames, until the weather 
will admit of the lights being open a great part of the day ; 
watering should also be performed at the same time, shutting the 
frame close for a few minutes after. Cuttings taken from the 
tops of the shoots about 4 inches long, and ])lanttd in a pot 
deep enough to admit a flat pane of glass on the top, will strike 
freely, and these plants so produced will come into bearing 



22 



CUCURBITACE^. IV. Cucumis. 



sooner than those raised from seeds, but they are not of so long 
duration. 

Upright training. — " Cucumber plants being climbers by 
means of their tendrils, some branchy sticks being placed to any 
advancing runners, they will ascend and produce fruit at a dis- 
tance from the ground, in a clean growth, free from spots, and 
well flavoured." 

Setting the fruit. — " The cucumber," Abercrombie observes, 
" bears male and female blossoms distinctly on the same plant. 
The latter only produce the fruit, which appears first in minia- 
ture, close under the base, even before the flower expands. 
There is never any in the males ; but these are placed in the 
vicinity of the female blossoms : the fruit of which will not 
otherwise swell to its full size, and the seeds will be abortive. 
The early plants under glass, not having the full current of the 
natural air, nor the assistance of bees and other winged insects, 
to convey the farina, the artificial aid of the cultivator is neces- 
sary 10 effect the impregnation. At the time of fructification 
watch the plants daily ; and as soon as a female flower, and some 
male blossoms are sufficiently expanded, proceed to set the fruit 
the same day, or next morning at farthest. Take off the male 
blossom, detaching it with part of the foot-stalk. Hold this 
between the finger and the thumb ; pull away the flower leaf 
close to the stamens and anthers, which apply close to the stigma 
of the female flower, twisting it a little about, to discharge 
tiiereon some particles of pollen or fertilizing powder. Proceed 
thus to set every fruit, as the flowers of both sexes open, while 
of a lively full expansion, and generally perform it in the early 
part of the day, using a fresh male if possible for each impreg- 
nation, as the males are usually more abundant than the female 
blossoms. In consequence the young fruit will soon be ob- 
served to swell freely. Cucumbers attain the proper size for 
gathering in about 15, 18, or 20 days from the time of setting, 
and often in succession for 2 or 3 months or more in the same 
bed by good culture. The above artificial operation will be 
found both necessary and effectual in forcing the cucumber, 
between the decline of autumn and May, while the plants are 
mostly shut under glass. In plants more fully exposed to the 
free air, in the increasing warmth of spring, and in having the 
full open air in summer, from June and July till September, the 
impregnation is effected mostly or wholly by nature. The male 
flowers being by some ignorantly denominated false blossoms, 
are often plucked entirely off as useless, under the notion of 
strengthening the plant ; but this should not be generally done. 
Where crowded too thick in clusters, some may be thinned out 
moderately; but their agency being absolutely necessary in fer- 
tilizing the females, they should only be displaced as they begin 
to decay, except where they are superabundant." — " It is the 
female blossoms of flowers," M'Phail observes, " that bear the 
fruit ; but if they were not to be impregnated by the male 
flowers they would prove barren and unfruitful. The female 
blossoms are easily to be distinguished from the male ones, for 
the rudiment of the fruit is apparent at the bottom of the female 
flower, and the flowers have no stamina, but have three small 
pointed filaments, without summits ; whereas the male blossoms 
have not any rudiment of fruit about them, but in the centre of 
the flower are three short stamina, which are inserted in the 
corolla. When the female or fruit blossoms are in full blow, 
take the male blossoin which is in full blow, and holding it in 
one hand, with the other split and tear off the corolla, taking 
care not to part the stamina or male parts. Then hold the male 
blossom thus prepared between the finger and thumb of the 
right hand, and with the left hand gently lay hold of the female 
blossom, and holding it between the two fingers, put the pre- 
pared male blossom into the centre of the female blossom, and 
there the farina or pollen of the anthers clings or sticks to the 



stigmas, and thus the impregnation of the fruit is effectuated, and 
the plants are thereby rendered fruitfid, which, being in frames 
in a climate by art made for them, would otherwise in a great 
degree be rendered barren and unproductive ; and which I have 
frequently known to have been the case, even when at the same 
time the plants were in a vigorous flourishing state. Generally 
leave the prepared part of the male blossom sticking in the 
centre of the feinale one, and take a fresh male blossom to every 
female blossom. But if the male blossoms run scarce, which 
seldom or never happens, make one male blossom do for two or 
three females." Nicol states, that cucumbers will grow and 
will arrive at full size without the female flowers being impreg- 
nated : the seeds, however, will prove abortive. The directions 
he gives for impregnating are in substance the same as those of 
M'Phail. The fruit being set and swelling, some lay fragments 
of glass or slate beneath it in order to keep it clean, and to ad- 
mit as much air and light as possible to the under side, so as to 
cause its approach in greenness to the upper. 

On keeping ajine bloom on cucumbers. — The art of producing 
and keeping a fine natural bloom on cucumbers, either for a 
gentleman's table for show, or for the market, merits great at- 
tention, both as to the perfect appearance of the fruit, and also to 
the general culture of the plant, after the fruit is set. From 
that time a strong bottom heat should be given with dung linings ; 
or, if late in the spring, short grass laid round the frame on 
the dung, will cause a very strong heat. Water ought then to 
be given plentifully, always at the back part of the frame ; and 
at no time should the plants be watered over their leaves, when 
the fruit is wanted for its fine delicate bloom and long regular 
shape. A fine foliage over all the bed is likewise a very essen- 
tial point ; and leaves should never be picked off near the fruit, 
as it thereby deranges the juices of the plant, and consequently 
the fruit does not swell off finely. Air also should be given 
very sparingly in the middle of the day, even in bright sunshine, 
and generally there should be a little left in the night, when the 
bottom heat is very strong, as by that means the air in the 
frame is kept sweet. When the fruit is fit to eat, for any of the 
above purposes, great care should be taken to pack it in narrow 
wooden boxes, in the largest nettle-leaves that can be got, filling 
up the interstices with well-beaten moss, and covering over with 
soft leaves of any kind. It may then be sent to a great distance 
with a fine bloom, and, upon the whole, in a perfect state. — 
Geo. Fulton, ex Loud. gard. mag. 6. p. 709. 

Gathering the crop. — Cucumbers are used green and unripe, 
and before they have attained their full size. They are cut and 
gathered when 4, 5, C, or 8 inches Ioult, according to the kinds. 
To this size they attain in 10 days or a fortnight in the best 
part of the season. 

To save seed. — " Select some best summer fruit, from good 
productive plants, which permit to continue in full growth till 
they become yellow. Then cut them from the vine, and place 
them upright on end in the full sun for 2 or 3 weeks, when they 
may be cut open, and the seed being washed out from the pulp, 
spread it to dry and harden ; then put it up in papers and 
bags for future sowing. It will remain good many years ; and 
seed of 3 or 4 years' keeping is preferable for early frame 
crops." 

On forcing cucumbers. — In growing cucumbers under lights, 
" the most obvious defects," according to Mr. Allen, " are com- 
post of too light a quality," and " dung not sufficiently worked 
before it is earthed over." Mr. Allen has been in the habit of 
growing early cucumbers under frames, on common dung- beds, 
for twenty years, always producing abundance of fruit from 
March till October. In 1823 he worked 70 lights for the 
London market, the produce of which was 33(50 cucumbers, or 
4 dozen to a light, " a greater product than is usually obtained 



CUCURBITACE;E. IV. Cucumis. 



23 



by any of the ordinary methods of treatment." The beds are 
made in December or January, tlie hot horse-dung having been 
previously turned and watered 5 or 6 times. Before earthing 
it, round Hat mats, about 15 inches in diameter, formed by coil- 
ing up a band of straw, 1 inch in diameter, and 10 feet long, 
are to be prepared and placed on the dung, under the centre of 
each light. Rye straw is preferred for these mats, as it does 
not encourage mice. A bushel of compost, consisting of loam 
and rotten dung, is placed on each mat, and 1 plant in prefer- 
ence to more, on the top of each hillock ; the top of the plant 
should be left about 3 inches from the glass ; the mould should 
then be dressed up round the hillock, and be pressed close to 
the roots, and within 1 inch of the seed-leaves of the plant ; 
these, at no time of earthing, should be covered, for this is 
very apt to cause canker. The earth should be kept within 
the bounds of the straw mat, and not be suffered to mix with 
the dung, as that would cause a burning, which is not only trou- 
blesome, but in many instances fatal to the prosperity of the 
plant ; because if the earth is once burnt, its vegetative quality 
is destroyed, and water will have no eft'ect on it. The only 
remedy in such a case is to remove the mould, fork up and 
water the dung, lay on a little rye straw, and replace the earth. 
After ridging out, from one quarter to one inch of air is given 
in the day, and about one quarter during the night. The cover- 
ing must be very slight for the first 3 or 4 weeks, and must 
not hang over the sides. " The heat must be kept up by aug- 
menting the linings once a-week, turning over and watering 
them when they heat so as to become dry. The bed inside the 
frame will require forking up about 9 inches deep, 3 times a- 
week ; the hillocks at the same time should be examined, and 
a round pointed stick, of about an inch in diameter and 18 
inches long, must be thrust about 12 inches in the dung, imder 
the straw mat, making 5 or 6 perforations under each hillock. 
Into each of the holes so formed, pour from the spout of a 
watering-pot as much water as the state of the bed seems to re- 
quire ; this may be ascertained from the facility with which the 
perforator goes into the bed. If the bed is husky or burning, 
the stick will go in with difficulty, and then a large pot of water 
is required to a hillock ; on the contrary, if the bed is in a free 
state of working, the perforator will go into it very easily, and 
then a sprinkling from the rose of the pot will be sufficient." 
A great object of Mr. Allen seems to be to sweeten, rot, and 
moisten the dung under the frame for the roots of the plants, 
while the heat is principally supplied by the linings. " The 
dung," he says, " from the continued forking and watering, will 
become in a fine state to receive the roots of the plants ; these, 
after passing through the proper depth of compost, placed over 
the dung, which is about 8 inches, will readily strike into the 
dung, and bear a productive crop of cucumbers throughout the 
summer, without their leaves flagging or requiring any shade. 
For ascertaining the proper periods to make additions to the 
earth, the best criterion is the appearance of the roots through 
the sides of the hillock. This should be earthed over about 3 
inches, each time forking out the dung 2 inches below the mat, 
to give a greater depth of earth each time of performing the 
operation. The last time this is done, the depth of mould at 
the back of the frame should be 20 inches. It will be necessary 
to raise the frame and lights as the plants advance in growth." 
Water should be given plentifully 3 times a-week, without wet- 
ting the leaves or fruit, " pouring it against the back of the 
frame, for the mould will dry faster against the back than the 
front, in consequence of the heat being there greater, and the 
air being admitted there." " In pruning, the runners should 
not be cut or thinned out, the tops only should be pinched, and 
at every joint, beginning where the plant has 2 rough leaves, and 
the second rough leaf is about an inch in diameter. That will 



cause the plant to produce fruit and a fresh runner in succession 
at every joint; it will likewise add to the strength of the plant." 
Pinch off the tendrils and male blossoms, and fecundate arti- 
ficially in the early ])art of the season. The sort of cucumber 
which Mr. Allen finds most productive is the S'outhgatc, and 
he prefers seed 3 or 4 years old to new seed. — Loud. gard. mag. 
vol. l.p. 416, 417. 

Insects and diseases. — The thrips sometimes attack early cu- 
cumbers, and arc to be destroyed by fumigation. The red spider 
rarely makes its appearance ; when he does water must have 
been improperly withheld. Some soils produce canker in the 
shoots, especially where they branch from the main stem. When 
this is the case, the only resource is to renew the soil and the 
plants. 

Growing the cucumber under hand-glasses. — The following 
method is given by M'Phail as that generally practised : "The 
seeds are sown some time about the middle of April in a cucum- 
ber or melon-bed, and when they come up, they are potted out 
into small pots, 2 or 3 plants in each pot, and are kept properly 
watered, and stopped at the first and second joints. About the 
middle of May, a warm situation, where the mould is very rich 
is pitched on, and a trench is dug out about 2 feet deep, 3 feet 
broad, and the length is proportioned according to the number 
of glasses it is intended for. This trench is filled with good 
warm dung, and when the dung has come to its full heat, it is 
covered over with 8, 10, or 12 inches' depth of rich mould. The 
glasses are then set upon it about 3 feet distant from each other, 
and when the mould gets warm under them, the plants are 
turned out of the pots with their balls whole, and plunged into 
the mould under the glasses, and a little water given them to 
settle the mould about their roots, the glasses set over them, 
and after they have made roots, and begin to grow, in fine days 
the glasses raised a little on one side, to let the plants have the 
free air ; and as the weather gets warmer and warmer, air is 
given more plentifully to harden the plants, so that tliey may 
be able to bear the open air and run from under the glasses. 
When the plants begin to fill the glasses, they are trained out 
horizontally, and the glasses are set upon bricks or such like, 
to bear them from the plants. After this the plants require 
nothing more but to be supplied with waiter when the summer 
showers are not sufficient, and to stop them when they run too 
thin of branches, and thin them of leaves or branches when 
they are likely to become over-crowded. In warm summers 
and in warm situations, by this mode of management, the plants 
will bear plentifully for about 2 months, provided they be not 
attacked by insects or weakened by diseases." Abercrombie 
describes the practice somewhat different, but with his usual 
detail and order. He says, " To have a general summer crop, 
to fruit in hot-bed ridges under hand-glasses, sow some seed of 
the long prickly kind in a hot-bed, under a frame or hand-glass, 
or in any cucumber hot-bed in cultivation, about the middle of 
March, or thence till the middle of April. When the plants 
have been up 3, 4, or 5 days, prick some in the same or another 
hot-bed, 3 or 4 inches asunder. A portion may be put in small 
pots, 3 plants in each, and plunged in a bed. Give water, and 
shade from the sun till they take root; and manage as for the 
frame crop. In 3 or 4 weeks, when advanced in the first rough 
leaves, about 2 inches broad, and stopped at the first joint as 
directed in the early crop, the plants should be ridged out, that 
is, transplanted into hot-lied ridges, under hand-glasses, to re- 
main for fruiting. The period for this may fluctuate from the 
middle of April to the beginning of May. Having a suflicieni 
quantity of prepared dung, make a hot-bed on the level ground, 
3^ or 4 feet wide, and 2\ feet high, the length as required, ac- 
cording to the number of hand-glasses intended. Kartli it at 
top G or 8 inches thick, and place the hand-glasses along the 



24 



CUCURBITACE/E. IV. Cucumis. 



middle at 3i feet distance. Sometimes the bed is made in a 
moderate trench, 12 or 15 inches deep, in some good soil in the 
kitchen-garden, in order to have the excavated earth of the 
trench ready at hand for moulding the bed. When the earth 
under the glasses is warm, proceed to put in the plants, remov- 
ing them from the nursery-bed, with as much earth as will 
adhere about the roots. If you have any plants in small pots, 
turn them out with the ball entire, and plant 3 plants under each 
glass. Give a light watering; put down the glasses, and shade 
the plants from the sun, till they have taken root, after which 
let them enjoy the sun and light fully, only covering the glasses 
and bed every night with mats till June, or commencement of 
warm weather. Admit air every mild day, by propping up the 
southward side of the glasses 1 or 2 inches ; moderate waterings 
will be necessary twice a-week or oftener. As the plants push 
runners of consider.ible length, train them regularly. When 
extended to the limits of the glasses, and when the weather is 
settled warm, about the beginning or middle of June, they 
should be raised upon 3 props 2 or 3 inches high, and the runners 
trained out in regular order, but cover them on cold nights with 
mats, for the first week or two. Continue the glasses, and cir- 
cumspectly water in dry weather, as may be necessary ; the 
plants will produce fruit in June, July, August, &c. in plentiful 
succession. To obtain a crop from hot-bed ridges, under hand- 
glasses, you may, in default of plants raised in a previous nur- 
sery-bed for transplanting, sow seed under the glasses in April 
or May, inserting several seeds in the central part under each 
glass. When the plants have been up a few days or a week, 
thin them to 3 or 4 of the strongest in each patch, managing 
them afterwards as the others. They will come into bearing 
towards the end of June or July, and thence to September. 
(Should there be a scarcity of dung to make a regular bed,) 
in the last week of April, or in May, you may dig circular holes 
2 feet wide, a spade deep, and 4 or 5 feet asunder ; fill them 
with hot dung, trodden down moderately firm, and earthed over 
6 inches. In these put either plants or seed, and place on the 
glasses ; the plants will produce fruit in June or July till Sep- 
tember. (In default of hand-glasses,) make a hot-bed, or holes 
of dung, as above, in May ; put in plants or seed, and defend 
with oiled paper frames, to remain constantly, day and night, 
till settled warm weather in June or July. Give the additional 
protection of mats over the paper frame in cold nights and bad 
weather. In the culture of all the crops, give proper supplies 
of water in dry warm weather, 2 or 3 times a-week, or every 
day in the hottest season of June, July, and August. In the 
hot-bed ridges, made above ground in April or May, if in 3 or 
4 weeks or more after making, the heat be much declined, and 
the nights or general season remain cold, let a moflcrate lining 
of hot dung be applied to the sides, which will both throw in a 
reviving heat, and widen the bed for the roots and runners of the 
plants to extend." 

Culthation of the cucumber in ajluedpit. — Nicol says, " Those 
who would have cucumbers on the table at Christmas (a thinrr 
sometimes attempted), will find it more practicable, and less 
troublesome, if the plants be grown in a flued pit, in the manner 
of late melons, than if they be grown in a common hot-bed. 
In this case the cucumbers should take place of the melons 
planted in this compartment in July, and which will, by the 
middle or end of the month, have ripened oft' all their fruit of 
any consequence. The seeds of some of the early sorts (those 
best for early being also best for late) should be sown in small 
pots about the first of the month, and should be placed in the 
pit along with the melons, or under a hand-glass, on a slow dun" 
heat ; where let the plants be nursed, and be prejjared for plant- 
ing about the second or third week in tlie month, as hinted at 
above. Observe to sow old seeds, not those saved this season, 



which would run more to vine than to fruit. Let the pit be 
prepared for their reception, by trenching up the bark or dung, 
and by adding fresh materials, in so far as to produce a mo- 
derate growing heat ; observing the directions given for pre- 
paring the pit for the melons in July, and moulding it (however 
with proper cucumber earth) all over to the depth of a foot or 
14 inches. The plants may be placed closer in planting them 
out than is necessary in a spring hot-bed. They may be planted 
at the distance of a yard from each other, and 2 rows lengthwise 
in the pit, as they will not grow very vigorously at this late 
season. They should be moderately supplied with water once 
in 4 or 5 days, and should always be watered over the foliage, 
the more especially when strong fire-heat becomes necessary, as 
cucumbers naturally like a moist rather than a dry heat. The 
temperature should be kept up to about 64° or 65° in the night, 
by the aid of the flues, and by matting, or otherwise covering 
the pit. Air should be as freely admitted as the state of the 
weather will allow, and so as to keep the mercury down, in sun- 
shine to about 70°. The plants will require little other pruning 
than to stop the vines, as they show fruit at the joint or two 
above it; for they will not push many superfluous shoots. Ob- 
serve to pick oft' all damped leaves as they appear ; and other- 
wise carefully attend to them, as above directed, while they 
continue to flourish, or to do any good worthy of such attend- 
ance." 

Cultivation of the cucumber in M^PhaiVs brick-bed pit. — 
" When I used," observes M'Phail, " to cultivate cucumbers on 
a dung-bed, the fruit were sometimes waterv and ill-tasted ; but 
after I began to cultivate them on a biick bed, the fruit were 
constantly firm and well flavoured, which is certainly occasioned 
by the goodness and wholesomeness of the food with which the 
plants are fed or nourished.'' M'Phail's pit has many advantages 
over a common hot-bed : there is no chance of burning the roots 
of the plants in it, the linings being placed all on tlie outside, 
w ithout any dung underneath the plants. " All the materials of 
my newly-invented bed are clean and sweet ; and the flues being 
made perfectly close, no tainted or bad-smelling air can get 
through them into the bed ; so that it is of little or no concern 
whether the dung of the linings be sweet or otherwise, or whe- 
ther the linings be made of dung or of any thing else, provided 
there be a sufficient heat kept in them, and no pernicious steam 
be drawn in among the plants by the current of air." A shel- 
tered dry situation is of the first consequence for this pit. The 
bed being built, " when the fraine is about to be set upon it, a 
layer of mortar is spread all round upon the upper course of 
brick-work, on which the bottoms of the frames are to rest. 
Thus the frames are set in mortar on the bricks ; and the flues 
are, with a bricklayer's brush, well washed, and rubbed with a 
thick grout, made of lime and water, which stops every crack 
or hole, and prevents the steam of the linings from getting into 
the frames. This washing of the flues I had done once a-year, 
for no crack or hole must ever be suffered to remain unstopped 
in the flues. I found little or no trouble in keeping the flues 
perfectly close, nor is it indeed likely that they should become 
troublesome, if the bed stands on a sound foundation, for the 
heat of the dung has not that powerful eflPect on the flues, as 
fire-heat has on the flues of the hot-house ; because the heat of 
dung is more steady and not so violent as the heat of the fire, 
and, besides, the flues of a cucumber-bed are almost always in 
a moist state, which is a preventive in them against cracking 
or rending. When the bed is first built, the pits are about 3 
feet in depth below the surface of the flues. The pits I had 
filled up about a foot high, some of them with rough chalk, 
some of them with small stones, and some of them with brick- 
bats ; this is to let the wet drain off freely from the mould of 
the beds. After this filling up with chalk, stones, and broken 



CUCURBITACE/E. IV. Cucumis. 



25 



bricks, tliere is a vacancy in the pits, about 4 feet deep below 
the surface of the flues ; this vacancy I had filled to a level 
with the surface of the flues, with vegetable or leaf mould ; and 
in putting it in, it was gently pressed, to prevent it from sinking 
too much afterwards. On tlie surface of the mould with which 
the pits were filled, under the middle of each light, and which 
is just in the centre of the mould in each pit. make hills of 
mould, in the same form as is commonly done on a dung-bed. 
These hills are to set the plants in, and are to be raised at first 
nearly close to or within a few inches of the glass. Raising the 
mould at first pretty nigh the glass is necessary, on account of 
tlie sinking of it ; for as the frames are set on bricks, they 
cannot sink ; but mould newly put in is sure to settle, and the 
measure of the settlement will ever depend upon tlie liglitniss 
and texture of the mould with which the pits are filled. There- 
fore, these and such-like matters must be left to the discretion 
of those who are intrusted with the direction and management 
of the frames. When the bed is thus finished, and ready for 
the reception of the plants, if the flues be strewed over with 
mould, so that their surface be just covered, to a stranger it is 
altogether a deception, for in every respect it has the appear- 
ance of a dung-bed. The sashes of the frames which 1 used 
were glazed in lead ; but if any person who rears early cucum- 
bers have lights which are not glazed in lead, but are slate- 
glazed, the vacancies between the glass had best be filled up close 
with putty, to prevent too much air from getting into the frames 
in the cold days of winter. The frames under my management 
were constantly kept in good repair, and painted over once every 
year. This method, I am clearly of opinion, is more profitable 
than if the frames were neglected for 2 or 3 years, and then 
have a thorough repair, with 2 or 3 coats of ]>aint. When 
frames are new painted, they shoidd be suffered to lie and 
sweeten for some time, at least for 2 or 3 weeks, or until the 
disagreeable smell of the paint is somewhat lessened. Although 
the frames I used were of a very good size, yet if they were a 
little smaller or larger, they would answer the purpose very 
well. Therefore those who intend to build a bed after my plan, 
have no occasion to make new frames merely for the purpose, 
but they may get the bed built to fit the frames they are already 
in possession of. The linings are to be applied to the bed a few 
days before the plants are ready for finally planting out, in order 
that the mould and every thing in the frames may be properly 
warmed for their recejition. The dung, of which the linings 
are to be made, may either be cast together into a heap, to bring 
it to a heat before it be laid round the bed, or it may be laid 
round the bed as it is brought from the dung-yard ; but which- 
ever of these methods be taken, when the linings are making 
up, the dung should be well shaken, and laid up lightly, so that 
the heat of it may come up freely. As it takes some days 
before the linings are able to warm the earth in the bed sutli- 
ciently for the reception of the plants, the rank steam of the 
new dung linings is evaporated, unless the dung came iiume- 
diately from the stables, which seldom is the case. The linings 
are to be made nearly 3 feet broad in their foundation, and ta- 
pered up to about 30 inches at the top, by which they will retain 
their heat long, and in sinking will keep close to the bed, which 
is what should at all times be paid proper attention to. In the 
winter and spring months, the linings .should be trodden upon 
as little as possible, for treading on them would be the means of 
stagnating the heat. But should it at any time, in managing 
the plants, be foimd necessary to stand or kneel upon them, 
boards should be laid on their tops for that purpose ; which will 
prevent the weight of a person from taking that effect on them 
which it otherwise would do. As the linings sink they are to 
be raised with fresh dung, but they should seldom be raised 
higher than the level of tlie mould in the frames on which the 

VOL. III. 



plants grow, especially when there is a strong heat in them ; for 
wlien there is a great heat in them, if they are kept higher than 
the level of the mould, the heat dries the air in the frames too 
much. Nor should they be suffered to sink much below the 
level of the mould in the frames, for that, on the contrary, 
would cause too much moisture in the frames, especially in the 
winter and spring months. When the heat begins to be too 
little, notwithstanding the linings being kept to their jiroper 
height, the fresh unexhausted dung underneath should be taken 
away, and that which was laid aside put in the foundation, and 
fresh dung laid above it, in lieu of that which was carried 
away. Both the side linings may be raised at one time, 
but both of them should never be renewed together ; for if 
both were to be renewed at the same time, it would for a time 
cool the frames too much, and when the heat of both came to 
their full strength, it would probably be too powerful to the 
roots of the plants when extended to the flues. I seldom or 
never renew the end linings, because I found the heat of the 
side ones fully sufficient ; for as there are flues or vacuities in 
every part of the bed, the steam being fluid, circulates in and 
warms every part thereof. And for the very same reason there 
is no occasion for having a strong heat in both the side linings 
at one and the same time, except in very cold weather. In 
making up and pulling down the hnings, care shoidd be taken 
not to injure the brick-work. The covering the lights in the 
winter and spring is absolutely necessary ; for, notwithstanding 
the heat of the linings, it would be impossible to keep up a pro- 
per degree of heat in the frames for the plants without covering. 
Therefore, the covering up in the evenings and uncovering in the 
mornings must be particularly attended to, and more or less put 
on according to the heat of the linings and temperature of the 
weather. After the bed is set to work, heat and sweet moisture 
are the two principal agents required for promoting the growth 
and vigour of the plants ; therefore if there be a heat kept in 
the linings, strong enough to keep the heat in the centre of the 
pits of mould fluctuating between 80° and 90°, cold water may 
be poured on the flues twice or thrice a week. There is no 
danger of creating damps or impure air in the frames by water- 
ing the fluts ; for the water is no sooner poured on them, than 
it runs down their sides, and passes clear off through the drains 
of the bed ; consequently, water being poured upon the flues, 
gives only a momentary check to the heat of the frames ; for the 
flues being at all times full of liot steam, when the watering is 
finished, the heat quickly resumes its former vivacity, and raises 
a warm vapour in the frames, well adapted for promoting veget- 
ation, and for increasing the growth, and invigorating the plant 
in all its ])arts. The mould round about the sides of the pits 
close against the inner sides of the flues, should be kept nearly 
on a level with the surface of the flues, and as it is the mould 
that joins to the flues which receives the first and greatest heat 
from the linings, it should be continually kept in a moist state ; 
for if the mould against the flues be suffered to become dry and 
husky, air will be generated in the frames disagreeable to the 
plants." In all other respects, the culture of cucumber or 
melon, on M'Phail's brick-bed, corresponds with the culture of 
these fruits on common dung-beds. M'Pliail has, in his " (iar- 
deners' Remembrancer," as well as in his " Treatise on the Cu- 
cumber," given the temperature of one of his beds for every 
day in the year, of which the following table shows the extremes 
for every month : — 

morn. noon. even. 

January from 58° to 8G° from 5G° to 86° from 51° to 77° 

February 68 — 88 66 — 90 58 — 84 

March 62 — 83 G5 — 90 62 — 85 

April 6!) — 84 68 — 9i 64 — 90 

May 67 — 79 70 — 90 66 — 95 



D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State College 



26 



CUCURBITACE^. IV. Cucumis. 



even. 



June 

July 

August — 

September 

October 

November 

December 



from C2° to 85° from 80° to 98° from 67° to 90° 




— 69—95 
—70—89 

— 72 — 97 

— 68 — 89 
61 — 80 
58 — 71 



" By the heat described in these tables, and plenty of water, 
the cucumber plants, the seeds of which were sown on the 22d 
day of October, were maintained in a healthy fruit-bearing state 
in the brick frame of my inventing, from the month of January 
to the beginning of December." The melon plants in the ma- 
nagement of the author, were kept in about the same degree of 
heat which he has given for the culture of the cucumber, in the 
forcing frames; and he ventures to predict that if any person 
keep melon or cucumber plants in nearly the same degrees of 
heat, as is set down in the foregoing plain tables, and manage the 
plants well in other respects, the way to do which he thinks he 
lias clearly pointed out in this treatise, he is persuaded they will 
not fail in having success. He adds, that notwithstanding tlie 
objections of some who have not been successful in making trial 
of his bed, " it is now generally approved of, and in practice by 
numbers of tlie best gentlemen's gardeners in the kingdom, and 
by various market gardeners in the neighbourhood of London." 
VVest's pit, however, seems superior to M'Phail's, as requiring 
much less dung, presenting a much more neat and orderly ap- 
pearance, and giving a greater command of temperature. 

Cull'wation of the cucumber hi a common jnt without Jlues. — 
Some form a narrow dung-bed along the middle of each pit, 
leaving room for adding a lining on each side when the heat de- 
clines. The method succeeds very well late in the season ; but 
at an early period the sinking of the bed from the glass leaves 
the plants at a great distance from the light. 

Cultivation of the cucumber in stoves. — " Cucumber plants," 
M'Phail observes, " will grow in a hot-house, where the pine- 
apple is cultivated ; but they will not be very long lived there, 
for that is not a healthy climate for them." " In August sow the 
seeds in boxes filled with vegetable or other light earth, and 
place them on shelves on the back side of the hot-house, where 
the sun may not be interrupted from shining on them in the 
short days. They may perhaps produce a few fruit in the month 
of December or January." Card, rememb. p. 301. Aber- 
crombie says, " some gardeners, ambitious of early fruit, try a 
sowing in the stove under the disadvantages of December. 
Fruiting this plant in the house in narrow boxes 3 feet long, and 
full 20 inches deep, may be found more commodious than pots. 
The boxes may stand upon the crib-trellising over the flues, or 
be suspended near the back wall, 18 inches from the upper tier 
of liglits, so as not to shade the regular house plants : this is the 
best situation for a very early crop. The plants may be origi- 
nated in small pots, plunged into the bark-bed, in order to be 
transplanted witli a half ball of earth into the borders. Those 
who aim to have fruit at Christm.as introduce seedlings about the 
middle of August." " The chief deviation from the course of the 
hot-bed is, that the plants must be trained in the house up- 
right, for which purpose form a light temporary trellis of laths. 
Give water every other day at least." Pract. Card. p. 618. 
We have already quoted the particulars of Aiton's method of 
raising encumber plants in August, with a view to their beinir 
fruited in tlie stove through the winter. We now subjoin the 
remainder of that paper. " The plants being raised on a well 
prepared one light hot-bed, wlien the cotyledons or seed-leaves 
became nearly of full grovvtii, the plants were potted out, two 
into each pot, known to gardeners about London by the name 



of upright thirty-twos. When these pots became filled with 
roots, the plants were again shifted into larger ones, called six- 
teens, and removed from the seed-bed into a three light frame, 
with a sufficient bottom heat to allow a considerable portion of 
air beino- given day and night, both in the front and back of the 
frame. About the middle of September, the plants having again 
filled their pots with roots, and become stocky, were taken 
from the frame to the stove, and after a few days received the 
last shifting into larger pots of the following dimensions : at top 
14 inches over, the bottom 10 inches across, and 12 inches deep, 
all inside measure ; each pot at equal distances apart, having 
three side drain holes near the bottom, and a larger one in the 
centre of the bottom, and containing about three pecks of solid 
earth. The cucumber plants were fruited this season in a 
pinery. On the front edge of the back flue of this stove, a 
fascia-boarding, 6 inches deep, was affixed the whole length of 
the building, forming all along a trough or inclosure for a re- 
serve of compost, after the exhaustion of the mould in the pots 
had taken place. The pots were now placed in regular order 
upon the mould-trough over the flue at 3 feet apart, and re- 
mained in this station for good, for succession. A setting of the 
second sowing was placed upon the end flues of the house ; un- 
derneath each pot were set an upright circular garden pan, 6 
inches deep, and 14 inches in diameter, which being filled with 
earth, the pots were plunged therein about 2 inches deep, and 
the drain holes being sufficiently covered with mould, served as 
outlets to the roots. From this time the fire heat of the stove 
was kept day and night at 00° or 65° of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
meter, varying only a few degrees when the sudden influences of 
the sun or steam produced an additional glow of climate. The 
plants being now established and vigorous, required stopping the 
laterals and fruit ; and these second and third lateral shoots in 
their turn were stopped also, and the blossoms from time to time 
set, as usual, for succession of supply. Waterings were neces- 
sary only when the surface of the earth was evidently dry, and 
light sprinklings of soft water, tempered in the stove, were occa- 
sionally given over the leaves of the plants and path with good 
effect. Steam from a well regulated flue was considered always 
favorable to the cultivation, but applied sparingly on account of 
its scalding effect upon the leaves, when the vapour proved 
overheated. For the mildew, flower of brimstone, coloured 
leaf-green by a little soot, has been applied with the best suc- 
cess in all stages of the disease, and copious fumigations of 
tobacco were used for the destruction of the several species of 
the aphis tribe. Under this simple practice winter cucumbers 
have been produced abundantly in the months of October, No- 
vember, December, and part of January, in all the royal gar- 
dens of His Majesty during a series of years." Aiton ex encycl. 
gard. p. C4-2, 643. 

Cultivation of the cucumber in Week's patent frame, — Only 
two instances in which this ingenious invention has been tried are 
known to us, both of which are mentioned at the end of " Week's 
Forcer's Assistant." The chief objection to it is, that the bed or 
stratum of earth in which the plants are grown, being but of mo- 
derate depth, and surrounded by air above and below, is ex- 
tremely difficult to retain at an equable moisture. There are 
several other structures for growing cucumbers and melons in 
besides those mentioned above ; but none of them appear to us 
to be of much importance. 

On a mode of producing a crop of cucumbers during winter, — 
James Reed, (Gard. mag. 3. p. 23.) places his winter cucumber 
bed in a vinery. In this vinery the air could be admitted both 
by the front and top lights. About the 20th of September the' 
cucumber seeds were sown on a moderate hot-bed in the open 
air, and heated in the usual manner until they were ready to 
ridge out. This generally happened about the beginning of 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. 



27 



November, at wliich lime the shoots of llie vines were witlidrawn 
from the house, and a dung-bed formed in the floor of the 
vinery in the usual way. After placing the frame and mould on 
the bed, it may be left witliout the lights until the rank steam 
has passed oft". After this, the plants being placed in the hills, 
and the sashes put on, the following are the leading features of 
management during the winter. Make fires in the evening, so 
as to warm the air of the house to from 56° to G0°, and in very 
severe frosts it may be raised to 70°. In the mornings of the 
coldest weather, and shortest days, make a strong fire, so as to 
raise the heat to nearly 70° when the house is shut up. About 
8 o'clock, and from that time to half past 9, give plenty of fresh 
air, by opening the front sashes and top lights, after which, and 
during the remainder of the day, give plenty of air to the 
cucumbers, by tilting the sashes in the usual way. In mild 
weatiier, and during sunshine, the lights may be taken en- 
tirely oft' the cucumbers for some hours each day ; and imme- 
diately after forming new linings, the top lights may be left 
open a little all night to permit the escape of r:ink steam. The 
advantage of this mode of growing cucumbers during winter is, 
the comparative certainty of an early and good crop at one-third 
of the trouble and expence of the common method out of doors. 
By this practice fruit may be cut in January. Tlie vines may 
be introduced in the beginning of March, and will break beauti- 
fully and regularly in consequence of tlie genial steam of the 
dung. In April the shade of the vine leaves will have rendered 
the house too dark for the culture of the cucumber, and as by 
this time cucumbers are plentiful in the common hot-beds out of 
doors, the bed in the vinery may be cleared away, and the vines 
treated in the usual way till the following November. 

Common or Cullivaled Cucamher. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1573. 
PI. trailing. 

4 C. FLEXuosus (Lin. spec. 1437.) stems trailing, scabrous, 
Hexuous, cirrhiferous ; leaves cordate-ovate, somewhat lobed, 
denticulated, stalked ; flowers in fascicles in the axils of the 
leaves ; calyx very pilose ; fruit long, cylindrically-clavate, fur- 
rowed, flexuous, replicate, white or yellow. 0. F. Native of 
the East Indies. — Lob. stirp. p. 363. f. 2. Dodon. pempt. p. 66. 
f. 2. Ger. herb. p. 763. f. 3. Fruit the size of a large pear, 
eatable, and delicious. It is cultivated about Nagasaki and 
elsewhere in Japan ; is ripe in June, and is called by the Dutch 
Banket Melon. 

Jar. I3, rejlexus (Ser. mss.) leaves angularly-lobed. C. re- 
flexus, Zieh. 

Flej-uoiis-fruked or Banket Melon. Fl. May, Sept. Clt. 
1597. Pl.tr. 

5 C. Jamaice'nsis (Bert, ex Spreng. syst. 3. p. 46.) leaves 
cordate, 3-lohed, quintuple-nerved, glabrous, quite entire, beset 
with scabrous dots beneath ; lobes acuminated ; fruit nearly glo- 
bose. O. F. Native of Jamaica. 

Jamaica Melon. Fl. June, Sep. Clt. 1824. Pl.tr. 

6 C. macroca'rpos (Wenderoth ex Mart, reise. bras, ex Lin- 
ntea. 5. p. 39.) leaves cordate, rather angular, acutish, sharply- 
denticulated, scabrous from hairs ; fruit oblong, obsoletely striat- 
ed and spotted, remotely tuberculated. ©. F. Native of Brazil. 

Long-fruited Cucumber, PI. tr. 

7 C. Chate (Lin. spec. 1437.) plant very villous ; stems 
trailing, bluntly pentagonal, flexuous ; leaves petiolate, roundish, 
bluntly angled, denticulated ; flowers sm.ill, on short peduncles; 
fruit pilose, elliptic, tapering to both ends. ©. F. Native of 
Egypt and Arabia. — Alp. exot. segyp. p. 54. t. 40. — Bauh. hist. 
2. p. 248. f. 3. The fruit is rather watery ; the flesh almost of 
the same substance with the melon ; the taste somewhat sweet, 
and cool as the water-melon. The grandees and Europeans in 
Egypt eat it as the most pleasant fruit they have, and that from 
which they have least to apprehend. With us it is very indif- 



ferent. It is most common in the fertile soil around Cairo, after 
the inundation of the Nile. Chate is the Egyptian name of the 
plant. 

Chale or Hairy Cucumber or Melon. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 
1759. PI. tr. 

8 C. Duda'im (Lin. spec. 1437.) plant hispid; lower leaves 
roundish, upper ones somewhat 5-lobed, cordate at the base, 
denticulated; tendrils simple; petals ovate-roundish; male 
flowers having the calyx rounded at the base, the throat dilated, 
and with the connectives longer than the anthers ; hermaphro- 
dite flowers having the tube of the calyx ovate and pilose ; stig- 
mas 4-6 ; fruit globose, smoothish, variegated, rarely warted : 
with white sweet-scented, but insipid flesh. Q. F. Native of 
Persia. And. bot. rep. t. 548. C. odoratissimus, Moench, 
meth. 654.— Dill. hort. elth. 223. t. 177. f. 218.— Walth. hort. 
p. 133. t. 21. The fruit is variegated with green and orange, 
and oblong unequal green spots ; when full ripe becoming yel- 
low, and at length whitish. It has a very fragrant vinous musky 
smell, and a whitish, flaccid, insipid pulp. Duda'tm is the Hebrew 
name of the fruit, rendered mandrake in Scripture, which is per- 
hajis C. frrojihetarum. 

£)(((/«)»; or Apple-shaped Melon. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1705. Pl.tr. 

9 C. Co'nomon (Thunb. jap. p. 324.) plant rather pilose ; 
stem trailing, striated ; leaves cordate, somewhat lobed, stalked, 
rather pilose ; flowers small; fruit oblong, glabrous, 6-10-fur- 
rowed ; flesh firm. 0. F. Native of Japan. Fruit larger 
than a man's head. Flowers aggregate, on rather hispid stalks. 
This plant is cultivated every where in Japan for the sake of its 
fruit, which, when preserved, is sold under the name of Conne- 
reon, and is a common food among the Japanese. It is also fre- 
quently eaten by the Dutch at Batavia, and is sometimes brought 
to Holland. 

Conomon Melon. PI. tr. 

10 C. seVium (Meyer, prim, esseq. p. 278.) leaves cordate- 
ovate, somewhat 5-lobed ; fruit oval, muricated, acuminated at 
both ends. 0. F. Native of Guiana, in the island of Wac- 
hanama. C. angilria, Raeusch, but not of Lin. ex Steud. nom. 
It differs from our C. anguria in the leaves being subpalmate, 
with angular recesses, and in the fruit being globosely-elliptic. 

Hedge Melon. PI. tr. 

11 C. linea'tus (Bosc. journ. hist. nat. 2. p. 251. t. 37.) stem 
climbing, pentagonal ; tendrils trifid, longer than the leaves ; 
leaves cordate, palmate, acutish, serrulated ; petioles short ; 
flowers usually twin, almost sessile ; female ones having an 
oblong-ovate calyx, and lanceolate segments ; petals ovate, 
retuse ; fruit ovate-oblong, lined with green, 10-ribbed. O. F. 
Native of Cayenne. 

/.in«/-fruited Melon. Fl. June. Aug. Clt. 1825. Pl.tr. 

12 C. propheta'rum (Lin. spec. 1436. amtsn. acad. 4. p. 
295.) stem trailing, striated ; leaves cordate, 5-lobed, denticu- 
lated ; lobes obtuse; flowers axillary, 2-5-together, stalked; 
male ones with a campanulate calyx, and obovate petals ; calyx 
of the female flowers globose at the base, 12-striped, and his- 
pid : limb campanulate, crowned by teeth ; fruit globose, echi- 
nated, variegated, size of a cherry. 0. F. Native of Arabia. 
Jacq. hort. vind. 1 . t. 9.— Blackw. herb. 589. C. grossularioides, 
Hortul. The plant has a nauseous odour. The fruit equals the 
Colocynth in bitterness. 

P/-07j/(e<'« or Globe Cucumber. Fl.Ju.Sept. Clt.1777.Pl.tr. 

13 C. Afric.\ Nus (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 423.) stems trailing, an- 
gular ; leaves cordate, 5-lobed ; lobes acutish ; peduncles fili- 
form ; fruit ovate-oblong, much echinated. $ . F. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Lindl. bot. reg. t. 980.— Herm. par. 
p. 134. t. 36. Flowers small. Very like C. prophetarum. 

African Cucumber. Fl. Jime, Aug. PI. tr. 

14 C. ANGURIA (Lin. spec. 1436. biit not of Hausch. ex Steud. 
E 2 



28 



CUCURBITACEiE. IV. Cucumis. V. Luifa. 



norn.) stems rather filiform, cirrhiferous ; leaves palmately-si- 
nuated, cordate at the base, scabrous; Howers usually solitary, 
size of those of Bryonia d'loica ; fruit globose, echinated, white. 
0. F. Native of Jamaica. C. echinatus, Moench, meth. p. 
654.— Mill. icon. t. 33.— Pluk. phyt. t. 170. f. 3. Very like 
C. proplwtanmi. The fruit of this kind of cucumber is eaten 
when green by the inhabitants of the West India Islands ; 
but these are far inferior to our common cucumber. The 
fruit seldom grows so large as a pullet's egg, and is shaped 
like it; and the rind is closely beset with blunt prickles. It 
is frequently used in the sugar islands with other herbs in 
soups, and is esteemed an agreeable and wliolesome ingredient 
in them, ayyovpiof, angourion, one of the Greek names of the 
cucumber ; hence the specific name. 

Anguria or Round Prickly- fruited Cucumber. Fl. June, Aug. 
Clt. 1G92. PI. tr. 

15 C. citru'llus (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 301.) plant 
very pilose ; stems trailing, cirrhiferous ; leaves bluntly pinnate, 
or many-parted, rather glaucous ; flowers solitary, each fur- 
nished with one oblong bractca ; fruit nearly globose, gla- 
brous, with starry spots. 0. F. Native of tropical Africa 
and the East Indies. Cucurbita citriillus, Lin. spec. 1435. Cu- 
curbita anguria, Duehesn. in Lam. diet. 2. p. 158. — Blackvv. 
herb. t. 157. — Lob. stirp. t. 361. f. 2. Park. Theatr. 771. f. 
772. — Rumph. amb. 5. t. 146. f. 1. Samanla of the Hindoos. 

J'ar. a, Pasleca (Ser. 1. c.) flesh of fruit firm, yellow, but not 
very watery. This is the Yellow-Jleshed Jl'iitcr DIclon of the 
English, and the Pasteqxc of the French. 

I'ar. ft, Jace (Ser. 1. c.) flesh very watery, reddish. This is 
the lied-fleshcd If'ater Melon of the English, Melon d'eau of the 
French, and the Jacc of tlie Brazilians. 

The water-melon is called wasser-mclon in Germany, and coco- 
inero in Italy. The plant serves both for food, drink, and physic 
to the Egyptians. The fruit is eaten in abundance during the 
season, which is from the beginning of May until the overflowing 
of the Nile, that is, to the end of July. It is the only medicine 
the common people use in ardent fevers : when it is ripe or 
almost putrid, they collect the juice, and mix it with rose-water 
and a little sugar. The fruit should be eaten cautiously by 
Euro|)eans, especially when taken in the heat of tlie day ; but it 
is much used within the tropics, and in Italy. The fruit is large, 
green externally, white fleshed, reddish towards the centre, juicy, 
and refreshing, but not high flavoured. It is generally considered 
the melon of the Jews, mentioned in various parts of the Bible. 
It requires nearly the same treatment as the common melon, 
but a larger frame to admit its more extended shoots to spread 
themselves. 

Citrul or Water Melon. Fl. May, Sep. Clt. 1597. PI. tr. 

IG C. murica'tus (Willd. spec. 4. p. C13.) leaves cordate and 
angular, rather hoary ; angles rounded ; fruit cylindrical, muri- 
cated ; male flowers aggregate, nearly sessile ; female ones soli- 
tary. 0. F. Native of Tranquebar, 

/Fflr/et/ Cucumber. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1817. Pl.tr. 

17 C. megaca'rpus ; leaves palmate; fruit long, ovate, very 
full of anastomosing fibres, which look like net-work when the 
fruit is dried up. 0. F. Native of Sierra Leone. 

Large-fruited Cucumber. PI. tr. 

18 C. pube'scens (Willd. 1. c. p. 614.) leaves cordate, rather 
angular, acutish, sharply toothed, scabrous : fi uit, elliptic, ob- 
tuse, pubescent, green, painted with more obscure narrow 
stripes. 0. F. Native country unknown. Fruit 3 inches 
long, elliptic, and an inch thick, obtuse at both ends, covered 
with fine down. 

Z)on7!!/ Cucumber. Fl. July, Sep. Clt. IHlj. Pl.tr. 

19 C. macula'tus (Willd spec. 4. |>. Gil.) leaves cordate, 
obsoletely angular, roundly obtuse, denticulated, scabrous ; fruit 



elliptic, narrow at the base, glabrous, when young painted with 
broad green stripes ; but when mature, white, variegated with 
green spots ; connectives much longer than the anthers. 0. F. 
Native of Guinea. Fruit smooth. Ser. diss. 1. c. t. 3. 
Sfolted Cvicnmher. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1820. PI. tr. 

20 C. colocy'ntiiis (Lin. spec. 1435.) stems trailing, rather 
hispid ; leaves cordate-ovate, multifidly lobed, covered with 
white pili beneath ; lobes obtuse ; petioles equalling the limb of 
the leaf; tendrils short; flowers axillary, solitary, pedunculate; 
female ones having the tube of the calyx globose, and rather his- 
pid, crowned by a spreading campanulate limb, and narrow seg- 
ments ; petals small ; fruit globose, glabrous, yellowish at 
maturity, with a thin solid rind, and very bitter flesh. 0. F. 
Native of Japan and Turkey. — Black w. herb. t. 441. — Sabb. hort. 
1. t. 70. — Mor. hist. sect. 1. t. 6. f. 1. Fruit about the size of 
an orange. The colocynth is a native of Turkey. The fruit is 
about the size of an orange ; its medullary part, freed from the 
rind and seeds, is alone made use of in medicine ; this is very 
light, w hite, spongy, composed of membranous plates, of an ex- 
tremely bitter, nauseous, acrimonious taste. The fruit is ga- 
thered in autumn, when it begins to turn yellow, and is then 
peeled and dried quickly, either in a stove or in the sun. New- 
mann got from 7680 parts, 1680 alcoholic extract, and then 
2160 watery; and inversely 3600 watery, and 224 alcoholic. 
The seeds are perfectly bland, and highly nutritious ; and we 
learn from Captain Lyon, that they constitute an important 
article of food in Northern Africa. The extract of colocynth is 
one of the most powerful and useful of cathartics, but there is 
no more efficacious way of lessening its violence than by re- 
ducing its dose. 

Colocynth or Bitter Cucumber. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1551. 
PI. tr. 

21 C. Campechia'nus (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 
123.) stem cirrhiferous ; leaves cordate-roundish, sinuately 5- 
lobed, toothed ; lobes rounded, intermediate one the largest ; 
male flowers racemose, few ; tube of calyx villous ; fruit un- 
known. 0.F. Native on the shores about Campeachy. Perhaps 
a variety of C pro/)/(c<rt/»m, according to Spreng. syst. 3. p. 47. 

Campeachy Cucumber. PI. tr. 

22 C. pere'nnis (E. James, exped. rock, mount. 2. p. 345. 
and in isis 1824. p. 235.) leaves triangularly cordate, with im- 
dulated margins ; tendrils trichotomous ; lobes of calyx subu- 
late ; fruit orbicular, smooth, usually 4-celled ; seeds ovate, 
gibbous, with an acute margin. %. F. Native of or cultivated 
in North America. Flowers about the size of those of Cucur- 
bita Pepo. Fruit nearly sessile. 

Perennial Cucumber. PI. tr. 

Cull. See culture of the Cuvumber and Ulelon in the open 
air in the proper place, for the culture of the rest of the species. 

V. LU'FFA {Louff is the Arabic name of L, Mgypttaca). 
Cav. icon. 1. p. 7. t. 9. D. C. prod. 3. p. 302. — Ciicumis 
species of authors, and Momordica species of authors. 

LiN. svsT. Monce^cia, Pentandria. Male flowers yellow, in 
panicles ; tube of calyx hemispherical, "ith the segments longer 
than the tube. Petals free, deciduous from being ruptured at 
the base. Stamens 5, not joined. Anthers very flexuous. 
Female flowers solitary ; tube of calyx oblong-clavated, with 
the segments shorter than the tube. Stamens almost abortive. 
Stigmas reniform. Fruit ovate, 3-celled. Seeds 2-lobed at the 
base, reticulated. Flowers yellow. 

1 L. fce'tida (Cav. icon. 1. p. 7. t. 9.) stem furrowed : leaves 
cordate, 5-7-angled, scabrous ; the angles acute and serrated ; 
tendrils umbellate ; fruit mucronate, not crowned by the limb of 
the calyx. 0. F. Native of the East Indies, the islands of 
Bourbon and France, as well as in many places on the western 



CUCURBITACEyE. V. Luffa. VI. Benincasa. VII. Erythroi-alum. 



29 



coast of Africa, in fields, hedges, and among buslies. Sims, 
hot. mag. 16.)8. Ojong Buhislru is its Hindoo name. 
FcUdhy\'X&. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1812. Pi.tr. 

2 L. coKDiFoLiA (Blume, bijdr. p. 929.) leaves cordate, acmni- 
nated, sharply toothed, scabrous ; flowers dioecious ; male ones 
rather umbellate : female ones solitary ; fruit furrowed and 
wrinkled. ©. F. Native of Java, on the mountains, where it 
is called by the natives Aroy kajoraajan, Aroy Kalaijar burriet, 
but Tin Ilk by the Hindoos. 

Heart-lcavcd Luffa. PI. tr. 

3 L. acuta'ngula (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 302.) stem 
twisted ; leaves cordate, somewhat 5-lobed, acutely toothed ; 
tendrils undivided, or 2-3-cleft; fruit clavate, 10-angled, 
crowned by the linear calycine segments: the rind hard; seeds 
flat, roundish-oblong, black and shining at maturity. ©. F. 
Native of China, and plentiful in India near the habitations of 
the Indians Ciicumis acutangulus, Lin. spec. 1436. Jacq. hort. 
vind. 3. p. 73, 1\. ex Lam. diet. 2. p. 74. — Rhced. mal. 8. t. 7. 
— Rumpli. amb. 5. p. 408. t. 149. Dringi is the Hindoo name 
of the plant. Leaves like those of Tussilago Pe'.dsiles or J llis, 
with the scent of Datura stramonium. Male flowers umbellate, 
female ouf s solitary. Fruit insipid, but is eaten by the natives 
of India boiled or pickled. 

Acute-angled Luffa. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1C92. Pl.tr. 

4 L. Plukenetia'na (Ser. niss. in D. C prod. 3. p. 302.) 
leaves cordate, doubly toothed ; tendrils 2-3-cleft ; fruit ob- 
ovate, crowned by the raarcescent limb of the calyx. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies. Cucumis acutangulus /J, Lam. diet. 
2. p. 74.— Pluk. phyt. t. 172. f. 1. 

PInkenct's Lufta.' PI. tr. 

5 L. Ca'ttu-picinna (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 303.) 
stem tetragonal ; leaves cordate, roundish, somewhat 5-lobed, 
angular ; sepals broadly ovate, acuminated ; fruit oblong-ellip- 
tic, mucronate, lined with warts, and crowned by the calycine 
segments ; seeds ovate. ©. F. Native of Malabar. — Cattu- 
picinna, Rheed. mal. 8. p. 15. t. 8. Leaves nearly the size and 
form of those of Althce'a rosea. Male flowers size of those of 
Pabnia tentiijblia. 

Cattu-picinna Luffa. PI. tr. 

6 L. J^gyptiaca (Mill, diet.) leaves roundish-cordate, lobed ; 
lobes angular, cut at the base, with incumbent margins ; tendrils 
simple ; fruit obovate-clavate, 10-angled, crowned by the seg- 
ments of the calyx. ©. F. Native of Arabia. Momordica 
Liiffa, Lin. spec. 1433. L. Arabum, Alp. pi. segypt. p. 199. t. 
58.— Mor. hist. 2. p. 35. sect. 1. t. 7. f 1, 2.— Sabb. hort. 1. 
t. 62. The Arabians call the plant Z(^ or /yO!(^; they cultivate 
it, and it climbs up the palm-trees, covering, and elegantly 
adorning their trunks. It is also cultivated largely in Cliina 
and Cochin-china, if Loureiro's plant be the same (Coch. p. 
590.). The fruit when young is made into a pickle, like the 
mango, but it has a disagreeable taste, and is not accounted very 
wholesome. 

Egyj>iian Lwffa. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1739. PL cl. 

7 L. Pe'tola (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 303.) stems 
terete ; leaves cjrdate, 5-7-Iobed ; lobes acute, serrated, middle 
one very long ; tendrils bifid ; segments of the calyx oblong and 
bluntish ; petals obeordate, toothed, shorter than the calycine 
segments ; fruit obovate-clavate, mucronate, woolly, afterwards 
furrowed, green, spotted with white, with watery flesh. 0. F. 
Native of the East Indies. — Petola, Rumph. amb. 5. p. 405. 
t. 147. 

Petola LuflTa. PI. tr. 

8 L. penta'ndra (Wall. cat. no. 6751.) leaves cordate, downy, 
5-7-lobed, mucronately denticulated : middle lobe the longest ; 
female peduncles 1-floweied, solitary : male ones umbellate ? ©. 
F. Native of the East Indies, in Rungpur and Munggeri. 



Pentandrous Luffa. PI. tr. 

9 L grave'olens (Roxb. ex Wall. cat. no. C752.) downy ; 
leaves cordate, obsoletely lobed, and mucronately denticulated ; 
flowers axillary, 2-4-together, on very short peduncles ; fruit 
muricatod. ©. F. Native of the East Indies, in Munikapur. 

Strong-scented Luffa. PI. tr. 

10 L. ama'ra (Wall. cat. no. 6754.) scabrous ; leaves cordate, 
5-7-lobed, middle lobe the longest, all acute ; female peduncles 
1-flowered, solitary: male ones racemose; fruit long, downy. 
©. F". Native of the East Indies, in Rungpur and Gualpara. 

Bitter Luffa. PL tr. 

1 1 L. hedera'cea (Wall. cat. no. 6755.) leaves cordate, pal- 
mately 5-lobed, mucronately denticulated ; female peduncles 
1 -flowered, solitary : male ones racemose ; fruit oblong. ©. F. 
Native of the Burraan Empire, at Amherst, and below Melloon. 

Ivy-like Luffa. PL tr. 

12 L. echina'ta (Roxb. ex Wall. cat. no. 6756.) scabrous; 
leaves cordate, 5-lobed; lobes rounded, mucronately denticu- 
lated ; female peduncles 1-flowered, solitary; male ones um- 
bellatcly racemose ; fruit roundish, echinatcd by spines. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies, in Bandil, Deyra, and Dhoon. 

Ecliinaled-ivw'ileA Luffa. PL tr. 

13 L. satpa'tia (Hamilt. ex Wall. cat. no. 6757.) scabrous; 
leaves cordate, angularly toothed ; peduncles racemose. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies, in Nathpur, where it is called Sat- 
j)atia. 

Satpalia LufFa. PL tr. 

14 L. pa'rvula (Hamilt. ex Wall. cat. no. 6758.) roughish ; 
leaves 5-7-lobed; lobes acuminated, mucronately denticulated ; 
female peduncles 1-flowered, solitary ; fruit long, downy when 
young. ©. H. Native of the East Indies, in Puraniya. 

Small Luffa. PL tr. 

Cidt. Sow the seeds in a hot-bed, and afterwards treat the 
plants as recommended for ridging out cucumbers. 

VI. BENINCA'SA (in honour of Count Benincasa, an Ita- 
lian nobleman). Savi, mem. cucurb. 1818. p. 6. with a figure. 
Delile, mem. acad. sc. par. 1824. 7. p. 395. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 303. 

Lin. syst. Polygamia, Monoecia. Fltiwers polygamous, 
monoecious, solitary, yellow. Segments of the calyx short, 
broad, with undulated, toothed margins. Stamens in 3 bundles 
in the male flowers, divaricate. Petals obovate-roundisli, curled, 
and undulated ; anthers very irregular, with distant convolutions. 
Female flowers with the stamens as in the males, but usually 
nearly abortive. Stigmas very thick and irregular. Seeds with 
thickish margins. 

1 B. cerifera (Savi, 1. c.) plant very hairy, with a musky 
scent; leaves cordate, somewhat 5-lobed; lobes acutish and 
crenated ; tendrils simple ; fruit ovate-cylindrical, woolly, pen- 
dulous, green. ©. F. Native of the East Indies. Cuciirbita 
cerifera, Fiscli. cat. hort. Gorenk. ex Savi, 1. c. B. cylindrica, 
Hortul. Cumbulam, Rheed. mal. 8. p. 5. t. 3. The fruit is 
either short or long, but always covered with numerous fragile 
hairs, and clothed with glaucous, glittering bloom. Flowers 
sometimes hermaphrodite. 

Wax-hearing Bemm-asa. FL May, Jul. Clt.1827.Pl.tr. 

Cult. Sow the seeds on a hot-bed in spring ; and afterwards 
treat the plants as in ridging out cucumbers. 

VII. ERYTHROPA'LUM (from epvQpoQ, erylhros, red, and 
TraXoc, ;)fl/os, a shaking ; application not evident). Blum, bijdr. 
p. 921. D. C. prod. 3. p. 303. 

Lin. .syst. Monoecia, Penldndria. Flowers monoecious, 
perhaps only from abortion. Limb of calyx obsoletely 5- 
toothed. Petals 5, ovate, alternating with the teeth of the 



30 



CUCURBITACE^. VIII. Turia. IX. Bryonia. 



calyx, blcallous at the base inside. Stamens 5, opposite the 
petals, borne at the margin of the tube ; filaments short; anthers 
erect, dehiscing at the side. Style short. Fruit clavate, 1- 
celled, 3-valved ; valves fleshy, partible into two. Seed one 
coated. 

1 E. sca'ndens (Blum, bijdr. p. 922.) shrub climbing ; leaves 
stalked, rather peltate, oblong, acuminated, quite entire, gla- 
brous ; peduncles branched, axillary ; pedicels rather umbellate, 
(j . ^. S. Native of the East India Islands, on the mountains, 
particularly in Java, where it is called Aroy wuat Ban hong by 
the natives. 

Climhing Erythropalum. Shrub cl. 

Cult. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or vegetable 
mould, will suit this plant ; and cuttings will grow freely in the 
same kind of soil, if placed in heat. 

VIII. TU'RIA (Arabic name of one of the species). Forsk. 
fl. aegypt. p. 165. no. 35. Lam. diet. 8. p. 139. D. C. prod. 
3. p. 303. 

Lin. syst. Monoecia, Pentdndria. Flowers monoecious, 
male ones umbellate. Calyx 5-parted ; segments lanceolate, 
spreading. Corolla 5-petalled, rotate, yellow. Stamens 5, 
erect, filiform, in 3 bundles ; anthers irregularly curled ; rudi- 
ment of germ half globose. Female flowers having the calyx 
and corolla as in the male, but with the stamens castrated. 
Germen cylindrical, thickened. Stigmas 3, 2-lobed. Fruit 
cylindrical ? attenuated, villous, warted. 

1 T. cYLiNDRicA (Forsk. 1. c.) stcms twining, 5-angled, sca- 
brous ; leaves palmate ; lobes toothed ; tendrils trifid ; fruit 
terete, attenuated at both ends, villous, crowned by the style 
and calyx. — Native of Arabia Felix. Gmcl syst. nat. 1. p, 403. 
ex Lam. diet. 8. p. 140. Flowers yellow. 

Cyliiidrical-iiruiteil Turia. PI. tw. 

2 T. Leloja (Forsk. 1. c. p. 165.) stem striated, mealy; 
leaves 3-lobed, cordate at the base ; lobes angular, middle one 
longest, but not lobed ; fruit conical, glabrous ; seeds size of a 
small pea. %. F. Native of Arabia. Gmel. syst. nat. 1. 
p. 403. ex Lam. diet. 8. p. 140. Leloja is the Arabian name 
of the plant. Flowers green. 

Leloja Turia. PI. tw. 

3 T. corda'ta (Lam. diet. 8. p. 140.) leaves cordate, angular, 
ciliated, 2 inches long. — Native of Arabia Felix. The fruit, 
when matured, opens at top by a lid, and ejects its seeds with 
force. Forsk. fl. segypt. p. 166. 

Corrfaie-leaved Turia. PI. trailing. 

4 T. GijEP (Forsk. 1. c. p. 166.) stem 6-angIed, scabrous; 
leaves 3-lobed, denticulated, scabrous on both surfaces ; fruit 
ovate, 10-furrowed, glabrous. — Native of Arabia. Flowers 
small, green. Fruit smaller than a nut, greyish at maturity, 
dehiscing, with revolute valves. Gijef is the Arabic name of 
the plant. 

Gijef Turia. PI. trailing. 

5 T. Mo'ghadd (Forsk. segypt. 1. c.) stem terete, smooth ; 
leaves 3-lobed, quite entire ; lateral lobes somewhat 3-lobed ; 
fruit oval-oblong, quite glabrous. — Native of Arabia Felix. 
Flowers large, white. Immature fruit green, spotted with white, 
but when mature )ellow and eatable. Mog/iadd is the Arabian 
name of the species. 

Moghadd Turia. PI. trailing. 

Cult. See Cucurbilu, p. 41. for culture and propagation. 

IX. BRYO'NI A (from /3pvw, ftryo, to sprout up; in reference 
to the rapid growth of the annual stems, or because the species 
raise themselves by laying hold of other shrubs with their ten- 
drils). Lin. gen. no. 1480. Juss. gen. p. 394. Gsertn. fruct. 
t. 88. D. C. prod. 3. p. 304. Solena, Lour. coch. Cicumis 



species of some authors. Cucumeroides, Gaertn. fruct. 2. p. 485. 
t. 180. f. 4. 

Lin. syst. Monoecia, Polyadelphia. Flowers monoecious 
or dioecious. Petals joined at the base. Male flowers with a 
5-toothed calyx. Stamens in 3 bundles ; anthers flexuous. 
Female flowers with a trifid style. Fruit ovate or globose, 
smooth ; perhaps always few-seeded. Seeds ovate, hardly com- 
pressed, more or less margined. Tendrils simple, rarely forked. 

* Leaves angular. 

1 B. rostra'ta (Rottl. nov. act. berol. 4. p. 212. and Willd. 
spec. 4. p. 610.) stem filiform, furrowed ; leaves cordate, obtuse, 
denticulated, scabrous ; peduncles axillary, solitary ; fruit ovate, 
angular, acuminated. ©. F. Native of Tranquebar. Fruit 
the size of a pea. Plant scabrous, but when cultivated it be- 
comes smooth in every part. The root of this species is pre- 
scribed in India internally in electuary, in cases of piles. 

TiOA^rf/^e-fruited Bryony. PI. cl. 

2 B. Peurotetia'na (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 304.) 
tendrils simple, capillary ; leaves broadly cordate, ungulate, ses- 
sile, villous, scabrous, with undulated margins ; male flowers 
twin, on pilose peduncles : female flowers sessile ; fruit ending 
in a long taper point, sessile, clothed with very long and very 
numerous hairs ; seeds compressed, bay-coloured, granularly 
edged, and covered with adpressed hairs. ■J<..S. Native of 
Senegal. Flowers white. 

Perrotet's Bryony. PI. cl. 

3 B. mucrona'ta (Blume, bijdr. p. 923.) leaves cordate- 
ovate, mucronate, rather angular, and repandly denticulated, 
scabrous from dots above, and smooth beneath; flowers in fas- 
cicles, dioecious ; berry oval. 1/. . S. Native of the East In- 
dies, on the mountains, where it is called Pariagengie by the 
natives. 

Far. ft, denticulaia (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 304.) leaves all 
undivided, obsoletely denticulated ; fruit usually contracted in 
the middle. 1/ . S. Growing among bushes about Buitenzorg 
in Java. 

71/!/crowa(e-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

4 B. sca'bra (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves cordate, angular, 
toothed, beset with callous dots above and with pili beneath, 
therefore scabrous on both surfaces ; flowers umbellate ; fruit 
globose ; seeds smooth. %. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. The tender shoots of this plant are aperient, having 
been previously roasted. 

Scabrous Bryony. Fl. Sept. Oct. Clt. 1774. PI. cl. 

5 B. verrucosa (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 3. p. 285. ed. 2. 
vol. 5. p. 246.) leaves cordate, angular, beset with callous dots 
beneath as well as on the veins above ; tendrils usually simple ; 
fruit globose, nearly sessile. %, G. Native of the Canary 
Islands. Willd. spec. 4. p. 616. Fruit the size of a sloe. 

jr«rtoMeaved Bryony. Clt. 1779. PI. cl. 

6 B. scabra'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 923.) leaves cordate, cuspi- 
date, undivided, and somewhat angular, denticulated, scabrous 
above, rough on the veins beneath ; flowers monoecious ; umbels 
on short peduncles ; fruit globose. — Native of the East Indies, 
on the mountains, particularly in Java. Cuciirbita scabra, Blum, 
cat. hort. buit. no. 105. Aroy korrcg kottok of the Javanese. 
Allied to B. scabra and B. Japonica. 

Rough Bryony. PI. cl. 

7 B. puncta'ta (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves cordate, angular, 
callous above, and pilose beneath ; peduncles 1 -flowered. If.. G. 
Native of the CajieofGood Hope. 

Z*o//c(i-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

8 B. repa'nda (Blum, bijdr. p. 923.) leaves cordate, cuspi- 
date, repandly denticulated, scabrous above and puberulous be- 
neath ; umbels pedunculate ; flowers dioecious ; berries globose. 



CUCURBITACE/E. IX. Bryonia. 



31 



1/ . S. Native of Java, in the higher mountain woods of Bu- 
rangrang. 

itepand-lesived Bryony. PI. cl. 

9 B. corda'ta (Thuiib. in Hoffin. phyt. hlatt. 5. ex Pcrs. 
ench. 2. p. 594.) leaves cordate, scabrous, denticulated ; flowers 
axillary, twin. %. . S. Native country unknown. B. Thun- 
bergi;\na, Dietr. ex Steud. nom. 

HearlAeaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

10 B. angula'ta (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves 5-angled, sca- 
brous on both surfaces ; flowers umbellate. 1/ . G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

y^Hg-u^ar-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

11 B. leucoca'rpa (Blumc, bijdr. p. 924.) leaves ovate-ob- 
long, acuminated, deeply cordate at the base, somewhat rcpandly 
denticulated, beset with rough dots above, paler beneath ; pe- 
duncles usually twin, few-flowered ; flowers monoecious ; ber- 
ries globose. Ij. . S. Native of Java, at the foot of Mount 
Salak. 

W/iite-fruitcd Bryony. PI. cl. 

12 B. acuta'ngula (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves angular, 
entire, smooth, glabrous. 1/ . G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Jcute-angledAeaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

13 B. gra'ndis (Lin. niant. p. 126.) leaves cordate, lobed, 
beset with callous dots above and glandular at the base beneath : 
terminal lobe obtuse ; tendrils simple ; fruit oblong, prickly at 
the base ; prickles few, reflexed (ex icon. Burm.) reddish. 1/ .S. 
Native of the East Indies. Lour, cocli. 595. — Rumph. amb. 5. 
t. 1C6. f. 1. Peduncles 1-flowered. Flowers large, whitish, 
androgynous. Berries red. 

Great Bryony. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1783. PI. cl. 

14 B. MoiMoi (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 305.) leaves 
cordate, 5-angled, acutely denticulated : terminal angle elon- 
gated and acute ; tendrils sim])le ; fruit prickly at the base ; 
prickles few, reflexed; fruit red. % . S. Native of Ceylon 
and of Senegal, in hedges, in which last place it is called Mo'imoi, 
according to Adanson. Seneg. p. 159. Burm. zeyl. t. 19. f. 1. 
Flowers large, white. 

Moinioi Bryony. PI. cl. 

15 B. gemina'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 924.) leaves ovate-cordate, 
or somewhat hastate, bluntish, obsoletely denticulated, scabrous 
from dots ; flowers pedunculate, twin, monoecious ; berries oval. 
% . S. Native of Java, about Linga-jattie at the foot of Mount 
Tjerimai, where it is called JVcnvaluhan by the natives. 

TVi'in-flowered Bryony. PI. cl. 

16 B. Cochinchine'nsis (Lour. coch. 595.) leaves 5-angled, 
rough ; flowers monoecious, large, axillary, solitary, on long 
peduncles; fruit ovate, acutish at both ends, 10-angled, red, 
smooth; seeds oblong-ovate, compressed, smooth. %. G. 
Native of Cochin-china, in hedges. Flowers white. 

Cochin-china Bryony. PI. cl. 

17 B. Abyssi'nica (Lam. diet. 1. p. 497.) stem villous at the 
apex ; tendrils simple ; leaves cordate, toothed, large, soft, 
nearly glabrous : upper ones angularly-lobed ; petioles and pe- 
duncles very villous ; flowers twin, yellow ; fruit unknown. 
%. G. Native of Abyssinia and neighbouring parts of Africa. 

Abyssinian Bryony. PI. cl. 

18 B. Japonica (Thunb. jap. p. 325.) leaves cordate, undi- 
vided, and angular, toothed, green above, and beset with very 
minute hairs : pale beneath, and beset with scaly dots. 1/ . G. 
Native of Japan, near Nagasaki. 

Japan Bryony. PI. cl. 

19 B. sagitta'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 925.) leaves on short pe- 
tioles, sagittate, glaucescent beneath ; male peduncles subumbel- 
late, female ones 1-flowered. %. S. Native of Java, about 
Batavia, in humid bushy places. Allied to B. hcterophylla and 
B, umhellata. 



SagitlaleAeaycd Bryony. PI. cl. 

20 B. Blu'mei (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 305.) leaves 
ovate-cordate, or cordatcly-sagittate, acuminated, repandly den- 
ticulated, scabrous ; flowers monoecious, male ones uniliellate, 
female ones solitary ; berries oblong. %. S. Native of Java, 
near Batavia, among bushes. B. heterophylla, Blum, bijdr. 
p. 925., but not of Steud. Allied to B. marginata. 

Blu7ne's Bryony. PI. cl. 

21 B. maroina'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 924.) leaves cordate-ovate, 
acuminated, rather angular at the base, obsoletely denticulated, 
roarginate, rough ; umbels on long peduncles; berries oblong. 
1/ . S. Native of Java, about Rompien, where it is called Korro- 
ronteng Kamhien by the natives. 

]SIargmate-\ea.veA Bryony. PI. cl. 

22 B. umbella'ta (Klein ex Willd. spec. 4. p. 618.) leaves 
oblong-cordate, glabrous on both surfaces, dotted above, re- 
motely denticulated, rather angular at the base : upper ones 
hastately 2-lobed ; peduncles axillary, umbellate; fruit unknown. 
%. S. Native of the East Indies. B. Teedonda, Roxb. B. 
hastata, Lour. coch. 594.? — Rheed. mal. 8. p. 51. t. 26.? 
Flowers white. Berries red. 

Umhellate-^owereA Bryony. PI. cl. 

23 B. amplexicau'lis (Lam. diet. 1. p. 496.) stem angular, 
glabrous ; leaves smooth, cordate, rather angular, stem-clasping, 
dotted, and glaucous beneath ; upper leaves generally narrowly 
3-lobed ; flowers small, solitary, axillary, pedunculate ; fruit 
solitary, acuminated, smooth. % . S. Native of the East 
Indies, Flowers white. 

Slem-dasping leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

24 B. ? heterophy'lla (Steud. nom. p. 123.) lower leaves 
cordate, upper ones cordate or denticulated ; tendrils solitary ; 
flowers solitary, pedunculate, hermaphrodite; fruit scarlet; 
seeds blackish, il . S. Native of Cochin-china and China. 
Solena heterophylla, Lour. coch. p. 514. Flowers pale. 

Variable-leaved Bryony. PL cl. 

25 B. PUBESCENS (Poir. diet, suppl. 1. p. 731.) stem pilose; 
leaves cordate, somewhat 5-lobed ; lobes acute, with spiny 
teeth ; petioles villous ; tendrils long, much branched ; flowers 
small, white, downy, umbellate. 1^. G. Native of the Levant. 
Flowers whitish. 

Downy Bryony. PI. cl. 

26 B. Maderaspata'na (Berg. pi. cap. p. 351.) stem angu- 
lar, cirrhose, glabrous ; leaves cordate, oblong, acuminated, 
toothed, scabrous from small callosc dots above, hairy beneath ; 
stipulas ? awl-shaped, solitary; flowers twin, axillary. ©. S. 
Native of the East Indies. Ciicumis Maderaspatana, Lin. spec. 
1438.— Pluk. aim. t. 170. f. 2. 

Madras Bryony. PI. cl. 

27 B. HEDER.iiFOLiA (Jacq. fragm. 73. no. 230. t. 113.) dio- 
ecious ; root thick, fleshy ; stem terete, glabrous, with the in- 
ternodcs distant ; tendrils very long, simple ; leaves cordate, 
somewhat 5-angled, quite entire, rather wrinkled above, and 
hispid beneath ; racemes simple, many-flowered ; calycine seg- 
ments of the male flowers lanceolate and acute ; lobes of the 
corolla ovate, acute, yellowish. If. . S. Native of TenerifTe. 
Flowers yellowish. 

hy-lcavcd Brj'ony. PI. cl. 

28 B. ALTH.EoiDES (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 306.) stem 
filiform, furrowed, rough, with the internodes longer than the 
leaves; tendrils simple, narrow, and spirally twisted; leaves 
cordate, l.mceolatc, on short petioles, somewhat 5-angled, bluntly 
toothed, clothed with a kind of rough tomentum beneath ; ter- 
minal lobe elongated ; fruit thin, glol)ose, sessile, smooth ; seeds 
wrinkled from dots, girded by a slender zone. % . S. Native 
of the island of Timor. Flowers white, 

Althcea-like Bryony. PI. cl. 

29 B. ? PEDUNCULOSA (Scr. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 306.) 



3-2 



CUCURBITACE^. IX. Bryonia. 



plant pilose ; stem filiform, striated, having distant internodes ; 
tendrils bifid ; leaves on long petioles, cordate, long-acuminated, 
crenately toothed, beset with long, distant hairs ; flowers large, 
in loose racemes ; peduncles longer than the leaves ; pedicels 
long, pilose ; fruit unknown. 1/ . G. Native of Nipaul. 
Long-pcdunckd Bryony. PI. cl. 

30 B. Rhe'edii (Blum, bijdr. p. 925.) leaves on short pe- 
tioles, oblong, cordate, rather angular at the base, remotely den- 
ticidated, smoothish, dotted above, glaucous beneath ; upper 
leaves hastately 3-lobed ; male pedicels disposed in dense ra- 
cemes, 1 -flowered, bearing one bractea in the middle of each, 
female pedicels solitary, 1-flowered. 'U . S. Native of Java and 
Malabar, on the mountains. Rheed. mal. 8. t. 26. The plant 
is caWeA Aroy-hui-lValleh by the natives of Java. 

Rheede's Bryony. PI. cl. 

* * Leaves lohed. 

31 B. rno^E'A (Rottl. in nov. act. berol. 4. p. 223.) stem fur- 
rowed, glabrous ; leaves coriaceous, somewhat cordately 3-lobed, 
obsolctcly denticulated, rough : lateral lobes somewhat 2-lobed, 
intermediate one elongated, acuminated ; flowers monoecious, 
male ones umbellate, female ones solitary ; berries globose. 
11 . S. Native of Java, about Rompien, in corn fields. Willd. 
spec. 4. p. 610. — Blum, bijdr. p. 925. Corro-konteng of the 
natives of Java. The root of this species was once supposed to 
be the famous colomba-root, to which it approaches very nearly 
in quality. 

£oW/(" Bryony. Clt. 1815. PI. cl. 

32 B. scabre'lla (Lin. suppl. 42)-.) stem muricated, hispid ; 
leaves 3-lobed, toothed, callosely hispid on both surfaces: lateral 
lobes dilated, angular, intermediate one elongated ; petioles hispid ; 
flowers axillary, nearly sessile, numerous ; fruit nearly globose, 
beset with a few obverse strigae ; seeds muricated. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies. Willd. spec. 4. p. 619. Balwon 
tengang of the Hindoos. Flowers yellow. Habit of Mclbtliria. 

Far. a ; leaves smaller ; seeds tuberculated. Blume, 1. c. 
Far. ft ; leaves coarsely toothed, as in the preceding variety, 
and beset with setaceous strigae ; berries elliptic-globose. Blume, 

1. c. 

Notighlsh Bryony. Fl. May, Jidy. Clt. 1781. PI. cl. 

33 B. LATEBUosA (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 3. p. 384. ed. 

2. vol. 5. p. 347.) leaves somewhat 3-lobed, pilose, attenuated 
at the base, hardly cordate, running down the petiole on one side 
only. li.G. Native of the Canary Islands. Flowers whitish. 

Dark Bryony. Fl. June. Clt. 1779. PI. cl. 

34 B. tkiloba'ta (Thunb. prod. 13. but not of Lour.) leaves 
3-lobed, smooth above, and scabrous beneath. If. . G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

27/)ce-/o6ct/-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

35 B. stipula'cea (Willd. spec. 4. p. 620.) stem shrubby ? 
furrowed ; tendrils trifid ; leaves cordate, 3-lobed, toothed, gla- 
brous, smooth on both surfaces ; stipulas roundish, concave, 
serrated ; flowers monoecious, solitary ; fruit ovate, acutish, gla- 
brous, yellow, 5-celled, many-seeded. 1i..G. Native of Cochin- 
china. B. triloba, Lour. coch. p. 595. but not of Thunb. B. 
agrestis, Raeusch. ex Steud. noni. phan. p. 123. Flowers white. 

Far. fl; jicrpiiuUa (Blum, bijdr. p. 926.) leaves membra- 
nous, deeply cordate, 3-lobed, obsoletcly denticulated, scabrous 
from dots above, smooth beneath : lateral lobes rather angular, 
intermediate one elongated, acuminated ; flowers umbellate, 
monoecious; fruit pea-formed. 1/. S. Cucurbita perpusilla, 
Blum. cat. hort. buit. p. 105. Native of Java, in the shady 
parts of moimtains. The plant is called Hampru Bogor, and 
Korrcs koda by the Javanese. 

Large- sl'ipuhd Bryony. PI. cl. 

36 B. America'na (Lam. diet. 1, p. 498.) root thick; stem 
angular ; leaves cordate, 3-lobed, angular, wrinkled, with spine- 



formed teeth ; lobes of corolla narrow, white inside ; fruit ovate, 
red, few-seeded ; seeds compressed. 1/ . S. Native of the An- 
tillis. — Plum. spec. 3. icon. p. 66. ex Willd. spec. 4. p. 620. 
American Bryony. PI. cl. 

37 B. Guinee'nsis ; leaves cordate, petiolate, 5 -lobed ; lobes 
acute, toothed ; peduncles axillary, many-flowered ; tendrils 
axillary. If..'^. S. Native of Sierra Leone. Flowers red. 

Guinea Bryony. PI. tw. 

38 B. coRDiFOLiA (Lin. spec. p. 1438.) leaves cordate, oblong, 
5-lobed, toothed, scabrous, bidentate at the top of the petiole. 
1^. S. Native of Ceylon. Flowers white. The root of this 
plant is considered cooling, and to possess virtues in complaints 
requiring expectorants. 

Hearl-kaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

39 B. ALBA (Lin. spec. p. 621.) stem climbing; leaves cor- 
date, 5-lobed, toothed, scabrous from callous dots ; terminal 
lobe hardly longer than the rest ; tendrils twin ; flowers race- 
mose, monoecious ; stamens distinct ; fruit globose, black ; 
seeds unknown. ~U . H. Native of Europe, in woods and 
hedges, as in Sweden, Denmark, and Carniola. Lam. ill. t. 769. 
Fl. dan. t. 813. Flowers whitish or yellowish. 

Black-berried n'/«Vc Bryony. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1807. PI cL 

40 B. Dioi'cA (Jacq. fl. austr. t. 199.) stem climbing : leaves 
cordate, palmately 5-lobed, toothed, scabrous from callous points ; 
terminal lobe the longest and very dissimilar, perhaps always ; 
tendrils simple ; flowers racemose, dioecious ; filaments pilose at 
the base ; fruit globose, red ; seeds obovate globose, rather 
compressed, grey, variegated with black. !{.. H. Native of 
Europe, in hedges ; plentiful in England, particularly in calca- 
reous counties. Smith, engl. bot. t. 439. Mill, fig t. 71 — 
Blackw. herb. t. 37. B. alba, Huds. 437. Wood. med. bot. t. 
189. Flowers white, with elegant green ribs and veins. The 
root grows sometimes to an immense size ; it is a famous hydro- 
gogue, and highly purgative and acrid, a drachm of it in sub- 
stance, or half an ounce of it infused in wine, is said to be a full 
dose ; others give 2 drachms in dropsical cases. As a purgative 
it has great effect on some, while on others it has hardly any ; 
but it frequently becomes diuretic and diaphoretic. A cold in- 
fusion in water is used externally in sciatic pains. A cataplasm 
of it is a most powerful discutient The best season to take up 
the roots for use is in autumn. It is called in English, white 
wild vine, wild hops, while Bryony, wild nep, Tcttcr-berry. 

Far. ft, liitea (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 1. c.) leaves deeply 
lobed ; lateral lobes nearly linear, terminal one lanceolate, bi- 
dentate laterally; fruit and seeds yellow. l^.H. Native of 
Auvergne, in hedges and woods. 

/j(oec(0i(i-flowered or red- berried white Bryony. Fl. May, 
Sept. Britain. PI. cl. 

41 B. NiiiDA (Link, enuin. 2; p. 40 1.) leaves cordate, 5-lobed, 
apiculated, scabrous from hairs : peduncles umbelliferous. If. . 
H. Native country unknown. 

Shining Bryony. Fl. Jidy, Sept. Clt. 1824. PI. cl. 

42 B. Cre'tica (Lin. spec. 1439.) root fleshy ; stems climb- 
ing ; leaves cordate, 5-lobed, quite entire, ciliated, muricated on 
both surfaces : terminal lobe the largest ; tendrils simple, spiral ; 
flowers dioecious : female ones axillary, twin ; fruit globose, 
red; seeds smooth, obovate. ©. H. Native of Candia. Desf. 
coroU. p. 91. t. 70. ann. mus. 12. t. 17. Flowers pale. 

Cretan Bryony. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1759. PI. cl. 

43 B. auiNQUE'i-oBA (Thunb. prod. 13.) flowers dioecious; 
leaves 5-lobed, scabrous above ; lobes very blunt, mucronately 
toothed, auricled behind; tendrils simple; peduncles of male 
flowers 1-flowered, twin; calyx broadly canipanulate, and 
acutely toothed ; corolla campanulate, half 5-cleft ; fruit un- 
known. 1/. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Ker, 
bot. reg. 82. Sims, bot. mag. 1820. Flowers brown. 

Fice-lobed-\ea\ed Bryony. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. ? PI. cl. 



CUCURBITACE;E. IX. Bryonia. X. Sicyos. 



•.iS 



44 B. Nii'Aule'nsis (Ser. mss. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 307.) 
stems numerous; leaves palmately 5-lobcd, scabrous above, 
smooth beneath ; lobes narrow, very acute, almost entire : ter- 
minal one very long : lateral ones divaricate, lower ones very 
short or w.anting ; petioles short ; male flowers in fascicles, nu- 
merous, small ; peduncles unequal ; fruit unknown. Q, ? H. 
Native of Nipaul. 

A'ipaul Bryony. PI. cl. 

45 B. FicuoLiA (Lam. diet. 1. p. 498.) leaves 5-lobed, somc- 
ivhat denticulated; lobes deep, obtuse; petioles and stem hispid. 
■y.G. Native of Buenos Ayres. B. Botiariensis, Mill. diet. 
— Dill. hort. elth. p. 58. t. 50. f. 58. Flowers vvhitisli. 

FIg-lcarcd Bryony. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1710. PI. cl. 

4(j B. ? ACUTA (Ucsf. fl. atl. 2. p. 360.) stem slender ; leaves 
somewhat 7-lobed ; lobes lanceolate, acute, entire, or toothed ; 
tendrils simple ; male peduncles many-flowered ; calycine seg- 
ments narrow, acute; fruit unknown. Tl.H. Native of the 
kingdom of Tunis, in hedges. Corolla campanulate, spreadingly 
5-cleft, twice the size of that of B. alba. 

^cutc-lohed Bryony. PI. cl. 

47 B. variega'ta (Mill, diet.) leaves palmate, with lanceolate 
segments, which are dotted above and smooth beneath. 1/ . S. 
Native of America. Fruit ovate, scattered. 

I'ariegated Bryony. PI. cl. 

48 B. macrophy'lla (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 308 ) stem 
tiiick, striated ; leaves cordate, lobed; angles cut ; lobes toothed ; 
petioles long ; male flowers large, racemose, on long peduncles : 
female ones solitary, pedunculate ; fruit oblong, pilose. % . S. 
Native country unknown. Leaves large, size of those of the 
common vine. 

Large-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

* * * Leaves palmate. 

49 B. RACEMosA (Mill. diet, and Swartz, prod. 116. fl. ind. 
occid. 2. p. 1148.) lower leaves rather palmate, upper ones S- 
lobed and undivided ; segments of the leaves ovate ; flowers 
racemose; pedicels rather secund ; fruit oval. I^.S. Native 
of Jamaica and St. Domingo, in woods and hedges. — Plum, 
amer. 83. t. 97. Root oblong, fleshy. Flowers yellowish. 

Racemose-Howered Bryony. PI. cl. 

50 B. piNNATiFiDA (Burch. cat. geogr. no. 2098. voy. 1. 
p. 547.) leaves ternately pedate, with pinnatifid lobes, and 
linear and oblong, obtuse, veiniess segments. 11. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Piii)ialijid-]ea\ ed Bryony. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1815. PI. cl. 

51 B. TENUiFOLiA (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in hot. 
misc. 3. p. 234.) leaves 3-parted ; segments bipinnatifid ; female 
peduncles solitary, simple, equal in length to the petioles ; fruit 
oval, smooth, 2-seeded. If.. ^. G. Native of Chili, in the 
Pampas, in the province of Cordova ; and in sandy places near 
Santa Fe, and also of Buenos Ayres. The vernacular name of 
the plant is Agi del Torvo. 

Fine-leaved Bryony. PL el. 

52 B. l.e'vts (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves cordate, palmate, 
serrated, smooth ; flowers axillary, rather umbellate. 2/ . G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Smooth Bryony. PI. cl. 

53 B. PALMA TA (Lin. spec. 1438.) leaves cordate, palmate, 
smooth, 5-parted, with lanceolate, repandly serrated segments, 
lateral segments the shortest ; fruit large, globose. "V.. S. Na- 
tive of Ceylon. 

/•n/mo/e-leaved Bryony. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1778. PI. cl. 

5 t B. ? Garcixi (Willd. spec. 4. p. 623.) leaves palmately 5- 
parted, with roundish-obovate, toothed lobes, scabrous above ; 
stipulas, (probably bracteas,) kidney-shaped and ciliated. %. S. 

VOL. III. 



Native of Ceylon. Burm. fl. ind. 311. t. 57. f. 3. Sicyos 
Garcini, Lin. mant. 297. Perhaps a species of Monwrdica. 
Garcbi's Bryony. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1812. PI. cl. 

55 B. Ai.cK.ivior.iA (Willd. 1. c. p. 624.) leaves palmately 5- 
partcd : witli line:ir-lanc(olatc, 3-parted lobes, having scabrous 
margins; tendrils sim|)le ; peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered. i;.S. 
Native of the East Indies. 

Hollyhock-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

56 B. LAciNiosA (Lin. spec. 624.) leaves palmately 5-parted, 
cordate, rough, and blistered: with oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, 
serrated segments ; petioles muricated ; peduncles 1 -flowered, 
muricated ; corollas hairy inside, or tomentose, but smooth on 
the outside ; fruit the size of a chorry, striated with white ; 
seeds obovate, circled by a longitudinal elevated zone. %. S. 
Native of Ceylon. Herm. hort. lugd. 95. t. 97. Aroy-peria- 
ginge of the Hindoos. Flowers yellow. 

jag-n-erf-leaved Bryony. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1710. PI. cl. 

57 B. ? cucuMEROiDEs (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 308.) seeds 
rusty, transversely oblong, surrounded by a very thick dotted 
zone. % . S. Native country unknown. Cucumeroides, Thunb. 
ex Ga;rtn. fruct. 2. p. 485. 

Cucumber-like Bryony. PI. cl. 

58 B. Africa'na (Thunb. prod. 13. but not of Lin.) root 
tuberous; upper leaves palmately 5-parted; lobes oblong, 
deeply toothed ; lower leaves cordate, having the angles toothed. 
% . G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Willd. spec. 4. p. 
624. — Herm. par. 107. t. 108. Male flowers in subumbellate 
panicles. Fruit mucronate. 

/^/Wf«n Bryony. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1759. PI. cl. 

59 B. NANA (Lam. diet. 1. p. 497.) stems slender; lower 
leaves roundish-cordate, quite entire : upper ones deeply 3-lobjd ; 
lobes obtuse. If.. S. Native of Africa. 

Z)n'ar/' Bryony. PI. cl. 

60 B. disse'cta (Thunb. prod. 1. p. 497.) leaves palmately 
5-parted : with linear pinnatifid segments, having revolute sca- 
brous margins; male flowers? umbellate; fruit solitary, 
roundish, mucronate, bluntly angular, yellow ; seeds 3-4. 1/ . 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Willd. spec. 4. p. 
625. B. Africana, Lin. spec. 1438. Flowers white ? Probably 
distinct from the preceding species. 

Z)mcc?e(/-leaved Bryony. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1 710. PI. cl. 

61 B. digita'ta (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves digitate: with 
linear 2-lobed scabrous segments ; flowers umbellate. 1/ . G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Z);^i';V«;e-leaved Bryony. PI. cl. 

62 B. Wallichia^na (Ser. mss. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 30,0.) 
stem filiform, striated ; leaves nearly sessile, sagittate, rugged 
from warts ; terminal lobe lanceolate-linear, very long, some- 
what denticulated ; lateral lobes oblong, reflexed, remotely den- 
ticulated ; male flowers in fascicles, numerous, on short ])e- 
duncles ; fruit unknown. 1/ . G. Native of Nipaul. B. lili- 
formis, Roxb. 

JVallich's Bryony. PI. cl. 

Cult. The hardy perennial species are plants of easy culture, 
only requiring to be planted in the ground. The stove peren- 
nial species should be grown in pots, and the stems trained up the 
rafters. The seeds of annual kinds require to be sown in a hot- 
bed in spring, and when the plants are of sufficient size may 
be planted out in a sheltered situation. All the species are pro- 
pagated by seeds. None of them are worth growing, except in 
botanic gardens. 

X. SI'CYOS (from atKvoc, sici/os, the Greek name for the 
cucumber ; resemblance and affim'ty). Lin. gen. no. 1481. 
Juss. gen. no. 394. Gaertn. fruct. 2. p. 45. t. 88. f. 1. Sicyoides, 
Tourn. inst. 103. t. 28. 
F 



34 



CUCURBITACE^. X. Sicvos. XI. Elaterium. 



LiN.SYST. Moncecia,Polyadel]Ma. Flowers monoecious; male 
ones with a 5-toothed calyx, and a 5-parted corolla ; teeth of 
calyx subulate. Filaments 3 ? or more probably 5, in 3 bundles. 
Female flowers with a trifid style, and a thickish trifid stigma. 
Fruit 1-seeded from abortion, usually beset with spines. Seed 
obovate. Male and female peduncles many-flowered, usually 
rising together from the same axillje. 

1 S. angula'tus (Lin. spec. 1438.) leaves cordate, angular, 
denticulated, scabrous ; lobes 3-5, acuminated ; tendrils umbel- 
late ; male flowers in corymbose heads, each head on a long 
common peduncle ; female flowers sessile, in bundles at the tops 
of the peduncles ; fruit ovate, spinescent, and tomentose ; seeds 
truncate at the base, and very blunt at the apex. ©. F. Native 
of North America. Lam. ill. t. 796. f. 2.— Dill. elth. 58. t. 51. 
f. 59. Flowers sulphur-coloured. Fruit beset with yellow 
spines, and curling tomentum. 

Angxdar-XeaNeHi Single-seeded Cucumber. Fl. June, July. 
Clt. 1710, PI. tr. 

2 S. bryoni.ef6lius (Moris, hort. taur. sem. 1831.) leaves cor- 
date and angular, denticulated, hispid below ; teeth of calyx ob- 
solete ; capsule clammy and wartcd. Q.^. S. Native country 
unknown. This species differs from iS*. atigiilatiis and S. jia'vi- 

Jlorus in the stem being hardly pilose about the joints, the rest 
smooth; in the peduncles being short, the flowers umbellate; 
male ones 5-S pedicellate, female ones almost sessile. 
Bryony-leared Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. cl. 

3 S. PARviFLORUs (WiUd. spec. 4. p. 626.) branches glabrous ; 
leaves cordate, rather angular, denticulated, roughish ; tendrils 
trifid ; male flowers racemose, on long pedicels : female ones in 
sessile capitate umbels ; fruit crowned by the permanent calyx, 
size of an orange; seeds unknown. ©. F. Native in the tem- 
perate parts of mountains about Quito, near Chillo, at the height 
of 4000 feet. Not of Mexico, H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 
2. p. 119. Flowers whitish. Fruit rarely solitary. 

Small -flowered Single-seeded Cucumber. Fl. June, Sep. Clt. 
1823. PI. cl. 

4 S. Baderoa (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 234.) leaves 
cordate, angular, minutely denticulated, glabrous on both sur- 
faces ; angles acuminated ; lobes at the base of the leaf lying 
over each other ; tendrils trifid ; flowers few, capitate in both 
sexes ; female peduncles one-half shorter than the male ones ; 
fruit ovate while young. %. ^. G. Native about Valpa- 
raiso. Baderoa bryoniaefolia, Bertero. 

Baderos Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. cl. 

5 S. penta'ndrus (Wall. cat. no. 6682.) leaves cordate, denti- 
culated ; flowers racemose ; racemes numerous, sometimes ag- 
gregate, and branched. f; . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 

Pentandrous Single-seeded Cucumber. Shrub cl. 

C S. De'ppei ; leaves broadly cordate, 7-lobed ; lobes acumi- 
nated, middle lobe the longest ; margins acutely denticulated, 
rough on both surfaces from conical hairs ; male racemes elon- 
gated ; fruit glomerate, ovate, nearly glabrous, but beset with 
strong retrograde prickles. ©. S. Native of Mexico, near 
Jalapa. Flowers smaller than those of S. angulatin, but larger 
than those of S. pan'tflorus. Sicyos, nov. spec. Schlecht. et 
Cham, in Linnaea. vol. 5. p. 88. Seeds the size of those of 
Citrus medica. 

Deppe's Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. tr. 

7 S. acu'tus (Rafin, fl. lud. p. 113.) climbing; leaves 
lobed ; fruit glomerate, ovate, acute, bristly ; bristles echinated, 
interwoven. ©. F. Native of Louisiana. 

y^cM^e-fruited Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. cl. 

8 S. microphy'llus (H. B. et Kunth, gen. et spec. amer. 2. 
p. 119.) branches roughish; leaves sinuately-cordate, 7-lobed, 
denticulated, roughish ; tendrils smoothish, trifid ; male flowers 
on long peduncles and pedicels ; female flowers in crowded, 



nearly sessile heads ; fruit echinated from bristle-formed hairs, 

size of an apple seed ; seeds unknown. ©. F. Native of 

Mexico, on the burning Mount Jorullo, at the height of 1620 feet. 

Small-leaved Single-seeded Cucumber. Fl. July, Sep. Clt. 

1823. Pl.tr. 

9 S. pachyca'rpus (Hook, et Arnott, in Beech, bot. p. 83.) 
branches glabrous ; leaves cordate, 5-7-lobed, denticulated, gla- 
brous above and papillose, scabrous beneath ; tendrils glabrous, 
trifid ; male flowers in panicles ; female ones in crowded heads ; 
fruit ovate, rostrate, unarmed. ©. F. Native of the Island of 
Oahu, on the Diamond Hill among the volcanic rocks. Allied to 
S. micropliyllus. 

Thick-fruited Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. prostrate. 

10 S. viTiFOLius (Willd. spec. 4. p. 626.) the whole plant 
clothed with very fine clammy down ; leaves cordate, with a 
roundish recess, 5-lobed, toothed. ©. F. Native country un- 
known. Flowers yellow, twice the size of those oi S. angulatus. 

Vine-leaved Single-seeded Cucumbers. Clt. ? PI. tr. 

lis. lacinia'tus (Lin. spec.1459.) stem glabrous ; leaves cor- 
date, palmate, glabrous above, but echinated from stiff' hairs be- 
neath ; lobes lobulate ; petioles short ; tendrils trifid ; male 
flowers somewhat panicled : female ones glomerate, sessile ; pe- 
duncles short; fruit very spiny. ©. F. Native of South 
America. — Plum. ed. Burm. pi. amer. t. 243. Flowers yellow. 

Jagged leaved Single-seeded Cucumber. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 

1824. PI. tr. 

12 S. TRiQUETER (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 309.) stem bluntly furrowed ; leaves cordate, 5- 
lobed ; lobes broad, obtuse, somewhat denticulated ; tendrils 
much branched ; calycine and corolline lobes 3 1 male flowers 
racemose, pedunculate, aggregately subverticillate ; female 
flowers subumbellate ; fruit elongated, unarmed, triquetrous ; 
seed oblong-cylindrical. ©. F. Native of Mexico, in Chil- 
appa. Flowers yellow. Fruit 6 lines long, acuminated, some- 
what 3-winged. 

Triquetrous-trnxieA Single-seeded Cucumber. PI. tr. 

Cult. Sow the seeds in the hot-bed in spring, and treat the 
plants as directed for Gourds, p. 42. Not worth growing ex- 
cept for curiosity. 

XI. ELATE^RIUM (from eXarrip, elaler, an impeller ; in re- 
ference to the elastic seed vessels). Lin. gen. no. 1398. Juss. 
gen. p. 394. .lacq. amer. 241. t. 154. D. C. prod. 3. p. 310. — 
Momordica, Neck. elem. bot. no. 390. 

LiN. SYST. Moncecia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious, 
white or yellow ; male ones disposed in racemes or corymbs ; 
calyx petaloid, campanulate, with hardly conspicuous teeth, and 
with the corolla hardly gamopetalous. Female flowers solitary, 
or rising from the same axils with the males. Calyx elon- 
gated, petaloid, echinated at the base, and girding the carpels ; 
neck filiform, more or less elongated, at length dilated, and 
bearing the corolla and stamens. Style thick ; stigina capitate. 
Capside coriaceous, reniform, echinated, 1 -celled, 2-3-valved, 
many-seeded, opening elastically, and ejecting the seeds. 

1 E. geme'llum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 310.) leaves cordately sub- 
sagittate, somewhat 5-angled, with the middle angle acuminated ; 
tendrils bifid ; male flowers in long racemes ; neck of calyx 
long, campanulate ; petals ovate, acutish ; fruit curved, 3- 
celled ; prickles distant. ©. F. Native of Mexico. Moc. et 
Sess. fl. mex. icon. ined. 

TH'^/i-tendrillcd Squirting Cucumber. PI. cl. 

2 E. Carthagene'nse (Lin. spec. 1375.) leaves cordate, an- 
gidar, denticulated, petiolate, roughish above ; flowers white, 
sweet-scented : male ones in panicles : female ones solitary ; 
tube of calyx terete above the ovarium, not dilated at the apex ; 
petals linear-lanceolate, acute ; fruit kidney-shaped, hispid ; 



CUCURBIT ACE;E. XI. Ei.aterium. XII. Momordica. 



35 



seeds winged? flat, tridentate at tlie base, ex Kuiitli. Q. F. 
Native of South Amcricn, in the hot regions of tlie province of 
Caraccas, on the sliore of Lake Tacarigna, in Laguna de Valencia ; 
and in the Ishuid of Ciira, at the height of COO feet. Lam. ill. 
t. 7t3. Jacq. amer. 241. t. 154.. icon. pict. p. 118. t. 232. Co- 
rolla yellow. Fruit size of an olive. 

Cflr/Aflg-CH(«7( Squirting Cucumber. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1823. 
PI. cl. 

3 E. tamnoIdes (Willd. enum. p. 950.) leaves cordate, acu- 
minated, remotely serrated, smoothish above, and hairy beneath; 
flowers yellowish ; female flowers having the tube of the calyx 
campanulate above the ovarium ; petals 1-7, ovate ; style very 
short ; stigma large, flat ; fruit 2-valved, few-seeded ; seeds un- 
known. 0. F. Native of Mexico. E. hastatum, Brouss. but 
not of H. IB. et Kunth. 

TaHi!(s-/(Ae Squirting Cucumber. Fl. June, Jidy. Clt. 1820. 
PI. tr. 

4 E. hastaVum(H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 120.) 
leaves cordately sinuated, triangularly hastate, acuminated, den- 
ticulated, rather scabrous above, and glabrous beneath ; tendrils 
simple or bifid ; male flowers racemose, pedicellate, minute ; 
fruit oblong, renlform, muricated, 2-valved, size of an olive ; 
seeds C, roundish, compressed, tridentate at the base. Q. F. 
Native of Mexico, on the declivities of the burning Mount 
Jorullo, and the temperate regions near Patzcuara, at the height 
of 1620 or 3390 feet. Habit of Mdolhria pendula, according 
to Kunth. 

Hastate-\eayeA Squirting Cucumber. PI. tr. 

5 E. ai'ADRiFiDUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 310.) stem, peduncles, 
petioles, and tendrils downy ; leaves cordate, orbicular, 7-angled ; 
tendrils bifid, pilose ; male flowers umbellate ; calyx long, 
tubular, articulated towards the base, and dilated at the apex, 
with the limb hardly evident ; petals 4, linear-lanceolate, acute ; 
female flowers hardly pedunculate, like the male ones ; style fili- 
form, crowned by an ovate stigma; fruit very pilose. ©. F. 
Native of Mexico. Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. Flowers 
white. 

Quadrljid Squirting Cucumber. PI. tr. 

6 E. braciiysta'chyum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 310.) leaves 3- 
lobed, quite entire, ciliated : middle lobe oblong, acuminated ; 
flowers cream-coloured ; male ones in spikes ; tube of calyx 
campanulate at the apex ; female flowers with a very gibbous 
hispid calyx, and a short neck, which is campanulate at the 
apex; capsule oblique, incurved, echinated with 8-10 long soft 
prickles, 2-3-valved, larger than those of the other species. 
©. F. Native of Mexico. 

Sfwrt-spiked Squirting Cucumber. PI. tr. 

7 E. TORauA^TUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 310.) leaves somewhat 
peltately cordate, 5-lobed, denticulated ; terminal lobe the 
longest, and acuminated ; tendrils trifid; flowers greenish-white ; 
males ones in racemes : female ones solitary, echinated at the 
base, with the neck long and bell-shaped at the apex ; petals 
oblong, bluntish ; capsule oblong, 2-valved, acuminated, echi- 
nated, with soft prickles. 0. F. Native of Mexico. Fl. mex. 
icon. ined. 

Collared Squirting Cucumber. PI. tr. 

8 E. trifolia'tum (Spreng. syst. 3. p. 47.) leaves ternate, cut. 
O- F. Native of Virginia. 

Trifolialc-leavcd Squirting Cucumber. PI. tr. 
Cull. Sow the seeds in a hot-bed in spring, and put the 
plants out as directed for Gourds, p. 42. 

XII. MOMO'RDICA (from mordeo, to bite; the seeds have 
the appearance of being bitten). Lin. gen. no. 1477. Juss. 
gen. 395. Gaertn. fr. 2. p. 48. t. 88. f. 4. D. C. prod. 3. p. 311. 
— Elaterium and Sicyos species of authors. — Amordica, Neck. 



elem. bot. no. 392. — Poppya, Neck. 1. c. no. 391. — Ecbalium, 
Rich. 

Lin. syst. Monce'cia, Polyadelphia. Flowers monoecious, 
white or yellow, on filiform imibracteate peduncles, perhaps 
always. Male flowers with a 5-cleft calyx, and a very short 
tube. Corolla 5-))arted. Stamens in 3 bundles ; anthers con- 
nate. Female flowers with 3 sterile filaments, or probably 5, 
joined in 3 l)undlcs, a trifid style, and a 3-celled ovarium. Fruit 
usually muricated, (perhaps always) opening elastically at matu- 
rity, and expelling the seeds. Seeds compressed, reticulated, 
perhaps always. 

1 M. Bai.sa'mea (Lin. spec. 1453.) leaves palmately 5-lobed, 
toothed, glabrous, shining ; fruit roundisii-ovate, attenuated at 
both ends, angular, tuberculated, orange-coloured, splitting ir- 
regularly and laterally ; bractea cordate, toothed, in the middle 
of the peduncle ; aril red. ©. F. Native of the East Indies. 
Lam. ill. t. 794. f. 1. Charantia, Lob. pempt. t. G70. — Ludvo. 

ect. t. 127 Blackvv. herb. 6. t. 539. a. b. Flowers yellow. This 

plant is famous in Syria for curing wounds. They cut open the 
unripe fruit, and infuse it in sweet oil, and expose it to the sun for 
some days until the oil becomes red. It is applied to a fresh 
wound on cotton. The Syrians esteem this next to balsam of 
Mecca. The ])!ant is also used to form arbours or bowers. 

/Jn/iom Apple. Fl. June, July. Clt. 15G8. PI. cl. 

2 M. murica'ta (Willd. spec. 4. p. 602.) leaves somewhat 
palmately 7-lobed, cordate at the base ; lobes remotely toothed, 
acuminated ; tendrils almost simple ; fruit ovate, acuminated, 
muricated; bractea cordate, quite entire. ©. F. Native of the 
East Indies. Pavel, Rheed. mal. 8. t. 10. 

Muricated Momordica. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1817. Pl.tr. 

3 M. Chara'ntia (Lin. spec. 1438.) leaves somewhat pal- 
mately 7-lobed, dentate, rather hairy ; tendrils downy ; fruit ob- 
long, aciuninated, angular, tuberculated, copper-coloured or red; 
pulp yellow and soft ; bractea cordate, quite entire, below the 
middle of the pedicel ; seeds oblong, tuberculated (ex Rumph) ; 
arillus of a reddish blood-colour. ©. F. Native of the East 
Indies. Sims, bot. mag. t. 2455.- — Rheed. mal. 8. p. 17. t. 9. 
Papareh of the Hindoos. Corolla yellow. Seeds wrinkled 
very irregularly, yellow bay-coloured, and irregularly tubercled 
towards the margin. Allied to the preceding species, but very 
distinct. 

I'ar. ft, abhreriata (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 311.) fruit 
shorter than that of the species, very ventricose, beset with 
acute tubercles. M. Zeylanica, Mill. diet. 3. ex Lam. diet. 4. 
p. 239. 

Charantia or Hairy Momordica. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1710. 
PI. cl. 

4 M. Roxburghia'na ; downy ; leaves cordate, palmately 
7-9-lobed, and lobately toothed ; tendrils simple ; peduncles 1- 
flowered, solitary, bearing a bractea under each flower ; fruit 
long, muricated. ©. H. Native of the East Indies, in Patna. 
M. charantia /5 of authors. M.muricata, Roxb. but not of Willd. 

Ro.xburgh's Momordica. PI. tr. 

5 M. Senegale'nsis (Lam. diet. 4. p. 239.) leaves deeply 
palmate, somewhat serrated, pale' and villous beneath; fruit 
ovate, mucronate, tubercular, orange-coloured or red. ©. F. 
Native of Senegal. 

,S'c«f^«^ Momordica. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1822. PI. cl. 

6 M. cvli'ndrica (Lin. spec. 1433.) stem 5-angled ; leaves 
cordate, somewhat lobate, angular, toothed ; flowers yellow ; 
fruit cylindrical, very long, rather villous, reticulated ; bractea 
quite entire at the base of the pedicel; seeds black. ©. F. 
Native of Ceylon and China. Willd. spec. 4. p. 605. The fruit 
of the species, according to Rumphius, does not open elastically, 
being composed of so many reticulated tough fibres. 

C;//(Hi/r!ca^fruited Momordica. PI. tr. 



36 



CUCURBITACEvE. XII. Momordica. 



7 M. Heynea'na (Wall. cat. no. 6744.) leaves 3-lobed, mu- 
cronately denticulated ; peduncles 1-flowered, solitary, furnished 
each with a large bractea under the flower, which encloses it 
before expansion; tendrils simple. ©. ? F. Native of the 
East Indies. Flowers large. 

Heyne's Momordica. PI. tr. 

8 M. suBANGULA TA (Blum. bijdr. p. 928.) leaves deeply cor- 
date, acuminated, rather angular, mucronulately denticulated, 
scabrous above ; flowers dioecious ; bractea cordate, quite en- 
tire at the top of the peduncle. ©. F. Native of Java, on 
Mount Salak, where it is called by the natives Aroy Gambas. 
Allied to M. cylindrka and M. dio'ica. The inflorescence of this 
plant agrees with the figure in Rumph. anib. 5. t. 150. ex Blume. 
Fruit fibrous. 

AngulurAeayed. Momordica. PI. cl. 

9 M. Pai'na (Hamilt. ex Wall. cat. no. 67-12.) leaves cordate, 
triangular or hastate, sometimes lobed at die base, acuminated at 
the apex, coarsely toothed ; tendrils simple ; female peduncles 
1 -flowered, solitary ; male ones racemose ; racemes aggregate; 
fruit round, beset with a few scattered prickles. ©. F. Native 
of the East Indies, in Goyalpara. 

Paina Momordica. PI. tr. 

10 M. TUBiFLoRA (Roxb. ex Wall. cat. 6749.) plant white from 
down ; leaves round, angularly and roundly lobed, cordate at 
the base ; tendrils simple ; fruit oblong, acuminated, ribbed ; 
peduncles l-flowered, solitary, bracteate. Q.F. Native of the 
East Indies. 

Tube-JioKered Momordica. PI. tr. 

11 M. pu'rgans (Mart, reise. bras, ex Linnaea. vol. 5. p. 40.) 
stems angular, climbing, clothed with resinous farina at top ; 
leaves ovate-orbicular, acuminated, with a roundish recess, cor- 
date, obsoletely 5-lobed, denticulated ; male corymbs erect, 
axillary ; female flowers solitary, axillary, drooping ; fruit ob- 
long, crested longitudinally from warts. ©. F. Native of 
Brazil. 

Purging Momordica. PI. cl. 

12 M. opercula'ta (Lin. spec. 1433.) leaves 5-lobed, 
toothed ; fruit elliptic, angular, tuberculated, operculated by 
a deciduous beak. ©. F. Native of America. Comm. rar. 
22. t. 22. ex Lin. and Willd. spec. 4. p. 603. This plant is pro- 
bably referrible to the genus Luffa. The top falling off from 
the fruit when it is green. 

iirf-fruited Momordica. Fl. June, Sep. Clt. 1731. PI. cl. 

13 M. elate'rium (Lin. spec. 1434.) plant scabrous, hispid, 
and glauccscent ; stems dwaif, without tendrils ; leaves cordate, 
somewhat lobed, crenate- toothed, very rugged, on long petioles; 
fruit ovate, obtuse, hispid, and scabrous, on long peduncles ; seeds 
bay-coloured. l^.F. or©. H. Nativeof the south of Europe. 
Sims, bot. mag. t. 1914. — Blackw. herb. t. 108. Wood v. med. 
bot. t. 43. Elaterium cordifolium, Moench. meth. p. 563. Ec- 
balium L. C. Rich. Root thick. Flowers yellow. Fruit o-reen, 
expelling the seeds when ripe. Perhaps a proper genus. Dr. 
Clutterbuck has lately ascertained tiiat the active principle of 
wild cucumber is contained almost exclusively in the juice 
around the seeds, and that genuine elaterium is the matter which 
subsides spontaneously from the juice obtained without pressure. 
He found that the eighth part of a grain thus prepared seldom 
failed to purge violently, and of this according to Dr. Barry, 
from 55 to 64 per cent, only were soluble in alcohol of 0-809. 
The bitter principle found in it is not in itself purgative, but 
quickens the action of elatin when combined with it. Elatin is 
a new principle obtained by Dr. Barry of a green colour ; it is 
purgative in very minute quantities. In medicine a few grains 
of elaterium operates as a drastic purgative, and was sometimes 
used in dropsies. It is high priced, and seldom used, though 
recommended by Dr. Ferriar. 



Elaterium or Common Squirting Cucumber. Fl, June, July. 
Clt. 1548. PI. tr. 

14 M. ? Lambertia'na (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 311.) his- 
pid ; stems prostrate, flexuous ; tendrils nearly simple ; leaves 
cordate-roundish, 5-lobed, denticulated, scabrous; petioles short; 
flowers ? fruit solitary, elliptic, pilose ; peduncles short, hispid. 
©. F. Native of the East Indies. Ecbalium L. C. Rich. Allied 
to M. elaterium, but distinct. 

Lambert's Momordica. PI. tr. 

15 M. echina'ta (Muhl. ex Willd. spec. 4. p. 605.) leaves 
cordate, with 5 lobed angles ; lobes acuminated, quite entire, 
glabrous; tendrils multifid; fruit roundish, 4seeded, echinated 
by bristles. ©. H. Native of the western parts of Pennsyl- 
vania, near the river Ohio. Sicyos lobata, Michx. amer. 2. p. 
217. Fruit roundish, size of a gooseberry, beset with long su- 
bulate bristles, very like those of Sicyos, but 4-seeded. Flowers 
yellow. 

Ecliinated-fruhed Momordica. PI. tr. 

16 M. nioicA (Roxb. ex Willd. spec. 4. p. C05.) stem an- 
gidar, climbing ; leaves cordate, acuminated, toothed, glabrous 
on both surfaces ; tendrils filiform ; flowers dioecious ; female 
ones solitary; fruit elliptic, muricated. ©. F. Native of the 
East Indies. 

Dioecious-ftov/ered Momordica. PI. cl. 

17 M. renigera (Wall, cat.no. 6743.) leaves cordate, dentate 
or distantly and mucronately denticulated ; peduncles long, 1- 
flowered, solitary, furnished each with a kidney-shaped hooded 
bractea, just below the flower ; tendrils simple. 1/. S. Native 
of the Burman Empire, about Prome. 

Kidney-bearing Momordica. PI. cl. 

18 M. Hamiltonia^na (Wall. cat. no. 6748.) leaves cordate, 
toothed, crenated, acuminated; bractea toothed ; peduncles 1- 
flowered, solitary ; tendrils simple ; fruit hispid. 1; . j_^. S. 
Native of the East Indies, in Goyapara and Gongachora. Flowers 
large. 

Hamilton's Momordica. PI. cl. 

19 M. Bi'coLOR (Blum, bijdr. p. 928.) leaves deeply cordate, 
somewhat 5-angled, bluntish, glabrous, mucronately denticu- 
lated, with rather strigose margins (when dry dotted above), 
glandular beneath; flowers dioecious, pedunculate, axillary, 
usually 3-together ; fruit oblong, glabrous, variegated with red. 
©. F. Native of Java, in calcareous soil near Kuripan, where 
it is called Aroy Pupassatig by the natives. Nearly allied to M. 
dioica. 

Far. a ; base of leaves deeply cordate. Native of the Mo- 
luccas. 

Var. ft ; leaves cordately 3-lobed ; lateral lobes angular. 
Native of Java, on Mount Parang. 

Tim-coloured-fviuied Momordica. PI. tr. or cl. 

20 M. aculea'ta (Poir. diet, suppl. 3. p. 723.) stem slender, 
climbing ; leaves palmately pedate, with 5-7 dentately lobed seg- 
ments, having white scattered dots above, but with the nerves 
and petioles beset with short prickles beneath ; petioles and 
middle nerves clothed with rough reflexed hairs ; male flowers 
racemose, on long peduncles ; female flowers solitary, hardly 
pedunculate ; fruit subglobose, glabrous, size of a pea. 0. F. 
Native country unknown. 

Prickly Momordica. PI. cl. 

21 M. iiy'strix (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. 
p. 234.) leaves 5-lobed, glabrous, smooth, somewhat cuneated 
at the base ; lobes mucronate, denticulated, middle lobe the 
longest ; tendrils simple ; male and female flowers rising from 
the same axils : male ones disposed in racemes : female ones soli- 
tary, pedunculate ; fruit oblique, ovate, echinated with strong 
bristles. ©. F. Native of Buepos Ay res. 

Porcupine Momordica. PI. tr. 



CUCURBITACE/E. XIII. Neurosperma. XIV. Sechium. XV. Mei.otiiria. XVI. Trichosanthes. 



.37 



2£ M. lana'ta (Thunb. prod. 13.) leaves ternately pinna- 
tifid, scabrous; fruit woolly. ©. F. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

7roo//)/-fruited Momordica. PI. cl. 

23 M. ? siCYOiDES (Ser. in D. C prod. 3. p. 312.) stems twin- 
iiii:;, terete ; tendrils simple ; leaves triangularly cordate, some- 
what 5-lobed, serrulated ; female flowers pedunculate, solitary ; 
calyx ovate, pilose, with narrow linear segments ; fruit ovate 
niucronate, very pilose, of a yellowish orange-colour at matu- 
rity ; seeds subglobose. ©. F. Native of China — Braan. icon, 
chin. t. 12. 

Sici/os-like Momordica. PI. tw. 

24 M. spica'ta (Lin. mss. ex Smith in Rees' cycl. vol. 23.) 
stems furrowed, rugged; leaves cordate, 3-5-lobed, undulated, 
rugged from tubercles ; male flowers racemose ; racemes on long 
peduncles ; tube of calyx very long ; bracteas dilated, toothed, 
scabrous ; female flowers solitary, on short peduncles ; seeds 
elliptic, furrowed, hispid. ©. F. Native country unknown. 

«S'/ i7ie-flowered Momordica. PI. cl. 

Cult. 31. Elulerium and il/. Lambcrtiana being hardy, their 
seeds sliould be sown in the open border. The seeds of the 
rest of the species should be sown on a hot-bed in spring, and 
the plants planted out afterwards as directed for Gourds, p. 42. 

XIII. NEUROSPERMA (from vcvpoy, neuron, a nerve, 
and er-n-ep^ia, spenna, a seed ; in reference to the seeds, which are 
reticulated with anastomosing nerves). Rafin. in journ. phys. 
et chim. 1S19. p. 101. Spreng. neue. entd. 1. p. 144. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 312. 

LiN. SYST. Monce'cia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious. 
Male flowers with a 5-parted calyx : and a 5-parted corolla, 
having an undulated erose margin. Stamens 5, diadelphous, 
having a gland alternating with each fascicle ; one of the fascicles 
bearing 2 anthers, the other trigonal, and bearing 3 anthers. 
Anthers sessile, stellate. Female flowers with a parted corolla 
and calyx. Ovarium inferior, beset with 8 scries of warts. 
Style trifid, girded by 3 glands at the base ; stigmas 2-lobed. 
Fruit fleshy, 3-celled, but when mature 1-celled, 3-9-seeded. 
Seeds girded by mucilaginous red aril, flat, nerved, with anasto- 
mosing veins, and a rugged edge. Perhaps a proper genus. 

1 N. cuspida'ta (Rafin. I.e.) Native of Kentucky, North 
America. Perhaps the same as Momordica balsamea ? 

Cuspidate Neurosperma. PI. tr. 

Cult. See Sicyos p. 34. for culture and propagation. 

XIV. SE'CHIUM (from aeKi'Cn, sckiso, to fatten ; given to 
hogs for that purpose). Browne in Lin. gen. no. 1482. Juss. 
gen. p. 391. Lam. diet. 7. p. 50. D. C. prod. 3. p. 313. 

Lin. svst. Moncecia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious, 
yellow. Male flowers with a somewhat S-toothed calyx, exca- 
vated into 10 hollows, and with the corolla joined with the calyx. 
Stamens 4-5, monadelphous, free at the apex, diverging ; anthers 
cordate, distant. Female flowers with a calyx and corolla, as 
in the male, but without stamens. Style thick ; stigma sub- 
capitate, 3-5-cleft. Fruit obcordate, 1-seeded. Seed ovate, 
flat, compressed. 

1 S. edl'le (Swartz, fl. ind. occid. 2. p. 1150.) stems terete, 
striated, smooth ; leaves coidate, angular, rugged beneath ; lobes 
conniving at the base, toothed ; terminal angle longest and acu- 
minated ; tendrils 4-5 cleft ; male flowers racemose ; female 
flowers solitary, rising from the same axils as the males ; fruit 
large, obovate, 5-furrowed, gibbous at the apex, echinated by 
stitt' hairs. Q. F. Native of the West Indies, common. 
Sicyos edidis, Swartz, prod. 116. Lam. diet. 1. p. 156. — Jacq. 
amer. p. 258. t. 163. Chayota edulis, Jacq. amer. 2. t. 245. 
This plant is known in South America under tlio name of choico 
and chaiote. The fruit is green, shining on the outside, whitish, 



and fleshy within, differing in size and singular in structure, con- 
taining one seed each, which is sometimes an inch long, and placed 
at the very top of the fruit ; when it is ripe it protriules itself a 
little, and puts forth many fibres at its extremity. In many of the 
West Indies the inhabitants put the fruit into soups or puddings, 
or boil it and eat it with their meat as a substitute for turnips 
or greens, in which state it is generally looked upon as whole- 
some and refreshing, but it is too insipid to be much liked. The 
fruit serves to fatten hogs in the mountains and inland parts of 
Jamaica, where the plant is much cultivated. The natives of 
Cuba notice two varieties ; one which is most common they 
call simjdy chayole : it is beset with harmless prickles, some- 
times in great abundance, and sometimes with very few, and is 
about 4 inches in length ; the other, less frequent, called chnyote 
franccs, is for the most part entirely destitute of prickles, and is 
about the size of a hen's egg. 

Ealahle C\wko. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1816. PI. cl. 

2 S. America'num (Lam. diet. 7. p. SO.) leaves cordate, an- 
gular ; flowers racemose ; fruit glabrous, a little compressed, 
size of a pigeon's egg; seed oval-elliptic. ©. F. Native of 
Jamaica. Fruit eatable like the last. This is perhaps the 
chayote frances mentioned above. 

American Choko. PI. cl. 

3 S. palma'tum (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 313.) stems terete, 
bluntly furrowed ; tendrils umbellate ; leaves palmatcly loljed, 
scabrous ; stipula or bractea sessile, cordate, deeply 3-lobed ; 
male flowers racemose; common peduncle short, many-flowered; 
filaments monadelphous at the base, and divaricate towards the 
apex ; female flowers twin, nearly sessile ; fruit prickly, green, 
size of a filbert. ©. F. Native of Mexico, in Acahualtempa. 
S. palmatum, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. 

/"aZma^e-leaved Choko. PI. cl. 

Cult. See Cuciirbita, p. 42. for culture and propagation. 

XV. MELO'THRIA (/-leXoBpov of Theophrastus, supposed 
to he Bryony). Lin. gen. no. G8. Juss. gen. p. 395. D. C. prod. 
3. p. 313. — Trichosanthes species of Jacq. 

Lin. syst. Monce'cia, Polyadelphia. Flowers monoecious. 
Male flowers with a 5 -toothed calyx and a campanulate corolla ; 
petals ciliated or toothed, not fringed. Filaments 5, in 3 parcels. 
Female flowers. Style 1 ; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit 3-celled, 
many-seeded. Seeds unknown. 

1 M. PENDULA (Lin. spec. p. 49.) leaves cordate, 5-lobed, 
toothed ; tendrils simple ; female flowers solitary, on long pe- 
duncles ; corolla rather pilose, denticulated ; fruit ovate, nearly 
globose, pendulous. ]/ . S. Native of South America, and the 
southern parts of North America. Lam. ill. t. 28. f. 3. — Plidi. 
aim. t. 85. f 5. — Sloan, jam. p. 227. t. 142. f. 1. -Plum. spec. 
3. t. 66. f. 2. Stems rooting at every joint. Flowers small, 
pale yellow. Fruit about the size of a pea, changing to black 
when ripe. In the West Indies these are pickled when green by 
the inhabitants. 

P«!f/M/oi«-fruited Melothria. Fl.Ju.Sept. Clt. 1752. PI. cr. 

2 M. I'cETiDA (Desr. in Lam. diet. 4. p. 87.) root fleshy, tur- 
nip-formed ; leaves cordate, a little toothed, pilose, almost ses- 
sile ; tendrils simple ; male flowers racemose ; peduncles short, 
few-flowered ; female flowers solitary, sessile along with the 
males ; fruit ovate, muricated, niucronate, pilose, of a dirty yellow- 
colour ; seeds obovate, compressed. l^.S. Native of Ciuinca. 
Trichosanthes foctidissima, Jacq. coll. 2. p. 341. icon. rar. 3. t. 
624. Flowers yellow. Herb fetid w^hen bruised. 

Fetid Melolhna. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1S20. PI. cl. 

3 M.? I'nbica (Lour. coch. p. 35.) stems angular; leaves 
triangular, denticulated, rough, small, on long petioles ; flowers 
usually solitary, pedunculate, white ; fruit ovate-oblong, smooth, 
small, whitish green, i;. S. Native of Cochin-china, in hedges. 
— Rumph. amb. 5. t. 171. f. 2. ex Lour. 1. c. llowers white. 



38 



CUCURBITACEvE. XVI. Trichosanthes. 



Indian Melothria. PI. tr. 

Cult. See Sicijos, p. 34. for culture and propagation. The 
plants will exist through winter if kept in a stove. 

XVI. TRICHOSA'NTHES (from ^pii, rpexoe, thrix frichos, 
a hair, and ofBog, anlhos, a flower ; fringed or ciliated corollas). 
Lin. gen. no. 1476. D.C. prod. 3. p. 313. — Ceratosanthes, Juss. 
gen. p. 396. — Anguina, Mich. gen. 12. 

Lin. syst. Mome'cia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious, 
white. Alale flowers. Calyx rather club shaped, 5-parted ; 
lobes appendiculated, furnished with 5 teeth on the outside, 
which alternate with the lobes. Corolla 5-parted, ciliated ; fila- 
ments 3, but probably 5, joined by twos; anthers joined, with 
very flexuous cells. Female flowers. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 
5-parted (f 2. a.), ciliately jagged. Style trifid (f. 2. (/.)• Stig- 
mas oblongly subulate. Fruit oblong, 1 ? or 3-9-celled (f. 2. 
c). Seeds compressed, tunicated, blunt, very much deformed ? 

1 T. ANGufNA (Lin. spec. 
1432.) stem pentagonal ; leaves FIG. 2. 

cordate, 3-lobed, repandly tooth- 
ed, puberulous ; tendrils trifid, 
very long ; male flowers race- 
mose ; racemes on long pedun- 
cles ; calycine lobes very short, 
tooth-formed ; lobes of corolla 
ovate, ciliately jagged ; fruit te- 
rete-oblong, ending in a long 




beak, hispid, splitting. ©. F. 
Native of China. Lam. ill. t. 
794. Sims, bot. mag. 472.— Mill. 
fig. t. 32.— Mich. gen. 12. t. 9. 
CQcumis anguinus, Lin. spec. 
1437. ex Lam. diet. 2. p. 75. — 
Rumph. amb. 5. p. 407. t. 148. 
Kukukjanjang of tlie Hindoos. 
Flowers white. Fruit near a foot long. 

Snakc-GomA. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1755. Pl.tr. 

2 T. costa'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 933.) leaves cordate, 3-lohed, 
denticulated, scabrous ; lateral lobes somewhat 2-lobed ; male 
flowers racemose, bracteate ; female ones solitary ; fruit ovate, 
oblong-ribbed. ©. F. Native of Java, about Batavia and the 
western provinces, on the margins of rivers, where it is called 
lojian by the natives. 

/?it6c(/-fruited Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

3 T. coLUBRiNA (Jacq. fil. eclog. t. 128.) stems furrowed, 
thickish ; tendrils bifid; leaves roundish, cordate, 3-5-lobed ; 
lobes short, broad, toothed ; male flowers in panicles ; common 
peduncles very long; female flowers sessile, solitary or in the 
same axils with the males ; calyx very lorg, with a rcflexed 
limb ; fruit nearly terete, very long, lined ; seeds ohovate, red. 
©. F. Native country unknown. 

Fiper Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

4 T. NERviFOLiA (Lin. spec. 1432.) stem slender; leaves cor- 
date, 3-nerved, toothed ; petiole short ; tendrils bifid ; male 
flowers racemose ; racemes on long peduncles ; lobes of corolla 
oblong, ciliately jagged ; female flowers solitary; fruit ovate, 
acutish, green, lined with white, about the size of a hen's egg. 
©. F. Native of the East Indies. Rheed. hort. mal. 8. t. 17. 

Nerve-leaved Snake-Ciourd. PI. tr. 

5 T. officina'lis (Haniilt. ex Wall, cat.no. 6694.) scabrous ; 
leaves cordate, denticulated ; petioles hispid ; female peduncles 
1-flowered, solitary ; fruit round, smooth. ©. ^. S. Native 
of the East Indies, in Chilmari. 

Officinal Snake-Gouvd. PI. cl. 

6 T. sca'bra (Lour. coch. p. 589.) branches woody, furrowed ; 
leaves cordate, roundish, wrinkled, scabrous ; tendrils bifid ; 
flowers monoecious ; corolla shortly ciliated ; fruit roundish, red, 



10-angled, 5-celled; seeds flat, oblong. Tj . 0. Native of 
Cochin-china. Flowers white. Fruit small. 
Scabrous Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

7 T. cuspida'ta (Lam. diet. 1. p. 188.) stem twining; leaves 
cordate, oblong, acute, toothed ; tendrils simple ; male flowers 
unknown ; female flowers nearly sessile, on short peduncles ; 
calyx long, tubular, with nearly linear, acute, stalked, ciliately 
fringed segments ; fruit ovate, ending in a long point. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies. — Rheed. mal. 8. t. 16. T. caudata, 
Willd. spec. 4. p. 600. 

Ctispidate-truited Snake-Gourd. PI. tw. 

8 T. angula'ta (Lam. diet. 1. p. 190.) stems angular, very 
slender, villous ; leaves cordate, roundish, small, angular ; ten- 
drils forked, longer than the leaves ; male flowers panicled ; 
common peduncles much longer than the leaves ; female flowers 
solitary, pedunculate. ©. F. Native of the East Indies. Pe- 
tals fringed. 

Angidar-stemmed Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

9 T. viLLOSA (Blum, bijdr. p. 934.) leaves cordate, tricuspi- 
date, obsoletely denticulated, villous; peduncles 1-flowered; 
fruit nearly globose, striated with white. ©. F. Native of 
Java, about Rompien and Buitenzorg, where it is called Badu- 
jut by the natives. Fruit indehiscent. 

Villous Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

10 T. ovi'gera (Blume, 1. c.) leaves deeply cordate, mucro- 
nate, sometimes sinuated, mucronately denticulated, shining 
above, and rough beneath : female peduncles 1-flowered ; fruit 
ovate, vittate. ©. F. Native of Java, on Mount Salak, where 
the plant is called Tinuk by the natives. 

Egg-bearing Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

1 1 T. GRANDiFLORA (Blum. 1. c.) Icaves large, quintuple- 
nerved, ovate, sometimes tricuspidate, quite entire, coriaceous, 
quite glabrous ; flowers bracteate, disposed in dense spikes. 
©. F. Native of Java, in humid places on the mountains, where 
the plant is called by the inhabitants Kalayar Badak. 

Great-jlon-ered Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

12 T. coriaVea (Blum. 1. c. p. 935.) leaves somewhat quin- 
tuple-nerved, cordate, acuminated, quite entire, coriaceous, reti- 
culated above and glabrous, but paler and rough beneath ; male 
flowers bracteolate, in loose racemes, on elongated peduncles. 
©.? F. Native of Java, on Mount Salak, where the plant is called 
by the inhabitants Pict-ijun-tjclling. Allied to T. grandijldra. 

Coriaceous-\e&\'ed Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

13 T. iiETEROCLiTA (Roxb. cx Wall. cat. 6684.) leaves smooth, 
coriaceous, 3-lobed, seldom 5-lobed ; lobes acuminated, entire ; 
peduncles racemose ; tube of calyx long. \ ■ ^j- S. Native of 
the East Indies, in Goyalpara. 

rariable-holloncd Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

14 T. cucume'rina (Lin. spec. 1432.) fetid; stems tetragonal, 
rather pilose ; leaves cordate, angular, rather villous, petiolate, 
with white nerves, and muricated petioles ; tendrils bifurcate ; 
male flowers disposed in something like umbels ; female flowers 
solitary, on short peduncles ; calycine lobes ovate ; petals fringed 
at the apex ; fruit ovate, mucronate, smooth, green, lined with 
white, but at last becoming orange- coloured ; seeds with sinu- 
ated margins. ©.? F. Native of Java, in the province of 
Bantam. Blum, bijdr. p. 934. — Rheed. mal. 8. 1. 15. Flowers 
white. The seeds are sometimes used in disorders of the sto- 
mach and bowels, and the jilant is celebrated for its virtues in 
Hortus Malabaricus. 

Cucumber-like Snake-Gourd. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1804. PI. tr. 

15 T. ama'ra (Lin. spec. 1432.) stems terete, glabrous ; ten- 
drils simple ; leaves cordate, triangular, sinuated, scabrous from 
dots, stalked ; female flowers solitary ; peduncles longer than 
the leaves ; calyx long, tubular, with lanceolate, acute segments; 
petals roundish-ovate, fringed ; fruit obovate-oblong, 9-celled, 
green, striped with longitudinal white lines ; flesh white and 



CUCURBITACE.'E. XVI. Trichosanthes. XVII. Ami'elosicvos. 



39 



bitter; seeds oblong, narrow. ©. F. Native of St. Domingo. 
— Plum, descr. pi. amer. t. 100. 

B;»cr-fruited Sn.ike-Gourd. PI. tr. 

16 T. hexaspe'rma (Blum, bijdr. p. 935.) leaves 3-nerved, 
ovate, tricuspidate, quite entire, coriaceous, glabrous ; male 
flowers bracteate, disposed in racemes : female flowers solitary ; 
fruit globose, 6-seeded. 0.?F. Native of Java, at the foot 
of Mount Salak, where it is called Aroy-pitjung-TjeUeng by the 
natives. 

Six-scedcd Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

17 T. Russelia'na (Wall. cat. no. 6G96.) smoothish ; leaves 
cordate, hastately 3-lobed, nearly entire; tendrils simple; pe- 
duncles 1-flowered. T^ . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 

Russel's Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

18 T. macroca'rpa (Blum. 1. c.) leaves cordate, orbicular, 
5-lobed, but sometimes 3-lobed, coriaceous, glabrous ; lobes 
ovate, acuminated, quite entire : lateral lobes rather bifid ; fruit 
large, globose ; stem sufFruticose. fj . ^^• S. Native of Java, 
on the mountains. 

Long-fruhed Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

19 T. tricuspida'ta (Lour. coch. 589.) stems shrubby; 
tendrils trifid ; leaves cordate, tricuspidate, denticulated, gla- 
brous, many-nerved ; stipulas roundish, thick, crenated ; flowers 
spicate, or perhaps panicled ; bracleas large, toothed ; fruit 
yellow, small, ovate, 2-celled, 2-seeded. 0. F. Native of 
Cochin-china ; and among bushes and on the margins of rivers 
in Java. Flowers white. 

Tricuspidate-\e&\edi Snake-Gourd. PI. cl. 

20 T. pilosa (Lour. coch. p. 588.) stems sufFruticose, very 
long, furrowed ; tendrils bifid ; leaves cordate, denticulated, 
pilose on the veins, lower ones palmate, upper ones 3-lobed ; 
male flowers ? in spikes ; bracteas large, lanceolate, ciliated ; 
fruit ovate, acute, scarlet, 1-celled ; seeds rhomboid, com- 
pressed, lobed, brown. ^ • ^. S. Native of Cochin-china. 
Flowers white as in the rest of the species, fringed with curling 
hairs. 

Pilose Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

21 T. laciniosa (Klein, ex Willd. spec. \. p. 601.) stems 
filiform, angular, glabrous ; leaves deeply cordate, palmately 
5-7-lobed, remotely toothed, glabrous on both surfaces ; male 
flowers disposed 4 or 6 in a corymb : petals ovate, toothed ; 
female flowers solitary : petals ciliately fringed. ©. ? F. Na- 
tive of the East Indies. 

Jagged-\e2i\eA Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

22 T. coRKiciLATA (Lam. diet. 1. p. 191.) root large, fleshy, 
warted ; stems very long ; tendrils simple ; leaves digitately 
palmate ; lobes oblong ; petals crenulated, bearing each 2 curl- 
ing horns towards the apex ; male flowers in fascicles ; fruit 
ovate-oblong, smooth, green, variegated with white, 4-celled. 
1/ . S. Native of the Antilles. T. tuberosa, Willd. spec. 4. 
p. 601. Sims, hot. mag. t. 2703. Ceratosanthes tuberosa, 
.Spreng. sysl. 3. p. 18. — Plum. ed. Burm. amer. fasc. 1. p. 14. 
t. 24. Flowers white. 

//or;W-petalled Snake-Gourd. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1810. Pl.cl. 

23 T. Chine'nsis (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 315.) leaves cor- 
date, triangular, bluntish, rather angular ; petioles short ; ten- 
drils simple ; male flowers solitary ; calyx long, clavate, rather 
pilose ; petals obovate, with fringed margins ; female flowers 
solitary, almost sessile ; tube of calyx ovate, acuminated, pilose : 
petals not fringed ; fruit ovate, striated, ending in a long point. 
— Native of China. Braan. icon. t. 13. 

China Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

24 T. TAMNiFoLiA (Poir. diet, suppl. 1. p. 386.) stems gla- 
brous, striated ; tendrils simple ; leaves ovate-roundish, rather 
lobed, or entire, scabrous above ; male flowers small, in loose 
racemes ; petals villous ? reflexed ; fruit ovate, mucronate, gla- 
brous. — Native of Porto Rico. 



Tamnus-lcavcd Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

25 T. i"U~BERA (Blum, bijdr. p. 936.) leaves deeply cordate, 
tricuspidate, denticulated, rather tomentose beneath ; female 
flowers solitary ; fruit ovate, acute. — Native of Java, on the moun- 
tains, where the plant is called by the natives Aroy-kalayar-burrum. 

Donny Snake-Gourd. PI. tr. 

26 T. GLOBOSA (Blum, bijdr. p. 936.) leaves palmately 3 or 
5-lobed, quite entire, glabrous ; lobes linear, acute ; male flowers 
bracteate, disposed in dense spikes, on thick peduncles ; female 
flowers solitary ; fruit globose.— Native of Java, on Mount 
Salak, where the plant is called Aroij-jnntavg by the natives. 

Globose-hmtfA Snake-Gourd. PI. cl. 

27 T. PALMATA (Roxb. ex Wall. cat. 6C88.) puberulous ; 
leaves cordate, 3-5-lobed ; lobes denticulated ; peduncles race- 
mose ; corolla fringed. Ij . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 
Bracteas toothed. 

Pa/ma/e-leaved Snake-Gourd. Shrub cl. 

28 T. trifolia'ta (Blum. 1. c.) leaves ternate ; leaflets den- 
ticulated, scabrous : lateral ones gibbous at the base ; male 
flowers bracteate, disposed in something like racemes ; female 
flowers solitary ; fruit ovate, muricated (ex Rumph) ; seeds com- 
planate, denticulated ? — Native of Java, in the province of 
Krawang, near Tjiradjas. Momordica trifoliata, Lin. spec. 
1434. Amara sylvestris, Rump. amb. t. 152. f. 2. 

7V;/o/(n/c- leaved Snake-Gourd. PI. cl. 

29 T. loba'ta (Wall. cat. no. 6693.) downy or puberulous ; 
leaves 5-7-lobed ; lobes mucronate at the apex, narrowest at the 
base, denticulated ; tendrils branched ; peduncles long, bearing a 
raceme of flowers at the top. 0. ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 

Lobed-\ea\eA Snake-Gourd. PI. cl. 

Cidt. Sow the seeds in a hot-bed in spring, and afterwards 
treat the plants as if they were cucumbers. The shrubby and 
perennial species should be protected from the frost and cold 
by placing them in the stove in winter : cuttings will root readily. 



XVII. AMPELOSrCYOS (from a^nnXoc, amj^elos, a vine, 
and aiKvoQ, sicyos, a cucumber ; intermediate habit.) Pet. Th, 
veg. d'Afr. p. 68. t. 22. — Telfairia, Hook, hot. mag. no. 2751. 
and 2752. (July 1827.) Feuillas'a, spec. Smith, in bot. mag. t. 
2681. Joliflia, Bojer in litt. (1826.) and Delill. mem. soc. hist, 
par. vol. 3. p. 314. (July 1827). 

Lin. syst. Dioicia, Monadclphia. Flowers dioecious. Male 
flowers. Calyx turbinate (f. 3. a.), 5-cleft ; segments acutely 
denticulated (f 3. h.). Corolla 5-petalled (f. 3. c.) ; petals ob- 
long, fringed. Stamens 5, disposed in 3 bundles. Female 
flowers. Limb of calyx almost wanting, 5-tootlied (ex Smith). 
Corolla as in the male. Stigma 
capitate, 3-lobed (ex Bojer), 5- 
lobed (ex Smith). Fruit fleshy 
(f. 3. e.), 2-3 feet long, and 8 :;l?^'^yii';i, 

inches thick, elongated and fur- ; 
rowed, divided into 3 twin cells ; 
(ex Bojer), into 5 (ex Smith). ^'-, 

Seeds compressed, nearly orbi- /' , 

cular, reticulated on the outside. 
Cotyledons thick, oily. A climb- 
ing plant, with pedate leaves and 
showy purple flowers. 

1 A. SCANDENS (Pet. Th. 1. 
c.) ■J/ . S. Native of the south- 
eastern coast of Africa, on the 
shores of Zanquebar. It has also 
been gathered in the Mauritius, 

where it is called by the negroes Koueme. Feuilia;a pedaia, 
Smith, 1. c. t. 2681. a female plant. Telfairia pcd.ita, Hook, 
bot. mag. t. 2751 and 2752. with male flowers and fruit. Jol- 



FIG. 3. 




/ 



CUCURBITACEiE. XVIII. Cucurbita. 



40 

liffia Africans, Delill. 1. c. t. 6. Male plant and seed. The 
seeds are as large as chestnuts, and as good as almonds, and when 
pressed they yield an abundance of oil, equal to that of the finest 
olives. 

///nenn Ampelosicyos. Fl. July. Clt. 1825. PI. cl. 

Cult. Any lisjht soil will suit this plant, and cuttnigs root 
readily' under a ''hand-glass, in heat. It is a strong coarse 
growing plant, and therefore requires a great deal of room, both 
for the'roots and the branches, or it will not flower. 

XVIII. CUCU'RBITA (from curvitas, crookedness, accord- 
ing to Scaliger ; in reference to the shape). Lin. gen. no. 1478. 
Juss. gen. p. 396. Gsertn. fruct. 2. p. 49. t. 88. f. 5. exclusive 
of C. Lagentiria of authors. Citi ullus, Neck. elem. bot. no. 389. 
Melopepo, Tourn. inst. p. 106. t. 34. Pepo, Tourn. 1. c. p. 105. 
t. 33. 

Lin. syst. Monoecia, MonadcljMa. Flowers monoecious. 
Corolla campanulate, yellow ; petals joined together and to the 
calyx. Wale flowers. Calyx hemispherically campanulate. 
Stamens 5, in 3 bundles, or joined at the apex ; anthers ab- 
ruptly curved, both at the base and the apex, the rest straight 
and parallel. Female flowers. Calyx obovate-clavate, nar- 
rowed towards the top, or campanvdate, and always circumcised 
under the limb after flowering. Anthers usually sterile. Stig- 
mas 3, thickish, 2-lobed. Fruit 3-5-celled. Seeds ovate, com- 
pressed, with hardly tumid margins. 

1 C. ma'xima (^Duch. in Lam. diet. 2. p. 151.) leaves cordate, 
very rugged ; petioles hispid ; tube of calyx obovate, ending 
in a short neck ; fruit globose, somewhat depressed, yellow, 
red, or green. G.F. Native country unknown. Tourn. inst. 
p. 106. no. 2. t. 34. Lob. icon. 641. f. 2. Cucurbita Potiro, 
Pers. ench. 2. p. 593. 

Far. a, Potiro (Serin D. C. prod. 3. p. 316.) stems very long, 
climbing ; tendrils strong ; fruit large, yellow, or oi"ange-co- 
loured, hollow at maturity. Common yellow gourd, j>otiron 
jaune comman, goiirge of the French. The shells of the fruit 
are generally used for holding water. 

Var. /3, viridis (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 31 G.) stems very 
long, climbing ; fruit green, large, hollow at maturity. Large 
green gourd. Gros potiron vert of the French. The shells of 
the fruit of this sort are also used as calabashes. 

far. y, Gourgero (Ser. diss, in mem. soc. gen. vol. 3. pt. 2. 
t. 1.) stems assurgent, dwarf; nodes close; tendrils abortive; 
leaves ovate, cordate, 3-5-lobed, somewhat cochleate ; lobes 
narrow ; fruit small, green, or yellow, full at maturity. Gour- 
geron or petit jotiron vert. 

Large Hollow Gourd. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. ? PI. cl. or tr. 

2 C. MELopEi'o (Lin. spec. 1435.) leaves cordate, obtuse, 
somewhat 5-lobed, denticulated ; tendrils usually transformed 
into very imperfect leaves ; calyx hemispherically campanulate, 
short, having the throat mucli dilated ; fruit depressed ; carpels 
irregular, rising beyond the throat of the calyx ; flesh dry, 
spongy, white; cells 4-5. ©. F. Native country unknown. 
Willd. spec. 4. p. 610. C. polymorpha Melopepo, Duch. in 
Lam. diet. 1. p. 157 — Bauh. hij.t. 2. p. 224. with a figure. 
Pepo maximus clypeatus, Mor. hist. 1. sect. 1. t. 8. Fruit 
flatted at both ends. It is of great use in long voyages, for it 
can be kept several months in a fresh state, and is commonly 
made into pies, like the pumpkin, or boiled and eaten with meat 
instead of turnips or potatoes. Bonnet d'ekcteur, bonnet de 
pritre, and pastisson of the French. 

Squash Gourd. Fl. May, Sept. Clt. 1597. PI. tr. 

3 C. moscha'ta (Duch. ex diet, scienc. nat. 11. p. 234.) 
corolla campanulate, very narrow at the base ; leaves soft, to- 
mentose ; fruit oval or spherical, depressed ; flesh yellow or 
orange-coloured, musky. 0. F. Native of Martinique. C, 
I'ndica rotunda, Dalech. hist. C16. f. 3. 



Musk,j Gourd. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. ? PI. tr. 

4 C. CERATOCREAS (Mart, reise, in bras, ex Linnaea. 5. p. 
39.) leaves cordate, nearly orbicular, bluntly somewhat 5-lobed, 
denticulated ; fruit large, oblong-pear-shaped, or cylindrical, 
lined longitudinally, glabrous ; flesh subgranular. ©. F. Na- 
tive of Brazil. 

7/o)Herf- fruited Cucurbita. PI. tr. 

5 C. viLLosA (Blum, bijdr. p. 931.) leaves roundish, cordate, 
5-lobed, scabrous ; lobes acute, sinuately denticulated ; pedun- 
cles 1 -flowered, those of the male longer than those of the female 
flowers; fruit oblong, villous. ©. F. Gathered in the gardens 
in the East Indies. By the Javanese it is called Baligo. 

Villous Gourd. PI. tr. 

6 C. Pe'po (Lin. spec. 1435.) leaves cordate, obtuse, some- 
what 5-lobed, denticulated ; calyx ending in a neck beneath the 
limb; fruit roundish or oblong, smooth. 0. F. Native of the 
Levant. C. polymorpha oblonga, Duch. in Lam. diet. 2. p. 155. 
This species is called Pumpkin and pojnpion, in English ; Girau- 
mon, Cilrouille iroquoise, goiirge de Saint Jean in French ; Popone 
in Italian. There are several varieties of pompion, but the most 
striking are the two following : 

Far. a, subrolunda (Willd. spec. 4. p. 609.) fruit roundish. 
C. major subrotiinda, &c. Bauh. pin. 213. 

Jar. fi, ohlonga (Willd. 1. c.) fruit oblong. Pepo oblongus, 
Bauh. pin. p. 311. 

The pumpkin is the melon or millon of our early horticul- 
turists, the true melon being formerly distinguished by the name 
of musk melon. Though commonly cultivated in gardens for 
curiosity, yet in some country villages in England, the inhabit- 
ants grow it on dunghills, and train the shoots to a great length 
on the grass. When the fruit is ripe, they cut a hole on one side, 
and having taken out the seeds, fill the void space with sliced 
apples, adding a little sugar and spice, and then having baked 
the whole, eat it with butter. On the Continent, as well as in 
many other parts of the world, the fruit is a good deal used in 
soups, and also stewed or fried in oil or butter. Pumpkin-pie is 
also very common in many parts of the world. 

Modes of dressing some varieties of the gourd. — Mr. Crichton 
(Cal. mem. vol. 4.) prefers the cheese-gourd, some of which have 
weighed with him 1 cwt., and the vegetable marrow ; but he 
very judiciously attaches much more importance to the kind of 
cooking than to the variety cultivated. He therefore subjoins 
two receipts for the use of the cjieese-gourd, and one for veget- 
able marrow. 

To make soup of cheese-gourd. — Take the fleshy part of the 
gourd when ripe, and cut it into small pieces ; put it into a pan 
with a small bit of butter, set upon a slow fire until it melt 
down to a pure ; then add milk, in the proportion of half a 
gallon to 4 lbs, of gourd, let it boil a short time with a little 
salt and sugar, enough to make it taste a little sweet ; then cut 
some slices of bread very thin, toast them very well, and cut Ojem 
into small dice, put them in a dish, and pour the pure over 
them, and serve it up. 

Cheese-gourd dressed in the Spanish way. — When ripe cut the 
fleshy part into slices about half an inch, score it across into 
small dice about half through on one side of the slices ; scrape 
a little of the fat of bacon, and put it into a saucepan, with a 
little parsley, shallots, and mushrooms chopped very small, 
adding a little salt and pepper ; put them on a slow fire to fry 
a little, and place this seasoning upon the cut sides of the gourd 
slices. Put the whole into a quick oven, with a little butter or 
olive oil, and w hen baked a little serve up in a dish. 

Pumpkin or Pompion. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1570. PI. tr. 

7 C. FARiNosA (Blume, bijdr. p. 931.) leaves roundish, cor- 
date, rather angularly 7-lobed, a little strigose ; lobes acumin- 
ated, toothed ; peduncles 1-flowered ; fruit oblong, large, covered 
with a kind of glaucous mealiness. ©. F. Native of Java, in 



CUCURBITACE.E. XVIII. Cucuubita. 



41 



fields and in irardens, vvlicre the plant is called Daligo by the 
natives. Allied to C. I'epo. Compare Runipli. anib. 6. t. 143. 
according to Bliinie. 

i»i(«/y-fruited Gourd. PI. tr. 

8 C. VERRUCOSA (Lin. spec. 11-35.) leaves cordate, deeply 5- 
lobed, denticulated; middle lobe narrow at the base; fruit 
roundish-elliptic, warted. ©. F. Native country unknown. — 
Bauh. hist. 2. p. 222. with a figure. C. polymorpha verrucosa, 
Duch. in I.am. diet. 2. p. 155. The plant, flowers, and seed 
&c. arc like those of C. Pipo, but the fruit is smaller, with a 
harder, almost woody rind. Called Barharinc, and Barbaresque 
sauvage in French. The warted gourd is common in most parts 
of America, where it is cultivated as a culinary fruit. It varies 
in form and size, being round, flat, shaped like a bottle, or ob- 
long ; the rind is white when the fruit is ripe, and covered with 
large protuberances or warts. It is commonly gathered when 
half grown, and boiled by the inhabitants of America, to eat as 
a sauce to their meat. In England it is only cultivated as a 
curiosity. 

fVarted Gonrd. Fl. June, Jtdy. Clt. 1658. Pl.tr. 

9 C. suBVERRUcosA (Willd. spec. 4. p. 009.) leaves cordate, 
deeply 5-lobed, denticulated ; middle lobe narrow at the base ; 
fruit clavately-elliptic, rather warted. Q. F. Native country 
unknown. Perhaps a hybrid from C. verrucosa, but the fruit is 
very different. 

Subccrrucose-fruheii Gourd. Fl. June, Jul. Clt. ? PI. tr. 

10 C. aura'ntia (Willd. 1. c. p. 6G7.) plant very scabrous ; 
leaves subcordate, 3-lobed, cuspidate, sharply denticulated; fruit 
globose, smooth, having the appearance and colour of an orange. 
©. F. Native country unknown. The orange-gourd is rather 
more tender than the other sorts. It has been hitherto chiefly 
cultivated for curiosity, and when trained spirally round a pole, 
or against a wall, and loaded with its yellow fruit, it is very 
ornamental. The fruit should be used like those of other sorts 
of pumpkin or gourd. 

I'ar. a, iirdng'ma (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 317.) fruit glo- 
bose, 3-celled ; pnlp fibry, yellow, nearly dry, with a solid dark 
green rind, which at length becomes orange-coloured. — Orangine 
or Fausse orange in French ; orange-gourd, English. 

Var. ji, colocijnthoidcs (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 317.) rind of 
fruit thinner and variegated ; pulp dry. Called Coloquinelle or 
Fausse coloquiute in French, and False colocynth in English. 

Orange GomA. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1802. PI. cl. 

1 1 C. cocciNEA ; fruit round, scarlet, about the size of an 
orange. ©. F. Native of Sierra Leone. 

Scarlet-irmtedi Gourd. PI. tr. 

12 C. oviFERA (Lin. mant. p. 126.) leaves cordate, angular, 
5-lobed, denticulated, pubescent ; calyx obovate, ending in a 
short neck, and cut round after flowering to the neck. ©. F. 
Native of Astracan. C. polymorpha pyridaris, Duch. in Lam. 
diet. 2. p. 154,— J. Bauh. hist. 2. p. 222 and 223. f. 1. C. 
sylvestris, Dod. pempt. 670. f. 1. C. pyriformis. Lob. hist. 
367. f. 2. Herb and flowers very like those of C. Pepo, but 
less scabrous. Fruit obovate or ovate, smooth, greenish or yel- 
lowish, figure of an egg. Called in French Gougourdette, and 
Vegetable marrow, in English. 

Var. a, pi/riformis (Ser. diss. I.e. t. 1.) leaves 5-lobed with 
undulated margins ; lobes oblong-obovate, denticulated, rarely 
lobulate ; fruit pear-shaped, green, or yellow, lined longitudinally 
with white. 

I'ar. ft, subglobosa (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 318.) leaves 
bluntly lobed ; lobes broad, short ; fruit obovate, globose, green 
lined with wiiite ; flesh red. 

far. y, grisea (Ser. 1. c.) leaves 3-5-lobed, narrow; middle 
lobe trapezitbrm, usually lobulate ; fruit larger, greenish grey, 
spotted with white, hardly lined. 



I'ar. <", oi'iila; fruit large, ovate, whitish when ripe. 

The first kind of vegetable marrow was introduced to Britain 
from Persia within the last few years, where it is called deader. 
The fruit of this sort is of a uniform pale yellow or light sulphur 
colour : when full grown it is about 9 inches in length, 4 inches 
in diameter, of an elliptic shape, the surface being rendered 
slightly uneven by irregular longitudinal ribs, the terminations 
of which uniting form a projecting apex at the end of the fruit, 
which is very unusual in the gourd or pompion tribe. It is 
useful for culinary purposes in every st:ige of its growth ; when 
very young, it is good if fried with l)utter; when large, or 
about half grown, it is excellent cither plain boiled or stewed 
with rich sauce ; for either of these purposes it should be cut in 
slices. The flesh has a peculiar tenderness or softness, from 
which circumstance it has received its name, much rescmblin" 
the buttery quality of the beurre-pcar, and this property re- 
mains with it until it is full grown, when it is used for pies. It 
is, however, in its intermediate state of growth that it is likely 
to be most approved. There are now several kinds of veget- 
able marrow in cultivation. 

To dress vegetable marrow. — Take the fruit when about half 
grown ; cut it lengthwise through the middle (if large cut it 
into 3 or 4 slices) ; take off the outer skin, cut it into small 
dice, about half through one side of the slices, then scrape a 
little of the fat of bacon, and put it into a saucepan, with a 
little parsley, shallots, and mushrooms, chopped very small, and 
let them fry a little ; then add about a table spoonful of flour, 
with a little salt and pepper, mixed all together ; then put the 
slices of the vegetable marrow into a stewpan with a cover, and 
put the fried seasoning over the slices, and let them stew a little 
on a slow fire, with a little fire on the cover. When enough 
done, serve up." — Crichton, Cal. mem. vol. 4. The Caledonian 
Horticultural Society's silver medal was given to Mr. Chrichton 
for this receipt, and the other two upon the cheese-gourd. We 
think it ought to have been given to the cook. 

Egg-bearing Gourd or Vegetable-marrow. Fl. July, Sept. 
Clt. ? PI. tr. 

13 C. f<etidissima (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 
123.) leaves deeply cordate, ovate, sinuately angular, narrowed 
above, toothed, strigose above, but white and villous beneath ; 
female flowers axillary, solitary, pedunculate ; calyx campanu- 
lately funnel-shaped above, with ovate-oblong, acute segments. 
©. F. Native of Mexico, near Guanaxuato, at the height of 
3240 feet. 

I en/ foetid Gourd. PI. cl. ortr. 

14 C. umbella'ta (Klein, ex Willd. spec. p. 608.) stem fur- 
rowed, glabrous ; leaves cordate, with 5 narrow, denticulated 
scabrous lobes ; male flowers in umbels, female ones solitary, 
pedunculate ; fruit elliptic, tomentose. ©. F. Native of the 
East Indies. 

Umbcllate-Qov/ered Gourd. PI. tr. 

15 C. aspera TA (Gill. mss. ex Hook et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. 
p. 234.) flowers dioecious ; stems glabrous ; leaves palmately 
5-parted, rough from callous dots on both surfaces, which are 
more numerous beneath ; segments sinuately pinnatilid ; ten- 
drils simple ; male flowers in capitate racemes, on short pedun- 
cles, female ones pedunculate, solitary ; fruit nearly globose, 
few-seeded. ©. F. Native of Chili, in the province of Men- 
doza, in uncultivated ))laces, where it is called by the natives 
Sandillo del campus. This plant agrees in many respects with 
the C. mammeata, Mol. but that species is from Chili. 

Rough Gourd. PI. tr. 

16 C. cicerVria (Molina, Chili ed germ. p. 316.) leaves 
roundish, angular, tomentose; fruit woody, globose. O- F. 
Native of Chili. 

Intoxicating GoMxd. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1324. Pl.tr. 



42 



CUCURBITACE/E. XVIII. Cucurbita. XIX. Involucraria. XX. Muricia. XXI. Anguria. 



17 C. mammea'ta (Molina, 1. c.) leaves many-parted ; fruit 
spherical, beset with protuberances. ©. F. Native of Chili. 

Teatcd Gourd. PI. tr. 

18 C. lign6sa (Mill, diet.) leaves rough, lobed ; fruit woody. 
0.F. Native of South America. This is a large gourd, and 
is cultivated for the sake of the shell of the fruit, which will 
frequently contain between 2 and 3 quarts. Where aloes is 
manufactured in any quantity, it is commonly preserved in these 
shells ; but in Jamaica they are used to hold water, and small 
grain. 

/;'oorf(/-fruited Gourd. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. ? PI. tr. 

19 C. MULTiFLORA (Forst. ex Spreng. syst. 5. p. 45.) leaves 
broadly cordate, 3-lobed, acute, denticulated, glabrous ; flowers 
minute, crowded in cymes. ©. F. Native of the Society 
Islands. 

Many-flowered Gourd. PI. tr. 

Cult. The species of Cucurbita are propagated from seeds, 
which are large, and require to be covered nearly an inch. Sow 
in April in a hot-bed, under a frame or hand-glass to raise plants 
for transferring to the open garden at the end of May, under a 
warm aspect, or for planting out in the middle of May on a 
trend) of hot dung under a hand-glass or half shelter ; other- 
wise sow at the beginning of May, under a hand-glass, without 
bottom heat, for transplanting into a favorable situation ; or sow 
3 weeks later (after tlie 20th) at once in the open garden, under 
a south wall, for the plants to remain. The smaller fruited kinds 
do best trained to an upright pole or trellis. From time to time 
earth up the stems of the plants. As the shoots extend 5 feet 
or more, peg down at a joint, and they will take root. Water 
copiously whenever warm weather without showers makes the 
ground arid. Mr. Gray (Gard. mag. vol. 1. p. 150.) plants in 
paths between asparagus beds, and lets the vines of the gourds 
run over them ; and he considers that their large leaves do good 
to the asparagus roots, by protecting them from the sun, while 
the tall stems of the asparagus afford a shelter to the leaves of 
the gourds. In very dry seasons they are an excellent substi- 
tute for cabbages and turnips, when the drought is apt to burn 
up these vegetables. Mr. Gray therefore recommends, espe- 
cially where the soil is liable to be burnt up in summer, planting 
the vegetable marrow and other cucurbitaceous plants as a re- 
serve crop. The tender tops of all the edible species of Cucur- 
hilacece, boiled as greens or spinage, are a fully more delicate 
vegetable than the fruit. It must be worth something to gar- 
deners and cooks to know that either or both may be used for 
this purpose when scarcely any thing else can be got. 



XIX. INVOLUCRARIA {involucrum,an involucre ; in refer- 
ence to the umbels of male flowers being involucrated by brac- 
teas). Ser. diss, in mem. soc. hist, nat, gen. vol. 3. pt. 2. D.C. 
prod. 3. p. 318. 

Lin. syst. Monoccia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious. 
Male flowers umbellate, sessile, involucrated by reniform brac- 
teas, which are dentately fringed at the apex ; common peduncle 
very long, furnished each with an oblong bractea at the base. 
Alabastra nearly like those of the rose. Tube of calyx obco- 
nical ; limb with acute linear sepals. Corolla, stamens, and 
filaments unknown. Anthers joined, with the cells as in the 
rest of the Cuciirb'ttacea;. Female flowers solitary on long pedun- 
cles, rising from the same axillae as the males, as well as of the 
same form. 

1 I. Wallichia^na (Ser. 1. c. t. 4.) leaves deeply 5-lobed, 
cut, scabrous ; lobes obovate-oblong, coarsely toothed ; tendrils 
quinquefid. ©.? F. Native of Nipaul. 

Wallich's Involucraria. PI. cl. 

Cult. See Cucurbita for culture and propagation. 



XX. MURI'CIA (from muricatus, muricated ; in reference to 
the warted berries). Lour. coch. p. 596. D. C. prod. 3. p. 318. 

Lin. syst. Monoecia, Monadelphia. Flowers monoecious. 
Calyx of .5 sepals, inclosed in a large, undivided, 1-flowered 
sheath ; sepals subulate, striated, coloured, joined together at 
the base. Corolla campanulate ; petals 5, ovate-lanceolate, 
nerved. Stamens 5, in 3 bundles, and with the anthers con- 
nected at the apex. Style 1 ; stigmas 3, sagittate, horizontal. 
Berry muricated, 1 -celled, many-seeded. Seeds orbicular, 
large, reticulated, with tubercular margins. 

1 M. Cochinchine'nsis (Lour. 1. c. p. 596.) a large shrub, 
with 5-lobed leaves, the 3 superior lobes acuminated, and the in- 
ferior ones obtuse, short, and denticulated ; flowers yellow, soli- 
tary, on long peduncles ; fruit reddish purple both inside and 
outside, scentless. I; . G. Native of Cochin-china and China. 
Momordica Cochinchinensis, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 14. The seeds 
and leaves are aperient and abstergent. 

Cochin-china Muricia. Shrub. 

Cult. A mixture of peat and sand will answer this shrub ; 
and cuttings will root in the same kind of soil. 

XXI. ANGU'RIA (one of the Greek names for the cucum- 
ber, from oyyoc, angos, a vessel ; shape of fruit). Lin. gen. no. 
399. Juss. gen. p. 395. Lam. ill. t. 747. D. C. prod. 3. p. 
318. — Momordica spec, of authors. — Psiguria, Neck. elem. bet. 
no. 384. 

Lin. syst. Monoecia, Didndria. Flowers monoecious. Male 
flowers. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla joined to the 
calyx, ventricose, red, with a 5-parted spreading border. Sta- 
mens 2, opposite. Female flowers with a calyx and corolla, as 
in the males. Stamens 2, sterile. Style semi-bifid ; stigmas 
bifid. Fruit 2-4-celled, many-seeded, somewhat tetragonal 
Seeds unknown. Roots thick, warted. 

1 A. integrifolia (Nees et Mart, in nov. act. bonn. 12. p. 
9.) leaves ovate, denticulated, 3-nerved, glabrous ; peduncles 
4-6-flowered, bractless ; female flowers unknown. — Native of 
Brazil, at the river Ilheos. Flowers red. 

Intire-lcaved Anguria. PI. cl. 

2 A. TRiLOBA'TA(Lin. spec. 1376.) root bitter ; stems slender; 
leaves deeply 3-lobed, or somewhat 5-lobed, veiny ; lobes a 
little toothed ; tendrils simple ; male flowers large, in racemes, 
female ones solitary, almost sessile ; fruit ovate-oblong, umbili- 
cate, green, spotted with white ; seeds oblong, fulvous. 1^. ^.S. 
Native of Martinico. — Plum. ed. Burm. pi. amer. t. 22. Jacq. 
amer. p. 243. t. 156. ed. pict. p. 119. t. 234. Flowers vermi- 
lion coloured. 

TAree-ZofcaMeaved Anguria. Fl. Ju.Jul. Clt. 1793. Pl.cl. 

3 A. tedatise'cta (Nees et Mart, in nov. act, bonn. 12. 
p. 10.) leaves pedately 5-parted ; lobes quite entire ; tendrils 
subumbellate ; corymbs many-flowered ; flowers triandrous ? 
fruit oblong, striated, attenuated both at the base and apex ; pulp 
white, spongy, rather acid ; aril black. ©. ,^. F. Native of 
Peru. Momordica pedisecta, Lin. spec. 1434. Lam. diet. 4. 
p. 241. — Feuill. per. 1. p. 754. t. 41. Flowers white. Two 
outer segments of leaves lobed. The Peruvians use the fruit in 
soups. 

Pedate-cut-\e&ve& Anguria. PI. cl. 

4 A. PEDA^TA (Lin. spec. p. 1376.) stems slender, terete; 
leaves pedately 5-parted ; lobes lanceolate, toothed ; tendrils 
longer than the leaves ; flowers inodorous, male ones in ra- 
cemes ; racemes on long peduncles ; female ones solitary ; fruit 
oval-oblong, green, variegated with white. 1/ . ^. S. Native 
of St. Domingo. Jacq. amer. 242. t. 155. ed. pict. t. 233. — 
Plum. ed. Burm. pi. amer. 23. ? Flowers with orange-coloured 
petals. 

Perfaie-leaved Anguria. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1820. PI. cl. 



CUCURBITACEyE. XXI. Anguria. XXII, Zucca. XXIII. Allasia, &c. PAPAYACE^. 



43 



5 A. ROSEA (H. B. et Kiinth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 122.) 
brandies glabrous ; leaves truncately cordate at the base, quite 
entire, 3-lobed at the apex, glabrous, membranous ; tcmtrils 
undivided, glabrous ; male flowers disposed in racemes ; calyx 
cylindrically campanulate, ventricose at the base, with a 5-parted 
rose-coloured limb, having the segments roundish and longer 
than the tube ; stamens 2, sessile. "H-^. S. Native of New 
Granada, in temperate places near Turbaco, at the height of COOO 
feet. Flowers rose-coloured. 

7?oic-coloured-flowered Anguria. PI. cl. 

C A. uMBROSA (H. B. et Kunth, I. c. p. 121.) leaves pcdately 
5-parted, sinuately cordate ; lobes quite entire, ovate-lanceolate, 
outer ones much the shortest and divaricate ; flowers panicled ; 
peduncles very long; calyx roughish, having the tube ventricose 
at the base, of a vermilion colour ; stamens 2, free ; anthers 
linear ; female flowers unknown. 1/ . ^. S. Native of the 
temperate provinces of New Andalusia, near Bordones and Cu- 
manacoa. 

Shaded Anguria. Fl. June, Jidy. Clt. 1827. PI. cl. 

7 A. trifolia'ta (Lin. spec. 157G.) stems thickish, terete, 
rugged ; tendrils simple ; leaves palmately ternate ; leaflets en- 
tire : lateral ones unequal-sided ; male flowers in racemes pur- 
ple ; tube of calyx long and ventricose ; peduncles short ; fruit 
irregularly ovate-oblong, bluntly mucronate, 4-celled, green, 
lined with white ; flesh of fruit red, and sweet. 1/ . y_,. S. Na- 
tive of St. Domingo. — Plum. pi. amer. t. 99. 

Trifoliate Anguria. Fl. Jime, July. PI. cl. 

Cult. The species of this genus delight in a light rich soil, 
and may be propagated either from seeds or cuttings. 

■f Genera allied to Cucurhilucece, but are not sufficientli/ 
known. 

XXII. ZU'CCA (meaning unknown). Comra. in Poir. suppl. 
5. p. 526. Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 3 1 9. 

Lin. syst. unknown. Flowers solitary, axillary. Bractea 
large, concave, involving a large, coloured, 5-sepalled calyx, and 
girded by 5 scales at the base. Stamens 5. — A doubtful genus, 
said to be related to the order Passijlorece ; but according to St. 
Hilaire (mem. mus. 9. p. 100.) it belongs to Cucurbitacece, from 
die lateral situation of the tendrils. 

1 Z. Commersonia'na (Ser. in D. C. prod. 3. p. 319.) Native 
country unknown. 

Commerson's Zucca. PI. cl. 

Cult. See Anguria for culture and propagation. 

XXIII. ALLA'SIA (aXXac, alias, a sausage ; from the colour 
and form of the fruit resembling a sausage). Lour. coch. p. 85. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 319. 

LiN. sYST. Tetrundria, Monogynia. Flowers hermaphrodite. 
Calyx gamosepalous, girded by a short involucrum ; segments 5, 
acutish, hairy. Corolla 4-petalled ; petals roundish, very hairy, 
small. Stamens 4 or perhaps 8 joined by twos ; anthers 2- 
lobed ? Style subulate ; stigma acute. Berry fleshy, large, 
oblong, obtuse, pendulous, 1 -celled. Seeds imbedded in the 
pulp, ovate, compressed, tumid. 

1 A. Pa"yos (Lour. 1. c.) a tree, with spreading unarmed 
branches ; opposite digitate leaves ; the lobes 5, oval, quite en- 
tire and pilose ; flowers nearly terminal, pale ; peduncles many- 
flowered, h . S. Native of the eastern coast of Africa, on the 
shores of Mozambique. Jaracatia Brasiliana, Pison, bras. p. 
160. ex Lour. 1. c. Flowers pale. Fruit brownish-red. 

Payos Allasia. Tree. 

Cult. A light rich soil will suit this tree, and cuttings will 
strike root in the same kind of soil under a hand-glass in heat. 



XXIV. GRONO'VIA (so named by Houston, in honour of 
John Frederick Gronovius, M.D. a learned botanist of Leydcn). 
Lin. gen. no. 391. Juss. gen. p. 394. H. B. et Kuiith, nov. gen. 
amer. 2. p. 1 1 9. 

Lin. syst. Pentandria, Monogynia. Flowers hermaphrodite. 
Calyx funnel-shaped, 5-parted, coloured. Scales 5, linear, 
petal-formed, jn'Uucid, alternating with the calycine segments. 
Stamens 5, free, alternating with the scales. Ovarium inferior. 
Style 1, crowned by a subca])itate stigma. Berry dry, nearly 
globose, 1 -seeded, crowned by the dry permanent calyx. — 
Climbing herbs, adhering by tendrils, with leaves like those of 
Bryonia. Peduncles opposite, rather umbellate. Flowers dis- 
posed in unilateral spikes, cymose, sessile, bracteate. 

1 G. sca'ndens (Lin. spec. 292.) ©. v^. S. Native of Vera 
Cruz. Jacq. coll. 3. p. 197. icon. rar. t. 338. Lam. ill. t. J 44. 
f. 2. G. Humboldtiana, Ram. et Schult. syst. 5. p. 492. 
Fruit ribbed, while young. Flowers greenish-yellow. Leaves 
5-lobed. The hairs on the leaves sting like those of a nettle. 

Climbing Gxono\\a.. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1731. PI. cl. 

Cult. Being a tender annual plant, the seeds of it require to 
be sown on a hot-bed ; and after the plants have grown a sufli- 
cient size in the seed-pot, they should be potted off singly into 
other pots, and after a time placed in the stove, and trained upon 
sticks. 

XXV. KO'LBIA (this genus is dedicated to Peter Kolbe or 
Kolben, a German traveller, who published a description of the 
Cape of Good Hope). Beauv. fl. d'ow. 2. p. 91. t. 120. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 320. 

Lin. syst. Dice'cia, Monadelphia. Flowers dioecious. Male 
flowers with a gamosepalous calyx, composed of 5 joined sepals, 
having a crenulated margin ; the corolla is gamopetalous, and 
5-lobed ; lobes lanceolate, with glandular edges. Nectarium ? 
5-leaved, having lanceolate lobes, which taper to the base, with 
their edges plumosely ciliated. Stamens 5, monadelphous ; 
filaments short ; anthers long, conniving. Pistilluin unknown. 

1 K. e'legans (Beauv. 1. c.) stem sarmentose, bearing ten- 
drils; leaves glabrous, petiolate, cordate ; peduncles 4-flowered. 
7/ . ^. S. Native of the western co.'ist of Africa, in the king- 
dom of Benin. Flowers red. Nectarium blue. 

Elegant Kolbia. PI. cl. 

Cult. A light rich soil will suit this elegant plant, and cut- 
tings will root in the same kind of mould under a hand-glass in 
heat. 

Order CIV. PAPAYA'CE^ (this order contains only the 
Papaw trees). Martins, 1829 — Papeiyae, Agardh. 1824. — 
Cariceae, Turp. in atl. du diet, des sc, nat. 

Flowers unisexual. Calyx inferior, minute, 5-toothed. Co- 
rolla monopetalous ; in the male tubular, with 5 lobes and 10 
stamens, all arising from the same line, and of which those that 
are opposite the lobes are sessile, the others on short filaments ; 
anthers adnate, 2-celIed, bursting longitudinally ; in the female 
divided nearly to the base into 5 segments. Ovarium superior, 
1-celled, with 5 parietal polyspermous placentas. Stigma ses- 
sile, 5-lobed, lacerated. Fruit succulent, indehiscent, 1-celled, 
with 5 polyspermous parietal placentas. Seeds enveloped in a 
loose mucous coat, with a brittle pitted testa. Embryo in the 
axis of the fleshy albumen, with flat cotyledons, and a terete 
radicle, turned towards the hilum. — Trees, without branches, 
yielding an acrid milky juice. Leaves alternate, palmately 
lobed, standing on long terete petioles. 

It was the opinion of Jussieu that the genus upon which this 
c 2 



44 



PAPAYACE^. I. Carica. 



order is fouiuled, held a sort of middle station between Urticecs 
and Cucurbilacea;. Auguste St. Hilaire has, however, well re- 
marked upon this subject, that the only relation that it has with 
rV/iVe^ consists in the separation of sexes, its milky juice, its 
habit, which is like that of some species of Flcus or Fig, its 
foliage, which is not very different from the Cecrbpia, and the 
position of its stigma ; and to these he wisely attaches very little 
importance. Its fruit brings it near Cvcurhitacece ; but its true 
place is probably nearer to Passifbrece, with which it altogether 
anrees in the appearance of its testa, in its unilocular fruit, 
with parietal polyspermous placentas, and its having a calyx and 
corolla present, differing, however, widely in its habit, and mo- 
nopetalous flowers. 

The fruit of the Papaw is eaten when cooked, and is esteemed 
by some persons ; but it appears to have little to recommend it. 
Its great peculiarities are, that the juice of the unripe fruit is a 
most powerful and most efficient vermifuge ; the powder of the 
seed even answers the same purpose, and that a principal con- 
stituent of this juice is febrine, a principle otherwise supposed 
peculiar to the animal kingdom, and to fungi. The tree has 
moreover, the singular property of rendering the toughest ani- 
mal substances tender, by causing a separation of the muscular 
fibre ; its very vapour even does this. 

I. CA'RICA (erroneously supposed to be a native of Caria). 
Lin. gen. no. 1127. Schreb. 1536. — Papaya, Tourn. 441. 
Juss. 399. 

Lin. syst. Dios'cia, Decchidria. Character the same as the 
order. 

1 C. Papa'ya (Lin. spec. 14G6.) leaves palmately 7-lobed ; 
segments deeply lobed, oblong, acute; male flowers corym- 
bose. I; . S. Native of both Indies. — Rumph, amb. 1, t. 
50, 51.— Merian, Surim. t. 40. Rheed. mal. 1. t. 15. f. 1. 
Hook. bot. mag. 2S98. Ker. bot. reg. 459. Tlie papaw tree is 
a native of South America and the West Indies, whence it was 
brought by the Spaniards and Portuguese to the Philippines and 
the Moluccas ; and from these Islands, it being of very quick 
growth, it spread to all the other countries of India. In three 
years from seed a papaw tree will be 20 feet high, and loaded 
with flowers and fruit ; and for the sake of this fruit the plant is 
generally cultivated ; it has a pleasant sweetish taste, and is 
much liked by many people ; when young it is generally used 
for sauce; and when boiled and mixed with lime-juice and 
sugar, is not unlike, or much inferior to, that made of real ap- 
ples, for which it is commonly substituted. But Sloane says, the 
fruit is not in general gathered before it is ripe ; cut into slices, 
soaked in water till the milky juice is out, and is then boiled and 
eaten as turnips, or baked as apples. The juice of the pulp, 
according to Descourtilz, in the " Flore Medicale des Antilles," 
is used as a cosmetic to remove freckles on the skin, caused by 
the sun ; and the negroes in the French colonies employ the 
leaves to wash their linen instead of soap. As a medicinal plant 
the papaw tree is particularly deserving of notice. Hernandez 
long ago spoke of the milky juice of the unripe fruit as a power- 
ful vermifuge ; which has been confirmed by M. Charpenter- 
Cossigni, as mentioned in the Asiatic Researches by Dr. Heming 
(vol. 2. p. 1G2.). A single dose, that gentleman says, is suffi- 
cient to cure the disease, however abundant the worms may be. 
Another writer (Pourpee Desportes) recommends the use of the 
powder of the seed instead of the juice. But the most extraor- 
dinary property of the papaw tree, is that which is related first, I 



believe by Browne, in his natural history of Jamaica, namely, 
that " water impregnated with the milky juice of this tree is 
thought to make all sorts of meat washed in it tender : but 8 or 
10 minutes' steeping, it is said, will make it so soft that it will 
drop in pieces from the spit before it is well roasted, or turn 
soon to rags in the boiling." This circumstance has been re- 
peatedly confirmed, and moreover, that old hogs and old poultry 
which are fed upon the leaves and fruit, however tough the meat 
they afford might otherwise be, is thus rendered perfectly ten- 
der, and good if eaten as soon as killed, but that the flesh 
passes very soon into a state of putridity. In the third volume 
of the Wernerian Society's Memoirs there is a highly interesting 
paper on the properties of the juice of the papaw tree, by Dr. 
Holder, who has witnessed its effects in the Island of Barbadoes, 
and speaks of them as known to all the inhabitants. The juice 
causes a separation of the muscular fibres. Nay, the very 
vapour of the tree serves this purpose ; hence many people sus- 
pend the joints of meat, fowls, &c. in the upper part of the tree 
in order to prepare them for the table. Such is the effect upon 
hogs that feed upon the fruit, that the good housewives reject the 
flesh of such if it be destined for salting, well knowing that it is 
not sufficiently firm for the purpose. It is not known whether the 
power of hastening the decay of meat be attributable to the 
animal matter or febrine contained in the juice of the Papaw. 
Two specimens of the juice were brought from the Isle of France ; 
in the one the juice had been evaporated to dryness, and was in 
the state of an extract; in the other the juice was preserved by 
being mixed with equal bulk of rum. " Both were subjected 
to analysis by Vauquelin. The first was of a yellowish white- 
colour, and semitransparent ; its taste was sweetish ; and it had 
no smell, and was pretty solid ; but attracted moisture when 
kept in a damp place. The second was reddish brown, and had 
the smell and taste of boiled beef. When the first specimen 
was macerated in cold water, the greatest part of it dissolved ; 
the solution frothed with soap. The addition of nitric acid 
coagulated it, and rendered it white ; and when boiled, it threw 
down abundance of white flakes. When the juice of the papaw 
tree is heated with water, the greatest part dissolves ; but there 
remains a substance insoluble, which has a greasy appearance. 
It softens in the air, and becomes viscid, brown, and semitrans- 
parent. When thrown on burning coals it melted, let drops of 
grease exude, emitted the noise of meat roasting, and produced 
a smoke which had the odour of fat volatilized. It left behind 
it no residue. The substance was febrine. The resemblance 
between the juice of the papaw tree and animal matter is so 
close, that one would be tempted to suspect some imposition, 
were not the evidence that it is really the juice of the tree quite 
unquestionable. Thomson's System of Chemistry, extracted 
from the Annales de Chimie, vol. 43. p. 267. Febrine had been 
previously supposed to belong exclusively to the animal king- 
dom ; but it has since been found in other vegetables, especially 
in Fling). The name pajiaw is abridged from 2miiaia-marum, 
its name in Malabar. 

Common Papaw Tree. Fl. July. Clt. 1690. Tree 10 to 
20 feet. 

2 C. citrifo'rmis (Jacq. fil. ex Spreng. syst. 3. p. 905.) leaves 
palmately 7-cleft ; segments oblong, acute, middle one trifid ; 
fruit oval, smooth. X^ . S. Native of Peru, about Lima. Flowers 
yellow. Fruit the shape and size of an orange, edible like the 
rest. 

Citron-formed Va^&v,'. Clt. 1820. Tree 10 to 20 feet. 

3 C. PYRiFORMis (Willd. spec. 4. p. 815.) leaves cordate, 3- 
lobed ; lobes angular ; angles acute ; flowers corymbose ; fruit 
pear-shaped. Tj . S. Native of Peru, and Chili, on rocky cliffs 
along the shore of Valparaiso. Feuille, per. 2. p. 52. t. 39. f. 1. 
C. Prosoposa, Lin. spec. 1466. ? Flowers rose-coloured. Fruit 



PAPAYACEvE. I. Carica. PASSIFLORE.E. 



45 



yellow, pear-shaped. A doubtful species of the genus, from its 
small size and branched stem. 

l'tnr-sliape(lVii\mw. Clt. 1823. Shrub 3 to (i feet. 

4 C. CAULIFLOUA (Jacq. schcEnbr. 3. p. 33. t. 311.) leaves 
palmately 5-lobed ; intermediate lobe siniiatcd ; segments lan- 
ceolate, acuminated ; male peduncles usually 5-flowered, rising 
from tubercles on tiie trunk. Ij . S. Native of South Ame- 
rica, in the province of Caraccas and of Trinidad. Flowers yel- 
lowish. 

Stcm-floncrcd Papaw. Clt. 1S0(J. Tree 10 to 20 feet. 

5 C. mickoca'rpa (Jacq. schoenbr. 3. p. 32. t. 309 and 310.) 
leaves 3 or 5-lobed : intermediate lobe 3-lobed ; male flowers 
corymbose. Tj . S. Native of Caraccas and Chili. Flowers 
yellowish. Fruit the size of a cherry. 

Var. p, munutca (Desf. in ann. nuis. 1. p. 273.) lower leaves 
entire (smaller), cauline ones 3-lobcd, upper ones 5-lobed; lobes 
somewhat pinnatifid; flow'ers monoecious, subracemose, erect. 
\l . S. Native country unknown. Petioles channelled. 

Sniall-fruiled Papaw. Tree 10 to 12 feet. 

6 C. spiNosA (Willd. spec. 4. p. 815.) leaves digitate; leaflets 
7, oblong, acuminated, quite entire ; trunk spiny. 'j . S. Na- 
tive of Guiana and Brazil, in Maranham and Para. C. digi- 
tata, Aubl. guian. 2. p. 908. t. 24G. A branched tree. 

Spiny Papaw. Clt. 1821. Tree 20 to 30 feet. 

Cult. These trees grow well in any light rich soil. They 
may be brought into a fruit bearing state in our stoves, by plant- 
ing them in large pots, or in tubs made for the purpose. 



Order CV. PASSIFLO^REiE (plants agreeing with Pas- 
sifiora in important characters). Juss. ann. mus. 6. p. 102. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 321. 

Calyx of 5 (f 5. a.) or 10 sepals (f. 4. a. f. 6. a. f. 7. a.), 
combined into a short or elongated tube (f. 7. e.), free at the 
apex, disposed in 1 or 2 series ; outer lobes large, foliaceous ; 
inner ones alternating with the outer ones, and more petal-like 
than them, sometimes these last are wanting altogetiier ; the 
sides or throat are lined by filamentous (f. 4. a.) or annular (f. 
5. h. f. G c.) or membranous coloured processes, which are dis- 
posed in one or more series, having the bottom usually closed 
by a lid-formed appendage. Petals 5 in the tribe Paropsiece, but 
wanting altogether in the tribe Passljlorcce, Stamens 5 (f. 4. b. 
f. 5. (I. f. 7. c), but indefinite in the genus Smeallimdnma. Fi- 
laments opposite the exterior lobes of the calyx, joined into 
a long tube which sheaths the stipe of the ovarium ; anthers 
fixed by the back, peltate (f. 4. b. f. 5. c), reflexed, turned out- 
wards, but reversed they are turned inwards, 2-celled, bursting 
lengthwise. Torus elongated into a long cylindrical stipe. 
Ovarium seated on the stipe, ovate, free. Styles 3, rising from 
the same point (f. 6. e. f. 5. d. f. 4. d.), crowned by a stigma 
each, which is somewhat 2-lobed. Fruit naked (f. 7. g.), or 
surrounded by the calyx (f. 8. a.), stalked, 1 -celled, 3-valved, 
having a polyspermous parietal placenta in the middle of each 
valve ; the valves sometimes dry and dehiscing, sometimes fleshy 
and indehiscent. Seeds attached in several rows to the placentas, 
usually clothed with a large pulpy aril, compressed, and gene- 
rally scrobiculate. Embryo straight, in the centre of the fleshy 
thin albumen, having a terete radicle, which is turned towards 
the hyluni ; cotyledons flat and foliaceous. — Herbs or shrubs 
for the most part climbing. Leaves of many forms, alternate. 



stipulate, usually bearing glands on the limb or petiole. Pe- 
duncles axillary, some of which are changed into tendrils from 
abortion, others are simple, and bear 1 flower each, very rarely 
branched and many-flowered ; however, all the peduncles are 
floriferous in the upright species, or those that do not climb : 
always articulated under the flower, and generally furnished 
with a 3-leaved involucrum at the articulation. 

The real nature of the floral envelopes of this remarkable 
order, is a question upon which botanists entertain very different 
opinions, and their ideas of its aflinities are consequently much 
at variance. According to Jussieu (Diet, scien. vol. 38. p. 49.) 
the " parts taken for petals are nothing but inner divisions of 
the calyx, usually in a coloured state, and wantinir in several 
species ;" and therefore, in the judgment of this venerable 
botanist, the order is apetalous, or monochlamydeous. De Can- 
dolle adopts the same view of the nature of the floral envelopes 
as Jussieu ; but he nevertheless considers, we think with pro- 
priety, the order polypetalous. Other botanists consider the 
outer series of the floral envelopes as the calyx, and the inner as 
the corolla; the one is green and the other coloured. The 
nature of the filamentous appendages, or rays as they are called, 
which proceed from the orifice of the tube, and of the membra- 
nous or fleshy, entire or lobed, flat or plaited annular processes, 
which lie between the petals and the stamens, are ambiguous, 
but are prob.ibly abortive stamens. With regard to the affinity 
of Passijlorcce, Jussieu, swayed by the opinion he entertains of 
their being apetalous, and De CandoUe, who partly agrees and 
partly disagrees with Jussieu in his view of their structure, 
both assign the order a place near Cucurhitdcece ; but when we 
consider the stipitate fruit, occasionally valvular, the parietal 
placentas, the sometimes irregular flowers, the stipulate leaves, 
and the climbing habit of these plants, it is not difficult to admit 
their affinity with Cappar'tdcce and V'wlariece, the dilated disk of 
the former of which is probably analogous to the innermost of 
the annular processes of Pass'iflbrcce. 

The plants composing the Passiflorece, are the produce of 
South America and the West Indies, where the woods are filled 
with their species, which climb about from tree to tree, bearing 
at one time flowers of the most striking beauty, and of so sin- 
gular an appearance, that the zealous Catholics who discovered 
them adapted Christian traditions to these inhabitants of the 
South American wildernesses, and at other times fruit tempting 
to the eye and refreshing to the palate. Several are found in 
Africa, and a few in the East Indies, of which the greater part 
belong to the genus Modicca. 

Nothing is known of the properties of this order, further than 
that the succulent fruit and pulp that surround the seeds are 
fragrant, juicy, cooling, and pleasant in several species. 
Synopsis of the genera. 
TlUBE I. 

Paropsie'^e. Petals 5. Ovarium sessile. Upright shrubs 
without tendrils. 

1 Smeatiima'nnia. Ncctarium 1-leaved, urceolate, surround- 
ing the base of the stamens. Stamens indefinite ; anthers in- 
cumbent. Stigmas 5, peltate. Capsule inflated, papery, 4-5-valved. 



46 



PASSIFLOREiE. I. Smeatiimannia. II. Paropsia. III. Passiflora. 



2 Par6psia. Capillary threads simple, disposed in 5 bundles, 
rising from the base of the calyx. Stamens 5 ; anthers erect. 
Capsule bladdery, 3-valved. 

Tribe II. 
Passifl6re.'e-ver«. Calyx 5-sepalled. Petals 5 or wanting. 
Stamens 5, in one species only 4:. Ovarium stalked. Some of the 
pedicels changed into tendrils. Stems generally climbing. 

3 Passiflora. Tube of calyx very short, having the throat 
ornamented with a filamentous crown (f. 4. a.). Berry usually 
pulpy, rarely membranous. 

4 Dise'mma. Tube of calyx short, furrowed below, having 
a double crown in the throat ; the outer crown composed of 
distinct threads, the inner one with the threads joined into an 
entire or toothed membrane. The rest as in Passijlbra. 

5 Tacsonia. Tube of calyx long (f. 7. e.) ; limb 5-lobed. 
Petals 5. Throat of calyx furnished with a scaly membrane. 

6 MuRUCuiA. Tube of calyx furrowed below; crown of 
throat simple, erect, tubular, truncate (f. 5. 6. f. 6. c). Habit 
of Passijlora. 

7 Pascha'ntiius. Flowers polygamous. Calyx tubular ; 
limb 5-cleft. Petals 5, oblong-linear. Stamens 5, free; anthers 
linear, inserted by the base. Capsule subbaccate, 6-seeded. 
Habit of Passijlhra. 

8 Mode'cca. Flowers dioecious. Calyx campanulate ; limb 
5-parted (f. 8. h. a.). Petals 5 (f 8. c). Scales 5-10 (f. 8. c), 
rarely wanting, rising from the calyx. Stamens 5, inserted in 
the torus, monadelphous. Anthers standing. Ovarium on a 
short stipe. Stigmas 3, starry (f. 8. e.). Capsule bladdery. 

9 Deida'mia. Calyx 5-8-parted ; lobes petaloid ; filamen- 
tous crown simple, rising from the outer part of the calyx. 
Stamens the same number as the lobes of the calyx ; filaments 
joined into a column at the base. Styles 3-4, Capsule pedi- 
cellate, 3-4-valved. 

10 Vare'ca. Flowers unknown. Berry 1 -celled ; pulp di- 
vided for the seeds into many partial cells. Placentas 3, parie- 
tal, polyspermous. 

Tribe I. 

PAROPSIE'jE (this tribe contains plants agreeing in impor- 
tant characters with Paropsia). D. C. prod. 3. p. 322. Petals 
5. Ovarium sessile. Upright shrubs without tendrils. Perhaps 
a proper order. 

I. SMEATHMA'NNIA (in honour of Smeathmann, a Ger- 
man, who travelled in many parts of western Africa, and col- 
lected many specimens of plants, ])articularly at Sierra Leone). 
Sol. and Banks, herb, ex Brown, congo. p. 20. Lin. trans. 
vol. 13. p. 220. D. C. prod. 3. p. 322. 

Lin. syst. Polydndria, Polygijnia. Nectarium 1 -leaved, 
urceolate, surrounding the stamens at the base. Stamens nu- 
merous, distinct, seated^on a short column ; anthers incumbent. 
Stigmas 5, peltate. Capsule inflated, 4-5-valved. Seeds 
dotted. — Upright shrubs, with white, showy, axillary flowers. 

1 S. pube'scens (Sol. in herb. Bank, ex R. Br. in Lin. trans, 
vol. 13. p. 221.) branches downy ; leaves oblong-ovate ; top of 
nectarium bearded. T^ • S. Native of Sierra Leone, in the low 
lands. 

Donmy Smeathmannia. Fl. Mar. Shrub 6 to 8 feet. 

2 S. l/eviga'ta (Sol. 1. c. ex R. Br. 1. c.) branches glabrous ; 



leaves oblong, acute at the base, shining ; nectarium cut, beard- 
less, fj . S. Native of Sierra Leone, in the moimtains, where 
we have seen it growing in great plenty, and where it forms 
beautiful upright bushes, loaded with delicate white flowers. 

,S'»;oo?/i Smeathmannia. Fl. March, April. Clt. 1823. Shrub 
6 to 8 feet. 

3 S. me'dia (R. Br. in Lin. trans. 13. p. 221.) branches gla- 
brous ; leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse at the base, glabrous, 
rather opaque. T? . S. Native of Sierra Leone. Flowers white. 

Intermediate Smeathmannia. Shrub 6 to 8 feet. 

Cult. These elegant shrubs grow best in a mixture of loam, 
peat, and sand ; and young cuttings of them strike root freely 
in the same kind of soil under a bell-glass, in heat. 

II. PARO'PSIA (from Trapo\ptQ, paropsis, a dish of meat ; the 
seeds are inclosed in a fleshy arillus, of an agreeable sweet taste, 
much esteemed by the natives of Madagascar, as well as by Eu- 
ropeans). Du Pet. Th. pi. afr. 2. p. 59. 1. 19. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 322. 

Lin. sysT. Monadelphia, Pcntdndria. Capillary threads 
disposed in 5 bundles, in a single series, rising from the base of 
the calyx. Stamens 5, monadelphous a short way at the base ; 
anthers erect. Stigmas 3. Capsule bladdery, 3-valved. 

1 P. EDu^Lis (Du Pet. Th. 1. c). fj . S. Native of Mada- 
gascar. Shrubs 5-6 feet high. Leaves ovate-oblong, deeply 
serrated. Pedicels axillary, in bundles. Aril of seeds edible. 
Flowers white. 

Edible Paropsia. Shrub 5 to 6 feet. 

Cult. For culture and propagation see Smeathmannia. 

Tribe II. 
PASSIFLO'RE^-VER^ (true passion-flowers). Calyx with 
a 5-parted limb. Petals 5 or wanting. Stamens 5 in all, ex- 
cept one plant, which has only 4. Ovarium pedicellate. Some 
of the pedicels changed to tendrils. Stems generally climbing. 

III. PASSIFLO'RA (from passio, passion, and Jlos, a flower; 
resemblance in crown of appendages to the passion of Christ). 
Juss. gen. p. 397. D. C. prod. 3. p. 322.— Granadilla, Tourn. 
inst. t. 123, 124. 

Lin. svst. Monadelphia, Pcntdndria. Tube of calyx very 
short, having the throat ornamented with a multiple filamentous 
crown (f. 4. a.). Berry generally pulpy, rarely somewhat mem- 
branous. 

Sect. I. Astro^phea (from nfrrpoy, astron, a star; starry 
flowers). D. C. mem. soc. gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 435. p. 322. Ten- 
drils none. Involucrum none. Limb of calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5. 
Stems arboreous. Perhaps species of Paropsia. 

1 P. glau'ca (Humb. et 13onpl. pi. equin. 1. t. 22.) arbo- 
reous ; leaves obovate-oblong, glaucous beneath, and bearing 
glands in the axils of the veins ; petioles glandless ; peduncles 
dichotomous, 3-5-flowered. Tj . S. Native of South America, 
on Mount Quindiu. P. amethystina, Mikan. P. arborea, 
Spreng. syst. 3. p. 42. Flowers white. Crown tipped with 
yellow. 

Glaucous Passion-flower. Tree 20 to 30 feet. 

2 P. emargina'ta (Humb. et Bonpl. 1. c. t. 23.) arborescent ; 
leaves obovate-lanceolate, acuminated, or emarginate, pubescent 
beneath, and biglandular at the base ; petioles glandless ; pe- 
duncles dichotomous, 3-5-flowered. ^ . S. Native of Peru, 
on the Andes. Flowers white ? 

Emarginate-haved Passion-flower. Shrub 10 to 16 feet. 

3 P. ova TA (Martin, ined. D. C. prod. 1. c.) arborescent; 
leaves oval, obtuse at both ends, somewhat cuneated at the base, 
glabrous, glandless beneath ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; 
peduncles 2-flowered. fj . S. Native of French Guiana. 

Ot!a/e-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub. 



PASSIFLOREiE. III. Passiflora. 



47 



Sect. II. Polya'nthema (from iroXu, poly, many, and afOoc 
anilios, a flower ; in reference to the peduncles bearing many 
flowers). D. C. mem. soc. gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 435. prod. 3. 
p. 322. Peduncles many-flowered, sometimes twin, with a ten- 
dril in the middle, sometimes solitary and branched, the middle 
endinsj in a tendril. Involucrum wanting or very small. Limb 
of calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5. Stems climbing. 

4 P. ciRuiFLORA (Juss. in ann. mus. 6. t. 41. f. 1.) leaves 
pedate, glabrous ; petiole branched, biglandular above the base ; 
leaflets 7, ovate, with 1 tooth on each side at the base; pedun- 
cles branched, bearing flowers and tendrils. I7 . ,^. S. Native 
of French Guiana, in woods. Form of leaves like those of P, 
])edata. Crown variegated with white, yellow, and red. 

TcndrU-JJonercd Passion-flower. Shridi cl. 

5 P. septena'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 323 ) leaves pedate ; 
petioles branched, glandless ; leaflets oblong, having 1 tooth on 
each side at the base ; tendrils simple, distinct from the pedun- 
cles, fj. ^. S. Native country as well as the flowers unknown. 

S(j)lenate-\evi\eA Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

6 P. iioLosERicEA (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 22C. f. 15.) clothed 
with soft velvety down ; leaves ovate, somewhat 3-lobed, aris- 
tately toothed at the base ; petioles biglandidar. Ij • vj- S. 
Native of Vera Cruz. Sims, bot. mag. t. 2015. Ker. bot. reg. 
t. 59. Flowers white, spotted with red. Rays variegated with 
purple and white. 

/rZ/o/t-iiMi/ Passion-flower. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1733. Sh. cl. 

7 P. SEXFLORA (Juss. 1. c. t. 37. f. 1.) clothed with soft vel- 
vety down ; leaves cordate at the base, very broad, truncate at 
the apex, 3-lobed ; petioles glandless. 1; . o. S. Native of 
St. Domingo and Jamaica. 

Si.x-Jioivered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

8 P. GEMiNiFLoRA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 322.) pubescent; leaves 
cuneated at the base, very broad, truncate, sinuately 3-lobed at 
the apex, glandular beneath and shining above ; petioles gland- 
less. fj . ,^. S. Native of Brazil. 

Tnln-Jion'ered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

9 P. jMoia'cca'na (Reinw. in Blum, bijdr. p. 938.) leaves 
oblong, mucronate, somewhat emarginate at the base, quite 
entire; petioles biglandular; cymes bifid, many-flowered. Ij . 
^. S. Native of the Moluccas. 

Molucca Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

Sect. III. Tetrapa'thea (from rtrpa, tetra, four, and 
iraOor, pathos, passion ; signifying passion-flowers with 4-lobed 
flowers). D. C. in mem. soc. gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 435. prod. 3. 
p. 328. Calyx 4-lobed. Petals wanting. Stamens 4. Invo- 
lucrum wanting or very small. Branches of peduncles 3-flow- 
ered. Tendrils simple, rising from different axils from those of 
the peduncles. 

10 P. tetra'ndra (Banks, herb, ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 323.) 
glabrous ; leaves oval-oblong, acuminated, quite entire, gland- 
less. I; • v^- S. Native of New Zealand. Flowers small, 
greenish. 

Telrandrous Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

Sect. IV. Cie'ca (meaning unknown). Med. malv. p. 97. 
D.C. prod. 3. p. 323.— Asephananthes and Moiiactineirma, Bory. 
ann. gen. 2. p. 138. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals wanting, Invo- 
lucrum wanting or very small. Peduncles 1 -flowered, and sim- 
ple tendrils usually rising from the same axils. 

IIP. pa'llida (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 218. t. 10. f. 2. exclusive 
of the synonymes) leaves glabrous, ovate, acuminated, 3-nerved ; 
petioles biglandular above the middle; pedicels 1-3 together. 
J^ . ,^. S. Native of St. Domingo and I3razil — Plum. amer. 
p. 73. t. 89. Ker. bot. mag. t. 660. Flowers small, yellowish- 
green. 



Prt/e-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. ? Sh. cl. 

12 P. cu'prea (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 219. t. 10. f. 3.) leaves gla- 
brous, ovate, glandular beneath, between the axils ; petioles 
glandless ; pedicels solitary. I7 . y_,. S. Native of the islands 
of Providence and Bahama, Jacq. icon. rar. 3. t. GOG. Flowers 
blood-coloured, an inch and a half in diameter. Berries pur- 
plish. 

C'o^i^jer-coloured-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. July, Aug. 
Clt. 1724. Shrub cl. 

13 P. Cavanille'sii (D. C. prod. 3. p. 323.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate, glandless, ciliated witii stift' hairs ; petioles glandless ; 
pedicels solitary, f; . ^. S. Native of the West India Islands. 
P. ciiprea, Cav. diss. 10. p. 448. t. 273. Flowers pale purple; 
crown copper-coloured, but violaceous at the base. 

Cavanilles's Passion-flower. Clt. 1822. Shrub cl. 

14 P. MULTiFLORA (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 221. t. 10. f. 7.) leaves 
ovate-oblong, entire, clothed with velvety down beneath ; pe- 
tioles very short, biglandidar at the apex ; pedicels numerous in 
the axils of the leaves. Tj . ^. S. Native of St. Domingo, Cav. 
diss. 10. t. 272. There are varieties with the leaves either 
glabrous or downy above. Plum, amer, t. 90. Flowers greenish. 
Style purplish. 

Many-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1731. 
Shrub cl. 

15 P. auricdla'ta (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 
131.) leaves glabrous, ovate, rounded at the base, glandular 
beneath ; petioles auricled by 2 glands beneath the middle ; 
pedicels 1 or 2 together. Ij . ^. S. Native of the banks of the 
Orinoco, in shady places, at the cataract of Maypure. Flowers 
whitish, but the calyx is greenish on the outside. 

.r^!(rjc/ec/-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1820. 
Shrub cl. 

16 P. Nipaule'nsis (Wall. tent. t. 11.) smooth; leaves cor- 
date-acute, quite entire, 5-nerved, glandular beneath and on the 
petioles; peduncles bracteate, aggregate; crown triple, exceed- 
ing the calyx. f2 • w S. Native of Nipaul, on woody hills in 
the great valley. Leaves glaucous, furnished with 2 glands un- 
derneath at the insertion of the nerves, and 2 in the middle of 
the petioles. Peduncles 2-3-flowered. Flowers small, white, 
with a greenish crown. Berry yellow, about the size of a small 
cherry. 

Nipaul Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

17 P. littora'lis (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 138.) leaves beset 
with silky hairs on both surfaces, hastately 3-lobed, and nearly 
entire ; petioles bearing 2 stipitate glands above ; pedicels 2-3 
together. ^t • w ^- Native of Peru, on the sea-shore near 
Patibilca, and in the valley of Lima. Flowers with a green 
calyx. 

Sea-shore Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

18 P. glabra ta (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 135.) leaves gla- 
brous, shining, glandular beneath, half orbicular, truncately 2- 
lobed ; lobes very short, spreading ; petioles glandless ; pedicels 
solitary, or twin. Ij . ^. S. Native of New Granada, near 
Turbaco. Related to Murucujaaccellata. Flowers small, white; 
crown yellow. 

Smooth Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

19 P. pube'scens (H. B. et Kunth, I.e. p. 132.) leaves semi- 
orbicular at the base, lunately 2-lobed ; lobes ovate-oblong, 
acute, divaricate, with an awn in the recess between the lobes, 
and are as well as the petioles downy and glandless ; pedicels 
solitary. h . ^. S. Native of South America, in shady places 
of the" province of Caraccas. P. Lockhartii, G. Don, in Loud, 
hort. brit. p. 2G9. Flowers small, greenish white. 

Dmvny Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

20 P. bilobaVa (Juss. ann. mus. G. p. 107. t. 37. f. 2.) leaves 
smooth, 2-lobed, rounded at the base, 3-nerved, glandless ; lobes 



48 



PASSIFLORE^. III. Passiflora. 



obtuse, emarginate, rather diverging ; petioles short, glandless ; 
pedicels twin. Pj . ^. S. Native of St. Domingo. Tacsonia 
bilobata, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 44. Flowers very small, greenish ? 
Tmo-lobedAeaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

21 P. Mexicana (Juss. I.e. p. 108. t. 38. f. 2.) leaves gla- 
brous, 2-lobed, rounded at the base, 3-nerved ; lobes oblong, 
diver<Tinn- a little, glabrous beneath ; petioles short, glandless ; 
pedicels twin, fj . ^. S. Native of Mexico, about Acapulco. 
Flowers small, whitish. 

Mexican Passion-flower. Clt. 1820. Shrub cl. 

22 P. Dicta'mo (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 324.) leaves glabrous, 2-lobed, somewhat emarginate 
at the base, 3-nerved, glandless beneath ; lobes oblong, divari- 
cate ; petioles glandless ; pedicels twin. h ■ ^- ^- Native of 
New Spain, where it is called Dictamo. 

Dictamu Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

23 P. norma'lis (Lin. amocn. 5. p. 408.) leaves glabrous, 3- 
nerved at the base, somewhat cordate, glandular beneath, some- 
what 3-lobed ; middle lobe small, lateral ones so much divaricate 
as to form a straight angle ; petioles very short, glandless. 

Tj . ^. S. Native of Jamaica. Brown, jam. p. 328. Flowers 
small, pale coloured. Fruit purple, downy. 

AWmn/ Passion-flower. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1771. Sh. cl. 

24 P. BAUiiiNiroLiA (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 132.) leaves 
downy beneath, and rather glandular, elliptic, rounded at the 
base, 2-lobed at the apex ; lobes obtuse ; petioles glandless, 
downy ; pedicels solitary or twin, downy. V^ .^.S. Native of 
Quito, in temperate places. Flowers small, whitish. 

Bauhinia-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

25 P. TRisETosA (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 324.) leaves glabrous, glandular beneath, ovate, 3- 
nerved, equally 3-lobed at the apex ; lobes mucronated by a 
bristle each ; petioles glandless ; pedicels twin. Tj . ,j. S. Na- 
tive of Mexico. 

r/irec-ftWi/to/ Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

26 P. Mi'sERA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 136.) 
leaves glabrous, reticulately 3-nerved, cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes 
obtuse, emarginate, and are, as well as the petioles, glandless ; 
pedicels solitary. Fj . ^. S. Native of South America, between 
Turbaco and Carthagena, in very hot places. Flowers small, 
with a greenish calyx, and violaceous crown. 

Miserable Passion-flower, Shrub cl. 

27 P. coriaVea (Juss. in ann. mus. G. p. 109. t. 39. f. 2.) 
leaves smooth, coriaceous, glandular beneath, peltate, 3-lobed ; 
middle lobe obtuse : lateral ones acuminated, 2-nerved ; petioles 
biglandular in the middle ; pedicels twin. Tj . ,^. S. Native 
of South America, near Honda ; and perhaps also in Mexico, 
according to icon. fl. mex. ined. Flowers small, greenish. 

Coriaceous-\esi\eil Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

28 P. DiFFORMis (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 136.) leaves gla- 
brous, coriaceous, glandular beneath, peltate, somewhat 3-lobed, 
transversely lanceolate ; petioles biglandular in the middle ; pe- 
dicels solitary? H . ^. S. Native of New Granada, in tem- 
perate places on the Andes. Allied to P. coriacea. Perhaps 
the same as the figure in Hern. mex. p. 435. upper figure. 
Flowers with a greenish calyx, and violaceous crown tipped with 
yellow. 

Deformed Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

29 P. ANGUsTiFoi.iA (Swartz, prod. p. 97.) leaves glabrous, 
glandless, somewhat peltate : lower ones ovate, the rest lanceo- 
late, 2 or 3-lobed ; petioles short, biglandular above the middle ; 
pedicels solitary or twin. Ij . ,^. S. Native of the Caribbee 
Islands. Ker, hot. reg. t. 180. P. hcterophy'lla, Jacq. hort. 
schoenbr. t. 181. Cieca heterophy'lla, Mocnch. P. longifolia. 
Lam. diet. 3. p. 40. Flowers yellowish, with the rays purple at 
the base. 



Narrow-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1773. 
Shrub cl. 

30 P. macula'ta (Scan. cat. hort. bon. and Coll. hort. rip. p. 
101.) leaves glabi-ous, deeply 3-lobed, jiainted with white on the 
upper surface ; lobes nearly equal, oblong, acute : upper ones 
bluntly trifid , intermediate one rather larger than the others ; 
petioles glandless ; pedicels solitary or twin, rather pilose. Ij . 
^. S. Native of Curassoa. Pluk. t. 210. f. 3. Perhaps the 
same as P. minima of Lin. Flowers greenish. 

6';)o»e(/-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1820. 
Shrub cl. 

31 P. gra'cilis (Link, enum. hort. berol. 2. p. 182.) leaves 
subcordate, glabrous, 3-lobed ; lobes roundish, beset with 2-4 
glands ; petioles biglandular ; peduncles axillary, solitary ; fruit 
egg-shaped. \} . ^.S. Native country unknown. Lindl. bot. 
reg. t. 870. Flowers whitish. Rays blue and white. 

Slender Passion-flower. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1823. Shrub cl. 

32 P. LUIEA (Lin. amcen. 1. p. 224^. t. 10. f. 13.) leaves 
almost glabrous, cordate, trifid ; lobes ovate, mucronate by a 
bristle, and are, as well as the petioles, glandless ; pedicels twin. 
1/ . ^. H. Native of Virginia and Florida, and of the West 
Indies. Jacq. icon. rar. 3. t. 607. Ker. bot. reg. t. 79. Flowers 
pale yellow. 

rc'//on'-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1714. 
Slirub cl. 

33 P. MINIMA (Jacq. hort. vind. t. 20.) leaves glabrous, gland- 
less, 5-nerved, trifid : lobes ovate, middle one drawn out most ; 
petioles biglandular at the apex ; pedicels twin. h^ . ^. S. 
Native of South America. Sowerby in Lin. trans. 2. p. 27. t. 
5. f. 6. Ker, bot. reg. t. 144. P. hederacea, Lam. Flowers 
greenish yellow, with white rays. Nectaiium fourfold, inner one 
with an entire brown rim, the outer plaited, of a dusky purple 
colour, the other ciliated, with capillary black hairs, with yellow 
tips ; outmost one having the filamentous appendages twice as 
long as the others, dark purple at the base, and yellow from the 
m ddle to the tip. 

/.ea.v/ Passion-flower. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1690. Shrub cl. 

34 P. hirsu'ta (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 227. t. 10. f. iC. exclusive 
of the synonymes of Hern, and Pluk.) leaves rather hairy be- 
neath, glandless, somewhat 5-nerved, 3 cleft; lobes ovate, mid- 
dle one much the largest ; petiole biglandular above the middle ; 
pedicels twin. h . ^. S. Native of the West Indies. Plum, 
amer. t. 88. A.-B. P. parvifolia, Swartz, prod. p. 97. Flowers 
whitish. 

Hairy Passion-flower. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1778. Shrub cl. 

35 P. suBEROSA (Lin. 1. c. p. 226. t. 10. f. 14.) leaves gla- 
brous, somewhat ciliated, 5-nerved at the base, ovate, some- 
what cordate, usually 3-lobed ; lobes ovate, acute : middle one 
larger than the rest ; petioles biglandular above the middle ; 
pedicels twin. Ij . ,^. S. Native of the West Indies and South 
America. Smith, exot. bot. 1. t. 28. Plum. amer. t. 84. Jacq. 
schoenbr. 2. t. 163. Flowers of a greenish yellow-colour; 
crown purple at the bottom. Fruit purple when ripe. 

Cork-barked Passion-flower. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1759. 
Shrub cl. 

36 P. PELTA^TA (Cav. diss. 10. p. 447. t. 275.) leaves pubes- 
cent above, glandless, 3-nerved, rather peltate, 3-lobed beyond 
the middle ; lobes lanceolate, divaricated ; petioles biglandular 
in the middle ; pedicels solitary. Tj . j^. S. Native of the An- 
tilles, in hedges, as well as in Virginia. Ker. bot. reg. 505. 
— Plum. amer. t. 85. Flowers greenish. 

Pt'//a/e-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 177 8. 
Shrub cl. 

37 P. HEDERA^CEA (Cav. 1. c. p. 448.) leaves somewhat pu- 
berulous, glandless, 3-nerved, trifid : lobes ovate, obtuse ; pe- 
tioles biglandular in the middle ; pedicels solitary. ^ . ^. S. 



PASSIFLOREiE. III. Passiflora. 



4!) 



Native of the Antilles, in lictlges. Pliira. amev. t. S4. Flowers 
whitish ? 

Ivy-like Passion-flower. Fl. June, Aug. Shrub cl. 

38 P. PANNOSA (Smith in Rees* cycl. no. 28.) leaves clothed 
with velvety hairs on both surfaces, glancUess, corilate, unequally 
3 -lohed, rarely ^-lobed ; lobes obtuse ; petioles velvety ; pedi- 
cels bearing 3 bracteoles each. Tj . ^. S. Native of the West 
Indies. Allied to P. rubra. Flowers small, greenish. 

C/o//i-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

39 P. Berteria^a (Balb. in litt. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 325.) 
leaves glabrous, glandless, divided into 3 parts even to the base ; 
leaflets petiolate, trifid, attenuated at the base, and very blunt 
at the apex ; pedicels solitary or twin. ^2 • w S- Native of St. 
Domingo. 

Berlero'.f Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

Sect. V. Deca'loba (from ceKa, deka, ten, and \o/3oc, lohos, 
a lobe ; in reference to the 10 calycine lobes). D. C. mem. soc. 
gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 435. prod. 3. p. 325. — Passiflora, Dory, ann. 
gen. 2. p. 138. Calyx 10-lobed, the 5 inner are probably pe- 
tals. Involucrum wanting or very small, and distant from the 
flower. Peduncles 1 -flowered, rising from the same axils as the 
simple tendrils. 

40 P. perfolia'ta (Lin. I.e. p. 222. t. 10. f. 8.) leaves gla- 
brous, cordate at the base, glandular beneath, somewhat 3- 
lobed : middle lobe very short ; petiole glandless, very short ; 
pedicels solitary or twin, rather downy. I; . ^. S. Native of 
Jamaica, in hedges on the mountains. Ker. bot. reg. t. 78. 
Murucuja perfoliata, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 43. — Sloan, jam. 1. p. 
230. t. 142. f. 3, 4. Flowers crimson or scarlet; rays fleshy, 
green, with blunt scarlet tips. 

Pfr/"o//a<e-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1800. 
Shrub el. 

41 P. ru'bra (Lin. amoen. I. p. 222. t. 10. f. 9.) leaves vel- 
vety, cordate at the base, 2-lobed, with an awn in the recess be- 
tween the lobes, glandless beneath, and on the petioles ; pedicels 
solitary; ovarium hairy, subglobose. T^.^^, S. Native of the 
West Indies and the adjacent continent. Plum. amcr. t. 83. 
Ker. bot. reg. t. 95. Stem reddish, hairy. Flowers of a greenish 
yellow colour ; crown red. Berry red. 

Red-hexxied Passion-flower, Fl. April, Sept. Clt. 1831. 
Shrub cl. 

42 P. capsula^ris (Lin. 1. c. \). 234.) leaves downy, cordate 
at the base, 2-lobed, with an awn in the recess between the lobes, 
and are, as well as the petioles, glandless : pedicels solitary ; 
ovarium elliptic-oblong, and is, as well as the fruit, acutely 
hexagonal, glabrous. T^ . ^. S. Native of the West Indies. 
Plum. icon. amer. t. 138. f 2. The flowers are reddish accord- 
ing to Plumier, but according to other authors they are whitish. 
Fruit small, purple when ripe. 

1 ar. ft, aciitiluha (D. C. prod. 3. p. 325.) leaves deeply 2- 
lobeil, hardly pubescent above, painted with white. ^J . v^. S 
Native of Brazil. 

far. y, geminifblia (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, hardly cor- 
date at the base ; branches triangular ; pedicels twin. Jj . ^. S. 
Native of Jamaica. P. capsularis, Smith in Rees' cycl. no. 22. 

C'n;wi(/ar Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1820. Shrub cl. 

43 P. BiFLORA (Lam. diet. 1. no. 36.) leaves glabrous, glan- 
dular beneath, cordate at the base, 3-nerved, truncate, some- 
what 2 or 3-lobed ; petioles short, glandless; pedicels twin, fj . 
^. S. Native of the West India Islands, and South America, 
P. lunata, Smith, icon. pict. t. 1. Ker, bot. reg. 577- P. Ves- 
pertilio, Lawr. pass. t. 8. Flowers white ; rays of crown yel- 
low. The Mexican plant differs in the leaves being roundly 
cuneated at the base, not cordate, and in the lobes being less 
divaricate. 

VOL. III. 



7'n'0-/onwcd Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1800. Sh. cl. 

44 P. Lesciienau'ltii (D. C. prod. 3. p. 320.) leaves semi- 
orbicular at the base, somewhat truncate at the apex, tricuspi- 
date, pubescent on the nerves beneath, glandless ; petioles bi- 
glandular in the middle; peduncles twin, 1 -flowered. Ij . ,^. S. 
Native of the East Indies, among the Neelgherry Mountains, 
where it is called by the inhabitants corai/niim/iou. Bryonia tri- 
cuspidita, Lesch. herb. Flowers unknown. 

Lesclieiiaull's Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

45 P. Andersonii (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, glandular 
beneath, cuneately-rounded at the base, 3-nerved, truncate at 
the apex, sublunate ; petioles long, glandless; pedicels twin, 
hardly longer than the petioles. fj . ^. S. Native of the Island 
of St. Lucia. Flowers party-coloured. 

v^«f/c/-i()»'4' Passion-flower. Fl. July, Oct. Clt. 1823. Sh. cl. 

4C P. RoHKii (D. C. 1. c.) leaves nearly glabrous, ovate, 
somewhat truncate at the base, 3-nerved, blunt and somewhat 
3-lobed at the apex ; petioles biglandular, rather velvety ; pedi- 
cels solitary. I7 . ^. S. Native of Cayenne. 

Rohr's Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

47 P. PENDULIFLORA (Bert, in herb. Balb. ex D. C. 1. c.) 
leaves glabrous, roundly obovate, 3-nerved, glandular beneath ; 
nerves extending beyond the border of the leaf; petioles gland- 
less ; peduncles solitary or twin, much longer than the petioles, 
pendulous, bracteolate beneath the middle. Ij . ,^. S. Native 
of Jamaica, on the mountains. Flowers pale : threads of crown 
few and glandular. 

Penduluus-JIoivered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

48 P. hejiicy'cla (Meyer, prim, esseq. p. 225.) leaves gla- 
brous, glaucous and glandular beneath, 3-nerved at the base, 
semicircular, somewhat 3-lobed at the apex ; petioles pubescent, 
glandless ; pedicels twin, shorter than the petioles. ^ ■ ^. S. 
Native of Guiana, about Essequibo ; and of Trinidad. Flowers 
white. 

//a^-c(Vc«te)--leaved Passion-flower. Clt. 1817. Shrub cl. 

49 P. vespertIlio (Lin. amcen. l.p. 223. t. 10. f. 11.) leaves 
glabrous, glandular beneath, 1 -nerved, cuneated at the base, 
divaricately 2-lobed, rarely somewhat 3-lobed ; petioles very 
short, glandless ; pedicels solitary. }^ . ^. S. Native of .South 
America — Dill. hort. elth. t. 137. f. 164. Flowers white, 
small. 

Bat-7v'tng-\eaved Passion-flower. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1732. 
Shrub cl. 

50 P. RETu'sA (Hook, et Arnott, in bot. misc. 3. p. 235.) 
leaves smoothish, biglandular beneath, cuneated at the base, or 
rounded, 3-nerved, 3-lobed ; lobes mucronulate, middle one 
truncate, lateral ones divaricate, prolonged ; petioles glandless ; 
peduncles solitary, exceeding the petioles. I; . ^. S. Native 
of Brazil, on the banks of the Uraguay ; and at Santa Borga. 
Closely allied to P. vespertUio. 

7?e<M5e-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

51 P. Maximilia'na (Eory, ann. gen. 1819. vol. 2. p. 149. 
t. 24.) leaves glabrous, divaricately 2-lobed, drawn out a little 
in the middle, somewhat cordate at the base, red and biglan- 
dular beneath ; petioles glandless ; pedicels solitary or twin, 
longer than the petioles. Ij . ^. S. Native of Brazil. P. dis- 
color. Link et Otto, abh. 1. p. 13. t. 5. Lodd. bot. cab. t. 565. 
P. vcs|)ertilio, Ker, bot. reg. t. 597. This plant differs from P. 
vesperlilio in the leaves being cordate at the base, not cuneated, 
blood-coloured beneath ; and in the pedicels being three or four 
times longer. Flowers greenish ; crown white. 

Prince Maximiliatis Passion-flower. Fl. May, June. Clt. 
1800. Shrub cl. 

52 P. Joruile'nsis (II. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amcr. 2. p. 
133.) leaves glabrous, glandular beneath, semiorbicular at the 
base, 3-nerved, truncate at the apex, 2-lobed ; petioles puberu- 

H 



50 



PASSIFLORE^. III. Passiflora. 



lous and glandless ; pedicels twin. ^ . ^. S. Native of Mexico, 
on the burning Mount Jorullo. Flowers greenish ? 
Jurullo Passion-flower. Shrub el. 

53 P. sicYoiDES (Schlecht. et Cham, in Linnsea. vol. 5. p. 
88.) leaves cordate, 3-lobed, sharply subdentate or quite entire, 
"laucous beneath, hairy, biglandular in the recesses, sniooth- 
ish above ; lobes triangularly acuminated, middle lobe the 
longest ; petioles hairy, biglandular in the middle ; glands large, 
clavate; stipulas half ovate, cuspidately acuminated ; peduncles 
twin ; bracteas filiform, small, approximating the flower. Pj . v^. S. 
Native of Mexico, in woods near Jalapa. Flowers pale. Habit 
oi Brijonia. 

Sicyos-like Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

54 P. oblonga'ta (Swartz, prod. p. 97.) leaves glabrous, 
glandular beneath, oblong, rounded at the base, 3-nerved, 3- 
lobed at the apex ; petioles glandless ; pedicels solitary. Vi . ^. 
S. Native of Jamaica, among bushes. P. elongiita, Poir. suppl. 
2. p. 839. 

OhlorigAeaved Passion-flower. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1816. 
Shrub cl. 

55 P. LYRXFOLiA (Tuss. ant. t. 4.) leaves glabrous, glandular 
beneath, ovate at the base, 3-nerved, 3-lobed at the apex ; lobes 
straight, acuminated, middle lobe small ; petioles glandless ; pe- 
dicels solitary or twin. T; . ^. S. Native of Jamaica, on Mount 
St. George. Probably sufficiently distinct from the preceding 
and following species. 

Lyre-leaved Passion-^ower. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1816. Sh. cl. 

56 P. TUBEROSA (Jacq. hort. scha-nbr. t. 496.) leaves gla- 
brous, glandular beneath, rounded at the base, 3-nerved, 3- 
lobed at the apex ; lobes oblong, acute, middle lobe very small ; 
petioles glandless ; pedicels twin ; branches of root tuberous. 

fj . ^. S. Native of South America. Ker, hot. reg. t. 432. 
P. punctata, Lodd. bot. cab. t. 110. Lower leaves usually 
painted with wliite on the upper surface. Flowers greenish 
white ; outer crown green at the base, tipped with purple and 
white. Style purple. 

Tuberous-TOOted Passion-flower. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1810. 
Shrub cl. 

57 P. ROTUNDIFOLIA (Lin. 1. c. p. 235.) leaves rather glandu- 
lar, velvety beneath, nearly orbicular, 3-nerved, 3-lobed ; pe- 
tioles glandless ; pedicels twin ; berries globose, hairy. 1; . ^. 
S. Native of the Antilles. Plum. icon. amer. t. 138. f. 1. 
Cav. diss. t. 290. Flowers whitish. 

I'ar. ft, Jacquhii (D. C. 1. e.) leaves glabrous beneath ; pedi- 
cels solitary ; leaflets of involucruni ovate. Ij • w S. Native 
of Carthagena, in the woods. P. rotundifolia, Jacq. obs. t. 46. 
f. 1. Petals whitish ; rays of crown yellow. 

Far. y, Sivdrtzii (D. C. prod. 3. p. 327.) leaves glabrous be- 
neath ; berry ovate, glabrous. V^ . ^. S. Native of the south 
of Jamaica. P. rotundifolia, Swartz, obs. p. 337. Flower.? 
greenish. 

Round-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1779. 
Shrub cl. 

58 P. ALNiFOLiA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 136.) 
leaves puberulous beneath, glandular, ovate, roundly truncate at 
the base, 3-nerved, roundly 3-lobed at the apex ; middle lobe 
emarginate ; petioles glandless, and are, as well as the pedicels, 
downy, and twin ; berries spherical, glabrous, (j . ^. S. Na- 
tive of South America, on Mount Quindiu, at the river Cuello. 
Flowers large. 

Alder-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

59 P. obscu'ra ; leaves 3-lobed, somewhat cordate, truncate, 
velvety : lateral lobes divaricate : intermediate one obsolete, 
emarginate ; petals emarginate, shorter than the calyx ; tube of 
calyx rotate, depressed; inner crown pubescent, plicate, lying on 
the base of the stipe, in the disc, outer crown radiate ; ovarium vil- 



lous. J; . ^. S. Native of the north-eastern coast of South America, 
but in what place we gathered it is now forgotten. Flowers 
small, pale green, with a downy pedicel : the inner crown is 
downy and purple : the outer crown has its lower half purple, 
and its upper white. This species seems to come nearest to P. 
alnifolia of Bonpland. 

Obscure Passion-flower. Fl. Aug. Nov. Clt. 1823. Sh. cl. 

CO P. mo'llis (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 137.) leaves canes- 
cent beneath, glandular, ovate-cordate at the base, 3-nerved, 3- 
lobed at the apex : lateral lobes very small ; petioles glandless, 
and are, as well as the pedicels, pubescent ; pedicels twin ; ber- 
ries globose, puberulous. Tj . ^. S. Native of South America, 
on Mount Quindiu. Flowers not seen. 

Soft Passion- flower. Shrub cl. 

61 P. puncta'ta (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 224. t. 10. f. 12.) leaves 
glabrous, transversely oval, glandular beneath, 3-nerved at the 
base, and emarginately cordate, very bluntly 3-lobed at the apex ; 
petioles glandless ; pedicels solitary, longer than the petioles. 

Pj . ^. G. Nativeof Peru. Feuill. per. 2. t. 11. Flowers with 
whitish petals : and violet rays, tipped with yellow. 
Z)o»e(/-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

62 P. BRYONioiDES (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 140.) leaves his- 
pid, cordate at the base, 5-nerved, palmately 5-lobed, sharply- 
toothed ; petioles biglandular at the apex, hairy ; pedicels hairy, 
twin ; berries elliptic, glabrous. T^ . ^. S. Native of Mexico, 
near Santa Rosa. Flowers greenish. 

Bryony-Uke Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

Sect. VL Granadilla {Granadilla or Granadille is the French 
name of some Passion-flowers, so called from the resemblance of 
the fruit, in size and colour, to a pomegranate, with this differ- 
ence, that it is not crowned by the calyx). D. C. in mem. soc. 
gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 435. prod. 3. p. 327. — Anthactinia, Bory, ann. 
gen. 2. p. 138. Involucrum 3-leaved under the flower ; leaflets 
entire or toothed, never jagged. Calyx 10-lobed ; the 5 inner 
lobes are probably petals. Pedicels 1 -flowered, rising from the 
same axils as the tendrils, which are simple. 

* Leaves entire. 

63 P. serratifolia (Lin. amcen. 1. p. 217. t. 10. f. 1.) 
leaves pubescent beneath, ovate-lanceolate, acute, serrulated, 
feather-nerved ; petioles bearing 4 glands, and are, as well as 
the pedicels, pubescent. \ . ^.S. Native of South America. 
Cav. diss. t. 279. Sims, bot. mag. t. 651. Jacq. hort. schoenb. 
1. p. 4. t. 10. Mart. dec. 4. t. 36. Flowers with purple petals, 
and the filaments of the crown pale purple at the base, and 
from thence bluish. 

(Sam-Zcaucrf Passion-flower. Fl. May, Oct. Clt. 1731. Sh. cl. 

64 P. ni'tida (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 130.) leaves glabrous, 
oblong-elliptic, acuminated, serrulated, feather-nerved ; petioles 
biglandular. ^■> . ^. S. Native in woods about the Orinoco. 
Very nearly allied to the preceding species. Flowers about the 
size of those of P. cccrulea, with a reddish calyx : crown with 
blue filaments, ringed with white. 

Sh'»ut)g-\evi\eA Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

65 P. GUAzuMiEFOLiA (Juss. auu. mus. 6. t. 39. f. 1.) leaves 
glabrous, ovate-oblong, acuminated, denticulated ; petioles bi- 
glandular ; crown one-half shorter than the calycine lobes. \ . 
^. S. Native of New Granada, in very hot places. Flowers 
large, with a whitish calyx. 

Guazuma-lcaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

66 P. cocci'nea (Aubl. guian. 2. t. S24.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate, coarsely toothed, acutish ; petioles bearing 4-6 glands ; 
bracteas ovate, subserrated, velvety. Tj . ,^. S. Native of 
Guiana, where it is also cultivated ; and Maranham, in Brazil. 
Cav. diss. t. 280. F'lowers scarlet, with orange-coloured rays. 
Fruit full of juicy sweet edible pulp. 



PASSIFLORE/E. III. Passifloha. 



51 



i'r(7)7<7-flowered Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. June, Nov. 
Clt. 1820. Shrub cl. 

67 P. vetuti'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 327.) young leaves pu- 
bescent, at lenjitli plahrous, cordate, acutisli, sinuately lobcd, 
serrated ; petioles biglandular ; bracteas f^landularly serrated. 

I; . ^. S. Native of Brazil. Allied to P. cocc'tnca. Flowers 
perhaps red or scarlet. 

1'elvety Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

68 P. GLANDiLosA (Cav. diss. t. 2S1.) leaves glabrous, ovate, 
coarsely toothed, acutish ; petioles bifjlandular ; bracteas entire, 
biglandular at the base. ?j . ,^. S. Native of Cayenne. Tac- 
s6nia glandulosa, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 43. Fruit the size of a 
hen's egg. 

Glandular Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

69 P. mucrona'ta (Lam. diet. 3. p. 33.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate-cordate, obtuse, entire ; petioles biglandular ; stipulas 
broad-ovate, awned ; bracteas oblong, serrate-crenated. I'^ .^. S. 
Native of Brazil, at Rio Janeiro. Cav. diss. t. 282. 

7lA«c)0/ia(e-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1820. 
Shrub cl. 

70 P. malifo'rmis (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 220. t. 10. f. 5.) leaves 
glabrous, ovate, somewhat cordate at the base, acuminated, en- 
tire ; petioles biglandular ; bracteas ovate, acute, joined at the 
base, larger than the flower. ^2 • w S. Native of St. Do- 
mingo, Porto-Rico, &c. Plum. icon. amer. t. 82. Ker, hot. reg. 
t. 94. Leaves long and broad. Flowers large, sweet-scented, 
and beautiful, of various shades ; the petals white, and the rays 
blue ; the outer divisions of flowers are red. This species is 
called the apple-fruited Granadilla or sweet calabash. The 
fruit round, smootli, about 2 inches in diameter, of a dingy yel- 
low-colour when ripe ; the coat is hard and stringy, nearly a 
quarterof an inch in thickness, full of very agreeable gelatinous 
pale yellow pulp, which is eaten with wine and sugar. 

Ajyple-formed-hmleA Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. July, 
Nov. Clt. 1731. Shrub cl. 

71 P. TiLLEFOLiA (Lin. amcen. 
1. p. 21!). t. 10. f. 4.) leaves gla- 
brous, cordate, entire, acute ; pe- 
tioles glandless ; stipulas and 
bracteas entire, oval, acuminated. 

f; . ^. G. Native of Peru. Feuil. 
per. 2. t. 12. Flowers red; rays 
crimson, with a wliite line. Fruit 
globose, variegated with red and 
yellow, containing a sweet watery 
pulp. (f. 4.) 

Lime - tree • leaved Passion- 
flower or Granadilla. Fl. June. 
Clt. 1823. Shrub cl. 

72 P. SEKRATISTirULA (MoC. 

et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 328.) leaves 
glabrous, cordate, acute, entire; 
petioles bearing 4 glands; stipulas and bracteas ovate, acute, 
serrated. Ij . ^. S. Native of Mexico. Fruit edible. 
Serrate-stipuled Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

73 P. ligula'ris (Juss. ann. mus. 6. t. 40.) leaves glabrous, 
cordate, acuminated, entire; petioles bearing 4-6 cylindrical 
glands; stipulas ovate-lanceolate, acuminated; bracteas ovate, 
entire. f^ . ^. S. Native of Peru. Flowers party-coloured. 

Var. ft, geminijlura (D. C. prod. 3. p. 328.) pedicels twin. 
Native of Caraccas. 

/,)^ii/nr-stipuled Passion-flower. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1819. Sh. cl. 

74 P. quadrangula'ris (Lin. spec. 1356.) leaves glabrous, 
cordate at the base, ovate, acuminated ; petioles bearing 4-6 
glands ; stipulas ovate, and are, as well as the bracteas, entire ; 



4 



FIG. 4. 



/^ij?S^:i^A 



^ 
^ 




branches tctragonally winged. Jj . ^. S. Nativeof Jamaica and 
South America. Ker, hot. reg. t. 14. — Jacq. amer. t. 143. pict. 
218. Flowers highly odoriferous ; calycine lobes white within ; 
petals of the same shape, red within, and white outside. Crown 
5-fold ; outer rays in a double row, longer than the petals, 
round, white, and variegated with violet. The common grana- 
dilla or gronadilla vine bears large fruit, of an olilong shape, 
about 6 inches in diameter, and 15 inches in circumference. It 
is externally of a greenish yellow, when ripe soft and leathery 
to the touch, and quite smooth ; the rind is very thick, and con- 
tains a succulent pulp of a purple colour, which is the edible 
part. Wine and sugar are commonly added to it. The flavour 
is sweet and slightly acid, and is very grateful to the taste, and 
cooling in a hot climate. It has been successfully cultivated for 
its fruit in a few places in this country. 

far. ft, sulcata (D. C. prod. 3. p. 328.) fruit furrowed trans- 
versely. 

Cultivation of Granadilla (P. quadrangularis). Mr. Mitchc- 
son keeps a plant in a box 18 inches square, fixed on a level 
with the curb in one corner of a tan-pit. The sides of the box 
are perforated, to admit the roots to run among the tan, and the 
shoots are trained like vines, under the rafters. In autunui the 
shoots are pruned back to within two or three eyes of the 
old wood ; and in March following, or just before the plant 
begins to break, it is taken out of the box, the root and ball 
reduced, and repotted in fresh compost. Abundance of water 
in the flowering season enables the plant to set its fruit without 
artificial impregnation. A strong plant will produce 40 fruits in 
a season in regular succession, from the end of June till Christ- 
mas. Half that number will grow to a larger size. Gard. mag. 
2. p. 203. The Pass, laurijolia and Pass, cdulis may be culti- 
vated in the same way for their fruit. 

Quadrangular-stcmmcA Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. 
Aug. Sept. Clt. 1768. Shrub cl. 

75 P. Mauritia'na (Pet. Th. ann. mus. 6. p. 65.) leaves 
glabrous, cordate at the base, ovate, acuminated ; petioles bear- 
ing 4-6 glands ; bracteas lanceolate, acuminated, denticulated. 
\ • yy S- Native of the Mauritius. 

Mauritian Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

76 P. .\la"ta (Ait. hort. kew. 3. p. 306.) leaves glabrous, 
somewhat cordate, ovate, acute ; petioles bearing 4 glands ; sti- 
pulas lanceolately falcate, somewhat serrated ; pedicels terete ; 
branches tetragonally winged ; bracteas a little toothed. 1^ . ^. S. 
Native of Peru. Sims, bot. mag. t. 66. Sowerby in Lin. trans. 
2. p. 23. t. 3. f. 6. Flowers very sweet-scented, the upper side 
of the calyx and petals deep crimson ; rays variegated with 
purple, white, and crimson. 

/rmg-crf-stemmed Passion-flower. Fl. April, Aug. Clt. 1772. 
Shrub cl. 

77 P. latifolia (D. C. prod. 3. p. 328.) leaves glabrous, 
broadly cordate, acuminated ; lateral nerves approximate at the 
middle of the base ; petioles glandular ; stipulas and bracteas 
oval-oblong, entire ; branches terete. ^ . ^. S. Native of Peru. 
Flowers pale red. 

Broad-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

78 P. a'lbida (Ker, bot. reg. 677.) leaves glabrous, roundish- 
cordate, entire ; petioles biglandular in the middle ; stipulas 
ovate-lanceolate, setosely apiculated ; bi"icteas approximating 
the flowers, soon falling off; pedicels twice the length of the 
leaves. Ij . ^. S. Native of Brazil, near Rio Janeiro. Flowers 
white, not pale red as in the preceding. Column inclined. Sta- 
mens secund. Crown yellowish. 

nV/i/f's/i-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. Aug, Sept. Clt. 1816. 
Shrub cl. 

79 P. ORNA TA (H. B. ct Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 129.) 
leaves glabrous, ovate-elliptic, acute, crenulatcd ; petioles bi- 



52 



PASSIFLOREyE. III. Passifloka. 



glandular ; axils glandular ; bracteas ovate, large, entire. Tj . 
^. S. Native of New Granada, in temperate places. Flowers 
whitish, with blue rays mingled with white. 
Plumed Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

80 P. lo'ngipes (Juss. ann. mus. 6. t. 33. f. 1.) leaves gla- 
brous, oval-lanceolate, somewhat cordate at the base, entire ; 
petioles bij;landular at the apex ; stipulas and bracteas lanceo- 
late ; pedicels twice the length of the leaves. Tj . ^. S. Native 
of New Granada, on Mount Quindiu. Flowers about the size of 
those ot P. ccerulea, pale red. 

Long-stalked Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

81 P. LAuniFOLiA (Lin. 1. c. p. 220. t. 10. f. 6.) leaves gla- 
brous, ovate, oblong, entire ; petioles biglandular at the apex; 
stipulas setaceous, length of petioles ; bracteas obovate, glandu- 
larly serrated at the apex. ^ ■ ^- S. Native of the West 
India Islands and South America. Plum. amer. t. 80. Ker, bot. 
reg. t. 13. Jacq. hort, schoenbr. 2. t. 162. amer. pict. 2. t. 219. 
Sowerby in Lin. trans. 2. t. 4. f. c. Marquiaas, Merian. sur, t. 
21. The French call it jwrnme de liane, and the English honey- 
suckle: but in most parts of South America the fruit is known 
by tlie name oi nuirucuja or granad'illa ; for which the plant is 
cultivated almost throughout South America, the fruit being 
agreeable to most palates. The P. laiirifolia is called also 
nater-lemcn. The flowers are red and violet and sweet-scented ; 
the fruit about the size of a hen's-egg, but rather more elongated, 
and tapering equally at both ends ; when ripe it is yellow, and 
dotted over with white spots. It contains a whitish watery 
pulp, which in the West Indies is usually sucked through a 
small hole made in the rind, which is tough, soft, and thin ; the 
juice has a peculiar aromatic flavour, is delicately acid, and allays 
thirst agreeably. 

Laurel-leaved Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. June, July. 
Clt. 1690. Shrub cl. 

82 P. TiNiFOLiA (Juss. 1. c. t. 41. f. 2.) leaves glabrous, ob- 
long, entire ; petioles biglandular in the middle ; stipidas seta- 
ceous ; bracteas oblong, hardly crenated. \ . ^. S. Native 
of Cayenne, and about Essequibo. Very like I'. taurifuUa. 

Tinus-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. July. Clt. 1821. Sh. cl. 

S3 P. acumina'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 328.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, entire; petioles biglandular at the 
apex; bracteas oblong, obtuse, entire. Tj . . S. Native of 
Brazil. 

Acuminated-\eaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

* * Leaves lohed, farted, or cut to the base. 

84 P. indeco'ra (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 131.) leaves pube- 
rulous beneath, rather glandular, semi-orbicular, lunate, sub- 
cordate ; lobes ovate, divaricate ; petioles glandless, pubescent ; 
stipulas linear, pubescent ; bracteas ovate. 1^ . ^. S. Native 
of New Granada, in temperate places. Perhaps belonging to 
the section Dccaloha. 

Indecorous Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

85 P. pui.che'lla (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) leaves glabrous, 
somewhat glandular, scmiorbicular, truncately 2 or 3-lobed ; 
petioles glandless ; stipulas linear-subulate ; bracteas oblong, 
large, entire. ^i . ^. S. Native of South America, in the pro- 
vince of Caraccas. Flowers white, with yellow rays ringed 
with blue. 

Neat Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

86 P. racemosa (Brot. in Lin. trans. 12. t. 6.) leaves quite 
glabrous, rather peltate, glaucous beneath, for the most part 
3-lobed ; petioles usually bearing 4 glands ; pedicels twin, form- 
ing terminal racemes, in consequence of the upper leaves being 
abortive. Ij .^. S. Native of Brazil. Sims, bot. mag. 2001. 
P. princeps, Lodd. bot. cab. t. 84. Flowers of a deep red or 



scarlet colour. Racemes pendulous. There is a variety having 
the outer ray of the crown white. 

ifflcemose Passion-flower. Fl. Mar. Oct. Clt. 1815, Sh. cl. 

87 P. SANGUiNEA (CoUa. mem. acad. taur. ined. hort. ripul. 
append, t. 6.) leaves glabrous, cordate, glaucous beneath, 3-5- 
parted ; lobes oblong, entire ; petioles bearing 4 glands ; stipu- 
las auriculately falcate, apiculated, somewhat serrated : pedicels 
axillary, solitary, 1 -flowered. Ij • w ^- Native country un- 
known. Probably a hybrid between P. racemosa and P. alata. 
Flouers large, of a deep scarlet or blood-red colour. 

£/oo(/-coloured-flowered Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. Oct. Clt. ? 
Shrub cl. 

88 P. cceru'leo-racemosa (Sab. in hort. trans. 4. p. 758. 
t. 9.) leaves quite glabrous, rather coriaceous, 3-5-lobed ; lobes 
undulated, somewliat toothed at the base ; petioles bearing 4 
glands; pedicels axillary, solitary, 1-flowered. Tj . ^. S. A 
hybrid raised from the seed of P. racemosa, impregnated by the 
pollen of P. ccerulea. Like the male parent, it will live through- 
out the winter in the open ground, with a little protection in 
severe weather. Lodd. bot. cab. t. 573. Flowers purple. 

.Bfae-rcrcejjioie Passion-flower. Fl. June, Oct. Hybrid 1820. 
Shrub cl. 

89 P. ala'to-cceru'lea (Lindl. bot. reg. t. 848.) leaves gla- 
brous, cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes quite entire, ovate-lanceolate ; 
petioles bearing 2-4 glands ; stipulas auriculated, acuminately 
apicidated, entire ; pedicels terete, much longer than the pe- 
tioles ; branches quadrangular. ^i . ^. S. A hybrid, raised 
from the seeds of P. alata, impregnated by the pollen of P. 
ccerulea. Lobes of calyx rose-coloured on the outside. Petals 
white inside. Crown triple ; outer filamentous appendages va- 
riegated with black, blue, and white. 

Winged-blue Passion-flower. Fl. June, Oct. Hybrid 1823. 
Shrub cl. 

90 P. stipula'ta (Aubl. guian. 2. p. 325.) leaves glabrous, 
glaucous beneath, cordate at the base, 5-nerved, trifid; lobes 
ovate, entire ; petioles bearing 2-4 glands ; stipulas oblong, 
somewhat auricled, mucronate, and are as well as the bracteas 
entire ; peduncles about equal in length to the petioles. Tj . ^.S. 
Native of Cayenne and Brazil ; and of Mexico, near Jalapa. P. 
glauca, Ker. bot. reg. t. 88. but notof Humb. Flowers whitish ; 
crown variegated with purple and white. 

,S'/;;j!(/«<e Passion-flower. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1779. Sh.cl, 

91 P. Raddia"na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 329.) leaves glabrous, 
somewhat cordate at the base, 5-nerved, trifid ; lobes ovate, 
glandularly subserrated at the base ; petioles bearing 2 glands 
in the middle ; stipulas ovate, dimidiate, awned ; peduncles 4- 
times longer than the petioles. h • \^- S. Native of Brazil, 
where it was detected by Raddi. 

Raddi's Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

92 P. a'lba (Link, et Otto. abhl. t. 33.) leaves glabrous, 
glaucescent beneath, somewhat cordate at the base, 5-nerved, 
3-lobed ; lobes oval, somewhat glandularly serrated at the base ; 
petioles biglandular in the middle ; stipulas cordate ; superior 
peduncles longer than the petioles. F; . ^. S. Native of Bra- 
zil. Flowers white. Very nearly allied to P. Raddidna. 

nVnVe-flowered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

93 P. seta'cea (D. C. 1. c.) leaves velvety beneath, 3-nerved 
at the base, somewhat cordate, trifid ; lobes ovate-oblong, acute, 
serrulated ; petioles velvety, biglandular at the base ; bracteas 
ovate, acuminated, ciliately serrated. Tj . ^. S. Native of Bra- 
zil, near Rio Janeiro. 

Setaceous-hTa.ctea.A Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

94 P. MENisPERMiFOLiA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. 
p. 137.) leaves hairy beneath, pubescent above, roundish-cor- 
date, angularly 3-lobed, sharply toothed ; petioles hairy, usually 
bearing 4 glands ; stipidas large, dimidiately subcordate, awned, 



PASSIFLORE^E. III. Passu-lora. 



53 



licnce tootlied on one side. ^ . ^. S. Native of South Ame- 
rica, near Jaen de Bracamorns. Flowers unknown. 

Moon-sced-lcavcd Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

9a P. subpelta'ta (Ort. dec. 6. p. 78.) leaves ghibrous, cor- 
date, 3-lobed ; kibes serrated : middle lobe more extended than 
the side ones ; petioles bearing 2-4 glands in the middle ; sti- 
pulas semi-cordate, mucronate ; bracteas cordate. I7 . ^. S. 
Native of New Spain. 

Subpeltalc-\ea.yed Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

96 P. piNicEA (Ruiz et Pav. ined. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 329.) 
leaves velvety beneath, rather scabrous above, 5- nerved, broadly 
subcordate, trifid ; lobes sharply serrated, acute ; petioles vel- 
vety, glandless ; stipulas setaceous ; bracteas oval, serrated. 
I; . ^. S. Native of South America, probably of Peru. Flowers 
scarlet. Agreeing in habit with Taadnia. 

<S'c(jr/t'/-fiowered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

97 P. INCARNATA (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 230. t. 10. f. 19. a. c.) 
leaves glabrous, somewhat cuneated at the base, 5-ncrved, 
deeply trifid ; lobes lanceolate, serrated ; petioles biglandular 
at the apex ; stipulas small ; bracteas glandularly serrated ; 
ovarium villous. ^ ■ ^- G. Native of South America and 
Virginia. Aid. hort. farn. t. 50. 52. 58. Mor. ox. 2. p. 6. 
sect. 1. t. 1. f. 9. Calycine lobes pale green. Petals white; 
crown with a double circle of purple rays. The Flesh-coloured 
Granadilla, or May-apple, is a perennial, sending up annually a 
number of herbaceous shoots. The flowers are sweet-scented, 
variegated with purple. The fruit, when ripe, is about the size 
of an apple, orange-coloured, with a sweetish Vellow pulp. 

Var. p, inlesrlloba (D. C. prod. 3. p. 329.) lobes of leaves 
entire. Ker. bot. reg. t. 332. P. Kerii, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 
39. Flowers pink. 

Flesh -colon led-RowereA Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. 
July, Aug. Clt. 1629. PL cl. 

98 P. edu'lis (Sims, bot. mag. t. 1989.) leaves glabrous, 3- 
lobed, serrated ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; bracteas 
glandularly serrated ; crown about equal in length to the caly- 
cine lobes ; ovarium glabrous, fj . ,_^. S. Native of Brazil. 
Flowers whitish. Fruit purple, edible. Purple-fruiting Passi- 
flora, Sab. in hort. trans. 3. p. 99. t. 3. Purple-fruited Gra- 
naddla. Sab. The flowers are fragrant, of a white colour tinged 
with purple. The fruit changes to a dark livid purple on be- 
coming ripe, and much resembles the fruit of the purple egg- 
plant. The shape is elliptic, an inch and a half in diameter, and 
2 inches from the stalk to the top ; the pulp is orange-coloured, 
and the seeds numerous ; the taste acid, and the flavour some- 
what like that of an orange. It produces fruit abundantly in 
stoves. 

Edible-fruited Passion-flower or Granadilla. Fl. July, Aug. 
Clt. ? Shrub cl. 

99 P. serrula'ta (Jacq. obs. 2. t. 46. f. 2.) leaves glabrous, 
3-lobed, finely serrulated ; lobes oblong, middle one the longest ; 
petioles biglandular in the middle ; bracteas entire. h . ^. S. 
Native of South America, in the woods of Carthagena. Flowers 
variegated with crimson and while, sweet-scented, 2^ inches wide. 

Serrulated-\eaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

100 P. ciNEiFOLiA (Cav. diss. 10. t. 292.) leaves glabrous, 
3-lobed, serrated ; lobes ovate, acuminated : petioles biglan- 
dular ; bracteas large, ovate, entire ; crown 3 times longer than 
the calyx. ^T • ^- S. Native of South America. 

Wcdge-lcaved Pass\on-Ro\\eT. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1825. Sh.cl. 

101 P. triloba (Ruiz et Pav. ined. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 330.) 
leaves glabrous, cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes ovate-roundish, obtuse, 
somev\hat denticulated ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; sti- 
pulas ovate-cordate, denticulated ; bracteas large, ovate, mu- 
cronate. Tq . ^. S. Native of Peru. 

Three-lobed-]ea\'ed Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 



102 P. vitif6lia (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 138.) 
leaves downy beneath, cordate, deeply 3-lobed ; lobes ovate, 
acuminated, sharply toothed, with the sinuses biglandular ; j)e- 
tioles biglandular at the base, pubescent ; bracteas glandularly 
toothed. Ij ■ v.^. S. Native of South America, on the banks of 
the rivers Magdalena and Cassiquiares. Flowers yellowish ; 
outer crown orange-coloured ; inner crown white. 

^'ine-Zeacerf Passion-flower. Clt. 1823. Shrub cl. 

103 P. pilosa (Ruiz et Pav. ined. ex D.C. prod. 3. p. 330.) 
plant hispid from rigid hairs ; leaves cuneated at the base and 
cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes coarsely toothed, ovate-lanceolate ; 
petioles biglandular ; stipulas ovate-cordate ; bracteas oblong, 
ciliated. ^ . ^. .S. Native of Mexico, (v. s. in herb. Lamb.) 

Pilose Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

104 P. ADENoroDA (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 330.) leaves glabrous, cordate at the base, 5- 
nerved, 5-lobed ; lobes ovate, acuminated, somewhat serrated ; 
petioles bearing 2 pedicellate glands ; bracteas deeply serrated. 

Jj . ^. S. Native of Mexico. 
Stalked- glanded Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

105 P. FiLAMENTosA (Cav. diss. 10. t. 294.) leaves glabrous, 
5-parted, serrated ; petioles biglandular in the middle ; bracteas 
serrated ; crown longer than the calyx or nearly equal to it. 
Tj . ^. S. Native of South America. Sims, bot. mag. 2023. 
Flowers with whitish petals and blue crown, coloured very like 
those of P. ccerulea. 

Filamentous Vassion-Rower. Fl. Ju. Oct. Clt. 1817. Sh.cl. 

106 P. palma'ta (Lod. bot. cab. no. 97. Link, enum. 2. 
p. 183.) leaves glabrous, palmately 5-parted, somewhat serru- 
lated ; serratures glandular ; crown a little shorter than the 
calyx, h ■ \^- ^- Native of Brazil. P. filamentosa /3, Ker. 
bot. reg. 584. Flowers the size of those of the following spe- 
cies, bluish ; crown variegated with blue, purple, and white. 

Palmate -leaved Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. Oct. Clt. 1817. Sh. cl. 

107 P. ccerulea (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 231. t. 10. f. 20.) leaves 
glabrous, 5-parted ; lobes oblong, quite entire ; petioles bearing 
4 glands at the apex ; stipulas falcate ; bracteas ovate, entire ; 
crown shorter than the calyx. h . ^. S. Native of Brazil 
and Peru. Curt. bot. m.ag. t. 28. Herb. amat. t. 102. Sow- 
erby in Lin. trans. 2. p. 25. t. 4. f. 4. Calycine segments pale 
greenish white ; the petals are nearly of the same shape and 
size. Styles purplish. Rays of the crown in two circles, pur- 
ple at bottom, white in the middle, and blue at the ends. Fruit 
egg-shaped, size of a Mogul plum, yellow when ripe. The 
flowers have a faint scent, and continue but one day, like many 
other species of this genus. This is the only kind which can be 
considered truly hardy. 

J'ar. /5, aiiguslifdlia ; lobes of leaves narrow ; plant flowering 
later than the species. A hybrid. 

Var. 7, glaucoiihijlla ; leaves glaucous beneath. 

Var. c, Cohillei (Sweet, fl. gard. t. 126.) lobes of leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, serrulated ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; 
stipulas rather lunate, serrulately ciliated ; bracteas ovate, 
obtuse, serrulated ; threads of crown rather shorter than the 
corolla. Jj . H. A hybrid. Flowers whitish ; petals tinged 
with blue ; outer crown variegated with purple, white, and blue. 

iJ/we-flowered or Common Passion-flower. Fl. June, Oct. 
Clt. 1699. Shrub cl. 

lOS P. SERRATA (Lin. amoen. 1. p. 232. t. 10. f. 21.) leaves 
glabrous, 7-parted, 7-nerved ; lobes serrated ; petioles bearing 
4 glands ; bracteas joined to the middle, acute, entire. ^ . ^S. 
Native of Martinico. Plum. amer. t. 79. Petals violet-co- 
loured. Crown variegated with purple, violet and white. 

Var. /5, digildia (Ruiz et Pav. ined. ex herb. Lamb. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 330.) lobes of leaves hardly serrated. ': . v.^- S. 
Native of Peru. 



54 



PASSIFLORE/E. II F. Passiflora. 



^errn W-leaved Passion-flower. Clt. 1800. Shrub cl. 

109 P. LouREiRu; leaves glabrous, 5-parted ; lobes quite 
entire ; petioles biglandular. Tj . ^. F. Native of China and 
Cochin-china. P. coerulea, Lour. coch. p. 527. but not of Lni. 
P. Chinensis, Sweet? Flowers greenish yellow, with a blue 
crown. 

Loureiro's Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. Oct. Clt. ? Shrub cl. 

110 P. peda'ta (Lin. amocn. 1. p. 233. t. 10. f 22.) leaves 
pedate, in consequence of the petiole being branched at the top ; 
petiole biglandular ; segments of leaves oval, acuminated, ser- 
rated ; bracteas dentately fringed. Ij . ^. S. Native of St. 
Domingo and Trinidad. Plum. amer. t. 81. Calycine seg- 
ments pale green, with abundance of little red spots on the 
upper surface. Petals or inner calycine segments blue. The 
ravs of the crown are very close, deep red, with 2 or 3 white 
riiii's, very slender, violet at the ends ; they are twisted so as to 
resemble the serpents about Medusa's head. Fruit the size of 
a middling apple, green, and dotted. 

/■erfn/e-leaved Passion-flower. Clt. 1781. Shrub cl. 

Sect. VII. Tacsonioides (plants resembling Tacsonia in 
habit). D.C. prod. 3. p. 330. Tube of calyx rather elongated, 
nevertheless much shorter than the limb. The rest as in sec- 
tion Granadilla. Leaves 3-lobed, with the recesses and petioles 
glandular. An intermediate section between the genus Pajn- 
Jlbra and Tacsonia. 

111 P. REFLEXiFLORA (Cav. icou. 5. t. 425.) glabrous ; leaves 
subpeltate, 3-lobed ; lobes obtuse, quite entire, recesses and 
petioles bearing 6 glands ; calycine lobes reflexed ; crown very 
short or almost wanting. Tj . ^. S. Native of Panamaide, and 
near Bodegas, in South America. Tacs6nia reflexiflora, Juss. 
ann. mus. (j. p. 393. Flowers scarlet. 

Rcflcxcd-Jlon'ered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

112 P. picTURATA (Ker. bot. reg. t. 673.) glabrous ; leaves 
subpeltate, reddish beneath, 3-lobed ; lobes quite entire, mu- 
cronate by a bristle ; recesses and petioles bearing 4 glands ; 
calycine lobes reflexed, twice the length of the filamentous 
crown. I? ■ v^- S. Native of Brazil. P. pictur-ita, Lodd. bot. 
cab. t. 1050. differs in the lobes of the leaves being glandless. 
Flowers red ; outer crown beautifully variegated with blue and 
while. 

Pam/ed-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1820. Sh. cl. 

Sect. VIII. Dysosmia (from cvadilriQ, dysodes, fetid, and 
oafir], osme, a smell ; the species contained in this section have 
a bad smell). D. C. in mem. soc. gen. 1. pt. 2. p. 436. prod. 3. 
p. 331. Involucrum 3-leaved, under the flower; leaflets di- 
vided into many setaceous lobes, which are tipped with glands. 
Calyx 10-lobed, or the 5 inner ones are petals. Pedicels soli- 
tary. Fruit subcapsular — Perhaps this section will form a 
proper genus. 

113 P. iiiBisciFOLiA (Lam. diet. 3. p. 39.) stem, petioles, and 
leaves clothed with soft velvety down on both surfaces ; leaves 
truncate at the base, 5-nerved, trifid ; lobes ovate-acuminated, 
somewhat dentate. I^ . ^. S. Native of the West India Islands. 
P. foe'tida, var. a, Lin. amoen. 1. p. 228. t. 10. f. 17. Plum, 
amer. t. 86. P. gossypifolia, Desv. in Ham. prod. p. 48. ? — - 
Giseck, icon. fasc. 1. t. 20. Flowers whitish. Plant fetid when 
bruised. 

Hibiscus-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1731. 
Shrub cl. 

114 P. fie'tida (Cav. diss. 10. t. 289.) stems and petioles 
hispid ; leaves villous on botli surfaces, 5-nerved, cordate at 
the base, 3-lobed ; lobes nearly entire, lateral ones very short, 
middle one acuminated. ^ . or Tf.. ^. S. Native of the Carib- 
bee Islands and South America. Sims, bot. mag. 261 9. Ker. 



bot. reg. 321. P. foe'tida, var. /3, Lin. amoen. P. variegata, 
Mill. P. hirsiita, Lodd. bot. cab. 138. P. hircina. Sweet, 
hort. brit. Flowers whitish ; crown variegated with purple and 
blue. Plant fetid when bruised. 

Fe/irf Passion-flower. Fl. May, Oct. Clt. 1731. PI. cl. 

115 P. acerifolia (Schlecht. et Cham, in Linnsea. 5. p. 89.) 
the whole ])lant scabrous from hairs ; leaves deeply corilate, 
pedately 5-7-nerved, cuneated within the recesses, 5 and some- 
times 7-lobed ; paler and glandless beneath ; lobes acuminated, 
subserrated ; teeth mucronate ; petioles biglandular at the 
apex ; glands stipitate, recurved at the apex ; stipulas serai- 
orbicular, sinuately toothed ; teeth subulate ; peduncles twin, 
involucrated in the middle ; involucrum multifidly jagged, hardly 
gland\dar. ^ . ,^. S. Native of Mexico, in woods near Jalapa. 
Flowers a little larger than those o{ P. foe'tida. 

Sycamore-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

116 P. cilia'ta (Ait. hort. kew. 3. p. 310.) stem glabrous; 
petioles rather pilose; leaves glabrous, somewhat 5-nerved, 
cordate at the base, trifid ; lobes acuminated, ciliated. 1/ . ^. S. 
Native of Jamaica. Curt. bot. mag. t. 288. Petals greenish on 
the outside and red within. Rays of crown variegated with 
white and purple. Stipe of ovarium deep purple, with darker 
spots. 

Ci/ia^ed-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1783. PL cl. 
•f Species not sufficiently known. 
* Leaves entire. 

117 P. appendIcula'ta (Meyer, esseq. p. 223.) leaves gla- 
brous, glandular beneath, 3-nerved, rounded from the base, 
oblong, mucronate ; petioles biglandular, puberulous ; pedicels 
twin, shorter than the petioles ; involucrum wanting. ^ . ^. S. 
Native of Guiana, in shady sandy places. Perhaps belonging 
to either section Cieca or Dccdloba. Flowers yellow. 

Appendiculated Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

lis P. cYATHopiioRA (Desv. in Ham. prod. p. 48.) leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, undivided, undidated and narrowed in the middle, 
mucronulate, 3-nerved, subcordate at the base, quite glabrous 
above and nerved, glaucescent beneatli ; petioles biglandular ; 
glands large, lateral, hollow, cup-shaped, usually twin ; involu- 
crum wanting. Tj . ^. S. Native of Guiana. Perhaps belong- 
ing to section Cieca or Decaloba. 

Cuj^-hcaring Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

119 P. PYRiFORMis (D. C. prod. 3. p. 331.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate, acuminated, feather-nerved ; petioles biglandular ; pedi- 
cels solitary ; fruit pear-shaped. I^ . ^. S. Native of Brazil. 

Pear-shaped-ix\\\t.ed Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

120 P. lanceola'ta (Desv. 1. c.) branches compressed, an- 
gular, ciliated with down ; leaves lanceolate, acute, mucronulate, 
rounded at the base, with the sides subauricled, pilose on both 
surfaces, quite entire ; petioles biglandular ; pedicels twin, ca- 
pillary ; fruit on a long pedicel. \ . ^. S. Native of the 
Antilles. Flowers scarlet. The rest unknown. 

Zo«cco/n;e-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

121 P. tetrade'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 331.) leaves ovate, 
quite entire ? petioles bearing 4 glands ; bracteas toothed ; stem 
tetragonal, membranous. 1^ . ^. S. Native of Brazil. Vand. 
fl. lus. et bras, in Rcem. script. 148. Perhaps P. alata or P. 
quadrangularis. 

Four-glanded Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

122 P. tiieobrom/efolia (D. C. prod. 4. p. 331.) stems erect ; 
leaves cordate, ovate, acuminated, unequally serrated, rather 
puberulous ; calyx double ; petals ? spatulate. Ij . S. Native 
country unknown. Flowered in the Botanic Garden at Schcen- 
brun. P. guazumsefolia, Jacq. fragm. p. 13. but not of Juss. 
This plant perhaps belongs to a difierent genus, not belonging 
to this order. 



PASSIFLOREyE. III. Passifloiia. 



55 



Cacao-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub -i to C feet. 

123 P. Cociiin-chine'nsis (Spreng. syst. ajip. p. 346.) leaves 
opposite, glabrous, ovate, undivided, quite entire ; petioles bi- 
glandular ; flowers axillary, twin, 5-cleft ; berry ovate. I; . ^. G. 
Native of Cochin-china, among bushes. P. pallida, Lour, cocli. 
p. 527. This species difters from all the other Passifloras in 
the opposite leaves ; it is perhaps therefore a species of Mal- 
pigliia. Flowers large, pale. 

Coe/iin-ehiiia Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

124 P. Singaporia'na (Wall. cat. no. 1232.) leaves glabrous, 
oblong; the rest of the plant unknown. I? . y__,. S. Native of 
Singapore, in the East Indies. Like P. laurifolia. 

Singapore Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

125 P. Penanoia'na (Wall. cat. no. 1233.) leaves ovate-ob- 
long, entire, acuminated ; tendrils trifid. T^ . ^. S. Native of 
Penang. Flowers imknown. 

Penang Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

* * Leaves 2-lobed. 

126 P. luna'ta (Juss. herb, ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 331.) leaves 
rather downy beneath, glandular, 3-nerved, ovate at the base, 
lunately truncate at the apex ; nerves ending each in a bristle ; 
petioles glandless ; pedicels twin ; bracteas linear. h . ^. S. 
Native of Peru. Perhaps belonging to the section Cieca or 
Decdhba. 

il/oo«-shaped-leaved Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

127 P. contraye'rva (Smith, in Rees' cycl. no. 23.) leaves 
glabrous, deeply 2-lobed ; lobes oblong, obtuse, hardly diverg- 
ing ; calyx multifid. Jj . ^. S. Native of Mexico — Hern, 
mex. p. 301. lower figure. Allied to P. Mexicana and P. D'lc- 
tamo, but differs from them in the flowers being multifid, not 
5cleft. The root is famous for its medicinal virtues, being 
sweetish with some pungency and fragrance, and is considered a 
powerful counterpoison, deobstruent, cordial, Sec. 

Contrat/erva Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

128 P. cunea"ta (W'illd. enum. p. 696.) leaves glabrous, 
glandular beneath, cuneated at the base, somewhat 2-lobed at 
the apex, with a mucrone between the lobes ; petioles glandless; 
pedicels twin ; calyx 10-cleft, the 5 inner divisions are called 
petals. Tj . ^. S. Native of Caraccas. Perhaps belonging to 
section Deedloha or section Granadilla. 

Cwncaie-leaved Passion-flower. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. ? Sh. cl. 

129 P. BicoRNis (Mill. diet. no. 13.) leaves glabrous, stiff", 
2-lobed ; pedicels long, horizontal ; fruit oval. 1; . ^. S. Na- 
tive of South America, at Carthagena. Flowers small, white. 

Tivo-horned-\eaL\eii Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

130 P. clypea^ta (Smith, in Rees' cycl. no. 20.) leaves pel- 
tate, glandular beneath, 5-7-nerved, retieulately veined, 2-lobed, 
furnished with a mucrone between the lobes ; petioles bearing 2 or 
4 glands. Tj . ^. S. Nativeof New Granada. Flowers unknown. 

Buckler-\ea.\tA Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

• * * Leaves 3-lobed. 

131 P. CEPHALEiMA (Bory, ann. gen. 2. p. 152. t. 22. f. 2.) 
leaves glabrous, rather glandular beneath, somewhat 3-lobed, 
emarginate at the base ; lobes divaricate, linear, obtuse, rounded ; 
petioles very short, biglandular beneath the middle. Tj . ^. S. 
Native country unknown, and has never flowered in the gardens 
of Europe. 

Hcadcd-i\o\\ered Passion-flower. Clt. 1 826. Shrub cl. 

132 P. MULTIFORMIS (Jacq. fragm. no. 169. t. 67. f. 1.) leaves 
glabrous, wrinkled beneath, cordate at the base, simple, 2 or 3- 
lobed, acuminated, very minutely serrated ; petioles biglandular. 
^ . ^. S. Native of South America, at Caraccas. Willd. 
enum. 697. Flowers unknown. The plant agrees with /'. in- 
carnata in the shape of the leaves. 

il/nny-/ormcrf Passion-flower. Clt. 1820. Shrub cl. 



133 P. iieteropiiy'lla (Lam. diet. 3. p. 41.) leaves glabrous, 
acute, lower ones lanceolate, nearly sessile: middle ones on short 
petioles, 3-parted : ujiper ones pedate, in conseeiuence of the 
petiole being branched at the apex ; tendrils wanting ; pedicels 
solitary, without an involucrum ; calyx 10-lobed, or the 5 inner 
lobes, so called, are petals. 1? . ^. S. Native of St. Do- 
mingo. Plum. ed. Burm. t. 139. f. 1. Perhaps belonging to 
section Deculoba or section /Istrophea ? Flowers yellowish. 

/«r;o6/c-/tni,crf Passion-flower. Clt. 1817. Shrub cl. 

134 P. Hkkma'nni (D. C. prod. 3. p. 332.) leaves velvety, 
3-lobed; involucrum small, of 3 entire leaflets; calyx 10- 
parted. 1^ • w- S- Native of Curassoa. Flowers whitish. 
Allied on one hand to P. lursixla and on the other to P. Iiibis- 
cijolia. 

Herma7in's Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

135 P.? TUBiFLORA (H. B. ct Kuntli, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 
139.) leaves glabrous, coriaceous, rounded at the base, 3-lobed; 
lobes oblong-lanceolate, equal, entire ; petioles biglandular in 
the middle ; pedicels twin ; tube of calyx about equal in length 
to the 5 lobes of the limb. h . ^. S. Native of Mexico, in 
arid places near Acapulco and Etambo del Egido. Probably a 
species of Tacsonia. Flowers with a greenish calyx. 

Tube-Jlowered Passion-flower. Shrub cl. 

Cull. All the species of this elegant and curious genus, are 
well suited for climbers in conservatories and stoves, being free 
growers and of easy culture. They thrive well in very light 
rich soil, and the more room they are allowed, both for roots 
and stems, the freer they will grow and flower. They are all 
easily raised from cuttings planted in sand or mould, placed in 
heat ; and the younger the cuttings are, the sooner they will 
strike root. Most of the species ripen fruit in our stoves, and 
consequently many fine varieties have been raised by impreg- 
nating the stigmas of one with the pollen of another. Several 
hybrids, raised from seeds set by the pollen of P. ccerulea are 
nearly hardy. Several of the species are marked greenhouse, 
in which they will grow and flower freely. Passijlura ewrulea 
is the only species that can be considered quite hardy, and it 
requires a sheltered situation ; it is therefore safest to plant 
against a wall, that it may be protected by a mat in severe 
weather : it thrives well in any soil, and cuttings of it are 
readily rooted, under a hand-glass. 

Culture of the edible species of Granadilla. — All the species 
will fruit even in large pots ; but it is best to plant them in an 
angle of a stove, which has been parted oft', either by boards or 
brick-work, as low as the pit goes. At the bottom of the cavity 
formed by this division, should be laid some brick rubbish, over 
which may be thrown a little dead tan, and the whole be then filled 
w ith equal parts of very old tan, and a compost of leaf-mould and 
rotten dung ; therein the roots will strike freely, and will even 
spread through the partition into the pit. They do not require the 
full heat of a pine-stove, for they flourish best in a temperature of 
from 65° to 70° ; but they will not bring their fruit to perfec- 
tion if kept in a common greenhouse or conservatory, though 
they will grow and flower in it. The shoots as they advance 
may be trained near to and under the inclined glass of the stove ; 
the first flowers will appear in May, and the blooming will con- 
tinue until September, the fruit setting the whole time ; but if it 
does not set well it will be adviseable to impregnate the stigmas, 
by applying the pollen with a feather. As they grow, the very 
strong shoots should be cut out from their origin ; for these do 
not bear fruit so abundantly as those which are less vigorous ; 
but the fruiting-branches must not be shortened on any account. 
The temperature must be kept up equally during the time of 
flowering and fruiting; the crop will begin to come in August, 
and will continue until January, but the earlier produce is the 
best. When the crop is all oflT, which will be early in January, 



56 



PASSIFL0RE7E. IV. Disemma. V. Murucuja. 



the heat must be reduced to about 50°, so as to cheek and stop 
the growth. This being effected, the shoots must be well cut 
in. As little old wood as possible, besides the main stem, which 
rises from the pit to the glass, and a few pieces (about 2 or 3 
feet of each) of the old branches should be retained ; for all 
that is to be trained under the glass to bear in each year, ought 
to be the "-rowth of the same season. It is found that the shoots 
break better and in greater quantity from the older wood than 
from that of two years' standing. In this dormant and reduced 
state it is to be kept during January and February, after which 
the necessary heat may be applied to cause it to resume its 
functions for the ensuing season. 

IV. DISE'MMA (from Siq, dis, two, and aTefUfia, slemma, a 
crown; in reference to the crown of the flower being double, or 
in two). Lab. sert. caled. p. 78. D. C. prod. 3. p. 3S'i. 

Lin. syst. Monadilpltia, Pcnidndria. Tube of calyx short, 
furrowed below. Crown of throat double ; outer one composed 
of distinct filamentous threads ; inner one tubular, with an entire 
or toothed border. The rest as in Passiflora. All the species 
are either natives of New Holland or New Caledonia. 

* Petioles biglandtilar at the apex. 

1 D. aura'ntia (Labill. caled. t, 79.) leaves glabrous, ovate 
at the base, broadly 3-lobed ; lobes obtuse, middle lobe the 
longest : lateral ones furnished with a kind of appendage each 
on the oiUside ; bracteas bristle-formed, glandular at the apex, 
rather remote from the flower ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; 
threads of outer crown about equal in length to the inner lobes 
of the calyx or petals. Ij . ^. G. Native of New Caledonia. 
Passiflora aurantia. Forst. prod. p. 326. Cav. diss. 10. p. 
457. Murucuja aurantia, Pers. ench. 2. p. 222. Flowers orange- 
coloured, with the tube of the inner crown green, longer than the 
simple upright rays that surround it. 

Orfl?ig(7-flovvered Disemma. Shrub cl. 

2 D. Herbertia'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 332.) leaves pubes- 
cent, cordate at the base, broadly 3-lobed ; lobes ovate, acut^sh ; 
petioles biglandular at the apex; pedicels twin, 1-flowered; 
bracteas bristle-formed, very remote from the flower ; threads 
of outer crown 3 or 4-times shorter than the inner calycine lobes 
or petals. Tj . ^. G. Native of New Holland, in the interior. 
Passiflora Herbertiana, Ker. bot. reg. 737. Murucilja Hcr- 
bertiana, Sweet. Flowers white and greenish, with the crown 
yellow. 

Jar. ii, Cahyana (D. C. prod. 3. p. 333.) leaves semiorbi- 
cular at the base, hardly subcordate ; bracteoles situated in the 
middle of the pedicel. T; . ^. G. Native of New Holland. 
Passiflora biglandulosa, Caley. in herb. Lamb. Perhaijs a pro- 
per species. 

Herbert's Tlhexnma. Fl. Jul, Sept. Clt. 1S21. Shrub cl. 

3 D. Baue'ri ; leaves 3-lobed, sparingly glandular beneath ; 
lobes oblong, retuse, middle one more prolonged ; bracteas and 
stipulas setaceous ; rays filiform, longer than the corolla, which 
is plicate ; disk 5-lobed. Ij . ^. G. Native of Norfolk Island. 
Fruit oval, blood-coloured. Flowers at first pale yellow, but at 
length orange-coloured, with the seginents keeled and rather 
undulated, green on the outside. Murucuja Baueri, Lindl 
coll. t. 36. 

Bauer's Disemma. Shrub cl. 

4 D. cocciNEA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 333.) leaves glabrous, glan- 
dular beneath, cuneated at the base, 3-nerved, bluntly 3-lobed ; 
petioles biglandular at the apex, longer than the pedicels ; brac- 
teas subulate, scattered, remote from the flower, tj . .8. 
Native of New Holland. Passiflora coccinea, Banks, but not of 
Aubl. Flowers scarlet. Crown short, double. Fruit globose. 

Scarlel-Aowered Disemma. Shrub cl. 



* * Petioles glandless. 

5 D. ADiANTiFOLiA (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, glandular 
beneath, truncate at the base, 3-5 -lobed; lobes obtuse, some- 
what 3-lobed ; petioles glandless, a little longer than the pedicels; 
bracteas subulate, scattered. I^ . ^. G. Native of Norfolk 
Island. Passiflora adiantifolia, Ker. bot. reg. 233. Passi- 
flora aurantia, Aiidr. bot. rep. t. 295. but not of Forst. Passi- 
flora glabra, Wendl. coll. 1. t. 17. Passiflora Adiantum, \Villd. 
enum. 698. IMuruciija adiantifolia. Sweet. Flowers yellow at 
first, fading to an orange-colour, with the inner crown green, 
longer than the purple rays that surround it. 

Adiantum-leared Disemma.. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1792. Sh. cl. 

Cult. See Passijlora, p. 55. for culture and propagation. 
Splendid and curious climbing shrubs. 

V. MURUCU'J A (a name given to many species of Passion- 
flower, especially those with edible fruit, by the natives of Brazil). 
Tourn. inst. t. 215. Juss. gen. p. 398. D. C. prod. 3. p. 333. 

Lin. syst. Monadelphia, Pentcmdria. Tube of calyx fur- 
rowed below. Crown of throat simple, erect, tubularly-conical, 
truncate (f. 5. h. f. 6. c.) ; threads of erovrnnot free, but joined 
together into a tube. — Habit of Passijlora. Petioles glandless. 
— Species all natives of the West Indies. 



lobed). 



Sect. I. Penta'ria (from irtvTe, pente, five ; calyx 5- 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 333. Calyx 5-lobed (f. 5. a.). 

1 M. okbicula'ta (Pers. ench. FIG. 5. 

2. p. 222.) leaves glabrous, glan- 
dular beneath, 3-nerved, orbicu- 
lar, somewhat 3-lobed ; petioles 
glandless, twisted ; tendrils few ; 
bracteoles narrow, very acute. 
Tj. ^. S. Native of St. Do- 
mingo. Passiflora orbiculata, 
Cav. diss. 10. t. 28G. Flowers 
crimson. 

Oriic;(/ar-leaved Murucuja. 
Shrub cl. 



Sect. II. Deca'kia (from 
!:iKa, deka, ten ; in reference to 
the calyx being 10-lobed). D.C. 
prod. 3. p. 333. Calyx 10-lobed 
(f. 6. a.) ; the 5 inner lobes probably petals. 

2 M. ocei,la"ta (Pers. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, glandular be- 
neath, emarginate at the base, truncately 2-lobed at the apex ; 




FIG. 6. 



lobes obtuse, divaricate ; petiole 
glandless, shorter than the pedi- 
cels ; bracteas narrow, very acute. 
H . ^. S. Native of the Antilles, 
in woods. Passiflora Murucuja, 
Lin. amoen. 1. t. 10. f. 10. Cav. 
diss. 10. t. 287. Ker. bot. reg. 
t. 574. — Plum. amer. t. 87. 
Flowers deep red. Berry size of 
a pigeon's egg, flesh-coloured 
when ripe. Both the syrup and 
decoction of the plant is much 
used in the leeward parts of Ja- 
maica, where it is frequent ; and 
it is said to answer effectually all 
the purposes for which syrup of 
poppies and liquid laudanum are 
generally administered. The flowers are most in use ; they are 
commonly infused in, or powdered and mixed immediately with 




PASSIFLOREiE. V. Mukucuja. VI. Tacsonia. 



wine or spirits ; and the composition is generally thought a 
very cffbctua! and easy narcotic. Browne names it bull-hoof or 
Dutchman's laudanwn, which are probably the vulgar names of 
the plant in Jamaica. 

far. /3 ; leaves rounded at the base, somewhat 3-lobed. 
Cav. 1. c. 

Small-eyed Uurucuia. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1730. Sh. cl. 

Cult. Climbing shrubs, with the habit of Pass'ijlora, bearing 
beautiful flowers. Their culture and propagation are the same 
as that recommended for that genus, see p. HQ. 

VI. TACSO'NIA {Tacso, the name of one of the species in 
Peru). Juss. gen. p. 398. ann. mus. (>. p. 388. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 333. 

Lin. syst. Monadelphia, Pentindrla. Tube of calyx long 
(f. 7. e.), with a 10-cleft limb (f. 7. a.). ; the 5 inner lobes pro- 
bably petals ; throat furnished with a scaly membrane. Habit of 
Passijlora. 

Sect. I. Eutacs6nia (cm, well or good, and Tacsonia; this 
section contains the genuine species of the genus). D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 333. Involucrum large, 3-leaved (f. C./.); bracteas sometimes 
free, sometimes joined together. 

* Leaves undivided. 

1 T. ADULTERINA (JuSS. aUU. FIG. 6. 

mus. G. p. 393.) leaves woolly 
beneath, glabrous above, ovate, 
almost entire, with revolute edges ; 
petioles glandless ; stipulas tooth- 
ed, linear-lanceolate. ^ ■ ^' S. 
Native of New Granada. Passi- 
flora adulterina, Lin. fil. suppl. 
p. 408. Smith, pi. ined. t. 24. 
Flowers purple. Berry ovate, 
spotted. 

Adulterated Tacsonia. Sh. cl. 

2 T. lana'ta (Juss. ann. mus. 
6. t. 59. f. 1.) leaves woolly be- 
neath, glabrous above, ovate-cor- 
date, entire, with somewhat revo- 
lute edges ; petioles glandless ; 
stipulas narrow, hidden among the tomentum of the stem. 

f; . ^. S. Native of the Andes, about Quindiu. H. B. et 
Kunlh, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 141. Flowers white ? 
Woolly Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

* * Leaves 3-lohed. 

3 T. trifolia'ta (Juss. 1. c. p. 393.) whole plant white from 
silky tomentum ; leaves trifoliate ; leaflets ovate-oblong, quite 
entire; petioles glandless ; stipulas half stem-clasping, ciliated 
with glands. Ij . ^. S. Native of Peru, in the valley of Canta. 

Trifoliate Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

4 T. sanguine A (D. C. prod. 3. p. 334.) leaves tomentose 
beneath, reticulately veined, smooth above, deeply 3-lobed ; 
lobes acute, serrated ; petioles glandless ; bracteas glandularly- 
toothed. h • ^. S. Native of the West Indies. Passiflora 
sanguinea. Smith, in Rees' cycl. no. 45. Flowers deep red. 

Bluod-coloured-f\o\\ered Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

5 T. riNNATisTiPULA (Juss. 1. c.) Icavcs white from velvety 
down beneath, trifid beyond the middle ; lobes serrated ; stipulas 
pinnate ; petioles with 4-8 glands. Tj . ^. S. Native of Chili. 
Sweet, fl. gard. new. ser. 2. t. 156. Passiflora pinnatistipula, Cav. 
icon. 5. t. 428. Flowers rose-coloured or purplish ; crown deep 
blue. 

far. /3, pennipes (Smith, in Rees' cycl. no. 48. under Passi- 
jlora) stipulas palmately parted into subulate lobes, one of which 
is pinnate at the apex. 

VOL. III. 




Pinnatc-sli})ulcd Tsicsoma. Clt. 1828. Shrub cl. 

G T. micradk'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 334.) clothed with vel- 
vety tomentum ; leaves trifid, somewhat cordate, 3-5-nerved ; 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, serrated ; petioles bearing small glands, 
which are hidden among the tomentum; stipulas palmately parted 
into capillary lobes. tj . ^. S. Native of Peru. 

Small-glandcd Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

7 T. ToMENTosA (Juss. 1. c. p. 394.) Icaves tomentose, trifid 
beyond the middle, 3-ncrved ; lobes ovate, serrated ; petioles 
bearing 6 pedicellate glands ; stipulas felcate, serrulated on the 
outside. Ij . ^. S. Native of Peru. P. tomentosa, Cav. diss. 
10. t. 275, 27G. Flowers rose-coloured. 

Tomentuse Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

8 T. manica'ta (Juss. 1. c. t. 59. f. 2.) leaves somewhat to- 
mentose beneath, trifid beyond the middle ; lobes oval-oblong, 
serrated ; petioles bearing 3-4 glands at the apex ; stipulas 
roundish, spreading, crestedly toothed on the outside. Tj . ^. S. 
Native of Peru, about Loxa. II. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. auier. 
2. p. 139. 

Var. /3 ; lobes blunter and more tomentose beneath. Native 
of Villa de Ybarra. 

Var. y ? petioles bearing many glands. On Mount Quindiu. 

Var. B; bracteas joined together at the base. On Mount 
Saraguru. 

Manicated-stipulei Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

Sect. II. Bracteoga'ma (from j3pa>:og, brakijs, a cover, and 
yajiuQ, gamos, marriage ; in reference to the bracteas of the invo- 
lucrum being joined together). D. C. prod. 3. p. 334. Bracteas 
of involucrum 3, joined together into a tube. 

9 T. TRiGONA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 334.) leaves clothed with 
hoary hairs beneath, pubescent above, deeply 3-lobed ; lobes 
oblong, diverging, serrulated ; petioles bearing 2-4 glands ; sti- 
pulas manicated, denticulated, awned at the apex. fj . ^. S. 
Native of Peru. Passiflora trigona, Ruiz et Pav. ined. (v. s. in 
herb. Lamb.) 

Trigonal Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

10 T. peduncul.Vris (Juss. 1. c. p. 395.) leaves downy on 
the nerves beneath, cordate at the base, 3-nerved, trifid ; lobes 
ovate, obtuse, serrated ; petioles bearing 4 glands ; stipulas 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, serrated, h ■ ^- S. Native of 
Peru. Passiflora pedunculiris, Cav. icon. 5. t. 426. Murucuja 
peduncularis, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 43. Flowers purple or rose- 
coloured. 

Var. ft, Domheyana (D. C. prod. 334.) lobes of leaves acute ; 
bracteas entire. 

Peduncular Tacsonia. Clt. ? Shrub cl. 

11 T. MOLLissiMA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 144.) 
leaves clothed with canescent tomentum beneath, and pubescence 
above, cordate at the base, 5-nerved, 3-lobed ; lobes ovate, 
acute, sharply toothed; petioles bearing 12 glands; stipulas 
semi-ovate, acuminated, denticulated. ^ • ^. S. Native of 
Santa Fe de Bogota. Mnruci'lja moUissima, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 
43. Flowers rose-coloured. 

Very soft Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

12 T. TRIPARTITA (Juss. 1. c. t. 60.) Icaves rather tomentose 
beneath, smooth above, 3-parted ; lobes lanceolate, serrated ; 
petioles bearing G-S glands; stipulas manicated, crestedly 
toothed. H . ^. S. Native of South America, in woods about 
Quito. H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. 2. p. 142. Flowers rose-coloured. 

Tripartite-\ca.veA Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

13 T. MIXTA (Juss. 1. c. 394.) leaves glabrous, 3-lobed; 
lobes oblong, serrated ; petioles bearing G glands ; stipulas ob- 
long, acuminated, serrated on the outside. I; . ^. S. Native 
of New Granada. Passiflora mi.\ta, Lin. fil. suppl. 408. Smith, 
icon. ined. t. 25, 

I 



58 



PASSIFLOREjE. VI. Tacsonia. VII. Paschanthus. VIII. Modecca. 



Far. ft, longiflora (D. C. prod. 3. p. 335.) leaves pubescent 
beneath ; lateral lobes sometimes 2-lobed. fj . ^. S. Native 
of Peru. T. longiflora and T. Tasco, Pers. ench. 2. p. 223. 
Flowers rose-coloured or purplish. 

Mixed Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

14 T. sPECiosA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 2. p. 143.) 
leaves glabrous, cordate at the base, reticulately 5-nerved, deeply 
3-lobed ; lobes ovate-oblong, sharply serrated ; petioles bear- 
ing 6-8 pedicellate glands ; stipulas suborbicular, awned, denti- 
culated. I; . ^. S. Native of Santa Fe de Bogota. Murucuja 
speciosa, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 43. Flowers rose-coloured. 

Showy Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

15 T. glabe'rrima (Juss. ann. mus. 6. p. 394.) leaves gla- 
brous, coriaceous, 3-lobed ; lobes oval-lanceolate, stiffly ser- 
rated ; petioles biglandular at the apex ; stipulas glove-formed, 
dentately crested. Ij . ^. S. Native of Peru, on the Andes 
in shady places. Flowers purple. 

Quite-glabrous Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

16 T. anastomosans (Lamb. herb, ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 335.) 
leaves glabrous, coriaceous, cuneated at the base, 3-nerved, trifid ; 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, callously serrated ; petioles bearing 4 
glands ; stipulas ovate, awned, callously serrated. Ij . ^. S. 
Native of Peru. 

Anastoviosiiig-ve'med Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

17 T. PARviFOLiA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 335.) leaves glabrous, 
glaucous beneath, 3-5-nerved, trifid ; lobes ovate-lanceolate, 
acutely serrated ; petioles bearing 4 glands ; stipulas semi-cor- 
date, acuminated, nearly entire. ^ • v^. S. Native of Peru. 
Ruiz et Pav. (v. s. in herb. Lamb.) 

Small-leaved Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

Sect. III. Distepha^na (from cig, dis, double, and tmcjiat'og, 
stcjihanos, a crown ; in reference to the double crown in the 
throat). Juss. 1. c. D. C, prod. 3. p. 335.^ — Distephia, Salisb. 
in litt. Involucrum small, 3-leaved ; leaflets free, biglandular 
in the axils. Throat of calyx bearing a membranous tube, and 
a series of ligulse. 

18 T, GLANDULosA (Juss. 1. c. p. 391.) Icaves glabrous, co- 
riaceous, ovate, acuminated, quite entire, feather-nerved; petioles 
biglandular at the base, about equal in length to the pedicels ; 
bracteas subulate, near the flower. ^ • i^- S. Native of 
Cayenne. Passiflora glandulosa, Cav. diss. 10. t. 281. 

/or. ft, canaliculata (D. C. 1. c.) petioles thicker, and chan- 
nelled at the base. 

Glandular Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

19 T. Rohria'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 335.) leaves glabrous, 
coriaceous, ovate-oblong, acuminated, quite entire, feather- 
nerved ; petioles biglandular at the base, one-half shorter than 
the pedicels ; bracteas subulate, remote from the flower, fj . ^. 
S. Native of Cayenne. 

Ruhr's Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

20 T. Stoupvana (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, coriaceous, 
ovate, acuminated, quite entire, feather-nerved ; petioles biglan- 
dular at the base ; bracteas oval, obtuse, foliaceous. Jj . ^. S. 
Native of Cayenne. Cav. diss. 10. t. 281. lit. x. 

Stoujjy's Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

21 T. ciTRiFOLiA (Juss. 1. c. p. 392. in a note,) leaves oval, 
coriaceous, quite entire, feather-nerved ; petioles biglandular at 
the apex. Ij . ^. S. Native of Cayenne, (v. s. herb. Juss.) 

Citron-leaved Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

t Species belonging to section Dislephana, but doubtful. 

22 T. QUADRIGLANDULOSA (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, obtuse 
at the base, unequally serrated : superior ones oblong ; inferior 
ones 3-lobed : recesses of the lobes of the leaves, petioles, and 
bracteas bearing 4 glands each, f; . ^. S. Native of Guiana, 



in woods, in the Island of Arowabisch. Passiflora quadriglan- 
dulosa, Meyer, esseq. p. 226. 

Four-glanded Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

23 T. quadridenta'ta (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, ovate- 
lanceolate, feather-nerved, with a few coarse acute teeth ; pe- 
tioles biglandular at the base ; bracteas oblong, biglandular. h^ , 
^. S. Native of the West Indies. 

Four-toothed-]eaved Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

24 T. pube'scens (D. C. 1. c.) leaves pubescent, ovate, lan- 
ceolate ; petioles biglandular at the base ; bracteas ovate-lan- 
ceolate, acuminated, gland ularly serrated, and glandular on the 
back. Tj . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 

Downy Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

Sect. IV. Psila'nthus (from \piXos, psilos, naked, and apdoc, 
anthos, a flower ; in reference to the flowers being naked, or 
without the involucrum). D. C. prod. 3. p. 335. Involucrum 
none under the flower. 

25 T. trine'rvia (Juss. 1. c. t. 58.) leaves tomentose beneath, 
oval, 3-nerved ; nerves protruding so much as to form teeth ; 
petioles glandless ; calyx 10-lobed. fj . ^. S. Native of South 
America, in shady places at the river Cassiquiare. H. B. et 
Kunth, 1. c. p. 142. Flowers rose-coloured? 

Three-nerved-\eaved Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

26 T. ? viridiflora (Juss. ann. mus. 6. p. 389.) leaves pel- 
tate, 3-lobed ; calyx 5-lobed. h ■ \^- S. Native of Mexico, 
in the vicinity of Acapulco. Passiflora viridiflora, Cav. icon. 5. 
t. 424. Intermediate between Tacsonia, Passiflora, and Murxi- 
cuja. Flowers green. 

Green-flowered Tacsonia. Shrub cl. 

Cult. The sjjecies have the habit of Passiflora, and some of 
them are equally showy. Their culture and propagation are the 
same, see p. 56. 

VII. PASCH A'NTHUS (from Tra^x'^, jmscho, to be in a pas- 
sion, and cu'-^oc, anthos, a flower ; the same meaning as Passi- 
flora). Burch. trav. 1. p. 543. D. C. prod. 3. p. 336. 

Lin. syst. Polygamia, Monoecia. Flowers polygamous. 
Calyx permanent, tubular, 10-cleft ; 5 outer lobes ovate : 5 inner 
ones oblong-linear, petaloid, or rather truly petals. Stamens 5, 
free. Anthers linear, inserted by the base. Ovarium stipitate. 
Stigmas 3, very short. Capsule subbaccate, 3-valved, 6-seeded. 
Seeds ornamented with red fleshy aril. — Habit o( Passiflora. 

1 P. repa'ndus (Burch. 1. c.) leaves glabrous, glaucous, ob- 
long-linear, repand, 1 -nerved, bearing 3 glands beneath ; petioles 
very short, glandless ; peduncles bearing a tendril, and two 1- 
flowered pedicels. T; . ^. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Rcpand-leaved Paschanthus. Shrub cl. 

Cult. This very singular plant, being a native of the Cape of 
Good Hope, will thrive in a green-house, and will form an excel- 
lent climber for the rafters. Its culture and propagation are the 
same as that recommended for Passflora, see p. 56. 

VIII. MODE'CCA (East Indian name of one of the species). 
Rheed. mal. 8. t. 20-23. Lam. diet. 4. p. 208. Blum, bijdr. p. 
938. D. C. prod. 3. p. 336. 

LiN. SYST. Dioecia, Monadelphia. Flowers dioecious. Calyx 
permanent, campanulate, 10-cleft (f. 8. 6.): 5 outer lobes oval 
acute : 5 inner lobes petaloid or probably petals (f. 8. 6.). Scales 
5-10 (f. 8. c), rarely wanting, rising from the calyx. Stamens 
5, inserted in the torus ? monadelphous : anthers standing. 
Ovarium (f. 8. d.) on a short stipe. Stigmas 3, petaloid (f. 8. e.). 
Capsule bladdery, 1 -celled, 3-valved, one or many-seeded. Seeds 
furrowed by rows of tubercles (f. 8./.), arillate, fixed to 3 pa- 
rietal placentas, which are adnate to the middle of the valves. — 
Habit of plants between Passiflora and Bryonia. 



PASSIFLORE.E. VIII. Modecca. IX. Deidamia. X. Vareca. 



59 



1 M. i'alma'ta (L.am. diet. 4. p. 209.) leaves glabrous, 
variously palmatcly lobed, glandular beneath ; stipulas si)incs- 
cent ; pedicels bractless. •? • v^- S. Native of Malabar. 
Flowers yellowish. Probably many species are confused under 
this name. 

Far. a,Narola (D. C. prod. 3. p. 336.) lobes of calyx acmni- 
nated ; petaloid lobes or petals wanting ; fruit globose. — Rheed. 
mal. 8. t. 20. 

Far. p, palmodecca (D. C. 1. c.) lobes of calyx acutish ; pe- 
taloid lobes or petals feathered palmately ; fruit globose. ^ . ^. 
S. Rheed. 1. c. t. 21. 

J'ar. y, Motta (D. C. 1. c.) lobes of calyx very much acumi- 
nated ; petaloid lobes or petals wanting ; fruit ovate. — Rheed. 
1. c. t. 22. 

Pa/wn/e-leaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 



FIG. 8. 




2 M. LOBA^TA (Jacq. fragm. t. 
131.) leaves glabrous, cordate at 
the base, 3-5-7-lobed, glandless ; 
petioles biglandular at the apex ; 
pedicels bractless. Tj . ^. S. 
Native of Sierra Leone. Ker, 
bot. reg. t. 131. Flowers yel- 
lowish, (f. 8.) 

Zo6erf-leaved Modecca. Fl. 
Aug. Clt. 1812. Shrub cl. 

8 M. iNTEGRiFOLiA (Lam. 
diet. 4. p. 209.) leaves glabrous, 
ovate-lanceolate, usually entire, 
much acuminated; pedicels bract- 
less, very short, few-flowered ; 
fruit globose. H . ^. S. Native 
of Malabar. — Rheed. mal. 8. t. 
23. 

Entire-leaved Modecca. Shrub el. 

4 M. WiGHTiANA (Wall. cat. no. 6764.) smooth ; leaves cor- 
date, triangularly ovate, entire ; tendrils simple ; capsule blad- 
dery ; seeds scrobiculate. I7 . ^. S. Native of the East Indies, 
on the Gingee Hills. Like M. integrifolia, Lam. 

Wight's Modecca. Shrub cl. 

5 M. alie'na (Wall. cat. no. 6766.) leaves deeply cordate at 
the base, oblong, acuminated ; lobes at the base rounded ; pedi- 
cels umbellate on the top of shortish peduncles ; tendrils simple. 
Pj.^.S. Native of Silhet. 

Alien Modecca. Shrub cl. 

C M. acumina'ta (Blum, bijdr. p. 940.) leaves ovate-oblong, 
acuminated, somewhat cordate at the base, and biauriculate ; 
flowers racemose, rising from elongated axillary tendrils ; fruit 
ovate, acuminated. J; . ,^. S. Native of Java, on Mount Salak. 
Allied to M. integrifolia according to Blume. 

Acuminated-irmteA Modecca. Shrub cl. 

7 M. hetekophy'lla (Blum, bijdr. p. 940.) leaves undivided 
or 3-lobed, acuminated, somewhat cordate at the base, and some- 
what biauriculate ; fruit oblong, acuminated at both ends. f; . 
^. S. Native of Java, on Mount Gede. 

Fariable-leaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 

8 M. DiVERsiF6LiA(Wall. cat. no. 6763.) smooth; lower leaves 
triangularly ovate ; upper ones 3-lobed, peltate at the base : 
lateral lobes sometimes bifid; pedicels 1-flowered, bractless; 
tendrils simple. 1; . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. Fruit 
bladdery, 3-valved. Root tuberous. Moraordica heterophy'lla, 
Wight, mss. 

Diverse-leaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 

9 M. cordifolia (Blum, bijdr. p. 939.) leaves membranous, 
on short petioles, cordate, mucronulate, biauriculate at the base ; 
flowers corymbose, dichotomous, rising from elongated axillary 
tendrils. Ij . ^. S. Native of Java, on Mount Salak. 



Ileart-leaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 

10 M. oBTu sA (Blum, bijdr. p. 939.) leaves coriaceous, ob- 
long-cordate, obtuse, biauriculate at the base ; flowers corym- 
bose, dichotomous, rising from short axillary tendrils. Ij . ^. S. 
Native of Java, on Mount Salak. 

Obluse-\eaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 

11 M. PARViFLORA ; Icavcs oblong-lanccolatc, entire, acumi- 
nated, glabrous ; tendrils simple ; peduncles axillary, dichoto- 
mous. 'j • 1^- S. Native of Sierra Leone. Flowers small, 
yellow. 

Small-Jlonered Modecca. Shrub cl. 

12 M. macroi'iiy'lla (Blum, bijdr. p. 939.) leaves coria- 
ceous, oval, bluntish at both ends, somewhat auriculated at the 
base ; flowers corymbose, dichotomous, rising from axillary ten- 
drils. Ij . ^. S. Native of J.iva, on Mounts Salak, Parang, &-c. 

Long-leaved Modecca. Shrub cl. 

13 M. austra'lis (R.Br. ined. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 337.) 
leaves glabrous, somewhat peltate at the base, cordate, running 
down the petiole in an auriculated manner at the base, acute, 
entire, glandless. Tj . ^. S. Native of New Holland, in the 
gulph of Carpentaria. 

Southern Modecca. Shrub cl. 

14 M.? bractea'ta (Lam. diet. p. 210.) leaves scabrous 
from tubercles on both surfaces, palmately lobed, emarginate at 
the base ; pedicels bracteate, racemose ; calyxes somewhat ser- 
rated. >; . ^. S. Native of the East Indies. 

Bractcated Modecca. Shrub cl. 

Cult. See Passijlbra, p. 56. for culture and propagation. The 
flowers of the species are by no means showy. 

IX. DEIDA'MIA (a mythological name, daughter of Lyco- 
medes, king of Scyros). Pet. Th. gen. pi. afr. 2. p. 61. t. 20. 
D.C. prod. 3. p. 337. 

Lin. syst. Monadelphia, Penta-Ocldndria. Calyx 5-8-part- 
ed ; lobes petaloid ; crown a simple series of filamentose appen- 
dages, rising from the interior part of the calyx. Stamens equal 
in number to the lobes of the calyx ; filaments joined at the 
base into a column. Ovarium ovate. Styles 3-4. Capsule 
pedicellate, 3-4-valved. Seeds arillate. — Climbing Madagascar 
shrubs, with axillary tendrils, impari-pinnate leaves, and glan- 
dular petioles. 

1 D. Noroniiia'na (D. C. prod. 3. p. 337.) leaflets obovate, 
somewhat cuneated at the base, emarginate at the apex ; pedun- 
cles 2-3-flowered ; flowers pentandrous. b . ^. S. Native of 
Madagascar. D. alata, Pet. Th. 1. c. t. 20. Flowers brownish. 

Noronh's Deidamia. .Shrub cl. 

2 D. Commersonia'na (D. C. 1. c.) leaflets elliptic, mucro- 
nate at the apex ; peduncles 5-7- flowered ; flowers pentandrou>. 

Ij . ^. S. Native of Madagascar. 
Commerfon's Deidamia. Shrub cl. 

3 D. Thompsoniana (D. C. prod. 3. p. 337.) leaves elliptic, 
hardly mucronate, rather coriaceous ; peduncles 5-7-flowered ; 
flowers octandrous. Tj . ^. S. Native of Madagascar. Passi- 
flora octandra, Thompson in herb. Lamb. 

Thompson s Deidamia. Shrub cl. 

Cull. See Passijlbra, p. 56. for culture and propagation. 

X. VARE'CA (altered from Wahvareka, the name of the 
fruit in Ceylon). Gsertn. fruct. 1. p. 219. t. 6. f. 6. D.C. 
prod. 3. p. 337. 

Lin. syst. unknown. Flowers unknown. Berry 1 -celled; 
pulp divided into numerous partial cells for the reception of the 
seeds. Placentas 3, parietal, many-seeded. 

1 V. Zeyla'nica (Gsertn. I.e.) Native of Ceylon. Nothing 
but the fruit of this plant is known. 

Ceylon Vareca. Shrub cl. ? 
l2 



60 



MALESHERBIACEvE. I. Malesiieubia. LOASE.E. 



Cult. See Passiflora, p. 56. for culture and propagation. 
Order CVI. MALESHERBLVCE^ (this order only con- 
tains the genus Malesherbm). D. Don, in edinb. phil. journ. 
1827. p. 321.— Passifloreae, Tribe III.— Malesherbieae, D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 337. 

Calyx tubular (f. 9. /(.), membranous, inflated, 5-lobed (f. 9. 
a.) ; lobes imbricated in sestivation. Petals 5 (f. 9. 6.), alter- 
nating with the segments of the calyx, permanent, convolute in 
estivation, arising on the outside of the short membranous crown 
(f. 9. e.). Stamens 5-10, perigynous ; filaments filiform, dis- 
tinct, or connected with the stipe of the ovarium ; anthers versa- 
tile. Ovarium superior (f 9. g.), stipitate, l-ce)led, with the 
placentas at the base, from which the ovules arise by the inter- 
vention of umbilical cords. Styles 3, filiform, very long, arising 
from distinct points at the apex of the ovarium (f 9. (/.) ; stigmas 
clavate. Fruit capsular, 1-celled, 3-valved, membranous more or 
less, many-seeded. Seeds attached by umbilical cords to pla- 
centas, arising either from the axis of the valves, or from their 
base ; testa crustaceous, brittle, with a fleshy crest, and no 
arillus, Embryo terete in the centre of fleshy albumen, with 
the radicle next thehylum. — Herbaceous or half shrubby plants, 
clothed with glandular pubescence. Leaves alternate, simple 
lobed, without stlpulas. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, 
yellow or blue. 

This order agrees with Passi/ldrecB on the one hand, and Tur- 
neraccce on the other. From the former they differ in the inser- 
tion of their styles, in their versatile anthers, in their short pla- 
centas, membranous fruit, terete embryo, want of arillus, and 
stipulas ; and altogether in their habit. From Turncracece, to 
which their habit nearly allies them, they differ in the presence 
of a perigynous membrane, in the remarkable insertion of the 
styles, and in the want of all trace of an arillus ; agreeing with 
that order in the a?stivation of the corolla, and in the principal 
other points of their structure. The plants are unknown except 
as objects of great beauty. 

I. MALESHE'RBIA (in memory of Christian William de 
Lamoignon Malesherbes, born at Paris in 1721, a great patron 
of the sciences). Ruiz et Pav. prod. p. 45. D. Don, I.e. D. C. 
prod. 1. c. — Gynopleura, Cav. icon. 4. p. 51. 

Lin. syst. Pcnldndriu, Monogynia. Character the same as 
that of the order. 

1 M. THYRsiFLORA (Ruiz et Pav. prod. p. 457. et Hook. bot. 
misc. vol. 2. p. 220.) leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, sinuately 
toothed, tomentose ; tube of calyx long, with a contracted throat; 
crown 10-cleft, with the segments 2-4-toothed. h . G. Native 
of Peru, in exposed argillaceous soil. Gynopleiira tubulosa, 
Cav. icon. 4. t. 375. Flowers yellow. 

Thyrse-flowcrcd Malesherbia. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

2 M. panicula'ta (D. Don in edinb. phil. journ. 1827. p. 
321.) leaves oblong, obtuse, ciliated, pinnatifid : upper ones 
nearly entire ; throat of calyx dilalcd ; crown simple, acutely 
toothed. Vi-G. Native of the north of Chili. Flowers yellow ? 

PonJc/erf-flowered Malesherbia. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

3 M. LiNEARiFOLiA (D. Don in edinb. phil. journ. Jan. 1832.) 
villous; leaves linear, entire; throat of calyx dilated; crown 
10-cleft, with toothed segments. fj . ? G. Native of Chili, 
especially in the tract of Portilla, near Mendoza. Gynopleura 
linearifolia, Cav. icon. 4. p. 52. t. 376. Flowers white. 




Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 



Linear-leaved Malesherbia. PI. 2 to 3 feet. 

4 M. hu'milis (D. Don, 1. c.) plant very villous ; leaves jag- 
ged ; throat of calyx dilated ; crown simple, erosely toothed ; 
anthers roundish. Tj . G. Native of Chili about Coquimbo. 
Stems procumbent. Flowers white. 

Z)wrtr/ Malesherbia. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1832. PI. procumbent. 

5 M. corona'ta (D. Don, I.e.) 
plant clothed with glandular pu- 
bescence ; leaves linear, sinuately 
toothed ; throat of calyx dilat- 
ed ; crown simple, toothed. >j . 
G. Native of Chili, at Valpa- 
raiso. Flowers blue ; crown 
white. Sweet, fl. gard. new. ser. 
t. 167. (f. 9.) 

CroTiinerf Malesherbia. Fl.Aug. 
Oct. Clt. 1832. PI. 2 to 3 feet. 

6 M. fascicula'ta (D. Don, 
1. c.) leaves lanceolate, acumi- 
nated, quite entire ; flowers in 
fascicles; crown 10-cleft, with 
the segments tridentate. 1j . G. 
Native of Chili. A stiff erect 
shrub. Flowers small, in bundles 
at the tops of the branches. 

Fascicled-([oviered. Malesherbia 

7 M. tenuifolia (D.Don in edinb. phil. journ. Oct. 1832.) 
leaves nearly pinnate ; segments linear ; calyx tubular ; crown 
deeply lobed. ©. G. Native of the south of Peru, in the 
province of Tarapaca at Huataconda, where it is commonly 
called Agi de Zorra, i. e. Fox capsicum. Flowers reddish, ac- 
cording to the dried specimen. 

Fine-leaved Malesherbia. Fl. Feb. PI. i foot. 

Cult. This genus is composed of curious plants, bearing very 
showy singular flowers, and are therefore worthy of culture as 
ornaments. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or any light rich 
earth is a good soil for them. The shrubby species may 
either be increased by seeds ; or young cuttings will root if 
planted in light soil, under a hand-glass. The seeds of annual 
kinds require to be sown in a hot-bed, in order to forward the 
plants ; and after they have grown an inch in height, they may 
be potted off into small pots, and afterwards shifted into pots of 
increasing size, as they grow. Some of them may be planted 
out into the open border, in a sheltered situation, where they 
will probably flower and seed freely. 

Order CVH. L0A*SE;E (plants agreeing with Loasa, in 
important characters). Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 18. diet. sc. nat. 
27. p. 93. D. C. prod. 3. p. 339.— Loaseae-verac, H. B. et 
Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 115. 

Tube of calyx adhering to the ovarium, or girding it closely 
(f. 10. a. f 12. a.) ; hmb 5-parted (f. 11. a. f. 12. a.), rarely 
4-parted, permanent. Petals equal in number to the lobes of 
the calyx (f. 12. b. f. 11. b.), with an inflexed valvate sesti- 
vation, or double that number (f. 10. b.), and disposed in 
2 series ; those of inner series, when present, usually much 
smaller (f 10. b.) than those of the outer, scale-formed and 
truncate at the apex, inserted in the throat of the calyx. 
Stamens indefinite, arising from within the petals, disposed in 
several series, either distinct (f. 10. c), or joined at the base in 
several parcels before each petal, within the cavity of which 
they lie in aestivation ; filaments subulate (f. 10. g.), unequal, 
the outer ones frequently destitute of anthers. Ovarium adnate 



LOASE^. I. Bartonia. 



61 



to the calyx (f. 10. a. f. 11. e.), or inclosed within it, 1 -celled, with 
several parietal placentas (f. 11.), or with 1 free central lobed 
one. Style 1, composed of 3-5-7-joined ones, crowned by as 
many lobes or stigmas. Capsule dry or succulent, crowned by the 
calyx (f. 10. d. f. 11- g. f- 12- c), 1-celled, with several parietal 
placentas (f. 11.), originating at the sut\ires, and therefore may 
be called marginal, 3-4-7-valved ; placentas equal in number to 
ttie valves, sometimes drawn out so far as to form dissepiments 
(f. 11./.). Seeds numerous, without arillus. Embryo lying in 
the axis of a fleshy albumen ; with the radicle pointing to the 
hilum, and flat small cotyledons. — American herbs more or less 
pilose or hispid, with the hairs or bristles usually stinging like 
those of the nettle, in consequence of their secreting an acrid 
juice. Leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate, simple, but 
usually variously divided. Peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered. 
Flowers elegant. This order is distinguished from OiiagrariecB 
by its unilocular ovaria, and indefinite stamens, part of which 
are sterile ; and perhaps by the latter character, and the addi- 
tional 5 petals, connected with Passiflcrcce, with which they 
sometimes also accord in habit. Their rigid stinging hairs, 
climbing habit, and lobed leaves resemble those of some Urti- 
cece. On the same account they may be compared with Cucur- 
bttacece, with which they further agree in their inferior unilocular 
fruit, with parietal placentas, and in the very generally yellow 
colour of their flowers. This, indeed, is the order with which, 
upon the whole, Loasece must be considered to have the closest 
afl[inity. 

Synopsis of the genera. 

1 Bartonia. Tube of calyx cylindrical (f. 10. a.) ; limb 5- 
parted (f. 10. a.). Petals 5-10 (f. 10. b.), about equal in shape. 
Stamens numerous (f. 10. c). Capsule 3-7-valved ; each pla- 
centa bearing 2 rows of seeds. 

2 Blumenba'chia. Tubeof calyx spirally twisted (f. 11. e.); 
limb 5-parted (f. 11.^.). Petals 10 (f. 11. b.) ; 5 outer ones 
cucullate, and the 5 inner ones scale-formed, each scale inclosing 
2 sterile filaments. Fertile stamens disposed in 5 bundles (f. 
11. b.). Fruit dividing into 10 parts at the base. 

3 Loa'sa. Tube of calyx not twisted (f. 13. a.) ; limb 5- 
parted (f. 12. c). Petals 10 (f. 12. i.) ; the 5 inner ones scale- 
formed, bearing 2 sterile filaments inside. Outer series of 
stamens sterile and free ; inner ones disposed in 5 bundles, but 
distinct. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved at the apex. 

4 CAiornoRA. The fruit is oval, bursting into 3 valves from 
the base upwards ; the placentas then separate from the sides of 
the capsule, and have the appearance of 3 arched columellae. 
The rest as in Loasa. 

5 Mentze'lia. Tube of calyx cylindrical (f. 13. A.); limb 
5-lobed (f. 13. rf.). Petals 5 (f. 13. n.). Stamens free, usually 
disposed in bundles (f. 13. e.). Capsule turbinate, 3-valved, 
few-seeded (f. I'i.f,). 

fi Klaprothia. Calyx with a turbinate tube, and a 5- 
parted limb. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, 4-5 sterile in front 
of each sepal, and 4-5 fertile in front of each petal. Fruit 
baccate, few-seeded. 



FIG. 10. 



I. BARTO'NIA (Benj. S. Barton, M. D., professor of botany 
at Philadelphia). Sims, hot. mag. t. 1487. Nutt. gen. amer. 
I. p. 297. Pursh, fl. amer. sept. 1. p. 327. D. C. prod. 3. p. 
339. butnotofWilld. 

LiK. SYST. hos6ndna, Monogynia. Tube of calyx cylin- 
drical (f.lO. a.), closely girding the ovarium, but probably distinct 
from it ; limb 5-parted (f. 10. a.), permanent. Petals 5-10 (f. 10. 
b.), unguiculate, the same shape, inserted in the calyx. Stamens 
indefinite (f. 10. c), inserted with the petals, but shorter than 
them ; filaments free (f. 10. c.) ; outer ones sometimes sterile; 
anthers oblong. Style filiform (f. 10. c), marked with 3-7 spi- 
ral stripes (f. 10. c). Capsule oblong, 1 -celled, 3-7-valved ; 
placentas bearing 2 rows of seeds each. Seeds compres- 
sed. — Hfrbs downy from stiff" and bearded hairs. Leaves 
alternate, interruptedly pinnatifid. Flowers large, terminal, 
solitary, white or yellow, expanding in the evening, becoming 
reddish as they fade. 

1 B. orna'ta (Nutt. gen. amer. 1. p. 297.) lobes of leaves 
acutish ; capsule surrounded by bracteas, 5-7-valved ; seeds some- 
what emarginate. $ . F. Native of Upper Louisiana, in argil- 
laceous soil, on the banks of the river Missouri. B. decapetala, 
Sims, hot. mag. 1487. Petals 10, white. 

Ornamental Barloma. Fl.Jul. Sept. CIt. 1811. PI. 1 to 2 ft. 

2 B. nu'da (Nutt. I. c.) lobes of leaves obtuse; capsule 3- 
valved, naked ; seeds winged ; outer stamens petaloid, usually 
sterile. $ . F. Native on the banks of the Missouri, on gra- 
velly hills. Petals 10. 

Naked-irWiieA Bartonia. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1811. Pl.l to2 ft. 

3 B. L/evicau'lis (Dougl. mss. 
ex Hook, fl. bor. amer. 1 . p. 22 1 . 
t. 69.) petals 5 ; petaloid stamens 
5 ; bracteas wanting ; stems 
very smooth ; seeds winged. ©. 
H. Native of North America, 
on the gravelly islands and rocky 
shores of the Columbia, near the 
Great Falls. Flowers shining, 
yellow. An ornamental plant, 
not inferior to D. orniita, but 
differs from it in the want of the 
large, jagged bracteas, as well as 
in its fewer petals and winged 
seeds. 

Smooth-stemmed Bartonia. PI. 
2 to 3 feet. 

4 B. parviflora (Dougl. mss. ex Hook. fl. bor. amer. 1. 
p. 221.) petals 5; petaloid stamens 5-7; bracteas wanting; 
stem scabrous; seeds winged. $ . F. Native of Nortli Ame- 
rica ; abundant in calcareous rocky situations, and micacious 
sandy banks of streams, in the interior parts of Columbia. 
Flowers smaller than those of the preceding species, but it is 
probably hardly more than a variety of that plant. It differs 
from B. nuda, Nutt. in the number of the petals. The name 
would be more applicable to the following species, 

Small-Jiowercd Bartonia. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

5 B. albicau'lis (Dougl. mss. ex Hook. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 
222.) petals 5, obovate, small ; petaloid stamens wanting ; brac- 
teas wanting ; stems short, shining, white. ©. H. Native of 
North America, on arid sandy plains of the river Colombia, 
under the shade of Purshia Iridejilata. Mentzelia albicai'ilis, 
Dougl. mss. Acrolasia bartoniokles, Presl. reliq. Hacnk. 2. p. 
39. t. 55. Petals yellow. 

JVhite-stcnimcd Bartonia. PL decumbent. 

G B. ai.be'scens (Arnott, in Cheek, journ. 3. p. 273.) stem 
with a white shining epidermis ; leaves sinuatcly toothed ; cap- 
sule naked, 3-valved ; seed broadly marginate ; flowers dis- 




62 



LOASE/E. II. Blumenbaciiia. III. Loasa. 



posed in a leafy panicle. $ . F. Native of Chili, in the Jarillal, 
or uncultivated grounds between Mendoza and tlie mountains ; 
generally by the side of dry water courses, at about ."5000 feet 
above the level of the sea. Sweet, fl. gard. new ser. t. 182. 
B. sinuata, Presl. reliq. Ha?nk. 2. p. 38. Petals 10, pale yel- 
low. Filaments all dilated. Stigmas 3-lobed. This species does 
not turn black on drying, as in the other species, and is readily 
distinguished from them by the beautiful white down on the stem. 

Jlaary Bartonia. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1831. PI. 1 to 4 feet. 

Cult. The seeds of the species should be raised in a gentle 
lieat in spring ; and when the plants are of a proper size, they 
shoidd be potted separately in small pots, and shifted from size to 
size of pots as they grow ; the pots should be well drained with 
sherds ; and in the w inter they should be placed on a dry shelf 
in a greenhouse or frame. The flowers are very showy, and the 
plants are therefore worth cultivating in every garden. 

II. BLUMENBA'CHIA (in honour of John Freder. Blum- 
enbacli, M.D. professor of medicine at Giittingen, chiefly dis- 
tinguished as a comparative anatomist). Schrad. in goett. anz. 
1825. p. 1707. Comm. soc. goett. vol. 6. with a figure. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 3-10. but notof Koel. 

Lin. syst. Pohjdelphia, PoJyandria. Calyx 5-parted (f. 
1 1 . g.), with the tube adhering to the ovarium. Petals 5 (f. 11. 
h.), inserted in the top of the calycine tube, cucullate, equal, 
spreading. Scales 5 (f. 11. 6.), alternating witli the petals, and 
inserted with them, furnished with 3 sterile filaments at the 
back of each, and clasping 2 subulate appendages inside. 
Stamens indefinite, inserted in the top of the calycine tube (f. 
11. h.), disposed in 5 bundles, one opposite each petal ; anthers 
2-celled, bursting inwardly. Ovarium joined to the tube of the 
calyx. Style simple (f. 11. /.). Capsule marked with 10 
spiral ribs, 1-celled, 10-valved; 5 of the valves thicker and 
broader than the other 5, with the placentas not reaching the 
axis ; the other 5 narrower, with placentas almost reaching the 
axis (f. 1 1 . li.), and bearing the seeds. Seeds rugged. — Branched, 
climbing, or trailing herbs, covered with stinging hairs. Leaves 
opposite, lobed. Flowers axillary, solitary, bracteate. 

1 B. iNsiGNis (Schrad. 1. c.) lower leaves 7-5-lobed ; upper 
ones deeply bipinnatifid. ©. H. Native of Chili and Brazil, 
in the provinces of Cisplatine and Rio Grande do Sul, and about 
Monte Video ; also of Buenos Ayres. Reich, icon. exot. 
t. 121. Sweet, fl. gard. t. 170. B. parviflora, Gill. mss. 
Loasa palmata, Spreng. syst. 3. p. 601. Trevir. in act. bot. 13. 
p. 181. t. 12. Loasa pitula, Graham, in edinb. phil. journ. 
Oct. 1827. Flowers with whitish petals and reddish-yellow 
scales. 

.SAoH?/ Blumenbachia. Fl. July, Nov. Clt. 1826. Pl.tr. 

2 B. palma^ta (St. Hil. fl. 
bras. 2. p. 208.) leaves deeply 
and palmately 3-5-lobed ; lobes 
pinnatifid. ©. H. Native of 
Brazil, on the confines of the 
l)roviiice of Rio Grande de St. 
Pedro do Sul. Flowers with 
white petals ; scales with ciliated 
edges, yellow at the base, lined 
with white, and red above it, 
tipped with vermilion colour. 

/"afoia^c-leaved Blumenbachia. 
PI. tr. 

3 B. LATIFOLIA (St. Hil. fl. 
bras. 2. p. 209. t. 118.) leaves 
trifoliate ; lateral segments 3- 
lobed, unequal-sided, terminal 
one equal-sided, 3-5-lobed. ©. H. Native of Brazil, in the 



FIG. 11. 




province of St. Paul, between the towns of Rio Grande de St. 
Pedro do Sul and St. Francisco de Paulo. Flowers with white 
petals, and yellow scales tipped with orange colour, (f. 11.) 
fii-oarf-/c«i'frf Blumenbaciiia. PI. tr. 

4 B. puNicEA ; plant very hispid ; leaves opposite, pinnati- 
fid, having the segments jagged ; calycine lobes jagged, shorter 
than the petals, which are cucullate ; bundles of stamens poly- 
androus. ©. H. Native of Peru. Loasa punicea, Ruiz et 
Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 446. ined. (v. s. herb. Lamb.) 

Scarlet Blumenbachia. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

5 B. pterospe'rma ; hispid ; leaves opposite, pinnatifid, rather 
cordate at the base; segments toothed; peduncles long, 1- 
flowered, axillary ; calycine segments toothed, shorter than the 
petals, which are cucullate; bundles of stamens polyandrous ; ^ 
stem climbing; seeds bordered by a wing. ©. H. Native of 
Peru. Loasa pterosperma, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 448. 

(v. s. herb. Lamb.) 

Winged-seeded Blumenbachia. PI. cl. 

6 B. sepia'ria ; stem climbing; leaves opposite, pinnatifid, 
with the segments pinnatifid or coarsely toothed ; peduncles 
long, axillary, 1-flowered; calycine segments jagged, linear, 
longer than the petals, which are cucvdiate ; bundles of stamens 
polyandrous. 0. H. Native of Peru. Loasa sepiaria, Ruiz 
et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 449. ined. 

Hedge Blumenbachia. PI. cl. 

7 B. micra'ntha ; hispid ; leaves opposite, ovate, serrated, 
petiolate ; peduncles many-flowered, racemose, terminal, and 
rising from the forks of the stem ; calycine lobes ovate, much 
shorter than the petals, which are cucullate, and holding 2 sta- 
mens each. ©. H. Native of Peru. Flowers very small. 
Loasa micrantha, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 442. 

Small-Jlon'cred Blumenbachia. PI. 1 foot. 

8 B. GRANDiFLORA ; Icavcs Opposite, petiolate, oblong, runci- 
natc, acute, somewhat cordate at the base ; pedicels 1-flowered, 
rising from the forks of them ; stem climbing. ©. H. Native 
of Peru. Loasa contorta. Lam. diet. 3. p. 579. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 340. Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 25. t. 3. f. 1. Lo'^saphysiope- 
tala, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 447. ined. Flowers yellow. 

Great-Jlowered Blumenbachia. PI. cl. 

Cult, Elegant annual plants, with very showy flowers ; their 
culture and propagation are the same as that recommended for 
the species oi Loasa, see p. 64. 

III. LOA'SA (meaning unknown to us). Adan. fam. 2. p. 
501. Jacq. obs. 2. p. 15. Schreb. gen. no. 908. Juss. gen. 
p. 322. ann. mus. 5. p. 24. Lam. ill. t. 426. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 340. — Ortiga, Feuill. per. 2. p. 757. Neck. elem. no. 1221. 
Loosa, Lin. prsel. ed. gis. p. 334. 

Lin. syst. Pulydelphia, Pobjandria. Calyx 5-cleft, with 
the tube adhering to the ovarium (f. 12. a.). Petals 5 (f. 12. 6.), 
cucullate, equal, spreading, inserted in the top of the tube ; 
scales 5, inserted with the petals, furnished with 3 sterile fila- 
ments on the back of each, and girding 2 subulate appendages 
inside. Stamens indefinite, inserted in the top of the calycine 
tube, disposed in 5 bundles (f. 12. 6.), opposite the petals ; 
anthers 2-celled, bursting inwardly. Ovarium joined to the 
calyx. Capsule crowned by the lobes of the calyx (f. 12. o.), 
S-valved at the top, 1-celled ; placentas linear, alternating with 
the valves. Seeds rugged. — Branched, decumbent, or climbing 
herbs, beset with stinging hairs. Leaves alternate, or opposite, 
toothed or lobed. Flowers axillary, extra-axillary, or opposite 
the leaves, solitary or racemose. 

* Leaves opposite. 

1 L. TRILOBA (Juss. aun. mus. 5. p. 24. t. 1. f. 3.) leaves 
cordate at the base, usually 3-lobed : lobes acute, toothed ; 
middle lobe usually somewhat 3-lobed ; pedicels axillary ; caly- 



LOASE^E. III. LoASA. 



63 



cine lobes small, acute. ©. H. Native of Peru and Chili, 
about Valparaiso. Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 4'14. ined. Scales 
petaloid, equally and bluntly y-lobcd. Flowers small. 
27irt'e-/o6«/-leaved Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

2 L. ACERiFOLiA (Juss. 1. c. p. 24. t. 1. f. 2.) leaves nearly 
opposite, cordate at the base, 5-7-lobed; lobes acute, toothed; 
pedicels shorter than the floral leaves ; calycine lobes oblong, 
acuminated. © ? H. Native of Chili and Peru. Loasa viti- 
f61ia, Ruiz et Pav. H. per. 5. t. 443. ined. L. tricolor, Ker. 
bot. reg. 6G7. Scales as in L. triloba, but the calycine lobes 
are twice the length. Flowers with yellow petals and red scales. 

^laple-lcaved Loasa. PI. tr. 

3 L. BRVONi.EFOLiA (Sclirad. cat. hort. goelt. 1823. pi. rar. 
hort. goett. with a figure) leaves cordate, lower ones 5-lobed, 
stalked, upper ones 3-lobed, almost sessile ; all the lobes are 
sinuately lobed ; pedicels exceeding the floral leaves ; lobes of 
calyx a little toothed, acuminated. ©. H. Native of Chili. 
Stem erect, bristly. Flowers yellow, hardly smaller than tliose 
of L. acerij'vlia. Stigma blunt. Seeds without aril ; hylum 
lateral. 

Bryony-leaved Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

4 L. NiTiDA (Lam. diet. 3. p. 581.) leaves cordate at the base, 
many-lobed ; lobes acute, toothed, lower ones usually pinna- 
tifid ; pedicels axillary ; calycine lobes oblong, toothed, shorter 
tlian the petals ; wings of the corona very small, toothed, and 
stalked ; stamens much shorter than the petals ; style straight, 
shorter than the stamens ; sepals erect, much shorter than 
the pear-shaped fruit. ©. H. Native of Chili and Peru, 
on the mountains. Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 25. t. 2. f. 2. 
Trat. tabl. 1. t. 23. Hook. exot. fl. t. 83. bot. mag. 2372. 
Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 445. Petals spreadingly reflexed, 
yellow, red at the base ; scales red. Lobes of leaves bluntish. 
Stems prostrate. 

lar.fi; leaves more deeply lobed; lobes narrower. — Chili, 
about Valparaiso. L. tricolor, Lindl. bot. reg. 667. 
Shining IjOz&^l. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1822. Pl.tr. 

5 L. sagitta'ta (Hook. etArn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 238.) stems 
twining, pubescent ; leaves all petiolate, opposite, cordately- 
sagittate, acuminated, with rather lobed margins : the lobes 
crenated ; peduncles axillary and terminal, few-flowered ; caly- 
cine lobes ovate-oblong. 0. '^. H. Native of Chiloe. There 
has none of the stinging hairs, so peculiar to this genus, been 
observed on this species. 

SagittateAea.\eA Loasa. PL tw. 

6 L. elokga'ta (Hook, et Am. in bot. misc. 3. p. 239.) stems 
much elongated, nearly simple, shining ; leaves remote, oppo- 
site, petiolate, cordate at the base, 5-7-lobed ; peduncles axil- 
lary, few-flowered, twice the length of the leaves ; calycine 
lobes broadly ovate, shorter than the petals, which are red ; fruit 
hemispherical. ©. H. Native of Chili, about Coquimbo. 

E longaled-stemmed Loasa. PI. 2 to 3 feet. 

7 L. prostra'ta (Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb.journ. 
3. p. 274.) stems prostrate, flexuous ; leaves opposite, sessile, 
cordate, ovate, deeply angular ; peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, 
about twice the length of the leaves ; calycine lobes lanceolate, 
longer than the fruit, and about equal in length to the petals ; 
valves of capsule closely beset by long, rigid hairs ; seeds egg- 
shaped, large, with a smooth testa. ©. H. Native of Chili, 
on La Cuesta de los Manantiales, Cerro de San Pedro Nolasco, 
S-c. Plant covered with long, rigid, stinging hairs. 

tar. /3, Cumingii (Hook, et Arnott, in bot. misc. 3. p. 239.) 
segments of leaves bipinnatifidly and sinuately toothed. About 
Valparaiso, and on the mountains near Aconcugua. In the spe- 
cies the segments of the leaves are simply and sinuately toothed. 

Prostrate Loasa. PI. prostrate. 

8 L. pa'llida (Gill. mss. ex Arn. in Cheek, edinb. journ. 3. p. 



274.) epidermis of stem loose, and shining ; leaves opposite, all pe- 
tiolate, ovate, coarsely toothed ; panicles oj)posite, axillary, much 
longer than the leaves ; pedicels short, in the forks, about equal 
in length to the flowers ; calycine lobes linear-oblong, one half 
shorter than the petals. ©. H. Native of Chili, among loose 
debris, on the banks of the El Rio del Yeso, near Arroyo de 
San Nicholas, at the elevation of about 5000 feet, &c., where it 
is called by the inhabitants Cacalluna. The plant is most nearly 
allied to L. sclarccrfblia, Juss. Imt that does not appear to have 
the loose epidermis on the stem, and the leaves are much larger. 
The pedicels in the forks of the panicle are elongated. 
Pate Loasa. PI. prostrate. 

9 L. LATERiTiA (Gill, iiiss. cx Amott, in Cheek, edin. journ. 
3. p. 275.) stems almost wanting ; leaves opposite, on long pe- 
tioles, pinnate ; segments roundish, crenated, lobed ; peduncles 
twin, 1 -flowered, terminal, about equal in length to the leaves ; 
calycine lobes oval, exceeding the tube, but one half shorter than 
the corolla. ©. H. Native of Chili, at Los Iniposibles, near 
the foot of the descent from the Planchon towards Chili, and in 
El Valle de Tray Carlos, at the base of the volcano of Pateroa, 
at an elevation of 9000 feet. This species is readily distin- 
guished by its large flowers of a brick red colour, and by its 
very short stems and radical branches, each of which bear 1 or 
2 pairs of opposite leaves, and between the ujiper pair of which 
arise 2 1 -flowered peduncles, terminating the branch. Seeds 
with a strongly reticulated testa like the next species ; and as in 
it the hairs are short and not stinging. 

£ncA:-coloured- flowered Loasa. PI. prostrate. 

10 L. piNNATiFiDA (Gill. mss. ex Arnott in Cheek, edinb. journ. 
3. p. 275.) stems nearly erect ; leaves opposite, on long petioles: 
radical and lower ones pinnate : segments pinnatifid, with round- 
ish approximate lobes ; upper leaves pinnatifid ; peduncles axil- 
lary, usually 1 -flowered; calycine lobes ovate, much shorter 
than the corolla, and half tlie length of the fruit. ©. H. Native 
of Chili, at La Cuesta del Inga, at an elevation of about 9000 
feet. Plant with short rigid, but not stinging hairs. 

Pinnatijid-\ea.\e<\. Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

1 1 L. disse'cta (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 240.) stem 
erectish, strong, a little branched at the apex, with a loose white 
epidermis ; petioles opposite, lower ones elongated, becoming 
gradually shorter to the top of the stem ; leaves tripinnatifid, 
with the ultimate segments ovate-obtuse ; pedicels short, rising 
from the forks of the stem ; calycine lobes narrow-oblong, not 
half so long as the petals. ©. H. Native about Valparaiso, 
Los Ogos de Agua, and Aconcugua. 

Dissecled-\ea.\cA Loasa. PL I foot. 

12 L. HETEROPiiYLLA (Hook, et Am. in bot. misc. 3. p. 228.) 
stem prostrate, dichotomous ; leaves opposite, on short petioles ; 
lower ones small, hastately triangular, coarsely toothed : lower 
floral ones nearly reniform, 5-lobed, with the lobes nearly equal, 
and furnished with 1 or 2 teeth each ; but the middle lobe of the 
uppermost leaves is rather lengthened ; peduncles in the forks 
longer than the leaves ; calycine lobes oblong-lanceolate, about 
equal in length to the petals; fruit conically hemispherical. ©. 
H. Native about Valparaiso ? and at Los Ogos de Agua. The 
stem is rarely pubescent ; but the branches, particularly in their 
upper part, and the turbinate tube of the calyx, are provided 
with long sharp spreading hairs. 

Variable-leaved Loasa. PL prostrate. 

13 L. ACANTiiuoLiA (Lam. diet. 3. p. 579.) leaves cordate at 
the base, pinnatifid ; lobes acuminated, sinuately toothed ; pe- 
dicels axillary, and also from the forks, solit<iry, 1 -flowered; 
lobes of calyx narrow, acuminated, reflexed, equal in length to 
the petals, which are bidentate. ©. H. Native of Chili. Juss. 
ann. mus. 5. p. 25. t. 3. f. 2. L. nitida, bot. mag. 2372? L. 
cymbaepctala, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 442. b. ined. Ortiga 



6i 



LOASEiE. III. LoAsA. 



Chilensis, Feuill. obs. 2. p. 757. t. 43. Petals yellow. Scales 
red. Herb erect, 4 feet bigli. The leaves are often alternate. 
Acanthus-leaved Loasa. PI. 4 to 5 feet. 

14 L. RuizrANA ; leaves opposite, ovate, coarsely serrated, 
iioary from down, petiolate; peduncles axillary and terminal, 1- 
flowered ; calycine segments acute, much shorter than the petals, 
which are cucullate. ©. H. Native of Peru. L. incana, Ruiz 
et Pav. fl. per. vol. 5. t. 441. ined. (v, s. herb. Lamb.) 

Ruiz's Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

15 L. scLARE.EFOLiA (Juss. 1. c. 5. p. 25. t. 1. f. 1.) leaves 
ovate-oblong, sinuately lobed ; lobes acute, toothed ; upper 
leaves sessile; pedicels solitary, 1 -flowered in the forks of the 
stem ; calycine lobes oblong, acuminated, shorter than the pe- 
tals. ©. H. Native of Cliili, where it is called Urtka brava, 
Tratt. t. 22. Scales emarginate at the apex. 

Sclary-leaved Loasa. PI. tr. 

IC L. Pla'cei (Lindl. in liort. trans. 6. p. 97.) leaves cordate 
at the base, many lobed : upper ones sessile ; pedicels axillary ; 
sepals hardly toothed, reflexed, length of petals ; the wings of the 
corona sessile, and quite entire ; the longest of the stamens as 
long as the petals ; style bent, longer than the stamens ; capsule 
obovate, shorter than the reflexed sepals. Q. H. Native of 
Chili. L. acanthifolia, Ker, hot. reg. t. 785. but not of Juss. 
Flowers yellow, with red scales. 

P/ace'i Loasa. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1822. PI. 4 to 6 feet. 

17 L. grandiflora (Lam. diet. 3. p. 580.) lower leaves oppo- 
site ; upper ones alternate, cordate at the base, 5-Iobed ; lobes 
deeply toothed; flowers axillary and terminal, on long pedicels ; 
lobes of calyx acuminated, siiorter than the petals. 0. H. Na- 
tive of Peru. Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 26. t. 4. f. 2. Tratt. tab. t. 
29. Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 440. Lower leaves on long, and 
upper on short petioles. Flowers yellow. Scales oblong, 2- 
lobed, not appendiculate on the outside. 

Great-Jloirered Loasa. Fl. Ju. Sept. Clt. 1825. PI. 2 to 3 ft. 

18 L. floribu'nda (Hook, et Am. in bot. misc. 3. p. 239.) 
root simple, fusiform ; stem short, with a loose epidermis, simple 
beneath the inflorescence, but much branched and panicled 
above ; leaves oval-oblong, petiolate : cauline ones opposite, 
sinuately lobed, coarsely toothed, cordate at the base : lower 
floral ones alternate, sinuately lobed : upper floral ones smaller, 
cuneated at the biise, toothed or quite entire ; pedicels short, 
rising from the forks of the stems ; calycine lobes elliptic, acute, 
: ttenuated at the base, shorter than the apiculated petals ; scales 
furnished with 3 appendages each on the back above the middle. 
©. H. Native about Valparaiso, and on the Cordillera of Chili. 

Bundle-Jlowered Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

* * Leaves alternate. 

19 L. Loxe'nsis (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 116.) 
leaves alternate, and nearly opposite, ovate-oblong, 3-5 -lobed ; 
lobes irregularly toothed ; middle lobe very large ; flowers ter- 
minal and axillary, somewhat racemose ; lobes of calyx ovate, 
acuminated, 3-nerved. Jj . S. Native of Peru, near Loxa. 
Leaves white beneath. Flowers yellow. Scales rounded at the 
apex, drawn out into a lobe at both ends. Herb suffniticose 
branched. 

Loxa Loasa. Shrub. 

20 L. argemonoIdes (Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 26.) leaves cor- 
date, sinuately lobed, tomentose on both surfaces, white beneath ; 
flowers terminal and .ixillary, pedicellate ; lobes of calyx lanceo- 
late, one-half shorter than the petals. 1/ . S. Native of South 
America, near Santa Fe de Bogota. Humb. et Bonpl. pi. equin. 
1. p. 53. t. 15. H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 26. Tratt. 
tab. t. 30. Flowers nearly 3 inches in diameter. Scales bifid, 
furnished with 2 acute lobes, which are gibbous at the base. 

Araemone-like Loasa. PI. 6 to 10 feet. 



21 L. ranunculifolia (Humb. et Bonpl. pi. equin. 1. p. 50. 
t. 14.) leaves all alternate, somewhat orbicular, cordate, toothed, 
clothed with yellowish tomentum above, and silky white tomen- 
tum beneath ; flowers terminal and axillary, somewhat race- 
mose ; lobes of calyx ovate-lanceolate, acute. 7/ . S. Native 
of Peru, on the Andes near Caxamarca. H. B. et Kunth, nov. 
gen. amer. 6. p. 117. Tratt. tab. t. 27. Flowers large, yellow. 
Scales bifid, bigibbous at the base. 

Cron-foot-leaved Loasa. PI. 2 feet. 

22 L. inca'na (Graham in edinb. phil. journ. Oct. 1830.) 
plant suflTruticose, reddish, erectish ; leaves scattered, petiolate, 
ovate-lanceolate, hoary, deeply serrated, scabrous ; peduncles 
1 -flowered, opposite the leaves. (^ . G. Native of Peru, from 
Yazo to the valley of Canta. Corolla white. Whole plant 
covered densely with harsh barbed white hairs, intermixed by a 
few stinging ones. Cuticle papery, and pealing off. 

Hoary Loasa. Fl. Oct. Nov. Clt. 1830. PI. 2 feet. 

23 L. Xanthhfolia (Juss. 1. c. t. 2. f. 1.) leaves petiolate, 
cordate, oblong, acute, coarsely toothed ; pedicels extra-axillary ; 
lobes of calyx oblong, hardly acute. ©. H. Native of Peru. 
Flowers small, yellow. Stems a foot and half high. Trat. tab. t. 26. 

Xanlhium-lcaved Loasa. PI. \^ foot. 

24 L. ciiENOPODiFOLiA (Lam. diet. 3. p. 550.) leaves petiolate, 
somewhat ovate, deeply toothed ; racemes loose, leafy, terminal ; 
flowers drooping. ©. H. Native of Peru. Perhaps a mere 
variety of the preceding, according to Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 26. 

Goosefoot-leaved Loasa. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

25 L. PARviFLORA (Schrad. pl. rar. bras. ined. ex D. C. prod. 
3. p. 342.) leaves on long petioles, ovate-cordate, sinuately 3-7- 
lobed, hairy ; flowers racemose ; racemes e.\tra axillary, few- 
flowered, shorter than the leaves ; lobes of calyx acutish. ©. H. 
Native of Brazil, in the provinces of the Mines. Peduncles 
and calyxes bristly. Flowers with white petals and brown 
scales. Bristles or sterile stamens at back of scales white. 

Small-flowered Loasa. PI. trailing. 

26 L. a'spera (Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 441. i.) hispid; 
leaves alternate, angularly lobed, and coarsely toothed ; pedun- 
cles solitary, lateral ; calyx long, very hispid ; calycine segments 
ovate, longer than the petals. ©. H. Native of Peru. 

Rough Loasa. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

27 L. ambrosi.ef6lia (Juss. FIG. 12. 
1. c. t. 4. f. 1.) leaves petiolate, 
bipinnatifid ; lobes and lobules 
bluntish ; pedicels extra-axil- 
lary ; lobes of calyx lanceolate- 
linear, acute, shorter than the 
petals. ©. H. Native of Peru. 
Stem a foot high, hardly branch- 
ed. Herb beset with yellowish 
prickles. Flowers yellow, an 
inch in diameter. Tratt. tab. t. 
31. Scales bifid, not appendi- 
culate on the outside. 

Var. (3, hispida (D. C. prod. 
3. p. 342.) lobes of leaves very 
numerous, broader and more 
crowded. Loksa iirens, Jacq. 
obs. 2. p. 15. t. 33. Lam. diet. 3. p. 578. Tratt. tab. t. 32. 
L. hispida, Lin. syst. ed. 12. p. 364. L. bipinnatifida, Ruiz et 
Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 439. ined. 

Ambrosia-leaved Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

28 L. volu'bilis (Juss. I.e. t. 5. f. 1.) leaves alternate and 
opposite, bipinnatifid ; lobes linear, obtuse ; flowers terminal 
and axillary, pedicellate ; lobes of calyx a little toothed, one 
half shorter than the petals ; stem twining. ©. H. Native of 
Chili, near Conception, in sandy places ; and of Peru. Tratt. tab. 



^%5 




LOASEiE. III. LoAsA. IV. Caiopiiora. V. ScvniANTiius. VI. Mentzelia. 



65 



t. 34. L. niultifiila, Ruiz ct Pav. 11. [>cr. 5. t. 443. b. Scales 
2-lobc(l. Flowers small, yellow. 

Twiniiifr Loasa. PI. tw. 

2i> L. TRirHYLLA (J iiss. 1. c. p. 27. t. 5. f. 2.) leaves for the 
most part cut into 3 stalked, oblonjj, toothed segments : a few 
tripartite ; pedicels extra-axillary ; calycine lobes elliptic-oblong. 
©. H. Native of Peru, on the Andes, in the high plains. 
Tratt. tab. 1. t. 21. H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. G. p. 
118. Stems ascending. 

Threc-kavcd Loasa. PI. ascending, 1 foot. 

30 L. PAPAVEKiFOLiA (H. B. et Kuntli, nov. gen. amer. G. p. 
118.) leaves trifoliate; segments or leaflets stalked, oblong, 
toothed : middle leaflet large, pinnatifid ; flowers opposite the 
leaves, disposed in something like racemes ; lobes of calyx ellip- 
tic, 3-nerved. Q. H. Native of the Andes, about Quindiu. 
Stem simple, ascending. Flowers white. There is a figure in 
the Flora Mexicana which agrees with this plant, except tiiat the 
petals are drawn bifid at the apex. 

Poppy-leaved Loasa. PI. 1 foot. 

Cult. All the species of Loasa bear such beautiful flowers, 
that they are all worth cultivating for ornament, but they are 
so full of stings that it is impossible to handle them. The 
seeds of the annual species should be sown early in spring in 
the open ground, and the plants so raised will flower and pro- 
duce seed the same season ; or the seeds may be sown in pots, and 
reared in a hot-bed, and the plants may afterwards be planted out 
in the open border, in any convenient situation. AH the species 
require a rich light soil and a warm situation. Some of the 
species are said to be perennial ; we suppose all would be so if 
they were protected from frost. 

IV. CAIO'PHORA (meaning not explained). Presl. in 
reliq. Haenk. 2. p. 43. 

Lin. syst. Pohjdelphia, Polydndria. Calyx 5-parted ; seg- 
ments jagged. Petals 5, unguiculate, concave. Scales 5, peta- 
loid, emarginate, or 4-toothed at the apex, each furnished with 
4 sterile filaments inside. Stamens numerous, disposed in 5 
bundles. Style trigonal, permanent ; stigmas 3, conniving. 
Capsule ovate-oblong, with elevated spiral ribs, crowned by the 
reflexed calyx, 1 -celled, many-seeded, opening at 3 of the su- 
tures. Placentas marginal in the valves, but at length distinct 
from them. Seeds angidar, echinated by bristles or reticulated. 
— Usually climbing plants, with the habit of Loasa, beset with 
stinging hairs. Peduncles 1 -flowered. Flowers yellow. This 
genus differs from Loasa and Blumenhachia in the dehiscence of 
the capsule, in the scales being furnished with 4 sterile filaments 
instead of 3, and in many other points. There are several plants 
now referred to the genus Blumenhachia which belong to this ge- 
nus; viz. B. grandiflora, which is Caiophora eontorta, Prcsl. reliq. 
Haenk. 2. p. 42. and B. punicea, which is evidently the Caiophora 
circiifolia, Presl. 1. c. t. 54. and carduifolia, Presl. 1. c. p. 42. 

1 C coron.a'ta (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 238.) 
stems short ; leaves opposite, petiolate, pinnate ; segments bi- 
pinnatiliil : lobules denticulated; peduncles axillary, 1-flovvered, 
elongated ; calycine lobes pinnatifid, with linear segments, longer 
than the ovarium. ©. H. Native of Chili, on both sides of 
the Cordillera of the Andes, between Mendoza and Chili, at an 
elevation of 8500 to 1 1 ,000 feet. The furrows of the fruit are 
nearly straight, or hardly spiral, so that this species partakes in 
some degree of the characters oi Loasa. Loasa coronata, Gill, 
mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, in edinb. journ. 3. p. 274. C. ab- 
sinthaefolia, Presl. in reliq. Ha>nk. 2. p. 43. 

Cronncd Caiophora. PI. prostrate, rising 1 to 2 feet. 

Cull. See Loasa for culture and propagation. 

V. SCyPHA'NTHUS (<7/.v^oc, scyphos, a cup, and afdoc, 

VOL. III. 



anthos, a flower ; in reference to the form of the flower). Sweet, 
fl. gard. t. 238. 

Lin. syst. Palyadclphia, Polydndria. Calyx ilee])ly 5- 
parted, permanent, equal. Petals 5, mserted in the base of the 
calyx, on very short claws, concave, equal. Scales inserted with 
the petals, peltate at the apex, lobed, 3-horned. Stamens nu- 
merous, perigynous, the 1 exterior ones destitute of anthers ; 
and these are jjlaced by twos o|)posite the scales, and are longer 
than the rest, which are disposed in 5 fascicles o))posite the 
petals ; anthers 2-celled, erect. Ovarium prismatic, silique- 
formed ; style one, erect, trigonal. Capsule jirismatic, silique- 
formed, crowned by the tube of the calyx, 3-valved at the apex ; 
seeds oval, wrinkled. — A twining herb, having its branches beset 
with retrograde striga;. Leaves opposite, pinnatifid ; superior 
ones bipinnatifid, hispid from hairs. Flowers sessile, erect, 
solitary, yellow. 

1 S. e'legans (Sweet, 1. c). 0. H. Native of Chili. 
Stem dichotomous. Segments of leaves obtuse, ciliated. Gram- 
matocarpus voh'ibilis, Presl. symb. bot. 1. p. Gl. t. 38. 

£/egan^ Scyphanthus. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1824. PI. cl. 

Cult. An elegant plant. For its culture and propagation, 
see Loasa. 

VI. MENTZE^LIA (in honour of Christian Mcntzelius ; 
physician to the Elector of Brandenburgh ; published Centuria 
Plantarum Circa Gedanum, 4to. 1650. and Index nominum Plan- 
tarum Multilinguis, fol. 1682. 1696. and 1715.). Plum. nov. 
gen. 40. t. 6. Lin. gen. no. 670. Juss. ann. mus. 5. p. 24. 
Lam. ill. t. 425. H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 11!). 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 343. — Ondgrse spec. Tour. 

Lin. syst. Icosdndiia, Monogijnia. Calyx permanent, with 
a cylindrical, somewhat 5-furrovved tube, and 5 lanceolate or 
subulate, equal lobes (f. 13. d.). Petals 5 (f. 10. a.), equal, 
inserted in the upper part of the tube of the calyx. Stamens 
indefinite (f 13. <?.), multiple the number of the petals, and 
inserted with them ; filaments free, usually disposed in 5 bun- 
dles ; anthers erect, ovate, bilocular. Ovarium adnate to the 
calycine tube. Styles 3, connected to the middle or to the top, 
marked by 3 corresponding stripes. Capsule turbinately cylin- 
drical, crowned by the calycine lobes (f. 13./.), ] -celled, 3- 
valved at the apex. Seeds 3-G-9, or irregular in number in con- 
sequence of abortion, inserted in 3 parietal placentas. — Erect, 
branched, dichotomous herbs, rough from bearded or glochidate 
stiff hairs. Leaves alternate, or nearly opposite, coarsely toothed. 
Flowers of a deep orange colour, solitary, almost sessile in the 
forks of the stem, or pseudo-axillary from one of the branches 
being abortive, expanding in the height of the sun. 

* Stamens 20-25, all nearly equal. Seeds 3-6. Floners smaller. 

1 M. a'spera (Lin. spec. ed. 1. p. 516.) petals roundish-oval, 
obtuse, hardly longer than the calycine limb, but much exceed- 
ing the stamens. ©. F. Native of the Antilles (Plum. ed. 
Burm. t. 174. f. 1.); Jamaica (P. Browne, jam. p. 249.); St. 
Domingo (Bertero). Seeds 5; parietal smooth, compressed. 
Hairs on phint glochidate at the apex. 

Rough Mentzelia. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1733, PL 1 to 2 ft. 

2 M. oligospe'rma (Nutt. in Sims, bot. mag. t. 1760.) petals 
oval, acuminated, longer than the calyx, but very little longer 
than the stamens. If.. G. Native of Louisiana, on the bLmks 
of the river Missouri, among rocks. M. aurea, Nutt. gen. amer. 
1. p. 300. Root tuberous, succulent. Seeds 3, smooth, linear- 
oblong. Hairs on plant bearded their whole length. 

Few-seeded Mentzelia. Fl. May, Jul. Clt. 1812. PI. 1 to 2 ft. 

* * Stamens 30-100, the 10 exterior ones the longest. Seeds 
6-9. Flowers larger than those of the last section. 

3 M. uispiDA (Willd. spec. 2. p. 1 176.) petals obovate, mu- 
K 



66 



LOASEiE. VI. Mentzelia. VII. Klaprotiiia. TURNERACEiE. 




cronately acuminated, longer than the calyx ; stamens 30-35 ; 
leaves and flowers nearly sessile. % . G. Native of Mexico. 
Juss. ami. mus. 5. p. 24. M. aspera, Cav. icon. 1. p. 51. t. 70. 
exclusive of the synonyms. Flowers 15 lines in diameter. 
Seeds G, ovate, compressed. FIG. 13. 

Root violently purgative, and is 
used in the cure of syphilis. The 
Mexican name of the plant is 
Z a zoic. 

Hispid Mentzelia. Fl. June, 
July. Clt. 18^'0. PI. 3 feet. 

4 M. sTRiGOSA (H. B. et 
Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 
120.) petals obovate, mucro- 
nately cuspidate, 2 or 3 times 
longer than the calyx ; stamens 
about 50 ; leaves and flowers 
almost sessile ; hairs on the 
branches retrograde. If. . G. 
Native of Mexico, near Rio Sar- 
co. Filaments of outer stamens dilated at the apex. Ovula 10. 

Strigosc Mentzelia. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

5 M. sca'bua (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) petals obovate, acute, a 
little longer than the calyx; stamens 100-110; flowers sessile 
in the forks of the stems ; leaves petiolate. 1/ . G. Native of 
New Granada, on the Andes about Pasto. Seeds scabrous, 6-9. 

<S'c«i;oMi-seeded Mentzelia. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

6 M. GRANDiFLORA (Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 5. t. 441. ined.) 
petals obovate, pointed, much longer than the calyx ; calycine 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, reflexed when the flowers 
are open ; stamens numerous, from 30-40, unequal, outer ones 
the longest ; leaves alternate, ovate, coarsely toothed, on short 
petioles. If. G. Native of Peru. 

Great-Jlowercd Mentzelia. PI. 2 to 3 feet. 

7 M. JURTA (Pav. in herb. Lamb.) calyx covered with long 
hairs ; calycine segments lanceolate, much shorter than the 
petals; stamens numerous; leaves cordate, lobed, obtuse, alter- 
nate, clothed with soft pubescence ; peduncles many-flowered. 
%. G. Native of Mexico, (v. s. in herb. Lamb.) 

Hairy Mentzelia. PL 1 foot. 

8 M. sTii'iTA^TA (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 343.) petals oval, mucronately cuspidate, much 
longer than the calyx ; stamens 30-40 ; flowers and leaves stipi- 
tate. 11. G. Native of Mexico. Presl. in Haank. reliq. 2. 
p. 40. Branches, pedicels, and ovaries scabrous from hairs. 
Leaves ovate, acuminated, 3-lobed, doubly toothed. Flowers 
lateral and terminal, solitary. 

Stijiilale-fiowexeA Mentzelia. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

Cult. The species grow well in any light rich soil ; and cut- 
tings will root readily in sand, under a hand-glass. They are 
also easily reared from seeds, which ripen in this country. 

VII. KLAPROTHIA (in honour of Martin Henry Klap- 
roth, of Berlin, a celebrated chemist, and great friend of Hum- 
boldt). H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 121. t. 537. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 343. 

LiN. SYST. Icosandria, Monogynia. Calyx permanent, with 
a turbinate tube and a 4-parted limb; lobes ovate, equal. Pe- 
tals 4, on very short claws. Stamens numerous, especially 4-5 
fertile ones in front of each petal ; these are longer than the others, 
and 4-5 sterile ones In front of each sepal ; these are pilose, and 
somewhat dilated at the apex into a 2-lobed membrane. Styles 
4, connected together almost to the apex in one. Ovarium 1- 
celled, 8-nerved inside, and 4-ovulate ; ovula pendulous, fixed 
to the nerves opposite the sepals. Fruit baccate. Herb twin- 
ing ; branches scabrous from retrograde hairs. Leaves oppo- 



site, sharply toothed, stalked. Peduncles cymosely corymbose 
at the tops of the branches. Flowers white. 

1 K. Mentzelioidf.s (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c). ©. H. Native 
of the Andes, about Quindiu, near the volcanos. 

Mentzelia-like Klaprotiiia. PI. tw. 

Cult. For culture and propagation see Loasa, p. 65. 

Order CVIII. TURNERA'CE^ (plants agreeing with 
Tiirnera in important characters). H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. 
amer. 6. p. 123. D. C. prod. 3. p. 345. 

Calyx free, usually coloured more or less, profoundly 5 -cleft 
(f. 14. a.), deciduous; lobes equal, imbricate in estivation. 
Petals 5, equal (f. 14. 6.), inserted into the upper part of the t 

tube of the calyx, and alternating with its lobes, narrow at the 
base, twisted in sestlvation. Stamens 5, inserted in the upper 
part of the tube of the calyx below the petals, and alternating 
with them ; filaments free, flat ; anthers oblong, erect, 2-celled 
(f. 14. c). Ovarium free, 1-celled (f. 14. d.), many-ovulate. 
Ovula ascending (f. 14./.), fixed to 3 linear parietal placentas. 
Styles 3 (f. 14. e.) or 6, usually more or less deeply bifid, and 
cleft into many stigmas at the apex (f. 14. e.). Capsule 3- 
valved, 1-celled (f. 14. /.) ; valves bearing the seeds in their 
middle, along a longitudinal placenta, opening from the apex as 
far as the middle. Seeds subcylindrlcal, carved, crustaceous, 
reticulated, furnished with a thin, membranous arillus on one 
side. Hllum situated at the base of the seed. Embryo in the 
centre of a fleshy albumen, somewhat incurved, spatulate, with 
the radicle turned towards the hllum, and with plano-subconvex 
cotyledons. — Shrubs, subshrubs, and herbaceous plants, with a 
simple pubescence. Leaves alternate or scattered, simple, ex- 
stipulate, with occasionally 2 glands at the apex of the petioles, 
toothed, rarely pinnatlfid. Flowers axillary, sessile, or pe- 
dunculate ; the peduncles either distinct or connected with 
the petioles, simple and 1 -flowered or branched and many- 
flowered, articulated in the middle or furnished with 2 small 
bracteoles. Petals yellow or yellowish, rarely blue. This 
order is placed by De CandoUe between Locisea and Fuuquie- 
racece, chiefly it would seem on account of Its manifest relation 
to the former, and its perlgynous stamens. With Mahacece It 
agrees In the twisted aestivation of the corolla and habit. With 
Loasece and Passijlbiece, they have also much in common. In 
the structure of the fruit it agrees with Viularieee and Cistinece, 
but differs In the petals and stamens being inserted into the 
calyx, and the circumstance of their certain relationship to 
Cistinece gives great weight to the ingenious approximation, by 
M. Du Petit Thours, of Passijlorece to Violaricw. The pre- 
sence of glands upon the ends of the petioles of Turneracece is 
a confirmation of their affinity to the former. It is distinguished 
from Loasece by the fruit being superior and 1-celled, with pa- 
rietal placentas, and by the definite stamens ; the former cha- 
racter is, however, weakened by the nearly superior fruit of 
some Loasece. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 
1 Turne'ra. Styles 3 (f. 14. e.), simple, divided at the 
apex into multifid stigmas (f. 14. e.). Capsule opening from 
the top to the middle. 



TURNERACE^. I. Tuunera. 



2 Perique'ta. Styles 3, deeply 2-partctl, crowned by 2 mul- 
tifid stigmas eacli. Capsule opening from the top to the base. 

I. TURNE'RA (so named by Linnasus in memory of William 
Turner, M.D., Prebendary of York, Canon of Windsor, and 
Dean of Wells ; student of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, 1538 ; 
died 1568. Author of a New Herbal, London, 1551. fol. Se- 
cond part, Cologn, 1502. Second edition, CoUen, 15GC, with 
the addition of a tliird part, Sec). Plum. gen. p. 15. t. 12. Lin. 
gen. 376. Juss. gen. 313. Gaertn. fruct. l.p. 366. t. 76. H. B. 
et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 123. St. Hi!, fl. bras. 2. p. 212. 
— Turnera, sect. 1. Lam. ill. t. 212. diet. 8. p. Ml. 

Lin. svst. Penlandria, Trigi'/nia. Calyx tubularly funnel- 
shaped (f. 14. a.). Styles 3 (f. Ik c), simple, cleft at the apex 
into niultifid stigmas (f. 14. e.). Capsule opening from the 
apex to the middle. 

§ 1. Peduncles joined with the petioles, bibracteate, 
* Leaves biglaiididar at the base, 

1 T. uLMiFOLiA (Lin. spec. ed. 1. p. 965.) leaves oblong, 
acute, serrated, pubescent above, but clothed with white tomen- 
tum beneath, and bi^tandular at the base ; flowers almost ses- 
sile ; styles shorter than the stamens. $ . S. Native of South 
America every where ; common in Brazil. Lin. hort. cliff. 122. 
t. 10.— Sloan, hist. 1. t. 127. f. 4-5.— Mill. fig. t. 268. f. 2. 
Flowers yellow, about the size of those of Ltnum trigymim. 

far. /3, angiistifdlia (D. C. prod. 3. p. 346.) leaves oblong- 
lanceolate. I; . S. Native along with the species. T. angus- 
tifolia. Curt. hot. mag. t. 281. Link. enum. 1. p. 293. T. 
ulmifolia /3, Willd. spec. 1. p. 1503. 

Elm-leaved Turnera. Fl. Ju. Sept. Clt. 1733. Sh. 2 to 4 ft. 

2 T. cuNEiFORMis (Juss. in Poir. diet. 8. p. 142.) leaves cu- 
neifornily obovate, coarsely serrated, pubescent above, but clothed 
with white tomentum beneath, and biglandular at the base ; 
flowers nearly sessile. T; . S. Native of Brazil, about Rio 
Janeiro. Spreng. nov. prov. 42. St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 213. 
Otto, in hort. berol. 36. T. obtusifolia. Smith, in Rees' cycl. 
vol. 36. no. 3. Petals yellow, with the claws brownish. Cap- 
sule globose. 

Var.ji; leaves and branches closely clothed with tomentum; 
stem dwarf. T. odorata, Vahl. in herb. Juss. 

n'crfg('-/orj»crf-leaved Turnera. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1821. 
Shrub 1 to 3 feet. 

3 T. TRioNiFLORA (Sims, bog. t. 2106.) leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late, coarsely serrated, cuneated at the base, and quite entire, 
pubescent; flowers sessile ; styles exceeding the stamens. fj.S. 
Native of Brazil, island of Trinidad, and Mexico. T. elegans. 
Otto, 1. c. Link, enum. 1. p. 2:'3. Petals pale yellow, or sul- 
phur-coloured, with purplish-brown claws. Bracteoles subu- 
late. Flowers as large as those oi Bladder-kelmia. 

Ketmia-flonercd Tuvnera. Fl. year. Clt. 1812. PI. 1 to 2 ft. 

4 T. LAMiiFOLiA (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 213.) leaves roundish- 
obovate, unequally crenate-tootlied, clothed with soft hairs 
above and woolly tomentum beneath, biglandular at the base ; 
flowers on short peduncles ; styles a little shorter than the 
stamens. f^ . S. Native of Brazil, in the southern part of the 
province of Goyaz. Petals yellow, rather truncate at the apex. 

Dead-ncttle-lcared Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

5 T. lanceola'ta (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 214.) leaves linear- 
lanceolate, acute, nearly entire, hairy, biglandular at the base 
beneath ; flowers almost sessile. ^ . S. Native of Brazil, in 
the provinces of Goyaz and Minas Geraes. Petals obovate- 
oblong, yellow. Styles exceeding the stamens a little. 

Lanceolate-\eSi\eA Turnera. .Shrub ^ foot. 
G T. OBLONGiFOLiA (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 215.) leaves ob- 
long, acute, obsoletely and dentately serrated, beset with rufes- 



cent hairs, biglandidar at the base beneath ; flowers almost ses- 
sile; styles a little longer than the stamens. Ij . .S. Native of 
Brazil, in the provinces of Minas Geraes and St. Paul, in 
grassy p.isturcs and fields. Petals oblong, obovate, yellow. 
Oblong-leaved Turnera. Shrub ^ to 1 foot. 

7 T. cceru'lea (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 346.) leaves oblong, coarsely serrated, but (pilte entire 
at the base, and hardly attenuated, clothed with adjiressed villi 
beneath, biglandular at the top of the petiole ; flowers sessile ; 
styles longer than the stamens. %. S. Native of Mexico. 
This species is very like T. trionijlora, but differs in the leaves 
being on shorter petioles, and in being hardly attenuated at the 
base, as well as in the hairs on the lower surface of the leaves 
being adj)ressed. Bulb subfuscous. Flowers blue. 

Bliic-tiowerei] Turnera. PI. ^ to 1 foot. 

8 T. subula'ta (Smith, in Rees' cycl. vol. 36. no. 2.) leaves 
ovate, acute, serrated, clothed with white soft hairs ; bracteoles 
linear-subulate ; flowers sessile. 1/ . S. Native of New Gra- 
nada. Capsuie pilose. Glands of leaves broad. 

Subulate-hractcMl Turnera. PI. 1 foot. 

9 T. acu^ta (Spreng. syst. 1. p. 940.) leaves lanceolate, acu- 
minated at both ends, crenately serrated, glabrous ; flowers 
sessile. Tj . S. Native of Jamaica. Flowers yellow, about 
the size of those of Lhium tr'tgynum. Petioles 3-4 lines long. 
Bracteoles setaceous, adpressed to the calyx. Perhaps T. acuta, 
Willd. rel. in Room, et Schultes, syst. 5. p. 678. exclusive of 
the country. 

y^cii/e-leaved Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

10 T. APiFERA (Mart. reis. bras, ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 346.) 
plant downy ; leaves linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute, atte- 
nuated and biglandular at the base, remotely and acutely ser- 
rated, pubescent ; stem suffruticose ; branches twiggy ; flowers 
petiolar ; bracteas shorter than the calyx. Tj . S. Native of 
Brazil, at Rio Jaquitinhonha and Rio Verde Grande. 

Bee-bearing Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

11 T. sERicEA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 127.) 
leaves oblong, crenately serrated, soft, clothed with adpressed 
pubescence above, and white, silky down beneath ; flowers ses- 
sile ; styles exceeding the stamens. Tj . S. Native of South 
America, about Cumana and between Popayan and Ahnaguer. 
T. Peruviana, Willd. in Roem. et Schultes, syst. 6. p. 679. 
Petals yellow, violaceous at the base. Shrub branched, rather 
prostrate. 

Silhy Turnera. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

12 T. MOLLIS (H. B. et Kunth, I.e. p. 126.) leaves ovate- 
oblong, coarsely crenate-serraled, clothed with silky hairs on 
both surfaces, canescent beneath ; flowers sessile ; styles pilose. 
Ij . S. Native of New Granada, near Honda. Petals yellow, 
with violaceous claws. Capsule roundish-ovate. 

Soft Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

13 T. LONoiFLORA (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 216.) leaves oblong, 
obtuse, crenately toothed, biglandular at the base beneath, 
woolly on both surfaces, but especially beneath ; flowers sessile ; 
styles 3-times longer than the stamens. Tj . S. Native of Bra- 
zil, in the province of Minas Geraes. Petals obovate-oblong, 
yellow, red at the base. 

Long-Jlon-ered Turnera. Shrub 1 to li foot. 

14 T. lute'scens (St. Hil. fl.bras. 2. p. 217.) leaves lanceo- 
late, acute, crenately toothed, lower ones glandless, ujjper bi- 
glandular at the base beneath, clothed with silky pubescence 
on the upper surfaces, and with yellowish tomentum beneath ; 
flowers sessile in fascicles. ^i . S. Native of Brazil, in the 
province of Minas Geraes. Petals oblong-obovate, of a golden 
yellow colour. 

Yellowish Turnera. Shrub 2 to 3 feet. 

15 T. inca'na (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 217.) leaves oblong or 
K 2 



68 



TURNERACE.E. I. Turnera. 



oblong-lanceolate, acutish, crenately-tootlied, clothed with vel- 
vety pubescence above, and hoary tomentum beneath, and bi- 
glandular at the base ; flowers sessde ; styles one half shorter 
than the calyx. Tj . S. Native of Brazil, in the province of 
Goyaz. Petals yellow, obovate-oblong. 

Hoary Turnera. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

\6 T. iiERMANNioiDES (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 218.) leaves 
obovate-oblong, ciineated, unequally toothed, clothed with white 
tomentum on both surfaces, biglandular at the base beneath ; 
flowers sessile ; styles a little longer than the stamens. T? . S. 
Native of Brazil, in that part of the province of Minas Geraes 
called Minas Novas. Petals oblong, marked with brown veins. 

Hermannia-like Turnera^. Shrub 1 to 1^ foot. 

17 T. MELOcHioiDEs (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2*. p. 219.) leaves ob- 
long, obtuse, narrowed at the base, unequally crenate-toothed, 
rather roughish above, and clothed with rufescent tomentum 
beneath, biglandular at the base ; flowers sessile ; styles a little 
shorter than the stamens. T^ . S. Native of Brazil, in the 
province of Minas Geraes. Petals obovate, yel^vv. 

Meloclua-like Turnera. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

18 T. na'na (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 219.) leaves obovate, 
rounded at the apex, erenated, pubescent on both surfaces, but 
especially beneath, biglandular at the base ; flowers sessile ; 
styles S-times longer than the stamens. f? . S. Native of Bra- 
zil, in the province of Minas Geraes. Petals obovate, yellow. 

Dwarf "Y \xmera. PI. \ foot. 

19 T. PINIFOLIA (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2 p. 220.) leaves linear, 
acute, almost quite entire, biglandular at the base beneath ; 
flowers nearly sessile ; styles shorter than the stamens. Pj . S. 
Native of Brazil, in the southern part of the province of Goyaz, 
on a mountain called Serra dos Pyrenees, near the town called 
Meia. Petals oblong, pale yellow. 

Pine-leaved Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

* * Leaves glandless. 

20 T. GENisToiDES (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 220.) leaves linear, 
ac\itish, glandless, hairy ; flowers sessile ; styles twice the length 
of the stamens. Jj . S. Native of Brazil, in the province of 
Minas Geraes, near Tejuco. Petals obovate-oblong, glabrous. 

Genista-like Turnera. Shrub ^ to 1 foot. 

21 T. cham«;drif6lia (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 221.) leaves 
oblong, acute, deeply toothed, glandless, pubescent on both sur- 
faces, but especially beneath ; flowers on short peduncles ; styles 
exceeding the stamens. ^i . S. Native of Brazil, in that part 
of the province of Minas Geraes called Minas Novas, on the 
banks of the river Jiquitinhonha. Petals rose-coloured ? 

Germander-leaved Turnera. Shrub |^ to 1 foot. 

22 T. riNNATiFiDA (Juss. in Poir. diet. 8. p. 144.) leaves 
obovate-oblong, cuneated, toothed, or pinnatifid, glandless, hairy 
or tomentose ; flowers pedunculate ; styles S-times longer than 
the stamens, purple. h . S. Native of Brazil, in the province 
of Cisplatin, in pastures and fields. Petals scarlet, denticulated 
at the apex. 

Jar. fi, angiistiloba (D. C. prod. 3. p. 347.) stems diffuse ; 
leaves hairy, pinnatifid : lobes narrow, acute ; flowers of a dirty 
red or copper colour. ij . S. Native of Brazil, about Monte 
Video, and in the province of Cisplatin. 

Var. y, cdrnea (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 222.) stems ascending, 
C inches high ; leaves hairy, oblong-lanceolate, cuneated, deeply 
toothed ; petals pale red, usually marked at the base with a dark 
purple spot each ; filaments puberulous. ^ . S. Native of 
Brazil, in the province of Cisplatin. 

Pinnatifid leaved Turnera. Shrub i foot. 

2.3 T. SETOSA (Smith, in Rees' cycl. no. G.) leaves obovate- 
wedge-shaped, serrated or pinnatifid, very hairy on both sides, 
without glands ; peduncles axillary, partly combined with the 



footstalks ; outer calyx linear. Ij . S. Native of Monte Video 
and Buenos Ayres. Flowers tawny, red. 
Bristly Turnera. PI. i to ^ foot. 

24 T. PUMiLEA (Lin. amoen. 5. p. 395.) leaves broad-lanceo- 
late, deeply serrated, hairy ; flowers sessile, propped by 2 linear 
bracteas ; styles and stamens length of petals. ©. S. Native 
of Jamaica, in arid fields. Svvartz, obs. 116. — Sloane, jam. hist, 
t. 127. f. 6.— Pumilea, no. 1. P. Browne, jam. 188. Stem 
hardly 3 inches long. Plum. icon. t. 150. f. 1. Flowers small, 
yellow. 

Z>n>rtr/ Turnera. Fl. July. Clt. 1796. PI. i foot. 

25 T. microphy'lla (D. C. prod. 3. p. 347.) leaves oblong, 
attenuated at the base, erenated, wrinkled, clothed with white 
tomentum beneath; flowers sessile, bearing 2 linear, adpressed 
bracteoles at the base. ^ . S. Native of St. Domingo. T. 
pumilea, Poir. diet. 8. p. 143. but not of Swartz. Petiv. gaz. 
t. 38. f. 9. T. diffusa, Willd. rel. in Rcem. et Schultes, syst. 6. 
p. 679. This plant differs from T. pumilea in the stem being 
suffrutescent, nearly a foot high, and much branched. Perhaps 
T. microphylla, Desv. in Hamilt. prod. p. 33. is referrible to this 
plant. 

Small-leaved Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

§ 2. Peduncles distinct from the petioles, axillary. Flowers 
bibracteolate. 

26 T. rupe'stris (Aubl. guian. 1. p. 289. t. 113. f. 1.) leaves 
linear, serrated, glabrous, glandless ; flowers nearly sessile, bear- 
ing 2 setaceous bracteoles at the base. Ij . S. Native of 
Guiana, in the fissures of humid rocks, at the river Sinemari. 
Petals yellow, somewhat toothed at the apex, 3 lines long. 
Flowers small. 

/?ocA; Turnera. Fl. Ju. Sept. Clt. 1824. Shrub 2 to 3 ft. 

27 T. frute'scens (Aubl. 1. c. p. 290. t. 113. f. 2. but not of 
Mill.) leaves lanceolate, acuminated, equally serrated ; flowers 
nearly sessile, bearing 2 sessile, lanceolate-linear bracteoles. 
1; . S. Native of Guiana, in the fissures of rocks, on the banks 
of the river Sinemari. Very like 2'. rupestris, but differs in the 
leaves being broader, and in the serratures being more crowded. 
Flowers small, yellow. 

Far. p, latifolia (D. C. prod. 3. p. 347.) leaves ovate, acute. 
^2 . S. Native of Cayenne. 
Shrubby Turnera. Shrub 5 to 8 feet. 

28 T. TOMENTOSA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 125. 
but not of Willd.) leaves oblong, irregularly crenate-serrated, 
pubescent above, but clothed with canescent tomentum beneath, 
glandless at the base ; flowers sessile, with 6 stamens and 6 
petals. Ij . S. Native of South America, in the province of 
Venezuela. Styles hairy, about equal in length to the stamens. 
Petals yellow. 

Tomentose Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

29 T. siDo'iDES (Lin. niant. p. 58.) leaves obovate-cuneated, 
serrated, quite entire at the base, rather tomentose on both sur- 
faces, pilose on the veins and margin beneath ; flowers on very 
short pedicels ; bracteoles linear, hairy. Tj . ? S. Native of 
Brazil. Habit of T, cistoides. Petals obovate, yellow. 

Sida-like Turnera. Shrub -j foot. 

30 T. carpinifolia (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, doubly serrated, puberulous, biglandular at the base ; 
flowers on short pedicels ; bracteoles ovate, acuminated, serrated. 

Jj . S. Native on the humid banks of the river Orinoco, near 
Maypures. T. acuta, Willd. rel. in Roem. et Schult. syst. (i. 
p. 678. ex Kunth. Flowers yellow. According to Willd. the 
flowers are petiolar ; if such be the case, the plant belongs to 
the preceding section. 

Horncbeam-leaved Tiu'nera. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

31 T. Duartea'na (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 223.) leaves ovate. 



TURNERACE^. I. Turnera. 



G9 



obtuse, crenated, glandless, pubescent above, hairy, tomentose 
beneath, white ; peduncles simple. ^ . S. Native of Brazil, 
in the western part of the province of Minas Geraes. Styles 
shorter than the stamens. Petals 3-times longer than the calyx, 
erose, or rounded at the apex, rose-coloured when dry. Brae- 
teas small, deciduous. 

far. /J, rotundifbUa (St. Hil. 1. c.) leaves smaller, ovate- 
roundish ; flowers yellow. This variety will perhaps constitute 
a distinct species. 

Duarte's Turnera. Shrub 1 foot. 

Si T. HELiANTiiEMOiDEs (St. Hil. 1. c. p. 224.) leaves oblong 
or oblong-lanceolate, acutish, unequally denticulated, glandless, 
pubescent above, but clothed with white tomentum beneath ; 
flowers axillary ; peduncles simple ; bracteas small, deciduous. 
T; . S. Native of Brazil, in the southern part of the province 
of Goyaz, on the banks of the river Parahyba. Petals obovate. 
Styles about equal in length to the stamens. 

Sun-rose-like Turnera. PI. ^ to 1 foot. 



FIG. 14. 




33 T. ROSEA (St. Hil. 1. c. p. 
225.) leaves linear-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, obsoletely denticulated, gla- 
ndless, rather pilose on both sur- 
faces ; pili rufescent ; peduncles 
simple ; bracteas small, deci- 
duous. Tj . S. Native of Brazil, 
in the province of St. Paul, not 
far from the town called Franca. 
Petals rose-coloured, obovate, 
erose at the apex. Styles twice 
the length of the stamens. 

7?oxe-coloured Turnera. PI. 
I to 1 foot. 

34 T. SID.EFOLIA (St. Hil. ]. 
c. p. 227. t. 124.) leaves oblong, 
obtuse, crenated, glandless, ra- 
ther scabrous above, but clothed with hoary tomentum beneath ; 
peduncles axillary, 1-2-flowered; bracteas small, subulate, to- 
mentose. Ij . S. Native of Brazil, in the province of Minas 
Geraes, at a place called Aldea da boa Vista. Petals obovate, 
obsoletely crenulated, yellow. Styles shorter than the stamens. 

Stda-leaied Turnera. Shrub i to 1 foot. 

35 T. au'rea (St. Hil. 1. c. p 226.) leaves oblong, narrowed 
at the base, acute, or rounded at the apex, serrately toothed, 
glandless, beset with golden hairs ; peduncles simple, articulated 
in the middle. Tj . S. Native of Brazil, in the province of 
Minas Geraes, near the town of St. Joao del Rey. Petals twice 
or thrice the length of the calyx, cuneatcd at the base and 
rounded at the apex, rose-coloured or flesh-coloured ; each 
marked by a dark purple spot at the base. Styles shorter than 
the younger stamens. 

GoWen-haired Turnera. Shrub ^ to 1 foot. 

§ 3. Flowers disposed in axillary and terminal racemes. 

36 T. RACEMosA (Jacq. hort. vind. 3. t. 94.) leaves oblong, 
or oblong-lanceolate, acutish, unequally denticulated, glandless, 
pubescent above, and clothed vvitli white tomentum beneath ; 
upper flowers leafless at the base, and therefore disposed in a 
terminal raceme ; peduncles simple. ©. S. Native of Brazil, 
in the province of Minas Geraes, on the banks of the river 
Jiquitinhonha ; and of St. Domingo. Stem and peduncles hispid. 
Petals ovate, yellow, furnished each with a small jagged append- 
age on the inside at the base. Styles longer than the stamens. 

Racemosc-RovieTed Turnera. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1789. 
PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

37 T. SALiciFOLiA (St. Hil. 1. c. p. 227.) leaves lanceolate, 
acuminated, serrated, glandless, smoothish ; peduncles axillary. 



many-flowered, h . S. Native of Brazil, near Rio Janeiro. 
Petals obovate, striated, yellow, denticulated at the apex. Styles 
about equal in length to the calyx. 

Willoiv-leavcd Turnera. Shrub 3 to 3 feet. 

38 T. capita'ta (St. Hil. 1. c. p. 215.) leaves elliptic-oblong, 
or oblong-lanceolate, acute, dcntately serrated, nearly glandless, 
pubescent above, and clothed with yellowish tomentum beneath ; 
flowers sessile, forming a many-flowered head at the tops of the 
branches. Ij . S. Native of Brazil, in the province of Minas 
Geraes, on the margins of woods near Poso Alto, not far from 
the confines of the province of St. Paul, and on the iron moun- 
tains near Nossa Snra da Concecao. Petals obovate-oblong, 
pale yellow. Styles much shorter than the stamens. 

Capitale-RoviexcA Turnera. Shrub 2 to 3 feet. 

39 T. Guiane'nsis (Aubl. guian. 1. p. 291. t. 114.) leaves 
linear, acuminated, remotely serrated, biglandular at the base, 
glabrous on both surfaces ; racemes terminal, few-flowered ; 
pedicels leafless at the base, but bibracteolate under the calyx. 
O. S. Native of Guiana, in moist meadows, and in the plains 
ofCaraccas. H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 124. T. 
Humboldtii, Spreng. syst. 1. p. 241. Glands small, sometimes 
1-2, abortive. Bracteas glandular at the base, ex Aul)l. Cap- 
sule ovate, trigonal, 3 or few-seeded. Flowers yellow. Per- 
haps Humboldt's plant is the same as that of Aublet. 

Guiana Turnera. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1823. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

40 T. gla'bra (D. C. prod. 3. p. 347.) leaves linear, obtuse, 
subserrated, narrowed at the base, glandless ; racemes few- 
flowered ; pedicels rising from the axils of small linear leaves 
and longer than them, articulated and bractless above the middle. 
0. ? S. Native of St. Domingo. Stems erect, glabrous. 
Flowers yellow ? 

Glabrous Turnera PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

41 T. cisToiDES (Lin. spec. 387.) leaves linear-lanceolate, 
serrated, pubescent above, tomentose beneath, glandless at the 
base ; racemes terminal, leafy ; pedicels rising from the axils of 
lanceolate leaves, and shorter than them, articulated and bract- 
less above the middle. Q. S. Native of South America, in 
sterile places, Surinam, Jamaica, St. Domingo, Georgia, &c. 
Sloan, jam. hist. 1. p. 127. f. 7. Plum, ed Burm. t. 150. f. 1. 
Swartz. obs. 117. T. hirsuta, Bert. mss. Flowers small, yellow. 

Rock-rose-like Tnmera. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1774. Pi. i ft. 

42 T. a'spera (Poir. diet. 8. p. 144.) leaves elliptic, sessile, 
a little toothed, pubescent above, and rather tomentose beneath, 
glandular ; stem hardly pubescent, rough ; racemes leafy, ter- 
minal ; pedicels rising from the axils of the leaves, and shorter 
than them, articulated above the middle. 0. S. Native of 
French Guiana. Flowers yellow. Perhaps a variety of T. 
cisto'ides or of Pcriquila villosa. 

Rough Turnera. PI. \ foot. 

f Sjiecies not sufficiently known. 

43 T. odora'ta (Rich, in .ict. soc. hist. nat. par. 1792. p. 
107.) shrubby, much branched ; flowers small ; leaves ovate, 
acute, toothed, tomentose. I^ . S. Native of Cayenne. Flowers 
yellow ? 

Sweet-scented Turnera. Shrub. 

44 T. hikta (Willd. rel. in Roem. et Schult. syst. 5. p. 678.) 
leaves linear- lanceolate, unequal, bluntly serrated, clothed with 
stellate tomentum on both surfaces ; flowers axillary, solitary ; 
stem branched, hairy. 0. S. Native of Brazil. Flowers 
yellow. 

Hairy Turnera. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1818. PI. | to 1 ft. 

45 T. Brazilie'nsis (Willd. rel. 1. c.) leaves lanceolate, quite 
entire, clothed with hispid pubescence ; flowers axillary, sessile, 
aggregate. h . S. Native of Brazil. Leaves biglandular at 
the base, ex Spreng. 



70 



TURNERACE.E. I. Turnera. II. Piriqueta. FOUQUIERACEiE. I. Fouquiera. II. Bronnia. 



Brazilian Turnera. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1810. PI. -J to 1 ft. 

4C T. INTEGRIFOLIA (WiUd. rel. 1. e.) peduncles l-flowered, 
axillary ; leaves linear-lanceolate, pubescent, glandless. — Native 
country unknown. Leaves revolute, sessile, strigose above, but 
clothed with stellate tomentum beneath. Peduncles branched, 
bractless. (ex Spreng. syst. 1. p. 942.) 

Entire-leaved Turnera. PI. ? 

47 T. virga'ta (Willd. rel. 1. c.) leaves ovate, serrated, pli- 
cate, biglandular at the base ; flowers bibracteate ; bracteas 
linear-setaceous. ©. S. Native of Brazil. 

Tiviggy Turnera. PI. 4 to 1 foot. 

48 T. coRCHORirOLiA (Willd. rel. 1. c.) leaves oblong, doubly 
serrated, tomentose beneath. ©. S. Native of Brazil. The 
rest unknown. 

Corchorns- leaved Turnera. PI. i to 1 foot ? 

49 T. Desvau'xii(D.C. prod, s!" p. 348.) stem suffruticose, 
branched ; branches assurgent, hairy ; leaves ovate, obtuse, cre- 
nately toothed at the base, rather pilose beneath ; flowers axil- 
lary, on long peduncles.^Native of Guiana. T. hirta, Desv. 
in Hamilt. prod. p. 33. but not of Willd. 

Desvaux's Turnera. PI. 1 foot. 

Cull. All the species of Turnera are elegant plants when in 
flower, and thrive well in any light rich soil. They seed freely 
in this country, and may be propagated by that means : cuttings 
also root freely, under a hand-glass, in heat. The seeds of 
annual species may be reared on a hot-bed in spring ; and some 
of the plants may be planted out into the open border, in a warm 
.sheltered situation, where they will probably flower and ripen 
their seeds, if the summer prove dry and warm. 

II. PIRIQUETA (meaning not explained by Aublet). Aubl. 
guian. 1. p. 298. t. 117. Juss. gen. 294. H. B. et Kunth, 
nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 127. D. C. prod. 3. p. 348 — Burghartia, 
Neck. elem. no. 1186. — Burcardia, Scop, ex Schreb. gen. no. 
.'530. but not of Schmied. nor Dnham. nor Neck, nor R. Br. 
— Turnera species. Lam. and Willd. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Tri-Hexagijnia. Calyx campanu- 
late. Style 6, or 3 bipartite ones ; stigmas multifid, flabellate. 
Capsule 3-valved from the apex to the base. Perhaps this 
genus is sufficiently distinct from the preceding. ' Habit of Tur- 
nera racemosa, but which plant is only furnished with 3 styles, 
not G. Flowers pedicellate, in the axils of the upper leaves. 
Pedicels bractless, articulated above the middle. 

1 P. viLLosA (Aubl. 1. c.) leaves ovate-oblong, erosely toothed, 
wrinkled, clothed with rufous villi. ©. S. Native of Guiana, 
in sand by the sea-side. Turnera rugosa, Willd. spec. 1. p. 
1504. Poir. diet. 8. p. 145. Turnera villosa, Rseusch. Co- 
rolla yellow. 

Villous Piriqueta. PI. 2 feet. 

2 P. TOMENTosA (H. B. ct Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 128.) 
leaves oblong, acutish at both ends, irreg\ilarly crenate-serrated, 
pubescent above, clothed with soft hoary tomentum beneath. 
©. S. Native of South America, between Atures and May- 
pures, on the Orinoco. Turnera tomentosa, Willd. rel. in 
Rccm. etSchultes, syst. 6. p. 678. but not of H. B. et Kunth, 
Corolla yellow. 

Tomentose Piriqueta. Shrub' 1 to 2 feet. 
Cult. The culture and propagation of these plants are the 
same as for the annual species of Turnera, see p. 70. 

Order CIX. FOUQUIERA^CE^ (plants agreeing with 
Fouquiera in important characters). D. C. prod. 3. p. 349. — 
Portulaceis affines, H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 81. 

Calyx of 5 permanent sepals ; sepals imbricated, ovate or 
roundish. Petals 5, combined into a tube, inserted in the bottom 



of the calyx or torus ; limb of corolla 5-lobed, regular. Sta- 
mens 10-12, inserted with the corolla, exserted ; anthers 2- 
celled. Ovarium free, sessile. Style filiform, trifid at the 
apex. Capsule trigonal, 3-celled ; valves bearing dissepiments in 
their middle, which go as far as the centre of the fruit, and there- 
fore the capsule is 3-celled. Seeds compressed, winged, fixed 
to the centre of the fruit or axis, few when the capsule is 
mature, but numerous when it is in a young state. Embryo 
straight, in the centre of a fleshy albumen, with flat cotyledons. 

Trees or shrubs, natives of Mexico. Leaves in fascicles 

when young, in the axils of spines or cushions, quite entire, 
oblonn-, and rather fleshy. Flowers scarlet, disposed in a ter- 
minal spike or panicle. 

This order is separated from Portulacecv by De Candolle, as 
he tells us, (Mem. portul. p. 4.) for the following reasons : first, 
because their petals cohere into a long tube, of the same nature 
as that of gamopetalous Crassulacece ; second, because their 
capsule consists of 3 loculicidal cells, that is to say, which 
separate through the middle, forming 3 septiferous valves ; and 
thirdly, because their embryo is straight, with flat cotyledons, 
and stationed in the centre of a fleshy albumen. They approach 
the monopetalous Crassulacece in the structure of their flowers ; 
and Turneraceee and Loasece in the form of their fruit. 

Synopsis of the genera. 

1 FouQuiE^RA. Sepals ovate, mucronate, free, 2 exterior 
and 3 interior. Limb of corolla spreadingly reflexed. Stamens 
10-12, hypogynous. 

2 Bronnia. Sepals roundish; limb of corolla erect. Sta- 
mens 10. 

I. FOUQUIE'RA (in honour of Peter Edward Fouquiere, 
M. D. of Paris, and Professor of Medicine there). H. B. et 
Kunth, nov. gen. amer. (i. p. 81. t. 527. D. C. prod. 3. p. 349. 
— Echev^ria species, Moc. et Sesse, icon. ined. 

Lin. syst. Decdndria, Monogijnia. Calyx coloured ; sepals 
ovate, mucronate, 2 exterior and 3 interior, free. Corolla 
hypogynous ; tube cylindrical, a little arched ; limb spreadingly 
reflexed, nearly regular. Stamens 10-12, hypogynous, ex- 
serted ; filaments ciliated below, and cohering together ; an- 
thers cordate. Ovulas 18, on each placenta, in 2 rows. Fruit 
unknown. A somewhat spinose shrub. Spikes terminal, erect. 
Flowers scarlet. Leaves oblong, rather fleshy. 

1 F. FORMOSA (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c). h^ • S. Native of 
Mexico. Echeveria spicilta, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. 
Flowers flesh-coloured, an inch long. Leaves scattered, accord- 
ing to Kunth's figure ; but according to the figure in the fl. mex. 
they are a tittle narrower and in fascicles: therefore the 2 figures 
mentioned are very unlike each other. 

Showy Fouquiera. Shrub G to 10 feet. 

Cult. A light rich soil will suit this very showy shrub ; and 
young cuttings will root freely under a hand-glass, in heat. 

II. BRO'NNIA (in honour of Henry George Bronn, a young 
botanist, who has written on the form of leguminous plants). H.B. 
et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 83. t. 528. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 349. — Echeveria species, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. 

LiN. SYST. Decdndria, Monogynia. Calyx permanent ; 
sepals 5, roundish. Tube of corolla cylindrical, straight ; limb 



FOUQUIERACE^. II. Bronnia. PORTULACEvE. 



71 



erect. Stamens 10 ; filaments filiform, exsertcd ; anthers ovate. 
Style exceeding the stamens. Cells of fruit 1 -seeded when 
mature. A spinose shrub, with fascicles of obovate-oblong, 
membranous leaves in the axils of the spines. Flowers panicled, 
scarlet. It differs from the last genus in the placentas being 
drawn in more to the centre of the fruit. 

1 B. spiNt^sA (II. B. et Kunth, 1. c). Ti . S. Native of 
Mexico. Echeveria paniculata, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon, 
ined. Fouquiera spinosa, H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 3. 
p. 452. Cantua spinosa, Willd. in Uoem. et Scliultes, syst. 4. 
p. 3C9. 

Spiiii/ Bronnia.. Tree 12 to 14 feet. 

Cult. See Foitquiira, p. 70. for culture and propagation. 

Order CX. PORTULA'CEiE (plants agreeing in impor- 
tant characters with Portulaca). Juss. gen. p. 313. exclusive 
of some genera. D. C. fl. fr. ed. 3. vol. 4. p. 398. prod. 3. p. 
351. St. Hd.pl. lib. p. 42. 

Calj'x free, or somewhat adnate to the very base of the ova- 
rium (f 15. a./, f. IS. a.), usually of2 sepals (f. IC. a. f. 18. a.), 
seldom of 3 or 5 (f. 20. a.), cohering at the base. Petals usually 
5 (f. 15. b. f. 17. 6.), but sometimes 3-4-6, very rarely wanting 
altogether, either distinct (f. 18. b.), or cohering into a short 
tube at the base (f. 15. b.), alternating with the sepals when the 
number is equal. Stamens inserted along with the petals, irre- 
gularly into the base of the calyx, and sometimes perhaps in the 
torus, variable in number in the species of the same genus, all 
fertile ; filaments distinct, adnate to the base of the petals (f. 
15. g.), and usually opposite them where the number is equal ; 
anthers ovate, 2-celled, opening lengthwise, versatile (f. 18. c). 
Ovarium one, usually roundish (f. 15. e.), 1-celled (f. 15. /.). 
Style sometimes single, filiform, cleft into numerous stigmas 
at the apex (f. 15. c.) ; sometimes wanting or nearly so; when 
this is the case the stigmas are distinct (f. 17. c), and rise 
in numbers from the top of the ovarium. Capsule 1-celled, 
opening either transversely (f. 15. f.), or by the 3 valves from 
the base to the apex ; but they are also occasionally 1-seeded 
and indehiscent. Seeds numerous when the fruit is dehiscent, 
attached to the central placenta (f. 15. /".). Albumen farina- 
ceous. Embryo curved round the circumference of the albu- 
men, with a long radicle, and oblong cotyledons. — Fleshy 
shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire, 
usually succulent, without stipulas, or sometimes with membra- 
nous ones on each side of the petioles. Flowers axillary or ter- 
minal, usually expanding in the sun, and of short duration. 
The 1 -seeded genera of this order agree in character with the 
order Paronychiece, and the apetalous genera with the order 
Fico'idea. This order is related in nearly every point of view to 
CaryophijUecP, from which they scarcely differ except in their 
perigynous stamens, which are opposite the petals when equal to 
them in number, and two sepals ; the latter character is not, 
however, very constant. The presence of scarious stipulas in 
several Portulaceee, although perhaps an anomaly in the order, 
indicates their affinity with Paronijc/iicce, from which the mono- 
spermous genera of Portulaceee are distinguished by the want of 
symmetry in their flowers, and by the stamens being opposite 
the petals, instead of the sepals. So close is the relationship 



between these orders, that several of the genus Gingtwiia in Por- 
tulaceee have been referred to Pharnaccum in Caryajy/iijllece, and 
several Portulaceee have been described by authors as belonging 
to genera of Paronychilce. De Candolle remarks, that Iiis G'm- 
g'msia hrevicaiilis resembles certain species of Androsacc, and 
that Portulaceee have been more than once compared to Primu- 
lacets (mem. p. 14.), and the same author remarks in his prod. 
3. p. 351. that the genera with definite stamens, and hairy 
axillw approach Ceicteee, while the apetalous genera tend towards 
apetalous Ficoideee. 

Insipidity, want of smell, and a dull green colour, are the 
usual qualities of this order, of which the only species of any 
known use are common Peirslane and Claylonia iwrJ'oUata, which 
resemble each other in properties. 

Synopsis of the genera. 

1 Tria'nthema. Sepals 5, concrete at the base, coloured. 
Petals wanting. Stamens 5, rarely 10 or more. Styles or 
stigmas 1-2, rarely 3. Capsule opening transversely. 

2 Cyfse'lea. Calyx campanidate, 5-parted, coloured. Petals 
none. Stamens 2-3. Style hardly any, bipartite, or probably 2 
stigmas. Capsule opening transversely. 

3 Portula'ca. Calyx bipartite (f. 15. a.), at length falling 
off. Petals 4-6, equal (f. 15. h.), free or concrete at the base. 
Stamens 8-15 (f. 15. g.). Style one, 3-6 cleft at the apex (f. 15. 
c.) ; or style wanting, and the stigmas 3-8 elongated. Cap- 
sule opening transversely (f. 15./'.). 

4 Graiia'mia. Calyx of 2 white permanent sepals, girded by 
8-9 bracteas. Petals 5, obovate. Stamens numerous, united at 
the very base. Style 1 ; stigmas 4-5, revolute. Capsule 1- 
celled, 5-valved, many-seeded. Seeds compressed, winged. 

5 Anaca'mpseros. Sepals 2 (f. 16.fl.), cohering at the base. 
Petals 5 (f. 16. 6.), very fugaceous. Stamens 15-20 (f. 16. c). 
Style filiform, trifid at the apex (f. 16. d.). Capsule conical, 3- 
valved (f. 16. c). Seeds winged. 

6 Tali'num. Sepals 2 (f. 17. a.), deciduous. Petals 5 (f. 

17. h.), free or somewhat concrete at the base. Stamens 10-20. 
Style filiform, 3-cleft at the apex (f. 17. c). Capside 3-valved. 
Seed wingless. 

7 Lewisia. Calyx of 5 sepals. Petals 9-12. Stamens 12- 
16, hypogynous. Style deeply 6-parted, with the segments fili- 
form, and the stigmas obtuse. 

8 Calandri'nia. Calyx 2-parted (f. 18. fl.). Petals 3-5 (f. 

18. b.), free or rather connate at the base. Stamens 4-1.5 (f. 18. 
c). Style one, very short, tripartite at the apex (f. 18. c.) ; 
lobes clavate. Capsule oblong-elliptic, 3-valved. Seeds wing- 
less. 

9 Portulaca'ria. Calyx of 2 sepals, membranous. Petals 
5, permanent. Stamens 5, or probably 10, 5 of which are abor- 
tive. Style wanting; stigmas 3, spreading, glandular. Fruit 
triquetrous, winged, indehiscent, 1-seedcd. 

10 U'llucus. Sepals 2, coloured, deciduous. Petals 5, con- 
nected into a very short tube at tiie base. Stamens 5, short. 
Style filiform ; stigma simple. Capsule 1-celled, 1-seeded. 



72 



PORTULACE^. I. Trianthema. 



11 Claytonia. Sepals 2 (f. 19. a. f. 20. a.), permanent. 
Petals 5, unguiculated (f. 19. b. f. 20.6.); claws connate at the 
base. Stamens 5 (f. 20. d.). Style one, trifid at the apex (f. 

19. c. f. 20. c.) ; lobes stigmatose inside. Capsule 3-valved (f. 

20. c), 3-seeded. 

12 Mo'ntia. Calyx of 2, rarely of 3 sepals. Petals 5, 
rather connate at the base, 3 of which are a little smaller than 
the rest. Stamens usually 3 in front of the smaller petals, 
making 9, very rarely 3-4. Capsule 3-valved, 3-seeded. 

13 LcpTRfNA. Calyx 3-parted. Petals wanting. Stamens 3. 
Styles 3, short, acute. Capsule 3-valved, 3-seeded. 

14 Coloba'nthus. Calyx 4-5-parted. Petals wanting. Sta- 
mens 4-6. Stigmas 4-5. Capsule 4-7-valved, many-seeded. 

15 Gingi'nsia. Calyx 5-parted, permanent, petaloid on the 
margins and in the inside. Petals wanting. Stamens 5. Ova- 
rium girded by a 5-lobed fleshy scale. Capsule 3-valved, many- 
seeded. 

16 Aylme'ria. Calyx 2-parted, coloured. Petals 5. Sta- 
mens 10, membranous, connected into a hypogynous tube, the 
5 inner ones abortive. Style one, crowned by a depressed capi- 
tate stigma. Capsule bladdery, membranous, valveless. Seeds 
numerous in the bottom of the cell. 

17 Hvdropy'xis. Calyx 5-parted, permanent. Corolla un- 
equally 5-lobed. Stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short, inserted in the 
corolla. Ovarium superior. Style simple, crowned by a 3-lobed, 
capitate stigma. Capsule triangular, 1 -celled, many-seeded, 
opening transversely. 

I. TRIA'NTHEMA (from rpnc, Ireis, three, and ay$oc, an- 
llios, a flower; flowers are usually disposed by threes). Sauv. 
meth. fol. p. 127. Lin. gen. no. 537. D. C. prod. 3. p. 351. — 
Zalcya, Burm. fl. ind. p. 110. — Rocama and Papularia, Forsk. 
desc. 69. et 71. 

Lin. syst. Pent-Decdndria, 3fonogi/nia. Sepals 5, perma- 
nent, connected together at the base, rather coloured on the in- 
side, and mucronated under the apex. Petals wanting. Sta- 
n)ens 5-10, rarely more, distinct, inserted in the bottom of the 
calyx ; anthers kidney-shaped. Ovarium ovate. Styles or 
stigmas filiform, 1-2, rarely 3. Capsule opening transversely 
below tiie middle; the upper valve, which separates like a lid, 
is hollow, and contains a seminiferous cell ; therefore both cells 
are either simple, or of two divisions, one or few-seeded. — More 
or less fleshy herbs, which are sometimes suffluticose at the base. 
Leaves opposite, quite entire, petiolate. Petioles dilated into a 
stipula-formed membrane on both sides. Flowers axillary, ses- 
sile, usually by threes. 

Sect. L Z ale' ya (meaning not explained by Burmann). Burm. 
fl. ind. p. 110. D. C. prod. 3. p. 352. Stamens 10 or more. 

1 T. polya'ndra (Blum, bijdr. p. 1137.) stems herbaceous, 
procumbent ; branches terete ; leaves linear, obtuse ; flowers 
pedunculate, solitary, polyandrous, trigynous. Tf.. S. Native 
of Batavia, in bogs. 

Polyandrous Trianthema. PI. cr. 

2 T. ooviNDiA (Ham. ex Wall. cat. no. 6838.) stems suflTru- 
ticose, trailing ; leaves opposite, elliptic, emarginate at the apex; 
those opposite each other of unequal size; flowers a.Killary, ag- 
gregate, sessile. Ij . S. Native of the East Indies, in Mungger. 
Plant glaucous. The number of stamens and styles unknown. 

Govindla 'i'rianthema. Shrub prostrate. 

3 T. deca'ndra (Lin. mant. p. 70.) stem herbaceous, gla- 



brous, diffuse, terete ; leaves elliptic, acute. ©. F. Native of 
the East Indies. Zaleya decandra, Burm. 1. c. t. 31. f. 3. Pe- 
tioles furnished at the base on both sides with a broad mem- 
brane. Flowers on short pedicels, disposed in fascicles in the 
axils. Sepals mucronate at the apex. Stamens 10-12. Styles 2. 
Z»ecnnrf;o»i Trianthema. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1762. Pl.tr. 

4 T. TRiQUETRA (Roitl. et Willd. in nov. act. nat. berol. 4. 
p. 180.) stem herbaceous, dichotomous, branched; branches 
compressedly triquetrous; leaves somewhat spatulate, petiolate; 
flowers axillary, sessile. — Native on the coast of Coromandel. 
Structure of flower unknown. 

Triquetrous Trianthema. PI. diffuse. 

5 T. HUMiFU SA (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 389.) stems frutescent, 
trailing, terete ; leaves lanceolate, attenuated at both ends. ^ . 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope, in Konde Bokeveldt. 
Stamens 10, alternate ones shorter. Thunberg in his prodro- 
mus says the flowers are monogynous, but in his flora he says 
they are digynous. 

Var. /3; stamens 10, one-half shorter than the calyx, fixed by 
pairs to the base of the calycine segments.- — Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope, at Hex River. 

Trailing Trianthema. Shrub tr. 

6 T. a'ncei's (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 399.) stem frutescent, dif- 
fuse, 2-edged ; leaves lanceolate, attenuated at both ends, acu- 
minated. I; . G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Stamens 
10. Style 1, very short. 

7'n)0-e'(/'fceZ-3temmed Trianthema. Shrub diffuse. 



Sect. II. Roca'ma {Rokama is the Arabic name of T. pen- 
tandra). Forsk. descript. p. 71. D. C. prod. 3. p. 352. Sta- 
mens 5. 

7 T. penta'ndra (Lin. mant. p. 70.) stem rough from vel- 
vety hairs ; leaves elliptic, obtuse, flowers crowded in the axils 
of the leaves, i;. (ex Forsk.) f;. (ex Lin.) Native of Arabia. 
Rocama digyna, Forsk. 1. c. Rocama Arabica, Gmel. syst. 1. 
p. 455. Piuk. phyt. t. 120. f. 3. ex Lin. T. pentandra, 
Gcertn. fruct. 2.p. 213. t. 128. f. 5. Lam. ill. t. 375. f. 2. Sta- 
mens 5. Styles 2. Perhaps 2 species are here confused, the 
stems being, according to Linnaeus, erect and shrubby, and 
according to Forskal annual and prostrate. 

I'ar. ji, ohcordata (D. C. prod. 3. p. 352.) leaves obovate, 
bluntly emarginate at the apex. — Native of the East Indies. T. 
obcordata, Roxb. hort. beng. p. 34. 

P™?fiH(/ro»s Trianthema. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. PI. pr. 

8 T. monogyna (Lin. m.ant. p. 69.) stem herbaceous, diflfuse, 
dichotomous, branched, glabrous ; leaves oval, obtuse, opposite, 
one of them smaller than the other ; flowers axillary, sessile, 
bibracteolate. ©. S. Native of Jamaica, Curassoa, and Mexico. 
D. C. pi. grass, t. 109. Lam. ill. t. 375. f. 1. T. portulacas- 
trum, Sauv. meth. p. 127. Lin. spec. 635. T. procumbens, 
Mill. — Pluk. aim. t. 95. f. 4. Stamens usually 5, alternating 
with the sepals, but sometimes 10. Styles 1 or 2. Lower cell 
of capsule about 4-seeded : upper one 1 -seeded. 

A/o?io^?/no(« Trianthema. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1710. PI. pr. 

9 T. crysta'llina (Vahl. symb. 1. p. 32.) stem shrubby, 
difl^iise, terete, glabrous, papulose ; leaves linear or lanceolate, 
opposite, one of them smaller than the other ; flowers crowded, 
axillary. 1; . G. Native of Arabia and the East Indies. Pa- 
pularia crystallina, Forsk. desc. p. 69. Stamens alternating with 
the petals. Style 1. 

Icy Trianthema. Shrub diff"use. 

Cull. The seeds of the species of Tridnthema require to be 
sown on a hot-bed in spring ; and about the end of May they 
may be planted out in the open border in a warm sheltered situ- 
ation, where they will probably flower and seed. Some are said 



PORTULACE^. II. Cypselea. III. Poutilaca. 



73 



to be slirubby, these it will be requisite to treat as other stove 
plants ; and cuttings of thein will be easily rooted. 

II. CYPSE'LEA (from t:v\pe\r], ki/psek, a bee-hive ; in refer- 
ence to the form of the capsule). Turp. in ann. mus. 7. p. 219. 
t. 121. f. 5. D. C. prod. 3. p. 353.— Radiina, Rafin. speech. 1. 
p. 88. 

Lin. svst. Di-Triditdria, Digtjnia. Calyx campanulate, 
permanent, coloured, 5-parted; lobes obtuse, 2 of which are 
smaller than the other 3. Corolla wanting. Stamens 2-3, in- 
serted in the calyx and alternating with its lobes (ex Turp.), or 
opposite the smaller lobes (ex Rafin.). Ovarium free, 1-cellcd 
Style hardly any, 2-parted, or stigmas 2. Cajjsule 1 -celled, 
many-seeded, opening transversely. Seeds fixed to an oval, 
central placenta, very small, and very numerous. — Herbs, na- 
tives of St. Domingo, with the habit of Muntia or Crijjila, 
rather succulent, annual, and glabrous. Leaves opposite, obo- 
vate ; petioles widened into a stipule-formed, jagged membrane. 
Flowers axillary, small, greenish, solitary, on short pedicels. 

1 C. HUMiFu'sA (Turp. 1. c). Q. S. Native of St. Do- 
mingo. Tratt. obs. hot. 2. p. 41. t. 72. Radiana petiolata, 
Rafin. 1. c. Millegrana Surian, in herb. Juss. 

Trailing Cypselia. PI. tr. 

Cult. Sow the seeds thinly in a pot, and place them in a 
hot-bed, or in a stove, with a pan of water under the pot. Not 
worth growing, except in a botanic garden. 

IIL PORTULA^CA (from jorto, to carry, and lac, milk; 
plants milky). Tourn. inst. t. 118. Adans. fam. 2. p. 242. 
Juss. gen. p. 312. — Portulaca species of Lin. — Meridiana, Lin. 
et Schrank. — Leraia, Vand. in Rocm. script, p. 116. t. 7. f. 15. 
— Merida, Neck. 

Lin. syst. Octo-Dodecdndria, ]\Ionogynia. Calyx free from 
or adhering to the ovarium at the very base, bipartite (f. 15. a.), 
at length cut round about at the base, and falling off". Petals 
4-6 (f. 15. b.), equal, distinct, or joined together at the very 
base, inserted in the calyx. .Stamens 8 (f. 15. g.) -15; fila- 
ments free, sometimes adnate to the bottom of the corolla (f. 
15. g.). Ovarium roundish. Style 1 (f. 15. d,), 3-6-cleft at 
the apex (f. 15. c), or the style is wanting; but in this case, 
the stigmas are 3-8 and elongated. Capsule sub-globose (f. 15. 
_/.), 1 -celled, opening transversely in the middle. Seeds nu- 
merous, fixed to a central placenta (f. 15. /.). — Humble fleshy 
herbs. Leaves scattered, quite entire, thick, usually bearing 
hairs in the axils, crowded, or somewhat verticillated about the 
flowers. Flowers expanding from 9 till 12 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, if the sun shine, otherwise they remain closed. — This is a 
heterogeneous genus, and probably divisible, but easily distin- 
guished by the capsule opening transversely. 

* Flowers yellow. Axils of leaves naked. 

1 P. olera'cea (Lin. spec. p. G38.) leaves wedge-shaped, 
fleshy; axils and joints naked ; flowers sessile. ©. H. Native 
nearly throughout the whole world. D. C. pi. grass, t. 123. 
Schkuhr. handb. t. 130. Petals concrete at the base. Stamens 
10-12, adnate to the corolla. Style wanting. Stigmas 5, elon- 
gated. Perhaps specifically distinct from the following varieties. 
— Blackw. icon. t. 287. 

Var. o, sijhestris (D. C. prod. 3. p. 353.) stem and branches 
prostrate and trailing. ©. H. Nativeof Europe, in cultivated 
fields ; and very common in Java (ex Blum.) ; in North Ame- 
rica, about Norway House, and banks of the Hill river (Hook). 
Smith, fl. graec. 457. Lob. icon. t. 388. P. oleracea. Haw. 
misc. p. 126. syn. p. 122. 

I'ar. /?, saOca (D.C. prod. 3. p. 353 ) stems diffuse ; branches 
erectish. ©. H. Native of South America, and now cultivated 
in some parts of Europe. P. domestica, Lob. icon. p. 388. P. 

VOL. III. 



sativa. Haw. misc. p. 136. syn. 122. P. latifolia, Horn. hort. 
hafn. 2. p. 491. There is a variety of this witli green leaves 
(P. vi'ridis, Hortul.), and yellowish leaves (P. aiirea, Hortul.). 
The young shoots and succulent leaves are esteemed cooling, 
and are used in spring and summer as an ingredient in salads, 
and as pot-herbs and pickles. The plant was formerly in much 
more request than at present. Both the green and yellow- 
leaved sorts are raised from seed, and for a bed 4 feet by 4 feet, 
sown either broadcast or in drills, 9 inches apart, one-eighth of 
an ounce will suffice. " Each variety is somewhat tender ; the 
green, which is usually preferred, is perhaps rather the hardiest. 
An early crop may be sown in February or March, on a mo- 
derate hot-bid ; the plants will require the aid of a gentle heat 
till the middle of May, when the seed may be sown in a warm 
border. If a continued succession is required, sow every month 
during summer, till August, or while the plant can be raised ; 
generally in small drills, from 3-6 inches asunder. The plants 
will soon come up ; they should remain where sown. In very 
dry hot weather, water thrice a-week. The shoots may be 
gathered for use when they are from 2-5 inches in hei;4ht, and 
are well furnished with leaves. Cut them off" low, and the 
bottom part will soon sprout out again. When seed is reijuired, 
leave some of the first open border plants to run ; they will 
give ripe seed in autumn." 

Cultivated or Common Purslane. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1582. 
PI. prostrate or erect. 

2 P. PARViFOLiA (Haw. syn. p. 122.) leaves cuneiform, mi- 
nute, fleshy; stem much branched, prostrate; flowers sessile, 
or on long peduncles. 0. H. Native of Jamaica. Probably 
only a variety of P. saliva, but the plant is much smaller, and 
the leaves are 10-times smaller. 

Small-leaved PuYshne. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1799. PI. pr. 

** Flowers yellow. Axils of leaves or joints 2>ilose. 

3 P. FOLiosA (Ker. hot. reg. 793.) stem diffuse; branches 
erect ; leaves subulate ; flowers solitary at the tops or in the 
forks of the branches, surrounded by white hairs and a many- 
leaved involucrum ; petals retuse or a little emarginate. ©. F. 
Native of Guinea, near Accra. P. Guineensis, .Spreng. There 
is a plant figured in fl. niex. of Moc. et Sesse, called by them 
P. stelliformis, a native of Mexico, which is very like this spe- 
cies. Flowers small, yellow. 

Leafy Purslane. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1 822. PI. i to i ft. 

4 P. suFFRUTicosA (Wight, cx Wall. cat. 6842.) shrubby, 
branched ; leaves linear, nearly terete, glabrous or downy ; flow- 
ers solitary at the tops of the branches. Tj . D. S. Native of the 
East Indies, Flowers surrounded by a whorl of leaves. 

Suffruticosc Purslane. Fl. Ju. Jul. Shrub 1 foot. 

5 P. LANUGINOSA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 74.) 
stems procumbent, branched ; leaves terete, obtuse, upper ones 
in whorles ; flowers in clusters of 2-5, surrounded by soft hairs ; 
petals obovate-spatulate, obtuse. ©. F. Native of South 
America, on the banks of the Amazon. Style 1 ; 3-5 -cleft at 
the apex. Petals 4-5, yellow. 

Woolly Punslane. PI. pr. 

6 P. marginVta (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 72.) stems rather 
dichotomous ; leaves cuneately spatulate, rounded at the apex, 
subverticillate, obsoletely veined, margined with red ; axils 
hairy ; flowers 5-7 in each head, involucrated. ©. F. Native 
near Caraccas, in Venezuela. Said to be allied to P. oleracea. 
Flowers yellow. 

^largiiicd-leaved Purslane. PI. pr. 

7 P. Laruottea'na (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 190.) stem suf- 
fruticosc at the base, pilose in the axils of the leaves ; leaves 
lanceolate, flattish, narrowed at the base, acute, longer than the 
hairs ; flowers crowded at the tops of the branches ; petals ob- 



74 



PORTULACE^. III. PoRTUiACA. 



FIG. 15. 




cordate, raucronulate, shorter than the calyx. Tj . S. Native 
of Brazil, in that part of the province of Minas Geraes called 
Minas Novas, near Nossa Snzra da Penha. Flowers yellow, 
surrounded by hairs and crowded leaves. 
Lariiolles Purslane. Shrub | to | foot. 

8 P. halimoIdes (Lin. spec. 639.) stem erect, diffuse, corym- 
bose at the apex ; leaves oblong, fleshy, crowded about the 
flowers at the tops of the branches ; flowers surrounded by 
dense villi. ©• F. Native of Jamaica. Sloane, jam. hist. 1. 
p. 205. t. 129. f. 3. P. Browne, jam. p. 200. Lun. hort. jam. 
2. p. 108. Petals connected at the base. Stamens 8-10. Style 
3-5-parted. 

i/rt/;m«?H-/;^c Purslane. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1823. PI. | ft. 

9 P. rubricau'lis (H. B. et Kuntli, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 73.) 
stems ascending, corymbosely branched above ; leaves lanceo- 
late, acute, nerveless ; upper leaves in whorles ; axils pilose ; 
flowers 4-8, crowded into a head. ©. F. Native of South 
America, in sandy places and on dry mountains on the sea-shore 
near Laguna. Petals 5, obovate-oblong, emarginate, orange- 
coloured. Stamens 27-30. Style 6-8-cleft. Said to be allied 
to P. halimoides. 

Rcd-stemmcd Purslane. PI. ascending -j foot. 

10 P. HIRSUTISSIMA (St. Hil. 

fl. bras. 2. p. 121. t. 114.) stem 
suff"ruticose at the base, pilose at 
the axils of the leaves ; leaves 
approximate, oblong-lanceolate, 
flattish, tapering to both ends, 
acute, shorter than the hairs ; 
flowers crowded at the tops of 
the branches ; petals obcordate, 
mucronulate, a little longer than 
the calyx. Ij . S. Native of 
Brazil, in that part of the pro- 
vince of Minas Geraes called 
Minas Novas, near Bom-Tim and 
Nossa Snra da Penha, and also 
near Tejuco. Flowers yellow, 
surrounded by a whorl of the 
upper leaves and axillary hairs. 

Very hairy Purslane. Shrub ^ to |^ foot. 

11 P. MucRONA^TA (Link, enum. hort. berol. 2. p. 2.) stem 
erect ; leaves obversely oblong, with a short taper point ; floral 
leaves 8, constituting an involucrum ; axils pilose ; flowers ter- 
minal, sessile. ©. F. Native country unknown. 

il/«cro?!rt<e-leaved Purslane. Fh Ju. Clt. 1822. PI. -t to ^ ft. 

12 P. QUADRiFiDA (Lin. maut. p. 78.) stem prostrate ; joints 
pilose ; leaves elliptic-oblong, fleshy, flat ; flowers terminal, 
sessile, quadrifid. Q. H. Native of Egypt, Arabia, and India. 
Jacq. coll. 2. p. 356. t. 17. f. 2. P. linifolia, Forsk. descr. p. 
92. Illecebrum verticillittum, Burm. fl. ind. p. 66. Stems 
red. Flowers small, yellow. Petals 4, rarely 5, joined a little 
way at the base. Stamens 8, rarely more. Stigmas 4. 

Far. ft, Mcr'idiana (D. C. prod. 3. p. 354.) flowers usually 
tetrandrous. ©. H. Native of the East Indies. P. Meri- 
diana, Lin. fil. suppl. p. 248. Nelatsjira, Rheed. mal. 10. t. 31. 
and Roxb. There is hardly any diflPerence between this and P. 
quadr'ifida. Flowers surrounded by wool and 4 leaves, like 
those of P. quadrifda. 

Quadrifd-Aowered Purslane. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1773 ; ft 
in 1791. PI. prostrate. 

* * * Flowers purple ; axils pilose, or jjerhaps sometimes naked. 

13 P. PiLosA (Lin. spec. 639.) stem diffiise ; joints beset with 
long hairs ; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, convex on the 
back, bluish, about equal in length to the axillary hairs ; floral 
leaves in whorles ; flowers crowded at the tops of the branches. 



#MJ(y 



P 



sessile, surrounded by long hairs ; petals ovate, acutish, a little 
longer than the calyx. ©. F. Native of South America, about 
Curassoa, in Brazil, Martinico, Jamaica, &c. in sandy places 
near the sea. Gaertn. fruct. 2. p. 212. t. 128. f. 4. Haw. misc. 
p. 137. Ker. bot. reg. 792. — Wolk. norib. 341. with a figure. 
Herm. par. 215. Comm. hort. amst. 1. t. 5. Flowers 5- 
parted, pale purple, expanding from 10-12 o'clock in the morning, 
if the sun is out. Stamens about 20. Root tuberous. 

Far. ft, setaeea (D. C. prod. 3. p. 354.) leaves subulate ; stems 
erectish. ©. F. Native along with the species. P. set^cea. 
Haw. misc. 159. Herm. par. 214. with a figure. Pluk. phyt. 
t. 246. f. 6. and 105. f. 4. Flowers purple. 

Pilose Purslane. Fl. Ju. Clt. 1690. PI. i to i foot. 

14 P. lana'ta (Rich. act. soc. hist. nat. par. 1792. p. 109.) 
stems diffuse ; leaves linear-sublanceolate, flat ; hairs of the 
axillas and joints longer than the leaves; flowers terminal, sur- 
rounded by hairs and a whorle of leaves. ©. F. Native of 
Cayenne. Petals red, obcordate. Stamens 15 and more. Per- 
haps only a variety of P. jjilosa. 

Woolly Purslane. PI. i to | foot. 

15 P. piLosissiMA (Hook, bot. misc. 2. p. 221.) plant annual? 
small ; stems branched, decumbent ; leaves terete, oblong ; 
fascicles of hairs twice or thrice longer than the leaves. ©. H. 
Native of Peru, at Yazo, in the valley of Canta. The flowers 
are concealed by long white solitary tufts of hairs. It comes 
nearest to the P. lanata, Rich. 

Very pilose Purslane. PI. ^^ to -^ foot. 

16 P. uMBRATicoLA (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 
72.) stems branched ; axils sparingly pilose ; leaves scattered, 
lanceolate, acute, veiny ; flowers twin ? on very short pedun- 
cles, terminal. ©. F. Native of New Andalusia, near Cu- 
mana and Bordones. Flowers 5 -parted, rose-coloured. Stamens 
12. Style 4-cleft. 

Shaded Purslane. PI. | to | foot. 

17 P. rusiLLA (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) stems branched ; axils 
naked ? leaves scattered, elliptic, nerveless, rounded at both 
ends; flowers solitary ? almost sessile. ©. F. Native on the 
Orinoco, among rocks near Maypures, and of Trinidad. Flowers 
rose-coloured, 4-5-petalled. Stamens 11-14. Style trifid. 

Small Purslane. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1824. PI. 1 to 2 in. 

18 P. Hilairea'na ; stem trailing, herbaceous, pilose in the 
axils of the leaves ; leaves linear-lanceolate, convex on the 
back, flat in front, acute, longer than the axillary piii ; flowers 
crowded on the tops of the branches ; petals obcordate, much 
longer than the calyx. ©. F. Native of Brazil, in the province 
of St. Paul. P. grandiflora, St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 192. but not 
of Hook. Flowers purple, surrounded by crowded leaves and 
hairs. 

Si. Hilaire's Purslane. PI. ^ to i foot, trailing. 

19 P. GRANDIFLORA (Hook, in bot. mag. 2885.) stems diffuse, 
branched ; leaves scattered, cylindrical, acute, with pilose axils; 
flowers 3-4 together, terminal, crowded, surrounded by a whorl 
of leaves and crowded hairs ; petals longer than the calyx ; 
style 8-9-cleft at the apex. 1/ . F. Native of Chili. There 
are varieties of this plant with either purple or yellow large 
flowers. Root tuberous. 

Far. a, majtir ; (Hook, in bot. misc. 3. p. 241.) leaves an 
inch or an inch and a half long. — Bot. mag. t. 2885. 

Far. ft, microphylla (Hook, et Am. 1. c.) leaves hardly half 
an inch long. P. Mendocinensis, Gill. mss. Both varieties are 
found between Rio Saladillo and Mendoza. 

Great-flowered Purslane. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1827. PI. 
I to I foot. 

20 P. Gillie' sii (Hook. bot. mag. 3064.) stems erectish, 
branched at the base ; leaves oblong-cylindrical, rather com- 
pressed, obtuse, dotted ; axillary fascicles of hairs erect, ad- 
pressed ; flowers terminal, usually solitary ; petals longer than 



PORTULACEiE. III. PonruLACA. IV. Graiiamia. V. Anacampseros. 



75 



the calyx, obovate-roundish. i;. G. Native of Chili, in the 
plains near Mendoza. Plant stout, in proportion to its height. 
Flowers larj;e, bright reddish purple. 
GiUies's Purslane. PI. | to -i foot. 

21 P. terf.tifoi.ia (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) stems creeping, 
corymbosely branched ; axils rather pilose ; leaves scattered, 
terete, acutish ; flowers 3-5 in a heap, sessile, involucrated, and 
surrounded by hairs. ©. F. Native of South America, on 
the sandy banks of the river Orinoco and Rio Negro, near Cari- 
chana, Alaypures, San Carlos, Sec. Very like P. rubicai'dis, but 
differs in the flowers being purple. Stamens 18-24. 

Terelc-lcared Purslane. PI. creeping. 

22 P. AXiLLiFLORA (Pers. ench. 2. p. 6.) stems procum- 
bent ; leaves oblong, fleshy, in young plants they are opposite ; 
flowers solitary, axillary. ©. F. Native country unknown. 
Meridiana axilliflora, Schrank. bot. zeit. 1804. p. 354. Co- 
rolla and stamens rose-coloured. 

AxU-Jlowered Purslane. PI. pr. 

•j" SiKcies not sufficiently known. 

23 P. imbrica"ta (Forsk. descr. 92.) leaves crowded, ovate, 
acute, flat beneath, and convex above, opposite ; joints hairy at 
tlie base ; flowers sessile, terminal. ©. H. Native of Arabia. 
Flowers yellow, large. Surculi as if they were tetragonal, from 
the leaves being imbricated on them in 4 rows. 

I mbricateAeaved. Purslane. PI. pr. 

21- P. Ca'ffra (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 399.) stem weak, branched, 
glabrous ; leaves linear-oblong, alternate ; flowers axillary, pedi- 
cellate ; pedicels bibracteate. ©. F. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Corolla yellow, 6-petalled. Style trifid. Cap- 
sule probably 2-celled and 2-valved. 

Caffrarian Purslane. PI. pr. 

25 P. Ara'bica (Forsk. descr. 92. no. 81.) calyx of 4 per- 
manent sepals. — Native of Arabia. The rest unknown. 

^roftinn Purslane. PI.? 

26 P. fla'ya (Forst. pi. esc. p. 72.). ©. F. Native on 
the shores of the Society Islands, where it is boiled and eaten 
by the natives, and called by them Atur't. This plant has not 
been described, and is probably nothing else but P. oleracea. 

l'e//on'-flowered Purslane. PI. pr. 

27 P. WiGHTi a'xa (Wall. cat. no. CS45.) plant diffuse ; leaves 
small, intermixed with numerous soft leafy stipulas ; flowers ses- 
sile, terminal, almost hidden by the white bracteas. \ . S. Native 
of the East Indies, at Sadras, in moist sand. A singular species. 

JVight's Purslane. PI. \ foot. 

Cull. Being mostly annual plants, growing naturally in sandy 
soil near the sea, the seeds should be sown in dry warm situa- 
tions in spring : or it is perhaps better to sow them on a hot- 
bed in spring, and plant them out towards the end of May into 
the open border ; or they may be grown in pots and set in the 
greenhouse or in a frame. 

IV. GRAHA'MIA (in honour of Mrs. Maria Graham, a 
great traveller in South America, particularly in Brazil, Peru, 
and Chili.) Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 241. 

Lin. syst. Icosdndria, Monogijnia. Calyx of 2 permanent, 
oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, concave, stiff sepals, propped by 
8 or 9 imbricate bracteas, similar to the sepals. Petals 5, obo- 
vate, mucronulate. Stamens numerous, about 40 ; filaments 
filiform, monadelphous at the base ; anthers erect, 2-celled. 
Ovarium oblong, 1 -celled. Style filiform, thickened upwards; 
stigmas 4, but usually 5, linear. Capsule 1 -celled, 5-valved. 
Seeds numerous, compressed, broadly winged, each fixed by a 
podosperm to the central axis. — A smooth branched shrub, with 
alternate, terete, oblong, obtuse, fleshy leaves, bearing hairs in 
the axils. Flowers solitary, terminating short or elongated 



branches, with white sepals and petals ; and having the filaments 
purple at the base, and the anthers and stigmas yellow. 

1 G. bractea'ta (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. I. c. p. 242.). 
I; . D. G. Native of Chili, among l)ushes, in the Travesia 
between San Louis and Mendoza, especially near the river Desa- 
guadero, at the altitude of 1500 feet. Xeranthus salicosus, 
Miers. chil. vol. 2. p. 529. 

Bracteale-i]oweTi;d Grahamia. Shrub 1 foot. 

Cult. See Portidacaria for culture and propagation. 

V. ANACA'MPSEROS (from avana^vrw, anacamj>to, to 
cause return, and tpor, crvs, love ; supposed effects). Sims, 
bot. mag. (1811) no. 1357. D. C. cat. hort. monsp. p. 77. but 
not of Haw. — Telephiastrnm, Dill. elth. p. 370. — Riilingia, 

Haw. succ. pi. syn. (1812.) p. 124. but not of R. Br Portu- 

litca species of Lin. — Rulingia species of Ehrh. — Talinum spe- 
cies of Willd. — Portulacae gibbse. Haw. misc. nat. p. 141. 

Lin. syst. Dodecindria, Monogijnia. Calyx of 2 sepals (f. 
16. Of.); sepals opposite, oblong, rather concrete at the base. 
Petals 5 (f. 16. b.), very fugacious. Stamens 15-20 (f. 16. d.); 
filaments distinct, inserted in the bottom of the calyx along 
with the petals, and adhering a little to them. Style filiform, 
trifid at the apex (f. 16. d.). Capsule conical, 1-celled, 3-valved 
(f. 16. c), with the valves cleft longitudinally in the middle, 
and therefore the capsule appears as if it was 0-valved(f. 16. c). 
Seeds numerous, winged, fixed to a central placenta. — Very 
dwarf herbs or subshrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Leaves ovate, fleshy. Axils bearing filamentous subscarious 
stipulaceous liairs. Bracteas membranous, usually lobed into 
setaceous segments. Pedicels 1 -flowered, elongated, disposed 
in racemes. Flowers of a rose-purple colour or white, expand- 
ing only in the heat of the sun. 

1 A. telepiiia'strum (D. C. 1. c.) leaves ovate, difTormed, 
glabrous ; axillary hairs filamentous, shorter than the leaves ; 
racemes few-flowered, subpanicled. Ij . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. — Dill. hort. elth. t. 281. Comm. hort. 
amst. t. 89. Portulaca Anacampseros, Lin. spec. 639. Haw. 
misc. p. 141. Taluium Anacampseros, Willd. spec. 2. p. 862. 
D. C. pi. grass, t. 3. Haw. syn. 124. Rulingia varians. Haw. 
ex Spreng. Rulingia Anacampseros, Ehrh. beitr. 3. p. 133. 
Anacampseros varians, Sweet. Flowers reddish. Seeds very 
much winged. Cotyledons in the germinating plant 2, thick, 
somewhat trigonal, convex beneath, with a very short caulicule. 

Telephium-like Anacampseros. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1813. 
PI. I foot. 

2 A. interme^dia ; leaves very numerous and dense, expanded, 
flat, convex on the outside, retusely deltoid at the apex ; axil- 
lary threads twisted, brown. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Rulingia intermedia, Haw. in phil. mag. march 
1828. Very Vikc /I. polyphi'/lla, but almost one half smaller, 
but taller; also like A . fdamcntiisa, but broader; the leaves 
more numerous, more crowded, paler ; and the axillary threads 
are yellow, not white. 

Intermediate Anacampseros. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1824. PI. \ ft. 

3 A. ARACiiNoiuEs (Sims, bot. mag. t. 1368.) leaves ovate, 
acuminated, difTormed, green, shining, cobwebbed ; axillary hairs 
filamentous, shorter than the leaves ; racemes simple ; petals 
lanceolate. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Por- 
tulaca arachnoides, Haw\ misc. p. 142. Rulingia arachnoides. 
Haw. syn. p. 125. Talinum arachnoides. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 
2. vol. 3. p. 149. Flowers white, hardly with a tinge of purple. 
Bracteas scarious, jagged. Seeds with a short wing. 

Co6?!'c66e(i Anacampseros. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1790. PI. 
I to 4 foot. 

4 A. ru'bens (D. C. prod. 3. p. 356.) leaves ovate, acunim- 
ated, difTormed, shining, dark green, somewhat reflexcd at the 

L 2 



76 



PORTULACEiE. V. Anacampseros. VI. Talinum. 




Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1796. 



apex ; axillary hairs shorter than the leaves ; racemes simple. 
Tj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Portulaca 
rubens, Haw. misc. p. 142. Riilingia rilbens, Haw. syn. p. 
125. Leaves and peduncles purplish. Flowers red. 

/?ed Anacampseros. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1706. PI. i to | ft. 

5 A. filamentosa (Sims, hot. FIG. 16. 
mag. t. 1367.) leaves ovate- 
globose, gibbous on both sides, 
and cobvvebbed, rather rugged 
above ; stipulas ramentaceous, 
longer than the leaves ; petals 
oblong, fj . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope, in Carro 
near Hartiquos Kloof. Portu- 
laca filamentosa, Haw. misc. p. 
142. Rulingia filament6sa. Haw. 
syn. p. 125. Talinum filamen- 
tosum. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 2. 
vol. 3. p. 149. Portulaca stipu- 
laris, Dyandr. mss. Petals red- 
dish or deep rose coloured. 

Filamenlose Anacampseros. 
Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1795. PI. | to 1 foot. 

6 A. lanceola'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 356.) leaves lanceolate, 
fleshy, glabrous, convex beneath ; axillary hairs very long ; 
scape lenfy, generally 1 -flowered. Tj . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Portulaca lanceolata, Haw. syn. p. 126. 
Stems very short. Calyx reddish. Petals reddish. Seeds 
almost 3-winged. 

Lanccolate-\ea.veiii Anacampseros. 
PI. \ foot. 

7 A. ANGusTiFOLiA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 356.) leaves fleshy, 
narrow-lanceolate, expanded ; stem short, branched. Ij . D. G. 
Native of tlie Cape of Good Hope. Rulingia angustifolia, Hav. 
rev. p. 60. Very like the preceding species, but smaller. 
Flowers red. 

Narrow-leaved Anacampseros. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. 
PI. J foot. 

8 A. rufe'scens (D. C. 1. c.) leaves crowded, expanded and 
recurved, ovate, acute or somewhat acuminated, thick, green, 
usually dark purple beneath. P2 • D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Rulingia rufescens. Haw. suppl. pi. succ. p. 64. 
syn. p. 60. Tbis is the largest of all the species. Flowers like 
those of A. Telcphidstrum. 

Rufesccnt Anacampseros. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1818. PI. ^ ft. 

9 A. TRiGONA (D. C. 1. c.) leaves ovate, trigonal, acute, erect, 
woolly in the axils and on the stem between the leaves. I; . D. 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope, in Carro. Burm. afr. 
p. 79. t. 30. f. 2. Portulaca trigona, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 399. 
Petals flesh-coloured, oblong, acute. 

Trigonal-\eaved Anacampseros. PI. ^ to | foot. 

10 A. lani'gera (Burch. cat. geogr. pi. afr. austr. no. 2196.) 
leaves ovate, obtuse, small, very densely clothed with long wool. 

Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like the 
preceding species. Flowers unknown. 

Wool-bearing Anacampseros. PI. i foot. 

11 A. polyphy'lla (D. C. I. c.) Jj . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Rulingia polyphylla, Haw. suppl. 65. 
syn. 61.— Pluk. phyt. t. 41. f. 6. 

Many-leaved Anacampseros. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 181 8. PI. \ ft. 

Cult. The species of this succulent genus of plants grow 
freely in sandy loam, mixed with some lime rubbish ; they re- 
quire but little water. Cuttings root freely if laid to dry a few 
days before planting. Leaves taken off close to the plants, and 
laid to dry a tew days, and then planted, will take root and shoot 
out young plants at their base. 



VI. TALI'NUM (probably from S-aXta, thalia, a green branch; 
durable verdure). Sims, hot. mag. no. 1357. Haw. syn. p. 123. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 356. — Talinum species, Adans. fam. 2. p. 145. 
Juss. gen. p. 312. — Portulaca species, Lin. — Rulingia species, 
Ehrh. 

LiN. SYST. Deca-Dodecdndria, Monogynia. Calyx of 2 
ovate sepals, deciduous. Petals 5 (f. 17. b.), hypogynous, or 
inserted in the bottom of the calyx, distinct or joined a little 
way at the base. Stamens 10-20, inserted along with the petals, 
and generally adhering a little to them, and joined together at 
the base. Style filiform, cleft at the apex into 3 spreading 
or close stigmas. Stigmas bearing papillae inside. Capsule 
3-valved, 1 -celled, many-seeded. Seeds wingless, kidney-shap- 
ed, scabrous, fixed to the central placenta. — Fleshy herbaceous, 
or suffrutescent plants. Leaves alternate, quite entire, exstipu- 
late. Flowers very fugaceous, expanding only in the heat of 
the sun, cymose or racemose. Cymes or racemes usually form- 
ing terminal panicles. 

Sect. I. Phemera'nthus (from i^»)//»j, pheme, fame, and 
ai'flos, anthos, a flower ; in reference to the beauty of the flowers). 
Rafin. speech. 1. p. 86. D. C. prod. 3. p. 356. — Talinum, 
Pursh, and Nutt. Stigmas 3, close together, and appearing like 
a simple stigma. Flowers disposed in dichotomous corymbose 
cymes. — Perennial herbs, natives of North America. 

1 T. TERETiFotiuM (Pursh. fl. bor. anier. 2. p. 365.) root 
fibrous ; cauline leaves terete, subulate, fleshy, cyme terminal, 
dichotomous, corymbose ; stamens 20. % . F. Native of Vir- 
ginia, Louisiana, and Delaware, among rocks exposed to the 
sun. Lodd. bot. cab. t. 819. Phemeranthus teretifolius, Rafin. 
speech, p. 86. Talinum trichotomum, Desf. hort. par. — Pluk. 
aim. t. 223. f. 2. Flowers of a rose purple-colour. Root tuft- 
ed, fibrous. 

Terete-leaved TaVmum. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1823. PI. i foot. 

2 T. NAPiFORME (D. C. prod. 3. p. 357.) root tuberous ; 
radical leaves terete, fleshy ; cymes terminal, dichotomous, 
corymbose; stamens 5, alternating with the petals. 1^. F. Na- 
tive of Mexico. Claytonia tuberosa, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. 
icon. ined. Root tuljerous, turnip-formed. Stems numerous 
from the neck of the tuber, almost leafless at the base, but cy- 
mose and dichotomous at the apex. Flowers white. This species 
from habit and inflorescence agrees with the preceding, but dif- 
fers materially in Iiaving only 5 stamens, and a tuberous root. 
It is not a Claytunia, in consequence of the stamens alternating 
with the petals, not opposite them ; nor a Calandr'mia from the 
calyx not being deciduous. 

Turnip-formed-xooieA Talinum. PI. |- to 1 foot. 

Sect. II. Talina'strum (an alteration from Talimwi). D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 357. — Talinum, Sims and Haw. Style filiform. 
Stigmas 3, distinct, spreading. Ovarium globose (f. 17. c). 
Leaves flat, rather fleshy. Stems suffrutescent, fleshy, erect. 



3 T. CRAssiFOLiuM (Willd. spec. 
2. p. 862.) stem shrubby, erect; 
leaves flat, obovate-lanceolate, mu- 
cronate ; flowers disposed in an 
elongated panicled corymb ; pe- 
duncles triquetrous. Tj .D.S. Native 
country unknown, but probably of 
the West Indies. Haw. syn. p. 
123. Portulaca crassifolia, Jacq. 
hort. vind. 3. t. 52. Haw. misc. 
p. 140. T. panicul^tum, Moench. 
meth. p. 232. but not of Giertn. 
nor Ruiz et Pav. Flowers red. 

Far. /3, albiflhrum (D. C. prod. 



FIG. 17. 




PORTULACEiE. VI. Talinum. VII. Levvisia. 



77 



3. p. 357.) flowers white. Tj . D.G. Native of South America, by 
the sea side. Comm. hort. 1. p. 7. t. 4. Portuiaca fruticosa, Murr. 
syst. veg. but not of Thunb. Portiili\ca paniculata, Lin. spec. 2. 
p. ()40. Talhium fruticosum, Willd. spec. 2. p. 8C4. The 
calyx is said to be of 5 sepals, but this assertion we suspect to 
be erroneous. 

77i;a-/entW Talinum. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1800. Sh. 1 ft. 

4 T. triangula're (Willd. spec. 2. p. 862.) stem shrubby, 
erect ; leaves flat, channelled, wedge-shaped, emarginate, mu- 
cronate ; racemes simple ; rachis triquetrous. I^ . D. S. Na- 
tive of the Antilles, on the seashore. Plum. ed. Burm. t. 150. 
f. 2. Portuh\ca racem6sa, Lin. spec. fitO. Haw. misc. p. 139. 
Portuiaca trianyuluris, Jacq. obs. 1. p. 55. t. 23. Rulingia tri- 
angularis, Eiirli. beitr. 3. p. 134. Flowers yellow, size of those 
of the preceding species. 

Trimigiilar TaUmim. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1739. PI. | ft._ 

5 T. pa'tens (Willd. spec. 2. p. 8G3. var. a.) stem suftVuti- 
cose, erect ; leaves fiat, glabrous, lower ones obovate, obtuse, 
upper ones lanceolate, acute ; panicle terminal ; peduncles alter- 
nate, dichotomous, bractless ; petals oblong, acutish, 3 times 
longer than the calyx. I; . D. S. Native of Martinico, St. 
Domingo, Mexico, New Granada, and Brazil, on rocks by the 
sea side ; also of Buenos Ayres. Portuk\ca paniculata, Jacq. 
amer. p. 148. Portul. patens, Jacq. hort. vind. 2. t. 151. Ru- 
lingia patens, Ehrh. beitr. 3. p. 135. T. paniculatum, Gaertn. 
fr. 2. p. 219. t. 128. but not of Moench. nor of Ruiz et Pav. 
Flowers small, red, 3 lines in diameter. The leaves of the plant 
are used in the same manner as common purslane in Brazil. 

-S^jrenrfi^i^-panicled Talinum. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1776. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

6 T. AndreVsii (Sweet, hort. brit. p. 170.). stem suffruti- 
cose, erect ; leaves glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, sessile ; panicle 
branched, terminal ; petals oblong, obtuse. I; . D. S. Native of 
the West Indies. T. patens, Andr. bot. rep. t. 253. Flowers 
large, red. 

Andrew's Talinum. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1800. Sh. 1 to 2 ft. 

7 T. refle'xum (Cav. icon. 1. p. 1. t. 1.) stem suffruticose, 
erect ; leaves flat, lanceolate or oval, obtuse, usually opposite ; 
panicle terminal ; peduncles usually opposite, dichotomous, 
bractless. $ . D. S. Native of South America. Sims, bot. 
mag. t. 1543. Haw. syn. p. 124. Portul&ca reflexa, Haw. misc. 
p. 141. T. patens ft, Willd. spec. 2. p. 8G3. T. dichotomum, 
Ruiz et Pav. syst. fl. per. p. 118. This species is very nearly 
allied to T. jjatens, but differs in the flowers being yellow, not 
red or purple, as in that plant, and the plant is probably bien- 
nial. 

Reflexed TAmum. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1800. PI. 1 foot. 

8 T. CUNEIFOLIUM (Willd. spec. 2. p. 864.) stem shrubby, 
erect ; leaves flat, wedge-shaped, obtuse, mucronate ; panicle 
terminal ; lower peduncles 3-flowered. h . D. G. Native of 
Arabia Felix, about Surdud and Hadie ; and also of the East In- 
dies. Portuiaca cuneifolia, Vahl. symb. 1. p. 333. Origia portu- 
lacifolia, Forsk. descript. p. 103. Flowers of a reddish violet- 
colour. 

Wedge-leaved T&Wmxm. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. Sh. lift. 

9 T. POLYGALOiDEs (Gill. mss. cx Amott, in Cheek, edinb. 
journ. vol. 3. p. 354.) stem shrubby, erect, branched a little ; 
branches striated, angular ; leaves flat, linear, mucronate (when 
dry very narrow, with revolute edges) ; peduncles bibracteate at 
the base, when bearing the fruit deflexed, axillary, emulating a 
simple raceme. T^ . D. G. Native of Chili, in the Jarillal, and 
along the foot of the mountains near Mendoza, at an elevation 
of 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea. Flowers about a fourth of 
an inch in diameter, yellow, fading to red. The stem appears 
not to be at all fleshy, according to the dried specimens. 

Pott/gala-like Talinum, PI. 5 to ^ foot. 



Sect. III. Taline'llum (a diminutive of Talinum). D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 358. — Talhnun, Ruiz et Pav. syst. fl. per. p. 65. 
Style thick. Stigmas 3, thick, flattish. — Generally annual 
herbs ; and probably should have been joined with the genus 
Calandrinia. 

10 T. revolu'tum (H.B. et Kuntb, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 
76.) stem erect, simple; leaves glabrous, lanceolate, obtuse, nar- 
rowed at the base, with revolute margins ; peduncles terminal, 
somewhat dichotomous, few-flowered ; petals awned, glandular 
towards the base. ©. F. Native of South America, in shady 
places near Cumana. Flowers yellow. Stamens about 48. 
Fruit imknown. 

Revolutc-leavcd Talinum. PI. ^ foot. 

11 T. mucrona'tum (H.B. et Kunth, I.e.) stems erectisli ; 
leaves glabrous, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, somewhat 
mucronate, cuneated, and narrowed at the base ; peduncles ter- 
minal, 2-3-cleft, many-flowered ; flowers racemose ; petals mu- 
cronate. ©. D. F. Native of New Andalusia, near Bor- 
dones, in shady humid places. Petals yellow, length of calyx. 
Stamens about 50. 

il/«c)-o»a/t'-leaved Talinum. PI. |^ to | foot. 

12 T. polya'ndrum (Ruiz et Pav. syst. fl. per. p. 115.) leaves 
roundish-obovate, acuminated ; flowers racemose, polyandrous ; 
petals obcordate, quite entire. ©. F. Native of Peru, on the 
hills called Lomas towards Pongo. Herb a foot high, noxious 
to cattle. The rest unknown. 

PolyandioiisTaVinum. PI. 1 foot. 

13 T. crena'tum (Ruiz et Pav. 1. c.) leaves roundish-ob- 
ovate, acuminated ; flowers racemose ; petals crenulated ; sta- 
mens about 20. — Native of South America, on hills about 
Pongo in the province of Atiquipa. Herb a foot high, and is 
called by the natives Langua de Vaca, as well as the preceding 
plant. The rest unknown. 

Cre«a<fd-petalled Talinum. PI. 1 foot. 

14 T. Menzie'sii (Hook. fl. amer. bor. 1. p. 223. t. 70.) 
caulescent; leaves linear-spatulate : lower ones on long petioles; 
margins naked : superior ones and sepals acutely keeled, glan- 
dularly ciliated on the back ; flowers pedunculate, axillary. 0. 
H. Native of the north-west coast of America, south of Co- 
lumbia. The habit is that of a species oi Talinum, without hav- 
ing seen the flowers ; it may, however, when better examined 
turn out to be a species of Calandrinia. Root annual, rather 
fusiform. 

Menzies's Talinum. PI. \ foot. 

Cult. Pretty succulent plants, most of which require the 
heat of a stove ; a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or any 
light soil will suit them ; and cuttings of them are very readily 
rooted. The seeds of the annual species may be reared on a 
hot-bed, and afterwards planted out in the open border about the 
end of May. 

VII. LEWrSIA (in honour of Captain M.Lewis, who accom- 
panied Captain Clarke to the Rocky Mountains of North Ame- 
rica). Pursh. fl. amer. sept. 2. p. 368. Hook, in bot misc. 1. 
p. 345. t. 70. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 223. 

Lin. syst. Dodec/indria, Monogynia. Calyx of 5 sepals; 
sepals rather membranous. Petals 9-12, inner ones gradually 
the smallest. Stamens 12-lG, hypogynous ; antliers linear. 
Ovarium globose. Ovula many, fixed to a free central recep- 
tacle. Style deeply 6-parted : segments filiform ; stigmas ob- 
tuse Plant herbaceous, stcmless. Roots fascicled. Leaves 

terete, fleshy. Scapes 1 -flowered. 

1 L. REDivivA (Pursh. 1. c. Hook. I.e.) l/.H. Native of 
North America. 

Var. a; root blood-coloured ; flowers white. Native on the 
banks of Clarke's river. 



78 



PORTULACEiE. VIII. Calandrinia. 



Var. ft ; root white ; flowers rose-coloured. Native of the 
subalpine regions of the Rocky Mountains, on the west side, and 
abundant at the junction of the Spokan river with the Cohimbia, 
on dry stony rocks ; also of the Flathead and Salmon rivers, in 
.similar situations. The roots of this variety are gathered in 
great quantities by the Indians on the west side of the Rocky 
Mountains, and highly valued on account of theirnutritive quali- 
ties. They are boiled and eaten as salep or arrow-root, and are 
admirably calculated for carrying on long journeys ; two or three 
ounces a day being quite sufficient for a man, even while under- 
going great fatigue. Perfect flowers of the plant have not yet 
been seen by any botanist, and therefore the genus is not well 
known ; and probably may hereafter verge into Tallnum. 

Remved LeW\s\a.. Clt. 1826. PI. 4 foot. 

Cull. A mixture of loam and brick-rubbish will be a good 
soil for this plant ; and it may be propagated by dividing the 
plant at the root, by cuttings, or by seeds. 

VIII. CALANDRI'NIA (in honour of L. Calandrini, an Ita- 
lian botanist, who lived in the beginning of the 18th century). 
H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 77. D. C. prod. 3. p. 
358. — Cosmia, Domb. mss. Juss. gen. 312. — Geunsia, Moc. et 
Sesse, fl. raex. icon. ined. — Phacosperma, Haw. in phil. jour. 
1827. p. 124. 

Lin. syst. Dodecandria, Monogynia. Calyx permanent, bi- 
partite (f. 18. a.) ; sepals roundish-ovate. Petals 3-5 (f. 18.6.), 
hypogynous, or inserted in the bottom of the calyx, distinct or 
connected together at tiie very base, equal. Stamens 4-15, in- 
serted in the torus or base of the petals, distinct, generally alter- 
nating with the petals. Style 1, very short, tripartite at the 
apex ; lobes collected into a clavately capitate stigma (f. 18. c). 
Capsule oblong-eUiptic, 1 -celled, 3-valved, many-seeded. Seeds 
adhering by capillary funicles to the central placenta. — Succu- 
lent or fleshy glabrous American herbs, having the habit of Sd- 
mollis. Leaves quite entire, radical or alternate. Pedicels 1- 
flowered, axillary or opposite the leaves. This genus hardly 
differs from Talinum, as far as its characters are yet known. 
* Stamens 10-15. 

1 C. panicula'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 358.) plant caulescent, 
branched ; leaves obovate- oblong, acuminated ; flowers pa- 
nicled ; pedicels 5 times longer than the bracteas. 0. F. Na- 
tive of Peru, in the province of Chancay, commonly called Lo- 
mas, on sandy hills ; and in the province of Atiquipa, at Pango, 
where the plant grows a foot high, and is called there Orejas de 
Perro and Castannuelas. Talinum paniculatum, Ruiz et Pav. 
syst. fl. per. p. 115. Portulaca carnosa, Domb. herb. Leaves 
glabrous, fleshy. Stem erect, paniculately branched at the apex. 
Sepals 2, ovate, permanent. Stamens 10-15. Capsule 3-valved, 
length of the calyx. Flowers purple. 

Panidcd Calandrinia. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1816. PI. 1 foot. 

2 C. LiNGULA TA (D. C. 1. c.) plant caulescent, and branched 
from the base ; leaves linear, tongue-shaped ; flowers panicled. 
©. F. Native of Peru, at Chancay near Jequan, in sandy 
places. Talinum lingulatum, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. p. 115. Por- 
tulaca linearis, Domb. Sepals 2, ovate, permanent. Stamens 
10-15. Capsule 3-valved, shorter than the sepals. 

Tungue-XesiveA Calandrinia. PL 1 foot. 

3 C. cisTiFLORA (Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb. jour. 
3. p. 355.) glabrous ; stem ascending, suff"ruticose ; branches 
leafy at the base, and nearly naked towards the apex ; leaves 
linear-lanceolate, acutish ; raceme terminal, few-flowered; pe- 
dicils elongated ; bracteas minute, foliaceous : sepals ovate, 
acute ; stamens numerous. Tj . D. G. Native on the Andes of 
Mendoza and Chili, in many places at an elevation above the 
sea, from 9,000 to 10,000 feet. The flowers are pretty large, 
and purple. It ranks near C. Ungulala, 



Rock-rose-Jlorvercd Calandrinia. PI. ascending. 

4 C. AFFiNis(Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb. journ. 3. 
p. 355.) plant glabrous and stemless ; leaves elongated, linear, 
obtuse, attenuated into the petiole ; indurated bases of petioles 
imbricated and dilated; peduncles radical, 1-flowered, naked, 
one-half shorter than the leaves. }/ . D. G. Native on the 
Andes of Chili, at El Serro de San Pedro Nolasco. This species 
is closely allied to C. acaulis, but differs in the flowers having 
numerous stamens. 

j4llied Calandrinia. PI. \ foot. 

5 C. capita'ta (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 244.) root 
annual ; stems erectish, smooth, and nearly simple ; leaves 
linear, smoothish, ciliated ; racemes capitate, many flowered, 
terminal, and axillary, pedunculate ; flowers nearly sessile ; se- 
pals roundish, tridentate at the apex, beset with long pili on the 
back. O. F. Native on the Cordillera of Chili, and near 
Collina. 

Capitate-tiowered Calandrinia. PI. ^ foot. 

6 C. RAMOsissiMA (Hook. et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 244.) 
root annual ; stems many from the same neck, leafy, branched ; 
axillary branches horizontal ; leaves linear, pilose, ciliated with 
long hairs at the base ; racemes short, few-flowered ; sepals 
roundish, truncate, bluntly tridentate at the apex, and beset with 
long pili on the back. ©• F. Native of Chili, about Valpa- 
raiso. 

Muck-branched Calandrinia. PI. -j to 1 foot. 

7 C. CuMiNGii (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 244.) root 
slender, annual ; stems many from the same root, procumbent, 
leafy, dichotomously branched ; leaves linear, attenuated at the 
base, beset with adpressed hairs ; racemes few-flowered, termi- 
nal ; sepals roundish, tridentate at the apex, pilose on the back. 
O. F. Native of Chili, about Valparaiso; and on the Cordil- 
lera of Chili. The upper part of the stems, racemes, and 
calyxes are beset with glandular viscid hairs. The whole plant has 
a purplish hue. In character this species approaches near to C. 
ramos'issima, but in habit they are very distinct. 

Cuming's Calandrinia. PI. procumbent. 

8 C. umbella'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 358.) stem erectish, 
nearly naked ; leaves radical, linear, acute, pilose ; corymb cy- 
mose, terminal, many-flowered ; bracteas ciliated. ©. F. Na- 
tive of Chili, at Conception in sandy places. Talinum umbel- 
latum, Ruiz et Pav. syst. fl. per. p. 117. Portulaca prostrata, 
Domb. herb. Sepals nearly orbicular, permanent. Stamens 
10-15. Ovarium prismatically conical, tapering a long way. 
Habit almost of a species of Androsace. 

Umbel late-f\o\\ered Calandrinia. PI. ^ foot. 

9 C. Pi'cTA (Gill. mss. ex Arn. in Cheek, edinb. journ. 3. p. 
356.) plant caulescent, sparingly branched, perennial, glabrous; 
leaves obovately spatulate, attenuated into the petiole at the 
base, glaucous ; corymb cymose, terminal ; pedicels much ex- 
ceeding the bracteas, which are roundish, membranous, and 
edged with purple ; sepals roundish, reticulated by pur])le ; 
stamens numerous. If.. D. G. Native on the Andes of Men- 
doza, in many places at the elevation of 10,000 feet above the 
sea. This is one of the most beautiful of the species ; and ac- 
cording to habit comes near C. glailca, but differs in the stamens 
being numerous. 

Pamted Calandrinia. PI. 1 foot. 

10 C. arena" RiA (Cham. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 
3. p. 246.) plant glaucous ; stems numerous, prostrate, glabrous, 
leafy ; leaves linear ; common peduncle terminal, naked, simple 
or branched ; racemes corymbose ; pedicels a little longer than 
the bracteas ; bracteas oval, membranous, painted by a dark 
purple branched middle nerve ; seeds glabrous. © . ? F. Na- 
tive of Chili, about Valparaiso. Closely allied to C. picta. Gill, 
but very distinct from it. 



rOUTULACE^. VIII. CALANnRiMA. 



79 



Sand Calandrinia. PI. prostrate. 

11 C. LiNEARU'OLiA (D. C. pvocl. 3. p. 359.) stem ascending, 
a little branched at the base ; branches erect, radical and caidine 
leaves linear, glabrous, bluntish ; corymb terminal, a little 
branched ; calyx glandular. 1/ . D. G. Native of South Ame- 
rica. Perhaps the same as Talinum lineare, H. B. et Kunth, 
nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 77. which is found in the arid valleys of 
Mexico. 

Linear-lcavcd Calandrinia. PI. ascending. 

13 C. riLosiu'scuLA (D. C. 1. c.) stems erectish, angular, 
rather pilose ; leaves linear-spatulate, rather pilose ; pedicels 
axillary, 1 -flowered, rather adnate to the floral leaves, consti- 
tuting a terminal or subterminal panicle. ©. F. Native of 
Chili, about Conception. Lindl. in hort. trans. 6. p. 291. T. 
cilititum, Hook. exot. fl. 1. t. 82. but not of Ruiz et Pav. Tali- 
num lineare, Hoffm. verz. 1827. p. 217. Flowers rose-coloured. 
Stigmas 3, rose-coloured, nearly as in Papiivcr, having the styles 
radiating at the apex. Stamens 10-15, not 5, as in Talinum 
ciliiilum of Ruiz et Pav. 

Hairy Calandrinia. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1823. PI. i to 1 foot. 

ISC. SERi'cEA (Hook, et Arn. in hot. misc. 3. p. 244.) root 
perennial, woody, with a multiple neck ; stems erectish, very 
leafy at the base ; leaves linear, acute or subulate, clothed with 
silky hairs ; raceme few-flowered, corymbose ; upper pedicels 
hardly equal in length to the bracteas ; sepals ovate, tridentate 
at the apex, clothed with long silky villi ; stamens numerous. 
U.D. G. Native of Chili. 

I'ar. a, longipes (Hook, et Arn. 1. c.) lower pedicel elon- 
gated, slender, much longer than the rest and the bractea. On 
Sierra Bella Vista, and Acancugua ; and on the Cordillera of 
Chili. 

I'ar. /3, ce'quipes (Hook, et Arn. 1. c.) pedicels all nearly equal. 
Near Collina and Questa. In both varieties the leaves vary 
much in length, from 1 to 2 or even 3 inches. 

Silky Calandrinia. PI. 1 foot. 

14 C. TENELLA (Hook. et Arn. in Beech, bot. p. 24.) stems 
ascending, branched at the base ; leaves narrow-linear, glabrous ; 
racemes terminal, branched ; sepals glabrous, triangular, cor- 
date, acuminated. ©. ? G. Native of Chili, at Valparaiso. 
Very closely allied to C. pilosiuscula, but differs from it in being 
quite glabrous and in its smaller size. This is said to be only 
a variety of C. pilosiuscula. Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. 
p. 245. 

Weak Calandrinia. PI. ascending. 

15 C. phacospe'rma (D. C. 1. c.) stems weak, somewhat hex- 
agonal ; leaves linear-lanceolate, hispid on the margins ; flowers 
racemose. $ . F. Native of Peru. Phacosperma Peruviana, 
Haw. in phil.journ. 1827. p. 124. Tetragonia Peruviana, hort. 
Chelsea, ex Haw. Flowers reddish. Peduncles erect, shorter 
than the foliaceous bractea. Sepals quadrangular, curled. 
.Stigma G-lobed. 

Lcntil-sceded Calantlrima. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1820. PI. 
1 to 3 feet. 

* * Stamens from 1 to 9. 

16 C. caule'scens (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 
78. t. 526.) plant caulescent and branched ; leaves alternate, 
spatulately lanceolate, acute ; pedicels axillary and opposite the 
leaves, 1-flowered, bractless. ©. F. Native of Quito, near 
Chillo, and near the city of Mexico. Geunsia rosea, Moc. et 
Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. Talinum caulescens, Spreng. syst. 1. 
p. 453. Cosmia montana, Domb. herb. Stem diffuse or pro- 
cumbent. Flowers rose-coloured. 

Caulescent Calandrinia. PI. pr. 

17 C. procu'mbens (Moris, hort. taur. sem. 1831.) glabrous, 
caulescent, filiform, procumbent, branched ; leaves succulent, 



linear, obtuse, alternate ; pedicels axillary, and opposite the 
leaves ; sepals triangular ; flowers triandrous or hexandrous ; 
capsule 3-celled. ©. H. Native of South America. This 
species diflfers from C compressa of Sclirad. in l)eing glabrous, 
in the stems being procumbent, in the stamens being 3-0, and in 
the sepals not being cordate at the base, &c. 
Procumbent Calandrinia. PI. pr. 

18 C. comi're'ssa (Schrad. in litt. ex D. C. 1. c.) plant cau- 
lescent and succulent ; leaves linear, ciliated ; flowers racemose ; 
calyx compressed ; sepals triangular, cordate, luicqual, aciunin- 
ated. 0. F. Native of Chili. Plant a span high, erect, 
simple, or somewhat divided, with short hairs on the peduncles 
and calyxes. Leaves obtuse, marked with a longitudinal line 
above, somewhat keeled beneath: radical ones 1|^ or 2 inches 
long. Pedicels an inch and a half long. Flowers small, purple. 
Stamens 3-4. Capsule 3-4-valved. Schrad. mss. 

I'ar. ft, adscendens (D.C. 1. c.) plant smaller ; stem ascending. 
Talinum adscendens, Hort. berol. 

Compressed-calyxed Calandrinia. PI. -^ foot. 

19 C. denticula'ta (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in bot. 
misc. 3. p. 243.) plant glabrous; stem suftruticose, leafy ; leaves 
lanceolate, acute, attenuated at the base ; raceme terminal, 1-3 
or few-flowered ; pedicels elongated ; sepals roundish-ovate, 
with denticulately-serrated margins. Ij . D. G. Native of 
Chili, along with C. andicola. The lower part of the stem is 
much branched. 

Denticulatcd-calyxed Calandrinia. Shrub 1 foot ? 

20 C. ANDICOLA (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. 
p. 242.) plant wholly glabrous ; stem suftruticose, leafy towards 
the apex : leaves cuneate-oblong, acute, attenuated at the base ; 
raceme terminal, 1-3 or few-flowered; pedicels elongated; 
sepals roundish, hardly mucronulate at the apex, with quite en- 
tire margins ; petals a little longer than the calyx ; flowers with 
few stamens. ^j ■ D. G. Native of Chili, on the eastern side 
of the Cumbre, and at El Alto de la Laguna. Closely allied to 
C. cistijlora, but apparently quite distinct. From C. dcnticulata 
it can only be distinguished by the entire margins of the sepals. 

Andes Calandrinia. PI. ^ to 1 foot. 

21 C. acau'lis (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) plant stemless ; leaves 
elongated, linear, obtuse ; peduncles radical, 1-flowered, bibrac- 
teate in the middle, one half shorter than the leaves. 3/ . D. G. 
Native of Quito, on Mount Rucu-Pichincha, in humid places. 
Cosmia prostrata, Domb. herb. 

Stemless Calandrinia. PI. ^ foot. 

22 C. TRiFiDA (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 243.) root 
annual, slender ; stems erectish, simple, rather leafy, pilose ; 
leaves linear, acute, pilose ; radical ones elongated ; upper cau- 
line ones edged with long hairs, embracing a few flowers in their 
axils ; raceme corymbose, dense, terminal ; bracteas ciliated 
with long hairs : lower ones exceeding the racemes ; sepals 
ovate, trifid at the apex, with a few hairs on the back, but more 
numerous on the margins ; stamens 5. ©. H. Native of Chili, 
about Valparaiso. This and C. Gilliisii and C, sericea seem 
closely allied to C. nmhellata. 

TriJid-hxactcaA Calandrinia. PI. -j foot. 

23 C. GiLLiE^sii (Hook, et Arn. in bot. misc. 3. p. 243.) root 
perennial, woody, with a multiple neck ; stems erectish, simple, 
very leafy at the base, but sparingly so at the apex ; leaves ob- 
long-linear, beset with adpressed hairs ; raceme corymbose ; 
lower bracteas hardly equal in length to the pedicels ; sepals 
ovate, somewhat tridentate at the apex, and beset with long pili 
on the back ; stamens 5. l/ . D. G. Native of the Andes, of 
Mendoza, and Chili ; Cordillera of Ciiili ; and Los Ojos de Aqua. 
C. umbellata. Gill. mss. 

Gillies's Calandrinia. PI. f foot. 

24 C. DiFFu'sA (Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb. journ. 



80 



PORTULACEiE. VIII. Calandrinia. IX. Portulacaria. X. Ullucus. XI. Ciaytonia. 



3. p. 355.) plant caulescent, glabrous, diffuse ; branches leafy 
at tlie base and nakedish at the top, l-2-flo\vered ; leaves spatu- 
late-lanceolate, acute, quite entire; flowers terminal ; sepals or- 
bicular, quite entire. l^ . D. G. Native of the Andes of Chili, 
near El Paso de los Peuquenes, at an elevation above the sea of 
10,000 feet. The number of stamens in the flowers of this 
species has not been determined. 
Diffuse Calandrina. PI. 1 foot. 

25 C. glau'ca (Schrad. in litt. ex D. C. 1. c.) plant caules- 
cent, glabrous ; leaves spatvdate-lanceolate, acute, fleshy, glau- 
cous ; racemes few-flowered ; fruit-bearing peduncles, H inch 
long-, rcflexed ; bracteas ovate, acute, membranous, and spotted 
witii purple. 1/ . D. G. Native of Chili. Stem a foot high. 
Leaves an inch and a half long, thick, tapering into the petioles. 
Flowers a little larger than those of C. cumprhsa. Sepals 
broadly ovate, purple, concave, reticulated with black. Capsule 
larger than the calyx, 3-valvcd. (Schrad. mss.) 

Glaucous Calandrinia. PI. 1 foot. 

26 C. confe'rta (Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb. 
journ. 3. p. 356.) plant caulescent, perennial, glabrous ; branches 
numerous from the neck of the root, simple, leafy at the base, 
nakedish towards the apex ; leaves narrowly spatulate, glau- 
cous ; racemes crowded, terminal ; pedicels hardly longer than 
the bracteas ; sepals broadly ovate ; flowers with few stamens, 
3-4. i; . D. G. Native on the Andes of Mendoza, at El Por- 
tczuela del Valle Hermosa. 

Crowded racemed Calandrinia. PI. 1 foot. 

27 C. c^sriTosA (Gill. mss. ex Arnott, in Cheek, edinb. journ. 
3. p. 356.) plant tufted, stemless ; leaves linear-spatulate ; pe- 
duncles radical, 1 -flowered, naked, 3-times longer than the 
leaves ; sepals broadly ovate ; flowers with few stamens ; stig- 
mas 4-5 ; capsule 4-5-valved. i; . D. G. Native on the Andes 
of Mendoza and Chili, and many places, at the elevation above 
the sea of from 9000 to 1 1,000 feet. 

Tufted Calandrinia. Fl. Mar. April. PI. tufted. 



FIG. IS. 



28 C. grandiflora (Lindl. 
bot. reg. t. 1194.) plant glau- 
cous ; stem suffruticose ; leaves 
fleshy, rhomboid, acute, petio- 
late ; raceme simple, loose ; ca- 
lyx spottjed ; stamens numerous; 
petals obcordate. 1/ . D. G. Na- 
tive of Chili. Flower of a rose- 
l)urple colour, (f. 18.) 

Grtn^^^OB'credCalandrinia. Fl. 
Ju. Jul. Clt. 1826. PI. 1 ft. 

29 C. cilia'ta (D. C. 1. c.) 
leaves linear-oblong, ciliated ; 
flowers solitary, always pentan- 
drous. ©. F. Native of Peru, 
at Huassa-Huassi, among rub- 
bish and in cultivated fields. Ta- 
linum ciliatum, Ruiz et Pav. syst. p. 116. prod. p. 65. but not 
of Hook. Flowers purple. 

C'(/«(/e(/-lcaved Calandrinia. PI. ^ foot. 

SO C. 1 a'lra (D. C. prod. 3. p. 359.) leaves spatulate-lan- 
ceolate ; flowers axillary, solitary, pentandrous. ©.? F. Na- 
tive of Peru, about Chancay and Lima, among rocks. Herb a 
foot high. Talinum album. Ruiz et Pav. 1. c. Flowers white. 

^r/(i<e-flovvered Calandrinia. PI. 1 foot. 

31 C. NiiiDA (D. C. 1. c.) stems ascending, glabrous, leafy; 
leaves oblong-spatulate, acutish, glabrous, attenuated at the 
base ; peduncles axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaves ; 
sepals roundish, obtuse, pilose on the backs ; stamens 1-9. 
©. F. Native of Chili, in fields and waste places, at Concep- 
tion, in the tract of Hualpen and Moquita; also about Valparaiso 




and Quillota. Herb half a foot high. Talinum nitidum, Ruiz 
et Pav. 1. c. 

Nitid Calandrinia. PI. | foot. 

32 C. mona'ndra (D. C. 1. c.) leaves spatulate-lanceolate ; 
flowers in spikes, secund, monandrous. ©•? F. Native of 
Chili, on arid hills about Conception, near the river Andalien. 
Talinum monandrum, Ruiz et Pav. 1. c. Herb a hand and a 
half high. 

Monandrous Calandrinia. PI. f foot. 

Cult. Calandrinia is a fine genus of succulent plants ; their 
culture and propagation are the same as that recommended for 
the species of Talinum, p. 77. The seeds of annual species 
may be sown in a hot-bed in spring, and the plants planted 
out into the open border, in a dry sheltered situation, about the 
end of May. 

IX. PORTULACARIA (altered from Portulaca). Jacq. 
coll. 1. p. 160. D. C. prod. 3. p. 360. — Hae'nkea, Salisb. prod, 
p. 174. — Anacampseros species, Lin. hort. cliff. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Monogyni'a. Calyx of 2 permanent 
meinbranous sepals. Petals 5, permanent, equal, obovate, hy- 
pogynous. Stamens 5, inserted with the petals, but disposed 
without any respect to the number of petals, hence there are 
probably 10, 5 of which are abortive; anthers short, usually 
barren. Ovarium ovate-triquetrous. Style wanting ; stigmas 
3, spreading, muricated with glands on the upper side. Fruit 
triquetrous, winged, indehiscent, 1 -seeded. — A glabrous shrub, 
native of Africa. Leaves opposite, roundish-obovate, flat, fleshy. 
Peduncles opposite, denticulated, compressed; pedicels 1 -flow- 
ered, 3 rising from each notch in the peduncle. Flowers small, 
rose-coloured. Fabric of seeds unknown. 

1 P. A'fra (Jacq. 1. c. t. 22.). >? . G. Native of the South 
of Africa. D. C. pi. grass, t. 132. Claytonia Portulacaria, Lin. 
mant. p. 211. Lam. ill. t. 144. f. 2. Crassula Portulacaria, 
Lin. spec. p. 406. Ha:'nkea crassifolia, Salisb. prod. 174. Por- 
tulaca fruticosa, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 399. exclusive of the syno- 
nyms.— Dill, hort. elth. 1. t. 101. f. 120. The plant seldom 
flowers in the gardens : at Genoa in the garden of Grimaldi. 

^//■(caH Purslane-tree. Clt. 1732. Shrub 3 to 6 feet. 

Cult. This plant will grow in any dry light soil ; and young 
cuttings will root readily in sand under a hand-glass. 

X. U'LLUCUS {Ullu:o or Melloco is the name of the plant 
in Quito). Lozano, in senan. nuov. gran. 1809. p. 185. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 360. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Monogijnia. Calyx of 2 opposite, 
roundish, concave, pellucid, coloured, deciduous sepals. Petals 
5, longer than the calyx, cordate, attenuated at the apex, con- 
nected at the base into a short tube. Stamens 5 ; filaments very 
short, erect ; anthers 2-celled, erect. Ovarium sub-globose. 
Style filiform, length of stamens ; stigma simple. Capsule 1- 
celled. Seed one, oblong. — Herb smooth. Root tuberous. 
Stem branched, angular. Leaves alternate, cordate, quite entire, 
thick, petiolate. Flowers disposed in a terminal, simple, droop- 
ing raceme. Pedicels furnished with very short bracteas. 

1 U. TUBEROsus (Loz. 1. c). 7^. D. G. Native of South 
America, in the province of Quito, growing in gardens, where it 
is called Ulluco or Melloco. The root is mucilaginous and eat- 
able. 

Tuberous-rooted Ullucus. PI. 1 foot. 

Cult. For the culture and propagation of this succulent plant 
see Anacdvqiseros, p. 76. 

XI. CLAYTONIA (in honour of John Clayton, who col- 
lected plants, mostly in Virginia, and sent them to Gronovius, 
who published them in his Flora Virginica). Lin. gen. 287. 



PORTULACE/E. XI. Claytonia. 



81 



Juss. gen. 314. Lam. ill. t. 144. Gaertn. fr. 2. p. 220. t. 129. 
St. Hil. mem. mus. 2. p. 197. t. 4. f. 15 — Limnia, Lin. act. 
ups. 1746. p. 130. — Clayt6nia and Limnia, Haw. syn. p. 11. 

Lin. syst. Pcntdmlria, Moriogijnia. Calyx of 2 oval, op- 
posite, permanent sepals (f. 20. a. f. 19. b.). Petals 5, obcor- 
date (f. 20. b.), or obovate (f. 19. a.), hypogynous, equal, un- 
guiculate ; claws connate at the base. Stamens 5 (f. 20. 6.), 
inserted at the claws of the petals. Ovarium sessile. Style 1, 
trifid at the apex ; lobes stigniatose inside. Capsule 1 -celled, 
3-valved, 3-seeded. Seeds sessile. — Herbs glabrous, rather 
succulent, usually perennial. Leaves quite entire : radical ones 
petiolate; upper usually opposite and sessile, and sometimes con- 
nate. Racemes terminal. Flowers white or rose-coloured. 

§ 1 . Scape rvilh 2 opposite leaves, which are sometimes con- 
nate. 

* Roots Jibrous, annual. 

1 C. perfolia'ta (Donn, hort. cant. p. 25.) leaves without 
nerves : upper ones connate or perfoliate, forming a roundish 
disk ; radical leaves petiolate, oval-rhomboid ; lower pedicels of 
raceme in bundles ; petals entire or somewhat emarginate. 0. H. 
Native of Mexico, on the mountains of St. Augustin ; and on 
the rocky mountains in North America ; also of Cuba, if C. 
Cubensis, Bonpl. ann. mus. 7. p. 82. t. 6. pi. equin. t. 26. be 
the same. — Sims, bot. mag. 1336. Limnia perfoliata, Haw. syn. 
p. 12. Flowers small, white. Root fibrous. Leaves edible, 
and used like those of the Purslane. 

Perfoliate Claytonia. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1794. PI. | to | ft. 

2 C. ALSiNoiDES (Sims, bot. mag. 1309.) root fibrous; leaves 
reticulately veined, rhomboid, acute ; upper leaves opposite, 
sessile, ovate, mucronate : radical ones petiolate, ovate, acumin- 
ated ; pedicels of raceme for the most part solitary, bractless ; 
petals emarginate. ©. H. Native of the north-west coast of 
America, at the sources of the Columbia ; particularly plentiful 
about Indian villages, where it seems to hold the place of chick- 
weed in our country. Flowers white. 

rar. ji, rosea (D.C. prod. 3. p. 361.) flowers rose-coloured; 
leaves almost nerveless. ©. H. Native of Nootka Sound. 
C. Sibirica, Sims, bot. mag. 2243. Sweet, br. fl. gard. t. 16. 
but not of Pall. 

Chicknced-Uke Claytonia. Fl. Mar. June. Clt. 1794. PI. 
\ foot. 

3 C. Unalasche'nsis (Fisch. in Roem. et Schultes, syst. 5. 
p. 434.) leaves nerved : upper ones opposite, sessile, rhomb- 
ovate : radical ones petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, acuminated ; ra- 
cemes twin ; bracteas ovate ; pedicels solitary, twice longer 
than the bracteas ; petals emarginately bifid. 0. H. Native 
of the Island of Unalaschka, in humid sandy places. C. bifida, 
Willd. herb. The petals are said 
to be white in the dried state. 

Unalaschha Claytonia. Fl. 
Mar. Jul. Clt. 1820. Pl.ito^ft. 

4 C. PARVIFLORA (Dougl. mss. 

ex Hook. fl. bor.amer. 1. p. 225. 
t. 73.) root fibrous ; radical leaves 
numerous, linear-spatulate, 3- 
nerved, with anastomosing veins, 
on long petioles ; the 2 cauline 
ones joined into a perfoliate, 
ovate leaf, which is reticulately 
veined ; racemes solitary, rather 
compound, unibracteate. 0.H. 
Native of North America, abun- 
dant along the course of the Co- 
lumbia, in open parts of the forest, 

VOL. III. 



FIG 




where wood has been burnt, or the ground turned up by deer. 
Flowers rosc-coloured and white. This species diflers from C. 
■perfoliata in its linear-spatulate radical leaves, ovate bracteas, 
and profusion of sn)all flowers, (f 19.) 
Small-flowered Claytonia. PI. I foot. 

5 C. spatula'ta (bougl. mss. ex Hook. fl. amer. bor. 1. p. 
226. t. 74.) plant minute; root fibrous ; radical leaves numerous, 
narrow, Imear-spatulate ; the 2 cauline ones ovate, acute, and 
sessile; racemes solitary, unibracteate ; petals entire. 0. H. 
Native of the north-west coast of America, in the valleys of the 
Rocky Mountains. Corolla longer than the calyx. Stems 
many from the same root. This is the smallest of all the species. 

Spaltilate-leavei Claytonia. PI. -J foot. 

6 C. sarmentosa (Meyer, nov. pi. in mem. acad. de Mourou. 
vol. 17.) sarmentose; leaves nerved: radical ones oblong, ob- 
tuse, petiolate : cauline ones ovate, somewhat cordate, stem- 
clasping, but distinct : racemes terminal, solitary, bractless ; 
petals emarginate. — Native of St. George, one of the Aleiuiati 
Islands. 

Sarmentose Claytonia. PI. sarmentose. 

* * Roots tuberous or fusiform. 

7 C. Virgi'nica (Lin. spec. 394.) leaves all narrow, linear, 
obsoletely 3-nerved, with anastomosing veins : radical ones very 
few ; racemes solitary, nodding ; pedicels elongated : lower 
ones bracteate ; petals emarginate. % . H. Native of North 
America, in New England, Virginia, and Carolina, in humid 
woods ; and of Kotzebue's Sound. The leaves of the plant, 
from the last-mentioned habitat, are remarkable for their broad- 
ness. Pluk. aim. t. 102. f 3. Flowers white. 

/'irg-ramn Claytonia, Fl. Mar. Aug. Clt. 1768. PI. | ft. 

8 C. ORANDiFLORA (Sweet, fl. gard. t. 216.) root tuberous: 
leaves linear-lanceolate, attenuated at both ends ; racemes soli- 
tary, many-flowered; petals oval, obtuse, entire; sepals very 
blunt. 1/. H. Native of North America, near Montreal, and 
on the Saschatchawan. C. Virginica, var. (i, media, D. C. prod. 
3. p. 361. D. C. pi. grass, t. 131. Flowers pink or rose-co- 
loured, with darker branched veins, and a yellow spot on the claw. 

Great-flowered Claytonia. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. ? PI. I foot. 

9 C. AcuTiFLORA (Swect, hort. brit. edit. 2.) root tuberous ; 
leaves all long, linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, with anastomosing 
veins ; racemes solitary, nodding : pedicels elongated : lower 
ones bracteate ; petals elliptic, entire, acute at both ends ; sepals 
acutish. 1/. H. Native of North America, in humid parts of 
woods. C. Virginica, Sims. bot. mag. 941. C. Virginica, var. 
a, acutiflora, D. C. prod. 3. p. 361. Flowers white. 

Acute-flowered Claytonia. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. ? PI. \ ft. 

10 C. Carolinia'na (Mich. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 175.) root 
tuberous ; radical leaves subspatidate : cauline ones ol)long ; 
racemes solitary, nodding ; pedicels elongated : lower ones brac- 
teate ; petals obovate, somewhat emarginate ; sepals very blunt. 
l/.H. Native of North America, in Carolina. C. spatula- 
filia, Salisb. prod. p. 71. C. Virj^inica y, spatulsefolia, D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 361. Flowers pink or rose-coloured. 

Caro//7i« Claytonia. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. 1789. PI. | foot. 

lie. lanceola'ta (Pursli, fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 175. t. 3.) 
root tuberous ; radical leaves very few, oblong, on long petioles : 
cauline ones elliptic, sessile, all 3-nerved, with anastomosing 
veins ; racemes solitary, nodding ; pedicels elongated : lower 
ones bracteate ; petals deeply emarginate. 1/ . H. Native of 
North America, in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains, in a 
rich soil ; and perhaps in Eastern Siberia. Flowers large, white. 
It is very nearly allied to C. I'estiana of Fisch. 

Zancfo/a/e-leaved Claytonia. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. 1812. 
PI. i foot. 

12 C. A'rctica (Adams, act. mosc. 5. p. 94.) leaves ncrve- 
M 



82 



PORTULACEjE. XI. Claytonia. XII. Montia. XIII. Leptrina. 



less, fleshy ; cauline ones sessile, ovate ; radical ones petiolate, 
siibspatulate ; racemes secund ; petals obovate, somewhat emar- 
ginate. l^.H. Native of Arctic Siberia, towards the mouth 
of the Lena. C. Cliamissoi, Led. ex Spreng. syst. 1. p. 790. 
Flowers large, white, or pale yellow, with an orange throat. 
Arctic Claytonia. PI. \ foot. 

13 C. Vestia NA (Fisch. in litt.) root tuberous ; leaves vein- 
less : radical ones oblong : cauline ones opposite, nearly sessile ; 
stem dicliotomous ; peduncles long, somewhat corymbose ; petals 
entire. 1/. H. Native of Siberia. C. Joanniana, Roem. et 
Schultes, syst. 5. p. 434'. This species differs from the true C. 
Sibirica in the leaves being narrower, in the petals being white, 
and in the inflorescence. Flowers secund, at first nodding. Ca- 
lycine lobes obtuse. Corolla appearing as if it were pedicellate. 

Fm*'* Claytonia. Fl. Mar. Aug. Clt. 1827. PI. | foot. 

14 C. acutif6lia (Pall. ex. Willd. rel. in Rcem. et Schultes, 
syst. 5. p. 436.) leaves oblong, nerved, acute ; petals emar- 
ginate ; branches numerous from the sides of the root. 2/ . H. 
Native of Eastern Siberia. Flowers white. Stems 3-4 hands high. 

Acute-leaved Claytonia. Fl. May, Ju. Clt. 1827. PI. H ft. 

15 C. tuberosa (Pall, ex Willd. rel. in Roem. et Schultes, 5. 
p. 436.) root tuberous; leaves linear-lanceolate, attenuated; 
petals retuse. 1/ . H. Native of Kamtschatka and Eastern 
Siberia, among hypnums. Leaves 2, alternate. Tubers edible, 
like a potatoe. 

Tubcrous-rooieil Claytonia. PI. ^ to 4 foot. 

16 C. Sibirica (Lin. spec. 294.) root fusiform ; leaves veined : 
radical and cauline ones oval ; raceme secund ; petals bifid. 
% . H. Native of Siberia, in boggy places. Liinnia, Lin. act. 
holm. 1746. t. 5. Radical leaves quite glabrous, petiolate: cau- 
line ones 2, opposite, sessile. Stamens inserted in the petals. 
Flowers rose-coloured. 

Siberian Claytonia. Fl. Mar. Ju. Clt. 1768. PI. |^ to A ft. 

§ 2. Stem leafy. Leaves all alternate. Plants resembling 
Calandrinia in habit. 

17 C. iinea'ris (Dougl. mss. FIG. 20. 
ex Hook. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 

224. t. 71.) stems branched; 
leaves narrow-linear, obtuse, 3- 
nerved ; racemes terminal, se- 
cund, bracteate at the base ; pe- 
tals entire. ©• H. Native of 
North-west America, in moist 
rocky places ; on the Great and 
Little Falls of the Columbia, 
abundant. Stems filiform, leafy. 
Petals obovate. (f 20.) 

Linear -\eSi\cA Claytonia. PI. 
|r to I foot. 

18 C. filicau'lis (Dougl. mss. 
ex Hook. fl. bor, amer. 1. p. 
224. t. 72.) stems branched at 

the base : lower leaves obovate, acute, reticulately veined, run- 
ning into petioles ; cauline leaves linear-spatulate ; racemes 
terminal; flowers bracteate; petals entire. O. H. Native of 
the north-west coast of America, on rocks in Nootka and Queen 
Charlotte's Sound ; plentiful on moist rocks of the Columbia, 
near the ocean. Flowers largish. 

Thread-stemmed Claytonia. PI. \ foot. 

19 C. STOLONiFERA (Meyer. 1. c.) stem erect, branched, bear- 
ing stolons at the base ; leaves nearly sessile, oblong-spatulate, 
acute, a little nerved ; racemes subcorymbose, lateral, bractless ; 
petals entire. If.. H. Native of Lhialaschka. 

Stolonljvrous Claytonia. PI. ^ foot. 

20 C. parvif6ha (Moc. icon. pi. nootk. ined. ex D. C. prod. 




3. p. 361.) leaves nerveless ; cauline ones alternate, elliptic, 
acute, attenuated at the base ; radical ones like the cauline ones 
on short petioles ; racemes few-flowered ; pedicels solitary, 
bracteate; petals acutely emarginate. ©.? H. Native of 
North-west America, at Nootka Sound. Flowers rose-coloured. 
Small-leaved Claytonia PI. ^ foot. 

•j- A very doubtful species. 

21 C. NEMORosA (Willd. rel. in Rcem. et Schultes, 5. p. 436.) 
leaves ovate : superior ones tern ; racemes twin. ^^..S. Native 
of South America, in the shady woods of Javita. Perhaps this 
plant ought to be removed from the genus, ex H. B. et Kunth, 
nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 80. The plant, according to Bonpland, 
has a quadrangular stem ; opposite petiolate leaves ; terminal 
dichotomous spikes ; a 5-parted calyx ; a semi-5-cleft corolla ; 
a short style, 2 stigmas, and a 1-celled, many-seeded capsule. 

Grove Claytonia. PI. ? 

Cult. The greater part of the species of Claytonia are very 
delicate little plants, especially those with tuberous roots : these 
grow best in a border of peat soil, and are increased by seeds, 
which sometimes ripen plentifully. The fibrous-rooted kinds, 
being all annual, the seeds of them only require to be sown in 
the open border, in a rather moist shaded situation ; and if they 
are allowed to scatter their seeds, plants will rise every year in 
abundance. 

XII. MO'NTIA (so named by Micheli, in honour of Joseph 
Monti, Ph. D. Professor of Botany, and Prefect of the Medical 
Garden at Bologna ; author of Agri Bononi^nsis stirpium Cata- 
logi Prodromus, 1791, 4to.). Mich. gen. 17. t. 13. Gaertn. fr. 
2. p. 220. 1. 129. Lin. gen. no. 101. Juss. gen. 313. — Came- 
raria, Dill. nov. gen. p. 114. t. 6. but not of Lin. — Alsinoides, 
Vaill. 

LiN. SYST. Tridndria, Trigynia, Calyx of 2, rarely of 3 
sepals. Petals 5, connected a little way at the base, 3 of which 
are smaller than the other 2. Stamens inserted in the claws 
of the petals, usually 3 in front of each of the smaller petals, 
very rarely more. Ovarium sessile. Style very short, 3-parted ; 
divisions spreadingly reflexed. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved, 3- 

seeded European, glabrous, aquatic, or bog herbs. Leaves 

opposite. Flowers axillary, small. This genus is hardly distinct 
from Claytonia. 

1 M. fonta'na (Lin. spec. p. 129.). ©. W. H. Native of 
Europe and North America ; also of South America, in bogs, 
ponds and ditches. 

Var. a, minor {WiWd. spec. 1. p. 415.) stem erectish, divari- 
cate ; leaves rather connate. ©• B. H. Native of humid 
sandy woods and springs.— Mich. gen. t. 13. f. 2. — Fl. dan. t. 
131. Smith, engl. hot. t. 120C. — Schkuhr. handb. t. 20. M. 
fontana /3, erecta, Pers. ench. 1. p. 111. M. minor, Gmel. fl. 
bad. 1. p. 301. 

Var. fi, major (Willd. spec. 1. c.) stems weak, creeping, dicho* 
tomous ; leaves sessile. ©. B. H. Native of rivulets. Mich, 
gen. t. 13. f 1. M. repens, Gmel. fl. bad. 1. p. 302. M. fon- 
tana ft, repens, Pers. ench. l.p. 111. M. rivularis, Gmel. 

Fountain or Water-chickweed. Fl. April, May. Brit. PI. 
i to I foot. 

Cult. This plant will grow in any moist soil, or in water. 

XIII. LEPTRPNA (meaning unknown to us). Rafin. journ- 
phys. 1819. aug. p. 95. D. C. prod. 3. p. 362. 

Lin. syst. Tridndria, Trigynia. Calyx 3-parted ; lobes 
elliptic, obtuse. Petals wanting. Stamens 3, alternating with 
the parts of the calyx, and hypogynous. Ovarium 1, oval. 
Styles 3, short, acute. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved, 3-seeded. 



PORTULACE/E. XIV. Colobanthus. XV. Gincinsia. XVI. Aylmeria. 



83 



Seeds fixed to the central placenta. — A small smooth herb, na- 
tive of North America. Radical leaves 3, entire, linear-lanceo- 
late, acute. Scape 1 -flowered, length of leaves. This genus 
is hardly known, but it only appears to differ from Montia in 
tlie want of petals. 

1 L. autumna'lis (Rafin. 1. c). ©. B. H. Native of North 
America, on the banks of the Ohio. 

Autumnal Leptrina. PI. Jj to i foot. 

Cuh. The seeds of this plant only require to be sown in the 
open ground, in a moist situation ; and if the plant is allowed 
to scatter its seeds, there will be plenty of plants each year. 

XIV. COLOBA'NTHUS (from ».oXo/3os, kolohos, maimed, 
and avOoe, antltos, a flower ; in reference to the want of petals). 
Presl. in reliq. Htenk. 2. p. 13. t. 49. f. 2. 

Lin. syst. Tetra-Hcxandria, Tetra-Pentagynia. Calyx 4-5- 
parted. Petals wanting. Stamens 4-G, alternating with the 
segments of the calyx. Stigmas 4-5. Capsule 4-7-valved, 
many-seeded. Both Bartling and Kunth insert this genus in the 
order Caryophijllece, while the stamens are decidedly perigynous, 
and therefore ought to come among the Portulacece. 

1 C. ARETioiDEs (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Am. in bot. misc. S. 
p. 24G.) root perennial, with a multiple neck ; calyx 5-parted ; 
segments ovate; capsule 5-valved. 1^. F. Native of Chili, 
at Los Hornillos, El Paramillo San Isedro, and on the Andes of 
Mendoza. 

Aretia-like Colobantiius. PI. \ foot. 

2 C. Quite'nsis (Bartling, in Presl. reliq. Haenk. 2. p. 13. 
t. 49. f. 2.) root annual, with a multiple neck ; calyx 5-parted ; 
segments lanceolate; capside 5-valved, ©. H. Native about 
Quito, and on the Cordillera of Chili. Sagina Quitensis, H. B. 
et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 19. 

Quito Colobanthus. PL ^ foot. 

3 C. SAGiNoiDEs (Bartl. in Presl. reliq. Haenk. 2. p. 13. t. 
49. f. 1.) root annual, with a multiple neck ; calyx 4-parted ; 
segments ovate ; capsule 4-valved. ©. H. Native of Chili. 

Sagina-like Colobanthus. PI. ^ foot. 

Cult. See Portulaca for culture and propagation, p. 75. 

XV. GINGI'NSIA (in honour of M. Gingins, who has 
written upon the genera Viola and Lavandula). D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 362. — Pharnaceum species of authors. 

Lin. syst. Pentandria, Trigy'nia, Calyx 5-parted ; lobes 
oval, permanent, petaloid on the inside and at the margins. Pe- 
tals wanting. Stamens 5, inserted in the bottom of the calyx, 
and alternating with its lobes ; anthers 2-celled, inserted by the 
base. Ovarium surrounded at the base by a 5-lobed fleshy 
scale. Style wanting. Stigmas 3, crest-formed. Capsule 3- 
valved, 1-celled. Seeds numerous, fixed to the central placenta. 
-^Cape subshrubs. Leaves irregularly verticillate, opposite or 
alternate, filiform or linear, furnished with scarious stipulas at 
the base. Peduncles axillary, elongated, bearing umbels of pe- 
dicellate flowers at the apex ; branches of umbels numerous, 
divided, many-flowered. This genus differs from Pharnaceum 
and all the other Caryophyllaceous genera in the stamens being 
perigynous, and in the leaves being usually alternate ; and from 
all the genera in the order Paronychiece in the stamens alter- 
nating with the sepals, not opposite them. 

§ 1. Leaves linear. 

1 G. brevicau'lis (D. C. in mem. soc. hist. nat. par. vol. 4. 
with a figure. D. C. prod. 3. p. 362.) plant almost stemless ; 
leaves linear, mucronate, crowded in whorls, almost radical ; sti- 
pulas membranous, ciliately jagged at the apex. ^ . G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Pharnaceum lineare, Thunb. fl. 



cap. 274. but not of others. Stems very short. Leaves rather 
spreading, unequal. 

Short-stemmed Ginginsia. PI. \ foot. 

2 G. elonoa'ta(D. C. 1. c. with a figure ; prod. 1. c.) leaves 
alternate, linear, crowded at the tops of the branches ; stipulas 
linear-elongated, ciliately jagged ; peduncles more than 3-times 
longer than the stem. Tj . G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Pharnaceum incinum, Lin. mant. p. 358. but not of 
others. Pharnaceum lineare, Andr. bot. rep. t. 329. Flowers 
whitish. 

Elongated Ginginsia. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1795. PI. -j 
to h foot. 

3 G. aura'ntia (D. C. prod. 3. p. 363.) caulescent ; leaves 
linear, crowded in whorls ; whorls distant ; stipulas small. Ij . G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Pharnaceum lineare, Andr. 
bot. rep. t. 326. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 2. vol. 2. p. 174. Flowers 
of an orange-copper colour. Branches shrubby, white. This 
species diflfers from Pliarn. lineare of Thunb. in the stems being 
suffruticose, not herbaceous, and elongated, not short. 

Orange-flowered Ginginsia. PI. ^ to ^ foot. 

§ 2. Leaves filiform. 

4 G. a'lbens (D. C. 1. c.) plant caulescent ; leaves filiform, 
mucronate, irregularly whorled or alternate ; stipulas small. 
T; . G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Pharnaceum 
albens, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 274. ? Pharn. lineare flore aibo, Andr. 
bot. rep. t. 329.? but the leaves are linear in Andrews's plant, 
not filiform. Flowers greenish on the outside, but yellowish 
inside and on the edges. 

Whitish Ginginsia. PI. ^ to | foot. 

5 G. confe'rta (D. C. 1. c.) plant caulescent; leaves oppo- 
site, crowded, terete, mucronate ; stipulas cut into many seta- 
ceous hairs, one half shorter than the leaves. \} . G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Lam. ill. t. 2U. f. 3. Pharna- 
ceum inc^num, Thunb. fl. cap. 273.? Sims, bot. mag. 1883. 
but not of Lour. 

CroWefi Ginginsia. Fl. May, Oct. Clt. 1782. PI. ^ to i ft. 

6 G. pruinosa ; stems branched, thickish ; branches pale 
from membranous stipulas; leaves crowded, filiform, acute, 
terete, fleshy, mealy or pruinose. 1j . G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Pharnaceum pruinosum. Haw. pi. succ. p. 15. 

PrMinoif? Ginginsia. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1817. Pi. ^^to^ft. 

7 G. microphy'lla (D. C. 1. c.) plant caulescent ; leaves 
terete, obtuse, in fascicles at the nodes, the rest scattered ; sti- 
pulas woolly ; branches scattered, divaricate. Tj . G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Pharnaceum microphy'llum, Lin. 
fil. suppl. 185. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 272. Mollugo microphylla, 
Ser. in D. C. prod. 1. p. 329- Said to be very like G. confirta. 

Small-leaved Ginginsia. PI. ^ to |- foot. 

8 G. teretifolia (D. C. 1. c.) plant caulescent ; leaves fili- 
form, mucronate, whorled on the branches ; stipulas unknown ; 
branches opposite, divaricate. H . G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Pharnaceum teretifolium, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 274. 
Mollugo teretifolia, Ser. in D. C. prod. 1. p. 393. Stem a foot 
high. Leaves half a line long. Peduncles shorter than the 
leaves. 

Terete-leaved Ginginsia. Shrub 1 foot. 

Cult. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand will answer the spe- 
cies of this genus ; and the pots in which they are grown should 
be well drained with sherds. The best way of propagating 
them is by seeds. 

XVI. AYLME'RIA (in honour of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, 
F.R.S. F.S.A. and V.P.L.S. the celebrated botanist, to whom 
we owe many obligations in the prosecution of the present work). 



84 



PORTULACEiE. 



XVI. Aylmeria. XVII 
D.C. prod 



Hydropyxis. PARONYCHIE^E. 



Mart, amaranth, p. 68. nov. act. bonn. 13. p. 276. 

3. p. 263. , 

LiN. svsT. Monadelphm, Pentdndria. Calyx 2-parted, co- 
loured. Petals 5. Stamens 10, joined into a membranous hy- 
pogynous tube ; the ,5 outer ones abortive ; and the 5 inner ones 
opposite tlie petals, bearing 2-cclled anthers. Style 1 ; stigma 
depressed, capitate. Utriculus membranous, valveless. Seeds 
numerous, lentiform, in the bottom of the cell.— Australian pe- 
rennial herbs. Stems terete, jointed, dicliotomous upwards. 
Leaves linear, opposite, or in whorls. Stipulas scarious. Flowers 
beautifully coloured, in terminal corymbs. According to Mar- 
tins, the genus is related to Paromjthiitx, but this is doubtful, 
in consequence of the stamens being hypogynous, and also par- 
ticularly so in their being opposite the sepals. The calyx is of 
2 sepals, as in Porlidaca, and the petals are 5, as in most of the 
order, and the stamens are 10, as in Tridnthema. 

1 A. ROSEA (Mart. 1. c.) stems straightish, and are, as well as 
the leaves, glabrous ; stipulas ciliateiy serrulated ; corymb com- 
pact. 1/ . G. Native of New Holland, on the western coast. 
Flowers rose-coloured. 

/foic-coloured flowered Aylmeria. PI. 1 foot. 

2 A. viola'cea (Mart. 1. c.) stems diffusely dicliotomous, and 
are as well as the leaves glabrous ; stipulas quite entire ; co- 
rymb loose. 1/. G. Native of New Holland, on the west 
coast. Flowers violaceous. 

Fiolaccous-Rowered Aylmeria. PI. 1 foot. 

Cult. See Ginginsia for culture and propagation, p. 83. 

XVII. HYDROPY'XIS (from t-^wp, hijdor, water, and 
TTviis, pyx'is, a box ; the plant is an inhabitant of water, and the 
capsule resembles a box, from its opening transversely). Rafin. 
fl. lud. p. 94. D. C. prod. 3. p. 364. 

Lin. syst. Tetrdndria, Monogynia. Calyx permanent, 5- 
partcd, bibracteate on the outside ; the two inner lobes the 
smallest. Corolla peripetalous (perhaps inserted in the calyx), 
crateriform, unequally 5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted 
in the corolla ; anthers hastate. Ovarium superior. Style 
simple, crowned by a capitate 3-lobed stigma. Capsule 1-celled, 
many-seeded, triangular, opening transversely. Central pla- 
centa free. This genus is likely to be nearer related to Utricu- 
laria than to any other. 

1 H. PALu'sTRis (Rafin. 1. c.) Native of Louisiana, in ditches 
and marshes. Pou/jsicr rfe«9?iaraix, Robin, voy. p. 488. Stems 
creeping, prostrate. Flowers axillary, pedunculate, solitary, 
white. 

Marsh Hydropyxis. PI. creeping. 

Cult. This plant should be grown in a pot filled with peat, 
and placed in a deep pan of water. It is easily propagated by 
separating the runners. 

Order CXI. PARONYCHIF^ (plants agreeing with Pa- 
ronijchia in important characters). St. Hil. plac. lib. p. 56. 
Juss. mem. mus. 1. p. 387. — Herniariae, Cat. hort. par. (1777.). 
Illecebreae, R. Br. prod. p. 413. Lindl. intr. nat.ord. p. 164. 

Calyx of 5 sepals (f. 21. a. f. 22. a.), seldom of 3-4 ; sepals 
sometimes separate to the base, sometimes joined to the middle 
(f. 22. a.), and sometimes nearly to the apex (f. 24. a.). Pe- 
tals small, scale-formed (f. 22. a.), emulating sterile stamens, 
inserted upon the calyx between the lobes, occasionally wanting 
(f. 23. a.), or converted into superabundant stamina. Stamens 
perigynous, exactly opposite the sepals (f. 22. a.), if equal to 
them in number, but sometimes fewer by abortion ; filaments 
distinct ; anthers 2-celled (f. 21. c). Ovarium free. Styles 2-3, 



either distinct (f. 24. a.), or partially combined (f. 22. d.). Fruit 
small, dry, 1-celled, usually membranous, either valveless and 
indehiscent, or opening with 3 valves. Seeds either numerous, 
fixed to a free central placenta, or solitary and pendulous, upon 
a funicle, arising from the base of the cavity of the fruit. Al- 
bumen farinaceous. Embryo cylindrical, lying on one side of 
the albumen, curved more or less, with the radicle always point- 
ing towards the hylum. Cotyledons small. — Herbaceous or 
half shrubby branching plants, with opposite or alternate, often 
fascicled, entire, sessile leaves and scarious stipulas. Flowers 
small, usually whitish green, sometimes sessile and axillary, and 
sometimes variously disposed in terminal cymes. Bracteas sca- 
rious, analogous to the stipulas. 

This order comes very near Portulacece, Amarantdcece, and 
Caryophyllece, from which it is distinguished with difficulty. 
By excluding the section Sclerdnthece, their scarious stipula will 
distinguish them from the two last-mentioned orders, and there 
is scarcely any other character that will ; for there are Caryo- 
phyllece that have perigynous stamens, as Ldrbrea and Adend- 
rium ; and Paronychiece which have hypogynous ones, as Poly- 
carpce'a, Slipuldcida, and Ortegia. From Portulacece it is 
scarcely to be known with absolute certainty, except by the 
position of the stamens before the sepals instead of the petals. 
With Crassuldcece, particularly Tillce'a, they agree very much 
in habit, but their concrete carpella will always distinguish them. 
De Candolle comprehends in the order various plants without 
stipulas ; but as the latter organs seem to be an essential part of 
their character, the tribes Queridcece and Minuartiece are ex- 
cluded, and will be found elsewhere. 

Synopsis of the genera. 
Tribe I. 

Telephie**. Calyx 5-parted{{. 21. a.). Petals and stamens 
5, inserted in the bottom of the calyx (f. 21. b.). Styles 3 (f. 
21. e.) free, or connected together a little at the base. Leaves 
alternate, stipulaceous. 

1 Tele'phium. Styles 3, spreadingly reflexed, concrete at 
the base. Capsule pyramidal, trigonal, S-valved, 3-celled at 
the base, and 1-celled at the apex. Seeds numerous, fixed to 
the central placenta, in 6 rows. 

2 CoRRiGioLA. Style short ; stigmas 3 (f. 21. e.). Capsule 
1 -seeded, indehiscent, covered by the calyx. Seed suspended 
by a funicle, originating at the bottom of the capsule. 

Tribe II. 

Illece'bre^. Calyx 5-parted {{. ZZ. a.). Petals 5 or want- 
ing. Stamens 2-3, inserted in the bottom of the calyx (f. 22. a.). 
Styles free or somewhat concrete at the base (f. 22. d.). Capsule 
indehiscent, l-seeded. Funicle long, rising from the bottom of 
the capsule, bearing a subpendulous seed at the apex. — Herbs, 
rarely subshricbs. Leaves opposite, acute, with scarious stipulas. 

3 Hernia'ria. Calyx almost 5-parted. Scales or petals 5, 
filiform, entire, but sometimes wanting or very small. Stamens 5, 
or only 2-3 from abortion. Styles 2, short, distinct, or concrete 
at the base. Capsule covered by the calyx. 



PARONYCHIEiE. I. Telepiiium. 



85 



4 Gymnoca'rpum. Calyx almost 3-parted. Petals 5, emu- 
lating sterile filaments. Stamens 5. Style 1 ; stigma simple. 
Capsule valveless, covered by the indurated calyx. 

5 Any'ciiia. Calyx 5-parted. Petals and scales wanting. 
Stamens 3-5, distinct. Style none ; stigmas 2, subcapitate. 
Capsule covered by the calyx. 

6 Ille'cebrum. Calyx 5-parted, or nearly 3-sepalled, ending 
on the back at the apex, in an awned horn. Petals wanting, 
but there are 5 subulate scales in place. Stamens 2-5. Style 
hardly any ; stigmas 2, capitate. Capsule covered by the calyx, 
divisible into 5 at the stripes. 

7 Paronv'chia. Calyx 5-parted (f. 22. a.). Petals or scales 
5, linear. Stamens 5 (f. 22. a.). Style 1 ; stigmas 2 (f. 22. d.). 
Capsule indehiscent or 5-valved, covered by the calyx. 

8 Pentac/e'na. Calyx 4-parted ; segments very unequal, 
outer 3 spiny at the apex, inner 3 navicular, armed on the back. 
Stamens 5. Stigmas 2, short. Capsule 1 -seeded. 

9 Cardione'ma. Calyx 5-parted; lobes drawn out on the 
back at the apex into a straight horn. Petals wanting. Sta- 
mens 5, 2 sterile ones obcordate, flat, 3 fertile ones obcordate 
at the base, bearing each an antheriferous filament in the recess. 
Styles 2, hardly concrete at the base, long, revolute. Fruit 
oval-oblong. 

Tribe III. 

Polycarp.«'«. Calyx 5-parted (f. 23. a.). Petals 5, or want- 
ing. Stamens 1-5, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Styles 
2-3, sometimes distinct, sometimes concrete. Capsule 1-celled, 
many-seeded. Seeds Jixed to the central placenta. — Herbs or 
subshrubs. Leaves opposite. Stipulas scarious. The stamens 
in this tribe are almost hyjwgynous, and truly so in some genera, 
as in Polycarjjce'a, Stipuldcida, and Ortegia, and therefore verge 
closely on the order Caryophijllece. 

10 PoLYCARPa;' A. Lobes of calyx with membranous edges 
(f. 20. a.). Petals 5. Stamens 5, nearly hypogynous (f. 23. a.). 
Styles 3, concrete at the base. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved, 
many-seeded. 

1 1 Stipuli'cida. Lobes of calyx with membranous edges. 
Petals 5. Stamens 3, inserted in the torus. Style short, crowned 
by 3 stigmas. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved, few-seeded. 

12 Bala'rdia. Lobes of calyx flattish. Petals 5. Stamens 
2-3-4, inserted in the receptacle. Styles 3, very short, papilli- 
ferous inside. Capsule 1-celled, 3-vaIved, many-seeded. 

13 Ave'rsia. Lobes of calyx thickened in the middle, 
keeled. Petals 5, or only 3 from abortion. Stamens 3, inserted 
in the bottom of the calyx. Style], trifid at the apex. Cap- 
sule 1-celled, 3-va'ved, many-seeded. 

14 Orte'gia. Lobes of calyx keeled alittle. Stamens 5, 3 
fertile, inserted in the torus, the other 2 scale-formed and sterile. 
Style 1, capitate at the apex or bifid. Capsule 3-valved, many- 
seeded. 

15 Polyca'rpon. Lobes of calyx with membranous edges, 
concave, keeled, and mucronate. Petals 5, emarginate. Sta- 
mens 3-5. Styles 3, very short. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved, 
many-seeded. 



IG Ce'rdia. Lobes of calyx pctaloid inside, ending in a 
bristle each at the apex. Petals wanting. Stamen one, in front 
of one of the sepals. Style filiform, bifid at the apex. Cap- 
sule 1 -celled, many-seeded. 

Tribe IV. 
Pollichie';e. Calyx 5-loothed; tuheurceolate. Stamens 1-2, 
inserted in the throat of the calyx. Petals wanting. Stigma 
bifd. Ulriculus or fruit valveless, \-sceded. Dracteas and 
calyx increasing after flowering, and becoming fleshy, so as to 
form something like a berry. — Suffrulicose herbs, with oi)posite or 
subverticillate stijmlaceous leaves. 

17 PoLLi'cHiA. Character the same as that of the tribe. 

f Genera belonging to Paronychiece, but are not sufficiently 
known. 

18 LiTiioPHiLA. Calyx 3-parted, acute. Petals 3. Scales 
or abortive stamens 2, opposite the sepals. Stamens 2, placed 
at one side of the ovarium. Style thick, bluntly emarginate at 
the apex. Fruit unknown. A very minute glabrous herb. 

19 Sellowia. Calyx urceolate, 5-cleft, membranous, 10- 
ribbed. Petals 5, alternating with the lobes of the calyx. Sta- 
mens fixed in the middle of the segments of the calyx, and 
shorter than them ; anthers didymous. Style 1 ; stigma obtuse. 
Capsule 3-valved, 1-celled, 1-seeded. A smooth herb, with the 
habit of I llecebrum verticilldtum. 

Tribe 1. 

TELEPHIE'jE (plants agreeing with the genus Telcphium in 
important characters). D. C. prod. 3. p. 366. Calyx 5-parted 
(f. 21. a.). Petals and stamens 5 (f. 21. b.), inserted into the 
bottom of the calyx. Styles 3 (f. 21. e.), distinct, or somewhat 
concrete at tlie base. — Leaves alternate, stipulaceous. 

L TELETHIUM (so named from Telephus, son of Her- 
cules by Auge, and according to some king of Mysia). Tourn. 
inst. t. 128. Lin. gen. 377. Gaertn. fr. 2. p. 221. t. 129. Lam. 
ill. t. 213. Juss. mem. mus. 1. p. 389. St. Hil. plac. lib. 
p. 44. 

Lin. syst. Pentandria, Monogynia. Calyx 5-parted, per- 
manent ; lobes oblong, concave. Petals 5, inserted in the bot- 
tom of the calyx, and alternating with its lobes, and about equal 
in length to them. Stamens 5, opposite the sepals, and inserted 
in their bases. Styles 3, spreadingly reflexed, concrete at the 
base. Capsule pyramidal, trigonal, 3-valved, 3-celled at the 
base, and 1-celled at the top from the dissepiments not being 
extended so far. Seeds numerous, disposed in 6 rows on the 
central placenta. Embryo lateral, curved, but not .innular. 
Albumen mealy. — Subshrubby, procumbent, many-stemmed, gla- 
brous, glaucous herbs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, sti- 
pulaceous. Flowers white or greenish white. 

1 T. Impera'ti (Lin. spec. 388.) leaves alternate; flowers in 
racemose corymbs, rather crowded. %. H. Native of the south 
of Europe, particularly in the south of France, Italy, Spain, 
Switzerland, &c. D. C. fl. fr. 4. p. 400. Lam. ill. t. 213. 
Schkuhr. handb. 1. t. 85. T. rfepens. Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 71. T. 
alternifolium, Moench, meth. 231. Flowers white, sometimes 
tinged with red. 

Imperati's Or^me. Fl. June, Aug. CIt. 1658. Pl.tr. 

2 T. oppositifolium (Lin. spec. 388.) leaves opposite ; flowers 
in racemose corymbs, crowded. %.U. Native of Barbary. 



86 



PARONYCHIEiE. I. Telephium. II. Corrigiola. III. Herniaria. 



Shaw, spec. p. 572. with a figure. Flowers white. Perhaps 
only a variety of the preceding. 

Opposite-kaied Orpine. PI. tr. 

3 T. LAxiFLORUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 366.) leaves alternate ; 
peduncles opposite the leaves, trifid at the apex ; middle pedicel 
1-flowered, lateral ones elongated, and usually 3-flowered. If.. 
G. Nativeof the Cape of Good Hope. Herb glaucous. Leaves 
alternate, distant, obovate, mucronate ; petiole short, margined, 
with a membrane. Capsule subglobose, 3-celled nearly to the 
apex. Perhaps a proper genus, but the habit is truly that of 
Telephium. 

Loosc-Jiorvercd Orpine. PI. tr. 

Cult. All the hardy species of Orpine grow well in any light 
soil ; and may either be increased by cuttings or parting at the 
root ; they are well adapted for ornamenting rock-work. The 
last species being a native of the Cape of Good Hope, requires 
the protection of a green-house in winter, 

II. CORRIGTOLA (a diminutive ofcorrigia, a shoe string; 
trailing flexible plants). Lin. gen. no. 378. Juss. mem. mus. 1. 
p. 389. Lam. ill. t. 213. D. C. prod. 3. p. 366. Polygonifolia, 
Vaill. Adans. Dill. 

Lin. sysT. Pentandr'ia, Trigynia. Calyx 5-parted (f. 21.a.), 
permanent. Petals 5 (f. 21. b.), equal to the calyx and inserted 
in it, and alternating with its lobes. Stamens 5, opposite the 
sepals. Style short; stigmas 3 (f. 21. e.). Capsule 1-seeded, 
indehiscent, covered by the calyx. Seed suspended by a funicle, 
which rises from the bottom of the capsule. — Procumbent glau- 
cous herbs, with alternate stipulaceous leaves, and terminal race- 
mose corymbs of small flowers. Habit of Teltphimn. 

1 C. TELEPHiiFOLiA (Pourr. chl. narb. 20. act. tol. 3. p. 316.) 
stems naked in the floriferous part. 1^. H. Native about Per- 
pignon and about Madrid, in sandy places ; also of Chili about 
Valparaiso. D. C. fl. fr. suppl. p. 527. Flowers white. 

Var. ft, imbricata (Lapeyr. abr. p. 169.) stems short; lower 
leaves rather imbricated. 1^. H. Native about Vinca and 
Nyer. 

Orpine-leaved Straji-wort. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1822. PI. 
procumbent. 

2 C. uttora'lis (Lin. spec. p. 
388.) stems leafy in the florifer- 
ous part. ©. H. Native through- 
out Europe, on sandy shores. 
Found by Hudson in England on 
the Slapham Sands beyond Dart- 
mouth, and near Star-point. Q^ed. 
fl. dan. t. 33-t. Smith, engl. bot. 
668. fl. graec. t. 292. Polygoni- 
folia, Dill. giss. append, t. 3. 
Lind. als. t. 2. Flowers white. 

Shore Strap-wort. Fl. June, 
Aug. Britain. PI. tr. 

3 C. deltoIdea (Hook, et 
Arnott, in Beech, bot. p. 24.) 
stems prostrate ; leaves deltoid, 
long, spatulate ; racemes lateral, furnished at the base by a spa- 
tulate bractea. %.! G. Native of Chili, about Conception 
and Valparaiso. This plant bears a strong resemblance to C. 
UltoraUs. Flowers white. 

Deltuid-XediveA Corryiola. PI. prostrate. 

4 C. squamosa (Hook, et Am. in bot. misc. 3. p. 247.) cau- 
dex perennial, a little branched, very scaly at the apex, from 
which many stems issue ; stems prostrate; leaves linear, oblong ; 
racemes corymbose, leafless. 1/ . G. Native of Chili, about 
Valparaiso, Vina de la Mar, and Playa Ancha. The lower part 
of the stem, which is here called a caudex, from its resemblance 



FIG. 21. 




to that part of ferns, is to be seen in no other species of the 
genus ; the scaly appearance at its summit is obviously caused 
by a congeries of stipulas. Flowers white. 

Scaly Strap-wort. PI. prostrate. 

5 C. Cape'nsis (Willd. spec. 1. p. 507.) flowers sessile ; calyx 
hardly with membranous margins. Q. H. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 272. C. littoralis, Thunb. 
prod. p. 55. Perhaps sufficiently distinct from C. littoralis. 

Cfl^je Strap-wort. Fl. Jime, Aug. Clt. 1819. Pl.tr. 

Cult. The seeds of the annual kinds should be sown in dry 
light soil. The culture of tlie perennial kind is the same as that 
recommended for the hardy species of Telephium. 

Tribe II. 

ILLECE'BREjE (this tribe contains plants agreeing with 
llleccbrum in some particular characters). D. C. prod. 3. p. 367- 
Calyx 5-parted (f 22. a. ). Petals 5, or wanting. Stamens 2-5, 
inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Styles distinct, or somewhat 
concrete at the base. Capsule indehiscent, 1-seeded. Funicle 
long, rising from the bottom of the capsule, bearing a somewhat 
pendulous seed at the top. — Herbs, rarely subshrubs. Leaves 
opposite, acute, with scarious stipulas. 

HI. HERNIARIA (from hernia, a rupture ; supposed effect 
in curing). Tourn. inst. t. 288. Lin. gen. no. 30S. Lam. ill. 
t. 180. Juss. mem. mus. 1. p. 389. D. C. prod. 3. p. 367. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Digynia. Calyx nearly 5-parted, 
somewhat coloured inside. Scales or petals 5, filiform, quite 
entire, alternating with the sepals, sometimes wanting or very 
small. Stamens 5, or only 2-3 from abortion, opposite the sepals. 
Styles 2, short, distinct, or concrete at the base. Capsule 1- 
seeded, indehiscent, covered by the calyx. — Prostrate suffruti- 
cose small herbs, with branched stems. Leaves opposite, stipu- 
laceous : stipulas solitary between the leaves, broad at the base. 
Flowers glomerate in the axils of the leaves. Bracteas small. 

§ 1 . Herniarice verce (true species of Herniaria). Stems pros- 
trate, small ; Jloners glomerate in the axils of the leaves, piuberu- 
lous or hairy on the outside. 

1 H. cine'rea (D. C. fl. fr. suppl. p. 375. mem. par. t. 3.) 
plant of many stems, herbaceous, clothed with cinereous hairs; 
branches ascending ; leaves oval, acute at both ends ; flowers 
crowded, axillary. ©. H. Native about Montpelier, Nar- 
bonne, plentifid in Spain in dry gravelly or sandy places. In 
Spain the plant is called Quehrantapiedras. H. annua, Lag. 
gen. et spec. p. 12. and perhaps H, latifolia, Lapeyr. abr. p. 
127. 

Cinereow* Rupture-wort. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1823. Pl.tr. 

2 H. vire'scens (Salzm. pi. exsic. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 367.) 
herb ascending, many stemmed, smoothish ; leaves oval, ciliat- 
ed ; bundles axillary, few-flowered; calyx rather pilose. ©. 
H. Native of Mauritania, about Tangiers. It differs from H. 
cinerea in the greenish habit, nearly as H. hirsuta does from H. 
glabra, or as H. alpina does from H, incana. 

Greenish Rupture-wort. PI. tr. 

3 H. gla'bra (Lin. spec. p. 317.) plant herbaceous, gla- 
brous, prostrate ; leaves oval ; bundles many-flowered. !{,. H. 
Native of Europe and Siberia, in exposed gravelly places. In 
England, at the Lizard-point, and near Newmarket. Oed. fl. 
dan. t. 529. Smith, engl. bot. t. 206. Schkidir, handb. t. 56. 
Blackw. herb. t. 320. H. alpestris, Aubr. H. fruticosa, Gouan, 
This and the two following species are confounded by Spreng. in 
his syst. 1. p. 929. under the name of H. vulgaris. 

Glabrous Rupture-wort. Fl. July, Aug. England. PI. tr. 

4 H. hirsu'ta (Lin. spec. p. 317.) plant herbaceous, pros- 
trate, hairy ; leaves oval-oblong ; bundles sessile, few-flowered. 



PARONYCHIEiE. III. Herniaria. IV. Gymnocarpum. 



87 



5/.H. Native throughout Europe, in gravelly pl.tces. In En- 
gland, near Barnet ; and in Cornwall. Smith, engl. hot. 1379. 
Alor. hist. sect. 5. t. 29. f. 2. Petiv. brit. t. 10. Tandich, icon, 
t. 28't. This plant is in every respect the same as //. glabra, 
except in the hairiness. 

I'ar. /3, puhcscens (D. C. prod. 3. p. 3C8.) leaves ciliated, 
smoothish ; stipulas larger. Paronychia pubescens, D. C. fl. fr. 
3. p. 403. 

Hairy Rupture-wort. Fl. July, Aug. England. PI. tr. 

5 H. inca'na (Lam. diet. 3. p. 124.) suflVuticosc, prostrate, 
hoary from villi ; leaves ovate- oblong ; flowers somewhat pedi- 
cellate, in loose clusters. If.. H. Native of Italy, Provence, 
Dauphiny, &c. in barren places. D. C. fl. fr. suppl. 375. H. 
lenticulata, Lin. spec. p. 317. exclusive of the synonymes. H. 
alpina, Lois, but not of Vaill. 

Hoary Rupture-wort. PI. tr. 

6 H. Besse'ki (Fisch. ex Horn, suppl. p. 127.) stems shrubby 
at the base, somewhat ascending ; branches elongated ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, pubescent ; bundles axillary, many flowered, 
rather loose. 2/. H. Native of Tauria and Podolia. H. in- 
cana, Bieb. suppl. p. 173. H. hirsilta, D'Urv. enum. p. 28. H. 
Millegrana, Pall, ex Spreng. and perhaps H. microcarpa of 
Presl. del. prag. which was collected on the mountains of Sicily. 

£e«*er'i Rupture-wort. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1822. Pl.tr. 

7 H. MACRocARPA (Sibth. et Smith, fl. graec. t. 252.) stems 
fruticulose at the base, ascending ; branches setosely pubescent ; 
leaves obovate-lanceolate, hairy on both surfaces, as well as on 
the calyxes; bundles few-flowered. If. H. Native of La- 
conia, and by the way side between Smyrna and Bursa ; also in 
the Balearic Islands. 

Large-fruhed Rupture-wort. Pi. tr. 

8 H. ALPINA (Vill. dauph. 2. p. 556. exclusive of the sy- 
nonyme,) root becoming woody at length ; stems prostrate, 
tufted, densely leafy, suflruticose ; leaves oval, rather villous, 
ciliated ; flowers few towards the tops of the branches, somewhat 
glomerate. If . H. Native of Provence, Dauphiny, and Savoy 
on the Alps. D. C. fl. fr. suppl. p. 375. H. alpestris. Lam. 
diet. 3. p. 125. This plant is distinguished from H. incana at 
first sight by its greenish habit, not hoary. 

^/;jine Rupture- wort. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1822. Pl.tr. 

9 H. America'na (Nutt. in Sillim. amer. journ. 5. p. 822. p. 
291.) smoothish, procumbent; leaves linear-oblong, much 
shorter than the internodes ; stipulas minute ; bundles many- 
flowered. If . H. Native of Eastern Florida. Anychia her- 
niarioides. Ell. sketch. 1. p. 308. but not of Michx. ex Nutt. 
Camphorosma glabra of authors. Stem clothed with retrograde 
down. Racemes 3-5-flowered. Lobes of calyx obtuse, coarc- 
tate, white inside. 

American Rupture-wort. PI. pr. 

10 H. seti'gera (Gill. mss. ex Hook, et Am. in hot. misc. 3. 
p. 247.) plant perennial, herbaceous, puberulous, many-stem- 
med, prostrate ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, furnished with spiny 
bristles at the apex ; flowers almost sessile, axillary, and usually 
solitary, puberulous on the outside ; stamens 3 ; styles united 
at the base. If . F. Native of Chili, at El Aquadita, near La 
Punta de San Luis. This species has no scales or abortive 
petals, and but only one style, and stigmas have been per- 
ceived. 

Bristle-bearing Rupture-wort. PI. prostrate. 

11 H. FRUTicosA (Lin. amoen. 4. p. 269.) stem shrubby, very 
humble, much branched, tufted ; branches short, villous ; leaves 
small, obovate, thickish, crowded ; flowers glomerate, hairy, 4- 
cleft. fj . H. Native of Spain, in dry exposed places ; and of 
Mauritania, near Mascar. Desf. fl. atl. 1. p. 213. — Lob. icon. 
t. 85. — Barrel, icon. t. 713. 

Shrubby Euinure-viort. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1814. PI. proc. 



§ 2. Poiygonoldccv (plants with the habit of Polygonum). 
Stems erect, dicholnmnus at the apex. I'luwers glabrous, disposed 
in loose cymes. Pcrhai^s a proper genus. 

12 H. poLYGONOiDES (Cav. icon. 2. t. 137.) erect, glabrous, 
shrubby ; branches dichotomous at the apex ; leaves ovate, cus- 
pidate, distant. Tj . H. Native of Mauritania, near Mascar ; 
and on the hills of Spain, in Valentia, .is well as in Provence. 
Ulecebrum suffruticOsum, Lin. spec. p. 298. Paronychia suf- 
fruticosa, Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 230. Herniaria erecta, Desf. alt. 1. 
p. 214. H. Joanneana, Rccm. et Scluiltes, syst. 6. p. 297. 
This species differs from Paronychia, in the fruit being indehis- 
cent. The habit is very dissimilar from the other species of 
Herniaria, but emulates Anychia and Paronychia. 

Polygomcm- like Huptare-wort. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1752. 
PI. ^ foot. 

t Species not sufficiently known. 

13 H. dicho'toma (D. C. prod. 3. p. 368.) stems erect, nu- 
merous, dichotomo'us, herbaceous ; leaves distant, oblong, mutic, 
and are, as well as the branches, powdery from short down ; 
flowers cymose. 1/.?H. Native country unknown. Parony- 
chia dichotoma, D. C. in Lam. diet. ency. 5. p. 25. Ulecebrum 
dichotomum, Pers. ench. 1. p. 261. "Calyx glumaceous, striat- 
ed at the base and pubescent, profoundly 5-cleft ; segments 
bluntish, with scarious margins ; sterile threads 5, alternating 
with the sepals, and 5 antheriferous ones opposite them, hardly 
shorter than the sterile ones. Style bidcntate at the apex. Ova- 
rium attenuated at the base. Ovulum one, pendulous, suspended 
from the top of a thread, which arises from the bottom of the 
Capsule." Adr. Juss. in litt. 1827. 

Dichotomous Rupture-wort. PI. |^ to i foot. 

14 H. lenticula'ta (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 245.) sufTruticose, 
hairy, decumbent, clothed with cinereous villi ; leaves ovate, 
fleshy. Tj . G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. H. incana 
Capensis, Pers. This is a very obscure species. The Linnean 
plant under this name, according to V.ihl and Smith, is Cressa 
Cretica ; but we know not what Thunberg's plant is. 

Lenticular Rupture-wort. PI. procumbent. 

Cult. All the species are weedy looking plants, most of them 
with the habit of wild-thyme, and therefore are only worth culti- 
vating in botanic gardens. The plants grow best in dry light 
sandy soil, and are increased by seeds. 

IV. GYMNOCA'RPUM (from yvpvoQ, gymnos, naked, and 
Kap-rrog, karpos, a fruit). Forsk. descr. p. G5. icon. t. 10. Desf. 
atl. 1. p. 203. St. Hii. plac. lib. p. 73. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 
388. D. C. prod. 3. p. 369. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Hfonogynia. Calyx almost 3-parted, 
permanent ; segments coloured inside. Petals 5, emulating sterile 
filaments. Stamens 5, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. 
Style one, crowned by a simple stigma. Capsule valvcless, 1- 
seeded, covered by the indurated calyx. — Diffuse subshrubs, 
with opposite stipulaceous leaves, usually bearing fascicles of 
rameal leaves in the axils. Pedicels axillary, solitary, opposite, 
appearing crowded at the tops of the branches, from the inter- 
nodes being short. The name of this genus is spelt variously 
by authors, viz. Gymnocarpos (Forsk.), Gijmnocarpus (Viv.), 
Gymnocarpon (Pers.), Gymnocarpmn (Steud.). 

1 G. FRUTicosuM (Pers. ench. 1. p. 636.). I^ . F. Native ot 
the deserts of Barbary, Egypt, &c. G. decandrum, Forsk. 1. c. 
Viv. fl. lib. 13. t. 10. f. 1. Desf. 1. c. Trianthema fruticosa, 
Vahl. symb. 1. p. 32. Lobes of calyx violaceous inside, some- 
what cucullate at the apex, and furnished with an awn on the back. 

Shrubby Gymnocarpum. Shrub 1 foot. 

Cult. This shrub will require to be protected from frost in 



gg PARONYCHIE^. V. Anychia. VI. Illecebrum. VII. Paronychia. 

winter, and for this purpose it should be grown in a pot. A seeds be allowed to scatter theinselves, the plants will rise regu- 

mixture of sand and loam will suit the plant very well, and it larly every season. It is worth cultivating, being a small deli- 

may either be increased by seeds or cuttings. cate beautiful plant. 



V. ANY'CHIA (so named from its affinity to Paronychia). 
Michx. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 113. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 389. 
Torr. fl. unit. stat. 1. p. 272. D. C. prod. 3. p. 369 — Queria, 
Gaert. fr. 2. t. 128. Nutt. gen. amer. p. 158. 

Lin. syst. Tri-Pentandria, Digynia. Calyx 5-parted ; se- 
pals conniving, somewhat saccate, and callous at the apex. Pe- 
tals and scales none. Stamens 3-5 ; filaments distinct. Style 
none. Stigmas 3, subcapitate. Capsule indehiscent, 1 -seeded, 
covered by the calyx. — North American, erect, dichotomous, 
annual herbs, with the habit of Linum catMrlicum. Leaves op- 
posite, furnished with searious stipulas at the base. Flowers 
solitary in the axils of the branches, and in fascicles at the tops 
of the short branches, green. 

1 A. DiciioToMA (Michx. 1. c.) Stem covered with retrograde 
pubescence ; leaves cuneate-oblong ; stipulas longer than the 
flowers ; flowers in fascicles. ©. H. Native of Virginia, New 
York, Kentucky, and Canada, in dry woods and on hills. Queria 
Canadensis, Lin. spec. Ort. dec. t. 15. f. 2. Nutt. 1. c. Anychia 
dichotoma var. a. Torr. fl. unit. stat. 1. p. 273. A. Canadensis, 
Elliott, car. 1. p. 307. 

Dichotomous hnych\a. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1806. PI. ^^ to 
j foot. 

2 A. CAPiLLACEA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 369.) stem quite gla- 
brous, smooth ; leaves ovate ; stipulas shorter than the flowers ; 
flowers remote. ©. H. Native of New Jersey and New 
England, in pine barrens. Queria capillacea, Nutt. gen. amer. 
1. p. 159. Anychia dichotoma /3, Torr. 1. c. According to 
Torrey, this is only a smooth variety of the last. 

Capillaceous Anychia. PI. -^ to ^ foot. 

Cult. The seeds of these plants only require to be sown in 
the open border in a dry warm situation in a light soil. 

VI. ILLE'CEBRUM (Jrom Illecebra of Pliny, which is from 
illicio, to allure ; pretty enticing plants). Ga-rtn. fil. carp. p. 36. 
t. 184. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 386. R.Br. prod. p. 416. in a 
note. — Paronychia species, Tourn. Juss. Lam. and D. C. — Ille- 
cebrum species of Lin. 

LiN. sYST. Di-Pentandrta, 'Digynia. Calyx 5-parted, nearly 
3-sepallcd ; sepals subcucuUate, thickened, ending in an awn- 
like horn at the apex on the back. Petals wanting, or 5 su- 
bulate scales in place of the petals, alternating with the lobes of 
the calyx. Stamens 2-5, opposite the sepals, and inserted in 
their base. Style hardly any ; stigmas 2, capitate. Capsule 
covered by the calyx, 5-valved, or divisable into 5 at the stripes. 
Seed solitary from abortion, inserted in the side of the capsule. 
Embryo hardly curved, placed on one side of the albumen, which 
is farinaceous. — A small trailing herb, with opposite leaves, fur- 
nished with searious stipulas at the base. Flowers axillary or 
cymose. Bracteas searious, smaller than the flowers. 

1 I. verticilla'tum (Lin. spec. p. 280.) stems trailing, fili- 
form, glabrous ; leaves roundish ; flowers crowded in the axils 
of the leaves, verticillate. l/.H. Native of Europe, in bogs 
and wet meadows. In England in the western part of Cornwall, 
about Penzance, and in Devonshire, in marbhy boggy ground. 
Schkuhr, handb. t. 50. Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. p. 409. t. 4. 
Smith, cngl. bot. t. 895. Fl. dan. t. 335.— Vaill. bot. par. 1. 15. 
f. 2. Flowers snow white, furnished with searious bracteas at 
the base. Calyxes cartilaginous. Stamens 2 ex Juss., the rest 
abortive, 5 ex Schkuhr. Root creeping. 

IVhorled Knot-grass. Fl. July, Aug. England. PI. tr. 

Cult. The seeds of this plant should be sown in a moist situ- 
ation, where the plants will thrive and flower freely ; and if the 



VII. PARONYCHIA (from irapa, para, near, and owj, 
onyx, a claw ; supposed to cure a tumour which rises near the 
nail). Juss. mem. mus. 1. p. 388. D. C. prod. 3. p. 370. St. 
Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 185. — Paronychia species of Tourn. Juss. gen. 
— Illecebrum species of Lin. 

LiN. SYST. Pentundria, Monogynia. Calyx 5-parted (f. 22. 
/.) ; lobes concave, cucullate, generally mucronate at the apex 
(f 22. h.). Petals or scales 5, subulate, alternating with the 
lobes of the calyx. Stamens 5 (f. 22. a.). Style one, entire or 
bifid (f. 22. d.) ; lobes papilliferous inside. Capsule 1 -seeded (f. 
22. e.), membranaceous, indehiscent or 5-valved, covered by the 
calyx. — Herbaceous or suffrutescent much branched plants. 
Leaves opposite, stipulate ; stipidas scabrous, twin on both sides 
between the leaves. Young leaves frequently in fascicles in the 
axils of the old leaves. Flowers cymose or glomerate, but 
usually crowded in the axils of the leaves. 

Sect. I. Cha:tony'chia (from x""''?> chaite, a head of hair, 
and ovvi,, onyx, a claw ; in reference to the lobes of the calyx 
ending in a bristle each). D. C. prod. 3. p. 370. Lobes of calyx 
equal, dilated at the apex, membranous, ending in an awn on 
the back. Scales or petals, or abortive stamens perhaps want- 
ing. Flowers cymose. 

1 P. ? cymosa (D. C. in Lam. diet. 5. p. 26. fl. fr. 3. p. 402.) 
stems erect, branched, divaricate, puberulous ; leaves linear, 
nearly terete, glabrous, awned ; flowers cymose, ultimate ones in 
fascicles. 0. H. Native of Spain, Greece, Mauritania, in 
sandy places. Illecebrum cymosum, Lin. spec. 299. exclusive 
of Bocc. syn. Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. p. 408. t. 4. Flowers 
greenish. This plant is allied to Illecebrum, but is probably a 
distinct genus. 

CyjHO^e Paronychia. Fl. July. Clt. 1820. PI. | foot. 

Sect. II. Euny'ciiia (altered from Paro?(yc/i?o. This section 
is supposed to contain the genuine species of the genus). D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 370. Lobes of calyx equal, awned, mucronate or 
nearly unarmed, not dilated at the apex. Flowers crowded in 
the axils of the leaves. 

2 P. echina'ta (Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 232. exclusive of Lin. syn.) 
stems branched, prostrate, smoothish ; leaves oval, glabrous ; 
flowers subsecund, crowded in the axils of the leaves, puberu- 
lous ; lobes of calyx drawn out into somewhat divaricate awns. 
©. H. Native of Mauritania, Portugal, Corsica, Sicily, Pro- 
vence, in sand by the sea side. Illecebrum echinatum, De.sf. atl. 
1. p. 204. Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. p. 409. t. 4. Smith, fl. 
grasc. t. 245. — Bocc. sic. t. 20. f. 3. Flowers greenish. 

£c/(;na/(;d-flowered Paronychia. Fl. July. Clt. 1821. PI. 
prostrate. 

3 P. Brasilia NA (D. C. in Lam. diet. 5. p. 23.) stems trail- 
ing, puberulous ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed both at the 
base and apex, mucronate, pubescent on both surfaces ; flowers 
crowded in the axils of the leaves ; calyx glabrous, deeply 5- 
parted : lobes ending in a long mucrone each. fj . G. Native 
of Buenos Ayrcs and Monte Video, by road sides. P. Bona- 
riensis, D. C. prod. 3. p. 370. Flowers white. 

£r«;;i7;rtn Paronychia. Fl. May, July. Clt. 1820. Pl.tr. 

4 P. commu'nis (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 186.) stems trailing, 
puberidous ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrow at the base and 
the apex, mucronate, pubescent on both surfaces ; flowers 
crowded in the axils of the leaves ; calyx turbinate, pubescent ; 
lobes equal, ending in short points. }/ . G. Native of Brazil, 
in pastures in that part of the province of St. Paul called Cam- 



PARONYCHIEiE. VII. Paronychia. 



pos Geraes, and by the sea side in the province of St. Catharine. 
Flowers deep brown. 

Cominan Paronychia. PI. tr. 

5 P. Chilk'nsis (D.C. prod. 3. p. S70.) stems diffuse, tufted; 
leaves crowded, oblontj-linear, mucronate, smoothisli ; flowers 
crowded in the axils of the leaves ; lobes of calyx hardly mucro- 
nate at tlie apex. Ti.F. Native of Chili, about Conception 
and Valparaiso. Leaves of the younjfcr branches subspinose 
at the apex, of the adult ones acute. Stipulas oblong, scarious. 

Chill Paronychia. PI. \ foot. 

6 P. campiiorosmoIdf.s (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 187.) stems 
diffuse, pubescent ; leaves linear-subulate, keeled, nuicronate, 
puberulous ; flowers crowded in the axils of tlie leaves ; calyx 
tirrbinate, smoothish : lobes equal, acutish. ©. H. Native of 
Brazil, in that part of the province of St. Paul called Campos 
Geraes, near Egreja Velha. 

Camphorosma-like Paronychia. PI -j to 1 foot. 

7 P. Ara'bica (D. C. cat. hort. monsp. 1813. p. 130.) stems 
diffuse, branched ; leaves oblong-linear, glabrous, awnedly mu- 
cronate ; flowers sessile, rather crowded : lobes of calyx ending 
in a long awn each. Q. H. Native of Arabia and Egypt. 
Corrigiola albella, Forsk. descr. p. 207. Ulecebrum Arabicum, 
Lin. mant. p. 51. Pers. ench. 1. p. 261. Bracteas silvery, awned 
at the apex. 

Arabian Paronychia. PI. diffuse. 

8 P. roLYGONiFOLiA (D. C. fl. fr. ed. 3. vol. 3. p. 403.) stems 
trailing, branched; leaves oblong-lineav, smoothi^h, acute, not 
mucronate; flowers rather crowded in the axils of the leaves; 
lobes of calyx ending in a short mucrone each. 1/. H. Native 
of Dauphiny, Spain, and Balearic Islands. Ulecebrum polygo- 
nifolium, Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. p. 410. t. 4. Ulecebrum 
verticillatum fi, Willd. spec. 1. p. 1205. Ulecebrum alpiniun, 
Vill. daupli. 1. p. 296. This plant hardly differs from P. ar- 
gentea, unless in the leaves being narrower. 

Knot-grass-leaved Paronychia. PI. tr. 

9 P. arge'ntea (Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 230.) stems trailing, 
branched; leaves ovate, smoothish, acutish; flowers axillary and 
terminal, crowded ; lobes of calyx ending in a short mucrone 
each. 1/. H. Native of the south of Europe, in dry exposed 
places. D. C. fl fr. ed. 3. vol. 3. p. 404. Illecebrum Parony- 
chia, Lin. spec. p. 299. Smith, fl. gra;c. t. 246. — Barrel, icon, 
t. 726. P. ari;entea and P. Hispanica, I). C. diet. ency. 5. p. 24. 
There is a variety with rounder glabrous leaves. Bracteas white, 
shining, acuminated. Perhaps the same as Ulecebrum Italicum 
and 111. Narbonense, Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. p. 411. 

I ar. /5, Mauritdnica (D. C. prod. 3. p. 371.) leaves broader ; 
heads large, distant. 1/. II. Native of Mauritania and the 
Archipelago. Ulecebrum Mauritanicum, Willd. rel. in Roem. et 
Schultes, syst. 5. p. 516. 

Silvery Paronychia. PI. tr. 

10 P. capit.\'ta (Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 229.) stems erectish ; leaves 
oblong, keeled, ciliated, pubescent ; bracteas acuminated ; heads 
of flowers terminal; lobes of calyx linear, unequal. %. H. 
Native of the south of Europe, in arid places. D. C. fl. fr. ed. 3. 
vol. 3. p. 404. P. rigida, Mcench. meth. p. 315. Illecebrum 
capitatum, Lin. spec. 1. p. 299. Smith, fl. graec. t. 247 — Lob. 
icon. 420. f 1. Flowers white. Perhaps tlie same as Illece- 
brum Lugdunense, Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. t. 4. ? 

Capitate-^owereA Paronychia. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1683. 
PI. i, to I foot. 

11 P. SERPYLLIFOLIA (D.C. in Lam. dict. 5. p. 24. fl. fr. ed. 3. 
vol. 3. p. 404.) stems prostrate, cree))ing, knotted, branciicd ; 
leaves obovate, flat, rather fleshy, with ciliated margins ; flowers 
terminal; bracteas acuminated ; lobes of calyx awnless. 7/.H. 
Native of the south of Europe, in arid places. Illecebrum ser- 
pyllifolium, Vill. in Schrad. journ. 1801. t. 4. Flowers white. 

VOL. III. 



far. ft, hcrniarioidcs (Pourr. chl. narb. p. 321.) leaves sub- 
cord.ite. 

Il'ild-tliyme-leaved Paronychia. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1818. 
PI. prostrate. 

12 P. NivEA (D. C. dict. ency. 5. p. 25.) stems erectish, much 
branched ; leaves oblong, acute, flattish, pubescent ; bracteas 
large, short-acuminated ; heads of flowers terminal ; lobes of 
calyx awnless. 1/.?H. Native of Spain, Italy, the Levant, 
&c. in arid places. — Barrel, icon. t. 687. and 725. ? Illecebrum 
nivenm, Pers. ench. 1. p. 261. Illecebrum cephalotes, Bieb. H. 
taur. suppl. p. 169. Perhaps the same as 111. maritimum, Vill. 
1. c. P. Arragonica, Schultes, syst. 5. p. 520. ? Flowers snow 
white. 

Snowy Paronychia. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1812. PI. i to 4 ft. 

13 P. ARETioiDES (D. C. prod. 3. p. 371.) stems fruticulose, 
ascending, much branched ; branchlets hairy ; leaves clothed 
with silky pubescence, oval-oblong, obtuse, not exceeding the 
stipulas ; bracteas obtuse; heads of flowers terminal. 1/. H. 
Native of Spain, in the province of Valentia. Illecebrum are- 
tioides, Pourr. ined. ex L. Dufl. in litt. 

Aretia-like Paronychia. PI. g to \ foot. 

14 P. Canarie'nse (Juss. mem. mns. 1. p. 389.) stem 
shrubby, erect, branched at the apex ; branches rather hoary 
from short white hairs ; leaves ovate, acute, downy ; cymes 
panicled, branched, loose ; bracteas mucronately awned at the 
apex, but not hiding the flowers. Pj . G. Native of Tenerifte. 
Habit of Polycarpce a Canariensis, but differs in the ovarium 
being 1 -seeded. 

Canary Paronychia. PI. -| to |^ foot. 

15 P. Smi'thii (Choisy, mss. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 371.) 
stem shrubby, erect, branched; leaves linear-oblong, acumi- 
nated, nerveless, and are, as well as the branches, glabrous ; 
cymes few-flowered, loose : lobes of calyx mucronately awned. 

I^ . G. Native of the Canary Islands. 
Smith's Paronychia. Shrub -^ to ^ foot. 

16 P. HERNiARioiDES (Nutt. gen. amer. 1. p. 159.) plant her- 
baceous, trailing, crowded, downy all over ; leaves oblong-oval, 
ciliated, terminated by a bristle ; lobes of calyx subulate, ending 
each in a spreading setaceous acumen. %. H. Native of South 
Carolina, in arid sandy places. Anychia herniarioides, Michx. 
fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 113. Anychia Herni^rise, Pers. ench. 1. 
p. 261. 

Rupture-n'orl-like Paronychia. PI. tr. 

17 P. niciio'TOMA (Nutt. gen. amer. 1. p. 159.) plant rather 
herbaceous, tufted, procumbent, glabrous ; leaves linear, acerose, 
acute, marked by a double line on the back ; stipulas bifid : 
cymes dichotomous ; bracteas shorter than the flowers ; lobes of 
calyx ending in a short mucrone each. % . H. Native of Vir- 
ginia, on rocks at the river Shenondoah. Achyranthes dichotoma, 
Lin. mant. p. 51. 

Dichotomous Paronychia. PI. procumbent. 

18 P. ARGYRo'coMA (Nutt. 1. c. p. 160.) plant herbaceous, 
tufted, procumbent, pubescent; leaves linear, acutely pungent, 
villous, nerveless ; stipulas entire ; cymes dichotomous ; brac- 
teas about equal in length to the flowers ; lobes of calyx mucro- 
nate. 1/ . H. Native of Lower Carolina and of Tennessee, 
among rocks on tlie mountains. Anychia argyrocoma, Michx. 
fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 114. In habit this plant approaches the 
preceding. Stipulas elongated. Bracteas acuminated. Flowers 
white. 

6V/rer»/-/M/l'rf/ Paronychia. PI. procumbent. 

19 P. SF.ssiLiFLORA (Nutt. 1. c. p. 160.) plant densely tufted, 
much branched, glabrous ; leaves linear-subulate, acute : superior 
ones longer, recurved ; stipulas about equal in length to the 
leaves, bifid ; flowers terminal, sessile ; lobes of calyx arched 
on the inside at the apex, and ending in a long awn each on the 

N 



90 



PARONYCHIEjE. VII. Paronychia. VIII. Pentac«na. IX. Cardionema. X. Polycarp^ea. 



FIG. 23. 







outside, li. H. Native of North 
America, on the more elevated 
hills about the Missouri, near 
Fort Mandan ; on the dry banks 
of the north branch of the Saskat- 
chawan, between Carlton House 
and Edmonton House. Hook. fl. 
bor. amcr. 1. p. 227. t. 75. (f. 
22.) 

Sessile -flowered Paronychia. 
PI, i foot. 



Sect. III. Acanthony'chia 
(from akraj-Soci acanl/ios, a spine, 
and oi'v'i, onyx, a claw ; in refer- 
ence to the y outer lobes of the 
calyx, being each furnished with 

an awn-like spine at the apex). D. C. prod. 3. p. 372. Lobes ° 
calyx unequal, 3 outer ones furnished each with an awn-like spine 
at the apex, 2 inner ones small, and nearly unarmed. Stigmas 2, 
sessile. 

20 P. Rose'tta (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 188. t. 113.) stems 
trailing, woolly ; leaves linear-subulate, mucronate, smoothish ; 
lobes of calyx unequal, 3 outer ones the largest, and furnished 
with a long mucrone each : 2 inner ones smaller, and nearly awn- 
less. Flowers crowded in the axils of the leaves. '2/ . G. Na- 
tive of Brazil, in the province of St. Catharine, in sand by the 
sea side, where it is called by the inhabitants RoseUa. Probably 
a S])ecies of Pentacce na. 

Rosetta Paronychia. PI. tr. 

•I" Species not siifficienth/ known. 

21 P. TENUiFoi.iA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 372.) stem branched, 
diffuse, hairy ; leaves linear-lanceolate, somewhat ciliated ; 
flowers axillary, longer than the stipulas. Q. H. Native 
country unknown. Illecebrum tenuifolium, Willd. enum. suppl. 
p. 12. 

Fine-leaved Paronychia. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1820. PI. 
procumbent. 

22 P. SEDIFOLIA (Salt. itin. abyss, ed germ. 1. p. 476. ex 
Rocm. et Schultes, syst. 5. p, 523.) This species is not de- 
scribed. 

Slone-croji-leaved Paronychia. PI. 

t Plants referred hy authors to the genus Paronychia, which 
are to he excluded. 

1 P. lamiginbsa (Poir. suppl. 4. p. 302.) is probably a 
species of Gomphrena. 

2 P.Bengalensis (Roem. et Schultes, syst. 5. p. 521. but not 
of Juss.) is probably a species of Achyranthes. 

3 P. tcnella (Hortul. or Illecebrum ten^Uum of Desf.) is per- 
haps a s])ecies of Alternanth^ra. 

4 /'. diclwtoma (D. C. in Lam. diet, but not of Nutt.) is Her- 
niaria dichotoma. 

5 P. suhulata is Polycarpae^a spadicea. 

6 P. linenrifblia is now Polycarpae a linearifolia. 

Cult. All the species of this genus are well adapted for orna- 
menting rock-work, from their dwarf stature, and generally 
trailing habit. Most of them, however, grow best in small pots 
in sand and loam, filling the pots half way with sherds ; and 
they are easily increased by dividing the plants at the root, or 
by cuttings under a hand-glass, or by seeds. The seeds of the 
annual species only require to be sown in the open border or on 
rock-work. Some of the species are marked green-house and 
frame ; these require to be protected from frost in winter. 

VIII. PENTAC^'NA (from Trtvrf, ;3en/e, five, and aicatm, 



akaina, a thorn ; in reference to the 5 spiny lobes of the calyx), 
Bartling in reliq. Hoenk. 2. p. 5. t. 49. f. 1. 

Lin. syst. Penlandria, Digijnia. Calyx 5-parted ; segments 
very unequal : 3 outer ones spiny at the apex, and woolly on the 
margins : 2 inner ones much shorter, boat-shaped, and armed on 
the back. Stamens 5, without any sterile filaments ; anthers 2- 
celled. Stigmas 2, short. Fruit 1 -seeded. 

1 P. RAMOsi'ssiMA (Hook. et Am. in hot. misc. 3. p. 248.) 
stems trailing, woolly ; leaves linear-subulate, mucronate ; lobes 
of calyx unequal, all linear and hood-formed, ending each in a 
very long point on the back ; flowers sessile, axillary, crowded. 
%. G. Native of Brazil, on the confines of the province of Rio 
Grande de St. Pedro do Sul, and of the province of Cisplatin ; 
and among rocks about Monte Video ; of Chili, in Las Achiras, 
province of Cordova, Valparaiso, and Buenos Ayres ; also of 
Mexico, at the foot of Mount Orizaba. Paronychia ramosissima, 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 372. mem. paron. p. 12. t. 4. Loeflingia 
ramosissima, Weinm. in bot. zeit. p. 608. Pent, polychnemo- 
noides, Bartl. in Presl. reliq. Haenk. 2. p. 5. t. 49. f. 1. Stipulas 
scarious, woolly. 

Much-hranched Pentacaena. PI. tr. 

Cult. See Paronychia for culture and propagation. 

IX. CARDIONE*MA (from Kapcut, cardia, the heart, and 
1'rjfj.a, nema, a filament ; in reference to the sterile filaments 
being obcordate). D. C. prod. 3. p. 372. — Bivonae'a, Moc. et 
Sesse, fl. mex. ined. but not of D. C. nor Spreng. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Digynia. Calyx 5-partcd ; lobes conniv- 
ing, rather coloured inside, and rather concave, drawn out on the 
back at the apex into a long straight conical horn each. Petals 
wanting. Stamens 5, opposite the lobes of the calyx, and inserted 
in their base ; 2 of which are sterile, obcordate, and flat : and 3 
fertile, obcordate at the base, bearing each a slender antheriferous 
filament in the recess ; anthers roundish, 2-celled. Styles 2, 
hardly concrete at the base, long, revolute. Fruit 1 -seeded, 
ovate-oblong. — A small many-stemmed herb. Leaves opposite, 
crowded, rather distich, linear, acute. Flowers sessile, axillary, 
small, greenish white, each furnished with 5 bracteas, 4 of the 
bracteas linear and entire, the fifth larger and serrulated. 

1 C. multicau'le (D. C. prod. 3. p. 373. mem. par. t. 1.) 
1/ . G. Native of Mexico. Bivon£e"a multicaulis, Moc. et 
Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. 

Many-stemmed Cardionema. PI. small. 

Cult. This plant is to be cultivated and propagated in the 
same manner as that recommended for the species of Paronychia. 
It will require protection in winter, by placing it in a frame 
or green-house. 

Tribe III. 

POLYCARPjE'^ (this tribe contains plants agreeing with 
Pulycarpce'a in important characters). D. C. prod. 3. p. 373. 
Calyx 5-parted (f 23. a.). Petals 5 (f. 23. d.) or wanting. 
Stamens 1-5, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Styles 2-3, 
sometimes distinct from the base, and sometimes connected. 
Capside 1 -celled (f. 23. e.), many-seeded. Seeds fixed to the 
central placenta. — Herbs or subshrubs. Leaves opposite. Sti- 
pulas scarious. The stamens in some of the genera are nearly 
hypogynous, as in PolycArpon, and altogether so in Polycar- 
p(X a, Stipulicida, and Urtegia, and therefore these genera verge 
very closely on the order Caryophyllets, but are distinguished 
from them in the presence of stipulas, and number of stamens : 
the habit agrees with Paronychietje. 

X. POLYCARP^/A (from vroXv, poly, many, and Kapirog, 
carpos, a fruit ; a name, however, only indicating its affinity with 
Polycarpon). Lam. journ. hist. nat. 2. p. 8. t. 25. D. C. prod. 
3. p. 373. St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 182.— Hagse'a, Vent. tabl. 2. 



PARONYCHIE;E. X. Polycakp;ea. 



91 



p. 240. — Mollia, Willd. liort. berol. 1. p. 11. — Laliaya, Roem. et 
Scliultcs, syst. !>. p. 402. — Hyala, Llier. mss. — Antliy'llis species, 
Adans. — Polia, Lour. 

Lin. syst. PcnUtndria, Monogi'ima. Calyx more or less deeply 
5-parted, permanent; lobes membranous, flattisli, neither keeled 
nor nnicronate. Petals 5, inserted in tlie bottom of the calyx, 
and opposite its lobes. Style one, 3-furro\ved at the apex. Cap- 
side 1-celled, trigonal, 3-valvcd, many-seeded. Seeds rather reni- 
form. — Branched dichotomoiis herbs. Leaves opposite, stipulate, 
young ones disposed in fascicles in the axils of the old leaves. 
Flowers cymose ; cymes usually forming a terminal corymb. 

1 P. GNAPiiALODES (Poir. suppl. 4. p. 473.) stems suffruticose, 
prostrate ; leaves oblong, clothed with hoary tomentinn ; flowers 
crowded into terminal subcapitate cymes. %. F. Native about 
Mogodor, on the coast of Africa, in sandy places ; and of the 
Grand Canary Island and Teneriffe. lUecebrum gnaphalodes, 
Schousb. mar. 1. p. 117. Polycarpise'a microphy'lla, Cav. anal. 
scienc. no. 7. p. 25. Hilgea gnaphalodes, Pers. ench. 1. p. 202. 
Lahaya gnaphalodes, Sclndtes, syst. 5. p. 405. Mollia gnapha- 
lodes, Spreng. syst. 1. p. 794. Flowers white. 

Co</OH(/ Polycarptea. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1818. PI. pros. 

2 P. LATiFOLiA (Poir. 1. c.) stems suffruticose, diffuse ; leaves 
obovate, mucronate by an awn ; cauline leaves usually 6 in a 
whorl, those of the branches opposite ; cymes terminal, corym- 
bosely capitate ; stipulas, bracteas, and calyxes scarious, and 
acuminated. H . F. Native of Teneriffe, among rocks in 
woods. Mollia latifolia, Willd. enum. 1. p. 269. Schrank, pi. 
rar. hort. mon. t. 29. Lahaya latifolia, Schultes, syst. 5. p. 403. 
Flowers white. 

Broad-leaved Polycarp^a. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1810. PI. 
ifoot. 

3 P. TENERiFFiE (Lam. journ. hist. nat. 2. p. 8. t. 25.) stem 
branched, diffuse; cauline leaves petiolate, ovate, usually C in a 
whorl ; cymes dichotomous, corymbose, many-flowered ; lobes 
of calyx with membranous margins. ©. H. Native of Tene- 
riffe, by way sides. Illecebrum divaricatum. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 
1. vol. 1. p. 291. Hagea Teneriffce, Pers. ench. 1. p. 262. 
Mollia diffusa, Willd. hort. berol. 1. t. 11. Lahaya diff'iisa, 
Schult. syst. 5. p. 402. Flowers white. 

Teneriffe Polycarpa?a. PI. ^ to i foot. 

4 P. arista'ta (Chr. Smith in litt. ex D. C. prod. 3. p. 373.) 
stems branched, suff'ruticulose ; leaves usually 6 in a whorl, lan- 
ceolate-linear : young ones silky, mucronated by an awn: old 
ones nearly glabrous, and almost awnless ; cymes corymbose, 
terminal ; calyxes with membranous margins. Ij . F. Native 
of the Canary Islands, on the Pico de Teyde. Illecebrum aris- 
tatum. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 1. p. 290. Mollia aristata, 
Ait. hort. kew. ed. 2. vol. 2. p. 62. Lah'iya aristata, Schult. 
.syst. 5. p. 403. Stems erect or diflfuse. Flowers white. 

^raiMcrf-leaved Polycarpsea. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1780. PI. 
^\.o \ foot. 

5 P. Memphitica (Delil. fl. egypt. p. 67. t. 24. f. 2.) stems 
herbaceous, diffuse, branched, villous; leaves usually 6 in a 
whorl, oval-oblong, narrowed into the petiole ; cymes terminal, 
few-flowered ; calyx pubescent, with membranous margins. ©. 
H. Native of fields about Cairo, and along the banks of the 
Nile, and in its islands. Style very short : stigmas 3, nearly 
sessile. Petals quite entire. This plant, although very distinct, 
is joined with P. gnaphalodes by Spreng. 

Mcmphitic Polycarpaea. PI. diffuse. 

C P. fra'gilis (Delisle, fl. egypt. p. 65. t. 24. f. 1.) stems 
herbaceous, prostrate, brittle ; leaves opposite, aggregate, lan- 
ceolate, mucronate, with replicate edges ; cymes corymbose, ter- 
minal, many-flowered. 1/ . F. Native of Egypt, in the deserts 
about the pyramids, &c. Mollia fragilis, Spreng. syst. 1. p. 795. 
Style filiform, length of petals. Seeds 8-10. Flowers white. 



Far. a, incana (D. C. prod. 3. p. 374.) stem and leaves cloth- 
ed with grey tomentum. 

Var. ft, vlrcns (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glabrous. — Corrigiola re- 
pens, Forsk. descr. p. 207. ex Delisle. 

Brittle Polycarpaea. PI. prostrate. 

7 P. stella'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 374.) stems diffuse, much 
branched, suH'ruticulose ; leaves usually 6 in a whorl, linear, flat, 
and are, as well as the branches, rather pilose ; cymes terminal, 
many-flowered, corymbose ; calyxes scarious. Q. F. Native 
of Guinea. Achyranthes stellata, Willd. spec. 1. p. 1195. 
Mollia stellata, Willd. hort. berol. Lalu\ya stellata, Schultes, 
syst. 5. p. 403 Root perpendicular, simple. Habit of P. Te- 
neriffce, but differs in the leaves being linear. 

Stellate-haved Polycarpaea. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1820. 
PI. i foot. 

8 P. corymbosa (Lam. ill. no. 2798.) stems erect, herbaceous, 
tomentose ; branches divaricate ; leaves usually 6 in a whorl, 
linear, awned ; cymes corymbose, loosish ; calyxes scarious, 
acuminated. 1^.? F. or ©. Native of Ceylon. Achyranthes 
corymbosa, Lin. spec. p. 296. (exclusive of the synonyme of 
Plukenet, which is referrible to Celbsia Monsonia;). Willd. spec. 
1. p. 1196. (exclusive of the synonyme of Loureiro, which is 
referrible to Poli/carpce'a spadicea). Lahaya corymbosa, Schultes, 
syst. 5. p. 404. Pol. I'ndica, Lam. journ. hist. nat. 2. p. 8. 
Celosia corymbosa, Roxb. fl. ind. 1. p. 310.? — Bocc. mus. 4t. 
t. 39. good. — Burm. zeyl. t. 65. f. 2. Flowers white. 

Corymiose-flowered Polycarpaea, Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1823. 
PI. 1 foot. 

9 P. sPADi'cEA (Lam. 1. c. no. 2799.) stems ascending, diffuse, 
branched, suffruticose at the base ; branches tomentose ; leaves 
linear, bluntish, when young rather tomentose ; cymes terminal, 
corymbose ; calyxes scarious. '2/ . ? ^ . ? S. Native of the East 
Indies, on the coasts of Malabar and Tranquebar. — Rheed. mal. 
10. t. 66. Celosia corymbosa, Willd. spec. 1. p. 1200. exclu- 
sive of the synonyme of Retz. Mollia spadicea, Willd. hort. 
berol. Lahaya spadicea, Schultes, syst. 5. p. 405. Polia are- 
ni\ria, Ivour. coch. p. 164. Allied to P. corymbosa, but is 
more diffuse in habit ; leaves broader and shorter, in more dis- 
tant whorls ; lobes of calyx less acuminated. Perhaps Parony- 
chia subulata, D. C. in Lam. diet. 5. p. 25. or Illecebrum subu- 
latum, Pers. ench. 1. p. 261. is referrible to this species. 

Chcstnut-hronn Polycarpaea. PI. 1 foot, diffuse. 

10 P. BRASiLiE'Nsis(St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 183.) stems erect, 
puberulous ; leaves linear-subulate, widi revolute margins, mu- 
cronate, puberulous ; cymes corymb-formed ; calycine lobes very 
acute, puberulous ; petals ovate-orbicular, one-half shorter than 
the calyx. %. S. Native of Brazil, in that part of the pro- 
vince of St. Paul called Camjios Geraes, near Fazenda de Jaqua- 
riahiba. Flowers densely clothed with white tomentum. Petals 
at first white, but at length of a dirty yellow-colour. Root fusi- 
form, with many stems rising from the neck. 

Var. ft, ramosissima (St. Hil. 1. c.) stems much branched; 
leaves setaceous ; cymes branched ; flowers a little smaller than 
those of the species. Native of Brazil, in the province of Goyaz, 
on the sandy Mountain called Serra dos Pyreneos ; also on 
the road to Campo Allegre, in the province of Minas Geraes. 

Brazilian Polycarpaea. PI. \ to | foot. 

11 P. TENUiFOLiA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 374.) stems erect, 
branched ; leaves opposite, linear-subulate, keeled below ; cymes 
terminal, dichotomous, corymbose ; calyxes scarious, length of 
capsule, tj . S. Native of Sierra Leone. Achyranthes tenui- 
folia, Willd. spec. 1. p. 1196. Mollia tenuifolia, Willd. hort. 
berol. Lahaya tenuifolia, Schult. syst. 1. p. 404. Leaves with 
revolute margins. Stipulas minute, diaphanous. 

Fine-leaved Polycarpaea. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1817. PI. 
4 to 4^ foot. 



92 



PARONYCHIE/E. X. Polycarp-ea. XI. Stipulicida. XII. Balardia. XIII. Aversia. 



12 P. GLABRiFoLiA (D. C. 1. c. and mem. par. t. 5.) stems 
erect, branched, suftVuticose ; branches pubescent ; leaves gla- 
brous, oblong-linear, bluntish, twice the length of the stipulas ; 
cymes terminal, dense, many-flowered, in crowded heads. \: . ? 
1/ . ? S. Native of Sierra Leone. This species differs from P. 
tenuifuUa in the leaves not being subulate, nor keeled, nor with 
revolute edges ; in the stipulas being large, and in the flowers 
being capitate. 

Glahrous-leaved PolycarpEea. PI. 1 foot. 

13 P. linearif6lia (D. C. 1. c. and mem. par. t. 6.) stems 
erect, or somewhat ascending at the base, branched ; branches 
pubescentty hairy ; leaves linear, elongated, pubescent, 3 times 
longer tlian the stipulas; cymes crowded into a dense terminal 
roundish head. ©. F. Native of Senegal. Paronychia lineari- 
folia, D. C. in Lam. diet. 5. p. 2G. llleecbrum linearifolium, 
Pers. ench. 1. p. 261. Alternanthera erecta, Rchb. in Sieb. pi. 
exsic. seneg. no. 60. Habit of Celbsia, but the characters are 
those of Polycarpcea. 

Linear- leaved Polycarpaea. PI. 1 foot. 

14 P. frankenioIdes (Presl. in Hoenk. reliq. 2. p. 6.) stems 
much branched, diffuse, procuinbent, roughish ; branches oppo- 
site ; leaves opposite, oblong, obtuse, clothed with rough pubes- 
cence ; flowers in dichotomous corymbose panicles ; sepals blunt- 
ish, pilose. ©. H. Native of the Island of Luzon. 

Frankenia-like Polycarpaea. PI. procumbent. 
"I" Species not sufficiently known. 

15 P. CARNOSA (Chr. Smith in Buch. can. p. 142.) stem 
shrubby ; leaves 6 in a whorl, fleshy : lower ones spatulate : 
upper ones lanceolate ; stipulas very short, jagged. Tj . G. Na- 
tive of the Canary Islands. 

Flcshij Polycarpaea. Shrub \ foot. 

16 P. Smi'tiiii (Link in Buch. can. p. 142.) leaves 6 in a 
whorl, linear, glabrous, obtuse ; stipulas very short ; panicle 
dichotomous ; branchlets divaricate ; bracteas ovate, shorter 
than the calyx. Ij . G. Native of the Canaries, in the island 
i)f Palma, at Cumbre de Caldera. Very nearly allied to P. atel- 
lata but differs in the panicle. 

Smith's Polycarpaea. PI. -y to ^^ foot. 

17 P. ? MiNUARTioiDES (D. C. prod. 3. p. 375.) stem shrubby, 
branched ; branches tomentose ; leaves subulate, crowded ; 
cymes axillary, few-flowered. ^ . F. Native of the soutli of 
Spain. MoUia minuartioides, Spreng. mant. 1. p. 37. ex Schultes. 
Laliaya minuartioides, Schultes, syst. 5. p. 406. This is a very 
doubtful species, being omitted in Spreng. syst. 

Minuarlia-like Polycarpara. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1826. Pl.^ft. 

18 P.? depke'ssa (D. C. I.e.) stems herbaceous, depressed, 
diffuse ; leaves opposite, crowded into something like whorles, 
wedge-shaped ; stipulas 4-cleft ? flowers terminal, triandious ; 
calyx fleshy; petals linear, 4-toothed at the apex. ©. F. 
Native of the East Indies. Pliarn^ceum depressum, Lin. mant. 
p. 564. Loeflingia I'ndica, Retz, ind. p. 48. Roxb. fl. ind. 1. p. 
169. This plant is certainly neither a Lccflingia nor a Pltarna- 
cewn ; from the stipulas and many-seeded capsule, it agrees more 
nearly with Polycarpce'a, but differs in the fleshy calyx, and 
triandrous flowers : perhaps it is more nearly allied to Pollichia, 
but the calyx in this plant is said to be 5-parted. 

Depressed Polycarpaea. PI. depressed. 

Cult. The seeds of the annual species of Polycarpce'a should 
be reared on a hot-bed early in spring. The perennial and 
shrubby species being either green-house, or frame plants, 
require to be kept in their respective places : they are easily in- 
creased by cuttings under a hand-glass, those of the stove species 
in heat. 

XI. STIPULI'CIDA (from stipiila, a stipula, and ccedo, to 
cut ; stipulas cut or jagged). Miclix. fl. bor. amcr. 1. p. 26. t. 



6. Efl. sketch, p. 51. Nutf. gen. amer. 1. p. 29. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 375. — Polycarpon species, Pers. Roem. and Spreng. 

Lin. syst. Tridndria, Monogynia. Calyx 5-parted ; lobes 
oval, with membranous margins. Petals 5, cuneate-oblong, en- 
tire. Stamens 3, inserted with the petals into the disk or torus. 
Style short ; stigmas 3. Capsule 1 -ceiled, 3-valved. Seeds 
few, fixed by funicles to the central placenta. — Small perennial 
dichotomous herbs, native of North America. Radical leaves 
almost like those of Polycarpce'a Teneriffce, ovate, petiolate ; 
cauline leaves sessile, opposite, small. Stipulas jagged. Flowers 
small, tern, terminal. An intermediate genus between Poly- 
carpon and Polycarpce a, from the sepals being flattish as in Po- 
lycarpc^ a, and in the stamens being 3, as in Polycarpon ; but 
differs from both in the petals and stamens being expressly hypo- 
gynous according to Richard in Michx. 1. c. ; the genus therefore 
perhaps ought to have been placed in Caryophyllece. 

1 S. SETACEA (Michx. 1. c.) % . F. Native of Lower 
Carolina, in sandy arid places. Polycarpum stipulifidum, Pers. 
ench. 1. p. 111. Pursh, fl. amer. sept. 1. p. 90. Plant gla- 
brous, setaceous, erect, many tiines dichotomous. 

Setaceous Stipulicida. PI. \ foot. 

Cult. See Ortegia, p. dS, for culture and propagation. 

XII. BALA'RDIA (in honour of M. Balard, of Montpelier, 
who was the first to detect a new chemical principle called 
brome). St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 180. 

LiN. SYST. Di-Tetrandria, Trigynia. Calyx 5-parted almost 
to the base, permanent ; segments flattish. Petals none. Sta- 
mens 2-3-4, inserted in the receptacle. Styles 3, very short, 
papuliferous inside. Capsule 3-valved, many-seeded ; valves 
membranous. Seed subovoid, fixed to the central placenta. — 
An annual, branched, dichotomous herb, with opposite, stipu- 
late leaves, and cymose flowers. 

1 B. Plate'nsis (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 181. t. 111.) leaves 
linear, about equal in length to the internodes, mucronulate ; 
cymes branched, many-flowered. Q. H. Native of Brazil, in 
the southern part of the province of Cisplatine, near Povo de 
Canelones ; and in the western part near Pueblo de las Viboras ; 
also of Buenos Ayres. 

Plate Balardia. PI. | foot. 

Cull. The seeds of this plant should be sown on a hot-bed 
in spring, and the plants may be planted out in the open border 
in the month of May, in any warm dry situation. Not worth 
cultivating, excepting in a botanic garden. 

XIII. AVE'RSIA (in honour of M. Avers, D. M. P., who 
has written a dissertation on the Nicotiana Taht'tcum, in which he 
treats of its various qualities). St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 184. 

Lin. syst. Tridndria, Monogynia. Calyx deeply 5-parted, 
permanent ; lobes thickened in the middle, keeled. Petals 5, 
inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Stamens 3, inserted \<'ith 
the petals; filaments dilated at the base, joined to the petals 
and together at the base. Style 1, trifid ; lobes papilliferous 
inside. Capsule 3-valved, many-seeded ; valves membranous. 
Seeds fixed to the central placenta, cylindrical. Embryo in the 
middle of fleshy albumen, not at one side as in Polycarjice a. — 
A trailing branched herb, witii opposite stipulate leaves ; young 
leaves or abortive branches in fascicles in the axils of the older 
leaves. Cymes branched, many-flowered. 

1 A. FRANKENIOIDES (St. Hil. I. c. t. 112.) Stems trailinc;, 
branched ; leaves lanceolate, bluntish, narrowed into the petiole, 
pubescent; cymes manv-flowered ; segments of calyx obtuse, 
pubescent; petals and stamens one half shorter than the calyx. 
©. H. Native of Brazil, on the sandy banks of the rivers 
Parahyba, Rio Doce, Jiquitiuhonha, Rio de St. Francisco, &c. 
Flowers white. 



PARONYCHIE^. XIV. Orteoia. XV. Polycarpon. XVI. Cerdia, 



93 



Frankenia-like Aversia. PI. trailing, -j foot. 

Cult. See Batdrdia above for culture and propagation. 

XIV. ORTFGIA (in honour of Joseph E. de Ortega, a 
Spanish botanist, companion of Lafling in his travels. See 
Lcfjlmgia). Lccfl. itin. p. 112. Lin. gen. no. 51. Gartn. fr. 
S. p. 224. t. 129. f. 8. Ser. in D. C. prod. 1. p. 388. and 3. 
p. 375. — Ortega, Lin. spec. ed. 1. — Juneiria, Clus. 

Lin. syst. Tridndria, Afuiiogijnia. Calyx of 5 sepals, or 
5-parted ; sepals erect, oblong, a little keeled. Petals wanting. 
Stamens 5, 3 of which are fertile, inserted in the torus in front of 3 
of the sepals ; the other 2 almost vanished, or small, sterile, and 
scale-formed. Ovarium ovate. Style 1, capitate at the apex, or 
bifid. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds numerous, fixed to the central 
placenta. Embryo straight, placed on the back of the albumen. — - 
Erect, much-branched herbs. Leaves opposite, linear, with 2 
black dots at the sides, from which the stipulas have fallen. Cymes 
dichotomous, many-flowered. Flowers greenish-white. Stamens 
hypogynous, as in Stipulicida and Polycarpce^a. 

1 O. Hispa'nica (L n. spec. ed. 1. p. 560.) stigma capitate. 
1/ . H. Native of Spain, about ALidrid and many other places. 
Cav. icon. 1. t. i7. — Clus. hist. 2. p. 171. f. 2. Vahl. enum. 2. 
p. 25. 

^pomVi Ortegia. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1768. PI. | foot. 

2 O. DiCHoTOMA (Lin. mant. p. 175.) stigma trifid. %. H. 
Native of Italy and Piedmont, about Giavena. All. act. taur. 
3. p. 176. t. 4. f. 1. D. C. fl. fr. ed.3. vol. 4. p. 726. Vahl. 
symb. 2. p. 25. Cyme more loose than that of the first species, 
and therefore it is more distinctly dichotomous, but divided in 
a similar way. 

Dichotomous Orlegia. Fl. Aug. Sept. CI. 1781. PI. | foot. 

Cult. The species thrive best in light soil ; and are increased 
by cuttings or seeds. They are well fitted for rock work, or to 
be grov^n in small pots among other alpine plants. 

XV. POLYCA'RPON (from ttoXv, poly, many, and k-aptrog, 
karpos, a seed; seeds numerous). Loefl. in Lin. gen. no. 105. 
Ga?rtn. fr. 2. t. 129. Lain. ill. t. 51. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 

390. D. C. prod. 3. p. 376 Trichlis, Hall, goett.— Anthyllis 

species, Adans. 

Lin. syst. Tri-Pentdndria, Trigynia. Calyx deeply 5- 
cleft (f. 23. a.), permanent ; segments concave, keeled, mucronate 
at the apex. Petals 5 (f. 23. h.), emarginate, inserted in the 
tube of the calyx. Stamens Z-5, inserted in the tube of the 
calyx. Style trifid; lobes papuliferous inside. Capsule 1-celled, 
3-valved (f. 23. e.), many-seeded. Seeds nearly ovoid, a little 
curved, fixed to the central placenta. — Annual, branched, dicho- 
tomous herbs. Leaves opposite, or 4 in a whorl ; young ones 
usually disposed in fascicles in the axils of the old leaves. 
Flowers in cyraose corj-mbs. Stipulas and bracteas small, sca- 
rious. — This genus agrees with Adcnarium, but differs in the 
stamens being equal in number to the petals, not as in Caryo- 
phyllcce, double that number. 

* Flowers triandrous. 

1 P. Apure'nse (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 40.) 
flowers triandrous ; petals emarginate? leaves 5-10 in a whorl. 
©. H. Native of South America, on the banks of the river 
Apures, in the province of de Varinas. Stems diffiise, pubes- 
cent. Leaves linear-spatulate. Cymes dichotomous. Lobes 
of calyx obtuse. Stamens and styles 3. 

Apures All-seed. PI. |^ to ^ foot. 

2 P. TETRAPHY'LLUM(Lin. fil. suppl. 116.) flowcrs triandrous; 
petals emarginate ; lower leaves 4 in a whorl ; rameal ones op- 
posite, obovate-oblong, rounded at the apex, mucronulate, shorter 
than the internodes. ©. H. Native of Europe, Canary Islands; 
Brazil on walls, about the town of St. Paul. In England, on the 



west coast ; on various parts of the coast of Devonshire, Somer- 



FIG. 23. 




setsliire, and Portland Island. 
Smith, engl. hot. t. 1031. Krock. 
fl. siles. t. 42. MoUiigo tetra- 
phy'Ua, Lin. spec. 1. p. 89. 

I ar. /J, dipliyllum (D. C. prod. 
3. p. 376.) leaves all opposite. 
©. H. Polyciirpon dipliyllum, 
Cav. icon. 2. p. 40. t. 151. f. 
1 . Paronychia striata, D. C. in 
Lam. diet. 5. p. 25. ? lUece- 
brum striatum, Pers. ench. 1. 
p. 261. 

Four-leaved All-seed. Fl. Ju. 
Jul. Engl. PI. i foot. 



* * Flowers penlandrous. 

3 P. ALSiNEFOLiUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 376.) flowers pentan- 
drous ; petals nearly entire : leaves oval, rather fleshy ; flowers 
crowded into terminal cymes. ©. H. Native of Sicily, France, 
between Cetta and Narbonne, and also of the Cape of Good 
Hope and New Holland, on the sandy sea-coast. Bocc. sic. 
p. 71. t. 38. Hagea alsinefolia, Biv. manip. 3. p. 7. Lahaya 
alsinefolia, Schultes, syst. 5. p. 405. MoUia alsinefolia, 
Schultes, syst. 1. p. 795. Holosteum tetraphyllum, Thunb. fl. 
cap. p. 120. Polycarpon spec. Sieb. fl. nov. boll. no. 570. Ille- 
cebrum alsinef oliuni, Lin. mant. 51.? Very like P. tetraphyl- 
lum, but differs in the leaves being smooth and oval ; and in the 
flowers being pentandrous, larger, fewer, and more crowded. 

Chickweed-leaved All-seed. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1817. PI. A ft. 

4 P. PEPLOiDES (D. C. prod. 3. p. 376.) flowers pentandrous ; 
petals quite entire ; leaves opposite, obovate; flowers crowded 
into terminal cymes. % . F. Native of Sicily ; France about 
Perpignon. Hagea polycarpoides, Biv. manip. 2. no. 3. Mollia 
Polycarpon, Spreng. nov. prod. p. 28. Lahaya polycarpoides, 
Schultes, syst. 5. p. 404. Aren^ria peplokles, Lapeyr. abr. p. 
251. but not of Lin. Xery Wke P. tetraphijllum, and, as in it, 
the leaves are sometimes 4 in a whorl ; but besides these charac- 
ters, it differs in the leaves being rounder ; cymes denser ; 
flowers a little larger, and pentandrous, &c. 

Water Purslane-like Polycarpon. PI. ^ foot. 

Cult. The seeds of the annual species of the genus only 
require to be sown in the open border in spring. The last spe- 
cies being perennial, should be grown in a small pot, and placed 
among other alpine plants. 

XVI. CE'RDIA (in honour of Juan de Dios Nizente de la 
Cerda, an artist attached to the Mexican expedition). Moc. et 
Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. D. C. prod. 3. p. 377. 

LiN. SYST. Mondndria, Monogynia. Calyx 5-parted ; lobes 
oblong ; petaloid inside, drawn out each into a long mucrone at 
the apex. Petals wanting. Stamen 1, in front of one of the 
calycine segments. Ovarium ovate-globose. Style filiform, 
bifid at the apex. Capsule 1-celled, many-seeded, — Dwarf 
Mexican herbs, intermediate between Hcrniaria and Pollichia. 
Roots perennial, simple. Stems spreading. Leaves opposite, 
or in something like whorls, linear, cuspidate. Stipulas mem- 
branous, solitary between the opposite leaves. Flowers small, 
axillary, subpediceliate ; jiedicels furnished with 1-2 bracteas. 

1 C. vire'scens (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 377.) leaves opposite. 1/ . G. Native of Mexico. 
D. C. mem. par. t. 2. Flowers greenish-white inside. 

Gre(«M/i-fl()wered Cerdia. PI. pr. 

2 C. purpura'sceks (Moc. et Sesse, 1. c.) leaves 4 together in 



94 



PARONYCHIE^. XVII. Pollichia. XVIII. Lithopiiila. XIX. Sellowia. SCLERANTHE^. 



a kind of whorl. 1/ . G. Native of Mexico. Flowers purplish 
inside. 

Purplish Cerdia. PI. pr. 

Cult. These plants will grow well in a mixture of loam and 
i^and, and are easily increased by dividing at the root, by cut- 
tings, or by seeds. 

Tribe IV. 

POLLICHIE' jE (this tribe only contains the genus Pollichia). 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 377. Calyx 5-toothed ; tube urceolate. Sta- 
mens 1-2, inserted in the throat of the calyx. Petals wanting. 
Stigma bifid. Fruit or utriculus valvelcss, 1-seeded. Bracteas 
and calyx becoming large and fleshy after flowering, and forming 
something like a berry. — Suff'ruticose herbs, with opposite, sub- 
verticillate slipulaceous leaves. 

XVII. POLLFCHIA (in honour of John Adam Pollich, 
M.D., author of a History of the native plants of the Pala- 
tinate of the Rhine). Sol. in Ait. hort. kew. (1789) 1. p. 5. ; 
3. p. 505. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 388. but not of Med. nor 
Roth, nor Willd.—Neckeria, Gmel. syst. (1796) 1. p. 16. but 
not of Hedw. nor Scop. — Meerburgia, Mojnch, suppl. (1802) 
p. 116. 

Lin. syst. Monandria, Monogynia. Calyx campanulately 
urceolate, 3-toothed, permanent. Petals wanting, unless the 
scales at the throat are to be taken for them. Stamen 1 (ex 
McEnch. rarely 2) inserted in the throat of the calyx. Style 
filiform; stigma bifid. Capsule valveless, 1-seeded, inclosed 
in the thickened tube of the calyx. — A suftruticose branched herb. 
Leaves linear, opposite, but at first sight appear verticillate, in 
consequence of 2 raraeal leaves rising in each axil, furnished 
with scarious acute stipulas. Flowers small, aggregate, sessile, 
bracteate. 

1 P. campe'stris (Ait. I.e. Smith, spicil. 1. t. 1.). fj.? i;.? 
F. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Neckeria campestris, 
Gmel. 1. c. Meerburgia glomer^ta, Mcench. 1. c. Flowers 
greenish. Bracteas mixed with the flowers, ciliated ; scales full 
of sweet juice. 

Field Pollichia. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1780. PI. -| foot. 

Cult. The seeds of Pollichia must be raised on a hot-bed ; 
and when the plants are 2 inches high, they may be planted out 
singly into pots, placed among the greenhouse plants, and after- 
wards treated like them. 

t Genera placed in Paronychiecr, but are not sufficiently hnown. 

XVIII. LITHO'PHILA (from Xifloc, lithos, a stone, and 
(jiikiu), phileo, to love ; this plant delights to grow among stones). 
Swartz, fl. ind. occ. 1. p. 47. t. 1. D. C. prod. 3. p. 380. 

Lin. syst. Diandria, Monogynia. Calyx profoundly 3- 
parted, acute. Petals 3, ovate-lanceolate. Scales, nectaries, 
or abortive stamens 2, opposite the segments of the calyx. 
Stamens 2, at one side of the ovarium. Style thick, bluntly 
cmarginate at the apex. Fruit unknown. — A very minute gla- 
jjrous herb. Leaves stem-clasping, linear, obtuse. Flowers 
white, crowded. 

1 L. MuscoiDEs (Swartz, 1. c. p. 48.). — Native of the desert 
island of Navaza, among rocks. 
Moss-like Lithophila. PI. 1 inch. 

Ctdt. This plant is not worth cultivating, unless in botanic 
gardens. Should it ever be introduced to our gardens, we would 
recommend its being grown in a pot filled with broken stones, 
having the crevices filled with vegetable mould. It may pro- 
bably be propagated by seeds. 

XIX. SELLO^WIA (in honour of Frederick Sello, a Ger- 
man botanist, who was lately drowned in some creek of the 



Amazon ; and who has sent home many fine collections of Bra- 
silian plants). Roth. nov. spec. p. 162. D. C. prod. 3. p. 380. 

Lin. syst. Penldndiia, Monogynia. Calyx urceolate, 5- 
cleft, membranous, 10-ribbed; lobes short, lanceolate; ribs 
bearing alternately a petal and a stamen. Petals 5, oval, altern- 
ating with the calycine lobes. Stamens 5, fixed in the middle 
of the calycine lobes, and shorter than them ; anthers didy- 
TOOus. Style 1 ; stigma obtuse. Capsule 3-valved, 1 -celled, 
1-seeded. — -A quite glabrous herb, with the habit of Illecebrum 
verlicillatum. Leaves opposite, oblong-oval. Flowers 1-2 in 
the axils of the leaves, small, white, and somewhat pedicellate. 
It is not known whether the leaves are slipulaceous or naked. 

1 S. uligin6sa (Roth. 1. c. p. 163.). Native of the East 
Indies, in bogs. 

Bog .Sellowia. PI. proc. 

Cult. Place a pan of water under the pot in which this plant 
is grown. 

Order CXII. SCLERA'NTHE^ (plants agreeing in im- 
portant characters with Sclerdnthus). Link. enum. p. 417. 
Bartl. ex Mart, amarant, p. 67. — Paryonychieae, Tribe V. Scle- 
rantheas, D. C. prod. 3. p. 377, &c. 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx4-5-parted(f. 24. a.). Stamens 
from 1 to 1 0, inserted in the orifice of the tube (f. 24. a.). Ova- 
rium simple, 1-seeded. Styles 2 (f. 24. e.) or 1, emarginate at the 
apex. Fruit a membranous utricle, inclosed within a hardened 
calyx. Seed hanging from the apex of a funicle, which arises 
from the bottom of the cell. Embryo cylindrical, curved round 
farinaceous albumen. — Small herbs. Leaves opposite, without 
stipvdas. Flowers axillary, sessile. This order has been re- 
ferred by De Candolle to Paro7iychiecE, from which it differs in 
the absence of petals and stipulas, and therefore appears to con- 
stitute a distinct order, more nearly related to Chenopodece than 
Paronychii'ce, from which the plants chiefly differ in the indu- 
rated tube of the calyx, from the orifice of which the stamens 
proceed, and in the number of the latter exceeding that of the 
divisions of the calyx. The tribe Minuartiece is probably not 
distinguishable from Sclerdnthece, notwithstanding the supposed 
presence of petals, which would perhaps be more properly 
called abortive stamens. All the plants contained in this order 
are uninteresting weeds, of no known use. 

Synopsis of the genera. 
Tribe I. 
Sclera'nthe;e. Calyx '^'5-toothed (f. 24. a.), with an urceo- 
late tube. Petals none. Stamens 1-10, inserted in the throat of 
the calyx (f. 24. a.). Styles 2 (f. 24. e.) or 1, emarginate at the 
apex (f. 24. 6.). Fruit an utricle, covered by the indurated tube 
of the calyx, l-scedcd. Seed hanging by a funicle, which arises 
from the bottom of the capsule. 

1 Mnia'rum. Calyx 4-cleft, with an urceolate tube. Stamens 
1. Styles 2. 

2 Sclera'nthus. Calyx 5-cleft (f. 24. «.), with an urceolate 
tube. Stamens from 2 to 10. Styles 2 (f. 24. e.). 

3 Guillemi'nea. Calyx 5-cleft, with a campanulate tube. 
Stamens 5. Style 1, emarginate at the apex. 

Tribe II. 
Queria'ce/e. Calyx 5-parted. Petals none. Stamens 10, 



SCLERANTHEiE, I. Mniarum. II. Scleranthus. 



95 



inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Capsule 3-valved. Seed 
hanging from a long funicle, rvhich arises from the centre of the 
cell. 

■t Que'ria. The character is the same as that of the tribe. 

Tribe III. 

Minuartie'/E. Calyx 5-parlcd. Petals wanting or very 
minute. Stamens 3-10, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Styles 
3. Capsule \-celled, S-valvcd. Seeds numerous, fixed to the 
central placenta. 

5 Minua'rtia. Lobes of calyx quite entire. Styles 3. 

6 Lcefli'ngia. The 3 outer lobes of calyx bisetose at the 
base. Style 1, trifid at the apex. 

Tribe I. 

SCLERA'NTHEi?]; (plants agreeing with Scleranthus in im- 
portant characters). Paronychi^a?, Tribe V. Sclerantheae, D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 377. Calyx 4-5-cleft, with an urceolate tube. Petals 
wanting. Stamens 1-10, inserted in the throat of the calyx. 
Styles 2 or 1, emarginate at the apex. Fruit a 1-seeded mem- 
branous utricle, covered by the indurated tube of the calyx. 
Seed hanging from a long funicle, which arises from the bottom 
of the cell, and which is recurved at the apex. — Herbs, with op- 
posite exstipulate leaves. 

1. MNIA'RUM (from junapoc, mnwroi, mossy ; in reference 
to the moss-like habit of the plants). Forst. gen. 1. t. 1. Lin. 
fil. suppl. 18. R. Br. prod. p. 412. St. Hil. plac. lib. p. 58. 
Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 387. D. C. prod. 3. p. 378. — Ditoca, 
Banks ex Gaertn. fr. 2. p. 196. t. 126. 

Lin. syst. Monandria, DIgynia. Calyx 4-cleft, permanent, 
with an urceolate tube. Petals wanting. Stamen one, inserted 
in the throat of the calyx. Ovarium free, 1-seeded. Styles 2. 
Capsule valveless, membranous, covered by the indurated tube 
of the calyx. Seed one, as in Scleranthus. — Australian herbs. 
Leaves opposite, subulate. Peduncles axillary, bearing 4 brac- 
teas and 2 flowers at the apex, becoming after flowering elon- 
gated and stiff. The ovarimt), according to Forster, is some- 
times 2-seeded. 

1 M. BiFLORUM (Forst. 1. c.) stems tufted ; branches quite 
glabrous ; leaves denticulated at the base, the rest quite entire. 
1/. G. Native of Van Diemen's Land, Maria Island in New 
Holland, New Zealand, and of the Straits of Magellan. R. Br. 
prod. p. 412. Forst. comm. goett. 1789. t. 1. M. peduncul'^- 
tum, Labill. nov. hoU. 1. t. 2. Ditoca muscosa, Gaertn. 1. c. 

Tno-flon'ercd Mniarum. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1823. PI. ^ ft. 

2 M. FASCicuLA TUM (R. Br. prod. p. 412.) stems many from 
the same neck, procumbent, branched ; branches clothed with 
fine pubescence ; leaves denticulated their whole length. % . G. 
Native of Van Diemen's Land. 

Fascicled Mniarum. PI. procumbent. 

Cult. A mixture of loam, peat, and sand, will suit the species 
of Mniarum, and they may be propagated either by seeds or 
cuttings. 

II. SCLERA'NTHUS (from iTirX77pof, scleras, hard, and av- 
•5oc, anihos, a flower ; in reference to the dry juiceless calyx). 
Lin. gen. no. 562. Gaertn. fruct. t. 126. R. Br. prod. 1. p. 412. 
St. Hil. pi. libr. p. 58. Juss. mem. mus. 2. j). 387. 

Liy. SYST. Penta-Dccdndria, Digynia. Calyx 5-cleft (f. 24. 
a.), permanent, with an urceolate tube. Petals wanting. St.i- 
mens inserted in the throat of the calyx, 10 (f. 24. a.), rarely 5 
or 2. Ovarium free, 2-seeded. Styles 2 (f. 24. e.). Capsule 



FIG. 24. 



very thin, valveless, covered by the indurated tube of the calyx. 
Seed one, hanging from a long funicle, which arises from the 
bottom of the capsule, and is recurved at the apex. — Small 
herbs, witli op])ositc linear leaves, whicli are rather connate at 
the base. Flowers small, greenish white, sessile in the axils of 
the forks of the branches. 

1 S. rEKi;'NNis(Lin. spec. 580.) flowers decandrous ; lobes of 
fructiferous calyx closed, obtuse, with white and membranous 
edges. % . H. Native of Europe and the Levant, in dry sandy 
fields. In England, on high open sandy fields, rare ; as about 
Eldon, Suffolk, and plentifully near Snettingham, Norfolk ; near 
Bury St. Edmunds ; and Scotland, on a gravelly bank near For- 
far. Schkuhr, handb. t. 120. Fl. dan. t. 563. Smith, engl. bot. 
t. 352.— Ray, syn. p. 160. t. 5. f. 1. The Polish cochineal 
{Coccus Polunicus) is found upon the roots in the summer 
months. 

Perennial Knawel. Fl. July, Aug. England. PI. prostrate. 

2 S. polyca'rpus (Lin. spec. p. 581.) flowers subdecan- 
drous ; lobes of the calyx when in fruit rather spreading, and 
without any margin, acute, shorter than the tube. ©. H. Na- 
tive in sandy fields about Montpelier, but never gathered else- 
where in France ; also of Italy, according to Linnaeus. — Column, 
ecphr. 1. t. 294. It differs from .S*. dnnuus at first sight, in the 
flowers being one-half smaller ; but it is probably merely a variety 
of it. 

Many-fruited Knawel. PL procumbent. 

3 S. a'nnuus (Lin. spec. p. 
580.) flowers subdecandrous ; 
lobes of fructiferous calyx spread- 
ing, immarginate, acutish, about 
equal in length to the tube. ©. 
H. Native of Europe, the Le- 
vant, also of North America, in 
dry sandy cultivated fields ; plen- 
tiful in some parts of Britain. 
Fl. dan. 504. Smith, engl. bot. t. 
351. Knawel annuum, Scop, 
carp. p. 501. There is a variety, 
according to Leers, which has 
only 5 or 7 stamens to each 
flower. The Swedes and Ger- 
mans receive the vapour arising 
from a decoction of it into their 
mouths to cure the tooth-ache. 

Annual Knawel. Fl. July, Aug. 

4 S. hirsu'tus (Presl. del. p. 65.) flowers with 5 petals and 
5 stamens ; calyxes conniving, obtuse ; stamens equalling the 
calyx in length ; anthers hairy ; stems pubescent. O- H. Na- 
tive on Mount Etna, in the open regions. Leaves subulate, gla- 
brous. Flowers capitate. 

Hairy Knawel. PI. prostrate. 

5 S. pu'ngens (R. Br. prod. p. 412.) flowers pentandrous, 
particularly having 5 fertile and 5 sterile stamens ; lobes of fruc- 
tiferous calyx spreading; leaves subulate, triquetrous, mucro- 
nate, pungent, rough on the keel and margins. ©. ? H. Na- 
tive of New Holland, on the south coast. 

Pungent-\ea.yeA Knawel. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1826. PI. 
procumbent. 

6 S. dia'nder (Rr. Br. prod. p. 412.) flowers diandrous ; 
stamens mixed with scales ; lobes of fructiferous calyx erect ; 
leaves subulate, keeled, mucronulate, almost naked on the keel 
and margins. ©. H. Native of Van Diemen's Land. 

Diandrous Knawel. PI. procumbent. 

Cult. The seeds of these plants only require to be sown in 
the open border. None of the species are worth cultivating ex- 
cept in botanic gardens. 




Britain. PI. i foot. 



9G 



SCLERx\NTHEyE. III. Guilleminea. IV. Queria. V. Minuartia. VI. Lceflingia. 



III. GUILLEMI'NEA (in honour of John Anthony Guille- 
min, an acute French botanist, who has written on the family of 
plants called Gentiiincce, &c.). H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 
(j. p. 41. t. 518. D. C. prod. 3. p. 378. 

Lin. svst. Pcnimdria, Monogynia. Calyx 5-cleft, with a 
campanulate tube ; lobes equal. Petals wanting. Stamens 5, 
inserted in the top of the tube, opposite the calycine lobes, 
short: anthers 1-celled. Style 1, somewhat emarginate at the 
apex. Fruit an indehiscent I -seeded utricle, covered by the 
calyx. Seed hanging by a funicle, which arises from the bottom 
of the capsule. — A South American trailing herb, with opposite 
branches. Stems woolly. Leaves glabrous, oblong, opposite, 
exstipulate, but the petioles are connate at the base. Flowers 
capitate, axillary. Bracteas under each flower. 

1 G. iLLECEBRioiDEs(H. B. et Kunth, 1. c.) i;. G. Native 
of South America, near Quito, in the valley of St. Jago. 

Illecebrum-like Guilleminea. PI. tr. 

Cult. Any common light soil will suit this plant, and it may 
be propagated from cuttings or seeds. 

Tribe II. 

QLERIA'CEtE (this tribe contains nothing but the genus 
Queria). Calyx 5-parted. Petals wanting. Stamens 10, in- 
serted in the bottom of the calyx. Capsule 3-valved. Seed 1, 
nn a long funicle, which rises from the centre of the capsule. — 
Herbs, with opposite exstipulate leaves. 

IV. QUE'RIA (in honour of Joseph Quer y Martinez, M.D. 
|)rofessor of botany at Madrid ; author of Flora Espanola, 1762). 
Loefl. itin. p. 48. Lin. gen. no. 108. Lam. ill. t. 52. St. Hil. 
plac. lib. p. 58. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 387. D. C. prod. 3. 
I). 379. 

Lin. syst. Decdndria, Trigynia. Stamens 10, slender, un- 
equal, sometimes 5 of which are sterile. Styles 3, very slender. 
Capsule membranous, 1-celled, 3-valved. Seed reniform when 
mature. — Small stiff annual herbs. Leaves opposite, crowded, 
setaceous, connate, recurved at the apex. Flowers in the axils 
of the upper branches and superior leaves, sessile, solitary. 
This genus is hardly distinct from Minuartia, unless in the styles 
being 3 ; in the valves being 3, and form of the seeds, which are 
evidently solitary from abortion. 

1 Q. Hispa'nica (Lin. spec. p. 132.) ©. H. Native of 
Spain, in dry exposed places. Quer, fl. esp. 6. t. 15. f. 2. Ort. 
cent. t. 15. f. 1. 

Spanish Queria. Fl. Aug. July. Clt. 1800. PI. 1 to 2 
inches. 

■\ A doubtful species. 

2 Q. TRiciioTOMA (Thunb. in Lin. soc. trans. 2. p. 529.) ©. 
H. Native of Japan. Rubia, Tiiunb. fl. jap. p. 357. Stem 
trichotomous. Flowers racemose. Corolla cylindrical, below the 
fruit, Thunb. This plant does not probably belong to the 
order. 

Trichotomous Queria. PI. \ foot. 

Cult. The seeds only require to be sown in the open ground 
in any dry situation. 

Tribe III. 

MINUARTIE*^ (plants agreeing with Minuartia in import- 
ant characters). Paronychieae, Tribe VII. Minuartiese, I). C. 
prod. 3. p. 379. Calyx 5-parted. Petals wanting or very small. 
Stamens 3-10, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Styles 3. 
Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved. Seeds numerous, fixed to the cen- 
tral placenta. — Annual herbs, natives of the south of Europe, 
with ojiposite exstipulate leaves. 



V. MINUA'RTIA (so named from John Minuart, a Spanish 
apothecary, restorer of botany in Spain ; he constituted the 
genus Cervicina, now Pharnaccum, and is commended by Loef- 
fling). Loef. itin. p. 48. Lin. gen. no. 107. Lam. ill. t. 52. 
St. Hil. mem. plac. p. 59. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 386. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 379. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Trigynia. Sepals 5, hardly joined 
at the very base, quite entire. Petals or abortive stamens 5, 
small, alternating with the sepals. Stamens 5, opposite the 
sepals, and longer than the petals. Styles 3, filiform. Capsule 

1-celled, 3-valved. Seeds few, fixed to the central axis 

.Small annual herbs. Leaves opposite, setaceous, 3-5-nerved 
at the base, quite entire. Flowers in the forks of the branches, 
and in the axils of the upper leaves, solitary, small, sessile, or 
on short pedicels ; constituting a leafy, dense, dichotomous 
cyme. Petals bifid, or rather nectaries, (ex Loefl.) Stamens 
10, 5 abortive. (Steven.) Petals and stamens 10. (St. Hil.) 
According to several specimens examined, the stamens are 10, 
and the 5 alternate ones are sometimes converted into petals. 
The genus differs from Lceflingia in the sepals being quite 
entire, and from Queria in the fruit being many-seeded. 

1 M. campe'stris (Loefl. itin. p. 122.) flowers distinctly pe- 
dicellate, equal in length, or a little longer than the floral leaves ; 
sepals very unequal, 3 large and 2 smaller. ©. H. Native of 
Spain, in dry sandy fields. Habit almost of Bufonia. Act. 
holm. 1758. t. 1. f. 3. 

Field Minuartia. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1806, PL | to | foot. 

2 M. dichotoma (Loefl. 1. c. p. 121. t. 1. f 3.) flowers almost 
sessile, in fascicles, shorter than the floral leaves ; sepals nearly 
equal; mucrone of leaves oblique. ©. H. Native of Spain, 
on hills. Act. holm. 1758. t. 1. f. 5. Plant stiff; dusky. 

Z>(c/ioto)iOMs Minuartia. Fl. Ju. Jid. Clt. 1771. PI. -I to | ft. 

3 M. MONTANA (Loefl. 1. c. p. 122. t. 1. f. 4.) bundles of 
flowers about equal in length to the bracteas ; sepals nearly 
equal ; mucrone of leaves straight. ©. H. Native of Spain, 
Tauria, and Iberia, on dry hills. — Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 90. 

Mountain Minuartia. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1 806. PI. i to | ft. 
Cult. The seeds only require to be sown in the open ground, 
in any dry situation, in a light soil. 



VI. LCEFLI'NGIA (so named in honour of Peter Lcpfling, 
one of the disciples of LinnEcus, who travelled in Spain and 
America, and died on his travels in 1 756.). Lin. act. liolra. 
1758. p. 15. t. 1. f. 1. gen. p. 52. Lam. ill. t. 19. St. HiL 
mem. plac. lib. p. 59. Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 386. D. C. prod. 
3. p. 380. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Monogynia. Sepals 5, connected at 
the base, 3 outer ones bisetose at the base. Petals 5, small, 
conniving, inserted in the bottom of the calyx. Stamens 5, 
alternating with the petals, or 3, 2 of them being abortive ? Style 
1, trifid at the apex, or divided into 3 from the base. Capsule 
1-celled, 3-valved. Seeds numerous, fixed to the central pla- 
centa. — Small, annual herbs. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, 
margined on both sides at the base, and appendiculated, these 
appendages probably supply the place of stipulas. Flowers in 
the forks of the branches, and in the axils of the upper leaves, 
solitary, sessile. 

1 L. Hispa'nica (Lin. spec. p. 50.) flowers triandrous ; style 
1, trifid at the apex. ©. H. Native of Spain, Mauritania, 
and South of France, in dry sandy places. Loefl. itin. t. 1. f. 1. 
Cav. icon. 1. t. 94. L. prostrata, Moench. Herb clammy, pu- 
bescent. Corolla white ; petals obovate, emarginate. 

Spanish LcK^Amgi^i. Fl. Ju. Jid. Clt. 1770. Pl.^toifoot. 

2 L. penta'ndra (Cav. icon. 2. t. 148. f. 2.) flowers pentan- 
drous ; styles 3, distinct from the base. ©. H. Native along 



SCLERANTHEiE. VI. Lceflingia. CRASSULACE^. 



97 



the Mediterranean Sea, in the sand ; and of Spain, near Va- 
lentia. Perhaps sulKciently distinct from the first. 

Penlandrous Latimgia. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1820. PI. ^ toKt. 

■f Sj)ecies not sufficicnlhj known. 

3 L. Ca'spica (Gmel. syst, 1. p. 105.) plant smooth in every 
part. Found on the shores of the Caspian Sea, by Gmelin. 
Gmel. itin. 3. p. 310. t. 35. f. 1. 

Caspian Lopflingia. PI. ^ foot. 

4 L. ? RENiFoLiA (Lag. gen. ct spec. p. 2.) flowers pentan- 
drous ; leaves orbicularly reniforni, ©. H. Native of Mexico. 

Kidney-leaved La-flingia. PI. \ foot. 

Cult. The seeds only require to be sown in the open border 
in any dry lightish soil. 

Order CXIII. CRASSULA^CEiE (plants agreeing with 
Crdsmla in important characters). D. C. bull, philoni. 1801. 
no. 49. p. 1. fl. fr. ed. 3. vol. 4. p. 382. prod. 3. p. 381.— Sem- 
pervivae, Juss. gen. p. 237. — Succulentse, Vent. tabl. vol. 3. p. 
271. — Succulentac /3, Lin. ord. nat. — Crassulje, Juss. diet. 11. 
p. 369. 

Sepals from 3 (f. 25. e.) -20 (f. 30. «.), more or less united 
at the base, and therefore the calyx is many-parted (f. 26. h.). 
Petals equal in number with the sepals (f. 25. 6. f. 26. a.), and 
alternating with them, either distinct (f. 27. 6.) or united into 
a gamopetalous corolla (f. 26. a.), inserted in the bottom of 
the calyx. Stamens inserted with the petals, either equal to 
them in number (f. 25. c.) and alternating with them, or twice 
as many (f. 27. c.) ; those opposite the petals being shortest, 
and arriving at perfection after the others ; filaments distinct, 
subulate ; anthers oval, 2-celled, bursting lengthwise. Nectari- 
ferous scales several, one at the base of each ovarium sometimes 
obsolete. Ovaria of tlie same number as the petals, opposite to 
which they are placed around an imaginary axis, usually dis- 
tinct, but in some of the anomalous genera rather concrete, all 
1 -celled, and tapering into 1 stigma each, opening when ripe by 
a longitudinal chink in front, but in the genus Dimorpha on the 
back. Seeds attached to the margins of the suture, in 2 rows, 
variable in number. Albumen tliin, fleshy. Embryo straight 
in the axis of the albumen, having the radicle directed to the 
hilum. — Fleshy herbs or shrubs. Leaves entire or pinnatifid, 
without stipulas. Flowers usually in cymes, sometimes rising 
in the forks, often arranged unilaterally along the divisions of 
the cymes. 

The plants contained in this order are all remarkable for the 
succulent nature of their stems and leaves, in which they re- 
semble CdctecB, Portulucece, and certain genera of Eiiphorbiacets, 
&c. but this analogy goes no farther. Their real affinity is 
probably with Saxifrdgece, through Penthhrum, which is not 
succulent, like the rest of the genera ; and with Paronijchiece, 
through Tdlce'a, as De Candolle has remarked. 1\\ both those 
orders, the nectariferous scales of Crassuldcece are wanting. 
De Candolle observes (mem. crass, p. 5.) that there is no in- 
stance of a double flower in the order, although this might have 
been expected from their analogy in structure with Canjophijl- 
kce. Sempervlvum iectorum almost constantly exhibits the sin- 
gular phenomenon of anthers bearing ovules instead of pollen. 



These plants are found in the driest situations, where not a 
blade of grass nor a particle of moss can grow, on naked rocks, 
old walls, sandy hot plains, alternately exposed to the heaviest 
dews of night, and the fiercest rays of the noon-day sun. Soil 
is to them a something to keep them stationary, rather than a 
source of luitriment, which in tliese plants is conveyed by my- 
riads of mouths, invisible to the naked eye, but covering all 
their surface, to the juicy beds of cellular tissue which lie be- 
neath them. 

Refrigcrent and abstergent properties, mixed sometimes with 
a good deal of acridity, distinguish them. The fishermen of 
Madeira rub their nets with the fresh leaves of Sempervlvum 
glutinosum, by which they are rendered as durable as if tanned, 
provided they are steeped in some alkaline liquor. Malic acid 
exists in Sempervivum tectorum, combined with lime. — Turner, 
p. 634. 

Synopisis of the genera. 
Tribe L 
Crassula'cEjE legi'tim^. Carpella distinct, opening when 
mature by a longitudinal fissure in front (f. 26, b.). 

1 Till^'a. Divisions of calyx, petals, and stamens 3-4 (f. 
25. a. b. c.). Nectariferous scales none or very small. Car- 
pels 3-4 (f. 25. d.), constricted in the middle, 2-seeded. 

2 Bullia'rda. Divisions of calyx, petals and stamens 4. 
Nectariferous scales 4, linear. Carpels 4, many-seeded. 

3 Dasyste'mon. Sepals 3-7, filiform, unequal, hardly joined 
at the base. Petals 3-7, often 5, hardly joined at the base, 
rather revolute at the apex. Stamens 3-7 ; filaments thick. 
Carpels 3-5. 

4 Se'ptas. Calyx 5-9-parted. Petals 5-9, stellately spreading. 
Stamens 5-9 ; filaments slender. Scales 5-9, small, roundish. 
Carpels 5-9, many-seeded. 

5 Cra'ssula. Calyx 5 -parted. Petals 5, distinct. Stamens 
5 ; filaments subulate. Scales 5. Carpels 5, many-seeded. 

6 PuRGOsiA. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, imbricating at the 
base. Stamens 5 ; scales 5, emarginate. Carpels 5, gibbous 
on the outside, and flat inside, many-seeded. 

7 Globu'lea. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, bearing a waxy 
globule each at the apex. Stamens 5. Scales 5. Carpels 5. 

8 Cubto'gyne. Calyx 5-parted. Petals united into a 5- 
parted corolla. Stamens 5. Scales 5. Ovaria 5, gibbous at 
the apex, ending each in a long sublateral style. 

9 Gramma'nthes. Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla gamopetalous; 
lobes 5, rarely 6, expanded. Stamens 5-6, inserted in the tube 
of the corolla. Scales none. Carpels 5. 

10 RocHEA. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, united into a gamo- 
petalous corolla, with a spreading 5-lobed limb. Stamens 5. 
Glands and carpels 5. 

11 Kalosa'nthes. Calyx 5-lobed (f. 26. i.). Petals united 
into a 5-parted corolla (f. 26. a.), with the tube cylindrical, 2 or 
3 times longer than the spreading limb. Stamens 5, inserted 
in the tube of the corolla. Glands and carpels 5. 

12 Kalanchoe. Calyx 4-parted ; sepals hardly united at 
the base. Corolla gamopetalous, with a 4-parted, spreading 



98 



CRASSULACEiE, I. Till^a. 



border. Stamens S, adnate to the base of the tube of the co- 
rolla. Scales 4, linear. Carpels 4 ; styles filiform. 

13 Bryophy'llum. Calyx inflated before flowering, hardly 
4-cleft to the middle. Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynoiis ; 
lobes 4, acute. Stamens 8, adnate to the base of the tube 
of the corolla. Glands 4. 

14 Cotyle'don. Calyx 4-parted. Corolla gamopetalous, 
with a 5-lobed, spreadingly reflexed limb. Stamens 10, adnate 
at the base to the tube of the corolla. Scales oval. Carpels 5, 
each drawn out into a subulate style. 

15 Pistori'nia. Calyx 5 -parted. Corolla gamopetalous, with 
a 5-parted spreading border. Stamens 10, adnate their whole 
length to the tube of the corolla. Scales 5. Carpels 5, ending 
each in a long filiform style. 

16 Umbi'licis. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla campanulate, 5- 
cleft ; lobes acute. Stamens 10, inserted in the corolla. Scales 
5. Carpels 5 ; styles subulate. 

17 Eciieve'ria. Calyx 5-parted (f. 27. «.) ; sepals erect. 
Petals 5, united at the base (f. 27. 6.), thick, and erect. Sta- 
mens 10 (f. 27. c), united to the petals at the base. Scales 5. 
Carpels 5, each ending in a subulate style. 

18 Se'dum. Calyx 5-parted (f. 29. o.) ; sepals turgid, leaf- 
formed. Petals 5 (f. 29. b.), usually spreading. Stamens 10 
(f. 29. c). Scales 5. Carpels 5. 

19 Sempervivum. Calyx 6-20-parted (f. 30. a.). Petals 
6-20 (f. 30. 6.). Stamens twice the number of the petals (f. 
30. c). Scales toothed or jagged. Carpels equal in number to 
the petals. 

Tribe II. 

CrassulaVe^e anomaly. Carpels united at the base into a 
many-celled capsule. 

20 DiAMORPHA. Calyx 4-lobed. Petals 4. Stamens 8. 
Carpels 4, united at the base, opening longitudinally on the back 
or outside. 

21 Penthorum. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens 10. 
Scales wanting ? Carpels 5, united at the base into a 5-beaked, 
5-cellcd capsule, which is pentagonal at the apex, and opening 
under the beaks. Seeds small, numerous. 

Tribe I. 

CRASSUXE;E or CRASSULA^CE^ LEGI'TIM.E (this 
tribe contains the legitimate plants of the order). Carpels 
distinct ; when mature opening on the inside by a longitudinal 
fissure. 

I. TILLjE'A (so named in honour of Michael Angelo Tilli, 
M. D. F. R. S., born 1C53. Professor of Botany at Pisa;' 
author of Horti Pisani Catalogus, 1723, fol. with 50 plates. It 
contains a few rare plants, observed by him in his voyages to 
Constantinople and Tunis). Mich. gen. 22. t. 20. D. C? bull, 
philom. no. 49. p. 2. prod. 3. p. 381.— Tillae'a species of Lin. ' 

Lin. syst. Tri-Tetr/mdria, Tri-Tetragynia. Calyx 3-4- 
parted(f. 25. a.). Petals 3-4 (f. 25. b.), oblong, acuminated. 
Scales none, or very small. Carpels 3-4, somewhat constricted 
in the middle, 2-seeded. — Small, glabrous, annual herbs, inha- 
bitants of exposed sub-humid places. Leaves opposite. Flowers 




small, white, for the most part axillary. — Many of the exotic 
species may probably belong to Bullidrda. 

1 T.MuscosA (Lin. spec. 186.) FIG. 25. 
stems branched at the base, de- 
cumbent ; leaves connate ; flowers 
axillary, sessile, trifid. ©. H. 
Native of Europe in many places, 
in dry, barren, sandy, and gra- 
velly soil ; plentiful in Britain, 
on the most barren sandy heaths ; 
frequent in Norfolk and Suffolk. 
It is a troublesome weed in the 
gravel walks of Holkham. Bocc. 
mus. t. 22. Mich. gen. t. 20. 
Lam. ill. t. 90. D. C. pi. grass. 
t. 73. Smith, engl. bot. 116. 
Reich, icon. t. 191. Bocc. sic, 
t. 29. In exposed situations. 

this plant becomes reddish ; but in that state it is not the T. 
rubra of Gouan. 

Mossy Tillsea. Fl. June, Oct. Britain. PI. trail. 

2 T. SIMPLEX (Nutt. gen. amer. append, et journ. acad. 
philad. 1. p. 114.) stem erect, simple ; leaves connate, oblong- 
linear, acute ; flowers alternate, sessile ; petals 4, erect, twice 
the length of the calyx. 0. H. Native of North America, 
in humid gravelly places. 

iSJmpZe- stemmed Tillsea. PI. ^ foot. 

3 T. moscha'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 382.) stem prostrate at 
the base ; branches ascending ; leaves connate, oval-oblong ; 
flowers 4-cleft, sessile in the axils of the superior leaves. ©. H. 
Native of the Straits of Magellan, on the mountains ; and of 
the Maclove Islands. Crassula mosch^ta, Forst. in act. soc. 
goett. 9. p. 26. Bulliarda Magellanica, D. C. buU. philom. 
no. 49. 

Musk Tillasa. PI. prostrate. 

4 T. MINIMA (Miers, chil. 2. p. 530.) stems dlflTuse, branched; 
leaves minute, connate at the base, oval-oblong; flowers 4-cleft, 
crowded into whorls in the axils of the leaves, on short pedicels; 
petals 4, acuminated, shorter than the calyx ; carpels 1 -2-seeded. 
— Native of Chili, about Conception and Coquimbo. T. erecta, 
Hook et Arnott, in Beech, voy. bot. 1. p. 24. Allied to T. 
moschaia and verticilldris. 

Least Tillaea. PI. ^ foot. 

5 T. VERTiciLLA Ris (D. C. 1. c.) stciTis prostrate at the base, 
rooting ; branches ascending ; leaves opposite, oblong-linear ; 
flowers 4-cleft, crowded in whorls in the axils, some of which 
are sessile and others pedicellate. ©. H. Native of New 
Holland. Tillae'a pedunculata, Sieb. pi. exsic. nov. holl. no. 
173. but not of Smith. Petals acuminated, longer than the 
calyx. Habit almost of Illecebrum verlicillatum. 

Ferticillate-Rowered Tillasa. PI. pr. 

6 T. peduncula'ris (Smith, in Rees' cycl. vol. 35. no. 4.) 
stem erect, simple ; leaves rather connate, lanceolate, acute ; 
pedicels axillary, solitary, twice or thrice longer than tiie leaves; 
carpels truncate at the apex. ©. H. Native about Monte 
Video and Buenos Ayres, in humid places. Bulliarda Bona- 
riensis, D. C. bull, philom. 

Pediincled-fioviered Tilleea. PI. -j foot. 

7 T. rube'scens (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 43.) 
stems branched, prostrate ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, ovate, mu- 
cronate, rather fleshy, connate at the base ; flowers 4-cleft, on 
long pedicels ; petals shorter than the calyx. ©. H. Native 
about Quito, near Alansi. Flowers white. Carpels 2-seeded. 
T. connata, Ruiz et Pav. fl. per. 1. p. 70. t. 106. f a., which was 
found in Peru, about Chancay, on humid hills, appears to 
differ from Kunth's plant in the stems being rather erect. 



CRASSULACE/E. II. Buluarda. III. Dasvstemon. IV. Sei-tas. V. Crassula. 



99 



Reddish TiUjca. PI. pr. 

Cull. Sow the seeds among gravel, and keep it moist, either 
in pots or in the open ground. 

II. BULLIA'RDA (in memory of — BuUiard, author of 
Herbier de la France, 600 planches in fol. 1780, and other 
botanical works). D. C. bull, philoni. no. 49. p. 1. prod. 3. p. 
,'382. — Tillte'a species, Lin. 

Lin. syst. Tetnindria, Tetragynia. Calyx 4-parted. Petals 
4, oval or oblong, acute. Stamens 4. Scales 4, linear. Car- 
pels 4, many-seeded. — Small, glabrous, annual, subaquatic herbs. 
Leaves opposite. Flowers small, white, axillary, sessile, or pe- 
dicellate. Tlie parts of tiie flower are sometimes quinary, and 
therefore differ from Crassula in the form of the scales, and from 
Tillce'a in the many-seeded carpels, as vyell as in the number 
of the parts of the flower. 

1 B. Vailla'ntii (D. C. pi. grass, t. 74.) stem erect, dichoto- 
mous ; leaves oblong, acute ; pedicels longer than the leaves. 
©. H. Native of France, at Fontainbleau, in humid shady 
places, &-c. Vaill. bot. t. 10. f. 2. Tillse'a aquatica. Lam. ill. 
t. 90. but not of Lin. Tilke a Vaillantii, Willd. spec. 1. p. 720. 
Corolla pale flesh-coloured. Stems sometimes erect and some- 
times prostrate, generally rooting at the lower nodes. T. pros- 
trata /3, Poir. diet. 7. p. C74. is perhaps referrible to this plant. 

Faillant' s BuWiarda. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1825. PI. erect 
or prostrate. 

2 B. aqua'tica (D. C. bull. phil. no. 49.) stem erect, rather 
dichotomous ; leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers sessile, or on 
very short pedicels. ©. H. Native of Sweden, Norway, and 
Germany, in places where water stagnates. Tillce'a aquatica, 
Lin. fl. suec. no. 156. Wahl. fl. suec. no. 210. Stuck, p. 6. t. 1. 

Far. fl, prostrala (D.C. prod. 3. p. .382.) stems procumbent. 
Tillac'a prostrata, Schkuhr, in Ust. ann. 2. p. 21. t. 3. Horn. fl. 
dan. t. 1510. Stuck, p. 21. t. 3. In Hornemann's plant the 
flowers are either sessile or on short pedicels. 

/^5«a//c Bulliarda. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1816. PI. pr. 

Cult. See TiUce'a for the manner of growing these plants. 

III. DASYSTE'MON (from caavc,dasys, thick, and (TTtiiiuy, 
stemon, a stamen ; in allusion to the thick filaments). D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 382. 

Lis. svst. Tri-Heptandria, Tri-Pentagi'/nia. Sepals 3-7, 
leaf-formed, unequal, hardly united at the base, equalling the 
corolla in length. Petals 3-7, but generally 5, erect, hardly 
united at the base, and revolutely spreading at the apex. Sta- 
mens 3-7, alternating with the petals, and longer than them ; 
filaments thick ; anthers erect. Carpels 3-5. — An Australian 
herb, covered all over with scaly papulse. Root fibrous. Stem 
branched at the apex. Leaves opposite, connate, linear. 

1 D. CALYcfsuM (D. C. 1. c. mem. crass, t. 3.). Q. H, 
Native of New Holland. Crassula calycina, Desf. cat. hort. 
par. 1815. p. 187. Herb 3-4 inches long, rather ascending at 
the base, dicliotomously branched at the apex. Leaves thick, 
flattish, rather convex below. Flowers greenish-white. 

Large-calyxtd Dasystemon. PI. - foot. 

Cult. Sow the seeds of this plant thinly in pots, in gravelly 
soil. 

IV. SE PTAS (from septem, seven; the number 7 prevailing 
in the fructification). Lin. gen. 465. Haw. syn. 61. D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 383 — Crassula species of Thunb. and Willd. 

Lin. sast. Penta-Ennedndria, Penta-Enneagynia. Calyx 
5-9-parted, shorter than the corolla. Petals 5-9, stellately 
spreading. Stamens 5-9 ; filaments slender, acuminated ; scales 
5-9, small, roundish. Carpels 5-9, many-seeded. — Herbs, native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Roots tuberous, quiescent in 



winter ; tubers roundish ; fibres capillary. Stems simple, te- 
rete. Leaves of 2 opposite pairs, and the pairs sometimes 
approximate so near as to make the leaves appear in whorls. 
Flowers white, disposed in something like umbels. 'J'he habit 
of the plants is referrible to some Saxifragecc. 

1 S. CAPE'Nsis(Lin.amocn. 6. p. 87.) leaves roundish, broadlv 
crenated, tapering into the petioles ; and the base of the petioles 
is rather connate ; petals spreading. 2/ . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Andr. bot. rep. 90.— Pluk. aim. 340. 
f. 9. bad. Lam. ill. t. 276. Crassula Septas, Thunb. H. cap. 
p. 291. There are varieties of this plant, differing in the num- 
ber of the floral parts from 5-9, but generally 7 ; and with few- 
flowered or many-flowered umbels ; and with leaves more or less 
stalked, having the crenatures either simple or subcrenated. 
Flowers white or red. 

Far. fl, glohifera (D. C. prod. 3. p. 383.) umbels many- 
flowered, compound ; leaves revolute at the apex, doubly cre- 
nated. i; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Septas 
globifera, Sims, bot. mag. t. 1472. Stems red. Flowers white. 

Cape Septas. Fl. Mar. Aug. Clt. 1 774 ; /3 in 1 809, PI. | ft. 

2 S. umbe'lla (Haw. syn. p. 62.) leaves 2, united together 
into an orbicular disk, broadly sub-crenated ; petals reflexed. 
1/. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula um- 
bella, Jacq. coll. 4. p. 172. icon. rar. t. 352. Tratt. tab. t. 253. 
Leaves red beneath. Flowers 5-6-cleft, reddish. 

Umbelled Septas. Fl. July. Clt. 1800. PI. | foot. 

Cult. A mixture of sand, loam, and peat suit the species of 
this genus; and they should be watered but sparingly when not 
in a growing state. They are readily increased by separating 
the tubers of the roots. 

V. CRA'SSULA (a diminutive of cr«s««i, thick; in reference 
to the fleshy leaves and stems). Haw. syn. p. 51. D.C. prod. 
3. p. 383. mem. crass, t. 1. f. 2. — Crassula species of Lin. 
— Crassula, Haw. rev. p. 8-9. — Gomara, Adans. farn. 2. 
p. 248. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted, much 
shorter than the corolla ; sepals flattish. Petals 5, stellately 
spreading, distinct. Stamens 5 ; filaments subulate. Scales 5, 
ovate, short. Carpels 5, many-seeded. — Fleshy shrubs or herbs, 
generally natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves opposite, 
quite entire, or sub-crenated. Flowers white, rarely rose-co- 
loured. 

5 1. Latifolia (from lalus, broad, and folium, a leaf ; leaves 
broad). Shrubby. Leaves broader, flat, nilh the surface and 
margins smooth. 

1 C. arbore'scens (Willd, spec. 1. p. 1554.) stem shrubby, 
erect, terete ; leaves opposite, roundish, mucronate, fleshy, flat, 
glaucous, dotted above, glabrous ; cymes tricliotomous. (; . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. C. Cotyledon., Curt. bot. 
mag. t. 384. Jacq. misc. bot. 2. p. 295. t. 19. Cotyledon ar- 
borescens. Mill. diet. ed. 6. Flowers large, rose-coloured, 
spreading stellately. Shrub, with the leaves and habit very 
similar to those of Cotyledon orbiculata, 

Arborescent Crassula. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1739. Shrub 2 
to 3 feet. 

2 C. Portula'cea (Lam. diet. 2. (1786.) p. 172.) stem erect, 
fleshy, thick ; leaves opposite, oblique, acute, distinct, glabrous, 
shining, dotted ; cymes trichotomous. I; . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass, t. 79. C. obliqua. 
Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. (1789.) vol. 1. p. 393. Cotyledon ovata. 
Mill. diet. no. 8. C. portulicea and C. obliqua, Pers. eneh. 1. 
p. 337. C. articulata, Zucca, curt. no. 59. Flowers rose- 
coloured. Like C. Cotyledon. 

o% 



J 00 



CRASSULACE^. V. Crassula. 



Por<u/(7Cfl-like Crassula. Fl. April, May. 011.1759. Shrub 
3 to 4 feet. 

3 C. la'ctea (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. p. 496.) stem shrubby, 
terete, branched, twisted below ; leaves ovate, attenuated at the 
base, and connate, glabrous, dotted within tlie margin ; cymes 
many-flowered, panicle-formed. J? . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass, t. 37. Smith, exot. bot. 
t. 33. Sims, bot. mag. t. 1771. Jacq. schcenbr. t. 430. Thunb. 
fl. cap. p. 289. no. 45, Leaves pale green. Flowers snow 
white, stellately spreading. 

M(7/i:-coloured-fioweredCrassula. Fl. Sept. Oct. Clt. 1774. 
Shrub I to 1 foot. 

4 C. AKGE'NTEA(Lin. fil. suppl. p. 1 88.) leaves connatc, ovate, 
entire, fleshy, glabrous, silvery ; stem shrubby ; corymbs supra- 
decompound. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Thunb. fl. cap. p. 289. Flowers white ; anthers black. Stem 
a foot or more in height. Leaves obtuse, with an acumen. 

Silvery Crassula. Shrub l^ foot. 

5 C. TELEPHioiDES (Haw. rev. succ. p. 9.) stems herbaceous? 
erect ; leaves obovate-oblong, stem-clasping, minutely and punc- 
tatcly crenated below ; flowers cymose. f^ . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves 3 inches long and 18 lines 
liroad. Petals pale rose-coloured. Scales square. Habit 
almost of Scdiim Telephium, but smaller and more humble ; and 
differs in the stamens being 5. D. C. Perhaps Anacampseros, 
Burm. afr. t. 25. f 2. is referrible to this plant. 

Orpine-like Cxas%\i\a. Fl. July. Clt. 1818. Shrub 1 foot. 

§ 2. Subulares (from suhula, an awl ; form of leaves). Shruhhy. 
Leaves subulate. Haw. syn. p. 51. 

6 C. RAMOSA (Ait. hort. kew. 1. p. 390.) shrubby, glabrous, 
branched at the base ; leaves subulate, flat above, connately per- 
foliate, smooth, much spreading ; peduncles elongated, cymosely 
corymbose. tj. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Thunb. fl. cap. p. 284. Haw. syn. p. 51. according to whom it 
is nearly alh'ed to C. perfolidta. C. dichotoma, Lin. fd. suppl. 
p. 188. ex Willd. Flowers pink. 

Branched Crassula. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1 774. Sh. 2 to 3 ft. 

7 C. FRUTicuLosA (Lin. mant. p. 61.) stem shrubby, smooth; 
leaves opposite, subulate, acute, much spreading, and a little 
recurved ; peduncles solitary, subumbellate. Tj , D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers small, white, campanulate ; 
antlitrs purple. Very like C. perfoliata, according to Thun- 
berg ; but it differs in the leaves being reflexed. 

Var. P, Cafra (Lin. mant. p. 222.) stem suffruticose. 
Shrubby Crassula. Shrub 2 to 3 feet. 

8 C. revo'lvens (Haw. phil. mag. 1824. p. 188.) stem suffru- 
ticose, slender, a little branched ; branches erect ; leaves linear, 
lean, acute, revolutely reflexed, and arched, rather distant. I7 . 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers small, 
white, in dense terminal heads. Perhaps not distinct from C. 

friiticitlusa. 

Jtevolving-haved Crassula. Fl. Aug, Sept. Clt. 1820. Shrub 
I foot. 

9 C. TETRAGONA (Lin. spec. 404.) stem erect, shrubby, terete, 
leaves decussately opposite, depressed above, subulate, some- 
what tetragonal, incurved, spreading, glabrous, h . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Bradl. succ. pi. dec. 5. t. 
41. D. C. pi. grass, t. 19. Flowers small, white, nearly urceo- 
late, disposed in a pedunculate fastigiate cyme. Stems some- 
times rooting. 

Tctragunal Crassuh. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1711. Shrub 2 feet. 

10 C. biplana'ta (Haw. phil. mag. 1824. p. 186.) stem suf- 
fruticose, erect, with spreading branches ; leaves erectish, smooth, 
subulate, acute, flat on both surfaces, cliannelled beneath. Ij . 



D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like the 
following. Bracteas larger. Flowers white ; anthers reddish. 
Biplanate-leaved Crassula. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1823. Sh. 1 ft. 

11 C. AcuTiFOLiA (Lam. diet. 2. p. 175.) stem suffruticose, 
decumbent, branched, terete ; leaves opposite, fleshy, terete, su- 
bulate, spreading, glabrous ; cymes small, pedunculate. fj . D. 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass, t. 2. 
Allied to C. ietragona, but is rather more herbaceous, decum- 
bent, and rooting. Leaves usually reflexed. Flowers white. 

^cute-/e«t!ecZ Crassula. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1795. PI. de- 
cumbent. 

12 C. bibractea'ta (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 187.) plant 
effuse, decumbent, rooting ; leaves subulate, expanded, flat or 
furrowed above ; bracteas two on each peduncle. Ij . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers white ; anthers 
sulphur-coloured, but at length becoming brown. Allied to C, 
aciilifulia. 

Var. a, minor (Haw. 1. c.) plant usually rufescent ; leaves less 
furrowed above or flat, full of rufous dots beneath. 

Far. fi, major (Haw. 1. c.) greenish ; leaves usually furrowed 
above, and often dotted with brown ; branches longer than in 
var. a. 

Bibracteate Crassula. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1823. PI. I foot. 

13 C. fiucau'lis (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 188.) plant 
effusely dichotomous ; leaves spreadingly recurved, lanceolate- 
subulate, smooth, convex beneath ; branches rooting, filiform. 

$ ."! Tj . ? D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
white, disposed in a kind of cyme ; anthers yellow. Allied to 
the two preceding species. 

Thread-stemmed Crassula. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1820. PI. pr. 

§ 3. SquamuVosce (from squamulosus, covered with little scales). 
Frutescent. Leaves linear-lanceolate, rough from scaly jMpulce. 
Ham. rev. succ. j>. 11. 

14 C. sca'bra (Lin. spec. p. 405.) stem suffruticose, erect, 
terete, branched, covered with retrograde rugosities ; leaves op- 
posite, spreading, connate, linear-lanceolate, acute, scabrous, 
ciliated ; flowers corymbose, terminal. Ij . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Dill. hort. elth. t. 99. f. 1 1 7. Mart, 
cent. t. 24. Segments of flowers spreading, or a little revolute, 
white at first, but becoming at length brownish. 

6'c«6roM« Crassula. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1730. PI. li foot. 

15 C. scabre'lla (Haw. rev. succ. p. 11.) leaves linear-lan- 
ceolate, acuminated, expanded, and are, as well as the stems, 
rough from scales. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Allied to C. scabra and C. squamulbsa. Flowers white ? 

Roughish Cra&s\x\a. Fl.Ju. July. Clt. 1810. PI. i to 1 ft. 

16 C. sQUAMULosA (Willd. enum. suppl. p. 15.) tlie whole 
plant scaly from diaphanous papulae ; leaves lanceolate ; flowers 
capitate. I^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Haw. 
rev. succ. p. 11. Flowers white. Said to be nearly allied to C. 
scabra. 

Scaly Crassula. Fl. June, Jidy. Clt. 1817. PI. ^ foot. 

17 c. bullulaVa (Haw. rev. succ. p. 11.) leaves lorate-lan- 
ceolate, and are, as well as the stems, roughish from whitish 
blisters ; flowers cymose. fj . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Cotyledon, &'C. Mart. cent. t. 24. Flowers said 
to be yellow. Allied to C. scabra, according to Haworth. 

Little-blistered Crassula. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1800. Shrub 
1 foot. 

18 C. pruinosa (Lin. mant. p. 60.) stem shrubby, dichoto- 
mous ; branchlets and leaves subulate, scabrous from papula ; 
flowers corymbose. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flowers white. Leaves opposite, linear, rather connate 
at the base. Thunb. prod. p. 55. fl. cap. p. 283. 

Pruinose Crassida. Shrub 1 foot. 



CRASSULACE^E. V. Cuassula. 



101 



19 C. murica'ta (Tluinb. prod. p. 55. fl. cap. p. 283.) stem 
friitescent, erect ; branches tetragonal ; leaves connate, trigonal, 
scabrously ciliated, obtuse ; flowers subunibellate. Ij . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. It diftcrs from C. tctra- 
goiia in the stem being erect, and in the leaves being scabrous. 

Muricated Crassula. Shrub 1 foot. 

§ 4. Columniires (from columna, a column ; disposition of 
leaves on the branches). Frutcsccnt. Leaves broader, denseli/ 
imbricated along the stents and branches. Haw. syn. p. 54. 

20 C. columna'ris (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 191.) stem erect, sim- 
ple, an inch hijih ; leaves connate, roundish, glabrous, very 
closely imbricated ; flowers disposed in a roundish terminal fas- 
cicle, ^i . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. 
afr. p. 19. t. 9. f. 2. Flowers white, small, very copious. 

Co/«wn<jr Crassula. Clt. 1789. PI. | foot. 

21 C. lvcopodioi'des (Lam. diet. 2. p. 173.) stem shrubby, 
branclied, covered with leaves on all sides; leaves decussate, 
ovate, acute, smooth, imbricating in 4 rows ; flowers axillary, 
sessile, bracteolate. P^ • -D- Cr. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. C. imbricata. Ait. hort. kevv. 1. p. 393. C. muscosa, 
Lin. spec. p. 405. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 281. ex Thunb. in litt. 
Corolla small, purple at tlie base. Tliere is a variety of this 
plant having the stems naked at the base, according to Thun- 
berg. 

Club-moss-like Crassula. Shrub tr. 

22 C. ericoi'des (Haw. in pbil. mag. 1825. July, p. 30.) 
plant between erect and decumbent ; branchlets distant ; leaves 
ovate-oblong, small, flat, closely imbricated in 4 rows ; flowers 
5-10, disposed in an umbellate cyme. 1; . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. An elegant species, not allied to any 
unless perhaps to C. pyramidalis. Flowers small, snow white. 
Leaves 3 to 4 lines long. 

Heath-like Cmssula. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1820. Shrub | foot. 

23 C. vesti'ta (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 188.) leaves connate, del- 
toid, obtuse, quite entire, covered with white powder, more fre- 
quent on the upper ones ; flowers terminal, capitate. Ij . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 290. 
Stem a hand high, erectish, branched, naked at the base. Flowers 
yellow, aggregate and sessile on the branches. 

Clothed Crassula. Shrub ^ foot. 

§ 5. Pcrjilatts (from per, through, and_^/HW, a thread ; in re- 
ference to the thread-like stems). Frulescent or nearly herba- 
ceous. Leaves Jlat, broader, glabrous, connate, usually glaucous. 
Haw. syn. ]). 54. 

24 C. PKRFo'ssA (Lam. diet. (1786) 2. p. 173.) stem suffru- 
ticose, decumbent, slender, a little branched ; leaves connately 
perfoliate, roundish, and rather acute, glabrous, dotted above, 
but not ciliated ; thyrse elongated, composed of cymose pedun- 
culate opposite branchlets. J; . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. D. C. ])1. grass, t. 25. Jacq. hort. schocnbr. t. 
432. C. perfilata. Scop. del. insub. (1788) 3. p. 12. t. 0. C. 
punctata, ^lill. C. coronata, Donn, hort. cant. Flowers yellow. 

Deep-2)illcd Crassula. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1785. PI. decumbent. 

25 C. ptuKORA'TA (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 190. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 
287.) stem shrubby, erect ; leaves green, connately perfoliate, 
ovate, remote, glabrous, with cartilaginously ciliated margins ; 
thyrse interrupted. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Perforated Crassula. Shrub 1 foot. 

26 C. margisa'lis (Ait. hort. kew. 1. p. 306.) stem peren- 
nial, herbaceous, glabrous, pellucid; leaves connately perfoliate, 
roundish-ovate, ending in a recurved mucrone, flat, spreading, 
glabrous, dotted within the margin ; flowers disposed in umbel- 
late corymbs. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 



Jacq. sclicpubr. 4. t. 471. C. marginata, Thunb. prod. p. 56. 
fl. cap. 287. Stems prostrate, jointed, rooting. Leaves reddish 
beneath, quite entire, with cartilaginous margins, which are at 
first reddish, but at length becoming white from farina. Pedun- 
cles terminal, with two lateral ones, rising froin the axils of the 
upper leaves. Flowers white ; petals lanceolate, acute. The 
characters and synonymes are taken from the manuscript of the 
Prince de Salm-Dyck. 

7l/ar^inrt/-leaved Crassula. Fl. Jidy, Aug. Clt. 1774. PI. cr. 

27 C. pellu'cida (Lin. spec. p. 406.) stems nearly lierbaceous, 
flaccid, creeping ; leaves opposite, obovate, attenuated at the base, 
glabrous, glandularly toothed, crowded at the tops of the 
branches; cymes subunibellate. 1; . 1). G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. — Dill. hort. elth. t. 100. f. 119. Jacq. fragm. t. 
44. f. 3. ? Thunb. fl. cap. p. 283. Very like C. spatulala, but 
differs in being more herbaceous, in the leaves not being petio- 
late, in the flowers being a little larger, and more crowded ; the 
rest similar, according to the figure of Jacquin. Flowers pink. 

Pc//»e;f/ Crassula. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. 1732. Pl.tr. 

28 C. prostra'ta (Thunb. prod. p. 54. fl.cap. p. 282.) stems 
herbaceous, decumbent, pellucid, glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, 
acute ; flowers subumbellate. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Like C. pellucida, but differs in the form of 
the leaves. 

Prostrate Crassida. PI. prostrate. 

29 C. cENTAURioroES (Lin. spec. p. 404.) stems herbaceous, 
dichotomous, prostrate ; leaves opposite, sessile, flat, oblong- 
ovate, glabrous, punctately toothed on the margins ; peduncles 
axillary, 1 -flowered. ©. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Sims, bot. mag. t. 1765. C. pellilcida, Jacq. fragm. t. 
44. f. 3. ? Flow-ers rose-coloured, nearly like those of C. «;)«- 
tulata ; the ultimate ones somewhat corymbose. 

Cenluary-like Crassula. PI. prostrate. 

§ 6. Petiolares (from pet iolus, a leaf-stalk ; in reference to the 
leaves being stalked). Frulescent. Leaves flat, broader, pelio- 
late. Haw. syn. p. 55. 

30 C. cokda'ta (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 1. p. 396.) stem 
shrubby ; leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate, obtuse, quite en- 
tire, dotted above, glabrous ; cymes panicle-formed. ij . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass. 2. t. 121. 
Jacq. schoenbr. t. 431. Flowers reddish. Allied to C. per- 
forata. C. cordata, Wdld. spec. 1. p. 153. but the C. cordata 

of Thunb. appears to be a distinct plant, who says that his plant 
is annual, and that the flowers are solitary. Plant glaucous. 

C'orrfa/e-leaved Crassula. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1774. PI. 
prostrate. 

31 C. spatula'ta (Thunb. prod. 58. fl. cap. p. 293.) stems 
suffruticose, decumbent, branched ; leaves petiolate, roundish, 
crenated, glabrous, shining above ; corymbs panicle-formed. 
Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass. 
t. 49. C. lucida. Lam. diet. 2. p. 173. C. cordata, Lodd. bot. 
cab. t. 359. Flowers rose-coloured ; petals acute. Herb very 
smooth. 

S/M/«?a/e-]eaved Crassula. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1774. PI. 
prostrate. 

§ 7. Deltoidece (leaves resembling in figure the Greek delta). 
Plants suffrutescent. Leaves deltoid, sessile. 

32 C. deltoi'dea (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 189.) leaves connate, 
deltoid, spreading, ap])roxiniatc, glabrous, powdery, glaucous ; 
flowers corymbose, subfastigiate. ■y..?D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 288. Stem erect, 
branched, naked at the base, fleshy, half a finger in length. 



102 



CRASSULACE^. V. Crassula. 



Leaves almost like those of Mesembrydnthemiim dello'ideunu 
Corymbs few-flowered ; pedicels angular. Root fusiform. 
Z)(?/;o!(/-leaved Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

33 C. cora'llina (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 188.) leaves opposite, 
deltoid, obtuse, approximate, dotted ; flowers in umbellate 
corymbs; stems erect, dichotomously branched. Jj . Lin. !{.. 
Thunb. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. 
cap. p. 290. Stem an inch high. Leaves nearly orbicular, 
white, and powdery at the apex, 1-2 lines long, longer than the 
internodes. 

CornUine Crassula. PI. 1 inch. 

34 C. pube'scens (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 190.) leaves connate, 
ovate, acute, fleshy, villous, spreading; stem erect, branched, 
glabrous; flowers corymbose, i;. D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 285. Flowers small, white, 
according to the dried specimen. Calyx puberulous. 

Pubescent Crassula. PI. \ foot. 

§ 8. Rosulares (from rosa, a rose ; leaves spread like the 
petals in a double rose). Plants herbaceous, perennial. Radical 
leaves opposite, Jlal, disposed in a dense expanded disk, formed 
like the flower of a rose. Scapes nearly naked. Flowers 
small, glomerate ; bundles of flowers opposite. Haw. rev. succ. 
p. 13. 

Zb C. orbicula'ris (Lin. mant. p. 361.) radical leaves ob- 
long, obtuse, cartilaginously ciliated, flat, rosulate ; runners or 
f.vigs rising from the root ; scape nearly naked ; bundles of 
flowers opposite, pedunculate. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope.— Dill. elth. t. 100. f. 118. D. C. pi. grass, t. 
43. C. sedioides. Mill. diet. no. 9. Herb 4-5 inches high. 
Petals greenish white, rose-coloured at the apex. Stigmas 
purple. 

Ori/cM/ar Crassula. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1731. PI. | to | ft. 

36 C. rosula'ris (Haw. rev. succ. p. 13.) leaves radical, ob- 
tuse, minutely ciliated, flat, rosulate ; runners or twigs none ; 
scape nearly naked ; bundles of flowers opposite, pedunculate. 
i;. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like C. 
orbicularis, but differs in the plant being 3 times the size, desti- 
tute of runners, and in the flowers being 4-5-cleft and white ; it 
is, however, probably only a variety of it. 

/fosu/a/e Crassula. Fl. July. Clt. 1819. PI. i foot. 

§ 9. Glomerillce (from glomero, to heap up in a lump ; ulti- 
mate flowers). Plants herbaceous, dichotomous, annual. Leaves 
opposite. Flowers small: lower ones solitary in the forks of the 
stems, the rest glomerate. Haw. revis. succ. p. 12. 

37 C. glomera'ta (Lin. mant. p. 60.) stems herbaceous, sca- 
brous, dichotomous ; leaves linear-lanceolate ; flowers solitary 
in the forks of the stems, ultimate ones glomerate. ©. D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. grass, t. 57. C. 
scleranthoides, N. L. Burm. prod. p. 8. Habit of Sclerdn- 
thus or Valerianella. Herb hardly a finger in length. Flowers 
white. 

G/omera^efl! Crassula. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1774. PI. | ft. 

38 C. gla'bra (Haw. syn. p. 58. rev. p. 12.) stem herba- 
ceous, glabrous or rather pubescent, dichotomous ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate ; flowers solitary in the forks, idtimate ones glomerate. 
©. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. C. glomer^ta (i, 
Ait. hort. kew. 1. p. 392. Flowers white. 

C/nftrowi Crassula. Fl. June, Oct. Clt. 1774. PI. i foot. 

39 C. STRIGOSA (Lin. amoen. 6. p. 86.) stems herbaceous, 
erect, rather hispid, dichotomous ; leaves obovate, obtuse, stri- 
gose ; pedicels 1 -flowered. ©. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Lam. diet. 2. p. 174. Petals ovate, length of the 
calyx. 



Slrigose Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

§ 10. Tillivoidece (plants with the habit of Tillce'a). Small 
subaquatic glabrous herbaceous plants, having 4:-cleft flowers. 

40 C. NATANS (Thunb. prod. p. 54. fl. cap. p. 281.) stems 
erect, dichotomous ; leaves connate, linear-oblong, obtuse ; pe- 
dicels axillary, opposite, shorter than the leaves ; petals obovate, 
a little longer than the calyx. 0. B. G. Native about Cape 
Town, in ditches and other watery places. Tilla;'a Capensis, 
Lin. fil. suppl. 

Floating Crassula. PI. fl. 

41 C. ina'nis (Thunb. 1. c.) stem erect, simple, branched at 
the apex ; leaves perfoliate, ovate, obtuse ; flowers corymbose ; 
petals ovate-lanceolate, twice the length of the calyx. ©. D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Tillae'a perfoliata, Lin. fil. 
1. c. 

/)n'a;y Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

42 C. umbella'ta (Thunb. 1. c.) stem simple, erect; leaves 
on short petioles, ovate, obtuse ; flowers umbellate. ©. D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Tillae'a umbell^ta, Willd. 
spec. 1. p. 721. 

Umbellale-Rowered Crassula. PI. 

43 C. decu'mbens (Thunb. 1. c.) stem erect or decumbent ; 
leaves connate, terete, subulate ; flowers pedicellate, fastigiate at 
tlie tops of the branches. ©. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. C. Thunbergiana, Schultes, syst. 6. p. 733. The stems 
are said to be decumbent in the diagnosis, but in the description 
erect. Scales very short, red. 

Decumbent Crassula. PI. decumbent. 

f Sjyecies not sufficiently known. 
* Leaves opposite. 

44 C. necle'cta (Schultes, syst. 6. p. 722.) stems herba- 
ceous ; leaves petiolate, cordate, and are as well as the branches 
glabrous; flowers solitary. ©. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. C. cordata, Thunb. nov. act. nat. cur. 6. p. 330. 
fl. cap. p. 293. but not of others. 

Neglected Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

45 C. expa'nsa (Ait. hort. kew. l.p. 390.) stems herbaceous, 
dichotomous ; leaves semicylindrical, subulate, channelled above, 
spreading ; peduncles axillary, solitary, 1 -flowered. ©. G, 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. It is not known whether the 
leaves are opposite or alternate. 

Eic])an(led Crassu]a. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1774. PI. ^ foot. 

46 C. DiFFu'sA (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 1. p. 395.) stems 
herbaceous ; leaves oblong, attenuated at the base, crenated ; 
peduncles opposite the leaves and axillary, solitary. ©. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers pink ? The rest 
unknown. 

Z)j^use Crassula. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1774. PI. |- foot. 

47 C. subula'ta (Lin. mant. p. 360.) stem herbaceous, 
branched ; leaves opposite, terete, spreading ; flowers capitate. 
©. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Herm. lugd. bat. 
552. with a figure. Flowers white, ex Herm. and Petiv. gaz. t. 
89. f. 8. 

.SuWate-leaved Crassula. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1800. PI i ft. 

48 C. sylva'tica (Licht. in Schultes, syst. 6. p. 726.) stem 
herbaceous, dichotomous, beset with strigose hairs ; leaves obo- 
vate-oblong, with the margin and base beset with strigose hairs ; 
flowers termin.al and axillary, solitary. — Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. The rest unknown. 

Wood Crassula. PI. ? 

49 C. adsce'ndens (Thunb. nov. act. nat. cur. 6. p. 341.) 
stem suffrutescent, decumbent ; branches erect, filiform above, 



CRASSULACEiE. V. Cuassula. VI. Purgosia. 



103 



and naked ; leaves connate, triquetrous, entire, spreading, gla- 
brous ; corymb compound. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. This plant is omitted in Thunberg's flora, cap. and 
prod, and is therefore doubtful. 

Ascending Crassula. PI. decumbent. 

50 C. ? a'lda (Forsk. descr. 60. but not of Hortul.) stem sim- 
ple ; leaves opposite, crowded, sheathing, lanceolate, cartilagi- 
nously ciliated ; peduncles dichotomous ; flowers corymbose. — 
Native of Arabia, on the mountains of Hadie and Boka. Flowers 
white, 5-parted. 

/r/i(<e-flovvered Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

51 C? lineola'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 590.) stem herbace- 
ous; leaves cordate, sessile; peduncles nearly terminal, axil- 
lary, approximate, umbel-formed. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Sims, bot. mag. 17G5. Flowers yellow. Mr. 
Haworth lias placed this species between C. rctroflexa and C. 
centaurioldcs ; but C. rclrqflejca is now referrible to Gram- 
vumlhcs, and therefore this species is probably a species of 
that genus. 

Zinfrf-leaved Crassula. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1774.. PI. | ft. 

52 C. ? Agardiiia'na (Schultes, syst. G. p. 718.) stem suffVu- 
tescent, twisted, branched ; branches naked ; radical leaves 
ovate, imbricated ; cauline ones remote, alternate. I^ . D. G. 
Native of the south of Spain. According to the description this 
is a species of Sediim or Sempervlvum. 

Agardh's Crassula. PI. ^ foot. 

* * Alternifblice. The leaves being allcrnale in the following 
plants, they are probably species of Sidum. 

53 C. ? microca'rpa (Sibth et Smith, fl. grasc. prod. 1. p. 
217.) leaves oblong ; stem thickened ; capsule angular, dotted, 
mutic. ©. H. Native of the island of Cyprus, among rocks. 

Small-fruited Crassula. PI. \ foot. 

54 C? pulche'lla (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 1. p. 392.) 
leaves ovate-oblong, fleshy, reflexed ; stem herbaceous, dicho- 
tomous; flowers pedunculate in the forks; peduncles turbinate. 
©. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Haw. suec. p. 12. 
Lobes of calyx leaf- formed, spreading, 2 short, and 3 about 
equal in length to the petals, which are ovate and acute. Flowers 
pink. 

iVea< Crassula. Fl. July. Clt. 1810. PI. i foot. 

55 C. ? spa'rsa (Ait. 1. c. p. 395.) stems herbaceous ; leaves 
alternate, rather spatulate, acute, quite entire ; racemes com- 
pound. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
white ? 

^ca^ered Crassula. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1774. PI. | foot. 

N. B. Plants formerly included in the genus Crassula, but are 
ncjv to be excluded from the order. 

1 C. ? alternifolia (Lin. hort cliflT. p. 497. according to the 
figure in Burm. afr. p. 58. t. 24. f. 1.) is probably a species of 
Borraginea, and perhaps B. ciliala. 

2 C. ? tinna'ta (Lour. coch. p. 185.) is a plant far separated 
from Crassula, and most probably belonging to the order Tere- 
binthaccce. C. pinnata of Dum. Cours. is a species of Bryo- 
phijllum or Kalanchbe. The C. pinnata of Lin. fil. suppl. 191. 
is probably the same plant as Loureiro's. 

Cult. Crassula is an extensive genus of rather ornamental 
plants, and some of which are rather grotesque. A mixture of 
loam, sand, and brick rubbish, is the best soil for them. Cuttings 
root very readily if dried for a few days, after being cut off from 
the plants before being planted. The seeds of the annual species 
should be sown in pots, and when the plants have grown a little 
may be separated, and planted into other pots. All the species 



are well fitted for a dry stove, or to be placed on shelves 
erected in a green-house. 

VI. PURGO'SIA (from Trupyoc, pyrgos, a tower ; in reference 
to the disposition of the clusters of flowers). Haw. in phil. mag. 
1828. p. 184. Turgosia, Haw. rev. succ. p. 14. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Penlagynia. Calyx 5-parted, much 
shorter than the corolla. Petals 5, imbricating at the base, 
mucronulate bcncatli the apex. Stamens 5 ; filaments sul)ulate. 
Scales 5, emarginate. Carpels 5, flat inside, and gibbous on the 
outside. — Herbaceous half naked plants. Leaves for the most 
part radical. Inflorescence spicately thyrsoid. Flowers in 
whorles, almost sessile. The species are probably all biennial. 

§ 1. LingucEfolice (from lingua, a tongue, and /'(;/ji<ra, a leaf ; 
form of leaves). Leaves loralcly tongue-formed, thick, acutish. 
Haw. I. c. 

1 P. UNGU.EFOLIA (Haw. rcv. succ. p. 14.) lower leaves dis- 
tinct, opposite, tongue-formed, ciliated, pubescent ; stem leafy ; 
flowers verticillate, crowded, sessile. 1/ . or ,J . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula linguref olia. Haw. misc. 
nat. p. 175. Stem simple, a foot high. Corolla ampulla;form, 
from green to white. Perhaps only a variety of P. tomentbsa. 

Tongue-leaved Purgosia. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1803. PI. 1 foot. 

2 P. TOMENTosA (Haw. rcv. succ. p. 14.) radical leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, imbricated, bluntish, villous, ciliated ; stem 
nearly naked ; flowers verticilhite. Ij . or $ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula tomentosa, Lin. fil. suppl. 
p. 190. Stem erect, angular, villous, a foot high. Flowers 
white. 

Tomentose Vmgosia. Fl. April, May. Clt. 1790. PI. 1 ft. 

3 P. PERTu'sA (Haw. rev. succ. p. 14. in phil. mag. 1828. 
p. 185.) leaves lorate, acuminated, incurved, semieylindrical ; 
superior bracteas ovate-lanceolate, cartilaginously serrulated, as- 
cending; scape thyrsoid. $ . T>. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Crassula corymbulosa. Link, enum. 1. p. 301. 
Link et Otto, abbild. p. 39. t. 16. A'loe pertiasa. Haw. rev. 
succ. 15 and 201. Flowers white; petals erect, about equal in 
length to the stamens. 

Pertuse-leaved Vnrnosia. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1818. PI. 1 foot. 

4 P. PERTu'suLA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1828. p. 184.) leaves 
lanceolate, recurved, beset with impressed dots on both surfaces; 
upper bracteas cordate, entire ; scape panicled. ^ . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Corolla snow white. 

Impressed-dolted-lcaYedPurgOiia. Fl. Oct. Nov. Clt. 1824. 
PI. 1 foot. 

5 P. HiRTA ; radical leaves lanceolate, hairy ; stem herba- 
ceous, erect, nearly naked, rather pubescent ; heads of flowers 
verticillate. S • D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula hirta, Thunb. fl. cap. 284. Like P. spicala. Leaves 
fleshy, white, erect, acute. Flowers white. 

Hairy Purgosia. PI. 4 to 1 foot. 

6 P. CEPHALo'pHORA ; radical leaves connate, linear-oblong, 
obtuse, entire ; stem nearly naked, erect ; heads of flowers op- 
posite, pedunculate. ^ . ? D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Crassula cephalophora, Lin. fil. suppl. p. 1 90. Thunb. 
fl. cap. p. 287. Flowers white. Leaves long. 

Head-bearing Purgosia. PI. ^ foot. 

7 P. crenula'ta ; leaves connate, lanceolate, obtuse, punc- 
tately crenulated, glabrous ; stem herbaceous, erect, glabrous, 
terete ; corymb decompound. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Crassula crenulata, Lin. fil. sui)pl. p. 189. 
Thunb. fl. cap. p. 287. Flowers white. 

Crenulated Purgosia. PI. 1 foot. 



lot 



CRASSULACEiE. VI. Purgosia. 



^ 2. OvatifbllcE (from ovatus, ovate, and folium, a leaf). 
Leaves ovale, oval, or obovatc. 

8 P. ? cilia'ta ; stem suffruticose, sparingly branched, terete ; 
leaves oval, obtuse, Hattish, distinct, ciliated ; corymbs terminal. 
1/ . D. G. Native of tlie Cape of Good Hope. Crassula ciliata, 
Lin. spec. p. 405. D. C. pi. grass, t. 7.— Dill. elth. t. 98. f.ll6. 
Cilia of leaves white, cartilaginous, usually retrograde. Flowers 
cream-coloured. 

Ci/lated Pm-gosisL. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1732. PI. i foot. 

9 P. conci'nna ; leaves obovate, ciliated, rather imbricated. 
■J/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula con- 
clnna. Haw. rev. succ This is a much larger plant than the 
following, to which it is nearly allied. Flowers white. 

A^ea< Purgosia. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1818. PI. i foot. 

10 P. concinne'lla ; leaves obovate, with densely ciliated sil- 
very margins. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassida concinnella, Haw. in phil. mag. 1823. p. 381. Allied 
to P. concinna, but weaker, and -i or 5 times smaller in every part, 
densely ciliated. Leaves rather imbricated, and appearing as if 
they were disposed in 2 compressed rows. The rest unknown. 

Small-neat VmgosXa. Fl. July. Clt. 1823. PI. i foot. 

11 P. cotyle'donis ; radical leaves connate, oblong, obtuse, 
tomentose, ciliated ; stem nearly naked, herbaceous, somewhat 
tetragonal ; flowers disposed in a corymb composed of fascicles. 
1/ . U. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula coty- 
ledonis, Lin. fil. suppl. 190. Crassula Cotyledon, Haw. syn. p. 
56. but not of Jacq. Stem simple, erect, a foot high. Leaves 
an inch broad, and a finger in length, erect. Flowers white. 

Cuh/tedon Purgosia. PI. 1 foot. 

12 P. capitella'ta (Haw. rev. p. 17.) leaves connate, ob- 
long, glabrous, cartilaginously ciliated, spreading, longer than 
the internodes; flowers in whorled heads. ©. D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula capitellata, Lin. fil. suppl. 
p. 190. Thunb. fl. cap. 286. Stem glabrous, terete, erect. 
Flowers wliite, approximate, sessile. 

Headed Purgosia. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1774. PI. | foot. 

13 P. ALPESTRis ; leaves connate, ovate, acute, imbricating in 
4 rows ; heads pedunculated ; stem leafy, glabrous. 1/ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula alpestris, Lin. 
fil. supjil. p. 190. Thunb. fl. cap. 286. nov. act. nat. cur. 6. p. 
336. t. 56. f. 4. Allied to Cr&ssula montuna, but differs in the 
leaves being more acuminated, not ciliated, in the stem being 
thicker, and clothed with leaves, and in the flowers being larger. 

Alp Purgosia. PI. i foot. 

14 P. iiemisph.e'rica ; lower leaves connate, roundish, imbri- 
cated into a round heap, cartilaginously ciliated ; stem nearly 
naked ; flowers rising in fascicles from the axils, forming a pa- 
nicled spike. ©. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Cras- 
sula heniisphce'rica, Thunb. prod. p. 57. fl. cap. p. 292. Floral 
leaves very short. Flowers small, white. 

Hemispherical Purgosia. PI. A foot. 

15 P. THYRsiFLORA (Haw. rev. succ. 17.) leaves perfoliate, 
ovate, obtuse, ciliated, glabrous, erectly spreading ; thyrse 
branched, spicate. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Crassula thyrsiflora, Lin. fil. suppl. 190. Thunb. fl. 
cap. 283. Stems herbaceous, terete, erect, a span high. Flowers 
white. 

Thyrse-jloivered Purgosia. PI. \ foot. 

16 P. OBOVA'TA (Haw. rev. succ. p. 16.) leaves opposite, de- 
cussate, obovate, ciliated, full of minute impressed dots ; stem 
rather hispid ; flowers axillary, in a thyrsoid spike. $ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula obovata. Haw. 
suppl. p. 17. Flowers white. Allied to P. aloides. 

06o!ja<e-leaved Purgosia. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1818. PI. 1 ft. 



17 P. ALOIDES (Haw. rev. succ. p. 16.) stem simple, rather 
pilose; leaves ovate or spatulately lanceolate, distinct, ciliated, 
full of impressed dots ; heads of flowers axillary, constituting a 
thyrsoid spike. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula aloides, .\it. hort. kew. 1. p. 394. Petals mucronulate, 
white, with a red rib. Stem half a foot hhj,h. 

Aloe-like Purgosia. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1774. PI. i foot. 

1 8 P. puncta'ta ; stems simple, smooth ; leaves opposite, 
ovate, dotted, ciliated : lower ones oblong ; corymbs axillary, 
very short. T; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula punctata, Lin. spec. p. 406. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 2. vol. 

2. p. 193. exclusive of the synonyme of Miller, ex Haw. syn. 
p. 154. Corolla campanulate, white; limb reflexed ; anthers 
purple. 

I)otted-\ea\ed Purgosia. Fl. April, Aug. Clt. 1759. PI. 1 ft. 

19 P. RAMULiFLORA ; Stem fruticulose, beset with retrograde 
hairs ; leaves opposite, obovate, acute, rather connate, ciliated ; 
branches axillary, few-flowered ; petals lanceolate, erect, shin- 
ing at the apex. )j . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula ramullflora. Link. enum. 1. p. 301. Otto, et Link, 
abbild. p. 41. t. 17. Flowers white. Calyx and leaves usually 
reddish at the apex. 

Brancli-Jlo7vered Purgosia. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1822. Sh.i ft. 

20 P. TURRiTA (Haw. rev. succ.]). 16.) radical leaves opposite, 
connate, ovate-oblong, acute, imbricating in 4 rows, villously cili- 
ated ; stem leafy at the base ; flowers in whorls, ^ . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula turrita, Thunb. prod. 

3. p. 55. fl. cap. p. 283. Jacq. schoenbr. 1. t. 52. Stem simple, 
a foot high. Corolla pale, reddish at the apex. 

Far. fl, rosea (Haw. 1. c.) flowers red. 

Torver Purgosia. Fl. Feb. Mar. Clt. 1818. PI. 1 foot. 

21 P. barba'ta ; radical leaves opposite, connate, crowded, 
imbricated into a round heap, reticulated, bearded ; stem nearly 
naked; flowers in whorls. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Crassula barbata, Thunb. prod. p. 57. fl. cap. p. 
292. Lin. fil. suppl. 188. Floral leaves not exceeding the 
flowers. Stem glabrous, a span high. 

Bearded Purgosia. PI. \ foot. 

22 P. monta'na ; leaves connate, ovate, acute : radical ones 
approximate : cauline ones distant ; flowers in whorls, in the axils 
of the upper leaves : ultimate ones capitate. 1/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula montana, Lin. fil. suppl. 
p. 189. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 285. Stem filiform, simple. Calyxes 
ciliated. 

Mountain Purgosia. PI. |- foot. 

23 P. denta'ta ; plant glabrous, nearly leafless ; leaves al- 
most radical, petiolate, toothed, roundish-cordate ; flowers sub- 
umbellate. ^ ? D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
among rocks on the mountain called Ribekcasteel. Crassula 
dent^ta, Thunb. prod. p. 57. fl. cap. p. 293. Umbels of flowers 
radical. Peduncles shorter than the leaves. 

Toothed-\ea\ed Purgosia. PI. \ foot. 

24 P. pyramida'lis ; leaves connate, imbricating in 4 rows, 
ovate, obtuse, entire, glabrous ; heads terminal, sessile, globose. 
1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula pyra- 
midalis, Lin. fil. suppl. p. 189. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 287. nov. 
act. cur. 6. p. 336. t. 5. b. f. 3. Stems flexuous, erect, covered 
over with leaves. Leaves a line long. Said to be allied to 
Crassula muscosa. 

Pijramidal Purgosia. PI. 1 foot. 

25 P. ?de'bilis; stem herbaceous, dichotomous, straightish ; 
leaves opposite, glabrous, crowded, nearly terete, concave, pa- 
pulose ; flowers pedicellate ; petals linear. ^ ? D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassida debilis, Thunb. fl. cap. 
p. 280. 



CRASSULACEiE. VI. Pubgosia VII. Globulea. 



105 



JVeali Purgosia. PI. i foot. 

26 P. rlpe'stris ; leaves connate, ovate, quite entire, gla- 
brous, approximate, convex and carinatcd beneath ; corymbs 
trichotomous, fastigiate, supra-decompound, i;. D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula rupestris, Lin. til. 
suppl. p. 1S9. Tliunb. fl. cap. 288. Pedicels glabrous, of a 
purplish colour. Petals white. Stem erect, a hand high or 
more. 

Rock Purgosia. PI. -^, foot. 

27 P. TECTA ; leaves almost radical, connate, ovate, obtuse, 
imbricated, cartilaginously ciliated, and clothed with greyish 
powder; scajie nearly naked, filiform ; flowers sessile, capitate. 

^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula tecta, 
Lin. fil. suppl. p. 190. Thunb. fl. cap. 290. Flowers small, 
white. Scape an inch high. 

Clothed Purgosia. PI. 1 to 2 inches. 

28 P. ? MINIMA ; glabrous, nearly stemless ; leaves petiolate, 
roundish, entire ; peduncles nearly radical, 1-flowered. $. D. 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula minima, 
Thunb. prod. p. 57. fl. cap. p. 292. 

Least Purgosia. PI. | foot. 

29 P. spica'ta; radical leaves glabrous, connate, linear-subu- 
late ; stem erect, herbaceous, nearly naked ; heads of flowers 
verticillated. ^ ? D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula spicata, Lin. fil. suppl. p. 189. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 
284. Whorls of flowers sessile, many-flowered, approximate. 

Spike-Row ex e(\ Purgosia. PI. ^ to 1 foot. 

Cult. The greater part of this genus of succulent plants 
being biennial, the seeds of them should be sown in spring or 
summer, in pots fi'led with gravelly sand and loam, well drained 
in the bottom. Cuttings of them are also easily rooted, if laid 
to dry a few days after they are cut, before being planted, espe- 
cially of those species which are permanent. Brick rubbish, 
mixed with loam, is a good soil for the grown up plants. 

VII. GLOBU'LEA (from globulus, a globule or small globe ; 
in reference to the waxy globules with which the petals are 
tipped). Haw. syn. p. 60. rev. succ. p. 17. phil. mag. 1821. 
sept. p. 189. — Crassula species of Lin. and others. 

Lin. syst. Pentdndria, Pentagijnia. Calyx 5-parted. Pe- 
tals 5, erect, bearing each a waxy globule at the apex. Stamens 
5, shorter than the petals. Scales 5, short, broad, obtuse. Car- 
pels 5. — Herbs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves 
flat, rather cultrate : cauline ones few : radical ones crowded, 
opposite, not always decussate, but more or less disposed by 
pairs, in a spiral manner, about the base of the stem. Flowers 
in dense corymbs, subcapitate, small, of a pale cream colour or 
white. 

§ 1. Ciiltratce (from cultratus, made like a knife ; form of 
leaves like a pruning knife). Leaves cuneately-ohovate, cultrate. 
Stem siiffruticose. Haw. in phil. 7nag. 1824. p. 190. 

1 G. cultra'ta (Haw. syn. p. 60.) erect; leaves obovate- 
elliptic, acutish, obliquely subreflexed, connate, flatfish, shining. 

Jj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula cul- 
trata, Lin. spec. 2. p. 405. Sims, bot. mag. t. 1940. — Dill, 
hort. elth. p. 115. t. 97. f. 114. Flowers cream-coloured. 
Cu//ra<e-leaved Globulea. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1732. Sh. 1 ft. 

2 G. RAofcANS (Haw. in pliih mag. 1824. p. 27.) plant erect, 
bushy ; branches crowded, rooting downwards ; leaves lanceo- 
late-ovate, cultrate ; flowers in dense heads. f; . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. It difliers from the preceding 
in the sepals being obtuse, in the heads of flowers being more 
dense, and in the flowers being smaller. Flowers white. 

i?oo<in^ Globulea. Fl. Ju. Oct. Clt. 1823. Sh. 1 foot. 

3 G. ATROPiRPU REA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 189.) 

VOL. III. 



leaves obliquely cuneate-obovate, dark purple ; scape or flower 
bearing stem, very long, and panicled. fj . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Crassula obliciua ft, Haw. rev. succ. p. 
204. It approaches very near G. ciiltrata, but differs in the in- 
florescence. Flowers white. 

Z)a/A ;j!/r;j/e-leaved Globulea. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1823. Shrub 
I to 1 foot. 

§ 2. Linguatcc (from lingua, a tongue ; form of leaves). 
Leaves lorate, obtuse, convex beneath, or narrow tongue-formed, 
imbricating exactly in 4 rows. Stem very short or herbaceous. 
Scapes or Jloriferous stems naked. Haw. in phil. mag. 18'24: 
p. 191. 

4 G. li'ngua (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 28.) leaves elon- 
gated, lorate, ventricosely semi-lanceolate, cultrate, and arc as 
well as the calyxes ciliated. 2/.D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Leaves without dots. Flowers panicled, white ; 
anthers yellow. 

roHg!(e-leaved Globulea. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1823. PI. 1 ft. 

5 G. LiNouLA (Haw. 1. c. p. 29.) leaves rather elongated, 
ventricosely semi-lanceolate, cultrate, thin, flaccid. If . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like the preceding, 
but much smaller. 

5;««//-/o«5!ie-leaved Globulea. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1823. 
Pl.i foot. 

6 G. cAPiT.i'xA (Haw. rev. succ. p. 17.) leaves ventricosely 
lanceolate, cultrate, rather convex beneath, imbricately decus- 
sate, when young hoary. IJ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Crassula capitata, Salm-Dyck, cat. 1820. p. 14. 
but not of Lam. Very like G. obvallata, but larger, and the 
leaves are more acinaciform, usually an inch and a half broad. 

Ca;j!7a<e-flowered Globulea. Fl. June, Jul. Clt. 1819. PI. 
I' to 1 foot. 

7 G. obvalla'ta (Haw. syn. p. 60.) leaves opposite, connate, 
sublanceolate, cultrate, with cartilaginously ciliated edges : radi- 
cal ones approximate ; panicle elongated ; peduncles opposite, 
cymose. ^2 • or ll- D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Trew. pi. rar. 1. t. 11. Crassula obvallata, Lin. mant. p. 61. 
D. C. pi. grass, t. 61. Crassula obfalcata and obvallaris, Hortul. 
Flowers white. 

Guarded-leaved. Globulea. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1795. PI. | ft. 

8 G. cane'scens (Haw. syn. p. 61.) leaves all radical, decus- 
sately imbricated, ciliated, lorately lanceolate, bent, cultrate, 
canescent. 7^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Crassula canescens, Schultes, syst. 6. p 734. An intermediate 
species between G. obvallata and G. mtdicauUs. 

Canescent G\oh\x\ea.. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1800. PI. i foot. 

§ 3. Angustdtce (from angustus, narrow ; leaves). Leaves 
linear, semi-terete, furrowed, or terete. Stems herbaceous, tufted. 
Scajies leafless. Haw. in pihil. mag. 1824. p. 191. 

9 G. nudicau'lis (Haw. syn. p. 61.) stemless; leaves radical, 
crowded, rosulate, semi-terete, subulate, acute, rather pubescent; 
scape nearly naked ; heads of flowers somewhat verticillate, 
glomerated at the apex of the scape. %. D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula nudicaiilis, Lin. spec. p. 
405. D. C. pi. grass, t. 132.— Dill. hort. elth. p. 116. t. 99. 
f. 115. Flowers white. 

Naked-stemmed G\oh\x\caL. Fl. May, Sept. Clt. 1732. PI. 
I to I foot. 

10 G. sulca'ta (Haw. rev. p. 18.) stemless ; leaves incurved, 
subulate, semi-terete, deep green, shining, broadly channelled. 
■2i. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like G. 
nudicauUs, but differs in being glabrous, and in the leaves being 
broadly furrowed above. 

Fi/cronerf-leaved Globulea. Fl. Ju. Sept. Clt. 1818. Pl.i ft. 



106 



CRASSULACE^. VII. Globulea. VIII. Curtogyne. IX. Grammanthes. 



§ 4. LortitcE (from loratus, lorate ; shape of leaves). Leaves 
lorate, narrowest at the apex, convex beneath, tufted, imbricating 
in 4 rows. Stems herbaceous. Scapes leafy. 

11 G. impre'ssa (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 189.) plant 
stemless ; leaves lorately-lanceolate, green, full of impressed 
dots ; dots large, scattered, numerous. 1/ . D. G. Native of 
tlic Cape of Good Hope. Leaves caespitose, decussate, rather 
ciliated at the hase. Flowers small, pale. 

Far. ji, minor (Haw. 1. c.) smaller ; dots on leaves more ob- 
solete. 

/wprfMC(i-dotted Globulea. Fl. Aug. Sept. Cit. 1820, PI. |ft. 

12 G. panicula'ta (Haw. in phil. mag. 1825. p. 29.) leaves 
lorate, acuminated, green, beset with minute impressed dots ; 
branches of panicle spike-formed. %. D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Plant stemless, smooth. Leaves convex 
beneath and channelled above, with cartilaginously sub-ciliated 
margins. Flowers snow white ; anthers yellow. 

Panicled-^oviexeA Globulea. Fl. Jul. Clt. 1823. PI. ^ to | ft. 

13 G. HispiDA (Haw. 1. c. p. 30.) leaves crowded, lorate, 
acuminated, convex beneath, hispid ; stem suffruticose, hispid. 
I; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers white. 

Hispid Globulea. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1823. PI. A foot. 

§ 5. Stibulatce (from stibula, an awl; shape of leaves). Leaves 
subulate, fleshy, faltish above. Stems suffruticose, branched. 
Flowers disposed in dense, cymose, terminal heads. Haw.inphil. 
mag. 1824.^. 191. 

14 G. MESEMBRYANTHEMOIDES (HaW. 1. C. p. 190.) StCmS Suf- 

fruticose, bushy, erect ; leaves subulate, and are as well as the 
branches, branchlets, and calyxes hispid. H . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers glomerate, in dense fasci- 
cles, cream-coloured. 

Car. ft; plant a little tsller ; flowers not so crowded. 

Fig-marigold-like G\ohu\ea. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1820. PI. 
I to I- foot. 

15 G. subinca'na (Haw. 1. c.) stem suffruticose, erectly de- 
cumbent ; leaves semiterete, subulate, acute, a little incurved, 
and are as well as the branchlets covered with soft hoary down. 
Jj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers white. 
There are decumbent and erect varieties of this plant. 

Hoaryish G\ohu\ea. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1823. PL | foot. 

16 G. MOLLIS (Haw. 1. c. p. 191.) leaves semi-cylindrical, 
acute, gibbous below, smooth, erectish, finely tomentose ; cymes 
terminal, compound. T^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Crassula mollis, Lin. fil. suppl. p. 189. Thunb. fl. cap. 
p. 284. Stem frutescent, angular, a foot high, simple, erect. 
Leaves somewhat triquetrous, and therefore it is probably a 
distinct genus according to Haworth. Flowers white. 

Soft Globulea. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1774. Shrub 1 foot. 

Cult. Globulea is a very pretty genus of succulent plants. 
Sandy loam and brick rubbish is a good soil for them ; and the 
pots should be well drained. Cuttings root easily if laid to dry 
a few days after cutting off; before they are planted, to dry up 
the wound, that they may not rot. A good situation for the 
plants is on the shelves of a greenhouse. 

VIII. CURTO'GYNE(i,uproe,AMj-;os, gibbous, and yu)'r;,g')/jip, 
a style, in botanical language ; in reference to the gibbous ovaria). 
Haw. rev. succ. p. 8. D. C. prod. 3. p. 392. 

LiN.SYST. Pentandria, Pcntagynia. Calyx 5-parted, much 
shorter than the corolla. Petals 5, united at the base into 5- 
parted corolla. Stamens 5. Scales 5, short. Ovaria 5, terete- 
oblong, gibbous at the apex, ending each in a long sublateral 
style. — Subshrubs, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves 
opposite, flat, rather fleshy, cartilaginously ciliated, ovate. In- 



florescence disposed in umbellate cymes. Flowers white. — This 
is an intermediate genus between Crassula and Rochea. 

1 C. unda'ta (Haw. rev. p. 8.) leaves oblong, or ovate- 
tongue-shaped, expanded : upper ones waved. Tj . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Curtogyne dejecta, D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 392. Crassula dejecta, Jacq. schocnbr. t. 433. 
Crassula undata, Haw. suppl. 19. Stems much branched, weak. 
Petals snow white, spreading ; anthers exserted, purple, but at 
length blackish. 

JFayy-leaved Curtogyne. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1818. PL 
decumbent. 

2 C. undula'ta (Haw. rev. p. 9.) leaves connate, ovate, ex- 
panded, cartilaginously crenated : superior ones ovate-elliptic, un- 
dulately incurved ; stems dichotomous. ^2 • D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula undulata. Haw. syn. p. 53. 
Similar to the first species, but differs in all the parts being 
much smaller and more branched. Flowers white. 

t/nfMa<e-leaved Curtogyne. FL Aug. Clt. 1797. Sh.| ft. 

3 C. UNDOSA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1827. p. 184.) leaves ovate- 
tongue-shaped, curled : those of the flowering branches retro- 
flexed. Tj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Waved-\ea.veA Curtogyne. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1824. Sh. 1 ft. 

Cult. The culture and propagation of the species of this 
genus are the same as that recommended for Globulea, above. 
A pretty succulent genus. 



IX. GRAMMA'NTHES (from ypafifia, gramma, a writing, 
and av6oQ, anthos, a flower ; in consequence of the segments 
of the corolla having some supposed resemblance to the letter 
V marked on them ; hence also its synonymous name Vaudn- 
thes). D. C. prod. 3. p. 392. mem. crass, t. 1. f. G. Vauanthes, 
Haw. rev. p. 18. — Crassula species of Lin. and others. 

Lin. syst. Pentandria, Pentagynia. Calyx campanulate, 
5-cleft, erect. Corolla gamopetalous, having the tube the length 
of the calyx ; and the lobes 5-6, oval, expanded. Stamens 5-6, 
alternating with the lobes, inserted in the tube of the corolla, 
and inclosed within it. Scales wanting. Carpels 5. — Herbs 
annual. Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, remote, flat, sessile. 
Flowers disposed in cymose corymbs. 

1 G. cHLORiEFLORA (Haw. 1. c.) Icavcs oblong. ©. D. 
G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Herm. lugd. bat. 
p. 553, with a figure. Crassula retroflexa, Thunb. fl. cap. 
p. 282. but not of Meerb. Crassula dichotoma, Lin. amccn. 6. 
p. 86. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 1. p. 392. Pedicels lateral. 
F'lowers yellow. The segments of the corolla elegantly marked 
with the inverted letter V. in red. 

Far. ft ; flowers orange-coloured. Crassula retroflexa, Ait. 
hort. kew. ed. 2. vol. 2. p. 194. Haw. syn. p. 57. 

Chlora-flowered Grammanthes. Fl. Jul. Clt. 1774. PL -i ft. 

2 G. GENTiANOiDEs (D. C. prod. 3. p. 3d3.) leaves ovate- 
oblong. ©. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Cras- 
sula gentianoides. Lam. diet. 2. p. 175. — Pluk. mant. 89. t. 415. 
f. 6. Flowers pale blue, ex Pluk. and Lam. but the flowers are 
more likely yellow, and have become bluish on drying. Perhaps 
sufficiently distinct from the preceding. 

Gentian-like Grammanthes. PL 4 foot. 

Cult. Sow the seeds thinly in pots filled with a mixture of 
gravelly sand or lime rubbish and loam, draining them well with 
sherds. The species are singular succulent plants. 

X. RO'CHEA (in honour of M. de la Roche, author of a 
monograph on the genus Eryngiuin, &c.). D. C. pi. grass, no. 
103. prod. 3. p. 393. mem. crass, t. 1. f. 3. Larochea, Pers. 
ench. no. 753. Roem. et Schultes, syst. no. 1255. Haw. syn. 
p. 50. 



CRASSULACEjE. X. RociiEA. XI. Kalosanthes. 



107 



Lin. syst. PenU'tndr'ia, Pcntagijma. Calyx 5-lobe(l. Pe- 
tals 5, unileil into jramopctaloiis liypociateriform corolla ; with 
a short tube, equal in length to the spreading limb, or shorter 
than it. Stamens 5, alternating with the petals, a little exserled. 
Glands and carpels 5. — Tall, fleshy, simple, succident shrubs. 
Leaves opposite, connate at the base, thick, white. Flowers 
disposed in terminal corymbs, without any bracteas. 

1 R. falca'ta (D. C. pi. grass, t. 103.) leaves rather con- 
nate, thick, glaucous, oblong, bluntish, bent down in the form of 
a sickle. t;.D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. La- 
rochea faleata, Haw. syn. p. 50. Tratt. thes. t. 20. Crassula 
falcuta, Willd. enum. p. 3H. Sims, bot. mag. t. 2085. Cras- 
sula retroflexa, Meerb. with a figure. Crassula obliqua, Andr. 
bot. rep. p. 41 1. exclusive of the synonyms. Crassula Svvel- 
lingrebliana and Cr. dccussata, Hort. gall. Flowers scarlet, 
with the tube about 4 lines long, forming a large, dense, terminal 
corymb. 

I'ar. /3, minor (Haw. rev. succ. p. 3.) all parts of the plant 
smaller. 

SkkhAeaveHi Rochea, Fl. Ju. Sept. Clt. 1795. Sh. 3 to 8 ft. 

2 R. PERKOLiA^TA (Haw. rev. p. 6. under Larbchea) leaves 
connate, lanceolate, acuminated, rather channelled above, convex 
beneath, of a greenish glaucous colour. I^ . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula perfoliata, Lin. spec. 404. 
Haw. syn. p. 51. Flowers scarlet, disposed in large, terminal 
corymbs. Leaves said to be ciliated. 

Jar. /3, nlbi/ldra (Haw. 1. c.) flowers white. Crassula perfo- 
liata, D. C. pi. grass, t. 13.— Dill. hort. elth. f. 113. Mill. fig. 
t. 108. Comm. prsel. t. 23. without any flower, and is there- 
fore referrible to A^loe ■pcrtusa, Haw. in Lin. trans. 7. p. 25. 

Perfoliate-\ea\e& Rochea. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1700. Sh. 
3 to 6 feet. 

3 R. ALBiFLORA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 393.)leavesdistinct, ovate, 
acuminated, spreading, cartilaginously ciliated. Ij . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula albiflora, Sims. bot. 
mag. t. 2391. Flowers white, disposed like those oi R. faleata, 
but larger than those of R. perfoliata. Anthers blackish, and 
a little more exserted than those of the other species. 

n7ii/e-/on>ererf Rochea. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1800. Shrub 
2 to 3 feet ? 

Cult. Large, succulent plants, elegant when in flower. Their 
culture, propagation, and treatment are the same as that recom- 
mended for Gtobulea, p. 106. 



XL KALOSA'NTHES (from kuXoc, kales, beautiful, and 
avdos, ani/ios, a flower ; flowers elegant). Haw. rev. succ. 
1821. p. 6. but not of Blume. — Dietrichia, Tratt. tab. t. 449. 

arch. gew. (1812.) no. 449. but not of Rseusch Rochea, sect, 

2. Franciscea, D. C. prod. 3. p. 393. 

Lin. svst. Pentdndria, Pentagijnia. Calyx 5-lobed (f. 26. 
a.). Petals 5, united into a gamopetalous hypocratrilbrm co- 
rolla (f. 26. a.), with a cylindrical tube 2 or 3 times longer than 
the spreading limb (f 26. a.). Stamens 5, alternating with the 
petals ; anthers in the throat of the tube of the corolla. Glands 
and carpels 5. — Succulent shrubs. Leaves opposite, oval, or 
oblong, connate, flat, cartilaginously ciliated. Flowers disposed in 
cymose umbels or heads, involucrated with numerous bracteas. 

1 K. coccJNEA (Haw. rev. p. IS.) leaves connate and sheath- 
ing at the base, ovate-oblong, acutish. Pj . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Larochea coccinea. Haw. syn. p. 50. 
Crassula coccinea, Lin. spec. Curt. bot. mag. t. 495. Dietri- 
chia coccinea, Tratt. thes. t. 19.— Comm. rar. t. 24. Bradl. 
succ. t. 50. Burm. afr. t. 23. f. 1. Flowers scarlet; tube an 
inch long. According to Breyn. prod. 3. t. 20. f. 1. there is a 
variety with flesh-coloured flowers ; and according to Bradl. succ. 



Fl. Mar. Sept. Clt. 
FIG. 26. 



t. 50. and Haw. rev. p. 8. there is a variety with white flowers, 
but in the gardens it is not to be found but with scarlet flowers. 
.S'car/(7-flowered Kalosanthes. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1710. 
Shrub 1 to 3 feet. 

2 K. ME"DiA(Haw. rev. p. 7.) leaves oblong-lanceolate, con- 
nate, stem-clasping ; flowers variable in colour. Jj . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Rochea media, D. C. prod. 
3. p. 394. 

71/«/(//e Kalosanthes. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1810. Shrub 1 ft. 

3 K. VERSICOLOR (Haw. rev. p. 7.) leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute, connate and sheathing at the base ; stem erect, branched ; 
flowers in umbellate heads. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope, on the Table Mountain. Crassula versicolor, 
Burch, ex Ker. bot. reg. t. 320. Rochea versicolor, D. C. prod. 
3. p. 394. Flowers about the size of those of A', coccinea, having 
the tube white, and the segments of the limb oval, white in the 
middle, edged with scarlet. Calyx as long as | of the tube of 
the corolla. 

Partij-coloured-Qovfered Kalosanthes. 
1817. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

4 K. ODORATissiMA (Haw. rcv. 
p. 7.) leaves linear-lanceolate, 
gradually acuminated, connately 
stem-clasping ; flowers in umbel- 
late heads ; segments of the co- 
rolla oblong, acutish. Ij . D. G. j 
Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Crassula odoratissima, 
Andr. bot. rep. t. 26. Jacq. hort. 
schcenbr. t. 434. Larochea odo- 
ratissima. Haw. syn. p. 51. Die- 
trichia odoratissima, Tratt. Ro- 
chea odoratissima, D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 394. The flowers are yellow, 
according to Andrews ; yellow- 
ish, Haworth ; but witli red claws 
and white lamina, according to 
Jacquin ; they have the scent of those of Pohjdnlhus tuberosits, 
or lube-rose. 

far. ft, 6lba (D. C. prod. 3. p. 394.) flowers white. Ij . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula capitata, Lodd. 
bot. cab. t. 1029. Leaves less ciliated, according to the figure, 
than those of the species. 

Sweet-scented Kalosanthes. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1793. Sh. 1 ft. 

5 K. BicoLOR (Haw. rev. p. 7.) flowers capitate, sessile, yel- 
low, and scarlet. I? . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Very like the preceding species, but larger and more rigid, and 
the leaves are more acute. 

7'Ho-co/o«/-erf-flowered Kalosanthes. Fl.Ju.Jul. Clt. 1810. 
Shrub 1 foot. 

6 K. flaVa (Haw. syn. p. 50. under Laroc/iea) leaves con- 
nate, sheathing, smooth, approximate, linear, thick, acute. 
1^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. t. 
23. f. 3. Pluk. aim. t. 314. f. 2. Crassula fliva, Lin. mant. 
p. 60. Flowers yellow, disposed in a panicled corymb. 

FeZ/ow-flowered Kalosanthes. Shrub 1 to 2 feet ? 

7 K. CYMOSA (Haw. rev. p. 7.) leaves connate, sheathing, 
linear ; cymes terminal ; stem shrubby. ^2 . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Crassula cymosa, Lin. mant. 222. C. 
capitata. Lam. diet. 2. p. 171. Larochea cymosa. Haw. syn. p. 
50. Flowers red. 

Cymose-Howered Kalosanthes. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1800. PI. ^ ft. 

8 K. jasmi'nea (Haw. rev. p. G.) leaves lanceolate, sessile, 
bluntish ; flowers few, capitate ; steins sufTruticose, decumbent. 
Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula jas- 
miniflora, Haw. Crassula jasminea, Sims, bot. mag. 2178. 

p 2 




108 



CRASSULACE/E. XI. Kalosanthes. XII. Kalanchoe. 



Lodd. bot. cab. 1040. Crassula obtusa, Haw. suppl. p. 16. 
Rochea jasminea, D. C. prod. 3. p. 394. Flowers white at first, 
but becoming reddish as they fade, very like those of the 
common jasmine, scentless. Tube of corolla almost 3 times 
longer than the calyx. Heads containing 2-4 flowers. 

Jasmine-RoweTed Kalosanthes. Fl. April, May. Clt. 1815. 
Shrub decumbent. 

9 K. EICON ve'xa (Haw. in phil. mag. 1824. p. 185.) leaves 
narrow-linear, distinctly convex on both surfaces. T; . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula biconvexa, Haw. 
misc. p. 175. syn. 53. Rochea biconvexa, D. C. prod. 3. p. 
394. Flowers white ? 

Z)oMi/e-conrex-leaved Kalosanthes. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1823. 
Shrub i to 1 foot. 

10 K. FAscicuLA'Ris(Schultes, syst.C. p. 709. under Larochea,) 
leaves connately sheathing at the base, linear-lanceolate ; flowers 
in fascicles ; segments of the calyx lanceolate, acute, ciliated. 
T; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Crassula fasci- 
cularis. Lam. diet. 2. p. 171. Leaves glabrous, canilaginously 
ciliated. Corolla almost as in A', coccinea, but is a little 
shorter. 

/Vi^c/cW-leaved Kalosanthes. Shrub 1 to .? feet. 

Cult. Elegant succulent shrubs, worth cultivating in every 
collection for the beauty of their flowers. The culture, propa- 
gation, and treatment they require are the same as that recom- 
mended for Globulea, p. 106. 

XII. KALANCHO'E (Chinese name of one of the species). 
Adans. fam. 2. p. 248. D. C. pi. grass, no. 64. D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 394. Haw. in phil. mag. 1829. p. 301. — Calanchoe, Pers. — 
Vereia, Andr. bot. rep. t. 21. V^rea, Willd. 

LiN. sYST. Ocldndria, Tetragynia. Calyx 4-parted (rarely 
5-parted) ; sepals united only at the very base, lorate, acute, 
spreadingly recurved at the apex. Corolla gamopetalous, hypo- 
crateriform with an obversely clavate tube, and a 4-parted 
(rarely 5-parted) spreading limb. Stamens 8, 4 of which are 
adnate to the tube, nearly to the middle, the other 4 almost to 
the apex. Scales 4, linear, but almost obsolete in the A', varians. 
Carpels 4, continuous, with the filiform styles. — Succulent sub- 
shrubs, from 1 to 2 feet high, erect, a little branched. Leaves 
opposite, fleshy, more or less irregularly impari-pinnate, or 
ovate, toothed or serrated, and often of a glaucous hue. Flowers 
disposed in loose cymose terminal panicles, yellow, or rufescent, 
rarely white, scentless. This is a very natural genus. 

* Leaves pinnatifid, 

1 K. ceratophy'lla (Haw. rev. p. 23. phil. mag. 1. c.) leaves 
pedately bipinnatifid, deeply and broadly toothed, pale green; 
stem branclied. h . D. S. Native of China. Flowers yellow. 
Braan. icon. chin. t. 9. 

Horn-leiived Kahnchoe. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

2 K. lacinia'ta (Haw. syn. p. 111.) leaves simply pinnatifid, 
glaucous ; segments deeply and broadly toothed. ^2 • D- S. 
Native of Java, Moluccas, and Mauritius; and of Egypt. D.C. 
pi. grass, t. 100. Planta anatis, Rumph. amb. 5. t. 95. Coty- 
ledon lacinikta, Lin. spec. 1. p. 615 Weinm. phyt. t. 435. 

Flowers yellow. 

Jaggcd-\eaved Kahnchoe. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1781. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

* * Leaves simple ; hut in K. varians some of them are tri- 
vuspidatc. 

3 K. varians (Haw. in phil. mag. 1829. p. 302.) smooth, 
glaucous ; leaves oval, broadly toothed : upper ones sometimes 



tricuspidate. T; . D. S. Native of the East Indies. Flowers 
yellow, sometimes 5-cleft. 

Varying Kalanchoe. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. ? Shrub 2 feet. 

4 K. crena'ta (Haw. syn. p. 109.) leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
broadly toothed, crenated ; crenae usually double. 5j . D. S. 
Native of Sierra Leone. Kalanchoe Verea, Pers. ench. 1. p. 
446. Vereia crenata, Kennedy in Andr. bot. rep. 1. t. 21. 
Cotyledon crenata, Sims, in bot. mag. 1436. Vent. malm. t. 49. 
Cotyledon V^rea, Jacq. schoenbr. t. 435. — Pluk. aim. t. 228. f. 
3. Flowers yellow. 

CVenaierf-leaved Kalanchoe. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1793. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

5 K. AcuTiFLoRA (Haw. syn. p. 109.) leaves broad-lanceolate, 
crenated, glabrous, thick ; segments of attenuated corolla acute. 

T^ . D. S. Native of the East Indies. Vereia acutiflora, Ken- 
nedy in Andr. bot. rep. t. 560. Flowers whitish. 

^c«te-/on'ercd Kalanchoe. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1806. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

6 K. lanceoea'ta (D. C. prod. 3. p. 395.) leaves lanceo-. 
late, crenated at the apex ; stem, peduncles, calyxes, and corol- 
las, villous ; cymes panicled. Tj . D. G. Native of Arabia. 
Cotyledon lanceolata, Forsk. desc. p. 89. Flowers said to be 
reddish yellow, that is, probably brownish. 

ianceo/a/e-leaved Kalanchoe. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

7 K. Brasilie'nsis (St. Hil. fl. bras. 2. p. 196.) puberulous ; 
lower leaves roundish : middle ones obovate-lanceolate : upper 
ones linear ; all crenately serrated ; cymes dense ; lobes of co- 
rolla very acute. lo . D. S. Native of Brazil, near Rio Ja- 
neiro by the sea side. Corolla with a yellow tube, and a rose- 
coloured limb. This plant seems to be an exception from the 
exciting and acrid properties peculiar to the rest of Crassulacece, 
it being used by the Brazilians in their domestic medicine. 

Brazilian Kalanchoe. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

8 K. alte'rnans (D. C. prod. 3. p. 3^J5.) leaves roundish- 
spatulate, quite entire; panicles glabrous. I7 . D. G. Native 
of Arabia, on mountains. Cotyledon alternans, Vahl. symb. 2. 
p. 51. but not of Haw. Cotyledon orbiculata, Forsk. cat. arab. 
p. 112. Segments of corolla reddish yellow, that is, probably 
brown. 

Alternating Kalanchoe. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

9 K. rotundif6lia (Haw. in phil. mag. July, 1825. p. 31.) 
plant straight and slender ; leaves thick : lower ones roundish : 
upper ones obovate, and almost entire ; flowers small. ^ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers rufescent or yellow. 

Round-leaved Kalanchoe. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

10 K. .iEcYTTi^ACA (D. C. pi. grass, t. 64. prod. 3. p. 395.) 
leaves obovate-spatulate, crenated : lower ones obtuse, and rather 
concave : upper ones acute ; cyme a crowded panicle. Tj . D. 
G. Native of Egypt, on Mount Melhan. Cotyledon Integra, 
Medik. comm. pal. 3. p. 200. t. 9. Cotyledon nudicaiilis, Vahl. 
symb. 2. p. 59. Cotyledon deficiens, Forsk. descr. p. 89. 
Flowers orange-coloured. 

Egyptian Kalanchoe. Fl. Jidy, Aug. Clt. 1820. Sh. 1 to 2 ft. 

11 K. spatula'ta (D. C. pi. grass, t. 65.) leaves obovately- 
spatulate, crenated, glabrous : lower ones obtuse : upper ones 
acute ; cymes panicled, loose. I^ . D. G. Native of China. 
Cotyledon hybrida, Hort. par. Cotyledon spatulata, Poir. suppl. 
2. p. 373. Flowers yellow. 

Spatulatc-\ea\f:A Ka\anc\\oe. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1820. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

Cult. The species of Kalanchoe being succulent, require very 
little water unless when growing freely ; and the pots in which 
they are grown ought to be well drained with sherds. A mix- 
ture of loam and sand appears to be the best soil for them. The 
species are easily increased by cuttings. A leaf taken off any 



CRASSULACEiE. XIII. Bryophyllum. XIV. Cotyledon. 



109 



of the species, and laid on the pot of mould, or on a tan-bed, 
will shoot out young plants from the notches on the edges of the 
leaf. 

XIII. BRYOl'HY'LLUM (from /3pvw, bryo, to sprout, and 
fvWov, phijUon, a leaf; plants sjiring from the notches on the 
edges of the leaves when taken off' the plant, and placed in a moist 
situation). Salisb. par. 3. D. C. prod. .S. p. 395. — Crassoiivia, 
Comm. mss. — Physocalycium, Vest, in fl. 1820. p. 409. — Coty- 
ledon species. Lam. — Calanchoe species, Pers. 

Lin. syst. Octindria, Tetragijnia. Calyx inflated, bladdery 
before flowering, hardly 4-cleft to the middle ; lobes 4, valvate. 
Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynoiis, having a long cylindrical 
tube, which is bluntly tetragonal at the base ; and the lobes of 
the limb triangular and acute. Stamens 8, adnate to the base of 
tlie tube. Glands 4, oblong. — A fleshy, erect, branched, gla- 
brous shrub. Leaves opposite, thick, petiolate ; some impari-pin- 
nate, with one or 2 pairs of segments, the terminal segment large ; 
others solitary, all ovate and crenated ; crena; bearing an 
opaque dot in each, which is easily made to evolve into a plant. 
Cymes panicled, terminal. Flowers yellowish red, or green and 
red. Calyx almost like that of Silhie wftata. 

1 B. CALYCiNUM (Salisb. 1. c.) Ij. D. S. Native of the Mo- 
luccas and the Mauritius. Sims, bot. mag. 1409. herb. amat. t. 
317. Crassoiivia floripendula, Comm. mss. Cotyledon pinnata. 
Lam. diet. 2. p. 141. Calanchoe pinnata, Pers. encli. 1. p. 
446. Cotyledon calyculata, Soland. in herb. Banks. Coty- 
ledon rehizophylla, Roxb. Cotyledon calycina, Roth, nov. 
spec. 217. 

Large-calyxed Bryophyllum. Fl. April, July. Clt. 1806. 
Shrub 2 to 3 feet. 

Cult, See Kalanchbe above for culture and propagation. 

XIV. COTYLE'DON (from kotvXt), kotyle, a cavity ; cup- 
like leaves of some species). D.C. bull. phil. 1801. no. 49. p. 1. 
prod. 3. p. 396. mem. eras. t. 1. f. 7. Cotyledones Capenses, 
Lin. Burm. Haw, &c. 

Lin. sy'st. Decandria, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted, much 
shorter than the tube of the corolla. Corolla gamopetalous ; 
tube ovate-cylindrical ; limb 5-lobed, spreadingly reflexed or 
revolute ; lobes obtuse. Stamens 10, adnate to the base of the 
tube of the corolla : the upper part free, exserted or almost in- 
closed. Scales oval. Carpels 5, continuous, with the styles, 
which are subulate.- — Fleshy slirubs, native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Leaves usually scattered. Flowers loose, panicled, pur- 
plish or orange-coloured. This genus has been divided into 
sections from the form of the corolla by the Prince Salm-Dyck, 
but the corolla being unknown in a great many of the species we 
cannot follow these divisions. 

* Leaves ojrposite. 

1 C. undula'ta (Haw. suppl. 20. rev. 20.) leaves opposite, 
rhomboid-ovate, with an acumen, pale green: older ones large and 
very thick, margined with red at the apex : when young lean and 
waved. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
unknown. Very similar to C. orbiculata, but the stem is more 
humble, and the leaves longer, and less obtuse at the apex. Salm- 
Dyck. in htt. 

tH(/ufaW-leaved Cotyledon. Fl.Ju.Jul. Clt. 1818. Sh. 1 ft. 

2 C. orbicula'ta (Lin. spec. 614.) leaves opposite, flat, 
obovately-spatulate, obtuse, with an acumen, glaucous, and 
mealy, margined with red ; flowers panicled ; caudex erect, 
branched. I^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
D.C. pi. grass, no. 76, Ait. hort. kew. ed. 2. vol. 3. p. 108. 
Flowers reddish. 

far, a, rotundifblia (D.C. prod. 3. p. 396.) leaves roundish. 



— C. orbiculata. Haw. succ. syn. p. 105. C. orbiculata y, ro- 
tunda, D. C. 1. c. 

far. ft, obovata (D. C. 1. c.) leaves obovate, margined with 
red. — C. ovata, Haw. 1. c. C. orbiculata var. a, D. C. pi. grass, 
t. 76. Curt. bot. mag. t. 321. — Mor. oxon. sect. 12. t. 7. f. 39. 
Herm. lugd. bat. 551. with a figure. 

far. y, oblonga (D. C. I.e.) leaves oblong. — C. oblonga. Haw. 
I.e. C. orbiculata ft, Ait. 1. c. 

far. c, data (Salm-Dyck. in litt.) leaves orbicularly obovate, 
white, and mealy ; stem tall, firm, a little branched. C. el^ta. 
Haw. suppl. p. 20. 

far. £, rambsa (Salm-Dyck. in litt.) leaves ovate-spatulate, 
white, and mealy ; caudex much branched ; branches effuse. C. 
ramosa. Haw. suppl. p. 20. C. ramosissima. Mill. diet. C. 
orbiculcita y, Ait. hort. kew. 

Ori/cu/ar-leaved Cotyledon. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1798. 
Shrub 2 to 4 feet. 

3 C. cRASsiFOLiA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1826. p. 272.) stem 
erect, shrubby ; plant white from mealiness ; leaves rhomboid, 
obcuneated, thick. Ij • D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Leaves distant, decussately opposite, edged with brown- 
ish purple on the margin above the middle. Flowers not seen. 

Thkk-lcaved Cotyledon. Clt. 1824. Shrub l|^ to 3 feet. 

4 C. vi'ridis (Haw. in phil. mag. 1826. p. 272.) stem shrubby, 
erect, nearly simple ; leaves obovate-cuneated, green. Tj . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves middle-sized, lean. 
In habit it follows C. crassifblia. 

Green Cotyledon. Shrub 2 to 4 feet. 

5 C. RAMOsi'ssiMA (Haw. suppl. p. 25.) leaves oblong-spatu- 
late, farinose, margined with red at the apex ; caudex much 
branched ; young branchlets erect : old ones twisted, and 
crowded. (7 . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. C. 
panicidata, Lin. fil. suppl. Flowers unknown. Leaves not half 
the size of those of the smallest variety of C orbiculata, hardly 
15 lines long, and 9 lines broad. 

Most-branched Coiyleiion. Fl. May, Ju. Clt. 1816. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

6 C. coRu'scANs (Haw. suppl. p. 21.) leaves decussate, aggre- 
gate, cuneate-oblong, channelled, with thickened margins, api- 
culated, covered with white mealiness ; flowers pendulous, dis- 
posed in umbellate panicles. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Sims, bot. mag. 2601. Lodd. bot. cab. t. 1030. 
C. canalifolia. Haw. in phil. mag. 1825. July, p. 22. Flowers 
orange-coloured like those of C. orbiculata, but paler and rather 
longer. 

Glittering CotyXeAon. Fl.June. Clt. 1818. Sh. 1 to 2 ft. 

7 C. ungula'ta (Lam. diet. 2. p. 139.) leaves opposite, semi- 
cylindrical, channelled, glabrous, purple, and furnished with a 
callous point at the margin near the apex ; flowers in a kind 
of panicle, glabrous ; caudex erect. Tj . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. dec. 3. p. 24. t. 22. f. 1. 
Flowers purplish, pendulous. Very like C. orbiculata. 

C/«?!;-leaved Cotyledon. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

8 C. PAPILLA Ris (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 212.) leaves opposite, 
terete-ovate, fleshy, glabrous, acute, erect ; flowers in panicles, 
glabrous ; caudex decumbent, clothed with fine villi. ^ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Ha\v. suppl. p. 21. Thunb. 
fl. cap. p. 397. C. decussita, Sims, bot. mag. t. 2518. Lindl. 
bot. reg. t. 915. Corolla red, unguicular, with a somewhat pen- 
tagonal tube, and oblong acute reflexed lobes. Leaves as in C. 
coruscaiis, and C. iwgiilata, truncate at the apex, and with a 
marginal claw or point. 

Pajiillose Cotyledon. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1819. Shrub I to 2 ft. 

9 C. tricuspida'ta (Haw. in phil. mag. 1825. July, p. .'J2.) 
plant white from mealiness ; leaves narrow, usu.illy deeply tri- 
cuspidate. ^2 • D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 



no 



CRASSULACE^. XIV. Cotyledon. 



Very like C. j>a'pillaris, but differs in the leaves being tricus- 
pidate. 

Tricuspidale-\ea\eA CoiyXeAon. Clt. 1823. Shrub 1 foot. 

10 C. purpu'rea (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 396.) leaves opposite, 
linear-oblong, fleshy, concave, glabrous ; flowers panicled, gla- 
brous ; caudex erect, nearly herbaceous. Tj . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Corolla purple, an inch long. 

PM/yj/e-flovvered Cotyledon. Shrub 1 foot. 

11 C. TERETiFOLiA (Thunb. prod. p. 8.3. fl. cap. p. 397. but 
not of Lam.) leaves opposite, nearly terete, fleshy, hairy, obtuse, 
ivitli an acumen ; flowers panicled, hairy ; caudex erect, simple. 
fj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Terete-leaved Cotyledon. Shrub 1 foot. 

12 C. cuneifo'rmis (Haw. in phil. mag. March, 1828. p. 185.) 
stems short, branched ; leaves crowded, obovate, niucronate, 
rather white from mealiness. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Like C. crassifblia, but much more humble. 

Wedge-leaved Cotyledon. Shrub 1 foot. 

* * Leaves alternate, marcescent. 

13 C. curvifl6ra (Sims, bot. mag. t. 2044.) leaves scat- 
tered, semicylindrical, glabrous; cicatrices of the stem, where 
the old leaves have fallen off, rather prominent ; flowers pani- 
cled, nodding; calyxes loose; tube of corolla pentagonal, in- 
curved. Tj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
of a dirty yellow-colour, almost reddish, about an inch long. 
Styles longer than the stamens. 

Curve-Jlowered Cotyledon. Fl. Oct. Clt. 1818. Sh. 1 to 2 ft. 

14 C. TUBERCULOSA (Lam. diet. 2. p. 139.) leaves scattered, 
subcylindrical, linear-oblong, acute ; cicatrices of the old leaves 
tubercular; flowers subpanicled, erect; peduncles and calyxes 
pubescent. I^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
— Burm. afr. t. 20. f. 1 . C. grandiflora, N. L. Burm. ])rod. fl. 
cap. 13. C. tuberculosa, D. C. pi. grass. 1. t. 86. Flowers 
showy, orange-coloured, tubular, an inch or more long ; limb 
spreading, not replicate. 

Tubercidar Cotyledon. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1820. Shrub 1 
to 2 feet. 

15 C. CACALioiDES (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 242.) leaves scattered, 
terete, acute ; cicatrices of the old leaves pitted ; flowers pa- 
nicled, erect, seated on a long, elongated, nearly naked stem. 
I; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. t. 
20. f. 2. Flowevsyellow, rather villous, half an inch long. Leaves 
deciduous when the plant is in flower ; hence Burmann called it 
C. a-pliijUa. 

Cacalia-Uhe Cotyledon. Fl. May. Clt. 1818. Sh. 1 foot. 

IG C. vENTRicosA (N. L. Burm. prod, fl. cap. p. 13.) leaves 
scattered, linear-oblong, acute at both ends ; cicatrices on old 
stems tubercular ; flowers in loose racemes, pedicellate, erect ; 
tube ventricose, pentagonal ; lobes acute. Tj . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. dec. 3. p. 51. t. 21. f. 1. 
Flowers greenish, almost like those of C. hemisph^'rica. Leaves 
like those of C tuberculosa, according to Burm. 

Fentricose-dowered Cotyledon. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

17 C. spu^RiA (Lin. spec. p. 614.? exclusive of the syno- 
nymcs,) leaves almost radical, terete, oblong, fleshy, obtuse, nar- 
rower at the base ; caudex very sliort, thick ; flowering stem 
erect, naked ; flowers somewhat panicled. >2 . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. p. 43. t. 19. f. 1. Pluk. 
aim. t. 323. f. 1.— Willd. spec. 2. p. 754. C. teretifolia, Lam. 
diet. 2. p. 139. but not of 'I'hunb. 

Spurious Cotyledon. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1731. Shrub 1 ft. 

18 C. fascicula'ris (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 106.) 
leaves scattered, but in fascicles at the tops of the branches, 
cuneiform, obtuse, flat, thick ; caudex thickened, branched ; 
flowers panicled, pendulous, with revolute limbs. Ij . D. G. 



Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. p. 41. t. 18. 

C. paniculata, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 396. ex Burm. syn. C. tardi- 
flora, Bonpl. nav. t. 37. Corolla with a short, greenish, broad, 
subpentagonal tube, and a reddish revolute limb. 

Fascicled-Rov/ered Cotyledon. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1759. 
Shrub 1 foot. 

* * * Leaves alternate, permanent. 

19 C. TRiFLORA (Thunb. prod. p. 83. fl. cap. p. 396.) leaves 
scattered, oblong-spatulate, obtuse, fleshy, of a greyish shining 
colour ; flowers by threes, in spikes, approximate, with repli- 
cate limbs ; stem suffrutescent. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope, near Zehorivier. Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 6. C. 
elata. Haw. suppl. Corolla with a green tube, and an acute 
limb, variegated with white and purple. * 

Three-flowered Cotyledon. Fl. May, July. Clt. 1821. Shrub 
1 to 2 feet. 

20 C. macula'ta (Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 5.) leaves scattered, 
ovate-spatulate, somewhat auriculated at the base, fleshy, shin- 
ing, marked with dark red spots on both surfaces ; flowers spi- 
cate, almost alternate : limb spreading ; stem suffruticose. t; . 

D. G. Native country imknown. C. alternans, Haw. suppl. ex 
Salm-Dyck. but not of Vahl. Spike terminal, generally simple. 
Tube of corolla green, subventricose, with the segments of the 
limb acute, variegated with white and purple. 

Spolted-\e&v ed Cotyledon. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1816. Sh. 1 ft. 

21 C. RiiOMBiFOLiA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1825. July, p. 33.) 
leaves approximate, obovate-rhomboid, mucronate, white and 
mealy ; stem branched, strong, decumbent. I^ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Allied to C. hemisplice'rica, but 
more humble and branched, and the leaves are rhomboid, and 
more acuminated. Flowers luiknown. 

Rliomb-lcaved Cotyledon. Clt. 1823. Shrub decumbent. 

22 C. JASMINIFLORA (SaliTi-Dyck, obs. Haw. rev. p. 20.) 
leaves rather crowded, green, rhomboid-spatulate, fleshy ; stem 
humble ; peduncle terminal, branched ; flowers erect, with a 
green tube, and a revolute limb, variegated with white and pur- 
ple ; pedicels long, thickened. I^ • D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Allied to C. hemisphce' rica, but the stems are 
more humble, thickened from the root ; the leaves longer, and 
the flowers with the tube and limb more ample, and more like a 
jasmine flower. Salm-Dyck in litt. 

Jasmine-flowered Cotyledon. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1818. Sh. 
1 foot. 

23 C. HEMispHa:'RiCA (Lin. spec. p. 614.) leaves scattered, 
ovate-roundish, thick, dotted, glabrous ; flowers nearly sessile, 
erect, along an elongated peduncle ; lobes of corolla spreading. 
y^.D.G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. — Dill. elth. 2. t. 
95. f. 111. C. hemisphse'rica, D. C. pi. grass. 1. t. 87. Flowers 
small, with a green tube, and the limb variegated with white and 
purple. 

Hemispherical Cotyledon. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1731. Sh. 1 ft. 

24 C. ROTUNDiFOLiA (Haw. in phil. mag. 1826. p. 273.) 
shrubby, dwarf; leaves straight, crowded, roundish, dirty green ; 
branches short, decumbent. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Leaves flat, convex beneath, mealy. Allied to 
C. hemisphce'rica. 

Round-leaved Cotyledon. Shrub decumbent. 

25 C. mamilla'ris (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 242.) leaves scattered, 
crowded into something like whorles, terete, ovate, obtuse, gla- 
brous ; flowers spreading on short pedicels, which are seated on 
an elongated peduncle ; stem creeping. Tj . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope, near Olyfants Bad. Thunb. fl. cap. p. 
397. Haw. rev. p. 21. suppl. 22. Corolla tubular, glabrous, 
with a green tube, and a spreadingly reflexed limb, which is 
variegated with white and purple. 



CRASSULACE^. XIV. Cotyledon. XV. Pistorinia, XVI. Umbilicus. 



Ill 



Mamilliinj Coiyledon. Fl. June, July. CIt. 1818. Sh. cr. 

26 C. cunea'ta (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 3!t5.) leaves radical, cu- 
neated, fleshy, hairy, with purple margins ; stem erect, some- 
what herbaceous, puljescent, viscid ; corolla hairy. T; • D- GI. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

CuHfa/f(/-lcavcd Cotyledon. Fl. May. Clt. 1818. Sh. 1 ft. 

27 C. interjl'cta (Haw. in phil. mag. March, 1828, p. 185.) 
leaves glaucescent, narrow-oblong, acute, incurved, channelled ; 
stem short, strong. h . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Very like C. spuria, but differs in being higher, in the 
leaves being shorter, thicker, and narrower, more channelled, 
and without doubt incurved. 

Cast Cotyledon. Clt. 1823. Shrub h foot. 

28 C. caryoi'HVlla'cea (N. L. Burm. prod. fl. cap. 13.) 
leaves aggregate, ovate, thick, flat, glaucous ; flowers paniclcd, 
on long erect pedicels ; stem branched. Ij . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Burm. afr. dec. 2. p. 39. t. 17. 
Corolla tubular, form of the bud of a clove ; lobes spreading, 
ovate, acute, flesh-coloured, with a red line. Very like C. he- 
misphcE'rica, but differs in the flowers being distinctly pedi- 
cellate. 

Clove-like Cotyledon. Stem 1 foot. 

29 C. MucRONA^TA (Lam. diet. 2. p. l'l-2.) leaves nearly radi- 
cal, oval, flat, with undulated margins, mucronate at the apex ; 
stem branched, very short ; floriferous stem naked ; flowers 
erect, in loose panicles. fj . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Burm. afr. p. 44. t. 19. f. 2. C. undulata, Haw. 
Lobes of corolla acute. 

Mucronale-leaved Cotyledon. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1818. 
Shrub 1 foot. 

■f" Species not sujjicientli/ known. 

30 C. RETicuLA TA (THunb. fl. cap. p. 393.) leaves scattered 
at the tops of the branches, terete, acute, erect, soft, glabrous ; 
stem erect, shrubby, fleshy ; flowers erect, in dichotomous pa- 
nicles. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope, inCarro. 
Caudex a hand high. Panicle decompound. 

Beticiilalcd Cotyledon. Shrub | foot. 

31 C. dicho'toma (Haw. suppl. 27. ex rev. 22.) leaves chan- 
nelled ; cymes dichotomous, puberulous, bracteated by spines ; 
tube of corolla somewhat bottle-formed, with a replicate limb. 
Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Dichotomous Cotyledon. Shrub ^ to 1 foot. 

32 C. PARVfLA (Burch. cat. geogr. no. 1818. ex voy. cap. 1. 
p. 219.) leaves oval, rather compressed, thick; panicle dichoto- 
mously branched; pedicels erect, very long, capillary; stem 
erect, fj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Plant 
6-9 inches high. 

Small Cotyledon. PL ^ to 1 foot. 

33 C. TRiGYNA (Burch. trav. afr. 2. p. 226.) stemless ; leaves 
glabrous, flattened, fleshy, cuneate-oval or nearly orbicular ; 
flowers erect, alternate on an elongated simple scape, rarely on a 
bifid one. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Co- 
rolla cylindrical, purplish, with a short reflexed limb, and a pur- 
ple throat. Carpels 3. 

Trigynous Cotyledon. PI. -j to 1 foot. 

3-1 C. cristaVa (Haw. phil. mag. 1827, April 1, p. 123.) 
leaves ])etiolate, cuneately triangular, curled and crested at the 
apex. l^. D. G. Native of tlie Cape of Good Hope. Herb 
succulent, leafy, evergreen. Stem short, with the surculi densely 
clothed with rufous hairs. Leaves erect, an inch long, thick, 
purplish at the apex, beset with dots of scurfy down. Spikes 
terminal. Flowers small, open in the morning. 

Crested CoiyXeAon. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1820. PI. 1 foot. 

35 C. cLAViroLiA (Haw. 1. c.) leaves petiolatc, club-formed, 
incurved, acuminated, and rather curled at the apex. T^ . D. G. 



Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Allied to the preceding 
species ; but the flowers arc about twice the size, and purple. 

C/H6-/f«if(/ Cotyledon. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1824. PI. I foot. 

Cult. Coli/li-don is a genus of pretty succulent plants. The 
culture, propagation, and management of the species arc the same 
as that for Globuka, p. 106. 

XV. PISTORI'NIA (meaning unknown to us). D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 399. mem. crass, p. 25. t. 10. f. 5. — Cotyledon species of 
authors. 

Lin. syst. Decandria, Pcntagynia. Calyx 5-parted, much 
shorter than the tube of the corolla. Corolla gamopetalous, 
funnel-shaped ; tube long, terete ; limb spreading, 5-parted. 
Stamens 10, adnate the whole length of the tube, but free at 
the throat, and exserted. Scales 5, oblong, obtuse. Carpels 5, 
each ending in a long filiform style. — Erect annual or biennial 
herbs. Leaves nearly terete, oblong, scattered, sessile. Flowers 
eymose, red. Habit of the plants belonging to that section of Um- 
bilicus called Mucizbnia, and the flowers like those of Cotiili'dou. 

1 P. Hispa'nica (D. C. prod. 3. p. 399.) ©.or $ . H. Na- 
tive of Spain and Barbary, in exposed sandy places. Cotyledon 
Hispanica, Loefi. itin. p. 77. t. 1. Lin. spec. 615. D. C. pi. 
grass, t. 122. Cotyledon Pistorinia, Ort. mon. 1772. with a 
figure. 

Spanish 'PistoTinia. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1796. PI. A foot. 

Cult. Sow the seeds in any dry situation in a light soil in the 
open border, or on rock-work. 

XVI. UMBILrCUS {from umbilicus, the navel; hollow leaves 
of some species). D.C. in bull. phil. 1801. no. 49. prod. 3. p. 399. 

LiN. SYST. Dcc/indria, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted. Co- 
rolla gamopetalous, campanulate, 5-cleft ; lobes ovate, acute, 
erect, about the length of the tube. Stamens 10, inserted in the 
corolla. Scales 5, obtuse. Carpels 5, attenuated at the apex. 
Styles subulate. — Herbs, indigenous to the south of Europe and 
the Levant. Leaves rosulate or alternate, quite entire, or a little 
toothed. Flowers white or yellow, in branched or simple termi- 
nal racemes, never in cymes. 

Sect. I. Rosula'ria (from rasa, a rose ; in reference to the 
leaves being rosulate, or disposed like the petals in the flower of 
a rose). D. C. prod. 3. p. 399. Sepals equal to the tube ot 
the corolla. Leaves radical, rosulate. Scapes subpanicled, an- 
nual. — Perennial herbs, natives of the Levant, with the habit of 
Sempervivum. 

1 U. Libano'ticus (D. C. prod. 3. p. 399.) leaves radical, ro- 
sulate, cuneated, thickish, papillose ; scape naked ; panicle race- 
mose, loose. 2/ . H. Native of Mount Libanon, and near Da- 
mascus. Cotyledon Libanotica, Labill. syr. dec. 3. p. 3. t. 1. 
Flowers yellow ? 

Libanon Navel-wort. PI. -j foot. 

2 U. SEMPERVIVUM (D. C. 1. c.) leavcs radical, rosulate, 
crowded, cuneated, ciliately scabrous ; scape naked ; panicle 
racemose, loose. 1(..ii. Native of Eastern Caucasus, among 
stones on the mountains. Cotyledon sempervivum, Bieb. casp. 
p. 176. append, no. 4G. ann. bot. 2. p. 444. fl. taur. 1. p. 351. 
Perhaps sufficiently distinct from the preceding species. 

Houseleek-like Navel- wort. PI. ^ foot. 

3 U. pube'scens (Meyer in verz. pflanz. p. 150. under Coty- 
ledon,) plant pubescent ; leaves linear-oblong, bluntish : radical 
ones rosulate, cauline ones scattered, erectly spreading; racemes 
corymbose ; corolla twice the length of the calyx, with the seg- 
ments of the limb acute and spreading at the apex ; stem herba- 
ceous, simple. %. H. Native of Caucasus, among rocks in 
shady places on the mountains of Talush, at the altitude of 1200 
to 2700 feet. Sedum pilosum, Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 352. Flowers 
reddish. 



112 



CRASSULACE.E. XVI. Umbilicus. 



Pubescent Navel-wort. PI. i foot. 

4 U. SVmius (D. C. 1. c.) radical leaves narrow, spatulate- 
lanceolatc, long, fleshy ; cauline leaves sessile, linear ; stem snn- 
i)le, filabrous, leafy; flowers racemose, peditellate, usually twm. 
■J/ .' H. Native of the Island of Samos, among high naked rocks, 
and of Palestine. Seduni Libanoticum, Lin. spec. C17. Coty- 
R-don Samium, D'Urv. enum. arch. p. 50. no. 402. Flowers 
yellow ? 

Samos Navel-wort. PI. I foot. 

Sect. II. Mucizonia (meaning unknown to us). D. C. prod. 
3. p. 399. Cauline leaves alternate. Annual herbs, with the 
habit of Scdmn. 

5 U. ni'sPiDUS (D. C. prod. 3. p. 399.) stems diffuse, erect, 
pubescent ; leaves glabrous, oblong, terete ; racemes terminal, 
leafy, clothed with clammy villi. ©. H. Native of Spain, 
Barbary, andTenuriffe, on the mountains. Cotyledon Mucizonia, 
Ort. mon. 1772. with a figure. Jacq. coll. 5. p. 112. t. 13. 
f. 2. CotyR'don viscosa, Vahl. symb. 2. p. 51. Cotyledon 
hlspida, Lain. diet. 2. p. 141. Desf. atl. 1. p. 359. Flowering 
branches opposite the flowers. Flowers white or dirty reddish. 

Hispid Navel-wort. PI. | to i foot. 

6 U. SEDioiDEs{D. C. prod. 3. p. 400. mem. crass, pl. 4. f. B.) 
stems rooting a little, glabrous ; leaves oblong, convex, obtuse, 
glabrous ; flowers few, at the tops of the stems, almost sessile. 
O. H. Native of the higher Pyrenees, particularly on the 
eastern side. Cotyledon sedioides, D. C. rap. 1808. p. 78. fl. fr. 
suppl.p. 521. Poir. suppl. 2. p. 373. Cotyledon sediformis, 
Lapeyr. Herb small, simple, or branched, almost with the ap- 
pearance of Sedum atratum. Flowers large for the size of the 
plant. 

Slune-crop-like Navel-wort. PI. \ foot. 

Sect. III. Coty'le (from kotvXti, coly'.e, a cavity ; in reference 
to the cup-like leaves). D. C. prod. 3. p. 400. Umbilicus J. 
and C. Bauh. Roots tuberous. Stems usually branched. Radi- 
cal leaves petiolate, cucullate, more or less peltate. Corolla 
hardly 5-cleft to the middle. 

7 U. PENDULiNus (D. C. pl. grass, t. 156.) lower leaves pel- 
tate, concave, repandly crenated, roundish ; bracteas entire ; 
flowers tubular, pendulous, or spreading. %. H. Native of 
Europe, among stones and rocks, on walls and under hedges ; 
in Britain, on moist dripping rocks and old walls. Cotyledon 
Umbilicus, Lin. spec. C15. var. a. Sow. engl. bot. t. 325. 
Cotyledon umbilicv^ta, Lam. C. rupcstris, Salisb. Cotyledon 
Umbilicus veneris, Blackw. herb. t. 2().'J. Root tuberous. Flouer- 
bearing stem branched ; with its branches bearing racemes. 
Flowers yellow. 

Far. (y, pellatiis (D. C. prod. 3. p. 400.) raceme simple. 
Tl. M. Cotyledon pelti\tum, VVendl. obs. p. 49. Hardly dis- 
tinct from the species. 

Droaping or Common Navel-wort. Fl. Ju. Jul. Brit. Pl. ^ ft. 

8 U. ere'ctus (D. C. fl. fr. 4. p. 384. exclusive of the 
country) lower leaves peltate, dentately crenated, roundish ; 
bracteas a little toothed; flowers erect. %. H. Native of 
Fngland, on moist walls and rocks, but rare, particularly in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire ; and of Portugal. Dodart. pempt, p. 
73. with a figure. Cotyledon Umbilicus, Lin. spec. G15. Co- 
tyledon lutoa, Huds. angl. p. 194. Smith, engl. bot. 1522. 
Cotyledon Lusitanica, Lam. diet. 2. p. 140. Root fleshy, creep- 
ing. Flowers yellow, larger than those of the first species. 

jE'rcc^ Navel-wort. Fl. June, Jul. Brit. Pl. | foot. 

9 U. PARViFLORus (D. C. prod. 3. p. 400.) lower leaves pe- 
tiolate, cucullate, orbicular, rather repand : upper ones ovate ; 
flowers sub-campanulate, in dense racemes, i^. H, Native 
of Candia, on the sphaceotic mountains. Cotyledon parviflora, 



Sibth. et Smith, fl. grsec. t. 445. Desf. cor. Tourn. 75. t. 57. 
C. Cretica tuberosa radice flore luteo parvo. Tourn. cor. 2, 
Flowers yellow, smaller than those of C. pendidhius. Racemes 
branched, cylindrical, dense-flowered. Leaves lined with red. 
StiHill-Jhwered Navel-wort. Pl. \ foot. 

10 U. horizontVlis (D. C. prod. 3. p. 400.) stem nearly 
simple ; lower leaves peltate, concave, repandly crenated, 
roundish ; bracteas entire, linear-setaceous, longer than the 
peduncles ; corolla at first erect, but at length becoming hori- 
zontal, with acuminated segments. 1/ . H. Native of Sicily 
and Naples, among stones and on walls. Cotyledon horizon- 
tiilis, Guss. ind. sem. hort. pan. 1826. p. 4. Ten. fl. neap. app. 
5. p. 13. Flowers yellow. Differs from U. pendulhius in the 
flowers being nearly sessile, and horizontal, not drooping. 

//jr(20?!<a/- flowered Navel-wort. Pl. \ foot. 

Sect. IV. Pistorinioides (plants intermediate between Pisto- 
rinia and Umbilicus). Roots perennial, thick, woody. Leaves 
terete, subulate. Stems numerous, erect, simple, fistular, densely 
leafy, for the most part naked below, in consequence of the 
leaves having fallen. 

11 U. Lieve'nii ; glabrous; stems herbaceous, erect, sim- 
ple ; leaves scattered, crowded, nearly terete, bluntish ; flowers 
cymose; limb of corolla erect, i;. H. Native of Altaia, be- 
tween the river Irtysch and Lake Noor-Saisan, in dry saltish 
fields ; in fields on the moimtain of Kurtchum, Arkaul, and at 
the rivulet called Urmichaika, near Buchtorminsk. Cotyledon 
Lievenii, Led. fl. ross. alt. t. 57. fl. alt. 2. p. 197. Corolla fine 
red. Carpels 5-6. 

Licveii's Navel-wort. Fl. May. PI. i to | foot. 

12 U. subula'ta ; plant quite smooth, glaucescent ; leaves 
all scattered, terete, subulate, acute, erectly spreading; racemes 
corymbose ; corolla twice the length of the calyx, with the seg- 
ments of the limb acute and erect ; stem herbaceous, very 
simple. 1^. H. Native of Caucasus, among stones, on the 
mountains of Talusch, at the altitude of 2700 to 3300 feet. 
Cotyledon subulata, Meyer, in verz. pflanz. p. 150. Very nearly 
allied to U. Lievenii, but the leaves are acute and erectly 
spreading, and the corolla is white, twice the length of the 
calyx, not rose-coloured, and 4 times longer than the calyx. 

Subulate-\eaveA Navel-wort. Pl. | foot. 

Sect. V. Oro'stachys (from lipog, horos, the ends, and 
oraxuc, stachys, a spike ; the spike of flowers terminate the 
scapes). D. C. prod. 3. p. 400. Orostachys, Fisch. cat. gor. 
1808. p. 99. Roots not tuberous. Stems simple. Leaves not 
peltate nor cucullate ; radical ones rosulate. Corolla 5-parted. 

13 U. serra'tus (D. C. I.e.) leaves oblong, cartilaginously 
crenated; stems subspicate ; peduncles 2-3 -flowered ; root 
fibrous. ^ .? H. Native of Candia (Dill.) and of Galicia, on 
old walls. Bess, append, fl. gall. p. 352. — Dill. hort. elth. 1. t. 
Sb. f. 112. Cotyledon serratus, Lin. spec. p. 615. Smith, fl. 
gra^c. t. 444. Flowers variegated with white and red. Habit of 
ISaxifraga lingularis. 

Serratcd-\ea\eA Navel-wort. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1732. Pl. | ft. 

14 U. siMNosus (D. C. 1. c.) leaves oblong, pointed by a spine 
at the apex, quite entire : radical ones rosulate, spatulate, con- 
vex beneath towards the apex : cauline leaves lanceolate, flat ; 
corolla twice the length of the calyx ; peduncles all 1 -flowered ; 
anthers of one colour ; stems spicate, very simple. $ . H. 
Native of Siberia, China, and Japan. Cotyledon spinosa, Lin. 
spec. 615. Sedum spinosum, Thunb. fl. jap. p. 186. — Murr. 
comm. gcett. 7. p. 33. t. 5. Crassula spinosa, Lin. mant. 388. 
Gmel. sib. 4. t. 67. f. 2. Orostachys chlorantha, Fisch. in mem. 
soc. descr. nat. mosc. 2. p. 274. Sedum, &c. Amm. ruth, 
p. 73. no. ^5. Sempervivum cuspidatum. Haw. misc. 186. syn. 
p. 170, rev. p. 68.— Gmel. fl. sib. 4, p. 173. no. 87. and 68. f. 2. 



CRASSULACEiE. XVI. Umbilicus. XVII. Eciieveria. XVIII. Sedum. 



113 



Flowers yellow, 5-parted, on short pedicels, collected into a 
cylindrical spike. 

I'ar. j}, polysluchyus (Le<\. fl. alt. 2. p. 200.) spikes numerous, 
rising from the axils of the radical or cauline leaves, somewhat 
fastigiate. 

5/)iny Navel- wort. Fl. June, Jul. Clt. 1810. PI. 1 foot. 

15 U. mai.aciioi'iiy'i.lvs (D. C. prod. 3. p. 400.) leaves lan- 
ceolate, acutish, unarnit'd, quite entire ; radical ones rosiilate 
before flowering; siom spicate, simple. $. H. Native of 
Dahuria, among mountain rocks. Cotyledon malachophylla. 
Pall. itin. 3. append, t. O. f. I. ed. gall. 8vo. 8. p. 312. t." 70. 
f. 1. Orusiachys malachophylla, Fisch. cat. gor. Flowers 
white, 5-parted, crowded into a dense cylindrical spike. 

Sofl-kaved Navel-wort. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1815. PI. | ft. 

Ki U. THYRSIKLORUS (D. C. 1. c.) Icaves oblong, quite entire, 
ending each in a soft spine ; radical ones rosulate ; stem spicate, 
simple. ij . H. Native of the mountains of Siberia, at Aga. 
Sedum cotyledonis facie floribus carneis, Amm. ruth. p. 72. 
no. 94. Orostachys thyrsiflora, Fisch. cat. gor. Flowers 
white and flesh-coloured (ex Fisch), 5-parted. Allied to U. 
malachuplitiUus. 

Thyrse-Jioti'cred Navel-wort. PI. -j to | foot. 

17 U. leica'ntha ; leaves terminated by a spine; radical 
ones rosulate, spatulate, convex beneath towards the apex : cau- 
line ones teretely trigonal ; corolla thrice the length of tlie calyx : 
peduncles all 1 -flowered ; anthers discoloured. ^ . H. Native 
of Altaia, in very sterile fields in the Soongarian desert, between 
the mountains of Arkat and Kar-karaly ; and among stones in 
the tract of the river Katunja. Root fusiform, or a little 
branched. Corolla white. Cotyledon leucantha, Led. fl. ross. 
atl. ill. t. 395. fl. atl. 2. p. 198. 

White-Jlorvered Navel-wort. Fl. Aug. PI. | to 4 foot. 

Cult. The hardy perennial species of this genus thrive well 
on rock-work, or on old walls ; they will also grow freely in 
pots, in a soil composed of loam, peat, and sand, which should 
be placed among other alpine plants ; these are propagated by 
offsets from the roots or by seeds. The seeds of annual and 
biennial kinds should be sown on rock-work, or in the open 
border, in a sandy or gravelly soil. 

XVII. ECHEVE^RIA (this genus is named after M. Eche- 
veri, author of the fine drawings of the Flora Mexicana, com- 
menced under the direction of MM. Sesse, Mocino, and Cer- 
vantes). D. C. prod. 3. p. 401. mem. crass, p. 28. — Cotyledon 
species of authors. 

Lin. syst. Decdndria, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted ; sepals 
erect, referrible to leaves, united at the very base (f. 27. a.). 
Petals 5 (f. 27. 6.), also united at the base, erect, thick, 
stiffish, thickest at the middle nerve, and nearly trigonal at 
the base, acute. Stamens 10 (f. 27. c), shorter than the petals, 
and adnate to them at the base. 
Scales 5, short, obtuse. Carpels 
5, ending each in a subulate style. 
— Fleshy shrubs, natives of Mex- 
ico. Leaves alternate, cauline, 
or rosulate, and nearly opposite, 
nerveless. Flowers sessile, dis- 
posed along the rachis or branches 
of the cyme, scarlet or yellow. 

Shrubs. Flowers imnicled 
or spicate, scarlet. 

1 E. GRANDIFOLIA (Haw. in 
phil. mag. sept. 1828. p. 261.) 
leaves orbicularly cuneated ; pe- 
tioles thick ; flowers in spicate 

VOL. III. 



FIG. 27. 




panicles. I7 . D. G. Native of Mexico Sweet, fl. gard. 275- 

Lower leaves rosulate, all white or glaucous. Corolla of a 

reddish orange-colour, with a tinge of purple. Stamens white. 

Great-leaved Echeveria. Fl. Oct. Clt. 1828. PI. 1 to 2 ft. 

2 E. GiBBiFLoRA (D. C. prod. 3. p. 401. mem. crass, p. 29. 
t. 5.) Icaves flat, cuneiform, acutely mucronate, crowded at the 
tops of the branches; panicle spreading; flowers on short 
pedicels along the branches of the panicle. I; . D. G. Native 
of Mexico. Moc. et Sesse. fl. mex. icon. ined. Petals gib- 
bous at the base, between the lobes of the calyx, straight, acute, 
white at the base, and rather scarlet at the apex. 

Gibbous-Jlowered Echeveria.. Fl. July, Oct. Clt. 1826. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

3 E. coccInea (D. C. prod. 3. p. 401.) plant soft, pubescent ; 
leaves spatulately lanceolate; spikes of flowers axillary, elon- 
gated, leafy, Ij . D. G. Native of Mexico. Cotyledon coc- 
cinea, Cav. icon. 2. p. 54. t. 170. Lodd. bot. cab. t. 832. 
Sedum spicatum, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. Corolla 
scarlet on the outside, and yellow on the inside, or paler. Sta- 
mens yellowish. 

Scarlet-Cowered Echeveria. Fl. Oct. Dec. Clt. 1816. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

4 E. RACEMosA (Schlecht. et Cham, in Linnsea 2. p. 554.) 
plant quite glabrous ; radical leaves thickish, elliptic, acute, 
avvnless, rosulate ; scapes simple, naked ; scales of scape alter- 
nate, and bracteas scale-formed and caducous ; racemes spike- 
formed and elongated ; flowers alternate, erect, on short pe- 
dicels. %. D. G. Native of Mexico, on walls at Jalapa. 
Leaves an inch or 2 inches long. Flowers scarlet, and are in 
every respect like those of E. coccinea, as well as every other 
part of the plant ; but the sepals are shorter and mucronate, 
not acuminated, and the pet.nls are narrower. 

Racemose-CoviereA Echeveria. PI. ^ to 1-j foot. 

5 E. TERETiFOLiA (D. C. prod. 1. c. mem. crass, p. 29. pi. 1. 
f. 1 .) leaves terete, acute, scattered, almost loose at the base ; 
spikes secund, few-flowered. Ij . D. G. Native of Mexico. 
Sedum teretifolium, Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. Very 
nearly allied to E. coccinea. 

Terete-leaved Echeveria. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

6 E. lu'rida (Haw. in phil. mag. 1831. p. 416.) plant rather 
tufted ; lower leaves lanceolate-cuneated, of a livid colour : 
superior ones lanceolate ; flowers disposed in racemose spikes. 

tj . D. G. Native of Mexico. Corolla as in E. grandifolia, 
but more scarlet. 

Zwrfrf-leaved Echeveria. Fl. Jul. Clt. 1830. PI. 1 foot. 

* * Plant subherbaceous. Flowers subeyniose, yellow. 

7 E. c;espit6sa (D. C. prod. 3. p. 401.) leaves rosulate, nar- 
row, tongue-formed, obcuneated at the apex, and rather mucro- 
nate ; flowers cymose. T{.. D. G. Native of California. 
Cotyledon caespitosa. Haw. misc. p. 180. Coty. linguiformis. 
Ait. hort. kew. 3. p. 109. Sedum Cotyledon, Jacq. fil. eclog. 
1. f. 17. Cotyl. reflexa, Willd. enum. suppl. p. 24. Flowers 
yellow. 

Tufted Echeveria. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1796. PI. 1 foot. 

Cult. Fine glaucous, succulent ])lants, which deserve to be 
cidtivated in every collection. Their culture, propagation, and 
treatment are the same as that recommended for Globidea,T^. 106. 

XVIII. SE'DUM (from sedeo, to sit ; manner of growth, upon 
stones, rocks, walls, and roofs of houses). D. C. in bull. phil. 
no. 49. mem. crass, t. 1. f. 1. Sedum and Rhodiola, Lin. spec. 
— S^dum and Anacampseros, Tourn. Haw. — Anacampseros, 
Adans. fam. 2. p. 248. 

Lin. svsT. Dec/mdria, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted (f. 29. a.); 
sepals ovate, usually turgid, leaf-formed. Petals 5 (f. 29. 6.), 
Q 



114 



CRASSULACE^. XVIII. Sedum. 



acnerallv spreading. Stamens 10. Nectariferous scales entire, or 
hardly Jmarginatc. Carpels 5.-Herbs or subshrubs. Stems 
usualiy branclied from tlie base. Sterile stems or surculi usually 
crowded with leaves. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, fleshy, 
terete or flat, quite entire, rarely toothed. Flowers cymose, white, 
purple, or blue, but usually yellow ; in some species the flowers 
are 4 or e-7-petalled, and the stamens always double that number. 

• Leaves Jlat. Flowers yellow. 

1 S. Rhodiola (D. C. fl. fr. ed. 3. vol. 4. p. 386. pi. grass, 
t. 143.) leaves oblong, serrated at the apex, glabrous, glaucous ; 
root rather tuberous ; stems simple ; flowers corymbose, usually 
of 4 petals, octandrous, and dioecious from abortion. If.. H. 
Native of middle Europe, on the mountains; of Siberia, and of 
North America, on the Arctic Sea shore, and Islands ; of New- 
foundland and Labrador ; and on the Rocky Mountains, Kot- 
zebue's Sound, &.C. ; in Britain, in the north of England, Scot- 
land, and Wales, on the mountains. Rhodiola rosea, Lin. spec. 
14G5. Smith, engl. hot. t. 508. fl. dan. t. 183. Plant glaucous. 
The flowers are yellow, and are said to be sometimes hermaphro- 
dite, but are usually of ditt'crent sexes on different plants. The 
root is sweetish when dried ; in this state a fragrant water may 
be distilled from it. The inhabitants of the Farro Island use it as 
a remedy for scurvy. In Greenland they eat it as garden stuff. 
A cataplasm of the fresh roots, applied to the forehead, is said 
to relieve the head-ache, and to heal malignant ulcers. The 
specific name is from puSof, a rose ; in reference to the fragrance 
of the roots. 

Rhodiola or Common Rose-root. Fl. May, July. Brit. PI. 
^ to I foot. 

2 S. Asia'ticum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 401.) leaves linear-lingu- 
latc, quite entire, obtuse ; umbels few-flowered ; calycine seg- 
ments 4, oblong, obtuse ; flowers 4-petalled, hermaphrodite. 
2/ . H. Native of Gosainsthan, in Nipaul. Rhodiola Asiatica, 
D. Don, prod. fl. nep. p. 213. Root fleshy ; caudex very thick, 
3-4 inches long, turgid. Stems tufted, ascending. Leaves 1-2 
lines long, glaucous. Flowers corymbose, octandrous, and te- 
tragynous, of a golden yellow colour. 

Asiatic Rose-root. Pi. ^ foot. 

3 S. elonga'tum (Led. fl. atl. 2. p. 193.) leaves scattered, 
oblong, almost quite entire, glabrous, hardly glaucescent ; root 
rather tuberous ; stems simple ; flowers in cymose corymbs ; 
pedicels hardly exceeding the flowers in length ; nectariferous 
scales 3 times longer than broad; carpels recurved. %. H. 
Native of Altaia, in alpine humid places, on the edges of rivu- 
lets. Plant glaucous. Flowers yellow ? hermaphrodite, but 
sometimes dioecious or polygamous from abortion, as in S. Rho- 
diola. Stamens 8 or 10. 

Elongated Rose-root. Fl. May, July. PI. 1 foot. 

4 S. Alta'icum ; leaves scattered, obovate-lanceolate, ser- 
rated at the apex, glabrous, glaucous ; root rather tuberous ; 
stems simple ; flowers in cymose corymbs ; pedicels shorter than 
the flowers ; nectariferous scales about as long as broad ; carpels 
erect. 11. U. Native of Altaia and Siberia. S. Rhodiola, 
Led. fl. alt. 2. p. 194. Rhodiola Sibirica, Hortul. Flowers 
yellow, octandrous, dioecious or polygamous. 

y^//nm« Rose- root. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1827. PI. | foot. 

5 S. Himale'nsis (D.Don, prod. fl. nep. p. 212.) stem erect ; 
leaves oval-lanceolate, flat, acute, toothed, glaucous, smooth ; 
corymbs almost simple; root thick. %. H. Native of Go- 
sainsthan, in the alpine regions of the Himalaya or Emodi. 
Habit of S. Rliodhla. Flowers yellow. 

Himalaya Slonecrop. PI. i foot. 

6 S. Aizo'oN (Lin. spec. 617.) leaves lanceolate, flat, serrated, 
alternate, glabrous ; stems erect ; cymes terminal, crowded. 
1/ . H. Native of Siberia, in woods ; on shady rocks, at Lake 



Teletzkoi. D. C. pi. grass, t. 101. — Amm. ruth. no. 96. t. 11. 
Perhaps Anacampseros Aizoon, Haw. syn. p. 112.? Flowers 
yellow, varying with from 4-6 petals and 8-12 stamens. Root 
branched, fascicled, thickish. 

Ever-living Stonecrop. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1757. PI. 1 ft. 

7 S. HY'BBiDUM(Lin. spec. 617.) leaves cuneiform, rather con- 
cave, bluntly serrated, rather crowded, alternate, glabrous ; those 
of the branches crowded ; stems ascending, rooting at the base ; 
cymes terminal. 1/.. H. Native of Altaia and Tartary, at the 
bottom of the Ural mountains ; on the upper Irtish. Murr. 
nov. comm. goett. 6. p. 35. t. 5. — Gmel. fl. sib. 4. p. 171. 
no. 851. t. 62. f. 1. Anacampseros hybrida. Haw. 1. c. Flowers 
sulphur-coloured. This is not a hybrid, but a true species. S. 
Altaica, Bess. enum. sem. crcm. 1823. 

Hybrid Stonecrop. Fl. May, Jul. Clt. 1766. PI. 1 to 2 ft. 

8 S. spatulifolium (Hook, fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 227.) gla- 
brous ; stem erect ; leaves obovate-spatulate, flattish, acute : 
upper ones linear ; cyme terminal, leafy, trichotomous ; flowers 
pedicellate, decandrous ; petals linear-spatulate, much longer 
than the calyx. %. H. Native of the north-west coast of 
America ; comition on dry rocky places of the Columbia river. 
Flowers yellow, very like those of S. stenopetalum. Lower 
parts of stems decumbent. 

Spatulate- leaved Stonecrop. PI. ^^ to j foot. 

9 S. DouGLAsii (Hook, fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 228.) stem erect, 
proliferous above from recurved branches ; leaves linear-subu- 
late, very acute, flat on the inside, and a little keeled on the 
back, with dry membranous edges ; cymes dichotomous ; flowers 
sessile, decandrous ; petals narrow-lanceolate, twice the length 
of the calyx. 0. H. Native of North America ; common on 
rocky places on the Columbia to the mountains. Flowers yel- 
low, like those of <S'. stenojjetalum. 

Douglas's Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

10 S. a'lgidum (Led. fl. ross. alt. ill. t. 418.) leaves scattered, 
linear, quite entire, flat, glabrous ; root thick, of many necks ; 
stems numerous, simple ; corymb terminal, simple ; pedicels 
about equal in length to the flowers ; breadth of nectariferous 
scales exceeding their length ; petals longer than the stamens. 
11 . H. Native of Altaia, on the higher alps, about the fountains 
of the rivers Inja, Uba, and Sentelek, and on the mountains 
Kokorga, at the sides of rivulets. Flowers at first yellow, but 
fading to a dirty red. Allied to S. quadrifidum. 

Algid Stonecro]i. Fl. June, July. PI. ^ foot. 

* * Leaves Jlat. Flowers white. 

IIS. involucra'tum (Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 352.) leaves cunei- 
form, crenated, opposite, pubescent, ciliated ; stems declinate, 
hairy; corymbs crowded, involucrated ; petals subulate. 1(.H. 
Native of Caucasus, among stones, at the foot of Mount Kais- 
chaur. Flowers white, about the size of those of iS'. hijbridiim. 

Involucrated Stonecrop. PI. 1 foot. 

12 S. latifolium (Bert, amoen. itin. p. 366.) leaves ovate, 
cordate, very blunt, serrated, glabrous, lisually opposite ; co- 
rymbs cymose, on long peduncles ; stamens longer than the 
corolla. 1/ . H. Native of Switzerland, on the mountains ; 
Germany, Italy, France, &c.— Clus. hist. 2. p. 66. f. 1. S. 
Telephium, var. maximum, Lin. spec. 616. S. maximum, 
Hoffin. germ. 1. p. 156. Flowers greenish-white. Anacamp- 
seros maxima, and probably A. albicans. Haw. syn. p. HI. 

Broad-leaved Orpine. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1794. PI. 2 feet. 

13 S. OBTUSIFOLIUM (Meyer, verz. pflanz. p. 150.) plant gla- 
brous, green ; stems erect ; leaves orbicularly-obovate, obtuse, 
nearly quite entire, with scabrous margins : lower ones oppo- 
site ; rays of cyme elongated, spreading, and leafy ; flowers 
nearly sessile ; petals acute, longer than the calyx. 1/ . H. 
Native of Caucasus, on the Talusch mountains, towards Perim- 



CRASSULACE^. XVIII. Sedum. 



115 



bal, at the height of 3000 feet. Flowers white. Tliis species 
diflers from S. latij'blium, Teliphmm, and S. AnacAmpseros in 
the inflorescence ; and from S. hybridum, involucratum, sjmrium, 
stoloiiifertim, and oppositifolium, in tlie erect stems and form of 
the leaves. 

Blunt-leaved Stonecrop. PI. 1 foot. 

14 S. pkctina'tum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 403.) leaves lanceolate- 
oblong, pectinately toothed ; flowers terminal, capitate, 4-clcft. 
"H.. H. Native country unknown. Anacampseros pectinata, 
Haw. rev. p. 24. Petals greenish-white. Habit of Pcnthorum, 

Pcclinatcd-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. April, Aug. Clt. 1818. 
PI. i foot. ^ 

15 S. Li'viDUM (Willd. enuni. suppl. p. 24.) stems ascending ; 
leaves glaucous, oblong, somewhat attenuated at the base, gla- 
brous, and somewhat crcnated at the apex ; flowers cymose, 
terminal. 1/. . H. Native country unknown. Anacampseros 
livida. Haw. rev. p. 25. Flowers white. 

Zii'irf Stonecrop. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1816. PI. i foot. 

IC S. crucia'tum (Desf. cat. p. 102. D. C. fl. fr. 4. p. 389.) 
leaves flattish, thick, convex beneath, 4 in a whorl ; stems 
branched at the base, diffuse, ascending, pubescent at the apex ; 
flowers subpanicled, on long pedicels ; petals acuminated. 1^. H. 
Native of Piedmont, in mountain valleys about Monregal. Balb. 
misc. p. 23. t. 6. Reich, icon. 3. f. 438. Flowers white, almost 
like those of ^. Cepcea. 

Crofs-leaved Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

17 S. Magelle'nse (Ten. fl. neap. pr. p. 26.) stem erect, or 
ascending, herbaceous ; leaves obovate-oblong, sessile ; flowers 
racemose, scattered, pedunculate ; petals lanceolate, acute. %.. 
H. Native of Samnius, on many of the mountains, in shady 
groves, and on mossy rocks, and at the roots of old trees ; of 
Naples, in the groves of Magella. Racemes terminal, nodding 
before expansion. Flowers dirty white. 

Magella Stonecrop. PI. from | to 1 foot. 

18 S. opposiTiFOLiUM (Sims, bot. mag. t. 1807.) leaves cu- 
neately-spatulate, toothed above, opposite, puberulous on the 
margins, rib, under side, as well as on the stems ; cymes sessile, 
terminal, crowded; petals oblong, acute. 1^. H. Native of 
Caucasus. S. denticulatum, Donn, cat. ed. 8. Anacampseros 
ciliaris, Haw. syn. 113. rev. p. 25. Flowers white. Stems 
decumbent, rooting ; floriferous ones erect. Crassula crenata, 
Desf. choix. cor. Tourn. t. 58. ann. mus. 11. t. 46. 

Opposite-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. ? PI. dec. 

19 S. LANCEOLA^TUM (Torrey. in ann. lye. new york. 2. p. 
205.) leaves flat, rather alternate : lower ones crowded, oblong- 
lanceolate, acutish, glabrous, with glandularly serrulated edges ; 
stems branched, assurgent ; flowers in cymose corymbs ; petals 
lanceolate, spreading. T^.H. Native of North America, near 
the Rocky Mountains. Stem a little branched at the base, 
creeping. Leaves about half an inch long. Flowers white, 
decandrous. Petals 7. 

Lanceolal e-]eaved Stonecrop. PI. cr. 

20 S. TERNA^TUM (Michx. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 277.) leaves 
flat, glabrous, quite entire ; lower leaves obovate, attenuated at 
the base, 3 in a whorl, upper ones sessile, lanceolate, inordinate; 
cymes trifid ; flowers sessile along the branches ; petals oblong, 
acute. If.. H. Native of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Ca- 
rolina, on rocks, and on the rocks about Niagara and Lake Erie, 
common. Ker. bot. reg. t. 142. Sims, bot. mag. 1977. S. 
portulacoides, Willd. enum. p. 484. S. deficiens, Donn, hort. 
cant. S. octogonum, Hortul. Anacampseros ternata. Haw. 
Flowers white. 

rcnia^e-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1789. PL A ft. 

21 S. popuiiFOLiUM (Lin. fil. suppl. p. 242.) leaves scattered, 
fiat, coarsely toothed, petiolate, glabrous : lower ones cordate : 
upper ones ovate ; stems much branched, erect, shrubby : co- 



rymbs rather panicled, terminal, many-flowered ; petals oblong- 
lanceolate, ij . H. Native of Siberia, on the mountains, in 
many parts. D. C. pi. grass, t. 110. Curt. bot. mag. t. 211. 
—Pall. itin. 3. p. 730. append, no. 89. t. O. f. 2. Flowers 
white ; anthers pur])Ie. There is a variety of this plant with ovate 
leaves and few flowers, and is perhaps refcrrihle to S. Nolarjdnni. 
Poplar-leaved or Shrubby Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 
1780. Shrub 1 foot. 

22 S. Notarja'nni (Ten. fl. neap. 1. p. 245. t. 40.) stems 
ascending, suffruticose ; leaves petiolate, flat, ovate, bluntly and 
sinuatcly toothed, glabrous ; flowers solitary or few, terminal ; 
petals lanceolate. Jj . H. Native of Naples, near Funda, 
among calcareous rocks. S. Notarjanni, Ten. cat. 1819. p. 43. 
Very like S. populif ilium, but differs in the stems being almost 
herbaceous, in the leaves not being cordate, in the flowers being 
nearly solitary, and in the anthers being yellow. 

Notarjanni's Stonecrop. Shrub 1 foot. 

23 S. stellaVum (Lin. spec. 017.) leaves flat, roundish, 
angularly toothed, tapering into the petioles, opposite, or alter- 
nate, glabrous ; flowers axillary, sessile along the branches of 
the cyme ; petals lanceolate. ©. H. Native of the Islands of 
Corsica, Melos, and of Italy, and the south of Switzerland. 
Smith, fl. graec. 446. Comm. hort. 7. t. 2. Col. phyt. 32. 
t. 1 1. Petals white, tinged with red. 

(S/arry-flowered Stonecrop. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1614. PI. 1ft. 

24 S. Cep.e'a (Lin. spec. 617.) stem herbaceous, terete, pu- 
bescent ; leaves flat, quite entire ; lower ones rather spatulate : 
upper ones oblong or linear ; flowers panicled ; petals ending in an 
awned point. $ . H. Native of middle and south Europe, in 
hedges and among bushes. Smith, fl. graec. 447. — Clus. hist. 2. 
p. 68. with a figure.— Mor. hist. S. p. 473. sect. 12. t. 7. f. 37. 
•^S. paniculatum, Lam. — Anacampseros Cepse^a, Haw. Flowers 
white. 

far. />, galioldes (D. C. prod. 3. p. 404.) upper leaves nearly 
opposite : lower ones in whorls, spatulate. S. galioides. All. 
pedem. no. 1742. t. G5. f. 3. S. verticillatum, Latour, but not 
of Lin. 

Far. y, ahinefolium (D. C. 1. c.) leaves oval, for the most 
part alternate. S. alsinefolium, All. ped. no. 1740. t. 22. f. 2. 
bad. Petals acuminated. 

Cepcea or Purslane-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 
1640. PI. i to 1 foot. 

25 S. spatula'tum (Waldst. et Kit. pi. rar. hung. 2. p. 108. 
t. 104.) stem herbaceous, terete, pubescent; leaves flat, entire, 
nearly ail alternate, spatulate : upper ones cuneiform ; flowers 
panicled ; petals ending each in an awn. $ . H. Native of 
Hungary. S. Cepaj'a, var. y, spatulatum D. C. prod. 3. p, 404. 
Flowers white. 

-S^ja^w/a^c-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1815. PI. ^ ft. 

26 S. tetrapiiy'llum (Smith, fl. graec. t. 448. prod. 1. p. 
309.) plant pubescent ; leaves spatulate, quite entire, four in a 
whorl ; stem branched at the base ; peduncles axillary, few- 
flowered, the whole forming a terminal panicled raceme ; petals 
ending in a long point. $ . H. Native of Greece. Ray. syn. 
ext. 233. Petals white, with a red keel. 

Four-leatedStonecroY>. PI. 4 foot. 

27 S. erioca'rpum (Smith, fl. graec. t. 449.) stem twisted, pu- 
bescent above ; leaves smooth, alternate, oblong, obtuse ; stems 
cymose ; flowers axillary, nearly sessile ; petals mucronated ; 
calyx glabrous ; ovaries hairy. ©. H. Native of Greece. 
Flowers red. 

Woolly -fruited Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. ? PI. -I to J ft. 

• * * Leaves flat. Florvers jiurpile or red ; rarely blue. 

28 S. cyan.eVm (Rud. mem. petersb. 1811. p. 351. t. 2. f. 2.) 
Q 2 



116 



CRASSULACE^. XVIII. Sedum. 



stems simple ; leaves flat, nearly linear, entire, sessile ; cymes 
leafy. 3 . U. Native of Eastern Siberia. Hovvers blue. 
lilue-Howvred Stonecrop. PI. i foot. 

29 S. deltoi'deum (Ten. cat. 1819. p. 43.) stems erectish ; 
leaves alternate, flat, deltoidly-cuneiform, unequal, crenated, 
and toothed ; cymes lateral. ©. H. Native of the kingdom 
of Naples, on Monte Novo and Goat's Island. Flowers purple. 
The rest unknown. 

Z)t>/to/(/-leaved Stonecrop. PI. i foot. 

30 S. sEMPERVi'vuM (Led. ex Spreng. syst. 2. p. 434.) leaves 
spatulate-ovate, acute, flat, quite entire, pubescent : lower ones 
collected into a circle : eauline ones half stem-clasping ; stems 
simple; corymb rather panicled ; petals lanceolate-subulate. 11. 
H. Native of Iberia. S. sempervivoides, Fisch. mss. Bieb. suppl. 
J). 313. Sims, hot. mag. t. 3474. Habit of a species of Sem- 
perihmn. Flowers deep purple, showy, size of those of S. 
sjyuriwn. 

Houseleek-Uke Stonecrop. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1823. PI. i ft. 

31 S. h.emato'des (Mill. diet. no. 15.) stems erect, fleshy; 
leaves ovate, quite entire : upper ones stem-clasping ; corymbs 
terminal. %. H. Native of Louisiana. There are two va- 
rieties of this plant, one with white and another with purple 
flowers. Said to be allied to ,5'. Tclcph'miii and S. Anacdmjjseros. 

Bloody Orpine. Fl. July, Sept. PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

32 S. Anaca'mpseros (Lin. spec. f>16.) leaves cuneiform, 
obtuse, quite entire, almost sessile, alternate, fiat, glabrous ; 
stems decumbent; flowers corymbose. %. Native of Pro- 
vence, Piedmont, Savoy, Switzerland, &c. on rocks among 
the mountains. D. C. pi. grass, t. 33. Curt. bot. mag. t. 118. 
— Lob. icon. 1. t. 390. f. 2. S. rotundifolium. Lam. diet. fl. fr. 
3. p. 82. Anacampseros sempervlrens, Haw. syn. p. 112. 
Flowers purple.. 

Anacampseros or Evergreen Orpine. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 
1590. PI. trailing. 

33 S. Pu'i.cHRUM (Michx. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 277.) stems 
assurgent, glabrous ; leaves scattered, linear, obtuse ; cymes of 
many spikes ; flowers sessile, of 4 petals and 8 stamens. 11. W. 
Native of the mountains of Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia, on 
the banks of the river Ohio. Flowers purple. Allied to «S'. re- 
flexum, according to Pursh, but according to Nutt. to S. ternalum, 

Fo(V Stonecrop. PI. trailing. 

34 S. denta'tum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 403.) leaves alternate, 
glabrous, cuneate-obovate ; upper ones pinnatifidly toothed 
downwards, and more peliolate ; cyme sessile, terminal. %. H. 
Native country unknown. AnacSmpseros dentata. Haw. rev. p. 
2fi. Allied to 6'. spuriuin and <S'. opposilifbliiim. Perhaps the 
same as S. dentatum, Donn, liort. cant. Flowers purple. 

roof/ierf-leavcd Stonecrop. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1810. PI. i ft. 

35 S. Ibe'kicum (Stev. in Bieb. fl. taur. suppl. p. 312.) leaves 
cuneiformly obovate, rcpandly crenated, petiolate, with scabrous 
iiiarj^ins : eauline leaves opposite; cymes leafy, dichotomous ; 
flowers nearly sessile ; petals subulate. 1/. H. Native of the 
north of Iberia, in subalpine places. Flowers reddish. Habit 
of <S'. spitrlum, 

Iberian Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

3G S. RosEUM (Stev. mem. soc. nat. cur. mosq. 3. p. 263.) 
leaves spatulately obovate, opposite, quite entire, fleshy, gla- 
brous, imbricated at the tops of the surculi ; stems much 
branched, loose, creeping ; cymes terminal ; petals lanceolate- 
subulate, i; . H. Native of Eastern Caucasus, among stones. 
Bieb. suppl. 314. Flowers almost like those of S. sjAriutn, of 
an elegant rose-colour. 

Tioic-coloured-flowercd Stonecrop. PI. ^ to ^ foot. 

37 S. si'u'uiuM (Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 852.) leaves cuneiformly- 
obovate, crenately toothed in front, pubescent beneath, some- 
what ciliated ; eauline leaves opposite ; radical ones in fascicles 



usually alternate ; corymbs terminal, compound ; petals lanceo- 
late. '2^. H. Native of Caucasus, among rocks. Sims, bot. 
mag. t. 2370. — Buxb. cent. 5. p. 33. t. 61. f. 2. Anaciimpseros 
spuria. Haw. rev. p. 25. Flowers purple. 

Spurmis Stonecrop. Fl. Jidy, Sept. Clt. 1816. PI. I foot. 

38 S. Ewe'ksii (Led. fl. alt. i"ll. t. 58. fl. alt. 2. p. 191.) leaves 
opposite, obsoletely denticulated, adnate : inferior ones broad- 
ellijjtic : superior ones sessile, cordate ; corymbs terminal, com- 
pound ; petals lanceolate, acute, a little longer than the stamens. 
2/ . H. Native of Altaia, at the rivers Uba, Buchtorm, and 
Kokoryo ; and at the Golden Lake Teletz-koe Osero. Flowers 
purple. Stem rooting at the base. 

Ewers' s Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1829. PI. \ foot. 

39 S. TELEPHioiDES (Michx. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 324.) leaves 
ovate, flat, acutish at both ends, toothed ; corymb compound, in 
fascicles. 1/ . H. Native of Virginia and Carolina, on rocks 
among the mountains. Anacampseros telephioides. Haw. syn. 
114. Flowers pale purple. Hardly distinct from iS". Telephium 
according to Nuttall. 

Orpine-like Stone-croY>. Fl. Jidy, Sept. Clt. 1810. PI. 1 
to 2 feet. 

40 S. Tele'phium (Lin. spec. 016. a, ft, et y,) leaves oblong 
or oval, attenuated at the base, flat, toothed, glabrous ; stems 
erect ; cymes corymbose, terminal ; stamens not exceeding the 
corolla. 11 . H. Native of Europe, in exposed places ; in 
Britain on the borders of fields, or in hedges or bushy places, on 
a gravelly or chalky soil. Smith, eng. bot. 1319. Curt. lond. 3. 
t. 25. 210. Oed. fi. dan. 686. Blackw. 191. There are several 
varieties of this plant : — 1, leaves opposite (Anacampseros albida, 
Haw. syn. p. 11 1.) — 2, leaves 3 in a whorl (Anacampseros tri- 
phylla. Haw. syn. p. 111. Sedum triphyllum. Haw.) — 3, leaves 
alternate ; flowers purple (D. C. pi. grass, t. 92. Anacampseros 
purpurea. Haw. syn. p. 111. Fuschs, hist. 801. with a figure), 
and white (Fuschs. hist. I. c. t. 800. Anacampseros vulgaris. 
Haw. syn. p. 111.) — 4, leaves oblong-lanceolate, sharply toothed 
(Anacampseros argilta. Haw. Sedum argdtum, Haw.) — 5, leaves 
cuneately obovate, slightly 4-toothed towards the apex ; stems 
decumbent (Anacampseros paucidens, Haw. rev. p. 24.). All 
these are referrible to this species. A decoction of the leaves 
in milk is a forcible diuretic. It has been given with success 
in the cure of haemorrhoids. 

Orpine. Fl. July, Sept. Britain. PI. 2 to 3 feet. 

41 S. vulga're (Link. enum. pi. hort. berol. 1. p. 437.) 
leaves nearly opposite, ovate-elliptic, obtuse, rounded at the 
base, exactly sessile, bluntly and dentately serrated ; panicle sub- 
corymbose ; stamens shorter than the corolla. 1/ . H. Native 
of Siberia, on the mountains near Kolywan ; and also in sandy 
woods about Barnaoul. S. Telephium a, Willd. spec. 2. p. 760. 
S. Telephium, Patrin, fl. barn. mss. Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 351. S, 
Telephium, Besser. enum. pi. volh. p. 17. S. Telephium y 
minus, Falk, topog. 2. no. 522. Anacampseros vulgaris, Haw. 
succ. p. 112. Flowers whitish or purplish. 

Common Orpine. Fl. June, Sept. Clt. ? PI. 1 to 2 feet. 

42 S. verticilla'tum (Lin. amoen. 2. p. 352. t. 4. f. 14. ex- 
clusive of the synonyme of Ray,) stem erect ; leaves 4 in a whorl, 
lanceolate, serrated ; racemes axillary, few-flowered, shorter 
than the leaves. Ij. . H. Native of Kamtschatka. Leaves a 
finger in length. Flowers small, purple ? or pink ? This species 
is allied to S. Telephium according to Steven. 

IFAoWerf-leaved Orpine. Fl. July, Sept. Clt.? PI. 1 foot. 

• * * * Leaves terete. Flowers white. 

43 S. Morane'nse (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. 6. p. 44.) stems 
branched, creeping at the base, ascending, glabrous ; leaves scat- 
tered, loosened at the base, thick, fleshy, obtuse ; cymes secund ; 
flowers nearly sessile ; petals 5, oblong-linear, bluntish. 1/ . H. 



CRASSULACE;E. XVIII. Sedum. 



117 



Native of Mexico, near Real de Moran. The colour of the flowers 
is unknown, but the plant is said to be very like S. A'nglicum, 
and the flowers are therefore perhaps white. 

Moran Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

41 S. A'nglicum (Huds. angl. p. 196.) stems ascending, 
humble, branched at the base ; leaves crowded, alternate, short, 
ovate, gibbous, loosened at the base, glabrous ; cyme branched, 
few flowered ; flowers sessile along the branches ; petals acumi- 
nately awned. 11 . H. Native of Norway, Britain, west of 
France, Portugal, on walls, roofs of liouses, meadows, on ex- 
posed stony hills, and among rocks. In England on the sandy 
or rockv sea coast, as well as upon mountains ; in Scotland and 
the north of England frequent. Smith, engl. bot. 171. S. ru- 
bens, Ocd. fl. dan. t. 82. Lightf scot. 235. S. arenarium, Brot. 
fl. lus. 2. p. 212. phyt. t. 1. f. 2. S. Gucttardi, Vill. dauph. 3. 
p. G78. in a note. S. atratum, Aubl. S. annuum, Gunn. but 
not of Lin. Petals white, with a red keel. 

I'ar. /3, viicrop/ii/llum ; plant very small. 

far. y, Hiberniciim ; plant large, rather downy. 

English Stonecrop. Fl. June, Aug. Britain. PI. ^ foot. 

45 S. oblo'ngum (Haw. rev. p. 29.) leaves ovate, paraboli- 
cally-oblong, convex beneath, 4 lines long, rather distant ; scales 
of germens brown. If. H. Native of England. Petalswhite, 
witli a red keel. Very like S. dnglicum, but twice the size, the 
leaves fewer, and more distant. 

06/o;iD--leaved Stone-crop. Fl. June, Aug. Brit. PI. ^ ft. 

46 S. atba'tum (Lin. spec. 1673.) stem erect, branched at the 
base ; leaves scattered, terete, obtuse, glabrous, loosened at the 
base ; cymes corymbosely fastigiate ; petals ovate, hardly mu- 
cronate ; carpels stellately spreading. ©. H. Native of the 
Alps of Europe and the Pyrenees, among rocks. D. C. pi. 
grass, t. 120. All. pedem. t. 65. f. 4. Jacq. aust. 1. t. 8. S. 
hceniatodes. Scop. earn. 4. p. 323. but not of Mill. Petals small, 
white. Plant red when old. Carpels dark red. 

Far. ji ; lower branches lying on the ground. Native of the 
Alps. D, C. fl. fr. ed. 3. vol. 4. p. 391. exclusive of the sy- 
nonymes. 

Z>ar/(: Stone-crop. FL Aug. Clt. 1795. PI. i foot. 

47 S. GLAu'cuM (Waldst. et Kit. pi. rar. hung. 2. p. 198. t. 
181.) stem erectish, puberulous ; leaves nearly terete, glaucous, 
alternate ; sterile branches crowded, erect ; cymes trifid, few- 
flowered ; petals 6, mucronate. $ . H. Native of Hungary, 
on sandy hills. Wiild. enuni. p. 486. S. Hungaricum, Poir. 
S. Andersonii, G. Don in Loud. hort. brit. p. ISk According 
to Willd. this species differs from S. sexfidum in the stem being 
a little branched at the base, in the petals being 1-nerved, not 
finely 3-nerved. Flowers sometimes hcxandrous. 

G/a«co«i Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1816. PI. ^ ft. 

48 S. se'xfidum (I3iel). fl. taur. suppl. no. 874.) stem erectish, 
branched, when young rather procumbent ; leaves nearly terete- 
scattered, spreading, glaucous, glabrous ; cymes somewhat pa- 
nicled ; flowers sessile along the branches ; petals 6, acuminated. 
Q. H. Native of Caucasus, on rocks. Willd. enum. 487. 
Flowers white ; anthers bay-coloured. The flowers contain also 
12 stamens, and are allied to S, rubens. The petals are said to be 
8-nerved, the lateral nerves very fine. 

.S'/or-cZf/i-flowered Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1816. PI. 
^ foot. 

49 S. Andegave'nse (D. C. prod. 3. p. 406.) stem erect, 
simple at the base, tricliotomous at the apex ; leaves ovate, ob- 
tuse, erect, fleshy, glabrous : lower leaves opposite, the rest 
alternate ; flowers pentandrous in the forks, and scattered and 
sessile along the branches ; petals ovate, acutish. ©. H. Na- 
tive of Andegavany, on walls and on schistous rocks. S. atra- 
tum, Ba.st. ess. fl. p. 167. exclusive of the synonyme. Crassula 
Andegav^nsis, D. C. suppl. fl. fr. p. 522. Truly distinct from 



S. alrnlum, but perhaps only a pentandrous variety of »S'. danj- 
2)lii//liim, and the flowers are probably white like it, 
/Indcf^avennij Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

50 S. dasypiiv'llum (Lin. spec. p. 618.) stems weak, decum- 
bent ; leaves ovate, nearly globose, fleshy, glabn us, opposite, 
rarely alternate ; sterile branches rather imbricated ; cymes pu- 
berulous, few-flowered, terminal ; petals bluntish. i;. H. Na- 
tive of Europe, on walls and rocks. In England plentiful about 
London, as at Hammersmith, Kew, Chelsea, &.c. ; on walls at Mal- 
ton, Yorkshire, and at Clifton near Bristol. Jac(i. hort. vind. t. 
153. D.C. pi. grass, t. !i3. Smith, engl. bot. t. 656. Curt. fl. lond. 
3. t. 26. 147. S. glaucum. Lam. fl. fr. Flowers white, sometimes 
composed of 6 petals ? Perhaps S. reticuliitum, Schrank. bot. 
beob. in dennsk. baier. ges. 1815. is different from S. da.iy- 
j>hijllum. Plant glaucous. 

Thick-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Brit. PI. ^ foot. 

51 S. BREviFOLiuM (D.C. rapp. voy. 1808. p. 79. suppl. no. 
3615. a, mem. crass, t. 4. f. A.) stems fruticulose, glabrous, 
twisted at the base ; leaves opposite, ovate, obtuse, short, thick ; 
cymes quite glabrous, loose, terminal ; petals bluntish. 1/ . H. 
Native of the Pyrenees and of Corsica, among rocks in dry 
pastures. S. sphai'ricum, Lapeyr. abr. 1813. p. 259. Sepals 
of calyx thin, not as in <S'. dasypliyllum (to which species it is 
nearly allied) thick. 

Short-leaved Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

52 S. Co'rsicum (Duby, in D. C. syn. fl. fr. ed. 2.) stems 
ascending, branched at the base, twisted ; leaves ovate, obtuse, 
hispid ; sterile shoots crowded ; cymes terminal, few-flowered, 
glabrous; petals acutish. If.H. Native of Corsica, where it 
was detected by Ph. Thomas, on the walls of the city of Corte ; 
and of Sardinia, at the town of Jessu. Flowers smaller than 
those o{ S. dasyphijllmn, appearing of a dirty pale purple in the 
dried specimen ; but white in the recent state. 

Corsiean Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

53 S. hirsu'tum (All. ped. no. 1754. t. 65. f. 5.) floriferous 
stems erect, nearly naked ; leaves remote, alternate, oblong-cy- 
lindrical, obtuse, hairy ; sterile stems crowded ; cymes terminal, 
few-flowered; petals acuminately awned. $. H. ex All. 1/. 
H. ex Pourr. Native of the Alps of Piedmont, Provence, 
Cevennes, Pyrenees, and on the mountains of Leone and Cor- 
sica, especially among schistous rocks. S. globiferum, Pourr. 
act. tol. 3. p. 327. S. hispidum, Poir. diet. 4. p. 633. but not 
of Desf. Petals white, downy, marked with a purple line. 

Hairy Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

54 S. piLosuM (Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 352.) stems ascending, 
leafy ; leaves oblong, obtuse, rather fleshy, hairy, alternate ; 
radical ones in fascicles; cymes terminal, corymbose; petals lan- 
ceolate, hardly twice the length of the sepals. 1/ . H. Native 
about the port of Caucasus, among rocks. Allied to S. hirsutum, 
but differs in the leaves being flattish, in the sepals of the calyx 
being twice the length, and in the duration being perennial, not 
biennial. 

Pilose Stonecrop. PI. ~ foot. 

55 S. Hispa'nicum (Lin. spec. 618.) stem erect, branched, 
glabrous ; leaves scattered, terete, acutish, glaucous ; sterile 
stems rosulate, crowded ; cymes branched ; flowers sessile, along 
the branches of the cyme ; petals 6, acuminately awned. '^.. H. 
Native of Spain, Switzerland, and the south of Germany. Jacq. 
aust. 5. t. 47. — Dill. hort. elth. 2. p. 33'Z. S. aristatum, Tenore, 
fl. neap. 1. p. 250. Petals white, with a dirty red keel. Carpels 
glabrous. Very like S. glaucum and S. rubens, but the root is 
perennial. 

,S))nH(.s/i Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1732. PI. 4 foot. 

56 S. a'lbum (Lin. spec. 619.) l)ranches perennial, rooting, 
when young rather puberulous ; leaves ovately club-shaped, 
green, nearly terete, glabrous ; cymes branched, terminal, sub- 



118 



CRASSULACE^. XVIII. Sedum. 



corymbose ; petals bluntish. 1/ . H. Native of Europe, in dry 
meadows, on walls and rocks. In England on walls and roofs, 
not common ; at Kentish Town and Bromley, Middlesex ; on 
rocks about Great Malvern, Worcestershire ; upon walls at Peter- 
borough ; but rare in Scotland. Smith, engl. bot. t. 578. Curt, 
lond. !. t. 31. Oed. fl. dan. t. 60. All. ped. 1751. t. G5. f. 2. 
S. album var. y turgidum, D. C. prod. 3. p. 406. Flowers cy- 
mose, white. 

While Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Britain. PI. \ foot. 

57 S. micra'nthum (Bast, in litt. D. C. suppl. fl. fr. 361.3. 
Haw. in phil. mag. Sept. 1831, p. 415.) branches perennial, root- 
ing, slightly puberulous ; leaves clavately oblong, green, nearly 
terete, glabrous ; cymes branched, terminal, subcorymbose ; 
petals bluntish. 1^. H. Native of France, in Andegaveny. 
In England near Gloucester. S. turgidum. Bast. ess. p. 167. 
S. album /3 micranthum, D. C. prod. 3. p. 406. Very like S. 
ulhum, but is 2 or 3 times larger ; flowers more numerous, and 
the petals narrower. 

,S';«aW-flowered Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Brit. PI. ^ ft. 

58 S. gra'cile (Meyer, verz. pflanz. p. 151.) plant glabrous 
and green; stems herbaceous, diffuse ; leaves subulate, bluntish, 
loose at the base, those of the sterile branches imbricated ; rays 
of cyme elongated, much spreading ; flowers decandrous, almost 
sessile ; petals acuminated, longer than the calyx ; style rather 
longer than the breadth of the acute capsule. %. H. Native 
of Caucasus. Flowers white. 

Far. a, minus (Meyer, 1. c.) flowers smaller. On Mount 
Gutgora at the altitude of 3300 feet. 

Var. ft, miijus (Meyer, I. c.) flowers almost twice the size of 
those of var. a. On the Talusch Mountains, at the altitude of 
1400 to 2700 feet. 

Slender Stonecrop. PI. difl'use. 

59 S. TERETiF6LiuM(Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 84. Haw. in phil. mag. 
Sept. 1831, p. 415.) branches elongated, rooting, perennial, quite 
glabrous ; leaves equally terete, rather elongated, a little depres- 
sed, green, glabrous ; cymes branched, terminal, subcorymbose; 
petals bluntish. Tf.. H. Native of Europe, on walls, rocks, and 
in dry pastures. In England near Hereford. S. album, D. C. 
prod. 3. p. 406. — Fuschs, hist. 35. with a figure. Oed. fl. dan. t. 
66. D. C. pi. grass, t. 22. S. teretifolium a. Lam. fl. fr. 3. p. 
84. Flowers white. 

Terete -leaved Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Brit. PI. i foot. 

CO S. Atuo'um (D. C. prod. 3. p. 4o7.) stems erect, a little 
creeping at the base ; leaves semi-cylindrical, short, remote, and 
arc, as well as the stem, glabrous ; cyme terminal, somewhat 
corymbose, many-flowered ; petals acute. 1/ . H. Native on 
the top of Mount Athos. S. turgidum, D. Urv. enum. p. 51. 
exclusive of the synonymes. Flowers white, like those of jS'. 
album, but the petals are acute and distinct. 

Athos Stonecrop. PI. A foot. 

Leaves terete. Flowers red or blue. 
FIG. 28. 



• • • • • 



61 S. cceru'leum (Vahl. 
symb. 2. p. 51.) stem flat on 
the ground at the base, as- 
cending ; leaves oblong, al- 
ternate, obtuse, loosened at ''ij 
the base ; cymes bifid, gla- 
brous; petals?, obtuse. ©. 
H. Nativeof Tunis, in the 
fissures of rocks. Shaw. itin. 
550. with a figure. Sims, 
bot. mag. 2224. Ker. bot. 
reg. 520. S. aziireum, Desf. 
fl. atl. 1. p. 362. Flowers 
not blue, but at first purplish, andfading to blue(f. 28.) 




Blue-Rowered Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1 822. PI. 
i foot. 

62 S. heptape'talum (Poir. voy. barb. 2. p. 169. diet. 4. p. 
630.) stems erect, branched at the apex ; leaves ovate-oblong, 
scattered, depressedly gibbous ; cymes panicled ; petals 7, acu- 
minated. ©. H. Native of Barbary, Corsica, and Malta, on 
rocks by the sea-side. D. C. fl. fr. 4. p. 392. Flowers purplish as 
in S. cceriileum, fading to blue. S. heptapetalum, Horn. hort. 
hafn. suppl. p. 138. said to be originally from the Russian em- 
pire, is perhaps distinct from this species, but is not sufficiently 
known. 

Seven-petalled Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

63 S. bractea'tum (Viv. fl. lyb. 24. t. 8. f. S.) stems erect, 
branched at the apex, beset with spreading hairs, as well as the 
leaves ; leaves alternate, linear, thick, obtuse ; cymes trichoto- 
mous ; flowers on short pedicels along the branches of the cyme ; 
petals 5, elliptic, keeled. Q. H. Native of the Great Syrtus, 
in Lybia on the sea shore. The colour of the flowers agrees 
with that of S. ccerilleum, but the habit is that of S. Hispdnieum. 
Nectariferous scales emarginate. 

Bracteated-{\owered Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

64 S. viLLOsuM (Lin. spec. 620.) stem erect, almost simple, 
beset with viscid hairs ; leaves semi-terete, rather remote, erect, 
also beset with viscid pili; cymes terminal, few-flowered; petals 
acutish. O- H. Native of Europe, in boggy places. In En- 
gland in wet mountainous pastures, and the clefts of moist rocks ; 
in the north of Westmoreland, Durham, and the north-west part 
of Yorkshire, not unfrequent. More abundant in Scotland. — 
Smith, engl. bot. t. 394. Oed. fl. dan. t. 24. D. C. jil. grass, t. 
70.— Mor. hist. sect. 12. t. 8. f. 48.— Petiv. brit. t. 42. f. 7. 
Flowers pale red. 

Far. ft, peritdndrum (D. C. fl. fr. suppl. p. 524.) stamens 5 
(especially those that are epipetalous are abortive) or 6 ; the 4 
epipetalous ones of which having vanished. 

Villous Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Britain. PI. -I to -j ft. 

65 S. ru'bens (D. C. prod. 3. p. 405.) stem erect, branched ; 
leaves oblong, obtuse, nearly terete, sessile, spreading, glabrous ; 
cymes branched, pubescent ; flowers sessile, unilateral along the 
branches of the cyme, pentandrous ; petals 5, acuminately awned. 
©. H. Native of south and middle Europe, in cultivated sandy 
fields. Crassula riibens, Lin. syst. veg. p. 253. D. C. pi. grass, 
t. 55. S. rCibens ft pentandrum, D. C. prod. 3. p. 405. Flowers 
pale red. Mature carpels puberulous. The epipetalous sta- 
mens are all or for the most part abortive, and therefore the 
flowers are pentandrous. 

iferfc/cHijig-flowered Stonecrop. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1769. 
PI. i to i foot. 

66 S. pube'rulum (D. C. mem. crass, p. 33.) stems erect, 
branched, puberulous ; leaves scattered, terete, acutish, glabrous ; 
cymes branched ; flowers sessile along the branches of the cyme; 
petals 6, acuminately awned. ©. H. Native of Calabria. This 
species comes very near S. pdllidum and S. riibens. 

Puberulous Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

67 S. pa'llidum (Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 353.) stem erect, 
branched ; leaves oblong, obtuse, nearly terete, spreading, gla- 
brous ; cymes branched, pubescent ; flowers sessile, unilateral 
along the branches of the cyme, decandrous ; petals acuminately 
awned. ©. H. Native of Caucasus. Flowers pale red or 
white. Mature carpels puberulous. 

Pale Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1817. PI. i foot. 

68 S. CEsriTosuM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 405.) leaves ovate, tur- 
gid, imbricated, glabrous ; stems nearly simple, glabrous ; flowers 
lateral, sessile, solitary; carpels stellately spreading. ©. H. 
Native of Spain, Provence, Tauria, in exposed places. Magn. 
bot. p. 238. and 237. with a figure. Crassula Magnolii, D. C. 
fl. fr. suppl. no. 3604. Tillae'a rubra, Gouan. hort. p. 77. 



CRASSULACEyE. XVIII. Sedum. 



119 



Tillae'a erecta, Sauv. nionsp. p. 139. Crassula verticilliris, Lin. 
mant. 261. ? Crassula cajspitosa, Cav. icon. t. 69. f. 2. Bicb. fl. 
taur. 1. p. 257. Flowers pale red. The 5 fertile stamens alter- 
nating with the petals, and the rudiments of the 5 sterile ones in 
front of the petals. 

Tufted Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1788. PI. | foot. 

•**•*• Leaves terete. Flowers yellow. 

69 S. quadri'fidum (Pall. itin. 3. p. 730. append, no. 90. t. 
P. f. 1.) leaves scattered, terete, bluntish ; root thick, of many 
necks ; stems numerous, erect, simple ; corymbs terminal, few- 
flowered, simple ; pedicels about equal in Icns^th ; length of nec- 
tariferous scales exceeding the breadth ; flowers octandrous, 
4-cleft ; stamens a little longer than the petals, i;. H. Native 
of Dahuria, the Ural Mountains, and Altaia, in humid stony 
places, on the tops of the Alps. Pall. ed. gall, in 8vo. vol. S. 
p. 311. t. 10-i. f. 4. S. quinquefidura andS. hexapetalum, Haw. 
rev. p. 26. ? Flowers yellow. 

ewarfn/fZ-flowered Stonecrop. Fl. July. Clt. 1800. PI. i ft. 

70 S. a'cre (Lin. spec. C19.) stems rather creeping at the 
base ; branches erect ; leaves ovate, adnate, sessile, gibbous, 
erectish, alternate, glabrous ; cymes trifid ; flowers sessile along 
the branches of the cyme ; petals lanceolate, acuminated. % . H. 
Native of Europe, common on walls, roofs of houses, rocks, and 
dry sandy ground; plentiful in Britain. Bull. herb. t. 30. D. C. 
pi. grass, t. 117. Smith, engl. bot. 839. Woodv. med. bot. t. 
231. Curt. lond. 1. t. 32. Flowers yellow. The whole plant is 
acrid, and chewed in the mouth has a hot biting taste ; whence, 
and from its common place of growth, it has the name of wall- 
pepper. Applied to the skin it blisters, and taken inwardly it 
excites vomiting. In scorbutic cases and quartern agues, it is 
an excellent medicine under proper management. For the for- 
mer, a handful of the herb is directed to be boiled in eight pints 
of beer till they are reduced to four, of which 3 or 4 ounces are 
to be taken every morning. Milk has been found to answer this 
purpose better than beer. Not only ulcers simply scorbutic, 
but those of a scrofulous or even cancerous tendency, have 
been cured by the use of tliis plant. It is likewise useful as an 
external application, in destroying fungous flesh, and in promot- 
ing a discharge in gangrenes and carbuncles. 

I'ar. j3, diminulum (Haw. in phil. mag. 1831. p. 416.) much 
smaller than the species, hardly an inch high ; stem creeping. 
1/ . H. Native of the higher Alps of Provence ; also on Swaf- 
fan Heath, Norfolk. S. acre /3 graciale, D. C. prod. 3. p. 407. 
S. glaciale. Clarion in D. C. fl. fr. 4. p. 393. 

Far. y, elongalum (Haw. 1. c.) pendulous branches 7 inches 
high : erect ones 4 inches ; leaves loosely imbricating. 

Acrid Stonecrop. Fl. June. Britain. PI. ^ to j- foot. 

71 S. sexangdla're (Lin. spec. 620.) stems branched at the 
base, floriferous ones erect ; leaves nearly terete, adnate-sessile, 
usually by threes on the flowering stems, and 3 in a whorl on 
sterile branches, imbricating in 6 spiral rows ; cymes trifid ; pe- 
tals lanceolate, acuminated. If.H. Native of Europe, in dry 
sandy ground, and on walls. In England, but not common ; as 
near Northfleet, Sheerness, and on the Isle of Sheppy ; on Green- 
wich Park wall on the south side, near the western corner ; on 
the famous rotten walls of Old Sarum; also of Cambridgeshire. 
D. C. pi. grass, t. 118. Curt. lond. 4. t. 33. Smith, engl. bot. 
1646. S. icre /3, Huds. Lam. fl. fr. S. spiralc, Haw. in phil. 
mag. 1824. no. 176. — Cam. epit. 8j6. with a figure. Flowers 
yellow. Habit of .S'. acre. 

Sijcangkd Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Britain. PI. ^ foot. 

72 S. Bolonie'nse (Lois. not. p. 71.) stem branched at the 
base; floriferous ones erect; leaves nearly terete, obtuse, 
loosened at the base, glabrous, imbricated on all sides ; cymes 




trifid ; flowers sessile, along the branches ; petals acuminated. 
%. H. Native of sandy woods, about Bologna. D. C. suppl, 
5'i"d. Root creeping. Sepals cylindrical, obtuse. Branches of 
cyme 6-10-flowered. S. schistosum, Lejeune, fl. spa. Flowers 
yellow. Perhaps sufficiently distinct from iS'. sexangulare. 
Bologna Stonecrop. PI. i foot. 

73 S. amplexicau'le (D. C. rapp. voy. 2. p. 80. suppl. fl. 
fr. p. 526. mem. eras. t. 7.) stems branched at the base, erect ; 
leaves terete, subulate, glabrous, dilated at the base into a stem- 
clas])ing membrane ; cymes bifid ; flowers remote, sessile along 
the branches of the cyme ; petals 5-7, lanceolate, acute. 1/. H. 
Native of Spain, south of France, Italy, Candia, &c. in dry 
mountain pastures. S. rostratum, Tenore, fl. neap. prod. p. 26. 
S. tenuifolium, Sibth, prod. fl. grcec. 1. p. 335. and Sieb. herb, 
cret. Sempervivum anomalum, Lag. nov. spec. 17. Flowers yel- 
low, almost like those of S. rcfiexum. Sepals subulate, acute. 

Slejii-clasping Stonecrop. PI. -j foot. 

74 S. rupe'stre (Lin. spec. p. FIG. 29. 
618.) stems branched at the base, 
floriferous ones erect ; leaves te- 
rete-subulate, glaucous, loosened 
at the base ; sterile stems cylin- 
drical, densely imbricated; flow- 
ers cymose, 5-7-petalled ; sepals 
bluntish. li.H. Native of Eu- 
rope, on walls and rocks. In 
England on St. Vincent's rock, 
Bristol ; on Chedder rocks, So- 
mersetshire, and upon walls about 
Darlington. Engl. bot. t. 170. 
—Dill. elth. 2. f. 333. Reich, 
icon. 3. f. 439. S. minus. Haw. 
in phil. mag. 1 825. p. 1 74. ? S. 
reflexum, D. C. pi. grass, t. 116. Flowers yellow (f. 29.). 

Rock Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. England. Pi. ^ foot. 

75 S. septangula're (Haw. syn. 116. and in phil. mag. 1824. 
p. 175.) glaucous; leaves imbricating in 7 rows, incurved, 
spreading, middle-sized, acute. 1/. H. Native of Europe. 
Flowers yellow. S. rupestre /3, septangulare, D. C. prod. 3. p. 
407. S. rupestre, D. C. pi. grass, t. 115. Very like S. cceru- 
Ihccns, but is distinguished by the shorter and hardly subulate 
leaves, and in being more branched, and the branches shorter. 

Scvcii-angled Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1795. PI. 1 ft. 

76 S. albe'scens (Haw. rev. succ. p. 28.) stems branched at 
the base ; flowers erect ; leaves terete-subulate, glaucous, loos- 
ened at the base ; sterile stems elongated, with spreading leaves ; 
flowers cymose, 5-7-petalled ; sepals lanceolate. 7/ . H. Native 
of England and Denmark, on barren sandy hills and walls. In 
England, especially on the sides of some rough hills near Mil- 
denhall, Suffolk. S. glaiicum. Smith, engl. fl. 2. p. 321. engl. 
bot. 2471. but not of Waldst. et Kit. S. reflexum, fl. dan. t. 
113. Flowers yellow. 

JV/iitish-haved Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Brit. PI. -i foot. 

77 S. Forsteria'num (Smith, comp. 71. engl. bot. 1802.) 
stems branched at the base ; flowers erect ; leaves semicylin- 
drical, bluntish, green tinged with red ; sterile stems short ; 
leaves crowded, somewhat rosulate at the tops of the branches ; 
flowers cymose, 5-7-petalled ; sepals obtuse. %. H. Native 
of Wales, on rocks at the falls of Khydoll, near the Devil's- 
bridge, Cardiganshire ; on the rocks of Hisval, overhanging the 
little valley of Nant-phrancon. S. Forsterii, Haw. syn. p. 117. 
S. rupestre, D. C. pi. grass. 115.? Flowers yellow. 

Forslcr's Stonecrop. Fl. July, Aug. Wales. PI. | foot. 

78 S. refle'xum (Lin. spec. 618. Smith, fl. brit. p. 490.) 
stems branched at the base ; floriferous ones erect ; leaves terete- 
subulate, green, loosened at the base ; sterile shoots somewhat 



120 



CRASSULACE.^^. XVIII. Sedum. 



cylindrical, spreadiiif; ; flowers cymose, S-r-pctalled ; sepals 
bluntish. ^.H. Native of Europe, in fields and on walls ; 
in Britain on walls and thatched roofs, abundant. Smith, engl. 
bot. t. CD5.— Park, tlieat. 1. t. 734. f. 1. Flowers yellow. 

Jar. fi, recuriatum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 408.) leaves glauces- 
cent ; sterile stems somewhat reflexed. S. recurvatum, Willd. 
enun'i. siii)pl. Z3. Perhaps a variety of S. albescens, according 
to Haw. 

Var. y, coUtnum (D. C. 1. c.) leaves glaucescent ; sterile stems 
spreading. S. collinum, Willd. 1. c. p. 25. S. elegans, Lejeune 
fl, spa. l.p. 205.? 

Var. c, crhlatum (D. C. 1. c.) sterile branches crestedly some- 
what fasciculate ; leaves green, spreading. S. cristatum, Schrad. 
hort. goctt. t. 10. S. Portlandicum, Lob. icon. 380. 

/it//<'Jt>d-leaved Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Brit. PI. 4 ft. 

71) S. vi'rens (Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 1 10.) leaves scattered, 
subulate, green, loosened at the base ; flowers cymose ; petals 
lanceolate, much longer than the sepals. %. H. Native of 
Portugal. S. reflexum, Willd. enum. suppl. p. 25. S. crassi- 
caule,^Link. enum. 1. p. 438. Flowers yellow. Very like S. 
rcjlexmn, and probably only a variety of it. 

Gmn Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1774. PI. | foot. 

80 S. vire'scens (Willd. enum suppl. p. 25.) stems branched: 
floriferous ones erect ; leaves terete-subulate, those of the sterile 
branches spreading and glaucescent ; flowering stems spreading, 
compressed; branches of cyme crowded, erect. !{.. H. Native 
of Siberia. The leaves, according to Haw. in rev. p. 29. are green, 
and the flowers nearly white ; but according to Willd. 1. c. the 
leaves are glaucescent, and the flowers greenish-yellow, there- 
fore two species are probably confounded under this name, and 
perhaps both are only varieties of <S'. rejiexum. 

GneniiA-flowered Stonecrop. Fl.Ju. Aug. Clt. 1815. Pl.ift. 

81 S. suhclavVtum (Haw. in phil. mag. 1831. p. 414.) 
leaves imbricated, rosulate at the tops of the branches, some- 
what clavate, turgid, green, attenuated towards the apex, and 
acute. %. H. Native of North America. Flowers not seen. 
From habit this species appears to come nearest S. Forstcriiinum, 

SuhclavateAeayeA Stonecrop. Clt. 1 830. PI. \ foot. 

82 S. stenope'talum (Pursh, fl. amer. sept. 1. p. 324.) stems 
assurgent, glabrous ; leaves scattered, crowded, adnate-sessile, 
compressed, subulate, acute ; cymes terminal, trichotomous, and 
dichotomous ; spikes recurved ; flowers sessile, decandrous ; 
petals 5, linear, much longer than the calyx. i;. H. Native 
of North America, on the banks of Clark's river, and the 
Kooskoosky ; and frequent on the east side of the Rocky 
Mountains, Flowers golden yellow. Said to be allied to S. 
rcJlexum. 

Nnrrow-pelaUcd Stonecro-p. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1826. PI. i ft. 

83 S. cceuule'scens (Haw. in. phil. mag. 1825. p. 174.) leaves 
long, spreading, subulate, acute, bluish-glaucous, flattisli above. 
%. H. Native country unknown. Very like S. aUissimum, 
l)ut not half the size, more bluish-glaucous ; leaves more distant, 
petals more acute, pale yellow. 

/?/Km7( Stonecrop. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1820. PI. 1 foot. 

84 S. ALTi'ssiMLM (Poir. diet. 4. p. G34.) stem fruticulose, 
branched at the base ; floriferous ones erect ; leaves nearly 
terete, acute, glaucous, glabrous : superior <ines scattered, flattisli 
above ; those of the sterile branches imbricated; cymes branciied, 
many-flowered ; flowers sessile along the branches of the cyme, 
which are twisted at the apex ; jjctals 6-8, lanceolate, acute, 
.spreading. i;. H. Native of the south of Europe. D. C. 
pi. grass, t. 116. Sempervivum sedifornie, Jacq. hort. vind. t. 
81. and var. monstrosa misc. 1. p. 133. t. 5. S. fruticulosum, 
Brot. fl. lus. 2. p. 206. S. rufescens, Tenore, fl. neap. t. 41. 
S. Nicaeense, All. ped. no. 1752. t. 90. f. 1. S. Jacquini, Haw. 
in phil. mag. 1825. p. 174. S. ruijestrea, Gouan. S.diokum, 



Donn, hort. cant. Flowers cream-coloured. Lobes of calyx 
bluntish. A large, strong, glaucous plant. 

r^/Zfii Stonecrop. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 17G9. PI. 1 foot. 

85 S. ocHROLEu'cuM (Smith, in Lin. trans. 10. p. 7.) stem 
branched ; leaves glaucous, scattered, acute : lower ones terete : 
upper ones elliptic, depressed ; cymes branched, many flowered ; 
flowers sessile along the branches of the cyme ; calycine seg- 
ments acutish ; petals oblong-spatulate. 1/ . H. Native of the 
south of Europe. S. altissimum fl, ochroleucum, D. C. prod. 3. 
p. 408. Flowers pale yellow. Very like iS*. altissimum, but 
rather larger. 

C ream-coloured-&ov.exe& Stonecrop. Fl. July. Clt. 1818. 
PI. 1 foot. 

8u S. anope'talum (D. C. rapp. 2. p. 80. suppl. fl. fr. p. 
526. mem. crass, t. 8.) stems branched at the base, erect ; leaves 
nearly terete, rather depressed, loosened at the base, glaucous, 
mucronate ; those of the sterile branches imbricated ; cyme 4- 
cleft, corymbose ; petals lanceolate, acuminated, erect. 1/ . H. 
Native of the south of France, on calcareous rocks, and among 
stones. Bauh. hist. 3. p. 428. S. Hispanicum, D. C. fl. fr. 
no. 1326. but not of Lin. S. rupestre, Vill. dauph. 3. p. 678. 
but not of Lin. S. anopetalum, Spreng. syst. 2. p. 435. exclu- 
sive of the synonyme of Tenore. Flowers cream-coloured. 
There is also a variety with orange-coloured flowers, according 
to Haworth. 

Ujmard-petalled Stonecrop. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1818. PI. | ft. 

87 S. Urvi'llei (D. C. prod. 3. p. 408.) stems glabrous ; 
erect, creeping, and branched at the base ; leaves scattered, 
nearly terete, obtuse, dilated, and stem-clasping at the base ; 
cyme 2-3-cleft; flowers sessile along the branches ; petals acu- 
minately awned. ©. H. Native of the Island of Lazaretto. S. 
pallidum, D'Urv. enum. p. 51. but notof Bieb. Flowers yellow. 
Capsules pale, somewhat stellate. 

D' Urville's Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

88 S. viri'dulum (Haw. in phil. mag. 1827. p. 183.) leaves 
erectish, linear-subulate, green, somewhat mucronulate on one 
side. 1/ . H. Native country unknown. Very like S. virens, 
and S. recurvatum, Willd. but the leaves are a little larger and 
flatter, greener and blunter. It is less than <S'. anopetalum. 

Small-green Stonecrop. Fl.Ju. Jul. Clt. 1820. PI. i ft. 

8!) S. LiTtiREUM (Guss. pi. rar. p. 185. t. 37. f. 2.) stem 
erect, branched at the base ; branches ascending ; leaves spa- 
tulate-cuneated, semiterete, obtuse, glabrous ; flowers sessile, 
lateral, solitary. Q. H. Native of Calabria, among rubbish 
by the sea-side. Flowers pale yellow, alternate. Petals a little 
longer than the calyx, linear-lanceolate. 

Seashore Stonecrop. PI. 2 inches high. 

90 S. saxa'tile (Willd. spec. 2. p. 706.) stem erect, branched 
from the base ; leaves scattered, rather remote, terete, obtuse, 
loosened at the base ; cymes leafy, spreading ; flowers on short 
pedicels, along the branches of the cyme ; petals oblong, mucro- 
nate. ©. H. Native of Europe, among rocks; in Norway, 
Germany, Switzerland, Dauphiny, Denmark, Mount Cenis, S;c. 
D. C. pi. grass, t. 119. Smith, fl. grsec. t. 450. S. ajstivum 
and saxatile. All. pedem. no. 1746. and 1749. t. 65. f. 6. S. 
alpestre, Vill. dauph. 3. p. 684. S. rupestre, (Ed. fl. dan. t. 59. 
but not of Lin. S. CEderi, Roth. prod. fl. scand. ed. 2. no. 562. 
S. annuum, Lin. spec. 620. exclusive of the character and sy- 
nonymes. S. divaricatum, Lapeyr. abr. 260. but not of Ait. 
S. schistosum, Lejeune, fl. spa. 1. p. 206. Herb 2-4 inches 
long. Flowers yellow or pale yellow. 

/foe A- Stonecrop. Fl, Ju. Jul. Clt. 1820. PI. i foot. 

91 S. tene'llum (Meyer, verz. pfl. p. 152.) plant glabrous, 
glaucescent ; stems herbaceous, erectish ; leaves subulate, blunt- 
ish, loose at the base ; those of the sterile branches imbricated ; 
rays of cyme short, few-flowered, coarctate ; flowers decandrous, 



CRASSULACEiE. XVIII. Sedum. 



121 



rather shorter than the pedicels ; petals acute, longer than the 
calyx ; capsule truncate at the apex, and a])iculatcd by the short 
styles. 1/. H. Native of Caucasus, in stony places, at the alti- 
tude of JOOO feet. Flowers orange-coloured. 
Tender Stoncerop. PI. 1 foot. 

92 S. re'pens (Schk'ich. in 1). C. fl. fr. suppl. 525.) stems 
ascending, creeping, and branched at the base ; leaves scattered, 
semiterete, obtuse ; cymes few-flowered ; petals ovate. 1/. H. 
Native of the higher Pyrenees. S. Guettardi, Vill. dauph. 3. 
t. 45. exclusive of the synonymes. S. rubcns, Ha'nk. sud. 114? 
S. annuuni. All. pedeni. no. 17C3. ? S. Monregalense, Ball).? 
S. atratum /J, D. C. fl. fr. no. 3G15. An intermediate plant be- 
tween S. atratum and S.sa.ratile, Petals pale yellow. 

C'rfC7)(HCT Stouecro]). Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. IH)7. PI. -^ foot. 

93 S. puBEscENS (Vahl. symb. 2. p. 52.) stem erect, branched, 
))ubescent ; leaves alternate, elongated, obtuse, rather pilose 
above; cymes trifid, many-flowered; petals lanceolate. ©. II. 
ex Desf. fl. atl. 1. p. 3G0. Native of Tunis, in the fissures of 
rocks. Petals yellow, pubescent on the outside. 

Pubescent Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

94 S. iiisriDL'M (Desf. fl. atl. 1. p. 361. but not of Poir.) 
stem erect, branclied above, hispid ; leaves scattered, nearly 
terete, depressed above, spreading ; branches of cyme filiform, 
rather panicled ; flowers pedicellate; petals 5-(i, lanceolate, 
acute. — Native of the north of Africa, on Mount Atlas. S. 
Atlanticum, Pers. ench. no. 35. S. filiforme, Poir. Flowers 
golden yellow. 

///s;)i(i Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

t Species nut sufficiently known. 
* Shrubby species. 

95 S. nh'dum (Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 112.) stem shrubby, 
branched, erectish ; branches twisted, glabrous ; leaves scat- 
tered, oblong-cylindrical, obtuse ; cymes terminal, and are as 
well as the calyxes glabrous. I7 . D. G. Native of Madeira. 
Petals 5, yellow, lanceolate. Scales orange-coloured, thick, and 
obtuse. Leaves almost like those of S. album. 

A^aie(i Stonecrop. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1777. Shrub £ foot. 

96 S. LAXiFLORUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 409 ) stem shrubby, 
branched, ascending, glabrous ; branches twisted ; leaves scat- 
tered, ovate-cylindrical, thick, obtuse, glabrous ; cymes loose, 
divaricate ; flowers pedicellate, beset with glandvdar pubescence. 
I2 . D. G. Native of TenerifTe. Petals small, apparently white. 
Sepals broad. 

Lax-floirered Stonecrop. Shrub 1 foot. 

97 S. oxype'talum (H. B. et Kunlh, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 
45.) stem shrubl)y, glabrous, branched ; leaves alternate, flat, 
quite entire, obovate-spatulate, rounded at the apex, and some- 
what emarginate ; cymes terminal, somewhat dichotomous ; 
flowers secund, sessile ; petals 5, linear, each ending in a narrow 
acumen. Ij . D. G. Native of Mexico, in gardens. F'lovvers 
reddish. 

Sharp-petalled Stonecrop. Shrub 5 feet. 

98 S. DEXDROiDELM (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 409. mem. crass, t. 9.) stem shrubby, branched, 
erect ; leaves scattered or opposite, obovate-cuneated, glabrous ; 
those of the sterile branches rosulate ; thyrse panicled, much 
divided; flowers secund, sessile, bractless ; petals 5, lanceolate. 

fj . D. G. Native of Mexico. Flowers yellow. Very like a 
species of Sempervivum. 

Tree-like Stonecrop. Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

99 S. ebracte.Vtum (Moc. et Sesse, fl. mex. icon. ined. ex 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 409. mem. crass, t. 6. f. /5.) stem shrubby, 
fleshy, twisted at the base, creeping ; flowering stems erect ; 
leaves scattered, glabrous, ovate, thick, obtuse : those of the 
flowering stems spreading, those of the sterile stems imbricated ; 

VOL. III. 



thyrse panicled ; flowers secund, sessile, bractless : petals 5, 
lanceolate. 1^ . D. G. Native of Mexico. Flowers white. 
Habit of a species of Sempervivum. 
Bractless Stonecrop. Shrub ^ foot. 

* * Herbaceous plants. 

100 S. a'ltum (Clark, in Spreng. neue. entd. 3. p. 161.) flo- 
riferous stems erect ; leaves lanceolate, acute, quite entire ; 
racemes subfastigiate ; pedicels short, secund ; petals 6, lan- 
ceolate. — Native of Palestine. The rest unknown. 

High Stonecrop. PI. 1 foot. 

101 S. Torre Yi ; leaves roundish, flat, entire, scattered; 
cymes terminal, trichotomous. 11. H. Native near the Rocky 
Mountains. Sedum, nov. spec. Torrey. in amer. lye. new vork. 
2. p. 205. 

Torrey' s Stonecrop. PI. ? 

102 S. linea're (Thunb. fl. jap. 187.) stem glabrous, a little 
branched ; leaves terete, linear, opposite, stem-clasping, acute, 
spreading ; cyme trifid. — Native of Japan. Flowers yellow. 

Linear-\ea\eA Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

103 S. tene'llum (Bieb. fl. taur. suppl. p. 315.) stems 
branched at the very base ; floriferous ones erect; leaves scat- 
tered, oblong, obtuse, nearly terete, loosened at the base ; corymb 
simple, few-flowered; petals 5, lanceolate-subulate, twice the 
length of the calyx. ©. H. Native of Caucasus, on the alps. 
Flowers smaller than those of S. album, but the colour is un- 
known. 

.S/cHrfcr-Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

104 S. akista'tum (Vill. dauph. 4. p. 680. t. 45.) stems lying 
on the ground at the base : floriferous ones erect ; leaves terete, 
acute at both ends, loosened at the base ; those of the sterile 
stems densely imbricated ; cymes few-flowered ; petals 5, acu- 
minately awned. % . H. Native of Dauphiny, near Segoyer. 
Petals white. Perhaps only a variety of iS. anopetalum. 

Awned-^etaWeA Stonecrop. PI. ^ to -j foot. 

105 S. pruina'tum (Brot. fl. lus. 2. p. 209.) stem erect, 
branched at the base, glabrous, glaucous, pruinose ; leaves fleshy, 
oblong, convexly flattish, loosened at the base ; cymes bifid ; 
sepals and petals 6, lanceolate, acuminated, spreading. Q. H. 
Native of Portugal. Sempervivum pruinatum, Spreng. syst. 2. 
p. 169. Colour of flowers unknown. 

Frosted Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

106 S. confe'rtum (Delil. fl. eg. ill. no. 451.) leaves subu- 
late, scattered, crowded. — Native of Egypt, about Cairo. Sedum 
no. 243, Forsk. fl. a"gyp. p. 71. The rest unknown. 

CrowdcdAfAveA Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

107 S. Quite'nse (H. B. et Kunth, nov. gen. amer. 6. p. 46.) 
stems herbaceous, glabrous ; leaves alternate, flat above, con- 
vex beneath, spatulately-lanceolate, acutish, quite entire; ra- 
cemes elongated ; flowers pedicellate ; petals 5, oblong, acu- 
minated. ;^ . D. G. Native of South America, among rubbish, 
near Guamcabamba, and on the walls of the town of Quito. 
Flowers orange-coloured. Perhaps a species of Echcveria. 
There is a variety of this plant having the leaves margined 
with red. 

Quito Stonecrop. PI. -j foot. 

108 S. bi'color (H. B. et Kunth, 1. c. p. 45.) stem herba- 
ceous, glabrous ; leaves alternate, flat, obovate-spatulate, acutish, 
quite entire ; racemes terminal, flowers pedicellate ; petals 5, 
oblong, acute. 1^. D. G. Native near Caraccas, in humid 
places, and among rocks at Meneses, near Pasto. Petals yellow 
inside, and red or orange-coloured outside. Perhaps the flowers 
are truly racemose, and the plant is therefore probably a species 
of Echcveria. 

Two-colourcd-Rov,ered Stonecrop. PI. ^ foot. 

109 S. Borya'num (D. C. prod. 3. p. 410.) stems naked, 
R 



122 



CRASSULACE^E. XVIII. Sedum. XIX. Sempervivum. 



erect ; flowers yellow, disposed in short recurved spikes ; leaves 
linear, scale-formed, reflexed— Native of Spain, on the rocks 
called BorrequiUos, in Sierra Nevada. Perhaps a species of 
Sempcrvhum, ex Bory. ann. gen. 3. (1820.) p. 14. The rest 
unknown. 

Bon/s Stonccrop. PI. i foot. 

1 10 S. MELANANTHE RUM (D. C. prod. 3. p. 410.) Stems weak; 
leaves ovate, attenuated at the apex; flowers in corymbose 
panicles.— Native of Spain, in Sierra Nevada, on the rocks of 
BorrequiUos. Flowers small, densely panicled, rather sweet 
scented. Anthers black. The rest unknown. 

Dlack-anthered Stonecrop. PI. \ foot. 

-j- Specks only known by name. 

1 S. stolomfemm (Gmel. itin. 3. t. 35. f. 2.). 

2 S. liliucexmi (Led. ex Steud. nom.). 

3 S. procumhens (Schrank, bav. p. 726.). 

4 S. Monregalense (Balb.). 

N.B. lihodlola bitcrnala, Lour. coch. p. G27. is totally dif- 
ferent from Rhodiola, Lin. and is perhaps a plant belonging to 
Sajyindacece. 

Cult. The greater part of the species being quite hardy, and 
all succulent, they therefore succeed best on rock-work, for which 
they are well adapted. Some of the rarer kinds may be grown 
in small pots. They succeed best in light, sandy soil, or one com- 
posed of loam and brick rubbish. All are readily increased 
by cuttings. The seeds of the annual species only require to 
be sown on rockwork. There are a few of the species marked 
greenhouse; these will require the same treatment as that re- 
commended for the species of Globulea, see p. 106. 

XIX. SEMPERVrVUM (from semper vivo, to live for ever ; 
the tenacity of life of the Houseleek tribe is well known). Lin. 
gen. no. 612. Lam. ill. t. 413. D. C. in bull, philom. no. 49. 
prod. 3. p. 411. 

Lin. syst. Dodecandria, Dodecagijma. Calyx 6-20-parted. 
Petals 6-20, oblong, acute. Stamens double the number of the 
petals. Scales at base of carpels toothed or jagged at the apex. 
Carpels equal in number to the petals. — Herbs sometimes stem- 
less, with young plants rising from the axils ; or caulescent, 
without any young plants ; or shrubby and fleshy. Leaves 
usually revolute. Branches of cymes sometimes disposed into 
a corymb, and sometimes into a panicle. Petals yellow, white, 
or purplish. 

Sect. I. Chronobium (xpoyoc, chronos, time, and fitou), bioo, to 
live ; plants living only for a time, and are not so tenacious of 
life as those of the following section). D. C. pi. rar. gard. gen. 
no. 21. Young plants, none from the axils. Flowers usually 
yellow, rarely while. Species all natives of the Canary Islands. 

* Shrubby sj'ccies. 

1 S. AizoiDES (Lam. diet. 3. p. 290.) stem frutescent, erect, 
branched ; leaves scattered, obovate, flat, quite entire, glabrous ; 
flowers corymbose ; petals 5-8, spreading. T^ • I-'- ^* Native 
of Madeira. Sedum aizoides, D. C. pi. grass, t. 4. Sedum 
divaricatum. Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 108. Perhaps 
also Anacarapseros divaricate. Haw. syn. p. 113.? Flowers 
yellow. 

Aizoon-lihe Houseleek. Fl. May, Jul. Clt. ? Shrub 1 ft. 

2 S. TOUTUosuM (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 148.) stem 
frutescent, erect, branched ; leaves obovate-spatulate, scattered, 
rather convex beneath ; petals 7-8, spreading ; scales 2-lobed. 
fj . D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. Curt. hot. mag. t. 
296. D. C. pi. grass, t. 156. Flowers yellow. Leaves 11-12 
lines long and 4-5 lines broad. 



FIG. 30. 



Twisted Houseleek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1 779. Sh. A to | ft. 

3 S. viLL^suM (Haw. syn. p. 166. rev. Q5. but not of Ait.) 
stem frutescent, erectish, twisted ; leaves obovate, crowded, 
gibbous beneath, villous ; scales of flower fringed. fj . D. G. 
Native of the Canary Islands. Flowers yellow. Leaves 5 
lines long and 3 lines broad. S. villosum. Ait. is referrible to 
S. stellatujn. 

Fillous Houseleek. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1777. Sh. |. to | ft. 

4 S. cilia'tum (Willd. enum. 1. p. 508. mem. crass, t. 10.) 
stem frutescent, glabrous ; leaves oblong-obovate, somewhat spa- 
tidate, mucronate, cartilaginously ciliated ; thyrse panicled, having 
the branches crowded, with flowers at the apex ; petals 6-7. 
Ij . D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. Coll. hort. rip. 
append. 4. t. 7. Flowers pale yellow. 

Ci/;a(erf-leaved Houseleek. Clt. 1815. Shrub 1 to 1| feet. 

5 S. GLANDULOsuM (Ait. 1. c. p. 148.) Stem frutescent; leaves 
orbicularly spatiilate, with clammy margins ; glands globose ; 
scales of flower wedge-shaped, truncate. I7 . D. G. Native 
of Madeira. Flowers yellow. Glands fringed, yellow, ex Haw. 
rev. p. 65. 

Glandular Houseleek. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. 1777. Shrub 
A to 1 foot. 

6 S. GLUTINOSUM (Ait. 1. C. p. 

147.) stem frutescent; leaves 
cuneiform, viscid, rather scat- 
tered, fringed with adpressed, 
cartilaginous ciliae ; petals 8-10. 
T;. D. G. Native of Madeira. 
Jacq. hort. schcenbr. 4. t. 464. 
Sims, bot. mag. t. 1963. Ker. 
bot. reg. t. 278. Branches of 
panicle loose. Flowers golden 
yellow. The stem rises to the 
height of 2 feet, and even more, 
according to Prince de Salm- 
Dyek. The fishermen of Ma- 
deira rub their nets with the 
fresh leaves of this species, by 
which they are rendered as du- 
rable as if tanned, provided they are steeped in some alkaline 
liquor, (f. 30.) 

C/amm^ Houseleek. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1777. Shrub 1 to 
2 feet. 

7 S. u'rbicum (C. Smith, mss. Horn, suppl. p. 66. Haw. in 
phil. mag. 1827. p. 125.) stem frutescent, erect, leafy at the 
top ; leaves broad, cuneiform, glabrous, cartilaginously ciliated 
on the margins, running into the petiole at the base, broad and 
blunt at the apex, and ending in a small point. Tj . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Canary Islands, on the walls of towns and the roofs 
of houses. Leaves green. Flowers yellow. Perhaps the same 
as S. lali/ulnim. HofTin. verz. 2. p. 208. Haworth's plant is 
probably the same as that of Horneraann. 

City Houseleek. Fl. Ju. Aug. Clt. 1816. Shrub 1 to 2 ft. 

8 S. RETu'suM (Haw. in phil. mag. 1827. p. 125.) stem fru- 
tescent, simple, leafy at the apex ; leaves broadly cuneated, ex- 
panded, smooth, ciliated, somewhat cuneated at the apex, trun- 
cate and retuse. ^ . D. G. Native of Teneriffe, on walls and 
the roofs of houses. Flowers yellow. Very like S. urbicum, 
but differs in the form of the leaves. 

/Je/iue-leaved Houseleek. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1824. Sh. 
1 to 2 feet. 

9 S. arb6reum (Lin. spec. p. 664.) stem arborescent, smooth, 
branched ; leaves cuneiform, glabrous, ciliated, spreading and 
rosulate at the lops of the branches ; panicle loose ; petals 9-11. 

Ij . D. G. Native of Portugal, Barbary, Candia, &c. Bradl. 
succ. pi. 1. t. 31. Ker. bot. reg. 2d. D. C. pi. grass, t. 155, 




CRASSULACEiE. XIX. Sempervivum. 



123 



Smith, fl. graec. 473. Shrub from 3-6 feet. Flowers golden 
yellow. 

Far. /3, variaratum ; leaves margined with white or purple. 

Tree Houseltek. Fl. Mar. Dec. Clt. 1640. Sh. 3 to (! ft. 

10 S. frute'scens (Haw. phil. mag. 1827. p. 125.) stem 
shrubby, simple ; leaves crowded in a rosulate manner at the 
tops of the branches, spatulately cuneatcd, green, ciliated. 
Tj . D. G. Native of Tenerifte. Flowers yellow. Very like 
S. arhbrcum, but the plant is not above half a foot high. 

Frutescent Houseleek. Fl. Mar. Dec. Clt. 1824. PI. -i to 1 ft. 

11 S. TABUL.EFORME (Haw. suppl. p. 69. rcv. 63.) stem fru- 
tescent, erect, simple ; leaves spatulate. Hat, ciliated, atten- 
uated at the base, crowded at the top of the stem, and form- 
ing a rosulate flat disk, in consequence of the leaves being 
so closely imbricated over each other. Ti . D. G. Native of 
Madeira. Stems branching after the first time of flowering. 
Petals 10-12, linear-lanceolate, very pale sulphur-coloured. 
Glands minute, pedunculate. 

T«i/c-/«r»icd Houseleek. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1817. PI. 1 ft. 

12 S. Canarie'kse (Lin. spec. p. 664.) stem short, frutes- 
cent ; radical leaves expanded, rosulate, obovately-spatulate, 
villous, large ; leaves scattered along the flowering stem, ovate ; 
branches of panicle expanded ; flowers pedicellate ; petals 9-10. 

\. D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. — Comm. hort. amst. 
2. t. 95. D. C. pi. grass, t. 141. Petals white, linear. 

Ca«acy-Island Houseleek. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1699. Sh. 1| ft. 

13 S. Smi'thii (Sims, bot. mag. t. 1980.) stems frutescent, 
erect, hispid ; leaves scattered, obovate, acuminated, flat, con- 
cave, a little spotted ; branches of panicle revolute at the points, 
bearing sessile flowers on the upper side ; petals 12. H . D. G. 
Native of the Canary Islands. S. foliosum, C. Smith, hort. 
berol. p. 38. Petals pale yellow, oval-oblong, spreading. Glands 
wanting, ex Haw. rev. p. 63. 

Smhlis Houseleek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1815. Shrub 1 ft. 

14 S. barba'tum (C. Smith, in hort. ber. p. 37.) stem frutes- 
cent ; leaves ovate-spatulate, acute, with cartilaginously ciliated 
margins, marked with brown lines on both surfaces ; flowers 
panicled ; petals 6, Tj . D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. 
S. lineolare, Haw. suppl. p. 69. rev. p. 65. S. spatulatum, 
Horn, suppl. p. 60. Flowers yellow. 

Var. jl, hybridum (Salm-Dyck. and Haw.) all parts of plant 
larger. 

Bearded Houseleek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1815. Sh. 1 to 2 ft. 

15 S. c.ESPirosuM (C. .Smith, in hort. berol. p. 38.) stem fru- 
tescent, very short, at length a little branched, leafy at the apex ; 
leaves oblong-linear, glabrous, stiffly ciliated, marked with brown 
lines on both surfaces, crowded in a rosulate manner, but the 
cauline ones are scattered ; flowers in cymose corymbs, with 
the branchlets dichotomous ; petals 7-8, spreading. h . D. G. 
Native of the Grand Canary Island, on rocks on the highest 
mountains. D. C. rapp. jard. bot. 1822. no. 13. S. ciliare, 
Sims, bot. mag. t. 1978. but not of Willd. S. ciliare, Haw. 
rev. p. 64. S. Simsii, Sweet, hort. suburb, p. 230. S. barba- 
tum, Horn, suppl. p. 61. but not of Smith. Flowers yellow. 
This plant survived 18 months in paper in the herbarium of C. 
Smith, and afterwards when put into the earth grew. 

Tu/terf Houseleek. Fl. Apr. Sept. Clt. 1815. Sh. i foot. 

* * Herbaceous plants. 

16 S. D0DRANT.4*LE (Willd. enum. p. 508.) stem herbaceous, 
erect, glabrous ; leaves flat, glabrous, quite entire ; radical ones 
obovate, attenuated at the base, disposed in a spreading rosulate 
manner : cauline ones erect, oval, sessile, obtuse at both ends ; 
cymes corymbose ; petals 20. ^ . D. G. Native of the Ca- 
naries. D. C. mem. crass, t. 11. Pedicels puberulous. Co- 
rymbs few-flowered. Petals linear ; pale when dried. 



A^me-mc/( Houseleek. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1815. PI. J ft. 

17 S. au'reum (C. Smith, in hort. berol. p. 37.) stem herba- 
ceous, erect, glabrous ; leaves obovate-spatulate, with membrana- 
coously cartilaginous, quite entire margins, glaucous; branches of 
panicle dichotomous, many-flowered ; petals 20. ^ . or H . D. 
G. Native of Tenerifle, on the mountains. .S. calyciforme. Haw. 
suppl. p. 09. Ker. bot. reg. t. 892. Flowers yellow. Petals 
linear, and are as well as stamens 20, and the pistils are nu- 
merous, according to C. Smith. Perhaps the same as S. do- 
drantale, Willd. 

CoWtH Houseleek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1815. PI. 1 foot. 

18 S. puncta'tum (C. Smith, in Buch. can. p. 155.) stem 
herbaceous, erect, branched ; leaves scattered, obovate, petio- 
late, flat, glabrous, crenated on the margin at the to|), dotted in 
the recesses of the crenae ; panicle loose ; pedicels puberulous ; 
petals 6-9. ©. $. D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. 
D. C. mem. crass, t. 12. Petals oval, acute, yellow. 

Z)o<to/-leaved Houseleek. Pi. 1 foot. 

19 S. stei-la'tum (Smith, in Lin. soc. trans. 1. p. 251.) stem 
lierbaceous, erect, branched, puberulous ; leaves scattered, ob- 
long, spatulately cuneiform, obtuse, villous ; flowers panicled ; 
petals 6-8, spreading ; scales palmate, with subulate lobes. 
©. D. G. Native of Madeira. S. villosum, Ait. hort. kew. 
ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 148. Sims, bot. mag. t. 1809. Flowers golden 
yellow. Herb 6-8 inches high. 

^Ve/fo^e Houseleek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1790. PI. i foot. 

20 S. DicHOTOMUM (D. C. jard. gen. t. 21.) stem herbaceous, 
terete, erect, dichotomous, beset with soft spreading hairs; leaves 
obovately spatulate, tapering into the petiole, dotted with soft 
villi ; flowers in loose corymbs ; petals 8-9, spreading ; scales of 
flower 2-lobed, small. ^ . D. G. Native of the Canary Is- 
lands, among rocks. S. laxum, Haw. rev. 65. Nearly allied to 
S. hirium, ex Buch. cat. Flowers yellow. This plant is nearly 
allied to S. turtuositm. but differs in being herbaceous. 

Dichotomous House\L'ek. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1815. PI. i ft. 

21 S. PYGM^E^UM (C. Smith, in Buch. can. p. 155.) stemdecli- 
nate, few-leaved, 1 -flowered; leaves spatulate, attenuated at 
the base, retuse, hairy ; calyx villous ; petals awned. — Native of 
the Island of Lancerotta. Flowers small, yellow. Plant hardly 
an inch high. The rest unknown. 

Pygmy Houseleek. PI. 1 inch. 

Sect. II. Joviba'rba {Jupiter, Jovis, Jupiter, and barba, a 
beard ; Jupiter's beard ; application not evident). D. C. pi. rar. 
gen. no. 21. obs. prod. 3. p. 413. Young plants rising from the 
axils of the lower leaves. Flowers purplish or pale yellow. — 
European species. 

* Florvers yellorvish. 

22 S. hi'rtum (Lin. spec. p. 605.) leaves somewhat ciliated; 
young plants globose ; petals 6, erect, fringed. 1/ . H. Native 
of Thuringia and Carinthia, on walls ; and in woods about Mos- 
cow. D. C. pi. grass, t. 107. S. soboliferum, Sims, bot. mag. 
t. 1457. S. globiferum, Hoppe, cent. Haw. rev. p. 67. Jacq. 
aust. 5. p. 5 0. append, t. 40. Leaves of the flowering, 
stems lanceolate, imbricate, loose, disposed in 3 spiral series. 
Offsets falling off of themselves. Petals pale cream-coloured, 
twice the length of the calyx. 

//«!>?/ House-leek. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1804. PI. | foot. 

23 S. globi'fervm (Lin. 1. c.) leaves ciliated ; offsets rather 
contracted; petals 15-20, spreading, very long. Tl-H. Native 
of Vallais, on rocks ; and probably of Austria. Curt. bot. mag. 
t. 507. Schrad. icon. 95. t. 26. S. grandiflorum. Haw. rev. 66. 
Petals yellowish, 3 times longer than the calyx. 

far. ft ; offsets rather loose ; petals 12. 11. H. Sims, bot. 
mag. 2115. More villous and pale than the species. 
&2 



124 



CRASSULACEiE. XIX. Sempervivum. 



Globe-bearing or Hen and Chicken House-leek. Fl. Ju. Jul. 
Clt. 1731. PI. 4 to 1 foot. 

* * Flowers purplish. 

24 S. TECTORUM (Lin. spec. p. 664.) leaves ciliated ; offsets 
spreadin<r ; petals 5-9, spreading ; scales of flowers cuneiform, 
caruneulatc. 1/ . H. Native of Europe, on rocks and roofs of 
houses ; also in many parts of Britain, on walls and cottage 
roofs, but perhaps not properly indigenous. D. C. pi. grass, t. 
104. Smith, engl. bot. 1320. Curt. lond. 3. t. 29. Oed. fl. dan. 
601. Blackw. t. 366. Sedum tectorum. Scop. cam. ed. 2. no. 
529. Flowers purplish. Stamens sometimes changed into car- 
pels according to Pet. Thouars, in bull. phil. nov. 1807. The 
juice of the common house-leek either applied by itself, or mixed 
with cream, gives present relief in burns, and other external in- 
flammations ; it is also said to cure corns. With honey it is a 
useful application in the thrush. Boerhaave found 10 ounces of 
the juice beneficial in dysenteries, and others have found it use- 
ful in gonorrhoeas ; but it is not admitted into modern practice. 
The house-leek had several names formerly, as sengreen and 
aygreen, both translations of Sempervivum. It has also been 
called Jupiter's eye, bullock's eye, and Jupiter's beard. In Ger- 
man it is called hausrvurz ; in French la grande joubarbe, and in 
Italian sempervivo maggiore. 

Roof or Common House-leek. Fl. June, Sept. Britain. 
PI. 1 foot. 

25 S. FLAGELLiFORME (Fiscli. in Link, enum. 2. p. 20.) leaves 
ovate, mucronate, papillose, with papillously ciliated margins ; 
offsets spreading, lateral ; branches of cyme bifid. 2/ . H. Na- 
tive of Siberia. Allied to S. montiinum, but differs in being 
larger, and in the offsets being at the ends of long flagellas. The 
leaves of the offsets terminate in a stiff brown point ; cauline 
leaves narrower. Corolla reddish. 

Flageliiform Houseleek. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1823. PI. 
I to I foot. 

26 S. monta'num (Lin. spec. p. 665.) leaves of the offsets 
obovate-oblong, shortly acuminated, beset with glandular pubes- 
cence on both surfaces, obsoletely ciliated, entire, pubes- 
cent; offsets rather contracted; flowers rotate; petals 10-14, 
lanceolate, acuminated, spreading, 3 times longer than the calyx, 
scales of flowers small, nearly quite entire ; style discoloured at 
the apex. 1/. H. Native of the Pyrenees and the Alps of Eu- 
rope, &c. on rocks. D. C. pi. grass, t. 105. Jacq. fl. aust. 5. 
append, t. 41. Flowers deep red. This species differs from S. 
tectorum in tlie smaller stature, and in the nectariferous scales 
being almost wanting ; and from <S'. arachnoideum in the absence 
of the cobw ebbed wool. Scales of flower square and retuse. 

Mountain House-leek. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1 752. PI. | to | ft. 

27 S. Fd'nkii (Braun, in bot. zeit. Jan. 1832. p. 4. t. 1.) 
leaves of the offsets oblong, shortly acuminated, beset with glan- 
dular pubescence on both surfaces, with ciliated margins; flow'ers 
rotate ; petals lanceolate, acuminated, about 3 times longer than 
the calyx ; germens dilated, ovate; style discoloured at the apex. 
%. H. Native of the Alps of Europe, as in Switzerland, Pied- 
mont, S;c. 

Fun/.'i House-leek. Fl. June, July. Clt.? PI. i foot. 

28 S. ARACHNOIDEUM (Lin. spec. 665.) leaves covered with 
interwoven cobwebbed hairs or wool ; offsets globose ; petals 
8-9, spreading ; scales of flower truncately emarginate. %. H. 
Native of the Alps of Europe and the Pyrenees, &c. among 
rocks. D.C. pi. grass, t. 106. Curt. bot. mag. t. 68. Jacq. 
austr. 5. append, t. 42. Flowers purple. 

Cobwebbed House-leek. Fl. Ju. July. Clt. 1699. PI. l ft. 

29 S. pLMiLUM (Bieb. fl. taur. 1. p. 381.) leaves lanceolate, 
acute, ciliated by long hairs; offsets globose; stem few-flowered; 
petals 12, hairy. %. H. Native of Caucasus, at the torrent of 



Terek, on rocks. Flowers red. Very like S. arachnoideum, but 
differs in the hairs on the leaves being distinct, not cobwebbed. 
i)wa?/ House-leek. Fl. June, July. Clt. 1824. PI. ^ foot. 

30 S. TENUiFoLiUM (Smith, fl. grccc. prod. 1. \i. 335. fl. grsec. 
t. 474.) leaves subulate : lower ones dilated at the base, and 
sheathing ; cauline ones adnate, sessile, prolonged at the base ; 
flowers with 7-10 styles; offsets cylindrical. I^.H. Native 
of Calabria, on arid hills. Sedum rostratum. Ten. fl. nap. prim, 
p. 26. Sedum amplexicaiile, D. C. fl. fr. suppl. p. 526. Sedum 
carinatum. Link. Sempervivum anomalum. Lag. ex Spreng. 
Petals yellow. More the habit of a Sedum than a Sempervivum, 
and has much the habit of Sedum rupestre. 

Fine-leaved House-leek. PI. -y foot. 

Sect. III. Mona'nthes (from ^loioc, monos, one, and av^og, 
anthos, a flower ; flowers one on each peduncle). Haw. rev. succ. 
p. C8. D.C. prod. 3. p. 414. Real offsets none. Leaves clavate, 
crowded in a somewhat rosulate manner. Flowers purple. 
Glands large, orbicularly cochleate, serrulated when examined 
through a lens, one-half shorter than the petals, but 4 times 
broader, and rufous. Haw. — A very small nearly stemless 
herb. 

31 S. mona'nthes (Ait. hort. kew. ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 149.) 
leaves terete, clavated, glabrous, crowded in a rosulate manner ; 
peduncles naked, generally 1 -flowered, rarely few-flowered ; 
petals 6-9, hardly longer than the calyx ; scales of flower obcor- 
date. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Canary Islands. Curt. bot. 
mag. t. 93. D. C. pi. grass, t. 157. Monanthes polyphylla, 
Haw. rev. p. 68. Flowers small, purplish. Plant tufted. 

One-fo7vered House-\eek. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1777. PI. 1 
or 2 inches. 

■f Species hardly known. 

32 S. Africa'num (Mill. diet. ed. 8. no. 7.) margins of leaves 
serrately toothed ; offsets spreading. %. D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Haw. syn. p. 367. This species has 
never been seen except by Miller ; it is therefore doubtful. 
Sprengel says it is the same as S. arboreum. 

/African House-leek. Clt. 1768. Shrub. 

33 S. ? Seguie'ri (D.C. prod. 3. p. 414.) stem herbaceous, 
erect ; leaves opposite, obovate. — Native on Mount Baldo. 
Sedum pertrse'um, &e. Scarella in Seg. ver. 2. p. 360. t. 17. S. 
stellatum. Poll. fl. ver. 2. p. 114. exclusive of the synonyme of 
Smith. It is probably a variety of Sedum dasyphyllum, but the 
flowers are said to be yellow. The plant is therefore very 
doubtful. 

Seguicr's House-leek. PI. -j foot? 

34 S. ? Hispa'nkum (Willd. enum. p. 508.) leaves subulate, 
semi-terete, ciliated, imbricated ; cymes bifid. T^.H. Native 
of Spain. The rest unknown. Perhaps a species of SetZifW!. 

Spanish House-leek. PI. ^ to ^ foot. 

35 S. clavicula'tum, Sieb. ) These two species are only 

36 S. muta'bile, Schlecht. S known by name. 

Cull. The greenhouse kinds of house-leek are chiefly natives 
of the Canary Islands. A mixture of sand, loam, and brick-rub- 
bish is a good soil for them ; and care must be taken not to give 
them too much water when not in flower. Cuttings taken off the 
plants, and laid to dry a few days, will strike root freely without 
any covering of glass. Cuttings of some species are difficult to 
obtain, such as of .S'. tabuliforme, &c. ; the best way in such cases 
is to cut the top out, and.- lateral shoots will be immediately 
produced. The hardy kinds are well fitted for rock-work, or 
to grow on walls ; and they are easily increased by the offsets, 
which are issued in great abundance. A light soil suits them 
best. 

Tribe II. 

CRASSULA^CE^ ANO'MAL^ (the plants contained in this 



CRASSULACE^E. XX. Diamorpha. XXI. Pentuorum. FICOlDEiE. I. Mesembryanthemum. 



125 



tribe are anomalous in the order, in consequence of the carpels 
being united into a many-celled capsule, and dehiscing on the 
outside). D. C. prod. 3. p. 41t. Carpels united at the base into 
a many-celled capsule. 

XX. DIAMORPHA (from 2to/jop^ow, diamorphoo, to de- 
form ; in reference to the fruit, which is formed differently and 
contrary to the rest of the order). Nutt. gen. anier. 1. p. 293. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 41t. 

Lin. syst. Oclandria, Tetragijnia. Calyx 4-lobed. Petals 4. 
Stamens 8. Carpels 4, united at tiie base, but diverging at the 
apex, cuspidate, opening on the outside, usually containing about 
4 seeds. — A small biennial lierb, with the branches disposed in 
whorles from the base. Flowers small, white, disposed in cymes. 
Leaves alternate, nearly terete. 

1 D. pusi'lla (Nutt. 1. c.) ^. H. F. Native of North 
Carolina, about Camden, among moss on rocks. Sedum pusil- 
lum, Michx. fl. bor. amer. 1. p. 276. Tillai'a cymosa, Nutt. gen. 
amer. 1. p. 110. 

Small Diamorpha. PI. 1 inch. 

Cidt. The seeds of this plant should be sown in a pot, filled 
with peat, and the plants need not be shifted into other pots ; but 
be preserved through the winter by a frame. 

XXL PENTHO'RUM (from Ttort, jiente, five, and opoc, 
horos, a boundary ; in reference to the 5 beaks which terminate 
the capsule). Lin. gen. no. 580. Ga;rtn. fruct. 1. p. 312. t. G5. 
D. C. prod. 3. p. 414. 

Lin. syst. Decdndr'm, Pentagynia. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 
5. Stamens 10. Scales wanting? Carpels 5, united at the 
base, in a j-beaked 5-celled capsule, which is pentagonal at the 
apex, and opening under the beaks. Seeds nimierous, small, 
fixed on every side of the broad placenta, and probably exalbu- 
minous. — Erect perennial herbs, with scattered, membranous, 
oblong-linear, unequally serrated leaves : and unilateral cymes, 
which are turned back at the points. 

1 P. sEDioiDES (Lin. spec. p. G20.) stem a little branched ; 
leaves lanceolate ; cymes numerous, panicled, many-flowered ; 
seeds scobiform. If.. H. Native of North America, in bogs, 
from New England to Carolina, and on La Grande Chaudiere. 
Lin. act. ups. 1744. t. 2. Lam. ill. t. 3!)0. Flowers white or 
pale yellow. 

Stonecrop-lihe Penthorum. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1768. PL 1 ft. 

2 P. Ciiine'nse (Pursh. fl. amer. sept. 1. p. S^ZS. in obs.) 
stem simple ; leaves long, linear-lanceolate ; cymes few, corym- 
bose, few-flowered; seeds ovate, horny. %. H. Native of 
China. D. C. mem. crass, pi. 13. Very like P. sedii:hles, but 
the seeds are certainly distinct. Stems, as in it, terete at the 
base, and angular at the apex. 

China Penthorum. PL 1 foot. 

Cult. The species of this genus grow freely in light sandy 
soil, and are easily increased by dividing at the roots. Cuttings 
also strike freely under a hand-glass. P. Chinensls, if ever it 
should be introduced to the gardens, will require protection in 
winter until its hardiness be ascertained. 

Order CXIV. FICOI'DE^ (plants agreeing in character 
with Mesembryanthemum, or Fig-marygold, in particular charac- 
ters). Juss. gen. p. 315. diet. sc. nat. 16. p. 528. D. C. prod. 
3. p. 415. 

Calyx constantly of a definite number of sepals, usually 5, but 
varying from 4 to 8, more or less united at the base, either co- 
hering with the ovarium, or almost distinct from it, equal or un- 
equal, quincuncial or valvate in tcstivation. Petals indefinite, 
coloured, narrow, a little combined at the base, sometimes want- 



ing, but in that case the inside of the calyx is coloured. .Stamens 
indefinite, arising from the calyx, distinct ; anthers oblong, in- 
cumbent. Ovarium distinct, or adnate to the calyx, many- 
celled, crowned by numerous distinct stigmas. Capsule either 
girded by the fleshy calyx or naked, usually many-celled, but 
often 5-celled, opening in a stellate manner at the apex. Seeds 
attached to the inner angle of the cells, definite or indefinite. 
Embryo lying on the outside of a mealy albumen, curved. — 
Shrubby or herbaceous plants, variable in habit. Leaves fleshy, 
opposite, simple. Flowers usually terminal. 

The curved embryo and mealy albumen, along with the 
superior calyx, and distinctly perigynous stamens, characterise 
these among their neighbours, independently of their succulent 
habit. With Ciassulacecc, Chcnopodcce, and Caryophijlkte they 
are more or less closely related. Reaumuricce and Nitrariacece 
are families different in affinity. The hottest sandy plains in the 
Cape of Good Hope nourish the largest part of this order. A 
few are found in the south of Europe, north of Africa, Chili, 
China, Peru, and the South Seas. The succulent leaves of a 
few of the species are eaten, as of Tclragonia exjidnsa, Mesem- 
hryanthemum ediile, arid Sesuviumportulacdstrum ; others yield an 
abundance of soda. Mesembryanthemum nndijloium is used in 
the manufacture of Moroquin leather. 

Synopsis of the genera. 

1 Mesembrya'nthemum. Calyx of 5, rarely of 2-8 sepals. 
Petals indefinite, linear. Stamens indefinite, inserted in the top 
of the calyx along with the petals. Capsule adnate to the calyx, 
from 4 to many-celled ; cells many-seeded. 

2 Tetragonia. Calyx 4, rarely 3-cleft ; lobes coloured in- 
side. Petals wanting. Stamens variable in number. Capsule 
3-8-celled ; cells 1-seeded. 

3 Sesu'vium. Calyx 5-parted ; lobes coloured inside. Petals 
wanting. Stamens 15-30, inserted in the top of the tube of the 
calyx. Capsule 3, rarely 4-5-celled ; cells many-seeded. 

4 AizooN. Calyx 5-parted, coloured inside. Petals want- 
ing. Stamens about 20, inserted in the bottom of the calyx, 
3-5 in each fascicle. Capsule 5-celled ; cells many-seeded. 

5 Glinus. Calyx 5-parted, coloured inside, with 3 inner 
sepals and 2 outer ones. Petals 5-20, tongue-shaped, 2-4-cleft 
at the apex. Capsule covered by the calyx, 5-celled ; cells 
many-seeded. 

6 Ory'gia. Calyx 5-parted. Petals numerous (20), lanceolate. 
Stamens indefinite. Capsule globose, 5-cellcd, many-seeded. 

I. MESEMBRYA'NTHEMUM (from fii,7r,ix(ipia, mesem- 
hria, mid-day, and avBepoi', anlhcmon, a flower). Lin. gen. 
628. Gartn. fruct. 2. t. 126. Lam. ill. t. 438. Haw. obs. 
mes. 1. vol. 8. 1794. misc. 1803. p. 15. syn. pi. succ. 1819. p. 
202. D. C. prod. 3. p. 415. — Mesembryanthemum and Hy- 
menogyne. Haw. rev. succ. p. 74. and p. 192. 

LiN. SYST. Icosandria, Tetra-Polygijnia. Calyx of 5, rarely 
of 2-8 sepals ; sepals united to themselves, and to the ovarium 
even to the middle ; lobes unequal, usually leaf-formed. Petals 
innumerable, in one, but more often in many series, united among 
themselves at the base. Stamens indefinite, disposed in many 
series, inserted with the petals at the top of the calyx. Ovari\ini 
adnate to the calyx, many celled inside (4-20), but usually 5- 



126 



FICOIDE^. I. Mesembryanthemum. 



celled. Stigmas 4-20, but usually 5. Capsule many-celled, 
opening stellately at the apex, adnate to the permanent calyx. 
Seeds niuTierous. Embryo curved at the side of a mealy albu- 
men. Cotyledons tliick, very blunt.— Subshrubs, rarely herbs, 
almost all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves usually 
opposite, tliick, fleshy, flat, terete or trigonal. Flowers termi- 
nating the branches, white, yellow or purple, the greater part of 



which open in the heat of the sun, very few of them opening in 
the evening. Fruit opening in a humid atmosphere, and reliev- 
ing the seeds, which are then dispersed by the wind along with 
the sand. 

In consequence of this genus being very large, we think it 
necessary to give a synoptical table of the sections, in order to 
render a reference to the species more easy. 



Leaves 

not 

papulose. 



Synoiitical Table of the Sections. 

^steniless or nearly so Acatj'lia (L), §. 1 — 15. 

'leaves crowded at the tops of the branches . . . Cephalophy'lla (IL), §. 16, 18. 

'stem creeping Repta'ntia (IIL), §. 19-23. 

'leaves 

connate or 

I plants ) \ ^sheathing . Perfolia ta (IV.), §. 24-27. 

I evidently 

vith stems, lleaves dis- 

iposed along < , ^ . 

Ii u I. \ ^leaves tri- 

ithe branches f 

quetrous. 



f stems erect 
or pros- 
trate, not 

^creeping. 



lleaves 
fdistinct 
or nearly 



, so 



Trique'tra (V.), §. 28-36. 



Leaves pa- 
pulose. 



[leaves 

'terete or 

^semi-terete .... Teretiu'scula (VI.), §. 37-42. 

Heaves terete or semi-terete Papillosa (VII.), §. 33-53. 

lleaves flat Planifolia (VIII.), §. 54-59. 



Subdivision I. Acau'lia (ctcaj^/ii, without a stem; plants stem- 
less or nearly so). Haw. rev. succ. p. 81. Stems wanting or 
very short. Root perennial. Leaves large, variable in form and 
thickness, but not flat. 

§ 1 . Sphceroidea (from (rtjiatpa, sphaira, a sphere ; in reference 
to the leaves being joined together into a globe). Salm-Dyck. — 
Minima et Sphceroidea, Haw. rev. succ. Plants stemless. Leaves 
opposite, very blunt, joined even to the aj)ex into a globe, but 
separating at length at the apex, and becoming marcescent, but 
still sheathing at the base. Flowers solitary, sessile, central. 
Calyx i-5-cleft. Stigmas 4-5. Petals joined into a loose tube. 

1 M. MiNu TUM (Haw. obs. 126. misc. 21. rev. 82.) plant 
stemless, obconical, glaucous, without spots ; flowers long, tu- 
bular. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Sims, 
bot. mag. t. 137G. Plant hardly the size of a common bean. 
Petals pale reddish in the free part, spreading ; tube slender, 
half an inch long, inclosing the ovarium. 

Minute Fig-marigold. Fl Sept. Nov. PI. i inch. 

2 M. mi'ninum (Haw. obs. 126. misc. 21. syn. 203. rev. p. 
82.) plant stemless, obconical, glaucescent, with confluent rather 
hranciied spots ; ovarium exserted. 1^ . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Petiv. gaz. t. 39. f. 3. ? ex Haw. Flowers 
very pale yellow, almost white, sessile. The cultivated plants 
of this species are sometimes somewhat caulescent. Offsets 
fewer from this species than from the other allied species. 

.S'/Hfl//«? Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Dec. Clt. 1776. PI. | inch. 

3 M. perpusi'llum (Haw. rev. p. 82.) plant stemless, obco- 
nical, green, with strong confluent branched dots ; ovarium in- 
closed, i;. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very 
nearly allied to M. minimum, but the colour of the flowers is 
deeper, and the offsets more numerous. 

/'c»-»/-4wn/nMg-marigold. Fl. Sept. Dec. Clt. 1819. PI. i. 
inch. * 

4 M. obcorde'lllm (Haw. misc. 21. syn. 203. rev. 82.) 



plant stemless, obconical, glaucescent, with confluent branched 
dots ; ovarium inclosed. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Sims, bot. mag. 1647. Flowers small, sessile, 
nearly white. Petals twice the size of those of M. perjmsUlum, 
to which it is very nearly allied. 

Small-obcordate Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Oct. Clt. 1776. 
PI. I inch. 

5 M. obcone'llum (Haw. misc. 21. syn. 203. rev. 83.) plant 
stemless, obconical, green, with confluent, rather tubercle- 
formed dots ; ovarium inclosed. l^.D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Calyx 4-cleft. Corolla white. 

Little-eone Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Oct. Clt. 1786. PI. iin. 

6 M. ficiforme (Haw. rev. p. 83.) plant stemless, rather 
pyramidal or pear-shaped, glaucous, retusely obtuse at the apex, 
with the dots usually distinct, greenish, and nearly obsolete. 
■2/ • D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Plant pale. 
Flowers unknown. 

Fig-formed Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Oct. Clt. 1819. Pl.i in. 

7 M. truncate'llum (Haw. misc. 22. syn. 203. rev. 83.) 
plant stemless, much depressed, and rather glaucous, with the 
dots rather distinct ; ovarium exserted. 1/ . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers straw-coloured. 

Small-truncated Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Oct. Clt. 1795. 
PI. i inch. 

8 M. FiBUL^EFORME (Haw. misc. p. 22. syn. 203, rev. p. 83.) 
plant stemless, rather canescent, and somewhat pubescent, very 
much depressed, and spotless. 1/.. D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. 

Button-shaped Tig-marigo\d. Fl. ? Clt. 1795. PI. i inch. 

9 M. TURBiNiFORME (Haw. rcv. p. 84.) plant stemless, obco- 
nical, exactly truncate, and therefore top-formed, obscurely dot- 
ted. Ii . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Burch. 
cat. 1630. 2. voy. 1. p. 310. This species is twice or thrice the 
size of M. truncatum. 

Top-shaped Fig-marigold. PI. 2 inches. 



FICOIDE/E. I. Mesembryanthemum. 



127 



10 M. uv^FoRME (Haw. rev. p. 84.) plant sfemless, nearly 
globose, green, form and size of a grape berry, with small, ratlier 
confluent deeper dots. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Bnrm. afr. t.lO. f. 2.? 

6>a/)e-/ornia/ Fig-niarit;old. Fl. ? Clt. 1820. PI. J inch. 

11 M. NuciFORME (Haw. obs. 129. misc. 22. syn. 204. rev. 
84.) plant stemless, glaucous, without dots, nearly spherical ; 
tops of leaves unequal, distinct, flat above. %. D. G. Native 
of tlie Cape of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. 

Nut-formed Fig-marigold. Clt. 1790. PI. 1 inch. 

§ 2. Stdxitiadrifulia (the plants belonging to this section are 
usually furnished with about 4 leaves). Salm-Dijck, nbs. 17. — 
Semiovatu and Obtitsa, Haw. rev. p. 85. Plants almost stem- 
less. Leaves 4-0, decussate, quite entire, obtuse, flat above, eon- 
vex beneath. Flowers nearly sessile, soUtarjj. Calyx i-G-cleJ't, 
Stigmas 4-6. The upper leaves are usually connate, as in sec- 
tion Sphceroidew, and at length separate, but more distinctly. 

12 M. trunca'tum (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 412.) plant stemless; 
leaves spheroid-obconical, umbilicately truncate ; peduncle soli- 
tary, 1-flowered, com])ressed ; calyx 4-cleft. 1/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Truncate Fig-marigold. PI. 1 to 2 inches. 

13 M. testicula're (Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 181.) plant stem- 
less ; leaves 4-8, white, smooth, semi-terete, ovate or parabolic, 
expanded. "2/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
M. testiculare, Thunb. fl. cap. p. 412. Hew. obs. 133. syn. 
205. exclusive of variety /3 and y, misc. 24. rev. 85. Flowers 
white. 

Testicular Fig-marigold. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1774. PL 1 inch. 

14 M. octophy'llum (Haw. rev. p. 85.) plant stemless ; 
leaves 6-8, white, smooth, rather erectish, convex beneath, flat 
above. 1^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. 
testiculare y, Haw. misc. p. 24. M. testiculare /^ et y. Haw. 
syn. 205. M. testiculare /5, Sims, bot. mag. 1573. Flowers 
yellow, and when expanded they are S or 10 lines in diameter. 
Calyx 6-cleft, furnished with two leaf-formed bracteas at the 
base. According to the Prince de Salm-Dyck, this is merely a 
variety of M. testicultire. 

Eight-leaved ¥[g-mar\go\d. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1819. PI. ^ ft. 

15 M. OBTu'suM (Haw. misc. 25. syn. 206. rev. 86.) plant 
green, almost stemless; leaves unequal, semi-terete, acinaciform, 
obtuse ; flowers almost sessile ; calyx 6-lobed. 1/ . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. M. fissoules. Haw. obs. 135. 
Old stem 2 inches high. Flowers pale red, bibracteate at the 
base ; petals an inch long. Styles 6. 

£/un< Fig-marigold. Fl. March, April. Clt. 1792. PI. ^ ft. 

16 M. Fi'ssuM (Haw. obs. 134. misc. 25. syn. 205. rev. 86.) 
plant almost stemless ; leaves equal, half-terete, very blunt, 
glaucescent. 1^. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Old stem 1 or 2 inches high ; branchlets very short, and alter- 
nate. Flowers unknown. 

Cleft Fig-marigold. Clt. 1776. PI. | foot. 

17 M. digitifo'rme (Thunb. fl. cap. p. 412.) plant stemless ; 
leaves 3-4, terete, smooth, obtuse ; flowers sessile, solitary, axil- 
lary. 1(.. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. 
digitdtum. Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 181. Flowers white, according 
to Thunberg. Leaves alternate. Perhaps belonging to a dif- 
ferent section. 

Finger-shaped 'Fig-marigold. Clt. 1775. PI. 1 inch. 

§ 3. Moniliformia (from monile, a bracelet, and forma, form ; 
appearance of stems). Haw. and Salm-Dyck, I. c. StC7ns very 
short, moniUform, leafless in the sximmcr. The twoflrst leaves 
united even to the apex, and deciduous; the two following leaves 
elongated, and joined at the base, marcescent,and deciduous. Calyx 



4:-G-clefl, and is, as well as the leaves, full of crystalline pa- 
jmlce. Stigmas 7-8. 

18 M. pisifo'rme (Haw. misc. 23. syn. 205. rev. 93.) leaves 
full of crystalline papulae ; the first two united into the form of a 
pea : the following 2 semi-terete ; caudex much branched, and 
very dwarf. a<.. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
The first leaves are produced in autumn, and the second in win- 
ter. Flowers unknown. 

Pea-formed V\g-mango\d. Clt. 1796. PI. 1 inch. 

19 M. MONiLiFo'uME (Haw. obs. 132. misc. 24. syn. 207. rev. 
93.) first leaves joined into a spherical form ; the following ones 
half-terete, subulate, very long, green, and somewhat recurved. 
1{.. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Thunb. fl. cap. 
p. 413. Peduncles 2 inches long, terminal. Calyx 4-cleft. 
Petals snow white. Styles 7, ex Haw. 

Necklace-formed Fig-marigold. Fl. March, April. Clt. 1791. 
PI. -J foot. 

§ 4. Aloidea (plants resembling Aloe in habit). D. C. prod. 
3. p. 419. Aloulca and Magniptincla, Haw. rev. p. 80. and 87. 
Ringentia Integra, Salm-Di/ck. obs. )). 20. Plants stendess. 
Leaves triquetrous, gradually thickened towards the apex, having 
the carinal angle gibbous ; the two superior ones entire. Flowers 
central, sessile, yellow. 

20 M. no'bile (Haw. in phil. mag. 1823. p. 381.) plant rather 
caulescent ; leaves coarsely and triquetrously clavate, obtuse, 
somewhat recurved, rather concave above, marked by large 
elevated tubercles. 1^. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flowers large, sessile, opening before meridian, yellow, 
scentless, bibracteate at the base. Calyx 6-cleft, according to 
Salm-Dyck. 

iVoi^e Fig-marigold. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1822. PI. i foot. 

21 M. magnipu'nctum (Haw. rev. p. 8G.) plant stemless; 
leaves perfect, usually about 4, large, clavately triquetrous, very 
thick, glaucescent, flat above, keeled beneath, obtuse at the 
apex, marked with very large and numerous dots. It. D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. magnipunctatum. Haw. 
suppl. p. 87. Flowers yellow, sessile. 

Large-dotted Fig-marigold. Clt. 1822. PI. i foot. 

22 AI.ca'num (Haw. obs. p. 158. misc. 25. syn. 219. rev. 87. 
but not of Salm-Dyck,) plant stemless ; leaves hoary, semi- 
terete at the base, attenuated, gibbously keeled at the apex. % , 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very like iW. wag- 
nipiincttim, but is easily distinguished by its hoary aspect. 
Flowers unknown. 

Hoary Fig-marigold. Clt. 1795. PI. 1 to 2 inches. 

23 M. ALOiDES (Haw. suppl. 88. rev. 87.) plant stemless; 
leaves entire, semi-terete, green, marbled with white dots, acute 
upwards, rather concave above, carinately triquetrous at the 
apex. IJ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Old 
plant tufted ; root fusiform. Flowers sessile, central, yellow, 
middle-sized. Perhaps the same as l\[. compactum, no. 86. Per- 
haps M. aloides, Burch. trav. afr. 2. p. 332. 

/^foe-/;^e Fig-marigold. Fl, Sept. Clt. 1819. PI. A foot. 

§ 5. Albinota (from albus, white, and nota, a mark ; plants 
marked with white). Haw. in phil. mag. Aug. 182G. p. 126. 
Plants almost without stems, tufted. Roots perennial. Leaves 
decussate, entire, obliquely incurved, green, spreading, full of 
large tubercular white dots, semi-terete at the base, acinaciformly 
triquetrous at the apex, or nearly equal-sided, more or less mucro- 
nulated. Flowers central, solitary, sessile, yellow. Stamens 
erectly spreading, as in those of section Ringentia. 

24 M. ALBiNoTUM (H.aw. in phil. mag. Aug. 1826. p. 126.) 
leaves acinaciformly triquetrous upwards, with a recurved 



FICOIDEjE. I. Mesembuyakthemum. 



mucronc, full of scattered, rather elevated whitish clots. If.. 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow. 
White-j)wrked l'ig-marigo]d. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1824. PI. ^ ft. 

25 M. albii'Uncta'tum (Haw. 1. c.) leaves semi-terete, beset 
with white tubercular dots. •:;. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers yellow. Very like M. albinutum, but 
the leaves are twice or thrice smaller, and more numerous. 
There is also a larger variety of this species mentioned by 
Haworth. 

W kite -doited Vig-m&ngo\d.. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1824.. PI. | ft. 

§ (). liingentia ({rom ringens, gaping; appearance of the two 
upper leaves of the plants). Haw. syn. p. '^IG. jMl. tnag. 64. 
/). 110. Sprcng. st/.st. p. 515. D. C. prod. 3. p. 419. — Riiigenlia 
ciliata, Srilm-Dyclc. — Ringentia ct Scapigcra, Ham. rev. p. 87, 
88. Plants stemlcss. Leaves triquetrous, gradually thickening 
to the top or gibbous, usually ciUntely toothed, without pajiulce. 
Flowers yellow, ojiening after meridian. Calyx i-S-cleft. Stig- 
mas 4-5. 

26 M. MUSTELLfNUM (Salm-Dyck and Haw. suppl. p. 87. 
rev. p. 89.) plant almost stemless, green, full of pellucid dots ; 
leaves triquetrous, gradually thickening towards the apex, cili- 
ately toothed, pustulately gibbous on the inside at the base ; 
flowers on short pedicels ; calyx 4-cleft. 2/ . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Salm-Dyck, obs. 1820. p. 9. Flowers 
yellow, expanding in the evening, sweet-scented. 

JFeasel-chop Fig-marigold. Clt. 1 820. PI. i foot. 

27 M. ERMiNiNUM (Haw. in phil. mag. Aug. 1826. p. 126.) 
plant almost stemless, glaucous ; leaves wrinkled from large 
dots ; margins with short teeth at the apex. ]/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Herb densely tufted. Flowers 
solitary, terminal, yellow, opening in the evening. Nearest 
allied to ]\[. murlnnm. 

Var. ft, mhgiis (Haw. 1. c.) corolla yellow, red at the apex. 
^'rw/Hc-chop Fig-marigold. Fl. May, J id. Clt. 1824. Pl.ift. 

28 M. AGNiNUM (Haw. in phil. mag. Aug. 1826. p. 126.) 
plant almost stemless, canescent, wrinkled from dots ; leaves 
semi-terete, serrulated from elevated dots, and hence somewhat 
toothed, pustulate on the inside at the base. 1/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves with a large white pustule 
on the inside at the base. Flowers sessile, solitary, central, ex- 
panding in the evening. 

J'ar. ft ; plant a little smaller ; teeth of leaves more obscure. 

Var. y ; leaves more erect, entire. 

/.nnii-chop Fig-marigold. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1824. Pl.ift. 

2!) M. MLKiNUM (Haw. obs. p. 165. misc. p. 30. syn. 217. 
rev. 90. phil. mag. 64. p. 111.) plant almost stemless, glaucous; 
leaves ciliately denticulated, 3 rows on each side, and full of 
tubercular dots, with the margins and keel ciliately denticulated 
at the apex ; flower sessile. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers small, yellow. Styles 5, very short, erect, 
green, a little thickened towards the apex. 

^/oKii--chop Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1790. Pl.ift. 

30 M. FEUNUM (Haw. obs. p. 161. misc. p. 31. syn. p. 216. 
rev. p. Sn.) pl.mt stemless, glaucesccnt ; leaves ciliated with long 
teeth, ob^olctely dotted, cartilaginously keeled at the apex, 
full of pellucid dots when examined by the light ; flowers sessile. 
i;. 1). G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D.C. pi. grass, 
t. 158. — Dill. hort. eltli. f. 220. M. ringens ft, Lin. spec, p, 
608. Flowers yellow, expanding after meridian. Styles 5, fili- 
form, equal in length to the stamens. 

C'a/-chop Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Nov. Clt. 1 730. PI. .| ft. 

31 M. LiiMNUM (Haw. in phil. mag. 64. p. 111.) plant stem- 
less ; leaves glaucesccnt, marginal cilia; very long, and very 
numerous. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Very like M.fellnum, but differs according to Salm-Dyck in the 



leaves being narrower, more attenuated, and in the cilise being 
longer and more numerous, but probably it is only a mere 
variety of it. 

jro//'-chop Fig-marigold. PI. 4 foot. 

32 M. TiORiNUM (Haw. obs. p. 164. misc. p. 21. syn. 216. 
rev. p. 89.) plant stemless, greenish ; leaves stem-clasping, ovate- 
cordate, expanded, marbled with white, flat above, ciliated with 
long hairs, cartilaginously keeled at the apex ; flowers sessile, "if. . 
D.' G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Ker. bot. reg. t. 
280. Flowers yellow, expanding after meridian, large, central. 
Styles 4, filiform, equal in length to the stamens. 

Tiger-cho^ Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1790. PI. 
I foot. 

33 M. cANiNUM (Haw. obs. p. 159. syn. 217. rev. p. 87.) 
plant almost stemless ; leaves glaucous, carinately triquetrous, 
rather club-shaped, incurved towards the ape.x, and somewhat 
toothed, as well as the bracteas ; peduncles longer than the leaves. 
i;. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. D. C. pi. 
grass, t. 95.— Dill. elth. f. 231.— Bradl. succ. t. 17. M. rin- 
gens a, Lin. spec. 698. Flowers of a yellowish orange-colour, 
opening after meridian. 

Dog-cho^ Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1717. PI. | ft. 

34 M. vuLPiNUM (Haw. syn. p. 417. rev. p. 88.) plant almost 
stemless ; leaves glaucous, carinately triquetrous, rather club- 
shaped, with large teeth at the apex or entire ; old leaves hori- 
zontal ; bracteas entire ; peduncles longer than the leaves. 1/ . 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. caninum ft. 
Haw. misc. p. 32. Very like M. canlmim, but taller, and the 
leaves are longer and greener, with fewer teeth. It is, however, 
perhaps only a variety of it. Flowers yellow. 

Foa-chop Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Oct. Clt. 1795. PI. J ft. 

35 M. iiy'bridum (Haw. syn. 218. rev. p. 88.) plant stemless, 
smooth, white ; leaves semi-terete, entire, carinately triquetrous 
above, and a little thickened, ending in a recurved mucrone 
each. If.. D. G. Raised in the gardens from the seeds of M. 
dlbidum, impregnated by the pollen of M. camnum. 

Hybrid Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Oct, PI. | foot. 

30 M. MuscuLiNUM (Haw. in phil. mag. nov. 1826. p. 328.) 
margins and keel of leaves usually bearing but one tooth each ; 
branches prostrate, half a foot long. H. D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow, oj)ening in the morning, 
scentless. This plant is very like M. murhium, but differs in the 
prostrate branches, and in the teeth of the leaves being fewer. 
It comes perhaps nearest in habit to M. ermimnuin, but diflfers 
in the petals being a line broad, not capillaceous. 

Litlle-mouse-choiJ Fig-marigold. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1824. 
PI. prostrate. 

§ 7. Rostrata {from rostrum, a beak). Haw. syn. p. 211. Salm- 
Dyck; obs. bot. 1820. p. 20. Plants stemless or nearly so. 
Leaves 4-6, crectish, connate, semi- terete, attenuated, rather 
keeled, and somewhat denticulated at the apex. Flowers solitary, 
pedunculate, yellow. Calyi ^-&-clefl. Stigmas 8-12. 

37 M. a'lbidum (Lin. spec. p. 699.) plant stemless, smooth, 
whitish ; leaves thick, subulate, triquetrous, obtuse, with an 
acumen, but semi-terete at the base : all quite entire, l^. D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope.— Dill. hort. elth. f. 232. 
Bradl. succ. t. 43. Sims, bot. mag. t. 1824. Haw. rev. p. 88. 
Flowers large, yellow, opening early in the morning, but after- 
wards remaining expanded through the whole day, sweet- 
scented. Stigmas 11. This plant is intermediate between the 
section Ringentia and Rostrata. 

While Fig-marigold. Fl. July, Aug. Clt. 1714. PI. ^ foot. 

38 M. nENTicuLA'TUM(Haw. obs. 149. misc. 30. syn. p. 215. 
rev. 91.) plant stemless; leaves very glaucous, subulately tri- 
quetrous, compressed, dilately keeled at the apex ; keel usually 



FICOIDE.E. I. Mesembryantiiemum. 



129 



ilonticiilated ; scnpc bibractcate, 1-flovvercd; styles 15. 1/ . D. 
G. Native of tlie Cape of Good Hope. Flowers pale straw- 
colour, 3 inclics in diameter. 

Far. a, (iliium (Haw. obs. 149.) leaves canescent from minute 
down. 

I^ar. fi, glaucum (Haw. obs. p. 151.) leaves glaucous-white, 
rather dilated at both ends, a little toothed. 

I'ar. y, candidissimum (Haw. 1. c.) leaves white, elongated, a 
little toothed, compressed on both sides. 

Denticulated V\'^-man^o\i!L. Fl. April. Clt. 1793. PI. ^ ft. 

39 M. ROBu'sTt'M (Haw. misc. p. 28. syn. 211. rev. p. 91.) 
stem robust, a little branched, short, decumbent ; leaves obtuse, 
dotted, subulate, pu, tulate inside at the base. 1/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. 

/?otMi7 Fig-marigold. Clt. 1795. PI. | foot. 

40 M. compa'ctum (Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 191.) plant stem- 
less ; leaves connate, dotted, semi-terete, triquetrous at the apex, 
rather reflexed, acute ; flowers sessile ; calyx subcylindrical, G- 
cleft. 2/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Haw. 
syn. 211. rev. 91. Flowers yellow. A very doubtful species, 
and probably the same as .1/. nubile, no. 20. 

Co)H;jflc< Fig-marigold. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1 780. PI. | foot. 

41 M. QLADRiFiDUM (Haw. misc. 28. syn. 212. rev. 91.) 
plant almost stemless, at length branched ; leaves subulate, ob- 
tuse, hoary-glaucous, marked by a few dots towards the apex ; 
scape terminal, 1 -flowered, longer than the leaves ; calyx 4-cleft. 
■2^. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Old stems 
2-3 inches long. Flowers yellow. Styles about the length of 
the stamens. 

jFour-c/e/i Fig-marigold. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1795. PI. | foot. 

42 M. bi'fidum (Haw. misc. p. 29. syn. 212. rev. p. 92.) 
plant almost stemless ; leaves subulate, glaucous, obtuse, with 
many dots; scape nearly terminal, J -flowered : calyx bifid. 
%.D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow. 
Lobes of calyx 2, unequal. xMlied to M. quadrijidum, but 
weaker, and the leaves are shorter and blunter. 

/?<>/ Fig-marigold. Fl. Nov. Clt. 1795. PI. i: foot. 

4;j M. bibractea'tum (Haw. syn. p. 215. rev. 92.) plant 
almost stemless, branched ; leaves elongated, subulate, dotted, 
very glaucous ; bracteas 4, decussate, shorter than the scape ; 
calyx 5-cleft. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Very like M. roslrulum. Flowers yellow, expanding in the sun. 
Styles 10, subulate, erect, length of stamens. 

Bibrncteale V\g-mar\go\di. Fl. April, Nov. Clt. 1803. PI. | ft. 

44 M. purpura'scens (Salm-Dyck, obs. hot. ann. 1822.) 
plant almost stemless, branched ; leaves dotted, smooth, gibbous 
inside at the base, of a bluish glaucous-colour, obtuse, and trique- 
trous at the apex ; keel usually extended ; sheaths purplish. 1/ . 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Purplish Fig-marigold. PI. i foot. 

45 iM. rostra'tum (Lin. spec p. 690.) plant stemless ; leaves 
subulate, elongated, acute, dotted ; bracteas 2, loncrer than the 
scape ; calyx 4-cleft. %.T). G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. — Dill. elth. f. 229. without a flower. Haw. obs. p. 152. 
misc. 29. syn. 214. rev. 92. Flowers yellow, expanding in the 
sun. Styles very short, approximate. 

Var. /3, tuberculatum (Mill. diet. ed. 8. no. 32.) leaves tuber- 
cular on the outside. 

y^faAvrfFia-marigold. Fl. April. Clt. 1742. PI. i foot. 

46 'SI. RAMULosfM (Haw. misc. 29. syn. 215. rev. p. 92.) 
young plant nearly stemless ; old stem 3 inches high, branched, 
and decumbent; leaves subulate, obtuse, pustulate inside at the 
base ; when old expanded ; scape terete, bracteate at the base ; 
calyx S-cleft. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
M. rostratokles. Haw. obs. 154. Flowers yellow. This is the 
smallest of all the section. 

VOL. III. 



•ymn/Z-trnnc/red Fig-marigold. Fl. March, Nov. Clt. 1791. 
PI. i foot. 

§. 8. Lingucrformia (from lingua, a tongue, and forma, a 
form; shape of leaves). Haw. misc. j). 32. rev. ji- 93. Salm- 
Dyck, obs. 18. Plants stemless or nearly so. Leaves more or 
less tongue-shaped, Jlat above, and convex beneath, soft, and shin- 
ing. Flowers solitary, large, sessile, or pedunculate. Calyx 
usually i-cleft, rarely 5-clcft. Petals shining, yellow, broadish. 
Sligmas 8, rarely 10. Caj'sule &-lO-celled. 

* Dlsticha (from Siittixoq, dislichos, having two rows, a distich ; 
leaves disposed exactly in two opposite rows). Harv. misc. ]>. 32. 
— Lingiucjormia, Haw. rev. p. 93. — Glossoldea, Spreng. syst. 2. 
p. 514. Leaves exactly distich. — Perhaps all the plants con- 
tained in this division arc nothing more titan varieties of one 
species, and probably of garden origin. The whole have been 
collected under the name of M. linguaforme in Lin. spec. p. 699. 
and D. C. jil. grass, no. 71. 

47 M. scalpra'tum (Haw. obs. p. 187. misc. p. 32. syn. p. 
220. rev. p. 94.) plant stemless ; leaves sloped down much, seal- 
prate, very broad, one of the margins thicker than the other, 
pustulate inside at the base ; flowers sessile. If.D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. — Dill. elth. f 2^4. M. obliquum, 
Willd. spec. 2. p. 1027. ex Salm-Dyck, obs. 1820. p. 19. M. 
lingiiEeforme a, Lin. spec. p. 669. Flowers yellow. 

A'/ij/e-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1714. PI. 
^ foot. 

48 M. fra'grans (Salm-Dyck, obs. 1820. p. 8.) plant almost 
stemless ; leaves tongue-shaped, thick, one side rather convex, 
and obtuse at the apex, the other side thrown out into a keel ; 
flower on a short peduncle. If.. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Haw. rev. p. 95. Hoftmans. verz. 1. p. 220. 
Otto et Link, abb. gew. t. 43. Flowers fragrant, yellow, 3 inches 
in diameter. Calyx 5-cleft. Allied to 31. scalpralum, but the 
leaves are narrower and thicker. 

Fragrant Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. PI. | foot. 

49 M. pR.EPiNGUE (Haw. obs. 179. misc. p. S5. syn. p. 222. 
rev. p. 95.) plant stemless ; leaves obliquely tongue-shaped, pale 
green, very soft, when young ciliated with pubescence, ending in 
an incurved point at the apex ; flowers nearly sessile ; calyx 4- 
cleft. X.D.G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Willd. 
enum. p. 529. M. heterophyllum, Andr. hot. rep. t. 540. ? but 
not of Haw. Capsule 8-celled, conically depressed. Old stem 
half a foot long, procumbent. Flowers yellow. 

Very-fat-\(:SL\ed Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1792. 
PI. i foot. 

50 M. GRANDiFLORDM (Haw. in phil. mag. nov. 1826. p. 328.) 
leaves broad tongue-shaped, long, thick, having a large pustule 
on the inside at the base ; petals very broad. 1^. D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow, almost scentless, 
large, sessile ; petals 3-4 lines broad. Leaves 3i inches long, 
and 15 lines broad. Capsule subconical. This is the largest 
species in the present section. 

Var. /3 (Haw. 1. c.) leaves deeper green. 

Gren;-/on'fre'(/ Fig-marigold. Fl. July. Clt. 1824. PI. J ft. 

51 M. me'dium (Haw. suppl. p. 88. rev. p. 95.) plant almost 
stemless ; leaves tongue-formed, sloping, cidtrate, deep green, 
without any claw-like point at the apex ; peduncles longer than 
the flowers. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Leaves 4 inches long, and an inch broad. Peduncles an inch 
long. Flowers yellow. 

Middle Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. PI. i to i foot. 

52 M. cuLTRA TUM (Salm-Dyck, obs. 1820. p. 7.) plant almost 
stemless ; leaves distich, exactly tongue-shaped, cultrate at the 
margin and apex ; peduncles compressed, rather longer than the 



i;jo 



FICOIDEiE. I. Mesembryaxthemum. 



flowers ; calyx 5.clelt. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Haw. rev. p. 95. Leaves 3-4 inches long. Petals of a 
shining yellow above, and reddish beneath. 

Cullralc-kavcd l'"ig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1820. 
PI. i foot. 

53 M. l6ngum (Haw. obs. p. 177.) plant stemless ; leaves 
elongated, tongne-shaped, shining, deep green ; flowers pedicel- 
late." Ti. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. — Dill, 
elth. f. 227. M. lingiiceforme c, Lin. spec. p. (!99. D, C. pi. 
grass, t. 71. M. lucidum. Haw. rev. p. 95. Flowers yellow. 

Far. ft, face ill urn (D. C. prod. 3. p. 421.) flowers almost ses- 
sile. M. iongum a, Haw. rev. 96. M. depressum, Sims, hot. 
mag. t. 18C6. 

/,(mo--leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Oct. Clt. 1725. PI. | ft. 

54 M. adsce'ndens (Haw. syn. 230. rev. p. 9G.) plant stem- 
less ; leaves broadly tongue-shaped, very blunt, ascending, 
green; flowers pedunculate. 1(. D. G. Native of tiie Cape 
of Good Hope. Flowers yellow. Probably only a variety of 
M. Iongum. 

Ascending Fig-marigoU. Fl. Aug. Nov. Clt. 1805. PI. | ft. 

53 M. pi'stula'tlm (Haw. sup|)i. p. 88. rev. p. 9G.) plant 
stemless ; leaves tongue-shaped, ascending, elongated, furnished 
with large pustules on the inside at the base. '2^. D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Leaves 5-6 inches long, and 
3-11 lines broad. Flowers yellow. 

.B/Zi/tm/ Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1818. PI. i foot. 

5G M. LisGU^EFORME (Haw. obs. p. 188. misc. p. 33. syn. p. 
221. rev. p. 97.) plant stemless; leaves unequally tongue-shaped, 
thick, green, keeled on one side ; flower on a very short pedun- 
cle ; calyx 4-cleft. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. — Dill. elth. f. 226. M. linguffiforme y, Lin. spec. 669. 
M. obliquum, Pers. but not of Haw. Flowers yellow. 

Far. ft, rufiscens (Haw. syn. p. 221.) leaves very closely im- 
l)ricated, rufescent. 

Tongue-furmed-\ea.vBA Fig-marigold. Fl. Mar. Nov. Clt. 
1 732. PI. i foot. 

57 M. la'tum (Haw. obs. 186. misc. p. 32. syn. p. 220. rev. 
p. 98.) jjlant stemless ; leaves tongue-shaped, green, obtuse, 
thick, usually sloping, and somewhat excavated ; flowers nearly 
sessile ; calyx 5-cleft ; capsule large, conical. 1/ . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. — Dill. elth. f. 225. M. lin- 
gua-forme ft, Lin. spec. 699. Flowers yellow. 

Var. ft, irt'i'c (Haw. rev. p. 99.) leaves short, very blunt, de- 
pressed on the ground ; capsule small, depressed. 

Zirof/fMeaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Mar. Nov. Clt. 1620. PI. |ft. 

58 AL DETREssuM (Haw. misc. p. 33. syn. 221. rev. 99.) 
plant almost stemless, prostrate ; leaves pale, narrow-tongue- 
shaped, obtuse, recurved, depressed, variously incurved at the 
apex ; capsule depressed. "2/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope.— Dill. elth. f. 226. ? Flowers yellow. 

Far. ft, lividum (Haw. 1. c.) leaves of a livid rufescent colour 
Z)c2)rcs«'(/ Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1795. PI. i ft. 

• Cruciata (from crux, a cross ; leaves disposed crosswise 
more or less). Haw. syn. p. 222. — Cruciata and Difformia, Haw. 
rev. 100. and 101. Leaves more or less cruciate, usually obliquely 
decussate. 

59 M. crlcia'tum (Haw. obs. p. 173. misc. 35. .syn. 224. 
rev. 35.) plant nearly stemless ; leaves linear-tongue-shaped, 
semi-cylindrical, very soft, cruciate ; peduncles 2-edged ; calyx 
4-cleft. ■J^.D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Old 
stems 3 inches high. Peduncles 1-2 inches. Corolla large, 
yellow. 

CroM-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Nov. Clt. 1792. PI. J ft. 

60 M. TAURfNiM (Haw. syn. p. 224. rev. 100.) plant almost 
stemless ; leaves disposed in 2 rows, obliquely cruciate, semi- 

8 



terete, obtuse, very thick, of a yellowish green colour, incurved ; 
flowers sessile; calyx bifid? If. D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Calycine segments unequal. Styles 8. Old 
stem branched at the base, half a foot high. Flowers yellow. 
£i/«Vhorn Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1795. PI. | ft. 

61 M. Sa'lmii (Haw. suppl. p. 89. rev. p. 100.) plant nearly 
stemless ; leaves decussate, semi-cylindrical, attenuated and acute 
at the apex, or oblique and bluntish ; flowers exactly sessile ; 
calyx 4-cleft; capsule half closed. If- D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Salm-Dyck. obs. bot. 1820. Link, et 
Otto. abb. gew. t. 14. Flowers large, yellow. Leaves pustulate 
at the base, according to Haworth. 

Far. ft, semi-crueiatum (Salm-Dyck. 1. c.) leaves obliquely 
distich, straight, and more tongue-shaped than the species. 

Salm-Dyck' sV\g-m!Lx\go\A. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1818. PI. | ft. 

62 M. surre'ctum (Haw. rev. p. 101.) leaves decussate, 
erectish, or spreading, more or less semi-terete, subulate, acute, 
soft, usually pustulate at the base ; ovarium exserted, some- 
what pedunculate. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flowers yellow. 

Raised ¥\g-mar\go\A. Fl. Sept. Nov. Clt. 1819. PI. 4 ft. 

63 M. heterophy'llum (Haw. obs. p. 420. misc. 36. syn. 
225. rev. 101.) plant stemless; leaves green, difformed, with- 
out dots ; upper ones the longest. If • D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow. Leaves obliquely cru- 
ciate : lower ones like those of M. canum : upper ones like 
those of M. dijforme. 

Fariahle-kavcd V\g-ms.r\go\di. Clt. 1795. PI. § foot. 

64 M. angu'stum (Haw. obs. 176. misc. p. 34. syn. 222. rev. 
p. 101.) plant almost stemless; leaves linear-tongue-shaped, 
semi-cylindrical, very long ; flowers nearly sessile ; calyx 4- 
cleft. l/.D. G. Nativeof the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
yellow, having the petals broader than any other species of this 
section. Calyx 4-cleft; stigmas 10, according to Haworth. 

I'ar. ft, pdllidttm {Haw. rev. p. 101.) leaves paler, obliquely 
cruciate. Perhaps this plant appertains to M. heterophijllum. 
Andr. bot. rep. t. 540. 

A'aiTow Fig-marigold. Fl. Mar. Oct. Clt. 1790. PI. i ft. 

65 M. DiFFORME (Lin. spec. p. 669.) plant nearly stemless ; 
leaves obliquely cruciate, long, semi-cylindrical, oblique, 
furnished with 1-2 obscure teeth at the apex ; flowers nearly 
sessile ; calyx 4-cleft. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. — Dill. elth. f. 242. Haw. obs. p. 169. misc. 35. syn. 
225. rev. p. 103. Old stems 2-3 inches long, decumbent. 
Flowers large, yellow, fading to a copper colour. Styles S. 

Far. ft, hrevicaule {W<i\\. rev. p. 103.). Caudex shorter. 
Djjonnerf Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1732. PI. dec. 

66 M. bigibbera'tum (Haw. in phil. mag. nov. 1825. p. 329.) 
leaves obliquely somewhat cruciate, semi-cylindrical, pale green, 
varying at the apex, usually with 2 gibbosities ; capsule de- 
pressed. !(. . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Very 
like M. difforme, but smaller and slenderer. Flowers yellow. 

Two-bunchedAeaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1820. PI. 
{ foot. 

67 M. bidenta'tum (Haw. suppl. p. 89. rev. p. 103.) plant 
stemless; leaves semi-cylindrical, thick, soft, oblique at the 
apex, and diflbrmed, bearing 2 large, almost opposite, fleshy 
teeth in the middle. If; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flowers large, yellow, on short peduncles ; petals 
erosely toothed at the apex. Capsule a little depressed. — The 
figure in Dill. hort. elth. f. 241. is referrible to this plant and not 
to the next. 

£trfCT/«;e-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1818. PI. i ft. 

68 M.SEMicYLiNDRicuM (Havv. obs. p. 238. misc. p. 36. syn. 
225. rev. 103.) plant rather caulescent; leaves very narrow, 
tongue-shaped, semi-terete, oblique towards the apex, furnished 



FICOIDEiE. I. Mesembryantiiemum. 



131 



witli 1 obsolete tooth on one side, and another stronger one on 
tlie otiier ; flowers on sliort pedicels ; calyx 4-cleft. 1/ . D. H. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. — Pliik. niant. t. 325. f. 4. 
Flowers yellow, size of those of M. linguceforme. Styles 8. 

Semi-ci/limliical-haved Fig-marigold. Fl. Mar. Nov. Clt. 
1732. PI. -^ foot. 

§ 9. Dolabriformia (from dolahra, an axe or hatchet, and 
forma, form ; shape of leaves). Salm-Dyck. ohs. j). 19. — Dola- 
briformia and Carindntia, IJarv. rev. p. 90. Plants stemless, or 
on short stems. Leaves decussate, rvith a keeled gibbous angle. 
Floyrers yclloiv. Calyx 5-clefl. Stigmas 5. Capside 5-cclled. 

C9 M. DOLABRiFOKME (Lin. spcc. p. G99.) young plant stem- 
less, but as it grows old it becomes caulescent and erect ; leaves 
glaucous, dotted, exactly dolabriform, i. e. depressed at the base, 
and compressed at the apex, obtuse, and somewhat emarginate ; 
flowers on short pedicels. I^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope.— Dill. hort. elth. f. 237. D. C. pi. grass, t. 6. 
Curt. bot. mag. t. 32. Haw. obs. p. 366. misc. p. 37. syn. 1. 
p. 219. Flowers yellow, opening in the evening. Styles 5, 
filiform, longer than the stamens. 

I ar.fi, »ijnMi(Haw. I.e.). JVJ. dolabriformoides, Haw. obs. 168. 

Hatchet-form-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Nov. Clt. 
1705. Fl. |foot. 

70 M. cari'nans (Haw. rev. p. 90.) plant nearly stemless ; 
leaves elongated, somewhat incurved and spreading, semiterete 
at the base, compressed at the apex, and dilated into a keel, 
whitish and dotted. %. D. G. Native country and flowers un- 
known. M. cinum, Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 20. but not of Haw. 
Flowers by threes, yellow, expanding in the evening. Very 
like j)l. dolabriforme. 

A'cc/iHg Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1818. PI. |^ ft. 

71 M. sca'piger (Haw. in phil. mag. dec. 1821-. p. 423.) plant 
almost stemless ; leaves carinately triquetrous, green, roughish 
and dotted on the margins ; scape strong, 2-edged, bracteate, 
rather panicled. 1/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flower middle-sized, yellow. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 
5, slender. 

Scape-bearing Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 1823. 
PI. I foot. 

§ 10. Gibbosa (from gibbosus, crooked-backed or bunched ; 
back of some of the leaves). Haw. rev. p. 104. — Abbrcviata, 
Han. misc. \.p. 36. — Inceqiiifdlia gibbosa, Salm-Dijck. ohs. p. 
18. Plants nearly stemless. Leaves difformed, connate a great 
nay at the base, large, unequal, one of n hie h is short and gib- 
bous, the other usually oblique. Flowers sessile, or on short pedi- 
cels, small, reddish. Calyx Q-cleft. Stigmas 6. 

72 M. ciBBosuM (Haw. obs. p. 137. misc. p. 36. rev. p. 104.) 
plant nearly stemless ; leaves connate, difl^ormed, of a yellowish 
green colour, spreading, ovate, semi-cylindrical, very rarely 
keeled at the apex ; peduncles short, 2-edged. 1^. D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. Petals reddish, with paler 
edges. Stigmas 6, very short. Calyx 6-lobed ; lobes unequal. 

6' i7;6o!(.s -leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Jan. Apr. Clt. 1780. PI. 4 ft. 

73 M. lu'teo-viride (Haw. syn. p. 226. rev. p. 104.) stem 
short, prostrate, weak; leaves connate, oblong, semi-cylindrical, 
triquetrous at the apex, greenish-yellow ; flowers sessile. % . 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. perviride/3, Haw. 
misc. p. 37. Stem 1-2 inches. Calyx 6-cleft. Styles 6, very 
short, at length spreading. Petals reddish, marked by a deeper 
line each. Perhaps only a variety of M. perviride. 

Yellowish-green Fiar-mar'\go\d. Fl. Jan. Clt. 1795. Pl.ift. 

74 M. pervi'ride (Haw. obs. p. 136. misc. p. 37. exclusive 
of var. /3, syn. p. 227. rev. 104.) stem weak, prostrate ; leaves 
connate, semi-cylindrically triquetrous, or somewhat ovate, very 
green; pedicels very short, 2-edged. y.. D. G. Native of 



the Cape of Good Hope. Calyx small, 6-cleft. Petals reddish, 
paler than those of AI. gibbusum. Styles 6, much spreading, 
length of filaments. Stem 2-3 inches long. Leaves shorter 
and broader than in M. lutco-viride. 

/■tr(/-^rccn Fig-marigold. Fl. Jan. Aug. Clt. 1792. PI. pr. 

75 M. i'ube'scens (Haw. obs. p. 138. misc. 137. syn. 227. 
rev. p. 104.) plant almost stemless; leaves pubescent, hoary, 
or silky, smooth, semi-cylindrical, oblique at the apex, i/ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. The 
form of the plant agrees with the 2 preceding species, but differs 
in being silky or downy. 

P«/;eifcK< Fig-marigold. Fl. Jan. May. Clt. 1792. PI. i ft. 

§ 11. Calamifurmia (from calamus, a reed, and forma, form ; 
long taper leaves). Haw. rev. p. 104. Plants almost stemless. 
Leaves numerous, nearly terete, greenish, dotted. Flowers on short 
peduncles, of a dirty white colour. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 8. 

76 M. calamiforme (Lin. spec. 690.) stemless ; leaves su- 
bulate, nearly terete, glaucescent, dotted. Hat above ; flowers on 
short peduncles. %.. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope.— Bradl. succ. f. 19.— Dill. elth. f. 228. D. C. pi. grass, 
t. 5. Haw. obs. p. 140. misc. p. 26. syn. 208. rev. 105. Ca- 
lyx 5-cleft, with 3 of the lobes fleshy, and 2 of them membra- 
nous. Petals whitish. Stigmas 8, acute. Capsule 8-celled. 

Reed-shaped-\ea.\ed Fig-marigold. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1717. 
PI. i foot. 

77 M. obsubula'tum (Haw. misc. 26. syn. 208. rev. p. 105.) 
stemless ; leaves inversely subulate, or gradually thickening 
towards the apex, thick, obtuse, greenish. 1/ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. Very like M. 
calamiforme. 

06sw6!«/a<e-leaved Fig-marigold. Clt. 1796, *P1. | foot. 

§ 12. Teretifolia (from teres, cylindrical, and folium, a leaf). 
Haw. rev. p. 105. Plants stemless or subcaulescent. Leaves 
nearly terete, greenish, dotted. Flowers j^edunculate, showy, very 
pale red. Calyx -i-cleft. Stigmas 12. 

78 M. cyli'ndricum (Haw. obs. p. 411. misc. 27. syn. p. 
209. rev. p. 102.) plant almost stemless ; leaves triquetrously 
terete, rather glaucous, dotted, but when young more glaucous 
and more triquetrous ; peduncles compressed at the base, bi- 
bracteate. If.. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Leaves 3 inches long. Peduncles 1-2 inches long. Bracteas 
filiform. Old stems 2 inches long, crowdedly branched. 
Flowers red. 

riy/(nrf/-(ca^-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Sept. Clt. 1792. 
PI. i foot. 

79 M. TERETIFOLIUM (Havv. syn. p. 210. rev. p. 105.) plant 
subcaulescent ; leaves nearly terete or cylindrical, greenish, ra- 
ther dotted : but when young polished, very green, and semi- 
terete ; peduncle nearly terete, bibractcate. 1^ . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. M. cylindricum ft, Haw. misc. p. 
37. Branches procumbent. Bracteas filiform. Leaves 4 inches 
long. Flowers red. 

Terete-leaved ¥ig-mar\go]d. Fl. Feb. Sept. Clt. 1794. PI. 
1- foot. 

80 M. TERETiu'scuLUM (Haw. obs. 410. misc. 27. exclusive 
of the synonymes) plant stemless ; leaves triquetrously terete, 
firm, thick, green, dotted. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Leaves 2 inches long. Flowers unknown, but 
probably red. 

A^ear/y <crc/e-leaved Fig-marigold. Clt. 1794. PI. | foot. 

§ 13. Dellidiflbra (from bellis, a daisy, and flos, a flower; 
the flowers bear some resemblance to those of the daisy). Haw. 
rev. p. 106. Plants stcvdess or caulescent. Leaves triquetrous, 
s % 



132 



FICOIDEvE. I. Mesembrvanthemum. 



acute (It the angles, toothed at the apex. Floivers solitary, pe- 
dicellate. Petals purple on the ribs and white on the margins. 
Calyx 5-cleft. Capsule 5-celled. Stigmas numerous, small, 
hair-formed. 

81 M. BELLiDiFLORUM (Liii. spec. p. 690.) caudex short, suf- 
(Viiticose ; leaves triquetrous, compressed, rather acinaciform, 
denticulated at the apex ; pedicels sliort. % . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Petals red and white. 

far. ji, glaiicesccns {Ha^vi. rev. p. 105.) leaves rather glau- 
cous, with the teeth in 3 rows at the apex. — Dill. elth. f. 233. 

I'ar. y, viride {Havi . rev. p. 105.) leaves pale green, toothed 
heneath on the keel. 

Daisy-Jlowercd Fig-marigold. Fl. June, Aug. Clt. 1717. 
PI. i foot. 

82 M. subula'tum (Mill. diet. ed.S.no. 10.) caudex branched; 
leaves rather glaucous, triquetrously subulate, denticulated at 
the apex. %. D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Haw. syn. 208. M. bellidiflorum simplex, D. C. pi. grass, t. 
^•I. Flowers reddish. The plant is very like BI. bellidijlbrum, 
but is uuich smaller and more branched. 

Subula(c-\ea\eA Fig-marigold. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. ? PI. \ ft. 

83 jM. Uurma'nni (Haw. rev. p. IOC.) floriferous stems erect, 
simple ; leaves triquetrous, with 3 rows of teeth at the apex ; 
pedicels rather elongated. 11^. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. — Burm. afr. t. 25. This species is hardly known. 

Burmann's Fig-marigold. PI. \ foot. 

§ 14. Acuta (from acutus, acute; leaves acute). Haiv. 
rev. 107. Plants stemless or nearly so. Leaves semiterete, su- 
bulate, incurved, triquetrous at the apex, green, full of pellucid 
dots. Floners pedicellate ; petals deep purple. Calyx 5 cleft. 
Stigmas 10.'' 

84 M. acu'tum (Haw. misc. p. 26. syn. 207. rev. 107.) plant 
stemless ; leaves semi-cylindrical, acute, green, full of pellucid 
dots, finely wrinkled. ^ . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. M. subulatoides, Haw. obs. p. 141. M. subrostratum, 
Willd. enum. p. 529. ex Haw. Allied to M. diiiiinutum, but 
larger. Scape bibracteate at the base; bracteas filiform. Calyx 
5-cleft. Petals purple, cleft at the apex. Stigmas 10, length 
of filaments. 

^cM/e-lcaved Fig-marigold. Fl. Apr. Nov. Clt. 1793. Pl.ift. 

85 M. I'UNcta'tum (Haw. obs. p. 411. rev. p. 107.) plant 
smooth, stemless ; leaves semiterete, triquetrous at the top, flat 
above, full of pellucid dots, pale green, furnished with a minute 
white point at the apex, i/ . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers unknown. Perhaps only a variety of M. 
diminuluiit. 

Dotled-\(i&veii Fig-marigold. Fl. April, Nov. Clt. 1793. 
PI. i foot. 

86 M. diminu'tum (Haw. misc. p. 26. syn. p. 230. rev. 107.) 
plant nearly stemless, smooth, shining ; leaves semiterete, trique- 
trous at tiie apex, flat above, full of pellucid dots, terminating in 
a white point at the apex. i;. D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hojje. M. corniculatum. Haw. obs. p. 226. exclusive of 
the synonymes. M. loreum, Lin. spec, and Haw. exclusive of 
the synonyme of Dillcnius e.x Haw. Flowers red or purplish. 

I'ar. ji, tuuliculalum (Haw. suppl. 90. rev. 107.) stem half 
erect ; leaves longer, and with larger dots, but is perhaps only 
an old plant. 

Z>im;H(57/e(/ Fig-marigold. Fl. Apr. Clt. 1789. Pl.ift. 

§ 15. Macrorhlza (from fiuKpoc, mnhros, long, and pi^it, 
rhi:a, a root ; root large and tuberous). D. C. prod. 3. p. 425. 
Plant nearly stemless. Leaves opposite, connate, triquetrous, 



crorvded. Flowers pedicellate, white. Calyx 5-cleft, having 2 
of the lobes very long. Stigmas 5. Capsule subgloLose. 

87 M. MACRORHizuM (Haw. ]. c. D. C. 1. c.) stem very 
short; root large, tuberous ; leaves connate, bluntly triquetrous, 
crowded, spreading ; branches erect, bent ; flowers 1-3 together, 
nearly terminal, jiediccllate. "if.. D. S. Native of the Island 
of Bourbon, among scoria near the sea. Stems 3 inches high. 
Flowers small, white, numerous. The leaves have an acrid 
taste when eaten, as those of Salsola. La Lavangere, Comm. 
mss. and figure. Ficoide, De Pet. Th. mel. bot. p. 37. 

Large-rooted Fig~marigo\d. Fl. Ju. Jul. Clt. 1823. PL ^^ ft. 

Subdivision IL Cephalophy'lla (from Kc.(pa\ri, cephale, a 
head, and (fivWov, phyllon, a leaf; in reference to the leaves 
being collected in heads at the tops of the branches). Haw. 
rev. 108. Stems suffVuticose, decumbent. Leaves long, tri- 
quetrous, or nearly cylindrical, disposed in heads. Flowers 
pedunculate, yellow. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 10-20. — This 
division is perhaps not very natural. 

§16. Corniculata (from corniculatus, horned; shape of 
leaves). Haw. rev. p. 108. — Prostrata, Haw. misc. pi. 38. syn. 
220. — Calamiformia prostrata, Salm-Dyck. Caudex branched, 
prostrate, rather strumose at the knots, and nearly sarmenta- 
ceous. Leaves crowded at the nodi, elongated, triquetrous, or 
nearly cylindrical, glabrous, and rvithout any pajnilce, Floivers 
pedunculate, yellow. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 10-20. Ovarium 
depressed. 

88 M. l6reum (Haw. syn. p. 229. rev. 108.) stems prostrate, 
rather nodose : adult ones nearly terete ; leaves crowded in 
heads, semi-cylindrically triquetrous, elongated, recurved, ra- 
ther glaucous. Pj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
— Dill. elth. f. 255. Peduncles solitary, an inch and a half long, 
bibracteolate at the base. Flowers straw-coloured. Calyx 5-6- 
cleft. Styles 15-18. 

J'ar. [i, congestum (Haw. 1. c.) plant more greenish ; lower 
pair of leaves very long. 

Thong Fig-marigold. Fl. Sept. Clt. 1732. PI. pr. 

89 M. DiVERSiFOLiuM (Haw. misc. p. 38. syn. p. 230. rev. 
p. 108.) stems prostrate, rather nodose: adult ones robust, an- 
gular, red, and yellow ; leaves very long, triquetrously semi- 
cylindrical, rather recurved, green, crowded in heads. Jj . D. G. 
Natives of the Cape of Good Hope. — Dill. elth. f. 252. M. 
diversiphyllum, Haw. obs. p. 228. M. corniculatum p, Willd. 
Flowers pedunculate. Calyx 5-cleft. Petals of yellowish brown 
colour, striated by a red line on the outside. Styles 17. ex Haw. 

far. a, glaucum (Haw. 1. c.) leaves rather glaucous. 
Var. ft, brevifolium (Haw. 1. c.) leaves shorter than in any of 
the other varieties. 

Jar. y, Iccte-virens (Haw. 1. c.) leaves pale green. 
1 ar. c), atrovirens (Haw. 1. c.) leaves dark green. 
JJiverse-leaved Fig-marigo\d. Fl. Mar. Oct. Clt. 1726. Pl.pr. 

90 M. UEci'piENS (Haw. rev. p. 1 10.) stems prostrate, with 
rather distant nodi ; leaves rather crowded, long, arcuately 
ascending, triquetrously semi-cylindrical, green, shining, mi- 
nutely and finely wrinkled. T? . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers pale yellow. 

Deceiving Fig-maiigold. Fl. May. CI. 1820. PI. pr. 

91 M. du'bium (Haw. misc. p. 39. syn. 231. rev. 110.)stems 
prostrate, nearly terete, with the nodi contiguous ; leaves rather 
crowded, longish, triquetrously semi-cylindrical, ascending, 
green, shining; stigmas 12. I; . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. — Bradl. succ. t. 40. Petiv. gaz. 77. f. 10. 
Leaves 2 inches long, but shorter than those of M. corniculiitum. 
Peduncles terminal, shorter than the leaves. Petals sulphur- 



FICOIDE/E. I. Mesembryanthemum. 



13.} 



coloure<l on the inside, and of an orange red colour on the 
outside. 

Z)ou6{/'«/ Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Nov. Clt. 1800. PI. pr. 

92 M. cornicula'tum (Lin. spec. 67C.) stems spreading, an- 
gular, with distant nodi ; leaves rather crowded, triquetrously 
semi-cylind;ica!, very long, glaucous, incurved; stigmas 12-18. 

H . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope.— Dill. elth. f. 
254. D. C. pi. glass, t. 108. Haw. misc. 39. syn. 231. rev. 

110. Peduncles slender, length of leaves. Calyx 5-cleft. 
Petals yellow, with a red dorsal line. Stigmas purple. Cap- 
sule many-celled. 

//ornerf Fig-marigold. Fl. May. Clt. 1732. PI. pr. 

§ 17. Procumbenlia (procumbens, procumbent; plants). 
Haw. in i>hil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 329. Old stems 'procumbent. 
Leaves connate at the base, long, semiterete or cylindrical. 

93 M. procu'mbens (Haw. rev. 111.) stems flexuous, pro- 
cumbent; leaves by pairs, recurved, corniculate, semi-cylindri- 
cally triquetrous, glaucescent. I; . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. M. dubium, Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 22. Allied 
to M. tricolor, but the leaves are shorter and more expanded, &c. 

/'rocumicK^ Fig-marigold. Fl. Mar. May. Clt. 1820. PI. pr. 

94 M. TRicoLORUM (Haw. obs. 233. misc. 39. syn. 232. rev. 
111.) stems prostrate; branches distant; leaves exactly cylin- 
drical, acute, green ; stigmas 20, short, expanded. f; . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. stramineum, Willd. 
enum. p. 533. ex Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 22. Flowers large, shin- 
ing. Petals straw-coloured, blood-coloured at the base ; anthers 
brown ; stigmas green. 

Three-coloured-AowereA Fig-marigold. Fl. Apr. May. Clt. 
1794. PI. pr. 

95 M. i'urpu'reo-a'lbum (Haw. in phil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 
329.) branches short, angular, prostrate, furrowed, yellowish ; 
leaves green, triquetrously semi-cylindrical, full of little dots, 
upper ones crowded. b . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Peduncles filiform. Flowers showy ; petals white, po- 
lished, naked, with abroad, dark, purple line. Styles 10, reddish. 

Purple and nhite-^owexeA. Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Clt. 1824. 
PI. pr. 

§ 18. Capitata (from capilatus, headed ; leaves crowded into 
heads at the top of the stems or branches). Haw. si/n. 227. rer. 

111. Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 30. Caudcx erect, much branched. 
Leaves crowded at the tops of the branches, alternate, very long, 
triquetrous, or semi-terete, without either dots or papulce. Flo- 
riferous branches disposed in something like whorls, decumbent. 
Peduncles bracleate at the base. Flowers large, yellow. Calyx 
5-lobed ; lobes elongated. Petals ciliated at the base. Stigmas 
10-20. The species are very nearly allied to each other. 

96 M. PUGiONiFORME (Lin. spec. 699.) stem suffruticose, 
erectish ; branches few, terete, decumbent ; leaves alternate, 
crowded at the tops of branches, glaucous, triquetrous ; petals 
shorter than the calyx ; stigmas 15, expanded. Ij . D. G. Na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope.— Dill. elth. f. 269. Bradl. 
succ. t. 14. D. C. pi. grass, t. 82. Haw. misc. 42. syn. 218. 
rev. 112. Flowers large, pale yellow. Perhaps the flesh-co- 
loured and purple-flowered varieties mentioned in Breyn. cent. 
p. 164. belong to this species. 

Dagger-fonned-]ea\ed Fig-marigold. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 
1714. Shrub 1 foot. 

97 M. capita'tum (Haw. misc. p. 41. syn. 228. rev. 112.) 
stem simple, suffruticose, with the leaves alternate and crowded 
at its top, rather glaucous, and triquetrous ; petals length of 
calyx; stigmas 16, straiglit, setaceous. 1^ . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Ker. bot. reg. 491. M. pugioni- 
forme, Haw. obs. p. 390. Stem simple. Flowers pale yellow. 



far. )j, ramigcrum (Haw. 1. c.) stem a little branched. 
CV/p(7a?f Fig-marigold. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1717. Sh. 1 ft. 

98 M. BUEvicAULE (Haw. suppl. p. 91. rev. 113.) caudex 
suffruticose, simple, erect, with the kaves alternate, greenish, 
tricpietrous, and crowded at its apex. I; . D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Breyn. cent. p. 165. Much smaller 
than M. capilalum. Flowers pale yellow. 

Short-stemmed ]c\g-m3Lr\^o\A. Fl. Jul. Sept. Clt. 1820. Sh. | ft. 

99 M. coRu'scANS (Haw. suppl. 90. rev. 11 3.) stem shrubby; 
leaves alternate, dagger-shaped, long, glittering, crowded at the 
top of the stem. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flowers yellow. 

67j/<cW«^ Fig-marigold. Fl. July, Sept. Clt. 1812. Sh. 1 ft. 

100 ^l. elonga'tum (Haw. obs. p. 236. misc. p. 40. syn. p. 
228. rev. p. 113.) stein weak, flexuous; leaves crowded at the 
top of the stem, alternate, rather glaucous, bluntly triquetrous, 
channelled or semiterete : root large, tuberous, fleshy. (^ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers yellow. Stifmas 
12-19. D. C. pi. grass, t. 72. 

far. ft, minus (Haw. 1. c.) corolla a little smaller ; petals 
hardly ciliated. Ker. bot. reg. t. 493. 

far. y,fusif6rme (Haw. 1. c.) root fusiform, Breyn. cent. p. 
33. M. fusiforme. Haw. misc. p. 41. 

ii/ono-n^trf Fig-marigold. Fl. May. Clt. 1793. Sh. 1 foot. 

Subdivision III. Repta'ntia {reptans, creeping ; plants 
creeping). Haw. rev. p. 1 14. Stems suffrutescent, decumbent, 
creeping ; branches angular. Leaves opposite, connate at the 
base, acutely tri(|uetrous. Flowers pedunculate, reddish except 
in M. edule. Stigmas 5-20. 

§ 19. Sarmcnloxa (irovn sarmentosus,{u\\o^ \.v<\gs; branches 
numerous and twiggy). Salm-Dyck. obs. 38. Haw. rev. p. 114. 
Stems shrubby, decumbent ; branches rooting, sarmenlaceous. 
Leaves opposite, connate, acutely triquetrous, dotted with serru- 
lated margins. Peduncles usually ternnte, bibracteate. Flowers 
middle-sized, reddish, with a deeiKr- coloured dorsal Hue. Calyx 
5-clcft. Stigmas 5. 

101 M. GEMiNiFLORUM (Haw. rcv. 114.) stem shrubby, dif- 
fuse ; branches elongated, slender, creeping ; leaves triquetrous, 
nearly equal-sided, rather connate at the base, acute, and a 
little hooked at the apex, dotted ; pedicels twin or tern ; stig- 
mas 5. Vi . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. 
geminatum, Jacq. fragm. t. 50. but not of Haw. Petals purple. 
Flowers hardly half an inch in diameter. Leaves 12-15 lines 
long, scabrous from elevated dots. 

Twin-Jlonered F\g-ma.iigo]d. Clt. 1819. PI. creeping. 

102 M. SIMILE (Haw. rev. p. 115.) stems shrubby, firm, pro- 
cumbent ; leaves triquetrous, equal-sided, glaucescent, full of 
very small dots, straight at the apex, longer than the internodes : 
margins' not serrulated. h . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers unknown. Allied to I\f. gcminijlhrum, 
but the branches are shorter; and to M. laxum, but the inter- 
nodes are shorter. 

;5';w(7«r Fig-marigold. Clt. 1819. PI. pr. 

103 ^L la'xum (Willd. enum. p. 536.) stem loose, diffuse, 
shrubby ; branches creeping, very slender ; leaves connate, com- 
pressed, triquetrous, more green than the others, tubercularly 
dotted, usually shorter than the internodes : with the margins 
and keel finely denticulated. tj . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Haw. rev. 115. Flowers reddish. 

Loose Fig-marigold. Fl. May. Clt. 1 820. PI. creeping. 

104 JL saumentosuu (Haw. syn. 238. rev. 115.) stem 
shrubby, diffuse ; branches prostrate, rooting, sarnientaceous ; 
leaves crowded, compressed, triquetrous, pale green, roughish 
on the edges ; peduncles club-shaped above; stigmas 5. (; . D. G. 



134 



FICOIDEiE. I. Mesembryaxthemum. 



Native of New Holland. Branches short, opposite. Leaves 2 
inches lon<r. Calyx 5-cleft. Petals reddish, with a deeper- 
coloured line. Styles short, recurved at the apex, greenish 
yellow. _ 

■ T-nwV^rj/ Fig-marigold. Fl. April. Clt. 1805. PI. pr. 

lOo^M. lUGiDicAu'iE (Haw. rev. p. 11 C.) stem firm, procum- 
bent, not pendulous ; leaves long, triquetrous, equal-sided, 
strai'dit, with roughish margins. Tj . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. The rest unknown. 

Stiffish-stenivied Vig-marigold. Fl.May, Ju. Clt. 1819. PI. pr. 

106 M. va'lidum (Haw. in phil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 329.) 
leaves long, pale green, with roughish margins ; branches robust, 
stiff, decumbent ; flowers usually by threes ; keel of bracteas 
entire, h . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
showy, rose-coloured, with a deeper coloured line in the middle. 

i7ro»^ Fig-marigold. Fl. May.Ju. Clt. 1821.. PI. pr. 

107 M. ScHOLLii (Salm-Dyck. obs. 1820. p. 10. Haw. rev. 
p. 116.) stems firm, decumbent, sarmentose ; leaves connate, 
compressed, triquetrous, spreadingly recurved, dotted, serrulated 
on the lateral angles, and on the upper part of the keel ; pedun- 
cles tern, bibracteate in the middle ; stigmas 5. V^ . D. G. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. M. aduncum, Jacq. fragm. 
t. 51. f. 2. but not of Willd. M. recurvum, Haw. suppl. p. 90. 
but not of Moench. Petals reddish, acute, with a deeper-co- 
loured line in the middle of each. 

,Sc/io/r« Fig-marigold. Fl. May, June. Clt. 1810. Sh. dec. 

§ 20. HunnlHma (from humiUimus, very humble). Han: 
rev. ]>. 121. — RcpU'int'ia, Salm-Dyck. obs. j). 30. — Repidnt'ia 
hum'illhna, Haw. syn. p. 241. Steins suffruticose, and are as 
well as the branches humble, p>rostrate, and creeping, rooting at 
the joints. Leaves opposite, rather connate, triquetrous, usually 
crowded, with smooth margins. Flowers pedunculate, middle- 
sized, reddish. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 5. 

108 M. re'ptans (Ait. hort. kew. vol. 2. p. 185.) stems 
filiform, very slender, creeping; leaves much crowded, trique- 
trous, acute, glaucous, scabrous from large pellucid dots. Ij . 
D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers reddish, 
(ex Ait.), yellow (ex Salm-Dyck.), rarely flowering (ex Haw. 
obs. p. 349. misc. 80. syn. 212. rev. 121.). 

CVcfpfH^ Fig-marigold. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1774. PI. or. 

109 .M. cRASsiroLiuM (Lin. spec. p. 693.) stem semi-terete, 
creeping ; leaves triquetrous, dotless, very green, smooth, semi- 
cylindrical at the base ; peduncles a little compressed ; stigmas 
5, spreading, h . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
— Dill. elth. f. 257.— Bradl. succ. t. 38. Haw. obs. 350. 
misc. 78. syn. 241. rev. 122. Flowers middle-sized, deep red. 
Peduncles 1-2 inches long. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas broad at 
the base, and subulate at the apex. 

^/(((/.■-/fniCi/ Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1727. Pl.cr. 

110 JL de'biee (Haw. in phil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 331.) 
jilant smooth ; branches filiform, a little compressed ; leaves 
crowded about the knots of the creeping stems, bluntly and aci- 
naciformly triquetrous, glaucescent. Ij . D. G. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope. This species differs hom M. reptans in 
being smooth, not rough. Flowers unknown. 

Weak Fig-marigold. Clt. 1824. PI. creeping. 

111 AL clavella'tum (Haw. misc. 79. syn. 242. rev. 122.) 
branches angular, creeping ; leaves crowded, expanded, obso- 
letely triquetrous, firm, elavate, very blunt, mucronulate, green ; 
peduncles rather compressed ; stigmas 5, very slender. Ij . D. g'. 
Native of New Holland. Flowers like those of M. crassifu- 
lium, but more beautiful and of a deeper red. Calyx 5-cleft ; 
stigmas setaceous, green. 

j'7n«//-c7«6-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. June, Jul. Clt. 1803, 
Shrub creeping. 



112 M. austra'le (Ait. hort. kew. 2. p. 187.) stems semi- 
terete, creeping ; leaves triquetrous, glaucescent, dotted, smooth, 
incurved ; peduncles bluntly 2-edged, bibracteate at the base ; 
stigmas 5, subulate. h • ^- G. Native of New Holland. 
Flowers middle-sized, pale red. Calyx 5-cleft. Haw. obs. p. 
349. misc. 79. syn. 241. rev. 122. M. demissum, Willd. enum. 
suppl. p. 'iQ. 

Southern ¥\g-mar\go\A. Fl. Jul. Aug. Clt. 1773. PI, cr. 

§ 21. Rubricaidia (ruber, red, and caulis, a stem; stems 
red). Salm-Dyck. obs. p. 29. Haw. rev. p. 116. Stems suffru- 
ticose ; branches ustially reddish, erect, hardly decumbent. Leaves 
triquetrous, rather acinaciform, opposite, connate, rough and 
serrulated at the angles. Flvwers pedicellate, solitary, bractless, 
deep red. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 5-8. 

113 M. FiiAJiENiosuM (Lin. spec. 694.) stems short, de- 
cumbent ; leaves compressed, triquetrous, rather acinaciform, 
crowded, thick, pale green, dotted, longer than the internodes, 
roughly serrulated on the edges ; flowers solitary ; stigmas 5. 
Tj . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope.— Dill. elth. f. 
273. Haw. obs. 380. misc. 78. syn. 238. rev. 116. Flowers 
middle-sized, deep red. Calyx 5-cleft. 

Filamcntose V\s,-mmgo\A. Fl. Nov. Dec. Clt. 1795. PL pr. 

114 M. serrula'tum (Haw. misc. 77. syn. 239. rev. 117.) 
stem shrubby, when young erect ; branches erectly decumbent ; 
leaves conijaressed, triquetrous, rather acinaciform, and rather 
glaucous, usually longer than the internodes, with the margins 
minutely serrulated, but hardly cartilaginous ; flowers solitary; 
stigmas 7-8, ramentaceous. h . D. G. Native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers reddish, and ternately disposed, as in 
M. ruhricaule : lateral ones usually abortive. 

Far. ji, viridius (Haw. 1. c.) leaves green. 
Serrulate-XezMed. Fig-marigold. Fl. Nov. Dec. Clt. 1795. 
Shrub pr. 

115 M. rubricau'le (Haw. misc. p. 77. syn. 239. rev. 117.) 
stem shrubby, when young erectish ; branches opposite, rather 
effuse ; leaves compressed, triquetrous, usually shorter than the 
internodes, cartilaginous and serrulated on the margins ; flowers 
solitary; stigmas 5, expanded. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Willd. enum. p. 536. Flowers middle-sized, 
pale purple. There is a more dense variety, and a greenish one. 

Red-stemmed Fig-marigold. Fl. Feb. Dec. Clt. 1802. PI. pr. 

§ 22. Acinaciformia (from aKiyaKr)c, akinakes, a Persian 
sword or scymitar, and /brma, form ; shape of leaves). Salm- 
Dyck. obs. p. 20. Haw. rev. p. 118 Reptdntia majbra. 

Haw. syn. p>. 233. Stems suffruticose, robust, rather decumbent ; 
branches angular, prostrate, or decumbent. Leaves op)posite, 
connate a short way at the base, acinaciform, triquetrous, thick. 
Flowers solitary, terminal, large, reddish (or as in M. edule yel- 
low). Fruit Jleshy. Stigmas 6-10. 

116 M. edu'le (Lin. spec. 695.) branches expanded, with 
quite entire angles ; leaves equally triquetrous, dotless, a little 
channelled, attenuated at both ends, with the keel serrulated ; 
stigmas 8. 1; . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. — 
Dill. elth. 272. Seb. thes. 1. t. 19. f. 6. Haw. obs. 392. 
misc. 76. syn. 234. rev. 110. Flowers large, yellow. Calyx 
5-cleft. Capsvile 8-celled, with the baccate calyx edible. Rarely 
flowering in the gardens. 

Edible Fig-marigold or Hottentot Fig. Fl. Jidy, Aug. Clt. 
1090. Shrub pr. 

117 ISI. acinaciforme (Lin. spec. 695.) stems rather pro- 
cumbent, long ; leaves opposite, compressed, triquetrous, acina- 
ciform, rather curled at the edges, and roughish ; flowers soli- 
tary, terminal ; stigmas 12-17. h . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope.— Dill. elth. f. 270, 271. Andr. hot. rep. 508. 
Salisb. par. t. 90. Haw. obs. 397. misc. 76. syn. 233. rev. 118. 



FICOIDEjE. I. Mesembeyanthemum. 



135 



Flowers large, reiUlisli. There are two varieties of this species, 
one with short and tiie other with longer brandies. 

Sci/milar-formtd-\(iayed Fig-marigold. Fl. Aug. Sept. Clt. 
1714. Shrub pr. 

118 M. l.eviga'tum (Haw. syn. 233. rev. 118.) stems rather 
procumbent, long ; leaves acinaciform, smooth, glaucous, with 
cartilaginous, entire margins. Fj . D. G. Native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Flowers unknown. Allied to M. acinacifunne, 
but diBers in being smaller, and tlie branches being angular, &c. 

.S'moo/A Fig-marigold. Fl. June. Clt. 1802. PI. pr. 

119 M. RUBROciNCTUJi (Haw. syn. p. 281. rev. 118.) stems 
rather procumbent, long ; leaves acinaciform, with rough red 
edges and keel. ^ . D. G. Native of tlie Cape of Good 
Hope. Tiiere is a variety of this species with thicker and more 
compressed leaves. 

/?e(/-ior(/tre(/-leavcd Fig-marigold. Fl. May. Clt. 1811. Pl.pr. 

120 M. subala'tum (Haw. misc. 76. syn. 235. rev. 199.) 
branches 2-edged at the apex, somewhat undulately winged ; 
leaves compressed, triquetrous, equal-sided, dotless, ratlier aci- 
naciform, with cartilaginous margins, whicli are scabrous on both 
sides. h . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers 
unknown, but probably reddish. 

Ratlier-winged Fig-marigold. Clt. 1796. Shrub pr. 

121 M. la'cerum (Salm-Dyck. obs. 1820. p. 31.) stem 
shrubby, erect ; branches erectly spreading, 2-edged ; leaves 
ratlier acinaciform, acutely triquetrous, rather compressed, glau- 
cous, full of pellucid dots : with tlie keel lacerately toothed ; 
stigmas 10, very sliort, a})proximate. 1/. D. G. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. M. acinaciforme, D. C. pi. grass, t. 
80. M. dimidiatum, and probably M. lacerum, Haw. rev. 119. 
and 131. M. Milleri, Willd. enum. suppl. 31. and M. gladiatum, 
Jacq. ex Salm-Dyck. Flowers large, red, opening in the sun ; pe- 
tals linear, very numerous. Calyx 5-cleft ; lobes leaf-formed. 
Stigmas for the most part 1 0, but sometimes even to the number 
of 20. 

Jagged-keeled Fig-marigold. Clt. ? Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

122 M. viRENS (Haw. rev. 121.) stem erectish ; branches at 
length spreading ; leaves compressed, triquetrous, rather acina- 
ciform, smooth, dotted, green, pustulate on the inside at tlie 
base, having the keel rougliish at the apex. P; . D. G. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers reddish, disposed by 
threes. This species hardly belongs to this section, according 
to Salm-Dyck. 

Green Fig-marigold. Fl. June. Clt. 1821. PI. 1 foot. 

§ 23. Carn'icauUa (from caro, carnis, flesh, and caulis, a stem ; 
stems fleshy while young). Han<. inpliil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 330. 
Stems usuaUij elongated, weak, prostrate, and creeping: when 
young thick andjlcsliy. Leaves triquetrous, with the sides nearly 
equal, thick, usually soft. Flowers solitary, terminal, reddish, 
large, shonnj, and hexagynous. Capsule pxilpy on the outside, 
even when ripe. 

123 M. ^suilatera'le (Haw. misc. 77. syn. 237. rev. 120.) 
stems weak, prostrate ; leaves almost equally triquetrous, green- 
ish ; peduncles angular, thickening towards the top ; calyx 5- 
cleft ; stigiTias G, short, erect. f; • D. G. Native of New 
Holland. Flowers showy, reddish. 

Far. (i, decdgynum (D. C. prod. 3. p. 429.) stigmas 10; 
branches shorter. 

Equal-sided-\ea.\ed ¥\g-mar\go\d. Fl. Ju. Clt. 1791. Sh. pr. 

124 M. glauce'scens (Haw. syn. p. 236. rev. 120.) stems 
robust, decumbently prostrate ; young leaves a little incurved, 
triquetrous, with the sides equal, soft, glaucous : with cartilagi- 
nous, smoothish margins ; flowers solitary, sessile ; stigmas 7. 

y> .J). G. Native of New Holland. Branches fiuTOwed at 
the top. Calyx 5-cleft. Petals pale purple. 



GlaucescentV\g-mar\go\d. Fl.July. Clt. 1804. Sh. pr. 

125 M. Itossii (Haw. rev. p. 120.) stems decumbently pros- 
trate ; leaves acinaciform, or compresscdly triquetrous, glau- 
ccscent, with red, smooth, cartilaginous edges. I? . D. G. 
Native of Van Diemen's Land. Flowers unknown. Very like 
71/. glaucisccns. 

Ross's Fig-marigold. Clt. 1820. Shrub pr. 

126 M. ABBREViATUM (Haw. in phil. mag. dec. 1826. p. 
330.) plant tufted ; stems short, coarse, and prostrate, crowded : 
leaves acutely triquetrous, thick, green, much longer than the 
internodes, wiiich are short. I? . l3. G. Native of New Hol- 
land. This species comes very near to M. glaucescens, but the 
leaves are more crowded. Flowers not seen. 

(SZ/oV-stemmed Fig-marigold. Clt. 1825. Shrub pr. 

127 M. vire'scens (Haw. syn. p. 236. rev. 120.) stems de- 
cumbently prostrate ; leaves triquetrous, with the sides nearly 
equal, greenish ; peduncles terminal, solitary, 2-edged, winired ; 
calyx 4-cleft ; stigmas 8, filiform. ^ . D. G. Native of New 
Holland. Corolla showy, jiale red; petals white at the base, 
and obtuse at the apex. 

Greenish Fig-marigold. Fl. June. Clt. 1804. Shrub pr. 

Subdivision IV. Perfolia'ta {(romjwr, through, and folium, 
a leaf ; stem running through the leaves). Haw. rev. p. 123. 
Usually erect shrubs, with erect or decumbent branches. Leaves 
opposite, connate, and sheathing at the base, usually triquetrous 
towards the top, and for the most part hooked at the apex. 
Flowers white, red, or reddish. Calyx 5-cleft. Stigmas 5. 

§ 24. Forfcata (from forfex, a pair of scissors ; form and 
disposition of leaves). Salm-Dyck, obs. p. 33. — Forfcata Ge- 
minuta, c^-c. Haw. Stems frutcscent ; branches erect or decum- 
bent. Leaves opposite, triquetrous, compressed, scissor-shaped, 
erect, with the carinal angle drawn out. Flowers reddish, soli- 
tary, on short iKduncles. Calyx 5-cleft ; petals very narrow. 
Stigmas 5, short, thick. 

128 M. heterophv'llum (Haw. misc. 67. syn. 294. rev. 128.) 
stem shrubby, short ; branches crowded, ascending ; leaves 
crowded, glaucous, compressed, triquetrous, rather acinaciform : 
with cartilaginous edges, and a jagged keel ; petals unequal, 
shorter than the calyx, which is large and 5-horned ; stigmas 5, 
very short. Ij . D. G. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Willd. enum. suppl. 36. Petals white. 

■ Various-leaved Fig-marigold. Fl. May, Aug. Clt. 1794. 
Shrub 1 to 2 feet. 

129 M. muta'bile (Haw. obs. 377. misc. 74. syn. 294. rev. 
133.) stem shrubb)', erect; branches 2-edged; leaves nearly 
distinct, crowded, triquetrous, dotted: with a cartilaginous, entire 
keel; petals subul