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600041 173M 




.-^. -., i. 



GENERAL VIEW 



OF THfi 



AGRICUIiTTUHE 



OF THE 



COUNTY OF SUSSEX. 



DEAWN UP FOR 



THE BOARD OF AGRICULTVREi 

AND INTERNAL IMPI^OVEMBNT. 



BY THE REV. ARTHUR YOUNG. 



LONDON: 

puiNTED FOR RICHARD PHILLIPS, bridge street; 

90ld by faulder & son, bond street; j. harding, st. james's 

^tbeet;'^j. asperne, cornhill; black, parry, & kingsbury, 

leadenhall street; j. donaldson, t. pollard, ft w. paine, 

brighton ; messrs. lee, lewes; p. humphrey, •& w. seagrave^ 

chichester; mrs. spooner, worthing; a. constable 9c co, 

EDINBURGH; J. ARCHER, ft M. KEENE, DUBLIN; ft EDWARDS tc 
SAVAGE, cork; 

BY B. MCMILLAN, BOW STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 



1808. 
[Price Fourteen JShillings in BoarcUt^ 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE desire that has been generally ex- 
pressed^ to have the AoRicuLTuaAL SuRVBra 
of the KiNODpM reprinted^ with the additional 
Communications which have been received since 
the OaiGiNAL RspoBTS were circulated^ has in- 
duced the Board op Agriculture to come to A 
resolution to reprint such as appear on the whole 
fit for publication. 

It is proper at the same time to add, that the 
Board does not consider itself responsible for 
every statement contained in the Reports thus 
reprinted, and that it will thankfully acknowledge 
any additional information which may still be 
communicated. 



N. B. Letters to the Boards may be addressed 
to !$ir John Sinclair, Bart, the President, 
No. 32, Sachville-Streety Piccadilly, London. 



a^i 



.TKdi/i^f.x'r; 



. . I 



»••/.. .'- -.cj. 



I I / * » * 

w" • i I ., w . O- -.^ . I -' . • ^ }'...:• . . . i i\.- 












'iff* '*k* ** t f 



» r r / - 









■• . - . • . ■ 



•- ^ 



^^llt^ 



I** • r» 



Sr-. ^ •- ' 



^ . 



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• «v)W^ '. ,\^'.'- .J.: . ... ,1- V' • 






CONTENTS. 



t 



CHAP. I. GEOGRAPHIC AI, STATE AND CIBCUM- 

STANCeS. 

81CT. 1. Sitoation and Extent, 1 

2. Divisions, ..,..;..* 2 

a. Ciimalc, ... 2 

4.* Soil and Surface, ...,, 4 

5. Minerals, 10 

6. Rivers, 15 

CHAP. II. STATE OF PROPERTY. . 

Sect. 1. Estates and their Management, 17 

■ ■ • 

CHAP. III. BUILDINGS. 

Sect, l . Houses of Proprietors^ , I9 

2.' Farm-Houscs, 3n4 Offices, 19 

3. Cottages, 2 



o 



CHAP. IV. MODE OF OCCUPATION. 

Sect, l . Size of Farms, 23 

2. Rent, .....'. 2? 

3. Tthes, 30 

4. Rates, sfe 

^, Leases, , 43 

§. Expense and Profit^ 44 

CHAP. V. IMPLEMENTS, 55 

• ■ ■ • . ■ • 

■ 3 CHAT. 



ft COVTBNTS. 



^ CHAP. VI. ENCLOSING, FENCES, GATES, 62 

CHAP. VIL ARABLE LAND. 

Sect. 1. Tillage, 66 

2. Fallowing, 67 

9: RowHon^ 'Orops, v . . . . . -^ ^69 

4. Crops commonly coUWfltcd, 79 

1. Wheat, 79 

^» jjariey, v.........^....' v*-^ . • .7. • "9« 

3. Oats, .• 100 

4. Rye, i.... . 101 

5. Pease, ,.,'a . . .^ . 102 

6. Tarefe, ..... ,..,.,.,....,.....,. 104 
^,», . L/Olcseeci, _._._....,,• .^. ... ,.^ . .^i^^ . 100 

8. Turnips, 107 

5. Tlropa not i^omnnoQljr caltlvatjod, ^. 112 

1. Beans, 112 

** * 2.' Potatoes,* 115 

3. 3uck-wbeat, 128 

4. Lettuces, .\ 128 

v5. Hops, 139 

6. Carrots, 140 

7. IU>ubaTb, 141 

8. Opium, .^ HI 

•9. Sainfoin, '...-.,. 142 

10. Lucern, -. . 144 

11. Chicory, 145 

• . CHAP. VIIL GRASS LANDS. 

Sect. 1 . Natural Meadov^d andPastarc?; 146 

2. Cl6ver, Trefoil, Ray-grass, 149 

3. Hay-harvest, .. ^ 153 

4. Feeding, 355 

CHAP. 



9A9M 

CHAR IX. ORCHABDS, lOai 

CHAP. X. WOODS AND PLANTATIONS, l64 

CHAP. XL WASTES, IS/ 

* • CHAP. XIL IMPROVSMENTS. 

Cbct. 1. DnuDiag, jpi 

3. Faring and Burniog, 1^/ 

3. Maotirito'g, ..;. igg 

1. Chalk, :.. igg 

2. Lime, « 202 

3. Marl, 212 

4i^ Sleech, 218 

3. Soap-asbes, , 213 

d. Wood*atfaeti . , . ; 318 

7. Peat-oshet, ^ 218 

8. Coal-asbet, ....I ;.•... 219 

9. BagSk Sheep-dipplngi, 219 

30. Pikfaards, 219 

11. Paring-duft, 219 

12. Gypsum, 220 

4. Weeding, 221 

5» Watered Meadows, 222 

CHAP. XIIL LIVE STOCK. 

€ect. J. Cattle, 228 

, 1. Beef, 228 

2. Dairy, , 251 

3. Work, 275 

2. Sheep, 286 

1 . Breed, , 292 

2. Management, 310 

3. Profit, 337 

3. Horsea, 376 

4. Hogs, ••,,,•,«, «^. 381 

SECT. 



StCT.^. Rabbifcs^ • *..............,..;: V ^gi 

6. Poultry/ ..-* 391 

7. Pigeona/ .........;...;..;•. .'j •'.... 1 393 

8. Bees, 802 

9. Fish, '. 393 

10. DeWi ..*....w..i...- ...* 400 

CHAF. XIV. RURAL ECONOMt. ' • 

■ ' ' ' . 

SxcT. 1. labour, ,.« 404 

2. Provisions, ^ 41 1 

«. Fuel, ...!..'..."..." ,.,.., 413 

CHAP. XV; POLltlCAL ECOlSJOMY, 

AS COKMECTED WITH.AOBICULTU&E. 

. • . • ... I - 

facl*. 1. Roads, 416 

3. Fairs. . . . ; .....*.. ^ 427 ' 

f 

4. Manufacturcu, . .^v-,... /% 4 43 1 

5. Poor, '. ....4....i 436 

6. Populatiop,^ .....,«, ^ 4 457 



CHAP. XVI. OBSTACLES TO IMPROVEMENT. 

. . . WOODS AKJ3 COMMON RIOUTS, 463 

CHAP. XVn. MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

SscT. 1. Agricultural Societies, 406 

2. Weights and Measures, 469 

CONCLUSION. MEANS OF- IMPROVEMENT, . ^^^ 

ANU MfiASUEES CALCULAltD foil THAT PtTfi POSE, 



APPENDIX, 



Weald of SuVsei, ' .. ..*.".'.'* .'.1 .'. ^.. 470; 



• • 



• ■■•• *•• • 

/ AOaiCUL< 





Cn' 



■-^^^^ 



A 



..■^""g ri«-ir — "A^)( ' 



THE 



AGRICULTURAL SURVEY 



OF 



SUSSEX* 



CHAP. I. 

4SEOGRAPHICAL STATE AND CIRCUMSTANCES. 



- SECT. I.-i— SiTUATION AND EXTENT. 

^USSEX fe a maritime county, bouncled oii the ^est 
by Hdmpshire, oh the north by Surrey, oti the 
north -cast and east by Kent, and on the houlh by the 
British Channel; 

In contains^ according to the mensuration in Tem- 
pleman*s Tables^ 1416 square miles, and 1,140,000 
acres : the extent, by the same authority, is 65 miles, 
and the breadth 26. But, accordinjr to this cilcula- 
tion, the real length is considerably under-rated, whilst 
the breadth is increased ; >vhich y,c find to be the case 
by later, and more accurate surveys. >\i:oth(T calcula- 
tion reduces the numl>er of acres to 908,952; both of 
trliich are confessedly erroneous. 

The length of this county, as measured from Ems* 
<irorth to Kent-ditch, extends 76 miles, and the medium 
breadth falls short of SO. The superjGcial contents 

SUSSEX.] B amount 



s 



CMMATE. 



amount to 933,360, and each parish averages 2982 
acres*. 



SECT. IT^ — DIVISIONS. 



The artificial divisions of the county are compr<?- 
hended in six rapeti th'fl«e©f (jfiieljestct, Arundel, and 
Bramber, form the western division, and in which the 
• quarter-sessions are .luM 9i Chichester. Mtdhurst, 
Petworth, and Horsham ; I^ewes, Pcvensej, and Hast- 
ings rapes, form the cA^te^ffit qi^arter of the comity, for 
which the quarter-sessions are always hckl at Lewes.^^ 
Tfic riuiMter of pairfttfeen in the county are 313. 



-*" ■ XKOT* III.— ^LdMilTE^ 

■ Th«? cKmato'in tte wcslem part of tlic maritime dis- 
frlct is very wstrm, and highly favourable to the pow« 
ers of vigdniiaiLf. Bat upon ifni bleak situation of 

■ I III I i^^»^— ^M^-^ ■ m , 

* In- the accpant annexed to the Poor Returns^ drawn up under the 
iospectioQ ojT the Right THon. George Rose, the ninnber iy 935^040. 

t As Mr. Ydnilg; jttstly retnarks, the dfmat« of the South Dewns i» 
ti^fM, 3ii\d An T§ome TfApcdti favourable to vegetation. In tlic severest 
iro6^ vre h^d'Hkthfi year I7S9, 1 exppted a thermometer at WilUngdon* 
mill, one pf thue highest points on the hills, after »unset : it stood three: 
degrees of Fahrenheit's scafe lower than one in the vilhge of Jevington, 
iand three degrees hij^her than the tKermometets^ were reported to ha^ 
fttood in London at the same tlmb. 

. Wl^ I sfiy the ^tekte is in some -respecd favourable to vegetation, 
I mean, it hasLens both the birth and maturity thereof, but no plants: 
whatever attain that rank luxurijincy commonly to be observed in par* 
ticular spots in most countries. This influence affect* the -aobnals as 
Wefl » vegetables indigenous on the hilJs ; and the hares and partridge* 
arc a^pat>eni]y smaller t^an those of some other parts of England.—* 
i?^. Mr, Sueyd, 

the 



CLIMATSi 



the SiMitli Dofwll failU, extMMed to (he aoatli'wcsty the 
"wIikIb have bi*en known to strip the thatch oflF com- 
Btackfe) and the covefin^ horn all thatched buildings ; 
and it has sometimes happened, that farmers Imre suf- 
fered Considerable losses by tlie violence of these wes- 
terly gales in harvest, blowing the standing com out 
of the ear, and doing other damage* When impreg- 
nated with saline pftrticlos*, occasioned by the west 
and south-west winds beating the spray against the 
beach^ all the hedges and trees on the windward side 
are destroyed^' and, gen^ra11y speaking, the foliage 
wears the aspect of its wintery dress. The hedges 
seem to be cut by the spray, as if it were artificially ; 
and in very exposed situations it penetrated the houses, 
thmigh built with brick, even at a considerable dis« 
tance from the coast* The consequence df this has 
been, that the greatest part of the buildings in the dis- 
trict are situated in hollow protected situations, in 



0fmm^mm^ilim^mmmmimm^^mmmt^tmm0^lmatamm^,^tmamm^^mm^mimm.mm^mj^ 



* This is SO geilftrall/ received an opinion, that it is perhaps presump^ 
don to contradict it ; but T jg^tatl^r doubt if the spray of the sea does thtf 
ii^ury htte ascribed to it. It must necessarily gain a considerable height 
ftbove the Icrel of the sea, to be carried far inland. Now, it is well 
knowiiy sea salts are not exhaled by the sun ) and strong winds are ol>- 
tenred to-depriiss and bear to the ground all light bodies^ such as smoke, 
eteanit and- the- like. As to the spray produced by the see^ driven yioi' 
lently by tbe-south^west wind' on the beach^ it must needs mount per* 
f>endiculasly abqut ISO feet before it could surmount the cliff; whereas 
an easterly or south-east wind, which makes a more broken ^ea, and 
consequeaHy more spray, baa no cliff to surmount between fieachy'*^ 
liead aad Hastings, therefore would extend its influence farther and 
ttore powerful! yi yet the foliage immediately exposed thereto is neveC 
injured thereby, though but at a short distance from the shore, whilst 
all tfaeinjnry is done from the south-west, where, as I before remarked^ 
OTe baiw the clifi^ which seems to preeent an insurmountable barrier 
agaiast tho«e iijiines we observe some how a&dked, and which perhaps 
i» caused by the force of the wind soltly obstructing by its agitation the 
^ol4h0sejttioei,wJUck should nourish the leavss.^—ibv. Mr- StKyA 

B 2 order 



4 SOIL AND SUAfACE. 

order ^0 ibelfeti'thcm' from^ Ahesis di^reming cofrtci^ 

■l ■ ' 1 . ' .■• • , . I * • " ,1> " • t •' ' '' 4 

.;> r ! , • I t 1.- »• •'";*l. ■-■,■» 

^ECXn IV,— SOIL ANJ? SURFACE,.. • 

The mvdtigatiori of tl^e liataVe aiia prdperf les bt'thc 
Varieties of soil, in this or any other cotluty, so as 
accurately to clialk. out .the line where one soil eiius 
una another bc^^ns^ can be moroughly made only oy 
tlibse who Have ia 'most exact 'arid 'iniiina^te knowledge 
of the county. Tn attempting "to giVe the Board this 
inforoiation. if apjppared (liat' flic varijations would lie 
Inofe clearly traced oufi and Aiorie accurately defined 1 

4 

it will be but lumeifect^ arid lia'ble to errors whicfi are 
Ujiavoidable. 

The difierent soils of cIialR, clay, sand^loam, and 
ffravel, are found in this county. 

The first is nearly the universal soil of the South 
Down hills*^ .the second, in gep€fal, ^.9^ ,:t^<?.sW:^d t; 

-.. c. , '. • i c \ ' » i -.i^f -{j ■ thft 

* This, strictly speaking, 18 not-the CiJSti theptre, luctivei^ntdiiched 
'soil of the Downs is chiefly a rich« light, haael 'mouiilv wiu^inpoitdah 
«te substratum is a loose chalk« 'i^'licse become max. by the plough^ 
and the qibre freti[uemty the earth !& turned, the morejpredominaitt the 
chalk becomes* ■ • • ' i ■ i- ♦ ':• . 

There is also a very considerable pordoD pf the hilts between Cockii 
tnare river aud East Bourne, whose soil is a strong red loam. . There is a 
irein of this sort near four miles>'long, east* and west, and full- threo* 
fouxths.of a mile, north and south, running fnom the western extremity 
of £xcit-hilk to WiUingdon-miil. This soil 'is very deep, some feet evea 
OB the tops of the hills: it is rather what is called cold land, but wh«i 
mended with chalk,^ becomes extremely productive.— *i?<;«. Mi^.,^mtyd. 

\ The Weald is an indefinite expression for a country, the Jtmits of 
which are tiaknowa* In a legal acceptation) it .means the .woodland 

distficti 



the thwd ]princi{MlIy '^e.npies tbe^aortlr side of the 
cctaniy'; the feiirth is found on the south side of the 
bills ; and tlie last lies between the rich loam of the 
coast and the chalk. 

' The soil of the South Downs varies according to its 
"situation. On the summit is usually found (more 
especially in the eastern parts) a very fleet earth ; the 
substratum chalk, and over that a surface of chalk 
rubble, eoveied with a light stratum of vegetable caU 
'>careous mould. Sometimes along the summit of the 
•Downs there is merely a covering of flints, upon which 
'the turf spontaneously grows. Advancing down the 
hills, the soil becomes of a deeper staple, and at the 
bottom is every where a surface of very good depth for 
j;>k>ughing. Here the loam is excellent, nine or ten 
inches in depth, and the chalk hardish and broken, 
"and mixed with loam in the interstices, to the depth 
-of some feet, which must make it admirable land for 
sainfoin; :'!<' 

• West of the river Arun, the soil above the chalk is 
very gravelly, intermixed with large flints. Between 
the rivers Adur and Ousc, a substratum of reddish 
.sand is discovered ; the usual depth of tlie soil above 
the chalk, varies in almost every acre of land, from 
one inch to a foot. The general avcrage'betwcen East? 
bourne and Shoj-cham, docs not exceed five inches* 
W-est of Shorcham the staple is deeper, and between 
•Arundel and Hampshire the soil is deeper still*. 

At 



districts in- the counties of Sussex, Kent, and Surrey, in which wood» 
*i^d» pay no tithe; bnt as a district relative to soil, it is extremely Tav* 
^ou8, containing, besidet the predominant clay, much sanci, Sec. 

* 1% 19 the remark of a Nobleman in this county, that the surface of 
these hills being usually very steep to the north, the hard chalk, so fa^ 

B 3 vourable 



:9 .wu* ji*D 8i^»rAo& 

At fife ndflbeni ^tremiij of tbflM cbalk hilUi anil 
ilto^U^ exteoding the taraie iengtb fts tbe Oowiutv i» a 
^ip of very ripb and stiOf arable land} but of vtry in- 
considerable br^adtb: it runs for $onie distitiice into 
tbe yale, before U meets the ;Cl^y, The soil of this 
narrow ^lip is an expessivei^ fliff calcareous loam on a 
clay bottom ; it adheres do much to tbe sbare, and is 
io very difficult to plough, that it is not an unusual 
-aight to observe ten or a dozen stout oxen, and some-, 
times more, at work upon it. It is a soil that must 
rank amdngst the finest in this or any other county, 
being pure clay and calcareous earth s to the eye it ap« 
rpears whitish, from the 'mixture of chalk. Some of it 
that appears of a blacker nature, is less mixed with 
that substance : it is generally deep, and under it is a 
jKire clay. 

South of these bills is an extensive arable vale of 
lingular fertility," This maritime dimtrict, extending 
from Srightbelms^one to' Ertih.wortbi SG n^iles, is at 
.first of a very triiling breadtlij between Bri;>liton and 
.Shoreham, The nature of tbi^ soil) which is proba« 

vourable for aU the purposes of th^ fanner, is ^t hand %q assiit his in^ 
iu$txj iq the cvltiwrtion pf the strong retentive soil of the Weald, 
which lies at the 4H>ftherr^ extremity of th^se hills ; Mfhilst (he syrface to 
the sooth graduan;jF ao^ ahnost ifnpercelptibly unites i^elf to the ricl% 
Strict on the coasC| where the soft chalk, qx ch^lk m^rl, is found 
^uaBy propitious to the pMr^uits of the farmer^ which shews (to make 
use of hit Lordshsp't words) how beneficially NHt^re has distributed her 
gifts, in adapting fp eyery soi) a m^uiure so suitable and near at hand. 

Directly opposite (o the Sputh Down hil^ to the north^ are the Sur^ 
rey bills, falling abruptly to the southyrard, and sloping gradually to 
4lie north \ and t^ween these two lines of hilb it the Weald of Sussex 
^fid Surrey, where the S^88ez mafb)e (lyhich is ppthing else than a con^ 
erecion of shells) i« to be found. The position and formation of thece 
opposite hills is such, that, in (he opinion of his Lordship, the^ appear 
4Wi if com aiuikkiP by «<2AM vioi^t conimotloa of Nature, 



bij e<|ual to .luijr in th^ kingdoip^ k>» riok loanif 
either upon a reddUh brick earth, or graTel; thcge- 
ocral depth of tho upix;r soil varying from ten to six- 
ieeii inches. Procwding westward, gravel is f^euerally 
found under the surface. This maritime districi is in 
parts stiff, but more usually light, intermixed with 
«and, and beneath which is sand. Between Brighton 
and Siioreham^ the general breadth of this uncommonly 
rich vale falls short of one mile; between tho rivers 
Adur and Arun it is incretfled to three milen, and front 
the Ar«a to the; bordevs of Hampshire, it becomes still 
wider; from three to seven miles, la the south-west 
angle the land is stiiTer and more retentive, and in 
Selsea peninsula, more aigillaceous ; and the farmers 
here not kaving the same opportunities of marling aa 
their brethren on the eastern side pf Pagfaam-harbour^ 
the soil is not equal to it in fertility* 

Between (bb muritime district and ilxo South Downs 
runs a veia of land, not equal to the foregoing in rich- 
ness, bot adnurable hmd for the turnip husbandry. 
It is provincially called shravey*^ stony or gravelly, 
the flints (where they have not been picked o(l' the 
land^ lying so tliick, as efiectually to cover the groun^l ; 
and it is curious to observe how vegetation flourishes 
through such beds of stones* The general opinion is, 
that if the farmers were to put themselves to the trouble 
j^d expense of picking them off the land, the soil 



♦ ThU term is applied by the Datives of the South Dowot more gene^ 
flially to those spots on the lidet of tteep hill», Where the turf has slipped 
away and exposed the soiL These tears or holes aro termed strokes. I am 
Sit a loss &>r the true derivation of tht word, but think it probably oomes 

from the Saxon Schp^mme^ which signifies » scar, slash, or trench,. 

The Earl of Egremont observes, that is a common provincial word 
for stbrty-fcnd, or any soil mixed with sandstone, 3cc, 

'* B 4 would 



8 flOIXi AND StTRFACE* 

ft 

Nrould be most materially injared. Some, indeed, ifrha 
have tried thi^ e:^periment, are thoroughly convinced 
of the losB thereby sustained, the land having never 
since produced such fine crops of com as before ; but 
ibis remark applies only tq some places where the stones 
are so numerous. 

In the line from Chichester to Emsworth, . north of 
tibe road, we meet with tlie same kind land for turnips 
and barley. The declJv!t3r of Hanbrook-commoh is 
wet and springy to the sbtth, but on the north it is 
dry and gra'wUy. This 'Common is a light gravelly 
or stony loftm upon a gravel' bpttom; a brick'^rthj 
18 inches in thickness, frequently intervenes Ijetween 
the upper soil atid the gravel. It has been for some 
time in contemplation to apply to the Legislature to 
enclose this common.' 'Some of those who live in the 
neighbourhood of it, would, if it were enclosed, freely 
give SO/, per acre fhr tlie best of it ; at present it is no^ 
worth oiie shilling. ; . * : * 

• The soil of the Weald is ^Wcrally a very stiff loam 
^pon a brick clay bottom, and that again upon'sand« 
$tone. Upon the range of hills, tunning through the 
county in a north-west direction,*^ the soil is diffe- 
Tent. Iri& here either sandy loam upon a sandy gritr 
stone, or it is a very poor black* vegetable ss^nd on a 
soft clay marl. A great * propfertipn of these hills is 
Bothing better than the poorest barren sand. St. Leo-^ 
Dard*s Forest contains 10,000 acres of it, and Ashdo\^n 
18,000 more, besides many thousand acres more in 
various other piirts of the county. 

The depth of the sand on thpse rabbit«warrens is va« 
lious — full 13 inches in many places : the soft clay, 
lyhich in its outward appearance resembles marl, is 
much deeper. In the neighbourhood of Handcross^ 

upon 



lipta'St. LeonaTd's, this sobstmtam is several ieiet in 
iiepth, as may be seen on the declivitjr of a new road 
lately made by Mr. Marcus Dixon. ■ An extensive 
tract of this unimproved sandy soil, stretching into 
Kent on one side, and, with some intersection of Mlti« 
vation, into Hampshire on the other, and calkng loudly 
ftr improvement, occupies chiefly the northern divi* 
sion of the county. I do not affirm that this unpro* 
dnctive soil is united from one end of the county to 
th^otli^, since it is broken into and intersected by 
interventions of the clay district ; but it is usually 
to be met with running east and west at the north 
side of the county. It is com^monly understood to 
form a part of the Weald, which in its utmost extent 
comprehends all that district of Sussex at the foot of 
the South Down hills, or within two or three miles .of 
tliem. In its more appropriate signification, it has ie# 
ference to the deep and heavy clay loam district, be» 
lug bounded to the west by the Arun. 

Re$pecting the surface of tliis tract of land, th^ 
BBSid^ produce the birch, hazel, beech, and sortie other 
iinder-growth, of which some profit is annually made. 

So predominant is the timber and wood of one sort 
or another in the Weald, that when viewed" from the 
South Downs, or any eminence in the neighbour- 
hood, it presents to the eye hardly any other pros- 
pect but amass of wood. This is to be ascribed to 
the great extent and quantity of wood ; preserved by a 
custom of a nature so extraordinary, that it is not a 
little surprising no steps haye been taken to put aa-end 
to it. 

When this country was first improved by clears 
ing, it was a common practice to leave a shaw of 
frood several yards in width, to encompass eac}i 

distinct 



10 MIKEBAI^. 

^i^tinct eaelosurei as a nursery for the timber, frc« 
The sizeof tbesQ enclosures being small, ^lust of course- 
contribute to render the general aspect of it woody. 
Anterior to the Conquest, the Weald "was. a continued 
forest, esLtending from the' borders of Kent to the con* 
^es of Haihpshire, across the whole county 6f Sussex ; 
and the names of a yariety of parishes situated in this 
line, and evidently derivec) from Saxon original, attest 
^bis iact to the present day. In truth, tlie forest now 
remaining occupies a considerable portion of Sussex. 
•, Besides the soils already treated of, there is a large 
jtract of marsh land adjacent to the sea-coast between 
0x^ eastern extremity of the South Downs and Kent, 
^he soil is a composition of rotten vegetables, inter** 
ynixed with sand and other matter, collected from the 
^oods and iilth which settle on the surface. In Lewes 
JLcvelthis vegetable mould is at least twelve inches in 
thickness. 

In Pcv.^nsey Level it is many feet deep, and under 
it a very heavy black silt, intermixed with, various 
9ort6 of shells. Water^Iogs, stumps of trees, and 
timber, have been dug from Pevensqy Level; trees, 
each containing one load, cubic measure, have been 
taken from Lewes marshes. 



BECT. V.-^MINEBALS, 

Respecting the minerals of* Sussex, it is not 
tnfetior to many in the production of this most va-» 
luable material. Limestones of every description ate 
to be met with in the most eastern parts of the Weald. 
The Sussex marble ^ v^hen cut into slabs foif orna-* 
inenting chimney-piccesy &c. is equal io most in 

beauty 



JKmfjr mA quality, whea hi;;hly iK>li8lied. Tha 

Earl of E^mont has several chiianeyr))icce8 at Pe(*> 

woith, fdrmed of it« It is an excelWnt stone for 

jquare buildin^ri and for jiaving is nut to be ex- 

-Me4ed» . It aiiordg n yery yaluable manure, equal, 

smd by some thought to be superior, to chalk, and 

cheaper to those nvho live near the place where it is dug* 

Jt is found in the highest perfection upon an estate of 

•the Karl of £gremoat*s, at Kirdibrd, from 10 to 90 

fyci under ground, where ii if i|i tialcs nine or ten 

. inches in thickm^ss. Much of it was used in the 

Cathedral . at Canterbury, the pillars, monuments, 

vaults, pavement, ' ^c. of that venerable structure, 

being built of this article, called there the Pei^ 

woarih marble. The Ajrchbisliop*s chair is an entire 

piece* 

Besidesy the limestones of this district, I shall set 
down a short account of what I had a more immediate 
opportunity of seeing, by observing the gradations in 
the earth, and mineral beds of ironstone and limestone, 
to the depth of 130 feet, at Ashbumham^furnace. 

The received opinion of the range of the limestone 
in this neighbourhood is, that it runs eight miles from 
east to west, and one from north to south. How far 
this opinion of the limited continuation of limestone is 
well founded, has not as yti been decided* The soil 
tending immediately to sand, is of the hazel kind: 
that tending to marl, connected either with iron or 
limestone, is formed of a more tenacious and closer tex-* 
ture ; and every where the substrata bear a strict ana-* 
logy to the surface* The limestone and ironstone g&t 
nerally rise very near the surface ; often within three 
&et t the depth to which the limestone continues, has 
not as yet been discovered, having never in this coun-* 



^trj been drawn deeper thaft 190 feet, wh^re'it is firmer^ 
'mnd superior to that at any other depth. - 

The appearance of the ironstone more than 40 fed 
'under tUe surface, is difiereht ; certainly not so good, 
hdng coai^, and seeing more dull, and worksbeavier 
•iii the furha:ce ; and the rhrfhf^t ot the veins are fre- 
quently intersected With -stripes, the thickness of a 
quill, filled with a soft iii^Iey matter ; aiid the marl- 
lieds Which t^ie ir6n lies in, wear % bluer iappearaneei. 
ihah where it is good f but the'b^ds df lime^oiie have 
'po such resemblance at any depth. : It i& a curious fact, 
and worthy the attention of men conversant in matters 
of this sort, to account for the difference, which pcr- 
kaps may not be very difficult, upon Tully considering 
the component parts of each -substance. The, fact cei^ 
tainry is, that ironstone diminishes in goodness from 
depth', and limestone does not ; neither the grey, which 
is composed of shells, and the eiifuvia of marine ani- 
mals; nor the blue, which is a perfectly indurated 
calcareous marl. As it is now sufficientVj^ proved that 
there are under-stones, that, with clearing and burning, 
.win make equrtlly as good lime as the top-bed, or 
great blue (as it is provincially called), from which 
one stratum is at the distance of 21 ^t ; so that instead 
of two to two feet and a lialf of blue 'Stone generally 
Arawn and used, there i3 now projdubed,' without 
spoiling any more surface, ' upwards of seven feet. 
Thisr fact slidws that the perseverance of the Earl of 
Ashbumham, iu drawing the deep under tstones at his 
works, and thereby setting an example whieh; other 
'Kmestone^lrawers are now following, has been truly 
useful : for that part of Sussex must have ceased to 
avail itself of the advantage of lime as q, manure with* 
>at some change of lhifr«ort. ' . 

Tl^ 



MINBAALSt • tS 

tphe alternate order of sandstone and ironstone ii 
^very where found througl^ the Weald in alldirectionsi 
The sandstone^ marl) and ironstone) all dip into the 

hill. ■ ••'; 

Under tBfisV M' &' considerable' dearth, the various sorts 
of limestcrni^We discovered in the order in Avhich (licjr 
lire set d Wii^ ' Vith (be thickness and shale of each dif^ 
ferent sort* 

.«,t ,. .'.Thickness. .. Slide. 

. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

The first lim(^ionrfj 3 3 ,•«...•«-••—.. 8 grey. 
. sectatl 4Utpi' "(J 9 ...M...... — 9 ditto* 

litirddiito;;'; * a .39 ditto. 

Joukh dittos ^ L.......U.U 3 ditto. 

fiftn difto, ', .0 8 .1. J...; '2. ditto. 

sixth £lit(!o, 83 .'...., 4 diUo. 

seventh ditto, 2 ......l... 1 6 blue. 

ci^tfa ditto, ^O/B....^^. — .. 6 4 ditto, 

nitiih ditJLo^ 9' ••.m..w»— •• 1 3 ditto. 

tenth ditto, 1 -S'.... 4 ditto. 

. eleventh ditto, 8 1 1 ditto. 

twelfth ditto, 1 1 •..........•..• 1 6 ditto. 

thirteenth ditto, 6 8 ditto, 

fourteenth ditto, 2 3 



•••••••••••«.•••« 



The great blue by far the best. 

This last stone is fine enough to set a razor. 

This is the succession in which they are found. 

The Sussex limestone, upon trial, has been disco-* 
Tered to be superior both to the Maidstone and Ply- 
mouth stone,- aird it is now supposed that for cementi 
none equal to it isYound in the kingdom. 



//. Iron* 






•• • . . ' 

This mtrteral abounds in .an eminent degree in Stt&« 
kex; ai)d it is to tfa^ fentiginottii raixtore 'with :which 
the soil of this county is in many places so highly im« 
pregaoLted^.tbat is to be.asqribed th« sterility ol'vo large- 
a portion of it. 
At Penhurst, in the neighbourhood of Battel^ the 
* soil is graVelly to an indeterminate depth* At the bot- 
tom' of ttie Earl of Ashburuham^s parl^. sandstone ia 
found) solid enough for {he,purpbse of masonry* Ad* 
Tancing up the bill, the' sand-rock is SI feet iti thick- 
ness, but so friable, as easily to be reduced to powder. 
On this immediately a marl sets on, in the diffi?rent 
depths of which the ironstone regularly comes on in all 
the vsurioiis sotts^ as follows, s 



1* Smflkll balls^ provincitlly, twelve^ foots ^ bemuse 
so. many feet distant from the first to tlie la&t bed. 

S. Grdly limestone -, Vfh&i is nsed as a flux* 

3* Foxes/ 

4. Eigget. 

5. Balls. 

6. Caballa balls* . 

7. White-burn. 

8. Clouts. 

9. Pitty. . ' ■ 

This is the order in which the diflferpnt Qrc% are dis* 
covered. Advancing on, I crossed a valley; \yhere thf 
mineiuL bed seems entirely broken, and the sandstone 
sets on. At the distance of something ^boye a mih)| 
tho ironstone is again seen. Another intervention of 
sand; and then, at low water, when the tide goes out, 

the 



the beds <if ironstone appear regnlarly an the shore : an 
iadisputablc proof that, howeref the appearance of the 
surface may vary, the substrata continue the same. 

In taking the range north wardlj from the bottom of 
Ashburnham-park, for twelve miles at lea^^ the strata 
are nearly the same, there being no material inequality 
of snr&ce which does not partake of sandstone, marl^ 
ironstone, and sand again at the top. Sand being the 
general cap to the hills, the coltivatcd soil of these 
districts is made np so lati^ly'of- it; eren.th^ loamy* 
and marly soils, after rain, very evidently discover it 
in small glittering particles, which, in process of time, 
have been washed from their native beds. 

///. Chalk— Marl— Fullers'-Earth. 

Beside the minerals above-mentioned, a vast range 
of hills, the composition of which is chalk j occupy a 
considerable part of the county, adjoining the coast* 
Marl is dug up on tlie south side of these hills, in va- 
rious places. Fullers'' 'earth is found at TilUngton, 
and consumed in the neighbouring fulling-mills ; and 
red-ochre at Graflham, and in various places adjoin- 
ing the sea^ as Chidham, &c. much of which goes to 
London. 



SECT. VI. RIVERS. 

The chief rivers are, the Ouse, the Adur, and the 
Arun ; they rise in the nortliern parts of the county, 
and after dividing the chalk-hills into four or five 
parts, empty themselves into the Channel ; the first at 
Newbaven^ the second near Shorebam, and the third 

at 



h9 



kirMM, 



iit iitCle'Eta<ti{>tdna Althopgh toaiparatiydy ^mkltj 
tbey render the great£6t baiefit to the county at large^ 
by farnishiag points of connexion fdr t he qanal» already 
jBnished^ or in agitatioqi . - Assisted by the public- 
spirited apd enterpriimig conduct of otie or, two, Nobler 
men^ Sussex^, on the comptetion of those eiinpts^ .\yill 
tiot h^ inferior to oAher cpuntieft.in the stdv^ntagea of 
inland navigation ; but as this subject comes i^qder the 
iurti(;ie Canals y I shall have occasion to speaj^ of it 
• mcNre at large ttpder that head J 






t • 



f • 






c!/! 



I • •', t 



■■>''•. , , ' 



■ . . •< A 






• 1 ■ 



'.( 



. V 



1 i- 



» • » » • • 
. » i t. ■ 



I • ■ 



i: • , 



CHAF* 



17 



CHAP. 11. 



STATE OF PROPERIT. 



SECT. I.-— ESTATES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 

IN SO large, populous, and cultivated a county, 
estates must necessarily vary : the largest does not ex- 
ceed 7500/. a year. lathis, as in all other counties, 
gentlemen of property have stewards, or superintend- 
antSy to examine the state and condition of their lands. 
Most proprietors hold land in tlieir own occupation ; 
and the increasing attention observable in the better 
cultivation of this county, affords an agreeable spec- 
tacle, not only of rational amusement and satisfaction, 
but it is also eminently useful in a national light, inso« 
much that all the great improvements in our agricul- 
ture have been patronized, propagatetl, and encou- 
raged by gentlemen of large landed property and sci- 
entific exertions. 

In this class, it is impossible for the Author not to 
mention the Earl of Egreinont. To do justice to the 
exertions of this distinguished nobleman, is far above 
the reach of my humble cn[)acity. SuHicc it to say, 
that his Lordship's estat(»s are conducted upon a great 
scale, in the highest siylv of improvement. Every 
attention is here given to the suggestion of whatever 
hints have a probability of biiiig turnrtl to (he use and 
advantage of his country. T]y» Duke of Tlchmond 
has made great ^nd bcntHcial exertions. The Earl of 
. ^yf§EX,] c Chichc: 



rAQl 



18 ESTATES, AND TI^EIIl MANAGEMENT. 

Chichester and Lord Sheffield have practised with great 
success ; but the number of those gentlemen who have 
thus promoted the good of their country, is too great 
to repeat all their names. The follmving pages wilt 
contain -details sufficient to establish the fact, that tlie 
land-owners of Sussex have not been behind the gene- 
ral spirit of this agricultural agc^. 



N 1 



mntr* 



19 



CHAl*. IIL 

BUILDING^. 



s»6t. t.^— rtottSES Op PhoPRifefORS. 

MANY of the noblemen's and geutlemen^s seats al^. 
taked upon a s]^leildid) no less than a rational^ plan^ 
and emiDCiitly contribute to the ornament and embd-* 
lisfaitaent df the cOnttty* ' Without specifying each in- 
dividual residence^ it may be observed^ that fewdis^ 
tricts have to boast more elegant stractUTeti 

• • •' I '»'■.■, 

• ■ i 

.. . I . : - I 

SfeCT. H.-^PARM-HOtlSES AND' OFFICES. 

"Wherever the quarries dre cbnvenientty situated, 
stone is the uisiiat material for farm-buildings and 
offices, no less than for gentlemen's s^ts; ahd as ati 
excellent build ing^stoiie is found under a Wy consi- 
derable proportion of Sussejc, it is a vtiluabW circum- 
alance to have materials for building of such a (][ua« 
lity. 

On the South lOowtiSj ^nd iii the hdghbburhdod, 
another material, equally good, is made Use of in the 
construction of houses, Which are flints, and a better it 
is impossible to meet with: farm-hduses, bams^ 
stables, out-houses, ahd^ in general, all the buildings 

c2 ia 



20 FAHM-TIOUKES.AXD OFFIC£8. 

in this district, arc formed of flint. Tile is much used 
as a facing for boiisos, especially in situations exposed 
to the inclemency of the >vest or south-west winds. 

I do not know wlwItHer.fli/sHli- facing for houses is 
used beyond the liiuits of Sussex and Hamj)shire ; but 
it is very prevalent fn fmssex,- "anil in o\ycn and ex- 
posed situations effectually checks the fury of the 
storms, and preserves thifrilBrktc of the house air-tight 
and dry : they are very common all over the county. 

UnderpU^lq hp^^^.pertaiu: ^gneficial pract^c^ in the 
coustniction and arrangenv nt of farm-buildings and 
officeiS) tlesetvos^to 4>^ padicuiatly • ndticec}, and can- 
J|^ot1:)e^bo£;»rcfb{yirc^oinii[iend0d-.to a| more extended 

■TJk^ ^3|twisihgp;.:ni?inot!!P' i^ich the . fatmers a4apt 
thrbi^oHftib gf(3nt.pfitr.t<^tKt8:cf>un4yi^ and especially 
in the westenuxiiytUion^'of ^t<iclii«g tjieir corn on cir- 
cular stone piers, cannot be adminnl too much. It 
requires some art and attjuj^on in the construction of 
these stacks, and nice maruigement to adjust them 
in their truest proportion. I take thi.s to be the best 
method of preserving wh(*at;*and it is lio small re- 
QOmjrneiidatipriy.tliat it most efteciually pn^vents all 
w^mnjtom Igdgipg iri tlie sjicaves, and hereby ob- 
yiating.ii>cajc.ulable losses to the owner. 

latbi^.fettiug of oxen, it is not unusual to find ex- 
c^lept (JOBlri^apccs te save labour in attendance: 
st^ills.. ojF^sliieds .of jBint.51 requisite for the aiumber of 
cattle, are frequently contrived (as at BIr. Thomas 
EU«»u'&4 io£ §liQrchaip)> with keclers in each stall for 
^Ifi^tering^ wiUj troughs of comjgaunication to convey 
Ae water rfr/om a pump in the farm-yard to the genc- 
Bil,, trough at' .the outside, of tlie buihling, which is 
4lg;jin.a>»)ycyf5i to each stall ; so that all the trouble of 



tieing 






♦ 



I 

I 

ir 



■i 




RcferPOCL's , 

A_7Vc dirimns eftfmFUnv nimediifi. in. ' 
one ofwhuh it Ascribed by detEed lines, 
aJUuictofadGiale.Ax'tnitiie^wve. ' 
rrwi-eaitk i^-i-dons en ffiMside.anti let. ' 
dotvn, at pleasure . 

Vk^Tke^back whav the (bmis heapt Offain,^ 






"vi -J^' ■ * 



% 



A Three tBfiaoiU of thBFhoriMidmmvntfie 

Tlmdav 
B T^TmAatf 'Shewn ^ttetsuppcrt tfiefbor 
C TkeplaeetDheapthetiimm&ne efnnufm^ 



t 



«. 



rARM-iioiWs axd'offtcks, fl, 

tiring and iintioiiitr, aii:l ilrivinir to wntcr, is avoided. 
Ivai^h stall ii. siiiUciiMit to (;a:i!;siH two oxen, iivi' fcri 
foom lieinir allow (\1 to «':.rli. 

^»Crp-vnrds, or siaiidiin^ folds, arc very jiKliciouBly 

<^^*atrQctod 0!i thr Sondi Downs. Mr. li^tlniHii JlUf^ 

^^"©Avhicli roiitaiiis nil ar<a ot' .■>() yards by ^0, which is> 

siiliich*ni for 7.'>(» sht*ep, at.lli;; niu» of <»ii(- yard aiid a- 

™if i'or 'cach ; so arraii£:4*d as to coiitain sheds all 

■roand uine or teiifeot in widih, and across ihocoiitre^ 

^ the* flock is niinieroiis. A rack for haT is jilaced 

i^inBt the waU'which siirround^ the ^vhple^ and ari^i 

^>^fter, a double one, on^rhtto stand aloiio^ tiio central 

*'>Gd, for the sheep to. fi?ed from in each divLKion of thd 

^"Uncl;^ These practices, whicli arc in the ccouom}- of 

^ vvell-ordered farm, desi»rve universal iiuitatiou*. 



* X shall take thu liherty of ol>sc'rvinj^ to the Board of Af^rlculture 
v^'id- "wortiiy it is of their consideration), that jj^reat iniprovcments may 
°^Q^ade both to landlords and tenants, by placin;]^ burn-*, &c. conveni- 
ently on large farms. All buildinjrs necessary to a farm, undoubtedly 
oug"i:a t to lie placed in the mo-v lilgible spots, on lar^ Down farms, for 
"*e ^^snantto cultivate them to -KUMnlii^f. 'll-iC inconvenience and 
*Xti*i^ expeiues it occasions to the fiinncr, wli'.'n all the f:irm-yard build- 
***€?• ^which too often is tiie case) siirrc/inul tlie Iioiise, is incredible. 
" ^'^^i^oves then every landlord wlu> is p()ssesiod of ri-jy of those incon- 
^^'^•■^^xit farms, to have them inspected (not only for his benefit do I wish 
It, l^'«^^ t for a public good), and order buildings to \y: removed, or new 
^^'^^^ erected, as convenient as possible for the farmer's use. 

* ■*"^* most advantageous way to lay barn-flouis, to prevent rats and 

xns>C^i from undermining them, ii to ^et flints or haru stono ; break them 

6**^ > in the same manner as thev do on turnpike?, and i^y them twenty 

\lJ.ctVc?8 thick ; consolidate them with a lunvy raiimier; and at each side 

Y^\>1>1^ a foundation- wall with grey lime, to lay the ends of t!ie planks 

C"^^*^- This method, if done well, prtscrvrs ilic ^iuibc:-, -uvi is- a pic- 

^^X^tative against vrrmir.. — j'l '•■>:, 



'.. ». 



r..*i 3KCT, 



S$ - <?0TTAOBf, 



SECT. llI.-p-COTTAGES. 

7|iE miserable copstniction of cottages in matiy 
of the kingdom^ and the too great excloMOA of 
pomfort, are circumstances ivhich ought to be reme-** 
died. No ^igns of prosperity like new-built cottages : 
the dwellings of the poor^ are, in most countieft, but 
mudfcabbins, -with holes that expose the inhabitants. 
io the rigour of thp climate. In the Weald of SussexT 
they are in general warm and comfc^rt^Ue^ and.maqy 
of them built of stones and on the Downs with fiistsv 
Certainly the lower class of people are here imnraoh 
more eligible circumstances^ than in many other paii^ 
pf England which might be Qame4t 



.r 



cUat, 



9S 



CHAP. IV. 



MODE OF OCCUPATION. 



SECT. I. 8IZC OF FARMS. 

THIS most important division of the rural ceo- 
nomy of the county is exceedingly variable. It if 
nsuidly governed by the soil. Farms here, as else- 
^rtiere, are to be found more extensive, and the ma- 
nagement in general highly superior on dry soils, 
to vhat is usually the case on vfet ones. This is 
precisely the fact vrith respect to the county now. 
under consideration. ' Compare the Weald with the 
South Downs, and this circumstance will be suffi- 
ciently manifest. 

In the Weald, although farms sometimes rise to 
200/. a year and upwards, yet of this magnitude they 
are not often to be met witli ; and in a general inquiry, 
a fat greater number fall very considcraWy below this* 
calculation, insomuch that the average size in this 
district is under 100/. a rear. On the South Downs 
they rise much higlier. Many farmers occupy the 
greatest part, if not the whole of their respective pa- 
rishes, as in Buttolphs, Kingston, Coombs, Bram. 
bcr, NorthStoke, Bletchington, Falmer, Piddinghoe, 
and many others in the neighbourhood of Lewes, 
£ast Bourne, and Brighton. Many of these have 
marsh-land annexed to their farms, for the conveni- 
ence of maintaining and fattening their oxen, the 

c 4 work, 



34; SIZE OF {"ARMS* 

work for the most part depending upon their labour* 
A farm of 1200 acres at East Bourn(» has 200 acres 
of marsh ; another of 1260 has 300. Farms in this 
district average 350/; per annum. In the triangle 
formed by Shoreham, Lewes, and East Bourne, 
they rise much higher, and on the western sid^ of 
the Downs they fall lower^ In the maritime dis- 
trict they vary from 70/. to 150/. Three farms 
out of five are under 100/. rent. In the peninsula of 
Selsea, rented at 1800/. and containing more than 
2000 acres, farms vary from 50/. to 400/. \3ptRi the 
Ijarge gravelly soil situated between the^naritimd district 
and the South Downs, they average at 300/. In the 
hundred of West Bourne, they ar« met with somfitimies 
unusually small. The hamlet of Prinstead coutainp 
nine farms, each not exceeding 50/. per annum. 
And within a circuit of five or isix miles round West 
Bourne, they fall short of 100/. per annum. Betwi^n 
Nutboum- turnpike and Emsworth there zre 1500 
acres divided into 14, on which 50 horses are kept. 
If that tract of land was in thriee, instead of four- 
teen, the rent might be 1200/. instead of 1000/. ; 
there would be 500/. worth more of cuttle and sheep 
k^pt there than at present ; 500/. per annum more 
com raised; and 36 horses kept instead of 50, with 
much more employ for labourers. This is an exact 
representation of many other small-farm districts^ aft 
well as this. 

The proper size of a fiirm- is a point upon which 
a variety of opinions have been entertained t some as- 
serting tliat farms should be limited by law, and Over- 
grown ones divided ; wliilst others, on the contrary, 
contend, that large farms only should be encou- 
raged. As no doubt exists in my own mind as 

to 



la vkich tlie preference should foe given (though ab» 
•olate freedom is the only thing to be contendeil for), 
I shall njerelj consider the arguments advanced by 
the advocates who contend for the superiority * of 
^m^ll farms over large occupations. The argumentfi 
on tills side of the question are, that industry is re^ 
ivarded^' nertt encouraged, markets plentifully sup^ 
plied) and population increased, by the lit<le occupier. 
All which appear more specious than solid. Respit- 
ing the encouragement of industry in a small farmi 
by holding )oat a reward to those labourers who are suf- 
ficiently industrious and active in their occupation, to 
be enabled to lay by their gains for investment in a farm, 
the present situation of little farmers in many counties 
has been «uffieiently discouraging, to afford the smaU*^ 
-est prospect of successful industry in tliat manner* 
From the observation which I have made in 'tins 
county under consideration, and which holds out a 
striking instance of tlie comparative superiority of 
great over small farms in every point of view, I h6ld 
the active and industrious labourer to be more easy 
in his circumstances, and the domestic economy of 
his family far better arranged for promoting his hajv 
piness, than he could possibly expect in the other sii* 
tuation, to which his ambition mi;^ht possibly prompt 
him. No dass of men, such as the labourer converted 
into a farmer, work more intensely, and none fare so 
bardly. Surety, therefore, at such a crisis as the 
Jpresent*, when, from the high and increasing price in 
all the necessary articles of living, and the still more 
formidable increase of paroihial assessments, which 
^sdl with such distress upon the small oceupier^'it 



■ ¥ iii » « 



* Wjitten at a time of scarcity. 

musit 



.% 



9B^ SXZJE.aF PARMf • 

mMst appear little sltorjt of absolute ruin, td encoor 
mge laborious industry, by holding imt the superior 
advantages of small farms. Markets may be, and 
perhaps are, more plentifully provided with a few 
Articles ; and so far some of the convenienees of lifi» 
may be afforded to sale at a cheaper rate to diote 
^bose easy circumstances, or affluence, it is qI little 
oom^uence to encourage. In the preset inquiry^ 
il fs the laborious classes of life that are supposed t0 
]|3C cliiefiy affected in tl>e markets, and to the benefit 
of which tliese farms are supposed so highly to cob<« 
tribute. But a great proportion of the commodities 
of markets, as butter and eggs, pigs and poultry, cajj- 
ttot be said to enter into the composition of a labourer^ 
diet. . But the great hinge upon which this system 
revolves, is the increased population to which it is^ 
tbought to give birth . The unidn of small properties, 
it is said, has a tendency to depopulate : but within 
the last 30 or SO ycdxa this evil of engrossing land has 
increased ; consequently we onght to expect that po« 
pulation would be checked in proportion as tliis evil 
has increased ; yet every one, i presume, is by this 
time convinced, and concurs in acknowledging, 
that the population of England, within the last forty 
years, has increased rapidly. The fact is> that in 
proportion to the paucity of families occupying, wiH 
be good management, and the greater the. surplus of 
free hapds for employment in trade ai)d manufacture. 
But small farms, so far from being favourable to 
population, arc directly the reverse ; for the greater 
number of horses that are required for tlie cultivatiof| 
of a little farm, decides the question. And sii|C€!| 
upon the same ground tliat a certain proportion of 
horses arc maintained^ an equal number of men might 

subsibt; 



BENT*. . ST 

wbsisi ; it fibllows, fhat large farms iure nuire &toiivv^ 
lAle to population, • «. 

But, without doubt, the wisest mcasoie io be em* 
braced, is to .leave the size of farms to find their own 
hfdy unshackled by laws, unlimited in extent, for. 
ttpitab of all sorts to find em ploy meat* 



V flECT. H.*~BENT. 

Rent, of course, varies in proportion to the qua« 
lity of the land. In the Weald it averages at 9s. per 
acre (but in a great part of the Weald, is from 12f. 
to 20^. per acre), excepting the north and north* 
western parts, comprehending a considerable por« 
tion of poor, and frequently wet sandy land, which is 
lett at 7s. and 8^. per acre ; whilst good loamy clay 
on the eastern side rises to 15^. At the foot of the 
South Downs, not included in t]iis district, tl)ere is a 
slip of excellent arable, which, taken by itself, is 
rented from 20 to 25s. per acre. But this is generally 
included with Down farms. A great quantity of waste 
land, not less than 100,000* acres, in this part of 
Sussex, is lett from 1^. to 1^. 6d. Of this, SU Leo-^ 
nard^s and Ashdown forest contain at least 30,000 
ncres. With respect to the rental of the South' Downs^ 
we find that farms are occupied at a rate much lower 
on these hills than on the cold wet soils on the Weald, 
'whcQ the nature of the soil, situation, &c. arc con* 
ftidered. Some farmers on the Downs rent their 
farms at a valuation under what the same lands would 



• T}us inight probably be made worth five timet as much.— ^xwff. • -' 

yield 



9B* «cnj 

jFfdd ia nanj other ports of Etaglaiid. Tkis practice' 
deserves consideration, as low rents do not always- 
gemtmUf exertion and activity*. . 

^e iMti^r&dewn, or sheep-walk, is rented at vtt-^ 
riotis prioes-^frinn Is. to Ss. 6d. A<Tery lar^e tract 
of the hills between Newhayen and Shoreham, avo» 
rages at 5s. 9d. and the arable at 11^.; very rich at 
205. Between Lewes amHBast Bourne, the Down is 
9s. Qd- ; arable, 10^. 6d. Between East Bourne and 
Shoreham, 4^. Id. On-the light gravelly soils, the 
rent is 125. 6d. ; where the quality is better, as in 

Prinstead manor, m.^...^......— ....-..^; 24^. 

' vdidhani ditto, .•^••mp.*w«.«.,.«.m«.««*«..«.. 20 
; Hprney.Bickley, .•^•^^p..^.....,.,......... 20 

East Mardin, •••...•^..^m^ ^r..,.,. 10 . . 

Racton, .«•••.•*• f*. 16 

Stoughton, ......^.:... 12t 

In (he maritime district, rents rise from 20^. to 30s. 



* I am glad to find this idea in the minds of so many of the RepOrt- 
tn,'—ff^Uliam l)dnn^ Gillingham. 

t The average price per acre on these parishes, I presume ; the calcfi* 
lotion Co be made on statute acres. The reason of my oboervtng. thif is. 
because, to myJusowledge, the acres are very unequal- a^tq the numbec. 
- i>f rods they contain. In the padshes of Prinstead and Bo&ham, the size 
ef acres are from. 107 to 212 rods ; and in Chidham, Funtin^don, West 
Boorfie, and many oth^ adjoining" parishes, 107 rods to the acre. In 
Che porisheB (many oi tkem) between Arundel and Chichester^ cherc it 
t0 re^ar meaf ure, for iq:Spine farms, the acres pjce from UO to 12C^ 
or 130 rods, to the acre. I believe, if the size of all acres were made 

stature meaiure; If would be nroreTratisfitctcry to tlie tenant, aint*of tm 
r ^^tatute measure.-*^, r. 

TLis 



JUSKX*. S9 

This land is almost entirely arable ; and property is 
much diFided, almost atl the farmers enjoying land 
of which they are 1 -ic proprietors. 

Excluding the rents of pasture in the vicinity of 
towns, with all grass-laud which enjoys any local or 
particular advantages, grass in the Weald avenges 
at 13 or lis. per acre, but it is seldom Ictt by itself. 
On the western side of the countv, wh(^re the admi- 
rable practice of irrigating is understood and prac- 
tised, meadow rents as high as 40;. per acre; in 
Kast Lavant, at 95s.; in West Bourne, 35s,; in We^t 
llampnet, meadow, which before watering rented all 
5s. per acre, is now lett at 40;. and has been> valued 
as high as 60s. 

The river Lavant, from the spring-bead at East 
Dean to Chichester, irrigates between four and five 
hundred acres. 

A large tract of marsh-land adjoining the <;^ast, va^ 
rles from 20jp. to 40s. per acre. Some small parcels 
rise as high as 50.^. and even 60s., Pcvensey -level 
averages at 30s. ; Winchelsea, 25s- ; Brede, 35s. ; 
Pett, 25s. ; Lewes and Lawton, the same ; Beedlng^ 
SOs, ; Arundel rape, 25s. The rental of the parishes 
of Pcvensey and Westham, amounts to 75 IQ/. almost 
entirely grazing land. Pevenscy parish contains only 
four arable acres ; about two-thirds of it is occupied 
by iha parishioners, and the other third by graziers 
livinsc at a distance. 

I ^liall conclude this account of the rent of land by 
thv* fallowing statement of the rent, produce, and di- 
yihiim of the Land . 



ji/.r^n- 



90 ri-tut^. 

Atns. i, J^. 

pownland, 68,000 at 7s,* is SS,800 at Srentt- 7])4(X> 

Rich arable, 100,000 — 20/. — 100,000 — 5 — \S00jW 

.Marshy 30,000 —.25/. — 37,500— »§ — 7^000 

tSTaiie, 110,000 — l/.6i/.— 82i^— IJ — 12^75 

ArabkaBd pasture? 4^5^^ _j2^^ ^255,000-3 ^ 765,000 
.. in the Weald, 3^ . 

Woods, &c. 170/XX> — 8/. — 68,000 — 2 — IS6/XX> 

- . .11 it 

£.903,000 £.492,550 £.1,559,775 



• The remainder is composed of water, roads^ huUd^ 
fog8^ &c. ; so that the general rent is 492^500/. or lOs-* 
per acre, including all sorts of hind ; and the product 



SECT. ni. TITHES. 

TiiE mode of collecting tithes is variable. In the 
western parts of the county, the composition which 
generally takes place, is at the average fate of 45. 6cf» 
in the pound. The lay impropriators compound by 
the acre. Wheat, 4^. 6d. ; barley, oats, and pease^ 
2y. 6d. ; pasture and meadow, 2s. per acre. These 
tithes, on the whole, are allowed to be moderate and 
Very fair. 

' In other parts of Sussex, tithes are higher, and fall 
with greater weight upon the occupier. About 
-i— 1,1 I ■ • ■ • - ■ .- ^. ^- 

• Down-land at 7/. is surely tOo high.— ^>»e*. 

tVhett I speak of I>ov<m-land, it is to be understood that t take into 
the estimate aU the land on the Downs, arable as Well as native^ down ; 
and vdien it is considered what a considerable portion 6f these hills is 
under the plough, and that the pure down of itself rents in a Tariety 
of places at from 4/. to 7/i. and the arable from 10/. to 15/., I think it 
■ot far from the truth, in Kttiog the average at 7/.— 'il. T» 

Cuckfield, 



X\*nt4. $1 

Cudifield, wheat from 5^. to 65. ; barley, is. 6d. to 
3s, In m^ny places they are taken in kind| as Hail* 
sbatfiy &k. 

In the levri of Westham, tithe on grazing land is^ 
is. ; upon faU rents* of arable, !*• 4d. t 

la Battel, the composition for wheat is 4f. and 
Lent corn Ss. per acre. A very considerable part of 
the. parish is tithe-free, being abbey-lands, the pos- 
session of Sir Godfrey Webster. By a return of the 
corn tithes of the above extensive parish, transmitted 
hy Sir Godfrey to the President of the Board of Agri« 
culture, some .tolerable estimate maybe formed, noi 
only in the parish of Battel, but in other parts of the 
county, *^ of the comparative progress of improve- 
mpat, and the additional benefits which result from 
moderate compositions/' 

Corn Tithes of Battel for Thirty-sexen Years^ 1758- 

to 1794. 

Acres. Average. 

• 1758 to 1764, ........ wheat, 1039 ..v— 1481 

1771, 13G0 .; WO 

1778, 1655 ^i 

1785, . 1502 214f 

1792, 1583 ..,,<.. 226 

1793, r 249 

— ■— II I II I I m ■ II » . 

* If thk was ,g«neral, Ahere would-be no comphimt retpfiCtijB^ the 
jpajment of tithes^r^fViUiam Dann* 

f Tliroughout the levels of Westh j^, both great and small tithes are 
due in kind. ' The great tithes are in lay hands, and taken in ]und ; 
the vicarial are mine, and lett to the landholders^ not by thfnr rtnts, 
but coBipoiiaded for by the acrc^— i?«v. Mr» Sneyd, 

* Lent 



SSi JlATSii 






Ijent Corn. 



Aero. . ikterfgt) 

».; I75S tQ, 1764,. ...^". vh«at, 1682 .— .. 2404^ 

1771, -i — 1915 ,.^..« 273i 

. •: ; ;1778, ...;..U - — 2132 ........ 384^ 

■;. •. .1785, .-^--.2018 ...,..„ 288f 

• .'7*- ■ . ^ • v^w y •••••••• ' ' - " ' . ^/£0 § i^«a»«»« H/tSTi'v ' 

.?■ ». ^. X I i'(jj ••••••^« ' •••••••• •••••«•• crO^ 

• f-l^.^y ••••»••• — — — ##tft««# '••»•••»• 4aI^ . , 

• .. . • ■ ' • 

The mo^e, as at present adopted, of collcctii^ 
fit^e?, although perhaps levied with as little hards^i]^ 
upon the occupier as the nature of the case adnrits,' 
is^ without any doubt, exposed to the strongest objec- 
tions. These have of latebe^nso much and so ably 
discussed, that a repetition of the complaints woiilct 
1^ needless. Certainly tithes are a heavy deduction 
from the profit of farming, and an onus of no inconsi- 
derable freight upon improvement. An arrangement 
of such fi nature a^ to embrace equally tb« interest of 
the fairaier and clefgyman, is the object so much to be 
wished &r. : 



SECT. IV. RATES. 

The rates for the maintenance of tlic -poor in Sus- 
sex, collectively taken, are not comparatively so bigb 
as in other counties wliere manufactures prevail. But 
the increase pf them in almost every district of the 
Hin^dom, is truly alarming, and operate^ 9^ a m>%t 
discouraging check to agricultural ex^rtioa, ai^timm-^ 
when the comforts accruing to the poor are inversely 

as 



» tbe increase of rates. From an iiispectioa of the 
rate-books in Tarioos parts of the county, it esta* 
blishes the fact, of a considerable increase baying, air 
most invariably arisen. But this is to be understood 
as relmting to those parishes where houses 'of indus** 
try have not been set. up; since, where these have 
been established (although very recently founded)^ 
the contrary has followed. In eleven parishes united 
at Sutton, in the lower rape of Arundel, though tlie 
junction was formed as lute as 1791, the rates have 
diminished. It is in some measure to be attributed 
to the good or bad management of those who ate en"" 
trnsted with the superintendance of the poor, that 
iffQch of the expenses may be said to be increased or 
diminished ; and until gentlemen of liberal education 
and independent fortune, in their respective parishes 
attend more closely to the concerns of the poor, they 
may surely be said to connive at the evil. But this 
burthen, so alarming in its magnitude, and so dis« 
tressing in its consequences, lies deeper than this. 
The system of the poor-laws perhaps needs revision, 
before any radical remedy will succeed. It is a 
growing evil, which should be tim<*ly curbed by legis- 
lative interference. Temporary laws enacted upon 
the spur of the moment, for the purpose of ward- 
ing off pn'sent inconveniences, and rernovina^ the 
evil day out of sight, cannot fail of proving unsuc- 
cessful. J>y the multiplication of acts, difticuUies 
are entailed, the whole system becomos complex, 
and the execution sometimes impracticable. 

That the reader mny v.\ some nieasiure be made ac* 
quainted with the progressive increase of the r>tes, 
I shall §et down a few extracts, as specimens for the 
county at large. 

SUSS£X.] B la 



In Battel parish, containing between 1800 and 1909' 
people, and rapidly increasing, the rise of rates liai 
been'in proportion : 

In 1769^, the collection was •••.•••--.•• £.656 
1788, ^^..^-.-.....^ 1071 

1790, .... 927 

At present they are considerably augme^tody b|$* 
ing 65. in the pound. ; r 

In Selsea, the rates in 1786 were. set at 4«. and 
produced 356/. ; the next ycr, at 5s. Id. 4i. 6^ 
is. 9d. 3s. Id. ds. Sd. ; and in 1792, S*. 3d. T\ki» 
diminution is entirely ascribed to the very excellent!, 
management of the overseers. In Petwortb, the i:ates. 
for 1791 were 3*. Qd. in the pound ; the next year, 
As. 6rf, ; and in 1793 and 1794, 3s. 6d. ; wliich, if 
we take into consideration the scarcity of all the arti* 
eles of living, is certainly low ; and this in a large and 
highly populous place. The conduct of this parish^ 
in all that respects the economy of their poor, is ex- 
cellent ; and although they are contracted for at a re* 
gular stipend, yet the situation of the paupers is i^. 
every respect tlie reverse of that consequence which is 
so generally understood to How from this method of 
farming the poor. No mismanagement results in this 
parish from such a conduct. The governor's salary is 
fixed by agreement. A sack manufactory, which pro-* 
mises success, has been lately established. 






JL^NXP 



tJtM^TAX. 



s> 



ZAITD TAX. 



Sussex, laftd at 4s. in the poundi 



Anaiel, Upper Divi' | 


Arundel^ Lower JOroi^ 


•MM, 25. 




sioHf 34. 


- 


£. $. 


d. 




£. s. d. 


j^ypp^^^j 


291 2 





Ambcrlcy, 


150 8 


ki^intnogt 


296 1 





' Bignar, 


B7 6 ^ 


Sarnbam, 


127 16 





., Billingshurst, 


4^7 1^ 4, 


BBUNd, 


83 14- 





Bury, 


210 9 4 


Borpham, 


91 11 





' Burton, 


59 18 a 


dialing,. 


209 5 ] 


11 


' ChiltingUw, 1 
' West, J 


lao 17 4 


£ut^ate. 


85 11 


6 




Ttisnag, 


118 11 


4 


Coatee, . 


29 la 


ford. 


57 4 





Biddlesfoldi . 


18 11 Or 


(sbrdng, 


212 7 


2 


Duncton^ 


57 4f 


Uttle Hampton 


,128 17 


8 


£gdean. 


34 1 4lr 


Kingston, 


43 8 





Fitllfworth, 


149 14 


lieominster. 


302 15 


2 


Greatham, 


58 1 a 


Ifcdeharst, 


76 10 





Hardhana, 


98 19 .4 


Middleton, 


50 


4 


Houghton, 


50 2 S- 


Pnclpham, 


212 4 


8 


Kindf'ord^ 


619 16 B 


K)lcing, 


77 3 


8 


Lavingtoi;i> Bar, 


85 12 


Preston, East, 


^3 2 





Lavington,Wod 


,138 13 6 


losbingtoa. 


138 2 





Lurgcr-ball, 


265 3 Q 


Sl6ke, North, 


48 4 


6 


North Chappelj 


, 175 1 a 


Stoke, South, 


91 18 


4 


Parbam, 


47 18 4 


Tortingto0> 


103 9 





Petwortb, 


594 17 Q 


WalbertoB, 


130 10 





Pulborottgh, 


4(53 7 a 


Warningcamp, 


55 5 


4 


HudgwLek, 


373 17 a 


Ifapion, 


213 





Slin/oiU^ 
Stophanii • 


:3ii^!i4 a 


T^> ;f 


.3042^ 14 


7 


51 7 4 








1 Sioains^y, 


1.^.9 




' 


] 


d2 


Sutton, 



3» 



LAirD TAX. 



£• s, d, 

Sutton, 108 is 

TlUington, 323 6 4 

Walthamcold; 71 6 4 

Weggonholt^ 09 a 

Wisbocough- y 5^^ Q Q 



green, 



Total, ^'.5992 12 O 

Bramber^ Upper Divu 
sioTiy 31. 

£, s, d. 

Alborne, 142 O 

AshingtoD/ go a a 

Ashurst, 164 10 O 

BeecKngi Upper, 299 6 O 

Bccding, liower, 142 4 O 

Brambec, 50 O 

Broadwater^ 234 & O 

Buttolphs, 47 2 6 

Chiltington,East,119 19 8 

eiapbanf, 8/2 

Coombs, 5a O O 

Durrington> 56 12 O 

Edburton, 60 O 

Findon, 120 O O 

Heene, 51 10 6 

Henficld, 446 13 4 

Kingston-by-sea,.6l 8 O 

Lanceing, 158 O 

Patching, 65 O 

Old Shoreham, 89 O 

Ne\r Sboreham, 130 O O 

Steyning, 361 6 8 

8<9m^tin2, IS6 



Southweek, 

Sullington, 

Tarring, 

Tbakebam, 

Washington, 

Wiston, 



72 16 o 

116 o o 

280 O O 

200 18 O 

]64 13 4 

176 4 O 



Woodmancoat, 152 O O 
Worminghurst, 89 12 O 

Total, £. 4336 I6 Q^ 



Bramher^ Lower Dvoi^, 
sforiy 11. 

Cowfold, 295 14 O 

Grinstead,West, 446 10 «' 

Hitchingfield, - II9 10 2 

Horsham parish, 701 17 IJ^. 

borough, 185 13 3 

Ificld, 302 O a 

Nuthurst, 184 1 O 

Rusper, 186 8 O 

Shcrmanbury, 153 I9 Q 

Shipley, 497 9 5 

Warnham, 353 4 3 



I 



Total, ^ . 3436 7 10 



1 ■ 



Chichester^ Upper J3tV 
zisiony 45.- 



Aldingbournc, 
Appieduew, : . 
Binderton, ' 



277 ^0' 6 

96 J2 O 

92 13 a 

Sirdham^ 







c;&in> TATt. 


97 




r- 


*. 


d. 




£. ,. d. 


BhAuB, 


182 


12 


O 


W«t Stoke, 


02 4- O 


WertBoorne, 


363 


4 


3 


Slooghton, 


176 8 8 


SmdiBeretM], 


341 


U 


O 


Tangmer, 


97 8 o 


Sl.BjnholomeH 


■s.es 


12 


6 


Thorney. 


69 a 


Boriutn', 


332 


8 





E. WhUUriag, 


115 6 


Boxgrove, 


235 


19 


4 


W. Whiltering 


189 8 


Cbicbester, 


643 
«0 


19 



8 

3 


Upper Waltham, 39 16 


COWptOB, 


Total, £. 7429 4 8 


Chidhain, 


)26 








_ 




t»tDan, 


123 


13 









Wdt Dean, 


20!) 


a 





Chichcsler, LoTOer DU 


Dontiingttm, 


HV5 


5 







24. : 


bmlj. 


103 


14 





' 




Zartbam, 


74 


10 







/. 1. rf. 


ViAbourne, 


9S 


18 





Bepton, 


94 16 


PnndDgton, 


227 


6 





Budingion, 


30 13 * 


"di Hamprd 


132 








ChUhuret, 


45 14 


Hmrton. 


102 


13 





Cocking, 


188 5 


IldMnor, 


33 


16 





Didling, 


54 10 


Mid LavEint, 


63 


10 


9 


Eastbourne, 


335 6 


RiW.Livan 


,116 


4 


o 


Elsied. ■ 


108 14 6 


Konh MaiUeii, 


Si 


18 





Fernboret,. 


190 le 6 


Upper ILtiilen 


101 


iti 


3 


Gr,iffliain, 


84 10 


£sit MaidL'D, 


35 


17 


7 


H. sling, 


545 10 


Mrrsion, 


flO 


2 





Heysh> tt. 


J42 6 4 


K. Mundham, 


21)3 


8 





Si. Jt.liH's, 


25 ? 6 


Wag, 


351 


4 


3 


Il'ing, 


94 2 


Pagham, 


427 


6 





Loilsworlh, 


152 18 4 


6l. Fencrass, 


53 


4 





LjncI), 


67 W 9 


Bactoii, 


(K> 


9 


10 


Lynch mot*. 


104 


Mombaldwcek, 


69 


2 


9 


Midlmrst, 


20p 15 


Gelst^. 


255 


4 





B'-ritc. 


■IIH 16 


Eiddlesham^ 


338 


8 





Selhara, 


73 5 3 


Sogleton, 


179 


9 


2 


SieJIiHin, 


154 7 


SlindoD, 


J 27 


14 





Tcrwicfc, 


41 18 

I'rajford, 



38 


/ 


Iidli7i> IC^X. 


/ 


- 


£. 


s. 


d. 




£. i. i 


Vraerfof^ 


91 


3 


6 


Northyain, 


254 9 * 


Trotton, 


OOl 


1^ 


p 


Orr;, 


W »S .4 


Woolbcding, 


lis 


5 





PeaRmar»h> 


d^i 19 9 


Total, £.3374 17 


7 


l^eiiiiurirt, 
Pett, 


7^ Id » 

1S7 » » 




• 


■ 




Playdcn, 


80 #.# 


' Hhslinp Rapey 


40, 


> 


Saleburst, 
Seddlesoomb, 


^87 i % 
147 u » 




£• 


s. 


d. 


Ticchurst, 


4^ ^ U 


Ashbornham, 


233 


8 


11 


Udimer, 


21^ 11 9 


Battel, 


4S2 


8 





Watlingtoo, 


91 « T 


Bexhill, 


37s 


9 


9 


Warble* on. 


250 7 H 


Beckley, 


276 


4 





Westfldd, 


244 10 f 


Bcdiaui, 


115 

33(5 
226 


16 


2 


Wartling, 


326 19 y 


Breed, 
SBriglitling, 


2 

9 




10 


Total, £.9395 q 4 


£urwab]3> 


528 


5 


8 






^astle parijih, 
Catsfield, 


4S 
113 


11 


8 



Lewes, Upper Diti* 


Crowhurst, 


1X6 


9 


1 


520/? 9 


i?0. 


Dallington, 


143 


1 


1 


- 


;f . ^. i 


Etchingharo, 


221 


8 


6. 


Barrotnb, 


366 9 2 


Ewhurst, 


321 


8 


5 


Brighthelmstone,263 8 d 


Fai flight. 


03 


3 


7 


Chailcy, 


251 8 10 


Guesiling, 


169 


5 


6 


Chillington, 


141 9 S 


East Guildford, 


350 


4 


6 


Clayton, 


'18I 60 


Heaihfield, 


322 


9 


6 


Ditcheiling, 


308 8 


HoUington, 


113 


13 





Faltner, 


159 3 4 


Ht)vc, 


211 


5 


1 


Fu Iking, 


115 12 6 


Hur$tmonceuXj 


, 342 


14 


7 


Hamsey, 


224 


Jcklesham, 


278 


\5 


11 


Hangleton, 


UO 16 Q 


Iden, 


276 


7 


10 


Hove, 


bQ 16 10 


St. Leonard's, 


42 


15 


5 


Hurstperpoint, 


499 10 a 


Muniidd^ 


203 


12 


3 


Kord, 


n^ 1 lo 


Nciificld, 


127 


12 





Kcyincr> 


236 5 a 

Kingston, 



A 







LAND TAXi 




» 


. 


£' 


s. 


d. 




r. s. 


d. 


XuQ[StOlly 


106 17 





Crawlqr, 


51 14 


1 


Meecbing, 


81 





10 


Cuckfield, 


755 i 





Newick, 


123 


16 


8 


H-athlcy, West, 284 l6 


8 


Newtimber, 


108 


J 





Slaagham, 


170 19 


2 


Orindeaiiy 


60 








Twinebam, 


173 18 





Patcbam, 


262 


8 





Worth, 


480 7 


6 


Fidii^hoe, 
Rccomb, 


93 

91 
162 
124 
130 


19 

17 

3 

10 
12 


2 
6 
6 

4 
8 


Total, £. 
Pevensrj/^ I 


2520 10 


2 


Plamptoo, 

Portslade^ 

PojmingSy 


39. 


Preston, 


53 


17 





■ 


£. s. 


d. 


Rodroelly 


130 


17 


8 


Alciston, 


95 





KoUendeat), 


141 


7 





AIlfristonK 


106 8 





Street, 


93 


8 





Arlington, 


402 8 





St.Anii'l,P.M 


. 151 


17 


6 


Bedinghara, 


144 5 





St. Michaels, 


\^7 


11 


8 


Berwick, 


92 16 


e 


St. John's, 


150 


1 


8 


Bisbopston, 


71 16 





All Saints, 


113 


9 





Bletchington, 


36 1 





Southees, 


61 


1 


6 


Bourne, East, 


365 8 





Southovcr, 


142 


1 


6 


Chalvlngton, 


52 8 





Telescomb, 


43 


2 


8 


Dean, East, 


62 16 





Wcstmislon, 


123 


12 





Dean, West, 


122 4 





VivilslicJcJ, 


212 


18 





Denton, 
Firle, West, 
Folkington, 
Friston, 


41 4 

292- 

74 .4 
68 





Total, £.5i)o4 


4 


2 

















LeKcSj TjQ\ 


"ccr Din 
9. 


• 


Clynd, 

Plailsham, 

Hellin^ly, 


152 13 
243 4 
325 17 









£' 


s. 


^. 


Hey ton, 


21 14 





Ardingly, 


201 


8 


3 


Jevington, 


70 18 





Balcomb, 


187 


5 


6 


Langhton, 


369 4 





Bolp«7, 


215 







D 


Littleington, 
4 


32JS 
Lulling- 



40 



LAND TAX. 



;f . S. d, 

Lullington^ 42 8 

Kingmer^ 425 16 O 

Bipe, 158 4 O 

Selmeston, 177 12 O 

South Mailing, 212 8 O 

62 4 

113 17 

50 14 

237 14 O 

117 12 



Stanmer, 
St. Thomas, 
Tarning Nevil, 
Willingdon, 
Wilaiington, 



Total, ^.4840 15 

Pevenset/^ Lower Divi^ 
sioriy 20. 

£, s, d, 

Buckstead, 439 16 o 

ChidiDgly, 231 4 

Jletching, 417 9 



O 
O 

o 



o 



Frant, 306 6 O 

Frantfield, 374 O 

Grinstead, East, 857 2 
Hoathly, East, 153 18 
Hartfield, 377 12 

Horsted, Little, 123 10 
HorsledK-yns, 179 11 8 
Isfieid, 115 14 S 

I 

Lamherhurst, 154 4 . 

L'nfield, 396 11 

Maresfidd, 210 4 

Majfieid, 6/4 18 

RothertieW, 638 17 

Uckfifld, 155 8 

Wadhurst, 60O 4 

Waldron, 254 4 

Witbyam, 306 8 



O 
O 



o 


8 
O 



Total, £'^9^9 2 O 



Cinque Ports. 

Rye, 473 J8 

Seaford, 141 

Pevensoy, 1088 10 

Winchilsca, 405 



Hastings y asunder: 

AllSaints, 93 8 

Castle Parish, 170 

St. Clement's, 114 18 

Hastings, total, ■ ■ 



Charge, 



Cbarge, ». ». ^.G0,050 4 10 

Collector and clerks, ...-„». 1135 18 9 
-Daserten, .... jf.S5^ 

MmtU, ™. 827 J « 347 '• 

Hemp^ ate. 95? 

^.58,086 1 1 



Jlapes. Pariskci. 
Arundel, Upper, _ S5 

Lower, -.._ „... ,31- 

Bramber, Upper, ,..„..... , 31 

Lower, .....'.■„„,.„. S4 

Chichester, Upper, 45 

— Lower ....- 24 

Hasting, 40 

Lewes, Upper, ...,..,.,.,» _.., ^ - 

Lower, »..„ „„„ 9- 

Pevensey, Upper, „ „ „ 38 

■ '■ Lower, „...._.._..«.. 20 



Rye, ....... 


Cmque Ports. 


Seafotd, 


Winchilsea, 




JIaslings, .„.. 





II Bim. 



< 



H-€use9* 
BoBses and windows, 1798 <com- / -^-^^ ^^ , . 

New iahabitcd, ^^ m. 10,365 6 2 

Inhlibited duty 17193, ...o........ 1103 8 7 

£. 19,253 rO 10| 



■V 



Horses. 

Hortes, . . 1875 10 (T 

Additional, . ^ 411 15 

I ■ "■— — M— afci— ^ 

j^.2387 5 
Carriages J Four Wheels. 

Additioaa!, . « .«... 280 

■ ■ ■ ■ 'i ■ I li t- I. ■ 

£.275S 

Carriages^ Txto Wheels* 

Twowteels, . •^^.......•..^..^^. 1186 10 

Carriages, •-••—•••. ^^,3944 10 

Ten per cent, assessed taxes, •••••• £. 1681 IS 6 



•■ 



9£CT. 



•*» T Vi 



Tas tewi of lenses «Tcry ivhcirc vm-ibb. Thf jr Mf 
panted ^ seven, fourteen, and tMrenty^one year 8» li 
fbrnttintcB happens that none are altowecl, fttid tbf 
teant depencb upon the good faitli and lionoiir otkm 
landlord. Lcasc^b are unqu; stionably ihcgrealeit posair 
ble encouragement to agricultural improvement, and 
vhen exertions are necessary, tliey are not to be ef« 
fected without th is security . Where they arc granted, 
the covenants betAvocn the landlord and the tenant are, 
that the landlord shall find materials for all repairs, 
and different buildings, as posts, rails, gates, &c. ; 
that the tenant whhin the distance rf fnot or five 
laMes, shall be at the expense of conveying thoafc 
mtterials to his fi^nn, and shall pay all costB of labour^ 
except occasioned by fire, tempes4, or extraofdinary 
high winds. The landlord to be at the expetn^e of 
materials in their roneh state; awd all other charge* 
to be defrayed by Ihe tenant. Where hops are c5uU 
tivated, the covenants agreed upon are, that the 
tenant is to sow one crop of corn hi (ween the neif 
and old crop of hops, when ihey arc grubbed up; 
that one-third of his fampi shall be under tillage, and 
tWo-thirds in meadow, pasture, and hops; that n<i 
grass shall be ploughed up, but for hops : and in old 
leases, that all manure arising from the farm, shall 
be given to the meadow and hop-grounds 

All close fences, yards, sUiblcs, barns, and otlt-house# 
in general, to be repaired by the landlord. 

In some parts, the covenants are, that no grass 
be ploughed up, under 10/. penalty per acre; that 
the £ajm abaU be soMffn in four regular /aires j or divi« 



44 EXPENSE AND PROFIT. 

sions, to prevent the ground from being too much cx« 
hausted ; and at the clo^e of leases, that one lairc 
shall be left fallow for the succeeding tenant ; that 
no coppice shall be cut undcfr twelve years growth ; 
that no trees shall be lopped: rough timber on tht 
stem, and in some cases brick and mortar, are allowed^ 
with materials in general ; but all workmanship to b« 
at the tenant's expense. 



SBCT. VII,.— EXPENSE AND PROFIT. 

. To draw up any detail of the expenses and profit 
of farming with accuracy and precision, such as ix^ay 
Jbe relied iipon as a medium standard for the whole 
county» is, I fear, a task so difficult of execution, 
that it may be thought <o border upon impossibility. 
No farmer, for obvious reasons, will lay open to the 
view of others a detail of his busincvss ; and observation 
alone is absolutely insufficient, and never to be de* 
pended upon. It must be founded on documents, and 
collected from registered accounts. 
. In the clayey soils of Sussex, which embrace the 
major part of the county, the expense.<i attendant on 
cultivation are high. According to the common sys-* 
tern of husbandry here, fallow, wheat, oats, and clo-* 
ver, the expanse and profit of an average acre, may 
thus be estimated : 



Expensi^ 



SXVJUFSE AMD PROFIX . . 46- 

Expense, Produce. Ptiffit. 

£^. s. d. £. s. d. jr. t. d. 

h Wheat, 770 — 880 — 1 10 

i. Oats, . 4 13 8 — 4 18 — 4.4 

3. Clorer, 1 17 9 — 2 11 7 — 13 8 

;C. 13 18 5 — 15 17 7 — 1 19 

13 18 3 

£.\ 19 2; leaving a 
profit often per'cent. on a capital of 5/. per acre on 
arable land. If pasture be added, the account vili 
stand higher. 

In the Tery fertile maritiino district, the general 
profit yerj much indeed exceeds the above calcu- 
lation. 

Expenses and Profit^ according to Mr. Woodsy ai 

Chidfiam. 

1. Wheat Expense. 

£. s. dm^ 

Ploughing, .• 8 

Harrowing, ^..«.,.. 4 

Seed and sowing, , 10 

Rent, 18 

Tithe, ^ 5 

Rates, 3 

Manure, 16 

Harvesting, 10 

Thrashing, 6 

Total expense; •..m.,.,mm..... £A 10 



.:. XI /••. Produce. 



f 

Produce* . 

3qis.at445 ^..-.•••...•m-m..-..- 6 IS 

IVofit, ^ • * jf.2 2 

Straw not calculated, as that goes for dung; the 16^. 
is for labour* 

2. Turnips Expense. 

. Plongliing, harrowing, seed, &c ;^..l 4 

Hoeing once, •« ^. 9 6 

Tithe, and rates, •••«•••••••••••••••••••.•••••••.•• 8 Q* 

Tptal expense, ••«••....—•—•—•• ;^. 2 16 (f 

■I 
Produce. 

SOO fat sheep, at id. per week, — -*.. 3 6 8 



Pixjfit, • £.0 10 8 

3. Barley Expense. 

Twice-ploughing and harro^vingJ 18 

Seed and sowing, 12 

Rent, 18 

Tithe and rates, 8 

Harvesting, 5 

Thrashing 5 qrs, , ,*........... 6 

£'3 7 



produce^ 



MnMi Awm f B#nf • 4P 



Ppodtiet. 



dqrs. at S4f • •—•••^•— •—•-»•-.•••••'•.••— •— 6 13 

4. C/oiPcr Expcme. 

Seed, 12 lb. red. If lb. white, •«-....... 12 

Tithe and rates^ •«..•••— »--—.-««.«*«.^m— 8 



Throe ton, at 1/. IO5. perton, ••..—•• 4.10 fl! 
Mowing; and making, equal to the se-J j j^ ,, 



S 8 » 



5. Wheat Expense^ .....••• 4 10 

Produce— 3 qrs. at 445. •.•.^•.....-.....•••. 6 12 

■ ■■ ■ I a 

■ ■ — — — ^ 

6. Turnips Expense^ 2 16 

ftroduce^2p0.fet,»hwp,at4(/. ...-,m . 3 6 8 

Profit^ ;C-0 10 8^ 



7. Pofa- 



/ 



4t; SZPSK8B AND PBOFlTtf 

<• 

7. Potatoes Expense, 

Twice ploughing, ••••••••••^^•••••j****.*.*.*^ IS 0* 

Harrowing and rolliug, 2 

Seed, planting, dutiing, •.••••.••••.^••— 2 4 

Eattbiiigup, .m..^.. m....— .••• 2 

Xi^ni, ••••••••••••/•••••«•••••••■•••••••••••••••••••••••#• Vf jio \# 

Tithe and rates^ ••••*«».,^....-..— •••••m..^. 8 

fiXpense, •••• 4 6 

Produce— 80 sacks, at 3s 12 

Rrofit, L.U ..........^....^ .... £.7 U 

8- fFkeat. 

Expense^ m m.....mo-—....«...... 4 10 

Produce-^ qrs. at 44^ •••••..o. 6 12 

Profit, ;C.2 2 

9. Barlet/* 

Expense, m 3 13 

Produce, b\ qrs. at 2is 6 12 

Profit, £. 2 19 

10. Clover. 

Expense, ..^ 3 8 

Produce, 4 10 

• I 

Profit, „,.„...« £.12 



"^" 



Reca^ 



AHO PROFil? 



^ 



RtcdpituldtibH. 

Exptnses. , Produce 

£. 5. di £. f. di 

i. Wti^iii, 4 iO .;...^»............ 6 12 

i&. Turiiips, S 16 Ci „ „... 3 6 8 

- 3. Barley, 3 f 6 . .. 6 H 6 

4. Clover, 3 8 ...~. 4 10 d 

5. Wheatj 4 l6 ...:. . . 6 ig 

B, Turnips^ S 10 ....; 3 6 8 

V. Potatoes, 4 6 12 d 

8. Wheat; 4 10 . 6 12 d 

D. Barley, 3 13 ;»................... 6 12 d 

id. Clovel-, 5 18 ....;..-.......«... 4 Id d 

£.S1 14 d ;C;6d 13 4 

u- ^-^ 37 14 d 

10)22 19 4 

Average profit each ycari ••;;;•;..;«« ;^.S 5 11 



iOalculation of the Expense and Profit of Farmings 
inthh common System of JlUsbdndrt/^ in tht strohg 
Lands of the Weald^ vizi — I: Fallot; 2. Wh^t; 
S. Odtsf 4. ClovelTi 



1; Wheat Expense. 

A faiiow, t^itii the crop of tvheat iijpoii 
the laiid, takes Up near tivo year^ ; say i 
bne year and a halifj which, at 145. 
per acre tent^ ,.i...,* ;..•• ;,•••••• 



£. s. di 



1 1 d 



^IJSSEk'.] 



Carry forward^ 



•••• 



£.1 1 d 

PoOXf 



1B0 



•KicPENS^. AWQ vnovit,. 



»•*• 



£. s. d, 
1 1 

7© 



a 1 If 
4 

10 a 



y 14 



Brouglit forward, 

Poor, church, and hundred tax, at bs. 
in the pound, k............ 

Road-tax, with labour, at 9d. in the 
pound, •— *.•..•«•.•-•.. • 

Tithe, .;,....^ 

First fallowing per acre, eight oxen; 
three-fourths of an acre daily, .- 

Two stirrings, with six oxen, a man, and 
a boy, whose wages are 2s. 6d. ; the 
oxen to plough one acre per day ; the 
labour of which set at Is. 6rf. a pair, 
each day, that is, 4^. 6rf. added to the 
men's work, makes the two stirrings 

Lkne, 100 bushels, at Gd. pej bushel, .2 10 

Carri^e and spreading, •...^4«. .r^.^. 1 

Incidental harrowing, and rolling the 
fallow to occasion a season, set one 
year with another, at pfr acre, ^...... •. 

Three bushels of seed per acre, at 6.?. 

Sowing, harrowing, clodding water-fur- 
llows,''crow-keepihg, ....• 

W ceding, •• ^..•••.. ^ 

Carriage of the wheat, scatu men and 
boys, three waggons, twelve oxen, 
four horses, two carters, at l^. Sd. ; 
two boys, at 9rf. ; the rest at 1^. Qd, 

Men and boys, .... ^.094 

Twelve oxon, at 9rf. 9 

Fouf hoifses, at. 1^. 4 

Use of waggons, &c. 10 

^.1 3 4 per diem ; or, 



a 



1 3 



18 





3 


6 


1 


6 



Carryforward, ,.., £.1 II lOf 

One 



SKPBMSE AND FAOPIt* Bl' 

£, s, dm 
Brought forward, •••• 7 11 10| 

One acre with another, • i — ...i 3 

Thrashing 3 qrs. at 35; 9i/. •—•i;..*..«*.— •••..•• 8 3 
Winnowing, &c. at 6d. •••^••.•••^m*«— •••••••••• 16 

Turnpikes, l^i S(/. per quarter^ ...m— »— •• 3 7f 

Expenses, •••••••••••••••• £'S 8 3 

Produce, 3qrs. at465« ••• •••••••••«••#••••••••• 6 18 

Straw, stubble, chaff. Sec .v***-— •••••^ 1 10 

Product, ^. ;C. 8 8 

Many farmers look ut>on tlie wheat as a losing crop. 
It ai^pedrs very clear, that a. crop of wheat three times 
ploughed and manured with lime, as. is usual in this 
county, will not more, if so much as pay, the expense 
of raising it: that all the profit arising, must be from 
the oats aiid clover in the two isucceedii^ years. 

2* Oats. 

£. s. d. 

'Winter ploughing, &c .« ^•••••o 10 

Seed, 7 bushels, at 3^ 110 

Sowing, harrowing with four horses, and > n A fl 

cross-harrowing again repeatedly, S 

Weeding, .*# - 19 

Mowing, •« 4 .«..« ,.^.. 19 

Shoving and turning, • .•»•.•••• 13 

CJarryiiig and unloading four acres per> n S O 

day, half a mile, with one waggon, S 

Thrashing, &c ^, 4 8 

Carriage ta market, l*. per quarter, > n 4 

three or four turnpikes, S 



Carry forward, .... ^.2 11 .5 
£ 2 Rent, 






£. s. d. 

Brought forward, .«. 2 11 5 

Rfent, .!.•. ;^.0 14r 0- 

Rates, i i 2 9 

Ttthcj 0- 3- 

Ihterest of capitaif.... 3 (TL 12 3 

Wear; and tear, ...... 6 



Expenses, ;^. 3 13 8 



Produce. 



Fbur^niarters^ at 21^. •.•m..m«.m.«m«....»m.«....» 4 4 
Strawy &C4 ......M. ^ 14 

Produce, .•..•..^..•••....« 4 18 



ftofit'byoats, ;^.l' 4 4» 

3. Clover. 

S^dTand so^KJng^ . ..^.##a..#^^*. .« •••«.•• 8 3 

](^tc3, ..••. ..M..*.. •.*••»... .M..... Q 3 9. 

Kent, CM..... 14. 

Mbwiiig fiist .crop. SOist. . making .1** 

Carriage!, 2^^^. w.earajad.tear,. 5 9 

Second ditto,^ »^^^^^^^^^^^^^,.^,» 5 0: 

, Expense, ........ £^1 17 9 

P^oduco*— Firtt.crop, twoloads^at 25^. > o -i^ /y 
S^ond^do^ one do. at do* S- 

Profit by Glover, ;C-1 17 3 



Reea* 



SXPBK9C AVft T^O^Wn. ft 

Recapitulation. 

Expense, Produce, Prqfit. 

£. s. rf. £, s. c/. ^. s\ cf. 

1. Wheat, .... 8 8 .... 8 8 .... 

2. Oats, .... 3 13 8 .... 4 18 .... 4 4 4 

3. Clover, .... 1 17 9 .... 3 15 .... 1 17 3 

' ■ II ■ ^ 

£.13 19 5 ^.17 4 1 ^.3 1 7 



4)3 1 7 



On 6/. 'Cfi'pfta), *#.. £.4Ji 36 per c^ profit. 

Grass Land. 

Expenses. £. s. d. 

Rent and taxes, ....•••......m J 10 

Jjabour — Mowing, .... 2s. 6d. 

Making, ...• 2 

Carrying, .... 2 

Wear and tear, 6 

Tithe, 8 



7^. 8rf. 



7 8 



Expense, ;f • 1 17 8 

FromJan.toMay,feedingtheTouon5 6wceks, 10 

l-l ton of hay, at Ss. per cwt 3 

Rouen, 10 



Produce, 4 

Expense, — ,. 1 17 8 



Profit per acre, £.2 2 4: 

Calculation at the rate of stocking with sheep. 

K 3 Isty Thir. 



54 SZPENSS AND PROFIT, 

1st J Thirteen weeks, three sheep, at 4rf. each,0 13 

2dy Ditto, ditto, six ditto, at4(f. each, 1 6 Q 

3dy Ditto, ditto, six ditto^ at id. each, 16 

4<A, Ditto, ditto, three ditto, at id. each, 13 Q 

Wool, 3 lb. per fleece^ from six sheep, at*) , 9 8 

Is. 3d. per lb. ..^ • 3 

Pifoduce, • 5 8 

Expenses as above, to which add losses, &c. 2 2 Q 

Profit, .,-M.-..M..M-M..,M. ;^, 2 18 8 

U 11 



tUAF. 



i *■ 


m' 


1 

r 


1 


w 


1 — 


ts^/ • 









S5 



CUW. V. 



IMPLEMENTS. 



IN all the operations of husbandry, how essen** 
f iallj necessary it is to the ultimate success of the 
undertaker, that his implements of labour be con« 
structed upon mechanical principles. In the conduct 
of operations of so much consequence, and so depending 
upon the active knowledge and enlightened minds of 
individuals, it ia indeed surprising that we find so little 
progress made in this branch of rural economy, and 
that we so frequently sec such a display of ignorance 
in agricultural tools. A knowledge of mechanics is so 
essentially necessary, that every farmer should be ac« 
quainted with the principles upon which the practice 
of his profession is supported. So groat have been 
the improveniients brouglit forward in almost every 
other branch of the farmers' art, that it is uiiaccount« 
able to observe the clumsiness of the ploughs in ge- 
neral. The wheel-plough most common, is the Kent- 
ish turn-wrest. It breaks up land from five to seven 
inches deep, perhaps better in some instances than 
the ploughs of Suffolk and Essex, especially when the 
ground is dry and hard ; it will then work steadily at 
a time when the best ploughman is unable to keep 
the other in the earth. There is an advantage which 
arises from its use for spring crops on the Downs sown 
lipon a singly earth, for it turns the furrow perfectly, 

£ 4 yet 



56 IMPLBAiENTS. 

yet leaves the ground in a more crumbly state th^u 
most other ploughs (thougli certainly eflccted at the 
expense of a more extraordinary drauglit). Fropi the 
;wreight of tl)is plough, it is absurd to use it in any 
work where the isoil is in a friable or loose state. In 
all pther respect39 it is a clumsy and unmechanical 
plough, ai^d its defects outweigh the advantages. 
It throws out and drives along almost as much earth 
on the landrside, as it doe^ on the farrow -side, and 
iihe fixed sticks which act in uaion with the moveable 
one, .as a mould-board, arc in ^ awkward a position, 
tbat with xleep ploughing they ride on the land on 
both sides, and keep the plough from going close at 
bed ; tp i:emedy \^hich they sometimes }iook on great 
weights at the tail of it ; two half hundred weights are 
not unfrequently tied to it ; and this alone is sufficient 
to prove the unmechanical construction of this tool ; 
a weight in a plough never acting beneficially, but 
by correcting some error ip its construction. But 
this tool, which is not very well adapted for any 
tiling except always throwing land the same way, 
and consequently doing well on steep hills, or for 
laying Ir.nd to grass withput a furrow, is in this county 
a great favourite. This is universal. Whatever 
plough we find in any county, is sure iq be palled the 
best in the world. 

In the maritime division of this county, a one wheeU 
plough is much esteemed ; it is generally drawn by 
three horses in a line. This is a much better constructed 
implem* nt than the other ; but the method of harness- 
ing tlie horses remains for improvement, by substi-t 
tuting two only, and these a-brcast. The iiglit plough 
of the Suffolk kind, introduced by the Earl ofEgre- 
mont about Petworth, would be a ypry capital improv<e* 

ment; 



insnt; and it performs its work (upon 6oiIs of a light 
Itextnre) in a more perfect manner than any of the 
ploughs of the county. The new-invented wheel- 
plough of Mr. Woods, of Cbidham, hns gained him 

> 

tnuch credit. It is drawn by two horses abrctist, and 
ivithout any driver ; moves well in stiff land^ and 
plough$fthree*fourths of an acre of land in tiie same 
space of time that a full acre is ploughed after the 
common method. A driver and a horse, and some? 
iimes (wo, are thus saved. 

Mr. Seaton intr xluced from Yorkshire the Ilotber^ 
ham-plough, wliich the lie v. N. Turner carried into 
Another part of the county, where it was adopted by 
maiiy, and jiroved a real improvement. / 
*" In rei^pect to the harrows of Sussex, for all strong 
soils (not kept in small ridges), they are well executed ; 
and at Chidham, the common custom of the driver 
i¥alking close to the horse's headS| has been improved 
upon by his holding the reins from behind. 

The waggons, taken altogetlier, are better fitted 
io a farmer's use, in a country which is fiir from being 
level, than any other known in the neighbouring coun- 
ties. The carts have nothing particularly deserving 
/either praise or censun*, but are in general made for 
the carriage of small loads, from sixteen to twenty-four 
bushels. 

• BrQod'skare. — Whether this admirable tool, he* 
kmgB t« Kent, or is the invention of Sussex, remains a 
question. The great use of it, of which 1 have seen 
tnany instances near Lewes, is for cutting pea an«l 
Jiean-stubbles, or fallows weedy, that do not require 
liloiigfaing. It consists of an oblong share two {e^^ 
4^g> and four or five indies ivide^ fixed to the sock 

or 



I 

or front of the gTOUnd-rist,by an iron shank in the 
cHe, and sometimes bolted to the side of the ground* 
rist of a Wheel-plough. It is pitched with an incli* 
nation into the ground, raised or sunk at pleasure^ 
bj the elevation or depression of the beam on the gaU 
lows, and answers the purpose of the great Isle of Thanet 
tbimy for which see my Father's Eastern Tour. After 
Ihe stubbles are cut with this machine, they are har« 
lowed, raked, and burnt, and the land Is left in excel* 
lent order for wheat. 

The great attention which the Earl of Egremont 
bas paid , in improving the farming implements of 
8usscx, has already had a considerable effect in 
the neighbourhood of Petwortli, and induced some 
farmers to adopt the use of those which promise 
the greatest advantage. His Lordship has been 
at no inconsiderable expense to introduce cartsc, 
ploughs, harness, and men, from Suffolk ; and the sue* 
cess of the new plough, in the prize-ploughing ^t Pet- 
wortb, has sufficiently testified the merit of it. Too 
much commendation it is impossible to bestow upon 
bis Lordship's unwearied |xjrseverancc, so constantly 
exerted for the benefit of his country. 

Amongst a great variety of other implements which 
bis Lordship has succeeded in introducing ipto Sus? 
sex, the following may be mentioned : 

1. The Suffolk Farmer'* s Car^-r-This farming car- 
riage was introduced by his Lordship for the purpose 
rf removing those errors inseparable from the use of 
uraggons ; and when trial of this cart was made at 
Pctworth, it was immediately found how much supe- 
rior was the work of a horse or ox, when single, than 
9k hen he is harnessed with others in a team. Thf$^ 

carts 



IMPLEMENTS* £9 

carts hare been found capable of doing every part of 
the work of a farm with more eKpedition than in anj 
other way ; but it is to be observed, that this result 
would have been much more striking, had not the 
Suffolk whcd'wriglit made the common blunder of 
building it too heavy, 

2, My Fr^ther's improvement on the Suffolk plough, 
from the hints of Mr. Arbuthnot. This plough does 
its work with two horses a-breast; and whether the 
nature of the soil be a strong clay or a sandy loam^ 
whether it go six or only three inches deep, it has ex- 
perimentally done its work in a way superior to all 
the tools which have as yet been brought against it; 
It bore away the priajc at the Petworth plpughing? 
match in 1797. 

3. The Mole'Plough. — This tool was also intro- 
duced by Lord Egremont, and at first it seemed to pro*- 
mise great success in laying dry springy and wet pas- 
tures. It has been repeatedly tried in the Stag-pai^k, and 
it always worked well, forming a circular drain three or 
four inches in diameter, by means of a round piece of 
iron two feet in length, and tapering from the heel to a 
point: it is connected to the beam of the plough by a 
strong bar of iron, which either elevates or depres3es the 
1¥ork at pleasure, according as it is found necessary to 
plough shallow, or deep ; and before it a coulter is 
£xed, to cut the sod to the depth of the drain. This in- 
strument will no doubt be found useful in many respects ; 
but the drains which it formed in the Stag-park, were 
so soon filled up after they had been made, that the work 
liras rendered useless after one year^ and other dra^^ 
i^rere made in their place. 

4. HoTsc'^ 



4l. JlorsC'Jloes for Benns. — Various skims apptw 
cable to the same beam, and so contrived as to ck»m 
in^yalsof any breadth. 

5. Iron Dibbles — Invented }yy Jolm Wynn ^aluir^ 
in Ireland, and found much superior, in plantii:^ 
beans and cabbages, to wooden ones. 

6- ScuJJer.-^V ^rious sorts of this tool have beea 
iuirod^cedAt Petworth) and with very gre^t success. 

7* Mr. Ducket^s Skim-Coulter — Was introduced 
}yy hi^ Lordship^, and with such success^ that it xifos 
adopted by a great number of farmers. 

8. The Rotfierham Plough — Which, the yej^r 
after the comparative trials alluded lo above, beat all 
jUBse Susse:;^ ploughs, siud has since spread much in the 
jieighboorhood^ 

r 

. In the plough described by Mr. Young, the draught 
iq>piies ©early 4q the centre oi the implement as it 
^tasnds for 11^, iin<J ;s^«ies very near to com])ktely ^xe^ 
ipiite ift Utet r-csi^ct the idea 1 delivered to tiie JBoard 
itpoo I4];is (>Hbj(.'pt, in my iirbt notes on the Report iw 
4Slo»cesiwAii^*.— J/r. Fox. 



/ 



• Wlmt Mr. Voun^ obscrvee, is certainly tie case im 
boime soiU, tnit <a«ii4)vig others, is an instance of the 
imprepriety of ^adopting ^one mode for all kinds df 
)«ud. It is twie, « weli-oonslructed pkiugh wiH worjc 
vhj ¥Oil ^nth C\vo horses. But some soils reqaire 
a deeper furrow than others. Upon isueh soil% 

theoji 



^^^^^rm , it IS impossible that two horses can draw as 

^^^JD, and plough as fast, as four, or three. The 

^^e^l^r a fine strong loam is ploughed, we certainly 

^^tsi in a finer range for the food of plants. It retains 

^^ moisture longer, and consequently .defends the 

p^r^ts the better from the drought. We should not 

tty an old*constructed plough and four, with a new 

one and two horses. It is altogether astonishing what 

a saving of friction is obtained by the new«coil9irllcted 

ploughs in general. , 

As to the propriety of ploughing good land defep^ 

one argument seems against it. It requires .more ma^ 

mire to impregnate a larger mast of soil j than it wouUk 

do for a lesser. Hence the deep furrow conttantlyr 

turned up by strong ploughing^ mutt require more 

than one less deep. Bat (if we might yeature on a) 

philosophical argument) as the food of plants- is ooii«) 

tained in the soil as well as in the atmosphere ; and as 

much more oft hat large mass is occupied by the fibres 

nr- roots in quest of their food, at one time than that of 

the lesser ; may we not reasonably conclude, that it» 

nmst be less easily exhausted, and consequently ne^d 

l«8s artificial manuring i Where a greatdeal of nuH* 

- imfe abounds j^ such land, well 'ploughed, might be 

Itept alnfkost in constant 'tillage, tfnd bear an^ccasionali 

sq>plica^ion of a stimulus. 

The above note is not so much a conectiott^-oC tbs» 
P^xii as air appendix toit.^'— /% T. 



CHAP. 



m 



CHAP. VI. 



ENCLOSING— PEISTCES— GATES. 



THE very extensive and predominating range of 
timber, so very congenial to the soil of this county^ 
^nd the singular custom of their shaws, render Siis- 
sex one of the most thickly-enclosed of any in tbe^ 
Mrbole island ; and if an exception is made of the wastea 
that border upon Surrey and Kent, together with the 
major part of the South Downs, the remainder may- 
be considered as entirely enclosed. And to such a 
degree is this carried, that if the county is: viewed 
from the high lands, it appears an uninterrupted wood-, 
land. No parliamentary enclosures of any conse-. 
qitence have been made, the county having been en- 
closed from the earliest antiquity. 
. The custom of shaws cannot be too strenuously corh- 
demned, since, wherever it prevails, ii has the most- 
pernicious influence on the contiguous, land. How 
glaringly striking is this, by traversing the country 
with any attention, and marking tlie state of husban- 
dry wherever these hedge-rows^ two, thjee, and even 
four rods wide, abound. When corn is enveloped ia, 
such fences, impervious to the rays of the sun, it must 
necessarily experience very great and essential da- 
mage. No doubt, the conditions upon which tenants 
receive their farms, are made compatible with this ; 
but it is nevertheless a loss, and a heavy one, as well 
to the farmer as to his landlord. I liave seen fields of 

cora 



£NCLOSIir«. ^ 

ecNTli whkh (excepting in the centre) would never be 
ripe. Perhaps the Sussex farmers may be contented on 
this score ; and landlords may think that these hedge^ 
rowsmaypay better than com. The present condition 
of the tenantry in the Weald, is an unanswerable rcfu« 
tation to these ideas . 

The history of this custom of the broad belts of un* 
derwood is evident. The country was originally a 
forest, and cleared probably among the latest in the 
kingdom : fields of tillage and grass were gradually , 
opened among the woods ; and whilst laud was plen- 
tiful, no accurate attention was paid to surround in|f 
them with fences, the forest making a. sort of fence* 
Carelessness and ill husbandry continued the practice ; 
till at last the landlord, finding the sweets of great , 
falls of timber from these shaws, made it an article in 
the lease, ta preserve them against those encroachments 
iirhich improved husbandry would necessarily make. 
A system, however, of greater barbarity can hardly 
be imagined : the country being generally so wet, the 
means to air and dry it here used are, to exclude the sun 
and wind by the tall screens of underwood and forest 
around every field ; and tliese being so small, a great 
number are so wood-locked, that it is a little surprise* 
ing how the corn can ever be ripened. At the 
same time that this mischief is done, the wood itiself i^^ 
(timber excepted) but of a miserable account, as any 
•pne mpy suppose, when be is informed, that these 
shaws have a fence only on one side, and consequently 
are exposed to be eaten by the cattle that graze in 
the fields : hence there is an imperfect system of wood, 
an inj\ircd one of corn, and wretched fences: by aim- 
ing at too much, nothing arrives at perfection. 

• . * ■ 

Fences, 



Fences. --^13 ndet thx^ariijcle^ it would be a iie^teiA 
Hot. to describe the quickset-ihedges at Goodwood'^ 
which are Very capital, and trained in a most masterly 
manner. , The Duke of Richmond planted them about 
eighteen or twenty years ago: they surround a vtry 
considerable farm, fend are in a wonderful state of preJ 
serVation, They form an excellent fenccj mtHout thd 
Assistance of any ditch, bank, rail^ or pale; consist 
of three rows of white thof*n, which spread three oif 
four feet at bottom^ but are clipped rt^gularly and gra- 
dually to a thin edge at top : the shoots are so riumeJ 
rous, and trained with such care, that even irl winter^ 
without a leaf, the thickness is uncommon* By thd 
young hedges in' training, it appears that oncf method 
pursued has been to plant th^ centre row first, and 
when that is ^vell established, to add another dn each 
side of it; at lenst' this is- done in these lieKv hedges/ 
They are kept in a state of gartled^ ole^ttfletes: the' 
branches are drawn into the line desired) by beirig tied 
with mat, ot other lines, and the clippirig done witH 
thecxactcst attention j the anion of the hedges Atiththef 
gate-posts, is close £lnd perfect ; and as to gap, Scci 
there is no such thing. How they have been preserved 
ftom cattle, but especijil'y from sheep, is marvellous^ 
if either are ever allowed to enter these closes: an at-* 
tentiori, never ceasing, and a boundl(?ss expense (a« 
fkf, I m^Mj, as necessary )j must liave beeti exerted^ 
They cannot be recommended to the irtiitatioh of fur^ 
metsyhixi as an object beautiful to the farming eye^ 
for its perfection, they merit all that cart be ^aid of* 
tlienii 

On Walburton farm are some tery good fences,* 
planted about 23 years' ago: the quick wacs ^t aboui 
two inches asunder, and single: they are cut twice? 

id 



ill aTCir ; are four and a h^If feet high, and two feet 
thick. Yery little ground lost by the hedge, as it oc« 
copies only four feet. Upon a very extensive scale^ 
the same excellent liort of fences have b^n made in 
Lord Egremont's new enclosures in the Stag-park ferm^ 
and most neatly kept. 

All that remains to be observed under this head is^ 
that fences are usually, in the new enclosures, two 
rows of white thorn on the bank of the ditch. But 
care should be taken that the ditch be not too near the 
ipick, as it acts as a drain^ preventing it from re* 
^seifing that nourishment so necessary to the growth of 
a strong and durable fence. 



itssBXiJ 



taA^« ' 



66 



■ I 

t 



CHAP. VII. 

Arable land. 



'y SECT. I.-— TILLAgB. 

TtlE more improved tillage of land, as at premA 
Inractised, is confined to individuals. Little 19 tkm 
that deserves commendation. Tiie ploughmen are noft 
remarkably adroit in handling their implements, which 
are for the most part clumsily constructed ; but on the 
light sandy loams about Petworth, the tillage is more 
perfect. The operations arc executed by horscis and 
oxen. Eight of the latter form a plough-team ; but 
ten, and even more, arc sometimes in use. They 
are universally worked, except by a fbw intelligent in- 
dividuals, in common yokc^ and bows, going double ; 
half of the cattle walking in the furrow, and the other 
half on the nnplougbcd land. At first »ight it appears, 
that in attaching such numbers to a plougli, theex« 
penses of farming must be immense : and unquestion- 
ably, if these draught cattle were kept for the purposes 
of their work only, such would be the case : bift this 
tottst be consistent with the progression in their value^ 
or they consider, and with justice, that the sjrstem 
would lose its principal merit; consequently the 
work is at all times gentle, and such as will not affect 
their growth. 

With respect to the working of horses, the common 
management of the conufy is, to us^ tluree^ or four 

with 



FALLOWING. 0T 

jn€b a driver, to one plough. Some few persons of 
intelligence discarding this useless incumbrance^ hafji 
gresitly improved upon this system, by cutting off 
two of the horses and the driver, and thus ploughing 
wl€Ii only two ; and it has been found, upon repeated 
trials, that four horses and a driver, with the heavy* 
wheel plough of the county, execute but little more 
tha,vi one-half of the breadth of ground which the samO 
fota V- horsQs in two teams will perform* 

I VI the neighbourhood of Chichester, Mr. Woods has 
brought the art of ploughing nearer to perfection, than 
it Imsid ever attained before in that neighbourhood, by 
airvming at that standard which prevails in the east of 
£'^Sl^'*^* Hb systcin of tillage is among the best in. 
th^ county: neighbouring fiinuers are opening their 
fy^is to the improvements in this line, and are sen* 
^^t>l4e of the beneficial effects that flow firom superior 
tillage. 



SECT, ir.— PkLLOWINO. 

ALLOWING very generally prevails in the stiff soils 
^^ ^^ussex, where, it is thought, no corn could be bad 
^•^"tXiout this necessary preparation. But there is a 
^*^'**jr rich soil at the foot of the South Downs, all 
^^ '^hicli .is either pure clay, or calcareous eajfthi 
^^^-'^l. so excessively tenacious, that it adlieres to the 
f'^^^ire like pitch : it is upon, this land that the best of 
7*^^T[ijcrs never fallow. It has been managed in the faU 
.'^'^v^ system; and practice has experimentally con- 
'V^'iced them, that it is neither necessary nor profitable : 
^^^^crs adhere to this system of fallowing every third 
<^ 'fburtb year; but in general it declines ; is not pur- 

. f8 sued 



,'is 

i 



68 *atjT.owiwg. 

Bupit by (lie best agriculturists; anil most practi! 
by the worst, 

The inference (o be tirawn is obvious: if (he 
karsh, iintractabic, ad h-^i ■.'!■, s\nil strotii^ soils, 
as require ten or twelve slotil i>xen »" plf>ii!;h half an 
acre.per tlay, Cftsi be managed without a tallow, (o 
gTcat profit, a"! h e'rt:uMy the caFi" ■ llien what be- 
conitj oi' Ibe [Keicndefl neccssily, or propriety of 
this practice, on the thousand griidiilinuN of soils be- 
tween common loams nnd tlti'se mdly Kiiff clays? 
To ititroduec new prnclices i" hii'-lKindry, that are 
Tull in the teeth of old and inveterate prfjntlit'esj'is 
indeed suiTrcii-nlly dilliciiU. The grenlcst impro' 
ments in the husbandry of this island, Imve not bel 
established much above a century ; b\:t rc;d impro' 
ments wUI work their way in time; and this err 
of the necessity of fallowing;, will, by degrees, give 
■way to abetter system. Those who coiitcnd for (he 
necessity of it, from the eftct of a pitrtifular cxperi. 
ment, or the practice of this or that individual, are 
not sensible of the mischief they ivonid do the king- 
dom, if (heir ideas were universally to prevail. Un- 
fortunately they do prevail too- much. Without 
having recourse to particular iiistatices, Sussex allbrds 
general ones, which speak powerlVHy, On the Soiitli 
Dowa farms, turnips, potatoes, clover, tares, rapi?; 
Ac. expel fallows, and rents have advanced from 
tbirly to lifty per cent : more' s(ock is kep(, and l>etter 
iept. But in the \V».«ld, the fallow py^lem is ad. 
hered lo; and here it is that rents have been far from 
being in proportiim to the advance in the other ini 
, stance. 

PatiCKlar spots and instances, owing to other causes 
tbao tke ituxlcs of husbandry, merely local, do_ 



[lo_ tu(^ 



EOTAtlON OF CHOPS. 09 

affect the general fact* Tbe produce in the Weaid. 
is the*same at present, or rery nearly so, that it tWML 
a- century back ; and consequently improvement sta- 
tibnafy. But rents are not to be raised whilst pcoducta 
remain as they 'were. And how are products to be 
improved but by the conversion of fallows to tar* 
nip^, kabba^, coleseed, tares, clover, &c* &e. 
thereby tddiu^ i;reatly to thcHvc'-stodL ; consequently* 
to the'dtin|Dr, and saving the expense, nearly a useless 
one^ of time? I will venture to assert, that there 
is in the line of a great view, and not descending ta 
minutifit!, no other method of doing it. Lord Sheffield 
fans made great advance's in proving this material fitct,' 
^^ turn your fallows to crops that shall feed cattle ; da 
not depend so much upon hay ; mow less, and feed 
more ; and do this upon an enlarged scale ; and never 
fear but you will grow corn, if you can keep cattle 
and sheop"" — and this doctrine comes from the heart 
of the Weald. 



SECT. -III. ROTATION OP CR0P9» 

* 1^1 E rotation adopted by the Sussex farmers, ij^ In a 
great measure regulated by the uature and prpperfietf 
of the soil under dultivation. Tlie judicious armnge- 
fnient of afarhi, in respect t'o the succcssionof lis crops^ 
i«*on(5 of thoi^ leading f».'aturcs whicli so clearly mark 
the skilful from the inattentive cultivator i and no 
•where seen in a more striking light than upon the diffc- 
rent soils of this county. It is, without exception, the 
most prominent stay of good husbandry, to adopt those 
crops which are congenial to the qualities olFthe soilj 
in such order of succession as will yield the greatest 

F 3 produce ; 



7rf 
prod 11 ( 



POTATION OF CHOPS. 



; witilst, at the ! 



; lime, the toil shall be 



: same I 
kept in the bcsi cuUiration. 

From not paying due attention to this circnmstmice, 
we daily find the old system pursued upon cold wet 
land, from one extremity of t lie kingdom to the other; 
such as was familiar to the Roman Imsbandmen, and. 
practised in Virgil's time — a fallow succeeded by two 
crops of corn. Thus it is in Suxsex, aud the practice 
is the reason why the clay farmers are so much dis- 
tanced by the rest of England, and In their practices 
left so far behind. 

The new face which improvement has given to the 
Iiusbandry of this kingdom, took j>\ncc on sands, 
and chalk, and soils of a similar description. 

The most general system pursued on the stiffcr or 
Btrong loamy clays, is in the following order, and 
may be considered as the standard for the Weald. 

1. Fallow, -m 

S. Wheat, '" 

3. Oals, 

4. Clover and ray-grass, two or three years; 

5. Outs, pease, or wheat. 

Upon the very tenacious clay under the northern 
lange of chalk, the clover leys, after having been 
down some years, are then broken up, and sown 
with oats; and then sufijraer-fallow.d for a crop of 
wheat; asecond crop of oats succeeds that of wheat; 
it is then laid down witJi clover and ray, or trefoil. 
These fail in two or three years, when the land is 
Covered with weeds and ^^rasscs indigenous to the 
soil. A soil which discovers such a tendency to 
run to grass, should not be ^uficrcd to remain in bad 



tillage, 



Upa^ 



ji6¥ation op^cboipI. 71 

* TT]|idn CBoie'of a li^liter texture ' than tlie fcftegcing^ 
an arrangement is practised, which cannot be too 
mnch recommended to d more extended cultifatioD* . 

1. Tamips, • 

2. Barley, 

3. Clover, 

4. Wheat, 

Farmers in the neighbourhood of Battel, East- 
bonme, &c. arrange part of 4:heir land under a sys* 
tern of tillage different from any of tl^e preceding, and 
bring potatoes to their aid. 

1. Potatoes, 

2. Barley, 

3. Clover, 

4. Wheat. 

Sometimes, as at Battel, 

1. Potatoes, 

2. Wheat in succession* 

That the potatoes do not decline frdm repetition, 
appears by the last pot atoc crop turning out better 
than any of the preceding, and the wheat good. 
This course is singular, ^pd has been practised ivith 
uniform success for more than twenty years, by Mr. 
Mayo, of Battel. 

That following for a crop, even upon the stiff land, 
is by no means necessary / is proved, by much of 
this soil being managed Avifhout any fallow. 

I. Tares, ". . 

9. Wheat, 

3. Oats. • '. > 



1 4 The 



r 





• 


•» - 




< 


7fr 


W<4f I<^^ V W^Of^r 


• 


Tl^0 fMnnuigW^ upon 


U^ech 


• 

ddk&nu 


Wrff'rW^^^^ 


• 1. 


TFWlow, 


I. 


Wheatj 


••^■■•H^T^e If* 


' ■■'.i: 


Wheats 


-9, 


B»rl«y, 


-■^»-^'*"r il-9^tn 


3. 


Barley, 


3, 


Clover, 


1 


4. 


Clover, 


4. 


Turnips, 


: . i * • '• > 


6. 


Wheat. 




•K 




1. 


Wheat, 


h 


Wheat, 




- , f. 


Barley, 


9. 


Peasej 


.-,-.. 'T 


3. 


Tares,; m pease^ 


3, 


Barley, 


« 


■ 4. 


Gate, 


4. 


Turnipsj 


,■■■- . ., ■■? 


5. 


Clover. 


5. 


Taifes. 


-. ••-J 



The following nfiserable course of croppiag is isuai 
on the tenantry hires in the neighbourhood of liewes. 

1. Wheat, 

2. Barley, 

3. Oats, pease, or tar^s ; «^- 

4. Clover, or turnips. 

But the more general practice is that of having five 

crops of white corn in si^ ye^rs. But besides this 

open-field management^ we iind, 1. wheat.; 2. rye 

and tares, sown in x4iigust and September, fed in May 

apd June for turnips, barley? and clover. Another 

arrangement rlul into practice by nitciligent farmers on 

light land is, to manure for wheat after tares or clover* 

* * • • * 
then turnips^ ; or, clover sown in the spring amongst 

the wheat : tbe turnips succeeded by bjirley or oats, 

and clover ; which, after remaining one yc^ar, the 

ley is broken iip, "sown with pease or tares, followed 

by wheat. But on the stiUer soils, wheat "is sown 

«fter clover or tares, and seeds wiUi it in the spring ; 

the clover is eith^i' twice m6\Vn, or fed in the summer, 

mafiured, ai^d ^owh with wheat upon on^ earth. 

A. very 



< # 



A Tery common practice prevails in this . couiHy | 

of sowiag wheat upon turnip*land*. Those wh^ foU 

low it are compelled to turnip- feed their fibclc^ ai that 

season when the turnips are reputed of the least yalue^ 

and ^hen a plentiful supply is in existence pf all other 

food upon which the sheep might be supported equally 

well* '" ' 

In the maritime district the accustomed Itidde dT 
era jp ping the fand is in the order df> 

1. Tares, pr pc^Ee, , 7 

2. Wheat, ' . ., . ' 

3. Clover, 

4. Clover, , . 

5. AVheat, 

6. Oats, 

his system, is only adapted to veiy Ttclirlan<A« Piif* 
ti<^vi.laT instances occui^, of wheat having been sow« 
foiMx- or five yeai^ in succession, and the prodttcm 
anx counted to four or five quarters per acre. The 
coM^Tse of -wheat, pease, whfat, barley, pursued iw 
tht^i vale, will afford ai\y person a tolerable insight 
into- the general properties of the laud in question. 

'Throughout the gravelly soils between Chichester . 
Wd the South Downs, wc find, 

1. Pease, 

2. Wlicat, ; , 

5. Wheat, * ^ \ 

6. Pease ; . . 

• A very ba4 practice ind^ed*'^An/i9t^ 



^ ' ' r 



f 



' ' V 



t 



tl kItatioii of cfto^r; 



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Barley, 

' • * - 






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A metliod yery commonly pursued is, that part pC 
tjbeir tmpgring lai|d round in six laircs, ivheii it is all 
kept in tillage^ in the following manner: tttniip% 
Wheat, barley, seeds, oats ; all which methodic can* 
not be approved^ inasmuch as it is not only a ted 
plan for keeping stock, but it is farming also at a very 
considerable expense, as that course will occupy at 
least five four-horse teams m the management of 700 
acres, and we may reckon the expense of each team at 
lOO/..; but by laying 200 acres to sainfoin, and as much 
to pasture, .'after tv9o years tumipping, the annual ex* 
pense of ten horses, equivalent to 250L will then be 
saved. This will enable the farmers to keep the re- 
mainder in exceeding good condition, by having so 
much sainfoin-hay upon which to winter their sheep, 
besides two other great advantages; for, by having s6 
much sainfoijwhny, the experienced linsb:uidman will 
always be cnabJcd to feed his seeds, and by that means, 
will bring liis land round in four laircs instead of six, 
and in much better heart. 

Farmers arc unsettled in their mode of management ; 
many wlio followed the six*lairc course, and othcr^^ 
nearly in the same system, are now ciiaij^ing it to four 
laires on the- chalky and gravelly land. Upon the 
South Downs they substitute a double crop of tares in^ 
stead of a fallow for wheat ,^sowing early winter-tares, to 
be fed late in the spring ; then slimmer tares and rape, 
fed off in time for wheat; which is altogclher very ca- 
]^{tal httstandry. 

In 



DOTATION OF CROil* 7S 

f n place of an unproductive fallow, the skilful and 
lutellfgent farmer raises two crops of tares^ to answer 
the great purpose of fallowing (clearing and meliorate 
ing) equally well. The ploughing is at a seaso;n of 
the year when the ground can be easily worked ; and 
in the western part of Sussex, with a light plough, 
two horses and one man, who both holds and guides 
the plough, which, upon calculation, Is a great savins; 
of labour, whilst at the same time, he secures to liim« 
self food for his stock at the most critical period of 
the^ear, and enriches the ground with the manm^ 
arising from the fold, or stock fed on it* 



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TO HQISJII^Oir OF CK9B9» 

I • 

I lAallxIpse this articlei with noting iwd arr^ge«^ 
ihents practised by the Earl of Egfemont at Petworth. 
XJpoQii cold springy land, which in frosty weatEet 
works well, and becomes mollified, but if dry sue- 
ceeds> it bhids like stone, his Lordship sows, 

1st — Tares and rye ; or, if the land is foul, he 

'-ploughs it four times, and three or four inches deep!, 

according to the depth of the clay beneath thesur&ce 

earth ; but never with a view to bring up the clay. 

When tilla^ has brought it into order, the next crop 

. put in is, 

2d — Turnips. Tfiis land having been very.judici- ^ 
eiisly drained, answers well for this root : these are 
fi)lded, the largest having been previously drawn for 
&tt^iing cattle ; the manure for the turnips, is either '£ 
dung by itself, or compost of earth and lime; time^ 
wUhout mixturo, not answcrii^ for turnips. 
- 3d — Oats, one ploughing ; six bushels of seed. 

4//i-— Clover, one gallon ; trefoil, one gallon and a 
.balfi rye-grass, two gallons : but when wheat succeeds 
upon the layer (one year's duration), his Lordship 
sows only clover and trefoil j and no ray-grass, as it is 
^ plant untLindly for wheat, which js (he last crop in 
the course. 

Where, the staple of the soil is fleeter, and the clay 
rises nearer to the surface, the same system is pursued, 
as fur as the seeds, which instead of one, are kept 
.two years ; thfc reason of which is, the soil is so poor, 
tliat the layer of one year's duration is insufficient. 

tJe has introduced, since this- report was written^ 
Wins as a fallow, thus : 

1 . BreaK up a layer for beansj 

2. Wheat, 

S> lyianure for beans, 

4. Wheats 



CEOPf COMMOirtY CULTITAtBD^ 99L 

4- Wheat, 

5. Tar Alps, 

6. Oats and grass^sccds : and better husbandry 
cant no \¥here be found*. 



SECt. IV. CHOPS COMMONLT CUI^TIVA'TED. 



1. WHEAT, 



1. Preparation. 



• f 



The tillage for wheat depends upon the crop it 
ntcdeeds. It is, 1^^, a fallow three tinies ploughedji 
Hie first earth fallowing up ; the second, a stirriiffg^ 
uid the third landing up^ but the, number pf eart^ U 
regulated by the condition of the fallow : If foMlf ant 
<>ther earth is given, or more* 9dlj^j If it; sncp^edM 
dorer, the practice of bastard-fallowing is in many 
cases adopted* This method of breaking up a clover*' 
hiy, as a preparation for wheat, is supppscd to h^ 

* It nerer can answer the purpose of faUowiog. Clay and strong 
loams can never be kept dean, without being ploughed in summer, .i^ 
•orking them at any other period^ wiH nex'er kill either couch-graat 
* thistles. The condition of land in the xMciniiy of every large town, is 
^ pregnant proof of the truth of the above, as from the great rents 
piidia these situ.-i^ons, the farmer is too often ttmpted to negj^ct^lfe 
beneficial practice of giving his ground a complete summer fallow.*-- 
^T, It, Braur,. * 

The instance that 1 have cited above, and the facts that jvc quoted Im 
"lustration of the antl-faUowing system, so opposite to this gentleman'% 
<*puuons, are sufficient to speak for themselves, where we see that 
^ay and strong loams, by the attentive mAnagemeni: of good husband* 
"^n, can be kept perfectly clean without recurring to fallows, fiut the 
***toncc given of this tare-husb ladry has nothing to do with clay ; axidi 
before the observation if wide of the mark.— ^4. T. * U 

causcdf 






• ■ • ' ._ 

caused by the ravages of the wonn im9^i^fagi| iiM 
were sown upon a single ploughing; fM:^3i^t 4i ^, 
trheat appearsirt the bladie, these in^i^btsli^^th^itfit^ 
It is effected about Midsummfet/ by ^pltfilgMAf |^ 
harrowing till the fibres and roots of the clover, by 
the operation of the harrows, are separated frcHii> die 
earthy and die away,,/rom bcin^ ^3^{)osed to ibA^A^ 
mosphere and the effects of the sun. It is imaj^Ml 
that the wheat upon ,pl/>v^r-l(^ys ^f this nature^ caiiw, 
not be trodden too muc6/ It is therefore harroim^ 
with double implements, and six horses are. used fyi\ 
this purpose. The business of harrowing 4s deemed 
io 'He^sisary, tb^t land has und^^one tliii^ opeidBpii 
iibt less tliuti a dozen times. 3<^/y, If the crop^if 
mheat i$ preceded by peasi^^ a single ploittg4iing Is /li§^ 
goiiiefkri'ifiers thought suiBdent, provided the landiffii 
ill ioterable drder. ' Some plough the? pea-stubMe ill 
hanrest, harrowing Ironi four to six timei^,^andjigltlft 
ttir.it between harvest and Michaelmas ; anfd in Octdii* 
bcr they ridge it up in the usual manner (hine bottlip 
to a fend of thirteen feet and a half), aitd «dw imtoedt^ 
atcly after the phmgh. ^fkh/, If the w/hcat is 9<»wr 
ir|>on turnip-land^ one earth about Christmas is the 

general method. 5thfj/y After tares, one earth also. ^ 

• " ■ ''''*■- 

2. M (inure. ^ 

Stablc-dnng, Mr. Woods, of CliidWim, observei?? 
•fiould be laid upon a clover-Icy, or other land,, just 
before sowing, at the rate of sixteen to twenty load» 
per acre, spread and ploughed in immediately. ^ 

There is about Eastbourne, Jevinoton, &c. a badT 
custom on the arable lands of that neighbourhood^ 
fpreading in July forty large loads ef dung per acre^ 
Io be sown with wheat at Michaelmas-^ and they' 

s leave 



• m 

leave ft till then on the surface, tepo^ed to tbe sunt 
and wind. Upon what system they caEli fblloir thig 
custom, it is difficult to conjecture* If they wdidA 
idect on the fact of the Tolatile alkali being the JbodI 
of plants, and that one of the principal causes of liie 
fertility resulting from dung, is its containing that 
evaporative salt, surely they vrould think that some ez« 
periments on this point vrould not be undeserving tlieif 
notice. If they vrill try the effects of spirits of haiii* 
bom applied to common-field earth in a gardeft-pM^ 
tbey will presently be conyinced of one fact ; ai|d If 
they then expose some of the same spirit to the at* 
inosphere in a plate, they will soon nndeiMand another 
&ct not less important : these two triak ate rery easily 
made ; and he who tries them will not be ready afker* 
wards to expose hi^ dung«hills one mom^t longei than 
necessary. 

S. Sort. 

■ 

Of the several sorts of wheat in cultivation in Su»i 

Bex, the velvet-eared is preferred in the Weald, hav^ 

ing by much the thinnest skin: they call it Jluffed. 

It weighs upon an average S9 to 60 lb. per bushel. It 

is an observation of Mr. Gell, of Applesham, one of 

the most spirited and intelligent farmers in the countyi 

that the white fluff on good land answers best, as be« 

ing the most saleable ; but on poor land, |»ubject to 

poppic^^ the fitrong-strawed sort that overpowers this 

weed, should certainly be sown. 

A sort Oi wheat,' obtaining much on the Dovni^^ 
is what they call Clark wheat. \i is not bearded ; 
red blossom, red chaff, and red straw; white grain; 
,the sample coarse, being in price under the finest sorts* 
It is a great yieldcr^ and requires ^ b^ (pxi fprward. ^ 
lussfix.] a i^r 



^X fSOra COMMONLY CULTIVATED. 

Mr. Woods, of Chidbam, a very excellent and b] 
iHed iatraer,has foun'l by long and aUcniivc experience, 
fh at a change of seed-wheat is of csseiitiiil imparlance 
io the fariaer, as that seed which has been repeatedly 
flown over tlie same ground, at length degenerates, 
and the produce becomes each sncceeiliii^ year in- 
fciLW in qiiaHty ; for which reason lie sows wheat that 
is apt to run to straw upon ley-land, and the Ilcrtford- 
shtTC white upon pca-stubbles. 

The farming world is certainly indebted to Mr. 
"Woods for a valuable acquinilion, in bringing inta 
cultivation, what with justice liiui ljt:en called, and is 
a new sort of wheat, the Cftid/inni o'hUe, or Iiedgr- 
lefieat. Tfic origin of it was tliis; as Mr. Woods 
was occasionlly walking over his iields, liq met with a 
ftingle plant of wlieat gro\ving in a hedge. This plant 
contained thirty fair ears, in which were found four- 
toen hundred corns. These Mr. Wooils planted the 
ensuing year, willi llic greatest attention, in a wheat- 
s-Id: the crop from these fourteen hundred corns 
produced ejglit pounds and a half of seed, which he 
.planted the same year ; and the produce amounted to 
forty-fight gallons: this he drilled, and it yielded 
{ftecn quarters and a half, iiine-gallon measure, 
ilaving now raised a large quantity of seed, he 
-partly drilled, and in part sowed, ihe lastt produce 
broad-cast, over rather more than tjfly acres of land, 
and iie gained 384^ loads. Twenty loads of this quan- 
tity was sold for seed, at 13/. 15s. (ler load. The- 
wheat, upon trial, was discovered to be so line, that 
-Mr, Woodh had an immediate demand for a far greater 
quantity than he could spare for sale. 1792 turned 
*ut a bad yielding year, otherwise the last produce 
frould bave fully cquiillcd forty-five load. With re- 
spect 



CROPS COMMOVLV CCtTITATED. 

Bpect to the sample of the Chidham ishent, it is nhitej 
of a very fine berry, an I remarkably lon^ in the strawj 
M> as to stand, in < wet summer, full sii^ feet in height. 

.Xlie seed is now dispersed over Hampshire, Hiirrey, 
and other counties, and much cultivated aixtut Guild- 

Iford. 

4r. Steeping, 

The method of using lime in preparing the seed- 
wheat, practised by Mr. Ellman, of Glynd, is, to have 
a sieve made abuut ten inclies in depth, containing 
three pecks of wheat, which is tUpt into a tub of 

* sea-water or brine ; this causes the lime to take etfecl, 
and thereby to destroy the seed of the smut ; it leaves 
a coat of lime upon the wheal. By making the brine 
sufficiently strong to swim an egg, where no sea* 

I water is to be had, all the light corn floating on the 
Biirfoce is skimmed oil', and the good wheat remains at 
the bottom. — Mr. Elfmait's Experiment. 

The common method of preparing seed-corn is, to 
Eoak it in briny or sea-water twelve hours; after this 
'^the water is let off, and tlic lime sifted on the com, 
mixing the whole together. This operation is per- 
formed at five or six o'clock in the morning, and (he 
seed is carried into the field at seven; consequently 
the lime, remaining so short a time on the grain 
before sowing, has no time to penetrate into the com; 
whereas, by wetting the wheat, and leaving it until 
tlie succeeding morning well limed, tlic lime has a 
power in destroying the smut-po>v dcr than 
^hcn it remains on it for hidf an hour only, when most 
of th« lime is ru'^b^^d off the cont. Sometime the 
brine has been heated} and then poiued out of a pot 
wpon the seed. 

G 2 Another 



J 



b4 ceopS comwonly cultivated.' 

Another process, practised by Mr. WooJs,' 
Chidham, is tliis: about two sacts of seeil, at each 
lime, arc shot info a leaden cistern constructed for 
'that purpose, filled with salt-water, in such a roan- 
Der, that the water is made to flow over tlic soed^ 
and to float all the light and liood-corn, which is then, 
"Bkimraed off. It remains in this manner about tha 
ice of sis. hours, when they are in hnste for tiuwin^ ^ 
gltut at any time twelve hours are sutTicicnl ; ti\a wheat 
; is then thrown out of the cistern upon a brick-fioor, th< 
."jiWater being first drained olf, through a tap-hole, and 
j-fiesh lime, iwhicli is newly slaked for tlfc purpose, 
- is then sifted over it, to the amount of half a bushel oi 
<he strongest grey limr, to yue tjuader of wheat: it i; 
Ihen turned over and mixed Into an he:ip, where it re- 
mains iu that situation till the following morning, 
. when it is taken for use. JErery morning, previous to. 
the sowing iiext day, the wheat should be stocptxl tilU 
iieyening, nnd llion limed as aborc, and left till iiijf. 
f.taoiiaag. 

, ...Seed-wheat, prepared by steeping it twelve hours In^ 
-aea-vaiei, drwi! vifh liroc, has hcca kuown to be ef^i 
v.&clive; a, headicmd sown dry has been smutty, when 
V the rest of.the tieid, si^cpcd, has eactiped. The smut 
(I in tiie cprM.isaacvil which the, Soutli Dovtus are littlo 
; 'Subjected Ip. It has bei;n attributed to the practice 
Ji'WDOa^t the Jarmen;, of sowing the same sort of seed 
^ Sot a U'Ugth of years, without giyii-^ tlic land the least 
If change ; or it may be owiug to a negligence in irapro- 
I..perly prepArliig the seed. Lime is the best preveiita- 
i .fire*, 

5. Seed. 



lo' 



■ " Sogieatu the variety of cases uQ tliia Jieid, ihat it cannot Cuil^ 
' "ht afccrcilned to tvlint cnuic Eo asoribe tlie wi'^iidcrfui effect of nnut ' 



lutbfl 

1 



•■■•■•"•-■ ■ ■ -* ' •■■:•■ .•.■•'■•'' r 

5. Seed. . 

The quantity sown depends upQn circumstatices ; the 
erop it succeeds, Sec. In general, it' inaj be estimated 
from two to three, -and .up lo^fo^r biitMl^ (B^lhitff^* 
Mr. Gell sows at Appksbwi.ibtfr l>ttB}i^j<||y<ghjlp9Ky 
land/^and three upon tUth*. Mr. W<iod«:t||fQg{f|iid)i^ 
half; and when wheat sujbce^s p^so, hf}80|i;|A|||l{^i;^ 
bushdis, provided it is ear\j in ti|r spxi^^^psfL ^If^jn 
more^ since the vegctatiou ds .aoi ^^aoh^qjo^JH^f^floiiK 

wheat. If to aa insect in the gfsam .ydty iiTf me^jiup^^af a ^^.aiflbffftd^ 
9pd not another at the fame Ui^^ ^d.^inder th^^aafiif Cfxturofimc^ ^ 
But this now and then actisally occurs. . The taxpe (^ectioaliea asaintt 
an insect in the soil, the season, or any genml ctrctuwMte th^'Vl^^iclr 
aD die lldd equally particil^ates. We are eqijafl^ %iijdnt^^ nfdehtif 
thrtwo, fime or pickle, ire can attiitoc the cvfe^ lAccoj^iinfyf fotak 
only wet it, on purpose to znake the lim^-adb^r^ o^^frirai:? e^tcemci]^ 
attentiTe to the pickle, and on!y use the lime to dry it for fowiae; 

.«• Some fanner. »w withoo. o«ng e-ther. '>^^ ii^^l ,&ccimmf 
tor a number of years together, but always iniflfbr more in 6ili -unlucky' 
year than would pay the expense, and reward the trouble for a long 



** A report prevails in Scotland, that the practice was accidentally in^^* 
Croduced by some seed-wheat haying been sown frc^m a wreck af^er hav^ 
lag been steeped in the ses( a night or two; that the wheat' sOwn dry 
0a the same field yras blackened much, whilst the other wiisM:leaii and 
healthy. Both pickling and liming are practised generally in Scol^ 
land, and the pickle most in use is urine. When the grain is pretty 
equal, there is no need of floating ; and blacked wheat ought to be 
iivoided for seed." 

The observation is ill founded. The smut ia' perfectly well under* 
stqpd. Every scientjfic farmer knows that it is occa^oned solely by 
smutty powder adhering to the grain, which at once accounts for all tl>e 
eases this frentle<iiaa>«tart6«^ Any operation that completely, ir^ed. the 
IP"^ by washing, or. destroys Jc by .acrid,, corrosive, or poifonous ^ap- 
plication, .wiU, have the effect, in^mibly of securjn^ a cleaa crop.7- 
JLBraua. ' ... ^ , 

r ^ -^ ^-3 rishing. 



eftOH COMMONLT CBtTITATSB.' 

xisliing. Tlie medium quaotity may be estimate 
ftom two aad a balf to three bushels*. 

6. 3"'""^ "/ Soz^'hig. 

This too depends upon contingfneics ; Seasons, 
Ming cmps, &c. Respecting the fittest time for; 
itog wheat, experience only caji determirH;. Early 
sowing sc'isons are well adapted to gome eoils, but per- 
nicious to others, Mr. GeJI is of opinion, that the 
earlier the seed is put in, the better will the crop turn 
out ; he therefore sows as early 'is possible, to allow it 
& sufficient time to take root, and be enabled to stand 
L' against the frosts. The wheat sowing season com- 
' mences about the beginning of October. Mr. Woods 
prefers early sowing also, as a less quantity of seed is 
demanded, and vermin d'^strny more of it in cold wea- 
ther ; much too is apt to rot in late sowings. By sow- 
Ling afler the month of iVovembEr, the com remains in 
f "ihe ground so lone before vegetation arises, that muck 
[" of it is destroyed; and if hard frosrts come in ahtteseed. 
f time, the grain is cut off before the nourishment takes 
I place. However, nofwilhstanding, farmers will regu- 
["'latc their sowinjj by the natijreof (he soil they culti- 
I vate. la many places it is seldom finiithed before new 
' Christmas. 

7. Culture K'ft'Vj/ grcjcin^. ^M 

The Culture which the wheat receives, is in propor- 
tion to the active induairy of the farmer, and the 



• Thel-C!>Jon aiiipncd for soWinir a lirge qoratifj- of seed 
cho.ilii the rubbish, suth .i< charlock. 
«ell covewdwiih eota.—Jain Blla.:' 



^ . . . thai it 

poppy, &c. if the ground be not 



CROra (30SH0RLT CCLTIVATED. ST 

means he pxcrts to keep bis crops in tlie most per* 
feet state of ciillivation. Tlic practice which is most 
^ncrally adopted is, to )iiiii(l-l)oc in the spring : this 
optrratiou is effected sometimes only once, but fic- 
qiieiitly twice, as it depends on the preceding crop. 
" omeo-iiTe usually employed, at 8rf. per day. 

'■Ptiis operation of hand-lioeing wheat is disapproved 
^T Mr. Ellmaii, who never hoes his while corn, liav- 
^"S" given it Up from a conviction that liis crops were 
iic-V(.f benelileU by Ibe practice ; but on th c contrary, 
'"=»* it always did mischief. Should the practice 
*°*i»ttime6 be right, ami sometimes wrong; or right 
" some soils, and wrong on others, these contrary 
^'^ts may probably dcix-nd on the spring roots, which 
*"<i said to strilvc iiilo the air, and enter the ground at 
^**T»te small distance from the stem. If a band-hoeiug 
^ given just before tliiJ appearance of those roots, it 
*^«iy, on a bound surface, prepare for their easy en- 

P-ince; but if given afterwards, it should seem pro- 
able, that ilie elTect would be mischievous, would re- 
ud the progress of (he plant, and force it to do its 
rork over again, perhaps at a worse season. Iftbis 
i the case, the Itenelit w liich results from bitting the 
moment exactly, may by no mt^ns equal the probabi* 
Jily of mischief upon a scale of any extent; in which the 
right time can scarcelybetatien fur the whole of a crop. 
I have beard excellent furmcrs declare, that if a 
man would pay for the hoeing their wheat, they would 
nnt permit the ii|)cralioii, being conviiieed that it did 
more barra than good. 



Fffding. — The custom of feeding the young wheat 

is prnclised in various parls 'if Sussex. I'po^the rich 

arable vale upon the coast, sheep are turned into the 

G 4 wheat 




8S esftM eoMMostv ccltitatbi*. 

iFlicaf from Christmas to March, Many farmers hai 
tLought tbnt the wheats are tlic stilTer, and rise more 
abundant for this practice. The truth appears to be, 
that this is done not so much to benefit tlie wheat, as 
through mere necessitj ; since it is allowed, that in 
proportion to the scarcity of turnips, and other arti- 
ficial food, will this practice l>e in vogue. En is 

tTixiifiiia't Tov riTev. 

Meadow and pasture, in various parts of Susses, is 
[ to small in quantity, thai it requires agreater abundance 
I pf artifictal provision, and brought into cullivalton in 
Tfi different rotation, to keep sheep in much greater 
■Slumbers; and we sec, that tofecd the prcscni Ktocfc, is 
I Sometimes found io be a matter of no small difficuKy, 
K,ftnd highly hazardous ; so that the resort of the fanner 
1 is to turn his sheep upon his wheat, which at best is a 
I Ineasure of questionable policy. Sheep are often turned 
■ into the wheat to tread and bind it, and give the soi^ 
[ ft cohesion grateful to that plaat, 



1 



Treading. — Mr. Kenward, of FIctching, uses A 

fjind eight oxen in drawing a light pair of harrowi 

K and he remarked, that they were not, on such occa- 

Xfeions, used either at harrows or ploughing for the 

draivghtj but for the treading on such of the Weatd 

lands as tend pretty much to sand, or ratlier a sort of 

loft abraded stone. He n.imed a farmer who contd get 

no wheat, until he drove all his oxen, cows, and 

pheep, repeatedly over his land, directly after sowing. 

"Without these precautions, the plant is root-fallen, 

*nd eaten by the coekehafer-grub all winter, and by 

wijain red wire-worm in the. spring. The best wheat 



1 

rip 



M.;j« 



A 



4 

4aKL these laiids is, when the seed is^ firom a \9^ teiispo^ 
poached in at sowing. :.i ::.•.:.;» 

The county, it is to be noted, is in general mof^inh 
jclined to wet loam and clay, than to^Tiand;• bint. tlj^, 
sides of hills have a s^ft friable stoso, Miiiph moulder 
into sand for all undernstratum ; and tin proiiortioi|>:iiA 
^19 rises to, and mixes with the ^ur&ce, the evil b^r^ 
complained of, takes place. Tp avoid sufjb dxp^f i^y^ 
remedies at a busy season, rolling app^n^praciical^es 
1>ut it has been tried ; it makes the^sand blow morei 
4fai$ is known in Norfolk tumip-^aUo|iFa«r Fallotving[ 
the bane of such a soil. The fafmQf3 admit the 
l)est crops Xo be on clover* But care should be takeit 
-fiat theclove»be sowA really clea;i, and let it lemain 
ttwo years,, never mown ; and in a mdst reason, befoN 
sowing the wheat, it should be rolled with a beavjr 
iroller. It would be the best and cheapest cnlture. . 

Upon dry soils subject to popptjr, Mrv £Umto, e|f 
Shoreham, ploughs his tare and rape > land for. wheats 
the beginning or middle of September, t|o sow the whei^t 
the middle of October. The harrowing- kills tb^ 
poppy ; and in putting in the seed, he likes to tread 
nuch with oxen, or with sheep. ^ neighbour treads 
his with oxen in March, which he thinks better against 
poppy, than doing it at sowing* 

. 8. Harvest. 

The wheat»liarvest commences, in forward seasons, 
about the latter end of July; in late seasons, about 
ten. days pr a fortnight softer. Thei opeacation of gather- 
ing in the harvest, is performed by a contract betw^ 
the farmer and his men, sometime previous to. the har- 
vest^ when the wages are agreed upon,, and tjie pro- 
^portion of com allotted respectively to eaqb man. The 

reaping* 



enOT9 COMMOWLT CTTITIVA TBB. 



-00 

leapmg-liook and sickle, botli the jagjicd and tlij 
smouth edge, are the insfrumonts made use of. The 
duration of liarvesi depends upon (he season ; but ge> 
nerally varies from four (o six weeks. \Va2:es (1793) 
were nsually 3/. for a month, and lioard ; hut since 
that time, this rate hns advanced. Mr. Woods be- 
gins his harvest about new Laniraas-day, and observcsj^ 
I that if wheat be fit to reap before that time, a gre 
'■ crop is expected in- proportion to the tuimbcr of i 
preceding Aiti^ust 1st, and s 

After harvest is finished, it is every where, I 1 
lieve, customary for the farmers to yivo a hai 
Jiorae, orsnpprr, to their harvest-raen. 

At Mr. Eilman's, above eighty men, women, 
children, gmwally sit down to hi^ harvcst-Mippi 
I Thesupply of provision for this numerous cominiiy « 
^■buudanl; beef, 1(5 sionr; mjtlon, 8 stone; plumb- 
puddinir, ] cvvt. ; beer, M)gTiII(>ii'' ; bread and dice 
&c. &c. ; what remains is distribute! to the ] 
The origin of this custom is ihouglit by Mr. EHmairA 
be this : that when labour wiis scarce, the itrlghb 
ing artisans assisted the farmers in their harvest for 
two or three days, gnitis; and the harvest-home wis 
a recompense for it. 

Reaping wheat is done by the acre; it varies fro 
Isinc to eleven and twelve shillings. A good lalioiu 
leaps an acre in three days. 

9. Thraslung. 

Thrnshiug the wheat is every where performed 

*by flail-work, and cleaned either with a shovel and 

broom, or by winnoijHig-machines. Three instances 

occur of ihriishing-mnrhiiu's having been erected, 

that of Sir Richaxd Ilol^am's, at Bognor. 




iluinb- 
chees^^ 
: portlM 
mairflH 
:hboni^ 

st for 

c wriB 



'h^fl 



6 A»M Cdim OKtY CJiriiTltATBDd 91: 

which hfis been out of repair; Mr. Pennington's^ 
at Asbbumbam ; fuid the Earl of Egremont^s, at Pet- 
worth; of which moi« will be said hereafter. The 
projdfigions saving that mijsfht be made in the expenses 
^f labour, in the article of thrashing only, by. subati«i 
toting machinery in lieu of the <)ommon "-system d? 
Crashing, ongl^ to induce gentlemen, and Urge iar- ' 
mors in this county, to improye tbb branch of* raral 
economy. These machines, where tliey have been 
^ected upon proper plans, have facilitated the-com«>^ 
mon operations of thrashing, lessening expenses cou» 
3idcrably. 

It has many advantages tp recommend it : the stmw 
for fodder is better by passing tiirou^h a mill ; and 
w^Iiat is a point of mach greater importance, it has! 
been discovered, that when the work has been exe- 
cuted lUler the usual manneri by the flail, one pint - 
9Xkd a half of wheat usnally remains in each truss 
<^£' straw ; since straw that has passed through good 
tixTftshing-mills, has been found to yield that quantity. 
X*]ie vast utility of them, upon large corn farms, is 
^t, once obvious: the saving of labour is considerable; 
ca v^ i^hen they come to a higher state of improvement, 
ill unquestionably be adopted over the great corn 
Tins of this kingdom. The plea, that the poor 
^vould be dreadfully injured, is more visionary than 
^^ibstantial ; a;id will, in many cases, hold to be equally 
^^ fallacious in agriculture as it oncejdid in manufiic* 
'^tsres. Clear enough it is, that the great object in 
^^Tming is to cultivate land in the best possible manner^ 
^t the least expense. By the means of machinery^ 
^bich enables him to thrash and to dress at the same 
time, he spends more money in improving, and rais* 
^ng a geeaJUx produce for the market. 

10, Prom 



eXOPS COMUOKLT OtfJiTtX AV9D. 



10. Produce. 



Respecting- the produce of ivhtnt, this depends upon 
fio many circumstances, thii) <tll tliat can be said upon 
it is, U> draw aa average ot" the produce ot" several pa- 
rishes chiefly in the dihtrict of clay, and scattered, 
•ver a very considerable tract of land, which ^ilb 
enable ns to form an idea of the com prgducl& of 
Sussex. 
■ Worth, Slaiigham, 19 bushels. 

Horsham, Huspcr, Balcorab, 14 busheh. 

Lower Bccding, Crawley, NulliiirsI, IG bushels. 

Rudgnick, ilillinghurst, Ktiidford, Green, Hitch--' 
ingfield, Itt bushels. 

ilolney, Cuckfiekl, 20 bushels. 

Luggershall, Wariieham, Slingfold, Cowfold, 1 
manbury, Hcjifold, 22 hnshcU. 

Snit'hurst, M'cst (irinstcad, AKliur5.t, PuU^rough, 
Chtlliii^on, Shipley, Si busbt's. 

Iliirslerpuint, Albuiune. Ditinhliti^, Tlnylshiq 
AbhbiirDhum, Winchilsea, Wtslham, ^2 buslwia^ 

Average, 91 bushels 2 (wcl;»- 

Individual instaiicS of LLi;lh cxyrn' produclsi do not 
afFecllhe gcnorsd avcrag''. Up^jn (he very fertile land 
which borders upon the cousi, products of wheal much 
greater thini the abovi', are frequenliy met with. X 
fiiir crop and au^vcfitsf' "»f> viliriJes frojii 31 to 40 
bushels, st:ilule measure, upon th*^ tame laud. At 
Fclpfaam, adjtiiriiug Uo^nor, 52 bii^heU have been 
raised over nneight^wn-actc field of Sit-Richard Ho- 
I tham's; and land at Winchilsea has yielded Hulo 48. 

In I7fl4, nver.5f acres of very stron;^ cluy loam, 
L but all of it drained in a very iniiiitCtlyiiuiiJiifX, lhit:..^|aH 



J 

itch- 

4 

rough, 
ls],w 




of Egremofit gained three quarters and a half per aor^; 
and in the following year, upon land of a similar de- 
scription, his Lordship raised four quarters and a half 
per acre. These are extraordinary products, when the 
iiature of the soil is considered. But the merit,.in this 
instance, arises from the corn having been {Nfoduced. 
Upon -land which has lately been converted by hia 
X«ordship from a forest into a capital farm. 

One of the most extraordiu^y experiments that wa^ 

JOaade in this coutity, was by the father, of the praseft 

Ib(r. Car, of Bedinghum, who upon a piece of land 

Chat had been, left by the sea at Bishopstone, tried how 

^ciften in immediate succession it might profitably be 

^fiown with wheat; not so much from an experimental 

intention, as from the t^ircumstances arising ia the 

lirial. The first crop was seveii quarters ; the sepond^ 

^hesame; thi\ thKdsix; the fj>urth, fifth, andsixth^ 

^^ach five quart e>;:, npon an arerage. This i» perhaps 

'the most extraox^i»naiy i;:stance of fiirtility upon record- 

"<See Annals, vx=L xii.) The -ame piece of land (§1 

-acres), in 1795, yielded aa extraordinary crop, ps 

_the following letter, coramunxcated by Lord Sheffield^ 

jnfficiently evinces. 

•** BUhopstone, Dec. I, J 7^. 

'^ DEAR SIB, 

'^ It is but just you should be apprised, that thij» 
fruitful spot is part of my Lord Pelham's farm .a( 
Btsh<^tone. It is indeed an undeniable fact, that 
Ibis single piece of ground, containing 31 acres, pro- 
duced more than 40 loads of wheat in the last yean. 
My authority is the miller who has lately purchased 
l9ishopstone*miU; to which tiie 1^ ia question i» 

conti* 



Vi CHOPS C0M5I0ITI.T Cri.TlVATED. 

configuous, and who pucliased the whole of the pro- 
duce. He tolJ inc, he believed there wi're 43 loads* 
He gave diflerent [irici's for (he crop, as it was broiigLl 

' ill, iVom 20/. lo 21/. per Umd. Fortj-two loads at onl^ 
20/. amounts to 840/. The tenant's rcnl to my Lord 
Petiiam, the miller tolti me, is 50*. per acre. He has 
then the whole piece at 77/. IOj. This natisfics nic 
that the miller told nic triilh, whtii he assured mc, 
that he knew the temint cleared jnore than 700/. iii tlit= 

-last year hy this sinjle piece of land. 

' " Yon may remember, Sir, liiat I ojicc pointccR 
out to yon this rich part of Bisho|'slone-fanii ; and 
that 1 iiilornti'd you il yielded Car, when lenant, svd 
fine crops of wheat in as many years. In the seventh. 
yeat he sowed il with pease, that it aiight be cleared- 

1 of weeds by hoi ing ; and in the eighth year sowed 
wheat a^ain. There are two pieces of the land which 

•have this fertile properly, which are st^parated only by 

•Iheroadleadiri* to themill. The one is the piece wcare 

'■peaking of, which contains 31 acres, the other coii- 

' tains 17 acres. 

" I do not remember to have ever seen manure laid 
on any part of the whole 4S acres ; and were manure 
never to be hiid, I think it would not be impossible 

^ton to make a small forhine out of the land, though 
wheat were at 10/. the load. 

" Adjoining the above two pieces of land, is a largo 
piece of grass-land on (he right, and several smaller 

" piecwon the left, which 1 make no donlil, were they 
,' to be broken up, would be found equally fruitful, being 
'^ on the same level, and having, no doubt, been re- 
scued from the sea al the same time. They caiuiot 
contain much less in quantity than the other two pi^;ces. 
" If the above iiit«lligence proves of service tAj 



f service tayOT, 

J 



. .» 



GE9P8 OOMUOlTLir CVtm^^Af ^pf * 0|^ 

it will add greatly to the pleasore of jrour obedieot 
JiUfflbleserrant and friend 9 ^ 

« C. HURDW.** 

lU Manufacture of Bread. 

The cpminon preparation in the manufacture of 

Irheatcn bread, is too universally understood to need 

•ay recital in this place; but the late very high pricfe 

of 1)read com, which has been so affecting in its nah 

tmcj und so alarming in its tendency, induced sevemi 

^nilemen and others, who were friends to their c6u»» 

%ry, to set about trying experiments in order to ascer* 

tftin wliat other substitutes could be devised in the 

Htoor of scarcity, equally. nutritious as wheaten biead^ 

' and sufficiently piilatable so as to ward off those evU 

jtoiisequences which .tlireatened so speedy an approsch. 

Among other substitutes for this end, none appeirad 

inove efficacious, none that l>ore a stronger lanaloggr to 

'wheat with respect to the above essential requisites, thaa 

^ mixture of potatoes. In order to dbtain this end| 

the Earl of Egremont, with that r^ard for his coun« 

try, to which it is out of my power to do justice, un^i 

dertc^ok various experiments in the composition of 

bread witfr the meal of potatoes, and wheaten flour^ 

^ with a view to determine the true quantum of potatoes 

which should be a standard for making a suiBcienlly 

agreeable, and nourishing sub^itute instead of wheaten 

lu'ead. By his Lordship's directions the loaf was 

composed of 

ist, lib. of potatoes »•,•••••*•• lib. of flour 

, Sd,. 1 ditto •••♦•••••••^••••••••••••••t S ditto 

3d, 2 ditto •^•^•••••••^••••••••••fw.* 1 ditto* 

"Theae several mixtures were bub;^ on the 18tb of 



96 CaOPB COMMOSLT CtltTIVATED. 

December, I7!)5j and were not proved (ill six da^ 
afterwards ; for it was affirmed, and with ^eat jus- 
(ice, as llie result demonslralcd, llia( potatoe bread, 
when new, is certiiinly apt lo pass ofTloo quickly, 
without uftbrtlidg tlia( siisleiitalion so necessary to ttie 
labouring class of the comniunily. Now this defect 
in the potatoe bread, by licing kept for some days ptu- 
I prions lo its being eaten, is takeci away, and the com- 
I position of the materials iidinit of lotia;er keepiii<r than 
I Jitlicr bread, without being deprived of any of its good 
I -^alitics. When the bread made of the above materials 
•was eaten, the nsult was, that between the bread 
which was one half potatoes and one half flour, and 
.fliat which was twotliirds Hour, and one Ibird pota- 
toes, the diiil'rence was so (rifling as to admit of liltle 
observation or remark. Holli were equally pleasant, 
and Hie latter, of two thirds potatoes and one third 
£our, thou !rh not equal to the foregoing, in point of 
iflavour, as it yielded rather a bitter taste, from the pre- 
jxJndcrancy of llie potatoes in the mixture, yet it 
■turned out far from unpleasant or disagreeable, anijl 
indeed highly superior to that which is (he ordinary 
bread in many of our Northern and other counties. 
., ■ Bclativc however to the general result of these tvialsj 
'-{^eat doubt was entertained whether the bread an- 
'a*ered in point of nourishment : it is good enough for 
'those who have plenty of other food ; but delieieut for 
• others who depend altogctijcr, or very much on the 
staff of life : the general opinion was against the 
practice. 

His Lordship has also tried rice in the raauufacture 
of bread, and none could possibly be finer. 

Another valuable and interesting piece of intelligsice 

^t the present crisis is, the discovery of a substitute for 

yeastj 



yeast) or for lessening the quantity cdmmonly lised^ 

which is made at Petwofth from the fermentation of 

potatoes. The bread from the result of the fore^ 

going experiment -was kneaded with the yeast pre-^ 

pared from potatoes, and a small quantity of comsnoii 

yeast. — Three pound of potatoes put into thr6e pinW 

of water ) boiled till it becomes a mash^ theh taken off 

^be fire, and the liqtior and potatoes strained through a 

cullender: one pint) or rather more, of milk is thea, 

fnixed with it, and left to fehnent, and this quantity 

is sufficient for a bushel of llouf. 



>!■ Ai 



!!• BARLEY; 

!• Preparation* 

. Tlie preparation for barley, if preceded foy wheatf 
is t; vro or three eafths i as soon as the harvest id ovei' 
the wheat stubble is, by intelligent farmers, fallowed 
^P> and whatever other tilth is reqtiisitejis given irt 
the spring : the winter frosts ameliorate dnd piilverize 
U^e clods, and render it better prepared for the recep- 
tioix of the seed, and land can hardly be too nibiildy for 
barley. After turnips, thi^eci earths are uiSiually given^ 
ploughedcross ways ; or if it follows pea$e^ the tillage 
iLSinuch the same. \Vhcn the pease are otf the ground^ 
tW stubbie is fallowed up, and the temitiiiing earths 
gWen in the spting : otlier variations in the rotatioii 
. aad number of earths are certainly found, which de- 
pend upon the degree of intelligencie and skill, or io 
the wajit-trf it, of which the farmer is possessed. 

Hutx the wheat has beeti carried, Mr. Woods turns 

liis sheep iiita the stubble ^ which is sooii after begun to 

siissfiX.] . H be 



98 CSOFS COMMONLY CDLTITATED. 

be ploughed for barlty, t!iat is, wlicn wlicatscwl time is 
past. Hcfnllows upllieslubbio about scvt'n iiiclirs docp, 
and ploughs three times. In llie tiling of liis luud he 
has a practice wliich i.s pcciiliiir to himbclf : that of open- 
ing his furrows ill his uhi-iit bliiblik-,, where barlt^y is 
intended to be sown in tlit^ spring;. Firsl, the furrow 
is opened by plougliing and tlirowinfj Ihc soil iijiun the 
^tilcli, leaving a small space of about six inches iit 
widlli, which is ploughed the third lime. This ope- 
ntion is jwrformcd ihioiigh the field, in dry wciilber, 
early in OclnbtT, and remains in that stale until the 
wheat sowing sKison is over, when ihe three furrows 
are ploughed (ogerher to form one ridge. This work 
should be executed in dry wealhcr, or at least in the 
driest season that occurs in November or December; 
and afterwards the remainder of the land to be plouglied 
as a fallow for barley. His reason for this mode of 
ploughing is tliis ; that when the laud is ploughed a 
second time in March, (he ridgw upen the more freely, 
4iid the furrows will not l)e fonud to be stubborn 
and ditUcult to work, nor Ihe ground to be rough 
aud cloddy in the furrow afier that practice, so as to 
produce an unkind ridge in the third ploughbig, 
which is often the cnse when such opening is neg< 
lected; insomuch that builey frequently makes no ap- 
pearance for the space ot'lhrecfeit on each ri<lge. 

ll is to be observed, llint Mr. AVoods is particularly 
careful not tu hiy his ridges too round, nor too high 
at ll)c wheat season, least the lands Ix; loo Hat when 
fallowed up for barley, as he is clearly of opinion that 
the land sustains a greater injury by the'rctention of 
the water iu the fallow, wliL-n llie ridges were reversed 
tud li^ hoUow in the middle^ than at any other time.; 



M iti addition to this, gtcdtdr loss !s ^li in (He crop 
oFbdiley by such d method, than dtn jpdkAiAy be i!i6 
dwe ill the wheat by laying the land dat; 

ft)tatocs are a good prep^ratidd fdir bafl6^. MK 
Gilbert dunged for wheat, and after the wheat plaiiieft 
potatoes, which gavft fotri hUhdred bushels ^ ^kcre t 
he then took barU^y, which l^fts a better iiroj[) ihdit iuio- 
ther pxiice sown dfler librl^y follbwiiig; wiiesttf ^tiich 
iras dunged for equally Whii th6 other. 

2. Sorty Seed^ Quahlitj/ sown^ TitAt^ CuUtire^ 

Jldrtesty 4*^. 

The only sort of barley which is in g^eral cultiya<» 
Itoh, k fh6 comiuoh Ehglbh barley t it ii Mfix iteep^ 
ed ; ^e ^atntity of !ie^ is taridtts,* «hd d^ilMd^ tlpdtf 
<»i^cti[nn(diices ; bM it vibrate trcrfh fddi to fliVe Umidi 
OikhiM ib the acfe. The time bfMfmg U HHUhl 
^i latt« *nd Of Mrtrch Gt beginning of April* 

Mr. Wdbds, after the wheat hds been f^^eS attd 
c»MtA, {fallows the stubble, and in! April idws Anif 
Mcls and a half io the acre ; it is hoed- after tlfeetf- 
^^gthle wheat is finished, and after wheai hdtVesf is 
fofebed he cuts his barley i if foul, it remdmiEf ihree or 
four days on the gifound before it is cdcied, ^ftidh ii 
tfone in sttiall heaps, as they dry sooner, besi^df^ not be« 
feg 80 stibject to be trod by the pitcher. Mt. Wood^ 
obtains the fthest crops of barley upbn a pea' stttt/bl^^ 
bttt tfpdn a cold winter fallow, the bafley is hot do pro* 
^tt6ttv6'; this necessarily depends upon the sd!l, cuf« 
^, sitiiation, &c. The pflroduce may hi estimated' to 
vibrate ftdm three to six quartern. ?ei*haps tfri^ aivc^ 
1^ b four qoartafs. The Weald of Sus^^i U' (o^ the 
fn^ pakt compdi»!d of too heavy a ^dil &fi tbe culture 



Vi 



/ 



100 CEOP8 COMMONLY CULTIVATED. 

• t 

of barley, and the proportion which it bears to theic- 
maindcr.of the county, is too considerable to call Sussesi^ 
in general a great barley district. In some few places 
of the Weald, where it is cultivatx^d, the average is thus 
estimated : 

Slctugham, Worth, 16 bushels. 

Cuckfield, Horsham, 24: bushels. 

Shipley, West Grinstead, Ashurst, 26 bushels. 

But these products bear no comparative proportion 
to those which are obtained on the Downs. 



in. OATS. 

The Weald of Sussex is well adapted to the growth 
of this crop. It generally follows either wheat, barley^ 
turnips, potatoes, or beans. Two plonghings are 
giveiT, the first in winter, from three and a half to fife 
inches. Wheii the crop is on ley ground, the field is 
broken. up with a single plongbing. The quantity of 
seed is various ; from ihur to six bushels is tlic accus- 
tomed allowance, wliicli is sown in March and April. 
Mr. Gilbert, of East Honrnr, had a field of oats, which 
at its first appearance oui cftlic iiiouml wus very un« 
favourable, so that he had thoughts of ploughing it 
up : however he drove a large heavy roller of 35cwt. 
and twenty-four oxen in it, repeatedly over the field 
in the spring, and it turned out a most abundant crop. 
Many soils in this county require a simj(lcur treatment, 
before any produce can be expected. The /crop is va- 
rious, and depends altogether upon^ circumstances : 
from four up to eight and nine quarters are gained. 

On the fertile land about Walburton, Mr. Henry 
Murrei has grown 12^ bushels upon ten acres ; which 

is 



CHOPS COMMOITLl^ CULTITATkb. 101 

16 at the rate of sixteen quarters and a half per acre, 

opon a very adhesive clay loam. The Earl of Egrc- 

mont, over a sixteen acred layer, broken up and sown 

with Dutch blues, has gained one hundred and $ixty 

quarters ; ten quarters per acre, li is this land, none 

indeed bearing such noble crops of com, that was 

lately a forest, and a1)soIutely unproductive. Above 

«cvcB hundred acres have been thus improved] What 

^ noble undertaking ! 

Slaugham, Rusper, 16 bushels. 

Worth, Horsliara, SO bushels* * 

Rudgwick, Kindford, Wisperer-gieen, Billings- 
urst, Hitchingfield, Crawley^ Ifield^ Balcomb, 24 
ushels* 

Shipley, West Gxinstead, Ashurst^ Wamch^m, 
uckfield, 38 bushels. 

Horsham, Slingfold, Pulborough, Chiltington, ^ 
iishels. 

Salehurst, 32 bushels. 



- f 



IV. RYE. 

Rye is much cultivated on t|ie South Downs as food 

^r sheep. It is sown in August and September ; the 

earlier, the better it is. In spring, when other food is 

scarce, and in the lambing season, ewes and lambs are 

turned into i^ : a certain portion is hurdled ofiTor this 

purpose. 



H 3 V. PEASE* 



I 

V. PEASE. 

P/saqe ar^ m^uch cultivated in Sussex, especi^Uy on 
the South, Downs, and along the maritime district. 
The popimon preparation i$ to sow them after one 
ploughing, either upon a wheat, barIc]r,oroat-^rattien ; 
(he ]aji4 is ploughed from four to five inches ; fpnt ot 
five bushels of seed are sown. The produce is yerj 
varidus — ^fro^i two and a half to four, and even iGve 
quarters per acre. They are often drilled.; many 
fapne^s preferring tliis method to the common one of 
bfpaci-cast. 

When Mr. Ellman drilled pease, he used the Ken* 
tish drill, and found great advantage in shifting the 
draft by a staple in the axle, and a notch, in tbp pil- 
low; drilling, thus at eighteen inches instead of two 

■ • ■ ■ ■ ^ 

feet ; the wind drove them together so, that they united 
well, which they^ill not cquj^lly at tw() feet. His 
greatest crops, however, have been broad-cast^ in which 
way he has had as high as five quarters and a half 
per acre. 

Mr. Carr approves of drilling by skimming and 
Ivind-hoeing ; has tl)us had four quarters of Marlbo* 
rough grpys ; but Mr. Davics, pursuing the same sys- 
tem, has not gained two quarters. 

Mr. Woods prepares his land at Chidham in the 
following manner : after harvesting, the barley-stubble 
is occasionally fed until January, when it receives a 
single ploughing for pease, which he drills in rows 
eight inches asunder. It is a rule with him never to 
plough twice for pease, especially too on cold ground, 
as he finds by experience, that the soil is put into a 
muph worse condition by this practice ; besides, cold 

land 



GROMMJniOSrLY CtnLttVAt«0. MS 

laiul is not able to receive the plough early enough 
for pease to be sown ia that manner. Mr. Woods 
ploughs for pease six inches deep, drilling four bushels 
fo the acre. The wheels of his drill-machrne, by mov« 
ing after (he drill, covers the seed, and obviates the 
necessity of harrows. He has tried wheat and barley 
dHlIed, but without effect; but for pease, drilling 
answers well. When the plant is three or four inches 
afK^ve ground, Mr. Woods harrows, and IVequently 
toHs them in March, to loosen and prepare the gtovmA 
ibr hoeing them in ApriU Two five-inch hoes are fixed 
at three inches apart, and between which thednfi 
ptoses in such a mtoner, that a man draws it aflet 
him : of this work a man will hoe an aqro ii^* a dky;. 
They are cut about the middle pf July, by hackiag 
them with a long handlisd book, and wadded ' Mo 
^mall parcels or locks ; as soon as i^y are harve^ted^ 
the stubble is well harrowed, and carried {hfo" the 
yatds for making dung. I shall closletSiis aceomit 
6t the cultivation of pease with noting the average 
product of this crop in seveml parishes where they 
are cultivated in the Weald ; which it may be proper 
to remark, is not a soil well adapted for them. 

West Grinstead, Slangham, 10 bushels. 

Worth, Rusper, 12 bushels. 

Baleomb, Horsham, li bushels. 

Keld, Guckfield, Rudgwick, Kindford, Wisperer- 
green, Billinghurst, Hitcbingfield, Kybushcls. 

Wameham, Horsham, Slingfold,Pulborough, Ghil- 
ttfigton, Shipley, 30 bushels. 

Hurstperpoint, Alboume, Bolney, 24 bushels. • 

Haylsham, Ditchling, 30 bushels. 

/ 

h4 VI. TARES. 



OBOPa POMHOSI.T CCI.TlVATEn. 



VI. T.AKES. 



The cultivation nf tares h wdl iirderstood, aiid : 
jnaiiy parts succfssfuilj praclistfl. TIiiT' Hrc used 
for cattle, horses, and slicpp : .tiid sometimes hogs 
have betn folded nponthcin. From (wo to lliroe bushels 
are sown upon the slnbbks in autumn, mid in the 
spring they arcMaltled oiF with sheep; one acre, at 
4rf. per week for cwe.s and lambs, is wortli 40,?. to 60s. 
In summer, horses arc soiled with tares; and Ibey 
are of such infinite importance, that not one half of 
Ihe stock could be maintaiucd without Ihein ; horses, 
cows, sheep, hogs, all feed upon this valuable plant. 
Upon one acre, Mr. Davies maintained, at Bcdingr 
I>am, four horses, in much better condition than 
■with five acres of grass. Eight acres have kept 
twelve horses and five cows for three rapnths (June, 
July, and August), without any other food. Spring 
tares are sown from April to June. Horses thrive upon 
them surprisingly, and no plant is able to vie with this 
excellent food. 

Mr. Halstead cultivates tlicm at Lavant with great 
intelligence and success. He has sown three bushels 
of seed tp the acre upon a wheat stubble, 5th of Scp- 
tember. When these have made their appearance 
above ground, and are strong, ^e throws in a sectuid 
crop, and then, in like manner, a third, abi>nt a month 
intervening between each sowing. IJy one crop of 
tares succeeding the other, he ensures a crop for the 
^jhole summer, of the best food that cau be givcu to 
cattle. 

They haveon the South Downs an admirable practice 

in their course of crops, which, cannot be loo much 

commended ^ 




J 



eiiOV%'t6nuosiMY cpi/rivA¥£i>. 105 

commciulcd ; that nf substituting a double crop of 
tares, instead of a fallow' for wheat. Let the intelli- 
gent reader glyc his attention to this practice, for it 
If ifortli a journey of 500 miles. They ww forward 
winter tares,, which are fed oflF late in the spring with 
ewes and lambs ; th<.y tlien plough and <ow summer 
tares and rape, two bushels and a hi^if of tares, and 
half a galloit of rape; and this they feed off with 
their lambs' in time to plough once for whea^t. A ya« 
riation is for mowing — tliat of sowing tares oiily in suo« 
cession, even tio late as the end of Jime, for soiling. 
October 6th, a crop was- finishing between Lewes and 
Brighton, on land which had yielded a full crop of 
i?intcr-sown ones* The more this husbandry is aha* 
lyzed, the more excellent it will appear. The lan^ 
ia Che fallow year, is made to support the utmost po»» 
sible quantity of sheep which its destination admits ; 
the two ploughings arc given at the best seasons, in 
Aixt,iimn, for the frosts to mellow the land, and pre- 
pare it for a successive growth of weeds,, and late ia 
sparing to turn tlicm down ; between the times of giving^ 
tli^sse stirrings, the land is covered with crqps ; the 
Q^^ntity of live-stock supported, yields amply in ma? 
aii'ire ; the trcadiiiii: the soil receives previous to sowing 
^l^^at, gives an adhesion grateful to that plant ; i|i a 
^^>rd, many views are answered, and a new variation 
from the wretched business of summer-fallowing disccU 
^^^ed, which, by a judicious application, would be 
Attended in great tracts of this kingdom with most 
l^^ppy consequences to the farmer's profit. 

A. practice which Mr. Thomas Ellman adopts at 
^Horeham, is that of breaking up his layers (clover, 
F^y, and trefoil) for 8ummer*tares and rape. What 



106 



uRopi coyfMasj.Y cc^titateiv. 



an immense improvement is this upon Ihr common ri 
vciily custom iii jVorfnlk, of riliblinj, or half, or bas- 
tard-ploughing such hiyers! a niiscnibk' [iractice, jct 
very gpncral amongst llic spirilt^ cnllivators of that 
celebrated county. Propfiratory to iliis priclit-e, Mr. 
J^IImaii, in his system of lillrigc, sows ryi*-!;rnss with 
^is spring corn, which is laid fur two years During 
tbis time it is twieo folded^ nhen he brealts it up iii 
^aj and June, and so^»s rape and tares, fed with 
ehepp ID August and Scptunibi-r. 

The benefit of sowing rnpe and tares tn this manner, 

■ Mr. £l1man discovers to be inestimable. The com- 
mon system of cnllivalioii in this ueighbuiirbood wouhl 
bOj to break up the layer, and fidlow it for wheat, 
it an expense of full 4^ pet acre ; but this ex- 
perienced farmer pursues a very different course: if>- 
slc.td of an unprodue.tive fallow, lie gains a noble or#p 
«f rape, with ail the expense of raisini; it paid by the 
V|. Crop; besides thoroiiKhly preparing the fjtuuud for 

L ]|t)c succeeding crop of ^^licat. 



Vn. COLKSEED. ^M 

Cole 18 deserveilly in high repute amongst tlic flock 
fitimcrs of the Downs. It is sown either with lineR. 
yr by itself, as food for slieep ; not frequently for seed. 
^ £wes and lambs arc waltlcd upon it in spring, and it i& 
^ l^crally allowed to be most eflicacious and highly 
Kourishiiig to the young tumbs. Mr. Gilbert, ofEast> 
bourne, at tlie lambing season, seldom allows his ewes 
^ny other food but this, as the rape produces a Inrger 
supply of milk than turnips ; which he thinks has tbe 
^'ect of extending the udder, without ailbrding any 






GQfji^idera^ flow of milk. Tkts genllemai^ soim 
yeais ago, lost 80 or 90 of his cvicg hy sUppii^g tbm 
lainl^9 which he attributed to feeding th^fa on rape 
about Christmas ; yet he had fed thenion ii I^e^e^ wit^ 
9ttt being attended with any si^ch «&ct ; tji^e shec^p had 
been hard kept. He has since beard of the sai^e :tlu^ 
happening amongst other ^a^ers ; but it is Kienifrl(,« 
able, that ^, neighbour fed Iiis rapeover tbeJU6dge jsttthi^ 
aame time, without any inconvenience of ^ kind. Mr. 
.Gilbert sows ray^grass with his rape fc»r 8b(3ep,^Ofi. Dqwii 
land ; one gallon of rape-seed^ And tw« of ray^Tasa* 
The rape is fed off first; and aflec that the vay-grasa 
rises and affords a spcing bite. June and July is the. 
usual scasbn for p'utting in this crop, one gaUon^tp the 
abre : when folded, a rood and half is a sufficient dnilj 
consumption for 600 sheep. 



YUU TURNIPS. 

The cultivation of this very vahjable root is tho- 
roughly well understood ; and the high degree of im- 
portance which is attached to it in the economy of A 
flock farm, renders it nn object of the last consideration 
among the South Down fiirmers. Turnips for mdny years 
hav^ been cultivated in this county, and with increase 
ing success. Indeed, so great is the dependence upon 
them, that it is the first object to secure an abundant 
crop for the winter and spring provision of their flocks^ 
The common tUlage is to plough three or four times^ 
or more, ta pulverize the soil, and render it as fine as 
possible, afkl to extirpate all weeds ; the preceding iat. 
eUiiera crop of com, or pease, or tares, &c. Many, 
fidmers carry the dung- rough out of the yards, 'in^ 

thia 



108 C»OP« COMMdNIiV CVhTlV AtElb* 

tills manner Mr. Elltnan carries alt liisfiir bis tinr- 
nips, withont giving it any previous stirring, or mix* 
ing it with earf h or Itnic, &;c. ; for it is clear with him^ 
tliat mnch of the virtue of manure is lost bj stirring. 

In some parts of tliis county, liming for turriips is 
practised : it was first adopted in the ncighbonrhood 
of Hastings, and the effi^t has been such, that the 
practice has not declined. Mr. Cluttou limed nine 
acres at Cnckfield, in 1793, the expense, SO guineas; 
two horses ploughing one acre and a half per da j : 
six oxen will finish one and a quarter in the same 
time. About Midsummer^ the sieed is put in ; from 
one to two pints of seed to the acre. Grood far* 
mers hoe twice. ' 

. Mr. EUman observes, that in hoeing with the com- 
mon Norfolk hoc, more of the weeds are drawn toge- 
ther than are cut up, and if rain come, most of theses 
weeds shoot again ; but his own hoe, the blade of 
which is but an incli wide, eflectually cuts up every 
thing, whilst the weeds and i^rth pass freely ovc|r it, 
^t the same time that none of the earth is pollcptixl. 
"jfhis hoe ought by all means to be used on turnip 
farms, where the soil is inclined to be light and sandy, 
but on those pf a heavier tendency, the hoe should b^ 
•^ider. 

The attention which Mr. Ellman ha^ given to era- 
dicate weeds, is another instance of good management. 
Kilk or charlock, is the most destrqctive foe to which 
the chalk hill^ are Jiajjle, yoi a Ijlade of it is never visi- 
ble upon hi5 ferm ; whilst bctwejen Lewes, Eastbourne, 
and Brighton, almost every farm is overwhelmed with 
this wce^. Ills neighbour^ lij^ye been freqi^ently sur^ . 
prised at seeing his turnip props upon land similar to 

their 



ibeiTowny and apparcutljr t? ith similar nK^nagemqnt, 

w b ikt (he J are not able to grow any. Tills lias been a 

freqaent object of remark ; but tliere arc some circum* 

sfances in bis management ^vhich willexplain therea- 

sou. Mr. EUman i)ays great attention in saving hi» 

seedy by transplanting some of the largest and roundest 

til rnips in bis garden^ and in rejecting all those large ones 

which indicate any hoUowncss in the crown of the 

pla.nt, which forms a cavity for the rain to lodge pnit| 

and thus cau«e the turnip to rot. By constantly sow*- 

trij^soch seed, which he -annually saves, he contrives 

to get fine crops ; and by setting them out very thick, 

b« raises very heavy ones. He begins to §ow early^ 

tincl raises several pieces in succession. Ijiis turnips 

a*"o? this j-ear (1797) upon rye grass, which he folds 

i'^ spring ; he then ploughs in June four or five tunes 

^^MT tiiruipSi hoes twice, setting them out very thick, 

^^^ laarkifig at the same time, that tlie small crop and 

""^ ick one will exceed the other considerably. 

J),ccember 9, 1793, he measured, numbered, and 
^^^^^^ighed, two perch of turnips. 



Toftt, cxvf. qrs, iS» 

^^rie perch of middle sizetl contained ^ 

one hundred .ind ninety fourj which > 31 4 1 4 
WTighed 4371b. which is per acre, J 
^ne perch of the largest sized con- 

tnined one hundred and forty-five; I oq in n n 

which weighed 3991b. which is per 

acre, 



In favour of middle sized, 2 14 1 4 



One 






lid ckoipl coMKONLT x;uif tVAi^0; 

One bundred and ninHj-fcmr turnipsto a percb^ls 
allowing a space of sixteen inches and three quarters 
and a fraction for each turnip : the other is at th^ Mte 
of twenty-one inches. Mr. Ellinan is clear that fifleea 
inches is fully sufficient for each turnip, or twofadn* 
dred and eighteen tuniipti for every perch.' Sdme ex- 
periments of this soft have beeu registered in the An- 
nals of Agriculture, ivhich leave no doubt' as to tlie 
advantage of setting them out thick, and close* 

In 1793, Mr. Ellmari had thirty-five acres and 8 
half of turnips : he began folding the beginning tit 
October, and fed twenty-seven acres and a half till the 
b<*ginning of Marcli : six montfls complete, with fivcJ 
hundred ewes and three hundred ahd twenty lambs^ 
besides carting off eight acre* for cattle. 
The generality of farmers pay little attention irt 
cleaning their land of kilk, &c. nor do they dress M 
fine at each time of ploughing, but lay it rough ; nor 
sufficiently observe to let the haf rows and roll follow 
the pioogh as quick as possible*, to prevent the earth 
from drying, &c. With respect to the manure, Mr- 
EUman lays it on after tlie second ploughing, carried 
out in small heaps into the field from the farm-yard, 
as conveniently as possible for running it out : first, it 
prevents the carts from treading much over the 
ground when it is dressed very fine, which would 
cause it to bind and ttirn up at the succeedhig plough** 
ing very close, the carts going with three horses and 
four oxen. When the dung is got into high fermen- 
tation, he then sets on \o plough the third time, and 
lets the harrows and roll follow the plough immedi- 
ately^ to break the clods occasioned by the carts and 
cattle. In this system, the ploughing, dunging, and 

sowings 



itfOPtf OOMMOHLY Ct7LtlVA*rit6v ' 111: 

nowifig, M in tttck accession y tlnit the t^ed is kid as 

it were in a hat4)ed, which makes it come up in* 

piclly, and vogjrtntc rcmarkablj quick. By this 

meaii^, be has never failed scc^ritag ah abundant 

pntfluce. He sows his light lands every fourth year, 

which is not the common practice of the county* 

it should be remarked, that he never tmws in wet wea<» 

thcr, or whilst it rains ; since after the la;td is worked 

ia that light, or pulverized state, before the last tim« 

6f ploughing, or before sowing, the harrows, by going 

<»v:er the land, encrust the surface,- which, when it 

becomes dry, the young plants find a difficulty in pe- 

aet rating througli. After plough ing'*in his dung, he 

nii%s a light roller and a brisk harrow, io raiso a little- 

d<i^ on the surface. ^ 

I loeing is done by the acre ; 6^. 6d. the first tiroe^ 
31^ c1 3^. the second. In folding his sheep, Mr. Ellman 
dr^iws Ihcm out of the ground two or throe days before 
tl»<i sheep are turned into the field ; by this method, 
^'•ich begins to be general, the turnips lose their wa- 
^^*ry property, and the sheep thrive on them much 
hotter. 

Similar to this is the practice of Mr. Carr, who, in 
f^Ading his sheep, draws up all the turnips within the 
Cold, a day or two before the sheep are allowed to 
enter, in order that the turnips might wither, and 
Evaporate their water. The reason is, that when the 
sheep ate them without this precaution, many were 
lost. 

Willi respect io the distribution of stock to ground, 
Mr^ Ellman finds, that twenty acres will fatten one 
bujidred sheep, if turned in in a'lean state, and feed** 
iog-firom October 1st to the end of March. In other 
j^g^ ^ the oounty, about Ci^ictte'ster,' they calculate^ 

that 



Ilif cRors NOT ponnidKLV cuLTivAraD- 

Hint one acre iii.-iiiituins one hundred ewes with tlielf 
litiiihi a week. Tbt; liiiiliar<l lufiiipis sonn whea 
tflieat bUccealHf as il yieldit uiore caxly food. | 

In the summer of 1797, Ihe i'iirl of Egremont, as 
ail cxperiitu-nt, liowt'd oiie acre willi liirnips in tlio 
park. As tJu'y grL-w lip, part of llie acre failed. In 
Seplcmlier Iiis Lordsliip filled llic vacant spot will! 
ptoDts drawn from II113 iieigliboiirin^ crop, and tho 
Mhole is now (.laimitry) diiu contiiined niasK ofprccii 
food, and the ruotn of coiisideraWe size and dimeii-- 
sLDiis. TlicRc tnuixpliiiilod liiniips are very ftourisbf 
in^, iillliougli the cxpcrinu'nt was imderlaketi tQo late 
ill tlif siimmec (o expect bo fnvoiirable an issue ; and 
tt niiRVicred no well, tbat Ills LimUliip iticariN to nM 
ttiid lliis bcnofieiii! praclic:' ovlt his whole crop df 
(iiniips. 



SECT. V.-T-CrtOl'S NOT COMMONLY CULTITAIED. 

. L EEAAS. 

In tlie few places wlierc fteari^ aVe cultivated, they 
are generally after wlieaf, iis 111 llio iirifilil)oiirlioo<l of 
SliorcUani, and some oilier places. Mr. Brcsefoit, 
grows llie mnzn^an at I'agliain, and Lorse bcana arrf 
planted hy Mr. Pcacliey, It lias tieen frequently as- 
serted, that Ibc bean system might be introduced to 
great advantaire In fhc heavy soils, and most mate'' 
f iaily tend to amelior^e the present system of hus- 
bandry, sljiisliluled ill lien of a faHow. This idea 
struck the Kiirl ofEgremont, who, in Murch 1795, 
planted two acres, three feet row from rOw : the land 



cA6vi H6t eonikoiiisr cttTivAtEiii HA 

Vlki coTcred with a mixture of thirty loadi otlMhU 
dung and good mould ; the tops were cut off when H 
Uossom, and reaped in October^ but it waft an in* 
dilTercnt crop. • . 

In 1794 his Ldrdshij^ tiled them before/^ Ui6 
rcsok much the ^ame ; but as that jeiir was verjrun* 
favourable to beans^ he attributed it to the.unkind<< 
bess of the season. The same land bears excellent 
pease, turnips^ &€. and other grain in abundance. 

Tbat beans may not answer ih some years^.is cer^' 
tarn. The caltivation hils been atiempfe^ in othef 
places, but with little success. .' 

Early in the spring of i797> the £arl Of Egremmi 
madeatttHher very capital experiAtdlit op tkis subject i 
l&e ploughed up a grass lajrer tive y«an old, of sereiH 
teen acres, and as fast as the land wib ploughed^ every 
other J9ag was dibbled w'itb horse beAQs f iron dSbblea 
being used, and about two busfaek of Med per Hcte put 
% the moment the rows w«re visible^ they were ef* 
fectively liand'-hoed, and throughout their growth a 
sbim of various shares was constantly going through 
them. These shares consisted of oiie cuttiilg plate ot 
^^elve inches, two of three inches, nine apartj and 
* central one of nine inches, and H double moulds 
"o«fd plough expanding at pleasure for earthing upi 
»J means of these tools skilfully applied, the crap wa$ 
I^pt in garden cleanness, notwithstanding the incest 
^«t rains which feH that year \ all weeds which grew 
^tnong the plants were carefully extracted by hand* 
*rhe crop was viewed by many nobletnen, genUemen^ 
dnd iarmers, as a beautiful exhibition of perfect hus^ 
Wdry. They wete pulled, the crop goodj but not 
threshed at the time of writing this account. 

The stubble was broad-shared| harrowed, and 
.. ivssEX.] 1 ploughed 



.1 

114 CBOF8 KOT COMMOXLir CtTLTlTATED^. 

plpbghed oiice for wheat , which now makes a rerj 
good appearance*. 

After having viewed the stiiF and rich soils of thr 
county, I venture to recommend beans in the jbl 
lowing coarse^ as a modification ofi their own : 

1. Tares, 

2. Oats or wheat, 

3. Clover, 

4. Beans, 

5. Wheat* 



\*,i 



But that beans would not answer upon thefr bin^ 
was the general opinion of all the farmers ; that, the 
had been tried, and did iiot give equal crops wil 
pease*. If the trials that iiiave been made were a. 
done with skill and intelligence, and often repeated 
this is satisfactory : after clover, beans have not gen* 
mlly, if ever at all, been tried : on this soil tb^ 
should perhaps be dibbled by hand (provided a to« 
was not to be had that would drill them) in a straigb 
line along exactly the middle of every othot furrow, tha 
is to say, in rows at eighteen inclies asunder, on th 
richest land : on soils not equally rich, the same, witi 
double rows at nine inches, and then one missed, ii 
which way they would come up in rows at nin 
inches, with irttervals for the shim at eighteen. Am 
Qn still poorer soils, every furrow io be planted thre 
or four inches from beau to bean. If some of thes 
intelligent farmers will make this experiment witl 
care, and keep the beans by horse and hand-hoein| 
€lean, it niay possibly bo found a valuable acquis! 

tion : nor let them forget, that \o have winter plough 

■ ■ ' ■ ■ > ■' ■ ■ ■ ' ' ■ I 

■ * The crop turned out greatly, and the husbandry- continued witl 
jAiccets. 



CROPS XOT COXMONLV OULTIVATBR. Xi^ 

ing in A dry tiino, on a clover ley, is, on smch ticklish 
soils, bcLii<^ as much at Iheir case as tbey cai^ be* 



II. POTATOES. 

*Tlie cultivation of this very valuable root is in tiigk 

repute, and (he management of it ordered tvith the 

greatest success. Indeed the culture of it might fotm 

sr> important an article as an ingredient in the food of 

men and cattle, that it is not a little singular, that it 

has not spread with greater rapidity, when allowed t6 

he of such infinite utility. The late very high and 

alarming price of bread-corn ascertfiiined the value of 

potatoes, and directed the public attention to the prrf- 

<Iuciion of this root, which, in case of necessity^ 

might prove a substitute for wheat ; and the itiqiiirjr 

wli ich the Board of Agriculture instituted Mrith a vie^ 

.^f determining the comparative merit and qualities 

of" potatoes as a succedaneum,, has naturally excited 

^lAch attention. This root certainly possesses great 

n^orit as food for man, and dotibtless, when the cul- 

^^ireof it is more extended, may be found upon fur- 

tlier trials to be as equally beneficial and nutritious as 

^i"ead-corn. 

Preparation* 

In the neighbourhood of Battel, Eastbourne, and 
Chichester, are cultivated the greatest quantity of po- 
tatoes. It is upwards of twenty years since the first 
introduction of them into the Sussex husbandry, for 
fattening bullocks ; and the farmer (Mr. Mayo, of Bat« 
td) to whom the count}' stands so highly indebted, 
has had the most productive crops of wheat sown upon, 
potatoe land*. 

The 

I 

* Wheat after potatoes may suiswer in the neighbourhood of Battel, 
• 12 bat 



llG CnoBS KOT COMllnvr,T CULTIVATED. 

The course tn wliicti tlii-j are iiitnxliiced, is vari- 
ous. Mr. Mayo has lliem in the sinQ;iilur course of, 
1. Wheat; 2. Potatoes; cunficiing tlie culture, fot 
the convenience of vicinity to tlie polfitoe-house and 
yards, to two fields, which arc iiltcriiately uudcr those 
crops, and liave been so for twenty years, being ma- 
nured every potatoc year. That lliey do not ex- 
haust or decline from being on the same lajut, ap- 
pears by the last crop Ixiing better than any of the 
preceding, and the wheat always good. The soil, 
a loam on a moist bottom. The mauure is put iiitc» 
the furrows at tliree feet asunder, (o the amount o^ 
sixty loads 1o the acre, each sixteen bushels. About; 
Eastbourne they arc planted upon tlirce plougliings^ 
from three to seven inches deep. About Chichester, 
the crop is put in after turnips. For the growth 0^" 
potatoes, the weather, according to Mr. Mayo, can- 
not -be too hot and dry ; he finds tliat potatoes do 
not draw the land more llian clover, and he builds 
his theory on the fact, that where the ground is ovor- 
shadoweil and covered, rernienlation, bO favourable to 
vegetation. Is thereby excited. 

Sorts. 

The sorts in cultivation are various; about C^i- 
ehester, chiefly the goldeu'duu, anil o.x-^toble. Mr. 
Mayo prefers the etttnler, before any other sort, » 
t&e oxen like (hem Ijcst. Mr. Cluttou planted as well 

. he hogt oT cluster, as the truer sorts, aud tltiuks th«i 
:6e former pushes an ox as forward as any other sort. 

. Mf. Fallor, of [{ciilhfield, plants the golden-glohe, 

but with OK, OD a ligtit ittongtoil, it hai generally bem luiprDdactiTe. 
f hxve foantt Ohis aita potafCei aiuwcr siuch bitter ibaa wheats— 
-Hr.D. 

Quaniity, 



eftOrS NOT GOHHOKZ/T GOlrTITAYBB. il7 

Quant it I/, and Mtthod of Planting. 

lProm sixteen to twenty bushels are planted. Mr. 
Gelt plants at Applesham twenty, one foot distant 
fifom plant to plant. The method of planting them 
practised by Mr. Mayo is, fo ojien the furrows at three 
feet asunder, in w^itch he drops the sets one foot from 
each other, covering the sets with dung, and then co« 
vering by hand, by drawing the earth over them with 
hoes. He has tried whole potatoes, also small, and 
cuttings of differeht sizes ; but little or no diflS^rence in 
the crop. One year he made a rariation in the dis«^ 
iance of the rows, putting them in at four &et| and 

gained a very fine crop ; but he prefers three. / 

« 
Time of Planting. 

f- 

i^'rom the latter end of April to the middle of May^ 
is considered as the properest season for ensuring a plen* 
tiful crop ; but the season for planting should be re» 
gulated by the sort. Mr, Mayors season used to be 
the end of March, or the beginning of April ; but he 
has for some years been steady to the beginning of 
May, from experience having clearly convinced him 
(Imtit is the best season. 

Culture. 

ICr. Mayo both band and horse^rhoes his potatoes^ 
as well as earths them up. Mr. Gell weeds, by hwd- 
hoeing close to the plant ; after wiiich he runs a double* 
breasted plough to earth them up, and they are gene^ 
rally put out to be taken up by the bushel. About 
Chichester, they use the prpng fi^r this purpose* 

tS Proince. 



«' 



lis CROPS irOT COMMONLY ClTLTITAT£b« 

Produce. 

Tlic produce 13 various, and depends upon tlie fer- 
tility of the soil, culture, season, &c. A qoinmcii 
crop on Mr. Peeichcy's land near Cliiclicst^r^ is 4pQ 
busliels per acre ; the soil a hazel mould upon a rea 
brick earth ; a soil ^vhich agrees remarkably ^^cll 
"With chalk ; of which manure he lays eight bushels 
to the perch. Mr. Mayo's average crop varies from 
350 to 400 busiiiels ; he has grown 300, and even 600 ; 
Mr, Gilbert from 300 to 400, witliout manure, on 
sood land, in rows at two feet and a half. Mr. Calver- 
ley, of Broad, on an old hop ground, has raised 700 jjer 
acre ; Mr. Fuller, of Ileathficld, frbm 400 to 450 ; the 
late General Murray 400. 

All these arc great products, and cannot fail im- 
pressing us with a high opinion of the cultui|pind 
soil from which such considerable crops are gained. 

• Method of Preserving. 

Perhaps the greatest objection to this root has been 
the difficulty in preserving it tlirough severe winters ; 
and to guard against such hazards, is a point of some 
importance in the cultivation of them. Mr. Mayo 
preserves them by digging a hole proportioned to. the 
quantity to be put in, usually two feet deep, and over 
this to build a house ieii or twelve in height, with 
yalls six feet in thickness, made with hay and chopped 
straw plaistercd; the entrance is filled with haulm, 
or straw. Sometimes, in very severe weather, *a 
charcoal fire is kept up in an iron kettle. 

In the sev^ere winter of ] 788-9, General Murray, 
who was one of the greatest cultivators of potatoes in 
^he poupty, preserved all his crop during that winter 

in 



OROP8 NOT COBIMOJCLJ CULTIVATED. 119 

ill the utmost safety and security, notwithstanding the 
intensity of the weather; an4 hairdly had a rottien pon 
tatoe in a Iiundred bushek. 

W"hen this circumstance is well considered, in the 
pinch of such a season as that was, every one wi^l ' 
^ree, that the vast exi)eriment made by^ Genf^ral 
Murray in the introduction of this root, as a winter 
and spring food for sheep^ was truly important. 

His magazines for preserving the potatoes, are. holes 
<^ut in the side of a Iiill, five or six yards ^Yidt*, ten feet 
^^^P? ^11 J of an indeterminate length. The carts 
froiu the field unload at the top, shooting them, at 
oiicc into tlie hole, and they are taken out at that end 
*t. bottom, which o|)ens to the slope of the hill, where 
^ Avail is built to it, with a door, &c. AVhen full, 
^ stack of stubble or straw is built over the whole, 
''''^ide and large euough for security against all frosts. 
^^ tiiis method, it seems, the largest quantities may 
**^ kept together ; for no earth or other mearjs of keep- 
**^g the effluvia of the roots being used, it rises tbroi|gh 
^ Mv stubble, and does not occasion their rotting frpn^ 
^^t ; on the other hand, the stubble is thick enough 
^o exclude frost. 

The preservation of potatoes in severe weather is a 
difficult business, when very large quantities, as in 
this case, are laid together. Whilst the magazine is 
full and kept untouched, I have no doubt of the pre* 
ceding method ; but it is doubtful, after it is begun, 
and there is a vacancy in it r^the ai^r in that vacancy, 
it is apprehended, would rot them. Quere therefore, 
if stubble or straw must not be supplied to fill it close, 
AS fast ^s the potatoes are. taken for use? 



1 4 Appli* 



|90 CB0F8 VOT XfOmCOVLV C|rbtIVAn|l4> 

Application. 

The chief use and objeot for which thej are cnlCiv' 
vatcd in Sussex, is the fattenbig of bullocks. Mr, 
Mayo has enter^ largely into this practice, and with 
linifqrm success, for upwards of twenty years, add it 
(decided in the conviction of the profit of it, He fkt^ 
tens every year six oxen, two steers, and four cow^ 
or heifers. They complain at Battel, that they have 
no hay good enough to fatten a bullock, but with por' 
tatoes, all difficulties vanish. An ox of 140 stone eats 
rather mor^ than a bushel per day, and ten pouodb or 
hay. He has had beasts on turnips, that ate ea^ 
three bushels a day, and as much hay as if they hadL 
no other food. Some graziers that feed with oiUcfike, 
lave come to see Mr. Mayors beasts, and have been 
of opinion, that they fed as fast as on that expensive 
food. One farmer resisted the practice for many__ 
years ; at last he made an experiment, and found it 
so beneficial, that he much feared the profit would 
turn out little, from every one getting into it ; thinks 
ing from the great advantage, that it certainly would 
become general. 

Mr. -Fuller has fed many sheep till they were 
quite fat, upon potatoes, and has kept to the practice, 
Mr. Mayo has fed horses witli them, and with* success ; 
and Sir Charles Eveysfield fed all his horses upon them 
at Horsham. 

Mr. Ellman, at Shoreham, has fed his oxen witli 
potatoes, at the rate of four gallons daily to each 
ox : one is given in the morning ; another soon aAer, 
and the remainder at different times in the course of 
the, day. In other places, three gallons is the usual 
allowance. The common qua^ti1 v to an ox on Mr. 

Pilbert'« 



CAOP0 iro^r €OMMo vLr cxtlutated* 191 

Gilbert's farm, is from one and a half to two bushels^ 

an washed and uncut, except a few of the lar^t. Mr« 

Gilbert finds that an ox of 160 stone, feats from one 

and a half to two bushels, but consumes little bay i 

this is a great saving, as he considers potatoes a niuch 

cheaper food than hay. The cattle will rarely cat 

them for^ the first two or three days, but like them 

much afterwards, and they fatten upon them much 

quicker than on hay alone. v 

Afr. Glutton, of Cuckfield, has fed his oxen largely 

with potatoes; but the experiment did not answer. 

H^hen he fed on this root, the usual allowance to each 

fOL, was one bushel and a half, and as much hay a^ 

tbey chose. The bullocks choaked, and the. moisture 

loosened them, besides being ^Jpwn and much phy- 

Voiced. Mr. Glutton has fattened twelve oxen at a time : 

i>e^sts which have arrived at 140 st(»ie, and which' fed 

OKt^ hay alone, ate about half a hundred weight a day ; 

J^^-^e had a bushel of potatoes, and a quarter of a hun- 

^**^d weight of hay. Mr. Glutton has been paid 9rf. per 

b^^shel, but not so much in general: in the above 

^^^ding, a bushel is set against a quarter of a iinndred 

height of hay, which, at 3*. per cwt. is just 9d. Bivt 

^c^y on the farm cannot be reckoned so high ; 3^. pe^r 

^Wt* wrould make the potatoes 6(/. per bushel. 

Feeding with potatoes- well known about Lewesi 
but opinjoi^ do liot very lyeU agree. 

Mr. Carr feeds oxen with potatoes and hay, and 
Afterwards with oil-cake ; but neither answered. Mr^ 
Davis thinks they answer when well got up, that is, 
dry : he used 200 bushels for young beasts, and also 
|br hogs : a heifer took well to them ; had half a bushef 
irith straw ; 60 ))ushels piade ^r n^y fat. Their 

use 



\ 



18^ CROPS J?Of COMMONLY W7Ltl^A*B»/ 

use appeared fo him so considerable, ihTtt he wotul 
buy them if he could at 6d. a bashel for cattle. 

Mr. Saxby/of North Ease, bought 1^ bushels i 
6d, carrying them himself eight miles ; gave them 
fat his heifers; and they paid so welt, that he d 
sired to hare more tliis year at the same pria 
Ji(^- potatoes. Nobody washes them, evcHi win 
dirty. 

Mr. Tlicks, and Mr. Sharp, of Langhton, gate p 
tatoes to working oxen, and they did well : have ha 
700 bushels stacked up for the same use. Upon ii 
quiry, if they ever gave them ar(ificially sproute< 
or remarked them to be better when naturally so in tl 
spring; they replied in the negative, but apprc^vi 
the idea; Mr. Da vi% remarking, that one bushel • 
liarley malted had, with him, been better than tv 
Imshels of oats not malted. 

Steaming. 

At Petworth is an apparatus belonging to M 
Fawkner, for steaming potatoes. He had often fi 
iogs on raw potatoes, but found that they fell c 
their flesh, and throve, badly, which induced him i 
fiteam them. His contrivance is nothing but a hog 
head cut in halves, the bottom raddled, and moirtan 
"halfway into a small copper, and coarsely coven 
with a wooden lid. The potatoes are done i 
quickly, that six tubs are steamed in a da5', Mliich 
nearly double the number that could be boiled in tl 
'ivater: there should however be an easier way < 
clearing the copper from the dirt that will, in spi 
of washing, gradually collect, witliout the ncccfcsii 
of breaking the mortar joint. 

Tl 



» ^» 



f • 



enoH WOT commonly cuLTirAT«i>. l!B 

Tlie expense bf culttvattiig an'acre, is thus^gtif* 
mated Iqt Mr. Mayo : 

Rent, tithe, and rates, m^..*.— •• 14 .0 

l?lougbing, _.;.. Ip b 

Harrowing, *i t) 

Rolling, ....^.i.. ............I...... 6 

Manure, 70 loads, at 16 bushels, three ^ i i/i n 

cur(«, one acre and a half per day, S 

I'^iUing and laying in the furrow, ........ 7 6 ,- 

Cutting 18 bushels, at a halfpenny, •... 0- 9 

*^lanling in the furrow, • w... 10 

Covering with hoes, ..^......................... 2 , . 

*Iand-h6cing once, «....•.......* 2 ' 

A^Yeeding, 10 

l5arthing up, .«„ 2 

* Jorse-hoeing, one horse, one man and \ 

boy, five acres daily, twice or thrice, > L 10 . . 

at9rf '.........) 

T'aking up and putting in carts 450 \ 

bushels, at three farthings per> 1 8. 

bushel) •* - 3. 

Cartiug home, »...... ^•.•..» •«• 4 3 

£.5 15 11* 



The greatest and most important point of ailj and 
Srhich should be ascertained in the clearest maimer, Is 
tbe value which bullocks pay for them inMtenihg. Mn 



* These particulars are from Mr. Mayo himself; but I nfiust confess 
1^ seem to me to be near fifty per cent, under what they would be 
ii^)noft situations with which I am acquaintcd.^-^ T. 

Mayo 



f 



iSi CROPS sax COMMONLY CULTITATEB. 

Mayo is clear, and has no shade of Joubt, that tb^ J 
pay id. per bushd. 

Produce. 

4^0 bushels, at W. „ Z"-? 10 9 

Expenies, 5 15 \9 

Profit, /"I H I 

« ~i7i 

Decisive experiments resuliina; from weiirhiiig ttt " 
bullocks alive to and from the food, would be raty* ^^ 
satisfactory; but this valuation of id. is the lowtr 
we have met with : and we are not entitled to dou 
of the accuracy of observation and calculation of ^ "^ 
man who has been fattening osni for sixft'cn jea*"^* 
on this food. 

Tlie Itiff General Murray was in the constant habit c^^ 
feeding a very large flock of sheep on potatoes; the_3^ 
were given in a manc^er : 710 ewes in winter, titc one-— 
third of a ton of bay, and 92 bushels of potatoes, 
every day, which is a quart to each. He used pota- 
toes for fattening sheep, as well as for lean stock ? 
196 fat wethqrs ate 14 bushels ajid 1 cwt. of hay 
daily: it may be reckoned 14 bushels for 900 sheep. 
As fat sheep are io be supposed to have as mnch of 
both as they will eat, it should seem, that it" they 
have as many potatoes as they will eat, thcy-dono( 
require more than half a pound of hay each, Tlie 
fieneral gave potatoes (o his working oxen, and found 
Ibat half a buehel with oat-straw was equalto 401b. 



4 



■ °T'1 




SSOlb. of bay for a week, at 9t. 6d. ^ r q g' 4 

per cwi* •••••'•••••••••■•••••••••^•^•••••••••••t*** ^ 

DedvLCt oat-straw for seyen days ; «np- > n 1 ' tt 
pose it «. ^..••.•. J 



■ < • 



Hemains value of three bushels and ^1 /^ (k ,^ a 
half of potatoes, — - ».•••—- j 



This is Is. 6el. per bushel ; a higher- value than has 
been found in any other application*. It should bo 
calculated from a bushel a day, and that would maktf 
ft«f* for the value of a bushel. 

A variety of experiments respecting tiie C^ulturt 
^iMhd growth of this valuable plant, have beon under- 
taken bj' the Earl of/EgremonI, but more especially 
^y raising them from slioots. The {(jllowing are weU 
^^orthy of attention. 

May 13, 1795. A potatoe -weighing O^oz^ was 

pistinto a pot full of eartb, and plunged into a hot- 

'^^d. — May 22, six shoots were taken from it, and i 

tHc potatoc was replaceil in the hot-bed.— ^une 9, 

fourteen shoots were taken from it, and planted. Thji> 

t^otatoe was then weighed, and found to have in« 

Creased in weight 2|oz. weighing 9^oz. The po- 

^toc was immediately replaced in the pot, but was 

t^ot put into the hot-bed. — July 3, twenty-five shoot<^ 

^^PTcre taken from it, and it was placed in the p«ty 

and removed to a hot -house.— July 13, fourteen shooU 

irere taken, and the potatoe rettirned to the pot, and 

fepla«cd in the hot-house.-*— .July 23, it produced S& 

aikoots. The potatoe now weighed 9oz. and was quite 

firm, andf not in the least degree shrivelled.- Many 



* I 



* Imitcd so high 3S to appear to me ettremeij q»e9tionable. 

j«orc 



126 CROPS FOT COMMOXLT (JULTITATBDj 

more shoots mi^hl probably linve been taken from if, 
but it was boiltnl, and fuiuul to lie a very good eat- 
abU^ pntatop, altliniigk it rfqiiired much time iii boil- 
ing : in this process it lost an ounce. The shoots were 
planted, 95 in number, all from one jwtiitoe, aiii 
wiTC thrivicig and strong plants, according to the dif- 
ferent dates of planting. The cxperimcnl was begun 
ninch too liitc in the sfnsiin ; but it was only suggested 
at that time, by some Etppearanccs which were ob- 
served in some potatoes from which the shoots had 
been taken. Three potiitoc plants fnim these shooti 
were uncovered during their growth, ami iippenred 
fnll of young potatoes ; at least 20 were counted to eadl 
plant, and I hey were only partially uncovered, and the 
earth immediately refurneti. 

• Planting with shoots appears to be as produciivQ 
and more so, than is the rase with eyes. In anolhex- 
flxperiment of his Lordship's, 140 yards were planted 
with shoots ; these prodoced at Ihj? rale of S77 bushels 
per acre: ISO yirds were planted with rnllings ;; yet 
the former produced one bushel more than the laltetc 
•the whole yielded 21 b«^h^Is; they were planted ia. 
.Tune, and taken npiifl- fiwiobcr. The early kiditey, 
if planttx] in .Tune, comes to jjerfection in October. 
With respect to the method of breaking off the shoots 
from tlie potatoes, (here is no reason to be appreben> 
sive how they are taken off; and if the shoot», aft« 
they arc separated from the potaloe, are put into- a 
basket, and have a little earth thrown over them, Ihey 
will k<-ep in this state, if not immediately wanted, for 
months. Tlic kidney, after ils second cropping, de- 
creases in the number of its shoo(s. No sort equals tbe 
red cluster. The early kidney comes up before any 
other; the cluster is next, and the ox-noble dast. 

Tbe 



CmOF.9 KOT COMMONLY CUIitlYAtEO^ IflT 

The cluster throws out more slioots than .anjr others 
up (o thirty at a time. 

Part of another field. was planted with shoots, and 
without manu-re; yet these ^latter turned out a greater 
crop tlmn any of the former, trenched, mucked, &C* 
Some of tlie shoots were planted early in March: 
Ji fortnifrht's severe Frost afterwards affected them : the 
consequence was, that the frost cut them off; yet they 
a^:^tn recovered, and were equally good as the others; 
x\11 the flowers of these potatoes, tot experiment, iirere 
broken off: if the leaves and tops are taken off, the 
root is materially injured ; for the stalks of several were 
Out close to the «:round : the earth was afterwards un* 
covered, and not a single potatoe was to be founds 
^vliich appears to be a proof of the bad effect of cut- 
ting t!ietoi)s, which some people so zealously contend 
ft>r. The shoots are planted promiscuously from one 
six or seven inches long : till the third or fourth' 
lonth after planting, the shoots have but a small apple^ 
•'^ot above the size of the end of a person's finger; 
*^nt afterwards they wonderfully increase their size ^ 
-■^ ence it follows, that the eyes having a greater and 
*riorc substantial ro9t to support the vegetative power 
^>f the plant, comes easier to perfection ; and that the 
""-^lioot, though stationary at first, will in the end more 
Lilian equal the other in produce ; and if we add the sav- 
Xtig of seed, the advantage will be still more consider 
Arable. 

Hence we may infer, that this method of cultivating 

potatoes, which is practised with success at Petworth, 

Tperits the attention of farmers ; for an early market U 

Jis the only method of raising them, and the seed an4 

expenses of cutting are saved. ' In addition to the- 

above 



IS8 CttOPg irot COMMONLY CULTITATI9* 

above intelligence, some fif rilier yaluaMe infomatiiii 
has been inserted in the Annals of Agricaltore, froni' 
the same quarter, where the cultivators of this mot 
wiU find these experiments more^amplj detailed^. 



III. BUCK-WIIEAT. 

Mr. Davis had one year eight acres of buck^wheat at 
Bedingliam, which his shepherd fed with the flock 
wheii in fiill blossom, for two hours : all were drunk ; 
the glands of three; were swelled quite to the eyc!i$ 
none blown ; but were staggering and tumblihg. Ov 
hogs it bad the same effect : bleeding made the %heeg 
woi-se; however he lost none. 



IV. LETTUCES- 

The same gentleman made a remarkable experiraei^t 
on lettuces for hogs. He has practised it often^ but 
not with equal attention. lie sowed fmir ounces of 
"White coss-lettuce seed the boglnnirig of March^ very 
thick, over two perches of ground. His crop of ])ota-> 
toes wns in rows At three feet, in Maj^ he planted 
a double row of lettuces between the rows of potatoes. 
After that, both crops kept elf an by hnfnd-»iiofelng. — 
June 7, they were begun to be used for three sows 
with little piizs; they were kept on these lettuces 
^ix weeks ; theil the pigs .were weaned a fortnight ear- 
lier ttinn usual; arid after weaning, the gi^eat use of 
the lettuce is found j for the pigs did admirably well 
^n them^ till all Weregone.^ — August 15^ they were fed 
with cab])agej turnip-tops, &c. as usual, but fell off 
at once for want of lettucei The sows had wash. 

This 



cil6P9 NOT C6lllfdNLT CUtf tVXilBti; ^fltft 

'lliis trial dcscrrcs dtteation t Weaning p{^ wit6bat 
I profusion df niilk and some corn, b a diiRcolt busf* 
hess ; aiH if Iettaci5 will dd it, a man on^ht iterei^ to 
fc tfithdut a rodd^ Or half an acr€| tot this parp<Me« 



;« 



■ ill r I ■ 

I 



• t 



Vi Hoi*a. 



, tnttie eastern part df Sussex, tlicj ikf^'Aiiicti culti* 
Volied ; but the expenses and uiicertainly of the cropi 
iend stroiigly against the cutturfe. The expens^ 
&re indeed very gte^U At BalWl they aiie thuis e^ti* 



Mated: 






ReDt^ titbe^ dnd tajtfite,' UW.aVm^..V^^^^ 'SO 

Poles, ntl5f, per 100,^ ."..... £*7 10 0^ g jg w 

tJaniiige, at 3s* per 100, ••A*u.*.».ft.te«..««.«*.4i»4 1 lO 

Picking j at 7^^ pett^t. 6 cwt M..«.»«..*i, 2 2 

Drying and bagging, kt 6^. •a.....«...ik..w...;..i 1 16 

Oast, 500/^ for 20 acres, interest, •.•*...i..;. 15 

Manure i dung 100 loads once in- three *) g q ^ 
years, 33 loads a year, at Isi 3d. ~*«.ki.«. 3 

' 24 10 3 

Eldest, ••t4«***««««««»it*4««*«»«*««»«*«4*lM*ftit«4ti4t4t***«««* 1 ^'0 

;Ci23 14 3 

Produ(5e*-^Aterage drop, 6 cwt< and? r ig n 
a?crage price^ SI. per cwt. •44*.,».mm.«.. 5 

tioteperann. ^.7 li S 

■ , ^ »■ I I I « ^t f > 

: »u?8Ex-] Jt Bn,t 



|S9 CHOI'S tfOT COS(MOSLV CULTITATEt). 

But tpn? comes an observation wliich irnisl have i(s 
weight, nnd hIiu:Ii seems to protc that there must be 
9 fallacy ill such enkuhitioiis. The number of men 
n^p an; font] of hops, is great ; and we are hardly I9 
suppose, that, they sire all fools, or that none of them 
have the capacity to form such an account as this. 
ISuf, on the other hand, I desire, and maj- very ra* 
tioriiiHy request, " shew me by what means hops arc 
profitable." If yon. ask my profit upon wheat, I shall' 
stale the expense, the averaj^' priHbice, and the ha* 
lance bejwi'cn the two. If you ask Mr. Mayo the 
profit upon potatoes, he recites I/. I4s, per acre ; and 
be replies satisfactorily, becnnse he docs the same: 
he gives you the expense, aud he, gives you the pro- 
duce ; but ^hcii ve come to hops, it is h.ere as i(i 
'Kci(t,,in JisstX, iu Suffolk, and every vhere else: 
,^e have general as-wrtLoDs of profit, naii when we 
come to oBamiue, we find partkulw acwuii's of loss. 
From this Battel accuunt, Jet n» deduct 1^ a*, for 
oast, vhich I tiuppuiie is all an expense of the land- 
lord ; all Ihc )iia»urr, or §/. Sd. ; also the iatercst of 
ihe first sto^k nf polfb, 11. 3s.; grjd likewise. fl^t of 
jtock in tiadc, J/- 4s. amouutin^ in l?te Tvhple fw 
5/. J Is. 3^. ; and tlien we shall have reduced tlic an- 
nual loss of an acre to Sf. is. 

Upon twenty acres, a capital of 500^ in the land- 
lord's pocket, and of 990/. iti IIk- tenant's, are sunk, 
without payinjr a penny interest; COO loads of dung 
^ivfitcd qaiHinlly from the profitable uses of the farm j 
and all this for the yearly loss of 44/. I 

I talic the fact, from all the information I have at 

ditTiarent times, and at different places, received, to 

be this. Hops are the gambling of farmers : men 

put iota .M, state-lottery, knowing that there is 

a vast 



a vjist loss upon al} jth^ iicfccis; though iipMiem^', 

iiefie(U$ are madedn soiuc^: Arid farmer^ itecqu93iyi 

^is\hh^ ihat if 4^^ ^^9^ ^^^ Hlu^n iiiUi ihc iiojf 

HccQUiit^ loss will be ike balance of it; bat ihmr- 

enter intci the cuUivatioi^ expecting tUe.prLfe^ ^f tl;e| 

I)dp-lottofy. Otliers there miiy b^, tUai ^111 4(9 ti)i|' 

^me thing, but ilpon racirc pnid^t pr^ici^}es: ^l^y, 

Ariirvoluniarily t^ubmit to the ariiiual }fi^,pf ^, ^»f. 

^unds^ ill order to have that cert^i^tj^ frljiicli . ji)l^, 

^me years confc^siidly ^ises, of 4 ]sLifge s|iq[^ af qn^ 

(fOT^L a great cr6{j. T^fais certainty, hd^eTeri f^i^, 

but ^'Idom; for tlie great crop aloln^w^;4p l^ttf^f 

i^ imufit bo a great dr9p ]¥J^ i^f)i^i poii$i.dec^]^ di«f 

^ gc,i ft »naU P^ i tl^ai^ is td say, it nj# % ^. gj^^, 
qrop) ]^|d a gri^^t p^riqe at ^he dame time; To* n\8^ 
hopsftnswer steadily, sey&rai ci|r()ijii^^taiices ipuit i^^t^f ; 
^onoeotlier man lire i^iist be liscfd tpaA i\tt di^ng afiiie 
i^rra, ^ij^tiich cannot^ consl6teiiit|y Dtith pxoSti be iJfii^ 
fliVerted : they ^hoiijd be in eSpalierJi ^to sitve i^ iHq, 
fexpertse of poles, and to throw tlie Mndd lieiirer the 
||[r(]luiid^ on the principle of vineyardsj whidh never 
HpertwcU, nor yield plentifully^ y^heii the Viiiesare 
suffered to rise high.* Another reason isj tHe jpowef of* 
j)ickijig as early d§ you please, ttithdnt cuttirig tie 
Vuidsi The latest t)icked liops wilt Jdwayi gii^e tUt 
l)est crop the folloiiifig year. - ■ - • • 

The pstrish of Saleburst ^ntaind tne laigeM planta- 
tidii of helps iri the fcounty.; between three and four 
bundfed a^res. Mr.* Pooke,' of this place,* an Inielli* 
^t< kii4 practical farmer, liad twenty-five acres; 
tlie largest produce "virhich he e^et gairied'Wats t^etftV^ 
bne tdn; IScv^t: S!4 lb. tipOn twenty '^ne ^rei aifd ai 
iialf. Duririg the time of pi(^kirilg, tin thi #<nnen' swi 
Aildrcn af e $et to work ; frmi JODO to ISOO are €m^ 

*» :i(klofe«i 



^^ 



132 



CHOPS >Or COMMd-fLY CULTIVATED. 



ployeJ, one year with anollier, for three weeks or 3 
month. Ill crop years, still ijreater iiumbfrs are em- 
ployed ; above 500 hamis from qtlier [tarishes. find 
employ. Tlic average pnnlace, 9 chI, i;cr actc, ut 
4^ percivt. One acre hns yielded 100/. Mr, Pooke 
has sold a crop for ISOO/. ; but the same land, in 
other years, hail only brought 40/, The crop was so 
deticient in 1703, that he set his on the ground that 
year at 1000/. less than a medium year. By the same 

lethotl of c^ale Illation, the delicicncy of the parisli 
was estimated from 10 to 12,000/. The calcillatiott 
oftheonnunlexpenscsof plnntini; and keeping up one 
acre of hops, which this srnsiblc plautcr was so obliging 
to draw tip nccortlmg to a reqnest I made him, I shall 
insert in this place, as if is done with exactness, u id 
llie result of more than half n eortnry's experience. ' 

■ *' I begTn the yenr with Jnntwry ; in which month, 
d"- thf l.i'S;infting of Febrnriry, it may be proper tw 
jtlongh up kiid tu plant with hops. 

i^pghing one acre nine iiitlics deep, if^ /* n 10 fl 

.^themonld will allow it, set at > 

E^ftrrowing (he same very deep and tine, 7 4 

j^st before it, is planted, ,..„ j 

ajfflfilfg- 1200 hofcs with a spude, to^i 
plant the hops in i>t six fitt square, 
.nlilcl) IK tliC qnoiitily uf hdls an sicre 
will contaii> at that distance (though 
Ai}>.y :a\c planted at various disluEict^, 
.according to the humour of the 
.planter) ; 'the holes to be made square, 
.ftwut nifie inches over, and about nine 
laches deep, ot' which a man wilt make 
ppe hundred and a half ia a day, 

%iucl)) per acre; is „»..„.- J 

Cjarjy foiward, ....« 



eBOPS NOT COMMON LVCULXiVATBB. 



f33 



£A 6 



i 10 



19 



Brought forwiird, .m.,-.-. •. 

Twenty-four cart-loads of dung and 

mould, \?cll mixed together, and 

rolled^ each load to contain Ig cwt. 

nils. 3d. per load per acre, —^m......^. 

If we allow one good slioveUfull, or ra-"" 
ther more, to each hole, the putting 
of which in the holes, and filling thcno^ ! , 
up with the best mould that comes ou^ 
of theui, made fine by clioppiiig it a 

• • • ■ 

little in the h9l£ with: the spade^ •»•••••• 

plants or sets for each holi^, the cost > 
of which ii(ill be, per. acre. .-— .m....**. ' 

aying the plants out, and setting themi . 

in holes per acre^ •••••* ^,....««.«— •••,#• -^ 

limming the acre twice in each alley, T. 
four times over in the summer, ••...^••m* ^ 
4}ciQg round the young plants, where') 
the shim cannot come, and weeding, 3 
nc shovel-full of the dun<i: and mould 
laid on each hill soon after Michael- 
mas, which will take up 24 of our 

cart-loads, at Is. 3d ,.••«..•• 

-A. year's rent for the land, «.., ,......*m*.. 1 5 

-A.U sorts of tj^nanl's taxes, .,•..••• 7 



1 1$ 



4 



16 



9 6 



1 10 




6 



£.9 &• 



" No proiluce from this first yeat's planting ; and as 

in Sussex in general, it is better to re^plant the hops 

once in ten years on the same, or plant frt^sh land, 

a proportionable part of the aboye sum should be 

added every year, to. the future cj^pense of keeping thf 

]M>p-ground up the ten years it may be supposed to 

remain. . 

Ik 3 ^' Janu^ry^ 



f January, tlie second year, bwt iii which l!ic bonj 
!ivill be first uoled. 
Digging Ihc young hops in this month, \ 

or Febnmry, at U. id. per 100, or ytL-r^ £.0 16 fl 

acre, „ ^ 

prcEsing and Diending the young liiiU? n 9 r 

wilh more plants, ifnr«lful, 3 

Sharping the poles, and setting them up, 7 n J" 

at pet acre, „ - 3 

■Tying the vin<¥ to the poles, 10 

]Ialf-hilling, that is, laying aljout three, 
good shovels-full of fine earth, taken/ n 9 r 
put of the alleys, on each hill, iit 9^tf. C 

per 100 hills, ar per. acre, ' 

Hoeing round the hills, there Ix'ing more? n " n- 
to hof when pok'd, being farther round , 3 

£himming, us before, ...^ 16 

Branching, « - 1 6 

Whole-hilling, at 5d. per 100, or \u-r ncrc, ."> 
Incidental expenses, such as tying, or )«'l- 1. 5 
ting up poles that may be blown down, J 

Stripping and stacking tlu* pples, 4 

One year's wear of Ibe first poles, there ^ 

being three to a Iiill, or 3600 on thc> 4 10 ( 

acre, at IS feet lung, m ^.^ 

Tithe, _ 10 

' 133 loads of dung and mould laid on~i 
each acre, a load to every nine hills, [ 
once iu two years, to be spread and ^ 4 3' 
dug in at Is. 3d. per load, is^. 6s. 3d.i\ 
the half of that to be charged yearly, J 

Carry forward, ..,!..,. £.14 i 
Bf 



/ 



Brought forward, ....... £. 14 8 H 

All sorts of fonant's taxes, such as poor- ^ 

tax, church*ta:t, way-tax, and hith-> 7 o' 

dribd-lax, set at .•••.••.••••.•—••••••-—•-— y 

Part of the expense of the first year's pUtnt- -j 

ing, with something for the interest of > 15 

that money, set at, yearly, •••-—•—.— ' 
Interest for the money laid out yearly on 1 n H 

the acre of hops, •..•••*••••••••—•...•••••.•••-.•• '* 

Dreeing and mending the hops with 

plants, will an future be more than I^ A S 6 

charged for the young ones, by per 

Q'Cre« ••••••••••••••«••«•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 

Tbe hop-ground will in future teqiiirfe 

larger and longer poles, the je&tfy 

'^tar of which wfll be 71. 4*. per aCtcf> 

that is S/. 14;. per ann. more than thd 

*^^ear of the first * poles, which added 

^ the above 4/. 10;. charged fbt the 

irear of the first poles, makes it in fu«^ 

lure 7/. 4;. per ann. 
S:a[pense to pole the acre of ground, m«.* !2 14 

f^he e^rly expense of raiisingand keeping 

up an acre of hop-grpund for 10 years ^ 19. 1$ 1| 
. in this place, i^ .••••-—•*• —•••»•.••«• 

l^o keep it in high cultivation, as it is ge- 
nerally done in this parish, it may^ 20. ft 
safely be set at yearly per acre,.-*, 



mA 



fpMp»W,^ 



^^ Suppose this parish to average at Bcwt. of hops per 
Ucre, one year with another, which 1 do nol think it 
does, there would be little or^no profit at 4/. pei- cwt. 
as I will endeavour to prove. 

k4 The 



19^ CB0P5 NOT COMMONLY CULTIVATEB. 

Tlie expense of the bop-land yearly, as i qq ^ q 
above, J ' 

Picking, drying, duly, anil sending toj 

London, being our market, and sell- > 12 ^ 
ing tlicin, will cost U. \Qs. jicr c«t. * ■ 



£.S« 



" I am perBundcd in my own mind , if tlie hops tlioiil *" 
not keep up tq a smart price, the platitatiim must t>*5 
roduccd. I have bought, in my time, IQOpuIr^ r»« 
the same sort, and at the same placeTnt4s, firf. nsbavT^ 
been sold about two years ago at 2ls. prr !00. It w:i* 
55 years since I bought them cvt U. 6f/". i* 

'* The parisli of Sale hurst, wiiich is usu;illy cidlrtl Ivot 
bcrtsbric'ge, from Ihc jiauii^ of the village, is )>up|){wxl 
to have the best plantation of haps in the oontity, t\]C 
land being kindly for thfm, especially about J.he 
church, where it ip rich. This eoimly may average 
at fromScwt. to 6 cwt, pci; acr»^, one year wjlh ano- 
ther, hut not more. This parish l\as upwards of 300 
ao^es qf Jiop-groundin it at thjs tMU^', i)utl cannot say 
exactly how much. 

"In my calculation of the value of dilRtrent articles iit 
raising arid keeping up hop-gFound^ I nmy have proba- 

* The luual kngth of bop-polcs i« frofn II in 16 ktt. Ash are tht 
beft, cfreptipg chesnut, which ate not co|nmrDly med : ^llon »rc 
^od, if the]' arc not tet (he Erst year; if ■□, tbey are apt \a grow 
crooked: beech Tery badv—^. Jl 

Various and manifuld have been tffe advantages rcsulling from fbe 
Btodj- of horticulture, but fn no one instance would it prove more truly 
benctida] than in producing a dwarf hop, I propose it to be a itolqeet' 
for p premiupi ; ttie art cft^e gfpitutt yould certainly accomplish it.-^ 
JUr. TraylH. 



CROPS NOT Cl^>M>IONLY.CULTYTAi;PI>*' UT 

iAysci some falbcr loo high,, and others rather too low; 
but| upon the whole, I believe it >vill. be found to be 
|2carly the truth ,^ and not any great, error^ I jprcsuinep 
jn an^ of it^ Our county in general do not grow 
the crops wcdo, ncilher is it so well cultivated anc} 
inanurcd ; consequrntly are not at the samc.e^peitiie ; 
generally^ they that look after it best make, most of it; 
but there are some pieces of land so unaccountably 
kind for hops, that they are better by nearly ohe-half 
the viilue of the expense of maintainiug it, than others 
Arc adjoining ; and yet the best judges on, earth could 
not have known whicli would have succeeded before 

T • 

tbey'had been plante<1; but there are infinite quaiitUicfi 

.01 land where there is not any part of it ever can sue* 

i?ced. The grejit unccrtamty of the crop, ocifafiiou^ 

bops to be a subject of gambling ) and ^o many pcopU). 

speculating on them, increases more the uncertaintj 

^f the price; that some people will be getting ropn^y 

hy planting and dealing, when others must be losing. 

Upon the whole, I really believe th^e are such grc^ 

Quantities of bop-ground planted wlier« there must be 

nioney lost by it, that although many have undoubt^ 

^ly been very considerable gainers, yet take the whole 

body of planters together, I have juy doubta whether 

^t has been of much advantage to them ; but as soon n$ 

t>ne is tired, another will. take it up; for so long aa 

*here are a few go d prices in the lottery, peppjc. will 

bny tickets, tbpiigh the chances pf gainiuju^ are against 

Hem." 



V. CABBAGfS, 

Are little cultivated ; only by a few individuals is it 
Aat an^ att^^ntiop Ts paid to lheiii» Ip the strong 

soil 



. 138 CndPS NOT COHHMOHVr CULTlTATisb. 

« 

soil >?hic1i is iH aduplecl €o turnips, cabbages votlU 
turn to fueat advantage. It is bjr intcilfoaving siieh 
t^rbps as tlie&e, by judicious managi'mt^nt, yfilU corii^ 
that such an arrangement of crops trill Ijetter support 
each other, and rear up a greater proportion of idockm 

The culture of cabbages would perhaps he onetiif 
ill c greatest means of meliorating the husbandry of tl)e 
Weald. Bttt (hat they <lo not appear (*very where 
adapted (o this adhtsivo clay, is seen from the cuUtVii* 
tion of them in tlic Stag-park iit Petworlh. The pre- 
paMtion by itanuring, tillage, hoeing, &c. were well 
attended to: there Wit$ a crop, and a tolerable oriij; 
hiit they burst, and rotted. Wet seasons and hurnlld 
soils may so'irietlm^s ctinse this ; but draining is a 
"remedy ; and froW the Ccipifal manner in \rhich the 
Stag«i)ark has be^n drained, I have *not fi doubt of its 
now prodticihg as fine crops of cabbages as need be ex- 
pected. 

Mr. Davi^AVas for some years a cultivator; hesowefl 
the seed in his garden in March ; if the seasoit i^da 
wet, later. May, ot June, he plant(*d, either updifi 
plain land of ridges ; the latter, the best method. With 
l^egard to the comparative value ascertained with tur- 
pips, he estimates an acre to be more than equal to two 
acres of turnips. lie first plants ihc flat Dutch; 
after this, the drum-head ; then the Scotfli. The 
Dutch are the best, as they stand hard weather bet-^ 
ter than any others, and weigh heavier ; he has had 
them as high as 30 and 40 lb. 

June, 1789, he planted one acre ain} a half of the 
flat Dutch (sent feim by mistake for the drum-head); 
he horse-»hoed twice, and twice hand^hoed. In Ja- 
ntlary, having no other food for bis cows than straw, he 
began cutting, and gave his ccjws three pcjr d^ each, 

with 



wi(h straw, for a week ; he theil Ihetestsed the quantity 
io six of seven : he found by a wlntey ihilch-cpifr Ii^ 
bad then, that they produced a great de^} pf ihilk; 
Wis other cows gaitied flesli very fast. The iiegiijinihg 
of March, all the'cabbiige* were consumed'; he theri 
gave hay twice a day ; but the cows fell off, and did 
not thrive equally as u|)on cabbage and straw; thrcp 
cows out of six slunk their calves. 

The next year he planted five acres with jihrcc sorts, 
drum-head, long-sided, and Scotch field-»cabbage, of 
wrtich the former were the best, although he was partial 
to the flat Dutch, as hardier. In winter he began feed- 
ing his cows; and they did well, and found the sup* 
riition of cabbages causing the slinking their calves, 
be erroneous, having none that did it* He gave 
csit)bage to his fattening bullocks, which were then 
^pon corn, reducing it a third, as he found that 
^>oth together was rather too strong food : they throve 
^^^ter than before with corn. He had at that time 

^'^venteen ewes (which a ram had stolen among), that 

• 

ye^aned twenty lamibs ; as he had nothing but hay and 

^orn, except cabbage, be shut them up in a barn, 

^nd fed with cabbage three times a day, and with 

iCorn twice. The lambs soon began to eat ; he then 

lB?eighed once a week, and they gained one pound and 

% half for the iirst three weeks, and afterwards mdt;e ; 

at eight weeks he sold. for 25s • per lamb, weighing 

.eight and nine pounds per quarter ; the ewes went off 

in Ju1y«at 25s. 
The following is the weight of a crop, communicated 

Jby Mr. Kemp, of Coney borough. 
Seed sown middle of March; planted June 1, and 

)irateied, and twi^e ^R^ii^Bxds^ tfai^ ^CSasbn beijlg a dry 

Novem- 



J40 CROPS goT coinioNi.Y cri,TivATEn. 

NovcinixT 7, 1794, weighed 40 ; the average she 
(the whole weight tiSO lb.) bi'irig I7lb, each. Qusn>- 
tily of land, three roodfi sixfeen perches. Number of 
cabbijges ■lllfi, at 171b. cadi, is 31 Ion 4c»l. 841b. 
(1 lUlb. (o (lie cvit.) Sorts, an equal number of Scotch, 
snil druni-hesds. . ' 



VI. CAIIROTS. 

carrots are not cultivated to any pxtent, iis fiioj 
for catlle; Ihcy might uiiqiicstionnljly bi; of siiigubr ^ 
ndvanta^e, where the soil is liglil, and deep; perhaps . 
ofall other ap])Iic»lions wliatt'ver, Ibry are the most 
bencfieiul Ibr t'allening bullnclis : ihry arc excellent f^ 
horses, and good for sheep. Mr. Kemp found theft 
well suited as foi>d for horses ; his largest produce has 
becii 280 bushels over two-thirds of an acre. It w 
greatly to be regretted, that the excellent qualities of so 
vnluablc a plant are not lieilor understood. The Earl 
of Egrcmont, in the winter of 179G, fed hia large dairy 
<if cows with carrots, and with great success, and the 
buttcT excellent. 

The following statement of a crop of his Lordship's^ 
shfws Ihc vabt productiveness of carrots, and of 
parsnips. 

■ 43 of carrots ..... 270, equal to lOOi per. acre.; ^ 
. 53 of parsnips ^... . 203, ditto 613 dittok 
G waste, 

loi 



. fAnd thi^ too wtlliout manure. Cerloia it is, flifit 
afl«r parsnips, (hey are the richest food that ^ro«^; 
_,,,, V mora 



tHOFs kot c'oMMoiCLT cvtiiylftA^ tit 

« . ■ 

more valuable than potatoes^ and nrach more so thah 
iamips. Upon sandy loams, there cannot exist m 
doubt of the superiority of them (with good mauage- 
nient, and judicious application) to every other food 
(^dttivated in England foir stock ; they ate more pro« 
d'uctive than most other roots, are mote nutritious ; 
are drier, and more sacchdrine (excepting parsnips) ; 
and many thousand acres there are 'in tliis county , 
which might be cultivated to immense advantage ia 
(his manner, 



VIL RHUBARB. 



■, \ 



The Earl of Egrempnt cultivtitM iHerh^kim palHi^i-^ 
Ittmfor medicinal utas, and has it dried and cured tin 
^ pnA order and pUf^eservation,' as any: imported from' 
abroad. It ia taken out of the groand"^ In autunm^ 
ftfter standing seven or eight years ; it is theii wadhed) 
df the dirt, and dried, either in ' the suti^ or laid ovet^ 
the flues in the hot-houses, after having been cut into' 
pieces. Mr. Andre, the domestic surgeon and apo* 
thecary, uses no other, and finds no diffisrcnce between 
this and- the foreign. A considerable saving mighty 
he made in the importation of rhubarb^ if othera cul- 
^Tated it for like purposes* 



VIII. OPIUM, 

(Papaver somniferum). 

The largest quantity of this invaluable drug thafr 
iras ever cured in this country, was raised in 1797 
from the Earl of Egremont's garden at Petworth ; and 
the fact now indeed thoroughly ascertained, that all 
^ foreign opixun id highly adulteratcd| renders it an 

object' 



Ml? CHOP? jfot coMMpiitt c^i^fir^f;^^ 

(^ject of immense consequence tp /^i^cou^gis tl^e i^ 
'mcstic growth. Mr* Andre is conyiifdcdf that in^ 
his practice^ he never made use of any df tjiis JrUg; tj^^ 
ooiild bvcompared lyith thiSi Ifhc operaltoa pf pojflect^ 
iJi^ the produce^ is <^i&cted bjr a gentle ihci{si|i>|i daft tie 
heads, as they grov> with a khife (jv 6{hjpx fM^tjf, ip^^ 
sirumenty whi(^ is frequently rep(?ate4 ; ^i^d the^fij^ 
which exude from tl^t^. wound ^ a^e scraped ipt^ t^ 
earthcu vostsel^ dried by the sun, ai^d preserved ib|? ii^V: 

IX. SAINFOIN. 

Very Corisiderdhl^ .tracts are |)eeuliarly adapted td 
the culture of this invaluable plants 
-.sThe chalks ills ' eOfttatrt Pmnf iho%swij^wmiof 
ifttidj tjpcm.whick np otfaei: plaatj.has eyier jei^.h^if^ 
difi^flvism) tOi. thrive io $mh 94Hfi^i§^. M. this^ aiidt 
Hoae; tibiok ever promisddi foir^ - hppcs ,6f sucjDcfto uii 
tliie>&iidiistrisiiis farmei! for the.e:v'pfinse of c#)tivati|]g jf j 
6a)careoUs «arths> of aU Qther ^^(jils^ ^ire tk^ l>^ $a«ltedi 
to tliei^rtiiwth ofsaitifc^in. 0a|L tbe elsertroas wbi^lf, 
have l;cen mttde in this liite^ are W^ak qfnd feeble^ taiA 
dertaiiiiy not coinmcnsurate to tlie merits of the plant.- 

^ozcirtg4^^li is usual to sow the seed with barley ftf 
the Spring. Another, but a wcTse method^ is either" 
with wheat in autumn, or harrowed on it in the spring".' 

Tlie sail should always be in good heart, clear of all 
rubbisl), and always ^succeed a capitally managed tut-* 
i\'\p fallow. If the land is turniped for the two pre-' 
ceding years,- a better crop will be ensured ; and twfc6' 
feeding lenriches the land*. Six bushels are sowft withi 

• r . 

■ I I I ■ I..— M^— I I I ^ ' ' ■ ■ — — ^^^. 

• I 

• Turrniping land for two years previoili to sowing it with iamibin^ 
If, in my bpinion, tin necessary. If it is properly attended to one year^' 
It will in general be found sufficient, and 15 or 4/. per atr« «aved iik ex* 
jiensesj by a Ctd]p of corn gained-^Jlfr. H^, Daim, - ' 



CROPS ^Ot COMUONt.Y CULTIV^TEIl. 143 

%h.e corn, and pcrliaiw not q'ti'C ll"^ usual quantity of 
liarli'j', tliiit llic cftt'cl ul' l'it> iirjfL' a proiluci; inij^lit nc»t 
vndiUigLT (lie tonjcf aliuol.s. 

L Feeding. — Snirifoiri, aflctliavin;; Ijcenmown, shoulil 

^F «ut bt.' fed till Miclm.'liiiaSf \\]\fn it ^t'ill afTont great 
^ft plenty uf gritsii lill Cliri^iduas ; it jnu^t (lien 1m; hid bjr 
^E fur tile scjthi', but ncviT fL-d cIu!Il-: aiiecp, by clusu 
H ieetUng, nro itpl to bile the cnnvn of tlie root, which, 
injures the pliuil. Many are docldv-dly of o|i)iiiun, 
that it ou;jht never (o be fed. The durution, from 
«'ight or ten years to fmirleen or fiflecn years, if well 
niaiiurcd Mitli ashes. It is the best food which cnn 
be given to liimbs, being sure to preserve them in 
._aigoiid Iiiibit of body ; nndthey are particuhirly fond 
•<i( it. Il is equally acceptable to hordes, iutil no hay 
-comparable to it. Sheep will feed upon i( (ill I'hiist- 
nias, without the expense of cilhcr turnips or hay; 
and there is no otlier mode of managing chalk-bills to 
such profit, as no subsitiluti: wtlL maintain such a 
btock. 
« Mr. Pitinix, of Upinardin, has a thorough know* 
ledge of the value of sainfoin ; and the great breadth 
_of it over his farm, is a feature in the economy of his 
business, which at once indi<ales his superior dis- 
cernment in this blanch o( his prof<.-ssion. He has 
discovered, that the cuHivalion of sainfoin enables him 
to keep a far greater number of sheep than any other 
artificial grasses; and il is generally the poorest soilf 
i^hich arc laid down with it. For this reason, upon a 
^rm like his, valued at 7.v. per acre, the lund sown 
■ with sainfoin cannot be eBtimatcd at more than 5,t. 
B ^DW every possible expense in laying this land with 
H jratuibia, is repaid by the two crops of turnipsj^andttrp 



barley' 



balicj. - WitU fiucb a preparati^m^ so ejtbellent j a)(il 
iSfO hi;;ltly td be toitimcnded, the saiiifoirf Will last gtnA 
to mow full ten ycfars, atld bd worth S^\ per tettf, 
-which is ten times the n^nt of the land i and all iiuB 
wtChon t ' any expense^ eithct* ibt 6(3ctf or df t iifage. Fof 
the next four y^ts it may fairly be valued at SOi* ipet 
aim. Th€* proctub^ varied from SSf to '$(ycwti 



X, LUCERN.. ..|.. ..:,i 



Lucem is commonlv cutiivateti in tfie imnfccnate 



pieces are very fine; §OJb. of sect! to the a^' iipoft 
the richest and deepest soils ; not answering to advak^ . 
fcigQ upon any other. They mow it three times^ to 
soil their teams in the stabte. It is likewise made 
intd hay. 

The Rev, Mr. Durnford has for some years cultt* 
vated lucern in a small way at Berstcad. He piC* 
"pared (he land with turnips and a fallow, marled and 
harrowed, and tlie seed drilled in oi^^litcHJii inches frotH 
row to row, the bi'ginning of June. The firsl yefaftr 
was once out ; the second jear, three tinicjf ; the tbirtf^ 
four times. It is now in its eighth year, birt it b^ 
gins to fail. Mr. Durnford stocks it at the rate of 
tour Iiorsos^ and as many cows, per aae in stvnimerif 
it gives excellent butter ; but it ougbt to be cttt tlie 
day before it is given to the cows* After each catting^ 
it is hand'hoed. 

The Earl of Egromont has ciiltivatcd it in the padU 
docks for soiling cattle, drilled. It \\a9 thrice raowtTy 
azxd wherever it failed, Ms Lordslitp Scattered cllV* 



CE6P8 XOT COMMDSlLr eutTIVATED, 145 

coiy-seed ; and the whole prodifeed aa abundanf iler^ 



XL CHlCOftV. 

Tills plant) by the estperimental irri^fofVemeni of tfe/ 
has recently been introduced to the knowledge o^ 
the farmer. For rapidity df growth, laxuriance of 
burthei^, |iUtrit|ou8 ^u§litie& of, th§; food, and dii- 
tsition, it stands uiiriyaltea. Alt sorts of cattle and 
dmeep'feed upon it with itviditj. Where it ba^ beiem 
ou^ltivated^ it is usually sown wiffi tdcni corn, mix^ 
in a certain proportion o( dtber artificial gr£Lifts<^9e^ds< 
X*I)e Earl of E^r^mo^t^ haviag ascertained tlie ^ertt 
pf it, spread the cultivatidn oyer seteral acnres, and 
finds it a mpst use^t and\pi[oiitdble plant. In 1798( 
i^nd 1799; he bad ^ajbovc 10(f acres of it^ and tbe use it 
'M^as of to him, in the suppoitt of fin immense stock ol* 
c«i,ttle and sheep, exceeded eyfitj thing thai pould hart^ 
i>e^ expected from the soilj and tbe benefit would 
hi!i.ve been jstill greater, had that stock been^tUl larger^ 
foY much of it ran for seed ; but this afterwards pro« 
^uced an evil, by ploughing it for whfeat. 



t- "^ 



^ Bj meani^ saiafom and lucenit with tlici addition #f 4^ot^^ di# 

^^*ier U laraMhed with what he calls artiJUidl grasjiu, (Mted, witli 

BOcd Aumagement^ to almost every land o£ soiL The finite to thf ch^k^ 

K^vell^r auid ftony lands ; the secoi^d, to light lands ; and the third, 

^<^ days. TeW placet indeed are so happy as to ^dmit the di^taitldn cC 

^ with eqttal success ; and yet we bbsenre diese xhrp€ growiA|^ tide bf^ 

^^ at t!he loot off the So4ith Doif(^s^ near Eastboume, satmiBg to vJA 

^IfPk fH^kJ^^i^f which should jflourith ihii mostt and yield tho j^eatidi^ 

ttfip, ,^ {his ivas jp a soil wherw tk« calcareous and argillaeeouf 

^eiie ip happily mii;edi that almost an^ vegetable might succeed; an4 

fR here we sow them, ploughing up a stubble upon a lett^ '^^ 

Ikwis iHt a^tOB^ toilhpede them^ with tight eliHtt oitpL^fi^bV* JnC^ 



■*■■ 



GIL\SS I^VNDS. 



-NATIJIIAL MEADOWS AJJD PASTUBES, 



h 



THE nianagemcnt of the meadow and pasture lands 
lues nol materinllj' vary froai fbnsc common practices 
phich usually govern other coiinlk's in this importimt 
division of the work. Here indeed there is but loo 
;^.uch reason to complain of negligence, with respect 
the improvement of grazing land. Pasture ovcr- 
■un with rubbish, or covered with standing water, 
rom iuattentiun to draining, arc the necessary conse- 
quences of such a slovenly conduct. Many opportu- 
"ies of watering meadow land arc at present lost 
the owners : a due alfcntion to the principles of 
igiition, in converting the various streams which in- 
.Jersecttlw; country, to thtse useful pnrposes, would open 
«aines of iniixtiauslible treasure. Irrigation is but lu- 
^Ily known. It is only in the western paris of Sns- 
Sfer, "that any signs of it arc conspicuous. The want 
#f a proper mode of managing pasture is the more re- 
prehensible, because it is obvious, tliat the Weald in 
gencraiyfrom its natural quality for grass, as well as 
from the uncertainty of ensuring the production of full 
crops of grain, is fur better adapted to the raising of 
cattle, than corn. The tenantry here, from considering 
^e corn product ae the main object in view, lose sight 
of that arniiigvmeut w hich the nature of the soil should 
' "" ever 



ercr dictate to the farmer the system to fuUovi^; :Wet 

and tenacious hungry clays seldom • pay th'e oWner 

the expenses of cultivatiou ; and whea^.in additfcn, 

is considered the natural impediments to corny, wbicli 

iovr from a country so thickly interspersed ti^itfai 

f vood-land, wc arc surprised at diat ftttontion to: til* 

hgCj which occupies the thoughts of those famfirs^ 

and characterizes ail their measured. Hence it is Vf6 

discorer the difference between the circumstances 6f 

the farmers who live on the l&iuth Downs, aha in ihe 

Yfeald. The former adapting the crop to the lanq^ . 

know the sensible efiects of such a syi^tem ; tie olher 

expect the same consequdiices, when working witfi 

diferent materials. 

The following ar^ the grasses wUdh are foiind oni 
&e gohanna-ground in the neighbourhood of Pet« 
tralrth^ in very good up-tahd m&tddw itictiersitel/ 
Imit ; the most numdttfti6 AisU v . 

Trifoliam pratense. 

t^estnca pratensis. 

Cjnosurus cristatus* 

jlolcus lanatusi 

Hanunculus acris* 

Heiracium spondyllum : sheep oiid hogd rerf fontl of iU 

Aaatago lanceplata. 

.Ldiam perenne. 

Dentaurea nigrai . 

Trifolium repensi 

Anthoxanthum odoratiini^ 

Poa annua* 

Poa tririali^. » 

founex aeetosella. 

Poa pniteDusis. 

liOtt&s comiculatUs^ 

h 2 I/athyrus 



346 NATCHAL MEAEOWH AND PASTURES. 

Lathyriis prnlnisis. 

Acbiltea milli-foliiim. 

Wileum pratenke. 

Avciia flavcsccMs. 

Dactj'lus glonuTLihis. 

Rammculus bulbo^us. 

Kanoiiculus ropms. 

Marsh. 

B<'!ii(]n> Ihv naluriil pasture and iiicadow-Iatul, n 
several tliousaiid acres of mar.sU-laiul, eitlicr situated 
along Ibe const, or in the ncigtibonrhood of the riven 
wliicli cmpfj themselves info Ifie sea. These manjifn 
pi'tliaps are to be ranked amongst the finest of tLcir 
kind that are my whete to be met with ; and (he con- 
duct of the grazier in the management of the fertile 
level, is (he direct reverec of that unsystematic po- 
licy which is (he guide of the up'Iand farmer in (he 
arrangement of hi* grazing Uind. 

Very considerable improvements huve been cffectfil 
of late years in llie marshes. The brooks or levrfi 
have bct-n, and arc now, sometimes subject 10 be 
flooded with (lie violent nuns which periodically flirt 
from the hills, but more parlirnlarly in the winter, 
■If, rts is wmietimtfi fhe case, Hh'sc inundations take 
place in summer, the whole produce of the land foi 
that year is lost by the stagnant muddy water; and no 
cattle will taste the herbage that year. The tidei* 
another evil sometimes complained o?, as the banks an 
not every where put into a. proper slate of defence 
ngainst the incursions of the sea. An act ttbs hov- 
tvcr oblainal a few years ago, for widening ihe chaif 
iiel near Lewes, and making a shorter cut to the sea} 
nud it has cssei^ially bencSted the Lew«s and Laugli' 
Ion 1j«v«U.. 




SECT. 11. CLOVEH, TREFOIL, KAY- GRASS. 

The artificial grasses in tUc hijriicst request, and 
cbiefly cullivated, nrcTcil ami wliitc clover, Irefoil* 
Dill ra^-. Tlicsc plniils, which modern Imslximlry 
bs brought into ciiUiration, must in every respect be 
ccnsiilcroil as invalunbli: grusscs, iiml adding in no in* 
coiisidcmble degree to the wealth and prosperity of 
llie fanner. In many places we lind an almotit unU 
fCTsal growth of Dutch clover and trefoil, ll is seci> 
along the siile of (he turnpike-roads, in the lanes, und 
ill every field on tlic soulii side of the hills; about 
Sdsca, it springs iip spunlaueonsly in I he greatest luxu* 
[iancc; juid by clearing the land of spear-grass, ^n^ 
<tber weeds, judicious mnnn^ement in a few year^ 
Toiild convert these lands inln the finest meadows ii^ 
(lie world. There arc mi better plants than these ; and 
tlic indigenous growth should excite fanners to culti< 
nte these eicelleni plants, and obtain a fine fleece 
of cloTcr and trefoil, where none is visible at present 
but tlje spontaneous growth. 
The quantity of seed is various ; but the ruUowing 
I i| considered as the proper proportion : 

^^» Dutch clover, « S gallons. 

^B Tretoit, ....» S ditto. 

^P Hay, ,. ,.., 4 ditto. 

m This is for pcrnmnrnt pasture; but when the land 
■ 8 laid down for a layer of one or two years, it i? then ^ 

I Clover, «.»» ^..^~ 1 gallon. 

J Trefoil, „ I ditto. 

Ray, 3 ditto. 

L 3 However^ 



150 



CLOVER, TaEFOlt, AND HAY-GB 



However, (there is no fixed rule in cases of ttils 
kind. The quantity of seed soivn is of little conso 
queiice in any of ttc operations of farming, bejoml 
the hedge wliich bounds the licld. Tlic course in 
which these artificial grasses arc introduced, is ge- 
nerally with barley and oats ; sometimes with wheat in 
fpring. Clnver is certainly the most valuable of any 
of our grasses; but land has been known to be eurfeild 
with it, when rcpeiiledly sown. 

The cultivation of our best natural grasses has bwn 
long callrd for, and lately n-coni mended by that elii- 
borate boUinist, C'urtis, and by many others, as likely 
to turn up a very valuable acquisition. No brandies 
of the art of agriculture arc less understood, thim a 
jight knowledge of the properties of our grasics, and 
the soil congenial to each ■ T.'ill very lately, they were 
entirely neglected, excepting ra^, and one or two 
others, all of them inferior to rnaiiy of those in a na- 
tural state. 

As there is undoubtedly a particular period wlini 
the grasses Are in a proper stale for mowing, and as 
that state is most probably about llie time of their 
flowering, should all the under-mentioned grasses be 
ibund, upon fair trial, to deserve cultivation, the fol* 
lowing diiigraph wo old seem lo divide them into pro- 
per assortments to be sown togelhw; snpjwsing ihe 
fields or meadows wiicre they are to be sown, to he 
principally intended fur hay. If an assortment I'm 
^hree crops only be desired, the brackets on the right 
hand will shew the division. If^/*^e crops are re- 
quired, the brackets on the left hand will direct to the 
assodment: in the diviaion of three parts, the first 
crop will bo fit to cut early in June; the second 
, about ^iUsuiameri 9iid th,^.(^/r(f a|)out tlte middleof 
Ki^flVite- July. 



JaKr» iaithe ilimtiot^'o(€Yepvti0'^fi&^ be 

ripe aboat the latter end .of Ma]r ;•. ^b& $eeo4df jthe 
bf^nkig 'of Jane.; the f Atrcf, abpiiifMi^Jsmmioer; jthe 
fmlrthy about the beginning of July; .aod'th^^jf^i 
' tymiOdleotlft : i^ "- 

. ^ 7be annual meadoxoy vernaly "smpifihr^alked ntka* 
ioWy:$maUfcscmej.(hgHailyjffiifiavp oat^'oxidfine b^nt^ 
«em to be best adapted for the feed .of< itheep ; .the 
rest for tbe larger ;ki^ds of , cattle $*r-4li^ ^ft'hfume^ 
tn^th^stalked meadow, smallet .f^cU^^ 9S»d,^eAom 
oo^rare partial t0>drjr 90ih i-n^l^t v^pna/^ fOfmilf 
rotgh'Stalked meadow^ quake^graas^^ mffidoW'/esiut^ 
*ofi.gT<ikss^ mcud03O'f{arley^ C(4stail9)Vind»uir$h*i^nty 
llolurish most in moist soib ; and soUis , o£ ant ^ intarine- 
diattequalityy^^ ifi if^oyit^ luid drynpfs, uri^rbest 
6utt the remainder. 



I 



2 



- I 



t '. ■ 

I ."»«r •!■ i'f#'''. >^'l••.■ 

'Annual meadow (poa jmniift)^ Jtowctoi ^rst' 
' weekit^May* . 

Vernal (anthoxanthum odoratum), .flowers se- 
cond week in .May. 
Foxtail (alopecurus pratensis), flowers second 

week in May. 
Soft brome (bromos mollis)^ flowers third 
, week in May; 
Smoothrstalked meadow (poa ptatensis), flow-" 

ers fourth week in May. 
Rpug-h-stalkied meadow <poa trivialis), flow- 

.ers first week in June. 
I^aller fescue (fesiuca oyina, rubra, dutius-^ 

cula), flowers first week in June. 
Quake-grass (briza media), flowers second' 
week in June. ^ ' 



I 



r 






fflSfiH, ttCrail., AND HAY-GB 

'ftdugh cOcbsfdOt (dactjrlis glomerata), 

SeCoftd week in June. 
Tall oat (avena elalior), flowers second week 

iR Jun^. 
Meadow fescue (fcsluca pratensis), Aowctb 

third w-eck in June. 
Darnel (loHum perenne), flowers fonrlh week 

in Jun«. 
'DogstSil (cynosurufi <!ristat«s)j flowers fourtli 

■week ill June. 
Yello* oal Cavcna flavescens), flower* first 

week in July. 
Soft ^ass (holcHs lanafut>f flowers ^craid 

week in July, 
Fine bent (^ostB capUIaris), flowers third 
. week in July. 
Meadow-barley (hordeum pralense), flowers 

third week in July. 
Catstail, (plilcum pralense), floweftlbirdwtek 

in July. 
Marsb^bent (agroatis albn), flowers third week 

hi July. 



i 

3 



t 



Id laying down land with arti^cial grasses, clover, 
trefoil, ray, buriifl, &c. it iiiis beeti supposed, that 
to feed the young layers the year they are sown, 
is prejudicial to the Juluie {p'owlh of the plant. The 
Earl of Egremoiit hiie laid mitny acres with Dutch clo- 
ver, ray-grass, and bin net, ia one field, with red clo- 
vet, ray-grass, and trefoil in another ; and to discover 
■whetber close feediug was detrimental, his I<ordship 
covered these layers with (ibepp in the autumn, and 
at Chrisbnas, after having contributed to tatten many 
itheq 



J 



RAT HAR»T»T» t5$ 

iveCheMi for SniithfieUI, othert irete iumed iir^ aad 

nothing could be more favourable thati the fotuie pro* 

gress of these layers. His Lordship is satisfied, that 

60 fyr from its being injurious to the grasses, it is 

lughly advantageous to feed them, as it enables the 

plants to dirow out a thicker, more vigorous, and 

luxuriant herbage, the following springs he there* 

fore constantly pares them to the root in the autumn 

and winter, and again in the spring, and through 

the summer^ 



SECT, III. — HAY HAKVEST. 

Ik Ae operation «f hay-making ia Sassex, there ase 

particular fenturea in the management which de* 

^^rve commendttlioa. If the season permits, it gene^ 

^^Ily commences about the end of June : after it u 

<^ut, the swarth is shook out ; it is then heaped into 

^mall cocks; the second day it is windrowed, and 

Sometimes made into the larger cock, and the third 

^3ay carried : this is when the weather is favourable, 

^ut hay-making so much depends upon the state of 

^he weather, and the judgment of the farmer, that 

^there is no fixed rule of proceeding, where the work 

depends upon contingencies. An improvement in 

making it would be, to have the hay always cocked 

nt night. Meadow^Iand is mowed every year, and 

afterwards fed : upland pasture is cut every second 

year. The produce of the first, rises to two ton, and 

upwards, per acre ; the other seldom, upon an avet 

rage, exceeds a ton and a half. Clover yields from 

one and a half to two tons and a half. 

The following singular and interesting method of 
applying }inseedH>il pa hay-rick3 intei^ded for fat* 



m HAT UJIBTKR. 

tenuigpibeastg^ 'merits the sttenttcfn of the cmiovfa; It 
wa» commufticated by the Sari of EgmooM. ,. *^ 






. 'f SIR, ■•: 

** I reteivtd your letter in tegard to oiling liay. 
I'fnade practice of it about three years; but aiwtyt 
Itbo^ to do it -when the -weather is fine, md canf gel 
it tip without taking much rain. My method is^'wben 
kaeking the hay, to taike tt water*pot, and spriiikle 
OTcr every layer very lightly a quart of linseed-dtl 
to a ton of bay. I find that the hay comes out of the 
rick very moist and very clammy: faftiug beasts and 
fatting sheep are very fond of it, and thrive upon it 
very fast. I think it not proper, to give- it to. bevies, 
or milch-cows^. as I think it is too hot;, t wish it not 
•to be reported' in my name, as I did it focmyowB 
ieourity. 

♦^ Your-'most obedient humble servant.** 

Salt. — When the unsettled state of the weather has 
damaged the hay in the field, salt has not unfre- 
qucntly been used, by sprinkling it 'with the hay in 
forming the stack. Mr. Edsaw, of Fittleworth, and 
hi^ father before him, have constantly adopted this 
practice, in the proportion of a gallon of salt to a ton 

• 

of hay. Mr, Edsaw has applied it to the hay which 
has been well made, as well as to that^which has bcien 
damaged I. 



8FXX. 



1&5 






s ■ 



* -'V • • 



SfECT. IV.-r-^EftDI^ra, 



* AftbH the hay is ctii and carried, pasture-land bf 
iBhially'fed with cattle and sheep. Few traces o# 
fiiny well ordered systematic arrangement are bera 
Tjisible. In the Weald, where much of the land is' 
under ^ass, the aftermath is pastured with bullocks^ 
<x>ws, young stock, &c. That admirable practice, 
ctf reserving the rouen for the pinching part of the 
spring, when all artificial ,proTenderfaib, arid before 
the young clover and other grasses hav;e began id 
throw out their slmots, is hardly known in the county. 
7he Earl of Egremont has usually some portion of 
the Home-park wattled off for this reason, either foe 
Ills' Lordship's dijFerent flocks, or for the^leer; and 
experience has declared the -beneficial '^flfects of it, fov 
now he has it in hib power to $liply the hay for other 
purposes, and save a considerable consumption by thJ 
deer, 

1799. His Lordship has oontinued this practice t0 
the present moment, and with increasing success.* He 
is now practically convinced, through a variety of 
severe and open winters, that the resource of rouen il 
one of the most important that can be secured on a 
farm. It is also a constant practice with Mr. EUman, 
atGljrnde, and Mr».Sherwin, at Petworth. Mr. Ett- 
man usually saves 40 acfes. ' 

Upon flock farms it is usually important to ensure^ 
m provision of this nature, to supply the place whicl| 
the deficiency of turnips, rape, rye, &c. unavoida^ 
bly occasions at that season of the year; 

In the nvirshes which border upon the sea, we find 
the grazier covering those ^ile and exuberant levels 




I3S FECSIKC. 

yfith the ^rr^fost quantity of stock which the soil i« 
capalile of bearing. The stock upon these manbes 
consist of ciiltle ati well as sh^'ep. In (be Level of Pe- 
Temcy, citttle were tinlvGrsally preferred la sbeep^ 
The marsh ground about Winchelsea ami Rye^ as it 
wants fresh >kalerj has been thought better cakubled, 
fnr sheep : these groumtii are univcrsRlIy stocked wittt 
tin-IB ; and the general rnle is, to have no snore bul- 
locks than whiit are sufTicieiit to keep the pasture fine», 
which is usually one to three or four acres. . Peveirecy. 
ka«ng plenty of wafer, was considered as better ailapti 
«d for oxen. It should seem as if this circumstance- 
had goverited the custom of the two marshes: tbo 
soif aad rent are nearly the same; yet tliere aie very 
few fbrliincs made in Pevensey, but many ahuut >'\'iiiT 
«helsea and Rye ; and this is attributrd to sheep being 
fcnml to turn out so much more profitable than oxen. 

But fhroiiglioot th(i whole range of Pcvcnsey 
Lerel, it is to be oliserved, thai the numlx-r of sheep 
Iiavc been very much incnasctl of late years. Grit- 
ftcrs have now discoverwl, from (he late rapid ait- 
Tanccs in the single atticte of wool, and the ittill iiit 
creasinj demand fi>r if, that sbr«p pay far belter tbaH 
beasts, whilst the loss is companilively less. 

It is not the usual euslom to wintei-^raze cattle. 
The land woiiJd be (oo nineh poaclieil, antJ tlicrc is no* 
always a siifllctent quiUility of grass to feed IheIn^ In 
warm wealhet the herbage grows so thick and luxarv" 
•iitly, thai the grazier's own stock, witb what he is 
fble lo procure frpm the hill-iarms, is insufiicicnl 
to pare it down ; but then it is allowed, that when the 
^rass springs up in this very rapid manner, there 
littb: substance in it. 

tXen are gm^iaUy cmployi^iil In the|ieveU to 

dfty 



i 



h 



re » M 

inoif ^^ 



^wn the oyer-gmwa hcrbnge, tm it grows rank, and 
«ftcop or cattle 4ure not iodined. to feed nlpan it. An 
irresistible proof would this be, that they are greatly' 
under-stocked (if superficially considered), and vtenred 
dily in May or-Junie, wlien^in ihc gxeale&t.luxitrtiincc4 

The increase m the quantity x&f &beep anaiially pa^vl 
tured, is to bcaccountedfor £rom the good joianagefnent 
4of the grazier in laying hi& lands dry, by opening and - 
Iceeping clean the ditches^ and making drains at prx>» 
per times to receirc the superfluous watens. Tiie ia^ 
Production of sheep, has also very much contributed 
ito augment the fertility of the land, and with it, tho 
quantity of stock ; as sheep, by their close bite, pare 
4pwn grass mudi neater, and tfayerefore leave no such 
^aste as cattle : moreover, tliey expose the ground to 
be mellowed by the winter frosts, and which produces 
in the spring a much finer herbage^, and a greater abun- 
dance of grass, "which in itself is cquul to maimre; not 
to mention the amendment immediately flowing from 
the sheep. 

The profit of these marshes is very considerable, as 
"may l)e gathered from tlie following estimate. 

The capital necessary for stocking 100 acres, will 
beat least 490/.: 350 sheep, and 130 lambs, and about 
a score of bullocks, of difierent ages« 

Annual Exposes upon 100 Acres » 

Rent, at 25s — . i'.125 

Rates, at 4^ « ** 20 Q 

•Tithe, at 2s ^. 10 

Scot, Is.Gd 7 10 

Highways, at Gf/. in the pound, 4 •>•«.... 3^6 



-*«^ 



Carry forward, #..< £* 163 12 6 

Brought 



158 FBCmvG. ' 

Broiight forward,' «..>f. 165. Ill: •6'' 

Church-tax, ^t 4rf. .......^ ..*.. . 2 O 0* 

Labour, U. per acre; tfaistling, Is. ; > 15 
' fences, 1*. ^ .■ \ 

.Uraminff, ••••••••••••••••••••••♦••••••••••••••••••o«i»««*« - s^ mnf 'v * 

Looker, •••m«.mm-— •— •— .••••-m«.m— •— •..iL..^** 5^ 0^0 

Lambing, •••-— •«•— ..t^MUp*.*^**.— ..m*^.*.^.. 15 

Olattmg, .......^ ^ ^ ...«uJ^ 5 0. 

Washing, dx. per 100, •••-..^--Mf— •»-•*• : 6 0;» 
Winding,Tnarking, attcndance-of three ^ * ^ | jg 0' 

men, at 3s, per score, «.^«— ••..- 7 
Keeping 150 lambs fhirty weeks in the > qq jc Qt 

Weald, at 3s, per. score, «.....*—.... 7 
Driving into the Weald, and back > . 4 g n' 

again, 12*. Srf. per score*, -«•*..— V 
Other incidentals, 6d. per acre, ••«...«— ••••^ • S 10 
Allow for six oxen, gcwt. of hay per 1 q« |o q 

week, at 8s. 6rf. for 24 weeks o»ly, J 



««. 



;f . 268 i (> 



>4- 



•4- 



* High as this- calculation may appear* to *ome, it is accurate ; for t 
•end several hundred lambs into the 'W'eald, and cannot estimate my ex- 
{^enses at less than what Mr. Young does, though they may be spme^' 
what more. These must vary according to the eountary they are sent to# 
and the distance they are driven. Some may not drive them so far as I 
do ; others I know drive them still farther, and at a greater expense. 
When the acTdommodations cfn. tbte road, the many turnpike-gates they 
pass through, and the men employed in driving, &c. are taken into the 
;^ccoust, the calculation of the author is founded in accara^yv— ^ ^mi^ 
tNy-matsb- Graxitr* 



* f- Product* 



190 







• 


KimiTG. 




; \ 


••t* 


J »;/• :• i . 


Jfl : 




1^ 


Produce. 

■ • .1 



» ' • 



lOO^inrcthers, atSSf .•....^•-.«..— • j^. I6> 

Siac ^ ^fatting beasts, 140 slone each, at7 .Qg * ^ 

, S^T 3d .............. 5 

Eijg-lit two-yearlings, at 6rf. per week for/ a n O 
- SO week% •...•^.•.....•.••........••f ••••»•••— -•# 5 

SiiK jearlings, at id. per week, for 20 1 o n o 

WwolofGO wethers, 71b. at lOrf 17 10 

Ditto from 40 ewes, 51b. at9</. . , 7 10 



394 4 
£xpcnscs,° .....M...M........ ;^. ^8 1 6 



1S6 S 6 
Per acre, ...... ;.. , £.\ 5 2f 



Tile profit of mAi^h-land wfll appear from the fol- 

^owing account df 160 acres, Guildford's, near Hye: 

ill 

^ original ^purchase was 7500/. It. keeps six cwcs 

P®** Here all the summer, and three per acre all the 
^^ii^^r. 






Expenses. 

•«t«t,^ftf7500/.trt4| per cent. ;C".«37 

•^O^sWeep, a«90s. •■. ■ mO 

^ bitllodkt, at' one < to four acres; be- 1 gpQ q q 

**oefi 1116 'Siiecp alt 'ov. ....ftMM.'.M.*MM*..*... ^ ' 

'*^eit of>l«80/;^t^veper cent. ...^...•, 64 

Carry forward, .... £. 16S8 



t60 FERMira* 

nrought forward, .... £. 1688 

Wiisliing and shcarinjT 48 score, at 9.< 4 IG 

Taistling, Sd. ppriicrc, »--» 5 G 

Losses, tno and II h'lir per cent -... 33 

480 sliecp put out to winter lo May-l ™ ^y 

day, at 3s ..» ' 

Kiitcs and taxes, » „ 64 



H 



Expenses, ^.1866 3 



Produce. 
960 shcop, at 40.v. Gd. viz. -, 



:f . (944 



Wool, 


a o'- 


440 




*0 bullock., 


£.S 6 

Produce, „... 

Expcns: s, ............ 

Prolll, 







,-... £-.S3St 
ISlie 2. 

. — £.517 17 



» 

i 



. This id staled in a Singular way, to.sttcw the prC"*^** 
6f these marshes. What common fxtm wpuld 1 
to have the interest of the purchase of (he fce-simj 
charged to U, as an expense in the same way i 
West India phnUtion .' Yet here is that and « 
cha/^c paid, tind above 500/. a year proQt c 
^vould leU at 40?. per acre. Bat te mqertttin wb^^ 
would very weU answer to give fyi it, let iu cftlc 
Vs for a tenant. 



- » 






DEEDING; 161 

Expenses ds above, •m.;..«...«.^..;..^— •• £.1866 2 8 
iJeductiuterest, li ;. — .-.. — i.i.-... 337 6 

£.1629 2 8 
(Suppose reiit at 3/. ;....-i««.— •;«..m^«......«. 480 

Alid additional taxes^ * ;*.u;.m..— •-m.......^. SI 

_ — i — 

;^.2b30 2 8 

Produce, •.;* — ;...; — ..... 2384 
Hxpense^, . ;. — ...; 2030 2 8 

Profit, .ui...4M....i...i....4 £;333 17 4 

W^hich bn the capital of 2000/; is 17/. 13*. per cent. ; 
i^oun. which it iH plain^ that when lett at SOi. and 40i. 
>er ^cre, and farms rising flroni 1000 to VOOO acres^ as 
"^yond Winchelseaj th^re i^ no wonder that tbqf 
^^t^ld be esteemed good farms. Some years agO the 
''^iit i^as 22#. 6c/. \ now much highen 



■^ 



4 



• i !< 



^twEX.l y^ CHAP. 



CHAP. IX. 

ORCHAEDS, 



IN the western parls of Siissrx, are some conside- 
rable orchaida ; and where the soil is adapted to the 
fruit, the plantations are thickly interspersed, and the 
cider held in much estimation, as it makes a pleasant, 
palatable, and nutritiouH beverage ; and as this 
county contains a soil well calculated for the produc- 
tion of it, there is no doubt but that new plantationr 
ojight be made to considerable advantage. 

The neighbourhood of Petwortli yields the best li- 
quor of any in the county. Lodsworth is nolcti for 
tlje excellent flavour of its cider. The Author has had 
thepleasurc of tasting it at the Earl of Egremont 'stable, 
of a superior quality. The best in Sussex is produced 
ou his Lordship's estates, and at Sulton, Bury, Big- 
iior, &c. At Sutton, Lord Egremont constructed a 
press, which was obtained out of Herefordshire. It is 
only in a slip of land under the South Down hills, 
that the cider culture is in any request. 

The soil which is considered as best adapted to th« 
fruit, consists in a sort sandy rock basis, with a stratum 
of a light, but tolerably rich hazel mould. Strong 
clayey soils here are not suited to cider. The sorts of 
fruit are various, aud the cider is componnded of dif- 
iereut kinds ; the chief of which arc vulgarly called 
pear-npples, maiden-apples, cockle-pippin, &c. Suf- 
ficient regard to the choice of the fruit if not attended 



ORCHABDi. X6S 

to ill the maiiher it ought to be. Tbe harveM is at Hoi j- 
jrood ; bat the time much depends oii the ^ifluence of 
th^ season. The apples are piled in the Orchard for 
texm days or a fortnight^ to mellow ; and three or foot 
inonths after being made, it is thought fit for the 

• * 

table ; but this depends upon refining i fifteen bushels 
or fruit will make a hogshead of liquor. The market 
is chiefly at home*. Some goes to Petworthj Mid- 
liLm rst, &c; but the greater part is consumed by the far-^ 
♦'^^^ir's family and labourers. The price varies from 
i^Wi to I5(fi per gallon; 



MS #HAn 



// 



CI UP. X. 

WOODS ANb PLANTATIONS. 



SUSSEX is one of tliosi" counties «Iiich, from 
ihe reirit^est antiquity, lias been celebraleti for the 
I growth of its timber, priiicipallj oak. Indeed no 
other part of England is able to vie with it in this 
fespecf , if we consider tbc woods, eilher in regurd to* 
the extent of them, or the qualities of the timber they 
produce. 

The quanlily of land cannot t>e estimated at less than 
170 or 180,000 acres ; and (he quality of the oak tim- 
ber may be collected tromthecircumsfanceoflheNavy 
contractors preferring it in all their agreements, and sti-> 
purating for Sussex, before every other species of oakj 
The reigning fi-afurcof the Weald, is its timber, in 
which it is enveloped, and Overspreads it in every di* 
reclion, l!i»urishing with great Inxitriancc, and so 
nfilurally adnpfed (ft the soiij that if a field were sown 
with furze only, and live-dock excluded, the groOnd 
in the course of a few years would l» covered with 
young oaks, withoi.t any trouble or expense of 
planting. 

Before the Norman Cowjiiest, this part of the king- 
dom was one continued for&sf, estending from Hamp* 
shire into Kent; and ilie, number of parishes ending 
with the Saxon word, hursl. or '.hxkI, area strong pre- 
sumption, thill they were iir-il cleared and cultivated 
by sdtlers from that nation. h\ the neighbourhood of 
Salehurst 



ITQOQS AND PLANTATIONS^ 165 

Salehurst we find no less than eight adjoining parishes 
ending with this word. At the Conquest, these wood$ 
were valued, not by the quantity of timber, but by 
the number of swine which the a<;orns m£iin.taine4. 

The great demand of late year$ for bark, l\^& hffca 
one of the chief reasonsi for the extensive falls of oak, 
which, \n consequence of the high price, has advanced 
so considerably , that the fee-simple of extensive apd 
well wooded tracts of land has been paid by the felling of 
timber and under-wood in two or three years ; and that 
upon several^ estates in the western part of the county, 
the value has increased full 100 per cent. ii\ tlie space 
of twelve years. When Sye take into consideration 
the turn for improvqmentj apd that spirit which has 
teen so strongly exemplified in the addition which the 
Jiighways have received, and the more easy commu- 
^lication to sea-ports than formerly was the ca,se,. by 
<^xtending the inland navigation of the county ; by 
^naprovements in the rivers, anU by opening friesh 
(^Uannels : these circumstances thus connecting the in- 
terior with the coast, facilitate Ihe transport of the 
timber to the dock-^yards upon much easier conditions 
^^hn what was ever before practicable, Consequently 
^c find that the quantity of oak which has. of late years 
^^n sent to Portsmouth and other places, has exceeded 
^^e amount which was transported twenty-five years 
vack in the proportipn of four to one; and from the 
survey which has been dra\Yn o.f this county, as well 
^s from the prevailing testimony of experienced Survey- 
^^s, it may be relied upon as a fact, that far greater 
quantities of oak timber have been lately felled and 
PWried coastwise from Sussex, chiefly to the King's 
y^rds, than the country will in future be enabled 
P^*rmanently to supply. 

M 3 Tfie 



I 



166 WOODB AND PLANTATIONS, 

The quantify now standing of a size for the Royal 
Navy, when brought into comparison with what haa 
bi-en within half a century, is indeed inconsiderable i 
and as there is but little regular succession in reserve, 
it follows that tlie annual supply will necessarily grow 
less. How far it is an object of importance to the go- 
vernment, and of profit to individuals, to pronipte the -« 
cullira'ionof oak, shiill hereafter be considered. The -=5 
subject is not an unimportant one. T^H 

Underwoods, ^^^M 

The mode of managing the underwoods is, to cut '^W' 
them from eleven or twelve to fifteen or sixteen years' ''^_- 
growth ; upon favourable well growing soils, from .^^ 
eleven to thirteen : upon poor grounds, from fifteen to ^C2> 
eighteen. The age of cutting depends upon the qua-, j — -■ 
litres of soil, ^nd the application of the. crop, so thai ^' * 
po fixed rule can belaid doiyn, other thriu the gene-. ,=—-'■ 
ral one above-mentioned, from eleven to sixteen years. — '■ 
The Earl of Egremont's underwoods are cut at twelve ^^'^ 
to sixteen years of age, where the growth consists of ""^ 
oak, beech, alder, and willow: the underwood ia .^s-** 
then the niost valuable part of the convcrsiwi, except ^ 
in ihe vicinity of hop- plan tat ions, where the poles, ,?**■ 
pay a inuch better price; woods which abound ^^ 
with birch, ash, hazel, and willow^ of which hoop^ ^ 

are usually made, at ten to twelve years of age ; 
pewly planted grounds are earlier cut; the shooli^ 
are more rapid. 

It is worlhy of remark, and deserves noting, that un-; 
derwoods at twelve ^ir thirteen years' gro>vth, are as, 
valuable upon some soils, as they would be if cut 
^own at a later age, especially if they are advantage-, 
pusly planted in the neighbourhood of hop-grounds ; as 
poles 



I 



WOODS AND FLANTATIOM. 167 

poles of that age and size are equallj as good, and 
answer all the purposes of larger ; and -when the un* 
derwood has exceeded the size of poles, its utility is 
no otherwise essentially serviceable than as it is valu* 
able for fuel ; the younger therefore it is cut, if fit fojp 
nui^rket, the more productive it will turn out, and the 
sooner the succeeding crop will be ready for sale ; for 
vben underwoods are left too long before they are ciit, 
•besides growing slower, the interest of the money is 
lost for which it might have been sold. The coppice 
upon the most growing soils (for considerable is the 
difference which exists in this respect) is worth, from 
S^. to 10/. or 11/. per acre ; but to gain such a pro« 
duct, the land must be exceedingly kind. 

Application* . . 

fllie purposes for wliicli the coppice is converted are 
▼a.'K'ious — poles for the hop-plantations, bavins and 
si^TT^ay-faggots for the lime-kilns, cord-wood for coaling, 
hcK^ps for the use of tlie coopers, besides affording an 
^t^lLindant supply in fuel, and other purposes* Of all 
tk^ various species of underwood (excepting perhaps 

*^c3Ler), ash is the most profitable: the smallest piece 

• 

IS of tise in some shape or other, and adapted to a 

g^^ater variety of purposes than any otlier wood. Ex- 

<^^ J)ting Spanish cliesnut, it forms the most durable 

pc^les for the hop-planters ; for whose use the various 

s^^rts of poles may be arranged in the following manner t 

1. Spanish chesnut, 

2. Ash, 
S. Oak, 

4, Willow, 




WOODS AND PLANTATII 

S. Maple, 



8. White birch. 






This last is (he verj worst for poling to any stze^^ *— ^ 
But the light in which ash is considered as so valiiahle^r- :=*■ 
is the application to which the shiverers convert it ii^^^:^'^^ 
quartering it into middling, long, and short hoops. Ii^^cr^W 
this respect its value is clearly ascertained. JJircfa oiu^^"^ 
poor wet soils, pays well, and is rapid in its growth ; :^^ ; 
but on all soils where the alder is in plenty, whir.h,^^ ) 
as it makes the best charcoal for the gunpowder- ma—— - 
nufacturers, b the most valuable of uiidcrvTood, is con — '• 
Tcrted to patten-poles and powder-wood. Palten-pole^^* ~^ 
cutting, are 9j. per hundred: they meet in general^t-** 
from three-fourths to one foot each, and sell for 3rf. per"^^-^' 
foot. The powder- wood cutting and stripping is^^-*" 
3s. 6d. per load, which is sold for 1/, is. 

Value. 
The value of underwoods, like most oilier produc- 
tions, has advanced considerably in their price of 
late years. Those belonging to Battel-abbpy, haye, it 
is said, more than doubled (heir value in twenty years. 
The immense trqcls belonging to the Earl of Ashburn- 
liani, have equally increased. Before his Lordship 
used them aS fuel for his vast lime-^vorks, Ihcy sup- 
plied several furnaces with charcoal in casting cannoa 
for the use of Government ; and although the demand 
"^as great at that time, «lill it was to be bad at a lao-t 
derate price. But when the art of exlracling sul-. 
phur from pit-coal was first discovered (for that coal 



i 
I 



ctnUt^ 



WOODS AND PLANTATI0W8. 169 

fK^Uild not work in ils natural state), very good cannoii 

^ere made in Scotland, and in manj other places ; and 

the expenses in casting them having turned out so 

iQ^ich lighter than -^ puld be the case at these furnaces 

vitb charcoal, of course the manufactory ceased in 

Sassex. And when these iron^works, which took off 

and consumed such prodigipus quantities of wood, de-i 



serted the Weald, it was but very ireasonable to conr 

elude, that wodd would then be procured in the gr-eati- 

est plenty, and consequently cheap ; but the contrary 

has been the case ; such a new demand has been cro« 

ated for the consumption of these extensive underwoods^ 

in burning limestone for manure, and the great and 

fitill increasing call for hop-poles (3600 to the apre, 

and from 16^. to ^^. per hundred) ; all this, with an 

increased population, and a better syi^tem of husbanr 

^Iry, which every where pe^rvades the whole country, 

^-ve the reasons why wood-lands have been rising in 

value; and some people considejfr tl^etti i|8 tbe m6^t 

jpi'ofitable of g^nv land whatever, 

Soil. 

That the soil of this county is very congenial to 

Oak, is apparent from the growth of it, which is in 

l^afiy places astonishingly clean and rapid. It is a 

"Weed which springs up in every protected spot. The 

l>est soil is a very strong and stiff clay : the red clay 

>s well adapted to the growth. Lord Sheffield haai 

young plantations which are remarkable for their 

quickness of growth ^ and the Earl of EgremontV 

?heasant Coppice, which consists of several hundred 

^cres, is another instance how well adapted the soil is. 

tq the production of this plant. 



Xea Plnnlalioi 



III newly planted inidcr woods, it is to be oljscrvrf 
Ihiitia the first cutlins, whicliismaiie lit sevt'ii or eight 
years' growtlij tbe profit is little or nolhing ; — in the 
ei^ccKid it is still incoiiddcrable; su tliat tor sixteen 
yeiirs Ihe return from young planlntions is trifling 
(not a very encouraging prospect to a planter); — 
tbe third is the most prolitablo culling, as tbc phiii_ 
lation lias uow readied its ultimate perfection ; — tbe^ 
fourth equals the third ; but after (his the coppice ad- 
vances no more. The cffi^ct of the youug limber is 
now visibly apparent to the prejudice of tiie under-ai 
wood, wiiich in sixty years, if the trees bi- left tv 
ttaitd thus long, is destroyed. 

A fine nursery of young timber is rising in 8tari^ 
•toad-forest, lyhicli in anollicr century will most am- 
ply contribulc to fill up the place of that which has- 
lafely been felled, The soil of this forest (960 acres)- 
principally consists of strong stony land ; on sonic- 
parts of it there is found a deep and rich loam. Tlie 
£ieafer part of it has liecn replanted with oak ; soroc 
^i' which the father of the late Mr. Cafhery fwho 
' ,ivas (he agent and superintc;idant of (he estates) 
planted, and the remainder by Ihe son. The ground 
was turfy -, and (he iiielhod which he adopted in soyr- 
_i»g it was, 1o make a Utile hole in ihe ground wilh 
,(!ic broad end of a picke-a\p, into whieh an acorn was 
planted, three feet apart from earU other. In the 
j(:ourse of twelve or fourteen years after the phinliiig, 
^\k first (hinnuig took place, and every four years 
qOer, this opcralion wns conlinnud, tjdiiiig away 
ihose trees that impeded each other. The land, 
pi'io? 



WOODS AND PLANTATIONt. 171 

prior to its being planted, was valued at 4*. per acre 
to the landlord. A curious circumstance occurredi 
the following spring after the acorns had been 
planted ; for Mr. Cathery looking over the nursery, 
upon examination discovered, that the mice had eat(?ii 
holes in the greatest part of the seed ; still the tree$ 
grew up, and few if any of them failed. 

Profit. 

With respect to the profit of timber, Mr. Glut- 
ton is of opinion, that it pays 5*'. per acre per 
annum, and the underwood the same, and as the rent 
of the county \s about the same, the timber brings the 
'^'^ciods to a par with the arable and grass. The value 
^f oak at a hundred yjBars ijrowth, is about 7/. Lord 
Sheffield has sold out of 30 acres of wood, the feet 
^^^^plc of which has not amounted to ?Q0^ 100 trees 
^^1- 1000/. and 100 more for 400/. But these trees 
^^cl done so much damage, that the underwood which 
^^ fourteen years growth, before their being felled,^ 
-^rl sold at 40.?. per acre, at the same growth after 
*^Xling, f(»lch(Hl 7/. 105. per acre. This is a remark- 
•^^le fact, and \vhich deserves calculating: 1400/. from 
»0 acres, is 46/. 13^. per acre, and that divided by 
lOO, the supposed growth of such trees, is 95. which is 
"Uie rent per acre per annum which the timber p^id. 
Tlie growth however, instead of 100 years, was more 
likely to be double, which diminishes tlie rent in the 
same proportion. But taking the account as it stands, 
the trees did mischief to the underwood, to the amount 
of 3/. IO5. in fourteen years: this is near 8s. an acre. 
Hence it appears, that the profit of the timber was only 
about I5. an acre, even upon the supposition that 
|rp^s of ten pounds each were no more than 100 years 

growth. 



WOODS AND PLANTATIONS. 

groivtii. AVliercver one crop is made to grow io tb< 
Vrfjiidice of nnotlier, this will generally be found tc 
be the case. Trllows are preserved as well from stulw 
an from seed, if not too old, but those wliicli arc pre- 
fcrred^ npring frqin aciiriis. Woods well covered wilh 
timber, rarcty Itiivc manyllirivingtclluws tli»l reiiiaiti. 
since Ihvy aru overshadowed, and riud a dlfficiilly in 
fighting Ilieir way through the branches of the otliei 
trees; the eifect of which is, that a gtuxl succession ol 
young oak seldom tollows ii fall of old limber. .StMl"- 
timber is by some people preferred to the growth froni 
feed ; for when a good stub is cut, the succeeding 
loot springs up full three feet the first year, when 
an acorn hardly makes ils apiiearitiice abore ground;; 
(ind fine oak timber, two loads to a tree, Imsbeen cul 
from stubs ; though it is very seldom (hey make goo4 
lin^lM-f Hecs, 

Uiit no where tliull wc (ind oak to flourit^h wilb* 
preatcr Vi\nrinnfP than in the neigh l)onrh«>od of I'et— 
Yorth. The X'axI of Egremont bus felled several 
acrcs,^ which proilueed a profit of 5tJ0/. ptT acre. Th? 
circumstance of 3(KX)/, lieing raised from I he sale oP 
fiOO trees, eannot fail of proving how ^ii^-iiial the 
soil is to (his plant, '^i Ihereforr, the advaiitnge o( 
limlx-T is any where strikiiig, when ronneeled with 
|tn>fi(, ueetjieft it in those situations where it floun 
Tidies with th<^?rcfllnl sticrrv. But noluithstariding 
the iibovornientioned priHliicIs, gn-at as (hey are, the 
ciop is n h»singone. Some of ilw best thriving woods 
on the PMworlli estate, cJrnr Vis. per acre per unniiin. 
tttiffofdin^ tcood is of this description. It adjoins a 
farm of his Irtinlship's of 130 ncrrs, which is lelt at 
yV. per Nnnuni, am) it is very near the laiiil in his 
VVn iumvdiatc (K'cupaliou, and urectM-ly |(h- same 



UnooOfl AHD ]?LANTATlON«. 173 

^ ii soil which yielded 373 sacks of wheat upon 54 acres 
•df in 1794. 

Raffplding wood mcasut^^ 23 acres of 14 yean 
growths 

Amount of TiniWr, Expense of Barlc^ 

Bsrk^ &c. sold. In^, cutting up iTellOwt cUared. 

Wood^ &c. 

Tcliows, .... 80 15 b{ .... 23 12 8 .... 57 2 4^ 

Which is 91. 9$% S^d. per acre, or 3*. 6{d. per acre 
per annum. 

Amount of each Ar- Expense of cutting Underwood 
tide at the Sale Price, and clearing the cleared. 

Coppice. 

£• s. d, £. s. d. £• s. rf. 
U'nderwbodj248 10 Hi.... 112 0{ .... 136 ID 11 
Which is 5/. 18*. 8rf. per acre, or 9>s. 5^d. per acite 
annum. 

Tellows cleared, .... 3 6^ per acre per annum. 
XJnderwocd, 8 5|^ 



Total, .... 12 per acre per anrilinii 

So that the gross produce of the most flourishing 

j^Ood, in soils Avhich arc sinc^ularly adapted for oak, 

^^^ SO*, per acre per annum! whilst the produce of the 

^*^^^ine sort of land adjoining this wood, which is under 

^^title and corn, and calci luted at no more than three 

''^^^Tncs the rent, is above seven times as great ; and if 

^*^ raise it to four times the rent, which is (hen under 

^^^ mark,' the gross product of the same sort of soil is 

^^ore than nine times greater in corn tliaii in wood. 



Age. 




Woods axd plantations. 



Age. 

Tlip opinion of surFfjors, and other well informer 
persons, yury much ns to (lie age af wliicli oalt arrive 
at perfeclion; and diflerent periods bave been as 
signed, from 100 to 180, or 200 years. Their opini 
Qiis no less differ as to Ihe mode of managing woods 
Bomerocommenil tlie bringing up tfees ofdiBerent.age 
in the .same field, and as often as any of them Brrir 
at maturity, to fell tlio^c trees, aiid leave the rea 
standing, t» be cut in succession ; wbibt other persons 
of equal s\i\\, advise, that when the great number a 
the trees in the same wood arrive at their full sue 
the whole should be cut donn, aud the ground com 
plelely cleared and replanted. 

Felling. 

An oat never comes to perfection under 100 years a 
least ; and the fall of the best timber in the countj 
will not average more than 4/. a tree, top, bark, &c 
all included. When a wood is properly stocked, fivi 
trees may be taken down per acre at each felling of lh< 
underwood, and tcllows saved in their place. If thirtj 
trees are left upon each acre, it is generally supposes! 
to be a quantity fully sufficient to arrive at any perfec' 
tion. People however differ upon this point, anc 
some think that not morr than twenty or twenty-fivi 
should remain u[>on an acre ; for it must be observed, 
that if the limber is too close, the ujulerwood must 
be of less value, the price of which is raised in s 
greater ratio than that of timber. 

AVhen a tree is six inches in girth, it becomes tira- 

berj and when the^ are worth 40$. tliey nertir pay in' 

ieiat* 



H^OOnS AND PLAKYAtlONS. 175 

terest. For profit, they should be always cut when- 
ever the tree fetches that price, A very considerable 
gain will then arise from the underwood ; but when 
the timber is left standing 100 or 120 years, the 
toderwood !§ effectually destroyed. When felled 
at an early age, the value per foot is certainly small, 
but if kept to such an age as to become an object of 
national defence, the value decreases in proportion 
to the affe of it. 

The following is a sliort calculation upon the uti- 

iity of early cutting timber that grows in coppices, by 

^he very ingenious Mr. Upton, of Petworth, the Earl 

of Egremont's timber surveyor, and the same person 

^ whom the Society of Arts lately voted their gold 

^etlal, for the plan and model of a new barn^^ which 

^^ lias lately invented. 

^^fjpose one acre of coppice grounds 

t:o contain 100 oak trees, at 55 years/- £,]00 

growth, worth 5 

-^t. 100 years growth, worth (which > ^^^ q q 

- "Vvill seldom be the case) 

^ c:ut down at 55 years growth, the 

300/. by compound interest for thef qsr. q ^ 
Remaining 45 years, will accumu- 
late to 

^dd to that 45 years growth on the \ 

ensuing crop, exclusive of the loss f^ 80 
of underwoods, , 5 

£. 1020 ' 

" But," says Mr. Upton, " if this mode become 
general, small timber would be of less value, and 
our Navy fall shoft of a supply of ship-plank." 

Th» 



178 WOODS AND PLAXTAlIOHSf 

Thehigh price which oflate years has been gained fa^ 
timber, is as much to be attributed to the VEilue of the 
bark, as it is to Ihe worth of llie timber. The season 
Ibr felling is regulated by tlic time of barking: when 
titcsapben^s to rise, which usuiilly takes place in 
April, the tree is (hen felh-d. Bark pt-eled from young 
tress, is much superior to that which is stripped from 
older ones ; it abounds more in sapj and there is no such 
waste ill it , as the hard and dead part of an old tree ia 
drcisodj which is uof the ciise with the other. In re- 
giird to the timber) the trees that are growingj and 
formed to make four-inch plnnk^ are left standing for 
tliat use, and such as are growiilj; and forming for 
tliree-inch plank, are frequently left for that purpose^ 
-williout ever conttidering whether they will pay by 
standing for such scantling. The other classes of tirabeif 
arc large logs, to be hewed, small planks, and timber fo^ 
carpenters' use; but all timber that lias finished itif 
growth, shouhl be i:nit;ediatety taken down, though 
110 lur-fcr than a pole; whoever keeps timber after it 
has 0!opp«:d its groivth, will lose the value of the tim- 
ber in scv-enlecih years, with the Infefest of the money 
it might have bren sold for, and llic injury done Id 
(he tiiicJertvfio.'l by its 5t:iiidin^, aird prL'venling the 
iiuc cess: Oil of tal.iftvS. 

Improvement suggesiedi 

It must seem surprisii-.j!:, that in a country where iivi 
?C;ivy is an objtxt of such imjHtriahce, and in a county 
likeSusbex, \v!ien;oak might be cali.d its staple coni- 
r;ocl:ty, no coinplele tri.ih have ever been made of iu' 
creasing the tlurulion of timijiT, sO easily pMcticaHe, 
and si> important in its consequences. Espctiipenls 
buvo been incidentally tried by the Navy Board' on 
winter* 



WOODS AND PLAlTTATlOirS* 177 

Mftxmtar^felled timber, stripped of its baric in the usual 
season, and the tree left to dry till the following mu- 
ter ^ before it is cut down* But stripping the tree of 
itiK t>ark, and allowing it ix) stand in that state thiee 
yeci.rs to season, before felling it, has the same etfsct in 
eonLverting the sap into useful timber, as allowing the 
t re<* fa stand with the bark on it for twenty-five years 
longer, would have. In the spring the trees are teem- 

• 

^**S ^ith Tegctalion, and their cavities overflowing 
^^itli sap, which, if the tree is felled at that season, re- 
»ia.iii8 in the pores: ihm it putrifies, leaving the 
^I'eo full of cavities, and ihc timber weak. Besides 
^11 t.hb, it breeds worms, and is liable to shrink t for 
^'«^9e reasons it should seem, that during the winter^ 
^^^on the sap has retired, is the prQperest season for 
'filing. The solidfty, strength, and duratiom of the 
^'^'iier, is thereby incnsased, and being exposed to 
'^^ eflbcts of the sun and wind before felling, is so dried 
hardened, that the sappy part in a manner be* 
les as firm and durable as the heart itself* 
XjTpon the whole, it is a singular, curious, and inte* 
^^^tig circumstance, and experiment has confirmed 
^^^ b^efidal tendency of thQ measure. 



'he Policy of encouraging the Growth of Oak^ 

Wo not hesitate to question whether our policy in 

moling the cultivation of tr!nl)cr is not erroneous. 

xn aware,^ tliat there does exist in the minds of some 

^^ple a predilection in favour of tvoodlands, which 

^^es from an idea of the suporior comparative 

"^^fk of them. Hence it might appear a degree ot 

^^^sumptk)n in an individual to controvert the 

^^^^eral sensO^ of a county, when it ci^ruee along 

^DSSJStO N with 



178' WOOD* AMD PT.AitTATIONB. 

• vith it the fair and pluisible ivpix-arami' of being 
founded upon experiaicr, nnil flic result or r&Ublkhnl 
practice. Prcjadin- is nol cnsily iTadicitlcd: fo 
combat rt with stirrrss is mi ciisy Insk. Syslcins taken 
up from fjither (o son, ^jtliniit iiny iiMcntive iiirrKliga- 
,tion of debtor and crciiKur, in inqiiiritts like the one 
before i», are for ever orciirriiiij, Jf tlio iiiiijcal. rests 
upon facts, the qiipstion was dt-cidal before it was 
propO§ed. Iiisfancps lihivc already Ix'en produced, 
sufficient lo eonviiu-e miy nnprcviidia'cl person how 
ptofit^bleisa timber cslair, nhi-ii \nil inlo competi- 
tion with cattle nnd coTn. 

The statemenis nbove-menliimi'd proved un annual 
loss to th£ public, npoii the cnmpnrutive gross re- 
c^ipt, to a considerHbk' amouiil ; and as it is a ques- 
tion too important lo Ix- passed over without some 
further investiEaiioii, I shill tlirow lojiether a few fc- 
marks upon a subject which hits Ixvii much misunder- 
stood, -and involveil in ernii, from orcnpiers, or tlieir 
surveyors, nol having paid a siilTirient altciition to 
matter of fact. 

-Tlie arable and pasture in tlie Weald may be cal* 
ulaled at 425,(KK) nerps: the noods, pinntalions, 
coppice, shaws, Ike. at !70,(MX). Tlieexact amount of 
either is not malertal in the omsideration of the present 
subject, Tht" compar.itiv<' produce by wood and bj 
corn, merits ubserval inn. 

The common system of husbandry in this part of 
the county, is a fallow, two crops of corn, aiid one of 
clover. 



Wheat, 



VOOIM AND PIiANTATXPNt« 1T9 

^Vhcat, two quarters and a half, at44«.M £i5'10: X).« 
Htraw^ stubbie^ chaffy — ••— m.;.*..^.^.;*.*..*— . 1 10 
^Ats, 4qrs. at 18.^; •••— «...«..^..— «..*...ij««*.... 3 13 ' 
('lover, twice mo wn> •4.....—«.««*«o«.*.tf«...M...«* 4 10 



£'4t)l5 2 



^rodijce per Jtcre per arinum, «;..m..*;.— .^ £.3 li 6 

^ow, in <^disr i6 draw up the comparison as favour* ' 
able to woodland as impartiality admits, the foIlowiAg 
*8 a crop o^ 23 acres of wood gfowing in a highly fe«» 
^ourabie soil lipon the Petworth estate, and exceeding 
much the Average ValUe of tile county « 



Produce of Timber i 

'^2 feet of timber^ ««.*m«m««.4«*4«««»««««*m*m j£*«19 11 1 
2 loa.ds37cwt.3qrs. 191b. of hatched bark, 51 . 3 3^ 

7 ^tock 3| qrs. from ditto, ••*«.#...«4......... ; 5 16 . 3 

^^vins, *....*...... — * ....».....*«.^* 4 4 4f 

80 15 Oi 
^^ppice, ...*•..•...•...*. i ^>.....*. 248 10 llf 

23)329 5 Hi 



■*! I ■■ 



14)14 6 8 
'^^r acre per aunum^ •).«k«...*«i..«-««.«i..«,.*^««4« 1 5 

■ I II I "■ III II Hi t* 1 

. Produce by corn, ;C'3 ^5 (5 

. iDitto by wood, «..i.i 1 5 

' I ■ 

I)ifference, ..^••••.i. £.2 15 1 periicte per atmiiiitA 



Hift> 



Hence there appeam abalance of B^ i5^i Id. per an* 
kuiti, estimating the gross produce, agttinst wdodhnd ; 

k9 so: 



I8C WedM AlTtt Tt,A»TATTO*8. 

stk times the rent in one i;istancc, ami not twice i 
the other. And be it ob«'rve<l, lliat tli(!«^ 23 acres of " 
Innd grubhei! up, would yields like (he luntl in (lie 
ileiglibourhofKl, at least a iirodiict of 3^. 15*. 6d- one 
year willi aiiDther. it" we call 13s. of this prcifit or 
rent, and put out to priicliciiblc coinpttund interest 
in 100 years (and a leas growth caruiot be allowed , 
for oak), and then sec wluit it becomes, if we adi 
another 19*. for farmer's profit, the dilFcreiice is i 
greater. How much more then, if ive ground the c 
culation on produce, rather than on proDi ? 

The most material point in the present inquiry is.T 
tu ascertain the cause why arable and pasture arc rated 
at so low a value, when it is known, thiitthro|ighoutthe 
kingdom in general, the same sort of land would fetch 
a rent much nearer to 20.«. than 12s. From what sourcej 
is this difference to be derived ? Is it lo the soil, ( 
ftiie, or to the management ? It is the effect of that ' 
infliieiice so Strikingly obvioits to every observer, 
*1iich die cultivation of timber inflicts upon the 
land adjoining it. I do not exaggerate when ) state, 
that the culture of com is in many places enveloped in 
a forest of timber. Viewed in a national light, its 
eftbcfs are sometimes distressing. Traverse ibis 
county ; remark the state of i^ in those parts which arc 
teeming with timber; observe the corn surrounded by 
ft frtfestin every hedge-row; and then calculate the mJa* 
chief: the damage it receives is hardly lo he estimated. 
By aiming at too much, neither is gained. Without 
doubt, the considerations upon which tenants occupy 
their farms, are muilc compatible with such effifctt. 
It is the public who is the greatest loser ; but landlord 
and tenant come iii for no inconsiderable share of the 
k)£s. J have viewed many ftclds of corn, wliich the 




QlUIB^I 



&pt Iwyest weath^ itould acafodylmng^tPiniltiw^* 
l^erhft]^' the former is satisfied onrtlw l!(ip)re|i/irlMta^ 
iOie pipprietor iadulgeatiimvelf m af^vi^, :tjk«|sl^ 
are better things thanielose clipped JMdg^f ¥1^ If 99^ 
them fields of t;prn/ S«ck assertions ^re witbpfit p{iiii'» 
l>er: but.tke pre^^nt coodition oif the tepaiitrjr i|i 
the Weald, is ajreAitatiou of such ideas.. ,• %•' 
r«' /The singular /Custpm of shazo^ must be cojadjouuiedr; 
i>niad belts of underwoods, and. treses, two, three, afi4 
^onr rods wide, around every petty enclosure. Tjfp 
Jkndiord isftenacious of preserving them? jbecau^ tbefr 
jifiNrd protectioi^ to a quantity of t^^fa^r; fuid tl\e 
leoaiit is allowed the underwood at th^Q regular pi^vw4 
of cutting. The history of this . custom is evident^ 
Long since the t^mc Qf the Conquest, the vf^^lp 
eouTity was a fone^st : fields . of gnuss,.and tilhtge werp 
opened gradually in the woods; andwhilst lai^iTfls 
.eheap and pl^^tifuly no accurate attention, paid ip sue* 
ilDunding them with . fencca, tlie forest coutiniiing to 
jfonn a sort of fepce. Carelessness and ill husbwdrjr 
continued the pr.actice, till at last;the landlord, fi&d* 
ing the sweets of great falls of timber from these shaws, 
made it an article in the lease, to preserve theip 
against those encroachments, which an invproved system 
-ef husbandry would be for ever necessarily making 
•upon them. . The country is very generally wet; the 
iheans to air and dry it hero used is, to exclude the 
'spn and wind by a screen of underwood, and a forest 
roiuid every field: these arc small, so that a great 
mimber are so wood-locked, that it is not surprising 
• when the corn is not ripened. At the same time 
•that this mischief is done, the wood itself is (timber 
excepted) but of a miserable account, as any one 
•inay suppose, when he is informed that theae shaws 

N 3 have 



we WO'Ons AND PLATtTATlOKi. 

have a fence ouTy on one siilc, and consequef 
are exposed to ba r:iloii by llie caltk- thiit grnzc^ 
the Heldfe: hence we fiiid an imperfi.'ct sy*tem i 
wood, and an injiired one of coth. 

The arable and pasture in the Weald amount, i 
before remarked, to 4So,0r>i') acres. Of this, suppJ 
we strike out 195,000, as not materially affrcted by (hi 
timber, &c. the reniaininp; 200,000 Bcri.'s arc imdur the 
full influence of it, Xon-, in ortltr to brio/?: Ihis torn 
^r with the other land in Ihc neiyhl>i»wrl'iw>d, the 
tenant conid an)ply iill'ini to pay an additiuaal &.v. 
per aere, and he a considiTablo^jainiT by the burgaiH, 
provided that the country was laid open, and the petty 
enclosnres cnlarjred. Here then isannnTinal toss tn 
the public of 7JjOOO/. a year, resnllini; from th<MTiisT 
chief which these shaws cause to the adjoining hind, 
which is a clear aimnnl deduction to that amount frnm 
the value of tho woikIs; so lliat lhedama{i^ whichl 
predilection for the cnilivalion of woods occasions '< 
the crop of corn, is nwirly in proportion to the i 
which the plantation pays its owner. 

The advocates in favour of (bis species of propM 
tell us, that it is the Ijest land of wh icli a. proprietor c 
be possessed ; that although the estates may be of 
large extent, he occupies Ihcm himself with success 
and advanlsge er|iiat to llie mo!.l attentive and txouoa 
mical farmer ; that to make hiniiiclf maMcr of i 
business requisite in this line of rural economy, 
not require the labour which attends the cidtivatioii 
of an arable farm, or the management of live-stockj 
that lie h)iB only to order >i>id see Ihat good fences 
arc made round the «iiods, to prevent their being da* 
maged by the inroads of cattle; and when fit for the 
>. sell (hem in the ^ 

taiifl 






WOOM AN^ PZfAMTAtlOm:' 18S 

(ail, bjr cutting the wood himself^ lie puts them u^' 
tb sale by auction ; the customiiTy mbii to many parts . 
of the county; that he'issure^ by this means, of re* 
ceiTing the feal valne. In short, that it b a safe, im- 
^ jprovtng, and ralaable treasury. 

Consider the iitflneiice of woods and forests in a po* 
litical light, as afTectiiig the dearest and most impor- 
tant interests of the kingdom . Here the evil is flagrant 
enough . To encourage the growth of oak in a kingdonl 
rapidly increasing in population, wfieil we have so 
lately experienced to our cost, the sad effectsof inability 
to feed our own people, is not giving encouragement to 
what ihost demands attention. Recent ex])erience has 
taught a lesson of instruction, fresh in the memory of 
all. In order toward off the apprehension of a famine, 
We have been under the necessity of importing com to 
A vast amount; and in 1797, the balance against us wps 
f<^T no less a quantity thnn one million quarteYs of 
"Hrheait, and very nearly another million quarters of 
Outs! To have com in abundance, we must, in the 
first place, lessen our forests and woods ; for in pro- 
J3ortion to the size and extent of them, and the waste 
land, must be our dependence on foreigners for a part 
of our food. Apprehensions of scarcity are periodical, 
^nd manifestly alarming to government. Butcher* 
nieat, although it has lately declined (written in 
1797), has been for some time at an unexampled 
price ; almost all the'' productions of our soil have 
doubled their value. Under ttiese and similar consi* 
derations, does it not argue a singular want of fore^^ 
sight, that people should be found who will stand up as 
advocates for a wilderness, on comparison with corn, 
cattle, and sheep ; ifor the benefits whicli arise froi^ 
^p^si^j^ wood, instead of feeding our own people. It 

N 4 is 



b-ctirkXM eaougli, that the woods in.tbifi opmityi!^ 
gmbbed up and |>l$tnted with wheat,. ]VYPuld add fltPf^ 
than 600,000 qoartens of com tqtbe aatioiifd prodppe.;, 
and this is a quantity which, if we look at the ,fl|i|fUi 
annually paid for the importation alobe^ is oC, i09Ui 
eansequence ; compared with it, the produce by wopd 
is too small to merit observation. ^ .. -^ 

But it will be said, that political views render. ^^ 
{MToduction of timber necessary. Sqch views should 
1^ ext>lained; they will in all probability djscfftTfl 
tliemselves tobexott^n. ^' Convert your timber iflito 
com, and the nation is undone. What becomes of 
the Navy — the wooden walls of old England ? Grtfot* 
ing that it is for the interest of individuals to grub i^p 
their woods, still oak must be raised* and that tpo ii|^ 
quantities, or the me^s of national defence disap«« 
pears.'' — ^As if the additional wealth treated by the 
conversion of timber into tillage, would not be abh) 
to command the most unlimited supply for the Nary* 
Deal we find to be a commodity as essentially ucces* 
sary in the construction of our houses, as oak in title 
building of our ships; yet where is the inconvenience 
of importing it ? The North of Europe, and Ame« 
rica, hold out such inexhaustible stores^ that any ap^ 
prehension of scarcity is unfounded, and what proves, 
the scarcity to be ill founded is, tliat the contract 
price for oak in the King^s yards, has not ad- 
vanced for more than forty years ; a decisive proof, 
either that the quantity has not declined, or that the 
foreign growth is ev(Ty way adequate. Scarcity is 
complained of; the scarcity of timber is unexception^ 
libly the most convincing proof of national prosper 
yity. To complain, is preferring a produce that 
yields SO^. t^ another tlis^t at least |>ays 4/^ In pr<^ 

|M>rtioQ 



W^^BC ANB FLANTATIOIIS. 1S$ 

pcMrtidn Its odr woods and wastes are made to vaaisk bo 
(&m^ popvlalion iumI com> must be <l)^ scarcity of wood* 
A& tbe'kingdoiii- advances in cuUivation, woods and 
fiMnests are made to disappear ; and if our fiiemios make 
Use of foreign oak in building their navy, we may 
nardy do tbe same on at kast equal tonns. 

In wbaterer ligbt this subject is consideiDd^ who* 
til er in respect to the landlord, or his tenant; to in* 
di^vidualsy or the public, tbe woods are inferior to 
coY-n; and the first step to an amelioration of the 
¥l^eald, would be the diminution of thorn*. By pro* 

perly 

^^ I cannot altogether agree with the Reverend Author^ in hit ideas of 
tk^ ^eald being so much enveloped with woodlands and large hedge- 
tory^r^ la some particular places it certainly is, and would be an ifii« 
P^o^ement to grub and clear the land from hedge-rows and tim)>er, 
'I'^'Us far I agree with the ingenious Author ; but surely this praptica 
^^^.^iiit not to be followed, except where the soil is kind for corn ai^a 
iiet the bad soils remain, by all means, in the san^e woo^y statCi 
the addition of a much greater quantity of it being planted with 
}, as a nursery for timber. The greatest improvement that 
be made (and done with the least expense and trouble in that dis* 
''■^^t), would be for landlords to take away from their tenants from ten 
^^ ^^xty acres,^ in proportion to the size of their farms, of the very 
' r land, which in its present state nobody receives any benefit from ; 
I am satisfied the tenant would be glad to get rid of the good- 
*'^*''— nothing land, as they generally call it, for a small compensation ; 
**^^ this landy which now is looked upon as not worth cuitivatiou, 
^''^^>"^ld most probably in a few years be valued from 6s, to St. per acre.— 

-^11 ideas of the present value of such land, derived from the applica- 
of it in its unimprwed ttate^ is liable to error. Where is the g^oJ-fof 
*iug UmdT I am acquainted with little land in the Weald, properly 
called, and the region of timber, which nobody receives any bene* 
9^ IFrom ; for the great tracts of waste-lands form no part of the present 
9^*^atioii. But however, uking them into the account, and connected 
^^*^ the farmer's other land, they pay some rent, not less than 2s. to 
V* peracre. Taken at 2/., the produce is 6/. Now, should this plant- 
ing 



!8S W006B AVB PtASTATIOHB. 

pcrly lessening them, tlie improvement of such heavj 
soils would already be more than b;iirciirrie(i throuffh 
and the consequent success ^reat, rapid, and effective 
Com and cattle, mntton and wiiol, would mark thi 
progressive improvement nf tlic county, and thi 
Weald, in lieu of Iwins; covered willi ivowds, wuuk 
smile with plenty and jirosperily. 

To those gentlemen who are such sticklers for oti 
couraging the production of timfjer, it will lie ret* 
satisfactory to observe, that the Suwck woods, undc 
proper management, Hiinld more th;in sopply tl* 
Vh(Me lloyal Xavy. 

ing tpcculation of raifiup co|>plce, ai a nurspry for Ijmlier, lucceed, !• 
biui calculate the progre&Bivc inciea^c of Vi. per anuuni, at cumpoua 
iuceieit, during the term Iiii trees are to st^rnd. Sucli i falcul^tic 
nill not turn nul any induceinent lo convert whalcvcc llve-iloijc it is clu 
■ iecda itpon them.io timber, by way of a grr^t mfrnaqmt. If il be tM* 
thu planting a preferable to tlie present wji.Ic state, tli? (riiriipii/ijc! 
is admitted: encloacd and divided, tliey will lie fit for aiiy iipj-.litJliuj,- 

.f. r. 



J87 



CHAP. XI. 



WASTES. 



THE tracts of land vrtiich come uncler tbe de^ 
scription of mere wastes, in Sussex, are very consider* 
'able ; they chiefly occupy the northern side of tht 
county: out of a portion containing, by computation, 
500,000 acres, these almost desert tracts take up no 
fes^ a space thaii 1 10,000 acres of it ; and vfhsii ren- 
ders it the more singular is, the apparently beneficial 
^circumstance, that this great range is within the dis-> 
fanceof 35 to 43 miles of the capital ; and all might 
**ot only be converted to the great benefit of the 
^^tlnty, of which they compose so large a part, but be 
likewise highly productive to the empire at large. It is 
pot a little curious, that such immense tracts of land 
should be still left in a desert state, when they are 
©Very where intcri^ccted by turnpikcrroads, and in the 
l^eighbourho<i(l of such a market as London ! These 
^re surely advantages great enough to recommend tbd 
l^iilture of -them. At first sight, the soil is a disc6u« 
Taging prospect ; generally a blackish sand, ferni- 
fundus, poor, and frequently verj' wet, over a bottom 
f^mposed of an earth resembling marl in colour, 
thoiigb not in quality. Under this comes a sand- 
^^*>ne ; and over the whole tract, iron-works once flou- 
I'^shed. To this ferruginous quality of the soil, its 
jP^yerty has been ajjcribed. 

Pwn 



S 



Paring and burning*, wonld be the mnkin^ of Ihis 
eoU: it is the abuse of tliis excrllcnt practice, whicb 
calls for condemnation. The soil, though poor, is 
susceptible of considerable improvL'mPiit. Andbpit 
remembered, that somL' of the greatest exertions that 
have been nnilerlaken in this Islitiid, have btvn on 
soils poor and sandy, soiik' (»f wliich have not ex- 
ceeded these in fertility, and wilhout poswssing any 
pf those advantages which arisq from the vic^lity oC 
Jyondon. ' It is idle to say, that such a soil is taC 
poor for profitable cultivation. That such gfvr»' 
tracts in Surrey, as well as in Sul.scx and Hampshire; 
fhould be suffered tu rpmnin ill Uieir present slate, 9 
B niosi unaccountable neglisence, and to a superficL* 
observer, a nuiUve for conrhiding, (hat yast citic-* 
instead of shedding a benign iiiflueucc over the nei^H 
bourhopd, hare a tendency to the reverse. Tl 
wastes, only within tO oi' .50 nidcs of London, woof 
supply that city with bread. ^ 

The gri^atest improvement 1h:i( I fciiow undc* 
taken in this county, has been efiecled on (he St^^ 
park at Petworth, smiic yi^ars ago, by the yarl ^ 
Egremont. Previonsly (o i[s ln-iiis imprnyed, it wn^ 
aa entire forest scene, ovcrspresul nilh bushes, furzes 
some timber, and rubhisii ; of no kind of use, u. 
we except a few miserable and riigged young s|odj> 
which it anjiually rcaral ; and wonld no( have Jett lb« 
more than 4*. or at most 5s. per acre. Tlic uit4ci;t(iJ^ 
ing of converting lielHren 7 and 800 acres of l;in^ 
was an exertion to be expecled only iVnm an atMn^atw 
and enlightened improver, it was begun about s>|,- 
teen or sevenU'eii yi-ars ago j the limber sold, Ibe fjtv- 
dcrwood grubbed} and burntfd into charcoal up9ntl||,e 



'4 



wAfTEir* 189 

spot; and every part of Xtxs pArk has b^h aiaoe 
ihdvtei in lire most eflfectiial -nKiliBer: the wMe of* 
itciidoHed ktvd dividikrinto properfielcb, and planted t 
ro^'Ultirly with white*thorn, all of winch h^ beea- 
tniined in the nontest manner. All* the cr^pa Hpoii > 
(he ground sncceed each other in a system of oortHA 
cultivation, and so luxuriant, that few tracts of SOs« 
or 30^. ])(*r acre, can be said to b^ more productive, 
extraordinary fine crops of wbeat and oats are raised^ 
as higii as five quarters of the one, and ten qnai^ers df' 
<be other ; fifie crops of barley and tares, and va^ ones ' 
oFtuhiips ; and aftificial grasses ; ctov^^ my, chifooYy^: 
^h^ &c. in a^feat profusion, 

it is thoroi|<s^hly well stocked with Susscfx^ DeVCH* : 
^ir^, and Herefordshire cattle; flocks atid iattingt 
^'leep of the Somth Down and Spanish brsid^ jUtossf^j 
^^r and Romney : the whole of it is a garden. 

Since the first edition of this work has been pub- 

**feil:»cd, some considerable tracts of the poor sandy soil 

*,y ing along the northern side of the county, have been 

^^■■c>ught under a course of improvement. Mr. William 

^^^^ton is convert intr a part of Tilgate forest, by un- 

^^T^itted exertion, into a well ordered and systematic 

^^^angcment of crops, by denshiring the forest (here- 

^^^^brc no other than a rabbit-warren) ; and it well me- 

^J-ts attention, that no plant or root that has yet been 

*^icd upon this land, seems so well adapted to the soil as 

potatoes. An account of the expenses and produce of 

^ix acres of the forest, very recently enclosed from 

tVie warren, was sent by him to the Society of Arts, 

• for which the gold premium was adjudged last year. 

These six acres, the rent and all the taxes of which 

amounted but to 6s. an acre, gained him a produce by 

potatoes of 80/., which is upwards of 131. per acre ; 

a proof 



Mfl WASTES. 

tf proof hoffw oil suited is the culture of potatoes fo tW^ 
bnd, morepnflicularly when we take into coiisidcrati <" 
that tlie soil docs not appear to have bet*n chosen frc» 
any circumstances of superiority over the rematniV ■ 
of the warren : ttfe preceding crop was oota, and th « 
yi^ed so badly, that the piece wiip then considers 
by Mr^^eaton as not worth the expense of ciillivatit*^ 
a^d for two years it was thrown open to the rabbits. ^ 
Oclobn-, 1796, it was enclosed and plouj^hcd ; Marc 1 
f797, harrowed, and soon after cross-ploughed; t"! 
tN^nning of April harrowed again, and sorm afll 
ploogbed a third lime ; in ten days harrowed a thL 
time, and ndged up for dung(12cari-loads per acr^- 
andbeforc April S.5th, SO bushels of potatoes planle-* 
In June they were hoed and earthed up, and 
October 250 bushels pec acre were taken up. 



191 



CHAP. XII. 

I 

IMPROVEMENTS. 



SECT. I. DRAINING. 

TfllS operation is not yet thoroughly under. 
*^ood ; ihx: pracf ice is confined to a few spirited indU 
vicliials. Hollow-draining is the first improvement 
^w^Tited ; though it is rendered difScult to execute by 
^he nature of the soil. The tenacious properties of the 
clay very greatly retards, and in some places abso« 
*utely prevents, the stibsiding of the water. In this 
cni^se, surface-drains only can be of any use; but 
"^iiorever the upper soil b formed of a greater propor- 
*'Oti of loam than of clay, the water will pass through 
^^ xvith ejise, and the operation may be attended with"* 
^^^5it success. The trenches arc made three spit (two 
^^^^t) ill depth, and from fonr to eight, or ten inches 
^^*^e, at bottom, and eighteen inches at the top ; 
^^^ ides the spade, the trunking-tool, and the scoop^ 
^^^ used. Thd small spray of bush-faggots is^trod in, 
to , -prevent the materials (as sea-beach, stone, or 
^^^^d-stonc) from settling at the bottom. In the neigh^ 
^^^Virhood of the sea, beach is used, and it serves for 
c:ellcnt -drains, and lasts for cVer. It is commonly 
d in the drains about 10 or II inches thick, over 
^*- a small quantity of stubble or straw. 

- But the art of draining has lately received a, rein- 
^^^cemcnt of knowledge^ from an important discovery 
Mr. £lkington. - His system' is not so mTuch the 

construe- 



cor iction of tlrains,, to draw off any witness occ: 
R L bj- rain, or overflowing, &c. as the moi 
coinpliualecl operation of draining lanils, rendered v-i 
by subterraneous w:ili"rs nrijfinatin'^ in hilts and risin 
grounds. To discover tlii; bi^ads of lliLttc spring! 
Is the main point of llic work. His knowledge tin 
experience in driiiiinir bo^i^y land, brou;;ht hini tol 
employed in vurifnis parts of 'lie kingdom. Amoii 
other places, he cainelo Petwortli, where the Earl < 
Egremoiit soon cut out work for his ingenuity. 

Lord KgreinoHt wunling a supply of water for h 
lake, Mr. Elkinglon was of opinion thn! it might I 
gained from a hirge hill of sand-stone, which had a 
ready been drained into several small rehcrvoirs, froi 
. which the water was conveyed to the lake but in a nms 
quaatity. Undertaking to procure a ninch largi 
stream, not only by discovering more water in the Jii 
thao was at present known, but also by diverting sod 
Aprings which break out In a common oa the oth 
side of the liili, lie agreed to convey the water into tl 
park, by cutting his Uoneiiisoii ( lie east side of the hil 
in order to draw the \uiter which issues from the nort 
and west parts of the hill upon i!ie common. M 
Elkington pronounced, that by boring, the mti 
should be made to boil in Wis trenches like a fminUin 
When his drains 'nere finished, it appeared 4fai 
no water was gained by them. Mr. Elkingtm tiii 
that thb was no faidt of his, as the springG weM n 
perpetual, but dried up in summer. Iq vetj fh 
weather, such as 1797, Ibis might be the case^rlx 
the drains have been running from that tine toitt 
very strongly ; all of lh<;in in their origiilai chv 
nelSf and none in Mr. EUiington'ji, , . ,/ 

n 



toRAiNiNa. I9S 

*riie plan upon which he proceeded^ was to sink a 
ditch from the level at A 




^p to B, where it is eleven feet below the surface ot- 
the ground 5 he likewise bored down eight feet lower, 
and found nothing but clay. At C, he did not carry 
^P a ditch, but sunk a well six feet deep, and bored 
dowu seven feet lower, where also it is all clay. He 
then sunk a ditch from the level A, round the end of 
*^c hill to E ; the water oozed out a little all the 
^^y ; and at D, and a few yards each way, there is a 
^Hfiart spring, as much, or rather more, than the well 
above ; but the soil is composed of such loose stones 
a'^d sand, that it immediately sinks, and runs into the 
S^'^Und. At E, there is another little run : the bottom 
^* the ditch at D, is six feet under the surface, and 
tne hill rises very fast. At B and C, x^here Mr. Elk- 
*^gton expected to find stone, and a hogshead of watet 
every minute, he neither met with stone, or one drop 
^* ^aterk There is a well, and a spring which con-* 
**^ntly overflows about five feet perpendicular, and 
^*^ont ten yards as the hill rises above B. Mr. Elk- 
^**gton said that his trench woulJ lay the well dry ; 
J^^t the spring flows over the well as much as ever* 
**^s charges for this were SOL 

«tJ8SEx*J o Another 



j\nother affcmpt was made by Mr. ETkingtonT to 
drain a meiiciow called Budbam, lying below a gently- 
rising groiiiul, and along a river. Mr. Elkingloii 
conceived that fliis meadow was wet from springs ia 
^lie hill, and that cutting a trench above 500 yardsj 
wmtld cut off these springs ; attd as the water in the 
river was higher than the meadow, he laid the mouth 
of his trench iuto the river, two feet below the surface 
of it ; he contending, that the water of the spring* 
would run into the river, without the river Tunuing 
into his drain. 

He was toW, tl)at the wetness of the meadow va* 
owing to a milt-head penning up the water above the 
level of the meadow. There was -ar ohl ditch for car- 
rying the water from the meadow iuto the river, whe* 
it was low ; this he said might be stopped up, as his 
drain would answer the purpose. Wlien about 900 
yards (rf" his drain liail been finished, he found thfrt it 
did not answer his purpose, and he deeijened it two or 
three feet; but when finished (at the expense of 100/,), 
the effect was, that when the ditch was stopped up, 
the meadow was flooded by the aprings, as his draiit 
did not answer the purpose of carrying the water olF, 
although altered backwards and forwards several 
times ; and when tlie ditch was open, the meadow 
was flooded by the river. When Mr. Elkington was 
last at Petfforth, he said that some of the springs were 
beyond his work, and he could only recommend ta 
bank the river out at Ihc ditdi, and to build a wii 
pump to pump the ditch dry. 

After this unsuccessful undertaking, Lord Ej 
mont took a quite different method. The level of the 
meadows on each side of the river having been taken, 
it appeared that the meadow-ground on. the oppi 



he oppo^t^^_ 

J 



llRAtlTTNd. Ids 

*ide was beneath the level of the meadow which re* 
'Quired to be drained, and consequently that the drain* 
Ing could be effected by a trunk laid across the bed of 
the tiver ; a wooden pipe was therefore laid at tl^e 
bottom ) to receive the water of the ditch, and it wa9 
carried on by an open drain passing through this 
other meadow, on the opposite side (which it also 
drained) up to the bridge, under which it passes^ 
close to the turnpike--gate, by means of a pipe, and 
it empties itself into the river at the milUhead. This 
lias answered most effectually, so that the water in the 
old ditch now stands always a foot below the surface 
of the meadow ; and more than one hundred acres of 
contiguous meadow have been highly improved by 
these new draias : much of it a mere bog before be- 
ing drained, is now converted into a fine water*meai- 
dow, and worth full 3L per acre. These grounds 
are at any time capable of being flowed by the means 
of sluices made through the towing-path, which acts 
as an embankment 4 and in summer, if the river is 
too low, by fresh streams which flow into it from the 
Vpper grounds; and the water can at pleasure be 
drawn off by drains into the lower level below the 
locks, and sometimes, where particular circumstances 
Xender it necessary, by the means of culverts carried 
across the bottom of the river. The failure of Mr, 
Elkington seemed to proceed from a want of that 
theory and principle which might have been looked 
for in an experienced drainer, 

A third failure of Mr. Elkington's occurred also at 
Pctworth. Lord Egremont has a forcingrcngine, 
worked by a water-wheel at the river, for raising 
•water 178 feet high, in order to supply tlie town of 
Petworth. This is an expensive machine, so that bis 
t- « q2 Lordship 



Lordship would have been at the expense of 1000/. tm 
procure nn equal supply (a hogshead a minute), bj 
bringina: springs from ilistatit grounds. This Mr. 
Elbiiigton undcitook tii do ; but as his Lordship had 
seen the preceding fiidures, he declared he would be 
at no unrertnrn expense, Mr. Elkinglon ofierod io 
procure the requisite supply for 1000/. if he succeeded^ 
and to pay 1000/, if he failed ; afterwards reduced to 
500/. and the water to half a hogshead each minute. 
But upon Lord Egremont's having the agreement 
drawn up by a lawyer, Mr. Etkiugton declined it. 
lie went however to work on his own account, in 
order to retrieve his reputation as a drainer. The hili 
from which he expected to be able to draw the watq 
is of a large dimension, spreading a circumfrrer 
of several miles, and is formed of wliyu and other 
stone : springs of no great account, break out all 
around it at different levels. Mr. Elkiugton took 
the level of (he Petworlh reservoir, and fixing » 
a spot on the side of the hill abtrve that lev^l 
on the gohanna ground, where a parcel of these™ 
smuU springs break out on the sides of the hill, cut 
a very deep trench, atid bored ; but all in vain. He 
then tried at another place, where two wnall springs 
broke out. Here he worse than failed ; for he not 
only found no water, but actually lost one of the old 
springs, which supplietl two cottages with water, and 
did not even catch that of the other spring, though 
close to his trench. In one part of this trench he toli 
Lord Egremont's direclor of similar works, that liifl 
would, at such a spot, find stone, and a spring tluflfl 
would run a hogshead in a minute ; but they found no 
gtone, only clay, and no water- There is also a well 
and spring at another spot, which Mr, KIkington said 



:, in 

ther 
all 
x)ol^^^ 



J 



PARING AND BITIINING. 197 

\fe drain would lay dry : it had however no such 
cflfect, and flowed afterwards as much as be/ore. 

Having thus described his failures, it is necessary 
to observe, that he drained an acre of boggy meadovi^ 
very well and successfully, though at the great expense 
of 40/. Lord Egrcmont considers him as a very good 
common drainer, though a very expensive one ; btft 
without any particular skill or knowledge not pos^ 
Isessed by any other good drainer, 

I have thought it proper to insert the preceding die-, 
tails, not by way of prejudicing any man against * 
person who has <5ertainly performed, in other cases, 
great and singular improvements ; but merely to catlp 
lion the world against an appearance of mystery 
and intuitive knowledge, which a certain degree of 
success may have given to Mr. £lkingtori*s manner. 
It goes only to prove that he is very far from being 
infallible, which I have lieard some persons very 
'iiearly declare him to be. He has executed works suf- 
ficient to prove his merit, and wants nothing of that 
^ort to add to his reputation. 



SECT. II. PARING AND BUtlNXNG. 

This is one of the greatest improvements which land 
is susceptible of receiving. ' It converts an old worn- 
out turf into corn and grass ; it adds new life and vi- 
gour to the soil, and changes the nature of it : but in 
the hands of a needy tenant, it is almost certain de» 
struction to the soil ; instead of improvement, in his 
management, it ends in impoverishment. He breaks • 
• **P> pstres and burns, and drives the land with three 

o 3 ox 



or four crops of c 



, and (Lep lays it down a^ 



The ferlilily of his new land tempts his Tapacily toi^ 
peat his crOps, till the soil is cxiuiiisted of every p 
tide of fcrlility ; and when it is eo rediicefl that no 
*orn can be made to grow, can it be womliTcd af that 
MiUidlords should object (o a system wliicli is entitled 
mly to execration ? It is lUt; gross abuse of a practice, 
, when properly conduvtixl, is an adimrable 
improvement to any land. If paring nml burning 
exhaust the staple, the rent of it, so treated, wrtainly 
would not Lave ndvanccd in a few years from 50 to 
100 per cent. If it exiracled the nutrition or food of 
plants inherent in the soil, it would have had tliu 
effect of destroying the productive properlies of eurlh 
long since, in those countries where the practice has 
been a favourite one for many ecnturtes. 

In 17G3, the late General Murniy luid a field down 
to grass till he returned from Minorca, ami it was not 
one penny the better in all Ihnttime; he then pared 
and burned, and limed it with the ashes, ploughed, 
and laid it down again directly, without sowing any 
corn ; and in all the uplnnds of Sussex, there is not a 
finer piece of grass than it has been ever since. This 
is a remarkable experiment ; atid we may draw a con- 
clusion from it in favour of the practice, tkatiti& 
only the abuse which merits condeiimation. 

When a farmer pares and burns, he knows (ha"^ 
he is in possession of a dungliill, and his first busi-^ 
ness is to get the heart and blood out of it as soon as ht^ 
can, by corn-cropping I with such management th^ 
practice is execrable ; but if applied with proper cau-" 
lion, there is no safer or better husbandry. This trin,l 
might Lave succeeded better if a crop of turnips had 
been taken after the paring; th<.sc Rd off with sheep, 

ancJ 



MANURING. Id9 

Und then laid down with barley, wliicli is Imsbandry 
C^-nd I name it for that purpose) that is applicable to 
pommon management : whereas, farmers will not hes^r 
305. or 405. to pare and burn, and 605. or SOs. 
ore in lime, in order for grass only, however excel* 
ft^nt the husbandry, which this undoubtedly is. 

This husbandry has been practised io Sussex hy 
l%^essrs. Seaton, Dixon, and Bradford^ &c. Great 
s^uiccess for a time attended it ; but from the want of 
isxjifficient capital in some cases, and too much corn- 
ropping in others, tlie final result was not such as it 
ould have been with different management. 



SECT. III.^ — MANURING* 



The manures used in Sussex, besides common dsng^ 



re, 


« 




1. 


Chalk, 


7. Peat-«ashes. 

9 


g. 


Lime. 


8. Coal-ashesa 


3. 


Marl ; and in a small 


9. Rags. 




degree^ 


10. Sheep-clippings 


4. 


Sleech. 


11. Pilchards. 


5. 


Soap-ashes. 


12. Paring-dust* 


6. 


Wood -ashes. 


13. Gypsum.. 



The three first are used in great abundance, the rest 
jpartially* 

1. Chalk. 

This is in great request, and used in quantities from 
SCO to 1(^00 bushels per acre 

Mr. Peachey, of Chichester, spreads 8 bushels to a 
perch. Mr. Gell, at Applesham, lays it down as a 

a 4 rule^ 



200 MAnrriiiNG. 

jTilc, (hai if should be exposed to the air for a yenr of 
two before it is ploughed in, for the frosts in pulvcriw 
it, in order to unite It the better with the soil. Hfl 
manures with 140 cart-londs to the acre, each load 30 
bushels ; and lie estimates Ihe ex]}enBe at 5/, per acre. 
This energetic and spirited farmer hag already covered 
his well cultivated farm with 90,000 loads of this ma- 
nure; and what app<ars to be Ihe siAjruhirity of (be 
circumstance, it is nil done upon a chalk farm. His 
exertions, in this respect, hi vt; been qniisnally preat. 
In the o Iteration of such infereslini; experiments, be 
applies chalk in union with limC; first, ISO loads of 
chalk upon a layer; two yiars afterwards, lime for 
rape ; a kiln of 12 hinds (o two acres and a half. The 
wheat-slubhie, with clover araougst it, sown on tliist 
preparation, marked a crop of extraordinary gooilness^ 
and the clovej. a very superior crop. The expeii&e»^ 
however, of the improrementj enormous. 

120 loads of rhalk, dig, fdl, and spread, 1 y j i • 

at is. per score, ^ 

Four carts and 16 oxen, and four dri^ \ ^ T(T • 

vers, 40 loads' per day, tliree days, J 
Lime. — ISpO furze fag- 1 y. a in n 

gofs, at 6s. per 100, J - _ 

Six loads chalk, labour, "1 i in n 

&c. at 5s. J 

Burning, ». 110 

Beer.— Emptying kiln, \ i iq q 

and spreading, ■' 

Repairs of kiln, .„ 5 

Pivjdedbj'twoandahalf, £.S 16 0, gives 3 10 ft 
, ^ J "Whicli 



manuring'. «01 

"Wl^ich expense is invested by a tenant upon land, the 

fee-simple of which would not sell tor more than 4ff. 

"VVhat say tlie farmers of Europe to this, English 6ne9 

alono excepted! It is impossible not to admii^e the 

spirit which animates such improreimeiit; 

*^ Mr. Lickfold, of North Chapel: 

A broad- wheeled waacj^on, eight horses n 

and two men, eight miles out and?-^. LIO 
eight homCj two days, at Ids. per day, J 

Turnpikes, 6 6 

Cljalk dig.^n^S 10 

SCH) furze bavins, the produc(3 of three*^ 

<juarters of an acre of three years' > 2 

growth, two acres and a half, J 

^%jrniiig, 10 

vnptying, «.. 16 

cirriage of nine cart-loads to the field, 9 

For two acres and a half, £,5 6 6 



The two acres and a half of furze jiist as good land 
the two and a half it n\anures. 

Many of the farmers carry the chalk twelve miles, 
^d through very bad roads." — Annals^ 38, p. 660. 
Chalk we see highly contributing to the melioration 
^^f different soils ; but variety is as essentially necessary, 
i^i manure, as it is indispensable in seed : hence it is, 
^liat in land repeatedly limed, the effect is no longer 
Visible. 

Chalk should undoubtedly be substituted in lieu of 
"it, in all those districts where the land has been repeat- 
edly limed. Soft, soapy, and free chalk, might be 
tried to very great ajJ vantage, and marl likewise. 
The navigation of the Kother, effected by the Earl 



-r 



MANUBING. 

mont, has had tlie gooil cfTect, among i 
others, of dispersing great quantities of chulk in llie J 
line of country throupli wliicli U passes, at a mu(;]^J 
less expense than is cfiected in flic transport of thud^ 
commodity by land. At lcast40,000 tons arc disporaeM 
in tile neighbourhood of the Rothcr and Arun. 

2. Lime. 

This is an article of the greatest ronsoquonce whi 
chalk is procured in such abundance, as all the ksM 
mcrs nse it very pkiitifully to manure their ( 
chiefly for wheal. But the present use of it rendef 
llie expense so heavy, and I lie repetition so rapid, 
to put the effect of liming in a very questionable point 
of view*. The farmers generally lay it on their lal'^ 
lows from 80 to 190 bushels, every fourth or fifth yeat,! 
and some use it every tliird year. The eSect of lirafc- 
is unquestionably great, more especially upon land^ , 
lately broken up, and by a prudent and judicious (lis— . 
position in the management, it wiU turn out an excel — 
lent manure; but repeated so often, it answers n«^ 
longer. Indeed, sensible farmers have discovered tlii * 
to be the case by long experience, and they mix •- ^ 
with other manures, or monhi, or no longer use it. 

As it is cliiefly with a view of ensuring full crops t:^* 
■wheat, that we see such exertions effected in liming, -^ 
eliall in this place enter rather more at large into III' ^ 

• " A vtrj juil obiervation. Lime, ai a manure, certainly Iwne/''^ 
land in some dogrce ; and bo iloughl, o[her«'ide the ei[>enae ia certaid'j''^ 
thrown away. A»fc 93 /arnwra out of 100, wijether ic pays or nt>' ' 
they csnnoi rell yoii, for they never calciiLitcd ihe greal eiiienae "* 
muiuting tiieir land willi lime. Tlio geoeral answer ii, that it is an ol** 
CBtablished rule, ihe cuslotn of ihe country, to lay lime on lo their (»'■" 
lowt; but my opinion entirely coinehles with Mr. Young's, that itsel- 
dom aostvcTA the expenses." — >*'. F. 

practice. 



MANURING. 909 

pra.ctice9 and describe tlie structure of the kilns in thi« 
county, with the method of burnin'^ as practised, as 
well iu the tunnel as in the flame kilns. 

^s the (;halk«!.iHs extend no further than East* 

boiinie, in order therefore to supply the rest of the 

coxinty, the chalk is shipped in sloops from the Holy- 

woU pits at Beachy-head, from whence it is carried to 

the Bexhilly Hastings, and Rye kilns : here it is burnt 

bxto lime, where the farmers come with their teams 

.a.n.<l take it away at 6d. per bushel. In this trade 16 

«Xoops are considerably employed from April to the 

nrxouth of November. Nine of these belong to Hast* 

• 

^■^gs, and seven to the port of Rye, The total quan- 
'^i^y consumed at these kilns, for one ytar, amounts 
tt^sirly to 633 sloop-loads of chalk, each containing 
S^SO bushels, or about 350,000 bushels. 

That the public may have all requisite informa« 
«n respecting the burning, I have inserted the 
count of a kiln, and process of burning, whicli 
-I bad from a lime-burner of Hastings, who has been 
Employed in the trade for many years. The kiln is 
Seventeen feet in the cloar, at the bottom, nineteen in 
^epth, and fourteen over; 70,000 bricks were used in 
Constructing it, which, at the time of building (25 or 

a « 

S6 years ago), were 25s . per 1000. It has four eyes 

^t bottom, each 21 inches wide in the run of the shovel, 

* 5ind the same in length. These are situated at the op-. 

posite sides of the kiln, and are used for drawing out, 

the lime. 

The arched way round the kiln, is eight feet wide 
in the ring, clear of the buttresses, which are three feet 
thick. The whole circumference of the inside circle 
is 90 feet. The conveniences are all excellent, as a 
Vaggon with one horse can stand in the porch, clear 



204 MAMfH 

of the door-nay. The kiln contains abobttiOO b 
of clialk, proper coal-mcusnri>; and llie draught, in 
full work, is 300 bushels ol' lime every ilay. To bam 
one l(iln, requires six chuldron of- tools, Welsh, or 
Hartley. 

The procesB in buming one of tliese is, to lay at tite 
boltoin nlioiit .% fa^irolti, and upon ihiitu smiillquitn- 
lity (about tiHlt'ii cord of Muod, covered willi Btraw}i; 
upon this is Inid cnul, and npon tbc cnul,'chulk, con- 
"tinned in this niaunur till the Kiln is three quarten FuU, 
"nlien the fng^ots arc lighted at ihelrallum; and«i 
qiiicli as (he chalk is roiivertcd into lime, it is dntm 
from the boKoin, and replenished witli fhatk at .file 
top, (lie kiln bciiiu; always full. A chatilron and a 
half of coids is the i\min\ quantify to SOO biislirls uf 
lime. The chalk wnslos ono-fourlh in liie operalion. 
■They think that Ihe lime is mnch stronger when buml 
i^'ilh coal, as (he chalk is alwa>)i cut into small pi^ns 
before it Is put into ihc ptrprlunl or tunnel kiln; 
fwhereas, in WicJIiime kilns, the chalk is put iiiltf (lies 
' kilns in lar^e pieces, the size of a roan's head, uimL 
I larger, without any breaking ; and in the act of burn- 
ing, it must happen that some of it will ciliier be luf» 
much or too little burnt ; thai, for instance, which i* 
placed at Ihe bottom direi;tly over the fire, will be vr^- 
equally burnt, whilst that which is at a greater dis- 
tance from the fire, will not receive its due portion i>» 
ihc beat ; for, in these Darue-kilns, the heat bein^ 
forced upwards through the chalk, it generally hap- 
pens that the lower part Is burnt more than the utlitr. 
In the coal-kilns, the fire is eoutiiiually advancing 
upwards, and the fire spreads more equally : (try 
possess an advantage in the quick dispatch of drawing 
the lime; but in the flume-it.ihis, alter the chalk is 
burnt, 



MANURING. SCk5» 

• - 

burnt, much time is lost by waiting till the lime is* 
cold, and by emptying it at the mouth. Last year, at 
Hastings, the price of lime was 50s. per hundred bu- 
shels, and a drawback allowed of 5s. per cent, io 
those who bought 500 bushels. This yea,r (1797) ihe 
price is advanced to 21. Hs. 9d. The demand for lime 
from these kibis rather decreases. 
'X'he account of a lime-burner at Hastings t 

Bushels burnt* 

1788, 70,000 - 

1789, 80,000 

1790, .*. 98,000 

1791, 103,000 

1792, 80,000 

1793, 60,000 , 

A^his decrease is caused l)y the erection of two new* 
■^i^^nis, iir opposition to those from the proprietor of 
^'* ich this account is extracted. 

T^he lime-burners at Hastings, Rye, and other places 
*'^^^g the qoast, prefer chalk to stone lime, as being 
^*^«r and more yieldinfl: : but those farmers who have 
M^^oxi in the habit of manuring their land for a number 
®* jears with one sort, derive benefits from a change. 
Ihe price of *100 bushels (the medium quantity for 
^^^ acre) at any one of tli^se kihis was, in 1793, 
^ • lis. 2lL ; the year before, 2/. IO5. and a drawback 
^* five per cent. The price is now advanced. The 
*^^son for burning is all the summer. 

Besides the lime burnt from chalk, another great 
*^pply from limestone is drawn from the bowels of the 
^^rth, in the Weald. 

Of tills the Earl of Ashburnham is almost the sole 
t^toprijetor, and the greatest lime-burner in all^ t!je 

kingdom; 



S06 MAKtrntNc. 

kiiii^doni ; (lu'spriij'-fiiffffot nf all hisexfcnsivr wnotli 
bring cut down as fni-l for his kihix. Ttiesc limr- 
■WorUs are sifuatrd in a valley snrroiindctl hy wivxls; 
Biul as llicy JMc of 11 diflercnt constrnction lo the fiire- 
poing;, I nIiuII in lliis place inscrl tl«> fnllnwin^ nc- 
count of oncof tlinn, with tlit; proenss of burning with 
fajrS"'-"'"J'' ) ncriiinpanicil i>illi llic plan, <'Ii-viilioFi, 
And Kerlion of one nf* liix I.nrdiiliip'N lime-kilns, for 
wliicli I am indebted to the spirited and cnterprisinff 
inperintendiiiit of (lie lime-works. 

Tlic plan of the li;iK--kiIn, drawn by a scale, nnd 
ilu'Hiug the appearance a( different lieights, will en- 
able a bricklayer (o build one. It must be set into a 
Imnk oreiirtli, and rare taken that no wet c^in liKlpe (it 
(bo botlom, which iniiBl be paved with brir.k; iho 
treast-wall iibove the fhroiifs, may be done with stone. 
laid wllIiDUt inortiir; and the brick:; in ttiR iinidc of 
lie kiln, may be laid either in loam or mortar. It 
will be necessary lo Iiave a rim of iron, abmil two 
jiichcs wiih^, round (he top and inside ni' the llircils, 
> prevent Ibe linie-biirners from looscoing the IiricU 
8 Ibey put in the fliel. The Ijctich is iissd lo form & 
ndy bnse for the arch to spring from : and when 
Ci^oitc with stone, it is never liable to be bnrn^ an die 
^Ihtibers lie tis lii^h in the kiln, whiLst latrning, t\s iUa 
bench; iind iOhe slone isof (hat nntnre which retaiiii 
its fllmpe during biiriiitig, wilbout crncking or open- 
ing* it does not gel Huiliciendy done. Il liiiti n hateli, 
merely fur the convenience of Inking tin- lime out : imJ 
the Biaeol'it is nol n!iit<Ti!d, ns, of wlinleversize il niH_v 
be, it muftl be closed op wilb earlli and fcloocB during 
■ burning of Ihv kiln. 'L'hc (ii*l opemtion is llie 
, dmie by loimiiig llic iirchcB of the kibi, uliieli 
t' a continuation of thu two throufs, lo the far end j 



J 



MANtttlNd* i20t 

tond they arc turned higher and lower, according as it 

is intended to have more or less stone in the kiln ; but 

they generally stand hollow about four feet* The 

arches spring from Ihc benches, and care must be taken 

to fill up the sides as the work advances, and also the 

space upon the middle bench, or the arch would not 

stand. There is no occasion to be very particular 

as to the size of the stone in the arch, but it may be 

put in as large as a man can readily lift. The arch 

being turned and safe, the largest stones, about the 

'size of a man*s head, are placed nearest the breast of 

the kiln ; when it iS filled within two feet of the top, 

smaller stones are put in ; and within six inches of the 

top, the smallest of all, and as small as possible. The 

kiln being now filled level with the surface, it is then 

Covered over with bricks ; care having been taken, 

dnring the operation of filling, to place the limestone 

adjoining the sides and back part of the kiln, hollow^ 

tvhich assist the flame in penetrating through the 

^tone, and meeting with some resistance from the 

Closeness of the smaller pieces at the top, is, by that 

txieans, thrown more into the body of the kiln. This 

finished, a gentle fire is kindled, which is kept up 

^ith a moderate degree of heat for fifteen hours ; by 

S^hich time the kiln becomes thoroughly heated, the 

limestone has done cracking, and the inside of the 

Sirch assumes a pale red colour. At this time the work 

^oes on as quick as possible, there being now little fear 

of the arch failing. It is to be observed only, that 

towards the conclusion of the burning, when the kiln 

tiecessarily becomes very hot, for ten minutes in every 

Jialf liour the lime-burner may stop, and put no fuel 

into the kiln, and the operation will proceed on with 

the same expedition. When the limestone is tho-- 

roughly 



toagMy burnl, thon: is a clear red fire at the top, and 
n appf^ranceof siilplinr upmi some of the bricks niay^ 
: generally seen in (he hullowest parts of the lime- 
kiln. It is then nea'ss;ir7 to throw a little clay upon 
^e tops of thosrr brioks, in onler to choke Ilie fire, and 
forcethe heol elsewhere, ami, by covering the surface 
ifilh dirt, the hcnt is griuliully conducted over the 
(^Iixle. M'hf;n conl, (he bricks and dirt come from 
e limp without the Iciist injury ; but it must remain 
^ hours bi'fore it can be emptied. The tools ne- 
ssiiry are ; — ii pfinfr, to push forward the faggots, 
Bid sometimes to lighten tliein up in the throats; a 
J pole, reacliingto the Tirther end of the kiln, for 
forring up the embers, (u make them throw out afresh 
Jegree of hcit; a large hoc for raking the embers; 
1 a large iron shovel-pan to carry them away. In 
mttitig the fuel in, the stronger end of the faggot is 
rst thrust forward. The ashes arc worth as much per 
:1 as the lime, either for the use of the farmer ot 
lap-boiler. The two sorts of limeslouc in use are very 
uifierciit in llie cllect which the fire Iia? upon them, 
e one, a grey stone, is a mass of marine bhells, and 
e exuvias of sea animals; this will at first bear the 
Jhocessary degree of heat without danger ; is very 
l^ough, and will open a little without flying j but, upon 
L' beirig continued too long, will vitrify. The other 
9 a blue stouif, very much inclined to crack and tly 
Vpit'ces, and requires great altonlinn, to prevent this 
e forming the arch, from braiking and letting in 
B kiln. By continoiog fire too long, and toofiercHyj 
uns into a powder, although it does not vitrify lilte 
She other : it is a much stronger cement than the greyi 
T chalk. At first, difiiculties may arise in the burn- 
, and the stone may tumble iu; but be the di jB* 



Tl 



ci^^H 



IJA71PRI1I6. TO9 

culty what it may, care and perseverance will over- 
come it. It may not be worth while to bind the furze, 
when used as fuel, in fagj^ots ; but whether it shall 
lie burnt as faggots, or loose, it should be stacked 
when cut, to retain its strength, and it may be used 
in its dry state ; this mode, therefore, should be 
adopted. There should be water near the kiln, for 
the convenience of welting the iron over which the fag- 
gt>ta afc put, and also for wetting the tools, and the 
ground round the kiln, to prevent the scattered faggota 
«r furze from taking fire. The top of the kiln should 
be level willi the surface of the adjacent ground^ and 
^ drain should be made from the hatch round the kiln^ 
to carry away any wet that may fall, and which would 
otherwise keep the kiln cold, and therefore waste the fuel. 
The bole for the reception of the embers will be most 
convenient on the left hand side, of the mouths of the 
'treat, at the distance of five or six yards, so as nei- 
*h«»rlo give much trouble in conveying them from the 
''ilri, nor reflect too great a degree of heat on the 
'"*»-ner. For burning coal, the (HHweZ-kiln is superior 
'" "t.hcy?n»i^-kiln, for no heat is lost. In aflame-kiln 
til is is not the case, sijiceagreat degree of heat, and 
•" »»ch time also is consumed, before it can be emptied. 
*^tialk loses one-fourth in Ihc kiln. Those farmets 
"Ho for mnny years have limed with chalk till it U 
Hseless, by cliaogtng it for the stone-lime, have reaped 
g*'eat benefit ; and so, on the other hand, with stone* 
h'rxe. Variation is necessary*. 

^ Might it not ctiiiwf r, to use thp manure of chalk aoil 3iuae, wIlIiuuI 

*^<"jmpoBing anJ dpstToying wha'L may beiLaniDfii fEWnlial Tirlneby fircf 
''*'" iiutance, if it wai, in iu natural stale, pulveriipd by large miUi 
'"'Spared for that purpose, would it not, thus preparrd, prove *nual!]', 

■i*)! more elEcaciuus ? The cipefiinent howef cr U Trorlh irying', 

™*tevtr may be (lie effect of il. — I!', /it. 
fcUSSEX.J F Thft 




SIO MANURING. ^1 

The great demand for lime iii the ensfem pads of ^1 
"Weald, ijiduced the Karl of Aslibunibain, a few jcars 
since, to set about a method of drawing up Ibe lime- 
stone from ufidcr ground, for the supply of the neigh- 
liourliood. This great nndertaking he has most suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and the neighbouring farmers 
for many miles round, arc now supplied from his 
works. 

The lime-works arc situated in a valley ia the ccnfrc 
. of Orchard-wood, DLdlington-forcst, &c. The shaft 
by which we descended is four feet by five, boarded, 
with ladders for the men to go and return from their 
work, which is 80 feet deep, more or less : through 
this the. stone is drawn up hi barrels, of 3 cwt. to each, 
one descending while the other ascends. The whole 
■ machinery is moved by a horse, and is the same with 
' ■that generally used in collieries. Drains are con- 
structed at the bottom to take off the water, by means 
of a level, eouliuued as the work moves on, and 
» serves not only for conveying away the water, but also 
I fcr bringing air to the different works. The process 
[ in separating the limestoue from the solid bed is, to 
L Jjlitst it with gunpowder: a hole is bored in the rock 
I IKith an auger; a pricker b put into this whilst the 
powder is ramming diiwn, and when this part of the 
operation is finjshetl, the pricker is taken out, and a 
wheat straw filled wil.h powder is put into I he place of 
it, and a small piece of touch-papiT to the top of the 
straw, so as to comniuuicate with the powder within, 
and give lime (o the workmen [« seek a place of safely. 
"When the rock is blown up, the stone rolls down in 
, large blocks, which are broken to a portable size, and 
I |hen conveyed in barrows or little waggons, on rooda 
framed for the wheels to roll along, to the foot of the 
shaft. 



IfANURING* 1^11 

shad. A boy fills the bucket, -which is draum tip, 

and sticked into square yards, being previously 

cleansed of all dirt and shale, Tvhich would otherwise 

vitrify and injure the lime. Each stack is five yards 

in breadth, and ten long: from thence it is taken to 

the kilns as wanted. In general, it is much better 

that the limestone should remain for a time in this 

state, that any remaining dirt which adheres to it, 

maj^ peel off with the weather. The situation of the 

kilns is close tp the pits, and lower in the valley, $0 

tliat the limestone is carried down to the kiln, and the 

luljovir fucilituted. When burnt, the farmers oome 

^vi^!i their waggons to carry it away. HiS' Lordship 

ha,H cjtpened a communication with London, and now 

^tids from .Hastings by water. The kilns begin 

ing in April* In 1792, the account, stood thus ;. 

April, 6000 l^ushels. 

May, ....! 8OOO' 

Jtme, •.. 26,000 

July, 35,000 

August, .»... 21,000 

September, 10,000 

October, 9000 

^November, 6000 

121,000 bushels, 



•»^ 



Tiespccting these liitle-works, it is impossible not to 

tuire the spirit with which his Lordship entered 

Mpoa this arduous undertaking, by sending for miners 

^^d artificers skilled in the operation of mining s his 

^>icce6s has carrcj^ponded to the spirit which first 

'^Tiimated his endeavours, ^and he now reaps the fruit 

^his labour, in creating a supply for the neighbour^ 

. p2 ing 



i 
I 

t 

I. 

f 



919 



MANTKlSG. 



tag farmers, which Ixifore was to be 

qiiantitii's, and that at a drarpr rale, or it was ublig 

to be brought trom a distance. 

3. Mart. 

In the marilimc disfrtcl, this exccllmt niamirc is in 
great abuiidaiia- a few feet under the surface. It is lo 
be prererri-d when it contains much of that jjreasj kind 
of sonpiness, which has workctl such wonders in va- 
rious parts of this district. Great exertions have l>een 
used in marling these fertile soils. It is, 1 believe, 
niorc or less, found every whereon the south side of 
the Downs. Great quantities arc dug out of pits on 
the sca-shorc, which are g;enerully covered at higti- 
naler mark. Near the sea, at I'ord, &c. while marl 
is dug out of the ditches, and spread with great suc- 
cess. Mr. Milward has greatly improved his estate at 
Ilflstings, by marling. In three years he raised GO ,000 
loads; dug and spread at tbe rate of 5s. 6d. for SCO 
bushels. 

The farmcR spread it upon (heir lands according to 
circimislanccs — from 10 to 20 wairgon-loads (800 lo 
ICOO bushels). AVhcrcver the soil tends to a reddish 
loam, or inclmcs to be sandy, here it is that marling 
is practised with the greatest success. With regard" 
to the season of laying this manure upon the land, the 
most proper is in winter or autumn, upon a clover 
ley, for the frost to pulverize it : the field is fed in 
tbe following spring, and Ilion bastard -fallowed for 
wheat. This is considered as the most judicious way, 
but the more general rule is that of spreading it ill 
, and theu pluiigliing it in*. 



* Marl sliould always tie qa tbe laud H^ Of niglu monliu btfore ' 



J 



MAvuBisra. 913 

' The following analysis of the calcareous «oiIs, &c. 
of the neighbourhood of Petworth, W4S made at Lord 

£gremont^99 

turned under; but the longer it lies, the better it will answer, for when 
it is immediately worked into tillage, for the want of tun and froets, 
&c. it goes to a clay, and is longer before it shews its good effect : pro- 
perly applied, it will be beneficial the first season, and when it is woipa 
out, if repeated again, will still answer the better, if properly applied,-— 
A£r. Har^* 

Do they use wtarl Or chalk for meadow and pasture ? Is the chalk 
of the hard or soft nature ? — H, Straebey. 

Chalk rubble is used upon meadow land, marl upon arable : chalk is 
Used, of both kinds, but the soft greasy, soapy, by far the best. 

With respect to marl, I shall point out an egregious blunder, which 
•ome time ago came accidentally- within my observation. Being on a 
visit to a relation who had lately taken a farm in the eastern part of 
Sutsex, on walking over his land, I observed several pits, out of which 
^ supposed marl had been dug, and as the land was inclining to a light 
Aandy loam, I thought marl might prove a valuable acquisition, and 
digging in the pits, I found a soft substance underneath, which looked 
like marl ; but on trying it with acids, I discovered it to be a soft day, 
^Dn this disappointment, I inquired whether any body in the neighbour- 
.^ood had ever found and tried it. I was answered, that it had been 
^ried, but was not found to do any good, and that it was eiitirdy left 
ofFas a useless practice, and that there was of course a general prejudico 
^^iost what they deemed marling. Being desirous of inquiring far- 
Cher, I sent to a neighbouring marl-pit, which was said to have been a 
^ood one, and used not many years before. I gut some from thence, 
Skjod on trying it, found it to be mere clay, nor had.it any marl at all 
Knixed with it ; and this farmer's land being stiff clay, no wonder that 
adding day to it, did not answer ; nor was it any wonder that, under 
^e influence of such an error, it should be looked upon that marling 
«uch land would not pay for the labour and expense. But it by no 
means follows, that marling, or even claying, with such clay as that 
>ras, such light land as that I walked over, would not have been a most 
l>eneficial practice ; and I am inclined to think, that in some former 
times it had been used for that purpose, or I cannot account for so many 
|»ito du^ in various parts of a farm. An error of this nature, attended 

P3 witJl 




214 MAJJtJRlSG. 

Egrcmonl's, at Petworth, by Mr. MiirsliaU, tlie well- 
known agricultQtal writer : it wilt throw considerable 
light upon the subject of cballi, marl, limeslone, &c_ 

PeUvorlk, jlpril, I'gl. 
Hard Marl of Duncton. 
100 grains yielded in one cxpcrimenl 76 gr. calc. maf: • 

24 residue — a fizr^kf 

r- silt. 

Kin 

In another experimentj 7S'-ciilc, 21| rcsitliie, 
100 grains soft marl of Dunctorij 80 gr. dissolv. mat — 
SOresitl. usabovQ> 

V 100 

JOO Grains Chalk of Duncton. 

First trial, 73 dissolved. 

27 resid. — fine tenacious sifc"^ 

Second trial, 75 dissolved. 

25 resid. as before. 

Tillington Whin stone. 

First trial,^ 75 dissolved. 

25 resid. principally fine saii^c:— 



wilh pernlcioui praclical ronsequenccs to to (apilal a biancli of •jT' 
culture as manuring land, deserves animadversion, and Ihe if^orai* 
on which it ia founded, dcierveB to be eipoied. The ilerertion of eir" 
it alvays a capital aiep towardi fiadijig out trutL~£n>. Mr. Viivia. 

Scoot; 



MAirnitiKO. . flB 

SooondtriaT^ •••— 74 dissolved. 

26, asjbefore. 

Marble of the Weald. 

First trial, ..«.•.•.•• 93 calcareoos. 

& resid. blue silt. 

« 

Second trial, ...- 92fJ^^^^^ 

*X*lie hard sandstone of Petworth-park, non«caIcare« 
^^9 and the yery hard ragstone non-calcareona. ' 



•««i 



Petwarth^ ZOth April, 17AI. 

. Blue Stone of Sutton. 

64 Calcareous. ' 

S6 An ash-coloured friable earth'. 



• < 



^^halk Marl of the sea-beach^. near Middleton-church, 
dug up in a state of paste, as the tide was leaving it. 

96 Calcareous, 

4 Brown slime, with a non-calcareous gy^um,^ 

like fragment. 

Pet worth, igth May. 

Chalk Marl of the sea-beach in Middleton, picked up 
in knobs on the beach in the tide's way. 

98f Calcareous. 
1^ Brown slime, with sonje minute fragment&« 

Chalk Marl of Deanswood. 

98 Calcareous. 

5 A$ above. 

»4 May 




Limestone of Bust Sussex (brown part.) 
91 Calcareous. 
9 Rusty-coloured friable carlli. 

LineBtone of.£ast Sussex (blue purt). 
f>5 Calcareous. 
5 Black, gnnpowdci' like silt. 

Efflorescent Matter of llio New Road, 
fi( ScSatioB precipitate white. 
36 Residue, iiriBblecLirtli. 

Limestone of Tillington Street. 
81 Solution wbite. 
Id Residue, £ne sand and friable stit. 

Hardham itlue Marl, 
8^ Solution, a purple tinge. 
91 1^ Residue, grey, smooth, tenacious, subsolubt**^ 
water. 

Houghton Clialk, middle strata. 
99 Solution. _. 

1 Residue, a bro^vn matter lodged in the pores of * — ^ 
paper. 

Houghton, lower strata, 
P7 Solution, 
3 Residue, grey subtenacious silt. 

Houghton, upper stiala. 
99 Solution. 
i Rcfiiduej as the middle strata. . 



Dancton, East Pit^ upper strata* 

Solqtion. 

A Residue, grey silt, as the loiver strata of Houghs 
ton pit. 

m 

Duncton, East Pit, lower strata* 

S7 Solution. 
3 As above, except the colour somewhat darker. 

Dunc(on, West Pit, upper strata. 

S3| Solution. 
6f Still browner and more tenacious, but perhaps 
discoloured in drying. 

Duncton, West Pit, lower strata. 

96 Solution. 

^ 4 Light coloured silt, with some white fragments^ 
apparently of plaister stone. 

f« Marl Flour •' of Duncton^ West Pit. 

41 Solution. 

59 Residue, tenacious, impalpable, resists water^ 
like fuUers'^earth, but somewhat darker. 

^^ Maamsione V of Duncton^ Bury, &c. 

•SO Solution. 

80 Residue, resembling the residuum of the grej 
chalk, but more friable, and somewhat sandy^ 

Limestone of Rothcrbridge* 

68 Solution. 

S2 Residue, a fine loose sand. 

4> SUeeh. 



3 



Slff KAHITRIITQ. 

4. SUerh. 
Elcecli, or sea-muiI, Is not uncommoiil; uscJ as ma— 
wire in the neiglibourliooil of the sea : (hey spread 
from i2 to 1300 buslids of it for wheat ; but the \an*\ 
has been loo freqiieirtly dosed with it, (o render it ar»y 
longer answfcrable. It b inferior both to marl aJt"».^_ 
chiilk. 

6. Soap-.lshes. 
Thesis arc used upon pu:>fiirc-liuid ; thpyrpeiid wob~ 

out grass, hy KjlUng (fic mii^s aud olhtr rubbish, a*"* ** 
produce a iVesh layer of ^vhite clover. Mr. Clii'ic::^' ** 
ixmght these ashes af9|(^. per bu&hel, at Cuckfield, • ** 
179jj and sprcud i?00 bushels to aa acre : the imptov *^^^'' 
mcut great. 

■ 6. Vf'uad-.isfies. 
These, like the above, have very murii iinpoov^*'^^ 
cold and wet pnsUirc-Iaud in the Weald, where ihe^y^ 
are an c-Lcelleut dressing. The virtue ri'^iJiiis; in ;ishc;i^*^ 
is very great, and not havin^their manure exhausteA}" 
like the above, are much more beuefieial. Small sffot^ 
of poor hungry pasture have been veiy prolitiibly ,bc- 
nefilcd by wood'qsihes, to near twice their value; and 
great advuuta^s might be made of this manure in 3 
forest omtntry, if attention was paid lo the saving of 
them. The Weald is a forest, and the consumption 
of wood abundant, and selling any part of his manure 
js no advantage to a farmer. Mr. Mayo, at Battel, 
mends his pastures, in low and spunsrysilualious, with 
these ashes, and nothing can equal them. 

7. Peal-Jshes, 
Mr. Gell, of Applesham, is certainly one of (he 

^eatcst manurers in Suescx. \^'ith lime aod cbalk be 

has 



I 



MANXJRINa* * ftl9 

made very powrtful improvements. He has tried 
u-ashesfor various crops, aiid undertakes to s^ 
r are good for pease, turnips^ clover, and sainfoin* t 

8. Coal'Ashes. 

i^hese too are a great iraprovcrocnt of grass. Lord( • 

remont has doubled the value of his park tvith j 

•ining and coal-ashes, which before was covered 
fa moss, rushes, and rubbish. The difierence &f the 
.^, where the land has been covered with ashes, 
I where it has not, is most striking. They have ^ 
cfcted a sweet bite of white clover and trefoil, liked 
^h by sheep. • 



9. JRagS'-^Shcep^Clippings^ 

Vhese are of service chiefly in the hop-grounds, for 
Sch they are tliought an excellent manure. Great 
feefit is said to be dcf ived from the application of 
!ce rags and clippings, in contributing to preserve 
^ plantations in a state of constant moisture and ve-* 
.ation in the driest seasons, when grounds which 
^e been manured with dung, have been dried up^ 
d the hops failed. 

10. Pilchards. 

T*ish have always been known to contribute greatly 
the melioration of land, by the quantity of obagi- 
)us matter with wliich they abound. Mr. Milward 
us manured with them, but found no benefit, 

1 1 • Paring Dust. 

A fellmonger of Pet worth tried this as a manui^ in 
js garden for potatoes and cabbages. For potatoes, 
ic ejtperiment was very eflScjicious. After the trench 




SOT WAXUniNG, 

is niiide, Hnd tlie potatoo-cultinf^ placcd^ialtT^e^^flk^ 
vers with dust, and a great produce gained. 

12. Gj/psum. 
Amon^ otiicr manures, gypsum, or plais(er of Pa- 
tis, hiis been tried in Sussex, but none of these mar- 
vellmis properties have been discovered to reside in it, 
which sf>rac cxperimenlers have supposed that it coii^«^ 
(aii)s. Mr. Pennin^^on, of AsUbiirnhani, gives tb^ 
following account of it; — " Having procured equiw_, l^ 
qtiiinLities of French and English gypsum from lil^^ac 
trreen in the Borough, the following trinls were mac ~~» 
of it; in every instance asmucli ground was covpri. t-' 
■with the one as the other, on dislinct, but adjoin i i "^ 
upols. On liie 14th of June, 179r, in six diOcrc^^ 
fields, portions of from 40 jKrclies to four percNc^^^ 
nhicb were accnrately measured, upon natural grus^^^ 
beans, potatoes, peasL', and barlt-j, were covered, i^e^ 
the rate of eight bushels to (lie acre; tlic soil a snr.d^^* 
loam, but in whicli the sand is of so fine a grit, tlm^^ 
every shower makes it poach in winter. On the dtiy 
it was strewed, it was showery, and on the I5lh it 
rained from ten in the morning till evening. Though 
J attentively observed those spots throuj;h the summer 
cf that year, I could never perceive uii ihem the least 
appearance of greaterlnsuriauce than on ihcsunound- 
ing ground. I hoped to see some elfict in the year 
following, but was disappninlid. Oil ihc ]3ili of 
April, 1799, 1 strcweil in the moriiing, whilst it rained 
heavily, two square perches of red clover, sown in 
1791 with barley, and which fully pbuiUd Hie ground; 
and in the aflernoon of the same day, a quarter of an 
acre in the same field, at (he rate of si\ bui>hels to the 
acre. Tile next duy was showery, and in the fullow- 



I 






r 

I 

to 



land 

'inm 



ret a 
it at 

If re. 
k ob* 

Bite 

tund^ 

wthC' 
38 not 

y> a* 

being 

unity 

of 



^tttllfd. 



ȣ 



feig weA a great deal of rain fell. I coold not at any 
llfme in the summer perceive the least improyemenl 
from the gypsum. The 29th and 30th March, 1792, 
Z sowed patches of wheat, spring tares (at the same 
rate of six bushels to the acre) : the SOth, and five fol- 
lowing days, were showery, but none of these crops 
'^cre benefited by my making use of it." 

Besides the above manures, which are partially used, 
"there are otliers, though tlie quantities are too small to 
specify particularly. Sea^weed is collected, and mixied 
auto compost, oil*cake, &c. &;c. 



SECT, IV. WEEDING. 



The best farmers on the South Downs eradicate the 
Wlk and poppy by constant attention to ploughing and 
needing ; whilst the fields of others may be seen in a 
perfect blaze, as it were. 

Charloc is a very pernicious weed ; it is moreover a 
^reat enemy to lambs : when they are turned into it at 
two or three months old with the ewes, they will fre- 
quently die suddenly by eating it. Mr. EUman ob- 
ierves, that the real cause of such a luxuriant herbage 
of weeds as is too often beheld in tlie Downs, must be' 
attributed to the practice in vogue amongst farmers, 
which is, that as soon as the corn is ofl:* the ground^ 
Uiey plough in the charloc, wliich vegetates in. the 
ground, and the land becomes stocked with it. Now the- 
tumwrest-plough , from the nature of the share, does not 
cut the earth, and throw it up so well or so evenly, as 
the round plough ; consequently, the ground not being 
t^roperly turned over, the kilk has a fair opportunity 

of 



^ATEBED MEABOirS. 

of vegetating; so that if we examine only a 
piece of land undui: tlicsc circumstances, it will 
probability contain several seeds of tlus destrui 
plant . 

Wheat 13 generally liand-Iioed in the spring ; if foul, 
tbe operation is repeatfd. Women and children are 
employed, nf 6d. and Si/, ptr day. Mr. Woods hoes 
his' pease by fixing together two five-ineh hoes at three 
inches asunder (bt'tween which a drill passes), in j 
a manner, that a inun draws it after him. Of 
tvork one man will hoe an acre per day. 

Upon dry soils subject lo poppy, Mr. Ellman, 
Shoreham, ploughs hts tare and rape land for wheS 
the hegimiing or middle of September, to sow the 
wheat the middle of October : the harrowing kills this 
noxious weed ; and in puttinir in the seed, he Hkes to 
fread nuich with oxen or with sheep. A neighbonr 
treads his with oxen in March, which he thinks bettej 
Bgainst llie poppy limn doing it at (he time of sow! 



;ucu 
heS^^ 



.'.• — WATEHED MEADOWS. 



1 



On the western side of Susses, that admirable prac- 
iice of watering Iheir nusidows in a regular manner, is 
very welt niidersiood, and snccessfully practised. The 
course of the Lavaut river, from ifs spring-head to 
t'hichester, waters the finest and most productive 

;adoWs in Uie coun(y. The water is let on the grass 
in December, when it waters for three weeks: this 
three weeks is Cfpial to all the rest of the year ; for at 
this time the moss is entirely killed by it, and. the young 
grass will then begin to shoot out in a very luxuriant 



J 



WATERED MEADOWS'^- 328 

9iannef. In spring- watering, it is usuArft> let the; 
water over the land twenty-four hours each time ; and 
in xMay the watering ceases altogether. In July, from, 
two tojthrec tons of hay are mown per acre, and the 
rouen fed witti cattle till Christmas, but seldom with 
sheep, as they are found to rot. If wethers or ewes, 
before lambing, were turned in, they would certainly 
die. Eighty ewes bought at Weyhill fair, were 
turned into some land adjoining a watered meaddw : 
it happened that a score of them accidentally brokfl 
into the meadow for one night ; taken out the following 
morning, and kept till lambing: the score that had 
broke loose produced twenty-two lambs, all of which 
lived, but every one of the ewes died rotten before 
May-day ; the remaining sixty made themselves fat, 
nor could a rotten sheep be discovered among them : 
several of thei^e were put into the meadow with their 
lambs, but received no injury. The soil of this niea- 
dow ground is cither peaty or gravelly ; it is cut int6 
lands of thirty or foi^y feet width, with a drain an3L 
water-carriage to each land. 

Stock and Product. — As soon as these meaidows aro 
mown, oxen are turned into them, at the rate of 100 
to 140 stone to two acres, till Christmas ; which at 
3^. 6d. per head per week, the accustomed valuation, is 
17. Ss. for September, October, November, December. 
They are taken up to the stalls for winter-fattening, 
and during the three succeeding mouths of January, 
February, and March, the same ground is stocked 
with two couple of ewes and lambs per acre, which at 
6d. per week, each couple for twelve, weeks, is 12^. : 
thiS| in April^ is i4icrtased to five couple for six 

weeksj 




SM TTATERED MEADOWS. 

iredcs, which amoiinls to i5s, more. The hay ; 
mown in July, and tlie ordinary crop two toiis. 
Together, the account will stand thus ; 

September, October, November, Decern- j 

ber, half itn ox per acre, at Is. Od. pcr> £,1 SO 
week, »,...- * ^^ 

January, February, March, two couple^ ^ .- ^^H 

ewes and lambs, at Gtl. each couple, S ^^H 

April, and part May, five couple, six > nit rt^^ 

Two tons of hay, at 40* - 4 

Produce, ^.6 15 

The expenses are : 

Rent, £. I 10 

Labour, — ,. 4 

Watering, - - g 

Kates, 6 

Tithe, 4 fi 

Expenses, ^.S 6 G 

Produce, 6 13 

Remains a profit per acre, of — ^.4 8 

The waters which have been collected from somft-™ 
hills about iVt worth -park, in order to form ;i sheet of 
water in front of the mansion, after passing through 
the lake, are let off upon a slope of the park, and 
may irrigate five or six acres^ lu the great benefit 
of the grass ; and though it is only in tLe winlci' 
season of the year that any flow takes place, yet in the 
dry time of the summer, the herhitgc upon this irri<< 

J 



WATER MEIADOWS. 225 

•rated part of tlie park is more luxuriant than else- 
where. Indeed the advantages of irrigation are too 
clearly seen, to adnrit any doubt of its effects. But 
we have a notable instance in Burton-park, where it 
has worked little, if any sensible improvement, though 
conducted in a very skilful manner. 

The Rev. Nicholas Turner, who lives near the spot, 
and is thoroughly acquainted .with the ground, is 
clearly of opinion, thtit watering this land has not 
done one atom of good to it. The soil is an extremely 
poor blackish sand. Mr. Turner says, that the slimy 
particles of the water which issue from the chalk hills 
are beneficial in the winter months, but that in summee 
the heat so acts upon the water, that it deposits ita 
earthy base, which adiiering to the blade, prevents 
the growth of the plant. Whatever be the cause, it 
i« clear that no improvement by irrigation is visible la 
jMLr. Biddulph^s park. 



^^3»EX.J a GHAPi. 



CHAP. xiir. 

LIVE STOCK. 



I. — 'CATTLE. 



■WHOFVKR, hiis givn nii]r;i nttcnlion to litis- 
indry, and pFacliscd it for any Ifiigth of time, welt 
knows, tliatof nil otlicrs, llif pmlTtiible inanagcmnit 
of cattle and shwpls the most ditficuTt branch of farm- 
ing. It is here that improvement is slow and tardy m 
its growth ; and sncccss is least to bi" expected, and 
late bpforp it comes. The imiHoveiiicnls by raanurinj 
snd draining, with a right application of thi;conree of 
crops, have generated great alterations for I he brtlerin 
Ihose branches more immediately connected with llip 
plough. A new turn has every where been given ti> 
the face of the counlry. The retnrn is speedy and 
certain in tillage ; in livc-stock it is distant And uncer- 
tain. 

The breed of Sussex aittle and sheep, and the sys- 
tem upon which tlieyare founded, forms the most dis- 
finguishing feature in the hnsbaiKlry of this county. 
The cattle must niiqnestioiiably be ranked amongst the 
best in fhcliingjoin ; aiul hail Bakewell, or any of hi* 
associiitrs, adopted the middfe horned breed, either of 
Sussex, Devonshire, or Herefordshire^ in preference 
1o the infericrr stock which the reputation of his name, 
and the mysterious manner in which his breeding 
system was conducted ; — hiid he, I say, gone to work 
, with any of the above-mcutioncd Iweeds, it would have " 
I ' contributed . 



r 




- ■ -mr 



MA. •' 



*' .' -.■"*-/■•?. 

. ■£ ■ - ■ ■ • 



^ 



5S8 «ATTtB. 

it is a great national concern, Tvhicb must in its nature 
be lasting. The circulation of inquiry, the exciting 
emulatian, and instig^ating others lu a rlvalsliip; the 
encoiuragement of merit by a great money price: these 
are circumstances that have contributed to raise the 
merit of our cattle and sheep : the progression is rapid, 
tiiough still in ils infancy. Tlic whole island is elec- 
tnfieil. Tlic age of fripiiery is fast sinking into con- 
(empt and oblivion, and another, truly great, because 
nationally advantageous and conducive to the happi- 
tiess of thousands, has arrested the attention of man- 
kind. Men of the highest rank and fortune no longer 
keep aloof from rural concerns ; they professedly lake 
a pleasure in zealously contributing to promote the 
■tudy of these important designs, and rival each othir 
in restoring the plough to the rank and estimation 
which it so deservedly claims. As nihil agricultura 
melius est, so nihil homine Ubero digniiis. 
. In treating of the management of Sussex cattle, 
with a view to greater clearness, the first object to be 
considered is, the division of the subject; and this 
laises an inquiry into the purposes for which cattle 
axe bred in this county. This is the lending questioD) 
PikI it will materially tend to elucidate the arrange- 
ment, by considering cattle under the three pur* 
poses of, 

I. B,-cf. 
Jl. Dairy. 
; HI. Work. 

(. n.ef. 

Under this head may he classed the description of 
Susses oxen, iii relation to, 




CATTLBk 

J . Colour. 
S. Shape. 

3. Fatting, age. 

4. Food. 

5. Thriving disposition, handling. 

6. Flesh, ofial. 

7. Sale, price. 

S. Weight, pirofit. 

9. Compared with Devons. ' 

10. Compared with Herefords. 

* 

1. Colour. 

Sussex cattle are universally red ; for wherever any 
other is found, it may be depended upon that the 
breed is stained with foreign blood. Many farm- 
yards in this county have a mixed colour of black and 
red and white, and all black, but they are a cross 
from Wales and other parts. This beautiful breed 
has been very much tarnished in this manner ; but the 
nice breeders adhere as steadily as they can to the dark 
red. Sussex ideas run strongly in favour of this co- 
lour : it is a point, they say, of considerable import- 
ance, as the beasts are more kindly, and have a better 
disposition to fatten. To retain old customs is very 
natural to man ; but prejudice in favour of colour, 
when opposed to shape and make, is carrying a man^s 
peculiarities a little too far. It is repugnant to cpm- 
inon sense ; where the points of an ox are good, colour 
is a perfect non-essential. It is readily admitted, that 
the thorough-bred beasts are a dark red ; but crossing 
has much altered the stock : it should never be at- 
tempted, without a certainty of mending the breed. 

It has been asserted, that white is an infallible cri- 
terion of degeneracy in all the animals of the creation, 

q3 and 



X 



point forward a lillle, and then turn upward, thia 
tapering, and \ong ; the e^-e large and full ; the throat 
clean, no dew-lap j long and (hin in the neck; wide 
and deep in the shoulders ; no prtyection in the point 
of the shoulder, when looked at from behind ; the fore- 
legs wide ; round and straight in the barrel, and free 
from a rising back-bone; no hanging heaviness in the 
bftlly ; wide ncross the loin ; liie space between the 
hip-bmip aad the first rib very smnll ; the hip-bnnc not 
to rise high, but to be hrge nnd wide ; the loin, and 
space between the hips, to be ilat and wide, but the 
fore-part of the carcass round ; long and straight in the 
Tnmp, and wide in the tip ; the tail to lay low, for the 
£niih to swell above it ; the legs not too long, neither 
thick nor thin on Ihc Ihi^h ; f be leg thin ; rln/l tsell in 
the twist; no fulness in tbf oiilside of the thigh, hut 
all of it within; a squareness behind, common in all 
49f^-horned bi;asts, greatly objectefl to ; the finer 

-and ihinuer in the tail the better. Of (hese points, the 
Sussex beasts are apl to be more deficient in the shoul- 
der than in any other part. 

A well made Sussex ox stands straight and nearlj 
perpendicularly on small chan legs; a large bonjr 
gummy leg, a very had point, but the legs moving- 

.freely, rulher under the body, than as if attached to 
the bide of it; the horns pushing forward a little, 
spreading motlerately, and turning up oncf. The 
horn of the Devonshire, which very much resembles 

,lbe Sussex, but smaller and lighter, is longer, and 
rises generally higher. The straighlness of the back 
line brc^en in many very fine beasts, by a lump be> 
twcen the hips. 

Such are the observations of Sussex men wpon their 
own breed of cattle ; in addition to which, spine far- 

Ihcr 



CATTLE. 281 

were brawn*. The pure white breed was probably 
the parent stock out of which all others have derived 
their origin. At this day we see Ihem wild in Lord 
Tankenrille^s park ; and as an instance tliat i^hite api» 
pears the predominating colour, from a great number 
of calves which Lord Egremont has reared from He^ 
refcH'd bulls and Sussex cows, aiid the contrary, and 
Devonshire cows and Hereford bulk, and mice fcersa^ 
all these calves have uniformly had white faces' find 
bellies. A few years since, Mr. Davis, of Glynde, 
was in possession of a blaek qx with a white face, out 
of a red cow by a i^ bull; which shews, that in crossr 
ing various breeds, the properties of cattle will be 
dormant for many ycai?^ and then shew themselves Ia 
their posterity +^ 

> « » I 
2. Shape^ 

Mr. Ellman^ of Glyd^ has given us his experience 
of cattle, summed ijp in the following description * of 
a thorough-bred Sussex ox. It should be observed, 
that these points were approved by several i[>th<3r intcU 

ligent breeders- A tliia head, and clean ja\t ; the horns 

I 

• That white was thouglit no proof of degeneracy, in stock, may 
"be gathered from what Mr. Cafnpbell says upon that subject in the An- 
oak 6f Agriculture, where speaking of this vulgar error, he says, in a 
letter to the Earl of Egrenjont, ** A« to -matter of fact, I can assure , 
that among other breeds of cattk which I have tried (and wherever I 
•did try, I did it thoroughly, and not slightly), I have had bulls, oxen, 
and cows, of a white breed, as healthy and hardy as any others.*'— • 
This is ^e opinion of an cininent breeder, founded upon extensive 
practice, and who was allowed by all w^o kujew hiip, to have possessed 
a great share of knowledge with respect to cattle. 

f It must however be admitted, that colour is at present of im- 
portance, as a mark to indicate what now must be considered as th^ 
^rue 3iu^se;i; breed; with this view it may safely be attended to, 

q4 point 



it at 



C ATT IX. 

their oxen from worli, is at six years old. Tlicy wiH 
Himciimcs work thejn .inoilicr year ; bill if we take Ihe 
coiinly upon a nictliu:n, nc sbtill liud that the tar 
greater proportion stnd liiciii to the graining account at 
six. The proper time whtn cattle fatten to the best , 
advantage, is a matter uinlecidetl in the opinion i 
some of the bcsl jutigcs in the couiil^ ; yet it i§ a point, 
(hat deserves ascertaining, for il is very n 
know at what age they decline in the ^vorking statel ^ 
It is ailirmed, that youn^ beasts aire much more pro- 
fitable for fatting than older ones, as the union both of T!" 
growth and fat pays better than fat alone. Wc know — — ^ 
that cattle will continue their full work long afk i "" 
the time tliey are usuully sent to graze, and perhaps to^" 
greater profit than when they were young. At six^^^ 
ihcy are turned off; at seven, slauglilered; allhouglt^^ 
at ten or eleven, lie is ^eatly to be preferred to th^^^ 
vork of a four or tive-years old steer, and the addi— — 

tional labour would probably out-balance any injarj^ ' 

he might receive by more than three years' work ; not^^ 
that the cattle would be damaged by any alteration ot '^ 
this kind, for the greatest injury is eDected in their '"' 
growing state; and this ceasing at six, an ox cannot — 
receive any damage which is not over-paid by hjsJ 
■nork. Lord Egrcmont has a pair of Sussex oxen i 
the eleventh year of their age, which, for seven years,! 
have done as much plonphing and carting as any two 
horses in the county. His Lordship is now fattening 
those beasts, and Ihcy thrive very kindly, and more 
so than j'Oungcr beasts in general. With half a sum- 
mer's grass after taken from the collar, and an autumn's 
loiten, they were, without other food, sent lo Smilht 
field, and sold for eighty guineas : a remarkable tiict, 
t>earing directly on the question of age and long work, . 
4. Footi. 



CATTLE. £35 



4. Food. 



After spring-sowing is over, it is the common prac- 
tice, about May, to turn the oxen into the brooks, 
pastures, or marsh -lands, during the summer, in order 
to prepare them for stall-foeding in the winter. Where 
the meadow is rich and the herbnge luxuriant, one 
acre will readily support one ox in a tli riving state for 
six months, turning them in the middle of M^y. 
Many farms on the South Downs have considerable 
tracts of marsh, which very much contribute to carry 
on a system of fatting, not perhaps applicable to dis- 
tricts less favourably situated. But let it be observed, 
that in the Weald, where there are no marshes, the 
cattle are fatted to perhaps tqual advantage with those 
who are better situated in respect to meadow ; so that 
it Is obvious that the goodness of the cattle does 
not depcn4 upon any extraordinary richness of the 
county. 

Stall'Feeding, — It was once a question, whether 
cattle could ever be profitably fed, if tied up to a stall. 
Experiment, full, ample, and satisfactory in the high- 
est degree, has now convinced the world, that it is the 
most profitable manner of feeding; and indeed the 
practice has been found so beneficial, that summer- 
feeding after the same manner, will by degrees gain 
ground. There is every reason in .the world for be- 
lieving that all sorts of cattle, as well as horses, should 
seldom, if ever, be allowed to graze, either in summer 
or winter. 

It is an erroneous, and certainly an expensive me- 
thod, to keep a fa^jgi under-stocked. Soiling is unex- 
ceptipnable ; but in winter^ to allow cattle of any kind 

tQ 



936 C ATT LB. 

to range over ficltls, treading ami ponchingtlip groiinil, 
unci lusin<; siglit of nil Uie nilvitntagos whii^Ii conGne- 
mcnt crtmti'Ji in rcsp«:t (o manure, in surdy not a very 
Iwni'ficinl sysUtm (o piirsur. The more CHttlc nrc am- 
fineM, Ibi? iHWncr will llicy ritlwi. It )> (lid same with 
hoTtfn, nud holds good with evcty ap^cicH of live- 
ttock upon wltirli i^xpfTiincnt 1ms rcnclictl. 

The Kurl of Eyrcmonf's dairy, nf liftwucii twenty 
•nd thihy cowN, and iill tlic oxi'n »[)on iliu fHrins, tire 
coiiMnntly tii>d up fur tlici^mid'st purt of thoyoiir ; nni 
Mtcli IN tho ndvHntn^o altrnilin^f it, flcit onMhirdiif 
the. food i.i stivcd, tlir oxiri aii< on the npitt for Ihrir 
jrorli, the cows nro rnilkt-d with n Imirlli p:irl of the 
viuid trouble, mote, dmi^ in miido ; no poaching and 
tttading the ground, &c. &G. 

Slalh. — Ox-stnllsarc jifcncruUy il!-ri"\lrived in Siis- 
texy tixptiwd to Ihe Viimln and niiii, vhith rhpcLs the 
thrivinjf of cnllti- more than \re iit firsi imngiiie. It 
may be safely said, thai in propnrliim fls thp cold is 
excltide<1, will tlic o\ get fat: wnrii:lli it) nlmoat at 
rssenlial as food itself. We see little all!'ii.lion paid to 
consult tbc cMiistitulioa and hnbit of the ox, nor to 
allow him the full indulgence of all conveniences nnd 
coinforls, as well as bare necessaries. Mr. Kllman, 
ofShorehftm, in the slalt-fecdinj; liis oallle, has keel- 
ers in every sinll, for the purpose of watering, with 
troughs of commnniciitiori, in order to convey the wa- 
fer from a pump in the farm-yiird to a general trough 
nt (he outside of tli<; ox-liouse, which is ngaiu sepa- 
ratcly carried to each kf^ler ; ko that all the trouble 
of untying and drivitijf to water, is wisely avoided. 
These kcvlers or troughs arc placed oven with the 
monger, and ar? uf the saiuc tizi- and diuitmsious. In 

each 



CATTLE. 9Sfl 

each st%all he fattens two •oxen, and allows five fed; 
room for each, and has enough for forty head of cattle. 
When the oxen are nt tirst brought to the stalls^ it is 
only during the niglits; but about the middle of No- 
vember they are re-;nlarly tied. Mr. Ellman has 
found that nine oxen, fed h)ose in a yard, by eating as 
well as destroying, consume as much 4iay as twelve 
tied up. Surely this is an important point. The waste 
of food, when the cattle are fed loose, is prodigious; 
when stalled, the food left by the fatting cattle, serves 
to support the lean stock which arc tied in the same 
yard. 

Mr. John Ellman has an ox:*house upon a similar 
construction, and a very complete one. 

In constructing these stalls, it ought to be remem« 
bered, that the bottom should be gently sloped, to 
carry off the urine ; and a step is ' necessary at the 
heels of the cattle, for cleanliness, and in order to 
carry the urine to a reservoir. 

Each manger should possess the conveniency of a 
separate partition for meal, bran, cliafF, oil-cake, &c. 
without r^ixing with turnips, potatoes, cabbages, or 
hay; a pump conducting to each trough, to supply 
the cattle with water; and a weighing-engine atliand— \ 
a most useful, necessary contrivance in the fatting of 
cattle, that the owner may instantly know what is the 
state and progress of the beasts, and that he may com- 
pare the improvement and the expense together; the 
flesh, and the food necessary to acquire that flesh. 
Weighing-machines are amongst tlie greatest improve* 
nients which have lately been thought of; for they lay 
open an inquiry of the last importance, and which 
has been strangely neglected — to find out that breed of 

cattle 



988 CATTLE. . 

cattle wliicli gives the greafeft (jitanlHt/ nf Jtesh wHlt 
the smaUest quantity of food; and tliis is only lo be 
discovered by weighing-engines, wliich are essential 
forthe purpose; and no complete o.\'s(all should evcf 
be^vtthout such an apparatus. 

Pofntoea. — Under the article potaloe.f, the npplica* 
lion of this root to the feedinjr of bullocks, was re* 
piarlied upon; Flitting with lliis food is liirgely prac- 
tised in SasN'X, and a very infereiling feaiure in the 
husbandry of the county, first iHtioduced fay Mr. 
Mayo, of Ci!tcl, and it is very generally approved. 
The mode ill which they are given is of course various: 
washed, and unwashed; cut, and uncut; steamed, 
boiled, and raw. The comraou practice is that of 
giving them raw, at the rate of a bus!)el to a bushel 
Wid a half per ox per diem, besides eight or ten pounds 
of hay, more or less. The oxen lake very readily to 
the potatoes ; but they should be cut, and washed, if 
dirty- The full qiiantily is not given at first, but 
dealt out in proportion as they agree with the cattle, 
always observing to p^gnlatc the hay, or other dry 
food, according to the effect which the potatoes have 
npon the oxen. The smaller the quantity that is given 
nt a time the belter ; at least three times a day, gn'wg 
]iay between each feed of potatoes. It fakes from two 
to three months to tiuish :in ox in this manner, who 
consumes 100 (o 120 bushols, ami often more, beside^ 
seven or eight hundred weight of hay. This quantity 
Tvill fatten any tolerable'th river. 
. The mofet interesting inquiry in the feeding of bul* 
locks, is that of ascertaining the profit of potatoes^ and 
the valocjj compared with other foo;L So few are the 
expe» 



DAtTLE^« tS9 

experiments 'wliich ba^ been registered upon this part 
of the subject, that little additional light can be 
thrown upon that division of it, which is undoubtedly 
the most interesting : it is only to be done by weigh- 
ing. 

The merit of potatoes for cattle has lately been ques- 
tioned, and there are grounds for believing, that, 
compared with some other sorts of food, their value is 
aot so great. Accurate and multiplied experiments are 
necessary, before any decisive conclusion can possibly 
be drawn. But it is never to be forgotten, that that 
very accurate experimenter, Mr. Dann, wks for some 
years largely in the practice of fatting oxen on pota- 
toes, but gave it up, from the conviction that, with 
every advantage of breed and attention, warmth and 
cleanliness, they would not pay more than 4(/. per 
Ibushel. 

Turnips are chiefly cultivated upon the flock-farms 
for sheep ; but it is a practice in various parts of the 
county to draw the largest for the bullocks. When 
they arc given upon an empty stomach, thp cattle will 
blow; but never when hay is mixed. Mr. Milward 
observes, that when they are given to the cattle fresh 
drawn from the field, his oxen are liable to the flux; 
but taken up before-haiul,^no food is better, as the 
watery nature of it is removed ; ' but, in order to carry 
this ijito execution, he adopts the method of stacking, 
tr(king special care of guarding against the frost; and 
fliis very spirited cultivator never found liis oxen 
thrive so well as on dried turnips. 

The custom of drawing tliem two or three days prcr 
tioas to giving .them to cattle, is very prevalent about 

Lewes, 



Lewes, Brighton, Shoreham, Scr.. Mr. Ellman con- 
stantly practises it. 

Oil-Cake. — This food is much used in Sussex, to 
finish the cattle, and tlipy thrive exlremdy well with 
it: thougli it is expensive, it finishes a bi^astfor Smith- 
field ill a shurttir space uf time than any uther food. 

Com. — In srasons when beef fetches a very higb 
price, and com is very low, Mr. Ellman lias fattf^ 
with it; and as cattle li or three parts fat, sell 
badly : in such a crtse it has answered with him ; but 
the mere weight of beef j i ;d, rarely pays the ex- 
pense. When corn is ni I, it is allowed to be a 
most nnuriihing (uoil ; and Mr. Davis, of Glynde, re- 
marked, thu i)ne bushel of barley m^dted, went far- 
ther in faltinp, than double 111 at quanlity of oafS nn— 
malted. Mr. D inn has also fed horses upon boileff"! 
barley and whtiat-straw, with great success. 

Litiiseed and Barley. — Mr. Jlridg:er, of Tillinglon^ 
after soiiiiig bis catlli; in summer upon clover and — — 
tares, till the rouen is ready, which is the end of July, 
and holds till the beginning of November ; takes tbem 
into the yards, and generally fattens upon liutsesd and 
barley, mixed and ground together: two pecks of 
lintse.'d to tkvo bushels and a half of barley, and whcat- 
cliaff given with the meal, Iwsidcs hay. Of this miX' 
ture each ox consumed two bushels per week. 

This food is used in large quantities by Lord £gia> 
monf. His Lordbhiphas lately fatteued several la^s 
Hereford and Sussex oxen, .and Devonshire coni^' 
upon it. 

' Jt was a very interesting experimeot, and exi^4aal]» 
under' 



CATTI}E ,9|i 

tuidiettaken irith the view of distovering the thriving 
progress and ultimate profit which lai^ cattle ma^e^ 
^hen compared with smaller, fed upon the siime sort 
and quantity of food, distributed to each in ^ual pro- 
p^rtiims. We have yet very few experiments regis- 
tered, of the proportion of food to the weight ofintat. 
All other points, however excellent in their way, are 
no otherwise satisfactory than ds contributing to tbi^ 
essential end. And it is proper to remark in this place, 
that the standard of merit, as laid down in the greiitest 
iveight of flesh upon a stated quantity of food^ will be 
in proportion to the good qualities in other respects. 
That breed which exprriineut snys gives the greatest 
net profit in moneys from a ^iven quantity of food, 
must at last be allowed to contain the sum4otal.of 
• merit. An ox^ for instance, is comparatively good for 
nothings which requires an expense in food to the 
amount of 7/. to gain fifty stofne of fleshy whilst an^^ 
other only consumes to the value of 5/^ to lay on the 
same quantity df meat. Again^ whetl^dr tti^o beasts, 
each, for example, of 160 stone weighty consume more 
food than two others of only half, of two-thirds tl^at 
-weight f Whctlier 10/. expended in raising a small 
beast up to 100 stdne, will/iot equally raise a large one 
up to SOO stone ? The following experimeat^ as far as 
it was carried, besides proving the merit of the Here- 
ford cattle, goes to prove this reasoning to be founded 
in fact. 

Nov. 26, 1797.— Three Hereford oxen, two spayed 
heifers, a Hereford cow, and two Sussex cows, were 
tied up in the Stag-park farm-yard, to a mixture of 
barley-meal and flax-seed. For tlie first seven weeks 
each had three gallons every day, of which one quarter 
was flax*8eed, making three-fourths of a gallon. For 

SUSSEX.] a the 



942 "CATTi-i:. 

tte mt of (he time tliey vieTc fiiUetiing, they Iiad thrte 
gnllons, of which onc-tliird Avas llax-sred, allowmgln 
'each beast two g-.illons of barti<y arid one gail<m ol 
<flax-5ced, ground togtllirr, and mixed up with wmc 
ivhrat-chaff, to facilitate the digestion, mid prevent ii 
sticking in (heir throats. Tlie flax-seed wns ^L't fitiil- 
lings per busliel. Besidi's this, they had hay in cquiil 
•Jproportion, weighed to them three times oacii dav, 
' land a little more when they were shut up for thenighi, 
*-whiclt amounted in twenty-four hours to JSIb. of liny 
■-"for each ox. During the time that they were fatteaini:, 
fit was very evident that the larjjcosen throve niucli 
' "faster than llic rest ; and so fat were the llircc Herobrd 
. t'oatllc, tliat it was thought a dangerous experiinent'to 
^endthem to Smithfield. 

-It ought to be observed in favour of (be Hcrpfoill 

cattle, thAt they w<re sent from Iliat county into Sas- 

' sex for woTliiug, niid not for fettming. Of the ciglit 

LB'lieasIs, kept upon equal qoanlitii-B, one of the Hertford 

I- oxen,' killed at Pet worth, ivei^lied 170 sltmc; thcothw 

K^'two, sent toSmithfieW, weighed S(K) each; the two 

spayed heifers, 90 to 100 stone each ; the Hereford cow 

106, and theot+ter two 150 stone each. The twolargcil 

Hereford oxen, each weighing 200 stone, tbrovebn'i 

excepting one of 150, which was byfar the best tbriver 

of any. The c(rv/ of 105 stone was from HCTeford,snJ 

bought by the late Mr, Campbell, for ihc-exceliencyDf 

the breed, and selected with m1jch cine, aswerfltlie 

oxen, whidi were chosen by the same h»nd. TJieos 

killed at Pclworlh corlninly throve beltt^r thaa the ooff 

upon the s»mofuod. Ench came from tliesninestoelE* 

and there was a df fliTeiice of (jj stone, butchers' we4gbf» 

besides the proportion of the fifth quarter, in favour ftf 

size; the ox weighing 170 stone, aud'the cow i9$- 

■'■ Tbe 



^ 



tTATTLE. ^ .:]J48 

l)he px wais indeed particuUrljr fai^ ,9i9r^^il)^n was 
necessary ; but this was the merit pf tl^c br^, aud^t 
apy extraordinary time or methjddpf fattenirig. It has 
been remiarked by the late* Mr. Campb^lf upop^this 
subject, and may serve as a corpllary to ^he a)bfoye^ 
that, the, thorough -bred Hereford cattle^ that have at- 
tained their full size, require a lesd proportion of food to 
make tlieih fat^ than others of the. breed which ajre not 
so highly bred, nor so jiandsdmely formed; and that 
the quantity of food to produce this fatj^so far from 
being gifeater, tli(*y will consume a niUch less propor- 
lion thari other ^^inaIier ox9n of the same $ort liot so 
highly bred, and iviuch less thaii cows not of the Here- 
ford breed, which \vlien fat, dp not weigh above onfc- 
lialfasrauch. 

The follojving is the wei^t of ^he ei^ht bullocks 
when ptit up to fatten, and the, weight of them fat.' 

Kov. si, 1797. March 1 9, 1798. Gain in 16 WeelDi. 



Cwt. qrs. 


.lbs. 


Cwt. qrs. lbs; 




Cwt. qrs. lbs. 


Biiket - 17 


'. 7 


20 2 




3 1 2lS 


pnu^er,15 .3 
*Mcri7, 1^ 


25 
11 


18 3 14 
17 2 




2 3 17 V Hereford. 
2 1 173 ' ' 


Xock, 14 1 


£1 


17 




2 2 7^ 


Spot, 14 d 
lion, 14 


25 


17 




2 3 3 y Sussex. 


25 


17 




2-3 '33' ^'^ 


Short, 13 2 
Foot, 18 


7 
14 

23 


16 2 
15 




2 8 217 T<^^ 

1 s 145 ^^"'- 


117 2 


139 1 14 


21 2 19 






117 2 23 








8)21 2 19 








16)2 2 23 


> 


» 






19 
4d, 


per 
per 


week^ live weight. 




m.sj. 


week— lOjWL jt day. 






,»2 




Tit 



944 CATTT.F,. 

The barley and flax-seed wliicli was ground for the 
oxen, from November 97, to March 10, was, 

Barley, 34 qrs. at 27j. „ ^. ].i 18 

riax-spcd, llqrs. nt4Ss 26 8 

Hay, 4 tons, at 4/ - 10 

^.8» 6 

Mr. Mayo, of Battel, who fwl bullocks upon pota* 
toes for sixteen years wlieu he made the observation, 
asserted, that a Sussex cow of SO or 100 slotic, eats as 
much as an ox of 140 stone, and lliat lite quantity 
eaten is by no lueans to be estimated in proportion to 
the weiglit of the animal ; and his bailitF, a very intcl- 
iigcut man, was decidedly of the same way of think* 
ing, and gave it as liis opinion, that if he were to fake 
iu beasts to feed by the week, he would be paid as 
much for small as for large oxen, since experience had 
satisfied him that the one ate as much as the other. 

How one experiment bcjjets another ! It is thus that 
improvement is accelerated. Mr. Dale, the miller at 
Petworth, got 120 stone of pork witb two>thirds of , 
the food, front two Iif^s, each 60 stone, that he did 
in six bogs, each twenty stones. 

January Q, 1799, three bollocks were killed for tfe 
poor-house of Petworth. 

Carcasi. ISde. 

SI. lb. St. lb. 

Leicester brook bom, four years? cy g in I 

old, wciglif<l J 

Sussex steer, three years old, ....... IIG 2 11 3 

Bull stag, half Hereford and De-7 .,._ „ 13 ft 

305 7 31 6 

15st. 71b. rough loose iat? jg .j^ 

3 6^ cauls J 

Thr 



CATTLE. m 

The fat tbercforc of these three beasts being 19 st. 41 lb. 
and the carcass !]03st. is one-sixteenth of the carcass. 

5. Thriving Disposition. 

One of the good qualities in the Sussex cattle is^ the 
propensity thoy have to fatten kindly. The hide of the . 
best sorts yields a mellowness in handling ; and it pos- 
sesses a fineness and sleekness, which is the characte- 
ristic of good cattle, and an infallible criterion of a 
healthy habit ; though we find some of them with 
coarse, rough, thick hides, which are a mark of hard- 
ness of flesh, as fineness and closeness of grain convey 
to the feel a fine texture in the hide. The condition of 
Sussex cattle is very much to be Vnoyfn by attending to 
this appearance in the hide ; and it depends in a great 
measure upon tlie pile and growth of the coat : the 
shorter and sleeker the coat, the more thriving the 
beast; as, on the contrary, in proportion to length 
and hardness, is unthriftiness. 

The Sussex breed would undergo a considerable alte- 
ration for the worse, if breeders foflowed the directions 
of those who teach, that one quarter of an animal is to 
be neglected, because it has a tendency to gather fat- 
ness on other parts, or tallow in the inside^ and that 
this cannot be effected without a deduction from the 
more valuable quarters. 

6. Flesh Offal. 

The Leicestershire school, which teaches that cattle 
should be bred with a view to meat, not offal, is prima 
^ade evident ; and that all those parts, as the 6ead^ 
nedL, legs, bone, tallow, considered as offal^ or of in- 
ferior value, should of course be fine and light. In the 
prosecution of these id^s, they lay down rules^ that 

»3 fee 




946' c+TTi,^, 

tlitr siiflolD^niih^, and buttock, Bn<U m fine, fli^Iiiod' 
quartSrs; are niain points of uttentioii. 

Thus they talk of loading wtiat llipy deem the vnlua- 
ble purls, at the expense of cvlt/ other, and would 
breed t^ heast as heavy as possible [itliiiul, and as ligtit 
before, because the one sells for rather more per pound 
tCkii'thc other. 

Stiisex nieri breed their bcrists with weight before as 
weU as" behiiid, in equal proporlions, or proportion is 
no longer preserved, and the beast is misrshapen. Nor 
is it ofteii that an ox can be made to fatten upon the 
valuable parts, that does not in some measure fatten 
upon the coarser quarters. Instead of being light and 
narrow, Sussei cattle are broad and weighty; instead 
of hbllowness in these parts, wlicn they are low in coui 
dition, good Sussex thrivers are vicll tilled up. 

7. Sale arid Price. 
Sraithfield is the greatest market for file sale of Siis-' "' 
Bdx cattle, which is well supplied with fat oiCH frini 
this county, Wbcre tlipy are deservedly held iil tlltJ 
h'igliest estihiatioq. Tliey go at all titnes of the ycrar: 
(Tilt' tile grazier cndeaVours to bring his beasts to (hd" 
pitch, so as to be enabled to meef the demand wli<"n it 
^ probable there ivitl be the greatest r,all lor prime bdcf, 
which is from Christmas till May. After Ibis tliB' 
fuarket declines. 

8. WagJit and Prnfit. 
Tli« Tttcatl weight of Sussex callle, when brtti^ht tit 
Stilittlfi^ld', will be 140 atone. Many farrti^rti- breerf, 
tot site)' arid others again pass by weight, and iMn^ itf 
rnirtSj wiilcTi devour as nlucb a^ lat** 6Sen. Thi'l&'n? 
W. Edsbrfj'of Fitllc*d?flii' -mi, f&m^imj i»'t&e 
tueed 



CATTLB-* 9*7: 

bceed of Iarg)e oxen^ and 1ms Iifid tl|cm sisHfiiet K%h 
bebiod, and five mid a half before, and six. iM. and ai 
hulf. girth over the lieart. Thej^^ have soi)^tiliies< b^eiL 
skmglitered up to 'J 16 stone, at \^bich<iveighlfc Mr> £d«-> 
SHW' killed two. Mr. Ellman fod) one at l^jK^e^jMuo^ l^ 
&]»• jK^Vsago, Mrhich measured as foilowR: 

Ft. Hi. 

Leng& from crown to rumpj ••—••••••• 9 6 

Girl bef(>fe shoulders, •• ;•..•••••—*••• '95:' 

r behind, •••.••.•....•.....•••.•••...•.•—•.•• 9^ 0^ ' 

round the middle, .m.^..^..^....... 10- d '•• 

••^ at flank, ...m... 9 . i 

From nostrils to tip of tail^bone, ....i-. I4r*- ' 8 ' ' 

Length <)f solid sides, •••...•• ..m^iI..... 6 ' t 



^ 



Weight, 214 stone. Sossex br^.«ev|BB ye^r« Arit^M ^ 
jesu» \Khen prices ai;e roaders^te, l^i^ oxen ^relipuipbSl 
in at 95. to 2^. 3(h per stoiie, oS^ibp^yfejighi whic^ l^pff 
will be when fat, or from 3d. Uh 3i(L piSD poupcln i^ilp-* 
posing the beast fa,t to bo s^ld at ^icU <and ii il hmI?€^ 
this makes tlve profit by fatting o^^ le^i^ ^^ight U^ bQ 
IJd. per pound; or I7\d. per stone of 14 lb. i efp^',i9| 
9rf. per stone live weight. When prices were mode* 
rate, they were sold fat at Smithflekl from &. to 3s. 6d. 
pes stone: now it is 4^. 

9. Compared with Dexon^hires. 

The Devonshire stock are nothing move tllaii a 'Vih 
viety of the same species as the l$ussex. The parent 
stock was certainty the same.' Oth^ cirounisteuices 
have in the *^coarse of time introduced an altevationw 
Ikf Devonshire, is to be understood the red, so- mydi 
lesembling the Sussex; ibr Devonshire conCnin^ oMiev, 
HJld v^ ittferiKis softs of caitiff • . 

B 4 ' The 



3i3 CATTLE. 

The (horoiigb Dcvonsi arc a briglit Tcd, neck and 
bead small, eye pTominont, and round it a ring of 
bright yellow ; the nose round (he noKlril has the same 
foloun Ihe horn clear and tramparent, upright, ta- 
pering, and gently curved, not tipped with black; 
their bones arc well proportioned and light. On com- 
parison uith Sussex, they do not rise lo so great a 
weight, and consequently have not so great a strength 
for work. They an; (hiimerj narrower, and sharper, on 
the top of the shoulder or bliide-bone ; they drop be-^ 
hind the shoulder : the point of the shoulder generally 
projects more, and they usually stand narrower in til e 
chest) their ch^nc is thin and iiatter oq (he ban«l, and 
they tang loo much in the flank; (hey are as good 
feeders as Sussex, and as profiliible lo the grazier, their 
hides thinner and softer, and they handle as mellow : 
Aey are wider on the hips, and cleaner in Ihe neck, 
htali, and horns, and smaller and lighter in the bone. 
- Upon the whole, they are a very valuable lireed of 
cattle ; and the distinction between tliern and Sussex is 
Adt so striking, as to make a more minnte description 
f.eckssary, 

10. Compared with Ilerefordsliiff. 

The true-rbrcd Hereford ciiltte, in respect (o tiie 
Iiindly disposition for feeding and fittlening, are equal, 
if not superior, to either Sussex or Devonshire-bred 
beasts, and, in point of working, by no means inferior 
to either. They are a large and weightier breed, yet 
as complete in thi^ir make ; generally wider and fuller 
over their shoulders or chine, and the breast pr brisket ; 
also in the after part of the rump, which is tnui^ 
^ftener itarrower in th^ Sussex than in tlie Hereford, 
By naming the Sussezj (be iPeYQas jony be isoluded; 



CATTLB. SW 

tbey are each of them a most excdlent brcied; but if 
the Herefords, upon comparison, excel the true-bred 
Sussex, it must include the other. 

In the true Hereford we find no projecting bow 
in 'the point of the sboulderi which in some breedt 
ibrms almost a shelf, against which the collar rests ; 
but, on the contrary, tapers oiF: they have a great 
breadtii before, and equally weighty in their hind 
quarters ; the tail not set on high ; a great distance - 
irom the point of the rump to the hip*bone ; the twist 
full^ broad, and soft ; the thigh of the fore*legs to the 
pastern joint tapering and full, not thin, 'but thin be* 
low tlie joint ; the horn pushes sideWays a little, and 
tiien turns up thin and tapering ; remarkably well feel** 
log; mellow on the^rump, ribs, and hip*bone. Th« 
quality of the meat not hard, but fine ns well a& fats* 
little coarse flesh about them ; and a high disposition to 
marble with fat. With respect to the kindness of their 
disposition upon comparison witli Sussex and Devon<? 
^ire, we have perhaps the most decisive proof of 
it that was ever brought forward, in Lord Egremont's 
fcxperimcnt, and which tends to shew that these large 
cattle will gain their fat sooner than either of the other 
bree<ls. It has been said, that the Herefords arc better 
tpjxdc iqx fatting than for working ; that they arc largcv 
boned, thick legs, quile a contrast to tlie clean thin leg 
of Sussex, and consequently that their motions are 
flower ; .but the trials which have been made of these 
cattle in the same teams, ploughing and carting, with a, 
jfrc^t number as well of Sussex as Devons, at Lord 
Egremont's, has ascertained the merit of the breed in 
this respect. Mr. Campbell thus writes to Lord Egre? 
mont upon the subject: " To the article of draught, 
which your Lordship mentions, I ^ai^ a|]s>¥er froni 

much 




S50 CATT1,B. 

much exppnVncr, lliat llic HcrcfurJs arc complftely fit.' 
I R-racmber Mr. Yoime, in oiw of tlie Numbers of the 
Ahh^Is, sppaking of Dpvoiis and Somerspls, on compa^ 
rtMin vfUli Shssi'm, mid that Ihvy did not come to so 
/dUctr ivei^ht : tbrrefore, be sai<t, not so fit for drnuglit ; 
iit that, ftie Hcreferds come nearer to them. Most cer- 
btintjr iwiy of tliose brct-Ja are easy to be had of a 
i^e^t sivHicient for the purpose. With respect to the 
geifffal weight, as they are to be found on an average, 
the HcVctbrds are known to outweigh the Sussex, and* 
(being, I Ik-Ucvc^ of nearly tite same specific gravity, 
whictv in Mime cattle mak«s mueh difference) to do so^ 
fi«*n*S the circumstaiKnr which is the cbicf reason of lay 
giving thciTt the prciVrence, They are generally innrei 
tforapletely formed, their several parts brought up" 
more to a level, and the iBtcrmcdiatc spaces more com- 
pletely filled. In my hombfe opiuion, a middle-sized. 
o\ of such shape, free on every point from any harditcsK 
of flesh, and the le/^s free from gummiiiess, from kneo 
and troch inclusively downward, eltBSt bone and sUww^ 
^'M be the fittest for wofk, as well as most gmnaUy 
saleable when- fat." 

11. Other Sort f. 

Tlie other sorts o( catjtic to be fonnd in Sossex, are a 
smalt breed brought by Welsh drovers, wbich, by 
grossing with the native breed, have very much injured' 
the Pusses slock. The AWernoy, Norman, and Jeraey 
breed of cows, are to be found all over this coaatj. 
t^rd Egrcmont has gome «f the CQWS, apd a, very fine 
bull, of tUnt breed. 



H. Dairy. 



ft 

CATTLE. 251 

II. Dairy^ 

Under this head, our information pia^ thus be 
classed ; 

1 . Shape of the cows;, 

8- Milk. '^ 

3; Butter. 

4. Food. 

51 Breeding) how practised i 

6t Crossing. 

7. Rearing* 

1. Shape of the Cozos^ 

A% the shape of the cattle has been noticed, little it- 
liidins to be said upon the form t>f cow$. 

However, it may be necessary to observe, that breed- 
ers aim at a clean' and thin head, neck, feg, and bbiie, 
a fine shoulder and chap, and, generally speaking, for 
the same ppints in the heifer as in the ox. The tHie 
pow has a deep red colour, the hair fine, and the skin 
mellow, thin, and soft ; a small head, a fiile hom, thih, 
clean, and transparent, which should run out horizon* 
tally, and afterwards turn up at tlie tips ; the neck very 
thin, and cl^n made ; a small leg ; a straight top and 
bottom, with round and springing ribs; thick chine; 
loin, hip^, and rump, wide; shoulder flat; but theprojcfcr 
tionof the point of the shoulder not liked, as the cattle 
subject to this defect are usually coarse : the legs should 
be rather short, carcass large ; the tail should lay level 
with the rump: a ridged backrbone, thin and hollow, 
chines, are great defects in this breed. 

The Earl of Egremont has in his possession, amohg 

many others, a heifer, which for beauty, proportion, 

and symmetry, may challenge the whole country, with- 

mm fti>di|% her equal, 

Length 



t^ 



length of back, 3 11 

CriHs bips, »..„....„ _.,__«»,....,.„ 1 .if 

Fore- quarters, „ „ I 7 

toin at six inches from lup, ! 4| 

Wipto tirslril), : 7\ 

Giilh, centre, ...» _ „..„....ri G 11 

Chine, _.. 3 10| 

Horn, ...— „..„-_-_ , 0^ 

tollnr, - « 4 

Nc<!k, _..._ ^....„__-.,„ 2 8 

Withers, 1o horn, 2 3J 

HeiiiH, centre, 3 II 

■VVLdlh, nalche, _ 10} 

A heifer of Mr. Kllman'E, rarasnrcil as follows ! 

Ft. In. 

Wide, fnxn the centre of one hip 1o the } . „ 

ct^trc of the oitier, _.... -... ... > 

Length of the rtimp from centre of hip, .„. 1 6 

Oftitrp of hip to perpendicular of fore-l<^, 3 ' 2| 

Girth at chine, .-... 6 4 

Centre, .'- '. 7 8 

Girth, neck, ,.. — S JO 

Leg, - -. 9 

rioin, ., - ■ 7} 

Middle of tail, «. -. 4^ 

Height to bip, .~ ....»-......-......»»... 4 4 

Thick chine, I 9 ' 

Thick centre, „ 8 6 

^'.idtb six inches below rump, , , i 1 



CATtl*E. <i8 



2. Milk. 

The material object in the cattle system of Sussex, is 
the breeding and rearing of stock for working and fat- 
tening. The concern of the dairy is but a secondary 
object in this system. 

Upon many farms, nearly as many fat oxen are 
annually sold as there are cows kept. 31. or 4/. in the 
product of the dairy, had much better be lost, than an 
indifferent ox bred. 

In quantity of milk, they are not to be compared 
with some other bnvds, as I he Holdemcss, Suffolk, &c, 
which two breeds urc the greatest milkers in the king- 
<lom; and therefore with these tire comparison is un- 
fair; but if a money value is the object, the difference 
will not be merely so great, if any at all. This indtved 
is a circumstance in the breed of cows, deserving the 
'most attentive experiments. If the profit of a cow wiis 
in proportion to the quaniUy of her milk, there wouJd 
be a much greater disproportion between them than 
really is the case. The Suffolk cow is usually a poor 
and miserable-looking one : the Sussex cows keep them- 
selves almost beef whilst they give milk. If this fat- 
tening disposition was not an indication of rich milk, 
those cows would be so unprofitable, that nobody could 
afford to keep them. The best cows of the Duke of 
Richmond's dairy (all Suffolk polled), in May and 
June will give two gallons at a meal ; but if they are 
averaged, about one gallon. 

But what the Sussex cows losfj in quonfity, they 
make up in quality. Upon this subject Mr. Campbell 
observes to Lord Egremontr " The Holderness cows, 
and their relationi^ the Fifes, give the greatest quan- 
tity 



^4 CAtxLE. 

tity of milk of any in the kingdom; they arc also fbc 
coarsest and most opeii-deshcil beasts in il. The fine 
fleshed cattip give milk of a better quality, and a higher 
and richer flavour. The Guernsey cows, and your Lord* 
ship^s East India cow, mentioned in the Annalsj con* 
firm what I say as to milk." 

Ill point of butler and cheese, none beat Suffolk 
cows. In May and June, in tlic gref^t xiniry distridsj 
all the lar/^c dairies have cows which yitld eight gal- 
lons a day; and in May, June, tmd July, whole dairies 
of forty, fifty, and sixty cttws, that give four gallons a 
day ; yet they arc an ill made uncouth animal. 

3. Butler. 

A good cott will give 51b. of butter in a week in the 
height of the season ; and six will make from 30 to 
401b. of cheese in a month, of skim-milk. 

The following is the product of the Duke of Rich* 
mond's dairy at Goodwood. The breed is of the Suf* 
folk Bort — twenty in tiamber. 

Sis Summer 'Months) I^93k 

lb. s..d. fi.s. rf. 

^prU 6. 574 ,?t I is 2 it 6 

13. m —1 0—2 7 $ 



.May 4. 



63i 


— 1 — 2 13 6 


,18 ; 


— 1 1 —0 19 6 


48i 


— 1 0—2 8 9 


144 


— 1 1 — 15 8; 


56 


— I — 2 16" 


.20J 


— 1 1—1 .2 5j 


31 


— I —1 11 6 


Mi 


— 1 1.-0(6 9J 



Mar 



•C^iWtt^lE* ^ 



\ 





lb. 


$* rf. 


■ ,£. '$^ ♦ift 


May 18. 


.881 


at 1 


U A 8 .6 


25. 


36 


— II 


— 1 13 "0 


— 


47 


— 1 


— 270 


J^ine '1. 


87i 


— 11 


— 3 19 Ui 


^8. 


40 


■0 10 


— J 13-4 


— 


40i 


It 


— 1 17 1| 


12. 


8 


K) 


— « 6 8 


15. 


74 


— OjIO 


— 8 1 S 


— 


IS 


— O.ll 


— 11 JI 


$2. 


125| 


— 10 


— 6 4 4i 


29. 


82i 


— 10 


— 3 8 6f 


Julv 6. 

4^ 


S3 


— :10 


— 392 


j:;. 


45 


— Oslo 


— 1 17 6 


JjO. 


S6 


— 11 


— 1 13 




iQ 


1 -2 


— 1 10 4 


!g7. 


60 


— o:ii 


— 2 5 10 


— 


S3 


— 1 


— 1 13 


Ang. 2. 


90. 


— 10 


— 4 10 


10. 


66 


— 1 


— 5 6 


18. 


59i 


— 1 


— 2 19 9 


Aug. 24. 


60 


— 1 


— 3 d 


31. 


671 


— 11 


—'3 1 10* 


Sq>t. ' 7. 


58 


— on 


—2 13 2 


14. 


54J 


—0 11 


—'2 9 81 


•21. 


46 


— 11 


— 222 


'28. 


46| 


— o;ii 


— 2 2 10{ 



%' % ' ■ »■' r 



1816, — 0,1J|;^,85 15 21 



I r 



Whickgiyes a product of butter per \ 

^* <5ow,i for ihe fstimmer hdlfiof tfae> £.i 6 11-f 

year, of 90f lb. tit Ilfrf. or ..-V 
Per month, 151b. 2oz. .«.....m«..,.«.....«^ 14 4 
Per week, 3lb« 12oz« •^.••m..*m..«*.mm«« '^ 7 

Product 



idnct of IjuUcr from the same dairy hy fiflecn 
' eows^ during tbe six winter months. ^^^| 



January 5. 3Si at 11 



is 1 



rebruary2. 



S3. 
Man-h S. 



34 
34} 
29 
351 



23. 

30, 

Oclpber 6. 



— 1 — 1 14 

— i — 1 14 ^^ 

2 O^^M 

— 19 ^^H 

6 ^H 

— 19 9 ^^M 

6 8 ^B 



30. 


421 


— 1 — 2 2 6 


r 6. 


36i 


— 11 — 1 13 5f 


13. 


30i 


— 11 — 1 8 2} 


20. 


24 


— 11 — 1 2 


27. 


21J 


— 11 — 19 IIJ 


3. 


I9J 


-i 11 — 17 7J 


10. 


17 


— 11 — 15 7 


17. 


16i 


— 11 — 15 4} 


24. 


m 


— 11 — 17 10§ 


1. 


s*i 


— 1) — I 2 2J 


8. 


29t 


— 11 — 1 7 0{ 


15. 


29J 


— 11 — 1 e 9J 


S2. 


S9 


— 11 — 1 6 7 


S9. 


311 


— 11 — J 8 IQJ 




689 


— 111^32 18 lOJ 



iPer month p^r COW, 46 lb £.2 4' 1 

Per month, 71b. lOoz 7 4 

Per week, lib. Uoz ^ I 10 

Annual produce of each, 1361b. 6/. 11^. 0|rf. in but- 
ter. From August 18 to April fO, no butter sold. 

An extraordinary instance occurring, to shew that 
ihe Sussex cattle, though they have a great disfpo- 
sition to fatten, are yet valuable for the quantity of 
butter they give, it is pro^r to note it. 

The gardener of Jbord Hampden, atGlynd, had a red 
cow of the Sussex breed, which in one year, two or 
fliree weeks after weaning the calf, gave 101b. of but- 
ter per week for some weeks ; the next year the same 
cow gave 9| lb. per week for several weeks ; nine for se- 
veral more ; and then for the rest of the summer 81b. 
to 8| lb. per week ; and till the hard frost set in, 7 lb. ; 
and during the fiost, 41b. per week. That summer 
cheeses were also made of her milk, about 61b. eaioh- 
When sh6 gave most milk, two per week were madq ; 
so that at the height of milking, she gave 101b. of but- 
ter, and 121b. of cheese, each week. 

She never at any time gave more than five gallons of 
milk in a day. Towards winter she had a bushel of 
bran twenty weeks, which the profit by pigs more than 
paid for. 

Four or five years before, the same person had a fine 
black cow from Lord Gage's, which gave also in the 
height of the season, five gallons per day ; but no more 
than five pounds of butter in a week was eyet made from 
it ; and they remarked as a faict, that they had often 
noticed, that the milk of a black cow never g:ives so 
much butter as that of a red one. 

The owner above-mentioned paid the farmer ^/. per 

ilussE):.] s \ ann. 



!inn. for the footl of the cow in question, and sail] i 
value of the pnnliice wii» 8/., the calf selling at 8s. 
J went to the yard, in ord^r lo handle this cow, and 
found her to feel very well, though out of flesh : she 
has the disposition of the breed trt be fat ; her carcass 
very large. Obser vat ions of this sort should alwayi 
be noted, because a great nuintier of results will fur- 
nish something belter than conjecture. We shall how- 
ever be very luucli in the dark, till cxiwriinents are made 
on the quantity offovi! calcii bij all sorts of cattle*. 
4. Food. 



• 1 am indiued lo think lliit useRil aliment of butter iiuffcn greatly 
in its qunliry iUid tlurabilily, in (he ordinary prucess of malcing up. The 
error I would [luiul oi.t t», ihe admisslQU of wjtcr (warm or (old), holli 
into the ckurn, and in the heating and making up. Wnnr i< well knowB 
ro be a great dis.totTmt ; at Uasl if it lie not etsemialiy id, it lervta m 
vnituli as a eonductor to air, which is univenalty fiueh. Fresh butter 
then, in consequence of imbibing wairr, and water being saturated with 
air, 1! alwayj in a progrcaive stale of decoy. Nol sn when watur ii ex- 
cluded : its obginoui parts are admirably calculated to secure it from pu- 
IrefaFlion ; and I :im almoH pcsittve, ihal butter might Iw made with u 
little (rouble an the present method, lo keep the wliole year fresh and 
iweet, without the least particle nf sail, solely by the eiclubio.i of walct. 
I was witDS^s loine years ago to a pi^cc I'f huiter brmg t-jken <1M of the 
churn in very w:irm weilher ; there might have been water put in pre- 
vious to the thuniing, and 1 believe there was, but it had none aCCO'* 
wards t a paii of this buller was used fnr making oiolment, the remain- 
der wa£ set by and forgot ; a fortnight ailerwardj, tf was diBCOTered to 
hv as freidi and meet as eFer, though il had never been salted. I have 
heard it spiiken of a notable old housewife famoua fur good butter, that 
ihe alwap k<:pt the floor of ber dairy dry. The custom is eiacllj '*'■ 
reverse at present in thote parts, many p.uTfuIi htiogthrtiwn dttwn i» 
the h« weather, which will assuredly rise again in steam, and aiffect the 
milk with its humidity. I propose the (oltowing observations in [he 
Ireatment of the dairy concerns : A spaciou! room with a north aspect; 
wide airy lattices, with trees planted before at a convenient di«tmiee, of 
a kind thai yield no elBuvia. Trefi thus situated, will druw a curroiti 
and ventilate the air-, (be floor, 'ione or brick, wuhed dean, oa the t» 



ClTTtf!^* S59 



4* Food. 



A Variety of experiments^ highly interesfiiig to adeir^r* 
farmer, have been lately made by the Earl of Egrev 
mont, with a view to discover what food keeps cpw» 
in the best condition, and gives the greatest pr^uct in 
butter and milk : certainly an important inquiry, and 
the scale upon which it was conducted^ was of that 
magnitude, as to make it in some degree complete and 
satisfaictory : the result was^ that potatoes, boiled or 
raw, was a very improper food lor cows. In these 
experiments, the green food was potato^ and carrots ; 
the dry, hay, chaff, and oil-cake. 
' Ten cows were tied up to potatoes and hay, and ten 
to hay only, for a month : they kept themselves in 
good order upon the hay ; but those on potatoes wasted 
much. 

The difference in the quantity of mitk, inccmside* 
lufole^ boiled potatoes and wheat chaff*, equally unsatis* 
fiictory ; steamed, not much better. 



«» 



moval of each sncoesaive xnesft of milk» and kept p^ifectiy cjcan aii4 
sanded, which will absorb all humidity. The Vessels used for holdlf^ 
the milk, to be washed clean, and afterwards rinced a first and second 
time with sweet milk ; the churn served in the like manner, and all the 
dairy implements. A cruet washed ever so clean with water, will 
catiie vinegar, if put into it, to become dreggy ; but when rinced witli 
a little of the same, will always appear limpid and clear,i( No water mit 
In with the cream when it is churned. Ai the butter is taken out, put 
it into a tray full of holes, placed over any other Vessel; avoid squeezing 
ft into lumps ; it will drain the better for being loose in its texture ; re* 
mo^e it to a large tray without holes ; recover all the crumbs that hanm 
xvaa through the strainer; knead it weU with your haa^, previounly 
jaBced with the whey, and form it into a Hat aake, the thinner tly 
better; sprinkle salt over it, and l^ave it in that state half an hour, by 
which time the salt will extract aH the whey ; mal^e it up the usual wa|^ 
iMtt ttie BOt one drop of water ta the whole proeewd— 'Afr. Tr^yhiu 



Ten cows upon raw poLitucs and bay, and fen upon 
carrots and liay, for a month ; iIil' carrots raucli tbc best: 
but llic potatoes reduced lliem so low, tlioiiirli plenty 
of hay was given, thai (he (.oLiMrqiiences might have 
been worse, had they continued on this food any longer. 
December 10, 1795, the cows were tied to raw potatoes 
and somn hay; in three wi-eks a change of food 
absolutely iiecr^ary. .lanuary, 1797, thfec pecka 
boiled potatoes to each, mixed wtlb ivheal-chiiff. 

Novcmbcr28, 17S)(», ten co;vs to carrots, ten to p<i- 
tatoi's ; the carrots kept them in hearty condition ; the 
flavour of (he bnlfcr and cream nowise afrurfcd by tfafrvi 
food. 

5. Breeding. 

The breeding system of this district is entitled lo-ci 
sidcrabte attention, and is a most profitable branch, 
the maitugemciit of livt;-s(ock. The cows are in pro- 
portion to the farmer's occupation, and all, or nearly 
all the calves arc reared, which are kept in succession 
for work ; so that a farm of eigiit cows will have six 
calves, six-year olds, as many two-year olds, four 
three-year olds bcgiiming to work, four four-year oldi 
as many five-year olds, and as many six-year oil 
Upon Mime fiirms, the calves reared are, loss cxcepli 
, equal to the numkr of coivh : tt^males are siifScient 
keep up the stock of cows; and if other females re- 
inain, Ihey perhaps change theiu with a neighbour for 
piales. Others again spny the females, and work them 
as oxen. It will of course be oijscrTetl, that the varia- 
tions in the rearing must depend npon circumstances. 
If the cows continue good to an advanced age, few! 
are weaned to supply their places. A difference of oi 
nion exists relntive to the best time for calves to 



J 






CATTLE. 861 

born. Some prefer early ones that come in January! 
others think those of March and April the best. They 
universally suck the cow from ten to thirteen weeks, 
are cut at seven weeks, and are weaned by being shut 
up ; and having a little grass given them, till they have 
forgotten the dam, arc t lien turned out to pasture. The 
first winter they are well fed with the best hay ; after 
that with straw, except after Christmas, while work«> 
ing, -when they have hay, but straw alone till they be- 
gin to work. 

Variations of no great account are found : many do 
not let the calves remain at night with the cows, till 
they are five to eight weeks old, according to the quan- 
tity of milk the cow gives. ' Sometimes one cow will 
suckle two calves. They sometimes lose calves by a 
"distemper they call the husk^ which is occasioned by 
little worms in the small pipes on the lights. A good 
<:ow will suckle two calves for the butcher to a conside- 
rable profit, after her own has had her milk for ten or 
twelve weeks. 

Mr. John EUman's succession system is : 

14 calves, of which nine male; eight for oxen, and 
one for accidents : not taking to work. 

14 year olds. 

14 two-year olds ; of which eight worked a little at 
two years and a half. 

14 three-year olds ; part of which taken for cows, 
and others, if not good, fattened. 

14 four-year olds, eight worked. 

14 five-year olds, eight worked. 

14 six-year olds, fattened. 

24 oxen worked in common, eight three year, eight 
four year, eight five years old ; intending to have eight 

s3 every 



S09 CATTLE. 

every yrar fi)r the team ; but rearing nine, prepi 
him tur the change of a steer not taking well to work, 
and consequi-ntly tots one every year at tltree years 
old". His coivs, upon an average, pay 4?, each by 
suckliug lor the biilchcrj besides reiirinf; tbtfalvra as 
above, which suck twelve or thirteen weeks. The cow- 
calveii that arc reared, bring a calf at two years oIJ, 
vrhich runs with (he dam all the summer, fur sevpa or 
eighl months. Such calves they call a liurter. 

Lord Egremont always fallens sL'VtTal calves, aiid 
has tried tor that purpose skim-milk mixed with Ibt- 
SGCil, boiled to the consistency of a jelly ; in the pro- 
porlion of a pint of jelly to a gallon of milk : it did 
not seem to answert. Of s<-veral that were killed in 
1797, the following appeared to bp the live snd dead 
weight. 

Born May 27 ; killed August 5. 

Alive, 2111b. 

Dead, 133 1401b. would be two-thirds. 

Born May 27 ; killed August 8. 
Alive, 2091b. 

Dead, 136 1401b. would betwOrthirds. 

Bom May 27; killed August 13. 
>Uive, 23Jlb. 

Dead, 154 1561b. would be two-thirds, i( 

it had weighed 3341b. 

Born Jijne IS; killed September 15, 
Alive, 240 lb. 
Deiid, 160, two thirds. 



i 



* Instead of tburleeii, all tbeee Dumbert are now become ragbteen, 
luTiag increased h':e stock. 

i Mr. Mitwaid fatleiu with ball) gf flour mixed with rum. 

' Tlic 



CATTLE. MS 

The general adraiUta^ of this breeding Bysieniji vfe 
thviovLS to those Mrho have been long in the habit of ex- 
perieifcing the inconvewiences of other methods. It is 
a grazier^s own fautt, if ever he attempts to fatten an 
unkind beast; let him only take care of his stock, and 
he will need no apprehensions of that sort. Those who 
trust to fairs and markets, know, that liiey will some- 
times unavoidably have either ill-conditioned beasts, or 
be forced to give prices too high to answer, not to men- 
tion the uncertainty of fairs, and the enormous pried 
lean stock f req uently sell at . 



The Earl of Egremonfs Cattle System f6r Work. 

The calves are dropped from December to the end of 
February ; they are weaned immediately, never letting 
them suck at all, but the milk givefi for three days as it 
comes from the cow. But for weaning on skim-milk, 
they ought to fall in December, or a month before and 
after, and then they should be kept warm by housing ; 
and thus they will be equally forward with calves dropt 
late in the spring, that ran with the cow. With the 
skim-milk some oatmeal is given, but not till two 
months old, and then only because the number pf 
calves are too great for the quantity of milk; water 
and oatmeal are therefore mixed with it, to make it go 
farther. (Heifers with their first calves are exceptions ; 
such do not become good milkers, if their calves do 
not suck for the whole season ; but with the second calf 
are treated like the rest). In May, they are turned to 
grass; the first winter, beginning in November, they 
&ed upon rouen, or aftermath, ns called in some 
Iplaces ; the following summer, that is, A-om May, they 
#¥€ at grass ; the second winter on straw, but eat very 

$4 little^ 



■9M ' CATTLE. 

little, as they run out on siiort roiij^li grass, Thi 
have been Iriei! on hay alonr, but straw and grai 
bcl(i?r. The foUowinjr, and evi-ry otiicr summei 
grass, aitd are brolic at Ghnslrniis, being three y( 
old : they are liglilly workwl ; the only object is to 
break them in, in order (hat Ihrir work may be^in in 
till" sprinjr. From Iliis (iine Iheir wlnler-rowl is strsir, 
with the addition of a ton and a )ialf of rlovei-hay, 
estimation, and reckoning at the- most; bat not be! 
trussed, the iilmost is taken. I( is given Ijetween 
finishing of straw and gojny In grass, that ig, dm 
the season of spring-sowing and a month liefore it, 
order to prepare them for that worlt about the lOtl^i 
February. 

His lordship works them three, four, or five yi 
that is, from three years old to four, from four to five, 
from five to six, from six lo seven, and from seven to 
seven and a half, being in this last case put to fatten 
after the wheat season. But his more common system 
is, to work them four years and a half, and tbea fatten. 

The breed is Hereford, Sussex, Devon, and a 
breed between Hereford and Sussex. The Herefc 
breed appears to be the best of the three, when pure, 
the two objects combinetl, of working and fulling; 
the mixture of half Hereford aiul half Susses, are equal. 
But with all crosses, the Hereford white face is sure to 



fen. 
bnS^ 



Wlieji at straw in the winter, they work three dm 
in a week ; for bislance, his Lordship has no' 
four, being twelve three-year ohls, ten fonr-year oldl 
and twelve of all ages above thai, as they happen toh 
good for work. And here it is lo be observed relatf 
to turning off from work, (hnl when an ox will « 
bear ^nxd work and hard food, he may on aa ev^ 
' chai 



CATTLE. S65 

chance, if pot to feed, &tten as well as one that would* 
gtand work and hardship much better, as the qualities 
of fattening well, and bearing hard work, are distinct. 
But the perfection of breeding- is to have such as will 
do both ; and the free temper and willingness in work 
of an ox, may make him be thought tender, and unfit 
for labour, if due attention is not paid to this circum- 
stance. 

Those thirty-four oxen are at oat-straw, with no 
other food, and sixteen of them are worked every day ; 
and I could not but remark the very good order they 
were in ; none of them complaining, by their appear^ 
ance, of any want of better food. This straw system 
holds till about the 10th of February ; then hay is 
given, to prepare them for the fatigue of spring-sow- 
ing ; the hay system lasting till May, when they arc 
turned to grass. 

In forming an estimate of the value of their work^ 
Lord Egremont, in order to be within the truth, takes 
to accMnt only a part of their time; from three to 
four years old, two days a week, at 6rf. a day; from 
four to five years, three days a week, at 7d. ; from 
£ve to six years, three days a week, at 8cf. ^ These 
rates during eighteen weeks at straw in winter. But 
for thirty-four weeks in summer at grass, the beasts 
from three to four years, four days a week, at 6tf. 
from four to five years, five days, at 9d. ; and 
from five to six, five days, at lOrf* 



906 tATTLK. 


^" 


Ytmald. D>yn d. Weela. 

From 3 to 4 .... i at 6 ^ IS .... 

4 to 5 .... 3 ~ li 

5 to 6 ... a — 8> 


111 6(1 
1 IS ) ■ 


■T to 4 .... 4 — 6 V :J1 .... 
4 to 5 .... 3 ~ oi 
i) ttifi .... 5 .— 105 


3 8 J., 
7 1 8>- 


£■ 


21 2 S 


Let U3 now calculalc the cxjjense and return of then 
oxen, as thpy are managed, taking it fw a single one. 


E.'Spcnse of weaning ™ , 

Six moiilli!.' gooil grass, at lii<!. perwi 

Six months' grass, being the lirst win 

ter, at 1* 


■ £ ^ a 

Kk, 1 
■^ 1 6 » 

.f 1 C 


Six raonthfi' grass in the park, beinj 
much fed wi(h sheep, deer, &c 
at Is _ 



Six months winter, at 9d -..«.■... 19 C 

Six months' grass, aiJs.Gd 1 10 

£.S m 6 



At litis time Lord Egremont could sell them, or b- 
deed so early as in August, for 1 II. or IQL lean; 

Say ..-".. -.. ;f.Il-10 6 

He lias cost, ....-» 8 10 6 



There would here be profit, £.3 



Supposing his food charged to November. On the 
contrary, if put into good grass in August, for fatten- 
ing* 



CATTLE. 

ftg, be will by the end of the ejnas season, about iht 
time Mum he would be broke, sell fat to the butcher 
at i5(. or 16/^ 

Bringdown ., ..... •. .,^.8 10 6 

Twelve weeks' grass, of additional^ 

yalue (that is, 3^. 6d. instead of > 14 

2s.6d.),2l y 

II 

£.9 14 6 

Selb for - . .. 15 10 

Expense, .....».i.~..m»~~..~........>......>.» t) li 6 ■ 

Profit, ;<C 5 15 6 



This is on an average; but I was present; at Pet- 
worth, and partook of one : a Sussex, turned to fatten, 
because a coarse ill-looking-beast ; came fatting, be-^ 
tween August and January, to 116 stone, which* at 4^. 
would be 23/. 4s. and was excellent beef. 

This is a considerable profit ; but as it would, if ge- 
nerally practised, exclude the system of working, and^ 
force the use of horses for the entire work of the farm, 
it does not seem to be so large as to form inducement 
sufficient to cliangc tlic system; accordingly Lord 
Egremont does not stop here. 

Bringdown ;^.S 10 6 

Six months' straw, at \s, tlie third ^ i r n 

winter, • ) 

Six months' grass, at 2s ....«•.••..• S 13 

Three months' straw, fourth winter, ^ n i o n 

at \s i.... ••• ) 

One toa and a half of clover-hay, 3 

V - 

iCarry forward^ ••«..••• £.16 16 

JSrought 



8 12 





13 





3 





2 19 





13 





3 






Brought forward, £.16 I 8 

Sii months' ^rass, at 2s. .„.,.._ 

Three months' straw, fifth winter, .... 
One tern and a half of clover-hay, .... 

Six months' grass, at 9*. „..._... 

Three months' straw, sixth winter, .. 
One ton and a half ot'ctovcr-bay, .... 

H^.28 n 6 

Jf the account is hrrcsfopt, hy (he siilcoitbe tfx lean 
(not Iiord Egrcmont's practice), we may, for ibe better 
comparison of keeping and fatting, thii^ stntc it : 

The ox would now sell for £. 19 10 

He has canted, 21 9 8 

Expense, 28 11 6 

f.(9 1 S 

This is selling: in the spring; bnt if in the following 
anfumn, thenthe lean account will stand tbns: 

"Bringdown ™ — £.3S H 6 

.^ixmonths'grass, at 2s. ...„....-...«. 2 12 (> 



£.31 3 6 



ilocarncd before, ...» _ -... £.^l 2 8 

Six months' work, 5 daj's a week, at lOrf. 5 8 4 

26 11 
Sells for ™ «.• 19 10 . » 

46 1~0 
K^peiTse, » 31 5 6 

Profit, „... ^.14 17 6 



"Sui at this period liis liordship puts some of them 
to fattening; the account therefore goes on thus: '^ 



1 , 



Bring down, ^ ......^.... £.31 3 6 

Six months' roucii the seventh winter, 

at 1^^. a week; if not rouen enough,^ . ^^ -^ 
then bad hay. two tons and a half, 

Six jnonths and 3 weeks' grass, at 3^ . Gd,b I 6 

/.38 17 9 

He may now be sold for . —••••.••••-...« £.30 

He has earned «••»..• m «•• ^6 11 



£.56 II 



' • 



Profit, «.»...«.«»«.^««^.«. ^T. 17 14 

r '■ I * ii ■ 

I 

And here it should be observed, that I saw four 
9xen, two of which are ten years old, wliich his Lord- 
ship bought of my father; and two others coming 
eight years old, feeding upon rouen in January, 
through the severe frost of the end of December, and 
without having a mouthful of any other food, and 
thriving well: a very satisfactory proof how much 
rouen is to be depended on, even in such a season, and 
of the great profit attending it. The advantages of 
kept grass can hardly be exemplified in a clearer man- 
ner than in this practice ; for no slight portion of the 
profit throughout the scale, arises from the cheapness of 
this food* " The calves entirely depend on it for the 
first winter: they have some the second also, though 
at straw ; and the winter previous to fattening, the 
oxen are put to it, io improve them. Its value is best 

ascertained: 




JW ' CATTLR. 

Mcatained b; supposing its absence; fin- then hsj 
masl be the siibstituk' : and tlic expense of thii foodf 
if reckoned at what it wmild wil for, every one knows 
to lie extremely grral. I had (he pleasure of seeing 
Lord Egremont's whole crop of lambs thriving aii- 
mirablj on (his food als;o, wtlhont the addition of 
any other ; a very severe frost leaving his turnips rol- 
len, and yet the farmer frre from all anx'ety. Rouen 
defies the season, and places the Sock-master on velvet. 
But lu return : 

ft-lng down „. ™ „ £.38 17 

Three months' oil-cake, fight cakes a~ 
dtiy, at S/. a thousand at London; 
carriage to Godalming, 15s, Hrf. a 
thousand; a team of six horses 3500 
calces thence to Pelworth, two men, ) 
and 3s, turnpike); — say 21*. for 
S500; carriage in all, 2is. per thou- 
sand ; 90 J'lys, at eight cakes, 7-'0, 



I 10 {^tl 



Three monthh' hay, >vilb cake, at 8 lb. > 
per day, 720 lb. say halt a ton, at 3/. > 

£.46 if fl^ 
He then sells for 39 10 ff^^ 



Expense, . 
Profit, ...„ 



£.59 I a* 
.... 46 19 0* 



^■.12 g 



Difierence in profit, lean or ial, 2/. 15s. 6d. I'agiir^^ 
irbi«li tliere is the value ui his dui^. 



CATTLE. 871 

But Lord Egremont's more common practice is, to 
keep them longer before fattening ; in ^hicli case^ tiie 
account goes on thus : 

i3nng oown ••••••««0««««m» «•••••«•••••••••••••• ;£^*^^ ^ u^ 

Three months' straw, seventh winter, •• 13 

One ton and a half clover-hay, ..,. 3 

Six months^ grass, 2s r..... 2 12 Q 

;^.37 8 6 



■k 



If then sold lean, the account will be i 

His former work, «•• •^... £.26 11 

18 weeks, at three days per week, at 8rf. 1 16 

And 34 weeks, at five days per week, at lOrf. 7 1 & 



,^.35 8 8 



£.S4: 18 8 
Deduct expenses, ............................ 37 8 6 



And here therefore it deserves remarking, that the 
]profit on keeping him at work while he is in f«ll 
i^rength, is an object; for his labour amounting to 
8/. 175. 8rf. and his food only 61, 5.9. leaves a profit c£. 
2/« 12^- 8rf. per annum. Nor has Lord Egremont 
observed, that by thus keeping him. through the sum- 
mer which follows his seventh winter, that he is worse 
in any respect, either for fattening, or selling when 

]f be i» now fatieped, the account goei^ on thus : . 

Biing 



272 C.1TTI.E. 

Bringdown „ ^.37 8 

Six months' rouen, as before, eighth ) a la 

winter, at 2s S 

Six m»nlbs' and three weeks' grass, 3s. Gd. 5 1 

Oil-cake, iis before, „ 6 la 

Hay, ditto, 1 10 

£.53 4 

His work has been 35 S 

IlcnowsclUfor 39 10 

£.(i7 18 
Deduct the expenses, 54 18 

Profit, £. 13 



Upon this account, which, it should be observen 
is an account, and not it {.alculalion, for it is a tran- 
Bcript of practice. Lord Efrreinont observes, that it 
seems remarkable, that the iarmers arc gpnerallj foud 
of fattening thdr oxen, by wliich they lose, and that 
nine-tenlhs of the kingdom are unwilling to work 
them, by which they as clearly gnin; partly to be 
accounted for, in tlie first case, by the vanity of hav- 
ing fat oxen, which is an object amongst theln ol 
sort of pride, as if a certain degree of resperl^bili 
attached to the practice; not entirely ill-founded. 
iaras manure is concerned. 

From the whole of this account, the advant; 
of working oxen on Lord I^gremont's farm, is clearly 
manifest: but it should l)c observed, that this is to Ije 
extended no further as practice, than what he actually 
practises; that is, krepiiig both horse and ox -teams, 
Much of the soil of his farm, especially the u'sble, is a 



:>r a. 



1 



CATTLE. 273 

a strong clay ; upon which it is of great consequence 
not to trample in ploughing, and of equal importance 
in spring and autumn sowing times, to be very quick 
for catching the right moments : horses trample less, 
and ate more expeditious. lie therefore finds it parti* 
cularly serviceable to do all sorts of carting with oXen^ 
except the longer journies, and at such seasons to keep 
the horse-teams uninterruptedly at plough. It must 
not however be hastily concluded, that oxen do not 
plough well, for they certainly do, and on- his Lord- 
ship's farm; but in spring and autumn seed-times, 
V liorses are more expeditious. Six oxen in stiff land, 
for the first earth, plough but three-fourths of an acre 
a day, on the average of the several ages at which they 
are wrought. Those who, upon lighter soils, can use 
smaller teams, will of course find them more beneficial 
than here stated* v 

6. Crossings 

Crossing is universally practised. It is very strongly 
believed, that without this custom, the breed would 
infallibly degenerate ; and in conformity to this no- 
tion, the Sussex breeders every year or two change 
their bulls ; consequently this practice is in vogue, for 
the mere sake of crossing ; and it has contributed to 
the deterioration of the stock. Bulls are seldom to be 
met with above three years old; so that, with this 
system, a man scarcely knows what his young stock 
will turn out. Mr. EUman, in support of this opi- 
nion, gives it as the result of experience, that it is ne- 
cessary in all kinds of animals : that it is, of course, 
better to cross from a finer stock than their own ; but, 
if tbey have been long in one blood, it will be better to 
«ussEX.] T take 




274 cattlj:. 

take a cross from a worse breed, rather than not, 
change, as the mere crossing will be advaiilageotu 
enough to induce this conduct. And it is thought 
that this observation goes more pointedly to the means 
of improving the health of the animal, and the diepcf 
sition to fatten, than either to shape or eoloiir. 

Of the sanle opinion was Mr. Allfrcj-, of Frislon, one 
of the most experienced and sciisibte breeders that the 
county had to boast. From his own knowledge, hewai 
decidedly for crossing. His father had many years ago 
a most beautiful breed of beasts, and he bred intlic 
same strain for upwards of twenty years, when, as he 
states, they were very much degenerated, and thrfr 
constitutions so bad, that it was no unusual thing to 
Jose four or five in a year. His flock too sulTenid 
from the same inattention; but on changing his raiM, 
the alteration in a few years was renlly astonishing. 
In the breed of his greyhounds, in which he was always 
curious, observation confirmed him in the opinion. 
Mr. AUfrey bred from dogs in the same strain, that 
■were very capital, till they could not run a mile; but 
by crossing with others, they again improved. 

In opposition to these Sussex facts, it was the prac- 
tice of the greatest breeder the world bas produced, 
deduced from long and attentive experiennc, that lo 
cross with a breed which was not decidedly better than 
the breed to be crossed, ought never to be attempted. 
But when this is the case, Mr. Bakewell thought it a 
necessary measure, but in all others a most mischievous 
one. 

Thelafe Mr. Campbell, of Charlton, coincided in 
these sentiments ; he too was known to have possessed 
great experience, and was a consummate judge upon 
the subject. 

"As 



CATTLE. 275 

*^ As to the art and mystery of generation or concep* 
tion, all that I pretend to know (and that I do by 
many experiments to a certainty) is, that ill shapes, 
and properties of particular breeds, when introduced 
in others, even by a single cross, will continue to have 
effect, sometimes more, sometimes liess, and sometimes 
4arking for generations, scarce perceivable, or even 
totally but of sight or feel, and then break out on some 
individual as strongly, and with as bad effect, as if 
there had never been any further mixture or addition' 
of the blood on the other side. I therefore consider 
crosses to be a matter requiring the greatest caution^ 
and what I should never choose to do, if there was 
one bad property in the proposed cross ; and I am of 
opinion, that the surest and best means of improving 
a breed, is by constantly and completely weeding the 
original stock and nursery, and securing the opportu<» 
nity of advantage from particular extra individuals 
which may happen to be produced in it; and in every 
respect availing oneself of all the use it may afford, and 
carefully preserving the continuance of it as long as 
possible, or until a yet better comes," — Extracts of 
Letters from Mr* Campbell to Lord Egremont. 



III. Work. 

The third division of the subject embraces the de- 
scription of the draught cattle of this county, in re- 
spect to, 

1. Training. 

«. Yokes. 

3. Collars. 

4. Yokes and collars compared. 

t2 5- JPro- 




5. Proportion of drauglit cattle. 

6. Shoeing. 

7. Dislempers. 

1 ., Tittiiilng. 

The common praclice is to yoke i\\e slcers intlie 
double yoke, which is generally j>erfomicd with the 
use of a rope, la confine them whiUt the yoke is fixing 
on. Mr. Ellman observes, that this should be done 
between two pair of old steai3y oxen ; one pair before, 
to prevent the steers from flying back, and one or two 
pair behind, to prevent tlicra from pu&hing forward. 
In this way they are put to the plough, and the next 
day they are generally yoked with less trouble,: sonic- 
times, and which Mr. Ellman thinks a. better way, m 
joke, he says, one steer with one of our old steady 
• osen, one that is not very free to work. This last 
mode of training the steers io work, is less liable to 
hurt them in a warm day, as the ox will prevent the 
steer from fetigning itself, which is often encouraged 
by the other, when two are yoked together. 

At two years and a half old the oxen are broken to 
the yoke ; at the outset the work is gentle, so that tbe 
young cattle are trained to the labour with other steady 
ones in the team ; whatever is the work of an ox, it a 
made consistent with the progression in his value ; for 
the breeder knows that the system wonld otherwise be 
deprived of the principal part of its merit; conse- 
quently the work is at all times so proportioned as not 
toaifect the growth of the animal, which continues till 
the sixth or seventh year. This then is the reason 
•why such numbers are coupled in a team, that, at 
6rst sight, there appears an absurdity in working 
their cattle in such numerous teams. Eight great osen 



CATTLE. 277 

in a single plough, is the common allowance u})on 
almost any soil ; and if the nature of it is heavier than 
ordinary, the number of them rise up to ten. or twelve. 
It is not an unusual circumstance to see thirteen or 
fourteen pair, and ten or a dozen horses, in a field of 
less than twenty acres. When more than eight ate 
used in one team, it should be observed that the rest 
are in training. 

The customary load for a team is from eight to ten 
quarters of wheat. Now 'if this weight is divided 
among the eight oxen, cacli draws ten bushels for 
his respective share. So jack-asses would be more 
useful', as the expense of maintaining them would 
be far less, and the heavy weight of oxen upon wet 
land in rainy seasons, would be avoided. Ten bu- 
shels of wheat per ox ; yet common Sussex cattle 
draw just so many sacks several miles to market^ 
harnessed in single ox-carts, at Bradfield-hall, and are 
afterwards fattened to great profit. The necessity of 
the case then is not admitted, and most certainly 
one-half at least of the number, might readily be 
spared, without injury to the growtli of the caKle. 
This system of ploughing with eight or ten oxen in 
yokes, is the more reprehensible, because the strength 
of an ox for labour is well known. For many years 
Sussex oxen have been used atBradfield, and, in point 
of draught, fouild equal to the best Suffolk horses for 
all sorts of work^, and especially for that laliour which 
is not much understood in Sussex, the transport of 
lieavy loads of corn to market. Upon a wet and ad- 
liesive clay loam, the daily work of two in a team, is 
equal to that of two Suffolk punches, an acre in a day ; 
but then the oxen are in harness. Here they arc used 
three years ; in Suffolk we use them twice that time. 

7 3 Another 




Another circumstance, is the nature of the soil in that 
part of tlie comily where ox-teams are chiefly in use. 
It may be characterized as a strong clay loam, wet 
and tenacious to a degree, and therefore a soil very 
dlfGcuK to plough to adviintiige ; and as the usual cus- 
tom is double yokes (though sini^le ones arc certainly 
to be- preferred), when eight, (en, or twelve are used, 
four, five, or six, must necessarily follow each other 
upon the unploughed land, as many walliing at the 
same time in the furrow: the latter is bad enongh, but 
the former, it would seem, in any season upon such a 
soil, esjiccially in a wet spring, would be destruction 
itself, when (rumpling should be avoided with the 
utmost solicitude. 

Certainly, by a different arrangement in the sysfera, 
a considerable expense of food aud labour might bit 
saved to the farmer. 

.3. Yokes — Collars. 

The mode of working their oxen in this county has, 
from the earliest ages, been the established one of bows 
and yokes, both single and double. Oxen in collars 
are a late improvement. A wide difference of opinioa 
amongst practical men exists, with regard to the best', 
roethodof using oxen, in yokes, or in collars. Some 
very sensible men, who have worked them in yokes, 
and afterwards with collars, have gone so far as to say, 
that three in harness are competent to as much work as 
four the other way. This indeed is a point of the 
greatest consequence. To talk of men not liking in- 
novations, and revolting at a change, isamereapO" 
logy for idleness. If this is the case, they should un^ . 
questionably be adopted. 

The Rev. Mr. Dayiesj of Glynde, some few yean, 
■go, 



} 



I 



N 

•a 

la ^ 

I 








CATTLE, 279 

ago, worked oxen singly in collars, and found it to 
answer exceedingly well. He worked tlicrn gently 
at first, and five in collars did the work of eight in 
yokes, and with equal ease. This gentleman found 
that he could make two teams out of one; but the ad- 
vantage of the greatest consequence upon his farm w^s, 
that upon the strong land inclining to be wet in winter, 
he dared not plough with oxen, because they trod it so 
much, that it was a very difficult matter to get it 
again to pieces in tlie spring, when it became dry and 
liard, so that he ploughed such land only with horses. 
Oxen, singly working, were drove in the furrows, so 
that the land was no more trod by ploughing in this 
manner, than if horses had been used. Another ad- 
vantage Mr. Davics experienced was in the ijiotioti, 
which was quicker in the new method. 

Mr. Glutton adopted the same practice at Cuckfield, 
and he found that five used in this way, were equal to 
eight in the other ; and besides tliis extraordinary dif- 
ference, the work was performed much easier to the 
animal ; and in wet seasons they ploughed in collars, 
when they could not in yokes. 

The Duke of Richmond is a warm advocate on the 
same mode. His Grace affirms, that tlie pace is much * 
faster in harness, though the number is less, and that 
by the oxen bending their necks over the bow of the 
yoke, the windpipe is affected. It is certain, that four 
in harness equal six in yokes. Mr. Pinnix uses all 
his working oxen, atUpiuardenj in collars;, and he ob- 
serves, that they will plough more, by the third part 
of an acre, than when yoked, and work much easier/ 
He found they would not, without difficulty, work 
when coupled in yokes, after they had been for some 
time used to the collar. 

T 4 Mr* 



Mr. Pennington, a very intelligent farmer, steward 
to Lord AshburnhaiD, strongly impressed with the 
idea of the superior advantages which would result 
from the introduction of harness instead of yokes, then 
universally used in his neighbourhood, purchased 
harness for six oxen, and worked in ihiis manner some 
six and seven-year old cattle, which he bad purchased 
in the country at an age when, having allained their 
growth, they are commonly either sold or fattened. 
They were soon reconciled to harness, hut were much 
more sluggish than younger oxen, and though many 
were not necessary to draw a load, that load moved 
but slowly ; and when (hey were required fully to ex- 
ert 1 heir strength, they could not do il without exlra- 
■ ordinary food, both in quantity and qualify, which 
their work only could pay, there being no hopes that 
an advance in their growth would contribute towards 
it. After working some time in harness, he resolved to 
fatten the old ones, aad, iu tlie mean time, having pur- 
chased many three and four-year olds, he worked those 
in yokes, as, upon close and attentive observation, be 
saw that hard work would stop their growth, and that, 
without any in convenience, they could use as much 
power in yokes as it would be prudent and beneficial 
to permit (hem to emphiy. He perceived that the 
trouble and expense of harness, of course, would have 
been thrown away, even though these oxen nnight have 
been capable of drawing a greater weight in harness, 
of which he has now some doubts. In summer he 
found the harness an incumbrance, the ox requiring 
all the relief and liberty that can be given in hot 
weather, and that the yoke left as much as is possible 
for any animal to ha ve whilst labouring ; and he thinks 
it neither unnatural nor improper, to place tte point 

of 



CATTLE. 281 

of draught upon the neck of the ox, just before his 
shoulders, that point seeming adapted by Nature to 
bear the pressure. He never had an ox galled by his 
labour ; and he finds that an ox is much seldomer 
galled by the yoke, tlian the horse by the collar, which 
is however adapted to the form of the latter, as under 
a yoke he could not work one hour. 

Mr. Pennington conceives the system of working, 
only to be profitable whilst the growth of the ox nearly 
pays for the keeping, and that it cannot do when the 
ox is hard worked . He thinks that, in the nature of 
the ox, there are qualities opposite to quick or severe 
labour ; for when the ox^is driven beyond his strength 
or wind, he is rendered unfit for work for a great length 
of time, and even frequently falls a sacrifice to the ex- 
ertions of a single hour. When he is brought low in 
flesh, no art or food will speedily put him into condi- 
tion. He thinks also, that as the horse is otherwise 
formed, he will bear the extreme of heat and cold, 
most frequently without injury, and if brought low by 
labour, will in a sliort time, with attention and proper 
food, recover his flesh. Hence, in all severe or quick 
labour, hordes are undoubtedly to be preferred, and 
oxen are only profitably employed in easy regular bu- 
siness, without any perceptible inconvenience. This 
has induced him to lay aside harness entirely. If it is 
desirable, on account of the wet state of tlie ground, 
to plough with oxen single, some farmers frequently 
use a particular kind of yoke for this purpose. When 
Mr. Pennington first" came into Sussex, he thought it 
preposterous and unnecessary to use such a number of 
oxen in ploughs, harrows, carts, and waggons, and 
imagined that it proceeded frona their want of power 
in yokes; but he has discovered that the practice arises 

out 



282 CATTLE. 

out of, or is a pari of a sjsfeni proper in iiiiiiig oxrn, 
wliich is very fur from requiring Ihe appllcalioii of 
tlirir fuU strength during the time they are at work. 

In order to decide the resjieclive merit of yoked and 
hiimessed oxen, Mr. Bishop, of Westburlon, and Mr. 
Sailer, of Fittleworlh, for a wnger, agreed to plough 
an acre of land ; Mr. Salter lo use six oxen in double 
yokes, and Mr. Bishop four oxen in collars : again, 
Mr. Salter to jjlouijh with four oxen in single jokes, 
against Mr. Bishop's fuiir in collars; the Icam which 
ploughed ill the bpst niiinne r, and in the shortest space 
of time, to be the winner. It w.is about the latter end 
of September, or begirming of October, that these 
trials -Here made. In the first, the six in yoke beat 
the four easy. Little exertion was used at the latter 
end of the matcl!. The second was a near thing, und 
only threeminutesdilii'renee in an acre. 

The fonr oxen in coUiirs ploughed the acre in four 
hours and seven minutes ; Mr. Siilter's four in yokes, in 
four hours and ten minutes ; however, to ploui^h it in 
that time, we may readily suppose it was not capitally 
executed. 

As far as this experiment went, it proved the equa- 
lity of the teams. Lord Egrcmont has worked his 
cattle each way, and in road and field work, upon a 
large scale; and his experience fully confirms Ihe ge- 
neral opinion, that (he old established mode is supe- 
rior to the new mctliod, and that any number in yoke 
arc equal to an equal number in collar*. 

5. Pro- 

• Brraii Collie. — Horned catlle are sometimes very troubleBome when 
they get breach, particularly bulls, and frequently do coinlderahle da- 
mage in tearing hedges, untying and breaking gates, bars, &c. It !■ 
•uitODiaiy in some parts of Kcm, to fii a sort of aile-cree acTou thei 



CATTLE. 



2& 



5. Proportion of Draught Oxen to Arable Land. 

The number of oxen used in husbandry in Sussex is 
considerable. This cattle system, as at present ar- 
ranged, requires a large supply for the labour of the 
farm. The grazing part of the business may turn to 
profit and advantage, as it is argued that the winding 
up is the most lucrative ; consequently, that an ox must 
hot be impeded in the thriving stage of his growth by 
severe labour, since the increase in his value, from his 
birth to his deatb, is the strongest reason to be tender 
of him in his working state. 

There is doubtless much experimental reasoning in 
this argument: still the number for work might be 
very considerably lessened ; and it would be a singular 
advantage, not to speak of the saving of a driver, to 
reduce their teams to four oxen, of such an age as 
should not receive any damage from hard labour. This 
might be effectually performed by keeping their beasts 
two years longer ; and even one year would be attended 
^ith considerable effect. Although it may be said, that 
keeping tlie ox two more years, would not increase his 
value, still the expense of their tillage would be less- 

horns, with small wheels at the extremities, so that when a bullock 
would attempt to toss a gate, &c. the wheels fly upwards, and the crea- 
ture receives a smart blow on the nose. A very few attempts of this 
kind serve completely to sicken him, and cure his breachness: so when 
they attempt to gore one another, it seldom amounts to more than inof- 
fensively thrusting the snout in the other's flank. In this case it might 
be of use in the dairy. Metal knobs on the tips of the horns, which are 
become now in general use, are highly improper, as they may serve to 
attract the electrical fluid : horn, as being a non-conductor, would be a 
good substitute, well bound round the middle with pitched twine, t9 
prevent their splitting. — Mr, Trayfon, 

ened| 



384 CATTLE. 

enetl, niu! the lanil not liable to sucli injuries as it 
receives at present. 

T!w proportion of draught oxen to arable lanii, va- 
ries with the size of the farm and the number of horses: 
and here is one of the great benefits of large farm* over 
small ones, in the ehcapcr style in which thry are 
tilled ; for it is fo-iud to be very necessary to have one 
borse and one ox-lenro for a farm of one hundred acres 
ftf arable, that is, eight oxen and four horses; but if 
wc extend the hundred acres to fire timfs the quantity, 
llie number of draught cattle lessens in proportion. 

The proportion which the cattle bear to the land, 
may Ijc seen by attending to the under-mentioned par- 
ticulars : 

Mr. .lohn Ellman allows twelve oxen and nine 
hoTWs, constant working, to be the proper projiortion 
for 900 acres in tillage. The real proportion is higher 
than this rate: but let it be noted, that Mr. KUman 
cpeaks from a knowledge of facts, and a reliance upoa 
experiment, and founds his calculations upon his own 
long practice in an extensive concern. 

Eight oxen, and three or four horses, are used for a 
hundred acres of tillage land about Lewes ; tlie land 
heavy and adhesive, deep and rich. 

About Cuoltiield, 130 acres require two ox-teams and 
one horse-team ; strong clay loam. Mr. Mayo, upon 
the same quantity of arable land, or 133 acres, era- 
ploys at Battel sixteen oxenaitl six horses; soil, a 
lighter loam, friable, and moist bc'tom. 

A South Down farm, rented at 500/, per ann. 24 
oxen'and IS horses; soil, thin chalk rubble upon a 
chalk rock ; in otlier parts of it, where the staple is 
deeper, covered with a layer of flints. 

When Mr. Davies farmed with oxen at Bedingham, 
upon 



'' CATTLE. 883 

upon SOO acres in tillage, from fourteen to sixteen oxen 
and nine horses ; cbalk, rubble,' and deep loam. 

Mr. Gell, of Applesham, upon 500 acres, S9 oxen 
and 13 horses ; light chalk, rubble flinty. 

At Kindford, in the heart of the Weald,. 130 acres 
arable, four oxen and six horses. 

From these, selected from a great variety of esti- 
mates, the conclusion is evident, that the common 
allotment for an hundred acres is an ox and a horse- 
team; from 150 to 200 acres, 12 to 16* oxen, besides 
horses ; upon 500 acres tilt land, six oxen and two 
horses and a half for each hundred. 



DISOllDERS. 

Iloving. — South Down receipt for hoved bullocks 
is, a quart of lintsced-oil, which vomits them directly, 
and never known to fail*. 

SECT. 

• I know of no particular disorders that our cattle are afHicted witli, 
and am a farrier. If any of my cattle get into a low weak state, I gene- 
rally recommend nursing, which in most cases is much better than a 
doctor : have often seen the beast much weakened, and the stomach re- 
laxed, by throwing in a quantity of medicine injudiciously, and tlie 
animal lost, when with good nursing, in all probability, it might have 
been otherwise: here I allude principally to cattle that are brought into 
a low weak state by over- working, when put to grass in the spring, and 
particularly so in such a year as the present, when the grass grows very 
quick, which often brings on the flux, or what is here called scourvtg; 
the best way to prevent which is, to continue giving a small quantity of 
hay for some time after turning to grass, and not to keep them too 
many hours at a time from water, which is often done here in summer, 
to the prejudice of the beast, by working too copiously at a time, 
which will tend to increase this complaint. When I see it coming on, I 
keep the ox as much as possible on liay and bran, and let him have wa- 
ter often in very small quantities. — y. E, 

There is a disorder incidental, to ypung stock in this county, which is 

called 



S86 



8BCT. II. — SHEEP, 

Sussex is almost the only county that is at the somir 
time in the possession 6f a breed of cattle^ as well as 
sheep, both of which an^ of very great compamtiYe 
excellence, that may be deemed peculiarly her own. 
Only one other can challenge her pre-eminence, and 
question the superiority of her stock. The Hereford 
breed of beasts is, upon the whole, equal to the Sus? 
sex; but the merit of the Ryland flocks, though m 
point of fleece superior, are in other respectk perhaps 
a less perfect breeds 



called beings struck. It most frequently happens in the bert 
is caused by a too great nutrition of the juicest triting 
fucculent herbage, buds of trees, or rather of shrubs in ooppioet ^ 
liedge-rows, together with an over indulgence of nimisating, Vjv^ 
down, whereby they acquire a sluggish habit, that renders tlife blood 
torpid, and they die suddenly, as in the apoplexy. This happois 
chiefly among weaning calves, and yearlings : to prevent wiiich, they 
are commonly bled and purged, before turned out to winter patture; 
but the best way is to turn out the weanlings and yearlings in large en- 
closures of coarse sharp-bladed grass, and mix among them ccdts of a 
year or two^s growth; thereby their mischievous and ptayfiod gambols 
will harass the calves thoroughly, and by keeping them in action, wift 
keep them in health. The truth of this is well known among many gnk 
zicrs, but is not so generally practised as it ought. 

There is another disease calves are subject to, called the busty in which 
the lungs are inflamed, and perforated with myriads of small worms or 
maggots ; but as these animalcula are seldom seen but in emSryo, the 
animals commonly dying before they receive their fiill existence^ the no- 
tion of such being engendered has been doubted by many; but I knew 
a very experienced farrier, who was the only person ever known to cure 
the disease, affirm that he had observed it in all its stages, and was well 
assured of the fact. This method of cure was by inflating the hings with 
mitreus air*; bUt what the process was I never could leam.-*— Jlir. Trayton, 

* Uns remedy y I suppose^ %u0uld be insUmt iealib* — A* T, 

The 



:?•' 



( '. 







s; 
^ I 

'i 
1: 



SHEEP. 287 

The merit of the South Down breed of sheep is uni* 
versally acknowledged, and the demand is so unli- 
mited as not to be supplied ; they have of late been 
extending themselves over the eastern, and more par- 
ticularly over the western sides of the kingdom, with a 
rapidity hitherto without a parallel in the annals of 
our husbandry. 

Indeed this has been acknowledged in those very 
counties where other breeds have, time out of mind, 
been established, and the consequence has been that of 
adopting the South Down stock ; and we witness with 
no slight sensations of satisfaction and pleasure, the 
great improvement of the age. The emigration of the 
superfluity of the South Down breed, is rather an ex- 
traordinary circumstance in the detail of the live-stock 
of this district ; and it must be acknowledged as a 
strong argument in favour of the breed, that after se- 
veral years, the demand. has increased. 

Some late experiments which have been very accu- 
rately made with this breed by the Earl of Egremont, 
who was certainly no otherwise interested than as being 
desirous of discovering the scale of their merit, have 
turned out liighly satisfactory. Norfolk sheep are 
supposed to be amongst the inferior breeds in this 
island ; therefore comparison with them is unneces- 
sary. 

Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, &c. though better than 
the preceding, are far inferior to the South Downs. 

The Dishlcy breed are in some counties the favou- 
rites : and here we may hazard a remark in this early 
^tage of our inquiry, as being founded on facts which 
will be hereafter explained, that this celebrated breed, 
which has been the theme of so much admiration, 
should have fallen into disgrace in the county now under 

review. 



review. They have been adrnittcd upon tlic most libe- 
bcral fooling; and if rarrit had been in proportion lo 
price, it might liuve been espectetl that they would 
have set competition at defiance. 

Ifwcset ourselves to examine the demand for tiie 
Dish ley stock, which has in some districts been so vciy 
prevalent, and the nddition.il surface of ground over 
irhich they griize, in consequence of the improved 
method of letting out tups ; whilst, on the other hani5, 
the South Down breed has overspread a wide extent, 
by the exportation of Ihem in droves, free from any 
secret transactions bclwixt individuals; it will be 
allowed, that the real and active demand is great ill' 
di?ed in favour of Sussex. 

It is not with any view t depreciating a breed of 
sheep, which undoubtedly piisscsses merit, that these 
observations are made; but it will afterwards appear I 
that Ihey have been weighed iu the scales, and fountl 
wanting. They have their respective merits and pecu- 
liar advantages ; but no man of understanding will be 
petsuadcd to believe (since no facts have yet been pro« 
duced in support of the assertion), that they will tbrWe 
upon a soil of five shillings just as well, in proportira 
to land Sve limes that rent. On the oth^ hand, no 
complete and satisfactory experiments have yet ap- 
peared before the public, snflicieiidy convincing to be 
relied upon as authentic, (hat a smalt and close-coated 
sheep is so well calculated for a marsh, as ^e breeds 
which prevail in those districts, or that they thrive in 
them to equal profit, as upon their native pasture. 
Wc have in Sussex a surface of both these kinds; and 
facts speak a different language. The art of man ibas 
new-modelled tiic creation ; but it has not been eflecled 
by traversing the laws of Nature : trusting to her di- 
rections 



fictions {6t the basis of improyemetit, slie infallibly 
{)oints out the line of demarcation, and the proper con* 
duct for the experimentalist* 

In considering the merit or demerit of any breed^^ 
the food tattn is the primary objt^ct) and the inquiry 
to veigh the wool and mutton against the food whidi 
produces it* Scales and weights must be appealed to 
in every step of the business t these are the only arbi* 
trators in a national and political light ^ the food elEiteit 
is an object of immense import, and it has till yery 
lately been most astonishingly overlooked'^ TheDishley 
breed maji^takeup a greater proportion of land to sup^ 
port them^ than perhaps any other breed we are ac* 
(juainted with in the kingdom ; of land too that is 
Jrented at from 20^ ^ to 40^. per acre. Of what import- 
ance is the fact, that individuals of this stock have 
been slaughtered of seven inches and a half of solid fat 
cut straight upon the ribs) if it requires an acre of 
land, rented at three tiities as high^ to bring them ta 
this pitch, as it serves to bring another stock to the 
butcher, in the ordinary c6urse of fattening them I 
Are these sheep spread thinly over oite of the richest 
tracts of land in England, that the beauty of their 
fbrifi may attract universal admiration ? 

We know in Sussex, that the South Downs are 
stocked at the rate of one sheep and a half io every 
feicre : moreover, taking into this account all. sorts of 
land over which sheep at any time of the year may 
be supposed \o go, besides finding support for vast 
quantities of cattle^ for oxen do the labour of the 
farm ; yet this land docs not average above 121* pet 
licre. 

Crrantiiig it to be an admitted fact^ that ev^n a thotl* 
«y8»fix/ t jatid, 



SflO 6IICEP, 

sand guineas had been given as Ihc tiiring price of a 
tup, without any secret understanding between the 
parties, and that the individual so purchasing had 
been equally benefitted; is llie nation llicrctbre n gainer ? 
It is the greatest possible quantity of mutton and 
wool from the least quantity of fowl, that constitutes 
excellence in live-stock. And is this to bo met with iu 
LeiccstcTshirej connccti'd with mutton and wool, har- 
diness, activity, folding, flavour, quality of wool, 
&c."? 

It 



• In ihe month of May, 1731, mpelf and a farming fi!end, ia 
iirho<e judgment I had more canfiii«nce ihan in mj own (and wbich 
confidcnct ii founded upon his early and eiKotivt ciperience, more 
especially in live-stock), went on lo tlie South Downi, purposely to 
view the liVe-stock of that diilrict. and carried with us an or^erfrom 
Lord ShcSield tu hia ntcvrard, to give every assistance in his power la 
milt our inquiriet; which order ^ai cheerfully cmnplicd with i and is 
conKquence, hit l.ordship'i flocic wu particularly examined, ii alio 
teveral other flocks upun the Down, though less accurately; and I 
must observe, thai my tipectatloni were much dl^niipoinlcd: the sheep 
Bpon the Down, struck me as ranking with the smallest breeds in Eng- 
Itnd; those io hii Ixirdship'i pauurc were l>etler grown; iHit tbe beat 
wether iheep tre could find, struck mine and my friend's idea* a* not 
exceeding SOIb. per quarter. The wool is doulitless good clodun^ 
wool t we carried home several specimens, which I sliewcd to a woof* 
napler in large business, who agreed with ut, that it was not niperior 
to the average quality of the wool of the comnuina of ShropAire and 
Ktaffiirdshire, and much inferior lo the Hereford, Roi>, oi the Shrop- 
shire Morf. 1'he sheep may be fairly pronounced, a small, compact, 
and well made breed, doubtless healthy, as being preserved from iiiter- 
ii*l complaints by the sonnduest of its native walk, and protected frool 
riternal ones by being completely covered in a close, compact, aoA 
Warm fleece. The breed cannut, I think, be adtnitted as dlttincly ori- 
ginal, ur peculiar tu tlua county ; fur the SlaSurdihire Canoock: Heaths, 
bred upon a waste of '.'5,000 acres, appears to me of the same origin; 
ire very generally^ grey-faced; witiioul faorns; with fine wimI; tod if 



tt will conduce to clearness, ^unange the iofoniift* 
lion upon this head under these diTisions i 

t. Bleed. 

II. Management* 

IIL Profit* V 

1. Mreed^ 



JS^Jii 



Well leiected from a sound part gf the waste, then taken into jUasture^ 
and put to proper rams, the produce is a heavier carcass than any t 
eVer saw from the South Down stock, with a good disposition to fatten, 
though I admit inferior in make} beattcy, and compactne^ of carcass^ 
and heavier in bone. Theiie last defects I attribute to want of former 
aftij early attention in the breeders; some of whom are, however, now 
making progress in this species of imptoven^ent. 

I can never find the South Down sheep ciii mikh igUt^ ih ^mithfieiJ^ 
where I often searched for them, but not found them in any proportion 
•f number to the Lincoln, Leicester, Wiltshire, Norfolk, and atveral 
mixed breeds, notwithstanding their 4ocal advantage of proximity of 
situation. 

Again, I think the South Down sheep too li^t in eareiss, to be 
deemed proper stock for good enclosed pasturagt. With this drcum- 
Mfuet h united another, to which my experience points out no except 
tion : ligfaf-earcassed sheep are always disposed to break out of theit 
pastures, or to commit depredations on the wrong side of the hurdled ia 
your turnips. '• In this respedt, tid othet stdck 1 kn6W| is eo pleaiing av 
the Leicestershire; WhAtftver they are left they are fotfnj, i^hether 
upon a pleutifui or a scanty allowance. 

I would by no means wish to be imdecstoodj to haVt any intention of 
depreciating the character of a breed of sheep that have undoubtedly' 
great merit ; all I mean is, to call in question their superlative superior 
vity over some other breeds that produce clothirig-wool ; (the Leicester 
and Cotswold breeds bearing combing-wool, Ave out Of the question). 
The heaviest carcasses pt-odiicing £ne wool, are doubtless the Wiltshire. 
I have known wether-sheep of this breed fattened to 40lb. per Quarter, 
<and sold at 3/. IOj. each ; yet I c'an say from experience, that they have' 
not clothing enough for the severest winters^ of even the midland coun- 
ties, in cold, wet and inclement seasons; and upoU cold soils, their 
naked bellies^ and thin open eo^s, exposing them to ltlr?»tiOD, tvca 
to death ; which I believe was actually the case with ismt tttj souni 
#aai.in my possession a few years since. 

vs id# 



-* Breed. 
Under this bead, the &>ik>wing subdiViaitHis arc Bf 

1, Form. 
B. Colmir. 
S. TfanlmeM, 

4. Proportion of stock to grtnimf. 

5. Prices, 

6. Principles of breeding. 

7. Castrating. 

I. Form, 



[ do not preiend to «y that the Cannock-hcath breed, itiough mm^ 
W5iat ifmilar, an4 tuperior in weight- ""hen pastured, to any! saw ill 
or from the South Downs, are yet br hi (o so correct a formjliut 
*Ten in llui rtipetl , 1 knosr many jt emen and farmers who have 
bred from the Hereford, Roes, and the Shropshire Morf, tint would by 
no means yield, but cliin ihi." pre-eminence. They have heavier car- 
«aMes, and I believe wool of a superior quality; haTC small Tight crookeif 
horns, small clean itg", the facE and legs white, or a lirtlc freckled; 
liglht in bout; and ire brought, in some hands, not only to a superior 
weight, but to a degree of compactness and perfcctioai in carcas*, 
which perhaps no other breed has c;tcelled. TBesr, in our neighbour- 
hood, are called the Rycland breed, and of nhfch you wilT doubtlew. 
. receive farther information from dilTerent q,uanen, especlaUji thecoun' 
ties of Salop, Worcester, ai>d Hereford. 

The South Down ihecp ate,, however,, fairly introduced intoStaSord- 
shirc, by the most noble the Marquis of DonnegaT, who hai ■ great 
many of that breed amongst other breeds, in his park at Fishertrick, airf 
to which breed I know his steward to be very partial. 

1 ihall not fail, when I visit that quarter^ to make inquiriei, and « 
ftithful report coneerning them— H';j;jjh Plit, PndirfirJ, SU'Jhniilirr. 

The main objeelion brought for*ard, in these observations of Mr. 
William Pitt, to the South Down slieep, is founded in a notioti whick 
has been waved by men of eiperiment, and given up upon grtiimdi 
which are deemed no longer tenable—" want of wdght" TTie Sowb 
Down is among the smallBjt breeds, not eiceedingSOlb. perquaiter[ 
EghioircaM. Wilblure.CanBod^ Itcavier, tip to Wfti^ A&thuBaf 



... - • 

}. Form. 

The true South Down sheep are polled, and when 
rcry well bred^ have 9t small head, and clear neck^ 

which 



1^ very true, yet not afFecting the mfirit of South DoWA iha^ one iota* 
The West Country sheep are abandoned ia WUtthi/e-by flodMnasten^ 
who say they can keep half as many again of the oae aft.they used to 
do of the other breed* They are given up by: a Wibabife|M?nie^, pot 
of the greatest in England, in favour of the South Dowoiy ,1iy^ ^ floclo 
ianner, who clips five thousand every year, and who '^nds that thri^ 
pi the latter are kept upon the same ground in better condition, than 
eerved to feed only two of the former (Mr. Dyke) ; so that if the Wilti- 
shire sheep average four or five poutidir per quarter more than the SouUi 
Downs, and not more wool, it is unequal to the circumstance of thve^ 
thriving where two only did before: weight thereiiDre sigiiifies nothingi| 
and is entitled to little attention. The greatest argument that was ever 
|>rooght forward in favour of size (and it is very far from being admt^ 
ted), it when it requires a less quantity of food to gain any given weight 
•f flesh (say 500 or 1000 lb.) from one animal, than it requires to prov 
duce an equal weight in two of the same breed. Experiments already 
detailed, go to prove that this appears to be the case in large and small 
breeds of cattle \ but with respect to sheep, facts seem to prove the 
jreverse. 

The South Downs support a much greater weight of flesh than we 
'see in any other part of England upon land of the same value. Althongh 
it is a small breed, not averaging more than eighteen or twenty pounds 
per quarter, yet we have various instances of their weighing much 
heavier, up to thirty-nine pounds per quarter. 

The question about the origin of them is of little consequence; but 
the fact, that there are some sheep upon a Staflbrdshire waste, that 
tomewhat resemble the South Down in the colour of the leg, in being 
polled, and having carding-wopl on their backs, proves nothing against 
the originality of them. 

In regard to the quality of the wool, the samples which Mr. Pitt car- 
ried home with him, might perhaps be selected indiscriminately, and 
possibly from an inferior sort. This remark is the more applicable, be* 
cause we are given to understand that no other flock was viewed with 
the tame s^cntion that Lord Sheffield's was. No doubt this is a fin« 

U 3 stocky 



vlich arc very essential points; the length, indetu, 
.pf the neck, is a matter in dispute among (he breeders. 



I 



■toefci bul a penon who comes into Susiei lo eollew informati 
make hi> cl»ervation» upon iheep, will not content himBelf with 
•laminauon of iluep in [he Wcaldj but he will travene thai part of 
the county from whencp thajr oripnally come, and not leave the eoonty 
with the eximiaKion of one Hock. As to the iuperiorii<r of Rdb or 
Motf wool over South Down, the practice of irimAn^ the fleeee in ihEM 
lountie), goes a^nst him. If the itapler buyi with any leparatioD of 
the coarser sorts, these two Idodsof cirding-wool will be nearly upon « 
paf. As to the specimens of wool which Mr. Pitt selected, the circum. 
»tance of superiority depends upon the manner in which it was doiHi. 
A lock of wool taken from this or that part of a fleece, lo >et agwat 
another lock drawn from a fleece of another hreed, is no comparison 
whatever. Fleece must be compared with fleece, or rather, lod ag^nu 
tod; for aa there ace erght or pine difTerent suns of wool in the same 
fleece, it re(]uires some accuracy and judgment indeed, lo pronounce 
uponihc quality of either from such inililiereut gioiinds. TheStafibrd- 
•bire stapler gave hit opinion from the tpetimen shewn biip. Was it 
drawn from the shoulder, the barrel, or the breech f 

There is one remaining objection which Mr, Pitt makcj lo the bieed, 
which is so diametrically the reverse, in point offset, tliat it is not a 
little surprising bow such a charge could have been urged — lit luiiiniii 
aftbt iritd, iriixiitig failure, lammitiing i/rfraiilinij. Some sheep have a 
great propensity to roving; the South Down are uoiiccplionabiy among 
the quietest and most orderly, and hardly to l« eicelled, even by the 
Bakewell breed. So fir fcom a rambling disposition, the reverae bai 
been repeatedly remarked, 'i'hey have been atBradficld for some year^ 
and almost every iield bat its respective lot; and ground more heavily 
flocked is JiQI to bj found; yet no cwmplainis arc ever heard from any 
intermiiture, diough no qther than very low and dose-splashed iicdgas 
separate the Ibib. — A. T. 

" How far this sort (the South Down) will answer, time and eipery 
rnee mum determine, h has already so iar gained grgund, that although 
they were only introduced inio Wiltshire (by Mr. Migbell, of Kennel) 
in :789, the number kept in ihe county ii alrsady increased to fifteen 
tbouaaiid, and is daily increasing. Those who keep them say, Hal 
tbeylive so much hardier, and feed ss much closer, thai they 



1 



] 



Mr. Ellman, who certainly has brought his flock to a, 
high degree of perfection, thinks the length of the 
neck no demerit; and other breeders, who look for 
fine wool more than form of carcass, think it a merit, 
as the surface produces more wool, and that of a fine 
quality. Others, on the contrary, prefer a short neck^ 
because it is thought that lambs that are spear-necked , 
are free of wool, and not so well able to bear severe 
weather; and long necks are inclined to long carcasses. 
Thus the form is sacrificed to a very inferior conside* 
ration. That the neck should be bred as light as pos* 
sible, is at once seen in the large proportion of oflal 
(bone) in that part of the sheep, perhaps more than in 
any other part, in proportion to flesh : the chap is 
fine and small, and the bone light; ][)oints which are 
very pleasing to the eye, and, as they imply a light 
oflfal, certainly of importance. The points in which 
this breed commonly fail is, that it is low and narrow 

three hundred tveil on the same land that would only keep two hundred 
Wiltshire sheep : that they are more docile, will feed more contentedly, 
.and stay more quietly in the fold." — Mr. Pitt, what say you to this ?— 
jhat though they are able, by keeping this kind of stock, to breed more 
Iambs, the ewes are such good nurses, that the lambs will be of equal 
individual value with the Wiltshire lambs : that the wool, by the im- 
proved quality, as well as by the increased quantify, will almost double 
the profit they have hitherto had from Wiltshire sheep ; and that, by the 
increased number they keep, they will be better able to dung their 
arable land ; and they see no disadvantage In them, but that the old 
ewes, when sold off for fattening, will not yield so much individually 
as the Wiltshire ewes. But then, ** that they shall have three to sell in- 
stead of two, and that the wethers, when fattened, always sell for a 
halfpenny^ and near a penny a pound dearer in Smithfield, than horned 
ahcep." — ^They are full of wool, and that wool commonly very fine : 
the weJght of their fleeces is nearly as much as those of the Wiltshire 
•heep, and the value is at least 6d, per pound more.— JZr/cr/ of f^dtsbire^ 



JD its fbre-quartcrs, anil proporlitmally lig 
•tand full two incbee lower in their fore-^nd litan in 
Iheir hind.quartcrs; a point nliicli lias been particu- 
larly objected to. Mr. EUmati c:innot be brought (o 
satisfy himself that it is any deft'ct : but one of the 
excellencies of the Dishley stock is, the perfect beauty 
of their form ; a back in every part struiglit and eraU 
BO rising back-bone, but the whole equally level, .fl 
The South Downs are thicker in their hind thanH 
their fore-quarters; and when fat, the hind-quarters 
are frequently two or three pounds heavier than the 
fore. Mr. EUman considers this a great merit in the 
breed, as the butchers have a readysaie for (he former, 
8t an advance of Id. per pound over the otiier; in 
which case he entirely agrees with Mr. Bakewell, that 
the criterion of breeding is flesh, not bone; and tlic 
true point, to throw the greatest weijrht upon the luosl 
Taluable quarters of the carcass. The jaw clenn ainl 
thin, and covered with wool, as it has been remarked, 
' that sheep free of wool about tlie jaw, are apt to lose 
It under the belly j a great defccl, and what the breed 
is sometimes subject to s the bully cannot be loo muc!i 
{»)vered. In a cold lambing-time, it will happen that 
the lambj perish for want of wool to pretervc ihein 
warm ; however, this defect Uie Ust flocks are free 
^om. Mr. Ellinan weans one-lliird more lambs thnn 
the number of his ewes ; no that the South Down lambs 
coming bare of wooli is chiefly xcn m flocks uiam- 
proyed . 

"Wool on the poll is not approved (they call it 
beaded), nor any Inft on Ihc cheeks, The shoub 
pre wide; open breast, and deep; fore and hiud-Iegs 
ptand wide; they are ronud and straight in the 
Jiarreli biosul upon tfec loin and hii}s; sh^t well 



I 



SHEEFW 897 

the twist, "which is a projection of flesh in the inncar 
part of the thigh, that givas a fuUness when viewed 
jbehind, and makes a South Down leg of mutton re^ 
markab]y round and ;diort, more so than in mos^ 
other breeds. 

In the form of the sheep, great rookn is open for im« 
provement. It is only in a few of the best flocks, that 
much attention has been paid to the carcass. The qua» 
lity of the wool has been the first object,' and points 
of greater consequence neglected . 
* The improvement of the South Down sheep in the 
last twelve years, though considerable, is not to be 
attributed to the general spirit which prevailed in the 
county, so much as to the skill and intelligence of a 
^w active individuals, who first set improvement afloat* 

Such are the ideas which have been pretty much 
afloat since this breed has been improved. It remains 
for further experience to ascertain, whether they are not 
in the way to be carried too far ; a point suspected by 
some persons ;— ^whether the hardiness of the old breed 
will not gradually be lost in the modern improvements, 
l have no experience myself to determine this ; but it 
13 a.consideratioh deserving th^ attention of those who 
are deeply interested in South Down sheep. 

2. Colour. * 

The South Down farmers breed their sheep with 
faces and legs of a colour, just as suits their fancy. 
One likes black, another sandy, a third speckled, and 
one and all exclaim against white. This man con- 
cludes, that legs and faces with an inclination to 
white, are infallible signs of tenderness, and do not 
stand against the severity of the weather with the same 
liardinesjs as ii^ ^wckex breed; vmi the^ allege, that 

these 



908 RHBrr. 

these sorts wUl fai! off in (heir flesli. A second will set 
-the first tight, and pronounce lliat, in a lot ol' we- 
thers, tbos» thiit arc bomickl. and most fat, urc white- 
faced ; that they prove remarkable good milkers ; but 
that white is an indication of a tender breed. Anothei 
is of opinion (hat, hy breeding the lambs too black, 
the wool is injured, and likewise apt to be tainted with 
black, and spotted, especially about (he neckj and not 
ealeablc. A fourth breeds with legs and faces as black 
as it is possible ; and he too is convinced that tbc 
beallhiness is in proportion to blackness; whilst an- 
other says, that if the South Down sheep were suffered 
to run in a wild state, (hey would in a yery few yean 
become absolutely black. All (hesc are the opinions 
of eminent breeders : in order to reconcile them, otlieo 
breed for speckled faces; and it is tlie prevailing co- 
laar. 

It is merely mentioned, with a view of pointing out 
the various opinions which prevail. The stupidity 
of shepherds we do not wonder at ; but that they 
ehouid be able to impose these prejudices on tbcirmas* 
ters^ is more surprising. 

Let it Ix: obsecved, (hat in the Rocks in Sussex, 
grey, speckled, or mottled faces and legs, generally 
prevail; but any sheep with white faces or legs, 
though in other respects an unexceptionable animal, 
would not be esteemed. 

3. Hardiness. 
The merit of every species of stock depends in no 
inconsiderable degree upon hardiness; and it is inti-< 
mntely connected with the shape and make of the am- 
nial, and strongly interwoven with those points of tliQ 
form which occasion if. 

Therefore 



<r 



8HEEP« ii(0 



Therefors the observation is founded in fact, that a 
mould with the truest proportion, will stand the yi^ 
cissitude of bad weather and hard food mudi better^ 
than a thin carcass and a ridged and curved back<» 
bdne : South Down breeders admit this ; but how far 
the quality and state of the wool contributes or not to 
hardiness, Is yet undetermined amongst the breeders of 
lofig and short wool. The Dishley gentlemen contend, 
that their own breed will stand storms and hard sea- 
^ns better than all others, and starve them out. And 
as to closeness and compactness in the fleece being any 
indication of hardiness, they deny it ; and suppose that 
people have been much deceived in this respect : that 
^hort wooUed sheep should stand the winter better than 
other breeds ; and the reason alleged is, that close 
'wool necessarily stands out in every direction, and con* 
sequently receives the wet to the skin, and lodges 
there J whereas the open-wooUed ones may be com* 
pared to the thatch upon a house, or stack which con* 
veys the wet off as it comes on ; and the Scotch sheep 
are brought as »n evidence, who are all flag-woolled, 
and.yet inhabit the wettest and coldest part of the 
island. 

On the other hand, it deserves the attention of breed* 
^s, since it is a fact no less remarkable than true, con« 
firmed by repeated observation from various quartern 
of the county, that the finest fleeced sheep^ with the 
closest pile and thickest wool, have by far a much 
kinder disposition to fatten, and are from one to tw<y 
months sooner ready for market, than coarse woollcd 
sheep ; and in proportion to the fineness of the wool, is 
the disposition to thrive, and the quality of the mutton. 
Indeed it is confirmed by some, who have tried the lon^- 
vrCK>})ed sbeqp^ for they i<^re found to be more unkind in 

their 



\ 



300 MftLP. 

their disposition (p gtt I'irf. Rain and dtw, drops from 
8 close coat which is well protettcd by its dcnsily, 
whilst the long ficeccs absorjj the wet ; and as the wool 
of this breed is apt to separate on the middle of ik 
back, it is contended that it imbibes moisture, and 
makes an opening far the rain to penetrate. 

If we eompare toj^lher in a flock of South Down 
sheep, those of shape and g«otl wool, with those that 
have not these gtmd point" it is admitted by Sontli 
Down flock-masters, that in the siimc (luck; the fine 
woolled sheep will be the hardier breed. If we exa- 
mine them when ftx-ding in the siime field, those that 
are well formed and covered in a fine and cIobc iicece 
will have mtich the advantiige, in a pinching season, 
of others that arc worse mode ; and sheep having a dis- 
position to do kindly, nnd be in good order and fat, ii 
a circumstance next to none. In all these respects tb* 
South Dmvn breed is nnexceptionablc: their healthU 
^icss and freedom from losses will appear by the num- 
ber set against accidents, and which is far inferior to 
^rhat is commonly found in many other breeds. Mr, 
EUman's annnal losses have been for some years about 
one in a hundred (exclusive of lambing time) and 
other flocks are nearly upon a par with him. The na- 
tural soundness of the Down, unquestionably renders the 
breed that feeds upon these chalk hills peculiarly free, 
from internal distempers ; and their hard and close 
coats are an excellent preservative from external ones; 
in these respects Ihry nre well defended against acci« 
deats; boisterous winds blow over these high hills in 
wirlfer and spring, with a violence that more level 
countries are free from : <'xposed to the fury of (he ele- 
ments at the extremity of the island, which do incre- 
dible damage to the houses, corn, &c. withoat a fence 



or tree of any kind, for vegetation is cut by the fury of 
the winds. It must be a bardy breed to weather. siick 
d:orms« 

4. Proportion of Stock to Ground • 

In describing the South Down breed of sheep, it is this, 
49f all other circumstances, which ranks foremost in 
brder, and merits the most attention : the truest shaped 
iheep, and the finest fleece united on the same sheep, 
would be very imperfect, if it required as much food to 
feed a score of them as it took for half as many again of 
others without these marks of merit- — Wool, fold, tal- 
low, flavour, hardiness, separately considered, are en- 
titled to no attention ; if not connected with the food 
^aten, merit is no longer merit. Of what avail is a 
lieavx South Down fleece, or that bears the fold well, 
or that thrives well ; that the flavour is exquisite, oflfal 
light, or hardiness unequalled, if, in order to acquire 
this perfection in the breed, it is endued with a vora- 
cious appetite, and the consumption of food not taken 
into the account. The fact is 5 lliat Sussex experiments 
have been but very few, so much as hardly touched 
upon balancing the comparative merit of sheep; yet 
it is the most important and interesting of any. 

Between East Bourne and Steyning, which is thirty- 
three miles, the Downs are about six miles wide, and 
in this tract there are about 200,000 ewes kept.: the 
whole tract of the Downs in their full extent^ is stocked! 
with sheep, and the amazing number they keep, is one 
of the most singular circumstances in the husbandry of 

England. The six miles of breadth include i^uch part 
of the vales adjoining as are occupied by the Down 
farmers, which adds a belt of flat land to th^ whole 
inLctf, but of very inconsidirable breadth 5 and theres 

are 



many farms on tlie Downs wbicli have no vale 
This Down tract therefore, including to each 
Cirni a. tract o( good vale, is reckoned ujMn an ave* 
rage of the whole sixty miles, to keep one sheep and a 
half per acre. This is, soil consiilcred, the highest 
stocking which is known in this kingdom, and ought 
prima facie to give us a good opinion of the breed, 
wherever it might be, that can be kept in such num- 
bers, on a given space of country. Some parishes ara 
rather lower sti l i Jihers higher: in that qf 

Glynde 000 . t. hn I sheep. Mr. Morris bl»j 

One ewe per acre in and two and one third iB'< 

summer to an acre ; her farm of 2000 acres Lsfl 

3000 in snmmer s in winter. In the abort 

tract of thirty-thret: ly six, on \vliich 200,000 

«wes are kept, there nr- 20 acres ; this therefore il 

about one ewe and a 1 acre. 

As an explanation ui great stock, it should 111 

observed, that il is a very jteneral custom to put somCt 
at times all their tegs, or lambs of Insl yeaning, Iol« 
Hiiilercd in the Weald, dislribulixl thirty, Ibrty, ot 
fitly to each of llie small farmer* tbeie^ for 'which fbej 
pay so much per head. 

It'is a part of the subject wh|pb depends entirely n 
the quantity of food eaten, and it is very necessary and 
requisite to know (he usual allowance of food, artiiiciil 
as well as Down, in several distinct flocks, from whicb 
it will appear, that the food eaten is compuratirdy 
small in this part of the kingdom ; and it must impreti 
other couuttcs with a very high id^a of South Dswa 
sheep. 

A tenantry flock belonging to Dentns paririi, coosilt' 

ing of six bundled breeding ewes, has n.9 other piO' 

vision but tbit native Down (seven »r eight kads of ha; 

excepted) 



6HEC?. 90$ 

cxcfpted) for flic whole year : no green food. This flock 
lives upon the hill the greatest part of the year, very 
nearly indeed the Aiehole of it : at lambing time it is 
taken away ; and it is observed, that no where is finer 
wool found ; and is an instance in favour of the qua« 
lity of the wool depending upon the sort of food, and 
as strong a one to shew, how small a quantity of food 
serves to winter this flock. 

In Adfriston parish, six acres of coleseed and eight 
•r nine ton of hay, are used for 450 sheep, with the Down. 
A large farm at East Bourne, of cole, turnip, tares, 
and ray, only forty acres with fifteen ton of hay for 
the winter and spring provision of 1400 sheep, the 
tegs being sent into the Weald : the Down 450 acres. 
Another considerable farm in the same neighbonrhoad, 
for 1000 sheep has fifteen acres of turnips, 10 of cole, 
SO of ray, and 500 of Down, for its annual provision, 
and from one ton to one ton and a half per week in win- 
ieT' At Bedingham, 300 ewes are kept for a month 
upon two acres and a half of turnips, and 30 cwt. of 
tay and the Down. Winter- food here to keep 363 
breeding ewes for four months, turnip 15 ; hay 10 ton ; 
four acres of cabbage and four of cole will last till the 
middle of April : in May twelve acres of rye and 
tares are added : the Down 204 acres. A large farm 
liear Lewes, 1627 acres, of which Down 800, arable 
600, meadow and pasture 327, has 2200 sheep, besides 
157 head of draught oxen, horses, cows, and young 
slock: winter and summer food— turnip SO- acres, 
sainfoin 30, clover 50, rape 16, tares 50 ; one acre and 
twenty-nine perches of a mixture of tares and ray have 
been sufficient for 400 ewes for one week. General 
Murray's farm, total 1667 acres, stocked with 4425 
riieep, and 200 head of horned cattle, at the same time 

that 




304 SHEEfr. 

tfiflt 68ft acres of it are arable ; Ihat is, there arc aboti 
two sheep and a half over (he whole, liesidcs cattle and 
borses. Taking ihc upland farm alone, and iiidcpen* |l 
dent of the marshes, 1150 acres arc stocked by aboTC * 
2900, or two sheep to an acre, besides l40 horses a 
horned caKle, yet 680 arable. Such proportions ought | 
to give lis a hi^h idea of the breed tllat will admit sudi 
stocking upon land, none of which ig more than IQf* 
per acre. 

The nalivfe Down Ja stocked in proportion to ths 
(jualify. Glynde and Ringmer Down, measuring 1100 
acres, now mainluins 5000 sheep and lambs for six 
months in the summer, and 2500 in Ihc winter, cxcIb* 
sive of artificial provision. 

Upon the whole of those accounts, a superiority il 
immediately discovered over other breeds, in Ihc small 
proportion of food allotted for the maintenance of sucll 
numerous flocks. Jt is to ihe excellency of the breed, io 
union nilh the happy Bfatc of the Dowiik, to which Ibis 
circumstance is to be attributed ; and partly to thebe* 
neficial arrangement of arable and pasture. In all sea* 
sons, recourse is had to the Downs for food ; and it ii 
admirably well calculated for the purpose. If tbc 
proportion of stock to ground is extended ora atlUie 
South Dovyns and the contiguous land, so as to com* 
prebend a thict of 150,000 acres, the stock of sheep upM 
this surface, from authentic accounts, is estimated at 
£70,000 in summer, and 31^0,000 in winter ; a rate of 
stocking which is not to be exceeded ia any othtf 
port of England, marsh land alone exceptedi 



SUEEP. 






5. Priced. :^ ' -'j^^ 

This is anotlicr point which ought to impress upon 
the world an high idea of the itierit of this breed of 
she&p : the at]vancc ia the pric«5,of the flock proves it 
iq^jthc- most satisfactory manner, an4 mark& the im* 
provement.^t has received. ..; , , .,^^ . 

*..TJie. superiority of one floqk over another,, mj^^yb^ 
g^ftth^ed frum the difference of value in the sale (xf tljie 
produce : jthus eistimated, the success of some iew^ 
Inj^eders have been felt and acknowledged : the. diffe* 
rencce in th^e price is the quantum of improvepieuf : and 
tbje; constant unbroken -.rise of late years in the prices 
of ^hGep:^d Iambs, denotes certainly the merit^^.apd 
probably the demand for the breed* And no.wfaere 
shall we see such accounts of the profits of flocks,, tj^at 
iviU bear to be compared with the prices on the Dpwjis. 
Sjach 4a incessant demand has existed for the breeds 
tjtiat^the advance in the value has excited much emvLf 
lati^n : price; has done the whole* 
;i In Lqicestergjiire, ,no live-stock is highly valued 
which is not Jbiigh priced. Except that county, therp 
ape uo ;exertioj^s which are not exceqded in Sussex^ 
l^n guineas li^s. been a high price for horned. ram^s^t 
the common p^ce two and three guineas. . 

This i5 the price in the East of England, a/s.wella9 
in the West. It is not that the breeds of these coup« 
ties is incapabl^e, of improvement ; the most unthrifty 
sheep are open^ to amelioration ; but the truth is, that 
in the face of others, they have not so much merit. ^ 

Until lately, ten guineas was the highest price that 
was heard of iix Sussex for the sale of any ram. Now 
Mr. Elhnanletts many of his three-year old rams for 

, SUSSEX.] X fifty; 



' i» 



fifty ; inferior ones for thirty, twenty, ten guineas ; 
he has lett at one hundred. 

6. Principles of Breeding. 

The mnnAgcment of sheep here, as in most other 
flock counties, is to sell the wether lambs, and the 
refhse of the ewe Iambs, [ifter keeping a sufficient 
nnmber to support the fluck, and which do not take 
'the ram till aAer the second shearing, that is, till 
Ihey arc a year and a half old, and a proportionate 
niimber of old ewes : but in this respect, (he South 
Down farmers differ very much from some other 
counties, where the ewes arc kept till they are broken 
mouthed, and some till they have not a tooth in theii 
heads : this in Susm'X is considered as tke worst 
management. 

They universally get rid of them at fire yean 
bnt the best flock-mnster at four. Mr. Ellman atfn< 
bates the contrary conduct, and apparently with 
much reason, to the sheep-masters listening to the sug- 
jestums of idle shepherds, who have so mush less 
trouble with an okl ewe, than with a young one, that 
tiiey are partial to keeping them as long as posfiible. 
I lAr. £)llmaa b so much convinced of this, that 
I thinks it would answer better to sell the ewes at (1 
r jjleaTS old, that is to say, when tiiey are at their highl 
talue. To this it might be objected, that what seemed 
it r&tional motive fur keeping ewes niuch longer, wu 
ftbe fact generally adraitlod, that old ewes generally 
t l>ring finer lambs than young ones ; it not being no- 
Common in Norfolk and Suffolk, to see a lot of very 
fine lambs, from crones that have hardly a tooth left 
in their heads. But Mf. Dliman thinks, that although 




tneir 



iblcj 




» 



SHEEI*. S07 

Ul old cwc would bring a large lamb, yet sucli lamb 
wilt not make a lars^ or fine sheep ; nor will it fatten 
so well as the produce of young sheep. He has made 
the same ubserratlon on cows, marcsj bows, . and 
bitches. 

Mr, Ellman's flock consists of about fiye hnndred 
breeding ewes, each ewe (barrens and refuse excepted) 
prodnces three lambs, lambing at two, three, and 
ibur years old, and wlien four years and a half old, 
he sells them off, to go into other flocks. The general 
practice has beetk, to sell them to the graziers, in the 
Weald of Su!>sex and Kent, who fatten both the 
lamlis and tlte ewes the following summer -, but Mr. 
EUmnn has tor some years, found a better market 
in the great demand in otlier parts for his sheep, 
and he expects that this will continue to be the 
case, till the South Down sheep are generally known. 
He usually saves for store about two hundred and 
twenty ewe lambs, which gives him an opportu- 
nity to refuse about fifty-one each year. His ewe 
lambs at Michaelmas are sent out to keep in the 
Weald, amongst the small farmers, till the following 
lady-day, when he takes them home, and flocks 
them, or folds them at night, fill they are a year and a 
balf old, when they are put with his breeding ewes. 
He always takts sixty of his best ewes, and puts them 
'io his rami! of the best shape, and finest wool, and 
saves the rams from them*. But the usual way is to 
give about fifty ewes to one ram, and to put all the 

rams 



■ What 1 mean by tlie best woo!, is a thick curdly wool, with 
depth or staple, and even toped; such woal aa will beat defend the 
tbttp in bid weather, and will not admit the water to penetrate, 

tit doeg a thin, light, looie wool. I hava found frOm many years ei- 
X 2 ^erimce. 



■Mxas into a Huck al a time, ivhicfa he very properly 
condemns, for i«vcral rcusonti. After luirin^ takea out 
sixty ewTK, ho fltt-u pitU lbrt<c of his m-xl best rams 
iiifo (be Hock, aivil ulxtiit five or sLx days after, lie 
adds two luon-, aud conlinuuj to add two every four 
or fiT« daye, fill the whole are put in, by which 
means hU bc&l ranuhuve the most uwi^. He b^ua. 
to put than to hi» lliick nliout the QMh of October, 
and kill thifni uontiiiue niUi the rwca almut fire weekx, 
from tir^to l:i:^t. ' 

Tbey iiru liiided :ii iiighl, throughout the year, ex>- 
ccpt (at a uiuntb or live n'i«hs afu-i la.inl)ing, which U 
the lalfcf «.'iid of IVLu4^, or b^giimin"; of April, and 
the hiinbii an: wvl\ covcK-d wU!> wool tvhcti bom. If 
the ewes aie well (t^pi, oue Lhiid uf liis flock wiU 
Iwing twuci*. 1^ huiibs are wrtined at twelve or four- 

teai 



jMrieare, tk^ ^heep iu i)if kibic fwl^ <if the foimcr tlacnptico), wiB 

WbcB I cb^xe nj breed, which I think ii almimalj in imiij ta 
da, t git lamc aagiiboaT to let me take oat £{tj of hli bm ewci (of 
rite fbmer' dcttriplion) and pbl mj beit nm iviik ttcBt, aivl Ton 
tBB bidN 6dbi dwak fij fbllnWInf the Hbove pncticEi atrf Snfin^ 
(Aictr « ttoitf »Aue ewe» ctctj yew, I hivE gm my AocktolcnJiff 
food, hodf forabapc aad wooL Tbt fanneii at ihe SouthIto*at,a 
Sew jean once, weie tm^ bj die wool bujcn to hdieve, that it w> 
Xtat {HMnblc to iacreaw the qoantif)' of wool, -n'trhmit decreann; the 
'^ulil;^ as 'OpurioB *h>c4i «3> nM grounded in truth. Rir tiT-ad- 
heni^M liherqle abo«<Miieiitioaed, I believe .l£H>irtbeJie«nes«niid 
bawwm Hrig^OD and EaiC-txiucDe, and wU fur the bigheit pace on die 

Eouih l>OW[K. 

I da unl pnc more ihao eleini rams lo live hundred and liity ewe*, 
to, t>7 «>T>ng twe«y ram lambt erery veur, have an npp m t mii ty of 
rrf nrfg ogbl ur niae. — Ji^ EUman. 

■ Myewes inaaUf produce but one Lunl^cach; but if well IceptTM^ 
lilU of Jeab, when tlie rana are put to t he nv n»irf wiU.btMf tW«V 
■ome three, veiy lew four. 1 havekiunvi) isataaca (tf aa cw« pr^ 



SHCBP. 309 

Iceniveeks old. Mr. Ellman nererpats mm Iaml» 
to bis flock. His cousin, at Shorcbam, some years 
put* no other : the former carefully avoids his ewe 
lambs taking the ram ; but this is no general rale., 
Neither, ram nor ewe lambs should be allowed to 
copulate. 

In (he principles of breeding upon those hills;^ ex- 
changing the rams every third, fourth, or fifth year, 
is the practice almost unanimously agreed upoo. It 
is found to be most essentially necessary in preserving; 
the health, size, and Iwne of the flocks; although it 
is contrary to the maxims of some great men, who arc 
advocates for breeding in and in continually, when 
there is a good sort. Under the article crossing in 
cattle, it will be seen that Mr. Alfrey was long in the 
possession of some of the finest beasts in the county of 
Sussex : by breeding in and in for more than twenty 
years, they were, totally mined in constitation and 
habit, and died four or five of them in a year. By the 
* same treatment, liis flock was reduced to the same 
situation, but by changing his rams, the improve* 
ment was wonderful. It was the samr with his dogs. 
The breeders on the Downs are one and all of them of 
the same sentiments. 

Crossing the South Down breed with other sorts, 
has been very sparingly practised. Spanish rams 
have been introduced into some few flocks. Lord 
Sheffield, first introduced the Spanish breed into the 
county : the wool of his Lordship's flock was consi- 
derably improved by it. The few breeders on the 
South Downs who have tried it, found two capital 

ducing five. It is seldom that more than two are saved. The lambs 
jure wonderfully covered with wool when dropped, and the coarsest 
woolled ewes, bring their lambs with tl^e greatest quantit}r of wool at 
tlie.falL— G^r^ff AU/ny, 

x3 4d*ects^ 



SIO BHEEP. 

defects, not to be compensated by any improTei 
in the wool, tender constitution, and bad sliapc. 

Mr. Morris, ot'Glynde, hns gone in(o tiic Spani 
cross (tbe only one wliicb bas been trii'd by bi 
Tvho have valued tliemsolves on their flocks) more tl 
any other breeder on the Downs, that I have met 
The ram from which it proceeded was half S] 
nish, half Uyland; but this nominid Spanish 
from France, and by no means of the true Segovi 
breed. Mr. Morris is out of the breed now, from being 
convinced that they are not so hardy as (be South 
Downs, by their not bearing etjually well the sharp 
winds which blow on the hills, with a violence that 
flatter countries are free from. Qiiere, if this tender* 
ness be Uyland or Spanish ? Mr. Morris however 
proved his wool very considerably by hie cross. 

Mr. Ellman observes, that he knows of no crossii 
generally speaking, though two of liis neighbouH* 
tried a cross with the Spanish, but found them deli- 
cate, and not well shaped : and the South Downs have 
done them away as fast as possible, and returned 
their original breed. 

7. Coslralliig. 
The best time for tliis operation is, eight, ten, 
twelve days old. Mr. Ellman cuts off the tailaofld 
lambs at the Umi- of cnbtration i thus a consider 
quantity of blood If^ lost, which he considers as p 
venting the part from the gangrene. 

II. Management, 

1. Food. 

2. Watering. 

3. Fattening. 
(. pistcmpcrs. 



a 
"t^^ 



^thfs. <Day be divided into S|ini]p^|r^ W^fPh. f^^ 
•spring. Tlie summer proybion^ for a flock Qf i^ijop^ 
besides the native Down, is tares, coleseiedy and ar* 
tifcial grasses ; though many of the flock*mast^ iOi 
the central parts of the hills, are not so well situat^ 
respecting the food, as those whose &rms are adjoioin|p 
the rich land at the roots of the Downs ; so that ihf 
chief summer food which the farmer relies np^n^ i^ 
what the native Down is able to produce. This is a 
very short, sweet, and aromatic herbage, peculiar tp 
ftese hills, and by far the best which they can have^ 
provided they are able to fill their bellies befor^ ipL^* 
ing time. It is the herbage of the Downs which lei^* 
ders the flavour of the mutton so exquisitely fine^ the 
Sesh. so firm, and the wool so excellent. Artificid 
grass, clover, ray«grass, besides rape, tares, tui:|iipu 
^d aAl other succulent food, are copsidered as eneipiea 
to the production of fine wool. The richness and lux* 
uriancy of the food, is thought to contribute to render 
the wool more coarse, but abundant, in the same pi^ 
portion that the fine quality is injured. . ^ - ~ 

This circumstance may be remarked by an exami* 
nation of the flocks between Lewes, East^bourne. ana 
Newhaven. where the finest wool is produced ih t^e 
county, yet the food they feed upon is no other than 
th^Down in summer and winter^ except a little My 
distributed in hard weather on the hill. Tliis ^ct 
coincides with (observations ma^e upon other flocks ijpi 
other ipart9 of the countj^, wtiich feed upon liiw 
/other food than the D9wn and hay, ap4 thev jLaye ibe 
finest fleeces. Si tibi lanicium curoi fugt pabula 
ioctUy was laid down as a maxim two thousand years 
«igo^ and it is no less founded in reason^ vtbaii'xon* 

Armed by practice. ^ 

x4 B^l 



Bill it will be said, why Ihcn dors Mr. Enman sdl 
at the iiighcst [jricc, Hln*n he feids his sheep very nmcll 
upon artificial fnod, us his Pown uf only IM acres, 
is itO! in any prnpoilinn In llie size of his flock ; but 
art and ultcnlion will [x-rform much. 

It is hi» cxcrliniiB in rhi- Imprtm-mcnf of his flock, 
thai liHve cnahWI him to sell nl Iho highest vnlite on 
the hilU; and his Down, Ihiiugh mil large, goif. n 
very gn'iit way, when wc account for the quality of 
his wool*. 

As some of the floclc-mobfefs hiive tilllc other food 
than the Down to summer Ihcir shci'p, olht;rs havfc , 
little of it; and coiisequerilly llieir ^hicp in the Hum- 
mer are at a very coTisiilinibli? ex'jwnse, on rajw, 
tares, and grassts, none of \ihicli are so U'Rclicial lo ' 
wool as Ihc natiiral iierUigp. 

I ciinnot fail i)f impressing any [Kn-sini with a higli 
idea of the breed of slierp, and tiiu valiir of the food, ! 
to view them grazijig in the summer upon the South 1 
Downs. The mtmlKT of the tlocU sc.n at the same 
time in a small Iriicl of Und, iiistiinlly sirikes any 
man of reflection, who examines into the state of the' 
Bheep-walk, that they must be a very profitable sheep, 
comparing together the weight of flesh and the food 
eaten . 

After harvest the flocks are turned into the stubbles, 
and at Michaelmas many are half fat, which thef 
lose as quickly in the spring, as they gained it iii 
autumn, as winter food is not sown in that quantity 
^hich it ogght to be. Tail seeds are not unfrequentlf - 



■* 'My Down, or sheep walk, is but. small, aad iny eDcloied land d- 
irtmely w<;i, so that I cannot ttock with itoit ahee]); ai^ iherefofC 
pl)|jged to depend oa artificial Cofid.—JUH Eilman. 

sown 



SHEEP. 313 

i6Hrii with thie com in the spring, for the floc!cs after 
iiarve^t : but it has been known, that they have some- 
times been very violently purged, by turning them 
into wheat stubbles, and the flax has been fktdl' to 
many. ' * 

1. Foodp 

Winter Food. — Turnips. — The introduction of this" 
root into the Eiiglisli husbandry hks been a vast im- 
provement. Norfolk is quoted by every man on this 
occasion. The great exertions which liave been made 
upon the Downs within the last twenty or twenty-five 
years, have been equally great, and they have chiefly 
related to sheep. Turnips are sown by almost every 
ilock-farnier, in' some quantity, as food for sheep; 
though indeed the cultivation is far inferior in breadth 
of land (and management) to what is thought neces- 
sary in Norfolk or Suflfolk: a few years back, no 
4such thing as turnips was seen in Sussex; at least in 
any quantity. 

The flocks are penned over the field, usually some 
time before Christmas : turnips will last well for four 
months, and even longer, if alternate frosts and thaws 
do not rot the crop at the breaking up of the winter, 
or when a warm or open spring drives them to seed. 
With proper management, they are the best depend- 
ence ; if in some degree restricted as to the quantity 
eaten, Soutli Down sheep are never subject to any ill 
eflfects from tbem. Several farmers, who had lost 
many of their sheep upon turnips, by giving them 
hay, or even pea, bean, or wheat straw, have obviated 
ihe eflfects of the watery nature of them : a very small 
quantity of dry food, is found to correct the properties 

of the fluid. 

Sainfoin 



314 sHser'. 

Sainfoin Iiay witli the turnips, is the best prorUi 
in winter. The redaatfr often attacks the sh«ep fetid- 
iag upon turnips ; the cOcct of wet seasons- H^y 
prercntB it from breaking out. 

Mr. Ellman never loses any of his sheep by tbw 
disorder, from bis attcndii^ to the alwrc. 

Mr. Eliman of Slioreham, generally gives hi« sheep 
hay, in Iioar frosty mornings. He finds that it pre* 
serves them from the i^all. 

The turnips are more generally dr»wn two days 
before folding them, by which means they do not 
barst, which is sometimes the case when not drawn. 
It has been objected to turnips, that Ihey occasion 
the ewes to slink their lambs, but by previously 
drawing them, no inconvenience of that kind is expe- 
rienced*. 

Turnips are sometimes stacked, but not so often u 
they ought. Mr. Milward always feeds with dry tw 
nips, on which occasion he always stacks, and ii 
a manner, as to prevent the frosts from injuring thei 

Potatoes — Have been tried as food for sheep, 
found upon experiment to answer ; and perhaps sua 
rior to turnips, as being a more regular antl c 
dependence. The farmer who relies upon bis 



* t remarbnl in a field of Mr, Car, at Bcdingbam, a prucicc 
docrvei noting. He nas ealing- off turnipi for towing wheal: Id 
wrved, all writhin the Ibid were drawn a day or iwu before the «ltcep 
were allowed to enlcr, in order thsi (he tumipt might wither and era- 
poraEe their water. 1 demaaded [be motive ; they jaid, that when thr 
ahecp ate them in the common manner, they not only diaagreed n 
f bera, bnt e»en «»□« were ImI by it. I tliiok the pcactice »ery n 
and cumhinei with a great number of other obacrvatioM on dj 
feodi, and diflerem iai>\eeuj—fAiii>ali tf Asnndtvtt, vol, x*. p. 4: 



1 



nipcrop, will, in some seasons, ran great haEafd- and 
danger from the frost. A crop which dep^ds for its 
preservation, on the mildness and regularity of the 
season, is not to be considered as a certain one, if we 
recollect how any sudden change from frost to thaw^ 
frequently occasions the destruction of the whole crop 
in a few days. The consequence of such accidents 
at the most critical season of the year, is easily fore* 
jseen. But this is a pihrt only of the loss su^t^ed. 
The great difficulty in raising any crop at all, ahd 
not seldom the utter impossibility of insuring a full 
and fair one, is another heavy deduction from the 
value of the crop. In a dry seed-time, it never 
ponies to perfection : in showery weather, the young 
|>lant is devoured by the fly, and the ground three 
4inies sown with little chance of success. Mildews, and 
Tarious other accidents, render turnips bynomeansa 
jcertain dependence ; they are liable to destruction at 
that season of the year when they are most wanted : for 
after all other hazards, a hard frost and sudden thaw 
4lestroy them at once. 

Not one of those objections holds good against pota* 
toes: no accident, but what may be easily guarded 
against. The frost is no longer any formidable enemy^ 
when the store is deposited in well-formed pits. Gene- 
ral Murray fed 5000 sheep with potatoes and liay : 
1651 of his breeding ewes ate 51 bushels every day^ 
giving a quart to each; and that, for 120 days, is 
6IS0 bushels. A Norfolk flock-£eirmer provides for 
720 sheep, 80 acres of turnips, 16 ton of hay, 20 acres 
of rye : let us compare the provision* 

If 720 sheep require 80 acres of turnips, 2340, the 
upland flock at General Murray's^ require 248 acres 
of ^^mips ; but they Jiave only 50# 

If 




' shwp requirp 16 ton? of hay, at 10 aeta^ 1 
mid rcqiiirp't^; inslcad of wliich tht-j- hart^ i 
t\ ich Ls 71 smplns, or, at one load and vxn h-M.M 
48 acres. 

sh<vp rwjuire 20 acirs of ry^, 2240 should i 
; instead of wbich, lliey liave none at all. 



I 



JPVnffT Food<if2240 S/liep, 
as proBidcil Jiir ia A 



Turnips, , 

Hay, 

Ryp ...~ 

Potatoes, ........^.. 



Wiftta- Fwlef 2240 Sheep, 
at provided for in Siisstx. 



..... » 1 



Hbt, 

n.ve, 

P[rt!ttoes, 



]5i>- : 



Now let us value tliese crops, so as lo apply fairlj 
to Snssex and Norfolk, equally rejecting each table 
of expenses : the following rates niU not be iar from 
the truth. 



Turnips, 

Hay, 

Rye, 

Potatoes, 



£. ,. d. 

3 
5 
10 

4 



SHEEP. 3f7 



« • < 



^Egpefises, Norfolk. Expenses. Sussex* 

Turnips, «...»...^ •«« 496 Turnips, .m— ««*«««*««^« lOQ 

flay, ««. 20 Hay, •.•••^•««.*«.««...«,.«« 1^0 

Potatoes, ••••.•••.,.••• ^.- Potatoes, ••••—•—••••••. 80 



£.5i7 £.340 



Which is a diflference of ^ per cent. 

Now, is this vast diiiepence to be attributed to pota« 
toes beiiig a cheaper food than turnips ; or to the dis« 
tinction between the one flock being Norfolks and the 
other South Downs ? That a very considerable portion 
of this superiority is to be attributed to the breed, Uici^. 
is not the least d»ubt; for the general turn and colour 
of all the intelligence has given us, on every occasion, 
reason to think this : but as to feeding sheep with po- 
tatoes^ it is^ though ascertained on General Murray's 
farm, on the largest scale, a more doubtful circum- 
stance; and for tliis reason they arc allowanced, or 
limited in their consumption, which is not the cas« 
with turnips : tliese^ on the Norfolk farm, are fed or 
the land, and consequently, in the greatest plenty* 
Another contrast, however, is not to be forgotten. 
Turnips -are subject to frosts, to fiy, to mildew, to va- 
rious accidents : potatoes are a regular certain crop, 
and subject to few accidents. The General was using 
his potatoes while we were with him, and found them 
safe and secure, notwithstanding the severity of the 
frost ; and another gentleman we were with afterwards, 
liad one of his pits uncovered, and hardly a rotten po- 

tatoe 



3X8 SBEKP. 

tatoe was to be seeo in a hundred basbcls. WhentI 
circiunstance is well coni>idered in the pinch of a ei 
season, every one will a^ree, that the vast e 
made by the late General Murray, in the intioduct 
of this root as a winter and sjiring provisioa for slu 
is truly important. 

The Rev. Tlios. Fuller, ofHcathficld, used pd 
in the same way*. Mr. Fuller's experiment b i 
fat sheep, and General Murrny's upon a. lean 1 



ad- 



• My general method has been, to let the ihcep of the true 
Dowu breed liave ihe iltui-grMf, and about the middle of thr mo 
November, lo take them into the J3td, with a shed or lodge adjoining, 
and confine them ti!I they are ready for the market, at the end of Febru- 
ary, or the lira week in March. 

The potatoes are cut into two or more slices, a may be deemed necev 
*ary, and pM into troug-hs, which are liieiJ under the shelter. On an 
Average, I have observed thai a sheep will eat one gallon a day. 
gcocrally purchased my Iambi at 1^. 1:li. and Hi. and have ilwayi 
ihem at gix>d prices, as I have leldom got leu than ii. per itone. 
have ever proved well upon eiamination ; and at the aje of (w 
have amounted lo nine, ten, and eleven stone : the internal fat of 
which t had the curiosiry to weigh, was equal to 15lb. It Hill 
mil of a doubt, but that if fair trial b made, the potatoe tyst 
prove the most expeditious in fattening ibeep. I have nude the 
meat with sheep of the same agv, and of the same (locki i 
ferent kinds, and even with oil-cakc; ind have found the potatoci 
do the business in the tbonett time. As a farther proof of what I 
Slid in favour of potatoes, I have remarked, that on plai 
from the common stock, in a yard with those that had enjoyed the 
after-grass, 1 had found, at the usual time of lelhn^ thetn, little 
difference at all in point of fatness, and have sold them at the sam 
1 preiume, therefore, you will allow me to aay, that I think this 
of preparing mutton for the table is the most expeditious, and the 
prolitahle plan lo be pursued in aceinnpliihingihe end deiigned. 

You will please lo observe, that 1 give the sheep a litde hay, mc 
jnd evening; and, if the yard is properly attended to, you may 
conjecture what « mass of manure, both in point »I quality as i 
([Uanlity, m.iy thus be procured,^ — Tin. fnUir, 



■I OB^^^ 



WEEP. 819 

ifAkh tn^oiAits for some diffinence in the quantity eaten 
per diem, but at by no means accounts for the diffe* 
renoe of fotir to one. The obvious conclusion is^ eithar 
thai the General did not allow potatoes sufficient, or 
tluitliis flock had other food unnoticed. 

Cabbages — Have been applied to the feeding of sheep 
in Sussex, and, where the practice has been adopted^ 
with great and uniform success. |t is, perhaps, of all 
other sorts of food, that which demands the greatest 
attention, since it is by means of this food that great 
improvements might be expected in the Weald, as the 
•oil is perfectly well adapted to the production of cab- 
Imges, in any quantity, as food for sheq)« Objections 
luised from its requiring a richer soil, are too trifling 
to refute. There cannot be any doubt but that by cab* 
bages, tares, and potatoes, with turnips, where the 
«oil is suited, with the great command of dry food and 
pasture in the Weald, far greater than what the Down 
fiurmers enjoy, they might be enabled to maintain, acm 
for acre, thrice over the number they do at present 
with -a well-regulated management. If those abso« 
lutely useless exertions (the only efforts worth notix^e) 
ill liming a fallow 4eld at the expense of 5/. per acre^ 
to gain five sacks, were exerted in raising crop of sheep 
by means of cabbage, potatoe, tares, upon their 
arable land, and laying down to permanent pasture 
nBoilcnlj/ adapted to grass, some such an arrange- 
ment would be rather more satisfactory than the pre-^ 
lient system of husbandry. 

Spring Food. — Artificial Grasses. — Ray-grass is one 
of the^ earliest that is cultivated, and in much request 
fiiTsA flock ^tnth^ turnips, &c. are gone, and it comet 

at 



atatime'wluiiittsmochinitted. It ii lotekaehfe^ 
that tbis g^nss, as well aa Kutic othen,' ate BOf? eabmtod 
in a greater degree for ■hecp'Jeed) as a wa ax Am e tamiac 
clover, especially upon those soiUirhere.i^^er'fitfiJ 
The cull lire of some of the beat of the gnuioiy itoiiU lifT 
open an almost inexhaustible mean of iinprovc-mcnt ; 
such a Taiiety arc at. hand, some of llictn known lobe 
more productive uiaii'aiij that beve been yet culti- 
vated, and that possess the ITiree' requisites of quatfv 
tity', quafily and earliness. The Alopccarus pralai* 
iiif and Vactj/lU glommerata, are udmirabte plants, 
and much.b it ,tb be regretted Ihat tliry arc nof 
more frequently introduced into uur arliticiul hys.. 
There cannot be better grasses thnii tin; Roa trfvi- 
tdit and pratrnsU ; and upon ciilciircous soils, sain- 
foin and burnet (S^ij/tarum ORohnyrhis, Polerium 
tanguisorbd) are indigenous. The Dacti/Us ghm- 
mertUa is rough and coarse, if let to grow old, and 
very early, but hardy and productive. Here arc (heii 
about six or eight grasses, from which might be se* 
Iccfed specimens for clay, mixed, and light soils. 

Tares, Rye. — ,AIl tlicsc arc sown as spring provisim 
for the flock. Arabic lands, tolerably cicsn and in 
heart, or rendered sufEcienlly so with manure, we 
ploughed in September and October, 'and so^vll with 
winter til res, rye, or cole, according to the nature' of 
the soil, OS tares upon tlie stronger, rye upon (he 
lighter, and cole chiefly on the calcareous hitls^ These 
crops come suflicL'ntly early to be fed off in April or 
May, when the turnips arc finished, and are hurdled 
off in the same manner. After they arc taken off, the 
land is again ploughed, and spring tares aie then 
SOVB, 



t. 



itovnij iilrhich are to be fed at the end of autumn^ 

vrhtn the land h in admirable order for the enstiin^ 

crop of tfheat) if the autumn is favourable, ot for bar-* 

ley arid seeds in the spring. This double crdp of tares 

is worthy a journey of many miles to see it, and the 

Bdore such husbandry is analyzed, the better it will 

appear. The mixture of tares and rye answers better 

for soiling; than for feheep-feed ; for the horses arc 

soiled at a time when the tares are young, and have 

no great strength in theiti } and the rye is a very dry 

food, which counteracts the moisture of the tares : but 

for sheep-feed it is not equally good ; for the rye and 

the tares being sown in September, the former, upon' 

good land, will be fit for folding by the middle of 

April, and the tares by the middle of May upon the 

same soil : if the rye is preserved till the tares ar« 

ready, the rye will hardly be touched, or trod down 

-Mme of the two must suffer* 

Let us, however, consider this husbandry. 

Instead of an unproductive and expensive fallow^ 

di^ sUlfut and active former raises two crops of tares^ 

fe> answer the great end of fallowing (clearing and me^ 

ifo rating) equally well. The ploughing is at a season 

^f the year when the ground can easily be worked ; 

in the western part of Sussex, with alight plough^ 

two horsed, and a man who holds and guides it 

(^- ^reat saving of labour), he secures food for his stock 

^^ the most critical period of the year, and enriches the 

g*"^3nind with the manure arising from tlie fold, or stock 

fe^i upon it. Mr. Thos. EUman sows ray«»grass fot 

t-^^o years ; it is twice folded, then broke up, and two 

bti^hels of tare^ and a gallon of cole are sown in May 

^^ June^ fed in August and September. By such 

*t^eans, one acre and a few perches are sufficient for 

•USSEX*] Y 400 



S8S snEBP. 

400 ewes a week. The value of the food, at 2rf. each 
for a week, is 31. 6s. Sd. ; the fold, 11. 5s. \ together^ 
.ul/. lls.Sd. the value of the crop for feed and fold. 
Where shall we go to find manngcment better than 
this ? To break up a layer in order to sow with wheat, 
the common system, would be a useless and barren fal- 
low, made at 4 or 51. expense* But setting aside this 
practice, here is a crop of tares, expenses more than 
paid, and the land in hearty order for the succeeding 
crop; whilst his neighbour gains his crop, which is 
not a better one, at the expense of 5/.* 

Stuhhh Turnips. — After harvest, the stubble is 
ploughed, and turnips 60wn, which come round for 
late spring feed ; but some harvests are too tate for this 
excellent practice : other green crops, however, ren- 
der it equally good ; nor can it be sufficiently com- 
mended, for it is in the true spirit of good husbandry. 

About Pel worth it is a common practice, either to 
sow stubble turnips, or rye and tares, upon the 
wheat, barley, or oatersli. The whole practice of 
throwing in one crop upon the back of another, U% 
feature too good to l)c passed over. 

lioven. — One of the most capital arrangements for 
the support of a flock that was ever thought of. Valu- 
able as all the prcc(3ding crops certainly are, they arc 
inferior to this ; yiii wc sec but little attentioa paid to 
a spi'cics of food so well adapted for ewes and lambs. 
Jt is nothing niore, than niakuig a reserve in a time of 
plenty for the hour of want. 



* A minis of Agriculture. — Editor, 

Mr. 



^HEfiP. SIS 

Mr. EUman reserves his best pasture for them. The 
£arl of Egremont is strongly in this practice^ \irhiGh 
wHl be described in another place. 

Sheep feeding Wheat — Is practised in different 
parts of the county. It is alleged in favour of the 
custom, that the wheats rise the stiffcr and more abun* 
dant. The fact appears to be^ that it is not done ^o 
mHjch to benefit the wheat) as through mere necessity ; 
since it is allowed, tliat as other food is scarce, this 
becomes necessary. Even the best farmers are fre^ 
quently compelled, by having no other provision, to 
feed their wheats The practice is pretty general. On 
light lands, it may be right to fold sheep, in order to 
cloiie the ground about the roots of the plants ; and 
when it is thin set, feeding dry land will give a better 
stock ; but it is more frequently done through necest 
sity. 

Winter Bar let/ — Has been sown for sheep-foed, but 
the practice confined to a few individuals. 

2. Watering. 

This is very necessary in the management of a fk>ck 
on the South Downs ; and as there is no other watef 
than what is to be collected in reservoirs, artificial 
ponds are constructed to retain the rain-water ; tfaesH 
nxe generally circular, and .very gently sloping to the 
centre : the bed very stronglf rammed down, to pre- 
v^it any loss by soaking .t&a[^«l||fi to the chalk, , A» 
the surface of the South DoiOfi^h found to be yWtlngj 
every &rm presents an opportunity of collecting any 
quantity of waster ; though in very dry weather, many 

7^ y2 of 



»'. 



i f 

ofthellodtthaFiiig'iiowiteroftMroiniy iM drifts 
to thdr jidghboun* ponds, nswrtiaw fit • «mAde» 
mile oiBUuice. 

lfr« Snejd says, ^^ PreFunu to the mode now prettjr 
generally adopted, of forminf ponds of bakou m tip 
rioos parts of erevy hill fiirm, in long draaghts At 
slieep bave been driven some distance to irates. It b 
much to be lamented, that Hkt exeitions lalkdy nsedlil 
fuinish a supply of water, have not been attended wWl 
BUMe groeral success ; as many fiuonaas in 4lw rndgh* 
bonrhood of East^boume have been at gmat tnosbfe and 
expense in fbnning fliese ponds, wlicb is dmle \s$ 
Imiiig them with chalk, pnddled and trod dMvb tift 
it makes a kind of pidstet flodr^ wd they gahetiHy 
bold water wen enough for some time ; b«t atfs afir ti> 
become laahy , and a hard fiost spoils tbttt^ ThM^ 
H a poad on the top of Friston-hill, wluoh I omr 
knew dry : it was formed many yean ago, and, I'M 
well informed, has the bottom paved with very small 
flints. Pbnds which have no run of water into them 
answer best. I made one which, ftom receiving a 
large run of water, is perpetually choked up ; while 
another 1 made at the same time, and which receives 
no water but what rains perpendicularly into it, has 
answered better, and never wanted clearing/' 

In Italy, the flocks arc regularly watered' inormog 
and evening. Inde ubi, &c. 

Ad puteos aut alta greges ad stagna jiibeto' ciu> 
rentem ilignis }K)tare canalibus undam, &c» 

Turn tenuis dare rursus aqw^^ '&c» 

Adduxere sitim tempor;^.*-rSo Columella, 4 v. vii^ 



3. /W- 



«HEBP. IC5 

3. Fattening. 

This important point of Sussex management re$olves 
iteelf into the following subdivisions : 

1. Age, 
S. Food, 

3. Thriving disposition, 

4. Live and dead weight, 

5. Flesh, 

6. Tallow^ 

7. Offal, 

8. Pelt, 

9. Distempers, 

10. Interesting experiments. 

1. Age. 

The South Down wethers are generally turned off to 
fatten from one to two years old. It is considered as 
bad policy to keep for profit more than twp years and 
a half; and indeed it is usually allowed, that they 
pay tetter at one year and a half old, than at any 
other age. Few, or rather no experiments have been 
set on foot to ascertain the precise time when they fat- 
ten to most advantage ; but it appears, that the profit 
lessens as the age increases ; and it is pretty gener^ly 
acknowledged, that the quickest return is the most 
profitable, and accordingly, the sheep are turned off 
at an early age. Moderately fat at a year and a half 
old, a wether pays much better than if he is much 
fatter at double the age*. 

2. Food. 



• South Down wethers arrive at perfection at fivse or »x years old; 
ewes at five and wethers at six. They will continutt iiDitf«viii|( jwitt^S 

Y3 



9f6 tiiB», 



2. Food. 



Turnip is the usual food : and it is well wortk no» 
ticing) as late experiments* tend to Gon6nn the vb* 
mark, that to fat sheep upon this food, after summer 
pasturing them, thej will fall off very considerably in 
flesh : so far from haying gained any flesh, they de- 
crease, so that there is little profit by keeping sheep 
through the winter. 

The Duke of Bedford's experiments, inserted in the 
twenty-third volume of Annals of Agriculture, provei 
this to be the case. From whence it appears that 
four breeds, South Down, Dishley, Coteswold, and 
Wiltshire^ all lost tipon turnips. 

The loss of money from keeping fat sheep through 
the winter is considerable^ and afibrds a lesson weU 
worth remembering : to get fatting sheep so forward, 
as to sell tbem between the first of August and the 
first of October. The Michaelmas markets are some- 
times not higli, but the difference of price will by no 
means pay for winter food. Apparently the winter 
food is thrown a .vMy. 

That this ciic lijr.stiuice is not at all peculiar to the 

as their teeth remain sound, which generally decline after the sixth 
year. — Geo. AUfrey. 

Mr. Ellin in says, " To discover the age of mutton, is to observe the 
colour of tlie breast-bone when a sheep is dressed ; that is, where the 
l>reast<rbone is separated, which, in a lamb, or before it is one year old, 
will be quite red j from one to two years old, the upper and lower bone 
will be changing to white, and a small circle of white will appear round 
the edge of the other bones, and the middle part of the breast-bone will 
yet continue red ; at three years old, a very small streak of red will be 
«een in the middle of the four middle bones, and the others will be 
frhite; and at four years, all the breast-bone will be of atfhiteor 
jgHB^y colour.'* 

South 



8HSBP. SS7 

South Downs, appears clearly by the late Mr. Macro'i 
most accurate experiments on Norfolk sheep, in the 
Annals, where he detarH the winter food (cabbage^ 
tnrnip, ' and hay) of sqme, and none gained any 
weight of consequence, but most of them lost* One 
must take for granted, that farmers and graziers, on a 
great scale, know this fact : when they keep a great 
number of sheep upon turnips, do they wait for a mar^ 
ket only ? if so, they wait at an enormous expense. It 
should seem that the profitable consumption of tur^ 
nips and cabbages by sheep, is by the breeding stock 
and hoggits, which demand keeping only, and not 
fattening. 

Such is the language of the experiments hitherto 
published ; but when wo compare it with a very ge- 
neral practice, there is a great disagreement ; for too 
many farmers are in the constant practice of winter* 
fatting sheep, to permit us to conclude that they all 
lose money by it. It should therefore be considered as 
a question by no means sufficiently ascertained. Pro* 
bably much will be found to depend on breed ; for 
the Norfolk and the Wiltshire, bad as they may be 
in other respects, have been found to pay well in win- 
ter feeding. 

3. Thriving Disposition. 

The meilt of the South Down breed is beyond a 
doubt, if we consider the food eaten, which is at once 
ascertained from the number kept. 

A sheep and a half per acre, including all sorts of 
land, is very high stocking, and rarely to be met 
with. In fattening, the remark is equally applicable 
to the breed. A thriving sheep is seen in what it pays 
for the food it eats : and this point is in union with 

Y 4f - anothcsr^ 




01ftBF. 

V, Hhidi lia!> not Ibnt atU'otiou pait) it wliicli it 
nJEviti. Good South Down:),! fine shapcJ, and line 
ViQfAiid, will iciDiier be rciiily fur the butcher, tlian 
f^jtcrii flf tbe bri?0(l ill ^hnped luiil coarsLT ^oullnl, 
XiOB iijihe )ar<riiagn 'of cxpfriment, which Lord 
Slgfentaot) tbe l>'.() J'ilmans, Mr. Allfrey, nud oilier 

4. Livr ximinead Weight, 

-lathe 99(h vol. uf the AiiiinU, Mr. Ellman has 
■weigfaod ^nquailly the Uvr and dead -ncight of his 
three year aid f^oulh Oowri tvclhcrs, brnl by him and 
slaughtered at G'lj ndc-. As many objcctipus have been 
nieed Bgaiiuttbe brrctl, from want of weight, it will 
t ^^orougli-bred wethers will fat at three 
f to 501b. per quarter: but, what is of greater 
i than weight, the proportion of the dead 
||i tiie live ^vdght is very great. 

live weight, 19*3 lb. 

ib. o^ 

Blood, ,„ - — 6 

Entrails, „.. 11 D ' 

Caul, .— ., le ^ 

Gut fat, . ....-..-„-..-....—...... 5 

Heiid and pluck, 8 12 

Pelt* . „..„ 15 12 

■ Washed tfie pell and clipped 5Ui. Of yiool, iri>en drj : 



Tlui great lou majr be aceounf sd for by the pdt being thioani vndtr 
t^ tlte^ to receive the |il9P4i ^K- vtujo A^^VH- ^V 1^ V** V^ 



raEEP. 
jCarcass next morning, .••—•.•••—.••.••••.-».. lS51b* 

Carcass, 4..^^ IS5 

Offal, ..M..« : 67 

192 

If 192 gives 125, what will 20 give ?— Answer, 13. 
Slaugbtered the 21st, and cut up the 24ih pf De- 
cember : 

lb. oz. 

First fore quarter, •.... ^ 29 

Second, 28 12 

First hind, 53 8 

Second, , 32 

Lost, .....^ .,.. ...MM.^..M-«o. 1 12 

_ * 

125 

Had one side cut into joints and weighed. 

lb. cnk 

Haunch, ...23 

Loin, 10 4 

Neck, , ..., 12 

Shoulder, 11 12 

Breast, ....••.. m 4 8 

Lost, ^ 12 

6S 4 



■^•■v' 



The above weighing does cfedit \^ the South Down 
jsheep : the quarters were divided in the usual way, 
leaving one short rib to the hind, and twelve to the 
fore. The hind quarters of this weth^ were heavier 
than the fore, which Mr. Ellman very justly considers 
as a ip^tt in the breed, as the former sell at \d. a 

ysos^ more thaxt the )iatter* ia tb» j|i64b T^l* vli Jbn- 

nals^ 



I 



890 . 8UBEP. 

nab, 18 an accQUiit of the live and dead weight of 
three South down wethers, slaughtered at Lord Shef* 
field's* They arc an average specimen of the breed. 

Weight aiiirc, .............^•••...•...•...m..«..-.*.^ 133 lb. 

Blood, ••••••••••.•••••••.^••••^••••••••••••••••••••.•••M* 4 

Entrails, •^••...•..••m..^^^......«-m..— ..•—•••. 14 

o&in anci reoi, %•••*— •••—^••—•••••••••••••••••^•tm^m lu 

iieaci anci piucK, •—••^•^^•—•••••••99»—9»——— ^i 

t 

Proportion, half and one-tenth* 
One of General Murray's : 

Dead, ^--••^m*— •••-—•••-•»•%••••••— ••••—• 6S 

X aiiow, »—>—'—•»>«•— —»»—■•—>»#•• •— < —t» D ^ 
Not half. 
At four o'clock in the afternoon, two fat wethers 
were weighed alive, directly from their food : 

First, 126 lb. 

Second, 1 10 

SS6 

After twenty-two hours fasting again weighed : 

First, 1171b. 

Second, M........O.—. 102 

They lost 171b. they were tlien killed : 

First, ....A 581 11), 

Second, v m ••••.•••••.•.•••••.•• 53\ 

112 

Tallow of the two, 13i lb. 

From 



V SHEEP. SSll 

From some experiments w'liich have lately been 
made at Pet worth, by liord Egremont, and whicli 
will be presently detailed^ much valuable information 
^ill be added, tending to elucidate the subject^ and 
give us a clearer knowledge of the proportion between 
the live and dead weight of different breeds of sheep* 

5. Flesh. 

South Down wether jnutton, in point of ddicacy and 
flavour, is thought equal to almost any that in Jellied ; 
and in summer, as pretcrable to some oihvx fine fla- 
vonred breeds, especially to Norfolk mutton. This 
circumstance is attributed to (he closeness of the grain^ 
•or the specific vgravity being greater, rendering it more 
impermeable to tlie air than coarser and looser fleshed 
mutton, which i.^ of course more subject to putridity*^ 

The older the mutton, the finer the flavour ; though 
^his is a circumstance, not thought of .by the grazier. 
Those who are connoisseurs in the flavour of mutton, 
will find, that a spayed ewe kept five years before she 
is fattened, is superior to any wether mutton^ The 
Duke of Grafton sent a haunch of it (a cross between 

* I was informed at Lewes, that Mr. Gate*, a butcher and grazio: 
At Steyning, of considerable experience, had given it as a fact, that 
Hampshire sheep when killed, stiffen sooner, and keep twenty-four 
iiours longer than South Downs ; yet that the South Downs are of all 
other sorts, the finest grain, and indeed the best of mutton. I called on 
him at Steyning with Mr. Gell, and he confirmed it, as a fact with 
which he was well acquainted. It seems rather to militate against the 
undoubted fact given in this work, of tli^ South Down and NorfSlk 
jnutton, made by Mr. Vyse, butcher at Eton college^ but the latter 
is the result of such large experience, that it will admit of no doubt ; 
it however miliutes merely against the mode of accounting for the fact, 
by attributing the quality of keeping to fineness of grain. A loose open 
texture of flesh, seemed to be more adapted for adnxittUDigair, and if so, 
jBfijjfii to puuify the MBser.—'^.T. 

Norfolk 



.392 SHEBr. 

N(Hf<dk and South Down) to Lord Egnmmtyuud 
the admiFerft of mutton confessed it was truly, es- 
cellsnt. 

'6. Tallow. 

It B by' no mtam a settled point upon theSoalb 
DownS) how far a sheep which gathers its &t upon 
the intestines, is or is not preferable to another which 
collects it upon the back and the neck. The hAoa* 
tershire graziers contending as much for the latter as 
the jformer, is considered as a test of merit in Norfolk 
and various othar counties. But when it ia consideied 
that it requires a certain portion of fiiod to createa 
given quantity erf* fiit, the question is, which is the 
best part to collect it upon-^-<^ithiuy at without ? As 
loi^ as the fat of the latter will sell at more than one* 
third of the other, it would seem that there cannot be 
a doubt, which of the two is . preferalde ; and upon 
the principle of food eaten to produce the tallow or 
fat, that which tallows least is the best breed. The 
tallow, with tbe major part of the fiflh quarter, is 
all the butcher's profit, who would no doubt encou- 
rage that breed which tallows best and yields most 
ofial. 

The South Down sheep are not great tallowers, com? 
pared with some other sods ; but what they loose in 
tallow, they make up in a disposition to fatten. Tlie 
tallow of a wether in comm^ management, will gene- 
rally average from an eignth to a tenth part of its 
dead weight. In Mr. Eliraan's fat wether, one-seventh 
part of the dead weight was inside fat (caul and loose 
fat). In another which he killed last winter, one sixth 
was inside fat. In others that have been slaughteiod, 
the variation has been from a ^iiBventh ip a tenth. The 

quantity 






SHEEP. iSi 

qaantlty of inside fat depends much upon the age, 
and time of fattening . It gathers itself much more 
in old sheep than in young ones. 

A circumstance with respect to fat meat, is worthy 
of being mentioned, because it shews how much fur- 
ther very fat mutton will go, than that which is not 
equally so. At Petersfield (a great thoroughfare), the 
iaa«keepers of that place agree with the butchers to 
give them Id. per pound above the common price of 
mutton, provided it be very fat* It is the same with 
beef. 

7. OffaL 

4 

The lightness of the oflGsil (head, horn, feet, entrails, 
pluck, blood, pelt), characterizes a good sheep. Dish- 
ley wethers well fattened, it is said, are in the propor- 
tion of an ounce of bone to a pound of iSesh. 

The offal of Mr. EUman's fat \Vether, was but a fifth 
part and a fraction of the live weight. 

lb; oz. 

Ali^e, ^. 192 

Offal, ^ 42 

Carcass, 125 

Fat, « 21 4 

Lost by killing, 3 12 

192 



8. Pelt. 

Sheep pelts are usually sold to the fellmongers in 
the neighbourhood, by contract for the year, at diffe- 
rent prices : viz. from shearing time to Michaelmas, 
at 12d. ; to Shrove-tide, at 2s. ; and from Shrove to 
Clearing, at 3s. These are lower than usual. 

9. Distem^ 



SM 8REEF* 

9. Distempers^ 

Tbe distempers \vhich the Soi^th Down sbeep am 
mbject iOy are these : 

1. Redwater. 

2. Gall. 

3. Dropsy of the brain. 
4« Rot. 

5. Flux. 

6. Slipping the lamb. 

7. Hoving. 

8. Drunk. 

9^ 'Feeding on charloc, poppy, &c* 

* I. Redwater. 

Upon being first turned into turnips they aie some* 
times subject to this complaint, nvhich is cauied by 
their eating too large a portion of turnips in wet sea- 
sons. It also originates in the sheep being let out of 
the fold when the ground is covered with hoar frosty 
and often from feeding in the oatershes about Mi* 
chaelmas, if the young oats are strong. It is soon 
obviated by allowing a small quantity of hay to coun^ 
teract the wateriness of the turnip. Haifa pound, or 
even a less quantity per day for each, is enough, li 
is thought that clover stubble and folded land, pro-^ 
duce it in wet weather. 

2. Gall. 

. Occasioned by feeding on turnips, and other green' 
food of the like nature. Sometimes they have been 
bled for a cure, in the vein immediately under the 
eye. It is a purging which generally continues till 

thejr 



SUEEP. SS5 

ihej die. Feeding upon land lately folded, seeds^ 
rape, turnips, in wet weather, occasions it. 

3, Dropsy of the Brain^ or Pnterish Dunt^ 

The principal malady to which tlie South Down 
s^heep are liable ; it is in other districts called the 
sturdy J or dunlheaded; in Sussex being paierisk^ 
Trepanning has been recommended, but without effect. 
The most advisable mode is, to slaughter them imme- 
diatdy as the disease seizes them. A paterish sheep 
appears to be deprived entirely of its senses, and is 
continually turning round instead of going forward. 
The disorder is caused by a bladder or bag of water 
that surrounds the brain, in which is a hydatid, but 
there is no cure for it. Every farmer is more or less 
subject to annual losses in his flock by this incurable 
distemper : for it is, without doubt, one of <the most 
destructive maladies that attacks the flock. 

4. Rot. 

Of this there are three sorts, the plain, the gravel, 
and the flesh: the two last are deemed incurable. 
Some few attacked with the former have beea saved. 
A physician in Sussex once tried half a score by way 
of experiment : three doses of preparatory inoculation- 
powders for this rot : five of the worst died soon after 
the third dose ; the remainder lived two years after, 
but never grew much better. The rot was never known 
to be caught upon the South Downs. When the 
fainiers suffer in that way, it is sheep that have beeti 
put out to keep in the Weald, or turned into the marsh 
to &,U A marsh which is occasionally overflowed 
with salt-water, was never known to rot sheep, but is 
9 mo9t admirable method to keep them sound and 

healthy ; 



iMltlly; andifanytbilii^cift dfaitdMBttk, ithumtt 
land. Mr. Ellimul dbsettes npM it, iltttif^ rnAsm 
frost, even so early as October, sheep are tamed itito 
these meadows and brooks, which are at other timci so 
liable to rot them, they will not at this time biiA# at 
all ; as the animalculs^ which the insects deposit iii^ka 
atimmer amon^ the herbage, are destroyed by the tmL 
The flounder found in tlie liver of the aoinial, it t^ni 
up with its food, August, September, Octotar^ ittl 
November (provided there is no frost), ai^ the lAmk 
favourable momths to bring the rot ; but tiSxit a rii^ 
night of any sharpish frost, it is over for ttdiyetii. '■ 

6. Flux. 

The fldbove are the principal ditorders of South Doihr 
4hcep. Others of less note are, the flu±, lipailg|ii^ 
occasicmed by feeding in wheat stubble. 



. I 



6. Slipping the Lamb. 

Mr. Gilbert, of East-bourne, some few years ago, 
lost 80 or 90 by this complaint. It was attributed to 
the feeding them upon rape about Christmas ; yet he 
had fed them upon it before, without any bad eSecU 
The sheep had been hard kept. The same thing has 
happened among other farmers ; but it is remarkable, 
that a neighbour fed his rape over the hedge at the 
same time, without any inconvenience of the kind< 

7. Iloting, 

Or bursting with eating luxuriant plants, clover, 
rape, &c^ Mr. Eliman remarks, that they are never' 
subject to it when the food is wet from rain or deW ; 
an erroneous idea, very common, lie always choosiis 
to turn into such crops at such a time ; but tVhen (|iiitef 

dry, 



81t££P. 






drjT) and the«leaf at all withered from a hot sun, the 
danger is considerable* The remedy : half a pint of 
lintseed-^oil to each sheep, given with a. horn, wMch 
Tomits them directly, and never known to fail. 

d. Drunk* 

Mr, Davies, of Bedingham, had, one year,, eight 
acres of buck-wheat, which his shepherd fed with the 
flock for two hours when in full bloom : all were 
drutdk ; the glands of three were swelled quite to the 
eyes. On hogs it had the same effect. Bleeding made 
the sheep worise. However, none were lost* 

9. deeding on CharlocJc, 

Great injuries have been felt by lambs feeding npoa 
charlock, amongst the turnips, cole, and sometimes 
on the fallows. Old sheep are not subject to it, only 
Iambs. 

It is the fault of the present age, that we have no' 
public institution, conducted by men of real science,' 
for improVemehts in this branch' of the farnier's art. 
Nothing essentially beneficial in curing the diseases o^ 
live stock, has appeared from any estaUishnieiits yeU 
funded', except in respect of horses. 

III. Profit. 

^T^nder this head may be classed the following ar- 
ticlfs: 

I. Expenses. 
.S\ Produce. 
S. Fold; 
4. Wool. 



.» *'• 



«V«sEx.] z 1, Expenses. 



wUIi citfvrr !Lnd trc-^ 

ort )H>r acre, At bd. f £.6 19^ 4 

fir, _.„.3 .1 



■9M «|i,ap* 

nil viU be bat ex^ine^, i]|r thf^^t^li^i^f^ 
flf a flsdk. of 380 Sowth Down ahtep, '«poii vtmnun 
ftwnokymn, dnwnap by Mr. ^lauai 

Tn M metm nwa wUIi cUvrr a.nA trc--) 
. fi^-SBi. each inrt | 
' perpoondtagfetlrtr,- 

Toaawinj^AeaboTV, I) ^. pcracnr, ._..... £[-# 

Ti»«aejrtw*sinit^ Urtl [lurUb riitxs, — -„. U V^t 

l^UaoaMWBWiA ny-^rnsH amongst} - * - < 

wheat, one baAA aad -a half prr acre, > S ili .3 

a». &{. — -y^ --.^.._^__^3 

To sowing dHaOf atid-fei acie, '.■»■.««■ 6 fi • 
To oae hanoinii;^ ai'^d, per'aiar^ '«»-,-.i.j-'0''"A '0 

No RMt aad ntei to Ihe ray-gran ; the wMb yair'a 

^t^&o. I chai2;e to the sacooeding ctop otUatafa. 
1 1^ &e mjr-giass rematn in the ground only one ytUf 
fiomf^ time it is sown ; 1 plough it np 6fe-taiaift 
the last week In Ma^, or the beginning .of June, at 
which time the roots, not having much hol^ in tb« 
ground, shake out very easily with the haftom. . | 
gire Cmr ph>nghiQgs for turnips. - ' 

To 15 acres sown with rye in th? wheat- \ 
ftobbles, assoonas the wheati8teap->j^..5 5J9 
«d; seed t«o bushels per acre, at3ff. 6d.J rti.' 

To one ploaghing, at 6s. per acre, .». ... 6 0ft 
To sowing of ditto, at 4(f. .—.....«_.>..... S-t 
Tothreeharrowingi, at4if. .„.....» 15 



The. rent and rates charged to (he laceeeding cnqiof 
tUBi|if. 



9AeeP: 



m 








6 




12 

2 




8 




itifhip^; 1 never sow any rye for seed ; Sow It for the 
tourposc of sheep-feed in the spring, as it comes eatly, 
iind produces a gi'eat deal of f^ed for my coupled. 

IPo 20 acres sown with winter-tares on a 
the oat and barley *stubt)les ; seed iyfO>£,ii 

bushels per acre^ at 5s. 6d 5 

To one ploughing^ at 8^. 4,.,i ••.•••• 8 

To sowing of ditto3 at 4i/. • <.•••...• 

To three harrowingSj at 4(/. ..•^...i. •••• 1 

To three-fourths of a year's rent and rates 
for ten acres of the above, being fal- 
lowed up (at Midsummer) for wheats 
when the tares are fed off; as the land 
lies one-fourth of the yeiir under fallow, 
1 think it right to charge the whole 
year's rent and rates to the sheep. 
To threes-fourths of a year's rent and 

rates^ atSS^^ o*^*.....*^...,*.*.^*.....^ 

The other part of the tare ground, I"^ 
. charge the whole yearns rent and rates [^ 
to the sheep, being sown with rape for 
their tise, after the tares are fed off, ..m^ 

To rape«>seed, 10 gallons, at Is* 3d. ••« 

To one ploughing, at 8^. «••«•..••••••*••«••«.*•••. 4 

To sowing, at 3d. •«.4 

To four harrowings, at 4(/. •• •••• • 13 

To twice rolling, at 6d. 10 

, To 20 acres sown with spring-tares on \ 

barley or oat-stubbles, two bushels and > 12 10 
a half per acre, at 5s. per bushel, ..•..• ) 

To one ploughing ditto, at 8^. • • ••< 8 

To sowing ditto, at4(f •••«•.*••••• 

To three harrowings, at4(/ • o..... 1 

To one yearis rent and rates, at Hs .,»• 14 

z2 After 



8 5 d 



V 11 a 



6 

6 

4 










6 


8 















f 



I 



f 



AQtor IIm ii]pofv« fares arc fed <yr i00iraAt(tf I dU Wft 
irmHAefeed) linovputof it fK 1199:^ ti» t«t mpi fp^ 
jRiys1wi^)i |>sowfiipe; soadiT^et I tat it flfeM^litk 
the spring, and snrw the groaacl with bailejj l]||pjt i||i, 

comawiiy, feed it oflfal; Michaetmas, aii4 sow whea^. 

* ' .'...■■# 

ToiafXHseed, oip^ galtoyi per a^ie, at If » 34* ^«i & 

7^ «9ie pbug^Pf, aiSj^ «^ ■> *^^ k * ft f 

Ifo ^^iag, at 3rf- .., . . ■■ ■. , » ■■ 0. 6 • 

To tliror hanowjiigs^. at 4€f^ .qp, -■- it ; -Q . 

To one loUiag^ at fiiT. ».^...^n^..^^..,.^,,^ Q V9 O 



■•■•li** 



r ■ 

Reat^ &c* chaigodito the iKQBSi: ^ 

To 30 acies sown with tarhtpn ; seed, tOlie \ 

pint and a half ^ acre, at 4tf: p^p /tO* IH* • 

uIIIm •■* — •>■•»«>•■<»>■•»••■< — ••■■•<•*•— <••#»»••— y ^^ 

To three ploughings for 15^ acres, at 7's. «• 13 13 Q 

To fijHipdiitO:; the other 15 aor^ at Ts. •— "21 6 

To 10 harrowiag^, one with the other, .•-^. .500 

To three rollings, at 6£f. •«««•— •—««....«^«,«.*,« 3 5 

To sowing of ditto, at Srf. 7 6 

To 20 acres of turnips, hoed twice, at? 

95. per acre, ««...«..»«..««....«..«.«.^ 5 

To 10 acres, oncelioecl, at6j, «•«—«.••••«••«•• 3 

To rent andratcs, at-Hi. per acre, ••«-..«•• 21 Q 



^■"•*^« 



' I observe im (he Diike of Grafton's account of his 
flock, arc c)iarged only two extra ploughings and thres 
harrawiiigs; and in Mr. Macro's account, two extra 
plongbings, and two harrowing* only, are charged ta 
the turnip crop. — Quere, Is the above, the whole of 
the ploughing and harrowing giiren for the tornipsi 

It is not the wliole, but that which is gitea exttaor* 
4inary for turnips, beyond what would be given if it 
wero a &Uow% 

Tht 



r 



If r« Macro hUd done soy that the comjiarfsMi 6( «Kf* 
ferent flocks might be j\i%t^ Tbe metliod bofwt^er is 
oertaifily obje<^tionat|Ie, becair^ if aot sofirn witb Imr* 
nips^ there is certainly no necessity that it irftoaM bd . 
ihllo^iined ; it might be sown ^ith tares^' rape, ptkatots^ 
&c. - 

In sncti calcolfttions, the food given to stock stmnld 
be charged either at what it would sell for <ki the a^pdt^ 
or at the actual expense of it to the faniA^. 

To 30 acres of grass in the ]awn, rent"^ 
and rates at 205*. per acre : I charge i 
only three-fourths of the above to the )>£.?2 10 
sbeep^ as my cows run there in the 

To eight weeks' keep in my meadow and j 

pasture-land, in and after lambing- > 56 

time, for 560 couples^ at 3d» •.•^••^••. ' 

Toberbage of 120 acres of stubbles, af-7 3 
. ter harvest, set at Brf." per acre, •—^.••3 

To mowing, haying, and carriJ^ge, of90> ^ |^ q 

loads of clover, or tare-hay, at 7s» 6d, V _ 

To thatching, afnd strftw for ditto, -w*.^». 110 0^ 

To^ rent asnd rates of 150 a^res of sheep- > fjg id , (f 

^wn, at 3^: ••.-««*....4**— ••*••-«•.»— ••^•w* J 

To 40 new wattles each year, at 2y. 6rf. .•• 5 0^ 

H^o repairing the old ones, •••^••••^•.••»».***— .^a* 1 \0 Of. 

T<^ carriage of the wdttles about the farm, •^» 9 ff 

To sivephefd's wages, •-• •^^•••••••.^^^•^••••••* ••• 30 O 

To boy's ditto, •••.••^k*.v— ••»**M»»bw..M.*«**-.»..«*M 3 18 & 

To" an assistant in lambing-time, £aui^ h ^ & 

weeks, at 10^* •••—•— ••••••.••^•••»— •-*•-»• ^ 

z3 To 



/ . 



$tl!t^ SIttBVV' 

r 
* ■ 

ToynAiBgf sbjsurbg^ and windiqg of^ ,. r . 
. wooly 1440 ewei) t^ and bmbs^ at> £»1 4 ft 

To carriage of the wool to miurket, ^.— -f^. . Q . IQ^- 0* 
To expenie of keep for SSO lambs put out ^. 

. in winteTy from Idi^haelmas to .Lady-> . 4.6 10 . Q 

day ; 10 lost lambs, not paid for, at Sf. ^ 
To expends driving out to keep, and J ^ ^ ^ 

^ liRiigmg home, '^•f*Ma*M*«f««»M**MMMMf»«f*^*) 
To expenses at fiurst for vattks, &c. •\>*.**» Q Ifri 0^ 
To the use of 11 rams, at 11. Is^ each, ^^^ li 11 Q 

I am rathar at a loss to know how (o make out a fistis 
account with respect to my rams, as they do nai feed 
.pn the lands which I chargOito my flock, only five wedu( 
in tjie year ; that is, the times my ewes go to, .'I breed 
my rams for sale, which has turned to advantage foi 
some years past. My practice in breeding my rams is, 
to take 50 of my best ewes out of my flock (those of the 
l)cst shape and best wool), and put my best ram with 
them. What I mean by the best wool is, a thick curly 
ifool, with depth of staple, and even topped; such 
wool as will be^it defend the sheep in bad weather : from 
being very thick, and evpn topped, it will not admit the 
yatfer to penetrate to it, as it does a thin, light, loose 
wool. I have found from many years' experience, that 
sheep (in the same flock) of the former description, will 
keep themselves in better flesh than those of the latter. 
When I change my breed, which I think it absolutely 
necessary to do, I get some neighbour to let me take 
out 60 of his best ewes (of the former description), and 
put my best ram with them, and J save rap lambs 
^om them. 



By folIowiRg tbc above practice, and drafting oat 90 
or 40 rd'use ewes each year, I have got my flock tde- 
rably good, botK for shape and wool. The farmers on 
the South Downs, a few years since, were taught by the 
wool-^bnyers to bc^eve, that it was not possible to in* 
crease the quantity of wool, without decreasing fixt 
quality ; an opinion which was not grounded in truth; 
for by adhering to the rule before-mentioned, 1 believi^ 
I grow the heaviest wool between ilrighthelmstone and 
East-bourne, and sell for the highest price of any wool 
on the South Downs. 

I do not put more than eleven rams to 560 ewes; so, 
by saving 20 ram Iambs each year, have an opportn* 
nity of refusing eight or nine : the refuse lanibs I sdl 
from one to two guineas a sheep* As 1 do not k^ep my 
rams in the flock, as I mentioned before, I -have not 
brought the profit of them to this acconut* 

To tithe of 1440 ewes, tegs and lambs, £.S0 

. To interest of Stock : 

560 ewes, at 20^. £. 560 
326 lambs, at 13s. 208 
w aitics, •••^•••••••♦••« 3\j 

Interest of ..^o* 798, at five per cent. 39 18 

Total expenses, •...•...•.•—••.••—•• jT.SQl 14 9 

2. Produce. 

Total flock ewes, •.•«•••—»••••••••—*.•••—•.—• 560 

Losses, •••••••«•••••••••#•••••.•.•••.•••••••••••••••.•••••• 6 

Profitable stock, •••.•••••••.••.••.•.•••.—•••••••«.•• 554 

Twins made up for losses and barren ewes, as the 
number of ewe and ram lambs are nearly equal. 

z 4 Say 



S^ RUCEP. 

Stiy cwc lambs, SSO 

Wclber d'itfo, 1 2(i0 

Riim iliUo, 20 

560 
f take out for stock, 

Ewr Ininbs „„ wO 

Wcflier ilifio, „..„ 100 

Avcraffc. price of sale ciyes aiid Iambs (i^rstvcn years: 

HOwtthcr l;imbK,so!(lfir i3s.2rf.pcriani!J,;^.9S 3 4 

go rt'f.ise aitio, :.( 8*. Gd 8 10 

50 cwc Iambs, solcl at I In. 8rf. per loinb, .. QO 3 i 

10 rcfiisp dillo, nl Rs. .- 4 

20 ram lambs kept for my own use ; I vii- i[ .jj. fx i\ 

lue tbfni at 2f)« S 



5 
30 IS 



1 kecj only Ibrce ages of tbe ewes in iny flock, vh. 
two tooths, four toollis, niid iiix loolhs. At four yrars 
old, I sell them off, adding 210 ewe-tcgE to 554 flock t 
total iwes, 7G4. . • 



For sale, 170 old ewes, sold at 18s. 6d. ^.157 
34 refuse ewes of two tooths, four tooths, 

. agd si^ tooUu, sold at I8j ...»»... 

100 best wetber-lambs, kept for stock, r 
^ut them out to keep in the winter 
(from Michaelmas to Lady-day), at 
3s. per lamb: they are kept in the 
flock from Lady-day to Michaelmas 
following, arid, then turned off for fat- 
tening ; allowing three for Imses, 97 
only arp turned ofi^; value them at I9s. 
per sheep .............»..k..««.».,.....J, 



VUi 



«••••«•• 



Itko vsighi and price of aiy wool £nr the \tmt 

, years. 

Fleeces per tod of 33 lb. Price per toL. 

1782 :.. Ui ...^.£.m Q 

17i3 .. 14| 

1784 13i 

1785 15 

1786 1S| 

1787 «;..... 14 
'' 1788 124 

Average, at 14 fleeces to the tod, 38*. per tod. 

To quantity of sheep shorn : 

Flock ewes, 554 

Tegs, ........ m . 

864 fleeces- 



34 


6 





89 


6 





.«i8 


6 





36 


6 





40 








41 









Arcrage, at 14 to the tod, gives 61 tod ? /» 1 1/7 c i. 

■ 231b. at 38, .....V-^^ ^ ^* 

560 iambs shorn, weight of the wool, \ 

80Z. per lamb, gives 2801b. at6rf.> 7 

per pound, ...«« ^ ' 

Folding 60 ewes ofarable land, at ^5. 50 
Ditto 10 acres of down in the winter, > 7 m O 

when the arable land is wet, 15^ S 

One month in lambing, folded on litr*^ 

ter in the sheep-yard, exclusive of \ 

cold nights in the winter; set this j 

standing fold. at • .^...v*****--*^ 



7 



Total produce, .,..,...£. 622 1 1 9J 

Total expense, •••»o... 501 14 9 

% ■ 

^rofity •••f««tM««»«MM!M«M^«ij8Q.17 OJ 

Ifiad, 



SW tntir. 

I find, in looking over the accounts of (lie DuIi«of 
Grafton and Mr. Macro, that no rent anJ rates for the 
Inrnip land is cliargid in either account. The Duke of ' 
Grafton has set the lithe of his flock at 17/. I3s. 6rf. I 
have set the tithe of mine, as vou desired, at 30/. the' 
same as Mr. Macro ; though J thiuk no tithe ought 
to iiaTe been brought to the account, as I hire my lands 
tithe-free, and pajf a higher rent accordingly ; artd if 
no rent or lithe for the tuniip lands was cliarget], it 
would make the balance in favour of the sljeep-masterj 
174/. n.u Ojrf. 

This account, I flatter myself, wilt be Ihonght a feir 
on«, as I have endeavoured all ibrouirli the account, to 
divest myself of every partiality in favour »rf" my own 
breed of sheep. 

It may be thought my losses in my flock are set too 
low ; but to the best of my knowledge, and from the 
private account of my flock wlierc the losses are nttered, 
believe it to be a fair statciucnf, as mj sheep in gcnenj 
•le very healthy. 

3. Ford, 

1, Space, 

2. Talue. 
. S. Stock. 

'4. Advantages. 
5. Standing fold. 

Undoubtedly, one of the most valuable practices ever 
established on the South Powns, and the universal at* ■ 
tentioi) paid to if, shews how well adapted the breed is 
to support bare keep and distant folding ; for the pou* 
tion of great numbers of farn^, in this respect^ is sacbj 
as to put the Qoclu to tt|c severest trials. 



The practice upon tlie Downs, it appears, is, to fold 
Hipon the arable lands : in the winter, upon such as ai« 
intended for pease, oats, or turnips. At this season-, twi^ 
folds are thought necessary ; one on the Downs, where 
tjie sheep are penned in rainy nights, when the arable 
lands ape ILop wet for them to set on^ The eafly part of 
fixe summer, they fold on such lands as are inteH^ied 
for turnips ; after which, upon lands which are in rota^ 
tipn for wheat. Jt is not a cbmnion practice to fold upon 
pasture land, although Mr/Ellman ftequently does it 
soon after lambing time. Folding begins spon after 
lambing, yfhen the lambs are about a fortnight old, 
and continue folding, except in very wet weather, till 
the ewes begin to lar .b again ; and it may be .said that^ 
during^the lambing season, they are penned either in 
the standing fold or in the pastures. But this is Mf. 
EUman's mode of management, and not the usual prac» 
tice of the county, since some of the &x:k*masteri 
allow their sheep to lay out of the fold on the D6wb« 
for three or four months during winter, 

1. Space* 

Mr. Ellman states, that a flock of 500 sheep will pea 
S8 square perch each night, which is 50 acres in a 
year; allowing them to be left out of the fold two 
months in the year, which is a fair estimate for the 
Jt)est farmers. 

2. Value. 

This is in proportion as the farmer considers the 
profit of the fold. It varies from 35s: to 42^. per acre, 
which foi: 500, is firotii 87/. lO^r. to 100 guineas for 
the 50 acres, which, if we take the average at 94/. for the 
flock, the annual value of the fold will be, per head, 
^s. 9d. and a small fraction : at ifi6 guinea^,, it is 

4Lf, 



lift NW7? 

4#* S|i^* per head. Of yhat paA ittnmqmmJkt^ 

is to the fiunaery ivheo the Tfthie o£ ii! 'fr fhwinj tt Ikm 

Ugh! - , • • v. 

■ * ■ ■ , 

All the sbeep^ excepting the fet' fltock, m ji q i iliMf ^ 
fcldcd t these afe never folded ; and this is oiM;-bf tito 
BsasoRs vfhy the Dishkj sheep aie never foMiNf, at A^' 
are incfined to fatten^ which Aeftld has agrtilici^ 

dency ta reduce. "' '=' 

4. Advanimgrr^ . ' ' 

*■ 

. The benefils which aocrnfr la the femrr fiMi Ai 
Jblil) are snficienllj strikhig, and will hr iwnm^iiMgfi 
perceived^ if we consider the floc\ as n asw^ckif dnq|^ 
hUIy manuring the hmd iriihont any eaqiejie^ ^ If. ih# 
iheep aie well kept, it is eqnal to a coated mvchftv this 
fini crop, bttt is not so durable^ partteotosj^ oi^ rliwil 
wheie ii is often repeated. It has been affinnedy thai 
Iblding on chalky lands,' makes the wool, hanh^ aad 
not mill well, not being so soft ami silky as other woal^ 
but the. colour very fine. Such remarks as these should 
be treated a^ they deserve, when it is considered that 
Mic finest wool in England is groNvn on chalk hills. 

Although it is a lea In re in the busiaesa ef foldiag 
altogether unknown in Sussex^ yet if soroetrtab coaM 
he made by dividing the flock,^ it would seem that thcfa 
arc great advantages which would flow from it. 

Mr. Boys, in Kent, with a flock of 1200 South 
Downs, is so convinced of the benefit of it,, as to be 
surprised that it should be called into qiiestion for a 
moment. He does it entirely for the fold-; and there 
can be no doubt but many more sheep might be hepi 
upon the same space which it requires to feed amy gifreoi 
number, accorcfing to the present practice* The waste 

of 



i$/t feod is not Inconsiderable, ^en tc numeTDUS flock it 
Mnied off at onceover a large piece of ground ; but int 
mn Often country like the Sussex Downs, this practice 
Ivoold, gencraUy speaking, be hardly possible to carrjt 
isto-ei^eiition^ 

5. SiencSttg Fold. 

1»;Mr. Ellman^s management of his ffock^ th(«to »-% 
cifCHunstance 'which should be ifiore universally «t* 
t»ded to ; not indeed that he is singular in it. Htf 
hB& two or three yards well Weltered, for the sheep^ i^ 
So down- in at night, ia very rainy and stormy weather* 
One contains, in<duding the sheds, 355 sqtiadre yards^i 
Tha sheds around it are aboiii ^Hir yards wide,, and tbt 
^vMie thoroughly wdll Uttered^ These yards are ex» 
ijIWldy warm, and preserve many lambs in bad* 
veatibor; around the whole circumference is a rack for 
graup^ hay. The late General Murray^'s standing foldi^ 
were equally well contrived, enclosing an area of fifty- 
seven yards in lengthy and twenty broad, containing 
1140'fiquafe yanls ; above 700 ewes w«re folded in it-at- 
nigfat^ and for that number'it is more than a yard and 
a half for each sheep* All around it was a shed, nine 
pr ten feet wide, and also across the middle, which lat« 
ter was open on both sides. A rack for hay placed 
against the wall, which was boarded, surrounded the 
whole; and another, which was double, to be eaten 
out of on both sides^ stood along the central shed; 
onder the r^ck was a small manger, in which the* food* 
was:given« 

4* Woql. 

G wit exertions have been made of late years, amongst 
tii&South Down farmers^ to. improve the lleeoe, both inf 
^[lumtity and quality : the extraordinary demand which 

has 



850 SHELP. 

Iras brcn rrraled for the woolk-n goods of England l4 
toteigu caunWu-s, since (Iwterminatioiiof the Amrricul 
Kiir^ h us had Us cllVct upoii the gnmer ; aiidlbeinv^ 
provL-iiieiit (»f I he wool hiis bptn the conscqiwitce of ait 
increased (Inniind fur Ihc comiiiodify, notwithstanding; 
the moTi0poIj of the raw material. -IJnt in that caga*^ 
ncss, so prevalent for ini{)rov!ng the fltVcc, it has lia^' 
pened that the flock-master has sacrificed points n^t 
greater value, in order to t tin prodiidioii of finewodf^ 
The shape of (he Carcass I I had (hat attention p^tf* 

it in Sussex as in Ibices.. ire ; nor has that desiW 
been m[inifi?sted which is necessarj^ if it is osi«cted t# 
combine a line fleece with a fine form. 

Mr. EUman's is gcnerallv admitted to be the fini 
flock, whi>se exertions ha bcfn unremitted : Mr. 
Thomas Kllman's flock is t far behind his relatiMf 
of Glyndc. They have eacli of them uniled Ibose vw- 
luablc properties whieh so essentially eOnlribnfe to th# 1 
perfection of the breed ; v>i>o/ and shape. It was hfr* 
fore conKidcrcd as impossible, to bring the sliape of the 
animal to any d^ree of perfection, without sftcrifitfing^ 
the qaality of the wool ; which idea origiMJUd iii'tlie 
feet, that the finest wool is found only on s riHj^iWIS : 
, itnd where the carcass is not considered oF tttf'-iatKb 
•onsequcnce, and therefore not imjuroredL* If'Ae^Mtity 
js examined between Lewes, East-bourne, and mfgliftti), 
but especially about Bourne, in this district th^ finest 
wool is grown ; but in proportion to the finenCs^ bf it 
is its lightness, requiring 30 or SI to a tod : thA dir 
■hapeof the carcass is out of proportion. ' W^t'is 
the cause of a better fleece here than elsewhere ? It i» 
certainly not the' effect of any peculiar good mani^e- 
meiit, for it may be said to arise from tlie porCrty 6f tilt 
jhiad, the citQation of whose &nQ is such w to admit 

■ ■ *» 



«listF. nil 

tern opportunities dT feeding with aaj other food than a 
acanty sheep-w&lk. There are some flocks aboftt Sast* 
bourne^ and iii central situations, that having no land 
mt the foot of the hills, have no opportunity of fi^eding 
upon artificial food.; no winter and spring provisioi^ 
but the native Down, Here the wool is, without doubt^ 
excellent ; the shortness and faareiiess of the feed gives 
it a fine quality, but no weight : and it appears Aat thn 
succulent food, as turnips, cole, rye, tares, and artificial 
grasses, throw out a coarse and luxuriant staple^ but 
diminish the value of it for carding. 

Bmt these ciroamstances, as in the case of Mr« EH- 
nan, are to be counteracted. 

Fine wool, therefore, may be called natural to k South 
Sown sheep; and in proportion to the improvement of 
the hills will the quality of the wool be diminished, if 
due attention be not paid to it, and without more active 
exertions than any that have yet appeared . If one man 
«t Glynde, or elsewhere^ sells the wool of his flock at the 
liighest money value, and yet trusts in winter to tur- 
nips^; in spring,^ to rye-grass, clover, and rye ; in sum- 
mer, to tares and cole-seed ; and John EUman^s pasture 
so wet that be Is unable to keep store-sheep in it ; yet 
bis down or sheep-walk but 150 acres ; what else but 
iniu:tivlty prevents others from pursuing the same 
course? 

The Downs west of Arundel river are very much 
coT^ed with rubbish, such as beech-wood, chiefly 
scrubs; and with furze, &c. so that the natural 
lierbage is not equal to those districts further east- 
ward« The farmers on the western side of the 
. county [have got iuto the notion, that no rams, or 
evsn ewesi but. those that con&e from the other 

sids 




■CRT' 9f TilCf' UUIIIIIJI y afC gO0l^~ im cBpBCvBQE^^BripBw 

^MMSfltfMtf of f M mindli.of ii: Hfr^ 'clatfof iMfin* nftnH^ 
b- ^o(f «H»- Way to fni^MM^ flil^'i^^ f t^'^HtMM 

1. Whshing. . /, .:i' *;;! 

2. Saeaniig. 






mf f 



3. Weight of fleeced 
4# Valiie, * '..''• 

ff. Quality. . .y , 

o. Froportibn of ire%ntiuMl ralnc*^^^ i- ■ '. >> 
7. Number. 



• a. 



*;■ . : ■ I 



1. Washing. 

The mode of washings as* practiiscsd by lifr. EUmdtiy 
& detailed in the foUoiYin^ information* A 'stream 'i» 
always to be preferred. Mr. Ellman has graerally four 
men in the water to wash^ and pens made in the water, 
pointing against the stream, so that Hie thick or jfouf 
water keeps draining from the sheep, and ^arficnlarly 
where they are. His pens in the water are,, the first 
where the sheep remain about three or four minutes, to 
soak the wool. In this pen he generally puts, about 
twenty at a timo ; from which they are put' forward to- 
another pen, where the men stand to wash, which is 
performed by pressing the wool between their hands^ 
after which the sheep swim out against the stream for 
about 15 or 20 feet, which cleanses the outside of the 

wool. 



Urooh JPdurp^nc^ per^cmre for flock i^lieep add lambs^ 
and 6d^ for fat sheep^ are the pticed givea by Mir; fiU^ 
for washing; 



Mldsiimnier id the shearing time for the flocks i ear-r 
lier for the fat shee;^. Clippinj^ the Idnibs, has heeA 
considered in some places injurious ; ds an operation 
tirhich hurts the giowth of the lamb. In Silssex lio such 
effect is perceived. The profit is veryvtrifliiig ; it about 
pays the elpenses^ or ratheir mdre, biit it tends to im^ 
prove the w6ol> and cause it to throw Out a mdre luxu* 
riant staple; 

Mr. Ellmaii has ct practice/ T^faich he thinks answcirt 
to him : it is, to clip otf the coarsest df the vTDOl on the 
thigh^ and dock a month before washing aiid shearingj^ 
-which he sells as locks; the quantity b about 4dz; per 
sheep ; it keeps then! clean aiid cool iii hot weather. 

Fifty shi^p are sheared by each mail daily^ at 
Sf . 6d. ; or h. pet score, and board. 

Mr. Bllman stores his wool in upper chambers, as 
the moisture it would produce on a grdund fioorj^ 
if it remains there any length of time^ is injurious to it^. 

Twice shearing in the same year^ was oi^ce tried al^ 
iLn experiment by Mr* Kemp) at Coneyborough ; the 
first clip was six weeks before the Usual timcj the se<^ 
fcond in September. Clothing th^ sheep has been at* 
tempted^ but it failedf i 



- n ff 



^ It <t9A b^ no injury to th^ woo), to shear (he sbe^p U M0& ai it it 
diy» M the washing talced nothing but thd din sLnd filth frdm die wotA ^ 
it loitrfery little Of the greasy dubstancei or yettc.— ^Jfcfr. AU/ny, 

f Cld^ing tKe the^ nnust, I imagine^ be prejudicial both to tlie ih^e^ 
and the wooU Witlievit son and air, ratiu or devn^ the irvol would not 
* Mrsszx;] A 9. Srow 



■Vt 

"The veight of the fleece u'vnnnu^, and dcpen^, 
nnch on the food : aboot Eaxt-boume i( is light ; upopi 
'rich food it isj of coulWibeary — two pounds and an 
iialf ii the nyerage. ' Bfr. EDman hus indeed clipped 
inote than fire poanda fi»m it^eriil of his own breed. . 
The improTemeni of UieGljvdeflock may bese^a in tl||j 
wetghtofit. ";' \_ .. ^ .. .-!,.. ir 

1770 to I774» aTsraged at ^»:»^ . S 1^ - t; 

1775 to 177fl, . ditto.: ,,,,y,,.y^..^^,.. .%..'%■■ 

- *I780to]785, ditto -«.-..--;—. ,8. la. ,i 

1786 to 1790, d^o ■■ , n„ ■■ k.;...-^ (!>.' 

1791 to 1795, ditto 4~— .^.^«-. >. -l^.? - 

1795 to 1799, ditto -A.-;,-»«i««J»..^ «. ■.' 

': 1800 to 1806, ditto >.-...K....|.....-*..a ; 8t.--, 

When if M coiisideit»}, thaitbepriceof theinHAIiia 
b^eil constantly rising, and that it has catried-the high- 
est price upon the Do^vns, it will be fouod an experi- 
mental refulation of d notion not uncommon, tluit joa 
cannot increase the weigbt of the fleece, without add^ 
ing to the coarsenpss of the staple. The contiar; has 
been the fact hfre, most evidently ; and it proves 
clearly, that there is fio necessity for deteriomting wool 



grow to more than iwo-thirda of iti uiuat Imglh (ir m mneh}, and tbc 
hair would be weak and rotten, and not poiieH fuffidmt itrength tte 
tlie diferent operatioat of carding, spinning, &e. Ai to th« ibeep it- 
■elf, it i> more than probable that i(a conitilutlon would Winnchwaab- 
cncd, b} having the eiteroal ur kept fraai ii> body, and ttaM the flab. 
would acquire a rancid unplcaunt flavonr, U ne £iid tliat a «uU dc(rM 
of heat before aiheepii thorn, ha* a lurptiiiag effect on tfaaniiMoftfaa 
fletb, and that it doei not recover iti looal J&iTour in Jen ibui tktee 
WKka or a mencli afitf tl>« fleece i« taken o£—JVr. Wifr^. 



%uttlfi 8U 

bjr ' im|MroYemerits of the soil ; an d that tlie etidence. 
If hich has lately been given by certain woollen rnani]^- 
faeturers, at the bar of the House of Commons, assign- 
ing to enclosures, and consequently turnips^ and arti« 
£cial grasses, the eSeet of damaging wool, is a^erely 
speculative idea^ unsupported by facts. And if| fo^ 
want of due attention, the tillage of Downs has had 
this effect, it has been a consequence hot necessarily 
flowing from the measure, but arising solely from the 
inattention, and other cifcumstanpe^, personal and 
local. 

In twelve years, l769f to 1780^ 31^,238 fleeces were 
registered at East-bourne Custom-house, weighing 
SS,135 tod; the general average, Sib. 4oz. ; and of 
lambs 88,855, weighing 41,6421b. or 7oz. each. 

In ten years, 1783 to 1792, 385,532 Aeecesy weighing 
27,43d tod, were entered at Brighton ; average, 2ilb. ; 
and 217 j446 lambs, weighing 83,1125 average, 5f dz» 
Farther westward, Ihe iJeeces are heavier,, tint cbaisen 

Lord Egremont's two Spanish fleeces, sheai^ iroiii 
rams sent to Petworth by his Majesty, weighed, tU^ 
first, 5 ib. ; the second, 6 lb. ; and the wool beaatifiillj 
fine. 

4. ValHei 

The monopoly of wool by the manufacturers^ hjUs iiad 
such an effect in depressing it below its real value, that 
it makes it difficult to form any fair Calculation ab,oat 
it. We know, that our woiollen fabric has flourished 
Ipery highly^ yet the price of wool has sunk. Before 
the war (1792), the finest South Down wool brought 
tl. a tdd, and even so high as 3/. 4^; Mr. £31man sold 
at that price ; Mr. EUman, of Sboreham, at 91. I7f . ; 
the Duke of Richmond, at the other end of the county^ 

4.a 2 at 



,;} Lord SUeflield's Spanish cross higher tbaft 

jtremont's flock for 1795, was — Hereford, 50lf.; 

South Downs, 49s. ; LeicCEter, §4s. 

y-crs give less for wool that is grown upon land 

he Downs ; they have no reason for it, but it 

: price. 

lowing is the account of John Ellman's flock : 

If-'eigkt.. 

lad. lb. 



29 

31 



1771 


.... 56 


23 


1772 


.... SO 


9 


1773 


.... 61 


16 


177* 


.... 70 





1776 


.... 69 


17 


1776 


.... 66 





1777 


.... 61 


19 


1778 


.... 62 


4 


1779 


.... 67 


14 


1780 


... 87 


'4 


1781 


.... 87 


1'4 


1782 


.... 67 


S 


J78J 


.„ 72 


24 


1784 


!... 76 


18 


1785 


... 74 


20 


J786 


.... 91 


21 


1787 


.... 55 


10 


1768 


... 80 


9 


1789 


... 91 


6 


1790 


„. 76 


19 


1791 


.... «3 


• 



... S7 3 .„ 2 



2{ 
Si 






47 a ... 2 



6f 
12 

irM 



SHEE?. 357 

ffiight. Pric^ per Tgd. Weight 9f , 

the Fleeee. 







tod, lb. 




s. 


d. 




lb. 


ox. 


1792 


•••• 


81 


•••• 


^f 





•••• 


3 


IQ 


1793 


•••• 


— 


•••• 


S9 


Q 


•*•% 


2 


15 


1794 


•••• 


— . 


•••• 


43 





•*••. 


s 


Id 


1795 


•••• 


— 


•••• 


58 





••M 


8 


19 


1796 


«••• 


_ 


•••• 


53 





•••• 


3 





1797 


•••• 


— 


•••• 


48 





•••• 


3 





1798 


•••f 


• _ • • 


-•••• 


50 





•••• 


2 


15 


1799 


•••• 


— 


• f4 


64 





«••• 


3 


9 


1800 


•••• 


— 


• ••• 


58 





•••• 


2 


IS 


1801 


•••• 


— 


• •»• 


57 





••«• 


2 


18 


1802 


•••• 


— 


• ••• 


62 





•••• 


2 


1« 


1803 


•••• 


•— 


•••• 


61 





•••• 


2 


13 


1804< 


•••• 


— 


• ••• 


64 





••*• 


2 


14 


1805 


•••• 


— ■ 


••M 


86 





•••• 


3 





1806 


•••• 


.» 


• ••• 


68 





•••• 


3 


s 



The progress of improvement may be $een in the foI« 
towing table : 

1793. At this period no polled breed existed^ frest 
of Shoreham-bridge to the borders of Hampshire ; all 
the flocks consisted either of Dorsets or Hampshire* 
Wool was now 195. per tod ; lambs^ 6rf. per pound* 

1774, 20^. 6rf. — lambs', Id. per pound* 

1775, 23s. — ^lambs', Id. per pound. 

J 776, 24^. ; wool on the coast^ 23^. — lambs', 7rf. 
per pound. 

1777, 2l5. 6rf, ; coarse, 2ls. — ^lambs', 6d. per pound. 

1778, \Ss. ; coarse, 17s. — lambs', 5rf. per pound. 

1779, About Shoreham, the quality was improv- 
ing ; rams from the South Downs were turned into 
9ome of the horned flocks, which gradually increased 

A a^3 every 



ppimd/ • i- f 

' 1781, tSi. ; oqane, 20f.7-laiiib8% 5ii. jffitpSd^*^ 

I7B8, fiSt. rocMfpe, SOf.-r-IamlMS 5rf. par^^odUI. ' 

The wtool fiNnn* LMd BeIIiam% floek «oUiMlr>Mi 

fer SSf.; at Arundel, Sl#«; abef(( ShoiehaiiiAirklg^ 

SSf.— Iambs'^ 4tf; per pound. - ::****: 

17SS. The qudity and demand increaaed.'' BdhrM| 
Aruildel tod Jihorehain, South'Down wool sold 4Ur1BS)r. 
per tod;- li(»iied flocks, 2U.; cot^^' Sbtir^r^tuBbf^ 
M. per pound. ' ^T 

ITBIl* The same wod as last ysarnow ff>UUte4ffir. j 
homUl^ S5r. and 81xJ-4ambs% 5il.perponi)K|tL*4dM«Bt 
Somptin|( and FiadoB, 32f • ; about Brightoi^'fT^* 

NTBed^ 96$. ; £ae wool, 3Sf • ;. coaki^JBtt. 



. Mi>' 



-—lambs*,' fid. per pound*. 
;1786. Honied, S4i. ; fine, S8r. ; coame^ SSr;-^ 

laint)6^ *6rf. per ])ound. 

1787. Homed flocks, 275. ; fine, 325. ; coarse, 26*. 

1788i Homed, 30*. ; fine, 345. 

1789. Homed, 8O5. ; fine wool, 34*. 

1770. Fine, 325. : the wool that was honied, now 
converted to South Down j from 885. to 3O5. 

1791. Fine wool, 875. ; some few horned flocks left, 
305. to 345. ; about Mitchel-grove, Stake, Westburton, 
•Westmarsh, to Arundel, 375. to 395. 

1792. Fine wool, 485 . to 545* ; coarse, 4O5.: — ^lambs*, 
lOd. per pound, in general. 

6. Quality. • 

The South Down fleece is composed of a very fijae 
pert of <:ardiug*wopl, next in quality to the Ryeland. 

■'■'•. The 



SHEEP .^ 3^9 

Tbe superiority of which, howeyer, is tiot so clear^ 
as it appears that they divide the fleece, and separate 
tliat -which grows upon the thigh, fore-legs and belly, 
to the amount of a third of the whole, which they sell 
at an inferior price. This, if true, explains the re- 
jnarkable high prices at which they have been said to 
sell*. ^ 

Sussex wool is soft and fine, and from three to five 
inches in length of staple, when stretched out. The 
finest of it is largely mixed up with the Spanish in the 
manufacture of broad cloth ; the rest is wrought into a 
coarser kind. 

Sussex wool will make a good cloth in light and full 
blues, and whites, and sotne other very sound colours ; 
but in olives, snufis, &c. will not mill to affirm, sub* 
stance of cloth. " We never were in the county of Sus* 
sex, but are told the wool of that coianty varies very 
much, according to the kind of soil the sheep grazebn. 
Sussex wool beings the freest from black hairs of any 
English wool we are. acquainted with, must, on that 

♦ Our wool Is little inferior to the Herefor4^ if thpy were to sell the 
whole of the fleece without sorting ; a practice not known pn the South 
X)0Wn8. — yobn Ellman. 

Mr. Campbell, in a letter to Lord Egremont, observes upon this^prac** 
licet " As Herefordshire is the only county that I know, which continues 
the practice of trinding (or winding the wool in tops^ ready sorted, ia 
some degree, for fine drapers), 1 thought it likely your Lordship ihight 
have seen, or have knowledge, of what the practice is ; and as many false 
suggestions and surmises have been published in Regard to thd Hereford 
fleece, I thought it might be agreeable to you to have a true state and 
sample of the business in your possession; have therefore tal^n the liberty 
to send you by Drew, a trinded top of wool, being one of the fleeces 
shorn from one of the ewes you have from Mr. Pantall, with the locks 
left out of it ftt trinding, and a card .annexed of certiflcat'on. But I ra* 
ther think, on recollection, that I omitted to say what -freight the di^ 
ferent prices were for ; if so, please to insert p^i: ato<i^ of t^^lve poijuidi 
apdahalf." 

A 2^ 4 account. 



account, be prOpercst for light-co loured kerspymetes } 
ftod for dark-coloured kerscymrjes, tic same woo! ii 
Eiiitable for tLera, as for other plain wove cloths of tbc 
- same dark colours." — Extract of a LelUr from 4 
Woollen ManufaclurcT in Yorkshire. 

Our EngUsh wool may (liu« b>c arranged, bc^uutiQf 
■ffith the best: 

1. Hereford, Shropshire, Upland, WcUIi. 

2. Sonth Down. 

3. Norfolk. V 

4. WiUshirc. 

5. Cambridgeshire. 

6. Dorset. 

7. Roraney. 

8. Liucoln. 

9. North country. 

Qnantity of wool has been the chief object of altcrvt 
tion with the farmer; and the cirea^s (jenernlly thought 
tbfl Bsoond point to be considered. Id the Tttt«f &m> 
aex, Mr. Pinnix at Upmarden has greatly imprpvMl 
bis flock. At the outset of bis improvement, bC' wa^ 
Tery particular in his ewes and ewe lambs vliidi }ik 
bought: of the latter be bouj^bt* third jnoreduate 
want^for tbe succeeding year; aad wh«it- Ihey iMe 
two-toothed, he kept only such as he liked best to bwfed 
bis flpck frqm : at the same time be v^a v^ eaiefiil 
pud attentive iii the choice cd* good rams, la 17ft9, it 
^m» only five years since be b^ao to im^orc bis^Mk^ 
yet he had then by-great attention, reared in ^e centre 
pf the Dorsetshire breed, as fine a flock of Sdutb 
Downs, both in regard to weight of the wool, and £«er 
iwis and ^ape of carcasS] as almost any in tbe^eomttf . 
|li» leading o^^ect wasi to give the greatett atttottai 
'■■■/'. "■ ' ' " ■ *• 



8^EEP• 801 

tobk nm^ and to dnw off all tliat trere dd^YB^ 
miihet ia wool or shape, or in any other pmt. Mr* 
jKiinix very properly considered the uneight ^f the 
fleece as a great point to be gained, obser Ting that » 
fleece of Sib. at 90d. is greatly exceeded in profit by 
the coarser but weightier breed. His flock average? at 

Si lb. 

It is a fact of the first consequence, that so far from 
fine wool being incompatible with a fine form, it is 
clearly ascertained and established, that late improve- 
ments have united them together. How far the quality 
depends upon the food, has already b^n considered., 
Upon a sheep-walk the wool will be fine ai|d light ; 
Upon pastures coarse and /heavy : this is the natural tc;a« 
dency, but breed will counteract it. 

There is nothiog in which Mr r EUman is more praise^ 
worthy, than in the attention he has given to improve 
the breed : there is hardly a greater object than this, 
let the breed be what it may : if very bad, it admUjfs 
aa infinite improvement ; and if very good, it jnay be 
made better ; this is sufficiently obvious, by comparing 
his flock with the common ones of the Downs : he has 
by a long and continued attention to ike rams be saves, 
and to refusing his ewes, brought them to be mote 
^ual, and remarkably fine woolled. This breed, like 
pthers, are apt to be coarse in the breech, which he has 
very much corrected ; and has them less and less so 
every year. This attention has brought his breed into 
aach request, that be sells his rams at 50 giiineas each ; 
yhile the common price is from five to six' or seven. 

' In his ideas of breeding, deduced from long observa« 
lion, he is of opinion, that what he caUs the stain of the 
Jireed, is for some years difficult to remove. A ram and 
ewe both with l$ne wool on the breqcha will in an ordi- 

nary 



ifaeepibvl irDie7.hai!e bceft wd^' Madife i pg wi iia g^Hp^ 
lytibM,: «hm tiww ii yKxtKaaoai JCMwUot.'ilMj |ipiii||| 

«Miib«lci4ke. change in thn taJai inniitliiii wmtm$bi,itlll^ 
was allrayft unial to consider tibie value of the ii^|i|( 
MMljr ibi' piOfi D rtioii «r 4he niinbar that :teadB a M|^ 
Hie lighter the ileeee^ thelbet^tdei ^i^ndb; JfawIHI 
"^um^s. fleeotft aie th^ heeiirtfeoft the ])iirtn^.a]|0y^ 
^gets the- bigheit price e.;lhia[ iMBn^Aj/Ktmilffa^i 
gioQt oonaeqatiice. - ■ /■ -':"');;.;: il^if^-iM 

' That incmuHi^ theqiianlHyyidoai oot'dftnaoaaf^ 
knrtifaeqiuUty, appears tern, the woolHtepl«t»giMf§ 
as much for ihat ef fat iMtfcens as- of leitt>ahe q pu;>i| ' 
vnsti hotrevier) be a8oiied,ithat;they: assfeifcifcto|rt ja i 
trimicrily "vrorth so jnadivb0oa«W|.i4ieaferifcdytJit:yi) 
'Caimot be made so equal ;.<thsy ugim fh^lii^^m^ilm 
better in the milU 

Some expcrimeDts by Lord Sheffield upoa theintiv* 
^duction of the New Leicester and Spanish breeds into 
the county, deserve insertion. 

'^ Abont 8e%'enteen years ago, I crossed the best South 
Down ewes with one of Mr. Bakeweli's rartis, which 
improved the breed, by giving weight in tbefore«partf, 
and morfe than doubled tlic quantity of wool. At first 
I got extraordinary prices for Ihe Iambs ; 3*. or 4*^; 
each, more than common ; but the South Down breed 
being excellent, and much improved, I found it gained 
upon the mixed breed^ and they are become very much 
like the South Downs in appearance ; and the weight 
of the fleece is reduced from fiveponnds to three poimdsl 
If the mixed breed had continued to' suit the fairs of 
this county, and I had continued to does .with the 

Bakewell 



Bakiftwdl' breed, I still think it would have answered 
Tery well for the Kentish men who attend our fairs, and 
ftr Romney-marsh ; h\jtt I believe tlie whole breed of 
Bal^well would answer better for the common consump-^ 
tieii of London, or of a manufacturing country. Five 
pounds of the wool of the tnixed breed, although vcrv 
indifierent, pays better than two pounds of the find 
wool, which is about the average of the finest South 
Down fleeces; and so would seven or eight pounds of 
ite whole breed of Bakewell, although it is very coarse, 

^ But on the subject of fine wool, I have much mona 
to say than I can attempt at present. As an excellent 
experiment is in its progress, prompted by the first per-« 
•on i» the'empire, and encouraged in the manner that 
it may be expected from that quarter, I have little doubt 
of its proving, that as fine wool may be raised in Great 
Britain, and Ireland, as is brought hither from Spain. 
You have heard that we do not import the best: I havt 
a considerable number of the three-quarter, the half^ 
and the quarter breed of Spain. The ewes were the 
best woolled of the South Down and Hereford breed. 
In respect to carcass, the three-quarter breed does not 
. answer, but the wool is of a good staple, of a very fine 
quality, and the fieece is at least a third heavier than 
the finest fleeces of England. 

*^ Many of tlje half breed, and all the quarter breed, 
are well shaped, and nearly as handsome as the best 
South Down, and their fleeces are considerably heavier, 
and very much superior in quality to the finest fleeces 
.0f this kingdom ; but such is the extravagance of the 
monopoly of wool in this kingdom, and its bad efllects, 
that there is no prospect of an adequate price being ob- 
tained for fine wool raised in Great Britain. 

^^-The consequence at- last must be, that the wooh* 

growers 



>H IREEP. 

gieemn nill nfg;Idet (be (me, as (hey have iiaae in g|* 
acTAl) and will ciil(iv.it« the coarse and heavy, wlii<^ 
pa^s muoli better. But this is a large subjecl, and} 
•ball only add, tli.it in respect to the above subject, aU 
tlial cm be learned, may be acquired from the Pro^ 
dent of llie Koyal Society, viho bas forwarded tbc e^ 
}>n'iment in question nitb his usual UberaUty and goof 
tmse, and with an aecuracy peculiar to Iiimself. 

" I have specimens of wool of a Spanish breed broiigtt 
from Spain twenty years ago, which seems to have prcf 
MTVcd in France and England ils original quality of. 
fineness. It bas been the lushton to suppose a fine qiu* 
lily is derived from the soil. I am salisHcd it is only 
to be ex|>ected from peculiar kinds of sheep. A licll 
soil will increase the weight of a Spanish fleece, but U 
will make it hairy or ba ike the coarBc woob of 

England. Tiie difi'crcnce ol climate alone is to be ap< 
prt^hended ; a certain degree of warmth and of perspi* 
ration, may be of service to produce tljat softness, and 
stUiHMat, which i» to be fofHi4 in ibf bept S^wiiaiti nvf)d> 
. *^Tbe inatance of 6heAtaq4 wool #4tep>> ^ nnuKt 
that difficulty. But I h&^c nwuie to. Ieaf» r«l»tiiv t» 
the slu^ of thjote ulands t fOvne very culiqw: ip^i^titf^ 
taoB U likely to be bi0«ghA for««Td «oo« ftpitqetl^ 
their kindly breed." 

So fev axe the experijneirtB jof any coiwfoence, 
wbich liave bwn reg^tetred upon'tliie cfuoiw^vrc mc^ 
pf various breeds of dieep, tbajt we ate, firm tO fi» 
pi;egent,day, very much in (he dafl^ in itB t^M^iiem 
rektMn to tbe propoctioa c^ food to nijiUoe^aSitl) a|4 
tallow, live and de?d weight, &w. jSCc- fif ^ l^ fifiV 
of ascertaining titese esMittial poiuta, po .«bt«dately re- 
quisite to a perf(<ct knowle^^ of (be sttl^Jrot, in ilv 
inontii of August 1796, Hie £«rl«f %UQ9Dt.tttdered 

his- 



t 

Bis Tittter lambs trbi6li had b^h kmbed the ptfedediti^ 
lipHng, to be pidi by themselves^ into a paddoek ad^^ 
joliiing the Home-park. Hts Lordship had 

S9 Soath Down ram lambs, of Tvhich the tiYfelt^ 
best were saved for rams, and sev^nte^n cut for w^ther^ji 

25 New Leicesters, of which the §ix best wete savM 
test rams, and nineteen for wethers. 

12 Half-bred New Leicester and South DoWn we- 
fhers, from the same get as the preceding. 

7 Romneys, out of e^^fcs of Mr. Wall's, whi^h came 
in Tamb by a ram of his own, and, acpordiilg to the 
cofiftdhi of the Marsh, where they depend entirely upon 
grass, without any turnips or other artificial food, were 
not bcMrn till May, so that they were nearly two months 
younger than all the others. 

The 55 wether lambs were turned into the paddock 
Ml August 1795, and were brought up and examined 
June 25, 1796, when it appeared that twelve of the 
South Downs, and all of the half-bred South Down and 
New JLeicester, were marketable ; but none of the New 
Leicester and Romney were in any condition for sale. 
Ten of the twelve South Downs were sent off to Smith- 
field a few days after, and fetched 34^. each ; and ten 
out of the twelve half-bred Leicesters and South Downs 
were sent to the same market a week before, and brought 
33^. each. It is necessary io observe, that the half- 
bred were apparently the better sheep, but they went to 
a bad market and prices low. 

The remaining two of the half-bred, which wete in 
equal condition for Smithfield, were kept back, in order 
to form a part of the following experiment. 

But here it is necessary to p^use, because the expe^ 
timent is already decisive of one factr-that at this agq 
ef sixteen months (from Ma^ch J795 to July 1796) 

those 



Oofetim bnadft mwuwnickBMKidfiBcaA dHB4h» 
otiun, thit fluj ntight be pnfifaibljr cjeand from tl« 
hnd, and a fteih ifock >entw It will noina <br tie A.^ 
fue progiCM of thfr trial, io tHertfMB «1fatlHf:«ilf' 
0Mb itock vonld not' pay better than c9Btvwag'jtti» ' 
,^1) and ibv this purpose we ma; calciilatft.|li»t>ttt • 
ilieep now sold at Sntithfiddlkt- 3is. with the additioa . 
oC Sa.bt wool, . pays fiv 64 tneks Id. per pound from 
tbeir birth. This is a Toy coasiderable profit, and if . 
it should tnm oa.t, that kcerun; them mucli longer is 
BOl-atieitdedwith an advantage scmcwbat proportioned, 
it iriU dearly prorethe sapoior benefit of that breed 
which may begot lid of at so eurly an age. And I 
oumot help farther obsaring, tlial not one of tlie Lei- 
cester being in any condition to lie drawn off in this lot 
£» Smilhfield, ixnoststrangely contradictory to aGser- ' 
tibiis witboqt end, that fiitting at an early age is almost 
pfcnliairly a cfaoracteriatic of. tiiat breed. Now kt us 
proceed with the trial. 

lb. TenWtek* Gaia 
* Oain.' per lOOlb.' 

' Sept. 7. Sooth Downs, „.-. 273 .-. 33 .» 13 ' 

Leicesters, .... S58 .... 46 «,. 21 

Half-bred, ...„ S94 ..„ 34 .... 18 

Romneys, ..;.» S70 ..« 34 ».. 14 

Theresult is not very different from what migftt have 
been expected ; fof as the Romneys and Lelcesters were 
very much behind the South Downs and half-bredi, 
ten weeks before, it was natural to suppose, that when 
they did begin to thrive, they would do it .Oiorf "n* 
pidly. 



liecemba 



« ^^ 

December 1, weighed again : 

Loss in Lost 

lb.} IS Weeks. per 100 lb. 

lb. 02. 

South Downs^ §64 •••- 9 ••••»•••••.• < 3 

lieicesters, .....••• S51 ...« / 7 2 

Half-bred, r282 12 ...m,-.... 4 

Romneys, 269 .».. 1 •...•...•••. 6 

It is very material, in all experiments of this sort, 
to aote the losses, for it makes a trial double, as it not 
only sbdws when the sheep thrive, which do best, but it 
marks equally when they go backward, which breed is 
most able to withstand those circumstances which ope- 
rate against all. The difference is not very material in 
the above scale. In that lot which did the worst, the 
loss amounts to about Id. per week ; but it is unfa- 
vourable to every lot, that in a period including the 
htst part of the autumn (as sheep ought to thrive deep 
iiito November, unless the weather is very bad) none of 
them should have gained, which they ought to have 
done considerably. It should however be observed, 
that their pasture, though good in quality, was bare. 

Upon' finding this result, Lord Egrembnt ordered 
them to be starved for 24 hours, aiid after such starving, 
to be turned out for 24 hours, proposing, by thus 
weighing them, to ascertain the quantity of food eaten, 
and the quantity voided ; his Lordship rightly con- 
ceiving, that if, upon a repetition of such experiments, 
there existed any remarkable superiority, or any mate- 
irial difference between the respective breeds, it might 
tiuow some light upon the general inquiry. 



South 



V 



Ijxt bj I,oBj per 

fiurviag. lOOlb, 

Ii Downs, .... 8 ....»» 3 ot. 

M(«rs, ..._™. H „ 4 

•bretl, 17 i 6 

incys, 5 -... 14 

verc tlirn lurneil ou(, ami were twice migheA 
il^-four liours eating each time. 
< ■" ' " " Sd Total, Gainpcf 

South Downs 7 2 10 

Leiccsters, u ........ 13 ........ 4 13 

Half-bred, 10 „ 19 6 12 

Romacj-s, — ...- ...™.. 3 . 1 13 

Hence it aj s. balf-brcd lost most and 

gained most ; luii r lost least and ate least j 

lliat the Jjeiccstcrs losl i^v in the South Downs, and' 
afe more. Such Ivials must oe repeated many timet, 
before conchisions are ventured to be drawn. HotT 
theRomncys, in the first twenty-four hours, could gaia 
nothing, is not to he accounted far, as the weighing 
was carefully executed. 

March 30, 1797. Weighed again, and as (his weigh* 
ijig will mark the loss sustained by the severest part of 
the winter, it Jcscrvcs particular attention. They wen! 
at grass during the whole scasoa. 

Foot Monthl. ~ftt lOOA 

lb. lb. ' ^ 

South Downs, S3d . .. 11 .^^.u..^. 4 ' 

Leicesters, .... 214 37 ..«.-..™™. U 

Half-bted, 253 „ 29 ............... 10 

Romneysj .^t 25i •......»..«... 13 ».»...i«..rt. 5 

« 



" It i^ lemaffkible, t^at the Leicesters have suffered 
tlie most, firom iivhich we may very fairly conclude, tt 
far as one trial goes, that the grea/t peculiarit|r of that 
breed is by no means what has been contended for^ a 
capacity of topporting itself on little food ; but' that, 
on the contrary, they demand a very plentiful nou- . 
^tishment, and will bear the want of it worse than any 
of the other breeds* The next in demerit are the hal& 
bred ; the SouthDowns ace the best of all. 

June 19* Weigtied agaiii. 

Gain in 12 Weeks. Gam per 

lOOib. 

lb. lb. 

South Efowjis, 299 ..-w...... 46 s. .........„.*. 18 

Leicesters. •••• 275 •••••^••••••««^*«'' 61 otf««4to«tfv«*«M« S8 

Hal&bred, ••.. 310 ...^ ...• 57 .••••wi...^^. iS! 

Bomney$, ..v^ 317 ••o.^tf#..i««.>«...^ 63* M^..^.4^m. 84i 

r As the period from, the 30th of March to the 19th of 
June^ takes in the wbole flush of the spri|ig g^ro'wth of 
gi^s,* it utecessarily forms another interesting period of . 
^ experiments And here the result is r^atkaUey 
mud a strong confirmation of the preceding obsa^tiong 
on. the iieieiest^rs; for wheia in favourable circum* 
^nces rclaiite to food, as in the presetit case,.iToni( 
^eason^ they exee^ all the rest. The Romneys^ how* 
ev^, approach nearer to them ; and as these had Ibst 
iti pinching circumstances^ much less, theii^ Superior 
tity upon these two weighingi^^ seems to be clearly 
ascertained ; and this will appear the plainer^ by 0001*^ 
jMiring. the weight of December 1^ with June 19, 



$U8S<£X*1 



uh 



S0Qi% 



icpffi. 
Soirfh Downs, S64 .^ 290 aS ..^w^. IS 

Half-bred, ...... 382 ...m... 310 ........ S8 ,^... 9 

Romneys, S69 ........ 317 .....••• 48 •.^... 17 

ft 

. Tke merit of the Romneys, in this stage of the. trial, 
is conspicuous. The South Downs are the next^ and 
the Lcicesters and the half-bred are equal. 

Septcjubcr 7. Weighed again. 

^ Gain per 100 Hx 

South Downs, .••• 316 .••.......•••..mmm* 5 

x.ieicesxcTS, .»••••••.. %jl^ .•.^••••••••.•.•m... ii 

xxaii*oreci, ^».«*».. i!)Hr\/ ...m. *••... .......... 9 

Romncys, 337 6 

Here we observe the Leicesters continue to take tlie 
lead throughout the summer. So lang as the food is 
plentiful, they beat all the others : and this part of the 
experiment goes to prove a most important point, 
which has indeed been long suspected, that in good 
situations, no breed is so profitable. Next to these, 
are the half-bred. 

July 4. The remaining five of the Romn^s were 
sent to Smithfield, and brou<^ht 48.?.; and August 7, 
ten of the remaining licicesters went at 48^. and seven 
at 405. So that the profit for two years and two months* 
food, tliat is, from May 17^J, added to the value of the 
wool, is 5d. and a fraction per week for the Romneys, 
and from 4r/. to i-^d- for the Leicesters, from the time 
of their birth. Ry referring back to the former part of 
the experiment, it Avill be seen that the South Downs 

and 



ma MS4Mdi in ^ vwks ag9» l^w^gkfTd. pet yft^ 
profit ; and that tiie RonAneji and jLeicesters, kept U}}, 
ibey wem near twice the age of tlie otben ( 108 the fint, 
and 117 weeks the letter), only gave a profit oitM* to^. 
5dl per week. This is a most interesting circnmstancei 
and it manifestly tends to ascertain how much better it 
woold be to the grazier to get rid of these sheep at 9, 
younger age, and re-stock his land with those which 
are most saleable at the earliest. 

November SI to December S9. Weighed again. 

Oaift. G^ per lOOlfcu 
lb. lb. 

South Downs, 320 ................ 4 • 1 

xjvicesierSj .«•• <7zq .••••••«..•.•.•• x9! ......••«.««•.•• 4e 

Romneys, .... S31 lost 6 lost 1 

This perhaps is the most striking period <^the e^^pcK 
timent. If we turn to the last weighing, it wUl be seen 
that the Leicesters had outstripped all the rest, and.tjhis 
superiority is still maintained. 

Under the article g( fine wool, it will not be.defmeji 
fereignto the subject jus^ to observe, that Spanish sheqp^ 
in Ifteir greasy state, average 6 lb. of wool ; and it losoi 
half in the washing. The greatest part of the produoi 
of the fine wool is exported to work up the fisiteies of 
more industrious nations. 

Mr. Newland, of Chichester, the great impoiter of 
Spanish wool, estimates the produce of Spain eixport^ 
a* 40,000 bags (SiOlb. each) ; 24,000 of it comes t« 
£nj|land. Formerly, France took off a much greats 
qonatity than the above; in 1781, 11,000 bags to 
Rouen only. From the intelligence of Mr. Newland, 
it appears that the,finest fleeces are tiie growth of old 

»b9 Castili^ 



9T2 sftBSP. 

Castile, and the province of Leoo, irhick'trard to tin 
southward : he attributes the fine staple of wool to that 
equality of temperature occasioned by the annual emi- 
gration of the flocks. The best flock, and that which 
is remarkable for containing the'fincst pile, in any part 
of that kingdom, is in the possession of the fiunily of 
Negr6tta. The Marquis d'Infantado's flock produees 
an annual receipt of MfiOOl. a year, but4he othc^a 
larger. 

• 

7. Number of Sheep in Sussex* 

Great improvements have been lately brought for« 
ivard by ploughing up the Downs, and thereby increas- 
ing not only the com and cattle^ but likewise the num- 
ber of our sheep. It is an erroneous idea io isuppose, 
that the sheep have decreased by ploughing up the na- 
tive Down, since we have the most decisive proof to 
the contrary, the testimony of the farmers themselves 
upon oa^h. The Down has been ploughed, about 
Brighton, and in various other places, and the sheep 
multiplied in consequence. In ten years, from 1T84 to 
1793, the flocks about Brighton increased 13,395. 
About East-bourne, the same; and in no part of 
the county have they decreased. . To what cause is 
this assignable? palpably to that which kas ..b^n 
brought forward as proof of the contrary — |:)k(ughiog 
the Downs. 

We liave a most correct account of the number of 
4heep in the cotiuty, including the horned flocks on the 
western, and the Romney on the eastern side, by refty- 
Wngto the Custom-bouse entries. . . 



Chicliestcr 



SBEEF. 



975 



. 


iio.«t 


Weight. 


Lambs. 


Tod. 


lb 


l' 


Sheep. 


To<J. 








ChicbcstQjc 


60,983 


4537 


133,81 


444 





Arundel 


30,942 


2805 


9852 


219 


5 


Sborebam 


28,245 


2280 


10,782 


189 


11 


Brighton 


43,258 


3182 


24,866 


336 


13 


Newhavcn 


45,605 


3247 


18,566 


278 


21 

• 


East-bourne 


30,638 


2207 


8274 


124 


IS 


1 

Hastings 


13,118 


1098 


4555 

1 


95 


S8 


BexiiiU 


11,785 


1351 


2271 


41 


14 


Winchclsea 


9627 


1393 


3816 


42 


9 


Rye 


67,544 


8801 


21,242 


952 


13 



341,745 
113,605 



30,900 



113,605 ,2714 
30,900 



Sheep & lambs 455,350 Tod of wool 33,6 1 4 



23 



this includes all the sheep that are registered, and 
neftrly all that are kept in the county: in this ac* 
4iount, however, some should be deducted from the Rye 
icgister, as belonging to Romnej-imtrsb, and Sonne :l^w 
as entered from Hampshire ; but as 4he entript hfLfdJty 
ohlnace any part of the Weald, where sonie sheep are 
kept, the extra number not registered will make the Inu? 
ianoe nearly even : the whole ^ county then oootnins 
455^350 sheep ; twice this 4s 91,070: aqd Mr. William 
Gardner^sestimateof the number of acrefydeliTored to the 
"^riter, was 933^360^ or very nearly half a sheep pec 
acre, including all sorts of land — ^hut not more than dne? 
fbarth part of Sussex is stocked with sheep^ if the odd 
55,350 sheep be taken as belonging to the We^ld, ihi^ 
tem'aining 400,000 are fed upon. S50,000 acres, which 
is considerably :mpre than a sheep and a half to each 
acfe. Some ctf this land Js.fitoc]i;ed at » oinch. h^ei^riec 

> L »b3 rate 



vttt titm OH^Bt pKrtt. Thp marshes carry two and 
4^ne per ion< The Downs one and a half; so Ihat 
IlkflD i4lagetkBr( it ii (soil coiisii)cre<IJ as high stocking 
«■ cu be fiMud in any part of the kingdom . 
. nefv are atket bMfcds of sheep in Sussrx besides llie 
fonUijWMj bqt M these are the well known breed of 
^MCOMt^^t iBdKKa native origiaal breed peculiar to 
It^ UllM itdie lep occasion to be paiticular as to the 
•4K(if^.M dw Koot sheep have had such justice done 
thoiib; Mr. fia^,^ the others will nodoubt be pro- 
f«tj««liDdedto. 

~ OtiMntraibMida Romneys, Hampshires, Dorsets, 
^VQUUnt} Hld:8MKrse(s 1 the Earl of Egremanl hat 
InttodtlMifl'tlie Hertfotil, of which breed there is a very 
AoUo llotil in Petirorth.pArk. Hie Lordship has likf- 
viae iBtudiioed the Notts, from the neighbourhood of 
nvcrtoii in Derptuliire, a slock very much resembling 
iMf' Nnr hltottter. The ewres rise to SO lb per quar- 
ter ; wetten n hfgtl as 30 lb. : they are generally white 
fkced, bat terger boned, longer in th& Iq^iod body) 
and not to broad in the back : 181b. of vooi bu beet 
■bom from a mm of this breed t the cor 
than Dorset, and the wool 8rf. per pornul i 
Lord E^gremont has in his park three large fiodtfe qf' (Sk 
Hereford, South Down and DiihVj ; and it ian afk^ 
^rioui circaniBtance,that theac three flodf kecfLtboiM 
mivet perfectly diatinct and wparate from tacb.otba-, 
^though each has at much opportttBity of iBtermiti&| 
iritb the other aa they have with tbenuehet, 

Besides these, his Ziordahip baa imported, tbroog^lhe 
medinm of hia Exceltency Count Orlofl^ theiKatniKt 
•bd Astrackan. breed : their ^ief |(ecBlt&ritj>' ia, that 
bi the place of a tail they have 8 very iu^ pr iijectidii 
tf b,\, « ntlitt a kind of bwr^v << ifwt ckqaitBte 



delica(^j : their fleece is a short but not coarse wool, 
but «?Uh hair growing through it. Lord Egrcmont has 
i^Iso the shaul goat of Thibet : from the fleece of which 
the finest and most valuable manufactures of the East 
Indies are made. In 1796 it was in its perfection : Afey 
are not shorn, but the wool is combed oflf: about a 
pound to a fleece : the hatters give a guinea a poutid 
fpr it*. 

BBCTp 



lAiBMaMi- 



* If it is possible to give you aoy information about wool,' that Would 
nd to put the breeders of sheep in this county on thinldhg of the ad* 
vantage which might be derived by attention, wtthoUt its Seitig con- 
strued into sounding my own praise, I should be highly 'gratiiled. fwift 
just aate to you whtt improvenieat might be made by a little attention^ 
|b tiie article of wool CMoly, without mentioning .tht carcaMi ^bi^ f^ 
what you collected from the Cuslora^houMt at East-boui^*, Ntfwhar^y 
Brixton and Shoreham, the number of fleeces and the weight entered 
at those places, and which includas what is here called the ^utli Bdwns 
and part of the Weald, a space of aboac twetity-4ix milct In ieqBtb a&^ 
Joining the sea coast, and fen mites from the sesk The Sottth Downs do 
a€C extend so far from the sea : but by the Wool Bill, aU the WDt)l Ihntrti 
within ten miles of the sea coast must be enrered at the se^avaK CoBtoMX* 
iiauses. The South Downs, or what is here generally understood to 
^come ibdar tfkot name, extends from East-boumc on the eait» tp Shore* 
ham tmtr oa the west. And by the late Surrey, by Yeakeli md Gord- 
Jiers» is^ about twenty-six mile» in length, and a little more thug .five miles 
in widkh. I have taken it at «ix mUes from the sea, as most of the far- 
flBcrt dH tke North side of the Dowtis dip> nearly a mile intet|lt Weald. 
On thii distrid the South Down flocks are kept, although some smaU 
flocks are kept off the Downs and within ten miles o^ the sea, and which 
are entered at the several Custom-houses before mentioned ; but taking 
ifae Downs at twenty^six miles long and six wide, contaois^^^O^tiaJkute 
acres ; on whieh there are kept in summer, about lB^ff0l^ ittUp Mid 
Bniite, AtsA rso,60Oin wimter; \ddeh i» (deducting UHaJk fiM Mt lb 
keep in winter) something lest thatn two sheep per acre in suAmMv and 
-«ae and ane-flfth per acr6 in winter. You will be pleased toobierve, 
diat, full one-half of this district is arable land, amf ihef nfSHtft gMilt 
taind. But here I am going ttoii Wliat t was a^otit to'tttiBcift; A a4Ia «f • 
-'Ttttlige to be gained by attention in improving the breeds Taking the 

Bb4 whole 



\ 



SECT* III. — HORSES. 

' p 1 

The horses employed in the husbandry of the countji 
haye nothing in them whiph ^eseryes particular notice. 

Con^i? 

■ ■ ■■. '■■ >. i ",, 

vviiole quantity of wool shorn between £ast«boiirne and Shoreham riTcr, 
and within toi mile« of the sea, accprdinr to the entries in the yevs 
1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, and 1792, average at 134,041 fleeces per year, 
weight 9490 tods 13 lb. ; from which I will deduct my own flodt, 1007 
fleeces per year, which average at 88 tods 8 lb. or a »maU fFaietioii ihon 
of 2 lb. ip 00. pfr fleece, the accpunt ivill stand thus : 

JFUt€gtm Tmit. Uk 

Total entry per year, 164^1, weight . 9490. 90, of 8Slh, 

Trom which I deduct my flock, 1007 82 9 •» . 

Which Imvct iSSfiSi 9408 19 



Average at 91b. 10 OB. per fleecfs. 

9 4 per fleece, a fiiflTerence of S oz. per fleece for 
133,084 fleeces, is 1559 tods of wool per annum, which I will setat S.> 
per tod less than I 9old for, for five years. 

1788 £.2 1 « 

1789 206. 

1790 - ------230 

1791 - - -- -- - 27.0. 

1792 - - - - - - - 340. 

Average - - - - • jC-2 7 4 

1559 tods at 47i. 4(L is S325A I7j. 4d. per annum, or 16,629/. 16/. 8«/. fqr 
the five years of which this account is taken. I will observe, that I set 
the price Of my wool at 3^. per ^od above thp s^verage of this district ; 
which I am inclined to think is under doqe. 

By this statement, you will see what a prodigious loss of property to 
^he sheep-masters in this small district, for want of attention to the ar- 
^clf of Tfool only, the which, if I was to add the diflerence of price, 

wou^d 



CcmtidcSrable numbers are annually btaght r up- at ihb 
fitin and markets, ivhicb come from other places. As 
the business of the (arm k more profitably conducted 
with oxen, the only material inquiry is the compa** 
fiscm. 

Those who hay^ woyked o^cn, and are well ai> 
quainted with their powers of draught, know that they 
fire equal to horses in the tillage of a farm : therefore 
the fair way to put the case between tbem, would be to 
pompare them singly, horse against ox ; but in order 
to make an allowance every way equal, it shall be adi» 
mitted, that eight oxen pan onl^ plough as muc)i land 
as four horses. 

aroiild be nearly equal to tke above statement, which it confined to 
weight only ; to which let us add the carcass, and here I flatter myself 
it the greater loss by far, ^ I will be bold to lay, that the pAf I told 
my ewes and lambs fpr, thp 1:^ ten years, is more than. 10#. per lamb 
above the average of the whole Down ; which, if added to quality and 
weight of wool, would even surprise you. ' 

My reason for the above statement, is to show at one view, thi great 
advantage to be gained by attention ; and with hopes of seeing my 
neighbours take a share in so important a matter to this coimtry. 
. ^ With respect to this sheep account, you will see, my dear Sir, that X 
had two .objects in view ; one for the purpose of shewing the quantity 
of sheep kept on the South Downs, and the number per acre, and 
which you will see I have done by deducting about one-tenth for what' 
is kept off the Downs in the Weald, and within ten miles of the sea ; 
and this I believe is stating the matter fairly. The other is, to shew at 
erne view, the advantage which my neighbours might partake of by a 
Kn|^ attention in the article of wool only.— ^ai(/i Mmatt, 



., .^i*t 



ITS HOBIB8. 

£||Ti|t 4MKI8A) ft* 12v»* •••••••••••••••••••«•••••••••••••• £ • vJO ~ U ' V 

Yokes and chains for six, — •^•••••.•••••••m— m** 4:4 

Six summer mmiths* work, at 2s. per week, 80 16 
Ditto wiater, at 2s. 6if. ^^.......•«..^..'.«. 86 



■^ 



£.147 
If they rest two or three months, they > 8 

may afford a profit of 8/. ............... 7 

jf. 139 



■•• 



Four horses, at 25s. — ^^«.«..—..^.»^— ••• £. 100 

ficimessy ai 'kos. ••••••••••••••••«••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• if %m u 

%jaM,ay <o iij* ucr \%eciky •«•.•••••••••••••••••••••••••«•••••• 0!s \t u 

Hay and herbage, at6j. per week, — •^..•«»... 15 18 

Farrier, wear and tear, •—••..•...•••••— •,m—*»m«m 4 

;C- 180 12 
All ox-team will plousrh one acre per 



n ax-ic«ni win pious^n one acre per "j 

day Che whole year through, at 42s. f j^.lOS 

per vcck ; six acres, at 7^, •••.....•— 5 







Horse-team the same, ....^ 105 0* 

In favour of oxen, ........•.•.•» £>il 12 

This 

• The common allowance to a farm-horse in winter, or' 
while they arc kept in the stable (which is seldom less 
than 30 weeks), from the beginning of October to the f £.0 5 



beginning of May, per \\<%ck, two bushels of oats, at 
2s. 6J. J 

We give little hay, mostly pease-haulm, or straw, which 1 o « 

I value, with the hay, - - - - - -3 

Per week, whilst kept In the stable, • - • £'0 7 

The 22 week« in summer, or whilst he is out of the stable,? /" n 2 4 
we give about one bushel of oats per week, - " j 

If turned out to grass, and which is usually done in Sus-7 n o c 

sex with the working oxen, I value the pasture per week, J 

We generally give some hay when first taken up in theT 
morning, and before turning out in the evening, and> 16 

which I set at per week, - - . - - j ■. 

Per week in summer, when turned out tQ pasture, £'0 6 6 

If 



* l;h1s too, calculating the ivork according to^hs <!Om<t 
mon custom, that of yoking; three and four times over 
the number it requires to plougli tbe same grcnmd with 
Borsies : but if a pair of Sussex ooten in horoess, are able 
to turn up an acre of stiflf loam in Suflblk to a proper 
depth with an iron plough, with as much ease as anj 
pair of horses, and this too for nine or ten months iit 
twelve, tbe same work may certainly be performed in 
ether counties, where the soil is not peculiarly tena^ 
cious ; and the average of England is not of this de« 
scription. 

Expenses of eight horses, .••,.••••«•• £.361 ^ 
Ditto eight oxen, .*«•••••••••.•«•••••• 147 

In favour of oxen^, .^ • £. SI4 4 

If this bahince be thought high, some deduction maj 
be made, by allowing the oxen two or three months* 
test in the year ; and perhaps something further should 
be allowed for additional provender ; but whatever the 
deduction, the balance is greatly in favour of the ox- 
team ; and when it is considered that the older tbe ox, 
the greater his value, and xice ^ersa with the horse, it 
then becomes apparent enough : the one, at his death, 



M eoiled with tares or clover, a horse will consume about" 
ooe square perch of tares, or two square, perches 
of clover, of a middling crop, per day; the tares I 
^ue at 6<L per perch, and the clover at. 3^ or per 



^£•0 3 6 



CUift bushel of oats pier week, • • •- • OSS 

When soiled, coif per we^ ^ . • - • £,o s o 



SSO KonsEB. 

^Tes beef for mankind, the other u horse-flesh -for 
dogs. 

Is not this a circumstance, if every other Tf as want- 
ing, sufficiently engaging, ivhen ive reflect too, thai the 
immense quantity of beef which would be brouglit to 
market, would then sink the price, and allow the poor 
cottager to partake of a diet more hearty and nou^i^h• 
ing than his present humble fare ? Such a change in 
the circumstances of that class of people, is too strik* 
ing to ne^ any comment* 

Sussex possesses a breed of beasts e(|ual to any in 
England : they arc in general use ; but the system is 
not carried to that extent which it might, for every 
little farmer has his horse team.. The substitution of 
oxen instead of horses, is extremely to be desired ; but 
in the county under review, where the tillage of the 
farm has for ages been done by means of them in a 
great measure, the extension of the benefit, to the utter 
exclusion of horses, would not create that difficulty in 
the execution of the system, which it Mould necessarily 
have in those counties where the practice is unknown*. 

SFXT. 



• 1 am no advocate in favour either of horses or oxen ; but for that 
mode of business tliat can be dpne with the most ease and expedition, 
and with the least expense. 

I have on ray farm some as strongs and heavy land as any in the king^- 
dom, and some hnd sl^ f'ght ; and three herses, with the allowance of 
two bushels of oats per week each horse, arc able to plough an acre in the 
heaviest and strongest hnd, if it has ever been broke up into tillage; 
and will ploi^gh it up to any depth from four to eight inches deep ; 
breadth according to fancy, if it is ploughed at a proper season of the 
year, as such land requires; and when it has been ploughed a second 
tim^ over to the full depth of the first ploughing, tlie two horses, in tl^t 
»prmg and summer months, will plough one acre and a half per day in 
ih;:t land that has been before twice ploughed ; lo there it a spare horse 



'•\'- 
4U4 



381 



l£Ct. IV^.— HOGS. 

The hogs of Sussex are either descended from thci 
large Berkshire spotted breed, or from a cross between 

that 



^■■■B^MBMaKitBMaMt^MMW^ 



for harrowing teed in, if town brOad-cast, or for any other uie the far-» 
Bier may require. I plough with the horses both double and single, 
whichever answer the buuness best ; and kverage the heavy- and light . 
soils together ort my farm. A three horse team will avetage to plough 
the year through scren statute acres per week; which at 7/. per acre, 
n 49/. per week; and have a spare horse for eight weeks out of the 
team. My plough with cast iron mould-board (I have them of diffe- 
rent strength, according to the work and the land to plough in; and 
I can put a sin^^e wheel to any of them, if the land requires it, and can 
occasionally put a pur of douUt wheels to any of them), are drawn 
by a chain fixed to the axis of the wheels, ti^ch chain is fastened to 
the end of the plmigh, to that a good ploughman will plough his 
ground all truly up, and to one depth, let the land lie ever so uneven^ 
>rhich it not the case with most of the wheel-ploughs* 

And three horses, at the following expense of keep, &c« will average 
to plough teven aerct per week the year through ; and will allow to take 
mm bone out of the team for eight weeks, either for rest, or any other 
^■IT^***— the farm may require. 

Tbreelioiics, at S5A each, ••••*• ^.75 

Harnett, at 4/. 4/. each, - •- - * -13 18 

Oatt,at six bushels per week, for six months, - * 19 10 O 

bats, at three do. per do. for do. ...•• 9150 

" Hay for six months, at 1/. I/. • * • • « S7 '6 O 

Grass and green crop for six montht, at 15/. per week, ^ 19 10 O 

Wear and tear of two ploughs, a year, - - - 3 S 

Ditto horse, year, - - -- - -- 150 

Horse shoeing, --•----• 1116 

Farrier, -- ---• -.. 15 

Cost and outgoings of hone team, - • • • 170 7 
Ditto of ox team, •--**.- 14t O 

Balance in favour of ox team ob fint con, « - * £,2fi 7 6 

Tfr 



SSl6 neUiMk 

that 9AA a smaller black, or white htfecA. ^he Bdrk« 
fbire bog rises from 50 to 80 stone^ and some of thb 

sort 



* I ■ II I ■ y 



To the income of the hor le-team fo^ one yeaf ^ 49/. per week, £. 1 S7 8 
To profit on rm> joiui|; hortct, U ptt jtax each, • - . 9 O 

To the incoxAe of the ox-team for nine months, 9Qr. per week, 54 O 
To profit on the oxen, - * • • • * •SOD 



■■ 



Take ...*..•.. £.62 O 
From *...-•••. 189 80 



•«■ 



Remains • • * • • • jC«6?80 
To balance in favour of the ox-team*t out-g^'n^ * » 83 7 4 

Balance in favour of the hone-team for one year^ • jf . 44 O 6 



»»m 



The above ttatement is what a hortr*«eam will do<m any Ikrm in £ng« 
land, where they have proper imptemeacs, and properly applied^—- Jfiv 
Harper^ Bani-BaU^ Liverp^tl. 

Thb statement is not founded on the general syttem of the eoimty, bdt 
upon calculations brought forward as the ittult of Mr« Harper'is private 

practice, and is what a horse-team will do upon any farm in Eoglandi 
where they hav« proper implements, and properly applied c the annual 
lialance in favour of the horse-team is 44/. 6/. estimating a team of oxen 
at eight, and the other at three ; but as these eight will make four teams 
as well as one^ and that too upon strong loam, his ideal balance sinks at 
«nre. Yet this is practice, and what a pair of oxen' will do upop most 
Cirms in England, where they have proper implements, ^c 

Two Sussex oxen in harness will plough daily an acre of strong land 
With as much ease as two horses. I say they will do it, because several 
have done it for years in Suffolk, and the fact confirmed. 

The food created for the consumption of a numerous and increasing 
population, is surely of tome consequence, especially when we contem- 
|jlate tbe origin of scarcities, and consider the land set apart for the 
maintenance of an unproductive live stock. The food eaten by the ox 
is not wasted to raise up an animal for the dog-kennel. The multiplication 
■Qi these lias nevcr^ like horses, been, the cause of scarcity, but every 
i}hde of grass consumed is so much beef produced. The country does 
not import near a million of quarters of corn, to feed our exen with 
j»ats. No man has encouraged the rearing of exen in firefereace to horset 
with such spirit as Lord Egremont. 

Three 



€mt bare been killed 'wbich exceeded 100 stone : tbe 
iCantam breed weighs fat from Id to 2S stone ; tbe cross 
jBBJich approved. The whole breed are thought tender ; 
na erroneous idea. 

'' A very large stag hog of the Berkshire breed was 
lately fattened by Mr. Dale, miller at Petworth, and 
WoQght in a waggon to be weighed in the iharket-place* 

, cwt. qru 

The hog and the waggon at 1121b. per cwt. ? gg q 

weighed •••••-m....m....m.«.............* ' 

Waggon, I — 21 2 

Weight of the hog, 6 cwt. 2qrs. which, at 112 lb. 
per cwt. is 7281b. or 91 stone. 

His oidl was : 

Blood, .^...... ..-..MM M... .-.• 1 6 

Gats, ...•.•.....•.....•••.••M..MM....M.......*.........,........... 4 

^Flay, •......••....M .......••..•..••...•.•...•• ..••...%•• 7f 

Caul, sweetbread, &c. ...; 6 

Heart and lights, ••..•• ...•..••..-• T 

JuflVer, •*.'...*M.....*«.*.......*.M.B......M..M..«...M..........«..*. X 2? 

Grow, *....MM... w..... 7^ 

JL^oose tai, .mmv^mm.... a. ....MM*. ...•..•».••.•••••..... ......M... I. 4? 

^nair, f.. .... ..«.m.*..m.«.....«.. «..•«.•.............••...•••....«. m.^. x- o 

jrisser, .•.M.....«««MM.«M... .«•.«•».•—.......»..•»..«•«. .«...•.••... u 2? 

SO 



Three per cent, upon the annual rent, ,is returned at the spring audic 
to any of Lord Egremont's tenants who shall, during the year, lunrr 
done the whole wcrk of their farms with o:^en, and who shaH not liftTV 
ttted any horses for drai^t upon any land which they shall have occ^ 
fned, of their own, or bdon^ng to his Lordship, or to any otfier persofu 

They will not be entitled to the drawback, if they hkvt not pai^ 
tl^ir half-yearly resti regularly iifo» the d«y»of the sudSiL-*^*^. T* 

firoii^ 



!fes4* 



V0G8« 



. M. lb. 

Brought forward, ••.....••^m..*..-.... 20 

•t. lt>. 

Caul, ......... 4 > ^ 

12 4f 

^Veigbt of the CMrcass, ....M.«..MM..»<......<m.. 66 7 

74 9 

86 7{ 

Wasted, ................................ 4 Of 

' 91 
Another hog, fatted by Mr. Dale at the sallie place< 

tt. Dv 

"Weight of the hog alive, 113 

Weight sold, viz. 

•t. Ibw 

Carcass, --.* - 82 7 

Flay, 9 Ai 

Caul, ; 6 



95 5^ 



Total weight sold, 93 1| 

Weight of the crow, 6| 

Fat takeu from the entrails, 1 4 J 

Sweetbread, #. 1 1 

Weight lost in killing, 17 gj 

Entrails, maw, caul, crow, fat, and \ 
sweetbread weighed, when taken > 71 lb. 
out of the hog, ^ 

Caul> «....« 6 "^ 

Crow, 4 * 6| I 

Fat from the entrails, ]2| > ^H 

Sweetbread^ «.4.....i..*...« 1| j 

Entrails and maw, IS^^-J 

Lost in cleanini^^, *............MiMft..t 261 



H068> 



885 



Liver, •••^•••i....4.«»..M...tWi..<u^.M..M«...«.<.....«M 6| 

Haslet, ......;....^. ..M........-..i -.... 9f 

Blood, ••—.•«. - —.••-—.••—.•••««•.•••• 90 

Bladder, &c. ••.••••-—• — ••.i...«....«a; 3f 

Hair, ....•........* ......-;-..........; 14 

^he Kog was shut up to fat 98th August, 1797, and 
killed 8th March, 1798, being 192 days fatting. 

'the fatting was meal of pease, barley and oats, in 
the whole 78 bushels, which at the market prices 

amounted to •...•. •••• A^l^ 1^ 3 

The hog when kilied amounted to m.««m../ 15 3 

Balance against William Iliale, who fatted \ 

the hog, Reckoning nothing for the ori- > 10 3 
gfinfal talne of the hog, •;tfV...........M....w««.;.;' 



N. B. The value of the fatting^ pex rttdLj iniy ori 
the average, lis, Sd. 

lidgs are either fattened tfpoh barley,' |)eaie, oat$, or 
potatoes : the two fifsf fresquently mixed together t five 
fockis of barley artd one of pease^ Will fatten a; bog of 
60 or 70 ^tone : One bushel of pedse to four of oati^, and 
four of barley, or three or four bushels of potatoes, witU 
two bushels of ground oats and barley boiled, is it good 
mixturre. An average sized hog of 50 stone, Will eat ' 
two bushels in ai week^ and if a fair thrirer,^ g^fM two 
stonein tbctt time.' 

Lord Egf eittont has tried a great tarief y 6f hogs, and 
made many Experiments,- to determinte the most profit*^ 
able food, which is barley ; the white hog for store and 
grazing, is the best he has yet tried. They are killed 
after summer grazing in the park ; and it is a most ad« 
Tantageous method: no corn is given: nothing but 
grass. They are turned out in May, and ii^ October 

ti^ssEx.] c e and 



386 HOG9. 

and November brought to the ^laughter-honsey and did 
good porkers. This is a curious experiment, and de« 
serves further trial. 

In this experiment the hogs ranged over an extensive 
park. In another trial made, they were confined in a 
cage, exactly fitted to the size of the animal, \irhich 
was augmented as the hog grew larger ; and no more 
space allowed him, than what was sufficient for him to 
lie down upon his belly. 

As there were some hogs that we wanted to keep over 
the summer, seven of the largest were put up to fat on 
thc25th of February ; they were fatted upon barley meal, 
of which they had as much as they could eat. Sw9 
days after, the observation of a particular circumstance 
suggested tl^.e following exijcriment: a hog nearly of 
the same size as the seven, but who had not been put 
yip with them, because tliey appeared to be rather 
larger, but witfiout weighing them, was confined oi| 
the 4tb of March, in a cage made of planks, of which 
one side was made to move witli pogsy so as to fit ex* 
actly the size of the hog, witli small holes a,t the bottom 
for the water to drain from him, and a door behind to 
remove the soil. The cage stood upon four feet, about 
one foot from the ground, and was made to confine the 
hog so closely, that he could, only stand up to feed, 
and lie down upon his belly, lie had only two bushels 
of barley-meal, and the rest of his food was boiled pota- 
toes : tbey weR^ all killed on the 13th of April, and the 
weights were as follow : (81b, to the stone.) 



lb* 



Boot. 



JIT 



The hog in tile cage 



Tbe other hogs, all of the same breed < 



Stv 

13 

13 

19 
11 

n 
u 
11 

13 



Ik. 

s 

8 
3 
2 

.4 
4 
2 
2 



The hog in the cage -^^as weighbd before he was pot 
ini aliTC 1 1 stone 1 lb. ; he vras kept five weeks and fitre 
days, and then weighed alive 18 stone 3 lb. ; he had 
two^ bushels of barley-mea), and about eight bushels of 
pptatoest lie was quite sidk j for the two first d»jSy 
and would cat nothing. 

This is a most singular Ksult, and as the hog thus 
confined was so much superior to all the others, thoi^h 
not equally fed, it can scar<^ly arise from any other -eir- 
coinstance but the method adopted : U is extremely cu* 
rioDs, and deserves to be faither examined is qL Tariety 
b( trials. 



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Nitnei. Nov. 29. Dee. SO. Ga'aed Weight I.ou. 

alive. whea deiid, 

kiU«d. on each 

bog. 

Si. St. !b. St. lb. 

Blackhead, -... U2 .... 166 .... 24. .... 127 .... 39 

Longhead, 162 .... 200 .... 38 .... 154: .... 46 

Spot, ,..«..- 160 .... 176 .... 16 .... 1+3 _.. 33 

White, 140 .... 16* .... 18 .... 136 .... 38 

Chubb, 148 .... 17B .... 30 .... 138 .... 40 

Spotbox, 142 „.. 16B .... 26 .... 126 .... 42 

Whitebox, ., 136 .... 178 .... 42 .... 136 .... 43 

Dumpling U8 .... 131 .... 13 .... 97 .... 34 

Slimslack 128 .... 145 .... 17 .... 117 .... 23 

Blackside, ..„ HI .... 162 .... 21 .... 128 .... 34 

1423 1668 21S 1302 366 

Total weight of the-, 
hogs, Nov, 3, (,-,, 

fat on rice, was 
Gained from No- j 

Tember3, toDe-> 623 . n 

cember 30, J 

Rice consumed by -y 

the above bogs,>3033,atl/.4(^pcrpound, 15 15 11| 
was -* 

Balance, ............. ™. — ^.22 S 6j 

Supposing the bogs bought in at 4i£ per pound, 17 8 4 

Gain, „.„,.........M....,.-.....„. £.i IS H 



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392 BEK*. 

The Sussex breed are too Jong in tUejr body, to cut 
them with much success, which is done at three quar- 
ters old. The Derkiiig fowls, as they are called, arf 

, all raised in the Weald of Sussex ; but the finest market 
for them is Horsham. The five-clawed breed have been 
cousidered as the best sort : this however is a great 
iBtstake, and it look its origin in some fowls with this 
peculiarity, that happened to be very i;irge and fine, 
■which laid the foundation of what have been since 
called the Darhhtg, or JitC'claised fozcl, and consi- 
dered in other parts of England as t|ic prime stock ; 

■ but such a thing is hardly known in Sussex ; it is ^ 
bastard breed. The fowls at Lord Egremont's table, 
of the Sussex breed, have very frequently astoaisheil 
the company by their sjze. 



SECT. VII. — PIGEONS. 

Xbe dove-bouse is sometimes attached to the farm* 
house, especially on the Downs ; but the^ are not (lOr 
pagated to any extent. 



SECT, vtil.— 8EVS, 



Bees are th<; cottager's stock as well as tlie finnm's^ 
and some profit is made by them, but too trifling to 
merit attention. It is only in desert countries, like th» 
^ortb of Europe, where wax is made an object of 
commerce, and an article for exportation. Diuigeness 
lighf^bouse, on the coast of Kent, is surrounded on the 
land side with beech and gravel for sereiaH miles, kai, 

it 



.twh; 398 

it i$ so deepp thai hardly any thing grows on it. By 
much uidustry, Uie man who lives in the lightrbousft 
has enclosed a small patch of ground for a garden, an^ 
be keeps ^ome Ibee-hives : the quality of bis honey u 
excellent, and from each hive heroins IS lb. in iWomn 
arable yearis. 



SECT. IX. PISH, 

Thjs is an object of some consequence in Sussex* 
• The ponds in the Weald are innumerable; and Hum- 
bers of them date their origin from that part of the 
jcounty lijiying once been the seat of stp. extensive irpn 
manufactory, whiplf has now deserted the country; 
&nd the mill-ponds now raise large quantities of fish« 
A Mr. Fenn, of London, has long rented, and is the 
fiole monopolizer of all the fish that are sold in Sussex. 
(Carp is the chief stock ; but tenclKarid, perch, eejs and 
pike, are raised. A stream should always flo^ througti 
the pond ; and a n^arley sqil i^ tjie best, Mr^ Milward 
}ias drawn carp froQi I|i^ marl-pits 25 lb. a l)face, and 
two inclies of fat upon them, but then he |eeds with 
pease. When the waters are drawn off and TC-stockpd, 
it is done with stores of a year old, which remain four 
years : the carp will then be 13 or 13 inches long, and 
if the water is goo^d, 14 or J5. The u^ual sca^oii for 
drawing the water, is either autumn or spring j the sale 
is regulated by mcagvire;, frpm tl^e eye to the fork of the 
tail. At 12 inches, carp arp worth 50^. and 31. pet 
I^undred ; at 15 inches, 6/. ; at 18 inches, 8/. and 9/. : 
a hundred stores will stock an acre ; or 35 bracf, 10 
or 12 inches long, are fully sufficient for a bjf^eding 

pond. 



t 



391 visH. 

pond. The first year (hey «ill be three inches long; 

second yeiT, 7 ; (bird yfHT, 1 1 or 12; tourUt year, 14 

or 15. Thisyearlliey farcrd. ' 

Mr. Biddulph hns, in Biirton-pnik, a fine rntrh of 

wafer, which yields carp, teijch, perch, pike, &c. in 

f rent abundance ; and as il. is rtii extensive pond, I &hall 

insert some account of the produce. 

March 10, 178^1. Number of fish taken out of lh« 
Mill-pond, of 50 acres. 

Carp ~ 1517 

Tench 473 

Pike, 806 

Percb, 50 

3846 

March 12. Number of fish taken out of Chilford-pond. 

C&rp to Crouch-sfens, « „ —.. 200 

CRrp to Mill-pond, i _ „ 1800 

tench to Mill-pond, „„ ™, 274 

Tench returned from Crouch-sfews to Mill-pond, 180 
Carp returned from Crouch-stews lo Mill-poncI, 70 
Pike returned from Crouch-stews lo Mill-pmid, 500 , 

Tota! number of fish put into the Mill-pond, ^ ggg. 
March 12, 1789, « S 



f'arp from Trout-pond to Croucli -slews, SOO 
Small tnich, ., , „«. 80 

Fish 8dM, March 10, 1789. 

12-iRt-he 

To Richard Feun, 1062 

To ditto, 247 touch .... 4(j teiichi 

l^odUto, MS pike— 400 cwt, 



SoU 



3P}sa, 391 



Sold to sundry people. 

William W indie, 50 pike, 150 perph^ 

Shen&, , ..f. 50 carp, 16 pike, SO ttnck. 

Hodik, .., , J 2 — ^ 

JEarlofNeald, .... 12-^— 

Mrs. Budd, , 20 r 

Lady, 6 

Aling, ..•••••—• f 1* 

Milford, ...o • 100 — -»• * 

Ditto, 24 -.— 

Kent, 4 — r-- 



J 



April 16, 1789. Small store carp bouglit 6( William 
Milford, Esq. 6300, or five galloris. 

One gallon put into La'wn-pond, for stock. 
Two gallons put into Chilford-pond, for ditto« 
' Half a gallon to the Briant-stew, for ditto. 
• Half a gallon into each of the other stews, for ditto*- 

January 28, 1790. Bought of John Serjeant, Esq. 
4600 store carp, from four to six inches* 

March I, 179L Account of fish taken by Fenn* 

60 14-inch carp, at 5/. 10^. per 100,;^. 3 6 

740 12.inch ditto, at 4/. per 100, .... 29 12 

400 12-inch tench, at 4/. per 100, .... 16 

100 under-size ditto, at 3/. per 100, 3 

500 ditto carp, 1111 

March 3. 335 pike, 7841b. at 6rf 19 12 Q 

14. 52 12.inch carp ^^44; ^r 100, 3 
25 12-inch tench,? ^ ' 

l.U 1 
Marcli 



SM pisn . 

Watch 5, 1791. Accoant o( fisb put into Mill'pou*]. 

500 pike- 

4?2 ttncb, reliirncJ from Crouch-s(ews, 
1355 carp. 

S27T 

"March 5, 1791. Accannt of store carp put into Cliil. 

ford-pond and Trout-pond. 

5367, from five to : incheii long. 

Ottobei IS, 1792. St"" ora ??ew-stew (o Troot- 

r. 

OclobcT IS, 1731. J from Trout-pond In 

130. 

Small pikr, .. ...„...., _. 14 

lIppiT Stew, . ..»»..-......».. 200 

Lower, ... , .-, .,._. 3^ 

rebtnary and irarch, ITfl3. Account of fish sold, and 
tu whoDi. 
Mr. rVnn. 

7.'JJCurpandten€lilSinchcs,at4f.pcrl00,/'.29 8 

i:iO ditto H (lino, at ->/. lOs. per 100, 7 3 

5 dido, J6 ditto, at 8/. 8s. per 100, 8 5 

125 tail tench at 3A per 100, „ 3 15 

S40 lb. of pike, at 6d. per pound 21 O 

61 14 5 



S:>ld to syodrj person;, 



r 1 17 6 

line 

I 19 

< 6 15 



1 14 

9 

Lo 6 



£.76 3 5 



PISH* 897 

Stock fish canried to different pdnds iii 1793^ to ike 

Mill-pond* 

Carp from Cbiiford^pond, •••«MM.«««.«.o..*««««««t.i««M«t« 1854 

Ditto returned from Crouch, » • .^.^m..* 71 

Ditto ditto from Trout-pond, 193 

Ditto ditto ditto Upper-stew^ •• .«.«•...«•••««*.•.«•«•• 144 



u^ 



2262 

' ■ 

Tench from Cbilfbrd^pond,. ^ •/.....•.. «• S3 

iPikefrom different ponds and stews^ ........•./• 553 

To Chiiford-pond. 

Carp, 372 from seven to eight inches long, from Trout^ 

pond and Lower-stew. 
S9 from nine to ten ditto, from Croiich^^Stews* 
4 from 14 to 16 ditto, ditto. 
350 from six to seven ditto, from Lawn-pond* 
Tench, 123 from four to five inches, ditto. 

21 from seven to eight ditto, from Crouch^ 

stews. 
100 from three to four ditto, from ditto* 
i[?arp, 300 from eight to nine ditto^ from ditto* 

1299 



1793. Stock fish carried to different ponded 

To the Trout-pond from Lawn-pond^ 
Carp, 193 from six to seven inches. 
Tench, 37 from four to five ditto* 
Carp, 20 

250 



Stock 



Slocb fish from Mr. Baker. 
Carp, 157 lliree inches inJ upwards. 
Tench, 1773 from tvto to Ihree ditto. 

1929 



Feb. and March, 1793'. Fish sold to sundry people, ]9i, 
March 14, 1795, Bought of John Biddulph by Fenn* 
1180carpl2-incii,de(luct2't-^1136at 4^.^.46 4 3j 
107 14*. (fourtceiis) deduct S— 105 at 5/. S 15 
SSpikc3401b. at ()(f. per pound, 6 0] 

5S 3 



26 2 



To cash received of sundry per- 
Rons, 



March, 1795. Fish carried to Mill-pwid. 



3 


11 e 

35 


16 







03 
2 


16 


9 





£.K 


18 


9 



Fountain-stew, ...,....».»..> 

Chil ford- pond, ».»..■• 

Lawn-pond, » 

Old Stable-pond, 

Stew Lodge-coppice, 

• Crouch-stew, -» 

From Mr. Baker, ,.,„.;.,. 



1292 
10 




310 



Teneh.- 


Kb. 


91 .,.<. 





104 ...... 


11 


115 





30 











„». 


239 


60 






Marchj 



Marcfa, 1795. Fi$li for the h,ouse« 

20 carp. 
SO pike. 
14 tench. 
9 perch. 

Fish to Trout*-pond from Crouch-stewiS* 

184 carp. 
Si pike. 

/ Stock fish to Chilford-pond. 

(Jarpfrora stews, 103 .... Tench, •...• 843 

From Mr. Serjeant, .... 1600 

1703 , 843 

Fish to Fountain-stew, 820 " 373 

I 

Mill-pond fished March 2, 1797. 

Fish taken. Carp, m... 1631 

Tench, 22S 

Pike, 1095 , 



g95d 



Mill-pond stocked, March 4, 1797t 

Pike, 300 returned. 
Carp, 1700 ditto. 
Tench, 270 ditto. 



The 



too VISH. 

The following Is tlie account of a pond of Sir .folia 
Shtlley's, at Milclid-grovc. 

Kirticulars of Coppice-pond, Uf^hed Feln-uary 15^ 
J79S, omi ucn," 30 polrs. 

I'25 carp,npigliing3(iftl[i. at 6(f,per pound,/',D 10 
Sa ditto, woigbing ao lb. at id 10 



iHi 



Store fisii sold, . 



of fish prcsn-vcj in a HtHc pond, in? g tc n 
• of conip:i[iy, ..._ ^....„....^.„....J 



e 


Id 





13 





e 


13 


111 


" 


15 





7 


S 


10 





8 10 


S)7 








2 


6 


« 





Siipposcilpxpniscsof (isliiiig, &c. 8 10 



besides a suflicifiirj to sfofk two pomls. 

Lord E^rcmont lias scrcraT noble ponds for breedings 
and oUiers for fattening, one immedialelj* nndet ano* 
ffier, with streams running throitgh tliem. 'they are 
fisilied every third year ; and ttw bdst reserved for the 
stews; but none soldi - ■ 

1793. Nov. Ci rishwl the Frith-pond. Brought 
homo its Carp (the Killing prictt of these fish 'iroiridbe 
from ll./oSl. per hundred) 300 tench (S/, to 9?. per 
^tuiidm]) and 100 perch; 

1799. March 'iCJi Hronght home 225 carp, 200 
tench, 50 pike, 140 perch. 



• toadt ate fltbed every thite yean. 



viw. 401 

The tench remain for two fishings in Lord Egremont's 
ponds, as they are a slow growing Bsb • At the last fishing 
of this pond, 300 store tench, and as many store qarp 
Tfere put into it : the stores are worth lO^, 6d^ a hun* 
dined, Male tench are good for nothing, and are. 
thrown away: hen tench only are preserved. It is 
father difficult to mark the distinction between the male 
and female. Male perch are known by the appearance 
of milk upon squee2dng 2 tench by the thrck fin of the 
males. If the water is good^ eibout 7Q two-year old 
store carp^ and as many tench^ are a fair allowant^e foe 
one acre** 

SECT. 

t 

* The monopolies in this useful branch of commerce it a Tery grAc 
nuisance feo the public, by sending almost all the fish to the capital ; so 
that thoi%h our coasts abound with an inexhaustible supply^ the country 
receives but very little benefit, as the natives that reside dx or seven 
miles jfrom the coasts are as destitutie of fish as if they lived in the int*» 
rior of the kingdom. I should imagine that, by making a law to divide 
upon the strand whatever fish is caught, one half for the London mar- 
kets, and the other for the consumption at home, it would give great ed* 
couragement to the fisheries, and exceedingly increase that useftil bod)> 
of men, so necessary to our defence in manning the fleets. I dink k 
would be good policy to oblige every market-town in the county tft 
keep open a fish-market ; there would be no fear of buyers, if ludi an 
useful regulation were adopted, nor would there be any fear of a lupply* 
. Judge then what an increase of hands would be employMl, to wkai there 
is now, under it!) present restrictions.— -ilfr. J^ufUr* 

This Note recurs to the idea, that London devours the produce of the 
country, which it starves, and so raises the price of provisions. But 
Quere^ Whether it is true, that in proportion at this it the case^ is ^le 
flourishing state of our country ? What imf^et the high price of illjr 
commodity, but an increased demand ? Popuhdon multiplied, COtt» 
sumption doubled, trade, manufoctures, agriculture, circulatioQ, ail in- 
creased; communication between the capital and the provinees laid 
open; new people, ideas, and exertions created: it is thcte whisk raiie 
the earth's products, and are consequently the pillars of agricttlture, and 

4<^5S£X.] s d > tkt 



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• 



* . -^s- ,. :. . . :.••■<..■-■•. .:.• ■:,'•? 



- » ■ • ■ ^ • . .. -t .1 



8BCT. Xl^-'-ABBlU :'- ,a 



4 



spdtting deer s tt6e?&Uo#ing:amtheiitetiei|lf|i^0(ii^ 
<li«t'ipdte ]uUed»8iBing)iiuui]r«tlijm at Fetim^ jITSC* 



T^Tfi'A ■ • ^ — ■ k . . J . . . * an • 

l^lUOj ••*«•••••••••••••«••■• <»•<— — 1>» — a w — — w « M *i 06P 

J!iailuCO« •>•«••»—>—<—•———#•<>—•>—■—*•«•»■■> — •* %Xr 

.'-.■ :. -.'MB • 

Ciiine and other oflal, —..•. 16 

Blood, 7 

Xioose fat, 3^ 

Horns, i 5j; 

Head, .; 8i 

Legs, ...•. 3 

Liver and lights, ....^ 7 

Guts and paunch not weighed, ^ aqi ccjii 

but remaining at V 

the supports of our industry. If the iilhabitants of London were scat- 
tered over England, the country would be a comparative desert.- It may 
be assumed as k fact, that no cbeaf country ^was ever « rich oae, 

I do not by this mean, that regulations for the supply of the country 
are improper, but only that they ought to be so framed, as not to impede 
the supply of London : such, I should cpnceire, might eatily be devised. 

Another j 



DBm^ 403 

Another : 

live weight, ........* 194|lb. 

Biltcher's weight, like a sboep, .••—.«•• 139 
Fifth quarter, ^ ^... 65f 

• 

This biick was fat froiri being a vcfry fat one, and in 
{he fifth quarter the horns weighed seven poufnds, an^ 
ikrere at that timfe fuf( of tfood vessels. If the buck 
had not been killed till the end of August th^ would 
have been dried up, and would not &'ave nt^eighed more 
"^ than four or five pounds, and the buck would have 
been much fatter. He was not weighed s^ive, but was 
shot, and weighed imtnediateljr, and the blood was re- 
ceived into a pail, and the weight added to thi carcass. 

It deserves inquiry, in what degree this is an unpro-^ 
fitable stock : it would not be difficult, by certain ex- 
periments, to ascertain the exact degree of theit beneit 
dr demerit. 



BdS CHAP^ 



CHAP. XIV. 

RURAL ECONOMY- 



SECT. I. — LABOUa. 

THER E arc in most coui re three descrit^ioiis of 1 
labourers — doim servants, t k-workcrs, and tjcefelyi^ j 
IttiioiiriTs. Tl " ■'*. c\ arc ic lca,--t numerous, biit ' 
best prtjvldM, y ird; the last dpscrip- ■ 

tion ate the niqst juh ;tnd iirct-ssUons. The wages 

of sM-vants vary tn 7^ and to llf. a year. Task- 
workers will cnrn upon a m' n from Is. 6d. 1o 9s. a 
daj; perhaps the avt-rai^c is L's, or near il. The weekly 
labourers from 16rf. to ISrf, 

The price of labour is above the medium of many 
other counties ; in the neighbourhood of the sea are seen 
many old labourers^ as the young and actire find smug" . 
gling a more lucrative employ, uhtch is very success* 
fully pursued in.Susscx. At Rye and Hastings, Bourne, 
Sic. it is highly flourishing, whilst the health of the 
inhabitants is injured, the revenue defrauded, and la- 
bour extremely high. It has been computed, that fbe 
revenue in this line of country is clieated to the amount 
of 80,000^ per annum : between 3 and 400,000 gallons 
of gin, rum, and other i^jiiiifs, are annually smuggled 
into this district. The principals engaged in the busi- 
ness have about lOs. Gd. each night : the common men 
a guinea a ^eek; and in the conveyance from the 
rtisd 



LABOUR. 



405 



vessel to the shore, fromSx. to 7^. per night: 12,000 
gallons of spirits have been landed in a week at Dun« 
geness, in Kent. Light goods from Flanders, into 
Sussex and Kent, J 05,000/. a year, upon which the 
profits have bpcn so high as 30,000/. 

This great consumption of spirits is very pernicious 
to the labourers, and equally injurious to the fanners : 
but the cheapness of gin recommends thesiileof it, and 
unlicensed gin-shops are without number. 

The price of labour in Sussex, is in some measure 
according to the local situation. The standing price is 
lower on the western side of the county than it i% in the 
eastern : it has advanced in half a century about thirty 
per cent. 

The following is a table of the prices of labour in 
^iffijrent parts of the county. 



nA3 



A Table 



I-ABOrK. 



•^O O.OOOOOOOOOpOOOOB 



<-aaoo'^oo=:3*ooopoocco*'. 3 






=?■ t 



aoS "o 



S , & 5 M -3 5 3 



LABOUR. 



40T 



Sate of Labour^ Wages y Clothings S^c. S^c. in Siix- 
seXi and in Si^olk, Communicated by Lord Egrc" . 
mont.' " J 

The supposed sum of money earned by a labourer ia one *, 

year, in Sussex, ^ 

52 weeks' common labour, at 9s. per week j ^.23- 8 0' 

For his harvest month, 2/. 10^. ; from 
which deduct 9s. per week, his com- 
mon wages, which is 1/. 16^, ; deducted 
from 2/. 10;. he clears i 



QUO 



Suppose saved in his board 3s. per wcek,^ 7 

e, •••• ^ 



12 



9 



which he must live on, if at home 
For three weeks at hay-making, for mow- 
ing he gets Ss. per day, instead of 
Is. 6d. I it is more than in general is 

earned on that score, ; ^ 

Suppose by barking, which does not fall- 
to the lot of one in a hundred, in three 
weeks he earns three guineas, out of 
which deduct per week for lodging, 
and extra livitig to support his hard 
labour, 5;. per week ; 15;. from three 
guineas, leaves •• •.•••..•• 

£.^ 11 

Suppose by bad weather, slight illness 

)of short duration, and his loss of time, 

-is six days in the course of the y^r, 

he loses, •, •• ^.... 

Total, £.27 



> 2 8 



9 



2 



This calculation amounts to 10;. 5d. per week. 

A husbandman may earn in wintW 9;. per week, 
from St. Michael to Xiady-day;, and in barking season 

B d 4 from 



from 135. to 90^* per week^ fqr thre^weekf^ and mo^* 
ipg grass from 13^. to 18^. per week, for fi^ar pr fiye 
weeks, and from 40^. io 55s. for harvest mantb, a|id 
the rest of the time about 9s. per week for the year. 
The wife may earn* in winter about 155. orfiO^.^ weeding 
and hay-making about SQs*f and gleaning corn in hair- 
^est, and raking oats ^nd barley, about 90i. Ifafyoy 
about eight or nii^e years old, 3d. per day ; 11 or 19 
years old, 6d. per day. Girls earn but Uttle ixf, ){}i|tier ; 
weeding pr hayrn^kiog, Sd. or ^d. per day^ 

SUFFOLK. 

Communicated hy Mr. Capel Loffl ta Lord Bgr^^ 

tnont^ Mftrcky 1797. 

Estimate of what it would cost to clpthje a &mily, viz^ 
a man^ woman^ ai^d five childr^i the elde^ i^ndqr 
twelve years old, 

Man, kersey waistcoat and breeclies, .^^o* ;^. 15 

\Voman, red gown and two cpatjs, •.«..••••••. 13 If 

First boy, waistcoat and breeches, .............. 11 

Second ditto, ditto, ^.. 8 

First girl, re^ gown and two coats, ••,,. 8 

Second ditto, ditto, ...,.•••••,.•••.••.. 7 

Third ditto, ditto, 5 

S2 yards of cloth for the family, ....• I 17 4 

14: pairs of stockings, ditto, ..••• ^„ 10 

Seven pairs of shoes, ditto, 16 

Seveii hs^ts, ditto, « •.• 13 Q 



m^^mm 



Communicated from the parish of Hepworth,in Blacjct 
bourne hundred, Suffolk, March 6; 1797, 

Mr. 



fcABOU«« 40^ 



* 



Mr. Capel Loffl to Lord Egrfmonif 1795, 

Ia my letter ki the Aanals, I had stated wagc$ in this 
Tear, 1795, sis generally in thi$ neighbourbpod 16if. per 
day. They were 30 early io the season, l)ut they soon 
ji^ecame IS^* and have so continued* . 

The statement of the earnings of the samfs number of 
|)ersons as I have stated for 1773, at the saiiie age of tli(& 
jcbildrien in the present year 1795, iviU be : 

Man, 36 weeks, at 16d. per day, .m«...m« ;C* 10 8 

21 ditto, at ISd. ditto, ..,^....^..^.....,, 9 9 

5 ditto harvest, incldding malt, ...... 6 

Advantage by jobrwqrk, ^.f......,..,..........*....,^ 1 12 

;f.2T 9 

Boy at 13 yearsof age, •.f«...i..M^.......^.t.....M..« 9 12 

Girl at 10 ; spinning,- pease and wheat- > 4, n a. 

. dropping} gleaning, &c. ......•{. S 

Wife, ., ,. :.,..... 1 10 

^.48 11 

Mr. CapelLi>fft to Lord Egr^mont^ Septembfr^ 1795, 

Twenty-two years ago (1773), I learn that wages anil 
price of corn were thus in this part of Suffolk : 

Price of wheat, from 2is, to 28^. the copmb pf fouir 
|>ushels, ^Vinchester measure^ 

Wages in 1773. 

Winter, Is. per day. 
• Summer, 1^ . 2d. ditto. 

Harvest, 31, iOs. or 12s, Scarcely usxy malt, ox 
fdlpwance for ei^tertainments during har?e$t« 

Total 



410 LABOUR^ 

Total earnings, taking barvest at 31, 12s. with the 
above wages, will be found, I believe, as under : 

26 weeks, at 6s. per week, «M«iM.»«.M«.* £. 7 16 

go di<to, at 7*. ditto, ,-7 ft 

jisrveSb f •••«#•••••••» •••••••••«»••*«•••••••••••••«•«••*•• \j jw Kr ■ 

Job-woykt, M...-..,.- ^..^^....^^ 1 12 - 



mi'^mm 



^20 

I ■ ■ ■ I ■■ ^ ■■ I ■■ I fi ■■ 11 ■■■■■ M ■ ■ I ^ I III !■■> ', 



* Harrest it mostly taken by job, at about 20 acres ptt man, to tee ft' 

into the barn. 

f Sapposln; labourers to work most part of their time by the piece, 
•r at ]ob*work« which is the case Here, at which they tmxaUy «arn ton-' 
siderably more than by day-wages, tUi& advaatagt may be iairly MS at' 
1/. 12/. per year, as above stated. 

«If the ezi'endhure of ffour be taken at three^bortht of « Kuiiiel, and! 
the price at that time at 24s. per coomb, the annual cut-goiagt for ilour 
only, is 1 1/. Hj. There mxift then be calculated the expenst of clothin^^ 
and other necessaries for tht family. 

Tq balofice this eipen'diture against the faming, as they then were,' 
the average earnings of the rest pf a family^ sj^pposed tp. consist of ut 
persons, nB!)st be taken into the account. 

On consulting on this suhicct, I state ihem thuf - 

Boy of 12 years, - - - - - -j^. 880 

Girl of 10, spinning, gleaning, &c. - - -4^0 
Wife, --- - - - llOO 

£. 14 6 O 

Two infant children gain noshing. 

Man, £.20 O (% 

Wj;e and chtldrcn, - - - - -1460 

- 

Total earnings cf the whole family, • £'34 6 O 

If the annual cxpcntlfturp of this family, two of them only being in- 
fants, be taken in flour at its then lowest price, and at a bushel per week, 
it will be 15/ 12s, Taken at 7j. per bushel, 18/. 4x. 

This would have been the statement in this coumy (Suffolk) in the year 

1773. — Cafiel Ltr^t to Lord E^remont, 

SECT. 



4U 



t • 



SECT. Hi— PROVISIONS, 

I 

The high price of many of the necessaries of life is 
^ object of great consequence: political arithmeticians 
and calculators have qijarrellpd for more than a cen- 
tury, whether or not the price jof labour is in propor- 
tion to the price of provisions. That it should have 
f)ecn ever doubted is surprising. 

Most clearly the wages of labouring families are in- 
adequate to support them in that comfortable condition 
which they are entitled to expect: it is - evident froiu 
the general increase o{ rates ; but far more so to any 
man who thinks it no disgrace to visit the dwellings of 
the poor : their clothes, thetr bedding, diet, fuel, and 
cot ; and wlicn the intejripr 9f the cottager's house is in- 
spected, will it be made a question whether labour and 
provisions are upon a par ? ' 'Tis absurdity to question 
it. A labouring family, honest as they may -be, and 
industrious as their strength and activity renders them 
(if numerous), it is hardly possible they can be main- 
tained upon t}w; present wages of labour withea§e and 
^omfort. '■.',. 



ui Tabic 



«It 



V 






■tp»eeop<«o-e 
s « « (a • we 
Qe e o « o •« 

4exeo»ow« I I 
i^je o o oi» e e -• ' 



I 
J 

I : 

I- 

M ■■••"• 



-J itxv 
.< I A 



40-eo«e««>M i . 



9etf o»»;h*! 



<^o o e o OS e jj 



.i 



1, ?2.||-|£,6, 



4lS 



SCOT. 111.— PtTBL. 

Coal or wood, in a few places turf is ilsed. The 
woods are very extensive ; yet the price has greatly in- 
creased i great quantities are made into charcoal5 and 
ttiU larger (of the smaller sort) burnt for lime. ^ 

It is sincerely to be lamented, that some steps dure not 
taken by thcfse who have it in their power, to convert 
the present method o£ warming the cottagers^ houses at ti 
Urge expense of fuel^ by recommending or substituting; 
%. cheaper and more effectual plan, according to the ex* 
(ttilent idea laid down by Count Rumford, in his Expe- 
rimental Essays ; by adopting which, a great expense 
#f fuel might be saved^ and the hous^ more effectually 
lusated i and in cooking the food, by a small alteration 
in the construction of the stove or grate^ and the fire- 
place, the Count's ingenuity has so contrived it in a 
yerj simple manner, that a copper that holds 50 or 60 
gfiUons, maybe k^ptboflin^ for several hoars at h com- 
fiaratively trifling expense of fael, by ccmfining the 
l^at to its proper place^ and allowing none to be 
fnisted ; and by throwing a flue, i^ a different manner, 
that when it once bect>mcs heated, which il5 very 
ceoB dene, a very small quantity of wood or coal is 
mccessary to keep it in that state. Coppers have been 
bnng upon the Count's plan by Mr, Poyntz. Every 
gMe in Lord Egremoat's house is completely Rum- 
£[>rdized. 

But in the CQuntry, where fuel enters so largely into 
the expenses of living in a cottage, it is to them an 
object of immense consequence*, to make the smallest 

quantity 



41'! Fcct. 

quantify confriliute in Ihe best manner, and last as lon^ * 
as it can ; but the expensive mode of burning it lu the 
present unsystematic and nnphilosopliical method 
adopted by almost all ranks of the people, cannot be 
too tmirersally reprobated. 

It is gTcatljto be wished, that an improvement so 
excellent might be encouraged, and its beneiit extended. 
To those who arc unacquainted with the Count's plani 
it may be necessary to observe, that the great size of the 
lUroals olchimnics in gcnenil, is the principal objec- 
tion in the construcliun of them, -which serves as a 
passage for the warm air to escape Bp the chimney, 
and the loss of beat is conseqnently great — but the 
warm air i& not only lost, but the room filfcd ■ftith cold 
iiir from without, which is well guarded against by 
diminishing the size of the throats of the chimney. A 
lew shillings expended in the purchase of the Count's 
ir'xperimcutal Essays, will add a very vaiuablo store 
of knowledge eminently useful to the purchaser; but 
it is particularly incumbent on all those who are dcsi- 
,x(ius of .contribuUog to aBEieI)<«ate 'tike C4w4itiw of: ;tiw 
Ji^wer class of life to retu) tliis ivot)c, aqdfe^at,wti«tB 
^tri^ng expense great- iHiiabera oCpe^le^'Oaitibe Sad 
vponaJiQurishingaod vfluiLesoiQe diet^ smd how cJM&j^y 
.thw" csniic warmed*, i , ; ■ . i, i ' . 

. * Stitiag 'J f»tt. — I biTc koowD a l«go£ mutton aiU tonip* boiUd in 
a voodea p4il. I'fie trick was thut performed •- a dz feel barrel of ■ 
tbnting-pirfe n-as inserted M the muzxte In the pail, thi other cod 
'plM«d against the fire \ the water flowiDg^ id t^ breed) of the barret, 
the wbalc was made to boiL Qwrr, might not Tumacesuid Tcwdt 
Iw heated io diSereot rocnni bj thi 'kitdi«&-dre oA'f,- by mtini of 
lubes of cast iron, with a large bun at thi end coBveniattly fitted to be 
ieated?— Afr. Tra^tm. 

. Vodoabtedi; all the roo&it Of a^ hAuii nuj^ be t^uallj bettd, 

by- 



>UBi.. 415 

by conducting the heat through flues, in the way it is done in. the 
North of Europe and Germany. The equal . temperature of a room, 
m an object of vast consequence to the health and comfort of the 
cumer. At present, we ar^ roasted near the fire, whilst we are ahnost 
ftoMa every where the. — A, T. 






CHAP. 



41$ 



CHAP. XV. 

POUTICAL ECONOMY, 

AS CONNECTED WITH AORICUtTUREi 



SECT, I.-^ROADS. 

TIf E turnpike roads in Sussex are generally well 
iniough -executed : tJic materials are excellent s whin* 
^oiie ; the Kentish^ rag, broken into mcklerate sized 
pieces. Where this is not found, or not used, the 
toads are not so good ; though turnpikes are numerous 
and tolls high : in some places in the east they are nar« 
ro\T and sandy. From Chichesterj Arundet^ Steyning, 
Brighton, Bourne, tlie roads to the metropolis, and 
the great cross road near the coast, which connects 
them together, are very good. 

Before Shorcham-bridgc was founded, the communis 
cation to the AVest of England was very troublesome 
and inconvenient, and at high water very dangerous ; 
but building this bridge (by a tontine) has essentially 
contributed to the general benefit of the county ; though 
tlie tolls arc scandalously high : for every four-wheel 
carringc 2s* is exacted ; and for every horse 3d. besides 
u lialfi)(^nny for every foot passenger, and all this every 
tinm of their passing. 

This is a grievous imposition on the public. 

The cross roads upon the coast are usually kept in 
good order : the gravel or sea beech keeps them firm 

and 



4iy 

dry, ImC not binding t but in the Woild, (he citM 
iDnds are in all probability the Yery worst thnt nfe to 
he met with in any part of the island : yet it it alBrmed 
fluit they haye been consulerably improved. 

The transport of vast loads of timber, com. Sec. 
through a heavy clay soil (for there is no bottom) ren« 
ders them nearly impassable in winter for wheels of any 
description ; and in dry weather the hardness of the 
day is very prejudicial to the fe^ of the cattle. As 
there is no bottom for the felloes to move over, the 
wheels are frequently buried up to the nave, to the 
great damage of waggon and horses. 

Good roads are an infallible sign of prosperity ; but 
•0 indifferent is the state of the Weald respecting its 
hnsbandry, arising partly from the predilection which 
gentlemen have for their shaws and woods in a very 
stiff soil, that to have good roads is hardly possible. 
It j^ the free circulation of the wind upon the road^ 
which takes off the moisture the very hour it fnlls^ 
that BO essentially contributes to this desinble end ; and 
it is the want of tliis requisite that renders them so bad. 

The forest-like appearance of this part of Sussex is 
Mch, that it cherishes every drop of rain that fnlls^ 
by sheltering the roads from the wind and snn, and 
preventing the absorption of the waters. 

The 44 miles of turnpike from Bury St. Edmunds 
to Huntingdon, is perhaps the very best road in Kng« 
land ; yet hardly a hedge to be met with. All around 
Newmarket, but particularly to Cambridge and Bury^ 
no rood in the world surpasses it ; and the expense of 
mending them is so trifling, that much of the materiali 
have laid there since the road was first formed. The 
goodness of it is owing to two circumstances : 1st, the 
dry nature of the soil ; Sdly, the openims of the coun* 

•vsfBX.] £ e try. 



• 



«gr«c -malt bt>\ketaMUwMtitmiam U B IJ ml#li 

it Aft nieib itenwiity fci ; l lle it pii i ir y'-«yid»t 

JUw:^«iut ilhe/maiBiitit vtejMikMdyitiii 

be ivished.. '.>•:/(/'.•.!•.' -.r'^v^ri!":-. .-. 'I f;Tt'ti - y Ml rl M ft 

.r %8utr- flMw^deliililbb : ggifeew of ihtiyjiiiiiiilfflu 

b A-Tboldft iitidMui ittiittMte of the UM|ifefrf>(^iluni|ppfei 
foad aft Honfaam, at ja:irfjr7 tenofy liKte<tietaritli inttl 
|itvaoat,iBad to!iionAoi|i,i^^ lHfii#4i« 

time it was so exoprahly bad^ > fliatirfcoaiaBr iHJiiM; 1 
jvkedt/?irafa%dfeA.'toigoroiii^^ 
jii one' of the ihM ddMorKna^ 

lUMJAmmi, iitt I r^li ■! iMiii lHlii«yiBlAif 11 'illtUfflfffir ' Mi M Vail J 

lamoayiTOC ^ i w ii ^ a^iauiu iiioanoif *Mf 'jgBWwaigjfniu^^mtt 

trieuBfcr oF.ooahnioif srarfe^^iiUiv^viSt^ tfe'ttaifitf IM 
Aoold iioCbeoppcnedM Hft ml iio sookiertbMpHi 
than rents rose from Ti: to llf . per 'acre: -nor ia tbeie 
a gentleman in t&e cduntrj who does not acknowladge 
atnd date the prospierity of the country to this 'road; 
and the people who were the greatest opposen df it, are 
now so. convinced 9 that there is a general spirit of 
mending- their cross-roads by rates. » - •. 

A justly celebrated "Frendh writer, the Count dc Mi- 
rabean^ hast lately questioned very much in detail, the 
adrantages'of Igrc^at eitioi' to a country. Such' an in- 
stance as 'this is surely sufficient to do away many of 
his objections. Before the communication with Lon- 
don, low rents, lo^ priees, a confined consumption, 
and no improvements : open the communication,^ and 
high rents, high prices, a rapid consumption, and name* 
rous improvements: yet from the frontier of the county 
by sea, there was always an opca communication : the 

, iustanca 



CAlfAL8« 419 

mstmice therefore is the more striking : it is to be attri- 
buted not to the power of carrying heavy loads by land 
to London, but to the general impetus given to circu- 
lation and fresh activity to every branch of industry : 
people residing among good roads, who were never 
teen with bad ones, and all the animation, vigour, life, 
and energy of luxury, consumption, and industry, 
which flow with a full tide through this kingdom, 
wherever there is a free communication between the 
capital and the provinces < 



SECT. II. CANALS. 

. The advantages which England has derived from 
extending its inland navigation, have been prodigious ; 
and to agriculture it has been no less beneficial than 
to manufactures and commerce* When we consider 
tbat the power of a nation is in proportion to her in- 
dustry, and that her industry is multiplied as markets 
for the products of her soil are encouraged ; whatever 
]ias a tendency to enlarge them deserves universal encou- 
ragement. Though it be true that Sussex has hardly 
the shadow of any thing that deserves the name of a 
manufacture, yet the advantages which the county has 
received, and is likely stUl farther to gain from in- 
creasing her navigation, will be very considerable. 
The principal productions of Sussex are : 

1. Com, 
'g» Timber, bark, charcoal, 

3. Chalk, lime, marl, 

4. Iron, marble, limestone, 

5. Cattle and sheep, hides and wool. 

EC 2 ft 



4S0 ckSAU. 

It is evident that all these articles, most of thett fif 
a wery heavy and bulky nature, can either beeacportei 
from the county, or transported from place to piMt 
within it, at a much less expense by water thaa If 
land ; and consequently that both fanner and landloid 
are equally interested in the management of auch vscfidi 
designs. 

Not only the above-mentioned articles, but eveijr 
other the produce of the farm, have their consumptiiM 
and value increased by a more speedy conveyance to tlie 
place of their destination. In like manner, the produc- 
tions of other districts are imported with equal advan- 
tage. Very large quantities of timber, as well in its rough 
state as in scintling, were formerly sent from Sussex, 
by a tedious land carriage, to the coast. Consider- 
able quantities travel the same course at present, bat 
the length of the land carriage is not equal to what it 
used to be ; though the consequence to the roads is 
sucb, that they arc in many places almost impassable. 

Cordwooct for cliarcoal, and oak-bark, are exported 
in considerable quantities; and the value and consump- 
tion of alltliesc articles enhanced by Lord Egremont's 
canal. 

Lime is an article for which tl«?re has always existed 
a gretit demand : it is now carried^ by land-carriage 
from the Downs to various parts of the county ; so that 
the farmer miscs his erop of wheat in many places at 
an expense of five or six nni'^ieas per acre in the article 
of manure only. The navigation of the Rother has 
opent'd a market for this as well as other valuable ar- 
ticles, at a mnch less expense to the farmer, and in- 
creased (he C()naum])tion many tliousand ton. 

Sussex is a corn county, aod produces over and 

above 



CANALS* 431 

rinnre what is sufficient for the supply of her inhabi- 
tsnts. Much goes to Portsmouth, and the west; aHd 
tome to the east ; and a still greater quantity will be 
shipped off, whenever the communication shall be 
more completely opened between the Weald and the 



The Arun is navigable from the sea io its junction^ 
TOth the New Cut, 17 miles 3 furlongs; and from thence 
a company of merchants extended it as far as New- 
bridge. The first cut nearest the sea, called in the 
plan the new canal^ is a mile and three quarters long, 
and has a tunnel of about a quarter of a mile \3\ feet 
wide, and as much in height, which cost 6000/. The 
flew canal is 36 feet wide at top, and four deep, having 
three locks. The circuitous navigation by Greatham 
and Pulborough, was too shallow to be navigable at all 
times of the year ; but the tolls on the New Cut, drive 
the trade to its old channel, though they have of late 
partially fallen. The conveyance upon the new canal is 
practicable at times when the other is too shallow for any 
barge to travel ; and as the canal is but a mile and three 
quarters, whilst by the river the line is five and a half, 
. the difference is considerably in favour of the first : the 
trade, however, usually passes along the old naviga- 
tion, except in summer, or in floods. From the ».*nd 
of the canal to Palingham quay, three miles, the river 
b navigable ; but from thence to Newbridge another 
cut has been made by the same company, at the ex- 
piense of 15,000/. 

Tiniiber, plank, and all sorts of convertible under- 
M^ood, are sent from the Weald, and the barges return 
"with chalk, coal, or lime, at a less expense than wliat 
the same articles were purchased for before the naviga- 
tion was effected ; and the roads about Newbridge, and 

. E c 3 ill 



<■* 



423 CANALS. 

in the line of tbe canal are much improved, and 
expensive to mend. Tbe barges are three sorts s tts' 
largest carry 30 ton ; the second size 35 ; the smabl 
15 ton : the second are the best. The passage fioa 
Little Hampton to Newbridge is two days and a hslf|' ' 
using a horse : the tide flows 17 miles of the way, sad: 
by going through Hardham tunnel, the barges savesiz 
hours of time. r 

In order to extend the benefit of water-carriage fa 
other parts of Sussex, the Earl of Egremont lately pnH^ 
cured an Act of Parliament, enabling his Lordship, st 
his own sole expense, to make the Rother navigabk 
from i(s junction with the Arun, as far as Midhnnt} ' 
and by a collateral branch to Haslingboumo, within 
half a mile of Petworth. The Rother joins theAnm* 
at Stopbam, and is now navigable to the sea, astke 
subjoined plan will more fully explain. His Lordship 
means to extend it to HauipcrVcommon, close to the 
town : it lias ei«^ht locks in the line from Midhurst to 
lis full into the A run, and five from Ilaslingboomei 
making 35 feet of lockage from Stopham-bridge to Has? 
lingbournc, which when it comes to be continued to 
the common, will add 51 more, altogether 86 feet fall) 
and 52 from l\Iidliurst to the Arun. 

liy this most useful and public spirited undertake 
ing, many thousand acres of land are necessarily ren^ 
dered more vahiabk; to the proprietors. Timber is 
now sent by water. Large falls have been exported 
wliicli would scarcely have been felled ; and the Go» 
vernmcnt Agents and Contractors haye made large par* 
chases, in consequence of a more easy communica^ 
tion to ibe s»ea. An additional tract of country is also 
supplied with iiniO; from the Houghton and Bury pits; 
and when the collateral branch joins Hamper's-com- 



r 



■ 'l.l 



.V 



I- 



I 



H: . 




-< 



<■•»«■> 



■•M%<> /■ 



< "■ 



«.»! f ••« 



mon, tlie whole country, which is at present supplied 
with chalk from Duncton-hill, will take it from Petr 
worth at a cheaper rate. At least 40,000 ton is aanjudlj 
sent from the Houghton pits, in consequence of LcHrd 
Egremont^s improving the navigation of this part.o£;tiii9 
county. 

At present the farmers in the Weald take their, chalk 
Yrom Duncton ; but it has happened that they, haVe 
been^ thrown out of this manure by the state of thei? 
roads. Having no other, the greater demand is.fot 
this. It is to be observed, that the farmers geaierally. 
manure their land for the crop of wheat almost as often 
as they sow that grain, and lay upon an acre at the rate 
of from 80 to 120 bushels. The vast benefit therefore 
of facilitating the transport of so necessary a commo* 
dity, is too obvious to dwell upon ; and when the wag« 
gons can go to Hamper's-common for chalk, each team 
will return with three or four ladings, according to the 
distance which now takes only one in a day* 

Another considerable benefit to the country, arises 
from the facility with ' which coal is freighted and car« 
ried through the heart of the Weald, which has beea 
the means of extending the consumption of this article 
in lime-burning, and proportionably lessened the de*- 
mand for furze ; for the generality of the farmers set 
apart a few acres for the growth and cultivation of this 
plant to feed their kilns, which are giving way to coal- 
kilns, as a cheaper and more expeditious method of 
burning ; and that land which is at present used in cul* 
tiyating furze, can in future be sow n with grain, accord- 
ing to the distinction which nature has drawn ^ that the 
bowels, of the earth should warm us, and Um^ surface 
feed us. ■ ..» • • 

Let us for a moment. reflect upon. the advantages. 

ie 4 which 



Ifrbich resaU from the employment of betweeo one aod 
two hundred workmen, all natives of Sussex. In the 
luual method of cutting canals, these men are a ceo- 
ttant nuisance to the neighbourhood, and the terror of 
all other descriptions of people. But in Lord Egre-r 
mont's canal, the men are all drawn from amongst Us 
own workmen, and hare n^me of that turbulence and 
riol with which foreign workmen are inspired ; and ai 
these labourers use implements equal to the best nayiga- 
tion diggers, the employment of domestic workmen ii 
an evident advantage: and still farther, the expenstt 
of the job are much less to the employer, whilst the 
weekly wages of the men in this business, instead of 
Si* or 9^ • rise up to 14^. or 15^. They are now a set 
of men who have been so long accustomed to the eoH 
ployment,. as to be ready to engage themselves iu any 
work of the sort. 

In the navigation of the Rother, the course of the 
river was adopted in prefere?ice to a canal. In this in« 
stance, it aftbrds a safer and easirT passage to the sea 
than if a canal had been made, since the fall of water 
]s gradual, and the current gentle at all times of the 
year. In numberless instances, and especially in the 
one before us, it vvould have been a great loss of 
labour and expense to have cut a canal along the side 
of the Rother at an immense expense of digging, bank- 
ing, bridges, sluices, tunnels, &c. when at a much less 
expense, and to better etiect, the river lias been made 
navigable, and without any apprehension of overflowing 
its banks, which has been etfectually provided against. 

The great superiority of a canal over a river, for 
navigation, consists in its not being so subject to tlic 
violence of inundatioiis and torrents ; but (iiis enemy 
has in the Rother been converted into a friend, for tlie 

drains 



diainli cftn be opened at will, and all the adjoiaiiijf 
flMadow land irrigated to the great benefit of the pro« 
prietors, whijch is done by stopping the drains. Ill 
eanal natigatibns, a disadTantage arises from their 
totting asander^ as they always do, one part of hn 
estate or a farm from the other, to the great injury of 
ike owner. / 

The limits of parishes are not seldom % bounded by 
TtTeri, and in this respect the advantage in favour of a 
liver is obvious ; and by banks and dams that are well 
•OBstrncted, and drains to 1^ off the superabundant 
vraters, it is easier and more expeditious fo render a 
nver navigable where the fall of water is gentle, and 
no- paHicular cataracts or steep descoits are in the way 
<lf the undertaking. 

One great advantage that the county derives from the 
navigation of the Rother, is, that it is vested in tho 
bands of a single proprietor living upon the spot^ and 
who having a large property In the county, is tiie more 
interested- in the prosperity of the undertaking, and 
feels a greater spur in the success of it, than any com* 
pany of merchants who live at a distance and subscribe 
their money. 

By vesting the undertaking in the hands of an indi* 
vidual, no opposition is likely to be met with ; nor ii 
tine business liable to be thvirarted or counteracted. 

A considerable part of the original plan still remaina 
to be carried into execution : it is, to connect London 
with Sussed, and ix} lay open that market to the pro« 
duceof this county, and receiving its goods and mer- 
chandize in return. By a direct communication from 
Petworth to Guildford, by a collateral branch to Hor- 
sham, a. very considerable proportion of the county 
would be benefited: the ground has been surveyed, and 

the 



<36 cAJtAtn. 

tli« IfTcU (akfn ; and if crcr it should be cfl'ect«], Ibi' 
value of estates would in many places be morethav' 
doubled. 

From nampcr's-cominon (o Stonebridge-wharf is 23 
miles, makin": 133 feet of locka^: the collateral 
branch, to the town of Horsham, 12 miles, is iipoaa 
level. In the intervening country between Duncfon- 
bill and Godalminf^, which is 20 miles, there is no 
ebnlk hut ivhat is brought from either of these places, 
BO that the water comraiinication would supply Sumy 
ss well as Sussex, as all the timber, and all the prodnc- 
ti(ms of the soil, as well from that part of Surrey ai 
from Sussex, would then go to the London market by 
a very short inland navigation, which is now sent by 
a rircuiloiis passage along the coast; and what is of 
still greater consequence, this cut would take off corn 
which now goes to Guildford by land at a great ex* 
pense. 

It is impossible not to feel great respect, in contem- ' 
]platuig the energy of an individual of the highest nutk' 
•nd fortune, animated with such ideas, and expending' 
kit income in«o meiitorioiw a maBoer, fonsin^ nari- 
^tions, rewarding industry in the lower c to ne s , im* 
proTing the breeds of live-stock' by bbuntjes, encm- 
iBfin^ all useful and tnecbanical artisiuiB ; wUing mt 
foot multiplied experiments to ascertain the oobipara-' 
live merit .o£ different agricultural implementa ; intn>< 
ducing improvements, byextcnding the knowledge of 
sew plants, animals, or implements, all of them in so 
many and various shapes contributing their assistance 
to national prosperity. The thought of one man having 
been instrumental in the improvement of his country, 
and still exerting himself in the same career, must bea 
constant fuod.of gratification to every beoevoleat mindj 

and 



VAIBi. 



991 



and that long may he. live to enjoj the firuSts of his 1a» 
hour in the service at his conntry^ is the wish of every 
man in the county. 



SECT. HI.- 



MARCH 

IS. S. 3purne« 
14. Seaford* 

Apnj^L 
S. Midhurjitt 

Ditchlingt 

Lamli)rust. 

Hailsham. 

W. Tarring. 
14. Cat*6tre^t, 
18. GardnerfStreett 
32. Rushlake. 

Tolesfield. 
S5* Crowborough; 

Loxwood, 

29. Wadhurst, 

30. Newick, 

MAT 

1. Egdean. 
Hoo. 
Hursterpoint, 

3. Cowden, 

4. Chichester St, Geo* 
Henfield^ 
Nuiley, 

Ticehurst« 



-FAIRS. 

6. Lewes. CUff» 

8. Crawley. 

9. Hoathley* 
Hprsbridge 
OldTye, 

12* Alfriston. 
Burwash, 
Lindfield, 

1 

U. Storrington, 
Arundel. 
Uckfield. 
Winchelsea, 

Worley-commcmV 

17. Boln^. 

Groombridge, 

18. Westfield, 

19. Southwick. 
SO. Rackham* 
31 f liambmst. 

Whitesmith* 

23, Guestling. 

24, Wood8(»r, 

25, IIayward'8-heath# 
S7. Horsted Keynes. 
89, Cuckfield. 

30, Aidingly, 

SO* May« 



w 


JHHInVy.. 


99. SeiioR). 


r4m todkmlj » 


Sboieliani. 


a.IUUam. 


DaitehilL 


'H<ntGi^ 


Blackbuys. 


«.BdoMk 


86. MiultiLss. 


8.itarth«. 


Xl. Cli.ilfj. 


6.BodBiam. •''< 


31. Angiiiermg, 


S. 


Sle/iiing. 


Busied. 


M. 


Bines Green. 


Hcnfleld. 


18. 


Rolherlield. 


AUGUST 


«. 


Bioadtrater. 


2. Ripc- 




Crot. io Hand. 


5.Cliic!iestcr(SUoliiisJ 


M. 


(irtvu. 


£» burst. 




W.Praton. 


Liiidfielil. 




Frmtadd. 


iO. Hawklmrst. 




CJicIwood. 


%e 


ts. 


Forresl-row. 


12. Green. 


tr. 


Cat-street. - 


ai. Arundel. 


89. Ashingtoo. 


S9. Uckfield. 


WivctfieU. 


SEi'TF.MBEE 


JOLY 


I. Nolliiam. 


3. Whitesmin. 


4. Brighton. 


». Bogiw, 


£gdean. 


Chjtaa. 


MaresfieM. 


PcTensey.' 


Piayden. 


Somptiiig. 


9. Crawley. 


8. Soutbwater. 


12. Adversean, 


JS. E. Grinstead. 


Ilorsled Kejncs. 


It. Hollin^ton. 


14. Fioden. 


18. Horshiui. 


15. Weslham. 


RlL 


16. CuckfieU. 


20. Longbridge. 


17. Wilmingion. 


28. Beoling, 


19. Selmiaton. 






19. Steyning. 



FAIBTa 



10. Stejnmii^* 

21. Boreliam-stBceti 

25. Groombridge. 

Arundel. 

Robertsbridge. 
S6. Clayton, 
27. Rogate. 
99. Horsebridge* , 

OCTOBER 

1. Hastii]gfi(Bl.RoGk.) 

2. Lewes. CliflF. 
Warborne. 
West Tarring. 

6. Blackboys. 
8. Alfriston. 
10. Chichester. 
E. Bourne. 
^ WUhyhaii. 
Ncwhavea. 
Rushlake. 
Steyning. 
12. Ditchliiig. 
IS. Rackbam* 

15. Ashiu»t. 

16. TurnerVhill. 
20. Sotberfidd.^ 



20. Chichester (Stofr^ 

21. Shipley. . : . 

28. E. Deap.: 
South 1^art]4g« 

29. Scaynes. 
Broadwat6^4 
Midhurst. '■ ' ^ 

1. Wadhurst. , . . 

2. Bletchingljr. :, 
8. Forrfst-row. 

BiUinghurst. 
11. Storrington. , 
13. Mayfi'eid. ' 

17. St. Leonard. 

18. HaywardVheath# 
Cuckfleld. 

19. Cross in JIaiiidw 

20. Petwortb. 

22. Sattel. 
2S. Hastingi; 
27. HorMiftm. 

11. Bolney; ," ^ 
£• GrinsteaiL 
17. Arund«L 



i*» » i*. 



Moveable Fairs. 
Easter Tutiisy. § TurnerVUit; 



Brede. 
Pulborough. 
Slinfold. 
Slaugham* 



Easter Thutsiay. 
Beckley. _ 

Brighton, 
Dicker. 

Finden. 



190 



MIR(» 



Ffaideii» 
Petwortb* 


WhiUTueidaj/^ 
Hastiligs* 


Monday, before Whit- 
Sunday. 

Fletehing. 
Honhani* 

WhU-Moniatf. 
Battel. 

- 1 


Lewes. 
Midhurst. 
Thakefaam. 
Warnfaam. . 

Whii-Thursdai/. 
Cuckfield. 
Jevington.' 


Billingli^st. 
Chichester. 


Trinity Monday^ 
Rudgwick« 


Rye. ' 

West Httalhley. 
Willingdon. 


Thursday after Trinity* 

Hartfield. 

Peasmarsh. 

• 



Lewes Wool Fair^ July 26. 

This fair was first established in 1786, and the 
county is indebted to the happy thought which sug- 
gested io Lord Sheffield the establishment of such an 
excellent plan. Before this era, the mode of buying 
and selling wool was entirely left to chance and uncer- 
tainty ; and by nobody knowing the fair price, every 
one sold for .what he could get, which necessarily left 
the seller at the mercy of the stapler ; but his Lordship, 
by instituting this fair, collected the flock-masters to- 
gether, and a proper price has ever since been ob- 
tained. 

Other counties soon imitated the example : Norfolk 
and Suffolk, Essex, &c. 



Lewes 



ICAlVUrACTlTRES. 431 

Lewes Sheep Fair- 

This fair is annually held upon the second day of 
October; and it is firom hence that the 'South Dowa 
flocks are dispersed over various quarters of England^ 
as the buyers come from a great distance to attend 
Lewes upon this day, where large droves are bought 
up by commission. From SO to 30,000 sheep are ge* 
nerally collected upon this occasion. 

Previous to this fair, there is one at Selmiston (Sep« 
tember 19} upon a much smaller scate. But the prin- 
cipal flocks are drafted and sold previous to either of 
these fairs, so that a buyer who comes from another 
countyj and examines the sheep upon the day of the 
iair, is deprived of seeing the finest part of this cele*' 
brated stock. 



SECT. XV. — MANUFACTURES. 

' Thesb are, iron, charcoal, gunpowder, paper,' 
&c. &c. 

/ 

1. Iron. 

Sussex, in the common acceptation of the term, is 
not a manufacturing district. Formerly there were 
very extensive iron- works which flourished in the 
Weald, but only the remnant of them are at present 
in existence. The vast woods supplied an inexhausti- 
ble fund of fuel in the working of the material ; the 
iron-stone pervades the greatest part of the county ; 
but the Scotch, by some late discoveries, work the ma* 
uufacture so much cheaper than can be afibided in 

Sussex, 



482 MAirorAcrvKti. 

Sussex, that the funiacps have nearly Tanished before 
the cheapnrsB i>f the Norfhrni oslnblishiiienls. Thtf 
Eari of .Ashbuniham's extensive forpsts, before the iij>- 
pltcatiou to (he inakiriE^ !in"', wtTe nnei) for fhe'prb- 
diictinn of iron. At lircshll, to inite 13 ton of pig- 
iron, takes 5() load of churcnsil (two cord of wood makes 
oneloiid of roal, ond two of Ihfse a weinjhing !oad), 
and SO loEid of ironsiooe ft* bosliHs in a Ioad>. 

9. Ciittrroal. 
T!ic mantffactnre of rhsreoni is an object of *mtii 
eonsiTiTrrnct' in such a cmitilyaS Sussex." Lan^qoaii- 
. tUin are aimiijflly sr-nt tttTlAwIrti] by !n\»rf-«trrt(ig(*.' 
' The oldprrtcrag 'in hnntin'x Ivns bfen I«fdy Piid asid*,' 
and a irtw nif'thiKl subslitfltea: n't, afler varicrtm expe- 
riments, the powder made upon this new priirciple, 
has, upon proof of i(s »(r,ns(li, Iwii found much su- 
perior tothat whicii was'WSdc HI (he old way. And 
accordingly this intrpniniis iiiitde liis Ijj'i'o suu^gested to 
Govemmfntj by the Blsfa'op of T,Tatii;la(r, rff making ^e 
charcoal in iron cylinders, of such a constrnetion^ as ' 
(^<na!illy to exclude the aTr, and ib jfreserve all fhe 
tar acid which is extracted from the wood in tbe'cddrsc!' 
of burning. 

Adjoifiing the turnpike at North Chappcl, mid 
witliin five miles of ]^'v.<»;'Ii) .(^overnnient haslatel/ 
purchased a small piece of land of Lord Egreraont, 
and upon it have erected this charcoal manufactory. 
The cylinder room is 60 feet in length, and proportion- 
ably Jh^ and wide: three sets of iron cylinders aie 
placed ii) a very thick wall, or bed of brick-work, 
built iwafly along the centre of the house; eachof theqi 
oontajfj; tl)reecyl)nders,each being six feet long and two 
feet dianeter. To prevent every possibility of air bebg 
admitted, 



admitteil^ iroh stops are contrive^, 18 inches in lengili^ 
ii^ji (he siee of the inner circumference of the cylinder^ 
irhich are placed in the mouth, and pae filled and 
rammed down with sand; besides which ^ sand*doo?t 
fas thej call than) are made to project obliquelj over 
tiie*front or Opening 0{ tlie cylinder^ and are entireljr 
iilled with sand, and the stops covered with iU At the 
back part of the building ate copper*pipes projecting 
eeven feet in lengthy communicating at one extremity 
i/rith the far end of the cylindei^, and at the othdr extr^ 
inity inirtierscd in half*bog$head barrels. These pipes 
serre to draw off the steam or liquid, which flows in large 
<]tuantities into the tar barrels during* the process of char^' 
ripgi Sea-coal fires are made under them^ one to each 
«et ; and in order to convey the heat as equally as po»* 
;sible to all parts of the c^yliader alike^ four flues or ca^ 
vities equidistant from each other in the brick«w(n-k| 
spirally encircle the cylinderft> and conduct the heat 
over every part. The position of the grate was at first 
under the centre eylindertf Various alterations have 
$ince been made, as it was found that this method 
did not answer so as to heat all the cylinders equallj* 
The gyrate is now placed under the outside cylinder til 
each, of the sets J and by the flues being 90conveyed| 
it follows, that the further cyUnder is first heated, anA 
.•that which is nearest the fire, last. Eadb set holde 
^c\fti of wood ; so that when all three ai^ in fiill work^ 
the daily consumption is Idcwt. of wood, which makes 
4cwt. of coal; it loses nearly three parts out of font 
in charriniir ;-^and if all the three sets were at constant 
work, the annual consumption would be nearly 550^000 
cwt.— 27,500 ton. • 

The process of this novel and valuable operation 
;aiay be thus eisplainedt very early in the morning 

.SUSSEX.] pf the 



■ 

cMf%tkgft i paH»f MMpeadod «l4li«)«dlii4^iMM84lll 

9Mla!h>afe>tbe*4«kN4;lit «|^t# ttojuoolh ^:<lir i!>ll* 
>^;^«iid the eliai€oil3:of'l|ito»]^m»d|iff iiijl(:4i'U|iii . 
dMilte ^ifMf^'tdceiBto 4l»»toMlt»^^ 

l^Aionr'^s the iffVhiAem Me tcMpitoi^'-tii^-iiriiH^ 

iMiK ilfaned MllienAiniM^ 

4BA3dl lheU«ek«hootiMite^«t:to»y^^)^ Ihg twin li^it 

/farWiArniMied: int^llilfe teat ^1be JdeMMiHiK^ 

iiaig>o*«rtlfe:iiio«tb» M^ttiUBi u{> wtMc laMiyitadtf^ 

fife a kindled and ftcl tiH tUe wood is completely char* 

rtdy vrhicli is known b; thetar ceasing to (low through 

the coppcr-pipcs. If the fire is lighted about half after 

mx o^cU)ck in the mornings it will take from two to tw4^ 

iKnm and. a. half before the wood is at all heated, and 

fine liquid begins to flow* At this tinie the fame be* 

JBomes extremely o^ensive, and soon after almost into* 

derableto any but. the workmen. The time required it 

eight hours, but this depends upon the size of /the wood* 

J)uringthe operation, attention is paid io the pipcsj 

which are.iuspecled, lest any air might be accidentally 

^admitted, which would infullibly stop tli^ pipes fnxa 

-working. The tireH are kept up as strong and as brigbj^ 

OS ills i>osslbie; though tlie Maste of sea-coal is not 

constderublc; about eight bushels to each set daily. 

' When Ui^ wood ceases to work, and the tar io flow. 

the 



^ * 



lfAirUPACTUR£8. ttS. 

the dre is gradually extinguished, which conchidei 
the day's work, the furncices remaining in the MAta^. 
state till the next mornifag^ in order to give them tiai» 
to cool; and when dra^n^ they are leplenished in the 
manner bdbte^mentioiied, biit ate always eleaned each 
day^ and the pipes cuce a month. 

The wood for this mann&ctory comes ouf of tbt 
nei^botirhood, and is bought in at 845. per stack (£Alf 
flaw, and stack), besides the cari'iage. Large quantities 
of wood are kept in the yard^ and irtand about a year 
before using i the stack is here twelve feetlong^ three 
feet ten inches high, and three feet six iodhes over, and 
front ciidi is extracted about 55 gallons of tar^UqUOV 
"Tfab tar Hcid th<^ daily draw from the barrels^ plit 
into a lUrge tftb^ and preserve it in hogsheads $ but 
Itt (iresent it cannot be used^ because a patent is oiatfys 
the monopoly of the sale, it is worth Qdi per gaUtMi« 
The charcoal goes to Waltbandt and FaveiAaoi^ 

3. Gunpowder. -. . . 

There is an extensive ptivale manilfactpify 'dl^ gldi* 
powder at Battel, and for some time it is reputed to hniBe 
been a famous place for the excellency of the powder 
manufactured tbei'e. The chief proprietors are Sir 
Opdfrey Webster and Mr. Haryey. Every sportsman 
knows it ; but the Dstttford is stronger, and the qua* 
lity superior^ 

At Chichester is a small woollen fabrig^ sacks, 
blankets, and some other articles, are made in many of 
the workhouses, and a^ortments of linen and worsted 
'yarti^ cotton and stuff gokxls; though it deserves in* 
quiry, whether to promote manufactures in workhouses^ 
is ibunded in justice to the poor. Husbandly is a mora 

FfS ratjonajl 



4d$ pooti. 

Atkltial employment, and more congenial to the tempef 
df (he people in Uiis county J 

' Bdpcr is manufactured at Ipins^and other plaotti 
liOrd. figi<cmont has established a manufactory of it at 
i^iiH^^ton, and a fulling-mill at the same place, besides 
a mill for grinding oatmeal, nrhich supplies all the 
Aeighbourhood with a very useful article, which used 
to be had (tot0. a distance at a greater expense^ 

Brick-kilns are established in yarious places.. At 
Little Hampton, white bricks are made. Near Pet* 
trorth, a kiln has been lately constructed for supplying 
the Wiest fndieii ; an open kiln, and a dome«kiln, each 
folding Sg,0(K) : th^y take SO hours burnidg with 2500 
Kevins, at t)sf. per 100 i three men fill in three days, 
an^ draw in three more« If the demand was brisk, the 
kfbi Would: bum all the year. In 1796, only 200,000 
atiA KW^OOO tiles were made ; sold at S9j« per thousand 
m thei^. At Arundel, Bis. To burn 400,000 re- 
quires nine men; wages is. 6(1. per thottsand; size^ 
9 inches, 4, 2^. 

Fot'ash is made at Bricksill-hill, adjoining Petwortb, 
for tlie soup-masters of (be town. 



SECT. V. POOJR. 

lir this term is understood,. ia-a genoral sense, ilie la-' 
bouring poor, and those who at any time of the year 
seek assistance from the parish- 

I shall set out with observing, that the present state 
of this class of people is in many parts of England in- 
ftrior to what every humane person would wish, and 

much 



much below that condltiou whicli ^j.n^yres^Sfx^lsijf 
expect in so. wealthy a community. Too mfipj( v£ 
their houses are the residence of filth and vermin ; their 
dreas insufficient ; their minds uncducdted^iinin^^tf ilct^ ; 
and their children, from insufficidncy of eaTidngs, 
trained to vice ; their daughters to follbW the ^asjf road 
to prostitution, and too many of them aflasCtb ifecome 
injurious, instead of a blessing. Giye e&ch ii|ian to in- 
terest, a stake in the >\elfare of his dbutitf j, diid we 
should no longer hear of so many crimes. 'Thfe pos- 
session of property is so deeply intcrwovefa Willi feSrthly 
considerations, that every country laiiwi^r mh^iksi& 
strength to labouF, oiight in a well ordei;^ $Ocit^.($t 
enjoy as much land as he can cuUivate. It ifi ik'\» glK^ 
{>rinciple which forms the cement of sociiiyi jmdi«mi}4 
establish the perfect aecurity of the comity fi4^ -.V^-^- 
mnple, if each labourer rented a* much gr^^mg hftd M 
isoabled him to'siipport acow in winter aud suouDlSr^ wjt|^ 
a few pigs and poultry, and a garden extentsivia Qici^gii 
to supply his own family, it would completely d^.a'isiiy 
the frivolous and unfounded complaints of tfeteigiivis 
rant, tha.! the price of provision i$ owing to tBe ebss 
of farms. Each laboucer lirauld then be as fiiUy ioike*. 
vested in support of the Constitution as the mo^t par. 
tent peer of the realm4 ^«fiy tucji an ayraageJigPt^ 
sedition, which pnce menlu^ the cotmtsy, w^V^ t/mp 
nish, as the great mass of the community would natu* 
rally feel an affection for their country exactly in the 
ratio of their own domestic felicity. Such an order of 
things would signally promote the comlbrt of lifc^ 
would improve the understanding of tl^ poor^^ and 
give them ideas of moral obligation, the rights of so^ 
ciety, and the duties pf Christianity. It- will be worth 

Ff3 inquir- 



4S8 Toon. 

inquiring into the state and price pf the foUpwing ar* 
ticlest 

L Expenses, ^ 
2. Earnings, 
3* Cottage, 

4. Food,* 

5. Dress, 

6. Friendly Societies, 

7. Charity, 

8. Houses of Industry* 

' These circumstances involve their maintenance and 
^support : let us then compare the income with the ex* 
penses of industrious labouring fitmilies in Sussex, and 
^camine whether the wages -are not absolutely inade- 
;quate to support them honestly in their calling. For 
this purpose, the annual expenses and earnings of scve* 
jal labouring families must be stated, and a medium 
year is the fairest for calculating the account, because 
during the last three years, the price of provisions has 
fluctuated too much to strike an even balance in any 
one of these years ; for if the account had been ave- 
Taged according to the valuation of the necessaries of 
life during this period, such a table would have exhi- 
bited too severe a picture of distress. The following 
account was made with great accuracy and correcUiaw. 



Expenses 



FOOB. 



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Annual Expenses, 

Aent of a cottage aqd gardisn^ ••-«,,m.9«*« ^. 9 10 

Fuel, if boaght, costs 1/. U, to II, 4f . The \ 

labourers are allowed the old wood ; their > 1 1 
wives pick up sticks, *»«f^.«.**ftt*«««<«-f-«.* ) 

Clothing: the man wears a frodc, per annum 5 

Wear of a working waistcoat and breeches, 6 

i. wo sniriS| «»«rt«««*«»**t««««*f*««#«M»«««H«f •#•#••••^••#•••^1 \j lo q 

One pair of stout shoes, nailed, •••— .^..m— .... 9 

A pair of stockings, •••fMo*.— »••—•— .^m— •••••• 4 

JIat, handkerchief, &c. ••»MMM«*Mf.M«..f...M«*«ff Q 

S 11 

The woman wears a gown and petticoat, .••• 9 

Two shifts, ..... ,.• .....M....,.^.,. . . 7 

A pair of strong shoes, ...••••••• .•.«•••,..•• 5 

Two pair of stockings, ........M' m....m*..« 0, 3 

Two aprons, •.•;..,«,m......«........ ^ ..•• 3 

Handkerchiefs, caps, &c. •••.#.m.....mm«.m.. 4 



•*■« 



1 11 e 

Lying-in, sickness, and loss of time, «. 1 12 

xoiai, .M««M.fM**««.««t.«t.«.M««« A • o i4^^0 

Price of tlie half peck loaf of wheateu bread, 10 

Gallon of flour, .^.m...,.,..-. ll| 

A week's labour in winter, .,.- ;..... 9 

Throughout the year, ^ m 10 D 

In harvest, w.,.««....t«M.........f....M..«...o..M.......«... 15 

The tea used in a family, is from two to four ounces 
per week, at 3d. per ounce. 

Moist sugar, half a pound, at 9d. or lOJ. per lb. 

Salt butter, (quarter of a lb. at 8|(f. to 9d. per lb. 

Cheese, 



n»Tsr, from 5d. to (></, per lb. 

Beer, noiic. 

Soa|i, id. per lb. 

Many of tlic -women nub for the ttnimnried b< 

TliiiM' liOKiUHTft -aho ran ren* a ca{tng<> and garden, 
cin^rwrallj' keep poullrjr, and fallen a bog : and all 
have frtquctit mnl great iitlp from llie ch-Ttitabk-and 
OMUKlcniliU- fiirmas, such asinitk, brulh and inferior 
inoit, which niUAt make the deitcunciei of earnings*. 
Indeed 

' Thii tibici'ilruly cjr^;irr[ mdred : anil ilt utility wouM havebetn 
faKr«attd bj aiimilar tibit' 40 cir 50 yrari ago, tlcrduced ftom exttacb 
(nxn fatTtien' bonkv— Jfrv. y<^ Htvilitl, Dmmnr, Et,ez. 

^Ime jidTticulin tend M mn^rm mt in my <rpJa>oi» (which I tavr 
Mate4 in olber Rcporli), of ilie ncccuatr of incrcaiiog the tale of wagn 
jBDeralW, lo labniiren In hiisbuidry. Thfir i lualion ought (o lie madt 
■ture com fori sill c ; "thcrwitc we mint nol be iiirprised at (heit being 
JhuriilicJ, and within^ for a chan^. — Mr. ffiHiam Dann, CSHfrhaii, 
Kat. 

Th« IbUowiog Watonent will ihcw the eamiogt of the labouren tbit 
I asploy on my farm, and the family to coniiit of eigihl penoni : 
TTienlai 96 week), at Ilj.perwcek, .... £,14 g o 
Diica IC diiio, by ilw grcM, at ISi. - • - . - v J9 10 D 
WUelliree wccIciin>prinf;,planliD£,ho«llKi'(C.M fi.aweek, 15 
Bitto bay-harv«t three weelu, ztSi. per wtek, - - 15 

CofaharTfM, - - .116 

Getting poiatoei, three week), at fi». - - - - O Id 
Tbe oldcit child half price of the mother, - • • O 7 fi 
Hiy-harvc«, - - - - - - - -.075 

Corn ditto, - -0 1,8 

Oerting potatoc!, - - • - - . - 01» 
Some little manure they malu and gather thcnuelvet, and— 
, ttft cait-ltad ibat I give theni, and giTe then land to Kt I 
their potatoe*, and wort it for them with the plough, ^ 4 
add cart their dung fir ib«n free of eipenie, by which J 
(heywilUverage 60 bushels Of potatoes, at lj.4rf.petbuili» 

The labotjtw aad family'i earniop toi one yearj - - £, 43' IT 6 



POOR. 44S 

Indeed there was no necessity to demonstrate^ that 
the wages of labour are inadequate to the price of pro- 
Yisions : it is too striking to be controverted by any, 
but those who think it beneath their dignity to exa- 
mine the residence of the cottager, especially exem- 
piified in the instance of numerous families : their bed 
and bedding, blankets, sheets, &c. &c* their little 
houshold furniture, clothes, fuel, food, garden; the 
clotliing of their children, the rags and nastiness in 
which too many of them are wrapt up ; and last of all^ 
the state of their cottages in general. The architecture 
for a palace is well enough understood : for*a cottage 
it is unknown : the comment is sufficiently clear. One 
grand requisite in the amelioration of the poor, is the 
construction of cottages upon a new principle. In a 

Now, where the wife is industriouK, which is mostly the case with 
labourers, after working for me 13 weeks, she spins and knits for thie 
family, and often makes a piece of coarse cloth for the family use^and 
Jobs about in the neighbourhood ; by which means she will earn a s^t 
ling per week, which will be 39 shillings; but that may be allofWed for 
loss of time, &c. and after the oldest child has worked with the mother 
13 weekS) it is sent to the school^ and all the rest that are qiulified to go^ 
except on« that the mother may sometimes keep at home to none tiie 
Infant child, a^ it it mottly the case there is one. And by this amtft 
they psy their way well; and both they and their children appear rlwii 
and decent, and have change of clothes to go to their devodon, Ac 

Labourers in husbandry and their wives are mostly indutrious; lor 
both them and their wives have generally been servants to fanners, and 
have been brought up to industry and economy. , ^ 

Where thtce is one labourer in husbandry that becomes needfol to Ue 
parish, there are ten to one'that have been brought up to mechanical 
trades; for thrf ninttly ramble about, and marry to servants, in gentle- 
men's families, and, alwiys living in pUotj and Ittsnirioosness, when 
pxi^rM, age or any thing happens to the husband, they do not know 
how to turn their hands to any kind of industry, but tmnediately pot 
ihennelTCf upon At pmhr^Mr. Hmftr% BmkMl^ JLivpfoti. 

northern 



411 room. 

nonhnm climalc Iik« oqr own, fuel eaten TCiy deepl| 
ittlft tlif aEitolulc nn-L-Matics of UA.-. 

To »iisuun bcollh anit itr>A|flb. and eirr llu; batou 
frame the lat^m aod poKcr of uadetgving the bOTliie* 
of oirrrailted Ubtnir, htairiv and alroigibniin;; dirt u 

. kb>oluifIy oecemary (n preaerve life tu a Tigoiuas old 
age. .Animal fncnl once in cscli ds^, should fprrn * 
jttut of fhe hbottttr's di).-t ; nnt indi-rd enlirtij' salM 
proTisimit, bat fR-tfa mratnilh a mixrure ot' vtgetaUrsi 
jluLinocs, arru(!t, and juirnipi, arc vciy aounsh'\f>«^ 
particnldrl^ ibe latter- A garden might labc a si^flit 
ciracy for Iii&own fniiulv; an mcliaid niigb^ perhaps 

. be added fur cvdrr : and tbv whole lot, including Ibe 
fidd for a cow jim) ho<^, frow otic to thrrc actf!^, ac^ 
conlivgia circumstancT'si tbp^, with a neat brick ot 
rione built collagr, wmibl sti|)ersede every necessity of 
tWortIng In Ibc parish for reliff, and would render the 
JnWuriiig pom hapiiyand flourishing, population mut- 
tiplird, con&uni|tlion inrrrascd, gross protliice augr 
ntented, vrovisioni cheap, rates abdishcd» iiidiistry 
Incnsant, niorals, edutaiion, tic- improved. To, the 
]pt>fisession of property would be atlacbed a native ^gt 
aily of mind, wbicl) would excite in tbeai a i|ev(Jj;^ 
•fidm, and a more extcnsire (c«cb of ^ml&ttati^ufg^ 
In the boose of fndustry at Bast-boimie, tb^csper^ 
nent of potatoc puddings was frequently (ried : it di^ 
not answer ; no saving in the flour : 70 lb. of Ao^x 
made into puddings, has dined the whole fiuoily ;. tiic 
same c^juantify mixed with hMf a bushel -of {MititoeB, 
•crvcd a less qiianfily of paupers thaA the po^diii|^ of 
Hour only, as some part of the latter ^iwr^/ ^j 
maiRed after the dinBcr was cndedy Lmt of tjb|i.4tli«r. 
there was sctdom a sufficiency, f^ata^s aie « great 
digester. 



liigi^tet, and left the paupers much more hungry for 
Ike next meal than \fhen wheatcn Hour was ujsed by 
itself. 

Mr* Williams^ of Woolbeding, and Mr. IsUp, of 
Stedham^ haVe tried potatoe breads and the effect has 
been much the same as the foregoing. This is^ in alt 
lyrobability, to be attributed io the bread being used 
«oon after having been made ; but if these gentlemen 
had kept it for a few days before trial of its merit, I 
have no doubt but the result would have beeii the same 
with that which was tried at Petworth. / 

• But the right application of potatoes for human food$ 
is^ beyond all question ofdoubt^ roasted or bahed; 
boiled, and eaten with salt, is good, but not to bo com-* 
pared with the other. Iir the former method they are 
superior to bread; but in either (simply boiled or 
roasted) preferable to any preparation with other com* 
posts. 

Friendly Societies ought to be encouraged by all 
jMl^ible means : the utility of them is so obvidu^, that 
it is much to be lamented tliey are not more generaL 
lf\gentlemcn and farmers were to encourage them with 
their protection and assistance, it would tend to the 
$upportof old age, sickness and infirmity. 

But of all the duties which we owe to society, cha- 
rity is the first. There are various ways in which th^ 
exercise of this virtue may dontributc its assistance to 
tte poor ; but certainly tlic best method is when it ope- 
ifates io the promotion of industry. In this manner 
the relief of the poor in Sussex has been taken up by 
Lord Egrcmont. The great utility which results to 
th^ community at large, from holding out rewards io 
the poor and industrious among the lower rj^nks, and 
from discouraging, as much as it is possible^ every 

propenr 



propcmitj' to idU'iirs^, loti^ since iniluCMl bU Sjord* 
khip to distribute lu tku hiIxt and induitrioiia, bouAf 
lii/x in cbllicx, wliithiiTc tntetided to serve for the eit* 
couragincnt of R(!tl\-e iiiduiitry, at tlio same time that 
it niijclit operate os n check and di»couragemuil uf ilitf 
idit") Ity €utlii]<^ i>(I' nil Iiopcx of sucli brinsr rocom* 
Incnded as object » iii'cliarity. I'orNiic!) aptitii tu havt 
its fulU-st ufll-c(, liy rendering it known to tlic great 
mass oi tlic p(-ii|)li-, it vtnk iiecess;iry to circulate lb< i 
fiitlowing rrrlificiitr, dencriliinj^ the agi', wx, &f. nf 
the person who inn; be entitled to llic bounlv, iipoB 
Bppiicalion to two res[>ectiible pcTsouK (not pari&h uffi- 
crr*), torir it rented ivilli Diese, it mi^'Iit teiidto tleleiit 
Ific very end for whieli the bounty was intfnded, m 
(he cifiicern miirbt reciHiiiiieiuVany persons ns objects of 
the charitv, in unler thai lliey inij^Ut. nol any longer 
apply to the jiiirisb (oi relief. Here futlon's the form 
of Ihc ceriilicalc. 

We the Undersigned inhabitatlts of ttic (huMi bf P^> 
wortb, do recommend Mary, the m/c.of iffUliam 
Ailing, a poor person lesuleot -wkhia Ukr^taid pa- 
risbi bcinj;of the age of 47 jrau«« and;. )t*Tif){; ux 
children living at home, under the dge of twdre 
years, as sober and industrious, attd A ptoper object 
to rtceive the Enrl of Egremont's bounty of clo^tB. 
Dated this ^th day of February, 1190*. . 



(Sigirf) 5W,t,.iA.-W6ri, 
C Isaac IrblAkd. 



Isaac IrblAkd. 

The above recommendation is to be signed by hro 
rcspcelahlc housekeepers liring in tbc same [ta^ikft'i^ 
tlic party recommended. And to prevent any aHWs« of 
the charity, it is earnestly requested (hat no person irifl 



POOR", 



447 



•ign this paper, unless he perfectly knows suohiparty, 
and is fully convinced that in all respects be or she is a 
proper object of the bounty. 

The number of families that partook of this bounty 
for the last year, was as under : 



Pariihes. 



Numbert. 



Children under 
Twelve^ 



Stopham, • 5 

Fittlevorth, 18 

I*ctworth, 74 

TUlington, '... 



•••••••••••••••• 



•••••••••••••••A 



••••••• 



S8 



»••• 



25 

68 

190 



North Chappel, .... 14 . 36 

Green, 6 

Kindford, 19 

Lurgershall, ••••.«»... 8 

Ambersham, 3 

Sutton, 1 

Lodsworth, « 2 

Wollavington, 1 

Bury, 2 

Egdean, 3 

Wisborough-green, 1 

ColdWaltham, .... 1 



................ 



....•*.........« 



................ 



.«..•*...«...•.. 



22 

67 

18 

11 

3 

7 

5 

8 

8 

6 



186 



Besides this bounty (which is very much increasing), 
of the strongest Yorkshire chHh, Lord J£gremont con- 
stantly distributes three and four times a week, good 
soup to the poor of the neighbourhood, made of bar> 
relied beef, Scotch barley, and potatoes, besides regal- 
ing between three and four hundred fumifies at Christ- 
mas wiUi beef and pork ]>ies. . 

A sur- 



418 ^odtu 

A sUrgeon*apothecary (Mr. Andrew) tires in Pci* 
worth-house) for the express purpose of attending upon 
the poor of that and the neighbouring parishes gratis. 
«All who dome under his care, are treated iii the best 
possible manner: if a limb is frai:tuced, it ,is set; if 
physic is wanted^ it is administered, as there is a com^ 
plete apothecary's shop and surgical appiiratus at 
hand. 

In 1795 his Lordship sent, an expert woman to the 
British Lying-in Hospital, to pa^s through the quali-^ 
fications requisite in the business of midwifery, prepa^ 
ratory to her seltletarnt at Petworth. 

Another womtin has been settled in the neighbour^ 
hood, for the sole purJ>ose of inoculating the thildrcrt 
of the poor. 

Houses of industry, well rittcnded to^ are a fitir mode 
of relieving the poor in bodies. 

The22d Geo. fit. cap. 83, on this subject) is cer- 
tainly an excoUcnt Act, as well for the benefit of the 
poor as for the g-ood of the public. Objections indeed 
have been raised. Whoever examines the interior eco* 
nomy of any one of them, and then turns into a poor 
tnan's cottage in the heii^libourhood, cannot fail of 
bcin^ struck ^vitli the diftorencr. Examine the rc<]rii- 
larify, the cl«*anliness, tlio industry^ whalesdme diet, 
and clot hi H!^ of the paupers, and then compare them 
>vi(h similar circumstances in a cottajife. Which is 
thcbdtcr? There is gnat attention paid by profes* 
sloTuiI men, to sickness in tliese houses ; there is little 
in a oottaii;e: but the mental improvement, the instruc- 
tioa ot the youni^ in the principles of reliii^ion, and in 
t!ic practice of morality, is, I hope, one of the primary 
contf'Ttis In houses of industry. We all know how 

they 



' ■■■ » 









' 1 PM 



» t 

ore tended to diminish the poor-rates, Mrhich i 

artly be attributed to economy ; and ttey are i 

iii a more nutritive diet. It is really astonish^* * 

iw '^ery cheap great numbers of pieople may be 

in a tery Hearty fodd when iliey mess together, 

t one morsel of anindal food. Count Rumford 

:]ilained this fact in the clearest and most deci« 

taiier, by shewing that in the hou^e of industry ^Jj 

lich^ tlie poor (12O0) are fed with a soup of pearl- 

; pease^ potatoes, ^heaten breads salt and vine* ^ 

reparecf iii the following proportions.. ! 

se of ttils (dod in tie scarcity df 1795 (No- I 

tcmbcr). 

; 9 ox. pearl-barley, at 2d. ....;.....;. ;{*.0 11 d i (i 

• 10 — p^se, at lid. 8 2 I 

• 4— potatoes, atO|(^ .................. 13 9 ] 

. 10 — bread, at ll|4rf. ...v...;....:..... 6 16 6 

. 13 — salt, at lid. ...,.-.............;....... 6 Si 5f 

IT, 1 gallon, ...„ .................^. 18 

s^ for fuel, servants, Sic^ ...•'•.•.•;.•..•.' 10 4| 

*otal, ........ ;C. 3 4 7^ 



i =1™' 



H 




1 



'I 



4^. 7|rf. clivided by ISOO; gives for each 2id. ^ \ 

learly; so that notwithstanding the iliWcom- 
high prices of provisions at thftt time, the 
less of su'bsistenc^ is most extraordinary. Not,' 
3r,' that any thing like this management has beea 
t in En^kaid; bnt the capability of dofng it 
s the same; 

Ifouse of indu^tiy at Eastobburne was formed! 
, 1792; house, offices, aAd convenSertces," have 
rected under the powers of the SSd^lGeo. IH. 
EX.] Gg C.8S, 



\ 



c. 83»an(l opciic(^fi^rtIic trccj)lion of paiiprrs, Octo* 
bcT 10, 179'i, T!ic pnrish(» uiiilcil are, Beplon, Cock- 
iiiR, Cliitlinrsf, I>.iKl>boiirite, FarnliursI, Iping, Linch- 
mere, Lixlworlh, Lurgrsliall, Sdham, Slcdham, Til- 
lington, Tra^ford, TroUoti, Wnolbcding, Woullavf 
inglun. 

I. Expenses. — Fur (lie first ycnr : tlip buildings 
(computed (o contain ISO jiorsoiis), according to the 
first proposed plan, were contnictcd fur at 9S00^. aJid, 
tfip expenses of llic purcliaic of the ground, and of 
thos[^ buildings (inr.lnstvf! of some allemlions in the 
origiitul plans), udJ of fitting up the premises to re^ 

ceive tlie furniture, amount to .«.. /.4005 8 Sf 

Maiiufactnre AiTiounts to 048 17 9 

Raw materials of manufiicturc (wliicli J 

will he returned to the uodertaltiiigV 75 8 I 

on sale of the produce), amountB to J 
Itliscellancous, coinprisiiig all other^ 

articles under thi' 15lli Scliednle (ex-/ -« ,* 

elusive of the pay of ofEccrs, ort 

a&sistanl, nolvriducj, amounts to ' 

£.b\03 9 Oi 
Provisions, and other articles, includ-^ 
ing the stock of fu-ovisions. in liiuid,> 1058 8 {)| 
. aii(9uut to . ...M ...»~>.. )' 



Total of both', .... jf.6l6l 17 \0\ 

_2. Efnplo^fnent. — So rflafij' of tb^ paupers within 
the house are engaged in the domesti»; employmeut of 
the iiistitution,. as .are capable and necessary for that 
service : the males in gardening an4 out-door work, 
and the females iii the bousbold work ; and the males 



are let out io labour to the neighTxmring farmers 11^6 
choose to hire them. There are likewise established 
manufactures of linen and woollen for clothes ; but atf 
no persons are admitted ihto the house between the 
ages of 14 and 60yearsr) except those wanted for thd 
management of domestic' afiairs^ women with infii^ii^ 
children, anifl per^ns who, from infirmity of mind ot 
bpdy, are incapable of procuring a livelihood ;' and as 
the principal objects of the institution are to obtain a 
comfortable asylum to persons of a very advanced s^/^ 
&ad to bring up the children at an early age tafiabitt 
of industry, aivd to make theni handy and Useful stt« 
rants, it cannot be Expected that muc|i jpi'ofit should' 
arise from the mauufactures, especially in t&eir (itieseiit 
tnfaht state; and in fact, that profit has notforthit 
first year been sufficient to reimburse to the house the 
expenses of the Board, and wages of tite p^i'sons em<* 
ployed to instruct the children ; the charge of ' weav of 
implements; the interest of the eost of t]6»etoi> Imd of 
the raw materials of the fabric* 

3. Earnings. --^he earnings of the paiiplers from 
October 10, 1794^ to September 86^ 179% aie a^fol-i 
lows : 

By spinning linen, woollen, mops, .«.. ^.14 4t . 7^ 

Knitting, ........ ...... — ^..^..^........m. S 1 Of 

xNeeQie^worK, .••...'•..M..M....M#k.«M.«M.. ....... %$ J17 4r 

Husbandry, deducting id. in l^. m..^** 12 17 2^ 

The value of the labour of the poor witfaiir ttie Jiouie 
or garden , not estimated. 

• if 2^ 4* Aiim« 



4. Humbert. — ^Thr niiinbi,T of jTOupers in the hou5#, 
October 179j, wu> 150. 



fi. J)iFi.:^V(X Inttahfiist, brr;n! and ctieese, orwatcr- 
grurl and milk-pottagc, §flmi-times lirotli and otiion- 
poHaiP" ;— for dinnor, pudding, mutton and pork, 
(liinniin^.i, nx-licacLt :utd bacmi, and coarso betf j — , 
for suppiT, bread and diccK. 

Provisiuiu cxpcnilixl for one monfli : 

lU-rf, 721b ».-.««.-.. ■' £-i il 6 

/rhrpc ox-heads, - . -...-... 10 4 

. MuUoii, 22MI). «-«..«,-™«™.™..« 10 5 

Pork, 4531b . ...«-... 15 2 

Lard, 611b. ...- — 1 15 7 . 

; Flour, fill{ Millions, ..-_ le 1* 101- 

.Brcad, 29721b. ...«..„ „.-.._... 34 1 1 , 

^pheese, 4911b -«....«.._.. 9 4 1| 

jOatmeal, 3 quarts, ...„ „„ 16 

Butter, 19 lb - 14 6 

Rice and Scotch barley, 34 lb 9 11 

5u^r,12Ib. .-.. -.-™-« — ™... 0.9 0. 

Mi^j 42 j^lons^ ^ ..^.„^.„.....,.,...._„. Oil 4 

Beer, 802 gallons, .'. 8~ 7 1 ' 

Soap, 401b. .-„ „__ — „, ™.„ I I 8 

"idandlesi;6ib. ■ ;......t>;.^.'::...;....;; -.._. '4 5 

*Wood and faggot, 500; ;.._. „......„. S 

Sondries", .:: ...v.. O'll 9J 

SinaU-iftcidentalcKiieiifiesi" ..'.... 3 1- 

■ '^' ■■ • . ^.100 I gi 

_ — - - * ■ ■ ** \ 

I57;t paupers, for 31 dajs, qost 100/. Ii. ^d, = 
; - t ,; .- SuttoR 



POOH. 



453 



Sutton house of industry' was effcded hi 1791, arfd 
a manufactory established, for spinning, and making 
worsted. The original uniting, comprehended eight 
parishes ; three more have been since added, and the 
undertaking now iucludqs the parishes of Berstcd, Big- 
nor, Burton, Bury, Claphara, Coates, Duncton, Eg- 
dean, Patching, SHndon, and Sutton. Mr. Samuel 
Bryan, tlie governor, contracts to pay the parishes for 
the labour of the poor within the hoiVse, at the rate of 
\s. 3d, per bead per week, for each pauper of the age 
of six years and upwards. Previous to October 10^ 
1794, the food of the poor had been contracted for, 
and the weekly average expense of each pauper's main* 
tenance during the above year, was 2s. 10|rf# 

These poor-houses are too recently established, to 
draw much instruction from the experiments in this 
county. It carries in its favour every prbspect of low- 
ering the rates, of mending the morals, of instructing 
the children, and educating them in habits of sobriety 
and industry : their health is not by any means im- 
paired by the natqre of their employment ; their diet is 
wholesome ; and the only solid objection is farming 
them. This is perhaps the consequence of the manu- 
facture. In £ast-bonrne it is unknown ; though some 
employment is absolutely necessary, and husbandry- 
work for the very old and very young, is utterly im- - 
practicable; and after all, a manufacture of some sort 
is perhaps the best possible way of promoting such 
industry. ; 

On the subject of the poor laws and management of 
the poor, Lord Sheffield, who has had upwards of 
thirty years' experience of their effect, is fully aware 
of all the diiliculties which have arisen from the abuse 
of them; and the misconception of their great object ; 

G g 3 and 



464 fooK. 

and he considers all the deflations from the principles 
of the law of Elizaljeth, as promoting the mischiefs 
which now embarrass us. The original law of Eliza? 
beth was excellent in principle, bat a false interprcta« 
tioiK and bad execution gf it, and above all, the non.- 
jense of sentimental economists^ who never comprcr 
'bended its spirit, have rendered it a great nuisance, 
bigbly oppressive of the landed interest, and crippling 
>of the resources of the country. He observes, that a 
bind of system has been established, of relieving the 
jpoor, by no means s^pported by law. The statute of 
j^lizabeth was well imagined, and answered all the 
.purposes intended; it merely gave a power to the 
]Nirish officers to provide for the lame, blind, and im- 

• 

.potent, and to set the idle to work; which was pecu- 
liarly- necessary at that time, as there was a number of 
idle, needy, an(] disorderly people, who used to receive 
alms from the monasteries, previously to their dissolu- 
tion, and of soldiers and mariners, who were turned 
loose after the defeat of the Spanisli Armada. But it 
has been so much misconstrued and abused, that it has, 
in a great degree, destroyed a provident spirit on the 
part of the Ipwer ranks, and prcmoted tlie neglect of 
their families and children, by suggesting notions that 
the parisli is obliged to maintain, not only their chil- 
dren, but themselves also; thereby leading them to 
look to other means of subsistence than their own in- 
dustry, than which a greater mischief cannot he ima- 
gined. Unfortunately an ill-judged conduct on the part 
of those who were not aware of the views of this excel- 
lent law, and who never had a practical knowledge of 
the country, has encouraged these evil consequences, 
which are becoming highly calamitous. 

Lord iSheffi<4d conceives that all the changes in this 

law 



POOR. 455 

law have been for the worsen and amotig other in* 
stances*, he mentions a late alteration, which allows tfie 
poor to wander out of thq reach and observance of 
those who are obliged to maintain them: that 'those 
who promoted this measure, did not perceive that the 
principal object in not permitting the poor to mmtte, 
without a certificate, where they pleased, was With^ 
moral view; it was in part intended to prevent, their 
intrusion into places where they were imknown, and 
might introduce much mischief. ' This licence greatly 
lessens the necessity of supporting a goodchafiicter'*; 
and it became less necessary to rc<iommend themselvi^ 
' by their good conduct, to the principal persons of the 
^parish ; it told them they had nothing to do but to run 
away to another parish, when they had transgressed ; 
^and they became a severe scourge to those amoiig^ 
^hom they intruded, from whence they catmot now be 
removed, it gives an opportunity to smugglers and to 
the greatest villains, to assemble where they please^ 
from all parts, to the ruin of the morals of a parish^ 
before orderly and well regulated. In answer to the 
common^place observation, that it is very hard, not ta 
sufibr the poor to seek work wherever they suppose they 
can best find it, it should be observed, that the law 
provided a power to give certificates to those who did 
not readily meet with employment in their own parish^^ 
which parish officers will of course grant, rather than 
irelieve them ; and it is but reasonable that there should 
be something reciprocal in the connexion, and that 
tho^e who are liable to maintain them, should have the 
advantage pf their work, if they can find employment 
for them. 

' The rental of the Weald of Sussex is much affected 
by the extravagance of the pooT«rates ; and, compara- 

G g 4 tively 



ti«ly irith tbe intrinsic value of-llK: land, tlierp ip vf^ 
part of the island where it is Ictt at so low a pnqe : ii; 
coionion years the rate ihrougU a considerable district, 
is at ten KbilUngs in thi^ poiin>lf rack-rents ; and during 
late years ot scarcify, they amminlcd to S5«., and 
evfTi in some parifbe^ to 35s- in tbe pound, at rnck- 
fftnls. 

The miserable partsif workbousc^ sctm principally 
iutemlcd in terrorcm, and without lliem, the parishes 
would be overM bt Imed by the demands of the paupo's : 
they an-, in general, the vilest cstub!iiiliincnt$(if (hey 
ire worthy of sucli a description), devoid of any thing 
like lojerablesupcnntcndancc; soraeof thnu, however, 
make feeble nttempts (o cojploy the poor that are lodged 
in them, bul in grpat part, there is no attempt at any 
work, in a few instance's, the coijnty atlbrils cxampltg 
ftf a. certain number of parishes having united to form 
houses of indui>lrv, in imitation of tlio»e establi-shcd i^ 
several parts of England ; but the^e is little prospect of 
ils ever becoming, by any nieaiis, gencial, notwith- 
standing the evident good cfTects pf fl)^ systeni, 

Lord Sliefficld has, at differeot- times, represented 
the great bcnefifs arising, not only in respect to the ma-> 
uagement of fbe poor, but also in the reduction of at\ 
enormous expense, from sucb institutions: ttie most 
obstinate prejudice^ aud w^nt of intelligence, faoneveif 
renders ever^ attempt to persuade 9py n^Iier of pa- 
rishcs to agree to a. ipcasure p^thf l^indj so troublesome 
and disagreeable, that noticing but a)^ obligatory law 
is likely to bring about so desirable a purpose, tbn 
sum paid for rent of houses for the pow, ^ould mote, 
than pay the interest of Uie money tbat would be oe* 
f»^ry for building a la^ l^ousc (^ i^dustiy, aad 
filhcr habitations, Ibi the pocvt 



I 



ropuLAiriov. 457 

V 

|n all ttianagement, tfais district seems to be Itebiod 
other parte of JSngland : attempts have be^i made ioi 
pncourq^e the poor tQ keep a pQW| but without sttcdest-; 
and it is found nio$t expedient to lett small grass hxms 
for the purpose of a dairy only, stipulating that the 
milk shaU be sold by retail : the necessity of such sti- 
pulation arises from the circumstance, that it is not 
worth the %Thile of a considerable farm^ to sell milk ia 
small quantities to the poor, who ^oo often evade pajr 
mcnt Tehpre they possibly can. 

On the whole, X«ord Sheffield is cdF opinion, that ihp 
evils in respect to the poor are so deeply rooted, and 
the abusei^ so inveterate, thai the most intelligent man 
"will find it very difficult to please or satisfy himself, in 
regard to the correction of thojse abuse? i and be ascribes 
part of the difficulty to the incompetency qf the mass of 
those who f^re. necessarily to be consulted in yestry or 
otherwise ; yet he says, if some great measure i$ Hot 
soon adopted, the extent of the mischief mustfoecoihQ 
'spinous in various shapes* 



SECT. VI. — FGPyi'ATXON. 

By reference to the parish registers, and abstracting 
the state of births and burials at different periods b\ 
different parts of the county, and comparing the'foriuer 
with the preisent state, a ^lerable judgment may Ifo 
drawn of the state of pop\ilation in Sussex. A gx^ 
and altifiost uniform increase of the births over the bur 
]fials, i^ apparent in every register that has been exa^ 
inined. The improvement pf the Weald, by growing 
^pre ^m and ^atfle^ has U^ some degree contributed 



.4S8 roFTlATioir. 1 


t» the bwUIi <rf the inliabtlants : and (hf dninage of ' 


tbcmarsbn h»s LimJ i<s cfiecl, as (he slaerrqlpit wnters 


have bcrn k( off, and these fenny ditcliM made more 


Military. 


nnntHWf. 


B. <■: B. C. 


1579 .... 3? .... fi5 


1592 .... 58 ..„ 73 
I5P3 _.. SQ „.. 47 


I5«0 -„ 47 .... 60 


1581 _.. 34 .... 74 


1594 .... 3S .... 54 


1582 .... 3.> .... 51 


1595 .... 58 .-. 60 


J583 .... 35 ..,. 63 


1596 .... 64 .„. 40 


1584 .... 37 .... 61 


1597 .... 66 .._ 40 


1585 ... »7 .». 6J 


1598 .... 61 .... 44 


ISfiS „. 37 „.. 55 


1599 .... 45 .... 42 


J587 „.. «1 .... 68 


16O0 .... 42 .... 5$ 


1588 ... 44 .... S& 
iSSa »- 34 .... 67 


957 1300 


ifiSl ... SS ».. 68 




Excess of christeiiiiigs 3 


!3 in (I.c-35 Ia!.t years q( 



(be tfitfa century. 

Decennially in a cenfdry ami a 



59 



47 



1640 
J 550 

iBeo .... 51 

1670 .... 91 

1680 .... 56 

1690 .... 65 



170O .... 

1710 -.. 

1720 .... 

1730 .„ 

1740 .«. 

1750 .-. 



Kxccss of fiirta]^ fiO. 











POPtTLATlOK* 






/ 


■ftOB 






B. 




TC. 


. 




B. 




C. 


J783 


«••• 


44 


•••f 


82 


1789 


*••• 


58 


•••• 


86 


1784 


• ••• 

1 


«2 


•••• 


72 1 


1790 


• ••• 


45 


«••• 


75 


1785 


?— 


^1 


••f0 


90 


1791 


•«•• 


42 


•••• 


90 


1786 


•••• 


50 


• 
•••• 


92 


1792 


•••• 


57 


•••• 


• 85 


1787 
17^8 


• ••• 

• ••• 


70 

41 


•••• 


83 

88 ' 


m 


V 


530 




841 



Excess of christenings 311 in ten last years. 

£AST*BOUIlNE. 

B. C. 

21 years, 1^48 to 1671 .... 808 .... 676 

Ditto 1769 to 1792 588 .:.. 1062 

Excess of burials in the first period ...••.««..«• 139 
Christenings in the latter .......m..*'*.............. 474 

M'ESTHAM. 

Decennially 1570 to 1670, and 1690 to 1780 x 
1571 to 1671, iex<;ess of burials .... 70 

1690 to 1780, ditto 7 

In the last ten years, excess of christenings 120 

• r 

\Vhe;n the present vicar came to the parish of Pa- 
vcnsey, he was at first troubled with the ague, btit 
since 1783 or 1784 this complaint has disappeared^ 
which is attributed to the better drainage of the levek : 
tlie dykqs are now opened, and the waters no longer re- 
main in a state of stagnation, which was found to be 
so extremely unfavourable to the bealthiness of the 
place. 



HXlhBUAU. 



> *w 


TOPtTtlTIOS. 
UAILSUAM. 


^B 




Buriall. ^ 


1599 M HS08 - 




202 5? ■ 








16S0 ISiO » 


381 '. 


272 ".,. 109 


In cv rv TCp's'er that I examined, the winter moftlbt 


were invarinbly found to bt; by liir the most unftvour- 


sble to human life. 








Buriali. C 




I7S2 (Q 1762 , 


98 ..— . 


IBS 65 


1762 1771 


ISO ...... 


155 i'5 


IV73 J 78 I . 

(Ta$ 179.,' 


li'i 

uo 




iiSO jusi double. 


^^ 


■TK. 




B^P^ 


, rh.,«.i„j. 


iluriak ChriMBli ' 



1610 to 1620 ....783 
1630 1640 ..^82* 
1660 .... 618 
1680 .... +02 
1700 .... 419 
1722 .... +78 
1740 .... 497 
1760 .... 380 
J780.... 602 
J792.... 562 



1650 
1670 
1690 
1713 
1730 
J 750 
1770 
1781 



484 
496 
842 
336 
493 
498 
646 
742 



134 ™ — 



— .... 118 



BGUINGIIAM. 



la this parifih arc S3 families, Mr. Carr's ftrnt 

mainlaios '^3 luboqijcre. fipm the p»ci$b] aU t>tlt Uiieo 

manriedj 



Married, baving 41 children. Mr. Maftin^s farm 
maintains two labourers^ both married ^ eight children* 
Mrk Taylor and Mr. Davis. upcMi both their farms 
maintain 16 labourers ; 15 of them married) 38 chit« 
dren. The poor-house mainti^ins three men^ four wo^ 
men, and 18 children. Mr. Davis has ia his family 
1 1 souls ; Mr. Taylor five ; Afr* Carr 24c $ Mr. Miar^* 
tin 20 : total in the parish 352. 

Males 22S; females 198; total 421.— Families 77; 
houses 66 ; farmers 9; poor 100. 

EINGMSR. 

Males 467 ; females 4S6 ; total 903.— Families 170 } 
houses 105 ; farmers 20. 

TARRING NERILL. 

Males 43; females 37; total 80. ---Families 14; 
houses?; farmers 3; pO(»'9. 



. 


OLYNDE. 


IVIales 96; 


females 126; 


total 222.— Families ^ $ 


houses S5 ; farmers 8^ labourers 3l ; poor 19. 




• 


Buiialt. Ckritteninjit. 


1729 to 1738 ....M. 


.. 27 ....... 33 


1789 


1748 .4..... 


f. 34 ' ...«..•• 33 


1749 


lido .«..«.i 


.. 40 40 


1759 


1768 ....... 


i. 36 S3 


1769 


l77o •«. •«! 


)• «) 4 ....^.v. 1 *i 


1779 


1788 


,. 47 .*....... 65* 






ARVNDEt, 



* The number of houM) in the parish are 24, but as six of them 
>ure (louBle, we reckon UO familieii in the pariilL The present number 

of 



ARUNOBL. 

BiULtl*. Chntlcik* 1 
inp. 



ChriM 



ISSOto 1578.... 43S .... 9+9 ... 8* — 

1580 1598.... S3« ..„ SOO .... 33 — 

J581 1792.... 408 .... 638 .... -^ 235 

!n 1780 the popuklion was 1200: in 1786, it was 
1753: in 179^ il was 1926. 

PETWOBTH. 

Buriali. Chrislcn- Excni of 



1774 10 1783 1 417 

1783 1794 447 



616 

7*5 



From these few extracts, afltl many others, it appear) 
btjtmd alt (juration, that the people in thit! county are 
tery rapidly multiplying, and increiisetiister than they' 
are able to fL-«d themselves... 



■f^hibtunn', mett,, i*oni«f), snd' chiI9Mf, icm.'WhitS gift lena 
la a fsnulj and two over, one witli tbi odieti' Vfi bm- no m^ttratu 
or arclRcfrs, but. whu ire conoeiied with and dependent on asri-, 
culture^ Z3 carpenter), wbeelwrigliM, ,black»milh«, bricklajtrs, &e. 
Ourland-t:ix b highi very near 4f. ia rh» pobntt, inVlb^, if iiuid, to 
tbe too warm xe^ of Kane fiieodiM tha Re«(diitioa, lAo rKed their 
moner with die landi and now the jterao^l atale ii gcat, the hurdem 
of the tax remain) on tbe land. The poor-tu we chink -ntber mode- 
rate ; it w3^ last year about Zi. in the pound, racic rale. Most pari»ht« 
abaut w ^fe mnch htghtr.—yiiti EBMiu. 



4^ 



CHA?. XVL 

OaStACLES TO IMPROVEMENt 

WOODS^ AND COMMON UlOHTS, 



THIS obstruction to tillage reigns over two-thirds 
of this county. The timber, woods, coppices and 
shaws, are sufficiently mischievous to grazing landt 
to the growth of corn they are ruinous and destructive . 
to the hist degree. The enclosures are so small, and . 
the soil so wet ai^d binding, that to lay such land dry 
is no easy task, though the action of wind and sun is 
more necessary here than elsewhere : yet each hedge* 
row is a nursery for timber, and so enormously thick, 
as to be perfectly impervious to the rays of the sun, 
and so tall as to convert the country into the appear^* 
ance of a forest : the consequence to the corn is indeed 
deplorable*. 

Common 



* It is a great pity, that the injury done to the com and grass in most* 
parts of this county, hythtf growing trees and large belts of underwoods 
surrounding almost every enclosure in the country, ts not remedied. 
For in the autunm and vi^ter seasona the grounds, by the exclusion of 
«un and air, are renderfd torpid, greatly perishing the seeds and roota 
of the vegetating corn : whereas in the other seasons, the shade, and 
even attractive qualities of these woods, prevent any grain or vegetablea 
which happen to spring, from coming to maturity. It will be jfound 
in chemical trials, that grain raised in small enclosures does not produce 
the same virtues as the com in large or open fields do, where air and sun- 
have free communication. A second evil : these woods are nurseries for 

insects 



46 ( OBltACLBS TO 



Common Hightf. 

These tire uiie±ceptionabIy the most perfect iiuisaiice 
that ever blasted th6 improvement of a country ; and 
till tbey are done away, no tolerable husbandry -will 
flourish in tfiose districts where they ate in toice. 

Tithes. 

These are certainly in some measure an impediment 
to improvement* though not to that degree which ha^ 

* ■ T • ■ ; ■ 

V 

imeets and verxnia, if the ejpmeion be allowed. 1 haire leen and felt 
this matter leverely, where fields Of turnips and peate hare been de* 
•trcn'ed by such insects, and particularly by the slug*: even the Windsor 
bean could our, after laying one night in the ground^ resist their de- 
vouring every part but the husk. But when too late to riemedy the evil» 
I found that saw-dust, and the shavings cut by the hatther, in preparing 
the bark fur the tanner, were preventatives. Hence I coodode, that a 
li<}uid| or a preparation made from bark, or the branches, &c. of trees 
of a bitter and acid cjuality, and sprinkled over the ground, might pre- 
vent the mischief dent bv such insects, when saw-dust and bark couldi 
not be hail. A third evi!: the profits made by these underwood^, 
vciww v.i.iturciv cnnsidcred, arc of conseoucnct to the frtnncr. Suppose 
tlmt oucli acre of the growth cf tea years wtre worth ItV. IOj. and it 
<; iJom cxcctds that money ; wiicn the loss in interest of money is caU 
.: jl.^tocl, Lj'f the sum is thereby lost at least. Now the other h.ilf would 
b^ jT-aincJ in two yc:irs in the crops of potatoes and turnips thit might 
bo r.ased : for 1 look ujKn the roots to be. of g-reater value than the ex- 
r i n<j I.ti'J oi;t in g^rubbinvj'. Nay, I have found the .ishes of roots equal 
ti> tiiv' expenses of j^rubbing, were they only applied to dressing mea- 
.'.*)v,- l..nd> : and the losses by insect-, and the seclusion of -un and air 
:>(.>: 1 th^ encio>urts, .is already pointed out, far exceeded the expense 
th..t w.'uK! » i;s;ie to a f.^nr.- r, huwevcr small his tenure, in th'2 article 
v'l t^tliv r fuel to his family being brougiit fr jm a distance. Last spriiv^; 
{ laid t.v.me wood-ashts i:i a wet part of a n:e.ido\v, where oniv beniv- 
yrr.iv? and bushes grew. It has nearly extirpated tliem, and brought a 
tiric foliage cf natural ;:.a-«L>, so that the hordes can n'jw be scarcely 
tt'i)t fron\ forcing their way to that part w!;ich I'ornurly lliCy would 
n^t vidit, owliig to iLv .i.'.a-.tity of ^.di- tl.i (•r<.,f^'.t ^i^.t ^c.ntaius. — /". 



OBflTAGLBS TO JIlFROTEMEirT. 45d 

b^n dleged. If any alteratkm takes place La the mode 
of paying the Ctergy/ the gaieral opinion seems in fa* 
your of a comment ; bnt perhaps hnd would be better. 
Land in mortmain is undoubtedly cultivated to much 
disadyantage ; bat if a iair oompen^itioa W8S allowed 
for the iroprbvement whiqh the Clergy made in theit 
respective parlshi^, it would obviate the disadvantage 
attending this mode of settling the business* Where 
the land hs» been in a state of cultivation for many 
years^ it would of itself be an improvement to put it 
into, the hands of able and intelligent men^ and witihout 
the least reimbursement^ four'^fifths would feel their 
own interest too much implicated, not tai exert them* 
selves to keep it in a state of progressive inlprovement. 
Surely there is much good sense in the idea of each jnu 
rish having a resident clergyman! who is a good fkrmer, 
and much more rational, than to witness that idle lift 
which too many of tbsm laad« 



sussfix.3 Jih CHAF« 



mi^ CHAP. XVII. >m 

. L MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATION^, 



I.—AGRICULTITBAL SOCIETIES. 

,\ '_ .IN" 1779 a Socirty was proposed and eBtabtUlxicf 
■.at Irfivrd, for Itie Eucounigcmfnl of Agriculture, Ma- 
niifaclurrs, and Indui>lry, by John Baker Holroyd, 
t^q now Lord ShcffieUl, and Promimns were offered t 
faiit on ibc breaking out of llie war in 1778, it wa» 
S^rojiped. 

Pcta:oTth Fair. 

A fair has been yearly liL-kl upon the 20th of Novrm- 
htt at this place,' bat wm not remarkable till fEe Esrl 
of Egremont, with a view of promoting the improve- 
ment of cattle^ by animating the neighbouring breeders 
to exertions before unheard of, excited a rivnkbip 
among them by offering premiums. 

Jn 1795, Lord Egremont offered a prenunm of a 
silver cup to the finest bull that was shown at the fair. 

In consequence of this encouragement inne bulls 
appeared, and the prize was adjudged to Mr. Tbomas 
Cojipard, of Woodmancote. 

This first experiment was so very satisfactory to the 
^rmers, that they agreed amongst themselves to show 
their stock of bulls and heifers gt the next Storringloa 
fair (December 5). 

The cow stock produced on this day was very good, 
especially Mr. Coppard's, and Mr. Upfoid's. 

TIw 



AGHieULTURAL SOCIEtl^S. 45t 

*riie Sussex breed of cattle that are reared tipon the 
borders of Kent, have been very generally praised^ as 
exceeding in beauty all thfe rest of the county. But 
Petwdrth-fair has unequivocally proved, that the true- 
bred stock is riot confined to any local habitation, but 
that it pervades thfe whole county. 

The first year of the ^hciw tif cattle tufned out sd 
much to the Satisfaction of Lord Egreraont^ that in iht 
folioTfing year his Lordilhip ofieted the foUdwing pwl« 
miunid. 

Peiworth Fairy ffo'Oember SO, 1796. 

A^how of three and four-year old bulls^ and a show 
of three* jrear old heiferi which have had a calf. 

A Sliver cup will be given to the proprietor of tli« 
best bull ; and ten pounds to tlie proprietor of the se^ 
.cond best bull. 

Fifteen guineas will be given to the proprietor of 
the best heifer ; and Jive giiineds to the proprietor ot 
the ne^tt best heifer; 

For these prizes the bulls of the ufider^mentioned 
owners appeared 3 . ' 

John White ParSons^s bull^ three years old, West 
Camel, Somerset ; breed, Devon. 

n EHman'sy ditto dittojGlynde^ Sussex; breed j 
. Sussex. 

John Ireland's, ditto ditto, Rudgwiclc ; ditto. 

Thomas Coppardj ditto ditto^Henfieid; ditto. 

Henry Colgate, ditto\ditto, Frantfield ; ditto; 

John Upperton, ditto dittd^ Rackham ; ditto. 

Thomas Holman, diCto ditto, Henfield ; ditto. 

The silver cup waS adjudged to Mr. Colgate, for tis 
Sussex bull ; the second prize to Mr. Parsons, for bis 
Devon ^ 

fl b 2 Mr.. 



4^ 



ACBICCLTUEjIL Rocisruiis. 



Mr. Parscme'sJicifer, liiree j-eareold; breed, Oewin. 
Lord StawoU's ililto, ^litto. 

John Jillinan's ditto, Gljndc; breed, Sussex. 

Atr. H^nsc's dilto, Kindfofd, diUo. 

. The fir&t prize for the biist heifcr was adjiul^cd te 

Mr, Elimnn ; Lord Slawell's Devon gained the second- 
After the atiovc d<-ci3toii, was a swefpstiikes (fifteen 

fiub^crilwrs) for the best two-jcar old heUar; won hy 

Mf- Joiin SuUcr, al'I'itlkwottli. 

1797. 
Tills year there was a g;»cat meeting at Petworlli; 
And in order the more to stimiiiafe the farmers to exer- 
tions of such importance to their own welfare, as well 
as to tile public good, and to give a larger rting^to 
(bt sphere of their ideas by that, collision of opinion 
which (akcS place in large companies composed of men 
of nil ranks, he has on these occasions 'tilled his c»p^ i 
cious mansion with the most cdfrbratcd breeders, j^ra- ^'i 
zitTS, and farmers, from varioiis.parls of the kingdom. 
Lord Kgremorit's silver Clip, which was flik year of 
"the value of fifty' guineas, w'as*W^gea WMrV'Har- 
^riOfllon j and th<; sweejwtakes for the bfoi'lreifi&p^WilB v 
giVfen to Mr. "Slaribant. !',<■ .■■. 

in the year 1797, the Eari of Egremont 8et''olHb<l4V^ 
Society "'at Lewes, for tKe itajw^vemeniof eallte'and 
sheep ; rewarding industry among the labouring poof, 
and distributing prizes io thb best ploughmen : and-tbc 
dfect has lieen such, Ihat'aUhodgh the Society has 
been established only six years, it bas in that-ahOTt 
space very materially tended 16 improve tie fll^cts-for 
which it wtis instituted, and it promises stiH greater 
success, by the support it iii continually reteiving from 
•very qiiafterofthe coniity. /''■■'''■' ^ ' 



459 



SECT. II.— -WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

The confusion which reigns in the weights and mea- 
sures of this kingdom, bja^. been niorc than once pro- 
posed to be remedied by substituting an universal 
standard; buf (he gii^at difficiiliy s<^tii&' fo consist in 
the apfiareht impossibility of fixJng upon any substance 
in nature subject to no impressions, and liable to no 
decay from climate, or length of time. It cannot be 
doubted but that the thing is feasible, and that an 
eiqualizatioA might be effected, to be extended to other 
countries, and all Europe enjoy the benefits of such 
useful regulations, which tend so strongly to cement a 
g^ood understanding between diiferei^t nations, an4 
Vnite them in friciulship. 

. The ^eights and nieaspres which are more commonly 
used in Susse^i^, are the acre, pound, stone, load^ 
bushel, &c. There are several sorts of acres, a grefit 
source of perplexity and confusion — ^the short acre, the 
statute acre, the forest acre, and various others i the 
^rest aero is nine score rods; the statute acre eight 
score ; the short acre six score in some places, in otherv^ 
live score. 

A stranger, unaware of the variations that pievail^ 
i|s liable to fall into mistakes in every step he takes. 
The eight-gallon measure only is used; the load of 
wheat is .40 bushels ; of oats, 80. The stone of meat 
is eight pounds^ The tod of woo), 33 pounds ; and 
fioth troy and avoirdupoise are in use. 

Until a radical reforni is brought to bear^ the present 
confusion in buying and selling must prevail^ and the 
honest and unsuspecting will be tak<^n in by the crafty 

Md designing. 

BhS poKCLtr- 



4C0 



CONCLUSION. 



MEANS OF IMPROVEMEKT, 

AND MEASURES CALCULATED FOH THAT PURFO!E, 

TIIE Iwo grand iinprnvenicnts required arc, ]*/, 
fbe enclosure of the waste lauds, commons, and com* 
mon rights; and, 2rf^y, a better distribution of arable' 
and woiKJbml in the Wculd. Siibor<linuIe (o these 
are olhtrsi a more extended culture of sainfoin upon 
the Downs ; the nnnihilalion of the husbandry of thu 
old scliool upon clay land (a tallow and two crops 
of com), by substituting tarns, rape, rye, cabbages, 
beans, , potatoes, and wlirr.^ the soil is li^liler, pease," 
carrots, turnips. I'hese meliorating crops aDBwer far 
better the purpose for which fidiowing was intended^ 
a dead loss, and no profit. But the fallow crops^ either 
fed upon the ground or soiled in the yards, w31 contri- 
bute their assistance for a crop of wheat 9fHnclhiRg' 
better than the present mode, not only of a whole year's 
expenses of rent, taxes, and labour, but at leasi four 
or five guineas more in lime, and this, moreoTCr, to 
raisfe 20 bushels of wlicat. How then is it possible, 
under such a system, to look for the sunshine which 
animates ihccxertions of other districts! 

Hollow-draining is far the most capital impiorement 

ever worked upon wet land. But to improve the 

Weald, corD is not an object. Grass upon wet land, 

«orn upon dry, and both where it is temperate. The 

■■ WeaW 



MEANS OF IMPBOVEMENT. 461 

Weald of Sussex should be a grazing district. Large 
dairies, with butter, cheese, and hogs ; with beef an^ 
mutton ifor Smithfield. 

It is clear, that such ^n arrangement must be pur* 
jsued, if the right application of the soil ever comes to 
be an object of attention. 

The quantity of waste land is very great, and affords 
a mostUriking proof how much the putilic encourage* 
ment is required, in order to bring those neglected lands 
under some system of improvement. They are most 
decidedly capable of being converted to profit. Skill 
and capital are the main springs for such an undertake 
ing. Judgment to plan, and perseverance in the exe» 
cution, will eventually triumph over the most untracta- 
\>\e desert. It is a cause that is not to be starved^ 

If this soil was properly treated, something like the 
following arrangement might be adopted. 

If the forest be broken up for the first time, the furze, 
Jing, broom, heath, with all other rubbish covering the 
surface, should be burnt as it stands, and then pared 
and burnt, and rye sown the same year; or, if done 
sufficiently early, a crop of turnips may be first' ob» 
tained. On this poor sandy soil, care should be taken 
that the turnips be sown in good time, or they will not 
arrive to any size : if, therefore, the turnips be not in 
•4he ground before or by Midsummer, rye should then 
take place, to be spring^fed with sheep, and succeeded 
by turnips, and then with oats, laid with artificial 
grasses, to remain so long as the layer continues good, 
lind the longer that is, the better will the land be for it^ 
as such a soil is more profitable under pasture than it 
eyer caniie in a state of tillage. A method somewhat 
similar to the aboye ought to be adopted-*a hint is 
tsufficient 

H h 4 APPEN- 



\ 



; 



t 






• 1 



. 



APPENDIX, 



irEALti OF SUSSEX, 

NOTHING cau be more various than the so3 of 
IJie Weald. In the range of blsick mountainous laiid 
1¥hich stretches from the neighbourhood of Tunbridge 
Wellsy under the names of Waterdown, Arfidown, 
Tilgate and St. Leonard's forests, the soil is general! j' 
bad; a considerable part incorrigible at anj expense 
that will repay the cultivator, and would be most pro* 
fitable for the growth of bircM. But the country be* 
tween that range aiid the* South Downsj contains *much 
good land, rich sandy loam, and fertile clay, generally 
mixed with soiUe ^and : capable of prodtitin^ every ^ 
^dnd of prop.* 

Lord Sheffield's estate j which is the largest, is nearly 
in the <ient|re of the country just described, and aiisweni 
to the abpvc description. As he is the largest farmer^ 
thepartipilard of the management of the land he has had 
a|bove30 yearsin haitd (sibout 1400 acres, which I have 
(](ftai visited), will best describe what may be done in that 
soil^ The ^rafble bears no proportion to the pasture^ 
ineadow, and woodland ; the paYk being between five 
and six: hundrocl acrqs^ and the woodland between four 
^d five hundred acres. He has tried every mode and 
every instrument of agriculttire ; but observes, that as 
a gentlx^au cannot attend mai^ets and fairs, and as he 
^ys dearer and sells cheaper than a mer« farmer/ it is 



pot wkt te ladeitahe ihe 

A0 noit piofitabky ika^Satt he 







fiavle^ pkB. ^bqyi^^^iiK^^mil citHk ii ikt 



^f^ 



|» diqpqied of at tw9 «r tlnw pmdpd 4Uii» ' itk 
eouMiof OOP* it, twp^yiypwin mmik» —4 wipw^'- «i 
0Mploqghuig. Hb lias (Am iBiqi^»pcirii«i tt^lMt 
«a» npt in tiw^ cr }«, ». «( JM%%|$|p«V%'#ir^^«^ 
ibe latfar haw frOpd. ffe o^ U^n^m^ mfiod liir 
jii^i wMniiiiiii^ HI H^ imiMMh HI rfaili^i ^w HM 
iw «ia «M% •»l>&ttiii9>abp|ft 4lM|Uiii(4||>#iiir 

kkWt^f aadfiHuid »iJw»e»i^wU^ ri||i » iy ^^ ^ |^ i ni^^ 

IB fro^ uvUhout endangering the spring sproiii, the. 
i^ost valuable for ewes artd-Iandbs. lie plants a few 
^cres with cabbages, for cows and other cattle;' and 
a:lso two or three acres with potatoes^ for hogs and 
^ultrj. lie has sown what is called in Sirssex, winter 
imrleyy and also rj/e^ on a stubble, as soon as^the crop* 
, has been carried, as early food for sheep in the spring, 
when the turnips are gone. At fln^, he was disposecl 
to consider the winter barley as the best for thepur-^* 
pose, because it matted well on the ground ; but the • 
rye is not only earlier, but bears re|)eated feeding better 
than the barley, therefore, is most useful and prW 
fluctive. • - — 

The best white wheat succeeds well on his land, and * 
produces from three io five quarl^r^ per acre; but in 
the neighboufiiood, red whe^t k generally mo^t bardj-^ 

»»4 



t 



APPEN0IX. 



MSj 



tuiel productive; -he has, frequently drilled tlie^heat, 
but never dibbled any, as there are no persons in the. 
county experienced in that practice, and he found th«* 
business could not be dispatched ; he did not find any 
great advantage from drilling, except as to thesayiBg. 
of seed, which he rather imputes to imperfect hoeing* " 
His land Avould bear good barley >;l>ut he sows little, «> 
Qats are most wanted i he has..£rown good beans/ bi|(\ 
as it is not customary to £iye them, to horses inth^ 
neighbourhood, tliere is very little demand.- ,*Hour^ ' 
all gentlemen living in the country not to yield to 4hie 
common notion, that farming will not answet to them.; « 
he strongly recommends farmi^ig, so far as may be ne^i 
cessary to supply the family, observing, .that.,tl>eieaj4r 
i^ the heaviest part^of the e^cpense, and as nagentletiwi 
can reside with convenience in the country withotit^t 
a team, he of course incurs the principal expanse of^* 
farming; and he argues, that by a. proper raqinage^* 
ipent of the team, it may easily be made^to majintaia 
itself, at the same time that it tviU do all the busine$i| 
ijecessary to the convenience anc^ ot|ier wpply of tl^t 
f^imily. 

Cattle. 

He has tried every breed of cattle : he thinks he nevec 
had a finer bull than pne of the longrhomed kind from. 
Craven; he has alsq had a buU from Mr, Bakewell| 
which he conceiv^ to have been originally of the same, 
kind. He has had a very good Clcvehind and a very 
good Herefordshire h^^^ but he prefers the Devonshim 
breed, which is found very kindly, to any other j yet^. 
after such experience, considering to how much greater- 
advantage the breed of the country, when it happens, 
tp l^ ^od^^oestoiairormaiket^ hen9wendeavQ.ur8. 



465 Mffmnttn. 

twroir-e e^titr of (lif be;^ Sussex bre«rl, df irTiidi Iff 
coiKrivrt Ihcrc an? Iwo kinds : Ihe coarser rcsembl*** 
the HerpfonleliiTT, except there bring no nuxfure of 
wbiH" ; (hi* liglttcr breed rficmblcs very mucli thtf 
N'ofjh Dovon, «n i secrti li> have been originiiHy thtf 
eamr brfwl, and noCto be infcriin' to (lie cattle of any 
CTtunir^'. J( liBs been suggested, that some of t!ie 
iij^tef hrrn\ mny llave btm prcklured by a cross some 
time pa.'-t with Hi* he^t N'otman or Aldeniey breed. 

In rc«p<»ct to oolonr, (he doep chesnut red Mreifis (o 
b« pn'fene<I by mnny ; tlie yellow red is very kindly, 
but least biii^ty, at)d inoif apt tf» scour. But Lord 
Jlieffi'-ld prelVr? Ihf blood buy, siich as he has sBpn tif 
tke Dev«n»Iiire Weed, 

^ prineipal reasftn for preTerrmg ihe cattle wliich h(t 
n'oWrrars ijt, that lUey mitkc llie best working oxen. 
The poorMSt kind of Sussex grow too heavy foY work 
tnrfn »ft*r sf sr jredYs oldi and arc very slow ; but (Sliit 
land Kiiiich Lord Sheffield raises, sicii ont better and' 
flwlw ttinn h(tttK», a/aS^ IHkf stnM MWtfc^ fbi' he^ik^, 
lWeKpHf)W:rtfoi«"tIrtrf ftuf (toany pur]i*i6*. lUfftriJ' 
only two cart-horses and e^hteen wotking oxctlj'-Trtio" 
are harnessed like horses, .h^m bridles, and are accus- 
tomeil to be led ; they have never any food b^it grass or 
BHttw, ijnyVlhey bcj^n- ttt" wotli tiaYfl in tfie's^r'm^, when 
ihey havw hny ctifff^lf th'eir sttaw : be ofite^*ores tfieni:, 

' wlieit they are hnrdVdTtd'dft nib bufiirte^tfellj ttlttlicy; 
are i»pwards of titiSvf yeiYs oH'. He hte jfi-oyeS tlie, 
flaUcy of-the notion, tliSFiP wbtkcd hard' (o (liat a^, 
tiftfyivilllnot fat' rclli; He UBed'lWO of M6 l4yg«^oseif 
beyond' llffit agej vittitMt' eVtt Bpsrin^ t^cih, an^ 
vfHKlH one vyftrlbeywcre fiittfed" w^K oiN^V to flfie' 
gpeal^vrdglit'of ncoYiyalO stbnt eSClI". Siici drii'fe 

f«K»' orstiecr* «■ imirt'cruttteydr ^tt-^^i l^e'selfe 



^(fats;l>ut lie seldom his Any stock except with gra3% 
And fdr Bis own lise, consequently he has^uo dealings 
nvtth salcfsmen. 

iiOrd Sheffield supposes that he keeps 18 oken^ui 
cl^ap (18 tigikt horses are usuaHy kept ; the oxen eat mi 
oats, and comparafively very little hay^ and there is no ' 
Jbl^cksinith^s bill, on their account ; it not being* usual 
io shoe them in the Weald. He admits that thi« 
breed is not the best for milking i but pis the bnsines!9f 
of the dairy is ill understood in that part of Sussex, he 
4oe8 not impute the deficiency entirely to the breed • 
He has seen very fine black catilo, bulls, cows, and 
oxcn^ the breed having been long ia Sussex, which b^ 
thinks may have been a cross soiite time past with the 
Welsh ; but they have the shape and size of the best 
Sussex:. If there is any white, or other colour than red^ 
it is not allowed to be the true Sussex : the least appera^ 
Mf^e of white is considered as a stain in: the breed. 

4bove 30 years ago Lord SheQield gave 50 guineas^ 
n large price at that time, to Mr. Bakewell, for the user 
of, one of bi^ rams ; the ewes were of the South Down 
4>rced, and the cross appei^red at fbrst to have answered ' 
well ; but he soon found that he had* sheep pf no cha^ 
racter ; the lambs appeared larger, but weighed little 
more than South Down, and the wool was very indif- 
ferent, being neiilier long nor short. He has had the 
Hereford breed of sheep, tl»e Ryehutd, and Urching- 
field : he liked tliem very much in respect to shape and 
wool; but'they did not drive to fold so well as South 
Down ; and because they had not grey laces instead of 
white when they went to fair, nobody would loot at 
them. The same principle, therefore, whio^^ induced 
him to adhere to the Siis9cxf breed of oxen, induced him 
to return to the South Down, especially as 1^4 fbund 

that 



468 ArrEvsnt- 

tint tbcjr wrigtini m ywW on (he ssmc food as tbft 
ollim. At (Im* KRtnc timir it Kbmild be observed, tLat 
aboat lliiit [sri-wl (lit Soutli Down brtv-d of ^liFcp began 
lo impnite very itiirHi. Thr pritra which arc given, 
onil the pnM (pirit of ini|)rnvrritnit witicit has arisen 
from llierxrnioDs and nUcatloixoi gint\cmen,vbohave 
sjnml no eTpfnjw in olrfninin^ the brat brrcil of cattle, 
liavc and will prnve liit^tily a(t\-i>iitii<;n)MB to tbe coun- 
try. Kvery fanner bct;iii!i t(i f«?l llie ndrnntage of 
'taisin^ »ood stock ; and instcnd of rewiKinp Gs. or 7s. 
ftr hnid Inmis, vhicit wits tlie cnoc »heit Lord Sbef' 
field fiffct l>«nme n fiirnl<T, lie now receives frfini 20^^ 
'to 30*. The lurpo prifcK which are given for some 
'innw and ewe*, have litllr lo do with Hrc price of mut- 
ton i the price of the rant iii wiftii recovered by obtain- 
int: a brcL-d ihnt fattens more Kpcettil;, or attains mo^e 
iK igtit mi the same qunntHj of food . 

Lord SfceffiwW's Hock consists of about 1000 sheep, 
•nsl during llie i^ri'iifer p:irl of flu- jcav he ivorli:^ twtt 
■folds ; but be is clearly of opinion, where a sufficiency 
of mannrc can be obtained, Ihtit sheep which are not 
•fiiKlcd, thrive much better) and especially when they 
lire kept In smalt parcels in different enclosures. He 
ibund that those ewes which weW tiot folded) but kept 
In small parcels, brought twlnsf and tlie lambs, though 
Ywins, were niuchla^r arid better than those of the 
ewes which were folded and k^pt in the flock. 

Ijord Sheffield has improved the breed of hogs in his 
Jwighbonrhood, by introducing (he ' most approved 
sorts, and he is now endeavourit^ to ascertain which 
is the best, Mr. Western's Essex, Or Mr. Ashley's Lei- 
■eesfershire. The former seems to be-much more pro- 
lllie. He ha^ crossefl with ttteb«tt China, and also 
■»itk (he-wild Jtiod. -.- .. 

Ail 



■ 



I 
P 






I, 

,1 



N , 
'r. 



' 



1 



. 4 



" J 



■i 



i> 



A»ENDIS. 469 

, An engraved plan of Lord Sheffield's fann-yard is 
-annexed : it is very commodious, and contains erety 
thing- necessary for a considerable farm : although 
,iBomc att. ntion has been paid to symmetry and appear^* 
ance, he in general rejects every improvement thpct 
scannot come within the reach of the common fiurmer ; 
•And his endeavour is to simplify jevdry construction and 
implement, knowing how much greater the expense, 
and how much more liable to be out of repair, if com-* 
.plicated. 

Perhaps there is no object in the W6ald of Sussex ^ 
.worthy of observation a^ the growth of timber ; there 
is no region of the earth where trees of all kinds thrive 
better, particularly oak and ash. The district called 
the Weald has formerly been covered with trees, and 
was called the forest of Anderida ; and even now, if 
a field is neglected, it will become a wood, princi* 
pally of oak and birch, intermixed with hazel, some 
kinds of willow, and dogwood. Lord Sheffield has 
paid particular attention to this subject, and. there, 
is no estate in the county on which there is so great a 
jtock of fine young oak. The increased value will 
promote general attention, and more than ordinary 
care for the preservation of that most useful and ne- 
cessary article. Within little more than SO years the 
Talue is more than doubled. The Navy Board has 
relinquished the bad policy of endeavouring to avail 
itself of a kind of monopoly of large timber : the 
price was kept down so much, that it became a maxim, 
on account of the debased price, tl|iat it answered 
better, for the sake of the quickness of the return, to 
eut down a tree before it reached the value of 405. 
than to suffer it to remain till it acquired a large size* 
, The highest price for the largest timber SO years 



C70 ArveiTBTli 

«gO, did not cxceell five giiiiieas pet load ; ilie sam^j 
80(1 cw.ti infrrior (imber, Mouid now sdl for 15/. per 
laid. Tltr incrcBWcl pticv of uakJi&rk may alici lend 
to encouni^ the pron-tli. A gootl price being now 
obteioed, tliiTc is n initch biller prospect tliat limbec 
will be allowed to rc;idi a liurgc stin- ; and it would be 
pramofnl iiioTC 4:«r1iiinl7, if ft more considerable differ.^ 
mcc of pric« wore idlom-d between ti)iil>er of tfie 
tiir^:c^ dtmeiinioiin ami tbe m-xl sixoi which is not 
the cusc at pn'sciit. The improvidence nnd necessitieV 
*f famKics of huidcd prspL'tty, Hild of tk(M>e who have 
unly a life>iiiten's( m an eSLtU: wifhout impcacbmcnt 
of Wi>!«tCf initftt hnHev<?r ^twayii pwvcitl die prjictice 
of preserving limber to a good *i«, fbnoi beciMniii^ 
f^ernl I otberntKrt Lord ShcfSeJd ituf opiukni, that 
l^r<.iit Urilain routd willl cace futliiftli llie utiaost qtiarta 
litj- of on4i>tindvr nluch can over be required for her 
Mililary and commercial Khippjji^, without nay ma> 
toiial infcrfcrenct; with othrr branches of ngricuUurc. 
At the wtni«tiineit «Dbst-be adflHUed, Utaitaote-ent 
is (ak«n to preflerve andoQcnamge the gcowUi of 
limber t&an (brmerij ; it is mueb to be luneutcd that. 
Ilie mMta^efnent of weod« faaa not l>aen aore tcienti* 
fically attended to-) thst little has been written, and ^ 
that little iiKtTnctioti caix be derivod from boaks. 

liord Sheffield observes, that a good lyitem of set* 
iing out the tellows or saplinj^, and of preserving 
tlicnt when young, and daring their growth, would , 
have rendered the growing timber in this island infi- 
nitely more TaluaUe to the public, andt consequently^ 
to the tndiTtdnal; bnd he concaves that the timber 
On his estate woald be worth many thousands tnorey 
if he had earlier attended to the pruning eukI manage- 
meal of the woed«. It is not «^ei^ awrdy to leave 



APPENDIX. 471 

a great number of young trees, they requite regulac 
care and training : if they are left too thin on the first 
setting out, t^ey will not thrive, nor become clean 
lengthy plank timber ; but it is absolutely necessary, 
as tb^y grow up to thin them properly, leaving at last 
after tlie rate of from 40 to 50 trees on an acre. 

Ash timber is become highly valuable, the best 
growing in Sussex and Kent, for the use of ixmcb* 
makers ; it now sells for upwards of 8s. per f<^t ; apd 
it shbuld be observed, that it attains that value onnpa* 
r^tively in a short time ; and as it is an article princi- 
pally used by the makers of all carriages and husban^ 
dYy implements, there must always be a great demand. 

The ui^erwoods in this part of Sussex, .are con* 
verted ifftobep-polcs, hoops and cordwoodj the prin- 
c^al part'of the latter goes to London in the shapd of 
charcoal; the spray <Mr small branches are made into 
fkggots ^or houshold use, and burning lime and bricks* 
If the woodland be good, it will produce firom I2f. ta 
SO/, per aere, at 10 to 14 years growth. 



THB KND. 



FriUM fcy B. M'MilUn, > 
BrvScrttt, OofciU Caritn. S 

^yssxx.] li 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS 



THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, 
■ Wbkll pUf be hnii iif 'tbc Publishers of this Voiiinie. 

Report of l>e Cnmwitcoc ol" ilie Board of Agn- £, i, d. 

Vitc on Ilw CuldiM- ;ir.d Use of Potaiws, 4.10. o 7 6 
Accoiirt of Rsif'i-tinii-iits tried by the Board nf 
' • Agr.trtlwre' pii ihe CompOiition of various Sorts 
. ef )Jr<:uii, +10. . - - - o » o 

I*U«r from ti.f Karl of WrsCH ti.sEA, on the Ad. 

»nnng*» tivCtitfjgcrs icnTrng Land,' 410, - o i a 
ELKitinioH^ Mwie of Oraininj, by Jounitohg, 1.^ 

6vo. - - - - - o JO fi 

A Cviivral Vii;w ot ilie Agriculture of the County ^ ' 

" of A^ayltf, l-r John Smith, D. D. one of the- 

MinKTer»ef C^iRpbelion, Svo. Srcoml EdUion, 09 O- 
■7 T;^ r— ^, uf Cheshire, byiiEsnY Hollakd, 

Ei^,,8vo. ' -oio'o 

iuiu — . lu f^of ClyidMdde, by JohkNai SMITH, 

..>*(>.■ SBctwd Edifion, _-_i|,,. 070 
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ofEtuLqthiM/fKinitliC'fapcELfrfr r 

the late R. SoMERviLE, Esq. 8»o. . - 

■ of £sse~^, by the Sbcxetaky of the 

SoAKD, a vols. Si'o. - . _ . . I 
-of Fife, byJpHiiTijoMSOK, \>S>, 



Minisrer at Markinch, "ffifff 

of Gloucestsrshiir, by Mr. Rudce, 

?vo 

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of the Board, Svo. - - - O 10 6 



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A General Vic\y of the Agriculture of the'County £, s, i* 
of Middlesex, by John Middleton, Esq. of 
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BERTsoN, Farmer at Granton, near Edinburgh, 
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of the County of Norfolk, ,by the 



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and Westmorland, by Messrs. Bailey, Cul- 
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of Nottingham, by Robert Lowe, 



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Rev. RoBERTDoucLASi D. D. Minister at Gala, 
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Svo. •* • - - -oiSo^ 

of Yorkshire (th.c West Riding) 



by Robert Brown, Farmer at Markle, near 
l^laddington, Scotland, 8vo* - - . -». o 7 
of Yorkshire (the North Riding) 



by John Tuke, Land Surveyor, Svo. . p 9 « 
jCommunications to the Board of Agriculture, on 
Subjed^s relative to the Husbandry and internal 

Improvement of the Country. Vol. L 4t6* r i o 

Ditto, Vol. II. - . - • 1 t o 

Ditto, Vol. III. - • - '- o i3 Q 
pitto. Vol. IV, - - - • - 01 So 

^ittoj Vol. V.^art I, . • . c 22 • 



A CATALOGUE 



AGRICULTURAL SEEDS, ic. 

SOLD BT 
THOMAS GIBBS AND CO. 
Seedtmm and Nurserymen lu ihe Board if jlgriaiUurr, 
Corner of Hali-Moon-Slreei, Piccadilly, London : 
L i^Aa alto Seil fvtr'j Article in .the Nursmj and Seed Line ; 
ttrtd tiitU u-hom Bailiffi. vanling t'iacei, Ivata thsU M- 
drrss. and pnrlkulari i>J Uttnuli'^nt in u-hUk ihi-^ hauv 
prn'husfy lecn. 

h-Mxctrf tile af ThuKt- 

■ Nortoilc 

Naked. 
WiMcr. 
' JtcaTU. Small EiKi. 

. CoromMyeHnw. " ."^ 

Bnclc. or rreachwl.c*!. ^TV^k 

■"""'■ PnrpletfiltO. 

Ciblwpt. Gihbi' frijc (Irmn- Float ditto. 

'--■ '■■ " arddr,|.rt«l. 

Shcoclufjot 



. White turnip aliori 

BTOund. 
— Purple dillodilto.or 

kohl cabi. 
, While tiirniii uud« 

X. Tall green borecole. 

'. TiiU purple ditlu. 

_^_^ Iberian hardy 

iprcutiiiK. 
Carrot. Lwec thick onnge, for 

catllc 
_■ I. LargH tbick red, diHu, 

Chicory. 
. Clover Common ri?d. 



KTeadow ditta 

. — — Gieat me^difn. 

Marsh ditto. 

ConipresM'd ditttf. 

Amiiial [liilo. 

_— CommuTi ny-graa. 

Pcaccy dillu. 

a — Improved ptrcDniJ A 

Yorkihl^re. 

With mioy other loiM. 
Hemp. Rus'Im;. 

Kii^iili. 

Honeysuckle, t'reneb. 

Lettuce. Lnrgt Coss. 
Lei.llls. Knrall 

l^t. ■ 



JLucerne. 

Mangel wurzel. 
Maw-seed. 

Medicago, various sorts. 
Millet. Red. 
■ ' Wiiite. 

Mustard. Brown. 

Oats. Early Essex. 

■ Dutch brew. 
* Tartarian. 
— ^ Poland. 

■ Potatoe. 

■ I Flanders. 

■ Caspian. 
Black. 

Parsley. Plain. 
Parsnip^ Larg-e thick. 
Pea. Marlborough grey. 

— Large grey rouncival. 

— Early white. 
— - White boiling, 

— Pearl. 

— Blue Prussian. 
•— Maple. 
Potatoes. Ox-noble. 

' Late champion. 

■ Large red. 

' Nicholson seedling. 

' Bomb-shell. 

Rib-grass. Lambs-tongue, or 

" Upright plantiiin. 

Rape, or coleseed. 
Rve. 

Sainfoin. 
Saridella. 

Tares. Spring. 
■■ \^'inter. 

White. 

— Perennia!, 
Trefoil. Birdsfoot. 

" CommoHj-^^arJous «5orts. 

Turnip. Early stone. 

White Norfolk. 

— Norfolk bell. 
• Stubble. 

" Creen top. 



Tumfp. Red-top. 
• Large yellow. 

Globe. 

• White tankard/ 

— Green ditto. 

— Red-top ditto. 

— — • Large Dutch. 
IVue yellow Swedish. 

or ruta baga. 

— White Swedish. 

Vetch. Kidnev. 

— phickling. 

— Pale-flower6d, ' 

— Everlasting. 

— Great wood.^ 
— - SLx-floweredL 

Tufted. 

'" Bush. 

- Hoary, 
" Sainfoin. 

, - Red-flowered, 
"""— Biennial. "" 

— Bastard. 

7 Broad-podded. 

" Rough. 

"■ — • Single-flowered, 

• Narbonne. 

• Elat-podded. 

— r~ Hairy ditto, 
"-j — Narrow-leaved* 
— ^ — ■ Streaked. 
■ White-flowert'd. 

White-seeded, 

Horse-shoe. 

2S4ilk > ^ 

Li(j[uorice. 

Weld. 

Wheat. Red Lammas. 

■ Common white. 
— ■■ White hedge. 

•' White Siberian. 

■ Egyptian. 
' ■■ Sicilian. 

— ' — — Round AfricJin. 

' Zealand. 

- — Cape. 

— - — — Dantaick. 
Woad. 

Yarrow. 



I'rmied hy H. M»MiiIaii. 
Bew-Screei^ Covem-Ciardcn. 






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II 



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i' 



iff 



iv. 



1 

V. ■ 

M. 



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